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Full text of "The Emigrant's guide to the British settlements in Upper Canada and the United States of America [microform] : including Smith's geographical view of Upper Canada, with extracts of original letters of a Lancashire farmer and other residents : also, extracts from Birkbeck's notes and letters from the Illinois ... to the Cape of Good Hope, New South Wales, &c. &c"

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1 

1 


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THE 



Emigrant's Guide 



TO THE 



mmi) SettUminW 



XN 



UPPER CANADA, 



AND THE 



UNITED STATES 



ov 



Jlmerica. 



INCLUDING smith's GE06RAPHICAL VIEW OF UPPER CANiiPA, 

WITH KXTRACTS OF ORIGINAL LETTERS OF A LANCASHIRE 

FARMER, AND OTHBR RESIDENTS j 

ALSO, 

BKTRACTS FROM BIRKBECK's NOTES AND LETTERS FROM THE ILLINOIS, AND 

A RECENT LETTER IN REPLY TO MR. COBBtTT, WJTH MR. RICHARD 

flower's letters in REFUTATION OF, THE .same; 

AND REMARKS ON THE SUPERIOR ADVANTAGES OF THE ABOVE PLACES, 

TO THF 

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, NEW SOUTH WALES, 

&c. &c. 



« The only ties vhlch ought to l)ind mcu to their Country are th» 
benefits they receive from it, and this is the only genuim and rational 
palriotism." 
** England could spare 5000 people annually, while she would be > 

refreshed and strengthened by the discharge.»'-G*urJay'« Letter, 



Printed for T. FkEYS, Colrwan Street, Bank. 

1820. 



•wKHiaMiij 



,^ mm ii M .~ nil t n f mit , -mt i^ :, 



*^. 



•'i'^l^' 







■ •;rr* 



and unemployed, without causin^a.vnr'''*'"" ^^ the pj 
Jh 1st want and distress are ob°Lltfh/ ?'"'"* ^^"«fit> and 
soil in search of a better home Sf?^"! *" 'i"*^ t'^^'r native 
surprised the Editor of thT smalf' w"V n''' '' ''^^ oLa 

Em.grat.on has notbeenmorrdir™ ted ^w '.*''"* the tide „f 
m Upper Canada : its suoZ,Jl ^ towards our Settlements 

part are evenacknowlej/e/bv L'a "^.^^"t«»-«« *« any S 
call it the G«rrf.„o/jJ-5;;iLt^^ Amer.cans themselves, who 
roust be a sufficient ^oofr'i:'*;^ 

Sessions grantedrf50 0CK)fnrl '^ ^"*''^' Parliament last 
the Cape^ of Gofd H^ ^'u!?^°7«^^^n»ent of Emigrat o.^ to 

jvho , 4mterest^ not hive V^ 

ineir Settlements in tl.^ n» j ^ . ^ "a^® cast an eve tn 
;hich must accrue by dedTcS/a' "^f *''^ ^^ -"C 
encouragement of Emigration thprp^o """'^'' ^"'n ^or the 
of peace, from certain^pe ° anehT; .^^"^i^^'^, after five years 
faction still stalks Xo^aTT^'/'^'^'/ distress and dissatil 
*h^opJ.t to adopt tm'Xnl'n?^^^^^^ 'f^^^\ "- &" 
recotomends the formini- o^X -If ^^- ^^ ^''^^ the Editor 
tion to Upper Can^^unV^g S^th!^:^^^^ '^^ ^Siga 
at Quebec. The super r^^d^Xes to' H^'^^^^ 
Mope, Botany Bay or th*> ^ * ^ * "'® ^ape of Good 
must aoknowlidge who hat! ;'*!•"!. *"'"'°"««' «^ery person 
-des, the salnbfuy iTt ermCbr-^'''"'^*''^^"^^^^^^^^^ 
con«t,t„tion« of Europeans the SuT' '?^^°'^' *« the 
cons.d bly less, not bei„' haff f^ a!^ "^ I'^^ Journey 

-ha plan, b'ytS tl^'^tr^ff ^^ ^rnigra^^^ 
heretofore encountered i„ the Unit J S»!f ^';!'' .^""^ distrtssL 
selves into a bo.'y « iient ff n ^.^*^*' ^^ farming tbein- 
and go direct to the IZ t A P°'"'''^' *" ^'•^'ght a vessd 

without delay and'„;„eLla?;tTnTo7tT '^ '^P^^^^' 
»t be expected that Mechanics ^n.U " ^^^ ^^^^ Could 
employ in a country alreadv ovprS J^^ T*^' ^'*h immediate 
manufacttire, to th^e ru..mtrn nf Z'lf ^'l** ^'^'''^'' «f ^"ffUsh 
both hej. and there Td' they tect'd " r'''^'^ *^^'^^''^ 
Upper Canadas, or Birkbeck's %tu *^'^««»^rse to the 
have been avoided. " Settlement, the evil might 

Patd) orgtve imtructions to /iljl ^'""""*'»cations, (Post 




tl 



OBSERVATIONS, &©. 

After a war unusualiy protracted, M-hicfe 
bad desolated the fairest portions of the globe, 
^hich, in its progress, had been marked by the 
destruction of millions, and wiiich had been pro- 
ductive of evils the most terrible ever sustained 
by suffering humanity, the nations of the earth 
fondly contemplated the return of peace as an 
event which would, in some degree, compensate 
for the sacrifices which they had made, and the 
privations which they had so long and so pa. 
tiently suffered. 



- Among those who had endured with imex 
ampled fortitude the evils attendant on a state 
of warfare so protracted, were the British peo- 
ple. The blood and treasure of England had 
been lavishly expended during the contest, but 
she sustained the hour of trial with magnanimity, 
and came out of it triumphantly. During the 



1 m lupumi iiRpqipmnwii^^fii^mi 




progi-ess of >he war, her victuriel both on the 
land and on the ocean had been unprecedented, 
briUiant, and decisive. But they had been 
achieved with uncommon exertioii, at an enor- 
mous expence, and repose was absohitely neccs- 
sary. The hour of peace at length arrived— 
tliit.it brought not with it those b^efit^ whi^^ 
^d;bee« so eagerly contemplated, . . ' nJ 



;.dt'Vfl 



liO'i'-f c.: rii JAV-:'--y 



. Tlie commerce of England! had covered thfe 
seas, from tlie commencement; to the terminari 
tiow of hostilities, and her thousand ships of warj 
wiiile they so gloriously added to her naval 
gime, protected her commercial fleets, and 
eoabkd them to traverse the sea in comparative 
sequrity. London became the emporium of the 
o-lobe, and the commercial monopoly of England 
was complete. The return of peace, therefore, 
by admitting the belligerent powers to a par- 
ticipation in the advantages of commerce, was 
scarcely felt, and the diminution of the com-. 
Bxerce of England naturally kept pace with the 
activity of those maritime powers, who, during 
the continuance of hostilities, were almost in a 
ftate of absolute inaction. 



3 



■» . il J 



EMIGRATION'. 



^ 



The cry of distress was soon heard from^all 

quarters,andthebankruptcyofourmerchantsafed 
tradesmen occurred to an extent hitherto uiii 
known. These failures involved the fate of 
thousands connected with the machine of trade 
and commerce; the rich became insolvent-4. 
many of the middling classes descended td 
poverty-the poor filled the workhouses-th^ 
local taxes pressed with intolerable weight upon 
those who were unable to pay, and the situation 
iDf many who were obhged to contribute to these 
was scarcely superior to the wretched inmates 
of the workhouse* . . 

5 The aspect of affairs at this moment is not 
much improved in appearance. Commerce has 
revived in an inconsiderable degree, and there is 
an increased demand for cur manufactures, but 
a frightful national debt still presses on an af- 
ready exhausted people, and the united demands 
of local and national taxes have influenced, and 
do still influence thousands of our countrymen 
to abandon theirnative shores, and to commence 
^ts it #ere a new existence on' those of the 



Atlantic. »iioMiif- 



'iii foif-jor l?na^ff<» 



!IQ 






9 



OBSERVATIGNft ON 



Among the many causes leading to the 
immense emigration which is taking place, must 
be particularly noticed^ an excess of population, « 
and the use of machinery in our manufactories- 
The mill machinery of a single mill now com* 
pletes the work of thousands. Machinery also 
used in the operations of agriculture ia hourly 
lessening the demand for hands. An excellent 
writer (Mr. Goulbay) observes, in a letter from 
Canada, that England could spare 50,000 people 
annually, while she would be refreshed and 
strengthened by the discharge. In war, England 
sent abroad annually more than 20,000 of her 
youthful sons to be slain, and morb than 20,000 of 
her youthful daughters shot after them the last 
hope of honourable love. In these 25 years of 
war, the population of England rapidly increas- 
ing, what is it to do now, when w^ar is at aa 
end, when love and opportunity are no longer 
to be foiled, and the poor laws have provided 
sustenance for children independent of the par 
rent's care ? Under existing circumstances, it is 
absolutely necessary, for the domestic^ comfort 
of England, that a vent should be immediately 
opened for her increasing population, and the 



ilMIGRATIOX, i<» 



m 



colonization of Canada, if once begun upon a 
Jiberal footing, will afford this vent. . 



It is, however, impossible to behold the 
affecting spectacle of so many myriads of our 
fellow citizens embarking for foreign chores, with- 
out experiencing distressing emotions, f.^^l^ith 
what agonized feelings do they quit their homes-- 
their fire-aides— the abodes of their ancestors— 
the country to which a thousand recollections— 
a thousand heart-rending associations still rivet 
them. '>a -jii[fm* 



" Behold the duteous son, the sire dpcay'd, 
The modest matron, and the blushing maid, 

Fore'd from their homes, a melancholy train. 

To traverse climes beyond the western main, 

Where wild Oswego spreads her swamps around, 

And Niagara stuns with thund'ring sound f 

E'en now, perhaps, as there some pilgrim strays 

Through tangled forests, and through dangerous ways, 

^Vhere beasts with man divided empire claim. 

And the brown Indian marks with murd'rous aim : 

There, while above the giddy tempest flies. 

And all around distressful yelU arise. 

The pensive exile, bending with his woe. 

To stop too fearful, and too faint to go. 

Casts a Jong look where England's glories shine, 

And bids his bosom sympathize witli mine." 



■JtVU4 



f 



^?KS^ 



riWt iWllllllniJ-Mt WILhirl WHI i.i,if;i. 



; I 

M 



10 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



The great stream of emigration is evidently 
towards the United States, but many thousands 
of emigrants arrive yearly from England, in Ca- 
nada, fhe population of the provinces of Upper 
and Lower Canada, received an acctessioii of 5000 
persons in 1817. At the present rtwiiient, settlers 
are embarking in considerable numbers from every 
part of the United Kingdom, and during the year 
1818, it is apprehended that t)ie number of persons 
who will embark for America, will far exceed any 



thing cif the kind ever known. This little work, 
therefore^ cannot fail to be of singular service to 
those whom circumstances may impel to quit 
their beloved coimtry. To the industrious en- 
quirer, it may afford instruction— to the visionary 
a salutary check, but it cannot fail to rfford 
amusement to all. 

The author does not claim the merit of exclu- 
sive originality in this unassuming production. 
Where so many have written, and so well on sub 
jects connected with America, there cannot be 
much said that may laim the meed of uncommon 
novelty. Having, however, twice crossed the 
Atlantic, he has inspected, in person most of what 



EMIGRATION. Jf 

he has described, and thus can it least vouch for 
the fidehty of Lis little work, which he again as- 
serts, was undertaken expressly for the informa- 
tion ofpersons about to emigrate to America, and 
who have »ot leisure for the inspection of more 
voluminous works. 

* 



Lower Canada. 

The face of Lower Canada is remarkably bold 
and striking. The noble river St, Lawrence 
flows more than 400 miles, between high lands 
and lofty mountains, sometimes divided into 
channels by large islands, and at other times in- 
tersected by clusters of small ones; numerous 
rapid streams rolling from the neighbouring 
mountaias, breaking over steep precipices, and 
mmghng their waters with the grand river; its 
bold and rugged shores, lofty eminencies and 
^lopmg values, covered with the umbrageous 
foUage of immense forests, or interspersed with 
the cultivated settlements^f the inhabitants, pro. 



¥ 



12 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



sent altogether to the eye of the spectator, a suc- 
cession of the most sublime and picturesque ob- 
jects, that imagination can conceive. 

' The soil of lower Canada is very various, and 
is more or less fertile, as it approaches to the 
North or South, from Father Point (the lowest 
settlement on the south shore) to Kamouraska; 
but little is cultivated, and that yields a crop only 
with considerable labour*. 

From Kamouraska to the Island of Orleans, 
both on the North and South shores, the soil 
gradually improves and great quantities of grain 
are produced. The average crop is about 12 
bushels. Emigrants from Europe gTcatly excel 
tlie natives in all agricultural operations — the pre- 
judices of the Canadians in favor of old systems 
will not however permit them to adopt European 



* The labour of luunwriag is not however to be included. Mr. B. 
an inU'lliRcnt luitivc gf IMyiaouth-Dock, who has Uv(d ten years lu 
Canada, obneivc^ in one of his letters: I have often icquested the 
CanudiiUis lo lhr.)w (:onn)ost on ^heir lands, a» I do, to which tiio uni- 
luiin amwtr is. " th<re i» uo necessity for it, our fore Aitliere never 
did it, why !>iiouia we f" 



EMIGBATION. 



13 



methods. Of the soil m tlie vicinity of Quebec, 
that of the island of Orleans is reckoned the best. 
This island is diversined with high and lowlands, 
covered with woods, or converted into meadows 
and com fields; the soil is sufficiently fertile to 
afford the inhabitants a large surplus of produc- 
tions, beyond their own consumption, which they 
dispose of at Quebec. 



The meadows of Canada, which have most com- 
monly been com fields, are reckoned superior to 
those in the more southern parts of America. 
They possess- a fine close turf, well covered at the 
roots with clover. They cannot be mown niore 
than once a year, in consequence of the Spring 
commencing so late. In Autumn they exchange 
their beautiful green, for a light brown hue, 
which gives them the appearance of being scorch- 
ed by the sun. It is two or three weeks after 
the snow is gone, before they recover their natu- 
ral colour; this is the case all over America, 
whose pastures, during the Autumnal and Winter 
uiontlis, never possess that rich and lovely ver- 
dure, which tliey do in England. 



-mmmtmimitm 



tiwMiUj^i j '» «; >» w a i t ,' . 



14 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



The high lands, with good managemeRt, yield 
tderable crops, but the Canadians are miserable 
formers. They seldom or never manure their 
land, and plough so very slight and careless, that 
they continue year after year, to turn over the 
clods which lie at the surface, without penetra* 
ting an inch deeper into the soil. Hence their 
grounds become exhausted, over-run with weeds, 
and yield but scanty crops. The fields of wheat 
which I have seen in different parts of the coun- 
try, appeared much stinted in their growth, and 
were often much choked with weeds. When 
cut down the straw was seldom more than 1 8 or 
20 inches long, the ears small, and the wheat it- 
self discoloured, and little more than two thirda 
of-the size of our English wheat. The wheat 
about Montreal, appeared to be the best that 
come under my observation. There is however 
a month difference in the climate between Mon- 
treal, and Quebec : the former is situated in lat. 
45, 30, Three Rivers in 46, 25, and Quebec in 
4(), 35. The French Canadians sow only sum- 
mer wheat, though I should think that winter 
wheat might be sown in winter with success. 



EMIGRATION,, 



13 



Peas, Oats, Rye and Barley, are sown more or 
less by every farmef, though the largest crops of 
these are in the vicinity of Montreal. j 

i 

The towns of Montreal and Quebec including 

their suburbs, are said to contain 14,000 inhabi- 

tants each, nearly three-fourths of whom are 

French. 



The British inhabitants of Quebec consist of 
the government people, the military ; a few per- 
sons belonging to the church, the law and medi- 
cine ;* the merchants and shop-keepers. 

The French comprise the old noblesse, and - 
seigniors, most of whom are members of the 
government; the clergy; the advocates and no- 
taries ; the storekeepers. 

The houses at Quebec are, with few exceptions, 
built of stone ; the roofs of the better part are 



* Better niclicul practitioners of character and skill, are much 
wanted, both in U,,per aii. Uwcr Canada, and the Canadian. wouW 
uo wen to encourage profewional Rentlemen by »uch liberality m 
would iodac« them to lettle among them. 






"i>'.Mi:^'»i».f^tm>». 



16 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



generally covered with sheets of iron or tin. The 
Streets of the lower town are scarcely deserving 
of that appellation; they are rugged, narrow and 
irregular. A heavy sameness prevades all the 
bouses in Quebec, which is seldom reheved by 
any elegance or beauty in the public buildings 
The upper town is the most agreeable part of 
Quebec, both in summer and winter. The 
markets of Quebec are well supplied. In the 
summer the following articles are brought to mar- 
ket by the habitans, (country people) and gener- 
ally sold at the prices affixed to them. 

Sterling Money. 



Meat. < 



Porr.TRY 

AND ^ 

Game. 



Beef, per lb. Id. \ to 4d. 

Mutton, per lb. 4d. to 6d ; per sheep, 

8s. to iOs. 
Lamb, per quarter, 3s. 6d. to 4s. Gd. 
Veal, 6d. to 7d. per lb. 
Pork, Gd. to 6d per lb. 
^Sausages. 

f Turkies, per couple, 3s. 6d. to 5s. 
Fowls, do. 1b. 3d. to 28. 

Chickens, do. 7d to lOd. 

Geese, do. 2s. 5d.to4s.6d. 

Wild, do. do. ; 

Partridges, do. lOd. to 15d 
pigeons, per dozcii, Is. 6u. to 4b. 
Hares, each, 5d. to 9d. 



'EMIGRATION. 



i7 



TEels, price according to their size 
Trout do. 

Perch do. 

Poisson Doree do. 

Maskinonge do. 

I Shad, each. Id. to 2d. 
rrsH. ^ Sturgeon* 



Actigan 

Black bass 

Sahnon 

Fresh Cod 
j Salt Cod 
LCat Fish. 



I Of various prices, ac- 
cording to the size. 

At some periods Cod 
and Salmon are as 
dear as in London. 



Vegeta- 



-^ Potatoes, 18d. to 20d. per bushel 
Cabbages Id. to 2d. each 
Onions, per hundred, lOd. 
Leeks, per bundle, 4d. 
Carrots, but very little cheaper than 
London 



Turnips, 
Peas 



BLEs. ^ Beans, 
Beet, 



Celery, 
Sallad 
Asparagus, 
Cotannier 



do. 
do; 
do. 
do, 
do. 
do. 



Pars 



mips 



do. 
do. 



per bundle 



foiled corn, herbs, &c. 

^Apples, 18d. per barrel 
i Pears, but few at market 

^^''"- ^ Cur'rm^'"'' '^'"' ^^- ^^' ^"^^^ 

/Gooseberries 
Huspberries 



«i Hii<it1iiiiir|iirttiinii-^ 



w 



Fruit. 



OBSERVATIONS ON 

/ Blucjierries 
y Bl^ickberries 
i Plums 



tW 



ons 



Oi>'iO 



a h 









< 



Maple Sugar, Sdl to Sd- t^er lb 
Flour, per Cwt. 18s. tq 25s. 
Lard, (5d. t<» 9d. per lb 
Tallow, 0(1. to lOd. do. 
Tobacco, 9d. ^o. 

Butter, 9d.,to Hd, do. 



Oats, per lyiinot, 2s. 6d? to 3s. 
Hay, per bundle, 6d. to '7d. 
Straw, per do. 2d. to 3d. 
Wood, per cord, 12s. to 15s. 
. So^p, pfiag^sins, furs, Sec. 

In. winter, a few only of the ab(>vc articles 
are brought to market. As soon- as the river 
between Quebec and the Island of Orleans is 
frozen over, a large supply of provisions is 
received from that island. Tne Canadians, at the 
commencement of winter, kill the greatest part 
of their stock, which they carry to market in a 
frozen state. The inhabitants of the towns, then, 
supply themselves wi^h a sufficient quantity of 
poultry, and vegetables, till Spring, and keep 
them in garrets or cellars. As lopg as they 
:„ i\.^„«« *v./^»r ,A».i3onvvA fli*»?r caodness. but 

they will not keep long aftj^r they have thawed. 



f Imveeatentutkie^iii A^ih^Uch have be^n kepi 
m thk mamieP aJI the winter, and found tfeem te- 
wiarkably ^d. Bfefot^e th^ frozen provision^ 
are dressed, they are always laid for some hours 
in cold water, which eictractstk ice ; otherwise, 
by a sudden immersion iii feot water, they wotrld 
be spoiled. 



The articles of life arifi eertainly very reason- 
able in Canada, but the high price of house rent 
and European goods, together with the high 
wages of servants, more than counterbalance 
that advantage. A person must pay at least 70 
or 100 per cent, upon the London price for every 
article of wearing apparel, furniture, &c. unless 
he attends the public sales, which are pretty 
frequent, and where articles are sometimes sold 
very low; but there he is often liable to be de- 
ceived, and many a keen economist has been 
confoundedly bit. 

The lower town market place is reckoned 
Hieaper than the other. It is not so large, but is 
generally well supplied. Fish i.s at certain sp^- 
sons abundant, particularly ealmon and shadJ 



t^ammiiimimm^^- 



m 



OB$EXlVATIONS ON 



the latter is classed among the herrings, which it 
somewhat resembles in flavour, though widely, 
differing in size, the shad being as large as a 
pioderate sized salmon. They are a great reUef 
to the poor people, in the months of May and 
June, as ^t that season they are taken in shoals. 
In the river of St. Lawrence, from the entrance 
to more than 200 miles above Quebec, large 
quantities are salted down for the use of the 
upper province, ' 

Fresh cod are very rarely brought to market. 
A merchant in the upper town usually gets t^ 
supply once during the summer season, which 
he keeps in an ice-house, and retails to the inha- 
bitants at nearly the London price. Montreal 
receives a supply from the United States during 
the winter season ; they are packed up in ice, 
and a few of them find their way to Quebec, 



Considering the vast quantities of fish with 
which the river and gulph of St. Lawrence 
jabound, the markets in Canada are very ill sup- 
plied. Thcdgh the gulph is full of mackarel, 
yet none ever appear at Quebec. Oysters are 



V \ 



EMIGRATION. 



21 



sometimes brought from Chaleur Bay, but so 
seldom, and in such small quantities, that an 
oyster party is considered by the inhabitants as 
a very rare treat. They are however but of an 
indifferent quality, and though of large size when 
taken out of the shei), yet have so little sub- 
stance in them, that when cut with a knife, the 
water runs out, and they diminish at least a fourth. 
The shells are large, and adhere to each other in 
great clusters. The herrings of Canada are large, 
but of a- indifferent quality. Sprats there are 
none, at least none ever appear on shore. 

In the Spring, the njarkets are abundantly 
supplied with wild pigeons, which are sometimes 
sold much lower than the price I have mentioned ; ' 
this happens in plentiful seasons. ; but the im- 
mense flocks that formerly passed over the 
country are now considerably diminished, or as 
the land becomes cleared they retire fartiier 
back. . • .,^,, 



The beef of Canada is in general poor and tough 
mating. The Canadians have not got into a pro. 
per meUiod of fattening their cattle, which are 



w«mi ib>'iwi.> i i.« wjw»v ; 



n 



OBSEnVATIONS ON 



for the most part lean and ill ^d. The bittehel'^, 
however, contrive to furnish a better sort) wMeft 
^hey fatten on their own farms. The veal i» kilN 
ed too young to please an English taste, andr the 
pouk is over-grown. . Mutton and laml> are very 
^ood, and the latter on its first coming in, i* sold 
at a price that would not disgrace a London mar=^ 
ket. The habitans sell their meat by the quarter* 
kalf, OF whole carcase, wliich accounts for the 
liififerent prices X have affixed to those articles. 
The butchers retail them by the pound. 

The best butter is brought from Green Island, 
about one hundred and fifty mile^ below Quebec, 
That sold by the Canadians in the market place, 
13 gieuerally of a cheesy or sour flavour, owing 
tQ the cream being kept so long beforait is 
churned, Milk is brought to market in the win- 
ter time, in large frozen cakes. 



Large quantities of Maple sugar are sold at 
about half the price of the West-India sugar. 
The manufacturing of this article takes place 
early in the spring, when the sap or juice rises 
in the Maple trees. It is a very laborious work, 



oEMIGUATIOaf* :? 



23 



as at that tinic the snow i^.j^ist mdting, sad 
the Canadians suffer great hajtxMips in procuring 
the liquor from an immense number of tree^, dis- 
persed ovfjr mmy hundred acres of landv JkQ 
liquor is boiled down, and often adulterated with 
flour, which thickens and renders it heavy ; after 
M- boiled a sufficient time, it is poured into 
tiireens, and when cold, forms a thick hard cake 
of the shape of the vessel These cakes are of 
a dark brown* colour, for the Canadians do not 
trouble themselves about refining it: the people 
m Upper Capiada make it very white, and it may 
be easily darifted equal to the finest loaf sugar 
m^de in E»gland> / , 

. : j|t[i$ V(ery hkrd, and requires to be scraped wiii 
^*nife wheiv used for tea, otherwise the Jumps 
yrpuld be: ^ft, considerable tim6 diseolving. Its 
flavour strongly resembles the candied horehound 
sold by the druggists in England, and the Canat 
dians say that it possesses medicinal qualities, 
ft^r which tlpiey eat it in large lumps. It very 
|>ossibly ac^s as a corrective to the, vast quantity 
of fat poyk^^^hieh they cowsume, as it possesses 
a greater degree of acidity .tlian tl^e West-Indiji 



L: 



'WKrWHm.^'^- 



24 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



ftugar. Before salt was in use, sugar was eat 
with meat, in order to correct its putrescency. 
Hence probably the custom of eating sweet apple 
sauce with pork and goose ; and currant jelly 
with hare and venison. 



Hay is sold at market in bundles of 17lbs. 
weight each, at 50s. the hundred bundles. Straw 
is sold in the same manner, at about half the 
price. Wood is brought to market in carts or 
sleighs ; three louds make one cord, which sells 
from r2s. to 15s. Most people at Qijebec, how- 
ever, lay in their wood from the water side, near 
the lower town market-place ; it is brought down 
the ?iver in summer, in cribs of six cords each. 
A cord of wood is six feet long, four feet high, 
and two feet deep, and is sold at the water side 
from Is. to 9s. The expences of carting, piling, 
and 3:win2f the wood, is about 4s. 6d. more. 
Co^;!:^ are -ener^ll^ brought by the vessels as 
ballast, and sell from 20s. to 30s. per chaldron, 
at Quebec ; they are a cheaper fut than wood, 
but the latter is better adapted for the stoves 
which are used in Canada. The French people 
sell cheir commodities by the minot, a measure 



EMIOIl)\TlON. 



25 



which i«f one-twelfth more than the Winchester 
l^ushel They also meksute land by the arpent, 
which isifour^fifthis of a statute acre. ^^ : 



P,tl', -u. 



.> fl 



f The mitt the seas, gulphs, rivets, and lakes, 
of Canada/ are innumerable; they consist, iri^ 
deed, of ahnost every species and variety at pre- 
sent known. Those brought to market 1 have 
mentioned before. They are mostly the fresh 
water fish, and considering the immense quanti- 
ties that might be procured with the greatest fa- 
cility, it is surprising that so few are oftered for 
sale. The salt water fishery is carried on chiefly 
for thepurpofee of exportatiod, but no great quan- 
tity is exerted from/Quebeo. 

• The two Canadas afednd with almost every 
species and variety of trees, shrubs, and plants; 
among the timber tree^ ar6 the o&, '^ine, fir, 
elm, ash, birch, vi^alnut, beech, maple, chesnut, 
cedar, aspen, &c. Among the fruit trees and 
shrubs ar^walhut, chesnut, apple, pear, cherry: 
plum,'^kTer, vines, hazel, hiccory, samach, juni- 
per, hortibbam, thorn, laurel, whortleberry, cran- 



:i measure 



n 



Hi I 



M>«»s.jaiii>tmv,„;. 



36 



OBI§£)HVA1^iaJN^ ON 



li 



berry, raspberry, gooseberry, blackberry*, blue^n- 
berry, sloe, &c. Strawbeiries are luxunhmtly 
scattered over every part of tte country, but 
currants are only met with in Gardens. Such 
innun^erablQ quantities of usoful and beautiful 
plants, herbs, grapes, Juid flowers are also to be 
found in the forests, that where the botanist h 
presented with so rich a field for fibservatkai $md 
$tudy, it id to be re^f retted that so KtUe is known 
concerning them, 

• , ' ' . • yi; .ia^iiii.j.'-i ■• ••■'■' 

The pine trees grow to the height of l20Teet 
and more, and from 9 to 10 feet in circumference. 
In several parts of Lower Canada, bordering t»ii 
the states of Vermont and New York, tey mako 
excellent masts and timber for shipping; but the 
quantity procured in the Ipwei: province is very 
trifling to the supplies received from Upper Ca- 
nada and tlie United States. In other ^arts 
particularly to the northward and westward of 
Quebec, the forest trees are mostly of a small 
growth. There are several varities of the pine 
and fir trees, fiom some of which are made large 
quantities of pitch, tar, and turpentine. The 
ckari/fg ofiamts has of iak years been carried on f 



-^o^Ml«ltAtl^<. 1) 



2; 



gmtiaivmc^,y^ mm ^ko ptoptrly nndefihnd 
t^'^THem^/iodi fi»f fihem'kaearceiff a tree in the 
Jihvit bui Mm m«s^ i& iumd to some aceount, par* 
UMarhf in tk^ making ifpt and pearl ashe^, which 
/unk 'enriched the Am^ricm settlers far beyond any 
Hher aHide^ ffhA treses of a reeincms quality sup 
ply pitdl, ml a^<t ttirpeiitia^, f^ «iaj^ 
tumisb^g jwjfar, si»d with tie beecH, a«h, elm, 
&c. will also serve for the potash inaiiufectoryj 
G^w ib converted iiito gfaingks for Uhe Toofe of 
hofiMij oak into ghip tiiwber; fira into deal 
planks and boards, and in short almoM every 
kind) ol tide k broai^ht into us© for some purpojio 
or odief;^^ 



ii 



(;•• 



i ^iinni*-!:Sn, . 



'?! 



^fln the clearing of Jands> however, it ie always 
necessary tliat the settler should first took out 
for a market for his iwoduce, and ibr some navi- 
gable river, or good road to convey the samiv' 
otherwise i* is of ttttfedohsequence that he ob- 
tains foui- br five Irandred acres of land fbr four 
or five pounds. So mucK tod for so little money, 
is highly preposscsi^g^ tb W^ui^opcan, but ap- 
pearaiicxjs^ particuiwiT at a distance, are often 
fallacious. H in- . I jdtoi 'joa'jdT 



w 



OBS^RYAl^lOm ON 



jv\ TJxe American oak is quicker in ite growdi* 
but les«4urable than that of Europe; one species 
called the live oak, which is, however, found* only 
i»-t|je,-.wapiier par,t$ of the country, iey$iE^d^by 
majiy to be equal, if not (3upel*ior t6 the English 
oak for ship-building. The whildtoak is the best 
tJ^t n ^td in the Canadiaa^^settlements^ laud i^ 
chiefly uiged for thebuildingof vessels at Quebec 
and Montreal. M {o\ 'ms?. o»i£i iliw .oA 

, One of the most usefuJ trees in Canadia is tlie 
jtaple tree, acei: saccharinum, which supplies the 
inhabitants ;V^ith abundance of excelletit sugar, and 
the best fire wood. I have, in a fotmef chaiit«;ir/ 
adverted to the mode of procuring the sap of this 
tree, and manufacturing it into sugar. It is not 
cut down for fire wood, till exbau$ted of its sfep, 
when it is generally preferred; rndj fetches a 
higher price than ^i\y other firie wood sold at 
IjOi^rket.' "', 'I ]»ii()f bofV! 'ro :iTth :)klr,': 

Thence tu the Portage at Riviere du Cap,, 12.1 J 



i^oEIUIGBAIFION.no 



99 



MILES. 



