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benofi of .1^ •'"%',""'' L).ctionary of the Hiblc on critical line, f„r the 
bwncht of all scnous students, both professional and lay. was pronunent in Z 
Geneiii of the "''"'' " '^'-" "'''ny-^i'l--^ scholar to whose beloved memory the 
EncyclopaBdia. l'''''"'']^ ''"'^'"'*-' '■'* in^^'ibed. It is more than twelve years since 
1 rot Robertson Smith be;;an to take steps towards realisinL^' this 
Klea. As an academical teacher he had ,n.n, the .irst been fully iwa e of the 
.mportance of what is known as Hiblical l-ncvclopa-dia. and h s own e^lics^ 
co,Ur,butions to the subject in the /:«orAy^<.W AvL..,;; c.ry sTf "t^ 
a to the year ,S;5 If for a very brief period certain untoward\.;e Us "re d 
h.s act,v,ty ,n th.s direction, the loss of time was speedily made u, . or s- d m^^^^ 
perhaps has there been a greater display of intellectual energy than i 'i e 
the of b.bbcal articles signed ' W. R. S.' which appeared in ihT/MZZ 
hntauHua between .875 and ,888. The reader who is interested in mw 
study sho.dd not fail to exan,ine the list, which includes an:on;t;" 1 ge ar S 
I^iB...... CANncLKs. CMK..N.CI...S. Davm.. Hkukkw Lanuia..,:. H..M.V kh' 

and among the shorter. Ax..k,.. Akk. Baa,.. Dkca,,,,,;.;, K, < 1^^ H ^ V,„xs. Mk,,c„,.e,.kk. Mo,.oc.,. Nabat.kans. N u c., W kht X v 

Nor should the students of our day overlook the .service which this far 
see ng scholar and ed.tor rendered to the nascent conception of an ',;;. W 
b.bhcal cr,t,c,sm by inviting the co-operation of forei.^ as well as n . sh 
tr-butors. That names like those of N oldeke, Tiele WelTha se amai k" ^ h "" 
Gutschmid. Geldner appeared side by side ^ith th:^:;;^^:,^;!^^^;^:^;;:::^ scholars ,n the list of contributors to the Knarl.r.c,lin was aMraur ^ 
ireedom from dangerous eccentricity, of comprehensiveness of view, o thoun .h 
n.'ss and accuracy of investigation. inorou.,n- 

Such a large amount of material illustrative of the Bible, marked bv unity 

a.m and consistency of purpose, was thus brought together that the /f . ,Z1' 

1 he Kka hen occurred to the editor and his publishers to republish for the 
gUKlance of stude,.ts. all that might be found to have stood the es of timj he 

acunae tilled up, and the whole brought up, as far as p.,ssib e to he klh 

evel of the n,ost recent scholarship. It was not unnatural o wish for tht fc.t 

there were three ma.n opposing considerations. In the first ,)lace there we e 

other m,portant which made pressing demands on the time ami ener- " «? 


I he iilitor. \i\t, the >;rowint: maturity i>{ hi> biWical scholarHhip made him Ios.h 

lIMl less (1|S|HISI.'( 

I V 

I :H(iiilc<»ic III nnis.slii 

II). li 

sioiis. Ami I.tstiv, Hikh 


St. lilt |)ro^icss was iii'in^ made i>\ students in the |>ii\ver nt assji'-latiii;; ititital 
results it seemed jitiident In w.iit till iiihlieal .iilieles, thmiiu; 

leviseil and 

st,.shi)uld liivea -Olid eh.nicenl still nmre deeply iiitluenem;: the student wurld. 


e \\.iitin;;timi was 


IS Dther (ueii[iaticU)H allnwed, hv 

ijiineeriiii,' rese.iiehen in bihiie.ii .ireh.i ojn-v, .sonie ol the results mI whieh arc 

admirahh summed u|> in th;it truitlul vnUmie entitled //', l\,li;;ii>n of I lie Siiiiitts 
(i.S,S()). Mure ;;iid more, Kohcrtsun Smith, like other eontcmpurary sehol.irs, 
s.iw the neeessity nt revjsin^^ old wurk on tile l)asis of a more critical, and, in a 
certain sense, more iihilo^ophieal treatment ot ilct.iils. Mrst ol all, areha olo;;ieal 
details had their siiaie and it was Ixuind to he a l.irj;e share — ot this scholar'.s 
attention. Then lanie biblical ^;e(i^;rai>hy — a subject whieh had been broiiL,dit 
Iironiiiuntly into notice by the zeal ol lMi:;lish exploreis, but seemed to need the 
collabiiration of l',n;,'lish critics. A loii); visit to I'alestine was planned lor the 
direct investi,i;ation ot details of biblical ^,'eoj;rapby, ami thou.-h this could not be 
carried out, not a little time was devoted to the examination ol a leu of the more 
perplexint; •;eoj;ra[)hical problems and ot tiie solutions ahead) proposed (see «.,;,',, 
Ai'iii K, below, col, i<)i/.). This care for accuracy of tletail as a necessary pre- 
liniinarv to a revision of theories is also the cause of our Iriend's persistent refusal 
to sanction the repuiilication of the masterK but inevitahiv provisional article 
JJiiii.i: in the liucyclopiCiliii Jlritiiniiicii, to which we shall return later. I'he reader 
will still better unilerstand the motive of that refusal if he will com|)are what 
is said on the I'salter in that article ( 1S-5) with the st.itements in the first edition 
of T/if Old 'I'lSt'UUiiit in t/it' JiU'is/i L7iiiir/i(\ii,^o), in the I'.iicviloftCiUii lhit,iiiiih;u 
article I'sai ms (1.S.S5), and in the second edition of 77/, Old 'J\s!,iiiii nl in tin 
Jii.-is/i i'liiiirli { i.S<)2), 

It is onl\- just, however, to the true 'be;,'etter' of this work to emphasise the 
fact that, thou;;h he felt the adeipiate realisation of his idea to be some way off, 
he lost no time in pondering; and wurkini; out a variety of practical details — a 
task in which he was sect luled by his assistant etiitor and intimate friend, Mr. 
J. S. niack. Many hours were .i;i\en, as occasion offered, to the distribulicm of 
subjects and the prejiaration nt minor articles. .Some hundreds ot these were 
drafted, anil many were the discussions that arose as to various dil'ficult practi- 
cal jxtints, which have not been without fruit for the present wdrk. 

In SeiUend)er 1S92, however, it became only too clear to Prof. .Smith that 
he was sufferin^^ from a malady which mi^ht terminate fatallv after no verv dis- 
tant term. The last ho]ie of active participation in his loiiLC-cherished scheme of 
a Hible Dictionary had '.vell-nigh disappeared, when one of the present editors, 
who had no definite kiv uled.-e of Trot. Smith's plan, communicated to this friend 
of many years' standing' his ideas of what a critical liible Dictionary ou.t;lit to be. 
and ino'iired wiuiher he thou;^lU that such a jiroject could be realised. I'rof. 
Smith was still intellectually able to consider and pronounce upon these ideas, 
and ;,'lndly recoi;niseil their close affinity to his own. rnwillini,' that all the 
labour already bestowed by him on plannini; and drafting;- articles should be lost, 
he requested I'rof. Cheyne to take up the work which he himself was compelled 
to drop, in conjunction with the older and more intimate friend already menti(med. 
Hence the combination of names on the title-pa^e. The work is undertaken by the 
editors as a charge from one whose parting message had the force of a command. 



S.u h IS the hiMory ,.f the Knuxis m tho /■;/,:,■./../,.•.//„ /.'/M.,,. which is the 

result primarily ..t a tu^i..^ of t«.. .liMimt l.ut similar plans -a lusi„i. (I,si.,.,| by 

Principle, of the ''>■'''• K"lH''-tv.n Smith himMlt. :.> the .mlv remaining nu m^ „| 

Encyclopadia. reaiisiiiK ade.|iiatel\ l)i> uwi, tuiKJaiik-ntal i.lea>. \\ ith re;;ar(l t<i 

•'^■••"l^- ''^■'^•""'^•^<lit'"^ entirely free. m.lln.nKlo line ..tphvsieal 
strength l;ut Irnm a ^^ell-;;n.umled .un.uU.Ke that reli^i.,,, ami the'vvero 
ii<.t less dear to them than ... himsell. ami that they lulls ^hare.l hi. own umoin- 
prom.sin,:;ly pro^resMve spirit. The |,i|,ic 1)1. ,i„nary uhich he eunte.uplate.i «as 
no mere o.llect.on u| n>eh,l miMellanea, l.ut a survey „l the o-ntents ol the Itihie 
as illummate. hy cTitici>u.-a niti.i>,„ whu h i.lentities the cause ..t reli.!,.,,' 
with that ..I h.stoneal truth, a.ul. without neKleetiuK the historieal atul an h ,o. 
..«ica! setting' of rcH^-io,,. h.ves hcst t,, traee the Krowth ot hi^^h eonceptious. 
the llashm,; lorth ol new mtuit.ons. an.l the development ul no!,!, personalities 
umler loeal and tcmp.,ral eondiiions that may olten he, to eves most 
adverse. 1 he nnporlance ot the newer view of the Ihble to the Chris'tian eom- 
inunity, and the hmdamental prin. iples ul the newer hihlieal eri-ieism. have been 
so a hly and so persuasiveJN set lorth by |'n>f. Robertson S.nith in his i.eetmes 

tha h>s lei ow.«.,rkers may be dispensed Ir repeating; here what he has .said .so 

well already. ' I here remaineth yet very to be possessed' let u.s 

assume then, thai the readers of this li.cyclop.ciu,, whatever be their Krade of 

knowledge or sphere of w„rk. are willin;; t.. n.ake an elf..rt to take this widely 

extended \\\ possession. ' 

Kvery vear. in fact. exi)ands the narrow hori/ons which not so i,.n. a-o 

h.mted the aspirations of the biblical scholar. It is time, as iVof. Robertson 

Smith thou^'ht. to help stu.lents to this, and to brin^^ the .standard b,.oks on 

whjch they rely more up to date. It may seem hopeless to this with an 

a phabetically arran^^ed cncyelopaMlia, which nece.ssa.ilv irvohes the treatment 

ol subjects ,n an isolated way. Hy an elaborate svstem of cross relerences 

however, and by mterspersm- a consi.lerable number of comprehensive articles 

such as, ,n l'.-trt I., Apo, v, vpt., I.,T,:KVTfKK. Ca,x,tks. Dka.ov). it has 

been sonjjht to avoid the dan-er of treatin;; minute .letails without re-ard to 

their wuler bearm,,'s. M.ny „f the minor articles, too. have been so constriKted 

as to su,^f,est the relation of the details to the lar.^er wholes. Altu^^ether the 

stud). Often the rece.vcl view ol the subject of a ' minor article " proved f. be 
extremely doubttu . ami a better view sn.Kested itself. Kverv e.uleavour has 
heen u.sed to put th,s v.ew forward in a brief and yet convincinj^'manner. without 
<.c-upymK too much space and becomin,,^ too academic in style. The more com- 
prehensive articles n,ay here and there be found to clash with the shorter articles 

daslJ-of'^Sl '^'^ '''^" "'^"'^ " "^"^^ '''' '^ ^''-^^' "-- '" -^'^ 

It will also doubtless be found that on lar^e cpiestions different writers have 

s..metmKs propose'd d.tferent theories and hypotheses. The sympathies of the 

not simpl) because it is advanced, but such criticism, in the hands of a 

esoure-ehil scholar, takes account of facts, both literary and archaeological, which 

he criticism ol a former .generation overlooked or treated superficially. Thev 

liave no desne. however, to ' boycott ' n,oderate criticism, when applied by a critic 

-ho. either ,n the form or in the substance of his criticism, has something ori-nnal 


to say. An ' advanced ' critic cannot possibly feel any arrogance towards his 
more 'moderate' colleague, for probably he himself held not very long ago 
views resembling those which the 'moderate' critic holds now, and the^latter 
may find his precautionary tests end in his adopting, as nearer approximations 
to truth, views that now seem to him difficult. Prof. Robertson Smith's views of 
ten years ago, or more, may, at the present day, appear to be ' moderate ' criti- 
cism : but when he formulated them he was in the vanguard of critics, and 
there is no reason to think that, if he had lived, and devoted much of his time 
to biblical criticism, his rdour would have waned, and his precedence passed to 

There are, no doubt, some critical theories which could not consistently have 
been represented in the present work; and that, it may be remarked su'^.^ests 
one of the reasons why Prof. Robertson Smith's early Eucychpicdia hriUuimca 
article, Bible, could not have been republished, even by himself. When he wrote 
it he was sf'l not absolutely sure about the chronological place of P (Priestly 
Code). He was also still under the influence of the traditional view as to the 
barrenness and unoriginality of the whole post-e.xilic period. Nor had he faced 
the question of the post-exilic redaction of the prophetic writings. The funda- 
mental principles of biblical criticism, however, are assumed throughout th it fine 
article, though for a statement of these we must turn to a more mature production 
of his pen. See, for example, The OU Tcstmnait in the Jii.<islt Church'-' p., i6 
ff. (cp 1st ed. pp. 24#.), and notice especially the following paragraph on p. 17 :_ 
'Ancient tnwks coming ,i,m' 11 to us from a period many centuries before the inr. I'ion of 
printing luree necessarily undergone many vicissitudes. Some of them are preserved onh in 
inijcrfect copies made by an ignorant scribe of t/ie dark ages. Others liave been di^fii-ured bv 
editors who mi.xedup foreign matter -u'ith tlie original text. I'erv often an important book 
fell altogether out of sight for a long time, and 7cd,en it came to li>;hi a^aii. all hmoled^-e of its 
origin was gone .■ for old books did not generally have title-pa^^es and prefaces. And lihen 
such a nameless roll was again brought into notice, some half informed reader or transcriber 
was not unlikely to give it a new title of his oion devising, which was handed ihmn thereafter 
as if tt had been original. Or again, the true meaning and purpose of a book often be/a me 
obscure ,n the lapse of centuries, and led to false interpretations. Once more, antiouitv has 
handed down to us many writings which are sheer forgeries, like some of the Apocryphal books 
or the Sibylline oracles or those famous Epistles of Phalans, which formed the subject of 
Bentley s great critical essay. In all such cases the historical critic must destroy the received 
view, ,„ order to establish the truth. He must review doubtful titles, purge out interpolations 
expose forgeries; but he does so only to manifest the truth, and exhibit the genuine remains of 
antuiuity n, their real character. A book that is really old and really valuable has nothing to 

t:iJ:-:::v:::::;. tz '''""' ''"" ""■' '-' '' '""" '" " ''^'■- ^'^ -'^ -^^^^^^^ '^ 

The freedom which Prof. Robertson Smith generouslv left to his successors 
has, with much reluctance, yet without hesitation, on the part of the editors been 
exercised ,n dealing with the articles which he wrote for the Encyclopaedia 
Bntaunica. J\,<t editors are well assured that he would have approved their 
conduct in thKS respect. Few scholars, indeed, would refrain from rewriting to a 
large extent the critical articles which they had produced some years prevLsly • 
and this, indeed, is what has been done by several contributors who wrote biblical 
articles for the former Ivncyclopxdia. The procedure of those who have revised 
our friend .s articles has in fact been as gentle and considerate as possible. Where 
these articles seemed to have been destined by himself for some de-rcc of per- 

students are much m„r " ,, °,„r J th, ', \" I""-'"'!™ «l'»l«.'.. Hiblc 

of their contributor^ not only to bri^' h "'"l " ''''"u ""'' ^*^^' '''^■'^'^'-^'^^ 
publisined writings but vheriv.rn !, '""''' "'' '" *'^"' '"^■'-'' "f ^iie best 

Jhe point hitherrVeaSe r t' " W ttj^t^"^^ ^'^ ""^^"^-^ '"^ ■'"'^' '^'=>-'' 

gating the details of the text ot L^Ol, T ? "'' "'''-'*^'">' °*' '"^'^''^'i- 

to realise the precarioS: ^h^r ct ^o^LlallS' of tT ' '^ '^v, ^ ^"^ ""^ 
ology. Geography, and natural history, a et n f t^ "T"' '"'"" ^"'^"- 
in the current Old Testament theolo-rv Pn. . ' unimportant points 

been applied; but the methods S; I I "''' '"'''^"'^^ '^'''^■^^ ""^ '""^'^■"l 

i somewhat more cons" t^:^ tt.f Se'"wi;h'::::;t'^ T r^''' '-'' 

claim can be advanced only to a sli-^ht extent Mn 'I'cha-ology, such a 

made of late years in the field o cr tica I.r h ' T^''"' ^'''^''^'' ^^'« been 

cism. All, therefore that wasM' 1^ ^''^'''"^"''^y ^''^'" '» '^'^^ "f t-'xtual criti- 

to keep abreast of Ve en "chSlo- cal rTTuT-'" "*'''^' ' ^^^°"" '"^^^ 
New Testament study "'^'^'^'^«'"«'"1 >--'«--^>-ch both m Old Testament and in 

The fulness of detail with which the data of th,> \'..c- u 
may provoke some comment \ u ^ "'''"''' ^""'■'^ been given 
they believe that, though in the'vmh "" M ''"'''' "' ^'^" ""^°'-^' -'' 
more correct, more critknl and mnr ? ^^ r'"^'*' ^" -'^'^ ^bese data in a 

at present b; beinl^ supptd a h h T if '"'■''l' '''' ^'"'^'"'"^ ''^ best served 

mav also be doubted bsoLe Sh k"' ' '""' "^" '"^^'^"'''b''^ "^^terial. It 

again experience's l::::i ^'I'Z^^]: ^^^ T'^r"""^^^" "^^ 
tional stage of lexicogratihy it would Iv.v . h ''"'^'"^^•, ^" ^he present transi- 

simply referring to the valtblen'wl^cl'^hrh "'"''' '' ""-^^ '^""'^"^ ^^'^'^ 
alreadvai,peared. °"' '''"^b are now appearing, or have 

have'i^lp^^^^a" t^':^;t'Tn;:'^ 1'r ^'^ ""^ -'^^'- ^°'- ^bat they 
subject .'^ichis'rpdl^em^^^^^ ^'"'^^^'"^"^ «*" ^bat important 

thought within the'je --s^ an 'I. C r ttr/uJch r'^'r"^ '' "'f ""'^ "^'^ '''"'^ 
but is convenient). Systems of PropS t 1 nrPeSnriT^' ''• ''"u"'"^ 
have had their day; it is nerhans tim > th .V n , ,' ' >bannme theoh.gv 

as a of'more o S "eo .^ ''^ ^^"^'V^""" ^"^'"' '° ''^ '^^^'^ 
tunatcly the literary and hist::^^^;:^ T::1,:1 t::^:^^- ''"^"^- 
as far advanced as that of th,- ni,i t . , icstament is by no means 

history of the moveuKnt f re i-^o 1^7 7'. ^' ^ ---V^-tant date a real 
l)e possible. For such a h it'r^^or h Ht" f '" '''' '''''''' '-■"-' "'•''V 



present called ' Hiblical Theolo<jy ' ; but, instead of nttemptins what is at present 
impossible, they have thoiight it better to leave some deficiencies which future 
editors will probably f nd it not ditificiilt to supply. They cannot, however, con- 
clude this section without a hearty attestation of the ever-increasing love for the 
Scriptures which critical and historical study, when pursued in a sufficiently com- 
prehensive sense, appears to them to produce. The minutest details of biblical 
research assume a brightness not their own when viewed in the light of the great 
truths in which the nioven.ent of hiblical religion culminates. May the reader find 
cause to agree with them ! This would certainly have been the prayerful as])ira- 
tion of the beloved and lamented scholar who originated this Eucyclopitdia. 

i'o the contributors of signed articles, and to who have revised and 
brought up to date the articles of Prof. Robertson Smith and other deccasetl 
scholars, it may .seem almost su])erfiuous to render thanks for the 
help they have so generously given. It constitutes a fresh bond 
between scholars of different countries and religious communions 
which is surely of happiest augury. Ikit the special services of the various mem- 
burs of the editorial staff require specific acknowledgment, which the editors have 
much ])leasure in making. Mr. Hope \V. Hogg became a contributor to the 
F.ncyclopiCilia Biblica in 1S94, and in 1895 became a regular member of the edito- 
rial staff. To his zeal, energy, and .scholarship the work has been greatly indebted 
in every direction. Mr. Stanley A. Cook joined the staff in 1896, and not only 
has contributed various signed articles, which to the editors appear to give promise 
of tine work in the future, but also has had a large share in many of those that are 
of composite authorship and unsigned. Mr. Maurice A. Canney joined the staff 
\\\ 1898; he also has contributed signed articles, and has been eminently helpful 
in every way, especially in the reading of the proofs. Finally, the editors desire 
to acknowledge their very special obligations to the Rev. Henry A. Redpath, M.A., 
editor of the Concordance to tlic Scptnagiut, who jilaced his unrivalled e.xperience 
at their disposal by controlling all the proofs at a certain stage with special 
reference to the LXX readings. 

T. K. Cheyne. 

J. Sutherland Black. 

zoth Scph-m/i,-r 1899. 



If in what was written more than three voars n^ro k,. r 

c.ey perhaps be in the sentences devoted to the i^lLd e' ^ ^ llf 
B.bhcal Theo ogy It ,s bceoming more and more obvious tha the yciriv 
advancmg study of the apocryphal and apocalyptic Jewish literature id T\ 
to have considerable effect within the Lar 'f^turi oT th t a Tn ;t : the 
rel,,.cn>s ,deas of both parts of our Bible. Nor can we doubt that the progress 
now bemg made m the investigation of the early Christian literlre wi7Z 
urn to the advantage of the Biblical Theology of the New Testamen I is on 
th.s ground that the editors have ventured to include in X'ols H ad TV 
a number of mtroductory and descriptive articles connected wi h th new 
subject lo meet a possible objection, it may perhaps be added tltat the 

researches m to the original text of the Old Testament wifh which the name of 
one of the editors is specially connected are by no means necess.rilv^.nf. 
able to the study of Old Testament Theolo-n- J.'or even if T^Tv^ ""f'^vour- 
tif nart>: r.f *u^ (\\\ 'n . "^'^'"ft>- ' or even It the religious contents 

of parts of the Old Festament in their original form should turn out to be 
somewhat less rich and vari.d than is agreeable to traditional ideas y "the tev 

\\r-T "■• ""'" '' "°* ^'^ "'■'■:•'''■"■'''' ^-' ^" independent rig., of ex ste "e 

and the mterpretat.on put upon this text by Jewish and early Chri tian s uZ t ' 

e.serv.s the mast respectful attention. The Old Testament w^ ur 1 a 

dead book to the Jews of the great post-exilic age, but was full of H du -xnd 

susceptible of the most varied and edifj-ing adaptatbns. At the an e hne Tie 

under perpetual obligations. The Hditors wo:i;a|.sftat 1 1^ pt;t?nitv 

of expressing a natural regret that the discovers of the ' nUnt 7 i °P';°''""' > 
ti.e world/ that promulgated by U.^^u.^^'S::i/'Sj^::tl:!T?n 
and disinterred in Dec. 1901-Ian 100- bv M I .U tCt '"-^^ --42 I..c.), 
the ancient Susa. was not made a ve^r^r two L; ier ^^^0 ^ ' T, ""^ °' 
valuable single contribution of recent year to th'^ udv oft ^ <" ' ',""* 
.nd usages with which the name of Kobelt S S fs sr^ , " '"" 

=.nd will not onlv throw fre.h li^ht ar Te ' f '%^P^^'^ 'y connected, 

.1 • /- . ' . '" == '"'^ " K^' codes of the Israelitos hut 

al-Cve a fresn nnpetus to the critical study of the Hebrew .v:^V;ro'n all 


accounts they are sorry not to have been able to make this new find helpful to 
the readers of the Encychpiciui. 

To attempt any discussion of the criticisms, whether favourable or adverse 

which have been made upon the methods employed or results set forth in the 

Encyclopu-,Ha would ma.iifestly be out of place here. Other opportunities will 

occur; and time, too, will doubtless exercise its mellowing and reconciling 

.ntluence. It may even be hoped that the cc.nfusin- practice of denominating 

some critics super-naturalistic, others naturalistic, some critics sober and safe 

others extrava-ant and unsafe, may soon pass away in the light of a fuller com' 

prehension of the meaning of critical results, the complexity of critical problems 

and the variety of legitimate and ixcessary critical methods. There are 

some other things of a more general nature which the editors would fain say in 

all simplicity and earnestness, but they prefer to ask leave to quote a passage 

from Dr. Hort 's Introduction to the now famous edition of the New Testament 

by himself and Bishop Westcott, with the spirit of which thej- are in deepest 

s>-mpathy and the expressions of which, especially in the closing sentences Vhev 

can heartily adopt as their own. ■ . ^ 'c> 

■// o„h n,„ai„sto express an earnest hope that whater.-r labour u<c have been aHozved to 

...uh ,nust for the most part be invisible to ourselves, to e.ntribute towards stre,Mh n- 
u.rreetn,, and e.tend.n, human apfrehensu.n of the larger truth of the spriO^^ 
assuredly ,n due .v// prosecute the task unth better resources of knLlejJaZ\kTanl 
amend the faults and defects of .ur processes and results. To be faitlful to ^ht'^^' ^ 

</ tbs ^tauiard, r.v a,e loell aware: yet we are b„ld to say that none of the shortcoming's or 
d,.cto lock,fan.,ous and watchful sincerity An imyncit conjidence in all truhak ^sZ 
of Us rancty and a deliberate dread of shuttin, out t,u,h as yet unknown ar" n I urty 
a,an,^ some of he ,oandcr,n,' lights that are apt to beguile a critic; but, in Jar a uy 
obeyed teyat least „.encl, every inclination to ,.ide criticism into deliver .ll^^Z^i" a 
.nay be to the supposed advantage of truth already inherited or acquired Cr f eB-/^; 

In conclusion, the Editors desire anew to express their gratitude for the in- 
v;aluable services of the members of the editorial staff-Messrs. Hog^ Cook and 

the vvork as also heir great indebtedness to Dr. Redpath for having read the 

proofs with a speca reference to the readings of the LXX. In connection with 

le maps their thanks are due not only to the authors of various articles to w id 

o The m'; ' r ^ '" 'Y ''"" ''""'^^' P-^-"'-b' for help in the preparatio 

of the map of byria according to the Egyptian monuments, to Col. Hilerbeck f., 
two maps of Syria according to cuneiform documents, and in a very speci 

;^f " 'I '^"J"7 '?'-' "°Sg. who has throughout superintended the who 
map-work m the hncyclcpa:dia, including the indexing 

27/// March, (903. 

T. K. C. 
J. S. B. 

Tin; ia 
the folk 
lexpcct t 

|OT .Vj). 
fiiiind ir 
Mving SI 

in a spei 
uiulcr till 

Isiblc lirei 
with con 

lAtiKF -L 

|oF Tin: I 

K\ K. .\\(, 


|l)i:i.i (;i;. 
V. y efV( 

•eenis to 1 

Mily way t 

v.irious th 

relcr him t 

vi. .) 

2. H 


kit-alt with ' 

tlial is not 

liLMtlinijs h 

tii^itthcr CO 

•ivtuR'nces 1 

lt'"un(l to be 

Jtlic referen( 

[umoved ma 

The m 

i- /deii 

iturtailed in 


Tin; labour that lias been hestmiwl „„ =. 

U„,ed to be warranted ;;r hi^" Z! uZutlZ I'' "T"""" "^ '"' ^"•■'^^"-">" 
convemcnt use will be facilitated by attention to he' H,/ T"l ""' "" ^'"'''^^"'^" ''^'"'li'-'k. It, 

the following matters. ^ °" '" "'^ Pnnciples that have been aclojjted in legard to 

1- Claages of Articles. -The followin- not,. , ,111 ■ 
expect to hnd and where to look for it;- ^'"■' ■'' S^"^"' '^1^-' "''-^t the r.,,.!, , n,.n 

.T ■V^£:Sho;;;«;'^;:Z'^o^^^ ^ew Testan,ent canons and the 

article-heading in Clarendon ty,^, ,he substanti • ,r,?H i "' '"''"■-""> ''* ^*^^Presented hv an 

found in the AV text. The pHnting of ™I^L o he "^ T""^' «'^"" ""''-' "'^- -- 
-.« .nee lines below A....^. ,„, .^1 Ill^L^r ^l^a^ e^^^^ '; .^^ r:? 

^^ ni ^:s^^:?^ !ris.' r "-^ '" •■"--- J!;^.^-;^-.— ^^ ^-t wi.h 

sible brevity, .any matters ha e ten tr^'aTeVTrr' o'lier things, of securing the greatest ,x>s- 
with concisely by the help of crorreSes'" S b" en"?" "T """"' """"'^''-inVce. t 

P.« Cou.iKs. Conmuts an,, Res™ kT Coc^'^^. ^•-'^•^,^- -^■■^" L-.ncu,,.v. „o,,v an, 

OF TMK h,.Ks„. DISPEKS.O.N. D.VINAT.OX. Dhp's ''"' ^'^'^'"^'^ L'TH.NS.LS. Ct TT.NOS 

I.K. A.oi''SH^s;:x;:L:^s.^rHrxsT '"^^ 

l!i..:>s.v,s AM, CtKs.M.s. CA..K ((;..u,rN) c ;; r °'"*- '""'"""" vm' 

i-ven where at first sight the rule 

r title >ci n_A II 

seems to have been neglected, it will generallv be founT'.hu ?;'"•"""'' *''' ""''' ''"-^'' ""= ™>e 
'■"ly way to tell the Knglish reader what has to h u , " " "°' '"'-■^"j- "i<^ "se The 

various things that are 'called, or sIk 1 nv b eV cLir''^''V'>-^- "-'"-^'^"^ ''^ '" '^'^""g--'' 'l>e him to the articles where thev are cle'alt with ""'^'^- '''>="" ■" the English Version, and 

eah with within the limits of one vone These efeZ '' "'"''T' "'''"'' '^ adequately 
IM. .s not .attained at the ex,,ense of incoi plelei^Ts rl^U T: '"''"''-' '^^^"'''-' '•> ™nciL-ness 

-adings being reduced to a minimum For th ;:'rH" r^,' T' matter under different 
'I>l.abet,cal order, but simul.aneouslv in .'l pa o^ " m"' '''•■', ''.•^^'^ '^^"^■" Prepared, no, in 
'..ether constantly and kept up to date Tl e s.u kn m. f ^''^"'- '"'"« '^'"''^'''" ""'•<«' "P 
-ences have not been inser ed at randon the h.v T T'"''''- '^'"'^'"'- "'•■" ">^' "oss- 
•und to be unwarranted (no such is k™ n h mwt be b "'■'■" T ?"""'• '^ '">■ ■'^'-"'"'' ^ 
•e reference was ma.le. to remove some i / / ,^" I"!;! "' '^ '-" ^und necessary, after 
:movc.d matter will no doubt be represente.i U^ 'Z'^^:^:;: '"""' *" ^"°"'^'- -"''- Th, 
The method of reference eniploved is as follows -1 

■rtailed in citations -,•.,.. Ahoca.v.t.c' UTHC^rirdt:^!^';;^^;:;:^^"""^^ '^^^ ''"» 



(/.) M;„>„_yw,ms ,hl„/.-, - l'ers..ns „r pl.uvs ..f i:,e same name are ranged as I, ^ -i etc 
( Arahic numerals), nmler a„n hea.lin- and tiled ace.inlinKlv. in cases (and even in 
ti.e lurmer case «l,en. as in Ai.nam in col. 67, .,ne Kn;;lish spelling represents di.ierent Hehre« 
s|.elli.,;,.s). the articles nsiully have sei>arate headings, in »hich case tliev are cited as i ii iij ,.tc 
( although they ar- not so marked. L'snally KeoKra'phical articles precede" l,i.. 
Kraphical. and persons piece.le book.s. Thus Samii;!. i.. 2 is the .second person called Sanu.el • 
.S.vMri;.. n. ,s the article .Sa.mi 1:1 . l!.,<,Ks ..,.-. It a vNr.m.; number should he .oun.l the e.vplan.ition 
>v,ll ,. not that ,t was not ver.Med. but that the article referred to is one of a verv .small nmnber in 
which tin or.ler ot synonymous articles had to be changed : the precautions ahvavs taken in 
such cncumst.uices must have failed in this case. Thus the lil ui;i. referred to in the article Al t s.i 
IS now Hkhi.i. I.. I. not. as i< stated in thj earlier impressions. Bkkh) ii i 

ii. />n^.,,t..,,orrU,-i,^.lr>,.l^ t;/,v/.-.\nicles of any length are divi.led into numbere, 
sections (fS >. :. etc.) mdicated by nisets coniainiuf; a descnptive word or phrase. As con 
venience ot reterence i.s the jjreat aim. the descriptive phrases are limited to. at most, three o 
our and the sections are numbered consecutively. Logical subordination of sections 
herelore. cannot .ip,XMr. Divisions larger than sections .irc .sometimes indicated in the text 1,V 
1.. II., etc.. and siibdivisious of sections bv letters and numbers („, /', , ■ a Ii y i ii jij { 
Relercnces like ( liE.Nj.vMtx. ^ 9. ii. /i) are freely use.l. .Most of the large articles uLavoc uunu 
Lifi;UATi Ki:. Ciiuo.NOi.iH.v) have |,retixed to them a table of contents^ ^-a.-mik 

in. .l/„>,>„; ofCitaluw. — TW commonest method is (see David. § n. ri ii ) Y i\k\ i , - 
... S9) means the article K.i<a-.\i:hem.a... Hook ,.k. S 9- Sometimes.' however.'the Capitals o'," 
the ,,.v. may be dispense.l with. Cains printed in small capitals in the middle of an article 
would mean t!,a is an article on that term, but that it hardly merits ^.v. Com the presei 
l-o.n o view. In articles , Generally on lU" names) that are mere ,/.:■. isl'ne." 1 
omitted: so. ,■..-,'.. m .\ii\i)|\s in col, j. ' '■> >,<-"ti.uii 

3. Typographical Devices, i. .SV:-,- ,/ /■./.•. -(„) /.<•//,;•.. -Two sizes of type are used. 



and consi.lerable care been devoted to the distribution of the small-tvpe i^assal'-s. Usuallv 
the gencil ,ne,u„n« of an article can be caught by reading simply the l.arge-tvpei.a.ts The 
smal -,M>e pa.s.s.nges generally contain .such things as |„oofs of statements, objections. Lre'techni- 
V Pi //111" "' "'f?~^*'- •^'"' "• l""'""tes and parentheses, abbreviations (see below. „ 
xu..y/. ). which are avoide.l as much as possible elsewhere, are purposely u.sed. (/-) .\WAv , ' 
Two sizes ot Arabic num. als are use.l. ( .Note that the smallest 6 and 8 are a dilTerent shape froiv 
he aex, larger . and s., ,„ making references, when only the volume is given, it is usuTl v e i 
In a Roman number. I'.ages are cited by Arabic numbers except where (.as is often the c ! 
page, o, a pretace are marke.l with Roman numbers. When numbers of tlo ranks are re o id e 
two ot Arabic numbers (.', ,) are used whether the reference be to book an.l chapter vim 
and page or section and line. If three ranks are needed, Roman numbers are pretixecf v V 
M,u ,'h '"I"'"' ';■'"' '' '""'^'' ""'■'■ '" ••■'*'"« f'"'^«" """!"• '" il'ographical article's.' as , 

t with h'"") ' ,' '"r"''™ P'^'"-"=""« '" '■•^"•^- '"'"i"'-^ 'l-^t the writer of the article t'l eit^e 
. w th the place under discussion. For the significance of the diflerent kintls of tvpe in tl c ma, 

b l,; wT ii ;/'; \ y^r^ '' "''■' '■'"' "' ""^ •"•^'^- "" "- '-^ kinds of Geek type see 
below. 4 11. (/,). On ,i„. f.reek .MS /) as distinguished from D. see below. 4 ii ,f ^' 

111 SW/ 1, ;/,/„/.. -Small Roman capitals are used in two ways: (i) in givin.^ the cciuiva 

OnVhl ;■■ r'r '" ■''■' "' ''"'"' '■"■'"• ■''"'' (=> '" «'""« - reference ('e al.ove. o i 'I 

On theuseotsmall'talic. .pitilsseebelow. 4ii./;. ^ •- aoove. « 111.;. 

ln-lZu^''"-'£:7,!:'^ '"'''\ ^-f""-'" ;='>"i"s< ■•^'"•ays" clear.' the 6 indicates footnote 6. 
* /,/, . , ■ . , .• - ^ "'^•''"^ 'he original scribe of codex Ii. If the Kgvptian ,/„/-,■/ were printed 
t. 5 (VartlJ)"" ""'■'' '^ ''>""""^''->' '" <"-"' <'■<■■ — "--^in u.calisation). .. '."^^"ans 

('■)/>"&■': _ A dagger f is used to indicate that all the p.ass.iges where a word occurs are 
cited The context must decide whether the Knglisl. wor.l or the o.igin^l is 

(</) . /,7/ „j A-?W./,..-..\Ai Al,. . Esd. 5 ,. AV . Ezra 2 ,, I.mmkr. i..' means the two 
^erse quote, are recensions of the s, original, an.l what is called Aalar ii "he „ne 
calle, Immer ■" .be other as will ,,e explaine,! in the tirst of the articles entitled iMMPK. 

son ll.ia 

te.xts .IS 
to their 
it is use 

.111(1 of I 

'rXts of ■ 




been atte 


ilition ( 

;;eneral ( 


buls in, Ml 

me oth, 

lea. lings 

means tli; 

where Sw. 


'if agreemi 


each name 

iiiiinest. or 

at once or 

taining a 

l.agarde) 1 not bei 

The I 

different ca 

lieen taken 

ceeding nai 

obvious cas 


•i,/3«a [I!]. 


highest aft, 
been freely the ben 
to iKciir in .1 
will always 1 

Some t 

(") in 
were unknow 

(fi) Th 
iigs in sm.all 

(' ) Th, 
betters suppt 
lerio.l. In 1 
inimedi.ately j 

)rcviated fi 
ire sometime: 


avoKk.d-,.v..tlu.. father Acl.l...rf,l is callc F ,!' f . m''" ^""'"«"i«>- •'«'-•"-'' thus to l,f 
4. Text-Critical AnDaratni - \s .ii • '^ ' '-''""•• 

.c-s as th.,. ,ie ,.,.. ff s^ u.t •: :r ::;::::t7: t" '-^ ''•'^^"- "-• - "- --- 

-xts o( T,sch.,ulorf an<l of Wcstcott and H,", " '" ""■' ^■^'^^^ "^ "'^' ■^•^•» Testa,,,.,,,, ,|,, 

general (t,.r the ,„ain exceptio,, see next pan ,a„h nl ■■'"-■ ''"'" '^""■^"l^-^' -""ici.„t. In 

1-rtance have been referred to. Ah"os nv aHafi V?' """"T '" "'""•" ^"'"'''^^ i"'--' - i"- 
I'-ls indicati,.., the authorities cited (t , , ' iT -n" T"" ""' '-^■^' '^ ^""""-' '-' -"- 

^ „,],,,. .MS ,., MSS a ,li, rea din.: is,, , i ■. ' '"■: ''"^" '"" "^■'-■-^rily impl^- ,ha. i„ 
■ead.n.-s and l,ave l.oth been a,, ., , T /\ ''"'\'>' ■' r"^'""'^'^' ''••^' S^'^'^'s .M.^es, of 

-ans that the editors fonnd no variant ^.stt or ., '.r t ^'■"■^- '"/'"''■ ^'-'''i"^' alone 
where Suete cites K or other MSS a, well as It \ Il7l ^, '''""'• '" "^'-' farts, thcrelnre. 

o.l-rwise. When HAL stands alone mea t i ev":?!^" "h'" ""'^•■" ""-' '""''''' "'^'-'- 

"t agreement in Swete and I.aRarde '^ t^^n«here the same : it is a sumniarv re,H,rt 

'ven taken note of. Where part of one h , • ■''''■ '" ""•■ '^'"*'' "^ conimon nouns, 

-lin. „an,e. the intruding I'e.ters hZ Iv l^r' iv!;;,' r '" ""■.'"^'■y '" ''"" '^--'"'"^ - -<-- 

'I'V.ous eases they n,ay have been i.-nore,!. ^ '"''''^ ''"''^■'-■'''- "'""^h '» '''^"'f very 

../^«jyi>l! »;;:' ['u j-tcom,;::'"iSS m u1 ■ "^h,i?'r^ " "" :^ '"'""'^'' ^°"--'^- "- : 

. Mueh eare has been bes.o,ve,l on he re'di',.. o " ' "iV "",• '^'"''-■'""'-■^ "f'^- ' 

..'hest attainable accuracy. ^^.turallv the ud;: l,::,?' r''"' '^ '""" '"^"''-" '" -^"^'•- ''-^ 
"■M reely use,l. As has bee,,^stated/ ho v " i, 7 '''X"'''/'' ''"■ -^'/"""-''V'/ Las 

"1 the beneh, of Dr. Redpath's personal help I, Wt. , i, '" ' ^■'"y'^"^'''^'" '<"'l'^" I'as also 
accuraces sometimes appea,inK for the H ime afte, 7^^^^^ n^.spnn.s and other inaccuracies - 
occur ,„ a work of this kin.l. Corrections of elr Proofreading -are especially liable 

'" always be ^ratefullv .eceived °"- '"'""■^■'' "'"'"'«• addressed to tile publishers 

•re ;^- "/^^Xt MS^^^^ -• accents are dispensed ..H ; they 

;s in snu^rii;;etSs;':i::j!;:r^':::;i^;.^,:';;:t^^^ '" --'--d theVulgateread. 

(O The tirst Greek reading is -dven infuil \ll ^., ' 
tters suppressed at the beginnln.. o7 a vord 1 T. abbreviated as much as possible 

•i-l, •-' every case the abbreviated f< ,71 t. I'^T'^'f tV """'''• ''^""^ ^' ''- -^ b v a 

"ed,a.elprece<li,,g.whetherthati gi": infi^ornor'^fh ^'' ''^'^^r" '" ""•' ^-eek form 
"^, /M<Ta'i means •aflcAtmrrecu rt.x" " '^''"'- ''■•^'- ■«/«'^'^'"-T«^. «. . . . tt.u. 

'reviated form repeats a iSe^r^' net ^/Ire W r*;' ^'''^'^■' ^'^^' '^ '° -- ""^ 
-ettmes made. The das. Leti„^^-\^ ^^^ --^.;^_T«^e.e^.^ 




casfs like u^m. -s —and one Utter lias sometinu's l.ei-n simply siili>tiliited for another: <•.(,'.. y for 
ft ill €i/x. -I'. Tlirse exteptiiiiis can hardly Ic.kI to aniliiKwit\ . 

(</) The fdlldwiiii,' are the symlmlt most tivinuiitly (jiioted from Swvte's di;;eist «it!i their 
rnennin^ : — 

• = nri^JTUi MTillc. 

1 - Iiii own inrrfctioiis, 

».h. '■ =^ KiiuT tiirrrttor-i. 

><• firM corri'iior iDiitirrncil Ijv socond. 

•' •>' ^ .1 or li. 

»' t" - ti. [xTli.ips also a. 

■iviiii „ |ir,,|i. .1. 

• »"' i .1, il li lie a («.'/Ai />'./<• itirrtction al all. 

D li^Iiniixiy of llii' (iraln'-Owon collation of I) 

liitore I) was partly iKslroyiil (sic Switf, 
\ol. I p. x\iv). 

/>" =- ri-ailiiiKs liilrm-(l from thi' .ollalion <■ uUt/fi,:. 

W' = a corrtrior of K lifloiiKiMB to the 71I1 nnt. (Sw., 
vol. a p. viii; cp vol. 1 p. xxii. 

tf '' -■ lorriTtor of U' « or K • ; >.■>• S»„ vol. 3 p. viii. 

K''' lorrectorot K'.«orK*: sivS«..vol. i p. xxi. 

H>dn = 11 .,s in Wrtfllune and Cozzii's Liisiinjli- cd. 

(.) The followintj arc the .MSS inost cominonly cited : — 

F Cotl. .\nihrosi.inus (Sweio. vol. i p. xxvii. 

87 (.'od. Chi-i.inns (SwfH', vol. 3 p. xii). 

Syr. Coil, .ssyro-llrx.iplaris .\nil>rosi,inus (Swctr, vol. 3 

I>. .xiiil. 
\" Cod. Vi-ni'lus (= 23. Parsons; SHfio. vol. 3 p. xiy). 
Q t oil. M.irihaliantis (S«fte, vol. 3 p. vii). 
I" Cod. ri'scripiii.s Crvploft-rrali'nsis (ShcIc, vol 5 

p. i.v/). 

Sin.ciiiiiis (ip Sui'ii'. vol. I p. x\i. 
Ali'xandrinus (Shcii-. vol. i p. xxii). 
\'aticanus (Suvit-, \<>l, i p. x\ii). 
Cod. I'.phrai'ini Syri rcstriplus Parisiensis 

l.siwiii'. vol. 2 p. xiiil. 
Cod. Cotionianus (junesoos (Sut'tt-. vol. i p. 
K Cod. HodlcianiistiuneM'os (Stt,.vol. i p. xxvil. 

5. Proper Name Articlei. — Proper name articles usually heijin thus. The name is followed 
by a parenthesis giving (i) the original: (2) when necessary', the number of the section in tin 
general article Na.\ii:s where the name in (|uestion is discussed or cited: (3) a note on the etv- 
mology or meaning of the (personal) name with citation of similar names: (4) the readings of 
the versions (see above.4ii.). .See for an example Aak(in. The Hebrew -ben" Cb."). -son 
of; 'b'ne." 'sons of is often used, partly for i,re.ity and to avoid certain ambiguities (see 
above. 3 v.) and partly because of its indefinite meaning. 

6. Geographical Articles, — The interpretation of phace-nanies is discussed in the article 
N.v.MKS. The mai)s that are issued with N'olume I. are the di.strict of Damascus, the environs ol 
liabylon. and -Syria. Assyri.i. and lubyjonia' (between cols. 352 and 353). The last-mentioned 
is mainly designed to illustrate the non-l'alestinian geography of the Old Testament. It is made 
use of to show the position of places outside of J'alestine mentioned in Wilume I. which happen t. 
fall within its bounds. 

In all maps biblical names are .assigned to sites (mly when the article discussing the question j 
regards the identiliaition as extremely probable (the degree of |)robabilitv must be learned from the 
article). ' ' 

The following geograpidcal terms are used in the sens, indicated : — 

Di-f, Jfii\ ' tnonastcTV." 
If'V^J)- ' pilgrimagf 10 Mecci.' 
Jtiel {1.1,'moiinlain.' 
AVA, Kafr, ' villaj^f.' 
Khun, ' caravanserai.' 

A'iirM-( A'A.i.'Tuim of — .' 

j\',ihr IN.), ' river.' 

VW/, ' mound ' (often conuiininj; ruins). 

il'JJi (\V.), ■ valley,' 'torrent-course.' 

Il'i/i, t^Wy, ' Mohammedan saini,' ' saint's tomb.' 

7. Transliteration, etc. — Whilst the /■Snar/o/vptfm liiblka is meant for the student, other 
readers have constantly been kept in view. Hence the frequent translation of Hebrew and othei 
words, and the transliteration of words in Semitic langu.ages. In certain cases transliteration als,' 
saves space. No etfort has been made at uniformity for its own .sake. Intelligibility h.xs beer 
thought sufficient. When pronunciation is indicated — ,-.c., ISChemoth. — is mean 
IS that the resulting form is the nearest that we can come to the original as represented In th, 
traditional Hebrew, so long as we adhere to the English spelling. 

In the CLse of proper names that have become in some degree naturalised in an incorrect form 
th.-it form has been i.reserved : Shalmaneser. Tiglath-pileser. Where there is an alternativ , 
naturally the closer to the original is selected : therefore .\ebuch.adrezzar (with ;• as in Kzek.. etc I 
Nazirite. Where there is no naturalised form names are given in exact transliteration — ,'. Ill the case of .Assyrian names, hyjjhens are used to separate the component parN 
which begin with a capital when they .are divine names - e.^., I'uzur-.X.sur : but AAur-d.ln 

In the case of modern (.Arabic) place-names the spelling of the .author whose description h ,. 
been most used has generally been retained, except when it would have been misleading to thi 
student. The diacritical marks have been checked or added after verification in -^om^ Ara' ■ 
.source or list. 



poin.^i,i;r':;£J^,- |;-VU^M. « '^-O - ..... Egyptian. Kov,.T. , „, One distinct .sou„,l.,. The Hebrew sX" hnn""'- %-^'^^^>"= '' •''•"I '.'• "hid, are 
As the written K^ngnase. hoaeverJ« J.^s i ' n N 'I'Z T 'r"' ''''^'- ■"^''^'••'' ""• ''i^tinci-.n. 
transliterated with an h. „n the oUier hand „ . " , ■ ''--'"^'""•V"' '.'• The Assyrian „„t,ural 
always transliterated h (in ^tusLA „ /;'" .'^r: T'T' ^ ■'''''' ''• •''"'' '^ "-^f"- 
Assyrian: for the written lanKuaue d" ,^0 HU.'in V".,"'''' •,■ ^^'"'■' " "" '•' '» transliterated 
representing, then, all indiffertmt I whi ' "^:;:i; *■" T''" '' '"'" ""• ''^''"^ ''• • «• "■• 
mean simply H In,, indifferently K or n o^ h orT *" \, " "'"• '" '^^'"^'i'^'^ted Assyrian, 
interpretation of \alni-na-|d. 'Eirvotiin Iw.l,. . *"'' ■"*^''"' '•'•'•• •'**'''l"i-nalii(l is simply one 

foutth symbol h (see K..V.T. S ."i Ce^ ^' '"''''" ""' ""=> ''• '•" ='"'' '-'' '"«•• -^■•^l^'c- l^"' also a 

; _ 

" (A 

.M> A 






Akahi. . 


■ NHW. 





S l> 


T 1/ 






X s 

u« » 

S l)h (1.) 

n :h 







P ^0\) 

k , 












- r 

; 1' ' 

1 i\ 



K t 






C » 1 


1 ilh (d) 

n h 


• i y 

S k ' 





e sh, s . 
r I 
r th (I) 


1 W. V 


w, u 

1 1 






r-1 A^.,1.:.- f 


- - 

«i».'li.l: J. dh, ill ^jd.d; Je.l. 

' long ■ 
Heh. ,1 e i « ii 

Ar. fi 1 n 


a e i o u 

very short 
a S ii or « .■ o 

almost a glide 

Ar. diphthongs: ai, .iy, ei, ey, G : w. „„, 

•> ('•) i (1-) u ((>) 

a-h,.;;^ ^^^,^- s^iribnS by^:,::*;i;:i^:;:: ^:i?: r^^"^ ^'-^*"^^ °^ "- -"-^ - 

A. I.. Si! .-5 : c. ,>. ii§ 6-.0. When ihe shr~. v ^^ "''"^•'•''^- " '>'^^'^ l'"«^i''''--- at the end thus : 
•mtnor articles- eyon otherwise, o a temri b ^ ' n, d T' ^■"•"'"-- f •■"•-• -ajority of the 
t .e articles rest on the responsibUity \V1um „ T 1 " "^""^ *' ''''''^"'"^ amhorship and 
tbat .seems to need a signature, its :u,tho "s /niH.U 1 ■ V*" '■"''"^'^ ^^'"''^ "«"^^ a suKsestion 

signatures will be found on p. Vvyi ' '"'"''' ^'^ ^"^"^'"^^^ '° «'«^ '■vhole article. A kA to the 

H. W. H. 





The fcillii 

tcillowinR pages enpl.iin the ablireviaiicii.s that are u»ed in th.. «,.«. .„ i . • |.. xiv 3 i [„] ) „l the /•,/,„ /.A.,/,„. The list <l..e, .mTlim , fT , "'"'"' P""" ''" 

n.o.t „ar,. it take, „„ acc.unt ... uel|:(.,abli,h..l I ^l St ^ ^^ " h u'l " ""V""'; ''" "" 

obvtous. The l,i,.,io.,a,hical ,„„e i, i, hopeU. he «! lo^rrSl. ^ """"' '" "^ '-'"> 

I he tanoiiital an.l lj<j„ks of the lliljlc are Usiialli' r.-f rr i .. 

Nil.. Ol.. Josh.. Ju.lL'.. Kmh Sr i » k:<i \ ri r, i v ■ ^ relerred to as d-n,. Ex.. Uv., 

•All explanation ot some oC the svmhols ( \. K II cirS n.L „ „ ii 
(ireek .MS.S of the Ol.l or New, il I J , 'un ' l' T >' T'' ""'^■"""-' ^'•'"•'i" 

the l,rael<ete,l in.lex numerals -lenote t J edi, n ,1 „ ^ It n.ay he a.kle.l that 

I'fhnv). The „„l,rackete.l nmnerals above' the Ih^erele'r t , ^'^^'^''T"" ^'^ ' ■"^'■''"' "^^ 
below nn.ler D,, K.. J ,. !•, ' '""■ "■'■■' '^ '""t>"'tos ; (or those under the line see 

naM,e ,nay be abl.reviated thns : /J, / / ^ ; .v Jl"'! ■"'^,"''"' ','''''""• ^""' "•*■•' ""-" 

artieles can be re.erred to b, „.. mn^eid •s::.,^^'; ,, V ^^ p ™' ' "! 1 ''? ''">^" 
;;>^co,m,,,, am, paragraph or line. The e„, s .ill' L J:^.)^:::^::^^^ t":::S^, 1-. 


.■// . 

./-•/[to/]. ;•„/. . 
. tiihi: /our II. 0/ 


■V[./H.J /.[(Ills 

Am. Tai.. . 
.////. . 

Apocr. AnecJ. . 


Ar. . 



Ar. />«. . 
./'-. //,7,/., or 

Ass. . 
-■/jj. //;/'/>' 

•-^.t. «. Eur. 

Ahul«.ilM, the Jewish Rrsmmarian 

(h. ,/>-,,; y.^ij, authiir of /.'rt.^-,,/- 

Hoch, etc. ^ 

7/(,' .■/,,/,/,/«,..• ^ n\,kh K.vino 

'•I /-Itil.Ulir,; .S', „■«,,, ail,/ .Ir/. 

I.onilun, 'dy /^ 
See. /(>/•. 
All, I. Ill //,/vvw Jr,i,iinoit. Sec 


See Wiiukler. 

Ain,-,i,-.,i, J„i,rii„l of /'///7,./,.,'i- 

./w.-< i:,i»/„iirii,i/,./\<:,„,i,i, /„„. 
.i;n,i,s,i 1111,1,iliirfi (tiTitiim- 

1 lie I ell-il-.Viiiarn.i I.ittet.s; = A'A';) 
J'iseplius. Aii/i,/iiitif!. 
AIU,ri,;ii,ilische Joru/iioi^vii. See 

Afony/;;,, Aiu„lola, 1st an<l 2n.l 
series, puljjishe.l under tlie 
Keiiera! title 'iVvts and ."Studies' 
■f the Laiiibri.lj>c I'niversitv 
A(|uila, Jewish pruselvte (temp I 
revolt against iia.lrian), aiith.,r ' 
<if a (,ruek Iransl.iti,,,! of the (Jhl 
ltst.-iiin.nt. Svc lixi. 

Aramaic. S,x- .Vk.whi,-. 
••''.'/'""".'■"v'' '"• A,:/,:iolo^it. See 

licn/in^'er, X.iwack. 
IJ"Unlit>-, A>;ihi,i /\,,r/.i. 'SS. 
^''^''■■"■"'isi/ifii Ihi,lciitums. ' Sec 


Assyrischfs Jr,ni,hi,drUrhuch. .See 

W. M. Muller. Asi.„ „. z.,,,.,,^,, 

AT, .l7/,,/,e 
AT ill/.,,. 

I AV . 
f /<. 

i lia. . 

\ I'ab. . 

Ilae.l., or 
> liacd. /■„/. 
j Uaelhy., or 



liaraitha . 
13DU /,.r. 



Ke. . 


Ceil/.. //.V 

. n<>s '.l/le Tt,t,imcnl, AUltU„mci,t. 

Ii'lit. ( l|,| leMamcnt. 
• ^'lt'-^l»'ii,ntlHlie Cii/crsui/ium'n,. 

See Wincklcr. 
. Authorised Version. 

. /.,•«,//„,■ (son, s.,n«. Melireul. 
. liaerand Helit/sth's critical clition 

of the .\U.iorctic IVxt, Uipsic. 

fJi;, . Old folluwinu years. 
. Haliylonian. 

liaedeker. I'.iUslim (cd. Socin). 
'-. 'H: ;■'. 'yS (lien/inger) l,ased 
on 4tli (jernian nl. 
liaetliKen, A,//,V7,v zurs.mithc/un 

^ A t /l^'l,'IIS-l^',S, /ll, /l/,; 'SS. 

. C. I'. 'I'ieic, /i,i/iy/i'iiis,/i,;ir<yris,/ie 

(/«f /J„ ///,•, pt. i.'SO; |„.ii., 'SX. 

Barth, /;/,■ .\rii„i,„//„/,/„„^, ,„ ,/,.„ 
unii/iu/uii .Sfnic/iiii, i., 'jiy. ii 
•91; '»' ',^4. 

See Law Ijikkati rk. 

[lirown Driver. liriRKs. /,,..,„„»] 
A //,-/,r,-w ,111,1 l:ii,;lisli /v.\i,oit 
of III,- OU r,.l„m,„t, hasci ,.n 
the Lexicon of (ie.senius. by K 
llruwn. with tlie co-operation of 
S K. Dnver and C. A. Urines, 
Oxford, '92. an,l follow in„vc^rs. 

t. Ilertlu-au (iSi2-,S8). 1,, AV///,- 
ht.h/.r I,. Hutli, 'ar . ii'i 'S;. 

... , ' -^-t' • /.>, /'.SI ,1, 

A,li,-ii!i„ I,, /-s/fr, '62; i-'i liv 
Kysscl. 'S;. ' ■ 

finlrii.^'.; especially liaeth.'cn (as 

£"lray zi,r Asn-ri,.l,..i,. „. ,,„,i. 

lis, lien Spi;i,l,-.,.iss,iiuli,i/l; cd 

Fried. I)elitzschan,l|'aulir,a„,,t. 

<•• 90; ii..V)4: iiL.'oS; iv, ,.■.;„, 
i- Henzinuer, J/el.rais,l,e ,li;/,;i. 

o/ogu, '94. 



(■// . 



"'""'rr' r-"""' -° >«B"oo«.™.e.. Ko^s 

Berllii.lcf, Slil. .\. 


X/h . ,.,. 

Iktllic.lil, /^,,. .s/. 


/■'■■■"I.hll, 'l/,. 


''«'V ./,; 

A. .V/((J/'. 


« ;« 





'"■"'''"'■' ">'■ //./',//.,-;,,, 
iii.inui.ihk, 'I'll f, ■ y \ '.. 

<•""""" I'/' "i./n,'. //, '•,««'.' 
/''. ///w/z^vw ,/,/ //, /v ,»,■.. '\sj 7 

A »•///.,/„■ /;,„,/,, /«„V ,^, : 

/■'•,<7.. Vl. 

■ /ii/:,. ■//,,,„ s.,. ,:,,•,, ^ 

.Vl..nk>l. A././. /,,„;.„, 'k.I 
"■"t.rl,u.|, ..„„ ||„„,^,,|„,„,,, 

Khcik-r, ; v,,l,., ■i,,;.'., 
>. Ii..cli.irt ii^,,,,.,,^,.;:'' 

(ji\' „/<!„„ s.,.r.,, ,f^, 

"'":;:■""•"' 'I- '/•. 1,1,,,,.,/,. 

/'Ill \r,/>r,„:r S„. ,„; ,(„,, 
•*"«. (•■-ixkh. (■,,/„, /i,s,r.,,,\ 
4 vcih., 'j.V-';7. ■' 

''■■f,^;,'''^'""" •"'■'' '(''•/«//„/ />,,,,/, 

iTR-'lr,.!,, .7«,/,V/„./„ ,!, , 
'•'"■'■""I .//•//■/.,,«„/„.« 
• ■>(■, 'Ot)-'(,S, 

/■/. /w/ 

A;///,,,//,, „ 

/^'.' /',/•/, s,/„- l; 

•-III). 'S;. 
f>i< iiii,/i,r A' I, I,/, 

/>.'. /.'«,/, //Wm„ //A-, V, •'*"■''' 
A„..,,„,.,/^rari,l //,.//,/,,,/ i ' 
^ct- /■„/, 

"" " / '"'■'■"<«'//, ■/■„;„!„.,i'. 

"i"i ft A„„/.,„„„,„, ,,,, ,„|- , 
Kf|,nnt will, a,l,|lti,,„, |,v |;' 

A.//.//i 1,1 


'■""■"'■ ''"> /.//, ,1/,,/" / 


.s/it>/- ,|. 


I '■■»«. I, 

/ :.■. /■. 

liililf ' ( '.S,«i 

'"■> Ml 'Ml-n ,.f thr 

!</ . 
UL . 


ILackh , 
IK.ttth. . 

/•■A' . 
Ilu. . 







•"'IS. ':>,. 

'•"'■■',,,. Six- l<ol,i„„ 


"'/7 S.r„lii,!, 



' in AV/c', 'yS. 




0< H. 


A''-''/''/. A. ! 
AV. . 

Aiii's . 
/«/'•. /s. 

I lit I . 

Ca/yr AVr,A/,.„A.„, y/,,,./,,^,,, 
;-/'rs //,„i./:,;!, /,;■/.„,/. ^.,1 S, 
Aclkr. '89- '.(j, ' • ' 

'.'«/,■„ Afi,.„cm. See J„se|,|i„s 


''tr'"'''"" :'"■"'"' "/■''•'■'"■^", 
iv („.„rKe S„„ti,. A nc«- 

■.Ml. h„r„uj;l,lyrcv,W.lan,lcor. 
rxtc, l.vA. ll.Saycc.VSo. 
'• K. I lityiif: 

///,■/■/■,.//,,,,,,,„/■/<,;„,,',, 2 vols 

( .V>-,Sr; rL'\i„-.|. ..•■', ■,S()) ' 

y.V. „„.l S..,\„n. „, ,,r /,!,.' ;/ ■/,,/„„, 

A/,. A,.,,/. ,y /w„„^ ,7.;^^,_ 
"itli lomiii. (\S.S;; i;i ,.• 
"Titt.-n (fnr||,;„„,in.). ' 

A-i.' t>A/c'" .'«./ A',y,,i,.„,. r,.„. 

I fclurcs,' 'Sy), 'y, ' 

■hJs to thf Devoiii Stii./y of 

<.'■,/,< I fin. 'ci2. 
J''<',i,i,i,-i< „/' OU 

Cntitiiiii. '(j,_ 
l„tro,!,„,i„n ,,: i;„ is^^f. 
Jiiii'th ('95). 

I >av. 


'If C. Orif:. 

J'>f Gtnt. 




• '-"'/""/"■'•////,.««,„/„/,„,„„., 

■•'I.... -..(.a,,,! |.,ll„«i„^, V..,,,' 
M>—. «u|, ,u|,,,|,.„„.,„,- 
• '."/'» I,,',, If „..„,„„ s„,„i,.„. 

"""•''YV'^'//' l'<.i..l'h..„i. 
V-i'ion.l l,„n> i,„.ri,„i, 

"■• Vramaii iiiv ripi.^.n*- 
S. ih,,,M,|„,,„ 
• /", (.''..;,„//•,.• ,,..,,_ 'i^. 

A'.iv/,//,/'./,., ,y,, 

A/, A,,,/, y, 
A ••■(1,1,1, ',si,. 

III,/.,!,,,,.; ,„ ,/„ ,^/_, ^ 
"'.■,//.■.„; ,■„_.„„ 

"";■■"■'!"■■■ I'.' f/.:n.,.,,i 

Y'/ /.',.,„,„„, .s,e.>|,ra.i.,. 

SaliiiuM.IJ, \)\ (T. ^ 

. Auth.,r..fl)int,rnn,„„v 

"' l'fut.M-.,n.„„„i„ |.,.™,, 
• I-»«"I>tut.r..„,„i,isti.c,|i,„r,,. si. 

M'-I'IRKM. l.llhKAlMU. 
ll;,A-,-.„./, ,„ ^;„ 

/.'/«/«,/. „;„/ .I/;,/;,,,,/' 

I'll I., '1)7. 

• A. li. 

^"'Y;'f''y. i-i"<,:,/./,y,,„,/ v„/ 

.^-1 -I- "f Vul, i.. i„ tfylnl 

"" ''"''' ''''iiKK -.■It/, ,A /„/;. 

•"•'":"".< t/,, /u/,/i,„/ //,,,;;,„:• 

v';i- ;■.. 'yS; u.i. ii., •„„. ■^^• 

Alph. .le Ca„,iullc. ,^,.„r,„. ,/,, 
/J.iiit.-s CM;/,,. •,><,. \„ '''^ 

ti in (he /«/,.„„/,„„„/ ^v,,; ; 

////(■ .Stiies. 

01 InnnV,*,. ,.„»,_; 

-ftheOlVc"" • '"""""^■'» 
"-"-■'liMf,'. authnr of: ^ 

'i';'^','/,''"' ''•"■•"'•"■' csn. 





Du. . 


IM ill. h^hl ,f.t<'\ii<iH AV 

.11.11,1 II ::, I, , /.«, :„ ;/,,„ . / /, 

.I.\iri„,'i,< lliiH.h^, 

I'lIM /y. />,„*. I). II. \m!i..,, f:,f.if.r.,i,i„,j,^ /,,„^. 
«/,»/,/• .,«, .Ir.i/i.H, Si). 
/'/.■ t'rof^irttH 1. 1 I'll.,, Mi.l'itiii^luh.n /■.■mi. 
/»;. liiuii./^.u/u ./.r HI, .mi- 
ll...',. II /:.,,, 2 Me., 'in,. 

in /.'l/// (,>;/,,,,, ),.| i-.|. i.f 
Kii.'Ik'I, •7<i *'. 'M J ; '"". ''o ( K r 
hy .Mtvcii«.in, '.i; ) ; /..i, ,/«, «« / 
It: HUH, 2r\.\ f,|. ,,f Kll..licl, 
'.V); jr.l , I. I„ KvMcl. \)T. 
.Kiimh. /),„i., /,„//, in.l i.l, ..f 
Kii.lH'l.'St,; l\.ii.i:,. '■•, 'i)Oj(ci|,|, 

l-t liv„|; 41I, i.,|. Iiv l)ii-. 

•Ivl; i.lh ,■.! I,v Kitti-I. VS). 
';. >i.i. Ai.i, k\iin. j ),. ,. 
.s«///w,«/ „«.r />i,li,.Hii,ihfi 

-iLilu,, ■;,,/, 
I >rinr, >. K. : 

W Tii.iliw KH Me ^•,. ,//y,,. 
/<«jr-j III llthr, :. . '71; ur 
'«i: '".•.(2. 

i\'l'/. t ,.« Ik, //,■/.,■ f-,. /f.,/ ,y 

Mr' //,,<•, ,1/ .>,llll,if/, ',fO. 
All /llli::/„./,.,„ I,, l/if ///„,,. 
/«'■'■ .■//<.' OU l/ililin.iil, 
„'".•'.!, "".•,;7. 
/■.;'■.///, / r>.i!l,i; 'yS. 
0,lltr,.ii,.„iy in //,, /«/.»•- 
ii.ili.ii.i/ Ciilittil C,.,iiii,,,i. 

I'll-V. '•)>. 

ill till' C.imhn.l,;,. fi,/,l,, ',,., 
.SAC." (l;ii«.). I.: 111,1,., a». 
.,, , . , "'•'^•'l !'>■ II. .\. W hill. '.(S. 

U«lir»i» Authority' in. //,///,^r//i ,;;,,/,(,,/,„ „/,.^.,., 

.S,UI,./ ,1,1,/ /■/,./„;,,., e.j. 

l>avi,|(i. lloj;art)i, l...n<liin, 

■"• • • '•"••''. //l> ni,„,i.i Tim, <,m 

• Mci, ufthc l!il,lf.'<i". '.ij. 
I)rusui» (H50-16101 in (///),, 

.S'</, »•. . 
Bcrnhar.l lluhm ; 

Di, I,.f^,,. ,i,.r Pi„f./,,f,„ 
iii'i liniihtl.i/^ifnr.i,,. iiiii,,,- 

J.llh,l, i/llll,;.',;,;,, i„, l,\ ,/,.,. 
isni.llll.,/,,-!! A',/l^ 1,1,1. '75. 

/).!< Hu.h Jiu„„ in UK, 'oz. 
Ihf I'i.itiii,-,, (iklari, in h'UC, 
OH llehrcw histurical ilex iinunt. 
Later .iiMiti,,ns to K. Sec III-,- 

IiiKICM l.iiKkAl'kK. 
''','' ''{'V;"'^'' •'''■"'"""V.', yth c(|., 

Jut, ...I. Ps. 

J.ifl ,111,/ Im,, 

It:, .s/iur 



JCii,.'. //i,i. f,\: 

F.ltt'.,!'. . 

/// . 


til. 'II. 

Ill III,, A,, //)/,(,/,, .,, 
i'i.,/iar,il,„ I I ,iH^li,j^ 

I iiri'HI,,.,,. 


Pi, litir 



''V. AM/ (Jcnry» , •.!7-\.S). ./,^,,.^/,.„ „, 
•II. Hli,/l,r .!/,«, 'j. i,, 'OS. 
. Ei I, I,, 1 11,1,; (IntroJuctiun). See 
( urnill, cti-. 
riu- l:,i.^l,sli ll,it„yi,„i /V:;,ti. 

Dii /■.iiM./,i,„. a.s Jii.hnthums, 
, See l;.|. Meyer. 
I-'nglish translaticin. 

Kuseliius . '" Cisarea ;2n(l half <.. 


Oii„ni.iiti,„„ ; ' ( )„ (iij. \nn,cs 

"f I'laces in I Inly Scripture.' 


/.•/j"j), llim,- 
I aii.l/; . 


KieM, //f.i. 

I /■['■.] //<7. 
M. nn.I Ilatil*. 

i'i..ik'i. '-■./ 

h.'iiiiil,i-i . 
Kr. . 

F.a. . 



« . . 

('■./' . 


G.I.Sm. . 

Cel. l-i>.hi-. 

( .e9. 

Oiiom. ur (?5 





. KnKli,h vrriiun (whrrc lulliuriMil 

aii'l i.n»,-.| (Kri-vl. 
. Ilciiiruh K»>.i|,| (i>ioj-T5, : 

I, hi I'M, I, ,/,, " l,/.,Hi,.li,H 

.yi,i.',,. '44; "<, ■.„ 
'■'' i,-vii , 'm-'iKS ; nc ,s, ; 

v.iU. (|ire.( hriitian iwrl.).!), 
J'lr />,. 1,1,,- J,s . ,i„„ /^„„,,;., 

' ''. 'Ml /. 
I'll' l'r,'fli,lrH,'iio 1.: 'i> •(,- 
/.: Kr>/. 
. A.t/,. .,/,„. jih Mr., •.),/. 
•Jj l:.\r. 11,11 y />/„,.,, '.Sipiw /f. 
. f.ill..«inK lur.e, or MrH«. eit.i. 
. I.iiiii.i .in.l n„„ „/ /.„/,.„„, 

''ee Irialram. 
. h . I i.i I, Vi ,,;,„,< //r.r„//,.,«,, ,^„,, 
sii/'. I •.1,111 UU I ,1,1 l„„ l„l,,f., ,.. 
iHiii i',i„,..i „ni in i,.i„,„ i;,„, 

1 ,1.1111, lll„l,l li ,!,;,„,, II,, ('7^}, 

. Ji.i.,111,1,1,, /li,i,.ii,.,,„„ ,,,,>,,',. 

'«w. eil. Mull.r. 5 Nul.», '4|.'7j 

^. A. ima.K.r BiiJ I). Ilanl.urv. 

/ 'l.iriil,l.,.,;l;if./l,,,, 

. M"n;l, i;,i,iii,l,i,- ,,;, ,,,1,11,,,/,, „ 

.ill.rlHiii, III I'lil;!!, 11, Si. 
. /.III,./,,. ,1/ (>,;,■ /,,/,„«,„/ ,,.,„. 

I Kill. See<lie\lie. 
. "■ !• Irit/Hctie i I.Sij-yi,), t„n,. 

iiienlarie. on hook* of tlie Alio- 

irv|ili,i In A/a;. 
i SiK <uin.| lr.inLrl. Di,- „,„,„;),. 

s.-i.ii l-iim,lw,Ul,r III, .1,;,/.,. 

Sill,-,,, 'Si). 
\V. Irankenhern, /Ht .S// «, /,, jn 

J. li- Ira/er : 

r..l,iil,.nt ('S7). 

f/.'/7,/; /,',)«-// ( '.x)); i:'i in prep. 

J'llHi„lll,ls's />,.^,,l/.li,ii, „, 

ih;,;f (translalion an.l 
notes, fi voU., 'yS). 
J. Mar^iuart, I i,n,l.i„i,i,i, i;.r,,,liii. 

^.h,r 11. iii.lii,/,,,- lUuhi.lil,., -yi,. 
(Jreek Version, see al.ove, p xv / 

an,l 1 1x1 ,\M. ViksfoN,. 
C„u III. Ill, ,/. . lll,r,i,„„„ 

.Meyer, ll,,i>;li. 
Cy.ln.liU :i,;y/.l,i,. (wk Mevcr). 
(.'fs.ll. Ji,ll.y/,i„,r,i, „. ../,,!,,,,„ 

(see Wimklcr, lloniniel). 
';eor>;c Ailani Smith. See Smith. 
Keuss, i;,-s,li,.l,i, ,/es .///,.„ /^,/j. 

nuilli, 'Si ; '-', '.,0. 
.\. ti-iner, Ci<,li,iii „„,/ I ;/.,.,: 

s,r „„,.',„ ,/, ,■ /,■,/,./ ,„ ,/„.,,. i/., 

Iii'iii.,i^lifii 7,111 ,,;■,■ III,,,,,.,, Em- 

■,il,/.-/l,ii,; ,/, lli,i,„ll,„i,is, 'j-. 

i . il. W. liesenius , l7,So-iS4j : 
Tli,s,„„„s riiih'h:.;,.,,. I nil. 
■ i'> I in.;, l/fh: ,1 OiuLL 
I i/:>is 'J',ii,imcnli, ' 55-'42. 
lli"i a, :.,!,,■ {Sriiiiliii.iiik, 'ij; 
'-'", hy K. Kaut/seh, '()6 ■ 
Kl' 'yS. 
Ilfl'ilin.h,! u. eh„l,l:,i..l,.i 
//,iii,/i,.;i,/,-r/ii,,/,, 'ij ; .10 
'Miihb.u u. \'o!ck\ '.m- '-ii 
iliuhl. with .S,,cin'ainl /iin- 
mcrni,-y5; "■D Hiuhl ). '00 
Oesenm-I'.uhk See aliove (ics 



'ir, . 

lira. . 






//li . 

II, Inf. 



lif . 



'•t. . 

Gts. '/. 

n. . 

<ir. Vcn. . 


It.i ut It.' 

■ Ir.i. 

J///. . 



ILirpcr, .1/1 A 




\\,T,„g, A'lC 
1 1,1 II,, n. I 


"I, . 

;i:'i„K . 


'Ik/. I'roM. 


Ufulii.hir (||i,|,,rvi. 

MII„,^„J,, (,./,/„/,. X.ul„,J„.H. 

45/. ' 

>.fui„i/, /„„,/,, stt \Vinckl«. 

^•"»^<»iu. .11,1. wr,/„,..,rl/,.., / /■./,. 
Illl ,1 III, ll,.,r,-,M hlH,, 'm, /,,. 
ffi<'lH,lli,tl, \fj, 

'"'"*'■''''• ■'" /MiuktH r.,/i„ 

>vt N hlinr. 
I <luar<l <.UM-r : 

■''*>■- •'"■ (!■'■>>■ H. <7,,'j:r. 

■ h.lhu-ii., '(jt), I 

K. t.rjriini (i.V,;-,„ ,, .]/,,„„/.„, j 

■ It'iiirich drat/ : . ^■ 

:uiJ,ui,i III 


liumiiiel , 

',11. 1 

II , . II. ,-. 
ill' . 



'K . 

'•"•'•i.iit, ,/,,/„./,„, i.-».,',. 
/.; KTUv.. •.„-■.,,. " 

• l^iiiiMli.r l,im»itHI,ir zM ,ltn 

l's,l/lll,H, 'Si/, 

. Ver!«i.i V.-tifta. Src TtXr 

• ('V. -i. ./,. I'M., Is,;,,}. Sec 

KwaM, sia,|,-, uc. 

• '•"''•• lauuf llolin.M' (Lev, i-. 

21'!. >ff I.I Mill IS. 
//.■'.//.////,,,;,>, /,v/<.. Secllcii. 
/iiiK-r, N.mack. 
■ .(.«.|.;i llaUvv. Ihi- in^criptiuni 
"'/'■'/A'-/ '"'•««,■. I/;,. /..;.■ /,-. 
' ^1, •'/■X',/Hr .l.iHs /■ y,„,f„ Cj 
arecii.,!: Ilal. ;)?. »tc. 

.m:i,,„^,., ,/'i/,,^,i.,f.!,i,. ,y 


Ilanil.iir^.r. /V.;/,«, i. /,./,//,,• /;,> 

liil.l iiml T.i! 1,1 11,1, i. '--o, '-I 'iji- 

. K.f.|nr. ./, i/,„„ ,„„///,,^,|.. 
/,.«/,/„ /„/„., /,./„„^,,;;v /„ //„ 
Al Kuvuiijil, 1 ,..//,■,/,,,„ ,y' ^/,, 
III Hull .Mhs.iiiii, iij y: 

/l,lll,l-(\,„l,„,l,/,,,. .„„, .Wtt, ;; 

I "l« 'II' III, l.tarl.cilit v.>n II. f 

ll..|t/iiiann, K, .\. I.i|>,iu., p \v 

Schinickl. II. V. S,„k-n, 'S.i-',,|' 

liPl.ri'H. ' 

. (.'■Jiiliiuicl as //.sy I,/;.). 

. Kr^l',ir,il>ihh,ii ll;i.Uiii„i',i^. See 

. K. .«!.«. //,/ //,,„,/ :,,„ is,;,fl in 
transl /;„, U'u-.l.riiasleihoi^: 
lsi;i,/.<, i)z, ' 

. Sue /•/,/.. 
. Sec llfi ,/. 

. //f.i .;/,/«, V ( ste Km n^n, lldzinc-r 
Sec I-il|,|. 
Il!it,»i,iil Ge<\',;,f/n. ,.f ,/i^. I'^^iy 

1 ,111.1. See Siiiiih', (i. .\ 
>>ce ll.icii.irt. 

A. IlilKct.fc-M. NT sclmUr (l-.n,!., 
ctc.),anilccl. since 'vS,,f /;;•/' 
SceNchurc, i:„al,l, kittel. etc. 
J. !•. Mm uply, //„/,,,•,, /■;,/,>,,.,., 
•Illl In,- .\l,<i,u,iu-iUs.- i. To the 
l>oHiitall ,.r Samaria (^,)^^■ i| 
lothc Kail uf Mruvch iN/,). 
y. IIit/iK (l.So;-75 ), in Kiill: I'r,-. 
,n',r ,'47,, /A,«./-,,/ ;•,;), /,„ ^ 
XV,;;;,,/ ,";•,.//;.•/,„ (-jij: ii', -65) , 

/'"■""'"('41; '-'.'(if.). ,\i,„/;,; i 
,/'"""" ('35->: '•■". V,3-'65). 
lloii'Ikoiiiiii.iUar '.urn .UUi, 7;.j/,,. 

»/<■«/, eil. N'owack, 'yj ^. | 

IJU . 

/';A. a. 

It. . 
i It. .IhUii. 

i ; 

yL''""'] ./fw 
"I ■■) .VI. v.; 

Ja»tri.rt, 1)1,1, 

A"Urn.\ .-Is. 


I jnr 

JK . . 
I Jensen, Komi. 



K. IT 




. II. l|..|/iMKir. I,,,;., I,,,,,. ,„ ,,, „, .■•fj,, Orw.j/, III the 
A //( e '.^N I , 

. tfiU lloiniiKl: 

/';, 'illi',.i.lllit,li,l\l.,.,l,.i,,. 

<*»< II. . I Hi I fill II,,.,;;,. 
I lH.lllhll, ',,y, 

Culii.kl. lUhi.'Mi.m „. ./,. 

Ml, II,, 'HIH. 

j.iKiiif.H,!, //,„„ d„„„., , ,„x. 

Il..liiie. aii.l I'arfcMi., /,/«, /„,„. 
iiUMliim I, i„, 111,1 ,„,„ ;,,,,,, 
i,>ll,'lll'll., I7.1.V ISj;. 

t<. II. (.ray, .v,,,/,, , ,„ //,/„.,,., 

/V .'I*, I- .\,i„i, ,, \jt,, 
llenr) I'reterve.l Smith. 
,i/,,,„il,,„„l ii,i„„UoiniH.iii,i,r 
■ l>i,ll,ill,^,..S,/„i„. See K..llt/v li. 

. Klchlll,//,,;;,^.,,),./, ,./,„,/, ,/^^ ^^,j^^ 
"'l.H .lll,ll/ll,„l., 1 v.,|«, '.^4 

'''• 'JS-'M- .V-e al... 

. Ii,i,I,IihIu M.jli,l'lS,/l, (J,S,klJlU, 

See Wrllhauacn, 
. Intr...luclii.ii. 
. Iiili,',iii,i,,.» to h„„il,. Sec 

< lie) lie. 
. Ilill.l. See IhXI AM. VtKM..Ns. 
• 'l»ter,tnHm .Uii,.,i,„,, | ,„,,., 

.rirlian, '45. 

. OM Il.l.rew .l..ciiiiuiil 
. I..U.r a.Miti,..., I,, (. 
J J It'll il ,'1 II,, tm,-,i,,„i a,,,;,,.,/ 


.M. .Ia»lr..«. />l, II,. Il,i,y ,,;,,',,. /;,,,. 
.;li,iil„i.ll„. I,,/,,,,,./ Isil.ti^ ,y, 
.iiiil .Mi,li;iilii,ii, "Sf, If. ' 

• /'"'"■;'' /</.'/■/./«,■, '5.5 /:; 7,h 

«'r.. r,i;,^th*er,',Si;,,thser..'.)i. 
. J,' „, liiHi. .,/ III,-,. Hi,,;. ,„;,/ 
l:.u\;-,,s, •,,0 ,;;. f,,,,,,,.^!,. , .jj,_ 
S.'' „ of I'l,- .S,„ 
• 'I HiHi,,! i,.„ii,ll,y,,., 
J'l,r,'\;„, ,,;.,. ,,,,,,^ U-is,,i,„l,.,,i 

I 4'i-'ti5). 
J.i,'i,-l-ii,>i,-rjr„- ,/,„/„ I,, Hirol,,;,- 

'.'"-'"■' ■ 
I he • l'r..phetical ' narrative ..f the 
llc\atcuch,c..m|i,„e.l.,f [aii.l K 
r. Jensen, /),,■ AV.«/,./,.;.„. ,/,■,• 

n,il'yl,.iii,.v, '{^, 
Jer, 111.., ,,r leniiiiah. 
.[..natiian. '.>ce I'arKum 
M.uius[„»c|.husil,,.-.4.|o, ./„//. 
'/""'"■•■• yii.'ii..r, De H,ll„ 
/""',.: \-il„, c'lii,-,, .If,,,.,,,-,,, 
le.l. .Nicse, .{ v.,U., ■,S--\,,>. 
/7„,,„/„/7v„/„/„.,,j. (V..S. lan.l 
J. (.S;.i,.,\,„. ■an,l4,'„„i.eic. 
J"'"l'i"ii,i-li,rF.,;.u,i„„i,,,!,, , ,i^.^„ 

'".'',. '7S-''>2. 
Jeii-is,, {,)i,,,,-i„.ly l;,--i,-.,,, 'S.S-'S., /;: 
Jeiirmi! ,./■ A',.,.,,/ .-/,■,„,„. .V,,, ,,./,; 

Cvnls. 1-20. '.H ^;: new series. 1-24, -Cs-V^i; current series. 


Die Kfilinschi-i/iin u.,1. Uu Tesia. 

"i,-iit. See .Vhrailer. 
t. Kaut/.sch : 

<'>',• • Hi ,/,.j. Hlbhi,!,,;,. 

.1' ,i„,u/irii, ^84. 
Die lu-ili/;.- .S,/,ri/f ,/,s .Uten 
T,'l„iii;nis, '34, 




Kc. . 


KG . 



Ki. . 




Kl. /'roj-':. 
Klo[st]. , 

GVI . 

Kn[olj]. . 

Ku. . 

Kr. . 

Kt. . 


/)u .lf:'kr\fluii 11. /•s,liii,/'i- 
Xiiip/ii'ii ,/« allien /isla- 
iiiiiits, 'oS /; 
KeiihiSL hi- 1 tilit //, ■ /<//,/,, ,//;, k, 

S.imniliDi^i ,)i .m.u.hah. J ,M,ii 
III t'linJni/l II. I ,hrs,t:iiiii;, ^ 
Vols. ( I. J. J ,1, I: 4, 3), ■Sit-'ijb. 
Edited liv ScliradiT. in cillalmra- 
ticm witli I,. Alifl. f. licvuM, 
V. Jcnsin. K K. I'tiser, and 
II. Uincklcr. 
K. I'. Keil (d. 'S.S). 
li. Kcniiic.itt (I7IS-S3'), /V/;/. 
'J'rsliiiii, iitiini /Iclrauiim lUiii 
-■,11115 lectiiHiii us, 2 v.ils., 177(>- 
Keiliiiuhrijuii u. (J,:ilii,/il!prsi/i- 

iiii:,: Sec Sclirader. 
Kiii:i,v/ii.<.'h-s ,:\,-i.',tis(/i,'s Haiul- 
i'Uili. .See l)i., Ililz.. Knul).,( )1. 
Aiii-...rf,isi/,r A'omm, 111,11- :« ,f,„ 
li.ilif^tiiSoiri/hii .111,11 14. \,ii,i, 
'l,sl,ini,iits u'wic III ,iiii .//,). 
krypluii. 1(1. H. Strack and 
< ). /.ickler, 'S;/; 
Aiiritr //ciii(f-,,'iuniciif,ir ~um 
.l/Uii T,s/,i,iu,it, t'd. -Marti, 'u?//. 
Rudolf Kittd: -^ 

GciihiihU- ,1,1- ]/, hi „,-i: 2 vols., 
'SS. '92; Kng. tr.insl., //is. 
l,'iy of tiic y/,/v, .-,.j, 'yj- 
Th,- Bivk o/( ViivincAs, Critical 
JiditiiMi (if the IklircH tcM, 
'95 (translated by llacon), 
R. David KiTuHi, (v/,(/ 12(X) .A.n., 
the fani..iis jcuisli scholar and' 
le.\icoj;ra|iher. In- «hosc e.\eycsis 
the .\\ is mainly r;uided. 
A'iii.'/ii/, ,111,/ .]/,irn,,!;,- ,,/ /:,ul\ 

Ar,iln,i. .See \V. K. Smith. 
A'Seiiu- l'iyph,l,ii\ .Minor rr.^]ihets). 

See Wcllliausen, Nowack. etc. 
A"K- Kl..stermann, I in ISiiihcr 
S,imii, lis 1111,1,1,1- A'vniiV ( 'S7 ) in 
KGK. -^ y 1^ 

Ges,/ii,,'i/,- ,/,-s Il.'k,-s /sni,-/ /■!, 
:iir /u-s/,llir,i/i,'„ ,iiU, r /■;ir,i 

lliul .\,-ll, 1111,1, '(|li. 

Aug. Kn,.i)il { 1X07-1.3; in KG//: 
/■..xo,liis nil,/ r.c-.-iiicis, ' :'i |,v Oil), 
niann, '.So; />,- /V,f/u/ y,s,ii,i, 
'4,?. '■'■', '61. .See Dillinann. 

F. V-. Ki'.niq, /lisl..i-is,li-Ki-ilis,l,,s 
/-,kr.;,-/;iii,i\- ,/cr //,!.,-;> 1 1, /i,n 
.Sfni./,,-. J vols., '.Si- 97. 

.All};. Kolilcr. 

Kre 'lit. • lo he read " !, a marginal 
rea.Jinf^ uliich the .Mn,sorelcs 
intended to supiiliMt in the 

_ te.\t Kc'tliih): see helow. 

Kcthilj (lit. 'written'), a reading 

in the .Ml'; see al.ovi;. 
Ahr. Knenen ( i,S2,S-(ji) .. 

//i 'A '■i>,/i-,i-i/is, /, 0,i,/,,-:„,-k 

11,1,11- ll,t OlllSl,l,lll ,11 ,/f 

vri-:,im,/i,is; r,iii ,/,■ /l„,kcii 
'/, 1 (hi./, II \',rh„ii,/i, jvols., 
'(,l-'i.5; ,i'i,',S;-'S((; (i.-rm. 
transl., l/nl, •i-is,-/i-l;niis,-/if 
Eiii!,-iluii^ in ,/,,. /iii,/,,,r 
i/ii .til, II /',s/,ini,-iits, 'fi-j- 
'92: vol, i., y /I ■//,:,, i/,-ii,',, 
translated l.y I'liilin Wjck- 
stced, 'SO. 

/\- /',„/, 

Gcs. AMi. 




Sy,-. . 

G.s. AMi. 
or /i.V 



Arm. .S/. 
Or. . 

/ [(/«(/] />' 


Levy, XI/W'B 

Ohi/,/. /,:\-. 

/x/irg,-/.. . 
Leps. /),iikm. . 


Lips. 1/ . 

L(i\v . , 



■Marij. /hi,,/. 


Grin:'. , 

Gt-Silllrlite ,/, 


/>i (:„.l>,ii,ii.i r,iii /si-,1,/, \k)- 
Kng. transl., j vols., ■7J-'7;, 
<•« ,/(■;■ /•i-,./,-ri,- oli,/,r Js'r,l,■l''^c■ 

G,;,imin. I/,-. l/,/i,i,i,/!nn-, 11 zur 
tnl'l. U'iss,iis,l„iji, (.trman 
Ijy Jluddt, '94. 

. de Lagarde, /.il<r„riim ]'eleiis 
7,fl,iiii,-iiti Cnu'iiuorum, I'ars 
/'ri,,r Gr,c,,-, ',S j. 
. Taulde L.agarde (''27-'9i) : 

J/'i.k'i".^';,^/,,, (■//,//,/,;/,■,•, '7j. 
/.ihi i;-rrris / ,sl,i,ii,iiti Aj",- 

,ry/<hi .Syri.i,,; 'oi. 
G,„imm,-li,-. tlli,,n:/liiii^,i,:, 6. 
Mill,ilnn.;,ii, i.-iv., '84-89. 
Syiiiiiii,t,i, jj., 'So. 
/'r,,:,rl,i,ii, 'li j. 
L'ci-tr>iJ,i a/,,,- ,//,, ,„, ./,.^,_ 
iiiUis,k,-ii, .h-,i/<is,/ifii. 1,11,1 
//cl-rliist/u-ii i,l,ii,h,- /li/,/i,iif 
,/er .\'i'iiiin,i, 'S(). 
B.i/rli.,',- :. t;iktri.i,/,en /..-xiko- 

\'r,l,''/li,-, 'OS. 

/'/.'///, /.,• ( -/ui/./.ii.-e, '-2. 
Stiiiiii,,,. '-,s /; 
.Iriiieiii.,,/,,- .Slui/icn. 
■ p ^.''■'■"'"'I'l, i , '79 ; ii., 'So. 
• t. W. Lane, An Ar,il,i,-.Eiislisli 

/ ,:\uon, 'Uiff. 
. W. .M. Th(mison, //,,• l,ni,/ a„J 

I'lc /ioiik, "59; new ed. '(^4. 
. /.,il,r /UNi,,il Kise.irckcs. See 
J. l.ev\, .\',nli,-l,rais,kcs n. i/i,,/. 
,iais,-'i,s II Ih-/, rhiuh, ■yb-'Si,. 
Cli,>l,iins,li,s lVor/,-rhu,li ii/,,-r 
(/;<• I tirgiiiiiini, 'bi ff. 
Sec K("inig. 
R. I.ejisius, l\-nkiii,,!,r „us Aeyp- 

/,n «. .I,tlii,,/,i,„, -j^,j-txi. '" 
John l.ightfo(,t (1O02-75), /''"'■.'• 

Il,l-r,ii,„- (16.S4). 

Joseph ]!. Lightfoot ('28-89); 

coniinentaries on G,il,itii,ns 

('*'. '74): /'hi/if-f,i,i„s (((■•', 

'li), Go/ossi,ins ,;;/,/ /'In/,-. 

'""« ('7S). 

Lipsius, /)„■ A;. hrvph,n Af,>slcl. 

g,:<,lii,lih-n u. .//»,(/■,•//,; ,.«./,/,, 


J. Low, .h-.imaisclie /'//tinzmim- 

111,11, 'Si. 
See I.. 

Septuagint. Sec above, p. xv /." 
and 'J'lxi- AMI Vi:k>|(in>. 

.Moses Maimonides (IIji-1204). 
Lxegete, auth,,r ,,f .l/nlnu-h 
7, •nil,, .I/,;,.,- .\ ,.A7/./„,„_ ^,,^.^ 
Mand.ean. See .\u.\maic, ij 10. 
J. Maripiart. /-un,/,iiii,n.',- isi-,i,/iti- 
s,-lifr u. /i,./is,-k,r G,-s(/iic/itf, '06 
K. .Mnrti: ^ 

A'ur^.;,-f,isstc Gi-,ii„ni,7/ik ,/. 
I'i /,/ 1 i ,-/i..h-,i III Hi s, he II 
Sf-r, 'i|<,. 
;■ rsraelili.<,/un A\/i-i,:ii-^\ '(,- la 
revision of A. Kavser,' '/',,• 
T/if,>/.,/fs.f/). ' 
/>'i5 liii,-/ij,s,iiii, in K//C '. \),). 
f>. Maspero: 

Daun ,</ Civilisalion, r\rvft 
iin,/ C/i,i/,/,a ((2>, •,,(,)_ 

Z« /•r.-mih-es A/e/:,s ,/i^ 
Peufl^'s; KT by .Mc( lure 




CA . 


MGH'J . 
MH . 

MI . 


The Sniii^h' of the Nations 

~''R>f>-''yri'i,'»>J -Isnria. 

llisloire Anciciiiif i/cs I'iiipU's 

le r Orient ('99 /fl). 

Afoiw/shru/it ,/er Buliiur Aka- 

MillhaluniTin toul Xiulirichlcit dcs 
Deuluhen /•.ilastimi- I'erans. 
'95 if- 
A. Mcrx, Archiv f. zcissensrli.ijl- 
luhe Irjorschiins d. A V C6ij). 
td. Meyer : 

Cesi/iiclite ,/es Allcilhtims ; 
i., (/',j,7;. ,/. Oriciils his ziir 
('»4); ii-, ij'est/i.</c5 Ah-n,/- 
/<iii,/ei hs 11,1/ ,/u- />,;•- 
'"■*>■''.«■ {'9i). 
Die l-.nlslchmi); ,/es JiiJen- 
Inuiiis, '90. 
H. A W. Mcyor (iSoo-73), 
founder of the scries Knliseli- 
e.\ei;c/ise/ier h'ommenl<u- iibcy ,/,is 
A'eiie 'I'esliimenI, 
.Von.itsuhnfi fiir Cescli. 11. ll'iss. 

•ies JuJenlhuiiis, '51 //. 
Mishnic llLl>rew, thelanguaKe of 
Ihc Mishna, Toseplita, Mi,|- 
rasliiin, and considcraMe parts of 
'^" lalmud 


Mesha Inacnphon, commonly 
known as the ' Moahite .Stone.' 
See Mesiia. 

Midrash. SeeCitRfiNici ks,§6('2) 

Mishna, the standani cullccti(Mi 
(completed, according to tradi- 
tion, liyR.Judahth-: U„lv,.il, out 
200 A.I>.) of sixtv-three treatises 
(rcpresentinK Hh- Je«ish 
tional or unwritten law as .kvel- 
opcd by the second century 
A.ji.), arranged in six groups or 
Seders thus: — i. /',>,/'/;« (n 
tractates), ii. .)/,iV,/ (i;;), jij 
Nasliim (7),iv..\7c;^;„ (io),v'. 

_ A o,hshim{\ i ), vi. Toliorolhi 1 2 ) 
'llmdl iSrS, iv. 8 MikwriTuh. vi. 6 



al)out the end of the seventh 

century A.I >. See Tixi. 

^ .V'W' Eni;li>l, Oicliouarv on 

Jllsloru-,il /';;;/a//«, ed. I. \ 

II. Murr.iy. SS ff.; also H. 

liradley, 'y; ff. 
\\. Muss-.Vrnolt, . ICon.ise Dietion- 

>"y <•/ "le Assyrian /.anriiace, 

04-99 (a-MAc;). 
MillheUungen ,/,r Wn-./eniiuU- 

ist/ien Uesellstliafi, '')■; ff. 
note. See Aram m, , 5 4 
AominalhiUun^.;, liarth; se>- lia 
Ute isnielitisaWn /•.,,•,«/„////,•« 

'""/' '■'"•'•'■ '■'Av/V>/;.v, ,,■,/;„/,/. 

/i(/ien /ie,/eutiiii^',-h. 
■ U,ir^,n,!iien n. M,ileii„Uen, •93 
A. Neuliauer, <,V,.-,-«//„,. ,/„ /J/. 

iiiuil, '08. 
K,Ul,n,l Ifistory of the liiNe. See 

I ri>tram. 
Ae„-/,e''r. „. e/i.u.rTiise/us IVdrter. 

f'lie/i. .See l.ev\. 
Th. Nol.lekc : 

I'nlersneliungen :. Krilik d. 

Allen 'Jesl.imenls, '6y. 
Alttestamcnlliehe UlUratur, '68. 
■ • . \V. Nowack: 

//[././-.] ,./[,•<•/;.] t.etnln,eh .1. //el,raisel,en 
... _ , Ar,/i:},.lo^ie,'qs. 

Kl.rrcpU. Die Kleuu,, J'ropl.eten (in 

New T.-stament, .\cues Testament. 




ay; . 
Nestle, Eig. 

Neub. (Jlogr. 


XI/lfB . 

no. . 
Xofld]. . 

Al.r.ih. ,., 
'Ar.iklun, V 5 
H.Ua ltalhr.1, iv. 3 
H.ihS K,'iiiiiii,i. iv, I 
Hiiha Mfsj'i, iv. 2 
H^khorriih, V. 4 
H*r5khr,ih. i. I 
I'lysi. ii. 7 
l|ikkurim, i. ti 
t-fi^Ki^.i. li. 13 

Chatia, i. o 

Chiillin, V. 3 
I'^ni.-ii, i 3 

'F'Iriv.ith. IV. 1 

'KriDitn, ii 3 

fjiitiM, lii. 6 

H..r,-iy,-.ih, iv. 10 

Kt"l)m. vi. I 

K^nthrtth. V. 7 

l^t''ihriU^.t!i, iii 3 

^;|'^lu^lnll. iii. 7 

Kii'a>iiii. t 4 

Kinni'ii, V 1 1 

Ma'Ast'r -Shcrii. i. S 

MaMsC^rMtli, i 7 

Makhshtrin, vi 8, iv c 

MeailU.ii. ,o" 

Ml- ill. V 3 
Mi-ri.ii huih, V. 
.Midduth, V. lo 

-Mo'r.j Kaun, ii. 
N.l7ir. ill 4 
N.i-*l.iriin, iii. 3 
Nit.iiiii, vi. i 
N'i-I.l.i. vi. - 
l)l,.il„ih, vi 

IVlr.l, vi. 


I'^Mchim, ii. 3 
R"5h Ha;sh)shan,i, 
ii. s 

Sniihe.lnn, iv. 4 

Sh.ilhiih, „ , ',. iv. 6. 

.■^Iiil.rirh. i. s 

Sh.-k.i „ 4 

S.^i.l. li, 5 

.'Ukk.i. 11. 6 

'la'aimh, ii. ,) 

T.i.iml.v , 

'I il'u! Viliii. vi. 10 
'I'L-innr.i. V 6 
'IV-rriiiiuth. i 6 
'I'ntirirrali. vi. 5 
'l J.V1,], vi 13 
V.iiliiyini, vi. II 
V.'l .uii,,ih. iii. I 
)'"iii.i, II ^ 
/.i'"ni, vi o 

Massorctic text, the Hebrew text of 
the or substantially as it was in 
the early part of the second 
century a.i.. (temp. Mishri.O. 
It remained unvocilised until 

Justus ( Mshau.sen : 

Die /'salmen, ':;3. 
leiir/.iie/i <hr' hehr. .Spr,„l,e. 
nryr ^ r ^^ ^ "*'" [incomplete 1. 
OLZi^^tOr.LZ) On,„l.,,sehe l..,i,:,l„r-Ze,. 
lii'ig, cd. I'eiser. "ij.Sy: 
J/isfonsi/i.entis,/i Oi,,/ei:,ei: See 

Onkelos, ( )nqclos. See Tars 
See U.S. *■' 

O'X^in eflh. /'sailer. See ( 'hevne. 
Oiwmosliea .\.„n,, containing' the 
'' of Kusebius and 
Jcr.une (T.agar.le, '-'i, '87 ; the 
pagination of D printed on the 
margin ot f.'i is followed). 
Old lestament. 
01,/ /-.slamenl in the Je-Misli 

(■ hurcli. Sec \V. K. Smith. 
Priestly Writer. .See Hm. I ir 
Secondary I'riestlv Writers 
I-. liuhl. Ce.xraphle ,/,j alien /'a/- 
asliaa, '00. See also liaedeker 
aihl Reland. 
I'.ilinvrene. See .\l(AM.\ir, S 4 Syri.ic or Christian 
I niestinian. See .\u.\.m.\ic, ^ 4 
/ roeee./uigs o/.hnenean Urie'nlal 
Society, '51^. (printed annuallv 
at end of y./ as). 
U-ota^ las I'aradies^ Sec 

Sayce, I'atriarelial Palestun; "o;. 
Jr.epar.itio Erangeliea. See Euse- 

Palestine Er/loration /«„./ A/^ 

moirs, 3 vols., 'Si-'Sj. 
Pa/estine li.xplo, alien Inm/ 
[founded 'f.5j Quarter/y State- 
•mat, '(<i}ff 

I's. . 


Onk., Oni]. 



OS . 

OT . 


V . 
P- . 

I'al. Syr 



Pal. Pal. . 

PI: . 


i. :) 




Ph., Phoen. 

Preuss. Jiihrbh. 
Prim. Cult. 

Vrofh. is. 

Piol. AV . 


PS Hus. 


KjE . 

Kb . 
Kp . 


Rec. Tr„v. 


Kcl. Pal. 


An: Sim. 
A'l. Sa. 



LBR .ir BK iv. 
or /.'A'l-' iii. 

Pcrriit aii.l fhipUv : 

J/nliuii ,/,■ i/itiis I'aiiti- 
i/iiitl. Aj;)/'.! — . Issyri, — 
J\rsi — .hic .Mintuere — 
ill l\i — f.liurie — Koiiii ; 

ET: .liiriiiit /■Ai/''. '!>j, 
diahliCii aiiil .issyiiit, '84; 
J'/iaiiiiia all,! Cv/'rtis, 'S5; 
S:ir,liiiiii, /ndu-ii, etc., '90; 
Priiiiitizc Giitce, '94. 

Pesliijta, tlic Syriiic vulgate (jnd- 
jrilcent.). I'elm 7,:/,i>iuiUivii 
.Sviiiti; eil. S. Lee, '2j, O I' and 
NT, '24. 
\V. E. Karnes, .-In .4fpai;ilm Cri- 
ticiis to (:hronid.-s in the Pahitta 
Version, '9^. 

A'eiil-/iiiiyilo/'li,lie fiir /•lotestan- 
tisihe //uolixie u. Kirchc, ed. 
J. J. Iler^u),'. 22 vols., '54-'6S; 
'=', e.l. J. I. IKrzog, G. I.. 
Plitt, All). Hauck, iS vols., '77- 
'88; '->, e<l. .Ml., llauck, vol. 
i.-vii. [.\-llauj, '()C>-'99. 
Preiissistlie Jalirl'iiihi-i; '-2ff. 
. E. li. Tylor, Priiiiili:e Culture, 
•71; '•", -gi. 

. Tlie i'lvflieeies of /saiali. See 

. J'rolef;oiiien,i. Sec Wellhaiisen. 

. Prolcilaiilisilie k'tntun-eilnui; /iir 
<l<is Evaiigetisehe Deiitseliloii,/ 
(vols. i.-.\liii.,'54-'9f)); continued 
as /'rot. Moiiiils/iefie ('97 yf.). ' 

. ProeeeMii:.;s of the Soiiely of BiHi- 

. I'ayne Smith, i luMiiirus Syrineus, 
. Punic. 

. Redactor or Kditor. 
. Ke(lattor(s) of IK. 
. iJeuterononiistic Kditor(s). 
. Priestly l<eilactor(s). 
. H. C. Kawlinson, flu- Cuneiform 
J use nations of ll'est.rn .tsia, 
i.-v. ('0I-'S4;' iv. '-','91). 
. Rabbinical. 

. ».<•. Rabbenu Shelomoh Vishaki 
(1040-1105), the celebrated 
Jewish coininentator. 
A'eeueil tie /rmnu.x retalifs li la 
fhilol. et It I'.lreheol. eg)pt. et 
assyr. '-Off. 
A'exue ties Etudes jiiiTes, i,, "So; ii. 

and iii., '81 ; and so on. 
Rcland, PaUstina ..r Monumentis 
veterihus iltiiiti-.ta, 2 vols., 1 7 14. 

A'eiue sliiiitiijue, 'oiff. 
Vie Biiehei- Kutit/r u. Samuel. 

See Uuilde. 
Edward Robinson : 

Ilil'lual A\iear,lies in Pales- 
tine, .Ml. Sinai, an,l Arabia 
J', a Journal of travels 
in the year iSjS (i.-iii., '41 
= iS'A'-', i.-ii., '56). 
Later Bihlieal ResearJies in Pales- 
tine an,/ the ailjaeent /legions, a 
journal of Ira- els in llie \,„r 
1852 ('56}. 
Physieal Ueoip-afhy of the //olv 
Lane/, '65. 



RS or Re/. Sem. 
RV . . 
Rll'B . 




Sad. Denlim. 


SB. AW . 


SBOPt Eng.) 

SBOr (Heb.) 

SJiorf- ■ 


K.l T 



.liisfiihrliJies /e.tiion ,/. Criee/i- 

isehen u. Rdmisehen .Mytholoae 

/ieeorls of the /'a si, /,ein^r /uif^-lish 

tra n stations o/ the .tneieni .\/onu- 

meiits of /-.t^yi't an J Western 

Asia, eil. S. Uircli, vols, i.-xii. 

('73-'80. -New series [A'/"-' J ud. 

A. H. Sayce, vols, i.-vi., 'SS-'92. 

.See Assvui.A, ^ J5. 
Rtlij^ion of the Semites. Sec \V. 

R. Smith. 
. Revised Version (NT, 'So; OT, 

'84; .Vpocrvpha, '95). 
. C;. 1!. \Viner( 1789-1858), A;/V;j,/;,i 

Reahoorterbueh, '20; ' ii, 2 vols., 

Ryssel; cp. Uillmann, Bertheau. 

. R. Sa'ailya (.Sc'adya; Ar. Said), 
the tenth century Jewish gtani- 
inarian and lexicographer (b. 
S92) ; Explan!itionsoftlie/;,;/,;.v. 
lef^oiiiena in the O I', etc. 
. Sab.van, less fittingly called 
Hlmy.iritic; the name given to 
a class of S. Arabian inscrip- 
SaKiisihe DeniinHler, odd. .Mullcr 

and .Mordtmann. 
Sit:uiixs/'eriehte Jer Berlinisehen 

.-Itailemie i/er Wissensehafteii. 
The Saered Lioois pf the /-.asl, 
translated by various scholars 
and edited by the Rt. lion. K 
Max Muller, 50 vols. 1879^ 
[otherwise known as the /'o/i- 
chrome Bil'le] T/ie Saere,/ /iooks 
of the Olil '/ estaiiient, a ne-.o Piij;. 
transl., -oilh /-..xflanatory .Xo'tes 
am/ /'ietorial illustrations : fire- 
pare J ty eminent hi Hieal sehotars 
of l-.urope and of Anieriea, ,iiid 
edited, -oith t/ie asustanee of 
Horaee //ouard Furness, by I'c.ul 
LLaupt, '97^ 
Haupt The Sacred Books of the Old 
Testament : a eritical edition of 
the l/ebre-.ct te.xt, printed in 
eolours, -.oith notes, prepared bv 
and . hneriea, under the editoria/ 
direction of Pan/ iiaupt, '')iff. 
Gunkel, .Sehopfuiig und Chaos in 

L'r-eit u. /•.nd:,eit, '95. 
E. Schrader ; editor of KB 
[</.z..] : 

heilinschriften u. Ceschiehts- 

forsehung, '78. 
Die Keilinsehriften u. d. .lite 

Testament, '72; 1-', '8;. 
Eng. transl. of A'AT<-i by 
O. C. Whitehouse, Tlie 
Cuneiform inscriptions and 
the Old Testament, 2 vols., 
'85, '88 (the pagination of 
the (lerman is retained in 
the margin of the Eng. ed.), 
E. Scliurer : 

Cesehiihle des jiidiselien I'oltes 
im /.eitalter Jesu Christi ; 
i. EinleituMg u. I'oliiische (Je- 
schichte, '90; ii. Die Iniuren 
/ustiinile I'alastinas u. dcs 
jiidischen V'olkes im Zcitalter 





I'encer . 

rt- >ta. . 
CVI . 

Alh. . 

\l Kr. . 
■■/. m. in. 

"rlVAW . 


Jcsu Christi, 'S6; new cil. vol. 
11. I>ie Iniicreii Zustamle, 'yS, 
)i'\. 111. l)as Juilenthum in iler 
/.crstreuunu u. .lie ju.lische I.itt- 
ratur, 'i|8. 
//is/. . n- ..f above^;. Vol,, i / 

(/.<■.. Div. i. vols. I /.) = Vol. 1 
of (iernian; vols. 3-5 (/,,.., |)iv 
ii. vols i-j) = vol. 2 of German 
L = vols, ii., iii.of I'liJ. 
J. >>elilcn, ,/,■ /,„;. iiatuniU ci 
i;,' iiti urn i 11x1,1 :/is,ifhii,im El'i\c- 
orum, 7 l)ks , lOOj. 
i/c' Dtis Syris, 161 7. 

.Sinaitic; sue .Aramaic, S 4. 
.Snicnd, /he Ijihn ,/l-r /iih/ur,i II. Xilumuih, "Si. 




nenil, /.isUn 





■ta. , 

<; VI . 

»i. HI. 

\V . 

. Ueurj-e .\ilani Smith : 

/'//.■ //is/on,, il (:.ofi;i/</iv of 
tlu- Holy /.<;«,/, .■,(/.., 7,i//|. in 
rcliilion lo t/ic //isior'v of 
Isruel and of Iho i:,iily 
C/iHic/i, '94 (a.lilitions to n\ 
■.Villiani Koliertson Smitli( '46-'y4): 
/'If ii/J Ti-slaiiunt in llu /.-.ciift 
C/iiir./i.'Si : '-'i,revisc(laii,l much 
enlarKecl, '92; ((icriii. transl. hy 
Kothsleiii, '94). 
i T'u- Prof'u-ts of Israol ,ni./ th.-ii- 
f/'iif m History, /o the o/ose of 
the eij^hlh ernliiry bc, ')jj; lii, 
with introduction and addi- 
tional notes by T. K. Cheviic, 

Ainshi/) an.l .V,irri„i;e in hUirlv 
.Ini/iiii, '85. 
,] /citiiies on the A'e/ii.'ion of the 
Semites.- 1st ser., Ihe 
niental Institutions, 'S<); new 
ami revised edition (A'.V-'), '94; 
(ierni. transl. by Stube, '99. 
[The Ms notes ,,f the later liurnett 
I.cctutes— on Priesthood, Divina- 
tion and rrophecv. an, I Semitic 
I'ulytheisni and Cosmogony — 
remain unpulilisheil, but 'arc 
occasionally cited by the editors 
in the /uieye/o/.e,/,,! Kihtica as 
' liurnett Lects. MS.J ' 
A. r. Stanley, Siwii ,in,l I\ih<tine 
tn eonneetion 701th their history 
'56, 1,-lst ed. '96. 
De /yc'i'ns llel'r,eoriim Hitualilins 

(2 vols. 1727). 
SieRfricd and .Stade, llehaisehes 
U'drtert'ueh zitm .I/ten Testa- 
mente, '93. 
B. Stade : 

Ceseh. J. Voltes Israel, '81- 

--iusg.-.oS'ilte .Iktutemisehe Ke- 
i/en It. .ll'hiinMMnfen, '99. 
Stndien nn,l A'ritiien, '2^ff. 
St,i,ii,rsmiis m,i^-ni maris (Mar- 

Stti.lia liiMiea, Essays in HiHieal 
.■>reh(evloi^' an,/ Critieism an,l 
i-intlre.i suljeets, 4 vols., ■<S5-'9i 
H. Ii. Swete, 7he 0,',l Testament 
in Cr,-ei aeeoiuiim; to the Si'/^tiia- 
Ki"t-- >", 'S7-'<)4: '-', '95-99. , 
Sitznn^'sl-enelite ,1. IViener .Ha- \ 
Jiitiu ,/. IViiionsehajten. | 

Syr. . . 

r,iK nut. 

Talm. ISab. Jer. 

T[ar]g. . 
Jer. . 

Jon. . 
Ont. . 



T[e.Ntus] K[e- 

Th[e]. : 


Theol. SluJiin 

Ti. or Tisch. 



Tristram . 
I-FP . 


TSB.l . 

Till: Z. f. Theol. 

I 'ntersueh. 
I'rgeseli. . 

Var. .Apoc, 
Var. Bib. 

Symmachus, author of a Grerk 
version of the Old Testament 
(f"<,; 200 A.ii.). See Tixr. 

Syriac. See Akamaic, § 11 j. 

Tahiila I'euliii^triana, l)esjardin«, 

Talmu.l, llabylonian or Jerusalem, 
consisting of the text of the 
.Mishna broken up int,) small 
sections, each followed bv the dis- 
cursive comment called Gemara. 
Sec Law I-niKATi kk. 

. Targuin. SeeTKXr. 

. Ihe (fragmentary) Targum Jeru- 

. TarHum Jonathan, the name borne 
by the llabylonian Targum to 
the Prophets. 

. Targum Onkelos, the Hai)ylonian 
largum to the Pentateuch 
(towards end of second century 

A.II. ). ' 

. The larg. to the Pentateuch, 
known hy the name of Jonathan. 
. Per Tt.xl ,/er Biieher Hamiielis .■ 
see Wellhausen; or .Votes on the 
Nei'r,-,o text of the Books of 
Samuel : see Driver, 
tempore (in the time [of]). 
The 'received te.\t ' of the XT 

See Tkx I . 
Thenius, ,//,■ Hiuher Samuelis in 
T, /';'■•-= "'•'^■*! '■"•'-"'",'98. 
Ihuo.iotioii I en I of second cen- 
tury), author of a Greek version 
of the Old lestamcnt (' rather a 
revision of the l.X.K than a new 
translation'). .See Tkxt. 
Stu:/u„. published in connection 
with //,. 7' (see, 

See (icSL-nius. 

R. Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syri,,. 

eus, '68 /f: 
Theolo);is,li "rijcisdirift, '67^. 
lischendo. •„;.„,„ Testam'ntiim 
Gncct, editio octava critica 
maior, '69-'72. 
Th.vl ,.:isehe I iter,iturzeitung, 

70 ff. *• 

.See Law Lmkraii kf.. 
S. P. Tregcllcs, The (h- i AW* 
feslameut; e,iite,l from aneieiU 
authorities, 's,-j-''~2. 
IL I!. I'ristram': 

Th,- launa ami Flora of Palestine, 


The .Vaturat Uist,<ry of the Bilte, 

" . 89. 

TransaetionsofSoe. Bih. ,lreh,col.. 

Vols, i.-ix., '72 /?; 
/'iihni;en Zeitsehrift 


>'ft f- Theolo^ie, 


Die hihlische Crg^ehiehte. 


See N'oldeke, 


///■• .Ifoerypha (AV) e,lite,/ nilh 
various ren,lerin.;s, ete., by C \ 
liall. •"■ 

The Ol,lan,iXe-.i, Testaments(.\\') 
.■,!;t,;i -v;th i.tricus ren,iei uie^, 
ete., by T. K. Gheyne, S. R. 

*> & 






WMM . 
Wr. . 


Ar. Gram. 

Iirivcr (Ol'), ami K. I,. Clarke, \Vi. 

A. (iDo.lwin, W. Sanilay (NT) 

[otherMise known as the ijiittn's 

fruiters' liih!(\. 
Vet. Lat. . . Versiu Vctas I.atina; Ihei.lil-Ijtin 

vcrsiiin (made fruni the Creek) ; 

later superseiled liy the Vulgate. 

See Tkxt .ami Vkii-i. iN.s. 
^'Z- • ■ • Vul>;ate, Jcninie's I ;itin I'.ilile; 

Ol' from lie!)., NT a revision 

>>f Vet. Lat. (end uf 4th ajul lie- 

ginninj; of 5th cent.). See Thxr. 

Wc, Wellh. . Julias Wellhausen. 

De Gent. I>c Ccitlihiul l'iimiliisjii,l,ns 

(jii,, ill I (//;•. 2 4 iiuiiic- 
ranliir Pissertntio ('70). 
TBS . Der Ttxttier liuclurSamuclis 

Pilar, u. Du'ni,iris!i,rii.,/.Sii,/,liiiarr; 

SaUJ. eiiie I'litirsiu/iuiii; -.iir .■i/. 

ner.H jiiilisdnn Gescliicht 

Cts./t. . Cescliuhit Israels, vi .1. i. ( '7S) , 

Prol. . 2nd ed. of (;,-si/i., entitled 

J'rolcgoniena ziir Gtsr/i. Is- 
raels, '.S3: LT 'S5; 4th 
Germ. ed. '95. 
IJG , , Israelitische u. Jii,li<,-li,- Ge- 

seliielite, '1)4; '", '',17; an 
amplification of .llriss der 
Genii. Israiis 11. Jmla's in 
'Skizien u. Vorarbeiten,' 
'^4. The . \briss was sub- 
stanti.illy a reproduction of 
'Israel' in /./.'i'" ('Si; re- 
published in ET of rrnl. 
['.S5] and separatelv as 
Skehii of I list, of Israd and 
[Ar.]ffeid. A'esle Arahiseheii llei,tc>ilums 

(in ' Skizzen u. Vorarbeiten ') 

Kl, Proph. Die A leiiteii Propheleii ii/vr- 

schl, mii A'oWn ('02; i^', 

t" . . J)ii' I'omfosifioii des Ifexa- 

ttiiolis mid der liislorisoluii 
H Holier des Allen '1 oslameiils 
('.S5; Zweitcr iJruck. mit 
Nachtrajien, 'iSq; oriyinallv 
published iny/^rai i'j^ ff., 
['70I, -l-l 407 ['77], and in 
IJleidi, l:iiil. 1", '7S). 
Webet . . System dcr Altsyiiagoc^atcii I'atasti- ZA 
nisoluii riirflogie: •.\x Diel.ehroit 
(/« 7',//w;(,/, 'So (edited bv l-'r.inz | ZATW 
Delitzsch and (}corK Sclineder- I 
mann); '°-\ Jiidisolie -Jlieohxie \ ZDMG 
ant Griiiid des Talmud tiiid ' 
vervaiidlrr Sthrifien, \)-j (cd. • ZDPV 
Schnedcriiiann). I 

Wetstein . . J. |. Wetstein, Xorwii Teslameu- \ ZKF 
turn Grarum, etc., 2 vols, folii 
Wetz. . . \Vetz»tein, Aiis^'r.oa'ilte x'riooliisolie ZKM 
iiiid lat, niisilie liisolin/teii, ge- ZKW 
Siimmcll aiif A\iseit in den 
'J'railionen iind urn das llaii- 
ranxchrK'.'f^y. Koiselhriclil iihcr ZLT 
llaiiran and I'raolionen. '(10. 
"* • • ■ Wellhausen-l'Liness, 'llie look of 

Psiilms ('(ii<i) in S/H)T ( l-ir-S 
WH [W & H] . Westeott ..„d I lort. //,. .V,'; ZV.;. 

l-imon: in t;,, 0> i^/nal ui,oi, \ ZIl'J 
'81. J 

C 'liters. 




GI , 






Hugo WInekler: 

Cntersiuliiiiix'en z. .lltoriental- 

isolirn (,, ^iliiolite, '.S9. 
Alttestamenlli, lie i'ntersiioli- 

iiiii^eH, '92. 
Geseiiuiil, Hahlonicns u. A- 

syriens, \)z. 
Altorientalu, lie For.sJiiiiif^en. 
I»t ser. i.-vi., 'oi-'t)7; 2n.| 
ser. (.//•'-■) i., •y.S/; 
Gescliielite Israels in eiiize,- 

darstelliini^en, i. '95. 
Die K'eihilirifttexte 'Sari;oii 

Du Thontafeht von 'I'ell-,.- 
Amariia (Kl' Metcalf ) 
J. O. Wilkinson, .Manners an ■ 
Customs of the .-tnoiont l:i;\ftian 
'.?7-'4'; '-' bv Itirch, 3'vols., '7s' 
G.B. Winer: ' 

Bill, h'eal-.oorlcrluili : se. 

/i' //■/,'. 
Gramni.itik ,/,t neiitestamen: 
lichen Sfra.hidioms^'*'. mi. 
bearbeitet von I'aul Will;. 
.Sehniiedel, '04^: KT . ; 
«ith ed., W. K .Nioulton, '70. 
.See As. 11. I:ur, 
W. Wrifiht : 

Lectures on the Coinparui. 
Grammar of the .Seim:,. 
/-ant,'llai;es, '90. 
.■I Grammar of the .4rah 
l.anglia.;e, translated fr, . 
///,' German of ( aspari an : 
edited, -oith niim, ions a,:.:i- 
lions and eoriections bv W 
Wright; <-' 2 vols., '74-.'; ;. 
'■•' revised by W. Kobertl. 1; 
Smith and Si. J. de Got , , 
vol. i. '96, vol. ii. '.)S. 
William Robertson Smith. .'-v 

IViener Zeilsehrifl fiir d. A'nii 

des .Morgenlana'os, Syjf. 
The well-known .\rabian ;;, 
graphical ^ writer (li79-i22i/ 
A'ltafi A/o'/am el-linlian editi- 
by V. Wustenfeld ' Jaent's (, .. 
grafhisehis 11 "ort, ,;/,//, 'OO-';!) , 

Zeitschrift (JourraO. 

Zeitschnft fiir Assyri, lo.;ie u. :.'■ 

wandte GJiete, '>i(>Jf'. 
ZcitSilirifl fi'ir . li;yftisehe .Sfra. i. 

II. Atterihumsk'iiiiile, '03^. 
Zeitsi'irift fiir dt, Allleslamentli : 

ll'issensiha/t, '^i fl. 
Zeitsolin/t dor J\,n .Mor^ , 

laiidisohen {leselliliafl, '46/;. 
Zcil.'oltri/tdes Doiitsrhon I'ala'sti:: 

-ereins, '7S//. 
Zcttsohrift t'iir A'eilsehrift/or.wli:,,. 

uiid rei'.oandle Geliete, '84 

c; ntinued ns /.I. 

See ir/A:u. 

Zcilsehrift /iir iireiilielie Wis . 

sehaff II. kirohliehts / o'vn n 

Luttiardt), i.-ix., '.So-',S<) y^ 
Zeilsehrifl fiir .lie \:esammi.' in/ '. 

iselie Theoloisie iind A'iroho, 'it- 

Zeilsehrifl jTr Tlieologie 11. 

Kirehe. 'oj lf_ 
Zeits.hrift fiir -.oissensehafln ... 

Theologie (ed. I lilgenfeld), '5!^ J 


|A.A.B. I 

lA. C. M. .^ 

EC. c 

E.S. S 

B. S. K. K 

. S. Si 

. F. B. Bi 





P 0, 
C. B. 




A PA- . 

t ril. /UK 

C.4 . 

OCL . 



S(jr.) cuir. ) 





A!l,hi;illi,ii,- I itl.ralMr ■,-.'-_ 

M. n. Ohni-fnlMh-Kkhicr, A'i-//„i JU /!,/■■! ,.,/// 

Cure,.,n,a,> Syriac v,;;:,:::';f vV t n'if s" '"'"^^'^'i/^"'. Munich. 
Sinailic Syriac version of .Vt'isc'c- W.XI .^ '4'^'' 


Arra>,^r,.,i accor.iin,.,' to t/u- „lp/u,h,tu,,l or,/,,- 

3. U. 

;. 8. 

Hi VAN. \NTiiciNv Amiikv, I.,,r.l \1 l'rofc»M,r ul" Aral,ic, ( \„„- 

M.UMKiin, A.C., 1).!,.,,r „r 
I hurcli II.Moryiii I'nu,,, IlioiuirJcil 
.Viimiary, .\i-» York. 

n II , , -^i •>■■ Sutj-lihrarian, 

""■llilai, l.ilirary. ami lell.m- of Ma,'- 
il.ll.Ml Colk-t;,-. Ovlonl 

!^I|;|'m;v, A. K., M.A., l-./,s.. !.vi|,nv 
liilnr, and LctUin-r, thrij-t > Coll.w 
' .llllll^l(|^.l.. *■ ' 

.8.K.;„v,' Kev. Ak.mimali, R s 


NMu.tii- I.ansiiaH,-s, l:,lii,l,i„ „|, 

»1 ^I'K, IllHNllARi),, |'r,,r,-s,,r of 

, <'IJ'''"'N..™t Kx,-,M., (;„.ss,.,, 

B. «7;y^' '<"■>■ ^■■•.^l. A., 1. .«,,,,., ,,, 

ll.bivw, and l-eiln« of Si |.,l,n's 

T-V.C II., l).l..,l.,o„«orofIIel,r..«, 
Harvard Univc-r.siiv 
W.J. John, Rev. C. H. \V.. M. A, , .UsiMaiu ' 
;j..|l^..'n, n,„.e,.s College. can,, j 

T. ''■■;, '-^ The late C, P.. n.n..lVo(e5Sor of ! 

the .Science of Religion, l^vden. ] 

H. HuLAkTH. |>AV,„ (;k,,k,;e. M.A 

I elloH of .Magdalen Colleije, Oxford 
Mkvkk, KuL-AHii, Professor of Anii,.;,t 

Mistorv, lierlin. ^ 

Ni-M-r.K. C. K,,.. n.,,,, Professor ,„ ,he 
l-.v,...s;el,cal - Iheolosu.d .Sennnarv, , 
.Maulljronn, \\ iirtenilier" 

\ t^^^^"^- }■■■ }:,■ "•"•^'■^■"adelphia. ; 

S. Blrmtt, F.C.M. A., Cambridge. 

"/ t/,rji>-s, unli.,l. J,„„, „„thorslap is x.hcn 
A- !■• j!S 1-5 ; c. n. j:; ,,,-io. 

*"•*• '"-""~^' K''^- rKA.Ncis, D.D.. I.aven- 

poit Pr..|e.,.M,r of Hebrew ami il». 
y«n.,le I.aiigiuges ,n ,1,,. L„,„„ 
I .s-iiini.irv, \.« N,„|^ 

lellovvof .\|aj;,l,,|,,|| („ll,-e, ()M„r,| ■ 

l-l-I>., Professor of Ikbreu and Old 
Ici.nnent K.xegiM., L'nited I ree 
Church rollege, (iLisgim 
CiKAv, R,.v. i; liri'inv^^ ^1 ^ 

i'l'l'V- ',!'■"''"'"" "^ "^■'""'" '" ■^'■'"^• 

tlekl ( ulles;e. ll\l,,|,l 
""I. .;. K..\l,.\., P„,ti-h.M.,se„„,. 
Ah'llKI,. Rl,v. (JkuK..,; F I, I, |,|.„ 

\\^N'K..KK n,,Ph.,)..Pnv,„.Uocentm 

^'■rilllK Piulolonv, Merlin 

Hi»..;, H,,,,,; A-,. M \ p,.„f,.,,,„ „f 
NiM.iic I.a,„u.,,,-. V.coria rniver- 

AliKAHAMs, NuAi,., kead.rinka ,ic, 

' .inilindi;e. ' 

B'^/lN..n<, 1.1. IMMAV,,, ,,,„„,,|^. 

Inv.U.docen, i„ I,,,, .|.^.^, .,;, 

Iheologv. Berlin. 

Peru/, kev. Kma,, |,,„s p,,,fes.,,i ,,f 
Nnmic I..„,l;u.,u,.s .vvnicu.e l„,; 
Versity. .\e« \\„\^ 

R-lil.N^^nN. H„. \-,.,.v ^,,. , ,^ 

•r.M;K. D.I,., l.,.,„,„fuv.,n„ns,er 
I'S'N'i- J I,, P,,r... IVofessor of 

Ph,-|'V" '-'''.-"■'«" •>"'l Comparative 
fhilology, Ne» Vnrk Tniversiiv 
.ll.KK,\ii.\,, |oha.\m:>, I'h.D., Leipsic. 

0. A.C. 

O. A. 8. 

O B. O. 


O F. H. 

0. F. M. 

G. H. B. 
H W. 

H. W. H. 

1. A. 
I. B. 

I. J. P. 

J. A.R. 
J D. P. 




J. L. K. .Mvki>. I I... M.A., K.S.A., Siudiiit 

anil Tulur of C liriat Cliunh. (.>\liiril. 
3, M. Mas^ik, John, M.A., Yatus l'rofi->scir of 

New IVstjtnrril Kxf^'t'>is iti M.iiisrield 
C'.)lltt;c. l_)\fc)i(l. 
J. Mo. .\IohJ.\n. ktv. J.\.Mt>. D.U, UutKlon.iU, 

J. W. WKI.I.HArsKx. In II s, D.D.. r'rf>fessor 

of Siiiiitic I'hiliiliifjv. (ic.tliii.ijfn. 
X. O. (iFI.UNKR. K. , I'h'lJ.. Troftssir of 

San^ciit, Ik-rlin. 
KM. Makti. Karl. D.I)., IVrfes-sor of Old 

'rt'St.imuiit ICxt'ijcsis and liu' Ik-brew 
Laninia^e, lierne. 
H. A. C. Cannkv, .\Ialriik A.. M.A. (O.xon.), 

1K.M. MI.K SN. Norman. M..\. . Lecturer in 

Ilcljnw. and Fellow of Clirisi's College, 
M,tk Schmidt. NAriiASMX. Professor o( 

."iernitie Lanj;iia(;es and Literatures. 
<'i>rnell Uriiversilv. New Vorlv. 
0. C. W. WnHKiioLsK, kiv. 0\vi;n C. M.A.. 
1). L). , l*rinei[).il and Professor of 
Hiblical Kxegesis and Tlieolopv in 
the Countess of Huntingdon's College. 
Cheshunl. Herts. 
P.O. Gardnkr.I'.. Lilt. D., F..S. a.. Professor 

of Classical .\rch:voloj;v, Oxfo-d. 
P. W. S. SciiMiKDKi.. Paii. \V.. i).I)., IVofessot 

of .New Tcsi.irnent Kxegesis. i!iirich. 
8. A. C. CvuK. SrAM.KY A.. M..\.. Fellow of 

Caius l,'oIU-ge, ^.'ainhridge. 
8. R. D. DRIVKK. kev. SaMI 1.1. kol.I.KS. D. I). , 

kegius Professor of Hebrew, Canon 
of Christ Church, Oxford. 




w. c. 

v. M 







T. a. P. Pi.M iiKs, G.. I.I.l), 

formerly of the I'.gyptian and .\- 
syrian I)i|.artiiienl in the Uriti>h | 
T. X. 0. Chkvnk, kev. I K., D.Litt., n.I) 

Oriel Professor of the Interpretation li 
Holy Scri|)iure at Oxford, Canon (i 

Al.l.KX, kev. VV. C, M.A., Chapl.iii, 
Fellow, and Lecturer in I'heology ah. I 
Hebrew. I'.xeter Collej,. Oxford. 

Mam.\. \V. C. \an. I) 1).. Professor 
Old-Ciiristian Literature and New Te- 
lament F.xegesis, Levilen. 

Riiss. \V. I).. .M.A., Fellow of Mertoi 
College, ( Ixford. 

KRiir, W.. I'll I).. Leipsic. 

Aliius, kev. W. K.. M..\.. U-cturer in 
Old Test.imeni ( riticism in .ManchesiT 
College, Cixfcrd. 
W. H. B. llKxs;;n, kev. W. IL. Litt.n.. D.I) 
Professor of Languages ai,.: 
Literature. Hackney ( ollege. London 
anil Professor of Old Testaimiii 
K.vgesis, .New ( ollege, London. 

W. J. W. \V' iiM si;. W. I.. M.A.. Professor .• 

(ireek. I'niversiiv of Svdnev. 
W. M. H. .Mi-ii.KK. W. Max, Professor of Oh] 
Testarnent I.iler.ilure. keformcd K|i:. 
copal Church .S'minarv. Philadelphi.i, 
W. 2. S. S.MIlll, The late W. koHKRlsiiN. IJ.I) 

.\danis Professor of .\rabic. Cam- 
W. T. T.-D. Th.-sKI.tdn-Dykr. Sir Will iwi Tit 
.NKR, K.C.M.f;., I.L.I).. F.k.j> 
Director. Royal Gardens, Kew. 


Arraii^ci ,itior,iiHi; to aiphahctical order of sunutims 

Ahramams. I. 

I. A. 

GuiT.i), K. P 

E P. 

Adius. W. i;. 

W. E.A. 

(iHAV. (i. li. 

Q. B. a. 

Al.i.E.v, \\". C. 

W. C. A. 

IIll.l., (,. I-, 

0. F H. 

BKSNFir, W. H. 

W. H. B. 

IllxiARITI. I) 


D. a H. 

IlKN/.lMiKR. 1. 

I. B. 

lloiii;. 11. W 

H. W. H. 

Heva.s, a. a. 

A. A. B. 


J J. 

Hdx. G. H. 

O. H. B. 



C. H. W. J. 

!iRinv\, F. 

F. B. 

Ki:.\m:i.v, .\ 

k. s. 

A. R. S. K. 

lit K KIT r. F. C. 

F. C. B. 

.Ml Gin i-.Ki. 

\. c. 

A. C. M. 

Hi KM-.V, C. F. 

C F. B. 

N''Leax. N. 

N. M. 

Cannev. .M. .\, 

M. A.C. 

.\I.\NK\, W. ( 

.'. V. 

W. C. V. M. 

Chi.vm:. V. K. 

T. K. C. 

M\KM, K 

K. H. 

Conk-, .S A. 

S A. C. 

M,\-MK, 1. 

J. M. 

Cm IKK. G. .\. 

0. A. C. 

Mkvi li, K. 

E. H. 

Cnwi.KV, .\ v.. 

A E C. 

MnlTMT, J. 

J Mo. 

Drivk.r, S. k. 

S. R D. 

Mn()Ri_. (;, I' 

0. F. M. 

F;nhT, W. 

W. E. 

, Mi'i.i.KK. W. 


W. H. H. 

Gard.nkr, p. 

P Q. 

I MVKI ^. 1. I., 

J. L M 

Gi:.LU.\KR, K. 


i Nesti.k. i;. 

E. N. 

PtiRirz. I. J. 

I. J. P 

Pi.sciiES, T. G. 

T. O. P. 

PR1.\CE. J. U. 

J. D P 

koBlNMI.X, J. A. 

J. A. R 

koss. W. I). 

W. D. R 


N. 8. 

Si llMIKliKl,, p. W. 

P. W. S 

SllUM.KV. .\. K. 

A. E. S 

Smith. G. .A. 

O A. S 

Smith, \V. k. 

W. R. S. 

SrAiiK, H, 

B S. 

rillslil.TON-I)YKR, W 

T. W.T.T.-D 

TlKl.K, C. P. 

C. P. T. 

Toy, I'. H. 

C. H. T. 

Wll.l.llAlSKN. I. 

J. W. 

W'MITKIIlHsr , o. c. 

c. w 

W'lM KI.KR, 11. 

H W. 

Wiiiii rsK, \V I, 

W. J, w 


lA, WESTERN (illustmting Trads and Commerce) 
LE8TINE and PHCENICIA (Trade Routes) 
MA, MESOPOTAMIA, etc. (Assjriologicall 


(i) After Egyptian Monuments 
fa) After Amarna Letters . 


teHveen cols. 5160 and 5161 
S>64 ,, 5it.7 
4844 .. 4845 

4852 ,, 4853 
4852 .. 4853 



, I..M.A., 

h-v. I'rof. \V. 
clifstur Collej 
kfv, W . C , M, 
liijr, Oxford 

kev. I'rof. 
|U , D.U, I,o 
IKK, InitDailuel 
jl'n.f. A. .v.. C. 
|v. li. H., M..1 
Kev. I'rof. I 


Hii. C. R, ; 

1 5 Collesu, Oxl 

.Maurice A 


Kcv. Prof. 
\m.. U.U., Oxf 

V, M..A., C 
I (.'ainbridge 
Kev. G. A., M. 
A. K., .M.A., > 
ige. Oxford. 

JKlv. I'rof. S. R 

In I 

. I'll. D. . 

I'rof, Percy, 

frof. K.-irl, 


« i:. p., an. 


■ I'rof. (J n. , 
M.iiisfield < 

I-. M.A.. 


I* '5., M.A. 

■ "ili-;,'f. Cvford 
,"f H- \V., M..\ 
iLniversity, Man 

.'olinnnes, Ph I 
'" H W., 
hs' C.lIeRe, (am 
• Ki-v. Prof. ,\. 
Kd in burgh 
fT Rev. Prof, j! 
"■•• York. 
•^'. M.A., C 
fee. C.inibridge 



', r.. M.A., Cambridee 
V. I'rof. \V. K. .\t.A., 
u-sicr Collfge. Oxford' 

V WC,,. M.A. , Exeter 
!■, Oxford 

Key. I'rof. \V. H., 
. IJ. U. , I..uiiUon 
, Imiiiaiiuel, I'li.D. . 
'f. A. .V. . C.inibridKe. 

!•■ II.. .VI..\. . 

ev. I'rof, K. D. 1). , 


■ C , M.A. , Cambridge 

>v. C. K, .M.A.. St. 

I olk-Kc Oxford. 

M.iuriee A., .M.A., 

!iv. Prof. T. K 

U.U, Oxford 

, .M.A., Caius Col- 

U -A.. .\I..\. 
!•:. M.A., M.iBd.ikii 


Tunic, etc. 
KiKliteousncs5, etc. 


.Stranger, etc. 

■|'eiii|.lf, etc. 
reinple, etc. 
."<liul).i, etc, 

'I'exl and N'crsiom, 


Ship, etc. 

Saul. etc. 

'lent. etc. 

S.iniaritaiis, etc. 

ITof. S. K.,D.D., TrachoMitis. 

'li.D. . 

rof. Percy, I). Lilt , 

Tof K,arl, I'll. I)., 

I" l'-,D.n.. I'hila- 

f'r"f- C, B. , M.A. , 
I.iiisfield College! 

■ MA., British 

'"'■■ ^^A.. M.ig. 
i'!,'e. Oxford. 
'• W., M..\., vic- 
••■rsity, Manchester 
■innes, Ph.D. 
' H \y, M.A.. 
"I'eRe, C ambridge 

' frof. A. R. S., 

n burgh 

<:^. Prof. A. C, 
■ York. 

MA.. Christ's 




Theophany, etc. 

^Wights and Measures, 

Keulien. etc. 

Stnnacherib, etc. 

WtMvihg, etc. 

Ihcssaloni.Tns (Epistle 
Serpent, etc. 



M VM A, K,.v. Prof. U-. C. van, 

I'D., I..UI.M. 

l\l»'<. I'r.,f, K., I),U, ,fc,„ . 
M-\vML. I'rol. John. Ul),, .\ia„^. 

Ill-Id folli-i,.,.. OxforU 
•Ml-.VKK. ITof. )..!., |.,,,,, |^.,,|i„ 
MoiLUj, k.-v. lames. D.I) 

M.«IKI:. k,.v. p,„|. ,; y ,j I, ■ 

llarvani rnivirMtv 
Ml ii.i-.n. Prof. W. .m'., i.|, I, 
: '^'vx;,;. .1. 1.,, M,.V, Chris. 

