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Full text of "The History of the war, between the United States and Great Britain, which commenced in June, 1812, and closed in February 1815 [microform] : containing the correspondence which passed between the two governments, immediately preceding and since hostitlities commenced; the declaration of war, and the official reports of land and naval engagements; compilied chiefly from public documents : with an appendix containing the correspondence which passed between our commissioners, and those appointed by Great-Britain in treating for peace : to which is added, the treaty of peace, and a list of vessels taken from Great-Britain during the war"

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VXITl 

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THE COHRESI 
IMMKUIATE 



xnc CORBE: 
AND TUO»l 



AND A LIS 



VR1NT 



rnr. 



HISTORY 



or 



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THE WAR, 



BBTWREN THE 

VXITEB STATES dJ^TD GRE.iT-BRIT.lIX, 

WHICH COMMFNCID I.V .U'NE, 1812, AND CliOSEO IN FEBRUAHT, I8lf» ; 

CONI'AININO 

THE COHRESPONDENCE WHICH PACisfeU BCiWEKN THE TWO OOVEn^MENTg, 

IMAIKUIATEL.V FIltCtDlNO, A>D SINCE UO:> I Ii<ril(.tl C(lMME^Ct.I) ; THE 

DECLiARATlUN OK WAR, AND THfc UfKICIAii RbPOHro OK UA.NU ,. » 

AND NAVAL 1':AGaGEMENT!s. ; . 



COMPILED CHIEFLY FROM 

PUBLIC DOCUMENTS, 

WITH AN 



Appendiw^ 



CoNrAlNlNO 
THE CORRESP'>NOENCE WHICH PASt-KU BETWEEN OUR CnMMISSTOI«Bn», 
AND THOSE AI-FOINTLD BY GREAT-BKITAIN IN TREATIMG FuB fEACE. 

TO WHICH 14 ADDED, 

THE TREAl Y OF PEACE, 

AND A LIST OP VESSELS TAKEPf FROM GREAT-BRITAIN 

DURLNG THE WAR. 



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COMPUTED 

By J. RU8SELL, Jii. 



J»econti ^bitton. 



,»..■ -* 



HARTFORD: 

T>RjjrrEn jind published by b. ^ j. russell, 

state Streel 



ii ' 



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Uislrid of'Coniiriiintt, ,sa. 

V,--->: HE IT IlKMFJfnFRFJ), Tlinfnnlhf.lfnfhttayqf'July, 
I L.S. I i)i Ifir Forlirf'i i,fnr oj llir hidi iimhfir nj ihr IJmtnl SltUr.i 
?Ix-Mw.y, ofjincn'cit H 6^' J Uusstll. of Ihf snid Distnrl. depottilfd 

in this ojjicr Ihf til/r of a Hcok the ri^hl ivherroj' they claim aa troprit' 

tors, in the ivordsjulloini'ii. to nit 

' The Hi'Aiin/ oJ Ihi If'iir hihveen the Vnilnl Slates a)id GrentHrilaint 

'• which comiiic iird m June. ; 8 1 2, nnd cloned in Fth 1 8 1 o. contnining the 

* correspondf nee nliich jinsned brhveen the two (iovemments immeiitatfiy 
^ precedinrr nnd .since twsti ti ties commenced ; Itit declaration of W or. and 

* tlie ojficial reports oJ land and naval en<rafienients. coniftHed chiejly from 
^piihltc docnvients It'ilh au appendix, containing tite coriespondence 

* wliich passed between our ('07nnii.'isinners and those appointed by Great- 
*Britatu. in Ircalinfr Jim peace To which is added the t'reaty oJ Veace^ 

* and a list of vessels lakenfroin Great Uritam during the nar. Compiled 
'by J RUSSELL. Jr' 

In conjunnily to the Jlcl of the Congress of the Untied Slates, mlilled " ^n 
^^acljor ttieenconra^ementoflearninfi, by securing the copies ofMaps^ 
" Charts, and Books, to tlie authors ai.'t proi/rietors of such copies, during 
•' the tunes thaein mentioned " 

HEXRY W. EDWARDS, 
~,.. - Clerk of the District of Conneclicul. 

,1 true copy of Record, examined and sealed by me, 
H. IV. Edwards, 

Clerk of (he. Diilrict ofConnecHcuf 



INTRODUCTION. 



An history of recent transijclions, must atways be exe- 
cuted iiKiIer many, iiiid j^reut disudvanla^vs. 

Ill a lime ol war, niaay iiiiport.iiit occurrences are but 
im|)er('fcclly known, till the truth !•» ehciled by {f*ri\\ in- 
vestit^atiou ; and, iu a<l(iitioii to this, the feehu^s of uieu 
are so ardent, that an author cannot l)e expected to be wholly 
impartial, when recouitinir tho.s^- events, ni which himself, 
or hislrien*!*;, have acleil a conspicuous part. 

The publishers wen, llierefure, of opinion, that at the 
present time, the most useful IJislory of the War, would 
be a faithful collection of Oiiicial Slate Papers, and accouhtM 
of Military operaliinis. Snch a w«»rlv cannot be taxed 
M'ith partiality ; and, it is pre>um<d, will be perused with 
interest by every Americaii, who values his national 
rights, and whose bosom glows, at the recital of those deeds 
of valor, winch have exalted the honor of his conntrv. 

If in some i .stances, Coiuniaiuling' OiVkums have seemed 
to manifest a want of candour, it ought slill to be remem- 
bered by the public, that they wrote in the heat of the oc- 
casion ; and, often, while agonizing under wounds receiv- 
ed from an exasperated enemy. iMotlern Histories of 
Campaigns, are not, to say the least, mure candid, and are, 
surely, less entitled to apology. Tins collection of Docu- 
ments can never bec<une a useless volume ; for, besides fur- 
nishing the best evidence ol fact to the inquisitive reader, 
and future historian, it is a ready manuel, by which every 
enquirer after truth, can at once adduce the best evidence 
on questions which affect the character «)f tiie American 
nation, relative to her nulitary prowess. Our readers will 
feel satisiied, after its perusal, that they possess all the 
OHicial inlotuialion, whuh can be obtained, relative to the 
military movements, and bravery and skill of our country- 
iiien in the fidil of battle. Perliaps, in some instances, the 
losses and sufferino;s of the armies oi ho'h nations, have not 
bceu fully ascerlai:!<-d : so w ide is the tield, that it is some- 



''I'll! 



\ \ '& « ^ 



IV 



lM'ROI3l< T10\. 



what (lifTinilt to collect all llie facts. Oi» the vvuk'r, wlierc; 
we have bei-ti |K:cii!iarly siicccsst'ul, the oflicial accou.its 
more lullv an(i(:\|>lK'illv state Ihe loss, ns well as the coiii- 
paradvo skill and hruvery of' the conteiidiiipr jiarties. 

Ill the list of public niul private veKsels taken from the 
enemy during the war, we have not •riven the whole num- 
ber of men and griiiis, on board of a lart^e proportion of the 
merchant vessels, as it was never otlicially slated. In 
every instance of this kind, where we could not obtain cor- 
rect intormation, we have left the number blank. We are 
sorry to say it is w holly out of our power to accompany 
the list of prizes with a correct list of the vessels we have 
lost ; the enemy never having' ma<le a public statement of 
their prizes, we could not culitici them from any authentic 
source. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTEIU. 

Page 
Presidents* Message. 9 

Monroe and Foster's Correspondence relative to the Orders in Cooncil* 
Blockade;), and liupreasinent of Seauieu. 15,22,23, 26,27,38) 45, 62, 67 



CHAPTER II. 



60 



Adjustment of the affair of the Chesapeake Frigate^ 

Monroe and Foster's Correspoudence relative to the Chesapeake 

affair, 60, 6 1 ,62, 6.?, 

President's Message, 63 

Monroe and Foster's Correspondence relative to the 

N on Importation Act, 63,67 



CHAPTER III. 

President's Manifesto, 

Report of the Cummittee on Foregn Relations, 

Declaration of War, 

Yeas and Nays on the bill declaring War. 

President's Proclamation Promulgating the Declaration of War. 

CHAPTER IV. 



71 

79 
91 
ib. 
93 



First Prisoner, 94 

First Prize. lb. 

President's Message, lb. 
Monroe and Foster's Letters relative to the Orders io Council, and 

Berlin and Milan Decrees, 9^, 97^ 99, 

President's Mfi^sage, 102 

Mr Russtll's Letter to the Secretary of State, ib. 

Liint Castlerf anil's Letter to Mr. Russell, ib. 

Order in Council, . I0i> 

Mr. Russeil's Letter to lord Castlereagh^ 10^ 

Loss of Gen Hull's baggage, 11! 

Hull's Proclamation, to the Canadian^. « ib. 

Skirmishing, near Sandwich, 119 

Canadian Militia join Gen. ilull, ill,, 

Ca^llire' of the Guerrier, IH' 



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VI 



CONTENTb. 



Onlern in Council Rf vuk«'d« 1 1 & 

Gi-n. Hull's 8tat«fm«>nt of hU CnpitulHtiun, 1 17, 118, 

Majfir Vanhurn's Doff at, , I. '4 

BHitleof Brownsloivii, («ir Mai;uaie'*.) ' ' ij5 

Artinlt!* of caiiirulatiun nfii*n HiiiiV \rmy nuii Mirliiean TiTiilorjr, Ml 
Culoncis C<t88, M'Arlhur, Fiiiilly, and Miliar, ruiiiuiistratu acuiutit 

Gun HuII'h conduct. lit 

Gen. Hrock'ii ProclainHli n to the Inhabitants uf Michigan Territory l.ii 



A Card, from Col. tiyuiuieM tu Geo. Uruck, 

Trial of Geii. ilull. 

Ca|>lur»' of the Alert, 

Cajit. Porter tu the Hecretnry of the Navy, 

Gallant Defence ol Fort Harrin m, 

MHJ'irJe8«up's corroboration of Col Cass' Stalemeut, 

SkirinishitiK at 8t. John's river. 

Bkiriniihing at Gananoquu, and OgdeDsburgli, 

AtTair at 8t. Regis, 

Ca;iture of the Detroit and Caledonia, 

Massacre of llie Garrison of Fort Ciiiciitio, 

Com Chauneey's RattltituKiagstuo Haibor, 

Battle of ({ueviistoi], 



Idfi 
ib. 

HI 
ib. 

146 
ib. 
U7 
148 
in. 

155 



CHAPTER V. 

IVIonro«, Graham, Rn«6ell, Cnstlerrach, and Warren's Letters, re'a- 

tivetoanaremistire,— 160, 162, 16J, 165, ltJ8, 169, J7l, l7J,l7*,176. 
British Chatleiige, and American Acceptance, 1 79 



CUArTEKVI. 

Capliireoflhe Frolir;, and Loss of the Wasp, 
Capture of lh« iMacedouian, 
Capture of the Java, 
Capture of the Peacock, 

CHAPTER VH. 



180 

l&l 
1J^2 
ICG 



Captarn ofLidle York, 

i*iipttulation of Yi>rk, 

Gen. Winchester's Defe.it, 

aia-sacte of Gen. W inchestcr's Army, 

iitdiat) Expedition, 

Uen. Sfoylh't* Exppdition, 

Ca^it. Forsy lh'» Espediiion, 

CHAPTER VIH. 



1€9, 190, 193, 
1^2 

196 
1!)8 

ib. 



Harrison's Baltie nt Louor Sanuii^'Ky, 

Pmcior's demand t">ti- ihe eiirrendf r of Fort M^-ig*, 

Capture olForl 0'v'u^^c, 



200 

203 



CONTEST!!. 



Vli 



« 



to? 

209 
lb. 

aji 

312 

S13 

214 

314,216 

316 

ib. 

S17 



9?( 



Caplurr of Pnrt Erie, 

ChNiiii(;»-y'!4 hrroiini ofthp mplurp of Port (icnrf^P, 

C'hRui>(*«)'> lit'ltrr to ihf Kccr«lnry nfthr Nnvy, vuOTfjiog Ihe 

Hrrtiiilariln takrn At Vnrk Mnii Port Ueurge, 
Capture ol the irai)H|inrt l^ily Murray, 
Hafile at Porfy iMik Crefk, 
Attack on SMckfttV Harbor, 

Capture of Ftiurtfi-n Bi iiish Transport Boat^ on T^ake Ontario, 
MMJ«>r CrogJtan'a Vlrlory, 
l^»y> ofltic Pritfiiie Ctiettnppakr, 
Capture of Little York, Ihe second time, 
Capture of the Doiiiiaico, 
Buriiint; of Sodus, 
At lark on (!raiify Island, 
Ca|)lure of Hampton, 
Munler of Jutin 1) (travel, 
Skinnisliini; at Fort (Jeorce, 
Destruction of liidiuii town!*, 
Yankee Trick, 
Capture of the Boxer, 

CHAPTER IX. 

Capture of Ihe British fleet un Lake Erie, 

Capture of Maiden, 

Battle at the Moravian Towns, 

Tecuinseh's Speech to G»-n. Proctor, '. 

Harrison and Perry'a Proclamation, 

Capture of a British Fleet on Luke Ontario, 

Something Singular, 

Com. Rodgers* Cruise, 

Col Clarku*!) Expedition, 

Massacre at Fort Tensaw, 

Wiikiuson and Hampton's Expedition, 

CHAPTER X. 

Jackson, White, and Coffee's Victories over the Creek Tndians, 

236, 237, 238, iiid, 243, 24« 
Gen Floyd's Victories, 240 242 

Gen. Clbiburne's Victory, 24| 

CHAPTER XT. 

Captain Porter's Cruise, 

Limb of Fort Niagara, and burning of LenristowD, Mtnchwter, 

and Tuscarora, 
E'lrningof Buffatoe.and Black Rock, 
C*pt Holmes' Victory, 
Capture of Ihe Epervier, 
Battle at Sfoney Point, 
Loss of the Frigate Es^ex, 




348 

290 
ib. 

352 
ib. 

354 

3H 



Till. 

i 



il 



■M..: 





--■IV* : 4. 



Vltl 



I ON J'KNTS. 



Capture of Obwiro, 
BnttM; oi Chi|>|K'way, 
Cafilurt* of the Keinilerr, 
Baile at (^ui'instun, 
Bailie ol Erie, 



260 
SUI 

SGJ 

UU5 



CnAI'TEK XII. 

Capilulalion ol' Alfxnnilria, 

Ca|*lur** of Washinulon, 

Capture ofilie Britifth fleet on Lake Chainplnin, 

Defeat oftien. I'niclor, 

BuritinK oi Pelipaut^e, 

Attack on SionuikCton, 

Attack on Balllition!, 

I)»ttat olthe Briiiftli at IMobile Point, 

Battle ofBritlKfWHter, 

Destruction of the Avon, 

Kxpeditiuu Ironi Detroit, 

CHAPTER xiir. 

Capture of Persr.nla, 

BiutlealNew () It-ans, 

Defeat of the H tali liefore New. Orleans, 

Lieut. Hhielils' Ifjjr^iedilinn, 

Lieut. Johiieoir't Expedition, 

Jackson's AiIjIi < ss to his army. 

Loss of the Frigate President, 

Capture of the ^»t. Laurence, 

Delieat of the Hrilisn al Great Satill river, 

Gun Boat No KiB, anfl the Erebus Frigate, 

Caiiture of the Cyane and Ltvant, 

Capture of the Penguin. 

APPENDIX. 

Correspondence, which passed between the coininis.«ioiiers of the two 

governoients, whilst treatini; for peace, trnnsmitted to fhe Secretary of 

Slate, iiOS, 3 i 1,315, 310, 32*, 331,340, 344,352, 369, 363, 366,366, 

Treaty of pence, 368 

Tiist of vessels taken from Great Britaio, 377 



268 
369,271 
273 
275 
276 
ib. 
177 
279 
2 SO 
282 
383 



284 
286 
287 
283 
289 

ib. 
29J 
295 
297 

ib. 
300 
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CHAPTER 1. , 'j\'i 

PRESIDENTS MESSAGE.' ^,,,^l,[ 

WASHINGTON CITY, NovcMBCiS, 1811 

FelloW'Ciiizens of tlie SenalCt and of - . ^ 

Uie House of iltpraxnlatives. 

IN calling you together sooner than a separation from 
your homes would otherwise have been required, I yielded 
to coMsiderutions drawn from the posture of our foreign af- 
fairs ; and iu tixin<r the present for the tioie of your meet- 
'n\^y regard was iuid to tlie probability of further develope- 
iiteiits of Uie policy of the belligerent powers towards this 
€ounti'y, which might the more unite the national councils^ 
in the measures to be pursued. 

At the close of the last session of Congress, it was hoped 
that the successive confirmations of the extinction of the 
French Decrees, so far as they violated our neutral conio 
luerce, would have induced the guvernmeut of Great-Bri- 
tain to repeal its Orders in Council ', and thereby author- 
ize a removal of the existing obstructions to her commerces 
with the United States. .i. h . 

Instead of this reasonable step towards 8atisfaclioh,^hd 
friendship between the two nations, the Orders wefe^ at d 
moment when least to have been expected, put into nior^ 
vigorous execution ; and it was conimunicated through the 
British Envoy, just arrived, that whilst the revocation of 
the £dicts of France, as officially made known to the Britisli 
government, was denied to have taken place ; it was an 



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JO 



mSTORY OF THE WAtt. 



indispensable coodilLion of the repeal of the British Orders,, 
that commerce should he restored to h fooiinor, that would 
admit the productions and nianufneUires of Great- Rn tarn, 
ivhen owned by neutrals, into markets shut a^'aiust them by 
her enemy; the Uoited States being given to understand 
that, in the mean time, a continuance of their non-impor- 
tation act would lead to measures of retaliation. 

At a later date, it has iiide<'d appeared, th:it a commn- 
nication to the British srovernment, of fresh e\ idence of the 
re|)eal of the French Decrees aa^ainst our neutral trade, 
was followed by an intimation, that it had been transmitted 
to the British Plenipotentiary liel*e ; (n order that it might 
receive full consideration in the depending discussions. 
This communication appears not to h«ve been received ; 
but the transmission or it hither, instead of foiiiidiug on it 
an actual repeal of the Orders, or assurances that the re- 
peal would ensue, '-vili not permit us to reiy on any effect- 
ive change in the British cabinet. To be ready to meet 
with cordiality satisfactory proofs of such a change, and to 
pro<jeed,in the mean time, in adapting our measures to the 
tiews which have been disclosed through that minister, wdl 
l>est consult our whole <luty. 

In the unfriendly spirit of those disclosures, indemnitv 
and redress for other wrongs have continued to be withheld, 
and our coasts and the mouths of our harbors have ag-ain 
tvitnessed scenes, not less derogatory to the dearest of our 
hatiohal rights, than vexatious to the regular course of uur 

l^de. ^r^.,. ■■ ^ '. [.'- 

Among the occtot'i*eiV<^^ji j^rodnced by the donduct of 
British i^ips ot war hovering on our coasts, was an encoun- 
ter Wtween one oftheiii and th^ American frigate com- 
matided by Captain Rogers, rendered unavoidable on the 
partpf the fatler, by a fire commenced without cause by the 
Tormer ; whoile l:ommander is therefore, alone chargeable 
Willi the blood unfortunately shed in maintaining the honor 
of t|ie American flag. Hie proceedings of a cOnrt of en- 
quiry» requested by Captain Rogers, are communicated ; 
togiiNher with the correspondence relating to the occurrence 
between the Secretary of Stale, and his firitanhic ^mi^esty's 
Envoy. 1*0 these are added, the several correspondences 
which have |)assed on the subject of the British Orders in 
Gouocil ; and to both the correspondence relating to the 



ploridas, 
the interi 
has tbou^ 
United S 
The y 
thei»arto 
and since 
peclatioii 
pleasure 
claims 
]So proo 
the other 
larly to 
seized ai 
sdfecting 
into que 
gereuts, 
pies, ^ha 

»mpl«' 

la ad' 

that uat 

dissatis^ 

which tl 

jecled : 

corresp< 

the \^n 

On a 

sent tq 
tions ;.. 
and by 
ernmei 
to it th 
Our 
changi 

ship. 
\y dis 
that V 
Mmis 
teiKiei 
badb 
$ers V 



HI9TOIIT OF THE VTAX^. %X 

jFIoridas, in which Coii|rreHS will be made acquainted with 
the interpiMitiuH which the government of Great^Britain 
has tbuuu^ht proj><^|' ^^ipaM^agi|i|^tthe proce^injrt of th« 

The justice, and fairness which have beep evinced OH 
the pari 01 the United States towards l^'rance, t>oth befpre 
and since tlie revocation of her Decrees, authorised an ex« 
pectation that her government would have fallowed up that 
measure by all such others as w^re due to our reasonabl^b 
claims as well as dictated by iLs amicable professions. 
JSo prool, however, is yet given of an intention to re^iair 
the other wrongs done to the United States : and particu« 
larly to restore the great amount of American- proi)eriy 
seized and condemned undor Edicts, w;hich, though no|. 
aifecting our neutral relations, and therefore, not enttirinff 
into questions between the United States and o^her belFi- 
gerents, were nevertheless fpundeJ in such unjust priricU 
pies, ^hat the reparation ought to have been prompt ani|[ 
ample. 

In addition to this, and other demands of strict right, 'oA 
that nation, the United States have much reaaon to be 
dissiitistied with the rigorous and unexpected restriqtiorifi, ^ 
which their trade with the French dominipni has be^ sub- 
jected : and which, if not discontiniied* will requife at lea^t 
corresponding restrictions on importations from Ffan<$ts inU> 
the Onited ^ates. 

On a|l those subjects our Minister Plentpotenliary, l^tdiy 
sent to Paris, has carried with him the necessary instruc- 
tions ; tbe result of which will be communicated %p yoy, 
and by ascertaining the ulterior policy of the French got- 
ernment toward3 Uie United Stales, will enable you to adapt 
to it that of the United states towards Franc«. 

Our other foreign relations remain without unfavorable 
changes. With Kussia they are on the best Noting of friend- 
ship. The ports of Sweden have afforded proofs of friend- 
ly dispositions towards our commerce, in the councils 6f 
that nation also. And the information from out special 
Minister to Denmark, shews that the mission had been at- 
tenaed witli valuable effecU to our citizens, whose property 
had been so extensively violated and endangered by crui- 
sers under thp panii^ fls^, 



I 'f^l 



'*4r4 %A#' f •» 



u^y 



s*l< fi'fy/ -^i 






12 



HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



Under the ominous indications whicb commanded altcii; 
tion» it became a duty, to exert the uieans committed to the 
Executive Department, in providing for the general securi- 
ty. The works of defence on our maritime frontier have 
accordingly been prosecuted, with an activity leaving* little 
to be added for the completion of the most important ones ; 
and &s particularly suited for co-operation in enteri^enries, 
a portion of the Gun>Bottts, have, in particular harbors, 
been ordered into use. The shi|>s of war before in commis- 
sion, with the addition of a frigate, have been chiefly em- 
ployed, as a cruizing* guard to the rights of our coast. And 
sucn a disposition has been made of our land forces, as was 
thought to promise the services most appropriate and impor- 
tant. In this disposition is included a force, consisting of 
regulars and militia, embodied in the Indiana Territory, and 
inarched towai^s our North-Westem frontier. — This meas- 
ure M*as made requisite by several murders and depreda- 
tions committed by Indians ; but more especially by the 
menacing preparations and aspect of a combiitatioii of them 
on the Wabash luider the influence and direction of a fa- 
natic of the Shawanese tribe. With these exceptions, the 
Indian tribes retain their peaceable dispositions towards us, 
and their usual pursuits. 

I must now add, that the period is arrived which claims 
from the Legislative Guardians of the national rights a sys- 
tem of more ample provisions for maintaining them. ISol- 
/withstanding the scrupulous justice, the protracted mode- 
ration, and the multiplied efl'orts on the part of the United 
States, to substitute for the accumulating dangers to the 
peace of the two countries, all the mutual advantages of 
re-established friendship and confidence ; we have seen that 
the British Cabinet perseveres not only in withholding a 
remedy for other wrongs so long and so loudly calling 
/or it ; but in the execution brought home to the threshold 
of our territory, of measures which under existing circum- 
ttances, have the character, as well as the eft'ect of war on 
our lawful commerce. 

With this evidence of hostile inflexibility, in trampling 
on rights which no independent nation can relinquish. Con- 
gress will feel the duty of putting the United States into 
an armor, and an attitude, demanded by the crisis, and 
corresponding with the national spirit and (expectations, 



1 

■si 



1 recon 
made ^t: 
of the rej;;. 
e.d for a m 
corps, who 
urgent ser' 
of oilier p< 
tion of the 
its intrinsii 
mind you 
which, in < 
ufour raili 
The mi 
ceeded wi 
the necess 
w'\\\ not b( 
ize an enla 
Your at 
sionsy on t 
for the ser 
roit to Cor 
augment t 
their natui 
III cont4 
mentous e 
it is imp* 
among th( 
portion of 
borhood. 
ed forecas 
an obligal 
cherish re 
progress ' 
order o^tl 
Under 
tion of Cc 
guards a; 
cial laws 
every wh 
ments, w 
u fraud is 
state, attf 



HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



la 



I recoTriieri(l accordin£r|y» that adequate provision be 
mnde ^t-: mt^ the ranks and prolonging^ the enlistments, 
of the re^i. xartroo}>H : for an auxiliary force, to be engag« 
ed for a more limited term ; for the ucce|»tance of volunteer 
corps, whose patriotic ardor may court a participation in 
urgent services ; for detachments, as they may be wanted, 
of oilier portions of the militia; and tor such a prepara- 
tion of the great body, as will proportion its usefulness to 
its intrinsic capacities. Nor can the occasion fail to re« 
mind you of the impoi'tance of those military Seminaries, 
M'hich, in every event, will form a valuable and frugal put 
of our military establishment. 

The manufacture of cannon and small arms has pro- 
ceeded with due success, and the stock and resources of all 
the necessary munitions are adequate to emergencies. It 
will not be inexpedient, however, for Congress to author- 
ize an enlargement of them. 

Your attention will of course be^drawn to such provi- 
sions, on the subject of our naval force, as may be I'equired 
for the services to which it may be best adapted. I sub- 
mit to Congress the seasonableness also, of an authority to 
augment the stock of such materials, as are imperishable iu 
their nature, or may not at once be attainable. 

In contemplating the scenes which distinguish this mo- 
mentous epoch, and estimating their claims to ourattention, 
it is impossible to overlook those developing themselves 
among the great communities which occupy the southern 
portion of our own hemisphere, and extend into our neigh- 
borhood. An enlarged philanthropy, and an enlighten- 
ed forecast, concur in imposing on the National Councils 
an obligation to take a deep interest in their destinies : to 
cherish reciprocal sentiments of good will ; to regard the 
progress of events ; and not to be unprepared for whatever 
order o^'things may be ultimately established. 

Under another aspect of our situation, the early allen- 
tion of Congress will be due to the expediency of further 
guards against evasions and infractions of our commer- 
cial laws. The practice of smuggling, which is odious 
every where, and particularly criminal in free govern- 
ments, where the laws being made by all, for the good of all, 
a fraud is committed on every individual as well as on tliu 
state, attains its utmost guilt, when it blends, with a pur- 



'* < 



(M: 



, ' 



14 



0I8TOBY OF T9E WAJK, 



•ilit of ignoBdinioiu gain, a treacherous tubflerviency in tbi; 
trarisgreiwors, to a foreign policy, aiivenie to that of tlieir 
own country. It is then that the virtuous indignation c T 
the public should b« enabled to manifest itself, through the 
regular animadversions of the most coin|>etent laws. 
V To secure greater respect to our mercantile Hag, and to 
the honest interest which it covers, it is ex|)edieiit also, that 
it We made punihhable in our citzeiis, to accept licences 
from foreign governments, for a trade unlawfully interdict- 
ed by them to other American citizens ; or to trade under 
falsiB colors or papers of any sort. 

A prohibition is equally called for, against the accept-^ 
ance, by our citizens ot special licences, to be used i|i a 
trade with the United Stales ; and at^'ainst the admission 
into particular ports of the United States, of vessels 
from foreign countries, authorised to trade with particular 
ports on'y. 

Aithouirh other subjects will press more immediately on 
your deliberations, a portion of them cannot but be well be- 
stowed, on the just and sound policy of securing to our 
manufactures the success they have attaineil, and are stil) 
attaining, in some degree, under the impulse of causes not 
pei'inanent ; and to our navigation, the fair extent of which 
it is at present abridged by the uiiequai regulations of for- 
eign governments. ^udurii^-n U<in.:i:^d^ k»M* >Kia. .-; ' 

Besides the reasonableness of saving our manufacturers 
from sacrifices which a change of circumstances might 
bring on them, the national interest reqiires, that, with res^ 
pect to such articles at least as belong to our defence, and 
our primary wants, we should not be left in unnecessary 
dependence on external supplies. And whilst for- 
eign governments adhere to the existing discriminations iu 
^eir ports against our navigation, and an equality or lea- 
ser discrimination is enjoyed by their navigation in our 
ports, the effect cannot be mistaken, because it has been 
seriously felt by our shipping interests ; and in proportioo 
as this takes place, the advantages of an independent con- 
Teyauce of our products to foreign markets, and of a growr 
ing body of manners, trained by their occupations for the 
service of their couutry in times of danger, must be diiiin- 
ished. ' - -r ,. ..,^^... 



nnrroRT ov tvb wab. li 

Th^ receipts into Ihe Treanary, durih{|r the year, vmling 
on the thirtieth of September letl, have exceeded thirteea 
ImillionA anil a half of dollars, and have enabled as to de* 
^rAy the current expenses, inekH)in|^ the interest on the 
public debt, and to reimburse more than five millions of 
dollars ot the principal, without recurring to the loan au» 
thorized by the act of the last session. The temporarjr 
loan obtained in the latter end of the year one thousand 
eijrht hundred and ten, has also been reimbursed, and is 
not included in that amount 

The decrease of revenue, arising from the situation of 
our commerce and the extraordinary expences which have 
and may become necessary, must be taken into view, ta 
making; commensurate provisions for the ensuing year^ 
And I recommend to your consideration the propriety of 
ensuring a sufficiency of annual revenue, at least to defray 
the ordinary expences of government, and to pay the inter- 
est on the public debt, including that on new loans which 
mav be authorized. 

I cannot close this communication without expressing my 
deep sense of the crisis in which you are assembled ; my 
confidence in a wise and honorable result to vour oeiioer- 
ations, and assurances of the faithful zeal with which my 
co-operating duties will be discharged ; invoking at the 
same time, the blessing of heaven on our beloved country, 
and on all the means, that may be employed in vindicating 
its rights, and advancing its welfare. 

(Signed) ■■ JAMES MADISON, t 

OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE, nA 

BEFEKRED TO IN TUE PRECEDING MESSAGE* ii:H 

Mr, Foster to Mr. Monroe. - ? r 

Washington, July 3, 1811. it 
SIR— I have had the honor of stating to you verbally the 
system of defence to which his majesty has been compelled 
to resort for the purpose of protecting the marititue rights 
and interests of his dominions against the nsw description of 
warfare that has been adopted by his enemies. I have pre- 
sented to you the grounds upon which his majesty iinds 
himself still obliged to continue that system, and I conceive 
that I shall best meet your wishes as expressed to me this 
morning, if in a more formal shape i should lay before you 






1 

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HISTORY OF THE WAK. 



i!!^'^^ 



!|^f 



the irbole extent of the question, an it appears to hJR mftjttSh 
ty's government to exist between Great-Urilain and Amer- 
ica. ^ '^'lit tlHii IHitJ "U iiilt '( / 

I beg leave to c^tl your attention, sir, to the principles on 
which his majesty *s Orders in Council were ori^inallyil'ound- 
ed. The Decree of BeHin was directly and expressly an 
act of war, by which France prohibited all nations from 
trade or intercourse with Great-Britain under peril of con> 
fiscation of their ships and merchandize ; although France 
had not the means of imposing an actual blockade in any 
degree adequate to such a pi)rf)ose. The immediate and 
professed object of this hostile D«rcree was the destruction 
of all British commerce through means entirely unsanctioned 
by the law of nations, and unauthorised by any received 
doctrine of legitimatt? blockade. 

This violation of the established law of civilized nations 
in war, would have justified Great-Britain in retaliating 
upon the enemy by a similar interdiction of all commerce 
with France, and with such other countries as might co-op- 
erate with France iu her system of commercial hostility 
against Great-Britain. ,.. j?. .,,;fj-, -v,^ ,^v. . .F 

The object of Great-Britain was not, however, the des- 
truction of trade, but its preservation under such regula- 
tions as might be[compatible with her own security, at the 
aame time that she extended an indulgence to foreign com- 
merce, which strict principles would have entitled her to 
withhold. The retaliation of Great-Britain was not there- 
fore urged to the full extent of her right ; our prohibition 
of French trade was not absolute, but modified ; and in re- 
turn for the absolute prohibition of ail trade with Greal- 
Britain, we prohibited not all commerce with France, but 
all such commerce with France as should not be earned on 
through Great-Britain. » /7/ 

if Jt was evident that this system must prove prejudicial to 
neutral nations ; this calamity was foreseen, and deeply re- 
gretted. But the injury to the neutral nation arose iroia 
the aggression of France, which had compelled Great-Bri- 
tain in her own defence to resort to adequate retaliatory 
measures of war. The operation on the American com- 
merce of those precautions, which the conduct of France 
had rendered indispensable to our security, is therefore to 
he ascribed to the unwarrantable aggression of France, and 



IJI.'^TOUV Ol' HIE WAK. 



17 



viul lu ihoscnrocecdini^sontlic piu'lui' (ircat-nrilaiii, which 
that ag«;;re8Si'jn hail reiulcTcd necoNsary ami jiUit. 

The objfol u\' our system was merely lo cuunteract an at- 
tempt lo crush the BnLish traile ; Great-IVitain ciideavur- 
cd to permil the coittinejit to receive as hir^e a portion of 
commerce as mif^ht he practicable, throi^g^h Greal-Brihiin; 
and ull her subsequent regulations, and every modiHcation 
of her system by new orders or modes of ^rantine^ or with- 
holding licences^ have been calculated for the purpose of 
encouraging the trade of neutrals through (ireat-Britain, 
whenever such encouragement might appear advantageous 
to the general interests of commerce, and consistent with 
the public safety of the nation. The justiiication of his mi- 
jesty's Orders in Council, and the continuance of that de- 
fence, have always been rested upon the existence of the 
Decrees of Berlii>and Milan, and on the perseverance of 
the eoemy in the system of hostility, which has subverted 
the rights of neutral commerce on the continent ; and it has 
always been declared on the part of his majtsly*s govern- 
ment, that whenever France should have effectually repeal- 
ed the Decrees of Berlin and Milan, and should have re- 
stored neutral commerce to the condition in which it stood 
previously to the promulgation of those Decrees, we should 
immediately repeal our Orders in Council. , . 

France has asserted that the Decree of Berlin was a 
measure of just retaliation on her part, occasioned by our 
pi'evious ao-jri-ession ; and th« French government has in- 
sisted that our system of blockacit. as it existed previously 
to the Decree of Ber« ill, was a manifest violation of the re- 
ceived law of nations ; we must therefore, sir, refer to the 
ariides of the Berlin Decree, to find the principles of our 
system of blockade, which France considers to be new, and 
contrary to the law of nations. 

By the 4th and 8lh articles it i*? stated as a justiticalioii 
of the French Decree, that Great-Britain * extends to unfor- 
tified towns and con^mercial ports, to harbors, and to the 
mouthy of rivers, those rights of blockade, which by the rea- 
son and the usage of nations, are applicable only to fortified 
places ; and that the rights of blockade ought to be limit- 
, ed to fortresses really invested by a sufiicient force. 

It is added in the same articles that Great-Brittin * has 
declared places to be in a slate of blockade, before which 

3 





:i 



■ i 



' 



Ift 



HISTORY OF TBC WAR, 



she has not a sing^le ship of war, and even places trhich the 
whole British force would be insufficient to blockade ; en- 
tire coasts, and a whole empire.* 

Neither the practice of Great- Britain, nor the law of na- 
tions, has ever sanctioned the rale now laid down by 
France, thai no place excepting fortresses in a complete 
state of investiture, can be deemed lawfully blockaded by 
sea. 

If such a rule were to be admitted, it would become 
nearly impracticable for Great-Britain to attempt the block- 
ade of any port of the continent, and our submission to this 
perversion of the law of nations, while it would destroy one 
of the principal advantages of our naval superiority, would 
sacrifice the common rights and interests of all maritime 
states. 

It was evident that the blockade of May, 1806, was the 
principal pretended justification of the IJecree of Berlin, 
thou^n neither the principles on Which that blockade was 
founded, nor its practical operatioa, afforded any color for 
the proceedings of France. ' 

In point of date, the blockade of May, 1806, torisceded 
the Berlin Decree ; but it was a just and legal blockade 
according to the established law of nations, because it was 
intended to be maintained, and was actually maintained by 
an adequate force appointed to guard the whole coast de- 
scribed in the nctification, and consequently to enforce the 
blockade. 

Great-Britain has never attempted to dispute, that in the 
ordinary course of the law of nations,' no blockade can be 
justifiable or valid unless it be supported by an adequate 
Ibrce destiued to maintain it, and to expose !o hazard all 
vessels attempting to evade its operation. The blockade 
of May, 18<)6, was notified by Mr. Secretary Fox, on this 
clear principle, nor was that blockade announced until he 
had satisfied himself by a communication with his majesty *s 
Board of Admiralty, that the Admiralty possessed the 
means and would employ them, of watching the whole 
coast from Brest to the £lbe^ and of eflectually enforcing 
the blockade. 

The blockade of May, 1806, was therefore (according 
to the doctrine maintained by Great-Britain) just and law- 
ful in its origin, because it was supported by both in inten- 



HISTORY OF THE WAIi. 



\^ 



fion nnJ fuct by an adeniiate naval force. This was the 
justification of thai blockade, until the ^leriod of tiiu« when 
the Orders in Council were issued. 

The Orders in Council were founded on a distinct prin- 
ciple, that of defensive retaliation. France had declared 
a blockade of all the ports and coasts of Great- Britain, and , 
her dependencies, without assigning, or being able to assign, 
any force to support that blockade. Such an act of the eo- 
eoiy would have justified a declaration of the blockade of 
the whole coast of France, even without the application of 
any particular force to that service. Since the promulga- 
tion of the Orders in Council, the blockade of May, 1800, 
lias been sustained and extended by the more coinprehen- 
sive system of defensive retaliation on which tliON'e regula- 
tions are founded. But if the Orders in Council should be 
abrogated, the blockade of May, 1806, could not continue 
under our construction of the law of nations, unless that 
blockade should be maintained by a due application of an 
adequate naval force. 

America appears to concur with France in asserting that 
Great-Bi'itain was the original aggressor in the attack on 
neutral rights, and has particularly objected to the blockade 
of May, 180G, as an obvious instance of that aggression on 
the part of G reat-Britai o. / , v , ' ^ 

Although the doctrines of the fieri in Decree, respecting 
the rights of blockade, are not directly asserted by the 
American government, Mr. Pinckney s correspondence 
would appear to countenance the principles on which those 
doctrines are founded. The objection direclV stated by 
America against the blockade of May, 180u, rests on a 
supposition that no naval force which Great- Britain pos- 
sessed, or could have employed for such a purpose, could 
have rendered that blockade effectual, and, that therefore it 
was necessarily irregular, and could not possibly be main- 
tained in conformity to the law of nations. 

Reviewing the course of this statement, it will appear that 
the blockade of May, 1S|0G, cannot be deemed contrary to 
the law of nations, either under the objections urged by the 
French, or under those declared or insinuated by the Amer- 
ican government, because that blockade was maintained 
by a sufficient nsivai force; that the Decree of Berlin was 
not therefore justified ei^^er, under the pretext alledged by 



■ 



m 



•^"pi* 







rr 



M 



^ 



*20 



III.STOKV or THE \\\n 



France, or uiuWiIiohc Kiippoihtl l)y Aiiu.im a , lliat llic Oi - ; 
ders ill Cuuncil wer^ founded on a JMst principle of defciikivo [• 
j'ctalinlioii against the violation oftlieliiw of nations com* 
mittcd by France in the Decrpo of l)i>rlin ; (hat the hlock- 
adeofMay, 180(>, is now included in the uiom; rxlonsive 
operation of the Orders in Council ; and lastly, that the Oi « 
ders in Council will not bo continued beyond the eflfert^ual 
duration of the hostila decrees of France, nor will the block- 
ade of May, 18()(5, continue after the repeal of the Orders 
in Council, unless his majesty's j^ovcrninent Khali think fit 
to sustain it by the special application of a sufHcient nnvnl 
force. This fact will not be snflfered ^o remain in doubt, 
and if the re{)^al of the Orders in Council should take place, 
the intention of his mnje»ity*» grpvernment rcspecliu}^ the. 
blockade of May, 1806, will be notified at the same time. 

I need not recapitulate to you the sentiments of his ma- 
jesty's government, so often repeated, on the subject of the 
French Minister's note to General Armstrong, dated the 6th 
of last August. The studied ambiguity of t^at note has 
since been amply explained by the conduct and language 
of the government of France, of which one of the most re- 
markable instance^ is to be found in the $[)cech of the chief 
of the French government on the 1 7lh of last month to cer- 
tain deputies from the frep cities of Hamburgh, Bremen, 
and Lubeck, wherein he declares that the Berlin and 
Milan Decrees shall bo the public code of France as long 
ns England maintains her Orders in Council of 1806, 
and 1807. Thus pronouncing as plainly as language will 
admit, that the system of violence ".nd inJMstice of which he 
is the founder, xyill he maintaineti by him until the defen- 
sive measures of retaliation to which they gave rise qn the 
part or Great-Britain i^hall be abandoned. •- . • -^-^ 

If other proofs were necessary to show the continued ex- 
istence of those obnoxious Decrees, they may be discover- 
ed in the Imperial Edict dated at Fontainbieau, October 
19, 1810 J that monstrous production of violence, in which 
they are made the basis of a' system of general and unex- 
ampled tyranny and oppression over all countries subject 
to, a^'.ied with, or within the reach of the power of France , 
in the report of the French minister for foreign affairs dated 
last December, and in the letter of the French minister of 
justice to the president of the council of prizes. To tliih 



tatter, sir, 
ihe d;ite \^ 
most uiirp 
4)1' Massa, 
in const<| 
lamatidn 
ihalthe !• 
to sncli i< 
HUot«'s at 
tlie new a 
au evideni 
American 
INldan De 
-jfovernme 
judgment 
the Amer 
pledges f( 
Can th( 
ed at the 
the Unitei 
non-impoi 
at this mc 
which I hi 
For even 
it is clear 
that not b 
Orleans 1 
Green, se 
sing und€ 
very evid 
being trc 
that the c 
Ameri 
ns it respi 
form me, 
their Liiai 
Novemb( 
been res 
France s 
America 
olherwis( 
ihn revo( 



HISTORY OI Tilt: WAR. 



-•1 



latter, sir, I woiiM wisji parliciilirly lu niviU; your uUcnli<iii ; 
lliedtite is the tiriili nt'c'L'm'>tr, ihc :iutlhriiy it comes from 
most iiiir|tio.slioiiul>l<), ami you will there tiiui, .sir, the Duku 
of Massii, ill i^iviii^ liin instriiclioiiN to ilie eoiiticil of pn/es 
ill consicpieaei* of tlic PresiiUiit of the United Stales' proc- 
lamation of Novcnilit r '.\, iiiosl rauliouHly avoidiii"^ to nHMert 
thut the FrcMu li Dirrcrs were repealed, mid asicriliin)^ iiui 
to i^ncli re|)t>;i1, l>ul to tiit.' anii)i<;'nunK pusnuge which ho 
<|uot«'s at l»ii|^lh from M. Champamiy's letter of August f>, 
the new attitude tjken by America ; and you will uUu tiiid 
au evidence iu the same letter of the continued capture of 
American ships atlcr November, and under the Berlin and 
Milan Decrees, liaviiig- been contemplated by the French 
jXovernment, since there is a special direction given for 
judgment on such ships being suspended in consequence of 
the American proctamulion, and for their being kept as 
pledges for its enforcement. . . .,/,...>,/ : i . 

Can thqn, sir, these Decrees be said to have been repeal*- 
ed at the period when the proclamation of the President of 
the United States appeared* or when America enforced her 
non-importation act a"[ainst Great-Britain ? Are they so 
ui this moment ? To the iirst question, the stale papers 
which I have referred to, appear to give a sufficient answer. 
For even supposing that the repeal has since taken place, 
it is clear that on November 3, there was no question as to 
that not beipg then the case ; the capture of the ship New- 
Orleans Packed seized at Bordeaux, and the Grace- Ann- 
Cireen, seized at or carried into Marseilles, being cases ari- 
sing under the French Decrees of Berlin and Milan, a<? is 
very evident. (jlreat-Prit(|in might therefore complain of 
being treated with injustice by America, even supposing 
that the conduct of France had since been unequivocal. 

America contends that the f^rench Decrees are revoked 
as it respects her ships upon the high seas, and you, sir, in- 
form me, that the only two American ships taken under 
their Liiaritime operation, as you arepleased to term it, since 
November 1, have been restored ; but may not they have 
been restored in consequence of the satisfaction fell in 
France at the passing of the non-im))ortation act in the 
American Congress, an event so little to be expected ; for 
otherwise, having been captured in direct contradiction to 
\\i'.' revoratioii, wliv were they not restored immediatelv ? 



* « 



L It 
1< 



> '1 



1> 



H\ I 



h'l 1 



ftft, HISTORY OF TBK \l All. 

TIjc If ars ot Ihe French navy, however, prevent ninny 
c&ACft of the kin<l occurring on the ocean under Ihe Dccretx 
of Berlin and Milan ; but the most ohnosious and destruc- 
'.ivc parti of thotie Decreet are exercised with full violence 
At only in the |K>rtt uf France, hut in those of all other 
vT^untries to which France thiukM she can commit injustice 
vith impunity. 

Great-Britain has a right to complain thatncutt al nations 
should overlook the very worst features uf these, extraordi- 
nary acts, and should suffer their trade to be made a medi- 
um of an unprecedented, violent, and monstrous system of 
attack upon ner resources ; a species of warfare unutlempl- 
ed by any civilized nation before the present period. I^ot 
only has America suffered her trade to be moulded into the 
means of annoyance to Great-Britain under the provisions 
of the French JJecrees, but as construing those llecrees as 
extinct, upon a deceitful declaration of the French Cabinet, 
she has enforced h^r Don-iroportation act against Gr^^t- 
Isritam. < 

Under these circumstances, I am instructed by my gov- 
ernment, to urge to that of the United States, the injustice 
of thus enforcing that act against his majesty's dominions, 
and 1 cannot but hope that a spirit of justice will induce the 
United States' government to re-consider the line of con- 
duct they have pursued, and at least to re-establish their 
former slate of strict neutrality. ' " ' , . ' r 

I have only to add, sir, that, on my part, I shall ever be 
ready to meet you on any opening which may seem to af- 
ford a prospect of restoring complete harmony between the 
two countries, and that it will at all times give me the great- 
est "itisfaction to treat with you on the im^iortaut concerns 
ir ^resting to both. '\' V, 

1 have the honor to be, &c. 

AUGUSTUS J. FOSTER. 

,' Mr. Foster to Mr. M our or, 

Washington, July 11, 1811. 
SIR — In consequence of our conversation of yesterday, 
and the observations vvliich vou made respecting that paii of 
my letter to you of the 3d uist. wherein I have alluded to 
^iie f' inciple on which his majesty's Orders in Council were 
orig'anally founded, I think it right to explain myself, in or- 



niSTORY or TRB WAK. 



23 



der to prevent any poMxilile miitake nn to the preif lU Nitua' 
tion of neulrnl trade iviih \\\n majesty's enemies. 

It will only be neccMHiiry for me to repeat what has al- 
ready, lon|^ Hinre, been annoiuircd to the American ^t- 
erimient, namely, that liiK roaje»ty*ii Order in Council of 
April 26, 1800, sup^rreded ilio*»e of November, 1807, and 
releived the system of retaliation adopted by his majesty 
against his enemies from what was considerea in this coan- 
try ns the most objectionable part of it ; the option given to 
neutrals to trade with the enemies of Great- Britain, through 
British ports, on payment of a transit duty. 

This explanation, sir, will, I trust, be sufficient te do aviray 
any impression that you may have received to the contrary 
from niy observations respecting the effects virhicb his ma- 
jesty's Orders in Council originally had on trade of neutral 
nations. Those observations were merely meant as prelim- 
inary to a consideration of the question now at issue between 
the two countries. 

1 have the honor to be, with the highest consideration and 
respect, sir, your most obedient huml)le servant, 

AUGUSTUS J. FOSTER. 



.! 



Mr, Foster to Mr, Monroe. " ' 

Washington, July 14, 1811. 

SIR — His majesty's packet boat having been s) long 
detained, and a fortnight having elapsed since my arrival 
at this capitol, his royal highness, the prince regent will ne- 
cessarily expect that I should have to transmit to his royal 
highness some official communication as to the line of con- 
duct the American government mean to pursue. I trust 
you will excuse me therefore, sir, if without pressing for a 
detailed answer to my note of the 3d inst. I anxiously desiret 
to know from you what is the President's determination 
with res^toct to suspending the operation of the late Act ot 
Congi'ess prohibiting all importation from the British do- 
minions. 

There have been repeated avowals lately made bv the 
government of France, that the Decrees of Berlin anrf Mi- 
lan w«^re still in full force, and the nets of that government 
have corres|)onded with those avowals. 

The measnrcs of retaliation pursued by Great-Britain 
a^auist those De'.iV' s are consequently to the great regret 
of his royal hjffhnes still necfx?arily continued. 



»ii 



,, , r 



1!^ 



24 



UlSrOI^y, OF TH^ WAU. 



[ have hud the honor to state to you the light iti which his 
royalhififhness, the prince regent viewed the Proclamation 
of the President ot Ia«t November, and Ihe surprise wilh 
wliich be ieariit the subsequent measures of Congress a]i;ainst 
the BritJMh trade. ,/• :, ; V - . - «- -^r- /»; 

American Khip$ siczed under his majesty *s Orders in 
Council even after that Proclamatiju appeared, were nut 
jjnimediately conilemned, because it was believed that the in- 
^idious professions of France might have led the American 
government, and the merchants of America into an erojic- 
ous construction of the intentions of France. "V * ; :, V 

But when the veil was thrown aside, and the French ru- 
ler hunself avowed the continued c\istenco of his invariable 
system, it was not expected by his royal highness that Amer- 
ica would have refused to retrace the steps she had taken. 

Fresh proofs have since occurred of the resolution of the 
French government to cast away all consideration of Ihc 
rights of nations in the unprecedented warfare they have 

adopted. ,^ ,>...!, ,vi.;ij ^ . . . ; ...,*n 

America however still persists in her injurious measures 
as:Ainst the commerce of Great-Britain, and his roval hi<;h- 
ness has in consequence been obliged to look to means of 
retaliation against those measures which his royal highness 
cannot but consider as most unjustifiable. 
.„ 'How desirable would it not be, sir, if a stop could be put 
to any material progress in such a system of retaliation, 
u'hich, from step to step may lead to the most unfriendly sit- 
uation between the two countries ? 

His majesty's government will necessarily be guided in a 
great degree by the contents of my first despatches as to 
the conduct they must adopt towards America. 
. Allow me then, sir, to repeat my request to learn from 
you whether I may not convey what I know would be most 
grateful to his royal highness' feelings, namely, the hope 
that he may be enabled, by the speedy return of America 
from her unfriendly altitude towards Great-Britain, to for- 
get altogether that he ever was obliged to have any omer 
object in view besides that of endeavoring to promote the 
best understanding possible between the two countries, 

I have the honor to be, with the highest consideration, 
sir, vourmost obedient humble servant, 

Arr.r.«=^Tv:s ,r. foster. 



HISTORY OF THK WAR. 



Mr. 



' t 



.t ■> 



Foster to Mr. Monroe. * . . i 

I- Washington, July 16, 1811. 

SIR — I had Ihe honor to receive the letter which you 
addressed to nie under yesterds«y's date, requesting an ex- 
planation from me, in consequence of my letters of the 3d 
and 14th inst. of the precise extent in which a repeal of the 
French Decrees is by his majesty's government, made a 
condition of the repeal of the British Orders, and particu- 
larly whether the condition embraces the seizure of vessels 
and merchandize entering French ports in contravention of 
French regulations, as well as the capture on the high seas, 
of neutral vessels and their cargoes, on the mere allegation 
that lliey are bound to or from British ports, or that they 
have on board British productions or manufactures ; as 
also, stating that in your view of the French Decrees, they 
comprise regulations esstatially diifereiit in their principles, 
some of them violating the neutral rights of the United 
States, others operating against Great-Britain without any 
sucii violation. 

You will permit me, sir, for the purpose of answering 
your questions as clearly and concisely as possible, to bring* 
into view the French Decrees themselves, together with the 
official declarations of the French minister which accompa- 
nied them. 

In the body of those Decrees, and in the declarations al> 
liided to, you will tind, sir, express avowals that the princi- 
ples on which they were founded, and provisions contained 
in them, are wholly new, unprecedented, and in direct con- 
tradiction to alt ideas of justice and the principles and usa- 
ges of all civilized nations. The French government did 
not pretend to sr> that any one of the regulations contained 
in those Decrees was a regulation which France had ever 
been in the previous practice of. 

They were consequently to be considered^ and were in- 
deed allowed by France herself to be, all of them, parts of a 
new system of warfare, unauthorised by the established lawi^ 
of nations. 

It is in this light in which France herself has placed her 
Decrees, that Great-Britain is obliged to consider them. 

The submission of neutrals to any regulations made by 
France, authorised by the laws of nations, and practised in 
former wars, will never be complpincd of bv Great-Britain • 

1 



It 

I 



1 



; ( 



jr 






M 



i ' 



Ml 



i-. 



mi 



« I' 



?0 



lllSTORV OF THE WAR. 



I : 



but the reg^ulatioiis of tlie Berlin iiiid Milan Decrees do, anfi 
arc declared to violate the laws of nationn, and the rights of 
neutrals, for the purpose of attackiii^r through them the re- 
soui'ces of Great Britain. The ruler of France has drawn- 
no distinction between any of them, nor has he dechired the 
cessation of any one of them in the speech whicb he so 
lately addressed to the deputation from the free Imperial 
Haiise Towns, which was on the contrary a conf rmatioii 
uf them all. 

Not until the French Decrees therefore shall be eflfeclu- 
ally repealed, and thereby neutral commerce be restored to 
the situation in which it stood previously to their promulga- 
tion, can his> royal highness conceive himself justified, con- 
sistently with what he owes to the safety and honor of Great- 
Britain, in foregoing the j.ust measures of retaliation which 
liis majesty in hisdetbnce wa» necessitated t(> adopt against 
tliem. 

1 trust, sir, that this explanation in> answer to your en- 
quiries vtill be considered by you sufficiently satisfactory ^ 
should you require any further, and which i>t may be in my 
power to give, I shall with the greatest cheerfulness afford it. 

I sincerely hope, however, that no further delay will be 
thought necessary by the President in restoring the relations 
of amity which should ever subsist between America and 
Great-Bt'itain,. a» the delusions attempted by the government 
of France have now been made manifest,, and the perfidious 
plans of its ruler exposed ; by which, while he adds to, and 
agravates his system of violence against neutral trade, he en- 
deavors to throw all the odium of his acts upon Great-Bri- 
tiain with a view to engender discord between the neutral 
countries, and the only power which stands up as a bulwark 
against his eBJi>t'ts at universal tyranny aitd op|M'ession. 

Excuse me, sir, if I express my wish as-eai'ly as possible 
to dispatch his majesty's packet boat with the result of our 
communications^ as his majesty's government will necessa* 
rily be most anxious to hear from me. Any short period of 
lime, however, which may appear to you to be reasonable, I 
will not hesitate to detain her. 
1 have the honor to be, &c. 

AUGUSTUS J. FOSTER 



M 



mSTORY OF Tire WAR. 



rh ii- 



••"f 



• iU. 



< • 



Mr. Monroe to Mr. Foster. 
Dkpartmrnt op State, July 23d, 1811. 

f^IR — I have Niihinitlecl to the Presiilent ywir several 
ktters of the 3d and Kith of this month relative to the Bri- 
tish Orders in Council and the blockade of iMay, 18(Ki, and 
I have now the honor to coniniunicate to you his sentinientn 
on the view which yon have presented of those noeasnresof 
your government. 

It was hoped thai your communioalton would have led 
to an immediate accommodation of tl>e differences subsis- 
ting between our countries, on the ground on which alone 
it is possible to meet you. It is regretted that you have 
confined yourself to a vindication of the measures which 
produced some of them. 

The Unitfetl States are as little disposed now, as hereto- 
fore, to enter into the question concerning the priority of ag- 
gression by the two belligerents, which could not be justi- 
fied by either, by the priority of those of the other. Jint as 
you bring forward that plea in support of the Orders in 
Council, I must be permitted to remark that you have your- 
self furnished a conclusive answer to it, by admitting that 
the blockade of May 1806, which was prior to theftrsiof 
the French Decrees, would not be legal, unless supported 
through the whole extent of the coast, from the Elbe to 
Brest, by an adequate naval force. That such a naval force 
was actually applyed and continued in the requisite strict- 
ness until that blockade was comprised in and superceded 
by the Orders of November of the following year, or even 
until the French Decree of the same year, will not, I presumcv 
be alleged. 

But waving this question of priority, ciin it \ye seen with- 
out both surprise and regret, that it is still contended, that 
the Orders in Council are justified by the principle of retal- 
iation, and that this principle :h Atrcngthened by the in- 
ability of France to enforce her Decrees. A retaliation 
is, in its name, and its essential character, a returning 
like for like. Is the th^adly blow of the Orders in Council 
against one half of our commerce, a return of like for like 
to an empty threat in the French Decrees, against the other 
half? It may be a vindicative hostility, as far as its effects 
fall on the enemy. But when falling on a neutral, who on 
?J0 pretext can be liable for more than the lueasureof inju- 



Sill 



\ ■>: 



k' 



28 



HISTORY OV THE WAIl. 



ry received through such neutral, it wquld not be a retalia- 
tion, but a positive wron^, by the plea on which it i» founded. 
• It is to be further remarked that the Orders in Council 
vfeni even beyond the plea^ such as this has appeared to b<', 
in extending its operation against the trade of the United 
States, with nations which, hke Russia, had not adopted 
the French Decrees, and with all nations which had merely 
excluded the British flag ; an exclusion resuiling as a mai-r 
ter of course with respect to wiuilever nation Great-Bi'itaiu 
might happen to be at war. 

I am far from viewing the modification originally con* 
tained in these Orders, which permits neutrals to prosecute 
their trade with the continent, through Great-Britain, in the 
favorable light in which you represent it. It is impossible 
to proceed to notice the eft'ect of this modification without 
expressing our astonishment at the extravuganre of the po- 
litical pretension set up by it : a pretension which is utterly 
incompatible with the sovreignty and indepenOenpe of other 
states. In a conimercial view, it is not less objectionable, a 
it cannot fail to prove destructive to neutral commerce. 

As an enemy, Great-Britain cannot trade with France. 
Nor does France permit a neutral to come into her pofU 
frotti Great- Britain. The attempt of Great- Britain to force 
our trade through her ports, would have therefore the com- 
mercial effect of depriving the United States altogether of 
the market of her enemy for their productions, and of de- 
stroying their value in her market by a surcliarge of it. 
Heretofore it has l^een the usage of belligerent nations to 
carry on their trade through the intervention of neutrals ; 
and this had the beneficial effect of extending to the former 
the advantages of peace, while suffering under the calami- 
ties of war. To reverse the rtile, and to extend to nations 
at peace, the calamities of war, is a change as novel and ex- 
traordinary as it is at variance with justice and public law. 

Against this unjust system, the United Slates entered, at 
an early period, their solemn firotest. They considered it 
their duty to evince to the world their high disapprobation 
of it, and they have done so by such acts as were deemed 
most consistent with the rights and policy of the nation. 
Remote from the contentious scene which desolates Europe, 
it has been their uniform object to avoid becoming a party 
to the war.— With this view they have endeavorecl to rnlti- 



IIISTORY OF THE WAR. 



SO 



i 



vatefrienclslup with both parties, by n system of coufluct 
which ought to have produceii that etifect. They have 
(lone jusitice to each party in every transaction in which they 
have been separately engaged with it. Titey have observ- 
«d the impartiahty which was due to both, as bethgereiits, 
standing on equal groiiiul, having in no instance given a 
preference to either at tiie expense of the other. They have 
Imrne, too, with equal indulgence, injuries from both, being 
willing while it was possible, to impute them to casualties 
inseparable from a cause of war, and not to a deliberate in- 
tention to violate their rights; and even when that intention 
could not be mistaken, liiey have not lost sight of the ulti- 
mate object of their policy. In the measures to which they 
have been compelled to resort, they have in all respects 
maintained pacific relations with both parties. The alter- 
native presented by their late acts, was offered equally to 
both, and could operate on neither, no longer than it should 
persevere in its aggressions on our neutral rights. The em- 
bargo and non-intercourse, were peaceful measures. The 
regulations which they imposed on our trade were such 
as any nation might adopt in peace or war, without oflfencc 
to any other nation. The nQUrimportation is of the same 
character, and if it makes a distinction at this time, in its 
operation between the belligerents, it necessarily results from 
a compliance of one with the offer made to both, and which 
is still open to the compliance of the other. 

In the discussions which have taken place on the subject 
of the Orders in Council and blockade of May, 1800, the 
British government in conformity to the principle on which the 
Orders in Council are said to be founded, declared that they 
should cease to operate as soon as France revoked her Edicts. 
It was stated also, that the British government would pro- 
ceed pari passut with the government of France, in the re- 
vocation of her Kdicts. I will proceed to shew that the ob- 
ligation on Great-Britain to revoke her Orders is complete, 
according to her own engagements and that the revocation 
ought not to be longer delayed. 

By the act of May 1st, 1810, it is provided, * That if 
either Great-Britain or France should cease to violate the 
neutral commerce of the United States, which fact the Pre- 
sident should declare by proclamation, and the other party 
should not within three n^ontlis thereafter revoke or modify 



H 



I'l 



so 



nrSTCHlY OF THE WAR. 



■ ! 

1 i 



lis Eilicls in like innnner, that then certain sections in a 
former act intertlictinjZf the commercial intercourse between 
the United States and Great- Britain and France and their 
dependencies, should from and after the expiration of throe 
months from the date of tlie proclamation, he revived and 
have full force ag^ainst the former, its colonies and depen- 
dencies, and against all articles the growth, |»ro(luce, or 
manufacture of the same.' '; "" •' t- ,.,. 

The violations of neutral commerce alluded to in ihis act, 
were such as were committed on the high seas. It was in 
the trade between the {United Slates and tlie British domin- 
ions, that France had violated the mjutrat rights of the 
United States by her blockading Edicts. It was with the 
trade of France and her allies that Great-Britain had com- 
mitted similar violations by similar Edicts. It was the re- 
vocation of those Edicts, so far as they committed such vio- 
lations, which the United States had in view, when they 
passed the law of May 1st, 1810. On the 6th of August, 
1810, tlie French minister of foreign affairs addressed a 
note to the minister plenipotentiary of the United States 
at Paris, informing him that the Decrees of Berlin and Mi- 
lan were revoked ; the revocation to take effect on the 1st 
of November following: that the measure had been taken 
by his government in confidence that the British govern- 
ment would revoke its Orders, and renounce its new prin- 
ciples of blockade, or that the United States would cause 
their rights to be respected, conformably to the art of May 
1st, 1810. 

This measure of the French government was founded on 
the law of May Isl, 1810, as is expressly declared in the let- 
ter of the Duke of Cadore announcing it. The Edicts of 
Great- Britain, the revocation of which were expected by 
France, were those alluded to in that act ; and the means 
by which the United States should cause their rights to be 
respected, in case Great-Britain should not revoke her 
Edicts, were likewise to be found in the same act. They 
consisted merely in the enforcement of the non-importation 
act agamst Great-Britain, in that unexpected and improba- 
ble contingency. 

The letter of (he 5th of August, which announced the re- 
vocation of the French Decrees, was communicated to this 
.govcrnmciil, in ronscqucnce of which the President issued 



m 



fj 



.1 proclam 
on \%hich 
in which I 
wf May 1^ 

lation to F 
consequen 
(lid not re 
rate on he 
place. S 
rnary last, 
clamation 
following. 

Grcat-I 
pretension 
iniprcNsioi 
injustice b 
lier. 

The Ui 
Edicts, so 
contempla 
that groui 
Britain a i 

The rev 
ister of foi 
United St 
itself suffic 
correspond 
dared th: 
with Frail 
the FrencI 
i'unclude I 
repeal of t 
lion of the 
of the Edi 
sequence ! 
operation 
♦)f procectJ 
aiid such I 
each olhei 
of each to 
good faith 
tilutcs ha 



(f' 



HISTORY or niE WAR. 



nt 



a proclamation on the '2^\ of Nuvrmber, the day nAer that 
on v%hich the repeal of tlie French Decrees was to t;ikccflect 
in wliich lie (tcclared that ail reslriclionM imposed l»y the act 
Mf May ]>t, 1810, should cease and he discontinued in ro« 
lation to France and herdepeiidencie.H. It was a necessary 
<!onsequence of this proclamation, also, timt if (ireat- Britain 
(lid not revoke her Edicts, the non-importation wonhl o|ie- 
rate on her, at the end of three months. Thiii acluolly took 
place. She declined the revocation, and on the 2d ot Feb- 
ruary last, th-.it law took eiVecl. In confirmation of the pro- 
clamation, an actof Con«riTss was pa.ssedon the 'Jd of March 
following. 

Great-Britain still declines to revoke her Cdicls; on the 
pretension thai France has not revoked hers. Under that 
imprcNsion she infers that the Uniled Stales have done her 
injustice by carrying intocilcct tlie noa>iiuporlalion againsl 
lier. 

The Uniled States maintain that France has revoked her 
Edicts, so far a» they violated their neutral rightii, and were 
contemplated by the liiw of May 1st, 1810, and have ou 
that ground particularly claimed and do expect of Greal- 
Britain a similar revocation. 

The revocation announced officially by the French min- 
ister of foreign affairs, to the minister plenipotentiary of the 
United States at Paris, on the 6th of August, 1810, was in 
itself sufficient to justify the claim of the United States to a 
correspondent measure from (>reat-Britaiu. She had de- 
clared that .she would proceed pari passu in the repeal 
with France^ and the day being iixed when the repeal of 
the French Decrees should take eft'ect, it was reasonable to 
conclude thut Great-Britain would hx the same day for the 
repeal of her Orders Had this been done, the proclama- 
tion of the President would have announced the revocatiou 
of the Edicts of both powers at the same time, and in con- 
sequence thereof the non-importation would have gone into 
operation against neitlier. — Such, too, is the natural course 
of proceeding in transactions between independent states ; 
and such the conduct which they generally observe towards^ 
each other. In all comp.icts between nations, it is the duty 
of each to perform what it stipulates, and to presume on tho 
good faith of the other for a like performance. The United 
Stales havings made a pr(vposal to both belligerrnts were 



U 






I i 



IV 



i'l 



ffm HISTORY OF THE WAK. 

hound to accept a compliance from either, and it was no 
objection to the Fr&itch compliance, thut it was in a form to 
take eflfect at a future day ; that being a tbrni not unu.sual 
ill otlier pui>lic acts ; even when iialioiiM are at wiir and 
make pence, tins obiigatiun of neutral confidence exiNtsand 
is respected. In treaties of counnt-rce, by which their fu- 
ture intercoiir»e is to be p^ovcnied, the obligation is the 
sani ;. — If distrust and jealousy are allowed to prevail, tlie 
moral tie, which binds nations to^^ether in all their n;lut. , 
in war, as well as in peace, is broken. 

What would Great-Britain have hazarded by a prom|)t 
compliance in the manner sugy^esttd ? Sha had declared 
that she had adopted the restraints imposed by her Orders 
in Council with reluctance, because of their distressing 
effect on neutral powers. Here then was a favorable op- 
portunity presented to her, to withdraw from that measure 
with honor, be the conduct of France, afterwards, xWiat it 
might. Had Great-Britain revoked her Orders, and France 
failed to fulfil her engagement, she would have gained credit 
nt the expense of France, and could have sustained no in- 
jury by it, because the failure of France to maintain her 
faith would have replaced Great-Britain at the point from 
which she had departed. To say that a disappointed reli- 
ance on the good faith of her enemy, would have reproach- 
ed her foresight, would be to set a higher value on that 
quality, than on consistency and good faith, and would sac- 
rifice to a mere suspicion towards an enemy, the plain obli- 
gations of justice towards a friendly power. 

Great-Britain has deolined proceedin<^ jMtri passu with 
France in the revocation of their respective Edicts. She 
has held aloof, and claims of the United States, proof, not 
only that France has revoked her Decrees, but that she con- 
tinues to act in conformity with the revocation. 

To shew that the repeal is respected, it is deemed suffi- 
cient to state, that nut one vessel has been cuitdemned by 
French tribunals, on thp principles of those Decrees, since 
the Isl of November last. — The Nevv-Orleaus packet from 
Gibraltar to Bordeaux, was detained but never condemned. 
The Grace-Ann-Green, from the same British port, to Mar- 
seilles, was likewise detained, but afterwards delivered up 
unconditionally to the owner, as was such part of the cargo 
of the New-Orleans packet as consisted of the produce of 



i( i 



HISTORY OF tWt VITAtU 



8d 



the United Stales. Both these vesneU proceeHin? from a 
British p<»rt, cnrried cargoeN, MMne articleM of which in each, 
were pruhibited by the lawn of France, or admissible by ttia 
sanction of the government alone. It does not a^ .-Mur that 
their dtiention was imputable to any other cause. If impu- 
table to tlie circumstance of pansing from a British to a 
French port, or on account of any part of their cargoes, it 
affords no canse of complaint in Great- Britain, as a viola- 
tion o\' \ter neutral rif^hts. No such cause would be afford- 
ed, even in a case of condemn-ition. The right of com- 
plaint, would hr ve U^ionged to the United States. 

In denying' t iie revocation of the Decrees, so far as it is a 
proper subject of discussion l)etween us, it might reasona- 
bly be expected that you would pro<luce some examples of 
vessels taken at sea, in voyages to British ports, or on their 
return honoe, and condemned under ih u by a French tri- 
bunal. Nonesuch has been afforded by you. None such 
are known to this government. 

You urge only a« an evidence that the Decrees are not 
repealed, the speech of the Emperor of France to the depu- 
ties from the free cities of Hamburg, Bremen, and Lubeck; 
the Imperial Edict dated at Fontainbleau on the 19th of 
Oct. 1810 ; the report of the French minister of foreign 
affairs, dated in Dttreinber last, and a letter of the minister 
of .Justice to the President of the Council of prizes of the 
25th ot that month. ^ : ,. > , 

There is nothing in the first of these papers incompatible 
with the revocation of the Decrees, in respect to the United 
States, it i« distinctly declared by the Emperor in his 
speech to the deputies of the Hunse Towns, that the block- 
ade of the British Islands shall cease when the British 
blockades cease ; and that the French blockade shall cease 
ill favor of those nations in whose favor Great Britain re- 
vokes hers, or who support their rights against her preten- 
,sion, as France admits the United States will do, by enforc- 
ing the non-importation act. The same sentiment is ex- 
pressed in the report of the ministers of foreign affairs.— 
The Decree of Funtainbleuu having no effect on the high 
seas, cannot be brought into this discussion. It evidently 
has no connection with neutral rights. The letter from the 
minister of justice, to the President of the Council of prizes, 
is of a dif&rent character. It relates in direct terms to thri 



1;. 



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H UlSTOHV OF THE WAB. 

mibjecf but hot in llie senne in which you understand it. 
Aftf r rccilingf the note from the duke of'Cndore uf the 6tk 
Au|irn<it la.sl, to the Amerinin minister at Paris which an- 
nounced I he repeal of the French Decrees and the proclama- 
tion of the President in connequence of it, it stales that all 
causes arisin*^ under tho^te Docrces atWihe 1st of Novem- 
ber, which were then before the court, or mig^ht afterwards 
be brouq^hl before it. shouhl not be judged by the principles 
of the Decrees, but be suspended until the *id February, 
when the United States liavin«^fultiled their eng^agement, 
the captures should be declared void, and the vessels and 
Ibeir cargoes delivered up tu their owners. This paper ap- 
pears tonHbrd an unequivocal evidence of the revocation of 
the Decrees, so far as relates to the United States. By in- 
structing the French tribunal to make no decission till the 
2d of February, and then to restore the property to the own- 
ers, on a particidar event which has happened, all cause 
of doubt on that point seems to be removed. The United 
States may justly complain of delay in the restitution of the 
property, but that is an injury which cft'ects thorn only. 
Great Britain has no right to complain of it. She was in- 
terested only in the revocation of the Decrees by which 
neutral rights would be secured from future violation ; nr 
if she had been interested in tb" 'Wlay it would have afford- 
ed no pretext for more than a delay in repealing her orders 
the 2d of February. From that day at farthest the French 
Diecrees would cease. At the same day ought her Orders 
to have ceased. I might add to this statement, that every 
• communication received from the French government, ei- 
ther through our representatives there, or its representatives 
Jiere, are in accord with the actual repeal rfthe Berlin and 
Milan Decrees, in relation to the neutral commerce of the 
United States. But it wiilsufhce to remark, that the best, 
and only adequate evidence of their ceasing to operate, is 
the defect of evidence that they do operate, [lis a case 
where the want of proof againrt the fultiiment of a pledge is 
proof of the fulfilment. Every case occurring, to which if 
the Decrees were in force, they would l)e applied, and to 
■which they are not applied, is a,proof that they are not in 
force. And if these proofs have not l>eeu more multiplied^ 
I need notrewiiiil you that a cause is to be found in the nu- 
merous captures under your Orders in Council, which coa- 



tinuc to c\ 
ter » failui 
lint On 
that she oi 
the comm 
which it s 
issued ; u 
to the Uni 
trade with 
tarn shouh 
whom she 
extended 
against Gi 
proposed ' 
their situ: 
those of ai 
none in re 
Or do yoi 
Great-Bri 
Between < 
of either I] 
always co 
country \ 
The laws 
them, whi 
ation are i 
remote thi 
between ( 
would nol 
Great-Bri 
power, ou 
such termi 
set up sucl 
tory of pa! 
ciple of wi 
United & 
own favor 
enemy, it 
claim eve 
by treaty, 
in such a 
est ; to ac 






UtSTORY or THE WAk. 3. 

luiiic lo evince the riffour willi v* liirli Uiry an forrcH, 
ter » failure of the iMNiMon which Ihry nr(> mi|)| <*^<I to r< U 
Hut Otint-Britaiii contends, nx appcani liy your ht«<t leUer*. 
that »he uus^ht not to revoke her Ordent in Ctinncil, until 
the commerce of the continent is restored to the Male in 
which it Mtuod iiefore the Berlin and Milan Decrees were 
issued ; until the French iJccrees are repealed nut only as 
lo the United States, hut so as to permit Cireat-lirttain to 
trade with the ctHitinent. Is it then mennt thai Great-Uri- 
tain should be allowed to trade with all the powerR with 
whom she traded at tliet epoch* Siiic(3 that time France haN 
extended her cohcpicsls to the iiortii, and raised enemies 
against Grenl-Britain, where ^he IIkmi had friends. Is it 
proposed to trade with thein nolwillislamlinir the changtein 
their situation ? Between the enemies of one slate and 
those of another, no discrimination can be made. There is 
none in reason, nor can there be any of right, in practice. 
Or do you maintain the general principle and contend that 
Great-Britain ougcht to trade with France and her Allies ? 
Between enemies there can be no commerce. The vessels 
of either taken by the other are liable to confiscation and are 
always coniiscated. The number of enemies or extent of 
country which they occupy, cannot eftecl the question. 
The laws of war govern the relations which subsist between 
them» which especially in the circumstance under consider- 
ation are invariable. They were the same in times the most 
remote that they now are. Even if peace had taken place 
between Great-Britain and the powers of the continent she 
would not trade with them without their consent. Or does 
Great-Britain contend, that the United States, as a neutral' 
power, ought to open the continent to her commerce^ on 
such terms as she may designate ? On what principle can she 
set up such a claim ? No example of it can be found in the his- 
tory of past wars, nor is it founded in any recognized prin- 
ciple of war, or in any semblance of reason or right. The 
United States could not maintain such a claim in their 
own favor, though neutral — when advanced in favor of an 
enemy, it would be the most preposterous and extravagant 
claim ever heard of. Kvery power when not restrained 
by treaty, has aright to regulate its trade with other nations, 
in such a manner as it tinds it most consistent with its inter- 
est ; lo admit, and on its own conditions, or t© prohibit the 



M 




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HISTORY OP TUB W4II. 



impoflftlioii of ftiirh nrtirtc^ nn mc n^resnar}* to Mipply tliA 
%vatilM, or cnco(irn(]fe lli iiHliiHlry of lU people. In what 
lif*ht wouUKirenl>])rtiniii view nii npplirutioiHronitlie Unit- 
fid States for the repeal (»f riuht ot' iiiiy net of her pnrlia- 
in(!nt, which prohiiiiteil the importntioii of any article frtnn 
the llnited Stnles, unch us their Hsh, or tluir oil i^ Or which 
claimet) the diminution of the duty on any other, mtelt as 
their tohacco on which so ^retit a rcveiino in raised ? In 
what lijk^ht would she vieiv a similar application made at 
the inittance of France, for the importation into England, of 
any article the growth or mannfaclureof that power which 
it was the policy of the British f^overnment to prohibit. 

If delays have taken place in the resititution of American 
property, and in placin^^ the American commerce in the 
ports of France on a fair and satisfactory basis, they involve 
questions, as has already been observed, in \\hichthe United 
States alone are interested. As they clo not violate the re- 
vocation by France, of her Edicts, they cannot impair the 
oblinration of Great- Britain to revoke hers ; nor change th& 
epoch at nrhich the revocation ought to have taken place. 
H:id that duly followe<l« it is more than probable that those 
circumstances, irrelative as they are, wliich have excited 
doubt in the British government of tlie practical revocation 
of the French Decrees, might not have occurred. - w» i '*<• - 

£!very view which can be taken of this subject, increases 
the painful surprise at the innovations on all the principles 
and usages heretofore observed, which are so unreservedly 
contended for, in your letters of the dd and 10th inst. and 
which, if persisted in by your government, presents such an 
obstacle to the wishes of the Uuited States, for a removal of 
the difficulties which have, been connected with the Orders 
in Council. It is the interest of belligerents to mitigate the 
calamities of war, and neutral powers possess ample means 
to promote that object, provided they sustain with impar-* 
tiality and Armness the dignity of their station. If beliiger-' 
ents expect advantage from neutrals, they should leave them 
in the full enjoyment of their rights. I'he present war, has 
been oppressive beyond example, by its duration, and b 
the desolation which it has spread throughout Europe, 
is highly important that it should assume, at least, a miltiei* 
character. By the revocation of the French Edicts, so far 
as they respected the neutral commerce of the United Stales^ 



I 



:h* 



1* 



IlfSTnnY OF VIIBWAR. V 

nomc ailvnnrr in nituir towanln tlint most (lesiralilc aiul ron- 
volingrfsull. Ltl (ir«at-Britiiiii(ollu>% llu- example. Tlie 
fl^roniHl Ihm gained will suoii l»c eniar^rd liv Hip concor- 
rin}^ ami presMiii^ intereitt ot till |MirtKs niid «liatvveif in 
gained, will accrue to Uie a«lvaiilu)(r o4 atiiicled hiimaikily. 

J |>rncf-ed to notice nnotlif r part of your lelier of tk« (id 
iiiNt. which IN viewed in a more fnvoralde lip^ht. ThoFreit* 
ident has received will) y^reat HaliMaclion tlie oomniiinica- 
lion that idionUI the Orders in Council of 1807, be revoked^ 
Iho blockade of May* of the precrdin|if year, would ceare 
with them, and that any blockade which should att^rward* 
be instituted, should l>e duly notified ami maintHiiied by an 
adequate foK'e. This frank and explicrl declaration, wur* 
thy of the prompt and amicable measure adopted by the 
priHce regent in comiu)^ into power, seems to remove a ma- 
terial obstacle to an ticcoinmodation oi' dtfliRrences between 
our countries, and wlieii followed by the revocaimn of tiM 
Orders in Council, will, as 1 am authorised to inform joo» 
produce an immediate termination of the non-importakNm 
law, by an exercise of the power vested in the Prc^iilcnt for 
that purpose. 

I conclude w'lb remarking, tha* if 1 have confined thig 
letter to the subjects brought into view by yours, it is not 
because the United States have lost sight in any degree of 
the other very serious causes of complaint, on which they 
have received no satisfaction, but because the conciliatory 
policy of this trovernment has thus far separated the "case of 
the Orders in ( luncil from others, and because with respect 
to these others, your cumnmnication has not afforded any 
reasonable prospect of resuming them, at this time, with suc- 
cess. It is presumed that the same liberal view of the true 
interests ot Great-Britain, and friendly disposition toward* 
the United States, which induced the prince regent to re- 
move so material a difficulty as had arisen in relation to * 
repeal of the Orders in Council, will lead to a more favora- 
ble further consideration of the remaining difiiculties on that 
subject, and that the a<lvantages of an amicable adjustment 
of every question, dependmg* between the two countries, 
will be seen by your governuient, in the same light, as they 
are by tluit of the United States. ., ^. , i . 

J have the honor to be, ^e. ' 

JAMES MONROE. 



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38 



HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



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-««>»iV. di' Mr. Foster to 31 r. Monroe. 

Washinc'I'on, .luly 2(>lh, 1911. 

SIR — 1 have had the honor to receive your letter of July 
23d, HI answer to mine ot the 3d and 14th inst. which you 
will permit me to Htiy were not merely relative to his m:ijes- 
ty'fi Orders in Council, and the blockade of May 1S0(>, but 
alfo to tlic Presid«M)t*s proclamation of last November, and 
to the consequent act of Congress of March 2d, as w eli as 
to the just complaints which his royal htghness, the 
prince regent, had commanded me to make to your ^ov- 
emmeot, with respect to the proclamation and to that act. '/ 

If the U. States' government had expected that I should 
have made communications which would have enabled 
them to come to an accommodation with Great-Britaii. on 
the ground on which alone you say it was possible to meet 
us, and that you mean by that expression a departure from 
our system of defence against the new kind of warfare still 
practised by France, I am at a loss to discover from what 
source they could have derived those expectations ; cer- 
tainly not from the correspondence between the Marquis 
Wellesley and Mr. Pinkney. 

Before I proceed to reply to the arguments which are 
brought forward by you to show that the Decrees of Berlin 
and Mdan are repealed, 1 must first enter into an explana- 
tion upon some points on which you have evidently misap- 
prehended, for I will not suppose you could have wished to 
misinterpret my meaning. ■ u.m 

And first, in regard to the blockade of May, 1806, 1 must 
avow that I am wholly at a loss to find out from what part 
of my letter it is that the President has dr£iwn the imqualified 
inference, that should the Orders in Council of 1807, be re- 
voked, the blockade of May, 180<3, would cease with them. 
— It is most material that, on this point, no mistake 
should exist between us. From your letter it would ap- 
pear, as if on the question of blockade which America had 
so unexpectedly connected with her demand for a repeal of 
our Orders in Council, Great-Britain had made the conces- 
sion required of her; asif, after all that has passed on the sub- 
ject, after the astonishment and regret of his majesty's gov- 
ernment at the United States having taken up the view 
which the French government presented, of our just and 
legitimate principles of blockade, which are exemplified in 



liii 



i1 

m 



HISTORY OF TUE WAR. 



the blockade of May, 18(Ki, the whole o^roand taken by \m 
iiiajesty's j^overninent wits at once abandoned. When 1 
had the honor to exhibit to you my instruction-s and to draw 
up as 1 conceived, accordini^ to your wishes and those ot" 
the Presidenty a statement of the mode in which that block- 
ade wonid probably disappear, 1 never meant to tiuthoiise 
such a conclusion, and J now beg- most unequivocally to 
disdain! it. The blockade of May, 18()(>, will not continue 
after the repeal of the Orders in Council, unless his majes- 
t/s government shall think fit to sustain it by the special 
application of a sufficient naval force, and the fact of its 
being" so continued or not, will be notified at the time. If, 
in this view of the matter, which is certainly presented in a 
conciliatory spirit, one of ihe obstacles to a complete under- 
standing between our countries can be removed by the Uni- 
ted Slates government waving all further reference to that 
blockade when they can be justified in sisking a repeal of 
the Orders, and if I may communicate this to my govern- 
ment, it will undoubtedly be very satisl'actory ; but I beg 
distinctly to disavow having made any acknowledgment 
that the blockade would cease merely in consequence of a 
revocation of the Orders in Council ; whenever it does 
cease, it will cease because there will be no adequate force 
to maintain it. 

On another very material point, sir, you appear to have 
misconstrued my words ; for in no one passngeof my letter 
can I discover any mention of innovations on the part of 
Great-Britain, such as you say excited a painful surprise in 
your government. There is no new pretension set up by 
iiis majesty's government. In answer to questions of yours, 
as to what were the Decrees or ragnlatious of France 
which Great-Britain complained of, and against which she 
directs her retaliatory measures, 1 brought distinctly into 
your, view the Berlin and Milan Decrees, and you have no^ 
tlenied, because, indeed, you could not, that the provisions 
of those Decrees were new measures of war on the part of 
France, acknowledged as such by her ruler, and contrary 
to the principles and usages of civilized nations. That the 
present war has been oppressive beyond *;xample by its du- 
ration, and the desolation it spreads through Europe, I wiU 
lingly agree with yon, but the United Slates cannot surety 
mean to attribute Ihe cause to Great- V> 'tain. The quesUou 






ill i 



JiisTonY OF rat, uak. 






bc(wc('ii 6i'«ut-Britaiii arid France xh that of an lionombli; 
sli'iijij^^tr'te againfit the lawleKs effort!* of an ambitions tyrant, 
«n<i America can but have the wish of every independent 
tiatioii as to its rcsnlt. 

On a thiixi point, sir, I have also to regret that my mean- 
ing fthould have been mistaken. Great- Britain never con- 
tended that British merchant vessels Mhonkl be allowed to 
tra<ie with her enemies, or that British property Khould be 
allowed entry into their ports, as yon would infer ; such a 
pretension would indeed be preposterous ; but Great-Bri- 
tain does contend a<^ainstthe system of terror put in practice 
by France, by which usurping authority wherever her arms 
or the timidity of nations will enable her to extend her in- 
fluence, she makes it a crime to neutral countries as well as 
individualsthatthey should possess articles, however acquir- 
ed, which may have been once the produce of English in- 
dustry or of the British soil. Against such an -Abominable 
and extravagant pretension every feeling must revolt, and 
the honor no less than the interest of Great-Britain engages 
her to opfiose it. 

Turning to the course of argument contained in your let- 
ter, allow me to express my surprise at the conclusion you 
draw in consi<leriug the question of priority relative to the 
Frf^nch Decrees or British Orders in Council. It wai 
clearly proved that the blockade of May, 180C>, was main- 
tained by an adequate naval force, and therefore was a 
blockade founded on just and legitimate principles, and I 
have not heard that it was considered in a contrary light 
when notilied as such to you by Mr. Secretary Fox, nor 
until it suited the views of France to endeavor to have it 
considered otherwise. Why America took up the view the 
French government chose to give of it, and could see in it 
grounds for the French Decrees, was always matter of as- 
tonishment in England 

Your remarks on modifications at various times of our 
{(ysi\.m of retaliation will require the less reply from the cir- 
cumstance of the Orders in Council of April, 1809, having 
superceded them all. They were calculated for the avow- 
ed purpose of softening the effect of the original Orders on 
neutral commerce, the incidental effect of those Orders on 
neutrals having been always sincerely regretted by his ma- 
jesty's government ', 'Hit when it was found that neutrals ob" 
jected iQ theui they were remt ved. 



HISTORY OP THE WAR. 



41 



Aa to tiie pi-inci|)le of relalintion, it \h founded on the just 
and natural rii^lit of self defence a;r ,ii)st our enemy i if 
France is unable to enforce her Decrees on the ocean, it 19 
not from the want of will, for she enforces them wherever 
slie can do it; her threats are only empty where her |M>wer 
is of no avaU. 

In tlie view you have taken of the conduct of America, 
m her relations with the two belligerents, and in the con- 
clusion you draw with respect to the impartiality of your 
country, as exemplified in the non-importation law, I la* 
jnent tu say I cannot ag;ree with you. That act is a direct 
nieasure against the British trade, enacted at a time when all 
the legal authorities in the United States appeared ready 
to contest the sfcatemeut of a repeal of the French Decrees, 
on which was founded the President's proclamation of No- 
vember 2d, and consequently to dispute the justice of the 
proclamation itself. 

You urge, sir, that the British government promised to 
nroceed pari passu with France in the repeal of her f^dicts. 
It is to be wished you could point out to us any step France 
has taken in repeal of hers. G leat- Britain has repeatedly de- 
clared that she would repeal when the French did so, and 
she means to keep to that declaration. ^ 

I have slated to you that we could not consider the let- 
ter of August o, declaring the repeal of the French Edicts, 
providing we revoked our Orders in Council, or America 
resented our not doing so, as a step of ihat nature ; and the 
French government knew that we could not ; their object 
was evidentlv while tlv ir svstem was adhered to, in aU its 
rigor, to endeavor to persuade the American government 
that they had relaxed from it, and to induce her to proceed in 
enforcing the submission of Great-Britain to the inordinate 
demands of France. It is to be lamented that they have but 
too well succeeded ; for the United States government ap- 
pear to have considered the French Declaration in the sense 
in which France wished it to be taken, as an absolute repeal 
of her Decrees, without adverting to the conditional terms 
which accompanied it. 

But you assert that no violations of your neutral rights 
by France occur on the high seas, and that these were all 
the violations alluded to ni the act of Congress of Mny, 
1810. 1 readily bebeve, indeetl, that si»<:h cases are rare, but 






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HISTORY OF THE W\R, 



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it is owingf to the prcpuiideraiice of the British nary diaf 
they are so ; >%heii Hcaire a Kliiji under the French flag can 
Teiilure to sea without being taken, it is not extra jrtlinary 
that they ntake no ca|)lures. It' such violations alone were 
vithin the purview of yolir law, there would seem to have 
been no necessity for its enactment. The British navy 
miuht have been safely trusted for the prevention of this oc- 
cnrreiice. But I have always believed and my govenimenfc 
has bebt'vetl, thai tht^ Anu rican legislators had in view in 
the provision of their law as it respects France, not only her 
deeds of violence on the seas, but all the novel aiid extra- 
ordinary pretensions and firactices of her government which 
infringed iheir neutral rights. 

We have had no cvider.re a» yet of any of those preten- 
sions being abandoned. To the ambiguous declaration in 
Mr. Champagny\ note is opposed the unambiguous and 
personal declaration of Bonaparte himself. You urge that 
there is nothing incompatible with the revocation of the De- 
crees in respect to the United States, in his expressions to 
the deputies from the free cities of Hamburgh, Bremen^ 
and Lubeck, that it is distinctly stated ni that speech, that 
the blockade of the British Islands shall cease when the 
British hlotkiide shall t'eusct and that the French blockade 
shall cease in favor of those nations in whose favor Great- 
Britain revokes hers or who support their rights against her 
pretensions. 

It is to be inferred from this and the corresponding paiis 
of the declapution alluded to, thai unless Great-Britain sac- 
rifices her principles of blockade, which are those authoriz- 
ed by the established laws of nat'ons, France will still 
maintain her Decrees of Berlin and xililan, which indeed, 
the speech in question declares to be the fundamental law» 
of the French empire. 

\ do not, I confess, conceive how these avowals of the 
ruler of France, can be said to be compatible with the re- 
peal of his Decrees in respect to the United Stales. If the 
I'niled States are prepared to insist on the sacrifices by 
Great-Britain of the ancient and established rules of mari- 
time war practised by her, then indeed they may avoid the 
opeiBtioM of the French Decrees, but otherwise, according* 
to th;s document, it is very clear that they are 'till subjected 
to theiu. 






HISTORY OF THE WAR. #9 

The Decree of FoiiiiUiinMcaii is confesRcdly ftNmded on 
the Decrees of Berlin and Milan, daled the lOtii October, 
1810, and proves their continued existence. The report 
of the FVencii minister of Decc iiil)er H, unrionncin^ the per- 
severance of France in her Decrees is still lurtlierin confir- 
mntion of them, and a re-perusal of the letter of ttie minister 
oi' justice, of the 25th last Deceail)er, cunHrins mo in die 
inference I <lrew from it, for otherwise why should that min- 
iijter make tlie prospective restoration of American vessel«, 
taken after tl»e Isl of November, to be a consequence of the 
non-importation, and not of tiie French revocation. If tite 
French government had been sincere, they vi'ould have ceas- 
ed infrin<;ing on the neutral rights of America, after the 1st 
November. — That they violated them, however, aiter that 
period, is notorious. 

Your government seem to let it be understood that an 
ambiguous declaration from Great-Britain, similar to that 
of the French minister, would have been acceptable to them. 
But, sir, is it consistent with the dignity of a nation that 
respects itself, to speak in ambiguous language ? The sub- 
jects and citizens of either country would in Uie end be the 
victims, as many ai*e already, in all probability, ;^ho from 
a misconstruction of the meaning of the French govern- 
ment, have been led into the most imprudent speculations. 
Such conduct would not be to |)roceed pari passu with 
France in revoking our Edicts, but to descend to the use of 
the perHdious and juggiing contrivances of her cabinet, by 
which she fills her coffers at the expense of independent 
nations. A similar construction of proceeding pari passu 
might lead to such Decrees as those of HambouiUet, or of 
Bayonne, to the system of exclusion or of licences, all 
measures of France against the American commerce, is 
nothing short of absolute hostility. 

It is urged that no vessel has i>een condemned by the tri- 
bunals of France, on the principias of her Decrees since the 
the 1st of November. You allow, however, that there have 
been some detained since that period, and that such parV of 
the cargoes as consisted of goods not the produce of Amer- 
ica, was seized, and the other part, together with the vessel 
itself, only released after the President's proclamation be- 
came known in France. These circumstances, surely, only 
prove the difficulty that France is under in reconciling her 



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44 



H18T0RY OP THE WARi 



Anti-commercial and anli-nenlr.il system, with her flosire Xo 
express her satisfaction at the measures lakiii in Aiiuriciv 
against the commerce of Great-Britain. She seizes in vif- 
Uie of ihe Berlin and Milan Decrees, but she makes a par- 
tial restoration for the purpose of deceiviii«r America. 

1 have now followed you, 1 believe, sir, through the whole 
range of your argument, and o.i reviewing the course of it, 
I think I may securely sar that no satisfactory proof has jet 
been brought forward of the repeal of the obnoxious De- 
crees of France, but on the contrary, that it appears they 
continue in full force, consi-qutnlly that no grounds exist 
on which you can, with justice, demand of Great-Britain a 
revocation of her Orders in Council ; — that we have a right 
to complain of the conduct of the American government, in 
enforcing the provisions of the act of May, 1810, to the ex- 
clusion of the British trade, and afterwards in obtaining a 
special law for the same purpose., though it was notorious 
at the time that France still continued htr aggressions 'ipon 
American commerce, and ha<l recently promulgated anew 
her Decrees, suffering no trade from this country, but 
through licences publicly sold by her agent, and that all the 
suppositions you have formed of innovations on the part of 
Great-Britain, or of her pretensions to trade with her ene- 
mies are wholly groundless. I have also stated to you the 
view his majesty's government has taken of the question of 
the blockade of May, 18()6, and it now only remains that 1 
tirge afresh the injustice of the United States' government, 
persevering in their union with the French system, for the 
purpose of crushing the commerce of Great-Britain. 

From every consideration which equity, good policy, or 
interest can suggest, there appears to be such a call upon 
America to give up this system, which favors France, to 
the injury of Gn.'at-Britain, that I cannot, however little sat* 
isfactury your communications are, as yet abandon all hopes 
that even before the Congress meet, a new view may be 
taken of the subject by the President, which will lead to a 
more happy resutt. 

I have the bono* to be, with very high consideration and 
tespect, sir, your most obedient humble servant, 

AUGUSTUS J. FOSTER. 






HISTORY OF TIIK >VAft. 



45 



il/r. Monroe to Mr. Foster. 
Depahtment <»p State, July 27lh, 1811. 

SIR — 1 had Uie honor lo receive your letter of ye«lertlay*i 
date, III time to submit it to the view of the President before 
he left town. 

It was iny otjecl to state to you ^n my letter of the 23d 
inst. that under e\<stiii(r (Mrciimstuiues, it wan imftOHmble for 
the President to terminate the operation of the non-importa- 
tion law of the 2(1 oi March last ; that France having except- 
ed the proposition made by a previous law equally to G. 
Britain and to France, and h.^vinjr revoked her Decrees, 
violating our neutral righlM, andGreat-Dritain havinq; declin. 
ed to revoke hers, it became the duty of this government 
to inlfil lis engagement, and to declare the non-importa- 
iion law in force ao;ainst Great-Britain. 

This state of aitairs has not been sought by the United 
Stales. When the propoKition, contamed in the law of May 
1st, 1810, was offered equally to both powers, there was 
cause to presume that Great-Britain would have accepted it, 
in which event the non-importation law would not have op- 
erated against her. .... 

It is in the power of the British government at this tim6 
to enable the President to set the non-importation law aside, 
by rendering to the United States an act of justice. If 
Great-Britain will cease to violate our neutral rights by re- 
voking her Orders in Council, on which event alone th^ 
President has the power, I am instructed to inform you that 
he will, without delay, exercise it by terminating the ope- 
ration of this law. 

It is presumed that the communications which I have 
had the honor to make to you, of the revocation by France 
of her Decrees, so far as they violated the neutral rights of 
the United States, and of her conduct since the revocation, 
will present to your government a different view of the sub- 
ject, from that which it had before taken, and produce in its 
councils a correspondent effect. 
I have the honor to be, &c. 

JAMES MONROE. 



Mr. Monroe to Mr. Foster, 
SIR — I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 
I30th of .1 uly, and to submit it to the view of the President. 






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HISTORY OP THE WAR. 



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III answerinpf that letter, it is pro|)er tliut I sltould notice 
a c^mipiaiiit thai 1 had omitted to re\Ay in mine of the 2^d 
of July, to your remonstrance ag^ainst the prochiniatiun of 
the President, of November last, and totlie demand which 
you had made, hy order of your government, of the repeal 
•f the sion-importalion act of March 2d, of the pre sent year. 

iVly letter bus certainly not merited this imputation. 

Having shewn the injustice of the British j^overnment in 
iss'jing the Orders in Council on the pretext assigned, and 
its still greater injustice m adhering to them after that pre- 
text had failfid, a respect for Ijreat-Bntain, as well as for 
the United States, prevented my placmo^ in the strong light 
in which the sul>ject naturally presented itself, the renion* 
strance alluded to, and the extriiordinary demand founded 
on it, that while your government accommodated in noth- 
ing, the United States should nlinquish the ground, w'tich 
by a just regard to the public rights aitd honor, they had 
beeji compelled to take. Propositions tending to degrade 
a nation, can never be brought into discussion by a govern- 
ment, not prepared to submit to the degradation. It was 
for this reason that 1 confined my reply to tliose passages in 
your letter, which involved the claim of the United States, 
on the principles of justice, to the revocation of the Orders 
in Cou.icil. Your demand, however, was neither unnoti- 
ced or unanswered. In laving before you the complete, 
and as was believed, irresistible proof on wbicli the United 
States expected, and called for the revocation of the Orders 
in Council, a very explicit answer was supposed to be given 
to that demand. 

Equally mifounded is your complaint that I misunder- 
stood that passage, which claimed as a condition of the re- 
vocation of the Orders in Council, that the trade of Great- 
Britain with tlie continent, should be restored to the state in 
which it was before the Berlin and Milan Decraes were is- 
sued. As this pretension was novel and exti'aordinary, it 
was necessary that a distinct idea should be formed of it, 
and with that view, I asked such an explanation as would 
enable me to form one. 

lu the explanation given, you do not insist on the right to 
trade in British property, with British vessels, directly with 
your enemies. Such a claim, you admit, would be pre{)os- 
ierous. But you do insist by necessary implication, that 



France has 
of British i 
when the p 
moves that 
Crcat-Briti 

On such 
There is, I 
wars. Gr< 
regulate th 
that she mi 
Britain wei 
nor even ti 
this respect 
Joes she ar 
sent to bee 
i.\erce shal 
ill their cwi 

I might 
Great-Brits 
of right, or 
ment ? 

That thd 
the questioi 
tiieir own \ 
the French 
there those 
on the inter 

Nor is it 
trade of tli 
prohibit it, 
a necessary 
own act ; a 
alone are a 
sligation an 
be said, is, I 
nieiibure, 
any sanctio 
Irai nations 

The Uni 
ment of the 
and of the 



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France \\'m no h^^ht to iiiliibil the importation into her ports 
of BriliMh manufactures^ of the produce of the British so'l, 
when the property of ueiitral» ; and that, until France re- 
moves that inbiliition, the United States are to be cut off by 
Great-Brituin front all trade whatever', with her enemies. 

On such a preteuft* . it is aloiost impossible to reason. 
There is, I believe, no example of it in the history of past 
>vars. Great-Brilain, the enemy of France, undertakes to 
reg^ulate the trade of France ; nor is that ail ; she tells her 
that she must trade in British goods. If Fre^nce and Great- 
Britain were at peace, this pretension would not be set up, 
nor even thought of. Has Great-Britain then acquired in 
this respect by war, rights which she has not in peace P And 
Joes she announce to neutral nations, that unless they con- 
sent to become the instruments of this policy, their com- 
L\erce shall be annihilated, and their vessels shall be shut U]^ 
ill their uwn ports ? ' . ^' ' .!.♦,!• i.;/. 

I might ask whether French goods are admitted int6 
Great-Britain, even in peace, and if they are, whether it be 
of right, or by the consent and policy of the British govern- 
ment ? 

That the property would be neutralized does not effect 
the question. If the United States have no right to carry 
their own productions into France without the consent of 
the French government, how can they undertake to carry 
there those of Great-Brttain ? In all cases it must depend 
on the interest and the will of the party. 

i\ur is it material to what extent, or by what powers, the 
trade of the continent is prohibited. If the powers who 
prohibit it, are at war with Great-Britain, the prohibition is 
a necessary consequence of that :itate. If at peace, it is their 
own act ; and whether it be voluntary, or compulsive, they 
alone are answerable for it. If the act be taken at the in- 
s\ igation and under the influence of France, the most that can 
be said, is, that it justities reprisal against them, by a similar 
measure. On no pnnciple whatever can it be said to give 
any sanction to the conduct of Great-Britain towards neu- 
tral nations. 

The United States can have no objection to the employ- 
ment of their commercial capital in the supply of France, 
and of the continent generally, with manufactures, and to 
co.nprise in the supply those of Great-Britain, provided 



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Hl<nv>BY OF THE WAB. 



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(hose powen will cooMenl to it. Bui they cannot nndertake to 
force such su|iplies on France or on any other power, in 
compliance with the claim of the British p^oveniment, oo 
|iiMnci|>les incompatible with the rights of every indepen- 
dent nation, and they will not demand in i-Av^f of another 
pQwer, what they cannot claim for themnelves. 

AM that Grcat-Britaiii could with reason coaiplain of, 
y/M the inhibition by the French Decree.<i, of the lawful 
trade of neutrals, with the British dominions Ah roou as 
that inhibition ceased, her inhibition of our trade with 
France ought ^n like manner to have cenoii'd. Having 
pledged herself to proceed pari passu with France, in the 
revocation of their respective acts, violating neutral rights, 
it has afforded just cause of oomplaint, and even of aston- 
ishment, to the United Stales, that the British government 
should have sanctioned the sei/ure and condiimnatioti of 
American vessels under the Orders in Council uiter the re- 
vocation of llie French LV'crees was announced, and even 
u\ the very moment wlien your mission, avowed to be con- 
oiliatory, was to have its eiiect. 

I will only add that had it appeared tiiially, that France 
had failed to perform her engagements, it nii«>ht at least 
have been expected, that Greal-Britain woiild not have mo- 
lested such of the vessels of the United States as might be 
e?"!tering the ports of France, on the faith of both govern- 
ments, till that failure was clearly proved. 

To many insinuations in your tetter I make no reply, be- 
cause they suiilcieatly suggest the only one that would be 
proper. 

it it were necessary to dwell on the impartiality which 
has been observed by the United States towards the two bel- 
ligerents, I might ask, whether if G. eat- Britain had accept- 
ed the condition which wm oifered equally to her and 
France, by the act of May 1st, 1810, and France had re- 
jected it, there is cause to doubt that the non-iniuortation act 
would have been carried into effect against France ? No 
such doubt can possibly exist, because in a former instance, 
when this government, trusting to a fuliilnient by yours, of 
an arrangement which put an end to a non- intercourse wilh 
Great-Britain, the non-intercourse was continued against 
France, who had not then repealed her Decrees, as it was 
90t d'^ubted England had done. Has it not been repeat- 



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HISTORY or TIIC WAR. 



49 



%t\\y tleclared to your government, that if Great-Britain 
ivuiiltl revoke her Orders in Council, the PreMident would 
ihiniedialely cause the non-importation to ceaM; ? You well 
know that the same declaration has often been made to 
vourself, and that nothing' more is wanting to the removal 
of the existing obstructions to the commerce between the 
two countries, than a sati^ actory assurance, which will be 
ri'ccivcd with pleasure from yourself, that the Orders in 
Com. oil are at an end. 

B/ llie remark in your letter of the 3d of July, that the 
blockade of May, 18()6, had been included in the more 
comprehensive system of the Orders in Council of the follow- 
ing year, and that, if that blockade sttould be continued in 
force after the repeal of the Orders in Council, it would be 
inconsequence of the special application of a sufficient na- 
val force, I could not but infer your idea to be, that the re- 
peal of the Orders in Council would necessarily involve the 
repeal of the blockade of May. I was the more readdy 
induced to make this inference, from the consideration that 
if the blockade was not revoked by the repeal of the Orders 
in Council, there would be no necessity for givmg notice 
ihal it would be continued ; as by the further consideration, 
that according to the decision of your court of admiralty, a 
blockade instituted by proclamation docs not cease by the 
removal of the force applied to it, nor without a formal no- 
lice by the government to that effect. """ 

It is not, however, wished to discuss any question relative 
to the mode by which that blockade may be terminated; 
Its actual termination is the material object for considera- 
tion. 

It is easy to shew, and it has already been abundantly 
shown, that the blockade of May, 1806, is inconsistent on 
any view that may be taken of it with the law of nations. 
It is also easy to show that, as now expounded, it was 
equally inconsistent with the sense of your government, 
when the order was issued ; and this change is a sufficient 
reply to the remarks which you have applied to me person- 
ally. 

If you will examine the order, you will find that it is 
strictly, little more than a blockade of the coast from the 
Seme to Ostend. There is an express reservation in it in 
favor of neutrals to any part of the coast between Brest an<l 

7 



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uisiniiY o*' Tiie WAB. 



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the Seine, niid hctwcen Ostciid i\ui\ the Elhe. MeutrHl 
powt;rM arc {icrnullfd by it to take troiii their own |iorks 
v.\w) kin«] ol' produce without (liHliiiclioii uh to ds oii^in ; 
uikMu ciirr^ it, to the roi tiiient uikU-t Ihut liiuitntioii, ;i:i({ 
'Wilh the exception only of coutritl and of war, aud eiunt>'M 
property, and to hrini^ theiier to their own ports iit V\ turn. 
whatever articles they tliink tit. Why wen- « (-.ntraliund of 
war and enemy's properly excepted, if a coiiinieree evi u m 
those arlieles would not otherwise have i>cen periintted un- 
der the reservation ? Ni» order was mccssar) to snhjfct 
them to seizure. Tliey were liable to it according to the 
law of nations, as asserted hy Great-Bntain. 

Why then did the tiritish goveruiient institute a block- 
ade, which with respect to neutrals was not rig^orons, as to 
the g-resder part of the coast comprisi d in it ? if you wtil 
look to the slate of tilings which then existed between the 
United Stales and V rent-Britain, you will liiid the answer. 
A controversy had taken place between our g^overnnients 
Qn a ditfcrent topic, which was still pending. The British 
governuient had interfered with the trade iM.'lween France 
and her allies in the produce of their colonies. The just 
claim of the United Slates was then a subject of negotia- 
tion ; and your g'overniiient professii.g its willingness to 
make a salisfaclory arrnnjrenient of it, issued the Order 
"which allowed Ihe trade, without making any concession 
as to the principle, reserving that for adjustment by treaty. 
It was in this light that I viewed, and in this sense that I 
represented that order to my governiueut ; and in iio other 
did I make any comment Oii it. 

When you reflect that this order by allowing llie trade 
of neutrals, in colonial productions, to all that, portion of the 
coast which. was not rigorously blockaded, aflorded to Ihe 
United States an accommodation in a principal point then 
at issue between our governments, and of which their citi- 
zens extensively availed themselves that that trade and the 
question of blockade, and every other (pieslion in which the 
Unile.d Stales and deal- Britain were inlereslcd, were then 
in a train of amicable negotiation, you will, I think, seethe 
cause why the Diinister who then rttpresented the United 
States with the British q:overnment, did not make a formal 
complaint against it. You have apj>eaUd to me, who hap- 
pened to be that minister, and ui:gcd my sdence as uh evi- 



HisToBY OP Tirr. \v\n. 



.**1 



»:•< -■ 



douce <»t' my jip|»rol>ulioii oi, ov at |»»;wl ac(|Mirscc in \\\n 
idorknile. — An e\|»iHR>ilMti oi tiic C4Uhi> ot tliul mi;i|)om.(1 
itilence ih idI lesit duo tu insNOti, tliau to ilit! tnie r|iarnrt« r 
ot the Iraiisactioii. Willi tiic nihtister uilli whom I iiaci the 
huiior to treiil, 1 mtiy aild, ihHtiui uHioiil foniiai compluiit) 
was not likely to l>e re.surU^I to, lH;r»tMi> rri«'i<Jly coinmuiii- 
(Mtioiis \^cre iitviled and pn iVrrcd. 'llu^ wtiiil uf such a 
docuiiicnt i*t no proof that thi^ nien.siire nvhm approved hy 
ine, or that no com|>ianit \iH>r made. In lucalini*; to my 
niind, an this nwideul naturally dots, the manly character 
uf that diHlin^niNhcd and dlnslrions Ntalisimm, and the coii> 
tidence with which he iiiNpired all those with whom he had 
to treat, I shall he p'rinilted to e\pre»H axasliirjittriljutc of 
respect to hin memory, the very hic^h coitsidcratioii in which 
I have always held his <^reat talents and virtues. < > .- r 

The United btates have not, nor can they appi'ovc llic 
Ulocknde of an extensive coast. Nolhin«r certainly can be 
iiitered from any thin^ thai has passed relativeto the block- 
ade of May, 1806, to countenance such nn inference. 

It is seen with satisfaction that you still admit thstt the 
application of an adequate force is necessary to give a 
blockade a legal character, and that it will lose that char- 
jicter, whenever that adequate force ceases to be applied. 
As it cannot be alledged that the application of any such 
adequate force has been continued, and actually exists in the 
case of the blockade of May, 18<X), it would seem to be a 
fair inference, that the repeal of the Orders in Council will 
leave no insuperable difhculty with respect to it. To sup- 
pose the contrary, would be to suppose that the Orders in 
Council, said to include that blockade, rcstiii<Nr themselves 
on a principle of retaliation only, and not sustained by the 
application of an adequate force, would have the eifect of 
sustaining a blockade admitted to require the application of 
an adequate force, until such adequate force should actually 
take the place of the Orders in Council. Whenever any 
blockade is instituted, it will be a subject for consideration, 
and if the blockade be in conformity to the law of nations, 
there will be no disposition in this government to contest it. 

I have the honor to be, &,c. i'lr ' V ? i-;: 

I > JAMES MONROE. 



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,1 Jl/r. Foster to Mr. Monroe, 

Washington, October 22, 18!1. 

SIR— I had ilie honor to rcrc Lve your letter of the 171Il 
inst. tof^ether with its three encUnures, on the road between 
Baltmore and thib city ; I had that of receiving at the nnme 
time, your letter dated October 1, in ati&wer to mine of the 
26lh of last July, r W"t f .-f » Ii.i^ .^.i « vjffvfj.' 

Not having^ had any despatehes from his majesty's gov- 
ernment lately, 1 have not as yet received the copy of the 
recent communication from Paris in regard to the supposed 
repeal of the French Decrees, which the charge d*atfairs of 
the United States at London has intimateii to you, that he 
understood the Marquis Wellesley intended to transmit to 
me, and which I conclude is the same as that contained in 
the letter of Mr. Russell, the American charge d*affairs in 
France. I am however in daily expectation of the arrival 
of his majesty's packet boat, when, it will in all probability 
reach roe, and when if I should receive any fresh iiiblruc- 
tions in consequence I will not fail immediately to acquaint 
you. In the meanwhile, however, 1 beg you will permit 
me to make some remarks in reply to your letter of Octo- 
ber 1, being extremely anxious to do away the impresision 
"which you seem to have received relative to the demand 1^ 
had made for the repeal of the non-importation act of the 
present year. 

It is, I assure you, sir, with great regret that I find you, 
consider that demand as involving in any degree proposi- 
tions tending to degrade your nation. Such an idea cer- 
tainly never existed with his majesty's government, nor 
-would it be compatible with the friendly sentiments enters 
tamed by them* for the United States; neither could I have 
suffered myself to be the channel of conveying a demand 
which I thought had such a tendency. — However you view 
the demand made on the part of Great-Britain, I can safely 
say that it was made in consequence of its appearing to his 
majesty's government on strong evidence that the chief of 
the Freitch nation had really deceived America as to the 
repeal of his Decrees, and in the hopes that the United. 
States' government '■ ' 'herefore seethe justice of repla- 
cing this country ' )rnier footing of amicable rela-. 
tions with England, nothing appearing to be more natural 
thao such an expectation, which seemed a necessary conse- 



mSTORY or THB WAH. 



s^ 



qiienceof the tlijiposition cxiircHMcd hy America to maintain 
her ncutralit)', anil dcsirahle in cverv other point of view. T 
connot indeed brin^ ni)Keif to think, sir, that your candor 
ATould allow you, on a consideration, to put any other ron« 
ritruction on the matter, and had my ar^uniei.tN had »uffi« 
cient weight with you in shewing that the French Dccreea 
were still in force, I r ainot doubt but you would have 
uirrred with me in the conclusion 1 drew — it would seem 
therefore only owin^ to your not viewing^ the deceitful con- 
duct of the French g-overnment in the same light that it ap- 
pears to his majesty *s government, that a difference of 
opinion exists between us as to the proposal I made, which 
under the conviction entertained by them was, surely a very 
just and natural one. 

f rom the earnest desire of vindicating myself and my 
government from the charge of making any degrading or 
unjust demands on that of America, I have, taken the liber- 
ty to trouble you so tar nnd I will now proceed to shev/ 
why I thought you had misunderstood the passage of my 
letter which related to the extent in which the repeal of the 
French Decrees >vas required by Great-Britain. In the ex- 
planation which you desired on this point I gave you that 
which theMarquisWellesley gave Mr. Pinkney in answer 
to his letter of August 25. 1810, and I beg to refer you to 
the message of the President of the United States on the 
opening of CongrctS m December, 1810, for a proof that 
the demand of Great-Britain in the extent in which I have 
stated it was known to your government several months 
ago — how was I thererore to f ppose in the term innova- 
tions, as applied to the explanation given by me, that you 
could mean otherwise than some really new pretension on 
the part ot Great-Britaia such as that France should suffer 
British property to be carried into her ports for the purpo- 
ses of trade? if the warmth I was betraved into in endeav- 
ormg to refute a supposed imputation of this sort gave any 
offence, I sincerely regret it, and I will beg permission here 
to say, sir, that if unconsciously 1 have by any of my remarks 
ledyou to suppose they conveyed any improper insinuations, 
as one paragraph of your letter would appear to im|>ly, I 
am most unfeignedly sorry for it, as I entertain llie high- 
est respect for you, personally, and for your government ; 
^nd could onlv have meant what I wrote in the wav of ar- 



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UISTORY OP TflE WAR. 



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gument, or for llie purpose of contrasting tli© proree<linafs 
of France in ber conduct towardti the United States with 
that of Great- Britain. ^ irt* . ; i ^ in ;:» iw t' librrs Jvfu; : j 

In revertinjr to Uie extraordinary and unprecedented sit- 
uation of things that has aristen out of the war in Europe it 
would 8cem needless to repeat the evidence there is that tltt 
lawless and unbounded auihit ion of the ruler of France has 
l)een the orit^in of it, and it cannot be a secret to the Unit- 
ed States' government that his plan has been and avowedly 
continues to be, not to scruple at the violation of any law, 
provid'id he can thereby overthrow the maritime power of 
England. Is it not therefore reasonable in Great-Britain 
to distrust an ambiguous declar<ition of his having sudilen- 
]y given up any part of a system which bethought calculat- 
ed to produce such an effect ? You say however that the 
Decrees of Berlin and Milan are revoked. America, as 
not being at war, and therefore not seeing so clearly into 
the views of France, may be less scrupulous as to the evi- 
dence necessary to prove the fact — but sir, it surely cannot 
be expected that Great-Britain, who is contending for ev- 
ery thing that is dear to her, should not require more proof 
on a point so material to ber. It is undoubtly a very desi- 
rable thing for the United States to have a free and unre- 
stricted trade with both belligerents, but the essential se- 
curity and most important interests of Amercia are not in- 
volved in the question as are those of Great- Britain. France 
has levelled a blow which she hopes will prove deadly to 
f he resources of G. Britain, and before the British govern- 
meut can with safety give up the measures of defence in 
consequence adopted by them, very strong proof must 
exist of the cessation by France of her novel and unprece-> 
dented measures. 

I confess, sir, with the sincerest disposition, to discover on 
the part of the ruler of France, a return to the long-esta- 
blished practice of warfare as exerciseil in civilized Europe, 
1 have been unable to succeed ; and if the French govern- 
ment bad really meant to withdraw their obnoxious De- 
crees, it is inconceivable, why, instead of allowing their in- 
tentions to be guessed at, or infered, they should not openly 
and in plain language have declared so ; the Decrees them- 
selves, having been clearly enough announced on their 
enactment, m by should not their revocation be equally ex- 
jjlicit '^ " 



HISTORY or THK WA*. #1 

While, liowrver^, nninerons declnmtions have het>n made 
oil tilt; part ol France, of the coiitinnefl existence ot'the De- 
crtt's jiiid ciiplures made niMler them of neutral ships have 
occurred, a few of the American iressels seized since No- 
veml»er 1, have been rentored, and the foregoing^, a very 
small |iartof his plunder, isdeflired by Bonaparte to be con- 
sid<Ted as a proof of the sincerity of his revocation by 
America ; bnt it mn»t be recollected, that besides the ob- 
ject of ruininjsr the British resoarces by his own unauthor- 
i/ed regulations, he has also thai of endeavoring; to obtain 
the aid of the United St:>tes for the same purpose, and here- 
in you will, as I had the honor to remark in a former letter, 
be able to observe the cause of the apparently contradictor 
ry language held both by himself and his ministers. 

I shall be extremely happy, to receive from you, sir, the 
information that in a frank and unambiguous manner the 
chief of the Fiencli government had revoked his Decrees. 
Why he shonld not do so is inexplicable if he means to re- 
vert to the ordinary rale:* of war, bnt while he exercises swell 
i.!v;spolic sway whci-ever his influence extends, to ruin the 
■ sources of England, it cannot be expected that Great- 
ijnlain shall not use ihe meai.s she possesses for the purpose 
of making him feel the pressure cf his own system. Inhere 
is every reason to believe, that ere long the ett'ects on the 
enemies ot Great- Britain will be sue!), as irresistibly topro« 
duce a change which will place commerce on its former 
basts. In the mean time, sir, I hope yon will not think it 
extraordinarv, if I should contend that the seiz.ure of Ameri- 
can siiips by France, since November 1, and the positive 
and iniquaiihed declarations of the French government, are 
stronger proofs of the continued existence of the Frencli 
Occrees and the bad faith of (he ruler of France, than the 
restoration of five or six vessels, too palpably given up for 
fallacious purposes, or in testimony of liis satisfaction at the 
allitnde taken by Ameriia, is a proof of their revocation, 
or of his return to the principles of justice. ..! ■ ,•• .. ' 

I will only repeat, sir, in answer to your observations, ou 
the late condemnation of the ships taken under bin majes- 
ty's Orders in Council, what i have already had the honor 
to stale to you, thai the delay which took place in their cou- 
(lenination was not in c«Yiisefjnence of any doubt existing iu 
his majesty's govenimeiitjas to Whether the French D«crees 



] 



ii 



-i\n 



I ): 



i& 



HISTORY OF THE WAR. 






tl'^V * 



v 



\i'ere revoked, as you seetn to imagine, but in consequence 
of iU boiui; I bought that the American government u on its 
a]»|)eHring that they were deceived by France, would have 
ceased their injurious measures against the British com- 
merce. A cousiderable time elapsed before the decision 
look place on those ships, and there is no doubt, but that 
had the U. Slates' government nut persisted in the unfriend- 
ly attitude towards G. Brit:iin on discovering the ill faith 
of France, a spirit of conciliation in bis majesty *6 govern- 
ment would hav;! caused their release. ' l^ '■■^ 
In reply to your observations on the pretensions of G. 
Britain, relative to the revocation of the French Decrees, I 
beg to repeat that the sum of the demand made by England 
is, that France should follow the established laws of warfare 
as practised in former wars in Europe. Her ruler by hts 
Decrees of Berlin and Milan, declared himself no longer 
bound by them ; he has openly renounced them in his vio- 
lent eAurts to ruin the resources of G. Britain, and has 
trampled on the rights of independent nations to eilect his 
purpose. If the French governme.it make use of means of 
unprecedented violence to prevent the intercourse of Eng- 
land with unoflending neutrals, can it be expected that Eng- 
land should tamely suiiier the establishment of such a novel 
system of v/ar without retaliation, and endeavoring in her 
turn to prevent the French from enjoying the advantages 
of which she is unlawfully depi:ived ? 

Having explained already the situation in vi'hich the ques- 
tion of the blockade of May, 1806, rests, according to the 
views of his majesty's governriienl, and the desi'/e of G. 
Britain to conduct her system of blockade according to the 
laws of nations, I will only advert to it on this occasion, for 
the purpose of taking the liberty of acknowledging to you, 
the very great pleasure 1 receive<l from the highly honora- 
ble mark of respect, which you have taken the occasion to 
express for the iltuslrious statesman from whose counsels 
that measure emanated. •■' *'• ' ' - ' 

1 need not repeat to you, sir, what sincere satisfaction it 
would give me, if without the sacritice of the essential rights 
and interests of G. Britain, all the points in discussion be- 
tween our two countries could be finally adjusted. 

I have the honor to be, \c. •'• 

. •:■ :.;>U --i!^'i I AXJGD5TUS J. FOSTER. 



tllSTORY OF THE WAR. 



r>7 



;■ « 



31r* Monroe to Mr. Foster, 7/ 

Dkpautment ov Stati-:, Oct. 39, 1811. 

SlK — i have had the honor to receive your letter ot'tlie 
22(1 of this month, and to lay it before the Presideiit r< . i 

The assurance which you have given o\' your disposition 
to reciprocate, in our commutiicationson the itnportant sui)- 
jt cts depending Ijetween our governments, the respectful 
attention which each has a rif^ht to claim, and that no de- 
parture tVom it was intended \n your letter of the 'iOlh July, 
\if i been received with the satisfaction due to the (rank and 
conciliatory spirit in v^hich it was made. ,; ; f, T -IH^ 

I learn, however, with much regret, that you have de- 
ceived no instructions from your government^ founded ofi 
the new proof of the revocation of the Berlin and Milan 
Decrees, which was communicated to the Marquis of Wel- 
lesley^ by the American charge d'aifairs at London, in a 
document of which I had the honor to transmit to you a 
copy. It mig-ht tairly have been presumed^ as I have before 
observed, that the evidence aiiorded by that document^ of 
the complete levocation oi' those Decrees, so far as they in- 
tcrfered with the commerce of the U. States with the British 
dominionsv would have been followed by an inuncdiate 
rejieal of the Orders in Council. Prom the reply of the 
Marquis of Wellesley, it was at least to have been expected 
that no time had been lost in transmitting that document to 
you, and that the ini^truclions accompanying it, would have 
manifested a change in the sentiments of yuuf government 
on thf subject. The regret^ thertfore, cannot but be increas- 
ed in findingthatthe coinmunication, whicli 1 had the honor 
to make to you» has not oven had the etlccl of .suspending 
your eftbrts to vindicate the jjerseverar.ce of your govern- 
ment in enforcing thoae Ordei's. 