Thence to Timispuata . . .. , , , ..,..,, ^ .*,.» , • 3G 

•— to the Settlement of Maduaska . . 45„ 

^ — — to the great falls in river St. John 45 

—to Frederick Town . . . . ,,,vi.ik?*>|oil80 

"1 — —to St. Johns ............ '(^♦yi*f.'«l/.?^ 

— — — to Halifax iggx 







708 

. . . . dblmqnJ. oi' 

M _, _ .-, r ;; .- - 

from Quebtc to Michillimakinak, af t^ mtrance of 

<'A [^""^^ -^'^;^>^r fivhrrlW 

To Montreal ,.,..,,,,,., 4,,^ ,^1 .^,.,v,r^, 184 
>-• Coteau du Lac. , , , , , , . , , ,. , , , ,..,^4.,,,^; 225 
~~ ^oJ^wall^,^,, ,....,. ..i>.«,.>.^^.,>.^,^|.,rr266 

— Matilda nna^.. 301 

^Augusta 335 

-- Kingston 335 

^ - Niagara , •--^525 



ti 



Fort Erie 



TT) ■■-'eiroLt %• *m , 



a'':M(n 



V\*'MXi 



560 
790 



p- Micnilhmakidak ,1107 



tl 



• • ( • • 



. From Quebec to New York, by wai^ of Montreal, 

To Cape Rouge . , m t m . %\ 1 . , .^^ J. f.(*r4. . 9 
TT, St.Augustin.,. .-,^,...^^^,, ^^ 9 

7= .^acqses Cartier. . . .. . . .^ ^ , ^^ssf^*,^.. .?,.,ci 14 

^ St. Anne's . . . , . . .,..,,,. ^^^ji:»r. ... 30 






I 



m 



oBHtfmMdfi^os 



To Three Rivere. . . . •. . . ^?^^^9i\ /'ATJ' 'S5 

— Riviere du Soup . 'JMl^^l^ Pl'l /^. : r127 
-> Berthi^; V; J . ■:. i^.1^!^. ;»l^F.rR^^~'-'22 

— tlepentigne .^ . . 1 7;T. ;^V??"?VJ/]^.-;r" 1^ 

--^Montieal ..v. . . . .. . .;V'irt;i^;^^" r"-l^ 

"'1- 184 



■M ■' O 



To Laprairie . . ... ♦-«««|»^i. 9 

— St. John's ....,..,..,...,, 14 

^' !^e au Mali <f i^^v^f r!^:^^^^.^:?^?^ r^ 

— Windmill PoiCV^ h ; :: :^. 12 

:-- Savage's Point ;»;»....»*»«. . i^^^lVl*^.^^^ ^'8 

— Sandbar* »« ^ »»*««<. n ». * i4 ^i*i i'i 2^1-^ 20* 
iiii^Burlington, the • first post towi^ m the ? • , ^ 
108 .States ili:;*' - 

... «iRf'^rf* ^ 



?^«[] najR-pfiryl 



• - • ■ * • 






89 



78 



1*0 Skenesboro* ' :: .T.';. 

1-FortAhne ::;:....:.....::..:;:;:;";,: 12 

— DumaM Ferty * . » .j. .^ . • ,*^«.»^ 24 

i~ Waterfbrd :...::..... . .'';rfi'; . . . .V' 24 

12 



Albany City . . . ^0^4$%, 



tv <i\ 'i^-^'^'sV^ ^''^'150 1 



To Hudson City ;7.;. .'* ^a * . . i'^Tt^. ^'iP 34 
J- IUiinebeok....^.-.4*.-.w../^*':;':¥K^ 31 
-^ Poiighkecpsi€ m^^.,di'li'JVi::'»fi'i. 17 
-Si; PeckshiU.,^.-^^..., •.<•••.• .••i.^n'(^. 34 



/ 1 lEiMieR/tTIOIKiao 



3^1; 



^r^-}) r)d,fi?:n iirt}jd'<on fi'^^i.. .;' •'-^•rf^fu.^iiiiiwi 
To Kingsbridge • .^. ...... ^ 34 

— ''N'ew York' ••*'^^^^- ^-^^^^^^'S^ ^^^ •;.,ii' ^./aiiV' .- 

165 






.f*.rfl t: , 



'lihs expeaice of travelling post, m tower 
CamidA, is one shilling currency per league. 

The American packets, 'on Lake Champlain, 
charge from tlu-ee to four dollars for the pasisage 
from St. John's to Skenesborongfe; t distance of 
nearly 160 miles. < 

Froia Bkenteborough, the traveller proceeds 
to New York, in a waggon or stage, at the rate 
of threepence sterling per mile. 




Of th^^M&fcitants of tower (Canada, not more 
than one-tehth are British or American settlers 
from the tWited States. In tg^r (ianaaa, the 
populatiorf'i^' klmost entirely composed of the 
latter and British subjects, who have emigiated 
from various parts of the United Kingdom. 
Very few French' '{.^ople reside in that province, 
snd it is a i emarkabie circumstance, that among 
all the British residents in the two colonies, not 



32 



OBSErRVATIONS ON 



two hundred Englishmen perhaps can be found. ^ 
I Vas told, that, at Quebec, there were not more 
than twelve or fourteen of that country. Th^ 
fcst are either Irish or Scotch, though the former 
bear no proportion to the latter, who are distri, 
bute4'frQni one end of the Canadas to the otiher. 
The Irish pnigmte rtmrnto Iht'Unittd States than 
Canada, Being discontented with their own 
ffovermpaeoat, they endeavour to seek relief under 
a. fi;)^ei^'ji;«ie,.>yho^et virtues have been so greatly 
exaggerated^ anjd whose excellent propertied have 
been extolled to the skies. A few months, how- 
ever, convince them of their error, and those who 
are not sold to their American masters, generally 
find their way into Upper Canada. 

Of all British emigrants, the Scotch are the most 

indefatigable and perscvefing. I^ Pft^i®^y«i ^^^Y 
leave their i>ative home ; yet, seldom return tp it 

without a handsome competency. Their patient 

' ■ . . ''i''^' ' ■' '^ -•,"-■''• '..■■■■ ' ' -' . 
diligence, and submi^siqn in, thepur^ijl;of ri(4\es, 

together with their general knowledge and good 

sense, render them hiehly beneficial to the mo- 

,lher Sdoimtry, \rhile their natuM oartiality for 

V^g'/oin ;».eiJv sLiteU'l oTf»''3<I ^-'^'^ " ' ^ ' 

and adherence to tlip Britiaji epverpment 



.i! 1^ 



■bmigbation. 



33 



' The 'ekjiferices of the civil government in Upper 
Canada, are^dfefrayed by diretettaxes; by duti^ 
updtt^ tirtiele« imported from^ the United Sta!e!«i 
ailid'a' Ma granted by the Wer province, otitbf 
certain atlties: In Upper Cahada, fends, housfes 
idn^Mlb ; ^ Jtdfiires, cows, pigs, andother prop^jc 
ty are valued and taxed at the rate of one penny 
in the pound. Woodlands are valued at one shil- 
ling peracre; and cultivated lands at fifty shillings 
p^r'acr^i^^^A'l^sfe, with only one chimneyj pays 
no tax, but with two it is charged at the rate of 
forty pounds per annum, though it may be but a 
mere hovel. 



The inhabitants of Lower Canada pay no direct 
taxes, -except for the repair of roads, highways, 
paving streets, &c. and then they have the 
choice of working themselves, or sending one of 
their labourers with a horse and cart, &c. 

The timber and staves which are brought into 
^^^^^ j"?^ W.?^^«' ^'-e ciS'dii^ in winter" 
or spring, and collected into large rafts,- on Lake 
v^iiuaipium, whence they are floated down the 
river Richlieu, into the St. Lawxencc, anddepo- 

F. 



I 



"SW* 



34 oB,si^f\y4'f*9ihf^.#N 

sited along the sl^oi^e^^^Uteri ^^^^g|^,C^e, 
for an extent qf v^^ ^{jaja ^y^ ??^ l^r^ 
tjiey aye culled m^ m^^^ f^^ ^ S^^rP^^^^^-^ 
g;tan4ard slaves, qfM if^ }^^Si 4 W* S4fife 
^u4 5 m^m bresS, 9611 ift fJ^ada, fppiR M9' t9 
f5a t^e 1M0V Th# fyeiglit i^ i^ttlw »W^ 

;?r I'bfi laftS "v^^^^ ?^^g ^W^ *^ P^^ ®^^^ 
qr |ut?, Qr/e$^te4 wilU terds^ ^r,t}^9.ap(j^nxp5^% 

frequently consists of 100, or 150. ,^ , 

The following extract fijom a, kttSVf reesired 
from the intelligent fti^p,d r^^\4eiij..i^ C^a^ 
(yvjiom I mentioned b§fe^,>wjll b^ found in^^ 
re^tijog: , 

Dear Sir, — " As to what goods will sell best 
here, it is impossible fpr me to speak accurately. 
In one season articles sell well, in another very 
indifferently. Cargoes that have arrived from 
England this >-.ar (1817,) are selling at sales as 
ciieap as in England! The market is glutted, and 
indeed some articles are going off 20 pqr Cent 



HMmHATID^. 



85 



tlnfler PWfae Cost. Tfi^ course 6Y exdiahge iik 
at par at present : tbe diiFerenee of currency and 
steriing is i s. Qd. An English Guinea if weight, 
is worth £i. 3s, 9d. 



Ih Canada llf goid is taken by weight. Salt 
is flow going off here at the sales at "^s. 6d. per 
bushel: thii^ article is procured chieify from 
Liverpool. In some years 22S,O0O bushels hav6 
been exported. During Winter, it has been 
known to sell as high as 12s. 6d. per biishel, and 
even at 14s. but in the ensuing Spring it fell to 
3s. ed. ^hieU is geiieMy the price, at which it 
Is retailed. Shijis Iroin Liverpool are most com- 
monly ballasted with salt, and during the season 
of their arrival at Quebec, some of the merchants 
purchase it from Is. 3d. to Is. 8d. per bushel, 
-and monopohze it until the season is over, when 
no more supplies can be obtained, till the follow- 
ing Spring" 



The fruit of Canada is not remarkable either 
for goodness or cheapness, except strawberries 
and raspberries, which are brought to market in 
great abundance, during the season. They are 
gathered on the plains, at the back of Quebec, 
ilnd in the neighbouring woods, where they grow 
upon the ground, or amoAg the shrubs, in wild 



36 



OBSERVATIONS ON 






Ivixuriaace. The poor Canadians send their chil- 
dren to gather them, and aftewards sell them to 
the inhabitants at a moderate price. It is aii 
agreeable sight to view the fields covered with 
strawberries, in blossom, or ripe: few per- 
sons keep, them in gardens. The raspberry 
bushes are intermingled with the underwood of 
the forests, and afford an agf eeable treat to those 
who are fond of rambling in the woods. That 
pleasure, is, however, more than counterbalanced 
by the musquitoes and sand-flies, which never fail 
for three or four months in the summer to annoy 
those who venture to penetrate their abode* 



^n Ur 



'!( 



i'-i 



Apples and pears are procured from Montreal, 
where they grow in more, abundance, and in 
greater perfection, than in any other part of 
Lower Canada. They are sold for much the 
same price as in England. The apple which is 
most prized, is what they call the " pommegris," 
a smdl light brown ai>ple, somewhat resembling 
the russetin in appearance. Many persons say 
that it it superior to any English apple, but I 
never could agree with them in that particular. 
In my opinion it is not equal to many of our ap» 



i-'MIGRATION, 



37 



I 



pies, and cannot be com^ ared whh the ntnpareil, 
an apple which is not known ;n Canada. Seve- 
ral species of wild apples and pears are found in 
the woods, but they ^re of inferior quaUty to 
those, cultivated in the gardens and orchards. 

The .grapes brought to market are mostly of 
the wild species, which are gathered in the woods, 
or from vines that have been planted near the 
houses. Little care has been taken to improve 
tlie latter, so that very trifling iteration is dis- 
cernible. They are scarcely larger than currants, 
but when ripe, have a pleasant flavour, though 
rather sharp and pungent. There ai^e, a few 
European vines cultivated in the garde. \s, but 
the grapes are seldom to be purchased. Oranges 
and lemons are imported from England, and are 
always extremely scarce ; for the damage which 
they sustain on the voyage, renders them a very 
improfitable article for sale. They frequently 
sell (particularly oranges) at one or two shillings 
-ach. The.Iemons, which generally keep better, 
nre sometimes as low as six-pence, but they are 
often not to be purchased at any price. 



e 



Gooseberries, blackberries, and blucbemes, 



ds 



ODSF.IiVAtlrtM^ ON 



' dre in "fteat 'clmiiclahce, and grow vi/M in ttlfe 
woods. Those ci^tivated in gardens are Pixtch 
mpttlot. Currants came originally from E>irope, 
and are to be found: only in gardens ; thferfe i§ df 
course bnt a scanty eupply of thetti at iha^kdi. 
Plums are plentiful in the market, they are of 
ih6 wild sj>ecies, though often introdufced kito 
gard6tts. they are generally of two sorts, th6 
white and black, and resemble the most common 
&f oufplwns. Walnuts and flltterts are hy ttb 
means comthon in Canada, and are procured 
principally tyy importation from England. Hic- 
kory and l^azel ruts are met with in the fotestsr. 
Cherries are grown in gentlemen^s gardens only : 
wild cherries are, however, scattered over the 
cottntry, and a very agreeable liqueur is made 
with them, which in flavour resembles noyau. 



-* 



Vegetables may be obtained in tolerable quan- 
tities at the markets. The potatoe is now gen- 
orally grown in Canada ; it was introduced by the 
English settlers. Onions, leeks, peas, beans, 
and cabbages, are much esteemed. Gardening 
is, however, as little understood as farming, and 
nothing is brought to market in perfection. Gar- 
deners of skill, sobriety, and industr^^ would 



EMfmHATi^^a 



is 



09 



i»Q«t M^ijth considerable efipourageine^t, b(«^ j* 
Upper and iower Canada. Scotch g»ideo«rff, «<!> 
^^lebr^t^d for ilyek 3up^rior intel%eiice, tfc«ir 
fghmty, and their perseverance, woi?ld eifect 

wonders with the soil of either provio^* .% 

, toge qualities of whea^t areraisedin Canada, 
and exported to Great Brit^, and yet tl^. ar- 
ticle bread, i$ not so cheap as it ought to be.^ 
Upper €fti»da is particitoly luxuriant in the 
productioii of the finest wheat. There is no de- 
f ciency of miUs for grinding wheat. The price 
^jfbt^ad Is regula/ed monthly by the magistrates. 

If the emigrant farmer should be poor, ho 
mVifmtiiffcMitles, toepfCQumr mesMishmg him- 
#^ Airived-at his land, he has no shelter tili 
fee ^ects hi$ house; he then cuts down trees, 
and clears hi$ ground of brusliwood> &c. by fire. 
By degrees he ameliorates his land, obtain* 
shelter for his cattle, &c. Enterprising men who 
have courage to surmount difhculties, will in the 
end do very well, as thousands have done.— 
That farmer will best succeed who can com-mand 
a wnall capital, from jBaoo. to ^400. With this 



40 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



he dan purchase a farm in the neighbourhood of 
JMontreal, where the ground is luxuriant, and the 
frosts do not injure the crops, as is often the 
case at Quebec : he will also tind a market for 
his productions. 



r ■ 

!:, 

J- 



The price of the best land averages from 25 
to 30 dollars per. acre. Perhaps^ the best land 
is in the neighbourhood of Montreal. The farms 
are generally cleared of trees about a mile back. 
Few trees are suffered to grow near the houses. 
In the clearing of land, the Canadians are very 
fond of white-washing, but do not trouble them- 
selves about painting'them. 

Sugars are obtained at a reasonable rate? 
Green tea is generally drank in Canada, and differ 
considerably in price : the highest is lOs. per lb. 
Hysqji sells from 12s. to 14s. per lb. Tea comes 
fmm the United States, and considering that no 
duty is paid on it, is certainly dear. Chocolate 
and Coffee also come from the United States, and 
average aj 2s. per lb. 



Soap and Candle* are made at Quebec and 



EMICiRATION. 



41 



irhood of 
, and the 
>ften the 
arket for 



are very 
ble them- 



ible ratec 
and differ 
3s. per \b» 
>ja comes 
ig that no 
Chocolate 
States, and 



nebec and 



Montreal, not extremely good in qualit5^ ^^^ ia 
price as high as in England. Tobacco is univer- 
sally grown in Canada, and yet it is imported 
from the United States in considerable quantities. 

Some cheese is also obtained from the United 
States, which is nearly of the same quality as 
Suffolk cheese- This sells from 7d. to 9d. per 
pound. English cheese sells high, from 2s. to 
2s. 6d. .per pound. 

The trades likely to flourish in the Canadas, 
are those of the shipwright, block and mast ma- 
ker, blacksmith, house carpenter, joiner, mill- 
wriglit wheel-wright, boat-builder, cabinet ma- 
kers, saddler, painter, baker, tailor, tanner, hair 
dresser, and whitesmith. There are others, no 
doubt, \)V'hich I do not immediately recollect, 
that would answer extremely well. Skill and 
industry will make their way every where. 

1 liave known, in several instances, an associa- 
tttijti of the hcmse cariieiiter and blacksmith to 
expedite considerably the formation of ap. inihsxt 
«<Ht!««'"TCnt. Tliry lij^ve en>igrated together from 



42 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



M 



England, and their union has materially facilita* 
ted the progress of their establishment in their 
adopted country. 

Ship builders, in Canada, are in general an 
indifferent set of men. Many of them are from 
the river (Thames) and the dissolute habits of 
these, are proverbial. Shipwrights, of sober* 
steady habits, cannot fail of doing well in the 
• St. Ivuurence. The Canadian Shipwrights, how- 
ever, make up for lack of skill, by habit, the very 
reverse of those of the Europeans. 

• 

Tliere is certainly a great want of useful hands 
in Canada, but, perhaps it is not so great as is 
apprehended in England. 

The wages of artificers are good, but thaj must 
imitate the ants. Tliose who cannot save during 
the Summer, are miserable during the Winter, 
when many are out of employment. 




For a small society like that of Canada, the 
nuinber of unfaithful wives, kftTit mistresHea, and 
pfirls of easy virtue, exceed in proportion thoet 



r^^'^/-J. 



KMIGRATION. 



43 



of the old country, and it is supposed that in the 
towns more children are born illegitimately than 
in wedlock. Trials for crim, con, are however 
unknown. 



^aapQ. nni 



Good female servants are very scarce in Ca- 
nada. Following the example of their mis- 
tresses, few can be found who are exempt from 
the vices of the age. Their wages are from £12 
to £20 per annum, and notwithstanding they 
are so liberally paid, they seldom remain above 
a month in a place. A servant that remains in 
her place four or five months is looked upon as a 
pattern of excellence. Farmer's servants get 
from £36 to 40 a year currency, and provisions. 
A careful man may of course lay by something. 

Blessed with a luxuriant soil, wliich he obtains 
on easy terms, the habitan of Canada raises the 
productions of the earth with inconsiderable 
labour, and satisfied with the practice of his 
fore-fathers, obstinately rejects the advice whidi 
would lead to improvement and profit. It will 
therefore be re&dilv iierf-nivprl wlmf u;.,,«,iof. 
advantages await the /Wz/A^r/WM- agricultural onv- 

I* 



44 



OBSJIHVATIONS ON 



grant on his arrival in Canada. What effects 
itt\ist be produced by the introduction into tlial 
country, <jf the superior modes of husbandry 
adopted in England, and what wonders will not^ 
these methods produce, when associated with the 
cliaracteristic perseverance and industry of the 
farmers of the United Kingdom ! 



1 



They will have difficulties to encounter, but 
" Nihil itnpos&ibik industrice est,'' — nothing is im- 
possible to industry. The increase of agriculture 
and commerce has caused many hi Canada to 
emerge from poverty and neglect, to opulence 
and esteem; and he that dares to be resolute im 
the teeth of obstacles, will find that success will 
generally crown his ettbrts. * 

" The wise and prudent con(/uer dijicidtics 

** Bv daring to attempt them.*' 



I 



The emigrant will also find tlie habits of the 
people with whom he is called to associate very 
different from those of the people whom he has 
quitted ; but it should be his businei^s to accom- 
modate himself to circumstances, and he will 
find, that, in a great degree, his comforts will 



EMIGRATIOiV. 



43 



be proportioned to the disposition which he may 
carry with him into his newly-adopted society. 
With him, prudent conformity to new habits will 
<>ften be wisdom. 

The observations which ha^e been rapidly 
made on the soil, the scenery, commerce, trad§, 
&c. of Lower Canada, will nearly apply to the' 
Upper Province. 



The <?Umate of Upper Canada is much more 
tenipeiikte md soft than that of the Lower Pro- 
vince, and it is on that and cm many otlier 
accounts preferred by emigrants.. Veget;ation i& 
extremely r^^pid, the harvests remarkably abund- 
ant; and, by many. Upper Canada has bee» 
tei. 3d the garden of North America. The pri^i- 
cipal towns are York, Kingston, Queejji^tOii 
md Nisigaru. The capital (York) is oji Lake 
Omtario, and is rapidly im leasing in iiuporlaocc* 
All the towns ane|)opuiious, and the commerce orf' 
the whol3 praviiifle hab «onsidorablv increased 
•witliiji the kst ten years, an^ is sliU iucrfiasing. 

Direct taxation is very trifling, and any mm 



46 



OBSEllVATIONS 0\ 



rrr 



with a moderate sum of Hioncy, has il in liis 
power to acquire a handsome competency. 

The manners, customs, and anmsements of the 
people, resemble those of the British jiatioi\: and 
though society is yet in its infancy, it is not 
wanting' in those requisites which make it agree- 
able to strangers. 



England derives considerable benefit and as- 
sistance from the productions and commerce of 
♦t^\>per Canada. Yet Government does not appear 
to be sensible of the high importance of this 
rising state. Greater encouragement must yet 
be held out to those who are disjwsed to emigrate, 
and the fostering hand of a paternal Administra- 
tion nmst cheer and animate the mind of the 
ildventurer. 

That there yet unaccountably exists a want of 
due attention, on the part of Goverinnent, to this 
national concern, may be inferred from the perusal 
of the excellent letter of Mr. Goulray, to the 
Gentlemen of Canada— a letter which is so con- 
clusive on the subject, that I must beg leave to 
recommend it to my readers particular attention. 



KMIGRATION. 



47 



il 


in his 


icv 


• 


Ills 


of the 


Ui()i\: and 


it 


is not 


3 it 


agree- 



t and as- 
imerce of 
lot appear 
•e of this 
must yet 
(emigrate, 
dministra- 
ind of the 

a want of 
jnt, to this 
;he perusal 
ay, to the 

is so con- 
;g leave to 
r attention. 



" QuKENSTON, October, 1817. . 
'* Gentlemen— I am a British farmer, and 
iiave visited this province to ascertain what advan- 
tages it possesses in an Agricultural point of view. 
After three months residence, I am convinced 
that these ar-e great—far superior, indeed, to what 
the Mother Country has ever held out, eitlier as 
they concern speculative purchase, or the profits 
of present occupation. Under such impressions, 
it is my purpose as soon as circumstances will 
permit, to become a settler; and in the mean 
time would willingly do what lay mi my power to 
benefit the country of my choice. When I speak 
in this sanguine manner of the capabilities of 
Caiiada, I take it for granted that certain politi- 
cal restraints to improvement will be speedily 
removed. Growing necessity, and the opinion 
of every sensible man with whom I have con- 
rersed on the srbject, gives assurance of this. 
My present address, therefore, waves all regard 
to political arrangements : it has in view, simply 
to open a correspondence bet^veen you and your 
fellow subjects at home, where the utmost igno- 
rance pre\ails with respect to the natural re- 
sources of this fine country. Travellers havQ 
published po'^iiig remarks^ they have told won- 
derful stories, and amused the idle of England 
with descriptions of the beautiful and grand 

srptiprv Tvlii/>li nrt4,>...^ i.„„ 1. ,i: i j, i _, 

. ..,„.,..„„... ^ ii«.~ iiv;jc ui.spiuycu; uumo 

authentic account has yet been afforded to men, 



V iM ^': 



m^ 



''d' 




ODSEIiVAiriOlVS ON 

of capital — to men of enterprise and skill, of those 
important facts which are essential to be known, 
before such men will launch into foreign specify 
lation, or venture with their families, in quest of 
better fortune across the Atlantic. In this state 
6f ignorance, you have hitherto had for settlers 
diiiefly poor men driven from their home by de- 
spair — these men, ill-informed and lost in the no^ 
.velties which surround them, make at first but a 
feeble commencement, and ultimately form a so- 
ciety, crude^ unambitious, and weak. In your 
Newspapers I have frequently observed hints to- 
wards bettering" the condition of these poor set- 
tlers, and for ensuring their residence in the 
Pi-ovinces. ii^uch hints evidently spring from 
bene\'X)lent feelings ; they are all Well meant, and 
may tend to alleviate individual distress, but can 
produce no important good to the country. Ca- 
nada is Worthy of something better than a mere 
guidaiice to it of the blind and the lame ; it has 
attractions to s.timulate desire, and place its cd- 
ImuzatioTl above the aids of necessity. — Hands no 
doubt are necessary, but next to good laws the 
gtknd requisite for the improvement of any coun- 
tty, is capital. CouH a flow of capital be once 
diinetted to this ([uarter, hands would not be 
wa^itiug-, n^dr would tli^se hands be so chilled with 
^^ poverty a« to need the jiutronage of charitable 
iHBnriUi<ins. At this moment Biili^h c'a>)ital is 



overflowing , ti'ude is yielding it up ; the fatrds 



IMMIGRATION* 



49 



cannot profitably absorb it; land mortgages are" 
gorged; and it is streaming to waste in the six 
per cents, of America. Why should not this 
stream be diverted into the woods of Canada, 
where it would find a still higher rate of interest, 
with the most substantial security? 

" Gentlemen ! The moment is most auspicious 
to your interest, and you should take advantage 
of it. You should make known the state of this 
country ; you should advertise the excellence of 
the raw material which Nature has lavishly 
spread before you ; you should inspire confidence, 
and tempt able adventurers from home. At this 
time there are thousands of British farmers sick- 
ened with disappointed hopes, who would readily 
com^ to Canada, did they but know the truth ; 
many of these could still command a few thou- 
sand pounds to begin with here; while others 
less able in means, have yet preserved their 
character for skill and probity, to entitle them 
to the confidence of capitalists at home, for whom 
they could act as agents in adventure. Under 
the wing of sucli men the redundant population 
of Britain would emigrate with cheerfulness, and 
be planted here with heartsimbroken. We hear 
of 4 or 5,000 settlers arriving from home this 
season, and it is talked of as a great accession 
to the population of the provinces. It is a mere 



J !'__ 



wi up liom ine Ducsei. 

" The extent of calamity already occasioneci 

G 



a.. 



so 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



by the system of the poor laws, cannot be even 
imagined by strangers. They may form some 
idea, however, when I tell them, that last winter 
1 saw in one parish (Blackwall, within five miles 
of Lonc'on) several hundreds of able-bodied men 
harnessed and yoked, fourteen together, in carts, 
hauling gravel for the repair of the highways ; 
each H men performing }mt about as much 
work as an old horse led by a boy could accom- 
phsh. We have heard since, that £1,500,000 
has been voted to keep the poor at work ; m\d 
perhaps the most melancholy consideration of the 
whole is, that there are people who trust to 
such means as a cure for the evil. While all this 
\% true; when the money and labour of England 
is thus wasted; when thousands of our fellow- 
subjects are emigrating into the States ofAmerica, 
when we ewn hear of them being led off to toil 
with th« boors of Poland, in the cultivation of a 
countiy where the nature of the Government 
wmst counteract t\\e utmost eibrts towards im- 
prc^vement— i* it not provoking thatall tliis should 
«o oa merely from a reigning ignorance of the 
jiuperior advantages which Canada ha» in store, 
and a thoughtlessnes* a* to the grand poHcy 
which might be adopted) for the general aggran- 
dizement of the British nation? Some have 
tliought the exclusion of American citizens a 
great bar to the Kpeedy settlement of Canada ; 
bwt at liberalvsystem of colonization h'om Europe, 



KiMIGKATION. 



51 



would reiwler this of small impoitaiice. Before 
coming to a decided opinion on this important 
subject, I took much pains to inform myself of 
facts. A minute enquiry on the spot where Go- 
vernment has endeavoured to force a settlement, 
satisfied me as to the causes of the too notorious 
failure there. It convinced me tliat the fault by 
no means rested with the incapacity of the sett- 
lers, but resulted from the system pursued. I 
have since spent a month perambulating the Ge- 
nesee country, for the express purpose of forming 
a comparison between British and American 
management. That country lies parallel to this ; 
it possesses i\o superior advantages: its settle- 
jnent began ten years later: yet I am ashamed 
to say, it is already ten years before Canada in 
improvement. This has been ascribed to the 
superior loyalty of the American people, but most 
erroneously. The art of clearing land is as well 
understood here as in the States :— men direct 
from Britain are as energetic, and after a little 
practice, sufficiently expert witli the axe, while 
they are more regular in tlieir habits and more 
persevering in tlieir plans than the Americans. 
No impjovement has taken place in the Genesee 
country, which could not be far exceeded here, 
under a proper system. It was indeed British 
capital and enterprize which gave the first gran^ 
impetus to the improvement of that comitrv! 
much of its improvement is still proceeding mi- 



52 



03SEIIVATI0NS ON 



i.n 



■■^ff 




der Biltish agency; and one of its most flourish- 
ing townships is wholly occupied by men who 
came with slender means from the Highlands of 
Sccitland. In the Genesee country the Govern- 
ment pocketed much, but forced nothing, and 
charity there has been leii without an object. 

*^ Gentlemen — The inquiries and observations 
which I have recently made ori the subject of 
eettlement, assure me that neither in these pro- 
vinces nor in the United States, has a proper 
system been pursued. The mere filling of the 
world with men, should not be the sole object of 
political wisdom: This should regard the filling 
of it with beings of superior intellect and feeling, 
without which the desart had better remain oc- 
cupied by the beaver and the bear. That society 
of a superior kind may be nursed up in Canada, 
by an enlarged and liberal connection with the 
mother country. I am very confident; and its 
being realized is the fond hope which iiiduces me 
to come forward with my present proposals, and 
which, if these proposals meet with support, will 
continue the spur oi my exertions to con plete 
the work which I have n^ . m view. Many of 
you, Gentlemen, have been bred up gt home, 
and well know how superior, m many respects, 
are the arrangements and habits of society there, 
$.0 what they are on this side the Atlantic. Such 
never can be hoped for here under the present 
pysteru of eoionisutio , w^iuCu uniigs out oTuy s. 



EMIGRATION. 



53 



part, and that the weakest part of society— which 
places poor and destitute individuals in remote 
situations, with no object before them but grovel- 
ing selfishness---no aid— no example— no fear 
either of God or man. Is it not possible to create 
such a tide of commerce as would not only 
bnng with it part ot society, but society com- 
plete, with all the strength and order and refine- 
ment which it hasr w attained in Britain, beyond 
^11 precedent t Si . y Government would afford 
every facility to a commerce which would not 
only enrich, but eternally bind together Britain 
and its Provinces, by the most powerful sym- 
pathies of manners and taste, and affection. 