Xl'.sri.i , Pr..f, i:i,,, 1) ,, |,|, ,j 
Maulbronn, W lirtemUrg 

J'KldTz. k,,j. i.r„f , , ^j ^ 
n.U. .s,racu»e l'niv,;rsi'iy,' 

'■'N'1M>,T.(;., I.I.I,., formerly 

"' llritisl, .Museum 
Pk'MK. Prof. J. „,, |.,,„ 

.New YorJv 

l<ol.lNs„N, liie Very Kev I 

;^';""'-"-''- r^t)-. Dean of 
U estinin.ster 

Ros.s, \v I) \r \ M . 
• >> I'.. .M,.\. , .Mcrton 
C, Oxford 

Scii.\iii,r, Prof, x, Ph.u^ 
I'orni-ll I'niversity. .\ V 

ScilMii i,p I., Prof. p. \v ij ], 

S"li'i.l:v, A. E., .M..\., Christ s 
( ulli-gc, ( ajnbridge 

S.Mirii, Rev, Prof. (;. .\.^ j, ,, 
i.L. D. , (ilasgow 

SMITH, the l.,te Prof. W. Robert- 
son, I). U. , l.l.Ij 

SiAi.K, Prof. H., U.D., Ph. a, 

TllISI-.I.Tn.V-nvKK, .Sir W -,■ 

''^••"■M 1... I.I..D., F k .s" 
riFir. the late Prof. C. P., D f) 


•r"V. Pn.i. C. H., D.D.,Harv.nnl 
L niwrsitv 

Wi-;i.i.ii.Ms|.:n. Prof. Julius. U. I). . 

Ph.D.. (Juttingen 
\\H1TI.H„LS1.:, Rev. Principal 

\Vl.NCKi.KK, H., Ph.D., lierl,,, 
WiJoiiiloii:- i>rof. W. ;., M A 


Kom.ins (Epistle to/, et& 

Vcnr. etc. 


•Vrm.jn on .Mount, etc. 
•Sicrilice. ftc . 

H.d S,M, etc. 
Precious Stones. 
I liomas. 

.ScriU-s and I'h.u-isees. 
'1 eai her, etc. 


.Son of (iod. etc. 

.'-*cr|)ent, etc. 
'Ir.ade.and Conitnerce. 
.Sahiiaih, eti-, 
Samuel (Books of). 
\inc, etc. 


Wisdom Literature, etc; 


W.T. etc. 

Sinai, etc. 
Sardis, etc. 



Qlt.f.n i)F IIiavkn 

1^1 IKIMl « 




Kkm KKK< riON ,111(1 .\S( I N 

>ilii\ N AKU.VIiMtS 
ktl HI.N . 
Klllll>K^ . 

KKiiM. Kiiinri;iilHNE>< 

kllMANS (Kl'l'<TI.K) . 

kiiMt; ii'm »( Ml 

kl III, Monk nl 
SM km II 1, 

SAiim I I Ks 
Sai.ami.s , 

Sam I A III '\s . 


Samii I. . 


Saki.'in UMlh,iliuiii 



S Kill' ^. A.MJ I'llAKIsl F.s 

Si \ rillAN> 



SKKMiiS iiN Till. Mill N r 


Sf.RVANT UK rilK I.iiKli 

Setii. Skthite^ 


Shkkki. (with lUustriiinii 

SlIII.OIl . 

Siill" I with IlhistmtioiiS) 

SllI.•^llAK . 



SlI'.GK (with Ilhistr.itioiis) 

SlLA*, SiT.VAM ^ 
SlMKO,N . 

Simon Maois , 

.->lMoN I'KTKU . 
SlN , , . , 

SiNAl .»Nll . 

Smyrna , 

Sodom and Uomokrah 
Solomon . 
.•^i IN OF ( Jon 
Son ok .M.\n 

SriRlllAI. (ilKIS 


STAIKR (With lllustmtion 



Prof, fV K, Mix>re, 
l*rnf I' *i.irih»T. 
("rof, r K « hrvnr. 
Prof W M. Mull.T. 

\ Ml... Ml 

I'riif r. K ( hi')iw. 
Prill P, W. SthiiiK-del 

Il.,|.. W. 1I..i:k 

Pr,)f W, I \\i»Klhoii»e. 

I'liil. \\ 1.. .\ilili> 

I'lh, mill's 

Prof. W. t' VmII .MAtu-n. 

I'ruf W < v.lll M;ltlill, 

IViif. 1. K. I'hrym: ,iiiil thi- l.iti-, \V. kiilicrtwin Siuiih. 
Prill. M,irti, Prof I lii'im- ,iiil 

the i.iii' Priif W. K, Smith. 
I'rof. (i. K, Mi«iri- 
.•\, K. t'imlry. 
Priif. W I WiKxlhouso. 
Priif Ki-MMi'ily ,iiiil the hUf Prof. 

W. K. Snii'lh. 
Prof. 1 . K. (-'hi-ynir. 
.\. K, ( imlav. 
Pii.f W. I. Woodhouse, 

I'lof. II S't.lilf. 

Prill W I, Wooilhouje, 

km. V. li W. Johns. 

Prof, ti H. Gray and Prof. 

(. M,l.ssie. 
Priif. (i. II. Gray 
IVof. T. K. Chcyne. 
Prut I. I) Pnncc. 
Prof, \. Sdiiimlt. 
Prof. \V. I. Woinlhouse. 
Kcv. C. li, \V. Johns. 
Ki'v. J. Motfitt. MI.«m, .\. E. Shipley. 

,ihcl Prof. I. K. Cheyni;. 
I'rof. 1. K. ( hivne. 
Prof, r. K. Clicynf. 
Prof. V. Prow 11. 
.\. K. Shiplrv .mil S. A. Cook, 
(i. I'. Hill 

Prof. W, ('. v.lll M;iiii-n. 
Prof. T. K. ClK-ynr. 
M. .\. < .iiinev. 
Prof, \V. M.Mliller. 
1, ,\!irah;ini>, S. .\. Took, and 

Prof, r, K. I hi-viiu. 
Pr.if, I'M, Mi'vvr. 
Pr.;f. (). C. XVI.iti-hoiise. 
Prof. P. W, Schnilc-(1.-1. 
IIopoW. II. IKK. 
Prof. P. W. .Schmicili'l. 
Prof. P. W. .Sihniii-.l.l, 
Prof. \V. M. Miilli-r. 
H. WiiRkler, 
Prof. ( . H. Toy. 
!>r. 1. Iti'iizingi'r. 
Pruf. W. I. Wooilhouse ami 

IVt.f, U, M. Miilli-r. 
l'r,if. I'. K. ria-ym . 
Prof T. K. Cheyne. 
Prof. N. Sihniiilt. 
Prof. N. .Schmidt. 
Prof. .\.ltii<,inilK.'v. K. P.fiould. 
Prof. P. \V. .Schmiedel, 
kiv. C. 1. HiirlR-v. 
1 . f. Hill 
N.>- 1. Mofiatt. 
W. 1). kuss. 

SroNF,^ I Prei ious) 



SYNAOIKlt 1 , . . 

SVNt IIRII \l . . . 

SVRi \ iwiih Mapii 

r.XHI HS.Vi 

1 1 


1 «. 

1 1 \M oK , 






TRiMrrE , 

1 1 Al III.H 

li Mrii. iw 

ith lllti>ti,itioiisi 

I'l MI'I \ III 

l\ o 


ll N 1 lUlll 


slr,itioiis| , 

I'KXr AND \ KRsloNS 


1 IIK>k M iiNI \N« (KlIslI.K) 
Till ssM.iiMI \ 

TlloMA- Itlie .\|iostlcl 

I'll, I AlllPli.K^I R 


I IMoniV AND I'm s 



TiriiKs .... 
Tins .... 
ToiiiT .... 

TiiMKs i«ith lllu^iratioiisi . 

iKAl IIONI ns iwith M,l|isl 

(with Mapsi 

j rfRii.\N . , . , 

I rNKNIUVN Col). An \R lo 

t'R OK riii: ( iiAi.Di 1.^ 


\'ii«s. Vorivr OiFi KiN<;s 

W \S|iKKINi;~. WlI.DlR- 

Sl-,^ 111 
W \>.IIINIo, Cl.UKMi Nl M, . 

UiwiNi. i«iih lllu--tr,i- 

W'KI K . , , . 

W'l.Kni Is AND MKAM lit'- 
\ UlDOW .... 

Wind. Wind^ . 
i \\ inf. and siuoni; Drink 

(witll lllll,-ll.lllollsl 
W'lNlloM I.iri RATI Rl. 

I Wisdom iHouki 

; Wonders ... 



Yl.AK .... 

I Zadok .... 
j /F.iiri.iN .... 

I /I I IIARIAII (liooKi . 


I Zfri HiiMir.i. . 

i /.ll.l'.MI , . . . 


J. I. Myrni. 

i'rol W II lleniirtt. 

Prol W. M MuUcr. 

Prof I J. IVriti. 

M. .\ ( aniii'V ,iikI Ihc I, 

W. k. Smith 
1). (i HoKarih. A. E. 

anil II. Wiiukler. 
iJr. I. Il«'n/iiij;er. 
Dr. I. ll<iuinKi-r. 
kiA ti. .\ ( iiokc. 
Prof. W. M. MUUer. 
Dr. I. llfli/iliKer. 
!!»■ V.ry krv J. ,' 

kohiiison, D l>, 
Dr, I. Il*in/ingt'r. 
kiv. J .\loftati and Prof 
S, .\. CiBiL. 
y. (', Unrkilt. 
kfv. W, C. .\lleii. 
I'rof. (i. II (iray. 
Prof. .\ ( . Mliiftt-rt. 
Prof. \\ . J. WiMMJhoiist- 1 
I'rof. V. \\ .Sihmiedii 
I'rof. Kli. .N'fstlc, 
T. li. pinches. 
Uv\. I. Mofiatl. 
kiv J. .MoHatt. 

I'rof. W. M. Mliller. 
Prof. (i. F, Moore, 
kcv, I, Motlatl. 
Dr \V Krbt, 
Dr, 1. Ik'nzinger. 
I'rof. S. k. Driver. 
Pi of. <i. A. Smith. 

I. .Mir.nh.ims and S, \ 
Prof. W, J. Wooillioii', 
Prol, 1', llrowii aiul I'l 

< 'licyiii-. 
Prof. »i. I' Moore. 
.\(>riii,in Mi, can and s 

Thistlcton Dyer. 
Prof <i. I Moore. 
Prof, IJ, 11. liray. 

Prof. (). C. Whitehf ; 
M. .\. ('.inncy. 
Prof. .\, k, S,' Kerin. 

Prof. K. Marti. 

(1. I'. IPll. 

The Vcrv kev. J. .\ i 

Prof. T. K. Cheyne 
Prof. ,A. k. .S. Kcniii^ 

Prof. V II, Tov, 
Prol. 111. ro'y. 
M. ,\. <'aniicy. 

,\. I'.. Shiplev. 
Prof, .\. A. it,-vall. 
Prof. K. M,irti, 
Prof, W. I-:. Addis. 
Ilo|)<> W. Hogg. 
Prof, J, W'cllhaustii, 
Prof, Driver and tin- 

W. k. Smith 
Prof. T. K. I'h.'vn-. 
H..,».-W. HoKK. 
I'r. if. (ieldiuT and Pi 




QfTAIl. (1^, mu,. Kr. 1^, ,».,n.. 
mhTpa;' '_'"«'•''>.). Meni,oncd in KV In Ex lrt„ 

i- locust (Has=,d<,u„f, r,lti.rnat,v«, T-r'nW., 44,, r 
tl..: crane ,L)....„ Nunk-y an.l H. S. Halmer .1 
8 J, note 3) » in.-ant. ,s gi-nerally r«..gni«r.l. 

The Ar. wnnl for 'iiuail.' jd/u'^l whi< »i i . i . 

1. id«tiiu.uon. ^'i;! •^;'::v:;;;rU':^i;y;i:^''- 

lu.uu.r uf ,hi, l,ird a„,.„g the Arabian, ur.h.'Hll.:""'"' 
Th.-r,./«r«/r r^„.„„„, or c. .1.,. lylrwnam o( orm. 
h.,:„g,. . „ .»,.l|.k„„«„ ,„ ,|R. Sina.tif ,>cnin,ula. wht-re 
< |K.,^ .n.Kraf„K „„rthttar,l n. spr,„K, in |„,n,..„M. 
.ristram f„„ml tlinn in ihe Jor.l.m valliv 
hra.l 4^0,. ih,.y arnvc in l-al«tine ,n 
1.1 April -ih.msh a frw remani duriiu- 
„.«,„,.r_.,nth..«.,y to their l.r.-.-,hnK-piaces n, ,ht 
l...n.s an,l crnh.-l.l, „f ,h.. upj^.r .„nn.r,- ^ !•:"„ h.t 
".k, arc s.,,,1 i„ U- surpavvHl i„ „un,bers hy the i 
umnn ri.Kh. « hen they return S. to their winter- i 

rters. The .|un,l ,l,es very 1„« , whieh Dilln.a.n, 
| to explan, the nnportant clause at the end 
Null „ Omt s.-,. S ,) „ i, „„,„ f^,„ , 
•n..- falls an easv prey ,0 „,an. ,60,000 hav^ b, ", 
iptur«l ,n a vas,,n at ( apn. where the.r plump flesh 
" Ti " ,"',""-*■ •■'' '"''™' " '" ^'" along the 
■red as food l,y the ancient Kgyptians (Hero<l. •>„). 

■n..-rearetw„„,estoa mp,tof',„;;iist,^,he I 
"'"'"" '^■•,,.. in Kx, 16,./ (seen,-, the ' 
Th•qu»iII"''','':"';■^■* "f -^"i. "» the «.,v to Sinai I, 

of the ;""' '" ^"■lIiS-j,„-,4 (M-ene. Kihroth- 
anderinw. ."■'"•^■'> •'"■ iif'' the deiwriure from Sinai | 

Ihe f.,rn,er l.l.,nKs t„ p. n.. has just i 
I'l- M.>ses ni.d Aar.m l,'!: the Israelites that in the 
•.mig, hey shall know that Vahwe has hroURh, th^n 

of I'-Kpt. and that ,n the morninR thev shall see ' 
mes glory (,...6/). The evening event is the : 
iMl of the quails: the morning event is the lighfinp 
V.1 ..f the manna. Ihe redactor has omitted Ps 
-Mn. of the fall of ,he manna, the passage fro,", the 
' lay round to • has given you to eat ' Iwing J's (see 


r V ""A' V''- »"'-'' '"' .mail, oprvf i, civcn l,v 7, 
Or \en. On Kahhinical no.Ls k'/L,^ ,^ /" £> fe 
■1. I ". col. iijQ, and n. I. • 7= ■ i-p aiw 



T^Z ^^'••^"'"'""'cemenl ..f the .juail, s|«.cilie, a 

after this the flesh was .0 h.conie loathsome .„ ,he cater, 
Ihe coming of the ,|uail, „ thus d.^scriLd (ir , " 
• And .wind from Yahu<.|., sK »,„d I', ■«. . 'il 

"" ;■-;'' f^ ""^ -« I-'..' ="'r :; "•■ n';, l /.mS 

made then, to f,dl by the .amp, aU,,.', , .,ay , ,o„rney 

?u,^ r ■ r*^ " ■'"> ' '""""■>• "" the other side 
roun.1 alK,ut the camp, like heaps of wheat ^ (c-e-V«s) 
on the face of ,he groun.l. ■ -,(,. appropri,,„.„..s, „f 
the hgure ,, elear frcm. what follows. 'And the «',,„". 
rose up all that day, ami all the night, an, II , 'he 
nex .I,.y, and gathered Ihe .juails : he lu. ga he e.! 
least gathere.! ten h.mters an.l they sprea.l 'hem a 

tamp. H„t the r,-sull was a fat.d ■ \\ h,le 
he flesh w,,, yet l,e,vM.en their ..,.,h, ere ,, „,„ c hew e 
I the a.,ger of \ ahwe was kindle.l agams, th.- ,,.0, 1?, etc 

j or the nam.' ' (graves „( lust, it 
l«long, ,0 the large class of .i..iological legen.I ihe 

' ^^'k;;:;:^; ""'? ''"*"^^' •* i^-'^.'-'-iniK.r.!.!:' 

, .-Mrc MBHorif-H.\TrAAVAH. T K ( 

The peculiarity of the incident n.-r<l5 some U-iter 

.xplanatLin than a reference ,0 the si.itement of Aris'otte 

S. Th« mklady. ''' ''''"'"■ ' "> ■ 'P li.>chart, li. l ,,| that 

<|uails eai tjoisonous things— ^ e helle. 

Ix,re- which are harmful to men. It may t: m, re 

mstrucve, ,h..refore, ,0 give a paralle Va^ ZZ 

he Kli^nlKthan voyages. Th,. ship Desire I " 

""gmg to .av.n.I.shs Last and ill-fate.l expedil i.m 

: .. the east t.y w.iy of the l-acific. put hack for , " 

from the straits of Magellan in .„.. Thev.„,e t, 

I essel Port I), .„,d found on an islan.l near n such 
nui^U-rs of ix-nguins the men e.,„l,l h ,r,l v t-, 
without trea.ling „„ then,. A party of t e v.,wo 
nen was lamU-d on the .sland t.> kill L n 1 dr^ 

, then, on the ,ocks. From jo.h Oct. -to „n,| I>Z 

! ' ITh. lrad„i„n..l ,„, contains .w.> improbal.ili.ies-rai 

I applie,, ,,. a.,n,l ,Pas..k sbonU. pn, „, „„ ,„„ „„,„, V„'J 

v.! (*. .f...p.„.), from ..:. »bia, ,H:cur, a«ai„ .,„iy i„ p,. 

«,t „f ,h. ruling Hr;, „.hi,h ,,„„^ ,„.„ „,^ ^^^^ ' « 
cor^ruptjon, how..>„, must Ik= very uUI becans. of P-.Ts.,,.- 

•■< IThe l„l has 'aW, twocubils'(CT!H2). «hich the co,,,- 
must l„ c-5.n==, a figure whi.h occurs again in Ex. 15^ 




iVy killrilanrt ilfi"! jo ow . th*' tM| j"hn r».i\i.|, 
ttW' t||.i<ler, ,ii\i| lohii Ijiih', i)i.i n.irr4|.ir, wrrc In 
tmik' .1 •mill 'luiiiiiiy «.( 1.1I1 !>>• fv.i|i.ii iimK f;i uitif 
III h.ili'* oi III,' r.nki, »lt>;ti«iili ihn .,il|.i| .1 (•'rl.iiii 

h UI1I»T .if lill.U. • rillla l>.»l <IhI Ii'.-,| uh ••\«'n ,1. II 
W'Ti? Milli iii.itiii.i fnitii h'.iv.Mi,' I Inly 14 00.J ilrwil 
(n.nnuMi. ■riiiM !«■ i;,,t ,,n tuml. I'lif irew ».i- |iiii 
111! r.ilin i< of Hill, h itu' [jriii>l|>.il |>.iil wi'. tuf (ir-i.ijjiitu 
iiiry (l,iv iiii.iin; (..iir 111.11. It u i, tmi uniil vimB 
tini.' .id.r ili.ii ili„M«! 1,1, .k.- .,^,1 ih- i,n.'il l.inl« 
hmiin Ui-im III lprri-r| a lirjji' \wiiii in .ipfallini; 
iiuiiilK-r-. Ill 111.' A iniHT ! iiiiU'l'v 

V.irwiu. «uii|it.)iin ..1 itir hiTf il.-«rili.- 1 .111- 
•iiHiiifiulv ■ li ir icHTnlii- .i( li.e luuii' .|ri>|iM4iil funii ..I 
thi' tll^'.w i.ill i| l»'il Ibti (-i.iiie el.riii' 111- ii.inii- fruiil 
llii'; ili.w .in-, liii*i-vrr, ilri.i»h,il t<in>liihMi< 
i.lllvil liy ( wnrni'i .i|p.irl fnnil llir s|k-. i.iI .li.lrtu' 
fiioiH 111 i\lii.|i |..ri-li.rl Is c.iiiiiii.iiilv .i„ril«->l llm. 
h'lmviT llii> iii.iy U/, llif ti.u.illi h-iu Um.-, 11 lln' tun 
n.irr iiivr* 1* (ihvioiii, rtu-rc w ilu- s.iiiu' i;iMi«Tir>'', 
.mil thv.|iii(l i« .1 1'.ii tiiril. hki' Ihr iifiiguin, Mhiih «iiul.| 
i..rrii;ii lii.' ni..rc t-.i.ilv it 11 vii n- ilrii-i| wiili its In 
Si, Kill I. wlurr tho ilirt UNnl t.i U' uf .iiiilru il ij.iiincis 
.111.1 fulni.iri, ii w,u tuMloniaiy to llic l»-f"rc 
curing. I.-, c, 

.\ I - s. A. C . i( I , 1. K, I , jl j; I, c, jl 3. 

QUARRIES (KV'X Kr.nin iiii.n;cj'; C'Vcg ; 
TiiiN r^TTTwN ; /./,'.'■', tmli: .liojAtl. Tin' /i". V/* 
iH-iir Uiiu il .If .1 wiU-kiiuwii l.iiiilni.iik. lUli. u^.l|;c uf 
/••.V f.iviiuK Inu n-nte ■ »iul|ilurfil ■(.urnl »Hiiir«' i«o 
M'jiir.'. HiiiKlfi. M.iiiy sthdlari nnil ,111 ^illiiMon to till) 
Jl.iiiv, iiii-mi,.ii.-il III |,i,li Uj... If su, /'•■■i.'im u ii^ctl 

m KMIV uf • IkwII »liJIH's. ' Cp Aii. /.lil.V*, 

.1 I' ; Vg. IVsli. K'^" ■ 'liurtii's.' a guMi. i 

I lis licwiifilie Kliii.l«|..rya>lv.i. ,i|..Jilv:wh«i5(M:e JmiiMn, 1 
I -'). wlikll il.-ti-. 1^ .-in uniliTlviiM f..rni in wIikIi Ihc lilai c. 
ijjtiie*. 11..* cirriiptcil, \v«r« .f lli« N. .r*.!.. .lutil.i mi 
U.lli Ihc a!".>« th«"n«s. ,\nion,i ihi; pusKibW tfjirupliotii of 
>»)r;V (Miill;«l) it •SB '" ''•M. cp MMi ikiil. In ..rdcr I.) 
rK.iiv I.. •>' ir.iti (f .r llm ica.liiii; ;i.J..picU l.y ihi- iirv^i.-nl wri'«r 
•»t Sfik\m). Kliuii li.i.l 1., ,,.!>, an ..iil|,i.t „f |,hin:i-liit« 
(»,l«ralim««litif>); fur Kffloii. Ih« Mi^rilc king, w.n* a Irrah- 
mwlin («« r. ij. where • ' and '.VnMUlt' (..,ih« 
' Jtr.ihiia-<n C''"ae. rea.l ihrieforc proli.illy C'''li;tr*. 
4, j"-«!i. "> KN'iiifc' , Mic SiirH.ihiM. J kI. 

QUAKTEBMABTE« ( nrHjp-l^). Jtr-Sl,, KN-ir 

.•^'C Sf.HM Ml. 4. 

Q0ARTTT8 (kdyaptoc [Ti. WII]).uMs his s.iluta- 
liou t.. ili.ii (if TiTtius, .iJdrivii'd to tin- Cliri-ti.yn^ in 
Runif. lit Ilie clcise of R<.ni. liluj/). It h.15 Ven coii. 
jctturi'il ih.ii hii iii.iy h.m- t»-i.ii mio of tli..i=e Ji-.\^ who 
wiTc L-»|«IIf<i friiiii k'lnii; liy Cl.iiulmJ. .Sft;, furtlii-r. 
Simon (the Cyn-niani, 

111 Ihc li-l, ,.f ihe vrvcnty .li- iplr, by the Pseuju.t)..i,.ihrus 
.Vl.l l'«u,I...Hl|,,,..',,„ h.- :,,.|., ,„ „ hiOi.p „f llrrjlns. 
Ill llie .p.- n-| .^. 1 .//'.'..»«.//■„■/ hi- 1, a roemiirr ,.f 

'.."■ )'!'■'•'"•'" ii""''. "'"•• ^.f "h' »ul4i«i. who tiavf charu. „( 
I aiil in k .inc. • 

QUATERNION (tstpaAion : Acts li,!. a K„ar,l 
uf|.. Mil'lnrv 

QUEEN or HEAVEN (D'PV'i? njSo: 6 h 8aii- 

AlCLA THY OYPANOy. •■x«|,t 1,1. -, 3 H CTPATIA THY 

1. Cult. "JP*niiy' [A'|. .Sym. Th.-...,!. BM:',\ii;i:Hh 
\K. r.v"'iJ <'i'h: I'rsh. fulh.m ■cm,::\.i. 
fXo;.t Jit. Uir, mdkit Um.ivyd:'' Tt;. N'OL" nSSlIi! 
.111 iif «.,r<li;|i to which c.fl'.-nni;s ■.(,■1.. nii.l.-'iv 
iiih.iliit.mis of I.TUs.iI.-ni -iiid ulli.-r ..iin.s ,,f Ju.l.ili 111 
thf s.-vnth iiimiry an.l l.y J.-wish rrfii);.« in Ki;vpt 
ntt.T the f.ill tif the kili>;i|oni ; see ler. 7i6.r. 4415.., .' 

The petuli.irily uf thi, wor'^hip ap,H.,,r,. f,«„, 
Jeremiah's ilc>.tripti.,n. to havf In^en the offering ..f .1 
-■ kind of ( ili,...^ which w.:re ni.i le l.v the |ei< isii 
women with th.' iUM.t.mce of their families ( ' the bovs 

1 Pr.0.3h!v reading K-y ;i. In s , VI , . 

• C.ntamination from'a, which is ollitrwije demonstrahlc in 

111)3 % CISC. 



g.ilh.r llfr».««| anil Ih.- f.ilhrT? kinitlr ih.- iii,- .iml th« 
»imwn klK-.lil ilmluh In ni.ik. liik...' il... |i r ;ii; ip 
41 19). IIm- i.iku ».r.' .rtefe.! i.i tin. il- ,iv liv tirn 
llliii?.< Jl'.. kill,), 'TI-, .■rti.ii.-oii,;, m 

KV. 'Uiiii iiKtinr I. .m.l tin. lauinnK » n .1., i,ni|i.i I 

lit I4».r / I rhi«i rilij ».ie («n,,rni«il in 
iiie iiiii-. uf jiiii.ih jnil in the mmiH uf )ini».iliiir 
l"i7 Hi;i . Ilw wur.l.ip ,i-inn to hue Iv.-n ilume.t;. 

• 44ii Ki .1. . ' 
.mil a-M.uiiii' 

I in nul 111 

Is .itlirinul 

Ui.,+ ;» t^ 

—Ihf pLinFl Vrnii. («r 1.^1.. w, | i>. 
i'|."..l lo iMtlfy til lh« il ..Ml. ( I 

■inii i..>iitiiii i«it will 
„. T.,r'; Inn I 

oili c 
.111 III 

c tfKI an 

iiii.l |n'rli.ip» mircirii.illv .1 ». .111.111 1 I nil 
thai til*' iiM'ii .iiai«i In tli« |> i 
llii'ir "hire of the ri".|i.inMliiliiy illii/i> 
lOiiHi^telit Willi the l-ilter \n«. ii.,r .ire tin 
111 wluih Ilu- pre\.llehi.e u( Hit wiff,!,,,, 


I I.e t.lkes tiilWU'tlHtM. eT|. ?er TH 

Xiii..>>i. .inil In the l.itirr pi<*.i|;e x<«><"t ['.»*1 
Xai,<i4i>..« |i«"|: Vii. /.'.Ill M/,i: |',-,|,, M../*.irr'. ,i «|ii.' »•, 
uf i.iku;' Tk jts-v; ..r [n-.n;. |»Th,ip, 
Xwi^Hrui ' li.ii iHiM Wire rii;hliv loiiip.neil l.t 
< lin.. -I^.m .111.1 ulliei e.iiK luiiinieiit.ituis full.- iruiroi'a 
or ITdiuaril ol the lile.k-. i.| wliii'i there w.-n- in.uK 
V.lliille» " SillM uf thev Wde hl.liie In the likelK'n . 1 

a M' lim ; 'theii ini.ii;ed of x>iiil«jli«.d liie deity to 
wliuin they wrr.' urtereil.' 

Il bj« Utii 111, ujlit |.^ many that itie tunv^mlm ..f lie- 
qii.rn ..f h.MM-ii 1. |.n,»nir,| ilic ni....H."..r uii..ii a .liffei.i.i 
VI. w nf h»r n.ittit.— ih,. plapFl Vrm 
44 ei ha* l«i.n mill 

III l" -■ lll« v»ih .^Jjl'l* lain 

» 1-1." .....1 Ii.i''l, ini.,^.. 

lh« iiilfri.u-l.iiK.n aie crxlirmcly il.ulilfnl 

The ti.ui'.I.iin.n • (Ju«n uf Heaven i lA'l repreMin, 
m,!ii\:t ''.imJuiii ,■ .mil tliii interpritation — the unU 
1 TlUt. '""^ whiili w.iiild n.iturally !>^l»;^ie,t itiell i.. 
■ one who r. id the vtords csci n:*0 in .in uii- 
' pomteil text -i» »up[Hirte<l hv the olile-.t rxrgetieai 
iradiimn (Pi. The vuwelled text, however, gives ri"~ 
(m,\Vi,-t\, tre.^tin^ n:'»D M .1 (lefeitive .s)«.l!iin! of n;it-: 
It. nil nm--;.'" ' wuik.' and this view uf the derivation ■ i 
the word is represented liy IVsh. />,////,(« (,«,iii j 
(reliKiotn work. culni»|. Uk Jewish silvUirs wii'i 
whom this inlerprei.itiuii -e. ^.,u, i ,ublle>j Ih •,i,,: • 
that the w.irship of the g-^-, p-i., ... jc 7 41 \\Mt\w 
same .IS the worship of the ho.stuf he.tven' (c-sr.T Uii 
Jer < J I it 1 1 Zeph. 1 5 1 )t. 4 D 1 7 i. etc. 

1hisi,lrnlili.ati..n. -ntjc,lc.l |Hnl,.,p,l,) aKfU.-r^'l • ..miviri... 
of ihe ref«rtn. .. to iht-.: cull.. >v,.nl.l .crm t.. lie . .nliniif.t ! \ 
the iia\s.iiin in whn li llw w..r-liip ..f ih.- c— C^ P*"^ aiipr.n- 
lu l« t.|iiival«iit t. l.iirninK ,.»l.riin[, „r nulmi; 'i 
oll.erv.Js (.c»;i. 44li; cp i:-i.A a. lli..u.;h Ihc tult »..■ 
a.|.|rc..r,l 1,, a c .llv.iivc ..l.jc. t -n. h as the lii-.isinlv l..«liv.. \ 
warr.inl f .rMkin^. ihc w..|.l :.;»s« j,, il,,.. ^„^^ w;i. f..un.l ' i 
tier. '.' where :i:it«~ (I .ikI. • »,,rl; whi.h lie wl.iii^hl ') in r'. ..i 
1. ..Ini' ivirallel M Kjs in r. 1.11 this opinion was kn..>. 1 
l.i lerunie, who wiuv. (I .././<«. en Jci 7 i-): u^iiiai cwli . . . 
'.jii.iin ilcU-mu. iic. ii^Tr. vi-l certe iiiiliii.c va-li. * 
iinnies sl-l!.i» inlrllijamus.' .ml is livi-n a plu.c in the iii.u ii 
uf A\, 'frani'i. ..r w.irknuinsliip i>t he.ivcn.' 

MiKlerii »i holars, however, almost without <:xccplii: 
h.iie .i.lii|it.d the older .111.1 iiiuie 11 inl.rpret.iti. > 

i|iieeii uf heaven.' Thu prev.iiliiiR opinion w ~ 
vigorously assailed l.v Slide Ml 1886, lie m.iintaiii.-i 

1 IVoi/. //;/., 17 ,j, (i8v£), with. nit apparent rc.Ts-.n, .■,,nn." 1- 
3 K, '.'.■Ir.* wiih lliiscull. 

' s..-, f ,r ih..-..p|i,.,iie-,pin;.:i.. .si.i,i,., z I /■;(■•; ijTw: 

• Mr" I'.. 1.1 .Ik MS, t 1. 

• |ste Lanarile, (,>,<. .i;*, 4j. i. 8.| 
' J.i.liuw, /'i^-umary, ,..- , |..iherwi-c Levy, /.i.,-. //!(., 

JJ ■'■ ■ 

• >ee l.-jfjcck, .•/^/,i^./*.iw.i,.. 1-/.../^; 
' ,Steni;cl, (,'>„•,*. KhIiu.;i;i,i liimrr^'i, tjo ; f,.r sin.i:.. 

cu.loilis.imong ..Ihcr (wples -xt Licl.rc.hf, /fur l\'/i,;iuH ;, 

411. //: 

" f -niparir.,; iliu nii^ei,ii.T(f i.f at Ihc Miniv.!i . 
Alhrn. U645 a; I'rvllcr k..l.crl. t;ri{,-h. Mythi'Uvit I 11. 

" ■>., Sym.,T2., k.i-hi, 

1" llml-,i, n of viiini „. Kx.miplcs nf this s|iellinji '"iin : 
I iKenu lan ins. ripli,,n- -.-.j-., CIS 1 n... .-'6 .\ /,'. 6 .^ (In r 
. ihcr han.l. m.sny Hebrew .MSS in our |Kis.s.i|;c h.ivc ini; • 
dt|.:cil H int.' ihe text. 

II \:.aiMan,;..ii Jer 44i5,asthr..pini..n<.f..ldcrinleriiret,o 
Similarly iuilc, ^.l n\,' 6 jjv. Sec also Dckirim nidj, i .-. 
end. ' 



II n not ,,f,,)K,l,i,. ih,,i .X ,|,„, ,„,„L., ,■ . . 

h,.v.„. -. »i...^..,.pi.-„v,r!'r;i::"::;c:."7",:;f 
'|-.lM^^.rul.n,h";:■:^:Tu!,,:;''''''"';• •'••■ '■''-"''- 

cull .,f .)« grr;,, K„,|,|,.„ .\,„„„, ■?,,. ,,,.'" . I 
nl Ihr l,.-:,v^„li |.„|„., '"I'"" •>'_'l'-«'l I'. 

.. .h,. H„„h,,, "fte 7' ,r'' ''■•■'''■■'''■'"'■ "'''■''"■" 
t'n.-r.ii lh.-..ry «huh in il,r l.iMre,,,,,?,., 

::r:t;;t'!f" -'-•'■"-":.."':";!;: 

I'lr ttoimn ofl.r.-.l ,;,kM !,, il„. \',r., \ '«i ",«. 

'•■>• P-i •ll^.^.■ (,.,„„„"« s'\'^«" •^'"^*; ■■' »l'""« 

I nickdi, I ,ujf. '"'•"' "' '^"""'•»'' 

"I"-- Hel,. «„/*^, * ij^j.m "'■'' '-I"""-" 

"U, was <allr.l m„lt„i lemLv, 1., ,k , ' 

> .s .hr ,„„.,i,„..n,s o^*' ^;^ 't t,,;^""r";r 


-U-me ,h..l a cull of V.nws v.„h Ihe ^, ikie , , ;t^ 


ArcorrimK to P,.,*,,,,.,, „ .1.1,, ,h.. MiR-.n •,. ,rf 
' l'^" '' i» '"filly pri.lMl,!,. ii,,,| ,„ ,,,j, 


«i»-'mh.;' ;:'';";"'"•"■ ■""', ''■ ■ f-i" ■- .... 

< K M Y ,"";"':"""-^ " i' ■'"«) "' '> .1.. (..av.,!; 

,l;^;:";:^:/l'./?'f;r'V"" ---'-''-^ 

' " '.™'.."'''-l"^ •^""■Ki.. .1.^ lllm.„.|;.'V.(/'/'• 

11/ /.I in ,i,..,.t^ 

iMi.l ihr Arum.,;.; ji,: 
.v. ;_'l>ii- i..,ciin 

Si.., I,, ,„.. ,„„„„„|,^|,^ KnniKin ,1 
QUICK8AMD8 (cYPT.c : Mtm .71. RV imu'l" ,. 


O0WCE. SreArPLK. !la(4), col. ,69 

QinsTn^! MEM >!a a < . m.,.,.. , , ,,,, s«. .m„,. 

:.. K.i;.<-.,f An 

•Iph. H.rr. 7« 

wilh (he 

Jc[i._;uHi ulhers. 

T .T \\-iiiis cult t. 
S« Ki>sch, 'A 

'■, '; '"•■ .8-,S. IM>. 26,^ 
lira.lcr : for lillc «, 1.^1..^. • 
■ I'liii:.!!., M,Ul:,i„nsl, 86. 


es the 
r. 7<4. 


QUIBI1II08 UYPMNioc:[Ti. Will, Lk •',) Th- 
name ,„ ,,,. „ft.,., „ „,,[, ,„ ,„ l^^^^^ .;}\r 
1. Ur.. p;''P'""" <^u.r„Huv The- man, fact, „f i,„ 

•'<"".ur of ,. ,r,„„,ph. \M„„ .;.„„., i-,,i,r r. '„, 

I proairt-,! hun ., pul.iu funeral "' aiA.D. 

>>r.a in 6.!,u., H^er;:.::;;:^ f^'an"::;;,;^;;;;;;;:';^,,;^ 

- Cp also Heroil 3h /\r>l..^ 'ii < . 

n..:..ntinaph"i,j|\;"J^'L';'„,; ' '■•'.""ly' «.- <.riKi„:,lly 

:' .-h;//. ; . „ p„..m'.:::;', -.v.'if:,: ^;:s';;';' •" »'-i>-«i-^-«a; 




3. The ceniua. 

siiiiic otTii.c, The view ..f Mohithmmi i-- ih.'it thi-. previous tenure 
w.-i-i i;i M r.c., ainl tint itn' > ru-.iiin£ .if the Hnnii'naileii^t'i, 
uho >1vvl-U in C'ilit i.i, .it liiiit. att.i<hril lo the |>r>>\in< <; of 
Syria, w is an cvL-nt of thi> r'lt-t ur.K .-iisul.ttc. It .aiiiiot uell 
he liatett t.irli'T, betaiise Sfiitiiis S.itiirnimK fc;>ivtriit;(l >\ ria 
g-7 In... and tJntiRtiliu-. \';iriis fri>ni 7 \i.< . l<» after tlie tie.ith of 
HtToil (I.ti, lli.\f.''u\, >iii»_e he put tiown u -cditiuii which 
aro-.c when IKt-mI dii-'ii. 

Amid thfsc f.uis, tlit: st.xlcinunis of Kk. as to the 
<l;Utr anil cJRumstimf.t's of the l>irth of Jesus fji-i?) raise 
intrKitle (iiii'stions. The miraculous 
I'vrnls jjrt'itvhiiK the birth c.itinot \>c 
discussed fnmi the hist.'ru;il |ninit nf view; l.ut tile 
asMTled C--IISIIS in Iml.i m ;nul the juuniey of Joseph and 
\\^v\ t'j lifihlehem cotiie withm the Held of hi>lorieaI 

I-k s statements are as follows : — • 
{ 1 1 r.csar Augustus decreeil a general census of the 
Roman world. <_>f such a general ct-tisus nothing is 
known from other sources, though Augustus made a 
census of Kotnan citizens on) v. However, we need 
not delay over this statement. whi< '1 is unimportant 
for our purjKJse, and may Ih- merely an exaggeration. 

(2t I'his census was Hr.^t earned (tul in l'.ilr-,tine in 
the days of Herc»d. when (^Hunnius was governor of 
Syria. Here several dilliculties arise. From the a;>f)ve- 
cited testimony of T.icitus, it appears that Quirinius 
was not proconsul of Syria tmtil after the death of 
Herod. Palestine l>eirig not >trit.tly a part of the 
koinan I'.inpire. but .1 di-p Mident or prutetted kingdom 
und'-r Herod, a komati census would not U* carried 
<uit in that district, ttn the other hand, we know that 
when in 6 \. l). Archelaus the son of Hero<l was deposed 
from his tetrarchy of Jud;va, and the district was 
annexed to tlie pro\ince o*" Syria, tjuirinius. who was 
then for the second time' prtjconsul oj" Syria, cirried out 
a census in Judiea. which caused, as we learn from 
Josi'phus 1.-''//. xviii. 1 1), nmch disaflection in that 
country. It is not uimatural to suspect that I.k. may 
have misdated his cen.sus. 

<3l For the purposes cjf thf census every man went to 
the abode f)f his family or clan ; thus Joseph went to 
ii<'thlehem the town of D.ivid.' and with him his 
affianced wife, Mary. It i-i, however, pointed fnit th,it 
in a Roman census t-very man reported at his place of 
rcsidi;nce. No instance is known t'> us in aiUi(]uity iti 
which the ( itizens of a country migrated to tiie ancestral 
home of their fannly, in order to lie enrolled. In any 
case, no ancient census would re<piire ih-- presence of 
any but ihe head of a h'>usehoId. \\'onien would 
certainly not have to apjM-ar in ix.'rson. 

These c'lnsider.ilions h.ive leil many historians, such 
as Mommseii, tj.irdtliausen. Keim. W'ei/saLker, and 
3 Ramsav'H '*^"'^"''*'''' *"' *^"'' ^'•'^^' *^''^ I.k. s statements 
' Theory iihoul thccensusof (^niirmiusarealtogether 
^' mistaken. On the other hantl. some 
writers, such as Huschke and W'ifseler .nid manv 
ICng!i>h thi-o]()gians. ha\f adopted an apologetic atti- 
tude in reg.trd to l-k.'s statements.- The most recent 
apolr»get!c work on the subject is that of I'rof. W*. M. 
Ramsay. H'jf Ckriit born ■// lUthleh mf in which 
work it is pointed (uit in regard to "Juirimus that I.k. 
does not say that it was he who c<mduct'-d the census, 
but only that it made when he was in some position 
of authoritv in Syria (^■>fMw»', not dt'^t'-jraroy. pro- 
consul 1. He may have l)een in command of troops of 
the Syrian [irovince against the Homon,alens<'s nt the 
time. It is further tiiaintamed that a census conducted 
by Herod in his own dominions might decidedly differ 

I fOn ihu- I.irthplare of David, see David. $ i; Dfbir; 
.?: iMH.i(4.| 

- A --nnimary. and refutation of their views will he found in 
S- hiirer s CVl ^A' 510-543 <ET i. 1 105*143). 

from a Roman census. es|MTi,dly in the point that the 
|i*'Ople might Ik." numl>en'<t not by domicile, but by clan 
or family. 

A new clement has U-en introduced into the discus- 
sion by ihr discovery front papyri publi.shcfl by Me:»srs. 
(.irenfell. Kenym. and others, that an enrolment 
occurred in I'igypt at intervals of fourteen years from the 
year 20 .\.l>. onwards, and prob.ibly from the time of 
the regulation of I'^gvpt by Augusta-, that is, also in the 
years 6 A.l>. and 8 B.< .. and further that this enrol- 
ment was a census by families, not a mere valuation 
of pro|)erty. Oxw or two definite, though not c'lnclusive, 
pieies of evidence, seem to indicate that this periodical 
census was not conhned to ICgypt. bi'.t was, in some 
cases at all events, extended to Syria. 

Arguing "U the b,i5is of this new discovery. Prof. 

Ramsay miintains that a census n"'v probably have 

! lx,'en held in Syria in 9-8 n.( ., and gives certain reasons 

j why, if Ht-rod at the same time projH)sefl a census in 

Jud;va, lie should have postponed it to the year 6 h.(., 

and then carried it out on a ditferenl plan from that 

usual in a Roman census. The date 6 B.C. Ramsay 

• accepts as prokibly that of the birth of Jesus. 

I To set fi>rth I'rof. kaiii'^av s aryiinufnts at length 1^ impossible, 

j and they are so minute as not to l>e:ir cump' ■^sion. Hut if we 

I grant thtir valitiitj' they Icav^ unt;.\nlained ..everal diflrRultie>. 

j Why should a cenMis in Judara Ik; dated by Kk. by the 

irrelevant fact of a campaij^ii lieing at the lime fought by 

; (^uirinius in Cilicia.' Kven if an enrolment bv tribes wa-« 

, tarried out by Herixi. would this l>e likely to invufve a journey 

I of all Jews to the native towii of their faniily'.' How could 

I the presence of Mary be re<iuired at Itethlehem, when it was a 

s'-tiletl principle in alt ancient law to treat the male bead of a 

i f.uTiily as resixmsibleforall it- members? In Palestine csjiecialK' 

I it i-> ditlicult to imagine such ;it)ruceei)ing as the summoning of 

, women to apiwar before an officer for cnnjlment. On all thc-e 

questions the new discoveries shed no light, 
j The last difficult)- is further increased by the use by Lk. of 
the Word «^»'»)<tt«u/j.«»7I (unless, indeed, it be an early emenda- 
I tion of the text by some Ncribe). Kt>r this word implies that 
Mary at the time was not the wife of Joseph, but only betrothed to 
him. In such circumstances her travelling wiih him Vi 
HethU'hem is even more inexplicable. She would not go as :in 
heiress, or m her own right, as we have no reason lo supiKi--- 
that she was descended from David, and indeed from llx- 
context it is clear that she was not. 

Jos<-phus tells us that the census of Quirinius was ,, 
great iimovation, causing alarm and n-volt ; it is therefoj^- 
not t.'asy lo think that a similar census can have U-en 
held twelve or fourteen ye.irs earlier, and pas.sed ntt 
with so little friction thai Josephus dws not mention n. 
It is true that IVnf. Ramsay discriminates in charad- t 
the earlier census which he from the Roman 
census f)f Quirinius of 6 A. i). ; but i; is doubtful how 
tliis view is m.unlainable, es[)eeia!lv as Lk. uses the 
same wt>rd (dTr(rypa</n7i to designate the known census 
of (Juirinius nncl the supiMJsed earlier census (Atts 
fn?*- Tints thete can Ih: no doubt that the supiJosilion 
of errors of f.icl in Lk. woultl. from the 
point of view, remove very great difficulties. The 
question which remains i.s whether our opinion of Lk 
as a historian is so high that we prefer to retain these 
difiiculties rather to supi>ose serious errors in his 
narrative of the birth of Jesus. See, further, ChRoNo- 
I.t";v. Jjis ^7 ff. \ (lospM.s. S 22 (col. 1780, n. 2), niui 

Cp N.VTIVITY, \A/..\kI IH. 1'. c. 

QUIVEB. I. nsrN, 'a>>M. cp Ass. /^/<//«, 

ti^pf rpn ; ph'Xretta: liter. dlv In T"b3',*23 (tP om.) Is. ■J-.'-; 
fuut.iiively in Is. -ty .- W. 1J7 =; K^ i^xQvit.i'xv') Lam. 3 i 3 br 
Ii !■- (ip oiii.)f. In L.K11.313 arrows are called 'suns uf v..t 

J. '7pl, fii, 4'^pwTpa., /i/tarctra ; den. 27 i.t The sense, hiw- 
ever, is ui. certain, ip, Vg.. Tg., Ps..Jon., Ibn Ezra, render 
'quiver,' but Oiik., I'esh., Kashi, * ■ ord.' \'r:**n ^leaIl^ !» 
hang, suspend.' Pos>iibly I'^p is ' jirupt repetition ('Imi - 
gr.irn) nf" the pre- ediiig -'Sj, whi vord (KV 'thy weapu!.^ i 
would quite well refer to the quiver ind arrrowF Cp WEAfoNs. 




KCin , I L h. 1 9 R\ Rjuuna). Raa.nali Is ,ils.. grouped 
«.ll> Sh.-ha in Kzekiel s list of trade rem- ^-„ 
n--r ; /WMa [11]. ^.y^a [A(jJ(. A Sal-.- „ :■■ '•, ,„ 


. 'Ill .'l.ivilali ' 
' II" K'.iiinrit ' 

H- v.i tune 
'■•v.-it'. pirt., 

IVrsiati (luii 

((.laser. 1 155) refers to 'the hosts of Sal 
,15 attackwiK certain ,x'o,,le 'on the 
Utween Maaii | = M.Vin, ? Hal,. Magai 
iHc.n.mel. AHT^j^o ; ep /.DMCWQ^^i) 
at any rate one Raaniah. (ilaser h.,nl. t,e.y el-Kham.a. ,.„ W 

.S</- ,. '..5.1. Aganist ulentitieation with ke^'ma, on 
he side of the san.e gulf, see Dilln.atm. Cp 
-_Ku,;«A,.„v, § .3. ,.n,l rrit. /W. o„ (ien. IO7 I'.ek 

EAAMIAH (n<pn. ■ Yahw6 thunders?' cp 3 K 67 
46, ,/. where the storni-god, is ealle.l' the 
r' i',;,'"'"'' '■'- '-f 'hmuief [I,el, .,„. //„y, i^. 
Ihe I h.rn. proiH^r name NjnDin ,s no support tl e 

.f't'he'T's' '"■","•'-«<;" "i-^'' "- -f .hetweiVelead'; 
I. . maM.« [lij. .a,M.a |M»..] ; the last two L hngs "e 
ue to the pro.xnnlly of N.mi.v.m.x.n, (^ ,. |, Cd 

eUl.KNMI;.\T, S 26. Hr-'-ll- Lp 

. .1.. later h,.t,,r)- o"l"Ul (O,. ^•"•^■■'^^'"""" -"'"s f,„ ,nuch 

p^^t^tuf ° '°°°-' '■-"'■'■ '"™ '^^"'^^'^^ -'i 

RAB. Tile use of 3-1, rab. 'chief, head, leader' in 
'mi.oun<l titles descriptive of rank or office (corre- 

""s vrhn" 'p/ "■■ *'''""' '' «'*'■'•■"">• "^-M exen.pliHed 
.\ss\r an, I'laeincian. and Aramaic 

;,!;?' :r"T'";'"^-r"'* •'"'■■'•'-■" 'head scrihe' (.ee 
.....r) ami n,/. „,W '.r.asurer' (, p Hd,. rs:3). see I.d 

I his usage of ;t seems to U- wanting in the S 
".it,c stock. an,l in Hebrew is no, fre,,.,™,. Here 
•more con.n.on tern, en,ploye<l ,s .(„. '„,» p.,euliar 
Meh. I winch .s fre,|„e,„ly found in pre-ev,lic writings 

uM?^ lo,. L!'" '" ""'"-n- i" <h«^ la'-,ture 
"Id Ix- looked upon m s,„ne cases. |H-rhaps. as a 
mal of a ,,n,e ,.,p„iar idion,. and in othe s as '.an 
•ntional archaisni. 

■e ^Mrl> wn„ngs; the K-st instances b-'ing the 
■■ejiifragn,ent(;en.'..r...3 (elder' op,K,sed to^;^, 
^11 1. (,l or Ki. ■ K.I!.;. Am.ti,. In .agreem.n 
1 th,s ,s the „,sage of ,he Heh. con.pounds of -^ 
'!■ express a rank or office. Of f,.,e,g„ origin J„" 
" I..T hand, are the compounds Raltsaris' Ral" 
>- n. an,l Rah-mag. which ap|,ear to U, titles l«,rrowe,l 

; .ind ,,re mere descr,pt,ons of office 

o.inor Hal. jlonian analogy; („1 CT-t: :-, ^ K "'.stin^n 

"'.' i^'rv'kh. ",';?r""'' ""'*■ '" '"«:"p"o"«^ iidddi a^d 

'' \ .«(«:, I.a SyrU cnlTalc, nos. 6. 7, 15, ,g cc 
he -xa,, „p,>,.i,e i, ,he, however, wi,h 31, 'much 
(a5 opposed to l:y,;). ■ ' 


Dan. -J i4» ; I F V ' captain of the Ruard,' AVm^. • chief n, .rs),,; • 
tins C ,1.8.1 It,-, Oe„.a7 3-. 3:m 41 „; ,,, ^.j 3,^ ^^^„, , ^,_ 
olTicer of Ihc. 1„ .u.*h„ld (oi.oTOMOt I IlKA 1 ,3)) • .„„| ,, ) ,....- ,, 

.. .n,e,ul,ers the CT'K.l Ic, C'prj.l ,-., „,j c,,,^, 'O. 
wt *i reitir iiU.eii. 3'.».4], »■■ -' 

,„,^*^?^- '^•^""'"" °f the Ammonites ,,-3-1 nai 

T . • ' n I ols I,. ///./. V. , 4, „ appears as faSffara^aia). 

Ral,l,ah is n,ent,om.,l in Dt.3„ as the l.K-ation of 

UKS l,td or s,irc.,phagus (sre Bkii. S 31; also in 

2. HiBtory. •'"^''' '''■'S. '" ">nnectio„ with the iH.rders 

of I. ad. In 2S. 11/ , ( h.-Jijwehave 

an ac,„,„,t of the siege and capture of R.,l,l,ah l,y |„ab 

•'..1 I)..v.d. In the oracles agamst .\,n„„.„ bv .A, „os 

erem.ah, and l-.^ekiel. Rabbah represen,s .\„,n„,n . ^ 

being „s ,a,e m.p.,rtant <,ty. ler. 411, refers ,0 ihe 

ire.isures and the well- watered vallevs of Rabbah an,^ 

I'.'ck. .'.-,, Amos I„ to i,s p.daces. These oracles 

f .\mn,on. In K/ck. -Jl .-.. .\ebuchadre/.ar hes„.„,s 
he.her ,0 n,a,ch aga,nst lerusalen, or k.,bb.di. but 
decdes for Jerus.,len, by casting lots. Tl„„ K,!,,,,,, 
W..S the capiu, „f A„„„.,„ ,„,„:;, ,„^ ,,,„,,,.'„!:;;■ 

tlrouS,"?',"",'"""""""^' ■""' •^''•"•■■' "'"'f<T.unes 
throughout ,s,.e .\MM,,N,. I, has U.en suggested that 
Kabbah niay U. ,l,e Ham isce I1.\m. 21 „f . ,en 1 iV 

Kabbah cominued an in,poi,ant citv in post-cxilic 
tunes. It IS n,,t me,i,i,,ned m OT'in connecmi, 
with the ,e«ish history of the period ; but "he Am , ," 
lies .,,e referred to ,n .Vehenii.d,. , .M.,ccal, and 

;'1('1>. nnd do„btl,.ss R.,l,ba,h >e„iaine,l their capita 

of I h l.,del,,hi,,. and probably bv crecing buildings ind 
". rod,K„,g .settlers gave it the character of a t.ieek^a,srKur'o:L.'^;:„x::^'^r'-'-- 

^_' o,„l„f a A.,,,,1 „,yles. tyrant of l'hil.,delphia. Jo,. . ]„'. 4s, 

K3, reinain. 'J^ 'tr\:t;.^i^;i,-^i:)Jx^^;:}:^ 

^^.-k■n,sc!..;",;,;d•Syr!^ ' ''■"'•■ ^""^ '" """- »'-" 'h<^ 

R.U.bah (the mod. ■.^„,„a„) „as sit.iated on one of 

the head-waters of the labU.k. about 2: m K of 

3. Site, 'h^: .'"l-' 2 S. l'....n.,s ai.parentiv distin- 

giii.hed ■ the roval citv ' or ' the citv 

,1 \ \ "f: "" ""• ■ ■'■''^- ■ "'•"'■"■• "-f-red to [,*, 
t u .secon<I of these names mav U- the Xahr 'Amman, a, nch m hsh. which lakes „s rise at the site of 
Rabbah ,so Buhl. /'„/. 260 (S ,32],. I„ „,„ ,,J 

'In I. an. .nlso ,-3:- 3., o^, (,,, I.t,.LTv), and K-5t:ln -1, 
16.' II (see .M.«,ic, § -.,,. '■ • 

' Compounds of 3-1 and ij- are .njit, rendered ::•. a ].-.- :, -. ... 


the lirii twii ri.iMic-s lH'luMj;cd toa K>»or(|uartiTnf tho town 
in t!ie valley icp jj 4), The ' city ' may bf a <icsi;;natic)n 
of the citadel, which was situated on a hill N. of the 
valley. One would naturally like to tind some Aniiiion- 
ilish ruins. There are old rock-hewn tonilis. and the 
remains of the outer w alls of the citadel se<:tn \ erv ancient, 
being formecl (jf ^reat blocks of stone without any cement. 
What i'. left of the city walls may beloni; to the tune of 
the Itolemies. Conder e\en thinks that the remains of 
a reservoir and atiueduci may Ijelong to the subterranean 
passage which enabled Antiochus to capture the citadel. 
If so, they may cirry us back to Anmtonite times, and 
show how the ancient citadel was supplied with water. 
The great bulk of the ruins -b.iths. colonnades, temples, 
the;ilre5, and tom^.^ .ire Koni.m. There is a small 
building, which t'oiutcr re^i^ards ,as Sasanian or early 
Ar.d) ; and ruins of a Cliristian cathedral (5th or 6th 
cent. ?) and two chapels. Rude stone monuments 
(dolmens, etc.) have been found 

Conder, Heth atui Mi'oh, 157-1G7, i'aUstint-. 175-7, and in 
i'I\F Sttnry .y EixslttH l\xustine, 1 19-64 (a very full anil 

exact ai^L)iitu i)f a tlioruu^ih survtry of 
4, Lit6ratlir6. '-Xrum.'in. with many fine illu^t^alt(>ns); 

I'llhQ. 1882, pp. 9U-116; C. A. Smiti), //(.', 
Sg5-6.)8; I.. Il.iutiir, An JiU <1u lc>:iniaiif'i\ 93 .# (1896). 
ICheyne (A'.r/. A Nov i8,}7 ; Feti. 1890) tliscussev the titles of 
RaMiati in 2 S. 11' j',/!. ami enicii(Js li.)th -J'^m "I'V ami C'C-T 
into C3^p ■•> : Wellhausen, however, ementis n2'**~n into 
C'C.t- Sec Tamti.m-H(Hisiii, % 2, and cp Crit. /it'/:] 

VV. H. 11. 

BA3BAH (7^2-\7]. as if • tAe Rablah ' ; ccoeHBA 
[Bl. &peBBi!k [\I-|. ./rfMii. mentioniti w'th Kirj.itlj- 
jearim in Josh. 156o. Ki-ad most probably ■ Kirjalh- 
Jerahmeel the great ' (f'he. 1. .See Sol.d.MoN. jj 3. 

RABBI ipABBei [Ti. WFl], m.iny M.SS pABBr ; 
Heb. *3T). a title of honour and respect given by the 
Jews to their learned doctors, more cs[Krci.illy to their 
ordained teachers and spiritual h«MdsrcpH.\M>s[L.\vi.N(; 
<).\" Dfji. -21 (lit. 'my great one,' with the suflf. as in 
Heb. -nK, Syr.; cp I-'r. monsieur, etc. I is 
from 31 (set; K.Mi) which at a later [xiriod among the 
Jews was fretjuenliy irseci in the narri >s\ot sense not only 
of a m.ister as opixised in a .servant, but of a teacher 
as op[x)sed to a pupil (cp .If,!//!. 1 1 ami Her. b-}i 
where 3T and tst are used of Yahwe and Moses 
res|xttively) ; see Ulsriri.K. § j. K.ib (an rilder 
pronunci.ition is KibI was esfH-cially use<l as the title 
of the Raliylonian teachers, and designates /<ir rxcelUnce 
.Abbi .-\rcka, a noted e.vegeie of the Ijeginning of the 
third century .x,Ti. Kabbi. on the other hand, was the 
title given to I' teachers,' antl.^d ahjne. 
applies to Jehudah Mann.asi. the chief editor of the 

In the N'T, Rabbi occurs only in Mt. , Mk. , and Jn. 
It is once applie<l by his followers to John the Haplist 
(Jn. 3261. but everywhere is used in addressing 
Jesus iMt.O(ij54q Mk.<l= 1121 144S In. 1)3 82 4 ji 
fi25 92 1181. •■' Lk. ami Mk. both fiv.jur the use of 
i<Jd(TKa.\f (set Dlsi.ii'i.K, Tl.ACHKRI. which in Jn. 1 ;-: 
is the (Jr. translation of pafi-iu. but fVitrTOTa occurs 
only in I.k. Ir.i^., 5^845, etc.). .Almost svnonvnums 
with pa.i;i(i are the terms iroT?;^ ami Kal>riy-iTiit (Mt. i 
239:01 which are probably e<|uivaleiit to the .Aramaic j 
HZtt and ISO W'imschel r— ?:.•' j 

From its use in the NT it is evident that R.abbi had I 
not yet come to he employed as a title, but was merelv 

13 makes Elisha tall Klijali kahlii; 

1 riie Tari;. . 
Tar;.:. ,,n I's. .'.", 

a The .\V fr.-|uently has .Mastkh ; cp Mt. 2«254() Mk. /.r., 
Jn, 431 02 Ur. The I'l-sh. renders hy ^st and in Jn. 

1 j> A .. 


! \l»\.\ 

•■* .A;iainst this set- Iialinan. />/V IlWU/t-su. 27^. 278_/: k;k 
ms .a term ,.f .address seems to be unknown to the TargnmisTs. 
It is rathtr a title ..f respe- I. «afr?jy7)ni5, arcnrdinj; t> this 
scholar is a Cr. variant to iiifitrKoAot— t-. id being another 
recension of f. g. 



a form of address (cp Dalntan, Ih-r Cottcsname AJonaJt 
21), whence Mt. 237/ ap|x.'ars to lie an anachronism 
(cp Gratz, tyrtcA. 4500). Kwald's argument ('"(fA. /.(. 
fij, n. 2). from the words of AbialiOn m ine I'irke 
Aboth, I16 (nijiynK nx). ai and [ai must have 
been in use for a long time, rests on an erroneous inter- 
pretation of mjai (ht. • lordship' ; cpStiack Tierrschaff ). 
.A fuller form is Babboni (.Mk. IO51 Jn. '^016. paf*- 
^ovyfi [M], frntt^ovl [mimise.]. pa^^uvii [A in Mk. and D 
in Jn.j). cp the Aram, ri/ (-'zi) another form 01 
ruHijn (;^i). but with the retention of the .! sound in 
the first syllable.' pa-i m .Aram, is used by a slave of 
lis master, or a worshipfx-r of his (iod, and is, like 
Kabbi, explained as meaning diddaKaXe (Jti. /.*■. 1. 
According to '.Ariich {s. "jk), a |3t was more lionourable 
than a -31, and a -ai than a 3-1, but greatest of all was 
one \\hose name aloiu: was mentioned roe' p'O Vnj'. 
rhe title Ji'i was first held by Gamaliel I. (see 

Kor the Jewish use of these \ari,ms titles, see /.'^<®i, s.t. 
' Kali, kahhi. and for NT usage, I)alman. Die U'0yte/t-su, 272J'?! 

S. A. C. 

RABBITH(lT3-iri; A&BeiptoN[n], pABBa)e[-M-]i, 
a city in Issa.har. proiK-rly ha-Rabbith, Josh. lU^o.-f 
Identilied with Raid, .N. of Ibzik (Hulil, 204), c. 
Niebuhr tCcn/i. 1 367 ; cp ©i') reaijs rnz^. Daukrath 
y.v.] , cp Josh. 21 .-8. I!ul iwrhaps the true reading 1, 
ninfn, and I's original authority related to the Negeb 
(cpSlll.S'KM). T. K. c. 

BABBONI. See Rahhi, eiul. 

RAB-HAO (JO'ST; r,if-m,i?). a title applied t. 
Ni:r(;ai.-miakkzi:r l/.r.] (Jer. 393; pABAMAelH], 
1 Nuna -Axl-^J' -Af M- Pa'm&t [N*]. B&WM 
"■ [.y^"]; ;. .J poBoMor [Thod. in Q"^ I 
0111 P); .sccKah. Oilier critics explain 'chief M.igian' 
but the M.ii;i.ans (MAroi' '•"''' ^ Median trilx; accordii j 
to Hennlotus (I loii. and have no place in Habyloiu i 
A'ad-miigi is said to Ix; the title of a physician rcferi' i 
to in an .-Vs.syn.ui letter (tablet K .i:;i9) res[X'cting a su,^ 
man I Pinches in A'/''-'"Ji82 ; cp V\'i. C>L/.. I-'i-b. i8'„s 
col. 40). Schrader {KAT'" 417/) and Ilomni.l 
(H.istings. D]l\2iga\. however, ilcrive w,j^' from emit, 
ern^'u. 'wise.' and Krd. IX-litzsch (Nff. /.,!«;'. 13 /, 
from mjhhu "prophet, so<ith5.iyer ' [=-eUefu, rs-ni. 
From a text-critical point of view these suggestions 
have no probability. There is strong reason to belkn-- 
that J2-2T is corrupt. See N'KKGAL-SHAKEZKK. 

T. K. c. 
The .Assyrian term referred to is generally rab n:i<,,t. 
also rr.b mu.^u. There is nothing in K. 519 to conn.-, 1 
2 ABsyrian ''"^ ""■'■'-''■'■*"'•■" '''-'""""'■ly ""I' a physici:,ii 
equivalent. '™ "•'n'<^'rs Au.-lU: iMUrs, 97, it 
text, and Chr. Johnston's /■.yi/j,',i,',.-.-i 
l.iUraluiv .;//*,' Assyrians niiJ Kabylonians, 163. t r 
transliteration and transl.uion. The writer. .Anli-\.i:;,; 
is the Court I'hvsici.m las Johnston shows). The < ,- 
mufi only re[x)rts. or brings the report of, the sick 111,11. > 
condition. He is likely 10 have Ix-en an express m. - 
senger. There was a rab mugi of the bithalli m.A 
another r,ib viugi of the tiiirt,ib,iti (on Rni.tjio. n 
1036, see Johns' Assyrum Dmh ,:nd [tMitmrnts, 2. i. 
1036). Hence the h'ai-vuiff nmy have had to ,1. 
primarily with ch.iriots and horses, and been the m.l^t.: 
of the horse in the .Assyrian ( 'ourt. 

■\. K. c. , § I ; (.. II, w. J. . § 2 

RAB8ACEB (Ecclus 4Si6l, R\' RABsiiAKt:ii. 

RAB-SARIS (Dnp"3"il. the title iso KV">i:.. an.l .=■<■ 
Raiii of i,;i an officer sent by the king of .Assyri.. i 

,. ',.',''''^^'*' '" .'■''i''' •••■■- ' Kabbinismus.' explains the a to \t i 
J^alilcan provincialism; cp Kautzsch, Cram. Hibl. Arai>: i 
iiange of it and i is similar to that in Syr. ftslui ar.u 




,«.sages, h,.wev.r, «. should possihiv read e,.l"r ,t 
-•r». 'Arafca of As.shur' (cp Tarshi'sh, or r-,,.. ,r 
■ th^ pnnce of iho Arabians ' (see Nkroai.-sii sw'^Z'- 
in.lee,! m x\w ease of Kr i/, 111,.. ,„ , , '^•"^•'" • 

str,.ng. As lo 2 K (/ , a Vl „ 7 '""''^''"'"V '^ very 

of Kab.saris whiel, are Imssihle ,,„ ""--views 

an A.,wa„ iavas.,,n ia:'':ta;r::s"r';v:;:! 

onirmal narrative. The liilp h i« ,if,..„ 1 ■ 
■chief eunuch/ and .Sehracle'r MVr "'':", 'ST! 
il n,av Ik- the translation of a corres„;,n n v ' 

p'.raM. ,.0 I.,lh„.-Ki,tel, ./r.,/,, 3,;' ' ' n/^T"" 
rate, is not very prolal.le. ^ "'"■ '" •'">■ 

Winckler conjectured (r«/'/rj r^^^rh..*:. aniticial A,«. phra'e "illV,] , 1" '^'"^ "■P'-«luclion ; 
■.relation of '»■«■..-.? (R\„.SHAKF.n«t V-°' ';;"'"* '""''■ ' 
*l.ile, according 10 INn. 1^ W,er in ' /'' "--'f ^"-""iar. I j 
•■.,l-!„.r,H. 'chief of he held," L,? ;k""'-, J'"^'' ^5- '^S'). 

l-in.>lly, l.c-l.(.(„. //.rfl^L.TreL^.er,'^^ '- H "?"'•••')■ I 
jurl-official of uncertain mean n^ \V- „ 7 "f''' ""' "' ••> 

t- ilie education of princes. S^. i'l v, , ,7 ' ' ; 

. 1 [;/"«• I .-sr e [»' .^..... |(, ,„ i J H. 1 V, „, ,*, 'Cn 

;"," '" ■;'"^"' .■' h.efe„p.,K-arer; l,„t ac.u,- ■ r . , ^^l,'^ 
' luve Uvn,st..d «,th important pof^ ,i^ ,", 

^■duef';;';^';"'! -pro,.,.c„on o^ thel,;"':,": 

.l.l'.l. ./-.. //U-;; f,; ''-■ V7"'l..ions should .« 

k ■ r /' *'■'■""■ I" ""^ ■'■■■"■'■'"• ''"» "f v.-ry high 
cr /V "'^'' "'" ' -l""--h'-'l to T^re l,v T gl. ,K 


nan incursion the n.„„e underhi,,,. R,d snke 
v.^-Mvl>o-.Ual.kni, .Ar.tbiatfc-u.;,!'-";'|; 

I K. C 


■ .in.l tinallv to ihit of L « ' ,■ c' ''-'' ""' -^•inhedrin. 
i i->veven-undor ate, t. "2; ''*'"^""'^ Holt^niann, 

' -U'« tha, "j;r K^^rm^l ''''" I""' 
moral more than .J^^i.'. i 1 ' P '"•841 involves 
... ..lori intellectual depr«jation in.i 
; nowhere 111 the NT bear. th„ ..I; r ' " '^'"" 

.Ie,us«^'ul have re oB^;.^' th " "' '■"' '""""''= "«« 
; of ihe .sanhedr , sKle^f 'he provis.on.d institution 

ment r,l Uehen, a 'n l'. "','\"*"= '^'""'-'""^ l'""'-^h- 
nbusi^e express on Z.^T'"''^ ""^ P""'"'n.enl of ot.e 

liut sucll er.)SS often, ..c ,. , ' '" """''I'T. 

rearrangement. See Jn,,i.. ""' ' sn>. inouling 

RACAL, .W R.vciiAL 

BACHABlMii;,, kVK.MiAB. 

T. \\ ,„.,|„ r It convevs a more or a oftens.c. 

.1 th.. xU, ," . " '^^"'' '■ '■' ''ispn"-d: 

,. '" ,] P'^-.-ige, as it, is ,, ,sc„re 


.n.hehear. ,„ its e:.pre,sio„\,; ;•:;,' ,7- 
Ihc denial of the intellectual ca,«ci,v -f a •"''•.. 

" ■' ' "'"' ^'-''Ki'ms char.,, ter. while 'the 


BACHAL, kV, R,vc.L. For • in Rachal ' ^TZ. m 
1><.-V>», «e ought. pr,>bal,Iv, full.„vi„,, ©.'',.^ 
K*p«MAw, bu, CN PA^HA (.Ml, ,., read',, Canned 

'^'n'^ ^e'l':;;;;;;;'--^;;:^™""''""''^'"'"' •''"■• 

BACHEL l^m, ■ c«e ■ see \\V:'< A- 

la. No mere .''■■"'•■•'^ '" ""^ iii!; of \v,.»t I'.,ie.iine 

°*°'*' rn'rV '!"■ ' •""■•""^' ""-W'S of terr,t,.ry 
«he„ Uen,u.,.n i;;^:"r:",-VJ^"""- .X-Wdiei 

as its chief J ™,*^; o *The '1' "^ V"'^'-"' ■"<'^) 

would Ih.- b nc k , -I r, '" ■■'"■"''^■" "f »"> b a 

"MM,,e:,,:\.i^;^,^ J '';>,,?' 'r'i 1" I- p'',.,,n, ; but 

- ,ran,e as ,n his..,r,c..M,t: .r ,:;;' "i:: 
^-Jl--pMt.2.i,«el.earof K,,chelw„.p',;,gfo; 

'he«-ei^-h,nK,.fa,n-n'. . '..^ ''.iT"* V'"''*'' " "I"'"" »f 

{••af «hich he c.,„ "h i, ti , ,e "kle ,f >,"" "'l"-''' ^■■"""'^' >•■' » 

I.Moll. I . Smapm'av «r.j '^''"''■"' '■'.'..*''*'2*^'' J^rahmeel ; see 
i.rAH.l -•• -^•""•'*'^. »■"' for a ..auliariy douttfui nam.; m 



her chikircn (although tht're is no explicit imlic.iiion 
who ihese are umlcrsiood to Ix') ; and al a later 
date, in tlu- story of Rulh. Rachel ami Leah are 
Ihe Guilders ot the ■ house of Israel' (Ruth 4ii). Ac- 
cording to Ihr lej;end as we krHiw it (Iwth J and K) 
Rachel was tlie Ijeloved wife, a feature that it is natural 
to connect with the acknowledged su|K'rior splendour 
and power of northern Israel. There is a reniarkalile 
piissage in j, however, where Jacob seems to s[)eak as if 
he had had only two sons Kien. 42j3). Tiie question 
therefore arises whether there may not hav.* lx*en un 
older form of the story where Rachel was the only wife, 
just as Kaclu'l's ' double," Rel>ecca, was the only wife of 
Isaac. I his question Steuernage! answers in the atfirma- 
live [/<i'i'v,itiJeruni^. 39). He also makes the interesting 
suK^estion that there may be a monument of the 
importance ()f R,ichel in the name Israel. As the men 
of the tiad tril>e were calletl Ish (iad (see (iAD, 8 \), 
so. Steurna^el su^'-^'sts. the men of the R.uhel (or 
Jacob, or Joseph) triln.* were [x-rhaps calle<l Is-Ra-el 
(on s see Smibhoi.ktm, and on the change of h t' ' in 
words containing a liquid, see Reuben, col. 4092, 
n. 9. 

We mast now consiiler Rachel's relation to Bilhah. 
Rel>ecca has no such ai.endant (Dkbokam [-/.:'■, 2] 
«t. n 1 Al i i'i iifit represented as a concubine of 

nVwl-«. »^'^^»^'*- ^'^"h. however, Hagar ; 

otmor wives. ^^^^^ ^^^ Sar.ah s as in Rachel's case, the 
son of r'^c vife is not lM)rn till after tlie son of the con- 
cubine. This is obscure (cp Manasskh, S 3). In 
Radiel's case the mo>t natural conj<'cture would l»e that 
'Joseph' was not born till after tlie sons of llilhah were 
settled in C'.maan. So (iuthe ({/'/74O. Sleuernagel 
thinks that Raehel (or rather Iaer)b-R."ihel| entered 
Palestine from tlie K. just in the rear of Billi.ih (/./'/- 
iViinJf'ru'ii^, 98: cp (lUthe. O'/V 42I and that it was 
Ix-'cause the liilhah irilx-s (Uan and \a[)htaii| came to 
l>e treated as ' brothers ' of Joseph that their 'mother' 
Hilhah came to Ix.* called a concubine i)f Jacol). Why 
only Rachel was a full wife is often ex[)laine(! by the . 
importance of the Rachel triix-s in historical times. 
There may, however, lia\e Imh-u religious grounds (>o, 
for L-xainple, Sleuernagel, /u'r/m/rJiru/r:^, 45). Of 
what raie her maid eaiiie wt; a^-e not told ^on the state- 
ments in later writings, see Zll.l'AH. §1); but Rachel 
herself was a daughter of Laban v.l.ich appears to point 
t< . a lK.'liif in liie presence of Araniiuan elements in N. 
Israel (differently, I.AHAn, Rkukkaii). If Rachel was 
the chosen wife of Jacob, shi? was not the only one. The 
surrefjtitious introduction of Leah seems an important 
feature of the story. (Juite as difficult of clan-historical 
interpretation is the representation of Rachel as I.eali's 
sister.* .\re we to infer that tliere were once actually 
two triU's, a Ewe tribe and a Wild-cow tril>e. living in 
association? If so. where and when? Or is it that 
when the northern Kphraim trilK-s came to lie associated 
with the southern triU-s they caint' all to l>e regarded as 
brothers, and therefore as having a common father 
though different mothers? The theory is attractive. 
It explains, however, why Rachel and Leah are fellow- 
wives, hardly wtiy they are sisters.'** 

The points that remain are the stealing of the teraphim. 
the initial barrenness, and the story of the du(!a'ini. 
IC Other ^ '^*^ stealing of the ternphim by a woman 

Dointa ■''^ ^ feature in this cpiaint story tells us 

™ ■ something of the ligiit in which the teraphim 
came to t>e viewed ((iunket compares the case of Michal. 
cp IM'Sm. p. xxxiv, ). It is through the initial 
barrenness that Dan and Naphtah come to l)e older than 
Joseph (si'e Nai-mtaij, § 2). The real origin of the 

1 In Trst. xii. Patr., Xaph. i, etc., Rilh.-ih ami Zilpah ako 
arc liisier";, Sre 7.\\.VK\\. % 1. 

2 Perhap-i tliey were sisters simply bcc.iuse of the frcfiiienry 
of '-'.1' h :* mn>'ri?.<:? '>f s'^'rrs |p. »he s-'-.i'Sty in. which the,r\- 
was toll! (see MARftlAfiE, f 2,(1)). IFur a different view, see 



story of the duda im is not clear {see I-^\rHAR. ^ 2, 
Rkubk.n. ^ 3. Naimhai.i, jt ai. K d'Rs not meniion 
them ; bu* in the original J they no dm.i.t cured Rachel's 
biirenness. This is now obscured, as th ■ t^irth o! 

} Zebutun precedes that of Joseph. According to thr 
dates assigned to the births in the present text of 
JiibiUfi, *jS7j/!, however. Josejih comes immediately 
after Issachar, lx-*fore /ebulun, although it is Josejyh 
and Zebulun, not (.is it ought to lei Joseph and Iss.tchar 
that are Uirn in the same On the general 
question of the onier in which the tribes are enumerated, 

j sec Tl-MBKs. 11. \v. 11. 

t The death of Rachel is related in Gen. S.l 16-10 (JK) ; 

i the narrative throws much light on the earlier phase (jf 
S Rachal'B *'^*^ tfit^al traditions, but needs jjerhaps to 

j ' ddoth ''^ studied in connection with u corapre- 
hensive textual criticism. 

As pijjrued out in Jacou, | 3, ihe [thraseoIoKy of Gen. 39 1 
suggests, ac(-urtling to a very early furrii itf the tradition, the 
home of>an wasaniong the Jcrahmeelites of the S. Kvidence 
which was not in the writers hands when that article was 
written, or al lea.^t was not fully r.ppreciated by him, is now 
before him in abutulan<e, showing that this was indeed the ca^e 
— /".«•., that Laban was indeed originally regardedasan Arama-an 
or Jeralimeelitc (cilt - "^K^n^') "f 'be S. I.abaii's Haran w.iv, 
howevtr, not Hebron Imt a di;.trict of the Negeli which also 
supplied 10 Sanballai (.') the designation 'j^n (M T Horoni), 
' Haranilc ' (see .Sanhali.atX It was there that Kathel and 
Leah — a distinction without adifference, if ^H-t and .ik'? arebuih 
corru^it fragments of Jerahnieel — dwelt, ac< urding to the early 
tradition ami che ' Itetncl,' uht-re the divinity appeared to Jacob 
was. if not, strictly speaking, in ' the land of the b'nc Jerahme'el' 
('21' 1), at any rate, at no \ery great distance from it, for, lik'- 
Haran, It Aas in the N'egcli. In the \egeb, too. was the tiilead 
of the famous story of the compact littween Jacob and Laban, 
and of Milt a few other much niisunderstoixi Of passage-^, and in 
the Ncgeb was ' Sliechem '—/.*■-, t'usham (.see Shkcmfm, 2). It 
therefore became superfluous to emend the ' Kphrath ' of 
(ien. .S-'i I'. 11^ into ' Heeroth,' a change which on a more con- 
servative view of the tribal tr.-idilioris (see Ki-hhaih, i ; 
JosKiH 1., 9 ^) was heloful. and indeed necessary. Tlie 
'Ephraih' -.f the story of Kacliels death is the Ephradi of the 
Ncgcli (in ticn. L* 14 Jer. Kl4/'i it appears to l>e called I'dlth. 
cp Pakaimsk, % 5; SHlHok): its other name, acc.rdiiiy to ihc 
gloss in r-. 19, was cn'!'*n'2i ■' popular distortion of '^KCm* n'Z- 
' Heth-jerahmeel.' .See kACHKi.sSKici.cHKK. Thus ' Kachd 
(the vocalis-'ititiu is of course relatively late, and not aulhoriiatixe 
for theearly tradition)— ;.(■., Jerahnieel was titly enough buried 
at one of the leading ceiiires nf the leraiimeelite r.tce in th'; 
\e,i,eb. Before her death she g.ive biitli to a son varinu--iy 
called Hen-oni and Hen-jamin. ' On ' is one of the place-iiani- 1 
of the Net;eb (>ee On i.). and ' Jamin ' i-. in its origin, a impiil.:: 
corruption of an abbreviated form of ' ferahmeel.' (There i-., 
in fact, enough to warrant the surnu-.e that Hcujainin's origin. ^1 
home was in the Ncg^;b). The early iraditiuu also made- .1 j 
statement respecting the distance Ix-iween ihe plate whci-: 
Rachel died and KpJiralh or IJelh-jerahnicel. 

There was but kitrath ha-nn^'i fj'-K'^mar) to come to 
Kphr.ith when Rachel tr.ivailed. None of the e\- 
ptan.itions of kibt<ith in (ies. This., or elsewhere is 
satisfactor)-.* ancl in the Psalter pK and rr'K have .1 
tendency to get confoimded. Probably we sh<juld r- .id 
kim'df hd-.'rah, nnkrt tpr. 'a tiitle (left) of the w.i\.' 
See Rachel's Ski'ii.c hrk. 

H. W. H., § I A-C ; T. K. c, § 2. 

RACHEL'S SEPUIiC'iiRE. The biblical referenr,-s 
are (.;) (ien. :ifi iq/' (JK), {b\ 48?;^ (R|. \c) i S. lO.- ' 
{ii) Jer. ;n 15. ((') Ml. 2i6-i8. It is generally suppo-d 
(see iiuhl. Pal. 1^9. and Uillm. on (Jen. 35:9) \\\-'X 
either (i. | there was a double tradition with referei; 
to the site of Rachels grave, one ((/, b, e\ placing ;i 
near l'.'-tli!chem in Judah. another ic, ./) ■ in the Ixini'T 
of I^enjamin ' towards Ramah (so Nold. . Del.'*'. Dilhn >: 
or (ii. ) the gloss ' that is liethlehem ' in (*j) and \b), wh,- h 
(<•) appears to follow, is based upon a geographical < ■11- 
fusion and is to Ik? disregarde*! (so Holzinger, < uiiih.'!, 
and Oxf. Hex.). The weak point in i. is thought t" If 

* "n^r i^cnn\entionalIy regarded as a measure (fP i»riroipoM'«: 
Pesh. a para .ing). Of course, the .\ss, Aibtu'tli, ' a quart- r f 
the world," can hardly, by any ingenuity, 1* made inustr:ii!vf 
It is clear that the text isf:orrupt. So also in z K. 5 ig j'->.n ,-- ■;; 
tno article before ptc)is shown by the context to be corrupt f-ce 

N A AM an). 


that R.ich.l haj nothini; to do wjili il„. ^ bi„„j 
lhe«.ak ,«„„ ,„ ii. frr,ainly,,H,„v «:•?"• V^ 

cnucsc , he text (,.!.,;;; ^:;:: ';""'« '^^"'■^ »'^ "»■" 

an.l IS j/. is correct and that ll,,K. ' ^ ' '''^ K'"" m < ien. :ts „/ 

...-.lay, thou Shalt lin.l ,y,"„,„ by l)«h 1 ' |'''''T''-L/'','"' "" 
.Vt .SiiALiMiA, Zei /am * «><:th-jerahin<:cl in bhalishah.' 

.f .he Kachel IradTtioi. I " u' „" j'^;;!' J'!' " '"-""J-^ 
Ramah slwken of is the same ^i if^ ' .'•°*""' ""' "><= 

"Jerahmcel)intht Xeuel. which uoL.i, .• ' ? Kaniah 
•nmives who went to a \! A," 1, „, *."L""' ,'}'""T^»'" "( '»>« 
iko c^:.ceivat,ly have known of k^Vh v"^ •°' "j? »''"' ""-V 

uried ic the NVgebTal?n„ "'•''''" '"''""K died and been 
■..e,e,. in the fortunes oft^'deie^d^^'lTh''',''.,''?''''''"'' 
eased to grieve over the tribe nf KS ui,i h . . *""' "^'^ 
xile with other X. Israelites in <."''7''', )> ■>,"- h >'''> Kone into 
K. 176'). Whi'n howeveV ,h, I T*"^ ?" ''"■"■ ^'''■- "•> 
arly Israelite leBe, ds ""l ,h;*'v-'':f ."""''''.""inK "f the 
Ktfuns of the Israe .; race hv! .V, """ ""',■ "^ '>" '>'° 
■.rouKh corruption ,,ftl!ee,!;)i,''„,^?r;' '"'""''I'vion (partly 
f Kachel should U t ansf"re, ,"■ "■\!'".l ">•-•! the sepul, hri 
lat no Kohrath was i„ existence ., „,„ .' '" 'P'" "f 'he fact 
-..perficial plausil,ili,y " '" '"'P^" '" 't"» transference 

T. K. C. I 


only (iau-hter Sara bccaiiu- 

"t? wif.- of Tol.ias 

SADDAI ,;iT'. -n of Jc«o, an.l of Dav.o 

UFT«,nha-n). ,K.4.,[5,:. Sc-e.S„„.,§, 

tAOAU. I. See RAtJKs 

f ^" rn.WHl), Llc.335, RV Rhu. See GHS.EAt.o.w^s, j 

S ItTi^f 4;^T' '^"'^f^" -r" "■^«'-^ ^ 

, ■ .'" '°"- ■»-■" K <^p^olc]. '-./^'..t r\v.i. r„v; 

■ nu. a pl.ue <,f Rrral siralcgical i,„M„rtante It i^ 
•n I ■ .ne„t,on,Kl ,„ the aUno f„n„ 'i„ ,he „,ok of : 

W f^? wh°;'' '■"■^'""l^'K ]• ■Pl-n.,f Dura/a : 
I-a''] ^ ' " •■'^"'""■"y i'lenttcal with i 

.iso ,n the IVhistut, lascription of ly. tspis 

I ^H.^;'1h^f^a?x'irst:'d^rr..^^r^■ •"!'- -i^-*^'- 

Kaguel occur, in enaction w?ih Hn.a ^1 ,l'''c"= ""= "•'""= 

have a similar orini, ■ lee k r, , 'i '' <'"'"" '"'"" '"•'V 

I nam, has any refert,,;.; to this „ el's rie'""- , ' "^". "- 

' (<-harle» on Enoch :;u 4) is hardly prXbie " t!^';:'-;^''"" 

EAHAB On-l), a syn„ny„,„us tern, for the Dh vg„v 

i »To,n J„i,i),3 26,, „e perhaps leari that Unh.i 
anothernanie for Tian.a.nhe 'ira^o"' .'.f'^Lf,;:;::'; .^^d' 
1. BeferaiitMi. '"■'"*• ''""I.' ■says lol, i,, his ck- 

I By h.s iKiwer he threatened (•<■,■:) the sea, 

I And by his skill he shattered' Kabab 

n , . I , the ,lrai;on ,s referred to. I,, }>, gq. /, , '"' 
the satne parallelism is observahk- a„<l li ,ce - ^ 1-^' "' 

! J^-:^;":;i;:-m^htJ^^---~ 

l-^s'rKa^^lh'ltT'''''^^-'"''-^'-''-!:;:;,ty.,!'n ;r-:h:nf,i::r,t'"''-; 

"Mt the Ian r\al,,r"r''' '^l" ','"''"'• •''''-■» 

^:^t:;^";s';hrc^' '-t'"-' ^^ -.^^ asytl:t 

2. Meaning, f"*-'","','.' f^'^^'-^.ee to which is plainly 

name. In the third .,f .i, '-Hv Ionian mythic 

elsewhere ( s e C k vn .v^' "":""":^!"^''--^ ""^".loned 
siRhethnienrK-roane; ■,- r' "'"^'^ '-K'"^ ■'"i''^ 

u, "= ■■" »-"'»iim-,«,, II It'll inio tienv 

w name ni.ay perhaps survive in the huw rnlL read ;-,^^« (for ."iT';""'", •'"" '"""^'-'1 «"uld like to 
V smt^e,. some j m. SK cMvhe a' ^ >->• -'f 1^.1^. ^'' :::^:" ^^'T'*^^ ""''^^- "'"'"' 

:=:rsnn^:'2^V-^;^Aj"r"' '^-^^ "■"""' - ' - ' '""^^'"^ '^"""^"' 

■ ly itf. (I fill Aom. Oeo^. , s t 

f'^lt; '"";:■' ''''^"■"•- -^'-•■'"•— . 

'■■ (a) a man of the tribe of .Vanhl.ali (Toh R ■ 
^). relate, to Tobias; husband'cftL'ltVh^se 

».//^,„v/„.„/ ^i;;^!;?",,:*::*';'-".'-""'' » >-■ .xrabian. 

.Tb2'? ^'"- ''■""' "" ''"^- ^"r" *- no' an 
tun Babylonian name. 


would In- sneriallJ . ■ " ""■■•'"' ' Molence,' 

.yranlvterS: '^^p:;r"t-,:;' :'^ n"^^- °f ""■ 

ing is uncertain Tl, . i i "^"riunately the read- 

A'yrianse;i^:i,ov^'^ ':;^j;';;°r;\:r'Tr "' ""■ 

-'l/"««. 'li^m^Kiunkel &a9"e> Y"' '"7'' 
theory of the otiein ar,H , , '"''^'■.''•'.••■^'- '^"r •^nothpr 
Kahab we may'S;';^^'-^';-^-^ 'he .u.e 


in'is'" /p 3n;!v:;'' •;!;;,•;' 'f ifeod^^x":,^' •'"'?";?• »^«!.°...-,.., 

"(>«)(,inPs TtTa,, K^' ,«"«■ '" '"■ M'. Synini. hai 
"' ' <^4- ha''»PMW<.T«,.Symm.{.„p,^K,„' 



BAHABOrP; pA&Bi. Josl. 2,3 rt,7j,„. The 
M'>.v ni k.i'i.ili iiiii.,! not Ik.- I.iken liler.iil). She u 
il'-arly the e|x)nvm of a inht-, niul the circumstnnci-s uf 
the triljc .ire rL-HccH-tl in hc-r lortuiies. Thi- 
m Josh, tiii li apply to no irilie known to us so well ;ii 
to thf KtMiiiei, wh.i wcri' admiited anioni; the Iwat-hies 
on n-lativcly unfavcijrahlc tcnn*- -a« sojouriii r^ ; hi-nie 
thi! t.Tm ZMiiK. Ihe name zm n Ix-st accounted for as 
Ih.' I- luivalont of nan. ' Hclitr.' the second name of the 
tr 'w of the Kcnitcs. ' Soe Ji-jkiciK). !i 4 ; Kkihaiiitf.s. 

In H.l). II (I Kahabii praised as an (\aniple of faith. 
This IS siiK(T,.Hte(i by the edifying svc-cli of R.ihab in 
Josh. 2.)-n, of which, 'io»m vi-r. only j. 0./ is recognised 
l>y cniicd an.dysis as tK;ioni;mK to llit- t-arlit-r narrative 
see Oxf. Htx. iiai). It is no dovilit st.irtling that 
l<ah.ib should U- ii worshipiwr of Valni*— ;> Kahal) is 
to be vi,-,,ed .is .1 < aii.ianite. If, however. Kaliah is a 
symliohc term for the Kenilcs, all hocomos pl.ini, for the 
Kenites w.-rc worshipjicrs of Valnve (cp Kf.mtfs). 
The attempts o!' (laterl Jewish ami Christian interpreters 
to explain awav the i.Tin zdn.ih. •,' as 'hostess. 
iimk.'.>per,' alsj now prove to tie doubly uni ecessary 
(s.-e ali.ivei (.)n Kah.ihs ij.i.jd works (lames 2.-si. cp 
the J, V \h view in SW-Ur, /kJ. Tluvl. 332, Ihe 
mention of h.-r in the Kenealogv of fesus i Mt, 1 ;) n-sts 
on the assiMiipuon that slie U-eame the wife of .s.m.mon 
|/.;-|. No less a nia,i than Jeremiah is staled in 
.\ti\-iliah nh to have l)e;.-n a descendant of kahab on 
his mother s side. This passed for an edifying Iielief. 

T, K. C. 

RAHAM (Crpr. son of Shkma b. Mf-Iiron, h. 
MMiisii.Mi, an I father of J.irkf.w (//,:.1: i Th, 
-44 (p&/v\ee [lij. paem' [.\;, -am [I.Ji, See kKKEM. 
BAHEL I Jer, 31 ,51. R\- RAiilKl.. 
RAIN. 1 hat at the present dav r.iin is considered 1 
in P.ilestine as one of Gods l>est ^.Its. is undcni.ible. ■ 
1. CoDCBptioa ^''."''™''' flir.sti.ins, and Jews can ., 
Of rain """'" '" ""pl'-rii'S heaven for the \ 
■ showers that w ater tlie earth ' ( I's. j 
72'o. Rut it is a question wlieiher the fertilisini; o|xTa- ' 
tion of thi- Ha.ilim .as.s.>ci,ited in early times with i 
the rain .)f heaven, or onlv with springs, .stremis. and i 
unilerground How (ep n\.\\. § i ), Rolx-rtson .Smith. \ 
whi discusses the suhjeet lully in A',7. S,m. lect. 3, • 
comes to the conclusion that originallv the B.ialim were I 
gods of the slre.uns .iiid fountains, but that, as ! 
hu.sbanilry spr-ad. the 'g,.ds of the springs' extended I 
their domain .ivcr the lands watered bv t'le sky, and 
gradually added to their olil attributes th,- new char.ictcr ' 
of 'lords of r.iin' {p. lofii. V.ihwe in die OI" is ' 
certainly the rain-giver; Jer. U:,j, Tan any of the 
vanities of the heaf'en cause rain?' In I's. 6.19 [10], 
according to the traditi.inal text, th.- earlv rain is 
called ■ (he river of (Joil.' The word 1 ;•.!.) is re- 
ni.irk.ible. fienerally it occurs in the plum" for the 
artificial streams us.'d in irrig.ition lis. 3o.., ■.•/i, I's I3 ■ 
ir.:iu5 l'rov.r,,6 -Jl , .3«3i. Here, if M fis ri.glit. 

s a simihir conception. The rain is imagined I 
as water which has U'.-n dr.iwn from the helivenly ; 
reservoirs (Gen. "n) and sent down on earth through ' 
the .sol.,1 dome of the sky. This is ill.istrated bv 
Job .3s J-,, ■ Who has ,7,/.' ,; cUnml for the v.itertiood'' 
(so KV ; .■','.//;, rsr, 'torrential lain 1. Wuh this cp 
:■. aS. where the 'rain' [malar, tt':! and the 'parted 
streams of dew' (read "-j -jsj, f„r ■•j ,,.^ . j^^. ^^^^-^ \ 
are parallel expressions. , 

.Naturally, rain and rain-mist ifal. '~:l nie prominent ' 
in pm-tie l.-„e,li.,tions. In Dt. :!3i.i the ' precious things 
of heaven' ireading S;-, for s^;,'Jare the rain 
the r.iin-mist, and the dew. In Gen. 27^9 the line rain 
or of heaven stands first among the blessings 
1 For .1 less prohahle view .see C. Xiehuhr. Ct^ih. 1 1,1 /f 

T. -- t' ;■■ ■ '""''^ the rcatur.g.i I'.a j„j s.-,. : 

the former iherefure IS no moflern conjecture. 'I 




c.-.lled down U(X)n Jacob's land by Is-Tac. In ni. 28ij 

.Moses promises to oliedient Isr.'icl that Yaliwe 'will 

I ojien his go<xl treasury, the heaven, to give the rain in 

Its se.ison ' ; to this treasury the Book of Knoch refers 

(tiOa.i/ «9>3l; cp Dew. The ' self-springing planu of 

Yahwe' in Is. 4> {SHOT) arc those which depend on 

I the moisture which God sends from this heavenly store- 

j chamber Notice, too, th.«t in i's. 104 13 God is said to 

' water the mount.iins from his upper chambers.' It is 

a slightly different mythic symbol which a poet in Job 

uses—' Who (but Yahw*) can tilt the bottles of heaven?' 

: (Job 31*371 To be able to bring rain through prayer 

WIS one ol the greatest proofs of eminent piety. Klijah 

' pr.ayed fervently that it might not rain, and it rained 

not,' etc. (Jas. 5171; and Josephus {Ant. xiv, 2i| 

rel.ites in the time of King .Aristobulus, there wa; 

a man named Oiii^is, 'righteous and beloved of God,' 

who by his prayers could bring rain to the parched 

e.irth. Cp I'KAVFR. 

Palestine is well described in Deut. 11 11 (in contra- 
distinction to Kgypt) as 'a land of hills and valleys, 
S. Former and "'•'''^'' drinks water, when rain fiills 
lattarraln. ^''°"^ heaven.' Shortly afterwards 
(v. 14) a fuller description is given. 
See also Hos, 63 Joel 223 Ztvh. lOi/ (see Nowack), 
Job '2923. and Ja. .I? {w^xtiov «al ^vi'M"" ; H!< in.sert 
iVrii-. giving the sense rightly). The distribution of 
ram is very iiiiii|ual. On one occasion Thomson fouii.l 
the ground in the Jordan v.alley like a desert, wliile .a 
Tilx' the whole country was a paradise r' herbs 
and llowerr;.' Just so it was in ancient times. '1 
caused It to rain upon one city, and caused it not i.j upon another city : one piece was rained upon, and 
the piece whereupon it raineil not withered ' (.\iii 4 -, 
'ihe prophet continues, ' So two or three cities waiiderr,; 
liiito one city to drink wate-. but they were not saii.-- 
lieil,' on which Thomson remarks this is 'a i.w. 
often reiiealed ' in I'.il.sline, ' Tlu- variableness of th.- 
climate helps to account for the frequent failure of tl - 
crops, both in ancient and in modern times, and giv, s 
point to the promises of regularity in the seasons . n 
condition of oliedience to the divine commands.'- 1 he 
former or autumnal rains ( n-n-, n-ns; usually t«gin ab.):a 
the end .>f OetoU-r, In Lebanon they may begin ,i 
month earlier; but no de|x-iulence can lie pl.iced u|)i a 
this, and according to Thomson i/./f 001 the wint. r 
raius are siimetimes del.iyeil till Januirv. They ai. 
usually accompanied by thunder and lightning ( ler 
lOi.O. The next four months ni.iy l«- called the raiiiv 
se.ison. In .April rain (the latter r.iin, rip^ s'cpS, ' ' 
be late') f.dls at intervals; in Mav the showers are 
less fre(|uentand lighter, and at the close of that month 
they cease altogether. 

It amiears from ClaLsher's observations (I'F.fO, 1899, p -il 
thai the heaviest monthly rainfall in 1897 was 11. 31 in., i.i 
|:em:iry ; the next, 6.74 ill. in Decemlier. and that the tolal Vjl! 
fi.r Ihe year wa. 37.72 in. This refers 10 Tiherias. At Jrrusa'.m 
Ih.: t<«al fall was 41.C3 in. .At Tilierias no rain fell from M,,v 
-■3 10 Oct. 39, making a periixi of is6 consecutive days with jai 
run. .U Jtrus.llem. fell from XIa> sWh to Oct. ao, miikn-B 
a \KrhA of 140 Lcjiisc^utive days without r.iiii. 

■• C??. ^.'iVw. a violent downpour, i K. )S4i F.ick. ISn; 

continuous. F,/r.T IO9 ij; such as the early or Latter rain. 1 i. 

2'! 4 Jer. .s 34 Joel 2 33 ; accompanied with w ::■.<.'. 

3. Hebrew = is. 3 17 Pro\ . '-'5 14. 

tennp 2. 12c, mUtar, a more general term, . .<-. 

'die rain ( ,~> of heaven,' I)t. llii. .A : • 
renlial ram ., 'asw.eplriK rain' ( I'rov. '.'si i) ; or Ihe two v r. 
Ct;-; and --5 may be coml.ine.l, Zecli. ]0 l Job :i: 6. ' 

J. C;;. Urcii. a rain-st..rin, is. '.'.-,4 'JSj 3>- Hah.:! 10 I 
219; s.imetimes accompanied hy hail. Is. es 3 .'lO ,,,. Tl., - 
ijoscd occurrences of a verb dcnom. (f'.s. 77 i9 W) 5. MIi .:r 
proiiably due 1.1 coirujilion. 

4. an.l 5. ^--r. ivn /,, and ,—>;, okV./i, ihe firmer r.iiiL , 
t?'P^?, matini, the latter rain, see % j. 

f'- C':':i. r;hiHih 

III i-> , l',.c,-. .,[., 

EV 'ihowcrs,' Jer. 83 1433 Mi. 


Iht l.iind ,m,l ta,- /loot., 

2 /iU. c 



7 C-S-p^r,.U,m (from ,'Bn, •.p,,,!,, .titlavi,'), ,pr,„k,.a 


a. ipi(, Rtv. 4j lOi. ^■* I'H-li.t, I II. 

SAI8IN8. I. c-^-», nmmuHm. see Fruit « 4 
^ cc-ex, r,!,!,m, lie,, a ,, rv. .^.e Fhut. I , 

^^1UKEM,0?,,. .c..;i.KV,p...,,.V_,„, 
v''*^^™ '"^' ■''^""'•' "" ••^— c «„.,? 

nl.ntihcali.msof Rakk.iih nre i.flm I in il„. l" ' 1 

K.,kka,h for T.Utus las.ed i„°?!,, " .," . c n VvT 

•It le.iM [vrnm.s this view. Only 1 , 1 „,. n,„.. 
^"PP-c- th... TiU-rias stood 'aciiv ,nh." ""i 
thi' ami. 'lit UiLl^.k i- ^*'"->i> '>n the site of 

iv/ " -^^^h ^ Z"'' "' ■'""■'"'"« informs „, 

^ 9;;,;rl;t•-:',s-t';.:n,-l,- 
RAKKON !"" 1. not in «n* ■ «l ^„, , 
RAM .D-1; pAM [BAL]). X. The name of p 
(■h o„ '" "V^ "?'■"" ""■ Kramlson of I„<lah 
r,!' ,'■ ■ ; -}■ r" ''■''• ^'^ •'•=' '"« firs,l>orn son 

« '•<.■;]: s..,. also \Ls.^ iV'.! ' n"",'^^^' ■^'»'' 
.hnri,.,w.,i I * •*'<-^'' '-k. J„). DoiilitlesS Ram is 

.|„.r,K I AlMram (Klosi. (,V„*. ,,,) |,,,, 

EAM^'Ni. r,en.l.';;.e.o. .S^-e S.ifpp 

RAM. BATTERING (12), i:..k. 4. 21 ..;[..]. See 

^^Mt^^*""^ ['■ ^VIl]i, Mt. 2,S, RV R.^MAH. 
0. H.„ath.,e:p..s,„„K,, „. ,. A city of the 


Isra.l ,„ nnler to ,s„Iat., !,.n:'.,!,-m li; \^,) 
' '"jv I,,,, crave of Rachel, accor.linL' to ../•!. - 

•^vx,[x-A„, .here the ,n.,a,a„J:;:^;;"p::j;i:!l,;;; 


T1-.S Ramah ,s no liuuU he. Z,f 'C^.i!}^/'"''" j^^'- 

-T rather misc.alie.l, in KV J .t \,'h"l'" "^''■''' 
--.;Mv.M. I:wasin.hehi;i:coun.,":rK,^^^^ 
•■"1.1 n ,„e pari,a.l,trly in ,|,, lan.l of Zl ■„ ' ' 

l)i",spolis and l,.r 111,' ■'^''* " "'"^ """• 


to ii„. V < .,.', >"iX'^. «ai, iiinated a little 


e^-^i^.^.'seeR.;.;:;;;;^^^':-,— ^ •«" 

either view, I -.e '^ , fcr , f T . ""' '"■"'" '" ^^"""^ 

-a'\:ntrtar:i.:'T;)„:"'^''"T ••'■'>- 

e,,,v( t,^ .1, ^ r \, ii-AiH); simiewhereon the 


pi^-^;n::!:'h,r i::;;":;i^;r';';!';^"" -^ --iinHy pe.,,i„i,„ 

r;l"rt,l ic di,|ri,,s i„ ,l'/v„J| 'f '''"=""'="'''1 ''".^''ment 
Tvi,t ; /tMAK...;,, U,V par ) '' • ' t' •''"■"'■"■I 'r^NATj. ; 

BAMATHITE (<TOT,. , ch, ,;..,. s,. J„!^^, ' „ 
BAMATH-LEHI . -n^ npn), j..,I,. l r, „. s.,, , ,;,; 
BAMATH-MlZPEninsvt;nnn-i „o^R -, 



RAXATH OF THE SOUTH (323 H^Kn ; for 6 

Mv. K,\M Ml, 4). ami im i S i k \M<»1 H or tmk mH IH 

(335niOT; pAMA L**L]-e [a] notoy. pAMA npoc 

M€CHmBpiAN [>^>'» 1'. .il)pan-ntly the most rrnicti' of 
the Siincfmile Ui\\ns(|nsh. lU8) ; meDtiunetl also ainung 
the lonns in the N«']i;t'lj tdwhuh I>a\iil senl prfsenis 
from /iKLAt; (Maluvilu. i S, liOj?. Tlu- full iiatiit* was 
Ri.iI.ilhl»f«T-rain.uo)ih-iifK('t>, i.(*. , " Ifcialah of the \»iil 
of Kamath i Kamothi of thf Newell.' or ' HoiUiih of the 
well. Kamath of the Negeb' (ste HaaI.ATH-hkek). THl- 
name, however, rii'eda correct inn hy the help of ;■. t/. 
and Josh. ir» w- Tb" lists of the Sinieonite and Juttahite 
towns are distigun-ii y err.ila. nor do they apit* as 
they should. The <njnnur. of the prcH'nt writer is that 
the most remote of these towns was most probably 
called liaalath lieer-ramah (also Haalath-en-rinmion), — 
/'.(■.. Rialah of the well (also, foumaint of Kamah or 
Kinmion, — and that ImmK kamah and KiMMns (,/. r. ) are 
[xtpular corruptions of ' jerahnufl." t'onseijuently in 
I S. 30 a; the second of the names in the list shculd U* 
not Kamoth-nefjeb. hut Jerahnicel-negeb. See Kn- 

In Jo-.h. l'» u (niKaS 'ifid in l''*^ Ilcth-lebaolh 
(>-n*3) -ire mi-writtcn for n'*^*3. In it'h.433 * llaalalh-ficer ' 
becuincs •.hitrti.iicd into ' HaaU' i, k. C. 

BABIATHAIH-ZOPHIM (D*bW D'Hp'^n ; apma- 
0A)M c(€*i4>& [1*1-1; Ap- CU)<|)iM [A]l, the name of 
the city of Ktkanah in the hill-country of Kphraim, i S. 
1 1. The text, however, has Ma-ramathaim-sophim. the 

article U'ini; prefixed to ramathaim. The difticuUies of 
this 5up[Josed compound form, and indeed of MT's 
reading, htjwever \ie\M-d. are well set forth by Uriver 
( r/iS uj Ik: ). wlio. with Wellhausen and \V. k. Smith, 
following (E^s oyf)i<pa, reads 'ei^ 'a /uphile.' which is 
explained by a refen-nce to i Ch. 6 ^ '[?5]. Kr. as='a 
menilH.'r of the clan callefl /ii'ii* [/- r. ". llaramaihaim 
is also plausibly explained by Wellhausen {T/iS 34/) 
as the later form of the r.anie Ha-ramah isre KAMA rilK.M), 
wliuli was introduced into 1 S, 1 1 from a tendency to 
modernisation, and stands {apixaOatfi). in <P, not only 
here, Imt also wherever .-ci.i has the 1 of nmlion 
attached to it. With the fo-m apfiat^aifj. we may rightly 
compare the apafiat^a or apfxatfa or paiJ.aOa of Josephus 
anil the aiH/xaOaia of the NT. 

The name Ha-raiiiah in thf Hclirew itxt almust always 
occurs in the aui;niciUi.ii form .infTt."?. The excfplions are i S, 
lUi-^-'JOi '_*5i ■_'>( 1. Here we coiistanliy find "y"3 cxctrpt in 
1\* 1-122, where rrn^^ (.Kcur-.. ©a accordinjjly rt■p^esent^ the 
former word liy «V patt.a, the latter hy lic aflnafinifx—n new 
tii-.tiiii.lion susuc-'led jterhap-. h>- tho occurrenLe of p i" ^nsin, 
The -aine correction has iieiRtrated once into iP'-i-, f,,r jn IV 22, 
where rrnsin and 7r:;^3"'-cur at diirerciit point^, (ft'i- ^ives first 
<if apjuatfatfA anil thtn iv pofia (cp v. iS in S). 

The ulijcctioiis to the aljove plaiisi))le expl-Tjatlon of 
Rainathaim-zophim are — (i)that Ha-raniathaim txcurv nowhere 
el>e in the MT, (/)that the t'hroniiter is an insufficient authority 
for the exi>,leni:e of a clan ( nUed /tiph, ( ;> that ' land of Zuph ' 
occurs in a pasviye (i S. li 5) whit h has all the appt-aran.e of 
ctirniptness(scc /a \\\), an<l (4) ilut i h. 1 1 itself is nhviouslj- no 
longiT in its oriKinal forni.l The pruhability is that 'i.lK r'K 
(F.V. 'a certain man ') should !«: h'*K2!"T T'K- -^ Jerahmeclitt-,' 
and thai 2*-iEk "irc C*£13( CHS"! f 3 should be '^K^rnTl .ll "TC*1 p 
BK ^:^5 nEj*0 ""^ that the whulc stntcnLt bc^uaiti (omitting 
the supertluoiis varlani •^HTni' at the hecinninR and certain 
variaul-s at the end), 'And there was .1 Jerahmeelite of the 
family of the Mat rites, whose name was KIkanah.' 'TC"(^'^Ki)t 
however, like ' Tamar' and 'Kamath,' is only a corruption of 
'^X*;"?'! ' .krahnieeiite,' ' moiua Kpliraini* is in wiuthern 
not in central I'alcsline (so Juil^. 17 i ]',( i, etc.). See Cn't. liih. 

The Arimath.ka of the NT is idcntitieu by Kus. 
{OS 225. 12) with the city of KIkanah, an«l said to Ik? 
situated ne;ir niosjw.Us iLyddal. This situation is 
beyond ()uestion suitable for llie kamath, lini of i Mace. 
Wm, nnd ix-rhaps t^m for the Arimath.ea (tf the NT. 
See IcsKFH, col. 2-^g$jf. ; kAMATHAIM <on meaning 
of form); XicouKMfs, § 3. t. k. c. 

1 See Marq. Fund. \^/., and cp other corrupt passaires in 
I S. haviny proper names (Crit, Sil.), 

I. Th«l&nd 

and th« 




the seat of one of the governments formerly belonging 
to Samaria which were transferred to Juda>a under 
Jonathan by king iVmetrius. i Mace. 1 1 14. On the 
name, see N \MKh, ^ 107, and Ramathaim-zophim. 

RAMEIES (ODOin; pamccch [HAKL], p&mcch 

{Id, <ien.47ii; or lUftBUM, Cff^If^, Ex. In, /MMtmt [I- Id. 
1'-'_17 Nu. 333, pafH99m¥ [U^X], 5 fiatt,t9int% [ll-*']; also Judith 
I 9 [kAMKssK, A\ I ; sec also Rcdpath ; A' M/Ai.v/i.v). Kor 
kings Kamese^ I. and II see also'T, i 57/! 

Ir. \'.\. 1 II Raamses is one of the cities built by the 
Israelites as Kgyptian serfs ; in I2j7 they march fron. 
Raamses (eastwards) to Succoth (cp also Nu. 33is)' 
In (ien. 47ii the family of Jacob receive from Joseph 
'a jK>5session in the land of Kgypt, in the liest of the 
land, in the land of kameses, as I'har.ioh had com- 
ni.mded.' The land of kameses is, according to ?:■. 46 
etc., a part of (Joshen. or, more proltably, is synony- 
mous with (ioshen. 

In AHvH ti has indeed for the f Ioshen of Heli. 'to Hcroopolis 
(/.<■., adding I'rrin.M, or ErHAM_ [^.r.]), into the land of 
Kamesse ' («aS' 'llpuMni' iroAu' tic 7171' Vafinrirrf). [For various 
views of this pa.ssai(e, with di>cus.stoii, sec JosKi'H(in OT), <^<'l- 
3587, n. 4-] 

It is usually assumed that the land has its name from 
the town, the admiinslrative centre of province. 
The present writer would, however, 
prefer to understand kameses here as 
having preserved the original sense. 
I WWII. namely, that of a royal name. (Ioshen, 

or at least its eastern part, still recalled by its naiii'* 
th.U the great Pharaoh kameses II. had l)een its opener 
and coloniser (see G*»SHKN). In the name of the 
town, on the other hand, the original sense, which 
must once h.ivi' iK-eii 'house, place, city (or siniilarlyi 
of Kameses," seems to have l»een forgotten, owing to 
the popular abbreviation which omitted the first pari. 
It is not necessary to derive the condiination "land of 
kameses,' which looks very archaic, from that secondary 

The royal name which the Hebrew has preserveil here 
A'<t'-iii(t^f)s'SU,^ or. foUowinj; more t!ie later pronunciation. Kit' 
(this I an, uf course, be written in many ways).OT«-(.')j-j(/),- 'th-.- 
Min-<od Kc" has home him.' The classic transliterations ar<- 
Vofitlftji, Vafi.tirtnf% (in varying the Mancthonian fraKticnt-. 
etc.), katn.u-s. From these Creek forms the Massoretic 
.seem to have taken their vocalisation ; whether the HcIt' w 
Consonants are intended to render the name as A'rt -ines-ii-ys, or 
in a si-eminKly more archaic form, Ka'-nns.'-s {xht: verbal r<' t 
was ori'.iinaily masy, tertiir Joiih),ca.n, thtrefore, not lK.'decit!"i 
from the biblical punctuation. In the rentiering of the C'li- 
sonants, the preservation of the 'Ain deserves mention as a sii;:i 
of anti(iuiiy. 

The Pharaoh meant is the famous Rameses II , 
called also Osymandyns (this is the official nam-'; 
« PhftraAh ^'■^''"-W'' ''*-''*"' ) <^r Sesostns ^ bv llu? 
RmMM t^ret.-ks, also Ram( pises (etc. 1. Meiaimia 
uameses. , . j^j^.j^g Amon'); see Lgvpt, § 38. 
Mis r"-iL,'n of nearly sixty-seven years is less reniarkat^t- 
for his military achievements in Asiaiuhicn "vere \t 'V 
modest) than for his paramount activity as a build- r. 
Tor his work of irrigating and colonising liif 
WTidy rumilat. seeGtt'-'IKN, § 4. This enterprise sernis 
to have l)een completed Iwfore the twenty-tirst of 
his reigr;. (ien. 47 might anticipate a later u.uw^ 
for the region K. of (ioshen proper The building of 
tlte city of Rameses (as well as of Pithoni), howextr 
points unmislak.ibly to that earlier part of the reii^n 
fif kameses II. — i.e., to the end of the fourteenth 
century B.C. 


- On die reason of tlie confusion of diis name widi a kiiu f 
dyn. 12 in Manetho, different opinions prevail. A popular l at 
already contemporaneous) abbreviation of the name RanK->';s 
seems to beat the root of the (ireek form. 



It must lie nccidcnt^il the cxpr.'ssinn • land of 
<.vm-s,-s ■ has not >vl 1«im, r.-a.l ,„, il,f l•;l:^,,tun niuiiu- 
3 Thcoity ""■'"*• •■'••'"UKh Hu .liluMoris to the 

BMnUM. ""'"^ "' '<'""i«-» II- as a KilimiHT 
1 w huh ihiir;u imslirally are wanliiiK with 
,tlirr k,>.«si. A i ,.y. „r rather ink-,. bearluK the naint- 
ifti. king are. hcAim.r, iiK'titiontil ri-|><-aii'.lly 

In the twentynr-l ye,..- tsLV at„v<.-) of his reign 
i.imeses rweurd anil«55.ulors of the Hittlt,. kiiiK 
iniiKing the iivaiy of |«,-.,Le and alliance ■ in the city 

■u^e of iV„ .,„„-,„, J/^y („r o,,, ,i/,r)..,mu». doing 
:..• of his father .Anion, of H.irniachis and 
,liiia, the lord of lleliopolis. the .Amor, oi M.-mtuiu 
Uy-.imiin, the I'tal, of Ka-nies-su Mey aniun, and 
it. I his list gives to us the na-ies r[ n „f}it.j;,i 
r«h of the new city, conlirming its , «ii,o„ i,. eaMern 
inshen, where .Atum of Heliopolis w. iht ihief god 
.l>;i.94 s,iy5. th.iu hast m.ide for thyself a splendi.l 
■si.lencc to fortify the fr.jntier of the country The 
louse of Hani.-ssu Meyan.un; ... a roy.,1 pah.ce is in 
1 ap. .Anastasi 2i 46 gives a po.-tical description of 

residence.' the castle: "(ireat of Victory (or 
rrngthi IS Its name, twtween I'h.rnicia(!iand Igvpt ' 
he |(«:al gwls are Anion, assiK-iated with .Set then 
.i.irte an,l Huto, These g,«ls an.l the n.uiie lio not 
;r.-e with (,ur house of kanieses mentioned alnne ■ 
il.fd, the city • great of victoriies) ' (mentioned also it! 
.gre.utext of At.ydu,. in I>ap. I,ey,len, 1 ,48. and in 
.' exMition of .Sety I. against the Hedouins (?) d.^-s not 
-Ml to Ik; hlentical (as is usually sup[K.sed|, hut must lie 
Liter foundation of Raineses, .\. of (ioshen. Anasl 

1 .2/ ■ the house of Ka'messu Meyamun ' appears a. i 
•nlical with the place • Great of victorKes) ' ( 3 a etc ) ' 
i description seems to point to the country \V. of Tanis 
t very far from the sea. Thus a monument which | 
s led Hrugsch considerably astray becomes intelligible ' 

I anis was fouiHl a .statue of a priest who among I 
icr titles of a ■ prophet of Amon of K.imeses of i 
le city?) House of Rameses (an.l ?) Anion (of the one) 
Mt of strength.'- Brugsch (/>„/. d^ogr. 4,8, etc. 
icluded from it that Rameses and 'lanis-Zoan were one 
1 the same city, sought consetjuentlv for (ioshen far 
the \., and came thus to his strange Kxodus-thcorv 
isidering the SirlK.nian Ixig as the • sea ' through which 

Israelites [jissed. The statue furnish, rather the 
ihrni.ition that we have t»<. ilifferent k r„.s-cities 
iis.s|uently. we have to Ik- very careful in distinguish- 

t hem ; I.U 3 194 refers possibly to the later founda- 

V as It dates from the year 34 of Rameses. 
I he biblical Rameses can, of course, \v onlv a city 
)r near (ioshen. That mentione<l in the tre.nty with 

Sltuttion. ""^ ^''"''«^s 5«'"'5 to Ix.' identical' if we 
n'-rv judge bv the local gods alluded 

Compare the granite group found at Telil) el. 
skhuta which represented Rameses II. Ijetween Atum 

Marmachis. the principal gmls of that district, 
m this group Lepsius concluded that Tel(l) d- 
=khu(awas the biblical Rameses (sw Pitiiom) but 
insufficient grounds. The excavations of \aville 
'■ shown the names I'ithom and Succoth are to 
isscjclatcd with that Iw.llitv, but not Rameses The 

''r'^L'""^''"'' '" '* 'l'^''i'f">i"'il- In .iccordance 
I I--X. 1.3- \,! ,'i33 5 '.t should tje .sought for in the 
ern part of (.oshen, i;. .^,f Pithom-Ktham. There 
not many («ints IxMring ti .ces of ancient cities in 
region; I.e|)sius described the pl.ace ( felli .\bu- 
inian (or Isleman). as showing extensive ruins, and 
ght of I'ithom. N'avillel/VM^m. |3i 361 disputes 
existence of town-ruins at that spot." He marks 

i.f. Kfrnan, /vO/A chap. S, for a translali.>n. 

"''■'''?•-'•> »5"^"'s l",lf synonymous with ' grtat of strencth 
■■■■>ry)or victories,' >-./,, or ■«.,*/,,.. If not, it ,„ight 

t.|a K^rnnle fnot a city) nf Ram?,e5 H. Has s •(;..";mC> 
I i«:cn iiiiitilatedr *"^ 

V ne';r'"JT ""• TT ^''"'""^i'"^- H 5«ms that a Nuhian 
> near .\bu.simbel_was one. Cp (with considerable camion) 
say or Lepsius, AZ, 18S3, p. 4 (on Pithom and Rameses). 


^hugafieh (in which he twl,..v,-s 1... ,i,ids the Roman 
gaiiison place i hohu or Th.aii and lell Rot.ib as the 
only rums, W. of I'ithom. Tel(l, e|..\l.,skhuta. |)„||, 
localities exhibit extensive rums of the Roman age and 
seem to have Iiei'ii Roman niilitarv station, ; it i, n„i 
iinprob,ible Hut they were settletl U-tore that «-riod 
If so. »e m.iy ex|xct the settlements to go luck to the 
time of R.unes.-s coloms.uioii ; but nothing cert.iin c.iii 
be s.iid until a thorough exploration of those ruins has 
been made. 

■;."""•"' 5''/.; Naville, /,„,,/ „/ („,,I„H (1887), t* 1.,- 

primitive trajlllion ,ep,„enle,l the early Lme of the ls,..elitv 

pose th.t here .is elsewhere ihe «.-. .graphical scltinn "fdie sI.ti 
h.,s Uen transformed on the Is.sis,, of . orrupt t^ xi, 
lossihle corrections or resiorali,jn. are indicated in , '.I. _,wii', 
■ '"'' W. M. .M. 

RAMIAB (n<9^, 'Yahwc is high'? or rather .1 
transformed ethnic. R.1ml = JerahmeeIi ? frhc. Ji a I iv 
man who joined in the league against foreign niarri.ige; ■ 
■■^ralO.jt (p&MIA [B«A], -cac [I.|)=i Ksd »,6 
""""'*'' 'itP-WA [It;. lepMAC [.A]. p&MIAC (I.]l. 

EAMOTH (niO> .. I K.4,3. >«.-e R.VMuTii- 

1. K/ral039, Sri. See Jehhioth, la. 

BAMOTH (rtOJO; i<,BtoP [B], ^.mujc [?A], 
PAMt.)e [I.]; I Ui. 673 [,e]). or (fip'l; 
ptMMAC [B]. pAMAe [AI.]: Josh. Iflvil, also called 
JAK.MLT1I (n-IOT, in J"sh.-Jla9 (,£pMu)e[AI,]. where 
however 6" has peMMAS), a Levitical city within the 
territory of Issachar. 

BAHOTH-OILEAD (IJ-Sj nb'^, i.e.. 'heights of 

(jlleai! ■), otherwise R.\.MOTll in (ill.E.M) (lySjJ nbtO, 

1. OT Baferenoei. " P'^^'*'© sn (th or'(-H) taV. 

, I«- 443 [pAM/WtoH A], Josh. •.'03 

fAPHMtxlTe H] 21 38 I Ch. 665 [8. J [pAMMtoN B, 
PAMAO I.]), RAMi.TH (. K.4., [epSMAe H, cpMAfl 
I.]), but more correctly (2 K. .H., IpeMMi^e 
". PAMAe I-]) or Ramath-fiilead (cp .Mru.'.^taivs. 
on the K. of Jordan, the .administrative centre of one 
of SoUmions prefectures ( I K. 4 11), hotiv .lisputeil by 
the Israelites and the Aranuvans in the reigns of .\hab 
A ia,aah an'l Joran, ( , K. 2-l,f. [pe^MAe HA, pamaO 
.|, a K. 8.3 !>,4 [pe/MMtue B. pAMAO I.], a Ch. 
1»3^ [PAMMl^je A, pAMAB I.]. 22s/ [pAMA B. 
PCMMoit) A, pAMAO I-ll; also one of the so-called 
'cities of refuge' (Ut.44, Josh. 208 21 38. where it is 
assigned to Gad). Largely on account of the striking 
nariativein i K. 22, the name of Ramoth-tiileail is 
extremely to readers of OT, ami vet, after all the 
researches of scholars, no one is able to tell exactly wlure 
the place was. It is the obj^t of this article' (i| to 
record the chief opinions which ha.e lieen held as to 
the .site of Ramoth-Gilead, and 121 to offer what, in the 
opinion of the present writer, looks like the true solution 
of the problem. 

let us lH.-gin with the Talmud, .according to which 
Kamoth-tiilead lay oyer against Shcchem (Neub, (,v,nr. 


2. 8itM («!-((/). 55. a.s'l. "hilc, as I'.u.sebius ami Jerome 
* '"' tell us ((W2S79. M.rvl, it wasknnwn 
to them as a village, i; R.m. W. of I'hil.idelphia 
IRabUah-.Xmmon). These views are irr.xoncilnble 
Most scholars till lately preferred the authority of 
Kuse bius, and identified Ramoth-tiilead with the mollern 
es-.SUt.' 10 m. .S. of the Jabbok, and 11 E. of the 
Jordan. Cp (iii.K.Mi, § 7. 
_The to wn ac,|ui red some importance during the Crusades, 

in the .i,oUll. I tt. as the name of a trans. lordinir 





wtMfi S.ilfctin fortiAril it with oth«r iown« nn xhtr K of th« 
Jor'Un : it i* now th<* • ^piijl ■>( th« />V/^<I, hoi « ann<>t cUim i>i 
r«pr«<w>nt Kdiituth-ijiteri'l. rh« pUcc •-■'ul^i (vit t»« ^ippro^chcd 
l>y •'h.inot«(4«« I K. 'i"! u/X It ' h.*nj-t -m th» -.t •■*■!» oitU* <'f « 
narr''w g>>r|{C, entirety tnut in on ih'* V,. an-l «>prnini{ out on a 
nwr-)* n.ti of Kardcn-kn*! m iIi« othrr e)i>l ; ait^l t vm ihit o|>«n 
txtr«m!(y uf ihc 'avittr i-* M<j>.k*;(l by u hi^^h litU^ .it n^lil aniil<-« 
lu lh»* (own, tlo^iiiit ui> ih*r 'nly oulli-l. ' It !■» .Us.i fjr t.>.> 
^•miheily ; « pitti e f.i%i[y aLi«"»"iitif«f fruin ?r/rfil and nut fur /tmiti 
the Aramxitii txiriler u imp«r;ktively rci|uiteil. 

KwiM {lifuk -Iv-' nf)t»*) .ind t unitfr {Httk anJ 
M^Hih, 17s; Sntilh'* pfi-^ lii'ii) <1') in'.rf ju*lite lo 
the Ifihlical narratives hy tixiii^ the siti* uf Kiiinolti* 
(tilt'.u! .It UeimOii, .1 lofly ari«l .imient sitf .1 U'v, inilfs 
\V. «.f IrM>h i(iiT.isai. Ml lilt' |t:lH-| * Ajlun. Iht? platf 
wii <juit'' ojn'u t'l inriir^iuti'* .imi cuul'l l»« 
nr.ichfd by ch.uion up th*? v.illry nf th-; jiib(»<)k. t»ir 
G. tlrovc* ^Stnilh s DH^' 'iiml ami Merrill {iia^t of 
the /^irjAH. 384^) uft^e iht* cl.tiins uC jer.ish itsill ; 
(Hipli;int tiM) {/.tmi ./ O'l.V.i./, Ji 1) thinks Kamoth- 
liiliM'i inu*t h;ive U-m tntluT .it or iirar j- T.i-.h.-' Thii 
vK-w IS s'ip|><)rtetl by th<' Anbic J<ishu.» C^IU 'Jl .- al-lari^f. ti. A. Smith, h^iwi-vt-r (//<*' 5881 i» 
iitil s.iiisticd VMih any of ilicsc i«lt--nuhcations. ami thinks 
kam<(th-(ii!r.»il, Uin^ vj hotly (ll^plit»:ll by Aram and 
Isr.ifl, mti-^l hivi; \tc\-'\\ f.irtht-r N., ni-jr the N. limit uf 
(iilr.iil -the Y.irnrik iso (1. .\. Cookr, / , ). Irbul anil 
Ranitheh (it- Kt-mlht- 1, he rrm.irks. an- (Kith of them 
f.inly strong' siit-s. Kr-Kt-mihe ha* Ut-n very rrct-ntly 
f.iviMtrril hy Snnti(n/.-/7'IK, looj, p. 153I. who timU 
in the name i-r- kmithi- an «i ho nf an Araniaie Ibnn 
Mni-*. Huhi tunibint'S kanioth-i iiU-ail with the nunl. 
Jarud, N'. of fs-Salt (see (in aK and whiUi Smend 
identities K.imolh \wlh w./jH:h-UileaU. Uuhl 
incltne<i to distinyiiish Ix-twitn thi i;. 

'Ir) y.'t b-'vond i'rof. <i. A. Sr '. 1 j aeiite but vague 
conjecture, ue mu-^t look at the Hebiew (^ i K. 1 1 1. 
- p.. , , kemovinij the aecretions on the original 
' '■ text we hnd it st.ited that one of Solomon's 
prefecis eatli'd lien-^;i!»er inothing de[K-tids on the 
correctness of this re.idim;) was over the rcRion of 
Art^ob, and resulecl in Kamoth-Ciilead. Is the latter 
ciri.umsi.iiKe probable .■• Surely his residence niubt have lu unless indi-eil we prefer to omit the 
st.itinuTil about Arj;ob and Hashan, and make ll<'n- 
jltjlxr the prefect of the so-called Havvoth-jair, which 
Nu. 32,t94i pl.ices in Gilead. Possibly for lyi rsn, 
' ith-(iilead,' we ouyht to read irfx nci. 'the 
kainah of Salhad.' Salhad is proUibly the true name 
of the fortihod city on the extreme SK. of Bashan, which 
pfntecled that fertile land from the invasions of the 
nomads; it is c.Uled in MT Salkcah |y.i.]. 'i\\^ 
objeitions r.iised to the othi-r sites certamly do nut apply 
to Salhiid. Kor other supposed traces of tlie name see 

GlLKAl), S 8, Si;C' OTII. ZfLOl'MKHAI'. 

J^alhad is situalcl on an eminence formlnn une of the southern- 
mtot heiylas of th«r Jebel Haurin (>«; Itrixer, I)i. 5}). That 
the (IJHtrict to the \. of Edrci (Der'At) aiij Salhad fell into tht; 
rei;i"ri of Ar^oh, will hardly he d^'utiicd (.'p I triver, in Hastiniis' 
/>/>' 1 147). It was al^o prul>ahly Salhad (Kamath-Salhad) 
bciihaiUd kept h;i--k, contrary tu the aKre«ni«nt in i K. -0 14, 
and the liratliliih kinjj-* iherefjre viuyht to recovt-r (1 K. -2 ;, 
et.:.). H-.ldiii^' it. the Arani:e.i!i kinl:^ hud the fertile di^lrict of 
Ar^^'-li at ilii'ir iiicn:--. Iht->{ pntcess of an eiiiinr 
iiirrti.iud •7i'7x n2"i> ' Hamath - Salhad,' wherever it oicurrti!, 
iiiiu n;*''] nc^, ' Kam^jih-fiiltad.' 

It IS probable that no better explanation can U' found 

4 SitA {f\ *^" ^'''' •'^■'^""•P^"'" t^i'^t *'"'■ current view 
"■ rt->pectinK th'? Aram.-^Mns with whom the 
kinijs of Israel were so ohm at war, ;ind resprclinR the 
region of the lunend iry Oi;. kinij of Hashan, is correct. 

Til*; a>-tii nipt ion in <(uesiiun ia at first ^i«fil a rcawmahlv siife 
fHif, and it ret.civcs 'nujiort fri)m the !i ^nid of the nu-vtin,; nf 
Ja' 'ili and l.ahan. in the earlier fnrin diM Liv^d tu uv hy 
criiiii'im uf * ieii. 3117-154. We may e\eii co farthtr, .and 
pronounce it imt iniproli;diIfr that Salliad fL-aliy was the pla' ■■ 
whii.h the editor of llic Ilool; uf Kint;s in its prcstnl f.Tin thou>;ht 

1 O. A. Cooke, in I>river, DtA\ p. xx. ; cp L. Gautler, Ah 

■■^ .Schumacher (,»/(//■*, /»/T, 1S97, 66) places Ramoth-tjilead 
at el-Mariara, W. uf Jcrash. 



to b« rvf«rr«(l 10 in ih« Account uf the AramKan war«. Hut it 
WM not ih« pt.u;t whi^h wa% mvanl in the oriK'"**' narrative 
(« HMi'inrt, tf 7>. it wu at Cmthani, not .11 1 )ama«i ii» 1.^ 
tht traditi'Mial l««t reprr^ntv) that Itcn-liailad, or Hir-'loild,. 
dwelt (1 K. 1^1 la ; Mre Tak-HIMMon), and It w^ji the uri . 
achl«vsmrnt nf Jcmboitm II. that h« rutovtrr*! t'ij»haiii ai, 
iMaachathjerahntaet fur Uracl. It mu«t h^tvc l^'in a ftirtrc»i > 1 
th«! tx'rdrr of tli« Nei^rli, t.iwardo Aral>ia, tli..t ihr Ar.utia:.o - 
( ft*rahmc«litei) and ttic hrarhlcs »•* tvliy t •iiii««tcd. Aha 
firil when vnd«avi>uring in rrt^.iin it. Jnram won it ha* k for , 
lini* l'i<-m the N. Arabian king Hu»'ihi <Ha/n<l), and Jcli 1 
(hiin**lf "f Jerahmrclitc rwlra. tmn ') wa» M-rviti« irt tht. tarri*. i. 
wIhm Hl-ha t.i pr.jphet ..f the Ni>;«'l.; we pK.ititfT. | t> -. i t 
ttt([i"int him kinK. H«nh ' Kanmh ' and '(*ile,-i<| ' are, wnvn s. 
Palestine «nd ttiv \«tf«h are • oncerned, corrupiii>n^ t»f * ferah- 
nit-el.' hilt whiltj ' Kaniah' or ' Kamatli' t« a mere p*>pular di-- 
t"rti"ii, '< -ilead ' teem* to \w n lran«< ri{>tiun^l f urniptt<*n "f lli.i' 
elhni'; name. The pl.T* intended i% pr-'l'aMy the ' I jim.c 
'"T^n ' PT*'* f.irtilied hy S.,loiniin, Ui curdinii ti» 1 K. 1* i-. i ji j Cli. 
B4" Cp'lAMAK, IaUMMH. T K- t". 

RAMOTH or THE SOUTH. See Kamatii . ! 

TUfc. Si>I in 

BAMPART, in AV sometimes, ami in KV Reni-rallv 
the rendering of 7*n, Sec FtmrkKss. § 5. col. 1557. 

RAM*8 HORN (SaVr? pr*. .fosh.fl?). Tkumi-kts ■ i 
k\Ms' IIuKSs (D'^3Vn nilC^CV josh, 646 ?* i.>l. s- 
Misic, 35. 

RAH8' 8KIN8 (D*V« n"4?). Kx. •j:,.. etc. .s-. 
Taiikk\A( I.K, (t 4. 

RANQE (Lev. U is). RVn'ir- •Stewpnn.' see Cuok- 
iNci rrKNsn.s, jf 4. 

RANSOM (from I-at. reJemptionfm). 

I. ^MLA-''*'/- CpG'.KL. 

5. nB3t '*''//**''•■ Cp AtcnimkntIKx. 21 io RV, AV 'Mini f 
muney'; \xs.'i^^^^ AV 'redeem,' KV *ian»on»'; Nu-S^ii f. 
AV ' wtisf.iciinn ' ; i S. 123, AV and RVnK 'hrilw"; RV an.i 
AViiy. 'ransom'; IV tiO i>uS J..h SiiiwX 

3. mfi. ^•h/.ik, V.X. 84 2o, etL. 
RAPHAfKpn). I. Sec RAPHAH. 3. 

.;. Ill >;encalu^y of Itenjaniin if. v. f 9 ii. <■), 1 Ch. 8 s dta^ri 
IH.\]. ftaifM {].]): hilt the name may he t-Tnipted, i.j.'.. fr r. 
(iera (see /t'A' U lo;/, | 6). Or (if correct) cp RKl'liAtAii [;'_ 
and the c!an-namc HtiTH-KAPHA. 

J. Sec RkI HAIAH, 4. 

RAPHAEL {ham, 'God heals'; the name. Im.v. 
ever, has possibly (H""*" *'Ut of somethuig very dift' ^ 
ent ; see Kephael [Che. | ; p&4>&HM. f>"«^ oi the ni t 
sympathetic figures in Jewish narrative literature is 
introduced to us in the llook of Tobit. where under 'ht 
name of Azahias (' Vahwe is a help') he accompaM-s 
Tobias in his adventurous journey and eomjuers !l,i 
demon .\sMol )<4-;tJs l/.v] (Tob. U 17 8a t* 1 Wvj). H 
is. however, a disgui5e<i visitor from heaven. b» -rii; 
re.illv 'one of the seven"'' angels [archangels] \\h<. 
prestiii the prayers of the saints ami enter into i!.- 
pr"M nee of t!ie glory of the Holy One' ( t'Jis). In t!: 
Il4jMk of KiKMh (IdO*.) kufael ( - kafaeU is called ■ il;. 
am;el of the spirits of men ' ; it is his function to ' lir;i 
the earth wlii«h theaiij;els have defilefl,' as a prehmiii .r 
to whuh he has to place A/.AZKI. {i/.-.) in conhiieni' 1 
This vji.'w of the essential connection between a ii .h' 
and the peison liearing it is thoroughly anticpie ; it ';i- 
strongly coloured the story of TdUlT (-/ i'. h ani! n 
endor•^ed in the Midrash (liemidtar robb.. par, 2' 
according lo which Raphael is to heal the iniquitv 1 1 
Ephraim (/.'•., the ten triU's), The later Midrasli.r- 
repn-sriits him as the arig*-! C"mmissioiie<l to put (Iha:; j 
th'.' evil spirits thru vL-xerj the sons of NfKih with pl.r.;;- 
an<l after the flood, and as the instruii-r' 
men in the use of simples; he it was who w.i,-. i! 
proinoti-r of th'- ' Ikxik <<f Nonh," thf earliest trt.n 
on materia (K"nsc'.i. liuch der Jubiuen. },c 
sq. I. Set- .\Mii.i.s. § 4. nule. 

1. AV Raima (i Ch.S:r). 


RkI'HAIAH {4). 

1 ' Jelinshaphat* is prdxthly a modification of Sep; 
(Zephathite)and ' Nimshi" nf \ i!(me"eli (Ishmaelite). 

'■' Stit Syr, and Heh. 3 omit 'seven.' The number (if th<- 
anip;els varied, bee ANt^EL, $ 4, n, 1; Gaiiriel ; Micmai: 

40 r 6 


MNnl,, .S»f„, («, ,„,li„,, |„ S. f,^„ llljfl, i„ ,,. , 

VtV*l''W* f 'I T i'''»ii"»i'iiT.i"j|. 

H^'iT'L^V' •■'^>«v-~i"vi:- 1".;;;'^:.'!,;:;:: 

*^?^f '?***"* !^J' "Won'), i-nuof ti».,i>.ci. 

»APHOir (pA0wN [AK], pA4,eA rV'"«): , Mace. 
':','"■','"'"*'"• ='" ' >uy mrnlmmil In 

VUc,.,,; n, ■Uyn,„| „„. I,,,.,,^.. „ „,„ f ,, 

.5 Tn,,.ih..u, and r,-l,.-;,.,| |,v |,„1.„ .1,.. Mn,,,,!.-, 

;"''"'" '^-I'-T-th-Kar,,., I, „ „,/,|„„,„ ,h,! 

'^t^ "<T7r^ 'T ''""y<"-V V. l«;4l .., nn.. nf 
,1 . ,' '"'■''••^"l'"'". 'Tid ninv ( t».i,1,.nihnl 

Vr.ili, S'f .Vhdrrr, (;.//• -J,,, 

Na>AY |l.|). fath.T ,.i I'^LT. (J) (\„ 13,/f,. 0„ 

■i;in,.f,.ame,i^|', a; KKHiAtL. 