I regret also to obs* rve, llw.t the light in which you have 
Viewed this document, and the remarks which you have 
made on the subject, generally, seems to preclude any other 
view of the conditions on which those Orders are to be re- 
voked, than those that were furnished by your former com- 
nuiniculions. You still adhere to the pretension that the 
productions and manufactrres of G. Britain, when ne;- 
tralized, must be admitted into the ports of your enemies. 
This pretension, however vague the language heretofore 
held bv vour government, puriicularlv bv the Marquis of 

B 




ri 



j^^tt 









, ■ I 



"!1 



I 






i:i 



51 



I' ' 



u9 



lUSTOllY OF THE "WAR. 



AVellesley, in his rommunications with Mr. Piiikncy, on th« 
suhject, was never uiuleiHtood to have been einbrucetl. 
Nolhinf , indeed, short of the speeific declarations which 
yon have made, would have induced a belief that such was 
l^he case. .....if - •r-,-««jj 

1 have the honor to be, &c. 

JAMES MONROE, 






( (,.) 



.J . 



Mr. Foster to Mr, Monroe. " * 
'*^ :m . Wasuinoton, Oct. Slst, »81l. 

SIR— I did not reply at leu<rth to the observations con« 
tallied in your letter of the Istnist. on the pretensions ot G. 
Britain as relative to the French system, because you seemed 
to me to have argued as if but a part of the system continu- 
ed, and even that part had ceased to be considered as a 
measure of war against G. Britain. For me to have allowed 
this, would have been at once to allow in the face of facts, 
that the Decrees of France were repealed, and that her un- 
precedented measures, avowedly pursued in deHunce of the 
laws of nations, were become mere ordiiiary regulations of 
trade. I therefore thought iit to confine my answer to your 
remarks, to a general statement of the sum of the demands 
of G. Britain, whirh was, that France should by eifectually 
revoking her Decrees, revert to the usual method of carry- 
ing on war as practised in civilized Europe. 

The pretensions of France to prohibit all commerce in 
articles of British origin, in every part of the continent, is 
one among the many violent innovations which are con- 
tained in the Decrees, and which are preceded by the de- 
claration of their being founded on a determination of the 
ruler of France, as he himself avowed, to reveii: to the prin- 
ciples which characterised the barbarism of the dark ages, 
and to forget all ideas of j\istice, and even the common feel- 
ings of humanity, in the new method of carrying on war 
adopted by him. 

It is not, however, a question with G. Britain of mere com- 
mercial interest, as you seem to suppose, which is involved 
in the attempt by Bonaparte to blockade her both by sea 
and laufi, but one of the feeling, and of national honor, cun- 
tendikig as we do against the principles which he professes in 
his new system of warfare. It is impossible for us to submit 
to the doctrine that he has a right to compel the whole con- 
tidcnt to break oft' all intercourse with us, and to seize upon 



HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



M 



veA^U belon;^iii<; to neiitnl nations upKin the sole pica of 
their haviiitf viiiiletJ an English port, or oi'thoir beiii«( Uileii 



ith 



^hat 



.soev( 



articles of BnlUh or colottiul prod 
manner eccTt^ired. > ,„., 

This pretension, however, is but apart of that syRtcni, 
the whole of which, under our conslruclion of iJie letter of 
M. ChampajC^nVf of AuiruRt 5, IHIO, corroborated b\ uiany 
subsequent declarations of the French f^ovcrnnienU and not 
invalidated by any unequivocal declaration of a conU'ury 
tenor, must be considered as still in full force. 

In the cooiuiunication which you lately transniilted lo 
jiie, I am &orry to re|)eat, that I was unable to discover aiiy 
fiicts which satisfactorily proved that the Decrees had been 
actrally repealed, and I have already re|>eat(:dly slated the 
reasons which too probably led to the restoration of a few 
of the American shi|3s taken in pursuance of the Beiliii and 
Mdan Decrees after November 1. Mr. Russell does not 
seem to aeny that the Decrees may still be kept in force, 
only he thinks they have assumed a municipal character , 
but in M. Cliampagny's declaration, ambi<ruous as it was, 
there is no such division of iliem into two different charac- 
ters; for if the contingency required by the French iMinis- 
tertook place, the Berlin and Milan Decrees were loce^sc, 
according io bis expression, without any qualificaliun, IP, 
therefore, a part of them remain, or be revived agniui as 
seems to be allowed even here, why may not the witule be 
equally so ? Where proof can be obtained of their existence, 
we have it, namely, in the ports of France, in which vessels 
have been avowedly seized under their operation since No- 
vember 1. Of their maritime existence we cannot so easily 
obtain evidence, because of tlie few French ships of war 
whicji venture to leave their„ harbors. Who can dotibl, 
iiowever, that had the ruler of France a n^vy at his com- 
mand, equal to the enforcing of hi« violent Decrees, hr 
would soon show that part of them to be no dead letter. 
The principle is not the less obnoxious because it is from 
necessity almost dormant for the moment, nor ought it there- 
fore to be less an object to be strsnuously resisted. 

Allow me, sir, here to express my sincere regret, that 1 
have not as yet been able to convince you, by what 1 can- 
not but consider the strongest evidence, of the coitlinued 
existence of the French Decrees, and cousequently of Ihn 






It ii 



\-U 



' iM 



'4 .as 



h. 







m 



IIIiSTORY or THE WAH. 



unfricnilly policy of your govei'nn'.enl in enforcinjr the non. 
importation airuiiiRt uk, niul opeiiin«^ (he trnde with our en< 
emics. His royal hignesM will, f am convinced, leani with 
unt'eig^ned sorrow, that such continues to l)e still the deter- 
mination of America, and whatever restrictions on the com- 
merce, enjoyed by America in his majesty's dominions, 
may ensnc on the part of G. Britain, as retaliatory on the re- 
fusal by your government to adinit the productions of G. 
Britain while they open their harbors to those of his majes- 
ty's enemies, they will, I am persuaded, he ado|>ted with 
sincere pain, and with pleasure relinquished whenever this 
country shall resume her neutral position and impartial al- 
titude between the two belli^ren^. 
I have the honor to be, &c. 

AUGUSTUS J. FOSTER. 



nn 



J\ 



> »'^i. 



■|! :' 



!,' 



CHAPTER II. 






*■» 



' - -' MESSAGE, 

To the Senate and Home of Hepresentatives of tlie U. Sinks, 

I communicate to Congress copies of a correspondence 
between the Envoy Extreiordinary and Minister Iptenipo- 
tentiary of G. Britain and the Secretary of State, relative to 
the age^ression committed by a British ship of war on the 
U. Slates' frigate Chesapeake, by which it will be seen that 
^he suljject of difference between the two countries, is ter- 
minated by an offer of reparation which has l)een acceded to. 
..,:... .,..u. JAMES MADISOI^. . ■ 

Washington, November ^3, 18H. . ^. 

) < .i \u Mr. Foster to Mr, Monroe. 
' '^ Washington, October 30, 1811. 

SIR~-rI bad already the honor to mention to you that I 
came to this country furnished with instructions from his 
royal highness the prince regent, in the name and on behalf 
of his majesty, for the purpose of proceeding to a final ad- 
justment of the differences which have arisen between G. 
Britain and the U. States of America in the affair of the 
Chesapeake Frigate; and I had also that of acquainting 
you with the necessity under which I found myself of suspcn- 



M 



HISTORY OF THE WAB. 



61 



(liner the executing of those in»traction9 in conarqiMnce of 
inv not having perceived that any Nte^Ni whatever were U* 
kiM by the An:criran goveruineui to clear up the circifin- 
gtance of an event M'hich tlireatened so materially to inter- 
fupt the harmony su^isisting between onr two countries, as 
tlint which occurred in the month of last May, between the 
U. Htnteii* bliif) President and his irjujeHty's ship Little Belt, 
when every evidence before his majesty's government 
seemed to shew that a roost evident and wanton outrago 
had been committed on a British ship of war by an Ameri- 
cun Commodore. i/fvH t: t 

A Court of Eiiquiry, however, as you informed me iu 
your letter of tlie 1 1th inst. has since been heUI by order of 
the President of the U. States on the conduct of Cnmmo* 
(lore Rodgers, and this preliminary to further discussion on 
the subject lieing a!l that I asked in ihe first infdance as due 
to the friendship subsisting between the two States, I have 
now the honor to acquaint you that I am ready to proceed 
in the truest sp.rit of conciliation to lay before you the terms 
of reparation which his royal highess has cummanddd ma 
to propose to the U. States* government, and only wait to 
know when it will suit your convenience to enter upon the 
discussion. 1 have the honor to be, H{.c. 

V t AUG. J. FOSTER. - 



.«« 



-4 , 






(.» '>::•/.' 



•If I 

Jiff. Monroe to Mr. Foster. t 

Department of State, Oct. 31, i 811. 

SIR —I have just had the honor to receive your letterof 
the '30th of this month. 

I am glad to find that the communication which I had 
the honor to make to you on the 11th insl. relative to the 
Court of Knputry, which was the subject of it, is viexred by 
you in the favorable light which you have stated. 

Although I regret that the pro()Osition which you now 
make in consequence of that oommunication, has been de- 
lated to the present moment, I am ready to receive the 
terms of it whenever you may think proper tocommnuicate 
them. Permit me to add, that the pleasure of finding them 
satisfactory, w .li be duly augmented, if they should be intro> 
ductory to the removal of ALL the differences depending 
between our two countries, the hope of which is so <ittle en- 
C9uraged by your pa^t correspondence. A prospect of 




.. 



'■ f\ 



62 



HIHTORY OF THE WAR. 



!•!! 



i'!' 



I; ; 



'■■ III 



IH 



|1: 



li 



guc« a retiilt, will be embraced, on my pnrt, with a spirit of 
90iiciliAtion, equal to tlmt wliicli has been expreiMed by you. 
1 have the honor to be, btc. 

;.M. '«J /4i'«j»iiu« • ;-»ti.J< ii JAMES MONROE. 



y» >U<*r * 



^- ft 



(.K? 



Mr. Foster to Mr. Monroe. 
." Washington, Nov. Ut, 1811. 

SIR— In pursuance of the orders which f have received 
from liis royal highness, the pri^^ce regent, in the name and 
on the behalf of his majesty, for the purpose of proceeding 
to a tinal adjustment of the differences which have arisen 
between G. Britain and the U. States, in the affair of the 
Chesapeake frigate, I have the honor to acquaint you— > 
First, that I am instructed to repeat to the American gov- 
ernment the prompt disavowal made by his majesty, (and 
recited in Mr. Erskine^s note of Aprd 17, 1809, to Mr. 
Smith,) on being apprised of the unauthorized act of the 
officer in command of his naval forces on the coast of Ame* 
rica, whose recall from an highly important and honorable 
command, immediately ensued, as a mark of his majesty's 
disapprobation. 

Secondly, that 1 am authorised to offer, in addition to 
that disavowal, on the part of his royal highness, the imme- 
diate restoration, as far as circumstances will admit, of the 
men who in consequence of admiral Berkley's orders, were 
forcibly taken out of the Chesapeake, to the vessel from 
which they were taken ; or if that ship should be no longer 
in commission, to such sea-port of the U. States as the 
American government may name for the puspose. ..ii ' . 

Thirdly, that 1 am also authorised to oner to the Ameri- 
can government a suitable pecuniary pro\ ision for the suf- 
ferers in consequence ofthe attack on the Ghesapeuke, in^ 
eluding the families of those seamen who unfortunately fell 
in action, and ofthe wounded survivors. 

These honorable propositions, I can assure you, sir, are 
made with the sincere desire that they may prove satisfac- 
tory to the government of the U. States, and I trust they 
will meet with that amicable reception which their concilia- 
tory nature entitles them to. 1 need scarcely add how cor- 
dially I join with you in the wish that they might prove in- 
troductory to a removal of all the differences depending beo 
tweeu our two countries. I have the honor to be, <Scc. 

AUGUSTUS J. FOSTER. 



■ •V 



HISTORY or THB WAS. 



on 



> » " Mr. Monroe to Mr. Foster. 

Washington Nov. 12,1811. 

SIR — I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 
Ui Ni^vember, and to lay it before the President 

It is nitich to \je regretted that the reparation due for such 
an atfgresHion as that committed on the U. States Frigate, 
the Chesapeake, should have been so long delayed ; nor 
rouid tiie translation of the offending officer from one com- 
mand to another, be regarded aa constituting a part of a re- 
paration otherwise satisfactory ; considering, however, the 
existing circumstances of the case, and the early and ami- 
cable attention paid to it by his royal highness the prince 
regent, tlie President accedes to the proposition contained 
in your letter, and in so doing, your government will, 1 am 
persuaded, see a proof of the conciliatory disposition by 
which thf President has been actuated. i . ••••r\.i< 

The officer commanding the Chesapeake, now lying in 
the harbor of Boston, will be instructed to receive the men 
Nvlioare to be restored to that ship. . . , . ^ , . •<'; 

I have the honor to be, (Sec. 

JAMES MONROE. 

* r. ',"..' • MESSAGE, 

To the Senate and House of Representatives of the U. States. 

I communicate to Congress a letter from the Envoy Ex- 
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of G. Britain, to 
the Secretary of State, with the answer of the latter. 

The continued evidence, afforded in this correspondence;, 
of the hostile policy of the British government against our 
national rights, strengthens the considerations recommend- 
ing and urgiug the preparation of adequate means for main- 
taining tlieiu. 



Washington, Jan. 16, 1812. 



JAMES MADISON. 



Mr. Foster to Mr. Monroe. ; 

Washington, Dec. 17, 1811. 
SIR — I did not mean to have written to you at this mo- 
ment on the subject of our late correspondence, but that I 
have had the morliticutton to perceive statements, circulated 
from highly respectable sources, which give a view of the 
pretensions of G. Britain relative to the C Slates not war- 



III 



h 






]'* f 



i"/ 




llJbTORT OF Ttf R WAft. 



;■ I: 



:'i 



m 



Ml 



rantc«l b) ;iiiy of Ihe loller« which I had the lienor to ad 
dreflt«to 3fOu, and which, nt a time when dijiciissions aiv 
roiitiiiuiiig^NO itii|ioi1antto tho two countries, mij^ht, if Iffi 
unrtctified, produce an cftect hig^hly lo be hiinented by 
.bolh the Ainencan and Britinh y^OTernnientii, u\ un much as 
by creating unneoesHary irritutionv they nnght throw obsla- 
cles in the way of a restorulion of a friendly understiniding 
between llieiii* 

I find it asserted, in the statement referred to, that I 
itave, in Ihe name of my y^oTernmeitt, demanded that the 
U. StateH* government should pass a law for the introduc- 
tion of British y^ood.i into the American porlSi and aUo that 
the U. iiHateA sliould undertake lo force France to receive 
into her harbors British mannfactnrcN. 

I beg^ permission, sir, lo dechire that neither of these de- 
innnds have been made by tue, and that my meaning must 
not have been understoodi if such was conceived to have 
been its import. I could not have demanded the passage 
of such a law as above stated, becau^fe my government 
does not pretend to interfere with the internal governnu3nt 
of a friendly power, nor did I mean to deinaiidthatAmeri< 
ra should force Prance to receive our manufactures. 

All I meant to say, was, thai the admission of French 
commerce, while that of England has been excluded from 
the U. Slates' ports, was regarded by G. Britain as highly 
unfriendly in America, and that a cunliiuiation of such 
policy would be retaliated upon by G. Britain with similar 
restrictions on her part, which was so fur merely an offering 
of like for like. But while the American non-importation 
act excludes ikitish trade from the IJ. States' ports, it must 
be recollected that it goes still further and excludes also 
British armed ships from American ports, while it admits 
those of the enemies of G. Britain. ' A neutral nation is 
responsible for the equality of its rules of conduct towards 
the belligerent powers ;' (to use the words of an American 
Secretary of Stale in the year 17t)6,) and Ihereiorelhat part 
ofllie law which establishes an inequality was justly aii olj- 
ject of more serious complaint on the part of G. Britain. 
You are aware, sir, of the advantage whieh his majesty's 
enemies have derived !^'i'om this stale of inequality* which en- 
ables them, though possessing no port in this hemisphere, 
continually to prey on the trade of his majesty's subjects, 
;eenre of a refuge foi* their rrni/ois and their prizes. 



HISTORY OF THC WAE* 



e^ 



The proliibition of entry to his majeAty'M sliips under 
(Iic!«<' f^irciiinAtniices mig^lit |)frhu|>njiMtit'y G. Bntain in ua- 
5Prtin^, that whatever rPMon Nlii'mny have tor re(>CHiin|<r or 
modify in^ her Orders in Council, no ntito leNHen, or entirely 
remove tiie pressure now anavoidably laul on the trade of 
Anicricn, as u neutral nation, she nii(^ht yet ri'fuMe to enter 
iiilu any dis(Missiuii on thiit subject with the IJ. StatfN, un-« 
til either by the revocation of the prohibition above stated, 
or the placing all the belligerents under the same prohibi- 
tion, America should cease to violate the duties of a neutral 
nation. 

With respect, however, to the supposed demand that 
Aiiurica should force the entry of British manufactures 
into France, it is must particularly necessary that 1 should 
explain myself, as a total misconcep ion appears to have 
luken place upon this point. The question of retaliation 
on the FVench Decrees, is directly one between £ngland 
and Fmnce. In consequence of the e. traord'nary block- 
ade of England, we have in our detence been oblige ' to 
blockade France, and prohibit all trade in French lubdea, 
ill return for the prohibition by France of all train in English 
arlicies. This measure of retaliation, it is visliad, should 
operate on Franco alone, but (rotn the trnUe carried on 
with France by America, it unavoidably operates also on 
her; it is a measure to destroy the French trade in return 
for the similar measure of France on which it is retaliatory, 
niid its acting on neutrals is an incidental effect of it, conse- 
quent upon the submission of neutrals to the original meas- 
ures of the enemy against G. Britain. It is indeed melan- 
choly that the unnatural situation of Europe should produce 
such a result, but I cannot see how this can be considered 
as war on American commerce, Vvhfn all other American 
trade but that which iscarrietl on vvUh our enemy's [torts 
in defiance of a blockade authorized by the laws of retalia- 
tion is unaffected by it. We complain that America does 
not resist the regulations of the Berlin and Milan Decrees, 
and object to permitting the French to trade with her dur- 
ing their continuance against the commerce of England ; 
but this is not exacting, as has been represented, that Anie- 
! ica should force British manufactures into France ; it is 
pursuing only a just course of retaliation on our enemy. 
If America wishes to trade with France, if French cora- 

9 



<li 



il 



^ h\ 



li 



I 



UrSTORY OF THE WAR. 



U' 



mil 



inerce is of importance In tier — we expect she should exact 
of Fnince \o trade with lier aswhe has a right to tl«einand in 
her quality of neutral ; but if she lioes not choose to exer- 
cise this right, all we ask is, that she Kliould abstain from 
lending her assistance to the trade of Fiance, and not allow 
her commerce to be a uiedium of vuiderroiaiiig the resouF- 
cesofG. Britain. 

1 have thought it necessary thus to endeavor to set the.se 
two points in their true light : the repeal of the law was ask- 
ed, as being an unfriendly measure, partial in its operation 
agamsl G. Britain, and a prospect of retaliation was held 
out on its commercial o^^eration, if continued. This is no 
demand on the U. States to admit British manufactures; 
they are at liberty to continue that law, only as it is of an 
unfriendly nature, some restriction of a similar kind was to 
be expected from England ; and with reject to the alledg- 
ed demand for fiircing British goods, the property of neu- 
trals, into French ports, if the U. States are willing to ac- 
quiesce in the regulations of the French Decrees unlawfully 
affecting England through them, they cannot surely be sur- 
prised if we consider ourselves as at liberty to refuse per- 
mission to the French to profit by that acquiescence. 

I will now, sir, take the opportunity of stating to you, 
that I hswe received from his majesty's Secretary of State, 
Ibe correspondence of which you did me the honor to trans- 
mit to me a copy, in your letter dated Oct 17. My govern- 
ment have not been able to see in it satisfactory proof of the 
repeal of the French Decrees, and doubt whether the trade 
carried on by licences between France and America, will 
not be regarded, even here, as proof of the coQtinuation of 
them in their fullest extent, for if they were to any extent 
repealed, to that extent at least no licence should be neces- 
sary, a licence being given to allow what, but for that li- 
cence, would be prohibited. 

The continued abirence hitherto of any instrument by 
which the repeal has been effected, is a matter also of sur- 
prise, for if there were any fair dealing in the transaction, 
Qo reason can be given by France for not producing it ; it 
is very desirable that it should be produced, if such an in- 
strument be in existence, in order that we may know to 
what extent the Decrees have been repealed, if they reallr 
have been so in any respect. Mr. Russell bowever» doef 



»ot app 
MIrr of 
esting, t 
cation o 
ernment 
French 
taken at' 
with th< 
heen tak 
from thJ! 
strumenl 
other tra 
dominio 
Ih: 



SIR- 

cember ] 
commani 

It woi 
to have f 
si lion in 
ences sul 
obliged t 
terminati 
putable. 

You c 
been mis 
you hav€ 
States, a 
ports, an< 
to receiv 

You 
only to r 
tial in its 
account 
pei'seven 
on the CO 
her part, 
to urge, 



HlfrroKY OF THE WAK. 



67 



tot appear to have l-f^rn in possession of it al the date of his 
]t[\pv of last July. It is indeed become particularly inter- 
esting, that we sliould see this instrument since the publi- 
cation of Mr. Ruvseirs correspondence with his own ^v- 
ernment, by which it appears lliat realty, and in fact, tlte 
French g'overnment did not release any American ships 
tttkon alter November 1, until they had become acquainted 
with the president's ])roclan)ation, and that vt^sfteis have 
been taken so late as December 21, in tlie dii'ect voyage 
irom this country to London ; for until a copy of such an m- 
strumentis produced, it is impossible to know whether a;iy 
other trade is allowed by France than that between her own 
dominions and the ports v^f the U. States. 
I have the honor to be, Sec. 

AUGUSTUS J. FOSTER. '■ 



Mr. Monrcie to 31 r. Foster, • . . , 
Department op State, Jan. 14 1812. 

SIR — I have had the honor to receifve your letter of De- 
cember 17th, and embrace the Hrst moment that I could 
command, to make the observations which it sug'g-ests. 

It would have aftbrded g'reat satisfaction to the President, 
to have found in the communication, some proof of a dispo- 
sition in the British government to put an end to the difl'er- 
ences subsisting between our countries. — I am sorry to be 
obliged to state, that it presents a new proof only of its de- 
termination to adhere to the policy, bo which they are im- 
putable. 

You complain tiiat tl>e import of your former letters has 
been misunderstood in two im|>ortant circumstances ; that 
you have been represented to have demanded of tlie U. 
Slates, a law for the introduction of Briltsh jjfoods into their 
ports, and that they should also undertake to force France 
to receive British manufactures into her harbors. 

You stale that on the first point, it was your intention 
only to remonstrate against the non-importation act, as par- 
tial in its operation, and unfriendly to G. Britain, on which 
account its repeal was claimed, and to intimate tl>at if it was 
persevered in, G. Britain would be compelled to retaliate 
oil the commerce of the U. States, by similar restrictions on 
her part. And on the second point, that you intended only 
to urge> that iru»con sequence ot the extraordinary blockade 




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HISTORY OP THE WAR. 



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of England, your p^overnment had been obliged to blockade 
Fiv<nce, and to pruhibil all trade in French articles, in re« 
turn for the prohibition by France of all trade in English 
articlcH. * 

It is sufficient to remark on the first point, that on what- 
ever ground the repeal of the non-importation act is rc- 
auired, the United States are justified in adhering to it, by 
the refusal of the Brit.sh government to repeal its Orders in 
Council ; and if a distinction is thus produced between G. 
Britain and the other belligerent, it must t)e reterred to the 
difference in the conduct of the two parties. 

On the second point, I have to observe, that the explana- 
tion given cannot be satisfactory, because it does not meet 
the case now existing. France did, it is true, declare a 
blockade of England, against the trade of the U. Stales, 
and prohibit all trade in English articles on the high seas, 
but this blockade and proliibition no longer exist. — It is 
true also, that a part of those Decrees, did prohibit a trade 
in English articles, within her territorial jurisdiction ; but 
this prohibition violates no national rights, or neutral com** 
merce of the U. Stales. Still your blockade and prohibi- 
tion are continued, in violation of the national and neutral 
rights of the U. States, on a pretext of retaliation, which, if 
even applicable, could only be applied to the former, and 
not to the latter interdicts : and it is required that France 
shall change her internal regulations against Knglisii trade, 
before England wdl change her external regulations against 
the trade of the U. States. 

But you still insist that the French Decrees are unrevok- 
ed, and urge in proof of it, a fact drawn from Mr. Rus- 
sell's correspondence, that some American vessels have 
been taken since the 1st of November, in their route to Eng- 
land. It is a satisfactory answer to this remark, that it ap- 
pe-^rs by the same correspondence, that every American 
"vessel which had been taken in that trade, the seizure of 
-which rested on the Berlin and Milan Decrees only, were, 
as soon as that fact was ascertained, delivered up to their 
owners. Might there not be other ground also, on which 
seizures might be made ? G. Britain claims a right to seize 
for other causes, and ail nations admit it in the cas^of con- 
traband of war. If by the law of nations, one belligerent 
has a right to seize neutral property in any case^. the olhcr 



belligerer 

the pnicli 

which is ^ 

faith due 

rssential 

IT. States 

kttcr to 

made a f 

from his 

possessed 

suppress i 

was entir 

plain of a 

inslrmner 

Orders in 

You r< 

ernmeut I 

gaged in 

additiona 

their fuUe 

drawn frc 

It was nc 

l^rohibit 

They wei 

G. Britai 

hibit the 

tbeU. S 

to prohibi 

Britain 

complain 

sped hav( 

biting oui 

would no 

licencing 

Iniiig, itp 

in other 

to extract 

Decrees a 

the U. {: 

French p 

U. States 

least as a 



i 



HISTORY or THE WAE. 



69 



belligerent has the %nuv njriil. N'»r oujjht [ to overlook that 
the practice of couulerftJlin!^ AiiuTican (lapers in En^^iaiul, 
which is well known tu lh< coiilnient, has by imiminni^ the 
faith clue to American dorinnents, tioni' to the U. Stales 
rssential ijijnry. Afj:ainsl this practice the minister of the 
IT. Slates at London, sis wih appear by reference to h>8 
letter to the Marquis VVellesley of the 3d of May, J 8 10, 
made a formal representation, in purNuance of instruciions 
from his gcvernmenl, with an ofl'er of ev^ry information 
possessed by him, wiiich might contribute to detect and 
suppress it. It is painful to add that this cominunicalion 
was entirely disregarded. That G. Britain should com- 
plain of acts in France, to which by her negflect, she was 
instrumental, and draw from them proof in support of her 
Orders in Council, ought certainly not to have been expected. 
You remark also, that the practice of the French gov* 
ernraent to grant licences to certain American vessels, en- 
gaged in the trade between the U. States and France, is an 
additional proof that the French Decrees still operate in 
their fuUe^^ extent. On what principle this inference is 
drawn from that fad it is impossible for me to conceive. 
It was not the object of the Berlin and Milan Decrees to 
prohibit the trade Li^tween the U. States and France. 
They were meant to prohibit the trade of the U. States with 
G. Britain, which violated our neutral rights, and to pro<' 
hibit the trade of G. Britain with the continent, with which 
the U. States have nothing to do. If the object had been 
to prohibit the trade between the U. States and Fra ce, G. 
Britain could never have found in them any pretext for 
complaint. And if the idea of retaliation, could in any re*> 
sped have been applicable, it W(»uld have been by prohi. 
biting our trade with herself. To prohibit it with France, 
would not have been a retaliation, but a co-operation. If 
licencing by France the trade in certain instances, prove any 
thing, it proves nothing more than that the trade with France 
in other instances, is under restraint. It seems impossible 
to extract from it in any respect, that the Berlin and Milan 
Decrees are in force, so far as they prohibit the trade between 
the U. States and England. I might here repeat the 
French practice of granting licences to trade between the 
U. States and France, may have been intended in part, at 
least as a security agamst the simulated papers j the ibrgmg 





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liiSTORY OF TUK WAR. 



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of which was not suppicsscd in Eni^lnnd. Il is not to be 
infered from Uu^se remarks, timt a trade by licence, is one 
with which the L'nited Stales sire s aiKfied. They huvethe 
strongest objections lo it, but these are founded on other 
princi|)lt'S, than those s!i«fgested in your nole. 

It is a cause of great surprise to the Pres lent, thai your 
government has not seen in thecorresj)ondei5ce of Mr. Rus- 
sell, whi'h I had the honor to communicate lo you on the 
17lhof October last, and whicii has been lately transmitted 
to you 3} ^ our government, sufficient |>roof of the repeal of 
the Bv (ill and Milan decrees, independent of the conclu- 
sive evidence of liie fact, which that correspondence aiFor> 
^fi\ ; it was not lo be presumed from the intimation of the 
Marquis of Wellesley, that it was to be transmitted to you, 
to.be taken into consideration in the de|)ending discussions, 
that it was of a natui*e to have no weight in these discussions. 

The demand which you now make of a view of the 
order given by the French government to its cruizers, in 
consequence of the repeal of the French Decrees, is a new 
m'oof of its indisposition to repeal the Orders in Council. 
The declaration of the French government was, as hag 
l)een heretofore observed, a solemn and obligatory act, and 
as such entitled to the notice and respect of other govern- 
ments. It was incumbent on G. Britain, therefore, in fulfil- 
ment of her engagement, to have provided that her Orders 
in Council sliould not h^^ve e^ect, after the- time fixed for 
the cessation of tlie French Decrees. A pretension in G. 
Britain to keep her Orders in force till she received satis- 
fiiction of the ]>raciical compliance of France, is utterly in- 
compatible with her pledge. A doubt, founded on any 
single act however unauthorised, committed by a French 
privateer, might on that principle, become a motive for 
delay and refusal. A suspicion that such acts would be 
committed might have the same effect; and in like 
manner her compliance might be withheld as long as the 
war continued. But let me here remark, that if there was 
room for a (Question, whather the French repeal did or did 
not takectl^ect.at the date announced by France, and requir- 
ed by the U. Stales, it cannot be alledged that the Decrees 
have not ceased lo operate since the 2d of Febuary last, as 
heretofore observed. And as the actual cessation of the 
Decrees to violate our neutral rights, \vas the only essential 






IMSTOKY OF THE WAR. 



71 



fack in lite oase, and has lontr been knuwn to yonr govern* 
inent, the Orders in Council, t'roiii the dute ot* that know- 
ledge, ought to have ceaHed, according to its own principles 
and pledges. 

But the question whether and when the repeal of the 
Berlni and Milan Decrees took elfect in relation to the neu- 
tral comnierce of the U. Slates, is superceded fiy the novel 
and extraordinary claim of G. Britain to a trade in British 
articles, with her enemy ; for supposing i\,e repeal ih have 
taken place, in the fullest extent claimed by the U. States, 
it couid, according to that claim, have no etfect in remov- 
ing the Orders in Council. 

On a full view of the coiuluct of the British government 
in these transactions, it is impossible to see in it any thing 
sitnrt of a spirit of determined hostility to the rights and 
interests of the U. States. — It issued the Orders in Council, 
on a principle of retaliation on France, at a time when it 
admitted the French Decrees to be ineffectual ; it has sus- 
tained those Orders in full force since, notwithstanding the 
pretext for them has been removed, and latterly it has ad- 
ded a new condition of their repeal, to be |^ >jrforrned by 
France, to which the U. States in their neutral character* 
have no claim, and could not demand, without departing 
from their neutrality, a condition which, in respect to the 
commerce of other nations with G. Britain, is r/epugnant to 
her own policy, and prohibited by her own laws, and whxh 
can never be enforced on any nation without a subversion of 
its sovreignly and independence. , 

I have ihii honor to be, &c. 

JAMES MONHOE 



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CHAPTER III. 

PRESIDENT S MANIFESTO. 

To the Senate and House of liepresentativesof tlie U. States, 
I communicate to Congress certain documents, Ijeing a 
continution of those heretofore laid before them, on the sub- 
ject, of our atlairs with G. Britain. 

Without going back beyond the renewal in 1803, of the 
war in which G. Britain is engaged, and omitting unrepaired 



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niSTORV OP THE WAR. 



wrongfs o^ inferior ma^i)itiulo, ihe conduct of her govern- 
ment |>re^< nts a Beries of acU hostile to the U. htate.t as an 
iudepcndsait and neutral nation. '"• •: 

firitish cTuizers have been in the contiruied practice of 
violating ihe American flajj, on the i»Teat highway of na- 
tions, and of S'.izinuf and carrying oft* j»prsoris sadnig under 
!t : n«)t in the exercise of a belligeivnt right. tonn'iH o . the 
law of nal ons against an eneinv, h s^ of u iniinicipi;! prero- 
gative ovf-r British subjects. Bnl sh jU'isdi* lion »n hus ex- 
tended to central vess* Is in a siltiition ^'iits • no I « ws can 
0|>erate, but ihe law of nations and Uie laws of the country 
to which tht vessels b -lonaf ; and a >eif-rediess isassruiieo, 
ivhich, if British subjects were uroio'ruliy detained and 
alone concerned, is that sufi'^ritution ot force ftu u r -'sort to 
the responsible 'overeig* t, which biiis withi.i >he detinition 
of war. Could the seizure ot British stibjt 's ui such cases 
be regarded, as within th ■ exercise uT a bs lliirtrent rii^hl, 
the 'icknovi Hedged laws of war, winch lorbid an article of 
CiijJhired property to be adjuda^td, withoui a regular itives- 
tlijtdion before a competent -ribu'iai, vvonid niiperiousiy 
demand ihe fairest trial wher-* tlit- sacrerl rights of persons 
vere at issue. In place of snci) i trial, these rights are sub- 
jected to the will of every petty commander. 

The practice, hence, is so far from affecting British sub- 
jects atone, that under the pretext ol searching for these, 
thousands of American citizens, under the safe-guard of 
public law, and of th'. ir national fl: g, have been torn from 
their country, and from every thing dear to them ; have 
been dragged on board ships of war of a foreign nation, and 
exposed under the severities of their discipline, to be exiled 
to the most (iistaut and deadly climes, to risk their lives m 
the battles of their oppressors, and to be llie melancholy in- 
struments of takino awa\ those of their own l)reliireii. 

Against this cry nig enormity, which G. Britain would be> 
so prompt to avenge if committed against herself, the U. 
States have in voin exhausted remonstrances and expostu- 
lations. And that no pn of might be wanti 'g of their 
conciliatory dispositions, and no pretext left for the contin- 
uance of the practice, the British government was formally 
assured of the readiness of the United States to enter into 
arrangements, such as could not be rejected, if the recovery 
of British subjects were the real and the sole object. 
The communication passed without effect. 



HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



ra 



I ' 1 



British criiizers have l>ecn in the practico also of violating 
the rights and the peace of our coa>>ts. They hover over 
find hairass our entering^ and departiiipj commerce. To 
the most insulting^ pretensions thev have added the most 
lawless proceedings in our very harbors ; and have wan- 
tonly spilt American hlood within the sanctuary of our terw. 
ritorial jurisdiction. The principles and rules enforced by 
that nation, when a neutral nation, aj^ninst armed vessels of 
belligerents, hovering near her coasts, and disturbing ber 
commerce, are well known. When callt^d on nevertlu'b ss, 
by the U. States, to punish the greater otfenccs commttlcd 
by her own vessels, her government has bestowed on their 
commanders additional marks of honor and confidence. 

Under pretended blockades, witliout the presence, of an 
adequate force, and sometimes without the practicability of 
applying one, our commerce has been plundered in every 
sea : the great staples of our country have been cut off from 
their legitimate markets ; and a destructive blow aimed at 
our agricultural and maritime interests. In aggravation of 
these predatory measures, they have been considered as in 
force from the dates of their notification ; a retrospective 
effect Seing thus added, as has been done in other important 
ca<>'es, to the unlawfulness of tht: course pursued. And to 
rjiider the outrage the more signal, these mock blockades 
have been reiterated and enforced in the face of official 
communications from the British government, declaring as 
the true definition of a legal blockade, * that particular 
ports must be actually invested, and t)revious warnuig 
given to vessels bound to them, not to enter.' 

Not content with these occasional expedients for laying 
waste our neutrul trade, the cabinet of G. Britain resorted, 
at length, to the sweeping system of blockades, under the 
name of the Orders in Council, which has been moulded 
and managed, as might best suit its political views, its coai* 
mercial jealousies, or the avidity of British cruizers. 

To our remonstrances against the complicated and Irans- 
cendant injustice of tins innovation, the first reply was^ that 
the Orders were reluctantly adopted by G. Britain as a ne- 
cessary retaliation on Decrees of her enemy, proclaiming a 
general blockade of the British isles, at a time when tire 
naval force of that enemy dared not to issue from his own 
l>orts. She was remmded, without effect, that her own 

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HISl'OBY OV THU WAR. 



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prior blockade, unKiv{)|>orlccJ by an adequate naval force 
actually applied and continued, were a bar to tliiti plea : 
that executed £dict«i aga'uiHt miliioni^of our property could 
not be retaliation on Edicts confessedly impossible to be 
executed : that retaliation, to be just,, should full on th« 
party setting the guilty example^ not on an innocent party, 
which was not even chargeable with an acquiescence in it. 
When deprived of this flimsey veil for a prohibition of 
our trade with her enemy, by the repeal of his prohibition 
of our trade with G. Britain, her cabinet, instead of a cor- 
r(wSponding repeal, or a practical discontinuance of its Or« 
ders, formally avowed a determination to persist in them 
against the U. States^ until the markets of her enemy should 
be laid open to British products ; thus asserting un obliga- 
tion on a neutral power to require one belligerent to en. 
courage, by its internal regulations, the trade of anotlier 
belligercnt ; contradicting her own practice towards hU 
nations in peace, as well as in war ; and betraying the in- 
sincerity of those professions which inculcated a belief that, 
having resorted to her Orders with regret, she was anxions 
to Hnd an occasion for putting an end to them. 
. Abandoning still more, all respect for the neutral rights- 
of the U. States, and for its own consistency, the British 
government now demands as pre-reqni sites to a repeal of 
its Orders, as they relate to the United Stales, that a for- 
mality should be observed in the repeal of the French De- 
crees nowise necessary to their termination, nor exemplified 
by British usage ; and that the French repeal, besides in- 
eluding that portion of the Decrees which operates within 
a territorial jurisilietion, &s well as that which operates ou 
tlie high seas against the commerce oi' the U. States,^ should 
not be a single special repeal in relation to the U. States, 
but should be extended to whatever neutral nations uncon- 
nected with them, that may be affected by those Decrees. 
And as an additional insult,, they are called on for a formal 
disavowal of the condition and pretensions advanced by the 
French government, for which the U. States are so far from 
having made themselves responsible, that, in official ex- 
planations, which have been published to the world, and in 
a correspondence of the American minister at London; 
with the British minister for foreign affairs, such a respom 
sibility was explicitly and emphatically disclaimed. 



HISTORY eF THE WAR. 



76 



Tt has become indeed unflVcienitly certain Chat tlie cooi- 
inercc of the IT. Slates is to l>e sacrificed, not as intei'fering' 
with the hclh^'erent rights «f<j. firilaiii, not as snpplying' 
the wants of her enemies, whicli ((he4ier«e)f supplies, butus 
interfering^ with the nrenoj>oly which riheC'Overts tor her own 
coninierce and navigation. She carriefi on a war ap;ainst 
<!:» lawful commerce of a friend, that she may the better 
cniTV on a commerce with an enemy, a comnu'i'ce, polluted 
jiy the forgeries and perjuries whidi are for the most part 
tiie only passports by which it can micceed. 

Anxious to make every experin)enl short of tbe last resoii 
of injured nations, the U. Stales have withheld from G. 
43ritain, under successive modifications, the benefits of a 
free intercourse with their market, the loss of which could 
not but outweigh the profits accruing from her restrictions 
of our commerce with other nations. And to entitle these 
experiments to the more favorable ^consideration, they were 
so framed as to enable her to place her adversary under 
the exclusive operation of them. To these appeals, her 
government has been equally inflexible, as if wdling to 
make sacrifices of -every Nort, rather than yield to the clamis 
of justice, or renounce the errors of a false pride. Nay, 
so far were the attempts carried, to over^'ome the attach- 
ment of the British cabinet to its ntvjust £dicts, tliat it re- 
ceived every encoumgement, within the competency of the 
Executive branch of our govt;rnraent, to expect that a re- 
])eal of ti>em would be followed by a war between the XT. 
States and France, unless th;; French Edicts should also be 
repealed. £veH -this communication, altl>ough silenciug 
for ever the plea of a disposition in the U. Htates to sic- 
viuiesce in those Edicts, origiuaily the sole plea for them, 
received no attention. .;••■, .if^-*" ..iv 

If no other proof existed of a predetermination of the 
British government against a repeal of its Orders, it might 
be found in the correspondence of the muiister Plenipoten- 
tiary of the U. States at London, and the British Secretary 
for Foreign Affairs in 1810, on 4he question whether the 
blockade of May, 1-806, was considered as in force, or as 
not in force. It had been ascertained that the French gov- 
ernment, which urged this blockade as the ground of its 
Berlin Decree, was willing, in the event of its removal, to 
i:epeal that Decree : which being followed by alternate ro- 



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pt r.l.s of the other ofleiisive E<iiclfi, mitj^iit alioIiNli the nhulf 
8v ^tcni oil liulh MiicH. Thi.s m\ iliii«r o|)|>orl unity for accoin. 
plisliiiti> iiit uhject so important to the V. States, aiul |)ru- 
iVKHed MO ofken to bethf tlejiire of both llie hellinrerciits, wus 
iiiit<l4> known to the British government. As that govern. 
ment aiiniitH that an actual application o( an aiiei|nute force 
is nect'Sbary to the existence of a hgal blockade ; unil ii 
'WUN notorious, lliat if such a force had ever been applied, 
its lon(r discontinuance had annulled the blocki. le in (piti. 
tion, there could be no sufficient objection on the part of G, 
Britain to a formal revocation of it ; and no imaginable oh. 
jiction to a declaration of the fact that the blockade did not 
exist. The declaration would have been consistent with 
her avowed principles of blockade, and would have enabled 
tlieU. States to demand from France the pledi^ed repeal of 
her Decrees ; either with success, in which case the way 
would have been opened for a general repeal of the bel- 
ligerent E<l:cts ; or without success, in which case the U. 
States would have been justified in turning their measures 
exclusively against France. The British government would, 
however, neither rescind the blockade, nor declare its non- 
existence ; nor permit its non-existence to be interred and 
affirmed by the American Plenipotentiary. On the con- 
trary, by representing the blockade to be comprehended in 
the Orders in Council, the U. Slates were compelled so to 
regard it in their subsequent proceedings. 

Tht'ie was a period when a favorable change in the 
policy of the British cabinet was justly considered as esla- 
blished. The minister Plenipotentiary of his Britannic ma- 
jesty here proposed an adjustment of the difterences more 
immediately eiulangering the harmony of the two countries. 
The proposition was accepted with a promptitude and cor- 
diality, corre^iponding with the invariable professions of this 
government. A foundation appeared to be laid for a sin- 
cere and lasting reconciliation. — The prospe<-t, however, 
quickly vanished. The whole proceeding was disavowed 
by the British government, without any explanation which 
could at that time repress the belief, that the disavowal pro- 
ceeded from a spirit of hostility to the commercial rights 
and prosperity of the U. States. And it has since come 
into proof, that at the very moment when the public minister 
was holding the language of friendship, and inspiring 



\ 



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HISTORY OF TIIC WAR. 



77 



.'onHilcncc in l)u> Ninrcrity of llic iiesroriation with which he 
WAS churgeii. n secret <r|^t uf hi» {government wax ein- 
nloyeil in intrigues hav m^ for titeir object u HubvetMion of 
utir gitvcriimr \i, and a (iisineiniH.'rmenl uf our happy Union. 

Ill reviewin^r the contiuct of G. Uritani towunU the U. 
Stules, our altention is necfsHiirily drawn to the warfare JMSt 
renewed by the Kuvai>e.>4 on one of our extensive frontiers ; 
a warfare, which is known to spare neither age nor sex, and 
to he distinguishi.'d by features pecuharly shocking to hu- 
manity. It is (hrticuit to account for the activity and com- 
binations, which liavc for some time been developing them- 
selves among the tribes, inconstant intercourse with British 
traders and garrisons, without connecting their hostility 
with that influence ; and without recollecting the authenti- 
cated examples of such interpositions, heretofore furnished 
by the officers and agents uf that government. 

Such is the spectacle of injuries and in<lignities wliich 
have been heaped on ovir country ; and such the crisis which 
its unexampled forbearance and conciliatory eft'orts have 
not been able to avert. It might at least have been ex- 
pected, that an enlightened nation, if less urged by moral 
obligations, or invited by friendly dispositions on the part 
of the U. States, would have found in its true interest 
alone, a sufficient motire to respect their rights, and their 
tranquility on the high seas ; that an enlarged policy would 
have favored that free and general circulation of commerce, 
in which the British nation is at all times interested, and 
which in times of war is the best alleviation of its calamities 
to herself, as well as to other belligerents : and more espe- 
cially that the British cabinet would not, for the sake of a 
precarious and surreptitious intercourse with hostile mar- 
kets, have persevered in a course of measures which neces- 
sarily put at hazard the invaluable market of a great and 
growing country, disposed to cultivate the mutual advanta- 
ges of an active commerce. 

Other Councils have prevailed. Our moderation and 
conciliation have had no other effect than to encourage per- 
severance, and to enlarge pretensions. We behold our 
seafaring citizens still the daily victims of lawless violence, 
committed on the great common highway of nations, even 
within sight of the country which owes them protection. We 
behold our vessels freighted with the products of our soil 






il 



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msTOnv OP the war. 



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An<l industry, or rclnrniniy willi Iho pror-ndu ofthrm, wrrsU 
etltrointlicir lawful ficNtiuationf^^ConrM <»(»<< |»\ |>ri/.<!ConiiH, 
no loii<^erthe ort^aiis ot'iuililic Ihw, i.!^ iiie iiiHtruiiieiit!^ of 
arliitrHry KdiclN; und their iiiifnrtnnati; crews (liitperHcd 
and lost, or forced or iiivcig^led in Hritish portn into British 
ileels ; wliiNt ar|^ume.ntt( are employc'd, in H4ip|H}rt of 
these ug^grcHsioiiswhich have no fonndntion i)ut in a priii- 
ci|de equally supporting a claim to regnlale our external 
conimeice in all canes wliatsoever. 

We L)ehold, in fine, on the side of G. Britain, a state of 
war against the U. States, and on the side of the U. Stales 
a state •of peace towards G. Britain. 

, Whether the U. States shall continue passive under these 
progressive usurpations, and these accumulating wrongs ; 
or opposing force to force, in defence of their natural rig htti, 
i>hall couunit a just cause into the hands of the Altnighty 
disposer of events ; avoiding all connections which might 
entangle it in tlie contests av views of other powers, and 
preserving a constant readiness to concur in an honorable 
re-establishment of peace aad friendship, is a solemn ques- 
tion, ^vhich the constitution wisely confides to the legis- 
lative Department of the government. In recommending 
it to their early deliberations, I am happy in the assurance 
that the decision will be worthy the enlightened and patri- 
otic Councils of a virtuous, a free, and a powerful nation* 

Having presented this view of tlie relatione of the U. 
States with O. Britain and of the solemn alternative grow- 
ii»g out of them, I proceed to remark that the communica- 
tions last made to Congress, on the subject of our relations 
wilh France, will have shown that since the revocation of 
her Decrees as they violated the neutral rights of the U. 
States, her government has authorised illegal captures, by 
its privateers and public ships, and that other outrages have 
been practised on our vessels and citizens. It will have 
been seen also, that no indemnity had l^een provided, or sat- 
isfactorily pledged, for the extensive spoliations committed 
nnder the violent and retrospective orders of the French 
government against the property of our citizens seized with- 
in the jurisdiction of France. 1 abstain at this time from 
recommending to the consideration of Congress definitive 
measures with respect to that nation, in the expectation, thai 
the result of unclosed discussions belwocn our ]\linistei 



HISTOBY Of TnC WAR. it 

Plenipotentiary nt Paris aiul the French pfovrrnnient will 
y|M'f(iily enable Cuii^^ri'Mi to dcciile, with greater luUantage, 
till lite conmedne tu tlu*rig;ht% the interentA, and the Innior 
•i our country. JAM£S MADISON. 

Waxhiiiiflonr Jnm 1, 1819. .i|i 

I .if T^.^.iii ! nf' — — •ii;y'i» f/J.H 

The Committee om Poreif/n Helationa to whom was refitrre{l 
the McMOffe of the PrtsUUcni of the ('. States oj the Ut 
of'June, \HVi,, .. ....... 

RKPORT-^ ' . . J * 

That alter the experience which the V. States have hud 
of the great injustice of the British i^overiiment towards 
llieni, exemplified by so many acta of violenee and oppres- 
Hiom it VI ill ihs more dilficiili to justify to the impartial 
ivurld their patient forbearance, thiui the meiuiiM'e ko which 
it bus become necessary to resort, to avenge the |vrongs, 
and vindicate the rights and honor of the nation. Your 
committee are happy to observe nn a dispassionate reveiw 
nf the conduct of the U. States* that they see in it no cause 
for censure. 

If a long forbearance under injuries otrghk ever to be 
considered a virtue in any nation, it is one which peculiarly 
becomes the U. States. No people ever had stonger mo- 
tives to cherish peace — none have ever cherished it with 
greater sincerity and zeal- -i /m 

But the period bi^ now arrived, when the U. States rausS 
.support their character and station among the nations oti* 
the earth, or submit to the luosi sliameful degradation. 
Forbearance has ceased to be a virtue. War 04v the ono 
side, and peace on the other, is a situation as ruinous as it 
is disgraceful. The mad ambition,^ the lost of power^ and 
commercial avarice of G. Britain, arrogating to herself the 
complete dominion of the ocean, and exercising over it an 
unbounded and lawless tyranny,, have left to neutral nations^ 
an alternative only, between the base surrender of their 
rights, and a manly vindication of them. Happily for the 
U. States, their destiny, under the aid of heaven, is in their 
own hands. The crisis is ^>rmidable only by their love. of 
peace. As so«mi a» it becotues> a duty to relinquish that 
situation, danger disappears. They have suffered no 
wrongs, they have received no insults, however great, for 
which they camiot obtain redress. 




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nisniRV OP THR WAR. 



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IVIorR than seven years have <'lapN€tI, since the com- 
mencement of this system of hiistile a^nrreMsion )>y the Bri- 
tish government, on the rigfhtiiand interests ofthe'U. Slates. 
The manner of its commencement was not less hostile, thiin 
the spirit with which it Una been prosecuted. The U. States 
have invariably done every thing in their power to preserve 
the relations of friendship with G. Britain. Of this dis- 
position they gave a disting-uished proof, at the moment 
when they were made the victims of an opposite poliry. 
The wrongs of the last war had not been forgotten at the 
commencement of the present one. They warned lis uf 
dangers, against which it was sought to provide. As early 
as the year 1804, the minister of the U. States at London 
was instructed, to invite the British government to enter into 
u negociation on all the points on which a collision might 
arise between the two countries, in the course of the war, 
and to propose to it un arrangement of their claims on fair 
and reasonable conditions. The invitation was accepted. 
A negociation had commenced and was depending, and 
nothing had occurred to excite a doubt that it would not 
terminate to the satisfaction of both the parties. It was at 
this time, and under these circumstances, that an attack was 
made, by surprise, on an important branch of the American 
commerce, which affected every part of the U. States, and 
involved many of their citizens in ruin. 

The commerce on which this attack was so unexpectedly 
made, was between the U. Stales and the colonies of France, 
Spain, and other enemies of G. Britain. A commerce just 
in itself — sanctioned by the example of G. Britain in regard 
to the trade with her own colonies — sanctioned by a solemn 
act between the two governments in the last war ; and sanc- 
tioned by the practice of the British government in the 
present war, more Mian two years having then elap;i>ed, w ith- 
ont any interference with it. 

The injustice of this attack could only be equalled by the 
absurdity of the pretext alledged for it. It was pretended 
by the British government, that in case of war, her eneniv 
had no right to modify its colonial regulations, so as to 
mitigate the calamities of war to the inhabitants of its colo- 
nies. This pretension, peculiar to G. Britain, is utterly in- 
compatible with the right of sovereignty, in every independ- 
ent state. i( we recur to the well established and univei- 



8 Colo- 

?rly iii- 
epend- 
Linivcr- fei 



HISTonV OF THE WAR. 



U\ 



vitty :ulmitted law oi' nations, we shall tind no sanction to 
jt, 111 that venerahlf nu<le. The sovereiajnty of every stale 
is co-cxtenstvc with ils tiominions, and canuut be abrogatedt 
or t-urlaiU'd in IIm riglitn, an to any part, except by conquest. 
^'lUtrai natioitK have a ri^ht to trade to every (W)rt of either 
belligerent, ubicb is not lesfally blockaded — aad in ail ar- 
ticles vthich are not contraband of war. Sucli is the ab- 
surdity of this pretension, that your coinmillee are awar^ 
especially after the able manner in which it has been here- 
tofore refuted, and exposed, that they would offer an insult 
to the understandin|r of the House, if they enlarged on it, 
and if an thioj^ couid add to the high sense of the injustice 
of the British government in the transaction, \i w<«dd be the 
contrast which her conduct exhibits in regard to thils trade, 
and in reg'^^'-d to a similar trade by neutrals with her owti 
colonies, i is known to the world, that G. Britain regu- 
lates her - n trade, in war and in peace, at home and iu 
her colonies, as she Hnds for her interest — that in war she 
relaxes the restraints of her colonial system in favor of the 
colonies, and that it never was suggested that siic had not 
a right to do it — or that a neutral m taking advantage of 
the relaxation violated a belligerent right of her enemy — 
BiU with G. Britain every thmg is lawful. It is only m a 
trade with her enemies that the U. States can do wrong. 
With them all trade is unlawful. 

In the \ear 179d, an attack was made by the British go- 
vernmeut oik tiie sai^ie branch of our neutral trade, which 
bad nearly involved the two countries in war. That diOer- 
euce, however, was amicably accommodated. The pi«- 
teiision was withdrawn, and reparation made to the U. 
Slates, for the losses which they had suffered by it. It was 
fair to infer from that arrangement, that the commerce was 
deemed by the British government lawful, and that it would 
iiot i)e again disturbed. i 

Had the British government been resolved to contest this 
trade with neutrals, it was due to the character of the British 
nation that the decision should be made known to the go 
vernment of the l'. States, The existence of a negociation 
whici. had been invited by our government, for the purjjose 
of preventing differences by an amicable arrangement of 
their respective prelc.isions, gave a strong claim to the no- 
♦ilica/ ion, while it afforded the fair«st opportunity for it. 

11 



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HISTHRY OF THE WAR. 



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But n very differont . olicv uniiiiateil the then cabinet o( 
bltttfiami. Tfie liljeml conHiJr-ii-e aixi IneiiiUy overtiires 
of the V. Slate»# were taken advantage ol" lo ensnare llnm. 
Steady to iIm pnrf)0.«e, and mtlt \ibiy lioshle to thi.s connli y, 
thf British gfuveriinient rahnly looked urward to ihe nso- 
mriit^ when it mi'rht g-ive ibe niont <i<atlly wound to our in* 
tPiPils. A trade, jns» in itselt, whifli Wi)!» stcnred b\ so 
niafiy strong and sacred pleducs, was considered safe. — 
Our citizen** with, their usual iri(hi>tr\ and enterprise had 
etfdmrked in it a vast proportion of their shipping, and of 
their capital, which wvreatsea, under no other protection 
than tiie law of nations, and Ihe confidence which thev re- 
posed in t>;e justice and friendship of the British nation. 
At this period the unexpected blow was given. Many of 
oar vessels were s<ized,. carried into port, and oondeiii <\ 
hy a tribunal, which, while it professes to respect Ihe \aw of 
nations, obeys the mandates of its own government. Hnn- 
<lreds of other vessels- were driven from the oceaii, and traiio 
itself in a great measure suppressed. Tiie eft'ect produced 
by this attack on the lawful commerce of the IT. States, waS' 
such, as might have been expected from a virtuous, nuie- 
pendent^ and highly injured people. But one ^^elll1mel)t 
pervaded the whole Aaierican nation. No local interests 
were regarded — no sordid motives telt. Without lo» kmo* 
to the parts which suffered most, the invasion of our right? 
was considered a common cause, and from one extremity 
of our Union to the other, waK heard, the voice of an united 
people, calling on their government to avenge their wrongs, 
and vindicate the rights and honor of the country. 

From this period the British govorninent.has gone on in 
a<ci)ntinued encroachment on the rightb and interest of the 
(J. States, disregardii.g in its course, in many mslances,, 
obligations- which have heretofore been held sacred by 
civilized nations.- 

In May, 1B06, ihe whole coast of the continent, from the 
£lbe to Brest, inclusive, was declared to be in a stale of 
blockade. By this act, the well established principles of 
the law of nations,principles which have served for ages as 
guides, and fixed the boundary between the rights of t el- 
ligerents and neutrals, were violated ; by the law of nations,, 
as recognized by G. Britain herself, no blockade is lawful, 
tuiless it he suslainefl by the ap|)licati(»n of an adequate 



ItlSTOHV OrTilC WAU. 



8a 



force, and that an ^ul(-<)u;ite luroi- wat» Hpplied to ihisliiock- 
ade, ii* itsliiil exU'til, oiii;lil nut lo in- prel. iidcil. W lielher 
tj. Britain ua> able to nKiintain, leuaily, so extensive a 
blockade, coiiKidenn*; llie vur in wlurji t>lie is en^raged, 
r«(|iiinng' such e\tciis:>e navid uperatiooN, is a question 
which IS not necossarv at thus liiue U> exunnne. Jt is suHi- 
ci< lit to he known, that such turce *w:)s not applied, and 
tins iS evident from the teiins of the hlookade itsell, by 
which, comparatively, un inconsiderable |K>rtion oft tlie coast 
only v« as dec hired to be in a slate of strict and ri^oroiui 
blockajlf. The objection to the measure is not diminished 
bv that circunislance. If tlie force Avas not applied, the 
biockatle was unlawful, from whatever cause the failure 
iniglit proceed. The belli<^erent who mslilutes the block- 
ade, ca>mot absolve itself from the obligation to apply the 
force under any pretext whatever. For a belligerent lo 
relax a blockade, which it could not maintain, it would be 
a refinement in injustice, not less insultiujj to the under- 
fctauding, than.repug'iiant to the law of nations. To claim 
merit for the mitigation of an evil, wiiich the party either 
t>ad not the power, or found it inconvenient to inHict, would 
be a new mode of encroaching on neutral rights. Your 
committee think it just to remark, that i\V\s act of the Bri- 
tish government does not appear to luive been adopted in 
the sense in which it has lieen since construed. On con- 
sideration of all the circumstances attending the measure, 
and particularly the character of the .distinguished states- 
man who announced it, we are pe:>n \ded that it was con- 
ceived in aspirit of conciliation, an(-^ intended to lead to an 
accommodation of all differences iielween the U. States 
and G. Britain. His death disappoinled ihat hope, and the 
act has since become subservicul. to other purposes, it has 
been made by his successors, a pretext for that vast system 
of usurpation, which has so long oppressud and harrassed 
our commerce. 

The next act of the British government which claims our 
attention is the Orders in Council of Jan.7, 1807^ by which 
neutral powers are prohibited trading from one port to anoth- 
er of France or her allies, or any other country with which 
<]. Britain might not freely trade. By this order the pre- 
tension of Eiigland, heretofore claimeti by every other pow- 
^v, to prohibit neutrals disposioj^ of parts ut their cargoes at 




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HIStORY OP f IlK WAi:. 



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different ports of the same enemy, is revivt.* and with vahl 
acnimulation of injury. Every enemy, however tjrt at llii; 
number or distance from each <>lh«'r, is considered one, jtud 
the like trade even with powers at peace wilh England who, 
from motives of pohcy had excluded or reslraioed her roin- 
merce, was also prohibited. In ihis act the British u;o- 
veriimenc evidently disclaimed allretrard forneutriil rights. 
Aware that the measures authorised by it could find no 
pretext in any belligerent right, none was nrij^ed. To pro- 
hibit the sale of our produce, cunsisting o\ innocent articles 
at any port of a belligerent, not blockaded, to consider 
every belligerent as one, and Kubjecl neutrals to tkie san»e 
restraint with all, as if there was but one, were held en- 
croachments. But to restrain or in any manner interfere 
■with our commerce with neutral nations with whom G. Bri- 
tain was at peace, and against whom she had no justifiable 
cause of war, for the sole reason, that they restrained or ex- 
cluded from their ports her commerce, "was utterly incom- 
patible with the pact lie relations subsisting between the two 
countries. 

We proceed to bring into view the British Order in 
Council of November \V\ 1807, which superceded every 
other order, and consumtfr%.ed that system or hostility on the 
commerce of the Tj. States which has been since so steadily 
pursued. By this Order, all France i»nd her allies and every 
other country at war with G. Britain, or with which she was 
not at war, from which the British flag was excliuled, a'/.i 
all the colonies of her enemies were subjected to the same 
restrictions as if they were actually blockaded in the PiOst 
strict and rigorous manner ; and all trade in articles the 
produce and manufacture of the said countries and colonies, 
and the vessels engaged in it were subjected to capture and 
condemnation as lawful prize. To this order certain ex- 
ceptions were made which we forbear to notice because 
they were not adopted from a regard to neutral rights, bul 
were dictated by policy to promote the commerce of Eng 
land, and so far as they related to neutral powers, weir- 
said to emanate from the clemency of the British govern- 
ment. 

It would be superfluous in your committee to state, thai 
by this order the British government declared direct and 
positive war against the U. States. The domuiion of ll»t: 



•1 



ocean w 
ell, and e 
and eoiK 
the Bntis 
iiiMltr its 
pciured 
tions. T 
•AVZ them 
So tar 
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the antho 
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cfteding. 
our felloe 
iieus, and 
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families, 
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HISTORY OP TIfIB AVAR. 



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orcnn was coniplotely iisurpetl by il, all commerce I'orWid- 
t!i, and every Hag driven from il, or nubjerted to capture 
and rondemiiatioM, which did not Hubserve the policy of 
the Bnlish t;fovernnienl by paymf^ il a tribute nnd sailing 
niuirr its Hanction. Kroni this f>enod the V. <^lales have 
inciureil the luaviest Iossch, and most mortifyinij hiunilin* 
tionx. Thev ha\e born the calamities ol v, ur without retort- 
m<r them on its authors. 

So far your committee has presented to the view of the 
House the aa^g-ressions which have been "ommitled under 
the authority of the British government on the commerce if 
the U. States. We will now proceed to othtT wrong* 
which have been still more severely felt. Amoni^ these, is 
the impressment of our seamen, a practice which has been 
unceasingly maintaiiud by G. Bniain in the wars to which 
she has been a party since our revolution. Your comni'tlee 
cannot ^onvt-y m adequate terms the deip sense which 
they entertain of the injustice and oppression of tins pro- 
cfteding. Under the pretext of impressing Brit'sh seamen, 
our fellow citizens are seized in British ports, on the high 
seas, and in every other quarter to \vhich the British power 
extends, are taken on board British men of war, and com- 
pelled to serve there as British subjects. In this mode our 
cilizeusare wantonly snatched from their country and thett' 
families, deprived of their liberty, and doomed to an igno- 
minious and slavish bondage, compelled to fight the battles 
of a foreign country, and otten to perish in them. Our flag 
hiis given them no protection ; it has been unceasingly vio- 
lated, and our vessels exposed to danger by the loss of men 
taken from them. Your committee need not remark that 
while the practice is continued, it is impossible for the U. 
States to consider themselves an independent nation. 
Every new case is a new proof of their degradation. Its 
continuance is the more unjustitiabte, because the U. States 
have repeatedly proposed to the British government an ar- 
rangement which would secure to it the control of its own 
people. An exemption of the citizens of the U. States 
ironi this degrading oppression, and their flag from viola> 
iion, is all that tliey have sought. 

This lawless waste of our trade, and equally unlawful im- 
pressment of our seamen, have been much aggravated bv 
the in^inlts and ijidiguities attending them. Under the pre- 




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HISTORY OP THE WAR. 



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text of blockadiiirr the harbont of France and her allies, 
Uritioli NquadrunM have been stationed on our own coadl, tu 
ivatch and annoy our own trade. To give eA'ect to tiie 
blockade of European {lorts, the ports and harbors of tiie 
TT. Stales have been blockaded. In executing' tliese orders 
of the British guvernment, or in obeying the spirit wincli 
was known io animate it, the commaiuiera of these squ;td- 
roiis have encroached on our jurisdiction* seized our %es- 
sels, and carried into effect impressments within our iimiis, 
and done other acts of great iiyustice, violence, and oppres- 
sion. The U. States have seen, with mingled indignation, 
and surprise, that these acts, instead of procuring to the 
perpetrators the punishment due to unauthorised crimes, 
iiave not failed to recommend them , to the favor of thtir 
government. 

Whether the 'British government has contributed by ac- 
tive measures to excite against us the hostility of the savage 
tribes on our frontiers, your committee are not disposed to 
occupy much time in investigating. Certain indications 
of general notoriety may supply the place of authentic du- 
cuineiits ; though these have not been wanting to establish 
the fact in some instances. It is known that symptoms of 
British hostility towards the U. States, have never failed to 
produce corresponding symptoms among those tribes. It is 
also well known, that on all such occasions, abundant sup- 
plies of the ordinary munitions of war have been afforded 
Ly the agents of British commercial companies, and even 
from British garrisons, wherewith they were enabled to 
commence that system of savage warfare on our frontiers, 
which has been at all times indiscriminate in its effect on all 
ages, sexes, and conditions, and so revolting to humanity. 

Your committee would be much gratified if they could 
close here the detail of British wrongs — but it is their duly 
to recite r.:aother act of still greater malignity, than any of 
those which have b^.n already brqught to your view. The 
attenipt to dismember our Union, and overthrow our excel- 
lent Constitution, by a secret mission, the object of which 
was to foment discontent and excite initurrection against the 
constituted authorities and laws of the nation, as lately dis- 
closed by the ageiti employed in it, affords full proof that 
there is no bound to the hostility of the British governmei^ 



.' 1 

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HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



m 



toward.H the Uniteil States — no act, however unjiislifiablr, 
^hwh it would not commit, to accompliiili their ruin. Thiif 
attempt excites the greuler horror from the couKiderutioii 
that it wus oiade while the U. States and G. Britain were al 
ueace, and an amicable negociation wasdc'peiidii>ji>;betwe«Mi 
liiem for the accommodation of tlieir diflereiices, through 
public minister^}, regularly authorised lor the purpose. 

The U. States have beheld, with unexampled forbear^ 
ance, this continued series of hostile encroachments on their 
right!! and interests, iii the hope, that, ^ieldin^ to the force 
ot friendly remonstrances, often repeated, the British go- 
vernment might ado^U a more just policy towards thrm y 
but that hope no longer exists. They have also weighed 
in) artially the reasons which have been urged by the Bri- 
tish government in vindication of these encroachments, and 
found in them neither justification or apology. 

The British gover.»ment has alledged in vindication of 
the Orders in Council, that they were resorted to as i. reta- 
liation on France, for similar ag;irres»ions committed by 
her on our neutral trade with the British dominions. But 
how has this plea been supported 1' The dates of British 
and French aggressions are well known to the world. 
Tlieir origin and progress have been marked with too wide 
and destructive a waste of the properly of our felbw citi- 
zens to have been forgotten. Tiic Berlin Decree, of Nov.. 
21, 1806, was the first aggression of France, in the present 
war. Eighteen months had then elapsed,, after tlie attack, 
made by G. Britain on our neutral trade with the colonies 
of France and her allies,, and six months from th« date of 
the proclamation of iVfay, 1806. Even on Jan. 7, 1807, the 
dale of the first British Order in Council, sm short a term 
had elapsed, after the Berlin Decree, that it was hardly pos« 
sil)ie that the intelligence of it should have cached the U. 
Stales. A retaliation, which is to produce its effect, by 
operating on a neutral power, ought not to be resorted to,. 
till tlie neutral had justified it by u culpable acquiescence in 
tite unlawful act of the otlier belligerent. It ought to be 
(lel.iyed until after Mifhcient time ha^i been allowed lo th^. 
neutral lo remon^iiuite against tlie measure coiuplained of, 
to receive an answer, and act on it, which had not been 
(lone in the present instance ; and when the Order of Nf2v. 
1 1, was issueil, it is w«li luiown iital a minister of Franci:: bad 



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fleclared lollic iiiinister plenipotenliary of the V. Stales nt 
Paris, thuk it was not intended thai the Decree of Berhn 
should apply to the U. States. It is equally wpW kiiowii th.it 
no American vessel had then been condemned under it, op 
seizure been nifide, with which the British {government wns 
acquainted. The facts prove incontestibly, thai the tneas. 
ures of France, however unjustifiable in thentselves, were 
nothing more than a pretext for those of Eii<^land. And 
of the insufficiency of that pretext, ample proof has already 
been afforded by the British government itself, and in the 
most impressive form. Although it was declared that the 
Orders in Council were retaliatory on France for her De- 
crees, it was also declared, audio the OrdCk's themselves, 
that owing to the superiority of the British navy, by which 
the fleets of France and her allies were coiiHned witnin their 
own ports, the French Decrees were considered only as 
empty threats. 

It is no jusli6cation of the wrongs of one power, that tli* 
like were committed by another ; nor ought the fact, if true, 
to have been urged by either, as it could afford no proof of 
its love of justice, of its mcg'nanimity, or even of its courage. 
It is more worthy the government of a great nation, to re- 
lieve than to assail the injured. Nor can a repetition of the 
wrongs by another power, repair the violated rights, or 
wounded honor, of the injured party. An utter inability 
alone to resist, would justify a quit I surre'.ider of our rights, 
and degrading submission to the will of olliers. 

To that condition the United Slates are not reduced; 
nor do they fear it. Thiit they ever consented to dis- 
cuss with either, the misconduct of the other, is a proof 
of their love of peace, of their moderation, and of the 
hope which they still indulged, th;il friendly appeals tc 
just and generous sentiments, would not be made to llieni 
in vain. But the motive was mistaken, if their forbearance 
was imputed, either to the wvuit of a just sensibility to their 
wrongs, or of a determination, if suitable redress was inA 
obtained, to resent them. The time has now arrived when 
this system Of reasoning must cease. It would be insulliiij^ ^ J 
to rej")eat it. It would be degrading to hear it. The U. 
States mu.st act as an independent nation, and assert their 
rights, and avenge their wrongs, according to their own 
estimate of them, with the party vi'ho commits them, hold- 



in jy it resp' 
ut aiiolhei 

For the 
hy the api 
land only, 
and is too 
conimercii 
uii evidciM 
their wior 
tianie footi 
acconmiot 
niid in res 
Had the 
which was 
and Franc 
the U. Sti 
iiig to thei 
Tlie comn 
i::reiitly inj 
tion lias n 
that is a C( 
lie for the 
jieople, is 
not tail to 
r.luim. 

More r( 
lowards tl 
has been | 
ders in Co 
Sioverninei 
Uritish cot: 
Prance an 
was also a 
It appears, 
vornment, 
with Frai 
i)e subdue( 
M'esume o 
Jish y;oven 
been made 
ns the com 
penly aiul 



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IIISTOHY OF TUE WAR. 



80 



itis: il r<\spoii8i))le for lU own iiiistict>d>, unmitigated by those 
ut aiiuthcr. ), 

For the difference made between G. Britain and France, 
by the apitlication of the no.i-iniporlation act a^ainMt Eng- 
land only, the motive Itas been already too often explained, 
and is too well kuown to require further illustration. I., the 
cunimercial restriclions to which the IT. States resorted hh 
ail evidence of their Nen.sibility, and a nuld retaliation of 
their wi-oni>'.s, they invanabU placed both powers on the 
Kiune footing, lioldni;^ to each in re!4|>ect to itself, the same 
ancunmiodation, in case it accepted the condition ottered ; 
and in respect to the other, the same restraint, if it retused. 
Had the British government confirmed the arrangement 
which was entered into with the British minister in - lh09, 
niid France maiidained her Decrees, with France would 
llie v. States have had to resist, with the iirmness belong- 
inqfto their character, the continued violation of their rights. 
The committee do not hesitate to declare, that France has 
iXrciitly injured the U. States, and that satisfactory repara- 
tion lias not been made for many of those injuries. But, 
that is a concern which the U. Slates will look to and set- 
tie for themselves. The high character of the American 
people, is a sufficient pledge to the wor!;!, that ihey will 
not fail to settle it, on conditions which they have a right to 
.'.'luim. 

More recently, the true policy of the British government 
iowards the C States has been completely uitfolded. It 
has been publicly declared by those in power, that the Or- 
ders in Council should not be repealed, until the French 
•loveniinent had revoked uli its internal restraints on the 
• Hritisli commerce, and that the trade of the U. States, with 
France and her allies, should be prohibited until G. Britain 
was also allowed to trade with them. By this declaration, 
if aj)peurs, that to satisfy the pretensions of the British go- 
veinnietit, the V. States must join G. Britain in the war 
with France, and prosecute the War, until France should 
he subdued, for without her subjugation, it were in vain to 
presume on such a concession. The hostility of the Bri- 
tish ;»;oveinment has been still further disclosed. It has 
been made manifest that the IT. Slates are considered by it 
:is the commercial rival of G. Britain, and that their pros- 
jjcrity and growth are incompatible with their welfare. 

12 



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When all ihcf** circnuistancf!* aro lakcri into ronsuleratior), 
it is impossible tor your (oniniilUi: to <ioiiU the mulUM 
u jit'h have lii;- venieit the lirilish iniiuMlry in »l| its meas- 
ures towaidM the U. StattH Hiiice thf" )e;ii XHiU'i. Equally 
is it im|iUsMihle to doultt, longer, the course which the L. 
Slates oug'ht to pursue tuwnrds Ci. Uritain. 

From this view of" the multi|il: -J wrongs of the British 
government since llie coniniencement of the present war, 
it must i>e evident to the impartial world, that the contest 
which is now forced on llie U. States, is radically a con- 
test lor their sovereignly and independence. Your coni- 
juillee will not enlarge on any of the injuries, however great, 
which have had a tr.msitory etfect. They wish to call the 
attention of the House to those of a permanent nature only, 
which intrench so deeply on our most important rights, and 
wound so extensively and vitally our best interests, as conid 
not fail to deprive the II. States of the principal advantages 
of their revolution, if submitted to. The control of our 
commerce bv G. Britain, in regulating it at pleasure, and 
almost expelling it from the cean ; the oppressive man- 
ner in which these regulations have ijeen carried into eflect, 
by seizing and contiscating such of our vessels with their 
cargoes, as were said to have violated her edicts, often with- 
out previous warning of their danger ; the impressment of 
our citizens from on board our own vessels, on the high 
Sti'ASf and elsewere, and holding them in bondage until it 
suited the convenience of their oppressors to deliver them 
up, are encroachments of thai high and dangerous tenden- 
cy which could not fail to produce that pernicious effect, 
nor would those be the only consequences that would 
result from it. The British government might for a while, 
be satisfied with the ascendency thus gained over us, but 
\\s pretensions would soon increase. The proof which so 
complete and disgraceful a submission to its authority, 
would aflbrd of our degeneracy, could iK>t fail to inspire 
confidence, that there was no limit to which its usurpations, 
and our degradations might not be carried. 

Your committee, believing that the freeborn sons of 
America are worthy to enjoy the lil>erly which their fa- 
thers purchased at the price of so much blood and treasure, 
and seeing, in the measures adopted by G. Britain, a course 
commenced and persisted in, which might lead to a loss of 
national character and independence, feel no hesitation in 



HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



91 



idvisiii'^ rrsi^ilance by force, in wlmli the Aiiieric ann of ihc 
priM'iil liiiy will |»r<i\c to Ihc i-ru'iiiy uiul Ua- tvoridlliiil %vn 
h:;v( iiol only iiitierited that lilierty vvliicli on. furtlieni t^nvo 
(IS l>i>t also ihc will and powtT to iiiaiiilaiii it. Kelytiif^uu 
tlie patriotism of the nation, and cuiitideiilly tniHting; 
tlial the Lord of Hosts will go with iin to battle in n n^lil- 
eoiis cause, and crown our elKirts willi success — yourconi- 
mitlee recuninieiKl an^appeal to AUxMS. 

^.)on after the above Report was read, Mr Calhoun, 
one of the Committee of Forei«jfn Kehitions, on leave beinij 
jriven, presenlt d the followm:'^ '^ H, declariiij( war between 

■rs. 



and the Uniled. Slates 
end day's debate, pas- 
«Mitatives, and was ap« 
iHlh day of June. * 



Great-Britain and her depei 
and their territories ; which, 
scd the Senate and House o 
proved by the President, on itn 

AN ACT, 
Vedariny War between the fjnited Kiiujdum nf Gnat-Bri' 

tain and Ireland^ and the dependencies thereofy and the 

United States of America ^ and their Territories. 

BE IT ENACTED by the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United Stales of America, in Congress 
assembled, That WAR be, and the same is hereby declar- 
ed to exist, between the United Km|rdom of Great-Britain 
and Ireland and the dependencies thereof, and the United 
States of America and their Territories : and that the Pre- 
sident of the United States be, and he is hereby authorised 
to use the whole land and naval force of the United States, 
to carry the same into effect, and to issue to private armed 
vessels of the United States, commissions, or tetters of 
marque and general reprisal, in such form as he shall think 
proper, and under the Seal of the United States, against the 
vessels, gfoods, and effects of the government of the same. 
United Kingdom of Great-Britain and Ireland, and the sub' 
jects thereof. ♦ 

Approved. JAMES MADISON. 

June 18, 1812. 

Yeas and Nays on the above Bill. 

IN THE SENATE. "' 

Yeas 19.— Nays 13. 

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 

NeW' Hampshire — Yeas, Dinsmore, Hall, and Harper, 3 
—Nays, Bartleit and Sullivan, 2, 



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'IP Hli'TORY OF THE WAR. 

Massachusetts— Ye9iH, Seaver, Csirr, Green, Richardson, 
Turner, and Widg^ery,*}— Nays, Quiiicy, Keed, Tajjgarl, 
Eiy, Bngliaiii. White, Talhna.i, and Whealon, 8. 

Jifuxte-Jsiand — None — Nays, PoUer and Jackson, 2. 

\emumt — Yeas, Fisk, Shaw, and Strong, 3 Nays, 

Chittenden, 1. 

Cvnneclicut — None — Nays, Stiirges, Davenport, Mose. 
Icy, Cham|»ion, Tallniadgej Pilkin, and Law, 7. 

Atir- KorA — Yeas, Pond, Avery, and Sage, 3 — Nays, 
Bieecker,£inott, Cooke, Filch, Gold, Sammons, Slow, Tra- 
cy, Van Gortlandt, Miichiil, and Metcalf, 1 1. 

i\tfV'.hrseif — Yeas, Gondii, and Morgan, 2 — Nays, 
Boyd, Hufly, Maxwell, andNewbold, 4. 

Fennsylvama — Yeas, Seyberl, Anderson, Brown, Ro- 
berts, Fuidley, Smilie, Lyle, Whitehdl, Bard, Davis, Le- 
fevre, Hyneman, Piper, Lacock, Crawford, and Smith, 16 
— Niys, Milnor, and Rodman, 2. 

Delaware — None — Nays, Kidgely, 1. 
' Maryland — Yeas, Kent, Little, M'Kim, Ringgold, 
Brown, and Archer, 6 — Nays, Key, Goldsborough, and 
Stuart, 3. 

Virginm — Yeas, Nelson, Gholson, Goodwyn, Newton, 
Taliaferro, Dawson, Bassett, Smith, Hawes, Roane, 
31'Koy, Pleasants, Clopton, and Bur well, 14 — Nays, Ran- 
dolph, Lewis, Baker, Hreckenridge, and Wilson, 5. 
' JSorih- Carolina — Yeas, Alston, Black ledge, Macon, 
King, Cochran,and Pickens, G—Nay^8, Pearson, M Bryde, 
and Stanford, 3.^^^ - - * ^ • - . .>y',.^i%. 

South-Carolina — Yeas, Williams, Cheves, Lowndes, 
Butler, Calhoun, £arle,Wmn, and Moore, 8 — Nays, None. 

Georgia — Yeas, Troup, Bibb, and Hall, 3 — Nays, None. 

Kentucky — Yeas, Joanson, Desha, New, M'Kee, and 
Ormsby, 6 — Navs< None. 

'/enne.ssee — Yeas, Rhea, Grundy, and Sevier, 3— Nays, 
None. _ ' -';:'' 

Ohio, Yeas, Morrow,! — Nays, None. ! ' 

Yeas, 98— Nays 62— Majority 36. '"ft 

The Declaration of War, was announced the day after 
its passage, by the President's Proclamation, of which the 
following is a copy >- * * " ; u u ; m . i /, » 



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HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



It 



BY Tiir. rurRinr.jCT or thb 

; UNITED STATES OP AMERICA. 
A PKOCLAMATION. 
WHEREAS Uie Congress of the U. States, by virtue 
of the constituted authority vested in them, have declared 
bv tiieir act, (>€arin<^ date the ei<^hteenth day of the present 
month, that WAR exists htlwecn the ITniled Kingdom of 
0. Britain and Ireland, and the dependencies thereof, and 
the U. States of America, and their Territories : Now, 
therefore, I, JAMES MADISON, President of the U. 
States of Americe, do hereby proclaim the same to all 
whom it may concern ; and I do specially enjoin on all |)er- 
sons holdings offices, civil or military, under the authority 
of the United States, that they be vigdant and zealous in 
discharging the duties respectively incident thereto : and I 
do moreover exhort all the good people of the United 
States, as they love their country ; as they value the pre- 
cious heritage deriveiL,from the virtue and valor of tneir 
fathers ; as they feel the wrongs which have forced on them 
the last resort of injured nations ; and as they consult the 
best means, under the blessing of Divine Providence, of 
abridging its calamities ; that they exert themselves in 
preserving order, in promoting concord, in maintaining- 
the authority and efficacy of the laws, and in supporting 
and invigorating all the measures which may be adopted 
by the constituted authorities, for obtaining a speedy, a 
just, and an honorable peace. 

In testimony wiiekeof I have hereunto set my hand, 
and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed to 
these presents. ' * « - u *• > 

(SEAL) 

DONE at the City of Washington, the nineteenth day of 
June, one thousand eight bundi'cd and twelve, and of 
the Independence of the United States the thirty sixth. 
(Signed) 

' JAMES MADISON. 

By the President , 



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(Signed) 






JAIMES MONROE, ' 

ti * , Secretary of Stale » 



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HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



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CHAPTER IV. 



THE FIRST PRISONER. 

Was taken in Norfok, Virijmia — A g'entleman, by 
llie name uf Wiikinsofif arrived in that place about I he 
lir.stot' June, and put up at the BhtiHh Consul's. The 
citizens suspected him to be a British uihcer, and arcord. 
inj^ly kept an eye upon him. On the receipt of the De- 
claration uf War, VVilkinson, as the mail boat was about 
to depart, was seen to make a precipitate retreat throuirh 
the back street^ which led from the Consul's to the wharf, 
wher« the boat lay, when he sprang on board, darted into 
the cabin, and in a few seconds was under way. It was 
known that a man of war was hovering on the coast, and 
bi»intention was to communicate the declaration of war to 
her. fioats, from the navy yard and fort N*'Ison, were 
immediately dispatched, which succeeded in taking W^iU 
kmson. lie proved to be a captain in the Royal Marmes. 
THE FIRST PRIZE. 

Was the schooner Patriot, .1. A. Brown, Master, from 
Guadaloupe, bound to Ualifiix, with a valuable cargo of 
sugar, taken by the revenue cutter Jefferson, Wm. Ham, 
Master, and arrived at Norfolk, June 26. 

MESSAGE, 
To tite Senate and Hmise ef Hepresenlatives af the United 

States, 
I transmit, for the information of Congress, copies of 
letters which have pa?*^ "d between the Secretary of State, 
and the Envoy Extr^. 'nary and minister Plenipotentiary 
of Great-Britain. 

JAMES MADISON. 
June 15, 181l». 
... Mr. Foster to Mr. Monroe, 

Washington, June 10, 1812. 
SIR — It has been extremely satisfactory to me, to find 
by your letter dated June 6th, which I had the honor to re- 
ccive yesterday morning, that it was not the wish of the 
American government to close all further discussion rela- 
tive to the important questions at issue, between the tvo 



HISTORY OP TrieWAfU 



96 



countries. I be^ you to lie a.ssure({, sir, that it nerer was 
iiiv iiileiition, in alluding to my leiters which had remain* 
ill withuut answer at )uur oflice, to u»e any exprefisiimt 
wjiicli could, in the most remote manner* contain any tiling 
nersonal. I Nhall ever be ready with pleasure to liear les- 
timoi>y to thai frankness, candor, and ^ood tem|>er, which 
so einnient^y distinguish yon, and have been acknowledged 
to belong to you, by all who have ever had the honor to 
discuss with you any question of' public interest. 

But, sir. although you were not backward in entering in- 
to lull explanations with me verl>ally, I could moI but feel, 
particularly as 1 had just had cumniunications to make to 
you of the greatest importance, that 1 had a right to expect 
tVoni you a written reply to them ; and while I remember* 
ed that two of my former notes were still unanswered, the 
one written three months ago, containing amung other im« 
])ortant topics, a particular question which I was expressly 
instructed to put to you, as to whether you could point to 
any public act, on the part af the French government, by 
winch they had really revoked their Decrees, and the otiier 
furni!>hing- strong evidence of the continued existence of 
those very Decrees ; alsu, when I perceived that my note, 
coiumunicating the duke of Bassano's report, which you 
kiiew was to (je sent to you on the 1st inst. was not waited 
for, but that a message was transmitted by the Executive to 
Congress, which it seems contained a reference to an insu- 
lated passage m the despatch on winch my note was found- 
ed, that if taken unconnected with what preceded or fitl- 
lowed, it might be liable to misconstruction, I could not 
avoid apprehending that no means of further explanation 
niigiit be left open to me. 

J beg you to be assured sir, that if I was embarrassed by 
your demands of an explanation as to what appeared to yon 
to be a difference between lord Castlereugh^s despatch, com- 
municated to you, and my note, it arose from the novelty 
ot the demand, that seemed to involve an informality of 
jmiceeding, in which I could not feel myself juslitied in 
acquiescing. Had you, in making a reply to my cominu- 
nicution, asked me how fur a repeal of the French Decrees 
was demanded by my government, and as to whether a sjje- 
cial repeal, as far as respected America, would be sufticient, 
I sliuuld have had no hesitation in giving you every satm- 
faction. 



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' YoQ note of the 6th instant has, by shewing that the ilour 
was not absohitely shut to a coiitniuance of our <hst'UHsioii. 
reheved rae from further ditiiculty on this pouit. 

I have no hesitation, sir, in siiyinsf that Great- Britain, a:^ 
the case has hitherto stood, never did, nor never could eiw 
gage, without the grossest injustice to lierself and her 
allies, as well as to other neutral natons, to re|)eal her Or- 
ders as affecting America alone, lea\ ing them in force 
against otiicr states, upon condition that France wguld ex- 
cept, singly and specially. America, from the operation of 
her Decrees. You will recollect, sir, that the Orders in 
Council are measures of defence, directed aganist the sys. 
tern contained in those Decrees ; that it is a war of trade 
which is carried on by France ; that what you cail tlie 
municipal regulations of France, have never been called 
municipal by France herself, but are her main engines in 
that novel and monstrous system. It cannut, then, be ex- 
pected that Great-Britain should renounce her efforts to 
throw back upon France the evils with which she menaces 
Great-Britain, merely hecnuse France ni.ght seek to alle- 
viate her own situation by waving the exercise of that part 
of her system which she cannot enforce. 

But, sir, to what purpose argue upon a supposed^case ; 
upon a state of things not likely to occur, since the lute re- 
port and senatus consul tuni which have been published to 
the world, as it were, insultingly in the face of those m ho 
would contend that any repeal whatever had taken place, 
of the Decrees in question. 

You draw a comparison between the mode in which tills 
instrument has appeared, and that which you call the higii 
evidence of the re|)eal as stated in Mr. Champagny's note : 
and it would almost seem as if you considered the latter as 
the most authentic of the two ; but, sir, you cannot seriously 
contend that the duke of Bassano's report, with the seimiu> 
consultum accompanying it, published in the oflicial pajx r 
at Paris, is not a very different instrument from the abuvi 
letter, offering a mere provisional lepeal ot the Decrees, 
upon conditions utterly inadmissible : conditions too, which 
really formed of themselves a question of paramount im- 
portance. 

The condition then demanded, and which was brought 
forward so unexpectedly, was a repeal of the blockade of 



HlJlTORT or THE 'WAS. 



OS 



Mu), lt^>t>, whicli Mr. Piiikiiey, in ike lelleryou hatere> 
tcrtul lui' to, (ic'ctiircil to have l>eeti ruauired by Aineric;i as 
iiHiispeiiMaUieiii Uih vi«w of hrracbol inlercouriie aiid inm* 
iiilercoiirse, as well as a re|ical ut olh«!r blockades of a tinw 
liar characUfi', which were maintained by G. Britain, to be 
i'uiiiiiled ui) strict niaritiuie rig^hti*. 

The coiiditiunK now annexed to>the French demand are 
tnui'h more extcnstive, and uit I have tihewn, includeM a sur- 
render of many other of the most evlablishcd principles of 
the public law of nations. 

i cannot, I confenit, wee upon what ground you contend 
that the report of the duke of BatMtiiio, afi^irilM no proof 
against any partial re|)eal of the Fueiidi ])eoree8. The 
principles advanced in that report are ge>^eral ; there is 
110 exception made in favor of America, and in tlie correa* 
pondence of Mr. Barlow, as officially published, he seems 
to allow that he had no explanation respecting it. JPlow 
can it, therefore, be considered in any other light than as ft 
republication of the Decrees themselves ? which, as it were 
to take away all ground for any doubt, expressly advances 
;i doctrine tliat can only be put in practice on the high seas, 
tiurnely, * that free ships shall make free goods,* since the 
applifiation of such a principle to vessels in port is absolute- 
[v rejected under his continental system. 

It is, indeed, impossible to see how, under such circum* 
>innces, America can call u\yon G. Britain to revoke her 
Orders in Council. It is impossible that she can revoke 
them at this moment, in common justice to herself and to 
her allies ; bat, sir, while under tlie necessity of contiiiu- 
mg; them, she will be ready to manage their exercise, so as 
\o alleviate as much as possible, the pressure upon America ; 
.tiid it would give me great pleasure to confer with you, at 
tay time, upon the most advisable manner of producing 
Hi;»! etfpct. I have the honor to bt», &c. 

^^ AUGUSTUS J. FOSTER. 



1^ 



< I 



AL: Monroe to Mr. Faster, 

Dj!:i»AiiT.MENT or Static, Jone 13,1812. 

»IR — 1 am not aware that any letter of yours, on any 

&ubjert, on which the linal decision of this government had 

act been communicated to you, has been sufiered to remain 

wirhoiit a I'rgmpt atul written answer : and even in the 



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98 



HiarruHV of the wam. 



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vwe% ihiiN suppcM^l to hsive l>een Kellled, which you thought 
|«roper to revive, ahhoiigh no fiivonible change had taken 
place in tlie policy or meuHureii of your {rovertiineut, I li:i\t> 
n«ver failed to explain tn you iiifornially, in early inter- 
views, the reasons which made it ini|)eriou8ly the duty of 
the U. States tu continue to afford, to their rights and inter- 
ests, all the protection in their power. The acknowledg- 
ment of this on your part, was due to the frankness uf tlie 
communications which have passed between us on the high- 
ly important subjects on which we have treated, and 1 aio 
happy to find by your letter of the 10th inst. that in relyio|f 
on it, 1 have not been disappointed. 

The impropriety of the demand made by your govern- 
ment of a copy of the instrument of nistructions given by 
the French government to its crui/ers, after the repeal of 
the Berlin and Milan Decrees, was suHSciently shown in 
M r. Pinkncy^s letter to the Marquis i)f Wellesley of the 
10th of December, 1810, and in my letters to you of the 
2dd July 1811, and 14th January last. It was for this rea- 
son that I thought it more suitable to refer you to those letters, 
for the answer to that demand, than to repeat it in a formal 
communication. 

It excites, however no small surprise, that you s||ouUl 
continue to demand a copy of that instrument, or any new 
proof of the repeal of the French Decrees, at the very time 
that you declare that the proof which you demand, in the 
extent to which we have a right to claim tlie repeal, would 
not, if afforded, obtain a corresponding repeal of the Orders 
in Council. This demand is the more extraordinary, when 
it is considered, that since the repeal of the Decrees, as it 
res))ect8 the U. States, was announced, your government 
has enlarged its pretensions, as to the conditions on which 
the Orders in Council should be repealed, and even invigor- 
ated its practice under them. 

' It is satisfactory to find that there has been no misapprehen- 
sion of the condition, without which your government reiu- 
ses to repeal the Orders in Council. You admit that to 
obtain their repeal, in respect to the IT. I^tates, the repeal of 
the French Decrees must be absolute and iniconditional, 
not as to the U. States only, but to all other neutral nations; 
nor as far as they affect neutral conmierce only, but as they 
operate internally and affect the trade in British manufac- 



HISTORY OF T1IC WAR. 

turfjv with the eneini<^(k of 0. Britain. \n the Ordeni in 
Council have fonned n principsil caune of tb« difK.*renccfi 
which unhnppily exist between our couiithe)*, a condition 
of their repeal, communicnted in any authentic document or 
niaiiiier, was entitled to partirulnr attentiou ; and aurely 
iiono could have so hi^h a claim to it, a^i the letter from 
Lord Castierenn^h to you, submitted by hi«i nothority to my 
view, for tlie exprcMS purpose of making that ctmditioo, 
with itH other contents, known to tliis government. 

With this knowled<^e of the determination of your gfov* 
«rnment, to say nothing of the otiier conditions annexed to 
the re|)eal of the OrderH in Council, it is impossible for me 
to devise or conceive any arrangement consistent with the 
honor, the rights and interests of the U. States, that coidd 
be made the basis or become the result of a conference on 
the subject. As the President neverlheless retains his soli- 
citude to see a happy termination of any differences l>e- 
tween the two countries, and wishes that every opportunity* 
however unpromising, which may possibly lead to it, should 
be taken advantage of, I have the honor to inform you that 
I am ready to receive and pay due attention to any com- 
munication or propositions, having the object in view, which 
you may be authorised to make. ■*■'■- ' 'I i 

Under existing circumstances, it is deemed most advisa- 
ble, in every respect, that this should be done in writing, 
asmosl susceptible of the requisite precision, and least liable 
to niisaprehension. Allow me to add, that it is equally 
desirable that it should be done without delay. By this it is 
not meant to preclude any additional opportunity which 
may beaftbrded by a personal interview. 1 have the honor 
to be, &c. • JAM£;^ MONRCMS, •/ 

' JMr, Foster to Mr. Monroe. ' '^i 

Washington, June 14, 1812. 

SIR — I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of 
your letter of the 13th. instant. '' ' • 'J J . r » 

It is really quite painful to me to perceive, that notwith- 
standing the length of the discussions which have taken 
place between us, misapprehensions have again arisen res- 
pecting some of the most important features in the questions 
at issue l>etween our two countries ; which misapprehen- 
flions, perhaps, proceeding from my not expressing myself 



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ItfSTOHY OF 'I Iff. \> Ali. 



lUfSci^ntly cltenr in my note of (lie lOtli iitsi. ui icUtiuit u 
one ol'tboKe qaektionis it is nlMoluUly lurt.ssirj ^ilOlll(i Ih 
done ownV' 

I lieflT leave tm^'m to Male 103011, ftir, (lint it 'm not Ike 
operation of (lie French Ducretn ii|kmi liie British trade Mjiii 
ill)' enemies of G. Britain, (li»( liaNcver formed n Kulijcctot 
dincutftion between iiM, and (hill it in the oiicrnlion of tliusc 
Decreett opon G. Britain, tiii'uuu[h iinitrai comiilcrci! only, 
vhicb has really itcen the point nt iwiiie. Had Amcnrs 
reaiNtetl the effect of those Dv.cropH in (heir full cxtnit iipun 
her neutral rtfchtn, we alionld never have had a difference 
upon the subject ; but ivhile French cruizers continue to 
captore her ships under their operation, she seems to have 
been satisfied if Ihose ships were released by special iiu^Ki- 
irial mandates, issued as the occasion arose ; and she hai^ 
chosen to call municipal nn une\aniple<l assnntption of au> 
thority by France, in countries not under French jurisdir- 
lion, and expressly invaded for the purpose of prevenliiiv 
their trade with England, on principles directly applicable 
to, if they could be enforced a{^nin!4t America. < 

.f: I beg you to recollect, sir, (hut if no revocation had been 
made of the Orders in Council, upon any repeal of the 
French Decrees, ns hitherto shown by America to have 
taken place, it has not l)een the fault oi his majesty V gov. 
ernment. It was France, and afierwards America, tiint 
connected the question relative to the right of blockade wilh 
that arising out of the Orders in Council. You well know 
that if these two questions had not been united togetlier, the 
Orders in Council would have been, in 1810, revoked. 
How could it be expected (hat G. Britain, in common jus- 
tice to other neutral nations, to her allies, and to herNelf, 
should not contend for a full and absolute repeal of tlie 
French Decrees* or should engage to make any particular 
concession in favor of America, when she saw that Ame- 
rica would not renoqnce her demand for a surrender with 
the Orders in Council of some of our most important mari- 
time rights. 

£vcn to this day, sir, you have not explicitly stated in 
any of the letters to which you refer me that the American 
government would expressly renounce asking for a revocti- 
tionofthe blockadeof May, 1806, and the other blockiide 
alluded to iu Mr. Piiiknev's leU*?r ; much lef?shavel bnii 



HIXT.tRY or Till WAR. 



Ml 



liflo io oUttiiii from you any di«rUimer of llic rigliU awiertud 
f)v Kratu't* to impof)«; iifuiii llie worltl ihe new nianlinMf coJo 
proiiuilg'iUcd liy Friiiicc in IIh^ tatr re|mblicalKNi cf licr 
D.rivL'H, nllliotijjfh 1 ltav«>, Ity onler of my goverttmeiit, ex- 
)r(>ssiy slat<'<l IIm ir ox|K'c;liilion of wiicli cliNcltiiiner, and rc- 
ixMU'dly ciiltffl fuiaii explanaitoii oiilhi« point. 

1 will now say lliat 1 feel ciilircly aiilliorised to aasur«: 
\ oil thai if you run, nt any tinir, |N-u<lun(! a full and uncon- 
ditional repeal of tlie Frencb Decrecti, as you have a rifflil 
1(1 (It'niand it in your rliaracti'i* of a neutral nation, and that 
)t Ih: (lisenga;<od Iron) any connection wilh the queslion 
concerning our maritime rights, we shall be ready to meet 
YOU with a revocation of the Orders in Council. Previous 
to your producing Hucli an instrument, which I am sorry to 
4t(> you regard um unneressary, you c&nnoi expect of us lo 
o-ive up our Orders in Council. : '.'uii n-., <rAu\ 

In reference to the concluding paragraph of your letter 
in answer to that in mine of the lOlh iiist. f will only say, 
tlitit I am extremely sorry to fmd you think it iinpo.ssible to 
(It'vise or conceive any arrangement consistent with the 
liunor, rights, and interests, of the U. States, which might 
tend to alleviate the pressure of the Orders in Council on 
the commerce of America. It woald have given me great 
satisfaction if we could have fallen iipon some agreement 
that might have had sudli effect. My govcrnnieiU, while 
under the imperious necessity of resisting France with her 
own Weapons, most earnestly desires that the interest of 
America may suffer as little as possible from the inciden- 
tal effect of the conflict. They ara aware that their retuU 
ialory measures have forced the ruler of France lo yield in 
•>ome degree from his hostile Decrees, and whether it were 
more advisable to push those measures rigorously on Hnctil 
they oomplete the breaking of it up altogether, (the main 
object of our retaliatory system) orio take advantage of the 
partial and progressive retraotioiis of it, produced by ihe ne. 
oessities of the enemy, has been a question with his maje^y's 
^orernment. It is one on which they would have lieen 
most desirous to consult the interest of America. Under 
oxisting circumstances, however, and from our late com- 
munications, 1 have not felt encouras 



iged 



you any 



wnlten proposal arising out of this state of things ; I shall 



Ihcrof 



or 



p. merely again express to you, that as the object of 




lot 



UISTOHr OrTHK WAM. 



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G. Hi'ittin ha* been ihroiiipliout to endeavor, wliilo forced, 
iu behalf of her moMt important rights and intermt to retn. 
liate upon t^ French Hccreeti, to c<vinbinc that retaliation 
with the (Treatcflt pomible <h'8:r(!e of attention to the intrreNt 
of America* it would ofive hi» niajeMly'N fi^overnroent tli« 
moNt Hincerc satiHfiiction if Home nrrancfenient could l>e found 
which would have ao deitirable an etiV^ci. 
' ' » I have the honor to be, &c. 

AUGUSTUS J. FOSTER. 



.Ml- 



MESSAGE. 
To the Senale and House of liepreaeniatives o/t/u: U. Staks. 

I communicate to (Jong^ress copies of a letter to the Se- 
cretary of State, from the charge*; d'affairs of the U. States at 
London, and of a note to him from the British Secretary 
for foreign aifuirs. 

' I JAMES MADISON. 

June 22, 1812. r. 



''AU 7. 'I. '» 



<*l 



' $ Mr, Russell to the Secretary of Slate, 

London, May 2, 1812. 

SIR — After closing^ the duplicate of my letter to you of 
tlie 2(Hh ult. I discovered the copy of the note of lord Cas- 
tlereagh to me of the 21st ult. had be£n left out by mistake. 
I take the liberty of now handing it to you. 
».. .. JONATHAN RUSSELL. 

[Enclosed in the above.] 

The undersigned, his majesty's principal Secretarv of 
State for foreign affairs, is commanoed by his royal high- 
ness, the prince regent, to transmit to Mr. Russell, charge 
d'afi'airs of the government of the U. States of America, 
the enclosed copy of a Declaration accompanying an Order 
in Council which has been this day passed by his royal 
highness, the prince regent in Council. 

The undersigned is commanded by the prince regent to 
request that Mr. Russell, in making this communication to 
his government, will represent this measure as conceived 
in the true spirit of conciliation, and with a due regard, on 
the part of his royal highness, to the honor and interest of 
the U. States ; and the undersigned ventures to expresi 
bis confident hope, that this decisive proof of the amicable 



niSTORT OF TRB WAB. 



foa 



^entimentf which animiile the couiicili of bit royal bi^- 
neM lowardM America, aiay acceleraUi ihe reiura of amity 
nnti mutual confidence between Greai-BriU^ and thiu 
United State*. 

The undeniig;ned avails himself of this opportunity to re- 
peHllo Mr. Uukiell the assumnctfR uf hit hi|rn roimiderHtion. 

CASTLLa£A(iH. 

Foreign Office, April 2\, 1812. 
i ORDKK IN CUCNCIL. 

At the Court at Carltun-Housc, the 'ilst day of April, 
IHl'i, present his royal highness the princo regent in 
Cuuiicil. 

Whereas the government of France has, by an official 
report, communicated by its minister of foreign affairs to 
the conservative Senate, on the 10th of March last, reniov- 
c(l all doubts as to the perseverence of that government in 
the assertion of principles, and in the muintainnnce of a 
system, not more hostile to the maritime rights and com- 
niercial interest of the British empire, than inconsistent with 
the rights and independence ot neutral nations, and has 
thereby plainly develope<l the inordinate pietenvions which 
that system, us promulgated in the Decrees of Berlin and 
Milan, was from the first designed to enforce. 

And whereas his mujesty has invariably professed his 
readiness to revoke the Orders in Council adopted tliere- 
tijiun, as soon as the said Decrees of the enemy should bo 
formally and unconditionally repealed, and the commei* ce 
uf neutral nations restored to its accustomed course : 

His royal highness the prince regent (anxious to give the 
most decisive proof of his royal highness' disposition to 
perform the engagements of his majesty's government) is 
pleased, in the name and on the behalf of his majesty, and 
hy and with the advice of his majesty's privy Council, to 
order and declare, and it is hereby ordered and declared, 
tlialif, at any time hereafter, the Berlin and Milan Decrees 
shall by some authentic act of the French government, pub- 
licly promulgated, be absolutely and unconditionally re- 
ea!Kd,then, and from thenceforth, the Order in Council of 
lie 7th day of January, 1807, and the Order in Council of 
Iie2(ithday of April, 1809, shall, without any further or« 
'er,be, and the same are hereby declared from thenceforth 
>l»ewhoIlvan<l ahsolntelv rovokod ; »nfMnHher, that tht 




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104 



KlISl'OUY OV TUK WAK. 



lull benefit of this order Nhall be exlenclcd to any flhip or 
carf^o captured subKcquent to Huchaulhentic act of reiieai 
of the French Decref-s, uithou|>^h antecedeiil to Mich repeal 
such ship or vemiel vhaii have cummeiiced and Hhall have 
been in the prosecution of a voyvi\^tt which, under the ^aid 
Orders in Council, or one of them, wouhl have subjected 
her to capture and condemnation ; and the claimant of nn\ 
^>hip oi' car^o which hhuU be captured or broug^ht to adjudi- 
cation, on acconitt of any alleyfed breach of either of thr 
said Orders in Council, alany ttmesubitequent to such ati- 
ihentic act of repeal by the French government, shall with- 
out any further Order or Declaration on the part of lii» 
majesty's government on this subject, be at liberty to give 
in evidence iu the high Courts of Admiralty, or any Cunrt 
of Vice-Admiralty, before xvhich such ship or cargo shall 
be brought for adjudication, that such repeal by the French 
governmenl had been, by such authentic act, promulgated 
prior to such capture ; and upon proof thereof, the voyage 
shall be deemed and taken to have been as lawful as if tbe 
said Orders in Councd had never been made : saving, nev- 
ertheless, to the captors, such protection and indemnity as 
they may be equitably entitled to in the judgment of thi 
said Court, by reason of theii ignorance, of uncertainty as to 
the repeal of the French Decrees, or of the recognition ot 
such repeal by his majesty's government at the time of ^ucti 
capture. 

His royal highness, however deems it proper to declare, 
that should the repeal of the French Decrees, thus'auticiput- 
cd and provided for, prove afterwards to have been illuson 
on the part ofthc Ciieiny ; and should the restrictions there- 
of be still practically enforced, or revived by the enemy 
G. Britain will be compelled, however reluctantly, attei 
reasonable notice, to have recourse to such measures of le 
taliation as may then appear to be just and necessary. 

And the Right Honorable the lords conmiissioners oil 
his Majesty's treasury, his Majesty's |)rincipal Secretaiii* 
of state, the lords Commissioners of the Admiralt}', uiiti 
the Judges of the high Court of Admiralty, and th€!*Jud<;f> 
of the Courts of Vice- Admiralty, are to take the necessan 
measures therein as to thorn shall rosnectivelv appertain. 

CHtTWYND. 



nrsTonv op thr vtx'k. 



100 



Mr. Rnssell to ijotd CastlerMgh. 

Mv ^^ — ' *"*^*' ^^*^ honor to acknowh dtre the receipt 
t>«" the note which your lortlMliip uddrejiHe*! to in« on th** tjlst 
of this month, enclosinff, hy commaiHl of hi« royal highn#^», 
the prince wgent, a co|»y of a declaration accompanying^ at 
Order in Council which had this day lK?en pawed. 

It wo<dd utl'oril me the hii^sl satinfaction, in communi- 
•aling that declaration and order to my {ifovemnii?fit, to 
have repreaeiiled ihem, as conceived in the true spirit ol 
conciliation and with a dne regard to the honor and inter- 
ests of the U. Stales. I regret, however, that so far Iron 
perceiving in iheni any evidence of the amicabl*? sentiment 
which are professed to animate the councils of his roya 
highness, I am compelled to consider them as an Uiidq<ii- 
vocal proof of the determination of his B i annic majesty *b 
government to adhere to a system, which, both as to prin- 
ciple and fact) originated, and has been continued in error ; 
and against which, the government of the U. States, so 
long as it respects itself and the essential righti of the na- 
tion over which it is placed, cannot cease to contend. 

The U. States have never considered it their duty to en- 
quire» nor do they pretend to decide, whether England or 
France was guilty, in relation to the other, of the first viola- 
tion of the public law of nations; but they do consi«ier it 
iheir most imperious duty to protect themselves from thfc 
unjust opemtion of the unprecedented measure of retalia- 
tion professed by both powers to be founded on such viola- 
tion. In this 0|)eration, by whichever party directed, the 
U. Stales have never, for a moment, acquiesced, nor by thfe 
slightest indication of such acquiescence, afforded a pretext, 
for extending to them the evils, by which Etigland and 
France atfect to retaliate t>n each other. They have m no in- 
stance departed from theubservance of that strict impnrlialty 
which their peaceful position required, and which ought 
to have secured to them the unmolested enjoyment of tlieir 
neutrality. To tljeir astonishment, however, they perceiv- 
ed that both these belligerent powers, under tlie pretence 
of annoying each other, adopted and put in practice new 
principles of retaliation, involving the destruction of tlio^e 
commercial and maritime rights which the U. States i*e- 
'^vA as essential and iiiscperable attributes of their inde- 
perMlencp Althonfj:li alive to ail the injnrv and ininstice of 

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106 



III.STORY OF THE WAR. 



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this sysU'm, Ihe Amt^riraii (ruvrniiiuMit resorted to no men. 
ur<'s to oppose it,\%hirli were not of the nio»t pacitic ai.r itQ. 
parlial character in rel>ilion to both the a^;gre§sorM. hs re. 
inonsl ranees, it» fcKtriclioii» o( coniiMercial intercourse, and 
its overtures lor acroninioilation, were equally adtlressed to 
£n<rtand and Fruice : and if there is now an ine(|uaiity iu 
the relations of the U. States with these counlnes, it ran 
only be aseribed to Ent^land herself, who rejected lh»i terini 
proiiered to both, wlii^e FVance nt'ce ted them, and who 
continues to execute her retaliatory Edicts on th< high seas, 
"while those of France have here ceased to operate. 

If G. Britain could not be persuaded by cotisiderations 
of universal equality, to refrain from udooting- any line of 
conduct, however unjust, for which she niis;ht discover a 
precedent in the conduct of her enemy, or to abandon an 
attempt of remotely and uneerta'inl) annoying that enemy 
through the iiuinediate and sme destruction of the vital in. 
terest of a neutral and unolfeMding state, yet it was coiifi. 
denlly expected ih-.tt she would be willing to follow that 
enemy al.^o in his return low ards justice, and, from a res- 
pect to her own decUtrations to proceed pari passu with hitn 
in the revocation of the oilending Edicts. This just ex^ec. 
tatiun has, however, been disappointeil, and an exemption 
of the flag of the U. States from the operation of the Berlin 
and Milan Decrees, has produced no correspoitding modi- 
fication of the British Orders in Council. On the contrary, 
he fact of such exemption on the part of Fr nee, a|)pears, 
by the declaration and Order in Council of the British go- 
vernment on the 21st of this month, to be denied, and thet:'n- 
gagements of the latter, to proceed, step by step, witii its 
enemy, in the work ot repeal and relaxation, to be disown- 
ed or disregarded. 

That France has repealed her Decrees so far as they re- 
spected the U. States, has been established by declaratiuns 
and facts, satisfactory to them, and which it was presumed 
should have been equally satisfactory to the British g<»vern- 
ment. A formal and authentic declaration of the French 
government communicated to the minister plenipotentiary 
of the U. States at Paris, on the 5th of August, 1810, an- 
nounced that the Decrees of Berlin and Mdin were revoked, 
andshouhl cease to operate on the 1st of the succeeding 
iNlovember, provided that a condition presented to Eng:- 



HISTOUY OF THE WAR. 



107 



land, or another onndition preseiiUcI to lh«» l^. Stal*»s should 
bt^ l>ert"otiiied. Tlie coiidilioii pri'NeiitfMt to the I', i^loles 
^jiH i oriiifti, -.iiid iheir pertormai»re reuttered »hM«lute 
tlif ri - ii "♦ the Decrees. So tar therefore, from Ih.s re- 
peiil dei lending u|Nin a condition in which G. Bniain could 
nol acquiesce, it became absolute, inde|>e«i(teiit of any act 
01 G. Bnlaiu, the moment the act proposed for the perform- 
ance oi the U. States was accompliKiieii. Such was the 
coiiHtructiou i^iveii to this measure by the V. States from 
iht tirst ; and that it was a correct one has been sutficiently 
evinced by the subsequent practice. 

Several instances of the acquittal of American vessels and 
cargoes, to which the Decrees would have attached, if still 
in force agaiust the U. States, have from time to limf, l»een 
presented to his Britannic majesty's troveriiment. That 
tiu'se cases have been few, is to lie ascnl>ed to the few ca|>> 
tures, in consequence of this repeai, made by French cruiz- 
ers ; and should no other such case occur, it would be ow- 
ing to the efficacy of this repeal, and to the exact observ- 
ance of it, even by the most wanton and irregular of those 
cruizers. 

From the 1st of November, 1810, to the 20th of January 
of the present year, as appears by a note whM'h I had the 
honor to address to the predecessor of your lordship, on tiie 
8th of February last, the Berlin and Milan Decrees had not 
been applied to American property, nor have 1 heard that 
such application has since been made. 

But against the authentic act of the French government 
of the 5th August, 1810, and the subsequent conduct of the 
government, mutually explaining each other, and conform>- 
ing the construction adopted by the V. States, a re port said 
to be communicated by tfto French minister of Foreign af- 
fairs to the eoiiserviUe senate, is op|)Osed. Without preten- 
ding to doubt the gemiineness of that report, although it 
has reached tlus country only in a newspaper, yet it i« to be 
lamented that as much form and evidence of authenticity 
have not been required, iu an act considered as furnishing 
cause for the contimiaiice of the Orders in Council, as an 
act »hicli by the very terms of these Orders challenged 
their revocation. — The act of the t>th of August, J 8 10, 
eiuaiiating froai the sovereign of FVancc, oilicially commu 
Bleated to the British government, and satisfactorily exi>ouiit: 



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ed nnd explained by the prftcticnl commenlft of more tlniij 
e(i;litecii nii>iitb.s, Im d«'iiied lo afl'ord coiivinciiii^ evidence 
ol die repeal of the French Dicree?*, while full |>rouf ot 
ilieir continuance \s interred (nun a report, w'mcIi, from its 
very nature, muNt contam the mere opinions and .specula* 
tiuiiH of a Miihject uhich im destitute of all authority until act- 
ed upon 1>\ the Ijudy to which it was presented, which has 
found its way hilht-r in no more aulheiitit sha(>e tliaii the 
columns of the rjonilcur, and f(»r the proper understuitd- 
ing of which not a moment has been allowed. — BiU evea 
vere the cau.^e thus assigited to the report just, it is Hlilldif« 
ficult to discover what initt^rence can l)e fairly deduced from 
it iiicompalibie with the previous declarations and cuodoct 
of the French governaient exemptuif the Uaited States 
from the operation ot its Decrees. The very exception in 
that report with regard to nations who do not sutler tbeir 
flag to i>e (ienationaiized, was undoubtedly made with re- 
tiertnce to ilie U. States, and with a view to reconcile tlie 
general tenor of thtt report with tlie good forth wilb which 
it became France to observe the conventional repeal of those 
DtM'rees in their favor. However novel may be the terms 
em;<loyc'd, or whatever may be their precise meaning, they 
ought to be interpreted to accord with the engagements of 
the French government, and with justice and good faitb. 

Your lordship will, I doubt aoU iUe more readily ac^ 
knowledge the propriety of considering the report in this 
light, by a reference to similar reports made to the same 
conservative senate, on the Idth of Ilec. 1810, by the duke 
■ot Cadore (the predecessor of the present French minister 
of exterior relations) and by the count de Simonville. In 
tbese reports they say to the emperor, (which* proves that 
sucii reports are not to be considered as dictated by bini) 
* Sire, as long as £ngland shall persist in her Orders in 
Council, so long your majesty will persist in your Decrees,' 
and * the Decrees of Berlin atid Milan are an answer to 
the Orders tn Cuuncil. The British Cabinet, hits, thus to 
speak, dictated them to France. £urope receives them 
for her code, nnd this code shall become tlie palladium of 
the liberty ot the seas." Surely, this 1 mguage is as strong 
as that of the report of the 10th of March, and still more 
absolute ; lor there is no quaitication in it in favor of any 
■atiou^ thislanguageiias bothy by aa explanation of the 



HISTORY or THK WAS. 



109 



^ke of Cndore to me ni the tninc lime, and by the nniform 
n>ii(Uu-t ut the Freiifh ^veritmetit niitce, been reroiiciled 
xv»th iiie repeal of llieM Dtxreei, sotar m tbuy concenied 
l\\e V' StsiteJk 

Had the Freni'Ii Decrecu ori^inall? afforded on adequate 
foiiiubtioii tor tbe Bi'iiiMh Urtler* iii Council, and been con* 
tiiiut'd after these reports, in full force, and extent, irarely, 
dnnng: a period in winch above a hundred Amtncan wes- 
seU and their carg-or» have Mien a prey to thene Orden, 
mmw one solitary instaKce of capture and confiNi'alion oMMt 
hii>e liap|>encd under those Decrees. That do sucb in- 
stance has hapYiened mcontrovertibly proven, either that 
(lio.se Decrees are of themselves liaruileHS, or that they hnvo 
been repealed ; and in either cme Ihey can afford noright- 
fiil plea or pretext for G. Britam,for thcNe measure* ot pre- 
tended retaliation, whose sole efteel is to lay waste the neiK 
tral commerce of America. 

Witli the remnant of those Decrees, which is still in 
force, and which comisIs of municipal regulations, contined 
in their operation within ttic proper ana undeniable jurist 
diction of the States where they are executed^ tlie V. States 
have no concern ; nor do they acknowledge th..m8elves to 
be under any political obligation^ either to exanomie into the 
«nds (proposed to be attained by this surviving portion of 
tbe continental system, or to oppose their accompUshuienl. 
Whatever may be intended to be done in regard to olbec 
naiioiisby thi&system, cannot be imputed to the U. State% 
nor aretlicy to be made responsible, while they religiou»l|r 
observe the obligations of their neutrality for the mode in 
which beUigerent nations may choose toexerci.se their pow- 
er, for the injury of each other. When, however, these n** 
tions exceed the just limits of tlieir power by the invasioH 
of the rights if peaceful states on the ocean which is sub- 
ject to the coimuon and equal jnrisdidfkNk of alt nations, 
tlie IT. States cannot remain indi^rent, and by quietly con- 
senting to yiekt up their share of thi» jurisdiction, abandon 
t^eir maritnne rights. — France has respected thexe hghtft 
by the discontimiance of her Edicts on the high seas^ 
leaving no part of these Edicts in o|>eration to tbe nijury of 
the U, States; and of course, no part in which they can be 
suj^posed to atcquiesce, or against which they can he re- 
«|uired to contend. They ask G. Britain, by a like respect 




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110 



HISTORY OF THE WAS. 



fur their righUi, to exempt them from the operation of her 
Orders in Council. Should such exemption involve (lie 
total practical extinction of these Orders, it will only prove 
that they were e;Lclusively applied to the commerce uf the 
U. Stales, and that they had not a single feature of rescm- 
bianre to the Decrees, against waich they are professed to 
retaliate. 

It is with patience and confidence that the Ignited States 
have expected (his exemption, and to which they belie\ed 
themselves entitled, by all those considerations of right and 
promise, which I have freely stated to your lordship. With 
whtit disappointment, therefore, mtist they learn that G. 
Britain, in professing to do away their disaffection, explicit- 
ly avows her intention to persevere in lier Ordei-s in Coun- 
cil, until some authentic act hereafter to be promulgated by 
the French government, shall 4eclarethe Berlin and Milan 
Decrees are expressly and unconditionally repealed. To 
obtain such aa act, can the United States interfere ? Would 
such an interference be compatible either with a sense of 
justice, or with what is due to their own dignity ? Can they 
be expected to falsify their repeated declarations of their 
satisfaction with the act of the 5th of August, 1810, con- 
Armed by abundant evidence of its subsequent observance, 
and by now affecting to doubt of the sufficiency of that act, 
to demand another, which in its form, its mode of publica- 
laon, and its import, shall accord with the requisitions of G. 
Britain ? And can it be supposed that the French govern- 
ment would listen to such a proposal made under such cir- 
cumstances, and with such a view ? 
- While, therefore, I can perceive no reason, in the report 
of the French minister, of the lOlh of March, to believe that 
the U. States erroneously assumed the repeal of the French 
Decrees, to be complete in relation to them ; while aware 
that the condition of which the Orders in Council is now 
distinctly made to depend, is the total repeal of both (lie 
Berlin and Milan Decrees, instead as formerly of the Berlin 
Decree only ; and while I feel that to ask the performance 
iof this condition from others, inconsistent with the honor of 
the U. Slates, and to perform it themselves beyond their 
power ; your lordship will permit me frankly to avow that 
I cannot accompany the communication to my government, 
<»f the declaration and Order in Council of the 21st of this 



oisTomr or thc war. 



Ill 



inoiitht with any felicilation on the prodpeci which this mea- 
sure pref«entH of an accelerated return of amity and muludl 
confidence between the two states. ^^ 

It IS with reul pain that 1 make to yonr lordship this a- 
vowal, and I will seek still to confide in thf spirit which 
yuur lordship in your note, and in the conversation of this 
morning, has been pleased to say actuates the councils of 
hiH royal highness in relation to America, and still to cher- 
ish a hope that the spirit will lead, upon a review of the 
whole ground, to measures of a nature lietter calculated to 
attain this object, and that this object will no longer be made 
to depend on the conduct of a third power, or contiiigenoies 
over which the U. States have no controul, but alone u^^on 
the rights of the U. States, the justice ofG. Britain, aiid 
the common interests of both. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 

JONATHAN RUSSELL, i 



Previous to the Declaration of War, Gen. Hull, with 
about two thousatid men, was ordered to proceed to De- 
troit. — The army arrived at the head of Lake Erie, about 
tile time war was declared ; and several officers, and la- 
dies, with the baggage of the General Officers, proceeded 
down the Lake for Detroit, in a gun vessel. The British 
received the news of the war before Gen. Hull, and sent a 
brig in pursuit of his baggage, which succeeded in caj/tur- 
iiig the vessel, and earned her into Maiden. — ^The British 
commander sent the jadies over to Detroit, in a flag of truce, 
which was the first intelligence they had received of the 
war. , 

Gen. Hull, afler concentrating his forces, at Detroit, 
crossed over the river to Sandwich, and issued the follow- 
ing ainifular and extraordinary Proclamation. . ^ 

BY WILLIAM HULL, 

Brigadier General and Commander of the North Western 
Army of the United iStates : 
A PROCLAMATION. 
Inhabitants of Canada ! 

Atter thirty years of peace and prosperity, the U. States 
have been driven to arms. The injuries and aggres^jr us, 
tke msulLs and indignities of G. Britain have once more left 



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lUflTOBY OF THC WAI?.. 



4bem no altemiitive liut roanly re^isUnce, or uacoudilionM 
•dbmMstion. TKe army under my cocnaiand has invaded 
your country ; the standard of the Union now waven o\er 
the Itrrttory of Can da. To the fieaceable unoffietidingr in. 
habitant, it brin|;» neither danger nor diAicuity. I conie to 
find enemie*, not to make them. 1 come to protect, not to 
injure you. 