Government can never too much encourage the 
growth of this colony, by a liberal system of 
emigration. When we come from- home we are 
not expatriated; our feelings as British subjects 
grow more warm with distance, and our greater 
experience teaches ua the mo*re to venerate the 
principles of our native land— the country where- 
in the Sciences have made the greatest progress, 
atid where alone are cultivated to perfection the 
arts of social life. At home, we have experienced 
evils : we know thu. infiaences are there, waich 
war against the principles of the constitution and 
counteract its most benevolent designs. Here, 
we are free of such influences, we are perfectly - 
contented, and a fine field lies open to us for cul- 
tivating the best fruits of civil and religious liber- 



M 






54 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



ty. An enlarge^ and liberal connection between 
Canada and Britain, appears to me to promise the 
happie,"^ results to the cause- of civilization. It 
promises a new^era in the history of our species ; 
It promises the growth of manners with manly 
epidt, modesty vvith acquirements, and a love of 
truth superior to the boasting of despicable vani- 
ty. The late war furnished the strongest proof 
pf the jising spirit of this colony, even under 
every disadvantage ; and pity would it l)e, wer^ 
so noble a spirit ever again exposed to risk. The 
late war shewed at once the affection which 
Britain beavs to Canada, and the desire which 
Canada has to continue under the wing of Britain. 
When a connection is established between the two 
countries worthy of such manife£*'>*Mns, all risk 
will cease. Britain will u Vij. • .,^ve to ex- 
pend her millions here. \ \\s >. try will not 
only be equal to its own defence, but the last 
.hope of invasion' Vill wither before its strength. 
While Canada remains i)oor and neglected, she 
can only be a burden to Britain ; when improved 
and wealthy she will amply repay every debt, 
and become the powerful friend of the paient 
state. Whpi I conceive to be the first reciuisite 
for opening a suitable communication with the 
mother country, is the irawing out and publisl>- 
ing a well authenticated statistical account of Up- 

•v^« I'^^.^^A^ ni^klo r,annnf l-i*» nflfl'Pf f»rl hv Jl Sinfflc 
|75r5 'V''aiia.ii3.. X liiCT -wctiriiv-t- ? — c; — 

hard : it must be the work and ha\ e the authority 



EMIGRATION. 55 

of many. To give it commeWement, I submit 
,tQ your consideration the annexed queries; and, 
could these be replied to from every township in 
the Province, the work would be far advanced. 
These queries have been shewn to many of the 
riiost respectable individuals in this Province, and 
the scheme of collecting materials in this way, 
for a statistical account, has, by every one, been 
approved. Spme have doubted whethfer there 
exists sufficient energy and public spirit in the 
remote townships to reply to them. I hope there 
is! and certainly no organized township is desti- 
ttite of individuals qualified for the task, if they 
will but take so much trouble. Some Gentlemen 
have met my ideas so cordially as to offer to 
collect information, not only for their own, but 
for other townships. Correct information, how- 
ever, is not the only requisite : authority is also 
wan^^ed of that species wJiich will not only carry 
weight with it to a distance, but remain answcra* 
ble on the spot for whatever is advanced. The 
desirable point, therefore, is to obtain replies se- 
parately from each township, and to Iiave these 
attested by the signature of as many of the re- 
spectable inhabitants as possible. To accomplish 
this in the speediest and most effectual manner, 
a meeting might be held in each township, and in 
the space of an hour or two the business might 
be perfected.— The queries have been drawn out 
as simple as poswble, with a view to the practi- 



■•tp1 






TT"' 



I 



m 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



t 

cability of having them answered in this gener^ 
way. They embrace only such matters as it 
must be in the p')wer of every inteUigent farmer 
to speak to, and the information to be obtained 
by them will be sufficient tb assure farmers and 
others at home who have money to engage in 
adventure, tliat adventure here will not only be 
rational and safe, nut that they themselves may 
sit do\m in Ceinada with comfort and indepen- 
dence. i^Uhough to prevent confusion in the 
general fulfilment of the sciieme, I have confined 
the range of queries, 5t would still be very desir- 
able if intelligent individuals would communicate 
their sentiments with .regard to any measure of 
impnjvemint w'\ich occurs to them, or any 
remarkable fki :t or o!)servation they have made 
concrrning the climate, soil, or /^.cultivation of the 
province. Should any correspondent dislike my 
using his name publicly, he need only give a 
caution, and it shall be observed. 

»* If the quev'es olitaln notice, and sufficient 
documents are forwarded to me, I shall arrange 
them and p\ibli:di them in England, whither I am 
soon to retura. Had i\\\^ task required superior 
ability, such an offer would be presumption. I 
thmk it reqtures industry alone, aud tlia'.. I iiball 
contribute most willin-ly. - Whoever thinks well 
of this scheme, and feels a desire to promote it, 
let h'.m not hesitate or delay : pu nipt assistance 
will be every thing ; and as to trouble, let iuaivi- 
duals compare theirs to mine. 



SHIGRA 



57 



s gener^ 
ers as it 
nt farmer 
obtained 
'mers and 
engage in 
)t only be 
elves may 
I indepen- 
on in the 
e confined 
.-ery desir- 
nmunicate 
neasure of 
, or any 
lave made 
( tion of the 
dislike my 
[\\y give a 



" Though I g]ratyitou^ly njake offer of my time, 
I must be relieved of expence as much as pos- 
sibier and s^U expect ^ comn^ajcatioDs to be 
post paid. No person, I think, whp piterestg 
himself at all in the matter will grudge his item 
in this way. Divided mrntig many, such charges 
wifl be trifftr biit acriimuJaled upon one. tiey 
would be serious. , j ,„« ^i , .j ^.^^ 

" Should the work succefedtomyMdsh,.! would 
propose not only publishing it in the English, but 
German language, h la well knowi ^^hat the 
people of that nation ar^ most desirable settTers* 
and it is a fact, that many of them haveiiiot the 
means of commimicating to tteir friends the ^^ery 
superior ad,vantages of .this country, .pne cf 
them, who has been in Canada thirteen years, 
lately told me, that "toiisands and tousafids 
would come over, did they but know how good 
a country it is for poor peoples." 



! sufficient 
lall arrange 
hither I am 
ed superior 
irption. I 
tlia'i I iihall 
thinks well 
promote it, 
t assistance 
?, let iuaivi- 



. V'^ 



.•7|> ■• 



\l 




■MM I 



58 



OBSESAWI'IONS ON 



The princifial stream of ^ittigkfen flow^ t* 
the United States, and here, are c.pncentrated, 
adventurers from' .^y^?^, |^a^^; ,^|", i purope,— tl}£ 
visiphary-— the bankrupt in fortune an^ infame^ 
the idle and the vicious. Happily here are also 
to be found, emigrants of very different character 
—the industriousl^sober, skilful mechanic^--the 
h(Miest, plodding, , ingenious manufacturer ;— 
the pains-taking indefatigable peas^t, and the 

invaluable respected farmer men of sound 

moral and religious habits, whom tjie cruel ne- 
cessity 'of the ^tjuj^^ has driven Jroaith^.old 
world, to seek competence and happiness in the 



new. 



.(''H*^. 



.;(| t'U 



A very intelligent and respectable farmer, 
lately of the county of Surry, has setUed in a 
delightful .situation in the Illinois territory, and 
observes in a work just published, that a nation, 
(the English) w ith half its population, supported 
by alms or poor rates, and one fourth of its in- 
j_-:..«,i A.«rr» tovAB mfinv of which are ■ 

dried up in their sources, or speedily becoming 



,ii 



^EMIGRATION. 



■: • > 



59 



so, must teem with emigrants from one end to 
the other ; and for such as myself who have had 
nothing to d6 with the lavvs but to obey them, it 
is quite reasonable and just to secure a timely 
retreat from the approaching crisis-~either of 
anarchy and despotism. 



An English farmer, to which class I had the 
honour to belong, is in possession of the same 
rights and priviliges with the Villeins of old time, 
and exhibits for the most part a suitable political 
eharactef. He has no voice in the appointment 
of the legislature, unless he happen to possess a 
freehold of forty shillings a year, and he is then 
expected to vote on the side of his landlord. He 
has no concern with public affairs, excepting as 
a tax-payer, a parish officer, or a militia man. 
He has no right to appear at a county meeting, 
unless the word inhabitants should find its way 
into the sheriff's invitation ; in this case he may 
show his face^^ among the nobility, clergy, and 
freeholders : — a felicity which occurred to myself 
when the inhabitants of Surry were invited to 

assist the gentrv in crvintr /1/Mirn ♦!»« in^rxM^A *«... 



m 



OB$£RV4TIONS ON 



Thug hftving no elective, franchise, an English 
farmer can scarcely be said to haye a political 
existence, and political duties hehftsnone* ex- 
cept such, as under existing circumstances, would- 
inevit^))|y ajngsign him to the special guaTdian«hip 
of the secretary of state for the home departmenli, 



In exjchanging l3ie condition of an English 
farmer for that of an American proprietor, I ex- 
pert to puffer many inconveniences, but I am 
willing to make a great sacrifice of present ease> 
were it merely for the sake of obtaining in the 
decline of life, an exemption from that wearisome 
solicitude about pecuniary affairs, from whic^i 
even the affluent find no refuge in England „ 
and for my children a <iareer of enterprise and 
wholesome family connections, in i^ society 
whose institutions are favourable to virtue, ai^d 
at last the consolation of leaving them efficient 
members of a flourishing, public-spirited, ener- 
getic community, where the ^nsol^nce of wealthy, 
and the ser\'ility of pauperism, betweeri which 
in England there is scarcely an interval remain,- 
in^ a?e .alil<^c unknown." • f 



EMIGRATION. 



61 



Such are the affecting remarks of a most re- 
spectable and intelligent English Farmer, and 
though high national prejudice may be ready to 
exclaim — 

" England, with ail thy faults, lime thee still t- 
there is unfortunately too much truth in his 
observations. 



Powerful indeed must be the motives which 
thus induce men to abandon their native soil, 
endeared to them by the ties of kindred and 
connection*, and by the numberless associations 
which they form from infancy to manhood.—. 
Local and national prejudices more or less attach 
themselves to Everyman; they are among the 
best feelings of our nature, and the philosophy of 
that being is not to envied, who has almost di- 
vested himself of Buch delightful prepossessions. 
How acut<? then must be the feelings of those 
who cast a last longing look at the shores of their- 
beloved country, and feel an indescribable thrill 
-;a death-like pang shooting over the soul, at 
the thought of a final, an eternal separation. 
Goldsmith has eome exquiaite lines cm the 
flubject: — . a 



62 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



':1V 



E'en now the devastation is begun, 

And lialf the business of destruction done : 

£v'n now, methinks, as pondering here I stand, 

I sec the rural virtues leave the land ; 

Down where yon anchoring vessel spreads the sail, 

That idly waiting flaps with every gale, 

Downward they move, a melancholy band. 

Pass from the shore, and darken all the strand, ' 

Contented Toil, and hospitable Care, 

And kind connubial Tenderness, ar« there; 

And Piety with wishes plac'd above. 

And steady Loyalty, and faithful Love. 




Good heaven ! what sorrows gloom'd tliat parting day, 
That called them from their native walks away I 
When the poor exiles, every p''^-*sure past. 
Hung round the bowers, and fondly look'd their last, 
And took a long farewell, and wish'd, in vain. 
For seats like these beyond the western main ; 
And, shudd'ring still to face the distant deep, 
Beturn'd and wept, and still return'd to weep. 
The good old sire, the first prepared to go 
To new-found worlds, and wept for others' woe; 
But for himself, in conscious virtue brave, 
He only wish'd for worlds beyond the grave. 
His lovely daughter, lovelier in her tears, 
' The fond companion of his hapless years, 
Silent went next, neglectful of her charms. 
And left a lover's for a father's arms. 
With londer plaints the mother spoke her woe». 
And bless'd the cot where every pleasure rose. 



EMIGRATION, . 63 

And kiM'd her thoughtles* babea with many a tear, 
^^ ^"dclasp'd them close, in sorrow doubly dear; 
Whilst hf?r fond husband strove to lend relief 
In all the silent manliness of grief. 

- And, notwithstanding the immense change 
that takes place in the situation of the emigrant ; 
though relieved from the pressure of want, and 
th<3 rigour of that taxjation which assailed him in 
Europe, he must for. some time continue to be 
the victim of solicitude. Amid the most 
luxuriant scenes— the happiest combinations of 
nature— the grandeur of mountains and lakes— 
the waving of venerable foliage— amid flowers 
arid herbage, and the music of earth and sky, he 
will send moments when his thoughts will invo- 
Juntarily turn to the land of his fore-fathers— to 
his beloved— lost— country. Mr. Birkbeck, ia 
his " Notes on America," has a touching passage 
to this effect :— 



' " The world we have left at so remote a dis- 
tance, and of which we hear so little, seems, to my 
imagination, like a past scene, and its transr 
Actions, as matter rather of higtnrv f linn nf ».,.«_ 
sent interest; but there are times, when the xo^ 



OBS-ERVATION^ ON 



^ri'A 



m 



collection of individuals, dear to us, and whom 
we cannot hope to meet again on earth, might 
be too painful; but the occupations >yhich sur- 
round us soon demand our iattention, and afford, 
^Bot a eitn-—iot.t^m which i^ thi^ only $wiQus 
ill which w« experie»ee from our change, but a 
9\ire dUeviatim,'* 



i;. 



•I jQuitting this sublet, which has in it something 
o£an expressive nature, it is extremely interesT 
SBg to contemplate the eaiigration which is taking 
place, not only from our island, but from the 
continent. Europe seeiaa to be precipitating 
itself ii> America. Vessd^ from ^ery part qf the 
former are winging their course ovear the Attentie, 
laden with human beings, who v<j*uutariJy ext 
patriate themselves to becom« tlae dim^oi ih^ 
country of Franklm aaad Wa«hi»git€«. 3ho^ld 
'this emigration continue, and there: is every prpr 
bability, not only of its continuance, but even 
of its increase* it is jeasy to pertecivf^ i^ future 
eftectsonthe destinies both ©lEwr^peajadAme* 
rica. Already there are twenty transatlantic re- 
puUiieB, and already does an aetiv«w hftrdy an^ 
.intelligent population swannii on the fiwje oil the 



EMlORATIONi 



65 



new wotld, while tens of thousands are annually 
augmenting its numbers* ay 'Imi - • ai ^lohstr/i 



New York'appears to be (heportat ^ii^hich the 
g^eatest number of emigrants disembark, Many: 
of those who land at this dnd at the other ports 
pursue trades, and hope for immediate and lucra^ 
tive employment. But it should be most.di»^ 
tinclly understood, that the great cities, towns 
And ports in the United States, are //^f/ and have 
long been full of the very best workmen. A foreign 
tradesman on arriving at a great port in America, 
is astonished to find that there is no lack of work- 
men— that house rent is as dear ^ in London^ 
that provisions are not so cheap as he expected, 
that clothing is extravagantly dear, and to crown 
all, that wages are not very superior, to that 
which he has quitted. He desponds and regrets 
that he left home for •• the land " which was said 
"to flow with milk and honey." It is his own 
fault however : he has been too sanguine, and has 
made false calculations. The press of emigrants 
for so many years, into the large towns, has filled 
them with numerous and valuable wnrkinen>— a 
fact which cannot be too well kiwwn . But if the 

1 



66 



OB^EHVATIONS OX 



eitiigrant has the means of penetrating into the 
interior, he will find employ and good wages. 

It has been remarked that notwithstanding the 
immense emigration of workmen to the principal 
cities and to\^ns of North Aitierica, few lerge 
manufactories have been succesefuk Many have 
been erected, and much valuable machinery has 
been obtained from England, &c. but in a short 
time these manufactories have been deserted, not 
only by the workmen, but even by the overseers, 
or foremen who directed them. The fact is, that 
farming offers very superior advantages, and the 
manufacturer exchanges his confined and seden- 
tary life, for one of activity and independence, 
and in which health, and the means of acquiring 
competence, arc united. 

As a great proportion of the emigrants from 
Europe lands at New York , a short account of 
thife noble city, the Tyre of Nortli America, may 
not be uninteresting. 



New York is the first city in the United States^ 
for wealth, commerce, and population, as it als* 



^^\F,HumArri0^ 



67 



is tluj fine«^,'a|i^ most agre^ble foi- its Situation 
and buil.dJiag^, |t has jieithep tlie narrow mi 
coofiaGdirr^^iaarity ol Boi^ton, mr the monoto. 
lious regularity ©f Philadelphia, but a happy 
aifidiuia betweeu both. When the intended mr 
piweiiieiits are- completed, it will be a very 
el^gawt ai)d ^j^^mmndious tow^i', and worthy of 
becoming tli^ capital of the iVmM States, for it 
seems thai Wa$hii)gtQii is by no means calculated 
for a metropolitiau city. Kew York l^n rapidly 
improved within the twenty years, and land 
which then sold in that city for twenty doHars, 
is now worth 1,500. 



The Broadway and Bowery road, are the two 
finest avenues in the city, andnearly of thesame 
width as Oxford-street, in London. The first com- 
mences from the grand battery, situate at the 
extreme point of the town, and divides it into 
two unequal parts. It is upwards of two iniies 
in length, though the pavement does not extend 
above a mile and a quarter; the remainder of 
the road consists of straggling houses, which are 
the commencement of new streets already 
planned out. The Bowery road commentTs 




68 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



I, 



from Chatham street, which branches off from 
the Broadway to the right; by the side of the 
Park. After proceeding about a mile arid a half, 
it joins the Broadway, arid terminates the plan 
which is intended to be carried into effect fot 
the enlargement of that city. Much of the inter- 
mediate spaces between these large streets, and 
from thence to the Hudson and East Rivers, is 
yet Unbuilt upon, or consists only of unfinished 
streets and detached buildings. * 




Tlie houses in the Broadway are lofty and well 
built. They are constructed in the English style, 
and differ but little from those of London, at the 
west end of the town, except thafctl^ey are uni- 
versally of red brick. In the vicinity of the 
battery, and for some distanqo up the Broadway, 
they are nearly all private houses, and occupied 
by the principal merchants and gentry of New 
York; after which, the Bfoudwa/ is lined with 
laige commodious shops of every description, 
well stocked with European and India goods, 
and exhibiting a.« splendid and varied show in 
tlieir windows, as can be met with in London. 
There are several extensive book stores, print 



EMIGRATION, 



69 



off from 
is of the 
ndahalf, 

the plan 
effect for 
the inter- 
eets, and 
livers, is 
mfinished 



' and well 
lish style, 
)n, at the 
r are uni- 
y of the 
roadway, 
occupied 
r of New 
ned with 
scription, 
ia goods, 
i show in 
London, 
es, print 



shops, music shops, jewellers, and silversmiths, 
hatters, linen drapers, milliners, pastry cooks, 
coachmakers, hotels, and coffee houses. The 
street is well paved and the foot paths are chiefly 
bricked. In Robinson-street, the pavement be- 
fore one of the houses, and the steps of the door, 
are composed entirely )f marble. 

New York contains thirty three places of wor- 
ship, viz : nine Episcopal churches, three Dutch 
churches, one French church, one Calvinist, one 
German Lutheran, one English Lutheran, thrcQ 
Baptist meetings, three Methodist meetings, one 
Moravian, six Presbyterian, one Independent, 
two Quakers, and one Jews synagogue. 

Every day except Sunday is a market day in 
iVew York. Meat is cut up and sold by the joint, 
or in pieces, by the licensed butchers only, their 
agents, or servants ; each of these must sell at 
his own stall, and conclude his sales by one 
o'clock in the afternoon, between the 1 st of May 
and the 1st of November, ^and at two, between 

the 'dtof NoVftmbnrnirfl ihc* Icf «riU«„ 



»'"*-- J -.^X. XII ^Ti d 1 



5 * V« vK.ii" 



ers are licensed by the mayor, who is clerk of 



70 



OBSEJIVATIONS ON 



the market, he receives for every xjaarter oi'beei' 
pold ill tlie market, six cents; for every hojy, 
fthoat or [)ig, above Hlbs. weight, six cents; an4 
for eax^h calf, sheep ©r lamb, four cents ; to be 
paid by Uuj butchers, and other peisons, selling 
tiie same. The sale of unwholeKSorae and stale 
articles of provision, of blow^n and stuifed meat, 
and of measly pork, is expressly forbidden. But- 
ter must be sold by the pound, and not by the 
roll or tub. Persons vs^ho are not licensed 
butchers, selling butchers' meat on commission, 
pay triple fees to the clerk of the market. 



There are upwj^rds of twenty new*.papers 
published in New York, nearly half of which are 
daily papers, besides several weekly and monthly 
magazines, or essays. The higu price of paper, 
labour, and taxes, in Great Britain, has been 
very favourable to authorship and tlie publi- 
cation of books in America. Foreign publica- 
tions arc also charged with a duty of 13 per 
cent; and foreign rags are exempted from aU 
import. These advantages have facilitated the 
manufacture of paper, anci the printing of books 
in the United States ; both which are now carried 



EMIGIIATION. 



71 



on to a very large extent. -The new works that 
appear in America, or rather original productions, 
are very few ; but every English work of cele- 
brity is immediately reprinted in the States, and 
vended for a fourth of the original price, the 
booksellers and printers of New York are nume- 
rous, and in general men of property. Some of 
them have published very splendid editions of 
the Bible, and it was not a little gratifying to the 
American patriot to be told, that the paper, print- 
ing, engraving, and binding, were all of American 
manufacture. For several years past, a literary 
fair has been held at New York and Philadelphia. 
This annual meeting of booksellers has tended 
greatly to facilitate intercourse witli each other, 
to circulate books tliroughout the United States, 
and to encourage and support the arts of printing 
and V per making. 



Mr. Moore, speaking of the torpid state of 
intellect in America, is equally beautiful, severe, 
and unjust: — 

All tiMt t!re»tlon'« rarylng inaM ass-imes 
Of grand or lovely, here Hipiren and blooin* i 
i< Bol'I riic the inounlauiH, rUli the gai Jfus ^Ivw 

Hrljrfit Inkc« pxpnml, and conq'i iD^ rivers flow. 



72 



OBSERVATIONS OX 



f '.t 



If 



I 



MIND, mind alone, without whose quidk'mng ray 
The world's a wilderness, and man but clay, . 
MIND, mind alone, in barren still repose. 
Nor blooms, not- rises, nor expatfds, nor flows ?" 

This, it is thie, is poetry, — poetry of the first 
class; but then, a certain author observes that 
" Poetry is the art of lying." The country of 
Franklin, of Washington, of Jefferson^ of Adams, 
of Randolph,* (the Demosthenes of America) of 
the Author of the Columbiad, is represented as 
being destitute of MIND. Every spark of 
jreniufe that is emitted from the Western conti- 
nent sliould be hailed with satisfaction, and in- 
stead of being extinguished by the pestilential 
breath of partial ca.stigators, which, like the 
parching blast of the Arabian Simoom, destroys 
every thing within its reach, it should be fanned 
into a flame by the mild and gentle treatment of 
judicious critics. We might then hope to see 
the genius of the ancic;it w^orld engrafted upon 
the new hemisphere ; and if ever the day should 
come that the modern powerful nations of Eu- 
rope are compelled to transfer their sceptres, 



* " I heard the Amuvinin DwilosttlPP'S," sayR a ^AhrUt, " h»f 
1 heard UouusiUKacs, wliu had liaciiiiuod tu Uie j{iaccs." 



£MlGBATiON« ^3 

like those of Greece and Rome, tc a more wes* 
tern rival, it would be so^ie satisfaction to Eng- 
lishmen td know that that rival was descended 
from the ancient stock of their own nation, and 

m 

had preserved the language, manners, genius, 
and laws of their ancestoi s. 

Much has also been said of the deficiency of 
the polite and liberal accomplishments among 
both sexes in the ]Jnited States. Whatever 
truth there may have formerly been in this state* 
ment, I do not think there is any foundation for 
it at present, at least, in New York, where there 
appears to be a great thirst af^er knowledge* 
The riches that have flowed into that city for the 
last twenty years, have brought with them a taste 
for the refinements of polished society; and, 
though the inhabitants cannot yet boast of having 
reached the standard of European perfection, 
they are not wanting in the solid and rational 
parts of education , nor in many of those accom- 
plishments which ornament and embellish private 
life. It has become the fashion in New York, to 
attend lectmes on moral pliilosophy, chemistry. 
Aiineralogy, botany, mechanics, &c. and the 



,..y 



\" 



74 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



I' ^E 



ladies in particular have made considerable pro- 
gress in those studies. Many yoimg men who 
wete so envelopefd in business, as to neglect or 
disdain the pursuit of such liberal and polite 
acquirements, have been often laughed from the 
counting-house to the lecture room, by their 
more accomplished female companions. The 
desire for instruction and information, indeed, is 
not confined to the youthful part of the communi- 
ty, many married ladies and then" families may 
be seen at philosophical and chemical lectures, 
and the spirit of inquiry is becoming more gene- 
ral among the gentlemen. The majority of the 
merchants, however, still continue more partial 
to the rule of three than a dissertation upon 
oxygen or metaphysics. Most of them have ac- 
quired large fortunes by their regular and 
plodding habits of business, and are loth to part 
with any portion of it, at their time of life, in the 
purchase of knowledge, or the encouragement of 
the arts and sciences. Some, it may be allowed, 
are exceptions, and others, if they will not par- 
take of uMtuction themselves, are not sparing 
of their money in imparting it to their children. 
The immense property which has been intro- 



EMIGRATIOI^. 



75 



duced into the country, by commerce, has hardly 
had time to circulate and diffuse itself, through 
the community. It is, at present, too much in 
the hands of a few individuals, to enable tnen to 
devote the whole of their lives to the study of the 
arts and sciences. Farmers, merchants, phy- 
sicians, lav^ryers and divines, are all that America 
can produce for many years to come ; and, if 
authors, artists, or philosophers, make their 
appearance at any time, they must as they have 
hitherto done, spring from one of the above pro- 
fessions. 

Colleges and schools are multiplying very ra- 
pidly all. over the United States, but education is 
in many places still defective, in consequence 
of the want of proper encouragement and better 
teachers. A grammar school has recently been 
instituted at New York, for the instruction of 
youth upon a similar plan to the great public 
schools in England. 



A taste for reading has of late ditfuscd itself 
throughout the country, particularly in the trreat 
towns, and several young ladies have displayed 



i^f 



u 
'>i^ f. 



I 



n 



CBSERVATIONS ON 



their abilities in writing. Some of their novels 
and fugitive pieces of poetry and prose are writ- 
ten with taste and judgment. Two or three, at 
New York, have particularly distinguished 
themselves. 

It seems, indeed, that the fair sex of America 
have within these few years, been desirous of 
imitating the example of the Erglish arid French 
ladies, who have contributed so much to extend 
the pleasures of rational conversation, and intel- 
lectual enjoyment. They have cast away the 
frivolous and gossiping tittle tattle which before 
occupied so much of their attention, and assumed 
the more dignilied and instructive discourse upon 
arts, sciences, literature, and moral philosophy. 

S'ome of the young men too, whose minds have 
not been wholly absorbed by pounds, shillings, 
and pence, have shown that they possess literary 
qualifications and talents, that would, if their 
time and fortune permitted, rank them among 
some of the distinguished authors of Europe. 



EMIGRATION. Jf 

Rates of Postage. 

Rates of postage for single letters to be 

Cento, 

For any distance not exceeding 40 miles 12 
Over 40 miles and not exceeding 90 do. 15 

Over 90...... ....do 150 do. 18 3-4 

Over 150 do 300 do. 25 1-2 

Over 300 ... .. do.. . ..... .500 do. 30 

Over 600 37 1.2 

Double letters, or ;hose composed of two 
pieces of paper, double those rates. 

Triple letters, or those composed of three 
pieces of paper, triple thope rates. 

Packets, or letters composed of four or more 
pieces of paper, and weighing one ounce or more, 
avoirdupoise, are to be rated equal tp one single 
.letter for each quarter ounce. 

Newi^pers, 
Each paper carried not exceeding 100 

Tnilr>« f\Y frw nntr Aicii-n'^^^ i. !_J 

7'" -^ wii) v*is!vaiiuc, uuicmncu 

out of the state in which it is printed. 1 1-2 



78 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



If carried out of the state where printed, 
and over 100 Iniles. 



2 1-4 



i 



mi 



Ik 



Magazines and Pamphlets 

Carried not over 50 miles, for each sheet, 1 1-4 

Over 50 and not exceeding 100 miles. 2 1-4 

Over 100 miles. . 3 

> 

But pamphlets are not to be received or con- 
veyed by post Qii the main line or any cross road 
where the mail is large. 

Letters and newspapers are derived out of the 
office every day, (except Sunday) at all hours, 
from the rising to the setting of the sun; and on 
Sunday from 9 to 10, and from 1 to 2. 

Newspapers, to be forwarded by the mail, 
should be inclosed in a cover and left open at one 
end, and the number of.free papers, and of those 
for subscribers respectively, endorsed on each 
packet; and all newspapers for each post-office, 
should be inclosed in one package, ^irovided they 
do not exceed twenty in number. If a letter 
or memorandum in writing, is contained in any 



EMIGRATION, 



79 



newspaper, the person who deposits the same, 
forfeits /ve dollars, and the package becomes 
liable to letter postage. • . 

Letters to be sent by mail, should be addressed 
to the places of their destination in the clearest 
manner— they should always be directed to the 
nearest post-office, if the person to whom 
addressed does not reside where there is an 
office ; and the name of the state ought not to 
be omitted; letters are often mis-sent from their 
ambiguous direction ; a punctual attention to thi^ 
rule may prevent delays and miscarriages. 

Letters to be forwarded by mail, ought to be 
delivered at the office, at or before the time of 
closing, to ensure their going by the mail of the 
day; as before the departure of a mail, all letters 
composing it are to be rated and marked, accounts 
of them entered, and those accounts made out to 
be transmitted to the respective post-offices— 
and newspapers should be delivered at the office 
an hour at least prexious to the hour of closing the 
mail. 

If an abatement of letter postage be claimed, 



gQ OBSERVATIONS ON 

the lettet must be opened, la presence of th6 
post-master, or one of his assistants ; and if such 
letter should, mstehdofhemgoverchargedh^ppen 
to be underchargedy the deficiency must be made 
up by the applicant. 



\ 



All letters which are lodged to go by the 
British packets, should be distinguished by wri- 
ting j)er packet — for there are placeis of the same 
name in the United States, similar to those in 

Europe. 

Letters going out "of the United States, must 
be paid for when lodged in the post-office. 



A society is established at New York, fott&ed 
of republican citizens of all nations^ who have 
published an iftteresting pamphlet, entitled 
*' Hints to Emigrants.*' These philanthropists 
observe-'— 

** All that 1 first conversation with an emigrant 
can properly embrace, will fiail under three 
hoads: — 



•fcMl<5Jlfe-ATP! 



m 



^ 



I. What relates to !iis |)tt^dftial ^ai&tf fe i tt^ 

Ih disinterest as a prt)T^ti<m«tyi3si<lent;an*d 
III. Mis future rights and duties as ^ iii^mb«¥ 
of a free state. 

Under the first, will be comprised, some 
directions for your mode of living, and the pre-' 
servation of your health, the second would 
demand some description of this extensive coun- 
try, which may direct you** choice and industry. 
Under the third should be contained a brief ob'- 
stract of such civil or political matters, as it be- 
hovels you to understand. 



'^Emigtattts froir Europe^ usually arri^ o here 
during summer, and^ every thing considered, it 
is beat they should, for, in the middle and east- 
ern states, the Winter is long, fuel very dea^, and 
employment comparatively scarce at that season. 
In winter they will eicpend more and earn less. 
But if arriving at thi* time bear more upon their 
pocket, the heats of the summer are more trying 
to their health. In the middle statsB, namely, 
New York, New Jersey, Pensylvania, and Mary- 
land, a aortherii European u$u»Uy finds the cU- 



82 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



mate intensely hot from about the middle of Jiine 
till towards the first of October. The thermome- 
ter frequently varies from 84 io 90, and some- 
times to 96 m the middle of the day ; this, to a 
stranger who works in the open air, exposed to 
the burning sun, is certainly dangerous, and re- 
quires some precautions on his part. First of all 
he should regulate his diet, and be temperate iu 
the quantity of his food. The American labourer^ 
or working mechanic, who has a better and more 
plentjftil table than any other .nan in the world of 
his class, is, for the most, a small eater, and we 
recommend to you his example. The European 
of the same condition, who receives meat, or fish 
and coffee, at breakfast, meat at dinner, and meat 
or fii^h, and tea, at supper — an abundance of ani- 
mal food to which he was unaccustomed- insen- 
sibly falls into a state of too great a repletion, 
which exposes him to the worst kind of fevf^r 
during the heats of summer and of autumn. He 
should, therefore, be quite as abstemious in the 
quantity of food, as of strong drink: and, in ad> 
dition to this method of preventing sickness, h» 
should take a dose of active physic, every now 



/• ¥-.1. 



iUlti lutii, cspccittiiy ill Ific aulltr piwiiwiip *« »?'»«iy 



EMI»nATK>N. 