EA88E8 CHILDREH OF rp4,,e,c fHA], pa*,- 

«|.M,l.'.n.'n.,.,,,,-, nl,,n^«,thl-.,t, l.,,,|,.,.,,l,h..d,,l,lr-n 
iM („«„ .s. f,,,in Ai.iarms uti ilic gulf „f 
"U-...W .. ,...,., oh,l,k.: o,hrr, prefer A^st (,, ' 

-. n iuch ,»„plrs a, I', , ,u.u I.L„, a,„l the n^ e s 
.ylilv » corruptu,,, of I-iK.xs. .s«: KcsH. 


lAVEN (3-)y. fr.,„ air, . ^, ,i,^ . j^, „^ , ,^ 

I- ; Kopii ; ,o,fus). I, is „„tc«orthv the 
>TR«femoM. '''"^ •■*"'' •'"^ favcis possess ilii- 
same represeiii.iiive eh.u-acter jn 1 .aymg of J..U., a. tos. acc.>rrr^ri„ he 

:'',n<J"''3^- '^^Ho). In Cam. 5,.' her 
-«Jrf ". • ^" ''•^••'''■-'m' (cn,. e,„e.ul. w„h 

.n Gen s', Th *"""" °' "* ""^ '^ nuntion^l. 
n Oen.S; the raven ,s stati-d to haw Uen the 
I'lril let out of Nonh 5 ark ■' 

« f.*dinis of Klij..l, |,y ,h. r.v,„s (, K. 174,) has h,en 

. " V r, *fc init u an error, hut m '■ 

-4. the . row IS no tluuht nientiorwl. The «?.»!« f .i.. ' 

.5 proUiUe that the Heb. "Jr^M i„dude.l all the 

-r.of,hefam,lyr,.nvrf.._,>.,,heero,s,choughs' : 
lp^„_ rooks, lays, and j.ukdaws, a.s well as ,he '■ 

, „f r , "'■■"■ ■''^'^t'^^"' enumemtts eicht 

ovhichhet. ..»*., „r or brown-n^ke.! raven 
-specially mentioned, as it is almost ul>„,„i,ous 
le-d to some extent on carrion, t.ut will ,is„ 


mpari^„^Z„h. .-. >i,S ,. ,4,, ,.hc„ .f.,, 3,,, ;„ 
i.'us paiiaje shouKl be nr. 
• h' Lunf ifnrm .nccounl thr ra wn is the tast : see Dn-ur. 



». OiumeMr. •'' """'ly "tinvt, lo n,., „nnehi, 

.of";:' ""T':""'' ''""•^"^•■' •" '"'" -•" -^» 1 

A. K. » . N A I 
»Aa« <(-Az|tl,r (AVM |r„t„„ [Vn.h .„n elder 
'■' I'-niSilem,' ■i.,||e.l iall„T ,f ,he I'v,:. r I, , 

EAZOR .li-n, ,.„..,, N., ,,,.„,„, VellK^K,; 
BEAIAH ,n;(J1, ■Vah«el,a».,.n', U,cpJ,,H,„, 

' (»•« II 1). K, .iiah,,u.h. r J ,.;, L ,■■ ', '^**, I "!■ ?"• '-^i. 

J. I-he f.v„ily ,,.,,„. „f a cmpany „f „,.„,^.,,,. _.,., ^^ ^ . 

^..i\l^''^" •■'""• '■^'' •"• I'D; N'l'.T,..,^.,. ,,*■ 
(Tvi: 'jV,k; . ; K vi,.' ^' <"••*»' i«i. -^ I Ai, ^,„ \z::i\''\ 

_ HEBA (rj-l, prol«l,l, l,y transposition fr„„, a-m 
MHl^.m. slam after the • m.uter of Ivor ' ; .Nu. 31 . J,;;,. 

BEBEKAH or [NT] EEBECCA (nam ■ ,» 

1. TradlUeU. ''I '■'''"»■ •""! Illereforr daUL'hler ,,f 

l>" <.en J.,^,. |,,>r the Idyllic itory ..| |,er 1. tr, ih I 
.-.nd n,arn.,p, „hKh ,s not only l.-a ,tif,.l m , Jl „ 
.. v.lua hie record of I.sraeli,„l, «.„„„,ent n h ' n> ne 
he wr.ter or wnter.. „ ,s eno .gh to m,„1 th ,e 1 r 
lK-onK,nal narratue. .;,.„kel, ,t „,.,y N .,.;,' 

' r. ,': "',', T" ' ''""••'• •""■•'" '^■""" '•*• ' ' - 
h^ ,1 h ■, I. "•"•""■.V Po^Ml,!,. th.,t more than one 
n>nd l.^cn concerned n the storv ■ u it,.. 
.....ethenarnttive «.,nl.l hardly gam Vl-'mu,;:^ 
n.w-l, /.,„„„»„/,.,.,„,,, _,„, dra«s ,, «,-i,.h,v crt d 
mference from the l,et»cv„ Uen 24 an '.1 
l...Ie,H.ndc,itly, a l,.r>;er mference ol the Mme k"n,iis 
dra« n ,n S 3 of th,.' present artn le ' '* 

k.U-kah^ I •■^^"■K;''''^ <lH-- or,g,„al home of 

theciu fV, ""fr ^"''"^ Aran..n.,,,in,, fron, 

eL"t ^ I, Tf'"'"-'-'' '"'""'■'■ '•"' ""• ^'l«.us 

Ki-iHk.ih h.,d a tr.idinonal coniavtion uiih th • norther,. 
«om do»n fron, s^,^,., .-..ul -n, mayhave come fron, 

:...!i d,:^r'j„!:::;,:'irri'^,'i';';''r'r''; ""v »"•■ ho-ure.!, 

;i...lyrh.,L,Tr malMhn'. l,"'tjV u"l ","' ^'*""■"-• 
■nlo .1 r.ivc-n I , kun,- , fi; h, r ''■"'■ 'T' " "'"■'•"m.'l 

^..p or carv,^„, ofl r^^t'a' fc-;.^r/-,-l;- 'i'- 



vn, whil« j^ m ijr )m nii^wriiirti for pn— /.. . . pni Vr 
I.AMV-, Naimk. P\iiii.\n-ar am J ll u itl«> |>lau- 
iiblf tM h'}Iit ihi* Mt'w ir| fiitth in j/\iiiH, t ,^, Mh«-rt- ti 
u kh<mn thiTH u.t4 {M>*^tM) .i * ctrtu-r tru'lthon 
»lmh |ii4l l,.iliin » hmm- ,ii llrUon, .\l »ny r.itr. Uilh 
n trr.Unr^ hm- .li^ti?iKin**hfit Ihrrnvlvf* m Ihf tli'lin«ii' 
lion uf k»li»k ill H whith h.i» i«'mf' slruni; 
|Miiiiti i)f .ittthiiy I'l th.ii of tif-r Mill j.itiiti >h« 

.Ui-Ulll|hUllt-it. Uctntitiri^ to Ml', til Ivl.ll 4 holtif ;lt 

11cvr-l.i!i.ii-r'ii u r . Ifct-r jiT.ihiiufl) liv !»■*■ n»ir«* CJI ^«, I, 
»liii. frc 111 tlMj i<)rrii|il !• \i uf S.'m, i« oupixiwil tn h.iv« 
U'.-ri H.inH-'I Iit-Uir.ih t^*-^' Ihn\h. cnl i i*»j. n. i). 
I' h"v\.sfr. Ihf ■ Iiiiim- ' i» nut rt-ftrrtil t-i. tiul 
tli« ' prtxiuus ptiiM^n^iiitit tni^ic ^p ' i}l "'' tilt* iicwiy 
wiin liridi*. Ill till ■, ii-w fif th"- pr»*ii'nt writrr I.iilun 
H.i» unt(ifi.illy .1 wiutliorn jiTiihiiitt lit*-, onxiU'tlly, it 
ni.iy !»•. [ilaifil in thf NVm'li, vi that h«- miiy .ilvi 
ha\t; U*!! talliil Tl'hai. jy. : ) .1 ti.mtcwhiili m-cnm tn 
uiiili-ilie Sii'Pa |Hi-thiiel Ii. S.f, further. R \< IIH., t a. 
CiiiixiMy, 11 a p«-r>.iiiiifiriitinh ,iltt'rriiti*ty (»f 
the jiiiilhrrn ami uf th>' iiirthi'rn Jinhmi'i lites. She Imtii. nnc iii.iy .iliiin'st s.iy, triMti-d .i% ,1 iru'* woiiiaii, 
with l>(.'.ltillg heart anil platiniliK lir.iin, liy J .inil K. 

TheVKplanati'in ^^Z^, 'cril'd yt)u liiifc;ui»tiiatly .illr.n live ; 

cp r57^' **"'^ '*'• ""M^i-KX ivyrtifi uf oiw uf ih« Onoiiia^lka 

rt_l_4 *' "* ■''^ -'''■ ''"* *'' ' ^li""l a*^t tn the iMjIIom of 

■• Onflll Ml. h iianit-H wiih'.til i .inkiilrrih|{ th« trilal rclulinni 

OflUUnt. "f the 'ulriari lis ; Miirn .mil htisUimtt aliki ari; 

triI>aHH;rsitnitiLaii..n«. lti«pr.>l>aMc ihiit.AI'raham, 

Rctitkah, and [a;ah-K;uhcl tfurr^nt n iriUd name. Ahrahftm 

(fri)iii .\li-raliam)>al>ry'falhrriif jrrahmecl'; Leahftlid 

k.i>:hel (<lijul<te«), mmc fri»ni w..rn..l..*n f..rni.« itf jerahiii««I. 

kcheltah, or r.ilhrr kit.kah, (»r..ti.ilily aU> i,.me> frulll th« laU«r 

nam« ; Cn^ - 3?^ '*3^' ^f' l«'rhaj>s, llie Llanna-ne* ur (1 • e» 

name* k«-rh*r, Hel'«r, and llir I. .cal iLa.iir llrhr. >..,.l OLserve kelM-kahi* father ll^ttiiitl (twrhap.! ^d'l iiAl. ( ii the 

H.iii ..f Nahiir— /.('., the s.miht;rn Haraii, hy Mill ah I lerahnircll. 

'1 he same elhn.'iiraphic Iratlitu.ns .ire rc|icalcJ uvkt and over 

aijain ^i'■"eal.i^ic.llly. -i. k. c. 

BCCAH (n;"l), iCh.4ij RV. .\V Rki hah. 

BECEIVEB {brt'). Is. 3.3i3. RV he iliai weighed 
[the tnlniir] ' Cj, .s< kihk .iiid TaxatiuN. 

BECHAB 135^. •ehariiitecr,' [xrhiips short for Bcn- 

rechalif el| -/v, . sun of ki-k.ili 'tl] ; - l.ut more 
an ethnic uf the NVi;.li(( hr |, ph)|&B ; I'ul in ' 'li. 25;, 
RHX&ll'l. md in Jir. ;)5i4 pMX<iB [K*]. < >n (>i)xa,1 in 
jud^. 1 iQ, sri- Moure's notel. 

I. Ono .,f the mnr.lercr^ uf l-hhoshclh (j .S. < j^ : p«^i>|n, 
in r-r: ^/ yl). His father 'y.r-.)i 

:. The eiKinjm uf the knjHABlTK-. (.iK. IO15 Jer. rmyf). 
A '^.in uf keiliafi ' is a ' kechaliite'; su even in Neh. ai4(see 
Mai.chij mi, 7). 



PAX&B[£||N 1'^]. PHXABit&i [Syni )i. 'The Ki-eh.ihiifs 
lliive usiLiUy tieen consitli-red to !«• a sort of religions 
oriler. an.ilo;;ous to the .Va/ikiths (</.;■.], tmeinK its 
(iriKin to the |eh..nad,il> or Ionaiiab. son of keehab. 
who lent liis couniename to jelui in the violent al«il.lion 
of H.iaI-wor>,hip. In Jer. lifi we meet with the keihatme-, 
as CiililinuiTiK to observe the rule of life ordained by 
Jon.iil.ib their 'father.' absfiinini; fniin wine and 
ilwelling in tents in the land of ' ilah till tlie Ribylonian 
invasion foreeil them to i.ike rehire in leriisalem 

(iKKKMlAHil. , S 171. .\,eoldllli;t.. K»alil (<;;7354ii, 

.Schrader (/.'/., '146), and .Sineml 1 A'tV -^'.. «*.''-'• rijy; ) 
they were an Israclitish sect which represented the 
reaction asjiiinst Canaanitish ciiilis.ilioii, and took the 
Kcnites — the old allies of Isr.ael — as a model. In 

I Acunnecliuii heiwi-en ihe names llehron and kihkah hm 
heen already suspe. led hy ( '.. H. Itatc-cii Wriyht (/('<1J /srai/ 
/■.r^riM At,yftf, iSu). 

'* Su. in the main, H.itnniel, Pd* graphisckt n, p. aj. 
Klr-rekali|'ell was a ruyal name at S.inia'l in N. Syria; 
kek.-il)'el (or Rekrih'el) was pruhalily a charioleer-K.Ki, the 
ira^jpof of the sun {up 'i:hariun of ih^ sun.' ,, k •'■?!•> ^er? 
(i. ltulTiiiaiint»h,, kakkali-'el), ^.1, i3J6, p. 252; Sachaii, 
Aram. Injcliriften, in i /;.(/(', 1896, 41. 



Ii h, *J^)^. however, Ihr ' house 1 if kei hab' i« refiresented 
ui lit'loniiinK to the Keiiiti s, .\n\\ tn 1 1 h 4 u (<!" 1 ilui 
4rJI)>t« t^X^I* 1^' ' .tSlfw €*' *. ^i»*a, kV ■ the itHii 
of keiah ) including TmiVNMI (|»-ihaps Kinih - 
Kcnite) up() .iinotiK the de^eend.ints of t helul.i 
I t'.iteb) \\r h.ive li'i riyht to set this statcniefil 
■iMile on the Kroiinii of the late date of the ihionnlri 
It IS [lerfevtit tredibte the Keniies whii dwell tn 
tents dinoiiK the Nr.iehles loiiK loiitinutsi to fee! them. 

wive* the sjiet l.ll Kll.ttdl.tlis of the pure rellKlolt ..f 

Y.ihwe, anti were honouretl ,ts stit h by lereiiti.ih. ItuiM-' 
nsstimes that in the time i>f b hti 1 kediiibiie na. ...■■! (•inn.illy reini(Hivil tin. olil obliK.ilions on his 
fellow. claninieii, at the same tune [M-th.ips otlerinK ilii> 

Jifltllejjes of fellowship to those from outside who 

aciepttsl the krchabite rule of Ii(e, and thus contiTiiio* 
It to soitiit rstetit Into a religious oriler,'^ This is i 
pLitisible hypothesis, anil rests u(>oit the assitiiipii..ii the Jon.ul.ib s[HAen of in Jer. nri6't.>i4 to til is tin- a cuitnei tioii with Jehu. It is imsstlle, 
however, the true n.ime of the repiitrd f.ttlier of the 
Kenites w.n not lloUlb but lonitillb Isee HollAl . 
This hyix'thesis is, .11 any rate, siiiiphr the otln r 
for the keih.iliite l.iwj are those ch.iracteristic of nonii.i 
rices- 14' . the NaUitii-ani (Kuxl. .Sic, 11b)4i niid «. 
cannot help rxpectinK the legisLtinr of the Kenites lu 
st.iiul, like Moses, at the head of the history of li.( 

The notice in t C'h. 2sj^ is therefore most probiliy 
to tie accepitsl. except 111 so far iis the corrupt II, line 
'lUnimatir' there civen to the father' of il,e 
kechabites is cola friietl. kech.ibites ami Kenites n- 
synonymous terms. ,\o doubt this seconil nimr 
• kech.tbites ' is piiziting : nor is it to lnhiic 
that Y.ihwc, the (IimI of the Kenites. had Rec.ii.,1 
(charioteer-Kisll .as a title. It is a iiuestion, therefor, 
whether the retidings C'::i ' kech.ibiies,' anil 3;- r ; 
'house of kech.ib,' ought not to lie ententled i.i 
ncconl.ince viiih many aiuilogies elsewhere, tinlt.' 
imlc-ed we assume that the popular .s|)eech, wlmh 
uses tralis|)osilion freely, fluclti.iled. In Jiid; 

4ti we meet with 'IliUr the Keiiite.' iitid in : t- 

with the house of llelier the Kenile,' It IS llii:!i'i 

prob.ible that 331, C"33T should lie either ^3n. or ;— 
C'3m. In the former case, Jonadab comes U^fori- .:. 
anew as -a son of lleb«-r,' antI the kecli.ibites lieti m,- 
' llelierites.' In the latter 'kechab' gives plan ii 
'Rehob' ( =kh:iti)BiiIil) and ' kecliabites ' to • k. h. 
bites' ( = kehot>othitesl. Perhaps the former vi(» ,. 
preferable. We ciin now :,ee the full force of Ju.l; 
4ii. '.Now llelKT the Keiiite (the eiKitiym of Iht 
'• llel»-rites," miscalleil" kecliabites ") hail sc-verisl hirn. 
self from Kain, even from the line Iloktb (Jonailiil.? 
The llelierites (kecliabites I of Ist.iel are a brain h if I 
the HelK-rites 1 kechabitesi of N. .Arabia, csjually «:ih | 
whom they honourcsl Jonailab as their ancestor ami 

I'ossihly 33n -13 in Jml);. 4ii (cp Nu. 10 .ij) -li.uld rather !. 
■'?n "a—i,t., the llelieriles. Whether ' Heher ' (. p z.".'Z 'V 
Hus. 119) had originally a reli,;iuus sense, and tnarketl ..i.t i.h 
kenites as ;i priestly tnlic (. p Jer. 3.'> t.^, and .sec M.-sks, | 1-1, 
or whether it is i.ninecled with the mysterious Ilal.iri uf [!.t 
Altiarna Tablets (see Hi- liHFW Lam.l'A(.k, and LpTll-.lilh) 1. 
oiurse uncertain. .Another f.'rnt wliiih the set uiid naiiie ,1' 
Kenites has assumed hy curruptiun is almost ccrlaiiily tlit | 
kAllAM (y.:-.l uf le>ieiul. \'ery possihiy, too, the llanile [.Lr, 
name IlKSK-liKkAli shiiiild lie Hene-rechah- /.c, HctieL.!r- 
iiuleeil the famutts Harak (fillip. 4 ,''>> was perhaps rt-iliyj 
Hehertte (- Hclier the Kenite). .See KiMTKs. 

1 jter Jewish tradition sai<i the kechahites interni.irrip; 
with the Levites and .so entered the temple larvice. Mi-^r 
.iiiiins, in his .-icc.iunt uf the death of James the Just, < <- 
sjieaks of kechaliite priests, and makes one of them iir,i:'.' 

• See Meyer, Fnlsl. 147. 

2 See Itudde, ' The Nomadic Ideal in the NT,' .V«e UW.i. 
Dec. 1S95. p. 72g, niit overlooking the interesting note .■:! l.".t I 
[lossihie Kenite oriijin uf Vahwism : also Ktli^ion 0/ I^taa ti I 
.-ii: /;.i .'.v, ;-, 44, iw.-(iU,«). 

> Read perhaps ncn (=sauthem Maacath). Cp Ht^ ath 


in'.. .s«.h..„,m, ul.| "^ ; rn ! ' T '*;•" """'"" 

PM>*g|MI,J, S,., M,M <4. Km.ui.,,,, ' ' 

UOOnoitt. MEOOHCIUATlOir. T.„ «.,d. „„ 


»»11D SluA 

BI01.J.JISB, Ksontmoif. 


'"•< ■-. inr,r;',-;:i:;,'i":'»^- .^-xad. ...... 

- lAa^vftfiat Ik. Is, , 11^1, ..,. l I • 

........ ,w.„ , j.i.'/Vi^/i/v !;L,s:;r'r;'pV:^;L;' 

.r:'ii;^:r:;,;<;^j';i:^^i:;';v, ;!-/■■'*■':■ ^•-- 
";' -'■- -n i'^.,«a^t:;:^"nu ':■::' r, " 

,'■-"• "", '•" ..■ iW"..*. i w ',•;',;;:'^■;''' 
-'T;:t;.^:;-"'"-^'' ---■ 

^•if^M;^;^.'.....,; ... „„, ,, 


iii !"..".";'■' J. **"^«""'*H(:ki.,n [ tin,,-, .„„l 

"V |. Yn(iMNHMAT..rPA<j)(,(: rf.m, ,, 1 

, , - '-■' I'-l ■ ^- *3 (Hl.f]; J ,„w«,-.,/,/,;,,, ■-' 
^^ :;;"''«'";*"■''■'•■ t'.,ph.,..Jn.hnr.M,a„„.,„ 

:,;:;' /''.^""-V''. '^^'-^^ •'■'-■"■ ■rn,„„,l,r.,, ,.'■ 
r l.T ,f cjinuiK I. .. Th,- .scTiso in « huh ,hc « . „ 1 
.ka> l,v O ,n.l \-«. i, „,,v,„us. The I IH „ ' 

>»uw.M.h,u.f,,,o.„,.,«M..rnu.n,,,n,,. r, . 
.l".|«T,..U„,„,,.s,„i„,, />„, „>, ..„/a:.„ ,, 

. i^7 '■ "; ""' ••' ""■ '^"'«' r..n„.n,l,r,M.,fn; 

"l"ir l.mrl '..f mkIi things as are to U- ,.,|l,.,i 

.«, o j.r . he .^. he cro„; •■;.,;;;;!;' 

•> c.T.a„,l> much n,.,re res,«,„.,.,le ,han euher of 
Yon. '?; f^-''7'«."'-- •■»'">• '- co„„M,e., o 
'flth. k.„«s conscience.' .See <;„vkrnmkn r 

cp IIIV1,>K„AI. Lin KATIHF., $| 5 ' 

■he •.!,.,>■ .writer,' KVm... 'reu.rj'.r' (C;* Ss, 4 ri 

■.,'• "''"'• «.'>frn.,r' (lit. • „»„ of ,„„„„, 'V-)"':' 
•■•l.'>am..rehkclye,iui,a|c„i. '-..nini.iml ) 1, 

^5n., a,„i for RwJdUh (Cn-inN). L A ''f,lr' 

) CORAL .D'J<JB). Jol,^s,3. RV"«. ; see 

II llit.rK r " f;-' >5;mi^.:i1 In t|,^ Ronuii. im.vhuc 
.poi.^X"""" ■^'""*'- "'"= ^V*..a.'r,., a,ul 

-1 i.«,./.,. i-,„i« th. „,„Mr. ,1,' „m .. J .;' ".'.::;;■;: 



of^Vt*- ■^' "'' ^'■■''-"■M.l the kcl S..» one 
";•• '•..-...., ort.ulf of.\ka...h. a..,„t lo ,, ,,> ^ ' 

;i^':'x:;"::r;i:.'K:::;T" 'r^"'"'-'-- 

!■ i-.>l.l«,l ttu, , „ ,",'"',";"' '""" '*"- l«'"..i;r .il.,,„, 

ti... *il.i..M.„ f '."u' '"""" ';'"'■"'' "> la..(th. ».,, „f 

i<'>i"< kkmh). I-,: m, ■;,;''"'' "» '--"i"" '••"••»c,i 

l.r...h.J, W;.v, , hi t^Tst ''"s,''"^ ''"v^-' '■ '" '■ ■>' ">•• 
•■1' ■. mraii III.. Vr.l.i.,, ..,.1. .f •'".-'••<- I -*' Ju'liJ. r , 

S'lr) ,K.1»,.. (,hi,,. 1,1, i, , I. ',•'""""■ '•■"f .^1'. 

throu'i;h';r''v"f "' ""• '■•"«"-•• ^'-^-i"" «■>-- 1...^^ 

'I'rouKh the \„|,,,.e ,,. the •»:„.<,,« t/d,\a^,a of «,'.!! 
1. Vvfpjk 7,'""- ""!> J'i'lK 11 .6 has «d\a,r,ra v.0l 

I'"' ..n«nMl n„.,„„„K „f ,he „ar„e «., a s. „■,. f 
ih«ii>M,in Hiih thi. i;r... L^ -i i . ••ni'Jxl of 

>-'! men, <.rthe „/,„T,.iroiiml(i„shen (dhi,-.' i^„ 

S'a of the circle (or circuit?! an,| the hvi«,theti -^1 
.^M.Ian..tion of thi, expressioti, cp VVMM J T^^ 

-I lie Hehrcw name,.„« .^^^, ...o-c-,.,, . ^ea of the 

«.uer^p,an.^._i., ,,,_,.,; •,.„, ,^, .^^ 

8. Yam i.'"*." ■) IHoi.Ks s(«.,ailv to Kc'vpt (CD 

•ttph. ^''- -^.^ 5 '^- 1»6| and the ' .Nile ; "-onlv ^ 

h. ? , ^""^*' /■'/'■'•".'. »l>ich i., not foun.i n 
•he e.i,hcr lauK^tge hut appc-ars as ,„.y, i„ texts o?t,;" 



niiMUtnth dymutr,' U he'hi-r il be a foreign or a Word cannot U- .!, inniinnl ; cc.nMVjucnlly 
it nm^l riMn.iMi .i' (i|K_-n iju.-Mi. i, «hi-tlicr it was iHjrrowi-a 
friiin l".(;y|)liMM liy the I'.ilfMnii.ins or virfirrs.l. It is 
runiarkalilu ll-iU tht- (."npti,- version, whitli oilicruisc 
•triitly f.)l!.)«sff, in i;\mlm i. !i,|,.rs 'Sea of /,,/•/■ which 
si'i'ins tn Ik- ^.!' iTo^i — ai, ..i.hnR to rhfophra'iliis. 
I'Mny. anil 'Itsu!:m.s, the nanic uf an I',i;)ijiiaii »aln- 
plant («■<• IVyriin. /.,,■. C.f/. 304, who, h.)WfMT, 
prcfm an ini(K)s,il,li.- l■ly^nc.^.^■v).» It wonkl then f ,ru 
si'um ihal th.' C.piic tiMiislat.r hin- criMiltnl ,t' 
11,-hri-vv, ri-n.lcririt; 'sea of p,i|.yriivpl,uit-i ' (laitlicr 
riMiil,-rs S,/ii{fm,-fr). These a<|U Uic plants, i.f iciiirso. 
ni-MT Krew in the salt water of the Rid Si.i ; incli-ni 
travellers h.ivu found, not »itli..ut diirn iilty, sonic 
eliiiiips of rifif. on s|>ois not fi..iii Suez where fresh 
«.iter niives with the k,,l Se.i (see Knol„|- 1 )illnianii, 
on I'.v. lai^i; hut the derualion of the name from 
these would lie more than iniproUiMe. Others have 
th .u^ht i.ifter Jon. 2. c.) of s«MW.-eils which are Siiid to 
1" I'lenliful ill some parts of the Kixl Si-a ; t>ut the 
coiiiHion, e.irly use of the word .<«/* is aijainsl this. 
We can miderst.ind how Hriii;seh iri'wj,, ii, etc I 
«.is led by these freshwater pl.ints lo assume the 
sw.iiiips of NK. Kj;>pt as the locality of the Kxodus ; 
he f|uite forjjot, however, ihu' Mipii 
aj.pliis ,iIso to the .I'.l.inilic naif-' 'I'he freshwater 
TMns.ili.I.ike with its>;e m.irshes full of re<'ds, cx- 
ai tly at the enlianci' of (Joshen, would fulfil all con- 
ilili.ins for the Ivvoiliis and for the lUhrew name (see 
K.\oiii.-s i., ^ i6|. The word -sea' is u.sed of hikes in 
most l.inKuanes, es|x-eially in Hpl.rew Icp Nu. 
3lii. 'Se.i of Chimiereth,' etc. I. .Still, it wouUl lie 
very straiiee if the ijroc.xlile I..ike, or other swamps on 
the frontier of Nj:, l':pvpt, should have furiiisli,-d a 
n.inie to the whole ked S<;a. iniludiliK the .Klanitic 
Kulf which was nearer lo most Palestinians than the 
lyvpti.m I, ikes. Oil ihe connection lietween the present 
Inner l.ikes and the (.ulf of .Suei, which most scholars 
as.-uiiie for hihlicil lanes, see ICxmns i. , § 15. In the 
opinion ,,f tlie present writer this theorv lie re- 
jected, and thus the llelirew ii.ime reniail'is oliscurc. 

Wiih 1 

w. M. M. 
■.•,.,. ,*■'"""' Pfe..i>ion ami .liscrilliiiialiii^ use .,f aulliurilics 
nilHs /..>,.,.,(.,.:■. r^jlijiM.s Ihe f .lie*,,.,;, ,.„ whiJ, ,1 is „„i 
• T. 41. ""perflae,,.. i„ <,„,„„i.„,, he, ai,se it is „„<: ..f Ihf 
a. IS tne ..l.|e, |s,,f ,1,,. pr,.,,..,,, w.jrLloimmniv Ih.' i.M ,,n,l 
lOlUtiOn 'lie new, an, I l.y a jun, ti,,n ,,f ihe f,.rci» of all 
hopeleu 7 "^''"■•'' ■'■ni'l'ail-, t,, „iake .leflnile a,iv,inte» wl,ere- 
ever this is |)us»il,le. • nj-c; ^ sfl o/ 
n,.Ji,-s or .v,,/i(less iii.,l,.,l,ly.„„ ,./-|.itvl.Sl</*), which llreelc 
in, i„les 1,1 «„ler lia,,,e O.M. .puKpa, K..I .W„ (, p |)i. /.a. d - 
an,l <s,K.,.,aMv W.M.M (,. „. /.„,, ^,/:, who c,plai„s as nan 
,' y uivei, t„ up|K.T ,:n,l ,.f flulf ,.f Suer, exlr,ahfiK in 
inner IJkes, shallcw an.l marshv, when.e r,r,/s |i>r.,l 
.also re,l,|-sh clourj); iia„,e .,pplic,i ,„,!y i,,arii,s ,„■ Ke,l 


. . „....,...,,,.„„,,„ .,p|„,t,, ,„i,y ,,,ar,i,s ,„ Keti .•sea," 

"'•" t'>i.uir,.f S„e/, s.,n,ciiines tu(;ulf „f.\kal«. Il i, 

nolej .ilso ihat VrC'S sh,,„I,| ,K,„il,|j- U: rea,l fjr 'O Vo in 
I)t. 1 I. 111)11 also ,».i„is „„i (,.:., c;) ih,,t in V.x. 14 a (/■,,) g 
Is. .'.1 io(/./V) la II, etc. c;- a„,l in Is. 11 15 pr,il,..l,ly C"!K-C" 
"Ihe 'R,-,! Sea." in the latter, liewaver, • nr.ilMhlv' 
secns la 1,- aa exaus'erali.m. ' The l,,n,;,ie (hay ■') „f the sea ,,f 
K^ypt is ., .iranKe circnilocuUMii r,,r yr-r ; imled, to render 

C-i-. 'i:^v|>l' in rr-. ,, ,, is y ,,la>,sil,le if -.-^ n,av he,l .s.v r,a (. p .Sla.le, / 1 / // ;! ..„ 1. '.Ul ihe.e are e, r„rs 
m tl,c lexl of U 11-16, 1, cenain ; th.a ;-S'S i, somelin,es a , ,„. 
rnpiien .if >.«;--. (cp /y.'-'. ,,„ Ps. pjo ,). „„v al.„ \^ .-.ssumcl ■ 
lh.,l ^•■ci) s.,.„ei,i.,es si.e,.l, f,.r ^,ncK (Ashl„„), a svn.invn, ■■( 
»'"• Ijiralnneell. is also ,litr„:uU lii Kaia-ay. MciIlkIk,,! 
'_nli. iM„, llarelerc iu-tilies us i:i rea.lini, C''"lll';s'' '■ C'l.n.T 
[C-«], 'An,! Vahwe shall pl.i, e .1 ban upon ll,c Ishniaelilel ' 
(■ p :'. 14); C'jr: is an ar.liaising j;l.,ss. F.\,-„ al , 

' '•ee \V.\I.\I Is. „ K.r. ,„,, .V,.M/), 'ree,!,' which was 
fornitrly , .,.,i,,ii,e,l with ».;, ii differenl. 
2 Kl«:rs, /)„„/, f,-,w,,',,g. ,nake, i, p,„|„|,le ih,, ,hi, „„„| 
.•r..c-lvph,... Tl.i,, l,,,-,,ever, c,a,l,l i„,l well l.e 
in, Ihe abave ( ..plic w..r.i. 
irhenian l..>i; w,«il,l, however, justify Ihe name as 


al V 

' Th. 
lillleuli.e (Milf of Sum. 


wnuld suftgMt Ihe view ihal 'I'O-C; may K- an early tejlual 
corrupli.ia, nor ...uld it l« sai,l ihal 'Se,i.,f .Sfiph'was inipr,,', 
able, e.vcepl on Ihe ^;r..u,„l thai the ,;..rre. ines. ..f ihe snap.,.,. ; 
place-name '.*<nph 1,1 lit. 1 1 was ,,ptn 1., ,|ii, siiu,i. lint wli. . 
we have rec,.K„ise,l iliat, Neh. 7 _s7, is a i.,rrupli..n 1 
nr\%~i.t., /^rephalh in Ihe Nejjeb (sec .S. ,i hkiikth)— ii ... 
•jfi.o becomes a plausible view that isp or rain the MT a,.- 
s.„„eli,n>s ..,rr,l|,I abhreviali.,ns of ihe same 'place-name Z.,... 
pbalb(S.,repl,alh). Ju-I as the 'lle.,J Sea 'was , ailed nW.1 - 
of ""KCnT c. so '|10T'. a« •i ".ime for Ihe Half of '.Miabah, iiuiy !«■ 
a c.rrnpt abbreviation of n^-ljrn;, where i Is to be uken as ., 
r.„e„.„ne'-lhe Z.irephalhiles (see ZAKKniATIl). A simil,,, 
e.v|,l.,aal„.n ni.iy be Kiven of demand Sciiail. I'r,,f, Sa\ . 
(Cr//. .l/,.». .'5^,^) Ih.v Saph, wherever! 
phrase ,«:cur«, aSiins Ihe I ;ulf of ■Ali.ilsil,, This, liow-v,, 
inv.losibe furtrar ntaleinent Ihal the i,le,,iili. alien of the m i 
cr.>,i by Ihe Israehles with the \',mi .Saph (f.x, 1 ', 4 yi) is |. 
c.irre- t. This is sorely t,.., b., Id. In K.\. l.'i 4 .,j, as elsewbt--, 
Ihe Irsi cause is 10 rea.l nclXC" (• 1" -M'.sKs, | u), unle >' 
iii,l,e,l, we prefer l„ ni-J 'r^: All dilTi, ultiesare obvi,,|. ^ 
If we .„lopt ilie view ,,f Ihe prinniive iradilion resiwctini! Isr . ate.l i„ rol. iiaif., anil that Ihe place of s„i,.„. 
of llie |,rimilive Israehles was in Ihe lan,l of Mizrim, a,lj.,in, 
Ihe 1.111,1 ..f Jerabnuel. ,m Ihe iKir.ler of Ihe NeKeb (see Nf..i T 
Ii is|«.ssible that Ihe leijend «p,,l<e of a deliverame of ,■ .' 
Israelites in nBIH |i;-, where ;-. (sometimes .orrupted i;,: . 
f;;, ' Javan ') represents '•KCtT Oerahmeel). (^uite early, iht 
mark of abl.revi.iti,.n in .j- may have been losi, and 'n h ,>• 
l>ec„me Corriipled into -Jig ami i]-8. Then, floating mjilii 
.(lories may have led to an alteration ,,f the old le.;end. (, , 
su,h possible story is referred lo clsewh, re (, I , "1 
An.ilher may now l« added. We know c"il-o (.Mijrnn .■ „r 
Sli/raim?) was reuarded as Ihe antitype of the primitive ;ir 
orMraK.,n'(see 1 iK v,.os-, J 4). Tberr w.,s als... in the Creal ' ... 
story, aslateinentofthe pi,Klu,.li,,n of the dry l,,ii,l by the » |i. 
< rawal ,,f Ihe water fr.nn a part ,.f the ,xean's l» ,| (( a„ 1 I 
I Ins may very well have been as a IVIK- .,f Ihe deiiveV 
alue ,.f the Israelites, the siory of wlij, |, („, »,„„ a, ,^^,, 
rorniplinn m.i,le this possible) was a,li,:sie,l s,. as t,. fit this, 
tail,.,,, On I,. n -J „ f.„i//,, „..s b„n,i,l al..,„t my head'), ^., 
t,:t. /:,/-. <),, Ihe wl,..le, the closing senlence ot' I ■,, set,, ■ , , 
the present writer lo he perfecllv correct ; but a <|iecial bibl, .' 
»ch,.lar ouchl hanlly lo ie»l wiiboul trying some fresh avenut 
'"""•■""'''• W. .M. -M., 8 I/; 1. K. C.^j. 

BEED. .. n^i;, *,/«.A, . K.U.5 kaAamoc (= K 
l.Sji Is. ;)««. etc., ,\lt. II7 12jo. etc. 
is conini.jii to Hel). , Sit. , .\ral) , 
has [Mssed into Gr, and Lat. as' KANS\-f.i;„ : 
an.l into I-.nR. ns 'can,?.' The I'l.ime is prol,.il.iy ■■ 
.>i.-initicori,,'iniI,aR. r,/;-rs. 50; Harth. .\■„m,>,„/^ ^u . 
bat the nature of its conmviion with the root V-- i, 
obscure.' Ilesides the Keneral ni-afiiiK 'stalk' (li-n 
4Uj2| or 'shaft' (Kx.3"i7, cic. 1,' r,:^ is u.sed in. rr 
s|>ec illcally of (.;), (.«) sweet or aromatic cat.. . 

/.;)}, is frispieiitly mentionci, though tlur.. 
IS htlle to help in detirniining the 5p.sies 
intenileil. It «ms distinct fr,,ni su/^h (see I-'i.v;i i- ^ 
,<'.;«,-■ (sec Rfsill, but like these Rrew be the^ 
of rivers (f.ff.. the Nile, Is. I9f) ami po.'.ls (Is. ,".:..,. 
It apiiiMrs |.i have Iieen s,,mewhat tall , "ob 40 =, ) nn.: 
thick (to jiisiiiy the mi'iiphor in |,,l, ,11 j 
• l.,.ii,.,' .\V«w 'Chanel Um, 

is a word wl,„l; 
ami Us., an,; 


: and the j,/iiiteil n.ii;i 
of the st.ilk nfipears lo N- iinli, .itpil in tl,,. re|- .1. 
references to the broken or l)ruis,-,l r,-.-,l (2 K. 1^ 
etc. 1." IVrhajis the most probable iih-ntifi. ,!.. 
is with th,- tall .Inmio nm„v, I.., v»hich yr,.. 
abim.l.intly in S. Kur,,|«- : though ..tlier s|«-. i,.s'ni,; 
have Ik.s.11 inchali-il ni„l,-r the i,.iiiie. ' In IS (i.Sj 
•■'?ii''."? "■''■''"'.^' <-'"in"t Ik; remh-reil 'the comp.:./ 
S|H-,irmen ' (.15 .Wi ; such a only !»• ren.i.i. 
' the wihl l,.ast of the rei-ds ' Icp A\'"'«., ''the U.,i.!c 
the r,-,.,ls'), Theaniiiiil iiiti-nili.d mav I 

' th, 

' Thep,.;fIance)ofiS, 51 i», may l« a kin,!re,l »„r, 
the , orre. tness ,,f the lext i, very qneslionable, 
' >.> ,.r Ihe be,,n, . .f a balan. e (Is. 40 ,-,), ami of a 

1, I'. 

Il-.^elv. 4, 

.Mr.vs, R(.s, f 

elc, ), on which last see Whi. 


> « nil these references cp the Talmudic phrase ' push »;■.!.- 
"'I -ofa feeble arguer(l.-.«, 144). 

Iheevalen.-eorihe.Syriac Icxicvrapber. is Soinew....; . 
avoiir of Arumi,< /'hragmit/s, I.. (1..-.W, 34, ). 


[fl. peeAiac f- 

it-sd. 58 where i 
l**^ |. in<raiOi' I 
'■'"n Kki;i.hs | 
Ihe sinie vi-ise. 
'.fer.ihineel '; th. 
within the lewis 
l('ii''.>. f.'p'kl.i; 


: M'. a duplicite 
•^"iClislof 1,..|,|,., 
'Triir Us.'n subst 
SAfoYM [■•]. /.'■. 


fii I I \j \j(. 

Ml 1 vt.s. 


><- Asvn-M, !j -, 


» ' li'l.ile ihinie,' o 



tlMl ..|.i,ii..„ <,.,„i,| „„ r^", ~ "'■ "''"-uinyof ,h,. c exi, 

>i-' 'I.. -inciw,H'n;p;„ ''',•=,,;'''■'"""''''■•• ,""lm. .Link: 

'>>tiv (Is 4.'1,.1 ■ -ri • 'I' '•'">-' "-I. and was 

J. p,f. ■.W„„„„„„, which K.-n.Talh- nu-ar,s ,„»,ls „r 
irshivs, IS in [cr 5! ij il.nt iR i . ' ' 

!""ii to the clTimps (ir l».(is ,,f ,,...,1 , 1 ^ 

^,(^M.. how.ev..r, would rend c-==.,, ■ cas.U-s ) 

♦. 'nK, V.«, is uvicx. in RV .„, „icn. 41.18) and 

illiT (//,f,„/i/„i„„„ ,-.-1 „,/l /V' ""!> K"" hact 


-CEP IN"I ,.r^ ,,''"' ApBeceep [WP], 

; -fh-rah,,,,,.!/ iv . ' "•^- -^""Piy c.,rr„,„i<,„5 

: would thus '-„ii..uni„.:;:: :'':";•",;:■"■ 1' 

Arabia). Cp .s„.>kk.kk, .. ; «.„.„„;,„"- '•* <-^J~'-"'^- 

BEHABIAH (llirram, .Vah i, ■, wid.. ,, '' 

I'^.'l) wings.' SmOsiiih- fl,/„,, r.r , .' ' ' 

"f > , mtjin., lur a new cmciiilaliuii.) 

.\. M. 
•■ aluive I (,;). 

EED8. WILD BEAST OF THE. S.,.. au.,ve . ,,„. 
SELAIAH or r.iih.r. Beeli»h (Tvhv^; p«a».a 

Lsa Where ,,,s'...,n„,,.,,K,Ki:J;.^.,^;^v;:; 

III. ale of .hcnanieof .hef.Jr,', in U .. p ", 
IM „f |,,„,,rs ,n , l,sd. -.i. whi, h has I.v a s, riU-'s 

rM [1.]. /.'■., Il.«vai (si-e |->ra2. .\eh, ;,,' " 
JSAIAS (pHtAioY [HA]). , Ksd. .-iS = Kzra2., 
^INER (^lyo), Mai. 3. At S„ ,-,„^.,,,, 

■ooE. CITIES or (u^pon 'Tin. j„sh -o. I 
EMian; p*r€M[H]. pc.[.\|, pe [L| ; 

'■■e.ume. „neof,heson,„fJahdai; .Ch.zj. ; 

EEH0BOh-,..hi„..d place'; p„^B(,,„.j,. 
the „f thai n.iiiic i„ ,1,,. ■v " . ■) I'ol'olh is 

;i>.-..h^n.av,.n,isw.n,;;:,^;^:';-'^: '---», 

v.. . n„. ,n,prol,al,ly,he southern M.a.i"-," It ':, 
Ih. .Hided that, from this point of view U ■ V 
..r.«.n..l narrative which u'^.ler „ s',0 , "n,''' ,"" 

iih ,o '^"f'l'M'' 'he other with Ac.h., .n,,! .\,,hek 

in 111 K,. li.. .•'''"^'"'''■'»ith/„/,„|,.v,jj 

'"•iil-K hst. inayl».-i,„.„t„„„.,l,,..,\VMXt ., , ', ^ 
394). Of more im,x.rtance how, ." i ,. "'• 

of .he name r.huL , p.,p An « f "'^- 1""^^""* 

«-...h IS .LnihiN.': h^-^„:;';^";;;:^^;i::, '<-"-^'-"^» 

•y. A. c. 
J rn Aliiiah (, S. 14 j)=.\l,in,d..h (, .S. -.g.„) 
..,/,;... "''■ ''.!"/ -'4'7/., ami , ,, , > ,y. y/,. , ' 

*S'r''rf' !-'"""'---!;■'"• '''"'"■ ''"> '""'""■ 

"I the ,.i.ler document „„!, ,.. ,,„ ,,^, simiv,,!. Th.- r. ., 

see Rf.iIOB i. i 

REHOB (3rn). I. 2 s 831. 

HhTH-KhHon; IIaiiahk/ek. 

2. A l.eviie !>i){iialory lu the covenant (^ee KzRA 1., | 7); 
Nell. Ktii li.'KJJ om.. pota.^|AI.l, poo$ [ttc.ii ma ]), 

BEHOBOAH (Qysrn. .i^ if ' the is^ed.' > 

Hut I'an"'. knHAiUAH, favours the view that either ctf i"" the 
itivine ti.uiie Aniiii IldAmmi, Namk-^ in), ur H'he.)ilte name 
i-i. tT represents, une of the current niuilificalions of ' Jerahmeel.' 
Pij^sildy the true form wan Reiiah'el. just as the true form uf 
Jf.M'ihiiam [i/.t:] may have l>een Jeruhba'al ; the nn^in of Iwth 
names, however, may Im; suspci teil to have l>een 'Jerahmeel, 
Cp, however, (iray HI*X, 59; pofloaft (HAI.)). 

Son of Solomon, and first Kinii; of judah labout 030 
B.r. ?i. According tt» 2 Ch. 12i3 the (lUfeii-niDthcr was 
' Naamah, an Aninionitess.' This suppoM-d half- 
Anitnoniii?.h »jri>;in of Kt*holK)ani would U' ini|Kjrtaiii. 
were it prnl)al)lf (cp thr -',im in thr nnnit-i. Hut we 
have no rrasnn to think that Solomon's chief wife was 
an Aniinonitess. Much more proUiblv he married the 
'companion' of iMvid s old .li^e, by an •^rror iit seemsi 
of ^ and Mr called Alii>haK. If so. n'rc;* ii»<iy Ik- a 
corruption of ri'^y-v. Sunamniith. and kchnUKims 
mother was probably Naamah the Shunamiie icp (-"ant. 
Hij[i;]). The (jueen-mnther. hoWL-vcr. n»*cd not have 
iH'i-n an Issacharite ; the Shuiicm from which she came 
was most proUibly in the \<-t,'rb (sei* Silt NAMMITK). 
Had it I)ecn otherwise, Ki-hoix*im might have coi.ntfd 
on the support of the iril»esinen of Issachar. Mut 
Issarharites were certainly not ainoni; ' tht- vouni; mt-n 
that had grown up with him and stood l)efore hmi. of 
whom we .ire told m i K. 12^^. 

The tratliii-nal story of the events which led to the disruption 
is considered elsewhere {see Jkhiiih >am. i). I: is necess.irv, 
however, to refer to it aijain in connection with the anifle 
Soi..tMoN, It would seem that in spite of the < onipulMiry (0 
cessiuii of twenty cities to the kinu of Missur, Solomon sue* ceded 
in relaininn a lar>;e part of the Ne^eli. It also apiwars that as 
late as the lime of Anius (see I'koimki, I 55) Israelites from the 
N. fretiucnted the vencrahle sanctuaries of the Nciieh— a region 
which the second Jerolxiam had recovered for Israel. ft is 
further prohahle that the place-name which ap[)ears in (ienesis 
(MI) as ■ Shechem ' should rather l>e Cusham. and that a plai e 
in the Ne^eh, on the border of the N. Arabian Cush ir* intended. 
See Smecukm. Very possibly it was there that the ^reat 
assembly was held, which issued in the rejection of keholwam , 
by the larger part of Israel. That the story yiven in i K. 1-' is 
corre. .^ is intrinsically improltable We do not know what it 1 
was that actually kindle*! the spark of disatfection. nor is It i 
necessary that we should. The differences of N. and S. were 
reasons cnoutjh for a separation ; in race and perhaps even in 
matters of cullus there was hy m> means complete unity among 
the federated clans of Israel, Was Rehoboam really forty- 1 

one years old at his^ accession' We may doubt it. even without 
laying; stress un i K. lli H ; cp j Ch. 13 7. So far as we ran see, ' 
he displayed no vigi>ur, even in the feud l>etween himself and 
Jeroboam ; the historians ascribe this partly to the intervention 
of a proiihct named Shkmaiam. And in spite of the cities in 
the S. which Solomon (and, as the Chronicler states, KehoUiam 
himself) had fortified, he could not hinder the successful in- 
cur.sion of 'Shishak, king of Kjjypi,' or rather 'Cushi. kinkt of 
Misriin (see Shishak), which resulted in the loss of the 
treasures which Solomon had collected for the temple. Thi^ is 
the one sreal event recorded of his reii;n. See Iskah , H 2i, . 
and on Kehohaim's wives(2 Ch. 11 irtao). Maacah, h. 

T, K. ( . 

REHOBOTH (nbiri: cYPYXwpiA [ADI.JI. the 
name of one of the wells dug by Isaac ((ien. 26^.^). 
Sw (Jkhak. ki-hubr.ih was really. 
however, an imixirtant place, to which 
great kings and di\ iners ap(K-ar to have 
traced tht-ir firigin, and where grctt prophets took 
refuge, and received messages from tht-ir < iod /sec 
U'lowt. It may jx-rhaps Ijt- the city of Knbiita nn-n- 
tion.-d in tlic Am. Tab. (182i.^ 'lS.(,,.|, and once 
calhtl appart-ritly Hiibuii cJ.'JlU/t- In lS.'i?-io \\v read 
that the warriors of (iazri, <iimti, and Kilti have taken 
the region of Kubuti. (innti is (iimti-K.rmd. /,*■,, 
(iath of JKKAHMKKI. (y.:,. S 4 [/ I'. Killi is Kcil.di. 
The localitifN, except (iezer. he prettv near to'^ether. 
I'ns!nn,it»ly trie site is that of the mod. kuhattth. 8 

1. Identifica- 


has lieen rejei icil in of I* s aci 
see A.l.!is(,U. ,//.). 

* Cp the play on the name in Kcclu 

ount of the tribal limits 
'-. 47 2t(Hch. text). 


hours S\V. of neershelw. at the point ' from which the 
roads across the desert, after having ^hh-'h all uniteil, 
ag.iin di\erge towards (jaza and Hebron.' Robinson, 
svho visited the place, hesitatetl to make this identitica- 
; tion, ln'cause ' this appears to have Iwen nothing but a 
weir (//A'lagi). Rowlands' and Palmer saw more 
cic.irly. In the WVidy itself there ib only one well ; but 
on the sloping sides of the sidc-valley, in which ih'- 
ruins are situated, are many wells, reservoirs, and 
cisterns. 'A little l)eyond this the WVidy ojjens rnit, 
and receives the name ot Pahr bfhi mi (■ the waterles, 
sea lake] I. and on the left comes in a small valley 
called Sutnet tr-Ruhaihi-h, in which names are preser\e(l 
IxUh the Sitnah and ReholMUh of the Bible ' ^ Palmer, 
Ut'sert of the i-.xodus. 385). Probably Ruhailx-h aKo 
represents the ' Rcholxjth by the Kiver" of (ien. .'JH - 
(VI3.1 rn-im ; powfiuO rijs wapd worafiov, or tov irora^ttt" 
[AI.], om. H; tfe ffuvio f^ohohoth. or de A', quic juxli 
iimmm si/a isf [Vg. |). See S.M'i. (2), Pktiidh. I h.- 
apix-nded rlescription distinguished this Reholxith frnm 
other places of the same name. The 'River' is tlic 
River of Misrim (see Mi/kai.m, g 2A; Kr.viT. Riv^n 
OF). For passages in the accounts of Mela. lialaam, 
and Elijah, in which Reholtoth apiiears under tiisguis. s 
due to corruption in the text, see Hkla, CiiKkiiM, 
PKTHok ; also M.\K( AHoiii. .Nkgkh. Ji 2i: 

This, however. d.x.'s not exhaust the list of probablf 
references to Reholjoih. It may have been displa< i-d 

2.FurtherOTj;,, ^^^^ Kikjaih-akka); in ths 
cnse. it was al Rehulwth. not at HelirDH. 
that the famous cave of tho .Mai MI'KL.MI ' (? Jerahmti 1 
(ien. 'J.'J i7-,;o! was situated. Thf error may have \n-'-n 
a very early one (jH-rhaps in the original V). No doulit, 
too, * IVn ■ Meth ' in (ien. *J33^ is niisvvritten for ' IVn-' 
Reholxjili ' (nn for n[;]n i i ; so also ■ Hittite' ('n"t iii 
Gen. 'Jt) *4 and iltjj shr)uld l)e ' kehol)othite ' ('nam), ainl 
■ dau^jhters of Helh * inn mjs) in (ien. 274'> should tj,- 
' daughters of keholKUh ' (n3mnij3) ; set? Jacijb, tj 2. 

The HtK)k of Kzekiel. too, yieUls one remark. iblt.- 
reference to Reholwth, if in Kzek. 16345, 'thy nioihtr 
was a Hittite, 'we should read' KeholHjthite'i 'AniDrit'-, 
or rather ' Arammile ' = ' Jerahmeelite ' ). On the pr< '\i- 
ability that the early population of Jerusalem consi'^trd 
of Jerahnieeliles or Kehobothites, see ZioN, and ip 
Crif. nib. 

Most proKably, too, ' L'riaii the Hittite' should \k 
' Uriah the Reholxjthite,' and ' Haggith' (the nam,- nt 
Adonijah's mother} in 2S. 84 should Ix? Reh^'hith 
ln"3m). 'Cherethite' cn^J). too, can at last tx? rigtilly 
read; it should !«.■ ' Reliotxjlhite' (•ri;rn)- This, in 
fact, is a necessary inference from the corruption of 
rfiZTT into n"?; in i K. 17.(5 (see CHEKITil, and cp 
I^Ki.KTHiTKs, Zakki'IIATiK. Fhus IJavid's faitiifu: 
guards wire not Philistines, but men of S. PalcMiii, 
That the Rehol)c>thites and Sarephathiles, howcv-r 
were always friendly to David is more than can !*■ 
safely stated. Ii<Hh triljes or pet)ples are apparditly 
reft-rn'd to as hostile to David in 2 S. 21 15-23. • I'b ;;^ 
tines' should \ie ■ Sareph.athites,' and ' Gath ' (n;i ■'•'■ 
'Gob' (;:i are probably corrupt fragments of * K< li-.. 
Ixjth' (riin-^l. It will In' remeinliered that the Mi-nip- 
were famous for their tall st.alure (i<,'h. llxi; cp b 
4rM4?t, anr! that the Anakim are coimected with 
Kirjath-arba. Now Kirjath-arlia (;*;"1K p*"!,?), or [xf- 
h.ips -'arab(;-y 'pi is at any rale not Hebn>n, but m i\ 
!«■ ReliolH»th (cp St'iM'M!. These conjectures favour ih. 
view (loii.ith. D.i\id's in the Icl;- n'i of keholHith. not of (iath. 

Ill vhi.ri. It w,tul(t appear '>lc!<-r anil very ,!ifr,trem ■! rir 
untlcrliy th,; n:irralivi-v in .MT ;uiil ,B i.f i S. 17 and (t-spc .,.: \ 
.* >. '11 \yii 'I'Sf.-ii, . cither there lia> Iweii a confusion li. ;,irr 

' In Williams, //o/r City. 1 465. 

'- ' Cnnaitnites ' hert* shonld U; * Kenizzites ' (as in soni,' thr 
p.^rt■^ of Juiltf. 1 and elsewhere). 


(IV,, wars ot 
life of l>avi 

f'f C'nB-iK 

prol>.i(jle Ihi 

iS '.17.25 

Ki,o« lif.r'.) 

thitc.' On! 

ji-iion .tscrili 

(,e taken (ou 

_ie,lur« reiatl 

/\8KPH.\ I h] 

'('.a'h' hut 

.^>- of Shii 

wh,?re (StsKh 

pro!>al>ly coir * .Sisera ' 

.■\inm,,n (rath- 

(Kher <lis| 

!k' found in 

probably a 

In I S. 14 

J^.Tul ; in 2 

111 IU26-J0 ' the 

ty«li the rest 

icr.lhmeel,' o 

A/.*., and cp 

where it is ;i 

Rehoboth (n< 

I't'iiitim (cp 2 


1\"1: potoB 

1. Auyriolo{ 
cal inqnir]! 

cities in the nc 

which it is as 

•mil Ksarhaddi 

.1 place in whii 

on tlie site of 

>-irBon, the m 

represent Rebil 

Ki'l)it-.\in,-l, an 

icp Del. P„r. 

"on I r^/'i/u (frc 

skirts of a city. 

winch were [lar 

(hough possibl} 

Thus it was in 1 

wilh Humbanig 

of his reign : at 

Es-irhaddon mac 

ofSidon, A'/ii, 

name of the farn 

usii.illy followed 


tovinname, Rehi 

silt h town name. 

Hie failure of 

Rescn (not to ,ad(| 

»■ Text (!ritJ<!»l 

•iisions anil misuni 
il'iiiml in the Iratii 
■* p.iri of ., much 
'!"■ .Viiiirod passti 
'I' |i.iss.ige occi 
\:nir,«l was reallv 
■"' ' Rehoboth-Ir 

■'-pl.lceto 'Rehc 
^1 IIMII. 

BEHOM (D-im 

' Th.-r, 

was a distr 
(le ra/'itufx 


till) wars iif David— onr wiih ih. ■ i>i,i ■ 

.Sar.phalhi.c, and k.h,,!,,^ hi,,, nr.'fc ''".'' °"\*'''*> '»•« 

|.fc of I,avid t^.„a Krea, errur'of ,1 i "hu " ">""">-'>™'. th. 


!■" CnB-iK and o'n^j for r-nim if . , E'nr''B written 
pr„U.We that Sarephalh and R2holwih''a;,",r^'''"?'-'' ^' "•"=' 
!•> '..r-n ana lift, (-i^,: 2^7X^1.1,7%"'''=""' ">'" 
Ki-M li^.r.) ih, (ii.ti.t^ should b^.V-i ^l"'^*'')^ Ol.Kr,. 
thi.c/ Only on thi, crhical conLtu,';:"'-"''"" ">= Kvl.oLo. 

« taker, toijether with a U-,, certain W n ^ ' •*'• ^'"* ""^V 
..c, iur« relative l„ ilaal.perasim'm? tir ""'"-portant con- 

■c-.a-h' hut 'Rehobolh' TH, wo,",M ,h <"'••-" 5) «vas no 
s.;>r,- of Shimei'. journey in ,K*qV, ""'<'' "«•" "" "" 

III lJi5-jo this iniiKirtant event ;„ i , . 
>hr, 'the r„yal JlvZlZ "'^'^^'-'tx^'l : the 

K.tll the result of .ex nlmrr i "'^' " "■''"'' ■'"" 

e,.hn.e.v or . of th;^:;;;^;^^ "■; ^^^;^^ f<y -^ 

choboth (not Caphturn.; '• 1?"\''™'"'''' '"'"'' '" 
d.J.i,,, (ep aS.2T,8>" ' ^'^ starting.p,,!,,, of ,he 

BEHOBOTHiB (Ti? narn „„ d ^ " '' 

I powBoB n K^ I. powBtoe n KI.Dor the 

Awyriologi. ^'y keho, th,' otie of the fo,,,- ci,,es 
C.1 inquiry. ™™ --'i m Ocn. ,0.,+. ,„„ ;,',•■ ^^ 

- in the nei^hwi^j:;:;^^;^ !r ,«;;>; "f"^ 

"h it 5 associated In iv, '""'"'• ''hh, with 

>I.Ke in which «as sitiiaicl the oil ci^ M V^ 

.1- site of which Sargon fo^^M ^ ^^^^U^' 
Ron, the ,no,lern Khorsabarl Rehol i J" 

resent Rebit-ah, and this ninh. i '"■ ""S"" 

"t-N'inA, ami be " Do„d, '^ , - .'"valent to 

.i rM,u (fron, /;>,;/l , ''"^- -■'-'-> 72.1^1. The 

's "f a city ": s:;t :«.'s'hrfi:h,r'"'r":- ""^ ""'■ 

h were ,«rt of the cZ- l»^, ul ''"" P'""'--«ions I 
Kh possibly withm .1 e enor^rcun,"'^,,*""^' ^ 
s .1 was in the rM of l)u" h ,h ., i '"'i'""'"- ' 

'luntbanigaS king of K . " ,, 't ■^'•«"" '""Rht 
's reign : and it v„s in he ",l V J' V "'™?'"'^"' 
haddon „,.,de his triumpM em • 1^^:"' "''" 
Ion. AVy2i26 There ,» „■ i i ^ ^ *"' ™P'>"-e 

"a.e, R^httlth ■IrlX'^.lZ::.^'^^ ''^ 

own name, however hisr-.m^.H ; '^"^ 

. f..i f "-'CI, iia.-) (onio down t<j ii^; * 

rt-critlcal "'";f' ^ '"Wical cntics to look VX 
ilution. Pi-"l'l<-m fro,,, a fresh poi„, „f ,," 

. ^"KR^st"! I'V extxTience of ,h . , 
■ an,! mistinderstandings of, . J'"" 

1 in the tra.litio,, ,1 tev, Th ,' '"""-'^ '*'"'h 

Iwasreallv.V u,, '^'"'" ""'''^'''y "'^t 

in- to 'J ' ^'""'''' "">''< probiblv 

-^;o Rel,oMhandJ..rahn.«,,- S^^^,^::!!^ 

' ■ " " .1 . S I : T, K. t.. 

'■ A leader (see K/ba h s o v 

» on..) ; probably the sTame a m LV' '"^'V^'" i'-l 

correct is shown by , Fsd '« '^eh. , ^ ,s ,„. 

rVJ. .«ot-M[L]. EVrCmT,, ''"""""' ''^' '"""^'°'' 

-v'o^. B«A on,. ; ;:;y,^j?',i;.v/, '- <-->- .n 

5- The name of a hich olTiri-,, / i^ 
-.h Shimshai the scrilf , t!;'^ ,^f .;^?' T.^" '"'"-' 
■wntaiions against the lews to w, "'■ n>ak,ng repre- 

EV, followingthe eiX »:" """'•■:''-^'^3s"7.ii. 
explain • reco'j.ler/ j",- l^^"Z """ "»''"■"""• «ho 
Rovernor • would ,».rh ""' ^hnnieMor'; • ,he 

"f cp s,, , • nlaj-^Xiri^d: ■r«^ ^r-'^ -"^ -^-^ 

translation of an old .. ""'^ >■ "'•"^^'' '=* either the 

Andreas ,"n M,; ''',,;:r'^,^,.:;;^'^^''^'-'/-''''''."— 
•' <ir.rk title „. ., ^;™p;;t 'n '"r "■'■""■P^'■^-•"' 
a«,,n,es,hatthewr,t7t°ans,,,r, I:' '"','" ••""■rnative 
of the Gr,.e.k period int'.th" '"''"'"" ^''''"'""^ 

docnments used bv h „, I , '", '^'""^ '" "^ich 
'■W. 6o,. It is Lirib T "'-■'''' "° ^'''rquart, 
■Nehemiah sh.mld l* re-,.vnn„ i u " '•"■•' ■""' 

^"ect our co,,c,u;ir;° :!;:;.;--;■-;:,/'■',. ,,,ay 

' *'^X'."to:.tS"Aol'ri.''' •■■'' -ran Je,M^„„ 

^v;^°"-^"'' '"^"^ "i V.Ar,:« " i":'',°!."V' '■'"^'"- -' 

AYTOy, with reference to Shm,„i l,'<AUOI eXAlpoi 

'^hin.ei l).,vids /•,„/? ' '^P^"-"- ■^"' •■"• 14 4 • 
S'i..«K. I/. n)^ ,:;„"';' ^ ?■''■'■ ™"Pl«i ».h 


possibly read ,-^ •., hi..K .,<.._^ , '"' ? "* "'• -h""''! 

OMiOin. asifWoved/an Ara,„ai;J;,rd 

';^:/?;!;:y^,'i'r"::i^'V-M"- -"r Ni„eveh (^ 

"" -"""•■' ""='"-«n^"-,wi>;-,^rfNi!::e;;:" *" 

Myread,=..ahigho«icer" S: Kw,, 
I reads -n for .™ .,„ 1 ■ 1 ■ f"i-"^\<. l-.«ald 

Davitl's brother RAi",V[!;'""j'"'"'" '"""^''''y» «ith 


insirttice.-::^:;^' 'M.«?;'^'iVl3;;'"'f '*^"' 
where the hu„,an kidnevs are 're c' red t" \ '-•'."'»•' "■ 
less ,mpf,rtant seat of lifelthan ,h. M„ ' '^ '"" 
■"^■mitic l,v i ',,'"""'"" ''loo''. ■Kcord,ng to 
kitlneys a„ri,ve" w ,i h^n^T^. "'""^'"^ '" '"- 
™..,„,ully n.n,«l a he s ••, s n^^""";: '""'"•^ - 
l>roadlv 111 the f,, ,,f ,h' ''""' "' ••motion. „r more 

^ematid,,,::r'^';',^'r.;:~': ■"''';■• «-- 

represents these pans is V,i„. ■ ■ ""^e<|ii,i,ilv I- 

sacrilices ,cp I.i 1^ ^1 ""^'■''""""' ^''■"«- "I the 
l-l..n, cont'ecd w"th k^l:7^:'""'' '«■•■"- ^vm- 


EV calls the ' kidne\-5 '"u'h.'n '" '"','' ""' ""ems Ms 

en.ploy«l as a ternJ^r thr^rglir n^r^ Tll:^ 




f motions 1 S.-C P?. T^ai I.ih Irt i ■, 19 37[n.!i01iut Tht-fxl.]) 
hut of t'K- nior;il scnlimi'lit'' i->-f JiT. Ua. 17ii 20ii 
I's. 7 1 . l')? I ') 2<'iii. ■ Iri.r of itK' riins ami the hi'irt' 
in till- cliarai tiristic and titlf of Vahwi', not only m 
tlic or, Imt ;il»o in thf Helir.ii^tic lioolj of Kfvi-l.iiion 
iKrv. 2.. il. In I's. Irtr, li(nvi-u;r. ■ vr.i, niy rrin* inslrwt 
nif in the n;),'ht sr:i<ons ' < in li.u.lly !>.; nijlit. It i* 
Y.iIuvl-. n.t till' liiMrt' or tin- ', who trams and 
^ll^^illliru■s ni.-n I ^it.- I 'he. /'..■' .i./ <.'. .1. 

2 Z'^^'l. hil'h.ih'i. U in I-. n 5 rt-ncltret! 'reins' liv KV 
sinjiiiv f. ir want iif a ■.\non\m f T ' 1"in*. ' 

;. I'lic- AVi"-: .if I.C-V. 1 .J J-' 4 f r T^, ='''■. i, n.l iMcral, anti 
i- I..1--1I ..n .1 l..n(;-i.x|ilml>:.l |i.ali )l..^y (cp i ■.)■ 

REKEM (Cr'll. I. Apii.irrTitly a lioni.iniitf pl.ue- 
narii.-. JoOi. IS;; 1 nakAN l'*?]. peKf« 1^1 pfKEN 
[l,)l. Init most proltihly :i Co rnplion of ^nzrr-. I'-r.ili- 
nui'l, atid f(|uivale'nl to c~r\Z- Uahikim (anothiT of thi- 

lli-\flopnicnt-i of iFiK.MIMKKI.l.' 

a. A liingof Mi.lian. Nu. ;U8 l()o^o,u[H.\l•'Lll. Cp 

3. One of the 'sons' of Hebron mentioned «ith 
Tvi'i'iAii and Sfikmv I//'.] ni 1 Ch. •J41 ; i" "-44 
(MI'I lie is fitlier of Shaniniai father of .I/-."/. I>nt m 
6 ipfMU |l!|. poKoiJL \.y. f)uw7;,u[l.]l It is Slienia «ho is 
am. -tor of Sharnmai. tin; internwhate links Ix'ini; 
K \HAM ami hinKi.xM ('.••/.;•.]; 111, Kah.iiii. .lor- 
k.ani, and C.irniel are ,iil proliaiily eorruplions of 

JKKAIIMI Kl.. ("p JdlilllAM. 

4. In p.iuse Kakicm (s.> I'^Vi, a Manassite ; i Ch. 7 16 
(IIA .1111.. pnn-ou [I-ll. S-<-rnin,i;ly there «.is a stronR 
Jerahnieelite element in the [Kipiilation uf tlic Manassite 

'llic-e explanati.jns sUKge^t tlic true explanation uf the phrase 
C~P '32 ; ^^'^ h^A-.r, (nuaiKKN ..k, uhert thf reader is rcfcrreii 
t.. llie^prcscut ..rtii:le fi.r tt-\tiiai . rili. i>Ill uf the phraM-. One 
plaii-il.le \ie»- .jf the ..ricinal f.irin ..f the M.>ry ,..' l'.rnK.>N' 
(.;.;■., i 1) re.i'iircs u». in Ju.Ik. li .; is ' i-' 1" rea.l cp -jifM-c 
Pe>h.), 1.0, ^K':"l'':2: ""te the ^I.Js.i ' Amalcltilcs.* This 
shi>lll.t V« taken m .>n with the 'rariiurii.: Use .'f c^ f''r 
Kailesh ; here t.>» cpi nuisl c.ime fr. .m '''Km*' ; the full name of 
Kadesh was Kajesli-jerahmcet, harnca' an.i ' rckem ' having 
the same ..riyin. See Sei.a. In fa. l. wherever we meet with 
pleases like 'the s..ti.s' ..r 'the lain!' ..r 'the mountains i;f 
A'. ./. Ill ' we luav s;»fcl\ regard KfJiin .is a o.rrupti.m ..f Kikem, 
i;.,J. rahmfcl. wilh'the d-.uhtfiil .>f C.en. Ill ).. (/.<■., 
if n'l»"3 l**.^' 't.iuar.i Sephar'l .1 .es n.Jt Lome from nE^X- '^P 
Skph" KAo). Cp Orlllu. See C.en. -J'. -.'Wi Nu.'J;l7 1 K. '.ij 
H !■.) Is. 11 14 ler. 4;t..s K/ek. ■2.'i 4 10 p. hi :. Similarly in J leti. 
15 19 Kaiimom I i:s must he a eorriipllon of 'Jerahmeelites.' 

T. K. < . 

BELEASE, TEAS OF. See Jniii.KE. also Law 

AM) li;s|I< K, § 15. 

BEBIALIAH i?n;Sn-|. § 39 ; pi)v\£\iA[c]h father 
of I'KKAII (./.:■. I, 2K l.'i-.^, It... Is 74/ 86. 
ahly a corruption of '^K^n^'. .lei.ilimeel. I'ek.ih's ( 
ites m.iv really have eoine from the Nei^elj (on the 
s.iithern i;'":. see Cril. ///.'. on jer. .Sjj 'J-Jn Am. 1 il. 
.^iinil.irlv. lehuvv as not inipt'ibably ati Ishmaelite iv.«* 
.NlMslIll, and loaha Misrite (sw ZkriiaHI. It is easy 
to im.hrst.inil that the Imlilest adventurers mitlit tie of 
N. Aralii.ili evlr.i. lion. T. K. ( . 

BEHEHBRANCE (I'TO!). Is. 57 i. See Mi .mokiai.. 

REMEMBRANCER u S. 20j4 etc.. AV'"i! 1. I.V 
' ri'dnhr,' kV"s • ehr. mirier.' See kKniRlil H 

BEMETH ^npii. .!, I92i. .See Kamoth, i. 

EEMMON-p*;"!! Josh irtr.W: RV Rim.vIhn (ii.t). 

REHHON-HETHOAB iish'in p-J-l). Josh. l'Ji3. 
See klMMos li., 3. 

BEMPHAN (p£«<J)AN. Stephens with i, 31 etc.; 
cppe\\<t)A«(l>. Vt; Iren J; povtcjiAN f!**] ; pOM(J)A 
(II). peM4)A[^'. .Vrm.]). or I \\ U-im,' nitrusi\e, as in 
NtavB^ lit^side noBa. 1 s. 'Jl 1 1. .15 H\'. Kei'HAN (pf rt>AN 

t 3 droi»pcd out, and n became p (for the reverse process se« 
H. 1'. Smith on i S. .t 14). 



\CV.. Syrr . Memph. Thcb. .F.ih. ] ; cp pAi<})AN. LAS'-] : 
PA<t>&N. .lust. Diiil. a. es Aniosi. occurs. «ali the preh.v 
' th.' star of the Ro"!' (so RV with MI), I'esh, , etc. and 
^^•J*!. or 'the of your g»j<l ' (so A\', with ANlh^ 
\'^;., Il.ircl., etc. ), in .\cts 741. ma i|iiotation tiom .\mi..s 
5..n, O (where lt.\ pAI(|>AN. '.' petJiAN. < om|)Iut. peM 
(K^t. Tilt., s.ime J.tbhiiiski wh.i ventured on a Copti. 
explanation of Dkiiinmih i./. ;. i c>i>I. lined Heinph.. or 
Rompha from the (.'optic as 'king of heaven,' «/</.'. 
/,',/;/i' .//rVc immm^ito (' Keitiphah, .Kj^yptiorum l)eus.' 
in opii'-i'lJ. ed. Te W.itcr, '2, ,1806], pp. 1-721. Hut 
' kini; of heaven" in F-Kyptian would Ixt mtni ,m /.v.' 
(.l.i.iHC .•mm.,"! .Ii/A J4'>l. I-uniby (./i/(. in Canihridp' 
liiMe, ././ A^-.h and Merx (Scheiikel's Jli/:-/.f\. I5171 
supiKise Rephan 10 lie the I'Kyptian name hir Satuii, 
So (Ix-si.ies Sixncer and Kircheri l.cpsius the l''.i;yiii. 
loijist. who s.iys .Sell or .S.iturn is lalleil reji.i 11 
neteru, 'the >ouni;est of the gods,' and suggests ,1 
possible connection with Rephan {/'!<■ Clinm. Jrr ./ . 
03). On iihonetic aiul other grounds this view is ti. t 
more .accept. ible th.m Jablonskis, and the siniph; ev- 
planation is that pKfXLV should rather lie paupa." — /.• 
•2"., where T is [xTh.ips a corriijition of 3, anil l- (softi i 
phonetic substitute for 1. St-i' CuiiN. T. K. c. 

BEPHAEL (^X^l. as if 'Oud he.ils'; cp .\rani. 
^SEI. h»tr\\ Namks. .'30; pa4)ah\ [HAI,]i. a 
KoMhiic, 1). .Shell'., n.ih ; i Ch. 267t. 

Pr,.'ia!.!y '(io<l heals' is a late popular elymolo^y, devisii 
after the ori^^-nal name had Us:ome .ornipted : that it I.iok h ' i 
.if the imaijination we sec from the KaI'Mafi. of Tohit an.i 
Kno.h. The present writer .snsl>ects that kcphael, Irpeel, Ka[.liii 
llleth-jrapha, and iicrhaps even Rkihaiah (./,?'.). all c,,!iie 
ullimalelyfTom an ethnic. See !*ni.\lt-/eK : KKfHAlM. Honiiii.-l 
(A'.r/. /" S[i3„7]p. t-,i) compares die name of an Aral., temji. 
Sari;.".n, in a text trans.. rilicd hy Wintkler, ^ a-ra-p;i, also the s. 
Arabian name Hi-rapaa. T. K. ( . 

EEPHAHtn?!; pA<J)H [Ii.\]. pA<|>A[l.]h mentiocd 
in the list of the line Kphraim i Ch. 7 as- H<'lh Rejil ,ih 
and Ri siiKi'li (./ .-. (occur nowhere else and arc probably 
corrupt. Cp KiiiKAi.M, § 12. 

BEPHAIAU (n^^n. §§ 30. 62, as if ■ Yahwe henis : 
pA<J>(M& [IWI.]! On the ultini.ate origin of the n.imi' 
see RKt'ii.\i.L. and note in confirmation that in Neh. .'1'^ 
Rephaiah (.s) •' -^ ' s"" of llur ' — ;.f. , most proUtl.-v. 
of Jcrahmeel. In i I'h. 2ig Htir is the son of ( T..!. 

and Kphrath. Who the i alibbites are, we know | 

i."AI.K.H|; Kphrath is prolubly a ilislorted fragment ; 
Zarephath. Cp Paradim-:. col. 3573. n. 5. See 

no. 5. T. K. I . 

t. b. Manani-ih, mentioned in the genealogy in 1 1 h. 
3ji lf>a<^a\ [H]l, where, for •:; 'sons of,' C and !'• -h 
four times ij3 'his son,' So Kittcl ; Iferthem 
follows MT 

2. .\ Simeonite chieftain who attacked the Amah ku.s 
of Mt. Sir (apparently in Hezekiah's lime), i Ch. '.4../ 
ipa^aio! (I,]l S.e Kill. SiMKox. 

3. b. TtilA (,/,;•. I: i Ch. 7a (pa^po [H|) ; 
IssAl llAR. {S 7. 

4. b. HiNKA, I Ch. 943 lpa<txuay [tt). opoxa (I i 

I Ch. 8 17 I rr^. RAl'iiAil ; poi^i [li], opaxa t'-].! ' , 
Hfsjamis. S ii ri 

5 b. Ill R 141, the ruler of half ' the district of !■ 1 ; 
5.ileni.' and one of the npairers of the wall (Nch ';. 
patpatai [ !-]i. 

(lie was of ler.ihmeelitc oripin (sec ahoveV Ac.i.r!. . '.i 
Meyer ^A'«^s^I^J) ihe I'alihbites .-intl Jerahmeelites ,!; ii ■! 
1*. ome universallv re. ..cnise.i as re.ii Jevis the iin . t I' 
Ihe of pr.iper H.iliies purstii-.i in a series .,f articles r. t 
present work eontlrms this, l.ia with liliiilati,.r.s. In N-:. ' 
Hur, Malihli.ih, P.iseah. kephaiah. Urijah ; in Frra" I .rii 
Mieh.ael. Jeliel. Ariel; in Neh. II Mahalalcel. Jerohani, M.l 
clii.ih. >li.;haare IraiispaTenl ' Jerahnieelite ' names, "II..- Jf 
alimcetites he. ame so jironiincnt that tile ^leneal, .i;ists h.i 1 t ' 
them fuller justice. Hut the same of names >ui:;;est- tl;. 
lerahmeelite elans were re<:oKnised b*)th in Judah and el-, '.ihirt die exiic. i.^.e.j 

1 From a private letter of Dr. F.udge. 

3- Ut. 2m. 

under their ki 

tliercfore called 

also told that 1 

Hebron? or of 

Kcphaini. Th, 

and ■ Uishan ' s 


this .statement is 

lUssajje were kep 

are .s.ud 1.) Ik^Ioih 

1,'iJt llle ' kepbain 

■ liinei ted— /.^., . 


4- Jo'^h. 124 I its own peci 

ri'jK.tiiions 1714 

Jobiphl coniplai 

li.tve but one lot 

thou art a great 

cl.'.ir away (space 

.mil tlie Rephaini 

t" thii region woi 

lli'-irch.iriotsof ir 

und IS not unattai 

ilic task of driviii) 

•i|'!>ear thit the f 

"■""try .\. of Sh 

!"mt,,ry i.s intend. 

"■ left for the pi 

' "ham,' and '( 

I'-oiiably b'no Kph 

.= In 2 .s. 21, 

l":i:isimi.s are .s,iii 

-■;''!.! •..•iB'i.iS) in ( 

!"••"! il is ,S,li,I th, 

•■■> I'.iph.a' (HCSn 
."•!hi'r (cp© in ;, J 

' '"'"c is n.l occa 

' "'"" repetition fr, 

■ hi :•. 16 read 1J— 

I ';''' Sleiiernaiiel. a 
'^ h 11 usual ,,T ,a|^ 

^-in.illyhailanerit ll; 
= '''^■2123 read C'W 


tr.»„al .e«, rc-ct^ ,".,"■'""' ''""^'Sos where ,he 

'" "huh »e nuyi;,aTi''; ■V;f''^*''^''''-'. 

.iii.Lse 'mllev „f i.,.,,i,,„' ! '■ .„ ''"• H''"K'>apliical 

-"'--^.iiyiuTe,!;,;.^;';::;;,,;"' '-^ --' -'y 


•■•a. .he .ri,K. ih!::^^ ^ '^ir^"--.^-, ..„.„„ 

"as .u/arepha,h, ../,„'?.. ''.^^- '••"-■«"',.,„ I,.,r,ler 

-■ li.9-...e,,„u.s 'p, ',|f,/^'"^""''* people, in '-^'-•'■"^h l',.,,,,,, ' „„f ,7'" /- Pron,,,,..,,, „. early 
- merely suffered froTc^^r , ' " . ""■ ™'''""'' '"" ' """"■'"""^ -'"i -rru n o,, l;'"''- "'"''-f"-"! s„a„Ke 

"■crely suffered ^'^X^':;;:"^ '^.e re,iac,„r, '-u 
■n. earlier sources '^ '"^'^'••■•^■■'tely. names derived 

'<^r thJr kmK",",:\„f,,;^7"^"'°f 'he kophain,," 
r<fore called • the l'„fd , f >h u" r-'"''^"' "''''''' "•» 

'iron? or of Keh,jl„,ih>i ,, "- ^"^^'m („( 

'ha,n,. Ih.. ,vls„ ' "^ reckoued nn.„ng ihc 


lije iv^re Repl.aiie,. 1,' j, ,"' ^ v"",\»l'"l'<^n ,,f in il.a. 

lUHKcd. , _^^_ 

J"'h. 124l3i2dependonDt o . , 

t^own I*culiariticT^\Th^-2. etc.; hu, ,7.,/ 

■''"■•» 17 ../ states that th", r f """ T'T"'" 
'hi complained to loshu.-, th .^ "f J'wp!. (I.i.e 
Nt one lo, and porttm r v •"•'" '"' ^'"^'^ '" 
art a great i..,,,;^ •'"''^"'■' =* '■'•■p'v "as, ■ If 

a«ay ,s1«c', o ly^f , "fn'", "^ ^'-''-'-l. and 
l.e Kephain,.' Thi'^, 1; ^f, 'T °' ""-- '''""''"^ • 
' rcRion would be hn3 '^.'h'^":'"' '"at acc-ss : 
■har,o,s of iron. andThua ■ ^ anaaniies » ith 

i no. una>.a.„at le and haf ,h'"""^' "'^" ""■ f"^"'" i 

^ that the forest-land spok^^ f ''''■" ' '^^ ^ 

y^■. °f ^hechemThe'vtu thLT'"."'' '""" ' 
•yuintende,! is - • nl J' , '"'" '^'■ns-lonianic | 

for the po Jh„i V la, She h """'■""*' 

""• an.l ■ < anaan.fes ' Ken"'' , ;™ n^"""'' '* 

"- are ..Id ^hlvi ^, r^""'"""' -f >'- 
<iS-'.--S)in(;athW, " C-^-Mothe 


'ha' (MCSm., -ts- ■ cr, , I .,'"'"''""' "f 

^p«in^.")'of.he;:,;::.:?'— -'« 

« l« ni) ijoa»ion 10 reiect tK. 1 

"■H^. '." '•■''" ^■' =« '" .•!.--■.■,^-,„ • •.,,4 ,. 

h-ila;;;; .i^^.roi:;!:,:;;^^;;;-,'^;^ ^."^5;.^ 

•'.T V^ 'T, , »«. bom to the (or, .) 

i 'i'"'^ "'ay prol,al,lvU ,;.,,, r'l'':]'*; ''r*-' ''•'■'•■■f''"na. 
■•ames conLted iuu ^ "f ';; i"'l':1^':': ^"^••". 
'•^' "^'■". "ames connected! ,, ill, ,L! a'"'"" and 
and ■ I'ehsti ' are coinie,, .1 ' "'•" ' ''•-•'■'"i ' 

' '^'.h are n.o.t pr,:i a 2 ::'",;;;;' " 7^"" M,ppoMt,o„. 
: I'hathilel, ami ,1 is ,.,, ' "^ "^^ ^''^'i'l'-'H" (/are- 
'"- '^^'I'^'nl ;: a ^^"^.^^^'--'''^ ." -nature 
j alternative derivat.on fro l..?V "•'""'■ """"='' 
I ix-.t'le. Thus-toren™' „/::;'■" " '%n"'"'>- 
i -■ of •, ' in the • I ''\^ •'-- 

■ 'he oriKinal ira,l„,o„ ,,rol, l,|v ., , • '<'^^P''ain.,' 
; Phfl'him in the v.illev of ler h • .' ',- 

■'■hat such lo,,; a;'e^werr ";' — ■P''"'''"') ' 
I '"a. the corrup,ion',"rk mLT^f '""''"'■"'■ •••"" 
I par,5 of I'ales,„,c, can e„ilv ^ , "'" '" '^"'""M 
; The result ,„ w^ich 'ui^ "'"lerstood. 
i «nuld lead us into ,0^ "" ."r '""''">'■ """ "^'h " 
i is that the s.r.phaJh;.':;;'^,: '«:^-';- '" i"-<''y I'.ny, 
"'any parts In^th of eastern /n^"' ""K-^'i.d i„,o 
, ■' hey started from ,he s ,f '' !" «""■"' ''al--'"..'. 

"f («n. 106 ,ha, I't V^^-,. f ' r '' '"'"""• ■^'"•■'-" 
; of "he .V,» Cush a,^ Mi"*"*' "''^ ""■ '■■--'"■-• 
! Ham (Jer.ahme..|?, a , "' Jen -'"' ;,'"" ""^ -^"" "' 
«as ,he l,ro,her of I , . ''"'-'•M 'hat I.ktimmm 
son of I).-,l,r,T,.s^' "•;"'"' •-!-«'""-",„ .^, and ,„■; 
in fact prol>..l,lya branch he urah^'T^'"'"" "^"^-^ 
our textual criticism tend Jr "" ''"^ "'"'' ^" 

parts l.„l, of AWMcrn ami , '( T""' ""'' '"^"y 
(note the IWnician Za er^L , '*■'"""''"• ''"'•.stine 

l-AST, C„„.„«K.V OF, ^,t'', "";' "P '^"^"^'-K.. ; 

Phathites, accor,linK ,o,he c ■'7''''""--<^htes or Sare- 

f'-.i With the .srtef.^;;rh ;:::■■-'• 'r'"- '■"»>-'>• 

: '"ayl'e in the statement .ho/'^l,^ ',"""' '^'''•' 
phathi,e.>orJerahrne,-l„e> „i. '^■■phaite (Sare- 

I tosav. '•^"- -' JSl, It is inij«,>si|,le 

A".. 2,. where ",rC,,*^;,;.f;Y''''r''- ^'^ «'-^'"^ '>I 

"'Vthical. Whe I u.; , 1, '" """ '"'-^-riU-d 1 is pu^el • 

.;eral„,iee,l,es t: ,;, '^T':^ ■'- <'-'"'h 'he 
l'>rael„ish r.i, e or no, is "" "'■'" ""■ Ian r 

PKture aU.rig.nal r.le L r '"''^' ""' '" -^^'^" '" 

have led ,0 suhaV] /*-"*•'■"""•■ ■''■"""■ " ■! 

«o..r,son .m,h,. :;, -~--^ --.'. -o 


• No,. comn,uiuc;.d ,0 Prof. I>river, Vn,,. «.,, 



fr'ini the tnmtfiupl.ilion nf ancient ruins of grent works 
anil ^upi^osed gigantic toml>s. ' This nuiy very «eU 
h.ive lieen the, in view of the le^onds attaching; 
to huge s.u'cophagi, hke that assigned to Og in Dt. , at 
the present day. See CK;. 

A brief rfferciKc lo other theories of the nriKlii of the ii^inie 
Kephaim mu-^t nuthi c. the view that ii is cotincctctj with Ar. 
ra/ti'a ' lo lift up,' iimi meant 'KtatiU,' is nut at all plausilde ; 
no Lognate of rn/.i'a lan l>c poinicti to in llehrew, Araiiiait., or 
Assyriafi. Static ((//'/ I 1 1^ liu) was the first to Lonnftt the 
name with the Kephaini or ' shades ' (>ce IfhAH and l>KAiii). 
Thi^ has tieen taken np hy S«hually (/><u J.thn naih iiini 
Totit, 64, n. I [iS^jJ; if . I Tii' is ijJli?y8i). the sense of 
'spirits of the dead' arose, it is supi>oscd, tha. ot' ' prinu-val 
population.' St:hwally confirms this hy a lc);end of the 
in AIadat*as<-ar {/A tU', i.c.\ This is surely most improLihle. 
The transition is difficult, even if we ^\o not hold, with Stad*-, 
that C'kE^' tt'e word for "the shades,' means 'the weak.' It is 
most rt'as.mahle, therefore, lo ht)ld that, hke a larne proj^Ttiv^n 
of ethnic names, Kephaim has l>efM worn down from a I'liiyer 
fo'm, and this form we may ventur.; to trace either in Jcrah- 
ine'elim or in Sareph.'tthitn. 

Sec also Kei)iaim, Vallev <>^■, and on Joh2f' j sec Dead. 

T. K. C. 

BEPHAIH, VALLEY OF, also \ ok the 

GtA^Ts(C■»teT,??V; J"^h. 1.''8 iSif. iS.bx^n -jaij i Ch. II15 
14q Is. IT5: Is. iv ^dpayyt (Ttc p<»f ' [H**.\<^r]; losh. l.''. yijc 
pa.(.ariM [Al-l, -i-|H). J'>sh. 1^ <M«*Hi.^af.i' IHI.l. '^ |A). -> S. .'., 
rTiv «oiA(i2a tuv T[r]iTavmv llt.AL), j S. :j3 rjf icoiA. pa^at t fi {li]^ 
•V [.\], Tirdvuir [I.]; i Ch. tjJ uoiAait rCtv ytyai'Tw*' [lll*AL]; 
z-n//is Ka^haim and t^igantum). 

According to the prevalent theory, whicli supposes 

the same locahty to i>e refern-d ;o in all the passages, 

_ p---«i|,_* *'*^ ' V'alley of kephaim' was an upland 

' ttiAArv pl^'" near Jerusalem and liethlehtni (cp 

... J^i 2S. 23ij/| where m-l unlv corn and 

cnuciiea. ^,|^,^ ^^^^^ riourished (is. Us'/). Imt the 
so-called liac.i trees (sw Mii.hkkkv) grew. At its \. 
end was a hill ovt-r which ran the iKjiiiidary of Jud;ih 
and Ik-njamin (Josh, l.'io 18if>i. The plain wasfanuius 
as the scene of tights lietwcen David and the Philistines, 
(2 S., 'tis 22 'JSii; cp I t h. Hg 11 15I. Klsewhere, 
however, has Ix-en offered the theory that the enemies 
ri-ft-rred to in 3 S. 5 18 22 and the related passages wi-re 
not the Philistines but the /.irephathiles (see Z.akk- 
I'H.XTM). and that the place referred to in 2 S. 2:i 14 
was not iWliilehem hut Beth-jerahtneel (thus the whole 
s-cenr Ufomes historically and geographically more 
plausible). Elsewhere, too (see Kki-iiaim) we ha\e 
urged that Kephaim, the name of an early jxjpulation 
of Canaan, is proUibly a much worn-down form either 
of .Sari^phathim (/arephathites), or perhaps more prob- 
ably of Jerahmeelim. 

It would seem, then, that in aS. SiBai, etc.. the 
' valley (upland plain! of kephaim (|erahnie\-lint) ' 
9 navid'a *'"^"""* '*^ '^ plain near ferusalem, and \ 
V^lev of *^'^** '''*^' *'^*^' *'""'* *"'-*'''''* *^'' I ^^ 17 i I see 
R«nh&im *'''-^'*' ^ ■\'-' *--^' ^^^^ 't ^*^s one of the 
^ ' ' valleys or iR'iwtfn the low sloping 

hills' (Palmer) in the neighUinrhood of RuheiU-h 
(keh(»both), [Mjssibly indtvd the Wady RuheiU-h itself, 
though the broad \Vady cl-Milh may also come intij 
consideration (see Nk<;kr). 

In the case of Is. 17 5. wht-n we consider the manifest 

play on the name Kphraini in the next verse, it is (x>ssibir 

to supfxxse i.;f that C'KE"^ ( Kephaim l 

3. Two Other ^j^^^^^^j ^.^^j^^.^ ,^. uCphraimi. and 

valleys of , " 

Rephaim? *" identify this ft/itk with a i>art of th<.' 

(inMi Plain of'Iun. {h Tli.-t.- 

arc. huuevt'r. also good critical argnnit-iits for identifv itii; 

this Vw»'^ with that in the sinry of David. Tlie (|ues- 

tion is sutM>rdinate to the large intjmry. Does Is. 17 1-11 

predict the ruin of Syria and I'-phraun, or of the kingdom 

of Icrahnit'c! ? See Cnf. iUh. Hut there is no objei-- 

liou tt> l!u' \ irw {(■\ \hi''i^nifk rt^f^hSim of»3 

is 16 really did derive iis name from the lerahmeehm ; 

in fact, the i-.irly population of Jerus.ilem was probablv 

a o-nib^n W\->yx •■( Ant'-ttl'- aiin ji-lithtrirt-iiJ-rS ;-;x 

' Cp tP, I S. -1 r rCtv Btutv rCif trrrptutf rovrutv (ip'- sing.). * 



RKnniioTII). The upland plain referred to M.'cnis to 
be the Iteka'a. which stretches from the S\V. side of 
Jerusalem southwards as far as 13 hr. from 
Jerusalem), which m.iy indeed Ik.' the mountain re- 
ferretl to in Joshua. 

Kns. and Jt-r. (t'-^JSH >2 147*) place the ' Val'ry of Kephaim ' 
on the N. of Jerusalem, and kittti (iititA. «/t >- J/f/'r. *Jiji) 
follow-* them on ground* derived from the (surely corrupt) text 
of 2 >.'• li jf- Toltlers main ohjettion ' ti' the ordinary %iew i> 
that 'etnek means a 'valley, "not a 'plain.' Hut /mth \s con- 
stantly used of plains shut in hy hill-, and ihi- is just what the 
Hek.'t'a Ls, '&hut in on all Mdes hy r<xky hill-topi» and ridges' 
(Porter). T. K. C. 

REPHAN (pe<t>&N). Acts74) KV, AV Rfmchan. 

REPEIDIM (D'TCn. plain -country, ' strata' f .' . 
PA0|A€IN LItAFU]! Kx. 17i8 11* .r Nu.33i4/.t). a 
place where the Amalekiles attacked the Israelites ainl 
were defeated by Joshua with the aid of the wonder 
working staff of Mt)S''5. .\s we see from his arrange 
, meiit of the passages of diverse origin which he 
brought together, R considers this event to h.ue 01 
curred when, according to P, the Israelites enLainjH'! 
at kCphidiin immediately U-fore entering the wildcrn*^^ 
of Sin.ii. He also thinks that the sjK>t (spots?) call.--! 
M.iss.ih and Meribah was (were?) in the district ot 
Ki-phidim. which, in this case, must have exlende<l to, 
or [H-rli.tps even have l>een ecjuivalent li>. Moreb (se-- 
Kx. 176, 'the rotk in Horeb). On the analysis .( 
sources, see KxiUifS (H<miki. |i 3. 

The existence of a [M>pular tradition of a war wageil 

with varying f<)rtunes by the early Israelites against the 

p . Amalekites may U* assumed without 

1. tonnana discussion (see Am.m.kk. si 2 ; Mnsi-. 

^T^ffend. ^ '^'- '*"' '''' ^•''*-' '*'" *"* ^'''- *'"' 
• tradition connect this war, or .m 

episode of this war, with Rephidim ? Some 
{lUf. Hex. 107) have doubted this; according i.i 
them, the connection of the I»attle described in I!\. 
17ri-i6 with Rephidim is purely editorial. TexHul 
criticism may contribute something to the decision > f 
this point. Among the names of the stations of ilic 
Israelites there are only two which end in -im, w/ . 
Klim and Rephidim. It is ditficull not to conjectiiu" 
that Ixith these names are corruptions of ethnics. 
Klim probably comes from Jerahmeel or Jerahmeelim 
l)een suggested already (MosKs, § 12). We have nKo 
conjectured that Marah (the reported name of the pi. - 
ceding station) has arisen out of another fragmeni of 
Jirahmeel, viz., Marah (from Rehem ; cp Kkki m, 
Si:i..\). It may n<>w U- added that Rephidim is prob- 
ably a corrupt fragment of Jerahmeelim. 

* Rephidim ' (c*TB^)i *e tnay suppo!»e, comes from * Rephilini ' 
(C'S'El), whith, through the intermediate stage of * RephaOinn ' 
fC'**KEi)i <^omes frotn ' Kemaelim ' (c'^'KJ^), '■'-. 'JcrahnieOiiiu ' 
(C''*KC'T") ■ the corruption is easier and not less certain than 
which we meet with sometimes, of Jerahmeel into Kphraiin. 

Racon {Ex. 88, note •Ihas acutely conjectured tint 
Ex. iru6 (a passage usually assigned to R,,) m.i\ i-- 
based on an earlier document which derived the n.nn- 
Rejihidiiti from rapha (kE"). 'to heal.' Tlu- name pn- 
siipi>osed in the early tradition may iia\e lieen nnl 
kephidim but kephaelim ; **|tc-i naturally suggests llif 
explanation, 'for I am Yahwe that heals thiH\"- In 
short, the closing words of ;-. ^6 may <iriginally h.tV',' 
stood in a context relative to the nai'ie Rrphaeliin. 

Kroni this point of \i<-*v wi' c.innot (juestion tin fi.t e.irly trachiitm connected the battle in Kx. 17 ■ 
with kepliidim, tlie name of which plaie (like Metil,:' 
ap|H*ars to Ik* a distijrtion *>f the ethnic Jerahtuei ^ii;; 
The truth is that there wtre traditional stories in tj :.- 
latum ri*s(H'cling two fertile spots in the Jerahmr-lir' 
country occupied bv the migr.iting Israelites. t 'H' 
ap|)ears in a double form in Kx. ir>23-2v;, and in .■ .-; 
another has also a double representation in I \ 

1 Jh-itti- a antfcrumg^ 2f,2. 

' Skv R.m'maki., and cp /'.th. /'HOth. IO7, uhtre Raph^tl '•.<• 
connnatule^l to proclaim that (i<x) will Ara/the earth. 



si IT The- '" H ""'' f"Smen.ary form, in 

or.K.nal tra,li.,„n with Ihhi founH n V,'""*^'"' '" ""= 
which wa. naturally pvdlZC't' TT"'"" "^ 
(now lx.c,.„,e unfne„c||f?_ti^ \lL.vT . •'"u'"'""'"'"" 

". 9/ "-vlK.o.,.o",,h'';o;';'V,''''^^^^^^ "' '" 
..t the north -.asUTn 5wi,.p of ,h .""'"'""" '""' 

bull. A„./..*.^«.„,. ;;;7 r,,' „"••'"■ ^p '"•"'■ 

.1.. lorahnu^l,t"cla,;s *^ " '^"""^ "^^"l""' ''X 

.h.u';f't^Sen'n!:;1:"t''^!r""';!'' ""• - '"an 
plnml too early l,v« * U,f; "^"^ '"'■■'' " ''■■"■''■)■ is 

^^.«•s«hostoJa4.1;„m hnfi^;"".'' ''""'"• ^■*■"-• 

'•■"ins his han,l sink ,;'[ Uo ' *■" .'" "^"'«^^ "^ 
l.ndcr,h,p .0 Joshua 'crcXrol",'"" ""^ "''"'"^ 
placed l.v this story a, ih I ' "'■'"■ *« a"-' 

«ars uh,ch .ra.mio7r;ferred toX'7 "' /'t ''"'°''' 
M-'ses. .v-c M„sFs ■ Z", t f° '''™'-" "' ""e life of 

a.iifth^r^^n'^-,,-;!!::^'-" T'-""^'^ - 

miily to Kn,i...i, .■ . ■ '°. I"^"" 


position of Horel, ,,r .s,n ,i „i,;.h 

•lueslion, and i„Uee,l ai>,..,rs " T'" '° """h 

defensible. "" '" '" *"""-• Kholu,, 

K^^!;^""'"""^r [MA]), . Esa. 68Rv2V'ra2,. 

I'Anjrrlo- ' .......i mereiore considered 

■ l^^hart and recently Nofdeko 

uncertain, hough Krdii^w'*''"''' '"""'"■ » 
suKK.sts identifvtiK M «, h V „V TT "'*-'"- 73«) 
•he inscriptions; so ar , l,^h , "' ''" ''•''*">• '» 
~-bearsa,i,,.,^rt^ :"';-y^nnyi,„. 

K^-es-e-ni (R,-s-Oni) ai>ix-,rs n< I . V !^ ""= "'•"'e 
'•' 'hf Itavian desc , S?' ' r ^^ "'" t" '"'"' •"'''""^h. 
^P Del. /'„^, >i^, " " ' •"^■""^cherib ,A//2„6/. 

'< «as an ancieiu f un I tio^"'lV'''''''''*i ''" ^''''" '''"' 

- ,i;;^-hcat,on .i„ .^r:ii.j:i:j^-!-i:^^;^ 

a. Text- S'"'^: ',» 'h^- «-" ->■ Does tliirn-fer lo 

geogiirphr^a !",'■•> •■' Kadesh.' ".."in^'t;: 'X; 

theori... M-Rrah. on the .SW. frontier of the 

tbeoriei. " — >•■>- .- 

».r. we suppose ;Mfsiri^'""'^^*5..4)rir he;;: 

:.(,1 MfisaTs., .s'n ,'7" ? •^"''" J'^^'"-' «<--tMl or 

^>h Feiran, Ihe^naentN-h?; '' """'"^^ '^'^Phidini 
■.'■'" at the juncUon o he wid^'v^'"' °'- :"'''" 
■idy Keiran. alK,ut 4 n, V of i I f^'"" *'"> ""^ 
'."lyr s,«aks of an ■ oraTor,„„. ■ •^""'- '^"toninus 
^ stonJs which «"repu, under M "'" ''"'" ''^ ^•' ^ 
'vmg. Kvidently he refers to hrt!/'''''^ '"•• "'^^ 
' die right t«nk of the W. J^ J***' ^'-TahOneh, 
°f>. high, and is cml ."^u'^'''^""' ""^''^'^ '' a'*" 
»l«. cells .a,"lc^™r''*;''' .remains of Christian 

'". .53^ I. ArLT'ituX ifT-" "^ '''"•'"■ "^ 

Morvof the rock in,! ih V u , '^""'"^'i™ of 
.«i. is the vie«tf ?^r?,^:;,f r. :""-= •- "'-"• 
: cp Lepsius, llri,fe i\TA T" """ ■^"""' 

of the UAdy Kef- I '"'■-■■ """h-western 

"Pi-sed to h^«ga."he 'r,:f •'";'"';''"-^ ""«•« 

'■Mlmngtheoisi, J , "^ "" ""' '^r.-'eliles 

*•■' i- V W Tlollind '.A- ' """7 <^^' ' '^'t. 
^.. that R.V.hidin ^'■""•'■':v </ Ar*w,M, 

Hvh in the ireu u' ,1 '^<k T:'"' «"'^'- "' '''- 

'>■ according- u;\l''a::;^"l-;'"^^-'^''y 

■'led Morel, ^is less 1 f I i , ''^"elites ap- 

'- -h-ories .;;';;:;,; -te'^^rr''^' '-•■ 

•OlnUon. ' "' ^°' 'h<-' silence of antinuitv -is 1!, 

-.n,biin;^!:?"'K^i'>;„r ^-r^^'*^" -- 
or-^-ntai^s; is':;, :^::^^i:;':j:^TT" "''■' 

(misread is m li.e ,1 r > ** "'•'"'«• nl-a 
of .he nianv c. r u ion of "s"' "'^' P"""" «"'" ">- 
(which w,,sread Nmevehl not =""'■ •/'"hn.eel ) ; ,„,., 

ran (Hebron); t7:K,;;v-T: •'■'""'"'^ '""« 

corruption of l.!,-.-,, »,,/,£..■ ."'■^ " certainly a 
on ni-. Mfc.tH^:r H^ ' ■" "• >'-^'''"'«-l>. a gloss 
tobeasuiidlT "'" •'""' i'^^rahnieer .api^* 

u- t . ^""'"'le description of Ik^ersh,!,, .K ■'''P*-ars 
which ,s sometimes corruptcVh, f l';\ ^/ J"''"- "^ 

^HE8EEVOIK(n,pp,,s.22..,RV, ieCoi;., 



3 J— ...... a Zarephaih . A ' 'P ■«^'"' P' ^>h. 

ever, suggests that i^l> /'.""","' ■^''''"'^^'"- ^ow- 
al«iut7n. \ of .-.ff. ■^' = ""' -^'"'"""ia of Jos). 

'■'»" H-ip)^: <Sp.r';",;:::rr""'i*° ^""-'^"« 

Ih.. !>u ■ *^^<-3iit|jn (uientined with AiwJi/^v .. 

-hose cm;:::; ' "n;^u":d"^""r'"'^^^"' ^'^^ -'^ 

'••Rhteenth an,l nn Zmh In f ''fP' , ''"^'"K 'l^e 
7 in ^iirin mI, . ,, '•"^';^r:; <^^^' "j' "f «"'» 

-^l;:rMo:^~:r;?' ^- 

.e<i. 239). .s,.,., f„„her, I>ik>;.n,cia, § ,1 ;.„,[• 


156, n?' '""*"" '*''"'"«s see M 

T, K. ( , 


Sec KscHAToi.or.v 





.\'i!rralivtt txamirtcJ [%% 3-l6). 

(ra<|i«l uflhe Il<:lir>w>(l4). 
()<n|icluri'clcr(( 5). 
loVilit: a- 1 ouiit (f 6). 
K«tr.i-tn:iunkal (Iclailn (| 7). 
I' .n. Iu«u.ti..r Mk. (I 8/). 
1 i:or. l.'i 111(11 I ..15). 
Aixuunu of a.v.cnkion(f ifi). 


CiKNKKAI., f I. 
Ih/,rmi>i<Ui,m 1/ oulwttrj /aeli 

Nature uf llie a|>j«arancct (f 17). 
N.>».jf thi: ti-.ii Je»u.(| iS). 
<>.tlitee the place (I I <$. 
'lhc>€.|iuli-hrc(» 2vj/). 
Th; third day (( 2^). 
Nuii>li«r of apiM-aranccs (| 33). 
Unlu«turiLal ritrtiient* liuc to It-ti- 

df.lC) (H 2<.J,y)- 

lit. /■xflixalwn i>//,iilt (11 30-38). 

Nature of returrcLtion bwtU .f 

kcsurrecli.»n only tjS th« Spirit of 

l<f«in(| ii). 

Of.jfCtive vi^i 


Apuarcut death, and fal«c runtoiirs 
"1 the rc!* of Jr^us (| j 1), 
SuNjecIivc vi>icm« (H 34-38). 
Literature (f 39). 

The resurrection of ]rmi t» held to be th<- 
f.ict uixjti which ihi.- Dhrisiiiii church rests. Kvcii .it :i 

1. QanaraL '' "* *" "■"'"^'^ "" '*"'" "'^ ' *^""^' ''"'' 
trciis it as such in an elaUiralc discuitsion 
(l Cor. 151-211. In p.itilcul.\r he nsis U|n)n it three 
fumlamental thoin-hisuf ihct.' f.iith : 1 1 1 the U-iiff the tlcMili ul Jrsin was not what in .icc<ird\nce 
with Dt.iiiji .(ill. .in) it must ha%e s. cil to \k~ 
tho ilcalh of .1 in ilcf actor, hut .1 ilivine .i| Mitnu-nt for 
the f irjjivencss uf .sins ami fir the «al\,iiinii of ini-n 
{ I for. LI 17 koin. 4--;ll4-:,etc. ); (3| a vinilicalion of the 
sujircin.icy of the exalt.-d ( hrist over the Church ( i Cor. 
I.'ws/ koni. \t 3 Cor l;)4, etc.); arnl 131 a iikilne of 
thi' cert.iinly of an uliiniate resurrection of .ill hcheverj 
to a life of cverl.istini; blessedness (i Cor. Vtti-2, 614 811, etc.), 

WtiiUt the second .iimI the third uf these points were so htid 
«t .ill times, that was imI quite the ca^e with the tirst. At a 
d.ile as e.vly as of the speeches ..f I'eler in Acts (see Ac Is. 
I 14) the resurrection ^1 Jesus W.4S not the divine cuntirination 
of the truth the deaiUof Jou. laid the found.iliuns of the 
salvation of niantiind ; the death is there represented r.-ither as a 
calamity (3 i t* 1$ -^ lo) even if it was (acronlitii^ to -• 2} 4 2H) fore- 
ordained of Hut the siijnilic.'ini'e >.f the re..iirreclion ■>( Jesu* 
doe* noc hecuine on that account the tes>; on the contrary it 
fijjures as Iteiii); itself the a< t with which the f.-r^ivenes., of sins 
h connected ('> 11, cp 3 -■ ). .Most m.xlein sch.xis of theolu|;y in 
like manner refrain from regardinn the resurrection as an event 
wilh'Ut which the the.ilo^i.m w..uld lie ahle to reuard Jesus' 
death asu divine arraimenient for tli. salvation of men. 

.Such theokii;i,ins also, howeur, do not on 
account aiLich to it any the less importance ; nther do 
thi-y si-e in it the divine .-i Tantc-e for tlie truth that the 
person of Jesus ,ind ti. c.iiise which he represented 
could not remain uiuler the power of ileath, Imt must of 
no ,.,,iiy at R.iin the victory over all enemies in 
sjiiie of every ap|>arent inomeiit.iry triumph. 

It seems .accordingly in loijic inevital.le that if .at any 
time it should come to lie recoi; the resurrection 
of Jesus never liaujiened, the ( 'hristian faith with res|ject 
to all the points just mentioned would necessarily come 
to an end. 

Th- -h !■ k to which the Cliristian religion and the Christian 
chtir-h w.iuld he eKposed hy any such disc.iverv wiHild appear 
Vt lie all the heavier when it is rertei ted tiial only two other 
prop.»itiiitis can he lunivd which w.»ul<l it in or 
lirealer danurr : the one, that the ,le.ilh cf leMis did not pt..ure 
the s:dvation of mankind, the other that Jesus never existed at 
all. ihc lir«t of these two theses would leave manv of 
th )u,;ht wii.-.iii the limits ,.|' Christianity tofn(..ir3tive!y tin, for they liii.l the re.l.-eiiiin.; work of JcmIs in hi- life 
not, as r.iid ,in.l orth "1 .s the 1. i^i.ins (;ener.aliv, in hi- death '; 
iin the .ither their f.iitl. would l,e most -eri ni-lv atfe. l.-d 
if they fmnd them-v!ves constrained to recoj;nise that Jesus 
remained under the pvovcr „f death. 

The reison for tireadiiii; all these d.itiKers is that 
up .11 the assumption of the roMirreciioii of Jesus (,is 
also upon that of his atotiiiiK de.nh and uimn of 
his existence at ali) are liised propositions which .ire 
fumlameiiial to the t'hnstian faith.— pro|)<«itions con- 
cerning (iorl and his rel.ition 1., iii,.||, up,,,, the truth 
of which no less an issue deju-nds the s.ilvati.ui of 
mankind. The (pn.,tion concerns thim;s of priceless 
v.ilue, and the judgments upon which all interest con- 
centrates arf (to use the !.i>!!;uai,'e of inoslern (irrman 


thenlogi.ins) VVerthurtheile — j... , judgments whicli 
declare to be able to believe »ucli and such is (.1 
the reli);ioii5 a thinj; of alisolute v.ilue ; unless siu h 
things can be accepteil he can only despair. Thus th 
lielicving can cherish no more urgent desire th.iu the Uisis upon which these tjeliefs. which ate lio 
hi n so priceless, rest should be r.tiaetl .securely aUivc the 
reach of doubt. 

Yet is this Uisis? It consists in an affiniiation 

reij.irdini; a f.iit in history which is known to u> oniv 

through tradition and accordingly is ojn'ii to histuricii 

criiicistn just as any other fact is. Indeetl, whilst the 

I very existence of Jesus and tile f.ict of his death on iht; 

I cross have U-eti (juestiotieil by only a very few,* and on 

j the other hand the meaning of his death, as soon as the 

I f.ict h.i.s lieen admitted, is left an o|ien que-.tion to eiciv 

j one, we hnd that the resurrection of Jesus — as is in it 

I surprising in view of its sujiernatural character— is in 

very many qu.irters and with growing distinctness 

characteriseil as unhistoricat, and that not merely wli. n 

it is conceived of as having been a revivjticaliim Of the 

dead l)i)ily of Jesus, but also when it is defended in 

some spiritualistic form. 

The present examination of the subject will not start 
from the proposition that ' miracles are im()ossible ' 

Such a projsistiiun rests ti[Km a tlieory of the universe tWelt- 
anv;hauuiig), not upon e\hausli\e examination of all the eicnti 
which may be spt>ken of as miracles. Even sh.iuld we hy anv 
chance lind ourselves in a position to say that every alle^rd 
mir.i' u!.)us occurrence from the liesinnintf of lime down to ihe 
present hour lieen duly examined and found tion.miracul. 11-. 
we should not therehy be secured against the tiossihilit> i.f 
something occurrinc to.niorrow which we should r»e compel!.-,! 
to recoenise as a miracle. Empirically, only so much as this 
stands fast —and no more— that as regards present-day oicur- 
reuces the persims who reckon with the possibility of a mir.i le 
(hy miracle we here throughout understand an tK-curren. e il. .[ 
unquestion.ihly (« aitainst natural law) are very few. and thi.t 
present-day oi:curretices which are represented as miracuL.iis 
are on closer exainiiiation invariably fuund to possess no such 
char.c ler. 

the normal procedure of the historian accordim;'v 
in de.iling with the events of Ihe p.ast will l«- in the ; 1-1 
iiist.ince to try whether a non-mir.ieulons expl.iiiat. 11 
will serve, and to come to the otlier conclusion otili on 
the strength of quite unexceptionable testiiiioiiv. 
-Needless to Siiy, in doing so, he must lie free from ail 
pre|K)ssession. lie must acconlingly, where bil.ii, ,.1 
authors are concerned, in the tirst instance, l.^.k 11 
their st.itemi'nts m the liKht rjf their own ptesuppoMti- o 
even though in the end he m.iy lind himself shut ii-. i.. 
the conclusion that not only the siaiemeiits but als.. i:.c 
presuppositions are erroneous. 


For our most authentic inforni.ition on the subjc-ct cf 

' I.oman. who in 1881 altogether denied the existen e cf 
Jesu-, alhrmed it in iS.'4 and still more distinctly in 1 - 
Am..ii-si ih.ise who have most recently maintained the nec..l it 
may he named Kdwin J..hnson. the author ijl Antigit,! .t.a.v- 
>-"|""\inous ; iSi7) and //«• Kise 0/ ChristnJcm (iS^ \ .a', 
if'" Kolwrtsoo, Cihslianilv and Uythohsy (iq.»-1 aij 

A ^lUtl ItUtory ei/Christianity\\tjm% 


'«"-•— „„„„,;„,,■ ,,,,,:,„'">,, -'■' '-^ 'hrZ 

,-sc.noe .,f „ „.,„„, :;;;„"f • - ;■•".■...... ,„ ,he 

"lijvct IS simply ,„ , , , '" -^'l- thr «i,iih i,', hear,! „f as .. L ' ;'':' V' ' * ' ""' '' '™ 

l*ll\ccunll|nr to It i')'l. , 

•1- spKv, ,,.f„^e „„:,';, ;;'^,^,r; ,";'■""'"?' «'"'-|y 

(I'i 'i ll..-y .11,1 „„, Uiv 111, ,1 ,, ,' ^'^■'^^"^'''"K 'o -Mk. 

.icc„r',!inL' to H) „ , ,' ""' "'-■i'"' •<! ail. for 

.S-.™lenm, hav" at. ^Iv'""';'' , "^ Armia.haa an, 

M' 2r59 /-Ik ''i ;. •'" "''IniK to Mk. l.r„,,. 


">■-• 1".. M.rv, (.11 ,|'^™ '''"'-' '? ^"- C-'S.lonly 
is explaiiicHi l,y 27 6, " r;""" "■^- °'h" Mnry ' 

"<h.T»o.n,.„ with the, T-icc.^r *'■''.**'* '''"-' "'« 

- -e only the":;ri''i ii "/'f X'l' """ ''- '-^. 
•■'men ■s"nieofth„',, 7 ■*-* ''" '^'"^ "'^ 
:""c to th,- st.puidire aii.l h^.l f , ^^ "''* ''«•') h'.l 

;••■ "> '« -rue ; 1",; .het,[™"; :jr -'-" "f "- 

'"iM in the ■ u.-stein ' \(ss;i , " '' *^"e ""« 

'". ^'ft.T .he visi. of the « ■""'"■''"■K '" «''i.h Pe..T 
^-P."K clown iLhei^.;';' ^■:;,'"^,; - ■^-.-"ic-re, an.l 
"nrienng depart...!. This ver^^ h "* ''"'""'■• "'»» 

' Itie suspicion of l.-im. ., i„ ■ " ''"" "I'"'" 

Tli.^w..r,i -hyni,!,, 


;ru;:^.-::..r'r:';;,;",„[:, . 

'liii« .\Il miiihu 

■ .1.. 


">■■«• who ...init ,o th,. 'se , i', 1,; ;-,' '!■ r' ^" '^ 

»'.ni.-n hv an ■ii,.t,.| „i ' "" P^wiur of ,he 

I ■'■•»" r...i„ l".av,TV '" " *•'"■"' ^•^•"'"l"--"'- came 
'/»(!" Mli iHi,-7t. nsin Mt /-.w , . 

■'PPearame no, i,;,;.'"'"' ,''''''' ''r «''"'^-"' '"■■"' 
s.'|"iidir... ■ "'"*• '■»'= left the 

L'<...4!;;i:^Lr.^:h '.,:^;;:;;«;l-7'^-;.i"^«.s 

no.hiiig. .Acror.liiiK to \ m .? '• "'''"• «^'= 

'"f'-rm Ih.-iiiselMs as ., hJ ^'i «"n.-n .lo n.., 

•'<""il..rly Mary .\Ia.lali ',";"'"" '" ""= «'-""- 

«rs. vi.sii. Thert^.^, r , . ■ '"^'''''''K '" J". ^0 . , a. her 

P-'er eiilers am tes ^,^' "'™.'^l",""-< (-'0, 

^<Kr..en„.n.(r.. . ,,^'^,^ '" ""• ^v;•■■Pl..s. conipl,.,e 

f'"- 'naryen,..'; the sin,; „ ' T" '* ""•■ 1'^^- 

■ >■<= seek the crueiHe.i on.' ," '' ^""' '^'^ »""ls 

ihoii>' '/(iuiij. Woiiiaii, Hhi w,i!»-M 

.lothvs the 

J^ The 

lulihre is 
(-'J., • 

'inie of the vi,ii „/ ,, 

:i»\a-. nii.i when,/ "'""*" '° "•' 

;- y-t .Wk ■, i«n,,e suini; i^:, - !,^, 7i;j'>; V"^" 

' :i ilay earlier '■ t*' '^ about 

'f:i'o^^t^:,!^^::!!fi^\"'r:''^^ -ionaM,. 

'!><: wurd, imm«li.i,Hy f.l .l' ,,,' ''">- '.'"' ['">■■■ ^'-'"t *un<.,> 
, "::'^1 ■ « "■"<= "f -n^.,'!!^ i^i^^f-^^y (Sai,i,a.h>-in 

nls the time f.r VI... . ■"' .•" .'••""uay (." 

■'llye»l.|«l l,y r.fc„n.e to Kr , ^' Thl.«„ressi.,„ 
-■m.»|,ul Wf,„e ihe UKinni^K of ih.sTl"^'' "'"'"K "" 
■I'iMlh ,1 W.IS unlawful inX"o '"^ U"-.^"'''«"h l«!en„s, „„ 

'•'I<baih it w 

'<■ Ihc inference is clu.lrri h,. .i. »'""""» als.) 

•no. .-,„ u„c„nsciou, «S;nU"'.?f .^'f "'='" '■'^'"■- 
- '-'"■3w..inUc„rreJ,r/r4\';ra;rTktw°Uf^ ^ 

thou },. 

'^■)\The fliscrenaneii.c i« .1 
»"".enar,...m,,i4Z'; ,;,^ ■•;,','';^'"'V'""; «- '■ "• -he 

-I'sciple, ,.Mk. UK ''..m''- '"J'nM.un .„ say .0 l„s 
1-fore.heiii to ,i.i| ,„. „m't ,',;'"" ' "■" 1-"^ r-h-s 
I - he ha.l sa,„ to -ten , 'Vn 2"? •■•^' ""' ^" """ 
■ «"Kli. to rea.l, ■ Uh.,I,l hesii V,;f' ^ '"''''^'l" "••■ 
in I-k. on .he oth.T Inn 1 u , ' "' '^<»' ">" .>.V , : 
'■''« he spake lJr..on,"|.|h""-" T"'' " ' '' '"™"-r 


: •" 'h^' ™,an.l „i Mk. ^.I'lT,"'" ""' --" '" -swer 
(') N'> less niarki'd n.. .1 10- 
aniuiui.cemen.., n.,U l.'v .h. v "'^'''""-^ -^ •'> <lie 

•AeconlinK .0 Ik -4 ,1 '"""■'" '" " '^"Pl-s. 

a.ror.iiiig to M,., sit ','.""■■'■ "'''"■••"h-'r .hsi-ovW, ; 

i"-.-n ; accordiuKT ,u . "I. '^'""^r '"•'^ 
ri-po, ts. in the fir., ins.ance'.o'.h * ^■' -^'"("lalene 
the seeotul lo the ii n|" ', ."^'^ '"" '^'^^J'^'^. and in 
On .he o.her hanHJI^IrrH^ri,': '"'/''*''•'- «-''• 
uu. of tear say nothing ioanv'^neS ■'•'"'= ""' *'""*'" 




nothing, there can In* no inunctluitt* i'nn%n|urnt-(> 
Atxordmg to Ml. rJH i6( the mrkft.'|fr \*,-mis in 
imnuiltale omiphant-e with ihr comrnand to »{o m 
Ciiihltf ; nccordtnu to }n. \'J/O^Kf} Mnry s hr^t coni- 
muiucatiun Ituds tu ihu runuin^ uf ttic tv.u dtwipk* in 
thtf Mpukhrv. whtiM tier iiKutut iU'*t«» n mK miU lu 
have prixluctxl any rtttxL In Lk. 'i4ii) the A<>mfni 
st.ilemcnt pr<Hlutci nn nly the unU-licf of iht- diitiplc".. 
unlfM wr arc i<» rr^-ird as K^'nuiite v. u, acconhng 
to whiih Pi-ter alonr i»( the whole number haitens to 
the grave isfeatioNf. , | 

{i\ An apprar.iuir of the risen Jesus al the tepulchre 
itst-lf i> rci»..rti*il niily in In. fJOu-i?), v,hv\v it is ni.iJe 
lo Mary Majjdalrni- ;. an apiH-annn* on the way liatk 
fron» the st-piiUhre to the i iiy only in Mt. \'Jr*g/.). 
whrrv It IS made to the i«u Maryv W^iflni m this 
last case. hov\e\tT. the woiiirn rnihracr Ii>us' fe**t^ m 
Jn. he iloes not i^rnnt Mary Magdalene to touch him. 

(.'I The iniurution rrceivt-il from Jesus hin)>elf i^i 
aciording to Mt, the same .is that Kivcn hy the an^i-U. 
Thf wonu-n are to ihrt'cl the diMi[ilt'H, here L.»lli*d 
M»rethren' (cid«\0oi) hy Ii-hus. to K'> *'> *iahlif; 
according to Jn. Mary MaRdalrne is simply Inddcn nil 
his ' liri'thrt-n ' {d5t\^) that he is ascending to heaven 
(cD .iIkjvc, k). 

{/|(An api>earance <if Jesus on the day of the resur- 
rection on the ro;id to IJmn.tus is known only to Lk. 

i'/V An appearance to Simtin IVler liefttrethe evening 
of the same day is known only to l,k. CJl 141. 

The view fifOritiin (f..r th*? jwssaiic-. sre in Reach. 7T v. 4 
433 and X. 3 77*>-7'<.'), that lh<f ihirU evaiit'. !i%t *ays atitl rit:h()) , 
that Simon «;»- the t-)mpaiii>>ii .,( CIt'..[ia-t on the walk tu 
Emniau^, i* quite ina<iniis-«il.|t, A-- in t »rii;fn the name J-* cim- 
stantiy u-trd without any j.l.lilinii, it is rviiU-nt lh-»t ..nly Peter 
can \m intcmleil. It hat t" l>c u)t«rvf.l vn the other haml, 
houwer, that the announcement of an appturaiiLe uf the ri«n 
JeiiUK to Simon is made, and m.ide Iiy die elr\en (and their 
companions), to the two disciples on their returtifrum Kmrnaiis. 
For thi* reason, thf ref>irc, Kcsth prefers to read 'sajiny " in tlie 
nominative (Ac'voi-rtf f>ir Acyoi'raf) with cmi. !». an'Tding to 
which it is the kmmaus dis» ipk-s who make the annoum ement. 
Tathi^it has to Ne remarked that neither I.k. n^r (>rij{en, in 
view •>( -^i \i \^, Lan liave inteniicd tu -<ay that Jesus had 
appearetl in Kniniaiis tu Peter only an<l nut to ( Iiujkis also. 
If, ajjain, Iiy the Nimun in Origen s MSS of Lk. we uught to 
understand some disciple other than Peter. Mnh a cunjci tiire 
wuiiltl liei^uite as li;»M:fess an thai other yuess nf Chun h fathers 
and Schohasts (see Ti*ch. on J*i«) that the cumpanion uf 
Ctcopas wa?t NathanacI, or the ev.iiinclist I,uke, or a certain 
Ani(m>aun, whose Tiame perhaps comes from the place-name 

ir) An appearance on the same evening to the eleven 
and thi'ir companion;) {rovs fvS«Ka Kai roOt ffiv avroitu 
al which Jesus asks the disciplrs to touch his hands and 
feet, and eats a piece of a broiled fish, is recorded by 
Lk. i "24.11 36-5')- Ihe disciples are at this interview 
enjoined by Jesus to remain in JerusaU-ni till IN-nlrcost 
(cp alxjve, k). Jn. also TJO 10-34) assigns an ap'K-arance 
liefore the 'disciples' to the same evening, and we 
must pp-sunu'. therefore, h'-re the s-init* mttTvirw 
is intended as relale<! by I.U. The circumstances, 
however, are very difffrmi. In Jn. Thomas is ex- 
pressly stateri not t" have tjeen with the elexen : and 
that the numlK.'r of the ' disciples ' included others than 
the ten apostles as v.e in Lk. ioi (Tiv aiToi%\ is nnt 
to l»e sup[x>5ed. since Jcmjs soli-iiinly sends them fcrih 
(WitTw e/xai) and inip-trts tr» them not (.nly the ^ifl of 
the II"»Iy Spirit (which in I.k.r, 49 he holds forth as a 
promlsi- for I'entec(jst) bni also the authority to l)'-stow 
or withhold forgiveness of sins (tp MlM'-IHV. Jj^ 4. 34) ■. 
Lk. makes no reference to the circumslance that the 
doors were shut when Jesns entereil. any more th.m he 
does to the mnferring of tlie .mlhority jnsi nientionnl ; 
]n. on the oth'T hami knows nothing of Jesus h;ivnig 

' The llala cnld. 1-. e. ff'-*. Amhrusiaster. Amhrusius (..n Ij-nh 
stMi Suuter., lu-.i-iytj?, p. 4.'9/:> in t: n looking forward 
to X'. If*, add CleojKM i<) .Ammaus | = Knim.Mis] presumahly 
l»tfcause. readin*; biv^ari (so I), tt.. 7\'.) ftir p ora^ia. they s.iw 
in '< ' the name tit.t uf the vill.-me hut ol one nf the Iwu 
disciples (so Nestle, Einfuhrun,^ in tias frifrM. jV? 1-1 y, yi 


e.iteii. Ik'side<t his hamls. Jesu* shows not his feet !mt 
his side —the piercint; of which, indet'i). is mentioned 
tinly in Jn. 19 14 , Imt he d<»'» not sutter hiniseli to |»r 
loucheil, yet \«ithi>ut expressly forbidding this as he had 
d(*n*' in the ciw of Mary Magd,dene. 

(() Jesus hritl sunem his hands and his side to U- 
tiniched eight days afterwards, by in presence 
of ' his disciples . but this is nientionetl only in Jn. (20 
»ft jg) m 1 afttr he has .inain entered the same house 
(rdXt** ^ativ taufi through closed dtMjrs. 

(/) 'After thes«* thinns ' {fitrd ravrai, but only 
according to Jn. 2L Jesus ap{HMrs rtiiLt* tnore by the 
lake of tialilee to I'rter. Thomas. Nathanael, the wnis 
of /elxtiee, .im! two other discipltrs whii are not n.imed 

(«) (jaliUf .tlso, but certainly itt an e-.irlui dale, was 
the scene (»f the apptMrance, recitnled only in Mt. 
rJHiDjo), to the eleven on the mountain to which 
Jesus had directed them to go (when and where he 
in.tde the apFHunlnient is nowhere staled, but seetns to 
h.ue lieen recorded m a V)urie was used at this 
point t. ^ Jesus here enjtnns u|»»>n them the mission to 
the (ienlilrs and Utptism m the name of the rriniiv. 
The missionary precept is in substantial agreement with 
Lk. 2449 nnd also wiih Jn. *JOji (see at>ove, m,' 

ylhat otie and the same event should U? to vmie 

extent differently descriN'd even by eye-witnesses i-, 

S Eztant of '"*'*"'^' ''*'*-' *-'"<*uKh, as .ils4> some 

diiennuieiM. M-"'*"-"***'" "><-"lfnt ojimeiied with it 

oiKrvpuiom. ^j„n,i^j „j j.^^.^ reminiscence l»e errotir- 

ouslv dissoci.iled from it and attached to some oth. r 
similar e\ent. } 

(./(■rhus no serious importance oui;ht, for exanipi* 
to Ik; fiiveii to the circumstance that the words in whuli 
the disciples are biddc, by the angel to lK-t,ike them- 
s*'lves to (i.iiilee, > not exactly agree in the diffen rii 
accounts, anri ine tiarrator assigns the missionary 
precept to r»ne ap[MMrance, another to another. \ I o 
this, however, there are limits. 

Whether the sepulchre was guarded or not (juardetl. li,.w 
man- w.'men went to the sepulchre « nether <>r n^it ihedist i|iK-, 
were bitidcn go t'> ('alilee, whelhtr or not when Jesiis appeart^i 
Mary .Magdalene was alone, whether or net* Thumas 
present, wiieiher or n>>t Jesus asked f.»r food and then atHi.i!!y 
part<H>k of it. whether or n>il he allowed hinist-lf tu he t>>ui.he<! ; 
at>o%e all, w hether the ap|>earance§ occurred iti Jerus^ilcm <ir i;i 
Inililec, and whether the women reported what they had mi [| 
at the sepulchre or were silent alnjut it — these and many otinr 
IKyinls are mutters with regard to which the eye-witne^sr.. . r 
ihuse who had their information dir-rctly from eye-witnesst -. 
could nut piiHsihly have l»cen in the least uncertainty. ^ ■ t, 
what differences ! Differences, too, of which it is imp<issiMe t.» 
say that they arc piirtly exulicahle hy the fact that one narrat r une «K:currence and another ant>ther without wi-hin^- 
thereby to cxcliule alt the rest. Lk. enumerates a consecMti\« 
series of appearances and brings it to a close ('.'4 51) with tlic 

* The harmonisiic attempt to di po^e of thi* appearam e n 
Cialileehy maintain inc that t ialike here means une 01 tne >u^lIIliI^ 
of thi?_ Mount of Oti\e!i near Jeru^lem— whether the suniniii ^n 
the N. or that called in 2 K. ^3 13 the 'mount of corrupli.ii ' 
(see lltsTHCC MoS, MotST OK ; Oi.lVKS, Mol \T OK, j| 1, 

. by which siip(N>sitioi) .Mt. '.'8 ifi is bruu^ht into aureemeiii wiif 
l.k. '2i 5 J Al Is I ii. has its basis only on assertions of medi.i ■. ..[ 
pilj^riins. The matter is nut improved by the purely ronje. ti •..', 
assiimptiun uf Kcsi h (/V x.yjHi-jf'^ x.Sjt.^y.) that in M; 

, U'N If, and already in 2t> i? 28710= Mk. H ?m pi;, '(latr-; 

i (r<xA(Aaia) is a wrunu rendering of the ^*V//./ (fT^'^a) in the 

I orininal Hebrew gospel postulated b\ him. the neighUnub - il 
"f lerusalem (n-(p4kwpo« Mt.:i5 Mk. taf. etc.) l>einK what \i.u 
re.illy Inlendetl. In Tertullian's {A/>oi. j\) 'cum disiipiiiis 
qiiibtistlaniapud (iatilaram^udxa: regiunrni ad iiuadra^inti lii's 
c^it ' kesth c\en finds dalihca liscii as the «fir;/r "f this lii-oi t 
(see, .-gainst this. S..hurer. Tf.y. iRc,7, ji. iS?/.). 1, fnrn - r, 

! the .M.iiint of Olives lielunj;ed to this distrit t Him h a" ■ [ f- 
frum the niediiirval piliirims ; and that it constituted the ci ' tr..! 
jM.iiit i.fthe district. st» that the dis<iplts cuuld at on* e iiii .r- 
stand by the ' distrii 1 ' to uhirb (accurdinut to Mk. 1''. 7 \]\. 

'■■ '.*S7 I,,) they were directed the Mount of Olives, as t«im: '.h- 

I ' mountain where _?e«;iis had appointed iheni ' (to opot oC tVafinj 
aOrotf o 'IqtroL^ : -S i'), he derives from his own aulhoritj. I iif 
At fa I'ilati and the ilesta rHati, finally, which plac Itic 

' ascension of Jesus at once in t lalilee and on the Mount of OInr-, 
em'Kxly no true yeoKr.iphical recollection hut only a iiuite < 

harmonisiic attempt ((.p the pa-s.<iai;es inZ,-ihn. ( 
•J'iX?: a!- Thifo. Cl^J. ' "" " ■ 


t>pn-< .t.ieinenl ilwi i, ,,, ,..,,„, , 

.h..Mi" .1,.,,.. ,.,„„„ .i»h '."'■ It '''"'; "(.'t' '.•'''■'''h 
.,,.M,„,.,,|„i ,,. « ' ^- 'j, M-. .....I M.. k„„. „f 

t.« „( any a,,p,,„..,„,. j,, , X; . '•^h' ft 'I"' ,1'' ;""" "*"'• 
»ur«llv. The I !, h," f I'olU.n.s M„„ ,„. 

..'.a.,, ,ha, .,, mi., .(.."kj :'^,'';:;'r%""' v-* '■" 

"i.iiiK' side. nii,l ,1 . .„u . ''"""' "" 'he 

If .. «.Tt.jus> ..'rlv rr""' •'■'" "" ""• "''I'''" ' 

l«'<».-.n th.. lurra "U tf, i'"' ""' ■'■«•"•>'"■=. 

■.■m.v..r, .1,0 ,K,M of ':■■"" "^■"•-Iv". llcr... ! 

m..r.,.«,r,,w„. ,hrm Jl. .,' ^ T,^^ »;". "'f "' *• "ra,y, ,',„i, ( 
..,.,ncs (If .„ . ,|,rt,i "^"n .l^n r,l fr„„, ,nade,|„..t. 

--p. .. .J a fa,,, on th. «X; h of °C h? "'"" '"•'""■' •" 
!..< from ,l„ l,cBin„i„„ ,,„ pJ^IjIkA^ I ,",'"""">• ""''« »" 

il"-con (Tom th, .,.ntra.P lion. '."V ' '^•'."""' »>"" 'ht Co,i. 

^'..0 '/:;;:/:*^:;;:'"'"ir i';:,V7-f r "• •••■' -- ^ ^". i. .. 

•alH.m .lom,„u.) would iLnhii'" ;"'"'• ""■ •■"1> ' (LiUfal 
»lih th. ..ini.l, nitrai... ..1 ; ; ""»"«'. 1» hillr ,„ |.,.,,ii,j 

I'''a.l of o«iu,han. aT, i ",',;■■•;'•',,•'"''' """"" •'. -U 
«lu.|.ni, nu; hair p,„ r,..., ,[' ?' ',';"■ -' '"I'I'r. t .,,1,,., 

"■« "f th; i.or.i ■ /t„mL „ , 't ;;"';'^ .'"7 !'• ■•".. th. ,..a;i: 

lira, I ."hlf.^.i. ai,.| on I ' '"';•'' "attali,,. ju-i „. 

JaMlva, l,l^i„f, 
tf) \.>r IS till- 





ni) on. lio«».lw:„iL, "••''■ ""yl'M-riW. 

"lied, \» u,«y on M,!r ,'■''''''''"'' "' ■*" 

-, -othecvanKe Ku -a,-hrai !i-li •*' \ '" I»«'int of fa, ( 
"li t>av. dUtfnc h~ri,. fTJ*'""""*^'"'"": hry 

t.' ihe 
n<,t -■nly,l, 

Ofth. ^'' '■"•■"'Pl-. the (;o,p..l of ,he Helmuts' 

HebrtWi. J*"^ "•-•»• however, ,o f.r as the r„w , 

fi^asiiienis at Ifi«i ir.. ,. . '" 

■nuly „„. „„rra„.e,l (s"Ml:;sHKrs 8 ""T ' " "" 

'>".i,U-ra.,on -! ' ^"'" ""' K'"^!*' '^«"'« into 

.«-.... «„.a„y,x';:^,;;:;^::^--7-"'«...o.h..r 

Kami,.,,, ,„ ,h„ «Tv., ,„, , , '.^ ■''"'« '•''*•" »'.. h...„ 
fr'>". «h.„ «,. r..a,l ,h . ' „ "f l"ir' 1 h.^ (apart 

J™,, „. „ „.,„.,■,," .7'^"^;' •'">■"•'•■"• r.H,.r,l,.,|, .,f 
: """I"*!) u„hi,lo„ ,;",,, i,."" XI ."'olhrr .„.,, U.y'l'.J 

i«ri only i„^h, i- i,:', ', ;,''"7'"'f p'l'-t- a,„i rh.,r,.„. , :i' 

»a ci,,,g, ,f ,,„,,,,!,, "•,.> ,„. ,,„.,|,,,„, |„ ,1 

.Y>!«.n,an,,fr.n,e.„ai„„,i;., , "' ' r 'i ~' " »<"- ■! have l,en 
•""• «•'"""'■ l.> thv .,„.„„ ,., ,,"','.',•' .'••-"« ►houl.l have Kiven 
Y n«e,^arj ,o m,,,,,,.^ ,^ ,' , ''''"'' P""|. I, .ill ,h„e,,,re 
f"""- In .ha, ..:4-al,, ,,;",.e', /;''T'''?"''"''-'l^"'''l'" 
Harnien, ,„ ih, ,er,..,„ n,aU, a„ uk ''•""!"'« n,e, .,f n,^ 
a.coun,. ^hes^,,,,p,,,,."' ,7' •^' -''I'-!"'' "P,.n ,1,..,al 
mcn„on of ,he , |o,f .. ;,|'|" .'';'""= 'V "■-""« li..n. make m 
Jing in ,he ,e„„l,hre ^i;-^'",":,/"- "'-'I"!- are-al'l'V .^i, d 

""• •■«*"<= "i'h *hi, h,h.m,v',er,,f ,,■■"" '•"'" : "I- »iil' 

than »oul.l l„ ,he ,aMr if we »er, » L i ,'"" """ '■ "'■■'"I 


ho>.^natural it wa, that >r7,Y,?-lv ^ ', l"'" ""• "i'-' : alio 

I'eter hr sa„l t.fth.n, U-h ,.'""'"" "'•"-"'""« 

™ thy,, , ha, sleep- and 'Llin'^tfiTi^^ j ,^;„,, , ;w/r,,Z7 T'T «»' "■"'^ aiVoi 

'.'^^i.t:!;- :si:/':;;i]'-f^ih:t:i.i^^^^ ; --"ess^that hr:;r;o, K,tr«r.e*r "'•="'■■' 

*' and „i,i ,„ t,,^ . ^ ,•■"' t'""'"' "'"I Kave ,„ (a„,e, ,he I ^avc takl-n this from I 1 . " "" 'K" can 

; f ..Lin has ri,e,,aMi,,f,,,,;, him -h^'' ,''*'■'' •'•'■^''^'^'h^ ; oihfr hand, ,„f, ,„„.,,< ,r7T " ""■ '"■ '*!■ '^ 

ycar,,:,^ :;"^^i";':"""'-^>^>leof 

ivi, a,l I.I 


"Uen,tma,lor,,,ien,il.,,s' n rl? "" ''""'■'" "'i'l"'! --um 

in,,.., ,„„„,,.,i, ."'f^K.nriedi; ],'"","", •■"'•''""■■ '"'li.' 