Separated by an immense ocean and an extensive wi). 
derness I'rom G. Britain, jon liave no partici|»Htion in her 
«ooiiciit ; no interest in her conduct. Vuu have felt berty. 
ranny ; }ou have seen her injuNtice. But 1 do not a«k yuu 
lo avenge the one, or to redress the other. The U. Stutei 
are sufficiently powerful lo aft' ird every security, consistent 
R'lth their rights and your expectations. 1 tender yon tlit 
invaluable blessing of civil, political, and religious liberiy, 
and their necessary result, individual and general prosper!. 
ty ; that liberty which gave decision tu our councils, and 
energy to our conduct in a struggle for mdependence, 
which conducted us safely and trtuniphantly thrrvuuh the 
stormy period of the revolution — that liberty which has nii<)> 
ed us to an elevKited rank among the nations of the world ; 
and which aiforded ns a greater measure of peace arwl .se- 
curity, of weftHh and improvement, than ever fell to tlie lot 
of any people. In the name of my country, and the riu> 
thonty of government, I promise you protection to your 
persons, property, and rights ; remain atyonr homes ; pursue 
your peaceful and customary avocations; raise not \uiir 
hands against your brethren. Many of your fathers fought 
for the freedom and independence we now enjoy. Beinjj 
childi'i?n therefore of the same family with us, and heirs to 
the same heritage, the arrival of an army of friends nnisl 
be haikd by you with a cordial welcome. —You will be 
emancipated from tyranny and oppre»»sion, and restored to 
the digntfied station of freedom. Had 1 any doubt oi 
eventual success, I might ask yonr assistance, but 1 do not. 
I come prepared for every contingency — I have a force 
which will break down all opposition, and that force is ui 
the van-guard of a much greater. — If, contrary to your own 
interest and the just expectations of my country, you should 
take part in the approaching contest, you will be coiisi<lor- 
ed and treated as enemies, and the hoiTors an<l caiaini^et^ 
M' war will stalk before vou. If tlie barbarous and savus^e 



.Mmit:- 



■iSTOftY OP TRK WAJL 



im 



poliC) of G. Britain be pursued, and the Mvaget are Ul 
loo e to murder our citizens aiul butcher our woneo and 
clniUreiif Mtf wmr tvUi be a war uj' exUnrwunaiUm, Tbi 
tiret stroke of the tomahawk^— the first attempt with the 
scalping knife, will be thfl signal of one inJiscriuaiinale 
scene of desolation. No white mnn found fighting b> the 
tide of an ludiaii wi.l lie taken prisoner— instant death wtll 
be his lot. If the dictates of reason* duty, iustice, and hu- 
manity, cannot prevent the employ meut, of a force which 
respects no rights, and knows no wrong, it will be prevents 
ed ')y a severe and relentless system of retaliation. I doubt 
not your courage and firmness— I wU not doubt your at- 
tachment to liberty. If you tender your services volunta- 
rily, they will be accepted readily. Tlie U. States otter 
you peace, liberty, aud security, i our choice lies between 
these and war, slavery aud destruction. — Chouse then ; but 
choose wisely ; and may He who knows the justice of uur 
cause,. and who holds in his hand the fate of nations, guide 
you to a result the most compatible with your rights aud 
iQl«rcsts,^ov»V peace and happiness. 
', ; <..,,M , .., By the General,.;,,.^., ,/.,^,.;i .. .,,... 4 

'*ii.- 'mI; "•;' v'iHi; , '.i { f. >/ "•• *• "^'^t t 

Captain ofUui V3ih UnUed States* regiment vj infantry, ., 

and Aid^-camp^ ^ 
Head-quarterst Sandwich, Jnly 12, 1812. , 

On the 10th of Jujy, Colonels Gass and Miller, aUempt* 
ed to surprise a British post, 300 strong, at a bridge about 
five miles from Maiden. — ^They were discovered by the 
British, and after a slight skirmish, the enemy retreated* 
leaving eleven men killed and wounded, on the field ; our 
troops returned to head-quarters, at Sandwich, and the 
British re-pasted themselves again, at the bridge. On the 
19th and 24th there was considerable skirmishiDg, witk 
tr itl ill g success, on either side — our loss was six men killed 
and wounded — the British and Indians, lost sixteen killed^ 
and several wounded. 

Soon after General f lull had crossed from Detroit, into 
Canada, and had issued his Proclamation, the greater part 
of Ike militia of the neighboring country gave theiBselvte 

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b/» to hi« ptr^t^mrr, <»f reltmwsV hi.m« f»«iic«il»ly, reMolvin^ 
te^ fttMhftncMifnil, Hi tll«<cmi^Ht. — L^irji^e IhmIkk uI lh« wv- 
ttf^ IriUi** HVh^l thtfir* *M*vir^ h>G«ii. Hull, previoiH to 
liH le^viiii^ Detroit, hit he in^hn«d them ilifit ne wua i.ot 
IMtfhorif^^ft to acei*))!' theril, tvftd wished them to rHiiinin wj. 
lent il|>^t)itijfM, milt 'iio> ' ^ii|||*A^e «ii etiher Hide; but tlim 
Wsi"* not rtieif choice— thev immedml*'»y cn»h*'d over to 
MnWeh, wh^i^ lh#V ^Vrfe jifMM?|>l»'d, mid prtt mto nervier by 
llie Britivft: whWn nrcnimhiiK'e oonlribwted Inr^ely in 
f}yfr'ht*<>W Q^ii. Ilidl, m Wilt i>e Hten by ihe oAoiai aeeouiii 

<6t his tu^lltktiiiUl^l. ' **' '«•''''';« f.^Jilirid; hns: -nj vi^i ii ^<t l»a 

•'' SfR— IhaVe ti'.thoiior Uiiidorrn vmi, thMton Ihe KHh 
ihs1<ull,at 2 P: Al. bfeiiicr itt laiitiiOeVl. 422^ hm|rrhide 64, 
41'4, viith the €i)MNMiition, tiitder tin conitiiMid, a!<Hil w>m 
tliMtovered from the n^asttiend beaim^ E. hs &. or Ei S E. 
biit ut such a distiince we cmi^d in>t I**!! ; \fhHt xlie uas. 
Ail sail was instantly nimie- ill rhaHe, nini^Huoii found sie 
csm^ u|> iv ith her. At 5 Pi M. could pluiiily see that she 
\vaM a shi^ Oil tliie slurhinir^t tiirk^imder v.t»^ Nail^ elfMM\ un 
a t^Vhd ; at half pant 3 P. M. uinde her uut to he a* fi'igaie ; 
Goiitiiiueii the iAfiSft until Ate \%ere within al>Out three iniles, 
uh^nr I* ordered the ti&fht sails taken in, the courses haiiUd 
up, and the ship cleared i'ur action. At this time th cliiise 
liiidf bad>^d hi!t tTV]riVi-'«d})Aai!,>Vti(iti^i^bor ns to cume down. 
^Ai«^on lis thr €otMtitnti<>n was r^ady fop aotioi^ i bore 
^dwri Wi'th an iiitentyor. obrin^hiiti to elose action iinme* 
tKMcIv; but on oiireoinbrg witlitn giSii-sh<il! i«he g>i\e um a 
'bfiSiijds^de-r. and filed away^ and wore, ^^in^ us a broud- 
'iWle ori' the lifliertacW, bat without eflR*cl ; her shot tailing 
^ort. She cahtiriltfetl wearing and inaiio>vreing for abtait 
^htt'e fjtihnersf of sin hoiiri to ^*^i a rakingf position, but 
%itdrttg^ ifhte'cottid' iitrt, she bore up, and run under ht^r tof)- 
«ail» and gib, with the wind on the quarter. Inmiediately 
made sail to bnns^ the ship up with her, and d minutes be> 
fore six, P. M. bein^ alon^rde within halt' pistol shot, we 
commenced a heavy fire from all our <jur»s, double slioHed 
*wiUi round and gi*«t)ei and so well drtecled wtreihev, ai «l 
'9b %'^annly kept up, that iii 15 minutes his mizen-mast went 



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bv the honnl, aiiU Iiih maui v«rU mi lUe ulinipl* aiMl4l^) hull, 

n^K"'l?* ^"^' ^*''^ ^"^y ii>i*<*^* *^''" ^ |*MM «»• TUr tint «r:ii 
k.,)« ufi wtlb -titiiiiil wartnll^ iur lii i|iiumU:« l<M%rr, HJivf^ 
hiN iuaiOitt«i»i itiiU tort*- ui4Nl wimU, Ului*|{ w|Ui Ummu vvecy 

liriiitf* NoUittl 111 dU luiiiutfii <»|lar we.g;(»t 4^ri> «U>uf«iUo 

Uie eiieiii>,«b(; kuri'cDiltsrviif aiiU hiiU iiul ««|MM' fiUfiiliM){r 

aiulhc-r liiitl, beluw ami alKive WHifir, ^ankMloreil, ihui f^: 

f( w «iiure bruii(lMi(k;.H niusl Iihvc cMTi«Mi jMirdow^. 

Ai-^i iut'QriiunK ^ouM)'<iiL«o Hi»e uy|i^4^Hi|r>Ou«;irnfr^,C9fn- 

niamiedby tti) able mtd cK|>ei'iciivcii ««lii«i'r« ^kMM:#) MhUJ' 

UiHinaMied, and uUiMnf'ive rui (A>^H*c«)K»'4iaiiAo lMllU^l<tir iiojt 

worlh iowiu^ Mitu |>oiii, iiUhe HburVHpii<'<t; 0jl lU) iuiu^Qe»,}MU 

caiibuve no d(*MU ot ihe |(albuiiry imid (f^(>^ qpiMliiiU «>!' Ijb(^ 

omct TK and «Uip\ con^mii v <I b^v*^ |i>ti Imuur iu coimM'MMli 

it u 4^ r«;iuaiu», ihcrefoii«9, t'ur iii« U> aKKUff >^4im, tb)4 ^> f^^l' 

t'u tgiit with gf^aX biuver^ ; and A gfv^wAut: g»€t$t |4i9ftMur)U. 

b) sa^, tliat truiii ibe ^Mw^UeHt Ji>oy iin l4>^ ^i^i >li>llHi lUtiM 

seauMiii, uol a iook vf ^Viw ww* ttfonu Ttitiy #U <N^<44^ tlll^ 

action, i^viuy^ <Uir^ clieerit di^d i<'fique!«tie4 io?b« Ui4 fUoog 

4td«)4iie enemv. ■■ • , •• - •* "s • .n -Ii 

;i[Jm>W tl)«;)|0iWH-4(»Ai|e,:^,.,.-) ..I i.MU ...if i^ir 

U'. •n-jii •/,}'•;'.;• >'i /'••■•: -'■* v^ ,t.-t;.J3AAC:W^l^l<«-A 

f'oii ,.'h "(.)•» iw: 1 AW^'*''*^4JJI J*Qh8if;;) -finlJ htm .•Io-'R'jt 

Killed 7 — woHMUttdTv !'/.»• • /mj> l,-| ',i!| 

iiLt the <l!ourl a|)CimUon Uo^iifQ* ,lh^ ^d diiv ^f .Aim?» 
pEeHeiil, jIm royaiJ^^unibofKgyilbe vrii'>G<e i.'«ig^Mt iiMHHr^'il* r;f> 

ed to dacivu'Qf i"tt|M2 ,iAmi(i«,AOfi <H^jb.(i4MU^,oti^«:fiiiu^^y« ^ 
the 21M f)t' 4pril. 4aiii« * T^i^ if ttilmiy^iRM) iUer^iMN-* Mtf^ 
Berhn aiidJIijanJjiiecrv^li i^U ,i)y ^pm« )iMlhRi]^4iC^oMf 
theJTreucii gr.0V:^niweut„pu^(ic(); ipi;qniulgate4tibti'»Mi|t»r 
ly %ud |[|acoi<4ttioii»Jly rfifiieMNk tb^M* fiod trom Mi^iM}«»iU)e 
Ord^rin Cpmicil 4>t'/lbe 7tb f)f Jfanuasy:* /|^7, iwifl M»^ Or<- 
dei- in .C9«UM}il pt tb«>^ath of April, Itmil^. f)i»U WA^b^^l 
any fqrtber !Oi'd«r, btf, and 4lie ^ame af e < b«««rby i^«;(;|£w;qA 
from thencefortfi,^^ bie »«Ml;y^nd JiM«^§iy>mvj«k,§flf* .-n i . 

* Supposed to have gone overboard nilh the inaUi, 



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116 



UlSTOmY OF THV WAB. 



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And w hc r t M the ch%t^ d'nfffiin of the (T. State* 6f 
Americn, reHiilent fitthiN Court, Hul, on the 21 hi dav ot May 
laiit, tranamit to lord vinroiint Cantlereagh, one of hn ma- 
jea(y*i« principal lecretanet, a copy of n certain instrument, 
then fdr the ftmt time commontcaled to thiw Court, miqv 
tinip to lie a Decree |>awicd by the gpovcrnment otrraitce, 
on the 3Nth of April, I VII, by which the Dtrrem ot Berlin 
and Milan are declared to he detiiiitely iio longer in forc« 
ill re(^ard to American vea«ielN : 

And whereas his royal highness, the prince regfent, a|. 
though he cannot cunstder the tenor of said instrument as 
satisfyinfl; the conditions set forth in the said Order of the 
21 St of April last, upon which the said Orders wert' to ccrho 
•nd determine, is nevertheles-s disposed, on his part, to take 
such measures as may tend to re-establish the intercourse 
between neutral and belligerent iiationN, upon its accustomed 
principles, his roval highness, the prince regent, ir. the name 
and on the behal* of his nijesty, is therefore plensed, by and 
With the acTrke of his majesty*! privy • ouncil, to order and 
declare, And (t in hertO} ordereit and declared, thai the Or- 
der in Council bearing date the 7th day of January* 1S07, 
and the Order in Council bearing date the 26th day of 
April, 1809. be revoked, so far as may regard Amencaa 
vessels and their cargoes, t>eing American property, from 
the 1st dny of August next. 

But whereas by certaiti acts of the government of the 
IT. StateN of America, all British armed vessels are exclud- 
td from the harbors and waters of the said U. States, the 
armed vessels of Prance being permitted to enter therein, 
and the commercial mtercourse between G Britain and the 
Said U. States is interdicted, the commercial intercourse 
l)elween France and the said U. States having been i-estor- 
td t his royal highness, the prince regent is pleased hereby 
further to declare, in the name and on the b^alf of his ma- 
jesty, that if the government of the said U. States shall not 
as soon as may m, after this order shall have been duly 
notified by his majesty's minister '.a America to the said 
government, revoke or cause to be revoked the said acts, 
this present Order shall in that case, after clear notice signi- 
'fied by his majesty V minister in America, to the said gov- 
ernment, be thenceforth null and of no effect. 



.ikPh'. i^i l\J: J'. ij-UHvi't-j-: 



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msTORY OF Tlir WAl. 



117 



tt H ftirthar « n1rrr«( hiwI (tf^rinrffl, (hnl all Amrririin vn. 
«eh « <J Ihfir cnrjjoi's, l»f inif Am^rimn proprrty, lh«l nhall 
ht»c bwn c«plnriMl siiliHerpipnth lotlio 2H»hof Mny laM, for 
A iNfach of lh»' :ifnn'M«id Orcfen »f> Coniicil n!«nt', find 
wbit'h xhnll not Imvc hot'w actuiilly oofMifmuifvl hefort- the 
(late of lliii* Onler, ami ilntt ;ill sliipt mul rai-jfocJi n«tafore- 
Mid.that fihull henceioHh ♦>«* ca[»fnr#fi nndtr IIh* wild Or- 
ders prior to the Isl »|j»v ol A»!;usl n^Nt, Hlinll irot b** pro- 
ceeded against to r«>fidi'm"!«tioii. until further orderN, hut 
nhall, in the event of thu < M'drr luH luoinuiifi;' null and of no 
(ifert, in the case aforesnui, bt* forthwith hl)erflt»'d and re- 
sloral, snbject to Aiirh reaNonabte expeiireM on the p:irt of 
the caj>tor», as shall have been jnslly incurred. ■ 

Provided that nothiri*;: m the Order coiitaiiied re9|)eftin|r 
the revoratinii of the Orders herein mentioned, »hall be 
hiken to revive wholly, or in part, the Orders in Cou«ril uf 
tlie nib of November, 1807, or any other Order not herein 
mentioned, or to deprive parties of any lejfal renieily to 
which they may be entitled, under the Order in Council, of 
the 2 1st of April, 1812. 

His royal nighness, the prince regent is hereby pleased 
fortlier to declare, in the name and o:« the behalf of his ina« 
jesty, that tiothing in the present Order contained shall b€ 
understood to preclude his royal highness, the prince regent, 
if circamstaiices shall so require, from r*st«)ring, after rea- 
sonable notice, the Orders of the 7th uf January, 1807, and 
th 26th of April, 1809, or any part thereof, to their full 
effect, or from taking such other measures of retaliation 
against the enemy, as may appear to his royal highness to be 
just and necessary. ••^'*<* •-"*» '"'iJ »<i to Jvo'1 ■■!** 

And the right honorable the lords commissioners of his 
majesty's treasury, his majesty's pnncipal secretaries of state, 
the lords commissioners of the Admiralty and the Judge 
•f the high Court of Admiralty, and the Judge of the 
Court of Vice Admiralty, are to take the necessary mea- 
sures herem, as to them may respectively appertain. « 



I** 



iJlUt/ 



Gen. Hull to the Secretary of War. ' ^ 

JVloMTREAL, Sept. 8lh, 1812. 
^!R — ^The inclosed dispatch was prepared on my arri- 
va if Fort George, and it was my intention to hove for- 
warded it from that place by Major Witherell, of the 



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msTomr of thb wak. 



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Michii^an vohinteers. I made applicatioa to the com. 



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i^i^rdiitg officer at that pout, and was refuHed ; be 
that he wan not authorised, and Gen. Brock was thf ii at 
Y«»rk. We were immediately embarked for this place, 
and Major Witherell obtained liberty at Kingston to g« 
home Oil p:irole. 

This M ike first opportunity 1 have bad 4o forward the 
diripatches. , i 

The fourth U. States' regiment is destined for Q^uebec, 
with a part of the first. The wiiok consist of a littb; over 
tliree hundred 

Sir iierorge Prevost, without any request on ay part, 
has offered to take oi} parole, and permit jne to proceed U 
theStates. ., ,«;,,■., .. •,; .. ,.,;.• •,!.,/., .M 

Lieut. Anderson, of the eigbAi regiment, is the bearer of 
my dispatches. He was formerly a Lieut, in the Artilki^, 
and resigned his commissioh on account of being appuiut- 
ed Marslial of the Territ<»ry of Michigan. During the 
Campaign he has ha4 a command m the Ar.tillery ; «iHt( 
recomiueiid hiin to you as a valuable officer. / ;., i m- ^<a 
• He IS pai'ticulai'ly acquainted willi tbe state of things 

freviouR, and at 4he time n^n 4he c»ipitulation took place. 
l4^ will be able to give you correct intbrmation on aov 
{K>ii»ts, about wJiich you may think proper to enquire, 

1 am, very respecifuUy, &c. 
f. : V r , , WILLIAM HULL. 

)! v , „.j,, ,,.,, . DISPATCH. 

J'ort Gewge, August 26, 1812. 
!S]R — ^Inclosed are Ihe articles of capitulation, by whicb 
the Fort of Detroit has been surrendered to Major>Geiierat 
firix'k, commanding bis Britannic JMajetity's forces m Up- 
{>ei Canada, and by winch the troops have become prisoners 
ot war. My situation at present forbids me from detailing 
4he particttiar causes which, have led to t^is unfortunul£ 
event. I will, however, generally observe, ihat after ibe 
surrender of Michiluiiackinac,aknast every tribe and nation 
of Indians, excepting a part ot the Miamiesaiid Delawares, 
north irom beyond Lake Superrar, west from beyond the 
]V1 ississippi, south from the Ohio and Wabash, and east from 
every part oV Upper Canada, and from ail the Htteunediate 
coutiti'y, joined in o\Hin iiostiiity under the British standardf 
againtt the army 1 comoianded, contrary to the ipo^t (ioJeii)« 



nisTORT OF m wiou 



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^urences of » iHr^e portion of then; to remain neutml ; 
fvfi) the OUiiwA CheifR froni Abercrulch, who foniMMl the 
delat^alion to Wa.shin^oti the last Nunimer, in whoae friend- 
ship I know you had i^eat confidenoe. are anionic the hos- 
lile tribes and several of them dinlinguishe^ lemderi. 
Amonu^ the vast number of chiefs who led the hostile bands, 
Tecumseh, Marplot, Lotran, Walk-ui tlie-waler, Splitrliii]^» 
kc. are considered the principals. This nuoierouN iiMM-m- 
blaG^e of savages, under the entire influence and direetion 
of the British commander,, enabled hiiu totally to obsinid 
the only communication which I had with my coii.itry. 
Thin communication had been opened from the st.'ttlements 
in the state of Ohio, two hundred miles tlirou{|rii a wiider- 
netts, by the fatigues of the army, which I marched to 
the frontier on the river Detroit. The body of the Lake be- 
ing commanded by the British armed shipsy and lite shores 
and rivers by fj^un-boats, ^>e army was totally deprived of all 
communication by water. On this extensive road tt depend- 
Cfi for trans|)ortation of provisions, military stores, medichtc, 
clothing* aud every other supply, on pack«lM>rses — all its 
operations were successful until its arri\al at Dt;troiky-^n a 
few days it passed into the enemy^s eowUry,. and ail opiH>- 
sition segued to- fall before it. One mor.th. it remained m 
possession of this country,, and was fed from its resources. 
Ill diflerent directions detachments penetrated sixty miles 
in the settled part of the province, and the inhabitants seenoi^ 
ed satisAed with tlie change of situation, whi< ^h appeared to> 
be taking place*~-the militia from Amltertsbiirg were daily 
deserting, and the whole country^ then, nnder the coutroit 
of the army, was asking for protectioiu The Indians gen- 
erally, in the iirsl instance,. appeared to be neutralized, and 
determined to take no patt in the contesL. 

The fort of Aniherstburgh Aas eighteen miles below my 
encampment. Not a- single cannon or mortar was on 
wheeiN suitable to carry before that place. I. consulted my 
otlicers whethen it was expedient to make an< attempt on it 
yi iU the bayonet alone, without cannon to make a breach in 
thr first instance.. The couneil I' called was of opinion it 
was not. — The greatest industry was exerted in making 
preparation, and it was not until the 7lh of August, that two 
24-*)onnders, aud three howitzers wtre prejiared. It was 
then my intention to have proceeded on the eutej'prise.— - 



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While the operatioiiH of the army were delayed by these 
pre|>ar>ftti<iiH the cloiiiiv ot adversity had been <or .s<»me m**, 
and Heemedhtdl thickly to he iralherinuf aroiMd me. Tii« 
surrender ot Michilimackinar ofieiied the noiiliern hiv> o( 
Indians, and they Wf-re Hwarniin*> down in *-very directioii. 
KeiidurcementM t'rum Niaifum had arrived at Ainhf rstbiir^ 
Hiider the conimartd of Col. Prortor. The dt'sertion ot the 
uiihlia ceaHe<l. Bi sides the reinforreni( iits that came i>v 
water, I received information of a very tonsiderable force 
Milder the command of Major Chanit>ers, on the river L« 
French, wit!* four tield-pieces, and collecting the militia ua 
bis route, eTidently destined for Amher.Htbur^ ; and in nd- 
dition to this combination, and increase uf force, contrary l« 
all my expectatiohs, the W\a>.dots, Citi|t|»ewaN, Ottawas, 
Potawattamies, Mnnsees, Dehi wares, ^c. with whom 1 had 
the most tVieiully intercourse, at once passed over to Atu- 
herstburg-, and accepted the tomahawk and scalping' knife. 
There being now a vast number of Indians at the British 
post, they, were sent to the river Huron, BrownstowM, and 
j)|ffagua^o, to intercept my comnuinicution. To open this 
commamcatiun, 1 detached Major Yahhorn, of the iih>» 
Tolunteers, with two huitdred men to proceed as far as the 
river Raisin, under an expectation that he would ntiret Capt. 
Brush with' 150 volunteers from Ohio, and a quantUy uf |»ro- 
irision for the army. An ambuscade was formed at Bi'uwii9< 
town, and Major Vaiihorn's detiicliment defeated and re- 
turned to camp without etfectin» the objector the expedition. 
In my letter of the 7lh inst. you have the particulars of 
thai transaction, with areturn of the killed and woundfd. 
Under this sudden and unexpected change- of things, and 
having' received an express from Ge.ieral Hali, cununaiui- 
ki(^ opposite the. British shore on the P^iaj^ara river, by 
which it appeared that there was no prospect of any co-op- 
erution from that quarter, and the two senior officers of the 
artillery having' stated to mean opinion that it woulU ht 
extremely diflicult, if not impossible, to pass the Turkey 
river and river Anx>Caunard, with the 24 pou ders, and 
that they could not be transported by water, as the Queen 
Charlotte winch carried eiirhteen 24 pounders, la\ i.i I le 
river Detroit above the mouth of the river Aux-C;iiiiiar(i; 
and as it appeared indispensibly necessary to open the c » ii« 
.inuiHcation t(9 the river Uaisiu and the Miami, I toumi 



fliSTOBY OP TBX WAB. 



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ittV^cir compelled to suspend llie operation against Ani- 
Iit-rHll'iir^, and concenlrute Uie ntaiti force of the armv at 
Dtlroit. Fully iiUending^, at that time, after the cummn- 
iiic.ition was opened, to re-cros« the river, and pursue the 
object at AnjlR-r.>>tl>urg^, and strongly desirous of continuing 
jirutection to a very large number of the inhabitants of 
V\t\ni' Cjirjiida, who had voluntarily accepted it imder my 
};rcclamation, I established a fortress on the banks of the 
ruer, a liltle below D*'troil, c ilculated for a garrison of 
three hundred men. On ti;e evening of the 7tl), and morn- 
iii<rof the 8lh inst. the army, excepting the garrison of 250 
jiifaiilry, and a corps of artillerists, all under the command 
oi' Major Denny, of the Ohio volunteers, re-crossed the riv- 
er, and encamped at Detroit. In pursuance of the object 
fti' opening the communication, on wltich I considered the 
existence of the army depending, a detachment of six hun- 
dred men, under the command of Lieut. Colonel Miller wast 
itnuiedialely ordered. For a particular account of the 
pH'Ceedings of this detachment, and the memorable battio 
which was fought al IMaguago, which reflects the highest 
honor on the American arms, 1 refer you to my letter of 
liie 13lh of August, a duplicate of which is enclosed, in 
this. Nothing however but honor was acquired by this 
victory ; and it is a painful consideration, that 'the blood 
of seventy-five gallant men could only open the communi- 
cntion as far as the points of their bayonets extended. 
The necessary rare of the sick and wounded, and a verv 
severe slorm of rain, rendered their return to cantp indis- 
pensably necessary for their own coml'ort. Captain Brush, 
with his small detachment, and the provisions, being still at 
the river Raisin, and in a situation to be doslroycd by the 
savages, on the 13th inst. in the evening, I permitted 
Colonels M'Arlhur and Cass to select from their regiment 
four hundred of their most eff'ective men, and proceed an 
upper route through the woods, which I had sent an express 
toCapt. Brush to take, and had directed the militia of the 
river R.aisin to accompany him as a reinforcement. The 
force of the enemy continually increasing, and the neces- 
sity of opening the communication, and acting on the de- 
fensive, becoming more apparent, I had, previous to de- 
taching Colonels M' Arthur and Cass, on the 11th inst. 
evacuated and destroyed the fort on the opposite bank. 

10 



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HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



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"On the 13lh, in Ihe evening, Gen. Brock arrived at Aui- 
' lierslbiirg' about the hour Colonels M' Arthur and CaMJ 
marched, of which ut thnt lime I had received no informa 
tion. On the loth, 1 received a summons from iiiiu to| 
.,' surrender fort Detroit, of which I herewith enclose yon 
,' copy, together with my answer. At this time I had receiv. I 
^' ed no information from Colonels M' Arthur and Cass. Ai, 
■ ' express was immediately sent, strongly escorted, with or- 
ders for them to return. 

On the Itilli, as soon as General Brook received my lei. 

r' tcr, his batteries opened on the town and fort, and coiilinti. 

'^ed until evening. In the evening all the British shii>s o|| 

..M'ar came nearly as far up the river as Sandwich, tlirci- 

' miles below Detroit. At daylight on the IGtIi, (at whidi 

time I had received no information from Colonels M'ArlJnui 

and Cass, my exprtssei^ sent the evening before, and in the 

' night, having been prevented from passing by numeroih 

*] bodies of Indians) the cannonade recommenced, and in a 

short time I received information, that the British aru)) and 

,' Indians, were landing below the Spring wells, under tk 

cover of their .ships of war. At this time the whole cflPer. 

live force at my disposal at Detroit did not exceed eight 

. hundred men. Being new troops and unaccustomed to a 

camp life ; having performed a laborious march ; having 

, been in a number of battles and skirmishes, in which niariv 

' had fallen, and more had received wounds, in addition Ic 

which a large number' being sick, and unprovided willi 

medicine, and the comforts necessary for their situation; 

\' are the general causes by which the strength of the arnu 

Was thus reduced. The fort at this time was tilled witii 

women, children, and the old and decrepit people of tlic 

lown and country j they were unsafe in the town, as it was 

entirely open and ex-posed to the enemy's batteries. Rack 

of the fort, above or below it, there was no safely for llieni 

on accaunt of the Indians. In the first instance, the enemy '» 

I fire was principally directed against our batteries; toward* 

the close, it was directed again.stthe fort aloHe, and almost 

every shot and shell had their effect. 

It now became necessary either to figlit the enemy in the 
field ; collect the whole force in the fort ; or propose ternl^ 
of capitulation. I could not have carried into the Held 
more than six huudied men, and left any adequate force in 



HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



1'2.) 



[he fort. I'lirre were lfin(!«»tl at Uiat linio of Uie cnciny'a rt'- 
:.i!ar force uf tiiiicb niv)rt'tlian that number, aini Iwico lliat j 
ritnluruf Indians. CunsUlerin*;' thiit great inequality ot' 



1 1,1, 1 (lid not think it expedient to adopt the fn^l mcoAurc. 
1 lie second must have been attended with a jjrealjiacrlficc ; 
<,t o!>oil, and no possible advanta^re, because the contest , 
Liiki nut have been sustained mure than a dav for ihp " 
w.ul »»f powder, and but a very few days for tho want of,, 
prD'isioiib. In addition to tins. Cols. M*Arlhur and Cass ', 
uoiiid ijuve been in a most hazardous situation. I feared | 
iiolliiiig bnl iLo last alternative. I have dared to adopt it — ^ 
I well know the iiigh responsibility of liic measure, and I . 
tik« Hie whole of it on myself. It was dictated by a sensii 
ot duty, and a full conviclion of its expediency. li*\ic 
Inmdsof savages which had then joined the BritisU forces . 
wire nunierons beyond any former example. Their num->i 
berij have since increased, and the htstory of the barbarians 
ottlie north of Europe does not furitish examples of more-, 
ji^reedy violence than these savages have exhibited. A 
lii'!^e portion of the brave and gallant officers and men I . 
commanded would cheerfully have contested until the last, 
cartridge had been ex\)euded, and the bayonets worn to the 
sockets. I could nut consent to the useless sacrifice of such ^ 
brave men, when ] knew it was impossible for me to sus- 
tain my situation. It was impossible in tlie nature of things 
that an army could ha/e been furnished with the necessary 
supplies of provision, military stores, clothing, and comfortj 
tor the sick, on pack horses, through a wilderness of two 
hundred miles, filled with hostile savages. It was impos- 
sible, sir, that this little army, worn down by fatigue, by, 
sickness, by wounds and deaths, could have supported it-, 
self not only against the collected force of all the northern 
nations of Indians, but against the united strength of Upi)er 
Caitada, whose population consists of more than twenty 
times the number contained in the territory of Michigan, 
aided by the principal part of the regular forces of the pro- 
vince, and the wealth and influence of the North-West, and 
other trading establishments among the Iiidians, which 
have in their employment, and under their entire control, 
Hiore than two*thousand white men. " "':.'' 

Before I close this despatch it is a duty I owe my res- 
pec table associates in command, Colonels M* Arthur, Fiucl- 



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ley, Caiw, and lieut Col. Miller, to express my ol)li|f ilio.ij 
to them for the |)roni|it uiid juiliciuus iiiuniicT in which lliey 
have |)erfomied their respective duties, ll aiiojit haslaktn 
place during the campaijj;ii which is honorable to the army, 
these officers are entitled to a large hhure of it. If the Inst 
uct should be disapproved, no part of the ceitsiue belongs 
to thf;in. I have likewise to express my obligation to Gen. 
Taylor, who has performed the duty of quailer-niasler- 
General, for his great exertions in procuring every thing in 
his department which it was possible to furnish for the cuit- 
venience of the army; likewise to brigade-miijoi* Jtssup 
for the correct and punctual manner in which he has dis- 
charged his duty ; and to the army generally for tlieir e\. 
ertion, and the zeal they have manifested for the public iii. 
terest. Xhc death of Dr. P'oster, soon after he arrived at 
Detroit, was a severe misfortune to the army j it was in- 
creased by the capture of the Chachaga packet, by which 
the medicine and the hospital stores were lost. He was 
commencing the best arrangements in the department uV 
■which he was the principal, with the very small means 
■which he possessed. I was likewise deprived of the ne- 
cessary services of Capt. Partridge, by sickness, the only 
officer of the corps of engineers attached to the army. All 
the officers and men have cone to their respective homes, 
excepting the 4tl) U. Stated regiment, and a small part ot 
the first, and Capt. Dyson's company of artillery. Capt. 
Dyson's company was left at Amherstburg, and the others 
aie with me prisoners — they amount to about 340. I have 
only to solicit an investigation of my conduct, as early as 
my situation, and the state of things will admit ; and to add 
th6 iiirther request, that the government will not be un- 
mindful of my associates in captivity, and of the families of 
thpse brave men who have fallen in the contest. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 
"'•^''•" 'I- W. HULL, 

; '' [enclosed in the preceding dispatch.] 

' ; * V //Sandwich, August?, 1812. 

SIR— On the 4lh insl. Major Vanhorn, of Col. Findley's 

regiment of Ohio volunteers, was detached from this army, 

with the command of 200 men, principally riflemen, to pro. 

peed to the river Maisin, and further, if uecesgary, to me^l 



UISTOBY OP THE WAR. 



i:« 



.mil rcluforct; Capl. Bnisli, of tl»e stale of Ohio, commnnd- 
iiig a fonnmiiy of voluiiUers, aiul eHCoiimg provHionn for 
this itrniy. At Bruwii!>lu\vii u larg^e boily of IndianH had 
ti»rui»itl an ambuscade, ami the Major's detachnu'nl received 
a tuavy Hre, at the distance of tifty yards from the cii< my. 
The whole detachment retreated in disorder. Major Vaii- 
honi made every exertion to form, and prevent the retreat, 
that was possible for a brave and <^allanlot)icer, but without 
success. By the return of killed and wounded, it will be 
perceived that the loss of officei's was uncommonly great. 
Their ed'orts to rally theircompanies was Ihe occasion of it. 
I am, very respectfully, yours, &c. 

WILLIAM HULL. 
Killed, in Major Vanhorn's defeat — 4 Captams — 1 Lieu- 
tenant — 2 Ensigns — iO privates — total 17. 



[enclosed in the preceding dispatch.] 

Detroit, lath August, 1!S12. 
SIR — The main body of the army having re-crossed the 
fiver at Detroit, on the night and morning of the Sth, uist. six 
iiundred men were immediately detached under the com- 
mand of Lieut. Col. Miller, to open the communication to 
the river Raisin, and protect the provisions, which were 
under the escort of Capt. Brush. This detachment consist- 
ed of the 4th U. States regiment, and two small detachments 
under the command of Lieut. Stansbury and Ensign 
M'Labe of the 1st regiment; detachments from the Ohio 
and Michigan volunteers, a corps of artillerists, with one 
gix-pounder and an howitzer under the conimund of Lieut. 
Eastman, and a part of Captains Smith and Sloan's Cavalry, 
commanded by Capt. Sloan of the Olsio volunteers. Lieut. 
Col. Miller marched from Detroit on the afternoon of th« 
8th instant, and on the 9th, about four o'clock p. m. the 
van guard, commarided by Capt. Snelling of the 4lh U. 
States' regiment, was tired on by an extensive line of Bri- 
tish troops and Indians at the lower part of the Maguago 
about fourteen miles from Detroit. At this time the main 
body was marching in two columns, and Capt. Snelling 
maintained his position in a most gallant manner, under a 
very heavy fire, until the line was formed and advanced t«> 
the ground he occupied, when the whole, excepting the rerM 
fl^uard, was brought into action. 



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The enemy were formed behind a temporary breast work 
of iof(8, the Indians exteiidin^f in a thick wood on their left. 
Lt. Cul. Miller ordered his whole line to advance, and 
when within a small distance of the enemy, made n general 
discharge, and proceeded with charged bayonets, wnen the 
British line and Indians commenced a retreat. They were 
pursued in a most vigorous manner about two milcii, and 
the pursuit discontinued only un account of the fatigue of 
the troops, the approach of evening, and the necessity of re- 
turning to take care of the wounded. The jud<<'ious ar- 
mngements made by Lt. Col. Miller, and the gai. t man* 
ner in which they were executed, justly entitle buu to the 
highest honor. From the moment the line commenced the 
{we, it continually moved on, and the enomy maintained 
their position until forced at the point of the bayonet. The 
Indians on the left, commanded by Tecumseh, fought with 
great obstinacy, but were continually forced and compelled 
to retreat. The victory was complete in every part of the 
line, and the success would have been more brilliant had 
the cavalry charged the enemy on the retreat, when a most 
favorable opportunity presented. Although orders were 
given for the purpose, unfortunately they were not execut- 
ed. Majors Vanhorn and Morrison, of the Ohio volunteers, 
"were associated with Lt. Col. Miller, as field officers in Ibis 
command, and were highly distinguished by their exertions 
in forming tlifi line, and the firm and intrepid manner they 
led their respective commands into action. 

Capt. Baker, of the 1st. Capt. Brevort, of the 2d. and 
Capt. Hull, of the 13jth, my aid-de-camp, and Lieut. Whist- 
ler, of the 1st Regt. U. b. Infantry, requested permission to 
join the detachment, as volunteers. Lieut. Col. Miller as- 
signed commands to Capt. Baker and Lieut. Whistler ; and 
Capts. Brevort and Hull, at his request, attended his person 
and aided him in the general aiTangements. Lieut. Colonel 
Miller has mentioned the conduct of these officers in terms 
of high approbation. In addition to the captains who have 
been named, Lt. Col. Miller has mentioned Capts. Burton 
and Fuller, of the 4th Regt. Capts. Saunders and Brown, of 
the Ohio Volunteei"s, and Capt. Delandre, of the Michigan 
Volunteers, who were attached to his command — anddisj- 
tingui'>hed by their valor. It is impossible for me, in this 
f 'ommuuicatiou to do justice to the officers and soldiers, who 



mSTOEY OW TRB WAB. 



127 



gained the victory whicli I hate described. Thty Imve ac- 
quired hifrH honor to themselfet and are justly entitled t« 
the gratitude of their country. 

Major Muir, of the 41st Kegt. commande.^ the British in 
lliis action. Their regulars and volunteer consisted of 
about 400, and a large number of Indians. Major Muir, 
-.uul two subalternR were wounded, one of ihcni since dead. 
The militia and volunteers attached to his comniantl, were 
ill the severest part of the action, and their loss must have 
been great — it has not yet been ascertained. 

I have the honor to lie. Sec. VVM. HULL. 

AMF.RICAN LOSS. 

;, Killed 1&— Wounded 57. 

BRITISH LOSS. 

' ' Killed 51 — Wounded 05 — Prisoners 4. 



GENERAL OR EUS. 

II. Q. Deiruit, Aug. 16, 1812. 

It is with pain and anxiety that Brigadier General Hull 
announces to the North-AY ester n army, that he has been 
fompelled from a sense of duty, to agree to the followmg 
articles of capitulation. 

Camp DetrmU Aug. 10, 1812. 

Capitulation of surrendering fort Detroit, entered into 
between Mnjor-General Brock, commaiidmg his Britannic 
majesty's forces, of the one part, and Brig. General Hull, 
commanding the North- Western army ol the U. States, of 
the other part : 

Article 1st. Fort Detroit with all the troops, regulars as 
well as militia, will be immediately surrendered to the Bri- 
tish forces under command of Major-General Brock, and 
will be considered as prisoners of war, with the exception 
of such ef the Militia of the Michigan territory, who have 
not joined the army. 

Article 2d. All public stores, arms, and public docu- 
ments, including every thing else of a public nature, will be 
immediately given up. 

Article 3d. Private persons and private property of every 
description will be respected. 

Article 4th. His excellency Brig. General Hull, having 
expressed a desire that a detachment from the state of Ohio, 
on its way to join the army, as well as one srnt from fori 





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niSTO&Y OF llin WAB. 



Detroit, under the command or Cul. M'Artliur, should I>r 
included in llie nt)ove fitipulation, it is acordingly ajjrcrtl 
to. It is, huwever, to l>e iindf^rstood, that such |mrl» of tlin 
Ohio miiitia as have not joined the army, uill be permitUd 
to return home on condition that thry will not nerve diiririu 
tlie v%ar — their arran, however, will he delivered up if Ijc- 
lon^iii^ to the miblic. 

Article 5lh. The garrison will march out at the hour ol 
12 o'clock this day, and tlie British forces will take iniiiu- 
diate poKsession of the fort. 

J. M'DOWEULt. Col. Militia B. A. D. C. 
I. B. CiR£(iG, Major A. D. C. 
(Anprovtd) WILLIAIM HULL, Briff. Gen. 
JAMES MILLER, Ll. CI. .0th V. S. Iiifautry. 
E. BRUSH, Col. Isl. Rejrt Michignn Militia. 
(Approved) ISAAC BROCK. Maj. Gen. 

The army at 12 o^clock thi» day will march outoftiM; 
east g-ate^ v\nere they will stack their arms, and will bellten 
subject to the articles of capitulation. 

WILLLVM HULL, Brig. Gen. 

Colonel Cass to the Secretary of War. 

Washington, Sept. 10, 18K', 

SIR — Having been ordered on to this place by Col 
M'Arthur, for the purp'v^ of communicating to the govern- 
ment par! iculars respecting the expedition lately command- 
ed by Brig. General Hull, and its disastrous result, as 
might enable them correctly to appreciate the conduct of 
the officers and men ; and todevelope the causes which pro- 
duced so foul a stuiti upon the national character, I have 
the hon6r to submit for your consideration, the following 
statement. 

When the forces landed in Canada, they landed v! ifh an 
ardent zeal and stimulated with the hope of conquest. ISu 
enem} appeared w.lhiu view of us, and had an immediate 
and vigorous attack been made upon Maiden, it womIiI 
doubtless have fallen an easy victory. I know Ci en. Hull 
afterwards declared he rej^retted this attack had not hetii 
made, and he had every reason to believe success would 
have crowned his elforts. The reason given for delayiii<,' 
our operatioos was to mount our heavy cannon, anil to af- 
ford to the Canadian militia time and opportuiiity to qnit 



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HISTORY or THE W IkM, 



)'49 



> 1 
III 



an ul>uo\iou.<i uervice. In llie rciume «t" lu a v e^k" ii« 
iiuiuIht of their militia, who were einhcMlu'*! bad dec n- 
I hy ilefltrtion fruni nix hiitulrtMl to one huiicti d men nd 

the course of three wcfkn, the ctiniion were mouiii< d, 
the ainmiitiitioii Hxed, and every preparatiitii made tor an 
iiiiinediate iitveNtmeni of the fori. At ix Conned, al which 
ucre present all ihetield oflicwrN, nnd which was held two 
iliivs before our preparations were completed, it was una- 
itimonsly a^jfrted to make nn iumiedi.te attiiupt, to aecuni- 
|)lish the object of the expedition. If by wnitmg two days 
we could have the service of our heavy artdlery, it was 
:ioiTed to wait: if not, it was determined to go without it, 
ami attempt the place by storm. This opinion appeared 
to correspond with the views of the General, and the day 
was a[)pointed for commencing our march. Ue declared 
to me, that he considered himself pledged to lead the army 
to Maiden. The ammunition was placed in the waggons ; 
the cannon embarked on board the floating batteries, and 
every requisite article was prepared. The spirit and zeal, 
tht- ardor and animation displayed by the oflicers and men, 
01) learning the near accomplishment of their wishes, was 
a sure and sacred pledge, that in the hour of trial they 
should not be found wanting in their duty to their country 
and themselves. But a change of measures, in opposition 
to the wishes and ( pinions of all the officers, was adopted 
l)V the General. The plan of attacking Maiden was aban- 
doned, and instead of acting offensively, we broke up our 
t;amp, evacuated Canada, and re- crossed the river, in the 
n'ght, without even the shadow of an enemy to injurious. We 
letttothetendermercy oftheenemy the miserable Canadians 
who had joined us, and the pro/t'Cf/on we aflbrded them was 
but a passport to vengeance. This fatal and unaccounta- 
ble step dispirited the troops, and destroyed the little con- 
tidence which a series of timid, irresolute, and indecisive 
measures had left in the commanding officer. 

About the 10th of August, the enemy received a rein- 
forcement of four hundred men. On the 12th, the com- 
manding officers of three of the regiments, (the fourth was 
absent) were informed through a medium which admitted 
of no doubt, that the General had stated that a capitulation 
would be necessary. They on the same day addressed to 
Governor Meigs of Ohio, a letter of which the following im 
aa extract. 1 7 



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lUSTOlir OF TRR WAR. 



»> • helieve all Ihtf hcanr rvill tt-U ifoii. B^luve it, IwH'^cf, 
it may Gstonvih *ii, us niuvh as r/ it Jtiut hei ntoiti yon At/ «/)(/ 
o/'t/.v. M'fn a c ..i n t /i, t'jr talhvil oj htf the 

I he hearerfvilljilitht t'lioanry.* 

The douhlfiil faieot'thiK letter rciideretl it necrs.Nurv \t 
UHt* rii('UU)Nt><'Cliuh in its detniU^ niid tlieiet'ore tlicsf hiiUikit 
won; IcCt. The word * f*:i}MtiilKtioir \% ill fill the t.nt. uiid 
* conimiiiidiiiL'' t^t'nerat' the uther. As iin t:neiiiy ^^ .tk near 
UH, and an lh» sui^eriority of our force wun irtaitiieNt. mc 
couhl Nee no necessity tor eapitnluttn^^, nor itny })ro| nely 
in nlliidin^to it. We therefore •it-itirnnned in the iasi r<. 
soil to ifcur the resionsihility of diverting' the (lencrui o( 
hiM command. Thi.n I'l-.ui wun eveni.uuliy prevented l>y 
two oilhe cominnudiiiir otiScers of regiments being urdend 
upon detachments. -< • ; , .. 

On the 13lh ihc British took a position opposite to De- 
troit, iiiul hei^an lo ihrow up works. Dnruig- thai and the 
two foilowini;' days. Iher pursued iheir onject without in- 
terruption, and estuhlished a battery tor two 18 poundciit 
and an 8 inch howil/er. About sunset oo the aveiiin^ of 
the 14th, a detachmonlof ;>^() men from the regiments com- 
manded by C(d. M'Arthiir and myself, was ordered to 
march to the river Kaisin, to escort the provisions, which 
had some lime remained there protected by a party undei 
the command of Capt Brush. 

On Saturday, the loth about 1 o'clock, a flag^ of truce 
arrived from Sandwich, bearint^ a summons from General 
Brock for the surrender of the town and fori of Detroit 
stating he could no longer restrain the fury of the savnge.s. 
To this an immediate and spirited refusal was returned. 
About four o'clock Uieir batteries began to play upon the 
town. The fire was returned and continued without inter- 
ruption and with little eti'ect tiU darL Their shells were 
tlirown till eleven o'clock. ' j.;. 

At day-light the firing on both sides re-commenced 
about the same time the enemy began to land troops nl 
the Spring wells, three miles below Detroit, protected by 
two of their armed vessels. Between G and 7 o'clock they 
had effected their landing, and immediately took up theii 
line of march. They moved in close column of platoonb.. 
twelve in front, upon the bank of the river. - .« r' 



HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



laj 



Tlic t'iMirih rri{ini«*iit uaM M<>itio;ir(| iti tlie fofl ; \hf Ohio 
.olUiiU-t'i'MiiicI u |»url ot'the i^lirli>i;;.Mi iiiikiliii, Iteliiiui somti 
iiirk(^l>*. Ill a Mttiiiitiua iii wlmii ll>«- wliolellank ot' llit) t'lii'- 
iDV Moiiul have heeii c\|MmtM|. The I'tKidiif ul iht- Mirhi- 
>ruii iniiiliu were in the ii|)|>tr pari «)f iht'lowii io n'liiKl liie 
iiicursiuiiH of I'r; Kn\a^(*H. T*vo ..'4 )K»uii(ierh, luadcMl v\itli 
irra|)c' shot, weri; |M>Mlet) uii a roiniiiaiuiiit;^ cntiiifiK'i-, rtady 
tu sweeji the aiivaiieiti^ cotuniii. Im this KiUialioii Uic a>ii> 
uerioi ily ufoiir poNitiuii w IS a|>|)ar(Mit, aiicl our troo|«M, in 
tliecagvr eX|)ectutioH of victorv, u>v;ule(l the approacli ut' 
the enemy. Not a discoiiteiit broke iijion the cur ; not u 
look of cowardice nM!t the eve. Kvery man expected a 
proud da) for hi8 coutilrv, and cHrh whm anxiou.t that hi.s 
iiidr.idual exertion shouhl conirduiie to tiie general result. 

VV^hen the head or their cohnnn arrived Nvithin about. 
tive hundred yards of our hue, orderw \vt:re rctetved from 
Gt'ii. Uuil for the whole to retreat to die iort, and for the 
Ul pounders not to o|)en upon the enemy* One uuiver- 
sd burst of indignation wus apparent upon the ret.eipt of 
this order. Tiiose, whose convicltoti was the dehherate 
iTsiittofa disp;.'ssioiittte examination of passing' events, saw 
the folly and impropriety of crowding 1100 men into a lit- 
tle work, which 300 men could fully man, and into wbich 
the shot and shells of the enemy were falling. The fort 
w'M in this manner tilled.; the men were diiecied to stack 
their arms, and scarcely was an opportunity afforded of 
moving. Shortly after, a white flag was hung out upon the 
walls. A V ttish olUcer rode up to enquire the cause. A 
commuii. cation passed between the commanding Generals, 
whicii ended in the capitulation submitted to you. In en- 
tering into this capitulation, the General took counsel from 
his own feelings only. Not an oflicer was consulted. Not 
one anticipated a surrender, till he saw the while flag dis- 
played. Even the women were indignant at so siiameful 
a degradation of the American character, and all felt as 
the\ should have felt, but Vie who held in his hands the 
reins of authority. 

Our morning report had that morning made our eft'ec- 
tive men present, fit for duty 10()0, without including the 
detachment before alluded to, and without including «i09 
fit" tbe Michigan militia on duty 



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132 



HWTOIIY or TlIE WAR. 



Abonldark on Saturday everiinqj the detachment senl to 
escort the provisions, received orders from (ien. Hull to re- 
turn with ns much expedition as possible. About ten 
o'clock the next day Ihey arrived williin sii^ht ot Detroit, 
Hiul a tiring been heard, or any resistance visible, they 
nvouid have immediately advanced and att;M'ked the rear 
of the enemy. The situation in which this detachment 
"was placed, althon(>;h the result of accident, was the best tor 
annoying the enemy and cutting' oti" his retreat that could 
have been selected. With his raw troops enclosed between 
two fires, and no hopes of succor, it is hazarding little to 
say, that very few would have escaped. 

I have been informed by Col. Findley, who saw the re- 
turn of their quarter-ma.ster General the day aft " the sur- 
render, that Ihcir whole force of every description, while, 
red, and black, was 1030. They had twenty-nine platooiis, 
twelve in a platoon, of men dressed in uniform. Many ot 
these were evidently Canadian militia. The rest of the 
militia increase<i their white force to about seven hundred 
men. The number of their Indians could not be ascer- 
tained with any degrtje of precision ; not many were visible. 
And in the event of an attack upon the town and fort, it 
-was a species ol force which could have afforded no mate. 
rial advantage to the enemy. 

In endeavonng lo appreciate the motives, and to investi- 
gate the causes, which led to an event so unexpected and 
dishonorable, it is impossible to find any solution in the re- 
lative strength of the coiitendit;g parlies, or in the measures 
of resistance in our power. That we were far superior 
to the enemy; that upon any ordinary principles of calcu- 
lation we con id have defeated them, the wounded and in- 
dignunt feelings of ever) man there will testify. 

A few days before the surrender, I was informed by 
Gen. Hull, we had 400 rounds of 24 pound shot fixed, and 
about 100,000 cartridges made. We surrendered vvilk 
the fort, 40 barrels of powder, and 2o00 stand of arms. 

The state of our provision has not been generally uiiderr 
stood. On the day of the surrender we had fifteen days' 
provisions of every kind on hand. Of meat there was plenty 
in the country, and arrangements had been made for -pur- 
chasiiig grain and grinding it to Hour. It was calculated 
we could readily procure three months' provisions, indepen 



no circui 



HISTORY OP THE WAR. 



1S3 



■ 



igiil of 150 barrels of flour, nml l^iOO head of cntHe, wliirh 
lja«l b«'eii forwarfleil from the state of Ohio, and uhich re- 
Qiaiiied at the river Kaisiii, under Capt. Bru.th, within reach 
gf the army. 

Bui had wo been totally destitute of provisions, our duty 
iiHl our interest undoubtedly was to tight. The enemy invit' 
ed us to meet him in the Hi Id. 

By defeatmg him the whole country would have been 
open to us, ;ind the object of our expedition gloriously and 
iuccesslully obtained. If we had been defeated we had 
uotliing to do but to retreat to the fort, and make the best 
(iffetice which circumstances and our situation rendered 
practicable. Bnt basely to surrender, without firing' a gun 
—tamely to submit, without raising a bayonet — tlisgrace- 
iiilly to \yas8 in review before an enemy, as inferior in the 
quality, as in the number of his forces, were circumstances, 
which excited feelings of indignation more easily felt than 
described. To see the whole of our men flushed with the 
hope of victory, eagerly awaiting the approaching contest, 
to see them afterwards dispirited, hopeless, and desponding, 
at least 600 shedding tears, because they were not allovied 
to meet their country's foe, and to fight their country's bat- 
tles, excited sensations, which no American has ever be- 
fore had cause to feel, and which, I trust in God, will never 
again be felt, while one man remains to defend the stand- 
ard of the Union. 

I am expressly authorised lo state, that Gol. M' Arthur 
and €oI. Findley, and Lieut. Col. Miller, viewed this trans- 
action in the light which I do. They know and feel, that 
no circumstance in our situation, none in that of the enemy, 
can excuse a capitulation so dishonorable and unjustifiable. 
This too, is the universal sentiment among the troops; and 
I shall be surprised to learn, that there is one man, who 
tiiioks it was necessary to sheath his sword, or lay down 
Ills musket. 

I was informed by Gen. Hull the morning after the ca- 
pitulation, that the British forces consisted of 1800 regulars, 
and that he surrendered to prevent the efl'usion of human 
blood. That he magnified their regular force nearly five 
told, there can be no doubt. Whether the philanthropic 
reason assigned by him is a sufficient justification for sur- 
renjlering a fortified ttwn, an army^ and a territory, is for 



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lUSTORY OP THE WAR. 



the government to determine. Cunfident I am, that iiad Ute 
courage and conduct of the General been equal to the 
spirit and zeal of the troo|w, the event would have been us 
brilliant and successful an it now is disastrous and dishon- 
orable. 

Very respectfully sir, I have tlie honor to be, &c. 

LEWIS CASS. 
<CuL 3d. regiment Ohio volunteers. 



{fiy the folUnvintf Proclamations H appears that Gen. HuU 

surrendered the w/wie of Michigan 'Jerritorif, to Gen. 

£ruck, althouffh he has never made puttlic any doc ument 

to that effect !] 

PROCLAMATION. 
By Isaac Brock^ Esq. Majer-Gcneralt commanding Itis ma- 
jesty's forces in the province of Upper Canada. 

Whereas the Territory of Michigan was this day by 
capitulation, ceded to the arms of his Britannic majeslVf 
"without any other condition than the protection of private 
property ; and wishing* to give an early proof of the mo- 
deration and justice of the government, I do hereby an- 
nounce to all the inhabitanUi of the said Territory that the 
laws heretofore in existence shall continue in force until his 
majesty's pleasure be known, or so long as the peace and 
safety of the Territory will admit thereof. And I do here- 
i)y also declare and make known to the said inhabitants 
ihat they shall be protected in the full exercise and enjoy- 
ment of their religion ; of which all persons, both civil and 
military, will take notice and govern themselves accor- 
dingly. 

All persons having in their possession, or having any 
knowledge of any public property, shall forthwith deliver 
in the same, or give notice thereof to the officer comman- 
ding, or to Lt. Ccl Nichol, who are hereby authorized to 
receive and gi^e proper receipts for the same. 

Officers of militia will be held responsible that all arniE 
in possession of miiiila-^men be immediately delivered 
up ; and all individuals whatever, who have in their pos- 
session arms of any kind, will deliver them up without de- 
lay. Given under my hand at Detroit, this 16th day of 
August, 1812, and in the 52d year of his majesty's reign. 

ISAAC BROCK, Major-Gcneral. 
J. M'DONJNELL, Lt. Col, Militia & A. D. C. 



BJSTOkY OF THK WiJt. 



13;^ 



s acGor- 



. A CARD. 

Colonel Symires, of Ihe senior division of the Ohio rai- 
iitia, preM,'nts hin retipeclful coin|>liBieut<4 to Majur-Giiieral 
Brock, con I in audi no: his Britannic inujfialy*9 forces, nhiU 
and red in Uppeir Canada. 

Colonel Synunes, observing, that l>y the 4th artirle of the 
rnpitulation of (^ort Detroit to Major-General Urock, all 
public arms niovin|j towards Fort Detroit, are to be deliv- 
ered np, but aa no place of dep'>!iit is pointed out liy the capit- 
HJation, J'orif/ Ifionsand stand of arms coming within the 
description, arc at the service of Major-Cieneral Brock, if 
hiii excellency H'ill condescend to come and tukv tluniL 

TRIAL OF GENERAL HULL. 

Adit' and Inspt. (ren. Office, Washington, AprU 25, 1814, 
GENERAL ORDER. 

The proceeding of the court martial, in the case of Wm. 
Hull, brigadeir- genera! in the army of the U. Stales, hav- 
ing been subipitted to the President jf the U. Slates, and 
having been approved by him, the following extract there- 
from is ordered to be read at the head of each regiment of 
the army, and to be published in the National lutelligencer 
of this city. By order, 

(Signed; J. B. WALBACH, A djl. General. \ 

At a general court martial (ordered by the President of 
ihc U. States) convened at Albany, in the state of N. York, 
on the 3d day of January, one thousand eight hundred and 
fourteen, and continued by adjournments, to ihe twenty- 
fifth day of March following, brigadier-General Wm. Hull, 
of the army of the U. States, was tried on the following 
charges and specifications, viz : 

Charge I. — Charged Gen. Hull with treason against 
the II. States, between the 9th of April and 17th, of August^. 
one thousand eight hundred and twelve. 

Specijication Jirst. — Charged Gen. Hull wiUi hiring an. 
nnarnied vessel, to convey his baggnge, and papers, witU 
the Declaration of War, his muster rolls, and instructions 
from the Secretary of War; fiom the Miami of the Lake to 
Detroit, for tlie purpose of falling into the hands of the Bri- 
tisii, which they captured the same day. with ail on board ; 
and of holding traitorous correspondence with the enemy 
on the first day of July, \^V2, while at tbe said Miajoai «? 
the Lake, 



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HISTORY OP rUK \YAli, 



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Specification second. — Charged Gen. Hull, of unuHic 
like and traitorous conduc!t, in neglecting; to march Ins 
whole army, after he arrived at Sandwich, and tak.«, or 
attempt to take fort Maiden ; and finally in connpiriug wilii 
our enemies to quit and al)aii(lon the Province of ITpper 
Canada on the 8th day of Aii^rust ; and of again holdini; 
correspondence with our enemies, and causing the army to 
recross the river to Detroit. 

Specification third. — Cliurged Gen. Hall of Iraitoronsit 
conspiring and shamefully surrendering tbtt Detroit, witji 
all the troops public stores, nrms^ and public Documents, on 
the loth day of August, 1812, to the British forces. 

Charge I L — ('harged Gen. Hull with cowardice, at 
and in the neighbourhood of Detroit between the 1st o! 
.July, and the 17th of August, 1812. u v\V V u , . 

Specification Jirst. — Charged Gen. Hull with misbehav- 
iour before the enemy, and shamefully manifesting an tmdue 
fear and apprehension ct" danger by a course of conduct 
and conversation evincing personal alarm, agitation of 
mind, and privation of judgment by hastily abandcnino- 
their territory, without any just or suflicient cause whatever. 

Specif cation second. — Ciiarged Gen. Hull on the 15lh of 
August with personal misbehaviour and fear before the en- 
cmv» after they had commenced their cannonade on De- 
troit, by a course of conduct, and particularly by various timid 
and cowardly actions and expressions used and uttered iu 
the presence of the army, as well in the public street of 
Detroit, as in posts and batteries near tlu reto. 

Specification third. — Charged Gen. Hull on the 15lli of 
August, with personal fear and ''owardice, by avoiding all 
personal danger, or makint^ an attempt, to prevent the en- 
emy's crossing the river, or to prevent their landing by 
avoiding all personal danger, from reconnoitering or ciu 
countering the enemy on their march towards fort Detroit, 
and by hastily sending flags of truce to the enemy with 
overtures for capitulation ; by anxiously withdrawing his 
person from the American troops to a place of saftHy ; by 
forbidding the artillery to tire on the rncmy ; by calling in 
thetroops, and crowdir.g them into thefoi t ; by a precipitate 
declaration to the enemy that he surrendered, beibre terms 
of capitulation were signed, considered, or even suggested. 

Specif cation fourth. — Charged (en. Hull, with shame- 



HISTORY OP THE WAB. 



137 



tiillv and cowardly (iiirrrnd< ring n fine nnny» in lii|;h spiriU, 
\u!l Mi|>))lie'l with ainmiinilinn, anus, and proviHiuhs, l>y a 
Jis<>rnr(;l'ul (upiUtlalion witli the enemy. containin|r no slip* 
iilalior< tor the seciirity and protection of such of tiie inhab- 
itants of ITpptr Canada, as had j<>ined the American slan- 
(l;»i-d ; wliereby the territorial sove^ei^:^ty, righUi, and prop- 
erlv, were Hhamefnily ceded to the enemy ; a brave and 
nalViolic army wantonly sacriticed to the personal fear of 
the conuiir.ndcr, and the service of the LJ. States suft'ered a 
Treat and aillicting losA. 

Cii^RGB III — Charged Gen. Hull with neglect of duty 
:uui nnofficerlike connuet, while commanding a separate 
army, between the 9lh of April, and the 17th of August, 
18 1 i 

Specification First — Charged Gen. Hull with unoflficer- 
like conduct, in neglecting and omitting to train, insp<3Ct, 
exeicise, and order, the army under his command, where- 
by the army W!>s exposed, to the hazard of disorder and de- 
teat, in the event of an attack being made thereon by the 
onemy. 

Specification Second — Charged Gen. Hull w'lh neglect 
of duty and unotficerlike conduct, by hiring, or causing to 
be hired, an unatuied vessel to convey his baggage and pa- 
pers, with his sick .soldiers, and medicine .stores, to Detroit, 
from the Miami of the Lake, on which pa.ssage the vessel, 
and all on board fell into the hands of the enemy, inform* 
iniT him of the declaration of war, and the number, stale, 
and condition of the army, to the great injury of the U. 
Slates. 

Specification Third — Charged Gen. Hull with neglect 
of dnly m neglecting to repair fort Detroit, and its arma- 
ment, on his arrival, in such a maimer as to be able to repel, 
and put to Bight an enemy, in the event of an invasion and 
allack. 

Specification Fourth — Charged Gen. Hull, with declai- 
ing' and avowing an intention to invade the British province, 
and to invest and attack fort Maiden, in the said pre 'ince, 
and having taken possession of Sandwich, was guilty of 
iie<r1ect ofduty, and unoflicerlike conduct, in neglecting 
seasonably to repair, and have transported the guns, and 
rww carnages, which were neces.sary for the operations of 
'hcarmv agauist fort Maiden ; by poslponinsT in the firsV 

18 



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HISTORY Oi THE WAK. 



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instance, and by abandoning in tlic next, an invci>lm<pntani{ 
attack npon fort Maiden ; and finally evacuating Uppfv 
Canada, without providing etfeclually in any respect, tar 
thegafety of the Tnhaf)itflnts thereof, who had accepted hb 
invitation to jntn the American standard : and without at~ 
tempting to accomplish iiis avowed design. 

Specification Fijth — (Tharged Gen. Hull, of neglect oi 
duty by not keeping open the comnf>unication between 
fort Detroit, and a military post at the river Raisin, which 
enabled the enemy totally to interrupt, and cut oB'all coin- 
municaliouR between said military posts, to the great dis> 
advantage of the U. Slates service. 

Speeijication Sixth — Charged Gen. Hull, with neglect of 
duty, in neglecting and omitting to maintain a bridj^e 
over the river Aux-'Cannard, which afforded a fair oppor- 
tunity for investing, and attarkirig fort Maiden, whereby a 
prospect of a successful investment and attack upon the 
fort speedily vanished. 

Specification Seventh — Charged Gen. Hull, with neglect 
of duly in not erecting batteries at the spring Wells, or pre- 
venting the enemy from erecting them on the opposite side 
of the river, whereby tl>ey were enabled to annoy fort De- 
troit, and to protect their army across the river, and enabled 
them to attack fort Detroit without opposition or loss, and 
to approach the said fort Detroit with the air and confidence 
of triumph. 

A.J. DALLAS, Judge Advocate. 

January f , 1814. — The court met at the capilol pursuant 
to adjournment. 

J»RESENr — x4ll the members. 
General Hull havintj/ appear sd, the charges and specijicaiiom 

were reid to him ly thejttdf/e advocate, and being asked if 

he was ready to plead to tliem, answered that lie waSj ami 

that he pleaded not guilty to all the charges and specijica' 

lions. 

' March 25, 1814. 

All the evidence being read, (whether on the part of the 
(prosecution or the defence,) applicable to the first charge, 
and the s^iecifications attached to that charge, and after due 
deliberation had thereon, the court express the followinj; 
opinion : 



HISTORY ot riii: wau. 



130 



The iicctisrd Jiaviv'i^ in \i\n Hnnl 
niruiiiiit the juri.silictiou o( tlie roiui to 



<lt?fi'nCf, firotestffl 
try tlie cbar^r t»f 
tieaso:!, uikI tlie o|iiiiioi) ut Ute conrt bc'iii^, that Uie objec- 
tion wo, lid have been leiiabli-« it the tiumbiiati l>eeii pletuled 
()V the accUM.'d on ins airaigiiineiit ; and btilievinti^ also, that 
till' conrl caiinut acquire junsditiiou of.tlie oH'ence by the 
\\A\er ur co ,iseut uf iiie accused, ihey decbne Diakin^ any 
turiiial decision Jiithat'Cbar^e. The evidence on Lhe sub- 
ject havin^if, however, been ^)ubhciy given, tlie court deem 
it proper, hi justice to the atrcused, to lay, that they do not 
believe from any Ihin^ that has appeared before them, that 
brigadier-general William Hull iias £uimuitbeud tceasou 
against the U. StateH. 

On the second charge, and the specifications atltached te 
that charge, (after .hearing all the evidence and defence, 
and iiftcr due deliberation thereon,) the court find briga- 
dier-general William Hull guilty of the Jirst, second and 
fourth specifications under that charge ; and also guilty of 
the third specification under that charge, except that paii 
\vhich charges the s$iid brtgadier-geiieral William Hull 
will) ** forbidding the American ar.tillery to fire on the 
enemy on their miH'Ch towards the said fort Detroit/' 

The courtiind the said brigadier-general William Hull 
guilty of the second charge. 

Qn the third charge, the court after having heard the 
evidence, (as well as the defence^ and after due delibera* 
tion, find the said brigadier-gtfiieral William Hull guilty 
of neglect of duty, and unofiicer-like conduct, as charged 
in the first jipecificatipn under this charge, in omitting, with 
sufficient c^.re and frequency, to inspect, train, exercise, and 
order, and to cause to be trained, inspected, exercised and 
ordered the troops under his command, from the b'xth day 
of July, until the seventeenth day of August, 1812: and 
acquit him of the residue of Uie charge contained in that 
gpecificatiofi. 

The court acquit the said brigadier-general William 
Hull of the second and third specifications of the same 
charge. 

The court find the said brigadier-general William Hull 
guilty of the whole of the fourth specification of that charge, 
except that part which charges him with not seasonably re- 
pairing, fitting, and transporting, or cau:>ing to be fitted, re- 



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HISTORY Of TUK MAR. 



pnired, nnil transported, llie ptnis and gi\ri-cnrriajif« s wliith 
were necessary to the operaliuiis ot the Mur in the suul 
British province ot* Upper CunHdn. 

The court tind the Mtiid l>ri^^ndier-|[roneral Williuni HjII 
gudty ufso nnich of the fit'tli Npccitication to that chari>;e a.s 
relates to neglect of duty nnd unoHicer-like condnci, ut 
suH'erin^ his coiiununication with the river Kaisni and the 
slate ot Ohio, to be cut off, and henduig; major Van lluru 
to attempt to open the same with an adequate force ; lie 
the SHid brigadier-geneiml William Hull, having reason to 
know or believe the same was in&iulHcient ; and the court 
acquit him of the residue of that specification. 

The court find the said brigadier-general William Hull 
guiity of the sixth and seventh specifications of tir.tt charge, 

The court find the said brigadier general William Hull 
guilty of the third charge. 

The court then adjourned to meet to-morrow morning :;i 
10 o'clock. I . :- . " • . * > 

March 2G,iS\4 

The court met pursuant to adjournment. 

PRESENT — All the members. 

The court, in consequence of their determination respec- 
ting the second and third charges, and the specifications 
under these charges, exhibited against the said brigadier- 
general William Hull, and after due consideration, do 
sentence htm to be shot to deaths two tliirds of the court 
coijcurring in the sentence. 

The court, in consideration of brigadier-general Hull's 
revolutionary services, and his advanced age, earnestly re- 
commend him to the mercy of the President of the U Stales. 

The court then adjourned to meet on Monday morning 
next, at 10 o'clock 

i¥arc/t 28, 1814. — The court met pursuant to adjourn- 
men.t — pkksen i — Ail the mfmbera. 

The proceedings having been read over, and approved 
and signed by the President, the court then adjourned, sine 
die. H . DE A K BOEN. President of the court. 

M. V. IWIX^^, special judye adxGcale. 
PHILIPS PARKER, Anny judge advocate, assistant. 
April 2o, 1814 — The sentence of the Court is approved^ 
and the execution of it remilled. 

JAMES MADISON. 



HISTORY OF THE U'AK. 



141 



liv (Vircclions ot llje r(»nil nuirMnl thf Pre«ii«lciil ufavo ihe 
lollt'Winpf dirertionn loCieniTnl liiiM : 

Albauj/i March'lH, IHM. Sir — Yon will pit-ase irhini 
10 voiir iisuiil |)lrtfi' ol" reMitlt* iu*e in Msissju'lmsclls, a. id 
llierc coiilimie until , on shall rective order?* from Ihe Pr*-- 
si(lciilofllieLInile<' Stiiiew. ^> 

Yonrhumbh; Hfrvant, 
IJ. DF.AHBORN, President of the conrl martial. 
Atljl. and Inap. (ti'ncral'n^iffice, WusliirifjUm /l/n*. 25, 18M. 

Gfiif KRAL ORDERS 1 he roll of the army is not to hir 
longer dishonored hy having' upon it the name of brigadier 
(leileral Wdliam Hull. '" 

The general court aiarlial of which Major- Genera! 
Oearhorn is President, is hereby dissolved. By order, 

.1. B. WALBACH, Adjl. Gen. 



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PORTER S VICTORY. 

Ckipt. Ferler to the Secretary oj the Navt/. 

U. S. F. Essex at sea. August 17, 1312. 

SIR — I have the honor to inform you that on the 1 3th 
jnst. his Britannic majesty's sloop of war Alert, Capt. T. P. 
Laugharne, ran down on our wetiiher quarter, gave three 
cheers, and commenced an action (If so trifling a skirmish 
deserves the name) and after 8 mmutes firing struck her 
colors, with 7 feet water in her hold, and much cut to pieces, 
und three men wounded. 

I need uot inform vou that the- officers and crew of the 
Essex behaved as 1 trust all Americans will in such cases, 
and it is only to be regretted ihat so much zeal and activi- 
ty could not have been displayed on an occasion which 
would have done them more honor. The Essex has not re- 
ceived the slightest injury. 

The Alert was out for the purpose of taking the Hornet! 

I have ihe honor to be, &c. 

DAVID PORTER. 
Capt. Porter to the Secretary of the Navy. 

!• IT. S. F. Essex, at sea, August 20. 

SIR — Finding myself much embarrassed by the Alert, 
from the great number of prisoners we have already made, 
[about .300] I concluded that before our arrival in America, 
the number would be considerably augmented, and as soon 
:!» T found my provisions and water getting short, «nd be- 



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142 



HISTORY OF THE UAH. 



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ing well Hatifified that a plan had hceii organized by them f«>r 
rising on the ship in the event of un eii^ugemenl ; I cunfliiU 
ered li to be the interest of my country to get clear of tlicm 
as speedily ns o'^ssible, particularly uh I was well assured 
that immuliately on tlieir arrival in St. o!oiin§ an etjual 
number of my countrymen would he released and And a 
fiure and immediate conveyance. I therefo4'e diew up 
"writteo stipulations corresponding^ with the accompanying 
letters ; 4hrew all the ^uns of the Alert overboai'd ; wilb- 
drew from her all the men belonging to tl»e Essex ; a|)- 
pointed Lieut. J. P. Wilner to command \wr as a cartel, 
put all my prisoners on board of her, ai»d dispatched her 
lor St. .lohns, in Newfoundland, with orders to proceed 
from thence to New- York with such Americans as he may 
receive in exchange. 

At a more suitable opportunity I shall do myself the 
honor to lay before you copies of every paper relative to 
this transaction, 9 10 sincerely hope that my conduct in tiiiti 
affair may meet with your approbation. 

As the Essex has been so annoying about Bermuda, No- 
va Scotia, and Newfoundland, I expect I shall have toruQ 
the gauntlet through their cruisers ; you may however rest 
assured that all a ship of her size can do shall be done, and 
:whatever may be our fate, our countrymen sl^aLl never 
blush for us. ; ' , 

I have the honor to be, &c. 

D. PORTER. 



Capt Taylor to Gen. Harrison. 

Fort Harrison, Sept. 10, 1812. 
Dear Sir — On Thursday evening, the 3d inst after re-p 
treat beating, four guns were heard to tire in the direction 
(where two young men (citizens who resided here) were 
making hay, about 40() yards distant from the fort. I was 
immediatelFy impressed with an idea that they were killed 
by the Indians, as I had that day been informed that the 
Prophet's party would soon be here for the purpose of com- 
mencing hostilities. Prudence induced me to wait until 
8 o'clock the next morning, when I sent out a corporal with 
a small party to tind them, which he soon did; they had 
been each shot with two balls, and scalped and cut in the 
i>iiost shocking manner. I had them brought in and burie^. 



HISTORY or THE WAR. 



14;) 



jn the evenings of the 4th iimt. old Joseph Lenar, and l>e- 
iwecii 30 and 40 Indians arrived from \Uv Prophei'i? town, 
with a white fla^ ; among whom were ahuut ten women : 
the men were composed of chiefs of the different tnbet 
ih»t compose the Prophtt's party. A Hhawanoe man, that 
Mnokcji^ond English, informed me that old Lenar intended to 
speak to me next morni ig, and try to get something toeal. 
A* retreat beating, 1 examined the men's arms, and found 
tliem all in good order, »nd completed tlieir cartridges to 
]{) rounds per man. As I had not been able to mount a 
•ruiird of more than six privates and two non-cummissioned 
oiheers, for some time past, and sometimes part of tlieui 
every other day, from the unhealthineso of the company ; I 
had not conceived my force adequate for the defence of 
lliis post, should it be vigorously attacked. 1 had just re- 
covered from a very severe attack of tho fever, and was 
nut able to be up much through the night. After tattoo I 
cautioned the guard to be vigilant, and ordered one of the 
non-commissioned officers, as centinels could not see every 
part of the garrison, to walk around on the inside during 
the whole night, to prevent the Indians taking any advan- 
tage of us, provided they had any intention of attacking us. 
About 11 o'clock, I was awakened by the tiring of one of 
the centinels; 1 sprang up, run out, and ordered the men 
to their posts ; when my orderly sergeant (who had charge 
of the upper block house) called out that the Indians had 
tired the lower block house (which contained the property 
ut* the contractor, which was deposited in the lower part, 
the upper part having been assigned to a corporal and ten 
privates, as an alarm post.) The guns had begun to fire 
prelty smartly from both sides. 1 directed the buckets to 
be got ready, and water brought from the well, and the fire 
extinguished immediately, as it was hardly perceivable at 
that time ; but from debility or some other cause, the men 
were very slow in executing my orders — the word^Ve ap- 
peared to throw the whole of them into confusion ; and by 
the time they had got the water, and broken open the door, 
the tire had unfortunately communicated to a quantity of 
whiskey (the stock having licked several holes through the 
lower pvu't of the building, after the salt that was stored 
there, through which they had introduced the tire without 
being discovered, as the night was very <lavk.) and in spite 



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IIISTOftV or TETE WAR. 



of every exerlion we cnuM make use of, in \p%% llian a mo- 
ineiii il ascencliMl lo the roof und liiitHed hIi our etforls to e\. 
tiii|(ui8li it. As that Mock lioiisi- aiijoiMeil th<^ Imrr.iclvi 
that make part of tho fortiHrationn, mont of tho men uiinie- 
diatiily (^nve themnelveH up for lost, and I had the (rreatcst 
ditiiruUy in |^ettiii|^ iiny ot'my otders exeonted - and, Nir, 
what from the ratfintr of the firo — the yelling' and howlinfj 
of several hundred Indians — Iho cries of nine women aiHi 
children ^a part soldiers' and a part citizens wives, who had 
taken shelter m the fort) — and the despoHdini^ of so many 
of the men, which was worse than all, I can assure you Ihal 
my feeling's were very unpleasant; and indeed there were 
not more than 10 or Id men able to do n jy^reat deal, the 
others heinj; either sick or convalescent — and to add to our 
other misfortunes, two of the stoutest men in the fort, and 
that I had every confidence iii,jiim[)ed the picket and left 
us. But my presence of mind did not for a moment for- 
sake me. I saw, by throwing" off part of the roof that join- 
ed the block house that was on tire, and keeping the end 
perfectly wet, the whole row of buildings mi^ht be saved, 
and leave only an entrance of 18 or 20 feet for the Indiana 
to enter after the house \a as consumed ; and that a tempo- 
rary breast-work mij^ht be erected to ]»revent their even 
entering^ there. I convinced the men that this could be 
accomplished, and it appeared to inspire them with new 
life, and never did men act with more iirmness and despe- 
ration. Those that were abie (while the others kept up a 
constant fire from the »)ther block house, and the two bas- 
tions) mounted the roofs of the houses with Dr. Clark at 
their head, who acted with the j^reatest firmness and pre- 
sence of mind, the whole time the attack lasted, which was 
7 hours, under a shower of bullets, and in a moment threw 
off as much of the roof as was necessary. This was done 
only with the loss of one man, and two wounded, and 1 am 
in hopes neither of them dangerous. — The man that wns 
killed was a little deranged, and did not gel off the house 
as soon as directed, or he would not have been hurt; and 
although the barracks were several times in a blaze, and 
an immense quantity of fire ag'ainst them, the men used 
such exertions that they kept it under, and before day 
raised a temporary breasl-woik as high as a man's head; 
although the Indians continued to pour in a heavy fire oi 



UISTORY OF THE WAR. 



146 



ball.nnd an iniiumeralile <|iiai)tity of arrows, duriuf*' the 
uliole liiiU'llit-atUrk lahted. I liaii Imtoiii' oilier iiiaii kilU 
«il inside the fort, and \w losl U\h life l>y liciiii; loo uiixious ; 
Ije •j^ot into one of the gallics of lliu bastion . and tired over 
tilt; pirkelH, and called ouU«> his com raden that he had kill- 
cil an Indian, and neij^lcetin^ to mIooi) down, in an nifitant 
he was hhol dead. One of the men that jum[»ed the pirk- 
t Is, returned an hour before day* uud runninjj^ up towards 
the tjale, bej^u^fed for God's sake for it to be opened. I 
!sus|)ecled it to be u »trala<jfem of the Indians to ij^et in, as 
I did not recollect the voice — I directed the men in the 
b.islion, where I happened to be, to shool him let him be 
ulio he would, and one of them tired at him, but fortunately 
lie run up to the oilier baslion, where they knew bis voice, 
ujid Dr. Clark directed him to lie down close to the pick- 
(Is behind and empty barrel that happened to be ihei-'j, and 
at (lay li^ht I had him let in. His arm was broken in a 
most shocking manner, which he says was done by the In- 
dians — which I suppose was the cause of his returning — I 
think it probable that he wdl not recover. The other, they 
raug'ht about 120 yards from the garrison, and cut him all 
to pieces. After keeping up a constant tire until about six 
o'clock the next morning, which we returned with some 
effect ; after day light, they removed out of the reach of 
our guns. A party of them drove up the horses that be- 
longed to the citizens here, and as they could not catch 
Iheiiivery readily, shot the whole of ihem in our sight, as 
well as a number of their hogs. They drove off the whole 
ot Die cattle, which amounted to sixty-tive head, as well as 
the public oxen. I had the vacancy titled up before night, 
(which was made by the burning of the block house) with 
a strong row of pickets, which 1 got by pulling down the 
j;uard house. We lost the whole of our provisions, but 
must make out to live upon green corn until we can get a 
supply, which I am in hopes will not be long. I believe 
the whole of the Miamies, or Weas, were among the 
Prophet's party, as one chief gave his orders in that lan- 
guage, which resembled Stone Eater's voice, and I believe 
Negro Legs was there likewise. The Indians suffered 
Muartlv, but were so immerous as to lake ofi' all that were 
shot. 

Z. TAYLOR 
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Cepy of a letter from Major Thomas S. Jessnp and Jmine.i 

Taylor Q. M, Gen. iV. U'. Army to a gentleman in 

Washington City, dated 

Chilicothe, (Ohio) Oct. 7. 18)2. 

Sir— Your letter has been rt'ceived, requesting' from us 
a corroboration of Co!. Cass's statement to the Secretarv ot 
War, of the surrender of the north-western army. We 
have read the Colonel's statement with attention, and find 
it a pretty correct history cf our situation, althongh we 
have observed that some important facts have been omilled. 
We have also read and examined the oftk-ial report of 
Gen. Hull, and huve found it abounding with iiiaccnracieg 
and niisstuteaientR ; the General has not only underrated 
his own force, but has, in our opinicHi, magnihed nitiMJtely 
that of the enemy, and enuoierated danglers aiid dilHcullies 
that existed only in imagination. 

That the lueani^ within our power were not properly 
applied is a melancholy fact ; and that the army was uiu e- 
cessarily sacrificed, and the American arms disgraced 
none but the base and cowardly will atempt to deny. 

You are authorised to make what use you may think 
proper of this letter. 

We are with much respect, 8ic. 

THOMAS S. JESSUK 
"^ Brigade 31a for N. IK Army. 

JAMES TAYLOii 
Q.3J.aen.N. W. Army. 



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Shirmishing — Capt. Williams, on the 30th of August, 
with '21 men, antl two waggons, while proceeding from 
St. Mary's to St. John's river, was attacked by an ambiis- 
caduisp pai'ty of Indians, who killed one man and wounded 
six, including Capt. Williams, who received seven wounds; 
three through one hand, and four in one leg. — He effected 
a retreat about 200 yar^ls to a swamp, where he made u 
stand, and fought until all the ammunition was expended 
on both sides, when the Indians made an attempt with 
their tomahawks, which this little band soon put a stop to, 
by charging bayonel, and rushing on them. The Indians 
destroyed one waggon and took the other to carry off their 
killed and wounded. Capt. Willinms then proceeded to 
St. John*s with his well and wounded, excepting one man, 



HISTORY OK THE WAR. 



147 



wilio was not able to travel. The next day a party of In- 
(liaii!» reiuriied to the spul, wlieii the wuiiiided man roHeup 
:\s well as he cuuh), and called U|)Qii hi^ party to rush iip^n 
thf> Indians, which Ntarlled ihein in Miich a manner that one 
(jl'tliem «i|iriiiijj^ tVoiii hi8 liorsie, which tlui wounded man 
cuuij'ht and arrived safe at St. John's. 

Capl. Forsyth, with 70 of his rifle company* and 34 mili- 
tia volunteers, on the night ot the 20tU September, 1812, 
wHit over to a small village called Gananoque in the town 
ot L''eds from Cape Vincent, for the {Mirpose of detitroy- 
iiig- the kin^s store house at Itiat place They lauded un- 
observed, but were soon discovered by a party of regulars 
of about 120, and tired upon. — Capt. Forsyth returned the 
fire w ith such spirit, that the enemy were obliged to retreat 
to Ihe village, where they were reiid'orced by a uuraber of 
niilitia, and again rallied, i^iit finding the contest too san- 
guii>e, retreated the second time in disorder, leaving 10 kill- 
ed and 8 re^rulars and a number of militia prisoners : 
Ca;jtuin Forvyth had only one man killed and one 
slii^htly woufided. After destroying the store house, 
with a quantity of flour and pork, our little bnjid of 
heroes, returned to Cape Vincent, taking with them the 
prisoners, 60 stand of arms, two barrels of tixed ammuni- 
tion, one barrel of powder, one barrel of flints, and a quan> 
tity of other ])ul;iic property taken from the store-house. 

On the '1th of October, alxxit iorty Britisli boats escorted 
hy two gun boats, pttemptei' to pass from Johnstown to 
Pnscott, by Ogdensburg. — On their leaving Johnstown, 
the batteries at Prescott opened on Ogdensburg, and kept 
up a brisk Are, whi?.h was returned in a spirited manner, 
and continued two hours. The next morning the enemy 
cummenced a heavy cannonade on us from Prescott, which 
was continued with little intermisa»u)iiftlu'OUgh the day with> 
out any return from us ; General Brown considered it use- 
less to lire such a distance. The enemy was very busy 
during the day in (preparing for an attack on Ogdensburg*^ 
tile next morning about 10 o'clock* 25 boats, aided by twa 
X^\n boats moved up the river tlH'ee quarters of a mile^ 
when they tacked and stood i^ver for our i^ore. As soon 
as the boats changed their course, the batteries from Pres- 
cott opened their fire upon us, which was not answered till 



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HISTORY OF IIIK IV A K. 



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the boalH had ndvanced to nhniit the middle of liie rivf r, 
when our batteries commenced a tremendous fire up«Mi 
them, which destroyed three, and caused the remainder to 
aeek shelter under the batteries ol Prescoll. CoU. Lelhtid-jt 
and BrecL?nridge, led the British. There was no- unti 
man either killed or wounded on our side, whilst the c- 
emy lost twelve killed and twenty wounded. 

Affair ai St. Regis. — Major Young^.of the Troy, N. Y. 
mibtia, stationed at French Mills, on the St. Regis river, 
having received intelligence that a party of the enemy had 
arrived at, and taken possession of St. Regis village, niaroli- 
ed a detachment, on the night of the 21st October, which 
crossed the river about 3 oV'lock, and arrived within half a 
mile of the village by 5 in the morning, unobserved by the 
enemy. Here the Major made such a judicious disposi- 
tion of his force, that the enemy were entirely surrounded, 
v/hen a few discharges caused them to surrender, after hav- 
ing 5 killed, ami several wounded. — The result of this af- 
fair was forty prisoners, with their arms, equipments, -Sec 
one stand of colors, and two batteaux, without having one 
man hurt, or our side. 

Major Young had the honor of taking the iirst litandard 
from the f^nemy in the present war. 

Captain Elliot to the Secretary of the Navy. 

Black Rock, Oct. y, 1812. 
SIR — I have the honor to inform you that on the morn- 
ing of the Stninst. two British vessels, which I was^inform- 
ed were his Britannic majest)f*s brig Detroit, late the U. 
Slates brig Adams, and the brig Hunter, mounting 14 
guns, but which afterwards proved to be the brig Caledo- 
nia, both said to be well armed and manned, came down 
the Lake and anchored under the protection of Fort Erie. 
Having been on the lines for sometime and in a measure 
inactively employed, I determined to make an attack, and 
if possible to get possession of them. A strong inducement 
to this attempt arose from a conviction that with these two 
vessels added Ip those which I have purchased and am tit- 
ting out, I should be able to meet the remainder of the Bri- 
tish force on the Upper Lakes, and save an incalculable ex- 
pense and labor to the government. On the morning of 
Iheir arrival I heard that our seamen were but a short dis^ 






HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



149 



utnce from lliis place, nnd immediately dispatched nn Ex- 
iiress to the utHcers, directing lheii> to nSe all potisible dis- 
iv.ttch i'l j^etting their men to ihis place, as I had important 
^et \ ice to perform. On their arrival, which >vas about 
1*2 o'clock I diKcovered that they had only 20 pisiolii and 
nfttiicr ciitlasHes nor battle axcM. But on application to 
Generals Smith and Flail of the rcgulaiv and militia, 1 was 
siijiiilied w1lha few arms, and iiCn. Smith was agood on 
niv reipiest as immediately to detatch tifty men from the reg- 
ulars, armed with muikets. .J'*" ; f /.(.r*/ 
By 1 o'clock in the afternoon, I had my men selected 
and stationed in two boats, which I had previously prepared 
(or the purpose. With these boats, 6(1 men in each, and 
under circumstances very disadvantageous, my men having 
scarcely had time to refresh themselves after a fatiguing* 
march of 500 miles, I put off from the mouth of Buffalo 
creek, at 1 o'clock the following mcrning, and at 3 I was 
along side the vessels. In the space of about ten minutes I 
had the prisoners all secured, the topsails sheeted home, and 
the vessels under way. Unfortunately the wind was not 
iufficientiy strong to get me up af^ainst a rapid current into 
the Lake, whei-e i had understood another armed vessel lay 
at anchor, and I was obliged to run down the river by the 
Forts, under a heavy fire of round, grape, and canister, from 
a number of pieces of heavy ordnance, and several pieces 
of Hying artillery and compelled to anchor at a distance of 
about 400 yards from two of their batteries. Afler the dis- 
ciiai ge of the first gun, which was from the flying artillery, 
1 hailed the shore, and observed to the officer, that if another 
i;un was fired 1 would bring the prisoners on deck, and ex- 
pose them to the same fate we would all share — but notwith- 
8tancling,they disregarded the caution and continued a 
constant and destructive tire. One single moment's reflec- 
tion determined me not to commit an act tliat -would subject 
me to the imputation ci barbarity. The Caledonia had 
been beached, in as safe a position as the circumstances 
would admit of, under one of our batteries at the Biack 
Rock. I now brought all the guns of the Detroit on one 
side next the enemy, stationed the men at them, and direct- 
ed afire which was continued as long as our ammunition 
lasted and circumstances permitted. During the contest I 
endeavored to gel the Detroit on our side by seoding a 



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line, there iieiiic^ no wind, on shore, wilh all the line I coutd 
inutitor ; but the current bein^ so Ntrong, the IkxiI cuuld 
not rencb the Ahore. 1 then hailed our shore, and requeHl. 
ed that warptt should be made last on Innd, and sent ou 
bo^rdftlie attempt to all which attain proved Uselesn. Aii 
the lire was stich a» would, in all {>robability, sink the ves. 
»el in u short time, I determined to drift down the river out 
of the reach of the batteries, and make a stand against ih^ 
%ing artillery, (accordingly cut tlie cable, made suii 
I \ with very light airs, and at that instant discovered that tho 

I' f pilot had abandoned me. I dropped astern for about 10 

tninutes, when I was brought up on our shore on Scjuaw 
Island — got the boarding boat ready, had the prisoners 
put in and ttent m\ shore, with directions for tlie officer to 
return for me stnd what property we could get frum the 
brig. He di<i not return, owing to the difliculty in Ihe 
boat's getting on shore. Discovering a. skiff under the 
Counter, I put the four remaining prisoners in the boat, and 
with my officers I went or. shore to bring the boat oti'. I 
asked for protection to the brig of Lieut. Col. Scott who 
,, „. readily gave it. At this moment 1 discovered a boat wilh 

I III! !! I if »bout 40 soldiers from the British side, making for the brig. 

They got on board, but were soon compelled to abandon 
her, with the loss of nearly all their men. Major Ormsbee, 
commatidant of Fort Erie, and '60 privates were killed^ 
while on board. During the wliole of this morning both 
sides of the river kept up alternately a <^ontinual fire on the 
brig, and so much injured her that it was impossible to have 
floated her. Before I left her, she had several shot of large 
si/.e in her bends, hersaiis iu ribbons, and digging all cut 
to pieces, >. '.-, - .;■ 

To my officers and men I feel under great obligation. 
To Capt. Tovvsoii and Lieut. Roach of the 2d regiment, ot 
artillery, Ensign Preslman of the infantry, Cnpt. Chapin, 
Mr. John M'Comb, Messrs. John Town, Thomas Dain, 
PeterOverstocks, and James Sloan, resident gentlemen ol 
Buffalo, for their soldier and sailor like conduct. In a 
word, sir, every man fought as if with their hearts animated 
only by tlie interest and honor of their country. 

The prisoners I have turned over to the military. The 
Detroit mounted fourteen long guns, and two small guns, 
blunderbusses, pistols, muskets, cutlasses, and boardiog 
pikrs 



HISTORY QW THE WAR. 



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The Caledonia beloiigdlo Uie N. W. Company, loaded 
with furs worth 1 undc-rstooil 82<N>,0<)0. - 

I have tho honor to he, Sec. ' 

JESSED. ELLIOT. 

•.'*'•"■■ AMERICAN LOS9. '<*• 

Killed 2 — wounded 0. ' ' '»"; 

BKITISII LOSS. "' 

• - Killedai— Prisoners 111. 



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Extract of a h Her from Capt. HeaUlt ' ' •* 

Dated Pitthburg, Oct. 23, 1812. 
On ihe 9th of Au&rust last, I received orders from G»n^ 
Hull to evacuate the post and proceed with nmy command 
to Detroit by land, leavinsf it at my discretion to dispose 
of the pul-iic property as I thought projier. The neifrhbor- 
ing Indians got the information as early as I Jid, and came 
in trom all quarters in order to receive tlin goods in the 
factory store which ihey understood were to be given them. 
On the 13th, Cnpt. Wells, of fort Wayne, arrived with 
about 30 Miamies, for the purpose of escorting us in, by 
the request of General Hnll. On the I4lh I deliveped the 
Indians all the goods in the factory store, and n consider- 
able quantity of provisions which we could not take away 
with us. The surplus, '^nd ammunition I thought proper 
to destroy, fearing they would make bad use of it if put in 
their possession. I also destroyed all the liquor on hand 
soon after they began to collect. The collection was ur- 
usually large for that place, bnt they conducted with the 
strictest propriety till alter 1 left the fort. On the l«5th, at 
9 in the morning, we eommenceii onr march ; a part of 
the Miamies were df^tached in front and Ihe remainder in 
oar rear, as guards, under the direction of Capt. -Wells. 
The situation of the country rendered it necessary for us4o 
take the beach, with the lake on our left, and a high sand 
bank on our right, at about 100 vards distance. We had 
proceeded about a mile and a half, when it was discovered 
that the Indians were preparing to attack us from behind 
the bank. I inmiediately marched up with the company 
to the top of the bank, when the action commenced ; ultei' 
firing one round, we charged, and the Indians gav*: way 
in front and joined those on our flanks. In about 15 min- 
utes they got possession of all our horses, provisions, and 



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B13XOBY OF THE WAB. 



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baggage of every description, and finding the ATiauii>s 
did not assist uh, I drew off the men I had left and touk 
possession of a small elevation in the open prairie out of 
snot of the bank or any other cover. The Indians did not 
follow me, but assembled in a body on the top of the bank, 
and, after some consuU-adon among themselves, made 
signs for me to approach them. I advanced towards thcno 
alone and was met by one of the Potawattamie chiefs caU 
led the Black Bird, with an interpreter. After shaking' 
ha'ids,he requested me to surrender, promising to spare the 
lives of all the prisoners. On a few moments considera- 
tion, I concluded it would be most prudeitt to comply with 
his request, although I did not put entire confidence in his 
promise. After delivering up our arms, we were takeii 
back to their encampment near the fort, and distrii>uted 
among the different tribes. The next morning the^ set 
lire to the fort and left the place, taking the prisoners with 
them. Their number of warriors was biiween four and 
live hundred, mostly of the Potawattamie nation, and their 
loss, from the best information I could get, was about 15. 
Our strength was 54 regulars and 12 militia, out of which 
26 regulars, and all the militia were killed in the action, 
"with two women and twelve children. Ensign George 
Ronan, and Dr. Isaac V, Van Vojrhis of my company, 
"With Capt. Wells of fort Wayne, are to my great sorrow, 
numbered among the dead. Lieut. Lina T. Helm, with 
25 non-commisioned officers and privates, and 11 women 
and children, were prisoners when we were separated. 
Mrs. Heald and myself were taken to the mouth of the riv- 
er St. Joseph, and, being both badly wounded, were per- 
mitted to reside with Mr. Burnet, an Indian trader. In x 
few days after oi'r arrival there, the Indians all went otii'lo 
take fort Wayne, and in their nbsense 1 engaged a French- 
man to take us to Michilimackinac by water, where I gave 
myself up as a prisoner of m ar, with one of my sergeants. 
The commanding officer, Capt. Hoberts, offered me every 
assistance in his power to render our situation comfortable 
while we remained there, and to enable us to proceed on 
oi,r journey. To him I gave my parole of honor and 
came on to Detroit and reported myself to Col. Proctor, 
V'ho gave us a passage to Bufl'aloe -, from that place 1 cauie 
^y the way of Presque Isle and arrived here yesterday. 



HISTORY OP THB WAR. 



16a 



f Alter fftym Mr. S. T. Amlersim enclosing one from Com, 

Chauncey to the ^Secrefaiyof the Savij. "^' 

Sackett's Harbor, Nov. 13, IHI2.— -at nicrht. i 

SIP— *iiue the enclosed leller from the Cominoilore 
yfiMi written, tlie Growler has relumed with a prize, nrrl ii 
her Caplaiii Brock, brother to the late General of fh.it 
name, with the bagafa'ge of the latter. By the prize we 
Kanied that the l^^ari Moira wasofi'the False Ducks, and 
the Commodore hi>*i put oti' in a snow storm in the hope 
of cutting hT oti' from Kingston. 

From information rece.ved from Capt. Brock, there is 
no question but that Kingston is very strong'y detended. 
He expressed surprise to tindour vessels had got out of the 
harbor after having been it ; and says that the regiment to 
which he belongs is quartered there, 500 strong, besides 
otiier regulars, and a well appointed militia. The resis- 
tance m''*ue fully justifies this report. Be aNSured,sir, that 
in the action of which the Commodore has gi\en you aa 
account, the national honor has been most ably supported. 
In great haste, &c. 

IbAMUEL T. ANDERSON. 
Com. Chauncey to the Secretory of the A«t«/. 

" Sackett's Harbor, Nov. 13, 1812. 

SIR — 1 arrived here la^t evening in a gale of wind, the 
pilots having refused to keep the lake. On the Gth I fell 
in with the Royal George, and chased her into the bay of 
Quaiili, where I lost sight ot her in the night. On the 
niuriiing of the 9lh, we again got sight of her lymg in 
Kingston channel. We gave chase, and followed her in- 
to the harbor of Kingston, where we engaged her a^id the 
batteries for one hour and 45 minutes. I had made up uiy 
mind to board her, but she was so well protected by the 
batteries, and the wind blowing directly ii, it was deemed 
imprudent to make the attempt at that time ; the pilots al- 
so refused to take charge of the vessel. Under these 
circumstances, and it being after sun down, I determiiicd 
to haul off and renew the attack next morning We brut 
up in good order under a heavy tire from the Royal Geurge 
and batteries, to 4 mile point, wh^re we anchored. It 
blew heavy in squalls from the wistward during the niti;ht, 
and there was every appearance of a gaieofwind. The 
pilots became alarmed, and I thought it most prudent to 

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IIISTOIIY OP TIIK WAR. 



get into a place of mow safely. 1 llurcforo (very relm- 
ianlly) (leteried renewiiif^ the aUuek upon the ships and 
forts until a more favoraliie opportunily. 

In our passage throu^^h the bn) ot Uiumti, 1 discov« n d 
a schooner at the village of Arnnnirsiown, which we took 
possession of, hnt tintlin^she v^uuld detain ns (beiii^r thiu 
in chase of the Royal (jeorije) I onlered Lieut. Maeplar- 
son to take out her sails aid ri|i[<;in{r ,\\u\ \n\n\ her, wttich 
he did. We also took Ihe schooiirr iVInry, Hall, from Ni- 
agarn, at the mouth of Kiii<rstoii harbor, and look her wiili 
us to our anchoraji^e. The next niorniniL;', tinding that sIk 
could not beat throusrh the chaitnel with us, I ordered the 
sajling master of the Growler to take her under convoy and 
run down past Knighton, anchor on the east end of Louj; 
Island, and v jil for a wind to come up on the cast side. I 
"Was also in hopes that the Uoyal George mii^ht be induced 
to follow for the purpo^e ot retaking our prize, but her com- 
maiider was too well aware of the consequences to leave 
his moorings. 

We lost in this aftair one man killed, and three slightly 
wounded, with a few shot in our sails. The other ve.^stds 
lost no men and received but little injury in their hulls and 
sails, with the exception of the Pert, whose gun bursled in 
the early part of the action, and wounded her coiiunaiuler 
(sailing- master Arundel) badly, and a midshipman and 
three men slightly. Mr. Arut.del, who refused lo quit the 
deck although wounded, was knocked overboard in bt'ul- 
ing up to our anchorage, and, I am sorry to say, wus 
drowned. 

The Royal George must liav^ received very considera- 
ble injury in her hull and in men, as the gun vessels with a 
long 32 pounder were seen to strike her almost every shot. 
and it was observed that she was reinforced with troops fuur 
diflerent times during the action. 

It was thought by all the officers in the squadron that 
the enemy had more than thirty guns mounted at Kingston, 
and from 1000 to 1,300 men. The Royal George protect- 
ed by this force was driven into the inner harbor, under the 
protection of the musketry, by the Oneida, and fonr small 
schooners titled out as gun boats ; the Governor Tompkins 
not having been able to join in the action until about sun- 



HISTORY OP THE WAH. 



1^ 



Juwn, owin(]^ loUie lt<r|ilneHA of the wiiuld, and tlic Prri'f 
a^uii liavinji Imrsl the Micoiulor lliini sliol. • "«"t » ' » 
I ha\o tlie honor lo Ue, \c. ^* 

ISAAC CHAUNCEV. 



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6'eii, Van Rmttselaer to llw Secretary r>f War. 

I J. U- Lkuistown, Chiober 14, 181*2. 

SIR — As the niovemeiils v\ the Jirni) unilt^r my com- 
av.iiul. siiict I had the iioiior lo acldrcKs yon on the 8th inst. 
hiive l)cen of a very important rharact«r, producing con- 
sf(|iUMK'ei; serious to nr:iiiy individunis ; t'Ktabiishiiig farts 
;u luuily connected with the interest of the service p.nd safe- 
ly uf the army ; and as [ stand prominesitly responsible for 
some oi'thtise consequences, I he^ leave to explain to you, 
sir, uud ihroui^h you to my country, the situation and cir- 
riinstuiices ni v.hich I have had to act, and the reasons and 
motives which <^overned me; and if the result is not all 
that luight have been wished, it is such, that when the 
wliolo ground shad be viewed, 1 shall cheerfully sul?:nit to 
tlii judg-ment of my country. ' '' • ii'" f> 

111 my letter of the 8th inst. I apprized you that a crisis 
in this camjiaign was rapidly advancing; ; and that (to re- 
jM-'ui llie same vvordsj * the blow must be soon ttruchj or all 
the toil and expcnce of the campaign tjo for nothiwj ; and 
worse titan notliintj, for tlie whole will be tinjed mth 
dishonor,* i . ' f *ju 

Under such impressions, I had on the 5h inst. written 
to Brigadier-General Smyth, of the U. Stat*;s' forces re- 
questing an interview with him, MajorrGenei*a'. Hall, and 
the commandants of the (J. States' regiments, for the pur- 
pose of conferring upon the subject of future operations. 
I wrote Major-General Hall to the same purport. On the 
nth, i had received no answer from Gen. Smyth ; but in a 
note to me on the 10th, Gen. Hall mentioned that Gen. 
Smyth had not yet then agreed upon t^ny day fur consuUa* 
tiun. 

in the mean time, the partial success of Lieut. Elliot, at 
Black Rock, (of which however, I have received no official 
information) began to excite a strong disposition in the troopi 
»o act. This was expressed to me through various chan- 
nels in the shape of an alternative ; that they must have 
ndei's to act ; or at all hazards, they would go hqme. 1 



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HISTORY or THB WAB. 



forbear here coinmeiitinjf upon the oliviouR connequenreii 
tome I ersonul ^, ofloiiger withhuldiiig my ordem under 
such circuiiiMUuioeM. 

I had n ronti'reiicc with nfvto the pn^sihility of {)et. 

tinjif some person to pass over to Canada and obtain cttrrcct 
iidormalioii. Oiithe uiMininpr ot the 4th, he wrotu to mc 
thitt he had procured the man \% ho bore his letter to p:o o\ t r. 
IiiMtruclipns were given him ; he passed over — obtained 
^uch iiifarmsttion as warriiitcd an immediate attack. This 
was coiiiideniiy communicated to Keveral ofmy tii'HtoflTicers, 
and produced great zeal to act ; more especially ax il iiiigbl 
have acontruiitig ctVect upon the niovenients at Ddroit, 
ivhere it was supposed Gen. Brock had g^oiie with all the 
force he dared spare from the Niagara tVontitr. The bt'st 
preparations in my power Mere, therefore, made to dislodpre 
the enemy from the {^eights oi Qaeenston, and possess our« 
Sttlves of the village, where the troops might be sheltered 
from the distressing inclemency of the weather. 

Ljeut. Col. Fenwick*s Hying artillery, and a detachment 
of regular troops under his command, were ordered to 
be up HI season from Fort Niagara. Orders were also sent 
toGeii. Simythtosend down from Bufi'aloe, such detach* 
Aients of his brigade as existing circumstances in that vi< 
cinity might warrant. The attack was to have been made 
at4 o'clock in the morning of the lllh, by crossing over 
in boats from the old ferry opposite the Heights. To avoid 
any enibarrassmentin crossing the river, (which is here a 
sheet of violent eddies) experienced boatmen were procured 
to lake thp boats from the landing below to the place of em- 
barkation. Lieut. 8imwas considered the man of greatest 
skill for thisservioe. He went ahead, and in the extreme 
darkness, passed the intended place far up the river ; and 
there, in a most extraordinary manner fastened the boat to 
the shore and abandoned the detachment In lie frunt 
boat he had earned nearly every oar which was prepared 
for all the boats. I; i this agonizing dilemma, stood oiileers 
and men whose ardor had not been cooled by exposure 
through the night to one of the most tremendous norfh-east 
storms, which continued ,unabated, for 28 hours, and deliig^- 
ed the whole camp. The approach of day light extin- 
guished every prospect of success, and the detachment re- 
turned to camp. Col. Van. Rensselaer was to have core- 
mauded the detachment. 



IISTORV OF THE WAR. 



157 



After this rf suit, I luul hoppti ihe palience of iho troops 
^■ow'A liaNe roiituiitd until I coiiUt Kubmil the (•Inn stii;- 
gt.>it'tl in niv kllpr ot the blh.that I initfhl acl iiiui«*i', >»nd 
in ronl'ormiiy to ilie opinion that mii^ht he then ex|»re,s,»Ml. 
liiil niv ho|»e uai* idlo ; the previounly exril«'<l anloi sfciii- 
fii to fjain new lieart from tlie Uto miscarnaife — I -e \y .we 
were niortitied to slop short of thnr ohji;ct, und the tuned 
thonjjfht laurels half won by an attempt. 

Oil the morniner ot the rith, such was the pressure upon 
me irom all quarters, that I liecame sulisfit'd Ihat my refu- 
sal to net might involve uie in suspicion und the service in 
distfrace. * ^ 

Viewing affairs at Buffaloe as yet unsettled, I had im- 
tii(Mliatei\ countermanded the march of General Hmyth*s 
brigade, upon the failure of the first expedition ; but hav- 
iiii>- now deterniined to attack Q,ueenslon, I sent new orders 
to Gen. Smyth to march ; not with the view of his aid in 
tilt attack, for I considered the force detached sufficient, 
bnt to support the detachment should the conflict be obstin- 
ate and long^ continued. 

Lieut. Col. Chrystie, who had just arrived at the four mile 
Creek, had late in the night of the first contemplated attack, 
gallantly offered me his own and his men*s service ; but 
he got my permission to late. He now again came for- 
ward ; bad a conference with Col. Van Kensselaer, begged 
that he might have the honor of a command in the expedi- 
tion. The arrangement was made. Col. Van Kensselaer 
was to command one column of 300 militia ; and L eut. 
Col. Chrystie a column of the same number of re;^ular 
troops. 

Every precaution was now adopted as to bouts, and 
the most confidential and experienced men to manage them. 
At an early hour in the night, Lieut. Col. Chrystie inarch- 
ed his detachment, by the rear road, from Niagara to camp. 
At 7 o'clock in the evening, Lieut. Col. Slranahan's regi- 
ment moved from Niagara falls — at 8 o'clock. M«:;ud's — 
and at 9 Lieut. Col. Blan's regiment marched from the 
same place. All were in camp in good season. Agn ea- 
biy to my orders issued upon this occasion, the two columns 
■were to pass over together ; and as soon as the heights 
should be carried, Lieut. Col. Fenwick's i] ing artilery 
was to pass over ; then Maj Mullany'sdetacLment of reg- 
ulars : and other troops to follow in order. 



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Al (laMii of (lay llic boats were in reailiacii!*, uiul i||f> 
troopH comim^ncc'd t'lnliarkinp^, undt* r the cover uf a cuin- 
mantling- battery, niounlinir two eigblitm pounderH, iitul 
two sixes. The niovemen's were noon iliscuveretl, and n 
brisk fire of musketry wh« ^ured tVooi tbe wbole hne of 
the Canadian sthore. Our batteries then opened to sweep the 
shore ; but it was tor some minulcii,too dark to direct much 
fire with safety. A brisk cannonade was now opened n|)OQ 
tlie boats from three difierent batteries. Our battery returned 
their fire and occasionally threw grape upon the shore, and 
was itself served with shells from a small mortar of the en. 
emy's. Col. Scott, of the artillery, by hastening his march 
from Niagara Falls in the night, arrived in season to return 
the enemy's fire Willi two si\ pounders. i»a:.,t. .i.i 
. The boats were somewhat embarrassed with the eddies, 
•8 well a» with a shower of shot; but Col. Van Uensselaer, 
ivith about 1()0 men, soon eflected his landing amidst a 
tremendous fire directed upon him from every point ; but 
to the astonishment of all who witnessed the scene, this 
▼an of the column advanced slowly against the fire. It 
was a serious misfortune to the van, and indeed tu the 
whole expedition, that in a few minutes atler landing. Col. 
Van Rensselaer received four wounds — a ball passed 
through his right thigh, entering just below the hip bone— 
another shot passed through the same thigh, a little below— 
the third tlnntugh the calf of his leg — and a fourth cartnsed 
iiis heel. This was quite a crisis in the expedition. Uiu 
der so severe a fire it was difficult to form raw troops. By 
«ome mismanagement of the boatmen, Lieut. Col. Chrystie 
did not arrive until some time after this, and was wounded 
in tho hand in passing the river. Col. Van Rensselaer wa^ 
fitill able to stand ; and with great presence of mind order- 
ed his officers to proceed with rapidity and storm the fort. 
This service was gallantly performed, and the enemy driv- 
en down the hill in every direction. Soon after this both 
parties were considerably reinforced, and tlie conflict was 
renewed in several places — many of the enemy took shel- 
ter behind a stone guard-house, where a piece of ordnance 
was now briskly served. I ordered the fire of our battery 
directed upon the guard-house ; and it was so eDectuaily 
done, that with S or JO shot the fire was silenced. The en- 
emy then retreated behind a large store hou.se ; but in a 



•flHMij 



USTORY or THE WAR. 



1.39 



ilioriliinc llie roiitlM'came ;reneral, nixl the <ii(>iit\\ lir« 
s»:iHStieiicetl except tVuiii a one ^iiii Uattory, no fur down 
lliti river aii to he out. nt' the rouch of heavy ordnance, and 
uur h^ht pieces could not silence it. A niiniher of boaU 
now passed over uiianooyiil, except from one unsilenced 
.run. For some time aftrr 1 had passi d over, the victory 
,i|)|)eared complete ; hut in the expectation of furtiier at- 
tacks, 1 was tukiny; measures for fortifyin{^ my campimme. 
(Iiutelv — the direction of this service 1 committed to Lieut. 
Totteii, of the enufiiteers. But very soon the enemy were 
veiiilorced t)y a delachnient of several hundred Indians 
Iruu) Chippewa — they commenced a furious attack, but 
were proiirilly met atid routed hy tlve riile and bayonet. 
Bv this tune 1 perceived my troop were embarking very 
slowly. I passed immediately over to accelerate their 
movements; but torn) utter astonishiiieiit, ( found at the 
vt-ry moiitent when complete victor, was in our hands, the 
ardor of the uneniragcd troops had entirely subr *ied. I 
rode III all directions— urged men by every co i-iaeratiou 
lo (diss over — but in vain. Lieul. (yol. Hloom, who h?t| 
ken wounded in action, relumed, mounted i;is horse, aiul 
rode through the camp; as did also J«idge Peck, who 
liappened to be here, exhorting the companies to proceed— 
bill all in vain. 

At this time a large reinforcement from Fort George 
were discovered coming up the river. As the battery on 
(he liilt was considered an important check against their 
isccnding the heights, measures were immediately taken to 
set id them afresh supply of itminunilion, as we had learnt 
(here was left only twenty shot for the eighteen pounders. 
The reinforcement, however, 'Micpied to tiie right from the 
road, and formed a junction V; 'If I uiie Indians in the rear 
ot the heights. Finding, to my intinite mortification, that 
no reinforcement would pass over ; seeing that another se- 
vere conflict must soon commence ; and knowing that the 
brave men on the heights were ([uite exhausted, and nearly 
out of ammunition, all I could do was to send them afresh 
Mip|)ly of carlridjjes. At this critical moment, I despatched 
a note to Gen. Wadsworth, acquainting him with our silua- 
liou — leaving the course to be pursued much to his own 
judgment — with assurance, that if he thought best to retreat, 
i would endeavor to send as many boats as I could com • 



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HISTORY or TffE WAK. 



man(^ an/l cover his relreat by every fire I contd safely 
luaiie. But the bonis were diHjjersed — aiaiiy of llie b«»aU 
men had fled, puinc Htrut'k-~-atid hut iew got oflf. But my 
note could Imt little more than h.iVv reached Gcii. Wads- 
■worth ahout 4 o'clock, when a most severe and obstinate 
coiiflicl comineiK-ed and continued about haif an hour 
with a treni ndous tire of caiinoti. tlvini^ artillery ai.d mus- 
ketry. The enemy succeeded, in rt;|>o»sessing their batte- 
ry ; and gainiHS^ adv;iiiluj*e on every side, the brave men 
who had u^ainedlhe victory, exhausted of strength and ammu- 
nition, and grieved at the unp.u'donabie neglect of their 
fellow soldierN. gave U|) the coaflict. 

I can only add,tl.ul the victory was really won ; but lost 
for the want of a small reinforcement. One third part of 
the idle men miyhl have mved all, 

I cannot injustice close this without expressing the very 
great oi)ligatioM I am under to Brigadier-General Wads- 
■worlb. Col. Van Rv.nsselaer, Gol. Scott, Lieut. Cols. Chrvstie 
and Feiiwick, and Cupt. Gibson. Many others have also 
behaved irust gallantly. As I have reason to believe that 
many ofour IroopK tleJ to the woods, with the hope of 
crossing ihe river, 1 iiave notbeen able to learn the probable 
number of killed, wounded and prisoners.* The eneniy 
have suftered severely. 

Genekal Bkock, is among their slaui, and his aid-di- 
«aw*./ nu'rUdiv wouiided. 

1 have the honor to be, &c. 

STEPHEN VAN RENSSELAER. 



CHAPTER V. :-,^ 

Documents accnnpanying ihe President's Message of 
JSovember 4, 1812. 
Mr. Monroe to Mr. RvsselL 
Depak'Iment or Staie, July 27, 1812. 
SIR— I wrote you o.i the 2t5lh ot June, by Mr. Foster, a 
letter which he promised to deliver to you in person or by 
a safe hand. 

» // is since ascertained that 90 regulariand militia were killed, and 386 
ngulart and 378,mi/i^ia, Hi being wounded, viadtjiiriaoncrs. 



lIlbTOUY OF TUE WAB. 



161 



(ii ilial Klltr yoi. were informc d, that the Orders in 
r'ltincil, and other illej^al blockades, and the impressnicnt 
,>loiir seamen by Great-Britain, as you well knew before, 
were ihe principal causes of the war, rnd that if they were 
Kiuovod, vou might stipulate an armistice, leaving them 
111(1 all other grouj»d.'< of difference, for final and more pre- 
iise adjustment by treaty. As an inducement to the British 
government to discontinue the practice of impressment 
iiuin our vessels, by which alone our seamen can be made 
jccure, yoa were authorised to stipulate a prohibition by 
law, to be reciprocal, of the employment of British seamen 
ID the public or commercial service of the U. States. As 
^iicb an arrang;ement, wi.ich migjit be made completely 
iti'ectnal and satisfactory by suitable regulations and penal- 
ties, would operate almost exclusively in fiivor of Greal- 
15rit!iin,for as few of our seamen ever enter voluntarily into 
the British service, the reciprocity would be nominal; its 
advatitagie to G. Britain would be more than an equivalent 
for any she derives from impressment, which alone ought 
to induce her to abandon the practice, if she had no other 
motive for it. Astipulation to prohibit by law the em- 
j)loyuient of British seamen in the service of the U. States, 
is to be understood in the sense and spirit of the constitution. 
The passage of such law must depend of course on Con- 
rress, who, it might reasonably be presumed, might give 
f ifect to it. 

By authorising you to secure these objects as the grounds 
of ati armistice, it was not intended to restrict you to any 
I precise form in which it should be doiie. tt is not particu- 
[iarly necessary that the several points should be specially 
I provided for in the convention stipulating the armistice. 
I A clear and distinct understanding* wilh the British go- 
I vemmeiit on the subject of impressment, comprising in it 
the discharge of men already impressed, and on future 
blockades, if the Orders in Council are revoked, is all that 
is indispensable. The Orders in Council being revoked, 
and the proposed understanding on the otiier points, that is, 
loii blockades and impressment, being first obtained, in a 
[muniier, though informal, to admit of no mistake or disa- 
greement hereafter, the iitstrunient providing for the ar- 
juiiitice may assume a general form especially if more 
tirreeable to the British government. It mav for example 

21 



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IIISTOKV OF TIIK WAR. 



be said in general tornis * tliat l)oth powes being sincerelv 
desirous to tenniiiate the ilitVoreuces which unliappiiy suli. 
sist between llietu, and equally so, that full time shonI(i l)e 
j;iven for the adjuslnieiit lliertof, agree, 1st, that an armis- 
tice shall take place for that purpose to commence on the 
dwy of. 

* 2. That they will forthwHh appoint on each side com- 
missioners with full power to form atreaty, which shall pro. 
vide, by recipiocal arrangements, for th« security of tht-ir 
seamen from b«ing taken or employed in the service of the 
other power, for the ret!;ulation of their commerce, and all 
other interesting questions now depending between them. 

*3. The armistice shall not cease without a previous no- 
tice by one to the other party of days, and shull 
not be understood as having other eflfect than merely to sus- 
pend military operations by land and sea.' 

By this you will perceive that the President is desirouj 
of removing every obstacle to an accommodation which, 
consists merely of form, securing in a safe and satisfactorv 
manner, the rights and interest of the U. States in these two 
great and essential circumstances, as it is presumed maybe 
accomplished by the proposed understanding ; he is \vi|. 
lii.g that it should be done in a manner the most satisfactory 
and honorable to G. Britain, as well as to the U. Slates. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 

JAMES MONROE 



I r • i ■ 



Mr. Graham to Mr. Russell. 

V IH^PAKTMENT OP State, Aug. 9, 1812. 

SIR — The Secretary left this city about ten days ago 
on a short visit to Virginia. Since that period Mr. Bake: 
has, inconsequence of some despatches from his govem- 
ment addressed to Mr. Foster, made to me a commuiiica- 
lion respecting the intentions of his government as regards 
the Orders ill Council. It was of a character, however, so I 
entirely informal and confidential that Mr. Baker did not| 
feel himself at liberty to make it in the form of a note verbal 
or promemoria, or even to permit me to take a memoran- 
dum of it at the time he made it. As it authorises an e.\«| 
pectation that something more precise and detinite, in and 
oflicial form, may soon be received by this government, it is 
the less uecessary that 1 should go into an cxplaaatioa ot I 



IirSTORY OF THE WAR. 



1G3 



ilieviews of Uic President 'm relation to it, more parlicnlarly 

,s llu.' Sccn,tary of Stale is daily expected, and will he al>lc 

toiio it ill a manner more salisi'nctory. f....: i • 

1 have ihe honor lobe, ^c. ' '! 

JOHN GRAHAM."' 



3Tr. Graham to Mr. Uussell. •' ' '''' ""* 
t Depautmkntof State, Aug. 10, 1812. 

SIR — Thinking that it may possibly be useful to you, I 
jo m} self the honor to enclose you a memorandum of the 
conversation between Mr. Baker and niyst'lf, alluded to in 
niv letter of yesterday's date. From a conversation with 
Mr. Baker since this memorandum was made, I find that I 
was coirect in rei)reseuting to the President that the intj- 
jniition from Mr. Foster, and the British jiulhorilies at Han- 
fax was was to be understood as connected with a susnen- 
tioiiof hostUities on the frontiers ofCana<la. Yours, Vc, 

JOFTN GRAHAM. 
Memoranduw, referred to in the above leller. 

Mr. iJaker verbally comnmnicated to me for the infor- 
mation of the IVe.'jident, thsit he had received despatches 
from his governnient addressed to Mr. Foster, (dated I 
believe about the 17th of June) from which he was author- 
ised to say, that an official declaratioa would be sent to this 
country, that the Orders in Council, so far as they aflfecled 
the U. Slates, would l»e i*ei)ealedon the 1st of August, to 
lie revived on the 1st of May, 1813, uhless the conduct of 
the French governriient, and the result of the communica- 
tions with the American goveinment, ^fhould be such as, 
ill the opinion of his majesty^ to render then* revival unne- 
cessary. Mr. Baker moreover slated that the Orders 
would be revived, provitled the A>neriean g(jvernmeift did 
not, within fourteen d»ys *fter they re<'eived the oilicial 
declaration of their repeal, admit British armed vessels into 
their ports, and put an tend to the restrictive meaeures which 
had grown out of the Orders in Couupil. 