83 



of J line 

rmome- 

d some- 

lis, to a 

lesed to 

and re- 

rstof all 

lerate in 

abourer 
» 

nd more 
world of 

and we 
luropean 
t, or fish 
tad meat 
le of ani- 
i -insen- 
eple*ion, 

of fevor 
mn. lie 
js in the 
id, in ad- 
kness, liB 
rery now 



/• f-.i— 

9 m ^uij- 



and August. By this prudent course an ardent 
climate will have no terrors; and, after some re- 
sidence here, he may preserve bis health by 



tegimen and exercise alorie."^ ' 



U '/>'■ t 



The labourer, or mechariic, should put off his 
ordinary clothes, and wear next his skin a loose 
flannel shirt, while he works ; it should be taken 
off again as soon as he is done. ' 

The stranger, as well as native, must be par- 
ticularly careful not to drink cold water after 
being heated by exposure to the sun or exercise. 
Sudden and severe pain at th 2 stomach, and even 
death, are frequently the corsequence ef such 
imprudence. *• ■ - • • 

The Humane Society of this city has pubhshed 
the following directions to be observed in such 
cases: — 

1st. To avoid drinking water while the body 
is heated, or during profuse perspiration. ' 

2nd. Wash the hands and tace with c6fdW^t6r 
before drinking. ^ 

3rd. if these precautions have been nejflected, 



^ If 



< 4 
k ' -tl ••• 



s *•: ' 



I'k 



I'' 






lUk 



'LI 



HI 




M 



OB^i^yA'^lQhs ON 






^nd crasapft or CQnvDisious havQ beea iuducejd^ 

let a te^pooi^ful qf la,u4a»um b^ giveu inomedi- 

^^ly ia 9t cup of spipi^ and water, and repeat 

the dose in half an hour, if necessary. 

4th. At the same time apply hot fomentations 

9f spirits and water to the stomach and bowels, 
and ^o the lower extremities, coveririp- the body 

with a blanket,, or immerse the body in a warm 

bath, if it can be immediately obtained. 

5th. Inject into the bowels a pint of warm 
spirits and watqr, mixed in the proportion of one 
part of the former to two of the latter. 

Do you ask by this time with a view to tho 
ordinary busmess of life, What Js America? 
"Jjif'hat sort of people may be expected to succeed 
in it? The immortal Franklin ha§ answered 
this question; ** America is the land of labour.''' 
^uj^, it i^ emphatically, the best country on earth 
f<^r thpsej who will labour. By industry they 
can earn more wages here than elsewhere in the 

''^^^xf^f^^ , ^ Qur ^overnmcAts are more Cxn^tK they 
demaod fpw taxes ; so that the earning of the 
l^ooriiiau are left to enripk lunosdf; %hQ\ m& 
nearly all his own, and not expended on to^s op 






BMIGR.tTIOM. 



8& 






idlers are out of their element here, and the 
l)eiag who is technically called a man of rank in 
Europe is despicable in America. — He must be- 
come a useful member of society, or he will find 
no society; he will be shunned by all decent peo- 
ple. Franklin, whose sage counsel is the best 
that can be given, or observed has said, that it is 
aot advisable for a person to come hither '' who 
has no other qtiahty to recommend him but his 
birth." In Europe, indeed, it may have its Vdilue^ 
but it is a commodity which cannot be carried to 
a worse market than that of Amerira, where 
people do aot enquire concerning a stranger 
What is he? But, What can he do? If he has 
any useful art, he is welcome ; and if he e:iercise» 
it and behaves well, he will be respectcjd by ali 
wlio know iiim. The husbandaian is in honoup 
hc»'e, and so is the mechanic, because dieir em- 
plojmeuts are useful." " And t/An ^jple,' hfy 
adds, have a saying, that " God A\ eighty i» 
liimjself a mechanic, the greatest.' .di4) uai verse.'* 
Franklift further illiustrtites the generality of in- 
dustrious ^bits^ h; *he Negrus observation^ 
" That the whit^ nujn makes the black man v^ork^ 
the horse w rk, im ?>x.ea ^v u, aiKi every Uiuag 



86 



OU«EttVATIONS ON 



works except tlie hog, which alone walks about, 
goes to sleep when he pleases, and lives like » 
gentleman.'' 



" The only encouragements we hold out t# 
strangers are, a good climate, fertile soil, wUole- 
some air and water, plenty of provisions, good 
pay for labour, kind neighbours, good laws, a 
free government, and a hearty welcome. The 
rest depends on a man's own industry and vir- 



tue 



» 






" It would be very prudent for new comers, 
especially .ly^ xrs or farmers, to go into the 
country wit! delay, as they will save both 
money and time by it, and avoid several incon- 
veniences of a seaport town By spending some 
time witli an American farmer, in any capacity, 
they will learn the method of tillage, or working 
a plantation, peculiar to this country. No time 
can be more usefully employed than a year in 
this manner. In that space, any smart, sf ut 
man, can learn how woodland may be cleared, 
hoy/ clear land is managed ; he will acquire some 
knowledge of crops and their succession, ol 






EMIGRATION. 



87 



usages and. customs that ought to be known, 
and perhaps save something into the bargain. 
Many European emigrants who brought money 
with them have heretofore taken this wise course, 
and found it greatly to their advantage ; for at 
the end of the year they knew what to do with it. 
They learned the value of lands in old settle- 
ments and near the frontiers, the prices of labour 
cattle, and grain, and were ready to begin the 
world with ardour and confidence. Multitudes 
of poor people from Ireland, Scotland, and 
Germany, have by these means, together with 
industry and frugality, become wealthy farmers 
or, as they are called in Europe, estated menj 
who, in their own countries, where all the lands 
are fully occupied, and the wages of labour low. 
could never have emerged from the condition 
wherein they were born. 



" It is invariably tLe practice of the American 
ahd well suited to his love of independence, to 
purchase a piece of land as soon as he can. and 
cultivate his own farm, rather than live at wages. 
It is equally in the power of an emigrant to do the 
^ine, after a Imw years of labour and econuuiy. 



88 



OBSERVATIONS ON 




f: 



From that moment he secures all the mefttis ftf 
happiness. He has a sufficiency of fortuae, 
without being exempt from moderate labour: he 
feels the comfort of independence, and has no fear 
of poverty in his old age. He is invested with 
the powers, as well as the rights of a fi emafi, 
and may in all cases, without let or apprehension, 
exercise them according to his judgment. He 
can afford to his children a good education, *»nd 
knows that he has thereby provided for their 
wants. Prospects open to them far brighter 
than ^vere his own; and in seeing all this, he ia 
surely blest. 



i 






" Artisans receive better pay in America than ia 
Europe, and can live with less exertion and more 
comfort, because they put an additional price on 
their work, equal to the cost of frei^fht and com* 
inission charged by the merchant on importation. 
Theie are not many of the laborious classes 
whom we would advise to reside, or even loiter, in 
great towiis; because as much will he spent dur-^ 
iug a long winter as can be made through a toil- 
lome summer, so that a man itiay be Mpt a 



-^,.«. .«n*«_ 



mcu«v4e«s uruu|;o Un ma, ijut una «» i»^-t j'-* 



EMIGRATION^ 



88 



SltlS ftt' 

rtufte. 
It: he 

10 (^kV 

I mth 

melon, 
. He 
ft, *»nd 
r their 
righter 
I, he id 



thania 
dmore 
dee on 
d com* 
rtation. 
classes 
oiler, in 
;nt dur-' 
ii a toil- 
Kept ^ 






haps tkj worst; kied^ tempted to becomes tip- 
pler^ fay thedieapnegsand plenty of fiquoi?»v md 
then his prospects are blasted for ever. In feir 
countries is drunkenness more despised than in 
this. Thedrunkard is viewed as a person socially 
dead, shut otit from decent intercourse, shunned,- 
despised, or abhorred. . 

The pernicious habit is to be guarded against aa 

scrupulouslyfor political asmoralconsideiiationsi 

■■; '?■' r _ • ' ; • , \ •■ ,. 

- Civil Kherfy every wh«ire rests on fel6-re^ect, 
while degradation or voluntary debasement is 
one of the causes of despotism. These remarks 
are gerieral; We have no reason to siJippose that 
one people are more ignorant than another of 
moral duty or propriety. 

It deserves notice, that tWo sister States have 
made lawfi vesting the estate of an habitual 
drunkard in tnwit^es; and it has been proposed 
to deprive such persons of suftragfj and the 
privilege of giving evidence in coufts ^f jt>8tioe* 
An aaicient lawyer M^aa e>en mone severe; he 
affised « double penalty to crimeg committed m 

M 



r 

i 



I 



ii 



i^ 



."3 

II 



90 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



a state of intoxication. Such have been the 
methods of legislators to preserve the dignity of 
man.' ' o ' " "s.-ftaoffmrjrr^ifi mjif' 

Men of science, whd can apply their knowledge 
to useful and practical puipbses mdy be very 
advantageously settled ; but mere literary s<!?ho- 
lars, virho have no profession, or only one which 
they cannot profitably practise in this country, 
do not meet with much encouragement; in truth, 
with little or none, unless they are willmg to 
devote themselves to the education of youth. 
The demand for persons who will do this is ob- 
viously increasing; although many excellent 
preceptors are every where to be found among 
the native Americans, there is still considerable- 
rooiri for competition on the part of well- 
qualified foreigners." . 

There is an astonishing press of emig^ration 
westward, from the ports in the United. States. 
A lively idea of this vast movement may be ob- 
tained from the following remarks of an intelli- 
gent traveller : — r- 

" We are nine in number, and thirty miles 






i>_i.- 



ox iiiWUUiivMM CwM*ii>i¥ hitmi)'<n -fm^ii US 



n^wl "Pitfc- 






EMIGRATION. 



91 



burg. We leam that the stages wliich pas« 
daily from Philadelphia and Baltimore, are gene- 
rally full, and that there are now many persons 
at Baltimore waiting for places. No vehicles of 
any kind ar« to be hired, and here we must either 
stay o. walk off; the, latter we prefer ; and sepa- 
rating each our bundle from the little that we 
have of travelling stores, we are about to under- 
take our mountain pilgrimage, accepting the 
alternative most cheerfully after the dreadful 
shaking of the last hundred miles by stage. 






We have now fairly turned our backs oix the 
©Id world, and find ourselves in the very stream 
of emigration. Old America seems to be break- 
ing upi and moving westward. We are seldom 
out of sight as we travel on this grand track 
towards the Ohio, of family groups behind and 
before us, some with a view to particular spots, 
close to a brother (perhaps) or a friend who has 
gone before, and reported well of the country. 
Many> like ourselves, when they arrive in the 
wilderness, will find no lodge prepared for then^. 



4 , _ll 

L SUiUii vV 



fi^gOi* \au ii^at tiiat yoii muy almost 









_.*3 



;h\ 



m 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



u 




acarry lt/,fet strong enough to bear a good lo^d of 
becb(JiniB», ttteasils atid provisions, and a swann of 
young citizens, — -and to sustain marvellous shocks 
in its passage over these rocky hdghts) with two 
email houses; sometimes a' cow or two com- 
prises th^ir all, excepting a little store of hard 
earned cash for the Iwid office of the district, 
where they may pl;)tain a title for as many acres 
as they |K)ssess half hilars, being one fourth of 
the piwchase money. The waggon hSais a tilt or 
cover, made of a s^ieet, or perhaps a blanket. 
The family are seen before, behind, or within the 
vehicle, according to the road or weather, or per- 
haps 6ie ^irits of the party." 



Can any description be more interestiug than 
this ? Travellers from all the nations of Europe 
— persons of both sexes — of all ages and condi- 
tions, pressing forward to some favourite spot on 
which to pitch their tent. The Americans them- 
selves are great traveHers, and in general better 
acquainted with the vast expanse of country 
spreading over their twenty states, (of which 
Virginia alone nearly equals Great Britain in ex- 
tent) than the English with their little island. 



EMIGRATION. 

They are also a migrating people ; and, even 
when in prosperous circumstances can contem- 
plate a change of situation, which under our oid 
estdadishments, and fixed habits, none but the 
OKBt enterprising would venture upon when 
urged by adversity. 



To give an idea of the internal movements of 
tfeis vast hive, about 12,000 waggons passed be- 
tween Baltimore and Philadelphia, in the last 
year, with from four to six horses, carrying from . 
thirty-five to forty €wt. The cost of carriage i« 
about seven dollars per Cwt. from Philadelphia 
to Pittsburg, and the money paid for the convey- 
ance of goods (Ml this road, exceeds £80,000 
sterling. Add to these the nunaerous stages 
loaded to the utmost, and the innumerable 
travellers on horseback, on foot, and in light 
waggons, and you have before you a scene of 
bustle and business extending over a space of 
Aree hundred miles, %\4Hch is truly wonderful.\>v 






h 
if 



The emigrant must not tJiink of settling in the 
districts adjacent to ^^ poi*ts of the Atlantic; 
The ntale nf Ohm Crir xnoionj^^ >iiA.«4-«;«« ,vTi 1,1 *. 



• 1 




IMAGE EVALUATION 
TEST TARGET (MT-S) 




A^^ 



5^ #J-- 






[o 



1.0 



I.I 



1^ 



IAS 128 

318 
lU 

u 



110 



1.4 



2.5 
2.2 

2.0 



1.6 



P 






/a 








Hiotographic 

Sciences 
Corpordtioii 




33 WEST MAIN STRUT 

WIBSTER.N Y. MSIO 

(7U) •73-4S03 



4^ 






fy _^^ 



t^. 



o 



\ 










m 



OBSERVATIONS ON 



is beautiful and fertile, all thav nature has decreed 
for the comfort of roan. Rich land, good water, 
wholesome air, lime, coal, mills, navigation. 
But then there has been an advance of a thousand 
per Cent, in about ten years. At Richmond, in 
Virginia, ground sells currently , on building 
speculation, at 10,000 dollars per acre, and in 
some of the streets near the river, at 200 dollarg 
per foot in front ! The stranger must press on 
westward, where good land is to be purchased at 
the government price <>f two dollars per acre ; 
the amazing influx of emigrants is constantly 
opening new markets. . . > ' . 



America, said Franklin, " is the land of labour,'' 
but then it is also the land in which labour is 
properly and abundantly recompenced. The 
mechanic and peasant do not after, a long hfe of 
drudgery, retire to a workhouse, or drop into the 
last refuge of misery— the grave, as into the hosom 
of a friend. There i* no country in the world 
which exhibits such delightful instances of old 
agfe basking in the rays of content and compe- 
tency as the United States. And the children 
of the aged, pheasant, rising roMftd tip table Ufee 



EMIGRATION. 



95 



olive branches, have the heart cheering assurance 
that by treading m the steps of their venerable 
and prudent ancestors, they also diall certainly 
attain to competeiice, and even to wealth. 

There are feHv instances in the United States 
of indystrioufr persons not meeting v/ith the suc- 
cess which their exertions deserve. Want of 
prudence in speculations, will of course some 
ttine*' produce corresponding effects, but in no 
country do the enterprizing and the industrious 
rise with such elasticity from misfortune, as in 
the United States. Slothful and improvident 
men will be found in all countries : the followina" 
description of journeymen at Pittsburg is ij\ 
point:— .■^' ^"'^ ; ^ )-m:hr ■ '"' ■ y * ' 

ii i'-t Joumeymcnv in various branches — shoema- 
kers, tailors, &c. earn two dollars a day. Many 
of. them are improvident, and aus they remain 
journeymen for life. It is not; However in ab^^o- 
lute intemperance and pi j^igacy, that they in 
general waste their surplus earnings, it is in. ex- 
cursions, or entertainments. Ten dollars spent 
at. a ball is no rare r^ult of the gallantry of a 
Pittsburg journeyman. Thosfr who are steady 



96 



OBSBmVATSONS ON 



and prudent^ advance rapidly. A shoemaker of 
Ti^aequaintamey that is t© say, whom I employed, 
Mt Irelar^d; ^ poor as an Irish emigituit ftmr 
years ago,— staid one year in Philadelphia, hen 
removed hither, and was employed by a master 
pntctitioiier of the same calling, at 12 dollars per 
week. He saved his money, married, paid bi» 
Aiastcr, who retired on his fortune, three hun- 
ched dollars for his business, and tB now in a fair 
wmy of Tstiring too, as he has a shop wtell stocked 
and a tiuriring tr&de, wholesale aiwi retail, with, 
vast profits!" ':% ^*ri 



I have another instance before nie of the sue- 
cass attendant on indusfcry in the United States. 
The person to whom I allude, is about 30, he haa 
a wife and three fine children; his lather is a 
feraier, thai is to saty, a proprietor, hting fivci 
miles distant. From him he received five buiOr- 
dred dollaji, and ** began the worid," in tl^tme 
style of American enterprize, by taking a cargo 
©f flour to N«^(r Orleans, about two thousand 
imlea, gaining a little more than his expenses, 
ind a stock cf knowledge. Two years ago Iws 
had increased ]m propeily to 900 dollars; 



EMIGRATION. 



9Jt 



purchased this place; a house, stable, &c. and 
two hundred and fifty acres of land, (sixty-five of 
which are cleared and laid down to grass) for 
three thousand five hundred dollars, cf which he 
has already paid three , thousand, and will pay 
the remaining five hundred next year. He is 
now building a good stable and going to improve 
his house. His property is at present worth se- 
Ycn thousand dollars; having gained or rather 
IfTown, five thousand five hundred dollars ai twQ- 
years, with prospects of future accumulation to 
his uti -ost wishes. Thus it is that people grow 
wealthy without extraordinary exertion, and 
without any anxiety. 

The working farmer by the amount of capital 
required, as a retiter, may own and cultivate a 
much better one in this country. Let this be well 
understood : the emigrant on repairing to the Go- 
vernment office where land is sold, paj^s down 
one-fourth of the sum agreed on at two dollars 
per acre, and discharges the rest at several instal- 
ments, to be completed in five years. Thus, 
what is RENT in Europe is here discharging 
the Purchase Money. I am, in fact, working for 
mt^self, and not for another. Is it surprising. 
thet^ that with a rapidly increasing- nonnlatiun^ 



m 



OBSBRVATIdNS ON 



with new markets arising around him, and with 
the lieart -cheering impulse of conscious property 

4* 

and independence, the American peasant should 
attain ease and competence, and even wealth to 
shed their benign influence on the evening of his 
dibyiB.^ 

A large family is, in England, another term for 
a large share of poverty — ^in America the birth of 
children is hailed as in the patriarchal ages— they 
are towers of strength. They assist in agricul- 
tiliral and other duties when ypung, and when 
arrived at manhood, the parents feel no solicitude 
respecting their settlement. ytiHjijvf 

Little farms, from eight, to one hundred and 
sixty acres, with simple erections, a cabin, and a 
stable, may be purchased at from 5 to 20 dollars* 
per acre, the price being in proportion to the 
quantity cleared land* mJ 

Land (government land)^ is sold in sections m 
160 acres, b^ng one-fourth of a square mile. 
The poor maa who enters his quarter section of 
190 acres, pays down his eighty dollars, pursue* 
his road to the spot which he has bought, builds' 
a cabin for himself and family, and having cleared 
his ground, proceeds to sow Indian corn, which 
is the first year's suDDOrt. With his *un he am- 



KMIORATION. 



99 



nd with 
iroperty 
t should 
ealth to 
ig of his 

erm for 
birth of 
s— they 
igricul- 
i when 
iicitude 

*ed and 

1, and a 

dollars^ 

to the 

ions 
j mile. 
;tion of 
»ur8ue# 
builds' 
cleared 
which 



le Dro- 



cures game in the evening, and at theend of ily& 
years generally succeeds in paying therest of the 
purchase money, besides laying by two or three^ 
thousand dollars. Such is the natiaal, progress; 
of a settler. There is ao part of the Uoion^ in the 
new settlements or the .old, where an industri« 
Cus man oeed be at a kis for the comfort* of a 
good livelihood. Mi:iift(ik»qq k; • u^^ji. 

It has already been observed, that thia kittle 
Work was almost exclusively undertaken for the 
information of persona about to Embark for 
America ; and the Author flatters himiielf that he 
has attained the object which he had in view* 
and has compressed much valuable information 
in Si siinaU compass. Haviiig hirnself visited 
America, he is enabled to vouch for the^ correct^ 
ness of general facts: he does not however hesi^ 
tate to acknowledge that he has occasionally 
availed himself of the remarks of others, when he 
found these remarks to agree with what had fallen 
under his own personal observation. 

Among the thousands that are about to leave 
the United Kingdom, for America, there are doubt- 
less many, who have formed extravagant, un- 
founded notions relative to the laud which they 






€ resiuCucc m. uere 



mo 



OB8ERTATIONS ON 



\ 



may be ethers hesitating between their wishes 
and their feais, an4 ^perhaps there arc few who 
are so well kformed on American affairs, asfsuch 
an important step as emigration demands. This 
onassuming publication, may, therefore, by its 
pd«Yiating Att«iiti«i |o TBiUTF, be of service* 
in preventing the visionary :^om experiencing 
sensations of disappointment and regret, in 
givi^ confidence to ^e tis^,and in dJflfiising at 
ft hihodeiatiB pnce* that informati^ to aU which 
caimot fail to prove d singidar utility. 
J Jpteumitonces prevented the aut send- 

Siif this; Work to the press, until within a fort- 
nightiioC his seccmd embarkation for America. 
Gwi«^ therefore to tifetiuncommon rapidity with 
which his publicatiott parsed tbjrough the press, 
he has iRORt respectfully to daim the forbearailce 
]^fthe|>ubUc,Jtogard|» bis cokmn of errata^ .a 



'Siiii^uY; ..• 


-I'jiiM'k 


9^fh.. 


.■'Vf 


A-i 


mUi^ikQil 


mUrdji 


■Wj'^., 


i 




0\i?.A . . '■' 


•iHr , 








-?n/rob:}?ij 


^',' ■ ■ 









' LJuiM^d: 






■• 



y 'tii iiO 

oyjd'Y '■'. 



»■ 



BTERS, PRINTER. boCSJ 



FROM , 

Mr. BIRKBECK's NOTES AND LETTERS 
From the ILLINOIS, ; 

TOGETHER WITH HIS REPLY TO MR. COBBETT, 
Dated July \2th, \9\9' 

SxMlTII's VIEW OF UPPER CANADA, 

' WITH 

EXTRACTS OF ORIGINAL LETTERS 
Of a LANCASHIRE FAJiMER K other RESIDENTS: 
REMARKS, &c. 



Emigrants from Europe are too apt to linger in the 
eastern cities, wasting their time, their money, and their 
resolution. They should push out westward without delay, 
where they can live cheaply until they fix themselves! 
Two dollars, saved in Pennsylvania, will purchase an acre 
of good land in the Illinois. 

The land carriage from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, is from 
seven t. ten dollars per cwt. (100 lb.) Clothing, razors, 
pocket-knives, pencils, mathematical instruments, and light 
articles in general, of constant usefulness, onght to be 
carried even at this expence, and books Mhich are scarce, 
and much wanted in the west. Good gun locks are rare and 
difficult to procure. No heavy implements will pay carnage. 

A pocket compass is indispensable for every stranger who 
ventures alone into the woods of America, and he should 
always carry the means of lighting a fire: for the traveller, 
when he starts in the morning on i wilderness journey, 

H 



¥f^- 



112 

little knows where next he may lay his head. — ^Tow, rubbed 
with gunpowder, is good tinder : — a few biscuits, a phial 
of spirits, a tomahawk, and a good blanket, are necessary 
articles. Overtaken by night, or bewildered, if thus 
provided, you may be really comfortable by your blazing 
fire ; when without them, you would feel dismal and dis> 
consolate. A dog is a pleasant and useful fellow-traveller 
in the backwoods. You should make your fire with » 
fallen tree for a back-log, and lie to leeward, with your 
feet towards it. The smoke flying over, will preserve yon 
from the damp air and musquitoes. Tie your horse with a 
long rem to the end of a bough, or the top of a young 
Hickery tree, which will allow him to graze or browse ; 
and change his position tf you awake in ths night. 

Pittsburg. — At the junction of the Alleghany and Mo- 
nongahala, forming by their union the Ohio, stands the 
" city of Pittsburg, the Birmingham of America." Here 
I expected to have been enveloped in clouds of smoke, 
issuing from a thousand furnaces, -nnd stunned with the din 
of ten thousand hammers. 

A century and a half ago, possibly, the state of Birming- 
ham might have admitted of a comparison with Pittsburg. 
I conceive there are many, very many, single manufacturing 
establishments in Great Britain, nf more present importance 
than the aggregate of those in this town : yet, taken as it is, 
without rhetorical description, it is truly a very interesting 
and important place. Steam engines of great efficiency are 
made here, and applied to various purposes, and it contains 
sundry works : — iron foundries, glass-houses, nail-cutting 
factories, &g. ; establishments, which are as likely to expand 
and multiply, as the small acorn, planted in a good soil, 
and duly protected, is to become the majestic oak, that 

flings his giant arms amid the sky." 

At present the manufacturers are under great difficulties, 



it 



113 

and many are on the eve of suspending their operations, 
owing to the influx of depreciated fabrics from Europe. 

Pittsburg contains about 7000 inhabitants, and is a place 
of great trade, as an entrepot for the merchandize and 
manufactures supplied by the eastern states to the western. 
The inhabitants of Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, and lUmois. 
are their customers, and continually increasing in their 
demands upon the merchants and the artisans of Pittsburg. 
Shawnee Town is 1200 miles from New Orleans, which 
distance may be performed in twenty days, provided there 
are no delays. This is the nearest point on the Ohio to 
our intended residence, (45 mUes distance,) and may there- 
fore be considered as our shippmg port, from which we have 
navigable communication, by the Wabash, into our im- 
mediate vicinity. 

Thus situated, in the interior of a vast continent, we may 
have communication with Europe, either for the export of 
produce or the introduction of merchandise, calculating oa 
the addition of a month to the voyage across the Atlantic. 
In reply to a letter, Mr. B. observes— 
In the first place, the voyage.— That will cost, to Balti- 
more or Philadelphia, provided you take it, as no doubr 
you would, in the cheapest way, twelve guineas e- 
birth, fire, and water, for yourself and wife, and * ' . " 
or less for your children ; besides provisions, w. 
will furnish. 

Then the journey.— Over the mountains to Pittsburg., 
down the Ohio to Shawnee-Town, and from thence to our 
setUement, fifty miles north, will amount to five pounds 
sterling per head. 

If you arrive here as early as May, or even June, 
another fire pounds per head will carry you on to that 
pomt, where you may take your leave of dependence on 
anything earthly but your own exertions. 

H 2 



114 

With eighty dollars you will " enter a quarter sectfoii of 
land;" that is, you ^ilJ purchase at the land-office one 
hundred and sixty acres, and pay one-fourth of the purchase- 
money ; and looking to the land to reward /our pains with 
the means of discharging Mie other three-fourths as they 
become due, in two, three, and four years. 

You will build a house with fifty dollars; and you will 
find it extremely comfortable and convenient, as it will be 
really and truly yours. 

Two horses will ccat, ^vith harness and plough, onft 
liundred. 

Cows, and hogs, and seed corh, and fencing, with other 
expenses, will require the remaining two hundred and ten 
dollars. 

This beginning, hum die as it appears, is affluence and 
splendour, compared with the original butfit of settlers in 
general. Yet no man remains in poverty, who possesses 
even moderate industry and economy, and especially (ff fiT/ie. 

You would of course bring with you ycur sea-bedding 
and store of blankets, for you will need them on the Ohio ; 
and you should leave England with a good stock of wearing 
apparel. Your luggage must he composed of light articles, 
on account of the costly land-carriage from the eastern 
port to Pittsbuvg, which Avill be from seven to ten dollars 
per 100 lb. nearly sixpence sterling per pound. 

A few simple medicines of good quality are indispensable, 
such as calomel, bark in powder, castor oil, calcined mag- 
nesia, and laudanum : they may be of the greatest import- 
ance on the voyage and journey, as Avell as after your 
arrival. 

Change of climate and situation will produce temporary 
indisposition, but wi^h prompt and judicious treatment, 
which is happily of the most simple kind, the complaints to 
which new comers are 'ible are seldom dangerous or 



U5 

difficoU to overcome, provided due regard has been had to 
salubrity in the choice of their settleuient, and to diet and 
acconuaodalion arter their arrival. 

Mi\ Birkbeck's Terms to Settlers. 
A township j^oraprises thirty-six square miles, or sections, 
of six hundred and forty acres each; in all, twenty-thieJ 
thousand and forty acres. 

These lands, we propose to offer (on terms proportionably 
favourable) to a number of our countrymen, whose views 
may so far accord with our own,, as to render proximity of 
settlement desirable. 

In the sale of public lands, there is a regulation, which I 
^ ave before mentioned, that t^e sixteenth section, which i^ 
nearly the centre of every township, shall not be sold. It 
ifi tailed the reserved section ; and is, accordingly, reserved 
for public uses in that township, for the support of the poor, 
and for purposes of education. 

This section being, of course, at the disposal of the pur. 
chasers of the entire township, we shall, by judicious 
arrangements, provide out of it, not only lor the object^ 
which the wisdom. of the legislature had in view; but for the 
present accommodation of the more indigent, but no.t th^ 
least valued members qf our proposed community. To 
obviate the sufferings to which emigrants of this class are. 
exposed on their arrival, it is a material part of our pla^ 
to have in readiness for every po»r family, a cabin, an 
inclosed garden, a cow, and a hog, with an appropriation 
of land, f. r summer and winter food for cows, proportioned 
to their number. 

With regard to the disposal of the lands in general, we 
shall probably offer them in sections, half-sections, quarters, 
and eighths; that is, in allotments of six hundred and forty, 
tl^ree hundred and twenty, one hundred and sixty, nrj, 



116 

eighty acres, making other reservations of portions for 
public uses, as circumstances may require. 

W I wish it to be clearly understood, that we have no 
design of forming a society of English, to be governed by 
any laws or regulations of our own framing. We would 
not bind others, nor be ourselves bound by uay ties, but 
those of mutual interest, and good neighbourhood ; nor be 
subject to any iaw, but the law of the land. 

Yet, as concentration of capital, as well as of population, 
willj be essential to the rapid prosperity of our colony, we 
shall make a stipulation which we hope will be generally 
approved : — 

That no person may be tempted, by the low price at 
which our lands shall be offered to possess themselves of it 
as a mere object of speculation, a declaration will be 
required on the part of the purchaser, of his intention to 
reside on the spot. 

We would, at the same time, impress upon him the 
necessity of not purchasing more than he can fairly manage. 

Our opinion is, that it would be more advantageous to the 
resident proprietor to possess a capital of four or fiv<3 pounds 
sterling an acre, than to incapaciate himself for carrying on 
his improvements for want of adequate means. 

it repeat, that we have not fallen on this scheme, from a 
wish to form a society exclusively EngUvh, or indeed, any 
society as distinct from the people at large. We would 
most willingly extend our proposals to Americans or 
emigrants of any nation, with the requisite capital, could our 
plan embrace them. Concentration of capital and numbers 
is the only refuge from many privations, and even sufferings 
in thesa remote regions : — but, the main advantage of pre- 
paring, as we propose, for the reception of our brethren, 
will be to oave them a wearisome and expensive trave], in 
quest of a settlement, but too often ending in despair. 