'meniihu,.' '^ " """"■ 'l"'a resurrexl, tiliu, ho n,nis a 





lamcs.' , (*.. 

iKnatitts,,, ,.,„,.,,,,,, „^, „,^,, ,;;,^^. 

".r,lcre,l f..,«f ,ol,e l,r„„Bht an.! "for,! ',■;■.■,'''"■'■ '1'"^. ^"'1 
<■•■" to „,„,:h hin, i„ l.k^.^j „,;,/', ^, ^^'-••'••^'rof ,he,nvi,a. 
mu„U=ihe„„ei„.iew,i„„nahi, .:'•"',"•"■■"■• "•" '"■ -'<''- 
>he.,,he,h.v,,l M,.Kli|ess, Im" '..'i'''' "■"•"■'^l-ui 1 h,.n,a,.a,ul,;n 

■^ ,7)wh„h,s ,he„« , r I , 'X„;'tp':"" •■ («»..ra„^.. 

•n the ,raK„,™, of th. ,io„H „f ,v„.r .„sc„ver.d in 



la^j \.irlr>ut», Atu, .cuLiily Marnatk. iMve 

#»jj-_-» <Ii«^<'rtiifl .» ,.i\iti»uHi nf rt'.iUy aink'nl 

ArVMM ni.ui'-r (1 ...^1 il.i%^ »4.urtc I I It is Ui 

or rtMT. j^, ,,i,„.f^^.,i h mevir. ItwI. id a5T^i;;M'I« 

(h« w.ilch »«'l on thr wpuUhrr. th»' JSt'T frncnwni 

Riif'* »ti!l further l»\-'fitl the t.i!umit.\l accnuni Ih.iii ihr 

Nut utilv tlollif rlilef^ ..f tl.« !«?** krfp W.llt h Ht^'HH wilh thm 
Rirni-Ul «»laicr«; llie »MI«r jUo i% .»•'!* !■► ii'»*- th« n^iiw .«f lh*r 
i>m'>r ill . .mm.iii.lof lti« riiui.l (iVlfirttiu-) wiiil I . int. rm hi* 
rr.i.!tr, that ttir- iI.kif .it iti« il.-.r ^f ihr -^jml Kr*- ».»■* ♦v.iU.l 
with N*vcn -*^l«. aii.l lti;»l ti (xn.lh *.»« ««•. u«I f..r lh» u-* .'f lIi" 
giMrtl. WKjI i« «tin iiirirriMnij. iht ».'lditrH rti-'fi ib« 
(jtvurrefwc .if llm re*urrii ii'ii siot \o ih* I'mf iiri^-HU lud lu 
PiKih'. -Pmiufly thr».i.i fr..m .i. ■ ■ ■i-liut; !.► Ml -i** W, 
itil kn..wl»tU'- '>f Ihr fa< t .Hiahl if ;>.«mI.1« I.. S;i*« 'w i with- 
hrltt, .*ml it i» l*il.tie » h ., at tK» rr>|u«ki uf the Jkms, vfguirw 
kill iK« on tii« o'^iilict* (j:i-4^,). 

((^1 I tie .Ktuil rcsiirnntion of Jwu*. nhith in the 
cuif'UK'.i! atioimu i», witli iioliiv.ihlf rt"«Tvc. aUny^tMil)" 
tn.lti.itfil .i» Ivivitii; (Kcitrrnl alit-aily, lu-vtr ilfMriliwI, 
1^ twTtr ri'pri-vnt"-»l i** liaMn^ iKiuriitl lii-l.»rethe wry 
i\t>('f llu' K'»m,m iritl Jewish w.ili h-'^^, .uul. tmiettl, 
111 .1 w.iy which tan onlj !« iU'M.rit»cii a^ ({riiU*w|u« 

|iuiiti|{ ih« nit[ht the hcavt*n< oiwn. twti ntrn (v'xitht) come 
tliwn ill ttii/ilinif -utrtiflnir. (h« *l"nr r"IN nwiiy <»f it* own ai • 
curd, ihe two >fUt!i* rulvr ih- «pi>uI. hrt- . thrr« mrn rc-«-m» rur. 
two of Ihtm •iiiiihiftMin ihr ihiril. ih« lir.»<ls i.f tht 1*1 ffu h I.) 
ihe •!(¥. .>f ihe ihir.l if*^-" t"-vn.! it (. (» Wi«t. |H r r. a 
cti'»* r»lt>>»« them, anti tu ih« .|U'"-rh»n h«.»r.l fr..m hravtn 
' Ha»i th.iii prpaihcil to the tlcul ' It answer* ' Yea ; th«- 
hcavcnn o\wn imc« tnurc. a iii.ifi '>niiri down ami eni^r-. the 
Mput> hra (this i-* ihr an«el whnm thr Womtn v-e thfre n<r\l 
murninii). Ihis, hn^evrr, ti n<n a!!: in f. ly afur th* iT>' of 
Icim ' \|y Slrrn«lh. my Sfreriijth, ih.'U lia-t'l>nr.t tnr ' 
(if Jir>'<V»i« fiOM, *| JucAMK t^nv. vaWAdi^Af ^> - (llU->, it) all (iroh- 
alitliiy. I'v v*,»y I'f Mtiiribj li.wn ihe cuptfH-.ioii of I .••.!-f..r'«ik«?n- 
ne*'») we till.) Ihc w.ini* 'ami when he hfltl .«|»i»kcn he w.ih taken 
up'<«ai tiwutt' ni'tAij.^), whit h can h.irdly \>k uiMler^t<x«l oih»r- 
wi« lh,»n a« mcntiin,; a lakitii; up inln heaieit,'-' Thi» but, 
iheref.ife, i* t» i. e relale-d in luir fraKnienl : for thai Je"«u« go** 
into heaven al<»nj; with the lw.> anurU m mailr i !*-;ir l>y the wi»fd 
iif the angel to the (:■. 5^) : 'he i* ri-MTi ami hw gon^ 
thilher whence he "a» wnt ' (artvr^ ««i airijAKft' J««( n^v 

(( ) The .iccount of what Mary M^Rdilcnr ami 'her 
frirmU" fitmid at tht- srpulchn- 150-57) is t'sscntially in 
a(;rf.*nunt vvith what we nad in Mk- So, also, the 
stileiiU'iit that th« y tl«? tilleti wiih fear without our 
Ik-miij; l(»Ul thit ihfv rt-Iatf*! to any one wh,u hail oc- 
i.urr..(l. On tht; liusiiif; day of the pa-.^hal ff»lival 
the iwrKe distiiile* are slill weeping ami mourning 
in JeruMlem ( 58/ ). 

j7i ( Ml this iloisini; day the disciples betake themselves 
each to his home, thai is to say, to (iahlee. For in t: no 
Ihi- n.irralue pri»< f-tls : ' l>ui I, Simi>n I't-ltr. and 
Andrew . , . went il«. fish) t*. the se:i. and w th us 
were Levi the son of Alpha-us whnni the I.ord . . .' 
(here ihe fra lament breaks offi. Plainly the tonlinua- 
tton relat»H| .m pinuTranceof Jesus hy the sea of Oalilee. 
such as we met-t with in In. 'Jl. Vet in Jn. it is precis<'Iy 
Amirew and Levi who are not menlioni'd.^ 

1 Untclistackf J.I Erane. u. Mr A/vka/y/'sf dtt /*gtnis'i , 

1891: .-iC/.U. (^CAr,tN.\'.\\- i^. 

■iCpAciOii Mk.l-i^ Ss atv., whirh in Mk. U v Lk. 
'-'(4* tijftilly s.iy* '(J'"iu^) c\ piled (..r. ciuleii),' V.i- in Mt. 27 t,.i 
'hi'* ■■infit wriii up' ; ami Oriii^-n (( .'»««/. ih Mt. sprits \ I-at. j, 
td. de la Kiie, 3 yj- '■, | 14'.) * stiititn ut cl.iniavit ad palrem 
re cptu-* e^t." 

^ -V rcijard* !,cvi. Re<A:h <7T x. 3Hio-»iJ x. 4i(y) trie* to 
(.<jntr'>\fit tlii'>, iiLiintaliiiiiK Levi's itltrntity wilh Matthew (Mk. 
'J 14 Mt. ;iy), w hum in turn, un atL^mit i( the like tiu-anin« uf 
the two name, he tdciitiru-v with Nath.macl whuapriear<. in Jn. 
21 :. Of thtrse two iilctitilicalions, howtrver, even tnat of Lc^i 
with M.athcw is niicstiMiicil, and iiiniplete identity in the nK-an- 
in;-* of twi) n.inir* can nrvcr Iw; held tu pTuvc the ulciitay of the 
Uarers. ("p Pmiii, lol. 1701, n. 1 ; \aihav,M-1- The 
art^rnpt nnv ^k nimif, without surh iiUntificaii.m'* uf tlifTcrcnt 
niincs. to maintain tht- idvntity of ihc fart rerordcd in the 
» i .si>el of I'fttT with that rcconlcd In Jn.; this maj- !«; hy 
pointinij to the p'tssihility that Andrew and I-fvi may Ke in- 
icndcil hy the two unnamed disc.ipleH in Tn. "Jl 2. It is an 
attempt whit,h would to a certain extt-nt be p1.iii>iMi hut unly if 
a f.ti-t mi^ht really !>« assumed whi*.h hoth wriiers wi'^h to 

.(-...^ril-. (tM» !" 'M l-'i !" •'•'•■" •■• 'h* s.i^j.i* ;.... .,f l-ini;, not 
a ilisoription of a faLt, hut rather the ._lulhirii; -.f an iiUa ; and 
we may suspect, in particular, that the two unnamed disciples 


(ft I h« rl«iiiml herr that mlmits nf hHnK rvKWrtM 

■a r<i|>ret;tny ".Id \% that the hrM ap|»Miatn»' of ]f%\\\ 
oicui» in (iahlee and to \\\vf. Hardly, howevir. to 
iVttT Alone an is Mated by I'aut ( 1 1 nr 15%) iirid l.k 
(21 14! Kurtlurniore. it rniuht »«in lu lie nriKtti d htn- 
that the Hr»t apiiear.inte d»ir« ixd «K(ur untd more than 
ciKhl ilay» alter the death ol je»u!* NiKh, hnwirvn, 
lanntil l>e rr)[ inleil with certainly an the nH'anin|{ id Ihe 

I'luttirfttionalily tlw writer \s in vrror if hv ihink« tlwt on th* 
li-l d.iy of the (lasLttal festlsal many plluildl-*, and al-»i it. 
ii|*>^lrH, Kt out fo» their hom^» ; f.iT liti- .Uv felt in ihai >•.. 
on Jl Sahtiath, and evn if that had noi |«#n %>, it hiMl i\<- 
vali.liiy of a S«»l'tMih aihI ihu« pr*-* ihc (M*«*il>ilHy 1 
travtllin^. .Vnuthei ewdetK*. ul tgn..r.tnte ^>^ i,ji*:l«*»n*%s i< 
mall'T* of fhrotiolony i< sren in (. /?. *»h«if, alter tl»-s. rU- 
inrf lh« huri^I nf ]r^w^. Peler uoe* on lo -ty : ' wr fusit-d and -i.f 
moMrni.ia atul wvrpinii itay ami tiitthl (i>var<>4 ■«( iwttf»*fl) unti! 
the XthHalh,' ullhoUnTi ihe wriler, aiiunliiiw !■» i. _|o. rinhll'. 
drfie- the .hath uf le»u« on the e»enin»( of fri.l.iy. II this 1-. 
«>, It i* n>a impti^oinlc th.ii ht- may ha\e re^iardeil the imsi |< .1 
ftMiv.d AS one nut of ei|{hldd\«' duration, hut .tf onl) l** > 
Ihe '^.iM.itth !• righlty rrfcur.ied by htm as the tir«t dj\ of ll^v 
fejst ; in ." . s- he meniion" the .■Sunday («t>pia«?f) a* ll'» »1.»> "n 
whuh the Women vi«itrd ihr srpuli hrc ; nnd iinincilial. ly anrr 
\\\*' w..rd« 'the women rtr*! full of frar,' hr pr.*tr.!« ni r-. ^-f t . 
add; 'and il wa« the l.nt of the dayi of unlr.ivmrd hrcuil <.'»- 
fi* r<A«i*r«i« vrMffM rw«- n^V^wi k. .\Uhouuh ihr )i..««il.dlly \% 11 t 
c< Itided the«« w- rd* ir.inikpUinl us to .1 i.iirr d.-Ue, il sti!| 
reiiiainl ihr m->*t natiiral Intrrpretalion of ihv form of rxttressi. \ 
to supjxne the meaniiiif l.> l« ; * IhiI al lime (wlien tl'- 
V nfti ftrJ) It Mils the Ust of the days,' «■•;. Thus it is imp >■ 
siMe itt le.4<t lo he unite certain that an interval uf more lii tn 
ei^ht tla\« l»et«ien irie rrnurrrtiion anit |h.- first apprarun.e --f 
lr*u« t« inlendeil. Besides, a^ we shall afterwards dw i>ver (-,« 
Iwlow, I 3i.A il has not the '*mallesi jnhfreiil pr.>haliilit\ . 

(/) t)n the whfilr. then, we ha\e to "ay wtth 
regard to the Ko*ij)el uf Peter inu^t U* that, inasinttrh 1^ 
the greater part of its conient.s is of a lejimd.iry chti- 
inter, we caiiiint nlv ii[»<mi .inythiny we lind m il iner< ',<>c it is ftniinl in the jiDsja 1 nf Peler. If the ri.iil- 1 
bv anv chance hnds any statements ifinlahied in tt 1 . 
lie eredilile, he does so on grounds of inherent pr.^t. 
aliilily alone, and must, almunt in abloiushmeni, 
huw' by any possibihly \ slutemenl ol such a kind cmiM 
h,i\e found its wnv hither Morerver. the data whi h 
citnie most nearly imder this cate){»>ry an- already km^n 
tu US fromcaiionn-'al s*.iints . —such as that (heresurr- ^.■ 
ti"ii and th«' asttuision were but <>ne .md the same .i. t 
ii \^f). that the divipl«-H ri ■ ■ ive«l tinin the wnmen iiu 
w..rd as to the st.ite of the vpuh hrc. .irid that tht- ti-X 
ap;MMranie of-the risen Jesus was in < iahlee ( Mk. 1*1* / 
Mt. 'J**? i'"/ 1- Tht- solf statrm«-nt wt.rihy of cred' n^- 
met with in the jt'"»I>*I "*" P't'-r and n.iulirre else is 
f.>und in :■. .•; that the dis» iples fi^nd irp )| 31. .-i, 
In Peler, liowever. we can hi\e no e.rt.iinty that t!-.' 
anihor is drawing u[»on auilunti*. Iradiiicii ; h'' ii; >\ 
very easily have drawn upon lus own imaginalum t i 
this realistic touch. 

Ihere remains yet one nthi-r extant mcount of itif 

resurrection by a writer wh" in like ni. inner did not i--.! 

_ ^. himsilf Umnil to follow thi- cannhn.i! 

6. vOpuc .^el.. lints; it (K-eiirs in aC'.plic 1«'"U A 


inii-tinostic tendency, found .il Akhniim 
in I'^^vpt, am! descriUtl by t'.ol S 
{Sn.iW, 1895. pp. 705-711); th.' coiuersation of the 

risi-n Jesus with his dis. ipirs cont.iini-.l m it has U.m 
repr;jiiuce<l ami tliscussed by M.irnai k ( /"V ■ '. Sfu-."' 
fur /t. Itfi^r, 1897, pp. I HJ. who dalei il *..tni-u'. ■ 
iKiwetn 1 50 and 180 A. I). 

The contents are as follows ;— Mary, Martha, ;ind M.o' '! .,- 
dalt lie wish n. anoint the hi"iv of Jesns, Iml hn-l ihcsf;.. ,.rc 
r-Tuity. Jesus apt>ear\ to them and s.i\* ; ' 1 iini he v ir ■■.: \t 
M ►!;, and hills that one of them «o lo iheir hrethren a; ! iv 
'('■me. thf M.t-UT i> ri-.-ii.' M.irlh.i docs si.. hut Inee■^ ..i;:! 
no trt-iien... iind M.i''>, whom Jrsiis Miuts ;ifter Marili 1 - 
reported hrr f.iihir* . \< .s no h«-tter -V' < ■ -■.. Ki.Ml!\- J<sii, ■ 
self goes ,il..ini with th*- women, calU tht; disciples tmt, jn- ;■> 

Were added only In or.ler lo c.dn the tt>mpleie numl»er ''Ci^ 
(twl.iw, # 2c;i- :' SiM-.N I'l- rKK. 9 jjt). Therefore, to i-!- ' -ry 
with the a. i-onnt in the I i>->i»cl of Peter (to whit h (los[..| •'.- 
iiU:i intendrd in In. was presumahlv (luite forci;:n), ll;f !■'■ .'i- 
hration hemg hascU on *^u sicmter a tuundatiun, woiial 1 - i^'y 


h^ruU. ,1, .,.!„ .. . ■ "r'l "i-iiv/v Bn. ..t_. ...... 

n.,., h..«,.u.r. '„■, o,„ H„,„ . , ;: '"" " '"--I""' !"•: 
T^n»x■U^.ly. |„„ ,„ ,h,„. • ";'•■'• "'I". ..,,,1 M, 

U'hir lao.ici ,1,.,,,]. ., , '""' 

"■-•lye. m....:!;';:i::i:„;;";7''v^ •-h.c 

T. iMirtMi "'""••I'ly. i.. «i„. I, „,,';";; ■;,,';'"•■ '•"•; 


I" 1.1: ,,M,I riMlu., |„ „,,, I,,, ' '"■"'" •""Ixill.iM. 

' "■ "' ■'■' >•■■•■'"< Ur,Z ,,','"! ',"■'' "«•" ' < ■ '"'"-I" 
ull. m l,r,.,. ,., ,l,ve.„lcruM. ,1 '" ■';''"•'■'""' I'' '•■>'"« 

-I "'".-for.. as h,.|„ . ,„Vf J"" ''^'■' •■■''■'' '•> «-■ nl,,„. 

.';;:;.iXr*;';/':::i,:: r!!r:,:i;;'„:!- ';""i«.u..r < ..n,. 

■ "•i.l.r »h., .|„,„|,l ,„ll .,« „ h.r , ■'■ ,'•'"" <'^""" ■"■'"-') 
""I -t .h. , „„ ih,r.,r , |,„, ".I ,'"■, "I"""' "' h-" .'.^■ 

If,".- ^...e ii..-.i..ri.„r,.,„ ,;:i'''"V I'T- "•"'• 

"I III* cuiiunii 

.^'p;r,;'';.':,-;.;-,;' , 

""«<• ..I Ihu ll„l.. w . " ■' " 

'"">'•"""'«"• '•'.-./.«..../. ,3., 

'"""■'■'' .1 Vuri.iiUM, .,i, 
'1 tU.-v (,(„, 

lite uii^cl 

■I'l.l ■ Ihr. 

•'•pui.i.r.Tn.T,',;.",;';;,;^,,;;';;;"; """' .'■') ^''^>'-'X I'C 

It r.l.iirs l.,;„s,.,,h „f \,,„"„ '■ '""'' •■"<»ry; 

In am .v, ,,, ,,1 ',. ' , 





l.y Will, 

..(>> ii„. 

■..II llu- 

'• ''f'fw, :,,,,,,,,,.„ ,,,.;';^'-™..-...l>h.. 
Iw saiil I,, „s »liil,. ),,. » . i , '" '"■ ""'f^- 

i4i .(osii, Kive, rtiint I, l,.fi fr„' I ' . ^' '"■■ '" 
-, u.i... "" -^^ • '"h •••n.l ^.n iK.niTcunil.l 1.. 

in the 

--■in- to 


'«'■>. r, th.-y 

IS II.. I iii^iil^. 

I lie 

•JO 18 


1» T.ili.iii 

'•' insti 
I'V .lie 

'- Tins ,s,,,.^^ V^'"'""'"""'"^-r 


'C':l;"^,';'-""' "^ ■^-■■". -i...- 1. n. 
I" '"-«".„;,„, /h!,/^ : , ;-,::""r ■ -^ -" --pmna. 

'""" .III. -JO, ,,.„ ai„| I L s ^ "■">•■" ""•■"i|".mi,l,-,| 
■""ll.k.24.-,/ ■ .. ' 7^- ','■■■•/ ••-m li 

'ni.:i,iu.i,s,;:^::;,'';'-;-'-'-.^i.k.. .,,,,,, 

'' (:. U) h,. Jv^'; ,,, ""-■ ""l"-" ''-"^ n virw 
'"•"-'f -ni.,,,, ;,.'."'^ """">'■ ">'.".l.... I.Mls 
•y ■■..ln»n,l..„, sour,,. ' ',- "•■'"""/>■ '■' l"-""">- 

"■" •';'^l in of „ /• ,,. )\ 

p^"'ii"r ,„„i rmiu;!,;::;,;;;:;;;-;!;;''''""''' Aii.j^i, to 

' """' '" "iL- naniu uf ih,: i 


MiS fruni 
in llu- (.,^,. ,,f ... 

Ii'- liMils i„,| „|,.re 

.'".I .hit «iih,„„ 

'11 italilv, l„i«- 



Iriiijty is 




Jenu« comes 

Time whvn 
woiiu'ii come 

Stone when 
women tome 

Angel.4 when 
wutnen Lume 



In ftepukhre 

See Je*iis at 
lepuli hte 

See Jcsiis (at 

Angel's ch.i' lie 







t;.«ii-. Hk». .*^o!.»'. PiiT. O'l-r. In: 

*iildiefH sol.liersaml 

(;iiwI-.«Tv.inl proliyltr'. 
-f j.ricst ') 

ill the 
nikihl : with 
a an^eti ; 
stone re> 
movest ifietf 

i after sun- 

iilrcaily te- 

evening l>e- l»ef<ffe »un- l»cfare Min- ! (m the 

i-i removetl .lUtaily re- 

!.y .iniifl : in"vc<l 


;ilrea«iy re- 

.: M.ry 

c M.-iry M. Ma«d.: M Mc-t.; 

M;n;a.; M. .lMniM;M. 

(m.>ofJinic* m.nhir u( .-t J.ime*; 

(liie If-s J.-imcsaml an- 1 others 


an<t I 



to whom 




the an>;el 

the watchers ( Peter ?) 

the a women; 
. timt.hje*u*' 

I she telN 
IVleT and 

, thr Ulovi-d 
(I iheiloth^ 
i* the anijeU 


; M. MflK»1 : 
does not 
' touch J. 



to semi "lis- to send dis- 
ciples to «i|ilcs to 
Galilt-e (ialiU-e 


j la announce 
' asieiioion 

in the 

alrriidy re- 

(already rt-- 

M. Magd. 
am! her 

the watchers 

the angel 
the watchers 

M. Magd. 

the 3 women 

M. Magd. 

I he servant; 
Jesus" gar 


M \U 

iiiit made 

(the di- 

journey I" 
( Valil«-f 

the II and rt see aU'^f ' the disciples 
other!* J* the (tl) 

unl*lief ■ unUlief 

(not made) 


I unfMrlicf 


Peter ? 

I .. zatKmmaus; 

> »upi>er 

the twelve the <ii)dis- theudis- the ii, with the (io)dis- the ii ; 

2 (at Km- 


I'i.alK i-y 

Al iKAJ*ANl Kv 

'jvcr 500 

all Ihr 


ciples ; 


ciples ; 

doufs ; 

: James; 

bread for 
! him 

Peter with 
[ uther^t ; 


somedoubt; iheydouM ; 

(esus J. shows his 
touvhed; wounds ; 

cats I var. : 
I wilhdijK;c.); 

misuonnry missionary (mis^Lmary misM.inary 
command ;' umimand ; commandl; command 

• I am with Holy Spirit M .lv Spirit 

youalway* (womised i:iv»:ii | 

Ihr 1 1 ilis- 


• i.^trs; I 

J tourhed 

; ilis. inU'-; 

hreatl ami 

: fish for them 


Peter, An- 
drew, I*vi 
(& other*?) 

(Jamr*. s 

the(ii)di»> \hni 



Icriis ihm <i Irriisa!em;( |crus. 
laMlv ] 

NvaofCal. I 

I ) (Jeru>alrm"), Sea of iial. U<r"^''^"' ^ 


(at the , 
nr» tion) i 

llir'*! evtiitng lirsl morn- .tt .i nteal 
' , itiu (.>n ih.- 1-1 


I (I at dtalh : 

/• at I he re- ) 



il U>imi<-s;,ri,l.. ,f.... .-... ~».*i»iao 

"' the ,h«,ry ha, ,Iu. ,,.nu,„c c..,„Hu.,„„ „M, ,,„ 

"I l'.>.r ..„,, |„ .I',;' '•'> •" 'hefuun,!.,,,.,,, of the ( .„s,..| 
»ai.l '■-lhh,^''"l,',.I,,'''»|,''',''i,'',;i"'' '" ","■ '"^f" "'•" •'- "'<■ »">ti.-n 

m.t rnen,io,„.| „,,, u.,.„„„, „,^. „„,|,i i,,,,. , " 

lnMrc -, (li-iiiiiiis|i.iii,,|, i/v/'li . .""t < iJiu- 

I..n«,UK..s„f ^,n^,; ;., .;;^ « ^^l, '"« -^K-s c-. . 
•ii'is, ^ ,oi: .,|,..v .' "■^'^''-' '^''I'^i'ikin Ai. 

'•■•rn.«.',Mr;iv n^,'' ;'^'. :",:;■;'-";, "■ '^M, 
• MT.« p, ,e.,l |,.M.s . l"k 10, ,'""'•■ "■;"" ""• 

I k '>, , '"'""•' "I"'" II" .■.p,.Ml..^ |„ M, ,„, IV...r »!,„ ha,l l,;,.nt>,.«l".|"';''; '':',' ^■''■'» •■•''■' rvl.„„.„,-.l 
'"■' '^ «c.m«,l |,> lhe,„mMk.«,,,k M,, . 'IVHi.;« >m„ ,.,, In ^."^[Ir^r'' '-■''-•■•['''' »:""' i" 

" l-n..l .\ti.ii„„,|,,a «c ",,,,,''; •^,' '■'"■■"; I"" '"■'.■ 

.a«. ..f .lu,.,„ liar.. ' (,n iC/T' 'V'x' •■" "'''''« '" '>" 

"■. .Ji I ar.-. .N,,r /, ,i„. J,,', "J '"" '■ 'al.>t„,nu al„iract as 
'■■ M »hi.h Jcr,,„K^, ,.■',,;',',••'''>'■'' '■> .th,. a,l,li,i„n afl.T 

"".I" Saun. .,1„, l,» 11," l„ i,/ !""l», y a.i.l „„l,dicf i, 

.--. virtue „n;,.i „■, :: ,, "K,i:.''i"''\''''i ■" -■«■« ■»■« 
-.1. >...a„a .„. ,,„i n"r>^r,K 'i',;;:;!;';'-'''^^' "'■'"'"|''-^» 

■IM'fl" "i.ll »irliil,.,„ ;, , i™ '"'""""l.'s sp.ltilUs irran, ,lri 

(./i rill- omiliisiiin i,f Mk l,.ir,.„ .. 
with }u.-Jl ,,r II,.. (i,,s,;i f I. • "" ■"•'l''.'"H"i<<- 
».-• can.,,; su ,,.,'," ''■"'• "" "'•■"•h.T 1,.„,.| 



, ■, , "" '"'TWfK-fii,, 

af:r...„,v,„. K,.l„l,a, U J,L V ' ." '"'^ '" ■""' J"' '"'" 

i.:;:;:!;!^!^;,;"- -• "i;i7'-"- -r'^'u"'.: ';i,f::;^;; •■:; 
-^,»:i..f ... .,.,„... , ,,..„; ir!il':z::;;:;:!;ji;z^:^ 

•'"-,,a,,.r,;.;; ;.,;^::^^;;^.':^'''7''-s..,8.,, 

i '^ 'L-ar that „ ea.„„„ hav.' ,; ' NIL ■ "''■"-^" " 

'•r.Mn,her.,,!a,;.i !',,';:'';::' '■:^'"':'' I- -•">■-. 

!;:"" ""■'-•"■"I>..1 ■ his 111, 

'- //Aiii. 3'..9(i, ir, , . . '» "'•■■"'.. I "-I.S HarsaLa. in 

"I".'"". ■• i-"n'..i>.l,vm V h.r ''''"','""■■' "l-n"l.l.r 
rav..,„ for a„ril,„,i„„ j„ T;;\,:, '''L '"'V' " ''". fur.iisl,..,! ,he 

!'"« in .Mk. 1,1 „ a,„l afi, ,» , ' ""■,-'ll.,s,„„ .„ ihc sa,,,.. 

„ ^^ aft, , « .,,.1, ..r,„„„,„,| J „,, , ,,_,,^ ^_^^ _^'^ 

'w..n..fivifai,, (v,,v. :'; ,,vr''V?' '^ 

^ >»''''■«■» ." ,'. .1,. , ::i',~;'T,|\""""">'-i»^.«.. 

"'■'I1.T iwrt ,if N.^l, , 1,,,^ k V >lk.(«5als.M.. / ,1 

-.«l...l.- i.,|ui,.. i,,aW, ," I . ' IJl''': '■'"■':■'" *^"~l"'' ""■■ 

«.-li( h,iMu„ ,|,a,.„,.r f. ,i,i '' '"•''''■• •"•"..•..■, .ul a 

; - ...~i«,M th.- Ii,,t ,1', I; «'"":»ng ..nlv in„„M,„ h a. 

I >.n aiMtt, h..»,.»rt ft.iiii II. 

••' ^ - <■■' ■'- i.f.'uf (..';;:•, '.'.'.j!;" ,'.";^,«.;ri7'^ - ->•■ 

''''""'•■• ''"•^•' •"••■-' ""My ....i.|i.,,,..,,,,,f,, 

•;il'«'.lnlia . . . ,.„,.■ I'" '■l>>"-lls».-: thr , n..„|i„j. . 

■f. '-.I tiic a„.i,'„t.;itv^tm ::"',;,,':"• ir -'*- '^5> ■*'-i>» 

-..lli..t the «h,.|e !>.....„,, 1,, '''.7k V "' n..,i„ta,ns, !„. , 

"l«M„K in ll,„K,,„, /,„, lu^r/i^tV '"i'T- a'tiim.nts 
111 fhr, r,,t ,,nl, ,.'va,„I „ T' '"^•"* "^">. -""I 
^ ..> .aiuM.; ..f s,,,.,. t,'?'^ ! '^/•".■Iai,.-s«hi,h i...„l.| w I 



we,i,u,t.„„.„,„|,,,,, „ V ' ""■ "'^"pl.s .ih.i |.,.„.r' 

"■.-..s,t,.,;,:!:!;':;;;;';:,;:!r'iv;::'';^f' » 

S-l»l hL,,l,s<l|,l,.s,„„||.,.„..',,,"V '^'■^" '^ '■"! 

.inv.„..ii,l.-me„thit |.,.i../ '„.,,,■,,„„. „„|, 

^ om^v;:: •;,;',:-; ■:;;; -'--.'res:;;:::'.^;! 

i .he si.„r.. of .. k , r,"::""^ ■" ""■ •ih.s.ii,,,,, 

•Pl-e....,.ue.,f ,!„.'.„ r 'I-' npluni i,f ,)„. ,ir„ 


lli>- ...lix>,nink,l,l,,ai..,i,ann.r ,.l I > •W--".'". i'- In 

, •■■•■'■ -s-.?. •v..,v,i,.ni.,i,.r„ tajii": ',''," ,'■•• '•'^■■"•■1 •■■"' 

' ..piHaran..- I»-m,1,., ,|„. ft,,," f .^ ' '" ," """•'''I t" at an, „th« 
t'T It: a,„l a r..h..l,.l„.,ii.,',';,f"T,,'',""""",l-"'^""-.l ..^.asion 

111 till- tir«i in,,.,n. , . „,.,,,. ,1,,,, 1 ,". , ■ .amol »iih t, 

I his in-tallatha, „f l',.,^, k.L'"''^' "! '•"■ ' !""• h L I' » ^', ). 

f..i.r.h.,„s,«.ia. it, ,„., puM, ,,,,■;':' ~"','-' ' ii>« 

•""I,".' Il" s in „hi, h t h ,■ ' , ' "'"' "1' '"••". 

-iiM r.iil ... in.... .„h .■.;:■,;",,'," ""M-'-.-.l Iha. ,. 

...•|.r.s,a.i.,n ,.f I',....,, .1,;.^ ,,'„ ""','• ^I"' '•" ' I'-.-aHM. 

;^^t.tra,^ra£^iir-f •■v;.-^-'::uhi;i;:i:: 

.■■r...liilvlK.-m,,npr,,|,ri.,, .,,'^ '""'-''- ''»l'i.h».. il.l 

p."ts, n... „„„.f,' i„!„„..„,i;"',|-.'' „,;';|'":"";•,^.»'l| i* ."'.xr.,! 

" .h, ,h.Mmh. that Vs . ,,.?;-"' "'''"V"- ^» • 

' .-. >uw»,(i„ ...I ,, ,h, ;, ."■;<• ..'y a s,i|.s.,,„... f,„ t,,, 

■s "... a|,pr,.,.na.r t., a hrs, ». ' .,,, ', V " ''",'" "••""f'-'> 
(.fl ll.ima.k aiHl |..,.hr,...!. 1^... „ 

"--- "-i^cn,,.., „!,.;,; ih;.;t,:;:;„;.;;;:x";ilr 




genuine conclusion of Mk. \Mth its first ;»ppt«nnic of 
JeM»» was al llie same lime m .iKrc-mc il "itU ilie 
acu'unt III ii.(>r. lii). antt with iti I,W.*J4{|- 
mcnriliiiK to which Icmis aii;KMrini to I'rtiT. Thf 
t'XI' "f I'.iul. and in lik.- niiuiner "f ] .k. . 
uii<|iit>ti'»lv iiKMii : t'l I'ttir aiuiie. That. ho«t:\er. 
is cx.ictly what jii. 'Jl liiw-s n^i say. nor yet m all 
prnUiliihty »h'l the (i.>H|K-'l of r«'ler. 

Ill 111. ■ji? nut n;ily i-* IVit;r il ■( the only one la lTCOKni*« 

ie^ii-. : he I- nut t:%vi liic liisi ; ihc Iir-t i* lllc l«rlu\fti *ii- ipU'.!>.uli ha-- rttmirM: to ihc miiiii tuic, in iht t'luin*.- 
(.Mil. !u^i .11.. f Mk...ii ihir .lcLi>ivf -Lciic. the n- '..;Miti.-iiot" K-us 
;iti 1 till* \\..n\ .if r- >.tiluti.'ii. ilie oilu-r ih-.t-iplt-* aprttt fruui I't irr 
were rillKr, ht-L- llie Mi l>ti s at K.iim.ius «1k-v«; 'ejes rt- re 
h 'LU-M ( -t 1 >.l>rc\- I. ' hy ili-. int :4THn^;eim;iit frxin f. 'k- 
nl-iiijj Ji->s(i%, . T were ii'.i pr. sent at .ill. .m.l tlii-- * 
f.>lii..vr.l !.>■ ;iii>thi.T sejutr.ilc .ip[X.Mr.i'iii: ti> tlli: trlcvvii (.il -v'^ '". 
rt). M.trii.i.,1;, t • jinltf I'V lii^ silcncr, i!.nt imt ainpt llii--, htU 
in ^■■r.ii *.> U'l-v-t it all l!iv more iiii. a-.-r Ji.-w 
aiK-«- t.. -*\ •iiv.ipicv i% to he iicM the >amc a-- an appearaiue 
la IVivi^al.'ne). 

(.1 If Muli ail .ipjx'araiKC cannot \ie assunRil to ha\*' 
btfii innt.iinfii in tlu" lost coiuhiMon of Mk. with cer- 
tainty, thr atti nipt inu>t also U* aUiinlonrd to iiivf;>t 
Ihf ii,i-.sai;e with the minims wliich uuiiM attach t<" it if 
it h.ui r-.ilty Citiit.iau-d ih-- full n.irr.iliv of I'avil 
an J I.k. 1*24 ^4! <IiMui->s witli a single word ns liu- carii.-t 
ol the uccurrciicfs alter tlie re-inTti tion nf Jcsu^. 'M»f 
lost conclusion :n tiucsiion ni;iy h.i\e Ut-n relatively 
more original than the cmonical and extra-canoiiital 
a< counts which h.ive lonieilown |o us ; but wc cannot 
safrly venture to n-i^ard it a» havinji; Iteen ah-.olu!''Iy the 

If now it has Iiocn made out that the extra-canonii al 

accounts contain nothing of any ro?isct|uriui; whuli 

^ i^tK-s td'vond the tanonical — cxce|>i 

t u If'"'* I ult'"''^l'-'\ 'I'l*^ ''^''^'♦■'i''*" «-'*"«" inl<'r\->l 

ii'«L "f ""*'■•' *'^'*" '■'^'** ''■^^'* l»elw«n thr 

COnaider«<L ri-;,irr(^.,,„„ ,.f I'Mis ami his first 

apjit-aranit! i§ 5,) and that th«- c.inoni<;d gf»s{K-ls 
anr at irrix-oncilahlf variance with each other, uc ha\*' 
finally to turn to the narrative of Paul. It has fnn*d 
Uidly. Reiin.uus and I-essmg coniplrtdy ignored it. 
'riif I nlirf IxKly of conservative theolop drnus it any 
diisue importance, niul ihc most adv.inuil crilical 
th'-oIi>i;v in n-jecting all the I'auhne epistles of cours<* 
rt-jccts this also. It is very strikinc t«i oliMive. hov*- 
evor. how sUkIU are the objections that can U* broui;lit 
ni:ainst it. Let us lake, in the tir«it place, those winch 
are urginl auunst the account in tis«'lf considmil. 

{a) >tei:k {(ut/tMfcr./r.. jHS, pp. iS-.-iQi> fimis at the very 
outset ihai the wurJ ' m.ike known' (yiw^^W: 1 (.or. l.">i) 
Khou^ the writtT li) have 'r-ii a«.irtr lint he was mak nu n 
ilat«mpnt utiii h. at the tim.- of his m.ikinji it (.1. r.niiiiq to 
Steck, in thf and ctnt.), was n«rw. The answer is kirnnlt- : a 
wriuT .an surely quite easily sa\ of a llii(it{ alre.uly Kliown 
• 1 make known unto \ovi," if he wIsIk-s to . all ailtTiii .n to it as 
fc.mrthini; v^ry u-eiLihiy, or th-sirr^ gently t» rrpfiWiIi it rehiikc 
his rca.icfv f.>r not ha\in:; kept It in tnind. 1 lie rt-mark holtls 
g.MKl here as well as in 1- % ' ial. 1 tt- 

t^) .\i. or.hna to l-'iii uliai pr«-< rile* is tivtn out alike hy 
Paul ami hy the .)ri^ aposil.-v. StP.k li.iUl* it to l.r 
artiriciaity «Mmi>oMr.i lo suit *iich a pnr;» ; the tutUc wotil'i 
^nt the n.(rr.>wir rir. le of iti«. iples Hi-sunr-I fir tl 


rir. le of .ti- . 
mission to the j.Mvs; ih»- i *o that ui»i<.r .ir.l.-, hinted al in 
I.k. 10 I, f>r ttie"inissi,.n to iIr- (it-ntile'. In thiscasr, h.'«ei>' t. 
w; are innsir lined l.» ask »hv ih-- author, who at'oniinK to 
Slefk had full V .(k: f.r his fan. y. shoul.l h.-ive rhos. n ihi- 
nnn»t>er 5-^). iioi 71 "' And w h> .1-k-s he . ite lames (-nr.-K a 
Jewish Christian !) after. tmI (w-fore, the atUxefl r'-pn <«ntati*' s 
of the (tentile missi.n. .ind after w. in !s. ..\<t aii.t at-.\e. ' .ill ihf 
ap.>stles.' whom n.. one cm assort lo ha\e ft-l-Mi;;. -! di-lin- ily 
to the Iewi*ha 'iristian or l.t th.- ( '»Mili!e-( hiistian < ir. !e? 

(. > U I', ihrr the >ri.;in.d ai>ostl,-< ini hKlrs.! in ihcir preii. hitii; 
also this, ih It J. ha<t ap^x-are.l (o Pan!, may (w- te-.;ardetl as 
ipiesii..naMf in %icw of their strained r<latt.>nv with Pan!. .\i 
an • a li-r .i.lte. ho4^\er, w hen the < h;iP hes nf Jinlaa ;:!orini'l 
ti -.1 i'> I'aill Cial. I J \ /') lh.\ . rrtainly pr'^ laime.! it. sin. -■ llv 
« t-iie.' hf ihis (n--.t /eilotis .pp.neni of Christ iataiv . aMiot 
hut hare aeeini'l lo Itteiii lo V fi.e ^.o al. -t iriumi li .-f the m -.v 
reliijion. .\. ■ ndin»:t\. Paul micht M-rv ve'll .T-.ume they 
wer^c still ili'i'.i: s.1. \el It mn-l n<'t h\ an\ mi-.ins K- ii.>siti\ely 
nlTinned he s.i\ s *..; f-T fr-m i(or. l^'. onwards ihr 
\eflMi no longer <1e[Kittl, a:* in rr. ;-^. on'liow dial ' (oia): the 
•enteiii es arc all indejieniletit proji-rtiiions. fMhprw is,'' we 
Rhould he (.impelled to i;o no tur at to say ihal Pant <le*cri!.es 

tiiv ^i*menl» »>f 1 . i uls" — i ., lit*, appc^idtt. ti kI jbxUi 10 


hiiuwlf— .1* M.melhinn wliith Htcuritinu lo T. i h« hut rri-i-iveft 
{wa^Aatio*-). McLk ikes nol iihiiiik fr.-in dr.iwinii Ihi* iiiftr- 
rii c. In il.'in,; ..., however, he cUirs the writer .ui iitjii^li- e. 
For when Ihe writer wr.ite f. t, hts intention ».ts to v:l forth 
what he h;ui rective.l ; l^nl he was .urely not thenrhy pre. liuled 
fr.-ni ;i.liliii.: v.nivtiiintt "t the ^.aiiie kmii with reiiar.l to hini.*lf, 
of Mhit li llie le.i.Iei^ *oiiKl I'e jhk to -ee Ut tluiIiNelvf^ that he 
had n^'I 're. encii ■ it. In I'ke iiLuiner als.. he rnn*t not I'C li.nii ..tvin.; in r i. hy way of «»»«(/. llial he and 
llie aiv.vlles prcaeh In tile tiianner htale.i in the pie- 
(.eilinrf tolttexl. .iUh.iliKli .erta'-ily f. li./.. [lerhaps aUo T'. 8, 
il.j n.-l for 111 jLirl of the prea. hilK of tlie oilnilial aIM.>lle^. 

I,/) V 11. .\lan-ri (/'iI«/«J, ». 1^06, pp. (17-71) hliiU l.'il-ll out 
of ai;reeiiM III with r-r-. ij-.g ; for in the former passive the hi'iie 
of a lulure re^urro-lioli of the Imiiy iv iitaiie to ile|ienil U|».iii II.*- 
f.u I of ',1: re ' i: -■ .i-;i i*f .le^n*. wlii'-t in the latter it i.. hei.l 
iijitin quite liilTer 'it iironnil. int.. whii h thi-. f.irt iI.*-* not elite r. 
It must lie IV'leil. h-iwi ver, if a lliinK njion in. .re 
Hi.i'iii'i* lliaii one, it I- ijuite littini; thai liieM- sh.niKI he scl 
t. nil separately. Ilesi.tes. in point of fact, the r. siirr.ilion ■ t 
l.siis is retnriieii to in :'. im a* haiinn a U.irini; uimn the 

(,-> .\rolhcr point mai'e liy Malien I- that 'was s*-. n ' 
(iis*i**.))isrei"aleii in;-. ^, Iml not in :-. ^/. 1 hi-we\er, really 
pr.ies n.'thina .ii;ailist either the neimineness oi ihe unity .f 
the s,.:ti .n. Ihe aihUtioii in r. h 'of whom the greater 1..1II 
rem.iin until n .w. t.-ii some are fallen asleep' is founil hy \ an 
M.iiun I0.1 o.ipi.-iis in i.l>lc after the iiirt expressions in rT'. i-^ : 
and. moreover, he consider!, it to he Iiroiichl in lis> late, sin- e. if .in ol'servalion were 10 lie made witri reference to the , •■, 
it "UUhl aK.i to have Ueii mentioned with reyanl to the i.-. 
whether they wire still alive or not. Miit here aiiain it may 1 v 
replied that 'the C.-'iiithians either knew or < ould have iiifotiiR.t 
themselves as to the twelve, whilst ihc ease was dlfTerenl witli 
the 5.>t. As for "all the apostles' (tois arrwrTO^ uf iratrir) in 
:-. 7," to which Van Mancn takes exieiilion on tin- 
lirounc! that tlieyare identical with the ' Peter and the twelve 
in :■. K, our rei>lv must simply U- that this is not t!ie ; st •• 
.MiMMhv, I 17.' 

(/■) I'aids ilesiL-nation of h!msc-lf (l.'.g> .is the of th.- 
aposih-s. is rt-.;.-i-ifcd t'v \'an Mai.en as not in ajsreemcnt willi 
his, laimloai«>stolic rank ami authority (1 1 4 l^ Hi/ II i^k \ii 
a s.ihition of the apparent i ontr.idiction can lie found in l'> i.. ; 
'n-.l I, hut the »:race of liod.' Besides, the sli^iht aLailist I'.iul 
w..iilil he unintelliKihle on the part of an admirer of his in tl < 
sei.ind century; it is intelliKihle only in the month of P.i? I 
hims.-lf, who elsewhere also shows himself as re.uly to Ininil... 
himself in the sijjht I'f God a-she i» disinclined to do so licl. 1, 

(jf> A further arcumpnt of Van Manen (p. 13^) is that 1 1 
15ti-M the life of the ap.vstle is lotiked Kick upon as 
c.'inplel. ,1. Vet I'aul mi^ht also l.iok hack his life so t.n 
as , oiiipleled and say tpiiu- f.iirly, as he doc-s say : ' 1 laU.uri.l 
more a'liind.intlv than they all.' 

Ih\ In pirtii no ilifficiiUy oiiRlil In tn- c.-itiseil 1 v 
tho woriis : ' l.isi nf .-ill hr ap|>c;trr'il lo nn- aKo.' I'.n.l 
I'niihl i]iiiio wt'U h.ivo Ixfn nw.irc th.u miuo ihr itpiw-.n- 
:itici' iif ji'sus m.iili' to himself, no oilv r h.ui U' n 
n'l>irtf'il. But of those which he himself, .-icconliiii; 
to 3 Cor, 12 1-4 4'i. aftrrvvnrils livnl to fvinTiencc-. tioi.e 
a|>priuclic'il tu of I >ainiiw.'U5 in fiiinl.imi'tiinl itiijion 
an -c ; thus he h.ui all the more (Hcasioli to clow li.s 
serH"! with it. Iiecaiiv his hrst vision of Ihe rist-n li-u. 
ni.iv il^elf tKctirri'il a eonsnleralde lime after i!.. 
iilli.-r apiieai.iiices (ii 3('|/)l. ami imiHirtanee all.nii- I 
to the nunilirr of ilisiimt |nrsons who hail stin visi. i,- 
rather than to tlie mitiiU'r of visions such [x-rs, 
h.ui h.iil. 

K-r the rest, Hnndt (414./;) Kives up as un-I*aiiline onlv .-lu 
espies. ...n : 'as uni-i the one K'rn out of iliic season ' (w^rr.,... 
Tii»'«T(j«Mrtrit. whi.h hef'iisi.U-rs to have lieen Uirr.iw.*d Iv i 
^;lossat.-r from the \ alentiniaii fc:nosis(. p Straatman, AV//. .^'.v .'. 
..If ri t <o-. . Vol. :;. tironinccu. i^t'f,, pp. io''--'o4>. Vet nostrin. . ; 
netesMlv f-T this is .ipi.-iri'il. It is true that the e%tires.,. n 
(rsTp«Ka)does not liter.illv tit I'.iul. f--r it den.-les an early l-io- 
whereas he could more approprialelv have Iteeii ■ ailed a l..'- 
hirth. There is some dithculty, therefore, in sujuvosinc t' ..' 
Paul himself 1 an liave .ictiiallv chosen this e\i>ressi,.n. I ■ 
meet this ilitri. ulty we may iicrluijis supj«'se thai {'.ml is t.iki .; 
up a phrase which Iiei u used aij.iinst him hy viav 1 
r-pt .1. h. 1m' ails.- after all it s..nie appli' ahiltlv to hi. . ,i-- 
Thislh. ..rv » iiM :il-i List explain llie .lehnite arti. le il-l re 
».f*r)i.»««ri). which is repr.Hlii' cil neither in A\' nor in RV f ir- 

Tlial I for l.'.i-ii is ili-iK-iiili-iii on lln- (l.ispels L.ii 

tieen pronouilct^l iliijMissihie oven by .Str^-k. Rime ;t 

out, litis apiie.iratut'S of Jesus wli-h 

,j . not fotitii! there. It Is only r.e 

Older than ^.^^^,^_,^ ^^,^^^ ^^ ^^ „j^, ^,^,^^ ,,,. 

tbeOMpeli. p„„.. 

11. ICor. 1- 


SlPTk r-g-rr 

s ii n? •■---mirily 


lirst news 

the wonie 

he fiiiils .1 

lioii is iha 

Kven if ii 

the H. -men 

servative tti 

hy no niea 

historical I' 

C',>in posed, a 

the genuine 

disiiulevi froi 

II I vvi-h lo 

not know ah 

!/■) .Slecl 
I t or. inr 
■ Ir.niii In- 
irii;in,il aci 
two acctiiiii 
ri sorts lo I 
S'xj men at 

(CI The a] 

hy .Meek lo 

In Ihe .'leli 

houever, lli. 

"iiK' ? I 

'T llie increi 

l.ici Ihc (lucsi 

Which is the 

.Is a whole, or 

.1 n.irralive 5 

ilouhiU'ss, lie 

shown lo lie 

III'- ilislitiction 

cmerpi is cha 

illlUwIyilij; th 

from such fea 
piiorily of I C 
cnlirp epistle 
liAI..\TlA.\s, $ 
5110 up the q 
»'Ulil still lie 
l!iiii Ihe hi),'h 
h.ui arisen) siai 
.:» l«!onRiiig I 

ti"-|«ls, if the is Kiven in 

If we may 

I'.niliiie accoun 

13. Complet«n« 


h'lii Did we n 
has so W( 
f"' I'.iui noihi, 

•I'Mcil ll|),,ti the 
" 'or. Ij ,4 / ,. 
iiiipossiMe I,', I;,.' 
11 IS llie iiu linaii. 
Ih-i.f.ire. ninsi 
"cTMhinK Ihat , 

his tifli'.'ll il.ivs' , 

h''lp.| the (..St o, , i„ il„. 

til- future resurn 
Misi'i|iieiu-.- aecoi 
l-'i- |''I. also the r 
ft'' t-iiiire liasis 
linMi'in. |„ 1; 
-TRunieiil wheri'W 1 
"■''■lion : IS it in th 
-I'liM havp [lassi-il 
-!«"«. whilst yet 
*"■'' 'I'l'l most inii 
t't«'iii'nis / But i 


first news of the resurrntion „f r,.c„. , 

th. «„nien. I„ ,|„. ,„„i ,° , "' "/'' hr-u,.!,, l,y 

I.U.. >s that of ilK- .„.'S. ■ ■•■ '""""■ '■^•I'f'-'" ■"■'- 

Kv«-n if it l>e er »ni. .1 f , .1 

-•na..v. ,h,„|„By i.-ilf ,',;,.';,";"■■■' • .•*■' ■"■■"Hie of cun! 
the |.-tiiuinen«,. „f ,1... P, i!. "■ ','" »'Jmeii. f.>,.,wi-vcr 

or,i;,„,,l nc,,„„„ „f\^,, , '"'•''''' ;' '""l"i<-ali„i, „f ,|,e 
.w„ acc„„„t, ,r, . ; , ."'7? '■" ':■'""■'"''■ ■•■'- 
r'>..rts ... his cnc^e .;,,'•■ ■''"■'■^■"'- ^"■'>' 

.» n.„ a. _ too. r;,;-t'.rt,:: ::;:,.:::; -; 
"•"•■"-; --1-"U^^;:;:^;;Uf'■ •;?"■' 

i"««-vor. thr tiuest,,,,, .,ris,.,- \.-,, J '.'^'v. ""■'■'•• 
"Kinal? TholMr,..s,a.,.„e, -.he , :'' ",'"', """■■-• ' 
r -he ..KT.,l„.,e ,„,,, ,,::" L^' ,, ~' '".'«",.>,■ 
" > 'he C|,iest„>„ con„.s „„ ,„ TMi .^r ^ ■* ' f'/ '" 
Hmh is the „,„re or,,., ,' i^,',, . "'^'- »-"•"'■"' '""" ■ 

n.irrative s„ |„|,.f ,, ,,,„' ' '""^'If consiilirttl, 

-p. .s char.",:' i^ '„:";::';: r j"^' -""v ••"• •"« 

.l-ly."« th. „.ost le,:,:^a ^ A uur«""V, T '''l '" 
ni such fcv,t,m-s »,ll alwi« s,J T r '^"■'""'" 
"n.y of , Cor. ];■;, J | „„ • ' T '" '^"""'^ <•' the 

CompleUnm 'l"^:^"-"> «■!] in.- wh.ihrr or ,,o P,u ' 
1 Cor. ir. -... ;;;";"-l any accu,,,. of ,h,. nwri^. i 

i-imii,.an,:: o'., .'r'ur;r'"-'''''"^'"'"« 

f"r.-. mus, h,. I,, .",;,„•"""; ■""^'- "■■'■•■"lb. 

"""K lh.u ,oul ' , ' '" '""'"" '"'"-If "f 

^-".i..v' " ,,,.,:: i''",''r''''''*'''- """■■« 
~-i..nn:f ;':;;;;"- jvr"'"; 

.". "..ereittM::.,,:,;;;! -;--:;:- [»..n,,e 

;.s,,lnth,.s.circ,.,,,s,,„„.,,.,,„,:, V^'' ',7- 

.intt^;.2:;':!;?^."r'U'"""'T''"" •■■"•"■■• 

">s. »"<'ndee.ih,s;ery;,;;„;:,f™,;;^ 

Irura . . . tira , , ' ' • «»'<'rii . . . 

«-^M4.3,i:i:a.:^,r:— ;— ,;^'"««..h 

number of "''"'' ■•>"-r,h„« u, ir,,, he u's,,' ,,! 
*Ppear»nci ''■"■" "' ''■',,«,„« for«„ni e>..n«i„.;,' 

h.M.reachn,,o;rr:::;:;!;;::;;7r'^'' ^''"^''- ■•' 

»h..h all „f .h';,\,''";l:r ;•;:;'''■;•;; " «-p>i .....r'.:,v'!. 

Ma„. ,., .., ,i„ ,„„.,, ^;^^.^^ a,;, L'"] *-'"'-"'""'y. "'-i iM . i„ „.n- 

:>p;:.;;a;:::j';:-,:!:;;:r',:^-^-i,on've,.,.„.. ,,.,,,,. 

J«U._.atta« f^';;^^^"- ■h..,t h.. rejc.s or k,,.":;: 

Md boii^ "■■'hi'..'; '.f .a.,,. s,,rc,al c.rc,„„.s,.,„,e, 
- -- «h,ch ,„ny have U^„ co,„K.c.e.l ,",h 

touched? . - .-^., 

no. hy a„v„,e.^\i:;^:^,^'^— "■•,., ^""' " "'- 

f""-if .0 ..^.^ na ,,:^ ;;,;';rp'", r"'""" 

passed „v„. •n„.v ire of k r ' ''"' """" '"" 

•■"..e. a.„l Kosof r I . u *■ f""'li'..<"t..l ir„|„,ri- 

I <> ■> a k;real mistake ,, reuVl,' , ?. , , '"'" """>■'"'>'.'■ 

; \ •'"PP"'«I, i...l«,l ,),a, ra„| ,"„"rV,l ,1'" "■■"''■ " )■' ''^''">- 

' ".ever, ,. „„^. „h;^^ Paul I," I .'„'*■;*■, '"■ ''"<:'"..e. 
I liris,,.,,,; as a Jew he lc„c» " ~' ''•''■"™'eJ f.,, I„„,^.|, .,. , 
re,,!,.., ,ha„ <h.ltwhi,b.h,.u.h,f.MV"''' ";■':■" "' ""■ "-"■• 
If. ac. ..r.luiijlv. he h „i h,., I f. ' '^"^ I'fis,.", (, ,, | , ,, 

ea,.„ a,„l Ue , ,!,,X-.i .k/ "' V,':''''"^^^'' '''»' /es's i, ,,| 
c.ll..„|lv ,vi,h ,hr ' "f'.K*"'' *""'^ .h-'ve li,„,] i,/,,,"., ';;i'' 

ealenaiulU,,, hv.l hu^ .at sil , "" '/'•" '^-"^ ''^'J 

to ihink this ir„c : ii sh >," .Ilfc -■' "'"*■ '" ''.'' ." 

hear.l a,,, ,hi„K „f ,h. U„7' "" "" '"""^'^ ■ »'" he ha.l 

IB. 1 Cor. 15 "■•'" f'"- Part.clar reasons he keDt 
and tba empty "'''""''' "K.i-hnK ii.' P* 

■apnlchre. , "J •'^'■"•l perverse of all would j, j„ 
'•-.... .he asl^f^l^r ;---;'■■• or. 1^.,. 
'«h,ch. in vi,wof ihe i„.,,n , , , ' "' K-'ume 

'I'l'sPon.iUri Ihe «,ir,l« .n I '"K-. etc..,.rv 

i...erven.,on of ,u, . i ' ? '''"■"""'' ""'V ^'t^'""^' >l.e 

'--...,„., he ,es„.^,n"':"«::„::;:r:;;,::^;,;:;: 



«.f.M,i; ?:';;■?■ ^;;;r^'ha^;;'U'-;"-:-v... ...e en,,,,,. 

'■• ""li.ate >h.TT j.i„;"t f'l r. <"':'"'"l .l.-rehy s...„,. 
res,,rrc,i„„ .,f .I..„„.,,,„ f,,,,,,7,;::f::';VV' ■''<!--■ .f .he 
I' he really it,„» „( ;,,,, .,„ , "'. '" ' "'."'- h.„ ,„k u ,„ ^,. 

;h:;"J:;,;^ha!^,^:— :;i!^:!^'v-^-^:ha:r;r^ 


Cn»» ' 


nf lta>l of all a f.ut f>f such im[MjrUnce ami one 
\Mlh I'Hanl t'> whuh tl»*> aUmr m«t«- id a tK>sitit<ii \o 
ifive c'vutencc. 

(^» N'ul le*5 wide of ihe murk is tho other explaitatinii 
nf I'.mls Miciice ujKHi ih"' empty Sfpukhrt-. the 
ni.M -if ;i nMhim.itiiiti ol th«- tlr.i.l Un1\ thd lU'i lii id 
with his thruloKy U it wnr imlti-il thf l.ut th,it his 
l!K')loj;y was opjKJStd to this. U is iifvi'rthrlt» tniv. this thfology of hi> c tme into Ix-inn only aftrr h-s 
n»ri\t'rsnm to thiisliaiiit) . \Vh»n \w ri^^t imiih' to 
know uf Irsus as riwi: In- «.is still a Jt-w .iinl ih-Tcti'ic 
conceivt'd of resurrection nt all in no ntni-r \\.\y than 
a-. rtMniinatinn of the IxkIv (<j 17 fi. Simt'. a> >'«'ri a> 
he had Utomf a UHieviT. he t-vrlahily htld what had 
U-t-n iDipart.'d to hitn aUmt Jf .us tn U* a tlivjne 
arrani^cint'iit, he had no <Mva^i' n uhatf\fr it- ahrr liis 
conception. Thus nothini; th*'D proventctl him trorn 
ItelieMDj; :hat the \!,r.i\i' \\.\^ found empty -on thf sup- 
poMlion that this was n-poricd to him. And even m 
the wording of 1 Cor, there \\a^ no lundrance to h'S so 

That Jt".u> w;t* Imried and thai Mn: li.t-* \kvi\ ruiM?<! * (i Cor 
1*'4» cannot Ix; atfirnit;!! liyany <-rii- wIm h.\> not the it!.itiirii.iti..n 
of the iKidy ill niinti. It is c.irrnt t.i •^i> ll;at I'aul Lu" aWaii- 
il >iied the Jcvvi-'h ■ "it. t-piion in --i far a-. 1r figure-. t>.hirn-<!f iht 
boly of Je-u..a-.l*in4 like th« ii« al tli<- La>t I >a\ , »ho'%hall 
!« raiM^d irn.urr»iptihle,' and hke the lii>*!it-> of iIdm; w1i.> j'IuiII 
then l>e alive and who '•.hall Iw chanci-'l {i t or. !."■ 4J-;2). i He 
ri-L-n |e.ius therefore wa- in« aiKiMc of ratini; orofl>rin>: touched 
(>et- li 14, tjf): on the other h.iii.I, if he wa% to rise from ilic 
ilea I hi-. InhU' niu..t need* c 'Hie f )rih from the i{ra%e, olliei«.-«: 
the resiirrc. tion » tii' ' lie aliarnlont.!. Ihi* Is thr . ., 
in 2 tjor. ■'• i-K. accordiiii; to \k ..i(.h e^ery inili^uUial inirneih..iuiy 
un hi-i death passes into a state of jjlory with Christ , hut it is 
not yet HO in i t-'or. 

f. I Kel iti\ely th'* most reawjtiable su;ji;fSllon is tlial 
I'uil is silent r - .rdiui; the empty septikhrt- itlmuuh 
ac((u.iinti*d witl. the fact) In-causf he fears that an 
apix-al to the lotimony of womeD will pPMliuc an 
uaf.ivouraltle inipressicm. This. howr\-T. is to mis- 
judt*'' 1' nil. U ht' kni'w and U-lu-vt-d what was rt'()4ut*il 
al^-jut tiiv- empiv i;rave he must r( eoursr have iri;,irr|r".l 
the particip niDD nf the wonn n as a diviin- apjxHntmfDt ; 
:nui jii>t ai he rt-fused to U* ashamt-*! of the K'"'!*'*^ 
al'^iou^n aware that id so many (piartrrs it was regarded 
as mere f'K>iishnes> t Kom. 1 16 1 Cor, 1 ail so also he 
would have rt'fused to l>e ashamrd (if an aj)|>«»intm»*iit 
of (iod whrnhv Aiiinen wt-re m.ide the thief witnesses 
to the truth of the rcsiirrt-t tion. 

IMore proce<*rhnK to dr.uv uttr final eoncUisiuns. 
however, from i ('or. lf>. it will \tv ciunrtin-nt that we 
... , should ixantine the accounts of the 

U. Aictuion. ^,,,^,„i„„ 

ij) The vifvv which is found in all Uniks nf d<Ktrine 
and which underlies the observance nf thf fi< Ifsi.istiral of the ascension, that Icus was tak^n up into 
heaven forty days after In-, resurnition, r«*>ts s<tlely 
upon .\cts ijQiKtti IS not s» cvicii, and thus on a 
d.itum which did not become known to the eompilt of 
Acts till late in lif«-. 

We Collie- Hire it to have Wm first madf ttl.un lo thr writer 
of Auls by the . ,.t|sideration the div ipl.;s seemed still to lie 
in heed of niU' li insiruttion ;i; tin.* hands ..f jcsu-. The suji- 
Ce^tion that the nunil^-r f-rty is riot |.> )»■ taken lil*Tallv 
he-Mines all the more natural in pr"[M.rti'n to the lali-ness ..f 
its aptwariiik;. Moses passes fottj da> s ,,n Mount Sinai with 
tivxl when tv eiviTi:; the law (Ks.a*.^-): a'>"rdilii; I ■ 4 | 
1* at rM-'-4'» Ivr. I s|i rids forty da\s in .h. latiri>; afresh the < H 
(whi' h had Iwen lost in the dvstni. ti .n of |,-riis;iUfn m c-Mand 
•.cveiity lmok> of prophc- y, and is tliercaftcr t.ikrn up inl*i 

(;*) In his qos[>el the author of Acts has assijjne<I the 
ascenHion to a time lale in the evening of the tl.iy nf the 
resiirrectioa (Kk 'Jii i?g ui'Sso /" 1. 

Hrandt (17517:) thinks I.k. cannot realty hiive intended lo 
reprcwnt Jesus as havintf avcnded at niijht and therrf Tr 
»up[K»*e» thr V rne with the dis* iplrs at Kmmau^ tint to 
heen inlr'Mlui rd hy the autht-r until after IM i''..<;i (appear;iii' e 
to the di»<:iples, and ascension) h;nl I«efn written. If llratult 

^ Atxordinjf to the Valrnlinians and Ophite* (.i/t. Iren 1. 1 « 
|H7l'.*'»7 h"*"'4l) Jesiis remaineil on earth f>r ei^hieen nMnth-* 
aiier r.i» rt'=.urrecii.:r. ; ... a:..; A:.-, /'.j.'.'t: ir. ihc EthiopiL" 
text (545 days) ; accunling to Pisth So^kim, i, eleven >'earft. 


i^ ri^jht we may suppo-c I.k. thounhi of liie aM eMsion fts havinjj 
.«iured s-iitit hours earlier. I he witds ■ and was earned up 
into h'^avtii (««» «w«^(WTo «if Toi- oi'^i-oi' : :•. 51) are waiilinn, 
it is true, in h'Ii uiitl some < Hd l.^lin MSS. Hut even if the 
shorter form sliould \ir the more original, the woid>» 'Ik* i»arled 
from them' itntarn air' avrw*-), whlih all aulhfrities have 
||lair<<m)l, »,nild loinej the %ame wnv . Without some detinitt- 
dep;4rture of Jesus it Wi>uld l»r in- omprehcnsihie how thf 
distiplc^ -.houldhaveheen limited, as we lead in r. 5^/. lo pr.u- 
inic <*|>^I '"* t^t^ Irmple without haviiik: further inter, ourse with 
Jesuv It in hi«hly prol..d.le that the words 'and,itied 
up into hraven («ai ai'««itrt«ro (if toi- Ofpat-of) were stru. k oul 
at a vfryearK [h riod Ny a reader who wished to remove ttur 
di'w.reii.inty with .\ I t-y-' 

(. I Id .inv case the il iting nf the a>censio'i as havmi; 
h.ipjfueti Lite on ih'- day of the resurrection h con- 
tirmed hy Kirn. l.'»v: 'We keep holy the eighth da> 
1/ '• , Sundivi ... in which .i!>o It-stis n'^e from tli-- 
<!' id tml, alter apiK-armt;, went up to he.iveii' (dMJu**- 
mv )iMfKi¥ rrjv o^Joiji' . . . ^v f; Kai 6 'Irjtrots dvtarTj 
4k ¥tKi*w¥ Mtti ifxxvtpiiit^tit a,v4iy) tit oi\>ayov$), as also \\ 
Mk HJo-f', where the orthr of llie exents in I.k. ele.trh 
lies al the fouiidatioti ; in all piol..d)ility also by In 
•JO17.*-. accordini; to which on the tti'irnniK of the resi.i 
rrclion lesus is not yet ascended and in the cvemni; 
already imp-irts the Holy Spirit to the distiples. 

Al lordinii Im ' vj the Holy >pirit tir>*t ti-mes into l>cinn after 
Jesu* has iKen ytorihed, in other words after hi-* exaltation i.. 
he.iven where h» i-. i.ii<_<«-d l>y -lory (Aoja) That Je-ns 
d.Ks not Miller hii. -elf to )>e toe- hed in •-'Oi? is not formalU 
coiiiradi. ted hy what is >aid iff the exeiiiim of the siuiie d.iv 
(in "JO io he i dy sh..»s the disi iples his wunds); the ■■■' 
tradiition does not emerge till eik;ht days afle!w.irdt (-"O : 1 
On the otiitr hand it perfectly tits in with the thetjry of 7 , 
that the Holy spirit U called (KV) another comforter (aAA,,, 
irafvifcAiirof : 14 i^.) who cannot tome until after Jesus ha* y- ! ■ 
away (Jeus must thus lie thought of as the tirst irap<urAi)roc .1; 
in jmint of fail is tailed waflttwAip-of in 1 Jn. 2 1, althouk-h tli- ■■ 
he is ihoiiiiht of as exalted) anil tliat Jesuj. will send him ft::. 
from lh« father, that is, from heaven (i:» 2*) : ip further Uiy. 

iJi The Kourth tiosfiel is distinj;iMshed from I.k . 
H,n II , and Mk. Itl9-.M l.y this, that it represents Jesus .i-, 
Mill continuing to .ipj)ear on earth after lie hi:'5 ascend- 1 

When Irsiis foretells his 1 oiuiui; auain in jn. 14 ik it is 1 :- 
from the connection with r-T'. f /. that he mean* the toniii,, ' 
the Holy Spirit, with whom, in fat-t. ati-uidinK lo 7 ^y, j ( 
817 he i* identiial. On the other hand, the manner m win h 
the same thointht is expre*srd in pi r. m (' a tittle while . . . .n ■! 
\r shall see ine ') speaks *ironi:ly for the %ie» that the api" 1: 
."tfii »-s of the risen jesiis are intended ; s.>alsci (tcrhaps in U 1 . , : , 
whilst I4/K |)t22 admit lH>th interpretations and jierhaps ..-..? ; 
t^ rt»_ei\c Ittfth. 

(,i 'Die original conception of the ascensi<»n has l»"ii 
presi rvefl in this, that the ap[>earanc<*s t)f the n^' :i 
Je>us m*ur after he has Iteen receiveti up into he.i\. ■; 
rc'^urret.tion and ascension are a single act. Jesu- :> 
taken up direi tly from the grave, or from the unili- 
worM, into heaven.- Any threct pr«K)f for this, it is tn;--, 
can h'lrdlv lie adducetl apart from the (i«)Siiel of I'm-t 
(alKPve, $! s^i : the prin^f lii-s in the silence of the NT 
writers as to i s|k*vi.iI act of asceiiMon. In p;irtuu:,i:. 
it ought <if known I to have lut-n elelmitely menli't;. d 
in I Cor. 1. '14-!?. since, iti (wint of fac*. aecordniL: to 
Kk., the apjiear.nues lo l'et<r and liie aj>'istles, - -^ 
were maile tiefore the ascension, whilst those to I'ai;i on 
the oilier hand undoubtedly occtirred after that i-Mid; 
.md vet iViiiI uses with rrference to them all the s.ime 
wiird ' V..IS seen * {u!tpt*rj. on which see lielow. g 171;). 

1 On the Apiiogrtic side lliere is often an iiit tiiiation to male 
Use 'if the wetlknown fait thai the am icnts were in the tu. 'it 
..f rtnpioyinn for iheii literar\ work rcniv -made p;»pyrti' ' - 
of .1 tix««'i Ien,;ih. within the Iiiiiils of wliir h the> were w ( t t 
coiiline themselves. It is sui;)'ested that I.k.. throti>;h t.;:i;i'r 
of his spate, may have found hims.lf lomixdlrd to i.-p.iri thr 
HM ensi..ii s,. %ery hritfly and inexat tl\, that it w.'.s |>..ssiMr f r 
the impression to arise that he meant to assign it l • th-- 
resiirre- tiiifi day, whereas in re.tlil> he meant to plare it f r.\ 
d.i\s later, and alreatly had the intention of setting thi- f ■'■'-'> 
n; ire prer iscU in his later work. .It ina> -ufTi> e, in ai!***-" ' 
this, to s.ty that 1,1 must have tier, eived that the pajir »4* 
< omin^; to ..n end ton» liefore the last moment, and cani"-! hao- 
Iwni forred. hy aiu Mitii di'Mo\ery. into iiivinij an .1. ■ "unt -' 
the exftits whit.h was not in ai.cordaiu'c wiili his kno»Ietl_'- 

- The devent into the underworld is ori)titi.'vIlv nnTfli 
another expression for his death and hurial. Whether .1 j>"-ath- 
ir.z "^ j'^''-:'^ in ^he ur:'icf!'"rT': :• - -nri' — tr-? iri'^ ; ■ - ■-- 
MiMsTKV, f it) is for our present purpose indifferent. 



of Cxl ,n,,„e,li.„.,,' a»;. ',, J'';';:„ "■ '"•'"S,-'' -:- "KM >»'»> 

.^..,,« .hc,i.„.,„ (..,:^,1/' r/jt'ttyy: ,.w. , 

a,«^,>..) tl,..l ,.„„. It,u> .,|k,v' . 1 I " ""* "" '"^«'" 

!'.- feu, mu.i „ir„ „, „,^ h *' |!' •"^^'"Iinu lo 4,, ,!,„ ,^ 

>.„l,„u. vi.,l.,„., :.„,, jranVlV, ,^"J ■;• «'l'"i> .his s,:«' 
.hcc,,„ess,„„ •k,^.. i,^^^^ you imu. Iv. ■"" '^"'"P'»'-'l I'V 

t»f the cuores*;,.., ;. .;„...!_ . " ' -■ *•'> «■' *^arrh ; the 

- made 

furp(>»«! „f the cupres*],^,, i^ .';" 'i' V' --j •■■ «^i»Mn ; trie 

.. J.v iplr. i„ .^alikV n o .7j",ha,'r',! "'•" J""'"^" 

Ihere .„K| lln, |,e ,,,„ very w,n Imw ,r r'' '''f"-" '" """• 

M' 1' crptrtnli„„ iv ,|;! . V < ?"■= from fieiiven. tor 

c •nsi.l.rallon i»„„ci„K ,„ ,h^ ""'' 'V '""r«.;Iion. .\n,„l„r 
'■"" "'«" •""> '" li««e„ an,! , e,J . V "" .""'I'orily Ua- 

S«.ke„ of ,n il,c />/,/,..v,^„hj"|"" ' ; » a-tnM„„, no, je, i, 'i 
.l«M. nol even menli„n il.„ , ' "."">!'" lo l«; adile.l inil..-.l 

J . «ee Von schui.r,;^'^;',:^^.' ;i x^'/.r/"" r" "f ""•^ 

-'"f""'"'. >Svt, 1.^.1,8) il,V \ .,1 ,.v f'V"'"-. '•'■«•*-<■//,,. 

I'n-cisrly f„r this reav.ii h.,«Lv..r „ 

'va«.'v,.r„(,s,r„.,|. ,,„ ,,.,,,. "" ■""' '•'' •''I' 

"'•" hav.. r,„,a,n.,la d,- nn, ' »"PI;;-'t,„„ ,,.„„ «„„,,, 
ance, pr..„,„„^. „,.. ;,;',;",^;,;; "f '-^'"h af,. r .h- a,,,,..,r. 

II"- nalur.- of a |..„,„ " *"""'' '•''•'• •'"■ cmtran i,. 

-ur...,iy h- i,a,, n i ;' r' 'V'r'^ '" '■'<•••i^«. 

as M"nt ,«,.:^a, i„ „ . m- " i.^* 1 'i?'^ J"" ,•''"'■ 

""ntii^^rr'^?- ""«".'"'' '^'^^ 

cuJ;.:;.'™:^:'^:!— ;';'; ;;^;:;:V'v"^ ■- -"- - 

inaccordanre wTtI, whi h Jev " I' I'L"'"' V "\" '-"''ly l..«ly 
or Khja , (Mk. „ ,,.„,. '',',; - ?"■•''"" "■ >•' 'he ,i,en, 

ion men shall U as ,he angeU "f ("ii^VitV^' '" ""^ "^■'■"^ ' 


■ha. after .hree days 1^ r«L awin 'a'., l'' '' "f*^ "'""''"'*■ 
h.aveii.l "« a^ain aiul »i,, ,a|,j„ j,p j^l» 

II.-DRrKKM,N-,x„„.v OF Olt« AK„ K.XC Ts 

I he onRinal conr,nii„n of ihn , »""-■ «;"<l.".ce when we pr.viU«ofUl. 'h- '•'-'' "( dis..„ianBli„« „u V 
•PPtaranCM. ,'"^'°;"al facts r.-Kar.linK the r'!'„rrr; 

whKh have co„,.';i;:„;:";;: ;;,"■ """"•""- "f «i.e accu,,..; 

.'.r..w l,,h, u,K,„ the n t te o ,7./';;',"'"' " ''""' "' 
"" ""iy ... I'a„| himself I, . ,1 . •'I'l«-ara,a.-s .,u<lc 
n-t have e„,,,lov„| ,h sa •' " ""'"''■ '"' ''- »■""'' 

"i>e made to hims.lf ,. , i ■ "'"^'' ""• ••pfwar- 

'>i...h other, ha,i ;;..;;[,.;■" '''-""«'">h.,i fro„. ,h„^, 

-ssuin of having s^Lm , , ^'n" "■.:''"•■ ''•"' """ ""■ 
i'^.^ .t that the alle^l \ " ;r '■ '""'""■"' "''" «'" 
^■.".1 or to invent r,,u ;,''"'" "" ''""^ ""■^'^^'y - 

i>-s to uhuh thev ,^,^„;''.'T""-^-''"'"''ly «.ih Ihe ocvur. 

-1 .hen.l,l,r ' ;::.':r7'"«"''" "- 

•■"<■",.. the an,.,.K were he ,', , 'r"'«' "'""••'■"v 
>«•"•- a,..laKa,„,,;:;^,;l:,:^''" ™" »how the„.s,.|ves 

'i-';,;n.:e;:'t:urr;:;:;r,''"'"^"-' "-»'»- 
-.. eaeh ap^— ::r! -;: -::„^^ - 

rr- •;■ kt.) ''.Is":,,:,*".': ;;,•;; -"i>-i nn i„ ,,„ry. 

'■elieved .,11 m the »,„l,i ', ■ "•" Pr.'a'-heil t., i),^ „..„„.' 

--'. a«.„d. with no ■u,.»',:r ;•? "• "n"'' •'■■'" V^- 

^"-'•■n .May »,, 1,^ ■^.ei,al.le ,«„i,j.,„ „f „„ 

'-I- I'la.e,l i, .„ ,h, ,1.,J ''f'JI'"'"'- 'ha. Ihr ailll,,,, 

a- '-vl ,„,ina.e pr'^Jh' '-"''7 '''■'" ^' s"n'e«lia, 

'!» s.„„e „„ h „^,„\,f ,'vi™,;™' ".' "'""'B.s.. he followe,! 
f i.> a»ha. .liffe,,,,, f.^^^.'I'/Ji '"J*"'- •« -5^ .v, only 


OtiaSI .11 tf, apply ,1 j I , ... ...IW.IItl II, 

the l,«.y „f ,1,^,J risli ,7; ' it'P"""- '.' »ogl,l I, i„ ,i,i„ "f 

ha. .me .lay he ...,il, . L a " ,i^"r„'"''T'":"' '"-'''•^'i"" 

Je.uswasihe(irs,.f,,,i,,,,f,h,' 1: ',•■'''"'••'" I il-.r.l.'w,,), 
aicr, inBlv. I, ,„„ „^ he" " ' vt'P >".h hwre^urre. li„i 

»•:■ I ; .p .\i., Ai VI lit, 1 ,.,) are i„. . k "^ *■•'"" '' (ihapv 

e»|. lamed as referrini; ... him 1h- •^'";-'»h aii.l D.ui, 7 ,, 


I hal the Pilaris;.!, , an,l a. u r,fi'nf.K.ilt k ""'> ■' •• '""• •-"'• ')• into an.„her 1k«I, • Z.,'*L'. '• !''•" ' V "'"^ e«pr,,.i,„, 

' '-m« unhistor e.i ^" '" ^^r, »»''■, "»• ^l-nr .hr>,s, 
j ne.,ess.,rily M.„,^,T A u'.e '" /-I"" ' ' *« -' ''» 
I a. the .a,„e tmie'., ,„.,■,„,"! ';.™ " '\ '-'. J-s.-s 
: "«at.-,l the eert nnty ,,,, , ''™': "l^' •'pl' .,,,1 
an<llai,iasHlee ; t^,, "'h^,7"' '■^"' > -Wn-h.,! ,l...,th 

'adyeasy,osup,,,ri:,h: i^r-^Y,,"'^^'"'™- 
(i'l Fn.m the naiure ,,f tl ■« "• ' aui. 

i< .» further ,|u,.e ,„ ss , 1. „'"'■"■■'""■'• "' "™'i''^-<l. 


Oil till- other h 

•■■""'•, !h. 

iranti hoii, the 

" '" '"• ''ra«ti !,.,,„ the 

!♦ »M 


Viirious accounts 

18. No words 

(Iciiiictinn «hirli K'x-i viTV '!i-<-p : 
orils wen* h'Mii! front thi' hHi-ii 
l.-sus. At tirst •.11,'til till- hiMrmi: of 
Wfinls liili^ht :ipi> li*it tt> U' i-M lil-lffl 
by Ihf simple • was s.-.ii (u«rf'i)l nf I'aill. Il is to Ik- 
iiniiil, howfvir. wIhti" I';ml s|i<iks of h.nini; 
nveivnl nn*ss.ixi-, fr.ini luMven. hr rxpn'ssly s|»-iifu's 
• ri'Vfl itioiis I d»o«o\i V" ' •"* *'■" ."s ■ MSI' >'is ' ((i»TaiTmi : 
2 (-"or. l-.ii-4i, :iiiii wh.ri- the ilistuuiion is rmployi-.l it 
is th,\t s|Kikcn uorils ioiik- imdir the former not 
the l.ittir cUrijory. 

1^1 As against this. iii>peal will douhtli-ss lie n:»fle to 
the reports in .\ii» .is to the .ippiaruues of lesus to 
I'.iul on the joiirniy to I ):ini.isciis. Not smressfiilly, 
however ; Ihev lontr.nliit one .inollier so violently 
(see Ai rs, ij '•) that il is ililhcuU to imagine how it 
coulil ever h.ivr Iksmi possihle for .in .iiithor to take them 
up into his iKjok ill tliiir present forms, iioi to s|).ak "( 
the impossibility of accepting them iii ihjiius where they 
are iinsupixjrtcil by the epistles of Paul. In these 
epistles, there is not the slii;htest countenance for the 
lieluf Paul heanl ,ilthoui?h he had the 
strongest motives for referriiu; t'l them had lie Ijeen 
in .-> position to do so. It is on the api>e,ir;.ace on the 
jouniev to that he bases Ins il.iim to h.ive 
been calleil to the ajKistolaie by Jesus himself. The 
claim hoilv denied by his op|joneiits : it wa? to his 
interest, therefore, to brinj; forw.ird e\erythini; that could 
v.ilidly tx- .adduced in its sup|>ort. In pressinR it 1 1 Cor. 
9i, '.\m I not an apostle? ) he assuredly would not 
have stoppe.1 short at the (|uesiion, 'Have 1 not seen 
lesus our l...rd?' had he l»-eii in a (losilion to go (jii 
and , ' Has he not himself naineil me his aimstlc?' 
with such words eni;r.iven on his memory as those we 
read in .Vets 9o "jii. or (.iljove alli 2iii6-i3. Tlie 
analoRV of the anKelic appe.irances cited above ig 17^) 
thus no longer h.>lds i;<«id. Words aie heard from 
angels ; no wonis v,rv heard from Irsus. 

(, I U'h.U holds sood of the api»MraiKe to Paul is true 
.also (see S 17 <i) of the others of which we read. If. t<»). 
v,i; apply a si-archinK examination to the words which 
have tjecn rejv.rted. it is precist'ly the most 
of them we shall lind ourselves ni'sl irresistibly con- 
strained to .ib.indon. The request for food and the 
invil.ition to touch the wounds of the crucilied Jesus 
(I.k.'iljg4i .In. 2017) are, as we h.ive seen in § 17.-, 
in.idmissible. So also, as has lieen v<'n in ^ 16 1. the 
s.iyini; I am not yet ascended unli) the I ather 12O17I. 
The p<nver to forgive sins or to declare Ihem unforj;i>eii 
(2O111 lielongs to ("loil alone, and caiiiiot l)e handed 
oier by Jesus to his dls<iples isc; MlMSTKV. §41. The 
doctrine th.u the passion of Jcsus neeesviiy in virtue 
of a divine ap|)iiinlmeiit is inv.iri.ibly brou(;lil forward 
bv Paul .IS the l!os|x;l li.i': Ihs-ii ma.le manifest lo 
himself alone and must Ik: l.ibiriously iii,liiit,iiiied in the 
f,ice of its g.iins.iyers ; how irium|)li,iiilly «oul.l h.- not 
have lieeii .il.le to nus-l tluin had he only lie.,rd the le.isl 
sugni-stion the men of the prinii'.ne chiinh 
heard the s.une doctrine from the mouth of Jesus himself 
in the m. inner recorded in I.k. '.Mij-J? a* i'' ' Once 
more, how could the .>rii; ajhistles hive U-en able to 
ciU them^.Kes disciples of J.sus if, ,ifter liavipR U-en 
sent out bv him as mission, iries to the Gentiles (l.k. 
'2-2*7'' Mk. lilift and the canonical le\t of Ml. 2.H !■.). 
they acluallv m.ule il .1 stipul.uion at the itiuniil of 
Jerusalem ii;al. 291 that their .utivity was to Iieconhnii'. 
within the limits of Israel? .\s for the test of Mt.2Si9 
on biptisiii .ind the lormuli. se.^ MlMsTKV 
§ 5<-, cp //:rf. Journ.. I let. H(Oj. p| 
on In. 21 \\-:t ve aU'Ve. js t^' . 

.\n eiuilly im|»irt,i'il |xiint is ' 
the hrst ,lp|H-:lr:lllc|.s h.ipiK-ned in 
(ialil<-e. The most convimint; re.isons 

Ijlc ...;!.,.|ii^i.iM h tve .T!re;ldv liei-n 

sunimarisi-d under (jii^l'l I.s (jl i^8i7l 


1». OalilM 
the scene of 

the first 

(a) lu ailililion to what is said there s|) emphasis 

may lie laid on the fact that there is no Rospel in which 
appciirances to men (not women I are n^ported as h.ivint; 
Uen made bab in (J.ililee and in Jcrusiilcm ; for Jn. 21 
is .111 apiKiidi.v i'\ anoih.r hanil. 

It i« -'Illy Ml. tliat. btsi-ltrs the iipiw.irancr m the ihw-iplcs in 
fl.iliU-c. lin.'Ws nl tlial matle lu llie wi'iniii nil llic rtlurll fnilii 
llii- srp'ukhre (J-tg/.); this, h.>»e>rr. »ill tir itiiarik-U by vrry 
iiMiiV .IS ur.hisi'», lieiiig ,ili»«nl Ir.'ni Mk. (which nucrlhi- 
II— 1- 111 lliis so ilusely f.illowcd hy .Ml.) anil ciimainiti^ 
n.illiin,! m.Tc ih.iii a r.i.elili..n of the nlrcaily giviti 
l.\ the ani:fl I.' Ihc wumtli. to hiil the ilisiiples rt:[Mir l.t (iaiilcp 
111 .inv (.!-« the iippcaranie comes froiii a svpaTuie sounc. If 
Uf Itr.ive Ml, :!Sg/ out uf a.Cininl it Ik:, omes p*rfe<tly .tear that 
II.. ..iif K..-iiel from ti. lir>t rei>.irtc.l appearanci-s ..f the ri»«n 
Jr. us in (lalilec as wril as in Irrus-ilem, Ihe i;..«l>els in fa. 1 
fall es,i.:lly int.. two i l.isses ; ,\Jk,. .Ml. .in.l the * mjs|h'1 of I'.trf 
aif f.-r (.alii.-..; l.k,, In., an.l Mk, boeJo f.r Jeni-alcni. .in.l 
llie i;os|bI ..f llie Hrf.o'Ws als.i il.,.s inai.ale in .iny ».iy 
thai it l.s.ksfor Jam.- ami IVter anil Purr's i.,in|wni..iis el-.- 
where Ih.oi in the pla.c where it (inils the >crvanl <.f tht huh 
pric-t (see al>>^e, f 4 (■. A), vi/., in Jerusalem. It is only aft. . 
wants that the wiher .if In. -.'l sees lit l.iihali«e this 'tilliet. ... 
inioa 'iKjth, and' ; Ml,, but without aJniillini; a« ap|tear. 
ance to any male disciples in Jerusalem. 

If, however, (i.ililw and Jerusalem were at first 
mutiiallv exclusive. U.ih cannot rest u|xin rf|iially valid 
tri.litioti ; there must have Ui-n some reason why the 
one loc.ility was ch.iiiKeil for the other. 

yh) .Such a re.ison for iransfcnini; the ap|x-ar.inies 
from (Jalilee to Jerusalem has ln-en indicated in liiisi'H s 
(S 138.11. Its force liecomes all the greater when it is 
realised how small Ixs-n the success of even the in.-l 
ilistinjjuished critics in attempting to iii.ike out tli.- 

.Ml that b.^.fs f-ee liclow, I 19) has to say is (p. jO, ' Tli. -. whi- represent the wh..le life of Jesus, with the .\. 
.epti .iiof the la-t ciiihl day-, as h.iviiiii heen passed in I'lalii. i, 
mav havt. traiisl'crrnl l.i ti.ililec alsi. the appearances .jf the ri-. ■. 
b-Mis, with l.i whi. h they were M-ry defectively inform.;.: ; 
ihey may ilonc s.. all the in.jre easily be. ause the t.r-l 
l>er-<ins of wtioin they ha.l .Keusi.,n t.J speak in c.innc. ti.m wit). 
tin: re-urre. wete women fr.-iii tialilee.' The i|tiesti..ii .it 
on. e pff-ftu- ils<.lf; has the ..ircunisiance that they'.- 
I.ii.:.-.! 1.1 1 ;.ililri- I.) ilo Mith the present matter'? Tliey wer.. in 
(loint '.f fact in Jerusalem. What is the relevancy of theol».erv .• 
ti.Mi that ihe a.tivity ..f Jesii-, atiart from the last ei^htiLo-, 
ha.l Wen wholly in (Galilee '/ His Krave at any rale wa- in 
Jcrnsiilem, and his .ii-ciiilis were ab.> there, accordina t.. 
Icslim.iny of Mk,, Mt., an.l the ti.wpel of Peter, at lea-I 
the nresenl writer holds the statement as to the presence .,f 11. p 
(!i-.iplcsal |tril-.ileni to lie unhi-t.-ri. al d.K;stiot atTci 1 the ar„u 
niriit; for iV- l».ii.t i- that l,.>.ifs n-K.mb pmisely that -l..!- ■ 
ment .as lil-l..rl. al. It is all the ni.ire ne. r— ary t.i ask 1 II .« 
.!... -I,is.fskn.)wtliat Mk. and Mt. were vcr\-.1efcctively inf.iriuc.i 
wilii rcuard to the apt>earan. es .if the risen Jt-susV 

If this was iuih'ed so, if Mk. and Mt, hail to fall l..iik 
on their own (lowers of conjecture, where else were tli.v 
to look for apin-ar.iiues if not in Jerusalem when- i!..- 
gr,ue, the w.imeii, and the disciples were? Thus il..- 
triiilili..n which iinluce.l them to place the apiiear.intcs 
in li.ililre must have liisn one of very greiit stability. 

H. Weiss (to pass over other names), in the interest- .f the 
Jerusalem Iradilioti. d..ul.t- the hi-toricily of the stalemei.i that 
the w.imeii letiived the an«el the injun.ti..n t.. W. lU 
ili-. iples pro<:eed to Calllee. e-iiecially as this injuii. li n is 
merely a t.-ininl». eiice ..f Je-iis w.irds in llelhsemane, that ..'IM 
he ri-elr..m the .le..d he «..ui.l a.i In^f.ire the disciples id... ..' 
CMkUji-). S.i /..'■.» A>/.'^"Jw(F,T .1.191). On p. ^.I'.ll- I 
3/> AVh.iwrver, Wei— sa\-that thai commando) theani;.! t.l'..: 
women (t.. .lire.t lh< div iples to i[o toi'.alilee) is only a teiii.;.;-. 
cen.;.- .if the ...mnian.l of ttie same cliara.:ler which the n-T 
Je-usliim-elflavsiiiK>ii Mary Mau.lalene. ate. rdingt.. -Mt :-. '. 
(Mhere, a. ...r.liiu; l.i \\'. i— . ..niv the -ts..itid Mary I- * n ''• 
...i-i) . ..l.i .ined with Marv Minjdalene riclitlv menll..iH.i i.\ ihc 
e)e-witnes. hihn |-J0 1/ i"i.i"l). Thu- what Wei«s I...1.I- t ■ ■' 
.•>n .rr-.r (the to l.i.l the .li« ipl.-- i;.. to 1 ..dile.l 11.1 -i 
Ik; hell! (if llie Jerusalem lradiii..n i- 1.. he iiiaiiilaine.ll t l..>. 
i:'.t it-elf . I.ithe'.l in a v.-ry reniarkal.le f.irm : ti.'t ..iilv :.- -■ 
an.;eli. w.,ril (Mt, I'M; Mk. 1«7) hut al-.i as a w.,r.l ..I the ti- 
l.i.r.l himself (Ml. '-IS ic). in die account .if an aplicaran. e 1..11 
i- 1., .in eye.wilne-s. 

(.1 In realiiv th" error lies in iiiiiie another din-, tinn ■ 

in m.iking Jesus apjicir at the st-pulchn- to the 

or M.iry Sl.ii;d.ileue. as the case may !«•■ I hi 11.-: 

account in Mt. si-e nlKive i.ii. That of Jn.. h- \v'-v.-r 

is ojien to iust as serious obje. lions, for its chief -^^itic 

; ' I am not yel asceiidol unto the 1 ather,' rests on a 

i theorv of the n.iture of the Holy Uhost that is |i>-i uiic 

i to the Fourth <ios|K-l (S 16. cY If. however hi s 


1 1,1 
..f 11, 


- cla,n, „. ,.u.,:n....,„. „. „,.,, ,. . . "^"''"NARRATIVES 

""!) .i r.-,.|„„m ,,f , J „,' ;, '''«"f Jc-M., Mv.nK, „ 

-:>-" .<.' >"...^^„w1.. '.r'T'".''' ""^ f"" "'•" 

rH.i-Kr,. . .!„■ V, u 'hr. t "'*■>'"'' '" Mt. mI,.,,„|v 

^M;;;-'i■,r:-— -^-«'"'-^:-.::^ 

.i.l,lr,., c.r„ ,f , L , hnlitr''' ''■,''''■'' "' ""•'" '" 

S 1"i/Jl. '•"loie.l to Joru.«ilelii (s.v U-low, 

"pnlohr. •■■" a.s a «h„l,.. /" T, 
n«lll»toric»l. ""■•"'>■ l«'"H"l out aliov.. ,« a„, ■„ 

: -: i. i^ a^!^;C;ri::t;,'^ '" l--^ -^ J" 

'|u.-.t,o„: ,i„.v have „ ?, k' ''>' "" «"'""-»s 

^"■'linKly „„,,roU,l,l^ ,ha h, ll! •^'■'""■," '-^ "- 
rro|,|,.-.v of |„„, that h. I , P'. ^'■""•'"I^r"! «nv 
J'> , . Mt. ..; e,-, , .A« r,hnc iu th" , ■'" T'" "' "■^™,.i.., u t.e k, ,1 ;'«rth:v;,:'"'' ■'*■*"• •''^"''= 

'" Ml<- .w,.l IX. „o U,', (he "'"•'* •""' '• •'"''"•<' 
>n.i,.tth,.|K,lv (,) wL^h "" ''"■"' >" "•" lo 
> for ,f ,L . ,\*^"'' •^'■'^■"r.lmK to Mt. oj 

." N-ot l.-s, nnl.Mv ,s .h' "'''"' ""'* ""• '""Iv 

..-.-..e. acun;' J ,'^:;;~- "^X <NeJ..w.h 
•Circlini; ih,- f,„, of ih,. T """•"•'""" "f Hw v.l.hrrj 

"••■ "'■^■r emersion to thJTn^h r •■"'' '" ^' '•■"•■■ 


^'M a|,,,.,r, , ,. ff^r" " '"Vl'^'-K " >"i«M .., first 

.h. so;,|i.r., t^r th h,r'"'"'',"'" """""'"^t 

-[•'••-Inl,ril...l,a,," \,'^'f,'''''^" '"■■""'' "" have- 
. I.v »av of o„ . M . .li'f ;■• '";' """""« '"•'"•'• "> 

-p;, ^■-'■-h:^t;;a:;:':^'ir't':;,;^'''r 

I'hi^i.nmdusiv,- ,st,,. '"'•'"•'IX- from ,,rjso„, 

"^■h. aU,n. .hro,.,,o,',' 7 ■*•"'''''' "^ ''-•'T «.,s 
" «. S.J. , ,. Ko„ , s : "'V'" ''"■'•■" "l> SIMON 
•'■'«> «..h «h,,' '.,'''■'• ■""■" ""'•*"""■ »-" -h.^ 
nronnv. of th. I u ',',"" "" a'J""»'->'"-l. ..,,,1 

;"■•"■ '^ ■•.iaL"n.;;r;'M: !;«:'•;• ';Tr'"^ 

l"s «hol,. featur,. o( .1,,' n.rr,, V ■ ' '''''""'•""" 
""• <.os,«.i of ,,,.,,,, h, 1 ""^ """'Pl- fact 

Ml . a>'„,s ,, ,....:,". t .""•l*:«""»-'-l.v '^ later 
'il''^". S -^.n J ■'"""'"""''-• '("■If .litter- 


J- 'UM .1 1„ \oll„,ar (AV/^.,„„/,,. ... ^„ ^ , ^ , 

21. Eapty ^"- ''-^^V-.:!:^,: r^;?l^^n 

••pulchr. ■/'■ -V*./..- (ia7hj. ,,oi un th. 1ms!. 

unhiitoricU. ;" '- "» ^-'.f H k.v.i 1 .y .f '' • 

'-.her,.,n.„.,a„o,n;!,:,L:'xr'^'^'"''' *>-- 
th ''''.i''; oriS'';V'::7'''^v*'' '■■-'<'"-• - 

"■'•'-'■N.-i»; M-" >•: . 1 " V'''^^; -^ ' "•-• "■■'» 

"Inch «uuKl iH.- »hoi:v ,.,•,•, ,'V '■'■," '•■ '"" 

•■"■I nothing of th ■ r /^ 1' '"" "'•" "'" " " 

*iate,nent«lu.l 1 ' ,.l' ' •'' ""' ^'VnUn. ,, 

•Ml.. "a,,(M ,r,, tol '""''•■^""■'1 ii. 11..- s.-„s,. tha 

..f lesu, «..„. 'in ,r, 1 ;T" ""■"'=•' ■^l'I«'ra,ur, 

I""lv had Uvn fouiKl „ „ , n ""'"^''^tory results, Ii a 
"■ 'l-.av to aliou , '''^•••'"■''t''''farncl^an.,,l 

' -"'".a.:,:,;, r:^:;:;,; ::';r'"-'' • 

i"K a rr,urr.iiion ^ '"' without postulat- 

take,, hyvervtuanytCu ', '"'»'■'•' the 

■■"raele In , ,;',"■•;"'""• ■■""' >-' ••s.un.e no 
the UhIv i,v ,,.r, ' h' ""^•' l-'tulate a ren,o»al of 

»..h the. ,u-str;;a:;::::;;:r ''=•■' "'^^^^^^^^^^ 

iH^y'lSTl'y •!;::.";;;■';;- {^;f«h^ ■^Al,ba.h(,h.y h.,M) ,h. 

iM.c ,,,,i ,„ ha>. „:'*,:;.',"";""'-■''■ "'"''« ""^ •••• 

■ni; upLue i„ ,h, ,,,,.,1, I,;; Vhif ""!"""»""'")•». U|.J. 

"••■";: •"'l'l"»a wa« anla.ful • .t v,,' 'V "" "" "" >-.M...lh,i?;t.!';^:„'';:,:'i"i';'»" »'-'• marked ';,r. ■:i„i":,r';r,c 


no. re..e,ve the "e enf^n ?'hj:'f,7'" '"•"•" ""«"' 

P'■«"■^Mh,n^,. u, th,»«o:id « ,,.« r,T., ""■ '"'- 

policy Houl.l haie L'lv.-n 1, '"''' "'■" *i'<-h a 

un.u,en„o„al, ,»„«■,„"'', ''""'"'■'" •"">»"•'■■■ though 
that such a.t.o, « on ' '"'"■'""•'■ ••>- rather th... 

"o-h.lMh.Mi.-a, 11,; ' ';'r?'''''* * 'li-l-'M..,.,, to 

-i-i .e;;;,.;;;;;'z,;!:;.';;;''''^'^«''.,n,anyc.,,,,aa 

t" -Mtl-T..,. the l.w'io "''"''•'■'• •■•'■™r.h,,g 

t'-v nu,ht\,o. a,':,":!:.,; ^:;' ;r «- •■pp-h™.i4 

Ih.m faUelv, nam, Iv that .1, ■ k , ! ''' ""P"'""'' to 
or-l-r thattlu-v uueht .Lrt l^ ""'^■" ""■ '""I'"' 
ha.l risen. ' *• •'""»•'"'» pr.Krlai.n that I.mis 

Ihl^ P.irt..M=of ,hc l,^;;;;i;,ili^)^,'' ,7'''""',"pressly .,.,,i,,^ 

of. I. -II.. '""« nw.l«».>ni.- iinprc»i„n on full.,wcn, 

•^ast ,lo«n; to all pr " u, / ''^''''"''''''^ "'•^" "'t'rly 





theory thin Uf.iU iluviii ,il the outMl, .t'nl il wiiiii 
wiHTlluiitin lo .4!.k whither the ili'.iiple* »<>iii>l lin'- 
veiituriil 111 .ui in n viim- (■■mlrtry \i> ih.- oritiii.iiur .>f 
t«xl Willi hid •iiirtirril thiir iiusIit tn du', 

ir) UV iiKiiliDii. l.istly, yil .imilh r thi'urv, whirh is 
mi«l iliMth a iiii're rffiit!<- i.f <l.^|uir~ Ihi- thi-nrv, 
naiiirlv. the i.,irlhiiii.ikr iii»Miiiiihi-il milv in Mt. 
aS.i o|«iHil a ch.isiii iiniiHili.iliU iimhr llir M-pulchre, 
intii whiih the t«Kl\ uf Iimis ihN.i|i|»Mriil. 

Nnl i.iilv thi», himmr. liiit .iKi) all tin- cither hvim- 
thesi-» iiiintiiwd in the liirenmnt; parai:ra|ih>., lunume 
!iu|i.rHiiims un the aduptum nf the mi« that the Hale- 
miMils aluiut the eni|ily wpuli lire ate iiiilnsturiral. | 

A-, siioii a< Ins apiiroaihuiK iliMlli < inie li i U' fi ireseen 
tiy JiMis, he nm-t hive limked forward alvit" it>aiiiinl- 
. . mint. unlis>, indeed, lie at the vinie 
J '"'" iniie .lUindiined the he 
"*'■ M.ii the MesM.ih iird.iiniil hy ' iml to 

e»>llsh the divine kiliKilnni ujHin e.irlh. I.M .\« n 
Mill elsewhere (liiiscn s. § 145 (/). It is niit pri.Uil.le 
Ihit lesus fiin-tcild simply his resiirrecluin ; that tnuk 
hull into heaven, where.i* the work uf the .Messi.ih l.iy 
U|)cin e.irlli. The must ini| prislniimi acvord- 
in(;lv « IS of his niniiiii; iK.iin fmni heaven. I he 
time hxid liv liiiil IS st.ited in the ('|»l-. as 
ln-iiiB .It the end nf the ih.ii ImnR Keiuritimi (Mt. 
Iflj?/ I. after a pruliaMy shnrter dOaii. and 
ilt the immisliate future (dir 4fJTi. .Mt. ■-'tf^i. The 
must inmlusii.n that can lie disliieeil from this 
v.ariatioM ile.iilv is le^us never R.ive .my pni ise 
dite. and this for the leasoii he himsiif isis- Mk. 
13ii = Mt. 24j*l did not know it; yet it is also very 
possilile he usi'd the expression in' or 'after' 
'tl:ris- d.ivs' as a conventional designation for a very 
short iiiterv.d il.k. 13(a Mk Us* i:'.ig md lurallels, on 
which cp MiMstRY, § a.ii. 

(I*! As siKin .as the question e.ime to !«■ one not of his 
romiii)! aR.iin from heavei.. hut of his risinj; at;.un from 
the dead, the expression 'after three dais,' m ilsilf a 
very indefinite one, came to have a more e\ ict nie.imin;. 
The lewish lu'lief was the soul Imbued for three 
il.ivs'onlv, the txMly it had left, in the ho|H- of 
retiirnini; to it : aftei the Unly N-ciine so chamiid 
that a reai.ini.ition iio lo'njer possihle isie JniiN. 
S.1N UK Zkhi-ukk. S 30 j; and Kdersheiin. /./'.■ .'«./ 
r,n.< of UsMi.-lynf.). Il WIS only n.Uural that in 
thinking of the resurrection of J.sus this limit shouM lie 
kept in mind (Mk.811 '.•it 10 n and ; I.k. -Jl; -' *"» 
If It is somewhat difficult to Ulieve Jesus uttered 
these prophecies so early Ie5|«ii.illy in connection with 
Peters confession at t.i-s.irea I'hiiippi ; Me (Jospus. 
I 145 <i. and with .such ex.ictitiide of det.iil. it must 
nevertheless !«• riHroRiiiseil that he ni.iy very well, at 
one time or another, have expresseil himself in some 

such SIMIM'. 

1.1 riie or texts have 5ix.s ial relevance in this 
connection are 3 K. 2*)', and Hos. li-- lin of which 
the interval of three d.ivs is l>rouj;ht into conniviH.ii 
with a riMvili. alloii. ,f not after death, at leisl .after a 
iickniss or lime of »e.lkne■,^l : and |i.n.ilr.ii |1 17) also 
—the three d.ivs' sojourn of the proplnl in the ln-lly of 
the whale - is in Mt, VSt ; alUil in a ury iiiappropn.ite 
and interrupiiiiH way i«i- (Juspkis. j , v .•). inier- 
pretisl with referenie to the piTioil durmi; nich Jesus 
was to remain in the urave. I'aill expn-^sly refers to 
the Vriptures in 1 1 or, l.l^. .\ forsikiiii; ' for a small 
iiionienl' is s|)oken of al~o m Is 'il?, 

(,/) In this way it lieiame [xissihle for the resurrection 
of lesns. if e\|»'ctid at all to In- e\|ii-cted exactly .ifler 
three d.ivs. The ex|Hfl.ition, however, would hardly 
have h.lii any result if ihosi' who hid ex|iei ted ll.iil liol 
also the consi lousiiess of havinK sitn him. In 
ils»-lf considered il was not alisolulely im|)<-rative 
the fust .ipfKMi.iiue^ sIiouM lotin.dc aah tra: prm^c 
time of ihe e\|)ii till resumption. Hut if they had 
occuiTcil much later the lielief that the resiirriition 


actu-dlv h.ip|»ii"l pnn-ily three days after death 
riMlId li.inllv h.lie lusn held vciy hrnilv. ,\s. however, 
we hnil it in iKiint of f.icl held with ei| tirmness t.y 
I'lul ( 1 1 or. I.'i4l and hy the evauKehsts. the Ikilance 1.1 
proUiliiliiies fivours the view the lirst apjiearances 
hapjunisl on the s.inie day or only a little later. 

W ilh this It hts in very well if we 5up|Hise that the 
disciples shortly after the arresi of lesns. and I'eter 
shortly after his deni.d. alrcidy sit out for UaliliH'. 
so that they nncht arrive thereon the third d.iy (cp Jie. 
(■(/. ',2, t JOiji. This is. niirisiier. the re.ison why Ihe 
tiospilof i'rter. in spile of ill ap|i.nrance. no pmli 
nhiluy 'n its l.ivour if it re.illy iiiians to coniey the 
disciples did not set out on their return journey to 
tjalilee until the ei^hlh or rather the ninth d.iy after the 
death of lesns. .mil thus at least eleven d.i>s 
elapse<l liefore the tirst .ipi«iir.ince of the risen Jesus 
was ex|ieriencisl (see aljove. j| jei. 

(r) .Vcordmg to the (iosinls Jesus remaineil under 
the (Miwer of <leath not for almut seventy-two hours Imi 
only for somewhere tietwwn twenly-six and thirty six 
hoiirs. Thisi'. however, in accordmR to Jiwish 
riikonmn, are ilisirilmted l«twi-en Krid.iy. Saturday 
and Sund.iv. In two of the Ol' ixiss.i);es referre-l to 
above -a K, iOi and llm 6j— we read not ■ after three 
d.iys.' but 'on the third d.iy,' Thus the (ioS[x'l tradi- 
tion liter.illv s.>listies thi' expression. 

Il mii«l h.iVe .ipiieareU titling thai the rising of Jesus sh.^l.l 
idicur al ftft early a mnmcnt a* piisMl.le after the ihini day n.i.i 
Ijeiiun. Kr..iii ihe ■^ime sense uf liliies^ die »isil of ihe w.min. 
once it was a.ieple>l as a fail, was n.alurally as.igneil |.i ll^.- 
early uiorniiiK hwiirs. Where Mk. has ' after three day- ((itr.i 
Tp<i< w>(>«« ; * 11 '•' 11 1" U>. the (larallel passJiKes ton.i-n iilK 
have 'on Ihe third' (rji rpiTii iii.p,: .Ml.lilji ITji'-'iii, 
I.k,'.l2i IS ,,asalM) :ilV: 1 paU.i'.'<.!l Acts 104.,). I hi l.illi ' 
e>prev..i.>n in Ml. ami I.k. may |>.>ssihly lie ilei»:nilenl on lli- 
aciouni of Ihe i..iir^ of c\eiil« as uivenhy ihemsi Ives, anil ll.u- 
Mk. s phra'>e iniulil -eem lo have heen Ihe oiiuiiial one. Vel *r 
mu.t nnl imaiiiiie dial die l«.. iihra<ts were the evani:eli-i~ 
rcilly incomuiUille. Mallliewhimself siiys inoiie pliueC-'T- 1/ ) JeMis lorelolil hii resiirreclinn 'after ihrec tlax*' (miti 
Tp«if iflA'pas) ami repfe-rfill'. the lews as tsisinn upon this dim 
(H'liiion M Pilale 1I1.U die «piikhre may 'le liuanled 'till lie 
Ihir.l d.iy' (•»< Tin Tpinji iliti»f>. Were ihl. lo l« lakm 
lilet.illy 11 w.iuKI hale no sense, for in that case no watch woul.l 
it.oe l«en asked for preiisely the fourth day. which was the 
( rili. al one. Kr.Mn this it follows also that we are not comiiellr.l 
lu regard Ml. P.'4 . (see, 1) as genuine die reas..n ih.u. 
accordini! I.) ihc rejuTl in ihe tio^pels. the lime of the fnlhlni. 1 1 
was shorter ihaii that appointed in Jesus' pru|ihety. Jii. i 1 , . 1 
s^tys ; if r/Mtfif ^M*H«if. 

As for the immln'r of the ap|x-arames. I'aul l.nows ,,f 
more thin we find in any one IJosixl — viz.. five, over 
and atH.\e that made to himself. 

(.1) Il is not possible, however, t 1 iileiitify each 'f 
even the few (ii«|)i'l accounts with one of I'aul's. 

I.ei one example suffice ill illusiralion of Ihe kind of vi..Iii] c 
in ttealini; wilh lexis rei)uireil in order 10 effect iilenlificatl. t,v. 

Risih trr\.44il-4i»'. «.'i3«lM"9, «.:<- 
33. Ntimbcr of 7^1 jgo-iu i'-'4-'"7) ideinilies the . 
anfMar&Bcafl. 1 "eter with Ihal 10 the unnamed itw i) k 
"''^ a r. nm.ius (see al«>ve. I if), that M ilie 

Twelve wilh I.k. -.'l J -41; mil Jli. '.'O iu--'4 (il-'Ve, | 2 r), lh;il t. 
the Hve Hunilreil wilh 1 k.-J4 w/. where, neverlheless. Ih. 111 
(*uTOin) ileiioles (ire. iMflv die s;iiiie (lersons as we find in "-4 .1 r. 
I'hal lo lames he i.leiililus wilh dial lo llioinas and ihe . il .r 
tliv inlrsiii 111. '.11 j*-j<j. Ihis James he holds to lie wiih 
J.iiiies die 's..n of .\lphaus. who mav (Kesih says) hase Uui 
nameil Ihomas- )'..■.. iwin-because his hroiher Judas of J.iim- 
is .ailed Twin in Syriac Iradui'in (l.ips. .l^iA-e. Af.-<t h. 
i. JO 1.7. h. 1' i-,4 171/). Finally, the ap(>earani e lo 'all I'c 
ap'Sllt-s' is, according lo Kesch. ihal mentioned in Mt. -s i 
and .\ttsl 4-13. 

lAi If one .addresses oneself to the problems w t; 
out harnionistic pri'|iossessions. the Silfest criteri.i I-t 
idenlifviii); an event of which there are two accoiml- 
will lie the presence of char.icieristic details and iii'vt 
in imiiort.iiicel evict time-dat.i. 1 'nfortimately l'.!i.l 
supplies us with no iletails, and dales are gained ■ ^'v 
indirii'tlv. so far as they lie deiliiced from the ' ' I'f 
in which he mentions the events. The nnnilur of |» 1 111^ 
Siiid lo have been involveil in a historical event i> a 
stxiirc criterion "f it- i'l'-fility •"•idv if the niimln-r ;'. 
small. .\s siHin as it liecomes considerable, an error 
within niiHlerate limits is not wholly inconceivabl.-. 


"f the oihcrj would 

... ..,.H«.rn„ee „. ThJTwHve V ■,':,' /'r""' ^''""■' 
K*!i, jn. 20iQ-j4 coniainj ihr first ai,,^„,„ ' 

.^ ...ore readily .f we «„d ..^ , ^ , r;,:^';;;;"|. f 

lire V aj Ullhislori. .1 ..„ l_ir i •> "' ""'"' 

J ." unnisioriial rmhclllshliirnL'i lu.ih .1,1.. 

V. of the resurrixtinn da* 1 however V 1 

l.v o„e of Resc-h-, .fen' hVatiin •.hir""' " "'^■ 
u....y andeve„«,.N,.. must ?:""?, J'i" ^"' ^''""^ 

:f«:r;sr'::^err,n„'^v "°r"-" 'r 

»T«,..« .,*""-"' i^-S") lo alHJut the s.iiiie nuniU'r 
"•«nt. It amis al crreeting thai mrt /24..V , f 
earlier n^irralive which ends u^.t, .k . **"' '"'^ 
i"*-, adniits „f ..!„g citi i,^ ti^,' """"" 
Hva,...m«theo„|yr^,S.': ^'„™~:; 


• .s in Jn. supplemental < „ ly |,v Th I' T' 

-^cn so mueh a, a rennn.scencx- of one 3 the 

.Kvurrence un.lerlies the t«o acco ,n , O h 

hand m Paul the app,.aran« of the n.. ° e ^1 
'■ sepulchre to th" two Marvs l\li\ ," . ^, 

■ '« a. Kmnuu, an,! that reports ^, („ ', " 

:.':ne;:;;;dr:'^- -•'»''- «n.i In- ;i!e 

^;.HH:?— ---^"^".^^ 
f cuity and establish th: p^:^, " ^die ;:,r; 

.v-s to I^,ul, the counter ,|ues„..„ ha, Uv , 3 

l':.; wer„T"'V'" '" •'"■» -u^tion^ho" 

|">s»>^r"l. lor a writer who coul<l n-inirt in 

.;.n which Jesus had ,x,r,ake„ of f.KKUr'k ,r 

■crest ami a caw even ,n which he h ul 

„.?. > "'sfH-ls were written, hardiv hiv. 

">'.. cr«I s,, m,,«,rtant as an ap,,rarance ,0 ?h ' 

whose place in the reverenc^ of t e f h,^, 

...en .rr- ^!^st.^nr(? in which lesii.; h.,i 1 
^•cn ,^„ugh),.y,v,er is onl/irhl: ,-•;;: 
.U .lot descr,l.-.l. plainly because the narrative 


•4. laflMlloa '■»'>"K'^'.^'^ ■. l«.s.lne iniercM that uf 
Of Uadracr ,T" '"••' '■''""■■ l""r««<s by ,|„.ir narra- 

th.. rcM.rr«.t.n",^irhdom' '•,";'''''' '" ""' """""" "^ 
C..1, If we are m a ,« si, ,, Vh '";:""«■"-• «' h'..!"". 
accounts which kJ"'' '''7 "'•;••;'■'>"....« in the 
elements 1, a 1",'^!, Vtem .?' ""'"'?";''''> '"*'""-■' 

unhisiorical evrrvthini. .1 ,. .'' '" I""""""": 

their means in th n. Z'"' '"' "(''•"»e<l by 

historica ?;;,",h : ;,"■";" "' ^"''"'"" •••«""""■>• <- 

»o* m the urM ,.f '• '''I'Pf-'I'f'a'ely considei.d 

fact, in the rewTcc?f , ' '""••"'«•'""-' •" t.. objecve 

n'ference totL e„c e, m , ,' '""' "f' '" '" I"""'" ""^' 

"f all the s,ater«s«tV'"h "'■''''■'■*'''•"''''''" 
accept as historical ' ""''' '*■"" """'■'^' '" 

aR.uns, the actuality of the res Irr '"""'« "''Jections 
a|K.logetical in.hrectlv hli iTm ' " ^'""^ ^"' 
picture by suppKW J!,'\.l '"'"« '° '""'"' "^ 'he 
remain oiCmi I,,, fc ''' L '''■'' "" 'l'"^''"-.' ".ay 

■he ehur^iisei,^"^^;,;';::^:: ;r "? ""• ■■"-'' -^ 

J«u, certain .n^ru'io^s'^^t-h ■;;"::;•/'' 'T "T" 
rep,,rt, , ,he pe,„., „, ,„^ ear,h,;i , ,ry"^ 'U", ^ 
se>kinR to compeiisitc for the wim .,f .1,,. !■ ' '' 
ante uf the cominued l.f i , '"" "' "'«' 'hrect assur- 

<">si'Ki.s dg 108 ,, i , '"""^> has b«n shown in 

entire state^'nt ' .uT: "n", '" '^ '■''' "-' "- 

v.ew-onlv. in hiscaslMh.rc in .»"h ">'. ai-o'oKCie 
eonjecture that .h e^ont cms of" .!" '"""" '"' "^ 
al.erc„ by this considera.-o'n" ^fo/T "n'r'.'" "T" 
on the other hind, »e h iv,- ni InJ^. ••osiwls, 

'his is mrticul.rlvcle,r 1 '••«" one ,K,int in which 
conservative .h;::i^','^:' ""•' --B"-d even by very 

■h^hiliylVliil di'.'i;7;;'i«';'„',';- 'h« '"-''-f ■'>< ■•.'" or 

«.;.."■« time. The wr? " ,T,1^ ' ,1 ','"""">• ','"; J'*- i" '*<' 
of the K,u.r,| ;., „,. s.p"u,,e or'uri?'-^ V"'.'" '"'"^ •••> 
•I"? J"i.h »uth„n.i,i^ If ^r^.r'^.'Z,''"'''')' ;■" •»" part .ff 
.hi, l.r,l<ry, ur in.lred a, y Mr. ■ f .h ^''" "'"''i' '" "«""< 
"ver eh, sepulchre, a, hUiJdJal ul ""7 ""• "' '•"■ *•■»' h -" 

(./. It must at the "line tine L.'r""'""''"''''!'- 
that we are by no nu'?,? T*''"'"'*' '""'Phasisc.fl 

.e...lencyl oplriye " "'; i'""'"""' '" "''"'' "' ""» 
would pn^IuTfrC his ovn I ■'"''""" "''' ■'" '"'"'"^ 
in the^,K,lo«et,c ^htt^i :"'"^;r';^" "^'"-'7 
— namely. Iheconii,l.....„„K . 'T*^^"*') the siinie resu t 
character o nar 1 v™'"""">' "■"' "•<• ' ""dency ' 
narrative has 1^^ 'ur^'';;' 7 ^^^ ^^^ '"« 
o|jeration of sever d .....i 1, "'\ <•> ''it. by the cu- 

un.l.-rthe,nt,r;«of" i^ra,:d';,7' ''' ""■""' '""" 
ami fwr,l,,i,.d,|en.i5und r,.., . "' Pf""l'l"«"ions 

as V... h.ive soul, ,i ; ' «'• '" ""'"" '"^'^ """'''" 


" ".O- were pure inyen.i^'.^fvy'i^l^rvr S^ 

i f IM 




uixliYstaiul why, fur manipla, of thr rti-ii|»l<*» at 

l.iitiit.t'.M ttif i-. iMifii'li'.!!. .irt'l of ttl-'M- U) Jti 'Jl two 
ari' tinn.iriMnI, or »!ic lliu .i|i|«.ir.incr» lo IVifr ai Uiiiij 
IIH' tir»t. i>r lu Ihc t,<x> jt iK-mi; 111' niii^i .niinwnn;. 
sh'iulil iMt havr rpcrivrcl ttrt.iilinl ,i<|iittiii»til. t.p, 
tiirilH'r H I 1.. ajt. 

(ii Itili '|i Ji 111 niahv! hii^i Mith r> ii.irmti><? itmlil 
riMttr into -Aiilrnt-f !'V !iur(-es«iva llt'p*, 1ft ll* t.iWi* thf 
r».iiii|pl<: nlcriiil t.. .iIkivc— that ol ihc wilili *rt on 
th« it-pulchn- 

\ rhriMJan ^»t^1 f>Hjnil himvlf r. Mff..ntr.t f..r the rtr*l linw 
wiih ih« .i»*erii"ii that ihv0i*4i|' *^Mi ■i-ilen tti- tNKl> tjf 
JeMi* (Liluraliy ..|ni»M!»l it in ihv in .. *i. .\», ^ll»*•r^«r. iil llw 
lilt; t^fi wr iM ( ' 111*11 


IrmteiH'WM lit work which coiiUl h.tve 
i;i\rn risr to the unhisioriral rli'im-nts 
in till' ^jtmiH'l n.irr.ilivi-^. (.it If Jt-iu* 

1.*;. if u« iM^tlivR ltt« tiuir^n 
\lt. I. t* iiuhi»l..u. ..11 . f .iimt tiim«-;f uriat.l^ t.i .flfluir .tttv 
..«iit(rr.«-vi*ltrKe. Iw w*.ul.l t« . ..'i-iraiii«I to hav.- rtrtoui^ lu 
. ..iiHftturtt*, ami lo mv «>*llMlhi(iti lik«lt"« : ' rti«Je»«, i«f nwy 
1« i|uitt- Ltilam. H4W to lh« «,iulili< vif the ^t-puUlirr ; Idry 

t,,.ll I >.t)- «cll I..He llil..«n lh.ll J«-ll- ha.l prr,!;, ir.l hi- tl-MI|( 

j|(:ii.t f.f (htf thin! .f.y,' \ vHiHuhat <-»rrl«** Chrimti.til t.> ■ 
«lil!«(«r t«f'«ivr.l lh< iiiipf»'..*i"fl thai lit thr**' auiftfc^liiin* whnt 
he waa li..tct)lii]< lu «a« im-i 'iier*^ ftiictur* liul alatKraciit itf 
faLi, .I'ltt littiuUlrit it am'>n|f ia Irieit-U .» »ut li : thai it »j-i 
unhi-«it.itiii^ly lc;lieveit t.v t nri..ii.iri« I- ■ .1 .I't.iiii-ttina- Nm, 
Irt 11* «i|>ix...«'. ati.tther L>r.'p.minle'l tlir .)U.«ii.'tt : IHtl then th« 
men ol the ^nat.i ai-luallv «ee what ha(>(«ii. .i at lti» .eMirmti'iti 

u4'Jc*UH.' i^.iiti the aii..W(i .ul<l .^til) Ik- a> * lutv ; l.ut 

ju»t »• I eti , ily it (im»t h.iw < in atf 'll.»»» : ' l'n-iii*>ti.'ni»hty . 
f«»r they wei..- i>intiiiut>u»t> at thr M-|Hikhr*, .iiiH K.iiiian w.liiier* 
i«mr »lrr|i ..h mi.itil.' \». fiuthrt. ..1 lilt tinia we »'• « 
prv^nt Mip^R'tltitf. ttir uatement ttiat th« w .met! >iad fotliul the 
» r.tlle.l .»«.iv h.ul t 'i*; I«i-n .urrent. i. -me* Hue a» t.i wh.'it 
the ^.1J^.I• li.i.) ..t.MTveil .-f.ire llie ;.rriv«l .if the »■ imcn . nil.l 
har.llv have li»r„ ,,|het lliall tn the effe, I that there h.lil heen on 
earll.i|>e in. I ihat an »i>nel ha.l * 'n*e .L.wn truni he.*ven and 
r 'lied a**.i> (he »t..ii«*. fhal tht» ...- ie.,lure .*!-.. >ti*>(il.l h..*e 
he*n t.ti«n up .i* a *taltrnent .*f (.* l i* ea-y t.. ..lip^v-e 
l«t*tlv. a liM* .wr p.-r)iatn ».«.!. I a«k ; ' Why then di.! n..t the 
«il.lien t'll •Ti.« h.ll happ«n».l. anil why ha>.- «e l>e«n left in 
il(n.«an*.e -if liii* until n.'*» ' t tin e m.*rt: tli.- a»*<«'et - a *..*iiiei.- 
t.ire 111. rely, >>t I" '* a. . .[.te.l as a f.ltt «a« at li.iil.l : 
The [.in«h ai.lli.iiltie. "ill .|...ihti. -• h.i*i- l.ritiei! them ti 
aiippte.*.* the truth .in.l t.i awe.iil instead .*! it the rum.jur that 
the .l>.**.iple^ li.t.l «l 'te:i the Ixnly. 

Withmtt piimiini; thi« lini- of Mi)l.-iiialion furth«- in 

tkl.iil-.. lit Ub n *w iti'li-iiinir to %n uhal »rrt iha 

„ __ . , ci*n«cii*ii» I'l unconMiiiii* n|>iil.i|;t;in; 

as. Eiftot of 
tandantqr: <aj 

MpUlClm. ^^n risrn. hil tjriiM* inil«l li.-t>e licrli 
<;m|ilv If this «.n Jh|miiii|. th<- i hri»iian« .i«~ rtfil 
il a* .1 fill, till with th* wi\ Ik-sI inliriliori of 
affiriiiini; \>h:ii .n trm-*-. no hi-Mtatum «.i- 
frlt iu fiirthifr lie* l.iririi; t.icinr.litii; i.iall riMsrinahle 
Cdttjtfc-lurei liie ^*.nllcn wh.> h,i*l wunrnvil ji-^'i*' il«-ath 
hill vii..h«vl til am mil hi> IkkIv ami thus hail <<*nir tn 
know 'if thn riiipiiitf*** of thi* >;i.i\t'. In the fact th.ii 
anoril.iii; m Mk ami Mt. tins was iiol alli){esl reRaiil- 
in^' lh«" mill' iliM-iiilf* »<• can ••«■ Mill a true rfrnllw tinii 
thai thiiM* iliseiples wiTi; hy lliat time no longer in 
JeruMleiii (*«• (iii-l'H.s, I ita ill; this feature w.u 
not tir^t hy "ur lanonui!,' lisn Mk anil 
Ml., for they alreaily prcsupptue the prcjcme of the 
diwiples 111 Jeru-i.ilem. 

(Ai Wliv lli.ii sh.'ulil not '.heM! dKiiple* themsrlvM 
havp e.'iie t" the sepul. hr.- ? In .ui earlier j.h.iSi* of the 
n.irr.itiyirs it norlouUt. Imrne in niinil that thest- 
tlisetples. if in lenisaleni at .ill, hail to reniai:i in lon- 
ceahnent, ami e\i-n a writing; so' ii... the <V*-; ', of 
IVler 1361 kne'V very well. I.k , however i2l=(i, 
iilii.irei it. IIh St ii.-tiient that 'crrtain ' .TifVi i tlisetples 
went tn the se|iiiUhre \i still yery yat'iie. Hitt In. 
forlliwith lays hoM of it anil i!iliiiti..'y naines IVirr .iml 
the licloyeil ilisviple, anil rejiorts upon their riv.ury in a 
niaiiner that lietrays a to!is<ious ten'ler.ry much nmn. 
str.MiKly than most of the other narratiyes (cp Simhn 

I'l ll-.K, S 22f'l. 

il) The moat ohvioiis lonjer-ture must nei-essarily 
have Ins'n J.siis was stn-n imnieiliately at the 
sep'jlchrt; ;*^.'!f. M'/re ;>!>o iiiiiv l*^ <)i..finei{i^hei| two 
st«KM< The earhirr is the account of Mt. : In. ri?iasts 
it (I iqc). If Jn. Imil liern a free inventor it wduM 

I* h.iril to say why h«» it .| Meinn the apiit ir.iiin i 
lesits .It the st'i-uUlire to IVttff ami the lielovr'l tliK-ip)*- 
Iniili ol wlioiii iieterthelns he f (x.ientt as r»niimi> 
the Mpuiihrc Mme h» nam. .only a woman a-, i 
cei\ini; IIh* ap|waraiufl he ahowa himself iMnintl tiy i' . 
rr^iresi'tit.ttioii whuh we now' tttnl iti Mt . in spile ol . 
the c"iiii*.uJti\e hisnloni with which he ile|sirta Irotn it 
S< ilMi Ihe Coimh: aciuimt. .iihI the i>iJ,iitiiiu (alanc 

iJ' In all the re|»iti» hitherto mentioned, howi'i. 
lesiLs »a» sar'i only .ilirr, not <luniiK-. Iii» reainii.. ii 
The (.oasihility of tillinn up thu lil.lllk w.isolh-tnl I . 
tlie »tor" of llw Rtiard at Ihe lepuUhie, which on , . 
owi merit* hi- alre.iily liifen (lis. us^'il (alnne, ( 34 , 
It ilil in iK'tiil ol lact nil the Maiik in an ia|«il"i,' : 
e.ilit ' enlrcm'-ly eflefi,ee wav. niiismuch as it • 
uiila.|ii'\ei» that the .utual fact of the muimliun ** . 


I he 11 iiidily which rtslrftitwil th* nth«r writer* fri*iit t.ti. h" g 
I thm in. . oiillinivd to lie atiil "("-ratiii with Mt. 


lar h*? .1 *- n.t -.IV the |. 

and ad'l* 

11. .1 -.IV tl 
tint the 

I lie 

M. Ol Oa 
qoMtlon ; 
0«lilM or 


.|e.ii> «... . 
a- .lea.l men (;> .1 
The l*..«(i«l t'f I'.t. r hasi-'Hiptetely ..ver. ..tne lhialiinidit> ; 1 r 
watitiera t'liecise a. .(|rnt*'h ea' 1. .>f the succesaive phaar- ..( it,, 
Te«'l "■ ti'.ti .el'l see JiMlt liilllMrlf .s* lu- emerge* fr.mi ill.- I 
The . .ile« It. 'I»l'ieii-is (.ih*»%r, | 7 it) relates this "imply a* . 1 , ■ 
wall .111 mention ..f the witnesses. Ihe slalemeni uf the t .. .,- ; 
«f till- Hebrews lli.if jesii.. ii.ise lite linen .hr.»u*i l.i thes. r*.i:,i 
uf till! Iii,;h.prie-t lUKill Ihe ^itlie |iUrie. 

As long as till rr was still 1 unent knowleil(;e tli.ii p .- 
tirst ap|»Mranies of the risiii h aiis were in liahU' {'■,: 
f.ict ci'ulil la- nt-oiuileil with the pr. -. i. c 
of Ihe tlisiiples in jeru.s.ilein oil '.' - 
moriiiii|{ of till? resurrection only i.i 
the .issiimpti.'ii they were i';. n 
ilirectcil to ({o to (i.ihlee. The ti.i'-.;,il 
nieilia for r.iii\e>iiii; sii* h a lommuiiicttion must ii .. 

s... 'iiisl to !«• ihe aunils at the npnlchie 1,1 th 1 

iiiiiuce, ami .ilter IIkui the womin So ML ; 
Ml Sj far as Ml. is en. erm il tins ihrecllon t '«. 
gixeii to the ilisriples \ jierh.ips ihe reason, i.r ,1 
re.ison in aihlilmn to that suBysleil in jl a if. wliv ihe 
w.iniin shoulil lie ni,iile to ([o lo the !('•'** »o eai 1 ..» 
nil the evening rn.ling the SiliUith, so ih,it theihs. ;.> 
mi>:ht itill in the courw of the ni^ht h.ive Inii'- t -.i 
out ami if iHJisihle obtain a sight of Jesus withn 1 
d.tys after his crucilisiim. 

If) Vit such a conihinaliin as this was alln.;' )«-r 
liKi str.u ,'•■. NMiy should Iciis not have app. 
forlliwilh .n 1* rusaleiu lo the disviples? Acc*ir''-i.^!y 
l.k. .inil in. sinipiy siipprtruM'it the direction to ^ ■ 1.. 
ti.ililee, titi'liin; lllein>rt'l\es un.ihle lo accept it .u. I 
Ir.insferred th'- ap|)earances to Ieru».ilem. di, a « * 
11. 't our ev.mgehsts who did Uith Ih 1,1;^ .i! 
I lie and the ».i»ie tune, Iml Ihere spruiii; i.; 
iir.siK-itlvc of Mk. Hid Ml., the fi-elini; l.-;:* 
mii-l in .my c.ise have .dready apia-ansl to the div ;* >> 
in |iTus,ilem ; it |>resetiied itself to l.k. aii'l Jn. >* th .1 
c r:.iin decree of autliority, and these writers h.t-S ii ■! 
1..1W .my occasion lo invent Imt Miiiply to clu*"-.- wl. t 
sivimi! to them the more proUiMe repriviil.iii'ii. .11 1 
llieii. when in the of their resiK-ctive I" V- 
lliev re : 'itsl the order to (;o loli.dilee. iihti 1\ t..;..-- 
i.vr il I net round it |( a iH. as no longi-r cmpii! •■ 
w ith Ihe new view . 

.\s aK-iiiisl .dl ;xssiiraiices the risen Jesus h:'. 
li-eri vs-n, it VI. IS ,ilw,iys jmissiIiK* In r.iise the -h:. 
1 n« """ that was wH-n laeri ei"r ' 

IKl ■ .1 VIM. '11 ■ (^dfTOirMOl t iiie K'""! " ' 

■•™""* of niistiiii; this i.l.jciiion «.is 1 ' ;'■■ 
reality Of ,^^„r.„„,. the eve witness,- 1.! 
»pp«ar«ncat. .^u^ed Iliein5.-lvs of the conti.ri n't 
.ill Ihe mote lare .ind liriumsjiecli. Ill Its-.iuse ihn 
sel*i-s at hrsi sh.ired this dmilil. Il is t'.i.> t'.i! 
wi arc to eJipl.iin the c.ire with which the di-lieiid « 
the disciples is accentuated 

^.. ill s.l: .«. ,r ('!,..:! -.,111^ .>.:^\a^:oL «t ^i>r-.--." ' ■ 

t Sh.'iiUI Itrandl (.1*5-1571 lieriiiht in his c.'njeiitir.- 1 ...' it".* 
three wufd.* are a »:lijss. U*. :iiise, in the wnr*l« imm. :;-.'''** 



'.'♦.■J:: .•"!•-.''-'■■. b.,.,, "" NARRATIVES 

2* ir.\L'"„'-;;/.L:::r:-;i-':.'.v .- h.,.,,, 

.Irr*!, ,„r. .......«rw.,|,l„,M.„7M,r,r,' ' "• •"'""• "-" 

■-• •, Mk.irt,, ,,,,•„„]„ ,„.,;■ •'"»' "»»;•> 1.. ).„ 

"" '•" '"' «"Ul.|f.„l , I J,.ro, hiui 

' ■' f Ih-ii ii »„, |„|,| In,,, 

' "'""•"v .1 «... ..i«.,v, "«„ , , ;,''v;''^ '" ■■'••^ 

-'■■< ""'v .«■-, Un alv'h.. /"■', '""V""-" 
»h ,r h.. ,.,,,1 s„„,.ih,,>B »MI 1 f . "" ■""'"'■"" ■■ •■• 

>' >i..' 'i...(.i.. .,,., .„ ,..;!, "'"•'""•"■-.M.i.f.i,. „ 

rpully la.y f„r ,|, |,..,r.T, ,„ ,,i .l' ""' " "'" 
f^r f.n-.. .\, ,„.. ^„„,, „ , : ''„, . ■ *•■• ••«" 
.I«M.. h.v,r «,.r,N a, I ;.." '? •■'\'""'"l»'"i'.lr , 

r. i.,.i, s,„„.. y.., ,ir„„„.r /,/"'">• "'"'•••, 
m..„H,| „.^,..Zy. ^ ''""'' •" "''J<M"ity .t,ll r,- 

l!ut '•i»tlal<.r.iev..„ „.,,,,„. i"ilu.l.-,|; „,,v m..r,.. 

"■" <- ».. , »...,»,"'"„' s ';r-' "'•■,""""•» «> - 

. IU..I ,„.',. hlnr...'; .,■„„'"'"' "l: •• "" •"■ -"l • -winK «r,.| 

.-..-.i, i. ,. ,.^„ .'..rr::; ,:;,",:'•,■'; i^:":r '•"■">■ '''•"" 

i«Ac.l hy i»-u,,ie »(, „,,,i ■.,,","'' •l"''-l«iilirH„..-i. 

"V. h„l„«v ; aM-.t ,h,„ i, r.,l,| ,'"',' hi*'''' "•• M'"'"W.'. "f 
>"h,,„ «„y .„„« |.„„„i,. „/^^l^ '-'1^ m,,...-,l,| ,„,',h,„, 

II!,.™, i.i.illi „L„|, '"^ V "'• "■"■"' »hi, h ,,,. 

u-m^U^s .,f ,hc iLvi,!,*^.! l„"'-""'"l""l'U«a>.„l«l 
'■> '•■' -nir,, ., n,„„i;.„„|"i„M';"',S,*"> * ''^' •"'"« "' 

'"•""•■"^•'1 <.« .. Mill,.; 'J f v.k' '■''':"''>• 

•C «..h .h,.,„. „h„h a,,.,r, i„, " V H lo'T"'-'"'' 
""il»ii,.,llv ha,.,..„ing » *■ " -^'t^ 104, «n,, m 

■ n'rnr:^,,;';:,:;;';''; "-r 7 ""'I- Hho„, 

--."..•r.,.!r;:;,:,:';,:.;:.;';7' -•'-,. • 

"■ ■""■•'''—'"rih.;':'::;!--,;;,;' 

lak.ii (,,, 

«» a HMD |„ Ih,. 
"IK m iiirrt, MKh 

-... a.,,,,:;,,.,: J,.::^\r/r ,:;;!! r "" 

'-"' »-r;:,;';;';;"";::;".' -:-•■•""■. ;^"l 

-»...Hl.-,l,,.,,»,y,|„,'V ,1 "'"■'"»"'' "«^ "mi. »« 


",.u..,„^ .hi. h,. ' '""■^''''f'ly "«m«l »„h 

'^ ",":,'■■'':•' ';!"»'". ,1... j,i,„. .,,„ 

' /'■•.l.iaa,,, ,1,,..,,,,., I ; "' «l"'ii.- .|.,i,„„„, 

;;"'•''' ,'»•. i«Mr,i f„.„, ,i,,,„ ^, ,v ' ' ''•""•" :' «• • •■,. ,t,; 

. ...h •h'^?^':;;:,^ ; ,r'r"",v' ■'■'■• •■* "• ■' 

"" t*";"' ■'""•■•i «i.i.h 

< .•' iliiiiin [>\ I I, ,,f ,1 '' '" i J J < I" l,ri|,j 

Jmmt., ari.l ihji I., ■ . ' "" •"'■«-i'J'" - •■ •'■. ■ • 

thut Fes, 

"•■n Mk 1,1,^ 

•-M. II,. 
■'ri««r*„i,, „f 1^ 

■'" ">' '.. i„.i„„ I,. I k,',; "'•■""■■"• 

... .1,. .,,;.;';,,;'"■"•" "^v-s ....... 