The despatchts authorising this communication to the 
American government expressly directed that it should bo 
wade verbally, and Mr. Baker did not considei himself at 
liberty to reduce it to writing, even in the forni of a note 
verbal, or promemoria. or to suffer me to tak^ a memoran- 
i\i\n of Ins communication at the time he made it, I inidcr' 



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ill.NlOKV OF THE W AK 



stood from him tlint the despatches had been opcue«l by Mi 
Foster at Halifax, who in con .equence of a conversation Ik 
had had with Vice Admiral Sawyer, and Sir J. Sherl)roki, 
had authori'ied Mr. Baker to say, that the<«e genllcinen would 
agree, as a measure leadin^i^ to a sus|) ..sion of lioslililies. 
that all captures made after a day to \k fi\j;d, shoultl nut 
bf *?roceeded against immediately, but l)e detained to auait 
the f''ture decision of the two «^overnmeiits. Mr. ]b\Mer 
} d Jt seen Sir Georsfe Prevost, but had written to Inm 
b, express, and did not doubt but that he would agree to 
an arrangement for the temporary suspension of hostilities. 
Mr, Baker also staled that he had received an authorilv 
from Mr. Foster to act as charge d'aftairs, provided tl/e 
Am<^ncan government would receive him in that charac- 
ter, for the purpose of enabling him ofticially to communi- 
cate the declaration which was to be expected from Jlie 
British government ; his functions to be understood, of 
course, as ceasing on tjie renewal of hostilities. J rej)lieil, 
that although, to so general and informal a communica- 
tion, no answer might be necessary, and certainly no par- 
ticular answer expected, yet, I was authorised to say, that 
the communicatiou is received with sincere satisfaction, as 
it is hoped that the spirit in which it was authorised by his 
government, may lead to such further communications as 
will open the way sjot only to an early and satisfactory ter- 
niination of existing hostilities, but to that entire adjustment 
of all the diflierences which j>roduced them, and that peniia- 
nent peace and solid friendship which ought to be mutual- 
ly desired bv both countries, and which is sincerely desired 
by this. \Vith this desire, an authority was given to Mr. 
Russell on the subject of an armistice as introductory to a 
final pacification, as has been made known to Mr. Foster, 
and the same desire will be felt on the receipt of the iur- 
ther and more particular communications which are 
shortly to he expected with respt^et to the joint intimation 
from Mr. Foster and the authorities at Halifax, on the sub- 
ject of .suspending judicial proceedings in the case of mar- 
itime captures, to be accompanied by a suspension of mili- 
tary operations. The authority given to Mr. Russell just 
aliuited to, and of which Mr. Foster was the bearer, is tiill 
proof of the s(>licitude of the government of the U. States 
to bring about a general suspension of hostilities on adiuis^ 



1 


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HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



16.J 



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^ihle Icrms, with as litlle delay ns possible. It was not to 
\h' (loui'trd IhenSbiv, lliat any oIIut practical cxpctlicul for 
altaiiiinof a siniiiaF result wpiiid b» reudily concurred in. 
I*|)Ou Ibe most favond)le consideration, however, which 
roulil be given to the expedient suggested through him, it 
did not appear lu be redncd>le to any praciicable shape to 
which the executive would be authui-ised to give it the ne- 
cessary sanction, nor indeed is it probable that \i it was less 
lii\ble to insuperable difficulties, that it cntdd have any ma- 
terial effect previous to the result of the pncitic advance 
made by this government, and which nmsl it favorably re- 
ceived, become operative as soon as any other arrangement 
that could now be made. It was slated to IMr. Baker, 
thiitthe President did not, under existing circumstances, 
consider Mr. Posfer as vested with the power of appointing 
a charge d 'affairs : but that no difficulty in point of form, 
would be made, as any authentic communication through 
him, or any other channel, would be received with atten- 
tion and respect. » . / 



Mr. Monroe (» Mr. Ilussell. 
Department of State, Aug, 21, 1812. 

[Extract^ SIR — My last letter to y»>" ^vas of the 27th 
of July, and was forwarded by the British packet Althea, 
uuderthe special protection of Mr. Baker. The object of 
that letter, and of the next preceding one of the 2()lh of 
June, was to invest you with power to suspend by an armis- 
tice; o!! such fair conditions as it was presumed could not 
be rejected, the operation of the war, which had been 
brought on the U. States by the injustice and violence of 
the British government. At the moment of the declara- 
tion of war, the President, regretting the necessity which 
produced it, looked to its termination and providecl for it, 
and happy will it be for both countries, if the disposition 
felt, and the advances made on his part, are entertained and 
met by the British government in usimdar spirit. 

You will have seen by the note forwarded to you by Mr. 
Graham, of Mr. Baker s commumcation to him, that Mr. 
Foster had authorised him to state that the commanders of 
the British forces at Halifax would agree to a suspension, 
after a dav to be fixed, of the condenuiation of prizes, to 
await the decision ot both governments, without however 



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preventiuf^ captures on eilher side. It appears also, that 
Mr. Foster hiul promised to conimunicale with Sir Geor^rc 
Prevost, and tu advise hiiu tu propose to our governmcnl 
an amii{ilice. 

Hir George Prevost has siuce prcjsoycdto General Dear- 
Jjor*;, at the sujfgeslioji of i\1r. IV'der, a siJ.j»eusion of of- 
fensive operations Uy land* in a ktter whi' b vas transmil- 
ed by the General to !iie ScMelaiy of V) ar, i provisional 
aj^rt'^ment was cntcrril into between Geaerai Dearborn 
and Colonel Brivnes, iUe Brilish adjutant-Geni'^vat, Learer 
of Gfnt/i'jU Provost'H letter, that neither party should act 
offensively before lh<: ^lecisi<m of our liwvdunvjut shpulU bt 
taken ou ihe subject. 

Since nis/ return to W-isbioj^lon, .^s documeqft allude^ 
to in Mr» Foster's des{)aicb, as Hnaliy decided on by the 
Bri?t;sh government, bus Ijeen handed tQ me by Mr. Baker, 
with a remark, that its authenticity mi^ijt be relied on. 
Mr. Baker added that it was not improbable^ that tho Ad- 
miral at Halifax mi^ht a^ree likewise to a suspension oi 
■captures, though he did nut profess to appear to be acquaint- 
ed with his sentiments on that point. 

On full consideration of all the circumstances wliicb 
merit attention, the President regrets that it is not in his 
power to accede to the proposed arrangement. The iol 
lowing are among the principal reasons which have pro- 
Juced this decision. 

Ist. The President has no pQiwcr to suspend judicial 
proceedings on prizes. A capture, if lawful, vests a r\gU 
over which he has no control. Nor could he prevent cap- 
tures otherwise than by an indiscriminate recal of tbe 
commissions granted to our privateers, which he could nut 
justify under existing circumstances. 

2d. The proposition is not made by the British govern- 
ment nor is there any certainty that it would be approved 
by it. The proposed arrangement, if acceded to, uiiglH 
not be observed by the British officers themselveK, if theii 
government, in consequence of the war, should give them 
instructions of a difl'erent character, even if they were giv- 
en without a knowledge of the arrangement. 

3d. No security is given, or proposed, a» to the Indians, 
nor could any be relied on. They have engaged in tlie 
wdv on the side of the British government, and are now pro 



inSTORT OF THE WAR. 



167 



s^culing it with vij^or,in their usual savaire mode. They 
can only he reslrniiied by force, when once let loose, uiid 
that force has already l)een ordend out for that purpose. 

4ih. The proposition in not reciprocal, Ix'cauHe it resti-ains 
llie Umited States from actm^ uliere their power in a^real- 
e>t, and leaves Great-Britain at liberty, and gives her time 
lo augment her forces in our neitj^hborhood. 

dtli. That as a principal object of the war is to obtain 
redress against the British practice of impressment, an 
agreement to suspend hoslililiri* even before the British 
uovernment is heard from on that subject, might be con- 
iiidered a relinquishment of that claim. 

(illi. It is fthe more objectionable, and of the less impor- 
tance, in consideration of the instructions heretofore given 
vou, which, if met by the British governnif nt, may have 
already produced the same result lu a greater extent and 
more satisfactory form. 

I might add, that the declaration itself is objectionable 
in many respects, particularly the followmg — 

1st. Because it a.sserts a right in the British government 
{0 restore the Orders in Council, or any part thereof, to their 
full eftect on a principle of retaliation on France, under 
jMrcumstances of which she alone is to judge ; a right 
which this government cannot admit, especially in the ex- 
tent heretofore claimed, and acted on by the British gov- 
tnnneiit. 

2d. That the repeal is founded exclusively on the Frencli 
Decree of the 28th of April, 1811, by which the repeal 
©f the Decrees of Berlin and Milan, announced on the olh 
of August, 1810, to take effect on the 1st of ?Joveml>er, of 
that year, at which time their operation actually ceased, is 
disregarded, as are the claims of the U. States arising 
fiom the repeal on that day, even according lo the British 
pledge, 

3d. That even if the U. States had no right to claim the 
repeal of the British Orders in Council prior to the French 
Di3cree of the •28th of April, 1811, nor before the notiHca- 
lion of that Decree to the Bi*itish government, on the 'JHlh 
of May, of the present year, tiie British repeal ought to 
have borne date, from that day, and boon siibjert to noin-. 
of the limitations nttaf'hed t<> i» 



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These remarks on llie declaration of the nrincc recent, 
'which are nut pursued with rigor, nor in tlie full exieitt 
which they might b( > are ap^^licable ta it, in relation to the 
stateofthinjrs which existed before the determination of 
the LI. Staler to resist the ug;^resMions of the Briti^ih gov- 
ernment by war. By that determination, the relations be- 
tween the two cuuntricH have been altogether changed, and 
it is only by a termination of the war, 04* by measures lead- 
ing to it, by consent of both governments, that its calami- 
ties can be closed or mitigated. It is not now a question 
whether the dechiration of the prince regent is such as 
ought to have produced a repeal of the non>importatioa 
act, had war not been declared, because, by the declaru- 
tion of war, that question is superceded, and the non-im- 
portation act having been continued in force by Congress, 
and become a measure of war, and among the most efficient, 
it is no longer subject to the control of the Executive in the 
sense, and for the purpose for which it was adopted. The 
declaration, however, of the prince regent, will not be with- 
out eii'ect. I3y repealing the Orders in Council without 
reviving the blockade of May, 1800, or any other illegal 
blockade, as is understood to be the case, it removes a great 
obstacle to an accommodation. The President considers 
it an indication of a disposition in the British government 
to accommodate the diJOferences which subsist between the 
two countries, and I am instructed to assure you, that, if 
such a disposition reai'y exists, and is persevered in, and is 
extended to other objects, especially the important one of 
impressment, a durable and happy peace and reconciliation 
cannot fail to result from it. 



Mr» Russell to Mr. Monroe. 

London, Sept, J, 1812. 

SIR — ^You will perceive by iht; enclosed copies ot nolefe 
which have passed between lord Castlereagh and me, lliat 
the moderate and equitable terms proposed for a susjjeii- 
sion of hostilities, have been rejected, and that it is my iii- 
tention to return immediately to the United States. 

My continuance here, after it has been so broadly inti- 
mated to me by his lordship, that I am no longer acknowl- 
edged in my diplomatic capacity, and cfter a knowledge 
that instructions are given to the British Admiral to uego- 



HIKTOHY OF THE WAR. 



l(k> 



(.lale an arraiigcuieot on the other skI(> of the Atlantic, 
woa!ct, in my view of the subject, not only be uselfsM but 
miuro|H'r. 

It IS probable, however, that the vei^el in uhich f j>ro- 
po«e to embark will not take her departure betbre the l^lh 
or 20th of this month. '. '' i ' -- 

I have the honor to be, fkc. 

.lONATMAN RUSSFLL. 

>, t^ » 

' ' 3Ir. UusscUlo lordCi/sllireagh. ■• 

' • I ' ' London, \u^. 24, 1812. • 

Aty lord — It is only necessary, I trust, to call the attention 
ofyourlordshiplo a review ofllie coimIuc'I «»f the |rovernineiit 
ot llie U. States, to prove inconlrovertibly its unceasiiio- anx- 
ietv to maintain the relations of peace and friendship with (i. 
Hnlain. Its patience in suiVering' the many wroni>;s which 
it lias received, and ils perseverance in endeavoring by am- 
icable means to obtain redress, are known to the world. 
Di'spairingf at length of raceivinglhis redress from the jus- 
lice (tf the British g-overnment, to which it had so often ap- 
plied in vain, and feeling that a further forbearance would 
be a virtual surrender ofrig'htsand interests essential to the 
prosperity and indefKjndente of the nation confided to its 
protection, it has been compelled to discharge its high uuty 
hy an appeal to arms. While, however, it regards this 
course as the only one which remained for it to pursue 
svilh a hope of preserving any portion of that kind of char- 
acler which constitutes Ihe vital strength of every nation, 
yet it is still willing to give another proof of the spirit 
which has uniformly distinguished its proceedings, by seek- 
ing to arrest, on terms consistent with justice and honor, 
llie calamities of war. It has, therefore, authorised me to 
ittipulate with his Britannic uiajesty's government an ar- 
inislice to commence at or l>fcfore the expiration of sixty 
(lays after the signature of the instrument providing for it, 
on condition that the Orders in Council be repealed, and 
(10 illegal blockades to be substituted to them, and liiat 
•iiders be immediately given to discontinue the impres.s-* 
ment of persons from Americm vessels, and to restore the 
oiti/ens of the United States already impressed ; it being 
moreover well understood that the British government will 
isspiit tf> enter into definite arrangements, as soon as may 

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IIISIOUY UF TUK W All. 



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lie, on lIiCHC aiitl every ollur difVererice, hy u Irealy lo U 
rnncliidefl eiliicr at Luiidou or WuMliiiiKton, ns un au iiu 
partial c-onsiilcralion of existing^ circiiin.slaiiccs (4mll b>; 
(Iccnied inu.>t cxpedieitt. 

V' Ah an iitduceiiieiit tuCv. Britain tu discontinue the prac- 
tice ot' impressment i'roiii Aniericati ve^tMels, lam autlioriv 
ei\ to K^ive assurance! that a law shall be passed (to be r(>ci|i- 
rucal) to prohibit Ihefinptoyinent of Bni.sh seamen in tli> 
public or conimercial service of the U. Slates. 

It is sincerely believed that such an arran^^ement would 
prove more etticacious in srcnrinij to G. Bntam her stii- 
men, than the practice of impressment, i>o deroyruiory i> 
tlie sovereign attributes of the U. States, and so incompal\ 
ble wilh the personal riglits of their citi/oiis. 

Your lordship will not be surprised that I have present 
ed the revocation of the Orders in Council as a prelintinary 
to the suspension of hostilities, when it is considered that 
the act of the British government of the iJSd of June last, 
ordaining that revocation, is predicated on conditions, the 
jierformaiice of which is rendered impracticable by the 
change which is since known to have occurred in the rela- 
tions between the two countries. It cannot now be ex- 
pected that the government of the U. States will immedi- 
ately on due notice of that act, revoke or cause lo be re- 
voked its acts, excluding from the waters and harbors of 
the U. States all Brilisth armed vessels, and interdicting 
coMitnercial intercourse with G. Britain. Such a proce- 
dure would necessarily involve consecpienses too unreason- 
able aiul extravagant to be for a moment presumed. — The 
Order in Council oi' the 2t}d of June last will, therefore ac- 
cording to its own terms be null and of no eft'ect, and a new 
act of the British government, adapted to existing circum- 
stances, is obviously required for the etJectual repeal of the 
Orders in Council of which the United Slates complain. 

The government of the U. Stales considers indemnity 
fur the injuries received under the Orders in Council and 
other Edicts, violating the rights of the American nation, 
to be incident to Iheir repeal, and it believes that sati^^'aco- 
ry provision will be made in the definite treaty, to be here- 
after ncgocialed, fortius purpose. 

The conditions now oti'ered to the British government | 
for the terminaliou of the war by au armistice as aWvt 



MISTORY OF THE WAR. 



Ml 



^tnlftl. arfiso moilernte niul just in llirnnolvM, nn(\ nn en- 
tirely consisUiit \s ) ilH intrrcst hiuI honor, ibat a conti- 
ileiU hope IS inflnlg^rd that it will not hesitate to accept 
tkcm. Id ho doing it will nhniiduii no nij^lit; it will sacri- 
liof no interests; it will abstain oi.ly troni violatinjy the 
lifjhts of Ihc V. Slates, nnil lu return it will restore peace 
\villi ihe power from whom in a lrien<lly comiiiernal in- 
leiTOurse so many advantage« sire to be thi ivecl. 

V<nir lordship \% undonbtedly nware of the serions ditli- 
lulties with which the prosecution of the war, even for a 
short period, must necessarily embarrass all future atlompts 
al accommodation. — Passionn exasperated by injuries — 
alliances or conquests on terms which forbid Ihcir abandon- 
ment — will inevitably hereafter embitter aiul prolmcl a 
« oiliest which migfht now be so easily and happily termi- 
nated. 

Deeply impressed with these truths, I cannot but per- 
suade myself that his royal highness, the prince regent will 
take into his early consideration, the propositions herein 
made on behalf of the U. Slates, and decide on them in a 
spirit of conciliation and justice. .. , 

I have the honor to be, ^c. 
^ JONATHAN RUSSELL. 



' Lord Castlercagh to Mr. Ifnssnll. • > 

Foreign Opfick, Au«j. 29, 1812. 

SIR — Althoagh the diplomatic relations between the 
two governments have been terminated, by a declaration 
of war on the part of the U. Slates, I have not hesitated, 
under the peculiar circumstances ot the case, and the au- 
thority under which you act, to submit to the prince regent 
the proposition contained in your letter of the 24th inst. for 
a suspension of hostilities. 

From the period at which your Inslmctions must have 
been issued, it is obvious, that Ibis overture was determin- 
ed upon by the erovernment of the U. States, in ignorance 
of the Order in C<Mincilof the 23d of June last, and as yoiv 
inform me that you are not at liberty to depart from the con- 
ditions set forth lu you letter, it only reniains for me to ac- 
()uaintyou that the prince regent feels himself under the 
necessity of declining to accede to the proposition therein 
containcdj as being on various grounds absolntrly inad- 
misBibJo. 



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As AOUI1 asllicrc wuh rrusott t(^ .i|;|»rtlKiiii, Ut;ti Mr. ^W 
Ut'n fuiiclioriN iHii^lil hiivti i'i>a> .' u .liinricu, and llisil Ik. 
nii;r||i|iavc bctMi ublijL^etJ tu wi')i>,ili'nw liiiiiHi.'lt, in consc- 
(|)ieiicfot' war hiving iu'en ilecliired, fiuiii the r.Slalts, 
bftore liic above ii)t'iiUori<d OiiUr of ibt* *JiU\ of June, aii<l 
the iiiMtruclioiiii consequent Uiereiipon, coiibl have renclinl 
hull, nieasnreg Here taken tor aulborlNind^ the ikilish Aii- 
iitiral uti llie Anieri/can vlation, to |)ro[40Ne tu the |rovern- 
inent of the V. .Stales, nn immediate and reciprocal re- 
vocation of all hostde Orders, with the tender of giving full 
d}ect, in the event of hostilities bein^^ di»continiied, to tlie 
provisioiiiiof ihesaid Order, upon tlie couditiou.*» therein 
speciHed. , ,,, 

From thin statement you will perceive that Iho view you 
have taken of this part of the subject ih incorrect ; and timt 
in the preset t state of the relations between the two coun- 
tries, the operation of the Order of the 23d June, can only 
be defeated by a refusal on the part of your government to 
desist from hostilitits, or to comply with the conditions ex- 
pressed in the said Order. ,• .{ xi i 

Under the circumstances of your hnvincf no powers to 
iiegocintc, I must decline entering into a detailed discus- 
sion of the propositions which you have been directed to 
bring forward. 

I cannot, however, refrain on one single point, from ex- 
pressing my surprise ; namely, that, as a condition prelim- 
inary even to a suspension of hostilities, th« government ot 
the U. States, should have thought fit to demand, that llu 
British government should desist from its ancient and ac- 
customed practice of impressing British seamen from the 
merchant ships of a foreign state, simply on the assurance 
that a law shall hereafter be passed to prohibit the employ^ 
men) of British seamen in the public or commercial service 
of that state. 

The British government now, as heretofore, is i-eady to 
receive from the government of the U. Stales, and amica- 
bly to discuss, any proposition which professes to have in 
■view either to check abuse in the exercise of the practice ot 
im^ ressimnt, or to accomplish by means less liable to vex 
ation, the object for which impressment has hitherto been 
found necessary, but t- ey cannot consent to suspend tlit 
exercise of a right upon which the naval strength of tlit: 



HIStrOKY or Tlf£ \% AR. 



173 



<m|>ire WHinly iIoim'ikJs, mail Un y are fully roiivincetl Ihai 
iiieAiiH can liedeviicd, uimI Will be Ado|>t«^(l, by wliicli Umi 
.«;»)( i'l to btobtuiiicil by the extrcise of Uiui rigbi* can b#. 
etjeciiiully iitiCilretJ. ,.. -,, ,f.,.^,.. f, ..., .!.»'r.ti. «trf.rt{ 

I ba>v llw buiiui* tu be, &c. dt 

CASTLEfUWGH. ,1 , 

*"■""*** wii .'1*1 .»»'. I 



M v'l '-^ r i^/r. Uwselt to lord ( 'aatltreatfh . 

London, Seplembcr 1, 1812. 

My lord — I bavc benrd wilb much regrcl, by your 
iordsiiip M note, dated the tlie 29lb ult. which I did not re- 
ci>iv< Mitil khis luoriiiiig^, thai the |»riMce regent ht!« thougfht 
|)ru|)er to decline to accede to the propoHitioA for usuNpeh- 
sioii of hostdities, routained in my note of the '24thof Aug^. 

It has been matter of surprise to me that my view with 
regard to the revocation of the Order in Council of the2dd 
of June latit, should have been cooNidered to have been in- 
correct, wheu it appears by your lordwhip's note diat the 
Britiiih g^overnment itself had deemed it necesHary to f^ive 
powers to the BritiHh Admiral to titipulale for its full effect, 
and thereby admitted tiiut a uew act was required for that 
purpose. 

(t now only remains for me to announce to you lordsliip 
that it is mv intention to embark immediately at Plymouth, 
on board tne ship Lark, for the U. States, and to request 
that permission may be granted, a soon as may be, for the 
embarkation of my servants, baggage, and the effects of 
this legation, and that the necessary passports may be forn- 
Ifihedfor my own, and tbeir safe conduct to that destination. 

I avail myself of this occasion to api>rizs your lordship 
that I am authorised by the government of the U. States, to 
leave Reuben Gaufit Beasely, Esq. as its agent for prisonert 
of war in this country, and to desire that every necessary fa- 
cility may be afforded bim in the exercise of that trust, by 
the British government. 

I have the honor to be, 8(c. - ' ^^ ..y 

v^v<^: ^ :,.^ , JONATHAN RUSSELL. 

'-.. < » , , Mr. Russell to Mr. Monroe. r 

London, Sept. 3, 1812, 
SIR — I enclose herein a copy of a note, received yester- 
iiy from loru Castlereagh, which will acquaint you that! 



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UISTOIIT OF THE WAR. 






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have obtained my passports to relorn to the U. Slalen, and 
thai Mr. Beasely is permiited to remain here as anient for 
prisoners of war. 

Immediately on demanding^ my passport I addressed to 
the consols a circular of which you wili also find a copy en- 
closed. ' .lil.i I i"/ ? 

I have the honor to be, &c. 

JONATHAN RUSSELL 

m;u/ ,..! Lord Castlereagh to Mr. Rvsseli. '" " 
" '•' '' ' ' "' ' Foreign Ofpick, Sept. 2, 1812. 

'SIR — I have laid before his royal hij^hoess, the prince 
regent, your letter of the 1st inst. in which you announce 
your intention to embark immediately at Plymouth on board 
the ship Lark, for the U. States. 

I have already had the honor of forwarding to you ait 
Admiralty order for the protection of that ship as a cartel, 
on her voyag"e to America, and I herewith enclose to you 
a passport for the free embarkation of yourself and family, 
in comfbrmity to your request. The lords commissisnei's 
of his majesty's treasury will issue directions to the commis- 
sioners of the customs to give every facility to the embarka- 
tion of your eifeots. 

If previous to your departure from England, you can 
point out to me any particular manner in which lean facil- 
itate your arititngcments, I beg that you will command my 
services. ■..<:■•■ - ■^-' * 

His royal highness had commanded me to signify toyou, 
for the information of your government, that there will be 
no difficulty in allowing Mr. R. G. Beasely, as stated in 
your letter, t-^ reside in this country, as the U. State's agent 
for prisoueis of war. '^p P-'-'*' »vi vj.'jH iiuj; » i .ihw' >♦>. 
- ' 1 have the honor to be, &c. 
v'l , i J i s K CASTLEREAGH. 

Sir , LB, Warren to Mr. Monroe. - * 

i. '- -H^ * ; Halifax, No^a Scotia, Sept. 30, 1812. 
SIR — The departure of Mr. Foster from America, has 
devolved upon me the charge of making known to you, for 
the information of the government of the U. States, the sen- 
timents entertained by his royal highnes?:, the prince regent, 
upon the existing relations of the two countries. 



VISTOBY OS lOE Willi. 



ms 



You will observe, frum \he eoclotieil copy of lui Order iii 
t'ouucil beaming (late ihe 28doi June, 181£, ibatUte Or- 
(Icis in Cuuiici) ot Uie 7Ui of JmUiary, Jb07, and the '.Jtiili of 
April, 18(K), ceased to exist u^^rly at the name time that 
lite guvcM'rmient of the U. ^liites declared war against his 
ntajisJy 

luuucdialely on the receipt of this declaration in London, 
tlie Older in, Council, of which n copy is herewith enclosed 
l() yju, was issued on the lils. day of July, for the embargo 
:itid dt;tentit)n of all Antericunsjlips. 

L uler these cirrumstaiices, Tarn eommnnded to propose 
to yonr government the inmiediate cessation of hostilities 
helweeit the two countries and 1 bball be most happy to be 
the in.! iment of bringing about a reconciliation, so interes- 
ting a' benetlcial to America, and G . Britain. 

i therefore propose to you, that the government of the U. 
Stalesof Americashall instantly recall their letters of niarquo- 
and reprisal against British ships, together with all or- 
ders and instructions for any acts of hostility whatever 
against the territories of his majesty, or the persons or pro- 
perly of his subjects ; with the understanding, that, imme- 
diately on my receiving from you an official assurance to 
that eftect, I shall instruct all the otiicers under my com- 
mand to desist from corresponding measures of war, 
■against the ships and propeity of the U. States, ajid that I 
siiall transmit without delay,' corresponding intelhgence to 
the several parts of the world where hostilities may have 
(commenced. T\\6 British commanders in which, will be 
required to discontinue hostilities from the receipt of such 
iiolire. 

Should the American government accede to the above 
proposal for terminating hostilities, I am aullKirised to ar- 
range with you as to the revocation of the laws which in- 
terdict the commerce and ships of war of^Ci. Britain fi'oni 
the harbors and waters of the U. States; in the default of 
which revocation within such reasonable period as may be 
agreed upon, you will observe by the order of the 23d June, 
the Orders in Council of January, 1807, and April, 1809, 
are to be revived. 

The officer who conveys this letter to the American coast 
has received my orders to put to sea immediately upon the 
delivering ofthis dispatch to the competent authority ; Hml 



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HFSTOnV OH THF WiR. 



I earnestly recomiiicml that no litnemuy l>e lost in cojn- 
muiiicating'to me the ilcci«ron of n our goveriinienl, persuad- 
ed as I feci liial it cannot but be of » nature to lead to a 
»f)eedy termtnation of the }irest»n( diflVrcnres. .^*'''^' 

The Aug of truce which yon n»av rharjHfe with your re- 
ply will tind one of my cruisers at Sandy Hook, len dms 
after tlif; landing of tbix dispatch, >vhiclil have directed lo 
call Ihei-e with a flag of truce for that purpose. 

I have honor to be, kc. 

JOHN BORLASE WAIUIEN 



M 



Air. Monroe to sir J. B. Warrpti. 

DEPARTMENT OF StATE, Oct. 27 1812. 

iSni — 1 have bad the honor to receive your k-' \ : ot iIk 
30th ult. and tOKubinit itto Iheconsideration of the President. 

It appears that you are authorised to proposQ p, cessation 
of hostilities between the U. States and G. Britain, on Ik 
ground of the repeal of the Orders iii Council, and in am 
the proposition is acceded lo, to take measures in concert 
with this government, lo carry it into complete eflect on 
both sides. 

You slate, also that you have it in charge, in that event, 
to enter into an arrangement with the government of the V. 
States for the repeal of the laws which interdict the ships oi 
war and the commerce of G. Britain from the harbors and 
waters olr the U. Stales. And you intimate, that if the 
proposition is not acceded to, the Orders in Council (repeal- 
ed conditionally by that of the 23d of June last) will be revi- 
Ted against the commerce ot the U. Stales. 

I am instructed to inform }0u, tliat it will be very satis- 
factory to the President to meet tlie British government in 
such arrangements as uiuy terminate without delay the hos- 
tilities which now exist between the U. States and G. Bri 
tain, on conditions honorable to both nations. 

At the moment of the declarution of war, the Presiden! 
gave a signal proof of the attachment of the U.^States to 
peace. Instractions were given at that early period to the 
late charge d'affairs of the U. States at London, to pro- 
pose to tiie British government an arniislice on conditions 
which it was presumed would have been satisfactory, ll 
has been seen with regret tliat the piopo.sitions made In 
Mr. Monroe, particularly in regard to the important inter 



HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



17: 



ea of impressnit-iit, was rtj* cleii, and Ural none .vas offrroj 
tliruiii^li that cliaiiiiL'l, as a basiii uii wliich lio.>liItlits uiiglit 
ciase. 

As your cfovernmeiil has aulliorlsetl vou to propose aces- 
itatioii of hostilities, and is doubihss aware of the important 
:iii(l salularv effect which a satistaitory adju-stinent of this 
diiU^ieiice rannot fail to have on the future rt lations be- 
Ivuen the two countries, I indulj^e the hope that it has, ere 
tins, given you lull power lor the purpose. Experience 
lia-^ sntficieutly evinced thai no peace can be durul>;e unless 
this «)bject IS provided ibr. It is presumed, tlieref».re, that 
it IS equally the interest of both couulries to adjust it at this 
tune. 

Without further discussinc^ questions of right, llie Presi- 
(Itnt IS ilesirous to provide a remedv for the evils complain- 
ed of on both sides. The cla ui of the British ;^overn- 
nuiit IS to take from the merchant vessels of other coun- 
(res nmish subjects. In the practice, the commanders of 
till; Brilisii ships oi war often take from the merchant ves- 
sels of the U. States, American citizens. If the U. States 
prohibit the employment oi' British .subjects in their service, 
and infoi'ce the prohibition of suital)le ret^ulations and pen- 
altits, the motives for the practice is taken away. It is iti 
tins mode that the President is williii<^ to accommodate 
tills important controversy with the iiritishf^overnment, and 
it cannot be conceived on what ground the arrungiinent 
rail be re I used. 

A susjiension of tlie practice in impressment, pendinij 
the armistice, seems to be a m cessary consequence. It 
oaiiiiot be presumed, while the parses are engaged in a 
negocialion to adjust amic>i)ly this important ditference, 
ilial the U. Stales would admit the right or acquiesce in 
the practice of the opposite party ; or that G. Britain 
would be unwilling to restrain her cmizers from a practice 
which would have the strongest tendency to defeat the ne- 
gociatiou. It is presumable that both parties would enter 
into the ue-rociatiou with a sincere desire to give it eti'ect. 
For this purpose it is necessiiry that a clear and distinct 
uiulerslanding' be first obtained between them, of the ac- 
coinmodatiou wliich each is prepared to make. If the 
British government is willing to suspend the practice of 
impressment from American vessels, on consideration that 



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HISTORY OF THE WAK. 



ll»e U. Stales will e\clml(* Uritisii seamen from tlirirsfr. 
vict', the rPSjnlaliouH by wliieh this comproiniso slu)ii|(| Ur 
canit'il into efterl would l)e so!el\ Ihe object ot neg'oeialion 
The nrmiHlice would l)e of *|jorl dnralion. If the partir, 
ar^reed, peace would he the rt^ull. If the neg'ociatior; 
fa Iti!, each would be restored to its foriiur slate, and li? 
all ii« preleiisuius, b\ recurring' to war. 

Lord CiHlli're.»i;li, in his note to Mr Russell, seems ir, 
have supposed, that had the British ••ov eminent accepted 
Ihe |>roposilionsniade to it, Ci. Brilani would have suspend, 
ed iininedialely the exercise; of a ri^lil, on the mere assur. 
ance <tf tiiis ^overument that a law would be atterwaids 
passe<l to prolubil the euiploynieiit ol British seamen in the 
service of the I '. States, aiid that G. Britain wouhi have no 
;ige icy in the rcj^ulaliou to g^ive et^ecl to that proposilion 
^iicli an idea was not in tjje contemplaliou of this f;;o\erii. 
ment, nor is to lu- reasonably inferred from Mr. Russfll's 
note; lest, however, by possibility su<;h an inference miifht 
be drawn from instruct ons to Mr. Busscli, and anxioiu 
that thcrt' shouUi be no misu'.iderslaiidmj;^ in the case, sub- 
sequent instructior;>- were g'iven to Mr. Russell with a 
View lo obviate «v' ry objection of the kind alluded to 
As Ihey bear date on 27lh .Tuly, and were forwarded Ijv 
the British packet Althea, it is more than probable that 
they may iiave been received and acted on. 

I am happy to explain to you thusfullv the vicvs of my 
government ou this important subject. The President de- 
sires that the war which exists belvveeu our coup' ries should 
be terminated on such conditions as may secure a solid 
and durable peace. To accomplish this great object it is 
liecessary that the interest of impressment be satisfactorily 
arranged. He is willing" that G. Britam should be secured 
ia<j-aiiist the evils of which she complains. He seeks on the 
other hand that the citizens of the U. States should be pro- 
tected ai;aii st si |)ractice, which, while it degrades the na- 
tion, <leurives them ot their rights as freemen, takes them 
by force from their families and their ciuuitry iuto a fc- 
elgn service, lo light the battles of a foreign power, per- 
haps against their owukuulred aiul country. 

1 abstain from entennsr, in this coiuniuncation, into otlifr 
groui.ds of difference. The Orders m Council having heeii 
repealed, (with a reservation not impairmj^a corresponding; 



HISTORY OP TIIK WAR. 



I'/y 



rij/|»l on llie part of lU** U. SloUs) a <l no illo^al hlork- 
,)(U'> i'f\ivc^ or i)t<ttiliitft) til tlii'ic sUiiiJ, and an viiiJcr- 
slamli'tpT '^'^''''J? ^^'^^">*^'^ on I In -.jlijtct ot iai|irc^snu i, in 
tilt' lUOtU* hert'in propojjtd, tin P.rs.dciil js v'llliii^ lu a^iet 
to ai't'ssatmii ot IiosIiIiIms, willi a vit-w lo arraiigx' liy lua- 
tv. III u luoie distinct and aiiipif luainuM', and lu the satis- 
iaflion ot l)otli parties, evtrv ohtr Hu'ject of coiitrovt'r>y. 

I will only add that ifliurehe nooiijcctioii to an acooni- 
iiiodation of du' diffvrence rflatii:or to impri'ssiiKiil, in Ui« 
mode proposed, other than the suspension of ih*- Bnfish 
claim to iinpresstueiil during- the armistice, there can he 
none to proceeding;, without die armistice, to an inmiedi- 
aii; discussion and arrangement of an articK on thai sul'jeet. 
I'his j^reat question hemg- satisfactorily adjustt^d, the way 
will i)t open either fi^r an anuisuce or any otiier cunise 
le<i' '.ig inost conveniently and expediliously lo a general 
nacitication. i Ijave ttie honor to he,v.('. 

.lAxVIES MONROE. 



BRITISH CHALLENGE. 

Ignorant of the tate of liie blusterm}^ JJacres^ air James 
Yen, of the Southampton frigate, sent the follow inj; jwlite 
challenge to Ca|it. L). Porter, commander of the Innate 
Essex. The king, * the fountain of honor,' dubbed tur 
James, a /cmy/e^ ; we wished Capt. Porter the |<»leasure of 
driiUting him into a gentleman. 

' A passenger of the brig Lyon from Havanna to New- 
York, captured by the frigate Southampton, sir James Yeo, 
couiixiander, is requested by sir James Yeo, to present his 
compliments to Capi Poiier, commander of ihp American 
frigate Essex, would be glad io \)Q.vt a tete-a-tete any where 
between the capes of Delaware and tlie Havanna, when he 
would have the pleasure to break hJH own sword over his 
damned head and put him down forward in irons.' . 

AMERICAN ACCEPTANCE. 

Capt. Porter, of tlie U. Stales ingate Essex, presents 
Ills complmients to sir James Yeo, commanding his liri- 
tannic majesty's frigate Southampton, and accepts with 
pleasure his polite invitation. If agreeable to sir Ja,mesy 
Capt, Porter would prefer meeting near the Delaware, 
Wiiere, Capt. P. pledges his honor to sir James, that iio 
other American vessel shall interrupt their tete-a-tete. 



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190 



HISTORY OP THE WAR. 



ThoEsse? may he known by a fl;^t? bearing' the inotto-^ 
FRKK TR»DF. AND SAILOKS' RICJnTS ; 

An<l when III it is slrnrk lo llu* ^onlhiimplon Capt. Porter 
will cl»'MM\€' thr trf':i>nirnt promised by sir James. 

Philadelphia, iii'pt. IS, IHX'i. 



for 



CHAPTER VI. 

JONES' VICTORY— AND CAPTPRE. 

Capt. Junes lo the ^ecreion/ of Ihc :\avfj. 

Nkvv-Y UK., Nov. 2*4, 1812. 
SIR — I here avail inysell" of the Hrsl opportunity ot" 



in- 



of Iht 



e occurrences ot our cruise, which ler- 
miiiHted in the capUire of iho Wjisp on the 18th of Oct by 
th<: Poictiers of 74 guns, while si wn^ck from duma^es re- 
ceived in an engagement vvilii the British sloop of war Frolic, 
of 22 guns ; sixteen ot them thirty-two pouud carron- 
ades, and tour twelve pounders on the main deck, and two 
twelve pouiiders, carronades, on the top-gallanl-forecaslle, 
makiiiLj her superior in force to us by 4 twelve pounders. 
The Frolic had struck to us, and was taken possessioii ot' 
about two hours before our surrendering lo the Poictiers. 

We had left the DcUware on the 1:3th. The 16lh hud a 
lieavv gale, m which we lost our jib-boom and two men. 
Halt p. st eleven, on the night of the 17th, in the latitude 
ot ;37 deg. N. and Ion, 65 deg. W. we saw several sail, 
two of them appearing very large; we stood from them 
for some time, then shortened sail and steered the remain- 
dt-r 01 the night the course we hud perceived tliem on. 
At *a\ -light on Sunday the 18th we saw them ahead— 
gave chase and soo i discovered them to l»e a convoy of 
siv sail, under the proleclioii of a soon of 'var ; lour of 
th< m large ships, mounting from 16 to 18 guns. At lluity 
two miuules past 11, A^ M. we engaged ttio sloop of vvnr, 
hav.n^ first received lur tire at the disl'.ince of lifts or sixlv 
yards, which space we gradually lessened until we aid her 
01 board, after a well supported hre of 4^3 ui nntes; and al- 
Jthoogh so near while loading the last broadside that our 
rammers u ere shoved ;igainst the side of the enemy, our 
llieii eiiliibiied the sanse alacrity which they had done drr 



i : 



inSTORY OF THRXTAR. 



1« 



mijlhc whole of the aclioii. Tluy ittimrd lately siirreiuler- 
tii iijion onr {jfainiiijr *l»c"' torecastle, so Ihat no Ims wa» 
jjust «i ed oiieilhtT side itterbourilinsf. •*' '♦'•■f.''*' >♦• i><::'nr 

Our niniii-lO|)-niast was shot away lielvpeen 4 nn«i * min-; 
hUh t'roni the rominciicrMH'Ht of the firing, and falling lo<i 
iTfther with the ti>aiiuto|)-sad \ard across the hirhourd- 
ii)re and fore-lop-sail braces, rendered our head-yardn uiw 
ni iia^eihle llie remainder of the action. At eight mntiites 
ttie^altand main-top-*rallant mast came down, and at 
•JO niinntesfrom the higin; mg of theaclioii every hrace and 
most of the riggmg v\as shot away. A few niimile^ after 
sp|»;iralnig troni ihe Frolic both her mast fell tipoii deck, 
the mainmast going close by the deck, and the foremast 
twelve 01 tifteen feet above it. 

The courage and exertions of the officers and crew fully 
answerefi n\\ expectations and wishes. 

I have *the honor to be, ^c. J ACOB JON ES. 



AMERICAN LOSS. 
Killed 5 — wounded 5. 

BRITISH LOSS. 



'..'f- O'Hi! /! 



Killed 27 — wounded 44. 



DECATUR'S VICTORY. 

Com. Decatur to the Secretary of the Ncvy. 
U, S. S. Lnited states, at sea, Oct. 30, 181-2. 

SIR — I have the honor to inform you, that on the 25lh 
inst. being in lat, 29 deg. N. long. :20, 30 W. we fell in 
with, a. id, after an action of one hour and a half, captured 
his Britannic majesty's frigate Mace. Jon lan, commanded 
by Capt." John (Jarden, and mounting 49 carriage guns 
(tiie odd gun shifting.) She is a frigate of the largest 
class, two years old, four months out of dock, and reputed 
oneof the best sailers in the British service. The enemy 
being to wiudward, had the advantage of engaging usat 
his own distance, which was so great, that for thetirst half 
hour we did not use our carronades, and at no moment 
was he within the complete effect of our musketry or graj>e; 
to this circumstance and a heavy swell, which was on at 
the time, I ascribe the unusual length of the action. 

The enthusiasm of every officer, seamen, and marine on 
board this ship, on discovering the enemy — their steady 



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HISTORY OV THE WAB. 



conduck ill bRllle, and precUion of their 6re, could iiol U 
■ur|r<iiiM!d> Where all met my fiillust cxpeclaiion.s, it 
^uuld Ije iiiijuiit III me tu discriminate. Permit me, how. 
ever» to recouimtiiiiL to your purticular notice, my firnt Lieut. 
Wiltu»m H. Alien. |Ie has served with me upwards of 
five years, and tu his uuremilLcd exertions in diKciplining 
the crew, 18 to be im|iuted the obvious superiority of our 
gunnery exhibited m the result of the contest. 

The MAceUpnian lost her mizen-mast, lore and main-top. 
masts and mimi yard, and was much cut up in her hull. 
ThedatuQge sustained by this ship was nut i»uch as to rei). 
der hvr return into port necessary, and h^^d 1 not deemed it 
ijn|»o.t«ku,tthat we fihould see our prize ju, should have con- 
tinued our cruise. 

With the l9J£lie»t consideration, &c. ' 

,,l. STEPHEN J)j:CATUR. 



•>j\' ■- 



AMERICAN LOSS. 

Killed 7— rwouixded^i. 

BKITISU LOSS. 

Killed 36 — wouat! d ei8— prisoners 270. 



■<1 i 
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BAINBRIDGFS VrCTORY. 

Cew. Bainbridf/e to the Secretary o/ the Navy. 
V. iS, t\ Coiistituiiott, St Salvador^ Jan. 3, 1818. 
SIR — I have the honor to iiuform you, that on the 'JOth 
ultimo, at 2 P. M. in south latitude 1*3,00, and west long, 
3^, 10 leagues diMance from the coast of Brazils, I fell in 
ivitli and captured his Britannic majesty's frigate Javn, ot 
49 guns and upw ards of 400 men, commanded by Capt. 
LambeT't, a very distinguished ofiicer. The action ladled 
etie hour aqd o6 minutes, in which time the enemy was 
completely dismasted, not having a spar of any kind slnnd- 
iog. The loss on board the Constitution was 9 killed nnd 
25 wounded, a,H per enclosed list. The enemy had 00 killed 
and 101 woi^nded, certainly, (among the latter Cupt. L.ra* 
bert, mprtally; but by the enclosed letter, written on board 
the ship, (by one of the pBicersof the Java) and accidental- 
ly found, it is evident tiiat the enemy's wounded must have 
been much greater than above stated, and who must have 
died of their wounds previously to their being removed. 
The letter states sixty killed and 170 wounded. 



Jl 



niSTORY OV tWt VTMt. 



Ids 



For furllier drtailM of ihe action, I brg leave to refer you 
totht' enclosed extracts from my jouiiial. Tlie Javm liad 
in addition to lier own crew upwards of one hundnvl mi- 
nernumerary oHicersand seamen, to join the HriiiMh Hhips 
of war in ihe East Indies; also, Lieutenant-Generat Urs- 
loj», appointed lo the command of Bomlmy, Major Walker, 
and Capt. Wood, of his slaft*, and Capt. IVIarshnll. muster 
and coiiiuiaiider in the British navy, going to ihe East 
ImliHS lo take command of a sloop of war there. 

Should I attempt to do justice, hy representation, lo the 
brave and good conduct of all my officers and crew,dunng 
tlie action, I should fail in the attempt ; therefore, suflice 
it to say, that the whole of their conduct was such as to 
merit my highest enconiums. On blowing up of the frigate 
Java, 1 proceeded to this place, where I have landed all 
the prisoners on their parole, to return to England, and 
there remain until regularly exchanged, and not serve in 
their professional capacities in any place or in any manner 
\*hatever against ihe U .States of America, until the ex- 
change shall be eftected. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 

W. BAINBRIDGE. 

AMERICAN LOSS* 

Killed 9— wounded 25. 

BUITISH LOSS. 

' Killed GO— wounded 101— prisonere 376. 

Extract from CommodoreWm.Bainbridge's Journal, kept 
on board the U. S. F. Constitution. 

* Tuesdai/, Dec. 29, lSi2. 
* At 9 A. M. discovered two strange sails on the weath- 
er bow. At 10 discovered the strange sails lo be ships; 
one of them stood in for the land and the other stood off 
shore, in a direction towards us. At 10, 46 A. M. \ye 
tacked ship to tlie northward and westward and stood for 
the sail standing towards us, and at 11 A. M tacked to \\w 
southward and eastward, hauled up the mainsail and took 
ill the royals. At 11,30, made the private signal for the 
dav, which was not answered, and then set the mainsail and 
royals to draw the strange sail off from the neutral coast; 
^iid separate her from the sail in coropany. 



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184 



HISTORY OF TUL WAR. 



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* In lal. 13, 9, S. lon|^. 3H W. ti u I', ijfiies iiom tin- « «, t-rf 
of Brizil, coinmeiict^g wilh clear we itliir niid niuiUiMir 
bre*'/eK from E. N. E. hoiNted our ensign aiui peiidunt. At 
\'i iiiiiiuleH past meruliaii, tiic slii|> hoisted Iter culum — ait 
English ensig^n, haviiitf a ^tig-iial Hying at lur main. 

* At 1,26, P. VI, (xiuif HutHcieiitly tVom the land, and 
finding the ^hip to be a;i Enghsh frigate, took in lliu niuin. 
fiail and royals, tacked Mhip and stood for the enemy. At 
1,3U, P. M. the enemy bore down with un mttntion ot ink- 
iiig us which we avoided by wearing. At '1 P. M. the en. 
etny being withm half a mile of us, and to windward, and 
having hauled down his colors except the union jack at the 
mizenmast head, induced me to give orders to ttie olHct m 
of the 3d division to tire a gun ahead of the eneniN , to 
makehiui show his colors, which being done, brought on u 
fire from us of the whole broadside, on which the eiitmy 
hoisted his colors, and innnediately returned our tire. A 
general action with round and i>Viipe then commenced ; 
the eiumy keeping at a much gi^^'ter distance than I wish. 
ed ; but could not bring him to u closer action, without ex- 
posing ourselves to several rakes. Considerable manoovers 
were made by both vessels to rake and avoid beiig liik- 
ed. The following minutes were taken during the aciioii : 

* At 2, 10, P. M, commenced the action within good 
grape and cannister distance, the enemy to windward, but 
much farther than 1 wished. 

* At 2,30, our wheel was shot entirely away. 

* At 2, 40, determined lo<lose Mitli the enemy notwitli- 
standing his raking, ^et the fore and mainsail, aiid lulled 
Up close to him. '' 

* At 2, 50, the enemy's jib-boom got foul of our mizeii 
rigging. 

* At 3, the head of the enemy's bowsprit and jib-boom 
shot away by us. 

* At 3, 5, shot away his fore-mast by the board. 

<At 3, 15, shot away hts mam-top- mast just above the 

cap. 

J * At 3, 40, shot away the gaff and spanker boom. 
' At 3, o5, shot away his unzen-mast nearly by the board. 
* Vi -S 5, having silenced the ti.t^ oithcMiemy completely, 
anu his colors in the mam ii^guig beino- down, bU])po'<t'(l 



HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



185 



It; liaO struck ; then hauled down U)(> courses to shoot 
;tlit'iul to repair uur rig'y^iiig, which was exlreincly cul ; 
leaving the enemy a complete wreck ; noon alter uikcuv- 
vrcd that the eiieui)'*M fla;^ was still tlyiiit^. Hove too to re- 
pair some of our damaiye. 

' At '20 minutes past 4, the enemy's mainmast went 
iicarly Uy the hoard. , 

' At GO iniiiiiles past 4, wore ship and stood for the eu- 
tiny. 

* At '2i'} minu es past />, >rn\. close to the enemy, in a very 
itK'clual rakmg' pusitior> ,\vi his bows, and was at the 
iitslance of raking him, most prudently struck his 
h'^ : for had he sud'crei • idside to have raked huu, 
h;s ndtlitional loss must lu n extremely great — as lie 
laid lui niimaifag-eable wreck upon the water. Alter the 
eni'iuy had struck, wore ship and reefed the tojisads-^— then 
hoisted out one of the only two remaining boats we itad 
left out of eight, and sent Lieut. Parker, 1st of the Consti- 
tulion, to take possession of the enemy, which |>roved to be 
lii^ Britannic majesty's frigate Java, rated 88, but carried 
49 gnus, and manned with upwards ot 401) men, command- 
ed by Capt. Lambert, a very distinguished officer, who 
was mortally wounded. The action continued from com- 
nuiicementto the end of the fire, one hour and 55 mmutes. 
Tiie Java had her own com})lenieitt of men complete, and 
u|)\vards of one hundred supernumeraries, going to British 
ships of war to the East Indies — also several officers, pas- 
sengers, going out un promotion. The force ot the enemy 
in number of men at the commencement of the action was 
no <luul>t considerably greater than we have been able to 
ascertain, which is upwards of 400 men. The officers were 
(xtremely cautious in disovering the number. By her 
quarter bill ; she had one more man stationed to each gua 
than we had. 

' The Constitution was very much cut in her sails, and 
rigging, and many of her spars injured. 

* At 7, P. M. the boat returned with Lieut. Chads the 
tirst Lieut, of the enemy's frigate, and Lieut. Gen. Hislop^ 
(appointed Governor of Bombay) Maj. Walker, and Capt, 
Wood. 

'Capt. Lambert was too dangerously wounded to be re- 
moved inimediatclv. The cutter returned en board th# 

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HISTORY OF THE UAB. 



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prize for the prisoiieni« an<] brought Capt Marshall, master 
aiitl coniniundant in the British navy, who was a passenger 
oil iMtard, also, Ncveral other naval officers. 

* The Java was an ini|iortant ship, fitted out in the com- 
plelest manner, to carry Lieut. Gen. Hislop and staff to 
Bombay. 

Letter above alluded lOtfrom an officer of the Java, 
t'omltliition, St. Salvador, BrazilSfJan. 1, 1813. 
My dear sir — I uni sorry to inform you of the unpleas- 
ant news of Mr. Gascoine^s death. Mr. Gascoine and my- 
self were shipmates in the Marlborough, and first came to 
sea together, lie was shot early in the action by a round 
shot in his right thigh, and died in a few m;;.ates afterwards. 
Four others of his messmates shared the same fate, together 
with 00 men killed and 1 70 wounded. The official ac- 
count you will no doubt have read before this reaches you. 
I beg you will let all his friends and relations know of his 
untimely fate. 

We were on board the Java for a passage to India 
when we fell in with this frigate. — Two parcels I have 
sent you under good care, and I hope this will reach yon 
safely. Yours truly, 

H. D. CORNECK. 
Lieut. P. V. Wood, 22d reg. Isle of France, 

. LAWRENCE'S VICTORY. 
Capl. Lawrence to the Secretary oj the Navy. 
U. S. 8. Hornet, Holmes' Hole, March 19, 1813. 
SIR — I have the honor to ir.ibrm you of the arrival at 
this port, of the U. S. ship Hornet, under my command, 
from a cruise of 145 days, and to slate to you, that after 
Com. Bainbridge left the coast of Brnxils, (on the 6lh of 
January last) the Hornet continued of!' the harbor of St. 
Salvador, blockading the Bonne Cilt^yenne, of 21 guns, 
imtil the 24tl), when the Montagu, 74, hove in sight and 
chased me into the harbor; but night coming on I wore 
and stood to the southward. Knowing that she had left 
Rio Janeiro for the express purpose of relieving the Bonne 
Citoyennc, and the Packet, of 14 gun:* (which I had also 
blocKaded for fourteen days, and obliged her to send her 
liiail to Rio, in a Portuguese smack) I judged it most pnv 



'«■-* 



uihTORY OP rnc war. 



187 



(lent to clianee our cruising ground, nntl stooa to tlie casl- 
wardy with tne view of cruising ofT PerntimlMico — and on 
ihc'llh da^- of February, raptured the En<(lish brig Ren- 
oliUion, from Rio Janeiro, bound to Moraunttni, with cof- 
fee, jerked beef, flour, fustic, and buller, and about *2«5,000 
(ioiiars in s|)ecie. Am the brig sailed dull, and could ill 
sjiare handn to man her, 1 took out the money and set her 
on fire. I then run down the coant for Moranham, and 
cruised there a short time ; from thence ran otf Surrinam. 
A Aer cruising otf that coast from the dth to the 22d of Feb- 
runry, without meeting a vessel, 1 stood for Demarara, with 
an intention should I not be i'ortunalc on that station, to 
mn through the West Indies, on my way to the U. Stales/ 
But on the morning of the 24th, T discovered a brig to lee-! 
ward, to which I gave chase; ran into quarter less four,' 
and not having a pilot, was obliged to hatl off— the fort at* 
tiie entrance of Demarara river at this tiuMB bearing S. W. ^ 
distance about 2 1-2 leagues. Previously (^|^ving up the. 
chase, I discovered a vessel at anchor without the bar ^ith' 
English colors flying, appaiently a brig of war. In beat-^ 
ing round Corrobano bank, in order to get al her, at half 
past 3, P. M. I discovered another sail on my weather' 
quarter, edging down for us. At 4, 20, she hoisted Eng- 
lish colors, at which time we discovered her to be a large 
man of war brig — beat to quarters, and cleared ship for 
action — kept close hy the wind, in order if possible to get 
the weather guage. At 5, 10, finding I could weather the 
enemy, I hoisted American colors, and tacked. At 5, 20» 
in passing each other, exchanged broadsides within half 
pistol shot. Observing the enemy in the act of wearing, 
1 bore up, received his starboard broadside, ran iiim close 
on board on the starboard quatter, and kept up such a heavy 
and well directed Are, that in less than 15 minutes he sur- 
rendered, being literally cut to pieces, and hoisted an 
ensign, union down, from his fore rigging, as a signal of 
distress. Shortly after his mainmast wertt by the board. 
Despatched Lieut. Shubrick on Uoard, who soon returned 
with her first Lieut, who reported her to be his Britunnic 
majesty's late brig Peacock, commanded by Capt, Wil- 
liam Peake, who fell in the latter part of the action — that 
a number of her crew were killed and wounded, and that 
she was staking fast; having then six feet of wate r ia her 



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hold. Despatched the boats ininiediately for the wound- 
ed, and brought both veweb to anchor. Such shot hoies 
as could be got at, were then plugged ; her guns thrown 
overboard, and every possible exertion used to keep her 
afloat, until the prisoners could be removed, by pumping 
and bailnig, but without effect; and she unfortunately sitiik 
in five and a half fathoms Water, carry ing down M of lier 
crow, and three of my brave fellows. Lieut. Conner, niid- 
shifHuan Cooper, and the remainder of the Hornet's crt^w, 
emploved in removing the prisoners, with difficulty saved 
themselves by jumpmg in a boat that was lying on her 
bowftas/ihe went down. Four men, of the 13 mentioned, 
^ere so fortunate as to gain the fore-top, and were after- 
wards taken off by the boats. Previous to her going down, 
four of her men took to her stern boat, which bad been 
much damag^<^ during the action, who, I hope, reached 
the shore in sa^t^ ; but from the heavy sea running at the 
time, the sham^ state of the boat, and the difficulty of 
landing on th^^Mist, 1 much fear they were lost. I have 
not been able to ascertain from her officers the exact num- 
ber killed. Capt. Peake and four men were found dead 
o.( board. The master, one midshipman^ carpenter, and 
Ca lain*s clerk, and 29 seamen were wounded, most of 
them very severely, three of whom died of their wounds 
af'er being removed, and 9 drowned. Our loss was tri- 
fling in comparison, being only 2 killed and 3 wounded. 
Qiir riggiiig and sails were very much cut; one shot 
tiirough ihe foremast, and the bowsprit slightly injured. 
Our hull received little or no damage. At the time the 
peacock was brought to acki' the L'Espeigle, (the brig 
Mentioned above as being at . lor) mounting 16 two and 
thirty pound carrqnades s^nd two long nines, lay about six 
miles in shore, and coull plainly see the whole of the ac- 
tion. Apprehensive that she would beat out to the assist- 
ance of her consort, f uch exertions were made by my offi* 
cers and crew m repairing damages, &c. that by 9 o'clock 
the boats were stowed, a new set of sails bent, and the ship 
completely ready for action. At 2, A. M. got under way, 
Bud stood by the wind to the northward and westward, un- 
der easy sail. 

On niusti ring next morning, found we had 277 souls on 
board, mciudiog the crew of the American brig Hunter, 



HISTOEY OV TBB WAft. 



180 



\[ 



oi Portland, Uken a few daysbefora b^ the Peacock. Audi 
■M «re had been on two thirds allowance af |>roviftioiM for 
!M)uie time, and had but 3,400 gallona of water on board, 
I rcduoed the alluwance to three pinte a maui and deter- 
Dtiiied to make the be«t of my way to tlie (J. Statet. 

The Peacock was deservedly styled one of the finest ves*. 
aeU of her class in the British nnvy, probably about the ton* 
age of tlie Hornet. Her beam was greater by five inches ;- 
but her extreme len gth not so great by four feet. She 
mounted 16 twenty four pound carronades, two loognines, 
006 twelve pound carroiiade on her top-gallant forecastle, 
as a shifting gun, and one 4 or pounder, and 2 sv^ivela 
mounted aft. I find by her quarter bill that her crew con- 
sisted of 134 men, four of whom were absent in a prize. , 
With the greatest respect, ^c. 

JAMES liAV^ENCfi. 

p. S. At the commencement of the 4pNt °*y iiAiliDg 
roaster and seven men were ubMent in a ^m, aud Lieot., 
Stewart, and six men on the sick lift. 






IrM 



J! 



CHAPTER VII. 



> M 



{f- 



CAPTURE OF LITTLE YORK. 

Gen. Dearborn to the Secretary of War, 
H. Q, York, Upper-Canada, April 28, X8l^ 

SIR — After a detention of some days by adverse winds, 
we arrived at this place yesterday morning, and at 8 o*clock 
cotntnenced landing the troops about 3 miles westward! 
from the town, and one and a naif from the enemy *s worksf 
The wind was high and in an unfavorable direction for the 
boats, which preyented the landing of the troops at a clear 
field, the scite of the ancient French fort Tarento. It pre- 
vented also many of the armed vessels from taking jposi- 
tioiis, which would have most efieclually covered omr laud- 
iag— but every thing that couhl be done was effected. 

The riflemen under Major Forsyth first landed, under ft 
heavy fire from Indians and other troops. Gen. Sheaffe 
commanded in person. He had collected his whole force 
in the woods near the point where the wind compelled oar 



190 



mSTOmT OF THK WAlt. 



full 



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troops to land. His force consisted of 700 regulars and 
militia, and 100 Indians. Major Forsyth was snpportcd n% 
promptly as possible ; but the contest was sharp and severe 
fbr nearly half an hour, and the enemy were i*epiilNed by a 
number far inferior to theirs. As soon ok Gen. Pike laiuU 
ed with 7 or 800 men, and the remainder of the troops 
-were pushing for the shore, the enemy retreated to thi;ir 
works. Our troops were now formed on the cf round ori. 
ginaily intended for their landing, advanced through a 
thick wood, and after carrying one battery by assault, were 
moving on in columns towards the main work ; when in 
sixty rods of this, a tremendous explosion took place from a 
magazine previously prepared, and which threw out such 
immense quantities of stone as most seriously to injure our 
troops. 1 have not yet been able to collect the returns of 
the killed and wounded ; but our loss will, I fear, exceed 
100 ; and amog§ these I have to lament the loss of that 
brave and excim6t officer Brig. General Pik«, who receiv> 
ed 8 contusion Tbom a large stone, which terminatiKl his 
valuable life within a few hours. His loss will be severely 
felt. 

Previously to this explosion the enemy had retired into 
the town, excepting a party of regulars, to the number of 
40, who did not escape the effects of the shock, and were 
destroyed. 

General Sheaffe moved off 'vjth the regular troops, and 
left directions with the commanding ofhcer of the mil.tia to 
make the best terms he could. In the meaii time all further 
resistance on the part of the enemy ceased, and the outlines 
of a capitulation were agreed upon. 

As soon as I learned that Gen. Pike had been wounded, 
I went on shore. To the Gen. I had been induced to con- 
fide the immediate attack, from a knowledge that it was 
his wish, and that he would have felt mor^tied had it not 
been given to him. 

Every movement was under my view. The troops be- 
haved with great firmness, and deservemiich applause, par- 
ticularly those first engaged, and under circumslauces 
which would have tried the steadiness of veterans. 
' Notwithstanding the enemy's advantage in position and 
numbers in the commencement of action, their loss was 
greater than ours, especially in ofiicers. It was with great 



HISTORY OF TBX WAE. 



m 



exertion that tliettmall vessels of ihe fleet could work inio 
the harbor against a gaic of wind, but as soon as they got 
into a proper position, a tremendous cannonade opened 
upon the enemy's batteries, and was kept up against them, 
until thev were carried or blown up, and had, no doid)t, a 
puwerfui effect upon the enemy. 

\Vc have nut the means of transporting the prisoners and 
must of course leave them on parole. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 

HENRY DEARBORN. 



■.4J 



Cotn. Cftauncei/ to the Secretary of the Navtf. 
U. S. Ship Madison, off York, April 28, 1813. 

SIR — A;j>:reeubly to your instructions and arrangements 
made with Major-Cien. Dearborn, I took on board of the 
iiquadron under uiy command the Gen. and suite, and 
about 1 700 troop, and left Sackett's Harbor on the 2dth inst. 
for this place. We arrived here yesterday morning and 
took a position about one mile to the south and westward 
of the enemy's principal fort, and as near the shore as we 
eouid with safety to the vessels. The place fixed upon by 
the IVfajor Gen. and myself for landing the troops, was the 
scite of the old French fort Tarento. 

Tlie debarkation commenced about 8 o*cl6ck, A* iVf. 
anil was completed about 10. The wind blowing heavy 
from the eastward, the boats fell to leeward of the position 
Hxed upon, and were in consequence exposed to a galling 
iire from the enemy, who had taken a position in a thick 
wood near where the first troops landed ; however, the 
cool intrepidity of the ofiicers and men overcame every ob* 
stacle. Their attack upon the enemy was so vigorous, that 
he fled in every direction, leaving|k great many of his killed 
and wounded upon the field. As soon as the troops wert 
landed, I directed the schooners to take a position near the 
forts, in order that the attack on them by the army ani na- 
vy might be simultaneous. The schooners were obliged to 
beat up to their position, which they did in a very handsome 
order, under a very lieavy fire from the enemy's batteries, 
and took a position within about GOO yards of their princi- 
pal fort, and opened a heavy cannonade upon the enemy 
which did great execution, and very much contributed to 
their final destruction. The troops, as soon as landed. 




\ ■ 



'V. 



>\/\ 



.Sr .if-'n} i-/ 



102 



niSTOnT OF THE WAR. 






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all 



were formed under the immediate orders of Brig;. General 
Pike, wtioled in n moAt (gallant manner the attack upon the 
fortfi, and at\er havin^^ carried two redoublx in their a|). 

i>roach to the principal work, (the enemy having previous- 
y laid a train) blew up his ma^a/jne, which in its effects 
upon our troops was dreadful, having killed and wounded 
& great many, and amongst the former, the ever tu be la» 
mented Brig. General Pike, who fell at the head »f his 
co'unm by a contusion received by a heavy stotic from the 
ma<j;azine. His death at this time is much to he regretted, 
as he hud the perfect confidence of the Major-Geiieral ; and 
his known activity, zeal, and experience, makes his loss t 
national one. 

In consequence of the fall of Gen. Pike, the command of 
the troops devolved for a time upon Col. Pierce, who soon 
after took possession of the town. At about 2, P. M. the 
American flag was substituted for the British, and at aboot 
four, our troops were in quiet possession of the town. As 
soon as Gen. Dearborn learnt the situation of Gen. Pike, 
he landed and assumed the command. I have the honor 
of enclosing a copy of the capitulation which was entered 
into, and approved by Gen. bearborn and myself. 

The enemy set fire to some of his principal stores, con- 
taining large quantities of naval and military stores, as well 
M a large ship upon the stocks nearly finished — the only 
vessel found here is the Duke of Gloucester, undcrguuig 
repairs — the prince regent left here on the 24th for Kings- 
ton. We have not yet had a return made of the naval and 
military stores, consequently can form no correct idea oi the 
quantity, but have made arrangements to have all taken 
on board that we can receive — the rest will be destroyed. 

I have to regret the death of midshipmen Thompson and 
Ratfield, and several seamen killed — the f xact number I 
do not know, as the returns from the different vessels have 
not yet been received. 

I have the honor to be, &r. 

ISAAC CHAUNCEY. 

TERMS OF CAPITULATION, 

Entered into on the 27th of April, 181.3, for the surrender 
of the town of York, in Upper Canada, to the army and 
navy of the Unued States, under t'e co'.nmand of Major* 
Gen. Dearborn and Commodore Cimuucey. 



1II8TORT OF TBS VTAM, 



loa 



That the troops, regular and militia, at this fiost, ami the 
QRvai officers and seamen, shall be surrendered prtsoi^era 
oi war The troops, regular and militia, are to ground 
Ibcir arms immediately on parole, and the naval officers 
aiiti Neamen be immediately NUrrendered. 

That all public stores, naval and military shall be imme- 
diately given up to the commanding officers of the army 
iiml navy of the U. Stales.";— That all private jtroperty 
vliitll be guaranteed to the citizens of the town of York. 

Tliat ail papers belonging to the civil officers ahull lie re- 
tained bv them — that such Kurgcons an may be procured to 
Httend tlie wounded of the British regu ars aud Canadian 
militia shall not be considered prisoners of war. 

That I Lieut. Col. 1 Major, 13 Cauls, Lieuts. 11 £ti. 
iMgns, i Q^uarter- master, 1 deputy Adjutant-General, 19 
serjeanls, 4 corporals, and 204 rank and tilc'^ of the militia. 
Ot'tiiefield train department 1, of the provincial navy 21, 
of his majesty *s troops 3, and of the royal artillery 1 bom- 
bardier and gunners, shall be surrendered as prisoners of 
war, and accounted for in the exchange of prisoners be- 
tween the LT. Stales and G Britain. 
G.15. MITCHELL, Lt. Col. 3d A. tJ. S. 
SAMUEL S. CONNER, Maj. and AD. C. to 

Maj. Gen. De irborn* 
WILLIAM KING, Maj. U. S. Inlantry. 
JESSE D. ELLIOT, Lieut. U. S. Navy. 
W. CHEVVITT, Lt. Col. com. 3d Reg Y. militia. 
W. ALLAN, Maj. dd Reg. York militia. 
F. GAURREAU, Lieut. M. Dpi. ^» ^ >. 

Gen. Dearborn to the Secretary of War* 

Niagara, May 3, 1813. 

[ExlracL'] York was one immense niajjazine, whieli sup- 
plied Niagara, Detroit, and fort George. The troops 
were halted a few moments to bring up the heavy artdlery 
to play on the block house, when Gen. Sheaife despairing of 
holding the town, ordered iire to be put to the principal 
magazine, in which was deposited 5(X) l>arrels of powder^ 
and un immense quantity of shells and shot. The explo- 
sion was tremendous, aitd raked our column from front to 
rear with such efiect that it killed 62, and wounded 180 oC 
our men, among the latter was brig. Gen. Pike, who died 



hi 




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104 



HIKTORY or TBB WAR. 



of hit wouiulf) ibortly aAtr. NotwithNtQiiding this cnlainl- 
\y, nntl ihe tli»coiiifilure that mii^hi be expecWd to follow it, 
i/te irttoptffave thro: cheera^ intlanUtf Jormedt and marchfd 
OH for ihe town, Nuiwilhulandiiig^ the inimenHO tiinoiint 
ilestroyed by them, we found more nubhc property th»n 
our vesAclR could bring away. Gen. SheaflTc^s baggage and 
paperH fell into oiy haudN ; they are a valuable acquisition. 
A SCALP wnN louiid in the Execulite and legislative 
Couucil Chamijt;r, suspended near the Speaker's chair. A 
slalemetit ol'uur lohs, as well as that of the enemy is sub- 
joined. 

AMERICAN LOSS. 

Killed in battle 14— do. by the explosion 62. 
Wounded in battle 2^1 — do. by the explosion 180. 

BRITISH LOSS. 

.. Killed in battle To — do. by their explosion 40. 
^( Wounded in battle 02 — do. by their explosion 23. 
.n Prisoners, militia 700 — do. regulars dO. 

-34|. ; Oen. Winchester to the Secretary of War. 

Fort Getngey Upper Canada, Feb. 11, 1813. 

^\}^ — On the2dd ultimo, I had the honor of communi- 
cating to your excellency the result of the action at French- 
town on tlie river Raisin, of tlie preceding day. I have 
it now in my power to transmit to yon a more detailed ac- 
count of that transaction, together with a more minute 
statement of our loss. A list of the killed, and wounded, 
and missing, is herewith enclosed. The attack upon our 
camp was commenced about o*clock in the morning, hy 
a heavy tire of small arms together with the discharge of (> 
pieces of artillery, directed immediately at our lines, and 
the houses and temporary breast-work, from behind which a 
portion of our troops were engaged with the enemy. Ear- 
ly in the action a charge was made by the assailants ; but 
the tire from our lines w:is so intense that they were quickly 
Compelled to retire. 

In this charge the 4 1st regiment of British regulars prin- 
cipally suft'ert d, their loss during the charge and in th« 
g(4>8equeiit engagement, being very considerable. Out of 
three huiui red uf these troops about 30 fell dead upon the 
field, and 90 or 100 wounded were removed from the 
ground, , „ 



HISTORY or TIIS WAS. 



19ft 



It it iinpotnilile lo stale with any deforce of accnrncy 
the number of Ciiiiadiaii iitilitta anil Indians wliieh wero 
killed or wuuiuted during the en^geuienl ; it could, liovr- 
f>ver, not have l>eeii small, having received for ihrM or four 
lioui « the coiiNlanl fire of the inutkelry and riflemen, from 
tlie breastwork under which they were formed. The ac* 
tioii had endured nlioul u quarter of an hour, ^^ hen the right 
division of our lruo|>N, who were leMst secured by a breast- 
work, and exjioiic'd to a heavy tire from a body of Indians 
and militiu, who had pOMsessed themselves of some out- 
liouMCs within tlieir reach, were obliged to retreat froui their 
lilies in the encam|inieiit, for the purpose of occupying 
ground less ex|)esed. This retreat being discovered[ l>|; 
the enemy, the whole Indian force, together with a portion 
ol llie militia, bore down u(K>n them with redoubled vio- 
\e\\c*'t and prevented, by their su)ieriority of numliers and 
the severity of their (ire, the practicability of ever n^ain 
forming this portion of our troops in order of battle. It 
was from this division that oui^ principal loss was sustained, 
few indeed having escaped. Every eflort in vain was em- 
ployed to form them in some order of action, as affording 
the only means of either repelling the pursuers, or regain- 
ing the temporary breast-work from behind which the re-^ 
roaining part of our troops still gallantly defended them- 
selves; but every exertion was in vain employed, and the 
very few who survived of the party surrendered as prison* 
ers to the enemy. 

Our loss in this action will be ascertained by the list 
herewith enclosed. Among the killsd, I have to lament 
several brave .and valuable officers, some of whom had 
distinguished themselves in the action o( the evening of tha 
18th, and fell on the 22d, while unavailingly engaged in 
rallying the troops, who retreated in disorder from the lin^i. 
Among those, the loss of Col. John Allen, and Major C 
M'Crannahan, is to be particularly regretted, as also Capt. 
John H. Woolfolk, one of my aids-de-camp; their exisr^ 
tisns were unsuccessful, notwithstanding every posanfM 
exertion was employed ; they bravely fell in dischargis of 
their respective duties. While I regret the fate of those 
who bravely fell upon this occasion, I should do injustice 
to pass over, without notice, the few partakers in their dan* 
ger, who were fortunate lo ^iinive the», To JLieut, Gq\, 



' * 



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ita 



HISTOkY or THE WAK. 



WilliMn Lewifly who commanded on the 18th, and tnCnpt. 
John Overton, my aid-de-camp, who attended mv perwn 
on the field, my thank* are particularly due, for ihHr 
prompt and willing exertion, dnrintif every period ot (hi 
conflict. To the otiirer« and noldicrN who hravely ninin. 
taiiied their ground in the temporary fortificationn. too 
much praise cannot be bentowed. Assailed by nnmhfnt, 
greatly superior, supported by six pieces of nrtdtrry, the^ 
gallantly defended lhem>wlves with their small arms nione, 
lor near four hours of constant battle. No troops ever lie. 
haved with more cool and determined bravery ; from the 
conimunduig officer down to the private soldier, there witt 
scarce a single abandonment of duty ; iind at the last wlien 
their ammunition was nearly exhauste<i, and Nurroui)d«<l 
by the enemy, greatly superior in numi^er and the meaiiN ot 
war, surrendered with a reluctance rarely to be found upon 
simdar occasions. The officers coumianding in the hreaKt- 
work (tetended themselves to the last, with great giiillantry, 
and merit my warmest gratitude, as well as the higliei^t 
jjjraise of their country, 
i With sentiments of respect, &c. 

J. WINCHESTER. 



*h-i 



AMGBICAN LOSS. 

SLilIed, wounded, and missing 8Gii. 

BRITISH LOSS. 

Killed 160— wounded 158. -"» ' 



MASSACRE OF GEN. WINCHESTER'S ARMY. 

\ThefoUmv\nfj Narrative of tke mansacre at Irenchtown, 

after Gen. IVinchester's defeat, wan drawn up by Lieut. 

Jbaker of the ^ regt. L. iS. Infantry. "] 

So much has been said about the Indian massacres at 
FtencHtown and its neighborhood, that something circum- 
atuntiai from one who bad an opportunity of acquiring in- 
formation on the subjert may not be unsicceptable to llie 
public. I theretore submit the following narrative. 

On the morning of the 22d pf January, I was captured 
by the Indians about 9 o'clock, with another officer and about 
forty men. Closely pursued by an overwhelming force of 
Indians, we were endeavoring to eftiBCt our esca|3e, and 
liud attained tRe d stance ot about three miles from Freiich- 
towHy when an oiier ot' quarter was made us by an liidiaii 



HISTORY or TttV WiUl. 



19: 



(^wf, MiUiy ItHliun chiefs oiihorsebnck b^itig^ in oiirrea^, 
toiiiiihawkiiiif Ihe himlmott, ind withal thi; men heinp; 
miicli wenritfl ivitli ninningf through Ihi? (tct'p miow, we 
cotirlmled it l>»il to accept the chieTii i*rnpoiition. Ac- 
cordingly We atwrmlilcd firoinid him, «hft ;^avfi up th ''^ixv 
remuiitini; annit Ihut were nidi retained in the flig;ht. In a 
few minutes the 'ndiuiiN on tuot cnnieiip,and notwUhntand- 
iiij^the chief appeared solicitoust to nave, niartMacred about 
hulf onr numlier. 1 wqm led hack towardti the river alone 
the road we had retreated ui. l*he dead Ixitlies of my ftT- 
low comrades, scained, tomahawked, and stripped, pre- 
sented a most horrid spectacle to my view. I wan ui length 
taken to a fire near Cd. Proctor, where I remained till our 
army capitulated, and marched by me tuwards Maiden. 
M»jor Madison,* as be was marchmg; past, demanded me 
of the British officer command ling^ the piard, as an Amer- 
ican officer ; but the noble Briton replied with a sneer, 
* You have too many officers,* and ordered the column to 
advance which had made a partial halt I was taken to 
Sandy creek, about three miles off, on HulPs road, and 
there kept during the night with about 20 other prisoners. 
iNext moroing my master led me in charge of the old In- 
dian, and with the exception of 20 or 30, all the Indians in 
the camp went back towards the river Raisin. They re- 
turned about 2 o*c lock, P. M. bringing a number of fresh 
scalps and about 30 prisoners, many oi' whom were wound- 
ed, though with a single exception, none dangerously. I 
was told by the prisoners that the Indians had that mornino^ 
returned to the village, and massacred Capt. H*ckman and 
a great many others, and that they were feai'ful that Maj. 
Graves and Capt. Hart were of the number; that some of 
the wounded had been scalped alive and burned in the 
houses. I had scarcely been told these things, when a vol- 
unteer who was standing by my side, was knocked down,. 

« Jfter the twrender of our troops to the Britiihj at the river Raisin^ the 
Indmnst in violation of the articlee of'eapiiulation, crowded among them^ 
and mere plunderitig their property~~when Ute heroic Madison desired Col. 
Proctor to keep them off;-^" the Indians areferee and unmanageable, (said 
Preetor) it canoot k»e done* Madison eooly replied, * if you cannot dis- 
perse tbem, 1 will.* — the men were ordered to shouldtr their arms, and 
Procior fearing thai ^cliarge bayonet' would foUow,mKed his snordf aid 
ffv Indiana insianUy witiuirew. 







Ui . ■ 



108 



HISTORY OF THE WAi^. 



0^m 

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Mi 



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ti b" 



scal|)e(], and afWrwards toDialmwkcd. Three utbers «vere 
successively treated in Ibe same manner. 

Seven days afterwards, I was sold in Detroit to some 
American gentlemen, and the next day sent over to Sand- 
wich, where I remained nearly three weeks. In this time 
I hud an opportunity of making enquiry about the mussa- 
cres, and found that 60 had been massacred subsequent to 
the day of battle, and two officers the day on which the bat. 
tie was fought, after tliey had surrendered. Of the tit st 
vfeve Capl. N. G. S. Hart of Lexington, Capt. Paschal 
Hickman of Franklin, John H. Wooliolk, £sq. ihe Gen. 
eral's Secretary ; and of the latter Capt. Virgd i\rCracketi 
of Woodford, and Ensign Levi Wells, son of Col. Wells 
of the U. S. Infsuitry. Judge Woodward has ascer- 
lained several instances of great barbarity exercised 
on our prisoners, which will appear as soon as that truly 
philantropic and patriotic gentleman returns to his own 
country. — Massacres were not only committed onthe22d 
and 23d, but also on the 24th, 25th, and 26lli, and even 
three weeks afterwards fresh scalps were brought into 
Maiden. 

Should this relation be doubted, many living witnesses 
of high standing for probity, may be found to attest them. 

lExpeditmi against the Jndi^ns. — Major Gen. Samuel 
Hopkins, on the 11th of I«(ov. 1812, marched with 1000 
men under his command, from fort Harrison, on an expe- 
dition to the prophet's tovvu, for the purpose of destroying 
tlieir village, provisions, &c. On the morning of the IQth, 
a detachment of 300 men destroyed a town, and a great 
quantity of corn, belonging to the Winebago tribe, lying 
on the Poace Passu creek, one mile from the Wabash, and 
four from the Prophet's town. On the 20th, 21st, and 22d. 
they destroyed the Prophet's town and a Kickapoo village, 
on the opposite side of the river, consisting of upwards of 
20O houses, a considerable quaiitity of corn, &c. 

On the 21st a large body of Lidians were discovered 
above seven miles from the town, by a small party, who the 
Indians tired on, and killed one man; the next day Lieut. 
Cols. Miller, and Wilcox, anxious to bury their comrade, 
as well as gain a more complete knowletl;je of their situa- 



HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



ifm 



uon and strcnn^lhi set out wilh party of horsemen, consist- 
ing uf uboiit sixty ; the Indians had placed themselves 
in A Klroii!<; place, on a ridge of Uuid, running between 
two large and rapui creeks, which could not be ascended 
only by a steep ravine — our party returned, after a smart 
skirmish, in which we lost, in killed, wounded, and missmg, 
IH men. Ou the 24th, the main body of the army started 
ftir the purpose of destroying the enemy in their strong hold ; 
but when arrived at the spot they found they bad fled, 
pivviouM to the storm of snow, which fell very deep, on the 
■i;kl which prevented any further pursuit. 

hriff. Gen. Smyth, in November, 1812, issued several 
addresses to the inhabitants on the frontiers, for the purpose; 
of raising volunteers to cross into Canada, opposite Niagara. 
Including the regular anuy under his command, and the 
volunteers that repaired to his camp, he had, on the 27th 
Nov. 4000 men. Two parties were sent across the river to 
destroy a bridge below fort Erie, and capture and spike 
tlie caimon in the batteries, and some pieces of light artillery. \ 
AAer accomplishing their object, the parties separated by 
luisapprehension ; Lieut Angus, the seamen, and a part of 
the troops returned with all the boats, while Capts. King, 
Morgan, Sproul, and Houston, with about (K) men, remain- 
ed. The party thus reduced, took and rendered unservice- 
able two of the enemy *s batteries, captured 04 prisoners, 
and 2 boats, in which Capl. King sent his prisoners, his 
own officers, and half of his men across, remaining himself 
with 30 men, refusing to abandon them. . 

On the dOth Nov. Gen. Smyth again attempted to cross, 
wilh 3000 men, but by some misunderstanding only a few 
would, or could be made to embark. The killed in both 
these attempts amounted to about 20 — the wounded 30 — • 
and prisoners 31. The enemy lost 10 killed — 17 wounded, 
and 34 prisoners, besides an Indian chief. 



'In*j 



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v;« 



Capt Forsylhy commandant at Ogdensburg, crossed^ 
(tv«r to Elizabethtown on the 7lh of Feb. 1813, with about 
'200 volunteers from the militia and citizens, where they 
surprised the guard, took 42 prisoners, with 1 Maj. 3 Capts. . 
I^Lieuls. and 120 umskets, 20 rifles, two casks of fixed' 
ammunition, and considerable other public property, which ' 
waseft'ected without the loss of a man. 



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HISTORY or THE WAR. 



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CHAPTER Vin. 



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Cr«i. Harrison to the Secretary of H ar. 
^i' Lower Sandusky, May \d,\%\%. 

[Extract,^ ' SIR — Having asce 'taiiied that the eiienij 
(In<liaii» as well as British) had enlirel)' abantioiu d the 
neighborhood of the Rapids, I left the connnaiid of caiup 
Meigs with Gen. Ciay and came here last night. It is vv.th 
the greatest satistaclion, I inform )foii, sir, that I have every 
reason to believe, that the loss of the Kentucky troops m 
killed on the north side of llie river does noi exceed fifty. 
On the lOlh and llth inst. I caused the ground which wag 
the scene of action, and its environs, to be c.irefully exam- 
ined, and after the most diligent search 45 bodies only of 
our men, were discovered — among them was the leader of 
the detachment, Col. Dudley, No other officer of note fell 
in the action. Gen. Proctor did not furnish rae with a re- 
turn cif the prisoners in his possesion, although repeatedly 
promised. His retreat was as precipitate as it could pro- 
perly be, leavipg a number of cannon ball, a new elegant 
sling-carriage for cannon, and other valuable articles. The 
night before his departure two persons thait were employ- 
ed in the British gun-boats (Americans by birth) deserted 
t6 us. The iiiforqiation they gave me was very interesting; 
they say that the Indians, of which there were from 160U to 
2060, left the British the day before their departure in a 
high stale of dissatisfaction, from the great loss which they 
had sustained in the several engagements of the 5th, aiid 
the failure of the Bi'itish in accomplishing their promise of 
taking the post at the Uapids. From the account given by 
these men, m> opinion is comfiimed of the great su| enority 
of the enemy which were deieated by our troops in the two 
sallies made on the 5th inst. That led by Col. Miller did 
not exceed 350 men, and it is very certain that they defeat- 
ed 200 British regulars, 150 militia, and 4 or 500 Inilinns. 
That American regulars (althongh tliey were raw recruits) 
and such men as compose the Pittsburg, Penn. and Pclcrii- 
burg, Va. volunteers, should behave well, is not to be won- 
dered at— but that a company of militiu siiould maintain its 



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jrronnd a^infit four i\me% its numbers, as diil Cnpt. Sebres, 
of the Keiitiickv 'n truly astonishing'. Thetie brave fellbwt 
were at lengtii •. ir ever entirely 8urroi|ntled by Indiaiii, ftiid 
iviinid have bce^i entirely cut off, but tor the gallantry of 
liieiit. G Wynne o1 the I9th rtgiment, who, with part of 
Ca;>t,£iliolf 8 company, charged the enemy and releatied 
the Kentuckians. 

A copy of Gen. Clay's re()ort td tde of the manner of his 
evecuttng my ord^r ior the attack on the enemies baltenes, 
is likewrse forwarded, by which il will be seen that mv id- 
trillion was pet*fectly understood, and the great faciiity 
with winch it mitJ^ht hiive been executed is apparent to ^y» 
ery individual who witnesAed the sctine. Indeed, the can- 
non might have been spiked, the carriages cut to pieces, 
the magazine destrdy^d, and the retreat effected to the 
boats without the loss of a man, as none wiere killed m ta<> 
king^ the batteries, so complete was tfi^ surprize. 

An extensive open plain intervenes between the riv^ir 
and the hill upon which the battelries of the enemy Were 
placed ; this plain was raked by four of our eighteen poun- 
ders, a twelve and a six. The enemy, even before theit 
ffuns were spiked, could not have brouglit one to bear on 
it. So pedectly secured was their retreat, that 150 mea 
mHo came off, effected it without loss, and brought off some 
of the wounded, one of them upon the backs of their com- 
rndes. Tiie Indians followed them' to the woods, but da- 
red not enter into the plain. 

1 am unable to form a correct esthnate of the enemy's 
force. The prisoners varied much in their accounts ; those 
whu made them least, stated the regulars at 560, and mili- 
tia at 800; but the numbers of Indians were beyond cgm- 
parison greater thun have ever been brought into the iield 
Itefore ; numbers arrived after the siege commenced, and 
they were indeed the efficient force of the enemy. 

1 have the honor to be. See, 

W. H. HARRISON. 

AMERICAN LOSS. 

Killed 81— Wounded 189. ^ 

' British loss not known. :^'^' ■''-''«; ;> 

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Tkefottownig convei'salion tsok place between MaJ. ihutti^ 
^ b«r» and iifn.^iarriMm,ott a demand /or tfte surrender 

'\^^ MV' ^l^omberi — Gen. Proctor has directed me to de- 
mand tiie (HM-rendcT of this post. , He wislies to spare the 
efl'usioti of bloba. 

Gen, Harrison — The demand, under present circum- 
stances, is a most, extraordinary one. As Gen. Proctor did 
not send me a tuQiroons to surrender on hjt> first arrival, I 
liad supposed tiiat he l^iieved nie determined to du luy 
duty. His pre^^nt message, indicates an (pinion of qk 
that I am at a loss to aecouul for. 

MaJ. C7<£r»i|^ifn^-—(jren. Proctor ceipld never think of say. 
ing^ any thing; to w^qund your feelings,, sir.— The character 
ofGen. Hi^rrisoiiy j\9 an. officer, is well known. I'Cn. Pruc- 
tor's force is very reswectabie, and there is with him a larger 
l&ody of Indians thalltave ever before been embodied. 

Cren.//armoi?|— -I believelhave a very correct idea of 
Gen. Proctor's fpvee^ it is ho| st;M|h o^ to create the l,ea»t ap. 
prehension, for thp resqJt of the contest, whatever shape he 
ihay be pleased hereufter to gijve Iq it. Assure the Gen. 
however, that h^ jwili never have tl^js post surrendered l) 
tiiViX ^p(^^ .^ny teriJ^s., ^hould it fail into his hands, it will 
be in a manner falculated to do hin^ more honors and to 
cive^him larger ciifitc^S! ppon Uie gratitude of his government 
than any cupilulutiqn cpt^ld possibly do.. 

iVmsoB 4 <?APTUJ(^E OF FORT GEORGE. J* t^ I 
wu . i Qen. pmrburu to the ^Secretary of War. 
:';;., H-XI. FortGeor<fe(a. C) May21,\^\^. 

tf!jfltract'\ SiR— The light troops under the command 
]7oi. Scott and Major Forsyth, ianded this morning at 
9_ o'clock. Major Gen. Lewis's division, with Col. Porter's 
comnvand of light artillery, supported by them. Gen. 
Bovd'sbriijade landed rmraediately after the lig^ht troops, 
and G/Qns« VYinder and Chandler in quick succession. 1'he 
landing was warmly and obstinately disputed by the liri- 
tisti forces ; but the coolness and nitrepidity of our troop!) 
soon compelled them to give way in every direction. Gen. 
Chandler, with the reserve, composed of his brigade and 
Col. Macomb's artillery covered the whole; Commodore 
Chauncey had made the most judicious arrangements for j 



HISTORY OF THK WAR. 



20^ 



•iieiicing^ the enemy's batteries, iu'»r the point of landing. 
Xhearmy is under the grtfuie^t obli^j^aUous to tha^t able na- 
val commaiider for his co-o|)erutiun Ui alt its important, 
inovementH, and especially iu its operatioUM ttiin day. Out; ' . 
batteries succeeded io renderin|r Fort Georgfe u'stenablis;! 
and when the enemy had been lieaten from his misitions, 
m\ fonnd it necessary to re-enter it, afti^rflritig a i'eW runs 
iindsettm^ fire to the niiieazines, ^diicb Ho6n exiiJoded,he 
inovedoif rapidly by difj^rent routes. Our iig;lit troops 
mirsued them several miles. The troops having; been un- 
iier arms from one o'clock, inthemorninjuf, were too nuiph 
exhausted for any ^rther pnriuiit. We are now iu posses- 
sion of Fort George and its immediate dctpondencio — to- 
morrow we proceed further on. The behaviour of our 
trooi)s, both officers and m«n, entitles thcjii to the h.ghestl 
praise ; and the difference in our loss with that of the ene« 
niv, when we consider the a^lvaiitages his positions afforded' 
him, is astonishing.— Cot. Meyers of the'JOth, was woif'nd-' 
ed and taken prisoner. Of ours, otilv one commissioned! 
officer was killed — Lieut. Hobart of tfie lijjht artillery. 
I have the honor to be, &c. '* 

;:,=::=:,,,;:■•;,;.;, ^'XH. dearborn.;.'^, 

Gen. Dearborn to the Secretary of War, "''*•"*'* 
•^ ff. Q. Fort Georaet Mai/, 29, 1813. "* 

' [Extract.] Lieut. Col. Preston to A possession of fort 
Brie and its dejiendeucies last evening ; the post had been 
abandoned and the magazine blown up, '^'i 

I have ordered Gen. L«wis to return without delay td- 
I this place, and if the winds favor us, We may yet cut oif 
the enemy's retreat. ' 

I was last evening honored with your dispatch of the ; 
ilSth inst. I have taken measures in relation to the 23 prir ' 
[soners, who are to be put in close confinement ,^ 

I have the honor to be, &c. ' 

^ H. DEARBORN. ' 

' ' " AMERICAN X06S. 

Killed 39— wounded 1 1 1 —total 150. , '?""*; "' " !!", 
BRITISH LOSS. ' I *«iifii«?»J«> i 

lilled 108— wounded 103— Prisoners 02^— total 909,!' l 



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^„ Gmn. Chauncejf to the Secrelarj/ of the Nuvy, 
''^ I V, a. a. haaisofi, ojf' Niaffuraf May, '28, 1813. 

Sllft— Agreea^^le to arnnig^emen^ which I have ulready 
had ihe honor of cl^^ilinf^ to you, I l^fi hackel^tt Harbor ou 
th« 22d inst. wilb al^oiit ^0 of Col. M*Conil/s regiment uu 
board-— the winds beit^g light froDi the westward, 1 (lid 
not arrive in the vicinitv of Niagara before the 25th; tht 
other |>arts of the squacfron had arrived several dayu before, 
and landed their, troops. The Fair American and Pert 
f had ordered to ^acket*s Harbor, foi; the purpo.se of walcli. 
in(( the enemy*s movements at Kingstun. I immediuiely 
hud an interview with Gen. Dearborn, for the pur|)oue ot* 
in;)king arrangements to attack t^e enemy at) soon as {tos- 
sibie, and it wa» agreed (letweeu hino^and myself to make 
\\w attack the moment that the w,eatljer was such as to aU 
low the vessels and boats to approach the shore with safet). 
On the 26lh, I reconnoitred the position for landing ihc 
troops, and at mght sounded the sho^e^ and placed hjuoys lo 
spnnd out the statioiis for the small vessels. It was agreed 
between the General and myself to mi^ke the attack the 
next morning (as the weather had moderated, and had eve- 
ry appearance of beinff favorable.) I took on board of the 
1(1 adison, Oneida, and Lady of the Lake, all the heavy ar- 
tillery, and as many troops as could be stowed. The re- 
mainder were to embark in boats and follow the fleet. At 
S yesterday morning the signal was made for the fleet lo 
vreigb, and the troops were all embarked on board of the 
boats before fou^, and soon after Gens. Dearborn and 
Lewis came on board of the ship with their suites. It be- 
ing however nearly calm, the schooners were obliged to 
sweei^) into their positions. Mr. Tiant in Uie Julia, and 
Mr. Mix in the Growler, I directed to take a position in 
the mouth oi t; e river, and silence a battery near the light 
h6u«ie, which from its position commanded the shore where 
the troops were to land. Mr. Stevens in the Ontario, was 
directed to lake a position to the north of the light house, 
so near the shore as to enfilade the battery and cross the tire 
of the Julia and Growler. Lieut. Brown in the Governor 
Tompkins, I directed to take a position near Two Mile 
creek, where the enemv had a battery with a heavy gun. 
Lteut. Pettigrew in theCotiqiiest, was directed to anchor tu 
the soatbeost of the same battery, so near in as to open on it 



HISTORY or THS WAR.« 



S06 



in the rear, and cross llie fire of the Gov. Tompkint. Lu 
.M'Phersoii iu Ihe HaiuiUuii» Lieut SmiUi m Uie Attp, and 
31 r Osgood in Uie Bconrge, were directtMl to anchor cIonc 
to the shore, and cover the landing of the tr(to|>tf, and to 
scour the woodit mid plain wherever ihe enemy lumle his 
appearance. All tltette orderH were proaiiAly and gallant- 
ly executed. All the vessels anchored Within lunsktt shot 
ot' the shore, and in ten uiinnles after they o|)ened upon the 
batteries, they were completely silenced and abandoned. 

Our troops then advanced in three brigades, the advance 
led by Cul. Scott, and landed near the fort, which had 
been silenced by Lieut. Brown. The enemy, who - bad 
been concealed in a ravine, now advanced in great force to 
the edge of the bank to charge our troops. The schoon- 
ers opened so well directed and tremendous afire of grape 
and canister, that the enemy soon retreated from the bank. 
Our troops formed as soon as they landed, and immediately 
ascended the bank, charged and routed the enemy in every 
direction, the schooners keeping up a constant well direct- 
ed fire upon him in his retreat towards the tawn. Owing 
to the wind's having sprung up very fresh from the east- 
ward) which, caused a heavy sea directly oti slwre, 1 was 
not enabled to get' the boats off to laiid the troops from the 
Madison and Oneida, before the first and second brigades 
had advanced. Capt. Smith with the marines, landed with 
Col. M*Comb*s regiment, and I had prepared 400 seamen, 
which I intended to land with myscif. if the enemy bad 
made a stand ; but our troops pursued him so rapidly in- 
to the town and fort George, that I found there was no 
necessity for more force ; moreover, the wind had increas- 
ed so much and hove such a sea on shore, that the situa- 
tion of the fleet had become dangerous and critical. I 
tlierefure, made a signal for the fleet to weigh, and order- 
ed them into the river, where they anchored immediately 
alter the enemy bad abandoned fort George. The tuwa 
and forts were in quiet possession of our troojis at 12 
o'clock, and the enemy retired in a direction towards 
Q,neenstown. ui \f. 

Capt. Perry joined me from Erie on the evening o(. the 
25Mi, and very gallantly volunteered his services, und 1 ha vie 
much pleasure in acknowledging the great a^isisiauce 



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HrfirroRT or the war. 



which I received from him. We lost but one killed and 
two wounded, and no injury done to the wenneln. 

ISAAC CHAUNCEY. 

■* Com, Chauncey to the Secretary itfihe Navy, 
V. S. Hbif» MadiMun, backet*9 Harbor, June 4. 1813. 
SIR — I have the honor to present to yon, by the hand» 
of Lieut. Dudley, the BritiNli staadard taken at York, on 
the 27th of April last, nccompanied by the mace, orer which 
Aunffit hmnan SGALP.-^These articles were taken from 
the Parliament houne hy one of my officers, and presented 
to me. The scalp I caused to be presented to Gen. Dear, 
born, who I believe still has it in his possession. I also 
send by the same gentleman, one of the firitiah flag^iakea 
at fort George on the 27lh of May^ <*.m »»» rt? vmti^-n 
.,,,.-.. I gnye the honor io be, &c. *'>**- 

ISAAC CHAUNGEY.'f> 



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• Lieut, Chaunceyto Com. Chauncey. • ^■"■■' " ' 
Sackett's Harbor, June 18, 1813. 
SIR — ^According to your orders of the 14th inst. I pro- 
ceeded off Presque Isle in the schooner Lady of the Lake. 
On the morning of the 16th I fell in with and captured the 
English schooner Lady Hurray, from Kingston bound to 
York, loaded with provisions and ammunition. 

finclosed is a list of one ensign, 15 non-commissioned 
officers and privates found on board, with 6 men attached 
to the vessel. m '^m^'-* w s*n^ ur^ x m$im-^ »»> 

I have theiionor tc be, &c. 

WOLCOTT CHAUNCEY. 



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' Batik at forty mile Creek, Upper Canada. 

Gen Vincent having taken his stand at forty mile Creek, 
«bout 33 miles from fort George, after his defeat at the fort, 
Brig. Gen. Winder was sent in pursuit of him. On the 4th 
of June, Brig. Gen. Chandler, with another detachment, 
was sent off from fort George to reinforce Gen. Winder, 
jind arrived at Head Q,uarters the 5th. A deserter from 
the American cam|i informed Gen. Vincent of the situation 
of the army, and gave him the countersign ; in five min- 
iites the whole English army were in motion, and at two 
o'clock on the morning of the Gth entered our camp. The 



HMTTORY OF TWM WAtt. 



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307 



iwt> C^A\en\%t Winder and Chandler, iu endeavoring to 
form llie iruo|>8, and the fteputy qiiarter-i lanter General 
Va'^deventer. were surrounded and Itiken |>rUoners. Oar 
army formed immediately and attacked tlie enemy at the 
point uf the bayonet, which soon occasioned a (general 
route, the enemy taking off his prisoners^ and leaving Col. 
Clarke, sixty prisoners, and 2d0 kiUe<l in our hands. Our 
loss waft 17 killed, 38 wounded, and 100 missing. 

ATTACK ON SACKETT'S HARBOR. 

ifcn. Brown to t/tc iHecrelary of War. 

I J, Q. SmcketCs Harbor, June 1, 1813* 
SIR — On tlie2«>lh ultimo, 1 received a letter from Gc'n. 
Dearborn, requesting me to repair to this 'post for the pur- 

SDse of taking command. Knowing that Lieut. Col. 
iackus, an officer of the first regiment of dragoons, and 
of experience, was here, I hesitated, as I would do no act 
which might wound his feelings. In the night of the 2tflli 
I received a note from this officei, by Maj. Swan, deputy 
quarter- master Gen. joining in the request already made 
by Maj. Gen. Dearborn. I could no longer hesitate, and 
accordingly arrived at this past early in the morning of the 
28lh. These circumstances will explain how I came to 
be in command upon th's occasion. Knowing well the 
ground, my arraugeiuenti^ for defence, in the event of aa 
attack, were soon niatle, ..',... «,.,,., ,,,i, ■ .. '^ 

In tile course of the morning of tlie 28t)i, Lieut. Chaun- 
cey, of the navy, came in from tlie lake, firing gumi'^ of 
alarm. Those of the same character, intended to bring in 
the militia, were fired from the post. The enemy *8 fleet 
soon alter appeared accompained by a large njmber of 
boats. Believing that he would land on the peninsula, 
commonly.cailed Horse Island, I determined to meet hini 
at the water's edge with such mililia as 1 could collect, and 
the Albany volunteers, under the command of Lieut. CoU 
Mills ; Lieut. Col. Backus, with the regulars, formed a se- 
cond line ; the care of fort Tompkins was committed to 
the regular artillerists and some volunteers^ and that of 
Navy Point to Lieut. Chauncey of the navy. If driven 
from my position, Lieut. Col. Backus was ordered to ad- 
vance and meet the head of the enemy's column, while 
rallying my corps. I was to fall on its flanks, [f unable 



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ber«»torefti»t th« eneiny*ftattarki Lieut Chaoncey woi ig 
Ihat case to destroy the Mtoren, Nic. nnd retire to the south 
■hofe of the buy, east of Fort Vitlaiileer, while I proceed- 
ed to occupy thill fort as our dernier resort. 

In the courne of the 27th nnd during the nights of lh« 
28th and 2i>ih ultima, a considerable militia force came in, 
and were ordered to the water side, near Horse ishind, on 
which was Lieut. Col. Mills and his volunteers. Oar 
strength at this point was now d()0 men — all anxious tor 
bullle» as far as profession would go. The moment it was 
light enough to discover the approach of the enemy, we 
found his hhi|>s in line between Horse Island and stony 
Point, and in a few minntes af\erwar(ls 33 large bonis filled 
with troops, came oflTto the larger Indian o>*G;irden Inland, 
under cover of the fire of his gun bouts. My orders were, 
that the troops should lie close, and reserve their fire till 
the enemy had approached so near that every shot might 
hit its object. It is, however, impossible to execnte such 
orders with raw troops, unaccustomed to subordination. 
My orders were in this case disobeyed. The whole line 
nred, and not without effect — but in the moment while I 
was contemftlating this, to my utter astonishment, they 
rose from ibeir cover and fled. Col. Mills fell gallantly 
in brave but vaiii endeavors to stop his men. I was person- 
ally more fortunate. Gathering together about 100 niiii. 
iia, under the inimedinte cummaod of Capt. M'Nittuf that 
corps, we threw ourselves on the rear of the enemy *8 flank, 
and I trust, did some execution. It was during this last 
muvemetit that the regulars un^. r Co!. Backus, first enira- 
ged the enemy — ;j'ur was it long before they defeated him. 
, Hurrying to this point of action, I found the battle still 
raging, but with obvious advantage on our side. The re- 
suit of this action, so glorious for the oflicers and soldiers 
of the regular army, has already been communicated m my 
letter of the 20th. Had not Gen. Prevost retreated most 
rapidly under the guns of his vessels, he would never have 
returned to Kingston. 

The enemy's force consisted of 1000 picked men, led by 
sir George Prevost in person. Their fleet consisted of the 
new ship Wolf, the Hoynl George, the Prince Regent 
£arl of Moiraj two armed schooners, and their gun and 
Otherboah». "'^" ^"^^'^ ^^^V"'^^*'' ' - "'!■ . ' 

JACOB BROWN. 



aifTORY or rum >r^m. 



M> 



AMKRIGAN LOW. 

Killecl 81 — wounUetl 84 — mining dO. 

HHiTisa wm. 
Killed 99— wo«nii«d ll2«^prifooena5. {\ 

Oen. Ltfvit iotMe Sucnianf of War. .; ^v 

8a(k«U't Harbor, July 20, 181B. 

[Exlraci\ 81 R — Our fleet has gone out of tho inn^r 
hirltor, ami appearaiicei aro in favor of its going to sea in 
48 hours at farthest. 

A Hltle expedition of volunteers from the country, to 
which, by the advice of Com. Chauucey, I leut 4fO soldiers, 
sailed from hence three days since on board of two small 
row boatN, with a six pounder each, to tlie bead of the St 
liswrence, where they captured a Hne gun boat mounting 
a 'it flounder, 14 balleaux loaded with ammunition, 4 ofii;p 
cers, and 61 men. Two of our schooners went out and 
convoyed them in. 'yriv^Mtx ^ 



Oen. Harriton to the Secretary of War, 

H. Q, Senecat August 6, 1813. 
I have the honor to enclose you Major Crogbairs re- 
port of the attack upon fort Stephenson^ which has this mo< 
inent come to hand. With great respect, &c. 
•iiiMJwft^Tfj-j'iriii'b;! ti oiiMk-^ W. H. HARRISON. 

> rlMtf)<»(| B Major Cro^han to Gem Harrison. 

hvwer Saiujbishif 9 August 6, IS13, 
Dear Sir-T-I have the honor to inform you tUattbfB com- 
bined force of the eiieioy» Amounting t^ ^t least 500 regu- 
lars and seven or eight hundred Indianii, under the imme- 
diate comouind of Gen. Proctor, niade }i» appearance be- 
fore Uiis placcv early on Sunday evening last, and as soon 
as the Gen. had made such a dinposition of \n% troops as 
would cut oft' my retreat, should 1 be dispoise<jl to make one, 
he sent Co*. Elliot, accompanied by Major Chambfsrs, with 
a Bug', to demand the surrender of the fort, as he was anx* 
ious to spare the eftusion of blood, which he should proba- 
bly not have in his power to do, should he be reduced tp 
tJie necessity of taking the place by storm. My answer to 
the summons was, that I was determined to defend thd 
\}h\ce. to the last extremity, and tl^t no force howevef 



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lar)^e, should induce me to turrender it. So ftonu a» tin 
flag bad returned, • brisk fire wm opened open ns fruni ibt* 
gunbuatN in the river and from a A 1-2 inch howitzer uti 
shore, which wai kept np with little intermitMioti throui^huut 
the night. At un early hoor the next niorninff, three sixes 
(which had been piticed during the ni{rhl withm 2«50yan)k 
of the pickets) bfq^n to play opon u«, hut with iiltle eft'ccl. 
About 4 o'clock P. M. discovering^ lliat the fire from all 
his gnnn were concentrated agsiinst the north-western nn^\% 
of the fort, I tieeanie conhdeut that hiii object was to muke 
it breach, and attempt to storm the works at that poiht I 
therefore ordered out as many men as couid be em|rioyed 
forthe purpose of stiengthenmp;' that part, which was so ef. 
fectnatly secured by means of bagn of flour, sand, 'Sec. thiit 
the pickeiinsjf suffered little or no injury ; notwithstanding 
which,thc enemy about 500, having formed in a close oolutnn 
advanced to ussault our workti at the expected poiiiN at ihe 
same time makings t\^ o feints on the front of Capt. Hunter's 
liueD. Tile column which advanced against the norliuwes- 
tern angle, consisting of about 350 men, was so enveloped 
in !tmdke, as m^t to ixi discovered until it had approached 
within 18 or 20 paceii of the lines, but the men being all at 
their posts and ready to receive it, commenced so heavy 
and gidjiiig a fire as t6 throw tlie column a little in. 
to cohfiision ; l>eing quickly rallied it advanced to the outer 
works and bfgnii to leap into the ditch. Just at that mo- 
ment a fire of gh»|)e was opened from our G pounder 
(wfiichlKid been previously arranged so as to rake in that 
if it'e<^tiOri) which tc^ether with Ihe inusketry, threw them 
itito suiih confusrotf that thffy were compelled to retire pre- 
cipitately to the woodsi I ) •liHftK !(! . , (f»/|}# inu " 
' "l>nrifijg' the assaiiltji which lasted about half an honr, an 
{titessantfire was kejil up by the enemy's artillery (which 
ic^nsisted of five sijtes and a howitzer) but' without? effect. 
3^^enty Rtnn(^ of arms, aiid several braces of pistols have 
bfeeiicollectedWir the works. About thrtc in the morn- 
ing the e'nemy sailed <lown the river, leaving behind them 
a boat 'containing clothing and considerable military 
stores. Yours with' respect, &c. G. CROGHAN. 

/-'•.-'■ ■,^"- ' AMERICAN IX>SS. . -r* ^,;^^ ^.-i^,. ^,»i 

irM'ii' hh oi I Killed i — wounded 7. / j*m omirjiia ?*h! 

'itr^fi'f ^-'■r . , BRITISH LOSS. ■• ■■^'- .r-vi'.' 

Killed 52 — wounded &S — prisoners 25. 



mflTOET OF THC WAE. 



Sll 



By » teller from Gov. Hunlinf^ton, dalcd LttPtfr Strn^ 
dufikjf, Auff. 4f il Api^eani Ilixl Major Croglmirii fvrce wn% 
' )/and tliatof UieeiieiDir, biX). It further MUt«>t llml the 
nteniy lost 40 m«n killed in the ditch with Lieut. Colonul 
Short, and novcral oHicerni aiidabout llio same number of 
reifulani nhile advaiicini^ to the ailack, iMwideM Judianiii 
Our loss was one killed, uud lire wuutidtd.-— The enemy 
^ killed and 9i> priKonerH. 

* What will Gen. Proctor say, wlien be finda he hoH l)een 
baffled by a youth but junt pa«ise<l bis 21st year. Heiin 
liowcver, a lloro worthy of bid {(allant uncle, Gen. George 
Jl. Clarke.' [ISee Gen. Harrison io tfte Secretary of War.} 






mI .f LOSSOF THE CHESAPEAKE. 
Lieut. Budd to the Secretary of the Navt/. 

Huljfaj', June lo, 1818. 

SIR — The unfortunate dealli of Ca|>t. Jume» JAtvrencie, 
.ind Lieut. Auyvslus (f. Liid/onj, hatt retuleredit my duly 
to inform you of the capture of the late U. 8tat«s frigate; 
Ciiesapeake. ,1 -, . '.'■ 

On Tuesday, June ],at8»A. M. we unnaoored ship 
and ut Hit I'idian got under way from President's Koads» 
with a light wind from the southward and westward, aiid 
proceeded on a cruise. A ship was then in sight in the 
offing which had the appearance of a ship of war, and 
which, from information received from pilot boats and 
craft, we believed to be the British fri gate Shannon. We 
made sail in chase and -cleared »bip for action. At half past 
4 P. M. she liove to, with her head to the southward and 
eastward. AtS, took in the royals and top-gallaitt-sails 
and at half past five hauled the courses up. About 15 
minutes before G, the action commenced within pistol shot. 
The first broadside did great ex.ecution on both sides, 
damaged our rigging, killed amoHg others Mr. AVhite the.. 
the sailing master, and wounded Capl. .|jawrence. lu/ 
about 12 minutes after the commencemeot of the action, 
we fell on board of the enemy and immediately after one 
of our arm rhests on the quarter-deck was blown up by a 
hand grenafUe thrown from the eiiemy's ship. In a few 
minuter one of the Captt. aids cameoii the ^undeck to in- 
form n.e that the boarders were called^ : I immediately called 
liie boarders awa) and proceeded , to lbfe;i*|>5ff deck, where 





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HISTORT- OF THS WAfi^ 



I found thai enemy had succeeded io boarding^ u» and bad 
gained possession of our quarter deck. I immediatelv 
gave orders to haul on board the fore tack, for the purpoM; 
of shooting the ship clear of the other, and then made au at. 
tempt to regain the quarter deck, hut was wounded and 
thrown down on the gun deck. 1 again made an effort to 
collect the boardens, but in tlie mean time the enemy had 
gained com[)lete possession of the ship. On my being 
carried down to the cock-pit, I there found Capk. Lawrence 
and Lieut. Ludlow both mortally wounded ; the former 
]ikad been carried below previously to the ship*s being board- 
ed ; the latter was wounded in attempting to repel the 
boarders. Among those who fell e^rly in the action was 
Mr. Edward J. Ballard, the 4th Lieut, and Lieut. James 
Broom of marines. 

I herein enclose to you a return of the killed and wound- 
iBd, by which you will perceive that every oflicer, upon 
whom the charge of the ship would devolve, was either 
filled or wounded previously to her capture. 

The Shannon had, in addition to her full complement, 
an officer and 16 men belonging to the Belle Foule, and u 
part of the crew belonging to the T^nedos. 

} fiave the honor to be, 8cc. 
'^' ^ f < ' GEORGE BUDD. 

^ •'''" .' '• ' AMERICikN LOSS. i..._.. 

hiu. .u Killed 60— wounded 86. 

' ^* '■ ' ' BRITISH LOSS. 

• 'i' • ' • Killed 27— wounded 58. 



i 1 



'' Com. Chauncey to Secretary of the Navy. 

U, S. S. Gen. Pike, off Niayara, Any. 4, 1813. 

[Bxtract,] SIR — On the 25th I was joined by the Pert, 
and on the 27 Ih by the Lady of the Luke, with guides, 
and Oapk. Crane*s company of artillery, and Col. Scott, 
who had very handsomely volunteered for the service- 
After conversing with Col. Scott upon the subjiect; it was 
thought advisable to take on board 250 Infantry, which by 
the extraordniary exertions of that e^^cellent officer, were 
embarked before six o'clock the next morning and arrived 
and anchored in the harbor of Yurie, at about 3 P. M. oii 
the 3 1st, run the schooners into the upper harbor, landed 
^he^mannes aud aoldiers under the commuud of Col. Scot|^ 



Ii > 



BISTORT OF TBE WAR. 



218 



without opposition, found !)ever<tl hundred barrels of flour 
and provisions in the public storehouse, five pieces of can- 
non, eleven boats, and aqi:antityof shot, sheUs, and other 
stores, all which were either destroyed or broujcht away. 
On the 1st inst. just after receiving ou board all the vessels 
could take, I directed the barracks and the public store- 
bouses to be burnt ; we then re-embarked tlie men and pro- 
ceeded for this place, where 1 arrived yesterday. Between 
4 and 500 men left York for the head of the lake two days 
befoce we arrived there. Some few prisoners were taken, 
some of whom were paroled, the others have been landed at 
FortGeorge. » • i" •*./♦* -,. u ';.?■<.•?.>.; t>i<.'- -; 

I have the honor to be. &c. 

ISAAC CHAUNCEY. 



t« 



CAPTURE OF THjfi DOMINICO. 
Capt. John H, Dent to tlie Secretary qft/ie Navy* 

Charleston, Aug. 21, 1813. 
[ExtracLl I have the honor to inform you tliat the pri- 
vateer schooner Decatur, of this port, arrived here y ester- ^ 
day, with H. B. M. schooner Domiuico, her prize. 

She was captured on the 15th inst. after a most gallant 
and desperate action of one hour, and carried by boarding, 
having all her officers killed or wounded except one mid- 
shipman. The Dominico mounts 15 guns, one a 32 
pounder on a pivot, and had a complement of 88 men. 

She was one of the best equipped apd manned vessels of 
her class I have ever seen, The Decatur mounts 7 gans» 
and had a complement of 103 men. 
I have the honor to be, &c. ,■ . ,i 

- V ^' .rOHNH. DENT, t 

AMERICAN LOSS. at J/ 

Killed,5 — wounded 14. :-( , . .* u 'f 

BRITISH 1.0SS. 

Killed 18 — wounded 42 — prisoners 7(X 



»frfi.: 



Burning of Sodas, N, Y. — Sodus was the first tow» 
burnt in this war. This was a handsome little village of 
about 40 houses. The British appeared off the place, the 
17th June, 1813, but finding a considerable miUtiaforce, put 
offinto the Lake. The militia were disbanded on the 20th 
YyJsfen the eaemy a^ain returned, and effected a laoding.— - 









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Finding llie public stores, chiefly removed, Uiey iminedi. 
ately set fire to every valuable house in the villn^re, and re- 
turned to theirvessels, after suffering a loss of 4 killed, and 
several wounded, by a few 'citi/ens. The enemy's force 
consisted of the Hoyal George, Earl Moria. Prince Regent, 
Simcoe schr. and several small boats and tenders. 

Ailuck on Craney Island. (Vir.) — On the 20lh June, 
the British attempted a landing on this Island, for the pur- 
pose of more easily conquering Norfolk. Thirteen 9k\\\i<* of 
the line anchored ofi' James river, from which about 3600 
troops were embarked for Craiiey Island.— Com. Cassin, 
of the gun boats, and Capt. Morris, of the Constellation 
frigate, manned two batteries with 260 men on the point of 
he Island to receive them ; the remainder of the force, 
200 were stationed on the beach. At '8 o'clock the btug-es 
attempted to laud, but were driveni back, with the loss uf 
5250 killed and wounded, and 4.5 prisoners, and their lar- 
gest barge, which was sunk, with 75 men on board ; llie 
boat and 20 men were finally saved by the Americans— 
our loss was 28 killed and wounded. ^- •!' •(<■ .ti<u>// ,v„^ 

Capture of Hampton. — The 25th of June the force that 
attempted Craney Island, landed at Hampton, and carried 
it after a gallant defence made by our militia^ 4d() strong, 
for forty-iive minutes. The enemy attacked us by land 
and water ; their land force was about 2500 strong, of 
whom 400 were riflemen. After our men were complete- 
ly surrounded, they saw that they must either surrender, or 
break their way through the enemy's lines. They resolved 
wpon ilie latter, when the gallant Maj. Crutchjicid, led 
tliemon, and broke the lines, and made good their retreat, 
after killing and wounding 200 of their adversaries. Our 
loss on this occasion was seven kilted, twelve wounded, 
and twelve prisoners. 

A scene now commenced sufticient to chill the blood of 
the Savages, and even put them to the blush. 

* To give you, sir, (says Maj. Crutchfield in his official 
account to Gov. Barbour,) an idea of the savage-like dis- 
position of the enemy, on their getting possession of the 
neighborhood, would be a vain attempt. Although sir 
Sidney Beckwith assured me that no uQeasin^ss need lie 



COUIl 

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every 

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HISTORY OF TUB WASt. 



216 



felt, in relation to the unfortunata Americans, the fact in 
that on ye»ter(l:iy, [two (lay» after tlie biittle,] there were 
several Ueall Uiilies lying unburied, and the wounded not 
even a<tHi.Hted into the town, although observed to be crawl* 
intrihrough the fields towards that cold and inhospilablo 
reception. 

' The unfortunate females of l{am|)ton, who could not 
leuve the town, were sulfered to be abused in the most 
•ihttinefnl manner, not only by the venal savag^e foe, but by 
tlie unfortunate and infatuated blacks, who were eucoa** 
raged in their excesses. They pillaged and encouraged 
every act of rapine and murder, killing a poor man,, by 
the name oi Kirby who had been lying on \m l>ed at the 
point of death, for more than six weeks, shooting his wife 
at the same time, in the hip, and killing his faithful dog ly- 
ing under his feet. The murdered Kirby was lying last 
uijfht, weltering in his blood.* 

. ..y.= 51,4 Capt, Cooper to Lieut. Gov. 3Itdlori/, \ iV 
[Extract.] SIR — * The enemy look possession of Hamp- 
tati, with upwards of 2(H)0 men against those above men- 
tioned, with the immense loss of upwards of 200 killed 
and woiknded, on their part. We had about o killed, 10 
wounded, and 4 prisoners, — the balance have been ac- 
counted for. 

' I was yesterday in Hampton with my troop, that place 
having been evacuated in the muniing. — My blood ran 
cold at what I saw and heard. — Teai-s were shedding in 
every corner, — the infamous scoundrels, monsters, destroy' 
ed every thiny, but the hmises, and (my pen is almost' un- 
wilhng to describe it,) the n'omen were ravished by those 
abandoned ruffians. — Great God ! my dear friend, figure 
to yourself our Hamptun females, seized, and treated with 
violence by those monsters, and not a solitary American 
present to avenge their wrongs! ! But enough — I can say 
110 more of this.* 

Certijicate. The eikcmy robbed the Pulpit and Com-r 
munion Table, in the Episcojial Church, of all the trap- 
pings, &c. together with all the plate, although inscribed 
with the name of the Donor, and of the parish to which 
they belonged. They committed Rape in many instances 
aud murdered asick man in Ins bed, and shot a ball through 



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HISTORY or TUB WA«. 



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his wikVs Ihigh ; ihey wantonly destroyetl every species of 
property that they had no use for, ami, in fact, even strip. 
ped the shirt off tlie back of George Hnpe^ sen'r about 70 
years of age, and took the shoes from his feet, after prick- 
ingr hioi with the bayonet. ^^i v" 

JOHN WESTWOOD, BampUm. 

Murder of John B. Graveg. — Mr. Graves was a mem- 
ber of the 23(1 re<i;'t. Infantry, and was wounded through 
the arm at the attack on Sackett's Harbor in May, and 
was removed to Oswego. When Oswego was attacked. 
Graves had so far recovered as to be able to load and fire, 
and stood his ground like a hero. (Jnfortimately, he wa» 
again wounded, and carried to a log house with two oth- 
ers. Our men shortly after letr'^ateil, and an English 
Officbh, a LietiteHant, came to the door of the house, and 
presented a fuzee at him ; upon which Graves exclaimed, 
* O merely for heaven s sake shew me mercy ; dont shoot me 
again^ 1 ami badly wounded' The officer cocked his piece, 
which was within its own length of Graves, weltering in 
his blood, and with an infernal grin, said Vll shew you 
MBKCY, GOD DAMN YOU,' and immediately discharged 
its contents, a ball and tliree buckshot, into his breast.-*- 
This inhuman villain soon met his reward, for scarcely had 
he turned his eyes from the object of his barbarity, when 
he was sliot through tlie brain, and fell dead almost within 
reach of Graves. 

'\V''^'*^*\ Skirmishing at forC George f U.Canada. *«♦' 
On the 1 1th of Augu*»t 181i>, Gen. Proctor attacked oor 
pickets at day break ; after a short engagement, in which 
tlie enemy hatl 15 killed, and one Capt. an<l seveml pri- 
vates made prisoners, our force retired to the fort with the 
loss of 2 killed and several wounded. 

On the night of the 17th, our troops and a few Indians 
formed an ambuscade, about 300 strong, immediately in 
front of the British camp. At day light our Indians rose 
and gave the war-whoop, and the enemy considering it a 
friendly call; came forlh, and were within half rifle shot 
before they discovered the stratagem. They were met 
upon all sides, and made but little resistance ; 75 beinsf 
killed the fir.st shot, and the remainder, U>, surrendered 8f 
prisoners. * : -^ 



A* 



unroaY (mrtm wab. 



^11 



Coi }Vm. Ri&iitti k>t V'mcttii^ir^iih C73 men, chiefly 
voliintean* from' Kentutk^ antt Ohio, inarched from V il- 
louia on t^K ''^h J«ii«, tor khvpurpOMe of relieving the 
frontier inh&bHanii of the Mvuf^eg. In inorchiiif through 
their ouunUvylbnrti^dDiit they tiiicoecded iii cloMtruying six> 
teea eif tbeife* i^)Uig<^ anwl ^ ooiisl<lcr»ble niiantily of corn, 
Stc. ^lul fttiimeil without the lowtofii itiiigte man, bringin|^ 
in several priHoners, and 10 homei which th« Indiana had 
piilujredatevu (kiy<9 hefui^iVoui the iiihaliitarit«. 