117 

Twelve long months spent in roaming over this wilderness, 
has broken the spirits, and drained the purses of many who 
would have done well, had they proceeded at once to a 
place provided :— also,, to afford immediate protection and 
employment to poor em'^ants. 

In reply to a letter, Mr. B. observes — 
I have secured a considerable tract of land, more than I 
liave any intention of holding, that I may be able to accom- 
modate some of our English friends. Our soil appears to 
be rich, a fine black mould, inclining to sand, from one to 
three or four feet deep, lying on sandstone, or clayey loam ; 
so easy of tillage, as to reduce the expense of cultivation below 
that of the land I have been accustomed to in England, not** 
withstanding the high rates of human labour. The wear of 
plough-irons is so trifling, that it is a thing of cour^se to^ 
sharpen them in the spring once for the whole year. Our 
main object will be live stock, cattle, and hogs, for which 
there is a sure market at a good profit. Two-pence a pound 
you will think too low a price to include a profit ; but ro- 
liember, we are not called upon, after receiving our money 
for produce, to refund a portion of it for rent, another 
portion for tithe, a third for poor's rates, and a fourth for 
taxes; which latter are here so light, as scarcely to be 
brought into the nicest calculation. You will consider also, 
that money goes a great deal farther here, so that a less 
profit would sufiice. The fact is, however, that the profits 
on capital employed any way in this country are marvellous : 
in the case of live-stock tho outgoings are so small, that the 
receipts are nearly all clear. 

The idea of exhausting the soil by cropping, so as to 
render manure necessary, has not yet entered into the estr- 
mates of the western cultivator. Manure has been often 
known to accumulate until the farmers have removed their 
jards and buildings out of tho way of the nuisance. Thcgr 



in" 






e -I 



118 

have no notion of making a return to the land, and as yet 
there seems no bounds to its fertility. 

For about half the capital that is required for the mere 
cultivation of our worn-out soils in England, a man may 
establish himself as a proprietor here, with every comfort 
belonging to a plain and reasonable mode of living, and with 
a certainty of establishing his children as well or better 
than himself— such an approach to certainty at least as 
would render anxiety on that score unpardonable. 

Land bemg obtained so easily, I had a fancy to occupy 
here just as many acres as I did at Wanborough ; and I 
have added 160 of timbered land to the 1,440 I at first 
concluded to farm. I shall build and furnish as good a 
house as the one I left, with suitable out-buildings, garden, 
orchard, &c. make 5,000 rods of fence, chiefly bank and 
ditch, provide implements, build a mill, support the expenses 
of housekeeping and labour until we obtain returns, and pay 
the entire purchase-money of the estate, for less than half 
the capital employed on Wanborough farm. At the end of 
fourteen years, instead of an expiring lease, I or my heirs 
will probably see an increase in the value of the land equal 
to fifteen or twenty times the original purchase. 

In the interval my family will have lived handsomely on 
the produce, and have plenty to spare, should any of them 
require a separate establishment on farms of their own. 

Thus I see no obstruction to my realizing all I wished 
for on taking leave of Old England. To me, whose cir- 
cumstances were comparatively easy, the cliauge is highly 
advantageous; but to labouring people, to mechanics, to 
people in general who are in difficulties, this country affords 
80 many sure roads to independence and comfort, that it is 
lamentable that any, who have the means of making their 
escape, should bo prevented by the misreprentation of otiiers, 
or tlieir own timidity. 



119 

In answer to a letter from Mr. Fearon— (&e note at 

the end.) 
To the first, as to the most eligible part of the iTnited 
States for obtaining iniproved/arws, or uncultivated lands for 
Englishmen, &c. 1 reply, that with a view to the settlement 
of the number of families you mention, it will be vain to 
look for improved farms in any part that I have seen or 
hecrd of. Probably a single family might be suited in almost 
any large district, as the changes which are continually 
occurring in human affairs, will occasionally throw eligible 
farms into the market every where. But you can have no 
cAoice of cultivated lands, as those you would prefer are 
the least likely to be disposed of; and it is altogether un- 
likely you should meet with a body of such lands, for the 
accommodation of thirty or forty families ; considering too, 
that, by travelling a few days' journey further west, you 
may huve a choice of land of equal value at one-tenth of 
the price, where they may settle contiguous, or atleastnear 
to each other. I hav- no hesitation in recommending you 
to do as I have done : that is, to head the tide of emigra- 
tion, and provide for your friends where the lands are yet 
unappropriated. 

After traversing the states of Ohio and Indiana, looking 
out for a tract suited to my own views, and those of a 
number of our countrymen who have signified their inten- 
tions of following our example, I have fixed upon this spot in 
Illinois, and am the better pleased with it the more I see of it. 
As to obtaining labourers. A single settler may get his 
labour done by the piece on moderate terms, not higher 
than in some parts of England ; but if many families setUe 
together, all requiring this article, and none supplying it, 
they must obtain it from elsewhere. Let them import 
English labourers, or make advantageous proposals to such 
as are continually arriving at the eastern ports. 



6 , /-I 

: 1 



N J 






f r 



120 



Prwisima are cheap of course. Wheat three and four- 
pence sterling per bushel. Beef and pork two-pence per 
pound, groceries and clothing dear, building moderate, 
either by wood or brick. Bricks are laid by the thousand, 
at eight dollars or under, including lime. 

Privations I cannot enumerate. Their amount depends 
on the previous habits and present disposition of the indi- 
Tiduals : for myself and family, the privations already expe- 
rienced, or antici|)ated, are of small account compared 
with the advantages. 

Horses, 60 to 100 dollars, or upwards ; cows, 10 to 20 
dollars ; sows, 3 to 5 dollars. 

Society is made up of new comers chiefly, and of course 
must partake of the leading characters of these. There is 
generally a little bias of attraction in a newly settled neigh- 
bourhood, which brings emigrants from some particular 
state or country to that spot; and thus a tone is given to 
society. Where we are settling, society is yet unborn as 
it were. It will, as in other places, be made up of such as 
come ; among whom English farmers, I presume will form 
a large proportion. 

Roads as yet are in a state of nature. 

Purchases of land are best made at the land-offices : pay- 
ments, five years, or prompt ; if the latter, eight per cent, 
discount. 

Mechanics' wages, 1 dollar to 1^. Carpenters, smiths, 
shoemakers, briekmakers, and bricklayers, are among the 
first in requisition for a new settlement : others follow in 
course; — tanners, saddlers, tailors, hatters, tin-workers, 
&c. Sec. 

We rely on good markets for produce, through the grand 
navigable communication we enjoy with the ocean. 

Medical aid is not of difficult attainment. The English of 
both sexes, and strangers in genera], are liable to some 



121 

biiioue attacks on their first arrival : these complaints seem, 
however, simple, and not difficult to manage if taken in 
time. 

The manufactures you mention may hereafter be eligible ; 
cotton, wooDen, linen, stockings, &c. certainly not at 
present. Beer, spirits, pottery, tanning, are objects of 
immed ate attention. 

The minerals of our district are not much known. We 
have excellent limestone ; I believe we have coal : wood 
will, however, be the cheapest fuel for some years. 

Implements are cheap till you commence with the iron. 
A waggon, 35 or 40 dollars, exclusive of tier to wheels. A 
strong waggon for the road complete will amount to 160 
dollars or upwards. 

The best mode of coming from England to this part of 
the western country is by an eastern port, thence to Pittsburg, 
and down the Ohio to Shawnee town. Clothing, bedding, 
household linen, simple medicines of the best quality, and 
sundry small articles of cutlery and light tools, are the best 
things for an emigrant to bring out. 

I can hardly reply to your inquiry about the manner of 
travelling ; it must be suited to the party. Horseback is the 
most pleasant and expeditious ; on foot the cheapest : a 
light waggon is eligible in some cases ; in others the stage is 
a necessary evil. 



The foUowmg is in reply to Mr. Cobbett's partial state- 
ment, lately given in one of his Registers; and, being 
dated so late as the middle of July, 1819, must be in- 
teresting to many thousand persons, whose ardour for emi- 
gration is not cooled by circumstances : — 

Mr. BIRKBECK's SETTLEMENT. 

Mr. Editok — Permit me to request the insertion of the 
following letter from my friend Mr. Birkbeck, addressed to 



v^ 



r 






123 

the British emigrants arriving in the Eastern States of 
America. From many years acquaintance with this gentle- 
man, I have always been an admirer of his superior talents ; 
and I am well assured that he would not, from any motive, 
lead others into error by any incorrectness of statement. 
I well know that an idea has been entertained by many, 
that he has represented the Illinois district in more fasci- 
nating colours than it is entitled to. Within these few 
weeks, I have had an opportunity of hearing the statement 
of others residing in the vicinity of Mr. Birk beck's property, 
and, M'ithout exception, all have corroborated the correct- 
ness of his account. I am. Sir, &c. 

Burlington Street, Bath. Q. H. Wilkinson. 



TO BRITISH EMIGRANTS ARRIVING IN THE EASTERN 

STATES. 

English Prairie (Illinois) July Vith, 1819. 
My Friends and Countrymen — For your service I ex- 
hibited in two publications, an outline of the precess of 
emigration, from its commencement up to the final settle- 
ment. My first opinion of this, the spot of our choice, 
and the reasoning on which that choice was grounded, 
are before you; and sufficient time has elapsed to try those 
opinions by the test of experience ; by which they are con- 
firmed in every particular. I shewed you my own tract 
through a gloomy forest into a delightful country, better 
prepared for our abode by the hand of nature, than the 
heavy woods by half a century of labour. I built a cabin 
"and blazed a road" to it; for it was my ambition to be 
sunounded by my olc friends and neighbours. In this 
too I am gratified ; and we are contented with our allot- 
ment, both as to our present state and future prospects. 
This small district, which two years ago was nearly without 
inhabitants, contains a thriving population of from six tQ 



123 

seven hundred persons. We have been blessed with hesdtll 
most unusual for a new settlement, or for any settlement of 
equal numbers in any country ; and no doubt is entertained 
by us, or by any judicious observer, of its salubrity. We 
have several wells of excellent water, and many more are 
in progress. Our soil is fertile beyond my own expectation; 
but our exertions have hitherto been chiefly directed to the 
permanent objects of building and fencing, of which much 
has already been done. We have, however, collected a 
stock of cattle and hogs; and I think more acres of 
corn are now growing than there are individuals in the 
settlement. 

I have been informed that the active pen of Mr. Cobbett 
has been borrowed by certain land speculators, to direct 
your course from the western country to a settlement in the 
back woods of Pennsylvania, on the Susquehanna, 170 
miles N. W. of Philadelphia. I have not yet been so for- 
tunate as to meet with the publication. Report says that 
he holds me out as a man of inferior judgment; and has 
descended so far as to throw a doubt over my veracity. The 
latter I can hardly credit. But however that may be, the 
question, both as regards my judgment and veracity in this 
instance, is decided, and in my favour, on the incontro- 
vertible evidence of fact. 

The Susquehanna may, for aught I know, be quite eligible 
for you ; but unfair means taken by the p'-omoters of any 
undertaking, to depress a competitor, shakes and ought to 
destroy all confidence in their honour and truth. I have 
just received a publication on this subject by Dr. Johnson, 
who, by mis-application of partial extracts and dishonest 
comments, has laboured to show that this country is not 
such a country as I have stated it to be, but that I have 
chosen a bad situation, and described it as a good one : 
this gives me a mean opiniou of Dr. Johnson. But it is the 



124 

interest of these speculators to fix you on their lands, and 
their proposals may be worthy your attention ; therefore 
as the distance is comparatively small from the eastern 
ports, I advise you to examine the thing for yourselves, or, 
at least, to obtain an account of it through honest hands. 
If you are poor, I would recommend you to find out some 
of the Susquehanna proprietors, who may possibly under- 
take to pay the charges of a journey thither, should you 
find Dr. Johnson's favourable report prove as false as I 
know his ifwfavourable to b«. I hear of advertisements in 
the daily papers inviting settlers; but why do annual 
thousands of New York and Pennsylvania farmers pass 
these eligible settlements, at their own doors, and make 
their way into the west, even as far as this place I I feel no 
anxiety as to the peopling of this neighbourhood; our 
prosperity is out of the reach of Mr. Cobbett and Dr. 
Johnson; but I think it right to offer these hints to your 
attention. 

It would be well for you to inform yourselves what the 
Emigrant Society consists of, which possesses so much 
good-will towards you. The preface to Dr. Johnson's book 
is called an address to you from this society, but it is not 
authenticated either by signature or date. It is probable, 
that the owners of the lands in question are the Emigrant 
Society. If so, you will understand the whole affair. 

M. BIRKBECK. 

Particular information respecting this settlement and 
modes of conveyance, may be learned by application to 
A. S. Pell, No. 476, Broadway.— (New York.) 



A late traveller observes, since Captains Lewis and Clark 
made their exploritory travels west of the Alleghany Moun- 
tains, other travellers have penetrated by far shorter and 
better roads; audit has been calculated, that, with some 



12& 

little improvement of the road, M'aggons might travel from 
this Western Country to some of the head waters of the 
Missouri, with less trouble than they now cross the Alleghany 
Mountains from the Western States. 

EXTRACTS from SMITH's GEOGRAPHICAL VIEW 
of the PROVINCE of UPPER CANADA. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE DISTRICT OP LONDON, 
(UPPER CANADA.) 

This district is bounded east by Indian land, on Grand 
River, north by the wilderness, west by the western district 
at Detroit, and south by lake Erie, along the north shore 
of which it extends about 90 miles. The district of 
London is certainly much the best part of Canada. It is 
sufficiently level, very rich, and beautifully variegated with 
small hills and fertile vallies, through which flow a number 
of pe. -ly streams of almost the best water in the world. 

In this district there is a large quantity of natural plains, 
though not in very large bodies, and not entirely clear of 
timber. This land has a handsome appeai-ance, and affords 
fine roads and pasture in summer. Here the farmer has 
but little to do, only to fence his land, and put in the plough, 
which indeed requires a strong team at first, but afterwards 
may be tilled with one horse. These plains are mostly in 
the highest part of the ground, are very rich, and well 
adapted for wheat and clover. The surface of the earth in 
this district is almost entirely clear of stone ; it is of a sandy 
quality, (especially the plains) which renders it very easy 
for cultivation. 

This district is situated in the 41ot. degree, and 40 
minutes of north lat. and is favoured with a temperate 
climate. The summers are siifficiently long to bring all 
the crops to perfection, if planted in season : indeed there 
is hardly •rw any kind of produce injured by the frost. 



126 

This is the best part of Canada for wheat, and, I heUctCf 
of any part of the world : from 20 to 35 bushels are com- 
monly gathered from one acre of ground, perfectly sounds 
and clear from smut. Corn thrives exceedingly well, ai 
also all other kinds of gi'ain. Apples, peaches, cherries, 
and all kinds of fruit common to the United States, flourish 
very well here- Wood-land sells from two to five dollars 
an acre. The titnber of ihis district consists of almost all 
kinds common to the United States. 

The inhabitants of this district enjoy a greater degree of 
health, than is common to observe in most places: but 
doubtless there are reasons for this, founded on natural 
principles, .and among which are the following : 

1st. The inhabitants are, from their prosperous situation, 
exempt from the necessity of labouring too hard, and at 
the same time are called to a moderate share of industry, 
which promotes the health of the body and mind. 

2d. Most of the people were poor when they first came to 
that province : of course had been accustomed to live on 
the necessities of life, and yet retain a wise moderation in 
eating and drinking, which also very much prevents the 
introduction of disease. 

3d. The climate is quite temperate, and according to the 
observation of many who have lived in the place sixteen 
years, sudden changes from hot to cold, or cold to hot, is 
not so common as in most places in the United States, or 
Europe. The winter commences gradually, and goes oif in 
like manner. The snow in this district has never been 
known to be more than twenty inches deep, and generally 
not more than twelve. 

4th. All the water in this distriet is clear from any 
foreign body, and of the lightest order ; most of the people 
make use of springs or brooks, which are in great plenty, 
and are clear and cool nine months in the year : neither s^e 



127 

they very often made muddy by rain, the land through 
which they run being of a sandy quality. 

oth The soil being of a sandy quality, as observed above 
naturally produces sound and sweet grain, and vegetables' 
the using of which very much promotes the health of the 
consumer. 

6th. The people of this Canadian paradise are more con- 
tented in their situation of life, than is common to observe 
m most places, which also very much preserves the health 
of man while a contrary disposition tends to destroy it. 

This district is divided into three counties, viz. Norfolk, 
^nddlcsex and Oxford, and twenty-five townships, all o 
which I will describe in a brief manner 

Norfolk County lies in the south east part of the 
district, joming the shore of the Lake Erie, and is divided 
into nine townships, generally nine miles wide, where they 
join on the lake shore, and twelve miles in length towards 
ine north. 

Township, are as follow .-Walpole, Ramham, Wood- 
ho«.e Charlotteville, Walsmgha,„, Ho«gh.„„, Middleton, 
Wmdham, Townsend. 

Oxford County is situated north of Norfolk and Mid- 
dlesex, towards the heads of the Thames and Grand 
Hirers, and is divided into six townships, about twelve 
miles square, viz. Burford, Blenheim, Oxford, Norwich 
Dierham, Blenford. 

Middlesex County lies directly south west of Norfolk 
joining the lake shore, and is exceeding rich, well watered' 
With a number of fine streams, is level, and almost entirely 
c ear of stone. The common growth of timber is bass 
black and white walnut, with hickory, maple, and oak. , ' 

It IS not more than two years from the time I write 
April, 1812, since this country has been open for settle- 
ment, of course it cannot be expected that there are many 



128 



water-works, mechanics, or the like : I therefore shall omit 
naming the .iumber in any Township, but proceed to name 
the Townships, and on what terms this excellent land may 
be obtained. 

This County is divided into ten Townships : those lying on 
the lake shore are Mahhide, Bayham, Southold, Yar- 
mouth, and Dunwich : those on the north part are Dor- 
chester, Westminster, Deleware, Winchester, and Marl- 
borough. 

The land is exceeding rich in t^iese Townships, and the 
surface more level than is corjuion, there being no signs of 
trees having been formerly turn'^d up by the roots here or 
anywhere on f ^ Avest side of the Grand River. 

Some few years ago there was a road opened by the 
government eight miles from the shore of Lake Erie, parallel 
with the same, about fiftj miles long, as also one on the 
lake shore, and another from the middle to the north. On 
both sides of these roads lots of 200 acres of laud have been 
given to settlers by the King, and now may be obtained by 
any person, on the following terms. 

First. Every person that wants a lot of 200 acres (for no 
one can get more from the King) must take the oath of 
allegiance to his majesty before some of his majesty's 
justices of the peace, a certificate of which he must procure. 

Secondly, he must then go to CJol. Thomas Talbert, now 
agent for the King respecting the land, who lives on the 
place, and shew him the certificate of the oath, and inform 
him of tlf '.rilx tc obtain a lot for settlement, who will point 
out thosf; *^,> ' i;/. not eng f,ed ; they may then take their 
choice. 

Thirdly.— They must then pay to Col. Talbert, or some 
other proper person, thirty-seven dollars and half, for 
which a receipt is given. 

Fourthly. — ^They then must within the term of two years. 



129 

cleaf fit for cultivation, and fence ten acres of the lot 
obtained, build a house 16 by 20 feet, of logs (or frame) 
with a shingle .-oof, also cut down all the timber in front of, 
and the whole width of the lot, (which is 20 chains) 133 
feet wide, 33 feet of which must be cleared smooth, and 
left for half of the public road. 

Fifthly.—They must, with or without a family, be actual 
settlers on the said lot, within and at the end of two years. 

When all the things are done (no matter how soon) Col. 
Talbert will give thera a certificate of the same, which they 
must take to the Land Office in York, upon which they will 
get a deed for the said lot, which is a deed of gift from the 
King. The 37 1-2 dollars called the fees, is what necessarily 
arises as an expense from the surveying and -iving it out. 

Tn the spring of 1812 there were 600 lots taken up for 
setdement, and were then 400 more to be disposed of by 
government, beside* about 300 in the possession o<" Col. 
Talbert to be sold at private sale. 

The settlers of these lots are almost altogether natives of 
the United States. 



.mil 



; iM , 






GENEFAL REMARKS ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL STATE OF 
THE WHOLE PROVINCE. 

Situation and e:,tent.~.The province of Upper Canada 
lies between 4lo and 40 minutes and 47° north latitude, and 
extends along the northern banks of the river St. Law- 
rence, the lakes Ontario and Erie, and the water communi- 
cation from lake Superior about 700 miles, and is 600 miles 
wide, according to an imaginary line that divides it from 
New Britain on the north. The line that divides it from 
the lower province begins in latitude 45 at lake Francisco, 

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130 

and takes a north west course hy lake Tomis, canting until 
it meets the imaginary line just mentioned. 

The line that divides the upper province from the United 
States commences near the above lake, and is a ground line 
a considerable distance, some distance above the St. Regis 
village of Indians : then through the middle of the river 
St. Lawrence to the beginning of lake Ontario, thence 
through the middle of it to the out-let of lake Erie, then 
through the middle of the out-let to the beginning of the 
said lake, then through the middle of it to the head near 
Detroit, so through the middle of the water communications 
and lakes St. Clair, Huron, Superior, Long Lake, and Lake 
of the woods: thencj a due west course to the head waters 
af the Mississippi river. 

Soil ana Surface. — There are no mountains in the pro- 
vince of Upper Canada, and but very few hills of any con- 
siderable height : yet the country is not of a clear level, 
but affords enough of small hills and high bodies of groiiud 
to render it agreeable to the eye, and convenient for cultiva- 
tion, buildings, water works, &c. «^-c. 

The mountain, slope, or sudden rise of ground, which 
divides the waters of Lake Erie from Lake Ontario, begins 
(I know not how far) north west from the head of Lake 
Ontario, or what is called Burlington Bay, it cxtcndj arrund 
the head of the Bay, a south east course, tJien an easterly 
course near the south shore of Lake Ontario, (one or two 
miles) till near and where it crosses the outlet of Lake 
Erie, where it is fifteen miles to *he south of Ontario. 
This rise towers in some places five hundred feet high, 
almost perpendicular; abounding with craggy rocks; but 
in general, is not moro than two hundred and fifty or three 
hundred fc^t, and tlien the ascent is very gradual, mostly in 
the form of an English summer garden, with natural offsets 
about five hundred yards wide : there are commonly two 



131 

of these offsets. On these offsets are plantations M/ith ml 
habitants, who have very extensive and beautiful prospects, 
especially those who reside on the top. 

Here the eye can gaze with pleasure on all the fertile 
fields below, and has an unbounded view of the Lake Ontario, 
to the north east and some of the northern shore. On the 
top of this rise of ground, the whole country is level, 
fertile, and beautiful, no hill to descend or rise. Nearly all 
the waters on the south side of this slope run into Lake 
Erie; though there are a few that find their way through 
the slope, and afford fine falls for water works. 

What is callod the 20, the 30, and 40 mile creeks, go 
through the slope and afford excellent falls, on which there 
are famous water works at present. A considerable part of 
this slope is composed of craggy limestone rock, particularly 
the steep parts, and from which flow a great number of 
fine springs and brooks, which water the fertile plains 
beloir. 

South west of the Niagara Falls, about 30 miles, and not 
far from the close of Lake Erie, there are « hat are called 
the short hills. Some of these have the form of litUe 
niountaiuf., though none of them ar3 high or hard of ascent, 
and may be cultivated nearly all over. The hills are quite 
rich. 

All along and not far from the north shore of Lakfr 
Ontario, the ground rises tolerably sudden and considerably 
high, after which the country to the north is level enough. 
There are few stotie on the surface of the ground, in any 
part of the province, and on the west side of the Grand 
River there is no stone at all, worth naming; yet there are 
enough beneath the surface ahnost everywhere, and in 
many places limestone is plenty. 

The soil of the province of Upper Canada is exceeding 
good in every part, yet if possible it is the best in the upper 



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part, west and south west of the Bay Quantie, around the 
north shore and head of Lake Ontario, and the west side 
of the Grand River, in the London district already de- 
scribed. The lower part of the province is sand and clay 
mixed ; from the head of the Ttay Qaantie to the head of 
Lake Ontario, it is altogether a black, light, rich mould, in 
most places seven inches deep, after which it is brown 
clay. On the Grand River or Indian Land, and in the 
London district, the soil is sand, brown loam, and clay. 

Natural Production. — The timber of the lower part of 
the province is chiefly hemlock, birch, and beach. That 
of the middle part, or from the beginning of Lake Ontario 
to the head, is chiefly beach, sugar maple, and white pine. 
On and west of the Grand River the chief of the timber is 
white pine. Elm, bass, black walnut, and the different 
oaks, chesnut, and the like; indeed, in this part of the pro- 
vince are found all the varieties in the United States ; also 
some of the trees of the balm of Gilead — one of a majestic 
appearance stands 24 miles west of Niagara, on the main 
road. In the lower part of the province there is but little 
of any kind of wild fruit, but in the middle part there are 
several sorts, particularly hnckleberries and rice. In th« 
western part there are a great variety of wild fruits, and 
are the following : — cranberries, raspberries, blackberries, 
grapes, sarvssberries, wild potatoes, which were exceeding 
useful to the first inhabitants, strawberries, plums -^f a very 
good sort, as also a great quantity of the best crab apples I 
ever saw, which the inhabitants of new settlements use by 
preserving with the molit.'-ses of pumpkins. 

Agriculturi: — In the lower part of the province, there are 
raised considerable quantities of wheat, oats, and peas. In 
the middle part, wheat, rye, oats, peas, hemp, flax, and 
some corn. In the western parts the product is wheat, 
which tlirives better here tlun in other parts ; rye, oais, 



133 



and coini, come to great perfection, as "Iso buck-wheat. 
All kiiids of roots aud vegetables flourish vyell in auy part of 
the province, but especially in the west. Apples come to 
perfection in any part of the province, though peaches can- 
not be raised in the lower end, but do exceeding welt 
within 300 miles of the west end of the province, as also 
cherries, pears, plums, apricots, and the like. 

All kinds of tame cattle do well in any part of the pro- 
vince, but especially horned cattle and sheep thr'^e well, 
and are exceeding healthy. Bees do exceeding well on 
Lake Erie, and are plenty in tlie woods. 

Climate. — ^The climate of the Upper Province is tem- 
perate, especially near tlie head of Lake Ontario, and on 
west joining the shore, or of Lake Erie. All tliis part of 
the province lies in the same latitude as from New York to- 
Springfield in Connecticut, yet as it is several degrees to the 
west, it is warmer than tlie weather in the same latitude east. 
It is also evident, from the experience and journal of several 
discerning persons, that have lived nearly twenty years 
in this part of Canada, that the weatlier does not change 
fid often and sudden, from heat to cold, and cold to heat, 
as in most other places ; nor are the seasons of wet and dry 
80 extreme as they are in the United ('^^pecially the soath- 
em) States. The showers of rain are moderate and plenti- 
l\il, owing perhaps to the bounty of heaven, and the multitnde- 
of fine lakes of water with which the province abounds. 

The air of the lower part of the province is rather too 
sharp in the winter, yet truly salubrious and healthy ; the 
ftir in the Upper p«rt, 4 or 600 miles to the south west, is 
quite pleasant. What is a little remarkable, bui which is 
tm© according to a diary of the weather which I kept for 
two years, the wind blew more than two thirds of the winter 
or for four months, from the west, but hardly ever from the 



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north or north west ; yet in summer it blew almost con- 
stantly from the north. All the snow storms in Canada 
come from the north east, and the coldest winds from the 
south east and south. Rain storms come from the north 
and north west. 

When the western part of the horizon is red, at the set- 
ting of the sun, it forbodes foul weather for the next day. 
In the upper part of this province, in the summer time, 
there is a continual though moderate gale of wind, similar 
to that in the State of Georgia ; occasioned, perhaps, by thflt 
many lakes of water : this being the case, the hottest days 
are rendered pleasant. Hurricanes or tornadoes have not 
been seen in Canada since it has been settlod by white peo- 
ple. Yet there is every appearance of them on all the 
north shore of Lake Ontario having once raged with great 
fury, as all the timber has been torn up by the roots, from 
supposition about 600 years ago. 

Commerce. — The commerce of the upper province has of 
late years been considerable, and of groat benefit to the in- 
habitants as well as to Great Britain. Within eight years, 
the exports of both provinces have amounted to about two 
millions and a half of dollars, though the greatest part of 
these exports belong to the upper province. 

It appears that there were exported from both provinces, 
in the years 1802-3-4-5, 1,012,000 bushels of wheat each 
year on an average, 40,000 barrels of flour, and 34,000 
weight of biscuit, besides much potash, timber, fur, <fec. 

In the years 1809-10-11, there has been timber for vessels 
and casks, taken to England, to the amount of ^200,000 
sterling. 

In these yearp, there were 320 vessels employed in taking 
away this produce, amounting to 4,600 tons. The common 
price of wheat is 1 dollar per bushel, and sometimes 1 dol- 



1S5 

lar and 25 cents — corn, 50 cents, and rye, 75 cents — pork, 
a dollars per cwt. — These prices are common in every part 
of the province. 

Dry goods and groceries are brought to Canada, in great 
quantities, from England and the United States, which, 
considering the great distance they come, are sold tery 
cheap. At Niagara and other places, green tea is sold for 
one dollar per pound, molasses ten shillings per gallon, and 
brown sugar one shilling per pound, or eight pounds for a 
dollar, but since the war it can be had for eight cents per 
pound. 

Tolerably fine calicos are often bought for 25 centfi per 
yard, and salt has been generally sold at one dollar per 
bushel, hut since the war it has sold at four. 

Animals. — I believe that all the variety of animals common 
to most places in the United States, are found here, except 
rats, which are not to be found in tLu province of Upper 
Canada. 

A few years ago, there was a she-bear caught near \ ork, 
and dissected by a surgeon of the place, which was found 
to be with young ; and which is the only instance, I believe, 
that has occurred of the like in North America. Bears 
are plenty in all parts of the province, but more abundant 
in the south west part. It is very remarkable, that bears 
do not often destroy hogs, in Canada; however, they are 
troublesome to the inhabitants in the fall, by infesting their 
corn fields, yet the people lose but little by them, as they 
kill many for food. 

There are also an abundance of hedge-hogs in the pro- 
vince, and which the Indians eat, counting them good. In 
the south west parts there are plenty of deer, an abundance 
of which are taken every winter by the Indians. 

There are also plenty of all kinds of birds which are 
found in the United States, except turkey-buzzards, which 



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136 

ftro very scarce. There is also a kind of bird found here 
about the sirre, and has the same motion and voice as the 
parikite, so plenty in the state of Kentucky, yet not of the 
same colour, but is grey ; it is called by some the frolic. 
Wild dvicks are found in great plenty in and around the 
shores of all the Lakes. Geese are not plenty in the waters 
of Lakes Ontario and Erie at present, but used to be before 
the country was settled by white people, yet they are plenty 
enough in all the lakes north of the settlements. 

In the north end of the province there are no snakes of 
any kind to be found, but different sorts are found plenty 
enough in the south west end. A number of years ago 
there were several people of respectability, who reported 
that they saw in Lake Ontario several large snakes, about 
20 yards in length. In June, 1811, a snake was seen in 
this Lake, near the mouth of the river Credit, 16 miles 
above York. I was acquainted with some who saw it, and 
believe them to be people of truth. It came within seven 
yards of the boat that they were in, and played about it, 
and was judged to be 30 feet in lei^th, and three in cir- 
cumference. There are seals in this lake, some of which 
have been caught. 

Fish. — Lake Ontario abounds with fish of almost every 
kind, but the salmon and salmon-trout are the most and 
far the best. The salmon appear in very large quantities in 
the fall of the year, and penetrate up all the waters that 
run into the lake so high, that they are often thrown out 
with Jhe hand; but they are commonly taken near the 
mouth of the rivers by the Indians in the night, by means of 
spears. They commonly weigh from 10 to 20 pounds, and 
may be purchased of the Indians at one shilling each, or for 
a gill of whiskey, a cake of bread, or the like trifle. They 
are of great benefit to the inhabitants, especially the poorer 
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137 

The salmon trout appear in the spring, though not in so 
great plenty, but are larger, weighing from 16 to 30 pounds, 
and are much fatter than salmon. 