.....^a::':",::r:,j:-:;l,:-- ^7- ;« h„ ..,..„. 

'-'ch i„m. I, „":, n'7, ' , ;,";;■ -••'' .\Vry .\i.„,i!;nl : 

"" « 'V f,.r „ „,>,u| V ,r;,f h ' '"'■^' "• •" ''"-I-re 

' Itlcw 


"',. ha:,. .; n ,h' 'T " '"^'^ "' "•<• -"a- 
l--r- .hr fin., ,1.,;,;,", 'f"f """"^""« <l'- -h»c,|,...,, 

'hit Ihr pal 
• 1.1 hy 'ih, 
'M.uifirr is|,,, 
pa-i. II nj, 
»l«'»» llll« 



.|',>! .a »i.>«An-oM.,„, j„ |.;Vi,.» ,.f A,., 1 . 
'■•'"'«c>,r, vcrydnuliifuKU-. ■ '• "■•"• 


" Ir.u, h,.i I,,.", '■,"",'"*, """". Ihr |.,u.,f 

:SU:!:-:;l/;r"K'''''^'"^'''-^-r". , 

"M . n... I,u, ha... pp. ,,,!,, V", ,, , ' '',"" •" "'"' 'i -.-'• re 


.•ale,, ,„„(■ „n 
■ '*'" ""ta Ihi c„,l „f 

".-'I*: ^n>l.■, ,.!.»» 

■"nii.».l ihc 



for vision of 
riaoa Joou. 

furlhvT, III l)w miMbiivirjr (vnr(4 thr iti«4 iplv« 
i-Mni** Aril into .ucimi ju^l i» in \ \% (i^^ih » t.iilv 
,ft( mis < il It t'.iut Hh«> (1 M-^ tf». 1 1) '^1 M i I h,t« III « o 
ritdit-iy «iilt hxiiifc; tht- iciaiixf Mtik m Ow tiijiiiii «>( ihf 
ilmrili Iw-lwii-ti Ivit-r uti iIm- ottc h.UHl .luil tlic tic-luvi-tl 
iliu ipic <i)i ttic uih«'r (I u • 1 : ^'y 2*1 1 • > op NiM'>^ 
I't n M. )| 3j>i rht'k!>»<.(>*l tr Mlit"-n h-i^ itH-ti t*>rr m.i(l« 
ii**** -if \ts .iiiottnl^ 't| iht rtturrtttittft . f |t..ii'» in ,i wry 
ik'ihleti ni.tuitrt Itir tlu* (iiit|/*>^' <>f i.ttrr>M(t£ Uuk m 
}v%u» thr hiijh •-tln-iti ih wltuli the 4|MNiltra Wtffe tu Ul 
.il .1 Itlt-r litn«* 

With .Mhrr ri.»»iiti« (11 » t <■ j? |/ I> thf |rur{MMr )u*t rrfvrrt^t 
t'l may h.ivr « .>-.>fwr.tlri| i.i In mg i' .>!>• iii tli.ti thf •^MiiticlHi* 
t»i'ift|r>l utriKMi »«< Livivrly oitly .t|i(ir:4r.ttu i « l>i j|ii"*llt^ dixt 
tKt** >i\rr in ttUnct; th^sf i.i tii« v"*'"' '" .l-»tii**. tiuUtil. th^d 
Nil > >M)l«nU him* if <*M)t rrotrtliuti it ■ nt'>rr tll.4li utic .tpjir.if- 
.*(!■ •■ 4lt..(jfth.t . .Ki .iltlirar.tni r in wll. ti H. Wri-* rvrii tlfner.c* 
.1 (r>>' ru«t>>i> '^ .til thul Mt. knew tiy trrf*tilMMi rrti^trding tha 
.i{>)M.4r (n< r« i.f Ir^ii*. 

.\l I.i»i, h"»wf\fr, thf finplt.i»u ih.a hail Utu l.ii '. » .. 
Idi- liter. il hi' t «>( thr n turrit ii'xi ..f li-.u* 
ll-ur pliii i> tM vMm-llimjj ilirtt-ffiil. w> 
Mo^i'viT hrnily I %t.Utli»hiil thi- niiiirtt 
i;t»n rni»;hl Mt-ni t" U- hisl"fu.illv h«m.vrr 
IlIIU- o|m'ii to .tny Nh.itliu\ of itnutu in ih'- 
iuiihU itf thf l.tiihful. H\ \.iluf f<»r thiiM 
vi.w iti'\i-rtlicli"*<t %m.ill : tt u.u iiothitiK more than 
.111 I '^i-iit **f )>i<*t tiMH- t.iith 4trm.ii>iS 1% vMiit* 
Ihiiii; pifwnt. s.Mniihiiif; n«i\v .mil .ilw.iv* iii|KiltI«' 
tif \K-iUii r«|«-rhihtil .ifri>h Iht' -liin mil f'<r .i f.iith 
thai roiilil lH-ltf\f Ullhotlt h.lMMK stfti (In *i(>/7 -'<J 
I I'll lifw.M<l to <i.itf»fy, Ihu'* ilwrr tanir ti» U* 
ffll ,i iMi'd for Ml* h ,1 turn Iwiittj ijtxiii !•> Ihr rmurrctlion 
n-irriiivf .i> <ihouht rn.ikf ih*- lontimu**! hfc of |r»tiH 
i,>ti-Mf tvin^ rv(MTu-no*<| .iiH'w al .ill Ximv* i Mt ;*.••.■ ■ 
' I am uith \i>ii lU.iy I. .infj thitn th'- htstorual staff- 
mtnl-* .i> t'» hi-* lonn |«»t apjifaraiut'* anoimti whuh 
had iMVfi »l.iU>nt«*<l with mch care— m grrrtl mmsur*? 
ItM thfir iiii}>4>rtanee. 

(i*l roMariK ihiiH rt*%iilt I'aul had nlro.idy contriInii»d. 
Ihf riM'Ti < "hn-.l i* for hitii »iih thr Hi'ly 
S|Mril tj4 «ir :li7 Kom 8g n. iind i-funi. Ihr f<»urih;»lisi fullo««l him in thi-* H i^i ; |oH\, S»s oK 
/hHKiiKK. jl jf». I. rh»Ti'fi)r(-- III th»' Fourth Ci<»*|»rl ih«* 
riwti If>uH h.ivint; .tH(t*ndt-d to lw.i\**n lit**tM»s th** Holy 
Spirt aln-adv on thr \rr\ day of thr re!«urretimn. 
f Hily t<) thf dJMiplfs, uidfil, m 2<»j>, Uil actordmR to 
7 (3 / f\prfs'.tv to .ill lifhf\frs ; and thirrfnrr it w not 
ftpfn to dimtit that Irt? n-n UiS id 15/*". Hi . are aUo 
to lir mtiTpn-trd m the tattrr M-nsc. M Moly Spirit 
Je«i!» is al*ay^ prrM-nt. 

(<| A miiiHwhat inorr vnviltle ».nhMilutf f<ir vision of 
the risrn Jesus i* thr ottM-rvaiKC of ihf ordmantp of thf 
Supper. This i» the irur iiiraiuny of the deeply siKiiih- 
cant narrative of the (hsciples al Kmmaus (cp Cl.EtH'.\s|. 

The wt»h of Ihri^lLmity -'ahutc with n-* — «ti*l n<i| admit of 
hrinu fiilftllrd in » lilrrul *t-nMr ; Init in v\tTy .ilI of Lomnninii'n 
'he wrnt in to al>i'l<? with ihcm '(l.k. 'J4 ly). Not wiih Ae^h>tnd 
Uuirs a« in ihe ta^e xf thr (>rintili%e ilit> iplr<> ('J-l Ufl. IhiI 'in 
an'rfhrr firm ' <«f ifptf n^ap^q : Ml^. t^ ui; -irxl i«hil%t the rr^ult 
'tf ;»ll that nnild \<e t.»Ui atMtut the murty t;ravr ».»* 'him thiry 
».*» n-it," he i« now prrsrntly rri oyniMr*! ' in the hrrakiinj nf the 
hf*! <l,k. a4i« I"/ u). It i* plain that the kmiwlcjije 
a-Hribcii 111 the two iliM^ipltr*. ^.j skilfully cmUKhri! in (hi* 
ralive, cijuld not have l«en drawn hy thrm from the tMiits >\t- 
M.rilieil hj l.k. even if they had hterally hapfMiied t 'thrnt on the 
resurrection tUy : it i« naturally the pr.ohut of a 'or^tl growth, 
and (hat lo.i in (ieiitile-Chri^tian * in !«!«* in whirh the i orp«jreJii 
eltrmcnt in letiin wa^ neither vi familiar n^r Mt imp>rtani as in 
the priniitiveaiio^ioliLal. ll i> < le.irly ,i reniiniM ei> e of a 
I rlfhration of the Lottl <• Su{>tirr that we have aI<-o in Jn, '_'l i i 
a'ld in the >:ivm^ of the t-i lamrs in the t iosiN-1 -.f the 
HelireMs : oiiK , tt) In. it ha> il> pf"ti'lype in the freifiiiij ./ the 
fivf thoiiviii'l with loave* ami li^he^ <♦';* ii ^^ '.il o>. »hi. h, how- 
ever, in mm i^N-ar^ thr nvm e«firr^% niarkMif i>etnij but atloihtni^ 
of ih.- Supper (M-c Ints, S -V o» /mmn, M /«j.. at.)- 
Thr iHimlK'r * seven ' a* applirti to the iliviple* r(trrcx[»'itids to 
ihc num^icr of tia«kets whi- h in the ^ei ond "fcrtiinu' in the 
s\n>tplists <\|k. >'»'- Mt. I'm?) werr filleti v»ith ihr frayniriin 
that remainett .-vfr ; whiUl in Jn. tin. in atfrrcmmt with the 
Ilrst "ff-edinn in ihe Svnoi»ii*.cv"(Mk. «< ( - Mt. H?"^ l.k. n 17), 

twelve tiasiiets are fliied. ■ ■■irr*(".ooini; t" liie Muiiil«ri ' twrlie " 
at .ipfitietl to the fli»tiples. The m\Nterious t haracter of the 
presence uf the riwn Jetus at the .Su|)pcr appears at Emmatis 


M. Rftlttfoof 

Jons' roivr 
roeitoo body 

In hi* ititMpt**'*' I')** *H*n lh« iwit ilt«.iptr* re< .i|intt«il tiw 1 
(l.k. ^4 jil. at lK« %w»t uf if*UI«« in no utw • a>kin^ him wHu t •• 
•«• ijn, il Ilk 

III. KxrtANATION 0¥ THK K \« Ts. 

Tht* UM |»foHh'tii ttilt dfni.iiidmg witulion. i« how t 
•kptath Ihetmiy Uut ettierKnl in ttw itnjru* ' 
ra.mtiii.itiitn lh«* fart thai |i s . 
was Mvn. at \»r read m I t or. I&^ 
\ny .iitfnifrtftl rii|>laiialii'n {Hrsup|>i>S' 
.III iiiHi^hl into KiittjittiVf fxpi*ririi< [" rhapt t .in iM-*'t l«- tunipletrl) .ilt.itnt^t. |i 
ilftiiands, iht-rfforr, lh«> i;r>Mlrst caution. It cannot, 
howe'tt. \f hfl nnatltni(Kf<l. 

iitt Ihr iiivt-sti|i;atoi uho hohU hiniM If ImhuiiI !> 
a*i«-)>l and make mtrlhijiMr as liter, d f.u t evityihini; 
rrvordi'd in th<* n siirrtflmn niiritiMt. »-vi'n of ih. 
caiioiiKal |[•'^tl*'ls iiKTi'ly, <annot fiilt<l his t.i'vk on ,0^ 
othrr (onditnai than (hat h** atsiinirs a rr\i\itii aii-n ■ t 
I • hurtnt Uwly I'f jeMi*. to a iirv* jdfi.Hl of earthly l:fr ly less r.inhly th.ui ulwn |eMis I.tken for Hij i!i 
or tlw liipii^t ris<*n from th< t Mk Hi* i** Nj« and 
t-pi*M-M Mt 11141. It onlv rrinains to !*• stipul it< I he v^lio diM-s so shall fiiilv ir.diM- what he <i 
as>>unilni; is a iniratU- in the fulKst ^eh^f' of tin* w.r ! 
Maiiv lheoloi;i.tti> are ttr.iii|;e|y u.intiiiK in t It-.irnrsv . 
to this Kven. however, after one ha* tle;irly iiii'l. r 
sI'hnI what )h- is n«'<f|>tinK. it is ini)M)ssittlr to fttop li> 1. 
for *m.h a virw d*ie* jusiite only to one sidr >\.-- 
physical and ■*eiisuout of the re-.iirrfition-narraiiV' ^ , 
not to the other, .uiordinii to whii h Jftus ^ftas nevt-rtl:^ 
less exaltffl to hf.iven, .1 thing imfMxisihh' for i\f\h .\i .\ 
IjIihmI 1 1 C'H 16so). 

(>i In Older to do jiistue to this second side il , 
recourse is often (unl to the ihetrry of a K'^^'diial suMini , 
turn or spintu.iliviiioii of the ri'siim-* tionlnxty tif }> ., 
-at first wholly whrrehy It gradu v 
made fit for its a>iension. AKain, v*hat to *«■ 
insisted on is the niiracle ii not hrr.-t.y dimini^lin! 
on thf contrary, to the orii;tnal niirach* of thcreM\;!; 
cation of the material iKKiy is additl a wcond — thil f 
the spirltu.(lis.Uiijn of the materia) ImnU'. Ihe thn>i:. 
howr-ver, is .iIm» i|Uite mconceiv.dtlf ; how is on** t> 
re|»revnl to oneself the staijes of the transition ? 

.\ iKnty whi< h is already • a^Mhle of nuking: ilt way iht'ti^h 
ttosed tl> HITS must tuntv have n-asett to lie tai^ijil'te ( |n. '-t* - ' I 
Murrt)vcr, sill h a view it in ihret t ci>nlruiiti tion to what Mr uu : 
in NT, not only in 1 l'<ir. !-'< m>-m hut alstj in the |{ir>pcU , I .- 
thr inu. hmij there referre*! to and (in l.k. '.'4 ^V'4 iHhe , 
ha|i(>ru pretisrly at the la-sl apjMsiiraiii e of jr»us whi li i- 
ininie«iiately f-iljoweil h> the asi rnsion ; and the precept n I t 1 
l"Ut h Is pl.irrd in Jn. ('iOi?) al an earlier j»>inl. S». aU ■. •*■ 
read that )«'sus is imnH-diatrty rr<-otcniscd in his later a|i|>r tr 
ames, hut precisely in the earlier one« not (l.k. '.'4 i'> Jn. :.**> 14'' 

{i I If we ilecide to confine oursehes to the task of 
rxplnninc we take to lie the stniple f.irt atcordm^ 
to I for. l.'t. we must not siiffrr ourselvrv to forget '': t 
P.iul thinks of the futurr resurrrclion-UMly of nt.ih 
whkli he rrt;ard« as hr.ivenly ami {ni'umatit— as ■■ t;- 
fornifd to the (Mttern »if the reMirrectiondHKly uf I<m;s 
tvi I f or. ir>4S-4ti>' ' lesiis' (kmU" .ilvj, then, in his vi-* 
must have Iiet-n heavenly am! pneiiniatir : and as I'.iul 
in I ( or. not yet ^•^\l•u up the reviv ilKation if 
the buried UkIv i{( 15A1. he nuist h.ive thouf^hl o| the 
pneuMi.itic attributes jiossessecl by it .is having .11 ^n 
through nietaniorphosit. such as, accorrhnK t'» t ' ' r 
ITisi-s^, IS to hap[irn also to the biMlirs (^f those n-n 
and women who shall still be alive at the il.v 
According to what we have s^tn in ^ 17* the orr^ii.J 
ajMrstles ;ilso .i>;n-«* in this. Thus the explanation > t tfr 
f.irts which priHitsIs on the Iwlief of the .t|H>slles th it .1 
U^Iv of Irsiis was reallv ^■'■n nuist think of l-' l\ .i> 
hf.i\enlv and piieuniatii ; not, however, in suth .1 nsc It jjiven to Jesus at his resurrtt turn .is a luvv 

' In !■■. 4^ the future ~ * we shall l»rar ' {t^p«»o^f»'y--i' t' ^■f 
reati, .\n rxhi.rtation, * let u» hear" (^optirMM'*' ; s.. 'I i W H'. 

.- u.c...,i..fc,;4,*,. r... ii.e i.M.ota.w.. u*:> ., .,T.i.ii,.L.: -..-' ^ 

our co-operation. The ronfu»ir.n of o atul m with f|i\i I- i* 
very cofnmun ; *ec (i*U. 6 10 17 1 Jn. &ao Kum. ^ t 14 ^, etv. 



... Mrii.,i in ih.- |»«.,|i,ig 

k""»M In ,1 

•" "I I'liltiiiK 
■'.h-.h t|„. 

• ' 111. <..,,..„.,„ „, „,^ „ . 

vr, ".'.'■" •'"'""" «■'■•■; 

'"""""■■'- "■•'•■ ■■i-.H.. „„,.„„ 

» iMame 
■pint «Uy. 

■1 wl ..|i|«Mrn| I,, .., ,^ 

'f ri.<. Anv ..II.- «l.., h, II ' "•'' "'""'lit .< riiir.i, I, 

«W. I.' .IimUJ « r """" "•'"" "'•' «'" I- 

' .."".nr, iiMii.i.iiii till' iH-iriin,- M . 

nil •■. .,( »|„rii, I., ,.^^,,, ,',„., , , •'> ''"'''' 'I'l'-nr. 


11.11 «.i, iil.vr anil „, ,,.„„, „,.|f „'"''■' '"■'"' 

'"["l-»>«"-l'r.l»i»iii.i,l.'u '^ '"'•'" ■ 

."'.h.';i.!nM!~rr:'""'^'"' ■«"••« 

^'n- ..f III.-:: .„;:.," "; ^}-z "-■ "-' 

I'll inilir iMrlKuUr , , ' ./ ' "'* '''"I '•^''l'' "i Ihis, 
' >l>. Iifc of I r.,,r;.'' ■'•"":''''' "« "■"<"" 

l ObJ««MT« ''" ^'WH-ar I, frankly «,..:„ „^,, ""•'"^ ; 

Tteieai. ';" ""^ 'lis. ipi.-,. »,. .,„. ,„,,, ^^ 

^ "1 iii.imr the as,uiti|iii,,n .,f .-, ,„„„i 

Iii'.iuii. -rhis „ , , f , , i""i'x . Uli-Kram 

'"kH.« than a, w 

iiuM I. , 'l • ,^ " "■'■""•*' *''■" '* ■''■•'"■■1 


■-.:::r'ri;v:; '''-'■'•■-'- ■'••«;■-'- 

"•••n. hi, continued life would l« a matter of 

n'Ti':''/''''''''."^'''''^ •'•'•• "•■'•< 
-«f ■.;^"';':; ru^:".:,:";:: 

---:;":"^:;:;;;::"v::;:r;/Jic:?"':7^ - 

.. •. ■«.. i 1 . «liKh hiiiafl.ii 

13. Nea '»"'"'"■'""'••« I". "Ill .h.i„v I..., 
■UrwiUeM '■" ""■''>l-ih.M, ih.ii t..,u,« 

•»pun.tiw; '';;■"" > •'■■•"i f. many ,„;,''' 



.I.M,| f,, 

' "' '.iiii'iMlKm,',,,,!' „ ha, 
>|«.u«-,||,, a«r,...r«,„,.,|..,„ 
'"*■ A... 1 dr.., 11,1,1 

I . 

.« Ih t. 

1. .,»|r 

■ "■'•■». I.. 

!•"■ k>, 
.1 I i».^ 

. I^a 


III Ihi 
.ilv. I, 
llw, cruilAV^tl , 

111 hfr tuvr l»rt, 
•1"! J '.Mil., 

O'.ilh iii.hitH 1 

•••iHltThll ft ■ I 

l-UI ilicil ,. )| 

iiii,»r..i I ^^y; ■ ■ ' ■• 

"■'»■• 1.1 1,:,,,... V, ', . i.*;' i*- • •■■ 
"••• 'd .i-ii, i. ., „ ■ ," 'I' •" ■'" -"ill 

Van ., ... !,.,„„ T '■ " ' ii-it»«iri 

lli'lmrl I '., .i,^.,;i.,"''k -'" . |"""'J' 
~-l«ilh„ ,, .i, ^',„; ^Ji" .I. urn.... 

I" Th.. hy,,.,. ,•■"',,1' ""■■ .", the niMKjuf il. 1 , ,. " ' '■ '""i"! ir...|,.„i.e 
unt-ial.... f.^ u, rTLVTl t " .'"' " '""•« 

""•"•■.ii..uiy „,ut tt. .„;, ;,":•:*;'"''' ""■ '"^""''■' 

!>iiiiiiu..n cjuni... (•,., ""^^ '«•"' "'iil'l'- III 

»uch a faii t«"»-^"ti,.n u, surr.n.l,, th.-,r li,e, for 

Thu. .ul.;n-,i,e v.,i,„„ are all that n-niai « ,„ 

.|.l.Mtu..,h. 1... u,.. av.air : 

' O" l»h.lf .,1 
Mur* Ihiiii 
»!■" Kiul .,11 
> r.l ,ht 
-'» t.>iu,,i).ri>f 
'lara, Irr Iw 
>< »..rl,l. 
^ iwvrllhr. 
'■• "f ll,l. 
•l«n him»lf 
,l,al III. ,|,.,ili 
n« Ihri.ry „f « 
«»»,imf a|.y 
. li,niM.|(of.,ii 
• ' l,l.i Iffu.ilt„ thr 
M .lKt„ „f .,,.1,. 



of aabjae- 

Ut* TiaJoB, ' i"."iKai,i,., »iu„.,i| a i.„. 

-'.«NT :;;r;i;d'rr:"*-^ '■-"-« 

I' •!"• oiih ,„ n hii-h ,l!...r ; """"'"'Kl.v. that he 

"l'l.'llv....M.t.-,K.., Iiul also tlu, .'1 ?h I ''■"' "" 

or- nnjuiMt.- f,,r th. f.,rnt^, i '^•' •''"""'s "hah 

, « „ U. vU,.,"!':'' .'rjV ''"';"^">- '"•^'«-' 
his iiiin.l ariil hav.-..n..,. 1 .' l'"-*"'Usl> pr.-«.i,t ,„ 

»li"l..herei,,i,,eorr.. '.'■'•''■' "" ""■""■ >"^ 

'•>--•""■ «"' ""S n :;';^;;;"' '- »'"■•>"' 

is .111 th.- «h.,le a rare on.- LI ' '"'"f" 'I'-e 

o.rurren..e of nun! r*"Th,„. ,2 'f """""'""• " "'- 
-ha, the hearing J Z!:'!:.:,: ^^I^ ^^ '-'"'''' 




n>^iiiiit*il that Ihvv xmiUI. rin- tli->tii)i tinti is ik>i un- 
kri.'Aii Ml tlu" \l . s.-,-, for c\.im(ili- Vl>rj.i; itnl<ttl 
uf in. IV Itiv il 'l't\vii tl'.it ' \v.i'« Mill' iM.",v'iji witti tlw 
silicic rxcfpii'm of \tt^7.''» alwav' si.iri'l*i f<'i iin..tti'T 
kiiiit of tet-mK ibat of onlin.iry sci. ' pencptH-ii 
(f,.. Lk. Ill l*ii •:'J4i \vuU\ 7jx-\^ 9i7 !•'<" I«W 
'J«ir. j I lun. ;iif..') kiv 1 I lu I'Ji i». Na\. this is otir 
w.irraiit for rathiii; in Msioii'i ii> <>ur axl in i-\)ii-iii]ii)^ 
l\v' a|»[»tMrainf-. ct fc^u'.. Ail Ih it »<■ hav^- ^.udimI liy 
thi-i luiHfSMon, hoAi-vfr, is iiuTftv that i'h- mits di*-- 
tini;uii>ht'il dill I* ainl a^aiii ttn- toiKtitiou m vvhih(h«y 
Vkvrr ; \th< th«*i ci Nlatir or ; it hy tu m»'.ms 
follows a* mattrr ..f ,,.iirM- thai thrv \mUI tht Ihid^ win 
in vision t't It', .vn\ oiilv what l!. v ■vii'\ uhtn 
111 ih- It ot- Unary Kiii<h!i>'ii to U- real 11 •• othnwis.- 
f 'u!il ih»' vrrv i-oiKciiii.iii i>t sui h a thin J ixs nn ohjci - 

tut* vision In" jMi'.sihli- ? 

t i On ihf oMiiiar\. il |Kilaiti'* pru ivly to thr 
siiUi»-ai\f Mtioi) llif sttT. if \\v 1'. not a (>»Tv»n 
th.'r-tiiijhlv iii^lrmt.t! in [I'.vi hol..i;v .iii-l !h<' naliiral 
stn-iiirs. 1-, » oni[»«-!!iil to ln>Iil lir --is in hii visM-n 
for as loti^; ai it iIo*-s not lirliii; l.>l"tf hiiu !i«niK'- 
ihinK^^hich lo his (ono'ption is \\'h<Ti ii 
(»th'T\\iM' wouM » onsi-,t th*- ilt-liiMon. whirh n*vii1hrt ss 
fvnv oiM- kiiortt lo Id- I'tniiit l"--! wilh suU)r^ii\i' vision. 
if not m this, that thr \isioiuirv Mik-. tor the •au'-fiif 
whit hr has '■it-n m the r\tt* noiM. not m hi»iown 
nii' Li'd'htioti ? Ami in'lt<»il ihf \Hioniiriis of thr 
liililf had niiiif cMciuUd (mwiis than iiMxlrni M-ionarns 
have lor l.tkiiit: a visionarv iniai*c as an ohj(vti\f 
n- ahly ; for. if th-'V urn- nn.ihU- to .ittitl.iiti- to tlu' 
i I II II,'"' th'-\ saw anv orthniiv miuiiiI.uh' o-.ilitv Lfcinsr 
It vv c voiitraii to ihtir I'h as of nuimlanr thmt;s. th< y 
colli. I atw.iyti itHfhiiit* to II a iMMVfnlv rrahty and it 
».ts only if It wa-- loiitr.irv tti thtir »'niMV|»tion of tliin^t* 
hr.ivrntv tliat tln'V uinn* to ri-< o^nise il as a prtxitul of 
th<ir own f.mtasy 

i7i \Vf ha\e tli<Ti'for«* to d>im[;tMsh tH-twt-cn thn-r 
exfxTH iii.i-> w!iu h wi-rr nxanliil n«» (wssihlf by tlic 
disri|.|tH* .ind ihnr ronii-rniK'ianr-. iii thr stfint; of an 
rarthiy imtsoii l.v thr use of thr ordinary or^;;lns of 
Slight : tJl thr s4iinij of .i [urson ni a p- il \<-t hf-ivcnlv 
ioi[i«.rtav. not l»y the lnwlily eve- l>ut m a vision 
idrroaio : l.k. I -j 'JIsj Acl^iUi., a ( oi I2i ; or 
0^HtiT(t : Acls'Ji? krv. i*!?; or Apa^ul : Ai'lsi^mi/ 
lU 1 17 ig 11^ Idg/i I'^gl. m a stall- of «tsl.isy {f^ffrafftt 
A* Is hUi 1 1 s 2"ii7l. or. It mav !.<■, ontstd*' of \hf sirr's 
own ImmIv I .: ( 'or- \2j r. I : ( _i i the (in«lm iK-n of a false 
inia^i' on thf nunc] wiihoiil inv t ortcsiMiitihiin outwatd 
reaiitv The fust of ihi-s^- [kismIiiIiIh-v (unhn.ii v smiiKt 
is I'ltitcinplatfd oniv liv lhos«* fv.uif^ lists who \\n-i\k 
of Iftiis as eatiiik: ainl as Ih-iiii; IoiuImsI. and vsho rnvrr 
Ihf-nwlvi". had I«fti |iri*s<-nl at a|tf*tMr.(rh rs of ih?' 
risfii h-siis I'h*' M*' ond jnisMhilii\ i\i>ioii.iiv •>«■» mi; of 
a luMv«iilv (oricTi'itvi IS wh il ihr wttnrssiN of mm h 
a[»l>»*aian( cs int»*nd"tl and what I'aul jndiran-s hv thf 
woiii ■ v\ IS M-t-n ■ (uiv»''i|i. With thf ihnd |H>ssilMlii\ 
(falw; in.ii:i-t it has this in t oiitiiion iii lioth the 
rot; iition of th'- |»arti(i|>.ints i> vision. irv : with thi* last 
lofilinaiv s<f'Uii;', that th'* imli- Hhinis hold ihcv 
s«*e to Id* .d*sohil>-lv n-al .uid to ha\» .m r\*iur 
cvtiTTial to thrnisi-lvi-, lUiit not with a t>Miii\ i 

(/■» It thr niislalc of many irttiis to assiinic that 
hy the UM' of -was vfii " iw^^i th*- purciv viio)iiti\«* 
onHin of whit hid lir»ii sctii was conn'^l'Hl hy I'aut 
hinr^ll, I h<- *.iiiif rrror, howf\t*r. i-» ahii'i-'t t-ntiiriy 
■vh ind .dvi \-v a|>oIoijist> such as li«vs*h! ij; whrn th<-y 
>ii;(|>osr that th<- |>.irti> ipants. if ihrv had h<'!d th< r 
loiidiltoM ( > In* that of viNioit-H if>, would at tht- saiii< 
time h.ivc ;» ti f,\fi! ihr- unr<- ilitx -it *vhat ihiv viw. This 
h\|»oth'n- tllv '•uuniiatfd sun nvnt of tin* a|ioloi;ivtH 
IS dtstuitiUi-ht-d from th*' ( it*t,'on. ,t! .iss*riion iif the 
iri'i.s iti ..nlv oiit* |»oiiii ; ttit: atwdo^i^ts will Iiavt? it 
thu the parti* t(>.nil ni-- d not attr!t>'tl< tin; 
onyiii of what hf s« ., to tht- stah- of his ovx ri niiiid hut 
can .ittiilnit*- It toii'Ht \<t with4jnt the result thiil. in 


the laltiT cav. in his view the ihin^ srrn brco'iv , 
uivfstti! with n-aliiv. 

I lit'> |t«>-« lil.»»i (,i, alniv.', 4iJ-4)s) i* of t»i>i ii.»n ih.u A ■ 
li>.y •I'R . iioi iit.ilLf I'rfiil |N.'liv\r ilutt in n-uhiy a 111.111 t 
M.ui-l'.iiU !tl>--l U t<>r<- liiiil, Iff 10 I- -I'' iii.tki- !'• h r ihiiiL tl r 
in r>-.ilil\ .1 -iM-rt X'riuininti rt'al nuiin.iU «.i-< t<-i <|.>Mn fr ' 
ititsni iK't - i<1\ tir.t in (iiuikI.iix- .1. In ililv )»U .iI>-> n< I ( v.-i^ 1 , 
hfavvnt) mtiMliiy; «>n iKe ••iilr.iry, in t-.t< )i • ;t« iiviihn 1'n in iiiofL' tli.iii iltio, t iimI Wrt» •••'il^int^ !'• t;ivf dt* m 1 < 
utiilcrxl.ditl soiiirlhini; hy intMiis .'f srUNil'Ii- iiMa»:»">. This w ,, 
.,«■ l,M4iiin; :tl inattfr* !■• nti.tlv i'Hi>nM-.lf-ni «% tdi iti- l*li. f, , f 
thai liiMc. If II is («*>t » ■(.. srn'ls I he M..i « tn <.i th.- s|.. , • 
iiuit.ii'iun; llie l-t-rt*!-., ,»■- .t fiLiiu-T t>l',i.Hi>». II i* lH'Uro-(I il ,1 
thr-M- tliiiik;-. ;itr -^fin ti.ill> ((N-st-s^inj^ -'f < inii-* iH't miiii.l.i- 
hut Ir.ornlv .H'lii.itin ) ; ("f wh»Tr it \> {»'■ ii[i|w>»'il th.U ". if 111- < tl Hi-.t't stud llif-iti it-jilK, il wiiulit U' i|uilc iina< • 'H : 
nlilr til Ulirtc lit.- Ikti nt'Vfrilit-lr>-. n<>t il -nr m>. 'Ili.ti 'I:- 
«t-tiJi'i)I i-< tiitl il'itR- I>'| iti I'MI) H.i(ir tiit'ii'l), I'lil f- r i' . 
|iiir|M<^r t" itit ilr P;iiil of IVtcr In n |«nll. iil.if i uur>« i>f a- li 
1^ itnlrnl intr ; Imt llii-. iliir* n"l l.\ ;«iiv inr;»iis ilixr-t tlu-ih. „ 
hI'm II ( •!«( K.IS «iil i<f its rvuliiv- l'<*VM hl.iK nmkt-s it m > t» >. 
if ill. It Ml- re ■■■* nil iel\ liy .1 rrtni n> i- !•■ .\i U IL' <> : ' lit- ktu « 
that il v(;t- trui- ul)i>h w.t\ il"ii<- li> tlir .(nu«-l, tuil th<iiiK<-l ' 
VIM n viol III It i" I iitrrt t M s.)y thr <k;inif wont (n^tU'O 
;,. inplt'vr.1 h'-rr;i, IS ii-^^l in I'igy. 10 1; i.j 1 1 ^. .iti.l th;it \- 
(tg.Wil* : 'lis X i-i. 'n {-tfMtta) us s.iiiK-lhin^ uiiiial. Iliir h « ' ■ r 
t.i« ili-l ti HI ilr.itti) in .1 jirrtritintt )>;tr.i^r.i|ih (.O-'Wr, .11,: 
ti> 1<r (t'pliril : that a M.u nl. or ,1 slirrt; )•• '• 
Kulowcil with a hr.ivtnty i-.n(tfr»'.ilitv ..■utd U- m-iii hv ' ■I 
w.i'i r»iiaril<*.l t'V I'.iul .umI '^y 1"*!" rr*(WH-ti*i l\ as thftwii.tij- 
(•..-.■ : .HI ihr .>ih' I<l, in IV'j il ts )ir< sn)t|k--«i| th.ii r,.- 
^'K:l.lIl"ll ■■f P li r VI h* ri it ».(, ' !'■>( tfil'' ' UI .) vi-i.-n' w ' | 
h.ive U-rn oK,iri|«<l l-v him .is inii'-ssihif, In Wkt- r ,i' 
'visi.iu' (ii^iTKl in lohit r.'i<4 imiins ^'inMhinu o|iim>-. \ i. 
tcalilv. .1 iin-i« .i|>|K-a)rini c t'^frAVM*)! thai incaninii! >-< -<• 
onI> l-\ iIk- .iriiiihtvis ill lilt- •M-nttii. f. 11., aiiiiti K-ii-lt,,. !. 
»hi) ha» ax .•ini>;ini(-il vi>s hrrv hv ».i/ «'l .'■ ■ 
evplatmlitxi of Mtial Ui> nHiiirr w.!^ : ' I h.ivc nrilhi-r • .nc". 
iva ilfiiiikfn, hnt yc s.iw only an iit>(i(-.irani r ' The i-l- nmy 
iif the uiitl ('i^iirt cir iipMtfif) ihiis hy ri<i nn-aiis pr>t\i-<. iikinnv 
nf |iiUun-nl iiiH>n til*- (n.ilttr liri,- in nucslioii, naiiu-ly ihe i-.i'it'. 
or untt'Alitv of «hai has tiri-n s« en. 

if) I*%|U.iIlv niist.tkt-n would it hf to ni.iint.un ;' t 
visioi' thiou^hotit thr whoU* OTand NT !< 
an itfi-rior form of i!i\inr irvt-lutloii. Hryschb^ .:.':.. ^ 
this from .1 »in};Ii' ti-xt (\n VJft 9) : to a pr..i.!iit 1 
fvcal iiivvlf hy visions nr drLMins. hut with Nh'^- I 
sin-ak fuf to r.ut'. Not only is thr drrani plao.! u; m 
a Irvfl vtith the \ision. .111 f<|uahty of whiih thti< t.m 
In* no thought in con ms lion with Ihr ap)N>aranii-s <f 
thr risrii |rsvis. hut ds.i in anlithrsis to iMilh is pl.i..<i 
(iiuls dirtvl s|X>akinf;. which undoubtedly inakrsVii.wn 
thr will of (tisl niorr plainly ttian a visii.i) imi.ii;i- 
tan, l!ir ititrrprrtalioii if whuh rrsts v\ilh thr srrr. l-j 
thr iiisc of dir rtsiirrri tion of Jrsus, howtvii , t'n* 
situation is exactly rrvrrsrd If (J^kI hail annouiui.; t.. 
ihr (hv ipk'S hy s|M>krn worils that h-sns was ahvr, -vmj 
if llu-v filly iH-lirvi-d thrsr woids to havr Usti ii" o.| 
iniiiH di.di-ly from <nMt. thf aniiounrrni(-nt \\otii>t mt 
h.ivr Uin for thrtn S4i rtrar and iinprrssMc .is whrp, 
Ihrv wnr tht nistl\(»> [Hrmitlrd to l<M>k ui>on tin t oii 
of jrMis .IS ol out' who wa« ah\r. 

(i;\ .\llit what lias U-rn! in thru- prtTli, 
iMiragraphs (. , ./. 1 \ thr di-* isivc (|iirstioii tniin . i . sort of ,tpi«*ai.incrs of .1 |nTion rtsrn ftoiii tli* •]< ■! 
wtrt- itij.itd.-d li\ ihf disdplcs as po-.-.iMr ? 

'I'-, thi- thr .iii-»»t r inusi at -ai' v U- ■; N<.t in* iirptTfa! .ij't^.v 
Rnri-» ; f<»t llrt* iiirn >'( thf ininit>rUtliiv I'f lh«- si^il a\- ■. »..• 
ttlh-rlv strati^f in iht-m (f i7*>. NrM. **■ nnisi -..\ v.\ 
l,k'k<-il 1 .r a Kfiii-ra! ttsutn > lion uf tin- li'rrr> I - ' \ 
tt-tn^tiii.l lifp .Il ihi- l.isl (!aj ; hut in i-xi . j.iii.n.i! . ., ■ i 
r< i^.'>ts1'*>l it as hapiirtiinK «"%tti in ihi {itrsria ( MV •• i t ; 
ll-.i \n<l a^ thia would have frit iio (hflit iih\ 111 o .: .1 
jr-^iis ns HII >-Air|>ii>Kial in-t.tii> r of this last licvri)-!: -: 1 
«>l )i.iw iryHrttrtl an .m.j-« iran* •■ ..1 Jr-n-- in this !■■ ■ ■ t ' 
a It (Tf-nial l«"U> .'s rv rf.O ■■o. , lliis raM-, howrvn 

t r iiit't oMt-ideraiii-n ; f-r ->h< h An nppr.irwn. e of h ■ 

not ' inr Mldiin ihr tant:* ff »tial is lilMotii al^ Altdx ' 

What IS dotir nnlhtnticatitl is thr api-.i ■ ■ 
J--.11S ill h< avrnU ct>rjM-nahtv : tmt of thai it h— • 
shown in t£ 1*/ that it coirrsiwimh-*! with iIk' co;i ■ p' 
of I'aiil .iii'l hkrwisi* with thoM' of Ihr original ., -' 

i4l 'I fH' rt-sultanl roth hision thru nnist U* ih t .\\ 
IIm* dist iplr> rvjirtirinsHt an npju'ar.UM r oi \- ■.-..•^ 
hra\rnfv ior|nitra!it\ ihrv wrfr undrr tompu > 
rrijarrl it a» fifit«tli\i*ly rral, .ind ihrrHoir io - • 
that Irsus wa^ristn trt.iUM- ihcy had ai luatly »-< '• 


» '■' 'fJUCIUl 
wll Ihry X 

havo tinn 
nit-ntat toinl 
ilavinf( n< 
p-'ttilnhty It) 

39. SltUAUi 
Of Pftul. 

ahiJiiy in v„- 
l!ii» (jurstioi 
[Ktriicularly ni 
h «ilt cvi-r r 
-uot.l .«,! ||„^ 

..".i:> MS. ii,e 

"-»■■"'* *1"t oris 
'■f ih* Ktfiiiiinir 
fi.i,^-n t|.>iii (■(,, 
.!i,M,n. .\u in 
•xrntur I.. Ih,. . 

■■ ■' P.llll ]N-| 

^tvailsr Ihcv |„ 
IU'h;inrni of i 
I''"niy ni.irki. 
thtir fKMiiion, 1 
M'lr vtiw trraic 
lhi> iipphcaiion 

'Tinirinl. i, ^ (■ 

f'v:^. Paul art 

'"■w-iii in which I 

^"' h/l AiMri 

'""1 't hu! havt« 

'inJ Mamr)c^ifiH'< 

-!"Uul U- in i(h- I 

^r 'titm-d thiir 

i)ir'nrni-iM-at. ti 

••'I'-s which in 1 

■'■'*' not f,,i ,,, , 

I »h"':n- it was rr;i 

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^' '•( mromi-i\.i|,i 
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■' '^' *>n thr fulfill 
'■ ''■•■ I'TiMsiitton 
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I.UCJ hfr 

< .tI1> C iX-\ 

i* hy no ni'MH-. iM<ii-.iM'ii", .in-l we ntf«fl rn»t lay 
fctr<-ss on ih.* iti«lu.itL<in a> to thi> >;i\'ii lit llu- iio?«[w*! of 
l''-tiT mi\ in tti<- />;./„■ >v.;/V.; ..ilxtvr. jf]f 5 f / j, ;;*). All 
th<'v? psychological riciiM-nt"*. ho«t'Vcr. will U- tiion' fully 
con-tiiU-rw! l.iUT ijl 37* 

)'■> t>n llie (itlu I h.iml, ««■ .tre unaliU* to attach 
W'*!;i(H to th" Mfw tli:it Ih*' 'li-' tj.j."* wfr»* Kr.ulu.iHy tol 
\)V .1 sill ly ot th'" 01 to .1 iMtiviction IrMls s\.is 
alivi'. ail'' that thus in th" ftnl Ihry cinif t" have 
visions in whiih thiv U-hrU; his forn» 

i-i .trtaitilv • 'IT*', t t-. -iipi*-.-*- lint .'ti.4iii jii4»-.aji:c"* "f tlie Ol 
iiiiiot HAW h.i't .411 inllii) 'I. t. i>r) the tliou^htK uf the ui>< iple- ici 
tti..'.e < rnii .it lUy^: t.iu n .t ih.^t ihty wrr»r thm iliv .'vcrvil for 
Ihc ^ct lime .t- .1 t---.iilt of siicU K.klhvr rnii.t the> !«cri 
I iiitl familiar, w hrti -.niltWnly, uiKJer ttu- unpri --.inn tnaiK !■> t!ie 
ilcalh of Ion-. Ihey .miuire a now .t'l-l "!••> i 

I >i\in' iriiii llic h-rcavnl -.iie- that iIh- C'-nl 
w.i> in.iilc a-%urr<l l>y ttir *->t<1 ■>f ; i-^l. 

i. ) Kr»m our li-.i of »ii< h pa^-'Ut-rN mu-i Iw cxtlmlnl many 
wtii. h arc frrquctllly <(ii<>tfil a> Uloiitiinc to it; f<>r < XAiti {>!(-, 
l-.lVjn I'-.. I:i3ii K/ik. 1* >;-.j, I'-.. ,'7 (allh'Ucti i« a|.l«^r- >" 
Ixr Lilcil ill A' Is I I ( t in I In- -'ii-*-). arnl. in p.»rlii lilar, I'-. I'l 1 -. 
alihotuH thi- to Liitd in A. i' -* .•• \i 13 is What is *;ii»l in ihr 
H»:l)rcw lent i". Ihal li-xl will n <l -urt«r hi- (jious wur4iip(fr t.* 
ilie(' p;-. i4>- Whvii iB by ^ fal-^ t i\m.tlotiy (nrtr - ' ''> ilolroy,' 
iiistea*! wf^e*-!" sink') rfii-kr- It'utlh, whi^h, a* the 
| '"ii. !Li-i*(-ly -Imias, mtan* 'urave.' t'v ' ilrsirurlion' 
<AiiMfrCutMl. the mKlraii-laliofi I- iitno ii.m- as \-<UA .ts lhi-> u<>ril 
Is taken I,) niran Mcalh. a- the Iraiislatuls trflaiiily t'-^k il : il 
U^oincs tni-kailirii: -mly on Uic (firisiiaii itilcrprrtation which 
luiJer^tamls the Inxlily < ortupiijti that «lralh. I'assant-s 
of Ihe O'l" ff >m whi- h the <!i- ipli-s t-Kilil really ha^r <hawn 
their . ,»n\ a* !■» the re-iure. tmn uf Je-tjs are K». S* (-t-e 
it- i-inpl.»\in'-m by l<-u- KimsrM in Mk. T-'--/) |s'»aj/: 
H »- "W jK..1)s, (►erha[>s aUo P Itfi? J.-Ml' /j-.-?, but 
vvry s|»<-. wily IN. -A 1 ; 110 1 (. p |If.iti<li, 4y--^ .4). It niusC 
alw.iys \tc Uiriie in niinii, it i- tutntly nei> !•> say, thai 
l*.-y .lid n<u itttrrprrt su. h pas-ayrs in a tnliial maniirr uml 
»iin refertrme lo the i.>nu-M, but -imply as tliey setmcil U* 
pre-ent lo them a < on-olini^ thought. 

(./► \.» weiitht ■ an Ik- kjivt-n l> the .»lyf. lion ihal the \n\ix^c nf 
the risen Jt-ns u hi< h pri--.m>-.| it -elf to ihr ili-. iple- . annot 
havt: ti^en sul.j-, tive heiaii-e at ttr-t tht-\ iliil no[ rccoynise 
it. That tli>y faile-l to .lo -• i- st.itrd only in p.*ss.njr» 
%»hi-h must I.-- rek-ardtMi .»> lohi-lofi- al (1.;^. -'-I f. Jn. *,'*»I4); 
i'l l.k. '-'♦ j; 41 it is n..l .\.-h -li.l h-' «as i.. r rv. Okini-^-.l, 

(fi Anothrr ohji-itMn, thai th'»ui;h iM-rhaps thr suti- 
jt'i it\i? r\|)lanatioH inn;ht In- arliiiissilile in th** cas«* of a 
Mii^jlf Individiial, it wholly fails in thf las** of a)i{)far- 
aiufs to st-vrral. iio! to *[Kak of the cas*? of 500 .it 
oiu'"'. app'Mr* at first si;;hl I'l ha\i- ^f'-'l w-inht. As 
n^atnst thts it 11 worth in< iitK'tniii; tlial oii'- of ihf nt<>st 
pvfat tiphol'l»T'< of an oitjrrtHr n-Mirrr, ti.m of Irsiis. 
Stt'ude (.>A A>. 1887. pp. 27VJ75». quitf yivi's up this 
arj^unirnl. In point of fail thfic is aiupi<- cvnlrnic to 
pruve that Visions havi- l»f n vfii hv inanv , in tin- 
caM'% of Ihoniai of (*antrr}»tiry, SivMnaroIa, th*- 
Sp mish K'"'"' il 1 'act hi, SfVt-ral iTus.ithTs - lays and 
e\tn ni'inths afiiT thfir th-ath amt similar otturiftufs 
alio in Ihi* i is<-s of Hoo I'n-ni h sii!.hfr«.. the ( '.iinis.irils 
in 168^-1707. th«- foll.m.Ts of tho Roman Cath-.h. 
pri«'sl I'-isrh! in I 'p|n*r An-tna m i8ij - 1818. iht- 
' IVi-achiiiU sii kn'-ss ' an<l ' K"M<1hik -.k kn<-.s ' in Swficn 
iit 18(1-185}, .iMil so forth' Ml 1 irctinist.tnii-s 
"f nmcral fvnti-rn'iit anil highly strung cxi»fctation 
\isions are tornaoi->'is. and that «'th<ts rasily |>erctMVc 
til It which at lirsi had U-fti sft*n by <inly ont^, is. in 

I K. .\. AMnMI. Sf. rkom.U of i'AHU rhmry. iM; Htt-e. 
C^t. i. fftH, i>l76, pp. 5y(/,ari.l AVw*- />,•>•*, .•»■«, m 9' 'J ,^ / . 
kr'iler, A/ft.imier ,^fr i'*ntt, . H I lo- It J. 77-' 7, '4 (I'i'i*); 
S hohcn, A'V'i'i^'. mmk /."i. (1 icrm >. \2(i/. (i^'i-); ken.iTi. 
. t^Mr,t, 16 f. .•» (I. r ,1 /I Si>; Keini, iittik /iwt r*»''i Stt-ittit. 
3v^,W' ('*^%). V.X K ir/^>: **crty, .t/l*^■..4. /tx.kri- 
If «i«V' <•'* I I *'• I ( I ( I ■ 7rf) ; K- Stein, l^iy hiM kr ('•'mf.t^i.'m, 
ji ^ (KrUuk-rn. H7:l. M /'yvtJkfs.^f t,.xUH.ih.,!, 
1^-41 (if4f^); Lruliti-. hrr. il',thm.nHrt.u-n^i,til,m fahthun- 
Jft-ftm, til 3^ii{\^^i<)\ Mr!. T. fht.^ri, ,U't »r/;V'i»>'»( W.ihn- 
iiims iii'ii- 1 -.;■.); Kminin^haii-. /tUt-rm. /*»»•. *.'/».ir*,*/,n*/V, 

II n / 17 / y'^, 1 1 ).!*''■ ft •■7'*). *ilh the lit«r.itnre lh»-rc rt-ferrt-.I 
t>; A'i^rut. /tu k>: fitr i\Y' hiah-if, li^t, pp. j^i-.-M. l''\^. 
pp. ii^-w^; iS-'S. pi> ^4'i'..i; t'^'-.. (»|» ^iS^-'iQ, Wi««l'.'tii.itin. 

/•'•Cimtt Jti ii JahA. (l■^v ); /Vi* Vf^,- ./.'» /\hA/ntnr* in 
'**; ^■'itn-f, A im ./t "t /-ik't i>ii? (ii'i pla- r on litlr-puce, t-^i^K 
\|»-soti. rh^\**-f s.tir^ tilt ' rrrmmfi, London, 1707; Hlatii., 
/Hi^ii-atii*m •fit t'-jw/ir<r,/t, I'aris, iSji^ 


virw of the accunmlateil cviticiice. a fact not v. \a: 

{f\ The attempt has Uvn maclc to argut; from f, . 
on iIk* contrary, that subjective visions caniu)i » 
thomihl of as explaining the recordrd fads ot Vr 
HMitti-i-tion, inasmuch as m case we shouM !-■ 
entitlt'd to ('\|)i'it verv m.iiiv more rtHnrdetl vi'-i m 
than are enuinerattsl lt\ l*aul That, hnwi-vt-r, Woiil.i 
<le[wnd on tht* anioimt of preflisjiosilton to vision- jt 
IS \rrv easily c*HKei\al>Ie this very i.i, . I'v 
haxf dnnmisheil when, l>y means of a moderate iium: ..■' 
of rriMirteil .ipi«Mrances th»- ^ .>«iviction U i u-- 
• •stablished thai Jesus harl risen, On this .ucoik,- - , 
.ilso Ik'sI to presunw that the tirst tivr apfwai -.i-.- • ,'.iweii one another very (jmckly. AI! the >m -fe 
contKtrntU in that can,' cuuiit I'aul sjxMk f that v\ h 
he hnnst-lf nveiveil as U-mi; the last ol .ill (t{ t >; 

The cohinierati'iii wliuh ,ilM)\e .ill oth*Ts lau- - ih- 

m -st serious mis^ivinijs. is the state of dd-p depi -•■■n 

.• ai* «i.^ '" 'Aiii'-li the disciples were left I \ Uir 

01 rvMT. jjj smh circumstances sulijixtivt- v . -ria 
slioul'i have com*- ta them ? 

l.n This question, howevcT, is eswntially shim. ,':.-;l 
bv v\h,it h.ts li«-»Mi [xnnteil out aUive {^ 36 < I, ! w- 
iupptiM- in .uldiiioti that it was iVter alone u'l., t*-- 
ceivt-fi the first vision. Could he Imt once find i. 'ii-.f 
able to s;iy that he had se»'n Jesus, the other-, j . 
loiit;«T nettled l'> t»P able to raise themselvfs ...;i f 
th> ir si.itr of prostration by their own btren^lh . \\\n\ 
had h.iii|K-netl to IVler supplied what was w.ini.tii; n 
this resju'ct. The question thus narrows UmIi t.> ttii' 
Is the possibility of a subjective vision exclude. 1 ni iht 
case even of I'eter? 

i,*f I'ndoubledlv an unu^tmlly strong faith \i s 
n»'*'d»d. if in Prter the thought that Jesus. n. 
st.inding his tliMth. ^till .ilive, w.xs |t» l»efr;n ■,u 
pttwerful at l.Lst it could l.ike the form of a m^m-a 
All the rt-quliite lontlilions. however, wtrre pn-st :i! 
We do not at alt l.iy wi-ijjht utxui the consnltr itun 
that with th«* return ti* nalih-f the reminiscir,ri> ,• 
lesus .issoti.it4'd with those I'Kaliiies would ai:ii!i l.k- 
the upiKrr hand o\er the impit-.sii.n which his .te.iiii 
had madi* ; for in»h*ei| this impression was uuii-hliV 
Hut alongside of this impression there woiUd li-u ■• 1 
retollecti^His of tin- pr^luiions of Jesns W. it n : 
refi-r h«-re primanlv to tin- predictions of his resuiuii ', 
*si-r jj 33 ./ » ; Hiose referring lo hiii coining .ii;.'.u f' ';i 
hea\en to wt Up the kingdom r)f (iixl ti|N>ii < af. 
pn-duliitns which are certainly tjuite hist'Ti .1 -'■ 
liosiM l,s. § 145 f/Ji — are much more inij. rt.u:. 
Ihev also, it is true, might w-ein to h.i\e Ijeen dti i- u i 
fiisihe<l by th> fle.ith of jt sus ; f>«i with I'ltir i!>i 
was .in infallibh* \.ord of <io«i. that e\ery omM!. 
hangs on a trt-e is curse* 1 ( ! >l. 21 -■ i ; cp 1 ii'.. "ii 
I'ri'tisi-Iy here, however, there is a difference Uiv»'-^a| 
the caw^ of the twf. apostli-N : I'.ml eovild appl 
thesis to Jesus in c<tld blo*Mi, tN-cause hi* had n-if* | 
[H-rs..n.i!U known limi (j< nr. Ttift. whi*n righllv inl^-r- 
prt-tcli, retiT lould not he owtsl to*) nnh !i to hm. 
To s[»«ak moreex-uttv, the n-ason why I'eln t\.ti .irt-f 
the cnuitixion. did not ceas*' wholly U* have t.i;lhinl!«| 
pr«-«htlion <tf Jesus, lay p.irtly in the det p iniprt --i!'' 
ins iitler trtisiworthmi-ss whuh he had left niP-i. 
disciph- and pirtty also in tht- n-ligioiis inherit. inci*«!: 
I'l-ler f'-lt he owrd him. in th*' in<-i.idtcabi«' convnti'L 
lh«- truth of Ills i.iuse. Iimui this ion\;»iio(i ui : 
truth I'f Irsus' i-ause the lonviction of his ioiil;! i 
{MTvinal life was msi-paraltle in the thought ul thiil 
age. In this v-nse Kman's saying (.f/^'//-*, jj 
70! is litie : ' ce <pii .1 re->iisi itt^ jiSiis, c est i' in. ir 

u f There is yr-t anoth'-r [Hunt, whuh f-n '-'.le n 
part IS utterly nverlrv)ki-d in this conneition ^\■ 
not uiean the lively temfH-ranunt of Peter ; ft vUu made him specially susoeptible lo vision- ■ ir ■ 
said We refer to the fad thai IVter -'fi-I 


U. (22( 
there sli 
most infi 

I'etlT ha 

evi.T rent' 

to escajie 



when he I 

him, whei 

with repT) 

ai ready a 

beyond a 

energy of 

r/l'lf ti 

iVler an en 

as wf hav* 

I'-ml lo h. 

tiivxTH in 

fallimers .1 

whereby ch 

ante uf Ch he heh 

c«use of jfs 

will remain 

confession a 

would make 

tie mouth ( 

''"•»*''^ (/ r-. a 


when onee ih 

a-i^--2'J^.: t,, 

I-'Tall ih.ii 

'■"■ most th. 

""•"■. for the 

could Mot U* f 

Whrs— on ih. 

''1 regard wh.u 

"-i hy the p-( 

^'^'ionaries h.if 

'raineii rcf>i,rtf 

irifl such re[H 

«pr-%ly obs«T 

""■^ •' It is onlv 

"f.if, live re.iliiv 

•■^•-'■v nthrr bii> 

f^-en lonijK-lled 

"""•r bibhcl ■ 

'lyfMthesis. furlfi 

f^-'^ either i„ t 

'^'T whiih it ] 

"•'""■Iv that ih. 

l'^''^}- hut n,,t 

■'^'"' in th.- sj„r,( 

fit vmie rel,,in». 

•"W'ired in ,.v,.ri- | 

^■^vndancyof uh: 

f«^»* exisleth, or i 

i-'fi'-rphic vM-v* , 

'•■»''"'■ whirh 

'''^' '■■T «huh th 

""M.a.-M religions 

N'^rnng „,,», , 

■'■""■nt of which I 

^-xrr.s,.,.,, ^.,„,,^^ 

""'"• uf ih,' IT,, 

;'• 'J-'l gHe 

,f 'f " 's desirrd 
*•"'' "-KouTm 


rnaster. I« h..r.lly h,>i„r,, , , v""*''" """' ">« "f h„ 

IV.CT ha,l .le„,„, mux .,., r.;„r/;'"," "f '""' "hom 

-If lh..I <hN «,r, a ,,1,1 '■'■'■ *'■"'• ■-''-' '"him. 
when he f«l„.ved h..«t ??'"?■,"'" ^' "-'"<n. ca,„e 
h.rn whether „ .a^ Z, ,:.';::.■' '""';'• ""■-'" >-'"-' 
»"h re,,rnach and rehuke \ r ' k .1 '"* "l^" ""■. 
already assure,! „„„ „,\" « '''h" u was ,ha, i, 

■•nergy of his soul. '*^" '^'^•'>"18 with all the 

'■'•!:,';:';;;;^:^,;;;^;;; «."! '" ••»• -' of ' 
a^«.- havefo„„d „,e ,»C",' '''ru ''•"'''" ^''•''''^"> 
fv^-rn i„ „„.„. ,,„ „, ;• » ■ »e shall U- aUe ,o 
f-llonrrs an arrange,,,..,,, , '2 •*•"'",' '""» -^ his 

»nce of Chr,s„.,„„v. iTZy'":^"':' '"' "'" '""her 
'h't he hel,l fast his fa h ' , .; "^ '''•"' "' '•'"'. 

c^l'se of Jesus a„d Iher.;, r, als, of'';r"'''''''''''>- "< 'h- 
»." rema.n the greatest of h,s . "" '"■'-" "' -lesus, 
™nfc«u>n at . ..-sar.-a I'h, o, xr'"' """ "'^"' his 

'"rail tliat has 1,™ ^,, , ' !■' '• 

■:::f;;'» .h- ;..;::;■ „.r::;;:,;:r[ 
, . . , "- i, wo,. "„ t ,. ;::■ ";',"'"■ "' ""• • 

■'■■ ''"■ the visionary fh ,r,u.r f ','"■" '" '''">'■ ' 

: "' '«;-ai.hsh..d fo ;":;,; •'»• •■■■i"-.-...... . 

"■--on Ih.- ,„,„rarv everWh' "'"■"'••"h'ln- ' 

"Xard what they ha.Ts,..., J, ;'«,'""•'"•;"»■<' 'hen, i 

■•"■"•" h...l,„, „, X;- T,'"'' «''•" 'h- 
""I re,..,ri,.rs could h,i. , . ''" -'"•""hiallv , 

-'■^■h r-,H,r, d,l., ."'""' "^ "" ""• l"'"'t'. ! 

•^'>i»"nl> thej„d^,n,e,„„f ' ' '->on.hy,H,. 

' ""■ ^-'h.y of ,i,,„^ , ,: ' ''^- v.-ionar,es as „, the 
- "'h-'r '"l.h.als,,„..„ ''■" 7""»'i->etasi,le; 

^'"''h>■'l -'....•»,..„,;,';„""■""-">"•"' «'>hs.,n,e 

•■">"'".hev,sio„, r ::,"',:"■"" -'f-'Pn^ht. 
"•>"h i< |«,i,„s out am,., 'P"""' ■'■'•<• 

I', 'ha. the nsen «„"","•''■ "" •"-'< 
'■ '"" "'" 'h- kernel ? ,T '"■" '" "'■J''"ve 
'" "'•■ M"r,t„.„ ...,"' „ '•; ■"•"-. that ,..,„ 

";'-rel.,t,ve.s.v,s...,s, , ,, '' '^■","""'""l> ". 
-I "> ev,.rv |..„.,r ,,,'"'"''"-'"■■• 'h't ll„. 11,1,1.. ,s 

'■"•<■>■ ''f»h,.h, he ;n^^^ 

«'-'"li. "r In ,h.. s.nn, . , '■," """''I ''..nllv 

1''"^' >'•■« of (;,k7s ..'""''"'"'"■ •■'■"hr.;. 

"'■"h| v^veMdi""' '"^ "■■■"■'■'• to 

' "huh the nun.U. .':,?,'; '""'-^""■"■'^ 
'■""•hK,o„s,„u,„„„„ 'J;' »""P persons of ; 

■"'»>; noM o,„,. ,„„,.' ,'"""'••■•'' l«- -■nail, 

'"f «h,.l, „ „ ,„.,, ,, ,\' ■'•"'■ ""■ "l-a- '.n 

.-anno, ..•:;,.,;'""■'"■''••''"' ''.....1 

■ "f -he .-,.v,.rnn,':„ ,/';;';■ '■•■"^"l< 'hat the 

" '■'" Kl'e ,,i,„. „ ,,,' 'h^'^hur.h l.yl hr„l ,s 

"-'..a-L,, .:;;;,;. ;;;_;";;•-„«„,„.,„„,„ 

'-.Ies,r,-d to ,„„ , ,';' ""■M""toff|,r,st, 

>' Concluion 
OB Tiiion- 


■""; "[ Jesus. ..ut u " \,^r;" '">• f'^' •'f "»• resur";^*: 

r«urre.„on was an a.tua f,;" I '""''^ "'""•" 'he 
; ''^'u that, apart fro„, the I, .-ra ,/..'":' ""• *'^'»- "f 
: °f .lesus, there ,s no f',",^ '"'"•/ 'l'^' ^-"m.t.on 

necessary presup,K.s,t,o„ h , " "' "'"'• ''•" "» "» 

< !„„ of .,,„, ,^1. ',.;.,''«'"■'• ""• <^f I'aul ,he 

I person »„hou, excZ,o,^ 'har,s.-c.. that every crucified 

M-"«lr,un, or at Pilate "urnTeM "'"""-' -'"'" "> 'he 

2-'' '■" '/•" falls to thr„J^,H'"'V''' '■"■''"•''''• 'h's 

I tha unl„, j„„, „^ ;"• ^■■"""rt ^,nally, ,|,e ,,,.^ resurr,vt,o„ of IhX-Z T"' "'" •"T- "f -he 

' 'h,s ho,.. ,,„d co„s,t , i " "'""■' '- - ^""".1 

"-" "ere to r,s.. three, a ■; ; ' '''■ •■M",on ,l,.,t all 
■' "»actu.d forn,. as h,2 , f h . r "'•'•''••''"^- '''•''h*. 
^••y. .t would co„,e to' l^'d., """••'"""•■>. the las, 
event happc.n„,^. ,„ the case ,.fi '" "' '■"■ ''' ^'n 

;f .I--U., h,„, to Z^J::":, '' """••'"••''■ "-'iv 
"■•■ '•«' <lay. In so far h " "' "''''^ "' <h-^"h a', 

"""'-"■tality of th nl II Z ■ ■" ""• "'"■' "f the resurr.^„o„ . ^'^''': "'^' "'^■"- "' 'he ho,., „" ' 
•h- ease- i, ,eas..;;,' "::'•■;■' •'"■••--eryext.',s,v'ei; 
""l'"r.ance«hether Je.u rose ^'""" "' f'""'^""e..tal 
'" •""■■ f-r .nwn,,r,a|i, ,",^; «•''■' ""'he thinl, lay, 
evts.ence o, ,he .soul. an. t .( "">' '" •' eontinut'^d 
;'«'hof the l"<von«,rK „;"'"■" "'•"""" ""he 
"•'"»!< on,irn,ed or „,ade i.iou I . '""' ■'- ""■'''■■ ''l^' "f 
I -'ly as of u.„„, ,^,„, ,;;;■> ■• ■■e-urr..ct,on of ,1,^ 
I r'-»rr,,„o„. ,f in,„,or, , " , ' '> ""' ^''-ence of a 
'""''• >""'»". that n.ust ; .7 '' "'"^ '■^•^■""hnnedor 

i •;"■' •"- -■■>. .1 .lav a^*: ';:;", '"'""''^ "" "- ""• 

Pe-ent. Kor th.t tin,, '"""""■'hly«.,s then 

i el..,l..dl,yp,,,„, . ■ ho«cv..r, rc.urrcct.on ,s ex 

l'r,n«, /!,. ,,.„;, 

"i>lcim,n« .Ic, A,,,„' 1 ■','!'■•"'■*»,.■ /,„' ,?i ■ '."'',*• 


"•• '*V.!, J"5-446, 

^ SSSPS3,»« dps 

";.--,,;;::; r-c:':vv'-^»"'h".h.M",;T, ,::;;",;;:•''■''""; 

tl.r,.ri,., ,),..„ :' , , V""'.-'"i: 111.- «,-ak iw 7 "■ "'"' 

re^if» I ,, » " , ''" .l»-'ue ,., ,|,, ,.,„', ,•""' '•"•il'u- hwv,. 

""•-■• Ihr ,o „• " ""■ l",-'"' ■:le,„.„ „" ' l«'l«""i«an. . 

'-•''«*'.*,;>. ,:'vv";' "'"■'■■«'■ -I «. A'.tr ,;■"■'■■ 
a' r ^--;,^-; •^K■i:y;,r^.;;;':^^i:^••■<r''-'>■•^ 

A^":;!"i? -^-'-v i" ?*r!f^J;::";:i!^,:f;">'h-i .i^- >:o:.?f 

"■■"''■" "■' ""-^'^-^ ' '^y^zJ::-':^';' 

4086 '• 




Lti!um4 curiii* volum* i hi tiiten M^utrr, i^v>: an<l Orr'« 
thuiifin T/.-.i' i>/ it.nt attii tht- ii\>'U, liivi, I.ecl. tl, ii. C. 
SinitUrlx, Iml Miln ^iir> Lit ^-.^ilt^ iiiHin (lit* tiarrativt:* .t- LKiri 
of the (iittgraphy .-f Ff*ii^ : *l aifr-aun « SluJ/es im the 1. rft- I'f 
Chntt, iJi, . lutp, \^\ 11. M. iii\\tn% stUiii-Mli !.</* a/ i,n$t, 
liyS. |»(i. J35'4"^ ; lK;»ii!r> lli« Livr« uf C lirui !'V !• iwrur. h.ilrr- 
mhviiii. ;itt(l 1^, |. Aiiklrcwi (eil. t^j, pp. f-i^/. ). I !.»■ <«ul'irt.t !■» 
t"nii>c(etjtly<litil .il-ui. ihuu^h U"m .% m>>Te ^m. ll\ phiU- 
»<T|ihK:tl .init il'ktrinal «tAn<lpi>int, *<y *Nt-wninti Smylli << '/</ 
/•/»/.'*• in \'it' /,t^ht, chup. H); '!>. W. KortMi (/A/ < *^/W 
of Itiit. an.i A i;*/';. f. ♦ , i.-.v7. I^i t. 4 > rilii|nc of \i»i. n- 
hyt>.>lhcM*>; K. H. Miitl.-n (/*..•/. A.i.iti, * i?-?. pp. 
m /■); I-".- »<nffiih- I.'Tw* ifhf Itrrmt thr.'Ugit ihtist,* 
t(f<0, pp. il7-!^0); H. t'<. Wr-loil (W/Vl>M. .S,*f»rt, KjiX', 

rp. t^'i-.ii^) .in t I,. S. i'.>(Hiri {ifihi. iSyi*, pp i??**^ 'i *'*•• 
V 'IVnn.fy (/"/.■ /'.rfM ,-/ Christ, i^>», pp. M»y; ;".< ui- 

Ai ih* ..p|*«ite ihAt of m.lical criti. i«m. thf m<>M tv>i»i»orthy 
w..^k^ al'.nj I hi* liiic juc 'K. W. Mi- .m < / V i\ftM»r,,ti.m e/ 
J.tht ( -i'/.r ititi c..!.iiil.iiti..n-. -■) lU. K. \. A'''--ti ('p /'*//.■ 

.-'/r/irw*, (»«■*./«»*,, :ii|.t l'hr.>lit:h y.^fhr,' to I 'ir„t. I ^^-, 

^h;'p. -'O, .iH"t M.iriiiit-iiu H sVt/ ./ . Ji»-.V"-.'rr /i A'/.'/c^.w 
( -\ !!*•>•>, jfti.' , 4Hiy., 6|f/! I»e*iile)i ih« wriiingii lu l»e liiwl 

(/■) K!«.tTtiiii.ili<>iis >.f early CJifiilLm eWilriiLc, aii<l ixirlii iilrtrly 
uf ilif ..;"j»-l n.trr;iiivf'*(»rlh .»f ilie .i*. cn^i-ii. A' t* I i 1 1 1, 
fruin ;i r.iirly (n-c Inil tiMi-rvnt "iiaivip-iiiit iii.»y !* f<tiiiiil itt 
A. H. liritr* A !/<■* (.*. I'ttt. vt.!, i. (' - , i.^-i), |l"/. f>4]l/- : 
ti. L. I ury s mlbjUrlv ^rHi'^ttl- G--i - (,Iiil.;in.iI. flan-lM*-., I" 
NT. \^.I. i.. I'Kx.), if iv=l-?"»; J. K-tliii Cirixfitcr ■» /■/»./ 
TAnY (,-,.</, r»'. H;,>l, \t.if, thi/. ; .\. t M liifftrt * .i,V/r 
.(iV. I^V7. Pl'- 3" -I*' *^ '. an<l J* ^ Marlkt't . l/i'<<. . f/r. 
!»►', PP- i-i •; ••*^'. furlhir, II!.iiT> 'A"*" '"*'/ (ir'-J**}) "'< 
ih-- loncluM..!! of Mk., with tl.v c.liii..!is hv S.vctc .niiii All. in 
Mpn?ie«, MotTatt * ///>/. .\Vt.' ,' 4-tt.inif»t ("-'■, I /..i). pp. - ^ -.1 
( »n Mk. lrt.,-» ■) NT-^^Qf"" Mi. ami I,k.), f»«>4*V( •" J"- "'■"' 
aiul A. Ke\ill' iarii.-lein AVtc /J '.•fV'/, i -w^^. pp. 4y(l-;,i7. Ihr 
di-tipKlivtf .liiii ..f ^uili (..tiilril'Utiofi* i« i >*- ii..i Kinip!) 
ih** Ncr'tal . ..'ii< ui. of tli»* ekirrriiivrs in 'nu'-ti -u. Imt aU.' (iicir nii'l rfl.jiiioii* preMippn^iii-Mis : !<i Bet t-rhin)! ihf *|iiript 
im.. ihe *.»rl«t .tf ih^tr i\rs\ hear*-T». wih iheir '•♦•Iwf- ami hi*|ie* 
KiirMiie forfii- *»f ihio trili-at hvp-alMi^i* .ir-- v.iiint-l) rp|irr- 
!^'i!c.l in -ikH w..rlv^ h* 'W. M... kini".[|', \if. H> t. ■•/ th,- 
Chffstian fifiigii^H, 1*^4, pp. 3';- iJ^(ni>ihli :il ttn''>r\ ). '■'^•^fi/'- 
HitfHrni Rttift0n, 3, i't, p. vt^J. (iti whtih. ii-« ifi ih« (olUw- 
ifi^ \"fiV, the Ufjl'lriu \s ti.i!i<llvil 'tra^lr ally, i>ut uir riti< ally 
i^.ta't-i!), r't( f.'mr (,.»«/». ,1! Hitt'"-u tl AV<«»»*.A, I'lj;. pp. 451. 
a'l.! II. t"M)..r. /A.- f/'iHA <!«*/ //-r i:.t*U,'it Int.if^'.tnti m. i£^i. 
pp. i-!t/., J I >y., u-i'\<- ol' rtiiuli, ii'>w»-vrr, can (* [it* jiumtiiptl 
entii ■Iv *au%fari>in-, t-ither in ni^th'"! or in r«^u!i«. >tc 
funlirr H. Havi-.K.nt .V/ fftfrr'f'* ("*J|)'-* K" / Ihr.fppo^tie 
* !■» pka-saniiy htil incffcrlively a-lvi-aicii l'\ utHfr> iikr 
Vnr^i-* tt'^'tirianitr 11 . i/i»».*j//r . f^-», i^jriii, t^-m) atitl Sainlav 
(II t-uiia-*' />/' .'•-t'*'^!). while it i<i ilt'f.-n<!t;.i « irh ;> r-.t^v 
i nti' tl kl^aop "f ihe pf'TpIiim arnl il« l#;jrinK« liy ".'^•ft« 
< l/».'fM-i' (>.-*,/. I ^i4. p. '^4/^. ' \- !'• (7,«.'/.^r(. J, 
I'' J J, pp. i^i-W7>. "»' haff(//»'.^. ■■/ ( A«nA. I i7/-i">'.). 'I ►rnrii'V 
t.irt. ■ \*en*(.iir in H.imIii^-' /'/M I' i- t^^>, ami 'I'r.if "», 
M t".'m'» {/• rf-'t.'' 4 iv-i'-t, ii ' riij.iue of KT ttf Mjirn.i. k * 
H'^■^^n): *«■ aIs-* •Kn<«li!n(: /"V it'ififit ^*f th* t-'^H'u^, 
iStj?, L)p. ;''i t/i. W7-4'4(-"*' ^n-i-.n) : .-\. Il-*e^t \»mt*. /■ nrn. 
Tkii'!.. i^».p|i. s('i-;*|. ,1 ■ riii-pii- ■•f Slapffi); W. h'. A-irtiov 
(A*ry».'i. » Hi i; i« . .i-tiiupi, .-f \\Vi,,,i. krr> : \ I. 1*. Whir? 
( e^ ..f Kt*-'i l.-if.l ! . Ih.ll>,. /'i^'j. »■ Irt".-'*), 
ati-t K. k. Hcrii.ti.l f I'lie \ .ihi* ..f the A^- •"i'imi,* ttf-.l, 
\\f.9i-\ fL^x , pji. iij-Hii, ami in lla>finit»' /'A" 1^14). Ih-.pii« 
e\.U.i'T.*t<-'I ''.il' nuril-. upiti ^ ih ■.li!|.«. If t :i( I i;^ii>h iliv U».» 
titin* 'li^pl.iy .1 nr'minif »rn*«- that Ih-re !■* a -^-in.n* pr- !>lem 
toll.- f.n .-fl in thr i nmlili .n ..f thr hi*t'iri<a! rc« .ml*, ami 
•Rr|{r4i<( h»» a vivid if -uh*iili.»ty pari in play in it>i *-)liiti>jn. 
Thit i* a wgn iif tit.tlth, it •\x\\\ th:>l ih*- «irmai»U nf thr pnKlir 
■re iT^nninrf ^l■)r^ 1 mucnt ; l.ut i..> .-tilvant «• < an lie liM.k«<l f.'f 
unlit h n^likh *lmlrr.t-> .tr<- fumi'-hrcl with a «« i«rtiifi< Mpiipnunl 
in ih*- *haiH' ..f (h..r.>iiijlt)v ■ n'i< ..I efiiti-m* t-f lli* n..,j»»K. .,- 
w«l) a-> wilh tn'-(i<-t:raph<i •"Hihiiiiiiii hi-l>>ri<nt iihlifm^nl aii<i 
*-nm>t *. l»>.!np »lih ^'Uie (jtiil.»*..phii: anj «lii;i- u^ appre* i* 
ail'tti .if ihe -ufijn I. - |. \\:\ p. w «* 

thi' urniMt'i^ i.tlile- tnnn«(iini Shrm aii<l Ahr.ih.itn 
((i.'ii 11 i^.i (I'j. I rh 1,. , tj. l.k :l;,, .\V k.t«a:i. 
An .\r.iin (Mil iriltt' Umiius^ iIh*' h'u'uu ■^\^u-^x 1:1 
S. Kilivhmi.t III \\\v ittnr ..(' TiKhtli-pilt-vr III iSlir 
A'*;/' ion if . KA r^'- 117; Ihl /',,,■ 3i8./f): lim 
th'ir i-I'-niifi' iiion wiih Hcu is il)'hu'<l \,\ S hr (/..■. . . /' 1. 
Tiic II.11IU-. in (. iniiitoii with ihr .-tlirr% 111 iii«* sani' iiM, 
H priiUililv MeMi{x)(ainiAii nml wr mny {XK«tl>Iv Iii.»l 
a irtce of it in ftV i^ ^. -'U- uf i!i.- kiiid-s c»l Kilf\vt, 
whhh K «{»mi.i!i s's f..r MI III of Ke'u.' .1 ft>rMi.i()'>h 
par.illfl IM ihf Il'ti -^K'^s: i^P I'uv.U. • Mtsi it ^^.lt-^^*^ 
.fvHm. .4'i:f.. iSgf. I^ijft) kt'u mav hrivr Ik-i-ii .111 
(iM \J'-vi],n!.ifni,in grwl , \h /. '/Vf<A Jtr St,iJt (f trrAn . 
2ji. Cji KkibKN. y Hi . lo f p 



M-Miiioit (I 1). 
A iMftI lilhr^l »). 
KirvrlH.rntl i». 
Ililluih, (I A 
•Ah»j' M"»y<| 5). 

Mcani)i*i <-f .ttorirv (I luX 
<fcnealit«it« <M 1 iij). 
\a-X% «>f ( III** ^f 1^). 

Reulwii * '4 rpiwatwily tn«*nli"nril irt the M'*A.iti'n. 'i 
;U A Iw.intli (»f Isr.itl. It is <»Ht u .v^s^h i.iivfl with » t.i.l 
1(1 IS kn"wii to c.n h "f till* (ItKunitii! 

1. MCBiiOB. 

iilcrUiriti the 1Il\.iU-ui h Ihr: rr.iili 

narurally mt<r- thr wnti-r* of ihuM- iliw uim*t>lN 1: 
kiK wlfilK*- "f t»>uh .icdiiuuM.ity. 1 1«- m.iy iiithfil Ihjii . 
It |irinltiH to tl ^l thv ]t'i:itiiit.i' \ -.f mf'Tiiit*-, wti- '; 
hr n»i.-*'.*s ftftreiit««i t*lst-*whfif in thi* IlLtjifW wiittii. 
Still, tlir .}/\umf nfum (• itU'nttf must In' uw«! with hit ,: 
t.irr. - i In- l.n t-* wt-in l'» U- tltiM- ( hilsuJr of iIm- ti\< -1 lisi> im Chrori., K/rk . and in th"* V I, iii K- ^ 
aixl the I'lironiilcr's K'''"'**'"Si*^'* "* KenU'n is kir -w '1 
at>:iit frxhi .III al U-si aii.n hroiii<,ti< glo^sin i K. In 
iilfM-ripii^'- of tin; (Ii>irit.t'il \,\ Ka/arli, ihriria I, 
th>' niftitioii til th"' «iuiiiuT;iti"n in jmlg. T* u. 15/ 

rii.H chapttT 'diLiins viry old<;nal ami feu w . 
(jutstioii its atittiottty cvrn \\\\*\\ it stands .lirtne. ( tn'v 
ho\\r\»r, if ui' ,111- Mil*' iln' p.Lss.u;«* >.iy!» uh.ii t: ■ 
jMM't iniMMt It l'» X.IV, ', ho'.v.v.-r, do»\ i; 
aji[H*;ir to h.ivi' U-rn '('M*"*ti<inid, *-o .i-» th« tiunli^ 
tif kfiilien 1". (iiiKiTiwd * IHsi iission \\.\% \w*\\ »■■ 
finrit tu thi' <tuestiiin. whi-rt; tht nu-iitioii ajiptr.iri'i.; 
iith'T* I'W and .if{aiii, ni a •^U^htly xainuil form 
aftiT iri./ n-allv Ik-Ioui;* Sliil, ts n-'t the snnpli-^t < \ of the douhh- iKiurrriMt llw tl.tu-' 
rt-aJly .1 ^;Ut'^-.? Lttltcr diificuUi<s w-nild ihiis lji'rrino\. ■ 
ltaK\.t\s Mi'nutt^t; ^(. n*inoit: a l■o|^n^ll^.:^ 
as the traditiMii.d k«-til»»'n should Ix- laciitioiitnl by n.inn 

r> ipr.ik of (liN-ad m ^''^wf *' "" ''"* *»'1>*t Im" 1, 
uiihoiit naiiiiin; tnl»*"i, Aoiild (■■ I„ti- 
('* would \-' l.ik'-n to ni'Mii (;.iit. whiUt Mi. - jM-rh.ips n I'Tntl to ' h.df M.iii.issr-h,' atitt vi 
r. frp-iM-f of soini- kind or ofhrr wmld !>•• ittadr oti \^.- 
ni.irnui to keiiN-ii. If it lir thought t'. it i»rol»;iiit!:r\ „> 
in f.ivour of ih-? rfftTftH •■ in JtHlg. T* \-\ng mntfmiH'r.rv 

f\|.l.-fKr,' the protlll'in U'fMrc u^ ja t" d.-i-TTnint' wl-rn 

Kvti'»ii Ii\<d :ini! to t-\pLiin t^M- f.n l ( Lit hi%l< ■ 
inni-s KriiUn had no hti:nifii atjiv If thr- ndirr \\< 
t.ik'ii. thf prolijom is to arrount for tin* nfi-n-m- 

the lltA-ltfUih 

\ ^urvt-y of ihi* rHVrriir."i (in iIk- I h \.it«-iii.hi !0 
K' iilwn «ii^^' -ts Um- vti'sid fhim'tti in dirm .i!J .■» 
l-'I ' f that Thiri- oni-»' w '"^ an iiH|,wiTi int 
niimnitv t al!»tl Ri'uU'n and that i'^r -■?■.»' 
viii It h,u1 Itist its pl;A»i- . iX .* ■■ •' ■ -f 
V"\<1 or 'Ihiinnnl. It !•> iiMirU'v *ui^>o'«i'd lii.ii n ;i 
[.ri-wn<'d tli<' ntrtn'tn* of n rn-ri- '»r iisv <J«*(iTnt' 
j,;r.iphKal disiri. I t^-i upi'd l*y R< nlNuit*- It m ■ 
dtinr- so 'Oi' <-\id--iu.- of such ti h--^- • 
art- from mpiftus M'»t of what v\<- aft- tot! ,!'•;: 
a li-rritorv of Kitiln-n i^ ui l»(I>t Mia ml*: J si; I'l 
V .^( .»ndr iinwh of Nn ;i2 Jo^h. l:t n .». 20' •_'! 
ami lainioi vifely !»• ust-d for the pr«vt'T't iMirfj..^. 
^ i^y Thcrr- srrnis to !i«- (iiily otu- jj:i!»*aj;t: -jV . - 

1 On the nanir ^v Kr!.^«- : -m ll-- f-tm, I S , .i> UT e», >■ 
tinn*, 9 7 ; "11 it-al nn-artdii;, I i». 

■ Snct lal raiitdxi it ntreileii in rc>;a'i to ipirstv m* Itarir;. 
ih* tnl**. 

S (I'l lh«- ^tatcnitnU if. i i'U. .'t sec | ty On 1 (T.. 1 ,j»' 
I i ,0m!» 

■* Win- lil«;r ha^ »u;Ke«tid that ' A*nrr» iv nui a ii -■ -" 

hut A pf'ii'niii ("l^l»>. aiwl that 'T>An' «..>■ n-i ".' ■ ■ 
mi^inalk (*./'_• 114, mi, j^.A 

* <K.'<iiru Kru''« n in.iy haM; Wen wiitKil in W.-' (' 
at iIm turn- rrfi-rrml t.>(<a-.> iir«t itt*w); hut tk«i)Livi<.>r.. 

..— iijiwd I di- Ifi!-r in ih*. !^u-»- pr..iH«l-S> ,}v.A.[h..: 
d> -iitfht if ih." |-.i-t (■ p <; SI , I ( t. tifvt «.!)>,.. 1 t\i>r J... 

^ '4iiMirt^f(iHi»'l -'iiiaifsts ( AV»«r('ti"''t'»;»"Mi»* , ?■') tlial »H'' ■' ■ ■ -*■ 
"f (nli-ad. n.-l k-ni*n. in : i;.( iij.iy U- W- .inw K"-!.' ■ '■ 
-.1.11 -K-al,-! in \\ I'ah.l. • t". U-i «.# I l, 

' It v« luld ItMl '(t-' it!e thr i jilt; whclf- koil-Tl 1 - ■■" 
;ttet.e>lui|( two llotrsi. 


3 Alo«t 

Vir;,- u_i, J 

!»fuif'n hn 
I u- i,.r i 
U^<-lhr-r th 
It v»..u|,j .,^., 
JmJt'fm (/A 
flaw- It. hou, 
f"' nmjji (hf , 

'!• /t HL'I.t 
KriiU-tt j^ , 
^' •' ^u). -irid 
^-** l»l'luH. Ji I 

s--nsirp{( ,,, 
Ttifinost ^ij., 
t!.<- hrst-U.rn 
?f''»'* ajfrwin. 
5< ^: J'hr VI 
Hfiiinrtx foKt-jt, 
fx*- .'OK. Hill. 
"■'-•« alth.mi;: 
!'•■ ri-st ,,f t 
'■'-;" >lory (s.- 

-Not s.. MI t 

**'-j- \u df)i 


J?/)»hich tan „-rh,i„ i 

any r.-fcr..„c.. ,„ ., ,,,,,, .' , .^ '■♦', "'- ..I.m»«. nf 
'•""' '•( AI.....II, f,,„„ ,,,„,,, "•" ! k' •.l»Hi m ,1,^ 

" "m--'- iiui II,.. ,...i,„,..„,'^„f- r"" '" "'I'""- '» 

n-i, ,„,., nii„,„„ „f,lu, I -^^ '"" ""'ii»i" 

■!!"•" '--'"f ". o .„ k'uT";" ■'■''" ""■"^' «•" 

1 ■- 1"'.". I. .h,„ „ „..„,,„,":' "• ;"■'-'. .l...,r. 

••""I U..HI. I.^„ IS, , , '■'"'■' ■■ '"IM .,f ,1,.. ^,„,^ 

'" "■'• ^'""K- rv ;,f "„l : .,,'''' !""y '- "i.„.v.,„„i > 


Rr«fien5 tier,! h-,, i . „ 

".•-r.,i. ho»..„,",;, ,;;::':';;->"' t>y K- I, can ,. 

^iill, l<c l„ 

"" Miner.) h^ngf^i"',',,., 

■■'■•"* iri 


ii . "r-'l-Uirii iMT ,,„i ,./ o , . 

'-';«•■<•■. hm. .,,,,1 ,,,,,,, , ' ■•' '•■•.•;..le,.,M., !,,.„, 
;•■ t'^- <■* !■: J.„„l,, ,|,nl V , V ■^■''''"■''' ■—- "» 

<:■''•■» .H ..f !,.,» I,, „„,,'■;;'; ' ''•- "■ i.n ..i.,,,, 

••':• ni{rr,-„,..„,. n,. ,.'.,1 „ /' .^''"'^ '" I- — " 

'"•'; »'"•». Ml .M I, ^; ,,:,';'' •■; "»■ '>«.,i 

••« ■""'■■uuh 1,„ rii ,1 In 1 ■« "" '"•'■"•• '«■' 
>'- ^-> ..f .h.. ,«„,,,■'""""•"■ '"'"I ".....' 

::'v"->-- •! ':::. 7.;'' ■'-''-'>■■•'!..... 

• ' ■'"' *'"" '<'■' of 1 

\tc.»,|i„|, ,„ s, . .. u , 

■'■'■ *4«".. XI.. h l,Lf"*'; '"■ M-i-^,..-- ,„ „;-, 

"■l"itl '■( ,lw ,/,i./.lvK , '1. '.' '.'"' ■•"•• 1-^ •- n u , ; i 

'■-■^ii .^■...,, ,,,.. , "" -'•'••' 

"i •'•<v«l,,| «,„" .'^'•'■••».l'r'T.«r. ,,) ,,,,„ ■ , I 


'■ ■■7T>t>-l„rvih, lt.„Wri, l,..t,l I . 

«)'.r.i,l; ^, ^i.,.,,|, ";',"" ^•••v (•pti,,,^ ,r 

"■'• 3.J.toi„„., \\,.„,,,.,,, ,"^'"'' "!■ Nai'Miui 
II..- .I„„„|, „,„„...,„ „„.^"'- '"•'■k «.,..M ,(,,„ 1^ 

. 41. I...».wr,,,,.rh.,,„ ,,.,„./ •'-■«l'-" (...1. ,^^ 

l'"-.| .-tj: .;., '^"^' -'N'a n.iKl.i u, ;, ,^_,]_^ 

I l.f re,-i.liin: ..I a" ,„ I 1 , . 

"'■" '""- -.«.;..• :^t ':.;[,:;:''! ""■"■""- 

"T «..> II I,, ill. . *• ll"Mi.|lp 

<|u..M..„. was ,«.,„ (..hi.,, V .'•"'' '" '' ■^'' '" 

"■•..».• ar.. ,.,,,, „J.\ "^ «;l..l».- of „,.. J„„,,,„ 

'■ ^' ' ' " -•' ihi- ,.r. ...„;' r r" '"-' "•- ';". 

■""•"■"»•'" -hull .,1.^;,/,' "f .''■-'' :.'•-' iea,..> , 
"•■'•'i. ..n,li,a»nl,.s,,.. lu ;'•'" "T -"'•■' •"•c<...« 

'■""' ''•'!> ■\>^. -h'l V 'l^'!' ^'"'■" ^""1 ...d 

"■n.i..>I...|«„|, ,|„. >,,„ ,.,,'■'''* '■•"! isana.l.lMi,,,,'! 
J-'an. N.M..UU.:;, 'J'':*'"'---.-. ...lie 
""-'-•'I, „ra dr. I,. .., J, , .' "■"■ ""■ •"' ' liM..' i,.., ., 

""■ ^'"ry'^mav I- .„,„. '""■"■" ••^' .^i ■'. 

"";."'Pt 'o a<„.„„. for „,„ I, ;\ ;" =>■;■"••, » ■> "111, ao 

'"'"y fnm, „.,: ,., ,, a '•,=■"" V"''-'l"' '" I''"''- 

":::^7 '-o- ■.. .vh,.'..;:;:^'r^"''> '•'...,..„ 


« other ^'---Hh s r r^^^^^^ ■"; "> "f 

" l"-"l..'- thai ihrre 

■11.'^. !\.... ii 

1 • '"■''• 5"'i ■ili..l(« r «,.... 

Iki.iw, ij lodli -i, '"" 

" I 'J' 'hpw viorie 

<•! II. r 



t.'-.. 1,^.15 
I'l' I'lile to 

:;"""..M-.-, J- :;„_., "h- .„„„ 

' "'■•"' 1" •-■(•' HUP „-,„|,;. 

'Ml -.•<•? s« 
, ' K-*lp.rl„|.,-j;.,. .„,.,..„"','•'; -I"^. If*'..,,. ,,,. 

' t:::^,:;;',:; .-..." i;:*^::;',^"'"" "'"- 1«-^. ^ 

' t,.„.t r^"^ ->•'■•»» lwiMrf„rtf, "^ ■' '^'*''-, UtWtaix 

' In. .\i..vna„ llwr. „ ,.V '«= T". 

"7,;'V. ;•:; ■" - . ' "'"""'"'' ■■■ "" "» ■ f 

**«^ IIht •t.irt .^ 1 t .* 


" •*•" lire M.T, ,„ J,^ J 





9i»a^iaBiK^isi^i^!f«^«^i'rf5- rf'Tj^sp.. 


ktubi-n :\n importance »hiih Ihrrr w iiothnii; in lustnry 
t,j MiKRi-t. iiuy !«■ (luf til .1 tr;iililion of loi.ttii't lirtwi'rii 
iorm- itprcvriilativf Urirlilish 1.U11 ami a RiMilieniti. 
conitiiunity. On the nthrr hanil, they in.iy im- >ifiiply 
popular or othiT ^t^>rlt•s (li'vii;nt-i! in i-xplam ttu* *up- 
posed loll.ipsi' of a keulieti (leopltv 

The rt'.il caus<* of Keiitieii !i ilis,ipjMMr;uuc may 
lieen tlif mnail of Moali, «hirll wa^ (leiliaps not s<j 
early a> t • prevent a vatfue ntt-niory of what hail J>re- 
c-e<li'il fr.Mi >iurvi\in|; !•>«■«■ ti.M). ji 1 1. lol ijUv niul. and 
rp MuAB. |l 14. col. J174. fi"iti. On the other haml, 
there IS the |io'isiliility that Renlwn » iIkhIi- » 1. not 
really in the east We liaie found several hinl» of a 
lieliif that ReulH-n had U-eii west of the Ionian (we 
further. Iielo*. § lol. to which we shall return ijt 10) m 
the light of the considerations suugested hv a study of 
keulxrli s name. 

The nil iniu; of the name Keulien is not apinrent. 
Theie sit-in to U' traces of more than <ine e«planalion 
I I Klcn liflwl takes it to mean 
• Yahwe looks at iny affliclion' and 
hnds in it a refenme to what l.iMh 
h id had to liear as the hatiil wife (nynr : '• ii «■'■ 
1 lunk.-l 1/ /.« ). li !■: (( icn. 29 u*i. on the other hand. 
..■es .1 t'l'Ti-nce to some iwimt tn the conduct of jacoli : 
' niv liiiHji.ihd will . , . me.' 

Mt rc.iiU 'will /.irv me'; liul it is iliffi, lilt !•! Ulicvr that 
ihi* is souiul. 1 he version*, imlfeti, atittv (iyniri)**., >i'n,i/'it ; 
I,' hum ll' I)«ilh MT ; Inn >.. slight a. lijM,;f »..iil.l in.ike 
the worii . hime *i(ii KrtiWn f33.?ie' : jr'n-l llial it i^ n.ilut.i! to 
»ttVl>*'s* that it mu . iL-we (tone '■'.' liuiikcl susi^csts a^ the 
origin.*! l» w.ti.I I ^iialr Midi llif Aruiini. 2-Hf, 1 > (ir.iisr. 

I'hc Keulienilrs iirc in II.- traiUli S" S.ii't I" ttisUitpiiiish fr.-ni 

Ihr 1 ..liiitc* dial K 111., w^ll l-.ivr L..nili?ta«;-1 »llh llir liamr 
Keiit«n a »i«h likr ih.ii \prei.r.l in IM Xtao (tj j-^i* »''•> 
regard 1. 1 1 i.iii : -h*-»i: m.tkt- mc spread fnrth ' ; or. sim tr die 
■ ' \ .ihwc," miiiht *« ^ivc itie wiird its 
■ier ' wck .'lile mt "'• 

ais Roul.-I, Poi>.4i7\a< \Anl. i IS?! 
.see ji s<i by ■■.ivmi; la-ah ft-lt 
'.he mercy of (ioit i5i6ii sar' l\n>v 
oi't]! Tot" ^(ot- y^etn-ui. ' 

It IS not cert. tin what the last consonant of the n.mie 

T. OT ezplaaa- 
tioiu of nun*. 

sul'ie- t is - iuisli,iiid 
Arahic lur.iiiinif and 
iil. joseiilms e\- 
his form ill ih»- 11,1 
she h.ul i-\[H-rielh ■ 


of the en in Y.irden is not necessary. Reulien might 1' 
a name on the analogy of SlMnis i|| 8 i. ), liiiiKoN, eli 

keuU'ii would then lie a of the kind referreil to 
by Ikirth. .V/(. p wix. n i. in which the i 
instead of preservmi; its old vowel .1 las in ?j*M.i« ; 11. .1 
sulhoti. to .uoid concurrence of ' roumleil ' vowel- 
changed it to ^' (cp iisi«t instead of ihi>. for earln r 

ii. Some also of the explanations a.ssuming the l.i-t 
consonant to lie I take the name to be simple. It...: 
derives it from the riKii r b- which m .\rabic means 1 . 
rt'ii.iir.-"' com|>aring the noun ra ub which is apphr i 
met.iphoncally ( /iimahsiiri , .-/jtii .icc to Kane, but ii..i 
ni t '.nro etl. 1 to descrilie one as a rtvtitier of affairs * 

Kig.irde suggested (O.s'* jh7 /. I thai keuln-n • 
rather ki- olieii. is to lie tdentitiefl with KaWhil shorti-iir.; 
from KaWhil. plural of RiKll. a lion lor wolf) ' .\, 
cordiiiK to the /■,// rl-.tms the niy.ihll of the .\„ 
were those ' who Used to go on hostile expetlilions iijm k 
thi-.r li-i-t |.iiid .ilon.-l ■ 

.\rrordinj; to Ibn Sida the .Xndalusian (.lA'AX.i",' . 
■some s.iy that riUil means also one who is tin- ..:,;\ 
ohsprinK of his mother' [;.i-. opp of twin: el-Kust.ini; ■• 
Another siii;(;estnl origin is • jerahmeel' (Jl'H.Ml. ji j 
cp kl I- |se.- I ril Ilih I 

ill. Othei-s holil ihi- nanii- to lie compound. 1,0 'I'l- 
tirst element is t.ikeii by oMer writers to lie r*'fi in iln- 
sense of' iKohler, Ihr .V^'c* /./O'l*,!, 37 [i**'-"]. 
km-. /'A /Ti jqi ( 1H71 ii, or /-*''« in the s»-nse «.-f ' tli.. k ' 
.ki-dslob. Pi,- .irii.hcn S.inun. etc.. 8(1(184(11.: .1 
I Her writers to 1m' re'u" in the v-liM- of ' friend ' t K»'tU t, 
I>ti' H<l'i:euh lit\ieittii*iii ./ee lith.-h li^itinanu'i ./. . 
AT, 70) or r.ilher as a divine name'" (Sfi* l-.;.!* 
«i lo*. lAl The second h:ilf was identltieil by .\'sll>- 
i/i./>/. / n""".'*"'"- i'*7'ii with llin I = Hir. Hur. ly 
..iliiTs ikislsl.ili. iH^d: Kohler. i«(>7 ; Xue., 1H71' 
ll.iiitsm.i. 1S7I1 : Wi . (./ 1 1. . n. 21 with IVl. 

Thi- theory kt-uU-i com.uns the names ken .i;.i 

lU-l si-t-ms t.i merit consider.ltlon. .\ (Kirallel f..rm,i- 

-- . ti.iii'* is the name keu-i-I,''^ \\'h<ii ■.in- 

, .^V^ I'-memlK-rs the niv sidle. lt|.-li !!.,.! 

t. Form 

of itorles 

3#o [('.ell. 4:' 
1:1 i.,ii. SO14I. (KivSo. I ( 
var. poii^tfA : >\r, *■/*/-,■. 
•:3l|<^, in ® llul usually il 
liul I t'h. 11 4? poeOi]*'! (I 

iccllltt-d III contlei iHin w Itll till- 11 nil. • 
T"-rirailiti.inalf.nmsarc|3i|<-;(iovai|»|r.,\l'Kn.l, ! II.> lillilo k.-uel ..111- is led lo ask. M.iy n..| ll.t- 

N' some conlievlion li»*ivv(s-ii ki-u-el ;ind ki-ul-I''*' 

■ I here IS. Ill l.icl. iiolvvithsl.inihng the difference in llw 
tone of the n.irratiM-s, .1 straiiue ln-twi-tn lli.- 

■ allltuili- adoptisl tow.irds .Moses by ki-u-U-' .1 
the earlier story in Nu. Id and that adopteil by Moses 

K.l. -/i.« II. in 2 K. M .ifh. : K 
ill. I. I siiih. -»i*os, Ir !. » 111 
i. Rtihn ,- ^enlili. RaUlMBIM 
luislit-.i fr.'in ;lie ' pervinal ' f .rni, 
,-• ( IH,\1, J.isli :"-Ji (jov 
^lyi'irai (A1 \ J.-sepiius, oi ^iifiifiiTat. t\ povfli)At« ^vAi), 

The expl.inalioiis a.l'luce.l .Irendy 1$ 71 iiiiplv thai 
the tiii,il lonsoii.inl e.iriv pronomu.-d .is n. but 
Hos li^ .'1-, IO5 ni.ike il p,,.l..ilili- 111 the c.ise of 
Hethel the « whuh|i.-d l|si-lf in Ihe modern 
local prunuiui.iiion <lifiu*n iinik ih'- [ilaci- of /e.irly * 

The re.d origin of the n.inie i.s unknown i On the 
view- thii the li-tter n. H.iiilii;en (//.(// 5v, 
i8,8Hi conn. .Is with 111! .\raliic ku I..1 ^ 
t. MoanUls. |<|,|,,i,. I, |(-// Hj^m, j.,„„|,.,rin^ t(,,. ..rul- 
ing en m Yarded I KV ' lord. in 1. and so. Iiefore him. 
I,.iiid ( />.■ i'''./i O.I 1871, p jiiwho is rennn.t.-il .if 
Arab /-.;',;,* llie ins.-i iptmn. tilavr 30a, Ir.iiii 

ll.idak 111, sj,..,tks 

/. <l. s.insof k bii 


't I irilti' [3ii- 
'■ \'.vv..-ls unkn.iwn. 

I'/.f 4 n.> 47 
■|"he comiLtii-*.!' 

t I >ii !he 'ih.-i lull.!, wr must ttiiirm)K-r ihal Ihe V.I.I «l\ni.>- 
l.j^-is's i*e-t- i-.i'iK ., itilci.t (. p i.uns.-ll, 

4 I hr -fuwl .jiivi.iiis ..n ' lich'.l.l ' a son' is passr.l .,..-r : 
nam's -.vilh iiniierative- |t llshaus. I.ik'f-. 61 1). .'.llini.ill in 
.\ss\ri.Aii. .A.-rt- pr.flui'.tv ill Use|[ the fleliteu- (. p 
t;rn\, ffrX f^i, ^.y (irs«n. th..ii.;l.t ..f ''H- in ihr s.-ns*. ..f 
' pl.-vide.!,' Tilt (.'...^ i.\'t'^>timf gives I*ue3l», ..ijWl- wi.H 
(La.:. ■ 'S ■*! 

;i Hi: he Ihmk .1 '•k; ■K- (I -f ..^cnl : t^ Tar^ I .11 
.J..S,;. — C^J -"-.l .,t ]..,s, -K cm-' 

* » p llailli. I frM. Sim/.. « 10. 

' ' I' cm'. //''/'■ ;;'i4J< /v/.' ' f'lw. 

It \ .lanu- .-.iirrini^ svvcral times in the Tiiriii Iiati\r.:s .is 
borne l.y kings.. I the Ihineenth t*,v;jpllan.:\iiisij , .1 r.-semt/ ini,e 


t.i witi. It has licen ti.ilice.1 (.-.<•.. hy C. Niehllhr. A>». /.//f.-.. i 
.--.:. 1 1-U4I. anil. »ilh..lll .i).|ir..v,il. I.v Hall. .S7.'l I /' | iH,,)!!!),.. ,:,.., 1 
pl.tiisihly Is: . ..title, te.1 Willi k-nlH-ii - il is..f c..iitse a |k-'-.i.j: 
ti.inie. an.! is .l.ntl.tless l.i lie fea.l Wlm-rii' ('nsiliki .if Ri ). !■ 1 

I After this artti 1e was (inishevl the Wliler noticcti that li.ittb 
himself niaises this verv sii|ft;estl>ill {.Vh', end -if lull.; ,; le) 
with the s,»nie ex.itiiples. 

'- I p the (.crs..nal name ^k*ii* in the ito. ripii-.n fi. .11 s.s.i 
Hal. ui. /. 1. 

» the a.Kelit .,f KeilU-li w.e. L. reel,, ile, t.. 1,. .1: 

* It is 1.1 01 >. as hall s.-etiis tii iniplv. l-i la/.' I'-.t Ih- 
metaph.>rt. a! meant ni; .if ' l.i;;. I.ulkv , potttv . .« t.irpul. ■ ' . '" 
is assiiine.l 111 the K'.imns aii.l the /".*; .-/■'. 4eiij. 

■^ He ..miisires .Vr.ier. plural iifWr'.ir (cpaUive, CI. 1. .i- ■ 

« l^u.lleti h\ I-ine. .1./:-..., 

~ "lan titlhiuku unttntiAu ^i-ahjaku, 

- KeiiU-n iht- hr.llsi.n ..f I.e.ih. Heliecca ha.l l»;.i. 

a ( In I he s. .fieilinn .a cnniii.'l- when »-..r /.« . urs in it.v s..- . 
-.v..rd see Wi .Il '/- 1 ."7. (./ 1 .fl. . II. 4. w-s II. J. 

1" t p Uuval. A',-;-. .(.. !lih >ei. I» tr |i"«il; .\. Mei . 
./ . '.i./r //rti'-.ln -fj !i.-<u--). I p die male pr..|ier nan. k 
in ..f tlie tatilels 1 .iiit.iiiiini; ileeils .it s.ite. I.arlet. ...ei ...■■ 
veiih I'h.enii ian il.s kets in ; *< 4*; 14 .1 (ii.i . /. 1 1 1. k-.--..- 
the n tm<- ,'f all .\riniai. triiw- in die . I.ti ti'^i ,.pii..n .if liviKiih-pileser IM. • K.'iTs. Ku -.-a i uii< 
iiieiiii..iie.i lull e in -senii.-vi herii. * . lay prism 1 K. -".T -4 11 ;6. 

II Kell-l-lan.l H.-I..-1 ».r.- .Ile.l as tril-- t-.mes M 
lliulsina. • I -I. Ill .M i,>ain. Ih I In ,■/: (11^71^), t p-ii|.» 
'(>.V II .4?. f.! ii-i.<..l. 

I--' ( p lelii-el in 1 t'li.-.'T yi.i S JS « I-li |r.-a.l V- ^1 
quait. /i'A' II 144 n. l| -l.aaL 

1-1 The r.i..t -n- tlediru) uecurs ihrlie i;. the "• 
Keut«n m I icn. in j/. 

' Uh.ii IS 

SlllesI Ihl 

Ihe.- from 

llmU diK-s 

; referr. 
ninie kei 
general K 
iiiuniiv of 
iirst Imrn 
[•is-ible I. 
[1.11111 of set 
III.- reciigni 

I the criii 

-. lhedi~. 

' Ihe si. II 


4- the .inif.i 

V die s,u ,, 


6- Ihr lli,.,, 


listen ) 

^Vi- iii.iy ,, 

10 i.iiisii|,.r 11 ,r,„ 
I'f llic oceurri 
.' i-venis, * 
r.-'ii Ins.. -nee 
iin.l retonslru 
The \„. |,i , 

i-V.CIiple. Ihal k 

;,-' ''••I "• I'-iriV 
MC/I in ;iri.| ( ,„, 
nieans rh.,1 K,.„| 
bie llilliah si,,„ 
s .Itlmari), .„„|' 
heiii.iiTiiti I 
'<■ 1-ee Nvi.i, 
'elan, US of Kr„|, 

■" ..11 k,.,ii, 

'aal die .|..sephil 
l.s-jihiie, (half \ 
■ .- k.-ii)H-niies , 
"■i-is-.ilnsl H,:„| 
'iie Keuhcniles ..n 
.^lhes.i(j(h. |.,,^.j, 
»n.l lieneiralnl a, 
™aii- llul Ihe He 
.■ile.i,lile , l.ins ,, 
Xivi-sui, 1 |„. 

I lie irguinen 
«iih skill by .Si,., 
••! frioti plausi 
-'". for so hi^-h 
"I Ihl- legends ic 

:nvolv(s| are far . 
■wiiisl rompn-her 
"'i«- (see TIIIH4:. 
-'■■"- lie m:iv f». ,, 
• '<'-iilieti of .v,r, 

' ■"«■ fal, ,:,f Xi , 

•»-«i.riari..n .^-.Mi.hi,, 

■ eiller., 

llSirt, S4HI; 

■ ' i' th.. ..ises ..f \ 

. ;l the i,,,,,, 
( / .-mi-j,,/, ,„ 

I I, seems I,. |„ „ 
'--t-Mr\ infiisi,,,, jp 
rr -lelen. e. v.hi.f 
1" llie., ,,?__. ^)^ 

,'.''* ^,''" (.li-.v-e. c.i 

■ "' Keulwii s. 

■ ■ •■1.1.. as a hei, 

■' -'■ die ,li.^, 

' 's h„„ m,^ 

-:--7Tti,-n rt 

'' Sleiiernau 


• Wh..< .« th., tlunVlh * ;„r^^?"'' "»"B"Ph) in F,, ]g . 
.m.M ...ou .hv^lf* 1„ , .Vtrh'" """"'P'*' Why 

am.. k.M.I«.„, „ „ .nu-wZ^'Z'^^ '""■'""" '" "•« 

.mir.ilv„f ,„. hision' ' ''•'■ "^' "''"'"I'l h.,v.. a .,,„ 
nr,. I.,r„ „, l,,.^:''' ' "'^'"^"'«- ••»> »h.|.| ,„ ^""'^ 
1—1.1- ... l.„„« ■ ':'Lr"'"""" "'"' """h .. ^^ 

I-"" ..f «-.>,„,. K..,„..„ „"'«'" ""■ f»»,„... 
""■ 7"«"-.l r-,,r.« ,„.„.,. "^ l'""', I'l--"!".. to 

llirM- M„r„.^ s.-.-mi,,„,„ '••,*""■ 

■'""'-■""•'.If..... 1,„ ';,'■'"■" •'"•■ '".uuul 


flouri,,hr.| s..n.r i,n..- „,„. „ 
,*,"'' '"I ' «na a ,.la.e „ ."k; "■" '""•-V <ra<l..,.„„ 

^■--::;''^:;:::;"-a^':: -,;«■: 

1-.^' ■>MIII>1, I ,1 „(.'•"■'' •■''■""■Ills js Hill, ..,, 

r«miwni, for ihi« r^ 

'^•11 '^v^..■u,.r„:;, ;:;,:"?;''■*''•" - -> f-,h 

•".." pia„>,M., \, ,;;.'.";"'"'*■' "-r-s„i. 
; ')";'^ '.P h. i.u,h..r;';;',7.'"'i'" •!>•-'— 

'/.''-'..7./r^ A-.JT-.^. J., ,1 ,' 'r,'*^ f"W.- 

;■'' ■'"" f" r.,„.,„„ ,„i,l ,„, , , '". 'l"'-^'.'">» 

'■""r-l"- Hv,h., ,,';•;■ ■■'"' •"- '"•.-r 

■-' J'^M!,;;;;;:,J^"■v;;t--;-.. i.....,pp,..w , .h. 

,;:' ^■."". — .-n.v.,^^',;;;;:"';'-^-- .he K., > 

, ■"«' 'in 'v,\^r;n."'r'2''T "f •"- ".-. 

x^'f^-^r'i:\i:^'t ' "jv.i...i,^i.., „^,. 

' - '" "''•- "|..i ,f lUhA ".■''"' "r»" I.". 1..^. ir 

ih,-uKhi.,f. ,„ V,,",-'; ' •" •"<• !«.. s.,„s ii,,,;: 

^;.. ^•r..n,.. „a,„.. .,„.„,„„: ]Z'!n[ ',' "' '*'" 

^-'..T .. . .,11,., N., ;; ,^ ;:;' •^--.'..> .M,,:; 
* •■■""1 >.'.... >w„;,i^,\ ';,",'••"'■■. ,. ,„ 

'"i"» i( ij ,.,1,1, .,, ""''"■. ".11 (.( k. I, ,.,,. 

«.^ lli,.s„..„„| ,Lxx * "■ ' ".■■II H|«- |,.,r. 

;•;«--; .i.vv...';,'4v:;;,'*;:^j,f''-^'t'«t:^: 

■ ' -I'l: ■ Tl„. ,h,r,| a,„| ,.',„ ,\^ "■'>'■- *«^'» 

>":}' "^'■.■.'I'^n^r',:;;:";'"''^ ^^'-^i 

i;;j-'''"i...i..h „rX :;;■;:'• r ''';■"''•■■'- 

"'•"'".I. n.,t Iiuiah i» VL. .. "r'k'.'i.illv tc.1,1 ,,f 

•'—'<'. i. ,.;f..|; ■ ■'' •^"•"""■-gi'i M,«gc.M., ,A,»:.„;! 

\' «<■ V,,.,. !>, ,, 

■"..1 .h.- >™iir, ,^,.. , .,7/,l^ Keu:,,,,,., ,.f „,^ ^„;^""^;^» 


kt-ii I 

;'i.f«. i 

, .-."..r, VIII 

""■'••"' (••'""e, til) 


400 » 


Vt. II ] 


Nu. ■->« j-« 

I>»tlt.4n XKir^nt Nrinurl I ll.dl.^n A)>ir4ni 

Till-* iwilll oiiii'.*«l'>(l of Nftimtl'l iitffli* t'l U* llw* 
tk-h«-ilti- t^ill'irti-*! in \tl Irti, a* ur h.)\e il.' If ilin"*;!"-* 
in.l.-.-.l t.' I.- ...iii|.lu ili->l liv .111.1 IVIi 111 idii I'lUiu 
Unit; trtvili-ii .1* uiii oniKrt'-tt. anti I'lii-ih Iwitii; ^..'ii -i 
*i>:i 0\ [ ^ 1 ; .iii'l ihH h iH 1*111 su(>|M>M7tl t.i rcprcM-ut 
III.- V.I-.1.II1 .11 J I. ^■.. ii\i. //,t I 

Nu. I'll l.<- 111 Mil 




I latlian 

('Iihii^. h<m.-v.T. H.iv» ni'iliini; '>f Cii, iii.iy 
111 Nu lUi lii' .liir M .1 iii.irijiiiil >iri.ilU''; llw \.iniiit 
r*-|ii.-M-iUf'l li> <H rt.iiis .i-. ii> Alnr.'i ff.r 
.\ im ixif, h'lvi.i.-r < K i 

rii.- 1 liri.ii. i.T Ins .m>.li<-.l 1.1 til.- k.-ii!«iiilf 
g.';\ IW" ,ip|i»-ii.Ii.i'«, tr.i. iiii; tin* (wIii:!.-.' ..I i 
• • 1 < nk_ '.ft.ilii UlK«\il til .in .ilturuiM- uii- 
13. UlIiarOB.|^,_,,^,, ,,^.|, ,, ,h.,'.4-"i. lh<' "ilnT 
Ih-tIlijih .1 \. in. lilt f.irin nf tin- v.init- list (i-. ;/ . ; llius 

... , .(.-I 
r. ^ Mi...h 

r. 8 l-tl 

T-. 7 I /eh Iwfiah 

Thrre i-* mithjiR lo show wh.u Ufl ih** fhrnnicltr lo 
ctmiutt Iht-M' !i>i^ wilh keutn'O ,i|i(iri\. ///'A* -"57/ t. 
urili'tH it Ik* III*- tHr-rntrf In I ij^l.ilh-iHlfSt-r up a K. 
l.'iigf atiM th»- ci"i;r ijihuMl ri**iTfTir«-s m t <> /. 

With Mutiwiih. shiitiri Shema. aii-t /n tuttah iii^\ l«t,'>n>« 
turrii SharniiiUa l«n /.ntut, ihr •mith: tntti t » Ihc Kt*ubrititc 
'»(i\ iNij. 13«». ^mi Klii;«' '"-'i /i' fin. li.oni-. fu!:t («.!</./') 111.- k.uWM.iii- (i lli.'jTi't. Ihi III. ii.iiiiial <.mi«»i..t. ^.f 
a n:pir"»cnt.ilivr i»f Ktruiicn fr.nn thr U»t .if (ii\ ii!i-r\ i.f %irnHrrii 
PjifMiur > |t ( ivii. I I t 1 <I.i«l wntrn- rl. On thv litt 1 iit.-iiiiin.^ 
A'tirut** f" II ^hi/iiid I h. H 4v) m;«- » ii^> , ///'.V ^^9.'-. ^-tii ' p 
l>*.ii», # II (.Oil. 

\\ lifilit-r or hill ih*T«- ^^.l^ .i!m» .1 iIjmkv of a Iriln* 
krtiUii \Wih ti t-nt.-tfit l^lil■^^^^t• In u,i\ nl tin- Nfj-rl.. 
_^ — _. , , till- |>rr\.ii:iiii: iiw*»rv »'f III"' iirrMt'i 

"•*•"■■ K-iiiiiM in I I'al.^lii..- 

(riini .ilir'i,iil. lit 1 low < 'tn;ni li<iii uilh ( i.ul 1./ : . . Jj lit 
'Viw ijU*'*'lnJ»f' IwMrmi; -in tlir n-.ii t'tfr* (Jitum. ■unl 
ln-t*»rv '.f thf iM.j.iii itKMi ■'( I'. l',ii*'-titK- M'- \ikM I'ln- 
snl ti-t tt-rt*\\h«Tf *».\Ii. #J( 1-4). All ih.i! !■» ii»if".». iry 
h' rt- )■> itj atipplfitictit is Jiaiil Iht re ftiiii {! ut 
with ri*i;.tr ! lo ihi- f,C'-"i;r.i[»huMi il.iait-i Ki\.-n in 
MI'liHiTfrKf tn r.vU 'alwr hy the virious MexaifUih 


(>{ l!ar nan; t<mif> .ukiil t-a In tif! ahil Kr-tiU-n in 
Nu :|J ■»>• ar«- ti>!i! in ."tj -^ .' tfui ihi- iin-n <•( Knilit-n 
>»'P>u'.l th«" I-i^t ti\«* Mt-'.tu'N. Ki I \itit, "itiMMt 
(taliiil Sfinm m .. .-. Nfi*'. anil !ti'»N. with Oi*- 

I ^1. I,. 1^ .« pri-vhui* ■ "iiiiH". 

a 'an- 1 -•••• -that (■* !■> 'a>. ■•rtlMTf*!'* .\'-tr.»<»." k- .*i! : 
lUiti^'i tittti A>>iruiit. iht; -xm^ 'A l>Jub U<i(t •i<«l, tit*- i. ii >( 
K»!»7tt. Rillii. ttir %...,t,( .tJ ktMt«ti. 

* kiit.-I ( ■./.'(*/■ iH'-l..l. I-.,.* l.,ll..»» S)r .,n.l A...I.. i(> 
rc;ulttu; I .iffiii . Iml tKjt ni.i\ !>c ;m rmrtnlutt i!i (■«» llriinni;rr, 
A'//i , .«-/..■. t 

» pKrham Ulr. rp Ahin : !mt < n alv> lrh.i:uitlmn. 

* |*mtvii»t> ti.rrii"|« (<>* v«xa)- ^cc ^NUA 
T * .mtlMrtr I .)I. 4.^-^ n. ft, 



.iddii.on ' f KiRiATH.%iM ' A^ mniw^l aUi%c ^f a), all 
th«*^ -'1 i<i»n* irt Mo.iUd' \\\ W \U. j»*r. ■(«. 

1 Ilia If^t l«. Kt'Wetcr. tgMi>ic-t \*y V in tit< vnuntrratioti t}"-\\. 
3Uk : L |t IH. 44 t, tfivni I'V M'M«s)><t ihr ' • lll**> •>! r«lui;c uu! 
t j 'Oh. Ji ; /■ ' t I li. "7''/ I'jy.l* ttt*: ■ Uxiti'.ti iXUtaiij . H ■ < 

|l-> tn Irt k*ii\, } \H\l ( jahiuh in Jrt. 4'' ji», km* m. i 
({M-iti.t|n l-rf kiri.ah.tini Ifi^^^* *'>t CP'""' "'"X*"™"*' '" .!" 

•lHj;t,.UHl MKI-HA.MH t|tr.-»S,||, l,u( (w f>iailHr« IliniM It \, 
(lli«* .lv^lfcllrlt 111 .M' at. ill J«i. 4*. 

In I'h'i I.Jm Ji V cmitMMitiiH lo Uiliiw the It-rfit'-ry 
lit kiulit'a 

111 t;l^•« turn. tir«itli% tlir Icvitiial (ilic* juot inriili ' 
<?.th.i/. \|*th, Kr.i. iiK.ih Ki'i.>lh^ini'». fri-.. ttlir« ,.,. . 
Nu:t.''4.v I.. h.iM- l«^n ImiU r.y («»./' (Ar.wi, lht-.ii>. 
ftiwitfti^i I ' ti;i*l in I'tsh. Jl tv. • ^ t<. ilm j" | (Hr»h)N>n», 1 \.> 
.•••Mrfiifl tlMwhtri- l.> M.tali i.M»lJii>v, lUuoi ti.i. v\i , |:i > 
I' \AI Mf'S. Hi i .1 - u -HIM' IT 11). an.l ihr f..U..»irit »*■' 

/^ KI- IH---iMttAN 4"ni> h. !•->, A-'MI'-'I H-l-lw.AM (itUi iM . I , 

111- I M H--H tlh» tmriai-i'Ia' •■ "f M.****, .tnu *.vnr nf th. |^ 
lit*- i>«r^-«). Iitl "nlv "n*- ''f *'i» 'ilirs n41<1 In Nil. 3-' t; ' ^ 
hat«- l.rt-11 tmitt K\ k<iiUiM^i>> 

ll}*- tnnlrailu Units M-ik*' il iniiios-tMr in ronsim* i < 
mip. In i;inrnl Inms. Ii«>wr\ii, Mti.ii isdnnml t.-i 
Ki-uIhmi lies Mitliin 1% I lannt-tl tor (i.^ii ty.;\ )( i^ 
>.-•• the 111 Mailr. til/X. f.uinK p 140. » ;. 
Mtiji II' ii;«-t. i-iHU.:piM»UN^, ii>(/.f. II. W. 11 

REUELi^VH: pAn»VMA MUDKriK i. Th.'i.r- 
s. in!fu.iH'>n of a dan in Kdoniiti* and Arabian tcrrit ■r\ 
wliiih. urortliiit; in Wiiu kUr [H/ 1 .(i .1 ii»Ti\fl l^ 
n.unt; from a ilivint* nam** k«'it ( ^ 'u^ in 'ft^Sr. * • '. 
IHn an*l y^ in "^rir kiuUI' (tni»* form ui ■;■»" 
k*'uU-n 'ji. I his r»pl,»n,ilion. hoM»-\iT. i^ iiucni).;. ti- 
lioili 'mV* I*"'* >3'ir art", judi^inK frtun nuni* r •. 
rui.ilogu** in Iwitiv traitsnnlttil«*s. oiirnpti'-n^ -I 
■•ittr*' iJ'TdhaH- ' II, .iml tlif iiune uri;;m ij.itut.j'ly 
sUK'Rt-sU ilvlf lor Snjr ikr'iiVli. Stv, liour^.r. 
Namks. j( 47, ami <p K^.l HKN. % 9. In thf (^» n. 
Io(;inl s\>ii 111 kruil is U"lh a son (if Y.y.v: In 
|i.U4inalh ('•<'" 3«i4 1 • n 17 ' ' '' ' J5 i7> ;'i>'l "!■■ 
f.ith«^r of Mom** InthiT in lau MoUib, Nu. 10>, jlj 
wh^'ri- ' Muli.itiitr ■ shouWl ;MTti.ips U- " Krnili''* f |u.!i! 
1 ii 4ii». In K\. Ji i€**' t<»/'o(it. • kcut-r ihtir I iKut 
IS purzlmR. On Ihr pritHipUs (if IiUr.iiy an.iU ;- 1 
(I'M unwnls we assuirw- Ihal k»*ii»-l is ,\ hiimnnistn iiis.r 
iioh. kfU' 1 lit-mii; ht*r«; rcpr* s.-nlfii l>y thr rr(IacTi>? ik- 
.IS (uUfi oi /ipjKtrah. in "t-itr (l)<tt IIohah [y' ; j t"! 
Il- IilK'i I-/ :• ] n»;»y l»<>lii Ik- trf'U.iriS.iiilaw \ t 
ron'-tsti-nrv » Siiki- thi- ms<Ttion iniKhl alvi 1 'i r.> 
iN-t-n in T. t'*. wlii-r** onKin.iUy IIm1i,iI> \\ ^. ii,tii- 
for tli»- I iitit-r in Isv* of M<imsi muM havi* sii«»<i^ 

.- Ktlh-T -f l-.i M-..AI-H. a tnidilc i hief (\u *iii fl"j h 
Nu. 1 14 uls't, h.i- ^Y«vfA »lH-re MT ha* *>¥e>'^ (I •• it ^ 
s.' !■»•> in T |7 47 It* J-) 

> \ H-iHimit. 11 Cli. t*^). I k ■ 

BEUMAH -npJlir, p£HPA fAl. MA [/'I-; iht 

toiuud If 'f N \Hi>K 1./.: I , (I'll -X'l.A- 

REVELATION, BOOE OF. Ss Ai-ck \i vrst 

REZEPHi^ilT: i" Ki. pa<|>€il- [IW.]- PA(t>ti, i!".'" 
-Ct»I\l. inl~ PAit>tH IHt/'"!], -n<: |A], -f, (X-.-*/ 
iu« ti(ioiii->l liv (-ti\u\ s Ui-nip. llt*/i-ki.tli 1 ,41111 li*: 
oih**r pl.iM". fU*slro\.-*| (ly Srnnai IktiIi's pri-iU-i.. v-..- - 
(J K.l'.'i/ |->,.*l7i.-' Il IS usirdly iitenntits! wrtl. \\f 
tmift A'-'». -//»/*; ri-|.i-.iiril!y im-ulionttl in tin- tuti'-J^f^i 
iiiMripii'ins up I H'J /'.;/• ,^i>7, S* hr A //- ;,■- 
aii'l t!ip name has lii*»'n toun<i m llw Ainarnn IdM' 
ihioi m a U-M»-i ffftni Tarhnnilar.m^ Arsipi l" Virnv, 
huttp HI. ol I.K>pl. Wilh Uiis pl.Kc wi- 11. a .Ilm!.!* 

' IVrKa|w III.- !itl- iliit luil ..rij;ni.i!ly a^irt- k^f: Mi.ui.'- 

Ii.n ■ in- IT till- |ii,i. .- inillpin! ill f. ; tiV Seiu««i. V: iiu >- 

III r - siintti> .4ii>i(-ii -tt thtr riuJ >.f ihc iitJ. 

• ) i..! Hhrrr unlv in t h- - »-, wtirTe it may he a t-i.jrii;[>i: '; ■'' 
K.'i'i'«-h : *-r*- Kn»*.M"TM 

' IIuil^oui l//i. /. /ifMt.At. lOga) sImi cotniiar'- V- * 

li immt-1. hi'wrvrf icjujfii a >. AraUan iwr-'-njal ti.M- • -» .■ 

* .Sii H.!,. V .mm. nil Juily. I I- /., whua»»uiiit^liR ■ ■■ i 
(rf :.ii «tit..r. 

•• In < .rn. :;;i i A^b imc o* the •.wi* lit iivoan W (.a. I'--- keu*-- 
^' h.c ^oovf i|A|. 



u-iiiiii „| K. villi, ai„| ii,,. , , "iiiut 1,1 1)^ 

^^"iT"'-" 1'"-' " , ,7u"" """ "■"■"" 

"""•'p'»-K-v ,i„ ; ; , ";' ,'»■■'"'''> ... .»..«,- 

'"B "»• K'.-.Kr,,,l.,.,.l ,„.., ;„,",':"•>■'" "-""'^nar. 

« .^..., • K..,,h ^/,C .',,,"'■;'', '''"■ -^ ^^•""•" 
'""tmr- Of ■ lel„,,l„„' " \ '■'■"»■'' ■''«•• IH. 
•|-|*r»ih.' Of ||„. .. ' '"" "'■ '^riM.f f„r 

V aIx:;^:;;;:;'-'^;...'.;:.'^^':;::::;:-:::, 

""•ir..i,,..|rw„,,i. fu.. ,.**'"• ■""' ip f((/ A,/ 

r- .^.ht.;;:.;v'"^r''' ---"-^v:,t::'t ■■'■''''^•' 

BEaA, K\KJ«l»(M«\rt . „ . IK. (. 

'^■"•■•'I'Wof.U.,.,.,.,, ."■ • T''''.* f"-^'-J'' "' 

^' ^ M A«. A-., - .J; ''*,'• f 1; • ■^; ':'■ ■ !'' "• '•-"" ■'. 

'•"■■h. II i»,,, ,,, ,, ^ ,"'■ '•'''•■ ""• Ml „ I, 

:• ""•'"- ».„, ivk!!l'^':,jl'^«'i^'''" •''■'""-« 

|""» •\h.ii. kii.K ,.f r„,..i, T '"•'«•" ■•'T.-.l ,,, ,,>..,. 

K'-pny .rf l,auh, 1,111 1^,. .' " "allv iiu p.,,. ,,f ,,, 

Hletl t>«..»u.-.c II «. .1.1 ,„,.., I I" •^'■M'U-, h.jHrVtf ij, ,• ,. 

■■' ►••'»i.. ui! >,;'•, -J""!';'-' ■" 'I- -ii ,: ,:.'::'^ 


'"'"■'""1. lUM .,.,,,,,'''>■•'""■■".«.„ 

""'lli.r.i .\r,,i„.,,.,„ » '' -^''"l r-SarO |,„„ ,„ ^ 

'^«'"«l ji 1 ,||,.,J J 

^- Aral,,.,,,, .,,,1 ,1 I V"l'"""" "'■" '■■ H , „ i'^";*"' 

"■■t.l:' ; ,: n;:'},^'"7'V'-' «-". !^t.,: ;„t""^ ■"■•, -^ 

'■' ' "" a.|i.»u,y lu .s.,l,..,„„, -."'■"> uf 

iif !• . . .*.. I . . . >ii"ii. , 

■ ■ !'..>. ir.:,.i;:"-",;'"",'.'"i'"«"-y ro.s.'; , ^, , 

-—-;■. »i,iii^ ,4 lsr»«l 11 


A '/■"',,,.,. ' *''•■■ ti'. ''"•"■', ■w;,,ri:,:;; ',';';'..f|,';" 

llilim^^^"' '''"'"ION. AclsJ.S,,) A, ' "^ '■ 

■'^r«.:'r./".:':,:r''^ ••■--:;;:':.;:;;:: 

■•«•.. al«.,r „ ,„,.„,^ K.„,,n ■'■ •^"•' «" 

''''■■'--^'<...: .;» ^:*':;■7"''''^'•'^'-''•--- 
«_..> -urrns.,, |,, „,.. aM.,,,,, ,' . Vl'T ."^ l"l'ula„.,„ 

--.n.^MH,!.,,,,.!,,;:;:,};:;':-,- .-..un. , 

'"»iM .1- .1 M,l,^„l,.r.,|.|.. ,„ ,u,, ,'':'■" ''"'niimi,,! 

«""l f-r It,.. „..,r„« „„,,, ' ' '"' ' '• ■'" "■"""l- f... a 
-■ ma l.,r,.„ .hi, .,?^M "'^'' "'"•'' f'f » '.1 ..f 

".Ill ihr,^ ,., ,. ,, 

' ^ -r the (lirTl. 

'*"^-Tri V. tr, 




Tit- !t. *(^u»rt fr«tirMn« in ItalUm, ■ um Kttfium, d«in PuituUi* 
•fMrarU nav« «p^|ia*«i, H.mmii whI* i<.mi«mlti \ 

W I W 
BWM A (pHCA- It WH>, A namr in ihr K<'tM**>t*^) 

of jrMi^ , t k :tj7 Stf (iKNkAl ih;|»i» It . I 3. 

EHUIOOIKOTlU :M7. A\"- >rr 

KHODA (pr^H- r> Will. Ihr imdic* of \\w hmmI 
(fTAlilCKH* ^h" -iiitAff I'll the il<M>r \i htrii iVii'r Wiiuckt <t, 
Ail* I'in^ tn olif cif ttti- li«t<« •>( the wwittv' It l^t 

tt.ilnl M.irk h.vl .1 mmit (.illiMt Kh<Nl.i (nt- 1.i|J'>iu , 
.kp>'kr .If tiiuk . Kr|{.in/uni{ithi'fl, dH. 

EHODBS (poAoct I t'^ltt' tixl iMip«> i»lui<). 
Ivint; III On* Mnilh t-.(«tt*rii .KtftMii txiw fMri i.itlfl Oh? 
Cutuitii.iii StM I. .ilMtitt I J 111 ili^l.itit fr'iiit tin- it*.i<>l •'/ 
A*\.\ \Ini'>r ; nirnti'>ru-il only hh ultnlly i» ttw \ I i Xit* 
*il 1 1 After Ir.tvifitc < "h. Ihr >»h<|> in vthxli t'.iul 
VfkV-iRtil to |ViIf'<«tim* ftoiii Mdi t-<lt)in.i t<>u<l)'<) -it 
Khtilt*^, whu h w.u .tti|).trt'nil\ ln-r l.t^t |»iirl -.f iil! U l'»rf, ulx'tf r.itil tr.iiitliiiiiMil 1 hi* \.iiiit- ii.iiih- •*.*» 
.ippUdl If'ih to th)- i^liml .imt iii (.ipit.-il ; Iml itroUihly 
liw t.iittr \s iiuMiit in Ihi* pl,u«' It sX'»y*\ .it llw 
n<*rihrrn cviirmitv <>f thu Ulantl. MhtTt- .i l<>n^ p<>inl 
run^oiit t<i« iT'l* * in. I lUv . iiy ii..-»m'.m-.| two 4hii*f 
h.irUnir^, Imih on iIm* im'^Iitm ^ult- of th.* {iritmimlor\. 
Ihr foiin<I.ilii»n of thf iit\ of Kho4U-<» U"* H* \ »■»» 
ctm* to thf Joint .uUon of On- .tin i»nt kho* |o\%n* of 
I.itii|o<t. |.i!\ vt* .ihcl 4 ".iinirtH* 1 1 Mil Su . l.'l'o ' Ih*- 
font** whifh. otttM.irdIv .il !t.i»i. h nl IhHm rlo Im-^ ;i 
iliviilt^l, *rrf now ion«'i*«-t|, ,iii>l Iht- hikhI rffimt^ of 
thi* ronc('ntr.ition for ihv i-luni, .i* will ,is 1 ir (irrnr 
m I' wert; vNm to .ii>[ dlohn, o> //i*f.. V l. 

4 4 If 

Tlic ifreat pi)rtt(;%l im|)i>ri»ri r >•( ihc new lity itr^JiuM) 

aa^rrlnl ilwl.' Uutt'nl ihe f milh ir-i(ii %, .iixl \ty Ak^itfitlrr -. 
tiiiia tl 'k-i <iiiir thr tirol |» rti r iti the .l'.;;ran, -itut ,i 
ik-i.i»iv« fj' tir I |li<Ht Ml. _M - 1 wt(t*tt»\tTO% Toit Jvitt«r«t| «<it 
ji«iyiAtw#tV iff- *m*fmv WfvdutnK <•< fV* ivrov AiAiav «^»otfA«ff 
^ifff#a(). N< ^rc It w-i« iKc rrutil.itioti 'pf lh« < il> lluit 
Alrsanilrr »h—^ il .i- l(»r pUt c "' .U|»«'«lt ••( hi* »il! Ih«- 
r<iit)mrr> 1.4I iiii|»' ri.tnt r nf itir pl.ur it iitilu-ilnl t>) thr f>t< t <'f 
th'* inir.ilut ti>>ri 'if a ticw |Kh.MlUn) hi.itk<!aril -'f ■"ittaijc; 
Kh tl'.iri « .III'. ,ire rriiu»fk.iMf f..r ihrir l*.nity |<m;v *m thi« 
11. -Im, .'/, ,if. :i4^„ .4m) ll«,vl, //itf XuM»i , ».r:). 

I hf (.<mim>-rt lal rcl.itionH of Kl»of|t-« wrrt- iirini.ip.illv 
with Kii*l>t. ttiit in f.ul ihi- |H>\iiion of tlu- 
island in Xhv iiikI Mrt.mi of nurtimH- tr.ittii: Uiui-en thr 
K. .ui<i lh»' \V. .I'.siirtHi htT jiro^iUfrily. an*! this, 
roiiitiincd Mitti ^'mmI >{ovi*riniit*tit at hoiitt* .mil a hjs** 
fort'itjn (jolicy, hftnl ht-r lo a )Mtitition an.ilo^out to ih it 
iif Vrnuf in latrr tinir^ I'hv kh'Mh^m h.irliotir^ 
wt'nMNl lo have Iw^-n ik'siKnnl hy Naturi* to attrait tlw 
ships of Ionia, I ana. Ki;ypt. I'vprus, .tml llMnina 
j Arislfhl. fChtnt. uM. 'iixI the tonMtt>*Mt imht y of 
nrutr.ihty. tiroken only tiy .igitrous -iikI tli*(t<kivf attion 
when the |»eaie .uxl freedoni of Itie se.i'i wrreriHtniineml, 
attra\le<l foreign nuTth.uils. .inioii^ uIiimm we in.iy Im* 

stire. tllov* of Jewish n.llloli.iltlv were 1 oi|\|n< tloiiH 

tl -NfaiT l.'ijtl; young men were rejiul.iriv si-nt to Kh'xle^ 
to le.iri) hiisiness I'lant lA/. . prol 11 « ^h'»*)*-H iti'l 
in the K what Rome iImJ in ihe W in ke*pi../ ». ■■m<i 
i of pirale^t iSh il»o, f'^3. fd \»;rfTij^a »&**». >< , i p 
I'"*!. Ii.*(. Her mantime l.i» was I.irj;' U "i-jleil 1»\ 
the Koiiianii u-p Pm.i xiv 'Jyi ; and th'- prut.ip-e of 
general a^era^e, f. -r cx.iniple. is KhiHluui a\ oriKm. 
\Ml)i (iroUihlv iiiut h eUe U) hHxlerii ita>>.tl t.iw 
» innol now Ijt* rtl 

Hh'"!'"* i^ ronnei t»-d w iih Iwopi -iges in the life of 
\Ux'-\ lif ' .rtMi W hi-n 011 hi^ u <\ to U.\\ \v 
tonintiiited lit»'r.ill> tow.ird^ ihi- n-vlor.itions rend.-dd 
nfif^s.irv lo r>*|Kitr the rav.ii;c"* of <'as«iii^ in 43 M < 
i \pp. /" l:v: riul firit/ loi Ii w,is at Kho*l'> 
also llitl .iHer Ihe JMllle of AillllITl I ^1 H< t h»- 
flie 111' •till t,' wiih AtiL^ii-'ius u|Min whii h v> nnii h 
deiMti'liil I>ii lititi I |o:t tif \\ H' < It WIS ill Khodt s 

t .Xri'lher form uf the iiaine in tla»j.ual Ittrr^ittn-' i» Rh-.«lii» 
(flioio%, t' m.U It m;i<. tmrrir N\ .1 ilaU|{titrr iit I'^m:)'!. >n, Utitt >>>' 
on* .>f the IUiui'U(*cc ."smith /»/. /, r.V. am.^ A\"m. /i>.^r., j.r ). 


lh.1l AniUKhui VII. SKlrtr«(kinK of Syria, i |AiiS n.i .). 
ton of Ilrmeinu« I . hrard o( th«- inifirikoiinieiii of his 
liritlhrr iHrnMfniM II. ». .iml s»iil Mier\ from /Af »i/»> 
■/ /<lr u.i unlit MnuHi iht* prHsi aiitl uiAeriiof id thr 
jew^. IS told in I M.IH I5i / op \pp .Syr hH) 

the KholMii* ^.(ll»r«l It |t(i»il«|fr<l ^»ltl<fti .>« .tllMs i>( k> n. 
in Ihv M »> »ili 'iiMii 4Mtl Mlihrtil.4lli «.ir«, IhiI %»rrr tlc|»fi%rtl . t 
ihrii pxlllti jl Ifcrtlom h) I Uu<lliitl44 t.('.)f.)r ihr < iiuilt%|..M 
■ if It-mMii •ili#rri< llh'i I js>. Ik 24 4i '>i th %.ii. itii* « <. 
rrMorol I" ihrni I l\i> .tmm 1 .' ^n : ' rviht .1 Hhi>)H^ lil«ri.«-. 
mlviiipij \«pK 4Ul firiiutJ. |iiiiul Ullii> r«trrni« nwru rum .1.) 
(it'Pii '«ilill>iiic ■Irtiiiitcf.iiti ). t h*- isUnd M^a ltruitl> rritu>>.: 
lo a |if>>«i»> r (' • -, nuKlr |iurl <>l ihr (ir"«iit4 « (4 \*ui) 
VK»|M>.l.4n Ourl. / cjA fi. Its tirr.*! iitipurt^nt * in thr r-ii \ 
Km|Hfr «.i« h'.iiliril lhr»ni{)l ll< u h xls >>f rhrturi* , *» lliat I 
\lhvn* ihniugh ht-r m (ii«i|. <>f jttiiii>«'>ti)i> . 