A Yankee trich^^-^n \\ie Ath of July, 18 Id, Com. Lewi^, 
conittttiiidartt of the ilotilia of gun boatn at New- York, (tent 
uut ibe fcihiiig smack Yankee, from Mun'.iuito cove, for 
the ^nir|M)ae Of<tUkingby atr^lagem, the Kluop Eagfle, aten- 
(lento InePoictiersof 74 guna, which had been very trouble 
some to the ifishermenotf Sandy Hook, where they weivi 
cruiMngr^ A calf» u sheep, aud a goofto were purchased ond 
MeourecFon deck ; andb<t\v«en dO and 40 men, well armed 
with mtisketft, wore secreted in tiie trabin and fore \ieak of 
thd-imack. Thus prepared^ with three men dressed in 
lisherman s clothes on deck, she put out to sea as if going 
on a fishing trip. TKe Englo on perceiving Ihh smack 
gnve chase, and ofteir Coining up with her, seeing ^he bad 
live stock on deck, ordered her to go down to the Comnio* 
dore, about five miles distiant. The hetmsmnn cried * ai/e, 
mje^ sivy and apparently put up the helm for that purpose, 
which brought her alongside the Euglo, not more than 
three yards distant The watch-\Vord, JxtwrencCf was then 
given^ when tlie armed men rushed from their hiding places 
nnd poured into litrA'volley of musketry, which struck hor 
crew with dismay, and drove them all into the hold with 
such Iprecipitancy, that tliey hud not time to strike tlieir co- 
lours. The Eagle had on boMrd a 32 lb. brass howitzer, 
loaded with shot ; but their surprise was so sudden that 
they had not time to fire it. The crew consisted of a mas- 
ter, one midshiprfian; and 11 marines from the Poictiers.-**- 
The prize arrived at Whitehall, amidst the shoMtiy of MiQjrt« 
Wnds who were celebrating the 4lh of July/ > ^ j ? -v » ^n 



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Xn.(i(>..i3pic BURROWS' VICTORir/. uU ^..V) 
i r^ 1 ! ! < X/ettA J/' CuU lUtJIhe Sevtetartf of tke Navy, \> 
u i; V* Klhiff Eniaiptiisae, Pniitmd, lih Sk/M. i8ia 
<! [£U'^ai.7.]h)iR~*IuciMis0(|u«i)ce <if tlMiiiiforliinut«de»Ui 
of ifitiut. Williiuu BurrowH, lale iOomoi^DdBr of ihit 
vt»tjM>U »t ilcvulveH oit m^ilio aor|ulM(jut yoii'^ifiith ftbe result ot 
the pruitte. After Hailing fruin FortHmonlliontbe Ui \i\%\, 
\iie sleereti to tlie easlwarti ; atid oli tiie luor.aing of the 3d, 
oO'AVuod liilaud, diikcovictitid a tic4ioo{tt^r,.uihich wechasfd 
into this h-.irltor, where ue uiichoreil. On the uioniing ot 
Ui« 4tj),>weight>i( anchor, and swept out, and coiiiiiuied our 
cour!«^ to the eastwardJ iHaviik^trvdeivcd inforiuaiion of 
«evt>'al pri>vat(;ers^ beingf.otf Maiibagan^i Nve »to64 for. that 
place ; ^nd on the fotbwii*e iuoni»u^ialiie2 bay near Pen- 
cil! .Foittfty di§oeretied al brig ' gelthinj; nnidvr way, which 
apjxfuredito be a.yeMsel of war, nmdk to wh»oh we unmedi- 
ateiy gavje chase» She>^re(l.^eve|'aliguni$^!aodr stood for us^ 
bavifig foHi' ensigns hoisted. / Afti^iviecdnuoiterihg and 
discovering her force, auift the nation tto.wiiich she 4i«ldng- 
€d, ,Yie bauied ;U^ion a wtjod to ^ncl m^ A»i. the bay, and at 
3 o'clock dbortcniilsaiJ^tiickedtorunido'Wii wilii an inleii- 
tioik to bring Iterito close action. :AMvvenly minutes alter 
3 p. M. when within half pistol siM>t,tlie firing, commenc- 
ed friOidi bolhy and after being wnrtardy kept up, and with 
some iitauoonvretn^jiitlie enemy hailed and said they had 
surrendered, abont 4 P. M. Their wlonrs bein^ nailed ta 
tfte witaitt, cifukl not tie hauled down. She proved to be his 
B. iVl. brig Boxer, of 14 guns, Samtfel BIythe, Esq^ com^ 
mander, who fell in the early part of the engagement, hav- 
ing received a cannon shot through the boily. And I am 
sorry to add that Lieut.. Burrows, who bad gallantly led m 
into.acttoti, fell aUo about ihe Siuue time by a mnsket bull, 
which terminated his exitilence in eight boiirH. 

The Entcrprize suli'ered much in spars and rigging, and 
Ihe Busier m spars, rigging, and hull, having many »huts 
between wind and Walter. 

:'\ As no muster roll that can be fully relied on has come 
into my posistssion, 1 cannot exactly state the number kill- 
ed and wonnded on board the Boser, but from information 
received from the officers of that vessel, it appears there 
were between twenty and twenty-five killed, and fourteeu 



mSTOMT Ol^irllB WAil. 



$fm 



wounded. Enclosed is a list of Ihe killed and woimd^ 
on board the Knterprn^. f have Ihe honor to Ive, <kc. 

EDWARD U. M'CALL, Sfwat OJicer, • 

'1 i' ! AHERir.iN 1X)SS. ' ' '»* 

Killed 4— Wounded lO^totnl 14. / i" *^i "> 



M'i'^ 



BltlTlSIl LOSS. 

Killed 2i>— Wounded 14— total d9 



f 



> t I>.t{ uj .CHAPTER IX 



• ■ ■ ■'/! *^f?J 

'^ - PERRY'S VICTORY. i' u/r 

Coiw. Perri,i to the Secretari/ of the Navtf. > :f;"d 
U. S. briif Kiayara, Jjike Erie, tiept. 10, 1813. Mi^ 
SIR — It has pleased the Almighty to give to the arms of 
the United States a signal victory ovrr their enemien on 
this lake. The Britisii squadron cousiiiting of 2 ships, 2 
brigs, 1 schooner, and 1 sloop, have this moment surren- 
dered to the force under my command, after a sharp con- 
flict. I have' the honor to be, &c. 

O. H. PERRY, i/ 



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Com. Perrtf to the Secretary of the Navy, v.\ 

U, S. Sch. Ariel, Ful-in-bay, Sept. Hi, 1813. 
SIR — In my last I informed you that we had captured 
the enemy's fleet on this lake. I have now iiie honor to 
give you the most important particulars of the action. 
On the morning of the loth inst. at sun-rise, they were dis- 
covered from Put-in-bay, where I lay at anchor with the 
squadron under luy command. , We got under weigh, the 
wind light at $. W. and i4ood for tliem. At 10 A. M. the 
wind hauled to S. £. and brought us to windward; form- 
ed the line and bore up. At Id minutes before twelve, 
the enemy commenced tiring ; at 6 minutes betore twelve 
the action conmienced on our part. Finding their fire. 
very destructive, owing to their long guns, and its being* 
mostly directed at the Lawrence, I made sail, and directed 
the other vessels to follow for the purpose of dosing with 
the enemy. Every brace and bowline being soon shot 
away, she became unmanageable, notwithstandmg the great 
exertions of the sailings-master. In this i^ituatioa she sua- 



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|»ifi^ lhc|it;Uott upwards jof Iwo hiMiiti wilkiii cauiiitfrrdii*. 
tance, until every giM wgs reindpred UHelen^AiKl the f reaU 
erparj^ of her rrew eilhff killed. 0r nrnttmled. Fiiidin;r 
she could no longer annoy, the enemy* I left her in chart^e 
of Lieut. YHinall, wlio, 1 wqs conviuced fi'oih the braver^' 
already displayed by liiin« would do what would cumpnrt 
with the honor pf the flpg. At half paHi iWo^ the w inU 
sprinring up,Capt» Elliot wa;; enabled to bring hi^ veHsrI, 
the ^)iagara, gallnutly into close action; I iromediatt 
M'enl on board of her, when lie anticipated my wish by vol- 
untei ring to bring ihft schoonerH which had been kept 
astern bv the lighincKS of the wind, into close action. It 
was with unspeakable pain that I saw soon after I got on 
board the Niagara, the flag of the Lawrence come down, 
although I was ptirfectly sensible that she had been defend- 
ed to the last, snil that to have continued to make s show 
of resi':4ance would have been a wanton sacri^ce of the re- 
mains of her brave crew. But the enemy was not able to 
take possession of her, and circumstances soon permitted 
her flag again to be hoisted. At 45 minutes past two« the 
signal was made hr * close action.' The Niagara, being 
very little injured, I determined to pass through the enemy's 
lines, bore up and passed ahead of their two ships and a 
brig, giving* a raking iire to them from the starboard guns, 
and to a large schooner, and sloop, from the larboard side, 
at half pistol-shot distance. The smaller vessels at this 
time having got within grape and canister distance, under 
the direction of Capt. Elliot, and keeping up a ^ell direct- 
ed fire, th« 2 ships, a brig, and a schooner, surrendered, a 
schooner and sloop making a vain attempt to escape. 

Those officers and men who were immediately under 
my observation evinced the greatest gallantry, and I have 
no doubt that all others conducted themselves as became 
American officers and seamen. j.iieut. Yarnnll, first of the 
Lawrence, although sei^eral tim^i^ wounded, refused to q»U 
the deck. 

I have the honor to enclose you a statement of the rela 
tive force of'the squadrons. The Ctipt. and first Lieut, of 
.the Q,ueen Charlotte, and first Lieut, of the Detroit w^t 
killed*— Capt. Barclay, senior officer, and the commandei 
of the Lady Prevost, severely wounded. The commaoder 
of the Hunter and Chippeway slightly woUnded. Thei^ 



--.t: 



he i^reaU 

Finding; 
II charge 
i bra V try 
I cumpnit 
the wind 
lis vessel, 
mediati 
ish by vol- 
3een kept 
iclion. It 
r I got on 
irte down, 
en del'end- 
le c show 
i of the re- 
lot able to 
perraitted 
st IWO) the 
ara» being 
he enemy's 
lips and a 
oard guns, 
joard side, 
sels at this 
nee, under 
ivell direct- 
^ndered, « 
cape. 

ilely under 
and I have 
as became 
, first of the 
ased to qwit 



nnrroRV ov tk* wab. 



sidt 



ION* in kdled and vroiincM I hiive not been able \6 M4Nfr- 
liiinj it must, ho^^^^ert have l>eeii tery great 

Very f«iHiecifally, %c. ' M^ 

^^hl'}.!. • •..♦•,.1.' O.H. PE^R.,'« 

. .' • 'I ♦>//! T'ii . '.J 

(/. & Skk. Ariel, Put-in-baff, Srpt 18, 1«13. *. 
SIR— rl have caused thfe prisouerH taken cni Itie Kith in!^. 
to be landed at HandiiMky, and have reqneNtetl Gen. Harri- 
son to have them marched to Chibcuihe, and there wait Uh- 
lil your pleaiiare shall be kno>Vn re^peoting ihein. 

iThf Lawrence has been so entirely cut \i\*, it is absolute- 
ly necessary she sborJd go into a safe harbor ; I have there- 
fore directed Lieut. Yarnailto proceed to Erie in her^ with 
the wounded of the fleet, and ditmmntle and get her over 
the bar assooh ab possible. 

The two ships in a heavy sea this day at an« or lost their 
masts, being mudi injured in tlie action, i shall haul 
them into the inner bay at this place and moor them for the 
present. The Detroit is a remlMrkably £ne ship, sails well, 
sjnd » very strongly built. The Q,ueeki Charlotte isamtich 
superior vessel to what has been represented. Th6 Lady 
Prevost is a large Hne schooner. ' 

Faroe of' tlie Amerieatk aqnadiron, »^' ^ ^ •»^s^'«' '" • 
littwrenCetO ^uris— Niagara 20*— Caledonia *^Artel 4^-^ 

Scorpion 2~^Somers 4 — ^lYippe I-— Tigrfess l'^l*orcu- 

pine l-*-totttl '5ft guns. -^ 

Forces/ Uie Bfitishs^uadrm, ' ' 
Detroit 21 gufis-^^oeen Charlotte 18-^Lady P^^^ost 14^ 
Hunter lO-^Littks Belt 8^Chit)peway 3->-^tota( (jj^ guns. ^ 

The exact numbef of the eniimy's force has not bfeen as- 
certained) but I hate good reason to believe that it e^tecd- 
ed oiirs by nearly too men. -- -. 

I hav« the honor to be, &c. O. H. PEltRY. ^ 

AMERICAN tOSe. 



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KiMed 27— wounded 96. 
British loss not known. 

CAPTtTRE OF MALDEN. '■'•': 
Gen. Harrison to the Secretary of' War. l' '; 
H. Q. Amhersllmrg, Sept. 2a, ItSlS. " 
SIR— I have the honor to inform you that I landed' the 
I army under my command abOttt^S miles below this place ^t 3 



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oV.lock ihit evening^, witlioul dppositian, Hwi toiik potivei. 
Nioii of the town in an hour after. Geik.l'roclorhM retreal. 
tf(J lo Sandwich with his regular tro<)|M imiU liuliuns, hav. 
in^ previously burned the fort, rmvy yard, barra(*kK, and 
public store houses ; the two latter were very exlcnsivr, 
coverm(^ severiil acres of grouud. I %ill piirsue the cno 
iny to-morrow, although tht re in noprobubiiity ofniy over- 
lakin|( Inui, iis he has upwards of omd ilioiiH4i»4i hontet., 
and >ve have not one m the army. I shail; ihiuk mysell 
fortunate to be able to collect a sufficiency ifO mount the 
Gen. officers. It is suppoied liere thai Gen. Proctor in. 
tends to establish hiu)»elf upon the river tVentfh, forty uiile^ 
f'roi J Maiden. .iUmnu/ .iwnA [y&rmh '. 

I have the honor to be, ^p. «'. ' !. 

WILLI \M H. HARUISON. 
nmU ku\ -Hjv. ■ '■ •' ' -: v. 

n.».l l.url < HARRISONS VICTOR!?,* 



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mU vm) III Gen. HanUoulothe Secretary i^! Wat* 

.u;^. .ijiii.'. t>Mti ,j(l>;..H. Q' Detroit, Oct. 9t X%\2t. 

SIR — In my letter from Sandwich of the^ 2dd ullinio, I 
did myself the honor to inform you, Ihftt Ijwas preparing 
to pursue the enemy the following day^ Fltom various 
causes, however J was unable to put the troops in motion 
until the luorning of the 2d in&t and then to take with me 
only about one bundled aad ,torly of the regular troops, 
Johnson*s mounted regiment, and such of i^pvernor Shel- 
by's volunteers as were fit for a r«i|>id iii$itch, the whole 
amounting to about three thousand fiv? Amndr^d men. To 
Gen. M*Arthur(with about 700 effectives) Jhe protecting 
of this pla^Q and the sick w;as committedfi Gen. Cadi's 
brigade, and tiie corps of Lieut. Col. Ball* were left at 
Sandwich, with orders to follow me as soon as the men re^ 
ceivfd their knapsacks and blankets, MriicU had been left 
on an island in Lnke £rie« 

The unavoidable delay at Sandwich was attended with 
no disadvantage to us. Gen.Froctor had posted himselt 
at Dalson*s on the right biuik ol the Thames (or Trench) 
fifty six miles from this place^ where 1 was informed he in- 
tended to fortify and wait to nn-eive me. He must have 
believed, however, tltal 1 had no disposition to follow him, or 
that be had securi^d my cunt inuauce here, by the reports that 
}ve|re,circulated that tlie Ittdians would ^ittlack aiid destro) 



flOToftT or Tnv wai. 



tva 



tht« ptsec>«podlh* i«fivnrtcc< of Ifie ftrmy ; m ho nr^.. HhI 
to comiiilHi^e Ike brMkiti}«nf> the bridge* uitiil thif ikig^t of 
Ibe'ifliiMt. lOii Ikat nif^ht oomrmy reached the n^er, 
which «H rwelili^^Hvc mile?* from Sandwich, and iione of 4 
Nir6:inM eroMiiMliif oiir route, oirer'aM of m *iich '■ we brtd)fe«, 
amM)tniig><dte|i dnd-miiddViSre oMbrrluble for a conNidrni^ 
Ilk diittitttcciiiitdilhe coantry-*th«ibridge here \vn» foun4 
eiitim, aiul in >thliniomii\^ i |>rocekled with JohitwohV re- 
iriment t4v mM; H' poMiil»Wi the blhern. At iM trcoiid 
iIrUljjfe<Wi6r «brjniflhof the river Th»nM»M, we were fortiH 
nale enoogb Ui'^ifliHiire a Lk^IJ of ttrai^ooDH and eleven 
|irivatei^!who had hcen nenthy '(ie«i. Proctor to deHiroy 
tbem. Krom the prifionerH I learned that vbe third bridge 
was broken ufl alt^d tbiit the enemy had no certain informa- 
tion of oar fid vance. Thebridi^e havin<j;- been im>|)erfect- 
\y destl'ojrctd, wnfl ftooii refinired and the iirmy eneampod at 
Drake's' farm, fbulr miles below' Dakion'ft. ' * i > 

The river Thanlkeg,- nloiY^ the^ bai^» of which onr route 
lavt iHu Hike 4eep stream, navi^bte for veAsels of consider-^ 
able burden; after ttie passagfom the bar at its moulhr over 
whicbythere is' six And a hnlf feet water. ' 

The bh^giai^o of the army wnti brmight from" Detroit im 
boats proi^f led by thi-ee giin-liontM, wbioh Com. Perfy 
hdd tiiminbed for the purpose, a^'well as to cover the pash* 
iiil^eof th^ army -over theThatnen itseilf, or the inouth» of 
its tribntnry streams ; the kinkm beintr low and the country; 
i>c>aerallyopeH (pi*airieK^ as high as T>ilsoirs, the^e vesseN 
were well cutculated for that purpost*. Above Dalson^it 
however, the character of the river and adjacent country irt 
considerably changed. — ^The former, ikoiigh sliW deep, is 
very narrow and its liiiiiks bij^h and woody. TiKe C(<rm- 
modore and myself theretorc a^'reed in>On the propriety 
ot ieavinsrlhe boats under a ^iv.ird ot'one hundred and fif- 
ty infautL'y» and 1 determined to truKt to fortune and the 
lirnvery of my tioops to eftect thej>assage of the river. Be- 
low a place called Ciiathaiu and 4 miles above Dalson's is 
the third unfordable branch of the Tliaines ; the bridge over 
its aioulh had been taken up by the Indians, as well as that at 
M'Clregor's Mills, one mite above — several hundred of the 
Indians I'einained to dispute our passage, arnl -^ipon the 
miivalofthe advanced guard, commenced a heavy fire 
tioni the opposite bank of the creek as well as that of Ihfe 



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BLrronY or .tub wia. 



tiver. Beliiivid j^ llial Ihe whoUt foro« of lh» tntmy wtg 
there, 1 haHed the army, foniMd in order of battle, tad 
broiil^hk up our two Htn-iNmndera to cover the party that 
were ordered to rapair the bridge— <a few ahot from those 

Citces, loon drovi« off tlie Indiuiit and enabled na, in twu 
oura to repair the brii^e iMid cruan the troo^ Col 
Johnaoa'a mounted reyfinwkit beiug^ upon the rtght ef tbc 
army, had seized upo'9 the remaim* of thti ()ridge at the 
inills under a heavy fire from the Indians. Our Ions on thii 
oceaNion, was two killed and three or four wounded, that of 
the enemy wasascfertainedto he considerably ^:reat«r. ' A 
houae near tlie bridge coatairtinf; a verj eonliderable nnm* 
her of muskets had been set on tirei — but it wae extinguiib. 
ed by our troops and the arms saved. At Ike first fana 
al>ove thtf bridjife, we found oiie of the- enemy's vessels on 
ire, loaded with arms and ordnance stores,, and learned 
that they were a few mileti ahead of us, stiU #n' the right 
hank of the river with the ^reit body of the Indians. At 
BowW farm, four miles! from the bridge we liuUed for the 
night,, found two other veteeis and a large destillcry filled 
with ordnance and other valuable stores to- an immense 
amount ill flamea— it wa^ in^possible to put out the firex4\vo 
twen^-four-<pQnnders with their carriages were taken and 
a large quantity of ball and sliells of various sizes. The 
if my wa/i put in motion early on the morning of the 5th ; 1 
pushed on in advance with thv mounted regiment and request- 
ed (iov. Slielby to follow as ex ))editiously us possible with 
the infantry ; the Governor's zeul and that of his men ens- 
bled them to keep up with the cavalry, and by 9 o'clock, we 
were at Arnold's Mills, having taken in the course of the 
n^rrung two gun-boats and several balteaux loaded with 
provisions and amnmiiitioii. 

A rapid at the river at Arnold's mills aifoixls the only 
fordi;ig;tobe met with for a considerable distance, but, up> 
on examination, it was found too deep fop the infatUrv. 
flaving, however, fortunately taken two or three boats and 
some Indian canoes on the spot, and obliged the horsemen 
to lake a foot-man behind each, the whole were saftiy 
crossed by 12 o'clock. £ight miles from the crossing we 
passed a 4'arni, where a pait of the British troops had en- 
camped the night before, under the command of Col. Wat- 
huVtpn.. The dfitachment with Gen. Proctor had arrived 



UISTORY or THC WAB. 



^'» 



the (lay befure at the M oravinn towns 4 miles tiigher up. 
Ikiii^ now certainly nt'tir the enemy, I directed the ad* 
vaiicc of .lohn»un*M rcij^inif nt to accelerate their march for 
the |)nr|)OHe of procnrin^^ inleliiKence. The officer com- 
nianding it, ni h xhort time, sent to mfonn me, that bit pro- 
grcHH WiiN Hlopped by the enemy, who were formed acrotia 
uur line of march. One of the enemy'tt wan^^onerM being 
ulsotukcn piMHoner, from the information received from 
iiim, niid my own ob»ervation, assisted by some of my offi- 
cerM, 1 Koou ascertained enouf^h of their position and order 
of battle, to determine limt, which it was pro(H.'r for me to 
idout. J- 

From llie place .'^liere our army last halted, to the Mora- 
vian towns a diHtance of aliout three and a half miles, the 
road passes through a beach forest without any clearing, and 
for the tirst two miles near to the bank of the river. Al 
from two to 300 yards from the river, a swaini) extends par- 
allel to it, throughout the whole distance. The intermedi- 
ate p^round is dry, and although the trees arc tolerably 
thick, it is in muiiy places clear of underbrush. Across 
this strip of land, its lell appayed upon the river, sup(N)rted 
by artillery placed in the wood, their right in the swamp 
covered by the whole of the Indian force, the British troo|)S 
weredrav;n up. a i 

The troops almy disposal consisted of about 120 regulars 
of the 27lh regiment, five brigades of Kentucky volunteer 
militia infantry, uiid^M- his Excellency Gov. Shelby, aver- 
aging less than 6ve l.andred men, and Col. Johnson's regi- 
ment of mounted iiiiantry, making in the w hole an aggre- 
l^ute, something about d(K)0. No disposition of an army 
Ojiposed to an Indian force can be safe unless it is secured 
(III the flanks and in the rear. I had therefore no difficulty 
III arranging the infantry conformably to my general order 
ul' battle. Gen. Trotter's brigade of 500 men, formed the 
iVoiit line, his right upon the road and his left upon the 
swamp. Gen. King's brigade as a second line, 150 yards 
ill the rear of Trotter's, and Chiles'^brigade as a corps of 
reserve in the rear of it. These three brigades formed the 
fomniainl of Major-Gerieral Henry ; the whole of Gen. 
Desha's division, consisting of two brigades, were formed 
fii poteiii'i' upon the left of Trotter. 






:i ' 



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226 



IIISTOIIY OF Tin: \V.iU. 



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' *' 



Whilst I was ciif^agei! in forming; Ihe inlaiilr) , I Ind d, 
reeled Co!, .lohnsoirs rcjjimeiil, which was still in front. It. 
be fornieil in two lines opposite to the enemy, and upon tin- 
advance of the iiifiuitry, to take gfround to the left, niid 
forming- upon tliat flank to endeavor to turn the right of llu- 
Indians. A moment's reflection, however, convinced nu; 
that from the Ihickiiess of the woods and swampness of ilip 
g^ronml, they would be unable to do any thing on horse- 
back, and there was no time to dismount them and plicr 
their horses in security. I therefore determined -to refuse 
my left to the Indians, and to break the British lines at 
once by a charge of the mounted infantry ; the measure 
^as not sanctioned by any thing I had ever seen or heard 
of, but I was fully convinced that it would succeed. TI.^ 
American back woodsmen ride better in the woods than 
any other people. A musket or rifle is no impediment to 
them, being accustomed to them from their earliest youth. 
I was persuaded, too, that the enemy would 'be quite niv 
prepared for the shock, and that they could not resist it, 
Conformable to this idea, I directed the regiment to br 
drawn up in close column, with its right at the distance of 
50 yards from the road, (that it might be, in some measure, 
protected by the trees from the artillery) its left upon llic 
swamp, andtocharge at full speed assoonas the enemy Imd 
delivered theirfire. Thefew regular troops of the'i7lh re. 
giment, under Col. Paul, occupied in a column of sections 
of four, the small .space between the road and the river, for 
the purpost^ of seizing the enemy's artillery, and some ten 
or twelve friendly Indians to move under the bank. The 
crotchet formed by the front line, and Gen. Desha's divi- 
sion, was an important point. At that place the venerable 
Governor of Kentnchy was posted, who, at the age of sixty- 
six, preserves all the vigor of youth, the ardent zeal which 
distinguished him in the revolutionary war, and the un- 
daunted bravery w hich he manifested at Kings mountain. 
With my uids-dc-camp, the acting assistant Adj. General, 
Capt. Butler, my gallant friend Com. Perry, who did inft 
the honor to serve as my volunteer aid-de-camp, and Brii; 
Gen. Cass, who having no command, tendered me his ib- 
sistance, I placed myself at the head of the front line ot'in 
fantry, to du'ect the movements of the cavalry, and give 
them the necessary suppoil. 



h 



^ 



III^TOUV OF THE WAR, 



227 



The army had niovctl on in this order bul a short dis- 
tance) when the iiiotuiled men received the Hre uf the Bri- 
tish line, and were ordered to charj^e ; the horses in ihe 
irontoflhe cohunu recoiled from the fire; another was 
given by the enemy, and our column at length getting in 
niotion, broke through the enemy with irresislable force. 
Ill one minute the contest in front was over ; the British 
odicers seeing no hope of reducing their disordered ranks 
to order, and our mounted men wheeling upon them and 
|)ouring in a destructive fire, immediately surrendered. It 
IS certain that three only of our troops were wounded in 
tins charge. Upon the left, however, the contest was moi;e 
.severe with the Indians. Col. Johnson, who commanded 
on that flank of his regiment, received a most galling fife 
from them, which was returned with great effect. The 
Indians stdl further lo the right advanced and fell in with 
our front line of infantry, near its junction with Desha's 
division, and for a moment made an impression upon it. 
His Excellency Gov. Shelby, however, brought up a regi- 
ment to its support, and the enemy receiving a severe fire 
in front, and a part of Johnson's regiment having gained 
their rear, retreated with precipitation. Their loss was 
very considerable in the action, and many were killed in 
their retreat. 

I can give no satisfactory information of the number of 
Indians that were in the action, but they must have been 
considerably upwards of 1000. From the documents in 
my possession, (Gen. Proctor's official letters, all of which 
were taken) and from the information of respectable •inhn- 
bilants of this Territory, the Indians kept in pay by the 
British were much more numerous t^ian has been generally 
supposed. In a letter lo Gen. de Koltenburgh, ot the 27th 
lilt. Gen. Proctor speaks of having prevailed upon 3,-200 of 
the Indians to accompany him. Of these it is (;er(^ani thai 
50 or 00 Wyandot warriors abandoned him. < 

The number of our troops were certainly greater thifu 
that of the enemy, but when it is recollected, that they had 
taken a position that elfectually secured their flank, whir.ji 
it was impossible for us lo turn, and that we could not prc^ 
sent to tliena a line mofe extended than Uieir own, it will 
not be considered arrogant, to claim for my troops, the 
jialm of superior bravery . 



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328 



HISTORY OF THE WAK. 



In romtnunicntinpr tothe President, through you, wir, luy 
opinion of the conduct of the officers who served under nic, 
1 am at a loss how to mention that of Gov. SItelby, i>eiiiir 
convinced that no eulof^jum of mine can reach his merits. 
The Governor of an independent slate, greatly my superior 
in years, experience, and in military character, he placed 
himself under my command, and was not more remarkable 
for his zeal and activity, than for the promptitude and cheer- 
fulness with which he obeyed my orders. 

On the day oi action, 6 pieces of brass artillery weretiik- 
en, and two iron 24 pounders the day before. Several 
others were discovered in the river and can be easily procur- 
ed. Of the brass pieces, three are the trophies of our revo- 
lutionary war, that were taken at Saratoga and York, and 
surrendered by Gen. Hull. 

I have the Honor to be, &c. 

WILLIAM H. HARRISON. 

AMERICAN LOSS. 

Killed?— wounded 22. - ' " ^V 

-'- ' BRITISH LOSS. '(^";v 

^ Killed 112— wounded, not known — prisoners 634. 

The/ruits of Gen. Harrison's victory independent of the 
great advantages obtained, are of the British regular army, 
609 non-commissioned officers and privates, 2 Cols. 4 
Majors, and 10 officers of the line, prisoners ; and 12 
pieces of cannon, 6000 stands of arms, 5 gun-Woats, and 
ammunition and stores to the amount of 1,000,000 of 
Dollars!! 



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SPEECH OF TECUMSEH.* 

In the name of the Indian chiefs and warriors^ to "Maj, 

Gen. Proctor t as the representatives of their great fatlur 

the king. 

Father, listen to your children ! You have them now all 
beiore you. 

The war before this,f our British father gave the hatchet 
to his red children, when our chiefs were alive. 

They arc now dead. In that war, our father was thrown 
on his back by the Americans, and our father took them by 

« Tuumsth mu fciUed at the battU of the Monwion tomu. Ui w'}i> 
f The Rewtlulmuay jvar. 



IIISTOFY OF T^E WAR. 



229 

that 



ihe hand wilhoiit our knowledge ;* nnd we are afraid 
uurtatlHT will do so again, ut this time. 

Sumnifr before last, when 1 came forward with my red 
brethren, nnd was ready to take up the iiutchet in favor of 
our Brilish t'alher, we were told not to be in a hurry, that he 
hud not yet delerniined to figlit the Americans. 

Listen ! — Wlien war was declared, our father stood up 
and gave us the tomahawk, and told us that he was then 
rrady to strike ihe Americans ; that he wanted our assist- 
ance ; and that he would certainly get us our lands back, 
which t! e Americans had taken from us. 

Listen ! — You told us, at that time, to bring forward 
our families to this place ; and we did so; and you pro- 
mised to take care of them, and that they should want for 
nothing, while the men would go and tight the enemy. 
That we need not trouble ourselves about the enemy's gar- 
rison; that we knew nothing about them, and that our fa- 
ther would attend to that part of the business. You also 
told your red children, that you would take good care of 
your garrison here, wliich made our hearts glad. 

Listen ! — When we were last at the Kapids, it is true 
we gave you little assistance. It is hard to tight people, 
who live like ground hogs.f 

Father, listen ! Our fleet has gone out; we know they 
have fought ; vie have heard the great guns : but know^ 
nothing of what has happened to our father, with one arm. 
Our ships have gone on'' way, and we are much astonished 
to see our father tying up every thing and preparing to 
ran away the other, without iettmg his red children know 
what his intentions are. You always told us to remain 
here, and take care of our lands ; it made our hearts glad 
to hear that was your wish. Our great father, the king, it 
our head, and you represent him. You always told us, 
that you would never draw your foot off British ground ; 
but^DOw, father, we see you are drawing back, and we 
are sorry to see our father doing so without seeing the ene- 
my. We must compare our father's conduct to a fat ani- 
mal, that carries its tail upon its back, but when affrighted, 
he drops it between his legs and runs off. > •- - £> «. i*.-- 

; The ladicma nere net included in the treaty ofpfaec in 178S. *- 

\ Thu Amaicam hadfortifiid Uienuelus at Uu Hapitb. • . 



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230 



inSTORY OF TUE WAR. 



Listen, Father ! The Americans have iiotycl dcrcated 
lis by land ; neither are we Mure thai they have done so hy 
water ; xe therefore, wish to remain here, and fi^ht uuV 
ene:ny, if they should make their appearance. li' they de- 
feat us, we will then retreat with our father. 

At the battle of the Rapids last war, thu Americans -^^'r. 
tainly defeated us ; and when we retreated to our falher's 
ibrt at that place the gates were shut against us. We ueic 
afraid that it would now be the case ; bul instead of ihut 
we now see our British father preparing' to uiarcli out of 
his garrison. 

Father / You have got the arins -.md aniuiuiiitiun 
which our great father sent for his red children, li \ou 
have an idea of going^iway, give them to us and you liiuy 
ffo and welcome, foi us. Our lives are in the hands ( ,«; 
Great Spirit. We are determined to defend our la lis, 
and if it be his will, we wish to leave our bones upon them. 

Amherstburg, Sept. 18, 1813. 



V 



Sy. William Henry Harrison, 3Iaj. Gen. in the service of 
the V, S. commander iu chief of tlie northwestern urmy^ 
and Oliver Hazard Ferry, Capt. in the Diavy, and cvm- 
manding the U, S. vessels on Lake Erie, 
A PROCLAMATION. 
Whereas, by the combined operations of the land and 
naval forces under our command, those of the enemy with- 
in the upper district of Upper Canada h:>.ve been captured 
or destroyed ar>d the said district is now in the quiet posses- 
• jiion of our troops : it becomes necessary to provide for its 
.government: — Therefore, we d hereby proclaim ai.d 
hinake known, that the rights and privileges of the inhabi- 
^ tants, and the laws and customs of the couulry, as they exist- 
^ ed or were in force at the period of our arrival, shall con- 
tinue to prevail. All magistrates and other civil utficers 
are to resume the exercise of their functions ; previoutily 
taking an oatli to be faithful to the government of the U. 
. States, as long as they shall be in possession n< th^j countiy. 
, Tiie authority of all militia commissions is sii.spended in 
said district, and the officers required to give Ibeir parole, 
ia such way as the officer , who may be a^^pointed by the 
: ccmmanding Gen. to administer the goveriiment, shull di- 
rect. . . 



'K. 



irisTORY OF iiii: wab. 



)23t 



le lantl and 
enemy ^^llh- 
een ciplured 
I quid possc's- 
rovitle for i!s 
)rocla»m ai.d 
' ihe inliabi- 
as they exist- 
kl, shall con- 
civil ortit'ers 
; previously 
ent of Ihe I'. 

snupcnded ill 
Iheir l)arole, 
iiileil by the 

nenl, sl»»n i^'- 



Tlic ii)lml>ilanls of Kaid (listiict arc proiiii.>cil protection 
Ui their persons and properly, with the I'xreplion of those 
ca.'^cs einbrac(!(l by the proelauiution t>f Gen. Proctor^ of 
llit' — ull. which is declared to be in force, and the powers 
Iherein assumed transfern d to the ol)icer|[appointed to ad- 
ini!iister the 'government. 

Given under onrholtids and seal!), at Sandwich, this ITlh 
Oct. 1813. 

(Signed) WM. IIHAimiSON. ' 

OJJVKRII. PERKY. 

CHAUNCEV'S VICTORY, 

Com. Chauncey to the Secrvtary of the Navy, 

U. S. S. Gen. Pike, Sackett's Harbor, Oct. 6, 181S. 

SIR — I have the pleasure to inform you, that I arrived 
here this morning;, with five of the enemy *« vessels, which 
1 fell in with and captured last eveinu; off the Ducks. 
They were part of a fleet of seven sail which lell York on 
Sunday with 234 troops on board, bound to Kingston. Of 
ihis fleet five were captured, one burnt, and one escaped; 
the prisoners, amounting to nearly 30U, besides having Uit- 
wards of 300 of our troops on board from Niagara, induc- 
ed me to run into port for the purpose of landing both. 

I have an additional pleasure in informing you, that 
amongst the captured vessels are the late IT. S. schs. Julin 
and Growler, the others are gun vessels. 

I have the !ionor to be, \c. 

ISAAC CHAUNCEY. 

Return of the troops of H. B. l\Vs. De Watteville regi- 
menty captured in the atmve vessels. 
1 Major, 1 Capt. 3 subalterns, I surgeon, 10 sergeants, 4 
druuiniers and buglers, 202 rank and file. 

Officers and marines. — 1 Lieut. 2 master (« mates, 36 
seauien and marines of the royal navy, and 4 sailing mas> 
tersof the provincial navy. 

.1 . GIBSON, Inspector Geri.^ 

Something Sinyular. — About the 1st of Oct. 1813. Capt. 
Morgan, of the rifle corps was sent from SacketCs Harbor, 
to Gravelly Point, near Kingston, for the purpose of tak- 
ing possession of the Point. Seeing an English schr. gua 
boat, he coftcealed his mm, about ($0, nnd sent a small 



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202 



HlSTOhV OF THF. WAR. 



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boat ulong tlic ibe Hhore, wliicli they espied, and gave 
cboite to ; our men landed, and took to the woods ; the ene- 
my cuuie near shore, mid sent a party after the fugitives, 
when Morgan's company rusht-d from their hiding place, 
nnd gave them such a reception, as either to kdl or wound 
every one, as they appeared on deck ; a few of our meu 
waded out and took posxessiou of the gun boat, while those 
on shore stood ready to fire at the first man who made hh 
appearance, \\edid not lose a man in this gallant little 
exploit; the enemy lost 3 killed — 7 wounded and 50 pri- 
soners. 



Coin. /?Of/;^cr*, Sailed from Boston the 23d of April, 1813, 
and returned to Newport, Sept. 26. — After crossing tlie 
Seas in almost every direction, cruising for some time in the 
British channel, and on the coast of Norway, without see- 
ing a public vessel, of the enemy's excepting i 74, ami 
frigate in company, which chased him three days, often no 
near as to give, and receive a shot, the Com. returnea to 
port, to recruit his stores. • . . \ 

The President captured ths following vessels on her 
cruise. — Brig Kitty, of 2 guns and 12 men, cargo of cod- 
fish ; sent into France. Packet brig Duke of Montrose, 
of 12 guns, and 34 men ; sent to England as a cartel, wilb 
78 prisoners. Letter of marque brig Maria, of 14 guns, 
and 3e> men ; cargo of codfish, sent into France. Schr. 
Falcon, of 2 guns, and 11 men, cargo of codfish, sent into 
France. Brig Jean, burnt. Brig Daphne, of 2 guns and 
10 men, sunk. Sh'p Eliza Swan, of 8 guns, and 49 men; 
cargo of blubber oil, ransomed for 5000 pounds sterlitij^. 
Brig Albert, can^o of pitch and tar, burnt. Barque Lion, 
of 8 guns, and yd men ; cargo of blubber oil, ransomed 
for 3000 pounds, sterling. Brig Shannon, cargo of rum, 
sugar, and molasses, sent into the United Slates. Brig 
Fly, of 6 guns, ind 10 men ; cargo of cofJ'ee, sent into the 
United States. His B. M's schooner High Flyer, of /> 
guns, 5 oflicers, tnd 34 men, brought into Newport; the 
High Flyer was stid at auction for eleven thousand dollars, 



i.«. . 



Col. Clarke to the ISccrttury oj War. 

Camp, Chazey-Landing, Oct. 15, 1813. 
It is wilb great pleasure I can inform you oi a success* 
I'lil attack upon the enemy at Massesquoi bay, on the morn- 



HTSTORV or nzn WAR. 



2^9 



\n^ of Uir 1-2ili iiiHt. At this lime I hud only the riflemeti 
with me, the artillery ninvinf[^ slow and the miiitin protect- 
w{r Iheir rear. Wc proceeded to the village (Masses- 
quoi)nnd arrived within 15 4H)(ls of the enemy before we 
were discovered. iVe found themdra;vn up under Major 
Powell in a mann<ir that would have nniioyed us much, had 
we nttacked them by waiter, but wholly unprepared to de- 
f<>nd themselves on the laud Nidet-^they commenced a fire 
on the left Hunk, but in ten minutes after the first attack 
(hey laid down thuir arms and surrendered tiiemselves pris- 
oners of war. **i''*iUi J ')li — Mi»«i-n H. i .» it 1 

UitileratandinfT that a force of 200 men under Col I^ck 
was marching to attack us, I despatched Capt. Finch with 
his company to reconnoitre them and ascertain their course. 
He proceeiied with such |>romptness and ability as to sur- 
prise and capture the advanced ^nsrd, consistmg of cav- 
alry, excepttni^ one man who escaped, and givmg the iu- 
lormation, the enemy retreated. tUi-x^ ft] i .» ■ » i,;o»i m i >^/ 

The prisoners were then put on board our boats and sent 
1(1 Hurl ins^ion. Our whole force engaged was 102 — the 
number of prisoners taken is 101 ; thetr killed^', and 

woniuled 14. .,. - , i 

I am, :ir, with respect, &c. '' . ■ ;^ • .f ■'.*■' ;\ 
..u.,,u v^iiiiil-iiotlJ .r-.t^uiii Vr ,'iH ISAAC CLARKE. 



'■(r vti iKi. 



Massacre at fori jfensaw.— The following' particulars 
of the massacre at fort Tensuw, is received from Jutdge 
Toulmin, of Mobile. 

* The dreadful catastrophe which we have been some- 
time expecting, has at length taken place ; the Indians 
have broken in upon us in numbers and fury unexampled. 
A few days before the attack, (Sept. 1) some negroes of 
Mr. Girt'vHwho lived in that part of the Creek territory 
which is inb^^.bited by half breeds, had been sent up the 
Alabama to his plantation for corn ; three ofUiem were 
taken by a party o'i Indians. Oite escaped and brought 
down news o' the approach of the Indians. The officer 
gave but little credit to him, but they made some further 
preparation to receive the enemy, and ou Saturday and 
Sunday considerable work was done to put the fort in a 
state of defence. Sunday morning tliree negroes were 
sent out to attend the cattle, who soon returned with an ao- 

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HISTORY OI XHK WAK. 



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count (hat they had iecn 20 ludiaos. ^-Scouts ' were ^cnt 
out to asc'erlniu the truth of the report ; they relumed uod 
declared they could see no sig^s of Indiaut. One of Uic 
negroes belonging to Mr. llandon was Mrhinped for bnug. 
ingV ^but ihe} deemed, a false reporl.' — He was sent uut 
again on Muiiuay» and saw a body of Indians approach- 
ing ; but atraid vf being whipped, he did not return to 
Mini's but to Piercers fort; but before hjsstory roulii be 
eoniniunicaled, the attack was made. The commanding 
oiiicer culled upon Mr. Fletcher, wiio owned another of 
the negroes, to whip him also. — He believed the boy, and 
resisted two or three appltcutions ; but at length they hud 
him actually brought out fortlie purpose, when the Indians 
a|)peared in view of the fort. The gate was open. The 
luiliaiis had to come through an open field lOOyarili 
wide, before they could reach the fort, and yet they wen 
within '6i> steps of tjiiie fort at 11 in the morning, l>efore they 
were noticed. The sentry then gave the cry of * Indians! 
when they immediately setup a most terrible war-lioo|i 
and rushed into tlie gate with inconceivable rapidity, and 
got witliin it before the peojile of the fort had an opportu- 
nity of shutting it. This decided their fate. Major Bease- 
ly was shot through tlie belly near the gate; 

*■ These was a large body of Indians, though they pruba> 
biy did not exceed 400. Our people seemed to sustain the 
attack with undaunted 9|>irit. They took possession ot 
he port lioles in the outer lines of the fort and tired ou the 
Indians who remained in the field. Sotttc of tlie Indians 
gt^l upon the block house at one of ihe corners ; butuflci 
firing a good deal down npon the people they were diiilod«r- 
ed. They succeeded however in setting tire to a huase 
near the pickets, from which it was communicated to the 
kitchen and fi'om tbence to the main dwelting house. 
Ti?ey attempted to do it by burning arrows, but failed. 
When the people in the fort saw the Indians retained full 
possession of the outer court, thai the gate continued open, 
that their men fell very fast, and that their houses were in 
flames, they began to despond. Some determined to cut 
their way through the pickets and escape. Of the vvhoic 
number of white men and half-breeds in the fort, it is sup- 
]x>sed that )»ot more than 25 or i30 escaped, and of these 
mjiny were wounded. The rest, and -almost ;\1I the mo- 



'« 



HISTORY OP TnV WAR. 



;A6 



,neii anfl cliildrni ff;)l a jtarrificfl tilher to \\\c wmn of llie 
(lid ions or to the flames. The biittlo Uksied alioat fi%e 
iKHirs and a half. 

* When the buildings were hnrningf And the fewwho re-" 
mnincd were cxpcHed to the henvy tire of ihe enemy, they 
lollected as many as they e<Mild of the giinii of the dMeas- 

il, and threw both them i.od the remuinuig stock of am- 
niuiiitioii into the flames, to prevent their becouiin^ snbsiT* 
vJRiitin the hands of the Indians, to the destruction of their 
tcliow citizens. Surely this was an instance of determined 
resolution and benevolent foresight of which then'c are not 

lanv examples, vtbtsu tt rfi««vn«ii hri* ir-? . >:tiu \*,v .b>l{ivC 
' Notwilhstandinif the hraverj of our fellpw citizens, the 
[iidians carried all before them, and murdered the armed 
mid the helpless without <liscrimination. Our \ohh is 7 
oommisyioned oflicers, and about 100 non-commissioned 
off'cers ond privates, of the first regiment of Mississippi 
Territory volunteers. There were about 24 famdiesof 
men, women, and children in the fort, of whom almost all 
have perished, amounting to about 160 souls. I reckon, 
however, among them about six families of half-breeds, 
and 7 Indians. There were also about 100 negroes, iif 
whom a large proportion were killed.* 

Gens. fVilkinsoH and Hampton.-^Thase two Generals 
made an attempt to take Montreal about the 1st of Nov. 
1813. Gen.. Hampton was stationed at Piattsburgh, and 
was to meet Gen. Wilkinson at French Mills; having 
succeeded in marching through the forest 24 miles in one 
(liiy, by way of Ghatauguay, and entering upon tlie seeond 
lar<>;e forest, his guides left him, which occasioned the army 
tu halt for three or four days; in the meun time our troops 
aUem|)ted the enemy *s breast-work, thrown up in the woods 
by falling trees, digging ditches, &c. and succeeded in 
completely driving him from his position ; — a {mrty sent 
rouiul to intercept their retreat was met by one of coiisi<W 
erable force and obliged to retire. — Here some mijfUnder->^ 
itiiiiding took place between the two Generals on account 
of the place of meeting; which, Anally contributed lai-gdy 
to overthrow the expedition. Hampton immediately or- 
dered his men back to winter quarters, in this Jarce 
wp lost 34 men killed ami missing. — Gen Wilkinson 



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M'os sUliuneil at ^»ckeU*« iliirl>or, nnd coiivo.yuii Iiim nriny 
4k>viri) tiie St. Lawi eiire in bosUn, The enemy uliout iMhm>, 
from Prencolt, Kingslun, Ace. hung on hiit re»r, nnii liar- 
raniied him continnnllv OnrHrniy arrived ul WilliHniH. 
bur§^«tbe lllh uf Nov. and wa% obliged Knfuve vbwit imd 
attack the enemy to save Ihuir bu|iif|i^a|s;c>. The forceN were 
about equally strong-, baviu^*: tVom I;^ lo li'iOO men enyruyp^d ; 
each gave wuy by turns — our meu getting- out of anunu. 
nitioilf left the fieltl of action unmobtitedt and pasHed duwii 
the Nlreig^btM, \%itliout KetMu^i;' llie enemy aguiih We luxt 
iu thiH buttle 102 t^oii>cuniqiisiiioned ofiicertf und privates 
killed, 237 officers and privates wounded, with one ticid 
piece. and several sfandot' arms : 3 oHicftrH and 28 privates 
of the wounded were ttiken prisoners. At Cornwall Gen, 
Wilkinson iirst received intelligence of the difl'ereiit ruule 
Gen. Hampton had taken ; a council of General otiicei-s 
i^as held, and it was agreed best to abandon the expedition. 

AMFkjiCAN loss. 
Jiff i' Killed 122 — wonnded 261 — mitising 31. 

>,jrt«>bn < .»'lMt!^ BRITISH LOSS. s.scfKr ■ -bxiiJiVti'. i 

• vxL?' Killed 210-^wounded 248 — prisoners VI. r^- 









btu: .'.i;'!f,.i^^'l/ i CREEK WAH. t<Tr.i.l *iiw4> 
* ( : t ip ' ; 'f\ i^en, JavhoH to Gov, Blounl, 

Camp at Ten Islands, Nov. 4,1813. 
Siii-^We have retaliated foi* the destruction of fort 
Minis. Oik the 2d mst, J detached Geu. Coffee with a 
p^t of his brigade of cavalry and mounted riflemen, to tie* 
tiU'Qy T^tllushatches, where a considerable force of the lioii- 
tile CiMeeks were coacenti'aled» The General executed 
this intitiie. A hundred and eighty ^six of the enemy were 
found dead on the; field, and about eighty taken prisoners; 
forty of whom have been brought here In the iiunil)€i 
left, there is a sufficiency but slightly wounded to take cartt 
of those who are badly. ,ft , < ..Ui^iijr t,, .,.,r - ..» 

J. herein enclose Gen. Coffee'^ official report of theacliou. 
i':^'vn> I hav^lhe honor lo be, &c. 
i.o.fi!.u /, , N> --. . .. - AWDREW JACKSO]?«. 



HI*rrOHY OF TlflS WA». 



387 



■fsi :•; I'joa 



^,n '|M Ui'odU ./,V^. CoffTC lo Gen. Jurkntm, 

Cvim|i at Ten NHiias, Ntiv. 4, If) 13. 
SIK — I had the lioiiur yestcrilHy, of trauMniittitig you & 
nhurt ticcoiiiit of ail tiiif» aj^^t'iiieiit thul look place tietween u' 
ileltt chmciit of about niite hundred meu from my bhgade, 
with the eiiMiiy ul TalluiilintcheH towns ; the particulars 
whereof 1 bet; leave hereui to recite to you. PnriiUaiit to 
vour onler of the 2d, 1 lietaiU i from my brigade of cav- 
alry uiid mounted riflemen, nine hundred men and officers, 
aiiu )>rocc;«ded direrlly to the Taliuithatches towns, cros- 
sing; Coo; ey river at the Fish Dam ford, 5 or 4 miles above 
this place. I arrived within one and a half miles of the 
town (dtslaiit from this place south>east eight miles) on the 
inoniiiig of the ^d, at which place f divided my detach- 
nient into two columns, the right composed of the cavalry 
commanded by Col. AUcorn, to cross over a largp creek 
that lay between us and the towns ; the left colunnn was of 
the mounted riflemen under the command of Col. Cannon, 
with whom I marched myself. Col. Allcorn wsa ordered td 
march up on the right and encircle one half of the town; nnd 
atthesametimethe left would foriha half circleon the l^ft, arid 
unite the head of the columns in front of the town ; all of 
which was performed as I could wish. When I arrived in 
half a mile of the towns, the drums of the enemy began to 
beat, mingled with their savage yells, preparing for action;' 
It was after sun-rise an hour, when the action was brought^ 
on by Capt. UamniOiid and Lieut. Pattersotrs compaiiieii,' 
who had gone on within the circle of alignment tor the' 
purpose of drawing out the enemy from their buildings, 
which had the most happy eft'ects. As soon as Capt. Ham- 
mond exhibited his front in view of the town, f which! stood ^ 
in open woodland) and gave a few scattering shot, the en-' 
emy formed and niade a violent charge on hi in ; he gav6 
way as they advanced, until they met our right cohimn ; 
which gave them a general fire and then chargM;-this 
changed the direction of charge Completely ; the enemy 
retreated, firing, until they got around and in their bniicl-' 
ings, where they made all the resistance that an overpow- 
ered soldier could do ; they fought as long as one existed, ' 
but their destruction was very soon completed ; oilir men 
rushed up to the door^i of the houses, and in a few minutes 
killed the last warrior of them; the enemy fought with sav- 



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1di»4UMr OF THK WAR. 



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ago fury, uttd lUttldealb wilb nil iU horrors, wilhuut slirmk. 
in^ or complaining^ ; not one (iftked to b<> npured, bill I'uik^U 
80 long as tliey could stand or kit. In consequence ot thi'ir 
flying to their houses and mixing witli tlue lamdies, our 
men in killing* the males, without intentioD, killed :\ik1 
mounded a few squnws and children, which w«m rt'ii^rillod 
by every officer and soldier of the detachment, but uhich 
could not be avoided. Not one of the warriors escaped to 
carry the news, a circumstance unknown heretofore. 
.^.. ,... . a JiNO. COFFEE. 

i»mW. /,!.iii 1 lo. AMERICAN IX)SS. 

ult'to -»i<«fi iliif! Killed a— Wounded 41.. ,u \/ .uihw *„ 

nUtyK) [."tiUi l»i«;j»( liHITISH LO!IS„<ll .,ji,4ilni;}A*t)) I'V. 

.«>»ri*jb /lii.h KiHed 180— Prisoners 84. -H tt> ^ ;f.ni i, 
/'j!jr/»rj .*■.; ~~~~ »•» JT/i ik.'Hi ji. II . 

\'i'w> -*t,-i Gen. Jackson to Gov. Blount. ^ 

Camp Ten Islands, Nov. 11, 1813. 
\^EjL'tract.] SIR — 1 am just returned from an excursion 
which I took a few days ago, and hasten to acquauit ^ou 
with the result. , ,,, ,^ ,., ,,ti,. j,^,, , ^ui im t}ti\ii 

Late On the evening of the 7th inst. a runner arrived 
fromtlic friendly party in Lashley*s fort, (Taledega) dis- 
tant: about 30 miles below us, with the iiiformatioti 
that the hostile Creeks, in great force had encamped near 
the place, and were preparing (t^^estroy it ; and earnestly 
entreated tl>at I would lose no lime in affording relief. 
Urged by their situation as well as by a wish tp mee<^. the 
enemy so soon as an opportunity would ofter, I determMi. 
ed upon commencing my march thither with all my di;>('C>- 
sable force ; we encamped that night within six miles of 
the fort I had set out to relieve. At sun rise we came 
within half a mile of theii^, qnd having formed my men, I 
inovedon in battle order. The infantry were in three 
lines-^the militia on the lei't and the volunteers og the 
*right. The cavalry formed the extreme wings : and were 
ordered to advance in acu}t;e, keeping their rear connect- 
ed with the advance of the infantry lines, and to enclose 
the enemy in a circle. The advanced guard whom I sent 
forward to bring on the engagement, met the attack of the 
enemy with great intrepidity ; and having poured upon 
them four or five very gallaiit rounds, fell back as they 
had been previously ordered, to the main army. The ene- 
my pursued, and the front line was now ordered to advance 



L18I3. 
extiursion 
uaiut vou 
It ttii\ t! > I c. 
,er arrived 
ileg.i) tlis- 
iitormation 
mpetl rie-rtr 
deariiesliy 
ii)^ relief. 

luue*^, the 

delermiii^ 

my tli:»i''0- 

K miles of 

we came 
my men, I 
•e in three 
era op the 
: aiwl were 
ir cownecU 

to endow 
^liom 1 sent 

lack of the 

ureii upon 
2k as they 
The ene- 

to advance 



lIltTORY OF fnm WAft. 



2'M 



and meet hiv ; the ftre became {general along tlie tint linp, 
»iid on that part ol' the %ing« which were conticifiiaiit». 
The enemy; unable to stand it, tie^ii to retreat ; ImU wci« 
met ul every tdrii, and pursiiL-d in overy direction. 'Vh* 
n\*Ui wiiif^ cha»ed them with a ni<Mt deotnictive tire to the 
iiiuiHitaiiis, a distance of about a miles; the victory how* 
f've was very decisive.— When;ver they run thty lell 
Irat'i's of blood ; and it is l)elievcd that very few will re. 
iiini lo their villagCN in an Moiind u condition as they left 
ilieni. I was comiielled to return to this place to protect 
ilie sick ai;d woflnded, and t^tl my bu<rgage. 
lnha.stt> I have thehonortobe, &c. . 

ANDREW JACKSON. 

AMERICAN LOSS. 

Killed lA — wounded 15. 

BRITISH LOSS. 

Killed 290 — wounded not known. 

ii^; J 

I ti.'i«'r.'i!*> Gen. White $0 Oen. Coche. "••> V 

Fort- Armstrong, Nov. 24, 181Ji. 
[Extract] SIR— In mine of the 19tli inst. by Major 
Outlaw, 1 promised voq a detailed report, respecting, the 
detachment ordered by you to the Hillibee towns, in tlio 
Creek nation, in compliance with thtit promise, I have 
now the honor to state — that under your order of the lltb 
inst. I immediately marched with the mounted infantry, un- 
der the immediate command of Col. Rnrch. The cavalry 
under the command of iMaj. Porter, and a lew of the Che- 
rokee Indians under the command of Col. Morgan, with 
very short rations for four da) s only. After destroying two 
villages containing 123 I>ouses, we marched to the Hillibee 
tuwii, consisting of about 20 houses, adjoining which was 
Grayson's farm. — ^Previous to our arrival at that place, I 
was advised that a part of the hostile Creeks were assem- 
bled there. Having marohed within six or seven miles of 
it on the 17th, I disnK)uiited a part of the force under my 
comrajinfi. and sent them under the command of Col. 
Burch, with the Cherokees under the command of Col. 
Morgan, in advance, to surround t|ie town in the night, 
-and made the attack at day light on ihe IBth. Owing to 
tlie darkness of the nigltt, the to yn was not reached until 
^fterday ligh^— IxU so coniplele ^^•a»* tho snnn*i'<e. lint, wr* 




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UiaT^RT OF THC WUt< 



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flucceedcd in (varrounding^ the town, and kttli«^and captur- 
ing alm<Mt(if not eutirely) ibe whole oi' the ho«iile Crrrks 
assembled Iheret cunsifiting of about dlO, of ulMch nnuiber 
about 60 warriors were killed on the spot, fUMl the re- 
mainder made prisonier». r We last not one drop of blooil 
in accomplisliing Ibis enterprise. We destroyed Ibis vi|. 
Jage ; ^nd, in obedience to yoiir orders, commenced our 
march (Vh* this post, which we .were unable to reitch until 
ye.sterdoy. .'oiJi'fMo* r. hni>nt> y,i iUfM*h\\rt -t^^V^'', t.^. 
iVilo'. I have the honor to be, &c. 

...M JAMES WHITE. 

AMERICAN I.OSS.': >.i. j ... 
'':0-i>l-)/.L / ! None. 

BRITISH LOSS. 

Killed t)O^Pri.souers 2o0. 

Gen. FUnjdio Gen. Pinhneif 

Catahou( he, Dec. 4, 1813. 

lExlracL] SIR — I have the honor to comnninic ate lo 
yon an account of the action fought on the 20th. ull.he- 
tween part of the force Under my command, and a large 
body of the Creek Indians. Having received inforraalion th;it 
the hostile Indians were assembled at Autossee, 1 proceed- 
ed thither with the force under my command, accompanied 
by about 300 friendly Indians. We encsimped the *28th, 
at night, within ten miles of our place of destination, ami 
the next morning by half past G, were formed for action in 
front of the town. v-. i. .in-i.ii'is'f} ; l 

It was my intention to have completely surroundec' the 
rnemy, by appayimj the right of my force on Canlehf 
creek, at the mouth of which, I was informed, the town 
stood ; and resting the left on the river below the town;— 
but to our surprise, as day dawned, we perceived a second 
town 600 yards below Autossee. The plan of al- 
luck was immediately changed ; five companies immpdi- 
ately surrounded the lower town, and the remainder attack- 
ed the upper. The battle now became general. The In- 
<lians presented themselves at every point, and fought with 
the despeiate bravery of real fanatics ; but the well direct- 
ed tire of the artillery, with the charged bayotiet, soon iorred 
them to take shelter in their houses, and many, it is believ- 
ej, secured themselves in caves previously prepared iallie 



HIS'TORY OF THE WiB. 



Ml 



hiirh !)aBk of ll»e rir^^r. TKe friendly IndiaiM were lo cross 
the r'lTer above the town, for (he purpose of taking such a« 
nirght alltimpt to esstipe ; hut owing lo the coldness of the 
Witter, thej declined, after making the attempt : they cross* 
f-d the creek, ilYronged to our flanks and fought with an in- 
h^pidiiy worthy of any troops. At 9 o'clock, the enemy 
was completely driven from '^.e plain, and the houses of 
hoth towns wrapped in flames, to the numi)er of about 400. 
It is diflicult to determine the strength of the enemy, but 
the chiefs say there were assembled the warriors of eight 
towns, for the defence of Autossee, it being their beloved 
(Trnand, on which, they proclaimed, no white mun couUI 
nppraach without inevitable destruction. } ; u J .* .aLii 
I have the honor to be, 8cc. . ^ 

^ JOHN FLOYD. , 



Killed 11- 



AMEItlCAN LOSS. 
-wounded 54. 



BRITISH LOSS. 
Killed 200 — wounded not known, il 



;:■■.-? >"'■; <y 



fUi 



Cren. Claih9lme t9 the Secretary of War. 

Fort Clail»orne, Jan. 1st, 1814.. 
[E^'/rac<]SIR— On the 13lh ult. I marched a detachment 
from this post with a view of destroying the towns of the 
inimical Creek Indians, on the Alabama, above the mouth 
ot'tle Cahaba. After having marched about eighty miles, 
from the best information 1 couid obtain, I was within thir- 
ty miles of a town newly erected on a ground called Holy, 
occupied by a large body of th^ enemy, .iider the command 
of Wilherford, the half breed chief. On the morning of 
the 22d, the troops resumed their line of march; chiefly 
through woods without a track to guide them. When near 
the town on the morning of the 2dd my disposition for 
attack was made. — The troops advanced in three columns. 
With the centre column I advanced myself, ordering Les- 
ter's guards and WelVs troop of dragoons to act as a corps 
of reserve. About noon the right column composed of the 
twelve month's volunteers, commanded by Col. Joseph 
Garson, came in view of the town called £cc;anachaca (or 
Holy Ground )and was immediately vigorously attacked by 
the enemy, who were apprized of our approach, and .had 
chosen thoir field of action. 

31 



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245 



niSTORT OF THE WAR. 



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Before the centre, comniantled by Lieut Col. Russell^ 
"with a part of the 3d regiment of U. S. infantry and mouiiU 
ed militia riikmen, or the left column) M/hich was compi»i». 
ed of militia and a party of Choctaws under Pu&hamuttaha. 
commanded by ^!aj. Smoot, of militia, who were ordered 
to charge, couldcome generally into aclioa, the enemy were 
repulsed and were flying in all directions, and many of theni 
casting away th4;ir arms. 

A pursuit was iiununiiately ordered Imtfrom the nature 
of tile coonlry, nolhinj^ w as etfected. The town was near- 
ly surrounded by swamps and deep ravmes, which render- 
ed our approach difficult, and facilitated the esca^'C oi'tlu- 
enemy, fn the town we found a large quantity of provi. 
sions.and immense properly of various kinds, whicli the 
enemy, flying precipitately, were obliged to leave bphii.d, 
and which, together with two hundred houses were de- 
stroyed. ..,. . ( ; " 

The next day was occupied in destroying a town con- 
sisting of sixty houses, eight miles higher up the river, ami 
in taking and destroying the enemy's boats. At the town 
last destroyed was killed three Indians of some dislinc- 
tion. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 



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.! FERD. L. CLAIBORNE. 

i) . AMERICAN LOSS, i 

,.: i.' Killed 1 — Wounded G» 

BRITISH LOSS. f^^..^^ j,,, j. 

Killed 33 — wounded not known. 



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, li: • Gen, Floyd lo Gen. Pinhney. 

■ ':.. i ' . Camp Defiance, Jan. 27, 1814. 

[Extract.^ SIR — I have the honor to acquaint your ex- 
ceil'-Micy that this morning iit 20 minutes past 5 o'clock, a 
very large body of hotile Indians made a desperate attack 
upon the army under my command. They stole upon 
the centinels, fired on them, and with great impetuusitji 
rushed upon our line : in 20 minutes the action became 
general, and our front, right, and left flanks were closely 
pressed, but the brave and gallant conduct of the field and 
line oflicers, and the firmness of tlie men, repelled thetaat 
every point. .^ . . < , , 






f;: 



inSTORY OF THE WAR. 



24t 



Tlie aleady firmnes-s and inressjinl fire of Cap!. Thomas' 
nrliHci^yt and Capt. Adiinis' riflenu'n, pr*>Hcrved our front 
lines. ' The enemy rushed within 30 yardn of the artillery, 
and C.ipt. Brodiiax, who coniin imlt-d one of the piquet 
guards, mauitained his post wilh jL^reat bravery, until the 
enemy gained his rear, and then cut his way through 
hem to the army. As soon as it became lig;lit enough 
todibitinguish objects, 1 ordered Majs. Watson s and Tre- 
man's battallions to wheel up at right angles with Majors 
Bo)lh*sand Cleveland's battallions, who formed the right 
wing, to prepare for tJie charge. The order for the 
charge was promptly obeyed, and the enemy fled in e^'ery 
direction before the bayonet. Fromtheeflusion of blood, 
and the number of head dresses and war elnbs found in 
various directions, their loss must have been'considerable', 
independent of their wounded. 

I have llie honor to be, &c. " ■ ' • . ? 

= JOHN FLOYD, 

. :'i ;■,,.,. AMERICAN LOSS. ! •; 

Killed 17 — wounded 132. 

BRITISH LOSS. 

Killed 52 — wounded not known. ., f 



. ., 1 / ^ Gen* Jackson to Gen. Pinkne\f. 

Fort Slrother, Jan. 29, 18U. 
[Extract] SIR — I had ordered 800 Tennessee volun> 
leersto join me on the 10th inst. but ihf.y did not arrive 
until the 14th ; the next day they, with the force before 
with me, 130, irarched across the river to graze our horses. 
The motives which iufiaenced nve to |>enetrat.e fnrther into 
the enemy *s country were many and urgent. 1 received a let- 
ter from Col. Snodgrass, informing me that an attack was 
soon to be made on fort Armstrong, by 900 of the enemy, col- 
lected from New Youka, Oakfuskee, and Ufauley towns, 
and were concentrated in the bend of the Tallapoosee." If 
I could have hesitated before, I could now hesitate no longer. 
On the 19th I encamped at Entochapco ; here I soon per- 
ceived how little knowledge my spies had of the country, 
of the situation of the enemy, or of the distance we were 
from them, and the insubordination of the new troops, and 
want of skill in their officers, became more apparent : but 
my wishes and my duty remained united. 



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UTSTOKY OP THE WAR. 



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* W« arrived within a few miles ofourcleslinat'oii ihc 21>ii, 
end encamped on a \\\%\\ piece ol' ground ; alioul lo 
o*dock at night our picket fired upoii a te w of the enemy, ai^l 
killed one. At 11 oViock our spies retnrned with infor- 
ina^ion thut a Urge binly of the enemy were encamped 
abuut threfi mile» distant. Bein^r prepared at all points^ 
nothing^ remained to bf^ done, bnt await their approach, or 
be in readinewt to attack them by day light. The enemy 
attacked our left Hunk, about t> o'clock in the morning, 
which was vigoroiisly met by our troopb ; the attack lasted 
half an hour. So soon as it became light enough to pur- 
sue the e<iemy, the brave Gen. CoHee led on our troops to the 
charge ; the enemy was completely routed at every iwini, 
and chased two miles wiMi great slaughter. Gen. Cofiiee 
was now sent with 400 troops to reconnoitre the enemy's 
camp, who returned ufter satisfying himself ot their strength. 
In half an hour a considerable force of the enemy made its 
appearance on ray right Hank, and attacked us with great 
spirit. Gen. Coffee rf quested 200 men ofmeforlho pur- 
post of tnroiiig thtir left Hank, which was granted ; but 
by tiOMte mistake, not ubserveii at the time, only 54 followed 
him, who were chiefly old volunteer officers. With tliis 
httle band of heroes, llu* Gen. allacked it, and drove lluiu 
from the ground; at tiie same time 200 friendly Indians 
were ordered to .ali upon their right, and i:o-o()erate with the 
Ge.erul. This order was soon obeyed, and in its execution 
whai I exjiected, was realized. The enemy intended llieal- 
tack o.t my rght as a tcMit, and soon attack* d my left wilh 
their mnifi toice, wlsich they ho^ved to find weakened and in 
dif.<>pier — Ihey vyre disappointed — tlie wholeline mcttjie 
attack wilh tirmness and astonishing intrepidity, and having 
given a few tires charged with great vigor; the effect was 
inmiediate and inevitable. Thrf enemy fled with precipi- 
taliou, and were pursued to a considerable distance with 
great slaughter. In the mean time Gen. CoHee was con- 
tending with a superior force, tht Indians having joined 
my lett. Jim Fife, with 100 friendly Indians, I fnrthwilh 
ordered to his assistance ; he no sooner reached the spot 
than the General made a charge, and the enemy were rout- 
ed and driven three miles, with the loss of 45 slain. I was 
determined to commence a return march the next morning, 



Hisvoiiy.Qir T#i« WA». 



245 



a.s my prumions were nearly coiifuinuil. I con; Ulered it 
uul necessary to pursue thciu aity farther* u% the object of 
a general engagemeut wouUl be more certniiily altaiiiedby 
comiueticing a returu, vbich, to tbeqi, \%ould ba%u the a)>- 
neuiuiic^ of a retreat, ami would iBM|>in.' (lurm with new 
courage to (lur.sue me ; . and not prudent because oi iny 
wounded, the starvint; condiliiui of my horsen, they not 
having' nt'ither eat com nor cnuolor two days, and of the 
sccTcity of my provisions- — intluenced by these considera- 
iioiiii, 1 commencf d my return marcli on the 2:i(l .Mid reach- 
ed Enolachopco that night. I took a diU'i rent route from 
the one we came in, to avoid a deep deiilo bdwceu two 
inountiitns. Having a deep creeL to pn»s i issued a gener- 
al order pointiig out the manner in whieli the men should 
be formed, m case of an attack. The front icuiud and the 
wounded had crossed, vvhen nutdaiui gun was heard in the 
reur. I heard it wilho^t surpriNC, and even with pleasure, 
as I cidcuiated on the firmness of my trooi>M, from the mau> 
ner in which I had seen them act on the 22d. Haymg 
chosen the ground, I expected to have eutuely cut off the 
enemy, by wheeling the right a:)d left cotuums ou their pi- 
vots, recrussmg the creek above and below, and fallmg 
upon their flanks ami re^r. But to my astouishnient, after 
a few guns bad been fired, 1 beheld the right and left col- 
aiutis of the rear guard give way. This sh imeful retreat 
was disastrous in the extreme; drsiwmg with it the greater 
part of the centre colmmn, and producing consternation 
and dismay in the whole army. There was leli to oppose 
the enemy a few pf the rear guard* the artdlery, and Capt. 
Russeirs company of spie^ ; they reuli7.cd and exceeded 
mv best expectations. Never was there more bravei y dis- 
play td than on this occasion. Amidst the most galling 
iire from the enemy, more than ieu times their number, 
they ascended the hilh lu the hurry of the moment, iu 
separating the gun from the limber^), the rummer and picker 
were left tied to it. No sooner was this discovered Uian 
Craven Jackson, and Constantine Perkins, gunners, found 
means to replace them ; Jackson amidst the galling fire of 
the enemy, pulled out the ramrod of his musket, used it as 
a picker, primed with a cartridge, and fired the cannon. 
Perkins having taken ofi' his bayonet, used his gun as a 
rami^er^ aud Jackson usin{|; his former plan, again dis* 



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UISTOBY 69 TtlE WAR. 



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charged iter. Lieut. ArmAlron|; soon fell, and exclaimed 
as he iay, * my brave feUotvs, some of you itiay/alli hut ymi 
must snve the cannon.* AtUiiH time a number vrossed'the 
creek, and Wintered iuta the chase, when they wer^ pursued 
more than fwo miles, ileein^ ir» coiisternalioii, throwiiiff 
avfay their packs, and left 20 of their warriors dead on Ibe 
^(d. This lasl defeat waa deciaive. 

I am, sir, with sentiineiits of rewpect, &c. '^^^ ' ' 
-ii^iJj'KnM .>i.^:.i .<i J»^^-i.i'>jjfJ.'ANDREVV JACKSON. 

-jl'>«»f lMM:!/i.^'.'/ ' AMERICAN LOSS.- ''•'■''•''**>. ' ' 
l"'i. Ji*^! Killed 20— wounded 75^ "^^'i^«^i^' 






BRITISH LOSS. ' 

Killed 33d — wounded, not known. 



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oilf Gen. Jackson 4o Governor Blount. •- 

'.J..U u: > , M ^i. .)•; Fort Williams, March 31, 1814. 

[Ejftract.] SIR — 1 have juiit returned from the e.\pedi- 
lion which 1 advised you in my lailt 1 was about to make 
to the Tallapoosee ; and hasten to acquaint you with the 
good fortune which attended it. 

I took up the line of march from this place on the morn- 
ing* of the 21st inst. and having' opened a passage of 62 1-2 
milesover the ridges which divide the waters of the two riv. 
«rsi I reached the bend of the Tallapoosee, three miles he- 
lyond where i had the engagement of the 22d of January, 
and at the southern extremity of New-Youka, on the 
iBlorumg of tlie 27th. Thiis bend resembles in its curva- 
ture that of a horse shoe, and is tlience called by that name 
aipong the whiles. Nature furnishes few situations so elli- 
gible' for defence, and barbarians have never rendered one 
more secure by art. Across the neck of the bend which 
leads into it from the north, they had erected abreast-work 
4)f the greatest compactness and strength, from five to 
eight feet high, and prepared with double port holes very 
artfuUy^arranged. The figure of this wall manifested no 
less skill in the projection of it, than its construction; an 
army could not approach it without being expoi»ed I. a 
double and cross fire from the enemy, who lay in perfect 
security behind it. 

In this bend the warriors from Oakfusky, Oakehagu, 
New-Ypuka, Hillibee, the Fish Ponds, and Eufiiuta towns, 
•apprisej of our approach, h^d collected their slrenglh. 



\ 



UISTORT or THE WAJt. 



U7 



Tbeir exa<!t number cannot be ascertained ; but it is said 
by the iirinoners we have taken, tu ha^ e been . a thousand. 

Early on the morning of ttte 27lh, havingr encamped the 
prcrcdinn; night -.U the distance oftivemi|es from them, I 
(iotailed (ien. Coifee with the mounted meiii and nearly the 
whole of the Indian force, to cross the river at a ford about 
:\ miles below their encampmeut, and to surround the l>eud 

su<eh a manner. that none of thciu Khould escape by at- 



tn 



lempting to cross the river. With tlie remainder ot the 
forces 1 proceeiled slowly and in order, along the point of 
land w hich led to the front of their breast-work ; having 
planted my cannon (one six and one three pounder) on an 
eminence at the distance of 150 or 200 yards from it, I 
opened a brisk tire, playing upon the eaeuiy with the mus- 
kets and rifles whenever they shewed themselves beyond 
it; this was kept up, with short interruptions, for about two 
lioui's, when a par^, of the Indian force, and Capt. RussellV 
m<\ Lieut. Be;.n's companies of spies, w ho had accompani- 
ed Gen. Coffee, crossed over in canoes to the extremity of 
the bend, and set tire to the buildings which were there sit- 
uated j they then advanced with great gallantry towards 
the breast-work, and commented a spirited to upon tho; 
enemy behind il.Vf>^ • ,;ri ..#r rti^r ■.(<'! - )•'•'>'•'* 

Finding that this force, notwithstanding the bravery they 
displayed, was wholly insufjficient to dislodge them, and: 
ihat Gen. Coffee had entirely secured the opposite bank 
nt'the river, I now detennitied to take their works by storm^ 
The men by whom this \vas to be effected had been waiting 
with impatience to receive their order, and hailed it with 
acclamation. , , i :v,rf^u».> : !; •• |t 

The spirit which anim^ited them was a sure augury of 
thf success which was to follow. The history of warfare 
furnishes few instances of a more brilliant attack —the re- 
p;alarsled on by their intrepid and skillful commander, CoK 
Williams, and by the gallant Major Montgomery, soon 
gained possession of the works in the midst of a most tre- 
mendous fire from behind them, and the militia of the ven- 
erable Gen. Ooherty^ brigade, accompanied them in the 
charge, with a vivacity anil firmness that would have done 
honor to regulars. Thetightingconlin led with some se- 
verity about live hours 

:• 7'-'".r .•••?;■■ '"'■I ■:■ :-:■''' !iff?i 



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niftTokt &lt •i'lTEAVAK. 



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' According In my ori^infil purnOiie, I commenced my r^. 
turn march for fort Wiiliatlis to-day, and i^liiill, if I find 
supplies there, haslon to the Hickory ffroUnd. The pmvr 
•f the Creeks is, I think, fdr ever broken. " - ' 

• I have th^ honor to be, &c. . » h « 

f:'"^^;' ANDREW JAC]<L?ON. 

InM^uiuurnvH AMERICAN LOSS. '^ 'o ■>., «^>,r/, 

• in ,/i tH|i; :>*• Killed ^fS—Wonnded IOC. 

'Hit Ui '\A)fl ,:. BttlTlSH LOSS. " " *'■ rr ' 

'to limr] ^'!i7"K'illed8-ia— Prisoners 250]""'''^^ ^'> • 
an tun (i-yiiiufoiv'y.yul^ ^ ■ j n<>) tinftiMO /rtt h'jliii 
-5*»)'rT •(;!• f!ji/> 7iir< CHAPTER %l\ /'■tit;^>'i*!'i4- {jon^ 



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'■ CAPT. PORTER'S CRUIZE! 
Cetpi. Porter to the /Secretary of the Navy. ' " " 
U. 8. F. Essex, Pitcific Ocean, .fuly 2, 18 lU. 
/'^ SfH-^On the 23d March last, I sailed, shaping my 
' course to the norlh^vard, and <yn the 26lh of the aanie 
naonth, fell in with the Peruvian corsair ship Nereyda, 
mounting* \6 guns : she had n few* da>s before, captured 
two American whale ships, the crews of which (amounting 
in number to 24 men) were then detained prisoners on 
board her ; and they assign no other motiv^e for the cap. 
ture, than that they were the allies ot'G. Britain, and a!> 
such, should capture all Airiericnn vessels they could fall 
iu with ; therefore, to prevent in future such vexatious pro. 
ceedings, I threw all her armament into the sea, liberated 
the Americans, and dismissed the Nereyda. 

I then proceeded with all possible dispatch for Lima, lo 
intercept one ot" the detained vessels, which had parted witli 
the Nereyda outy three days before, and was so fortuiiale 
as to arrive there and recapture her on the 5th April, atlbc 
moment she was entering- the port. This vessel (the ship 
Baiclay, Capt. Gideon Handall, of New Bedford,) Itook 
uni.e' my protection, and have had her with me ever since. 
FimuLana, I [)roceeded for Galapagos Island where! 
captured the following British Letters of marque ships. 

Montezuma, 2 guns, 21 men — Policy, 10 guns, 26 men 
— Gecrgiana, (5 ^uns,25 men — Atlantic, Bguns, 24 men— 
and Greenwich, 10 guns, 26 men. 



BiSTORir OF Tini WAE. 



249 



ea, liberated 



The Georgfiana being reputed a ver? fani sailer, and ap- 
pareiill) vtell calculated for a cruizer, I mounted 10 gun« 
on her and u[ave the conimaud of her to that excellent offi- 
cer, Lieut. John Dowi:«;(i, with a complement of 42 men. 

Lieut. JJownes joined ^^^e nt Tumbez* near Guiaquil, on 
thecuastofPeru. on the 21th June, after capturing three 
Letter of Marque Nhipn. 

Hector* i 1 guns 25 men — Caiheriney 8 guns, 29 men — 
Ru.se, 8 guns, 21 men. 

I found, by experience, thai the Ceorgiaiia did not de- 
serve the character given of her for sailing. I therefore 
sbipf>ed her officers and crew to the Alluutic, and mount- 
ed on her 20 guns, with a complement of (K) men, and ap- 
puinted m'.iishipman Hich. Dashiell^ acting sailin|;r master, 
on board her ; to this vt'ssel 1 gave the name of £ssex Ju- 
nior. I also fitted up the ship Greenwich as a store ship, 
and mounted on her 20 guns, placing her under the com- 
mand of Lieut. Gamble, of the marines. On board her I 
have put all the provisions and stores ot my other prizes, 
except a supply of three and a half months for each, and 
have by this means secured myself a full supply of ever}' 
necessary article for seven months. 1 had hoped to dis- 
pose of my other prizes at Guiaquil : the Govs, in Peru, 
however, are excessively alarmed at my appearance on the 
coast, as my fleet now amounts to nine sail of vessels, all 
formidable in their appearance, and they would if they dart', 
treat us with a hostility little short of declared enemies. 

indeed, sir, when 1 compare my presient situation with 
\That it was when I doubled Cape Horn, I cannot bii^. es- 
teem myself fortunate in an extraordinary degree. There 
ipy ship was shattered by tem}iestuous weather, and desti- 
tute of every thing; my officers and crew half starved, na- 
ked, and worn out with fatigue. Now, sir, my ship is in 
pnme order, abundantly supplied with every thing neces- 
sary for her. I have a noble ship for a consort of 20 guns, ' 
and well manned, a store ship of 20 guns, and well sup- 
plied with the best of every thing that we may want, and 
prizes which would be worth in England two millions of 
dollars : and what renders the comparison more pleasing, 
the enemy has furnished all. 

The times of my best men have expired ; but their at- 
♦acbmeni to the ship, and theic zeal for lh« service we arts 



»/ J Off ^;: */ 



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360 



mSTOSfV 09 THE WAR. 



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onu^ffcd nn, prevent all t^omplainLs on that account. It ]% 
not probable thai you will he.ir of me for several months io 
roDic, unlesH Mime dittatiter h»ppeii» ; but 1 beg leave to 
HSHnre you. sir, that 1 fthall not be idle. 

1 have the honor to be, kc. »^ •"*''»«' 
f .!rti 1 jj. PORTER. 



M.|T. 



j » 



Losn of fort \iat/ara. — Gen. M'Clure, almut the first of 
Dec. 1813, nbanduned fort Gcor^., in Canada, an J burnt 
llie town of Newark, udjoiniDg it, as a measure, to 
prevent tlie enemy's occupy inij fort George after he had 
left it. On Ihe I8th of the Name month, the British crossed 
to Lewislown, in considerable force, and burnt it to the 
ground ; when their Allies were set at liberty, and itidulg- 
ed freely in their brnlal excesses, in murderinjj; our defence- 
less citizens ; they then attacked and burnt Mancheslcr, 
and Tnsc'.irora, the latter an Indian town. In the menn 
time the British attacked fort Niagara, and look it by i^lorni, 
at 4 o'clock on the morning of Ihe 19th ; the gate beinu 
o|)en, they stu'prised the picket, and entered the fort I'd'ore 
they were discovered, when a scene of terrible slaiighttr 
took place. They were not opposed by any, except a few 
wounded men in the southeast block honse, and a few of 
the guard; but, strange as it may appear, the enemy bny- 
ouetted about 80 of our men, chiefly, after they had critd 
for quarters. The preceding facts were sworn to before a 
justice, by Robert Lee, a gentleman of Lewislown, who 
was in the fort when taken. 



! -. 



• Biitnivff of Bnjfaloe and Black Rock. — Soon after llie 
storming of fort Niagara, and the burning of Lewislown, 
&c. Maj. Gen. Hall repaired to the frontiers, for the pur- 

S>se of collecting a force, (militia) sufficient to defeml 
uHUloe and Black Rock. From the 22d Dec. to the iOth, 
Gen. Hall had collected about 2000 troops, militia and ex- 
empts, but was reduced to 1200 by desertions, on the n)or- 
ning of the battle of the 30th. In the evening of the 29tli 
(says Gen. Hull, in a letter of the 30lh Dec. to Gov. Tomp- 
kins,) at about 12 o'clock, I received information that one 
of our patroles had been tired on, one mile below Black 
Rock. The enemy advanced and took possession of Ihc 
battery neai Conjokaties creek. The troops were imme- 
diately formed, and stood by their arms. I was not jet 



IIISTOIIY OF TRE WAR. | 



241 



U'liutn what point iht- eitfniy ineaiit to atlack. 6«iiif|; 
anxious to aiitici|mtu tiie eiu'iiiy'M l.imltii*;', ainl meet bun ut 
|*«c water's ed^e, I gave onlf i'm fur tlie lruo|»H :it llie Kucki 
tu attack liie tncmy, and dthlodjre tliem troin the battery, 
and to drive theoi to their buatH. The attfuipt tailed 
tliroujfb the confusion into whicik ll>€ nnliha \«ere thrownt 
un thc'tir!4t tire of the enemy, und ihedarkness of the night. 
I then ordered the corps undvr Major AdtiniH, antt Co\. 
Ciiapin to make the attack. Thene three detachments were 
thrown into confusion, and were of no service afterwards. 
As lite (htv dawned, I discovered a detachment of the en- 
cmy*K l)oals cru»sino; to our shore, and bendinj^ their course 
towards the rear of Gen. Porter's hou'^e. I immediately 
ordered Col. Biakesiie to attack the enemy's force ak the 
water's tidge. I now became satisiied as to tite disposition 
and object of the enemy. Tlieir left win^f compos<xl of 
lUUO regulars, militia, and Indians, had been landed below 
the creek, under cover of the night. With tlieir centre, 
consisting of 400 royal Scots, conmianded by Col. jGordou, 
the battle was com Qienced. Their rij^^ht which wts pur- 
posely weak, was landed near the main battery, merely to 
divert our for<;e, the whole under the immediate oommi^nd 
of Lieut, ten. Drummond, ana, led on by Maj, Gen. Hialh 
They were attacked by four field pieces in the battery and 
utthe water's ed^e -, at the same time the battery from the 
other side of the river opened a heavy tire upon usi of shellSf 
jiot shot, and ball. The whole force now opposed to tho 
enemy was at most, not over t>00 meii> the reuiamder hav- 
ing fled, in spite of the exertions of their otiiicers. These 
few, but brave men, disputed every inch uf ground, w ith th^ 
sleudy coolness of veterans, at theexpence of many valua- 
ble lives. The defection of the unlit. a, and tl>e reserve^i 
and loss of the services of the cavalry, by reason of tlie 
(ground on which they must act, left the forctt eitgaged| 
exposed to the enemy's tire in front and flunk. iVftei* 
standing their ground for half an hour, opposed by an over- 
whelming force, and nearly sm'rounded, a retreat became 
necis:.ary to their safely, and was accordingly ordered, i 
then made every effort to rally the troops, with a view to at- 
tack their columns as they entered the village of Buffaloe ; 
but all in vain. Deserted by my principal force, I fell back 
that night to Eleven Mile creek, and was forced to leavo- 



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HISTORY or THE WAA. 



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the douriKhing villn|<fef of Black Rock and Buffaloe a prey 
lotlieeiieui)', which lh«y have |Mlin{|^ccl aiitl laid in OHliev 
They have ^niiied hulhUle phiiiderTrom the |mblic ylorcs^ 
the rhiet lotM Wah fallen upon individiif.U/ 

Our loM waxdOkiilud— 40 wounded — and 60 mis.sing, 
and one cannon. * 1 regret to add, (sayii Gen. Hall, tg 
Gov. Tompkins in hi^ letter of J^m. 2i3) that on repO!t.*ieH. 
(titig^ the battle ground, we colU'cted 60 dead bodies, )v\ 
nnbuned, of the battle of the aoth ult. The enemy udmil 
their loss to be, in killed and wounded, 300/ 



i(h 



Col. Builer to Gen. Harrison. 

Dotroit, March 7, 1814. 

[Extraci] SIR — By Lieut. Shannon, of the '27lh regi- 
inent U. S. intantrv* 1 have the honor to inform you, that 
a detachment o\' the troops under my cununand, letl by 
Ciipt. Holmes, of the 34lh regiment U.S. infantry, have 
obtained a signal victory 9\et the euemy. 

The affair Ipok place on the 4th inst. about 100 miles 
from this place, on the river De Trench. Our force con« 
flirted of ho more than 160 rangers and mounted infantry. 
The enemy, had from their own ackiiowljedgmeni, '2'ih. 
The fine light company of the royal Scots is totally destroy- 
ed 3 they led the attack most gallantly, and their cununan- 
der fell within ten paces of our front line. The light com- 
^any of the 89th has also suft'ered severely; one oJ9icer of 
that company fell, one is a prisoner, and another is said to 
be badly wounded. In killed, and wounded, and prison- 
ers, the enemy lost about 80 — whilst on our part there were 
but four killed and four wounded. This great disparity 
in the loss on each side is to be attributed to the very judicious 
position occupied by Capt. Holmes, who compelled the ene- 
my toattack him at great disadvantage ; this, even more than 
hi>* ^^Ihmtry, merits the laurel. 

We took one hundred head of cattle also froip the ene- 



lDy» intended tor Lono^ Point or Burlington. 

~»j3'.;. Vn' ji^^iu 'i h ,U ^u,' >■■'«» 'i'i' v/*' -'i* ' H. 



BUTLER. 



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WARRINGTON'S VICTORY. 

Capt. ]^arrin(fton to the Secretary of the Navy. 
-'^' U. S. sloop Peacock, at sea, April 20, 1814. 

* [Extract.] SIT^ — -1 have the honor to inform you, that 
we have this moruin^ captured, after aa action of 42 min- 



HisrronY or the wim. 



253 



tfteti, his inajetl)f'i bri<; Epervter» rating and mounting 18 
;)i pound cnrronadi!!!, witli 1SH men, of vi hom II \i(re 
killed and 15 woundrd. Nul a man in th^ Prat'ock «>iis 
killed, nud only two wounde<i, neither dani;erouNl} no. 
The t'ttle of the E|>ervier would have been dt-U rmined in 
ouch iesM time, but fur the circumKlanre of onr f(»r*>->ard 
Ixfing totally disabled by two round shut in iht* stlarlMturd 
quarter from her tirttt broadside, which enlir« ly (ieiirivtd us 
of the useof our fore and fore-top>Hail», aiidcumpeiled us to 
k<>ep the ship large throughout the ro'mainder of the artion. 

This, with a few top-maiit and top-galiant back Kta>»cut 
away, a few shot through our sails, is the ony injury the 
Peacock has sustained. Not a round shut (oucheil oitr 
hull) our masts and soars are as sound asi ever. When 
tbe enemy struck, he had iive feet water li\ his hold, his 
main-top-mast was over the side, his main boom shot away, 
h\i fore-mast cut nearly in two and tottering his fori^ rig- 
ging and stays shot away, his bowsprit badly wounded, and 
45 shot holes in his hull, 20 of which were within a foot of' 
his water line. By great exeitiou, we got her iu sailinj^^ 
order just as the dark came on. 

In 15 minutes after the enemy struck, the Peaci rk was 
ready for another action, iu every respect but her "'jre-yard, 
which was sent down, finished, and had the fore-sail set 
again in 45 minutes — suck was the spirit and activity of 
our gallant crew. The Epervier had under her convoy 
an English hermaphrodite brig, a Russian and a Spanish 
ship, which all hauled their wind and stood to the £. N. 
£. I had determined upon pursuing tbe former, but found 
that it would not answer to leave our prixe in her then 
crippled state ; and the more particularly so, as we found 
she had $120,000 in specie, which we • ir n transferred to 
(his sloop. Every officer, seaman, and marine did his duty, 
irbich is the highest compliment 1 can pay them. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 'nrrAht^K 

. .;... r , i..,,, u.u ,.. I,. WARRINGTON. ' 

, • ''/■■f^ '■' ■ AMERICAN LOSS. " ■ •• •-'••» 

Killed none — wounded 2. .' ?;;,,' 

BRITISH LOSS. '^ 1 / 

]K.illed 11 — wounded 16 — prisoners 117. >'• 



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254 



HISTORY OF THE MAIL 



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I Lieut. Wooiney to Com. Chauncet/. 
( Iff b*ackett'H Harbor, June 1» 1814. 

[£Jar/rat'/.] SIR — I hnd the honor lo receive per express 
your communication of the 27lh, vestintrin tT'<)diKcretionnry 
puwerf. I immediately despatched Mr. Dixon in the louir 
g'tg to reconnoitre the coast, and weitt with my officers to tite 
talis, U» run the boats down over the rapids. At sun sci 
we arrived at Oswego with the boatH (19 in number) ioud- 
ed in all with 21 long; 3*2 pounders, 10 24 pounders, 5 42 do. 
(carronades) and 10 cables, besiden some Ii^ht articles, 
and distributed in the butteaux a guard uf about ]''>0 rifle- 
men, under command of Major Apiding. Mr. Dixoa 
having returned with a report of the coast, bein^ cieai, we 
set oil' at dark and arrived at Big Salmon river about sun- 
ri^e on the 29th, with the loss of onqboat having on board 
|wo 24 pounders and one cable. 

At Big Salmon we met the Oneidas, \i honi I had des. 
patched the day previous, under the command, pf Lieut. 
IlilU of the riile regiment. As soon as tliey had taken up 
their line of m^rch along the shore to Big Sandy Creek,! 
started with all the boats and arrived at our place of desti- 
nation about twd mt\&^ up the Creek. At 2 P. M- on the 
30lh, I received your latter oi the 29ith, 6 P. M. per express, 
and agreeably to the order contained therein, sent Lieut. 
pierce to look out as far as Stony Point : about 6 he retuvneil, 
having been pursued by a gun boat and three barges. The 
best possible di.spositioii was made of the riflemen and In- 
dian's^ about half a mile below our boats. About 8 A.M. 
ft cannonading at Ipng shot was commenced by the enetiiy, 
and believing (as I did)that no attempt would be made to 
land with their small force, I ordered Lieut, Pierce to [^ro- 
ce0d in erecting sheers and uiakiug preparations to unload 
the boats. About 9 o'clock Capt. Harris with a squadron 
of dragoons, and Capt. Melvin with a company of light 
artillery and 2 6-pounders, arrived. Capl. Harris the co'n- 
mandmg officer, agffced with me that tliis reinforcement 
should halt, as the troops best caUruIated for a bush tight 
•were already oa the giound, where they cou:d act to the 
greatest advantage, aiid that the enemy seeing a large re- 
inforcement arrive would most probably retreat. About 
"10, the enemy having landed and pushed u[) the creek with 
four gun boats, three cutters, and one gig — the ritleinca 



HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



251 



u 



under ihal excellent officer. Major Appling^, arose from 
llietr concealment, uixl nt'ter n .sinurt fire of about 10 min- 
utes, siicceeiled in capturing all the iMiats and their crews, 
without one haviuuj escaped. At about 5 F. M. buried, 
\v.\\\ the honors of war, Mr. Hoare(a British midshipman) 
killed in the urtion. 

The enemv's loss in this afiair, is 4 g-un boats, one car- 
rvii);^ 1 21 puutider, and one (58 lb. carronade ; each of the 
olliers carrying two heavy guns ; two cutters aud I gig. 

1 have the honor to be, &,<•. ^ 

M. T. WOOLSEY. 

' • ' \ AMERICAN 1.0SS. . ' 

'■•'' Killed none— wounded/). '" ' ■' 

'■ ' BRITISH IX)SS. ' ' ' 

' Killed 14— wounded 28 — prisoners 169. ' 

LOSS OF THE ESSEX. I 

Caj)t. Foiter to the Secretary of the Navy. 

Essex Junior, at sea, July U, 1814. 
[Extraet.l SIR — I sailed from the Delaware, Oct. 27, 
1812, and repaired Ic Port Praya, Noionho, and Cape Frio. 
On my passage from Port Praya to Noronho, 1 captured 
his li. M. packet Norton ; after taking out 11,000 pounds 
sterling in specie, sent her Tor America. Off Cape Frio 
1 captured a schooner with hides and tallow, and sent her 
into Porto Rico. I proceeded to St. Catherines to supply 
my ship with provisions. Fror.i St. Catherines I shaped 
my course tor the Pacific, and arrived at Valparaiso March 
11, 1813. Of the success we met with in onr next cruise 
you have been informed in my letter of July 2, 1813. I re- 
ceived information that the Phoebe frigate, and Racoon 
uiid Cherub sloops of war, were in pursuit of me. My 
shij), after being near a year at sea, required some repairs 
to put her in a state to meet them ; which I determined to 
do, and repaired, with my prizes, »j) the Island of Nooa- 
beevah, or Madison Isl:u»d, where I completely overhaul- 
ed my ship, and took on board, from the prizes, provisions 
and stores for upwards of fimr months, and sailed for the 
toasl of Chili, Dec. 12, 1813. Previous to sailing I secur- 
ed the Scringapatam, Greenwich, and Sir A. Hammond, 
under the guns of a battery which 1 had erecte«l for their 
IM'oteclion ; (after taking possession of this tine Island, for 



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niSTOUY OF THE WAK. 



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Ihe United Stales, and eslablishino^ the raost friendl^r inter 
course with its natives) 1 leil tht^m tinder the care of LiciiU 
Gamble and 21 men, with orders to repair to Valparaiso 
after a certain period. Believin^r C 'Ui. Hillytr wou.d be 
most likel}' to appear at Valparaiso tirst, I titertture deter. 
mined to cruise about that place. Ag'reeably to my ex- 
pectations the Cum. arrived at that plact- ; but, contrary to 
my wishes, he brought with him the Ciierub sioop of 
war, mounting 28 guns, and a complement of 180 men. 
The force of the Piioebr, the Commodore's fii»g ship, was 
30 long 18 |)Ounders, l(j 32 lb. carronades, and 7 '6 poun- 
ders in her tops, in all 6^ guns, and a crew of ii'iO men; 
making a force of 81 guns and 500 men. The force of 
the Essex was 40 32 lb. carronades and 6 long twelves, and 
her crew had been reduced by manning out her prizes to 
255 men. They pk'ovisioned, and went off the port for the 
purpose ofblcx'kadingme. I often endeavored to provoke 
a challenge, and bring the Phoebe alone to action with the 
Essex, but without success. ThtJre were no hopes of any 
advantages to my country tVom a longer stay in port; I 
thcrafore determined to put to sea the first opportunity. 
The 28th of march, the day after this resolution was funn- 
ed, the wind blew fresh from the south, when I parted my 
larboard cable and dragged directly out to sea. Not a 
moment was to be lost in getting sail on the ship. On 
rounding the point a heavy squall struck us, and earned 
away our main top-mast, precipitating four men into th( 
sea, who drow^ned. Both ships now gave chase ; seeino; 1 
could not recover my former anchorage in my disabled 
state, I ran close into a small bay, and anchored within pis- 
tol shot of the shore, under cover of two batteries off Val- 
paraiso, which beij^- neutral were bound to protect me ; al 
least till I had repaired damages. I had not succeeded in 
repairing or getting a spring on my cable when the enemy 
at 54 minutes \ysiHi 3, P. M. made his attack. The Phoebe 
placing herself under my stern, and the Cherub on my star< 
board bow ; but finding that situation a hot one, she bore 
up and run under my stern also, where both ships kept up 
a raking tire. I h<id got 3 long 12 pounders out of tie 
sttrii ports, which were worked with so much bravery tlial 
in hali an hour we so disabled both as to compel thcin u> 
haul oli to repair damages. My sbip had received many 



niSTORY OP THB WAR. 



957 



injarieit, and Kcveral had been killed and wounded, but nil 
a|)|teared determined ko defend ^he iiliip to the last, and to 
die in pivt'ereiixie to a shameful surrender. The enemy 
i(um r«^|mired m% damages and matle a fresh attack <\'ith 
Uiitl) shi))(i ou Biy starhuard f{uarter, v.\\i of reach of my car- 
i-onades and where uiy Ktern ^uns could not be brought to 
bear — he there kept uf» a {galling tire wliioh it was out of 
uvy power to return. The uidy rope not cat was the fiyinf 
gib halluuds, and that beinp^ the only nail 1 could set, I 
caused it to be hoisted, niy cables to be cut, and run down 
on both bhtps, with an intention of laying tlie Phoebe ou 
hoard. ;'■<' . i.'J^' ♦*v.^.f:'i'>'-.'- .;i. /. * >uiil ii.i.'t 

The tiring on bnlh sides was now tremendous ; I' had 
let tail my fore-topsail and foresail, but the want of tacks 
and sheets rendered them useless, yet were we enabled for 
a hhort time to close with the eaeniy, although our decks 
were strewed with ihe dead, our cockpit filled with 
wounded, our ship had been several times on Hre, and a 
prfect wreck, we were slill encourai^ed to hope to save 
her, as the Chedib in her crippled state, had been compel- 
led to haul off. The Phoebe, from our disabled slate, was 
enabled to edg'e t.ff, and choose her distance, for her long 
l^uiis, and kept up such a tremendous fire, as to mow down 
my brave companions by the dozen, i now gave up all 
hopes of closing with him, and determined to run on shore, 
land my men, and destroy the vessel. We had approach- 
t'A the shore within mnsket shot, when in an instant the 
wind shifted, and payeil our head down on the Phoebe. — 
My ship was now totally unmanageable; yet, as her head 
was toward the enemy, and he to the leeward of me, I 
slill hoped to be able to board him. Finding the enemy 
was determined to avoi<l being boarded, and my ship alarm- 
mji'ly on fire, and the slaughter on board having become 
most hon'i})le, I directed a hawser to be bent to the sheet 
anchor, and the bow anchor to be cut, to bring her head 
round : this succeeded, and we again got our gutis to bear; 
but the hawser soon gave way, and left us a perfect wreck. 
The flames were bursting up ihe hatchway, and no hones 
were entertained of saving the ship, as a quantity of pow- 
der had already exploded, and the fire had nearly reached 
the magazine, winch served to increase the horrors of our, 
situitfiou. I ihcrolbre directed those who could swim, t» 



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a5» 



UimORY OF THE WAR 



jump ovdrl>bnr<), nn<l g-aiiithe tihore. Some reached it 

!>KMue weie luken l»y th« enemy — amd soiie perislied. We 
"^ho reiiiHiiuul, tiinied our attention wholly to extinguiflhiiir> 
the 'flumes; iijien we had Murceeded» weift ag^ain to our 
gUi^df w\ieve the lining was kept up for some min 'tes. AU 
must every ^un having been dismounted, and lue impossi* 
l>ility ot'iYiiikiiiir further attempts to capture our atitairo. 
niMLiy-aud the entreaties of the rt inainder of niv brave crew, 
to i!;k>n'<jii<ic I lave Jfhe wounded, 1 sent tor the officers of 
divisiuiiHtt co..sult them, but what was niv surprise, to tind 
only acti.ig- Lieut. M'Kuiabl reinai;)iiit;-. 1 was informed 
tliul the co('k|Ml, steerage, w;irf!r«M>m, and h rlh-d<.rk would 
cont'iiiino uuvs'e wouMded; antl that the ship was tillniiv 
with waler \try last. Tlie enemy were enabkii fconi the 
itmoolhneNS of the water, to take aim at us as a tari'-et — m 
fiiye^lsuw no hopes ofsavuiifmy vessel, or making mv es- 
<ia(4€, iaftdut 20 iniuutes pasl ti P M . gave the patittuf or- 
de^' to Kinke the colors. iseveuty-Hve men, iiicinchui'' ofh- 
cers,'\icre all that remained of my crew when the ooiurs 
were struck^ capable of doing duty. I directed au op|)o- 
site tyun fired to lihew we intended no further res'slance; 
buttliey did nol desist; a number of men were killed by 
my side and in other parts of the ship. [ now believed lie 
intended to show us no cpiarler, and thought it would be as 
weJto diC with mv Hag ttyiiig- ius struck, and was on the 
puint:gfa;^ain hoi-sting-it, ^^hen 10 minutes after hauling- 
the Coloi's down, he ceased bruig". 

- - I m»wt, in iustiiicalion of myself and crew observe, that 
with our Av^ twelve poundersonly, welought thisaction, oui* 
carronades Ikmu;];' almost useless. 

vi-.Qur loss is 58 killed — 05 wounded — and 31 missiiiff — 



total l£>4. 



3-. 



d •! >'! 



J,;;/ I have the honor to l)e, fkc. 
d 1 1. > DAVID PORTER. 



. *. CoL Mitchell to Gen. lirown* - - ' • 
•(■ :' u: i^i .-'■: ;.iO In-'i t.t- H. Q,. Osweg'o, May 8, 1814. 

[Extract] SIR — I informed you of v, y arrival at foit 
Osvveg-o oi» the 30th ult. This post being but oceasion- 
j>lly and not itceutly occupied by regular troops, was in a 
bail state ot <lefence. Of cannon we had but five old guns, 
three of which had lo!?t their trunnions. What ctaiid be 
done in the way of repair was effected. On the 5lh insl. 



. ni»ssni£f — 



fs, was 111 a 



HISTORY OV TUK WAK, 



*^^. 



vhc British naval force c(>iiHi!tiiii(f •>! I<iiir lar^c hliips, lhre« 
brigs and a number of jruti and olln-r lioaln vviM'f ilrNcned 
;it reveille liealin^ aliuul Mevcn inlleM (roin the tort, liiluri- 
nmtiuii Mas iinuiediatc ly iriveii to Ctt|»t. Woulsey ot Uie 
navv, (who was at Oi*w» ^-o village) and lo the iieii>"hh«)r- 
iii<^ luililia. It heiii^ do(ii)liiil on which »ide otitic river 
the enemy would attempt lo l;iiid, and my t'orce (;.'.)0 et- 
t'ectives) being loo suiati to l>ear diviMion, 1 ordered the 
tents in slore to l>e |>itctied on the village ttide, while I oc- 
cupied the other with iu> wliolc t'orce. It in ^irob.ible that 
this arlkiice had its elfect, and delerniined the etienu lo at- 
tack where, from appearaiiccs, lliuy exiK-eted the least op- 
position. About 1 o'elock the ilect approached. FitVeeii 
boats, l'«'"ge and crowdetl with troops, al a givt;ii sigjia), 
moved slowly to the shore. These were prc^eedi'd by gnii- 
boals sent to rake the woods and cover the landing, while 
the larger vessels opened a lire iipun I he tort. dpt. 
Boyle and Lieut. Legate, (so s«)on as the debarking boats 
got within range of our shot) opened upon Ihem a very 
successful fire fix)m the shore battery, and compelled iheiii 
twice lo retire. They at length returned to lln ships audi 
the whole stood olf from lite shore tor belter anchorage. 
One of the enemy's boats which had been deserted, was 
taken up by us, and some others by the militia. The first 
nieiilioned was sixty feet long, earned ihirty-six onrs and 
three sails, and could accommodate UjO men. Hhe had 
received a ball through her bow, and was nciirly filled 
with v.ater. 

At day break o» the 6th tlie Heet apfieared bearing up 
tinder easy sail. Tiiey took a position directly against 
the fort and batteries, and for three hours kept uj) a heavy 
' ii re of grape, 6ic, Fiiidiug thai the enemy had efi'ected a 
landings I withdrew my small dis|>oHuble force into the 
rear of the foil, and wnlh two companies met their ^idvanc- 
ing columns, white the other cotnpanies engaged tiie Banks 
of the enemy. Lieut. Pierce of the navy and some sea- 
men, joined in the attack and fought with their chiiractei- 
islic bravery. We maintained our ground alK>|ut thirly 
minutes, and as long as consisted with iny further duty of 
defending the public stores deposited at the falls, which no 
doubt formed the principal object of the expedition on tlie 
part of the enemy. Nor was thiii udovetuent made pr^cifiii* 



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HISTOllir OV THE WAk. 



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Ultc>?y. I haJietl within 400 yards of Ihe fort. Capt. Hu. 
l»ftyiie*iicom any formed the rear gfiiard, and, lemaunntr 
with it, I mtuched to this |>lace in good order, deHtro\ih|f 
the hridc^es in iny rear. The enemy landed wx hwmlrtd 
of De Watlevill(f'H rej^iment, six hundred wiarim^H, ivm 
conipanies of the Glengury corps, aixl Uivee hundred and 
Hfly seamen. 

Gen. Drnr»imond and Com. Yeo were ihe hind in\':\ na- 
Tal Gonmianders. They hurned \\ifi <»U! bfirrucks > ij 
evacuated ihffortabuiil 3 o'clock in llseninrniagoOiu ;ih. 
• Our loss in killed iN;stx; in vvinnuhdas — and in mis. 
sin|v, 25. The « nemy 1< st 70 kilicd, and !(>.* wountlcd, 
drowned, and prisoners. •■ ^. •-•. . ♦ . . v,. 



.i,i> 



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-lit! 



, f t.' 



'- Gen. Brown to the ScrrdfWt/ of Wm\ 

H. Q, Cii.ppewa, .I»i*y 7, 1814. 

{Extract^^ SIR — Oti the 2d njsr. I issned orders for 
crossing the Niagara, and made a iTangoments deemed ne- 
cesr H?y \m securni*^ the Q^nrrison of fort Erie — the 3d, that 
post surreudered, at 5 P. M. Onr loss in this affair, was 
4 wounded. — lJi7 prisoners, including 1 Major, 1 Capt. 3 
Lieuts. and 1 ensi<2^n, with tiie nmvnun>tioii and cannon be- 
loiiging to the post were sunendend to us. 

On the morniitg' of the 4th, Brig. Gen. 8coU, was order- 
ed to ad ranee towards Chip]>ewii, nnd be governed by 
circumstances ; taknig cure to secure a good military po« 
6itiOn for the night ; after some skirmisHii^g', he selected 
this plain with the eye of a soidier, his right resting on the 
river, and a ravine being in front. At 11 at niglU I joined 
him, with the reserve under Brig. Gen. Kiptey, with onr 
lield and battering train, and corps of artillery. The next 
morning Gen. Porter arrived with a part o4'the Pentisylva- 
nia and N. York volunteers, and some IndiduN. Early ii\ 
the morning of the 6th, the enemy commenced a petty war 
upon our pickets, and, as he was indulged, bis presumption 
increased, 

At 4 P. M. agreeably to my orders. Gen. Porter advanc- 
ed from tht rear of our camp, taking the woods in order to 
keep out of view of the enemy, in hopes of surrounding 
th^ifscouking parties. In half an hour Porter's commatul 
Ivietthe light parties and drove them to camp ; and near 
€H)ip{>eWa, met thttir w4iole <3olumn in order of bttttic { 



JiisTuirr OFfrns was. 



2dL 



tiiimeilittU'iv ortloretl Gen. Scott lO' ailvanco with his bri- 
gradc, and Towsuii's nrkil)ery, wfarinieL llitiuMpoii Uwki^li 
pliiiii in tVoiitut'our caiu|>. lie nUvniu'Cil in llieuuMt oiii-> 
cerlike %iyU\ nntiiii nfcw niinutci ixas in olotie »cliiN)» nilii 
i\ snpcM'iur forct; of Brilisli retifitiarsi. Gen. Portcr*s com* 
itianii Ir.ul ^iven way,> aiiU fleil in every dirtcliun, iviiicU 
CiiUsoil Scott's left tliink to be^ i^rcHllv exposed. Cupt. 
Hiirns, with iiis dragoons, was clirettiii to stofn the the; i'u-> 
^iliv<}t>, behind tlte ravine fruntin^^ ouroauip; Gen. Ripley 
wa» directed to |>aHs to the left and skirl the \vuodi(» so a^ 
to keep cut of view, an?' fall upon the real* of ihe enemyn 
right flank. This order was promptly obuycd, and tho 
(ri*eate.<tt esertioius made to close U'ilh the enemy, bat in 
vairi ; for such wan the zeal and activity of the line com- 
manded by Gen. Scott, that it was not to be checked. 
Maj. Jessup. commanding the left Hunk, finding himself 
pressed iu front and flank, and hismeii falling fast around 
hiai, ordered hisbattallion to ^ support arm&y and advance ;* 
the order was promptly obeyed, amidst a most deadly and 
destructive tire. He grained a more stymie position, ami 
returned ^pon the enemy so gallin:ga lUschargc, ascaosed 
them tt> retire. By this time tiieir whole line was falling 
hack, and our g;aUant soldiers presMng upon thcra, when 
they broke their lines, and ran to rcscam their works. - In 
this effort he was too successful, when the guns opeued 
immediately upou our line, and checked, in some de^ree^ 
the |Hirsuit. At ihismomeut, I determined to bring up ray 
ordnance, and force the place by a direct attack ; Major 
Wood, of the engineers, and Capt. Austin, my aid, rode to 
the right of their hhc of works and examined them ; I was 
induced by tlieir re[,)ort, to order the forces to retire to 
camp, till a future time. 
Respectfully and Uuly yours. JACOB BROVViS.o! 

AMERICAN LOSS. Ui j <• 

Killed 60 — wounded 244 — missing 19. vlj uu o3 
' BRITISH LOSS. ■■. .',L 

, Killed 109 — wounded 9120 — prisoners 24o 



■'T 



'1 i;l 






BLAKELEYS VICTORY. 

Capl. Blakeleu to the Secretary of llie Navy. 

U. S. S. Wasp, L'Orient, July 8, 1^14. 
SIR — On Tuesday the 28ih ult. being then in latitude 
48, 36 N. and lon^. U, lo W. we fell iu with, engaged 



'(%■ v- 






mi 









Li 



262 



HISTORTOr TB£ WAR. 



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and after nn action of 1^ minutes cnptared hin Brilnniiiv 
inaie»ty*M sloop of war Reindeer, William Maniieru. Enq. 
commander. 

At half paHt 12, P. M. the enemy shewed n blue ami 
white flag^^ diagonally at the fore, and iired a gini. At 1, 
16, called all hands to quarters, and prepared for action ; 
1, 22, believing we could weather the enemy, tncked sliip 
and stood ibr him; 1, 50, the enemy tacked ship ami 
stood from us; 1,50, hoisted our colora and tired a gtni 
to windward ; at 2, 20, iho enemy still Ntandiiig from us, 
set the royals ; at 2, 26, set the flyini^ s^ib ; nt 2, 2i), set the 
upper staysails ; at 2, 32, the enemy liuvin|jr tacked for us 
took in the staysails; at 2, 47, turled the royals ; at 2, 61, 
seeing' that the enemy would be able to weather us, tacked 
ship ; at 3, 3, the enemy hoisted his flying gil) — brailed 
up our mizen ; at 3, 16, the enemy on our weather quar- 
ter, distant about 60 yards, tired his shi /'ling gun, a 12 pound 
carronade at us, loaded with round and grape shot from his 
top-gallaiit forecastle; at 3, 17, fired the same gun a se- 
cond time ; at 3, 19, fired it a third time ; at 3, 21, fired it 
a fourth time ; at 3, 24,. a fifth shot, all from the same gun. 
Finding the enemy did not get sjfKciently on. the beam to 
enable us to bring our guns to bear, put the helm a-lee, 
and at 26 minutes after 3, commenced the action with the 
after carronade on the starboard side, and fired in succes- 
sion ; at 3, 34, hauled up the mainsail ; ai 3, 40, the enemy 
having his lai board bow in contact with our larboard quar- 
ter, endeavored to board us, brt was repulsed in every at- 
tempt ; at 3, 44, orders were'given to l>.>ard in turn, wh'ch 
were promptly executed, when all resistance immediately 
ce<ised, and at 3, 46, the enemy hauled down his flag. 

The Reindeer mounted sixteen 24 lb. carronades, two 
long 6 or 9 pounders, und a shifting 12 lb. carronade, with 
a complement on board of 118 men. Her crew was said 
to be the pride of Plymouth. 

The Reindeer was literally cut to pieces in a line with 
her ports ; her iipperworks, boats, and spare spars, were 
one complete wreck. A breeze springing up the next 
afternoon, her foremast went by the board. 

Having received all the prisoners on boari?, which from 
f he number of wounded occupied much time, together with 






J5i^ 5i 



' i 



Q f/ .77 c [ 



ol lv:n ,K OS M 



HISTORY OF TUB W<m. 



2i» 



(h'^'irbsi^g^ut^e, the Reiiideer wait on the evening ofthe 29lh 
tel on fire, unci in u few huum blew up. 

I have the honor to be, >cc. 

J. BLAKELEY. 

;, AMERICAN LOSS. / 

Killed 5 — wounded :21. 

BRITISH ti>SS. 

..; »>.i.j>>M Killed 23 — wounded 42. 

Gen. Brown to the Secretary of IVar. ^ 

' ' ' Buff uio, A ugf . 1 7, 1 8 1 4. ' 

\V!>xiracl.'\ SIR — Yow are aUeiidy apprised that the 
,uiuy had on the 2«>lh utt. taken a poMitioii at Chiitpewa. 
Al)out noon of that day, Col. Swill, who was posted at 
Ltwistown, a<l vised me by express, that ll»e eiicniy appear- 
ed in considerable force in Queenston, and on iLs iieiy;ht8; 
tiuit four of the ejiemy's fleet had arrived duri g the pre- 
ceding nig^ht, and were then laying near fort Niaguia, and 
that a number of boats were in view, moviii'^ up (he strait. 
Within a few minutes after this intelligence had been re- 
reived, I was further informed by C.ipt .Denmon, of the 
(jimrter master's department, that the enemy were landing 
ut Lewistowii, and that our baggage and stores at Schios- 
ser. and on their way thither, were in danger of immedi- 
ate capture. Gen. Scott, with the 1st brigade, Towsoa*s 
artillery, and all the dragoons and mounted men, were 
accordingly put in march on the road leading to Q,ueens- 
Idii, with orders to report if liiC enemy appeared, and to 
fall for assistance it that was iicctssary. On the Generars 
aniviil attiie Fallshe learned that the enemy was in force 
(iiit'ctly in his front — a narrow piece of woods alone inter- 
cepting his view of them. Waiting only to give this infor- 
iiiiition he advanced upon them. By the time Assistant 
Adj. Gen. Jones had delivered his message, the action be- 
gan ; and before the remaining part of the division had 
tiossed the Chippewa, it hud become cK»se and general be- 
tween the advance corps. Though geu. Riply with the 
■id brigade. Major ilindman with the corps ot artillery, and 
Gen. Porter as the head of his command, had respectively 
pressed forward with ardor, it was not less than an hour 
before they were brought to sustain Gen. Scott, during 
Miiit-h lime his command most skilfully and gallantly 



\ 



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l:| 



*.* 



■'v?^- 



-11 



264 



lll>1'Q^«f ^F THE WAll. 



! I 



' mm 



tnftmtattied lhi» conflict. l'|>bii my um\ al I fouud ihiit \\\c 
General huil |iiissi?<l the \v<)od and criL»'!»i;tMl Iho e-U in\ ni 
QuecMMtuii loud, and on tli^ «t°ro(n>d to tht^ Ult ut' it, \mi|| 
l!ie 6fch, I Ith, ahil J^a rc-is. and Towsoii's arldliry. Tl.i 
^•Olh hid been tin own to the i'i;»hl k« lie |^i>vt'»iud h\ cir- 
cuinsUnco. Ai>|)rth«Midin}< Ihii* Ihew 'corps wtre inncii 
exhausted, and kiu)vviu;>' thai the^ had sntVered sevtrtiy, I 
determined to inlt»|»<>se u new line \\M\\ llie ail aiitisi'^ 
iroo|;s, and thus dis. iiMa«»e <^en. Scolt and ht)ld his lin^iul, 
in reserve. OrdtTs weie aceordinu^ly given to }>en. K p- 
ley. The tnenn 's arlilkiv ut this nionienl oeeunied a hill 
which gave liun j^ieal advantages, and was the key ot' lli»' 
Mrhole position. It was !4U))))urle(l by a line ut' infantry. 
To Meciit'e llu' victory, it wa^ moessarv to carry this arid- 
lery and .sei/.e t!ie Ini^lrt. This duly was assijrneuto Col. 
•Miller, whiio, to favor its execiilion, the 1st re^^inieiit, un- 
der tlt€ cointnftnd of Col. Nicholas, was directed to me 
nace and aniivst; the infantry. To my i^renl mortificalioii 
ihisrcuitnent, after a discharge or two, jjfive wnV and ic- 
treated some distance l)efore it could be rallied, thoufili ii 
is believed the officers of the regiment exerted themselves 
to shorten this distance. In the mean time, Col. Milltr. 
without reg'ardhii? this occurrence, advanced steadily and 
g^allantly to his object, and carried the height Und the can- 
non. Cien. lliplcy brought u|) the 23d (which had also 
faultered) to his supjjnrt, and the enemy disappeared from 
before l\wm. The 1st i^egiment was now brought into lim 
'on the left ot the x?lsl, and the detachments of the 17lh and 
19lh, Gen. rorlC' »tccupying, with his command the exlrnne 
lel\. AbontlhettnioCol. Ali Her carried the enemy's cannon. 
the 25th regiment, under Maj. Jessap, was engaged in ;i 
more obstinate cordiict with all that remained to dispute wilii 
us the field of buttle. TheMaj. as has been already stated, 
had been ordered by Gen. Scott,at the commencement olllu 
action, to take ground to his right. He had succeeded !■ 
turning the eneniy's left flank — had captured (by a dit-itli 
ment under Capt. Kelchum^ Gen. Rial) and sinidry ollr 
. officers, and shewed himself again to his own army, in > 
blaze of filv, which defi aled or destroyed a very sirpi ih ; 
force of the enemy. He wtis ordered to form on the ri^i 
of the 2d rcgiiucnt. The enemy rally ing his forces, ;imi;:> 
is beli('\td, having received reinforcements, now atlen^iili ' 



niSTOEY OF TUE WAR. 



265 



to drive uh from our positions, and rei(uin hi* arlilUrv.— - 
Our line was unMhtikHii, aic) Uie enemy repiilMfid. Two 
other allempts having th« h.\\nc object, nad the same iit.MM>. 
(ieii. Scoli was a^aiii ciij^a^ed in repelliii(( the (brnier of 
these } and the lanl I siiw oi' him on the iieUl ol battle, he 
waH near theliead uf Uxh culumii, and ;;ivui^ in iIh march a 
direction that would have placed him on liie enemy *m ri^ht. 
Il Mas with great pleasure 1 saw Uie guod order aod nilre- 
pidity of Gen. Purler's volunteers from the niomeitl uf their 
arrival, but during the last charge 4>f the enemy, those (pia- 
lilies were conspicuous. Stimulated by the examples set 
by their gallant leader, by Maj. Wood, of the Pennsylvania 
corps, by Col. Dobbin, of New- York, and by their oHicers 
generally, they precipitated themselves Ujion the enemy's 
line, and made all the prisoners which were taken at thia 
point of the action. 

Having been for some time wounded, and been a good 
deal exhausted by loss of blood, it becaoie my wish to de- 
volve the command on Gen. Scott, and retire from the field ; 
but on enquiry, I had the misrorlune to learn, that he was 
disabled by wounds ; I therefore kept my post, and had 
the satisfaction to see the enemy's last effort repulsed. I 
now consigned the command to Gen. Ripley. 

I saw and felt the victory was complete. Tiie exhaus- 
tion of our men was such as made some refreshment neces- 
sary. They particularly required water; I therefore or- 
dered Gen. Kipley to return to camp, after bringing off the 
dead, wounded, and artillery, which was effected in good 
order. I have the honor to be, 3cc. 

JACOB BROWN. 

AMERICA14LOSS. . r« 

Killed, 171— AVomided, 572— Missing, 110. 

• [ BRITISH LO^S. 

Killed, 184— Wounded, 559— Prisoners, 221. 



i 



I' 1 



Gen. Gaines to the Hecrelary of War. -■ , 

Fort Erie, Aug. 23, 1814. 
{Extract^ SIR — I have the honor to communicate the 
particulars of the battle fought at this place, on the 15th 
inst. I ha\e heretofore omitted staling to you, that during 
the 13lh and 14lh, the enemy had kept up a brisk cannon- 
ade upon this fort, which was briskly returned from our 

.It 



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HlffrORT or THE WAM. 