There are several other fish of an excellent quality, and 
plenty, particularly bass and herring : the latter very much 
resemble the sea herring, though they are not so full of 
small bones. In the month of November, they aie taken 
in great abundance from the water communication between 
the main Lake and ihe little Lake, otherwise called Bur- 
lington Bay, at the head of Lake Ontario. They are taken 
with the net, the channel of water between the two Lakes 
being not more than eight feet deep, about 60 wide, and 
300 yards long. 

Very good and large eels are also taken out of the Lake, 
yet they are but little valued, except by the Indians. 

There are a great number of fish in Lake Erie, some of 
!which are very valuable, particularly what is called the 
white fish. 

There are not many eels in this Lake ; what few there are 
have multiplied from 20, wliich a British Officer put into it 
from Lake Ontario, 37 years ago. 

Mines and Minerals. — In the Johnstown district there is 
an iron mine of considerable value, fiom which iron has 
been dug for many years. 

In the district of London, Charlotteville township, there 
wa» a large and rich body of iron ore discovered in the 
year 1810, and from which there has been a little iron made 
©f an excellent quality. There are several more mines or 
bodies of iron ore found in different parts of the province, 
yet there is but little attention paid to them, though (hey 
Blight be valuable, should they fall into the possession of 
men of an enterprising spirit. There are also some lead 
nines that are said to be very rich and good. 

In the forks of Grand River, which empties into Lake 



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138 

15rie, and about 50 miles from the same, on the land owhed 
by the Six Nations of Indians, there has lately been dis- 
covered a body of plaister, or what is called plaister of 
Paris. It lays in the bowels of a large hill, but how much 
it contains is not known. This plaister has been used in 
different parts of the country adjacent, and answers every 
valuable purpose, as well as that which is brought from 
France or Nova-Scotia does in the United States. No 
soil can be better adapted to the use of plaister, than that 
of the district of London, which joins on the Grand 
River. 

In the township of Townsend, there is a clay that paints 
nearly as well as Spanish brown, and many people use it 
instead thereof. Also in some other parts there are clays 
that paint very well. 

There are a number of salt springs in almost every part of 
Canada, although there has not been much salt made in the 
province hitherto, it having been brought from the different 
salt-works in the state of New York, in great abundance. 
However, there has been salt made from some, of an ex- 
cellent quality, particularly in Lincoln county, near Niagara, 
and in the townsliip of Percy, Newcastle district. 

The are a number of medical springs in the province, of an 
excellent quality. One in the township of Woodhouse, is 
of a sulphureous nature— a quart will purge well : and of 
the same sort is the one in Middleton, on Big Creek. 
Twelve miles east of York, there is a spring of great medical 
virtue. 

Lakes. — There are seven lakes of considerable size in the 
inhabited part of the province, and many more in the wit 
derness. Lake Ontario is about 280 miles long, from north 
east to south west, and 80 wide about the middle ; being of 
an oval form, it is exceeding deep, and in most places it 
appears to be withoTit bottom, as there has been great length 



139 



of cord let down without finding any. The water is very 
clear and cool at all times of the year, having the appear- 
ance of a large spring. This lake never freezes except near 
the shore where it is shallow; nor does it freeze there, only 
a few weeks in the most severe weather. It is pretty cer- 
tain that there is more water runs out of this lake than runs 
in ; and when we consider its very extensive surface, it is 
also certain that there is much of its water evaporated by 
the sun : of course it must hide many exceeding large 
springs. 

Lake Ontario has sunk within its banks since the notice of 
its present inhabitants, say 37 years, and some Indians 
inform that their forefathers say, that it was once as high as 
the height of Niagara Fall, and that the waters of Lakes 
Ontario and Erie joined in most places ; but as to the truth 
of this assertion I will not pretend to say ; yet I am of the 
opinion that the water of Lake Ontario once reached to the 
foot of the mountain or slope of ground already named, and 
I am led to this belief from the circumstance of pebble 
stones being dug up from every part of the surface, and 
underneath the same, between it and the shore. The foot 
of the mountain is 20 feet higher than the lake. 

There are not many islands in this lake, except near the 
lower end, where they are plenty. 

In many places the ground descends to the water very 
gradually, and there is no bank at all, except a sandy or 
gravelly beach : but in other places the banks are 15 feet 
high. 

The wind has a great effect upon this lake, and the waves 
sometimes run high ; yet it is tolerably safe for navigation, 
there being but feir shoals or rocks at any distance from 
the shore. 

There are a number of vessels on this lake, and some of 
considerable size. The sight of so great a body of water 



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in tlie midst of the wilderness, enriched with ships sailing, 
and colours flying, is truly pleasing and romantic^ 

The Little Lake, or Burlington Bay, lies at the south 
west end of this lake, and is divided from it by a causeway, 
five miles long, and in most places 300 yards wide. The 
surface of this causeway is completely level, of a light sand, 
matted over with grass, and beautifidly decorated with 
groves of timber, chiefly oak of a middle size, but of an end- 
less variety of forms — some six feet in circumference at the 
butt, yet not more than 12 feet high, with extensive limbs^ 
crooking and turning in all directions. A great number of 
these trees are entirely encircled with grape vines, and pro- 
duce great quantities of grapes of an excellent quality. The 
former residence of the noted Colonel Brandt is near this 
place. This causeway is broken offin one place, as already 
noted, about a mile from the north west shore, and is about 
five feet higher than the water. It is a beautiful place for a 
summer seat. The Little Lake to the west of this cause- 
M'ay is about 20 miles in circumference, and is generally 
shallow, although deep in some places. 

It is thought that there are salt springs in the bottom of 
this Lake, because the herring chiefly reside in it. It is 
famous for ducks and eels. 

There are a considerable number of harbours in Lake 
Ontario, but the most noted and curious is that of Presqu'isle, 
in the district of Newcastle, Cramahe township on the Lake 
shore, about 75 miles south west of Kingston. There are 
two points of land, about four miles apart, which extend 
out from the main shore, but draw nearer each other as 
they extend into the Lake, and finally meet in a rounding 
form, about five miles from the shore. These arms of land 
are level on the top, and are about five or eight feet ahore 
the water. About three miles from the shore, there is a 
channel of water which runs through the east point of l?nd. 



141 



about liO yards wide, "nd 30 feet deep. This channel lef« 
in the vessels, which can sail all over the harbonr with 
safety, and in going up to the top, or where the two arms 
meet, which is in form like a horse-shoe, the largest ships 
may come close up ;o the banks, which are perpendicular of 
solid rock. A plank is put from the shore to the vessel, 
when it is to be loaded. 

The Bay Quantie connects with Lake Ontario, a small 
distance west of Kingston, and extends 70 miles west up 
towards the south west, parallel with it. It is one mile 
wide in some places, and six in others. There are a con- 
siderable number of arais, or smaller bays, which put out 
from it, some 10 miles long. This bay is very safe for 
navigation, being very deep, and secure from the effect of 
high winds. Most of the traders, with small vessels, who 
go from Kingston to York, Niagara, or Detroit, pass up 
this bay to the head, which is only one mile and three 
quarters from a small lake, called Willow's Lake, that 
puts into Lake Ontario, and here the vessels are carried 
across by means of wheels and oxen. The road is quite 
level and sandy. Those traders which come down Lake 
Ontario, generally cross this carrying place into the bay. 
Although the Bay Quantie, and the Lake Ontario are so near 
here, yet they are 30 miles apart in some places, owing to 
an extensive projection of some points of land into the lake, 
and no doubt, their being so near at the head of the bay, is 
a divine interposition of Providence for the benefit of the 
inhabitants. 

There are several small lakes in the peninsula between the 
lake and bay, which abound with fish, one of which de- 
serves particular notice, called the Moimtain Lake. This 
lake is situated in Hallowell township. Prince Edward 
county. Midland district, 34 miles from Kingston, on the 
bay shore. It lies on the top of a mountain, judged to be 



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142 

al)out 200 feet high : but in the month of December, 1813, 
I stood on the ice d" the bay, in front of it, and after taking 
the height, I found it to be only 160 feet. This lake is 
about three miles in circumference, and very deep in most 
places, abounding with fish of different sorts. How fish 
could get into this lake, is a matter of deep speculation, 
as it has no connexion with the bay or lake, only by the 
small stream that flows from it into the bay, by a fall of 160 
feet, nearly perpendicular. 

Under these falls there is now a grist mill, near the bay 
shore, in the possession of Mr. Vanalstine, 

Near the head of the Bay Quantie, on the north side, 
there is a lake of considerable size, called the Hog Lake, 
as also several others not far distant. About 20 miles west 
of the head of the Bay Quantie, and 15 miles north of the 
shore of Lake Ontario, is situated what is called the Rice 
Lake, on account of the great quantity of rice which grows 
in it. This lake is from three to nine miles wide, and 36 in 
length, though not very deep. Its course is from east to 
west, the M'est end is not far from Lake Simcoe. At the 
east end there is a fall of 18 feet perpendicular, in the form 
of ahuf moon. Below the falls, begins what is called the 
River Tren*, which is tolerable large, and affords many 
falls fit for water works : it empties in the Bay Quantie, at 
the head. This lake communicates with a chain of small 
lakes, called the Shallow lakes, which afford rice also, and 
extends near the north end of Lake Simcoe : Lake Simcoe 
lies still west of Rich Lake, and is some larger. It com- 
municates with Lake Huron, to the suuth west, by the River 
Severn. 

Lake Erie, which lies 30 miles from any part of Lake 
Ontario, on the south west, is nearly 300 miles long from 
north east to south west, and from 20 to 40 miles wide. 
This lake lies nearly 300 feet higher than Lake Ontario, 



14S 

which is the reason of the Niagara Falls. It is also pure and 
clear water, though not so deep as Lake Ontario, nor is it 
so safe for navigation, or affords so many fine harbours. 
There are some islands near the west end of this lake, that 
contain many bad snakes. The shore of this lake, in most 
places, is nearly level with the land, and very smooth and 
sandy. It is thought, that full as much water runs out of 
this lake as runs in. 

There are other Lakes in Canada. The Lake St. Clair lies 
in a north westerly course from Lake Frie. Still farther to 
the north west is Lake Huron, 100 miles in circumference, 
in latitude 42. From Lake Huron, through the straits of 
Marie, it is 70 miles to Lake Superior, which lies between 
48 and -50 degrees north latitude, and between 84 and 90 
degrees west longitude from London. The Isle Royal, 
which is near the middle of this lake, is 100 miles long, and 
40 wide. In the middle of this island is the line between 
the United States and Great Britain. 

Rivers. -^Although Canada is a level country, yet it is 
not so low and flat as not to afford any streams of water, 
bat, on the contrary, has many which run clear, and afford 
excellent falls for water works, the principal of which are 
the following : — 

The Ottaways River is a large stream that rises out ofl-ake 
Tomis canting, and runs a south east course. It is the line 
between the two provinces for some distance, and crosses 
into the lower province, and empties into the River St. 
Lawrence, above and below Montre il. The spring floods 
in this river vise in the month of June; it inundates its 
banks, and often spoils the farmer's young crop. The 
reason of this is, the river extends so great a distance to 
the north west, where the spring does not begin until the 
last of May, and by the time the snow is thawed, and tlie 
ice in the lake broken up, and the water descends to the 

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settled parts of the province, near the mouth of tlie rirer, 
it is the middle of June. There are a great number of fish, 
of various sorts, in this river. There are considemble falls 
in it, though none of a perpendicular descent. 

There are several more rivers in the lower part of the 
province, which empty into the St. Lawrence, and abound 
with fish. The River Cananoqua, which empties into it 
14 miles below Kingston, is of considerable size. 

What is called Myer's Creek, which empties into the 
Bay Quantie, from the north, 50 miles from Kingston, is 
considerably large, very clear and pure, and runs near the 
surface of the ground; afi'ords fine falls for waterworks, 
and abounds with fish. 

The River Trent, already named, empties into the head 
of the Bay Quantie, from the Rice Lake, is large, and 
abounds with fish. 

Many hundred barrels of excellent salmon are taken out 

of this river every fall. 

From the head of the Bay Quantie, for 70 miles towards 
tbp south west, up the Lake Ontario, there are no rivers of 
any considerable size that empty into the lake ; yet there is 
an abundance of small and pearly creeks and brooks— indeed 
it is the best watered part in Canada. Smith's and Lion's 
'Creeks are streams of some note. 

What is called Duflen's Creek, is a fine stream, abound- 
ing with fish ; it empties into Lake Ontario, 30 miles below, 
or north east of York. 

The River Rush empties into the lake 18 miles below 
York; it is tolorably large, and navigable for boats 20 

miles up. 

From this river there is an abundance of salmon taken 
every fall. Still up towards the head of Lake Ontario, there 
are a number more of fine streams. 

Sixteen miles above York, empties into tL.i lake the River 



145 

Credit. This is one of the best rivers in Canada for salmon ; 
It is tolerably large. The salmon are taken out of this and 
otherrivers in the night by means of spears. The fishermen 
have an iron frame fixed in the fore part of their canoes, in 
which they place pine knots and fire for light. They then 
paddle along in the river, and see the salmon floating near 
the surface of the water, where they come by the influence 
of the light. They are quite tame and are struck with easo. 
The salmon come up the rivers in large quantities together 
on purpose to spawn. 

Ten miles still farther up the lake, empties in what is 
called the 16 mile Creek, which is tolerably large and 
famous for fish. Five miles farther is what is called the 12 
mile Creek, a beautiful stream abounding with fish, and 
many fine falls for water works. 

There are several fine streams that run into the head of 
Lake Ontario and Burlington Bay. 

The Chippeway river runs into the Niagara river, three 
mUes above the falls, and is tolerably large and long. What 
IS called the 20 mile Creek, rises near the head of the 
Cnippeway, from a large pond, flows a north east course, 
and plunges down the slope of ground already described, by 
several perpendicular pitches in different places, affording 
excellent seats for water works. It empties into Lake 
Ontario, 16 miles west of Niagara. 

The 15, 16, 17, 30, and 40 mile Creeks, all run into Lake 
Ontario, and plunge over the slope, and afford fine falls. 

The River Niagara, or outlet of Lake Lrie, is very large 
before it empties into lake Ontario, but is still larger after 
it leaves the lake, or River St. Lawrence. 

There are several considerable streams that run into 
Lake Erie. 

The Grand River is a considerable large stream of exceed- 
ing clear water riling from the small Lake St. Clie. It It 

K 2 



146 

n*vigable for vessels of coHsiderable size for 50 miles lioirt 
Its m uth. It empties into Lake Erie, 60 miles from the 
east end, and contains many fine fish. This river is io 
the possession of the Six Nations of Indians; they own six 
miles of land each side of it, from the mouth to the head. 

The Thames is large and beautiful, rising near the head 
of the Grand River, and runs nearly a south course into the 
waters that come from Lake Superior, into the head of 
Lake Erie. It empties 30 miles above Sandwich. There 
are a number more fine streaus that run into Lake Erie; 
such as Big Creek, passing through Middleton and Houghton 
townships, as also Kettle and Outer Creeks, in Middlesex 

county. 

Indians.— lihere are seven distinct nations of Indians in 
the inli-^bi ed part of Canada, six of these nations live on 
&e Grand River already noted, viz. the Mohawks, the 
Chippewas, the Delawares, the Massasaugas, the Tusca- 
roras, and Senacas. Each of these nations have theii 
king or chief, and their village, and council house. ITiey 
«lso speak a different language, yet understand each other 
Tery well. These six nations of Indians on the Grand River, 
in number 1976, have attained to a tolerable degree of 
Civilization. They speak the English language with some pro- 
priety, and have schools, and the gospel continually among 
them. The school teachers are paid by the king, and also 
their preacher. A number of these Indians have very good 
English learning, and are very industrious : some of the 
families have raised in one year 300 bushels of wheat. 
They are very kind to strangers, and will give the best of 
thoir food or drink to them. They are all firmly attached to 
lAie interest of the British government, and are exercised 
in the military use of arms, several times in tlie year. They 
can muster 600 warriors ; though the Massasaugas arc not 
good to fight, nor for anything else. There are a con- 



I 



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147 

sideralle number of this tribe residing in other parts of tlie^ 
province, some on the 16 mile creek above York, already 
named, others on the bank of the Lake Simcoe, and others 
on the Rice Lake. 

Besides those of the Mohawks on the Grand River, there 
are a considerable number living near the Bay Quantie, oa 
the north side, about the middle. They own a tract of land 
12 miles square, and have schools, and the gospel among 
them also. 

There are a small tribe of Indians, called the St. Regis 
Indians, living on the River St. Regis, near the lower part 
of the province. There is also a smaU tribe, called ♦^e 
Moravian Indians, living in the western district; they have 
the gospel preached to them by the Dutch Moravians, among 
whom they live : they are of the Delaware tribe. On some 
islands near and in Lake Huron, there are a considerable 
number of Indians, called the Huron Indians, and are great 
warriors. 

Near the head of the Ottawr-v River, there in a small 
tribe of Indians, called the Nepisingui Indians : they live 
on a lake of the same name, and were once converted to 
the Roman Catholic religion, at which time they were a 
numerous tribe. They are of the Algonquin nation, 8om<t 
of which now reside about Lake Superior. 

There are a number of ladiaos of different nati. ns, be- 
sides those that I have named, though they have but little 
intercourse with the British, except tbat they trade with 
them by the agents, and make them yearly presents of a 
great amount. 

There are various accounts respecting the number ef 
Indians m Canada, some suppose that there arelOO.OOCf, and 
out of these there may be raised 30,000 warriors, yet I 
think this it not correct; indeed, I believe flie British 
government do not know the number of all that consider 




148 

themselres connected with it, as all the different nation* 
never meet together at once. 

The Canadian Indians cost the British Crown about 
^3,000 sterling each year. This sum is expended in 
furnishing them with firearms and ammunition, by means 
of which they kill their game, also in blankets and clothe* 
to cover their nakedness, as also bread, meat, and tobacco. 
These things are called gifts fiom the King, but are chiefly 
the interest of money in England belonging to the SiA 
Nations, for land sold to the King. However, I am of 
opinion, that those things which they get from the king'g 
stores do them more harm than good, as thereby they are 
encouraged to live in idleness, depending on those gifts, 
which they receive twice a year. 

Should part of this amount be given to them in horses, 
cows, sheep, and hogs, as also farming utensils, and the 
rest to all such that at the end of each year had raised more 
produce than they needed; this would be a discouragement 
to idleness, and a stimulus to industry. 

The most of the Indians in the province of Upper 
Canada have been converted from idolatry to the belief of 
the Christian religion, by the labour of the Roman Catholit 
priests, when the province belonged to th© French: but 
ever since the province has fell into the hands of the British^ 
there has not been so much attention paid to the religion* 
instructions of the Indians as formerly. What are taught 
in the Christian faith arc of the Protestant cast, yet th« 
young Indians do not know or care any tiling about any kind 
of religion. 

Notwithstanding the Indians have formerly been taught 
by tlie Catholirs in the principles of the Christian faith, and 
at present the Protestants preach among them, as do som« 
other sects, they still hold some of those traditional notiona 
relative to God and the soul, which are very o«riot(f. 






14» 

In the summer they lay about the lakes, and now and thett\ 
catch sturgeon and eels. 

These Indians are considerably troublesome to the white 
people, especially the tribe of Massasaugas, as they are 
wandering through the country almost continually, and 
begging something to eat,^ and when they get drunk, which 
is as often as they can get a chance, they are quarrelsome,, 
and many times dangerous. 

The armour of the Indians, in time of war, are a rifle, 
a spear about 18 inches long, with a handle eight feet, 
a tomahawk, and a scalping knife, all of which they use as 
instruments of death. 

The Indians in Canada, like all other Indians, dress very 
indifferently, though they get umch fine cloth from the 
king's store, which they only throw over their dirty bodies, 
and in a little time all is filtliy together. In the summer 
they are chiefly naked, except a little covering round the 
waist The women are particularly careful of their legs 
below their knees, if all other parts are naked. 

Villages. — There are not many villages in the province of 
Upper Canada of much note, the inhabitants finding their 
greatest advantage in agriculture, as the laud is very cheap 
and fertile. 

Cornwall fa situated about 130 miles down the River 
^t. Lawrence, is handsome, but not large. 

Prescott is 70 miles down the same river, and stands 
opposite to Ogdensburg, on the United States side ; it is 
small. There is a fort and garrison kept here. 

Brockville lies 12 miles higher up the river, and is 
handsomely situated, containing about (10 houses. 

Kingston stands a few miles below the head of the St. 
Lawrence, opposite to an island, which is the means of 
forming a safe and commodious harbour. It contains about 



%:i 






150 



■ 



IfO bouses, « court house, jaU, and two houses for public 
worship. The fort in this place is temporary, the cannon 
are small. It is a place of much trade. There are several 
more small villages on the banks of the Bay of Quantie, 
and are places of some trade, all of which increase and 
flourish rapidly. 

York is situated 170 miles south west oi Kingston, on 
the north shore of Lake Ontario, and is something larger 
than the former. This village is laid out after the form of 
Philadelphia, the streets crossing each other at right angles; 
though the ground on which it stands is not suitable for 
building. This at present is the scat of government, and 
the residence of a number of English gentlemen. It con- 
tains some fine buildings, though tliey stand scattering, 
among which are a court-house, council-house, a large 
brick building, in which the king's store for the place is 
kept, and a meeting-house for Episcopalians, one printing 
and other oflices. This city lies in north latitude 43 degrees 
and some minutes. The harbour in front of the city is 
comm idious, safe, and beautiful, and is formed after n 
curious manner. About three miles below, or east of the city, 
there extends out from the main shore, an arm or neck of 
land, about 100 yards wide, nearly in the form of a rainbow, 
until it connects with the main shore again, about a mile 
above, or west of the city, between it and where the fort 
stands. About 300 yards from the shore, and as many from 
the fort, there is a channel through this circular island, 
merely sufTicient for the passage of large vessels. This 
bason, wliiih in the middle is two miles wide, is very deep, 
and without rocks, or anything of the kind. Vhile the 
water of the niuin lake, which is 30 miles wide in this 
place, is tost as the waves of the sea, this bason remaiuH 
smooth. Th« fort in this place is not strong, but the British 
began to build a very strong one in the year 1811. 



1 ! 1 



151 

Niagara is situated nearly opposite York, on tlie«outh 
side of the lake, at the point of land formed by the con- 
junction of the outlet of Lake Erie and Ontario. It is a 
beautiful and prospective place, being surrounded on two 
sides by water, the lake on the north, and the Niagara 
river on the east, and which affords a fine harbour for 
shipping. 

Fort George of this place stands about a half mile from 
the mouth of this river, near the bank, where it is 34 feet 
above the surface of the water ; it is nearly square, en- 
closing a space of about 150 yards long, and an 100 broad. 
The pickets are high and strong, defended by a ditch on the 
outside, and breast works on the inside. It is well provided 
with cannon, ammunition, water, provision, and the like. 
This village is a place of much trade, and is inhabited by a 
civil and industrious people. It ontains a council-house, 
court-house, and jail, and two houses for public worship. 
There are several squares of ground in this village adorned 
with almost every kind of precious fruit. The front part of 
the village, on the east, looks towards the fort, over a 
beautiful plain of nearly one mile wide. 

Queen STON is situated seven miles further up the Nia- 
gara river, close by the foot of the mountain or slope of 
ground already noted, at what is called the landing It is a 
small but handsome village : most of the houses are built 
with stons or brick, large and well finished. It is also a 
place of considerable trade, and inhabited by a civil and rich 
people. 

Chippeway lies 10 miles above Queenston, and three 
above the Niagara Falls : is a small village at the mouth of 
the Chippeway creek : it has some handsome buildings, and 
is a pla*^ jf considerable trade. 

Forte Erie. — There is a small village at this place of 



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152 



■ 



some beauty, the inhabitants of which carry on a consi- 
derable trade from the lake. 

Turkey-Point is situated about 60 miles of Fort Erie, 
on the lake shore in the district of London, a little east of 
Long Point. It stands in a beautiful place, adjoining an 
excellent country of land, and has a handsome court-house 
and jail. 

Port-Talbert lies 64 miles farther to the south west 
on the lake shore. It has been laid out about three years, 
and bids fair for a considerable village. It has a fine harbour 
for shipping. 

Malden. — This fort and village is situate at the south- 
west end or head of Lake Erie, 14 miles south of Detroit. 
It is a pleasant place, though not large. The fort here is 
strong. 

Sandwich is situated still up the river, opposite Detroit, 

.-id ig a handsome village, of considerable age, inhabited 

principally by French, who settled this country 103 years ago. 

There are severf>' other villages in the province not imme- 
diately on the water, which are of considerable size and 
beauty ; but those already named are the principal. 

Settlements. — In the lower part of this province, the 
settlements do not extend back or north from the River 
St. Lawrence. Above Kingston, the settlements extend 
from Lake Ontario, (counting the peninsula between the 
lake and the Bay Quantie, which in some places is 10, and 
iu others 30 miles wide) 50 miles. Above the head of the 
bay, on the lake shore, for about 100 miles, the settlements 
do not extend more than six miles from the lake. North 
from York, the settlements extend farther back, particu- 
larly on what is called Yonge Street, which runs a due 
north course to Lake Simcoe. On both sides of this street 
the farms are thick and well improved, the soil being very 
good, although the climate is not so favourable as it is fartlier 



153 

to the south west. From York, west along the lake shore, 
there are but small settlements on the shore for 20 miles ; 
after which, what is called Dundas Street, four miles from 
the shore, is thickl j settled on both sides for 20 miles ; as 
also between this and the lake it is thinly inhabited, although 
this has not been settled more than six years from the pre- 
sent date (1812.) Above 10 or 15 miles, at the head of 
Burlington Bay, is what is called Goot's Paradise. It is 
fine, rich, sandy plains, thickly settled seven miles from 
the shore, to the foot of the slope already named ; and on 
the top, west and north west for 16 miles, there are fine 
settlements in two townships —East and West Flambeau. 
Farther south around the head of Lake Ontario, or more 
particularly Burlington Bay, the settlements are thick, ex- 
tending west sixteen miles. About 40 miles up the Grand 
River is a thick settlement of Dutch, in Brant's township. 
Still to the east, ae the road leads to Niagara, the settle- 
ments are thick near the shore of Lake Ontario. After 
pne gets thirty miles east of the head of Burlington Bay, 
and 20 from Niagara, the settlements of an old date are 
made, and pretty thick, all the way across from lake to 
lake, which is more than 30 miles. From the thick settle- 
ment west of the head of Lake Ontario, towards the London 
district, the inhabitants are thin for twenty miles, through 
the tract of land belonging to the six nations of Indians. 
The settlements in the London district have already been 
described. The settlements in the west end of the province 
are chiefly on the St. Lawrence, on its course through 
Huron and St. Clair. 

Civil Division. — The province of Upper Canada is 
divided into eight districts, 24 counties, and 166 townships, 
generally about 12 miles square. These townships are sur- 
veyed into concisions, the width of the township in f ont 
towards the lake, and one mile and a quarter wide, back 



III 






154 

from the lake to the north, but in some places they are not 
more than three quarters of a mile wide. Each township is 
divided into 14 concisions, the whole of which make 2184. 
These concisions are subdivided into 24 lots of 200 acres 
each, the whole of which amounts to 32,416, which number, 
multiplied by 200, will produce 10,483,200, the number of 
acres surveyed in the province, besides considerable, called 
broken fro' ", not yet surveyed, granted to those who owned 
land in the rear thereof. It may not be amiss to remark 
here, that in every direction from the lands now surveyed 
there are great quantities of wild or unsurveyed land, which 
is equally as good as that now improved. Betwecsn every 
concision there are four roods left for the public road, and 
also between every fourth lot, which is one quarter of a 
mile wide. 

Districis. — Of these there are eight, as already noted. 
The Eastern District is situated at the north-east end of the 
province, joining the St. Lawrence and Ottoways River. 
It is in the coldest and most unpleasant part of the province, 
the land being sandy, cold, and stony, in general producing 
peas, potatoes, oats, and some wheat. Most of the 
inhabitants arc Scotch and French. 

The District of Johnstown lies up farther on the River 
St. Lawre ace, and will bear nearly the same description as 
the other, but is something better. 

The Midland District lies from a little below Kingston, 
up west to the head of Bay Quantic, comprehending that 
beautiful peninsula between the Bay and the Lake. This 
district is large, and thick settled with rich farmers. The 
land is very fertile, producing wheat in abundance, also 
apples and other summer fruit. The bay, and the several 
rivers that run into it, afford plenty of fish. 

Newcastle District extends from the head of the Bay 
Quantie, 50 miles to the south-west, along the shore of the 



155 

lake, and is divided into two counties, Northumberland 
and Durham. This district is well watered, rich, though a 
little hilly, and more stony than any other. 

Home District is still farther up the lake, and is divided 
into two counties, York and Simcoe. It is large, and 
tolerably thick settled ; it has an abundance of white pine 
upon it, and a number of beautiful streams of water. 

Niagara District is situated bv»uth of Home and the lake, 
in the peninsula between the two lakes. Tt is very large, 
and divided into two counties, Lincoln and Haldeman. 
The latter is on the Grand River, in possession of the Six 
Nations of Indians, already named. 

The County of Lincoln lies in the east part of the penin- 
sula, joining on the outlet of Lake Erie, and is divided into 
25 townships, all which are tolerably thick settled, and well 
improved, though not so well watered as other districts. 

London Disti ict has been already described. 

Western District is situated at the west end of the pro- 
vince, joining the River St. Lawrence, as it comes from 
Lake Superior to the head of Lake Erie ; it is large and rich, 
and some part tolerably well improved : it affords fine plains, 
and has been settled by the French more than 100 years. 
It is divided into two counties, Essex and Kent. 

King's Roads. — When the upper province was first settled, 
the people laboured under considerable disadvantages for 
the want of roads : nor could it be expected that the inhabi- 
tants could open any of great extent, as the timber in most 
places is heavy, and they had as much as they could do to 
clear land to raise enough produce to support their families. 
Yet the opening of roads was necessary, and the king knew 
that this could not be effected by the people without his 
assistance. He therefore gave large sums of money to be 
laid out for that purpose, and for a number of years past, 
nearly the whole amount of the revenues of the province, 



^' 



Wl 



156 



H| 



which is the king's money, amounting to 5,000 pounds, ha# 
been laid out in opening and repairing of the pubhc high- 
ways. This, with the statute labour, which the inhabitants 
: '' every township perform, is the means of making tolerable 
good roads in almost every part of the province. There u 
no toll taken for passing on any road or bridge in the 
province. 