/ ittr^tH't, I Nt »l«m. f r,rf%ii ttm./ l^tn-ifffiti $m th 
I n-^mt, \•^. 1; *- l.'»r. Sk*Hit* it .\m.i,mt fi$mrM {K'.ktn 
f<«^>; M"lm. t.*. ///I/ . > I, « ♦"l^. tihr W*i «h>>ri wtount . 
Ki»glish»: M.»\, i.'.v* /./> a*/ /4o»r4/. 'h^p I'*, K- - 
A'titf$ * SfHitifm •!«/./.• /■, Sr/ **n feH»H|idii .u' 

•^■r i...r.t'.<t //^•pi'A'.u- .y * S. «///*»., Sv'/ Anvi-M 

rinlh-rtt\ . '»ir,(l*., p. nn*/. W. J. H. 

EBODOOVS ipii&OMii: (AV]i a Nw whi> Ijrtr.n. ' 

the pi itiN of lu'las the Manatut t.i Xiilim ht|s lup.1l 
jjMu. I:I.i! C*n the dis4<i\er\ of lu*t irearhery i 

M.l* llllpflsolh d 

EHODUIn M.ui 1:.^ 1. kV kiioM^v 
KIBAI i'5*^' d»'- f.iiii'T of hiAi 1/ r t tas 'j.t . 
P€iBa |H] tpiBA n 1 oni \ , I ( h U u. piBit |lii 
pABtiAilWJ- pmBaiIA]. p(BAT( < oni(«nni; ^ 
III j> Wf max w:th .\lari|U.iit ('•-'/</. jo» i. ^i 
.-.^. sit h KtM \l 

RIBBAND i'^*np>. uM'din \u ITm- AV of ihi- f . ;■ 
(40 kVi of Mil* worn niton the I KtM.f s (./ i- ]. 

>'..r uthcr u«ag«*<'f ibt Hrl>. f.i/k.,' *cr HkA^i' i.»Ts, j,i • t , 

EIBLAB .""^3"*; ofienexi AiBAAeA ll^AH.dl ' 
and always 'I>il»i.ilh m !'» , on Nu lU n "'■ 
U-loH I A iiiv Ml till- letrttorx ••( ll.on.tih I J K 'J^t 
o^Xaa [I'-l «*,^\oo [.X]:' '-T*^ i#,»a#.-(\arfa^ jH! -., 
«..'(\<i''a |AI.|. . jt pffi\at*a H). |. r ;»M. ^ ( If,. . . 
0oi)i |..nilr ^« I IheiHl , <»..iii |. .Vj.)4t.<0**a|K' 
.V2i 3«.< . 0a [y ' It IS h.irtlU iiosmI.U- m our I" I 
!«pate to K>^*' the re.idrr a just ■<!• m of the th-w prohUiiit 
coMtietletl Willi ihe ii.imt* t»f KiM.ih. 

W h< ihri d* f.rr«*i|jii kihic nh-t ilnhr.'nr.i Irh.Kihu/ wa- »■ .< S 
N'c-i h", Wiii^ of I- i£Vpl, h.f> l)r< . tiK- ralhi-r un< t.-riuni (sc« /i t - 
Ki\nV K-r C^iC. .Mi/i*im ti . . Kut^^rf), »« shtulij |Kr i- 
ill J K- 'i'^ .4, aft in »<>ni.iny [it)u-r |w««atirs, rrad C*^VS, Mi/tut, 
rp Mi/ttAiM, I ? .* It w«v (M»»«ililv, Iff e%rii j»f:'lia>i|\ , .» N 
\'i.tri kiii|£ 1 ^llril Pir'u. n>>l »n Ktf>l>lian liwraitl) <*h.i 
t-ToUiChf ihi- Liiij^iloni of liwUh iiiM ta<.wiLgr. If m> ' ki) 
liu> t<r a (h.pular i.irrsipl|i.n of ' jrrahmrrl * Il %\ p' t I- ". 
|>o*,tI'lr -I (* thai Ifi ihr othrr (lAs-aite-. whcfr »s« 
ixMir* 'Kti'l.ih' dioiilil U irmrixlrtt inln 'jcrahntrri' 1 1.- 
ari ouiiU uf Kci'i^raphii .il )>i>iiii(l.iilr -."ft aiuutn in ihr O I .>o 
tiern, it «"iiUt sr«-ni, «>«ltfnta(i> .liU 1 '<rtt-i i<tl. t;i u^knI t.tith. 
hut in ' <>iiiph-|r mis;tpprrhri»|i<n ■ -1 thr il.w urnrnl'.. 

If we .issunu*. however. pto\ision.illy. the dat,i of th.- l)\l. how sh.ilt w** e\pl.iiii iheiii ? In tti:^ 

taw. ' kilil.dl' will If repiesftll»-d liV ihe jKXir v.'.iaj^tf 

of kil>leh, on the K, Uink of the \.tkr e/'.hi 
(Oronlesi (4 ni M. of liiallNt It hrrt 
Net ho put jelio.du/ ih chains (J K 'J^ttti .ind Nim 
iM\iiKi//AK ly: ) Mtnir twenty year-. later nuul. )u^ 
headipi irters when he « .inie to ipwll the 
re\oli ^ Mere /edekl.lh saw Ins sons si. nil 13 K.'J.'-'^- 
Jer 'VJ t. f' -.'il'y / I .ind ii-rlain oftutri .nitt jn- [-If 
from feruvdem wete put lo death (3 K liTiJu/ - It-r 

I jfAAoHn iv i.trnlitirti hv a ■»« h'lliast .n i K. '.*.'• i-i In ■ h! u\ 
widi l».*|»lin«- th« suirtirh -f .\nli<»th in Njiia; tp Jrt.-inr ,;i 
Nu. Mm 

* .\h ei-M ri()li-*(i "i Nt'hu' hi«lr«/»ar fimn^t in dir U aiU IUum 
(on ihr f. of | rrtrrs to ihr drva-.talMm wruuKhi J"' ''■% 
thr ..-.In-, of |rK..«i..n h\ .1 i:>tK\^n f---. aii.l dir rtn;ht t \\r 
llihahilaras. Nrhiii h.t.lrrz/aio (sri to Kihiali v.\ '<^\ 
if hlxtufnitl. «.!« !-■ trfiair thr ilain.ihir .lone aini lo rii. i.riw 
the |>opii).ilii>ti of l.rhjiioii »hii \\ pr-iliuhtv r^si»lrtl d**- ' -inw. 
f.w ■ ami »iiffrrr.I a. t ii-linulv- Ihr * forrtttti f'w' mil-l Havf 
liwi .\rih>» (Wi. W( '/• %i4/i'.» Thi», hciwevrr. niu»l if -■ ■ 
tpptnl with somv t nil. al rfscrxr. 



br ,n^, „ /lx7 "V::"""- ""-l-l '"UmlJ 

^»;M ... .„.,.,„„ .!r,r „,."%/•;:;"" „■•"•' " 

« l-"t ■•'-I- .)„. |.r.M..|,.r |.f,.l„.„, ,,. .^ " 

'"'"' " - - "'.. ;;rl,':ur,i:;',":"« 

""■ '•"•"""« '""n-l-.l. .....I „.., ,„ K,' I ,,, ■ ,,L ' 

"■•''"•"""■ » II km.*,, ,„ \,„.J'l , ,"«"l«hl 

^"t:r " '"•"'' <• " "-^-T^u :'^;: ' ';tv"i" 

nr ..«,X« a. ,, ,„„„ ,,,, ,.„. •'*"' JJJi4' ■( \rl. I,, 

'•' "• !«>« •- *...„;:., ' ,-:;'c;:"'r;'^ •"•■ 

mir ilif iM,, (,.„ i,,,,„„ "" '" •^" "•■mi.ii 

H' i«iiir» 111 ii,- ,^.,.1, , ' ''"'• "• »ll 

"' .'"M.,,,:,,;:;.;::!:':-^", ;--«•• ''i^;;^.:. ..■„. 

f"i ...llr,l |,u-l Arl.l 1 n„, ; ** '^" '''"...mi K ,„ 
'»". .1- ..l.n„H. .,„„,. ;, .„„':';;," - ■"-" ■•• ^ 


' rnlitlr l.v Ihr |leUf». .1 1. . . 1 

•-1..-.. ...... „ ..r:, ,.,'?;; ;;"'»•• •■-"•< -.> 

'i.tli..w «.. ,h,,.,|,, ,,, I „ '"'•-'•..itl.ll »,,. „,rt ,., 

•:-7"- <rr: ••'■';,■:;•;::■: / 

■'>>Mi>..l. l|„,|„ .1,. ... .' "" '."..•Ml, .»,, „( 

I "Ml ...■rli;,.;;7v ■';;'■'•''•. -km 

V" •"' "'"' '■. II..- Vh. , v„ '— I"'".-*./ 

"" ■'■.IK .4.,, V' "'■'"""•-•••• '..l.„ .1.,, 

) >^ I.I' |„,,„ «.|,„ ?„,■.'•'■• ''l—h<«, a,„|,h. 

.Il„..,...„l In Nu. .-•m*):.. ,7,. ''^''T ■""■■> ■ ■•l"..l.. W 

«■■ I'-k f..r „ ,..,lH.r ir ,Z\ "'""',""• «'••" 
''■»'il. I OCX*. I). IS,,/ ... %!.. ' n.irtil 

KTOOLB .«n.M n„„. „„,„ j„ ,..y , 
n,>oSAMMA. K/>-k 17^ k IIU'lR Ilii-i,, 

Ihr ..,,,1 „.,, ,„„,|,^. / I ■, 

^..-n., ,..„,„, .;L'i:*'i ;'','»«•••"''•»'. •-.,■,1.^1, 
u- ..I "..■..n...rTh;' ?;;,'',:;'''''■■■' ■'"•-'• -m.- 

'I-.M.....I .l»- «„„. , ' ' " ' " ' ■ ' ■' "'''"■• ..^ »e 

^ 10, ...h » ,, . ■ '"'""' ■'^•'•■' ' 

'v/. H.- . Mill ..■ff, Ml,: ,"""•""•■" " •■'- 

"•• im. *-....;,;, 1, ;,r:"- "■;• <"' < > 

^'^'r;r;;j-^ i-r-- ""' -^ -"'^"-;;:" 

\ |...,.,l.|,.^.,s ,„ I,. I," ,■' """■■'' I'f'l'l'". I 

:;;";-'..i.....ry ..I ;;:r ;'[:::::;;;;;•';•-;;;; I 

•' ".'I l.i,M.r..i„,..h,, .,f „,„„ „, , ,'. ',, "" ; 

K ,.l,„ P. r;':;V^.'''^r ;■■:■■"■'"''■••■-'• ' 

KIC "• I iir (HI,*. ,n \V i I. * a I 

WOHT. BIOHTEOnSMEM 1 1„ in, ^ *' , 

'""<>■ -...I.M, ",„; ,■"'■;;."."""" ■" """"■"■ 

-v ^^-.-ir;;:',,;": ,.^7.-;; •;•■'-• ... 

:;:,;;■ ;r'""" "' y'oT::::-!::::':^ 

,..,. r« ..,.. u nr«. V-. -4 ^^•",;'': ■ "i;:-v~ c"' "■• 

' ' '" ■^'■"' llamas,,,,). 

'—I ••■-.I.!- .,..;,.';:,;::,:■;"""•■" "■ ••- 

'"f llii-,r «,,„|, |_.. ,„,,. , ,, ^' ^' ll"-.n,Miiiiii. 




:^^ 1653 Eosl Mom Street 

^^ RochMter, New York U609 USA 

^S (716) 482 - 030O - Phone 

^S (716) 288- 5989 - Fqk 


Ml o.nij. Hi.ato! frniii ■ custiiiii,' ■ cj'.iscrvaiu of ri-coniiisr-cl 
11-. ;:;.-, I i;i,-y M.„„l |,,r .llj.vllulc JUbll L- .lljd tin' ni.m 
ol lili'.il urtiR'. .iM.ilcii;ii-s ol)vioii,iv apjicir ui 
til- I.UMi /u,/ui, :iiid 111 imr own tjriiis Tiijlil,' 
' ni;litruas.' i-ic. 

It isiKml.lliil wli,-thr-r, c.f l]ir |>immi1 vx- 
US'- -\i ■. , 11^1. .-ill.. lit ttiiii -i plivvnai ii'Ulii - stiil survive 
2. Development '" "'■,"■';'*■ l.-''^- I" ■" Iv.k, Lm ,, 

of meaning. ' ''^ '^■' '"I"'"'- ' 'Y^' «i'N'i"-' •■•^ ■ ■ 
,11.-. oiiiirhMih ijil'itol :iscase-.lli puiiil. 
Ill" |).i"ii;.-,. lioAiv.i, all! lale, aii.l as the Lniilia^ti-il 
liuliMii ol nil (lilty OLCiirs ill l!lf iniiiirdiali' cnlUvM. ;t 
is In no niraiii ck-ar that «i- .sli.-uld not traaslate 
■ iii;lit'-'ims l>al iiKi-s,' i-tc. .Siiinlarly ■ paths of .,./ v ' in 
I's. j!ij may iiii-an 'paths of riHhtuuusness.' not sinipiv 
•siial^lii paths.' .Siill less c-.iii Jo<-! :;..,; !«.• alli-gcil as 
an I'vainpli- of t,',f.ii:iii in its on^';— /.,■., phvsjcal — 
sijjnilication. for ti.i; Iraii^iatioi, f;iM-n liv Isaul/stll 
■iMilv r.iin in fall nii-isiire' is inoiv tli.i'n doulitful. 
\\'- 111 ay [x-rli.ips acqniisii' in the trans). ilion 'i-arlv 
run lor your justitiiatioir— -.f. , m proof tiial V.ihwi' 
li.i^ onceinoieKracioiisly aio-ptt-il his pi-opli- (so WVllh., .mil .Snicml, .1 T A',/.-X'«/i. 419//:). 

I'.l^siin,' fn.iii 111,- i,l,.,i of (■.infornntv t.i a phvsic.1l 
stinil.ird, \M- li.ivi- 10 note ili,. nse of the- pin. ,.-./.:/.: .'/i 
(r'p;ii in till- i-ailiost frn^nifiit of l|,.|,i,-vv lit.-ralun-— 
viz.. the soiMllrd '.s;,.,,.!; ,,f 1 ),-li,,r,ih.' There the poet tile vali.iiit de.-ds , ,f the Hciir,-«, .is due 10 
the help uhieh V.ilnve j,Mve. and ini.yiit as the 
(iod he fiirly exjK-eteil to ijive. his people. This seems 
ti) he his coiuepliou of s.' It involves little or 
no ethieal element. Valnve aeted in accord.inee \miIi 
th-' bond U-tween his vv,.r^hippers and hiiiiMlf, 
and the haiii mdie.ites the '. 1: lous oee.isioiis on 
which he did so. 

To the same ^:la^^ vvir iiiav perhaps refer lit. 33 21, where ('.<«] 
IS sail] tij have wn.uj-hl li.e J-./a^-.i/i of \aluvO. I,ei :iu-c lie iv.„ 
tile iii,tnmuiit of the ihvine imriiu^e hv rtjiellinj; the f>e^ of 
Israel, hi the sanle p.jeiii (the ' iile>siii- of M,,„ ..' lit, ;i3 ,,,) 
^ehtilun ealU the t.. suine s.irrtit ini.uta.iiti tluy ni..y 
ulTer •satritites •■! .y./.-i:' arid tills iii.iv iiKa.i no m.-r.^ than ..ller.d duly-/.,-., aeeur.lin.; to ilie rei:..irTiise.l f.iriii, 
ami us a naliiial reiarn for heiietits t inferred. Here, if this 
liiter|>r.iali..n I.e s..uii,l. the etliie.ll element is not wholly 
ah-eiit ; hilt il is still laiiil .e.d ruclinuaurj.i; 

We h.ive to deal next with the many casfs in which 
the leHil si^lliIieation piedoniinaies. ' In tlie ' Hook 
if the (.'' (I'.x. 23?) ue read. 
Thou shall not put to death him who 
is iiinoei-iit and ;,i./,/ii\' where dearie 
the leoisi.itor is not thinkiiiR of virtnons 
character, but of innoeenee from the charge brought 
lx.-fore the court. This restricted use alu.iys conlnnied 
long .iftiT the deeiwr and more universal meaning had 

Isaiah, f.)|,le(.-. .■j)sp«ak, .,f ,-- !■ rp^S-/.,., llie plea 
of a man who has a j;™,l tase-aiid in I'rov. Is, 7 „e are toU 
th.1t the lirst e.nier is riuht (.—^s)-,'.^. , seems to ht riaht in his 
omlepili.n lill his opponent apjiears .and puis him lo the |.r....f. 
.•see also lli.^',, Pr„v.l7i.s IS5 e4 .4. Here il is iie.,es-.iry 
to note the significant fact that n . feminine f .rni .,f ,"— i is f.ainj 
anywhere in the Ol' : in.leed the „se ,,f the verl. r--^ in Cen. 
jisj.fthe oiilyo, eurreiucof K.d il. ihe Hex.iten. hi iiLiv fairly 
he acoepied as pro,,f ,hal the a.lje, tile h.uj 11.. ttiniiiii.e f..rni. 
This ni.o he n..turally .a,:.:oiiiited f.r on the groim.l that .'^•IS 
ni.ant ,,JK ' rl.;!,! in law,' .an.J that a ivonuai n,.t a 
'p>rs ,n ,iitl, le.i;al ni;hts. 

In eirly literatun- the use of ih.- v. rb is .nlmost whollv 
C"iiiin.-.l t.. the lliphil, .-ind il,.- ni.-aniiig of tl„- v.-rii 
corresp.mds to ,,f the a.lie, tive. In other uopIs. 
the Hiphil verb iiniiis to 111 favour of a litig.iiit. 
by declaring him to be in tle-iieht. So. for ex.iinpl,-,' 

' It is always a-suiii. d thai the st.m.lar.l is evl, rnal ami 
re,.,,-nis,,|.„ ,,„re,,t I liii-. ,.,-.. (p.i.ier s|k..,1„ of .Aul .Iv' us 
as ■ ,-..hI <,<rSAm., ( 1,/. It. ,041. ..d.lmi that he eveelle,! all m. n 
111 kiLivery .111,1 Ihe ..alli.' Me w,,nl.l n.,t li.ive ealle I hi.n 
«ut.,oi-. No n.iw we might peiliaps speak of 'a Kood thief 
but not of ;i just one. 

- rile Use o( .'jue«, (oiicut ill Homer is similar. 

3. Legal or 


in I-:x. Ii:i7 iCi afp-r a warning against oppressjoi, 
the |n)or by corMi].t .idiiniiistia!i..n ol justne. the gen. : 
prill, iplc is eiuinciate.l, -I.,! tli-u shall not dreul.- 
I.ivour of a malelaclor.' A slightly dilleient' 
111. iiiil.g IS given to the verb in .\l)s.ilom-, esclamali 
1 2 S. 154), 'O that they vvouhl mak.- me a judge in ■: 
1,111. 1 : then il any e.inie to me with a plea .111.. 
case, 1 would lu-lp linn to Ins right ' (vnpfs-i..' 

by an easy tr.aisiiioii the i. lea of lejal right is esiem!., ot J.eui.^ il. it..- ri.;ht ...i s, ,nie p.irti. oee.isi.jii wr 
.any iliiph. .1, to .ne.ieial iiL.ral . l.,,rj..ter. .\.. ni '■ 
implied ill judali s a.!iiiissi,,n t( k n, ail .;. ), ' >he ' (,,. 
lu.jre in the tight than 1 C:-: rpi)i),' or |».diaps '.She „ 
within her rights and can iiiaintaiii her case against me. ( I 
this use..f ;-. cp.loba-.'.-.) Knrlher, ;,om/- is use.l of on. ., 
is juslili.l in his statement. This meaning isevi.leiit ii, I 
:lli 12 wheie, after .|Uoll.ig |.,h's w.,r,ls. I lilm s.ivs. ■ I , , ' ,■ 
lst..ienienlitli,,.i .111 I. ..I jusiilied : 1 will aliswer the.- ' I ■ 
s..iiie w.iy the ...lie. tiv,' is, Is. 11 ..„. • W|„, .,„,„ 
this Ironi the iKjgininng that we niiglit k!i..w it . . . ..1,, 
"Kigl.l ' -.■■.■•.. -he is right'; Mot, -it is true.' for the lb , 
aiho live is never iise.l of things. K.saraples ..f this ineai,,. . , 
ii'.an, a.!'., live, an. I verb are ntlm.rous. .See t'.ir le, . ", 
n..iii (,,,!,() Is.;,'..4 Ps :.->-^\,] I'r.a.s^ ir, 1 ,. „r the i. 
Hiph. J.'I.JTS anil m H iilip.i. (|x-rhaps). („„. 41 1. . In \ 
the use .if ih.- ro..t f..r ' lrnth-spe..kiiig,' 'siiitere,' is inn. 1, 1 
a.oalaed anil detinue. 

We may now turn to thi- idea of riglite. .i.s., . 
pr.iperly so call.-.l. of righteonsness in its .11,.,, 
signilu.itioii ; and here the invesln- .;. . 

4. Ethical 


sense in starting-point m the carlv In. 1,.; 

prophets. I"""!''",'''- '" "'^- "-igt. of .lerol,'.., 

c.ipit.ihst cl.iss had arisen: the ol.l ti.', 
justice, tlependiiig on the bond of cl.iii and slill \,.: 
m.Diilaine.l .iinoiig the .\tal.s of the desert, „.; 
mghgon.-in Isr.iel (.seetiuvKKNMKN 1 ,§ lay ; I..\v\ .^^ 
JfsiK K, S 2). Hence the ii.issioiiate cry of Amos |. 
national righteousness, for justice in the gales—/,,. 1 
right insiitiiii.ins rightly .idminislered. He reil. r u. 
Ills protest that c.vternal ritual is of no avail,, 
justice. 'Take away from ine ' (Yahwe s|)faks| ■ ■.;, 
tumult of thy son,gs, the music of thv lutes I ui;; .. 
hear. Hut let justice roll in like a river and rii;l.t,,, .. 
liess like a |x-reimial stream' (5?|| True, .Am,,. ,,\ 
uses the adjective sd,/,//i in the old legal sense |o, ,-, , 
and he has the ailministration of justice const, mi i 1 
vi.w. Ill his Mew, however, justice springs o ,; 
the essential n.iture of tJod, who demands riglitcnisne-s 
not ritual worship Irom his people. The deiiinii.l ;- 
made lo the nati.m as n whole. Unless it is sali-r.-i, 
Israel must jx-rish utterly anil there is no room 1,-fi 1,! 
diff.-renee in the fate of the rightisins and th.- im' 
righteous individual. Hose.i also insists on iiai:..ii,i! 
righteousness ; but his conception of it is al once wi.i.r 
mill li. ei»-r than that of his [iredecessor. It iswi.'.-r, 
for righlisiusness, ns llosea understixid it, is nior,- Ptm 
bare lustice. It includes /i^seJ — i.e., nieriiiiil ,.,... 
snlerition lor others.'-' It is i!ee|R-r, Hosea s,,„ tl ,11 
oinw,iril anieiidiiieiit could not lie permanent wiih- iii ,; 
radical ehniige of mind. • ,*;.,«■ to yourselves in rigi-t- ...s. 
ness : reap according to lovingk'indness : Z-)!-..'^ ,,' • <• 
yviirwt:;! f.iUnL- grmin.i : for it is lime to >... k \ ir... 
that the fruit of right. -onsness niav come lo vou - lo.. 
cp^i. 1 1 is not eii..iigh to sow gooii sts-.l : th, -!';■.': 
must lirst 1«- ami broken up: in s!,..m, i-.- 
Israelites must b.-eonie new men. and Valiw. s w I! 
must rule ih.-ir lues. Yahwe will ((il 4 : tlie ,,nlv i-.-mi- 
wln.h Israel U-vom,- :i n.-w 1 ri.itun- ( 1 :) 1 .1. 

Isaiah develops the principles of .Anios an. I IP,- 
His moral cod.- is mm li the s.iiin-. ' S-i-k nut |. ;-..:. 

B. Isaiah ^' ' '^'^'" ''"' ^■"''''"' '"-'" : '1" iusti'- i- i 

"ri'liiiii : plead for the widow' 1 1 i- ,' 
lO.-i. He, no less than Htxsea, makes nia.;. -n 

' S.) «,«a,oCv in d..ssieal r.reek means to give a alw.ixs ill alia.l .ense. vi?.. I., cjndeinn. It isoiiivm 
.^ I It ine.uis 't.Mle. !are rig!it<-.>iis.' 

'^ I p TO f'n-initrj, whith correcls the defects of l.r. 
is, therefore, {inaioi. «ai Tii.« |9<Arioi/ ixataii, .\ri-l 
-i/iew. ih. 


ept no sup.;-. 
n IP an ! 


...xo ,.Ue rule l,y «|„,h Val.we «ov.r„, ,l„. Jui 

,. uhol>..|sd„omL-,i h..|,..:,,.s.iv,«,,^,. Mill ,l,„v,.u'o 

:K-^c:a„ .„a,K f.,.M ,„ „,e„,„|, ol run, .ll\ „ ," ,, 
",■"; <'/'• -^ -"""">-■ tl,c. ,„„plK., .., ,.,l,u..u,„". 

"•'"' "f •'';'-'pK(M..,«i,„ „,„ „, u. ,iH. ,...r,„ ,^, : 

•m,mam,h.uua. 1- b. .,„,., ,„,i/ :„..,„ ?„ ,■ ,;' 

....e>t |>ro,,l,.<.K..s ,1.,...6,)„- pa.SM..>,o,„ „„ „|,..,, ,„ , : 
U Icnivilt-n, ,n l.avl.c davs ,,1,.. „l,,,l,v,„o„ , f , 
past .separates h„„ ,„ a u-ry „Mrk.,l ,„.,„,„.■ „„ , 
Hoscai a„. e.vpre>,s,.s the- ^r.-at lK,p,. „, u,,,.^ ,„„ ., 
.ume. Jml«„„.,„ «,,! hav,- , Ion.- us .leans,,,, «„ k ■ 
uac. „u,r.- jujip „,v.. „„p„r,„, ,,..c,s;u„s ami 

A century Uut Icvn.iah n.ainia,„e,l ,|„. ,^„.„ ,„„. 
..■,,t„„. o. r,Khteous,„-ss. I„ •,,., ,„. ^,,,., „,,.„ ,,,,„J, 

6. Jeremiah. :""™"''- toa,l,(„iition of r,i;hti-,nibncss- 

" '""-MS n>^'l,Miively in al,stin.-THvfn,m 
n,u,.Jcr and c,ppr,..s.„on of ,|„, „,ao«s and orpl, , j 
pusu.vcly ,n,in,.juMue for those .U„> «ere pn«e ! 
le s to l,elp the,„.sc.Kes. The sa,„e thoutrht appear, in 
Cher pas^ages-,..^-. , „, ehap. 7, ,h„n«l, „„. wo, Pn.d, 
e..usaess ,s not aetually use.l. \\V „„,s, not, h.mrtl 
..e,,^Ulere,„u),heUU,st,oh,shel,ef„,rim::: : 
r^.-s at llie eos, of a ,„-rso„aI strui;>;Ie n.ore srarchin- 

f.a. . It was h.s hard fate tu learn that ev,-n a law hke 

.hu of ,eateronon,y, en,U,dy,n« as ,t d"i t!;r M 

k earts'of'Ih'"'' "■■"'""*•'■ r^"''' '"" "f "-'f c'.an,e 
IK l,ea ts of the ^ery n.en who in form, and ns th.X 
«■ e ea .jneerely coti.phed »,th its re,,uiren,ems' 
.^^..e,^er Jeremiah had to contend «,th the ore ,„,s,., 
pnesthood o. lerusale,,,, after the pr,e.,s of tt ,' 
..uues ha,i U-en ren,ove,l and when those of ,he eent,a 

.Nh.reo^er h„ nature was exposed t„ contin,,,! 
sutler,,,,, fron, the of l,i.s eo, .temporaries n, 
<"'•■■' the national n„n which he saw firs in spirit 
"Mc,„ and then w,th the lK,d,lv eve. lieca s!-' o 'I 
Ihts, [e,em,ah's (atth ,n .he thvine ritjhteousne^ (^.1' 

'Tsl" :'a''"'T^'" "r ''7 """'" ""-'■ "-'-'-' 
t <1, s ru> ,t. J hou art ai the rii;ht 1 ,.,.,\.;l) ,) Vahwe 

ul|nt I contetjd «,th tlK-e : ye, w„uld I teas,,, th e o, ^'. 

y. •, thee : why ,1... the way of the wicked pro^n" ^ 

- . !. He knows well th.., the law >„av I.- ,,erver,e-,l 

'■>•'"■■ ly">,^' pen of the seriU-s' (NSt and ,1„ , Va «, 

j > 1 1 1 --I. .More exphcly than anv earlier pro,, 
h. uses ,„oral,ty an,l reli,.,on ,nto one l,v redne.nj all 

I Z Zir'""'"^ '""^ "' "^"""""^ Vahwes^will 
■s HI, lied 1,1 his f;o\ eminent of Ih,- world 


.smod,fied.,.freshassoc,at,,,,,...,,,;l;:,: - ,:;;;,:,-; 
•'"'K-- ... the ai.plicat.un of t!,e wo,d v,.- si,,, , ' 

de,il presently. '" 


7. SeiJei '■■'•"■■-'c.l: i.i.n„inei,.seof,|„.r,,oi --i 

synonym "'' ''"" """ ""ic, .,s i,„i;ht la\e I'ee,, 

- '■M-<le.l, uahti,ep„,p|„„,„v,|,J, 

I^^Mily, lheox,H;ctalion of a Messi,„„c kmR, or line of 

a_r, Ks,u.s hranch ■ He is to execute ,r„e justice .,!, 
I" r„ ,,,ll,.,l .^,,|,^,.. ,. ,,^^ r,.t;l„eousn,.ss' .-'a,/ , 
I . ."Mtext interprets this n,,.„e of ,he .Messiah llv 
••ten,,, Israel ,0 „s own land Vahwe the ju^e of .1 

^;h:;:"""u'h-r' "r- "^ "^'^ i-'-pi^ n«a:n::\hi! 

"•-' ver/.r , ''u'"' ""^ ^■'■^^i^'h'^» days Judah will 
ned , from heathen iK^ndnge,. an.! Isr.te! win dwell 

of morality. 'M^ned, uah ti,ep„,pi„n. u,,.,,, ,,,,,,, 

V .■ d::.u;:;:::ru'':;,';;'h:':r:wt'''' 

'.I'-..,,,.,,,,, .todo u,d,„„.„t .,„, n,l„eo„s,„..: 
""11. 1-1.,, a kite str,,l,i„, ,.f 11- ,,,,;.. ,,„, , 
"""ellevueueh,,,|.,,„-,|,.,'„i,„„: „'.,'■ ;■'«•■ 

iisintnnsieinteie,, „„i,,,„, , i" " . 1 ■.!, lio„i 

f^-. ;. ^vI^,,,^'^',;:.':,;x'■r•;-^-::l.-: 
' "' ;"■ ■■.';l'teo.,s,,e.s,' Paul „:,.n,„... ,he f,,| . 

; ;;n;'" ;v"' j';v,'^""" '■"" - '"• '-"-if -»:• 

, ■ I l""'^ '"■ ■'" ^"'■" l''"l,islll ,0 s,.,,p„.e ,1, „ 

II e writer of , he in C,,,,.,,,, 1,;„| n.n ', " , ' 

of this ktnd, tior i- any such exegesis suppoi I ,v,. 
context Al^han, I.elie.ed, no? in (i.Ls u,,, . 
,t;aee. 1„„ Hi \„hueMJdeI„y ,„ h„ proii.i...' , hI 
.\I..aha„is,.,i,hor,ru.s, is preciseK what f:,„h , , , 
c; It is not, an ■ opus ,.r se di.num.. 's:' 

sense of s,-J.,^„A .nnd the eoKnate, \\-. hal,. 
8. Theocratic ^'"'^'^y ''.'d a ,i;lin,pse of this nieani-ii; 
sense. '," ""' ^'<"'sian,e passage ,|u„t,.d fr,,,,, 

the time of H.t t'l'",'"''-, " '"■'"""■ I"-">^il-"t fron, 
H^ii kkuk 1,1 ^ ," """' '■*■ ^-''-'iLered th.i, 

d Ks n,^ ,-i V''''''''\'''' '"'■'' ^•"^■'•.''-'^•hs reform, hut 
d.KS not. hke Jerennah, attrihule the partial f.nhue of 

hat reform to the depravity of the I,„k, „, ,» , | ' , 
the contrary he U-heved .h.,t ,he oh.staele t!, str it le« 

o .servance l.,y „, ,„, „,,,,,. ,, „f ' "ts , 

Ha.>lon,ansn„; ^.r it was verv hard to Mioe n 
V. we or his bw wh,le the liahylonian opp„..,sor 1„ 
t II 1, own way. The |..„p|e of ludah u'eie a, le s 
H.T untnrop,^^^^^^^ 

h H,e w l' ',•"''■"", "'r'-'l"'"" "f ""■ l'"l-ans, 

■ ■ teri, no '""'," ^"' "'"■ '"■■'■'"•" -m,,ueror 

Ihis ter ninolo,y was a,l,,pted l,v stiLseiiiient writers 
as m.iy l,e s<.en fr,„n Is o,;,., ,, „ , ' ^ , ■ 

.nd^ as Hilakkuk holds, Vahw:w,f;,n.i:!a(ft,Jca^: 
ot h,s ,H.,.p|e, and the neh,eous ,nnn ■-,,,■., ,he man 
of .Iud.,h IS ,0 hve l,y hdehtv to his tjod atid c , ,1 ,ce 
n the ultiniate vict,„y of the ,ood cause ! 'e 

•""I '»""■ t!i.n. ei,„„,,|,. and now the ri ,v of its ,1 I ^r' 
aiiii' IS at hand 'i.',,rti, i n - m inir- 

^^^^,vah^i; ::,:^';:;V;::.™':,^-'f''-- 

---Ha.,onofh,sel,^,acter',';, >■,',".^;;;- 
^I-ak,n«•.iod^,.^«.,5„,. i,,.h.,.M„,e! ,.';:; 

r. n,hteon.sness',4.^, „,,,,,, as Vahv ,„„,',„•,; 

ami therefore must do ,. he has sm,|,o,„ ,i hin^^„ , ^ 

'■;».sl>Mi,htli,,mr(.r,«hthandof .,,/,/•, V ■ 
K ono„srestor.„ion Vahwe •jus,ihes' Israel-/., : dec.d.s 
. slvoi^,.,,,,,. H,.„ceinanu,l„„id,.orea;es:j^; 
anu ',,/ji;,/, mean inumiih isn the \,.,1, jr, - . . ' - 


9. Individual 


re „„, „s „1, ,.r .,,,,1 ..Ihu.U ,„rc,-, „ „ u,..,l „f a r.Khl- 

s purHy ,.,imal ......e is ran-. „ec,irr,„K „„lv ,«„ „r 

t ir.-. out uf s„„u. twentv-livc in uhid. tl« Hebrew 
ro(ii IS usfil. 

Tli.> .S,.L„n.l Isaiali, as Wf have ,«■», a-sui.i.d ihat 

the saffnuiKs ,ntl,ctni l.y nal.ylun 1,,„1 ..||i,,d to |,„nfv 

Isra.l. ami huk-.l«,i|, j,,v lh<.-rfM..ra'- 

lioii •<! a nKlit.-,,us|„-,,|,|e. Hcui-wr, 

m the piivi-iliiii; ^fiicraiion K/rki.-l hail 
; vvn,,,,, ,„ a v.-ry .lim-,,-,,, vi™, I„ ,h.. l.,t.T 
ly..,! of 1„, „„rk IH- wa. a pastor of .souls, a pr,.a>l„.r 
•iJ>l.vs,inK ,„div„luals iatluT than a prophet » if, a 
>>a>ssaK.. to the „at,o„. Naturally, th,,,, l,,.- ,„s,.s,s o„ 
M"l'v„l,.al r,ght,.ous„ Kad. n,ar. ,s to !»• lr„-,l o„ 
Ills own merits ; however rishte-Mis he mav U-, he ,an 
sLvure the (hie r.-war.l f,,r hims.-lf and onh- for himself 
N.iy, even with the i,„livi,lual Vahue deals accordi.n; 
lo h,s present actions, a<in.iltin« no „ppeal to tin- 
■ of the p.,,,, and on the other haml for. 
«.vM,^, ,n„,n„y in e,,se of re,K-ni,,nee and nn.endn,. nt 

, 'ihei , Vv "/ I"-' '■ "'" '•''■■'' "' 'iK'>'"'"sness 
in th. eontorins on the whole to the nroohet it- 
standard of in,hv,dnal r.^hteousness. tho„i;h „ include, - 
.•i_ larger amount of ritual ohs,.rvance ise. esp l.'if,.-') 
Now. after the restor.uion, the view of the .Seeond Is.iiah 
proved ,mlen,.l,le. The restor.ition itself lackcl the 
e.xternal glory of he lud fon.llv dre.unt. and the 
evile h.,,1 faded t., produce that nghteousnes.s <,f the 
whole nation which w.,s s.ili ,he cherished aim of i 
religious reformers m the Irwish Church How it 
to l,e accoiiipi,s!,ed? Finally and conipletelv hv the 
judgment of the ,l.ivs, which is to fall on unfaithful 
.lew^ as well as th,- heathen. This is the facante theme i 
of .\[H.c.dypt,e writers ,see esp. Is. 10._- which is a late I 
msertion: Mal.;i, /ech. 9. V>, l:i....|„el and Darnel ■ 

r"'i.""i.,, ^'^:'"';';'"'^'"'^- "■-''""■ literature t.mght with 
l.zekiel that (,od here and now. though iK.t ininie.liatelv 
reeoinpenses the righteous and the « icke.l according i.', 
their deserts, a dogma constanllv reiterate,! in lYoverhs 
an,l Is.dms H.-re .,n,l iherea distinction is ma,le 
U-tw,-en .he ■ weightier niatl,-rs of the I.iw ' anil such as 
are mer,-ly ritual, since V.ihwe loves - righteousness and 
juilgment ni,ire th,m 'sacrilice' (l'i,iv-'li cp ,-j,r 
I's.SO.. Hut more and more th,- -righteous man ' is 
o-iewh.) studies and practises the wh.ile lawips l,i 
The righteous are really on,- with the /Ai«-,/,>, ■ these 
are to he f,,uiid ,,s a rule among the p<„jr an,l ,,fflict,-,l 
IsT.aelites lA-ch.S. V.. -.H-m. an<l possible the author 
pf I s. !U, when he s/H-aks (:■. .5I of a.lniinistration 
returning t,i -righteousness,' mav lie Io,,kiiig forwanl to 
ue triumph of the Pharisaic over the .Sa,lclucean partv 
.N.iturally th,.sc. who ma.le so much of the law laiil gre'it 
stress on dtvds of nu-rcy. Hut s,-J.U.i/, nowhere a,ln„ts 
as in M.shnic Hebrew, of the rend,-nng alms,' though 
su,:h passa,gesas IV ll-., I)an..l.4[---] are not far re- 
mr,\,-,I from this latt-r use ' 

\Ve have alrea,ly. in discussing the various senses nf 
.'-./.<*;*. etc., ,,nsw,-re,l by iinplicaticm the ,,.|estion 
How IS a man justifieil or accepted as 
righteous before (;o,l? .S,,methiiig h..w- 
ever. h,is to Ik.- a,ldo,l her,- on the 
.. . , J»-tihcation of sinners, the change from 

dlv ine con,l,.,,ination to ,livine favour. .Xs we hav,- se,-ii 
the ancient Hebivw U-liev,.,| ,ha, , Jo.l's wrath couM be 
,, hi r, •■ '■"■■"""'■ ' ' "^ ■-"' " ■'' '^ '■ " here,,s the ,-,,rli,.s, 

ri . "','^' '"•' "f "^■^'l-' fr'"" n^"i-'"i ehastisenunt. 

w son V T ''■" " "'■'" '"'""-'^ ""' 'h-" l-v".ent 
».is .still due, how,-v,T sinc-re th,- conversion might 


11. Atone- 
ment and 

10. •Right- 
eousness ' 
of sinners. 

lh'it'',fTR';'A'.;'"'"°'"-'^'' '1 •'"'^'"^y "if (rue rr.vli.ii;, .in.! 

a(r,rm.-..ive H I ";„ „,,r vr/ ri'w".';""' tin, ,|uts,i„„ in tht 
.ii/,M.irin. .\ II. ritiol. Jij5, m the negative. 


' be, is aIto.gether strange to .\mo, aii,l his succ-.ssors 
; ■ (.ease to ,io evil, 1,-arn to do well,' ,s ih,- r,-m,-ilv wliuh 
Isauh proposes ; nor d,*^^s he rioubt its ellicicv ■' - If 
lie willing aiul olK.-dient, ye shall the g.Hjd ,,f ih'. 
lan.l ■ , 1... I ,„-,gi. K^eku-l, in .. p.issage i,uote,l ab.,w 
prop,,ses the s.inie rule to the imlividual. an,l conilnis 
the- delusion the ni.-rits of |,.r.s„„s ex.ei.tion liiv 
righfous couM alone for the sins of their neighl^ursi 
(see Jer. 1.-,, 31 ..g, an,l for an opposite view (.en 
KS,7/.,. tin the whole this principle ruled in I,,,,,- 
lsra,-l. I ,, k,-,-p th,- law 1, right,-, .usness 1 1)t. 623) aiM 
the or church that d,)es s,, r,c,-iv,-s „>,/,,<-,,/,-_, ,. 
fav,.urable sentence -from th,- c;,,,! wh',. comes to i 
h,-lp lis :i4 5l. It is true that neitli,-r th,- in,livi,|,i .j 
J,-w nor the lewish church coul.l ..Iw.iys ajipeal will, ^,',, 
h,|.-nce to that |x-rfect observance of the law wh.i, 
,mst,he.l ,1, the sight of (io.!. (,., „„. ,,„„,,.,^,. ,,'j 
1 s.ilms aboinul m acknowlclgments of g.alt (f / p ' 
."N-o 40,j(iS4j],, ami the chief motive of religV.n w ^i 
o secure divme p,,r,l,,n : • There is forgiveness with thi - 
hat thou m..yest l,c feare,!' ,Ps. 1 :!„,,. \\-e ,„„s, ,„„ 
howe^er. l,lei,lify such misgivings with the repro.ich .,f 
consc-.-nce, the sense of sin as ( hrisiians un.l.r- 
st.iml It. Ihc lews lK-li,.v,.,l tlMt (;o,l oft',-,,, , I 
with th.-m U-cause 1„- withheUI th,- rewanls of righteoe, 
.>ess and dealt with then, as he ,leals with the wicked" 
they U- ,ev,-,l r,-stor.Ulon to pros|H-rity was the sure sien 
of p.,r, Ion aiul of a state of niiml which ji 
cl.issicl expr,ssi,,n 11, Ps. ;)2. Hut was th.-re no » u . , 
n-storation pi-rh-ct righl,-ousn,;ss, or, failing ,|, , 
Mipphration to the divine mercv las in Ii,n „ > 
On this poi..t the later teaching of the OTis",, t 
consisti-nt. 1 

The PriesilyCde limits the ,-fficacv uf the sin-oft',, .,■■ 
which ,ntro,luc,-,l ,,fter th,- exile to v,-n,,il ,,r ,,l 
voluntary tran.sgressi,iii I Nil l.",,- .! 
an,l th,- m.ntion of sacrihce'iii iv- 
liook of Proverbs (ISd lii6 'J] , .... ,, 
.^,.,, , , ■■1' ''-•-'St in harmonv with this prinu '," 

Mill, even the Priestly (.'ikIc h.,d to miiigue th,- s,r ' .' 
ness of us theory. Un the .lay of .Atonement the h ,.', 
priest laid the sins of Israel on the of the.,," 
which was .sent into the <lesert I I.ev. I62,,..., • ",i,"' 
.»*.»« alon,-,l for |K-rjury and en,bezzle„,e„t (Lev a , / 
l> = /.J .Nn. .■,5/1 „i,en preceded bv restitution to ti'-,' 
orTrob"r,"*^'':u '^^^'i^ -^""W appease Vahw,- „h,.n 
■'^« r7r -■.""' '■^'''■"'"" "•■ ''** I'™Ple <N". Ki,/' 
, 1X646/ ]|. ..\t a still Later perio.l it was thought th.ii ih,' 
merits of the Patri.archs alone,l for the sins of Isra 
\\elxT, At^n. The,,!, aso/: and the essav on ,1,.. 
.Merits of the fathers ' in Sandav and Headlan,'s , ■■- 
"•"''^"yc'n A>,"«,-v., I anO we mav' perhaps hn,l the,,-!,;; 
of tins ilogma in the .atotiing efficacy which the ( 1 r 
attiibut.-s to the pr.iyers of holv men (Kv .3", ,- , ,■ 
Nu. 4,,/ Ifi.. ir„,Jos. 76/ /er. 7,6 1 1 .4 l?„iob,/; 
3. . , an,l of ang,-ls ( A-ch. 1 ,= Job 5 , 3.3 2 , 1. \-,.rv „ ,„., 
ally the iloctrnie that the n,eritsof the Fathers av,nl,.,l fi.r 
he justijie.ition of Isr.,el culminate,! in the behef thai tli,- 
KM it of Isr.ael was purg,-d by the vicarious suft'eriiic. .■! 
righteous n,en. This no doubt was the teaching of ihe 
Rabbis. .U-cordin.g to th,-n,. I.s,,.,c ma.le prop,t,a:i,„i 
for Israel by the willing oblation of his own life , „ H 
sniote tzekiel that Israel nnght go free, and niar'.vr.ioin 
■ u<le jiropitiatlon for sin as efficaciously as the ILu „f 
A.onem,-nt. The ( ,1', however, no real s„ I ,„;, 
to such a theory of justification bv vicarious sacr'n..- 
lie famous p.,ssage , Is. .V2,3--,3,.; which ,l,.scriU,s ,h.'. 

is^^c'lvV ^■"'";' '"^■■'"' '^ '^'-"-i ■-■'-«'"•- 

of ,> ^ "' ,"■'"■ '■"""■ '" -^l""-' "f 'he corrupiieii 
of the text, the general sense seems to l«,^ 

m.',„^fT;«!f ^in"' ""' "'=''"'"' "'■' " P"»'"f"l 1"=^'- "f -iM- 
- KilT. in n.Aiimmn. XT/. Tlt.-ol. I,,s/ 
■ Verses ,.,/: arc, :„ Ihcv Man,!, ..uit,: oi,l of nl u-e m. 

c.ntex, r.,|u„=s;, refer.iic. n, ,|,; e-urre ion' t, , l. 

of the .ser,-.nnt. See (he. Utr. f Is. ,0, „ , an I a,„ 

Mart,, a.iu.. [also Sk«v.vm „, t„k LfKU SS 7u) ' ul" 

!■ ,■ the 


. .k.. pi.u.. h...a„s "'f , . '^^"■' '°"'- ■'■•'-■ however, 
'"■ '"""' "f ' i«l \i lirst th^h V ' f'™-!""-'! on 

•l!"">hehe.,the,u,n,lerM,„ 'h ■■"'"" '" "^■» W'"' 

re. ,.11 ,he ,„eek„ess w 1 .'':;,'"'' l""'"'"'- '^'^n' 
^'-"•• They aek,K, JX^";^J";':' ■^"'"i-" "» Punish^ 

n» .u.i„„s nn.l show hi/ ^t', ;,";••'>■ >"••""■ ■> .he h^h, 
restoration. ,w«er ,n ,ts Klorious 

..u!:'ir;hcl::;:'i^^::T:^^',,»'>i.h scarce,,, occur I 

"-•'•"- ^::u:"^e::;;!n;"•'7■'--''^^--" o? ' 

'"• 'I'^^-ipl^-s a riKh.eou^Hss ,..>;"'"'> '"'"'"■'■ f'-'^"! ' 

■^-'- 1 I'harisc .s ' ;„ r, ,'; '7h """k "■•" "^ ""' 

th.vcoul,l„„te,„er,h; KnL- , tu "'^" ""'er«:se : 

P'""<- "'-.1 of nKh,eo„MeJs V h e s ,"■"""'" '"^^ P^"" 
■^■i: .....1 evien.hns it Th f' , ""-' ""»-' •''■■'^■pon- 

l.; ^■«l..eo^M,e^s,^ ;, J ,'^ .:;''"''.' ■'"'"'''"■ '""'"■^^'""d. 

- >.™p,.,o„s a.te,n,',,;r;,;'r' '■•''■' "''^'«'" ''^-^ 

^ 'uct le,.allv correct ' e L' "■'■'■""""^'1 ■•"'«. 

"•■■ »"tte„ an,l oral law ',"'■■■'■ •'""'^''"«"li" 

""'"'"ns of the eWe s nullih/'f ," '^"'''"■"' '^^' '>'" 

""■ "" 'Mk. r-„), o a 1 M . " "'""'■'' '"'^''— "f 
'■r.'" (/A 1, \Ioreo ■ T I , niatiers of in.hfTer. 

.I.C re' in p a ;, ;; riess "''•■ "'^""R""""^ '-.".-en 

-^;,;:;.^:,^!:::^"'^ -he law itself 

pl.«s l„ , v„y different mk-Jy], . ff , f "^ '"("'«" Has lo uive 

^■"'1 forbade tnalieio s 1? "Sh'^-ou^nes.s of the heart. , 
.^s the ,,ee,ls of .nuX^' : "'';7'-" '•'."^'IH^ as sterni; 

r-koninRthesumofsoo™^^^^^^^ ■■""' '"^'-l of 

.-.Sainst the opp„sinK\^^t? ;,,"":' ="""' """"■''>''■ 

i.-ns,stejiup!,r;i„^e::s;,: ^ ■,;;•;;';; -f ">;'u«t,ts, which is ,„,t acciclent.i i„„ '-"■":-'^" ' ■ a righteous- ; 
""i^h B one an,l mh^.": !"'""■ ^V^'R'""""^ness 
li'-ns may 1... . \ ' , ' "' •''' "'^ "'anifesia- 

fruit. neither can a corn «%''■"""''. ^"""'^ ^"""^ "" 

"l«n ,«'r.son.U ,.,!,... .'s,': "!V''"T\'"" '''"'<' 
the cause of ri,.h,eous,es, to ,'"'''' '^"■•'^''' "■■ 

^'^■10.. U.I8.„) o,T,, '^'"■'^■^■<J (.\ft.l9 = , 

'« 'l"ne w„h a s„«,e eve fiv,^'."-" '""''' ■'"' "'•'^ '« 
ai'Proval on th, T'" '''"' '^"'' ''is 

of <;...! cn„.,„.,, i„ „,: ™ ;^, ;;''-, .he .service 

" '' "" <i.av to man ,ha , ,5 '" '"' ''"''•* »■•"^'-■• 
,"-;"» .hroi,,l,„ut, tha ac , alU .";" °" ""' •"'"""■ 
(-«i hin,.self ,s the su," '"^'f-r man of which 

;"';'>i;'-v.sta,,,„.nsnpK;,h:hs;^'r'T' '>•■""- 

f"'! Iliat lie has ,lo„e en,m,.h . ' ' " ''° '^■"' "'^^'^r 


'"■ liHish notion of a comr, . 'J' "^ '■ -V-. t.,o. 
-- -i"ne .hsapp.^.:' " Oar' I ?""""" "■'^^>-'' 
«':- »'mh Jesus r™,ove,ro'h,'" "' '"" '" 
<■' ^" ihe centre of rehV , , T f"-™'"lcrence and 

h" 'I'Miot reward Sseh,.,""' "" "-''^'''^ '"ose 

™p' Hut;:;r;;;;-ijr;::;;t\he'l::,:: 


f'Tall faithful service lon^ „r i, 

;;-- .o .he ki„«d:„'™^;:L;f r 1,1;'.;^^'" '■''• 

ness IS realised (Mi ■>(,, ,.. . ""■" "' ' i;hieou5- 
lowers tn In: used m hi/ *""' '"Mows i|,e 

! HRht to that s,^!:" ^^::;;r:: rr' i'-" ■'" ^"'-""« 

i "■•■" ''". clan,, Its due wl ' :'\ ""-"' »''"'' 

i "'--^ "■a.Ks which areconn ,, 'V ''■"" ''"""'■"' 

i ""ProtilaMe servants' nkj", ^""' '^'■■' ^^■'■' '"'= 

' -"^Xd^rt;^;' !:;ri,i"-ve., .o those „ho 

j 'M'""'. Whereas, how v,.r*^,^,""r""-" *'" '> ^^ this 

"nters had looked o,» , ,' '"'J T '""' ^'''o^lyP-ie 

i righteous and the w L , ""al separation of the 

i ">•-;«--, annonnce,n.n, 'h -'T ^■^^"' ''"^ *"^'' ''>• 

-- of 'sL ; " :k"T "h" '"""'— I ''- -^'r^-- 
sinner who r,:,«',s! he, ', '"■'"' '""^"'■" '""r one 

' first tcchin,' h ,„ un^^ ""■'; '" '*"^-^^- '■' '■'"' ''y 

men to he-lieve in t e e' '' '" '"'""•""■ "^' i"^""' 
''avc faith or -rust i, ,;,X ' .h''" V Y'^- ' ■"-'■'•• '" 
■h.^^ trust the ^M.idinK pn ici I, Z. " r"'' "'"' "' '"''''= 

various uses of «i,a,o, an „,""■' '" '•'""'"-'■■" the 
apart from n^diteousls"' , ;';*?"^',''' ^'"^''^ "' ""^' ^T 
("SLer righteousness e ,i „fcd "" ""-' "■"''■ •""' "-. 
nples of which we h, s ■ """ f"'""' '"^ <l>s- 

adjective 5.w„,, ^1^,0, ''";";';''':« •^'-■•''>- •"- 

: It also is e,„u ,C to' .'f ■''■»''*'' '^'»'^'tl'«'' 
(^'t•.'■M5 !<., = Mk «,. - '"'-"s- m -he widest .sense 

; 'lislinhuishes the riJhieo,,'.'"' "";■'■ '^'"^'^ ''aul 
'^Wik'a.ions from the dv^rt i!" "'"' ''""'''■•' •■•" '"'' 

: «-ialandattra:t^:,Sti;;'"";,''r'"'''^- — 
title Kiven to n,en enii u. k Vi .h, f'' "^ ' '^ '''-^ a 

, -d In- i-re-eniinence ' J*"^ tmi'''-'''^ '"■■'•^>- 
IS prec cated a, ,h„ ^- i-^'.s3i4,,, •.'•_., , ,( 

i nev'eris, of th„^s?MtX:Vk",t'^"^''"-" -'-•■- 
t"I. -4 . Phil, utu) ■* ^^- '-^^ '^'■'^■' -9 K-n. r.. 

J-JSIrr'^iJ^S;/^.^^ -«" and 

^^- fen Y.v;uj'ri-3Hi '■""-'- 

fur r,„h,eous„,ss ui,h their fdl' J.'„,';„"',)t' "f •" »■", -e,li, 


■^'t, 1-' 17-1 k rV-T I .,■""'>■ "'"■■"" >"sanpr,na (II, I. 

14. Literature, l^^..!;- ,r;;^;.„'^n'. -v-.:,,.,,,,. ' ;,., 

'■'tones |uf\ahwi:I. \\-iMehoer\-!' .T;.'"-' "-^"Z "'- f.*V/,, 
to l,e pure, to c.,ii,mfr M/. ., , '- " !'.'ris'>n ofl a- .'s, r ;,<■/,„- 




public eva,„p>e,fh„. " 

unfaitl.f,,!. aiui 

. ^tc'i t;. 



n.ii.i,- T.ui-KlMMcN [,/.;■.]. ihoiiKh. ns w..- shall see. 
.111. .iluV view of the iihni>e in i K. 15i; i, at le.tsl 

ei|ll.iiiy Il')-.sil,le. 

.\ i.iirect pniiimKi.iiion oi Hie ii.iine of thn 
(s'oil «.Mil.l 1»: kaiiiin.ui. U.ilh ii.inic .mil ■ ulti« i.f 

1. Rimmon l'"'' '''■">' "'•"■• " '^ K-'i'-i '"y iieM. 

Ai». Banunan. ''"■'■""'■'' "■""• A«~)ri.i, .mil LPri.iini,- 

l^' "in w,n the iiiosi priA.ileiit name 

of t}ii: t;..,l of tliuhiler ami h^;htIllll^' iiile,.i;r am IM)who 
|)l,i>-< imiK.riam p.iit in the II .In I. mi. ui I i.-iup- 
-slory. aii.l is often re|.i.-M-iiteil .is .uiiieil vmh the 
thlliiilerlxiit. 'nieilyniol,,!;!,.!! nii-.iiuni; is 'the ro.irer 
li'.-'il.imii i 'to l-.i ii.uiie well suit. .1 t.> i ihuiulir 
(jo.l. Ihe W. .Se-niiies ,i|j|«Mr to have li.i.l an. ..her 
n.iiile for this (;...|, viz.. .\.|ihi or Ua.lihi, an. I l.>|.[Hrt 
(/./ ilii .//: [l3i.)4j» supposes .Xil.iil v.i, the 
name oi the ileity. I'lui.. is ih.Mii;lit to 1». a r.-ini- 
ni~.eii(e..f theiil.Mitityof .\d.lii i..r .X.l.iiliaii.l k.iinin.m 

"' '!"■ ' ip.iund f.irm I I.iil.-icl-nniiiion i Ml' s r.Miiim;) 

in /e. h. 1-Jii; th.- of /, however, will 
111 this i-.ise lie respoiisilile for the slr,iii>;e form lliut .see 
I'll/, /iif:). We often llml .issocl.itesl with I the snn-t;.«!i, like wh,,iii he is iin .111 insenption 
of the Kassile |ieriO(l| e.illed lord of jnsliee.' The 
Massorei.s iii.iy have eonfoun.l.-d karniuan with rimm.n 
isee I'l.MKiik.xsvtK) ; though H. I )crenlj. illrj; dispul. s 
the aeeiir.iey of this n-presuiitation, kiinnioii. .leeonlim; 
i^iitUi,\, IJO-1S5 [i3i)7|. 

Sti- ,:-pvLi.illy JaMr,.w, A',/. ,<//:„/: ,in,i Ast., ijo-ihi ; and 

/'/('. Itniiit. ,)f \, HI /.....-.*... |.>.^ 1 w i_ 1. 

Am,,. /,,„,,,. ,y.s,,„. /,,„..j..„,,^.,,. IJi,^,.,...; aK.., 
K.ii.iiii.iii.Kimin..n. St. Ki-., ,-,, pp. ^.^jr.; Sav. v, ■ ihc 
R.).l K.eiiiii, n.','. 1:1,11./: I; /iiiiiii,-ii. K.■]^■'■'^^3.^\l]. 

.V.j.iKliiiii l.j()',r/»-Di, lexl, ii.Otheon- liclwmi the llchreu' word for ' |».mcKr.nnati' (['"I, 
r(«./«,-.<;) .111,1 ilie name .,f the .iriKin.iliv .\s*vnaii f"! K.imnr.M 
IS ,AiUir than Ml', .iii.. k... . l,a. k p..,„lily t./o,.; liine .,f K/..fcicl 
(anil earlier). In iln, ..,nnoii..n ho ti,,i,., i||.,i p,,iiK-t;raiial. > 
wer.? air.i hcil l„ ll,e v..simtijis ,,f the hi.; and r. th.- 
...lumii, .,t the teiiiplt at Imi-alem. On Carthaginian siel.i-. 
ni..rc..v.r, ue liii.l the si.eed fi.;ure oP the liuv .Vl.nis in tlie 
\cr\ pi. ice '"..aipie.l elsewhere l.v tli« Culmi 


p.mi.'.:ra.iale. ( Ihiuf.iKeh-Ki.hter thinks that it «;.■. '..ii 
step 1 . identify this iree-s-o.! Tamnin/, t.. v« the 'rinii, with the st..rm-ijoU kaiilliUii, and t.) call him 
■ Klnini.'n. 

.\.. ..rdini; 1.. Jensen, there is a . vliii.ler in the Hermitage 
.at M. iTi-.Til,e.l with Iw.. ihvine n.iincs, the ,.ne 
Kamin.niim. the .ither .\;raliiin. I'., kin;; this in ..,nnoii,,n 
mth t.vls wlii, h -peak . f 'he .;.„! .\,nnrril (/.,-.. the 
(ioil .T the .\inilrru, Ihe .\ii. lu ,;.,,1) as the .■.>ns..rt „f 
.\;r.ltn. he mlcrs the .Vmerite .; .1 t,, is kanini.inu 
l.t.. tie st,.riii.ii..,l. .lis., cillvd hvthe .\ssvri.ins 'tiie I...rJ „f 
the M.untain. .;;-■, ..;.., -the I'.aal of The • land 
.•f.\imirrii' was in fa. t ..riuiii.illy the land of the Lclum.n or 
.\ntili' .mils (.p \\ I. f,/ 1 -2). 

Th.- present writer, however (.s<.-e Ce/V. ml:), susix-ils 
much ini.sunderstan.Iing in the t(-vt of the 
2. Rimmon = "'"■"''"'s of the kin^'5 of .\r,im, whieh 
Jerahmeel. 1,'' 'l'''^'i'i'l>- visihl,- in names. ■ Den- 
hndad,' tor instaiiee. seems to he 
e<iuiv,alent to nn.l H.i/ael to H.i/.a'ilii. whiih 
are attested as N'. .\r.ilii.iii ii.iineb in Assyrian in- 
scriptions! A". •/ /•.-'. 1481: • Itaiii.tseus' is consta'ntiv mis- 
written for 'Cnsham'; and kiniiiion. orr.itlier kaiiinian. 
m.iy Ik.- regarded as .a p.ipiilar corrujition of that famous 
name 'Jerahmeel.' which was not only an ethnic n.iinc 
hut also in .ill prohahiiity the name of a ^od is.-e (.>// 
/.Vi». on 2 K. 17 30/ I. \Vh<-n. therefore, we read in 2 K. 
5i3 of V.i.imans accompanying his roval inasi. r to the 
hous.- f Kinim.iii. this is meant (not o'f the »torm-t;od 
huti ol the n.itional roiI of Jerahmeel, who niav posihlv 
have he.-n caileil Jarham or Varhani (/.,-.. n-\ ' mi«,n,'' 
with the .\r,ihic ■ miniation '), It wws not iiunecess,irv 
I'l w.irn the Israelili-s that Na.inian was onlv Ina six.-cial 
in.lul.ijenc,- .illowc-il t., d.i outward honour to or 
Jerahmeel, h.cius,- th.-re are s.-v.-ril indications X\,M the 
worship of Jerahiuiel liarl marie itswavinl,, ludah s.,me 
time iH-fore the fiil .,f tin- state, Sei-, r..;., Zefih, 1 ,,'., 
where we should very probably read. ■ (1 will cut offi 
th.ise that prostrate themselves U;fore the moon, that 


• by Jerahmeel.' ' It now Utomei doublful wheth.r 
's.m ..f 'rili-nmmon ' in i K. 1.1 1.-; is correct, 11,,- 
klnu to whom .\s.i s.iit may h.ive l»-en. not • 
Son of rab-riiiimon, son of He/ion. kmi; of Syri.i. that 
(hielt ;it Damascus,' but 'lien-had. id [ -= Iti' I 
ii.itue of lietl|.j,-r,ihnie.-r^ (or k ibbalh-jrr,ihmi-el .■ 
kini; of .\ram 1 - Jer,ilime<-I). v»h.i dwelt ,it l.,r. m, 
(.usham.' It shoui.l .ils,, 1»- notici-d here l-'.hshi 
who hi.l .siiih close ri-lalions with a kiiii; of .\r.iiii an.l 
his, the present writer su. [K-ets, a prophet 
of thi- N.-i,'el) -!,<■., of ,1 region which was ,.rii;!v 

T. K, I . 




1 \x 


i;r,inate? - see .\.VM| .. 

r loan ' l.-ialiin,. 1 ' ) seeklMMos. 1,. jj j 1. 

sh, l,'i ij H)7 , vV kKM.M(jN|, 1 cii. .jj'., /,.,!, 

M-i- l-:\-KlM\l.i,s. anil cp .\i\. I. 

name of a rock when- ouo fui;it- lienj. ,11111 , 
found shelter for four iiionilis ( jmly. •JU4;, ■ _.., ,„iiu^,|, 
[l',\I.|i, Then- was a village of this ii,im,-'i; R. i, . 
.V. of ),rilsaU-ni(().S Utisisr^ci, iilentilied by kolmi-.n 
liinl with, the mod. K,imm,n. r.iiher more \ m. 
K. o' liethel. 'on and around tli.- summit of a coin, ,1; 
chalky hill .iii.l visible in all diiections.' This won, I 
\<K in the wilderness of Idth-aven I losh, 18iii, p.,ri ,1 
{I'l-.hV, l«-o, J), 128) objects that there ire onlv .1 1,-v 
sm.ill caves at k.iminon. and refers to ( oiisul I'in'n, wl,., 
lie.inl of a vast cavern in the W.idy es-Suweinit 
of holding many huiidied men. (anon kawiisi.v n 
c.inse(|ii.-nce visite.l the c.iverns in this W.i.U. he 
d.-scriU-s in l'lil-\i, 18711. pp. ii8-i2(>. liirch, loll. -,,, 
iiii; lies, Hes. xictb, identities the kilnnion of |i;,!-, 
:ii).:7witli . le kimmon 'under' which S,iul with is 
600 men, tarrieil ( 1 .><, 1 1 . 1. The Latter Kiniinon 
'.it the limit of Geba (so read for tJilieahi. ,N.- 


3. 'kimmon' (rather ' kimmonah, '.iji-si. al-,, 
apix-ars in RVof Tosh.lOi (I-:, lioundary of Zebuap, , 
where .\V ai;ain [see i) jjives ' Keminon.' with th,- 
adilition of ■ -mcthi>ar.' (KV 'which stretcheth') as il a 
coini>iaind name, 'ni.- kV at any rate recoKnis.-s tint 
tile name is not c.inipound ; it .ilsij does justice to U,.- 
article ill ^K,-':ri l/jt/iuuim aijaHap aoi'a [li] ; /)fu,ua-^au. 
/j-aHapiix. avvoia [.\'\ : firi afiaCapi Miea [I.]i. \V,- m.iy 
r.-ii.l.-r. with I lillin.iiui .111(1 Kau. //.S', ' ami I Ihe'' b. mli 1 ) 
CM. -nils to kimmoii.ih t,-!:*-:-!, and turns r.,iuul (-k-h •., 
N.-,ih i?i,' No doubt it is the Bimmono ('r^-,' .'\\' 
Kiniinon), or r.ith.-r Rimmonab, of i (.h, r>6J |--1. 
pr.ibablv the 1)i.\1,\.\m [r:~ij of Jo,sh, :;] jj, e,,r:.'' 
sponding to the modern Riimiihineh on the SI-"., edc.' .f 
the plain ,,f H.itiauf, 4 ni. N. from (i.ith-heph.-r. ,iii 1 
7i m. .\, irom IJhisloth-t.iljor. 

4. I'ossihiy M.AiiMKXAH [,/.r-.l in Is.lOir -h.-uH r.uh- • e 
Kinini'.n.ih.' -., ^ ^ 

RIMMON (;i»r-|; p£M/V\CON[IiAI.], ■ponie.;r,in,i!.-' 
[so V.VMIS. S ('0 ; nel. /'r,./, 205], or the .\ss, liviiie 
name kamni,iii [I.ohr, cp Klsil?j. or (Che, J a li-- 
t..rti..n of th.- ethnic Jerahmeel). a lieerothite, the I il!;-r 
of kla II.Mi ami H.-\.\.s.\ll [,/.:■. J (2 S. 4250). N".,t.- tl.,,t 
' K.-ch.ib' m.iy be also from 'Jerahmeel,' and, is 
the story of ,s.\t-i, (,/.:-.) shows, there was 
Jer,iliiii..-Iii.- ,-l,-inent in Heiiiatnin (Che,). 

RIMMONOiiyi-I-l: thn pem.mojn [H.\I-]; 1 ■ h, 
662f;r]i, Rather kinimon,ili. .See KtMMi>\ ii i 

RIMMON-PAREZ. k\' Rimmon-perez ij'lg ;!':•' 
a st.age in the w.imlering in the wililern..-ss, perli.ii.s^ 

> 0, .\, Smith renders MT, ■... far a-; he thinks it |^,-i;:le, 
thus, un.l wlu. , . . sw.-ar hv their .Mele- h.' ..ivl i.i a 
n,.t.- p ens ...,1 the ilis.rder . fthc l\.vl, Weill,, |..a.l-. ' ll - -e 
wh,, I..W iheliiseKes t,, Vahwi an.l swear hv -Mile rii.' hia 
C:-:. like -'•7. is very | ,--.hal>ly one of the current ilist.rli 1;. 
of Sn--.., Se.- ( .-//■, A//.. 

- 1 he mil. h-<lispiit,d word [vin is prokahly a corrupt; :i f 
;-n-, a variant to j-;-, and nearer to the original form ^ti-—. 



/..npliiih-jcrnhnieel [Che I ■ \„ vt ,„ f . 

RING. Tho sii;iict rine «n« (,ill,.,| ;„ u i 
l,81gn.t. '"""' "■'•"■ "s form ,^ ,„ s,„k. As 
......... ,.„«,,ve..i See Kn,.k,m,. -'r ;'.!« 

; ;■.■■ -■'".'.""ir.!;:;,"'-;;;-.,;:,™ 

in .icirim .1 Mift «„„||,.,i L,.nl f,)r siim,,-,,^:, n 

,i.iiull.r iK.I.. to a.lmit .. fine «,.(• U|„.„ ,„„.! „ 
-1 «.iY""-' -v-r a pi... of pi,«l,.,v;i ,'■,:; 
.... ... .. g,-ct or mt.nch..,! I,y a r,M„„; ,o a I „ i 

iy.:n'i. ■■Infi./iif Cms 1 j.,i It „ . r ''""...iiMit 

... on. o,/n,or.. con!.^:;. J^; :;:;;:;;:;;; -m;- 

u...|,.s.M,,,,l.of,heH„,crs,Oh. h.n;r,i;im nlr 

Ihr tran.fcrencn of ,,„|,h., ,!,,„„ ,„ .,.^ 
<r» .nl s.tM.iticnncc-h,. R.ive hrr ■ , , m1 l 

;;rrrr::;-::::; J .;;;: SHE 

il... <niuL.yame of ihc sii'TH-t ■itt,.^i,.,l , 
'■',•""•"■-.''• ".ore IS no indiotion that |h, 

r.l.l..l that a SaHr.\o. «a,s |,Iac..,l o,> th,. I,a,„l of , ,e 

K.«!^.I^Mm o„ ins restorati o l.,s fathers W 

X: :.■'« (=j:l ...nv,.j. the nu.aninj,s of hoth a„ ear-rh.R 
=.... . ...>v...„,^. ,h„K.h uM,ally the ft.ller fV,rn, n.'=,-m 



^ U..I.... A...,„,.r k„Hl. .,7,/AM ,n.c.,, 

^'-..r pearl,, or .,„el, , ' ■'"'• '' ^"'^'". 

•^■■' ""•".." .mi i,,.J,;,eV,:,:.,f *""""■' ""'^ 

III..- .irn it?ni v»'r«i.,riH u-w,- . \. i 

.■i-i..„.,.i,,.,,i,„. izx:i^:uZ:u^u'r • ■'■'^- «'-'•:• 

lli..rt. rH,,„,|,-,. ■ '"••■>""•.-. ...M tl.c .i,l„li.. 


ft > 3 

RIN08TRAKED ,1P;:m;...- nu,3 ;^ ; „,. , „;, '„^ 

I. Ear rlnsr, •"■"'"^ '"ixn s;j, .s ,,^.,1 for the ..ose.ri,,^ 
rcse ring. ■''"'*''• ■'*^^. Imwever, uiiere the sin.'.il u- 

On..„,,.l ,ne„ „.nre t'u., , a", ,f ,, , ;^^^'\' ^-^^-^ "■^" 
.M..lia,„te soMiers ,li,l so 'The ,t. '''■ *-''■''''"''■ 


for orna.nent Icp A'.s*^,, ,„„| „ ' %'" "' " ■" 

l.r'..Klie.s 1; cp H.«,K 3 .r.ltl.llls, KV 

15. .,.u «Lre perhaps eai -rings (.see 

>|.r;;o. li.i, .„2„sii'n. ■ ' ""'""*;'» l'.".ly I 

.1 .., »;k,v>huii. 

I. . ..tiE-i^. •r.uisar<.n..e of the , y",/ in llie narralive 

."m""r::,i;^r!?i,^-:?';''"'''^ .h:..enr.r;,„. are ,.r„„a,,lv 


8INNAH (nr, .shontini;.'.''^-., . ^^, ,,.| 


RIPHATH .ncn Cri in n.i 

--'-.a.i..., Las K:^n'.:;;;;;,/"7! '";;'■■ ,■"- 

'" ;"••' 'h'-.r.v, however, «l„c, ,, „ , o 'm' ■"'"- 

;-X:::"v.5::;,ij;-„.';; Br* 

: ^..|^-.. .he „a,i.lerin« in the wHilcitiesl ; Nn Li/ 



Uil^'m'^"n;':[,tr';;;;;;r^'^'''^'-"^^'''-''^'' ■^'" 

: «lii,.harethe-n.^'^,^s' ::«,''■;■ '";'^' ""!-....... of 

TRl.Wlsv. ,.tr. .lIl.V.Ns, /.cinin,. 

ni.i'.nnt of hrs,.han,l inforni.itior, on il,,. se^ , 
tinu|uean,l, l«.si,Ies. „„t ,.,.,„.rillv e, 1 '' " 

pn^ol, aeeordi,„.lv, f, e"; , . """^''■'•- " '^ Pn - 

.'.acrihcial ritual. In ,|oinrr ,h '' "ahyloti.n,, 

r.-en,l,le.,, orditT.rsfron, th „ ; '';"','"• '" "'''''' *' 




Namei for sacrifice (| i>. Perform an- c (% ^). 

I ll.j*.-if4 . tTcri-.l, a^i-. Kir. (I j/.). |,U-a. pur;)..^- (| 7/). 
I inic iiiiil pliu e ()| 4>. Hum.iii -,,1. riti< e (| >X 

Anli'tnity of sacrili'*; (|l 5). I.u-^trati >\i i$ i ■). 

Suiiuii.iry (# 11). 

.\ssVRIo-Il\hVl.oM.\N RlTLAL. 

A shiirt .uiMutit (if Hahylniiian sacrifices has U-en 
ala-ady .i;ivrn itt thr Supplfim-iit to />h- (.'u.'f/ii-/,i/t-/ :■,'// (ji'li. ItTftniaH, I.rijjsii. 35-33 (i88q)|. The 
qut'^^i^Jll of how far \\\\s .svstcm is (iriKinal ami how fir 
it is rflatt'd to what wf hiul fKrwhrrt' has r« t'-ivcd little 
<fr iiu attrntmn. The tnMinietit of such (juestions in 
the difticull s|)hrre of ifhijiotis iii'-litutiotis Ix-in^ always 
involvetl in uiKertaitily. it apix-ars to U' more than ever 
appropriatf 111 regard to sacrifice, as an institution 
coriinum to all jx^iples, to t-xplain th<' same or similar 
ideas not as l)'>rrowed llie one from the oiht-r. (ml as 
h-'ih drawn from the same wmrce. In juslilication of 
the connnon desii-nation A^syrio-Haliylomaii il into Ik? 
noted that. a|iart from .\ frw- moihtications in their 
ramheon. tlie religion of the Assyrians agrees through- 
out with that of the Habylonians. Of this ai^reement. 
which maintamed in sj>ite of al! fxilitical strifes, we 
ha\.' a historical atle>lation iti th<' fact that A^ur-lMni-pal 
had the MSS nf th.- priestly sthools colk-cted. 
suppUed with an .\^syrian inlerlii.ear translation, and 
preserved in his state archives (see 4 Rl. ' 

Sacrifices were called kirbtinnu nr kurbannu I ntorc 

rarely i-urb.'inu, kitrubit : in orthnary usa^t*, ■ I'.nk- 

•I w._.. « sheesh, alms.' A much comnj-^n'T 

1. Names tor , . , , . . , 

word IS nikti. "to (>•_' Itenl. show 

reverence, offer homat^e ' icp fi)r this 

A^syr. inVJii, used c-f drink offerings 

fp D'j?]*: /'iitt-rd\ and also of bloody 


meaning I)t.-1. 
(/W/(j^'r. 147; 

Tlie ri'ut i>( nrku is tiah'i ' lo tie empty,' II. r 'to pour out.' It 
wa> pr.jhahly tlie jwiuririij out ..f the lilo»Ki that Icil ii lb«; 
triiiisftTfni.eof «/^-« frum it* original applicatioii ' iriiik otTtrriii);* 
to the iiicaniriK 'Mo.>il oflTcrtni;.' A rarer word than niiii i^ zibii 
(K^ii'rs. 172), Hell. n3', ct.'ii//. Fur 'drink offcriiij; 'wc find also 
the wijrd> uiu(ihufTi, iHithhunt (in contracts), ramku. To 
viinftih <-n3t), 'fuixl offerinj;,' corresponds. ?"«»">[■/«»*( I )fl. ffH'B 
iu'-^'/hn), a wi.rd f-rnifrly incurreitly rendfred 'altar.' The 
rf,;ular stated ufi"t-rin>; {ti'nuiii, T*P) wa> called sattukku {sat- 
/akiiiii, ' constant ') nr j^i'ni. prnpcrly ' ri^ht.' Hotli words 
indicate the yearly, monthU', rarely (X,t/-UN. H43) daily, con- 
trihutinn to the temple fur the support (jf ihe s.icrifice aiul ihe 
priests. A synunynious uunl i^t;"^'^" i^t i;ul'i\inu. The free- 
will offerinj,'. Heh. n4-ii,i/'iih(r.Z'^l), is called uini/abii {nidbu). 

For ' to sacrifice" the commonest word is rt,rli/. 

Fur the sake uf cumparisun the fullowinj; may he mt-n^ioned 
from the many other expressions in use : c/cvw, Heh. S ncV ; 
fa/\ifit, Heh. Hp^ ; tabAhu, Heh. n2B ; riksa rakasu, ' to pre- 
pare an offerini;.' Of special imp^irlance, moreover, are the 
expressions in purification texts: kar.U-u (S'^pi : often used 
of pouring water, occurring with p [notwithstanding Del. 
//it'/i], in Rassam2 i-^i^) and kaf<i\ru (K :^245. /rtji.) 'in wipe,' 
then * to clear, pupfv ,' a meaning that is imjjurtant in its bearing 
on Heh. i///tr (isr). Cp/TAMSsi 17j3; Zimmern, /jV/Vr.i^c 
Vlt 26, The offerer of the sacrifice is called kt'iribu or bel nik? 
(cp Marseillfs Sacrilkial Table. -Z\ "^ya). 

It should \v s|MxialIy noted that everything that the 
land produced was offered to the gods without dis- 
2 OhiAcfca ^'"'-■^'""- ^^'liil^t in Israel it was only the 
offATAd P^"*'^^"'-' "f ^ people di'voted to calile-rearing 
and agriculture that was offered icp D'x. 
l.t-v.<^\ 379l~and this was still furthernarrowci! by the 
exclusion of fruit, honey, and al! sweet or fermented 
preparations on the one hanrl. and of ^>easts of chase 
and fish on the other — in tlie fruitful lands l)etween the 
two ri\ers every kind of produce was frc-eiy offered to the 

1 Ahbreviatlims used in this article, K followed by a number 
= sonie one uf ihe lablets of the Koyunjik collection m the liril. 
Mu>. ; X,-b. XabuH. C\r. = f'a/'vioniscfif 'I't-xtc, Inschri/tfn 

ties Xihuka.inezar, Xahunaid, C\rus published bv T. N. 

Sfris^mnifT (I'-ipsir. !?^7>; Menant. I-J-^ Lts f-if-^ti ::*Lni'fs 

dt la Hautt AsU (Paris, 1833). 



( pods. Of vegrtrtble pnMlucls we find fr«iueiit menl'r n 
nf Wine (yti/'./wK). must \knruunus. date wine {\ik,:> ,, 

, pre{iiired from corn and dates ur honey and d.ites, > p 
.\eb. 10J5. Nabun 6i3, 871 ; ^^p, ep Nu. *J87). hiii- v 

I [Jii/'u. 'cz")- \himitu, rtnZ'). n mixture prep,:;. 1 

I fn^ni various ingredients and c<jnt.iining oil and tit 
(invariably wrilleii r/./A* .\t'Ih--A ; probably nnrsii ,, 
to !«.• read ; cp Nab. 913, Cyr. 3276, Arab. m^:>i., 
■ dale-slone ' I. the choice priHiuce of the i:'»Mdow t ■/'^ ./ 
.;//./*•/), garlic \7htmmi4, c^s*). first-fruits u« .V/// p'cn* ; 
Stnh. l6i h'uj- I9I.' I-'K.d siKfially prepared f.^ tL.* 
gods was called iikal t^ikftu (4 R. hi, 6j,/i, with \\iiili 
should Im." com[)ared the analogous ex()ressi. >m ;-- . 
r">*?"- I-'pon the table uf the gods were lu.d u, -j;- 
3x13, loaves of .ts-.ts, that is to say whe.iten fioui ,ts 
shewbread |cp /immern, lUitr.i^e^^n lOti;^; l\K 
65jo^562ir/: Craig, Hflig. /etfslbb] King. I/,^-,, 
./«</ .SonrrvAQ^i ; also ,ik.i/ mutki, thai is to sa\ , u:i. 
h'.ivened bn-ad, is se\eral times mentioned op I ■ > , 
-4'). Sjn'ci il alnmdance anci splendour charai ti i.-.-d 

I the vegetable offerings of the Neo-Itabylonian and N. u. 

1 Assyrian kings (cp I*ognon, hncriptious dt' \\ i.;i 

' /iri'ss.i ; \ib. (^n-f. I j6f: ; .Wb. OrotAlib ff. : .\,^ 
lir.-f.'.iT f. \ Schr. A7'*J7B>- They were in iIr- l-uu 
of the daily saftukku, tne state sacrifice, a s.-tt <>f 

. representation of the whole agriculture of th'- !,iii.! 

I Nebuchadrezzar lays on the table of Marduk .i!;.i 

1 Sarpanit the choicest produce of the meadow, iti.t. 

' herbs, honey, cream, milk. oil. nuist. d.ite-wine, u,i,f 

' from different vineyards. Still more ahund.uil i-. iji.- 
offering of S.irgon 1AVVJ781. a king who offers t;t:,, 'v 

I not to the giKls but to himself His splendid oftrrtii; 

I is a tiiiMi.tiit dispi.iy of his royal wealth, al whitli < \c!i 

j the gods must l>e ama/ed. 

The commonest bloody sacrifice mentioned i> i!i.!t i f 
the l.iml) I written I.u niku or niku). 

The expression I.u Xita, often iKCurring in contrails, is tC' : < 

j read ka/iiiuu or jvi (^i?') and to t'c rendered ' lamlj, kill. V r 

I 'goat' we fmd the words buhadu, %a/>,\ifu (in cuptra' 1-). !f< '■ .:, 
ftJis) /« ' an Old mature lamti,' Of other (|uadriipeds vn [n,,: i 
sacrificial oxen {\'UtfraA{tM or a/af tua(i(iu), bnll.xk' (/^i"t.. 

' IB), gazelles (s.tblfu), wild kinc {//ffu, r.H^l The f V ,>i,: 
birds were used for sacrifice; doves, geese (w.*-/"/**), coi:ks( wot .. 
4 R '2l'>4jb\ Taliu. H'jTr), peaciM ks (/.u/iiih), pli. ,i,.,,:> 
{'.pasttu; Xiibun.^u'2i\ I'alm. i^'CS). Fish («rf«(') arc ;i!.i.i\, 
mentioned along with ' birds uf hca\en ' (I'ssiir x,i>n,-). 

I'or a bird .sacrifice see Hotta, \inrifh. pi. no: i'^r 
fi.s'.i offerings see MenanfJsi. 

No sfH'cial prescriptions as to age are kn';.\ti /;, 
nikii prohably always indicates, like "yaXayTjcd (IleriM. 

3a. Age and ,'''"•;'''■>;"""« '^"^''*'"''' ,'■""''■ ^^'^ 
.4.i..rj.t.ii Kii'W friiin Ihf contrails lh:it vi. iiiiis ,i 
Other details. ^.,.,^ „l,i «,.re ,,refcrre<l, a. >i. I' n. 

Leviticus {tipai cr marat Jatti. like .ijc" |2 or •» rz'- ' 
, Nabo7t. lltrti *26r>i 2722 tiPOis 768ib" Nlenti-.i' > a;-i 
made of victim.". (»f two, three (AV^. 3y9ii, ani l cr 
I years of age ( Cyr. 1 1 7 4 )■ 

With regarti to the condition of the anini,i!> the 
re(]uirements were stricter : faultless grt)wlh \t i''rthiu\, 
large size Ci/i^wj. fatness (</«vr//, maru\, physic. li purity 
\ibbii, ellit ; - |)ure, shining '), and s|K)tlessness {iuklulu: 
Herod, rd riXnt twc irpo^6.Twv). ("p /iiiini< rii. 
Jiti/r.iiTe \00-;2. In divination, however, tin- use i if 
unsound victims was permitted ; in the prayers to th-' 
sun-god (ed. Knudtzon. 731 we often read: /:/.- ': 
A'.i/ftmu iliifikd s.i ana biri bar/} tmifi'i (Uini : ' 
that the lamb of tliy divinity, which is usei! I'lrr 
inspection, may U' imperfect and unsound,' ll 

is well known that in the Israelitish cultus, ilunlv- 
offerings need not lie faultless (I,ev. '^'Jaii. 

Tlie victim was as a rule a male, yet feni.ilrs .i'^) 
were used \Safi/i. /tax: 33 <.rr. 1174 '- jv. "J (7 1'. h 

1 The iiicnie (kufm, l-utyinnu, n^llp : r'rni'r!\ wTon.;!y 
rea'-l ttirnnnu. was made from precious herbs {j<i'//.'ii "'"TjanJ 
odoriferous woods. 



ti.-.h U,:;,.,| aMn'isr.l,?, "'■" ""-• 

^M.■| :.n.i,n,c,,.,, .\,.,i,,,M\\vi; ; 2/^,;':^^' , '" 

i.-M publish,..! l,y Zminiern </leu,,r ,1 f k 7 
.1-nlK.s tl„. ,,uri(icat,„n „f ,h. kmi' n 1„ i, ,""'" 
of „. pal..,, ar. sn...ared wi,h .te tl ..!^ ^^ ^, ;■•:'; 

p.i |^,'- ^.x. 1.'7 I, ,„ay l„. mnarke,! in pasM,,,. ,h ,t 
';• ''■■'"' fr"'" ■♦.K 3= JO Ihat Ihcre «,.r,. tl r.t avs , f 

pri'iuring the vMim : Vr !., t,„H *,■/-.• 
1...^.<1. l.oll«!, M„ok,.,l ,Vsh • Th''„ftWm."' ""■ 

rLnS: ""= [°t ^"^ •■™ b c^tz.!" r'n;^ 


3t. Parts of '^'."'^ A""l. iTfa-st I,,./,,,, ril, u,l,h. loin 
victim used. ^""''''. ,'■''' ^=il>^<'lu). ipi„e ,,.,>„ „:,.„, 


NMclue. an,l ,h.. {.h,..n;i,r M n:rr ^IT^^-' "!'' 


No dthnit,' nr, irimi™,! ., . , .u 

.. ,,. '^'"'■'"".(■" or N'l-w Year's fr ,st 
1 Tim. '- ,''^'"' fc-t 1-M in l,„„,„„ „f ^^, J;;;,'^ 
and place. ':;;^- 'i''''- Js': »«^Te siBnaliso,] i.v ,,r,„..s. 
sions anil sairihces. Diilv v„.ri« 

h,.,n':.,^^-,".'::';"^^^'- .'" .i- riuui ,a.,i.t 


sarritm. i„ i|„. ,,,^1, i, ,, , ^. ,, ' ^ lasts h,. „ftrni 
cr.«.|.y .,n,l pr„l' , ' .\s r un Irs''?'; ""' """"^ "^ 

^\'>'r .1,. ,l,„„| ^^ '^^Xt^ '')'''''':■,nana.,s, , r: ' 'h. """""■'",' ■'•'•■""'•"' ■""' 

B. Antiquity J";'" "i'' '""<-■ "'"n th,. »,„l,i u.„ ,„,„|,. 

.h.K™is;^;::n'^>;;r ^;t'.h:;;r:.r''"^-'" 

.spr..a,l un<ler then,, ce,l, , ,.,' f •„ "/'- " 
,.nikr,i ■ ■ hhTin'^n '."":"""""■' "^"^''"/"'W/ 

-•n>io.K.l in .1,; .;x, p ,U^ ■.,, ,^."""-'""« -ffi'nng is 
-*.„ce ahank-„ft;.n,^s ,S7 n h /:nvh ^'"'! "'^■ 
-« 'on ,, ■com';?; «■"■"■'>■ "'n'in.,1 ,„ ,,,i„f,, 

onrif\.?H;.;;'i' -'■ ■ ""''." ^"' "»"'■"' foun,lati,>n 
*"""" lus pnlace, ,f he consecrates his 

' ''"'"•■"■ip.-e^ Ar, in ChaU^a and As,yri«, i ,^^^, 

Near fi'st val (see Sdir AV; i t ^" ""^ •^™ 

.he sacrificial nrran«.™e , s m",,'." tr'n'Tr, """" 
I^T.o<i ,s .0 ix. f„„n,l in ,he ,1„ „ a„ds„f " """" 
cmtracis n «l,ie|, hills „„i ' ■' '" "•il»l"n,an 

6. Performance. I"''^'''-S<^^'-- So Kreai in,ieed s,\s the 

Bahylonia in .JSr'^Z:: ;^t:^l ""■= "•'" i" 
their i,H-,Iiati„n for st ;r,t. ' "- """K ""''Iwl 

^'''1-8/1. In Assvi; ""' '"■^T '^P ^'''■"^'•'>. 
<^.rh,n,self he ,p:^:''V X'T "if "l'^ "^^'^"■•=* 


I-ndentand nnporl,, 'no ,," C:" '"''n"' ""'^- 

•he liturgical t.!l,,e,s p^^ ! ^ "'nl^^r ' ""'"^ 

P.'oplesshalll,ri„«hisn,eri,^;' l' ," " ""^- «'"--^" 
'S frequent mention ,.f th khf,;-, i? ' '" '"" raets there 

iSqo). '^ ""'"'"'"''•• ■^''A.«a>VA(HclMnnfors, 

account of their f„„ctions*.' *"™ "' =" "'"'' ™'i adequate 



504>o, \» in Isr.iel. ihe prit'sts h.ul .isMk'ttni i.i ih»Mii 
(ietiii ♦>' |»(trintiii->i ihf oili i int,'. \t loTflmt; hi tti«- 
'if till -Mill iiinpir -It >i)t|i,ir thf pru-^t-* ri*tii\«'il thi- Umis. 
ih'- ^kltl, thf nliH. the sinew-., tli<- fn-lly, itn* - I itttrlnii; 
th<- ktim kl«'s of all t.ittte iiml lunlts that wi-i>' »j||.ti-.i, 
:l* vu'Il as .1 (Kit of li.UTHii til Itr-iih i^ k til n.l. III 
ill- I i>iilr.ict.-« miinitc tli^t.tiN .Uf im-t \Mth -ti to piu-sl'v 
iltlt 1 ( \t[i, j|7, 410 ; l'n%t*r, ///.*. I >t fr in;*). It iH 
i.U'Ti'slini; to niiv.vr that in I'ahvl'itM an in Isr.n 1 
|si;c I^'V. 21 10 /f I niirs wtTc iini Mown rrs[M(iin;; th«- 
frw-'tluri, Trotn UhLIv lileini«,!i ili it wai rt-qiunfl in prH ••is. 
In a prirsily catexhiMii ol .Sip|).ir (K. J4ti<j-,-4 i'>4. 
ptili!i>h--il hv ( Vain, h\Ii^ums /; r/v. lAM|»»tc, i--*95» 
»v tva.l as f..!lr..vH:-- 

I'liii'tiHi* imt.itk M'Ur'r piriiti i/ini r.i'WV (i^if^M si$ it.imrt.H 

tm-i tuf'^i H i- in fft"/-/ iiut ti.a/tar i!u .Samni 1 i'u Kami'frtn 
m.'.turift'i (■*»'•! Ui- i(iJi,itii i*»i4»'l •tf'i/ tt'ir.' .'■,i':i; atnl firt';' r 
'tn : .!»»/.'/ /I'v.iX'vK Li -.tntsH .7/m ■> i-i tn-t kitti it tiiin-ifntt 
.(ft'c't4'>i tttit ■'/« \,tf'!tf ') ihl K.tntn/iin f'rr.^ 'I 
/'.»A:-tihi.t^r/^»t.*/,'''t*'/ht ;.i'«f« /»»//« ii ill i>ui kitti h 
mnAti sH /.* ^mklU'H -aktH -'w-i ■'lif'ti ■ «»*.* 't.t^f>i uhntM init 
■*'V . . , ffi.i/,' is,n''f;i yi/ii;.i/,'H .y/,lv//.'* f>i:fiiitHH ,...'- 
tutiir fayst* j'l //w it 1/14 K-i»' 

' A wise mm who i^uanU tht- M-rn-tn uf thf ^'nai ^'"1^ 
sfiall cmsc hi-* son \\'i nn hf lo\t,'s. with laldt-i ami [«'ii 
to lakf c),ith iK-'ton- >(tiias ami Kaniinin, anrl the vri 
cf a niaijician \\\ \\\ trarh hi 111 wh.-n to do so. A prirst 
who in noble in tlescrni, ami whow tlothinij (?) and 
niiasitrt-nu'iit (?| are [HTfcii, shall present hinist-If IkIi -re 
S.uit is ami kaininaii in the pl.u«- of aiii^uiy and nrail'v 
The v'li of a piifst whilst- iN-ti'til is n"t tiol<lc ami «ho 
ii not peifi'd in clothiiu; \'f) ami in int a-<urr, who has 
S'piint f?|t'Vt's, tiroken ttvth, hrui'^el ihunilts. WnU or 
s\\r-lhni;s on his (Lt-t . . . sliall not keep llu' tftnplf of 
XiTiiis and Kaniin.iii.* 

Sacritirt* rrsis ultinialuly on thu idia thai it ui^'-s 
pit.i-surt.' to iht.' litity (cp f)i. I.c-. 370). For Isri''i, 
thf I oiiii-ption ofsarritiieas a nit-al for 



i.f thf orttTHit; a** a ^ifi and a moal of ih*- dr 
■ It of .1 Mhfr ami, so ti' s[>tMk, •» .\y\>- 

7. Fuada- 
mental idea. 

\*aln\L' is n'MfLttii in siu'h uxprcs- 

'icn. Hjr in. :!;iio I •cn'*!. In the I*al)y- 
lonian rt-tc.rds, the pods feast in hfaven (4 R lO-^g: 
i.'ini r.}hitti nnntt kufnnnu likai him,' ellu kurunnu 
ii tm,;<i It /.i //>.;/ ^./// i'-.-kifu ; ' thr t^lnrious j:"ds stntll 
the iiiiunse. nohir fcKjtl of heavf n • t>ure wine, whuh 
no has louchinl, do they ei._, _ ; thi-y eat the 
otTifin;^' (4 k 17 -fi: tU-it/^ji aku! ni'^.Utt muhur ; 'eat 
his foiwi, acirpt his s-Krince '| ; t!iey inhalf wjth physical 
dfiif^lit the ''.iv^-ar of the off«-nni; (M /«;'(■, I'^i : ilini 
efi'/u cri-lz il'tni efinu fri'la /.ifiii kima sum/'r' t'/i /•'"/ 
Hti-r ipt.shrA; 'the Rods scent thf sivour. Ihe K'<ls 
scent the sAr-et savmr ; like thes \\Ky they Rather th'-ni- 
selves lo;;elhtT alxtut Ihe oOere r ' ; cp the analfjtious 
expression r;n*3 ivi. tien. 8ii); the f;ods lo\e the ort'ering 
. that man I»rinijs (.-f v//rv. las : naJ.iti s.'f'i'u i/.tni nibiUe 
li ^:mi- // irutim ii.imu : 'the (rlonoiis K'*''"' "f heaven 
and eirth love the icift of hi> satritiff 'l. What is active 
in Ihe iifferini^ is the voUmtary surrender of a private 
p-is^ession (Tif.;!. "7 : 'J*'-; btb'at lih'-ii^i ui-i/ ; ' I s.urt- 
fice-l as my h*-art t'njoined'). As a su!»ji.t into th ■ 
pre-^enre (*{ his kintj, s<j d4-)es man come into the presence 
of his cT,„j with ^ift and tribute. In a text, printed in 
4 R 2o. whiifi dr^i.Tit»'s the solemn return of the ^od 
Mardnk from I-;iani to Babylon and the sacriticial feast 
then celebrated in his hoiumr, the imperial sat ritic'_' is 
ilescrilMtl in the following terms (rev. 22 /, ) : mihin 
ht'^.i! i.i sunn irufum liiuf>lt fiimf/im mifnrtaUi tiJu 
iribh4 kitruh.iiiu hit i.i rna/irJ mdi,i htrnt.i li^,ifiii 
k'l'^/fti !-il,itfUftn w>? '// <in<i bilhilnm. AzIh tubbuhu 
ifu^ :i <:!.jp m .•//;'/* zibn Xurrnhu ^-''li kiify-nnu orma'ifiu 
ul't'^si ,-nu' f.ibu / ' the heaven pours out its abundance, 
the earth its fulness, the sea its Rifts, the nionniaMiS 
their prmhice ; their incompara])le offerintjs. everMhint; 
that ran !«■ n mvd, their heavy tribute do iht-^ T>rini: to 
the lord of ail; lamJ»s are slaui^htered. irreat oxen 
sacrificed in herds, the s.icrifice is made rich, incense 
^<; 7>rr}>.irer!. a =wv^t =iie-i!in^ sav-ur t!r--uiil-- ti;-, 
delicious odour." rrol)ab!y the step from the concep- 


6. Ptirpoi*. 

I floll 

t.. tl 

(.« pt.iiii of that whuh was bn >u^ht m \a( litii t v^ 
III ide at .1 larly ptTMMl, Si ntmli 
indUiitiil byth* lut that t'\en from amtent Innek pr.n ' 
\s i- a>H.«i,ited with «.a«ruue. In tht puiorial r. ,-1 
srfUaliMns of .'>,uiitiual sieiies we roiisi.iiilly Imd t 
\\\\>\ |if.i\i in I lo-.e .isMKi.tlion uilh hiiii who oh< ; 
111.' p-^tiite ..t praver was ihtiffoid nt's ii.Ut, /,'■ - 
kA'i. f.ib.inu <///»<- lifting; np of the hands, loldii,. 
tiie h mds, casting doMti of iIh* coimten met*. 

The purpos*' of >;uritae is. itnartably, to iiilli.i ;, . 
the deity m faioiir i,f thi- Mintuer. Man bruii;.t. :- 
to the \:,'»\% m Older that tht-y mj\ ;- 
mov>-d thtreliy to r»-> ipn*city tosh-.M t ., 
a fa\ouriMe d*s|NiMti'-n rn return.' When the ku . 
Ksarhaddon and A?.ur-Uini-p,il were seiiuii^ly itui,; ^.i 
by the mr»tads of the Uimtrn they multiplied tj r 
otfrTim;s and pr.i\er (see Knudt/cai, /., , 1. In \: 
liluruH's of that [htmkI a stanilini; (■vpn-ssii n is 
folli ws : -/I.; ii!'!i kalumi aufti iZtUiinima aun.: ,,'■; 
yHkuamma : ' U"« awse of this lantb ttdr-rrd m s-iu;:; -_■ 
arise thoii iind est.ibhsh faithfulness and rntrey." 

Si. in like manner, thet;(»dsare npn-sentefj as r> i.j.i- 
ini; o\cr thr sairitiiial j^ifts broiit:hl thetn by their hum ,:i 
worshipiK-rs (K. 1547. rev. 11; /^'./ww/.i mas'-.H ,: 
us.'t^ia tna tub Hbbt //.hit t^i/uwru; ' accomplished ,0 
rny cleaiiMnjj; !».ierilices, to the ^1 idrjeninn of d -■ 
hi-arts of the ijods ,i.e my sacntiies of Lirnbs an .mi- 
plishiHrt, The fe.iture of joy and ^duUiess whuii vo 
markedly charat lerivd the s.»crihcial ineal-s of pre 1 v;;;. 

Nr.iel {'' 'i^s ---. I>t. 1^7 ; SA( Kim l-., Jj iHf is ]■; Li 

means absent from the liabyUmian funi tions. Thus :n 
H \< :{|[fti we read {,iiu/ ai^Uu it/i kuriin>/u nin.u'.t 
iiikun nu'iJ iliit'i) 'eat f<M>d, drink mast, make ni';--: . 
lionour my j^od '. IVedonmiant. h«iwe\fr. over ll;.^ 

■ 'Vous note which tmds such marked expression mv --.^ 
the peoples of classical antitjuity there is f -und v.^ \\- 
\ Mabylonian ritual a feature whuh is coniiimn t,, ,1 
.Semitic religions -the element of propitiation. I I'M. 
of course, we must div<.*sl ourselves of all iheolei;!, ;t; 
preconceptions, and put asidi* all such notions ;is tint 
of an atonni;* et'Iicacy attaching to the (jUmwI as the v., a 
of life, or of a di\ine wrath that exjiemts itM-lf upt.ii tin: 
Siicrificial animal, or c>en of a ratio viidna, uliin \ic 
speak of the idea of propitiali*»n as underi\ait; b..'/v- 
Ionian ^uritices. The similarity of the wiml-. .uid terms 
d<x.'s not necesNirily in\tjive similarity in the relaiiiU- 
conception. The Ikibylonians [wis.sessed the _sjiiie 
words for sin ihiffu), prace iannu), propitiation (/,.w<i 
as the Hebrews liad ; but it is certain that tliev di.l i;nt 
associate with the words the s.une thounhi>. M the 
smie time it is si^nilicant and by no means arrid< :ii .! — 
it has its ro<.^ts firmly planted in the very n.iiuie .-t i!.,- 
relij;; jUS invohrtl — every oherinj.; '>l1<Te.! \\,[V 
the object uf averting evil of any kind wh.itsocMr wn 
associ.ued with the notion ' '" a propitiatory, ile.ui-iri.'. 
piinfyim; efiicaey. In a ..ynm to Samas we !-.;'l 
(4 k 1746: iinu'ia aft! iN.'u t'nun ornam emi.i w- /,■■ 
/«?« maru^ ibQ mar^il ina mursi ni'ii iiu .Si"/.r .', ■ 
nis ic.Uiiii icuiamma okallu aicul nii^iUu m.tiiuni. : i.i>n. 
iikat iifta iJiwi .'uI-uh iva kibil{i:a itti>u4 /;/*■.".*■ 
arntf'it /irrnnsih), ' mm, the son of his i;iu! ,;i,, 
transgression lies n|x>n him. His pliysical stnnL't'i > 
impaired, he lan^uishf. in di-^a^e. I) Samas. Uh-M 
the uphllin^of my hands, eat his food, accept ].;s s.hi.- 
fiee, O (Jod. Take otT his fetters. .\t lliv cenini.inii 
may his sins Ije taken away, his transcressinns hi' tini 
out.' Cither^a^es sulijoined explain tfiemsfl\i.«. 
4 k .'1447: muhur kiiiinitu iili />iii,'<u ni.z l:l-i:r 
Uiim,' mahraka (itUiilai: : "accept the pift he hrinc'^ 
receive his ransom money (jVifl) ; let him walk hcferc 

1 Cp Kini:. Pabylon. Mai;u\, ITa^flSoftl: as'ukia iufr">:'i 
in'.dt tabu kinis naf-iisaunimti Sitni kabti-ni, ' I pi'-"!"i \ "■ 
wtiti !iici;nstr, :iprt;t;aLjic vapuur ; li»ok ai iiic trui> . ixir '■ 





'■"■'yiiili.-t:nn„„l„f|„,„f ^ I ., 

II tit'' .iw.iv mill)' '■vil ■' 11,.. f,,ii, „^ '"''■"' <"<y 

,;;;.;^.,..^, ,■;:,-: ;;;:-;;;;;-;.^ 

/vr:w.;,;t:;;:';:;;?!;";':rPK,'n,:r"' '■-''--'' 

. lnhK'-'mnr. ri,,nii i, i,„|„,„.„,, ,„ ,i,„,.,„ ..,''" 

,,u.„ ,, ^■„, ^;;:;r;h<:;;, „ •^;,.";::;,'. " ;;-,:-m •!■.• " 

},i ,i„„./,T..,„« Xv,// v,„„ . ., I,, '■'• ■ 4 K. ., ,,:„»,;/,, /,-,■ ; 

.!'■..!>■ iii,„!,..i h.-wi fX;'/'' •';'"'' ^.^*'"'^''|''-i'iir..- 

.J '•li. .^. Cp .%.,';„. Ai., .a,'' , .',11 V- -" r- ' ^ l"ril^'l..r>- 
^.i,//.<(.-< nai„..,| i,| .\',./„«. T'l.),, ,^ ' ' '' '<<■>'■■•-■• i «ilh thu 

A few must lie viid on Ilic ..ihlfvi. r,f i 




1 Irn 



9. Human ]\ ,'" ■■> '''•"iirk.iMe lir. ii,„Ma,„... ,„ 
'"■"■.I'l. n.rk, l.r.-:i.stof tlici)ih..r- ,l,„..i „ , 

"•m.'-. „.rt will, ,-,n„„K-is,„„. ,, ,;;,,;"; 7'-"";";""' 

" "f -h.- n.uure of hunirln sa r.ul T ■ r:;!^'':"'" I 

s^ r;^\';ro- 7"'''''''''^'^-^^'-'■-'• 
incofprison'TsfcprS iV l7 ,> -^ -Wrii,, ,;,! ,.fl,.r. 

!"^;"s!5";i;'V.v5;;75'::5''\,'::;""™;,"!. -^•"^^ «.v-a.ft.„„, 

-;) ■ -Mcianr, f I, i 150. 


I.-:;;' ::.::^;:";l,:„„:;':.i:;i; >■';--.-;.:;:;: 

nil- t.kitiK „ „, i, ,. . ' "T''"-' *'"""" '■""- 

yW, .,' u 1 - "■'^' " f'lllltllMClH.- Ill I ,, M 

*-'. .ts Uul at m ijiii, c ,.♦ ,. 1 , , "" « " n. 

,'■■••"'■• '-1,,.. l,;.'.:, ::;;;:;..; '^'./rir^ 

'"Hii.iM vurilRi.. tr,,„i i|„. ,.,,,, "' "" l'i"l..,.„f 
I ii-ii;l.l...iirh.«„l l-"l.l.s 1,1 tl,.„ ,i„iiudi.,ic 

'•^'■•■4). I.Ul ,1. ,.,„,,,.,, J',"^ l...lltl.1„-,„ 

v..u>.,M.^nu h:,.:^^;; L!"',;'""'"'"-^^ ■"-'- 
-■.":.-:u;.:rj..r::;.'i!;:;:^::;,::^> • 

I v.v,...r,i..r, 1,.,.,,,,.,. , ^^,^ i"-,; ''''■,' ''^^^'''>;'- 

In tl,,. p..n,V' f ' -"^'"V' '^•'^'"•■^' nn,l.o,„ul„„...,- 


10. Lustratloni. ij!."-''' l''-'"- '" "i" i!..l.> Ionian niiMl' 

•l.-: ..ckn... pr„c....,ls. is .ransf,.rX,l ,;'.'"'"'/"';;'' 
••O5.). In the len.ple uas a I .v.-r . '.' ' , ^ '^• 


nii'l II.'' I .urn »■ rr M-Rinlcil .i-. hivmij «|«'< ritii.u) 
(A/w /,•,. /iiiiriii'tli, .s,,//« 1 1">. l.v j-i , «•• 
li,iM Ihi^ mil rt'>iini; jj.k«viui- : ■ I'.y M.inluk .■ ■ ruimi.irMl 
I.- III.' huul »iili ihN uuill. iliy Kin, t.ikiii nw.iv lik>' th'- 
Mil. i.-.ui w.iiir tVniii thy l« .in. I ihy h.iii.N .11.. I 
»w,ill.iv*f.l up liy Ihf . .MiU ' 

ll.-i.Ic, w..ur, fi. .111. Ill Mi.'.ili'.n i^ iii.i.l.- ■■( ti'.ii. \ (./y.^w), 

>, mtlk (./»/«>. . (^iwr-zw), liinli.r, t.fulil 

I (ri'iii. .iliiiii (./<V,ir»i. .ilkjlii K' 

.il...- liii^.l. in. . ..H l»/'"""'. <l"' "'■ 'I ■'I' 

. . .'.l.-il I. >imK), . \ |ilr-, (. «.,, palm ( » </. 

illr l<-«., 

iiiur.iN -It. Il it^ 

1. 1. I- I 111.. >.,(» 

.iM' tr«('«. «ii. h ti 


all ».iru af 111. . iu« (fw^'wwK, n*;?!?). 

As .1 tItMli jjUtf .;.'/■/( »///*, t-\:tt|!y ( lltr.■^jl.lln!:lllJ 
III 111.- "-n^j C',"7 "f Nil. r.i.,- ihf rn^^» I- lii.|ui ntljr 
li.iMlr.l.^ 4K. ^41: iNiiiHl/ ,lh,l .. ■■/ ..'/rl ill .'/.'«■(/, 
•Ill tl.. Imii ilf|iirt 1.1 111. wii.lit 11- .. ilif ili'.iii [iLiii'' 
I.|| I K 111, 4 K. .'iii 1 .I'l.t fi'i':. '.I i.'rl 
yi'lltl !lii.fll, 'III III.. II. 1-14 ..I III.- Mil. I. Ml. «^ liirii lliv 

f.ui:. ' 1 1 Is nn .1 sinulir . )iti..n "t 111.; H iliii-rnos .\s 
tliii iIi.Mii pl.Ki' llii. I>i.iilili' iii-.liini III ». iiiliiij; Ihe 
K'HI for .\/.i«'l mill 111.- «il.lirni-M. .m lln- .l.iv ..I Aunu- 
ini-iit .i|i|..-.iri 111 ri-st (lull mi- .\/.\/i i i 01 ilu- nilu-r .lU.i wliK-h li.iil III U- hiirni. Insi-phii* ri-Mi.irk» 
I Inf. ill. Ill 1) lnf.irc 111., l.iiiiiiiii; II li.i.l 1.1 l»! 
lir.iui;ht I.J il MTV tlf..ii' .in Ka**a^tviTaro» x^inov). 
I'liniy ili-.iiiliiu —. IS |i.i>Uil.ilr.l 111 i-M-ry 
s.icnlicia! .III. .Is 111 fvt-r\ i-M-nisr nl rrlli;ii.ri 14 K. 'JM in : 
A /.'./ ,i'l,'tiU-l,\i t»:'i'j.ii\.t : ■ Willi piir.- h.' .--i 
li-|..ii' Ihir.' 4 k 111 nil. J : i:ifU,i »i,m i,i/u,i ur/'i/', 
' H.i>h lli> .111. jiiinly Ihy hiiliil. ' .\/,i/.'u 10Mf>.j ; lUniii 
i.'rn iHi.ui 1,1, :,'riim»ta u' nt wi'.i i.if/i, ' ilii- niniiiini; 
it.iwn Is p.isi. I h.iM* u.ish.-il niy liiinils ; tlii* ninniitijj 
Kl.iw shunt". I h.i\o w.islu-il niy li. mils' 1. .\\\ wlm 
wi-rrsiLkor with ihnso »lio\\i-r..- iiralt-.iii 
bet.inie llieniwhi-s umii-.m 14 K I'rJ-i: /,! ttii il 
tii'if.t III irtiiuif, - tin- umle.iti nmri. Ilu* iin. it-.m, 
dh.ill 111- mil Idtik iipiin ' I. with llie .l.-.i.l (Ul'ilril ni.iy l.i-- ii*Mlini:iI Ii- Il.iitler 
of iiillr-.e; i.f il.liU-iiiim llii> i- i-\|ir. .-!> si.iti.l !.y 
Hi-r.itl..tii4(l 19-); . [. 4 K, --(ill ., s : -,';./.■,>« .'.i iiris-i ui ittiiiiia 
tiUitni^iii- atjiilu v.* ^-.i/.M-i l.i iiii^.i ittiipiin: "t . -i 
Mlii.^e lunil is II It piirf, he j..iiii-.i liiiiiH.-I/; ai ii niiiiil-st-rvaiu 
»h.i>c li..n.l is 111.1 »..-hi-.l, 111- l..,l>.-.l.' 

l-'.ioils ,ilsi) w.-ri' (li.siini;iii»lii-.l a.s ilt-iin .iml unili-nn. 
In Ihe pr.iyi-r .iil.lri' 1.1 Wk siin-i;ii.l «c nu-t-t 
with sui:h .-xpri'>»;.ins .IS thi si- : mvniii.i in' h liiiin I'tu 
ij-hiUi iiLipfilu uk.ihbiMi. 'if !»• iHrili.incu f.iu-n. 
ilrunken. .muinlrii with. Ii.ui.-hf'il. m irmhlfn en. .iiikIU 
Ihiit W.1S unili'im,' In Ilu: kim-ii in 5 k. 4849 
im-ur li.uil priiliiliiii.ins. ti..- qih ..f tish is 
fiiil)iilil.-n. the joih ..f .\li swm.- Ili-h 1 ;,/■ '.ihn. fur 
till- 37lh of I'isri swinu Ili-h. litt-f (.Vr ,:/,•/■ 1, for Ihe loih 
of M.irh.-sv.iii's, the 25th of lyyiir. a.jth of 
Kisleii, .inil 6th of li'lii-t roiu.Rt --. iili wonien 

Ihe M.iliy!oiii.iii ntuiil of piirirn.-.iiion iiii^i-ntly m-i-iU 
systt-ni.itic i-\hlliili. in. espi-ci.illy on nn. nmt of its il.ise 
eoniK-elinn willi OT \u-\vs. Nnw.lik 1//./ 3751 re- 
in. irks with trntli ilii- of i!i-nii luul 
iiiii hail Ihi-ir mm- i-Ki-«lii-re than on the soil of 
V.iliwism ii-|i .Snienil. AV/.-4'..v*. 334I. In siu h a law 
of iHirihulion as wliiih we liinl in I.i-v. 14 iiii- 
i|UO-stionalily ni.iiiy pre-Niai-lilic n-pii-si-iilalu ms are 
pri-si-nt. 'I'lii- uoo.l 111 l..-v. 14, i-..iii- 
i)f the i-leansiiii; mi-ilia of tli.- II.iIa I-miin .i!>ii 
(4R. IS,., 5 k. .'ilisi; till- liinl ulL.h ill I.i-v, II7 is 
eharRiil with c.iriyini,' off the N-prosv inl.i is olli-ii 
met with ill Haiiylonian i4K.4j6 4 K. .M'.'. 
ri-v. 14 : ' I will ri-iiil as.imli-r my Mickeilness. i.-t the 
liinl c.irry il nwiiy up to the siiv ' 1. The seM-nfi.ld 
sprinklinijof the [M-rsoii in l>t;c!eansi-il iT.ev. 147irixalK 
such iii-si.^'.-s .IS 4 k. *J(J :j : adi .uN'n ziintur tim'ii 
'siiilu fiiiu'ii..:. -^.-i.-n times anoint the lioily of 
111. in.* Til.- Iii-^ni.-.inni^ with lilixiil on the lip of the 
1 ii;ht on the right thumb, on the great toe of the 

! Thr i!fi,rt is r-"-'-"-.f~ i-:-.e.!r,l it- i-uii: 'sr-.xj5e it rr-.Tivj; 
unpunticd and dead bodies wilh.iul harm. 



ni'hl fool, i*r»'M riliwi nt l.fv. tii4 hxi lu aiialiK- . . 
in III my t)).i|{ \v\U u|> .f.sA'/'Vl s* ; 'it'na ., , 
m-t iui.ini !'i iHtiii iH.i H^.iitiM jihirtt /«.; .'/#«*-,; , 
ittih't, 'lay tho RtiiniiiK Mouc on ihi< I<i>Ih-<i| '] of I ■, 
i-y,. f»n tu* I. lie luiijrr. on tut WW suit'' I. \ i 
ini"T'sti[ii; [Mr.ilUl lo ihr otftririL,' of puiirn.iiiori [' 
k< !ih> •{ I' I th< |MHir. xshk tl rolliAt ^ ihr in-ii; ojn t.ii ^ 
|»f<"M 'lU 1 til \a\ I 1 ji, iMiirn til K HiSu, '\hvt> Il 
iKTM.n to !■• |»urih.ii w IikIiN n t.ik« h<-lii of \\w hinn!- f 
111* vKTidiiT wtio I>ou^^ u.iiiT u|Miii ilif h.intl oi ■ 
kiini'iiT. lays tiiitnsc upon thr <li^li. jihI ftoUnintv ; 
p.irtH \\w N.II nii'al. Ihi'U, lurlhrr, »»• i. .•, 
J.tmm.t rtt^ti itl fu ktl i'\t^rt4 ttna m.tW/i/-- tk.iltt \m*>i.. t 
mi.UiNu .'* ///i*/ ^u i ilij/u, 'if hf Is .\ ruli nijt< ! i- 
>hali hand (i\<t a iIomm.'* to U- tniritf)|, Itnt if I,. 
a |i.iii(Hr ho hhiiil»v the heart u( a slitt'ii r ; 

i. /\inti ff trumh!itnii\ — {.i\ A liirj^i- iiinnlc ' \ 
«'\l>r'-^''i"Ms rrliiiiiii; to s.uTiho' an' common i" \ 

rituals — #,v . iittbaHNU '|2*r'- = ■' 

11. ■ttittinary. ^^.^^^ h*imu {z*^). i\tr.if-u c-— . 
{•if:i^u (nap), kii/'irn l^t:'- (■*' In bUxKly sacriti. < >, 
th»' "•anif >jH*iif5 of annuals an* fmployt)! (ux, >l,i.,i, 
^ioiii. Animal?* ot a yt-.u- ohl art* piclt*rri*<l, Mini;. is 
ilia MKiff a<lx.uicf(l aj;** art" Mff. l-Viu-il** aniniaS iii> m 
the onciavMiM-tl for puriticalions. in IIk- oihi-r i \n. 1.' -| 
for sin ufftTiiuis. I hr offtTini; "f drfcttiM- .uiimalt w.c 
in ihf tJiio taw alloucii fur pnrpost-s of .iu^;urv. m 'In- 
cjthtTfor frt-f-v\ill olfrt ini's (l.i-v. :j2--ii. (imcrally xj^' ik- 
\\\tZ. U'th rituals ri-()iiirc(l that tin* Mitini <<hoiil'l !■•• 
uithout Mrnnshi A"* in the Haltyloiiiaii ritual i!i- 
S'ltthtku — it-. . tht're(.ular ant I olili^.uory >.urihi-'f^~ h. ■^ 
at the fL'jjMl.ition of the worship, .so ,il-,o in I*, and \t;li 
more in l./ckul, ii thi* f-umJ, tin- rri^ dailv otlrrjn;. 
made .statutory and thi- irntK' '»f thr whojf dn n.' 
MTVue. {() As for unblotKly satrifia'S. ain<im{; iir 
habylonians sysirniatic use was lu.idi* of v.u . ;.s 
in.'ti-riats of whkli the fiuplo\ nit-nt in Ura«l w.t^ , i v 
fvifptional. Mu h a-» wiiu-, w.itt-r, oil, Thr Mnii-r 
orti-nn^j ( .^/</*7«n//) was unknown to early I-^r"! \i 
thi- more sinking: is tin- frf'|Utnt an<l iniportmt ; I n n 
takes in tlu' law of I' whiih pro\idr> a -;• ! 
aitiir for the l;>f'nth. jrnimah (tJj.i) a p<.:. ir 
ai;.iinst il as a modt-rn and outliudish innovation i - 1- 
unknown author of N. ti;'* } names Hahylon as tli- ' i:,! 
in w hit h Sill ritices an- offered in gardens, and m. > i .1 
offeri-d upon hrieks up ' Acrt. 173;;;. .hi'/. 4^). 
4 1< 41*!; ;l. 'I"hu intrnsc ofterinu of [)ost-t;%i!H Im ,.1 
tii.iy i»Th:ips havf U.t-*n iM^rrowed from the\l..ii.,in 

ii }*i'htli of difcreme.- i.;| In the vrRelahle offi-rir,;:> 
of llie Hebrew 'li >rah only th-)s«' products fi^ur'- v«:,,. ii 
P-pnsent a nj^ht of private ownership aetiuir- I '\ 
lalHuir ami trouble. Honey, ire.un. milk. fnii[ '■ i;,r 
frf(picntly as Mabyloni.m ot1erin^;s. Init nevc-r ,iiii^!,i^ t 
those of thr or. 'Ihr wint liU\tion is no lo,ii;' ; 
indr|»rndrnt otfrriai; in V (S \f kiKici;. SiSl- I • ^i' i 
prohibitrd It ;ilto;^fihrr-~doubtless. howe\er. onv in 
aieount of ;tbuse?> connected with it t 1 S. 1 141 '' A-. 
rri;.irds bloody saerihci s. off.-rini^s t>f hsh ani! i: ^w 
writ- exchuled from the Hrbrew ritual. l! '. .'f 
inhrrently the projx-rty of N'.iliwe ani! thus iii !<? as Siier.ieial «''*■*■ 'Ihe tish offrrifu;, i-i. t; 
othrr h.irid, is fir<iiuntly mentioned in A"-.)!:.!!! 1. 1 
l.ile Mabylonian inseriplions. .lutl I'.ime ofteriiujs w. '. .w favour. In 7'i^/.-pii.' ^jf. \\v rea<l : ■ h- !■!- if 
hinds, stains, chanioih t?), wild ^oals. whieli 1 Im 1 \A-.\ 
in hunting; in Iarj;e numbers. I brou^tu toi;i ili'-r iki- 
slirrp, and the proireny that was b-.rn of tliein I 'tt.r'l 
as my heart bade me, along with pure saerihci. tl l,i!nbs. 
to the goil Asur." 

I' 1 .\s for th>; fundamental idea underlying siuritii'*, 
the Hebrew sacrifice in its older form pave a ^vr.w] 
devel'^Dnv-'l'-t lo the concept !^;n of a sacra! eommi!"!'''! 
bctwetn (..iod and the worshipper as represented in the 



cuiluv ..nil,.. ,.,|,..M,.„„I .,tl..„U, ; ""-•"•''» '"""I ; 


.>.». Krmi il .u . '-".Mill. I, I J~i, *,t//.i/l$ 


«iVAin-)Vi. .si.kv,Av.v„v^K.,«v. 

Ill, IV w- , ' "'"■■""» '".■<l in i 

III.- I.> . we, (;,lii tilli, (,i ,„^ (,,,,. V . , ■ '" 

li'i 11- I. tIM d, . " '" 9 -■< ■ I *l I MINK ( 

'■■:■'-.«•;■:: ';/,:i;..v:^i:;:f,^'^'"-''v->i 

(I ' -- 1">. I ir- i'...i. i/,.^ h' ■ :,i''^''.,v' •; •""'"•c-h.(t 

UHr,.,rl,u-.l,„i-„fil,«,,„,|;, ,' ' "-'.'-. n,^la.|,i„„„.„„,| 
let, M.,.,llrv ''n-'iL', u.,.''"rK:"'. '" '''•• '*'• '•''i^r ar 

".-.- fl -.i. ;,,",„<„ „",h, 7 '"' I ' -'> t., I,r I, 

fv.^;:';/i:V;i.!>.-';,^'';A-'f:'; '■'■a'^^v-'m. ,,,.,„„„ 

^■•' ..v.«(cs.„.i„ •„,.„„,,,•,. :.,.,C..,„.4,5.M,.. 

RIVER or EGYPT ,C«n« l,nj>. sc^e Kavpr 


EIZUi.Tin.. .'1.71, KV. WRk-tv 

N U.AM. Wincklcr, li„u,.v,.r, ,,I.„.mI.Iv h.ilfls Vi /; 
Puii'MliMih, i„ r,.r.i,n.-il„. M I " ," 1/ 'I"'"' 'it't-n 

-iKo, .,e..o.„„r;:ru-;;;:,j,t';;^^';; :'r;;;l^;;/;:':;'; 

" ■^■"''* " ri'llcr. (//7,vA 1/,./* O^Fftnt i t 

2 S '»],. fT ;. . ••'.'"». .ijog). A.iordirii; to 

-•^ '/\^;:!"';;^;r ''v^' ^"" ""' '^^ -" ™ •••' 

H,, '"■'■"•■"'l?'") «•« Ham,,v,., ,^: „„ „,. ^„,„ 

ROAST. S.e < „„KiNo, § 6 ; Sacrikuk. i 6^^' "" i 

filin.irv mantle. ' " ' '"'' ^"■'''''•"'' '"■'" ■>» 


aOROAHiMi.l;,. kVKi, ui 

-rri.l. I., I,.„e !» , .,1, ,.,,1,., ' ' " ' "I""' ".r 

f".l> "'.I..M* (!,,,,'''':' •>"■•">'-./■' 1.^ I,, 

in I .ur*,.H<.„. ,1, f,..,7..„Aa/ . .'■ ','L"''I"I.-....')I,-, ».,„. 

'U... K. iHu,,s/,/,,/,>, „«i i,„:u ,, , ,,„',,■;'" 

i iKMlhfn i;,,,|, 1,111 ...k, 1 1. V- 1 , """-"'''I"* a 

C"">-. I. i< |,.,i.,ll,-I t.j ..,- ||-V ■!, . 

,,„/,, J ' .1 <'-\ I- I'n.Kf.'). s.« 

BOCKBADOER I ;pV". /....,, ^KViiv, ivc.s,. 

('-■'.ui,..,.,,';,:,,;; ;.'; ,:■;:";■[ •■•^■"'',^'- '■"'■' >" 

i...-nt (|,.3ii „) „„.,, ;,,,, I .,', , ',;y',T'''i ""■"' "fp'.iii-h- 

....... .n.u„.i,,w,.::;;j-;;v;j:c!:;--ni!.;:i;;'' 

„,j,,. . >•. 

.tt M'lIti-lhiriL: In lii-K uir), I.. I . » 

;ir-iiiiic f. ..kt;,,!;,,,.. .irA,*^..! T, V 'V'' ■"'> :■■ 

(l..iniiiir.ii. ,. J.«.,,) (,) or .1. I 1 , l.<; . in,,.,, n 
sf iff- Z ■ -" 4 i.'-^. -• {J K/i is :■(( ;■•, |,A f >f fi a . I 

....ff. •- >-iTK,. ,„,^ „ „, „, ,;; J^;: f, - "^- 

-•-■1. r.ilh «<,i/,K* .nnil ;/',/ „,. M, I ,1 , . ' • 

ll.f »u,.c .,f • iriU ■ (..... l\m) '' •''■" "'"■'I'l'.^'Kanj. in 

1:4 4 /..h 1 "; V^'"^' •■"'■S-'-: of .h. sl,..,,l.,ni', , ' 
3. l'-...r.M ti,, .1 ..;■'•" IS' •"■'''•'1"°'' "'"I'll. -". Sum' 

RODANiM (,,. .a,,, ^^y„ ^,., 

ROE. Thcrrnilcnngof.. ,. y^,, .^y f.\r. .-^.',, \p„„ 

'• .-■:"■■"■•'"• "H" •''-.519, RV, I,„K ; cp C.AT , . 



I.iki! t!i.! <;\/i:i,i,i; .111(1 IIakt, tlie mo h ihicfly'.l t.i for its b«ifiiK>.s, ,m.l p.iiily on .ncuunt of 
its ^TiiL- :iliil lii'.uity IS a I'.injilrilc ini.ij;!- of |.-Miii;i: 
ih.iriiiv' iiii till' >|i,-rirs 111 i;.-mTal srcCi. iaj-, jj j, .u,,! 
Iiiiti; tin: 11.1111.; i'.:/(««r (no. 4 alxivr) is Mill umiI 
liy tliu .\r.ilis f-r 111.- iiuu Ciiui ,.ifi,.<!i.! (, |j Dr. 
/'./(/., a/ I:, ami s.-,. .\N II' I on 1, Th,,. i\,^r,;'hit 

i-'V'. "ill" "I ii'!l lll'r y.:lri!iir .i|,o l,,ll i.l.'htili.'il. 

is a sin. ill form luiin.l .li^tril. itnl ovrr luiio|,. ami 

\V. .\,i.i, ailcl .^lill oniMS ill r.ll,:.-,lilii.' ; S|i.rinii-Iis of it 

wrrr M-,Mi liy Tristr.iiii on I.i-lianon, ami liv Coml.T 
(r,-nt-W,.rk, 91 [iS.l7|irMi Mt. Carincl. Tin' f.-.llow- 
ili-iT (cp AW Crr-.iis .l:ni,:, is a native of N". Afriia 
anil of tliL- coiinlri.'s .surr lun.liiii; tlir .M.-.lit<;rr.inr.ili, 
wli'iiic it hii'ii iiitio.hin'il into many livilisnl 
L-ouiitri<s. It (n.vir, a'.o in \. i'airstini-. luit is said 
to U' -lanf. A m .nly .illir.l s|x.'cii's, C. m,-^, ;':'/, imiciis, 
is f Hin.l ai parts of W. IVrsia. .\. i:. s.— s. .\. c. 

ROOELIMiZ"'':'-!; pcoptMAklM fHA]. PAKABeiM 
fl.ll ; tlw Iioino of ' Rir/ill.ii till- (iili-adili-' I'jS. IT;; 
19,!i|. The existenri' of siioli a pi. ur i-, (pusli^ h.iIjI.'. 
Probably thu p issa-.-s nl.iiivi' to 1) ir/ill.ii arr b.i-. .1 on 
an ivirliiT pass.ii;r r.spn tini; Mi imiiho^iiktii [,/.:. S 2] 
"lliili .ilriMily brromi' rornipt, .mil c'^JT ( Ko.ji'iim) 
is .1 corriipli..n of g-sj „., H.-tb-Kallim. if., nctli.'f;:lg,il 
(siv (I.M.I.IM ; SVII., § .(). 

Thi.' c.irnipli'.ii aruv; fniiii a srrit.. \ /tifi^ur o,ii!i. In 2 S. 
IT-v/ III. iriH' tf.\t pMh^ihly r.iii (sec (Piivi a'l.l ip Vakn) 

■yyf^ -^r-pi n-r-v c-:"i,-3 z-rn-:- '■y'":-! •^'■r. Hut 

C*3"ip? ".i.^ mi>«riu<r!i cT,-"lt*. 'Il'-' »'iTi>C']ii'ii'"f "f ^Mli ,me M:ril.e (f.lf.w.d l.y MT :mi.1 iPi «) c ~;--. anil 
.Ti.iilicr (fiillowivl l.y ipi.) ui,,it. c':p;, iiw,..„i nf c'^rn'?!;. 
Th.. ^i.,y,„,. ,,f iPiiM. „.pus.-ms c-3!-!l.-o(.p !;..-!i7 fX 
-• V I'.i 11 «.is h.irm .iiiMil. .1, I,, the iiailie of ll.i'r^illai's h.mic, 
» nil J .S 17 27 ill f.i'jli of the IcMs. T_ K, c. 

ROHQAH nnn Ki. n^n-l Kr, ). a in a 
j:-m-alM;;vof .\-ili K (/.:■. S .j ii. ).' In , Ch. 7,., ■■|.\bi] 
ami N..|l-liab " l..voi„,.s [&,j,'„y,a f|!|, [AXlJ<:YPa. nfA 
|A|. [neirJ KM PAplYe Ll-J; I'llt »V,.-',J ,• I'.sh. 0111. 
p.isvl-,-) ; cp Am, 2. 

ROIUnS 0>i>tiM(iY flM'. ' ICs.I. S 8 = F./ra •_> 2, 
Kkmi'M, I. 

ROLL. I. ^^:';. mf^iU.ih : xa,)riiii'. -^dpT?;!, kfi^nXisI, 

J.T. ;>;.. VI.:. S.o \Vl,-i;i-.,,. 

^- r\?i .i'^'.'J' •' • '"I" ^*~; > ^ T.i/i'ii' Km. of' firyrtAou 

[PXiJI T.itfni Yiiii-ni. «■ w. IM : KV ' ki.' .\ i.ihlvl.if «...., l.jr 
^^>l|..■l, pr IM..UII 1-. sil. I\.r lhfBil\..aini..f K. :!.•) 
.p Mli.-n...,, .n.l. "^ ' ■* 

.'■ "?-. ■>-/'''•"■. l:'r.ii''i, KV 'arcliiviv.' Stc- Wuiri\.;anil 
rp Ifi^sr.'Kir.o. 1,1 I i;!;a 1 ; ..I . 

ROLLER ('rinn; \^A^A^A^A tn\'.>r; 'p is. i-i). 

I'./.'<. :iil ji. .in" .if thi' frwri'f.ri'nc.'s to siinju-al pia. ti.c 
in th.- l.\'.,io Ml. nil ink). //(",'/«/ fr.nn ^'intwiii.- lus.'.l 
in i:zi'li. 1114 of swa.l.Ilinf;. ip ik-riv.iliM- 111 I.,ii ;!s„i is 
propi-rly a liaiiilat:r u-p l.iv'.s r.-ml.rini; in SHOT) 
r itlj.T than a poilllin' (as (!^i. 

ROMAMTI-EZER pW "TC'i'n, § 2j. .icconliiij; to 
th" rhr.mi.lrr .t son of Ili'm.m: i ili. lTi, o pcowei 
run ioi. pD.weAxti [!'• loO II''). pi,>\\- 
fwOi cze;i. pi.)\mo .vmezcp fX]. pAv\AOitrep I'-j. 
r,mtmthh%,-r [\'i;, |i, but si'u IllMAN. 


IIi-,l..rynf . liti. l-'ii(|ill ,. 1. C.ii.lK^i 11(5 1,1. 

What ' K.. 111. Ills' s,,ji,i.., i.j J„. \iilli..r(.;i) r... ■ .) 

(* !>■ lli>.;.ii.,IS ,u. 

f";'MM,ls(ii,> V..I,i,.,.f\V, ,l,(S.,j), 

N..t a 1,11. ..(*»...,= ). l>.-f.-.i.l«-..|-.,nlh.imi.ily(l 

Sim. lia.MfS .-III. .!) ' 

l.a|.J.,tf ISJ ,4.,-), I.ilfr.,tii,, (« ..« 

Of I-|.i,ii,.s t.i Ihii Romans Olcl-i liristi.m I.ipratiir.- 
is .iLipi.iiiit,.! uiih two — that of I'.iul .mil that of 

^ If t'lesc aiii'Tlals uer.' s.n, r.-.i t . th.- .;.«l,lcss ..f I.ive (see 
r.,\?ri.ii), an.ith<.T plausihl,- .rijin ,.f ihe reference niiijht he 
5Lii.i;ht fir. 

criticiBin ; tra- 
ditional view. 


Ii^natius. .\s ri'Ranls thi- latt.-r. thi- ri'.iiItT is ri-fi-rrt-d 

to « ll.lS U-Ul. s.liil U1I1I1.T tJI,ll-CllKlsll.\N I.ITKK \. 

■n-Ki; (JS 2a/. ). Mil.- • l.pistV-of Paul p, tin-' 
Ills conn: to us fr.iiii antiipiily not as a •-.■p.iraM 
woik but asomi of tlio ni.i:,t ilistiiii;iiisliiil iin-niUi , of 1 
group Ihi: -. 111,11. s of r.uil' (»>iar.Aai Iloi.Xoi-i ::i 
wlmli Its titli- 111 till- shoiti-si f.,nii. loUowcd by Ti. \\ 1 1 
am.. lit; otln.-rs (after NAHC, etc.), is 'to Romans' (ii,„j, 
' I'ui.uotoi'j ). 

l-'rom thi; Ix'gir.ainn (first by M, 11. ion, about i.pi .\.i,,i 
the work, as an int.-.pal| tjf Jn; autliorii.iin,. 

1. History Of J-^l""'""! '" .'^"""f"- f^ """^-'■ 

wools as a caiiunii-al uritili.;, w ,, 
1. 11 Illy iL-iiif;iii.M-il as tliL- work of 11.,. 
np..slK- I'.iul, TliistoiitiniiL-il without a break till 17.,... 
Justin look no iiotiii- of Paul ; Ir. nans ami I i-itiilh.iu 

-the latter with a seornful ■ h.i-reticoruiu aposl,,li|. 
till his lips— laboureil to lalse the 'aljostle' 111 tl,.- 
estimation of the faith' I p-p P,\|-|., <S 48) ; but li.i on,. 
ev.r Ihoutjlit of iloublmi; 111.- geiuam-niss of tlie 1. 11. -is 
atlribuli-.l to the a|i.istle— or of ilefeiulini; it. Diaa.t; 
the whole of that period the ipn-stion >li>l not so luinh 
as exist. 

Tlu-re is imleeil a v.-ry ol,| iistu- ion — ^ erli.ip:, it Ijii aris. n even in the s.-e.inu ceiltu'ry— as f, th... 

2 Theory of '■^'""""' "f ''"' ''P'^'l'' i» '»" '"nu.s. .i 
compo3itene.B. ■""■'''^■V";'' ^^ ^l";"'r, <v.-n afi.-r ,.ii,„. 
sum ol the two last eh.ipii-rs i IT,, li;i, 
Uriijent-xes Marri-in with this List omission ; but l)iiv;i-n s 
oilier e.inti'miHirary ' s.iys nolhilij; of llm. 
tli.iiiKii hesi-vernl timi-s reprim.iinls thelierelie for haMi,:; 
t.imiB-reil with thel,-xt ofih.ips. Ml. Tlie probabiliiv 
is that h.i.l n.i aninaiiitaiice with eli.ips. I,',/. 
.\t any ..te, he 111. iil.- no citation from them in Irs 
polemic aij.iinst Man l.m (.;./.-. .1/.;/-,-. fn ;-t4). allli,.iii;ii 
in its course he leaves none of tin; pr.-vious clupnis 
ll-lll lllnif.-rri-il to anil .sp.-.iks of one expr.s.M.ia _ 
• (Iirisli' (11 1,1 .is writl.n -in .lansr.:,' 
[epistiila ]; cp van Maiien, /'•uiui, 'li.t-iv-. 

In recent times till- Ir.itlitnm of the text as ic'.il, 
chaps, l.'.-lli has fn-ipn-ntly come uinler discuss; -n 

'Hie coti.liision is not only that the chapt.-rs ui ipn 11 

were uiikuoMii to and [)r.ib.iblv also to olh- r 
ancient wiln.-ss.s. inclmlini; Inna-us and I vpri.iii. Iia 
als.) that there w.-re in at an earlv.lale Msv, 
in which the doxoI..i;y Kom. Ki.-j-j; eiilnr .., .iirol 
alone imnn-ilialcly aft.-r ]4,ij or w.xs entirely w.uiiais; 
(cp 'ri, ; .Saliday-IIeadlani. (\imni. (1895I, 8!>/ ; S. /«,'/•. i-i', l8.(4. li.-,,-is;i. 