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bnltericx, without any conHtdfTiible \onn un oinv juxrk. At 
6, A. M. nt'tho 1/yth, one ot'tlieirMhelln !' • >ihJ :.i a ffmall 
mng^a/ine in Foil Erie, whirh vinA foiiunntei y aimoiitemp< 
i\. It blew up with tin exploNion more awful in itn up- 
ptarance« than injurious in nn < ATertM, n» it ditl not cll^»Hllle 
n man, or derancj^c a jj^nn. It occasioiifd but a momt'nt- 
ar> CPSHfllioi) of tne thunders of the artdli ry on bulh sidet^; 
it was followed by a loud and joyruu^ shout by the Untiivh 
nnny, which was nnmediately answered on our part, and 
Ciipt. Williams, amidst the smoke of the explosion, renew- 
ed the contest with an animated ronr of his heavy eaiirori. 
The ni^ht was dark and rainv, but ih^ fntldnl eenlinel 
«lr[>t not. At half past 2 o*c'ock, the riy[ht coluiiiii ol the 
enemy approached, and though eiive'oped in darknesH,* 
black sLs his designs and principles, was distinctlv hf:ird on 
our left, imd promptly marked by our mnskelry and can- 
non. Being nmunled at the moment, i repaired to ihe. 
point of attack, where the sheet of fire enabled me to sec 
the eiiemy*s rolumn, abo«it loOO men, apuro-.tciiing on that 
point ; Ins advance was nut checked until it hud approach- 
ed within leu feet of our infantry. A line of loose brush 
representiii^f an abcttis only intervened ; a column of the 
enemy ntti mpted to pass round the aOeltis throu<^h the wa- 
ter, where it was nearly breast deep. At this mnmeot the 
eneitiy were repulsed, but instantly renewed the charge, 
land were again repulsed. My attention was now called 
to the right, where our batteries and lines w^re lighted by 
Ti most brilliant fire of Ci^mton and musketry ; it announc- 
ed the approach of the centre and left columns of the en- 
emy, midfrf Cols. Drnmmond and Hcolt ; they were soon 
repulsed. That of the centre, led by Col. Drummoiid was 
not long kept in check ; it apprnacheil at once every as- 
sai'able point of the fivrt, and with scaling* ladders, ascend- 
ed the parapet, but was repulsed with dreadful carnage.— 
The assault was twice repeated, and as often checked ; but 
the enemy having moved round the d:lch, covered with 
darkness, and the heavy cloud of smoke which rolled from 
our cannon and musketry, repented the charge, and re-as- 
cended the ladders, when their pikes, bayonets and spears, 

* * / niih several ofviy rrffuers, aereral times, fiean' nrders given, to givi 
the damned Yankee rascals no quarters.' 



lUSTOAY OB* THK WAR. 



ad7 



ersgivetif togivi 



Xell upon our gftllant urlilltinMls. Our biitlion \v»s iosi i 
Lit^ut. M'L)ouuu)rb, bem^- severely wuuiiUcU (IcuiaiiUrd 
quarter — it wuh retuMMl liv C«>i. Oniiniiioiui. ^]*l)()l)oll^fil 
then H«i/ftla lundn, lice, uutl itul)U iicMeiiilud lnuiHell' ijolit 
he wn»MtK)l (iuwii with a |>ihtol i>y the muMx/cr vtlui hau ru* 
fused him quarter, who oiieii reileraled the order — t/ivv the 
damned yankte rusca'v no t/uarier. Tiim hardened uiunicr- 
er Houii met htn tale ; he waH^hut (hiuugh (he hreo^t while 
repeatinjyr the order, to t/we no <juailer. t- < <«- ^ <'■ 'J 

The buli'.e now rn^ed with inereuHed fury on the rig;ht, 
but on tlie left the enemy wmm r«|iuliied and put to Hi«>ht. 
Thence and from the centre I ordeieU leinloi cements. — 
They were promptlv Hent bv Bri)(. Gen. Uipley and Br g-. 
Gen. Porter. Capl. Fauning-, ot the rurpnof artil er>, kept 
up a spirited and detitruciive tire with his field pieces on 
the enemy while altemplinj^ to approach the tort. iMajor 
Hindnian'si gallant eAbrtti, aided by Mitj. Trimble, having 
failed to drive the enemy from the bastion with the remain- 
ing artillerists tud infantry in the fort, Cupt. Birdsall of the 
4th rifle regiment, with a detachment oi riHemen, gallant- 
ly rushed in through the gateway to their assistance, and 
with Sitme infantry charged the enemy ; but was repulsed 
and the Captain severely wounded. A detachaient from 
the lltb, 19th, and 2 2d infantry, under Capt. Foster of 
the 11th, were introduced over the interior bastion, for the 
purpose of charging the enemy. Major Hall, Assist. Ins. 
Gen. very handsomely tendered his services to lead the 
charsfe. The charge was gallantly made by Capt Foster 
and Maj. Hall, but owing to the narrowness of the passage 
up to the bastion admitting only 2 or 3 men abreast, it fail- 
ed. It was often i*epeated, and as often checked. The 
enemy's force iu the bastion was, however, much cut to 
pieces and diminished by our artillery and small arms. At 
this moment every operation was arrested by the explosion 
of some cartrnlges deposited in the end of the stone build'- 
ing adjoining the contested bastion. Tiie explosion vcus 
tremendous — it was decisive : the bastion was restored. At 
this moment Capt. Biddle was ordered to cause a field 
piece to be posted so as to enfilade the exterior plain and 
«alient glacis. Capt Fauning's battery likewise played 



» 1 !'■ 



! 1 



m 



\ . 



266 



HISTORY OP THE WA1I. 







j. 






\'\^ 



; 



t ' 










i 




i 1' 1 ! 


1 'I 




i i^ '1 f 


1 J i 


•1 ': 




i' il ' 


.r 


i'.iil i 


I %\ 



1. 




1 



upon Ihem at Ihiii lime with t:»*cal effect. The entimy 
were in a lew moinenU enlirel) clet'ealed, taken, or put lo 
flight. . , . . — ,i 

I have the honor to be, Sec. 
• ^ ' EDMUND P. ( AINES. 

.A\ >'\ < -. v.: .., .. AMEKICAN LOSS. 

Killed 17— WouiKled 66— Missing 11— Total 84. 

BRITISH LOSS. ' ' -' ' '"' ' ' '"- ' ' 

Killed 422— Wounded 3.>4— Prisoners i 86— Total 963. 



.''.ii', 






,i 






CHAPTER XII. 



if v-l'l •!»>?/ /f.. 



CAPTURE OF WASHINGTON AND ALEX- 
ANDRIA. 

Copy of a letter from tlie mayor of Alexandria to the mayor 

of GeoryetofVH. 

Dfak SiK-T-Eiiclo8ed is a cop)f of the terms proposed 
to thecoumioii council of Alexandria, by the couimaiiding 
officer of the Nquadron now lying before the town, to which 
they were compelled to submit. 

"Very respeclfullv, &c. ' 

CHARLES SIMMS. 
TERMS OF CAPITULATION, ^i.^i h 
.. * His Majesly\ skip ISeu Horse f 
\ Off" Alexandrioy 29/A Avy. 1814. 

Gentlemen — In consequence of a deputation yester- 
day received from the city of Alexandria, requestinj^ fa- 
vorable terms for the safety of the city, the undermention- 
ed are the only conditions in my power to offer. 

The town of Alexandria, with the exception of public 
works, shall not be destroyed, unless hostilities are com- 
menced on the part of the Americans, nor shall the inhabi- 
tants be molested in any manner whatever, or their dwel- 
ling houses entered, if the following articles are complied 
with : 

Art. 1. All naval and ordnance stores, public er private 
must be immediately delivered up. 

2. Possession will be immediately taken of all the ship- 
ping, and their furniture must be sent on board by the own- 
ers without delay. 



HISTORY OF TflE WAR. 



960 



^! 



3. The vessels thnt liave l>e*»n snuk nm!*t b« <leViv, red 
u|> in the slate lhe\ ^»erf, on the HMli ot Aui;ns<, llie day 
oi the squiul roil puKsins: Use Ktttle BuUuuik. 

4. Merchandize ut every oescn(»lion lumt be insti iitly 
delivered up, and to prevent uiiy ineiruliirily, thut niitfht 
Im' committed in itM eiiitiarkation, the iiierchaniK have it at 
their option to lo;id the vessels generally employed tor ttmt 
mirpose, ^hen they shall be towed oti by us. 

5. All merchandise that has been removed fr«>m A'ex- 
undria, since the 19lh Inst, is to be incttided in the above 
articles. '-^ ""' ''•"'•i'" {•*>".'"■! •'■■r'^iv.i'/} rvajufu i"n:iqi*fi 

0. Refreshm»:nt8 of every description to be supplied the 
ships, and paid for at the market price, by bills on the Bri- 
tish government. 

7. Officers wii, e appointed to see that nrticles No. 2, 3» 

4aitd 5, are 8tri< y complied with, .and anv de*. lation or 

iioii-compliance, on the part of the mhuhilanis ot Alexan- 

dna, will render this treaty null ami void. '' " ^' » ' »«'" 

I have the honor to be, &c. ''^ "'»»> 

JOHN A GORDON, ' "^ 
. , s . i> . . ,: Captain of H. M. slup Sea ifnrse, 
■' and senior officer of H. M, dhips ojf Alexandria. 
To the common council ' '*** 

ofthe town of Alexandria. ■' ' .:.'<• i ..!;.- ' 



Gen. Winder to the Secretary of War. 

Baltimore, August 27, 1814. 

Sir — When th€ enemy arrived at the mouth of the Poto- 
mac, of all the militia which I had been authorised to as- 
semble, there were but about 1700 in the field, from liUo 
1400 nnder Gen. Stansbiiry near thi;> place, and about 250 
at Bladensburgh, under Lieut. Col. Ks-ntr. 

After all the force that could be put at my disposal in 
thatshort time, and making such dispositions as I deemed 
best calculated to present the most respectable forre at 
whatever point the enemy might strike, 1 v\as enabled by 
the most active and harrassing movements of the troops to 
interpose before the enemy at Bladensburgh about 5000 
men, including 350 regulais and Commodore Barney's 
command. Much the largest portion of this force arrived 
oi the ground when the enemy were in sight, ai.d were 
disposed of to support in the best manner the position which 



h| 



^J 



■I 



270 



HISTORY or THE WAK. 



Gen. Slao»bnry had taken. Tiiey had barely re»<hcil Uie 
ground before the action commenced, which was abuut 1 
o'clock P. M. of the 2 Uh inst. and continued about uu 
hour. 

Tiie :irtillery from B.dtimore supported by M-ij. Pink- 
Bey's rifle battalion, and a part of dipt. DoiighU'^\s from 
thi nav; yard, were in advance to command the pusii of 
the brid^ ■ at Bladen8bur^:h, and played upon the enemy, 
with very destructive etiect. But the ritle troops were oh. 
lij^ed after some time to i*etire, .ind of course tlie artillery. 
Superior numbers however rushed upon them and made 
their retreat neteiiSitrv, not however without great loss on 
the part of the enemy. • » - *•*<■= —^- ' ■ >■* 

The rig^ht and centre of Slansbiiry's brigade consistingrof 
Lieut. Col. Hagairsand ShulerN regiments, generally ^ave 
way very soon afterwards, with the exception of about 40, 
rallied b\ Col. K.igan, after having lost his horse, and tiie 
■whole or a »arl oi Capt. Shower's company, both of whom 
•Gen. Stansbury represents to have made, even thuki desert- 
ed, a gallant stand. iL 

T5*e reserve under Brig. Gen. Smith of the District of 
Columbia, with the militia of the city and Georgetown, 
with the regulars and some detachments oi Maryland mili- 
tia, flanked on their right by Com. Barney, and his hrave 
fellows, and Lieut. Col. Beal, still were on the right on the 
hill, and mamtained the contest for some time with great 
effect. ;. .. ,(,('-, 'ir.H 

' It is not with me to report the conduct of Com. Barney, 
and-his command, nor can Lspeak from observation, being 
too remote, but the concurrent testimony of all who did ob- 
serve tbem, does them the highest justice for their lirave 
resistance and the destructive tffect they produced on the 

enemy. K ■!?■• * ?.?;..,> i ;,' ,..•.•(;■< ».;';?;.■: ■: :''■ 

From the best intelligence, there remains but little doubt 
that the enemy lost at least four hundred killed and wound- 
ed, and of these a very unusual portion kitied. 

Our loss cannot, 1 think, be estimated al oiorethan from 
thirty to forty killed, and Hfty to sixty wouiMled> and one 
hundred and twenty prisoners. - is 

* ;• I am, with very ereat respect, &c. 

WILLIAM H. WINDER 



: 1 



rv 



i\ ;,A :( 1 i> if 



:» » 



1 '"I 



UU9TORT OF Tlf« WAR. 



'271 



rreat loss on 



Com. Bametf t*> fhe Sfcreloty o/ihe Navy. ^ ^» 
Faiin, at Elk ruige. Annr, '29,' i814. ' 
\Extract.^^ SlU — This is the first niumeiit I have ti»cl it 
in iny power to innke u roporl ot lh#* |)r<»<'et'din}j"« of th© 
force* aml^r my conimBud since I had the honor ofseei.ig 
yon on Tuts(iay, the '2-3<l iust. at the camp at the 'Old 
iFields.' On the afternoon of that day we were inUinneU 
thid ihe enemy was advancing upon us. U«r army was 
n«t into order of bailie and onr posil.ons Inken ; my forces 
werv? on Uie right flanked l>y llie iwo batalionsof t»> 3(}th 
and 38lh n'Sjimtnts, A iilllf Inlore suhsel Gen. Winder 
came to me and recominended that the heavy arlillery 
shouhl bo withdrawn, with the exceplion ofoiie 12 pouiulpr 
to cover the reti-eat. We took np Ihe line of march in the 
i;inrht, and entered Washiug-ton by ihe Easttni Branch 
briHge. The Gen. requesud me to take command and 
place my artillei-y to derend tiie passage of the bridge on 
ihe Eastern Branch, as the enemy was approaching the 
city in that direction. I immediately put. my guny in posi- 
tion, leaving the marines and the rest otmy men at the bar*' 
racks, to wait further orders. I was ir? this situation when 
1 Irnd the honor to meet you, with the Presideiit, and heads 
of Departments, when it was determined I snouiddraw off 
my gnns and men, and proceed towards Bladensburgh, 
which was immediately put into execuljon. Oti ourwaj I 
was informed the enemy was within a mile of Bladensburjrh ; 
we hurried on, though the day was very hot, and my men 
much crippled from the severe marches *;> ; 'lad experienc- 
ed the preceding da\s. I preceded the men, and when I 
arrived at the line which separates the District from Ma- 
ryland, the battle beii^aii. I sent an officer back to hasten 
on my men — ihey came up in a iroi. We look our position 
on the rising ground, put the pie^^s in battery, posted the 
marines under Capt. Miller, and flotilla men, who were to 
act as infantt*y under their own officers, on my right, to 
support the pieces, and wailed the approach of the enemy. 
During this period the engagement continued — the enemy 
advancing, and our army retreating before ihem — appar- 
ently in much disorder. At length tlie enemy made his 
appearance on the main road in force and m front of my 
battery, and on seeing us made a halt ; I reserved our fire ; 
and in a few cniiiules the enemy again advanced, when I 



in. 



«dv , >" 



1|:;| 



4 



272 



MISTOAY OF TH£ WAM. 



i I 



ll' 




ordered an IS pounder io (>e tired, which complelely cl^at 
ed the mud ; nhorllv aJlir, a Mecoud and third attempi wa> 
made hy theeiitrnv to come forwstrd, but all who madelhf 
ulttinpl were desliuye*!. The enemy then crossed over u>. 
to an open fiejd and Hlteiii|)U:d to flank our right. He was 
there met h) Unee 12 pounders, the marnieK under Capluin 
Miller, and inv uun acting as infantry, and a^ain uasio. 
tally cut up. Bv Uiis lime not a vestige of the Amenciin 
army remained, except a body o\' live or six hundred post- 
ed on a heioflit on my ri^ht, from whom I expected much 
support from their line situation. The entuiy from llns 
period never appeared in front of us. He however pusiied 
forward his sharp shooters, one of whom shot my hoist 
from under me, which lell dead between two of my guns. 
TliC enemy, who had been kejit in ciieck by our tire nearly 
hair an hour, now f>ej>an to out Bank us on the righr. Our 
guns were tur*ied that vva\— ue pushed up the hill about 
two or three hundred men towards lln> corps of Americans 
stationed as above described, who, to my great morlitica- 
tion made no resistance, givinj; afire or two and retirii.g. 
Ill this situation we hi'd ihe whoie army of the ei>emy to 
contend with ; our ammunit; x^ was expended, and tinlor- 
tunately the drivers of my a»"*>minntion waggons had gone 
off in the general panic. Al this time I received a se\tre 
wound in my thigh. Fiiid'ng the enemy now com[)lelely 
in our rear and no means of delence, I gave orders to my of- 
ficers and men to ret. re. The great loss of blood occasion- ^ 
cd such a weaknens that I was compelled to lie down. 1 ri- 
quested my officers to leave me, winch Uiey obslmalely re- 
fused, but upon bemg ordered, they obeyed : one only re- 
mained. In a short time 1 observed a Brilish soldier atid 
had him called, and directed him to seek an officer j in a 
few minutes an otiicer c .me, who, on learning w ho I was, 
b;ought Gen. Ross and Aiimiiai Cockburn to me. Thest 
officers behaved to me with the most marked attention, res 
peel, and politeness ; had a surgeon brongiit, and my 
wound dressed innnediattly. Aflerafew minutes coii>er- 
sation, ihe (jeoeriil i iformed Cafter paying me a handsome 
coui.linK; i,)lliat I vsus paroled, and at liberty to procetil 
to Waslunglo. or Biadeiisburgl., offering me every ass.Nt- 
ant em Ins power, giving orders for a liUer to be brougli! 
ill whicli I was carried to Biadensburgh, .... 



li 

eiig 

ofll 

C'vei 

com 

At 

her 

eliij 

wllfc 

the 
aoe 

thf; 

wh 

f^prf 

mi 



fllSTOUV or TIIR WAR. 



Uli\ 



My Wuund is <lfep, hnl I rtallf r niVHclf not Han«><'rou.s ; 
the ball in not >t texlracU'd. 

JOSH IT A BAUNKY. 



4'om. ISJacdonovtfh to tin- Srcrvlnnf of the \artf. 
r. S. shi|> Saratoirn, ()rt'Pl.ilUlMirj=:, N-pl. 1 1, l'si4. 
SIR. — The /Vliniiiiily Uwh l)feii pU.NtMl loifr.<nlUH si si<]f- 
iial victory on l>ake C.isun|>lHni, ill tlx* rnpturc ot one frig- 
ale, one briii^, aitdtwo siooj>s<»l war oi ih'* enemy. 
1 have the huttur lu be, Vvtr. 

T. MACDONOUGH. 

Coin. 31ardonnvqh to the St'crctnri/ of the Xavy. 
U. S. ship Sanitot^a, lU iiuhoroff) 
PlaltNbnru, Sept. 1:3, IM14. J 

SIR — Bv Lieut, cominan'iaot Cissiii, I hav«- the honor 
to convey to von the Hal's (», hs Britannic majesty*!* late 
sqnadron, rajituretl on the 1 l(h nisi, by the U. States* 
si|u;ulron under my conimand, ((>•;) (her with tliepartieulars 
ot the action which look plact- on the 1 1 th niMt. on this lake. 

\l 8 A. M. the look-out boat announced the apjiroacli 
of the enemy. Ai 9, he anchored in a line ahead, at 
about three hundved yards distance from my line ; his ship 
opjjosed to the :*arato<ra, his brl^: l<» the E lyfle, his g-allies, 
thirteen in iiutiiber, to the Mchuoner, («loo|), and a division 
of our Rallies ; one of his sloops assisl m^ their sh p and 
brig, the other assisting their gallics. Our remaining gal- 
lics witii the 8aiato««a and Eagle 

In this situation the whole force on both sides became 
engaged, the Saratoga snrt'eriiig much liom the heavy tire 
of the Contiance. 1 could perceive at tlie same time, how- 
ever, that our tire was very destructive t j her. The Ti- 
coiukroga gallantly sustai.ied her full share of the action. 
At half past 10 o'clock the Eagle, not bung able to bring' 
her guns to bear, cut her cable and anchored in a more 
elligible position, between my ship and the Ticoiideroga, 
where she very much annoyed the enemy. Our guns on 
the starboard side being nearly ail dismounted, or not man- 
ageable, a stern anchor was let go, the bower cable cut, and 
the ship winded with a fresh broadside on ihe enemy's ship, 
which soon after surrendered. Onr broadside was then 
sprutig to bear on the bng. whi<'li surrendered in about 1^ 
minutes after, -Vf 



\\k 



i-k> ^ 



274 



illSTORY OP THE WAR. 



M 



!|.( 









1 ' ] 






; 


-i 


!; 



I'! 

: i 



^t 



S:;|:; 



The hIoo|> llint wkh opposed to lh« Ea^lo, had xtrnck 
some time i»efore and fihl'ted down \\u' line; the sloon 
whicli was with their ^allies having striirk also. Thr«e 
of their p^id I it's are sad to be sMh>k, the oth«'r» pulled nlV. 
Our i^rallit-s were about obcyinsr w^th alacrity the sijjna! lo 
follow them, when all the vessels were reported tu nie to 
be ma siiikinjB^ ststte : it then became necessary to annul 
the sig-nal to the trallies, and order their men to the pumps. 

I could only look at the enemy's gallies goin<r oti' in a 
shiitlered conditio!i,for tliertt was- not a mast in either squud- 
rui) that eould stsmd to make sad on. 

The Saritotj-.* hul fifly-ftve round shot in her hull ; the 
Confi;ince one hundred and five. The enemy's shot pas- 
sed pnncipallv just over our heads, as there were not 20 
whole hamm cks in the nettin^fs at the cMose of the action, 
which lasted willfaut mternussion two hours and Iwenty 
niinnles. 

The Saralog-a was twice set on fire with hot shot fronv 
the enemy's ship. i 

I have the honoi* to be, 8cc. ' •' 5^' 

,.iu > M. . T.MACDONOUGH. 

. P. S. — ^Accompanying- this is a list ot killed and wound- 
ed, a lisl oi' prisoners — and a precise statement of both forcef^ 
engaged. 



AMElilCitN 


FOKCE 


AND 


LOSS; 


Ships. 


guns. 


men. 


kdled. 


wounded. 


Saratot^a, 


26 


210 


28 


29 


Fasrle, 


20 


120 


13 


20 


Ticouderoga, 


17 


110 


6 


6 


Piel.le, 


7 


30 


2 




lOGuu Boats, 


16 


3o0 


3 


3 



m 



820 52 



58 



SRITISH rORCE AND LOSS. 



1 


II 


,l 


Ih 

i 


i 


1 



-J 



Ships. 


guns. 


men. 


killei 


1. won 


Coiitiance, 


3i) 


300 


50 


60 


Liiiiiet, 


16 


120 


20 


:^> 


Growler, 


1 


40 





10 


Eiii^-.e, 


40 


8 


10 


13Gun Boats, 


18 


550 


90 


sunk 



96 



1050 17 i 110 



HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



276 



Note. — The foUowiutf vatuabie pntjHrltf mis taken on ftotird 
the fie(4, to Wit : — 1 1,K\H) lbs. oj pon'th r exihisive of Ji.red 
awmunUum — Hij,U(>0 lbs. of cvunnn b*tll — (MX)0 musfuls — 
i^suitH oj sailors cUithmtfy and all the winter clothiuy of 
the nUote of' their land army. 

Gen. Macomb to the Sccreianf of War. ^ 

P.altslmlp^Sej.l. 12, 1811. 

[Extract^ S2R — I Imvf, (heliunor lo inform yoii thai ihc 
British army coumiandetl by sir Georsf^ Prevost, consist- 
iiijr of tour briyfiuies, a corps of artillery; a sqiuulroii of 
borse, and a strong jiirht corps, imioimtinir in all to 14,<K)0 
men, after invest intj^ this )>lac*e on the north of the Saran:ic 
river since the 6th inst. broke up their camp and ral^cd 
tlie siei^e this morninij^at 2 o'clock, retreatiaj^ pi'ecipilaielv, 
and leaving their sick and wounded behiiul. The !>treii<^th 
ol this g-arrison is only 1500 men fit for duty ! ! 

The light troops ami mililia are in full pursuit of the 
•iieiny* making prisoners in all direcUons. Upwards of 
:}iK) deserters have already come m, and many arrive hour- 
ly. Oar loss inthe fort istnfling indeed, havinor only one 
otScer and 1 5 meu killed, and one oilicer and ^U men 
wounded. 

Vast quantities of provision were left liehind, and de- 
stroyed ; also an immense quantity of bomb shells, cannon 
ball, grape shot, ammunition, flints, (Sec. &c. intrenching 
tools of all sorts, also tents and marquees. A great deal 
bas been found concealed in the ponds and creeks, and bu- 
rled in the ground, and a vast quantity carried oft* by the 
inhabitants. Such was the precipitance of his retreat, that 
he arrived at Chazy, a dislaiuie of eight miles be ore M'e 
discovered that he had gone. '• 

We have buried the British officers of the army and navy, ' 
with the honors of war, and shewn every attention and kind- 
ness lo those who have fallen into our hands. The con- 
duct of the officers, non-commissioned officers and soldiers 
ot'mv command, during this trying occasion cannot be re- 
presented in loo high terms. I have the honor to be, Ace 

ALEXANDER iMACOMB. . 

AMERICAN I.t»SS. .?/ 

Killed 37 — wounded 02 — missing 20. <n} 

UKl'l'ISll LOSS. ^ 

Killed 308 — wounded 494 — prisoners 252 — deserted 78Q. 



ui 



lii 






\n 






276 



HISTORY OP T1I£ WAR. 



f, 
1% 



^ 



:i iilif' ' 




\M 


1 


' Hi 


1 


2LBJ5 


M^ 



BurnUuf of Pctijutvife. — Bctweeu 10 and 11 o'do^'k, P. 
M. oi' A|)ril 7ili, 181 1, Hi\ Ikilisli boats were ulisrovcrnl 
coiiiiiitr iiitti Coiihcclicul river ; b> I'i, a large forrc ot IIkj 
^iieiny had liiUeii |iOHsesKiuii of an old fori at Su}l»roi>k 
^ >iiit, where, finding iiothin<j, llie fort haviiifv been decay. 
« <i for several \rars, n -eiilered tlieir boats, and proeeednl 
f'l' P t,i|iuii2r( Point, tMiiiles iiij^^Jier U|» the river, wlitrt; 
tb< y irrived abont 1 oV ock. Tlie vessels in the harbor 
ht\\\r on Hre. iirst ga>e notice that the enemy was near. 
Tliere was not lime after the alarm, to fjel the women ami 
clnldren off, b« fore the enemy had landed, an<l began 
bnrniiig the ve>s is on the sloeks ; they inmiediutely rutii- 
meneed searcbint; the houses and stores, for arms an«i aiii. 
nimntion, taknigab liiey could find, and destroying furui. 
ture to a considerable amount ; liquors of all kinds, wiieii 
found, after satisfyiujuf themselves, were destroyed by stay- 
ing^ the casks. Tiiere was no opposition to then' plunder, 
altboug-h they remained on shore till 10 o'clock, when 
they called ii their men, and proceeded down tlie river 
About a mile, with a brig, a schooner, and '2 sloops, where 
they anchored and lay till dark, v^ hen they set fire to their 
prizes, and proceeded down to their vessels. 

Attack on Stonim/ton. — The British fleet off New-Lon- 
don having been reinforced on the 9th August, 1814, a 
part of it, to wit, 01 e 74, two frigates, a sioop of war, and 
a brig, appeared off Stoninglon, when sir 7 homas Hardy 
sent a flagon shore for the infonnatioii of the women and 
children, ih'dt if the town was not surrendered m 01.^ hour, 
the whole should be laid in ashes. The inhabitants in- 
formed sir Shomas, that Stowrii/ton was not Petipavt/e, 
and { repared their cannon, 2 long eighteens's, and one G 
pounder for defending themselves. The attack began at 
9, at night, and contnued till 1 in the uiorning, with round 
fihot, bombs, and rockets. The militia, 30 in number, re- 
turned the tire with great vigor and effect. The attack 
"was renewed next morning, and as warmly rese.ited — their 
brig, which lay nearest shore, was almost cut to pieces, 
and one barge, full of men, was sunk, when the enemy 
withdrew. Our loss was 4 wounded, 2 houses lired, and 2 
horses killed. On the 1 1th they again attacked the place, 
betore which, the humane sir Thomas sent in anqther M- 



vr 'v 



V— -SUf^ '■ 



HISTORY OF TUU WAR. 



.^7 



III uii^ iiour, 



inaiultor iU surrender, nccompai.ieil with a ihrrnt thnt if it 
was not coinplii'd uith, he would lay thrtovtniit ashc**, orxa* 
crificehiHwhoteJorcft cmmstoiif oj \'6 xh'ps oj wur. Oir 
little hand of Heroes paid little attention to Iih threat, hut 
wont steadily to work at their cannon, and muNUd the en- 
emy so, that he was obliy^cd to ahandon the expedition." r)*^ 

♦♦f -T ".*« r'4i,> •'*!>■ — t't.f't 

y A Gen. Smilh to the iSecretary of HV/r. *> 

iiallmiore, Scpi ID, 1815. 
[^Extract.'] SIR — I have the honor of s\\\\\ ^ \\\,\\. the 
enem> landed heiween 7 andH(KX) tneno<i tin- liili iiisl. at 
^\)rth Point, 14 miles distant Irom ih.s cMty. Auiicipa- 
ting this deharkation. Gen. Striker had Inen d(:tu<-hed on 
Sunday evening with a portion of his iM-io-afio, to check 
any attempt the eneui) mi^ht make in lhal<piui-ifr to land ; 
the General took a |>ositioii on Monday, at the jiiiteuoii of 
the two roads leading from this ^ilace lo the PiMst, liiiving 
his right flanked on Bear Creek, and ins Icti i)y a iti irsh. 
Here he waited tha approach of the •neniv, atttr wmg 
sent on an advance corps. Between two aiut ltir<v •'clock 
the enemy's whole force came up, und contu-n iced the 
battle by some discharges of rockets, which wtt.; succeed* 
ed by th« cannon from both sides, when the t on became 
ji^enerai. Gen. Strieker gallantly maintni • ^^ his <; round 
against this great superiority of numbers, i^ ■•'■■ iioiir atd 20 
minutes, when his left gave way and he vv.i>;)blig\d to re- 
tire to the ground in his rear. Ue there iu ine«i ins brig, 
ade, but the enemy not thinking it advisab e to pnr.Mie, i e 
fell back, according to previous arrangeinents, a.id formed 
on the left of my entrenchments. 1 feel a pride in the be- 
lief, that the stand made on Monday, in no small degree, 
tended to check the temerity of a toe, danng to invade a 
country like ours. Major General Ross the commander 
in chief of the British forces, was killed in this action. 
About the time Gen. Strieker joined my left, he w.s joined 
by Gen. Winner, (who had been stationed on the west side 
of the city,) with Gen. Douglass' brigade of Virgijiia mili- 
tia, and the U. S. dragoons, who took post on the left of 
Gen. Strieker. Meanwhile, Gens. Stansbiiry and For- 
man, the seamen and marines under Com. Rodgers, the 
Pennsylvania volunteers under Cols. Cobean and Findley, 
tihe Baltiqiore artillery under Col. Harris, and the luarine 



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HISTORY OF THE WAM, 



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artillery un er Capt SlilcM, maimed the lr«iicucs and bal • 
terieu — all prepared lo meet the enemy. 
*i On TueH<luy the eiieiuy U|>|>eared in front ni my en . 
trenchiniMils, at the distance} ui two mdes, on ilu- Plnlia. 
delpina ruad, and allein|»te<l hy a circuitous rout, to marcii 
agaiiiMt our lel'l, and enter the city; Ofmn^'s Winder :iud 
8.ricker were orden d to adapt tlieir inuvi'iueiitN ho hh tu 
defeat tlit'ir iuteutions, which completely succecd«'<l. TIiih 
inuvemeiit induced the inieiuy to roiiccnlrat*; Iiin forccM hy 
one or two o'clock, in my trout, pnthinir his advance to 
within a niil« of our videttes, and sheuini; an intention of 
At^ackin^ un that eveninsc. 1 drew Generals Winder and 
tStricker nearer to the l«>it of my enlrenchnients, ami to (lie 
right of the enemy, with the intention of faltiii||f on his re^tr, 
should he attack me ; oi, if hedechned il. of attackicjr hini 
in the moriiini^. To this movement, and m\ detenceN, 
v^hich the eneiuy had the fairest opportunity of obKervi,,{r, 
1 attrilHile hiw rt treat, wbicli v%a.s commenced at 1 o'clock 
the next morning, in which tie was so favored, by the ex- 
treme darkness at>d continued rain, that we did noi discov- 
«r it until day light. A considerable detachment was sent 
in pursuit, but the troops being ho worn down by fatigue, 
that « iicy conld do nothing more than pick up a few strag- 
<^lers ; ihey completed their embarkation the next day at 
1 o'cl«)ck. 

I have now the pleasure of calling \our attention to tlie 
brave commander of fort McHenry, Major Armistead, and 
to the operations in that cpiarter. .cm »!<• n-t ^4l ^ni . '< 

Maj. Armistead had under Irs command one company 
of U. S. artillery, two do. sea fencibles, three dc. of Balti- 
more artillery, a detachment from Com. Barney's flotilla, 
an<i about GOO militia, in all about 1000 men. 

On the 12th, IGKhips, including 6 bomb ships, anchored 
abmit two miles from the fort. The next morning at sun- 
rise, Uie enemy commenced tiie attack, from his bomb ves- 
sels, at the distance of two miles, which was out of our 
reach. At 2 o'clock one of our guns was dismounted, 
which occasioned cocLsideruble bustle in the fort, killing 
one and wounding several, which induced the enemy to 
draw his ships within a g. od striking distance, when the 
Major opened a well directed tire upon them for haifiiu 
hom', which caused them lo haul oii' to their old position^ 



rnSTO»Y OF THP. UMfc. 



«7» 



unchored 
ig at sun- 
»oaib ves- 
ut of our 
niouuteil, 
I, killing 
enemy to 
when the 
II' halt au 



wl»ei» our brave little hanil pave llip«e rliccrs, aixl ugaia 
craved rtniii^. Availing fht-niMheH of the darkness nl the 
nit;hl, thi V hnjl punhed n c«»nMidiral)le force •b-ne the fort, 
hikI turmed mi u half circle, \»hen they connneiiced firiitj 
u<rain, \%liic'h was retnriied with ^pir t, for more than two 
hours when the enemy were ajjain obltjjed to haul oftV 

J)urin«j^ tb< iMMuhardnient, which lasted !>.!> honrn, on the 
part of the enemy* from 15 to lHtK> shells were thrown by 
them ; 4<M)of whirh fell inthefi>rt, lhreaUMiiii«jrde«trnction 
to all within, but wonderful as ittnuy appear, only 4 of oar 
men were killed, and *2i wounded. 
I have the honor lo be, ^c. 



s. smith: 



I AMERICAN 

Killed 2 I— wounded l»i 

BRITISH LOSS. 

Killed *97 — wounded 105— prisoners 130. 



ig 47. 



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Gen. Juckson lo the tSecretary of War. 

Mobde, September 17, 1814. 

[Extract.'] SIR — With lively emotions of satisfaction, I 
communicate that success has crowned the gallant eflbrt» 
olour brave soldiers, in resisting and repulsing a combin- 
ed British naval and land force, which on the loth iiist. at- 
tacked fort Bowyer, on the point of Mobile. 

The ship whieh was destroyed, was the Hermes, of fron» 
•21 to 28 guns. Captain the hon. William H. Percy, senior 
officer in the Guli' of Mexico ; and the brig so considera- 
bly damaged is the Sophie, 18 guns. The other ship was 
the Carrou,o('from 24 to 28 guns ; the other brig's name 
unknown. 

Oil board the Carron 85^ men were killed and wounded ; 
among whom was Gol. Nicoll, of the royal marines, who 
lost an eye by a splinter. The land force consisted of 
110 marines, and 200 Creek Indians, under the command 
ot'Ca])t. Woodbine, of the marines, and about 20 artille- 
rists, with one four and fthalf ineh howitzer, from which 
tlii^y discharged shells and nine pound shot. They re-em- 
barked the piece, and retreated by land towards Pensaco- 
la, whence they came. 

By the morning report of the 16th, there were present in 
the fort, ftl for duty, officers and men, 158. 

I have the honor, &r. ANDREW .T ACK«OIV 



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tij, ; , Gen. Brown to the SitrekaryofWar. 
tiW"': . Fort Erie, 8c|>i.20, 1814. 

^ [ExHact] fSIB--ln mv teller of the 18th iiist I brit-tfy 
inronriHi >ou of th<^ fort luiale issue of the sortie which took 
pl^ce the day preinecln ur. 

The enFm\*M c mp I had ascertained to be sitiLited in a 
fiield surrounded by Mood.«» nearly two miles diHlnnt from 
their batterifs and eu renchtnents, the object of which was 
to keep the parts ot the force which wan nolupoii duty, ort 
of the range of our tire from fort £rie and Black Rock. 
Their inf nitry wa* formed into three bri^^ades, estimated 
at 12 or 15 hnntired men each. One of these brigades, 
with a detail from the.r artillery, was stationed at their 
works, (these beiu'if about ^(K) yards* distant iroin old fort 
Erie, and the ri^^ht ot our line.) We had already siitTered 
much from the iiie of two of their batteries, and were aware 
that a third was about to open upon us. Under Uiese cir- 
cumstances, f resolved to storm the batteries, destroy the 
cannon, and roughly handle the brigade upou duty, l^efore 
tho^e ifi reserve could be brought mto action. 
f Oul^'c morning of the 17th, the mfantry and riflemen, 
regulars and militia, were ordered to be paraded and put 
in readiness to march precisely at 12 o'clock. Gen. Por- 
ter with the volunteers, Cul. Gibson with the riflemen, and 
Major Brooks with the 20d and 1st infantry, and a few- 
dragoons acting as infantry, were ordered to move from 
the extreme left of our position upon the enemy's right, by 
a passage opened through the woods fur the occasion. 
Gen. Miller was direcle 1 to st-ation his command in the 
ravine which lies i«t-lAvten fort Erie and the enemy's bat- 
teries, by passing' iiiern by detacimients through the skirts 
of the wood — ^uid the 21sl infantry under Gen. iiipley was 
posted as a corps of reserve between the new bustiuns ot 
fort Erie ; all under cover, and out of the view of the enemy. 

About 20 minutes befoie three, P, M, I found the left 
columns, u idertiie cointnand of Gen. Porter, which were 
destined to turn the enemy's right, witiiin a few rods of the 
British entrenchments. They were ordered to advance 
and commence ihe action. Passing down the raviue, I 
judged Irotii the report of iniiNketry, that the action tiad 
coiliine:*r('ii on uur iett; i now hitttened to Gftfl* Miller, 
and directed him to seize tiie moment and pierCf ^e en- 



.£. 



HISTORT or THC WAR. 



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9,1HU. 
t. 1 biierty 
which took 

liiated in a 
iNiant tVom 
which Mias 
n tiuty« ork 
lack Uock. 
» egiininled 
e brigades, 
led at their 
Bin old tort 
Bwly suffered 

were awnre 
it Uiese cir- 

destroy ihe 
ckity, before 

lid riflemen, 
ded and put 
, Gen. Por- 
riflemen, and 
, and a few 
move from 
ny's right, by 
the occasion. 
nwand m the 

eiiemy'8 bat- 
igh the skirls 
II. Uipley was 
(V bustioiiH ol 
/of the enemy 
toimd the left 
r, which Nvert 
ew rods of the 
•ed to advance 

the ravine, I 

the AC^ipn ^'^'^^ 
o GwiMiUer, 

pierCf Jlije en- 



emy's entrenchmenlH lietwceii hallerit^ No. 2 and 3. My 
orders were promptly aikd ahly executed. Within :)0 
utiiiules idter the first trim u;im Hred, butterieii No. 2 and 8, 
the fueiny*.** hue of eiitreiiciiineiils and his tuu block 
hiiuses were hi our poK.sessi)»ii. hooti after bait ry No. 1 
was :ibnidoued by llie Bnlrh. The gnns in each were 
k|>iked by us or otherwise destroyed, uud the m.igaz iie 
lit No. 3 w SIS blown up. 

A few minutes liefure the explosion, I had ordered up 
ihi' reserxe uiuier Gt'ii. Ripley. As lie pansed ine at the 
head of his colomn, I desired him, as he wuuld be llie 
senior in advance, to ascertain as near as possible, the situ- 
ation of the troops in general, and to have a care that not 
Qiore was hazarded than the occasion required ; that the 
ubject of the sortie eflected, the troops would retire in good 
Older, 8cc. Gen. Ripley passed rapidly on — soon afler, I 
became alarmed for Gen. Miller, and sent an order for the 
21st to hasten to his support towards battery No. 1. Col. 
Upham received the order, and advanced to the aid of 
Gei). Miller. Gen. Ripley had inclined to the letl, where 
Major Brooks* command was engaged, with a view of 
making some necessary enquiries of that officer, antt ia 
the act of doing so was unfortunately wounded. By this 
tiuio the object of the sortie was accomplished beyond my 
most sanguine expectations. Gen. Miller had consequent* 
ly ordered the troops on the right to fall back—- observing 
this movement, I sent my stati' along the line to call in the 
other corps. Wilhin a few minutes they retired from the 
laviiie, and from thence to camp. 

Thus 1000 regulars, and an equal portion of militia, in 
one hour of close action, blasted the hopes of the enemy^ 
ilestroyed the fruits of oO days labor, and diminished hie 
fti'ective force 1000 men at least. ! 

Lieut. Gen. Drummond broke up his camp duriMg the 
night of the 21st, and retired to his «utrei*climents hehiiid 
ilio Chippewa. A party of our men came up with the 
rear of his army at Frenchman's ceek; the enemy do- 
Nti'oyed part of tlietr stores by setting fire to the bnildinffs 
from which they were employed in conveying them. We 
t'ouiid ill and about their camp a considerable quantity of 
''annVin ball, an t\ npw.nrds of iO ' stund of arms. 



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282 



BISTOKY OF THE WAR. 




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I send you enclosed herein a return of our losx. The 
return of prisoners enclosed due» not include the straggUirw 
that came in after the action. 

I have the lionor to be, &c. 

JACOB BReWN. 

AMERICAN UOHH, 

Killed 79— wounded 214— missing 218. 

BRITISH LOSS. 

1. Killed 27 1 — wounded 311 — prisoners 386. 






BLAKELEY's SECOND VICTORY. 

Capl. Blakeky to the Secretary of the Aavy. 

U. S. S, Wa8t>. at sea, Sept. 1 1, 1814. 
[Eo'iract.^ SIR-^ — I have the honor of infonningr you of 
the deslruclion of H. B. M. brig Avon, of 18 guns by thij* 
ship on tl>e 1st inst. At U, 30 mitiules P. M. discovered 
4 siiil; two on our starboard, aiuUwoon our larboard bow; 
htiultd, up for one on our starboard bow, being farthest to 
windward. At 7, the brig made signals, with i)ags, lan- 
terns, rockets, and guns. At 9, 29, the chase being, under 
our lee bow, commenced the action, by iinng a 12 \b. car- 
ronade at him, which he returned, when we run under his 
lee bow, to prevent his escaping. At 10, believing the 
enemy to be silenced, ceased tiring, and hailed and asked 
if he had surrendered. No answer being given, and he. 
having recommenced firing, it was returned. At 10, 1:.^ 
the enemy having suffered greatly, and having made no re- 
turn to our two last broadsides, 1 hailed the second time, 
when he answered in the affirmative. The guns were 
then ordered to be ; red, and the boat lowered to take 
possession. In theac -..i lowering the boat, a second hvi^ 
iwaA discovered i;lose. under our stern, and standing for us. 
Sent the crew tc» quarters, and prepared for another action, 
Urid waited hps coming up. At 10, 3G, discovered two 
more sails astern, standing for us. Our braces having been 
cut aivay, we kept oil' the wind, until olbers could be rove, 
with the exi)ectai ion of drawing the second brig from bis 
n'onipaoions, but was disappointed : having contuuied ap- 
pr0ac!uug us until within gun shot she suddenly hauled by 
the wind, iired a broadside, which done considerable dam- 
age, and soon retraced her steps to join her consorts. Our 
prize, V hen we abandoned her, was firing guns of dilstress; 



HISTORY OF Tins WAR. 



S83 



tbe two last sailM came to her as^iHlance, in time to Mve 
her crew troiii Minkiiig; witli the v«**tsel, which went clown 
soon uUerviards. 
, ^ 1 l»HVc the honor to be, Sec. 

J. BLAKELEY. 

AMERICAN LOSS. 

Killed 2 — VVoniided 1. i k'j W»^ '»»n 

BniTlSH LOSS. lAMlrr{ 

Killed 12~Wounded 33. i v^ 



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Gen. M* Arthur to the Secretanf of War. 

H. a. DetroiuNov. 18, 1814. 

[Extract^ SIR — I have the honor to re|M)rl to^outhp 
safe return ot' tiie mounted troops to thiit place. 

It was deemed expedient, from the ardour of the Ken- 
tucky and Ohio volunteers and militia, that they should be 
nctively employed in the enemy's territory, with a view to 
ilestroy their resources, and paralize any attempt they might 
make on this post durin<r the winter. Accordm^ly 630 
troops, and 70 Indians, were put in motion to destroy the ' 
valuable mills at the head of Lake Ontario, and Grand 
River. We proceeded over tlie river St. Clair, down to 
the Scotch settlement, up Bear Greek, about 30 miles, and 
across to the Moravian towns, where we arrived the 30lb 
ult. 

We were fortunate at this place in taking a British offi- 
cer who was proceeding to Burlington with the informa- 
tion of our approach, which enabled us to reach Delaware 
town undiscovered. The rangers were detached across 
the Thames, to pass in rear of the town, to guard the differ- 
ent roads, whilst the troops were swimmnig their horses 
across. We were thus enabled to reach Oxford, 150 mdfS 
from Detroit, before they heard of our approach. A few 
hours before our arrival at Buford, the enemy retreated to 
Malcolm's mdls, on the road to Burlington, where they 
were reinforced, to the number of §00 militia, and about 
100 Indians. A deep creek of diflficult passage, except i«t 
a bridge immediately in front of their works, which had 
been partly destroyed, lay between us. Arrangements 
were made for a joint attack on their front and rear. The 
Ohio troops were thrown across, under cover of a thick 
wood, and the Kentucky troops were ordered to attack \\\ 



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HISTORY OF THE WAR, 



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fronl. The enemv were entirely defctiteil nnd di<(porKc'(|, 
wiih Ihe losM of 1 (!)apt. and 17 privatew killed, and 3 Capu. 
5 subalterns, and lO'J privates, taken prisdners. Our i<iN» 
^^^^s only one killed, and six wounded. The next <lav \vu 
proceeded on and took several prisoners, '2W stands of 
arms, and destroyed five valuable mills, when we cuni* 
niei ced our return, march for lliis place, which we reach<id 
yesterday. 

1 have the honor to be, &r. 

D. M*ARTHUR, 

XlP.ii'Hl M^i^f^ BBKwsa- 

:'':;■;£"' -T/CH AFTER XIII. 

o(i !>lrfutiji . Y^k'^f^cksm to Gov. Early, 

,sf .,, jiv V. .;*.*^ ..,...;j. H. Q,. Teiisaw, Nov. 14lh, 1814. 

[Ejffrocl,] Slli — Liist evening 1 relurued from Pensa- 
ColatolhiM place-—! reached tl^at post on the eieningf uf 
thetiih On my approach, I sent JVlaj. Pteire vtith afliig 
to cotupituiicate the(»)>jeclof my visit to (lie Gov, of Peiisa- 
cola, tie appr^nu'hed iort ^i. (i^-orge, with his Hug dis- 
played, ai.d was tin d on byi tiie cunuon from the fort — he 
returned and uiadt- repoii Jher^pf |o me. 1. immedialely 
went with the Adj. Gen. and the Maj. with a small escort, 
and viewed the fv;ri anu found it defended b) British and 
8paitish troops. 1 tuiuiediateiy iietei mined tp storm the 
town. , 

Oil the mornins: of the 7 th, I marched with the eflectivc 
regulars of (he Sd, 39th, and 44lh infantry, part ol Gen. 
G>ff'ee':N. brigade, ll>e Mississippi dragoons, and partol the 
'VV^est TeiiiiesHee regiuieiit, lUml pari of ihe Choctaws led 
by Mi<j i'>lue,of the ;)9th, and Maj. Keiineiiy of the Ms- 
f)issi|ipi territory. Being eit^'PUM-^d on the west of the 
town I caicniiited they wuuhl expect the assuuit from Ihiit 
quarter, aid be prepared to rake iTie from the tort, and the 
British armed vessels, seven in number, that ay m thebiiy. 
To cherish ih s idea I sent out part of the mounted men to 
sf.ow themst heson the we.it, whilst 1 piisstd in rear of the 
fort undiscovered to the east oi the town. When 1 appear> 
ed within a m ie, I was in full view. My prule was iieV' 
friuure iheighleueU iluui yiewui^ ihe iMtifaim tirmness o( 



niilTORY OF Tire WAR. 



i9& 



my troops, nnd wild what iindnui led co«rafif«» <h^y ndvBiic- 
ed, with n Mtroiig tort rtud} to asHuil them uti (he rigfht, 7' 
British arm«='(t veHtteK on the lett, uitd stroii«2^ blorkhoiiMe* 
itiKl hnlteheHof ciumoii in iheir front, hut they Milladvunc-* 
eik with unxhnkentirmneMs, entered the loun, when u batte- 
ry ot (wocaiino'i wnn opened upon the centre coUinui com- 
posed of the resjrulurs, with hail nnd gni; e, and a shower 
ot iiuHketry from the hoii«i h and gardens. The battery 
was inimedinteiy ittormed h\ Capt. Levall and company, 
and carrie<l, and the niUMketry was suon sileneed by the 
gteady and well directed tire of the rei^nhirs. 

The Gov. metCth. WilhamNoit a d Smith, who led the 
dismounted volunleerM, with a fla«r, begged toi mercy, and 
surrendered the town and fort unconditionally ; mercy was 
granted and protection given to the citr/ens and their prop- 
erty. 

bn the morning of the 8th. I prepared to march and 
storm the Barancas, but, before i could move, tremendous 
explosions totd me that the B'irancas, with all its appen^ 
dages, was blown up. I dispatched a detachment of two 
hundred men to explore it, who returned in the night with 
the information that it was blown up, all the coinbu*»libleJ 
parts burnt, the cannon spiked and dismounted except two: 
this being the case, I determined to withdraw my troops, 
but before I did I had the pleasure to see the British de- 
purl. 

The steady firmness of my troops has drawn a just riss-* 
pect from our enemies — It has convinced the Red Sticks 
that they have no strong hold or prote'tiun, only in iht* 
friendship of the LTtiited Slates. The good order 
and conduct of my troops whilst inPensarola, hascon-^ 
vinced the Spaniards ot our friendship, and prowess, and 
has di'awn from the citizens an expression that our Choc-> 
taws are nioiecivili/ed than the British. 
1 have the honor to be, Ike, 

ANDREW JACKSON. 



Gen. Jackson to the Secretary of War. 

H. Q. New-Orleans, Dec. -27, 1814. ' 

\Extact.] SIR — I have ttie honor to inform yonof thr 

result ol the acium on the 23(i. The loss of our gun boats 

near the pass of tJie Rijulets, have given the enemy com- 



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986 



HISTORY OF THE WAR. 



maiitl of like Bor^no, lie wnH eiKibled to rlioone lils point 
of attack. It lifcumc liiernture tin object of importance lo 
•bHtruct the numerouH Uiyoiis and csinah lt?a<liii^ fi-oni tiiat 
lake, lo the hit^iihindH on tho iMisNi.s.sippi. 'iUin ini|M>rlaiit 
■ervirc wascoiuiiiilted lo MiijorGen. Vjllere, romniamtiii<r 
tbeoifitrict hetMeen the river and the i;ik«^N, and who, heiii«r 
• native of the coiintr}', wh-h preRiinied lo be best acqiuti tied 
vitii all those passes. DntorLnimtely, however, a picqiiet 
^hich the Gen. liad astabhMlied at the mouth of the bavou 
Bienveiiu, and which notwithslandiniif my orders had been 
left nnobslructed, wai^ completely surprise^i, and the enemy 

{)enetrated ihrouj^h a canal ieadmg^ to \m farm, about two 
eagncs below the city, and succeeded in cutting off a coi^i. 
pany of militia stationed there. — ^I'hin inteDigeiiCe Wiig 
communicated to me about ]*2 o'clock on the 22d. My 
force at this time did not exceed in all 1500. 1 arri\ed 
near the enemy's encampment about seven, and imme- 
diately made my dispositions for the attack. His forces 
inmounting' at that time on land tp aliout^OOQ, extended 
half a mile on the river, and in the rear nearly to. the vs^ood. 
Gen. Coffee was ordered to turn their rtglit, whde with tlie 
residue of the force I attacked his strongetit position on the 
left near the river. 

Com. Patterson having dropped down the river in tiie 
schooner Caroline, was directed to open a tire upon their 
camp, which he executed at about half after seven. This 
being the signal of attack, Gen. Coffee a men with their 
usual impetuosity, rushed ou the enemy's nght. and enter- 
ed their oamp, while onr right advanced with equal ardor. 
A thick fog arose about 8 o'clock occasioning some con- 
fusion among the different corps. Fearing the conse- 
quences, under this circumstance, of the prosecution of a 
night attack with troops then acting together foe tiie lii'st 
time, I contented myself with lying on thetieid thatnig-ht; 
and at four in the morning assumed a stronger position 
about two miles nearer the city. 

In this affair the whole corps under my command de- 
serve the greatest cre<lit. The best compliment 1 can j)ny 
to Gen. Coffee and his brigade, is to say, they behaved ns 
tbey have always done while under my command. The 
two field pieces were well served by the officer command- 
inc them. s , , . 



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HISTORY OF THE WAK. 



287 



tVe hnve inadu 1 iiiajur, 2 subulteriis •nul sixty-tiirce 
privaleM |)iiNoii<*ra. 

i have the bonor to be, See. 

ANDREW JACKSON. 

AMEKICAX LOSS. 

Killed and Wounded ICK). 

■.Mii ^ »r r <T BRITISH LOSS. 

Killed and Wuuuded 3 14— Prisoners iHj. 

Gen. Jackson to the Secretari/ of War. 

H. Q,. New-Orleans Jiin. 13, 181'J. 

[Ejt'tract.] SIR — At Huch a erittis i eoiioeive it my duty 
to keep vou coiiHtHiilly advitted of my situalion. 

Eurly on themonini<r of the 8lh, the enemy having been 
actively employed the two |U'ereding^ days in making pre- 
piirations tor a storm, advanced in two strongs columnti on 
my riglil and left. Tliey were received however, with a 
tiimnehs, w hich seems, they little expected, and which de* 
feuted all their hopes. My men undisturbed by their a|>- 
proach, which indeed they long^ anxiously wished for, op- 
ened upon liiem a tire so deliberate and certain, as render- 
ed their sealing' ladders and tascineh, as well as their more 
(lu'ect iniplenioiits of wiirfare, perfectly useless. F(»r up- 
wards of an hour it was contumed wilh a bri.>lvncss of which 
(here have been but few instances, perlixps, in any country, 
bi justice to the enemy it must be said.tiiey withstood it as 
ton<r as coulil have been cxpei ted from the ntost determin- 
ed bravery. At leuL^lb however when all prospect (jf suc- 
cess became hopeles>, ihoy lied in confusion from the tield 
— leaving; it covered wilh their t\eM\ and v >?uMled. 

My loss was incuubiderable ; being oniy seven* killed 
and six wounded. 

Such a disproportion in loss, when we consider the num- 
ber and the kind of troops engaged, must, I know, excite 
astonishment, and may lit.'t, every where, be fully credited : 
yet 1 am perfect! v salisiied that the account is not exag'<^e- 
rated on the one part, nor underrated on the other. 

Whether after the severe losses be has sustained, lie is 
preparing to return to bis shipping, or to make stdi migh- 

* Thismu in the action on Uvu line — aftrnmrds a skirinhhini; nrnkept 
vpin which ajhc more of out- pu:n7ve re (itsl.^ ,, , .. », 




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MIMTOHY 0¥ TUB WAR. 



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tier efforts to attain hiM firat o(>ject, I do not pretrnrt to dc- 
teriiiiiie. \l beconifM inc to act an ttioii<(li the latter Wits 
hJM ititeiitiuii. One Ihinif. however, HeemM certain, that if 
he Atilt calcuhites on c^ectniGf what he has hitherto heeii 
unable toaccoinj>li<«h he niu.st c\|iect couNideraldc rein- 
furcentents, as the force with which he huided, muHt un- 
(lonbtediy be diminished at least 3(MK>. Bisides the Iuhs 
tvhich he Nuntaitif d on the nififht of the 23d nitiino, which 
is etitimalod at tOO, he cannot have Hiitrt red less bet wo u 
that period and the morn in t; of the 8th inst. tlian 300 ; 
having' within that lime, In^en repulsed ni two general ut- 
teinps to drive us from our position, and there havni|r beeu 
continual eannoiiadinir and skirmishing, dunn^ the whole 
of it. Yet he is still able to show a very formid.>ble force. 

The commanding General sir Edward Packenham was 
Ikilled in the action of the Hlh, and Major Generals Keuu 
and Gibbs were mortally wounded. 

I have the honor to be, ilicc, 

ANDREW JACKSON. 



AMEKICAN LOSS. 

Killed i>even — wounded six, 

JilllTlSU LOSS. 

Killed 700— wounded 1400— prisoners 562. 






il- 



Lieui. Shields to Com, Patterson. 

^lew-Orleans, .Tan. 25th, 18?o. 
[Eatract.] SIR — 1 have the honor of reporting^ the rt- 
sultofthe expedition ordered by you on the 17th inst. 
The lOlh, at night, I left the Pass Ciieuf Mcnlenr, having 
made the necessary observations on the enemy before dark, 
with 5 boats and your gitr, manned with oO men. At lu 
P. M. captured a boat l>y surprise, maimed with 56 men. 
The number of prisoners exceeding my men, 1 thought it 
most prudent to land them, topi;event weakemng my force, 
which was accordingly done, and the prisoners were put 
into the charge of the army at the Pass. The 21st, at day 
light, I again fell iulo the track of the fleet. Finding it, 
impossible to make any captures, without being discovtr- 
cd,i determined to run down umoiig tlicm, and slrikj^ at 
every opportunity — hoisted Enirlisii colors, and lode a 
transport boat witi^ 5 men ; or<lert <J ner to follow, atid 
stood I'or a transport schooner, wtth iU men, which! board; 



nisTomr or me waa. 



390 



c(l with H men, and look wiihoiil oppoNilion. From 0, to 
1*2 o'clock* WH were III the iiiid<»l of ihcir boaU, nnil luc- 
ri'fded in tukiii)( •'i more, wilh alioul 70 men. Tlw f nv- 
fny'tHJoMN on this occanion wan 1 10 |>riiioncni, 7 boali and I 
tranNporl Mrliooner. 

I have llie honor to be^ V,c. 

THO. SHIELDS. 

liailinjf masUr Juhmtm in Com. I'attrrmm, 

N'«fU'OrletthN, J.muur) 7, 1815. 
[Ejr/r»cl.] SIH — 1 h.ivi> the pletiMure of nil'ormiii||r yoa 
of my Kuccet-diiif^ in denlroyiii^ a lriinN|iort brig in lake 
Borg-ne, yeMterdiiVf at 4 A M. On lite 6lh initt. I pro- 
ceeded down lf» ih«; etiNl nionili of the PaMM, to atcfrtain the 
enemy *a |K>Mition : finding at anchor there one brig, three 
gnu boatM, three nchoonem, and Neveral bHrget, th«» bng 
lying a mile diNtunt from the others, I returned, and deter* 
mined to make an attein|>t to destroy lur. Mv crew ow 
amounted to 38 men ; with ihiii force I Man « <»iiiident 1 
sliould be able to deHtroy her, although I hid bet-n |irevi. 
uuMJy informed nIio moMiited 4 pieceN of cannon, and 
equipped accordingly. On the tfth At 4 A. M we boarded 
the brig, her crew conniMtingof a Ciptain, a nadiiig ni/tNier, 
and 8 marineN, maknig no refiistaiice. It being nearly 
day-light, 1 ordered the prmonerii into my boat, and net 
fire to the brig, which proved to be the Cyrui, loaded with 
rum, i»read, and Ntddiem clothing. 
I have the honor to be, Jicc. 

WILLIAM JOHNSON. 

ADDRESS, i 

Directed hy Major General Jackson to be read at the head 

of each of the corpt composing the line below Aeiv* 

Orleans, January 21, 1815. 

Citizens and fellow MoidierN ! The enemy hai* retreated, 
wd your General hm now leinure to proclaim to the world 
what he haH noticed with admiration and pride— your un- 
daunted courajre, your oatnotiim and patience, nnder 
hardMbipsund fatigiieH, — Natives of different States, acting 
toj^ether for the fii'Nt time in thiM camp ; differing in habits 
und in language, iiintead of viewing in th^He circumstan- 
t'^s the \rerm of tlmtriHt and division, you have made then 



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mSTORY OF THE WAB. 



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the iource of an hunorable emuUlion, and from the seed* 
ofditconi iUelf have reaped the fruiU of an honorable 
union. Thi* day completea the fourth week iiince lillfHfu 
hiuidred of yoii attacked treble your number of men, who 
had boANled of their diHCipline, and tlieir nervicet, umlfr a 
celebrated leader, in a lon^f and eventful war — attacked 
them in their camp, the moment they had profaned the soil 
of freedom with their hoNtile tread, and inflicted a blow 
which was a prelude to the final reMult of their Attempt to 
conquer, or ilieir poor contrivances to divide us. A few 
kour» was suflicicnt to unite the gallant t»ind, tliough at the 
moment they received the welcome order lo marth, tbey 
were separated many lea{(ues, in diierent directions from 
the city. The gay rapidity of the march, and the cheer- 
ful countenances of the officers end men, would have in- 
duced a belief that some festive entertainment, not the strife 
of battle, was the scene to which they hastent^d with so 
Hiuch-eag^erness and hilarity, lii the conflict that eui^ued, 
the same spirii was Nupported, and my conimunicatioiiM to 
the executive of the U. Htates have testifled the Neuse I en- 
tertained of the nibrits of the cor|>s and oflk'ers that were 
engat^ed. Resting on the field of batiks they retired in 
perfect order on Uie next morning to these lines, destined 
to become the scene of future victories, which they were 
to sbiue \yilhthe rest of you, my brave companions in arms. 
Scarcely were vour lines in a protection against musket 
shot, when on the 'i3d a dispuHition was made to attack 
them with all the pomp and parade of military tactics, as 
impl'^Ved by thos$ Vfctfefans of the Spanish war. 

Their batteries of heavy camion kept up an incessant 
fire; their rockets illuminated the air; and under their 
eov^r two strong columns threatened our flanks. The foe 
indolently tliought that this spectacle was too imposing to 
be resisted, and in the intoxication of his pride he already 
saw our lines abandoned- without a contest — how were 
tbi>se menacing appearaitces met? 

By shouts of defiance, by a manly countenance, not to 
l»e shaken by the roar of his cannon, or by tlie glare of his 
fire-work rockets; by an artillery served with suneiior 
skill, and witli deadly eflect.. Never, my brave friencis, can 
your General forget the testimonials of attachment to our 
glorious cause, of iadigoant hatred to our foe, of effection- 



mSTORY or TUB WAR. 



•J9l 



ate confidrnre in your chief, that ifMoiinfled from every 
fHuk, UH hu piiMHed uloug^yuur line. ThiN uniin itin^ ice le 
duin|>t'(l the roiirnpfe of Ihc enemy ; he flrniiiteil hiN Mcaling 
lAchter.H and laMCines unit tliu thtrutened altuek dwnidied 
into n detnuistrattoHt winch served r^iiiv to ^e\v Hie ejipti- 
ncsHof hix parade, and to inspire you with ajuslcontideuce 
in \unr«ielveA. 

The new year wnn UHlicrcd in with the mont tremendous 
fifi' hiM whole artillery could produce — a few hours only, 
iiowever, were ueeeHsary for the brave and skdful men who 
(iirf ctcd our own to dismount his cannon, destroy his but- 
teries, and eflfectually silence his fire. Hitherto, my brave 
friends, in the contest on our lines, your coiira^j^e had been 
passive only ; you stood with calmness, a Hro that would 
iiave tried the tirmness of a veteran, and you anticipated a 
nearer contest with an eag;erness which was soon to he 
l^ratified. 

On the 8th of January the final effort was made. At the 
dawn of day the batteries o|>ened and the columns aUvanc- 
f(l. Knowing^ that the volunteers from Tennesse and thf 
militia from Kentucky were stationed on your left, it was 
there they directed their chief attack. 

Reasonin«j^ always from false principles, they expected 
little opposition from men, whose officers even were not in 
uniform, who were ignorant of the rules of dress, and who 
liud never been caned into discipline — fatal mistake ! a tire 
incessantly kept up, directed with calmness and unerring 
aim, strewed the neld with the bravest ofBcers and men of 
the column which slowly advanced, accordin^^'to the most 
approved rules ot Guropcan tactics, and was cut down by 
the untutored courage of American militia. Unable to 
iiustain this galling and unceasing tire, soaie hundreds near- 
estthe entrenchment called forquarier, which was granted 
—the rest retreating, were rallied at some distance, but on- 
ly to make ihem a surer mark for the grape and cannister 
shot of our artillery, which, without exagg'eration, mowed 
down whole ranks at every discharge : and at lengih they 
precipitately retired from the tield. 

Our right had only a short contest to sustain with a few 
I rash men, who, fatally for themselves, forced their entrance 
iiUo the untinished redoubt on the river. They werie 
quickly dispossessed, and this glorious day terminated witj) 



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HISTORY or THB WAB. 



a loss In t^e enemv of their commnnder in cliit-f and u\u 
IVlH|or(ieiieral kilted, tinother Major- fnera! woiuul.H, 
tlie moNt experienced and hraveHt of their oflicern, and niori: 
than three lhou>taud men kilU>d« wounded and iniHH:ii(|r, 
vhile our ranks, my friends, were thinned only l>v the Ion> 
of MX of our hrave companions kilUd, and seven disuMtuI 
bv woundv— wonder al iiilerposiliou of Heaven! tinexiuii- 
pled event nt the history of war ! 

Let us be grateful to the Go«l of battles who has dirert- 
«d the arrows of ni<iigiiation aq^ainst our invaders, while 
he covered with his protecting shield tiie brave defenders 
of their country. 

Alter this utisnccessful and disastrous attempt, their 
spirits were broken, their force was destroyed, and their 
whole attention was employed in providing the mea' s of 
escape. Thts they have effected ; leaving their heavy ar- 
tillery in our power, and many of their wounded to our 
clemency. The c«ns« queiices ot' this short, but decisive 
cam|>atgn, are incalculably important. The pride of uur 
arrogant enemy humbled, his forces broken, his leu.lers 
killed, bis insolent hopes of our d<suiiion frustrated — Ins 
expectation of noting in our spoils and wasting our country 
changed into tguoininious defeat, sliaineful Bi<^)it, -and a re- 
luctant acknowledgment of the liumanrty and kindness, oi 
those whom he had doomed to all the horrors and liuiuilia- 
tiuii of a conquered state. 

On the other side, unanimity established, disafFection 
crushed, contidence restored, your country saved from con- 
quest, your property from piilage, your wives and diui^h- 
tent from insult and violation*' — the union' preserved IVnm 
dismemberment, and perhaps a period put by this decsive 
striike to a bloody and savage war, These, my brave 
friends, are the consequences of the efforts } ou have made, 
and the success With which the^ have been crowned by 
Heaven. 

These imporfanl results have been effected by theu \ited 
courage and persevera >ce ui the army ; but which thediC- 
feivni cori'S as well as ihe i.ulv duals th;it cnmt>ose it W' 
ed with each oilier in their exertions to produce. The 
gratiiiitle, the admiration of their country, offers a fairer re- 
ft PnvioM to the atlnek fieri Pnckenham gave out for nattJiimd^ 
|lttttUi> wtd fiouty/ aitdinvuuicd three days riot and jftunder. 



HISTORY OV THfe WAR. 



^•3 



ward than that which any praises of Uie Gen. can bestoWt 
a i<) the be»t in that of which they can never Im> deprived^ 
the ronNcioiiftiieHM o( having done their duty, and of ineni> 
ing^ the applause they will receive. 

Com. Dfcaturtothe Stcreiaryo/ihe Navy. 
\\, B. M.ikliip Endymioii, atsea, Jan. 18, 1815, 
FIR — Tiiepaitit'iil duty of delailiu(jf to you the particu- 
Inr oau<«es which pr^'cndf d and led to the cayiture of the 
lute (T. S. frii^ate President by a Kquadroii of hiH Britannic 
majesty *» xhips* haM devolved upon me. In my cuiumiini- 
caMoii of the 14lh( 1 nude known my inte itioii of proceed- 
ing; to Hf-a on thdteveninj^. Owi g to some mistake of the 
piiotM, the ship in goui^ out grounded on the biir, where 
she continued to strike heavily for an hour and a half ; al> 
though she had broken several of her rudder braces, and 
ha<i received such oher material injury as to render her 
retui'ii into port desirable, I was unable to do so from the 
strong westerly wind which was then blowing. We shap- 
ed our course along the shore of Long-Island and for 50 
miles, and then steered S. £. by £. Al five o'clock, three 
shi,»s were discovered ahead; we immediately hauled up 
the ship and passed two miles to the northward of them. 
At day light, we discovered four ships in chase, one on 
each quarter, and two astern, the leading .shij^i of the eM'3- 
my a razee — she commenced a tire upon us but without 
effect. At meridian the wind became light and balHing ; 
we had increased our distance from the razee, but the 
next ship astern, which was also a large ship* had gained 
and continued to gam upoii us considerably; we inimedi- 
atelyoccu;iied all ha >ds to lighten ship. At 3, we had the 
wind quite light ; the enemy who had now been joined by 
a brig, had a strong breeze, and were coming up with us 
rapidly. TIr £ A\ mion (uiounting 50 guns, 24 ponnders 
o>> the main deck) had now approached us within gunshot 
and had commenced a tire with her bow gnns, which we 
relumed from our stern. At 5 o'clock, she had obtained 
a position on our starboard quarter, within half point 
blank shot, on which neither our Ntern nor quarter guns 
would bear; 1 remained with her in this position for half un 

« Mttjealic razte^ Eiuli/inionf Vumone, Ttnedos, iJu^utch (brig ) 



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HlifrOKY OF THE WAK. 



hour, in the hope that she would close with an on oar 
broadside, in which case I prepared my crew to board, but 
from his continuing^ lo yaw his ship to maintain ht» position, 
it became evident that to close was not his intention. Eve- 
ry fire now cut some of otir sails or ringing. To Imve 
continued our course under these circumstances wou.d 
have been placinpf it in his power to cripple us, without, e- 
ing subject to injury himself, and to have h.iuled up moie 
to the northward to bring our stem guns to bear, would 
have exp<ised us to his raking fire. 

It was now dusk when I determined to alter my course 
south, for the purpose of bringing the enemy abeam, und 
although their ships astern were drawing up fast, 1 feit sit- 
isfied I should be enabled to throw him out of the combat 
before they could come up, and was not without hopes, if 
the night proved dark (of which there was every appear- 
ance^ that I might still be enabled to efiect my escape. 
Our opponent kept off at the same instant we did, and fire 
commenced at the same time. We continued engaged, 
steering south with steering sails set two hours and a half, 
when we completely succeeded in dismantling her. Pre- 
viously to her dropping entirely out of the action, there 
were intervals of minutes, when the ships were broadside 
and broadside, and in which she did not fire a gun. At 
this period, half past 8 oVIock, although dark, the other 
ships of the squadron were in sight, and almost within gun 
shot. We were of course compelled to abandon her. In 
resuming our former course for the purpose of avoiding the 
squadron, we were com|)el led to present our stern to our 
antagonist — but such was his state, though we were thus 
exposed and within range of his guns for half an hour, that 
he did not avail himself of this favorable opportunity of 
raking us. We continued this coni'se until 1 1 o'clnck, 
when two fresh ships of the enemy (the Ponione and Tene- 
dos) had come up. The Pomoue had opened her fire on 
the la«'l>oard bow, within musket shot ; the other attout two 
cables' length astern, taking a raking position on our quar- 
ter; and the rest (with the exception of the Endymion) 
within gun shot. Thus situated. With about one fifth of 
my crew killed and wounded, my ship crippled, and a more 
than four-fold force opp sed to me, without a chance of 
esicape left, I deemed it my duty to surrender. 



HISTORY OF THE WAK. 



206 



It is wilb emotions of pride, I l>ear testimony to the gaU 
laniry RntI KteadinesM of every officer and man I had the 
honor 'c aimaiid ou this occasion, and I feel satisfied 
liiat ihf^t « 1 of their having beaten a force equal to them- 
Kelves, in the presence, and almost under the guns of vastly 
a superior force, when, too, it was almost self evident, that 
whatever their exertions might be, tliey must ultimately be 
captured, will be taken as evidence of what they would 
have performed, had tlie force opposed to them been in any 
degree equal. 

For 24 hours aAer the action it was nearly calm, and the 
squadron were occupied in repairing the crippled ships. 
Such of the crew of ihe President as were not badly wound- 
ed, were put oa board the different ships; myself and a 
part of my crew were put on board this ship. On the I7th 
we had a gale from the eastward, wlieii this ship lost her 
bowsprit, fore and main-masts, and mizen to|i-mast, all of 
which were badly wounded, and was, in consequence of 
her disabled condition, obliged to throw overboard all her 
upper deck guns. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 

STEPHEN DECATUR. 

AMERICAN LOSS. 

Killed 21 — wounded T)/*, ., .„ ■ 

»U1TISI1 LOSS. 

/; Killed Jo — wounded 28» 



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ROYLE'S VICTORY. 
Copt. Boyle to 3Ir. George t*. Stephenson. 

Privateer Chasseur, at sea, March 2, 18^1». 
[EjctKact.'] SIR — I have the honor to inform you,, tha* 
0!) the 26tli of February being about six leagues to wind- 
ward of Havanna,and two leagues from the land — at 11, 
A. M. discovered a schooner bearing N E. of us, appar- 
ently nnming before the wind ; made every |K>ssible sail in 
chase. At lialf past meridian 1 fired a gun and hoisted 
ihe American flag, to ascertain, if possible, the nation 
which she belonged to, but she shewed no colors. At 1, 
P. M. drawing up with him very fast, she fired a sterti 
ohase gun atus,and hoisted English colors^ shewing at the 
"♦■dime liiue only three ports in the side next to u>. 



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HISTORY or THE WAE. 



UriOer the imprestiion that ^he wan a rnnningf ye^%^\ 
bound to Havaniiii, weakly armed and manned, I infd 
every eiforl lo ciotie with him an qniek as possible. Shw 
very few men on his deck, ami hastily made small prr^mr- 
ation for action, though mv otticers, myself and men did 
not expect any fighting, of course we were not completely 
prepared for ac. ion. At 1, 26, we were within pistol shut 
of him when he opened a tier of ten ports on a side, and 
gave his broa<lsi(le of round, grape and musket \i\\U, \ 
tin II opened llie Chasseur's fire from the great guns and 
niusketrv, and endeavored to close with him for the pur- 
pose ot boardiitg; we having q,iiick way at this lime, shot 
ahead of him under his lee ; he put his helm up for the pur- 
pose of wearing across our stern and to give us a raking 
fise, which 1 prevented by timely tiking notice of his in- 
tention, and putting our helm biird up also. He shot quick 
ahead, and I closed within ten yards of him ; at this time 
both fires were heavy, severe, and destructive. I now found 
his men had been concealed under his bulwark, and that ( 
had a heavy enemy to contend with, and at 1,40, gave the 
order for boarding, which my brave ofiicers and men cheer- 
fully obeyed with uiiexaiiipied quickness, instaiAly put the 
helm to starboard to lay him on board, and in the act of 
boarding her, she surrendered. She proved to he H. B. 
majesty's schooner St. Lawrence, commanded by Litut. 
James £. Gordon, of 15 guns, 14 twelve pound carronades 
upon an improved construction, and a long nine; 7«) men, 
and had on board a number of soldiers, marines, and some 
gentlemen of the navy passengers; having by report lo 
killed and 23 wounded. I had 5 men killed and 8 wound- 
ed, myself amongst the latter, though very slight y. Thu'; 
ended the action in 15 minutes after its commenCi nient, 
and about 8 minutes close quarters, with a force equal in 
every respeci to our own. 

The Chasseur mounts six 12 pounders, and eight slioiti^ 
pound carronades, (the latter taken from one of her pir/>-s) 
ten of our 12 pound carronades having iteen thrown ovei- 
board whiie hard chased by the Barrusa frigate. 

Yours witii respeci, 
* = THOMAS BOYLE. 



mSTOftT OV THE WAR. 



997 



i I/; iuuii Citl Scott to Govrmor Earltf. 

Great Satill river, February 38, 181d. 

[£r/rael] SIR — I have Ihe plettMure io inl'orin you of 4 
brilliat'l aifair haviiii( taken place on the 244h inMt. on the 
river Su Mary 'm, between a \:i\xi of my delachment, 20 
men, conMiiandetl by Gipt. WiUiani Mckler, aided bj 
obotit d() of tlie FatnutK ot Florida, under Col. Dili* and 6 
nt the enemy*8 barges containing about :250 men, which 
had attenipted ti> proceed up the river to burn Mr. A. 
Ciurk*N nulls. The enemy were tir^it attacked by the P.it* 
nuts from the Florida nhore, iieiir Camp Piiickney, when 
the barges immediiitely tacked about to retreat, but ouir 
men being in ambuiili on thi.s shore gave them a second re» 
leptioii, and thus the tire Was kept up from both shoreg un- 
til they got into a greater extent of river than our riflemen 
could reach. The enemy tost IGU killed and wounded.—^ 
We hud one man huvelely wounded through the body, 
mid several received Imlls ihrough their clothes, but no 
further injury. ^ 

!«c, hm i^i^f^iiAJMk^iHtei. WILLIAM SCOTT. ': 



Sailing master John HutUmrd to Com, CampbelL 
Gun Bout, ^o. 168, Cumberland Sound, March 1», l»l5; 
[Extract.] SllA. ' Proceeduig with the despatch which 
you did me the honor to entrust to my care, I sailed from 
Tybee bar, at 1, P. M. on the 16th instv wind N. E. steer- 
ing south ; at half past •} descried a sail in the S. E. quar« 
iei% which we soon found to be a ship stand*ng N. N. W. 
About 40 minutes after she tired a gun and hoisted herco- 
loi's, the shot passing over our fore gaiir'; our colors were 
hoisted, coiitinued our course fur a few minutes, when 
another gun was fired ; the shot passed abaft the main 
rigging over the lee quarter. Heaving his vessel too on 
the starboard tack, hailed me by saymg, * you damii'd ras* 
cal, if you don't lower your boat down and come on board 
immediately. Til fire into you. Til siiik you, God damn you.' 
Seeing me in the act of taking in the square t»ail, * why 
(Joi/t you heave too, God damn you, Til sink you ; Til 
fire a broadside into you.' As soon as I cduld be heard 
I said, this is a U. States' vessel, from Savannah, with des- 
patches for Admii'At Cockburn. In the act of pronounc- 
aig the Inst words, a musket was fired at me, the ball pass* 

3H 



i'il A 



till 



20b 



UlSTURY Ur I'UC WAlt 






^^'1 



I i 



^l 



^m^ 






'f ! 



iii^ ncnr my hlioiildeni, over the hand of Ike man al iht 
itelui, Mtrikin^ ihe tvuter from 20 lo ;M) foct from the vessel. 
Fttltin^the helm down,! again niforineci him of the char- 
acter uf the veifsel, Maying, if you wish for further satwfaction 
youarealliberty to8en<l}ourboaton^boarU; be Mid,*! don't 
cure a <lanin for the despulchcii, nor Admiral Gnekburn 
either ; God damn (hem and the United StaleHioo ; 1*11 fire a 
broadside into you and iiink you, if you cion't lower your 
bout down and come on board, you ruHcal.* Put about and 
run clohe under the tiliip's if e, Haying, this is the U. Statesi' 
gun vesNel No. 108, with despatches for the Admiral off 
St. Mury 'n ; if you doubt her lieing what she appears to be, 
you can hend your boat on board. Turning to me, he 
Kays, * God damn you, come on board or Fll sink you — 
I'll fire thunder into you.' I replied, * if you do, 1 Mhull re- 
turn your compliments with lightning.' At this time 1 re. 
ceivcd, if possible, a greater flood of vulgar abuse than 
before. 1 hove about, stood to windward of him, heaving 
toouiihis Klarboiird qu:u'ter* with the larboard lacks on 
board ; when u Lieutenant came alongside, nnd ordered 
nie into the boat, saying, * if you do not go on board, eury 
one of you will be taken out atid curried to Charleston.' 
Go on board and tell your commander that 1 shall not low- 
er my boat, nor shall an officer or man leave the vessel but 
by force, showing him the paper for Admiral Cockbiirn. * If 
you doi/t go on board, you 11 be sunk as soon as I go on 
board ; I advise you to go' — 1 want no advice, (said I) I 
have tlie orders of my government by which I am govern- 
ed ; tell your commander that such trifling shall not pass 
Mrilh impunity. On the boat leaving us, the Captain of the 
ship said, * won't the damned rascal come? then come 
alongside and let me sink him; 1*11 fire a broadside into 
him. On the boat's reaching the ship's side a gun was 
tired } the shot passing to leewMrd, through the mainsail, 
Qear the mast, cutting away one of the stays, going Ictween 
ihe foremast and rigging ; while he gave full vent to his 
vulgar abuse. 1 now saw every one of our little crew anx- 
iously wailing the order to tire into the apparent enemy ; 
b;ii I considered that several lives w<ndd in all probability 
be lost, and the tliig struck at last. Under these consider- 
ations, I tired a gun across his bows, as the vessels wer^ly-; 
ing, sunk the signals, and hauled the colors down/ A 



HISTORY OF TH* WAS. 



«Vlr 



Lieutenant mine on board, to whom I made a formal siir' 
render ot llie vesiiel ; heoh«ier%'ed that lie wa^only n Lieut. 
' .Send an officer on tioard, (I replie«l^ tlie oHicer<i and men 
are your iiriHOuerA.' He ordereil me on lK);ird tlie Niiip. 
On my arrival on board the »hip, I wa.H met by the Captam 
near the main mant, saying^, * this \h hiM majeNly's ship Ere- 
bus, Bartholomew, commander.' * Thin is my sword, I 
replied) that is the U. States ^un vessel No. 108, which I 
surrender -.xs yonr prize, myself, oflicers and crew as your 
prisoners.' He said n^aiii,* huw dare yon reiuse to come 
on" board his majesty's ship when ordered 1" * I know not 
nor do I acknowtedt^e any rii^hl you have to order* nie on 
board, or to interrupt me sailing alon^ the American const. 
1 shall, 4iowever, make a fair representation of this most 
flag^rant abuse of power on your part to my government. I 
very much regret that I have not the command of a vessel 
of 20 guns, which would save the trouble of demanding' 
satisfaction at a future day, by taking it on the spot.' He 
said, * I only wish to warn you off the coast; will you see 
my orders from the Admiral to warn all vessels from the 
coast ?' * As I am governed by ihe orders of my own gov- 
ernment, I can have nothing to do with those of Admiral 
Cockburn.' He said * I thought you might be from the 
Cape of Good Hope.' * You could not believe any smh 
thing, when you see she has no quarter, has not the ap- 
pearance of having been at sea any length of time; her 
boats not stowed as if to remain long at sea ; nor could yon 
suppose that were I from a long cru.se, I should run past 
the port of Savannah, thereby exposing my vessel to any 
British cruizerthat might happen to be on the coast.' He 
then said, * upon my honor, I believe it was an accident, 
but I am sure the last shot would not have been fired if you 
had not been trying to run away from me.* * Yon coald 
believe no such thing; you saw both jibs to windward, 
and the helm a-lee.' He said,* upon my honor, 1 don't know 
whether it went off by accident or was fired; no orders were 
given to fire.' After walking the quarter-deck for a few 
minutes, returning, he said, * will you see my orders to warn 
all vessels off the coast.' 'As I have nothing to do wilii 
(hem I can have no wish to see them.' * If you think Ihis 
will cause any dispute between the two governments, (said 
he) I will return with you to the AUminU and have it set-. 



n 



ill;' 



iiffii^ili 






i il'l! 



900 



HIHTOVLY OV TUK WAIU 



1 
I 



^•\ 



l 



:i| i 



tied.* 1 replied, * I do not feel inyslelf auihorised in ny 
pr<*»ent Hitutttioii to receive any MaliMtuclioii you may liav« 
111 your |M>wer lu ufl'er tor niicIi a wilful inyiilt offered lo ih» 
U. Sliilcs. I wa» llieu ordered on board, and proceeded 
With the detfpalcheM. 
^ JOHN IIUKLBURD. 

-I . 

STEWART S VICTORY. 
Capi. tSUtmul to llu; tSevretar*/ oj the Navjf. 

U. S. friir»ite CoiistiUilioM, May, — 1815. 
' FIR~-On the 20lh of F* lintary IumI, the 1^ and of Ma. 
deira t)earintir about W. S. W. 4ii!«tant IH) te/«t>^ues. He iVll 
it with hix R. M'm two ships of war, the C>aie and Levant, 
aiul broupfht them to action about <> o'clock m the evening, 
both of winch after a spirited eng^agemeiit of 40 minutes, 
surrendered to the ship under my commund. 

CoiiHidering: the advantages derived by the enemy, from 
a divided aiul more active force, as also their superiority 
in thi^ weig^ht and iiuiuber of guns, 1 deem the speedy and 
decisive result of this action the strongest assurance which 
can be given to the government, that all did their duty, attd 
gallantly supported the reputation of American seamen. 

Inclosed is a list of the killed and wounded ; also a state- 
ment of the actual force of the enemy, and the number kil- 
led and wounded ou board their 8h[>is »>( near as could be 
avcertained. vdnat v * -^y.^rMS'i 

..^', I have the honor to be, &c. 
tM-i) CHARLES STEWART. 

7? ' FORCE OF THE CONSTITUTION. 

f): 32 twenty four pouiiders. — 20 thirty- two pounders. — 
\:1 52guns, Officers, men and boys 466. i. r * 

ruj.7 It ';..»; FOKCE OF THE CYANE. 

22 thirty-two pounders — 10 eighteen do, — 2 twelve do.« 
2 brass swivels, 36 guns. — officers men and boys 180. 

FORCE OF THE LEVANT. 

18 thirty-two pounders — 2 nine do, — Xwelve do. 21guns.-- 
officers^men and boys 156. ' r 

K*/foiKj?>ji- ti'/( AMBKICAN LOSS. .) ■;• i- .' 

iii.Y/ oi» uV-i^ Kdied 3 — ^wounded 12. 
i^:dr^i)\ BRITISH LOSS 

I '%) ,rf Killed 35 — wounded 39 — ^prisoners 30 1. 

j'i^iA il C ^. - . -J. 



UlITART or THV WIR. 



dOl 



KIDDLE'S vicrroRV. 

Capl. Hiddie to Commodore Decatur. 
U.S. S. HorntU off' Trisland Acuuha, A/arch 25^ 1815. 

81 li — 1 have tiie honor to inform, thai on the uilNPuiRfl^^ 
of the 23(1 iiikt. ut half |Hi8l ion, when about to anch«#i Ml 
tilt! north end of the isU' ilof Trirtnn'd Acunha, a sdil wat^' 
tei-n to the southward and eastward, steering to tha wcmI* 
ward, the wind fresh from the 8. 8. W. In a tew minutes 
she had paMsed ou to the westward so that we could not see 
her for ihe land. J immediately made sail tu tlie westward, 
aiidshouly after getting sight of her again, perceived heif 
to bear up before the wind. I hove too for him to come 
down to us. — When she had approached near, I Hlieil the 
maintopsail, and continued to yaw the ship, while she con- 
tinued to come down ; wearuig occasionally to prevent 
her passing under our stem. At 1 40 P. M. being nearly 
within musket shot distance, she hauled her wind on the 
starboard tack, hoisted English colors^ and tired a gun. 
We immediately luffed too. hoisted our ensign and gave 
the enemy a broadside. The action being thus commenc- 
ed, a quick and well directed fire was ke|*t up from this 
ship, the eueuiy gradually driftmg nearer to us, when at 
1 55 he bore up, apparently to run us on board. At 
soon as I perceived he would certainly fall on board, f' 
called the boarders so as to be ready to repel any attempt 
to board us. At the instant every officer and man repair- 
ed to the quarter deck, where the two vessels were, coming 
in contact and eagerlv pressed me to permit them 'a board 
the enemy : but this I would not permit, as it was evident 
from the commencement of the action that our fire was 
greatly supei'ior both in quickness and in effect. Ti'^c ene- 
my's bowsprit came in between our main and mizen rig- 
ging, on our starboard side, affording him an opportunity 
to board us, if such was his design, but no at*;empt was 
made. There was a consifierable swell on, and as the sea 
lifted us a head, the enemy's bowsprit carried away cur 
mizen shrouds,stern davits, and spanker boom, and he hung 
upon our larboard quarter. At this moment an officer, 
who was afterwards recognized to be Mr. M'Donold, the 
first Lieut, and the then commanding officer, called out 
that they had surrendered. 1 directed the marines and 
musketry-men to cease firing, and, while on the taffrail 
asking if they had surrendered, I received a wound in the 



■I : 



l\ P|;' 



M':l 



302 



IIUTO&T OF Tn WAR. 






»| 



i ! 



• 1 



neck. The enemy just then got clear of us and hin furc- 
nitMi and bow«prit beinn^ both gone^ and perceiviufir ,ih 
vcarin^ to give hiin a fresh broi^«ide, he attain called out 
that he had surrendered. It wan with difficulty 1 could re- 
strain my crew from firinff into him as^ain as ho had cer- 
tainly fired into us alter having surrendered. From tlu: 
firing of the fimt gun, to the laHtlime the enemy cried uiit ho 
had surrendered, was exactly 22 minutes by the watch. 
She proved to be U. B. M- brig Penguin, inouutiiiflr mx. 
teen 321b carronades, two long 12\s a twelve lb carron- 
adeon the top gallant forecastle, with swivels on the cup- 
stern and in the tops. She had a spare |)ort forward, ^o 
as to fight l>oth her long guns of a side. She sailed from 
England in Sept. last. She is in all respects, a remarkably 
fine vessel of her class. The enemy acknowledge a coni- 
plegnent of 182 men ; 12 of them supernumersiry marities 
from the Medway 74. Tney acknowledge, also, a loss of 
14 killed, and 28 wounded ; but Mr. Mayo, who was in 
charge of the prize, assures me that the number of killed 
was certainly greater. Among the killed is Cipt. Dicken- 
son, who fell at ihe close of the action, and the boatswain ; 
among the wounded, is the second Lieut, purser, and two 
midshipmen. Each of the midshipmen lost a leg. ll.iv. 
mg removed the prisoners, and taken on board such provi- 
sions and stores as would be useful to us, I scuttled the 
Penguin, this morning before day-light, and she went down. 
As she was completely riddled by our shot, her foremast 
and bowsprit both gone, and her mainmast so crippled as 
to be incapable of being sc'^'ured, it seemed unadvisable, al 
this distance from home, \.o attempt sending her to the U. 
Slates. 

This ship did not receive a single round shot in her hull, 
nor any material wound iu her spars ! the rigging and saiU 
were very much cut ; but having bent a new suit of sails 
and knotted and secured our rigging, we are now com- 
pletely ready, in all respects for any service. We were 
eight men short of complement, and had nine upon the 
sick list the morning of the action. Enclosed is a list of 
killed and wounded. J. BIDDLE. 



tic-* i-'s'iinKr. 
h,'\Hi:i vtii 



* AMERICAN LOSS. 

Killed, I. — wounded, 11 

BUITISH LOSS. 

Killed 14.~Wounded,28. 



I 7:«1- 



Hi 



•>i!i 



•^niA 



.Y%ttl*:Vi*t» 



ilPPENDIX. 



u4 



OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE, 



suit of sails 



f'f 



HELATIVE TO TUB TEKATY OV PBACK. 

Wamuiuqtos, Oct. 10, 18U. 

To t/te Oauite and Uouue of ^eitresentaiives of 

mA fivtjir </*e £/. isltafet, 

I lay before congrefiM comniuiiicMtioiift just received from 

the Pteiii(>oteutiarieM of the U. ^lalL'ti, churgod with oego- 

ciatin&f |)eace with C. Untttiii ; itheM'iiig; the condition! oa 

wliich alone that (foveniineiit ii» wUling to put an end* lo. 

ihe war. 



I*, 






..,1, 



'-* 



JAMES MADISON. 



The American Plenipoteniiariet to Ute Secretary of stale, 

Ghent, Aug;. 12th, 1814. 

SIR — We have the honor tu luionu you, that the BrU 
tish couiiniHsiioneni, lord Gambler, Henry Goulburn, Esq. 
uiid William AiianiH, Eitn. arrived ni thiti city on Saturday 
evening^, the dixth initt. The day ufler their arrival, Mr. 
B tker, their Sticretary, (tailed U|)oii u* to {^ive us notice of 
the fact, aiul io prupoHe a meetinpf, at a certain hour, on 
the ensuing day. The place having been agreed upon,' 
we accordingly met, at 1 o'clock, on Monday, the eighih 
inst. '. 

We enclose, herewith, a copy of the full powers exhibit- 
ed by the British commissioners, at that conference ; which 
was opened on their part by aii expression of the sincere 
uiid earnest desire of their government, that the negocia- 
tionmitrht result in a solid peace, honorable to both par- 
lies. Vhey, at the same time declared, that no events 
which had occurred since the first proposal for this nego< 
ciution, had altered the pacific disposition of their govern- 
inent, or varied its views as to the terms upon which it was 
wilH^g to conclude the peace. ^ „ ,,, , ,^, . 



.u t 



•I-, I 



w, 



^•ti 



i^ 






. 



i 




301 



APPCllDfX. 



1 r. 




Wc aiiKwered, lliiit we heanl theste (let laral oiih mii|i 
great salistacluHi, atiti lliai our KoverniiKMit iiad iicrteiUd 
to th ■ prupnnal ut' iicdfiirMlioii, with tlie iiitwt Miiicere dcsiru 
to put an end to the cutfbrMi^i*» whrrhdrvided the two roun. 
tries, audio la^ upon junI andhberal ^rouiuU the tuuiidiiiion 
of a peace whicii Necuniiqf the rij^hlM aud iutertHU of buth 
nations* tdiould uuil« tb<$iu by laittuig bonds of auiity^^ 

Thif British conimisHionerM then stated th?>1'oiK»Wirt^ kuI). 
jeciN, as thoi<e u|ioii which it appeared to them that the 
diNcuMHiona would be likely to turn» and on which they were 
instructed. 

1. Tile forcible seizure of mariners onboard of uierchtint 
vessels, and in connection with it, the claim of his Briliin- 
nic majesty to tlie allegiance of all the native subjects of 
G. Britain. 

W^ understood them M intiiirate, that the British js^ovpii). 
ment did not propose this point as one which Ihey were p!ir-> 
ticularly desirous of discussing ; but that as lihad occupied 
so prominent a place in the disputes between the two coiin« 
tries, it necessarily attrarled notice and was considered as a 
subject which would come under discussion. 

2. The Indian allies of (i. Briti\in to be included in the 
pacification, and a definite boiiiidary to be selUed for their 
territory. 

The British commissioners stated, that an arrangement 
upon this point was a sine qua nun ; that they were not 
authorised to conclude a treatv of peace which did not em- 
brace the indinii's as allies ot his Britannic majesty ; and 
that the esliiblishnient uf a definite boundary of the Indian 
territory wa^ necessary to secure a permanent peace, not 
only with the Indians, but also between the U. Slates uiid 
G. Britain. 

3. A revision of the bonndary linebelweentlieU. States 
and the adjacent British colonies. 

With respect to this point, they expressly disclaim any 
intention, on the part of their government, to acquire nii 
increase of territory, and re|>i*esei»ttd the proposed revision 
as intended merely for the purpose of preventing uncer- 
tainty and dispute. "• ,'*'•''"'■ "/."'i'' ' * ' "''!i '■ 

Alter having stated ihesie thr^6 p<)infs as subjects of dis- 
cusMun, the British commissioners added, that before they 
desired any answer from us, they felt it incumbent upon 



ilFPENPIX. 



853 



the F. Stales 



ihcm to (l^rlnr**, llinl the Brilitih i;ov<>mmrat dM tint deny 
the riq^ht of the Aniencaiiii to tl e tiiihene5i Keni'rttlly* or in 
the open neas ; hut ti ai thu iirivih'^es lonwerly icrnoti'd liy 
treaty to the V. Stuten nt tUhiiii^ «%ithiii the \mv\n of ihe 
British juriHdictioii, and of laiiiiiiif; and dryiiisfi«hon the 
sUoren of the British tt^rriluncy, would not be renewed 
without an eqnivalenf 

The extent of what was considered l>y them ait waters 
pfciiiiarly British, uns not stated. From the manner in 
which they hroufj^ht this subject into view, they Hcenied to 
wish UH tu uruierHtand th.il they were not an\iou» that it 
should l)e diHCUHsed, and that they only intended to p^ive us 
notice that these privilei;eH had ccaxett to exint, and would 
nut airain be granted without an equivalent, ntiruide^s we ' 
thoujrht proper to provide expressly in the treaty of peace 
for their renewal. 

The Britiiih commissioners havinj^ stated that these were 
all the Kubj.t cts which they intended to bring d rward or to 
sug^^est, requested to be informed* whether we were In- 
structed to enter into ne^ociation on these iievyal |)ointii, 
and whether there was any amongst these which we thought 
it unnecessary to bring into the negociation ? and they de- 
sired us to state, on our part, such other subjects us we 
might intend to propose for discussion in ihe course of ihe 
negociation. The meeting was then adjourned to the nexl 
(lay, in order to afford us the opportmnty of consultation 
among ourselves, before we gave an answer. 

In the course of the evening of the same day, we receiv- 
ed your letters of the 25th and 27lh of June. 

There could be no hesitation, on our part, in informing 
the British commissioners, that we were not instructed on 
the subjects of Indian pacdication or boundary, and of 
fisheries. Nor did it seem probable, although neither of 
these points had been stated with sufficient precision in that 
first verbal conference, that they could be admitted in any 
shape. — We did not wish, however, to prejudge the result, 
or by any hasty proceeding abruptly to break off the ne- 
(Tocialion. It was not impossible that, on ihe subject of 
the Indians, the British government had received errot.eous 
impressfcuns from the Indian traders in Canada, which our 
represeutatiuns might remove : and it appeared, at all 
ev( ,)ts, important} to ascertain distinctly the precise anten- 
, 39 



ii. 



.u. 



\. !' 



806 



APPFMllX. 



i ':'' 



i)v 




M 



-ri 



I ' 



tiom ofG. Britninon l»olh fioiiili. Wo, Ihcrefore, lhoii(r||t 
it nii\ii»i!l)lc in invite th«> Britinh comniisiiionerstnH gener- 
al run vcrfca lion on all the poiniM ; slalmt; to them, at the 
Mmi(>tinu>, our want of instrnclions on two of them, ami 
hohiifiir <mt no expectation of the probability of our ag^ree- 
inp" to any arliele reKiH^elinif I hem. ( 

At our nuelinij on the enHuinu <lay we inrormfd the Bri- 
tish coiMniiKKiiiiiers, that upon th<> first and third puinls 
propoHed hy them ue were ()r(hvidc'd will) instructions, ami 
we prcKenled as Injllirr innlijccls considered hy our jroveru- 
nu'ut aMNuilai'le for discussion ; 

1st. A ^iefinition of hiockade ; and a<< far as miglil be 
nintuallv a^rted, of other neutral and bcllig-ercnl rights. 

'id. Claims of indemnity in certain cases of capture anil 
se-Riu'e. 

We then slated that llie two subjects, Isl of [ndian ()a- 
citirnlioii, and boundary, and 2d of fisheries, were not em- 
hi^aced by our i'strnctions. •* i.!i!- c 

We observed, that as these points had not been hert lotoi'fi 
the uronnds of any controversy between the j»overnniiiit 
of G. l^itain and thai of the V. Stales, and had not been 
allude«f toby lord C <»tlereajufh, in his letter proposincrihe 
negftoialion, it couldiiot be expected that they should have 
be^n' anticipated and made the sribject of instructions bv 
our gfovtmmejd ; that it was natural to be supposed, that 
our iiiKtnictions were confined to those snbjects upon which 
differences between Ihe two countries were known to ex- 
ist; and ihat the pronosition to drtjne, in a treaty belwcea 
the U. Stales and G. Britain, the boundary of the Indian 
possessions uithiii onr territories, was new and without ex- 
ample. No such provision ha<l been inserted in the treaty 
ot peacein »7«H3, nor in any other treaty between the two 
countries. N<» such provision had toour knowU/lge, ever 
been inserleU in any treaty made by G. Britain or any Eu- 
ropean power ill relation to the same description of people, 
existing under like circumstances. We would say« how- 
ever, thai it would not be doubted, that peace with the In- 
dians would certaiiily follow a peace with (i. Britain : thut 
we hadintormatioin that commissioners had already been 
appointed to treat with them; that a treaty to that effect 
nt.trht, perhaps, have been already concluded : and that the 
U. StAdes havmg no interest, nor any motive to continue a 



APPENDIX. 



907 



^nrale war ncfainNt ihe Iii(linn«, there v**i\U\ inner lie a 
iTinniiMit when our {^overiinieiit wuuld not be dispoMtil In 
make peare wilhlhein. 

\V(> tht'ii exfirevsrd our wiwh to receive front the Britidk 
coinniiMsionerM u statement of Ihe viewNaiul ubjectM ol'O. 
Britaiiinpor. ai| the pointN, aiul our u illiiit^iieMH to iliNeiiMk 
them all, tn order tiiat, even if no arrantrement nIiouUI be 
n«rri>ed on, u|>on tliepointH not inrlnded in our inKlructionit^ 
llir irovernnient of the l^ Slates nuj^ht be |K>.s«e8Med of the 
entire iind precise intentions of thai of (i. Britain, respecl- 
iiiif 'ht se points, and thai the British ;rovernnient niiuhl be 
fiiil\ iniornied of the objections, on the part of the U. States, 
to nnv sneh arranj^ement. 

In answer to our remark that these point:* had not been! 
alliided to by lord Casliereat>h, in his K Iter proposing tiie 
negocKition, it was said, ihat it could not be expected,Jhat 
ill a lellermerely intended to inviie a ne«>-ociatioiiy he Hhouid 
enumerate the topics of discussion, or state the pretensions 
ot his (jcovernment ; since these would depend upon uherior 
events, and mi<^ht arise out of a subsequent state of things. 
In reply to our observation, that the propose dstipulatjou 
of an Indian boundary was without example in the prac- 
tice of European nations, it was asserted that the Indians 
must in some sort be considered as an independent people, 
since treaties were made with them, both by G. Britain and 
the U. States : upon which we pointed out the obvious and 
important diti'erences between Ihe treaties we miu'ht make 
with Indians, livin<r in our territory, and such a treaty an 
was proposed to be made, respectiiijg^ them, with a foreig'u 
power, who had solemnly a(linuwled<>ed the territory on 
winch they resided to be part of the U. Stales, i.. ,^:. a > // 
We were then asked by the British commissioners wheth- 
er, incase they should enter fnrlh'r upon the discussion of 
the several ponits which had been stated, we could expect 
ihat it would terminate by some provisioned arrangement 
on the points on which we had no instructions, particular- 
ly on that respecting' the [tidians, which arrangement would 
be subject to the ratiHcation of our government ? 

We answered, that beft»re the subjects were distinctly 
understood, a'ld the objects in view more precisely discloN- 
ed, we could not decide whether it would be possible tq 
form any satisfactory article uu the subject ; nor pledge 



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IPPPNDIX. 



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ourKolves ns to fehe exeruiNe of u ciiHcretiuii under our pow- 
ers, even wilh rcH|V(*l to u provinional ngrcemeut. We 
addeily that a** we should deeply deplore a rupture of the 
Ml^oriation on any point* it wan our anxiuux desire to em- 
ploy nil possihie mean** to avert an event so HenouN in lU 
coosequences ; ami that we had nol been without hopes 
that » discussion nii&[ht roriecl the eQ'ect of any erroneous 
information whieh the British «40vernuient in'(>hl have re- 
ceived oil the subject which they had proposcl as a pre- 
liminary basis. VM' u;tH >>' 

We took this opportunity to remark, that no nation ob- 
serTed a policy more liberal and humane towards iIk In- 
dians than that pursued by the U. States ; that our object 
had been, by all 'practicable means, to introduce civiliza- 
tion amongst them ; that their possessions were secured to 
them by well defined boundaries, that their persons, lands, 
and other property were now more effectually protected 
a^inst violence or frauds from any quarter, than they had 
been under any former government ; that even our citizens 
'were not allowed to purchase their lands ; that when they 
gave up their title to any portion of their country to the U. 
States, it was by a voluntary treaty with our government, 
mho gave them a satisfactory equivalent; and that throuoK 
these means the U. States had succeeded in preservuig, 
since the treaty of Greenville of 179d, an uninterrupted 
peace of sixteen years, with all the Indnin tribes; a period 
of tranquility much longer than they were known to have 
enjosed heretofore. t m; -i ■■>, / 

- li was then expressly staged on our part, that the propo- 
sUioti res<>ecting the Indians, was not distinctly understood. 
We asked whether the pacitication, and the settlemeni of 
a boundary for them were both made a sine qua non. — 
Winch was answtred in the affirmative. Tlie qnesion 
MUH then asked the British commissioners, whether tiie 
pro{K>sed Indian boundary was intended to preclude the U. 
States from the right of purchasing by treaty from the l.i- 
dians, without the consent of G. Britain, lands laying bo 
yuiid that boundary ? And as a restriction upon the In- 
dians from selling by amicable treaties lands to the \J. 
Slates, as had been hitherto practised? . :. : . 
• To litis question, it was first answered by one of the 
commissiuaei's, that the Indians would uot be restricleci 



APP£NI>I3U 



ilOO 



irom ftclling ibeir laiidk, bul lltat iht* U. S^lates would be 
reHU'icted froui purckaKiug Ihetii ; and uii n HecUuo aiiulli- 
er of the coniuiisMioiicrs ittalcd, iliul it was iiileiidcd ibafc 
the Indian territory s^iiuuld be a barrier bet\\eeii the Brilhli 
duiiiiiiiuiis and thttse ol the U. States, that ijoth G Britain 
and the U. Slates should bi^ reslricttd from purchasing 
their lauds ; bul the ludiaus might sell them to a Uiird par- 

Tiie proposition respecting Lidian boundary thus ex- 
pUiined, and connected with the right of sovereignty as- 
cribcd to the Indians over the country, amounted to i.oth- 
\\\% less than a demand of the absolute cession of ihe rights 
both of sovereignty and of sod. We cannot abstain from 
remarking to you, that the subject (of Indian boundary) - 
Wiis indislincily stated vvheii first proposed, and that the 
ex|)lanalions were at first obscure and always given with 
reluctance. And it was declai'Mi from the first moment, io 
be a sme qua non, rendering any discussion anprofitable 
until it was admitted as a basis. Knowing that we had 
no power to cede to the Indans any part of our territory, 
we thought it unnecessary to ask, what probably would not 
have been answered till the principle was admitted, where 
the line of demarkation of the Indian country was propos> 
ed to be established. 

The British commissioners, after having repeated that 
their instructions on the sulijecl of llie Indians were pe- 
remptory, stated that unless we could give some assurance, 
thiit our powers would allow us to make at least a provi- 
sional arrangement on the subject, any further discussioa 
would be fruitless, and that they must consult their own 
government on this state of things. Thiy proposed ac- 
cordingly a suspension of the conferences, until they should 
have received an answer, it being u .derstood that each 
parly might call a meeting whene\er they had any propo- 
sition to submit. They disjiatciied a special messeiigev 
ilie same evMiing, and we aiv iiuw waiting fur the result. 

Before llie proposed adjournment took place, it was 
agreed thai there should be a protocol of the conferences ; 
thai a statement should for th^it purpose be drawn up by 
each party, and thai we should meet the next day lo com- 
pare the stalenuiuU We accordingly met again on Wed- 
nesday the iOlh insl. and ultimately agreed upon whul 



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shoiiUl conxtiliile the protocol of the ronferenreii. A cony 
of thiA iiMtriimeiit, we have the honor to tranHniit wilh thi» 
dituatch. 

* They objected to the insertion of the answer which they 
had oriven to ourquention refl|)ectint|^ the «ifect of the ))ri>- 
poNfd Iiulian boundary ; bnt they ajrreed to an a iteration 
of their origin li {troposition on that subject, which ren- 
den) it much more ex|>licit than ah ?«t;ited, either in the tirst 

CO iference or in their proposed drau^^ht of the protocol. 

They al»o objected to the inscrtioit of the fact, that tl)tiy 
bad proposed to adjourn the conferences, until they c«»ii!d 
obtain further instmctioiis from their government. The 
return of their messenger may, (>erhaps, disclose the mo- 
tive of their reluctance in that respect. 

We ha,ve Ihehonor to be, "vc. ' ■u.^t,- 

JOHN a. ADAMS, I H. CLAY, i; 

J. A. BAYARD, j JONA. RUSSELL. 

^ PROTOCOL OF CONFERENCE. 

AuffmtS, 1814. 

The British commissioners requested iiiforni«itioii v«helii. 
er the American commissioners were instructed to enter 
into negociation on the prect ding points P But before they 
desired any answer, they felt it right to communicate tiie 
intentions of their government as to the North American 
tisheries, viz. That the British guvernment did not intend 
to grant to the U. States, gratuitously, the privileges for- 
merly granted by treaty to them, of fishing within the lim- 
its of the British sovereignty, and of using theshores of the 
British territories for purposes connected with the tishe- 
ries. 

August 9. — The meeting being adjourned to the 9th of 
August, the commissioners met again on that day. 

The American commissioners at this meeting stated, 
that upon the first and third |>oiiits proposed by the British 
commissioners, they were provided with instructions truiii 
their government, and that the second and tourth of these 
points were not provided for in their instructions. That 
in relation to an Indian pacitication, they knew that (he 
government of the U. States had a|)po:nted coainiission- 
ers to treat of peace wilh the Indians, and that it was not 
improbable that peace had been made with them. 



APPBNIUX. 



911 



The American coimniwiioner» presenle<1 as Curlher dub- 
jerUc«His:ikT«il by Ibe governnieai of the U. Slates a» suit- 
able tor disciiMHioii. 

1. A tietiiiilioii of blockade, and as far as may be a- 
greeti.uf oibcT iK'Ulral aitd bellij^ereiit rights. 

2. Certain claims of indemnity lo individuals for captures 
uiid seizures preceding' -tnd Mubnequeiit to the war. 

3. '1 bey further sUited that there were various other 
points to nbicb their instructions extended, which might 
uith proprtttty be objects of discussion, either in the nego- 
ciiition of the f.-oacc, or in titat of a treaty of commerce, 
witu.h in tiic csise of a propitious termmation of tlie present 
conferences, they were bkewisc uulhurtst'd to conclude. 
That for the purpose of facilitating Uie first and most es- ' 
se liai object of peace, they had discarded every subject 
wliicli was not considered as peculiarly connected with 
tiiiil, and piTMenlcd only those points which appeared to 
be imiiiedialely relevanl to this neg'ociation. 

The American commissioners expres.sed their wish to re- 
ceive from the British commissioners a statement of the 
views and objects of G. Britain, U|K>n all the points, and 
tiieir willhigness todiscuKS them all. 

Tliey» the American commissioners were asked, wheth- 
er, it those of G. Britain should enter further upon this dis- 
cussion, particularly respecting the Indian boundary, the 
American commissioners could expect that it would ter- 
nunate by some provisional arrangement, which they could 
conclude, subjfct to the ratification of their government? 

Tlit'y answered, that as any arrangetrsont to which they 
could agree upon the subject must be without specific au- 
tlionty from their government, it was not possible for them, 
previous to discussion, to decide whether any article on the 
subject could be formed which would be mutually satisfac- 
tory, and to which they should think themselves, under 
their discretionary powers, justified in acceding. 



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The American Commissioners to the Secretary of State. 

GiiLNT, August 19, 1814. ' 

SIR— Mr. Biker, secretary to the British mission, call- 
ed upon us to-day, at 1 o'clock, and invited us to a con- 
ference to be held at three. This was agreed to, and the 
British commissioners opened it, by saying that they had 



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APVENDIX. 



received their 4'iirther iiiitmctionfi ihiH morniitc^, and )ind 
nuiluNt a moment in reqiietttiiig n meftiii)r for the puqMx^f: 
of com;nuiii('utiii(^ the decis'oii of Iheir g^nverriment. It \% 
pro|>«r to notice that lord Casllfrr'agh had arrived lust 
iii^lit in this city» whence, it \h xaid, he wdl depart to-mor- 
row on hiN way to BniMseh and Vienna. 

The KntiHh commisNionerit stated that their g'overnmctit 
had felt some surprise, thai we were not inHtriieted res|>ecl. 
mg the Indhiiis, as it could not have been ex|)ecled that 
they would lesive their allies, in their rompnrntiveiy wenk 
situation, exposed to our resftttnienl. Givtit-Biitam nnt;! t 
justly have supposed that the Americ;)ti«overiiment woiiUI 
have furnished us with instructions aiithonsinir ns to a^ree 
to a positive article on the subject ; btit, the leiist she eonld 
demand was that we should si^n a provisional article nd- 
miltingthe principal subject to the ratifioatioii of our^ov. 
ei'iimeiit ; so that, if it should be ratitied, the treaty shoutd 
take eBect ; and, if not, that it should be null and void ; on 
our assent or refusal to adui't such an article wonid depend 
the continuance or suspension of the ne^ociation. f« <-wi 

As we had represented that the proposition made by 
them, on that subject, wa.^ not sufficiently explicit, their 
governmenl had directed them to g-ive us every necessary 
explanation, and to state distinctly the basis which must 
be considered us an indispensable preliminary. 
^*' It was 'A sine qua non that the Indians should be includ- 
ed in the paciHcution, and, as incident thereto, that the 
boundaries of their territory should be pemiaitentiy estab- 
lished. Peace with the Indians was a subject so simple, 
as to require no comment. With respect to the bounda- 
ries which was to divide their territory from that of the U. 
%States, the object of the British a^overnmeiit was, that the 
Indians should remain as a permanent barrier between our 
•western settlements, and the adjacent British provinces, to 
prevent them from being" conterminous to each other: and 
that neither the U. States, iiorG. Britain, should ever here- 
after have the right to purchase, or acquire any part tif the 
territoiy thus recognized, as belonging to the Indians.— 
With regard to the extent of the Indian territory, and llic 
boundary line, the British government would propose llie 
lines of the Greenville treaty, as a proptr basis, subject, 
however, to discussion and inoditications. 



APPKNDI^t 



dIS 



fit 



VTe Nintrd Ihnl the Tnilian terrilorv, arcon^inir to thnte 
lin^, would comprpheiitl a frreat niitnlKT of AiuencHn rili- 
7fii< ; not lesK, |)€>rha|>M, than a iHindred thouMuiul : and 
asked, what was the iiitetttion nfthe British GToveriiineiit 
ifsppcfiii^ them, and under whose gfovefnment tl ey would 
fiill ? It wafl answered that thosv setllenieutH would lie tak> 
en into consideration, when the line l>ec:iine a subject of 
d.srussion ; hut that such of the inhabitants, as would ulti- 
mntcrv he included wilhin the Indian territory, must make 
their own arrang;emei»ts an<l provide forlhemselvos. 

l*he Kritish commissioners here said that, considerintr 
the nnporlanco of the question \\r \vm\ to <lecide, (thai of' 
ajrn'ein^ir lo a i rovisional articlf) tln^ir novernmcnt had 
tlioo^ht it right, that we should also he fully informed of 
itH vi^s, with respect to the proposed revision of the 
boundary line, tictweeu the dominions of G. Britain and 
the U. States. 

1st. Experience had proved that the joint possession of 
the lakes, and a ri«rht conmion to both nations, to keep up 
a naval force on them, necessarily produced collisons, and 
rendered peace insccnre. AsG. Britaui could not be sup- 
posed to ex;)ect to make conquest in that quarter, and as 
that province was essentially weaker than the U. States^ 
nnd exposed to invasion, it was necessary, for its security, 
that G. Britain should require that the U. States should 
hereafter keep no armed naval force on the Western Lakes, 
from Lake Ontario to Lake Superior, both inclusive ; that 
they should not ei-ect ai'V fortified or military post or estab- 
lishmetit on the shores oT those lakes ; and that they should 
not maintain ihose which were already existmg. This 
must, they said, be considered as a moderate demand, smce 
G. Britain, if she had not disclaimed theiidention of any in- 
crease of territory, mij^hl with propriety have asked a ces- 
sion of the adjacent American shares. The commercial 
navigation and intercourse wouM be Lit on the same footmg. 
as heretofore. It *\nn expressly stated, (in answer to a 
question we asked,) that, G. Britain was to retain the right 
of having an armed naval force on those lakes, and of hold- 
ing military posts and estahlishments on their shores. 

2. The bouiwlary line west of Lake Superior, and thence 
to the Mississipi, to be revtseda-id the treaty right of G. 
Britaiiv to the navigation o| the Mississipi, to he continued,.. 

40 



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APPCVDIX. 




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VVben ask«(l, whether lliev did not mean the Hue frotn the 
Liikeonhu VV<M>ftM to the MiKBitMipi, the HritiNh coinmis- 
i.ont ri« re|M>uted that thty meant the line frotn lake ^upe. 
rior« to that river. 

9. A <lirM't communication from Halifax and the ^o- 
vhice uf NeW'DrunMWirk to Quebec, to be secured to h. 
Bi'ilaiti In answer to our qiieHtiuik, in what manner this 
wtiD^tube ertVcled, we wt-re told that it muHt be done by a 
ttesKion to G. Britain of that portion of the distrct of iVIainc- 
fin the stale of MaKsachuNflls) which intervenes betwi^en 
^lew• Brunswick and Q,uebtc», a^>d pi'event» that direct 
coinnuinicatiun. /.,..,,. ;. • .>., 

^t Kevertiitu^ to the proposed pro? iftonal article, respectino^ 
the Indian paritication and boundary, the BnUsh com- 
niiHsionoi'H concluded bv stating to »k, thai if llie conferen- 
ces .shouli! be sns))ended by our refusal to agree to such an 
aiiicle, without having obtained further inhtructions from 
our government, G. Britain would not coiistder her.selt 
buiiiui to abide by the lerniN which siie now ofi'ered, bui 
Would be at liberty tovarv and ngniult- her demands to- 
curding to stu.\ie(|^uent events, and III such matiuer as the 
stsiteuf the wurjiit the time of renewing the negociation, 
miglit warrant. 

We asked wlKther the statement made, respecting pro- 
posed revision of the boundary line between the U. State^^ 
and the donnnions ot G. Britain, embraced all the objects 
she meant to U'lng forward for discussion, and what were, 
particiilurly, her views with respect to Moose Island, aiui 
such other islands in the bay of Passamaqiiaddy, as had 
be^f) III. our posseosion till the |>resent war, but had bee» 
lately ,taptured i' We were answered, that those Islands be- 
longing. of right, to G. Britain, (as much so, one of the cor.i- 
missioiiers said, as Noi'thaniptoushire,) lliey would certain- 
ly l>e k«pt by her, and .were nel, even au(>posed to be an ob- 
jerrt of discussion. 

From the ti>rcible mwuier in which the demand, that the 
XJ. Slates shiuiti keep no naval armed force on the lakes, 
nor any military post on their shores, has been brought for- 
ward, we were it>duced to inquire whether this^ condition 
IV as also meant as a &ine qua uon ? To tUis>the British coni- 
ntissioners declined giving a positive answer. They said 
Uial they had been 'iuiihciently explicit; that they hud given 



APPFXDIX. 



S15 



w one sine qua non, and when wc lisu) (liA|K>«e<l of that, it 
wuH (I lit' 1(11 L eiioutifli to ^ive ns an utiNwer an lu anolSuT. 

We then nt ted liiat, coiiNulennic tiie nalnre at>d uitpor- 
tOMce ot th<> cunininiiication made ihiN day, ue u \ei\ the 
British comiinMsioiuTN to reduce the ir |)ro|>osalH to wntnig', 
belore we ^n\e them an answer ; thm ihey au^reed to, and 
proinitied to Nend ns an otiirial note withont dehiy. 

We need hardly say that the deniandA uf G. Britain will 
receive from us an unannnous an<l deei<le<l nejjative. We 
do not deem itneressary to detam the John Adams for liie 
purpose of transtriittin^ to you the ofticial notes which m ly 

!)ass on the Nuhjoct and close the ne«;ociation. And we 
lave felt it our duty immediately to apprize yon, \>y this- 
hasty, but coriett sketcli of our laitt conference, that there 
it) not at present, a.y hope of peace. > ; ' > s' 

We have the honor to he, .Sec. 
JOHN a ADAMS, I 11. CLAY, 
J. A. BA YARD, | JONA. KUSSELL. 
iv > A. G ALLATIM, 






Note of the British commissioners. (Ileceived after the 
above letter was written.) '< 

The undersigned, Plenipoteiitiares of hiti Britannic majes- 
ty, do themselves the honor of acquainting the Plenipoten- 
tiaries of the CJ. States, that they have aommuntcated to 
their court the result of the conference which diey had the 
honor of holding with them upon the 9th insl. in which 
they stated, that they were unprovided With any Sjiecific in- 
structions, as to comprehending the Indian nations in a trea- 
ty of peace to be made with G. Britain, and as to defining a 
boundary to the Indian territory. 

The undersigned are instructed to acquaint the Plenipoten- 
tiaries of the U. States, that his majesty's government hav- 
ing at the outset of the negociation, with a view to the spee- 
dy restoration of peace reduced as far as possible the number 
of points to be discussed, and having professed themselves 
willing to forego on some important topics any stipulation 
to the advantage of G. Britain, cannot but feel some surprise 
thiit the government of the V . States should not have fur- 
nished their Plenipotentiaries with instruetions upon thos«> 
points which could hardly fad to come under discussion. 



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Under the inaliility of lli(> AuicrivHii |Meiii|iuleiiliuricf, 
to coiicluclc any tirlicle ii|)Uii llu siiUjert ol liuiiiiii |>anti.i. 
tioii mid Indian Ixnindury, whicli nJiidl bind llic ((ovcrit- 
ment ol'lht' U. Slates, his niiijt-slN'H government cuniti^v 
that they rannut give a better jMuof ol' their Hincere <Usiie 
for the restoration of peace, tl;a!i by |n'oi'eh.<*iiitf their wdbi^- 
nesM to accept a |>rovi8ional article npon lhu!>e iieads, ni lliu 
ev^ntof Ihe Aniencao Pienipott (kliariescon.sidering' them- 
selves anihorized to accede to the general prineipl^H, upon 
>vliich such an arlii U> ou<;hl to be founded. With a view 
to enable thi* American FlenipotetitiarieK to decide, how 
far the coneiuM on of such an artich; is within the hinit of 
their g^eneral discretion, the uudersig^ned are directed to 
Aate, fully and distinctly^ tlie basis upon which alone G. 
Britain sees any prospecl of advautaj^e in the contuiuaucu 
of I he negociations at the present time. 

The undersigned have already had th? honor of s^'^ling 
to the American Ptenipotentiaries, thai m coiisidering the 
points above referred to, sis a .<iinc qua nm of any treaty of 
peace, the view of the British government is the perma- 
nent tranquility and security of the Indian nations, aii4 
the prevention of ihose jealousies and irritations, to which 
the frequent alteration oi the Indian limits has heretofore 
given rise. 

For this purpose it is indisoensably neces^sary, that the 
Indian nations who have been durntg ihe war in alliaure 
witli G. Britain, should, at the termination of the war, bo 
included n» the pacification. -• »,»» ^'viij Ui!! 1. a. m: .. ■ 
It is equally necessary, ihat a dttinite boundary should 
be assigned to the I.;dians, and that the contracting par- 
tu^s should g^iiaraotee the intt-g ity of their territory, by a 
nmlual stipulation, not to acquire by purchase, or other- 
wise, any territory within the speciiied limits. Tne British 
government are willing to take, as the basis of an article 
on this subject, those stipulations of the treaty of Greenville, 
subject to ni(»diiicalions, which relate to a boundary tine. 

As the undersigned are desirous ol staling every point 
in connection with the subjt ct, which may reasonably in- 
fluence the decision of the American Plenipotentiaries in 
the extrcise of their discretion, ihey avail themselves of 
' this opportUiiity to repeat what they already stated, thai G. 
Britain desires the rev ision of the trontjer between her 



AiPPRIfDfX. 

North AiiK'ricsin (iumiiiUMin and Ummo of llu I .^tiit»s 
iiul wiUn any view lu lui ur(|UiNitiuii oflurntory, an Niirli, 

Iml i'oV illC pUriH»M^ of MiVUrillg bcr |MMMl'MIUIMh UllJ \wv 

Tlu' lintiNb KovcriiiiieiU, coiifiiUer Uio Itken from Inke 
Ontario to lakf Suiierior, botii iikIumivv, to !•« the natural 
military frontier of the BriliMh poNMewtioaJi in North Ame- 
rica. Am the weaktr (Hiwer on the North American con- 
tinent, tiic leant capsihle of actinii; oUeinttvely* and ilie most 
c\|K>!ie<l to gmlden iiivaftioiiN, (i. Britain coiiNiderN llie mili- 
tar\ occo|mtion of thi'iie lukeM um ncccNNary to the wecnrity 
of her duiuniions. A bonndary line equally dividing^ thefte 
waters, with a rit;ht to each nation to arm, bulh upon the' 
Iake8 and upon their MlnircN, im rtilcrnidted to create a con- 
test for naval aHcendancy in peace iis well vm in war. The 
power which occupicti tlieite lakes should, an a necessary 
result, have the military occupation of both shores. 