What is called the king's roads or highways are four roods 
wide, and lead in the directions now to be described : there 
is one road that leads from Montreal, which is in the lower 
province, up the river St. Lawrence, near the bank on the 
north side, through Cornwall village to Prescott, so on to 
Brockvills and Kingston; from hence there are several 
roads which lead dilTerent ways, though they aie opened by 
the inhabitants, except one which is the king's, and extends 
up towards the south west about twenty miles, when it 
divides into two. One crosses the Bay Quantie, and extends 
nearly through the middle of the peninsula to the head. 
The other turns to the right, and extends up the bay on th« 
north side, through the Mohawk's or Indian land, crosses 
Myer's Creek and the river Trent, where it empties into 
the Bay Quantie, extends a few miles to the south, and 
joins with the other on the carrying place. From hence it 
leads on through woodland (thinly settled) by Presqu'isle 
Harbour, for about fifteen miles, when the country 
appears more improved, and the road tolerably good. 
Within about sixty miles of York the road is bad, as the 
ground is very rich and so!t, and but thinly settled ; and 
about 46 miles from York, there i wo roads — one extends 
along the lake shore, and is the best — the other leads abont 
eight miles to the north ; but they meet again at what is 
called Lion's Creek and Tavern. For nearly thirty miles 
to York, there is but one road (and that quite bad) till 
within nine miles of the city. From York there is one 



167 



road which extends 40 miles a due north course, to LaliC 
Sinicoe: this road in most places, is tolerably good. The 
other tocku. extends up the Lake shore 16 miles to the River 
Credit, where it leaves the shore a little to the north, and ex- 
tends to the head of the Lake ; this road is not very good. 
Two miles from York, on the road which leads to Siracoe, 
called Yonnge's Street, another road leads out, extending 
to the bead of the Lake called Dundas Street, which is 
completely straight for 260 miles to the river Thames, near 
Detroit. Although it is not passable in all places, yet 
where it is not opened, there are other roads near by, which 
lead the sai way, and enter it »gain. Where it crosses 
the Grand r, over which there is a good bridge, three 

miles above t jC Mohawk village of Indians, there is another 
road turns to the south, through beautiful, sandy, and dry 
plains, to Turkey Point, near Long Point, in Lake Erie, 
which is thirty-five miles. This road extends up the Lake 
shore to Port Talbert, although it is not passable the whole 
way. From Fort Erie, two miles below the ferry at Black 
Rook, there extends a road up the shore of Lake Erie, 
more than twenty miles, and another eighteen miles, down 
to the Niagara Falls — here it divides : one extends to the 
west through the Beaver Dams, towards the head of Ontario, 
up the stream of the twenty milk creek to a little village 
called Aswago, and on the main road from Niagara to Grand 
River. This is a tolerable good road. 

From the Falls another extends down the Niagara river 
by Queenston to Fort George : from hence there is a good 
road up and near the Lake shore for forty-five miles, when 
it turns to the south over the mountain, and connects with 
the one just noticed. Forty miles from N iagara, at what is 
called the Fifty Mile Creek, one road turns to the right, 
^d crosses the beach already mentioned, between the 
he d of the Lake, through what is called the Black 



ii 






158 

l.ake and Burlington Bay, towards York. There if 
also a road that extends from Queenston towards tlte 
Swamp, and joins viith the one from Niagara, about ten 
miles from it, a litlie short of the Twelve Mile Creek at 
Shipman's Tavern. 

These are all theking^s roads or public highways : yet there 
are many more roads throughout all the province, which 
lead in every direction, and many of them are very good 
and convenient. 

Bearmga and Distancea of Places. — From Montreal to 
Prescott (100 miles,) the river has a strong current, and 
some dangerous rapids. It cannot be passed with ships, 
though large rafts and boats of considerable burthen pass it 
in safety. 

The village and fort of Prescott are on the north bank of 
the St. Lawrence, opposite to the river Oswegatchie, wr 
the old garrison at Ogdensburg. The St. Lawrence is 
two miles wide here, and has a fmall current. Sixty-five 
miles further up the river, stands Kingston, near the bottom 
of Lake Ontario, nearly opposite (though ^ '■•tie to the 
east of) Sackett's Harbour. The .lane r\ ^ne to 

another, on a straight line, is 27 milet iiw>t&' the nearest 
way that can be passed by land on the r> x x.id a bad one) 
is 34 miles, and thirty six by water or ice. 

Seventy-five miles from Kingston is situated Prcsqulsle 
Harbour, already noted. It is nearly opposite the mouth 
of the Oswego river on the United States' side. The Lake 
is sixty-seven miles wide here, but has been crossed in sevon 
hours. 

One hundred miles from this harbour, up the Lake, standi 
York, nearly opposite Niagara, though a little to the north 
west, on a straight line. The distance from one to the other 
is thirty-four miles, but by land ground the head of L;»k» 
Ontario, it is ninety miles. Niagara, sometimes called 



150 

Niewark, is opposite Niagara Fort, on the UniteU States' 
side, the river i8 1200 yards wide h«^re. 

Queemton stands seven miles farther np the river on the 
same side, close to the foot of the mountiin already hdtcd, 
and opposite to Lewis Town, on the Unitctl States' side ; 
from which there is a good road to Uatavia, an east course. 

Chippeway, a small village at the mouth of a stream of 
fhe same name; is two miles ahove the Falls, and 10 from 
iiueenston. 

Erie stands opposite to Black Rock, on the United States* 
side. Here the river is 1700 yards wide. 

From this place np the shore of Lake Erie for 80 miles 
there are no villageg or forts, as the country is but little 
improved, especially about the middle of the above distance, 
at the mouth of the Grand Iliver, which is in the posses- 
sion of the Indians, as already noted. 

About 60 miles of this distance, on the lake shore, there 
is no rond: though, in the year 1811, commissioners were 
appointed to lay out one. 

Turkey- Point, near Long- Point, is 100 miles from Fort 
George, and nearly 200 below Maiden. It is opposite 
Presqu'isle, and Erie, on the United States' side, at the 
comer of the throe states, Pennsylvania, New York, and 
Ohio. 

Maiden is near the head of Lake Erie, at the mouth of 
the St. Lawrence, as it comes from Lake Superior. 

Sandwich stands 11 miles up the river, opposite to 
Potroit, where it is 900 yards wido. From Sandwich to 
the beginning of Lake St. Clair it is 12 miles ; and 40 more 
through that lake; it is 40 more to Lake Hur<jn, which is 
40 wide, and flO more to the Falls of St. Mary, which ig 
rather a rapid, descending gradually 30 feet in one mile, and 
admits vessels of considerable size. 

From this fall, it is twenty miles to Lake Superior. 



I 



160 



I 



PROMISCUOUS REMARKS ON THE GOVERNMENT. 

The constitution, laws, and government of Upper Canada 
are much better than people unacquainted with them expect. 
It is not my intention here to write much respecting the 
government, though I had taken much pains in studying it, 
with an intention of publishing the result of my inquiries 
on the subject. One year before the declaration of war by 
the American government against England, while in Canada, 
I issued proposals for a geographical and political view of 
the province ; but, as it is now generally expected that the 
province will fall into the hands of the American govern- 
ment, I shall make only a few remarks on the subject. 

In the year 1791, the then called province of Quebec was 
by an act of the British Parliament divided into two separate 
provinces — to be called the province of Lower Canada, and 
the province of Upper Canada. By this act, a constitution 
was formed for each province, each in its nature calculated 
to suit the situation of their respective inhabitants — one 
being chiefly settled by the French, the other by the 
English. 

The constitution put it out of thi^ power of the British 
parliament to impose any taxes on the people, either 
upon their property or trade, but what was necessary for the 
regulation of commerce : but this should be disposed of by 
the legislature of the province, for the benefit of the same. 
The constitution also provides for the creation of a legislative 
council, and a legislative assembly. Tlie king also sends a 
governor, who acts in the king's name. The members of 
the legislative council are selected by the king and governor 
jomtly ; these hold their scats during life, if they do not for- 
feit it. The members of the legislative assembly are elected 
every fourth year by the freemen of the |)rovince. Any man 
of the age of 24, and who is worth property to the amount 



161 

of 40*. a year, and has been in the province seven years, 
may be elected a member of the legislative assembly, or 
vote for one. The making of laws for the welfare of the 
people is the business of the legislative assembly, must be 
assented to by the legislative council and governor, in the 
king's name, before they become laws; yet the legislative 
council, governor, British parliament or king, cannot make 
any laws for the people of Canada, ' without the advice and 
consent o*" ^he legislative assembly.' 

From htace we see that the people have got the means of 
guarding themselves. About twelve years ago, the assembly 
, passed an act dividing the province into districts or ridings, 
every one of which sends one member to parliament or the 
assembly. The num' jr of members at present, August, 
1812, is 26, two thirds of which are natives of the United 
States ; less than one third of the justices of the peace are 
Americans, the sheriffs are either Europeans or loyalists; 
the jury, according to the constitution, must be taken in ro- 
tation from each township, as their names stand on the assess- 
ment roll or list of names ; of course the majority are always 
Americans. The majority of the courts of quarter sessions, 
probate, surrogate, and courts of king's bench, are Europeans ; 
yet the proceedings of those courts are regulated by the acts 
of the assembly. 

In the second session of the first parliament, in 1792-3, 
an act was passed to prevent the further introduction of 
slaves. The excellent words of that act being thus: 
" Whereas it is unjust that a people m ho enjoy freedom, by 

law should encourage slavery That after the passing of 

this act, no person brought into the provincee shall be sub- 
ject to ihe condition of a slave." All that were then in the 
province are made free at 25 years of age. 

The taxes in Canada arc very small; uo person is taxed 
more than one penny upon the pound sterling he is worth, 







162 

according to the valuation of property made by act of parlia- 
ment, and which at present is not more than half of what it 
would sell for. The taxes so collected are laid out by the 
judges of the court of quarter sessions, for the benefit of 
the district from which it is collected, and where the court 
is — it is to pay the wages of the members of assembly sent 
from the district, and half of the salary of the sheriffs of the 
same; to build or repair the court-house or jail, and the like. 
The whole expense of the government of Canada, except 
what is here noted, is paid by the king, which, together with 
the Indian department, costs him one million and a half 
sterling annually, and which frees the people from a great 
burthen. 

The Moneasts, Tunkers, and Quakers, are exempted from 
military duty, by paying annually in time of peace five 
dollars, and in time of war twenty. The governor of the 
province has power by law to call out all the militia, and to 
cross them over the line in pursuit of an enemy that has 
invaded the province, or to destroy any fort or fortification, 
that may be the nwans of covering or assisting an invasion, 
but in no other case. 

Stealing exposes a person to death, if the thing stolen is 
worth thirteen pence ; yet the plaintiff may value it as low 
as he pleases, and if below thirteen pence, the thief is clear. 
No one has yet been hung in Upper Canada for stealing ; 
however, the people are afraid to venture their lives in the 
hands of others. 

The Autlior concludes his little work, with the following 
observations — " the mildness of the climate, fertility of the 
soil, benefit of trade, cheapness of the land and morals of 
the inhabitants, so far exceeded my expectations, and tlie 
apprehensions of the public in general." 



163 

The following Extracts of Letters are from a Settler, (a 
Lancashire Farmer) iu Upper Canada, who left England in 
the early part of 1818, with the intention to settle iu the 
United States. 

TO THE REV. E. CH K. 

Charlotteville, Aug. 30, 1818. 
Dear Sir, 

" According to promise, I now with pleasure hand you a 
few particulars of my journey. From Quebec* it was 
tediou3, expensive, and disagreeable, a great part of the 
way being up rapid streams, only navigable for small craft ; 
over Lake Ontario we had a pleasant sail, and good accom- 
modation on board a Schooner, also over Lake Erie in an 
other : it is necessary to observe, that from Quebec all the 
way up the country the land kept improving even to this 
place, which I believe to be the most fruitful and delightful 
country I ever beheld, and the friendship of some of the 
first-rate people is such, that you'll scarcely credit it. On 
our arrival nere, we were taken into a gentleman's house, 
and for five weeks the whole of my family were entertained 
free of expense ; we sat down daily to as well-furnished a 
table as any in Preston, with wine, &c. &c. and to the 
honour of Scotland, of which he is a native, and of great 
respectability in this province. We are seven miles from 
the Court-House, where the Assizes are held, to which I 
have been invited. I have given up all idea of the United 
States, and shall remain one of his Majesty's Loyal Subjects, 
for various reasons, some of which I shall enumerate. 
Government)for the encouragement of Settlers give grants of 
land : myself, my son Edward, and the young man who 



♦ Emigranls making the voyage from England direct to Montreal, 
BRve the expense and trouble nf reninval of a journej of 200 miles, 
otherwise encountored by landing at Quebec, 



I 




164 

accompanied us, have each received a grant of 200 acres of 
fine land. At "present I am on an old settled farm of 300 
acres, belonging to the before-mentioned Scotch gentleman, 
Col. Nichols. The rent is paid in grain, say one third. 
I purchased the crop on the ground, which puts us in pos- 
session of all the necessaries ; the buildings are bad, but it 
produces both summer and ^winter keep for any number of 
cattle, also corn for our own wants, and fruit in the greatest 
abundance, of cherries, plumbs, pears, peaches, and apples 
in such plenty, we shall make cyder, &c. Grapes hang 
in clusters would astonish you, and that Natural, we can 
gather any quantity : in short, the soil and climate is such, 
that a great many of the flowers, as well as the fruit, Avhich 
are cultivated in England, grow here spontaneously; besides 
a vast quantity of both, not common there, and many 
unknown. We have had not less than a ton of cucumbers 
and melons of four or five sorts. To raise them, you have 
only to dibble the seeds, either in field or garden, with no 
other preparation but plough or spade, which produces in 
abundance. On the other hand, we want manufacturers of 
every useful commodity : industry, whichever way applied, 
is sure to meet with more than ample reward. Wearing 
apparel of all kinds, brought from England, meets with a 
ready market at almost cent per cent, many which I brought, 
even above that, yet there is a little money in circulation ; 
they generally pay in produce, as wheat, at five bushels 
Winchester measure ; rye, flour, cyder, ashes, whisky, 
2s. 6d. per gallon. Had I come here ten years ago, I 
should have been as independant a man as any on your side 
the Atlantic ; I really wish all my friends on this side. On 
my departure from England, some of them were inclined to 
send such goods, on a venture, as they dealt in, which I 
objected to, not knowing how they might succeed — for tlie 
most part they would have proved Ruccessful. Please to 



1'l 



165 

inform Messrs. P. and B. that if they had fifty ton of iron 
here, it would make ^^3,000 ; also Mr. Jno. The— f— 11, that 
his goods made up, and in hide, would produce the like. 
Women and Children's shoes ; Men, for the most part, wear 
strong half boots, some shoes; hats will be equally success- 
ful. Barley and hops grow here in plenty, yet few know 
the use of them as regards brewing and malting, also shu- 
macs and sassafras." 

The following have been transmitted to the Times News- 
paper, but for reasons the Editor did not choose to give, 
were not inserted : — 

Sir, 

Believing that you feel with myself keenly, the unparat- 
leled sufferings of the labouring and manufacturing poor ; 
and that your Paper is open for whatever is calculated to 
benefit this distressed part of the community ; and observ- 
ing a sort of comparison in the leading article of " The 
Times" of the 11th of September last, between the Advan- 
tages of Emigration to the Cape of Good Hope, and Canada 
in America, I am induced to trouble you with the following 
short remarks, which will consist chiefly of Extracts of 
Letters from a highly-esteemed Brother, now settled in 
the Upper Province of Canada. 

Extract of a Letter, dated Charlotteville, Nov, 6, 1818. 

" The state of your family and mode of living precludes 
the hope of seeing or inviting you here to this happy coun- 
try ; otherwise I would say come by all means ; for, though 
the hardships and difficulties in the removal are great, yet, 
were they double, I would cheerfully undergo them to make 
the change. — We are under the British government, yet 
we enjoy only the better parts of it;— we have no ty thes, 
or scarcely any taxes, a parliament of our own choice, and^ 



i i 



4i1 



I 



166 

as to soil and climate, it is certainly out of my power ta da 
it justice in description — the land verily teems with corn 
and fruit of all kinds." — After saying much more in favour 
of this delightful country, he states—" And then, on the 
other hand, this country has its disadvantages : wages are 
high, that we are ohliged to do much of our own work ; 
there is scarcely a man or woman servant to be had ; there- 
fore whenever met with, are valuable. Artizans of all kinds 
are wanted ; everything in the way of clothing is very high, 
shoes, hats, and every other article ; yet I can produce 
plenty of wool, flax, hemp, &c. but want manufacturers"— 
a pretty plain proof that the plan of the merchants and 
others of Leeds, would be most essentially benefiting those 
about whom they met to deliberate, by sending them out to 
Canada, in preference to any other part of the world, and 
that would be serving their country at the same time. 

From another Letter, dated December 29, 1818. 
** I assure you, if I feel anything like regret, '♦ is that I 
did not make the move fifteen years ago. I am so delighted 
with the country in general, and nth my lot in it, that it 
causes continual thankfulness to that God who shewed me 
the way, and led me in the right path.— The black and 
white-smiths' business is excellent; it is no uncommon thing 
for one to earn fifteen to twenty shillings per day. Fuel is 
so plentiful, that a fire is kept without any expense. We have 
had more than 200 bushels of apples, much better flavoured 
than any in England, although not a tree has been grafted. 
On the 24th. Edward (his son) and I went across a marsh 
to Turkey Point, which extends about three miles into the 
Lake, and covered with timber. I had been told of the 
quantity of grapes on this point, but was truly astonished 
to see them at this time in such quantities ; you might load 
three or four waggons ; and the ground was literally stained 



167 

with the juice from what had dropt off, and the hirds were 
feeding plentifully on." 

Extract from a Letter to another Brother, dated Dec. fi6th. 

" I beg you will call upon the Rev. E. C ^k, and 

peruse his letters, and let him read yours, as I expect him 
to be a traveller to this country ; and the sooner the better, 
for where is there one like it? I every day see more and 
more the propriety of the change. Industry is so sure of 
meeting with its full reward here, whether employed in 
business or agriculture, that there is no anxiety of mind ; 
for, with a common degree of industry, you see your sub- 
stance rapidly increasing, and at the same time living in 
plenty. I wish all my friends to join me iu having the 
comforts of this good country ; it certainly is the promised 
land ; it literally flows with milk and honey."* 

I believe it is allowed that good water and plenty of it is 
no small blessing. — Now contrast the third particular con- 
tained in a memorandum from the Secretary of State to 
several gentlemen, friends of emigration to the Cape,t with 
Smith's Geographical View of Upper Canada, published in 
Philadelphia, October, 1813. He says, " It is sufficiently 
level, very rich, and beautifully variegated with small hills 
and fertile vallies, through which flow a number of pearly 
streams, of almost the best water in the world." As to an 
invasion by the Americans, there is nothing to fear, if our 



* See Smith's Account of Upper Canada, which no one will 
suspect of partiality, being an American who quitted Canada, at the 
time of the war in 1812, rather than (as he states it) take the oath 
of allegiance to his Britannic Miyesty, and fight against his coun- 
trymen. 

t See Colonial Journal, last number, or Observer, Oct. 10, 1819-- 
enough to divert the course of emigration from the Cape of Good 
Hope to a better stream. 



^-1 



■ hi I 



168 

government gire due encouragement to this flourishing and 
valuable colony. And if it even should be the case, who 
would not suffer this, in preksrence to a visit from those 
innumerable hordes of savage Caffres ! Indeed, 8ir, the 
want of water, as alluded to above, is a most serious objec- 
tion, as well as many more which might be mentioned." 

Further Extracts from the same. 
" We are trying to get part of our land changed for ano- 
ther situation, not for any deficiency in the land, as it is 
very good, but to be more contiguous to one another, mine 
being on the shore of Lake Erie, which abounds with fish 
and fowls : we are on a bay of the Lake, formed by Long 
Point and Turkey Point; this bay is covered with ducks, 
geese, and swans ; it is quite common to see 1,000 at a time. 
The fields and woods at this time are strewed with walnuts, 
chesnuts, &c. some families have gathered 50 bushels each." 
— " I am preparing a plantation of hops, as they will thrive, 
and mean to try brewing ;— send me the best process of 
making porter and white malt; also, the construction of a 
malt kiln." — " It is not uncommon for a shop or store- 
keeper to get cent, per cent, upon all British manufactured 
goods : cutlery of all sorts does exceeding well."—" Wild 
deer are in great plenty ; I have dined three days this week 
upon it at my own table ; also, pheasants, partridges, hares, 
&c." 

Extract of a Letter to Mr. F -s, of Preston. 
" According to promise, I send you a few lines, as relates 
to this country in preference to the United States, being 
under the British Constitution, stript of its disagreeables, 
tythes, and excessive taxes : in short, the country for the 
mdustrious (for particulars see my brother's letter.) your 
business must answer exceeding well, for ropes, twine, 
sail cloth, &c. sell very high, not being many here in that 



169 

business, and the articles in constant request. Hemp and 
flax is cultivated by most people for their own consumption. 
Government, some years ago, gave a bounty for raising it, 
which caused large quantities to be produced, as fine a& 
evergrew— it was so tall as to be cut in two lengths: I have 
seen some this season above eight feet high. I am preparing 
land for a good quantity, in hopes of your coming. For the 
information of Mr. W— r, tell him, that if he was here with 
a good stock of iron and steel in bars, and able to work it, for 
iron work he might obtain Is. 9d. per pound. A black- 
smith, who will attend to his business, will realize a fortune 
in a very few years. A journeyman is sure to do well, as 
wages are high, and provisions low— the present price of 
wheat 5s. per bushel of 60lb.— best flour 25s. per barrel; 
and indeed this is not to be wondered at. Suppose you, a 
settler, arrive in this province, in June you take tip your lot 
of land, and commence clearing it, or employ otbers to do 
it, which will cost you about 25s. per acre for \/hat is termed 
chopping and burning, that is, falling the trees, cutting 
them into lengths, tops, and others, and buaning them aU 
together. I have seen thousands as fine trees as ever grew 
consumed in this way; that being done, all you have to do 
is to sow your wheat, (without ploughing) scratching it 
roughly with an harrow, which will produce as fine a crop of 
wheat as you need wish. 

Extract of a Letter, dated 29th. Dec. to another Brother. 
** I think, in my last, I told you we had land granted to 
us some distance off", which we have given up for some more 
contiguous, at Middleton, about 15 miles from hence, 
(CharlotteviUe.) On my lot is a fine stream of water, on 
which I am going to build grist and saw mills: I before 
observed,! was going to introduce porter brewing, the chief 
liquor bemg whisky, madefrom rye, which is sold at 28. 6d. 



170 

per gallon, A baker is advertised for to bake for the 
Garrison, at Little York, the capital of this province. 

" As for the Winter, none need dread it, except those 
who require a lesson from the ant; for if proper provision is 
made, which is in the power of all to do, it is really a plea- 
sant time : frost sets in about the 7th. of December, and the 
only complaint is, there is not more snow. So that people 
may jaunt about in their sleighs ; its no uncommon thing to< 
make a journey from 5 to 600 miles, drawn by a pair of 
horses. If you send any goods let them be flannels, stuff for 
women's gowns, and blankets ; in short, British goods of all 
kinds is acceptable. If you are travelling m settled parts, 
you come to a house every quarter of a mile— the lots being 
laid out quarter broad, and quarter long. It is not un- 
common to ride eight or twelve miles through a thick wood,, 
among trees 100 feet high— this tends much to contem- 
plation." 

Extract from another Letter, dated the 1st. of June,. 181»,, 
addressed to his Daughter and Son in Law. 

A few months ago I wrote to you to come here ; I have- 
now many more encouragements to offer, and reasons for 
wishing you here. There is a school close to us that wants- 
a master, this would fill up part of your time to a good 
advantage ; besides that, we are only eight miles from the 
country or court town, where considerable business is done, 
and steady men, with a little education, are so scarce, that 
profitable situations may easily be obtained; and that for 
attending four times in the year, I am put on the commissionp 
for a magistrate, and suppose, shall be made an acting one 
in July. We wish you to come out this summer, and take 
the early part of it ; bring with you such goods as described 
in my last— also, most ^f your g.nall furniture of steel, 
brass, lead, and tin, all those matters being dear : a clock 



\ '&:i- 



171 

Vlll be valuable — also two or three dozen watch glassei*, 
various sizes." 



Extract of a Letter from another Settler, dated Aug. 1819* 

" I have lately made a tour of a great part of the settle- 
ments in the London and Western districts of tin"? province. 
Under the immediate superintendence of the Honourpble 
Colonel Talbot, and am more than gratified at what I have 
seen. I had heard much of the goodness of the land, and 
the growth of the country ; but I had no idea of either the 
fineness of the soil, the numerous population, or the im- 
provements the settlers are continually making. The most 
of the settlers are hardy young men ; and the Middlesex 
Militia alone can muster, in less than two days, more than 
a thousand aetive fine-looking fellows. 

** The Talbot road, leading from Long Point to Am- 
herstburgh, is as good, great part of the distance, as any 
of the roads in the old settlements, and divides double 
row of farms. At almost any part of it, a spectator can 
view, at once, from 10 to 20 houses, besides, frequently, 
fine frame barns. The crops, at t'lis time, promised these 
last to be well filled in a few weeks. 

" In a commercial point of view. Big Otter Creek, the 
best and largest stream in the Talbot settlement, holds out 
the greatest advantages. It has its source in Norwich, and 
from that township to Lake Erie is navigable for boats of 
ten tons burden. Its banks, and the land near it, are 
covered with xtensive and valuable pineries. Its numerous 
branches afford every convenience fur cutting boards and 
scantlings; its mouth, at a small expense, can be made 
capable of admitting the largest vessels that sail Lake Erie ; 
and the channel rf the creek would contain 500 vessels in 
the most perfect security. I am informed, and indeed knoyr, 
that about ^100 currency have been subscribed to the 



l|;i:l 




172 

clearing it of drift wood. Boats now run, with ease, as far 
up it as Talbot-road. 

" In the course of a few years, seven-eighths of the 
shores of Lake Erie must be supplied with pine boards from 
the mouth of this creek. There is no pine timber on the 
American side of the lake, nor on the Canadian for four 
iifths of its distance. The nuraeror.s settlements on both 
shores must be supplied with boards and shingles ; thence 
it is evident, that the mouth of Big Otter-Creek must 
become one, if not the first, of lumbering situations in 
Upper Canada. 

" The country on each side of Talbot road is settling 
rapidly, and a stranger cannot guess at the number of settlers 
in it, unless he takes the trouble of going through it. The 
township of Loi Ion, north of the Thames, is truly n 
beautiful tract of land. It is the best watered town I ever 
saw. It M as surveyed since winter, and is now nearly half 
located. The School reserves of Soutbwold, Westminster, 
Yarmouth, and Hougton, which are now for sale, will add 
nmch to the enlargement of the settl. ments. They are laid 
out in roads, on the plan of Talbot road, with the exception 
of some trifling differences. 

" The eye of the traveller aforms him, while passing 
through this beautiful country, that it will shortly be the 
flower of Upper Canada; and, perhaps, one of the most 
delightful portions of North America. Its genial climate, 
wholesome and salubrious air; its fertile soil, added to the 
regularity of its settlement, establish the presumption, and 
point it out as singularly favoured above all other new 
countries. Nothing need be said of its proximity to the 
waters of the St. Lawrence : the benefits resulting therefrom 
•re obvious to ever}' one. 

" The highest eulogium that can bo passed on the honour- 
Hblc individual, whose unqualified exertions have alone made 



173 

this flourishing settlement, is, that he has effected his object 
amidst a host of counteracting influences. What pleasure 
mast it give him, when he can look at many thousands of 
souls, and say, ' These are my children.' 

" If the operation of sensible objects produces a cor- 
responding eff'ect upon the humane mind, we may augur 
well of the inhabitants of Talbot road, who constantly have 
regularity and system before their eyes : and there is no 
doubt that Talbot road, in point of intellect, will be even 
with, if not superior to, any part of Upper Canada. The 
settlement is w' lly established upon British principles — 
that is, order and system, and a discrimination between the 
right way of doing things, and the wrong way. The 
democracy of confii-ion is not there found." 



f 



NOTES OF THE EDITOR, 

Applicable to the United Slates, or the British Catiadas. 

As much difficulty and trouble is incurred to settlers by 
mills being situated at a great distance, frequently from 30 
to 60 miles from their settlement, it is recommended to 
Emigrants to provide themselves with hand-mills previous 
to departure, which may be obtained in England at a mode- 
rate price, 

Mr. Fearon, one of the sect called Freethinkers, was 
deputed by thirty-nine families to ascertain whether any 
and what part of the United States would be suitable for 
their residence. -Mr. F. makes a. fliji'irf journey of 5000 
miles, over the Eastern and Western States of America, 
(voyage there and back included,) in nine months, 
in what he calls Ten Reports, price 10s. Gt/. to the following 
effect — in collecting together from newspapers, taverns, stage- 
coaches, and wherever chance would admit him, all that is 
bad in the people and country, which may be found to exist 
to a certain degree in all countries : his attraction, like Mr. 
Cobbett's,* most certainly was not in America, but in 

* Mr. F. had a wife and fortune in view : Mr. C. being present at 
what ho calls the bursting of the bubble, (Paper System.) 



"I III: 



174 

England, as late events have proved, — the views of those 
thirty-nine families must have been as varied as their trades, 
or they would not have imposed upon him so difficult a task. 
However, by this time they have found, notwithstanding 
Mr, F.'s cooling reports, that if there is reason sufficient to 
seek a home in a foreign land, they may obtain their infor- 
mation at home without deputing another to seek it for them. 

The preceding Extracts of Letters from Canada, are 
most certainly worthy of public notice ; and for their au- 
thenticity there is no reason to doubt, being from actual 
settlers who can have no interest in deceiving. 

Mr. Cobbett's year's residence in America, being now 
completed in three parts, price 18s. it will be necessary to 
say something as to its contents.— The Emigrant, whose 
object is Agriculture and Farming, will find in it some 
valuable practical information. His Diary of the Weather 
at Long Island is likewise curious, but of all else little may 
be said. 



:^iniff. 



Printed by F. M«r»h«ll, Kenton St. Briniwlrk Sq. 



APPENDIX, 

CONTAINING 

iSjetracts from Mr, Birkheck and Mr. Rd. Flower's 

Letters from the Illinois^ 

Dated Jan, 21, and June 25, 

In reply to Mr. COBBETT, with his STATE of AMERICAN 
AFFAIRS, up to October, 1819, &c. &c. 



The interest excited by the vohintary expatriation of an 
obscure individual, shows it to be oi consequence, when 
considered in connection witli its causes. The exposure of 
these causes has been imputed to me as nn act of hostility 
to my native country, by those who identity the government 
with the people. This imputation is unjust , lor, although 
no longer a subject of that government, I am bound to my 
countrymen by ties of aflection, never to be broken but by 
life itself. Hut [ make no apology— hoping to do good, it 
became my duty to publish: and who apologizt^s for the 
performance of a duty ? — In my solicitude for the well-being 
of our colony, I have deprecated the formalities practised 
in heu of religion — I have therefore Ix'en deemed a foe to 
religion ; that bond which connects the soul of man with 
the Supreme Intelligence, " in whom we live, and move, 
and have our being" — it is the love of Cod increasing our 
good-will towards each other. — Instead of being (as report 
says we are) visite*! by every calamity, physical and moral , 
by famine, disease, and strife — on the contrary, we have 
had an ufrdodant supply of all the necessaries of life, and 
have experienced no extraordinary visitations of disease and 
mortality : on the whole, we are prosperous far beyond my 
own expectations. — With regard to pecuniary success, tlie 
capitalist is commencing his operations, but the l-.bo.irerhas 
made an establishment. It is not with him as with the 
capitalist, a state of hopr tnerely from good u"ospects: but 
of enjoynient from good possessions. Niu.oers of this 
class, and of mechanics, Imve already realized their little 
freeholds, and are building cabins for themselves. Tlio 



176 

fruits of their labour arc not squandered in dissipation and 
exctss, but expended in increasing their real comforts. 
Unfortunately for the early doniestic arrangements of all 
classes, the female departments must remain vacant for a 
me, or scruuily supplied. — We have received large impor- 
tation of British goods, by way of New Orleans. This 
our national channel of intercourse with Europe, is at 
present greatly obstructed by the irregularities and imposi- 
tions attending the steam-boat navigation, arising from the 
want of due competition. One hundred and ten dollars 
are paid for a passage from New Orleans to Shawnee 
Town, and from 4.^ to 6 cents per pound for merchandize. 
But a steam-boat of 700 tons burthen, is building at 
Louisville, to ply between that place and New Orleans, 
besides about 100 of smaller burthen, now on the stocks : 
this C(inp(itutes an unprecedented demand for ship carpen- 
ters, which will occasion the rate of freight upon Mississippi 
and Ohio to be reduced by next summer, nearly one half. 
Packages sent from England should be strong — if possible, 
'YTZi.y.yiT tight, and of moderate weight, say 200lbs. with the 
weight marked on each ; also, all shipments made to this 
country, should be accompanied with an invoice, describing 
the contents and value, Oi much expense and damage may 
be incurred. — New articles, whether designed for sale or 
not, are liable to a duty of from 16 to 33 per cent, on the 
original cost; but articles vhick have been vscd, are ad- 
mitted duty free. — In general, it h better to bring letters of 
credit, or other convertable funds, than merchandize. — 
Bedding, apparel, kitchen utensils, and tools, things in 
immediate requisition on arrival, should accompany the 
settler. 