T.I tln-s.- facts were, at a il.ite,, r,.ti -is 
lia-e.l ..n 111,- cinlciiis .if chaps, l.'i.pi tc-M.lin« t.i shuw lli.ii ll„v 
liarilly latcl in viilti chaps. 1-14. .Sc-mkr (/lov. ,/< .o,.«,..V 
.I/*/,/;,//,,- c.-i. /*,!/, ,/,/- A'../«. 17117; /'.I'.ifi/.niu^ .,■' ,1,/ 
A'.'w.l'l,,,!. I7fii), Vh.a siipp,,rteil by j-.i. lih, rn ( . ..' 
/« ,t,is X/-}. Iichl .hap. la /. t.> he l,y Paul but li,.l I !;.,ic 
..rinin.illy l.i-l,>ii,;e,l t,. ilie Kpislle t.j ihe R. .mails. ll.iur(,.,-. 
//.../(/., iSifi, /'.ik/kj, i,jk, cp /'.<«/;.,(. -^i, 1 li3f*| ;„,,., .1, 
t i,!l,,\v,-,l. in the iii.iin. ;,; ..thers l.v .Schwei;Ier (V.t .1- 

.'•.7/,l//, .■>,/■ 7. )..S. I 1.11 i,|s,,n(/lt/V-,»/.l3. 1,^04,1 , ; ,|. 
.ill.l.-iinlrm.rle.l I,-/ Klin^ (.SC. A / . iS,;), lie Welle airl , l!:tr., 
iniiinlaiiie.l tile pie. e t-. lie >iiKe Ikiur, injio s. !,.,! 
ll.oe en.le.o..iiTe.l l.i sle.-T a mi.ljle c.iiise hv se-kiiii ia v.t\ 
.lnerj;i-iit >v.ivs. it is inn- - fir Ihe cl.ise uf llie leiur sn|i|. -.,1 
I .-I. in chaps. 1.'., 111. So ani..lii; others, lai. lit (/,/,...-., 
. ././.•« /,-/./..i AV/. ,/,-.( A',V/«.>-A./,/i, 1--,), V..|lKni..i I V ... ' 
•"..A 1 rs), S.l..,lieii (//(./■, 137P1), lirnckner ( A', .;-,.;',. . 
ir,.). M.iljin (i;,,./,. t: ,/. /(,.,(-<„ ,/.,,- Ms. 1».|. p. .... :. h. 
llu-s, \.iii.nis altenipts an iinp., p.irt w.-ts ii!'\a\ s pl.i 
liie ' ..i.jeclure, Iirsl pie f.rth hy S, hill/ ( SV. A'- 
K-.lli. I.;...-,, viliat «e realh- h.iw i, .,11 epistle 

In this of liol.liiu; more I', .' i ■■ 
epistles than one to ha\e ln-en iiuoi |).iiai.-.l w.ia • 1. 
iiiher or aiiial[,Mmatcd t.i.,'etln-r to form the ..ui. a.^.a 
epistle t.) tlie U. .nulls tliewav li.i.l iilre.idy b. 1 n i,.i 
(l.-.ivini; LI. Klout ofac.-oimti bv lleumann'in i -' ;, 

Me ar-u.-.l. a,!i.; t.i Meirr (A',...;;,.-. .-1. |iSt„l. el. i. f r 
the -stran:;e hy|i..lh<sis ' that a n. iv Kpislle to llie K-.n.-.n- 
h.-,;ins at I ll.ip. IL'. whilst .hap. IC. .-..ntaiiis Iw.j p.)sts. rip's (.■•:- 
i-.'4 iiii.l .•;■.-;) I., the Iirsl. Ki. hh.-iii (A;,//.i-i, 18.-) ciK-s-fd 
111.,! I'.ei! in reralia;: a^e^ ih.- .pi-il. „f,.a il I, ,.| V- -. ■■•ai-- 


,,f I -a, 

prr, c.les 
l.i.isllc , 
?|.llla (y 
»illi s.,ia 
la the K. 
wrillen h 
visit to k 
an, I>;« 
rca.-he.l u 
parti. IIS : 
({■'■>./: ,? 
N 1 4, ant: 
ar.A siniir 
pr -vi;iii il 
in :he..'iiir 

ri' . 4j) pre 
ii^Q) ill a 
K[»iytk- til 

t^iuiuioii I 



■^-tli.m. lU- t..,„„l „„:,l."v, ff, , M '^■""■"•1' I" I- - l-.tcr 
t- have »r,tl,i, „i,l, ),i, „„„ h,| ,','."', -"I'l'V-^'l '' 


f,.ill.. (/,r ,„ „ /,, „. /',>/,,* ,'.';'" ''• '- '•""'•! I" chap. 15. 
li llie, K ;.V r,-,i,li ,,f , ,; . ' ■"" ',■ '"■" •■'■' I'l'i-lle 

-i...n hy i..,ii .„ ,:,:.; -'i ,;l.:';',«i';,f ;"■■•'• ;'f .".. .-p.-.i.., 

V.-.1 t,> K,,„„., ai„l a,l,lr,-.,«,| Vh. i hri ,; ,^' ■'.',"' '""•• ;'."" '''•• 

l-.i-.v: ih..- ,.:, I, p.,„|,. ,,,'. , '7;" "/ 1 1.11. i'.. !:■>.■ II, 

n-.^.K,-.!,,. i„i„,.,„j •.,'.. 'i ""''"^'.' """ lli«: lirsi, l,as „,.t 
^>rtl.-n,: U.,.|?,/Z7',;,;.;; '""«'"- »"l.c.,,.u„,j-,„|yu,e 

(j!;:^' i'i^:'!;\i;;,ir5;,;i^?:,,;-;'-r i.; ku.„.„ 

.N> 4,an,l /!,/■/. ,„.„/. /v„.„; ,3-. ,•;,','"' '''■"■■■•"/.■/„v, ■■?:, 
tr>.!„i„i,al „.,„ of ,1,. Kpi.,| .',■," '^ K 1, i',' "',';,','" "' '" '*" 

r..;iMin.,„.h in .'..:; ::;i;tv, . ^^ w':i;,i^ ^ ;"':::)->"■'" 

n. 4.1 prf,.t,| Mill riirlh,.r f„r,l, ' ■ ■■ ^ "•'••"='/:■ I8,^8, 

.S80) in a,ep..,ra.eX(; . , , ,V./ A' ""i ''■■'"■'"''-■'"" '■''■■''■. 
Kl.i-llr lu , I,,. k,,„,,,„.. 1^ ,,'".. FU.'Jai.a.n nrcanonical 

«,uiMo„ of .. genuine qislfc JX apoMlT " ■'•'^""" ^'"1 

timiled. hoHvvi.-r. at Ifisi viiii V V '-<l"'lly 

nnd i„ , he „,..,„, f„„„ ,„: ,:;,;-^v''" i":;^:"- 

,„ s. „, „„r o.m„.,u-..l ,.|„.,i,.. t,. tl„. K„n,a„s, 
3^ Pauline "'"".'-''^ '^"h'-ut saying so in so n.nnv 
authorship "■'":;';;• 7^ '•:• ICvans.,,,. He r.,,,x-,.,!„l 
questioned. '*'' '''"••"•'"cf of thi- four i;,;i,ni!lv 

-iniMi I am as author nf ilie ,.„isil,. ,. „„, 1 . 

"^z:r:T^T ----^^•■".>-::'': 

^ ^^^^^^^_^ l^^an.l oihers. Kvanson , an;„„vnt.s son,, f.-u , 

,,» , ^ .'"'•" SI Molar. HeHa.snot siiwQ^fni 

■■•'. -■ S.Knin^T ,1 laMmiK-not at least until alVr 

, >oon alu.rwar.K .V 1 ,"1", ,™ ',;;■,■,.''';■ ^' ' •-"*°,»- 

:■;:M.:'r^:;^:^^:-:"7"^" - ;;::.,:^;::;■r;i;:; 
I 'i'm.K.rv article l,vh„, In .'■ ,|T "''''''''"' ^ '""- 

;<>...- ^^ an,, -a, ,i::r:;y,^X/,;;v;^ 

i 1 lie lie«er mlici.sni has n,a,!e itself h.-nnl i,,! ,. 

I character a,i,l a,ms see 1'^ . \i V' '■ ,''"■' 11 
I 37-4S. Its ,l,.sire ,.s ,0 r.-a,! the I'niX' Z ' . '''; **** 

i Si^i^^r' --^^^^^^^ 

11 any t,.^t ot ,-\;unination, as t,) ll.,. ,.,,isil.. 1 ;, 
; ;'>'''''al'bllH-«o,U,fl^u,Ian,l,,r, ; , '","«"'- 

I -;- '•'-• in the pur,. i,J,r':V ,,':;;;:;;; 

I «"h.Mi,-,Iepr,.i„,l,eeas,:o'n,;:'""^^"f""^'""-'^ 


; '-^■»''omofa,eountthe»or,|s -in Kon.e 1 V . ^ 

£.1: ;;:r,:t-i:;;;;:;;;t;::::;;r,:t= 

liii.'i) need eaiise no sunirise it 1 .;. , 


If we tnrn for a lit.I.. fron, a,l..ra>i„n of the 
l...rar>forn, " oea.pv oars,.,,,, „„„,,.,,„ ,„^. ^.'j;^ 

8. Contents. '"'"■ ""' l""^' '^">K that strikes US is ,l,e 



4. What ' Rom." 
seems to be. 


>nd benediction (li-?). an intrcxiuction ils-151. niul a 
st.Ui-tnrnt of he rii,Mnl> ,is ilu' rii;ittrr .is 
ru^.ird., ttiL- prLMihiiii; ul iliu l;l)^|K.•l — .1 thm^' nut lo \h: 
ash.iint'd of Imt tu \»- i-vi-ivmIilti; prc.lchi'il .1.-. .i [h)Wlt 
of liud for Ihi; snlvalic.ri of cvltv lielifViT Hhcthcr ]vw 
or tJreek (1 16/ )— loinc two (■reat doctrinal .sections 
followed liy an t-thicil section. 'I'lie lirst doctrinal 
stxlion. 1 iS 8j9, is devoted to thceluciil.uion of the truth the nosp<-l is the means for the s.ilv.iiion of Jews 
.ind (ireeks. iR'c.uise in it is reve.iled the riKliteousness 
of (iod from f.iith to f.uth ; tlle other, '.l-U. to an c.irnest 
discussion of seems to Ix; a complete re|ection of 
the Jews by (iod; the third, the r-thic.d section (I2i- 
15 11). 10 a .settiiiK forth r>f the c luct lietits the 
Christian tioth towards (Jod and t. inirds man in general, 
and towards the weak and their claims in particular. 

In substance the doctrine is ,.s follows. Sin has 
alienated all men, Jews and Cientiles alike, from (iod. 
so that neither our natural knowledije of (iod nor the 
law is able to help us ( 1 i3-3.'..|. A ivw- way of salvation 
b opened up, ■ Ciod s rii;hleousness been manifested ' 
{imaioai'i'Tj tftoC' ire^ocepwrai j for all men without dis- 
tinction, by f.iith in relation to Jnsus Christ (3ji-3i). It 
is aceordinijly of no importance to l)e descended from 
Abr.iham accordini; to the tlesh ; .Mir.iham in the hii;her 
51-nse is thi' father of those who lielieve i 1 1. Justified by 
faith, we have peace with (iod and the h-st hopes for 
the tutiire (5). Let no one, however, suppose tiiat the 
doctrine of gr.ace, the persuasion we are under 
prace, not under the law, will conduce to sin or brinj; 
the l.iw into comenipt. Such conclusions can and 
must In-' peremptorily set aside (6-7). The emancipated 
life of the (..', free from the l.iw of sin and death, 
is a glorious one (81. Israel, the ancient [leople of the 
promises with its great privileges, ap[)ears indeeil to 1« 
rejected, yet will Ix.- g.athered in (9-11). The life 
of C'hrislians, in rcl.ition to tjod and man, must in every 
respect give evidence of com[jIete renewal and .ihsoiute 
consecration { rii-l'iijl. l-'in.illy. a closing word as lo 
the a|)ostle's voc.ition which he ho[x's to fullil in Rome 
.ilso ; a comniend.ition of Tha-lx*. greetings, exhorta- 
tions U-nedictions, and an ascription of praise to (jod 


If, at .1 rtrst inspection, the work presents it.self to us 
as an epistle written by Taul to the Christians at Konie, 
on closer examination it Ix-comes dirti- 
cult to adhere to such a view. Uiffi- 
cuities arise on every side. To li^gin 
with — as regards the form is 
assumed. We are acc)uainted with no 
letters of anticiuity with any such exordium as this; 
'Paul, bond-slave of Ji'siis Christ, calleii an aposti,', 
separated unto tile gospel of (iod ... to all those 
who are in Rome . . , grace to you and peace from 
(iod our fither and the I.urd Jesus Christ' (IlaeXos 
5oe\os 'Irjijou XjHaTou, kXtjtos aJrotrroXoy atpupiff^xivo^ 
eis (ea77c'\iov tfeoi) . . . irainv roh ovtjiv iv 'Vu:^ti 
• ■ ■ X^P" ''M'" KO-l fiV)""? <■"■" *"'' Ta7/)6s rjMiii' kai 
Ki'^oe 'IriffoO XfHaToOl ; nor with any conclusion so 
high-sounding as the doxology of 1625-27, or the pr.iver j 
for the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ wliich is heard in 
I630 (or 1024). In every other case the epistles of ! 
antiquity inv.iriably begin plainly and simply. ' 

Thus, for ex.impit;. in Ihe collection of Oxyrhynchus papyri ' 
(1 rsi) vve have Eipiji'iiTaoi'i.ui.ipti (trti 't'lAuji'i «i'ti»y\f(i' . , . .-ind 
at theM. ...e *C irpaTTPTe : .}r(l i- Xaipta? .iioi-ucrioji Tiit m.piwi 
aficA'JuJ \atptil' .iml, ,it tlie . i.ise, ipfuuirtfai tri <i)\ouai. I 

(ire-lings are indeed conveyed Ixith from and l'^ 
v.irioiis ixTsoiis : but never are so many introduced as 
in koin. Iti 1-16. where in f.ict at the eml ,;// the churches 
Sillute. A letter-writer may, at the outset, seek to bring 
himself into closer relationshi|) with his reader or to make 
himself known more ex.ictly ; but in the many ex- \ 
amples of real letters that have come down to us from ' 
ancient times we nowhere find anything even appro.uh- 
ing the amplitude of Rom. 1 2-6. .\or yet dix-s anv real 
letter, whether intended for few or for many, sn far as , 


6. Difficulties : 

sot a letter ; 

opening and 



■ we are in a position lo judge, ever give us, be ,1 use 
by Its length or its el,iborate method it resembles 1 .irr,inged in orilerly sections, lo regard it as .1 
book, .IS our c.inonical epistle to the Romans dix-s, witi, 
its great 5ulHlivisions(alread> taken accoiiiu of under jt ; ., 
I We may, in truth. .s.ifely dis[x.nse wilh further c<.ni 
i parison Ix'tween our epistle and any real letters fr.nn 
I . gtvle of ^"'-"'^''" """-'^' ^" ""1"'^^'''''' i-'* it toreg.iii 
I iui^lS '' '^ '"' ''^'"'•'' I'l'i^''"'. '" whatever d.u. , 
I ' locality, or author we may assign 1: 

How could any one at the very lieginning of a letter, ,11 
which, too, the first desire he writes to express is tli.u 
of writing solemnly, carneftly, direialy, allow him-..: 
to expati.ite, as this writer dix's, m such a parenthesi- ' 
He speaks as a didactic exjxiimder who. for the nm-i 
part, directly and is concisely iis possible, deals with ,1 
numlx-r of disputed |xiints. with regard to which li,.. 
reader may Ix; supixised to be in doubt or uncertaimv 
because in |xjint of fact they have gained accept, in. .. 
within certain circles. These expositions relate to 
nothing more or less than .such points as the relati. n 
of the Pauline (ios|xM to the U T (:■, 2), the descent .,f 
the Son of (iod from the house of David [v. ;,i, i!,,.. 
evidence of the Messiahship of Jesus derived from his 
resurrection \i: 4I, the origin and the legitinwcy of ihe 
Pauline preaching (;■. 5). At the .same time the re.i.krs 
(who have not yet lx<en named and are first addressed in 
V. 7) are assured that they txMong to the (ientiles ((('1.7)1, 
with reference to whom Paul has received his apostlesi.i|i, 
although, according to 1 lu-i.i. he has ncviTasyii in. i 
them and constH|Uently has not been the means of liieir 
conversion. All this within a single p,arenthesis. In 
such wise no letter was ever Iwgun. 

The writer addresses himself to • all ' the menilxT- of i 
wide circle — let us say in Rome ; even if the woriU ■ ,n 
Rome' {4v 'Pi^jut;) and 'those who are in koine' ircj 
iv'Vilifj^ri. 1715!, according to some M.S authoriiie- ,i.> 
not belong to the original text, their meaning is n^ia..! 
by the su|XTscription • to Romans ' (tt^os 'Puiuatoi s : . p 
\^>;2-2q] ami by the unvarying tradition as to the d. -1 i. :- 
tion of the 'epistle.' The Paul whom we meet In n- 
addre.sses his discourse to a w ide ])ulilie, and utters in i. itv 
tones such words as' : ' O, man, whoever thou \v 
who jiidgest, etc' |u imtfiuTTf irds 6 Kpivuv k.t.\.. ■_'!•, 
'O, man, who judgest, etc.' {!!> intlpultf 6 Kpivuiv *.r \,, 
2,1), ' If thou bearest the name of a Jew, etc' lu St cv 
Toi'Safos iirovoiid^ri k.t.\., 'J17I. ' N.iy but. (> 111,111 
who .in thou that repliest against (iod?' (li di'iVuTf, 
^tyoec^f (jv ri$ fX dvTtxTroKpivd^ivo^ rip t)ti^, 9 2 1, Hut 
1 s|H'ak to you that are Gentiles' iiiuii' oe .\f-,ui r,),; 
tSvfaiv. 1 1 n). 'I say ... to every man that is aiiii ni,' 
you, etc' (Xe-yw . . . Travrl tQ 6vti iv i'fuv k -.\. 
Vli), 'Who art thou that the servant of an.. th.i ,'' 
((71) Ti's cI 6 Kpivii)v aWoTptov oUfTTJV, ll4i, 'Hut Ih.u, 
why dost thou judge thy brother?' {crv Si H Kpims tcu 
aS(\<t>6u (Toe, II i .), ■ Kor if because of meat thy |.r. i!i<r 
is grieved, etc' (ti yip Sii, fipCifxa 6 doe\0<J! iroe \i ir.iroi 
K.T.X.. 1415). etc. Often the argument prmeeiK unm- 
terruptedly for a long time without any indication .1 the 
existence of a definite circle of persons to whom ;t is 
addressed. Yet. on the other hand also, the ah^iiiLl 
argumentation gives place to direct address, the 
of admonition or exhortation spoken to the bn liiiin 
(dSfXi^oii. whether named or unnamed — the meiii.. 11 •■! 
whom, however, when it occurs, is a purely omi' 
form and no natural expression of the existence ..f :uiv 
special relation Ix'twi'en the writer and his as-umul 
readers. Of the passages coming within the s(o[«. of 
this remark (some of them, already noticed in ^ 4>. "' ne 
presents any (x'culiarity in this res|x'ct. (in the oi.. 
trary, every one of them produces uniformly liie s.inie 
impression ; in this manner no real letter is ever wriiten. 
The last chapter nothing of the character ef .1 
postscript to a letter already completed, allh"ui:li the 
letter apjx'ars to end with 1.1 30-31. Strange, 111 the 
sense of lx?ing not natural but artificial, is the 



l.-.-er, since ,„. r,„,l hin, s.,v i 1 „ '- ' '^^',"" '" ""= 

al«.u. the e.s,le, «he it as ij'' ^sX I ''''' ''' "^ 
whac in,pr».sio„ i, „,,, h:u. °,, /*-"•. '""'V'-" as to 


\\'ho the siipr)| roniicrs r.f *u ■ , 

'l^'lrn.nt ,n nunv .,,s|„vis th nil „ ' "'''''' "'*•■ ^" 
einal j,.Micc ,ha, ,,. d , ,„ '^ ,^ '-■•"-> "i'h 

//:./. .ss„ pp. .;„.=,.;.;;,^^„^^'^ -;;, J£S;.>,;t- 

«r.. :.....r, ..noccnlt^lar^ru ;^:Zrr','" "" .- 
■■"1. ■! is inordv assim,,.,]' '""/-'"-""'an- furri. ,s n„t 
»«'..-.n acual lei,.: " ul ;^'^^^-- ''-o to do, n,„ 
««h .1 treaiisr a l,<„,I.- ,h ., f'»iians. hut rather 

'■^'"''O' "'^^"on'-theconneetion of its M ! 
unity. ', n^. jho relative unity of the lw„k 

h"«v,.r. unitv oHhe k" T''^"" ''' ""'"■•'"^'- " ^'^ ""t. 
'" .1 l.«.k mm n ^f, ^"■'' ^'-■"■stonie,! ,o exppc^ 

■■««! l"i!ically de e oL I ''' 'Carefully considered 

t^ave be-,, n, ;e ^ t::""," "^ '"-' '"aterials after these 

- ". • >.iia .t sr.ri ,,s leniiuds us of iliat 

sl.;;,t:stE,r;;;';:r"' r "''^^'' ^ 

r^<laet,u„a„d renmnu" , ,^, '"■'^ "'^"^ '"""-^ "f 
supplen.ent.u.on In'" eh ,^' , "'' '^'"■'■•■""-"- and 
other sources I, il , '' "^ "''''' I'""'- ''''au,, ir,,n, 

Acts,a„ho,Uwe.;: ;\r'trv"'"; •'■""« 

lo th.ii I k hi* n ,!^ r ""'*5''' '"""lent 

c.fwrmenso,.;^r': ,^^t;;;;,;;'™ 

"I thouKht, of fcriM,,. of o, m ■ , "^"'l'"' "'"' ^'>'^-' 
•'■•-■re are. „„t sel,h„, X ''k Z'' ''''' ■'■''"'■' ''■''•= 
r-l-cts. The resul oCl ' i:?' IP '" "" .'""^'^ 
cucu.ustanee tl,at the writer of h un„„s,,,kai,le 

"'a-l'- continual and tn^m,- , , ' "';''''''"^';'^''^ ''■''^ 
expressi.m, ar},-ument5 ,le,u,.,i fr "'"'''• '^"'■"'■■' ''' 

10. Failures '■•^l'"',""" th,. ep.stle as a eon^pcn. V 
tofindunity.~; Whole.- a„en,p,s in „£:';^ 

-rt to the assu, ,,r , "^l'^:-:^''.""^-'""' '" - 
"KonceivaWe ,i,-u ,-, nil ''""\"f ">"^'^»Mv tind 
conceal the evis'te .,•';,■;?" " ''"""' '""' "'"' 

fvn in the seic-ntitic hue ake.,v I "''''''■ "* ""'' 

Kahhorn, Weisse. Straa n . \ , ., I'j "T,""' •^'■'"''■^' 
and so nianv others ( some f i ' ■^'"''^'^^'«-". •'^Pit'a. 

i" S ^1. who ha e r^™ an c^n;""""""^'"""^^-'"'' 
v.ew thatn.ore -hat'o e' 'p ^ f'^^l^^^'S"''' -^^ "- 
""he appar.-ntly hon,om.„e „r ' aul hes conceded 
■ "'«•■ v,c«" that ,L, ave 'a"-""l epis.l,, or for 

loss „nn,erous,o;'ants:;i^';:;;:':';;'™- ■■•;-- 
res,,rt, on an (is fir -,. ,. i, ^ '■ '" ""-■ last 


I oHKer under the dominion of i V„r, T"^'"*^ "" 

I be n.aintnined a, all h",i 'is •.'"'«""'■ inclusion, ,„ 

' with the <,riKin,alV k of , , ''''"-' ">= '"'^'- to .1,, 

•o the chuith a, nti^L^ :^t:;l';'^"';-"' ''ylmn 

lH.-fore us is simolv '""' "'at what lies 

11. Signs of ' ,"""IJ be supertlnous, even if sp ,„ 
compositeness. a".°»'ed. to yo through all the del.,', son 

<'a",>ared «,„:';■ '^i;:^, ,;^^---™."--aysu„ice: 
on I. although MOW-,, ■...'"• ""^' *'^^™"<' 
iH^trays tokenfof a on",, ' I?:;!''"""'" "^ "»^ w°rk, 
is no inherent co, ,e -Si ' •''''?' '"""'■ T'xTe 
can, if desire,l, t^Z^^''^'^" "'• ^""'°"«'' ""^ 
wl.ollv new doctrin ,' snhl ? ^"" '" ■'*'-' ''"■"' a 

I" tiu. second":r;,o'Chrt";r''r"'^'""^^- 

discussion is din"el,^'" I^ rc,:;™;'°";; ''"'^ 
Iiart, ostensible to Chris, ,, i ""'""^ "f the first 

concerning, Isr.e Th "'"' """-a-"": i«.n of heart 

cleare,! of tiie reproach of n,, ■ '"'""'"' "° '« 

Oods ancient .i^op e f" '"Th''"'":' ^""''■^' •'"'""' 
him that he mi^ht tcon!^ , ::,;^:j^';'-<^1 .'^ 

4 '34 


t!i! Sfi'ii iif Alirili.iiii, the tril»- cf !'» iijaTiiin. Ili-iice 
ai-) till! 5UiTiniini;-ii|) nf ih,. am ii-nt |ir.\ ,i. u;c cif Isr;iil, 
' "hi IV.- is ttie a.luptiun ami tlir i;lnrv .mil llif cnvcniiil'i' 
('J4/I. in tc'inpariviii \iiih wliiih the ^inijile stitrtm-nt 
that Ihi-v wt-ri; eiitiiiMi-il wiili thu oiiu'.rs of (i.wl 
sinks imo insiijiiiMi in.c In tlie lirM part a nuiie 
■ lilf.Tt-nt ti>ni! is a^-Mii'-.l t.^wanls thf Jf» i ' I ... ."laiot, 
l.'i7i. with whom ihi: spi-akiT apin-ais to huL-niithing 
in c.rniiioii. Thrre wi- liml J.'-w ami lirr.-k plac.-d 
exactly i.ii an f.inahiy 1 1 if. 2i, /. It„i ; ihi- iili'.i ul the 
.li'H> that as Mil h Ihry roulil have any ailv.iiilai,'e .mT 
till' hiMtlifii is in set ti'iins (■(iiiiii.vrrlfil (2ii-:)jii, ami 
it iS (K'l l.iieil that ilrMcnl from airoriline to 
thi; lifsh, is <if nil \ahii_- { 1 1. Hirr, nn tin" otliir haml 
I'.'-ll). we havi; L-arnrst discussiuM of the (|ueslinn h.'W 
it is |i".-ilile to reciincile the position <if Kr.iel 
in lOiniMri^.m with the lieiiiile wmlil witli tlie iliiiiiu 
purpose ami the promise nia.le to the fathers. Here. 
to.i, .-J hinh-pitcheil .aiknowi.'ilt;ment of the pri\ileKe3 
of iMfael. the one i;ooil oli>e-tree, the stem uponwiiich 
the wild olive braiiihes — the lieliel in;; (ieiilile^ -arc 
i;rafteil ; Isr.iel in tlie enil is eert.iin to !»• whilly s.,veil. 
lieinu'. as tonrhini; the election, heloveil for the fullers' 
s.ikeiirari riji' tKSoyiji' a^airijroi 5id Toet iraWjiat, 94/ 
■rl02ll7i7/! 2nj3l. ^n tile first p.irt, a sharp repiiilia- 
Hon of the law in resjiect of its prnverlessness to work 
nythiiii; that i.s Rood 1.32,)/ 27 1 1-, 1114 " , A . ete.) ; in 
I'le secoml .i holilini; np of the giviiii; of the law ivoino- 
l>f<7ia) as a pn-rioiis Kifl iim. In the hrst p.irt the 
earnest el.iiin tojnstilie.ition \<\ faith (."in. to Uiiii; nmler 
rraee (1)141. to a walk in newness of spirit (Toi ; in the 
.seeond the assiirame ' if thou sh.ilt e.mfess with ihv 
month fiviis as and sh.ilt tjelieve in thy lie.irt 
that (loil Ml I liiiii from tliede,id, thou sh.alt Iw .saved" 

Observe, asain. the differeme in resp,-ct of lanijuaee. 

The words 'just,' 'jiisiify. ' M« justihed" ISmaiO!, 

StKator;', ^ivaiotV^at). now here oieur in chaps. 1>-11, nor 

yet the expiessii.i ' Inith lews and ( in- -k.s ' riiiij. Tt Kal 

K\\. 1. e\ee[it ill 1 .1 where apparently it is not original, 

or at ievst has no meaning after the words 'for there is 

ho di liartion' (01' ycip iariv SiaaToXr)). The words 

' Isr.ielite' and ' Israel" are not met with in 1-S, whiKt 

in 9-11 the tirst occurs thrice and the second eleven 

lanes. On the other h.iiid. we have 'lew' nine times 

ii 1-3. lint only twice in 9-11. and iii both c.ises its 

o.-cnrrciice seems prohably due to the reil.iclnr. The 

' .idoiHion' (i;.)(?f<Tial, which, accord ini; to 813 (cp Cal. 

4 s Kph. 1 5) is :\ [irivileseof alUhristi.ins, whcth.-r Jews 

• r (irci'ks, recurs in 94 in connection w ith a snppoii d 

preilestination of Isr.iel as the son of Hod ; the word is 

tae same but it sounds rpiite differeiitlv. In l-S Christ 

is seven times called the son of Cod. ami in 9-11 never. 

On the mhiT hand, he is probahlv -ailed Ood in 95 hiil 

nowhere in 1 -,>i. Whilst in 1-8 we hml no other firm 

of the verb 'say' if.itiv) t! •■\ 'shall we sav' if/io,"/<fi.i. 

in 9i')/ 1 1 1,) we al-o \\.t\:- ■ thou wilt s.iy' if/if,";) and 

'sh.ill the thin.,' s.iv?' (f/i«ri. If the occurrence of the 

expression 'wh.ii th"n shall we s.iy' (ri o'v ffmvuei') in 

On;.. .IS well as in .1 I t!i "7 .111, points to oneness 

of l,ini;ii.i^'i.. ii nevertheless t.) be noted that in 1-8 

it never, as in 9 i .. is followed by a ipiestion, bill always 

by a catieorii- il answer. .\ si^'aker who savs that Israel 

' following; after .1 law of i^dileoiisness did not arrive at 

[th.itj law' (Jia.Kuii/ yi'iuov Si^aioTi'i'Tit dt vmov oik 

(liifliatti. 9;i) midersl.mils by • law ' [r',uo%) soniethini; 

(j '.rteilirferent. and at the s,iiiie time is foUowinj; a quite use of l,in!,'iiai;e, from one who declare-: 

the lew .sins • iiiider law ' (^vv'mm or fV rilitw) ; shall be 

juil'.^eil ' hvl.iw' lOidi-Jwoe. o,..,; d,i.'th not • the thin^'s 

of thel.iw' iraToOyJuov, 2141. is not justitied ■ bv works 

of law' (f'f (f)yui, Ko^ocl. comes to knowledge of sin 

"through law' iSii viuoi: .3.'i) and lives 'under law' 

1''7* ^^"-o". "14I. Only the latter is thinking' of the 

M—.-.ic 'la'.v. aii.iut whi.h ih. f.riiier woiiid nut s|)iak 

so depreciatingly. In chaps. 9-11. as .Steck ((,',;/. _^62l 


13. Third , 



; justly remarks, a much more su|XT(iciaI use is made of 
llie proof fiom scripture, 'and the wh.ile represent, iti. a 
and lailKlMKe is 5oine«h il less delic.ite. ' 

The tlarii p.irt of the . pislle 1 12 i-l '1 1 ;) seems to !,,. 
closely lonm-cled with which precedes. Obsen,; 
the 'then' loi'i': 12i). and notice how 1!.,; 
wriiiT harks luck to 9-11 in his,ii:..ii 
(l.'i 1 that Christ has lieell maile a inini-|i r 
of the circumcision with reference to the promise .f 
( and to 111/ or 1 1 -S «, in the same declar.ili.,ii 
supplemented with the stati-nient ( that Chn.- 
appeared also that the (Jentiles mi^lit Rlorily (Jod f ., 
liis mercy, lint the connection when more dos, 'c 
examined will b.- fouii.l to !>«• only mechanical. Thio- 
ls no real inw.inl connection. .No one expects ., 
hort.itory p.iss.iqe such as this after 11 11- :b. Nor m' 
where some would fain it. after ch. 8 or 1 1, .;. 
The exhort. itions .and instructions i;iien in V-'i-l.'i. 
howiMT we put the diffiTcnt parts toKethiT, stand m 1,., 
relation to the preciihni; ari;ument : the same h :, , 
Rood of the exoriliuni 12i/ Thoiitfh, it is 1, t 
correct to say that Paul tirst dcM-lops his doctrinal 
system 1 13-1136, and then his ethicil in 12i-ir>i!: ,,r 
cM-n to say in the modiliid form of the statement 
he follows up the doctrinal with an ethical section. 
I'.xhort.itions are not wantini; in the tirst part, in.r 
doctrines in the last. The truth is that in 1 lE-ll fi 
the doctrinal element is protainent. just .as the huri.i- 
tory is in 12i-l.->n. In other words, the two pieivs 
are of different character. They lietray dilTeieiice of 
orimn. 12i-1.1n i-. orisjinally. not a coniplrii.n, if 
' thoiiijht OKI iml committed to writmt; bv the 
• ■ ]»-rson. but rather— at least substantially- .m 
ii. . -ndent com[Kisition, IKrhaps, it niav lie, as son,c 
li.ue conjectured, broiieht hither from another coin. \t. 
It has more points of agreement with ccrl.iin |K)rti'ins i.f 
the Kpisllcs to the Corinthians than with Koin. 1 11. 
(.■omp.ire. in the manner of writing and ii:e 
nature of the subjects treated. 

Ill det.iil, VLiiiuare such expression* as 'lieseech . . . !.\ ' 
(iriip.«itA«» . . . flia), 1-J 1. with I Cur. 1 lo aCir. lOl. wlurL-.!, 
'hcseech' (vaf^flKa^.lU■\ h.-iwe\er Pauline, is fi.un.i nciihrr in 
Kom. 1-11 II. ir in; the 'mercies' (oiirrip^oi) of (..h1. rj,, 
with the ' ( i-nies' (o'tKuptkoi) of the lather in jC-ir. 1 i, in 
nowhere n.aiiieii in Ki.m. 1-11 ; "this ajje' (o atwi- ofrosl l-J... 
with I Cnr. 1 2.:i-_'i,P :i 1- .H"iir.44. hut not fitiiul in Knii. 1-1 i'- 
the ri.|insentali..n tiial die Christi.ili call still he r. iinvi.l I > i:,J 
renewin.k; of the niinil <ai'aicati>wcr(c Toii roii? : I22) wiiii 1},. 
assurance that thouizh the oaier tiiaii perish. ' win. h is 
within us is renewed day liy da\ ' (6 iau ij^iiii- [ai^piuiiovi 
.ii-aKan'otfrai yitJ.ffHf «ai iJM'P?. 2(.or.4ii>) whereas K.>m. l-li 
kii.iv-- nothini; of tiiis 'renewal.' anil Cuulil hanily ha\e i-.ti... 
dii.reu it .ilon,;side of its doctrine that the is lie ..Is,, 
far as sin is c. .nccrned (li j) so that he now stands in the sen !. c 
of newness of spirit (7'.). Compare, a>;aiii, the assuran 1; tl:,.[ 
('I'll liiyes :o e.ti h a measure of faith ((Kaarw /U'r^or irijru..^ : 
1- j> with 'only, as the l.iinl has supplied to each '(d ^i- tir .irrw 
&i« M«M*piit«»': 1 Cor. "14). 'according to the .f ihe 
province (RVmt.j or limit) which God app.irtioneil to n- ..s a 
measure (tarii Til fifTftov Toi) ffnfO^iis. ov ititfutTff iln'ti .'. H.i-t 
lifrpnv: lOiO. anil the decla'ation that not en-o r ,■ 
receives faith th-.myh the spirit {1 C'lr. I2q>. as als'i li; ■'.: 
is a still more excellent way than that implie.l in the sj'iiin.,] 
^ifts of which faith is one,-— namely. love (i Cor. 12 -,i),-h1|. r. ..> 
lift onlv are the w.' 'apportion' (fifpiftti-) ami 'nn- er.-' 
(iitTpnv) unkn.'wn to Rom. 1-11, imt so als., is • love' (iyiTia in 
the s,-nse I'f l.'\e t.i f i.„i and one's neii^hhoiir, and (eipi..! \ ^. I 
a f.iitli (iritrTis) which is not rei;ardej .cs the he^iniiini; ..1 .1 11. .1 
life, in coiii[i.irison with which love is n.'t re.|iiire.i - t'.plv 
l'.-c.iuse and evcrxthini; else that is needed is .,:■. , a 
p.ssesse-i where faith' is; the disti.'cti.^n iKtweell \.,;;i:s 
siiiritiial K'iftsd'.', -ilcmpared with I C.'i. P-U-i i and ^i-'- ; tic 
wh..le atliiii.le se[ U'.' .1-^^ o.iiipan.' uilli 
Tl'.r. 4'/ anil 1*Ji2-t,; the exh. .nations' t.i liic le.; ;i.. f 
|..\e, /, .and purity (I2Q-al anil 1;IB-I4) Compared wiili i( r. 
11; 14i-2Qi(> l.'i s3 ."'It ilg-it I- .2.1, wlitre, aiin.ii^si oil.r 
tilings, the 'Kcurreiice of 'cleave' (KoAAiiirWai) in kom. 1- - .1 ui 
I C- r. It I'; <, thon;;h r iwhcre else to he founii in the I'. ;. 
epistles, is 10 lie noticed; the o<-ciirrence also of 'i,,s;r.; 
tli..iu!ht fir thin;;s honoiir.ah!e in the siiiiht of all men ' (jrp'.i'ii'i. 
M'i'oi itnAa tyutinov irai'Tuc lii'^'piun'ut' ; Kom, I'J 17) .as i.tiaore.! 
With the only parallel expression ' for we t.ike th.ia^it I' r 
thtnus honoiirahle. not only in the siuht of the L.tril. hiil .als^ in 
the sight of nirti (wpoi'ooviifi' vap KoAii ov fjiOittf <i'»tiiri.'|. ^..^tiii 
t*^k Kn'i rr-uTinj- ai-i^puirrui : r C.Tr. "■ ::! ; cp I'r.,'. . 1.41 : ,".,'... '..a- 
la 1 several times also in i and 2 Cor. but ne\ci n K.^ia. 
1-11 : die sjHcial exhortations to suhjection to aiilhuril\ ..:ni ta 



^li<:r l,^,„| ,,ui„, „ „| „^,,, ;,'■ ■■' .'I'-'l'. \ Init ..i, ihe 

"•''■"••"i- f Ho, I ,,/i .' '•■,,-l"-'->l aJm.,ni„„„. and 

111 dup. u riMiinlir.j iIiJm , ■','"•"" '■",■ ell. ; wh.ii i, ,ai,l 

■ Cur. S.](), ,„„ „„| , , ,;',»'"/' "-'"""l- "- ll.r.,„i;li.,„| „f 

■«ry«peT,llvl,y,„s.,f,t.-'';'t>"''. «'■;"'■ '''■■ '"" ^'-' 
■■■ u ... .Ik. fully .k.>d.,n., I 1 rlsT uT 1, ,'" '^" ' ""L^'' " '^•'■ 

.-..l.t ra.l,..r .„ act a. if h.; w..^ ,,Vli ,„,"', 'V "'"' "-''f"™ 
' "' and u.s;,;;i.s. ■= """ '" I"-."'!.!!;!- 1., aiici.iit 

li"' <-...i<iiision of the ,-„isii,. K., .■■ 

"- '"■ •-i-.^H, as M,ch, „o.u„„s,a,!,C .!;: r.!^;! 

13. Chap. 18/ '"« "r^"! In- .S.,„lc,, ;„„1 ,hos.. il,., 
. . '"""^*' '"'". "1 ri.jri-tini>Lh |.)s If. 1.- 

;;;eZ;;;i; -';r:;:?:^-x;!':,-- ^--^'-^'- 

(:r,.,.Ti.ii:, of -.-. 7 '• ''•^"S' '" "'^' •'"-. Ihe 

.o.,d,m ,n rr. ,,Vhn,i „ '^'", "'"">"« "K.'insl false 

"I- pro™,... "n^'^:;:. ■;y":r,:L;::'-'--' - 

U. Improba- <^"'"^^l»;"v,.l.v .hai il„. . ..pi.sil,. ■ i,a,u','.n 


loul.l have l,.,.n allcs..,) alK,iu it at .„ ,.i,i, , 
U-e.i Mntien t)V I'.uil, " u.i,i\ li. .,| i,, j,.iye 

I he Liiih 111 ihe k(,iii:iii ( l„.,,h ; 

18. Reflection ""-' »■•'■ -l.-.. ... nU..'! ,,::,'. ...^ 
of later age. ,'^"7 '" ""J'r th,.t .„ he ,„av T ". 

''" .he sune nanwiai;;;; ''j;:'-,.,''".'^''''' "''-•'■ --. 

'•.u,h„e Chrisiuns. "^ '""'"'"'^ "' l^'""^- .-'re- 

;^.'H^';;"\::':^,:::r ,'^:•;;;;i;li,!;;•,'::;'^^^ o: ...,„Hi..,, „i,h 

lerrupl.:,! serv n- ..f ( „hI (» „ Vl, : , ' ."'".""I ""Win .1,,.. u„in. 

I'aulniism. •] In-., k,„',„ .-j ,/■ ,,' "> -"V '"I'-" .I...,!,,.,,! „i,|, 
ha»e fully and f,,.,.!, ^i,,„ ^,^St^n'JT'-v '''""""-■ ^'"1 
: -hink; «l..r,u,n ;,.„:;'':;: :f""",".'-, ''-;." - .h:.. f,:r„; ,? 

•""1 'l.,i;i,- i,-lili,,l' (,<.,„,„,-,,S ?l .''^''.'""^ (ir.»T,i.„,.) 

:l>in4 f.r ^a.„■^,,■J;,'^. 'i'i V ^ "'' ' ''"•'f ■■«^'''.) and 
('.T„A„rp<^„.5). .Leln;; l.anliLr^n'? , , i"""":" '• "'•J' i"|.li. ... ' 
,V""°'-!; '.','"■"« ""■!'-'! «i.h|ChH'; •'?''"'•'''•;'■■■-' ''' 

...use. M„h ,.x,,r".s.,,. as ■f7,l ?•■'"'.'•"■'.-' <"'XP""-I; 
llien- .ran-cre",i„„ .,;,/, « * -"' "'"'' " "" !■'" nu.l,„^^ 

-); '... I- under ';:,-:,'^,r;;";,7"^7r'"';'—- ■! x-p..: 

bility Of tradi. """'I"I''<1 »iih the help „f preMousiy 
tional theory. '-^-'''iK <l"iimierits. 'I-here aie ,1m 

c»pn„.,hev„„.e'::';:;.^""""^'"™"-' ^^«-..^.■ac. 



•"...-.. ... ,„ „;,|,..,| „,„/ ,„„|„i,' ' ",, ' '"T-, .„ , ir. mncii,,, VJ •" ^'.'''SVl"*, '"'l-' . al all s.ill 

(•<").' In wha ■;.„,, ,U'„rnrn ' "'•','"■''" » void 
Ahraham t,) .air father fil'\V,"' m-le ,mrs, !,,, „„ i,.,,,| 

All thi.s is imthinkaMe at s„ earlv a da.,, n. .i> 
59 A. II. 'Ih,.,e ;s „„,,,., .„, „ • ^ "•^'' '^^ Ihe year 
■",'"""■ 'he one Kreat .simple f.,et 
16. A developed "'",'■'; ■»-ni<les ,h, c„„s„le,aii„„s 
faith. :'''"'"^"«^''''™,sot,..s,»,„,h; 

"^H.ii,>,sn..,,h.Hr'a::^!ar'''*''-' ^'""' 

« m point ,,f f,,., ., ,' "'"•"'^•^'ile (hveiKence; it 

fron, tLLVh,,: „,:"■"'' '"^'•'■^■'•■^•^'••'''''•■'"' 

»..h I.„,„a„, Mi X.: ." '"^>^^"Pl"'«'.s. to .speak 


^-ela„o„; i, has a .heoln^r a cMs^,,":T '''7'" 


44 1. I. „ of no ayail continnaily ,„ hark h.„k .o the 



possihiliiy—HliKli. in fact, no one ilenics— of ,i ,l,.vi!ri|). 
ni.'nt III I'iml s iniml during tht- yi-.irs th.u fl.i| 
l«-l«wii his I i.iivi-iMnn and the wiitiiiK '>f 1"^ ipistles. 
Ihi- I'auhnisni u( ihf i-iiistles in (|iifsii(;n .;, ..ii thnr 
own --.huwinK, "> us main fciturfs at I. asl (witli « hu h 
we are here concerned i as old as the ( hristian hfe ol 
I'aill ; lull siuh a I'auliniMii is i^ven for lhout;hlfiil 
U'li.-vers in the sii|)i-riialiiral inconceivalile as haMlij; 
come into existence imiiiedialely after I'aiil had U-come 
a ( hristian. I,et the student reiid aii<I jjonder the sketch 
of I'aulinism K'ven hy van Maiien in /'.;/,//.,. 2i.-6..4n, 
cp ji 1-217 ; and in I'm-i., jj 40. 

The kinship of I'anlinism lespeciallv in the form in 
which it occurs in the Kpistle to the Komansi wiih 
17. Kinihip '''""'''''■ "'>"*' ''■« ''■■'■" rccotiiN.-d and 
With gnoiU '■'•'"•"■'"■'I '""'• '')• "'il'i- and In ciiiiKer 
critics— amongst others liv liasilide^,, Valentiniis, Iren:i-us. Tertullian, H<.Nieii, 
Hilfienfcld. Scholien. Heinrici. I'tleiderer, Weizsacker, 
Harnack up van Manen, /'./«/«t, •Ji,4-,W)i— leails also 
to the same concliisi.m : that I'aiil cannot have written 
this epistle. As to the pr.^ise d.ite at which (Chrisii.iii) 
gno,is lirst made its appearance there mav l»> some 
me.isiire of uncertainty : w hether in Ibf last years of 
Ir.ij.iii !,.,«. II- .\.i, i, ,1, IS commonly supposed or 
perh.ips some decades earlier ; in no evjnt cm tlie dale 
be cirried b.ick very far, and cert.iinlv not so hack 
as to within a few ye.irs of the de.iih of Jesus. With 
refriril to this it is not leRilinLite to armie, with Riljon 
((/VjiA. 771, that in the I'auliiie gnosis • no doctrine of a 
demiurge, no ili.-ory of ,-vons is found.' It is years 
since (/<(,'-l I19A.71 righilv showed that the 
essence of the matter is not to he looked for in such 
del. tils as these. 

In addition f; the assumed acquaintance (already re- 
marked on) of the, rs of the epistle w ith the I'aiiline 
18. Other signa S"^'"'' 'here are other peculiarities that 
of later afa. ''"'■'^'"'^ '''e church addressed as one of 
^ long standing, it is actiuainled with 
v,iri.)u3 types of iloctrine (6 17I. It can look hack upcm 
Its conversion .as an event that h.ul t.iki'n pl.ue a con- 
siderable time ag.) 1 1 :J , , i. It his need of luring stirred 
up to a renewal of its mind illi^i and of manv other 
e.xhort..tionsil-J-ni. h in its mi 1st high-minded 
persons whc-- thoughts ex.ilt themselves ahove the 
measure of faith given them il'iji. It d,H.-5 not seem 
superliiious to remind them that e.ach liclongs to the 
other as memt)ers of one Imdy endowed with differing 
gifts. There are prophets, ministers, te.achers, ex- 
horters. givers, rulers, and those who show mercy, and 
It ai)|)ears to Ix.- necess.iry that each should lie reminded 
of he ought to do or how he ought to Ijehave, 
I he prophet must keep within the limits of the faith 
th.u has been received, and tx- careful to six-ak according 
to the of that failh (Kara. t>)i/ 01-0X0710.' riji 
Tio-T-fui!, 1261 ; the minister, the t.-.icher, and ihe exhorter 
must e.tch busy himself exclusively with the work 
entrusted to him ; the giver must discharge his task 
with simplicity, the ruler his with diligence ; he that 
shows mercy is to do so with cheerfulness 1 lL'4--|. The 
mutual relations must lie considered anew and carefullv 
regulated, both in general (I-J,-^, i;!8-i,,|, and in 
p.articular, with respect to the special ■ necessities of 
the saints.' the duty of hospitalitv. the attitude to U- 
maintained towards persecutors i]-2i2/r.\. the public 
.lUthority. and the fulrilmenl of the duties of citizenship 
(13i 7I. A vigorous exhortation to vigilance .iiid an 
earnest warning .against revellings ami drunkeimess 
chambering and wantonness, strife and envv are not 
superlluous (l.'!i,.,4). There are weak ones in the 
laith, who avoid the use of wine and flesh lU: r 2,:- 
others who hold ,,ne d.ay holv alx.v,. others, and .is 
reg.anis their food consider themselves Ixnmd bv obsolete 
precepts reg.arding clean and unclean (Us/ 14/: 2., 1 
Others again who regard all these things with 'loftv 
Uisdam. making no distinction bcf.vcei. anci 



unclean focxl, deeming that Ihey are free to eat and 
drink .as they cluxise. and that ail d.iys are alike ; hm 
these, Ix-cause of the freedom thcv rejoice in. gu.- 
offence to many brethren and are the cause of th, , 
nioMi declension (lU/ ms^^-jj). ri,c,c diverg. iit 
pr.ictices have already coniimi.-d for so long that tic 
wriier. so far as the lirst two («ine .md tli-sh. dean ,11, | 
unclean) are eonc-erned. is in pirpiexitv l»-t«is>n il,. i„ 
himself, and has no other plan than to raise hiniv.if 
.above th.'m all in order to urge a general [xiini ,f 
view— a genuinely ■catholic' one—of 'give ami t.k, ' 
in which the principle of freedom is recommended ..,'.1, 
its applic.uion urged in the line maxims: let no on- .,e 
offence, let each one U- fullv (x-rsuaded in his Tu,, 
iniiid, .ill that is not of f.iith is sin (I45 13 i;). 

I he church is ex[«)sed to |xTsecution ; it suffers nah 
f hrist. It has need of comfort. is said m ih.s 
connection cinnot Iw explained from anv circunist.1,1,, s 
It Koine known to us Ix'fore .N'ero and the time of the 
great lire in 64. It |xiinis rather to later davsvvh.n 
Christians were cimtinu.illv exposed to bloody |x-rs. , i. 

tlolis. .S.e.13-5 »I7-,W l'.Jl-M4. 

One decisive proof that in our epistle we are lisieii.n- 
to the voice of one who lived after the de.ith of I'.m: in 
64 A.I), is to Ix- found in the m, inner m which thei|ii.s; .,;, 
of the rejection of Israel is handled in chaps, yil. |i, ,t 
question c.juld not thus occupy the foreground or i,;i!k 
so largely in the minds of Christian writers and rs 
.as long as Jerusalem still standing, and there » ., 
nothing to support the vague expectation of i^ 
appro.uhing overthrow which some entertained. l:,,- 
allusions to the events of the year 70. the ov.r- 
throw of the commonv L-allh. ai'id the exfxTiaiion" 
which connected themselves with this event are ni.ii,;- 
fest. -Vnyonewho will read what is said, particul ,•!■,■ 
in lln-5j. about the downf.ill ol .he lews (to 7ra,.a- 
rraua aiVvii/). alxmt the branches havi- Ix'en btol. a 
oA'((itK\daD-n<Tay kXclSoi) and the ' cutting oft" (dirorouia 1 
which come upon those who are f.dlen (^iri t,„ , 
iTfiTOi'Tat), can Iw under no misapprehension on il. s 

If we now sum up the points have been toiuhi.l 
on in §§6-18, we ne ' have no hesitation in deci.iing 
19. ConclUBion. "' " '"Ruiients are convincing: 

our >,iiionical lipisile to the Roman- is 
not what it seems to Ix;, not a Idler written hv ihe 
aixrstle and sent to a delinite chirch ; it is a tr:ui,iif, 
a book, dcsigneil to Ix- read aloud .it Christian meeting's,' 
a piece to Ix- read in Church (kirchhches Vorle-u.,;;-! 
sllickl, or homily, as Spitta (/«r GV)r/S. 3 tw 1 
phrased it. It is a book written in the form of a l.n.T. 
not written after the kind of uioi. witii wlcch u.^ 
write our Iwoks. but compiled rather 11, a very iHMiinr 
manner by use of existing written nriterials wherein i!;e 
same subjects were treated in a similar or at le.isi not 
very divergent w.ay. We can Ix-st form some 
of the nietht .1 followed here bv studying the text ol .ne 
of the synoptical gos[)els with 'an eye to the meili-ii in 
which it was presumably composed: or hv tim ini; m 
detail the manner in which such .authors as ihe vvrit.T of 
the present epistle make of the Of. Thev (]UiK 
from its words alternately verbatim and fre-elv,' . ii,n, 
loo. without any reference to the OT context' s 
we can trace the (piestion only hy comp.arisoii 
text wi- possess which has l>eim wholly 
followed Icp van .Manen, I'aulm. 2217-9). ' 

The study of the • epistle ' from the point of view ,,f i;? 
probable composition, enables us to distinguish uli.ii 
treatises or portions of treatises were probably m.iil-' us,- 
of l»-fon- the ti-vt came into existence in its present I -rm. 
In this way the w«rk as a whole makes us aci|uiiiitc(l 
with underlying -lews then prev.alent. and acce|)!.ilor 
controvcrieil by our author^on Ihe universalilv ol sin 
and its fatal consequences ni8-:i2oi; on righteoii-nos« 
bv faith (321- ri I: on the conneriinn fx"twe,.n thi- ^.nd 
.Miraham as f.iiher of the faithful (4i; the friM- of 

I, iha! 
of if,e 


^ V. ih.-m this n;inR. l»5causo «c i;.,in .,ur U.,i .„„\ 

:r:n;i:":^r';;;,."r"r;:r'""' T't- ''■• ^""^ 


20. The author. "" "^^ '"><■■• ev.mnnaii,.,, is s.i-n tu l,c no 

o ,„n. however. ,i Is inapprcpr.ato to sw ,k , f 
d.vq,„on or forgery or pious frVu.l.' Th.Te i, *?„' , .hp 
slirttcs. reason for supposing .ha. our au.hor h he 
f.,n>.,t ■n.e„„o„ of nmL-ading his r.a.l, rs „ 1,, ,^" 
con>™,,K>rar,.. or U-lonsinR .o%..n,o, ' ;,eriu.""He 
SHnply clKl what so nuny di.l in h s d ,v ■ he 
"'*• »"'<-'h.M,- ,n .he form (freelv chosen ) o a fract'Le 

"l)""!'"-- esteemed or «hose name he could nms? 
cmvcuently and \^st associate «i,h his work ith™ 
:.:.>■ «rong mten.ion or h.,d faith, l.-eause he ij I" 

^:^":'Hi:; t:'-^'^X"-^^ --^ ;^;^->- 

-.Ura Miso.nnan.eLnuL":::;,^^^";-';- 
U-h,, r.., , "''^ received ant 

-.."■.i,n.d circulated «^;h gj::!,^ I ^i ;^;^1 ^'^^ ; 
«ork nught l*ar evidence of the artist' of. as cm 

21. His method. ""''"'«'• however, of the right iving 


<o «.,rds so sharpiv e.vpiieU .as h ;e ■ LT '!T'-''r i 


till l-riel is in ' S^' "' the Jew are many (.3./.); 
M ru ,s n a very s,x.c,al way ,he ,„.„ple of (■„< 
/ 1 ,.. He says that to U- a son nf \l,rahun after 

.■\!>,ah,am is a speci.allv great privilei-e 111,1 

■^-<'"' ."'veV.o co,;:e';2sT 'h''- ""1 ^'r-'"'' 

miti..r,f ■ "-""'e (•'5-81. He six-aks of it .as -i 

15-76 and sf""-;nd';i ';""' ^ "''°">' ■"=«■ '^^^^••""^e 



also warmlv attaihed to ihe ,.„.'. .'• '"" 

everythm,. tor then, ,», o\ 7, ."':',' ,"•'"'>■ '" ''» 
'h'- 'lirst fruits of th. s, ,r , '' l"'^«'ssion of 

;i«;'»'"r ; '■" """ ■■" •Si;,;,",: ru":: 

•" -ade arguments, and when to n'4t th n \l * 7 

truth and promotes the unitv of l-lieverV ^'"' V 
now with the right wing, now w ih ,hl Ve ' ? """*•' 

aa. Hii orlglii. °"""' '>"ol'-^ 'han .hose which he coiiM 
2.afi .,.1 II- V, "■''" ™n'*"""' '" (;reek (cp J'.„<:us 

Pm to ,. in Home o^ ^Z^ t ^^'^^ T" 

hti::;?rr^T'"-"-^''p---^:*:e,is ot .he (.nos.ics mto those of ■catholic' n.ind .li 


'' and "we"'"'"'' *"' ""■ '''^■"" "= 'h'^ d.^te of his work 
I and we cm Ruess it only appro.vimatelv. 

j 23. Date. T:';"^'';*;' ''*;. "'''y ■-■'>■. not earlier than the 

of the seco f c™ ;."%r '7- '"-' 'h- -UHe 

first century, beSue after the deaJh of'p"'",' "', "" 

forwariNreaching spiritual- inovet^e,.",; c,t;,.t:;;::;;;' 
mg •;nJ largely frame<l reforn, of that oldest (l/r'tanitv 


On .he o L H ''^•S'""'ng "f <he second, cen.ury. 

un .he other side, we mav venture .0 sav no. later 

than the m.ddle of the second cen.ury. Clemeni of 


24. Value. 


Ak'X.mdria, ' Iren.i-us. u-.r tln-lMtok towartU the 
•■rill of that iLMtury, anii w miy \»-' sur'- (ImI not hold 
it for a K-ifiu coiniMi^ition. So also 'riicopliiUi-. «/./ 
A:tf>'.'v<-um. -"{i^. \.!io ai»init iSo A.D. cilt il Kniii. KJ7/ 
as '(hvine Wont ' (Ofi.)f \t>705i, l!asih(l"-s M-'fi. ami 
Manioii, wlio ni.i'lc h\% apiKMranct: a". Koiu.- iii 1^8, 
knew the fpi-^tlL- as ,in aiithnritntiv<; workof ' thraiKistlc' 
Arisiidfs (135-IJ01. Jann-s (1301. i Tct'T 1130-140) in 
hke manner sliow aitinaintaiufwiili thiM-pi^llc. Various 
circumstances cornljiii«-<I ju-tilv thf supnosition that it 
was utittt.'u i.roli.ilily nlwiut i jo a.I>., whil ; sonic 
portions of it in thi ir original l". 'tin mav 1>" r'Li.ndrd as 
surnewliat iMrli-r (cp /' v/Ao. -j ,.,,',- ( -i ',\ tu-uf 1. 

If. in conr!u,i. Ml. \\<} are iml liy Ihf (|in --ti'iii, ■ 
is the valuf of tin* uiitnii; whi-ri 01, r- can no lutu^'ir 
re^atri it as an epistle of I'atil to th-' 
konians?' it must never Ih.' forKoiten 
that tiie iiuisivenr^.s c»f its dialectic, the arrestini; 
chancier of certain of its pa-isaj;t'5, the sint^ular [nnvcr 
esiM'cially of some of us hriefer utt* ranci s and t)ut- 
|>ourin.i;s of tlie heait, the eihfviiiK nature t.f much of 
the contents, remain as tlvy were U'fure. The relitjioas 
and ethical vahie. j;reater at al! tmies than the (esthetic, 
is not dirniiiish'^i. Tlif historical value, on the other 
hand, is considerably enhanced. True, we no loM^er 
Tiiid HI it, what we wi-re formerly supfKJsed to laid, 
thr interesting (though in l.irt^e measure not well 
understood; wntini; of t!ie a|>o-,tle. written, in the days of 
his activity am >nt; the ' ienliles, to a churth which was 
ixirsonally unknown it) him. !lut what have we in its 
place? A liook of i^nat sii^niticance for our knowledi;e 
of the ancient < 'hrisiianity that almost immerliately 
succet'ded the apostolic (the Christiamtv of the disciples 
of lesiis in tlie years that followe<l his <iealh 1, There is 
no work from Christian anticimiv that er.nlnhutes more 
iari^ely to our knowl<-dj;e of i'aulinism (whither in its 
first form -a form in which it has not reached us in 
any delilx'rate writint; — or in its subsequent develop- 
ment! in its streni^th as au inspirim; (hreclory for 
conduct, and in tlie richness and depth of its niigious 
thou^;ht and e\fx.*rience. 

No st'rious fffoits to defend the genuineness of the 
epistle have as yet ever l>een attempted. Those offered 
casually .»nd in passing, as it were, 
'^99' 33'34. ^nd "I ^- L)avid- 
son. InfroJ/-^\ 1894. 117-119, 150-2) on the so-called 
external evidence. That is to say, its tlefenders rely on 
what is exrellent prwtf of the exis-tence of the epistle at 
the time when it was cited, or clearly presupposes 
an acfiuaintance with it. Imt is of no significance 
ever when the question is whether the work was in 
reahty written hy the individual who from the lirst was 
named as its author. This the Tiibingen school have 
long percei\c<i: liaur als'o did not r.'ly on such argu- 
ments. Inst(_'.id of doing so he thus expressed himsrlf 
[Pauius V' , iS66. 276) : 

'Against the^efuur epistles (Rom., i .in J aCnr., not only 
has asKw the ^litilitct suspici-n of spuri.iusness never been 
raiv:d, l)Ut ill f.i'a ilicy Ijear un thtir faCL- liic mark ui Pauline 
orii;iria!ity so ll!l'_^,rltc^ta!l!y th.a it is impos,ih]e t'l imajnt t>y 
what ri^ht any critical ilouht coulfl cv^r (wssibly assert Itsvlf 
fc^arJin^ th'.-m.' 

The utterance, it will l)e oV)served, wholly ignon-s 
r.v.m.son. 179^- and of course also Bruno Hauer, who did 
not publish his criticism till 1851 ; but it also ignctres 
the view taken by so many, includi. V. C. von llaur 
himself, who have vied with one a -ther in the dis- 
iiitegralion of the epistle, as also the possibility that 
y<t others a; a later date might p<>rceive Riur 
himself had not observed ; nor yet does it take account 
of the unsatisfact<jriness of any assertion (however 
plausible it may snindi as to the ' originality" of Paul. 
\vlu»m after al! we know only by means of the picture 
that has lx,'en constructed with the aid of tho>e very 
episil'-s with regard to which we wish to inquire whetner 
*he> really were written by hitn. Nothing therefore is 


35. Defendera , . r 


adiicd to the argument whm a countless host of oti.. , 
since lJ.nir are neviT wi-.iry of reiH.Mting that 'e\in t • 
Tubing" n s< hool ' ha\e raisi-d no doubts as to t; ■ 
grmimeness. Tht? observation is correct, it is tr,. 
Only they fi)rget to add; nor yet have they off- p i 
proofs Ih.u it is genuine. 

Mi-yii Weiss, S. l>a\idson, and oth'-rs remain etpiiil^ 
spat ing of their arguments evt-n .iftrr the criticism of ,1 
Liter d.Ue has made its voice hr.nd. I hcv put it UM^f 
with a single word. Weiss, with a tiferenie to , 
' l'ar()dy,' bv C. lle.scdamm, Ih-r A'ontfri' irf' f>i-ur{'i, : 
u. i^ttirrfhi-t.'t, iSqx. Davidson, with tin- obser\U' '. 
tliat the grnuineness. apart from the i:onclusi\e u -■ 
' niony of witnesses, is fully guaranteed by intni, , 
I evidence. 

■ tiiv iiuirnal character of the epi-ileaiul itshi>u»ric.-il allii-i. . 
f'iiuiiic uilli thi: cxtirnal c\iiUiRe in pr..\ ini; it un auili- ■ 
i pr-diRii'Mi t'f the ai>.)sllf. It (» ar-- the marks of hi-^ \i. ■. 
I miiiil ; th..' Unmi.iKe an«l styl.r t.tiiiK remarkal-Iy tharai t--r; f; 
I H'' onnts, however, to tell us how he knows ti,.; 
; anything is a ' jJUMhiction." not to s.ay an 'authei;: 
I production of th" ajM'Stle* ; nor yet how he has obt.iei li 
: his knowlfdge of the mind of I'aul ; nor \v\ why w. ;. 
' impossible for a pseudonymous author to h.i\e ;■, 

ch.iracltristic language and .styh-. 
i Harnack (./(//. ii. 1 |i^97|p. viii consiiiers hiih \ 
absolved from going into the iiuestigation until ; 
represent. ilives of tluMiewer criticism 'shall ha\e !:■ ■ 
DUslyc.irried out the task n)cumlienl on them of work ' , 
out everything jxrrlaining to the subject afresh." 

Julich'T (/•"////. , 1894, p. 17, 1901'-'. p. 19) once .ii: ! 
again resort*vi to a severe attack on ' hyix-rcriticisni 
' [)>eudocnticism,' and subsequently proceeiled, in li' 
ing with the Kpislle to tlie Romans, as if nobody h ^1 
ever at any time argued against its genuineness. 

Sanday and Headlam {Comm., 1895, p[). tU-,,M 
discuss exh.austively the iniegrity of the epistle. e-.p. t ■ 
ally as regards chaps. ITi-lO, but say little about t;.'- 
history of the question of genuineness. They cnr^' r /. 
dismiss some of the objections without showing t;.,t 
they h.ive really grasped their proper signititnnu-. 
Counter-arguments are j)ractically not heard. So .nso 
in other commentaries whose authors had heard am- 
thing about the newer criticism referretl to. Ho;-i> '1 
\'Krit. Hriefe lib. die neueste p.aulin. Hypothcs-' -.w 
Prof. JCinhfHZtc, 18B9). Ptleiderer {PauiiniM'.u -, 
tSgO' Moltzmann (/:'(»/. '^', 1893), Kipsius (//C'l-'. i-1',j. 
-1. 83/.). and others, made some general obset^Mti^n- iii 
. ourof the genuineness that had l»een called inque.-tie-i. 
liut these discussions were little more than insignMn.iii 
' affairs of outposts' ; no real liattle was delivered xvv 
even any serious attack prepared. 

Then came /ahn {/•i*r/.*'-\ 1900, 1 3I witli his cen-urr 
on his comrades in anus against the Tiibingen sch ml i.r 
their error in hnving defen<Ied indeed the genuinen' - > I 
the epistles * rejerted ' by Uaur, but not that ot ii>' 
'principal epistles,' •although liaur and his dJMipir- 
had never so much as even attempted any proof f-r 1!,' 
positive part of their results.' Forthwith he adllIr^M.[ 
inmself to the long |j<»stponed task. He gave some h ,'■ 
il<j/cn general observations (pp. 112-116) not diftiTJi, ::i 
sul)staiKi' from those which had alread}' Iwen mad'- : :■ • 
furred tcj the various investigations to bi; in.i'lu 
in a later part of the work, including the detailed treat- 
ment of the Kpislle to the komans ipp. 25[-3io) where 
31 full pages are devoted to the subject of the intei:rity 
ami not a single word to the tpiestion of genuineness. 

Haljon ((/'( J, /i. , 1901) perceived that something ni"re 
than this was necessary to put the newer critiu-^in t) 
sileiiee, if it was wrong. Hut what he wroti- w ii^, l!,:b 
end ill view was neither (as might have been cNpeitn!) 
a confutation of the objections urged, nor yet an .ir^Li- 
ment for the genuineness at least as solid and g^'lns 
(in intention at all events) that made on tjehalf of r!;:!:[- 
pians, but simply a couple of pages (pp. 97- 1001 
devoted to the history ot the newer criticism and a k-v 
obserwitions ujx)n the objections urged by van Manen. 



„,?? ''!! ? "l'l"i-'«. "-> "n- .1, yti nd.lre>«..,l hini- 
Klf to thu Usk „r an uMliTly «i, nlitiu ,1iku>sioii of ll.c 
.VKmncnts on the „ih..T s„i,.. or |,> an .•Ikxtu. .,ttl,«K 
rurll. ol iliL' arKunieiili un behalf of tl.t- gtimiiicnLsj. 

of .heir i...,..rr.„..,„r.,l.,.U^^'VJVu::", :t° thX 

iw.l. 'l,.lu,k(.i-,77) K„.l.„i(,8y.a,J.,.. k.Khc(.dj..i,) 
t. K A. fril/vh.^ (.3l'r-(!>. v.u. H.r,i,.|(,Ss»-v) .1.- U.lli 
11-471*'; a,alv,,.fth^wo.k»afH. .Mf..r.l(,.A ,d.,| |! |,„^,, 

I'V; ,■'/'■' V-y-/' ^■•■"'«'^'" (■•°7«i'''. «■ K.iiy «.■-., V 

(., .s:,,, n .S3,) (i y,,lkmi,r(.S70. i..!!. j/n..|,;:^.,,, 

rii'V' /''•,'.";-■*''• ''^ "'"•"I'nn, /l/rA (!-<,.), 1 „,,.,,. 
U-,.). R. .Se,A,(,«/. (,S:-;S). ,5.., hi, iV.-lt.!, !-4-'S- W t 

W. ( . V. M. 



Nul f.iunili-J l,y Peter and I'aul Agv (|i u,.,2) 

OriKin am..nK Jews in Rome Influ,nc.e ond importance 
I!ll.liui;raphy (J ji). 

The earlk-M period of tlie Christian communitv in 

R..IM.-- IS wrapix'.l m ini|Mii-tral,k- oliscurity. 'I'rnch'tion 

1. Petcr-Paol ;""■'•""'•■* i" foumlinR to tht' joint 

tradition. .'■l'"'"" "' "»: .ii».sil.-s IVtcr and I'.ml. 

Uiis tiailition, however, is unworthy 

of our It is loniparativcly rtr.-nt. The 

oMni trai.-.s of its ,-xi<ten<-o do not ^o Ikii k farther 

than to the close of the sc-coud century. 

.y:..orilins to a nniiie in KuseMus (/ 1 K \i. «r, f). 'ninnvsius 
of t..rinlh. nlK.ul ihe 17c, A..>.,..r somewhat later („e 

lo,lo»s . .Vi ako by thi» s., weik;hly ailm„nili,.n |.,f v,.iu,l- ihe 
aliu.|..n I- .,, ,l,e epiMl. of the feoinans to the torin.hi.ou 

|jf T. i .nade hy Peltr and Paul, of the f, hur, hes of ih.-I 

Kom.u^.. .01,! of the Corinthians. For, indeed, ihtse i«r, l.oih 
pL.led us tn our toruith and likfwise t.Luk;ht us; iu like 
m.vcraKo after haMi,, taught together in Italy ihev ^uf^. red 
m.iMvr,l,,n, almut the same time ' (not neee..s.-, of iourse at 
the ^;,m.■ hour, or on the same da, . the same month, or even the 
jame )ear| (rnvTo «ac vm«h t,i nj, rnvivrn touBtaia, nil- arb 
n.rpou .«. llavAou «ur.ia.. yrv,,«,.Va.. T'.u^a,™.. „ ,ol K„„„.. 
»,«. .Tvi,„pamTr .a. Wf. .w<». .ai .J, ri,,. i,^„i^,. Kdp„ «o^ 

o»o»( e.SofaiT-,, .^a^ln•p,,<ral. «ard rii- aiirii,. «aipdv). Here t he 
)„„._ or f ,uml,n« of the chui. he,, alike of Rome aL ' f 
I,. mull, IS clearly re. oitnised to have l«n the work of the 

■''Tu' ',?""■ •?"'' '^•■"''- '' " of "" »*■»'! >" •siy with Sandav 
.in,! Headlam U,m,m. p. .xixHhat the 'plantinK'' referred o 
1*",7'" • <:P ■*";.;' '•/^ fl 7) « not to he taken ' in the sen.e of 
tir-tfouii,lation. We.are not responsihie for what 'IlioiivMus' 
-|i-: Nut we .are under ohiigation to understand it in the sense 
in Mhlrli he me.'int It, 
The -.„„e renurk holds p..Ht with reference to Irenarus when 

"iMUul.d hy the l«.i very Klorioiis "a'ly^slres'l'c^er.aniT P.i'u'r 
■st.ilis Petro ct Paulo Ror 

ra cl.iriosi^imis ,h„,l,„., ai«,sioiis fetro ct I'aulo RoniiE 

'■ tVe'lT"""!""- 'i'- '.'I ■■''"•* '"','■ ^"''-"l.i.utly .,..ken 
u.i, the l.le^sed ai«.siles,' the same aulhoriiv (al>..ut i:. A i. ) 
i:.«r. on to stale, after h.ivint: fouiid^l aii.l huilt uu the ciuinh 
n.mdeM over the government to I.lnUs («,^,A.,;<rarr.t ofe ,ai 
.."'"'"'"'?" "' cat-ipioi <itr(i»ToAoi T^i- .•ie«A.,< \ou r^e 
pK ••r «n7n,cAe.T0i.pyiai-«|.»vi(«0-ai-, iii.-lj; K.ns. //Av'i'.i) 
hVll''l ''^^V'^' ¥ "lis "» 'hat Matthew wrote a Ko;|,;.| for 
M 1 in their own tongue ' whilst I'eter .and Paul were 
I,r',„"'~' ""■ (■'IV'*'' •" «"nie and foundiim the rhunh'fr,,,-. 
"•r^".- ■(... roe IU,.A™ ,r l'w|u;| ci.avy«A.f.a,Ko,e .n. #,„,. 

These clear testimonies, however, to the foundini: of 

•He U.urch of Rome l,y Peter anil Paul— h.Hve;er tin- 

2. Not ''"''•I'inKl.vtheymayhavelieen accepted 

tniitworthy ""'' '™'" "P°" '" '■"'^■'' ''"'«— are one 

' nn,1 ,1! cuite .:n-.vr-,rthv .-.f rre.!rt,,-. 

■>"t <.niv are they lelatively recent and oiniouslv frameil 

"' ordance with a settled policy of Klorifying the 


un ly of the church as h.mni,- l,-.,, „,a,„fe5t even in its 
clde.t communities; wh;.i is i,„„.- to the iK.itii. thev 
art: at virMiue „„h older reprt s. m,,iK,ns, wluiher we 
receive these with absolute conlideiRe 01 n..i ,,t the 
couise of events coiitirctcl with the loundiiiL' of a 
t-hrisiMn coniiuumiy in Koine. 

.ui'ddt'',"i'','r,'e '"'■';;VI''-''"^ '" "" K-'itunsH ,), wrht. „ al.oul .he 

..U.ldic ., die „, ..n.lieMlurj (.ee Ol ,,.l Hklsl ia-. la 1 1 K VI I II 
«.-t/.), indeed luenlioii, Tefr and I'a.d ' as kn. *, a ,1 
...llueotlal tuuhers of the , hur. 1. 1„. i, .„i!l,.;!.h,: hu , 

Is. If -I'-iks I,, ihe u.ou.h of • tleii,,.,,, ■ i„ the f i,s, V L , e , 
the t luuhuus. dan,,;; from al,..ul the ,ear ,,. , a ,. (, V, 

wm.epe- to the truth (, Clem .-. ..7). I...I Mot a- t,.u„de,s , 1" 

e^i. 1 .:}''" '- ""' '"'■"i "' -"v '•''■■■'- "' '•■<" ...1,1 i',„i 

I hrT; ', 7 . ','■'"•"...• thai I'aul «as the hrst to ,pe.,k al™„,, 
thrisli.,,,, u t . the le..dlMK Je», the.e ; hut of IMer lliere I, 1,0 

.r;,i'"„"'V ■""",'"""■, Jr "' ■''"'■ '^ '■^•'" ""'".'.'.'1 h, 
nt ... io,in.,| e|,„,K I,, ,|,e Rom.ius, ,.,en in ,Hi,iu,„ t,oi, will, 

Paul « hen this apo-de is speaking of his .lesiie to |,e,o,",' 
aciuanited with the < hr.stuns ,.f the melro.H.Iis. «h„.c faith is 

every»here s,«,k, n of, nn.l w „ he I,,.,., Ire loi.^.'l ,e (1 ,.,5 l:„,.,^ ,.y: „■, ,„,. |,„^, .,,| ,,,^. ,,;,,, ,„'„^ 
het»een Paul on the „„e han.l, .,i,d Jan,. -, Ceph.,. a,,d l„hn 
ot, the other, ,.ce.,rdh,,,o . ;al. ..,,,• „e^., , hi .,e',,,ile,,"d|hey 
to the eir, um, l-ion (,^.., ,„ ,i in,,,, airm li ,1, ni 
w.p.r„„,e), ,!o „.., |,,„| u to.s,«.,, i„,„„l in epislles.f p3 
.,i,> «"r.l..fy,-,.|,e,„ii,,„ hel„.,„ l.,i,ra,.,l I'.,,,! i„ ll„. f„„,„.. 
11..; ,.f lii.loi.lual ,l.,„,he.. What is rel,,i,,l .„ ,,, ,t,i„ „ , 
h.ler ilate with rej:ar.l to k„me ranuot hold «.,k1 in pre,,,,. ,■ „f 
he as„„:u„e ^Mven us hy the Kpistle to the komai;., wheth.r 
,> I a il h.Mi,elf or hy an an..i,yni,.u, author u,ui,; hi, n.uue, 
th.,1 at K. lie there was a c..i„,,le,al,le Chri„ian . on.uiunilv 
word'there! '" ''""'*' *'■■"" ^"' "'''' '° *»>«'''' """'ile 

Matters do not sl.and much iKttcr with Ihe Kliif— 
hehl absolutely for m:iiiy centuries, calle.l in ,|iiestion 
8. So also Peter- "' '*""' Reformation, and ai;.iin at 
tradition. " ''^''''' I"""'' maintained by m;my 
IVotestaiiis also— ace, , riling' to which 
the church of Rome was founded by I'eter alone, This 
tnulition also d.-serves no creih'nce, wh.ther in the 
ftirm which represents IVtei ,as haviiig Ixen bishop of 
R,,iue f,,r twenty-rive ye;irs aftir the foundini; r,f the 
church, or in the simph-r form which merely cni.-cuires 
th:it th,- niK.sil,. nuiy h;ive contribut, ,| sonii-thini; to the 
foriiialion aiul e.vtensioii of the church, or at hast in 
later years nwy have visited it for a shorter or hinder 
perio.1. The foumlin;; of the church bv I'eler is "e.v- 
clude.1 by the siU.nce of I^Mialius and c'lenient on the 
subject, and siil! more bv tlie evidence of .-\cts t,al i- 
tians, an.l Romans. Not only do thev sav iiothiiiL' 
positive to tins eflect ; thc-y make it perfjcilv char 
Iroin the |H,mt of view of tlu-ir resi^^-ctive authors siuh 
a thiiiK IS not to U- th.,ui;ht ,,f. .\cts closi^s its ac.tini 
of I',.ier in K'l? with the words, 'and he dep.irted and 
went to another' Uai ii.\euf enpuO,, li, iT((,ov 
r..iro„\ .ind in the rest of U:,- book IV^ier's name is 
only once a),';>m mentioned, .iiul in a different con- 
nection (ir.6-3oi, where he is r.presented ,is a^.tin in 
Jerusalem. In view of this pass.ifje ]2.7 cannot be 
un.leislood as referring to a jourii.-y to Rome for any 
leuKtheneil [xTi,„I, n,,t to s|KMk of a i)eriod of five and 
twenty y,-ars, Neiilar. however, can we underst.ind a 
visit to koni,. of shorter ,lur,ition. such as llarnaek {.ICI 
2i I.897I, 240.244, 704-7101 still, with m.iny, rejj.irds 
as pr,,l,,il,le, not eu'n witii tlie ;ii,l of the assumption 
that the .-ontenls of .Acts 1;" were l;iken from another 
s..ur,e than that from which ■ l.nke' deriv.-d liis other 
statements regarthiiK Peter in .\ctsl-12. The 
quoted .lo not ' of course ' sav we are to think of a 
mere visit whether to Rom,- or to any oth.-r 
They are quite clearly intin.led merely to indicat,- that 
the author docs not pro[)ose to follow the fortunes of 
Peter further ; ' and going his way. he journeyed to 
anothtT place.' To understand Rome as in'tendcd 
here Incomes possible only ;ifter one has le.iriied other- 
where, n(;htli ,.r wr,,i,i;Iy, to speak ot a soiimrn ol the 
apostle in the metropolis. ..\ets savs nothing of this, 
and plainly presupposes rather the exact opposite, since 



chap. 1.% allu.lril i.. I'.iit :i» an.iin In |.Tu«.ilrm, ami 
2H 17-J8, s|M-akin>; i»I I'aur* ini-r'iiiK uitli [i-A^at K<»nn'. 
leavi» nu lomn tur ilii' >.u|i|).i>iih>n lliat IMi-r 
pri-Li'.li'il I11111 ih.Tf a> a prraiiiir i)l L'hri'.lianin , 
^ialallall^ kliiru^ trn ri'Milnicr dI I'll. r ihIut than 
Atiliui li C.'ii'jii-.ipari Irum JiTusaliiii wlicrf, aiconl- 
iii^; til I i> -J 1-1,,. In* MTiiis to have his hoiiic, an a^u-f- 
imnt that hi- \s to aiiilrris hiiUM-it 10 'the tiriuiiKiMiin ' 
hi-in^' i\pii'^-,ly nu'iiijoni'il. Kuniant knimi ul (,'liri>- 
tiiMi in Kiirni'. rt'lri~ ii. thvii turn. i>ii,n I- mi |ii lai^ni 
anil hiMtlnniliiin. tlnir hilility to the I', iiiic i\|io ol 
ilotlrini' iini.L- rrcruiil (tiij), ami the >pintiiai homi 
>iii>ii>tinn UlMeen them, or many ol them, ami I'aul; 
l»:tt lias nut a uorii to xay ahout ,uiy luniieetion, whether 
ol liinjj or ~hi)rt ihiratiun. lul»een llu 111 ami the a|Hi,stle 
IV-ier. .mil iliHs nut I'viti so much .is meniion his ii.iiiie. 
'Hie Mnter, whuevei he may have lieen, 11 ha> lieen 
ri|;liily remurketl, no .iLiiuainianee «ith any tradilion 
whieh represinliil I'eler as havitij,' lieen the louiiiler of 
llie Roman ChuKh. His ileelar.ition maile in \3iu/. 
thai he, ■ I'.iul,' wiiulij not In ilU upon another man's 
luund.iiion, however ineunsistent uith the desire ex- 
liiesseil in Ig-n anil l.'iii-j4J9, wholly exeluiles it. 
l->peci,illy so .IS soon as by the word ' .inother ' we under- 
st.ind, as is usuailv the ease, an apostle— in this instanee 

It is, in fact, improhahle thai I'eter ever set loot in 
kome. The later Ir.idiiiuns regarding this, ineludint; 
those h.iniled down by Eusihms, have no elaim to our 
acceptance, as has olten been convinciiiKiv shown by 
many scholars (and recently by C. Clemen, J'nusj, 
yaltr/i., ii^i, pp, 404-417, ami C. Krbes. /ImIi>. f. Kir- 
thmxcMll.. lyoi, pp. 1-47, l'n-2311. riiey pos-ess no 
higher value than those relating to Thomas's pre. idling 
to the I'arlhians, .Andrew's to the Scythians, [olin's in 
Asia Minor. When laisi bms, himedi.itely afterwards 
(iii. .'I 2, cp ii. '.a 5). gives expression to the conjecture 
that I'eter preached to the Jews of the dispersion in 
I'ontus, Cialatia. liithynia, Cippadocia. and Asia, lufore 
ins crucihxion 1 downwanUi at Kome, he attributes 
to him, obviously with his eve on t Pet. 1 1. a career 
which he himseii could nut pi'S5il)ly reconcile with the 
details that he gives elsewhere. Aceuriling to ill. .'Xlj, 
I'eter was lor some time bishop of .Antiocli Ulure Igna- 
tius; accordini; to ii. '.'.'i 9 he wis, along with I'aul. 
founder of the churches of Corinth and Kome; accord- 
ing to ii. 146, the puwerliil opponent of Simon Magus 
at Rome in tlie reign of Cl.iiidius (41-54 A.H.) ; accord- 
ing to vi. :i18. the rock upon which the church of Christ 
is built, and the author of two epistles. 

A reference to i I'et. 1 i, tlmugh often made in con- 
junction with." I,, is nf no avail to support the view that 
Peter at some time or other had indeed made a slay, 
longer or shorter, in Rome. There need, indeed, be no 
hesitation, not even in pieseme of the objections of 
Krbes.l to see in ' she is in Habvlon, elect together 
with [you]' l^^nBo/ifXin <j\v(\\tKr-ri. i Pel.."! i,> an allu- 
sion to the church in Rome. In i Pel., however, it is 
not I'eler himsi 1 who is speaking, but an unknown 
auilior writing in the first half ol the second centurv, 

130-140 ,\.|i. (Oiri-CllRlsriAN I.IIKKMI-RF, § 20 ; 

I'K.TF.R, Kflsri.KS OF. §§ ^ff.; CHRISTIAN, § 8). He 
is the exponent of a Iraditiun. not met with elsewhere, 
regarding I'eter as apostle in a portion of the countries 
of Asia Minor where Paul a'-o had laboured, .and at the 
same time of the other wldelv spread tradition that Peter his home in Rome. .\cts. fialatians, and Romans, 
so far as we can see. are r.^-t yet acquainted with this 
Latest tradition. K'.en i Clem., written professedly bv 1 
the church of Rome, and probably, in point of fact, ; 
originating there, says noiliing of a sojourn of Peter in 1 
Rome. The writer assuredly would not have passe 1 it ' 
over in silence when speaking of Peter s glorious past in ; 

_' Op cit , below. 16-20. Erhes once more seeks to ple-J for a 
sojourn -if Peter amoni; the Jews in Babylon, unless perhaps I 
wc arr :3 understand Jcr«s..lLm. i 



t ch.-jp. n, or tre.itinii .it the Iilewmk ul the 'aiwules' h; 
I haps. VX and 44. if he had kmmn anything ol e, 
llermai and Justin, buih ul them witnesses U onging 1 . 
the Koman mile, are >iniil.irly silent as to .iii|{lil th ,t 
I'eter may be siip|ioM-d to have done, laid. or cndiiui 

Ihere are. then, as regards Peter's going to Run,. 
and .IS regard, hii journevings .is .1 whole, tradiii..! '. 
which, in p.irl, are mutually cMlusive and in no .., ,• 
admit ol being comluned together mtu urn- consi.i, .,, 
whole. The older 1 nes do nut impiv the siipiMised 1,1, ■ 
of th.i church ol Runie having been loiimled bv p. |. . 
they have no knowledge ol it, or even Willi. - 
ag.unst it by m.ikmg st.itenients which c.innoi be |,,,, 
niiiiiise,; with It. Alls, (i.ilalians. Kom.ins. i ci, m 
unduubtedly come iliieflv into cimsideraiion here. 1 ••, 
Ihe same side there f.lll to be grouped other NT |. ,,. 
monies to the martyrdom <if Peter, and, mure precis. ,i 
his criicilixion. drawn from very olil. if not the o'.l. -t, 
Iradiiions relating to the careers of the ajMistles, ihmi.;', 
without mention ol the place where this vio'eni ik.i^!, 
occurieil. See Jn. 'Jl ,8.jj Up 1:1,.,) Ml. Ill,/; , ,j 
"■13 '.'-lull -4vi* Mk. li'ly-ij l.k. 2447 Acts 1 •. 
Within Ihe circle otiliese ancient witnesses we can s,i|, v 
•ay— apart, if you will, from i Pel. 1 1 .'11,- of all th ^ 
in the .N'T, to which also may be added thai ol the ap ,s. 
lolic l.ilhers, that not a single word or even the renmi. ,i 
hint IS found in them as to a sojouin, whether ul loiii; ,ir 
ol short duration, ol Peter in Kome. whilst, in lad, nil re 
than oni' of them, by implicit or explicit declaratiun, .a- 
irreconcilably at variance with any such supposiimn 
R.ilher does everyihing plead for the view pii.r 
never visited Rome, but worked continuously in I'.iles. 
line— occasionally, perhaps, outside its limits, but never 
very far off— and that there, it may well have been m 
Jerusalem, somewhere about (14 A,|), under S,ibinM\i 
or, at all events, some years before the destiuctiun ol ilie 
temple and city in 70 A.l>.. he died a mailyr's deaih. 
[See. furtlier, SiMoN Pkikr.] 

What remains of the lale tradition .is to the foundini; 
of the church of Rome by Peter and Paul conjumiiy 

tradiUo^' is »:' ''^'""' "' '■'■''■' ''^"' '''■"■" •■'"'""""^ 

AcU '"''" ""'• '" "" "^"'"'i ■"'"" "P ■' 

the ilternative: if not by Peter .ir.l 

P.iul together, then probably by I'aul alone. Tin- i. 
nowhere said in any tradition so far as known to ii» 
Tradition seems milier to have followed this courM-; 
since it is impossible that Paul can have founded ihi- 
church along with I'eler. his name must not be ilioiii;lii 
of m connection with the founding at all. Acts .nu! 
P.iuline I'.pistles. writings frequently read in a large ur 
cle. indicated this. 

.Acts knuws of no tlhristian church at Rome at a ri:ii" 
prior to a pussibli' foundation by Paul after he li.i- 
proclaimed the glad tidings to Ihe Jews assembled a 
his lodging ('_'.H 17-31). In 2H 15. indeed, we mil ul 
the 'brethren' who came from Rome lo .\ppii luriitii 
and the Threi- Taverns to meet I'aul, and it i~ iw 
doubt usual tu regard these as having been Chri^- 
ti.ins, hut on no adequate giounds. They are, lo jicliie 
Irom tf. 17-2.5, Jews, jusi as Jews (;■, .•iitall 
their kinsmen in Jiida'a 'the brethren.' Tin y iie 
amazed at Paul's plans, and declare as distiniilv ,l^ 
possible in ;■. 71 up lo that houi they had lic.inl 
nothing of 'this sect' — i.e., of the Christians — hevimd 
the mere name. All this is in perfect agreement with 
the current representation in Acts, according to wliicii 
P.iul in his journeyings invariably first .ulili'-^cd 
himself to the jews and thereafter lo Ihe (i.tiiii-s 
with a view to proceeiling lo the setting 1111 nl .1 
(Jhristian community, whether compo'ied eiitu-ly ol 
converted Gentiles, or partly also of former lews (tp 
1:146 .and 1:'.-'.;k passim). The view that l.v the 
'brethren' of Rome, alluded to in L"** 15, as also by 

' So Er'bcs, 212, conjectures, relying upon Jos, .-it 

■t XX y 5. 


thCi%e of Piilfnli III . 

.Mr,,, r.,.; ":";,,;{,;;■;"• '■■ "n,!..,,.,,,,, chn.. 

• •<.>.•„.„, ,',,,„, , , ■', ,y ' ''■", "" '>'-'"ric.,l ,„„h„„. 

Morc„vrr, m Aa^ys,,/ ,h. i •""•"•* "•f'Tri'l t„. 
'i".r.h .-,, R,„„., .,v l',,u „ r .itr:"! "' ■' '■''"^"•'" 
^■"••'l-.l in s,. ,„,, ,v « r,K ""•' •■"•»"'"'■'' "'■'" 

;,^••-fi^M.^«;:;:;::;„ ,;v-;';;;.H. '- 

"I our cam.iiuMl ,\.t, ,„,| .r.,; , • H"-' Mnt.r 

-iv"... .urn ha,i.;;;!:',,,^''';^' -'«•">'• .'..•.„. 

t■^ iiiMim c.f ihi- r«„;.n,M.,l U f''l">"m anil 

Ti^K. » ,, „U. (uv.^^,;, '''"''''''^'^*^'■•■^''A■ 
.■l.v„unl >.f ,\k f.„„li,,, n. V u , "'""•"'i^'. -Iitt.r.-ni 

•"•■■ -pr-s...,., , ,L. «..'•,;.■ ';.'■• — ""« «•' 

nn.l hiKh.T s,.„s., than ,;•„,'"""■", '" ^""■""t 

2^"/ to U. ,,,„ /"' "."•■ •'^"'^•I'n«.....\.„ 

.li'l«.s^d touanis Paul « t .. *'"'' '"-'"">■ 

o-..mal.hri,„ans.,f,h„cpU,:;' ""•■ '•"»« "•"" >''- 

Mnvev.T thai inav 1h' \.i, ,w„.u 
-,.r..„ stat..,„e„t .. ..l ^li^" , ^ ^'^f^';"-;',- -V 

R-nuns i„.p|i„ ^; d.' rh.'';::tr'.r" "'k"'"'"- " ''" 
h.M almwh- U'c-n I, n , m "'"'-'hat the churd, 

of |»-r,„nallv v,m„„,, '" " f '■'™;'" "Pl-r.uni,y 

.Ixy hol,| i, to con,,, fr ,/Za T/'^'r"'' '''■'•'"^'-• 

.he of a.lvaru- , ' '^. f I"-"'' ''■'"I ; l,y „.l„.rs. 
fully c..,„v,„c.,.,l o , L, '■""■ .'"'^'"^^■' '"'"'•"■^ 
"he '■p.stU. (see R, MxiT) " .'.f ll'"""" '''--"t of 
doMl,,,n,.it/ Thev-I,,. ,'• 7 ''■'"-" "" "•■'-"» f"r 
6. Bomuu ' "" > ■'"■ not, hku ihfin v,.r 1 

vem^ f •"-'i ''y Acts «h,d, !».,'' ;";,:::>„';:;;• 

Act.. "'"■ »'"; .1..- .■p,s,k. h..i,i ,o ha ! u ,; 

""•'r"l."l.sthatnoonethiTeh l". "L '"'/"■'■'^•'l "■ Ihe 
h.n. ..r even «,„„, Ch t L ty , !n''o:^'''>''''"'-'^''-"' 

s..,«r a.,, writers, and as reLM , l' ^"'™"'" "' 'he 

, ;'"'« ■. was p..rhaps the- uurk of p',, b' •''""'""B '» 
l'<ul,' certainly not. Aecor<li,,J ' "'•,''"';>'^^™"li"K .o 

It V..LS, since we must interpret f ' ■' '' '^''^''''' 
g«.er;,l len.ienc^ of his "his r " ."'""'•'•"^■e «ith the 
■f".!.' l» everyone ;L"'"^''.' ^T"''"« '" 

<"" .v-t ha,l anv one am- k,Z , '? ""'^- •'^'« 
"< th" .-.-ch in kr,„,e-hv ;"^:;,;^.^ ,'"»"""•« 

7. Other ';-- ^■™.^. >.io.h.:k L.:;"M,;:a,"• 

to 'as hut . """•''" '" "■prrs,.ni 
'f"M„ a Cor.,!,, ,2 '■ ','''/k ''"'"■'"■'''' '" 

w such ample opoortun.v^ ' <->n- T.,-;, where theie 

f '^e Kon,.^, .SrhrPau ia.r'th" """ '" ""^ 

""''"I to refer to it The r. 1 ,*-' """•■■ ^''•^•" 




•■ rounds, ■•V"'lT,.,,..,ler .„ the s„ calle,! .o, i ^,;',';''' 
BUe„: one or more of ,h ' ""'" *'""'"' to 

y-iy .late, .p.';;;;',H," r',;::!'^" '■'•''> ^" " •i'"" 

•'"••ll.Ts fro,,. l.,,|,.,„ . ' ""■ "'^' '•'■'""". for 

- ''-had. lone ,nu;^. ::•::,'-;■-•'■-... 

'"y ."".he,! on ,he,r r,„„e, c , ' I, ;"" ' ' ' 

X'."""-. .|.«S,,s;e 'V,,r,:,u''™ '^■•■■■^■^ 

•'"'■"'""' the,,,'.,,., '•,'., '''^'•', <"■''''''■•• »I">''.'U 

^'•l'«' m.,v well h . /'!"' 'r"'-"! 'l-ir 

""■•'-i"ns and iJ., ', . ' ""' .''•f"-'l-"i o„ oiher 
•■•pahle one., of „h ,t hev i'.T"''"''''' ''"^-''''>- "'•y 

..j.w,«. v''-v:::;hr.^;-;, ;;:',::;,,;-'•'-' ■^''■"1 '-- P".ure to <..„>ei :,' .\,„)1'-' 

at Eon,.. ;j;""' --S- of events ,, we s ,,:,",• 

fslaMi.hnientoftl,;,,,./^-,, , •'"; ^-l-l and „,„ 

l"^'""-- to hi .If -.he na, nre the )-\ V'-''^"';''- «o 

hfie. now ,l,e,e, ,he c< k s. .1 '" "''"''• ""* 

known sower, n„ , ,rv V " "'•'"•■"■I I'V un- 

.l-«isll -..leni'e i, L,' ''"'"' T'"" '"""P""" of the 

",anv thev . , ""; "' ""•.»■ tl't-n \.,.rv 

p-iseiy.ih:;.^h,;::; '",:;; ^;:;'"""i" ''■•-".- 

r-'fr"-' .."'onivmr'f;; •';••:;;"•;;'■'« «ith 

chose to ». so 1... It. thev till rriM. hes 

<>■>". .heir^r^/tTr",;'';?;"'"'^' ■•'•-•■' 

••"join on the fa.thful h, .„ ' 'r ," ^''^ ,'"''■ to 
or ..n the pro,s,.|vtes who ,. . •y';''l'.,m l,y .l,..<ent, 

^•^■-ivinK he f,vo,r of ih^''''"'' ''''■"•• •\l>""...ei; 

""-ler the heav r?le° I i,r r'" i""' '■""''I '''■»>. 
"f a 1«» fne,,,lvl :,;""''"" "••■"■ l-y author,,..^ 

nsks of persectio,, sTn ,;,! ;;"^"""'' "P"-'' '" 
a .Hied to o,.c .1. , ' •'•^^fisio'i. and seldom 

l-read. now e,u . ,1 f ' ,."'"',? "'"* '"' their daily 
into the depths of ,„ er^ ' ■"*' •""' "■'» P'""K<-'i 
professional l^Lts Suh'^in'TlT' "" ""• '^'"'^ "' 
"Ixi.inK d.xades of he hrs, '' . ''"'' "■"' ''"^'"« the 
lifo of the Jews , K ,e ■"""•;• "^'^ "'^- ■"■■"""•■• of 

'■all it, l,rokenm?i,^ F"' •'f"ll"Tho.xl, we may 

a Land 7 I i ^^ w hor'l'T "^ ^"-"- -"""""■mie 

■"a"nersan<lcu o , „t r" , '" ,'° "'"'"'■^"' ""''^ "'< 
i" ^Pite o. n,anv 1,™:^. , ; ' ""^">-'.""''tl-rreli„on. 

selves, in the mid I f\| ',;"','■"'''''''•■""''■'« ""■'"• 
«""". the,r Pro^;:;;,;:',^' , ~;"«<r,"'''-amon,s, 
come to pay a visit there At hrst thev ha,i 

reasons h,.d h .'^^M^h e m oT "'"''r;™' ^''''' '"'"'"' 
l^'enalre,adyin,he< Ivs , h V ''■ ";'^'''-'".^ ^ •-' it had 
had lH.en Nr,,uKht,^Ro,,ef.,,; ■''"*"■ ■ ""'"saKain 
slaves. |„„ on c Osvr ''"' '"'^'"' '"""t'v as 

-..t,,l.,e and If^n^^Xl^aT''^ "^ "^*^'">- ^-"" 

Shown , real Lo„.'^r:,--:Lri;:r!;:^e'^:;;! 



|)ri!.'.| fr.iiii K.iinr iii tlu' viMr ii> A. Ii. aei.l pMrlly 
cill|>:'<\<<l III llie .11". nil, I Ilia iiirilti ■.( Niiiiliiii.i 

I'll'l-r t'l.lllilill. .llit>lll 4y \ 11. 111! V »>Tv ,11; 11" 

b.iii.-.lif .1. I ii.lir Nii.i II uwiil.l w'.'iii liny iiij..\.-.l 1 •! 
•mill {Mnttr init inrtiH-hLV. ilwi' tli t.uU '^ti' Stluiti-i. 
<<//■', iHi^li. ;ij,)- ,n .111,1 »|«ii.ili» ihf liiii.»iiiii> i.|. Ill .1 
In lUi'Ii' <ill |i, j.l. II. 70 ; ij) A/i'", '.'0;v; jj, iHSfiji, 

> Ml ilii, » Vm 1 ir;ii>i KiMii.iti <'tiri«ii.iiim , 
wi? iii.i\ »ilfly .iHiiiii, h.iil .iiir.uU iiiiiif into Uiii; 
jj «^ tiiforo tin' iiiiildio ..f llw iir»l 11 iiiiii Ihf 
^ * iil'li-^t ilisim. ♦ ti.ue tif lu lK-t;iiiiiiiiK'» i« 
fiiiml ill Sm-Miiiiii i< ,',<,•,/. j-,1, »li>-rf lie «.m nl tin' 
nii|»iiir 1 : iiiiliii'. llin In- .•\|»lifi| III.' |iu, fr..iii Kmnt' 
• III ;ii<iiiiiil iif llii ir |irr'<i>h'nt liirlnii'iii •• uniliT IIh' 
ill^lUiliMil iif Clirr.nn cjiiil.i'.n iiii(iiils. irr Ihii \|ii 
nv.ii|,ii' liiiiiiiiiii.iiiii'H K.iMi.i r\iJiilir, Lp (. iiui'<ii.\s. 
K 'I 111. I. Till' Ullll^llllll'llI uI' Ihr I.-.I. iAi|» II J mill 

Dim^lill 1)1)1,1. .lllli.ill,;ll lirulnlilv III llic i-H-lll licit 

jiiili;i-il 1 \|«'.liiiit <ir iKili.iii, run |i. i„ili|i., .mcl in nny 
t.iM- nut 1. in I'll iitit oil .iiiv ;,iri;i' %i.ilt'. Ii.hI il-i iitt.i-i.'ii 

III triiiiliN'N iml ilisiiiil ,■, utm li h.ul .111.111 iiini.iii; 

tin- Ji'«> ■ iill|iul-"l<! (.Iiri'alu --/.... .It till' limlalKi' 1 T 
Willi lilt- lirlp iif I liri'.im. riii« I liri-.iiiv »,i», 111 jiidti- 
li\ till- iii.itiiii-r iif ^iMH'ili i.t tii'i^i' |^,n^, no wili'T 111. Ill 
^Ji-Misi ( liiiHt; 111* [i-rviii anil w.-ik. llie vitw* .iinl 
I'Xji -it ilit'iis (.unm-i. It'll uiili liiiii, .inil In-* i,iu-.f win- 
Willi li'il I l.iiiiliii'. t'l Mi k 111 ri'iiiiivr 111,' |r\\» nil., Ii.iil 
llun lnviiiiiL- tMnlili-niiilf. Nii«. Iliiiiii:li till' ex. lit 
yt'.ir ill which ilni ii'i,..|ini..|i «,i, i.,,iin.' t.i liy thi- 
rni|nr'ir iii umori 1 11. if »u ri'iii"iiil«r at tin.- 
iH'umiiinj; uf lin ri.'i>;ii 141-^4 A. n 1 In- «a., annnliiii; 

til I'lvphuH (. /«,'. \U. ,'.j-il. I.ii.iir.ilily nil';. 11., 1 til till' 

}t-A>. wr.iti' liil tnlhliik 0' ■! Miiiirwhal l.itir il 111' — t.'t ui 
^ay uiih Si litirvr IJJ,/ I .mil diIiit*. the yi'.ir 41) .\. n. 
In I, >«u the mnvenirnt «e aif >.u|i|insiiii{, nml ili 
pr'.-ili.iiij i.HiM-. tlif lii-.* .ivili'lii.ific prt'.uhiiiij I'f 
(liiiiliiiiilv ill Kiime, i.iii li.ui' U^jiin mhih' nimiiln 
iir Vf.iri pM'MiiiisIy. \Vc iiiii'>t li'.ii" I'iK'n Iht; i)'if-.iii'n 
.1* t'l whftluT .11 a still rirluT ilai.- inniL- cmiMiti, 
in tin- cimrw-' nf pil){riiiiap'» Id Ifriisilfiii nr Ihniiinh 
thf ai;t.'iu'\' uf tliiril p.iiiH''. in thnr adipttil fiMiiitrv, 
111. IV ii'it h.uf l»i'ii Willi 111'- ii'w iiinlrs'.i'in iiml 
till- I'vpi'il.iii.iiH ciiiin.-rti'il with it. Kiinii' li.ul .i;«-.iilv 
fur ,1 liinu liiiii.' In-'i 11 a f.iMiiirili' I'.ml niuili liei|uciitfj 
harl«iiir fur ni'w iili'.is in the •.plivri' i.f rihi;'tin. 

With the il.iie tints arrivnl at liir tlip Int. 'n of the 
l.*hii*ii.iii chiirLh in ku'iH* it anirt'S »t>It'i ih • ' n 

U. Th.ory of "'"".'"Vir V'--''^:'"'"' ''V,^"^-- ' -'■ 

wi tu kii'iwn iiulv liy II. mil.' m tlif wi 

.rill wht-n I'aul lir>t prmlaimwl tin.' tiiiiniji uf 
•alv.ition to till- Jt-'ws thure, anil that aiuillu'r wnli'i — 
the aiiihiir of Kciiniin — iliil nut hi-sii.iii- to .n^Minn- 
Ihniiiijh'.iiit lui w irk that at \<i\ Urn- tlii-n.' h.ul 
ulrclily U-cn fm .1 loiii;' in Konii.' Ih-Iii'vits U-loiii;- 
in({ to various schouN uf ( hn-.ti.m tli..nj;lii .in.l pi.utii a. 
W'lu'il these iHiok-i Wert' writti.'n tin* d.iys of the tii-.l 
founiliiif; of .1 thurih 111 koiiif vu-ri- alrcidy so 
reinuvi-d in ililfi'ivnt lin le- diviTKint rcprc-iiM- 
lioiis wi-rr i;ivi'ii ri'ijariliiii; it. thouijh llvre Some'iT (if niiiripiis.'iii.iuon. 'l.iik-' is wroin; 
b'tuise he ilocs not Mkc atcu'in: ot the eviiteme "f 
any ( eliiireh at '<oiiie U-fore the n|)ostle I'l il 
hnl ni.iile Ins vuiee heanl there. The I'.uiline wrilii, 
on the other reprevjiiis the apo«tlc of the 
(ieiitiles a.s kiicmmj! l»-fore liin artival anioiii; 
them the f.iiih of tin- I'hristian'i win ali-e:iih- 
' procl.iimeil tliroiinhoat the whole world' (Hoin. 
IS), and in di; it is the i'.iuime form of dmirme 
wh"reuiito they lieen delivered. iloth the one 
view ami the other may well In' cpicstioii'd ns strict 
history. Itoih writers make it mr.iiifest tliat thev no 
longer know the true position of mitters so far as 
iletiils are cunceriied. At the same time thev confirm, 
each in his own w.iv. the cori-eciivs^ nf the d lie u-e h:ive 
arrived at ; at the U'jjinning of the second century, the 



foiitiilinic nf tlw t hull I. at Rome N'lonuf^l to a i 1 

lull rt'lllole p.i-t iil'l .11 lll't ilisl 111. e III llnieioij 
ft[i* lUini; I'loi'lll . U lomieitiil vmUi .1 del n. .itloii .,1 1 
1» 11 "I wh. n I 'ml Ha* stlim^ out lor. or h.ul arriu.l 
Ihe lileti'iliolls of the etiipire, 

I he iie.itir deirrmituiion of Ih*- date U lo l« »oii. ! 1 
111 ..nil il.i.i as 1 I ) til tr.iilition ri'tj.irdiii); r.iuls p. , , 

13 rnrtlMr **"'' ''''■"'""■ '" ■' lounnv t» >(miii ! , 
'^1^ w.iy of k'Hiw. where al hrisli.lll clei. , 

110 lunger milled to In I. deil ik . 

IS * /: cp I I leiii .'ii 71; 131 111.- ir.iditi.iii of I'.i, , 
lie ith .(I Kome. wlieini'r. .is the ordiii.irv reckon.. -.; It. Ill ii|. .IS l'>tie» thinks, im a.iid i-'eli. r.), ..r 
as let oihiis jiidi;*'. at ^ime .t.ite t. 
Miore es.iiliy delermined. sluiili U'lore or m ,. 
lie. 11. in With the |i<'i<eciitiiiii of the I in t 
uniiimer of I14 ; iji all that rel.ites to the tut uf i!. 
IMTsiTiiti'iii of Ihe (.'hruti.ins at K.mie liy Nem ; .p 
the apin'.ir.ince of the ' (liiiith iif Koine' a« the wi 1. r 

uf I I'lll'llt s llrsi epistle to the t 01 imliMiii ; ((, (I.. 

ncll'. i\ uf .M. in loll and V'.ilentlillis amoli.; the 1 hi .m ms 

III Koine : |i.| all traditniii tells us of the cst.i 'i. 

me!.' of n litshops Ml' .at koine l»y the up. >i;. s 
I'ei. i and I'.itil ; — a very l.irue seiies of te»tiiii..i. . 11 
tontiimousty nssimni; us. e.icli in its own \i.iv, tli,.' ihe 
foiinihnt; of a Christian church .it Koine goes lia.-k i.j 
Ihe middle of the tirst century of our er.i. 

I lie chir Hi. r of this chinch wis, '.o lieijin wuh, 1,,, 
other w is to Im e\|)ecied Iroin iti i.ri|;in withm 1 ,.• 
IS. CharicUr 'I'l'^'-"' '"■■"« .tn-l pr-si'lvtes' n ,.. 

of church. ■\"' ""^'''»"-; '" 'IHMklliK 01 Jew, ., ,. 
as fithers of the cohhm .. 1, 
(It koine has here truly ».iid that thi>se ic.i 
lieli've.1 confessed I lirisl an 1 held fist hv the law . .-x 
iiuiliiis ( lad, I' s| hi i|iii crcdiderant. tradiderunt kom .■, , 
ut Clirwimn pioiitentes leyem serv.iieni '). In i,^ 
there is no 'e-sa^ueration ' ns .S.ind.iy and Ile,i i, nn 
l|i. m. n. J I have thought. I hey milccil could h i-i v 
h.ive tlioiij/ht otherwise as lotiR as they were doini. !i-i 
lie U-lief in iheifeimineiiessof llii.iKplslle to the koiii';:s. 
V/lioever ileenis lum "If 1m. and to m.iintaiii (..'lirf 
iinist inc» I wrilti-ii 

to say. Iiefoie y) \ i. ihere vsen* to Iw lin-t w.ih m 
kintv- two dner);e!u tviies uf < hrislian failli and |.i ' ■ 
si'-n. the jew ish-t 'hrisli.lll and the I'aiilme. Se, '; n 
line cannot .imid f.ieinu the ijuestion : What wis liie 
church of Kome ,at time? .Fewish-i-linsi. m." 

I'.iuime? .Mixed? Vel ill ihewliile iie is well aw .11' — 

or li.e ihsioMiy IS ever aiew forced upon hini--ti. u im 
s.llisl.utory answer to the ipiestion can U' (;i\eii. >. ni.' 
texts s|ieak very ele.irly lor the view the ein.i,;, .n 
tiuestion consisted uf former gentiles, whilst oili.i su- 
th<' ev.ict opjiosiie — it was cniiposetl of i.'i'n-r 
Jews (see k'HIANS. jt 8; van .\I.iiieii. /'..•(,.'«. 1' .. i 
i6o-7l. Vet we cannot hoi. I wuh .Sand.iy- I le i.;:..m 
i|i. xxvii and others the theory it a 'ni;\e-r 
church. lo such a theory lan Ix' applied |.i ihc 
full these schol.irs remark in another niiii.-. . 

ly assume alre.idy. Inf.. re Koni uis 
y I'aul .111 the mdinary reck. mini;, 1!, n ;* 


tioii ; ' theie is no halt of such a st.ile of th'ni;s,' w' 
ni.reovcr w.iiild c. impel us. coiiir.ay to the lu.u.i 
intention of the writer, to think of ■ two disiiiict ilm:: 
in kome. one the other (i.ii and Si. I'aul wrote only to the latl. ■ 

.\iiy line who. oil the other h.iiKl. U en .1 
hiiiisetf from the axiom of the i;eiiuincness aii! i; .5 
satislied hi'iiself of the cliai.i. ;i r "I 
this wiitini; of a Liter tune (see kiiM \Ss) no lontf'.'r inis 
his hinds tied l,y the various impossible attempts 

h,l\e lieen lli.lile to answel tlieipiestions propose. ' lit- 
is no longer perplexed liy that other trou!.!isemc 
quesi'oii : How .ire we to expl.iin the fict tli^u ii.mhire 
in history has there remained any tr.ue of the r.\istcnce 
of an ini|x)rt,in! Pauline communitv in Koni", iher il.t 

aoost!»'« {..;;^,|.. Is^^jl ljj«... *-.;;•^ i I p. *_',],:■'. ',:■? 

notice of all ideas of this sort, the pictures su:';;<.'stiil 


:«-'-.i.....,,. ,.,Am;:: :;,^;r,'';,;;;''':: 
■■■:v::;:;;:;;'•.;:::';ll^^;:;:f';; ""^ " 

;.':lH;rH •■;;-■-"■;":-..:":: 
■; ;i»^':..i'!:;;;:,:, ;:,:,' ,::;■•;■■■;;■ -».., 

>'»■;-.:;::«:■;;;:,■;::.:;,: ;::;:::.:,::r-;^ 

14, Jtwlih- ,""'"■'">■ "-I- i,i,-„ ,,,,,, ,„ 

ChriiUaa. "','"'" I"f'''l" i" th,. milu.n... „f „ '. 

'I'-'fl '"■» i,|..n, ,„,„l,. «.,v n, k„„„. u,„„ ' . 
llw-ru .,i| an .ilrTi.,M i„,„.,„.,r,,|,i,, »,.,| ,, „,, ''"^ "" ' 

7^'"">'7- -•"•! n-,.f,i::;,.v ;:;:7;i:; 

ill ll.ll 111 I »• (i,,,,li,,i, ,,f .,V . r "'i"l"ll' 111 1,1 llll- 

■'"" '" " •"^"■""v '.^"T .i .„ r.l^, ",;;> ,'J 

IB atruggl. ,"""■'-■ "i'-l»'irlliy tr.ulili,,,, ,h,.r,- i, „„ 
irfPaulUltain. '": "' ■'" ''"-■ I'll "11 II,.. ,„ntrirv 

i-.'J"S'ri!'';;:',;'"-';" -'— .^ 

«."iii«l,ah I, , , - :"•■'>■""'■'■: wl llio 

■' ll| H ' "',\"^""''' ™P1. lilts. :,n,| „,,| I,.,,,, 

^- "t.i .in.l Riul ,lMl.' 4,): (a fror, tia- 



;"^ '• -"';::.;;r"2;::;:„;:rv* 

^::';;.,;;:;;',;,r:.;,;?,fi;->,;;';'; ^'.-"; 

V - K -.•«!,::■; :,';ir,:'':" :;•••»■';' 'y 


:v:rr:i;:;:,i^r?;'- ••-^^ 


>:''MW.,fi,,:'^t^rr, ;,;."■;:;;' "';■''■';''>"''• 

;.;':7 "-■""""■ '""••■ -miw:.?"""'^'-"'- 


M Sin.k. 11, ||„.,„„r„. „, y„„, ,,,,,^ 

"•0r»diul 'I' •""' ■'^i'i"iil-ili'l ilui w,„. 

Chang.. ;;;.7'" •" ", '"" '""i""'"-- •-.... 

1- U in r.r.r-l v. ."l.ipMli..ii n.i, „l ^r.;,, „se 

.ini..„. «li.>.v..,„in,iiTii,,u.-,l.,(i,.r.v;,r,ls M,,,,, „ 

ln>nsl:ucl ,N,.|f in ., '" "^ ^■""' "'' "'■" 


ofK-s,,,ns.h.,-,,n.,.ha,ll..,.,.,,,.|,,:.,,.' ''"""■ " 

H">Vthl:il iri,ti. Mill, liiiiii, nil.. ., L. 


17. Comtitu- '" '111' ■■''"••■""■ "f II MiiM' ii,l,,i;„al 

Mon of Jewish "','"■ '"' '•■'inii,' l" inin.l ,.n,,,- more 
community. ",'" »f^l^ii"w r,r the spim „f Hint 

-....I. . .rose. ^:^^M;;ut!-nn;':,1,:^:,,i^,:;,';-;' 

- li.^r ,:„,. „,.re ,o 1. .allcU ruler, aii^l luiU;;.- chi^g^ 
4 1 54 


with the c;irc nf th*' outwnrtl life of Christiiins as subjects 
of tlu! st.itr. I he l<-vvish ' (Jliunli,' iiIlliouv;li it can l>e 
so I'iillril 111 rt'sjx'c.1 of the rrlif^unis coMlrssimi of its 
aatKTL'iits. fnrmi'd no unity platrtl iimlrr tlic Icuirrship 
and ^ovrrnment nf a sinj;lt* c(,uncil or of one head. It 
was niailc up rallu-r i)f a jjreat numU:r uf M'paratt,' and 
indi?[xMidfnl Loii^rt'ijaliims {(Tfva-ywyai), cacli ha\ inj^ 
its own j>yriair'>'- 'f, its own couiujl iytfyovaia). its ov\n 
rulers {Apx '■ ^^ho also soinrtiirH's at least, wtrt! 

partly tall riders* iTrftur^irrffiot). and, whedier for 

life i3ii fiio or for a Innitefl |>friod, ueie ch"sen at 
the U'ljinuiny of llie Irwi-sh ii\il year (in SeptrniU-i ). 
i'liey were i harmed with the general h-adt-rship of the 
community. soni>'tiin.-s alio with the ta>k associated 
with the s|)eiial othee of t liief of the syna^o^ue 
{a^»xtiTifayu}yo^\. The l.iniiuaj;e einpli>i-d was ( in-ek, 
as indrr-d thewlioie constitution with rulers {Ap^ovT*^) 
and councils {ytporffiai). so far as form was con- 
cerned, seems to' in'fn Imrrowed from the civil 
ori;ani>ation usual in (in-ck cities (M-e Schurer, />/> 
l]t>ni-in,it-vcrf\is'iun:^ Jt-r JuJt n in h't'm, i879,and(/// ''• ', 
3. pp. 44-51 [i8q81i. 

The Christian (hurdi also, wc may safely take for 

granted, very soon after its inemlH-ri liad U'eii evcom- 

Of luuniiatrd, or had voluntarily w ilhdrawn 

Chriatian ^""" '''*^ J'^ish syna^.»^'urs in Koin<-. 

V^ * tlH'T own centres, with a tovernin«nt 
proi)cr to iheiiiMUes (niodclled m;nnl_\ , 
so far as form was conet-rned. on that which they had 
left at the call of rrli,i;ious principle and duty), thc-ir 
own pi. ices of meeting {<Tvvayu}y<xi\, their own rulers 
((!/» "Tci). who -i^ • often c.illed elders {irpftTfivTt(iOi). 
Til. ...IS what ha,-, eiicd el>ewhere throuijhout tiie cities 
of the l)is|HM>i.n. Why not also in koine? Acts calls 
the rulers 'elders' [wp**j.ivrf^>oi\ in 11 ;'> 14-m liOi/; 
whenever lerusalem is spoken of, where the a|)ostles 
aie rci^.irded as h.ivinij lived and Ialw)ured, we read 
of *apostlt-s anil elders' iX^tz^d.^x IO4). just as the 
same writer elsewhere when referring to the rulers 
(d/^XOvTfjl of the Jews siK-aks of their 'elders' (*Ji7 
45fi-'i O12 2-'i 14 li4i 'l\ii^). i'or the rest, in Acts we 
find no allusion to any i^overnnu-nt of ("hri>tian com- 
munities, just as, in fact, of the coniiuunity that arose 
after tlie arrival of Paul in Rome nothing more t. said 
than tliat tluw' met in P-uil's own hou>e (2S ^o/i. In 
K mans there is no t \idence as to the terms employed 
in this connection by the Christians at Rome, except 
in a sinjjle p.issai;t; where .illusion is made to ' him that 
ruleth ' (6 wpoiaTdtuvo^ : Vli). 

I Clem., the 'epistle' of tlie 'church of Clod ' at 
Rome to that of < "orinth. has niine to s.iy. The church 
{r) iKK\r^<Tia) comes l>et'ore us as a unity emhracififj all 
li' lievers within tlie boundaries of a definite locality; 
so in the ofx-nini^ words and also in \\ \ 47t> icp 2 Clem. 
Sii 14i34i). \\"e are not precluded from thinkinj;; that, 
as in the c.ise of the jews, this unity made up of 
various ciri les or com;rei;alions within the larijer v hole 
which comprehended the whole boiiy of the faithful. 
I'.e supposUion finds support when we consitUr the 
manner in which the (Kcurrence of ilivcrj;ent ideas and 
practices with re^anl to the choice of otlicials is sicken 
of. Some consider themselves fret; in their choice; but 
othiTS, irnhiilint; the writer, Imld theinseUes bouritl to 
tradition anii obliged to adhere to the ancient holders 
f>f --piritMal as lont^ as thev have not dJMiu.ililied 
th.•tn^ehes by misconduct (cp 1^3- 216 I'J 44 r.9j). 
'IVue, this applies, so far as form is concerned, I'l tlie 
first instance and especially, only X^^ the Corinthians 
who are Ix.ini; a-'.dressed. but yet also to the Romans 
who are si>e.ikinii; of themsehcs in the mMnl)er 
(«p 7i ; see ni |)-Cmkisma\ § 241. 
The most obvious explanation is to tx* found in the 
su|>positton that the diveri^ent views and practices 
leferred to ven- found in the ditti-rent circles or congre- 
gations \.4KK\y)<yiai) within the boun<Is of the one church 
— h ^KK\nala — whether that of Rtmieor that of Corinth. 


However that may U". 'the church' hail its rulers r 
leaders {i}'/Oi'fi€voi ; 1 j) just as had the Jews (Ji2^l. the 
KKyptiiiiis ilil^i, and others (37^ t>5i tfOi). Ihey .i.- 
usually calN'd 'elders' {wpffffiiTtpoi \ 1 3 ;i i 21 ei ll^ 
47fi ri4i r'7i, cp 2 Clem. 1735). but in one, 
though in no ditTerent sense, ' ovi-rseers ' {ewiffKoiro.} 
and 'dei'.-ons' [Sianovoi. 424/., c-p 44 1 bO^). chart;- ,i 
with the sacred service iXfiToifyyia, 41 1 442/. 6). '1 1,. .■ 
were 'ministering' {Xtitoti-yovvrti; 463) just as ai 
their manner were the jews i'.i'J^s 40), Knikh I'.'.i, 
Aanm (4.'i4). the anijels of (ioit (:U s/ ). In thissei\. ,; 
or mini.stry were included, or at least came under tht r 
5U|K'rintendence, (1) the readini^ of stripture iij -)»ar,">jj 
or at ifpai y(ia<pai) ~ tht; C)!" as we now know it aiid 
whatever other writings were at that time reckoneit ,is 
bcloiiKinij to it ; also Christian wrilinf^s such as r.mrs 
' Kpistle to the Corinthians' and other treatises, inclu.liin; 

1 and 2 Clem, (cp 2 Clem. 19i ITii \7 5 i CUni, J7i 
63a 7 I, Ol-I>-( HKISTI.VN I.UKK.Ml^KK, ^S 24 I Ihnil, 
I'is. ii. I3 4i Kus. ///-'ii. 2rp8 iii. ISSs)— (2| exhortat,..ii 
(cp 1 Clem. p<t^sim) and (3) prayer (i Clem. T'lc-'U 

2 Clem. '2j). All of these, as with the Jews, at lr.,st 
down to lu'ar the end of the second century, wrrc 
p4'rformed in (Jreek. 

Of a monarchical jjivemment of the Church tin T'> is 
as yet no trace in 1 and 2 i'leni. Neither is there .mv 
in tlie .shepherd of which, like the Kpisil. •. ,.f 
CI.Mnent, knows only of elders ( I'is. ii. 423 iii. 1 ■ 1 .iiid 
overseers, aloni; with 'teaejiers' and 'de.icons' (//:, 
iii. fn Sifn. ix. 27-'i- The oldest traces of 
church j'oviTmnent in Rome are met with in the m\,ii 
epistles of ' Ii;n.Uius' whiih were jjrobably written ther.' 
at>out the middle of tin* second century, and in Miir 
earliest lists of Roman bish(*ps-- little tru-.tW''it!iv 
thouijh these are in their substance, and put t<'i;'ili.r m 
the interests of the iecoj;nition of the episcopate, ul;;. !, 
was then coniinij into U-injj, or had recently imne !■. U- 
important. They do not ^o fartlier back linn t-. 
Anicetus, and were prob.dily drawn up under lib 
successor Soter. alwiut 170 A.D. (see Harnack, -\i I. 
ii. 1 iSo/. pp. 70-231, esp. pi>. 144-202. See, liirthcr, 
MiMsl KV). 

If the (|uestion l>e asked, finally, as to the intlmna* 
and importance of the Christian church at Rome, it 
,^ _ . small and cert.unlv for the tir^t ivw 

19. Importance ,i,.,.^,.i,,,_ „,,( t„,„. co.npare.l wah that 

of the church at Jerusalem nor yet w:th 
that of other churches of Palestine, .Syria, and Asia Minor. 
It was only gra<lually in the course of the srtuinl 
century that a change in this resjM'cl came aUmt, umltt 
the intluence of great historical events such .is i!i<' f.ill 
of jerusali;m in 70 A.O. , the rebuilding of lh,!t ciiv :is 
/Kiia Capitohna under Hadrian (see Jl la sAl.i M. 
§§33/), and the ccmtinual process by which (lie WtM 
manifested its preponderance over the ICast. In .ill \\\\i 
there made itself felt the favourable situation of ilie 
(Christian Church at Rome in the centre of Cti-to- 
Roman civilisation ; the inborn inclination, nmi the 
corresjxjnding aptitude, of what had I)eeii the Cn.tilc 
element in the new church, to lead and sfxju to 
ttelievers who had their homes elsewhere, as well .is 
unU'lievers ; and last, certainly not least, whatcirtKit 
church was able to contribute from its own rt'sr.tirns 
towards its internal growth and its extern. il pre>iii:<' 
In this connectinii we may particularly spei ify : lii'' 
accession n"t merely of slaves and people of \h>- ]'>»tT 
ot.lers but also of rich and often intluenli.d pefMnis 
sometimes even from the immediate entourai;!,- of the 
emperor ; the courage slmwn !)y martyrs tin-re a> t'N'> 
where; the 7e.1l of outsl.inding [HTsonalities >-i;( h .is 
\'al"-tUinus and M.ireion ; the activity of elVu i- nt ni-T 
such as 'Clement' and ' Ignatius* in lal«mrini.' t'r tiio 
establishment of the Catholic Church ; the iil-^ur 
exiK'nded on various sides to advance far and \v.\x ilw 
cause of knowledge, of Christian jjractice, of editicalion, 
of consolation. 


20. Chrirtlan T."' , """'-">■ "•'- K'«1>.' ami"; 

.V duTch as i. Kr™""!',,™,^""™^--^'."'-'. 
»M,. .„ul|,lc,l--,l„n,? •■""" "''"'"' ''" ^""' 

ca„.„, R,„„,, a™,nlir „ , ""'"m („cU.siaMical) 
puM..tu-,l i./n,o.:cn ?^,,°,''m ' '"^"•^""' -"'1 

sl„l,llvi„..v.,.,„f„, he NT . T"""' '''"■■■^'"« '"" 
or •>«,..,„:„„ o ,1 V'""", .'""'•■■'"''"'-"• 

known writer pr.-r,:in-,I Ih.- c , Z. ■^""'' ""- 

tl.. lirsl is a ••!>,■, i J „,„ " ' "nnllnans, of »l,iw, 
,....,..,,..^,4^:,;;™ -^'^--<„,.,,,,. 

com-rMln« co„li,„,,ce' (i.V«l„„W \;. ) ' """ I 

IS I'. Hrrrnas wrote his VA ,7 / ''' *>*>«"'"■ ' 

Ic'-.- l"r the promotion of r •'■•l">'l'-s- upo„ 

omliilml.-il Iari;,-iv to il,.. , i i '""' """■" 

>Hil..s.,,h.rch.' ,e\.t;; :?:''''^°' ''■'■''■ °""^^ 
-"'■ -n.ns the ko„\r,i ,":'''" V"' '''''«'"">• 

-.,,,1 „.,„.„, at'ttr :;.,„'; r't'h',''v''f''^- "' ""^ 

"'ll"'™.-alsoH,„thcHlorV,f r ' "" ^"'^'" 

of tiK. charch, «rsto ';';"""«";'," ''7"™"';-'" 

nflerwanls also „, (h,, of 1 "'"'"■■ '"" 

.-■^-..•.. .'-.,s..k:.s"w h'V "o,:"",.,;!?-^"'""'' 

Miunia, MfkiiiL- (or „i ,. , , '" of 

I'- ""-.f his" r 'X ^^\ '---'-no hi,,., 
rvcpnnaa.iieati-,! hv \'ictor of W '••PlK'su.'i, «as 

>i'urd, of Ro,,,.. hi" ,lro - =';r"-''"'^'^y. <^f the 


graphy. ;,.; l',Clr„K;. 'i;'-,V, ,■;/; 'l;, ^,^>'-'44, 7,.;. 
"'.'V'" K„„„„„ s,„ I, •, ,' ,-„„;\'f:^- ;"-'i;> Hi.; -.,„„,.-,„. 

Sit^r;.**- ^^- '•M-siusi,;/A^.;f,^;"''-;'l;;':ii-"". .-0=, 


The tup,,Kr.iphy ami hiMcry „f r, „, . , , , 

I'll siiliii,inl, in ,h.- ,„„. , ''''"■"'"■■. thai il has l„,M 

A,,,,,,, ,, "■'■^"'t a^:,iinst Ih, 

hiMiilol lheK,,-.,tfan„-,,fi|„. k, 


■ ;";',-.' 

tarly I. Iif,.lia,iily 

l.Eom. and the;;"";:' '""■ 'l'-' "•".h with th.'"','i',','r 
Hainoneaiu. ""' '."■"' '""■■ ", th,- ,,„!,- Uavs of ii,,- 

l"'«'r of .Syria. 

.-...the., ,,.., -,.--!;:;;: ,7— •'!,;. :- 

-■«-..;''.::■ s,a./:;,,.X''^,'::h, ;f-'\,r- 

H.'"U- to seek a r,-„,w.,| o^n,-,,,,:;,.'' 


.\lll,oel,„s I I --n I, ,- I , . "^ "" 'I' -III, of 

'nh...-w,i,"htL*y;,^an,a:r:'::.':;^''!::,-'^; ->- 

e„,hassv to Koini- ,,„, ., > ■^■'mu. >■ nt w-i ,,iioth,-r 


""ss,o„ „as ree,-,v,-,l i„ ' a f, i,n,|lv n '' ' '! '"'' 

«i.ev.,„ees were attenti^.-Iv h,- r, „, "T''' ""'' 

I'-siiei!, orcl.-nn.r ,i„. >i, • '"•"^"' ■""' a dei-rei- was 
'■■.nlim. a ^1 :,,^:7^,''';''"''l''i^''>h.-i. el.,,,,,s 

s*-nt 1(1 

1 - • — .IK. OM liins, ; 
''■"' •'!»>■ ''-'use to f,-.,r th<-„,. 


.,r,i, .' 'H' -'^ -^1"' 1 .Tta 





- hi,,;;i.arr;,,;;^'lr;r^^''''rV''V^---''"i''"^^ 


2. Jewish ^;7'«!'"-l.lay<,f„ew„;ha;:^;^; 
party-.pWt.^,;;-;-';-h,eh was to re,,,, i, aM,,l,ler 

■ '/'"'.PI'. 1-47 ,n,...j, ; „„ 

1,, /■/„■ A/. /,, ,/„. 

, .*<,%,. 

^ ' KriiK, ,n ihc preset work. 


;-iP|w-i-.l ,„ i,c allml,.,l ,, 

w. c. 

V. .M. 

\ -h.-wn I„ l,e uiili-„al,l,. • 
-L"", .,4-, ...), Koa.e 
'-•r till- tir^t lime i„ 

«'-',ll,ee„ah^' '''''•■•"■^^ = ,''"^ '*"'f"l ro.,,, .._ 


jT' '--!i^".'™'T;h■^;;r^^l:':;■■^ 

cu,t the ^ei^. of 't,|,,,;^ "'■'■•■'•■ •■">■"'-■ li"o„,h- 

he was aMe to si ,t t .. ', , ' '""''"'^ "'^' ""' 

the .Syrians • i, . , , , ' , ' '""•^'i"'-^ -""I 'hoir aihe, 

....... i.s. II .,„iiiii,|,.|| ,h,ra,i; the ,. i,.,, ,,r < , 

who for a time h„ i '"" ""' '^""'-'"s, 

turnnlth^^ra ent toXnTT'"' "7" ''' '^«- 

actio,, |,v the ," .^ I ,'":'• ''•",'"« •"■'■" '■■"-'■'" to 
88l,,,l wh., ' ^''"'"'-"-^^ ><■',« of Pon,,,,, j,, 

rcih,ce,l iis.-lf ,o -, s, , L f ' " ', ''•'"'-"1 «-iiit""lv 



overthrow Aiiitnlmlus. When, howcvc-. the Pharisees, 
as^iit'i! t»y i!u' N.i!),it' aii-». wi'ii,* lx.'sii j^mi; Ari^tuhulus 
in ihe tcinijle, Marcus S.aiirus, oik- nf I'uiii[h\ s 
lifutcnaiit-^, .ippciri-'l <iii ihr !»Lirie. put an ciul to tht* 
ti;;]it, aticl si-i .\n^l<llml^ls nn tiic llivnefor a tiriR- at 
Ir,i,i. riiij siru'^i;lc lH-t\VL'(.-ii the two Imitht-rs soon 
hioke out ai^.iin. This time Ari^toljulus. haviiii; 
ot'lx'ii'icil tlie kam.uis, was l>^■^lt■i,'l■(( liy tbt'in in Jciu- 
-salrrii. W'ltii till" hi:!p of the Saiiihut-us. ami in spite 
tit thi- PhaiiM-cs, he was n\>h- to hold (.iit ai^amst (lie 
Ih.'-,! eiders ; Imt ia the eiitl I'oiiipey, attacking; h'ln on a 
Sabhath ('»3 ».<.!. broke thiuugh aiul indicted severe 
pLinishnient on t!i<- Iiu-«, 

lud.iM was th>-n n^; irded as a e')n<;ueri-t! province. 
We may venture to > ly witli Monison tiie new 
arrani;ements tliat reMiIted 'were on ttie 

3. Closer 
with Rome. 

a hlessinij to the [jeopU-s of the 
l-'asl, who were rescued from chaos and in- 


stability, and enabled, alter yi'ars of 
anarchy, to enjoy tht; fruits of (leaie' 1411. < irat- fz 
{/list. "J'S;) points out that 'the Juda'an prisoners that 
hatl l»een drati.ijed to Konie, were to In-conie the nucleus 
of a cninmunity destined to carry on a new kind of 
warfare ai,'ainst lonj^-estahiished Roman institutions, 
ultimately to in-xiify or [)artly to destroy them.' 
Certainly the war iM-tween the new and old ideas was 
to i;o on iminteriupteiily until some adjustment could 
In" elfected. I'nder the Mer'xis, when the Jews were 
again in large measure allowed to govern themseives, 
tlie adoption of IlelbMiic culture was encouraged by tlie 
rulers to >uch an ext'-!it tliat the people revolted against 
it. The jews determitiid to rid themselves of their 
half k'vvish rulers. At the request of the i)eopIe them- 
selves they were at length jnit under the direct govern- 
ment of kome. ' With the return of to a Koman 
a(hninislralion begins the pn-lude (jf the destruction of 
Jerusalem ami the Jewish people — [K-rhaps tlie most 
shocking tragedv known to the historv of the world" 
i'"orniIl. //iit. 'of the Pfoph- of Jsr.tcl, 259). I'he 
tragedy was due to the refusal of a large section 
amongst the people, such as the F^harisees, the Zealots, 
and tile Slrarii. to accept the inevitable — Koman rule 
and the spread of (Jncco-Roman ideas. 

After P'inipcy's conquest Jewish and Roman lil~iory are 
closely !)oiiiul up tiijiciher. and the tletaiK have l>eeri MUrnIciitly 
(ie.'dt with in, jij( 65-1 15, Hkh"Ii, I'm, a rK, (i ■vKKNMtM, 
JfcKLSALtM, SKi.Ecciua:, TKAUt, and other special articles. 

One of the problems of Iiistory is to discover the 

jireci^e attitude adopted by the Koni tns towards 

- n 1 ludaiiHi. on the one hand, ami towards 

4. Rome and ; ., ■ . ., ., ,,. 

the Gospel. V"'''''"'^> "" ^''*-' "^'"■'- ^^^* ''""^" 
*^ tliat concessions were made to 

the lews and that on the whole they enjoyed n larije 
in'Msiire' of reilijious Iii>erly. rntortunati-lv, ho\\e\er, 
we are uiKil>le to treat tile histor\- of loseplms or the 
narratives of the \ I' as in all respren historically 
accurate. As to Josephus, 'his ]KT>istent endea\our 
to make it npparent that his people were actually friends 
of the Koniani, and in reality took np arms aijainst 
them un« illinijly, is a notable exani|)le of h;» colmirinj; 
of the situation, and compels the acceptance cjf his 
assertions with some caution' ( Kii^^s. ///->/. of Jn^-hk 
/'•■'/•L-. 145; cp I)e ()ninci-y. Wurks, 'ii-.if.). As to 
the (iospels, it is admitted that their present form is 
tine to editorLd redaction. Christianity was no sudden 
growth. It aros!' i;i.idiially. and only made its \\.iv by 
slow <lesrees. It repr.-siiits the result of that inter- 
pl.iy of i;.istern and Western ideas which liesjan under 
the I)ISfl-;Rsli)N (■/.;■.). Judaism, under the ilitlueuce 
of (ireek thought, had undergone durini; the disper- 
sion a striking chaMt,-e. Later, the tr.msition from 
tir.i.'co-jud.iisin to (Christian Judaism. an<l from the 
i of I'hilo to those accredited to Je^us. \\.i5 easy 
unci natural. Kven the stricter Judaism, itself, in the 
P'lson of Ililli'l. hel[it'd to promote the new develop- 
lll'-nt. The process was acceierated In- c, jiit-ict with 



Rome. Hut the new movement at first met with no vi ■ \ 
fireat success. Christian JudaJtin apiwaled neitlut •... 
the Jew nor to the Ijt-ntile. Ilie jew refused to j^ ■■ 
up Ins characli-ristie rites ; the ( ieiitite wovild n t 
submit to purely oriental institutions. ('hii^:,.!. 
Judaism was ohii^e<l to throw otf more of its orieu'.d 
trappings. Hence arose the purely t hristian nioveiiiriit. 
This form of Cliri,--iianily was piobaI)ly lepresetiled i v 
t!i<? primitive gosp,-]. Hut tlie evolutionary i)rocis-, v, i-, 
still at work. liie stru;;g!e of ideas was now g')ing ^,u 
\Mth renewed \igour. The Koinan empire had Itec'iiii.i 
a wt)r!d-empire ; everything was tending toward^ \ 
World-religion. ' (.'hristianity ' had long Iitvn in ,' .. 
air, or in other words, ' the fulness of lime had coin< 

Tliis is .idniitied on alt hamls. * If the Kmpire w.i- th^, 
greatest of hiiidr.iiii.t-* tn tlie i;n-pcl. it u;is .-iNd the >;>' .f 
lic!p">. . . I lie tin;,; !c f.i' I ttie Kinpire v\.i-. ii:ii\erval v ■■:.[ 
far It) Complete die fulIlc^s nt time fi.r Chri^t\ coming. K.piiie 
jjut a ■•tup lo the uf tiaiiniis and the great s;i]es nf -.lavtfi 
roiilliii.; fri>iii I hem, to the »\\\\ strife nf riiie-. an^! llir-.r 
iniirderoils revoluli-ins, HeiiCi-f 'rdi they were j;la't to iivr; 
ijiiietly hene;ith the slu-lter tif the KtHii.iii pv.K c Intcri'>;iM; 
and traiie (witness tin; mii;ratory jlcw>) «u.- tasiir an., ii. ,r 
than e\er viri.;e in Knri'pe till quite f'tntly. . . '^hi^ \v ,, 
her IK. >nu-'s) work in hist.)r\ — to Ik; the link lietwt'i 'iie 
.uuicnt and the n Jurn — I-emeen the he.ith-ii t it> vt , .f 
ih<: ancient woriti .. i tiie (. hri^iian nations uf the in>J<_r- ,il. 
M. (;\vatkin, ' Kmpire' i;i Ha".tiii;;s' /,'/!). fp K.iMi-.,v, 
( hitrch in the Kouujh I'-mpitr, clian. 1', | 6; aUo >ii!iy. 
l\ce flomo, i\ J. H. .MiiirheatI in J'ht HiM\ Journ. \ \\\ 
(Oct. iOl'JI, a criticism of Kidii> Principlis oj II'. Li: ii;su:.. n; 
J. M. kohertson, A S/iorf HUt, oJi:hristiaHU/{,ii).iz). 