In ifurtherance of this ol>|«cl the British government :» 
prepared to propose a boundary. But as this might be 
miHConstructed as an intention to extend their possession* 
to the southward of the lakes, which is by no meana the. 
object they have in view, they are disposed to leave the ter- 
ritorial limits undisturbed, and as incident to them, the 
free commercial navigation of the lakes, provided that ihe 
American government will stipulate not to maintain or 
construct, any fortifications upon, or within a limited dis- 
tance ot the shores, or maiutain or construct any armed ves- 
sel upon the lakes in question, or in tlie rivers which empty 
themselves into the simie. 

If thiscan be adjusli'd, there will then remain for dis- 
cussion the arrangement of the north western boundary 
between lake Superior and the Mississtppi, the free uavi^^a- 
tion of that river, and smh a vacation ol the line of fi-outier 
as may secure a direct coaimunication between dtnebec 
and Halifax. 

I'he undersigned trust, that the full statement wliich 
they have made of iht; views and «tb|ects of the British 
government in requiring the paciHcatioii of the Indian na- 
tions, and a perniatient limit io tlieir ternlories, will enable, 
the Amencun Plenipotentiaries to conclude a provisional 
article upon the b.isisai.ove stated. Should th.'v feel il 
necessary to rtier to Uie ^uvernmcllt of the U. Slates for 



n! 



il 



M 







ai9 



AprrNDtx. 



1 , 



,1, 



; [ 



if 






further in«4tnif»inn«,t1.^ iiiiflenisrn^d f*»H it inenmhent up- 
on tlic'in lu acq'iuiiit \hc American Pieiii|M>teiilitirien, that 
th'- j^rtver ment tanViot lie |>n!rluHe«i by nriy tliinjif llint lian 
puMsrii li'Diii Mtrviii)f thctriiiiH at |)r«'N«nt proposefl, in Niich ?i 
maiiiuf, UM the »t§le ol tvHf, nt the time of refumiintj^ Ihr 
en ♦crfiires ni«^ mi ihetr jndjEjrmeiit renrlei* nilvinnble. 

The MiiilerMigiifd avail themselveM of Ihrfi orcMision to 
renew to thr P't»*m|»ole.tiian«'« of the I J. iStateM, the avsnr- 
ance uf their high consideration. 



IM 



1. 



Ghent, Avgvsl 10, \^\A. 






W. ADA MS. 



■■* I 



i\ 



•ij 






The Amnican to the Hritish Commissioners. 

GriGNT, An^uMl 24, 1814. 

The nnderai^ned minimterH pU riipotentlary nnd exiiaor* 
d'mary from the LTinled Stalen of America, nave given to 
the oflicial note ivhich tht?y have hail the honor of ree(»ivinrr 
from his Britannic miijeAty's PltMiipotentianes thedcliher. 
ate attention which the im|iortHiice of its coiitent» required, 
and have now that of trunNmitting to them their answer 
on the several points to which it referr^. 

They would present to the consideration of the British 
Pieiiipoteiitiaries that lord Castlereag'h, in his tetter of the 
4th of Novemlicr 1813, to the American Secretary of State, 
pledges the faith of the British gt>vernment th.it *the} were 
willing to enter into discussion with the government of 
America for the conciliatory adjustment of tlie diiVerenres 
subsisting between the two states, with an earnest desire on 
their part to bring them to a favorable issue, upon princi- 
ples of perfect reciprocity, not inconsistent with the estab- 
lished maxims of public law, and the maritime ri<rhts of the 
British empire.' This fact alone might suffice to shew, 
that it ought not to have been expected tiiat the American 
government, in acceding to this proposition, should have 
exceeded its terms, and furnished the undersigned with in- 
structions authorising them to treat with the British Pleni- 
potentiaries respecting Indians situated within the bounda- 
ries of the U. States. Thiit such expectation was not en- 
tertained by the British government might also have been 
inferred from the explicit assurances which the Biitish 



AlfUftM^U- 



ait 



' It llH 



lMeui|H>ieivtiai'le9 ^uve, ou Uie purl of tlo^ic fCov«rnmcnt» «| 
tlu; tirnl coiifiTvitce u liicb Uiv umlk.rMg^m'U luul Uk) liouor 
uf hoiiiiDii; wiUk tiiviii, llml oo ev«uiU, »'UNift'4|UieuitollMlinti 
()ro|>oNul tut- lliift uegoc lilt ion, huU* iu ^aijr MA^imcr, varied 
« iltiur Uk* il4.s|)OiuUoii ut' ibc tiritisji ^uyvmuitiiit, that it 
III > gill Icnjiiaultt in h |>eucc lioiiui'^blv, U> ,Uolh |mriit>H« or 
Uic U.riijs iiijoii which ihey would hi' wilUw)|^lu conclude it. 

ll iH well kuown UiuL lliu tlidrreitcey |whit'h unhappily 
:>iib.ti<>l l>el\«t:i'U G. Bi'itaiii anil Ihe U StatcN* and, wliicu 
ulliuialcly led lo lh« preM'nl war, weru wholly of u maritime 
nature, arisiMi;- principally from lite UritiHli Orders in Cuun- 
cil, in relation »> blockude.s uiid from the impre.sitnient of 
uiunncr.<t from onboard of American vetiseU. — The bouu-- 
dary of ihe Indian territory had never been a »iibject of 
dilKrencti In'lweeii ihe two couiitriev. ?(cilher the priiici- 
pli'ii of reciprocity, the uia\iui» of (uiblic law, nor the mari- 
time rifj^hUof the British eiiipure, could reouire ihe perma- 
nent eslabliithuu'nt of »ucli a boundary. The novel |)re- 
teiisioitii now advanced couid no more have been anticipat- 
ed by the govenup^Mii of ihe U. States, in formings instruc- 
tions for this negociation, than they srem to have been con- 
templated by tliat of G. Bril.Mii in November last, in pro- 
posing it. Lord Castlereagirs note luukes the termination of 
the war to d^^pend on a conciliatory adjustment of the dif- 
ferences then subsisting between tl^te two stales, and in no 
other condition whatever. ^ ,^, , ,^1 i.r„jfl.4f*>>..;y I i.i= .i*i 

Nor could the Auierican government nave foreseen that 
G. Britain in order to obtain peace for the Indians, residing 
within the doiuinioiis of the U. Stales, whom she had in- 
duced t(^ laki: part with her in the war, would demand that 
tiiey should be maile parties to the treaty between the two 
nations, or that the boundaries of their lands >ihould be per- 
manently and irrevocably tixed by that treaty^. Such a 
proposition is contrary to the acknowledged principles of 
public law, and the practice of all civilized nations, particu- 
larly of G. Britain and of the U. States. It is not founded 
on reciprocity. It is unnecessary for the atUunmeni of the 
ol>ject which it professes to have in view. k ,^-^u ; 

^o maxim of public law has hitherto been more univer- 
sally established amuug the powers of Europe possessing 
territories in America, and there is none to which G. Bri- 
tain has more uniformly and inflexibly adhered, than that 






,|'lil 



i • 



m 



i 
i 



'nf 



920 



Ai^ncNorx. 



t*, 






n 



.u-i 




of Mift'erin^ no interposition of a fur^-igii power in therplH- 
lions bplwecnthe acknowlfydg^cd soverfig^n of ihe lerritorv, 
and the Indinivt sitnikted upon it. Without the admission 
of this pritinpl«, (here woiih^ he no intellig^ihle nieaniiitr 
attached to stipiHtdiotis cstuMishinti^ boundaries l^etweiMi 
file dominions in America, of civilized nations possessinc^ 
lerrilories inhabited by Indian tribes. — Whatever may l»e 
the relations of Indians to the nation in whose tcrntorv 
they are thusacknowted^edto res de, they cannot be con- 
sidered as an inde|>endent power by the nation which has 
made such acknowledc:ment. ' . »j»j<i'» | ii^Mf.rM 

The territory of which G. Britain wishes now to dispose, 
is within the dominions of the IJ. Slates, was solemn'' ;ic- 
knowled«»ed by herself in the treaty of peace of 178:), 
which est-.iblished their boundaries, and by which she re-^ 
linquished nil claim to the jrcvernment, propriety, and ter- 
ritorial rights within these boundaries. No condition res- 
pecting^ the Indians residing therein, was inserted in that 
treaty. No stipulation similar to that now proposed is to 
be fonnii in any treaty made by G. Britain, or within llic 
knowledge of the undersigned, by any olher nation. 

The Indian tribes for which G. Britain proposes now to 
stipulate, have, Ihemselves, acknowledged this frincip e. 
By the Greenville treaty of 1795, to which the British 
plenipotentiaries have here alluded, it is expressly stipulat- 
ed, and the condition has been confirmed bv every suhse- 
quent treaty, so late as the year 1810, 'That the Indian 
tribes shull quietly enjoy their lands, hunting, planting, and 
dwelling thereon, so l'>ng as they please, without any mo- 
lestation from the U. States: but that when those tribes, 
or any of them, shall be disposed to sell (heir lands, tliey 
shall be sold only to the V, States : that until such s-.ile, 
the U. States will protect all the said Indian tribes in the 
quiet enjoyment of their lands against all citizens of tlte 
U. States, and against all other white persons who intrude 
on the same, and that the said Indian tribes again acknuwl- 
edge themselves to be under the protection of the said 
U. Slates, and of no other power whatever.' 

That there is no reciprocity in the pro|)Osed slipulaliou 
is evident. In prohibiting G. Britain and the Ll. SLites 
from purchasing lands within a part of the dominiotis ot 
the latter power, while it professes to lake from G. Biituin 



APPENDIX. 



921 



A privilege uhirh she had not, it actually deprives the 
U. Sillies of a ri«;ht exclusively belouginir to lliein. 

TheprupoNJiioii is utterly unitecesiiary for the pur|>o.seof 
obl-.iiitiiig a paciticaliuii for the Indians residinjE^ within the 
li iTilorieM ot" the IT. Slates. The undersipied have already 
had the honor of infurinin^ the British Plenopolenliaries, 
that, under the system of liberal policy adopted by the 
U. Slates in their relations with the Indian* within their 
ttrritores, an uniiiterrnpled peace had subsisted from the 
sear 1795, not on'y helx^een the U. States and all those 
li il>cs, tiiil also amongst ihose tribes themselves for a lon- 
o^i}' period of time than ever had been known since the Arst 
scllit nieitt of Norih America. Against those Indians the 
IT. Slates hue luillier inlirest nor inclination to continue 
the war. They have nothing to ask of them but peace. 
Commissioners oil their part have been ap, ointed to coii- 
clude tl, and an armistice was actu.dly made last autuma 
with most of those tribes. I'he British government may 
asfaiii have induced some of them to take their side in the 
war, but peace wi h them will necessarily follow immedi- 
ately a peace with (i. Britain. To a provisional article 
similar to what has been stipulatetl in some former treaties, 
eniraging that each party will treat for the Indians within 
its territories, include them in the peace, and use its best 
endeavors to prevent them from committinghostilitieH against 
the citizens or subjects of the other parly, the undersigned 
might assent, and rely on the approbation and ratification 
of their government. They would also fortite purpose of 
securing the duration of peace, and to prevent collisions 
which might interrupt it, propose a stipulation which 
should preclude the subjects or citizens of each nation, res- 
peclively,from trailing with the Indians residing within the 
territory of the other. But to surrender both the rights of 
sovereignly and of soil over nearly one third of the territorial 
dominions of the U. Slates to a num!)er of Indians not 
probably exceeding twenty thou.sand, the undersigned are 
so far from being instructed or authorized, that any ar- 
ranivemeiit for that purpose would be instantaneously reject- 
ed by their governmeint. 

Not only has this extraordinary demand been made a 
-liie qua non, to be admitted without a discussion, and as 
^ preliminary basis; but it is accompanied by uthent 

41 



I'll 



iniii 



i n 



S22 



APPKNUIX. 



i ■ ' 



L 



'I 



m 



Mi 




'yilf 



cqnallv iiin(liiin»ible, which the British Plenipolenliano 
state to lie so connected with it, that they may reasoiiahlv 
influence the decision of theutiders'g'ned upon it, yet leav- 
ing; Uuni uninformed how far these other demands may 
also be insisted on as indispcUMable conditions of a |)eace.' 

As little are the undersisfiied instructed or empowered to 
accede to ihe propositions of the British government, in re- 
lation to the military occupatitMi oM he western lakes. If 
they hav(* found the proposed interference of G. Britain in 
the concerns of Indians residing; within the U. Stales ut- 
terly iiicompaiible with any established maxim of public 
law, they are no less at a loss to discover by what rule of 
perfect reciprocity the U States can be reijuired to renounce 
their equal rij^ht of maintaining- a naval force upon those 
hikes, and of fortify inti;- their own shores, while (j. Britain 
lieserves exclusively the corresponding riji^lits to herself. 
That in point of military preparation, G. Brilani in he »• pos- 
sessions in North America, ever has been in a condition to 
be termed, with propriety, the weaker power in compari- 
son with the U. Slates, ihe undersigned believe to be incor- 
rect in point of fact. Innji^'ard to Ihe forl.rtcation of the 
i)ihores, and to the forces aoliially kt^pt on foot upon thos< 
frontiers, they Iwlieve the superiority to have always beeiv 
on the side of G. Britain. If the proposal to dismantle the 
forts upon tier shores, strike for ever her military A'Ajj; upon 
her lakes, and lay her whole frontier defenceless in the pre- 
sence of ln;r armed and fortified neighbor, had proceeded 
not from G. Britain to the U. States, but from the U. Stales 
to G. Britain, Ihe undersigned may safely appeal to lli«: 
bosoms of his Britannic majesty's Plenipotentiaries for the 
feelings with winch, not only in rey^ard to the inleresls, but 
the honor of their naiion, they would have received such a 
proposal. What would G. Britain herself say, .if in rela- 
tion to another frontier, where she has the acknowledged 
superiority of strength, it were proposed that she should be 
reduced to a condition even u* equality wilh IheU. Stales. 

The untlers<gned further perceive that under the aliedi^- 
ed purpose oi" opening a direct coinmuuicalion between 
two of the British provinces in Awierica, the British gov- 
ernment require a cession of territory forming a part of one 
of the stales of the American union, and that they pmpose. 
without purpose specitically aliedgcd, to draw the boundarv 



JkPPKNDIX. 



am 



line westward, not from the l.>ke of llto \Voo<1s, as it now 
ifi, but Ironi lake Su|UTior. It niiisl In* j»erltHtly »nnnalenal 
to llie I'. Stairs, **l!ctln r the oi jrot of the British iio\»'rn- 
nietit, ill (leniandiiijL!; the disiiuinht riiu-iit ol the V . Stiiten 
is to acquire terntorv, as such, or lor |mrj)osi's l»'-»s hahle, 
ill the eves ol the world, to he ascnhod to the«tesire of a*;^- 
«xra.i<lizeiuei»t. Whatever tlie motive iiiav he, and with 
whatever consisteiicv views of conqiiost may be disclaimed, 
while demaiidiiiiT for hei'self, or for Ihc Indians, a cession 
of lirntory more extensive thaii the whole island of Great- 
Britain, the duly marked out for the iu»dersij»ned is the 
s;ime. They have no authority to cede any part of the ter- 
ritory of the U. Stales, and to no slipuialion to that eflect 
Mill they subscribe. 

Tlie conditions proposed by G. Britain have no relation 
to the subsisting: diil'erences between the two countries : 
they are inconsistent withacknowledg-^d pTinciples of pnl>- 
lic law ; they are foundwl neither on reciprocity nor on any 
of the usual bases of ne<rociation, neither on that oi'ultipos- 
sidetis, or of status antebellum : they would inflict the most 
vital injury on the U. States, by dismendierii:"' their 
territory, by arresting^ their natural growth and in- 
crease of population, and by leaving* their northern and 
western frontier equally exposed to British invasion and to 
Indian agfgression ; they are, above all, dishonorable to the 
U. Slates, in demanding from them to abandon territory 
and a portion 4>f their citizens, \o admit a foreign interfer- 
ence in then- domestic concerns, and to cease to exercise 
their natural rights on their own shores and in their own 
waters. A treaty concluded on such terms would be but 
an armistice. It caimot l>e supposed that America would 
long submit to conditions so injurious and degrading, ft 
is impossible, in the natural course of events, that she should 
not, at the Hist favorable opportuiuty, recur to arms, for t^ie 
recovei*y of Jier territory, of her rights, of Jier honor. In- 
stead of settling existing difl'erences, such a peace would 
only create new causes of war, sow the seeds of a perma- 
nent hatred, and lay the foundation of hostilities for an in- 
(leridite period. 

Essentially pacific fn>m her political institutions, from 
the habits of her citizens, from her physical situation, Ame- 
rica reluctantly engaged in the war. ;:^he wi^•hes for 



1!' 



H 



'' Vf; 


.-■-h 


* 



'-' 



a2i 



APPENDIX. 



!!i 



■i. 



pt'noe ; but hlu* wishes f«M' il n|M>ii llmsc lenus of recipru 
cily, huiioraltU; to both rountnrs, wliuh can alone iviukr it 
pei'iiiaiK'iil. TlHMMUsc'Ncit'liie war lietwceii tl)(^ V. J5l.»Us 
a.Ml G. BrilaiM hivni^ disapiuiirt'd by liie maritiino |)ac;tl- 
calioii ol Europe, the g*»vt niineiil ol the V. Slates <loejj 
notdeKue to coiitiaue il, in dei'ence of abslract pnncipUs, 
vhcli bavt tor (he present, coast'd lo have any practical 
ettecl. Tlie uiidersiuned have been aecordin^ly uiMtrnct- 
e lo agree lo its termination, bolli parlies restoring \vh;'t- 
cver territory they may have taken, and Ijolb reserving alt 
tlieir righu, ni rehtlion to their resj'eclive seamen. To 
make the peace between the two nahons solid and pernia. 
ne t, the undersignei: were also instructed, and iiave been 
prepared to enter into the nto.sl air.icable discussion ot all 
those points on which diB'erences or nnierluinty had exist. 
ed, and which might hereafter tend in any degree whatev- 
er to iuterrupl the harmony of the two countries, without, 
however, making the conclusion of ihe peace at all depend 
upon a successful result of the discussion. 

Il is, therefore, with deep regret, that the undersign ed 
have seei4^thut other views are entertained by the British 
government, and that new and unexpected pretensions are 
raised, which, if persisted ui, must oppose an insuperable 
0* acle to a pacification. It is not necessary to refer such 
demands to the American government for its instru-'tion. 
They will only be a fit subject of deliberation, when it be- 
comes necessary to decide upon the expediency o^' an abso- 
lute surrender of national independence. 
, The undersigned request the British Plenipotentiaries 
to accept the assnranc»€ of their high .iteem. 
, . JOHN a ADAMS, , JON A. RUSSELL, 
J. A. BAYARD, A. GALLATIN. 
, H. CLAY, 



.* - 



The British to the American Commissioners. 

GHhNT, Hepl. 4, 1814. 
The undersigned have the ho. tor to acknowledge the 
receipt of the note of the Americaii Plenipotentiaries, dated 
ihe 24th ultimo. 

It IS with unfeigned regret that the undersigned observe, 
both in the tone and sulistancQ of the whole note, so little 
pro«if of any disposition on liiC part of the government of 
the IJ. istates to euler into aa amicable discussion of the 



APPENDIX. 



a-i^ 



* 1 



jnipolentiaries 



!»everal |>oiiit!4 sulun lied by liie uiulerHi^iii>d in llu ir foruier 
CDiMiiiiiii calioii. Tlie iiiicUrtii^iit'd are |Hrtecll) iiware, 
tli.il r.t briii;^iiiir t'ui'v\aril liiuM^puiiiU tor cuiisuleralion and 
studii^ tviUi su much truukiifsk, UK tlK-\ did, ilie vieN^ttwilh 
\«liiCii Ihty wt-re prupoNtd, ihes de|>arli>d truiii the utiual 
coiir:ie ui itegwciuliiig, by dischikiui* all the oltjeiUof their 
«ruverauieiil, v\hile those which titt: Auiericuii ||roveriiuienl 
h.iu 111 vievi' were withheld: but in su doing they u-ere 
])nitct|)a'ily acluuted by a des re ot briojrnig the negocia* 
ttoii as sou I as poitsib e to a lavorai>le tfiuiiiiatioiit and ia 
some iiieaHiii'c by ttieir willii>gness lu couiply ^^ith the \»i8h- 
QH expressed by iht AMierican PteiiipoteiitiarieM theiiiMelves. 
It I!* perlectly true that the war belueeu his majesty and 
the U. States, was dectaied by the lalter power upon the 
pretence ol uiaritiuie nghlH aiiedged to be asserted by G. 
Britain, and disputed by the IT. States. 

It the war thus ueclared by the U. Stales had been car- 
ried o . by tlieni tor objecls purely ut' a niaritinie nature, or 
if the attack wh.cli has been made on Canada liad been tor 
the purjKise oi diversion, or Die way of defence agiiiiibt the 
British forces in that quarter, any question as to Uie boun- 
daries ot Canada, might have been considered as unneces- 
sary ; but it IS notorious to the whole world that the con- 
quest of Canada, and its permanent annexation to the Ur 
Slates, was the declared object of the American govern- 
ment, if in consequence of a difit reat course of events ou 
the coiitinent cf Europe, his majesty's government had 
been unable to reinforce the British armies in Canada, and 
the U. Slates had obtained a decided superiority in that 
quarter, is there any person wiio doubls that they would 
have availed themselves of then* situation to obtain on the 
side ui Canada important cessions of territory, if not the enf ^ 
tire i.baiidonnient of that country by G. Britain? Isthe> 
American governm*:'nt to bt: allowed to p^irsue, so far as 
its mea.fS will enable it, a system of acquisition and agfgraik- 
dizement to the extent uf annexing entire provinces to tb Mr 
doiiiinioMS, and is liis majesty to be precluded from avail- 
ing himself of his means, so far as they will enable him, to 
relaiu. those points which the valor of British arms may 
have placed in his power, because they happen to be situat- 
ed w ithin the territories allotted under former treaties to 
jlhe jy^oveniiuetit of the U. States? 



li 



I i ■ 





«. 



1^' 

-it 



rtr;'-? ^i 




^»i 



APPENDIX. 



Stirli a princi^ile of iiesroclalion was neviM* avowixl nntc- 
cedf'iit to that ottlierevohitionurv ai-ovenimeiil o» Fuiiiri'. 

ii'Jhe policy of the IT. Stjiles h-.ui heeii eMseiitiallv psi- 
cific, UH the American I'JeiiipolenliiineM asstrt it ou^ht to 
be, fmiii their political iii^titutiois, irom iiu' hahits of their 
citizens, and from their physical situation, it ini«;ht not have 
been necessary to propo!<u^ the precantioiiary jiruvisions imvv 
under (iiNciissioii. That, of late years at least, the Ameri- 
can i^overnmcnl have been intinenced hy a very diffnt'iit 
policy: by aspiril of aj^i^randizenieiit not necessarv to their 
own security, but increasin-jf with the exleist of their em- 
pire, has been too clearly nianifrsled l)y their progressive 
occupation of the Indian territories ; by the acquisition of 
Louisiana : by the more recentattempt to wrest by force of 
arms from a nation in amity, the two Fluridas : and, lastly, 
by the avowed intention of permanently annex'ng tlie Can- 
adas to the U. States. 

If, then, the security of the British North American do- 
minions requires any sacrifices on Ihe patt of the (J. States, 
they must be ascribed to the declared policy of that govern- 
ment in making the war not one of self defence, nor tor the 
redress of grievences, real or pretended, but a part of a sys- 
tem of conquest and aggrandizement. 

The British government in its present situation, is bound 
in duty to endeavor to secure its North American domin- 
ions ag tinst those attempts at conquest, which the Ameri- 
can government have avowed to be a principle of their 
policy, and which as such will undoubtedly be renewed, 
whenever any suc< ceding war between the two countries 
shall afford a prospect of renewing them with success. 

The British P/enipotentiaries proposed that the military 
possesion of the lakes, from lak«i Ontario to lake Superior, 
should be securt d to G. Britain, Kecaiise the command of 
those lakes would afford to the American government the 
meaiisof commencing a war in the heart of Canada, and 
because the comtnaiidof them, on the part of G. Britain, 
has tteen shown by experience to be attended with no inse- 
curity to the U. Stales. « i; m; pj ,. ..,-., 

When tlio rehitive strength of the two powers in North 
America is considered, it should be recollette<l that the 
British dominions in th.it quarter do not contain a popiila- 
lio'.i of five hun<lred liiousaud souls, whereas the territory of 



APPENDIX. 



827 



ihe V. Slrttes conLiins a popnialion of more ihan seven mil* 
lions ; ^•liat ihc iiavul rt'sourccs of iho IT. Slalts are at hand 
for nllack, and lliat the naval reHonrct'Si of G. Britain arc on 
the other side i>t the Atlantic. 

The niiliturv |H)ssesMoo of those lakes is not, therefore* 
ijeees)iiary for the proleclion of the V. Stales. 

The proposal fiii* allowini;' ll>e territories on the sonlhern 
biHiks of the lakesalK)\e meniioned to remain in the pos- 
M'ssion of the «rovernment of the U. Slates, provided no 
forlitieulions t>honld he erected on the shores, and no arma« 
nient permitted on the waters, has been matle, for the pur- 
pose of manifestinir, that security and not accpiisition of the 
terntory islheol)je<^l ofthi British government, aitd that they 
have no desire to llirow ohstacles In the way of any com- 
nit'ree which the people of the ('. Slates may L>c desirous 
of carryiii<; on upon Ihe lakes in time of peace. . 

The undersii>'ned, with the anxious wish to rectify all 
misuuderstaiidini*', have thus more fully explamed the 
gi*4)unrls upon which they broui^ht forward the propositions 
contained in their former note respt^ctm;^ the boundaries of 
the British dominions in North America. 

They do p.ot wish to insist upon tliem beyond what the 
circumstaiHtes may fairly recpiire. Tluy are ready, amica-> 
bly to discuss the details of them with a view to the adop- 
tion of any modifications which the American Plenipoten- 
liaiies, or theirgoverunnnt, may have to suggest, if they are 
not incompatible with the object itself. 

With respect to the boundary of the district of Maine, 
and that of the north westf^rn frontier of theU. Slates, the 
Miidersigned were not prepared, to anticipate the objections 
coiilained in Ihe note of [\ie American Plenipotentiaries, 
' that they were instructed to treat for the revison of their 
boundary lines,* with the statement which they have subse- 
quently made, that they had no authority to cede any part, 
however insigiiKicant, of the territories of the U. States, al- 
though the proposal left it open to them to demand an 
equivalent fur such cession either in frontier or otherwise. 

The American Pienipotentiaries nmst be aware that the 
boundary of the District of Muine has never been correctly 
ascertained ; that the one asserted at pres'.Mit by the Ameri- 
can govermuent, by which the direct communication be- 
tween Halifax and Quebec becomes inlerrupttd, was ndl 



I' 



i I: 



I' :i 






■' i;. 






%^H 



APPENDIX. 



-; 



f 




Ml conlom|»ljUion of ihe RriliNh Plenipolenliaries wlio ron. 
chilled llie treHty ol ITH*'), siimI llisit llie t;r(iiler part ot' ilir 
territory in qiu^ittioii in uotiially iiiiorcui u-il. 

The iiiKh^rHi^iied are |ier<>iia(itMi thut an arran^eineitl on 
this point tiiigfiil he easily made, if eiit< red into with llie 
8pirit of euiu:iliHtion, Without any prejudice to Uie inlerestin 
of the district in qiiL'slion. 

As the necessity of fixini^ .some houndnry for the north 
western frontier lias heeii niutiially arknowtedii^fd, a projto. 
Bal for adiMCUssinii on that suhjtcl cannot he eoDsidered as 
a demand for a cession of lerntor\, unless Ihe IT. Stales 
are prepared to assert that there is no limit to their teirito- 
ries in that direction, and tliat availin<jf themselves oi the 
geoj^raphical err.ir upon which th it part of the tivat\ ui 
1783 was founded, they will acknowled«»e i.o houiwl iry 
whaleviT, ihen nnquestioinihly any proposilum to fix one. I)f 
it what it may, n-iust he considered as demanding- a hn^e 
cession of territory from the U. States. 

Is the American g-overnment pre|»ai;ed to assert such an 
unlimited rit*;ht, so contrary to the evident intentio > of the 
treaty itself? Or, is his majesty's government to understand 
that the American Pleniptttentiariesnre willing to acknow- 
ledge the boundary from the lake of the Woods to the Mis- 
sissippi (the arrangement made by a cimveuiion in 1803, 
but not ratified) as that by which their go\ eminent is ready 
to abide ? 

The British Plenipotentiaries are instructed to accept 
favorably such a proposition, or to discuss any other line uf 
boundary which may be submitted i'or consideration. 

It is with equal astonishment and regret the undersign- 
ed find that the American Plenipotentiaries have not only 
declined signing any provisional article, by which the In- 
dian nations who have taken part w.th G. Britaii« !:i the 
present contest may be included in the peace, and n)ay 
have a boundary assigned to them, but have also thought 
p'.'oper to express surprise at any proposition on the sub- 
ject having been advanced. 

' The American Plenipotentiaries stftte, that their gov- 
ernment could not have expected such a discussirin, and 
api>ear resolved, at once, to reject any proposition on this 
head ; representing it as a demand contrary to the acknowl- 
edged principles of public law, tantamount to a cession o^ 



APPKNDIX. 



829 



»s wlio ron» 
: |);ul (»l* Ihf 

tto Willi !lie 
lite iiilei't'slH 

IP ihe north 
feci, a |>ro|>o- 
iMtsulered as 
a U. Stales 
ihiMi* teiTilo- 
selves o< ihe 
lUv trtat\ of 
.() hum ul try 
to tix out'. Iw 
ding' u large 

jsert sncli an 
■iitio . of llie 
,u iinderstniid 
ir to ark now- 
s lo the iM is- 
ioii in l8U'i, 
nent is ready 

d lo accept 

other I me of 

jratioii. 

eundersign- 

ive not only 

hich llie In- 

ilaii? !:i the 

?e, and n)ay 

also thought 

on the snb- 

, ll^eir gov- 
iiss'on, and 
ition on this 
he acknowl- 
a cession o^ 



one ihird of the trrrilorial dominions of the I'. States and 
riqniredto be adinilted without discuNHion. 

The propoHilion whirh in IIuh represented i», that tlie 
Indian nation.s, which have been durinsT ih*' v%ar in nlliaiice 
with (i. Bnlttiii, shot*' * at its termiiiHtion be included in the 
pacitie ttioii ; and Wtth a view to iheir pffrnianent tranquil- 
it\ and security, that the British (government is willmt^ to 
take as a basis of an atlicle on the subject of a boundary 
fur those nations, the stipiilations which the American ^fov- 
cnnnent contracted in 17U'>, subject, however, to moddica- 
tioiis. 

After the declaration, publicly made to those Indian 
nal ions by Ihe (iovernor Gen. of Canada, that Ci. Britain 
would not desert them, could the Anietican government 
really persua<le itself that no proposition relating to those 
nations would be advanced, and did lord Gistlereagh*s 
note of the 4th Nov. 1810, imply so great a sacrifice of 
honor, or exclude from iliscnssion every subject, except 
what nnmediately related to the maritime questions refer- 
red to in it ? 

When the undersigned assured liie American Plenipo- 
tentiaries of the anxious wish of the British government 
that the negociation might terminate in a peace honorable 
to both parties, it could not have been miagined that the 
American Pleni;)otentiaries would thence conclude, that 
his majesty's gnvenimei.t was prepared to abandon the In- 
dian nations to their tate, nor could it have been foreseen 
that the American government would have considered it as 
derogatory to ds honor to adnut a proposition by which the 
tranquility of these nations might be secured. 

The treaty of (ireenvdie established the boundaries be- 
tween the U. States and the Indian nations. The Ameri- 
can Plenipotentiaries must be aware, tha' the war which 
h.is since brc»ken out, has abrogated that iteaty. Is it con- 
trary to the established principles of public law for the Bri- 
tish government to propose, on behalf of its allies, that this 
treaty, shall on the pacification, be considered subject to 
such modifications as the case may render necessary ? Or 
is it unreasonable to propose, that this stipulation should 
be amended, and that on that foundation some arrange- 
ment should be made which would provide for the exist- 
eiueof a neutral power between G. Britain and the United 

1'i 



%i 



S30 



APPENDIX. 



■! 



'». 



.«, 



' 1; 
.-I 



, I 



;! ii 



3 



fi 



Slalen, cnlriilaled toMeciire to both a long^er contintnmce of 
thf blrssinifs ot' peace ? 

So far \va.H that sjXfciHr proposition rcR])Cclin^ the Indian 
bonndsirti'N from t'jing insiNted U|>on in the note, or in the 
conference which preceded it, tis one to be admitted with- 
ont discnHNion, that it would have t)eeii ditiicuh to useternH 
ofp^rcatir intilude, or which appeared nioie adapted, nut 
only not to prechide bnt to invite d sciissiun. 

If the basiM propo.se<l couhl convry away one third of the 
territory of tl»e IJ. StatcK, the AnK^rican government itself 
nuiMt have co>)veyed it away by the Gftenvdle treaty of 
1795. 

It is impossible to rend that treaty without remarking 
how incooHislent the present pretensions of the Amenciin 
government are, with it a preamble and provisions. Tiie 
boundary line between the lands of the U. States and titose 
of the Indian nations, is therein expressly defined. The 
g-eneral character of t';e realy, is that of a treaty with inde- 
pendent nations ; ami the very stiptdation which the Amer- 
ican Plenipotenliaries refer to, that the Indian natiois 
should sell their hinds only to tiie (J. States, teiids to prove 
that, but for that stipulation, the Indians had a general right, 
lo dispose of them. .; 

The American government has now for the first time 
li'i etiect, declared that all Indian nations within its line uf 
demarkation are its subjects, living there upon suHerance, 
on lands which it also claims the exclusive right of aeqnir- 
ing, thereby menacing the iinal extinction of those natioii$(. 

Against such a system the undersigned must iormallv 
protest. The undersigned repeat, that the terms on whici> 
the proposition has been made for assigning to the Indian 
nations some boundary, manifest no unwillingness to dis- 
cuss any other proposition directed to the same object, el- 
even a modification of that which is offered. G. Britain is 
ready to enter into the same engagements with respect to 
the Indians living within her titie of demarkation, as thai 
which is proposed to the {]. States. It can therefore, only 
be from n complete misapprehension of the proposition, 
that it can be represented as being not reciprocal. Neith- 
er can it with any truth, be represented as contrary to the 
acknowedged principles of public law, as derogatory to 
th« honor, or iucousistent with the rights of the American 



APPFNDIX. 



«ai 



ontinoance of 



governnirtit, nor tk% a ucMiiaiitl rtM|iiirtMl lo be aiJmiUed 

wiIIkmiI (IisCUHHIOII. 

After this tiiilcxpoHilionot'tlie •KMitimeiiU of Iiim iiiiijeNty'ii 
^oveniiiieiit uii the poiiiU »h«>vc HiMleil, il will in' tor Uie 
American Ph'iii|»<iteiiliiirieN lu (U-U-riiiiiie w hrUier ihey are 
rea<ly now to ioiitiiiiii* the iicufoeiulioii ; whether they aro 
dis|Mise(i to ret'erto (heir ;4»veriiiiieol tor further iii.slniC' 
tioiis ; or, lastly, whether ihey w>\\ take upon lhem»el\eH 
the •eH)iou>itl>ihty ot'hre>ikiii:;oiVlhe ne^ociation altogether. 
The underNi^iied requeNl the American t'lenipolentia- 
ries to accept tlie asMuraiiceH of their hiufh roiiMideratioM. 

(iAMHIKK, 
ll.GOULBlJKN. 
W. ADAMS. 



The Ainei'imn to the Br i fish Cmnm'mouers, 

(ill KNT, Sept. 9ih, 1814. 

The uiiderNiirned have \vm\ the honor to receive the note 
of hiM Britannic uiiijeM(y*H riei)ipol4.MiliarieMf dated the 4th 
instant, if in the tone, or Huhs'ance of the former note of 
the uiiderHiy^ned, tiie BrittNh coniiniNsionerM have perceived 
hi'ie proof of any diNpoHition on the part of the American 
(Government, for a diHcUMsion of home of the propoHitioiiH 
advanced in the tirttt note, which the underNi^^ned had the 
ho lOr of receiving' from them, they will nscnbe it to the 
nature of the propoMitiouN theniHelveH, to their apparent io- 
conipatihility with ilie aMsuranceN in lord CaHtleivatrirM let* 
ter to the American secretary of state, propoHintr the ne- 
p^ociation, and with the Noleuin aHsuraiices oi the Urilish 
P.enipotentiarieH themselveM, to tike iinderniffned, at their 
tirst conference with them. 

The nndei'iii(^ned, in reference to an observation of the 
Briti»in PlenipotentiarieM, must be allowed to say, that the 
ol)jects which the j^overnment of tlie U. States had in view, 
have not been withheld. 

The subjects considered us suitable for discussion were 
fairly brou|rht forward, in the conference of the 9lli ult. 
and the terms on which the U. Slates were willing to con- 
clude the peace, were fraikly and expressly dect.tred in 
the note of the uiidersi{y;;ned, dated the 24th ultimo. It had 
been contidently hoped that the nature of those ternn, so 
evidently framed in a spirit of conciliation, would iiave 



'K' 






III 



.1 



IP' 



1^1 



S99 



APPKNDIX. 



I! a\ 



i\^ 



> 1.1 



I 



, I i 



i! 

Si 



i 



II t 






/ -»■ 



i ■ 



' (il 



I 



imiiircd (i. Hrilainto ndnpt lUem ntttltr li:iiiis of n trrntv ; 
and il In with (K i-|> rc^rcl lli:it llicMiMi(>rsii>iir(l,it'i|itn Iia\e 
ri|<;htl\ iiiiil('i'»tn(Ml the iiilmimii^ ot iIi«- laHt iiuh* of llic Bn- 
tinh PifiiipoUniiiineN, |H>rniv4' lliiit \Uv\ ntill iiisiht oti llit* 
ex<'liHivf> miiitnry |>oHN*>Nsifiii ol' I lie hikes, iiimI <mi ti pcrniii. 
li< ril h«)iiii<)ary :iimI iiMh'peiidciit ttiTitnrv for the ImiiaiiH 
rt'Hidiii^f within the doiiiiiiionN of Ihi^ V. Stales. 

The HrHt (leiiuiiui '\h t^rouiuicd uu the siipiosilion, that 
the Aiiiencan u^ovfriimeiit has nr.tiiifi mUmI. I>\ its proccnl- 
uvj;h towaivl.s S|miii, hy tho Hrqii h lion of LouiMana, hv 
the|HirciiaseH of Indian hiiiiiM, and hy an avowed ittteiitioii 
of pernia.ently aiincxinp^ th<! Caiiatias to the V. St!i!«.s, 
a spirit of ag^'ra^dlzt'mt'nl and roii(|tie.st, which jiistilii's 
the demand ot extraordinary sacnfires from them, to pro. 
ide for the security of tlie British possessions in America. 

In observations which the niidersi<riied felt it their duty 
t> make on the new demands of the Hi'iti>h ^overnnieiit, 
theN coiitined their animadversionM to the nature of the de- 
mands themselves ; they did not seek for ilUistrations of 
the policy ot G Britain in her conduct, in various (piarte.-s 
of the globe, towards oilier nations, for she was not ac- 
countable to the IJ. Slates. Yet ihe undersigneci will say, 
that their government has ever been ready to arrange. In 
the most amicable manner, with Spain, the questions re- 
specting the bonndaries ot LMUisiana, and Florida, a d 
that of the indeuniities acknowledged by Spain due to 
American citizens. How the peaceable acquisition of 
L' iiisiana, or the purchase of lands within the acknow- 
ledged lerrilone)! of the U. States, both made by fair and 
voluntary treaties for satistaclory equivalents, can be as- 
cribed to a spirit of conquest ilangerous to their neighbors, 
the undersigned are Hltogether 'aI a loss to understand. 

N«ir has the conquest of Canada, and its permanent an- 
nexation to the U. States, been the declared object of their 
government. From the commencement of the war to the 
present time, the American government has been always 
willing to make peace, without obtaining any cession of 
territory, and on the sole condition that the maritime qi;e.s- 
tions might be satisfaclonly arranged. Such was their 
disposition in themonth uf .Tniy, 1812, when they instruct- 
ed iVlr. Russell to make the proposal of an armistice ; in 
the month of October of the same year, when Mr. Mou- 



.iPPEXDIX. 



3.')3 



roc aii^writ'd Admiral WiirrnrM itropoMal-. (o tliu Name 
etVccl ; Ml April, IHl;), whtii insiructMiiiN were tfivcn to 
three ot llie uiiiU'rHiv^iit'd IImmi a)i|M>iiiU>(l to treat ul' pencr, 
under the iiieditilioii ot Hunhiu ; niid in Jaiiimry, IHI I, 
ulieii the iiiMtriirtioiiH iiiidir whu'li the uiiiiirMigiied are 
iiuw tietiii^, were prepared. 

The prnpusition of the Hrit'iHli PleiiipoteiiliiirieM is thai, 
ill order lo Meciire llie t'ruiitier oi Caiiudu a^'alllMt attack, 
the U. St:iteM Nhotild leave their own without delence ; 
and itseeiUH to be tor^ollen, that if their superior popula- 
tion, and the proximity ut' their reMOurees !.'i>e tiiem any 
advatitn«j;e in that quarter, it is lialaneed !>> the ureal dif- 
ference iK'tween the military eslahlishuients of the t\«o na- 
tions. No sudden invasion of Canada by the U. States 
could be made, without leavinir on their Atlantic shoreji, 
and on the ocean, exposed to the great superiority ot the 
British torce, a mass of American property far more val- 
uable than Canada. In her relative sui>erior force to that 
of the U. States in every other qi:arler,G. Britain may tind 
a pledge umch more etficacious for the safety of a single 
vulnerable pomi, than in stipulations ruinous to the inter- 
ests, and dej^radiiig to the honor o\' America. The best 
security for the possessions of both countries will, howev- 
er, be found in an equal and solid peace ; in a mutual re- 
spect tor the riy^hts ot eat bother, and in the cultivation of 
a friendly understauding between them. If liiere be any 
source of jealousy in relatiun to Canada itself, it will be 
found to exist solely in the un<lue interference of traders 
and agents, which may be easily removed by proper re- 
slrainls. 

The only American (ovia on the lakes known to have 
been, at the commencement of the negociation, lield by 
British force, are Michilimackinac and Niagara. As the 
U. States were, at the same time, in possession of Amherst- 
burg, and the adjacent country, it is not perceived that the 
mere occupation of those two forts could give any claim to 
his Britannic majesty lo large cessions of territory, found- 
ed upon the right of conquest ; and the undersigned may 
be permitted to add, that even if the chances of war should 
yield to the British arms a moinenlary possession of other 
parts of the territories of the U. States, such events would 
uot alter their views with regard to the terms of peace to 



I m 



I 




3^4 



APPENDIX. 




I 

I 



i.ll 



'k 



i^ 



u 



ill 



f 



iwhieli llicv wonltl STive tlu-ir coiiKcnt. AVitliout recurrinjr 
U* exampleH clra^vn tronj the revolutinnary ^overiiiiietitHof 
France, or lo a more recent and illustriouH lriiiiii|tli of lor- 
titiute in adversity, ihey have lu'en taught Uy their own 
history that the occupation of their principal citieti would 
profhice no despondency, nor induce their suhtnission 
to the dismoinherment of their empire, or to the abui.duii. 
Dient of any one of the rights which constitute a pnit uf 
tiieir national independence. 

The gtiieral position, that it was consistent with the. 
principles of public law, and with the practice of civilized 
nations, to include allies in a treaty of |>ea(e, and to pro. 
vide for their security, never was called in question by the 
undersigned. But they have <ienied the right of G. Bri- 
tain, according to those principles and her own practice, to 
interfere in any manner with the Indian tribes residing ^vith- 
in the territories of the V. States, as acknowledged by her- 
self, to consider such tribes as her allies, or to treat for 
them with the IT. Stales, They will not repeat the facit 
and arguments already brought forward by them n\ sn,)- 
port of this position, and which remain unanswered. The 
observations made by the British Plenipotentiaries on the 
treaty of Greenville, and their assertion that the U. States 
now, for the first time, deny the absolute independence of 
the Indian tribes, and claim the exclusive right of purchas- 
ing their lands, require, however, some notice. 

if the U. Stales had now asserted, that the [;)dians with- 
in their boundaries, who have ackuowledged the U. States 
as their Oidy protectors were their subjects, living only at 
sufi'erance on their lan<ls, far from being the first in making 
that assertion, they would only have followed the examirto 
on the principles, uniformly and invaria ly asserted in sub- 
stance, and frequently avowed in express terms by the Bri- 
tish government itself. What was the meaning of all the 
colonial charters granted by the British monarchy, from 
that of Virginia, by Elizabeth, to that of Georgia, by the 
iiumed'atepreciecessor of thp present king, if the Indians 
were the sovereigns and proprietors of the lands bestowed 
by tikose charters P What was the meaning of that article in 
the treaty of Utrecht, by which the five nations were de- 
scribed, III terms, assutiject to the dominions of (i. Britain ? 
or that of the treaty with the Clierokees, by which it was 



APPENDIX. 



das 



declared that the kin|L>; of G. Britain c^ranteii them theprivi* 
ledge lu live wiifrelhey pleant'cl, if tliose subjerls wcro in* 
de|teii<lehl suvereigiiN, nnil if these leriaiitN, ut the licence of 
the British kingt were th^ riirhttul hmU of the tamU where 
he granted them jiermitision to hve ? VVhut was the moan- 
ini;' of that proclamation of his present Britannic insijeNty, 
issued in 17(Ki, dechiriit^^ ail piirchnHes of laiid!« from the 
1 idiansiinll and void, miUss made by treaties held nnder 
the sanction of his majesty's government, if the Indians had 
the right to sell their lends to whom they pleased ? What 
was the meaning of honndary lines of Amr;rican territories, 
in all treaties of G. Britain with other Kiiropean poMet'.>i 
having American possessions, particularly in the treaty of 
176-J, hy which she acquired from France the soveieignty 
and possession of theCaiuulu; ; in her treaty of peace with 
the U. States in 1"83 ; nay, what is the meaning of the 
north western boundary line now proposed by the British 
commissioners themselves, if it is the rightful |»ossessioii 
and sovereignty of independent Indians, of which these 
boundaries dispose ? Is it indeed, necessary to ask, whether 
G. Britain ever has permitted, or would permit, any for- 
eign nation, or without her consent, any ot' her subjects, to 
acquire lands from the Indians, in the territories of the Hud- 
son bay company, or in Canada:' In formally protesting 
against this systeui, it is not against a novel prelension of 
the AiiieriC;iii govLM'nineiit, it is agiiinst tlie most solemn 
acts of their own sovereigns, against the royal proclama- 
tions, charters, and treaties of ti. Bitain, for more than 
two centuries, from the .HrstsettLmement of North Ameri- 
ca to the present day, that the British Plenipotentiaries 
protest. 

From the rigor of this system, however, as practised by 
G Britain, ami all other European powers in America, the 
humane and liberal policy of the U. States has voluntarily 
relaxed. A celebrated writer on the laws of nations, lo 
whose authority Britisii jurists liave taken particular satisfac- 
tion in appealing, after stating, in the most explicit man- 
tier, the legitimacy of coloiiini settlements in America, the 
exclusion of all rights ot uncivilized liuiian tribes, has tak- 
en occasion to praise thetirst seillers of New-England, and 
the founder of Pennsylvania, in having purchased of the Iii- 
dia^is the lands they resolved to cultivate^ iioln itlistandifig^ 



II 



,i|t 

•jii' 



•■"*^' ., 1 




■ III 



t , 



'? 



f- 



i 






'I 'I 



K ., 



336 



APP^-NDIX. 



Iheir l»ein£j fiirnisheil wllh si charter from Uieir s(>vereiji;'n. 
It IS lliisc\aiii|>lf, uliicli the IT. Stales, since they l)er:»mH 
by tlieir iiule|>eucleiice,tlie Hovereijfiis of the lernlorv, liiive 
adopted and or«rani/e(l uito a poiilical Kvslem. UimIci- 
that systt ni, the Indians resi(hn<r wiihni the U. SlalcH ave 
so far independiiit Untt they h\e nnder their own customs, 
and not under the laws of the U SlaUs, that their riyhu 
upon the lands where *hey uthabit, or hunt, are secured U> 
theni by botindarie.s delined in ain:c;ib'e treaties between 
the U. States and tlieinselves ; and ti at ulnnever those 
boundanvs were vancl, it isf also by auKcalile aad voumla- 
ry treaties, by which they receive from the U. Slates ample 
compensation for every right they have to l1ie lands cedeil 
to them. They are so far dependent as not to have the rii>lit 
to dispose of their lauds to private persons, nor to any pow- 
er other than the U. States, aid tt be under their prolec- 
tioii alone, and not under tliatof any other power. Whe- 
ther call&d subjects, r by whatever name designated, such 
is the relation between them and the U. Stales. — That rela- 
t on is neither asserted now for the tirsttime, nor di<l it oii. 
gi late with the treaty of (iieenville. These principles h;>ve 
been uniformly recoofn, zed bv the Indians tiieiuselves, not 
only by that trcuty, but in ad the other previous as we!I as 
subsequent treaties between them and the U. States. < 

Tile treaty of Grecnvilie neither took from the Indians 
the right, which they had not, of selling lamls within llie 
jurisdiction of ihe U. Stales to foreign governn»enls or sub- 
jects, lior ceded to them the right oi exercising exclusive 
jurisdiction within the boundary line assigned. It was 
merely declaratory of the public law in relation to the par- 
ties, founded on principles previously and universully recog- 
nized. It left to the U. Stales the rights of exercising sov- 
ereignty antl of acquiriivg soil, and bears no analogy to tlie 
piviuisition of G. Briiain which requires the abandonuieut 
of both. 

Tne British Plenipoleutiaries stale in their last note, thai 
G. Britain isready to enter into the same engagement with 
respect to the Indians living within her line of demarkation, 
as that which is propose*! to the U. States. — The under- 
signed will not dwell on the immense ineqnaiity of value 
between the two territories, which under such an arrange- 
luenl, would ije assigned, by each nation respectively to tlie 



APPENDIX. 



337 



s as well as 



an aiTanirt- 



Indiniis, and which alone wouid niakethe reciprocity mere- 
ly nominal. The condilnui which would be IhuH imposed 
on G.Britain not to acquire landtt in Canada from the In- 
dians, wonld be productive of no advantage to the 
U. Suites, and is, iherefoie, no equivalent for the sacri- 
fice required of them. The) do not consider that it belong 
to the (T. States in any res[>ect to interfere with the con- 
cerns of (i. Britain iu her American possessions, or with 
iter policy towards the Indians residiii)^ there : and they 
cannot consent to any interference, on the part of G. Bri- 
tain, with their own concerns, and particularly with the 
Indians living willtin tiieir territories. It may be the inter- 
est ot G. Britain to limit her sett leuients in Canada to their 
present extent, and to leave the country to the West a per- 
petual wihlerness, to be for ever inhabited by scattered 
tribes of hunters : but it wouid iiiHict a vital injury on the 
U. States to have a line run through her territory, beyond 
which her settlements should for ever be precluded froia 
extendnig, thereby arresting' the natural growth of her po- 
> lialion and stretiglh; placing the Indians substantially by 
virtue of the proposed ^uarautee, under the protection of 
G. Britain; dooiunig them to nerpetual barbarism, and 
leavinu; an extensive frontier for ever exposed to their sav* 



a!>'e incursions. 



With respect to the mere question of peace with the In- 
dians, the undersigned have already explicitly assured the 
British Pletiipolentiaries that so far as it depended on the 
U. States, it would immediately and necessardy follow a 
peace withG. Bntain. If this be her sole object, no pro- 
vision in the treaty to that ett'ecl is necessary. Provided 
the Indians will now consent to it, peace will immediately 
be made with them, and tliey will be reinstated in the same 
situation in which they stood before the commencement of 
hostilities. Should a coii'inuance of the war compel the 
U. States to alter their policy towards the Indians, who 
may still take the part of G. Britain, they alone must be re<)> 
sponsible for the consequences of her own act in having in- 
duced them to withdraw themselves from the protection of 
the U. States. The employment of savages, whose known 
rule of warfare is the indiscriminate torture and butchery 
gf women, children, and prisoners, is ibeif a departure froai 

m 






t«! 






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^i> 







338 



APPENUfX. 



'M 



t I 



i 



m )l 



the pi'inciploH uf litiiiianity observed bchveen all civilized 
aiul Clinsliaii nations, even in war. 

Tii(; V. States have constantly protested, and still pro. 
teslii|^anisl it as an nnjnstitiadle aggravation ot'the calami- 
lies and horrors of war. — Of the peculiar atrocities of In- 
dian wtuliire, the allies of G. Britain in whose behalf she 
now dentands s;uTifices of the U. States, have during the 
present war, shewn many deplorable examples. Among 
them, the mas' acre in cold blood, of wounded prisoners, 
and the refusal of the rights of burial to the dead, under the 
eycsot Briiish oJnrers who could only plead their inability 
to control these savage anxiliarirs, have been re| eatedand 
are notorions to the world. The U. States might at all 
times have employed the same kind of force against G. 
Britain, to a grcitt:!r extent than it was in her power to Liv,- 
ploy it against them } but from their reluctance to resort to 
means so abliorreitt to the natund feelings of humanity, 
they abstained from the use of them until compelled to the 
allerniiUve of employing tluinselves Indians, who otlfcer- 
wise would have been drawn iulo the ranks of their ene- 
mies. The u-idersigned suggesting to the British Pleni- 
pott'iitiaries the pronritly of an article by which G. Britain 
and the U. Slates >h(;uid rcci|>roGally stipulate never here- 
atler, if they should be again at war, to employ savages in 
it, believe that it would be infinitely more honorable to the 
luimanity and Christian temper of both parlies, more ad- 
vantageous to the Indians themselves, and better adapted 
to secure their permanent peari', tranquility; and progres- 
sive civilization. Uian the boundary proposed by the British 
Plenipotentiaries. 

With regard to the cession of a part of the District of 
Maine, as to which the British Phnipotentiaries are unable 
to reconcile the objections made by the undersigned with 
their previous declaration, they have the honor to observe, 
thai althe conference of the 8th ult. the British Plenipoten- 
tiaries staled as one of the subjects suitable for discussion, 
n revision of the boundary line between the British and 
American territories, with a view to prevent uncerlainlv 
and dispute ; and that it was on the point thus stated, that 
Ihoundf^rsigncd declared that they were provided with in- 
structions from their governinHii; a declaration which 
tlid not imply that they were luslructed to make uny ces 



APPENDIX* 



OOP 



\ all civilized 



ies, more ad- 



he Disliict of 



Hion of territory in any qunrter, or aj^ree to a revision of the 
line, or to any exchaiif^«* of territory, where no unccr ^ 
or chspute existed. 

The uiitierMigned perceive no uncertainty or matter of 
tlouhl in the treaty of I7H3, wilii res|HCt to that part of the 
boundary of the JJistricl of Maine which wuuUl ijc affect- 
ed by the proposal of G. Britain on that huhjeet. They 
never have understood thai the Uritish Plenipotentiaries 
M'ho signed that treaty, had contemplated a boundary dif- 
ferent from that fixed by the tri aly ; and which requires 
.nothing more, in order to be iletinileiy ascertained, than to 
'i;6 surveyed in conformity with its proviaiions. This sub- 
ject not having been a matter of uncertainty or dispute, 
ihe undersigned are not inslructe«i upon it; and they c'nu 
ha\e no authority to cede any part of the state of Massa- 
chusetts, even for what the British gover^ifi^ent might con- 
sider a fair equivalent. 

in regard to the boundary of the north western frontier, 
80 soon as the proposition ot Indian boundary is disposed 
of, the undersigned have no objection, with the explana- 
tion given by ihe British Piensputentiaries in their last 
note, to discuss the subject. 

The undersigned iii their formernole, stated with frank- 
ness, and will now repeat, that the two propositions, 1st, of 
assigning in the proposed treaty of p^ace a detinile boun- 
dary to the Indians living within the limits of the U. Stales, 
beyond which boundary they should stipubte nottu acquire, 
by purchase or otherwise, any territory ; and 'idly, of securing 
the exclusive military possession of the lakes to Great Ijri- 
tain, are both inadmiss ble; and that they cannot subscribe 
to, and would deem it useless to refer to their government, 
any arrangement, even provisional, containing either of 
these propositions. With this understanding, the under- 
signed are now ready to continue the negociation ; and as 
they have already expressed, to discuss ail the pointy of 
dift'ereuce, or which might hereafter tend in any degree to 
interrupt the harmony of the two countries. \.,.i' 

The undersigned request the British Ptenipolentiarics 
to accept the assurance of their high consideration. 



JOHN a ADAMS, 
J. A. BAYARiJ, 
H. CLAY, 



JONA. KUSSEIX, 
A. GALLATIN. 






!l»,| 



J*J 



340 



JlPPENDIX. 



I I I 



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? ;i.; 



TA^ British to the Amerknn Commissumers, 
■ Ghlnt, Sepl. 19, 1814 

The undemig^ned have the Imitor to nckno\^ l«'<i|{f \\\u 
receipt of the note nddreftKcH to them hy ilie Anierirun 
plenipotentiaries on ihe Uth inst. 

On the grreiiter part of thnl note, the iiiiiirrsi^^neil have 
no intentior^; to q^alce commt'nl.^, having propostd to Ihem- 
ocfves thronirhout the nejerociatinn to avuid all unnecessary 
diflf'UHsiony, more especially >» hen tending^ to create irritn« 
tion. 

On t!;e qnestion of the northwestern frontiers, they are 
happy to find that no material difllicnlty \h likely to arise. 

With respect to the boundary nfti.e District of Maine, 
the undersigned observe with regret, that although Ihe A- 
raerican Plenipotentiaries have acknowledged themselves 
to be instructed to discuss a revision of the bouriidary line, 
with a view to prevent uncertainty and dispute, yet, by asf 
6uming an exclusive right at once to decide what is or is 
not a subject of uncertainty and dispute, they have ren- 
dered their powers nugatory or inadmissd>ly partial in their 
operation. 

After the declaration made by the American Plenipoo 
tentiaries, that the U. States will admit of no line of bouu< 
dary between their territory and that of the Indian nations, 
because the natural growth and pofiuiation of theU. Stales 
would be thereby arrested, it b» conieij unnecessary further to 
insist oh the proof of a spirit of aggrandizement afi'orded 
by the purchase of Louisiana from France, against tiie 
known conditions on which it had been ceded by Spain to 
that country, or the hostile seizure of a great part of the 
Floridas, under a pretence of a dispute respectutg the 
boundary. 

The reason given by the American Plenipotentiaries for 
this declaration, equally applies to the assigument of a 
boundary to the U. States on any side, with whatever view 
proposed ; and the unlimited nature of the pretension would 
alone havejnstiiied G. Britain in seeking more efteclual se- 
curities against its application to Canada, than any which 
the undersigned have had the honor to propose. 

Had ?khe American Plenipotentiaries been instructed on 
the 8ub|ect of Canada, they would not have asserted that 
it!? perrianent annexation had not been the declared objec^ 



j^FFEKDtX. 



311 



uf their (|rovcrnnient. Il has been dislinctiy MTOwed lo b« 
Hurli ut il.ilerfiil tunes |mrticularty hy luo AntiTican Geii- 
ernU on their rexpeclive iiivasiuiiM of Cmiaita. It \W. lifc- 
laralion Hr :. made had t>eeii dira|*|)ruvtil, il would not 
have been n |)eatcd. Tiie deelaratiiiiis here rciened lo 
are to t>e found in the proctaniatiun o< (ien. Hud, ui July, 
1812, nnd ol Gen. Smyth, in November, 1812, copies uf 
which are in reunto annexed. 

It mu»t be aliio from the want of in&tructious tiiat the 
American PI" nipotentmnes hn\e been led to assert tliat 
Ci. Britain han induced the Indians to withdraw frnm the 
protection of the U. StateH. The g^overnment of tlie U. 
Skates cannot have 4'org-otten that G. Britain, no far lr«)in 
inducing the Indians tu withdraw themselves fnioi the pro- 
tection of the U. States, gave the tarlicst infurmution of 
tile intention of those nations to invade the U. States, and 
exerted her.elf, though without success, tu prevent and ap- 
pease i,h.2ir hostility. The Indian nations, however, Imv- 
ing (fixprrieiiced, as they tiiought, oppression, insltud uf 
protection from the (J. Slates, declared war a||;ainst tiiera 
previously to tiie declaration uf war bv thai com try against 
G. Britain. Tiie treaty by which tiie li diu.s placid 
Uiemselves um'«" the protection of theU. Statts, is now 
abrogated, and the American governmeut caiiiiol be enti- 
tled to claim as a right, the renewal of an niticle in a trea- 
ty, which has DO longer any existence. The Iiulian i a- 
tions are tliereforeno lunger tube considered as under die 
protection of the V. States, (whatever ma} be ihe import 
of that term) and it can only be on the ground that they 
are regarded as subjects, that the American Plenipoten- 
tiaries can be authorized to deny the right of G Biiluin to 
interfere on their behalf in tiie negociatiuns for peace. To 
any such claim, itiis repeated, that the treaties concluded 
with tiiem, and par|ili|i|iarly that of Greenville, are in direct 
opposition. 

It is not necessary to recur to the manner in which the 
territory of the U. States was at first settled, in order tu de- 
cide, wliether the Indian nations, the original inhabitants 
of America, shall have some spot assigned to them, wiiere 
they may be permitted to live in tranquility ; nor whether 
their trancpiility can be secured without preventing an uii- 






I 



ivi 






■;'■ a 



54e 



APPENDIX. 



z.'i 



interrupted sysUini of encroachment upon tiiem under tlie 
pretence of purchase. 

If the American Pienipoteiitiaries are authorized pe- 
remptorily to deny the ri^lit of the British government lu 
i:iterfere with the pacification of the Indian nations, and 
for that reason refuse all ne^fociatiions on the suhject, the 
undersig^ned are at a loss to understiind, upon what prin- 
ciple it was, that at the conference of the 9lh ultimo, the 
American Pleni|K>teiitiaries invited discussion on the sub- 
ject, anr) added that it was not possible for them to decide 
without discussion, whether an article coiitd be framed 
which should be mutually satisfactory, and to which they 
■hould think themselves, under their discretionary powers, 
warranted in acceding-. 

The undersij^ned must further observe, that if the A- 
merican government has not fiirtiislied their Plenipoten- 
tiaries with any instructions since January last, when the 
general pacification of Europe could not have been im- 
mediately in contemplation, ttiis subsequent silence, after 
an event so calculated (even in the view which the Ameri- 
can Plenipotentiaries have taken of it, in their note of the 
24th ult) to influence the negociation, is, to say the least, 
no proof of a sincere desire to bring it to a favorable con- 
clusion. The British government has entered into the ne- 
gociation with an anxious wish to effect an amicable ar- 
rangement. After convulsions unexampled in their na- 
ture, extent, and duration, the civilized world has need of 
repose. To obtain this in Europe, G. Britain has made 
considerable sacrifices. To complete the work of general 
pacification, it is her earnest wish to establish a peace witli 
the U. States, and in her endeavors to accomplish this ob- 
ject, to manifest the same principles of moderation and for- 
bearance; but it is utterly inconsistent with her practice 
and her nrinciples ever to abandon in her negociations for 
peace, those v»'ho have co-operated with her in war. • 

The undersigned, therefore, repeat, that the British gov- 
ernment is willing to sign a treaty of peace with the U. 
States on terms honorable to both parties. It has not of- 
fered any terms which the U. States can justly represent as 
derogatory to their honor, nor can it be induced to accede 
to any which are injurious to its own. It is on this gruiind 
that the undersigned are authorized distinctly to dechrc, 



11 II 



lein uiiiicr the 



APPENDIX. 



948 



that they are instructed not to ftign a treaty of peace with 
the Plenipotenliunes of the U. Stales, uiile>s the Indian na- 
tions are included in it, and restored to all the nghtn, privi- 
leges, and lerritorie^^ which they enjo>ed in the year 1811, 
previous to the coiriniencement of (he war, by virtue of the 
treaty of Greenville, and the treaties subsequently conclud- 
ed between them and the U. Htates. Froui this point tht 
British Plenipotentiaries cuiinot depart. 

They are further instructed to offer for discussion an ar- 
ticle by which the ccntracting parties hhall reciprocally 
bind themselves, according to boundaries to be agreed up- 
on, not to purchase the lands occupied by the Indians with- 
in their respective lines of deuiarkalion. By making this 
engagement, subjr^ct to revision ut the expiration of a given 
period, it is hoped that the objection to the establisliment 
of a boundary beyond which the settlement of the United 
{states should be forever excluded, may be efiectually ob- 
viated. 

The undersigned have never staled that the exclusive 
miliUiry possession of the lakes, however conducivt^ they 
are satisfied it would be to a good understanding between 
the two countries, without endangering the security of the 
U. States, was to be considered as a sine qua nun in the 
negociation. Whenever the question relative to the paci- 
fication of the Indian nations (which, subject to Uie explan- 
ations already given, is a sine qua uoUy) shall be adjusted, 
the undersigned will be autliunzed to make a final propo- 
sition on the sultject of Canadian boundaries, si entirely 
founded on principles of moderation and justice, that they 
feel confident it cannot be rejected. This proposition will 
be distinctly stated by the undersigned, upon receiving an 
assurance from the American Plenipotentiaries that they 
consider themselves authorized to conclude a provisional 
article on the subject, and upon their previously consenting 
to include the Indian nations in the treaty, in the manner 
above described. 

The undersigned avail themselves of this opportunity of 
lenewins: t<* the American PlenipotenUaries, the assurance 



of the ir \wA\ consideration. 



GAMBIER, 

HENRY GOULBURN, 

WILLIAM ADA MS. 



I: 






m 



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h,; 

1^ 



M:? 



J! • 



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AVPtasmx. 



The Auurican to the Hiilish Commissimvrs. 

Ghknt, St'pl. 2«, 1814. 

In replying^ to the nolo which the uii(lerMi<rnpd ha*e h:id 
the honor of reoe.vm«jf tr-M" l»i« IJrilniinic majeKly'H Pieni- 
polcntiarii'S, (laled oil the ItHh iiist. they are hnppy to coii. 
cur with tht-m in the sentiiuent ot' avoiding unnecciisnry 
discussiOMM, «'S|>eci«illy such utt may have a UMidt-ncy to 
crciiU; inil;it!o . Tliey had hoped thai, in the same spir- 
it, the Bfitisli I'li'iiipoUMitiaries wonid not hive iho-^ght aU 
hi'<iotisui.r;iii neci'ssiu'v to Iraunsictions for«ei{rn to this iiegc 
nation, relaliiit;- to llie U. Slalcs, and other iiidf pendent 
nations, and not Knilahle for discussion between the Uniled 
Sl'.ites and Great- Britain. The observation made with 
respect I <» Louisiana is tht^ more extraordinary, as the ces- 
sion oi that province to tiie U. States was, at the time, com- 
nuinicaled tu ihe Briiish i^overnment, who expressed their 
entire satist'uctioii with it, and has subst-qiieiitly leceived 
the solemn sanclion of Spam hn'self. The underMgned 
will fuilhor say, tliat wh«;nevprthe transactions of the U. 
Slates, in re'.ation to the boundaries of Louisiana an(' Flor- 
ida, shall be a proper subject of discussion, they wid he 
found not orJy susceptible of complete jiistitieation, but 
will demonstrate the moileration and forbearance of the 
American jjovernment, and their uudevialiug respect for 
the rights -d" tht-ir neighbors. 

The undersigned are far from assuming the exclusive 
right to decide, what is, or is not, a subject of uncertainly 
and dispute, with regard to the boundary of the District of 
Maine. But until tiie Hntish Pieni|)i3tentiaries shall have 
shown in what respect the part of thtit boundary which 
would be afl'eclcd by their proposal, is such a subject, the 
undersigned may be permitted to assert that it is not. 

The treaty of 1783, described the boundary as * a line to 
be drawn along the middle of the river St. Croix, from its 
mouth in the bay of Fundy, to its stmrco, and from its source 
directly north to the highlands which dwide the rivers that 
tall into the Atlantic ocean froni those which tall into the 
river St. Lawrence, and thence along the said highlaiuis 
to thenorlhwesternmost head of Connecticut river.' 

Doubts having arisen as to the St. Croix, designatedVm 
the treaty of 1783, a provision was made by that of 1794, 
for ascerUiining it: and it may be fairly inferred, from the 



APrRNDIX. 



345 



limilation of the arlirle to ihul so\e oltjt'ct, that rvt n in 
tliejti(l(^meiil (il'Ci. Hrilniii, no utli«>r mii jcct of cuitlruvirsy 
exiNted ill n iMioii to tlic exti'iiNioo o( Uw bouiidur) line 
from the source of lliul n\er. Thiit river aitil itt sioiirce 
huvinuf heeii iiccor(lii-*;l\ iiHceiiuiiied, the underNig^ned, 
Hre |)re|>ared to proj^oNe (he a|>|UMiiliiHiil ot' coiiimi.H^iion- 
ern hy the two ^ovcroinciitN, to extend tiic hne to the 
hi^rhlnnds f'n"tV)riii:il>ly to the Ire:* I y of 17 H3. The pro- 
po.sMt, ho\V(!V(T« of (he HritiNh Pieni|ioten(ittrieM was not to 
uscerttiin, hnl to vary tho.se hies ui ttnch niaiiiier aft to Ke- 
ciH'e a dirrrt coniinuiiirittion helvvcen (^iic'ie(; ami Hali- 
fax ; an alteralioii hIucIi eould not he ttiV'c'tcd without a 
cession hy (he (T. HtalcN to Ci ikit;iiii ot all that portion 
of the state of iMaNsai'laiNt'lts iiilervennig; helweeu the pro- 
vince of Nes^ BruiiMWick and Qtiehec, although nnques- 
tionahly inchvted within (he boundary lines Hxed by that 
(retily. Whether it was contemplated on the pari of G. 
Britain to ohtaiii (he cession, with or without an equiva- 
lent in frontier or otherwise, the undersigned, in stating 
that they were not instructed or iiiilhorised to treat on the 
subject of cession, have not declined to discuss any matter 
of uncertainly or dispute which the British Plenipotentia- 
ries may p<»int out to exist, respecting the boundaries in 
that or in any other quarter, and are, therefore, not liable 
to the imputation of having rendered their powers on the 
subject nugatory or inadiiiissibly partial in their operation. 
The British Plenipotentiaries consider the undersigned 
as having declared, * that the LJ. Stales will admit of no 
line of boundary between their territory and that of the 
Iixlian nations because the natural growth and population 
of the U. States would be (hereby arrested,' The under- 
signed, on the contrary, e\|»ressly stated in their last note 
*tliat the lands inhabiled by the Indians were secured to 
them by boundaries, deHned in amicable treaties between 
them and the United States :' but they did refuse to as- 
sign, in a treaty of peace with G. Britain, a detinitive and 
permanent boundary to the Indians, living wilhin the lim- 
its of the U. States. On this subject, the undersigned have 
no hesitation in avowing, that the V. States, while inlend- 
ing never to ac<piire lands from the Indians otherwise than 
peaceably, and with their free consent, are fully determin- 
ed in that n>aiHKM', ()rogrrssiveiy, and in proportion as their 

11 



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: (' • I 



dtO 



APHENOIX. 




pruwitKj-pofiihilion nin\ nqnire, lo rrrliiini from Ihe iitnie 
(»t tintiiir, iind tohrini; into ciillivniioii, cvurv |Hirtioii nt' the 
U-vrilon contninrd Hithin Ihcir tirkiioMlcn^ni ^N»iinclarie!i. 
In llins priiviilitt^r for Ihr An^iporl of millmiiH of civili/ed 
bcinjfM, \\wy will itot violiiti' fiii\ dirlatu of lustice or hii- 
m:niil}, forthe\ will not only ;^ivt.'to tlit* few ihouNaiidsav- 
H^eN, NralU'ri'd over IhHt Urritory, an niiipie t>c|uivatent for 
fltiy ripflit llicy nii)> Hiirrenilcr, ImiI will iilMays leuve them 
the pOMHessioii of IuihIm iiioi\' th.in they cnii cultivute, nnd 
more th:iii aiUqiiiile to their »iil>Misleiice, comfort, and en- 
joynieiil, hy rulliv-ilion. 

If this he a KjMrit of sitrsf>">indi/ement, the undersized 
are firepan d to admit, in Ihni HeiiNw, its existence; but they 
must deny that it aAords the sliirhtest proof of an in- 
tention not to respect the hoiindunes between them and 
European nations, or of a desire to encroach upon the ter- 
riloriesof (i. Brits.in. If", in llie progre.ss of their increas- 
ing' population, Ihe Aniericaii people must <rrow in strenglh 
projortioned to ilieir nnubcrs, ||it> nndersiufued will hope 
that Ci. Bntatii, far from rcptmiio- at the prosper!, willc6:i- 
teniplale it wilh satisfarlion. Tlu-y will not suppose th-it 
that ^ovrnuneril will a\ow, as the basis of llieir policy to- 
wards the U. Smiles, the s>»ten) of arrestiuir their natural 
growth within iheir own territories, for (he sake of pro 
«ervi:ga perpetual desert for savaires. ll G. Britain has 
made sacribci'S to give repose to the ci\ili/ed world iu 
E;irope, no sacriHee is irrpiired Irom her by the U. Stales 
to coi»;j)lele :he -Aork oi j^t-ueral pacihealion. Thisnego- 
ciatioii at U ast evinces, on their part, no disposition to 
claim any other right, than ihal of presei'ving their inde- 
pendence entire, ai d of governing their own territories 
without foreign Jiitenereiiee. ' ' ' ' f u 

Of tlie two proctamutions, purported copies of which the 
British Plenipotentiaries have thought pro|)er to enclose 
^Vlth their last note, the undersigned might content iheni- 
seives with remarking, that neither of them is the act ot 
the Auirncan government. They are enabled however to 
add, with perfect contidence, that neither of them was 
authorised or approved by that government. Tlie under- 
signed are not disposed to consider as the act of the firitihh 
guvernment, the proclumalion of Admiral Cochrane, here- 
with enclosed, exciting a portion of the population of the 



APl'CNDIX. 



347 



V'l 



(J. {^Inltm, uikUt lite proiivMC of niilllary employment, or 
of free ttcUleiiiciil iii llie WtHi-lmlLH, lo iritictifry aiul re- 
bellion. Tile iiuilei'Miuiu-d vt- r> <.iiii t>rf ly rfi{rtl lo lie 
(ibligeiito Nay, that aiiirrcsislihit iiiai>Mof evicleitce, (oitNiNt- 
inK |iriiici|mlly ot llie C(*rrt's|<iMiUtitCL'of lirilitili oflirrrH :u)(l 
ogeiils, part only uf ^%liicli Iihh ulrcadv Ucii puMislieU in 
America, e>talili!the.s lM.'\oiui all raiiutial doubt, the fact, 
thai a coiiNtant M^Mt-iit of excilt'iiitnt tu those hoslililies 
wan piirKtU'il by the Drilish ti'ail« m ami a^eiil.s, \tho had ac- 
ceHstothe Indians, not oul} >»iUu>ut lieiii(;- diHcounlenanc- 
ed, but with fivquenl encoura^c-meiil by the British au- 
thorities; and that it tlh-y ever disMiadid the Ind.ans from 
commenciiii^hotitil.t.cs, il wis 0!d\ Uy nr}i;ini>; llu n , a^ in 
prudence, to siis|)end tlieir attacks, « nlilG. Jintain should 
recog^nize them as her allies in the Mar. 

When, iu the conterence ol'lht- 9th nit. the nndei'Hi&^ned 
invited diKCUMsioii upon the pi'upos;d < ' lndi>'ti >iacili<'ati«'i) 
and buundary, an uell as Ujon all the subjects preset «^d by 
the British Plenipoleuttares for discussiun, they i .| ressly 
stated their motives lo be, 1st, to a^Cfrlail> by dtscussimi 
whether an article on ihe subject could be Vuri^ied lo which 
they could subscribe, and which uuuld be s.ilisfaclory to 
the Brilisih PlenipulenUaries ; and 2dly, liiat if no such ar- 
ticle could be loimed, the American ]^overnnient nii<>hlbe 
informed of llie views of G. Britain upon thai point, and 
the British government of the objections oh lite part of the 
U. Stated, to any such arrangement. The undersij^ned 
have, in fact, already proposed no less than three articles 
on the subject, all of which ihey view as better calculated 
to secure ^leace and tranquility io the Indians, than any 
one of the proposals for that pc^ose, made by the British 
Plenipotentiaries. 

The undersigned had repealed their assurances to the 
British Pienipoleiitiaries, thai peace, so far as it depended 
on the U. States, would iinniediately follow a ptMXce with 
G. Britain, and added, tiiat the Indians would thereby be 
reinstated in the same situation in which they stood before 
the commencement of hoslililies. The British Plenipo- 
tentiaries insist, in their last note, that the Indian natiuiis 
shall be included in the treaty of peace between G. Britain 
and the U. Stales, and be restored lo all the rights, privi- 
leges, and territories which they enjoyed in the year 181 1^ 



•ji 



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J:.iL 



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a 18 



APPKNIJIX. 




ml 



^jrcvious to the ronimencemeiit of tlie war, Uy virlneof 
the treaty otCircoMville, uiul the treaties Mulmequently con- 
cluded between (hem ai.d the U. Stated. betiin<r aside 
the subject of boiindarv, which is pres »ted as for discus- 
Nion only, there is no apparent difference with respect to 
the object in view ; the pitcitication and tranquility of the 
Indiais, and placni<^ them in the same situation in which 
they stood before the war, all which w ill be equally obtain- 
ed m the manner proposed by the undersigned, and the 
only point of real difference is, the British Plenipotentia- 
ries insist that it should be done by including the Indians, 
as alli.R of G. Britain, in the treaty of peace between her 
and the U. States. 

The U. States cannot consent that Indians residi g with- 
in their boundaneis, as acknowledged by (i. Britain, shall 
be included in the tresitv of peiice, in any manner which 
will recognize them as nidependent nations, whom G.Bri- 
tain, havaig obtauted this recognition, would hereaiter, 
have the right to consider in ever> respect, as such. Thus 
to rt cognize these Indians as independent :\nd sovere gu 
nations, would ta!:e from Uie U. Stales, and transfer to 
those Indians, all the ri«rltts of soil and sovere igntv over tho 
territory which they inhabit; and this being accomplished 
through the agency of G Britain, would place them tiflfeclu- 
alty ii»d exclusively under her protection, instead ot being, 
as heretofore, under that of the U. Slates. It is not per- 
ceived in what respect such a provision would differ from 
an absolute cession by ihe U. Stales of the extensive terri- 
tory in question. 
■ The British Plenipotentiaries have repeated the assertion, 
that the treaty by which the Indians placed themselves un- 
der the protection of the U. Stales, was abrogated by the 
war ; and thence mfer, that they are no longer to be con- 
sidered as under the protection of the U. Stales, whatever 
niay be the import of the term ; and that the right of G. Bri- 
tain to interfere in their behalf in the negoeialion of peace, 
can only be denied on the ground that they are regarded as 
subjects. In point of fact, several of the tribes, parties to 
the treaty of Greenville, have constantly been, and still are, 
at peace with the U. Stales. Whether that treaty be, or 
be not abrogated, is a question not necessary to be now 
discussed. The ritjbt of the U. States to the protection of 



APPENDIX. 



3*«* 



llie Intlinns within tti' ir boundaries, was not acquired by 
lliiit ireatv ; it waH u necessary ruiisequence oH the <»over« 
eignty and independence of the U. fSlate«. Previous to 
that time the Indians hving within theKain£ territory, were 
under the protection ot'hi!» Britannic majesty, as iU sover- 
eign. The undersigned may refer the Briti>h Plenipu- 
tenlmries to ail the acts v-' their own government, rehitive 
to the subject, for proof, that it has alwa3s considered this 
right of protection as one of the ri<rhts of sovereignty, which 
it needed no Indian treaty to confer, and which the abroga- 
tion oi no Indian treaty coulu divest. They will particular- 
ly bring to their recollection, that when a similar proposi- 
tion of considering Indian tribes as inde|)endenl nations, to 
serve as a barrier between the French and English territo- 
ries, was made by France to England, it was immediately 
rejected, by a minister to whom the British nation is accus- 
tomed to look back with veneration, and rejected on the ex- 
press ground, that the king would not renounce his right to 
protection over the Indians within his dommious. But 
whatever the relation of the Indians to the U. States may 
be, and whether under their protection or not, G. Britain 
having by the treaty of 1783, recognized the sovereignty of 
the U. States, and agreed to certaiii limits as their bounda- 
ries, has no right to consider any persons or cominunities» 
whether Indians, or others, residing within those bounda- 
ries, as nations independent of the tj. States. 

The U. States claim of right, with respect to all Euro- 
pean uations, and particularly with respect to G. Britain, 
the entire sovereignty over the whole territory, and all the 
persons embraced within the boundaries of their dominions. 
G. Britain has no right to take cognizance of the relations 
subsisting between the several communities or persons liv- 
ing therein. Tiiey form as to her, only parts of the domin- 
ions of the U. States, and it is altogether immaterial, 
whether, or how far, under their political institutions and 
policy, these communities or persons are independent states, 
allies, or subjects. With rf^spectto her and all other for- 
eign nations, they are parts of a whole, of which the U. 
Slates are the sole and absolute sovereigns. 

The allegation of the British Plenipotentiaries, that it is 
inconsistent with the practice or principles of G. Britain to 
abandon in her negociations for fieace, those who have co- 



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S6% 



APPENDIX. 



.i 1 1 



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1 . 



i|. 



' 1 *'.!-' 



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oi^rated with her in war, in nol applicable lo the Indians, 
bill on the erroneouH asMimption of Iheir inde|>eu(ience, 
^hich, so fur as »he is roncerned han been fully itisproved. 
And althougfh no power from thexe tribes to the Briti.sli 
government to treat in their behalf, wonld for the same rea- 
son be admitted by the nndersigned, they may nevertheless 
observe, that the British Piempoteiitiaries havini^: produced 
no such powers, havin«r no authority to bind the Indians, to 
en^a^ for their assent to the pacification, or to secure the 
continuance of peaoe on their part whilst speakiiii^r of them 
as allies, do really propose to treat tor ihem not as if they 
were independent nations, but as if tliey were the subjects uf 
G. Britain. ' '(Lif tii;:'v.':i -^'vtri^lj'rti! ..•.* m ,, 

The undersigtted so far from asking that, in relation to 
the Indians, G. Britain should pursue a course inconsistent 
with her former practice and princif»les^onty desire that she 
would follow her own example res|)ecting them, in her for- 
mer treaties with other European nations, and with the U. 
8tates. No provision tor the Indians is found in the treaty 
of 1763, bv which France ceded Canada to G. Britain, •d\- 
tliough almost all the Indians living within the territory 
ceded, or acknowledged to belong to G. Britain, had taken 
part with France in the war. No such provision was insert- 
ed in the treaty of peace of 1783, between G. Britain and 
the U. States, although almost all the Indian tribes living 
within the territory recognized by the treaty to betbng to 
the U. Skates, had during the war, co-operated with G. Bri- 
tain, and might have been considered as her allies more just- 
ly than on the present occasion. Ho far as concerns the re- 
lations between G. Britain and the U. States, these Indians 
can be treated for only on the principles by which amnesties 
are stipulated in favor of disafi'ected persons, who, in times 
of war and invasion, co-operate with the enemy of the na- 
tion to which they belong. To go as far as possible in se- 
curing the benefit of the peace lolhe Indians, now the only 
object professed by the British gx)veriiment in their present 
sine qua Mon, the undersigned oH'er a stipulation in general 
terms, that no person or persons, whether subjects, citizen«), 
or Indians, residing within the dominionsof either party, shall 
be molested or annoyed, either in persons or their property, 
for any part they may have taken in the war between the U. 
States and G. Britain ; but shall retain all the rights, privi- 



*v 



APPENDIX. 



35t 



le^^es and posnesiiionii, which Ihey resperlivcly had ut Ihe 
cominencenitiit ut' the war ; liiev, uii llie.r purt dtfiiittaiiin^ 
iheiiiseivf'N peuceuhlv, and codl'uriuahiy to their duties to 
the respeclivfi |;rovt;riinient». — This the niideiMigned have 
no doubt will eB'tcluall) secure to the Indians jh. ace, if ihey 
themselves wiU observe it, and they wdi luU suppose that 
G. Britain would wish Iheui included in the peace but up* 
on that condition. ;^'dl ft: itu- 

"i'he undersi^rntd have never intimated that their govern- 
ment had not furnished tluut with any lustmctionH since Jan- 
uary last. On the contrary, they distinctly tuld the British 
Plenipotentiaries in cont'eience, though it appears to have 
escaped their recollection, that instructions had been re- 
ceived by the undersigned, dated at the close of the mouth 
of June. The undersigned will now add, that those in- 
structions were drawn with a full knowledge of the gener- 
al paciiication in Europe, and with so liberal a considera- 
tion of its necessary bearing upon all the differences that 
had l>een until then subsisting between G. Britain and the 
U. States, that the undersi;>'ned cannot doubt that peace 
would long since have been coacluded, had not an insu- 
perable bar against it been raised by the new and unprece- 
dented demands of the Briiish government. 

With respect to the proposition vchichthe British Pleni- 
potentiaries inform them lliey will be prepared to make, in 
relation to the Canadian boundaries, w hich appears to them 
so entirety founded on principles of moderation and justice, 
but the nature of which they llniikpro|:er at present to with- 
hold, the undersigned can only pledge themselves to meet 
any proposition from the British Plenipotentiaries, character- 
ized by moderation and justi ce, not only with a perfect re- 
ciprocity of those sentiments, but with a sincere and earnest 
desire te contribute to the restoration of peace, by every 
compliance with the wishes of G. Britain, compatible with 
their duty to their country. 

The undersigned have the honor of tendering to the 
British Plenipotentiaries, the renewed assurance of their 
high consideration. 



J. a ADAMS, 
J. A. BAYAUD, 
H. CLAY, 



< 



JON A. RUSSELL, 
A. GALLATliS.... 



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352 



APPKNDIX. 



r 







I if. 



The British lo the American Cunimissionrrs. 

f'Hf:xT, Oct. 8, IftU. 
' The undersigned have the honor to acknuwiedp^e thn 
receipt of Ihe note of the Plenipolenliaries of the IT. States, 
dated on the 29 ult. 

As the continuance of the neg-ociation txcUisively de- 
pends upon the question relating to the pacitication and 
rights i. ihe Indian nations the undersigned are unwiMino' 
to extf u; vheir observations to the other subjects brotight 
forwt 1 .n the note of the American Plenipotentiaries, 
further than may be required for necessary ex|)lanation. 

li adverting for this purpose to the acquisition of Louis- 
iana, the undersiirned must observe, that the uistrument by 
which the consent of tiis Catholic majesty is altedged to 
have been given to the cesHion of it, has never been made 
pubiic. His Catholic majesty was no party to the treaty 
by which the cession was made, and if any sanction has 
been subsequently obtained from him, it must have been, 
like other coleniporaneous acts of .that monarch, iuvolu.i- 
tary, and as such cannot alter the character of the trans- 
action. The Marquis of Yrujo, the mniister of his Catho- 
lic majesty at Washington, ui a letter addressed to the 
President of the V. States, formaily protested against the 
cehsioh, and the right ol France to make it. Yet, in the 
face of this protestation, so strongly evincing the decided 
opinion of Spain as to the illegality of the proceeding, the 
President of llie U. States ratified the treaty. Can it bo 
contended that the annexation of Louisiana, under such cir- 
cumstances, did not mark a spirit of territorial aggrandize- 
ment ? 

- His Britaunic majesty did certianly express satisfaction 
when the American government comuutnicated the event, 
thatLouisiana, a valuable coiony in the possession of France, 
with whom the war had just been renewed, instead of re- 
maining in the hands of his enemy, had been ceded to the 
U. States, at that time professing the most friendly dispo- 
sition towards G. Britain, and an inl ntinn of providing 
for her interest in the acquisition. But the conditions un- 
der which France had acquired Louisii\na from Spain, 
were not communicated ; the refusal of Spain to constMil 
to its alienation was not known ; the protest ot her embas- 
sador hud not been made, and many other circumstanc(fs 



APPnNDIX. 



a5:i 



.ilteiidmjr thelraiisaclioii, on wlncli it is now ummrcsjiary 
t«» tlii^k'. wfn*, iis ilieie i.-i oood rcusiuii lo believe, iudu.>lrt- 
ou> y cotict'alf«l. • i », 

The proDlolM sj)irii of ji^rfrramli/cnienl, wh ch ihc un- 
ilersi|^iied h ul iletliiced tVum ihe lioslile sei lire of u great 
pari of the FioiKlas, mi ler ll»e iiio.>l t'rivoloiis preteiiccv, 
remains uiiteliiled > and llie uiidersi^i'^d are cciviiiced 
that the occasion und <;;)'euuistiihces under which thai un- 
wuiranlahle act of ngifiess.on took iiUue, have given rise 
throughont Ciii'o|te lo bitl Oae MentiDteiit hh lo the character 
ot ihc transaction. 

After tlie previous comiuunication which the under- 
"ifrned have had the honor t)f receiving from tlie Aiueri- 
can Pienipotenliaries, they coulii not but fcei much 8ur,riz- 
ed at the inforaialion contained in their lant note of their 
having received instructions dated subsequently to Janu- 
ary, 1814. The undersigned have no recollection vvl.at- 
ever of die Aniericau Pieni|jotentiaries having coaimunicat- 
ed lo tliem) either collectively, or mdividual!v at p. confer- 
ence or otherwise, the receipt of inslructions from the gov- 
eriiiueitt of the U Stales dated at ttte close of the month of 
June, and they must remind ihe American P.enipotentia- 
ries that their note oi the 9th ult. distinctly .•dated that the 
iu'dructions of January, 1814, were those under which they 
were acting. It therefore, the AmeriraM Plenipotentiaries 
received instructions drawn up at the close of the month of 
.lune, with a liberal consideration of the late e\entsiii Eu- 
ropt, lh» :i!iUers*giu-«i ha\e a right lo complain, that while 
til'. Aniencan g<>verninentjuslly considered these events as 
havin;^ a necessary bearing on the existing ditierences be- 
tween the two countries, the American Pienipotentiaries 
^;hould nevertheless have preleried acting under instruc- 
tions, which, from iheir date, must have been without the 
contemplation of such events. '• '\ * 

The British government never required lliat all that por- 
tion of the slate ot Massachusetts intervening between the 
proviitce of New Brunswick and Quebec, should be ceded 
to G. Britain, but only that small portion of unsettled coun- 
try vvliuh interrupts the communication between Halifax 
ai.d Q.Mei)ec, there heiiig much doubt whether it noes not 
already l)eloiio to (i. Bniain. • ^^ ; " T ?. 



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351 



AFPK.NDIX. 



Tlif uii.iersignetl are at n loss to iiiulersluiul how \'\c(' 
A'imiral (. oi'hrane'iiproclaiiiatioii illuslnitt'N p.::\'' to|iic con- 
ncrled uitli llie present ne^nciation.or bears npon the con- 
rhiMun Mhich they contended was to be drawn from the 
two proriamations ollhe American (untiais. These pro- 
c!amatioii> distinctly avowiiig the iutenUon cf {he Ameri- 
can ixoveriHunl permanently to anncA the Cunadas to the 
U. ^'.aUs, wyre adduced not as a mailer o*'compi liai but 
8:ropiy for 1 he purpose »>f proving' \vliat had bet.n d',- jed as 
a iact, VIZ. ihat such htKl been the dc 'iared intention of the 
Ann rican govrrnmenl. 

The nn<l(T8 ^ned observe, that although the Arrf'^rican 
P.enipotenliaries have taken M\nm ihemselves i^enerully to 
<U'i»y that the piociamations ^eve authnrixfd or approved 
by their govtrHnient, without seating in wivil mode that 
di«j4pj>ro<tation was expressed, yet they avoid stating that 
'die f Mrt of H'.ose proclamations containing the declaration in 
qa^ .Mioii, had not been so authorized or approved. It is in- 
ci« V «i tnipH.s8ible to imagine, that if the Anurican government 
h<id intiin.ited any disapprolalion of that part of General 
Hull's proclamation, the same declaration would have been 
as confidently repeated tViur months after by General Smyth. 

His majesty's government have other and ample mean!!; 
of knowing that the conquest of the Canadas and their an- 
nexation to the U. States was the object and jMjIicy of the 
American government. For the present the undersigned 
will co» '.ent themselves with referring to the remonstrance 
of the legislature of Massachusetts, in Juue^ 18)3, in 
which this intention is announced as matter of notoriety. 

The undersigned deny that the American government 
had proved, or can prove, that previous to the deciaralion of 
war l)y the U. Slates, persons authorized by the British 
government endeavored to excite the Indian nations against 
thi U. States, or that ^inleavors of that kind, if made by 
private persons, (v\hich the undersigned have no reason 
to believe) e\er received the sanction of his majesty's gov- 
ernment. 

The American Plenipotentiaries jiave not denied that 
the Indian nations had been erjgaged in war with the 
U. States, before the war with G. Britain had commenced, 
and they have reluctantly confessed that so far from his 
majesty having induced the Indian nations to begin \\k 
war, as charged against G. Britain iuthe notes of the 'iHh 



APPENDIX. 



8.V> 



An^. and OlIiiiU. ihe Hritish i!;overiiinciit nrlnaily exerted 
llu;ir endeavors lo di^isuade the Indian nations from coiii- 
inencin^' it. 

As to the unworthy motive assigMud by tl;e American 
Fleui|iotentiaries to this inlert'trence so auiicahlv nnide on 
tliepart o'i (j. Jiritain, its utter iiiiprolmbdity is sutliciently 
apparent from considering by which party the war was fie* 
cbred. l^he undersig'ncd, therefore, can only consider it 
ns an additional indication of that hostile disposition, which 
ha?i led to the pr^^ent uidiappy war between the two roini- 
tries. So long as that disposition continues, it cannot but 
render any ttlorlon the part of G. Britain to terminate tins 
contest utterly unavailintf. , ; 

The American Plenipotentinries appear unprepared to 
state the precise ground upon which they resist the ri«;ht of 
his Majesty to negociate uith the U. States on behalf of 
ihe Indian nations, whose co-operation in the war his ma- 
jesty has found it expedient to accept. 

The treaty of Greenville, to the words, stipulations, and 
spirit of which the undersigned have so fiequently appeal- 
ed, and all the treaties prevuusly and subsequently made, 
oetwecn the U. States and the Indian nuiiuns, shew, be- 
yond the possibility of doubt, that the U. States have bet n 
in the habit of treating with these tribes as independent i na- 
tions, capable of maintaining the relations of peace and 
war, and exercising territorial rights. 

If this be so, it will be difficult to point out the peculiar 
circumstances in the condition of those nations, which 
should either exclude them from a treaty of general pacifi- 
cation, or prevent G. Britain, with whom they ha\e co-oi'e- 
rated as allies in the war, from proposing stipulations in 
their behalf at the peace. IJnles/i the Amencaii Pienipo- 
tentiaries are prepared to maintain what ihey have in eil'ect 
advanced, that although the I dian nations may be inde- 
pendent in their relations with the U. States, yt t tiie cir- 
cumstance of living within the boundary of the IT. Slates 
disables them from forming such conditions of alliance 
with a foreign power, as shall enlille that power to nego- 
ciate for them in a treaty of peace. i 

I'he principle upon which this proposition is founded, 
was advanced, but successfully resisted so far back as the 
treaty of Munster. An allempt was then made lo preclude 



.ISi 



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APPKNDIX. 



f ! ■ 



Franro from necfocialiner in Iwhalf of ccrlam nlMen and nl- 
ies ill G"rm -ny, who Iia<l ro-operaleii williher in lli<? wmp, 
becniiNe althoiicfii those Htjitesaiui cilicH miu^hl be consifh r- 
ed as in(ie|>pti<lciiii f<ir certain jMirposes, >et l)e:njf «ill m 
the bniindury of the Gtrinan empire, they oiijjht not to le 
nl'ou^edto become parties in ihe general p-.iciHration \v\\U 
the emperor of ([Jermany, nor oiiiiht F»;itice to he pernnU 
ted in that nejjociation to mix their rights and interests with 
her own. 

The American Plenipotentiaries probably aware that tlio 
notion of such :i qnaliHed independiMice, lor crrtain pnr- 
poses, and not for oth< rs, could not be maintained, either 
by argument or preced<id, have been compelled to advanre 
the novel and alarming' pretension, that all the Indian na- 
tions livings wilhiii the boundary of the U Slates, mnsf m 
effect, be considered as their snbioets, and, conseqnently, 
if eng-ag^ed in war ajjainst the IT. 5?'[ ites, become liable to he 
treated us rebels, or disati'ecled persons. They have fur- 
ther stated, that all the territory which these Indian nations 
occupy, is at the disposal ot the U. Slates, that the United 
Slates have a ng'hl to dispossess tliein of it : to esercise that 
rio^hl, whenever their (olicy or interest may seem to thcni 
to 'ecjuire it : and to confine them to such spots as may he; 
selected, not bv I idian Jiaiions, bnl by the American •ji'ov- 
ernment. Prelensio .s such as these G. Brttain can never 
nco^UiZe ; however reluctant his royal highness, the Prince 
Riijrent may betocoMtinuc Ilie vva", lh;it evil must be pre- 
ferred, if peace can only bcobtiined on such conditions. 

To su.iport those pretensions, and at the same time to 
show, th lithe present conduct ofG. Britain is incoiisistcMt 
With her former practice a d principles, the American 
plenipotentiaries have referred to Ihe treaty of peace oC 
1783, to that of 17H3, and to the nei^ociations of 1761, din- 
in^; the a<lministration of a minister, whom the American 
Plenipotentiaries have stated, and truly stated, to be high 
in the estimation of his country. 

The omissions to provide in the tienly of 1780, for the 
pacification of the Indian nations, which were to l)e includ- 
ed within the proposed boundary of the U. Stales, cannot 
preclude G. Britain from now negociating- in behalf of suelj 
tribes or nations, unless it be assumed, that the occasional 
non-exck'cise of a riffht is an abandonment of it. Nor can 



APprxDrc. 



;W7 



m 



\hc rij^hl (if protcrlion, wliirli the Anifricun Pl«'nip4>lefi- 
ti '»M^ liint- I II It'll inslioumjj to have < verbet-n rlHimed hht 
li Hivlsi II as incidi'nt lt» soverein^nly, navf been trannfrr- 
ivil by (i. Hnliiiii lo 5lu' l^ Sfalps, hy a treaty, to which the 
li (liiiii nnlioiis wvvv not pniliis. 

In llu' pciirt' o( 17(J.J, it was nol nrcessnry for (I. Britain 
to treat for the panficalion ot the Indian nations, and th^ 
Ilia nicnaijt' of tht*ir rijlits and privileg^rs, because iberr 
tiad bt^eti no Indian nations livin<r witliotit the British boun- 
daries, ubo had co-o|k rated with G. Britain, in the war 
ai»aiiisl .* rancc. 

U'.tb lesiMTt to the nejj'tciations of 1761, between Grrat 
Pn am ad France,, on which the American Plenipoten- 
tiaries more jiarlicnlarly rely, they appear, in the judgment 
o) the niu!erMi<rnei>, to have much misunderstood the whole 
course of that ne^ocnition. 

It IS very true that the French government brought for- 
ward, at one p* nod of the negocialion, a proposition by 
vvhn h a certain territory, lying between the dominions of 
t)>e two contractin^- parties, was to have been allotted to the 
Indian nations. But it does not appear that this formed a 
pari of their ultimatum, and it is clear, that Mr. Pitt in his 
alls\^er, did not object lo the proposition. He oljected in- 
(leefi lo the proposed line of demarkation between the coun- 
tries belon^jiiij;- to the two contracting parties, upon the two 
grounds: Isl, tlial the proposed northern line would have 
given to France, what the French had themselves acknowl- 
e<lged lo b;^ part of Canada, the whole of w hich, as enjoyed 
by his most. Christian majesty, it had been stipulated, was 
to be ceded entirely to G. Britain : 2dly, that the southern 
part of the |ir«>posed line of demarkation would have includ- 
ed W'thm the i oiindary of Lonisiana, the Cheerokecs, the 
Creeks, the Cliickasav^s, the Choctaws, and another nation, 
who occupied territories winch had never been included 
tiilhin the l>ouiidaries of that settlement. So far was Mr. 
Pitt from rejectiiig, as alledged by the American Plenipo- 
tentiaries, the proposition of considering Indian nations a 
barrier, that at one period of the negociation he complain- 
ed that there was no provision for such a barrier; and he 
thus energetically nrires his objections, in his letter to Mr. 
Stanley, the British Picniprlentiary at Paris, dated on the 
20lh or June, 17«)1 ; * As to the fixation of new limits lo 



[i! 



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^iL 




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J i 



;i.i8 



APPENDIX. 



CaiiaUii lowanis liic Oliio, it in cnptidiis and insirliout., 
thn»\vuoiU ill liojit', if ai^rteil to, lo nhorleii (lierchv ihu v'\. 
lent uC Ciiiiulii, untl lo leity^llieii the l)oiiii(i:ii'ieM ol Lotiiiit- 
iansi, and in tlie view to est.iblisili, whut mtiHl not bt* admit- 
ted, namely, that all whicii in not C.uiada ih IjOiiiHia>ia; 
Mrheroby all the intennf^diatc nationn and countries, llic true 
barrier to carh province, would be^iven up to France.' 

The utiderNi)rt)ed coutideiitly expect, that the \iii<>rican 
rieiiipotcnliarieH will not a^^aiii reproach the Iji^tiiiii prov- 
ernment with acting inconsistently wilh its toriiier practice 
ail i principles, or repeat the asserlion made in ii former 
linte, that adeii lilion of Indian bou uiarv, wilii a vitnv lo a 
neutral barrier, wan a new and iinpreee:ien(ed demand by 
any European power, and iiost ot all by G. Britain; lh(> 
very instance Kelecled by the American i'ieni|M)tintiaries, 
undeniably proves that such a proposition had been enter- 
tained both by G. Britain and France, and thai Mr. PiU 
oil the part of G. Britain had more particularly enforced 
it 

It remains only to notice two objections which the Amer- 
ican Pienipoteiitiaues have urged atraiiiNt the proposal ot 
Indian pa<;ificaUoit, advanced by the undersigned ; first, 
thal.it IS not reciprocal: .secondly, thai as the U. States 
could have no security ihat the Lidian nations would con- 
clude a peace on ihe terms proposed, the proposition would 
be in effect unilateral. 

The article now proposed by the undersigned, and here- 
w'th enclosed, is free from both objections, and appears to 
them so characterized by a spirit of moderation and peace, 
that Ihey earnest) \ anticipate the concurrence of the Amer- 
ican Pienipotentiai ies. 

In making a last effort in this stage of the war, the under- 
signed are not apprehensive that the motives which have 
influenced his royal highness the Prince Regent, to direct 
a renewal of the proposition, with its present modiiications, 
can be misunderstood or misrepresented. 

Whatever may be the result of the proposition thus offer- 
ed, the undersigned deliver it as their ullimalmn, and now 
wait with anxiety the answer of the American Plenipoten- 
tiaries, on which their continuance in this place will de- 
pend. 



•f 'i:i '*:»' 






t ■ ,. ,1, 



APPRNniX. 



.1,^9 



TliA iiii(icrhi^ii(*(l ill IhcmMlvmof IbiM o|>|iorUii)ily (>r 
rriK'Witiif io ihe Amrricait Pi(Mii|Milriitiun('«i, tlie UMitiiniiire 
ol llicir hitfli coiiHiUi'i'iilinn. 

(MMHIRK. ' 

. . - MKNHVCiOlTLBC RN, 

niLLIAVI AI3AMS. 

"The IT. Slrtlcn of Annrim vni|fn{|^e Io put an nul, iiiw 
iiiediati'ly ut'tfr the rntifitntion (it'tnt* preMent IrcHty, to hoM- 
iilities, with till thf IriheH or iintionN of liidinnH i%ilh \vh«mi 
they may be Ht war, at the lime of Much ratificatioii, niul 
furthu'itji to rcMlore to xuch tribes or natioiiH, roNperliveiy, 
all the |)OHKf>,siiionN, ri^^htN and priviUnfeN, wlitch they may 
have ntjoyed or been I'lilitled to in IHIl, previous to such 
lioslilities: provided always, that such tribt-s in* nations shall 
agree to desist from all hostililits H^rainst the U. Stutts of 
America, their citi/A'iis and snltjects, upon the nitificatum 
ol the present treaty heii<^ noliHtd to such tribes or nations, 
and shall so desist U(reord«iiir|y. 

"And his Hritannic majesty eogap;es, on his part, to put 
an end, immediately after the ratification oi' the present 
treaty, to hostilities, with all the tribes or nations of Indians, 
with whom he may be at war, at the time of such ratifica- 
tion«aiid forthwith to restore to such tribes or nations res- 
pectively, all the possessions, ri<rhts and privdeg'es, which 
they may haveelljo^ed or been entitled to in IHl I, previous 
to such lioslilities : provided always, that such tril>es or na- 
tions shall agree to desist from all hostilities aj^ainst his Bri- 
tannic majesty and his subjects, upon the ratification of the 
present treaty being' notified to such tribes or nations, and 
shall so desist accordingly.*' i 

i ' The American to the Ihilish Commissioners, * 

(iiiKNT, October 13, 1814. ' 

The nndersiiriied hnve the honor to acknowledire the re- 
ceipt of the iiolt of the Plenipotentiaries of his Britannic 
majesty, date<l on the Hth instant. 

Satisfied of the impossibility of peisuadin*? the world that 
the {Tovernmenl of the U. Slates was liable to any well 
foniiiled imputation of a spirit of coufpiest or of injustice to- 
M'ards other nations, the undersigned, in aft'ordinjif explana- 
tions on several ut" the topics adverted Io by the Krit:sh 



iiU 



'iir 



11^ 






n 



• 



h?; 






l< ' 



MM 



Aft'KNDlX. 



PloniputenlmricH itui-iii«( IIiin iic^^ocinhfu. \t iri: ncltiali'il Uy 
tht*Hole iiKiliv*? ol' ntinuviiiif crnMieum i oivchhioiis. 

Still iiifltieiircd l)v llu* H.iiiie iiiolive, lliev will now u«l»l, 
t .il li ilirtinio whmlheS|iniiiNlini iiinUm' wiiMrt'iiKi stiMlui*; 
ai \V:i»hni^loii>i(;iiinKltlit' IraiisfiTol LoiiiHian:!, ortit i> nm-ic 
gi*eii bv hiH pfovcriiiiieiit for its cU'livtry to Fiamt- : ili:it ii 
was ill fiicU (lelivt'i'i'd a NJiorttiini' alU rllial reinonslraiM.'i ; 
and tint if the treaty by which the IT. States a('<tn red it 
h'lii nut been raliticd, woiiUl have beeoine, uif course, u 
French colony. The inidcrNJi^ned bci.eve that the evidtm-e 
of the asHent of i^jiain to that trunisfer has been |iroinnli;-at- 
ed. They neither admit tlie alledj^ed (bsabilit> oi di(^ 
S|>anisii monarch, nor the nderence wliicli tiie Biili>»h 
Pienipolenliaries would seem to deduce from it; on Ihu 
contrary, theaiiisent was voluntarily ^iven in ihevear 1801, 
by the hame king^ who, about the same time, ceded T in- 
dad to (i. Britain, and prior to the lime when he was a^ain 
en|»aj;ed in war with her. Tiie cession by France w isim- 
medialely comnmnicutcd to G. Britain, no circumsta ce 
aifectin^; it, and then within the knowledge oi the U. States, 
being iulenlionally concealed from her. She expresMil 
her satisfaction with it; and if in any possible state of the 
case she would have had a right to quiMtion the Iraosaclioti, 
it does not appear to the undersigned that she is now au> 
thorised to do so. 

After Nlaling, generally, that the proclamations of Gen- 
erals Hull ami Smyth were iieillnT authorized nor a|)prov- 
ed by their government, the undersigned could not have 
expected that the British Plenipotentiaries would suppose 
that their statement did not embrace Ihe only part of tho 
proclamations which was a Niibject of consideration. 

The undersigned had, indeed, honed, that by stating in 
their note of the 9ih ultimo, that the government of the IJ. 
States, from the commencement of the war, had been dis 
posed to make peace without obtaining any cession of tt'hi- 
lory, and by referring to their knowledge of Ihat disposi- 
tion, and to instructions accordingly given from .hil\, 18 1 J, 
to January, 1814, they would eifcclually remove the ini- 
pressioti that the annexation of Canada lo the V. States w.is 
the declared object of tlieir govcriunent. Not only have 
the undersigned been disappointed in this expnctation, bnl 
the oidy inference which the Jiritisli I'lrnipolenlianes havi; 



▲mKMX. 



aci 



Uiooght proper to draw from this explicit ■tateinent, li«t 
been, thai eitlier the American goveriioitnt by not giving 
inNlructioiiM lubM^quent to tlie pucification of £uro|>e, or 
the undersigned, by not acting under luch uittructiont, 
(jfMve no proof uf a Hincere dettire to bring the urewent rego* 
(Mationnto a favorable concluMion. The uudemigned did 
nut nUnde, in reft>rence to the alledged intention to annex 
Canada tu lite U. Slatex, to any iimtructiona given by their 
^overnmeut Nut»Mei|ueiilly to January la«t, becan§e, asking 
at thiN lime ior an uiceHMion of territory, it was only uf ita 
previous dinpoHitinn that it appeared necessary to produce 
uiiy pi'uiif. SueifuiieouM was ihe inference drawn by the 
British Plenipottntiuries, in both reMj>ects, that it was in vir- 
tue ot the iiiNtructiotis of June last, that the uudersigned 
were enabied, in their note of the 24lh of Aug. to state, that 
the causes ot the war between the U. States and G. Britain, 
having disappeared, by the maritime paciiication of Europe* 
they had been authorised to agree to its teriuination upon 
a mutual restoration uf territory, and without making the 
couchiition of peace to depend on a successful arrangement 
of tiiose points on which differences had existed. 

Consideinig the present state of this negociation, the un- 
dersigned wili abNtain, at this time from adduciug any evi- 
dence or remarks upon the iiiHuence which has been exerted 
over the (iidian tribes inhabiting the territor'es of the U. 
States, and the nature of those excitements which had •been 
employed by British traders and agents. 

The nrgiiments and facts already brought forward by the 
luuiers.gned, respecting the politcal condition of those tribes, 
tender it unnecesNary for them to make many observations 
on those of the British Pienipotentianes on that subject. 
The treaties of 1760, and 1783, were those principally al- 
luded to by the undersigned, to illustrate the practice of 
G. Britain. She did not admit in the first, nor require in 
the last, any stipulations respecting the Indians who» in one 
case, had been her enemies, and in the other, her allits, and 
who, in both instances, fell by the peace within the doinin- 
iuns of that power against whom liiey had been engaged 
iq the preceeding war. 

• The negociation of 1761 was quoted for the purpose of 
proving, what appears to be fully established bv the an- 
swer of England to the ultimatum of France delivered on 

46 



h 



/" 






m 



M2 



APPENDIX. 







* 



4 



s 


1^ 

r 


i 


i 



;^. 



the first of Sr()lpniber of Ihnl year, thnl liis Britannic ma- 
jesty 'w oil!d ^(M rpnonrue his right of pi olectiou over the In- 
<li^ir ti»it'ion« rp|iitf^<!to he wi'hiii his dominions <hitl \s to 
MTV. h^^KvpcM the Biitish settlements and tlie Mississippi^ 
^fr. Pitt's letltT, cited by the British Pienipotentiancs, far 
from eojitradictinif th«l position, goes still further. It states 
th:il •the fi\»tion ofthe new limits to Cnnada, as proposed 
hv Franre, is intended to shorten the extent of Canada, 
which was to herfeded to Eii&^hmd, aiut to lengthen the 
honndanes of Lonistana, which France was to keep, and 
in the view to estahhsh what mnst not he admitted, namely, 
that ail which is not Canada is Louisitinn, whereby all the 
intermediate nations and conntries, the true barrier to each 
province, would be given up to France.' This is precise- 
ly the principle uniformly supported by the undersigned, to 
wit, that the recognition of a boundary gives up to the na- 
tion, in whose behalf it is made, all the Indian tribes and 
countries within that boundary. It was on this principle 
lh;il the uridersigned have confidently relied on the treat'' 
of 17S3, what fixes and recognizes the boundary of the U. 
S. without making any reservation respecting Indian tribes. 
But the British Pleiiipolentiari.'s, unable to produce a 
snli'lary precedent of one Etiropean power treating for the 
savages inhabiting within the dominions of another, have 
been compelled, in support of their principle, to refer to tlie 
German empire, a body consisting of several independent 
states, recognized as such by the whole world, and seper- 
ately maintaining with foreign powers the relations belong- 
ing to such a condition. Can it be necessary to prove thai; 
there is no sorl of analogy between the political situation of 
thes^ civilized communities, and that of the wandering 
.tribes of North Auieriean savages ? 
*'! In reftring to what the British Plenipotentiaries repre- 
sent its alarming and no\ el pretensions, what G. Britain 
can never recognize, the undersigned might complain that 
these alledged pretensions have not been stated, either in 
terms or in substance, as expressed by themselves. This, 
liowever, is the less material, as any further recognition ot 
them by G. Britain is not necessary nor required. On the 
otherhund, they can never adm.t nor recognize the principles 
or pretensions asserted in the course of this correspondenc*. 
by the British Plenipotentiaries, and which, to them, ap- 
pear novel and alarming. 



AI'PENUIX. 



a04 



^ The arlit'Ii' pro|>o.s<><l by Uie Hriti.Hlt Plenipotenliaritiiiy in 
their last note, not incluilni^tlie ludiiia triben as {'arlitH iu 
the peace, ami leavinir tlie \J . Stvitt's free lo eflfetl lU object 
in the uiudecoiisoiiaitt with the ivlutiojis which they l^ixc 
coiiMlaiiHy niaiiitaiiied with ihostt- InU-s, partaking uUu of 
the nature of an amnesty, aiui bi-)ni> ul the same tiiue recip* 
rooal, \s not babic to that objection ; and accoril.s with the 
views uniformly professe.) by the uu(lersi«;neil, of placing 
these tribes precisely, and in every respect, in tlte same sit- 
uation as that in which they stood before the commence- 
ment > '^'hostilities. This article, thus proposm*; only what 
the undersigned have so often assured the Brili!»h Pleiiipo- 
tenliaries would necessarily follow, if indeed it has nut- al- 
ready, as is highly probable, preceded a peace bilween G. 
Britain a J the U. States. The undersigned agree to, ad- 
mit it, iu instance, as a pruvUiunat article, su jcct, in the 
manner orig^inally proposed by the British y^overt.uient, to 
the approbation or rejection of the government of the IJ. 
States, which, haviny; given no instriuhons to the under- 
signed on this point, caunut be buuiid by any article they 
may adpiit on the subject. i-jji.i,: 

It will, of course, be understood, that if, unhappily peace 
should not be the result of the present negociatiou, tiie arti- 
cle thus conditionally agreed to shali be of no effect, and 
shall not, in any future uegociation, be brought tprward byr 
either party, by way of argument or preoedent. 

This article having l>een presented, as an indispeusibie 
preliminarVf and being now accepted, the undersigned re- 
quest the British Plenipotentiaries to commuuicate to them 
the project of a treaty embracing all the points di-cmed ma- 
terial by G. Britain; the Ukidersigned engaging on their 
part to deliver immediately after, a counter project with res- 
pect to all the articles to which ihey may not agree, and on 
the subject deemed material by the U. States, and, which 
may be omitted in the British projt^ct. 



m' 



■■>!% ^ 



JOHN a ADAMS, 
J. A. BAYARD, 
R. CLAY, . 



JONA. RUFSKLL, 
A. GALLATIN. 



> « J 



,.! « 2Vie Brilish to the American Commissioners. 

Ghent,, October 21, 18M. 
The undersigned have had the honor of ivceuiiig the 
note of the American Plenipotentiaries of the l^th inst 



^h 



.*, 



# • 



ilfi 



I- 



Ifi^ 






I ( 






:li 



■ !' t 



SG4 



APPENDIX. 



communicatinsf their nrceptance of tlie ;trlicie uiiicii tli< 
tinde* signed li-ui proponed imi tlie stilijecl ot'liie puciHc:itioii 
and ri^hU of the Indian natiotiii. 

The undentig'nid are happy in lieino- (ijns relieved from 
tlie necessily of recurnnsc to severni topics, which Ihon^h 
they aroftein the coarse of their disnissions, have only ;ut 
incidental connection wilh the dirt'erencc reinainini: lo lit. 
adjn^ed between the two coiinlries. 

With a view to this adjustment the undersigned prtfer- 
ing^ in the present state of the negociation a general state- 
ment of the formal arrangement of nrticles, are willinn- mi 
far to comply with the request of the American Plenipoten- 
tiaries contained in their last note, as to wave the udvan • 
ttfjjres to which ll't-y think ihey were fairly entitled, of requi 
intf from them the first project of a treaty. 

Theundersigiied haiving stated at the first conference tic. 
points upon which his iimjesly's government considered 
the discussions between the two countrieii as likely to turn, 
cannot better satisiy the request of the American Plenipo- 
tentiaries than by referring them to that contierence for » 
statement of the points which, lu the opinion of his majesty's 
government >el remains to be iidjugted. 

With respect to the forcible seizure of mariners from on 
board merchant vess Ls on the high »eas, and the right ot 
the kinff of G. Britain to the ahegiance of all his subjects, 
and with respect to the maritime rights of the British em> 
pire the undersigned coitceive, that alter the pretensions as- 
serted by the gtiVernment of the U. States, a more satisfac- 
tory proof of tlie conciliatory spirit of his Majesty's govern* 
luent cannot b^ given than >o\ requiring any stipulation on 
those subjects, which thoiig|) most important in themselves, 
11^ longer in consequence of tl}e ntarilime pacification of 
Europe, produce the same practical results. * 

On the subject of the fisheries the undersigned expressed 
with so much frankness at the conference already referred to, 
the viewsof their goveromtnt, that they consider any further 
observations on that topic as unaecessary at the preseultime. 

Oil the question of the boundary between the dominions 
of Ins majesly and those of the U. Slates, the undersigned 
are led to expect from the discussion which this subject has 
aJready undergone, that the northwest boundary from tin; 
lake ol the Woods to the Mississippi, the intended arrange-; 
ment of 189-3, wdi be admitted without objection. 



APPENDIX 



:J05 



ave oiilv ;ni 



In re««;ar<l to oUur boundaries llic American Pieni|»oJen- 
tiarie» m iheir note of An;::"'*' -*^^l^» apptaretl in some raea- 
Mirt lo obJHrt to the jtroposilioiis tlicii iimde l»y the under- 
signed as«h«' basis of Hti possidetis. The undersig-ned ar« 
M'lltiii^- lo treat oiitlr.it liasis, sultjert to 8iich moditicatioii« 
ns auitiial eonvenieiico may be foniMi to require, .n.d tliey 
trust thatthe Aniericuii PicMipotenlianrs will shew by their 
leady acceptance of tins basis, tliat they duly appreciate 
the ni«)deratioii of his majesty's t^overnmcnt in so far con- 
siilliug the honor and fair pretensions of the U. States as in 
the relative situation of the two countries, to authorise such 
a proposition. 

The undersigned avail themselves of this opportunity to 

renew to the American Plenipotentiaries, the assurance of 

their high consideration. iura 

. . GAMBIER, 

> H.GOULBURN, 

.-t.ti ., . ,' u,'u . ■ ,...'i ^>:t i ■ W. ADAMS. 



ii>; 



l.iM 



I ■■>. 



.i 



The American to the British Cummissioners. »Jj . j 
' i= (jHEKt, Oct. 24, 1814. 

The undersigned have the honor to acknowledge the 
vccei|>t of the note of the British Plenipotentiaries of the 
2 1st inst. 

Amongst the general observations which the undersign- 
ed, in their note of the 'i4th Aug. made on the propositions 
then brought forward on the partot' 'he British government, 
they remarked that these propositicr.^ were founded neith- 
er on the basis of uti possideliSt nor on that of status ante 
bellum. But so far were they from suggesting the uti pos- 
.sidetis as the basis on which they were disposed to treat, 
that in the same note they expressly stated that they had 
been instructed to conclude a peace on the principles of 
both parties restoring whatever territory they might iiave 
taken. The undersigned also declared in that note, that 
they had no authority to cede any part ot the territory of 
the U. States, and that to no stipulation to thaleti'ect would 
they subscribe ; and in the note of the Ulh Sept. after hav- 
ing shewn that the basis of uti possidetis, such as was known 
to exist at the commencement of the negociation, give no 
claim to his Britannic raajesly to cession of territory found- 
ed upon the right of conquest, they added that even if the 
chances of war should i?ive to the Br^tl^!l arms n nr>mcntii- 






r ' 



30ti 



APPLNUIX. 



Urs. 




. 1 

ill 



4 



I ! 



I 



ry possession of other purls of Ihe Urritorv ^'f tlie V. Stat 
kiicli eventd would iiul ulU^r their views wiUi ret^aici lo tiic 
terms of peace lowhicli Ihey would (r;vc tlieir coiiHciit. 
• The uudersi^iied can now only repeat those declaral ions 
and decliitt Irealinj;^ njion Ihe btisis ut uli |K)sMdelis, or uiu 
on any other nrinciple involving a cession ut anv part ot 
the leirilory 4>f the U. blates. As they have unitornilv 
staled, they can treat only upon the pnnnple of inntii<tl re- 
storation of whatever territory may have been taken jty 
either party. Fnnn this prniciph- they <rannol rece<U^ ami 
the undersigned after the repeated declaratiuiis ot ihe Ik]- 
tish Pleiiipotesiti.iries, that li. Britain had n<» v^ew lo ac- 
quisition of territory, in this iieguciation, deem it necessary 
to add, thai the utility of its continuance depends on their 
adherence to this principle. 

The Uiidersigned having- declared in iheir note of the 21st 
of Aug. that although instructed and prepared to enter into 
an amicaUle discussion of all the putnts, on which diti'er- 
ences or uncertainty had existed, and which might hereaf- 
ter tend to interruftt the harmony of the two countr.es, they 
would not Diake the conclusion of tlie peace at al! depend 
upon a successful result oi he discussion, and having since 
agreed to the preliminary li. licle proposed by the Biiti.h 
government, had b«?lieved <i\at the negociation already so 
long protracted, could not be brought to an early conclu- 
sion, otherwise than by the communication of a projet^t em- 
bracing all the other K|)ecificpropositioi.s which G. Britai:* 
intended to offer. They repeat their request ir. that rcf,- 
pect aud will have no objection to asimu taneousexchaPj^e 
of the projects of both parties. This course will brincf 
fairly into discussion the other topics embraced in the last 
note of the British Plenipotentiaries, to which the under- 
signed have thuiigiit it necessary lo advert at the presejit time. 

The undersigned renew lo the British PiempoleutiarieK 
the assurance t)f iheir high consideration. XV 

. .]. Q. ADAMS, JON A. KUSSELL, >t . 
J. A. BAYAllD, A. GALLATIN, c 
H. CLAY, 
, 'Ihe BiUiih to Ihe American Commissioners. 

Ghent, October a 1st, 1814. 

The undersigned have the lionor to acknowledge the re- 
ceipt of the note addressed lo them by the American Pleni- 
potentiaries on the 21lh inst. in which they object lo the 



APPENDIX. 



367 



basis of uli possidetis proposed by Ihe undrrsi^ed as that 
on whirli IIh v are willing to Irenl in rt giird to part of the 
Ixinthlaries lu>tv\een the dotniniuiis of \ns Majtst) and those 
of the U. States. 

The Amerirftn Pleni|>otenliaries in iheirnote of the 13lh 
inst. rerpK sIkI the iiudeistoriu'd to rominaoirale to them 
Ihe piojeet of ;i treaty enihracin;^ all the pointH iiiNiMted on 
hv (i. Brilain, euj^ai^'iiio^on their part to deliver imme»liate- 
Iv after a roonlre project as to all the artielefiio which they 
iniLcht no* affiee, and as to all the Mubjecl^ deemed material 
bv thr V. btates, and omitted in the project of the uiiuer- 
siofne<l. 

The nndersis^ned were accordintrly instructed to wave 
th»^ question of etiquette and the advantag^e which miuht 
result from receivnig: the first couinmiucatuin, and, contid- 
ing- in »'ie ei'gati^emeMt of the American Plenipotentiaries, 
conuimuicated in their note of the -2 1st inst. all the points 
upon which they are instructed to insist. 