A falsehood has prevailed in the eastern states in England, 
that all prairies partake, more or less, of the nature of 
swamps ; that they are, in fact, morasses too wet for the 
growth of limber. Whereas, here, prairies occupy the 
highest, driest, and most fertile portions of the surface, 
river bottoms excepted. — In the statements I have before 
published, I see little to correct, a.-^ far as by obNervation 
and cxpei ience 1 have now |)voceeded, excepting, that in my 
views of the prolit.« of cultivation to early settlers, 1 have 
not made sullicient allowance m time, which, from delays 
and disanpointnjents, all new undertakings arc subject to, 
especially in a new country. — The back woodmen, or 
hunters, are now " clearing out," ami moving into the 
wildcruefis; their habits are not congenial with our people. 



177 

Extracts from a Letter to W. Cohhett, in Reply to his Re- 
warks Oil Mr. B's. two former Publications. 

You have given tlio public your first year's history, and 
I have described things as T went along, to the best of my 
judgment. In vour mode, yon have the advantage of fol- 
lomiiH/ experience— as such,' safe. However, I have not 
much to regret, as my anticipations have proved correct m 
«very important particular, with one exception— ^r\i\. that is, 
in regard to tiine, of which I have informed the public 
through various channels : with all else I am quite satis- 
fied. 

With regard to the prairies of Illinois, they are, as I have 
before described them, rich, beautiful, healthy; and we, 
who, are settled on them, are not dissatisfied, or sigbingfor 
Old England ; on the contrary, contented ourselves, desi- 
rous of inducing thos*; whom' we love best to follow our 
example. — Emigration you allow good for some— of this 
your own example is an evidence : I tbought it good for 
me; and published my case, because I knew many in the 
lilvc condition— and T wished for society. The dangers and 
difficulties so easily overcome in theory, ha^e not proved 
more formidable in fact; and we are now in pos.ession of 
those " bcantiful meadows," which were to reward our 
toil, and our *' fine freehold domain" lies smiling around 
us. Thns tbe experiment has succeeded. — Your recollec- 
tions of Canadian prairies, and their hospitable inhabitants, 
might bave given your sketch a truer character. You saw 
the shed in Canada succeeded by a " log-honse," and 
that bv a " frame-ho\ise ;" and in Canada, " tliey were as 
liappv* as ease and plenty could make them," v ilh tlie same 
advantages. Why not the like here? -Medical assistance 
difficult to be obtained, as you have stated, is not so. We 
have a gentleman of that profession, highly esteemed by us, 
and exceeded by few in his (jualifications. 

There c;ni be no want of bread, where wheat is to be 
bought at a dollar per bushel, and fiour at five or six dollars 

per barrel. 

We are here a colony of relations and friends; as such, 
not " cut ofi' from all hopes of hearing from them" which 
are left behind : a letter is a sort of common property, from 
the many wbo arti interested in its contents. Eriends who 
used to visit each oilier at the distance of 20, or 30, or ino 
miles, are here within an easy wal^. We help each other 
cordially, and have few causes of jealousy. ^Ve have miuU 

K 2 



178 

friendly society, and every coming month gives ns an 

accession. 

As a competent judge from experience, I repeat, that a 

house, exceedingly convenient and comfortable, together 

with the requisite farm buildings, including corn-cribs, &c. 

may be executed well for 1500 dollars. 

Ei'jhteen hundred rods of line fence for 150 dollars, 

which you doubt, I have had and can hsc\e done as under: — 

The seed may cost, collecting one dollar per 
peck of honey locust seed, somewhat 
smaller than a pea — five pecks m ill plant 
1800 rods, at two inches apart 5 

Which leaves 29 dollars per peck for planting 145 

Dollars 150 



Dollars. 



Notwithstanding all your impossibilities, I can state with 
truth as follows : — The son of a Hampshire Farmer, has 
now growing on prairie land, " the first year," and under 
good husbandry, nearly 100 acres of very promising India 
-corn. There have grown this year, on a prairie, a few 
miles south of us, 400 acres of wheat, besides spring grain : 
and there are now growing 700 acres of fine Indian corn. 
The entire buildings, to which this produce appertains, 
might, I believe, be erected for 1500 dollars. 

In answer to Mr. Hulme's Journal, and Mr. Cobbett's 
remarks on the same, Mr. B. states : — " I came to this 
place almost a solitary settler, about 18 months ago, but I 
was soon surrounded with neighbours. For their accom- 
modation, buildings were to be erected, tools and materials 
of every kind, as well as provisions, to be collected from a 
distance. Every fresh arrival,, in some way or other, put 
my team in requisition : thus, the horses I had provided for 
jtloughing were better employed — my hopes were not 
* baflled :' but I was engaged on more important matters ; 
compensating me in feeling, as well as m fact, for being 
thus compelled to lay aside the plough for a season. In the 
mean time I proceeded w\\h permanent improvements; as such 
I have built 15 cabins, with floors of plank, and mostly with 
two glazed uindous each : in contrast of the sorry descrip- 
tion which you have given of my dwelling, I have ako 
built throe stables, a corn crib, hog sties, carpenter's shops, 
a forge, and various other things. I have dug five wells, 
from 18 to 45 feet deep, made an excellent kitchen garden. 



179 

and a good preparation for an orchard. I have also nearlj 
finished a large house for my own family, great part of 
which is frame filled in with bricks, an ice house, and a 
smoke house. I have ploughed about 70 acres, partly twice, 
in preparation for wheat. I have about 1800 ixls of ditch, 
4 feet wide and 3 feet deep, with a fence of four rails on the 
bank of a great part of it. Com may be grown to greater 
advantage after these preparations than before them; the 
same I would recommend to others. 



Extracts from Richard Flower's Letters, from Lexington and 
the Illinois, dated 25th June, 1819, in Refutation to 
Mr. Cobbett. 

ON PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND SIGHTS. 

Here are few public buildings worthy of notice — no 
Kings going to Parliament House with gilded coaches 
and cream-coloured horses, with a train of Dragoons 
at their heels. — No Lord Mayor's Show, — No Tower, filled 
with Royal Tigers and Lions. — No old Castles, which 
beautify the Rural Scenes of the Country, whose melanf- 
choly history informs the curious traveller, that their foun- 
dation was bedded in tyranny, and their superstructure the 
retainers of weeping prisoners, often of rank, as well as 
oppressed plebeians. — No Cathedrals, or old Churches, to 
ornament the Cities, as well as the Counties of England. — 
Monuments of superstition, when erected, and of in- 
justice and oppression to this day, having, for their suppi>rt, 
tithe proctors and surveyors, continually obstructing the 
progress of agriculture, and exciting contentions and law 
suits to an extent, for which all the preaching of clergy in 
England cannot present an equivalent, or balance the evii 
produced by a worldly and avaricious priesthood. 

America has none of those costly ornaments, or beautiful 
monuments of oppression. — The episcopalian clergy, in this 
country, are chosen by the people, and supported according 
to their respective merits ; and, I may say, they arc as 
well as other sects, ** labourers worthy of their hire." 

TRAVELLING. 

As to travelling, it has its conveniences and incon- 
veniences. You dine at a fixed hour, as in England, and 
you have abuudaace of provisions of every kind the country 



I-' 



V 



180 

affords : the beds i^enerally cleaniy, as yoii travel westward; 
the many bedded rooms are not the most agreeable ; the 
little expense of separating rooms vould prevent many evils; 
but as civilization advances, this will be prevented. 

As to the general character of the Americans, it is sober, 
industrious, and hospitable, although drunkenness, idleness, 
and gaming, are vices in existence, but by no means so 
conspicuous as in England. 

The American notion of liberty and equality is highly 
gratifying to me. — The master, or employer, is kept within 
the bounds of reason and decency towards his labourer ; no 
curses, or oaths towards their servants, or helps, as they 
choose to call themselves ; (for every one who takes money 
or wages is, after all, a servant:) he obeys all reasonable 
orders for his remuneration ; and when this obedience 
ceases, the contract of service is at aii end. 



LEXINGTON. 

In respect to this place, twenty-five years since, it was 
trodden only by the foot of the savage ; now it contains 
above 3000 inhabitants. A college, with 140 students; its 
professors chosen purely for their talent, and of any sect in 
religion. — To the hospitality and kindness of the inhabi- 
tants I shall ever be grateful. Their politeness and libe- 
rality are perhaps unequalled. — Jialls, at which the fair sex 
are never allowed to share any expense — an Atheneum, and 
a considerable Museum, tiie benefits of which the stranger 
is invited to partake, gratis, may be mentioned as not cus- 
tomary in England. — At Tea-parties, I have known col- 
lected from 1 to 200 persons. Thus, you see, instead of 
being in continual broils, and exposed to the insults of rude 
Americans, I have received nothing but civility and hos- 
pitality, in the course of my journey through America, that 
is, from New York to Pittsburg by land ; nor from thence 
down the Ohio to Louisville, a distance of GOO miles by water, 
and 500 by land. 



HARMONY, 

is worth visiting, 



MORAVIAN SETTLEMENT. 

It is worth visiting, to see and observe the effect of 
united industry, regulated by sound wisdom and discretion; 
here perfect equality prevails; no servants, but plenty of 
persons who serve. Every man has his station appointed 
lum, according to his ability ; and all have their wants sup- 
plied, according to their wishes. They do not forbid mar- 
riage, as some have said. They ha\e also an aversion to 



181 

bear arms, which would not allow them to remain in Ger- 
many, (their founders being of that country) as such 
caused them to emigrate and live in the manner they haf'C 
adopted. «hich certainly has the appearance of conteut- 
ment and happiness—every log-house is surronnded by a 
well cultivated garden, abundantly supplied williveget^ables, 
and ornamented with flowers. Besides tbe gardens of mUi- 
▼iduals, there is a public garden of five acres ; the outside 
gquare planted with fruit trees and vegetables, the mside 
with herbs, medicinal and botanical. In the cemre is a 
rotunda of the rustic kind, standing in the midst ot a 
labyrinth, which exhibits more taste then I supposed to be 
found amongst the Harmonites. It is from this hive of 
industry, that Albion and its vicinity have drawn their 
supplies, and its contiguity to such neighbours has beeu 
of great advantage. 

ALBION. 

I must now proceed to give you an account of our friends, 
and the English Settlement in general. I have great satis- 
faction to be able to inform you, that almost every individual 
I knew in England was much improved in appearance, ail 
enjoying excellent health. If I may judge from six week s 
stay, I think this to be as healthy a spot as any America 
affords, and preferable to any in the Eastern States. What 
travellers have recorded, that the thermometer does not 
rise so high as in the east, is true, and we are seldom 
without a breeze— the nights are cool, the thermometer 
dropping 10 degrees, and you can obtain refreshing sleep. 
Tfee average of our days are from 80 to 86— we have had it 
at 90, which produced a thunder gust, and a cooler ataios- 
phere ; in the eastern states it is at 1)8 in the day, and 96 
during the night. As to the advantages of Emigration to 
America, and the comparative advantages of the eastern and 
western climates, I prefer the west, on account of the prai- 
ries, (meadows,) and the facility with which they are cul- 
tivated ;— there I can enter, either as a farmer or grazier, im- 
mediately : fine wide spreading fields of grass, inviting cattle 
of all kind. As to the present mode of farming, I sit, 
and from the place I am now writing, see a beautiful herd 
of cattle, of nearly 200 in number. I have a hundred tims 
of fine hay, collected for spring provision. Every head of 
cattle, the expense of herdsmen deducted, on a moderate 
ealculation, promises a fair profit of at least fi\e dollars per 
head: notwithstanding Mr. Cobbett's assertion, that " there 
is no farming in the west!" and " the obstruction by bush 



18i 



and br 



I 



)nar to prevent cultivation," yet I can put the plouelr 
into thousands ot acres, where tliere is no such obstruction. 
JJnc gentleman, m our settlement, has grown 80 acres of 
hue corn, although he only arrived last year ; there is alsa 
a sufhciency of corn and grain, grown this first harvest, to 
supply the wants of the settlement: next year there will be 
a surplus for brewing or distilling. 

Now, as to persons who come here, or to any other part 
ot America, I would have them to consider, for what pur- 
pose or intent they emigrate. It is certain, as regards 
larming, that there are only two ways in which it can be 
performed : the one, labouring by the hands ; the other by 
Jus capital, stocking his farm, and hiring his labourers. It 
IS folly to tell a person, if he bring witli him ^100, he can 
place himself m comfort ; but it is certain, that £WX) here 
will go as fur as .£500 in EngJand, and as such, that person 
IS hve times better off than in that country. He may enter 
his quarter section of land, build his cabin,- enclose his 
garden, and keep his cows and pigs ; but then he must be a 
man of that description, who has been in the habit of milk- 
ing his cows and tending his pigs : all such will find great 
advantage by emigrating to this place. Every farmer, who 
can stock a farm in England, may here become the pro- 
prietor of his own soil, with less capital than what would 
only afford him a tenant's station, a precaTious subsistence 
in his own country ; an inducement, I should think, sufficient 
to make thousands follow our steps, and taste the blessings 
of independence and sweets of liberty. Let all who are 
bending under the weight of taxation, and trembling at the 
approach of every quarter-day, come here and partake of 
ease and abundance. It has been reported that we can get 
no servants ; this is true, in a degree, because the price of 
service is such, as soon to elevate the servant to a state of 
independence : but I have found no want of persons to work 
for hire, even in domestic stations : those that are most 
wanted are farming labourers: good ploughmen are in 
request, and can obtain twelve dollars per month and their 
board ; female servants, from eight to ten dollars, according 
to their respective merits ; these are in request : and what 
perhaps is still more pleasing, their industry is the certain 
road to marriage — most of which are engaged that way, and 
if we lose good servants, we have the happiness to see them 
well settled. 

Now as to the state and progress of >ur settlement — on a 
tract of land, from the little Wabash to the Bonpar, qh the 



183 

Great Wabash, about 17 miles in width, and 4 to 6 from 
N. to S. there were but a few hunter's cabins, a year and a 
half since, and now there are about sixty English families, 
containing nearly 400 souls; and 150 American, of 700 
souls ; who like the English, and are good neighbours. We 
have nothing here like loneliness. 

Industry here has its ample reward : here you will escape 
the tax-gatherer and tithe-collector, also the frightful system 
of Pauperism. From New York to this place I had but 
one application for relief, and that was from an Englishman. 
I have mentioned a scarcity of servants ; this arises much 
from Emigrants bringing out with them a better sort, or 
confidential servants : the only sort wanting are females, 
who can work in the kitchen, milk the cow, and attend the 
dairy. All above this class can earn too high wages by the 
needle. A good sempstress earning a dollar per day, will 
soon quit servitude. 

Log-houses are no longer erected. I have had the plea- 
sure of laying the first brick foundation in Albion : it is 
for an lun, where travellers will find rest and comfort, free 
from insects. We have also completed our market-house, 
which is GO feet by 30. A place of worship is began. 
Religion, 1 mean the outward form, has not been unattended 
to. The Americans think all who take money for preaching 
hireling ministers, and several well-intentioned farmers 
preach to small assemblies in the neighbourhood. All sects 
Vill be tolerated ; and in our place of worship, will also be 
a library, for the benefit of the inhabitants, and open on a 
8imday afternoon, as all persons then have leisure to read, 
and are clean in their persons and dress. Some may doubt 
the propriety of this proceeding ; but what will promote 
moral and intellectual improvement, and keep men from the 
vices of idleness and drinking, is justified by him who put 
the question, " Is it lawful to do good on the Sabbath?" 
The price of provisions here is as follows : — 
A fine Turkey, J-dollar.— Fowls, 12 cents each.— Beef, 
4 to 5 cents per lb.— Mutton, none yet at Market.— Eggs, 
12 i cents per dozen. — Cheese, 30 cents pier lb.— Butter, 
scarce, W cents per lb. — Bacon, 15| cents in the winter. — 
Flour, 9 dollars per barrel.— Deer— a fine fat Buck, from 
1 to IJ dollar, including skin.— Melons, plenty.— Honey, 
1 dollar per gallon.— Whiskey, 1 dollar per gallon.— Fine 
Hyson Tea, 2 dollars per lb.— Moist Sugar, 31 cents.— 
Coffee, 62 «ents; wholesale from New Orleans, much 
cheaper.— Fish, 3 cents.— From the above we leave you to 



184 

judge of tlie danger of starving, as some interested writers 
have hinfed.— I would not for the world invite perpons, no, 
not a single individual, if I did not think that his happines* 
would he increased : it may he said that I am an interested 
person, and so are those who take such pains to nrev •.„ 
persons from coming west-vard.— Emigration from c. c 
Eastern States has already reduced the price of land the . 



■ 



United Stales, October 1819. 

Notwithstanding the sorry relation w hich has been given 
respecting the distresses said to exist in America by our 
Ministerial Journalists, with an intent to damp the ardour 
of Emigration, and direct its course to the Cape of Good 
Hope.; (a place, by the by, which has not a tithe of the 
advaniagt's, to be found either in the United States, or the 
British Canadas,) and although want of trade and com- 
merce did exist to a certain extent there, it was but of a 
temporary nuture, and occasioned solely by their with- 
drawing from circulation a fatae capital (paper currency) 
then afloat, which has been the means of reducing the price 
of labour, also of every necessary article of consumption to a 
wholesome medium, without that Millstone* hanging to it 
which we have— a National Debt and Excessive Taxaiiou. 
The following Extract from Mr.Cobbett's Letter addressed 
to Lord Liverpool will fully ilhistrate the above statement. 

" luthe L'nited States of America, there is nothing of 
that <lescription ; nothing of that sort of thing which, ia 
England, is called distress. The city of New York contains, 
they say, a population of about a bundled and thirty 
thousand souls. And 1 take upon me to say that it does not 
contain one single creature, black or white, eo much in dis- 
tress as the average of our common labourers and working 
ftiannfuctnrers are at this day. I have heard persons sa3% 
that they have, during a course of years, seen a beggar or 
two in the city of New York. I never saw one there in my 
life; but, during the latter part of the last summer, I have 
seeii a considerable quantity of offal meat left upon the 
Shambles, after the market was over, for any body to take 
away that chose to take it avVay. I, myself, bought there 



^ ntw tii 



* Rev. chap, xviii. verse 2. 



185 

. as fat a lamb as ever t saw, giving a dollar and a half for a 
whole lamb, weighin- six-aud-thirty pounds. 1 he price ot 
mutton, Nvetlier iimtton, was less than two-ivence sterlmg 
a pound. IJoe-meat (fatted upon Indian Corn) was sevea 
cents, or about tluee-peuce three tarthrngs Kngiish n.oney. 
Beef (as line you will observe as what is killed m London) 
was, the best joints, the same. Bread, a httle more than 
half the London price, and greatly superior in point ot 
ouality. At this time, and a. the same place, no labourer 
was to be had, r>ot even a newly arrived Irish emigrant, 
under three quarters of a dollar a day. Thus, then, the 
labourer at New York coidd obtaiu the price ot more tlian 
ten pomids of pork for every day that be chose to work 
Doe. your Lordship call this distress^ Would to God that 
once happy England exhibited to the world such marks ot 
misery and wretchedness ! „ , t. ,■ i • „* 

" But, we are told, that many of the English emigrants 
have returned back. I took the pains to ascertain the facts 
relative to this measure before my departure tor England; 
and! state upon authority of the best kmd. that out of 
seven-and-twenty thousand who, during Uie l««t tweW^ 
months, have arrived at the port of New York ii-om the 
Kine's European dominions, eleven hundred only have re- 
firned; and, which is a thing wholly overlooked, great 
numbers of these are men who, after having exammed the 
country, have returned back in order to take out their wives, 
children, and relations, two men of which description were 
on board the ship in which I came home. However it is 
not so very surprising that there should be one out oi t iirty. 
who, iappening to arrive in the heat of the summer, should 
take fridit and return. There are the caprices and the 
hankerings of women to be attended to. There are divers 
circumstances which would cause a return ot one out of 
thirty, without leaving room tor any sensible man to draw, 
from such return, any conclusion unfavouraHe to the general 
state of that country. , 

The advantages which America presents to persons who 
are wholly out of trade or business, and who wish to live at 
their ease, and still to preserve their tdrtunes lor their 
Sren ire so great, that a person who has "ot actually 
witnessed tliem, can hardly believe m their retdity. In a 
Tat eount y hiuse, at the distance of from three to ten miles 
onhecity of New York, a family, of moderate size may be 
rn^Sed in the style becoming a gentleman, tor a less sum 
^nuSly than the assessed taxes and the poor-rates paid by 



■ 



186 

such a family in England. The n.anner of living, too, is m 
widely diflerent. From seven hundred to nine hundred 
Uoliars, that is to say, about two hundred pounds, will give 
a man a good country house, garden, pasture, orchard, 
tlenty of space for horses and cows, with coach-house. 

stables, and all sorts of conveniences, no^forgetting dogs and 
sports of the field ; not less than a pair of hortes, with one or 
two convenient carriages ; with a great variety of meat, 
fowl and hsh. with wines of all sorts; and. if he chooses 
London porter, if he does not like the beer that is made in 
the country, and which is better than the London porter. 
Uaret at an Lnglish seven-pence a bottle ; Port-wine at an 
Lnghsh shUIing; Madeira wine in the same proportion; 
French brandy at about a dollar and a half a gallon; and 
the common spirits of the country are actually to be bought 
at about twenty English pence a gallon, that is to say, four 
English quarts, or eight Englisl pints. While every article 
oi dress, common to Engla-ul. is (all except the labour be- 
stowed m the making it) cheaper than in England, and 
while the silks and lace from France, and the silks and 
beautiful dresses that come from India and China are sold 
at a rate so cheap as to make the hue main-street at New 
York surpass, as to the brilliancy of female dresses, any of 
the ball-rooms that are ever to be seen in England, with the 
exception of those where aristocracy brings forth its family 
triukets into play. The finest streets in London ; the malls 
the parks, the gardens are, as to female dresses, a scene of 
meanness and shabbiness, compared to Broad-way iu 
.New Y ork. "^ 

^ "This, my Lord, is the real state of a commercial town 
in America; and which commercial town, too. had, at the 
very tiMie that I am speaking of, experienced a moustrous 
deal ot thai sort ot distress, which had put the dis )unting 
and accommodation gentlemen to flight, and had. thanks be 
to (,od. shut nany of their shops up forever. But, i.s to 
the country, as to the farmers of which America i.. wholly 
almost composed; as to the workuig people all through Sha 
country what distress had they f<lt ? They knew nothing 
either of poor-rates or of paupers. All that I paid for a 
farm of ihr«e hundred acres, in taxes of every sort, were fif- 
teen dollars and a half for myself, and the like sum for my 
landlord; a part of this went ♦.. the maintenance of the 
government; a part of it to keep the roads in excellent 
repair; a part to maintain the schools in the township ; and 
i suppose, out of the whole, four or five dollars might be 



187 

required towards the maintenance of ihe free negroes who 
are unable or unwilling to work ; fo/, duriog the whole of 
my residence in Long Island, I nevar set my eyes on a white 
pauper, except one Englishman, a native of Hull, as he told 
me, who seemed to have drinked himself half to death, and 
to whom I gave half a dollar to take him to the overseers of 
Flushing. It is curious enough, that this man had straggled 
down from Canada, and was, as he told me, formerly the 
Editor of a ministerial newspaper at Hull. In all proba- 
bility, the whiskey v, o\M soon put an end to him ; and, at 
any rate, this was ♦he only white pauper I ever saw in Long 
Island ; and the only one I ever heard of." 

From a German newspaper we learn that several thousand 
persons are now preparing to emigrate to Amerira; they have 
rtlready sent agents to purchase land, &c. for them, which 
must appear to every one the best mode of proceeding, as 
ihey take their Society with them, and feel not the evils of 
a strange country as those who wander alone. 



Extracts from Grece's Facts, &c. on 
Canada.— 1819. 

CLIMATE. 

I contend that neithe.-the Lower nor the Upper Province 
■can, with propriety, be deemed countries loo cold for 
British constitutions. Much has been said of the cold 
atmosphere of these parts; but if the longevity and generally 
healthful state of the inhauitants may be allowed to furnish 
any criterion of the salubrity, or otherwise, of the climate, 
tlu> Canadas are H.oond to no part of this vast continent. 

Near Quebec, it must be confessed, the air is rigorous ; 
but proceeding towards Upper Canada, the climate may be 
denominated European, rimilar lo that of the provinces on 
the Rhine With respect, however, even to Quebec, it is 
no mean argiiment for its general salubrity, that the mother- 
country has adopted it for the seat of government : which, 
most assuredly, would not have been the case, had the 
winters been as severe as some intereated writers Lave 
asserted. The grape-vine grows wild in both provinces 
and always comes to maturity, a circumstance which docs 
not occur in very rigorous climates: indeed, both tbe 



188 

Canadas abound with trees, shruhs, plants, herbs, and 
beautiful foliage, common to climates which are never 
deemed otherwise than temperate. Melons come to ma- 
turity in the open gardens. 

During the summer months, there are times when the 
heat is considerable ; but it is 'at no time what can be fairly 
called scorching. The rapid progress of vegetation, during 
those montbs, is almost beyond credibility. 

Upper Canada, it is true, may with greater propriety bo 
termed English ; the English language being generally 
spoken here, which is not the case in the Lower Province. 
It has been frequently styled tlie Garden of North America: 
but both the provinces, as to soil, scenery, commerce, trade, 
and government, have a great atlinity to each other. The 
principal towns in the Upper Province are K.ugston, York, 
Xewari-", and Am hurst burgh. York is the capital : it is 
seated on the Lake Ontario. 

It should not, however, he concealed, that no part of 
America offers an asylum for indolence. Every where it 
requires much active industry, much patient perseverance, 
to form an establishment, particularly in agricultural pur- 
suits, on lands hitherto in a state of nature. With these 
pre-requisites, and a capital of from o£400 to ot'lOOO, few 
people in Canada will fail of their object, who have enii- 
gratt d for the purpose of employing tlieir talents, and their 
capital, in th.' acquirement of a <lecent independence. The 
fine gentleman and delicat(< lady I would advise, by all 
means, to remain in England, or some other part of Europe. 

\\c are further informed, that tlie generosity of govern- 
ment is frequently extended to settlers in a very groat de- 
gree ; and that they have been known to give as much as 
100 to 200 acres of good land, on condition of the occiipier's 
building a house, and clearing at least six acres, with an 
actual residence of three years prior to being put in pos- 
session of the freehold for ever. 

The quantity <<f land in Canada, in a state of forest, is 
capable of containing and supporting some millionij of in- 
habitants ; its quality being equal, if not superior, to any 'u 
the eastern states, and its price far below thit of the w««(''m 
territory. Some lands are held by a temire similar " 
English copyholds, subject to an amnud rent ot one bushui 
and a hnlf of wheat for every hundred acres : bus a great 
part of tlu! land is freehold. 

Farms of lOOatiros, with awmall lf)g-house, ai ; arn, 
thirty acres of the hind being pre>iously prepare; for cul i- 



189 

ration, may be bought from £\50 to i?200. In tbe town- 
ships, which are very extensive, and in many parts not more 
than fifty or eighty miles from the city of Montreal, the 
great emporium of the' Canadas, farms may be bought on the 
above tei lus. 

Land in a state of nature may be bousiht for from ten 
shillings to two pounds per acre, at a credit of from five to 
ten years, p tying six per cent, interest to the owner. This 
land, to be cleared, and m^ le fit for sowing, will cost about 
three or four more pounds per acre, in the Lower Provii?ce ; 
in the Upper Province, about six pounds per acre: labour 
not being so plentiful there. 

There are. at present, many opportunities of getting 
farms, at no great distance from Montreal, where is received 
the produce of the most remote settlements of Uppc Canada, 
as well as that of the rich and fertile district of which it 
bears the name. Nor is there, at tltis lime, any difficulty 
in obtaining farms in the district of tlie Three Rivers, or of 
that of Quebec ; but as the district of Montret*! j.of!- esses t: 
more congenial climate, lying in amort iontherly «li.ertion, 
I would, by all means, recommend emigration to those 

parts. 

In Upper Canada, plenty of land may be had at from two 
to four dollars per acre, in a slate of nature, and, with some 
•learing, for a moderate consideration. 

Mr. G. then takes a view of the average expense attend- 
ing cultivation. The usual price of labour on farms is from 
l8. 8d. to 2s. 6d. per day, with board ; by the year i'l5 to 
^'24 for men-servants, and from £6 to ^'12 for women of 
all work. He has furnished a table of the expenses of enter- 
ing on a farm of one hundred acres, each l)eing four-fifths 
of an English statute a^re ; which esiituate comprises agri- 
«ultur:>l implements of all kinds, with stock, seeds, servants' 
•wages, and provisions lor the faniiy. The total amount is 
WC4B5 4s. 7d of which Jfl04 for wages; seeds £3'*; for 
stock £139; and the remainder for carta, (S.c. The calcu- 
lations are made for entering on iue faun in May, whe.;the 
stock ma> be expected to go hbr-id : but, if the entry were 
to take place in November -^ .4iOwance musJ, be ad Hor 
the subsistence of niock. : food for the servant- for one 
year is included, 'm* noi tho expense of furniture tor tho 
iiouse, and the maintenance of the master and his family, 
•which depend on the sty!; U which ho may wish to live. 
The differe I "iiids of gruiii*»d grasses uro next enumerated, 




.-^li»' 



:-«% 



190 

and the quantity of seed required for every apernt or acre id 
stated, from which the following results are deduced : 

As a summary of these facts, we may observe, that the 
returns of crops are as follow : wheat from 25 to 30 bushels ; 
buck wheat, from 15 to 20 ; rye, 15 to 25 ; barley, 15 to 30; 
oats, 32 to 40; Indian corn, from 30 to 50; horse-beans, 
from 25 to 35; potatoes from 250 to 400; carrots and 
parsnips, from 700 to 900 ; turnips, from 300 to 700 bushels; 
cabbages, from 18 to 25 tons per acre ; and hay, from 
1| to 2i tons per acre. 

It is evident, therefore, that the earth, M'hen well managed, 
is very productive ; and the climate, during the summer 
months, being very warm, the rapid advance of vegetation is 
almost incredible. I have sown wheat on the 11th of May, 
harvested it in the month of August following, the produce 
weighing 65 lbs. per minot. 

Many persons who go out from England find themseFves 
disappointed, from a want of previous adequate investiga- 
tion of the difficulties they must naturally encounter in such 
an undertaking; and they increase those difliculties greatly 
by not making an early decision, but hesitating and halting, 
till delay has consumed a great part of that property which 
was requisite to their comfortable establi.shment on their 
arrival. 

There are many facilities of improving the land, natural 
to the country. Lime-stone is abundant, and various other 
kinds of manure are easily to be obtained. 

As soon as ♦' ow is off the ground in the spring, and 
it is dry enou .larrovv, the following seeds are com- 

mitted to the . : wheat, horse-beans, pease, barley, 

carrots, and par^. .ps. The general practice of the farmers 
is to prepare the soil i;i autumn ; but the season for agri- 
cultural pursuits somewhat varies: at Quebec, the season 
is six months ; at Montreal, seven. Although the season 
appears short, and the cold intense, the winters are more 
pleasant and salubrious than those of England, because more 
uniform, and the air more rh^ar and dry. In Canada, the 
farmer is never at a loss, from any apprehension of the 
fickleness of the weather, what kind of labour he shouhl 
next pursue. Hence, there is but little occasion for the 
barometer in farm houses, so common in England. 



FINIS. 

Manhall, PrMer, KtHtonJit. Bnniswlck-Si, 



I