The American Plenipotentiaries have oi>jected to one es- 
sential part of the project thus communicated : but before 
the undersijTned can enter into the disnission on this ob- 
jection, they must require from the American Plenipoten- 
tiaries tha', pursuant to iheir en5:^a!]cement, they will deliver 
a counlre project containing n!l their objections to the points 
submitted bv the undersijrned toji-elher with a statement of 
such further points as the government of the tJ. States con- 
sider to be material. !'->..(•'•;. ,'■ . « 

The undeisiffiied ar^ authorised to state distincl]y» that 
the article as to the pacificaiion and rights of the Indian 
nations havino- |>een accepted, they have brought forward 
in thetrnote of the 21st inst. all the propositions they have 
to ofter. They have no farther demands to make, no other 
stipulations on which they are instructed to insist, and they 
are empowered to sign a treaty of peace forthwith in con- 
formity with tho«e staled in their former note. 

Tiie undersigned trust, therefore, that the American 
Plenipotentiaries uill no longer hesitate to bnng forward 
in the form of articles or otherwise, as they may prefer, 
those specific propositions upoii which they are empowered 
»o sign a treatv of pence between the two countries. 
' -^^ i GAMiiIEK, 

' ' ' * HKNKY GOUUUTRN, 

■ ' ■ '■' ^- ' ■ W. ADAM}?. 



I 



W' 







«-> 



w 



i I 




3ds 



APPEND! .K. 



/^ 



*«' f* ^0 m«^: TREATY OF FE.ICK, 
JAMES MADISON. 

PRESIDF.XT OP TIIK ITNITF.D STATKS 0FA3IER1(:4. 

T't nU and ningulnr to w/tom Uw*r. preatntt akaU come, UrttUng • 
'. WliEUh^ AS ii treaty of piuce un<i amity between tlir* 
U SlaleH of Americii, and iii.t Urltannic iniije.sly was 
8ii;-iied at Ghent, on the Iwcnly fourth day of December^ 
one thousa>id eight hundred and fourteen, by the Ptenipo- 
tccw.irieti res(»eclively appointed for that purpose ; and the 
said treaty having been, by and with the advice and con- 
sent of the Senate of the U. Slates, duly accepted, ratiiled, 
and conHrmed, on the seventeenth day^of February* one 
thoti<saiid eight hundred and tifteen ; and rautied copies 
thereof havinjj been exci>an<^i:d agreeably to the tenor ol 
the suid i ealy, which is lu Uu- words following, to wit: 

'i reahj o/ peace andamitij Ochi'een his Hritanniv Ma- . , 
jcsly (tnd the diUed tSlates of America. 

His Brilaiinic majesty and the IJ. Slates of Amerir;;, 
desirous of teruiinating the war which has unhappily sub- 
misled between the two countries, and of restoring-, upon 
principles ot perfect reciprocity, peace, friendship, and 
good understanding between iheni, have, for that purpose, 
appointed their respective Plenipotentiaries, that is to say : 
his Britannic majesty, on his part, has appointed the righl 
honorable James lortl C'ambiei\ late Admiral of the whiti, 
now Aflmiralofthe red squadron of his majesty's fleet, '/c/^r;/ 
Oimlburn, Esquire, a member of the iinptrial pailianieiil 
and under secretary ofstafe, and \\ iilunn Adaws, Esqnirt, 
doctor of civil laws: — and the President of the IJ. States, 
by and with the advice and consent of the senate thereof, 
Jias ap|)ointed John Quincif AdamSy James A. liayard-^ 
Henry Claff, Jonathnti Jtussallt and Albert CaUatitiy c\\i- 
zensv.*'the LT. States, who after a reciprocal commiinicii- 
lion of their respecli .^ full powers, have agreed upon llu 
following articles : 

ARTICLE rUF FIKST. 

There sha!l be a firm and universal jieare between h\i- 
Brilannic majesty and the United Stales and between their 
respective countries, territories, cilies, towns, and people 
of every degree, without exception of places or persons 
All hostilitK s, both by sea and kind, shall cease as soon n.-i 
this treaty shall have been ralitied by both parties, as here 



AJ^PKNIHX. 



dd^ 



inafler iDcnlioned. All hriiUiry, places ami poasessions 
^lititHUi Vi:r, l/tki-ii from eillitr |ii»ilv l>> llic olliei, tiuriMg 
the Mur, or whuli inu\ he lakeii atlir the sii>iiiiig ut thin 
trt'uty, excepting only Ihc islaiuls here luaJitr iiieiilioi't'il, 
siisillhe re^lortd uithuut deiay, and >\ithout causing- any 
♦leHtriicljoii, or carrNinir avvav any ot" the artjller\ or olher 
puhlic p|-(ip(M'tv originally ca] tiir<-(l in the MU.d torls or 
places, and which shah remain Ihcrt in n|'on lh«? i xchaogu 
ol l\u ralificalioi.H ot this Irealv, or any siavis or other nri- 
Vule properlv. And all archives, recitrtU, deeds, and pa- 
pers, either ot" a puhlic n.tture, or beloi gi<.«j to private per- 
<MMiN, which, ill the course ol the war, inuy have fallen into 
ihe hand» of the oHicers ot either parts, shall he, as iiir as 
may he praelicahte, ioilhvvith re.sloretl aixl dcHVLutl to the 
projxr aulhoriti.es and persons to wiiom Iht y lesjjtctively 
helonp^. Such of the islands lu the has ol l\«ssam;«(pio dy 
as are claimed hv holh parlies, sha>l reman m tla |(>sses- 
sioii ot the partv in whose occUj alion lhc\ ina\ le at the 
lime of the exchaM«e ot the lal.iications ol this Unatv, un- 
til the decision rcspeciiii;^ the title to the said isiaiMis shall 
havehcen made in conl'ormdy with ihefcurlh article ot this 
treaty. No disposition made hy this treaty, as to such pos- 
session of the islands and ten ilones claimed by holh par- 
ties, shall in any mam. er vshatever, he construed to atiect 
Ihe right of either. , , 

AKTlCLi: THE SKCOXD. 
Immediatt;Iy alter the ralilication ol this treaty hy both 
parlies, as heicniM'ter mentioned, orders sha:! be sent to 
thv: armies, squadrons, oHicers. suhjects and cili/.eiis, ol the 
two powers to cease from all hostilities : and to preven* all 
causes of complaint which miij;hi arise on account ot ihfc 
prizes which may be taken at sea alter die said ralifica- 
hons of this treaty, it is reciprocally aa;reed, that all vessels 
and elVecls which may bi- taken aittr the space ot twelve 
days h om the said ratilications, upon all parts of the eoast 
<>i North America, from ihe latitude of lvvent\-lhree degrees 
north, to the latitude of fifty degrees north, ami as far east- 
ward in the Atlantic ocean, as Ihe thtrls-sixth de<^n < of 
west loiitj;ilu{le from the meridian ol Greenwuh, sliall be 
restored to each side. That ihe lime shall he thirty tlavs 
111 all oilier parts of the Atlantic t cean, north of the i qui- 
nocl?al line or ecpiator, and the sauie lime fot tiie BrilisU 

!i! 1 .» ;. 47 , ■ :-; . ' ns ,fj 



iii 



t n 



^ 




•iJ 



'i i 



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- ' 



870 



.4M>i;M>rx. 



i»n<1 Irish rlnniiclN, for the Ciiilf of ISFcmco aud »!) (isirU ol* 
llie West IihIhh; forty <Isivh tor the IVoith Siuh, tor the 
|iiiili<*« :iiKt ioi^ull |t:irl«( ollhf' ,'\)e<iitei'raru'Hii ; Mixty tiavK 
tor th<' AMnntic oreiin noiith of Ihe equator as fur an the hit- 
itiulr ot the Ciipr of Vhhh\ I lope ; ninety tlay« for every 
pari of lh«* wtirhl south of the cquulor ; niul one huiicirefi 
iind twenty t\n\H for all other parts of the world, without ex- 
ception. 

ARTirtft TIIK THinlJ. 
All prisoiirrs of wjh- lakt n on eilht-r side, as well hy land 
as l»y st'ji, sli;dl he restored s<s soon as praetuuble after the 
iMttticiition of this lr«^Mtv, as hereuiidter mentioned, on their 
p;>vni!;' the (hi)lN which they may have contracted durm^jf 
ihi'ir captivity. 'I'he two eonlractiiii»- parties respectively 
fn;4^;ij^t* to <t.sch;»riye in specie, the a<l\ances winch may 
have been nnide iiy ihi'oti.ei' for the sustenance and uiaui- 
tenance of such prisoners. 

AIMJC'LF TIIK rnuuTii. ;<..... 

- "When as it was stipulated l>y thti second article in the 
treaty olpeocc, of one thoii'^ai-dsfxen hundreil and ei<;htV- 
three, lu'l ween his r>ntatniic majesiy and ti.e IT. Stales of 
America, that the honndaiy oi the U. Staters should com- 
prehend all islands witliin lv\nitv leiiones of ai-y psirt of 
the slnu'es ol Ihe V . Stales, and Ivin^' i>elv\een hues to be 
<lra\vn due easl iroin the i»oi;ls uli< re the aforesaid houn- 
<laries, between Nova Scot in, on the one part, an«l East 
Korida (HI the other, shall respectively touch the bay of 
Fuiuly, and the Atlantic ocean, exceptmi*' such islands as 
now are, or heretofore ha\e been, within the limits of Nova 
Scotia ; and wheieasthe several islands in the Bay of Pas- 
Hammnquoddy, which is part ot the Bay of Fimdy, aiid the 
islainl of Grand Menan in the said IViy of Fmidy, a'e 
daiiiied by the [I. Slates as b'^inti^ com|>rehended within 
their aforesaid boundaries, which said ishuuts are claimed 
as IwloMi^ino" lo his Britannic majesty, ns havinj[>; been at the 
time of, and previous to, the atoresaid treaty of one thou- 
SHint srven hundred and eiuhly three within the limits of 
the province of N;»va Scotia : in order, iherefore, finally to 
deciile Uj»on these claims, it is ajrree<l that they shall be re- 
ferred to I wo coinniissioners, to be appoinle<l in the fol- 
low niij manner, vi/. one commissioner shall be apj)Oinled 
by !»•» Britannic majeslv, and one by the President of the 
U. States, by and wilh ihe advice and consent of the seuatc 



iiPPf^NDlX. 



871 



,^f*^ti'-{ mu- 



thereof, and the nan] two t'oinini^tMOiH th so nppointri) shall 
t>e sworn iiu|*iirliail> io c-viMiiiiu! tiud lUcuit* ii|)«>ii the said 
claiiiiM accoriiuiu' lo KUrh fHtUncc an sinill itc hint In'tore 
thcni oil the part ot his linlaiiiiu* niujrstN and ot the I'liited 
Stales respectively . 'I'te >ai(l eniniiiisN outTN shall meet at 
.St. AiulrewH, iiillu' provmeeol New liriiiiswiek, and shall 
have power to adjoum to siuh other plure or ptaceH as they 
.shall think Hi. Tiie >aid <-(>iiiiiii!<isu»iierM shall, by a deela« 
ration or report under their liaiidM and seals, tlernle to 
uhieh of the two eontraclin^ parties the several islands 
atoresnid i\o respectively beloiiu>, in contorniitv with I lie 
true intent oi the saul treuly of peace ot one tiiousand seven 
hundred and eiuhlv -three. And it the said couinnssi oners 
shall a^ne in their decision, buth parlies hIiuiI consider 
.snch decision as iinai and conctnsive. il is further agreed, 
that in the event of the two coniniis.sioiier» diHierin^ Ujion 
all or anv of the matters so relerred to them, orin :he event 
of both or either ot the said coinnnssioners refiisi.i^ or <le« 
dining-, or w ill'udy omitting to act as snch, they sltull make, 
jointly or separately, a report or reports, as well to the ^ov- 
erniiie.it of his Brilannic mnjesty as to that of the U. Slates, 
stating' in delad the points on which they ditt'er, and the 
G^rounds upon ^vhich their respective opinions have been 
formed, or the *j^rounds upon which the\, or either of them, 
have so retustd. declined, or omitted lo act. And his Bri* 
tannic niajestv, and the government of the U. States here- 
by agree to refer the report or reports of the said commis- 
sioners, to some friendly sovereign orsiale, to be then nam- 
ed for lhat]>urpose, and who shall be requested to decide oo 
the differences which nia\ be slated in the satd report or 
reports, or u on the report of one commissioi.er, to^^etiier 
with the grounds upon which the other commissioner shall 
have refused, dechneii or omitted to ac. as ihe case may be. 
And if the commi^sio. ers, so reiusnig', declining', or omit- 
tin^j^to act, sh.ill also wiliuiiy umil to stale the grounds up* 
on which he has so done, in such manner that the said 
statement niav be rtitrred lo such fr>endly sovereign or 
state, together with the report oi such other commissioner, 
tlien such sovereigM or s>ate shall decide ex parte U|>on the 
said report aioiie. And Ins Britannic majesly aid the 
government of the U. Stales engage to consider the deci- 
sion of some fneiidlv M)veretgnor stale to be :»uch and con* 
elusive on all the mailers .:o referred. ,■.■■■ . , -., . . .>,.f 



I' , • 




■Mr' « 



1 ! . 



."* 



lii; 



37e 



;^J 



AI*VCMUi:. 



■" AP.TH l.r, TIIK FfFTII. ^ " 

^^ .ifrcns iieillifr tliiit |MMiit ot Ilit* tn^MiiiHlsi iv liii^ ciiu 
noillt troiii lilt' Koiinc of |Jk» nvrr Si. C'nux, ;tiul jI MirmiU 
«d <n Ihe toriiiei* trmty of luiUT lielwrt-n llic Iwo |to\«(nt :ik 
\Uf iu»rllnvfHt »r»c:l«' of ISuvji Sc-olin, iiuw ihc norlli-wcs- 
tei'iiinoNl ',,vHi\ <tl ('oiincrtinit ri\»M hn', not ln^en anccrl •.lin- 
ed ; siimI wltfi'oas tiiat p.irl of tli<> htMi.idiiry line hflwccii ilic. 
(loiniiiioii ot IIk; two powers whirli cxl* mis from llie sutirce 
of iIk river St. Croix direelly north to the aboveinentioued 
north-west nii^le of No\}i ^t•oll:l, thence uloiigp the nuuI 
liiirhlniids which divide thoMC ri\ers that emptj theniNetveh 
into the river St. Lawrence from those which fall mio the 
Atlantic ocean to the north-weslernmosi head of Connecliciit 
i'iv«i, thince down alon<rlhe middle ot the river to the for- 
tv-Hfth detfree of north latitude; ihence hv a line due west 
on said latitude imiii it str kes the nv< r Iroquois or Cata- 
raj^in , has not yet Ik'< n snrve>e<l : — (l is ajrretd that for those 
several piirxoscs two < omnii^sioiierH sha;l he appointed, 
sworn and aiilhonsed, lo act exiictiy in the manner direct- 
ed with rcsfrect to those inentiowed m tiie next preceding 
article, unless otiierwiso sj ( cititd in the present article. 
The snid cnmniissioners hhatt meet at St. Andiews in 
the province of New-lirunswick, and shall have |>ower to 
j[id|Otirn to such other place or places us they shall think 
iii. The s;nd coinmissiouers shall have power to as- 
certain and dcturmiiie lite points abo^e menlioiied, in con- 
formity with the provisions of the said treaty of pe:ice 
of one thousand seven hundred ai.d eighty-three, and shall 
cause the honndary aloresaid. from the souict) of the river 
Si. Croix to the river Iroquois or C.tiurag'ny, to be survey- 
ed and marked according to llie said provision;^. The said 
commissioners sh:ill make a map of the said boundary, and 
annex to it a dt^laration under their ha (Is and seals, certi- 
fyii g; It to be ti.e true map ot die said boundary, and par- 
ticuhu'i/.in^j^ the latilmie and longitude of the north-west an- 
gle *)f Nova Scoliit, of the nortli-weslenimost head of Con- 
necticut river, ad of such otjur por.its of tlie same bounda- 
ry as they mu\ deem proper Aixl both parlies agree to 
coiiKider such map and (teclaralion as litudly and conclu- 
sively fixing the sani boumiarv. And in the event of the 
bald Iwocommis-i oiers ditier.ntr, or both, or either of them, 
refusing' or declining, or wilfuiiy omitting' lo act, such re- 
ports, <lecl:ujiliois, or slalemer.ls, sliall be made by them, 
or either of ihtuj, and buch rdereuce to a tnciKilv sov(ji- 



A1>PRXDIX. 



876 



eiqfii or ^\'t\*', ^liall l>r niiHip. in nil r^«»p«rl« a< in ll»r Inlter 



|mrt 



ni' th«' Courlh .iniclf ih coiititiiKNl, .tiiil in n^full a iiiaii- 



II 



ur iiM il lilt !»;iiii«: wns li« mil r<-|M*:Ut it. 



Al(iiri> TIIK MXTII. 



Wliercas l>v lliv Ionium- trr;ity ol |i<>-,ire th:it fiortion ol 
the lHMiii(ltirv ot llii* II. St:iU'H irom ilir |>oiiit wlirre tli^ 
iort\-titlli iicurrtt ot iiorlli liitiiudc Hlrikfx lh«- rwcr lroc|uoi» 
or Cutiini(i^ii\ lo ilie Itikc hii|)cri(ir, HaN(U'chu'f*(l to Ix; 'uIod^ 
\hf. iiiuldic III Mill river mio hike Oiituno, throii|rh thf 
uiiiiflle of Kind hike iiniil il sliiki h the roniiiiiiiiK'MlM'ii Uy 
WHier hetwi en that lake fui'l l;>ke Krie, lhfti<e aloiiir the 
niidclle of Naid eoiiiiiiiiiii 
middh 



il 



to lake Kne, throti^h Ih^ 
'il the water (oiiiiiiindca- 
i!oti<;h the middle ol H-.wd 



ude ot Kiiid lake iiiiii 
tion into the hike lliinMi, 

luke to the water eoiiim itti<>>t helvvfM'ii that lake and 

lake Super. or* And Mtn-n'Uit d:)iiht<ii have arisen what 
wnMthe niuidie of mimI river, luke», and water coiiiimniica- 
tioiiN, and u hether certain iHhiiids lyinf^ in the itame were 
'within the doininioiiN of Iiih Hntaiiiiie iii;)jeNty or of die U. 
States : in ordt r, therefore, tinally lo dec ide these donhtH, 
they shall he retened to two eoiniiiHsionerK, lo he appoint' 
ed, sworn, and aulhoriNed lo act exuetly in the manner di- 
reeled with respeel to those mentioned in the next |>rered- 
ing' arlicli-, unless otherwise speeitied in tins pit sent arti- 
cle. The said commissioners shall meet, ni the Hrst in- 
stance, at Aihany, in the stale of Nev\-Vork, and shall 
have power to adjourn to such other phiet; or ..laces as they 
shall think tit. The said eoinmissioners shall hy n re|)ort or 
declaration, under then* hands and seals, designate the 
boundary through the said rivi-r, lakes, and water comniu- 
Tiicalioiis, and decide lo which of the two contracting par- 
ties the several islands lying within the said river, lakes, 
niid water cotumunieations, do i'es|)eclively heiong, in cou- 
Ibrmity with the true in'ent of the said treaty of one thou- 
sand seven hundred and eighty-three. Aiid hoth imrlies 
agree lo consider such <lesignatioii and decision as final 
and conclusive. And in the event of the said two commis- 
sioners dittering, or holh, or either of them, refusing, declin- 
ing, or wilfully omitting to act, such reports, declarali<)ns, 
or statements, shall he iir.ule hy them, or either of Ihem, 
and such relerence to si triendly sovereign or state shall hi- 
made in all n*sp< <!ts as in the hit er pari of ll:e tonrth arti- 
cle iscantaim»d,and in nsfnil :i manner as if the sune was 
Jjcrcin repeated. ■' ' ' . ' ^ ' ■ ' • -- 



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CorporatiQn 



23 WIST MAIN STRUT 

WnSTIR.N.Y. UStO 

(716) 172-4303 




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APJPEMIIX* 



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•r ARTICLt: THE Sf:VENTII. i^if^fjV.H 

II is further n^recil ihiil Uie Kaicl iwo la^<t mentioned t^in- 
roiNsioners after they Hhnii have exectiteil Uic «iiilie«t:iiisiirii. 
ed to them in the preceUitti^ sii ttde, Nhull he, ami iht y are 
hereby authuriseci, uftoii their oaltiH iin|mrtially to ti\ nud 
deteriuiiie, according; to tiie irue liitent ot the Nsiid treaty ut* 
peace, of one thouxand iteven htuidred and ei$rlity-ii ree, 
that part of the Itouiidiiry hetAvren the dominion.** of the I mo 
powers, which extendM fnnn the water conimuuicatioH l»'- 
iweeii lake Huron and lake Superior, to tiie inoxt nor'.h- 
wesleni point of the htke of the VVoods to decide to whicli 
of the two parlies the ^»eve^ai isiandn lyni^ in the lakes, \%'4- 
ter' commuiiicatioiiM, and rivers, furmiiiuf the natd bouintary, 
do reitpeclively belong*, in coufurmily with the true iiite.it 
of the said treaty of peace of one thousaiid seven hundred 
and eighty-three i and to cause such parts of the si ni Ixiun- 
dary, as require it, to be surveyed and marked, 'i'lie said 
commissioners shall, by a report or deciaration under their 
hands and seals, designate the boundary aforesaid, state 
their decision on the poinLs thus reierred to them, and par- 
ticularise tlie latitude and longitude of (he most north-wes- 
ternmost point of the lake of the Woods, and of such other 
parts of the said boundary as they may deem profier. And 
both parties agree to consider such designation and dt et- 
sion as final and conclusive. And in the event of the said 
two commissioners (hti'enng, or IkUIi, vr either of them re- 
fusing, declining, or wilfully oin (tiiii); to act, such i-e|)orts 
declarations, or statements, shall be made by them, or eilh- 
cr of them, and such reference to a tnendly sovereign or 
slate, shall be made in all respects, as in tlie latter pait of 
the fourth article is coatained, and in as full a manner as if 
the same was herein repealed. 

.. AKTlCm THE EIGHTH. 

. The several boards ot two coniniissioners mentioned in 
the four preceding articles, shHJl reH|.eclively have power 
to appoint a secretary, and to eiiipto) such surveyors or 
other persons as they shall judge necessary. Uufdicales of 
all their respective reports, declarations, staienienLs, and de- 
cisions, and of« their accounts, and o( the jtnirnal ot ther 
proceedings shall be delivered by them to the agents ot his 
Britaniiic majesty, and to the agents ot the (J. ^)tates who 
may be respectively appomled and aulln»rised to manage 
the biisiuess on behalf otlheirrespectivegoverniuetils. Tne 
ckUid coiimiissionei's shall be res^iecUveiy pajd in such man- 



/ 



APPEMDtX. 



d7d 



mentioned com- 
'■ liiitit-HiiiiM^ii. 
', himI )hf V iire 
liy to ti\ niid 
' Nsiid treaty of 
I eijrJiiy.U r***', 
uiiit of the lv%o 
iiuiiieatioH It'- 
le iiioMt iior'.ti* 
cid« to whicli 
the lakes, \»-i- 
ftaid bouiiitary* 
the true itUe.tt 
ieveii hundred 
ihest Id tMMiii- 
id. 'INie .said 
>ii uiKler their 
iforeNiiid, (itute 
hem, and |»ar- 
oitt north- wes- 
of Kuch oilier 
1 pro|»er. And 
tioii unci d< i'i> 
LMit of the said 
er ot tlieiik re- 

Hiich re I Kilts 
them, or eilh- 
\ soveiei^ii or 

l-alier put of 
J. iiiiuiiier as if 

*i >■••• ^-f^i^^H* 

mentioned iii 
\ have power 
snrveyors or 
lJii|dicaleN of 
neiiUs, and de- 
iirnul ot ther 
HtfeiitK ot his 
. htates who 
t;d to mantig^e 
iimetilM. Tiie 
in such uiau> 



J 



lif r ns shall be agreed lietwecH the t«vo contracliiisr |mHies, 
mieh Hj^reenieni l»eiiiiif to be neltleit a> the time of the ex- 
dniuure of the ratiticalioiiB of this treaty.— > A i»d all other 
ex|ie u'eN atteiidin^c the hum) commiiMiotierw shaH bedefmy- 
e<l ((lually by the two parlies. And in the ciute of death, 
8 I'kiieHN, leMi^naluin, or ^ec^^isury absence, the place ofev* 
ery Miieh conimiHMioner I'eMftectiveiy hhull be supplied in 
the same inaniitr asHUchconmiissioiier whs lirsi upf>oiiited^ 
and the new couiiniMNioaer NJiail lake the same oath or af- 
tirniitiion, and do the same tiutieN. U is further agreed 
iietweeo the two coittract ng' parties, that in case any of the 
ishiiuU mentioned in niiy of the preceduig articles, which 
^%ere in possewstuii of one of the p:trties prior to the com* 
me .eeinent ot the |)reseiil war t»etM^en tlie two countries, 
should by the deci>iton ot any of the boards ot commission- 
ers aforesaid, or ot the so\ereiirii or state so referred to aft 
in tliM four next preceding arlu'les coiUained, fall within 
. the dotiiinioisH of the other parly, all grants of laud made 
jiievious to the couiuient'einetil of the war by the party hav- 
ing had such |3ossesMioit, shall be as valid as if such island 
or Islands, hud by such deciMion or <lecisions, l)een adjudg- 
ed lo be within tlie dominions of the parly having had such 
possession. 

K K'JI CLE TU K N I N T II. 
The IT. Slates ot Anu'ncu eu;»a«^e to pul an end, im- 
mediately a ler the ratiticaiion of the present treaty, to lios- 
titilicH, with all the tril>es or oittions i>f Indians with whom 
they may be at war, at the lime of such raliiication, and 
lorlhvvith to restore to such tribes or nalions, respectively, 
all the possessions, righls and privilfges, which they may 
liave enjoyed or been entitled lo in liil 1, previous fo such 
hoslihlies: provided always, that such Iribes or nations shall 
agree lo desist from all liostililies against the U. Slates of 
America, their cilizens and subjects, upon the ratiticatioti 
of the present treaty beii<g nolihed losnch tribes or nations, 
and shall so desist accordingly. And his Britannic ma- 
jesty engages, on his part, lo pul uii e*ul, immediately 
uf.er Ihe ratificalion of the present treaty, to hostilities, 
with all the tribes or nations of Indians with who|n he 
may be at war, at ihe time of such raldicalion, and forth- 
with lo restore lo such Ir.bes or nations resperlively, all 
the possessions, r:ghts and privileges, which they may 
have tnjo^cdoi- been enliliedl^j in the year 1811, previous 



i 5 



'■^? 



;i70 



APtBNUtX. 



to such lioslililitin : |irovide<l always tbal such tribe^ or ns' 
liuiiHtihnll n^rce to «)«iiisi from all huniililieM aj^a imiI bw Bri- 
tannic majesty aiitl his subjtncUi, upon the rattticalion ot Ihe 
present treaty being nutiii«d to imch lribe» or DaUoiM» and 
!thall 80 desist accordingly. 

ARTICLE THIS TENT If. -»»*!*' j ^rj.*- 

Whereas the traffic in slaves l^ irreconcilable m'ith the 
principles of humanity and ju8lice, and whereas l«oth hit 
Majcity and the United SUites are desirous of coiilmning 
Uieir e0'orts to promute it» entire aliolilion, it i» hereby 
ai^rted tliat both the contracting^ parties shall use their best 
endeavors to accomplish so desirable an objects; ti«i. . 

^. ABriCLE THE ELKVkNTK.' 

This treaty* when the same shall liaveieen ratified on 
both sides, without altd.itioii by eithei- of llie ctM.lr.ictiiig' 
parties and ihe i atiiications mutally excliaii|^ed, shall be 
bindinjjf on both parlies, aiul the raiiH<'ati«>ns shall be ex- 
chanpfedat Wiushint^ton, in (he space uf four uiuitlhs from 
this day or sooner tf practicable* ;mj"ja .»*,;* 

In faith whereof, we, the respective Plenipotentiaries, have 
. signed this treaty, and have Ihereuntu affixed our stals. 
Done, in tri|)licate, at Ghent, the tweiity-iourth day of 
Derember,oiiethou.saiid eiy^lit hundred and fourteeu» 



4» 



(V. a) 
Cl. s.) 
(h. s.) 
(L. s.) 

(L. S.) 
(L. S.) 

(l. s.) 

{h. S.) 



•«l f'l-- 



GAMBIKH, 

IIENUV GOtILBURI>r, 

WILLIAM ADA VIS, 

JOHN a ADAiM;?, 

.1. A. BAYAHD, a mi> 
H. CLAY, fi'ffi,Um« 

JOIN A. Ur'^'^ELL, ^liUi* 
A GALL. i\. me 

Now therefore, tu the end that (he sflid treaty ot \u ^rv ant' aiuily may 
be observed with gaot) faith, on the part of th : U. Hiates, I, Junics Miiili' 
i9on, President as aforesaid, tiare c>(used the preiiiiscs tu be itiade |iubllc ; 
and I do hereby enjoio all persons bearine; of ice, civil or inttilary, with- 
iotheU. States, and all other ciiisens or inhabitants thereof, or bfinQ 
within the same, fai Jifully to observe aitd fulfil the said treaty and every 
i.lause and article thereof. 
In testimony whereof, I have caused she seal of the U States to be affix 

(ij. 8.) ed to these presents, and nivned the same \vith my hand 
Done at the city of Washingtun, this eiirhteenlh day of February, in Ihe 

year of our Lurd one thousand eight hundred and fifteeo, and of She 
. sovereignty and independence uf the U. Stales the thirty ninth. 

By the Pr.^;ldent, JAMES MADISOJ^. 

JAMfi^ MONROE, AcUng Seerelary of S!ale. 



it^ii»}.- 



iUM 



Jtitftfjirsi^'fA 



??ri: 



I tribes or na- 

^a tMi bw Bri- 

Hcaliuri of llie 

Dulioiia, and 



^^^.,»^ LIST OF VES.^ELS^ r- -^-, .-- 

TAkBV yftOM GREAT BRITAIN, BY TUG rUBUC AN]> 
PRIVATE AUAieO VCSSKM <>r Till;: UNITED STATESy 



DVRLS'G TUE irjR. 



Js'atnet nfve$tela. 

I scli'r. WbitiDgtt 
brig UiyMM 

3 bri(( Gjrpftey 

4 brig Pickerine 
a -"hipRoba &i. Betsey 
H ihi|i IJl^argaret 

7 'raiispurt No. fiO» 

8 ^rig Bloodhound* 

9 Moop— 
I0-2CJI1 transport boats* 

2 1 -«hip Concord 

22 Mg Elbe 
2d brig Hermm 
24-2' H brig and acb'r 

26 ship Jane 

27 ^hip Emperor 

28 iibip Experiment 
2d-32 % ships and bri^s 
3d 




chV Wade 
brig Eliza 
35-37)3 shallops 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 



\6 
47 
48 
4» 



brig- 
loop Endeavor 
brig Juoo 

urig— 



6 



nkin Ay the f Jrrittd ai 



Hampton Roa4l. 

Norfiilk t» 

New-York 
Gloueesier 
Charleston 
iPortland 
jGloocester 
Aiinapolia 
Potneyville 
Oicdensburg 
Salem 

do. 

do. 

do. 
Oloucesteh 



Gun Boatsf pt.M«ry'g 
do. I do. 



43-45 * sch'rs 



brig Wabtsch 
ch'r Ann 
schV Pindar 
ship Jarrett 



^0-52 3 schooners 
53 schooner— 
64 scb'r Ann 
35-53 4 scbou;aen. 
AH brig — ,• * 
tiO schooner — 
t) 1 schooner— 
02 moop— 
as isch'r Fanny 



18 



Mte' 



do. 
Revenue Cutterf 
Madison 
Lion 
iLion &. Snowbird 
Polly 
Madison 
do. 
do. 
JefftTSon 
Dolphin 
Nonfiareil 
Gun B'laisf 
Fair trader 

do. 

Dolphin 

do. 

feflTer kDoTphin 

Dolphin 

Lion 

Argus 

Fdly 

1llo)|)hin 

Buckskin 



do. 
Amelia 
Salem 
Slarbleheail 

do.^ 
Salt-m 



M 



*<^ 



(do. 
Cape Ann 
do. 
Sulem 

do. 
Charleston 
Amelia 
Sah-m 

do, 
made a cartel 
Safem 

do. 

dp.' 
Harblfchead 
l*ortUiM. 
Sal«m ' 
Bi^lmore' 
Salem 



i\ 



IM- 



»«» 



in 

-ft? 
'J 

ft; 

km 



f 



( 



■jf 



iii-Gsh schooners 
Xele. Thote marked tcilh a [«]Fr«re H, EL. Ma§t^jf» pMU »eijf^ 



] ml those wUk a Ij-jars U. Sf. pubttc rnssei* 



-y-f 



^< ijutj^i; ^ J-^Xjii.i-Cfcf 



i c 



378 



AIM'ENOIX.' 



» 1 



:v 





V-i, 



68 

«T 

68 

^0 

70 

71 

72-73 

74 



75 

76 

77 

78 

79 

80 

81 

82 

83 

84 

85 • 

86 

87 

88 

8tf 

90 

91 

92 

93-95 

96 

97 

98 

99 
100 
101 
102 
10 J 
104 
105 
106 
107 
108 
109- 
116- 
118 

119 

120 

121 

122 

123 

124 

125 

126 

127-129 

130-131 



riMp«rt brien 
RsbV Mary Abd 
Hhip Mary 
BrhV— 
BchV OiKfCDt 
,2 Bchoonen 
lasQow 
|erh'r Jane 
abip AnH Green 
barqtif Ht. Andrewi 
briiT Shaidrock 
[sch'r Salljr 

ch*r Nelson 

chooner— 



|4 



107 



Id 
8 



-1 li) 

in 



schV 3 Brothers 
barque 
b:lg— 
hip Heniy 
sch'r Alfred 
<chV Ki za 
br Lady Shfrbroke 
br Eliza k Esther 
ship Royd 
•)rig HaimiT 
^ch'r Polly 
i Hi igs 
riooj) Mary Ann 

liip FlaAsan 
brifl; Harmony 
brig— 

!*hi|i Brigaiiza 
brig Waldo 
sch'r Aim , ' ' 
sb Priuce Adolphui 
ship 

Bch'r Harriet 
brig Ceres 
brig— , 

•ri)^ Williain 

lii|>» U btfgs 
brig &ijScHooDcr 

RchVlodultry 

scb'r iE^enMiverance 

i^Kip $iroon Clark 

Hftndattis Packet* 

brig Amelia 

sch'r Mary 

»ch«>oner-*. 

ieh'rDpioQ ' 

brig Elizabeth 

brigs 

sch'r &■ sloop 



10 



16 



10 



4 
12 

4 

8 






20 
28 

21 



36 



li 



16 

2 

10, 



108 



39 
12 
17 



12 



F. iiista} 
do. 

Buckskin 

Dolphin 

Fair Trader 

Polly 

Snowbird 

Rev Cutter^ 

Dolphin 

Gosoamrr 

Rapid 

Rev. Cuttcrf 

Teszer 

Burkftkin 

Fntiie 

Wiley Reynard 

Cathnriue 

Pnlly 

Comet 

Sperurrr 

Polly 
Marengo 
Gov. M'Ktan 
GInhK 
Matilda 
Wihy Reynard 
do. 
Pa 1 1 Jones 
do. 
Yankee 
do. 
Toin 
Teazer 
Globe 
Gov M'Kean 
Teaztr 
High Flyer 
, John 

Rossie 
0o. 
; <lo. 

Bern Franklin 
i l^onsuch 
, Globe 
Afaiy Aon 
j do. 
', d(». 
do. 
John 
John 
do. 
Orlando 



,,| 



Rallimorv 
raiiioncd 
Salem 
do. 
Wiscasset 
Salem 
do. 
Savannah 
MarWehead ' 
Boston 
Portland 
Savannah 
made a cartel 
Salem 
do. 
Boston 
Puriland 
ransomed 
Baltimore 

do. 
8«lem 
iNi'.w-York 

PhiladelpbiR 
do. 
do. 

Boston 

Wiscasset 

Philadflphia 

.Savannah 

New York 

made a cartel 

Baltimore 

Portland 

Baltimore 

Philiadelphia 

Portland 

Baltimore 

Salem 

GloiiCfSter 

Boston 

burnt 

made a cartel 

New. York 

Charleston 

Norfidk 

Charleston 
do. 

burnt 

made a cartel 

baletki 

tSalem 

Iransomed 

I Gloucester 



ir.^ 



Hit 



r/^ 



APPENDIX. 



a?^ 



132 

133 

13 V 

lo5 

136 

137 

13A 

139 

14U 

Ul 

i*i 

143 

U% 

U5 

146 

147 

148 

149 

150 

161 

lo2 

153 

154 

155 

litH 

157 

158 

159 

160 

161 

lb2 

163 

164 

165 

166 

167 

168 

169 

170 

171 

172 

173 

174 

175 

176 

177 

178 

179 

180 

181 

182 

183 

184 



trig G«D. Blake 

'•'•e — ,,f 

<Mp \pi>|io 

h5p Royal Bounty 

•rig Mnry 

«(hr Vfiiun ' ' 

>'iip O-iborti 

><*ij$ Blica 

trx Richard 

rItE Nancy 

iri^— 



,'iVM 



chr,— 



lllf.TJ<-' 



•»<»!«};. 






10 



lO 



iirig LeoDidOT 
-rhr Sky Lark 
iri j Lailf PrevoBt 
h.ig Friends 
iria Mary 
hip Jane 
rhip Juhn 
!«chr.— 

tiip Grenada 
sch'r Shadock 
barque Diana 
brig Roe buck 
ship Guerritre* 
brig Lady Warren 
brig 4buua 
larque Harriet 
brig Dutcfaess 
brig Traveller 
brig Henry 
ship Hopewell 
bris Hazard 
sch'r Phoebe 
brig Thetis 
brig Alfred 
brig Antelope 
ship Kitty 
scli'r Spunk 
(sch'r Providence 
sliip Guayaiia 
jbHr duUe of savoy 
ship Pursuit 
[ship Evergreen 
Ibrtg New Liverpool 

hip Mary Ann 

khiri Elisabeth 

>ch'r Jamt's 
'brig Pursuit 

brig Tay 

ship Britannia 

brig Howe 



K«>vrni>r rutterfjCharlestoa 

Buii|(cr Hill I do. 

i«i Fainiouth 

jr.hn Bait 111 

2'.<[ Yankee kuak 

471 ^1) bnadv a cartel 

^eiizer {Portland , 

IhI |o. I do ''j 

Imluxiry |Marbt^be«U 

PairTr««1er piklem 

B»iiA»^r Hill New Yorl< 

Lfaiidfr jProvidenoie 

1 4) Man* Mavantiahi 

BunkprHill JNew Torl^ 

IMnren^o j do. 
Benj, Franklin ^Boston 
do. 4o- 

* ii Rossie Balnoi 
3U| F. Presidentf Vbiladclpkia 

Teazer F»>rtlaiid 

•'^0 Toang Eag|e Charleston 

• 01 do. I <*o- 
High Flyer JBavannaht 

I I R.Nbainand ^Norfolk 
49S02 p. Constitutiont burnt 



14 
6 



25 



do 
do. 
do 
\ Congressf 
do. 
Yankee 
Cornet 
ship Waspf 
Sqiiando 
Yankee 

do. 
Polphin 
Hossie 
Fair Trailer 



do. 

do. 1 

do. i 

do. 

do. 
Newport 
<Baltinioi« 
|BostoD 
jPorts mouth 
burnt 

do. 
Sal^m 
^Portland 
Salem 



Wiley Reynard New York 



18 



Dromo 
Decatur 
Atlas 
Po'phin 
Yankee 
Huh Flyer 
Sarah- Ann 
Diilphin 
Rapid 
do. 
Thrasber 
Dart 



Salem 
do. 
Philadelphia 
Salem 
New York 
Charleston 

do. 
Baltimore 
PQrthiml 

do. 

do. 

do. 



» 
Tfll 
r,fn 

(Ml 

t'.f 

S.I 

i VT 

tv;f 
MJr 

Ti'f 
!'«» 
fit I 

' rti.? 

IOC 
i(>v 
an 

,.i,n 

tor 
not! 

01 'J 
f 12 

i.it 

4- J 2 

'TIS 
RIP 

C!S 

OiiK 



;iiJ 



li- i; 






\V 



d80 



APPENDIX. 



t ^ 



f 'ti; 



ij,- ' 



hrijc Elizabeth 
hi|i Jamaica 
brig Alert* 
transfxirt ahifi* 
brig King (Jeorge 
whip— . 
brig i)cenn 
briff 'Val'tp 
^hip £si,b«r 
iich'r Veoui 
fhir^ Quebec 
»hlp Richmond 
ship Adi>aU 
■hipFaiioontI) 
brig T«V'<> Frieodi 
snai^r Two Priendft 
brig \¥illiani 
sf.h'r Trial 
f ifll Johfi|V G^PflK* 

brijjr-, ■, ,., : 

8ch*r,M«ry Ann 
>r^(;, Laura* 
sch'riU^iog States 
brie ilaiinab 

ch'r, .«\i»»y 

brit?-t, 

brig Ppniona , 

brig OevoDSbire 

brig Oonoord 

brifriliipe 
ichV Minorca , 
lafqu* CharlutteV 

fhip Ajlariutia, < , 

bng Uiaoa 

iirig laabclla 

♦hip-—, 

J vesscia ,„j,,yi 

- lip Jubo 

(dip Commerce 

irit; Industry . 

tirivateer Nassau 

rivateer briij 
unit Top Abbey ' 

igMa^ 
<!iip Princs ji(nelia 
schdonqr — 






14 
7 

12 



25 



62 

2.') 



16 
14 
12 25 
1^ 30 

6 



10 M 



141 36 
20 



i4h 

10 i2 



iti 



30 

40 



30 



Decatur 
Hifdh Klycr 
F. tlssexf 
do. 
do. 
R^'Vcnge 
Saratoga 
Atlas 
Montgomery 
Saratoga 

do 

lliomas 

Montgomery 

Thomas 

B^nj. Fcanklia 

t>nrt 

l^ossie 

Ltander 

Rrculator 

Po<f Sailor 

Dart 
BlaMc Joke 
Diligent 
iilo. 
Moi^tgomery 
do. 
Dart 
Decatur 
jdo. 
kio. 
klo. 
l^^asp 
Dfcatur 
Gtovj M'Kvan 
JDartl 

do. 
Dfcatur ' 

l)olphin 

Comet 
' Decatur 

Comet 

Dotphia 

Rapid, 

Thresher 

Bed}, franklin 

Kossie 

'Icazer 
Marengo 

Teaser 



Newport I 
Baltimore 
New-York 
nade a cartel 
iloalon 4 
PortUnd ' 
New York ' 
PniladeipWa 
Glloucealer 
New York 
• do. j 
Portland j 
Salem 1 
PoriBmoufli 
Boston I 
do. i 
do. j 
Providencle 
Boston I 
VVilmlngtiDn 
Portland 
Nbifolk 
Pbiladelpbia 

d0. : 
Salem { 
do. { 
Gastine 
made a carlet 
France j 
burnt 

made a cartel 
Savannah 
Boston ■ 
Norfolk 
Portland - 
do. i 
do. 
Marblehead 
burnt, 
Baltimore 
Portland 
tWitmington 

Baltimpre 

burnt 

Cape Ann 

CliarieKloii 

Savannah 

Portland 

Newburyporf 

Porthtod 



' *.* 

A 

I 

<\.t 
a; I 

m 
mt 

ail 

;)M 

e^i 
03 r 

icr 

Ut 

"S 

»v.t 

I 

' !t 
I 

im 

Sai 

utf 
w:c 

*Tr 

•: A 
.". t i 

iVi 
{Its 

utr. 



a$5 brig— 
S36 brig Orient 

(t;7**Th(ise in t'/o^ are Letters of Marque vessel?. ^:" 

I Viia Privateer camp intb the harbor of Portland triumf^Mnlhj JtwuiU- 
rd on tlte deck ofhtr prize ! .' ! 



^ iihfe'tiix. 



ii9i 



2J7 belirJcDQjr 

33'i nrig Puini Sharps ,, 

240 (irig Sao A'liouio 

24 1 briff De,irt»i» 
S43 ^(^IjlfXtfllf (Ionia* 
34J !icl,iy',^;fk|le Cmp 
2U rchV l>>nie 

243 tiiiji Puv«»i>c 

S46 t]|r|i; CoOjBord 

247 hri.; Jfavorile 

^48 hn| i^ir Johii Mnnre 

249 t)ri|( ford Slitt]S«lU 

250 tcfiV Beis«>y Ano 

25 1 brig William 

252 bri< Hfory 

2AJ «cb r i'our Brothers 

254 . )c.hV Four Suns 
255-266 ^ ^cbifoiirrs 

2A7 sch> AMelope '.' 

258 >ch'r uaJvsoii 

259 hrig b,i9iioii(l 
860 iiicQeu^ge 
26 1 bri|; Mepf une 

2to2 «hipJaii# '^\ 

263 itclpooiM'r— ™ , ! 

264 sipop Loiiisa Anpi 
2tt5 ship y«riiis 

26 G hr Jas Si Charlottf! 

267 ,,bris?Fr. Blake 

268 brig Swaklotv» 
2bU ^^g Purcie 

270 ' »bip Ned . ^ 

271 . ^(^hVSisiefs 

272 snb'r Comet 

27 i irivateei* Schorcher 

274 ich'r Mary 

275 schV ^vy Hall 
376 slpop Elizabeth 
2v7 ranspart echuoner* 

278 brig (Juion 

279 sch'r Neptiino 
28t) barqup Fisher 

281 bris^Jaiues Rray 

282 brigUily Hdrriot 

28 J -2853 vessels 
2^6 brig Freedom 
237 schV America 

288 brig— 

289 paci(et Johii Bull* 

290 ship Areo 

291 F. ^|Hce(|onian» 
«92 ship J. Uamiltou 



K- 



1 1 



10 



78 



'? 



30 



IC 



20 



Trar.«r 
R'tMiiionil 
liMilnnort 
IVlBrriiKo 
buo H4»ai»f ^ 
«|o. 
MHlildA 
Nonsuch 
Mary Ann 

do. 
Industry 

do. 
MlHreii(»o 
Fame 
Montgomery 
John 
Fame 
do. 
Dart 
Rosamund 
Wasp 
Alfred 
' du. 
John 
do. 
Saocy Jack 
Re j Franklin 
Two Brothers 
America 
Nonsuch 
P. Presidentf 
High Flyer 
John & George 
Fame 
Rapid 
do. 
do 
ship Gen. Pike| 
do. 
do. 
Gen. Affijstrong 
Revenge 
Fox 
Bunker Hill 
orders in Council 
do 
Thorn 



N^wYork 
Ral(imhr» 
Phiradelphia 
burtit 

Black Roek 
New ()rl«rao^ 
Savaiinah 
Charleston 
do. 

do. 
hurnt 
>4aivin 

«lo. 

do. i 

do. 

Portliod 
Charlestoa 
iSavanDah 
Salem 



itn 



i& 



nitt 









vr. 



VI r. 



do 

dd. ;=i 
ktialde « olarte! 
Portland 
burnt 
Salem 
Charleston 
Baltimore 
Norfolk 
Salem 

do. 
Savannah 
burnt 
ansomed 
Sackett's Harbor 

do. 
burnt 
Boston 
Cape Ann 
Portland 
Boston 
New York 
ransomed 
Mirblehead 



Si,- 



^e 



Fame &. Dromo Salem 



Joe] Barlow 
Rover 



lie. 



New-Londou 
destroyed 



li ^6 F Prendentf I Baltimore 
49|.10GjP United iitatesf New- York 
161 30J Dolphin jnaltiiririre 



' 1 1'i 



^a2 

S9S JMg— 

894 *CVt Loftia 

295 wig Bacflhui 

896 »ri( Veont 
297 -SOfl Dine vetwla 

307 MCketT^Wnsffid* 

SOS Musket Burcball* 

309 ieh*r— 

310 t.ri|r Criterion 

311 ichVNeplunc 

312 brig,^eptun« 
3i3 ichV-r 
314 brig Fanc^ 

.315 kluopNellf 

316 briKDeTOnshlre 

317 ich'r-y 

318 »hipJ«inis 

319 irig T<vo Brother! 

320 irig Actife 
821 , wi(f— . 

322 irig Pomona 

323 ship Betacjr , 

324 brig t^art 

325 ship <|uean 
328 brig Charlotte 

327 ichV WiHiam 

328 frig Recorerx 

329 brig Lucy &. Alida 

330 -3 J3 three veMels 

334 schV Swift 

335 scb'r— . ' ',' 

336 sloop Reasonble 

337 schV Maria 

338 Bch> Catherine 

339 ich'r Maria 

340 ship Rio Kou7a 

341 ich'r Rebecca 

342 brig— 

343 privateer Richard 

344 ship Hdpe 

345 ship Ralph 

346 ship Euphemia 

347 ^►rig— 

348 ichooner — 

349 sch'r Meadau 

350 ^hipMary 

35 1 sch*r Erin 

352 ;iackel Nocton* 

353 brig BArrosea 
364 '^ch'r Mary 
355 hrig Peggy 
S36 ship Arabella 
357 brig Andalusia 



^PEIfDIX. 



t( 



U2 

10 

8 
5 
8 
16 
10 
2 



Sf 



74 



6? 
18 



44J 



no 



18 



4 
12 
10 
10 



14 



ISC 



24 



26 



90 



brig Arguff 

Rerenge 

do. 

Fully 

Patriot 

Tom 

Highflyer 

do. 

do. 

RetTf-nge 

Roha 

Revenge 

Joel Barlow 

R<>v«nge 

Hccafar 

Rtftaliaiion 

Oen Armitri 

B^ni. Franklin 

l|ighflyer 

Dart 

Rfvenge 
America 
Glfn. Armstrong 
America 
Liberty 
bng Argu»f 
Revenge 
JacK'9 Favorite 
: Rolla 
Rilia 
Liberty 
do. 
Lad^ Madison 
do. 
Rolla 
Jfick's Favorite 
Ned 
Ho!kar 
America 
do. 
do. 

Decatur 
do. 
Sparrow 
Rolla 
Eagle ^ 
F. Essexf 
! Rolla 
Ea^le 
Hunter 
(Growler 
Yankee 



fffamptoo Roada 
PhiNadclpbia 
'^alenl 
Savannah 

unk k biimt 
ransomeq 
Ballimorf 
made a oartel 
Nek-Yoili 
made a c4rtei 

ortland { 

Mew Lontlon 
Philia(<«>lphia 
f'ranelf' I 
New Voile 

(»reiv?foi|k 
Charieitqiii 

NortolkT 



ong >l<'itr 
liu t^eW 



'it. 
• (• 

1 «.v 



I as 






■ i- 



tio: I 

nade a <»rtel 
le«jroyc|l 
ansomed ^^ . 
harleaten ^f| 
made a dartcl ^ 
[^ew-Yotk 
NewLotdon 
Ocracoke 
Savannah ' * 
Marbleh^d 
Portland 2;^ 

do., f::. 

France r 
dd.h 
ranpomed 
Newport 
Charleston :*? 
made U. S. Vetiel 
'Vlartha's Vineyard 
Charleston 
Boston 
New London 
Savannah , 



f 



APFVItDTX. 



8S8 



.1ft8-369)briK ktloop 

aoo v. Jtf •• 

»e)t ihli> DiRgeai 

SttJ lebooacr— 

3b4 ihip N^ptan* 
a«*"^b« mo vrMcb 

'Ml ibip— 

Sb8 ibip Tolqatecr 

86t» ihip— 

aru ich'r Bllrn 

97 1 ihip Jntin 

972 tclt'r Pr of Wain 
97^ ihip Aurora 



914-376 



two feaaels 



970 

977 

378 

9)9 

980 

981 

982 

98J 

984 

386 

988 

987 

988 

388 

900 

991 

302 

9U3 

994 

996 

998 

997 

908 

999 

400 

401 

402 

403 

404 

400 

408 

407 

408 

409 

410-4ldthree TCMels 



413.416 

418 

417-418 



(hr«>« VfBBels 
•loop — 
two resteh 



iiv 



49 4.18 



n e<> 



brie Peiicao 
ihip — 
briK Emu« 
brig Ann 
bri«^ 
ichV Sabine 
Itraiuport Canada* 
brig Isabella 
brig 3 Brothers 
sloop Mary Ann 
privateer Andalusia 
jsch'r George 
;ship Albion 
brig Harriot 
jship Nelson 
ship Neptune 
'ship— 

.schooner-— ' 
brig Shannon 
brig (/eres 
ship Mentor 
foh'r Huxzar 
brig Resolution 
ship Peacock* 
brig Antrim 
brig Fly 
schooner— 
brig Earl Percy 
brig Hero 
brig Rorer 
transport Aider* 
brig Return 
brit; Thomas 



It 



«0 



\2 



12 

10 

to 



12 

\2 

4 

10 

12 
8 



74 



120 



10 
22 13^ 



9 
12 

12 

12 



100 

26 
l4 



Yankee |ransoin«4 
K. Coostilutionf burnt 

Growler 
BR«tport militia 
Oalliaipper 
Decatar 

do. 
America 



iMacMas 



Porflaa4 

Kranoe 

Kennebank 



P. Chesaiieakef Punsnouth 



do 

S. Hornelf 
Spy 
Onmler 
llolkiir 
Mars 
do. 
Lady Madiuon 
Growler 
ilo. 



)«rBl 
New Castia 
New-Orleans 
ransomed 
Newport 
made cartels 
Charleston 
New bum 
Marblebead 
do. 



United we standlSaTannah 



Erie iMililin 
Paul Jones 

do. 
Dolphin 
Yankee 
do. 
do. 
Hazard 
Yankee 
Decatur 
Saratoga 
Bona 
Dolphin 
Lovely Lass 

Yankee 
Paul Jones 
Saucy Jack 

Liberty 
jhip Uurnetf 

do. 
Saucy Jack 
Yankee 
do. 
Chettapeakef 
do. 
Alfred 
Yankt'e 
Paul Jones 
Yawkee 
Snap Dragon 
do. 
do. 
Divided-weFail 



»*u 



ibumt 
Irnade a cartel 

do. 
'New-York 
burnt 
SaTannab 
made a cartel 
St. Mary's 
Boston •»'' 
^ew- Orleans 
I do. 
Newport 
New-London 
New-Orleans 
Bristol 
Chatham 
N^'w-Orieans 
Savannah 
burnt 
sunk 

{New-Orleans 
Charleston 
Tarpaulin Cove 
New Yoric 
burnt 

Salem ' i 
Bristol ' 
Chatham 
Boston -. 
burnt 

made cartels 
made a tender 
ransomed 






\'H 



^S^-f 



■ *:•■ 



JSI 



.ll*l*ICMUI>^. 



"i- \ 



i i: 



.;i ' 



41 u |bri«— 

•ViJ »i1vsi««r CalrtlooU 

424 'rig 'rarlar 
42.> tfiidtY Foi* 
480 l>r. Loaiiti^ Paektt 
427 tch'r Farmiir 

42« 'tchooocr— ■ 

420 priv«i««r Crown 

4dO "hip Knmoii 

441 brigMulvint 

4 )2 briK Chtrlotle 

4aJ l^u. of Oiuuc.eHU-r* 

4J4 priv. sch'r Hi<'hiir4l 

435 priv. tloiip Uurcu 

4JI5 l*rix Edward 

4J7 sC'ii'r Hupe 

438 kn«— 

43<J bhip Nancy 

440 »ch(M)ner — 

441 scii'r n<{liKht 

442 packet Mary Aua« 

443 «hip Oruuiu 
U4 hrig— 

445 Invinc. Na|M)iean| 

446 packet Ann* 

447 MohV Grey hound 

448 brie Maiy 

449 ibr Kinitttoa Packet 

450 jbriii Mutiny 

451 br S Geo. ^revest 

452 prir. L. Par-ki^t 

453 Kinis'* Packed 

454 brig David 
466 Packet* , -^ 

456 ship Mary > 

457 tliip WUUam 

463 (trig Harriot 
459 brie Mara 
4bO ich'r Pearl 
461 (trivateer bloop 

4b2 'J«i»i— 

40:i rtrig— ;,„'|'i 

464 i>ri(i Dinah 

465 'ih'r Britannia 
4G6 'hip Loyal Sam 

487 <tiip Venus 

488 ihi(> ^usan 

489 {ship Seatoa 



10 



lU 



lu 



6(1 



Divided we KallVuak 

do. 'rNiiaooicd 

4f*liV NM<iirhf .Cliarlenlou 



14 

6 
14 



to 

i4 



Qca AniiKiruuK 
25 Mt^ro 

PhmI jMUt>« 
bparruwr 
U'«*p 
;iij{rMiiit voliirileer& 
r. B. VHokee 
3()| Xed 

Mnnt'imnery 
ship iVTNiliton 
Holkar 
do 
Alexnnder 
do 
Fox 
York To»vn 
hip Gi'H. Pikef 
F«ine 
3tlGor Tompkins 
Th'onai 
do. 

VouDg Teazer 
do. 
do. 
Anaconda 
Globe 
do. 
Rotia 
33 Tliimes 
40 Anaconda 
Gov, Pt tuner 
Anaconda 

do 
Grand 1'urk 
Annconda 
Fox 
laherty 
4<> d . 

Gov. Pluiner 
Sa>me 
GKbp 
Gratid Turk 
30 Siro 

Glohe 
Siro 
Paul Jones 



Geuticlowo 

Myaiic 

IV reeked 

(iven up , , 

IVIaehiKi 

IVaidoborouub 



Ifti. 



/h !, 



)l« 



Rrekt. (France) ,. ,* 
WUuiington ,"'• 
!4aleiii ,.^: 

Hackf lt*t Harbor 
stavamiah 
made a carttl 
SHieiu 

itAde a cartel 
Portainoutj 
Rrintol 

Sackelt'a Qarbof, 
Machiaa'' 
Bositon 
Wincaiiset 
Roothebay 
Portland 

do. 

do. 
New London 
Ocracoke 
Beaufort 
Naw Orlean» 
jPorlsinouth 
Ocracoke 
Portsmouth 
rnade a cartel 
New Hav^u 
^aleui 

New Bedford" 
Portsmouth 
Savauinah 
ma4f« a cartel 
burnt 

Qcracnke 
Porlland 
Charleston 
Beaufort ^ 
France 'f ' 

Ltnt, ^:;:!j 



ir. 



J. I! . 
ii\V 



fei. 

:'S.' ; 

Hi. 



I 77iijr ship nns originalli/ a Fretick pnmJfrr. and eajtturtd by 11 'H. 
Majesty's itfnp Mutiue ; re caplurrd hy the Alexander of Salem ; re. n- 
captured by hin H. ft Ainjfsltf'jiJ'i^nle SliatDnw and re-re-re captured. Itji 
Ike Tfnicr oKJS'eK-York, andacni into I'urlland HI .>.>:. i *• 



386 



470 fwtf Mamml 

471 •r« Lf. Murray* 
47S • i« Mo«Uw 

4;.i- 476 t TMMto 



47tt 

477 

478 

479 

480 

481 

48i 

48.1 

484 

48ft 

486 

487 

488 

480 

490 

491 

492 

494 

494 

495 

496 

497 

498 

499 

500 

60^ 

fi02 

ft03 

504 

fi05 

506 

fi07 



10 

s 
Itf 



Uric— 
irif Hero 
trif lUwhitioD 
liric Hrro 

hric JaniM k Sarah 
liri<— 
brig- 
brig Jamca 
brig Sally 
Nrie Ann 
brig Thomu 
brig — 
barque 
B'tip R(>t8e7 
»lii|i miza 
*ch'r Success 
irhV Udy Clark 
f*chV Sally 
<nhV Blonde 
M',h*r Ann 
»rh'r DoroBB 
ulnofi EHgle« 
irig Union 
•hip Aurora 
»hlp — 
-hip Integrity 
brig Avery 
ship Susan 
f)hip Pox 
»ch'r Leonard 
iric Beti^y 



S 
14 



Aaifrlft Salm 
L of the LalMf SaefccM^ Rifkw 

Y • »rfctowB Inade a eaitel 
Y»ung Teaser PotOlMl 
Benj Prankbii raMom^d 
Teaser NIpiv.TcySi 

do. Ca^tlne 

Narey Purllaiid 
F. EMesf pumt 

do. kanaomed 
Marengo ^ew liOndott 
Qen. Armatron^Martha'a Vineyanl 
ordera io council New Torli 



20 






16 



10 



5OS..Al0 3Te8ai>la 

Cll^ *ch'r — 

612 ris — 

5l.i-fi27 B & I4transp* 

528 sch'r Three 8i!»ier8 

fi29 srh'r Gen. Hoaford 

§30 brig Nelly 

031 <loop Peggy 

532 sch'r Broth. & Siatei 

fi33 brig fjouisa 

534 sloop Pox 

f 35 sloop William 

636 sloop Ja k Eliza 

637 brie Chance 
d.ja brig Mary 
ri39 ship Venus 
140 brig Morton 



John 
Teaser 
Deftatur 
Holkar 
Dolphin 
Revfnge 
Yankee 
Benj Pranklir 
Hunker Hill 
Wiley Reynar< 
John 
do. 



B«Mton 

Portsmontb 

made a cartel 

New-York 

burnt 

Wilmington 

Boston 

"aosomed 

^ewYork 

»)itston 

ransomed 

Salfm 

ransomed 



13 



I/iberiy - w 

OunBoalsf p«*w-Yorlc 
T. B. Yankee iPrance 



20 



65 



do 
Humbler 
T B Yankee 
Yorktown 

do. 

brig Argusf 

T B Yankee 

Jack's Favoriti 

America 

Fox 
Yankee 
2 row boatsf 
Saucy Jack 
Decatur 
Fox 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Dolphin 
Yorktown 
4* 



do. 
>vrecked 

Norway /. . 

St^w Bedford 
Prance 
sunk 

do. ! 

Plymouth 

oade carteh 

ansomed 

triitoi 
Sackett's Harbor 

<;t. Mary'a 

■^avannab 

"irnt J , 

ransomed 
umt 

HI s )roed 

>iorwa]r 

Pranee 
Ir^naorocd 
I Norway 

iHimt 

Salem 

WilauHMi 



If 



f^ 



M.i . ■ 



kx 



..1' 



Ml 

«M 
«4» 
060 
051 
60S 
05d 
054 
050 
»bS 
007 

65t»_ 

061 

SBit 

061 

064 

6G5- 

668. 

670 

071 

072 

673' 

674 

675 

076 

677 

07U 

»«0 

681 

682 

684 

586 

087 

088 

589 

090 

»l 

0»2 

093 

694 

im 

697 
6»8 
699 

too 
m 

602 
603 
60% 





APPENDIX. 






>chV Dominicoft 


I6188 1 


Decalur 


Cbirlcslon 6v> 


! ■ • 


'tip Ixin. Trader 


i 




do. 


do. 1 u 


04? 


;iv« brif^ 






Sohp Dragon 


ieatroyed ''*,v 




(iriyaieer Fly 


5 30| 


orig Enterprizef PortsoiuMtfa 




4CbV Ceres 






Yaiikee made a cartel , ; . 




barque Henridta 






Snap Dragon Beaulott 'n. 




briK Ann 






d(j. 


do. f" >, 




8cbV Plying Fiah 






Baucy Jack ransomed 




sloofi Catherine 






do. Cape Henry 




Bcb'rKate < 






do. 


do. T 




sbip Louisa 


10 




do. burnt 




brig 3 Brothera 


10 




do. St. Mary's 




brig Earl of Moira 






Industry 


Machias ,j .^ 




Bchooner — 






Terrible 


Baetport 


560 


two Tesscla 






Swiftflure 


Machias 




sch'r Louisa 


1 


2G 


Expedilion 


Newport 




prif a. Kg, ot Rome 


1040 1 


brig Arguslf 


destroyed 




Bblp — 






F. Presidentf 


France 




sehonner— 






Irdo. 


do, - 


567 fhree vewela 






r. B. Yankee 


do. 


509 two veuels 






Ij:o 


do. V < 




brig— 






Brutus ransomed 




s^chooniT— 




.}en. Armstrong lurnt . ^,,, 




hrit; Bover* 


1896 


brig Enterprise-f 


Portland ^i^. 

Castine - ;, 




schooner — 






fyJtUe and cren 




sehonner — 






Terrible 


ransomed -,. ti. 




hri^ Jaue 






Snap Dragon 


Newbern 




f»r»E— 






Hmtnpua 


burnt 


578 


2 vMsels 






Tt-rrible 


Salem ;-, 




:.ch'r Lilly 






Filot 


ransomed 




brifiE Mary Ann 






do. 


do. 


h'l 


brig— 






OenArmslrwig 


burnt 


583 


n brie and sloop 






In<)ustry 


Macbias 




imck(>t Lapwing* 






Rattlesnake 


made a car 


586 


i tihips 






T.B. Yankee 


France „r 




loop Traveller 






Lark 


iVIaehiaa 




Duke of Montrose* 






F. Presidentf 


made a cartel 




brifcJane and Ann 






do. 


sunk ^,. 




brig Daphutf 






do. 


do. . ! , 




ship EliSB 


8 


do. 


ransomed . / ; 




bri g Alert AiA . 




do. 


burnt 




bflrqifp Lion 


8 


do. 


ransomed 




och'r High Flyer* 


''i 


do. 


Newport 


- 


ship Industry 


1 


T. B. Yankee 


Norway 


1 


ship Lond Packet 


14 


Argtu 


Boston 




brig Allanlic 






do. 


ransomed 




brig Jane 






do. 


made a cartel 




brig Jane 






Snap Dragon 


ransomed 




britE Venus 






Ao» 


made a cartel 




i<ch'r Elieabetli 






do. 


given up 


b ic Harpjr 






do. 


do. 


b rqueRpprieal 






do. 


ransomed 


•"" IpirvBteer Dart 




45 

J'-. 


R.cat.yisillaatt 


Newport 




■'fe 











605 


meWt. SalamAnM 


606 


brig Siuanoab 


607 


>rig Kicbard 


608 


brig Fowey 


609 


sloop Lady Francis 


610 


traas Barbadoes* 


611 


trana. Alliaoce* 


612 


ich'r Cordelia 


613 


ship BeUey 


614 


ship Mariaer 


615 


sloop — 


616 


brig Helena 


617 


brig- 


618 


brig Diana &. Betty 


619 


ship Defiaace 


620 


brig Baltic 


621 


sloop- 


622 


brig Bf Iford 


623 


uilot boat scb'r 


624 


^ritf— 


625 


transport JuliR» 


626 


Hch'r Growler* 


627-62S 


3 Gun boats* 


630 


Guu boat* 


631 


Paeket Moigiana* 


632 


«hip— > 


6J3 


orig Sarah . 


634 


^ch'r— 


6S5 


ship Economy 


636 


«hip Paz 


637 


ship Diligent 


638 


fich't Liberty 


6i9 


brig Betsey 


640 


brig Hope 


641 


ship Hull 


642 


^tiip Jol. Bac hello r 


643 


ship Experiment. 


644 


brig Ruby 


645 


^hip Britannia 


646 


schV Prosperous 


647 


brie Burton 


648 


^hip Latona 


649 


"hip Friends 


650 


ship Nottingham 


651 


br Westmoreland 


652 


brig Brothers 


633 


•^loop Persererance 


654 


ship Harford 


665 


ship TheUa 


656 


brig Brunswick 


657-669 


IS vessels 


670 


Gun lioat* ,,ij<j*,» 
ship Brutus ^M-ii 


ail 



▲PFENDII. 


9n 


6 16 


brigArgusf .dcatroycd *^-^ 






do. 


uiade a cartel 






do. 


bwnt 






do- 


do. t 






do. 


do. * 






do. 


do. „19, 






do. 


do. 'i 






do. 


do. 






do. Franc* 






do. lunk . ^ 






do. France j^^ 






do. bnude a cartel 






dc. burnt 






do. 


do. 






do. 


do. ^^ v,H 






do. 


do. 






do. 


made a cartel 






do. ftunk , i ^ 






do. 


do. iit 






do. 


do. ;.v 


12 202 ahip Madisonf 


Sacketta Harbot 


11 42| do 


do. 


6 45 


do. 


do. ., , f 


2 16 


do. 


burnt >^ V 


18 £0 


Saratoga Nt- wport ,> \ ^ 






do. Iburut jj- 






do. 1 do. - 






Gen. Stark |Macliiaa , ^ 






Scourge &. Rat Norway \^ll 






do. [tie Snake 


do. rtj ivv7 






do. ,t„ 






do. 


do. .tij 






do. ,rf 


do. ijir 






d4. 


do. \ J !^ 






dd. 


do. ^ gi,y 






I d9- 


do. J p^f 






do. 


do. .,.1 
do. 1 






do. 






dd. 
dd. 


do. 






do. 






dd. 


do. , 






do. 


do. ,, ! 






dq. 


do- M ^t" 
do. Xi..X 






do. 






dq. 


do. p, 






do. ^, 


do- h:\ ?s'.I 






do. 


do- ' ovt 






do. 


do. ; - V 




1 do. 
1 do. 


do, ;,^j- 






Leo 


»Umt r 


I 


60 


Morgan's riflcm 


tSacketts HarbQf 






Rattlcsoake 


Imade a cartel ^,, 



>• « 



m C''- 



if ! 



i .; ■ 



1- : 



988 

67S acbVPane 

6M «hip 8t Lairreiic* 

CT-t-hTS I wo Tt-SRH* 

6UI urig— 

693 brig Pr«sidC0t 

6» i brig Farorito 

«94 brig AUrj 
695 636''rothi|M 

697 8ch> Katy 

698 schuooer— 

699 sch'r Ann 
7u0 sloop Elixs 

701 brig Dart 

702 Blofip— 
70J bI O. fioilgkinsoq 



711 

712 

713 

714 

7i5 

916 

717 

718 

719 

720 

721 

722 

723 

724 

725 

726 

72T 

728 

729 

730 

731 

732 

7a3 

734 

7116 

736 

737 

738 

739 

740 

741 

742 

743 

744 

745 



7u4»71<fiBef0n Tessels 



jbrig Edward 
orig JaoAtoff 
brig LiifA 
ship y«stik 
"hip Fame 
xch'r Jnteph 
Ladj Cociibum 
Sir J Shaibroke 
ship Maaly 
brig— 

!chi*r Mettenger 
ihip Montezuma 
«hip Policy 
ship Qeorgiana 
ship Allantie 
ihip Ctreenwich 
'hip Bfr.tot 
ihip Gatberioe 
ahip Ros« 
brig Jane 
brig Dianii 
ship Rose 
jrig— 
brig Agnea 
sloop John 
k>rig Abel 
brig Oossafk 
Bch'r Jasper 
sch'r Rebecca 
BcbV Agues 
brig GriterioD 
•chV P nnf 
'scn'r Henry 
8ch,r Maria 
chip Nereid 



AfntfDix. 



Sfiraioga 
America 
Yank*^e 
Lady Cordelia 
do. 
Polly 
'I80| Yankee 
do. 
Scourge 
Yankee 
Water Witch 
Gen. Srark 
TtiA. Pickering 
do. 
Eastport Fort 
Saratoga 
Ogdeiisburg mil 

Pox 
Washington 
baratoga 
lOl do. 

do. 
29| f)o. 

do. 
I0| 40| Saucy Jack 
41 Revengr; 

Caroline 
Comet 
F. Essexf 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



2 

lO 

6 

8 

16 
II 
8 
8 
10 
16 



21 

26 

28 

24 

26 

25 

28 

76 

1 

I 



wrecked 
PtHlamoulb 

•de a cartel 
destroyed 
wreoked 
Itiavaonah 
made a cartel 
Chathaia 
Nerway 
N«w-Bedfofd 

do 
MscMaf 
Eastport 
Maiem 
Eastport 
>vreck«d 
Ogdtfosbarg 
F >lly Landing 
Poriiaud 
burnt 
SMSomed 
New York 
made a cartel 
ransomed 
!St. Mary's 
Charleston 
burnt 

Wilmington 
Peru 
Boston 
made ships ' 

of war 



of 20 guns 
^iMx Jonior-f Pem 



746 -753.elgiit Tewaic 



10 



y 



do. 

do. 

P. Congressf 

do. 

do. 

Eliza 

Saucy Jack 

do. 
Caroline 
Oen. Stark 
Caroline 
Grand Turk 
do. 
Caroline 
Revenge 
Roger 
do. 
Gov Tompkins 
T. B. Yaqkce 



i 



*r»» 



»<♦(» 



n» 






z 



*'!.' 



i.f,^i 



do. 

made a icaitel 
burnt 

•nade a cartel 
sunk 

Wilmington 
burnt 
ransomed 
Wilmington 
Geogelown 

do. 

Porlsmouthi 
Prance 
Stonington 
Charleston 

do. 
burnt «'j3 

New-Yorfc; 
burnt 






I ^ I 

• i'. -. • 



IPPEWOL, 



ked * 


if*^ 


DlOliUl 


m 


) a cartel 




oyed 




ked 


_W»i* 


iwah 


.!.,^ 


B a cartel 


!f» 


ham 




'•7 




-Bedibfd 




Ma« 




lort 




01 


«+{) 


port 




k«d 





embarg 


I > f) 


f Landing 




aud 




I '\ 


*^:i 


lined 


,^kn 


York 


'•>■$'% 


e a cartel 


:.t'j 


Dined 


t 


lary'a 


i^i\) 


rieston 


i«' C' 


t * 


ii-st'iJ 


ningtoQ 




on 


i-^-fl 


B ships ) 




war > 




»guns > 




■ \ 

1. 


j--f 


» a icartel 






' -I- ■..' 


! a cartel 


■s'^i V- 




•i* • 


niogtov 


rf-i-'.! 




Vtf^'- 


imed 


-.i "1 


lington 




;efown 




• 

mouthi 




;e 




ngton 




eaton 


».i, 1 



ihip Castor 
•ri;: Active 
■lip Watson i- 

lif) Cora 
•rig EiiM 
(iti'r Traveller 
:ri'r tieurge 
)op xperiuient 
nop Vigjiaut* 
•>mooner— 
br. YuunK Hustiand 
nine veMela 
briKTullock 
ship Miaerm 
ship- 
brig Isabella 
sloop — 
schV Harmony 
sloop Humbird 
'brig- 
brie — 
schV Matf 
sloops- 
ship Wanderer 
ship Edward 
•ebV Jonathan 
brie Britannia 
BCh'rOorfew 
brig Terolla 
ship Oalatea 
ship James 
ship— 
794f796 two vessels 



756 

766 

767 

768 

769 

76U 

781 

7tt2 

7b3 

764 

765-773 

774 

776 

776 

777 

778 

779 

780 

781 

78< 

781 

784 

785 

786 

787 

788 

789 

790 

791 

792 

793 



796 

797 

798 

799 

800 

801 

803 

803 

804 

806 

806 

807 

808 

809 

310 

811 

8l2 

81J 

8.4 

9ifi 






privateer 
ship Sally •-- 

thip-i— 
hrig Superb 
tirivateer Mara 
'trig Juno 
brie Friends 
»ch'r S»»a Flower 
■^chV Hasard 
hrig Sovereign 
ship Diana 
«chV William 
"ch'r Mary 
hriffBrkar 
sch'r Hope 
hrig Riimhler 
!ich'r Eliza 
»hip Ladf Prevost 
fich Susan &. Eliza 
icb'r— . "" ■ * 



4'30 



le 



T. B. Tankee 
d«. 
du. 
do. 



<'o. 



Frolic 
Fly 
do. 
Comet 
Petapsco 
Gov. Tompkins 
Comet 
Pox 
do. 

Gov Tompkins made a cartel 
brifsRattlesnakef Wilmiogton 
General Stark wrecked 



Kivca up 
France 

do. 

do. 

do. 
Bqnam. 
Ellsworth 
Mschias 
Wilmingtoa 
Savannah 
Newport 
sunli 

Gloucester 
Portsmouth 



Terrible 
Surprixe 



Portsmouth 
Macbias 



brigRattleanakefjsunk 



12 

16 

6 so! 



14 



Pox 
Macedonian 

Hope 
F. President 
do. 
do. 
Mars 
Alfeed 
do. 
Chasseur 
T. B. Yankee 
do. 
Frolic 
Leo 



W'^* 



burnt 
ransomed 
Philadelphia 
Buak 

do. 

do. 

New Bedford 
Marblehead 
burnt 
Beaufort 
France 

do. 
destroyed 
Cape Francois 
luiik 



Delik 
brig Enterprisef St Mary's 
Mars Charleston 

SObs. Rati. &. Entf Wilmiogton 
Grand Turk France 
Diumede wrecked 



■t- 4* ll 



i 

1 

■ ^ 
3 



•:33 



TttcA;aAoe 
do. 

America 
do. 

Diomede 
do. 
Foe. 

Diomede 



burnt 
do. 
Portsmouth 
burnt 
Savannah 
New York 
Gloucester 
Bristol 



bs. Rail & Ent.^ burnt 
do. do. 

Invincible Wilmington 
Mars do. 

Vippr ''^P'Vfort 



« 

i 

T 

i 

■ .5 



m 



900 



APPENDIX* 



!- »» 



Lf. 



82& 



816 

817 

818 

8'9 

820 

821 

822 

823 

827 

828 

829 

830 

831 

832 

833 

834- •«42 

843 851 



•chp. 3$am 

bris Paleoa 

brJK Superb 

sch'r — 

Ohio John 

hn% BroUien 

»hif» Victory 

I'liur ships 

!»hip — 

hrif Eliinbrtb 

t^iii \nn Cfitharine 

scVr Nimble 

«Rh'r Jiuon 

H«hr.-> 

^hr. Trinitaria 

•line Teiseli 

•lint* do. 
862- K5A;r<iar vessels 
856-857|two Tesseto ^ 



858 


|bri|; \ polio 


869 


brie Anne 


8SU 


cutter Patty ■ »vtw 


861 


brijt — ^ 


862 


ibrijr Hfnry 


8ti3 


brig \bel 


8t>4 


fhip— 


86.1 


•ch. KncouragpmenI 


86H 


briie I'wo Sisters 


867 


schr, Hope 


868 


schr Sylph 


86^ 


sch'r Eclipse 


870 


sch'r Cobham 


871 


brie; fiouisa 


872 


ship rfive 


873 


schV Pictoo« 


874 


ship Litvely Ann 


87A 


schV Phoenix 


876 


brig Nimble 


877 


bria: Ceres -^iui 


•7a 


gch'r-" 


879 


sch Frieods Adv'lr. 


880 


brie Fanny . 


881 


bri«— , fy'. 


882 


schr. Eliea 


883 


»chV Kentish 


884 


schr. Prince Regent 


885 


cutter Lyon 


886 


hris: Portsea 


887 


bris Connray 


888 


sch Francis ii, Lucy 


889 


brig James 


890-891 


fwo vr^R^els 


89? 


5Rhr. , 



10 



12 



6 



8 



10 

8 
10 



Fairy 
America 
Mary 
Viper 
Saucy Jack 
America 
Viper 
Rattlesnake 
do. 
Car'tline 
Saucy Jack 
do. 
Caroline 
Krimp 
Saucy Jack 
Prin Neurchatel 
Comet 
do. 
do. 
America 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Got. Tompkins 
do. 
Invincible 
Fr<)lic 
Wasp 
America 
do. 
Wasp 
JonquUla 

Kemp 
Surprise 
20j?. Constitutionf 
do. 
do. 

Invindhle 
Oranpus 
Saratoga 

Pox 
Galhrvay 
Fox 
Snap Dragon 
Saratoga 
Invincible 
do. 
do, 
do. 
do. 
Young Wasp 
do. 
boat Alertf 



WilmingtoB 

Charlestoa 

iSew-York 

Newport 

Charles ton 

Spain 

Oimdea 

>l<irw.*y 



/ 



■ranee 




^hartestoii 


'^ 


'^Hvanoah 


'<;' 


teaufort 




)»umt 


; 


Cape Francois 




Savannah 




France 


; 


lirstroyed f 


htI 


ransomed 


c*r 


Wilmington 


{'»■> : 


Salem 


1 \ 


made a car^ 




junk 


■ ^c 


do,,,,, 


d 


S9W York 


Elisabeth City 


fliU' 


Wiliningtoa 


ifct 


destroyed 


bv 


PhiladelphiA. 


St? 


burnt 


-mr 


do. 


U-r 


Wrecked 


itu 


Wilmington 


tot 


Elizabeth City 


4t'' 


Norfolk 


mT 


^unk 


Tec 


made a cartel 


m 


sunk 


8«t 


reneriffe 


yi.. 


iburnt 


j.f'^ 


p^etv-Bedford 


tw 


Wiscasset 


i:>m 


[France 


im 


[burnt f 


ttK' 


'Beaurort ] ^ 
iPairhaven 


TrM 


\^!^ 


ransomed , 


f.n- 


given up > 
ransomed 


C \« 


GJ;' 


Portsmouth 




made a cartel 


. 


France 


tt¥ 


made cartels 


# ■. .:. 


Burlington 


■VI- 



lo, , 




tft 


fork 


;\ 


wthCity 




inf;^a 


.At 


lyed 


feav 


lelphia 


8ft? 




-0*^'' 


'■4 


i-'" 


ked 


:^i.'. 


ngton 


"'" 


i«tb City 




k .. 


vi ■• 


( 


Vi;C 


ft cartel 


act 




fi<t? 


■ 1 ' ■ 


kedPord 




sset 


<sm 


B 




|0!i 






r(.'; 


)rt ; 


A 


tvK'. 


iven 




Td:. 


ned ,. 


. , 


fMt, 


up i 




CM 


ned 




Qir 


noutli 


tr,/ 


a cartel 


S'.?» 


e 


.'. ! F 


cartels 


^ > .:. 


ictnn 




.^ ^ 



'« 


APPENDIX. 


391 


893 k 


ibip (Joion 




Rambler | 


wrecked 


8U4 


tiriK Fair Stranger 






Fox 


Porisinouth 


895 » 


tnoapoit Mary* 


18 


82 


Ralt!est«ke 


France 


8<J6 p 


Mk- 






Expedition 


destroyed 


897 I 


Rch'r Miranda 






Chasaciir 


do. 


8U8 \ 


iktop Martha 


4 


2tl 


do. 


nmde a cartel 


89U-90Q 


'.vio Teasels 






do. 


destroyed 


901 


ich*r Adeline 




20 


Expedition 


New York 


902 


brig Evprrienee 






Caroline 


wrecked 


904 


ihip Experienca 






Rapid 


Savaooah 


904 


»ch'r— 






Perry 


Norfolk 


90» 


M:hV Francis 






Midtu 


borot 


906 


ivh'r Appellndcre 






do. 


do. ? 


907 


&ch'r William 




29 


do. 


made a cartel 


908 


iiuop IrwiD 




30 


<lo. 


do 


909 


brig Bellnna 






Globe 


Barracoa ' 


910 


sch'r Prince 






ship Adainsf 


burnt r 


911 


BcbV lodUbtry 






do. 


do. 


9i2 


sluup — 






do. 


given ap ^ 


913 


brig Roebuck 






do. 


made a cartel 


914 


Bhip Equity 






Rattlesnake 


burnt 


915 


Bhip Adston 






do. 


sunk > 


916 


Bcb'r— 






Saratoga 


Fairharen <' a 


917 


sloop Regent 






do. 


sunk ! 


918 


schr. — 






do. 


ransomed 


919 


sloop Epervierw 


lb 


128 


brig Peacockf 


Savannah ' 


920 


sloop Cygnet 






Saratoga 


WilmiogtOD ! 


921 


Bcb'r Diligence 






York 


destroyed 


922 


Bloop Bnnita 






Dclisle 


do. M';5 


923 


brig Robert 






Zohec Ultor 


Charleston ? 


924 


brig Favorite 






David Porter 


given up 


925 


brig- 




10 


do. 


do. 


926 


ship Susan ,_^^^ 




12 


do. 


ransomed 


927 


ship Doris 






do. 


do. 


928 


brig Curlew 






do. 


burnt 


9^9 


brig- 






Rnttlesnake 


Portsmouth 


930 


ship James 






YoMng v\ asp 


ransomed 


9>1 


brig Sivift 


4' 15 Z^-b^-c Ultor 


Baltimore 


932 


brig Camelion 






Mainmoutb 


Portsrootith 


933-934 


two vessels 






Caroline 


destroyed 


9^5-944 


10 vessels 






Tom &. Leo 


France 


945 


Bch'r Hope 






Pike 


Saco 


946 


BchV Pickrel 






do. 


sunk J 


947 


ship Pelbain 


12 




Saucy Jack 


jCharlestOD ; 


948 


ihip Fort una 






Roger 


Beaufort tiJO£ 


949 


schV — 






Viper 


Newport 


9J0 


ship Phoebe 






Hawk 


Wiimington 


951 


brisr Kutusoff 


10 


40 


Surprize 


Frankfort 


952 


Bch YininL' Farmer 






Henry GuiUkr 


NewYork 


913 


sch'r Miraiida 






Chasseur 


burnt 


054 


transport IMartha* 




do. 


made a cartel 


955 


schr. Ann Mnria 




do. 


burnt ..,„t 


956 


sphr. Wiiiiaia ^ 






do. 


do. ,,{0i 



.1 



992 



APFENDtX. 



'1 



:i: i 



9HI 

9b3 

1*6+ 

9'u) 

9i-.tf 

087 

968 

9G9 

970 

971 

97 i 

973 

97V 

975 

976 

9i7 

978 

979 

980 

9ttl 

982 

983 

984 

989 

990 

991 

992 

993 

994 

995 

996 

997 

998-999 
1000 

1001 

1002 

1003 

1004 

1005 

1006 

1007 

1008 

1009 

1010 

1011 

1012 

1013 

1014 

1015 



-988 



ichV BrilKmt 
ihip 8? moMrtrjr 

ihi|» >¥inchMt«r 
jbrig Uoion 

kloop— 
M^ DoTC 
iNip Jane 
^rig Ralize 
ship Mermaid 
»hip Coniiiiere* 
^hip Upton 
(hip Hero 
»rig Prnvidence 
lirig Harmony 
brig Recovery 
brig Melpomene 
brig Britannia 
)rig— 
ichooner — 
ship Henry Dundas 
)rig Indian Lass 
brig Catherine 
iloop Caroline 
5 Gun Boats* 
ich'r Traveller 
trig Ceres 
ship Cod Hook 

ich'r Vittoria 

hip Joachim 

ich'r Rob Hartwell 

>rig Liddelle 

)rig Jesrie 

ich'r Ann 

fwo vessels 

ich*r Octavia 

trig tAttle Fox 

ichooner — 

sch*r Funchell 

ship London Packet 

[)rig Astrea 

[irivateer Dash 

sehV Union 

Q B Black Snake* 

ihip Friendship 

ich'r Alert 

sch*r Active 

sch'rMary Ann 

brig Lord Nelson 

sch'r Nancy 

sehooner-^ 



19 



16 
4 



c 



10 



104 

SO 



pri 



30 



10180 



16 
2 



T» 



IS 
14 



40 
SO 



Chasseur 
Jama Atonrot 
Bcourge 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Fox 
do. 
do. 
Gen. Pike 
Lairrence 
Diomede 
'ixe$hip Upton 
Diomede 
do. 
do. 
Chasseur 
do. 
R'fger 
Lpo 
Rattlesnake 
Grand Turk 
do. 
do. 
Appling's riJUm 
Diomede 
Lawrence 
Diomede 

Hero 
CartJine 

Hero 
Amelia 
do. 
do. 
Hero 
Harrison 
sloop Frolic }- 
do. 
Hero 
ChasRcur 
Midns 
do. 
Amelia 
barge 
Revenge 
do. 
Fairy 
Revenge 
Zebec Ultor 
do. 
do. 



mtnk • 
burnt 
Boatort 
buml 
do. 
do. 
do. 
■unk 
burnt 

made ncartrf 
Portiirioutb 
Damircscotta 
Portland 
Wiscaaaet 
made a cartel 
lunk 
do. 
do. 
Newport 
Beaufurt 
Norfolk 
Newport 
made a cartel 
Baltimore 
burnt ;: 

raueomed 
Backett'b Uarb 
Tbomastowtt 
Portland 
Castine 

Charleston -^^ 
do. r** 

Newbem '"^ 
made a cartel 
burnt 

made a cartel 
ransomed 
Charleston > 
destroyed ''• 

do. 
Newbem 
Portsmouth 
dfavannah - f^, 

do. 
ransomed 
Sackett's Harb 
destroyed 
do. 

do ' "•;• 

madeacartft 
burnt 

do. ft- "'^ 
do; ^^^ 






APPENDn. 



90S 



^■h 



) 



irat 

Mtort 

irnl 

do. 

do. 

do. 

ok 

irat 

sde actrtrf 

»rtMrtuutb 

imwescotttt 

irtlaod 

itcanet 

Bde a cartel 

ok 

do. i ' »« 

do. 

eirport 

eaufurt ' HJ^ 

irtolk 

etrport 

Bde a cartel «' ^ 

titimore 

irnt 

Deemed 

icketlV llarb 

lomasUtwtt 

irtland 

istine 

larlestoa 



do. 



ci.,# 



wbern ' 

rtde a cartel - 
rot 

ide a cartel •, 
osomed 
larleston 
stroyed - ^* 
do. ' " 
wbem " ' 
rtstnouth K 
tanoah 
do. '■'" 

isomed 
ckett'B Harb 
troyed 
do. '■''^ 

do 

ide a cartel ' 
rnt 

io....K^ 
!!o: '^ 



1016 kehV Sambo 

1017 kchooner — 
1 01 8-1 Oltk wo vessels 



HI 20 
1021 
1022 
1023 

102* 
1025 



khip8t. Jose 
jpriTateer Amoesly 
bloop Tickler 
sch'r Rambler 
ftch'r Fairy 
sehV Balabooft 
1 02 Ti- 1 043 eighteen vessels 
1 ^A\ 'ship Frendship 
1 0<^5 bomb Te^i^elfi » 

1046 s,hip Htich Jones 

1047 sch'r Fox 
I04n brig David 

1049 brig Fidelity 

1050 {,?rnler* 

1051 sch'r Ellen 

1052 brig Duke of York 
lQ5."J sloop George 

I Oft 4 brig Swift 

1066 brigni>n»nce 

1056 brig Friendship 

1057 brig Stag 

1058 ship Dorcas 

1059 sloop Henrietta 
ioeo ship Berry Castle 

1061 sch'r Linnet 

1062 'schV James 
1063- 1068 six vessels 

1069 tender* 

1070 ship Melville* 

1071 Wig— r.4?' 

1072- 1 073 brig &f schooner 
brig Fortitude 
sch'r G<>o. Canning 
ship Pizarro 

^ Espiranza 

brig Elsinore 



1074 
'075 
1076 
1077 
1078 
1079- 1082 four vessels 



feehonner — 
>jrig Betsey 
ship Alfred 
'ship Antonio 
1 088 two bric;s 
sch'r Henry 
fpacket Elizabeth* 
jship Hero 
.Coim'ss of HercouH 
packet Landraite* 
1 0^5 i two vessels 
iy»6-li0»|foupieen vessels 
- M f> ' hrrg Be^?ey ^' Mary 



1083 
1084 

1085 
!086 
1087- 
»n83 
JOiJO 

!09I 
r092 
109:5 
1094 



cebec UHor 

do. 

Yankee 

do. 
l|24] ZebecUltor 
do. 
Perry 
Sj do. 

el^ol do. 

do. 
Herald 
Chaiincey's gigj 
Yankee 
Surpiize 
do. 
do. 
1 13|Gun Boat No.88 
Herald 
Gen. Armstrong 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
6| Yanltee 

Snap Dragon 
do. 
Prin. NeufehateyFrance 
20 {If. I^ndon mil. New L;;ndoD 
1450| Port Niagara \blottn up 
Rambler Iransomed 



41 



bunit 

itadv • cartel 
Portland 

do. 
burnt 
Wilmington 

do. 

do. 

do 
Ipstroyed 
Wilroingtcvn 
Presque ble 
Bristol 
nade a cartel 
lesfroyed . 
burnt 

Portsmouth 
Beaufort ^ 
iiurnt * 

do. 
nade a cartel 
^)urnt 

do. I 

do. 
sunk 

E^g Harbor 
ransomed 
Newbern 
burnt 



6yo 

4 33 



80 



brii^Rattlesnakef 

Surprize 
Gen. Armstrong 
Midas 
do. 
do. 
Harrison 
do. 
York 
Harpey 
do. 
do. 
Saratoga 
Harpey 
Ida 

Sabine 
Syren 
do. 
Gov. Tompkins 
. JCwnp 



sui k 

Union 

rhomastown 

Savannah 
do. 
do. 

ransomed 

Vme lia 

Rost on 

iV^ilmingtoa 
do. 

burnt 

>?ew Bedfffrd 
ansomed 

Hyannis 
.Vifmington 
New York 
destroyed 
burnt 
burnt f. 






APPENDIX. 



;: 



! -M: 



lilt fMpOalypw 


liiS krtg Ctledonte 


Hi J kr. N«w Frederick 


1114 


ichr. Oootract 


1115 


trtmport Doris* 


itia 


ihip Unppct 


1117 


hrig BHca 


11181119 


twro ships 


IKU 


lMrp;<H» 


1121 


ieho«»ner 


1122 


ihip Jaoies 


ll£i 


Bchr Marj 


1124 


brie Hunter 


1125 


brig Mary 


1126 


Kchr. Favorite 


1127 


»hip Ptiris 


1128 


ichr Maria 


1129 


irii; Wirinan 


1130 


ratter Wasp 


1131 


lirig Dover 


1132 


brig Pickle 


1133 


schooner 


LI34 


«'.h. Industrious Bee 


1135 


tolir. Venus 


llJd 


schr. Lord Nelson 


1137 


icbr. Hope 


1138 


schr. Jane 


ll3i> 


brie Orient 


11^ 


hrig John 


1141 


br. Kingston Packet 


1142-1143 


two vessels 


1144 


shi. Sam Ciunroings 


1U5 


ship Five Sisters 


1146 


Barque Neptune 


1147 


brig Williaoi 


1148 


brig Pallas 


1149 


galliot Henrietta 


1150 


ship Orange Borer 


1151 


brig Regulator 


1152 


Bchr. Jenny 


1153 


Bloop Reindeer* 


1154 


ichooner 


1155 


>rig 


1156 


>rig Mars 


1157 


brig Cornwallis 


1I5B 


ship Tester 


liJ9 


brig Horaiia 


11 HO 


Ihip liddle 


1161 


ihip Jesse 


1162 ' 


transport M nk* 


1163 


Irans. Persi'verance« 


1164 


«chr. NanCv* 


1165 


trass. Eudeavoffft 



10 



Kemp jcHmi "P 

do. raasomed 
do. do. 

Roger Wilnsingtoo 

fffll Oranipns Marblebead 

Saucy Jack Savannah 

do. do. 

brig Syranf noml 
Stoniiigtna Militl^SloningtoD 

a barge i do. 

Portsmouth IPortsmnutb 

Shark {New- Orleans 
SOcorvefte Adainsf sunk 



!\ 



250 



2f 



6 



118 



2( 



■"»* 



do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
Ynnkee 
Rattlesnake 

do. 

Pike 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Fox 
Herald 

Pike 

Dash 
sloop Waspf 

do 

da 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 
Leach 

Hero 
David Porter 

do 

do 

do 
Amelia 

do 
ship Lawrencef 

do 

do 
. Surprise 



do 
do 
do 

do '■ 

Hyannis ' 

burnt 

do 

do 

made a cartel 
burnt i 

do 

do 

do 

made a cartel 
»Qnk 
burnt 
Portland 
Ocracoke 
vrecked 
mnsomed 
leatroyetf 

do ^ 

do 
made a carter 
destroyed 

do 

do 
burnt 
ransomed 
Newbern 
Boston ^-*' 
made a cartel 
Boston 

ransomed ^^ 
nade aycartel 
burnt 
Erie 
destroyed 

do 

do ^'- 



AFFENDIX. 



«6 



1167 
1168 
lltt9 
UiO 

nil 

1172 

1173 

1174 

1176 

1176 

1177 

1178 

H-.i) 

11 W 

ll&l 

li);2 

libJ 

lin4 

ll8ft 

H. c-1188 
Ilea 

1190 

11^)1-1193 

1194 



RVfter Jabike 

<ci»'r Al*xati(lri« 
tlrl^ Iribh Miacr 
ling Mary 

tch'r Lupcraiice 
!>tufi Luudua 
»tiip H(«teUiweU 
Dri|K Naocj 

^I^JO^I — 

iiliip Dttroit* 
»rii|> Q Charlotte* 
uiK Lit iy Frevuat* 
bri^ Hucter* 
Hlodp liiitle Bfit* 
tch'r Chifipfway* 
P Cnnfiauce* 
)rig Linnfc(« 
Kliiop Chub* 



. 



l<K>p Finch* 
Guu Boats* 
iaospt>ri Farmer* 
trig BritHnnift 
three briKS 
>r. Fortune of War 
tliip ConiDtaudel 
brig Cyrus 
I loop Regulator 
brig Q. Charlotte 
ihrp Alitnes 
>rig Lively 
Hch'rP Rfgent 
ship Dorris 
brig Willing Maid 
iirig Polly 
^ch'r Sally 
jtriTateer Lively 
ship Caledonia 
brijET Eagle 
brig Traveller 
rig Wellington 
>rig EtiM 
»ch'r Ann 
ransport Stnuoger* 



It 






Whig 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
Portsmoutb 
do 
Perry'* 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 



Fleel 



»6jl20 
40 



1196 

ll9b 

1197 

ll98 

1199 

12uO 

1201 

1202 

I20i 

12o4 

l^ttS 

1206 

1307 

1208 

1209 

I2l0 

l2ll 

I2l2 

J2l3 

1214-1216 hree' vesiels 



II 
11 
61 



JnoM'Duno's Fleetf Plattaburgh 



40 

»27 



3|40 
66 



IS 



1217 
1218 
1219 
122§ 
1221 
1222 
1223 
1224 



Ketch Expediiioa 
schV Charlotte Ann 
sch'r Wi'liam 
brig Eclipse 
brig Catherine i 

seh'r Retrieve i 

packet Leith* ' 

seh'r William^Anoi 



66 



Il4 



15 



17 



00 

10 

83 



2C 



do 
do 
do 
do 
Mamnioutli 
do 
do 
Gun Boats 
York 
do 
do 
Surprise 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
do 
Fox 
Spark 
Granapu* 
Surprise 
Viper 
Cbasaeur 
Grampus 
Fox 
aloop Pescockf 
do. . . 



mades cartel 
jmi 

lade s cartel 
*?atro>ed 
Mde « cartel 
.••k 
do 
do 

'•rtlsnd 
•ade a cartel 
ut ia-Uay 
do 
do 

do . 
do 
do 



. 



do 

do 

do 
unk 

do 

do 
burnt 
8apelo 
Baltimore 
msdescartdi 
Cbstbam 
destroyed 
burnt 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 
Swlem 
ranaomed 

do 

made a cartel 

do 

do 
Balem 

do 
given np 
New-Tork 
Saco 
^alem 
New-York 
vrecked 
burnt 

do 

da 






im 



APPENDIX. 



rij!-!^ 



^i' 






Buiicr Flying Fah 
brig Aaron 
Mfn Harvest 



13J1 brig Steady 

l2:iZ Mh'r JaifiM 

liJJ brii( Coaliers 

"iiLi^ bri^ Harmony 

I2i6 brig Klizabcth 

I'LiS thip. 

12J7 HriiicpM IVIary 

1238 >.ch'r Eliza 

12J9 t)rif( Siraii^cr 

1 2^ HthoUIMT— 

1241 «hlp Hermes* 

1242 4ioo|)Jaue 
1248 hrigTritor 

1244 tram ahif) Aaron* 

1245 brig Apollo 

1246 cutter Geo. Doyle 

1247 iloop George 

1248 br l)o»wick Packet 
124» brigSibrun 

1260 brig Nymph 

1261 brig Albion 
l2o3 Kbip Harmony. 
l3Ad [brig Charlotte 
1254 brig Mtiry Ana 
1256 hrigUiiuglaiig 
1256 i257 2Launcwes« 

1258 fNiedo. 

1259 gMp Neptune 
l2Bn_i^65 6 transports# 



iloop Peacock f 
8abin« 
do. 
York 
Green 



PtM. NeufchatcEbunil 



28175 

2 
4 



65 



tNiml , 
Hmo 
do. 
Ilacbiaa 
daalroyed 



mi' 



1266 
1267 
1268 
1^69 
1270 

1:^71 

1272 
l27i 
1274 
1276 
1276 
1277 
1278 
1279 
1280 
l28l 
1^82 
l28j 
12»4 



41 
8 

10 



seh'r Ann 
brig Susan 
ship James 
brig Jane k>u 
ehV— 

iransport sloopfl 
brig Avon# 
brig Concord 
brig Speculation 
i)r Sir J Sberbroke 
^nip 4dv> nturer 
ship Farmer 
icb'r Ann U Eliza 
ibip Urania 
ibip Anisim 
brig Eliza 
'shipDob^on ■ 
Esbip Saltust ; 
iitoop (IbrisUam 



2i 



84 
2U 

37 



do. 
Amelia 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Whig 
do 
ilpop Peaeockf 
Ijpach 
Mobile Fort 
Prin. Ncufchatel 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
'do. 
do, 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Amelia 



130 



do. 

do. 

made a cartel 
burnt 
Baltimore 
burnt 

made a cartel 
burnt 
ranaomed 
blown up 
burnt 
Bunk 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

made a cartel 
sunk 

made a cartel 
burnt 
raoaomed 
burnt 

do. 
Nantucket 

do. 
sunk 
New-York 



12 






Chauocey'a GigfHiackett's Uarb, 
her own creic 
Fox 
Portsmouth 
Uash 
Leo 
brig Eaglef 
ship Wasp 
Siro 
Grampus 
Syren 
briz Syren 
Mam mouth 
do. 
6oi 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
fiO|i Cbaeseor 



iMacbias 

burnt 

l^ortsmoulh 

ransomed 

Wilmington 

Plattsburgh 

<iUok 

made a cartel 

do. 
burnt 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
made a cartei 
burnt 
madeacarteV '" 

do. .V'i- 



+ J 



APFKNmX. 



^7 



• ' H 


12U& 


^ 1 


\2H6 


lo. 1 


IJJ57 


cbiM ■ 


U'KJI 


Iroyvil H 


I^8SI 


^m 


i-'90 


1 


r^'gi 


1 


I2y! 


il« a c«rl«i B 


I'M 


I 


li9\ 


timore I 


V'i\iH 


1 


^hn 


ito a cartel 1 


i29r 


H 


V-'»8 


•oned H 


>29a 


•va up ■ 


I. loo 


nt H 


I'lOl 


1 


1%2 


I 


»3oJ 


I 


>304 


H 


I305 


lo. ■ 


>308 


de a cartel \ 1 


i3or 


»308 


(le a cartel • I 


I3o9 


nt H 


•810 


•omed 1 


13i| 


■ 


I3i3 


lo. ■ 


13|3 


Dtucket ■ 


1314 


^^H 


1315 


k ' t)'- 1 


1316 


iv-York I 


1317 


sketl'9 Uarb, ■ 


1318 


cbias 1 


UM9 


■ 


1320 


Ismoulh I 


1321 


Bomed H 


1322- 


liningtoa I 


1324 


ttsburgh 1 


1325 


k 1 


1326 


de a cartel •' I 


13*7 


o. 1 


1328 


nt V ■'-' 1 


1329 


1 


1330 


1 


13:51 


0. *■< • 1 


1332 


o. ^- 1 • 1 


1333 


0. 1 


1334 


lea cartel- • 1 


13 J6 


nt 'lu?-.' 1 


13.>6 


beacarfeV'? I 


1337 


iQ' 1 


1938 



-13S3 



btig Prudcare 
iloop Faforite 
brig Comiirallis 
l»ng Alfft 
>>ng Hirinonjr 
4Hi|) Caribury 
lirig Sfaflower 
hrig Siranfter 
iloop Fortitude 
brig Veuus 
tirig Diaoa 
•luop Lotth Packfi 
lir. VVillian &(. Am. 
brig Pf g|i.v U Jaoc 
burquf William 
sbip Sir Ed. P«ilew 
brig Uelluoa 
brigTritton 
brig Duck 
ship Mary 

(»r. think* I to myself 
sch'r Brilanoia 
brig Halifax Packet 
tirig Uanreet 
M-h'r Prince Regent 
t>riva. Retaliation 
brig Oommerce 
sloop Farmer 
brig Britannia 
sch'r T«ro Brothers 
brig Ann- Eliza 
brig Uniza 
brigAnfil^y 
brig Sarah 
brig Sir H Pophaao 
■ch'r Rapid 
ship Champion 
two vessels 
sch'r Thomas 
sch'r CTood latent 
brig Joseph 
brig Eliza 
sch'r— 
brig Atalanta 
brig Europa 
brig Canada 
Bcb'r Fox* 
brig William 
brig Lulice 
brig Bon Accord 
transport Mary* 
brig Three Brothers 
brig Bacchus 



10 



1(M 

l(J 

•JO 

20 
40 



2(1 
M 
lO 
V 
lb 
20 
19 
40 



2C 



50 



6C 



40 

48 

102 



10. 22 
10 

2b 



7 
7 

10 
7 

11 



Ckaetenr 

Ik). 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
ship Peaeoekf 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

4lo. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

Dish 

Harpy 

do. 

Yorii 

Dash 
Two Frienda 

Chasseur 
Mammon th 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

Oo. 

do. 

do. 
C. House bai^ Camden 
sloop Waspf Savannah 
Petapsco 
Lawrence 
by her owa cretv jNewbem 
Chasseur | do. 
sloop Waspf burnt 

do; sunk 

do. burnt 

do. do. 

do. I do. 



MiriC 

do. 
mad* a cartel 
luml 

Diado a cartel 
Baltinore 
dMtroyctI 

do. 

do. 

do. 
made a cartel 
de«troye(1 

do. 

do. 

do. 
made a carta! 
ilestro} ed 

do. 

do. 

do. 
Portland 
)umt 
Portsmouth 

do. 
Portland 
Barnstable 
Charleston 
Runk 
burnt 

made a cartel 
>arnl 

do. 
euttied 
>umt 

do. 

do. 
made a eartd 
destroyed 
made a cartel 

do. 
made a cartel 
eiven op 



906 



APPENDIX. 




i ii ^-^ 



V h 



13SB 


4mp Adb DoioUif 


1340 


urin Hiram 


1441 


brig Nancy 


1543 


inip Lont Hood 


1548 


tKiK B*-Mr\d 


13U 


orig HiisMii Sf Jane* 


rS45 


Mli'r H(^ln«v« 


Iii46 


brig CuiMsord 


U47 


brif CoMac 


1S48 


■eh'r Pink 


I.i49 


brig Bruihrr* 


1390 


brifi Belgrade 


13fil 


brig'Kubert Stewart 


1363 


lehr Coinnicrce 


iSbS 


•ch'r Mary 


1354 


MCh'r Bird 


1355 


trans. shi|> Ocf an* 


1356 


tch'r Geoti^iaoa 


1357 


iloop— 


1358 


nch'r— 


13A9 


ichV Eugene 


1860 


seta' Stringer 


1561 


■ch'r Betsey ^Jaoe 


1362 


»»rig— 


1363 


sloop— 


1364 


loh'r Mary 


1365 


ich KiugstonPaekei 


1S66 


floop Cyrus 


1367 


sloop Jane 


1368 


ihip Amelia 


13G0 


KCb'r Weasel 


1370 


ioh'r Jane 


1371 


brig l^uisa 


1373 


brig Britannia 


1373 


ithip Sir Ell. Pellew 


1374 


achV Mariner 


1376 


ucb'r— 


2376 


brig S. B. 


I3i 


hip Rosabeil 


1378 


t)rig Portsea 


1379 


"hip Princetis 


1380 


".ch'r — 


1381 


•ch'r Hasard 


1382- 138i 


two Tessels 


«384 


4ch'r Mary 


la85 


orifs Courtney 


1386 


seh'r Polly 


1387 


fcch'r swift 


13U8 


shi|.> ^tmiable 


'J89 


,Cli'l-- 


1390 


transpnrt bhipw 


1.W1 


"•h'r M iry Ann 


139.J 


anh'r St. John 


1391 


sch'r — 



1340 



219 

aw 1 •^ 

1635 
826 
214 



'^sratof^a 
I lav id Porter 
iSctiurge 
do. 
du. 
Fox 
do. 
da. 
Sur|triie 
Grand Turk 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Surprise 
Grand Turk 
Uen. Putnam 
Grand Turk 
Scorpion 
do. 

Midas 
do. 
Cadet 
JonquUU 
Saucy Jack 
do. 
do. 
Packet temler 
Saucy Jack 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Maceduniaa 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Resolution 
Kemp 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Toung Wasp 
Surprize 
do. 
do. 

Yankee 
Dash 
Expedition 
Roger 
Hero 
Port Bowyer 

Cadet 
Jonquilla 
do. 



Boslun 
lanaooied 
New York 
iHirat 
do. 

do. {ry 

do. 
a«de ■ cartel 

tink 

do. 
iMde • cartel 
>urui 

do. 
unk 
Salem 

do. 

do. 

do. : V 

■unk .< ' ' 

do. i N 

do. 
rbomastown 
ransomed 

do. 

do- 

uiade a tender 
burnt 

uiadeactrtel 
burnt 

St. Mary's 
Savannah 
>urnt 

do. 
»unk 

made a cartel 
Charleston 
Charleston 

do. 

do. \ ' iy, 

do. 
Ocracoke 
burnt 

ninde a cartel 
burnt 
FairhaTen 
Bo$ton 
Vfachias 

Wilmington t^i' 
Beaufurt 
Mobile 
Thomastown 
ransomed .4^^ 
made a car/e/ 



APPKNDDC. 



un 

>iDe<l 

Yurk 



) • rartd 

ilD 

} • cartel 

I 

in 



I. 

nafetowB 

>m«!d 



! a fcnd«r 
laeartftl 

lary't 



a cartel 




leston 




leston 




. '>■ 


•,,- 


i- ' 


► , 


coke > 


'•* 


! a cartet 




aven 




>n i^ 


■ t,. ■' 


lias 


t 


lington I 


L>fct 


fort « 


;:i 


le ^ 


i-J 


Laatown 


Xf 


^ed 


%i 


1 a car/e/ 





ISIM AiriK den MaitlaiMl 


IciWA iloop Mary 


I3tf6 »ehr.>- 


l.r . 


Mhr. Peggy 


IStfS 


ihMtp Eiisa 


l.iVtf 


lehr Mariaar 


UOO bri« BtrphcR 


14UI il«M>p Trinidad 


1402 brif Equity 


1403 


br. Lord Wellingtoii 


1404 


hrlg Margaret 


140ft 


»hip H«'ro 


)4j6 


t>ri< Colirrt 


I-IM? 


•clir Nancy 


11-8 


l>ric Harmony 


mi'j 


iraaa. Eiiaabvtho 


mo 


■chr. Nt-ptiine 


1411 ' 


ketct) Cnruline 


141^ 1 


brig 8u«anDah 


1413 


aclir. Mary 


1414 


briK Pnlias 


1415 


ship U«o. Weliesley 


1416 


brig- 


1417 


Cutter Elif.a 


1418 


brig Good Inteot 


1419 


Cutter D«rt 


\*20 


bri^ Christian 


1421 


4<;hr. Atahnta 


1422 


br. Lord W«>llineton 


1423 


ketch Exprdition 


14t4 


ichr. Gold Finder 


1425 


rran^port* 


1426 


^loop Got. Hodgdon 


1427 


hriK Only boa 


1428 


lendiT* 


1429 


tmn«port» . 


1430 


4hip Jane 


1431 


hrig Wm. Neilsoii 


\ 412 


hchr. Nine Sifters 


1 41i 


brig Louisa 


143,4 


ship Wm & Alfred 


1435 


transport Jane« 


14.16 


brig Ctiurtuey 


1437 


ship St Andrew 


14.^8 


brig iSpfculator 


1439 


brifi; Patriot 


1440 


brig i)»ut7.ic 


1441 


tender* 


1442 


transport Cyrn«» 


1443.1U9 


s ven transports If 


1450 


brig P<tt r 


1451 


brie John 


1492 


lirig Nancy 



»v 



1-4 



37 



16 

a 
It 



30 
18| 
10. 
21 

'J 2 
21 
86 



106 



Path 

do. 
Fama 
Car' •line 
do. 
do. 
do. 
JimquiUn 
Driando 
Ihimumd 
Young Wasp 
luo 
Amalia 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 

Yankee 

Paul Jones 

Lawrence 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

Expedition 

do. 



forisoMalli 
■MMit a cartel 
Tliomastufra 
ouMla acarlal 
sunk 

acartd 

da 
burnt 
Boaton 
given up 
Pbiiaiirlphia 
Bottun 
burnt 
ransomed 
niada a cartel 
burnt 
ransomed 

do. 

made a cartel 
Philadelpbia 
\ do. 
{wrecked 
Portsmouth 
made a cartvl 
burnt 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
wrecked 



Young Wasp Eiisabtith City 
250|Cadet &. S.Jack wrecked 
Dash jgiven up. 
10 do. I do. 

36 Bargef 'Cbariestoo 
V.Orleaoamilitia burnt 



8 



20 



Uarpey 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
Yankee 

do. 

do. 

Brutus 

Paul Jones 



do. 
made a cartel 
burnt 
ransomed 

do. 
made a cartel 
ransomed 

do. 
made a cartel 
Charleston 
Maohias 



Virginia militialNorfoik 



V^ \a. N. Oileansf burnt 



12 1161 



S Launchesf 
Lawrence 
P.rry 
Ua. 



Lake Borgne 
Beaufort 
Baltimore 
bnade a cartel 



? 








■";■ 




1 

* 


^ 



t • 



■9 









'40« 

1 464 

1465 
1456 
l457 
l468 

l45'J 

l460 

1461 

1462 

l46;i 

1464 

l465 

l468 

l'Vtt7 

1 M)3 

li69 

1 470 

l47» 

1172- 

1474 

l475 

1476 

1 477 

1478 

J 479 

I48U 

J 481 

1482 

148o 

1484 

1485 

1486 

1487 

1488 

1489 

1490 

1491 

1492 

1493 

1494 

{495 

149S 

1497 

1498 

1499 

1500 

1501 

1502 

1 503 

1504 

1505 

UOii 



AM'KNDIX. 



whr, — .i\ 
ihip William 
brig— 
•chr — 
ship Mary 
tender sciir. Brenl* 
brig^ 

«loop Enterpri/.e 
brig BrunRtvick 
schr. BritaiiDia 
brig Race Borae 
tchr. Mary 
ichr. Goud Intent 
Bchr. Nancy 
9chr. Haznrd 
Bchr. Sea Flower 
«clir. Lucy Aun 
brit; Forih 
ship Star > 

147i two vessels 
«hip— ' 

brig Atbill 
schr. G«orp;e 
brig William 
brig- 
brig Susanna 
brigFI>ing Fish 
ship Corona 
pack Lady Pelham« 
brig Sarah 
brig Ly Troubridgs 
ihip Mary &. Sustan 
ich'r Arrow 
iloop St. Lawreuct;^ 
ship Advohture 
Bclir. Robert 
»loop Jubilee 
ich'r Hope 
ship Emulation 
8chr — 

subr. Cerca >• • 
Bchr. William 
liloop Unity 
brig Daphne 
br. Crown Prince 
transport Juno« 
brig Ocean 
brig Lan§;ton 
britc Adeona 
sch'r Sultan 
brig Sarah 
(irig Legal Tender 
brig— 



M'arrior 
Cbarlfs Btvwarf 
Harrison 
do. 
6 Littir George 
2 141 BoaUf 
Kemp 
Whig 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Surprise 
do. 
<lo. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
8; <6i do. 

Roger 
Ranger 
Lawrence 
David Porter 
Lawrence 
Champlain 
Bine q;ia uon 
David Porter 
8 Chasseur 

tO; 40 Kemp 
Warrior 

Ino 
Chasseur 
America 
i4l 85 Chasseur 
do. 
Anuirica 
do. 
do. 
Syren 
Mncdooough 
Reindeer 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Portsmouth 
do. 
do. 
do. 
America 
M'irgiaua 
Warrior 
David Forfer 
Prin..\«;urchalttl 



wrecked 

lialh 

i-ansomed 

do ?► 

Marblehead 
Oharlestou 
iteracoko \'', 
oade ac«rtef 
>urnt 

do. i i' 

do. « 1 1 

do. > «i 

do. r- 

do. ; 

do. 

do. 
made a cartel 
burnt 
Ballimore 
burnt 

do. 1 J 

France 
nade a cartel 
Beaurort 
Portsmouth 

do. 
New Bedford 
WilmiLigton 

do. 
^unk 
burnt 
Savannait 
Salem 

made a carff i 
Cliarli!^tou > 
destroyed 

do. 
Salem 
Gracioso 
t»urnt 

do. 

Jo. 
made a carlo I 
ransomed 
Sedgwick 
made a curtf 1 
burnt 
ransomed 
Hulcni 
Wilmington 
bund 
Maeliift'* 
su:di 



'■ \ 
J. ' 

f 
f 

f 






Ik 



^recked *■ t* 

lath 

insotneil 

do 
larblehead 
iharlestou 
teracoke 
Hide ac«rt(>l 
urot 

do. 

do. 4"»,{ 

do. -of 

do. '- i'', 

do. \ f 

do. t 

do. ' 

Hide a cartel 
urnt 

•aliimore « • 
urnt r • T 

do. i i ■ ' 

ranee 

lade a cartel 
leaiirort 
ortaniouth •■ 

do. 

ew Redford 
'iliniiigton 

do, ; 

ink 
jrnt 

avannait 
alem 

lade H carff { 
ltarlt!ktou 
•stroyed 

do. 
item 

racioso ■ • 
irnt 

do. 

Jo. 

ade a cartt:! 
nsoined 
jdgwick ' . 
Hde a «:nr}*I ; 
irnt 

nsotnf d 
tlcm 

ilniiugton 

tht 



APPENDIX. 



401 



607 

508 
S09 
510 
511 
512 
513 
514 
515 
516 
517 
518 
619 

mo 

521 
522 
52J 

524 
52A 
526 
527 
628 
5^0 
530 
&31 
532 

j;}8 

534 
V3S 
536 
537 
5^8 
539 

640 
5+1 
542 
643 

5vV 

.'>45>i54e 

547 

548 

549 

^50 

551 

652 

553 

554 

555 

550 

668 

559 
560 



khip Aiitf|nia 
jihlp Uinrrick 
d^rig H«'li*D 
brig PIntuB 
nhip Mary Ana 
trie l4)rd Duncan 
jrig Oissac 
icb'r KeuuIuUen 
»lonp~- 
ilitp Otwgy 
brig- 
brig Alexander 
hrig Eagle 
brig Susannah 
brig Lord NpIsod 
ship Arabplla 
wig Madeira 
ship Anne 
lehr. Perueferaiice 
brig John 

brig Maria- Arabella 
sloop Twins 
»loop L'Esppranc^ 
iioop Constitution 
irig Mohawk 
ship— • 
ship — 

Trigale Cjrane* 
}rig Bnllic 
•tloop Busy 
KchV filar k Joke 
sloop Enterprize 
pack, ship Elizabeth 
3<',hr. Patriot 
oilot Boat 
sch'r Ontario 
stiip William 
"ihip Hero 
two Bch'rs 
brig- 
brig Resolution 
bi ig Ranger 
seb'r Pfggy 
i>hip Gontiiientia 
•'liip Kiiii! GeuT>;c 
sch'r Two Brothers 
■ihip Commerce 
sbip [Nana 
iirig Concord 
ohij)— 
ship .Ned 
sloop Brothers 
sch'r Sally 



6 



34 



42 



2b 



17;; 



M 



10 



Fox 

Morgiaom 

do. 

Yonng Wasp 

do. 

Morgiaoa 

do. 
Kemp 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Leo 
Lawrence 
F. Constilutior-t 
do 
Rambler 
do 
Z«l. cUltor 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Avon 
Jacob Jones 
rigCoDstitutioDJ 
Gran'* Turk 
Ar itfrica 
do. 
do. 
do. 
RpT.Cut Jeffer' 
Custom Hou8< 
N Y Militia 
brig Vixeiif 
TeHzer 
Buskin 
Paul Jones 
Nancy 
Matilda 



^Porfsmoath 
New York 

do. 
pvenup 

do 
>umt 

made a cartel 
Beaufort 
given up 
ransomed 

do 
wrecked 

do 

New York . 
burnt 
Macot 
riTcn op 
Srw Vork 
urnt 

i\o, 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
Baltimore 
ransomed 

do 
New-York 
V recked 
>urnt 

do. *' 

nade a cartel 

do 
Norfolk 
Bastpoit 
St. Vincents 
New- York 
Vlachias 
Salem 
Norfolk 
P<trtland 
Philadelphia 






10 



16 



Wiley Reynard'Fortland 
Wasp |Charlestoa ' 
Esmesf Boston 
United we stand Newport 
Portland 

do. 
New York 
Marblehead 
Salem 
Charleston 
d04 



-i 4*. 



Decatur 
do. 
Marengo 
industry 
Revenge 
Saucy Jack 
Clen Wasbingtoo 
61 



4012 



APPENDIX. 



ti! 



^!l 



1561 

1662 

]6tf3 

1564 

1565 

1566 

1567 

15H8 

1569 

15 

1571 

1572 

1573 

1574 

1575 

1576 

1577 

1578 

1579 

15R0 

1581 

1582 

1581 

1584 

1585 

1586 

1687 

15>-8 

1589 

1590 

1591 

1693 

159S 

1594 

1595 

1596 

1597 

1''48 

li99 

1 00 

1601 

1602 

1603 

1604 

16 >5 

1606 

1607 

16U8 

1609 

1610 

I6il 

]6i2 

16iS 



t 



ri|t Jnho 

8chr. Robin 

rImop CaroUoe 

brie Ann 

ship Mentor 

brig Antrim 

brifc Emma 

schV B4>f8ejr 

sh. Ralph Nickersoo 

sloop- 
sloop Earl Camden 

brig Elizabeth 

brig Watson 

brig Mariner 

srhr. — 

ship Grotiiis 

brie June Gordon 
'richr. Hunter 

schr. Susan 

sehr. Vigilant 

brig Maria 

8ch'r Falcon 

brisT Jane 

sloop Little Phoenix 
sloop Fame 
sroop Chance 
sch'r Deep Nine 
sloop Watt 
slo. Charming Eliza 
sloop Jamaica 
sch'r Phoenix 
brig Marquis 
brig Concord 
schr.-— 
Tender* 
ship Barclay 
ship Ashum 
brig Trident 
brig Haddock 
sch'r Coin ntbia 
brig Fire FJy 
brig Mary ., 

schr. Eliza ■ 
brig Argo 
brig- 
trans Lord Keith 
sch'r Elizabeth 
ship P<'lham 
brig Penguin* 

hip Union 

hip Venus 

hip Brio 
brig Nautilus* 



10 



18 



8 
Ifi 



Benj. Fr«nkfin jCharf« sfoit 
Revenge rorthnd 



Retaliation 

Growler 

Jack's Favorite 

do 

Holkar 



lHJm. Prigonen Campeachy 



10120 



America 
Ontario 
Yank«:e 
do. 
do. 
do. 
Saucy Jack 
Frolic 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



^e1r-Y.>rk 

■^ttlern 

New- Orleans 

do. 
Newport 



Salem 
Sackelt's Uarb, 
France 

do 

do, 

do ■ f 

given up 
jSalem 
burnt 
made a cartel 

do 
'ransomed 



Frig. Presidentf France 



82i8S 



l\ iSO 



do 

Cordelia 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do, 
do. 

Yankee 
Rattlesnake 
Frigate Ecsexf 
Virginia militia 

F Essexf 
T B Yankee 
Scourge 

do. 
Portsmouth 
Sabine 
Argo 
Portsmouth 
Sorprise 
Orimpus 
Mars 
Globe 
do. 
Horneff 
Peacockf 
do. 
do. 
do 



TaUUt guna 3,113,— 12,216 men. 



do. 
burnt 

do. 

do. 

do. 
made a cartd 

do. 
sunk 

do. ' 

made a cartel 
New-BeiJ[ford 
Norway 
sunk 
Norfolk 
Peru 
Prance 
burnt 

do. • - 
>ewburyport 
Wilmiugtun 
burnt 
\Tachias 
PoHland ' ^ 

do '■ 

Newport 
burnt '\ 

drt. J 

sunk ' *" 
burnt ' 

marie a cartel 
burnt 
given up '^ 



{- 



( 



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