Writing of the state of the wi'rld towards the ci.d <i 
the first century. Kenan shows (see the references in i,i> 
notes! that ' e\[)anded ideas of uni\ersai brothtrliMid 
and a symp.ithy with humanity at large, denveti for the 
most part from the Stoic phdosophy, were the resulf "i 
the !>roader system of authority ami the less coiinn, .j 
education which had now assumed control. W'-w 
tlreaine<l of a new er.i and of new worlds. . . MaxiiL- 
of conmion humanity l)ecame curn-nt. and the ,*si.>i(i 
earnestly taught the abstract notions of e(|ualitv aiiii 
the rights 01 men. . . I.ove for the i)oor, svinpaliiv 
for all, and charity, Uvnme virtues.' Hut at tin- •- n,,..- 
lime, as often happens during a j)eriod of tr in-iii. )i, 
• <ni t!ie whoh', the middle of the Hrst centurv \^ .!■». if 
the worst e[)Och5 of ancient history." I'hi|i)>i.];'i.r- 
however, were thiing tnuch to bring about a r<ii.iiii, 
tion, and ' there as much grandeur in the s'.nii^^V' 
of pliilosophy in the tirst century as in that "\ 
Christianity' {The Apoatlei, ch. 1"). Hut it iiut 
merely a struggle of two independent forces a^: ai-t ! 
common foe. .\ struggle of itieas \\as going on \w\: :, 
and between the two reformmg agencies, and btuon 
l>)th and the popnlar Rt>man religion. I he u'Mii'.t 
resultetl in tlie victory of neither one nor the oth-r, iiii 
in a contpromise, in the t'volution of a religion .f(l,i;>l'i: 
and adaptaiile to its surroundings — in other woidb iiia 
paganised Christianity. 

The primitive go-,|)els seem tohaveU'en ediiidnn! 
amplitied in view of this development. W-- ii,i\'' 1:1 
our present gosj^els, apart honi the 

f.lct lliat there are doubtless 'g^' 

6. Romans in 

the Gospels. ,,. . ... , ,. 

^ ((jii'.siic, ]-.bionilie, and even I.-s- . . 

within the gnsjx^ls, on the whole not a putuir..: ui..;t 
re.illy took [tiace at die rise of tlie (."hrisii.ui ni'i^-Mim;; 
but a repre- ntation coKmreil and suggested la li.c 
ideas of a later age. .Although therefor*- iK-v iiviv 
contain much correct information ;is to K"im."i -h!- 
nnniitration in Talestine. we can hardly tni-t tii' m 
as to the general conduct of the b t.ik' 
an instance, the (Josih'Is stiggest that the Khiii.i;.' 
were intere^tid in the new movement hom tiii vi.i;:. 
bid that the ruling I<-ws were almost (Ki^istchtiv hn-i;;- 
to it (esjHi-. Lk. [cp al.o Acts]; cp Ranivis, K- ■ 
Christ hrn at liith/.ffyjf). Hut the mo\.-iii .iit \-.i> 
not such as to appeal to the Roman mind im tii-' lir^i 
instance, and ilie nun-- of its founder 'appear- .>i,Vin 
!'r"farie author;; of a h.undred vears later, a'vj d^-n "". 



an imlirect irianner . . .• (Kenan /,/•. /• , 

'".■nt, arc .■>p-cialK ; ' ! "' "J ''^ '''•"^'""^ ""^™- 
'■■"■'•-■■"■y. s.'.ha, ,, ;l't .. " '"""••"™' t^yl-.. or 

■^' >"■'• wv- n.i,;,, „u',,;- :;,::• ; Tf •" """- 

l">'- iK-en treair,! l,v ih, k i ''"''''"^'- "'•" J^-'-us would 
l>.M.Ters k.M t . -.a^,^ """'.msasa p„l.,ical offender. 

li Tdlv have U-,.ii |iL,.i,. ,„ ■'""""•. ' I"- Konians »,m|d 

>>-uh and o,i;,;;«^,i^r';^-;'"; "■'-.., ■"— 

rr,ard«l cquailv as polil Cilv u ' "" """''' '« 

o' each and all 'would «^.- ' .inKerou, ; ,he career 

i.«™.i.. ».3 nude .r„,:, :'; .^vr'n'"'^ ""■ ■^" 

in the rnarkei-plaie \Ve h ^ ,"*•■"■ '^'"-"l""' ' 

.-men. wU ,hese ,::,;^^^,3'- '--f .h« 

'i"H-il. Iiulu^ wilt Ihillier T , ' J';''"l' was lO he 

.-imply cm ihe people ,|„„„ ™i ? '-""'I'-'ny .if .-.ivalry, „ho i 

ri is difticnll to li<-lieve thit tl,„ d , . 

tl.rv are r.-p.,rted to 1 ZTl ™'"' '-■'invod as 

"h™..isadnmL .h! ,; ■.■'^"""'''^^''^'•^•■'•^-" 
»-r.- rather <liff,Te,^t,hn """"^'•'""■^ ■•" the time 

>hv".Mlves all.iued ,o n li • i Ilf "■'"" ^""' "■■^'-' 

"-t""S woald'ue it "f,f ,':/''■'"«" J^"» ^">J 

- l-vsihle in .lispara;;,,.;,",,' hrR''''^"-^""''''''^ 
niuili as D.issil.l.. 1 7 "' "' '"^ Konians. and as 

^™.n,„. and ;!:^;Lj:;:y^:,7::- -«' -e iron. U,e 

.i^^';;;":;^, ,^ ;t^;:p-i?:;;-;;;-f r°-„ ac.i„i„;„r„do„ 

,y- Siealv, (anas ,. '■ v;,^''";;"?- "■"-■- """"'"-J in 

M. A. c. 


of colchicum found in Pal— .:«- 

(HI- 4..5;. '" ''^'""f «« enumerated by T,i«rara 

2- The^iaoi' is referred to in Ui,,. q. / 

•W:: .s..e -Sehechler atjl T v|, ii { V'' "'"' ■'" = 'P= 
cnlietl the • „„se .,f lenlL'-'^: ',„;-' 'V."""""'">- 
■J^certanily „,it „,,„„ ,,, II., si;,, "^^ ") '*"''"f"'''' 
the 'rose-plant, in Jeriehn • „ dl . *'"' "^ 

"Pl"t"ntly mean, the rho lod -ndr ■'r'^ ''"'''•'•''" '"' 
477: >p .Schick ^,™ /""''"'""Iron (Instran,. .\//// 

r.7. '■'■'..t.M.^i^^i/,-^ V;.Xd'''\-L'-''- , '" 3^''"- 

0"""" l.\ |. Ihe roses ,f . j'O^'^fio, | \J, or ^o5o- 
Koman ,'.., .m",^ ,1 *" P' •■"'' "■'^■l'™'"! I'V the 

--°nf .!S^;,,r?^ f^^";;!'' --^-g .° -I' is 

-^Tuhaiie-'ntit;;)^::;,:; ;;-»■;;^'^^^^■^he^ 


M-h.iha„d]u,a nfie l^^'TTu "' '""^ """ 

-'Haid/amli •,^:^;;~7' f'-'y after ,.u, 
Xosh. and then, o,/ I."',,, '''"','> ' ''-'■ '^•>v-. «ith 
Lat.,1 K.tsse, w.t^r . >! ;.; P''*^''''""-"^' "'■"'e 
'he readn>« ■ prm" orr'as ' ?" ' '"' "•^""' P'"^"^- 

ArahuninvasKim^jmi:^: ;;r•;;,.x■';;:«■-'>^• 
tj.;k..»u,js(,„,^^._^ J) *■"""■ •<•=■: " .'IK-ci^illy une of 
' T. K. C. 

'<--'-.andcpK,,s„,s!,r].cJ,;;;V'' "^'-' 

's.-'.M + ) IS now usually taken is in kXi,./ '<?"">'>', 
••lutuiiii, crocus, f,./,//,v^,, ■ , *■■ ''^ '« the 

k.„i,..,i species. The, ^r „:,''?'';'''•■ '-■ '"■ -»'- 

.'"ured (Low. ,7^, "^ ' ""• ""-'^"""S »f "hich is well 


;n'™;': 'nt all ,.ven,^i^; r^^l i^:":""', '^ ";'".. mustin: 



'n- a si,n|,le s \r"'?"''' "^ 'h- '"o either 

-;ha,iB« the ciKl,„.e,i ,0 in'ieteei'i ' ' """ " "^'^'"•- '<^>K 

^ ROSIN. ..nV.,W.K.ek..r.,M-^. See.U,.M. 
RVXa,.„tha. ""' Children, ,, (l,^„, g ^^.j ^^^.^ 

EUBY. I„ EV . ruhics • represe-nt /,■.,>„« D>-E 

1- Biblical '"■ •'"""' *.''^l'-''^>3 I'nn 'i' ■ 

references. , " 7"'' 31...,i: in Lamentations K\-...!.' 

and 'i-arls.' ""' '' ■ '" ■<"'' '= ''.ls 'red coral' 

-U::;liv^:^;;';nl;..?;^7;,;^Aw .a ,h Pe,„. „„, 

rv.i.ilii,^-.,f,|,e,.,„,,. „^„, ■" ""' ■'""" rq'r.-eiu dilTerent 

■ C;-" Iff:. ^.f cKi 'j 
ml.ihl e.isilv f,p .-, ' ' ""' '"■• remarked, 

''-.»o>er, W.fore ,he appearance J hi, JJi,". "''"*' *" "•^'"^n. 

m 1 

2. Identifica- 


Ihe ^endc^iIl^;> uf fi \.iry ;uiil (-'nKnintrs .it least) manifestly 
reprt:sent annthcr ttxl (i" J-j's *<** »A«uaor ua^iav Vfrip ra 
• crwraTa (HMC, ftrwra. A]; Kain., vtri/j AiSovf ; I'mv.Sis ^^ii 
alio, A«(*w»' iroAi>T<Awi' : Prov.'JOi?, waiitiiiyO; \"k- l'^*'* ** 
different retulcrinji ni fa*.h t ase (Jult, fr.ihitur autftn safUntia 
tie twu/tis; Lam., rA'T anti-;M,': Cruv. ;ii5, lun.rts afit-Hs ; 
*t II. lunctis /•ri-tinsissimts ; liO 15, uiu!tiluJ<\i;ciuinaruiti ; 31 lu, 

2. In N. r>t w (»f/j''dTa\\oti, Kzek. 2" 16 (Xo^Xopl^^Ql- 
KJ iXO)»rt [Ajt kV tiiis 'rul'it'!*,' but AV ' ipitc ' ami 
,\\"'''»J- LI-',/L'k. ] ' chrysuprasc." for ijir. kaJkC>,i. Sec 

.\(i\TF, (.'HKVMH'K.\SK. 

3. In Kx. 2817 Kzfk. 'J813 RV"'«- ' rul»y ' for 
C^ie. Wiem. 

The {|uestion whether rubies .\re referred to in the 
OT m.vy at first sight ap[>ear rather complicated. It is 
not so, hi)ue\er, ill leality. The claims 
of 'rubies' as a reniierint; of ^>'ninttn 
have I'MijT itiiK'e passed iiUf) abeyance ; 
tho revisers of AV. it is clear, only .ic<iuiesce in certanj 
eases in AVs rendering "rubies' from a feeling of un- 
certainty as t(» the absolute cnrrectne>s of the inaigin.d 
renderings which they propose. On the cnrrectness of 
their renderings we may refer to roKAK. PKAkL, and 
with re^'ard to Lam. 4? ( uheie the strange statement, 
' they were more ruddy in Imdy than rubies." is ventnied 
upon in lA'i to Lami.nt.vtidns [Udok], g 5, Saimiukk 
If the precious stone called 'C\itm is really from 
x'c'R. 'to l>e red,' and not r.ither from the name ('f 
Kdoin,' it is most plausible to ideinii'y it with the 
carnrlian *s«x' Sakdu's). We have, therefore, only 
the passages Is. Tt-lw K/ek. 27i6 to deal with. Here 
the greatest weight is due to I'rof. kiilgeways remark 
(CAKiu'NCi.K. col. 702I, that there is no prinif that the 
ruby, which is founcl m\\\- in Ceylon and m Hurinah.'^ 
was known to the Hebrews any more than it was to the 
Greeks till after the time of Theophrastus. If the nophck 
is t'le W(//X'.?/-stone of the l-'.gyptians (st« CAkUfNt l.K, 
endt. the /•././^■.-i/ might conceivably l)e the garnet ; on 
the possilile root-meaning (to emit fire, as a tire-stick), 
see lles.-Bu. and HDH. We must not. however, ignore 
the possibility (see Chai.i kixinv, i. endt that the true 
reading of the word is. not t2"!r. but iri2 (r for d I. 
Huth for the stone called 'odem and for that called (as 
we now assume) ir*^;. the name of a country may l)C 
surnnsed as the origin— viz. , in the case of 'oJem, 
Kdiim, and in that of*:-:, jerahme*! i>uch corruptions 
of this name turn out to Ik? coinmoru;^ the stones 
so design.ited may in fact have reached the Hebrews 
from \. Arabia, and so have Ix-en called resjK-ctively 
the Kdomite and the Jerahmeelite stone. Cp SAKDifs, 


I'he true or Oriental ruliy is a red variety of corundum or 
native aUimina tif^reat rarity and value, and to lie dislinguisheil 
frnm the spinel (an .-tluminate of maKnesiiini). which is of much 
less estimation as a gem stone. Thf phrasenloKy of ancient 
wriler> was even more confu>eil than tlial now lurrerit, for thty 
aiHwar to have classed together umitr a inmnioii name, ^iich .as 
the (it^-^nnin/rts of Pliny or the nvHfla( of (Ireck writers, not 
only (iM;rhap>i) our two kinds o' y, but also garnets and 

other iiiferi >r stones of a fiery ^r. See further Stonks]. t. k. C. 

RUDIMENTS (cTOixeiA'. Cul. 2820 EV, PA'"'«- 

Kl.KMKNTs [■/■-:). 

RUE 'TTHrANON [Ti. WH]) is once mentioned (l.^i. 

Il42h ;is a small garden herl) ; in tlie parallel passage 
Mt. '2'ii\ anise and cunnnin are mentioned 

.\i.i .ifiliii^ to'IVi-itram (X//I> 47:=) A'rtftt ffmT-t'.'/t'fts is al this 
day 1 n!ii\.ttfil in Palestine, whilst /Cufa f'racteosa h & common 
wild |'!.Lrit. i'\i I. '.w, n-i. o7- 

RUFUS I p()Y(t)t>c [I i. WH]t occurs several times in 

01d-(;h!!-!i 111 !iu-?-.itiire. 

I. Mk. l.'i-M. as the son of Simon of Cvkkne and 
the brother of Ai.KXANDER ((/./.r. i. In the Apocryphal 

1 See Takshish [Stonf], f i. 

2 Cp ' The Ruby Mines in Upper liur-^ ah,' ("(Jm^iV/.l/JC**- 

ilH^t I't--.. UA.l. 

5 Cp, f*'r in^tance, 'Calcol,' i K.431 15ii). 


Acts of Peter and Andrew, and of others. Alexander 
and Kufus are mentioned as disciples of Andrew, wlin 
were his companions in the taiuntry of the b-irbarians ; 
cp k. A. Lipsius. .tpokr. *-l/.-^vj(/t. 1 533/. 617 621 ; '6:-; 
79 6j(, K. 9496- 

3. Kom. Itlij, as a koman Christian, well known to 
Paul and to the Christians in kome as lieing ' the eln* 
(or the chosen) in the Konl. ' We d<f not know thf 
force of this expressmr. Wei/sacker thinks that it 
hints al some sf)ecial ■ ircumstances connected with lii^, 
conversion. H. Weiss, Sanday- Ileadlam ititerpn i : 
'eminent as a Christian.' In any case it will Ik.* an 
ipifhtton vrnitns to celebrate the friend of Paul, ih-- 
supposed authnr. who gin-s on to s.Uute 'his niotlui" 
«;;;i/ mine,' as if the koman wife had once kindly treat* 1 
him, who had not yet l)een in koine. The list of gn< s- 
ings in kom. Hi is n()t histnrical ; the name» and iln- 
ailditionsare fanciful ; cp ko.MANs) Kl'iSM.K). Accord- 
ing to I'.piphanius this kiifus was reckr)neti among t)i ■ 
seventy 'others' (apostles). Lk. lOi. A .Spanish Uh. il 
tradition m.ikes him the (irst bishop of Tortosa. coiiv- 
crated bv Paul. Anotlier tells us that he was cons- - 
cratcil bishop of the Kgyptian TheU-s by Peter. His 
birthday is said to have lieen the 8th or the lolh Ajir:! ; 
cp I jpsius, ii222 227, 1''. 242. 

3. Polycarp. /'///A 9i; cp Eus. //A'iii. 36i3, as a 
companion of the martyrs Ignatius and /nsinuis, com- 
memorated every year on i8th Dec. at Philippi, accord- 
ing to .]/i!//yti>/. A'ow. 

It is dithi;uU to say whether these three, or any two 
of them, origuially indicate the same ixrsun. 

W. C-. V. M. 

RUG (nS'pt")- Judg. 4i8 kVf ; see col. 509, n. 4. 

RUHABIAH- See Lo-rvhamah. 

RULE (^1^1, Is. 44 13 AV. kV Use {</.r, 2K < p 

HANHK RAFTs. g 2. 

RULER. On the wide use of general terms of tins 
natuii'. cp what has l»een said under the headiii'js 


The difterent Hebrew and Greek terms thus rendered 
are as follows ; — 

1. .!.»<<(«, see l>Kt'UTV, 1. 

2. irtV, see pKiNCt, 3, and cp Akmv, 9 4, Goveknment, j|;i, 


3. tttii^ltf, see Prince, i. 

4. /</i(V''«. Hos. 4 IH, lit. SiuELDf^.J'.)— the text isnotctrt.i!n. 

5. mi'^ii-l (a 'ruler' in the general sen^e, Gen. 45 8 I'ru\. O7 
Ml. .'>2 ii]), see Gi'\ LKNuR, 11. 

6. saiiit, see <ii)VKKNoK, 9, 

7. apxiuvvaytayos, Mk. ."» 22, see SvN.\r.<xa;E, | g, 

8. a(i\iTfiiK\^, jn. -*/., see Mkai., | 11. 

9. no\iTd(i\rf%, .-\ctsl7oti (ruler of the city), see Tnr.s- 


10. «irap\os, 2 Mace. 4 27 AV (RV ■governor'), see S^ ■ - 
TKATCs, and 

11. apYwr. the most widely-used of all terms l>oth in I. XX r.iiil 
N'T, applied. t\g., to rulers of nations (Mt. 2O25), ma^i-tr.ius 
and judges (l.k. 12 3H Rom. 1^3), officers ai.d menit)ers of die 
Sanhedrin (Mt. !• 1823 I.k.S4i '-'3 13 35 Jn. 3 i> ; i.j K-^u^ il^e 
'ruler' of the kin^s of the earth (Rev. 1 5), ar.d to Sat.m [I <■ 
' prince ' (so KV) uf devils (.Ml. i* 34). 

RUMAH (np-ll), the birthplace of Zebidah or 
Zebudah. |eh(»iakim's mother (2 K. 23 -,6 [ckI Kpoy^^A 
[IM. [€k] p. [A], [cKUoBeNNA [\A\ Jos. ANt. X..-,., 
€2 aBoym&c '■'•-. ApoYMACi. has been thought (v.e 
//W'/i'^) to be the poyMA <'f Kuscbius {OS'- '2'^^ v. 
POYMA H KAI AptA.' in his time called pe^^(J)K:'. 
with which he identifies Arimath:ea. unless 2 (I1, ;lt!t 
(0"'^ not MT| be correct in giving kamah for Kuni.ih 
(so Pesh. in 2 K. ). It is the modern Kantah in iht' 
pl.ain N. of Diospolis (Lyddai. There were, however, 
several pl.aces called kumah. Another is referred to 
in the Talmud as kuma and once as Aruma {N'cuh. 
G^og. du Taint. 2031; this seems to be the 

1 Sec above, col. 297, n. ». 

BUNNBBS of rosephus (/(/iii.7„), which m.iv l,c the 
.hniul B 111. N. of Naiari'th 

itnuEui (D'TO s« c„.,.,.„. 1 ,„, ,(„,, i 

f 4(i.oi. 314). 

RUSH. BUSHES, i. HJpi. gj„, „:.v 23 (Svro- j 
hix Aid., ,5 iTAnYPOC ; so Aq.' Svm., » oni 1 'l,.!. > 

[cA.icJt .s almost cTtainly ,h. papvrus (Tp 6 ;,. 

tent,.. i:,m. Ih.s pla„t (r,./,„,. Z',,;-,^,,,, ,. , „.|,-^,| 
«.is a char,actm,st,c ^rowil, along ih.. .Vile l,.„iks , 
.jnc„.„. I..Kyp,,^ a„cl still occrs in several local i.- n, nses to a l,d(;ht of a,„m, s,x f«,, with a 
lr:...,K„lar ta,,..r,nK stem : see Pa.'V«,. ,i ,. ,, ^ ,„^ 
.uwAcd malenal forthe making of l,„ai.s, sails, n at " 
iluth. cords, and, alx,ve all, mate h 

p.>r,.c„l,,r, ,ts use for the cnstraction of li, , v ," 
.....lis IS mentioned l,y Theopl„ast,is, Plinv an.; ,tl,cr 
.r,n,.nt «r.te,s icp Iu;vp,., ,< 8, en.l,. and expi „,s I e 

(« k\".k-, but cp Rki-.iis, Osl'K \V| 
2. r::». V«™ (Is. 9.4 [,,] 19.5''585(«p<W), lob 
1410.6, .>,. 41.o«[„]ti is a word for ■ marsh re.'-,! • 
denied fro,,, .,.:„„. c,k, ^^ • marsh ' or ■ pool ■ , Hartl,', 

9„ the .v»,.« or • rc..d ' is contrastc.l with the Jt'Ll 
.Tf?) or ■pa.n,.hranch,' ,he latter ,nd,ca.i„ff thosC^ m 
high position and the fonner the humbler classes in the 
st..te-so e lU.low, „. 4). In i^.^j^ ^ ,^ 

pur,„us tokens of pretended piety is mentione.f ti U 

«« ^ --H, |5, and „. ,, «.h„e C,3, '..n^.i, pro|K,sed as .,„ 
.m™.U„„„, a„d .,„ Job 41 .o s« Budde, who (wi,h Hi., Du 
li«Orea,!iCJH;, 'and boiling.'] N- M.— w. T. T. -l". i 

„f"^"-,'-."^)a/'W.--i; ,oc, in Ezek.246,./. ' 

3- >«, ,1, Ja.s. 53, spoken of rusting gold and siKxr. 

EtlTH mn poye, la»^»), a Mo.,bitish woman 
h h„,.,,, . „f ,he , Wk of Kuth. Through her niani,^"; 
^ r '""• '""^ S"l'se>p,ent n,,,rriage-at -law «i,h 
^a^,,, the name of Xlahlonl, she U-cune .nZc:Z 
n,liv .< ,hi , '■''"'"''"S '« ""■■ Pr^ent te.vt, was a 
\ iMhlehem in Jud..h. Ruth's noble unselfish- 
»■-- ».is thus rewarde,! (cp Ruth-,.). Her sister. 


«as less etfectiial than Kuth s. was „an,e,l ( irpah a 
i n.ame wluch suggests the „,ean,„g • obstina, v.' Hence 
I following |.esh., it ,s us.,.,1 icp (Jeiger, ll rtr -o ,n 

: "I' ' ^"'h as a contractu,,, of k.MTth / ? "„ " 

, con,pan,on.' 'one who louuglv attaches hc'sclf" s 
however, (or other expl.,„a„„;,s, ki r„ [KookI, '(< c' 
The accmmt of her levir.ite-marnage „,th H ,Ms 

V-p •^■11 M'.S |( i, 

n..m of a pri,.;,,: ^"f:^^.'^^^^.:^;"!^]-^:^:^^^^- 

an,o,,K,he Hd^ewl ^I^Lt;^',,,;^;:;;-;;. ;,--;' 'irr;^' 

time of .\lol,;„n,„c| aViiom ,1 . H '' r'' 'I' -^'-d,,:, ,o ihe 

iiuitcan up,»,,i,e,,,„, "*•„",''''■"• '''S '"" «••"!>• "'i-k 
W..S held .o^'have ,'h"i;i ,"; ' r,"*^ 1. T" V'' •''^*' ^'V''""^ 
next kinsman, .,nd ih^, -,, „ i r ;"•«■'"•■. "n her l,y ,|,e 

and s,„ ,eede,i ?o I is ,1 J , ,• V ," d! ■ iT '" -"" "'',""■ ''^•"J 
cut off fr,jn, Nrael Ten,, f , ■ "-'""^ ""«'" ""' '« 

by upon his l,r„d er ,„l \ V, ..•-"">' "'' ': ■"",■ ■" ''"= 'l"d 

wfien*^l.r,„l,.rs li.e ,'ou. „ V,-',, ',~. ''-'"""' '•' ""= <^^as« 

ap,> lo l,e ,),. he ne !. li "- '""r"l '''V ^""^ "' X"'*" 
h"l a ri«h. ,o ' e lee n fnrn'd '■?;■'" f "'' '''■"' '" "'""■•'I 

this marriage «as re kn ,e , h 1 >, " "'""• ' '"■ "'" "f 
<o his property. ,.. -lia" d!j'^ edii'^l^jl^u'lv 'f r'"^*^"'"' 

Cu-^he'had-,,;:;;:-,-:..-,;:!;' .; -^' " iJ:;:^, V'l^i:::- 
next kinsman had ..^ -U ;^ t^,!^'t";l;;;]'^:^;;;;^::^' [[;: 

pr..per,y. AnJ ,l,is he „ ; w i, ! ■; , uVi, \ '"'" ""„!'"= 
also to n,arry Ku.h, and he,;" 1,' ■,,,",h" "',',' "l'""i'« 
name an,i esiate of the dead and 1 j', ,a , f p . kef' li" 

hereforc «_„lulraws and l!oa^ co.nes in 1,1 e ''rharih: i 
Ihe sen^e of ihe transa, lion i, clear , here I u\ , ' 

i.hscnrity n 4 5, where l,ee V fit, \ ' '""',<'^": a hide 

and we must'(„hh Vapl.^u,: l' ^.^"|. ,'," ''^' '"l'" ""' 
r,-nK.Cr, and .ran,l,„e'.'v -ha '.lav 7, ,; ^"^Tl^ '''\\ r'"'' 
Naomi Ihou mus, also l,uy knii, eu Cp ''.'''.y^V^^.''/';"'- 

^ A|., ,„TOp,„, for ,^,3, Ex. . , ; V^.. /»/,-•/.,„. 
" h-.^'l.ulr..shes;in Kx. 2 3 (RV...S ' p.-,pyrus ■), Is l,.^. 
KSS;.'"* -M-bSM (RV......'".Pp'ap5.,i.;;l„J 

.11., be now extinct in F.s- pi-,hns liois-ler (/■/. Or 
••J1..,!l?:Pi°V ';''.' 'l.'-.s'ructus nunc e,.e videiur.' 

marshes of 



'ri<,riin- •„„ ■-*-'l'!". "".1 uesiructus nunc e,.e vi 

le N"?ein'V-:,,^°""1i? i^f^'""^; "'T""^ '" "'"' 
* I, lie «"'"^' 7 N- latitude ■ (.W/A 4,j) 

_, 1,1 l«„h cases a paraphrases, ^,^,., '.,i u./i;' a„,, 

' paraphi 



KaTischT«M'/.'"sv'''f '•', \"' ™"^«' ^°'"'- ''iffi^'I'v. 
Kilhsch («/«■ S/W«., 1 187;] 6,, .actuallv sugge-Tts 
hat c-as ,I,V •,„ former ti„,e', mav [..-rhaps ,m.4 
'from olden times.' Driver (/r',-.«''.. , , 
"a.v ,nd,ca,e a late d,,t... tha.ks .h,il. whde u". 
forn.s no n,teg,.,l pan of the l«,ok,' 4; ■ has e e,'v 
api>ear.ance ufU-mg an explanat.,rv gloss,' and co ,^ 
pares the aihnitid gl,,ss j,, , s Q„\.,,i ,, • 1 

S>,-„., ..,,^ Ti ■ ■'^'' ^''""■n liegnis with 

Ih h-, ■, "•- " •■' P'T^-'-tlv legi,ia,ate view 

hough ,t entads an alteration of the text ,„ r j lu; 
we „,ay ask this rp.estion : .Sup,x,,.ing that the cus, m 
referred .0 ,n 4, h.ul becon,e a.uuiuated, w. ,, ,t s h 
an expLmatory notice called for ? -y^ , 

EUTH, BOOK OF. The storv of k,-, „ (,, ,. ) f„r„„ 

one of the OI' Ilagiographa, usu.div reck,;ne;i as the 

1. Original ?f™'"' "f >h'' five .Megiiioih or lVs,,,i 

position. ', "\ 'h,s position correspr.nds to the 

the Kens, , f I- "" '"■'"""■ "f '"■"'"'K "«-• l«'k at 
the Feast of Pentecost; Spanish MSS, however i,l ,ce 
Ruth at the head of ,he Meg.lloth ,see C.v v,,,'-,' s ^ 
and the I almud, in a well-known passage of '.ih 
J>.-M,. I,,H. g,ccs it the first place, among all the 
Hag.ographa. On the other hand, 6 and the \'ul 
ga^ make Ruth h,,low Judges. It haf^omelin!:: ll^^ 
AV/V,'-.-" • ■•" ■ "'" ' '•^"' "'-•"heau, A'„/iAv- u. 
■brew Hible also, or rather that k„,l, was originally 
reckoned as an appen.l.x to Judges, .since it is onlv 1 y 

tZlt, 'r'n'^'r !'' ■"■'^"■""^ I-an-entatton t?^ 
I.rennah, „>at all the U,oks of the Hebrew canon can 
be rc.luced .0 tweuty-two, the uun.U-r assigned by 
.losephus and other ancent authonties. It has Ue,, 
shown elsewhere ((■.vs„s, §g ,,.,^, ,,„„.,,,„, ^^J\\^ 
argument for the superior anti.iui.y of thi wav „f 
r-cUomng breaks down on cicscr Examination, and 
whilst It was very natural that a later rearrangemen 
should transfer Ruth fr,„n the Hag.ographa 'ioSle 


hi» l>ook», nnd place it bctweun Judgi'S an.' 
Siimii'l, no mmive can he suKHt'.li-d lor the oppn-ite 
■.liaiiKc. I' the iKMik nl" Kiilli .IjiI 11..1 oni;iri.ill>- 
fojMi |i,irt nf tlu' si-ncs of l-urjiii-r I'mphi-ts ' (;.'s- 
KiMi;-.! IS fiirthiT proli.ililc frijiii the fact ii is .|uite 
Ulit'imhi-d by the prixess of ' prophetic ' or Iteiitercino. 
ini-tii- cdllMl^'. which na\e tli.ll sen. -s its pri'vnt sh.ipc 
nl .1 l:mr v«>n nfli-r tin- f.iH .>f ihr kini;diiMi of 'ml.ih ; 
the n.irr.ilive lias no atiiiiity with the point of view whuh 
looks on the whole history of Israel as a series of ex- 
amples of di'ine justice and nuTcy in the successive 
reunions an<l rejieiuanccs of the piople nl Cod. Hut 
if the book Uen known at the time when the 
hisioiy from Judges to Kiin;? edited, it conKl 
h.irdly have leell i\chnled from llli' collection ; the 
■nnccsiry of David «.is of (jreaier interest ih.iii that of 
Siul. which is Ki'cn in t S. 9i, whereas the old history 
n. lines no ancestor of Uavid lieyoiid his f.ither 

.As to the ilatp. A very e.irly period is clearlv impos- 
sible. The Imok di>es not otter itself as a doc.inient 

3 Data *'''"•'" *""" ''f''''' ''"' l"^^!!'"! to which it 
refers ; it prewnis itself as dealini; with 
times far back, and takes obvious delight in depicting 
details of anli(|ne life and obsolete us.;K'es (on kulh 
4 i-u. see RiTiil; it \ie\s the rude and stormy 
period iK-fore the institution of the kim;ship throuRh 
the softening atmosphere of time, which imparts to 
the scene a gentle sweetness very different from the 
harsher colours of the old narratives of the Ixiok of 
Judges. [W'r cannot therefore very well say with Ilr. 
C. U. H. Wright [liilrAl. laftl th.'it the bi'.ok ' must 
have been written after the time of David, and long 
prior to the Kxile. ] Inileed, the interest liken in 
the pedigree of David [xiinis to a time when 'David' 
hail lx;come a .■ nilKil for the long-past ideal age. In 
the language, ton, as we shall see presently (see § 3), 
there is a good deal that m.ikes lor and iioiliiin; ih.a 
makes against a date subseipient to the caplivitv. and 
the very designation of a period of Hebrew history 
•as 'the d.iys when the judges judged' (Ruthin is 
based on the Deuteronomistic addition^ to the l>ook of 
Judges (2i6/. ). nnd does not occur till the period of 
the ICxile. 

.\n inferior limit for the date of the book cannot 
be assigned with precision. Kuencn formerly argued 
("wii'.i''l [iSrii] 2i.- .141 that, as the author seems 
to take no offence at the marriage of Isr.aelites with 
Mo.ibite women, lie must have liveil l)efore the time 
of Kzra and Nchemi.ah il'.zraO \eh. 13); but the 
same argumi'nt would prove that the Hook nf Ksther written liefore Kzra, and indeed, as Wdlhausen 
(HIeek's /•;/»;/. I*", 205) points out. the singular Talmudic 
slati-ments respecting the descent f»f eminent Jewish 
teachers from supi)')sed hrathen proselvtes of antiquitv 
(Si.sera, Sennacherib, Nebuchadnvzar, Ilaman — see 
K.\H.\B) apiiear to imply a theory very similar to 
that of the Book of Ruth, which nevertheless had 
no polemical U-uring on the firactie.d lusiveness of 
the prevalent custom. We cannot theref(>re assert \ the l)ix)k of Ruth w.-u not written Later than 
about 444 M. c. 

At the same time it must l)e admitted that the story 
of Ruth was written before Ihc'liviiig impulses of Jeviisii 
literature had lieen choked by the growing intlueiue of 
legalism. .\s Kwald rem.irks, ' we have here 3 narrptor 
of a perfectly individual char.acter,' who, ' without 
an.vioiisly concealing by his language ,ill traces of the : 
later a;;e in which he wrote, had obviously read himself I 
into the spirit of the ancient works Ijoih of historv and \ 
of poetry, and thus produces a very sinking iniit.iiion i 
of the older work on the kings' (///.A 1 154 /: 1. The 
manner, however, in which he tells the story is ce|uallv j 
remote frtmi the legal piagni.itisni of Chronicles anil | 
fr.-.m the prcphttic piv.gin.ili-m ol the editor of liu: wider i 
histories. His work hits therefore some advantage over ' 



'he histories just mentioned, an advantage, it is If;. 
of wliiili ihe I'.irguni (see 1 3 /; ) endcivouis to dc|.i,\ 
it. Ily tile tone of siiii[>le piety and graciousm^^s whi. 
|KTvad>s it. and by its freedom from ih,. jii-dantry orthodoxy, the Uiok n-miniU us of the prologu. i. 
the colloi|uie5 of Job and Ihe older [xx'tieal wi.sil, ;,, 
I.egiiiMii. then, still fir from having triuinpliel ;. 
till- field of li'erature when the story of kulh wriii. ■; 
eieii a sup'Ttici.d student cannot closj his eyes to ii:i 
iniport,iiit f.ici. 

Ihe necessiiyofa somewhat late dale will appear. )1 
from the following stylistic and linguistic consideraii. :,. 
8. LlwraUtic ''''■" ""■■ ">''' "'' ''"■ "•"''■■"'''-■ '•i^'>- '■ . 

jJV, freshness. mil popul.inty which distill:;!. ■! 

"**■• the licsi ^. loiisof Ihe IkKiksof .Saiiiii. 
miisi be apparent, ami u|ion ex.imining closelv li;, 
linguistic details, we sli.ill probably ln'come tonvuici.i 
that a pre-exilic origin is iin|)ossible. The learn. -I 
Ifcnedictine Calniet (/'/iVj,.«n,//« hi>h:ri,ji,e el crii :■:;■, 
172J. art. 'Rutirt, indeerl, following /-'/i^.i htrnr], 
14/', ascribes the composition to tne author of i),,j 
Ifi'oks of Samuel, a view which he supixirls by p. 
ferring to the phrases, ' Yahwe do so to me and in.!... 
also.' Ruth I17 (cp I .S. ,')i7, and ten other p.iss.iges m 
.Sam. and Kings). ' to uncover the ear,' Ruth 1 4 (Jp i s, 
i*i;, and six oilier passages in .Sam. ). Kur other points 
of contact lietween Ruth and Sam. and Kings, s<e4i5 
and 1.S.I8 (;r. -ji; 1 19 and I S. 45 I K. 1 45 (crtp-i : J 1 
and J S. 21 1 ■• K. 08 (-^jsh •3>tI : 2.i and i S, 1:,, l'ii.,.; 
(Tips, 'accident'), and the second fem. sing, iiii; . rf. 
in ;•-. 28. -1 ;)4i3 I S. 1 14 (also Is. 4.'ii" Jer. 31 jjI. Thi-e 
coincidences, however, are outweighed, not only bv tlie 
dilfercnce of style (in the more gi'iierid sen.~ri Ijetwoii 
Ruth and Siim. . but also I ly certain forms and expres-i. ns 
found in Ruth but not found in Sam., some of wIilIi at 
least point distinctly to a ixjst-exi'ic age. 

_ The f.j||.)win>; forms and idionii' ,io which add the stci.tiii frm. 
sini;. imperf. in p- ; ab.>ve)are i».) and ini.^ti\ j,.st. 
exilic or e-xilic in ii^c' - the st-, nnd fem. siim. pcrf. in -,•>- w 1/ 
(alseinjer. |.jftenl, K^k, Irt .\Iic. 4 i,i (harilly ^licahVl): 

•TO for rrsz, Mara, 1 2o(. p parallels in Kzek. 27 31 :u\k ct.:,); 

]ijf, *to shut up,' 1 ij (Mishnic, Jewish .\ram., Syriac. liit i,p 
Driver) ; 

C*p. *lo confirm.' 4 7 (also Ezek. 1.1 6 Esth. Oai 27 2q 11 f. I's 
110 2-1,,^, .m.l in I.Vram.l lian.f.-); 

■Qf, '10 hope,' I ij ( 1 Ps. Ill>i6r,); 

.IB-K Ktj, 'to take a wife,' 14 (KzraSaia N'ch.l3;; 1 Cii. 
-3 32 etc., lint Hi>f Judg. 'Jl 21 (lluddel); 

i"^, ' therefore,' 1 iji (as in Aram. Pan. 2^. et,-.); cplirio-r. 

It is also \>. II VMirlh noticing Ihe divine n.inu- or 
title *-;r (exiiic and post-exilic in use) occurs in Kulh 
l-'o/' (without •^H). as often in Job — Lwalil righ'lv oim. 
pares Job 2" i. and (against the view that Riiili is writini 
in a [)re-exilic N'. Israeliiish dialect) that the relative is 
alw.iys -iiTK. never r (cp Konig. /-'./n/. 286). 

.According to Kotiig (/-./v/. 287), the \tCHtk in 1!^ 
present form iK-loiigs, on linguisiic grounds, to ih,. 
|x;riod of Jer. , K/ek. , ami the .Second Isai.ih. wi.ii-t 
marks of the later Hebrew are wanting. Wh.iirur 
may seem to point 1. - .111 earlier period (c.j,'. , ihe i;-.- cf 
tile older form -^an seven times, and ttf •;« i>ii!'- Inio 1 
this eminent linguistic critic reg.irds as conscious .11. 1. , .:- 
ing. It shoulil Ixf remarked, however, that pa;, in if 
Ji-remiah can be shown to be of very Lite .i:;i 
tli.u the unity of the dale of authorship for Is. pi .,il . 
doubted by an increasing nunilier of scholars. K.'n>;- 
d.iting. then, is nece5S;irily subject to revision, and ^< 
still more, is that of Driver i/n/roif.'^' 4^;i. w!:.. m;- 
barrasses himself with the theory that C.inti' '•■- .iml 
Ruth (although included in the Hagiographai 111 iv I. lo- 
bei_'n written in the N. kingdom, and preser\'- m. "is 
current there dialectically. The book, in its jiresiiil 

' The pas.sape, as EwakI (///j/. I154) [loints out. is hl,;h!y 



. .o5,.,..„l,c work. a,„l «... sl,.,ll s,:: lat.T ,1..,' ...„,' 
.sl^.ll ■>( th. a,l,st h.,s .„,,|,1„| |,„„ ,„ ,„ ,. > ■ "^^ 

m own u„rk. nn,l that a l.,>cr,„r ,,.,s o„h " -h'u 
Ihe p,,,|».r nnm,.s a,„l a|,;«,,„l,-<l ,|,.. g.M.raloo-. 

U clllu.,«-n w of „|,„„„n ,|,„ ,he n,os, ,„„.,r,ant sic, 
of dat,. ,,s ,1a. =:.,.„„,!. ,y of I ,:u„l , ku,h 4 uL. c,, . ( 'l, 

4. Ocoaalogy. '^'■;'"'- I 'lu namrs ot thf aiui^stors 
"' "■""' ^^'''<' l^iioivn a, far as Itoi? 
Ihen jnemory fai,,.,,. an,l a leap was ,„a.l.. ,„ u:^2n 
Ku,h I., o s,l,„a ,,n ku.h. Sal,,,,,,,,, who, i„ , (", 
25.. ■» c-.,i:c,l Mh.- f,ah.T of IU.,hl,h,-n,.' H,„ s,,,,; 
».lon,s ,o ,h. sa,„e K'roup as ( -..l,..,, .\.,i. a ,.1 ' 

.-lud. f a„y,h,„K ,s o-rtain, ,t is th„_,hat „, .he ol en 
.™es.h,.rah..l,i,esd«,.,, i„,heKandn,rt^^h^^^ 
"f lu.lnh. an.l .ha. I).,vi,l in p,,r.,eular l.v his 

"Inch fir.u,.a.e.l ,n .he opposi.e ,l,r.v ,.„, .o I a, i 
V'l>er a„.l s„«Kl „, ,he .loses. eonne.„o„ w h R , 

of "he J.v"";'.":i"V","'^ "'" '"f ""'■ "•'- "■'■■»'- 

ol he Rene.. ,,v Nahsh.,n an.l .\„„„in.,.|ah a,e princes 

one ) ,s. like Abran,. .pialihed lo Ik- the s.arl,n.-p,„n, 
of ,he pn.,cely hn.-.' On .he o.her hand. .San^ ' , .u 
knows of I>:iv,.rs fa.her lesse ' ^ 

«■. K. S„u,h .ha. 'Ihe «',^ .t^Jin ,"h ..';?:^''>'''''^^"- "'d"" 
n..n„cr or,„l,er ^.n.aK.'-^i.s in ZVnLuXf " """ '" "" 

n.l ! "li'V^if i',"''!'"*''-' ^-'^ '""■"'» "l from . -hronides and 
..alhor of Ku.h clearly r.-cginses .h.,t • 01,,1 was IcKallv 
>ne son of Mahlon, no. .,f IV,.,. ■,,,,„). [Dr.ver . o 
maarks (/Wn„/.,-' 435, ,ha. .he Une,,„i;v • n,av' "i 
h,,v,. x.en a.l.,e,l long alu-r ,he h.,ok i.self'was „",.!, 
„.I hke Kon.g (.87,, leaves ou. of ,l,c Iin,-„is,ic . a 

*.//., «h,ch are charac..ns.,c .,f i> i„ ,he IV-n.a.encl 

n,!'l ■','h"'"'^"r '■• ^ •'• "*"heau, K,„.ne„. and 
nul.lea.lhere .0 the vi.w .hat .he closing secon is an : 
m..,.ral ,xa-.,on of .he N,.,k. Hn. sureh j ,f ,l,e amh"r ' 

MahL.n. I he es.s.ence. however, ot the gene.,l„tv 
juj;,-.^.s the poss,!„li.y ,ha. two views of .he ilesc ■ , of 

av,^ «ere curr..,,., one of whi.h .ra.-e.l hi,„ ,0 I'LI \ 
!..> Mah ..„. an,l .he ...h.-r ,0 the san.e Perez l,v Ho.a^ ' 

n. i, I .T""'-'! ""'^ P<'"it without hanng U , 

o.,h^.c.l to ,nte,fere w,.h ,he .r,,<li,i.,n,,l text. It is how 
8. Proper ''"''■■. '"■'■'•--^iry to tak,- that st.p if we woul.l ' 

names. ',"■"" ^ "••""'^' "■"mpl.'le cmpr.hension of 
Th„ I. .h ."■'"•'"^•■- ••<"<l "f ils his.., origin i 

l!ul Ruth, as ,t ,^„^v, is a post-eNilic work s 
«rt...r, „..,„„„ th,.r,.f.,ree«,nine.h,.t,..xt n onL ■ • 

■ w„h ,hat of other n„t less certa.nlv post- x le ' 

r. U, wh,e.,. lh,,„j.h ,„ |„„„„ „f ,,^,, ii 

Z^Tn yet on the whole s.,-,,, to ,h,.,w consi, er. 1 e 

n.l r,.a,on to sus|«-ct that the iH-rsonal and g-, 
Prp cal na„,es ,n the n..,k of ku.h ,1,-4.;) were 
"■t a .>gether oripi„.,lly as ,l„.v now 

;^n.a„, -s.K^'lli iit^',^;; Z^u^':'-^!;,!;^ 



a .uUmuIe f,,r -Mi-nr' ., ,, \l . ' v ""'>' '~ 

M:l:^:;:;'rr?lail!^fe;^:fe 'Hi f r-:-" 
;..,,^,,.d,, w. „,.,,, e,„.e., ,h,„H,i,^;i n.;;;:;,.':?Si;: 

>e stat>;n,en. of the „.,rra.or .hen, if '.he presen. 
,l.rsconj,.c.nresareso,u,.l. an.ounts t., this-^that a 
>"«■■ il»--r .,f a Jerah.neelite .Ian who U-longe.! .0 Ikth. 
J.;ralnn..I (,„ .1,.. .v^.„„ ,..„„„,„, ^^.^.^^'^^^^ 
under the pressure of fa,„i„.., i„,„ ,h,. K.n.l „f Mi,,uV 
an. soj.,urn.,l .h.-re for aU.ut ten v.,.rs. This agreed 
»..h the or,g,naI for,,, of the s.orv i„ (ien.lV.'V 
a.eor.l„,g .0 which ,\l,ram , = ■ fa.hcr of Jerahua-.r j 

oumrTt.,;," ■ ■^:"•^-"'-• fr""' ""^ J-ah,ueeliti 
coun.ri to M,s.„r or M,,sr„„ (^i-e Mi/kaim. §{ af) 

on?,'7,Kra"x" ''■ '" ""= '""■ "f •^-P'""l' ("- .-. "ide'C 

N.)r ».-,s it only famine that drove dwellers in the 

.ev.o^l'^:!.?'''; ''"''■''' '^'''''''''■^''^^'"■• ■ll"'<'ngi.,al 

' ,h inLV?"f.'/ *■''"," '" ""^'^ ^^P"-''^""'! iMvid .,s 

i heki,?, V\i ^'"'' ""'"''■'■ " ■' "«-■ of 

I the k,ng of M,.sur at .Snr.-,,hath „e-e- M,z,.m,. 3,, «|,i,<, 

he wn. ,,„n.elf a wa„,|er..r in the l.,n.l of K.^,!,,,,.;^ 
j ..,,.1 there Is, ,„ the present w,-iter's opinio,, i,ar.llv 
; r,v,m for do,,l„ that Uavi.l Iive,I in, .,r' dose t hi 
.Ier.lun.,.l„eNegel,,s,v .Vkhkb, S 3. an.l note 3) and 
ha.i strong |e,-.,hn,.,.li,e (an.l .Misnt.) a.hnities The 
sihiro^'V^'; 'u ''""'■""■■ ""l""-!^...!. I.canse the osten- 

of DaMd a nol,le.mii„Ie,l Misnte won,an ' It 
« IS natural t., represent that Davals an.estor ha.l al- se, the e,an,ple of tak,ng r, fug.. i„ Missur 

" e are ni>t cxpr.-ssly t..I,l • Saivphath — , ,• that 
port,,a, ,.f Mi,,,, winch lay nea,,.. t.^.n.l included t^ 
city .,f S. r..pha.h_was the local.ty to whi,;h Klunelech 

nhn.h ■ '"x';'-' "''"'"■''• ""• ""^ •■"""'•-■■ion of Sa,e. 
h,ath «„h M0S..S. with the Levit.s. an.l appa,entlvw,th 

Mosl's"';"-'- ,?"'J-"'-"' '-.v ""^ Presei',t' writ.!? ,see 
.M..Sh.s, S 4; |>K,„.,iKCV, S h,. ni.ak.'s it s...m to him 
•;:> " -able ,hat the n.,rr,,tor ha.l .hi, pi ue .^ 
d,stnet ,n h,s m,„.l, ,,,,.1 in 4,.. Ihe k.n.llv wish is ex- 
presse.l ,!,,at the ho,„e of Hoa. „„yh. U- like ihe house 

nieehth?! l»,re to Tu.lah. ^ " 

- Wc reckon the XeEcb as ,h, X. Arabian bor.lerland. 

.uUIi^f ^!:;s:r::f ;;!""S^ :;S' " "" "--' "-- 

n. noma.k. The „..„,e, „f ,l,e ;„„ J r/,"' ,f-, i '1,";;"r''>' 

-','io:!:'';,!;;-^^r':;"^'"'^*>"'"'^"'^-' "- "«--= i- .s. 

,,. .,;...!.''■'■• v';';'"; h"« ■;'■ cb'.^l'-„ri. I lavi.l. he thinks h.nd 



Th.- view here lak.n r.-mirr, it pr.iUMe that the siorv 
of K.ith .IS It now !■* n„t ..f n,tv larly losiexilic 
6. Origin. ""H'"- '' '"■ 'tic fwliiiK uf iiiitcrniss toward!. 
•'"= Mi^ritea and ih.-ir nciRhUiurs, on acunint 
or their lonK-cuntinueil ..|ipri>si(m uf iMUel. appari-ntlv 
persistfd till close on th- (irifk |»ri<Kl, The date of 
the traditional elenii'iits, out of winch with imai;inativ.- 
fre«loni, the prest-nt story .,f kuih niav havi- U-vn 
partly lomposi'd, 15 iiuili- another iwint. ' \s in the 
CIS.- .>f lob (se-e Ion f IliH.K). !i 4) and lonah ise.- |.iN vii 
[ll.)ok|, !( 4 / I s,.ni.- of tluv ilini.nts may liave Urn 
derived from niylholoijy or folklore up \Vi. ./()/•• 
366/). As Siiick.n ,ioiiits out,' •Ruth c<)rres(>onds 
exactly to I aiiiar ; she obtains liiaz bv taking hini 
unawares I Kiith.'t I. as lainar obtains ludah ((;en. ;isi. 
A ilim consciousness of this connection sfiows itself in 
the fact that the ix'diKree of H.„u is trace.1 to IVre/ ' 
The original story of Kuih probablv Kave her two sons 
(n.iicsp,,mlinK to the tw,, sons of Tainan, onlv one 
of whom IS recorded (simply out of interest in Uivid) 
by the narrator. 

I he • altogether' ch.iracter of Ruth aiaonR 
the historical and quasi-historicil narratives Urn 
piiinled out by Kwald, who is • led t ■ conclu.le this 
story IS only one t.iken from a larger series of similar 
piec's by the Mine author, and through n.ere 
ch.iiice this is the only one preserveil' l/Z/./ln;" 
Mor>> definitely, Itudde suggests ( Z.I /(I ' 12 43 ^^T [ ,8.<2 | 
th,it the story of Ruth may originally ha\e formed part 
of the • Midr.ish of the Hook of the Kings' referred to 
in 2 Ch. 2127. In so as this theory is l«si.-d on the 
langu.ige of the geiie.ilogy in 4ie.2j (in connection with 
\\ ellh.ausen's view 1 Ch. 2io-i7 is a later insertion). 
we must agree with Konig (/ii,,/. 28q. note) that it is 
unproven. At the s.iiuc time. Ew.ilds impression that 
the narrative of Ruth did not always stand alone seems 

That one of the objects of Ruth was to explain the descent of Daviil from a Misriie has 

T. Objects '"'*'" ""'"■'"'"^'l already. It true. s.nd 

of Buth. '''^ writer, that his grandmother was a 

Misriie; but what a noble woman she was ' 

how olx-dient t.i those fundamental laws of morality 

which the true fiiKl values more than sacrifice ! And 

so a second object naturally unveils itself— viz to 

prepare the readers of the lijok to arrive at a more 

favourable opinion of the moral cap.»city of the Misrites 

than, owing to the cruel oppression of Israel by the 

Misrites. previous generations had been able to f<,rm 

Many critics {^.^'., besides Winckler ,an<l most com- 
mentators. Unibreit, .V/. A>, , 1834. pp. 308^^ ; (ieiger, 
C'rii/ir. 49 / ; and esjiecially Kue. AV/. ,/ /<r. 2242/. 
uz'd On J.'-' 1 52, 527 1 hold that the n.arrator was one of 
those who protested against the rigour of Kzra in the 
matter of mixed in.irriages. It is not clear, however, 
that any such protest would have been detected by a 
Jewish reader of the book. The great point with the 
narrator is not the marriage of .Mahlon but the next-of- 
kin marriage of ftoaz. It cannot Ije shown that, when 
marriefl to Mahlmi. Ruth became in the full si;nse a 
worship|K-r of Yahwe. It is much more probable that 
the statement of Mahlons marriage to a Misrite woman 
is simply a proof that the writer was a goiid historical 
scene painter. I.iki; the Chronicler, he knows that in 
early times there was a great mixture of clans, and that 

. . ' ■<<>';<''"<yti^, no, note. We may add that we takr 
. r'Y. ?""* l""* '" ''« "I'lnialely corruptions of ' ler.ih 
mjehili (cp JriiAU, I 2). Neither Stucken nor Wircklcr 
criticises the Hebrew names. 


1 IsMchtcj often intermarried with Jerahmcelitcs and 
; Misrites. Ik-sides, in order to pro<luce an impression 
on the Jews it would lie necessary for the dwelling ,,f 
lt...iz to h.ive Uvn in Juil.ih. not in a district wiudi 
III i«ist-exilic times was not m Jewish occu|..ition 1 1,,. 
I.itest iihtor did no ,|oul,t .irrange the g.-ograplm 1 
st.itements .accordingly; but the author himself ,, „,. 
h.ive seen, pl.tceil Ikiai in the Jerahmeelite .\,g, b 

Surely no one who thoroughly appreciates the ih irm 
of diis U.ok will U- sitisfied with the prevalent ih.-..,v 
of ;ts object. There is no ■ tenilencv ' aUait the U„,| ' 
It represents in no degree .iny pirtvprogramine \il - 
even If the writer .started with the object of illustril t ' 
the life of I).ivi.l, he forgot this when he 1 i 
write, and only thought of it ..gain as he al»„„ , , 
lay down the iwn. Justly ,|,».s Roliertson .Smith i. 
mark, 'the marri.ige acr|uires an int, r. 1 
when we know Ruth Davids great-gi.,,,!. 
mother, but the main interest is independent of ih, • 
and lies in the happy issue of Ruth and \aomi fr.'i. 
their troubles through the Ir.val p<'rlortnance of .|,e 
kinsman's part by Ikjaz. Doubiless tlie writer mcini 
his story to U' an example to his own age, as well , 
an interesting sketch of the p,ist ; but this is effe. i,',l 
simply by describing the e.xem|>l.irv conduct of .Vamiii 
kuth. Itoaz. and even lloazs harvesters. .Ml these ui 
.as simple kindly. Uod-feariiig |x-ople ou('ht to a.i'in 
Isr.iel. [.\t the same time, the writer must have sh ir. .| 
the religious aspirations of his time, which, as we h.i... 
seen, was probably the post-exilic age^ /.,• , perh n , 
that <iuieter p.Tiod which followed after the first cenlnrv 
of the Greek rule. \ow. there is good evidence for n . 
view that one of these aspirations was for a cessation . f 
the bitter feeling between Israel i.nd leralmu-el. .\a 
jet the exclusion of Jcrahmeelites and Mism, , 
from the religious assembly not b.en enacted ' , t 
if enacted, it ignored by the noblest lews, who h. 1 
that the \. Arabian pe<jples were not incapable f 
repentance, and that it was no disgrace to David thu 
his pedigree contained the name of a Misrite wom ai 
A thorough study of certain psalms and propheii., 
will. It IS believed, strongly confirm this view, and sh..u 
that the best of the Jews looked forward to a true 
conversion of the .Misrites to the religion of the G,kI ,,f 
Israel -the Lord of the whole earth.' Jerusainn 
would yet lie thronged bv the children of Israel s biti.r 
foes, seeking first for instruction and then for admis-i,.ii 
into the religious community, and it is oossible to sec n 
glance at this hope in the touching word's of Boaz • md 
how thou hast left thy father and thy mother, antl'ih,. 
land of thy nativity, and art coine unto a people which 
thou knewest not heretofore' (Ruth 2 11) And so 
ultimately, the book becomes (like lonah) a nr.hl,'- 
record of the catholic tendency of the e.irlv ludaisni I 

Among other commentaries reference may lie made to I n. 

tarpiov, (.olUgiHin rahNnico-NHicum m liMlum kuth 

T<f.~<«_ '/"?■■"=•, '705- lAmong recent coinmei.tal.jr-! 

UMn,tnre. the works of Bertheau (ed. 2, 183,1) Berth.lct 

.;n„.a s I '«?■''' z'^?;",;'"^'' <■*"' ■"">' •« specially men. 
tioned. .See also W 1. AOHiii-,*, and referencesVn the cur- 
of this article.] 

i§S I. 2, parily 4 aii.l 71 i\ . 1; ,. 
(§§ 3. 5. "■ mostly 4 and 71 1 k. .:. 
RYE (11995). S^ J*"^' t'lTciits. 

' In ni.23 3-/44-7l-i//<'<r«-M.-'-a Liter insertion-ihe elhiii. s 
^liuuld probably be Jerahmeelite ' and ' Mis.-ite.' The it,- , e 
ton^ut! with T'. 7(«1 where the ethnics should be 'Ar.imn„V' 
(-.ler.ihmeelite) and '.Misrite.' Dillmann's criticNm h.r. \< 
very incomplete. The passage must \m later than the i.ii: .,f 





.2^?ff!![^^r^'""'^) f"'^]*. 'E-IS^, RV 


rvilic list (see |;zka ii il q d a V ' ,*"" *>'""■" '"'-'- 

l> apparently rrprcen., ■),- f ""^ "■ "'«■ 
.''AiHi rm). '^ itMi. sjj iBi| AV Sahikth, RV 

, """t™ '"'''"• CABBATON), the day of sacred 

w that u .s a fe„,,n,„e forn,, properly !a»..,.f u.r 
I. Etymology, i^t ■ ■ ''""^ "B' ('''''■' conjUK ) 

Jastrott s article ciied in § 8 ) t'ooJi ««7. n. i , 

■ "'^mes nafi from ni'3ir. Cp Iknz. iV./ 202 
J.:, (week). lor Jastrow s view, see § 8 1 

a«av, ,f ixissible. any remnants of the,',- 

a. Jmui Ud '°K"^'''' Pri-judice against criiictsni let 

the Sabl)ath. """'""''''='• 'he attitude of [esus towards 

boMtosavthitin h^^ "l«er,ance. I, i not too 

(s«-c„l. ,888 n,,r L.i ., "™"^"'' probacy 




the canonical hur.h.^' "'"' f" *"' "'""^t out of 
u..hen„;;::,:i^r^ ^;;^''-;;-t«-.a,n,y«,^^^^ 

tradition.' It ,5 the w .Hi V. " '""^ •' K'»"ine 

/'-. e... .Vrttr." 3r.X.;""r« "' l',!''^^ ^" 
same day whin 1... «,^ , ll>«4: 'On the 

said to hin? M n "' " "'"' «"^'""« -'" 'I"- Nahhath he 
thou art h'lesstli' ■ 1 u "irttnT,',,;"", '""" '"' ""■"« 
cursed and a transgress r I h. .u '-""■. '^"V "" 

art thou.' 'Hut if ihn„ I, "" " l'l<-ssed 

if thou art act "*'■"' "'"-'" "'h''^ """Is, 
fear that th:"':^t"!^: ^ ^.eM "S^-^'. T " '"":!'' 
nccurs.^, and a traMsgress"^^,, I A~."''i" "" ""'" 

Mt. 5.;-,, ,ind a',^ns ?"""""'*' "' «« «"J i" 

honour' o hr'^rs.r,7sr''''""''° '''''''«''' '" "" 
•lav. It i, norc or . , i^ h""'"^ """"'P' f" 'h^' 
parallel clause )f^y,^ ^"T"' '" ^'^^ °f "'e 
have no. fountlthe'., ^ „' '.'oTi JT.V , ^.^ "^^' «-"! >- 

, s^SL?-^"rp^i::^s;;:-s;j:rr 

.ttltnd.1 ""^ "'fV ^"a" that, according to the Pauline 

I |nev.ryp, TheconserVr.i!rsid7,h^tea?h 

, forlt^'^^roXdi^ T "••""'■^"^ ^-'" "- 'h- 
Paul 1 ,;"!t'™'"'^ert m the corresjwnd iie teaching of 

oliservance of 1 Hv..,i ^ . '-""' by 

ser^e him\ri'ih:u.''-^ uch''-''^bs;T; „c^""'1L'""'''" '° 

:n7.r -The^^^ ? ^'^^'" corr^e^cV^i'^'Tr?: 

up hy Jesus t:^'V^l^ i:,::,, ^,P;;-";°" 'al^en 
Of a PIOUS Jewish family, and a";;:!acLt'thrcho::a 

Aoym •I,,.; (.d. Grenf.ll and Hunt, ,897), .0/ 

(.'" * 

A riuTc v*rrr olll'T 

Ml .iLinl (ljtlrri-ml>- froTii 


]r'V''« <>t 'i-l ft «..uM not l,.nc lx-.n nalimil lo 

.ml. n (iP.i.hfr |<> ih- i.fniil.-, ,,ii.l m.t of |>iir..|v 

Jewish iull.u., »h<, viiin t,j 1,.,>.- f, it .„ fr.« t.m.iicli 

the .■..iihly lifr ,,f |,MH ,1, J,..u, tu If ,i„i t,»«.it,|. 

tliu l.ll.T iM t|„. M,„.„i I, 
1 lir,.t...iii, li.i.vri.r, «h.i , 
I'aiil ] 

Tlul thf f,irlii-.t Cliristi.ini in I'iil.Mino iibseTM-il tlu? 
SiliUiili It nonhcrc r\|,ii-.sly siiUI ' l.iit .^ 
cTt.iiiilv to Ik. as,uMi..l. riie .i|..m..'.,f .Vt» n ii..t 
to U- tik^ri a, ., |,r,„,i ,,f th.. n.,i>-.,l,„Tv.,rKr, Imt .011- 
irarmuo as .t (jr,,of that it was oUcrvnl a* maitcr ..f 

[i;.H.-l,i,„ (///;■;)..) r.n.ark, that the 
..l.,.'n,-,l U.ih the >,al.l.alh ami the l.or.r, |)av; ami 

"'" I" "" Miiiif.l to *.Tiic ixtfiit in inudi wiil.r 

'■rilrs. f ,r Ihf . /;.«/..//•, .,/t,.«j///„/,„„, r,-,o„,n„.iul that 
the .Sahlutli >hall U. kfpt as a niiin.,rul f,a>t i.f Hi.- 
tr.aii,,„, ami the l..,r,ls Day aj a incinurial i,f the 
ri'suirictiun. w.K.i, ) 

W„,l„-S.|i.l,.,lh rvt.l in thcC-hi 

0( llli; 1 >i^iH.-r»i. n ,' flii, 
maiM .11I1JC..I, an.l „iily a jl.ui 

fi^tiari nii««iun-' hiifLla.-^ 
in iri.|uiry Ilial atfc. I< our 

,,V .'""■■"•'!'? ■" '-""••■f-'">">li.Th.,ly>U;.' l„.-MiL.. 

Mil h"o""' '■■:""", "' 'y" '"""'■"••»"' '■ "/■»"■• il mat,.,, 

1.11 . whtlhcr »,• i.,kr ihc ,1.M rv.. a, a. lu.,lly ,,r..n„un,:r.l l,y a 

council ,.f ap..,!^, ^, >rus.,k,„ .1 ,k reuar.l it a. a kit.r limli„K\.f 

We ti'nv ri'tuin to the tliesu'willi ivhich tlii» article 
opeiieil. Ml.., that the utliluile of Jesus to«arcU the Kali. 
4. Attitud* '''""■•'' '^•'l''""' <^^- -Ml. I'Ji-M Mk. 
Of JflUf, --'7''* '" harmony with the main result 
niumecL "^. '"'"'••■'■" tntiusm, in his trenchant 
critici.,ni of the seriU-s the general |josition 
whi< h Jesus takes up is that ■ the S.ihlulh is made lor 
man, and not in.iii for the S^ihlulh,' which is only a 
special applicatMii of the «ider prineipli. that the law is 
nut .111 end m itself Imt a help the reahs.ition in 
hie of the crea; idcMl of hae to (Jod and man, which is 
the sum of .ill true r.-iii^ion. On the oiiier hand, tlie 
rules of the scriln-s enunier.ited thirty-nine main kinds 
of wo'k forladden on the .Sal.Uith, and e.ich of these 
prohil.itionsg.ue rise t.j new suUillies. Jesus' tliscinlcs 
for example, who plucked e.irsof corn in p.issinK through 
a held on the holy d.iy, according to Kabl.inical 
cisuistry, Molated the third of the thiriv-nine rules 
winch forUide h.irvestiiiK ; and in he.iliiit; the sick 
Jesus himself broke the rule lii.ii a sick m.ui should not 
receive me.lical aid on the S.ibb.iih unless his life was 
m;;er.-' In f.ict. .is Jesus put it, the kabbinicul 

theory sec d to Ije the Sal.Uilh not made for but in.m for the .s,ibb,iia. the observ.ime of wliith 
was .so much an end in itself the rules prescrilicd 
for It did not re.|uire to Ije iustilied by .ipix-al to am- 
Larger principle of relii^ or hum,initv. 'I he precept's 
of the law were i.duble in the evis of the scriU'S 
because they ..lere the se.d of Jewish particul.irisni. the 
barrier erected l»-iween the world at large and the ex- 
clusive comnmmiy of the gr.uc of Y.ihwe. Kor this 
purp.)se the most arbitr.iry precepts were the eflec- 
tive. and none were more so than the complicated rules 

1 Z.-ihn, Ctrl,. ,/,s .'Sounlag;!, etc., 16S, 353. 
* I.i., «.' sufif, 173. 

' S,j \\eiiviuk.;r, .1 /•.tslolicAi;,-, 1 igg/ 
.,1 "Jit" '■'•','"" ■■ ,''". K'"^"'' Vf j-u'wy could be und<ir- 

tafc.-n wilhnjt l,„-.„ h ..I ihc- >.,l,l,ith c.->'me i„ i;e"aKoMHcirv 
d« i„.d (cp ..It. Jl ..). K,.r by ll.c- ll,irty.„in,h rule it s, a, for- 

, ..hllal,, n ,.k,n y l«.,,.| ,,u lOx. l,;-.,,, ■ l.-t „., ,„au g„ out of his 

at humr. \ d-liniti..n of 'place' in tliis cnnection was f„un.! 
Ill tne n,.asnrca,,_.nt of the ' suharh, ' of a Levitical ciiv as lai.l 
CiO'.vn in *>u. 3.>i-.i— 3r>jo culiits s»niare. This ;:a\c tli.- 
'Sabbath limit' (nzj'ri CWB), and thus the 'Sahbath ilay\ 
journey' (Act, 1 ij ; aaSS»rov W«) was fixed at jooo cubits or 
about loou yards.] 



of SablMth ob«Tvancc The ideal of Ihr Sibbath wha I, 
all thes.. ruli s .limed at rf.ilising was .ibsolute rest Imn, 
iweritli.nK iImI could l« c.ill.-d woik , .iiiil ev.-n il„. 

exercise ol tll'.se olhvfs of hllln.inilv w hah the slricl. -1 
Sibbatanans repaid .is a wrvae to l..«i, and th>T.!. : 
.is sjKH Lilly ap|.i,ipti.ite to his il.iv, w.ii looktil on ., , 
w..rk. lo s.„,. 1,1,. „,„ nll.i».,i, but only U-.iu,, 
iLinger to hie • the Sabbith.' In lik. 
m.imier the s| titu.d .it the temple prcs«.ril« d I 1 
the Sibbath b\ the I', l.iw m,ih not rei;,iidid 
as .iny p.irt ol the li lilowing of the sacred d.iy ; on tl, 
coiitr.iry, the rule w,is, in this ri>;,ird. • ,s,il,l,ai', not ke[.t in the' Struilv sn-.iki, ■ 
tlH'reforc., th,. s.ibbath «.is neither ,1 d.iy'uf rcli.l 1,, 
toiling humanity nor a d,iy ap|K>int,.cH.,r public wc , 
ship ; the |«,sitiie dlllies of its observ.ince wire- to », .,1 
one s liesl clothes, t-al, dunk, and \k gl.ul (ju»iifi.,l fr,,,,, 

Is. filn). 

.\ 111.. re ilireclly reli«i..u, element, il Is true, was,i, ' 
.y 111.. |,c.,. n, e ..f all.n.|iim- 'Ik- synaiioKue ^.-rv ic,. ; l.iii u i, • , 
lie dial tin, s., < ue «.., uriii..i,ilv r..t..r.l.,l 11 i 
an .J. l ,,) ».,r.bip. I.ul .1, a nieeliini f.r iii.ini. in il.c 1.,., 
>.. far. Ihireh.r.., as lli.. S,ibb..ll, esisk-.! for ,,i,y en.l ..iil.,.V 
llsell .1 »,,, an iii-iituMoii I., h.lp eiirj Jew to learn lb. I. 
ami from till. |s.inl„l \ i. * |i i, by I'hiloail.l io..„h ' 

> •'r',...l,., iM.lih...lion l.,r ,i, 

|>-. a Mr llis„t,ai,,n, of lliei, rcli.;i..|,. Ilm ,|,i, ..erlabiU >. , 
not Ilie le.cciini; |siiiit .>f\iew will. Ibe mass of ibe kabbi.i; I 

.Such the posituaiof the seriUs ; the Nibb,it|i «,., 
nil eiicl in iiself -a mere barrier bclwix-n (ii^ls |»..,| .. 
anil the World at large. J..sus m.iiiit.iins, as we h.e.- 
seen, the opposite doctrine. II,. <!,■, l,,res too tli.ii i, , 
view of the law as a whole, and the inti.rpret.ition ,,t tl ,. 
Sibbath law which it involves, can l«- historicillv jusf. 
, bed from th.. t)ld Testament. And m this conn... ti.ii 
! he intrcKliic-,.5 two of the in.iin meth.«ls to which hision- criticism of the l )bl lc.eurr...| .n 
incxlern times: In- ap|H.nls lo the history r.db. r 
than to the I'enlateuchal crxle ns proving that th,. r 
idiiception of the l.iw was unknown in ancient tiiii.s 
(Mt.l'.M 4I, and to the evciptions to the Sabbath law 
which the .seniles themselves .nllowed in the int.-rests cf 
worship IV. ,1 or humanity (1: ,,). as showing 
the S.ibbith must originally have been devoi,.s| n, 
|mrposc.s of worship .and hunianitv, and was not abi iv< 
the piniKiscless .arbitrary thing 'which the schooii,i..|i 
made it to l«. Modern criticism of the history .f observance among thi. has d,,i,e 
noihing more than follow out thi-se argiinic iiis in cbi.i;|. 
and show the result is in agrc.enient with what is 
known ,is lo the dates of the several component p.arts . f 
the I'entateuch, 

The historical results of rriiieism mav Ix' thus sum. 
marised. Of the l, passigc.s s|h:i1, ot ih.' 
B. Pre-eziUo ■'^■'''''"•' •'" ""•'^'■' "'"ch show aiiamv 
ardpoBt-exillo""'' "'' 'I'^'nue of the scnUs . r-. 
Sabbath. *'■'"''">>' ""•" •'^•'l''i.ilh as an .irburiiv 
sign lietween Yahwe and Israel, ini.r- 
mg into det.iils as to particular .acts ar,. forbidi!. 1;, 
and enfoniiig the observance by sev.r.d [xnalti,.-, ».] it no longer .my religious value, but ap|ii-.,rs i.s 
il mere legal constraint— ,ire iKjst-exdic ( Kx, Id . ; .> 
ai 1.1-17 3.')i-3; .\u. I.^sj-ia) ; the older law, .jiiiy 
diinand such re5s.ilion from daily toil, and cspeu.illy 
friaii l.iU.ur, ,is among all .uicient poij/c's 
11 iturally acconip.inic.d a d.iV set np.irt as a p-iil:. in 
festival, and in p,irliculnr la'y w.-ight on the fe 1 ilut 
the- S.ibbath is .1 humane instilution, a lioliibivb.i Ihc 
lalKiuring cl.isses il-:x. 23ij IJt.Su-,.,!. As it Mm. Is 
in ancient l.iws, the .Sabbath is not at ,i!l ilie 
uili(|ue thing which it was made to Ix- by the s.r 1,. -. 
'The (Jrei.ks and the barbarians,' savs .'^traUi i\. :i.,', 
'have this in loimiiioii, tiiev accompany t!.. r 
sacrid riles by a remission ' of labour.' '•.i t 
was in old Isi.iel: the .Sabb.ith [which the 

1 See tlie .Mislin.ib, tract ' SbabMth.'aiul fuHlM, chap. 1 • ,v,.l 
compre Schiirer, c./r-'-, 2428 jr, 470.4,5; „.|„.„, ,^, ^il ! ;' 1 1 
a-.,.L;.tn i» wt.I eApiaiiicdaiid iiiu.slratcU in tl...tail. 



"y iiujineit Ulongcd lo hotii alike lAm « i 

:":':n:^;;,:!;vir::;;r ''•'''•■•■ ''---■""''"'^ 

- Iln. c.iKxpit.m of the Sal.lMIh, Inmever netr„,rilv 

;;:;!■ ';:;;:;;;,'r';tr-:ur;-:!;;t,':'''-'" 

l.'w .MM».,r<I ordinances l,y «l,ich , he 7,r!..h m' ' 

■ \- «'■<■ Sal,l,aih was originally a reli.-i.ins f,.-,.. .■ 

8. Origin of ;"", '"'l'"^v »hy and in what cirdc- a 
the S«bb»th. "'•;'. ?'^" "' ■"""■" ''■'v^ was first 

:;r"::r^!n;'^r;';i^Ti.-,^^-- ■• 

l*l-e the .Ic-uteronomi,, did no ' „nn n Z'^llusion'?' 
thecrciliun (see Dhai nir-n „ " "'"" !>n> allusion to 
.ba. tl,,,, ,.lren" wts adj'a'";^' '^8""--'"y'»'l'-"l 
hand that wrote (^n 1 T - , Vh ^'y'"-' ■•°^'-"i"c 
the .r,alion in oVn •• J * , '^'"" "'"'■' ^'^"'"^' "f 

cunn.Ti;nn thfrpfi.r,. i . ^"""" ">> i *ix days, lie 
'h. «ork rf rcll; ?„"" "" ^-■:;''-"^'" «-^l« and 
«,.„,|.,rv. -IK. ",\'' r;, 8"''7;'''> r"oKnis.d as 

.^c f...n,„u,rl^ f h ^; "■„ ■ "";',/"■■ "«•'' 'l'^>" <o KU-;- 


Hut .( I?J t ek ,. "''I'""''"'" "-'r "h- tanhful. 

^.i.i...ih. A, the ..n,c J ,r.. ,„',': T,".;; ""■ 
..;.,. had ^p.:::,-;:,:::-vu... 

hour. I'fismi OUT its tirii 

rr^.iX;'nr,;:,';::tlir;;;,::"'iw:' 'r r" "- '■'--, »eu„,),r„i,tVr,,f , r .i. ' ^"".^M'u., MrrM,,, 

ta,„,ij,v. ,K,,,/,f:hct,!,;:,,'r,;::' •*,';*' *•",•' -' -'' 

^11"! Ihcrtfi.ri' ,iU,, ,n,,, ,),,. ..,,.1 r,: I .•, '"" """'"f MirHLiv, 

... .m.f v..„„. .,11 H^Jr,;;'- :';;\*;^ t; 'h '; ""!,"■- •*■■■''• 

;■— K.MJ 


This aslroloRical werk liecnine widHv .urn.i.t m ,1,- 

an.i of the division of thr d t in m ' 1. """."'"Ky 
' is Chal.l.i-a It is nl ,in 1, * '"'"'« '-nty-fonr h.nirs 

civil life even aiiionK the liahvloni .n.^ ,„ 1 . 

sacred to Saturn, and that its ol-serv^n , i „ 1^ 

or lie siven p-aneis, and wii., .such a disirila.tion as to 
make It pretty certain that it ha,l no ariilici iZ 1. u 

m the most natiiial „.,y a sacred cycle of fu" ',"• n o^ 
fllecn days 01 which the week of seven or e e , .vs 

f 'X t .^e';i'f :^:r-;r';hJrd™;ri.!^H 

the o';:rer";nrS'stf'thl hT ' ' '""^' ^'«"'"'-''"" '"■•« i" 
oidtr parts of the Hebrew scriptures the new moon 




h s: 

•n.| the S.I .»«lh nra aln.<>.| (nv.iriably nH-niu.n«l 
l..«.-th« Ih.. m .iiili 14 I.v.ihI .|iir,ii..ii .m ol.l ,.,. r..l 
Uiu.u.nnf ii„w.„mm..n lo ,tll ilw N-miut ; e»..n ihc 
Ar.iU «l,.. r..,„r,l Ih* »r.k .,1 ,,„„.• .1 l.,!,. ,«„h| 
fr..,„ Ih.. >,„„., ,|l„„nl, I l,'..M..i..^,. If <a,, «r.^,„| 
«h.' M.>% m,OT„ »iih iili«,..ii. .i.,hi,n.iii,,ii.; .\n.| ihi, 

"'"-' •'■'"• '•■•■» ■ I'l >--iii.ii., r,,r th.- »..„! 

»mth pr,,|H.,|y 111,.,,,,, ■ ,„ g„^^ ,he „^, „„„,„ ,,,^,„v,, 

It .,. l.ii.Mr.l..|<'.-,.,,,,/M. ..>,^,, (,.„ ,h„«„. ,1, I,,.,,. 

c.illv ..„„....i„| „,ih ,h,. It..|,„.« «.,r,N „«,! .,( .,„y 
ffM.i! j,,v. AtmiiiK Ih.- ll.l.r.«v „r r.ilh.-, ..rh.iui 
nm.mK ih.- ( ■„,...,im,-,. »h..,.. ,,,.,.. h ih.> l.,r,.m..,|, 
Ihf )<'y .11 Ih.. ii,.« „„M,n I*, mi., ili.- U|». <.f 
f.-..tivily in K..t„.r.,l \,,r .,r.. ,.ih.T ir.,..', «.ii,iii,k „r 
Ih.. .oiin,..i,ui, ,.f ,,„ .K-. ,», ,.,.. reh|!ii)u» 
ftMMv- u<lh ihr ph.iv., „f il,r ,,,.-.11 .mvmg, Ihr.Vmiini. 
I hj. II..rr.ini.,ns h.i.l fM„r ,,u riti, u\ ,|,„, ,„ ,.,,.rv niimih. 
ami, ..f ih.v, i«,, :,( 1.,,,, „i.r,. .i.i,.,,,,,,,,.,! |,j |h,. i,,„. 
jiimli.iii ,111.1 i,|,|K,„ii..i, i.f ihp „>,„„, ' 

Ihai full ,„.«,„ .„ .,11 .., ,„. „ ^.,1 II . 

Jay., Ih. full i,i.,„„ .., , h,..,„. ,„ „!,;„ ,j„„, ih..«. I,. „.. a7. 

hniih >f jv,It4 7*. I..,. ,.,-.. tl...-..«r..l,,„m..f.ial,i.„ul.l 

p.irf.1 wllh "•■-., ,,„ „„li, ,.,„,„ ih,., ,n .,1,1 , ,|„ ?,,,., .,f 

■.■11,. Mvj,,,, l...,,,( „., .|,,j, ,, ,.,, . „„,„,| i„,„„„i„ .!„_, 

h .ii.|«r,.,. h..i ih.. f..i,i ..i.rt.„i ,„ .„u.„„ , .,,,1,, ,1,, „;,,„,, 

of X.,,1. .„„.,„„„„ I,,,, .„,„ ^,.„, ,„„ I, „„„„„„„„. ,„ 

know l,f,.,rh .,„ „„ ,h„ h „f ,.,,.u. ■ ,..iv, ,|a,, ,h. ,„w M n 

! k'l,* ; *■ '";,"l-«"«.l.' I.. .I«. .a«. a ..-.k uf ..v..n 
,*',',"'■ ''•^'' *•;'!''' .," I"' "Illy .m. . in IW.. m.mlhv W. raiiti..! 
dl .h.,i 111. .SahUith l..u,„i. ,11... u,„l f,„„i ,|,e niunihl ..i 
h. .h..n«. .,,■„„ ,,, ha... Ik-.,,, „,;„i.. )„,„„ „,„ li„„|, „f ,h, 
I., .nam, .l,„h .•,lr,..,ly rccir.l, ih. S.l,|,a,h .im|,ly ,-..,,„ 

p-jiiiu ,1 1% fullo.e.1 by ll«uier>.r..>ni). 

_ Th.- ^v„r.| 'Silikith' (.',A;/'/,,-), »iih |h,. ..xpl.inalion 

il.iy of ri.,l „f th,. li,..,rl. „ i|,„„„.,l „, .\,„ri,iii mi ihc 

T. Th» '''"''^ "' ' li'\tii,il ..Tiuii.l.iti.iii 1,,- 

BabTlOBlU '■''■'"■''"''li"'«li"i akiwi .TJii. The 

and A»iyrUa *■''"'■ "' ""* ''•"'.""i .'"'i »iii'..ri.mi 

Sabbath. ''■"""'"">■ t.inn„i W |,|.,i,.,| ury hiKh, 
"I"' " ^>•^.In^ |.i |,i,,ie i,»i imuh, f,ir it 
is |.r._i.tK-,iIly c,.rt.,ih ihii I,,,. ll.,l,vl„niaii, ai th.. ihne of 
th.. Ilchruw ...xile taniint h.ive li.i,| a Salil..ith ..x.uily 
corr«.5|).iii,hii|{ in con.,.i,ii.,n to » hat the H.lirew ,Sal,. 
b.iih had l»..,,nie iinihr i .ry sp... i.,1 hiMorual circum-«. «e ,l„ kn.iw from ,i calrmLir of the 
ini,.n-,,l,irv month r.liil rr. is that i„ month the Tih, 
Mth. igth, 3IM, aii,| asth ,l.,vs ha.l a 
mti.r, ami thai on them crl.iin ,ut5 «ere f.,rhi,l<lcn to 
Ih.. km^ ami others. Th..rc is the Rreatest umertaimy 
i\,"-'^''/''''''' ''P ""' *"^*' •li^'^rK'-nt renderinRS in 
C • ' '*"'^- ; ^'''"'l". A-.J /■'-' 19:,. Qm. dtkUtona 
i,Mili. jq/.i; but iheM. ,|.,ys, whuh are taken to \„- 
Assyrun >.il,l,ath5, ar.- ..ri.iinlv • - . days of rest of 
the hrart. and to all a,,p.Mrance „„hi,kv days, an.l 
expres.sly .lesignat-.l as su.h.' If, therefore. th..v are 
■Assyrian .SaUaths at .ill, they are ex.actlv op,«Mt,. 
n characL-r to the H.l.rew .s,,|,baih. which w,ai d.-scrilx^l 
by Hos,.a as a day of Rladnoss, and ney,.r eeased to le 
a diy of feasiinK .i»d ^..,-1 [Cp J.,stro«, in 
the artule iii..|itioii,.d U-low. ] 

liesidcj th.. vyorks alr.-ni|y niention«l, ref..rence should 

be made to W . I.oiz. (Ju.r.lwnum ./,■ *■,/,..„, S.,l-K,li 

8. Beeent '''*'' ''"" ' '^^-i*. "''''''' '.'l"-* recount of 

Literature. ''"••■\"."l"l"Ki'alevi,leme. Hirsihfelcrs 
/ /i. J .■ » ■, ' '^'■'"'■"■''^ "" 'h>-- eiyniol.„,.y of SaMnth ' '• 
UKA\ April i8g6. j.p. ,53-3,0). aicordmi; to (nsin.w 
inisunder,taii<l5 and nns,|uotes the 

I The others— accor.liiij? |., 
and ihe .-Slh. 

.wo IlVvl'f,",? ''""" ■'"'"''' " • ■';•" ."■■■" '" l^'" 'i"'" •h"r were 
iwo days a. th, new m. ,..„„„ „hi, h it «.,s ii„p,„per l„ fa,,, 
a I,^tx jays they arelucky ,l.,v s ; !,„, ,he „,>rcs,iun which he 

Ihc rest of hivl,o.,k does not rise .ibove ihis example of acumen. 

. Ihe /•/7,./f/, .SHi,4_jre the i7ih 


Now«rk(//„«, Ar.^ (l«Q4]a.«../)BI,r,«|iKM,k„n 
rrf , iirrrni lhe.Kirt nii.l lh,ii gromi.U v.,. *\„, jen,, n 
.x«../.,,.x,4.v/ rim., (fhiUihlphiai, Jan. 16, m,,, ,„.;,i«. Mmtt I. ,/ /♦,„/ ,ay,, ,,,, 
j.iiwn 1. .auli.,.1. ami rri..rv.,| <,i, |h„ ,,,«.„„„, , , 
hilnUMiun ,»igm of Ih,. Vil.l.iih, »hiih. h.i«.,,, 
'■.mW..| (V4,,./ ,^, ,,„j j...,„.^ ,„^ ,.,,^ xxvu,\ 
atlirm I he hfi.iKe »huh l.iiiikel laiU l.> ..,„„„,„, 
1.1. ..en iIh. IlilnhiiiLin alon.iii.iii.x.l.lMih aimI ii„ 
ll.l.rrw rest SihUilh, e,„l..a>..i,r, t„ |»,„it , „ 
II.' rein.irks th.. Il.h lal'h.iikon <|n<., ,„ f,,,, .^^ 
Ih,. Kill uiKiiium, loimy ihe i,|,,, ,,f propiii.,i„., ,, 
app...i«.|i,..|,i ,,f Ih.. dnine niiitrr, and he i> of .,p„ „„ 
tint the Hebrew .s,i),Uiih » I, orisi„,,||j ., u-f.un ■■, 
/ . . a .lay ol propiii.iti.,ii .ind ap|j,..i,riiirnl, ni.iik. i l,v 
alollinu rilr.. ,\| Ihi, M.l«e o« .lev.lopmeni it „ ., 
i.i.l.r.,ie,| at Inliry.ils of «.yen .lays. i,.rr.-s|«,i„' , ., 
with eh.inRes in Ihe ni.».ii . ph.iw. and wa« i,l. ,,■ ,| 
in .liar.i.i.r »ith ihe four d.iys m ..luh niotith i -th i .i, 
3l>t, ami jutlii ih.ii the aiby Ionian. r..(;.in|.-.'l .i^ ' ,, 
Mhiih I.I U. eoiiyeried into d.n, „f pr,i|,i,; ,, ,, 
Thire vi..rr als<i. h.m.i.r, other ;abb,iih.'in .In, i, 
as Ih.. \e» Years li.iy, i|,e I My of ,\t„ii,„i, ,„ ,„ .iml eiK-hth d.ij. ol the nnniial pil^'riiiiai;e t.. ii,. 
i'hi..r s.iiitiii.iry. 

'I he tioti. in (<.ni«.i|Ueiiie of prof.iuml , ! in^, , 
in e.,ii..pti,,i„ aii„,„i. the,., ,i ,|^ 
tiis|.,m ..f e..|..bratiiiK the .Sabbath ,u-,y ,eMi,i|, ,,„' 
irr,.s|..c|n.. „f the rel ili,,„.hip of the ,l,iy |„ the m. . ■,, 
plia„-s. l,..l |„ a eompl.t,. Mpar,iti,,n Irotn the .ii„ ,„| 
view of the S.ibb,illi, whilst the liitroihi, lion, ,it , .- 
l,iler [irri.Hl, of the do. trine thai the iIimi,,. «,,;,, 

er...itl,,n wtis i iplele.l lii six ilavs reniMyi.,1 Ih,. ||. I,,, , 

S.ihUith still lurthi.r fr.un ih,. |»„i,t at whi.h the,', ., ,,„ 
m,.ntofihec,,rr,s|» mimg llabi Ionian iiistitiit„,i,'i, ,„,', 
n.nie the |«,siii,,ii of the S.ibUiih in the I'ri..sih , , , .'. 
Thetiehl, li.,«,.,,.r. is still ,,|h.,i f„r further iiiK-siii,.,,!,,,,, 
( p also T.iv, • Ihe earhi.M f,,rni of the,|,,ii 
//'/.IS19,,/: Ii8<)s); ami C. II. W. b.tins. ./..i,,, , 
DifJi anJ IMumrnIs iwlio linds that th,. i„ih •U\ .„ 
the month was observed by nl»line(ice fr.mi s.iul.r 
liusiness ; but the dee.lj do not in.lie.ite th,. -li 
Mth. aist. and 28lh days were .Sabkithsl. ' ' 

w. K. ,s._K. M — T. K , 


f 4 n. 

8ABBATHEU8 (caBBataioc [BA]). iEs,1;i„, 

K«r.llOi5, SlIABBETH.VI, I, 

lABBATICAL TEAB. The Jews under th,. s,-, 011,1 
temple ol.servetl every seventh year as a .Sibtuth a^. „r,|. 
inc to the (|)ost-exilici law .,f Key. a.'.i-?. It « is ,1 
year in which all aRricullure was, in win. h ihf 
tieldi lay unsown, the vines grew unpriin«l, aii.l ei-i, 
the natural produce was not K.'ther..rl in. Tti u thu 
law was not obv.ry..,l U-fore the ia|itivitv we le.ini fr„ni 
lev. '2614/:; inileed, so long as Ihe Hebrews w,r,. , in 
ai: •■ultur,d [v-ople with little tr.ade, in a lan,l ofieo 
r.u .ge<l by severe famines, such a law coul.l 11 .t h.ive 
lieen observe,!. I.:y,.n in later tini,.$ it was,.,n.,||, 
pn«luctiye of great ilistress I I .Mace. 849 51 ; J„s ./,/. 
xiv. IHji. In Ihe olil.T legislation. h.,wev..r, we aIr...i,lT 
meet with a seven y..ars' [x.rioil in more than ,.ii,c..n- 
nection. The r..|ease of a Hebrew servant ali.r sn 
years' labour (V.x.-Il,f. lit. 15u/:) ,,r.!c .1 
remote analogy I,, the Sal.Uiliial y,.ar. Hut in Kv 
'J.3io/: it is prescnl».d that the cr,,p of i-verv sM.iuh 
year (apparently the self-sown cropi shall Ik. l,.|i 1, r t!ic and after thciii for the beasts. The .liii.i.iue 
l«-i»,vn this and the lat..r law is the sey,.nili v«ir 
is n..i call..,l a .-in,I that is n., iihli..ati,n 
that all land i-, lie f.illow on the same In 
this f.irm a law prescribing en,, year's fall,," :.i ■,n,ii 
may have lieen an. leiiily observed. It is ..M,h.|.,! :ti 
f. II to the vine>ard anil the olive-yard ; but here tlit 


■■'■1.-' t. n.„ rod,.,,,,.' '.^.V'"" "'"* "''»'■>'«. In 

. r,,,.,n,.,, ,..r „,,. i.m,, !,/,'; ;';:'' "•"* "•"■«' 

" '"•• -■"»■ til... m ,1,.. .,A,.,„h , , "■ •'l'l'""-'"lv 

h*^lM tll'lLU ^. ''"Till HI MI (jl , I.,K1 

'I i!i..vprwM,-c,,rn,.| ,/, "/ 'i*'"-" i.,rni|,(i,,ii I 

. .,r« „.«,.. .,f ti,., « ;„ , ,1 ' ""', '"'' '•^/'"'■' Of ' 

''■■■" -.1 S.,l.Mn'- 1;.,; ,"'"■ ' ■■' ■■"""'^•r I 

.|U... d,.,i„c, '"•* """'« ^hich U e,ymol.,K,cally ; 


lAOK. The wi.,,. ,||«i,.„.,. , ,. 

y^;;.!/;' ^e^-—- '■''■'-•■•*. "'i.::;ni 

■ ); l.i.i » »p, I, 

•• (c&lfi f.Al), iK»lA,a Bv I- 
■.II ,n,i. ' " ••■"i.ojn KV = Kjra24i, 

l«A.|,, I II A I, , f.j J ^^. 

P'K..HIT(1.|1A//M.AI«. '♦'"'*'» ■"•••fc«raa,j; ,„ 

(ABIAS (caBiac [BVJi i Ej,, i. r»-_,-. „ 

IIV'MVBIAH, h J' * ""'■ '9 K* =a Ch. 8S9, 

■n.,.l.... and m.l.,il co.^ " , I'loL' "'""" "■■'"'^•' »■= -« 
>,,uUlu.n |-.„„ ,.,. * ""r".'""^ ""I .-.lit.jrial 

l"r.l.-rof( wMwiil .m.i !t '"'" ""' ^•;,.h' ,.l„. s..u"h"„ {;[!"'''>■ ;"""■'''•'" "" 
.'iRiruIof Si,.,,,,, , ih,. '■ "'"'^ " •"»" <h" 

n IN tfO., an.l „, s,.! „ , ? , s" -"' "".'^ "' ■'''™'' ■'"'« 
Kn.m Ihc ..r.lmarv ,„„|„ ,V;,..u"l,„' ''■'"■*'""">■". i 

" .^ 1-' .^). This »a, ., . ;'•„'';;, -^^'.'r'^' °f '■"»)' 

iwt- IlA/AKMAVf ,„i 1,1 f "f "" • 'i"ra>n,.t,i „ 

■he .r.,.l,.. ,„ ,„,.;!■ "'i'.,:;' ,■'•""•'* 7 .h.-,..n,i,.of 

""' i* f I- I.1..CV.1 a, Su.1 . r ,; ,,Tl?vu' '^'v"'- "' ' '"■ 
>iil.t,., kaaniah. aii.l Sal '.''■''- "^ ^ '■"'■""•''' : 


""■'■^ llii-s with tl„- i,„,„ V • ''''*'"« ""^hart, con- 

'^iin.a,,nca„:^ .,.:'■';;;;;;'' 'f'"';^''^)^ '-t i 
.-.^./aJWH::^,'^:;?^^^-' '':;: = ':!■"«: 

no cu„„..c>ion with .7 u of .h^ '"..'; ■■"","■ ''■"'• °f '^°'"-«. 
«6(.„d,. ^''•"«' *«= ShARAK and ISSACHAK 

2. A son of Obkd-f.dom (4,.,, ) , Ch 9fl / 

.'u. .,r..i. „,„.^„^, .^M^ - j,y; 


^•AC.«nT,K„ir), Dan.. „.,.,, ,. m, ,., 

-d, .::Ki-^;;;—;'-r-«7 -■--;; 

, •■' baK fcp Manhk:. K 1} ,. s". . " u' ■""'''P 

Ihp rea.Irr, kimicmIIv ,,;„„, 1 ', , *"'■ H'l'TririK 

'V'i 'v>T..Ms,':;,', ,,,';•■ •;;''V''';- m.., kv 

I "f ".c Barnu-n, .'..nL: ,,' .i, ';;''" l"" l'"' '■""^■■• 
I ••ii.Ii-av„ur to a,t,T „„ il. ■ ""' "'^' ""I I" 

iV,.'''i •*• '" ;""■ ■' M'"ii.'..c (1 cir'-i 1 ' .. "' '"■ ^■».• 

l».ur 1... ,n Mcknc« (,1, J-,,,) ,,"■-.' ').»hri, ,,„„■, ,„j„,^. 
.h.= r<.nd.n.{ of ihc dulht,, ((„.,:",-,. , L "l.',''^"'" f''"'"! by 

a-Aworwl ^ t^ •,'•;• I-a^'n); l.„„„i,lv h,s r^ 

gamMt. "'•"■''^■J 'he l..ilf-nake.l ap,...,!...,. ,,f Z 

Wearers <.f ti... / - j("-"-"'iit or ine 

"' "' ""• '^'."«-l,ke l,.,tlii„<f. 

- .-■ "■■- — IIK 

wi.". ,1,. , .„ wt'i.",^,, ,'?,: ',i;V' ,V'5 "■.'.'•v -;->• "f ^'^ 

the \4nou, .......iiii,., , ,■ ' "..^'.><<. ll.i.,J„t, ii,„ ivnlai,; 

synonym ■...«,//iuM".«ur, .^ f''-„"',L'" '';'''• "''"■" "" 
<-«>ACK-, j). "'•■ '""^f 'h.i.. fouitvcn limn 

t^ml.andcp-lKNT, J , ' "■"'*'' «" flLlLlA, I J 

' ■'».»* is fretiui-nilv us*.,, ui.h /. . , • . 

rac«s being \l«cri!..7 by ^tr^'l "'"'•"";: ""= '""- 


Prac«s being .1«cr l.^r by ^tr^'l "'"'.""i ""= '""«• 
','■20,). The ,\!,„i„, (on^Cl"^- u-'m" J'N-ao,, |,,| 

-' .n).»al„in.clo.hcovlrinJ^l,cL,' ''" ' ''"''' ■'"/ 
Kli. «.i-^, with lhedel<rrmin.i;v.i*h ''.■• '"■-470 4»i). In 

'h. ir.-.n,latormi»,;»;k ,i;^."*,''J:'Vhj;' ■i'"!"^"" (-"oWO, 




m.;ir {.^r. D,-s.->4r>Jf. 5.171, :iri(l ilu- <iri-^v .[.Mihiii'ss 
rest-nibli'd the pn.pli.-is K'nile whuli, iji Id. lii.j. is 
worn as ii mark of liiiniill.ilioli by ,1 kiiii,'. N'c- (JlKHI.K. 
rilc s.ickiii.lli of ihf t)!', llureloir. iiiiiM iid Iv 
rfj,'<l as in any way akm 10 a saik or saikiloih in 
Ihi.- niocl'-rn -rii^o of ili.- «oril, aiul. in t-nil<-,noni inn 1" 
aMuri.iin III.- oi.qin of ili.- iii>t..Mi of w.-ann.,' mu ii a 
.sjarl.. »,■ inn^t not U- inl a»ay t.y ih.: ,arlv I hnstian or 
th.- lal.r with whicll it is ial.-.l. ' 

rii.'t lon^crvali^iii prevails I i.ii;,s[ it, mallt-rs ..f . ijll i-. .1 
f.ihiliarrvp,Ti>ii, 1-, an.l S, hually, \..» a, I,, a...l Kiil.K.'/A ...i 
. K.JI -■;) faviiir the vt.'w ll,.- jai is lite i:l..tiiitik' .)t an 
.-ailKT hatr-turi; .tl.ii ti.n..-, wl.i, h, il.,,iii;ti it may ioiii; t.a\c .,...- 
Iiuuc.l li.l.cuMni ,.»■., l.\' »l. He. ai,.l llic po/.r, r |>eii|ilc uas 
!..-vit1|k:Ii".« .iil.n.l.vl . A, .-pi i- .iially l.y the rilliT« .lasses .in 

«|«;tllic!,.,s (ep Dkkss, f .., e,,l. iijh, n. 4). A li. r 

Mvw Is jwssilile. 

It is to 1« ohsiTv.'.l (,;) that th.> <-.)m-s[).inclin(; is .■ss.-iiiiallv a .li.-s, for a sa.i. 1 ; (I'i 
tlial thi- |>r.i|.li.ts «or,' a i; sn alar to the i".;* ; 
and (, I Ihat tll.; sa.i,-.l .-i,!,,,.! rtvlf was | olu-i- a 
niw loiii-iloth (S.V i;pii,.ii. ji I. anil <|i T. C. K.k.Ic 
y/'/. •JI4I-M ii)02\). On these 1,', Ihirtf. ;.■. it 
seems .-Mri-mely prohahle that the i.ii was : -ea-miii.nllv 
a Kami.'nt. ami it ai;n-es willi this , tcTpi.'lation 
that we rin.l it uorn l.y |K-ople (.f all -la-ses on aiiv 
espeeially sol.-mn .K.iision (ilii. 21i6 J • l.jlian. it'j 
I Mace, .-i^; 2 Ma.v. 10j5 i-te. |. | 

In view of whal has Us'ii sai.l .'Kewhi-re on the j 
ing of ideas of h..liiiiss npon siieli a matter as dress.'-' a 
3. Why worn l''"'^''"''' '"<l'Iiiiaiion ..f the eustom 
iniy !"■ allempleil. liariiients that 
hiv.' e.inie- in caitai't with holy Ihirejs an- iinHt lor 
I oinnion use, and in .'arlv Vralii.i .■.rliin ril.'s w. ri' |xt- 
IVirined citlier in a ii.ikeU state or in clothes reser\.-,l for 


the Thire are some indications that this h. ; i 
(;.«).! amonu th.- .iiaient ll.-l.reus^ an.l if we Uar n 
mind il,|. ;,■<■ ,s at tiin.-s of j^rcit tr..ul,, 
whi-n V,ili«e., help or loTi;i\i'ne,ss is Usoin;ln, «,. ,,,,,1 
pi'rhaps siirniisi' such oeeasions were forni.-i,. 
.uvoinpani.'il l.y a saenlicial rite wh.-n .i s|«eial (jarl. , i 
»!■ iii.iy ju.lj:,- the ia i.leiii-.| woiil.l ii.,i i, 
iiini It Hoal.l 1»- jusi ,u svuh a liiin- .is this i!: , 
th.' iiidiMdual VM.iiM le,l liniis,-|f hroiiylu inn. el,.-.,. 

c.nt.Kt Willi his d.ilv. .\. .ill ,v,,iis, ulc.i^ e.. ■,,, 

with \ioisliip of (he dciil ,1,1 „,,[ ,.,,v,.r the wh. 

(,'101111, 1, 

I he kini; ,>f Nineveh i,m,.ves his royal nianlk before >l,>i,„ 
the ...i<- (J„M.:).),1 the •h.ilv,..,.isi.„i re,|uir.-s ■ h,)ly ' rh.i , 
..'..1 llie pfi,.,.,ry ,,|,j,-, 1 .,(- ihe of ti.,: t..r.... mis is , 

?l;!h:;;Ch;::',;''''^'^'-'""'"-'^''''-" "-'"'■ ^'-'^ 

That the nsi-of this s|M-eial trarment .shouiil h.ive h,-, ,, 
retain.-d loni; after th.- i,-i /(k/i, i ,lii-il out is i . i 
without an,il.,i;v. Ih,- i; di-.av is hirtli.-r ill,, hy the l.nt that .soiiieiiiii.-s i-v.-n it was tli>- ensi,,,,; 
not 1,. »,-ar tin- .l,:i- Imt t,. lie iip.!n it|2.S. UI i,. Is. .".s ," 
and in Liter Jewish times the len.liii),' of tlu- i;,,; 
ni.-iits eoiiliTie.1 to .1 small slit (Ni.waek, //. ( 1 , . 

.-S.-e Ih,- lileralure at ihr eii.l , .f M,.irms,, C'im.,ms- , . , 
N-hwally. /',., /.,-,«,„ „,„ /, ,/. /.w^ ( ,(,„..), ,,^ Fr.v.'/ ■ 
.S,-,-/,-«4-/,ii,,'-, , elc. (i;V ), ti //. 

t»n s.ti-k, ami n.ik,-iiness, ip laslri.w, /f. t /'/r---.' , .■- - 
(l9ui), »liieh apiwarcil siiiee the ahuie arti, Ic was wrilleii. ' 

S. .\. r. 
SACRAMENT l.<.:i-r,imin/um, the \'g. renderini; , i 
HiujTnriov III Kph. 1q Sj ;,,2 Col. l-.,; i Tim. 3,6 k. -. 

1 -- . 1 r 7 I. .See .Mvs I l.KV. J 3. 

SACRED depot.) tC,,r.<)n aTiin.Sis RV. .s.^. 
C'l> W .\NL) L'Xia.K.XN, S t, 8. 

Intrniluclisry (I 1). 
.Sae.ilites,,f,„,,i,.„|s(|| .,). 
.Springs.,, rill, ,s IK 4/). 
IV. 111...:- rile (S 'I. 
PrnleLliun l.y hl,j,„l (j 7). 




WiM aiihiials .mil sp,,ils ..f war (§ S). 
Isr.l.-i ill ( .1 i.-u\ii : (# y). 
.\i:rieultiiral Livilis.iii,)ii (| u,). 
/^,-';i'i an,! ',V,i/i(|( ../.). 
Vieiims ,,hl.itii>[is'(ji ii/t. 
Seasons and oe.asions of sa, rifice (| i^). 

Worship (5 ,6ir.). 

FouniliriK of kin);,l,ini : cfTect (i 11,). 

rnrci^n iiilliu-ni.- i^i J,^). 

Sscvenlh leiaiiry l.,«s ; K/ck. (J .-,). 

iH-struction of temple it 2.-). 

Inir.Hliiclnry (I 2 ;). 
<)(Terii)4 in general : sjweles (S 24X 
.Saer.i pill, Ilea et privuta (i 25). 
I. I' 

Uuriil and trespass ..(Tering (| a6 /T). 
.Sill. •Teiiiii.Mj yin). pi.i, ulalS 28/-). 
Peace olTering^ (i 290)1 

.-\sa K.ft t,. tM»l(|| 41). 
.Sai-r.lli i.d f.-asts (t 4^). 
I!l.i,.,l,)f vi,lini()i 4-,>. 
Propiti.uion and c.\jii.iiion (S 44). 



lewish sairificts : the Gospels (| 54) 
i'anKS s-s), 
Hci.reivs (i 56). 

ThankofTerint: (< i:U-\ 

Ol.iaii,,nsand lil..,li.-ns t|i| 3031a). 

I-rankineense; salttjS 31,^). 
ii. PuhlH It : 

Itaily hok«:.-^tists an.l ohlationit (| rj). 

Sal,l..,lhs an.l feslivals(|| ,3). 
Shewl.r«-..ii IJi ^4rt). 
Peculiar ol.lati.ins (| i^fi), 


KiTecl ,,f s.ii.titi,e()l 4O. 

Theory .'f l,h».,l .ilonen.enl (H 46). 

ElTlcac\ ,>fs..i:ri(i, e : p.ipiilarlwlief(j4;). 

The pi,,phels(8 4-:i. 

Persian ami (irrek peri.-ds (J 4,;). 

!\". S\i KIKUKS I.V NT 

Death, -fCiirist : I'.iiiline Kpistles(g 57k 
In lie'. reus (4 ^31. 
In 1 Pet. t« s,,). 

BlMlography (s f>j). 


I.ihali .ns(f ,0. 

Incense ; (ji 3^1). 

I'lil.lic piai Ilia (( (7). 

S,-aiK-B,,at; reil heifer (| , ., 

Installation of mi. sis (j „,„). 

Consecration ,.f altar (H j,;/-), 

Peace olferin^s in .sacra puhlica (ji 41). 

Sirach ; Phil,. (I t,„), 

^."1 Isoflaw: eftica, yofsairiti, elii- 

.Moral ami r.-li^;i, -iis e"li,liti.-iis ,.| .11., 

How d,M?s s.lcrifl.-e e.vpiale'? (| sjl. 

Johanniiic writings ()} 60). 
Cietiesia of l.le.. (S ta). 

I iiisroRY OF s.\rRnTCF. in ot 

The I. -nn • s.K-riii,,-' may with etvnioIo(;ieal propriety 
hi- .•iiipl,,v,-d of ,ill oflerinKS t.. lioil; in eonimon use 
1. Introductory, '" ''^'"""-'s s(K-eiii.-,illy that .lass ,,f 

ofrerinj;s 111 which ,\ \i,tim is slain 
ci.rn-spondiiii; to ll,.- ||,-1,. ,^^j* njt. • slau(;lii,.r ■):-' In 

' (p S,lueally, /.,/.f, „,„ 4 ,f. T,„/,. „ f. For the e irlv 
l li-.iaes see Smith. /);, I. Ckrui. Am. s v 

AND rxf ,;,^^''.■"' ^"^' ' '"■■'"■ ♦ ^' ""■' ' P ««""»">■ CU.AN 
S See WKS /;/,■,:-. '.'1,,2, /;,./, Sem.Bl, ,n/ 


the present article the word will be used in this ni,.re 
restrieieil whilst ol)erini;s of (;ram., l,i..i,l, 
.jil, and the likeflleli. minh.ih\ are callrsl 'ol.iii: ns.' 
The term ' olt.-rini; ' will U' einploy,-,! as th-- e,|uli,il. I'l 
of Ih.- i-oinpr,-li.-nsi\e l\'rKin, as well as in such plii 1 ■- 

as 'tmrni ,,IT,-rinir' Co.'.iit. holocaust), i»-:i, ii..::i-.: 

(-V/,-«), sm olhTint; i^.itt.ilh). tr.-spass otTi-rini; (<<"";i 
For cnveinence. cert.iin s|»-cies of oflering an in.ile 

1 Cp \Vi. .■li:."1 JO. when- the kini; tear, .-ff kii 
n.yal gannenls. and clothes his h.«ly in the ■ /al.imu ih,- -!i. - 
..f the penilenl. \Vi. (../ ,■//. 44) ,,..,j„n „,„ ,^3, /..,;,i;.-,.. ., 
* t — >..!r.-re Kiosiicd by jjff;* (-pi;-)- 



' <"T. Talkkna. , ,.;s ; and Vor H . T"""' '''"'- 

-=^» w„h .1,,. £:^'<;r::^; '■•"^'" "r "- P- ISS 

c". c ^2 tiL' Lt:;":r 'v^'' ""■ "'••- 

2. Sacrifices l'"'^'- ■'' '"'''" '^""'•■' Thr^T, 
of nomads, '"'■ru-.l,,-.! ii„. ,„.,i, n^.i „r ,h,.|,. ^l,, 

I' ih,- .si„ri,.s of il„. „.„r, I I '"" "' """•' 


'•"^'"•"■•; tl»TH,it„ Iron, ., ', '■'■mp.utor 

> I .1 ki,isr„,in ., ,i,,„|, , I , ,. 


111 ""• liiMory of ||„. rxoilns M, . , . 

kinj,' l<j li-l the' I 

4. Spriiif 


lll<- l-i;;. pli;, 

■"!'"■" '"'<IV;,h«,-, •I..11,,. Inllup. 

!•"■■ !..■ |.rnh,|, . .";'•*'."■'" »;<^^ a year or tuo o|,| ; 

h-';" U-., .„r,.,„^. ,1,, „i|J. , ' '7^ '-'■"■lH.> , ,, ,„,, :,^ 

■ ^'-- "■• ill,. A-, ,,, r .,; ' v; ; ■'""^'- '-"■ <""•■■ ). 

er..ii c H^t ... i t , ■ ''<'''"ituine\ • Sn..i, L ii 

•\r.,l, ,.„.„„„ |, 1^1 "/„,.• "^ f-'-^'"i. : l..r „„>],., I, 

Ar^.-i., nfsc-tn: (u.lis^ /',!., L' '' '■"'*■'•■ """Chty 
«^,r,,. ' ■^^""''■•''■•Sy;, lA,lAr,o^A^„•|■„,„L.,^,_ ' 

, 'y ihe Liter mtylification of if,;, .- i. , . ' : 

,6,/ ^'t I.VO rr.d„.u„> in /.„,„ ,„ „,;; . WKs „,./;. i,„.fl,, 


Ko mil 
♦• Spring '"""■" <"'<n'ah«,-, 

sacrifices.' J'"'' i»M'i.n,.- or «„i, „„. .„,"„.;i':';i.;:^ 

"'■" »'■■ -..,,j ",;■•• ,V""'-" """Kills,..,,, 

1-1.«1 .n..„„„„„: ,„,, /,,„■ /'{? ,^, '..' -/'" 'Mul,. 
«as ihi- srin,,,. of il„. .....r • I ""' si'.i.viii 

Hal,vlo„i,„, .\,'„| ■ '•^''' "'"'■■-l-^'Hlint' lo il,. s,„,„. 

M.n:,;;.:;;;:;;^:;;:„::;-:::i;i,::'r 'r ''^i'"' -•'■ '"•■ 
'ia>-.i.hon.o,,,,,K ,N':,',ri;;'h:o>'''V''r''^''' 

.uci«^,f4j:' ,;t;i™r;i;- ''''■^'"'•^'''■'■^- ■■'•''''- 

•---.h:';; ,,^'Z":;^ ;^''^:■■''^•■''''■■••''-■■ 
• \nioi,(; 111,. .Syria,, s ih.. ,.l,. i r 

lli..a,.,,Uas,nr;, ; '' ,,^^/.''v"■'"'^^■* 
i ^O M..rra„ ,1„. „,„ half of ' NR ; "■J^".,-^"'"' ^'" • 

a. Ih. sa„,o"™so„.T "''"' "f ""-■ """'•■^" ^-""l'^ falls 
A 'l.-r .•"nn«,ion iK.tu.,.,, ,|,.. „,.„„.„ , , 

f>-liv.,l«. I„„ .iKo uf \r., ., !^ * :'"^'a,,,l...Kr.,..|„, .,,,1, „l„„.a 

■'"" il,..i ihc „se ,r ,1 . , ;i'"~V" ^"■"",1 f.„ ,1„. .,..„„, 

-socia,i„„ „f r itiX 3 ^^Ca-'rw:';'^ "■ "- ""•" 

^^»^Cp „„„|„„ d..crip,i„„, of ,he ,acr,fices a, ,h. „,,,„„ 

J j; i« -i^A.-.ii'.^: „:';:'''■■• ---^ •'" '"cr., m^:n:jr. 

t^irw, „„, pi-culiarly .Vmi.ic. ' '"""•<'' arc, of 


0. Firstlingi 
at them. 



fi'^ I- I'.issovfr'l iiiiil th,- Aral) K.ij.ih satrilucs has 
li<-.ri ih.«n;lit to \n: .Maldi^liicl l,y 
inidc-iH.- that lnjth »itl- primitivdv 
i'ir.Tim;.s of liritlint;s.' In tin.- I'cTita- 
tfuih. laws pri-MTihiii),' ihi; ik-chcation of tirMhnijs 
Maiiil ill juMaposJtioii to orchiiann's lor the l'<-a,i of 
L'nkavL-nrd lin-ail or thi' Passovur (sie KxJiliS /: 
I)t. I.'ii9-.., 16,/; Kx. ]L'4j-5„ ]:i,.i-io It ,, M-i"): the 
slayiiii; of the tirsthoni of thf Kijyi.tialis has Iki'ii 
iiiti-r|>rrtctl ns a reprisal upon thiaii tor withiiolihi 
from Vahwr. by their refusal to j.t Israel fjo. the tirsi- 
hiiKS that were his ihie (see Ia. ;i ,5 ^ , 20 1024^!^; 
\\ellh. 80 K It has lieell silouii. however, liTider 

I'AssnvKK (S 81, that the passages eited, thoni;!! eoni- 
patihli- with such a theory of the original i haraeter of 
the I'asso\er, hy no means reipiire it ; and opposin*; 
Considerations of much weight are to Ije drawn from the 
l~ruliar ritual of the Tassover (see lielow. S 6), in 
which — to name but a sinjjle iKiint- oin- \ictim is re- 
Muired f,>r each household, rich or poor, whereas the 
iniinlier of (irstlinijs must have varii-d with the owners 

Nor is it satisfactorily established that thi'Arab Kajab 
sacrifices were rirstliiii,'s. It is true that the term 
'ilir.ih. by which these victims are usually desifjnated, 
Is by some le\ico^■r.l|)hers made eiplivalent to Jiira , 
lirstlint;.'^ This is, however, nothint; more than the 
confusion which fiec|uently occurs in their aecouiils of 
the religious customs of 'the times of ii;noranci-.' and 
over aK.inist it must lie put the fact that not onlv the 
traditionists' but also the le.vicons generally distinguish 
the two clearly enough. 

The Passover diftired conspicuously from al! other 
Isr.i.lile sacrifices. ,ind preserved to the last, essentiallv 
6. Peculiar ""■''''"''''''■ ''* primitive peculiarities. In 
pjjg the earliest times, the c.ircass of the 

victim w,is prob,ibly roa.sted whole, either 
over an open tire ■ 111 a pit in the earth (as In the 
modi-rn .Simantansi, .ind the llesh sometimes eaten half 
raw or merely softened by fire, Dt. I67 prescrilie, that 
it shall be boiled, like other sacrifices. This, however, 
did not prevail : I' pn-serves the primitive custom while 
guarding against abuse: the I'assover is neither to lie 
eaten raw nor biiled in water, but roasted in the fire 
(i:x. 129). with head, legs, and inwards. The .s.icrificial 
feast held by night at full moon ; the participants 
were in their everyd.iy garb, not in ceremonial api)arel ; 
iveryihing was done with haste : the whole victim was 
devoured— including, doubtless, in ancient times the 
• l/.l which in Liter ritual were offered to God 
by fire, and therefore strictly forbidden as fooil ; only 
the bones must not be broken ; * the Hesh must all W: 
consumed l)efore daybreak ; if aught remained it was 
to U- burnt up at once; with the Hesh eaten— not 
origin, illy unleavened cakes, but —a s,iiad of bitter herbs 
(Kx.129/:, cp Nil. 1)11/, also Dt. Ili4^i.» 

With this singiiliir ritu.d tieen compared the 
description given by N'ihis of the customs of the .\rabs in 
the desert S. of Palestine and in the Sinaitic [K'ninsula 
in his own time— the enil of the fourth century ,\.i.. 
They sacrificed a while ciiiiel to Wims the morning 
star; after the chief or priest who pr.sidrd at the 
sacrifice had slain the animal, all rusheil upon the 
carcass with knives, heweil il to pieces, and devourc-d 
it in wild li.isie, hiile, inwards, hones, and all, th.u not 
a scrap of it might be left for the rising sun to look 

1 WKS A',-.' .SVw.iSi, 227/ n. 464/; Wellh. P,W.ii\ 86; 
N.;w. //.•) ■-' 147 ; Ili-nz. //A 460/ 

- r.h.'iii.iti,.:,. X,,tc .-lis., tlii iilenlical custom described in 
the / iimier/mr. in the /,// (3 3(^-.) under alinjli. 

■I See Hokli.-,ri, ed. Krelil, S ^14/ 

•• (".jnlrast ihe Arjij sacrifice of Nilus, 
N,:'. .SV/.M2'. 345. 

^ .Sec the description of the Pa>' 
I.iFis. Petermann. kfis,-n. 1 2;: rr. 

" .Mii;ne, I'ntr. i,,-. T.l . i ;, cii H2 
Wcllh. //.vrf. 1 ,,j^. 

below. See WRS 
ver of the modern 
\VR.S Ktl. iVw,i-'', 2»i /: ; 


In I-',\. 1221-27 lullim.itely Ironi |i the elders ii,. 

bidden to Like sheep or go.its, one lor each clan iw;. 

7. Protection /''f'''''!, ^I'l'-Klner them, and. dipp,,,. 

by blood. '^ l"i"ch of herbs r hyssop) im,, u,.. 

blood, to striki! it upon tho hniel ,ii|,| 

iliKir-iiosts ; Yahwe will not suiter the destro\.T 1. 

enter a house on which he sees these blood-mai k- 

This. an editor adds, is the historical origin and e\ 
pl.inalion of a custom in use in later times ; with 11 h, 
connects etymologically the name 'Passover' (/.'.,;/,. 
because Vallwe ' passi'd over' (/)./.,;//) the mark- 1 
houses of the Isr.ailites (l';x. I224-27I. The object ..f 
the rite is to protect the inmates of the house from ■ ii,,. 
destroyer'; that is. in primitive conception, from i|,. 
demons of dise.ase and diath. customs \m\\, 
the same motive are found among many [»'oples. ' 

Whether this rite was originally coimectetl with ih,- 
Hebrew spring feast is not! J, who prescril.. , 
the marking of the houses, s,-iys nothing about a le:,^;, 
and, indc-ed, repeatedly insists the festival .1 
Yahwe cannot Ije celebrated in Mgvpl ( K.\. fij 82 = -..- , ; 
P orders that the blood of the lam'b slain for the Ir.i-J 
be applied to the <loor of e\ery house in which u 1, 
eaten iKx. I27, cp id. a direction which Jewish tr.adii, m 
and practice regarded as appljing only to the ' Kgvpn n, 
P.issover' ;'- l)t. m.ikes no mention of this use of li..- 


blood at the P.vssiivr.K (,/.r. . ii 131.3 u is not iinlik. Iv 
that a rite originally occasional, as in the outbre.ik ,f 
an eimlemic. came to l>e jiractised annuallv for th.. 
protectitm of the household during the c •. ing veo. 
and ill connecli.m with the old spring feast.'' "lli^ 
name /A,;/; probably belonged, notwithstanding 1 s 
etymology, to the rather than to the !;'... ,d 

Some Semitic peoples. Ixith nomadic and settle-l, 

offerc<l in sacrifice animals taken in the ch.ase, (lazeli,-s 

8 Wild ""^^ offered bv the Babvloii,.iiis 

animals- (.'^s"'"». .AV/. Ji„h..As^. btii, ;,„,i 

spoils of war I"'"'''''''V ''>' "»-■ l'li<enicians bSacrili. 

■ Tirifls. tV.V I ti.-i 5 9 Hi75; cp ls\\. 
§ 4. n. 2). Among the heathen .\rabs, also. g.i... 
were sacrificed, but were regarded as an inferior . ■ 
ing; men who had vowed sheep or goats from ■ 
Hocks sonietinies sub.stituleil ga/elles.^ The n.ilii. j 
forefathers of the Israelites may have made sum! ir 
otferiiigs ; but there is no remiii'isceiu e of this in ih.. 
OT. The requirement that the blood of anim.ds t.ik.i. 
in^ the chase lie poured out and covered with earth 1 1., i. 
17 n. cp Dt. I2i6 24) is not necessarilv an atienu.iie.l 
survival of a s.icrificial rite; the belief' that the soul 1.; 
in the blood (Lev. 17 14, on which sw below, § 401 is 
reason enough," 

.s.icrifice was doubtless offered also of the sp,,i| of as in later times (i S. 1.1,5 2, cp I434 ; se,- .,;>,, 
(len. Hacj). Simil.irly the .Arabs cm their reliirii li. in 
a foray s.icriliced oni. Ixast of those thev had tak.ii . n.l 
feasted on il liefore dividing the Iniotv.^ The Ar.i!.- .,f 
whom Nilus wrote took by preference a human \i.l:ni. 
a fair youth, from among their captives; in defauU ..f 
such, they ollered a white camel.' The Carthagiiii.ins. 
after a victory, sacrificed the f.iirest of their cipl . ~ 
by night as burnt offerings (Diodorus Siculus. 20- ; 

' ^ee. ,..^'., Zinimeni, A'c/'/r. 'J no, 26. col. 3, /, 2.j/ ■ V:\u.r: 
/'.-■■. A i.'./.o.jiiS, etc:. ; Docinhty. Ar. /Vj.'l 4.,,4-..- ■_' , . ,; 
Kini.'sity, '/rrtr-cA m llVv/ .'7/>-/.vi.444 4-1. .■\ tare:, c . ii. 
of material is found in Cliriiss. I'rimilivc Semitic /,'.,,. , 
I I'-itay, chap. I.'")^^ 
'^ So also the m..xlern Samaritans : Pttermann, A't .•>.»;, 1 . -, 
•' See helcnv. ;i 20, 

* .\ very similar ceremonv at a great annual fcsti\„l i-i 1 au 
is»;d liy I .arc.lasso de la VeRa, Coiinii K,„/,:<. 7 

Hinlh. Mu\illakah. 6g, with the sch.jlia ; al-l...!'.!i a 
/,/...(« vi. I'll 0. 

« Cp the hiiryini; of hlo<jd drawn in Wood-lellini;. or li 11^ a 
ri.-.s.;.l.leed. ,-.<-.. l).,ui:lity, Ar. J>,s. 1 4.)2 ; Kinnslev, //..■■,:. 
mjl ,.<f A/ 

l IV.'*'''' ''''''''• ■''■<'"'■"'. 4Q'. and the Arab authors then- . ir.-.!. 
» .Mlgne, /•„.'.-. (>. 706,2/ (,41 c«Ji; see WRS A'«'. .V,;... i, 
362 rr. 



r^gardcJ .. as.un,,'. „f .his k " "l T"""T '''" 

9. In Canaan: ■""' »■'"•"' '>'""■«•.-. ami give us com- 
source.. PammHy full and trustworthy ir.fornia- 

Hy tlUMr si,lc we ay^il.ce't.r'"'' ,"'' ' '''^^ ^'»-- 
l-lK'-s. a,„l in th , a r 'rcl sir ' "«"'''"""^ '" 

s.H.r„..s (especially in 'icf M a, •>"•». '? ','"• ^•"•"-• 
f.asis and otTeriiRs with .1, , * '''•''''"« ""h 

;.i,le_remains t,rk ""'er-no, inconsid.r- 

Iu<hvansanct,:;ri:' o^,^:;;X t '"^"""^ -"^ 

'^n:,e practices so S.^- H^l^d'" Th """l"'"'' 
""■•ily. pan,, vivid P^turesif ,t 'e i^Mon of'r'"''"'' 
ttMWX.rar,es, with all i,s almscs "■ ™"- 

.« . '•'ri- c. paWe of .supportniK enormous 

10. Agricultural ""'"'^ "P''" "i"r ri,h and .•xiensiv.. 

CivillsaUon. P--'5''"-<^s- Much of the,l ,s verv 

.n!« , takn.K Isses i ' of '.'. ""' """''™" """"'^'^ 
l^:i>rsof theso Th? '' ''""""">' '" '«"•"<-• 

'•..■-n,e. nruiestS^rrr-'r^--' 
Wilderness of |udah tl e n w '•'*-'''''' ■""' "»"• 

.l...fl,v shepherds even after ter"'",'" ";"""""' '" '« 
<.ons ; hut'n, the cen h^ ,„ f'^;;" .'T' "^"""^'- 
m the .\. they were soon con He I „, ' '■•'*'-^""" ^">'' 
living' from the soil 'n I 'V *v''' "'"'' "^ ''''''■ 

I-P>'lation of ,1,.°, „,,.''""■""' fr""' the older 

.-- and ,0 cuhi^r he «;™:' r" ''S'^r --' 

of U.c,r noma c ^fathJrs ^ "'"'"'-'?, ''""' f^'^"-'' 
"ffernms for the 1, mm , f ,7 ■,'""•■"'""' "^" '■^"''^■^ 
fe-.. of .he ht^ba "n'f ^^:r r k"" "" ^"^'^" 
Ar.imal s.,erifice is st 1 ,h • i' I'-^'^'S. § 4/1. 

«-sh,p, as we,.:: cTj rl V fro'T M "T"""'' ''"' "^ .ntie kei.t ns ol ' . ■ ""' '"*""-i'->l books; 

™..a. from';^v:jt"?t "i^:;:; -^!';'''-' - •'■'^ 

™i "in.- iin.1 .,il , J.. ^^ ""'" "f Krai" 

';■ ™ .0 ..: ™ i wrrr;: ""*.-"■" 

-■-"■-= :ziJz s££%- 

11. Species ••^ ^'^PO'' ">"re frer,uen,lv#„<r('a), a„,,rd 
Of sacrifice: "" '■""""«) to religions uses.* In dis 


ami sa, rilices and oblation, and frankine 

the house of Vahwi.' '^ "ankiiKeriM- , , . „n,j, 

corre,,«,n,li„«, l,v ,' '"'j "■"■•""l in *« l,y 6,,.„, „„ 

>l"nit,,„. animals for : ,] J h ', * '"i'. "-''I "' die killiMK „f 


forsonit'ofihem were ,, I A 'hstuicine names 

•i« of ritual .: ;: 1, ;; '^i^^-,r f '" "^'- ^ ■'""'-'- 

of s.acrifice as to ,h ''■''■nKed to certain varieties 

(cp Gen. C.^ Jer n ;r,""-' T"""' ^-^"'^■<-- 
thecuston, it«:h^„,.v,'^'',„^'' ''"'• l>"«-er ancient 
"f the sacriHcial inlT' l<""».'''lKe ..f the details 

-urces. i-oM;:;lr™^,;3'::^,'i ';;^>; •'■v-«i> '-- 

the siH-cies of sacrifice nn,l .h . ""' f^'P'^'iti'"), 

'- considere.1 WowM ^':,:;^rm''i^"" ^'"1" '" 
svstem ijS 23j^) P "^ '" ""= completed 

"•■MS "f sacrificial occ'l Vn '%''"«-) l" deMrii.. 

h..v. ,he phrases £•=>.£. nv r-'LV ,'" .""'"''"•""'-'- « 

Ik,. .nterpre,„s,„„n.., .he hJ, ;,,,,,•;:,■,, t,'^---^-. "ff".'nKS.' 
"f .he ,erh cV, ' !«. whole, suund "af, ■ t ' "'"'I''' "'™ 

"-'"-ive mJ;,;:"S^>/^;;^- " »hh .he „,eaiiii,. of'h. 
sacr,l,,e,„.a.:,l l,e a rHurT , ,;,,,,Tr'', ''■''^ ■ ^" ''"" 'h<^-<= 
h.m,_„r the payment of an?, . ^a , ':. I r„','!"'- If^'^^'' f™"' 
''■'J ^"'■'""■'"-acrifi, es l„ make ■ t ' 'I' ''">•"■«: 'I 

nivvnw,.' The w„r,l o, c„rs ako Vs ,•) "" ^'V' <"'■'■""") 
sacrifire (s-s, .»_,, „„ .,,, „ ''Ko as ihc name of a specie, of 

burned upon a raised ilur „ i' ," ^^' '" ^'*'"' """' 
'■r ear.l,--as upon a hlr^ "?''!'' '"■ ''™l' "^ =*"»"-'^ 
forntance was so Ue,; ,1, ,.','" """. P'^" "^ ""■ P^''- 
"i.hou, an ol,jec, , hJ t\ "l" ''''' ' ''""-■ ""h or 
■ofters.icriliee' ' ' '' '*™"'« «|uivalen, ,o 

;-ha.,h^ victim wa^ an ^^n^LJ'r'fi*^'"!;;, 

s|i. tics are often enuinenierl i, „ .o, ^-'''en. 

!'■•": 'ihevsh.all come "'""""'' toKeiher, .as m Jer, 

come , . . bringing Immt ofterings 

''-"'^TiH,, ,,"■*• '^V.. cp.\ „.:,,.,, .K.34,e,c. See 

™-i "» Wl;;^ J=;;--^ -"nical .,e of ,he word i„ ,he later 

.n older lime, ,l,e in.en.Ke stem hWr it;. ■„,, 
l.urn'_r.arely „i,h ,l,e ohiert (-'"I- V . „ ' ' *"'°'"' 

f'C.luently in the nronhet, of ,1, i" ' c ' •.-.'?-•'•'-'■' "'<^ii : so 
con.emporarie,. '^K, r exu .h" ""''■ ■"^"'""' "' ""'" 

;.H-erins Is prol,al,lv lo he reiianrCd >'s ,' „ "-■ ';'"■"""-' "' 'h«= 
.■'..od; ihefrauMntsmokei'a, , t •!"«"" "f '""veyi,,^ i, 
"fas tontaininc .he elhereil !,a , "-',",' 'a'" ""'es, tho„..hl 

Av/. .s,-„,.,3, 4, . see aisoli':;';'r:r f "''-• "■"■''"'"■ "'^^^' 

]qT,'!' "''f'r"^ ""■ '''"■'" "-^'-^ hoiled (. S •.,. /• , t- 
ll'iii. anil furnsied a iVisi f, r ,i J^" --f- ' '^• 
fan.ilv,, and ,., es s s" '''^^ f^''" ""I' '"s 
I" <'ana.,n,, »n . n 1 oil ',1 ^ " '^^ ^ ' ^"■- »• 
c-..l.ure. took their pla c^' i" he ea ,''l '"■"; "^'^ "' "^.i- 

-mals from the '.lock or t.r?^fcr7^V'?'r' 
.'-«a,n were ,„ part oliligatory oft, .^^.^i^:^:^* ; 

(f ;!■ .".rtl'^JilT"'""'"' "Planations in ,,^k., on Lev 3 , 

ea;l^'■mU■'l!,'!,t;;'Xfhl':vs'^'ffi"'''l';'"'^'*^" '■"'■'""1 ">••.. in 
cwdc.e I, insumcent to s„s,in .lie c^dusi.i^"- '' "* ' ^"' "'^ 




tith •!. etc. — ;n part oicasional an.l voluntary. Of 
thi'iii ,i!-,.i .1 |j.irt \ .It ,i;i\cri tn (lii.l. probn'ily upon the bv liri- (VI- Am. I5). I'lii- liri'.ul oflirt-il «a>. lli.ii 
wliicli thi- iiarticip.irits il thi; fc.w.! lhem-M;lM-s ale ; that 
is. in orilinary iMSfS Icavi-nuil lirc-arl; ' unlcufm-.l cakes 
when, for religious re.l.^.m^ (.vs in the m<i;ylH rea>t| or at 
a hastily propirecl an unex[x'cleil ijue.s', they 
ate their own Ine.iil ualeaveneil. The hreail ufferei'l 
was probtbly niolsteiie.l with oil or cli|ipeil in it, as 
the bread eaten by the wonliipiitTs (ep the i.uer rituals. 
§ joi. Of the wine .1 lib.ition ni.ide to IJod (Hos. 
!t4i. S.e Ix'low, iiS 14. 31 .'■ 

The peeuharity of the '.'.'.M (n'-vi is that no part of 
the vietini was used for food ; the tle^h as well as the 

12 Burnt s.ieril"ieial [xjriions of the inwards and 

offerins,'Siah.^"",'V""'""', ■ ,f , 

I he term IS derived from the common 

verb ■,/,',;// (:!*^'l, 'go up, aseend,' and signilies, ac- 
cording t.) the prevailing i"ier|)relation, the s.acrifice 
which (.dli ' eomes up' ii|xin the altar (Knob., Wellh. , 
Nowack, etc. 1. or which ' goes up ' in smoke to the 
sky lii.ilir. Del., Dilhnann, etc.). In (3 generally 
o.Xohat'rcijua. 6\o\-ai''Twtrtf. \'g. h.>lth\Tti.tiim, 

.Another lenn for the sacrifice given as a 'whole 
offering' '.o liorl is k.Uil ^-^^ lI)t!.'iaio iS. Tg I's. 
51 21; cp 1)1. 13i7 Judg. -JO+i), which appears as a 
technical term in i'h.rnieian also; see the 
tariffs of M.irsi-illes .ind farihage, C/.Vi. Iti.'ijs, etc., 

The whole burnt offering was naturally much less 
fre,|uelit lllan Ihe s.icrihces which furnished a for 
the worshipix-is ; it is seldom menlioned alone, an'' 
then in peculiar circumstances.'-' Oiliii.uily „• burnt 
offering occurs in conjunction with other sacrilices 
izi'.'.Uiim or „'llm!m); ,:>;.. 2.S. 6,7/ '^121 1K.P25 
2 K. 10=4, etc. It was ijrob.ibly originally an extra- 
ordinary offering ni.ide by great persons or on great 
occasions ( We. /'iv/J*', 701. The d.iily burnt ofternig 
in the temple .u Jerusalem (2 K. ItWsl— and doubtless 
at olher s.mi Inaries —was the kings daily sacrifice, 
anil f)!low'-l by mimy :i'hiA//n for the court and 
by priv.ite persons. 

The ritu.U of the burnt offering is not descril)ed in 
any ancient account ; it may be as.sumed the blood 
was treated in the same way as of the other 
sairiliees ; it is sU|iposed by txith the iia-T.ilive, i., JK 
and by the 1 -ws the tle^li .mil fit of 'he holocaust 
w-ere consumed upe-n the'' The h, .-. according 
to Lev. 7-', fell to the [irii-vt, and this is not improbably 
.m ancient rule ; it was, in fact, the only lull he could 
take for his services.* 

It is po-,sible at an earlier time the burnt offering 
w.i> burned on the ground or in a ])it, r.ulier ihiil in ,1 
r.iised ; this is .s.iid to have bet-n done for a s|K'cial 
reason at the d-dicition of Solomon's li-mple (I K. 
.S64i.» The an.ilogy of the human sacrifices at the 
Tophei (s.-.- Mni.Kcii, Toi'iiKr; cp. however, (ien. 
'2'J il, and tlie burning of the carcass of c.-rtain sin 
offerings without th, ..inclu.iry. mav aKo be noted. It 
is prob.ible. ho.ievr the burning of the h-.locaust 
upon the altar was ihe 1 aliaanile custom, adopted by 
the- Isr.u.-iites.'' 

Whelher the burnt offering was accoirpanied by an 
obi. lion of or by a libalmn is iincert.aiii." When 

1 s. In ; ,.\in, 45 : Icavf.-n^-d brra i in cenain .I'V/w/ziv e\ 1.-11 
in ' 7 r I, c[» -JJi?. 

'•I '. II. s.j,j -j-j ,j Xu. uvt t ,'/: juilj. tfi-, (la II 13) . .s. C14 

1 K. '1 4 Is ^^. 

^ Till- e.-in .-i.;s w-iN i)re\-iui!>lv rut up ; i K. IIsit?. 

* S) in till! s.i.-ritii-ial larilT'of C'.irlhaKt: (C"/s 1 1 7); in that 
nf M.-ir,eillcs rhe priest li.-is a fee in mDiiey, ami a part 'if ihe 
IK--Ii. whilst iho hide I..I01.1;, l„ lla- ..ITi-rer. 

" Sii also at Hiera[)olis ;, /),-a .Vj-r/o; WRS, A'.7. 
.Si-w.i'^ , 17^. 

« .\n ar2iim<!nt may [K-rhaps V- drawn from the si/e of the 

Can 1 ipiit." r.i, L.;.|(^r< tliit he.:.- iircn H;-.-.;-.-. r. .! 

' 111 I K. ^ti4 the wurils 'and the niin!i,ih' art- a gloss. 


it was part of a great sacrificial occasion thcue probably 
went with the olher sacrifices {t<\M/i/m}. The 
d.liiy burnt offering in Ihe temple m.ay have hail siu li 
an acconipaniinent ; but the e.-irlier custom .seems 1 U-t 11 to offer the mifi/hih daib as an eveniiu' 
oblation corres|)< .tiding to the morning 'e/,/A (si-e lirlou 
SS 'u. 3-1- '" ''"' l"'-s.ig''s which s|)cak of the burnt 
oMering alone (cited aliove. col. 4101, n. j), there is n.. 
mention of a minhah. Jiidg. lis./ 1:1 1,, if. cannoi In- 
all.'ged ; in pi, ices a nnal prepari-d for a guest 1, 
mir.iculously consumed by fire ; this may lie c.illed .111 
',<l.ih. but obviously no inference can 1« drawn as to iln 
ordinary of burnt offerings. 

The .animals sacrificed were neat catlle. sheep, .in I 
goats; also, at least in certain rues, tunle doves an I 

13 'Victims l'''^''""'*' •"'"'" '"'''''' '-''^-'b priKUred bv 
' dwellers in towns and cities. The choi- . 
of yiitiins for particular .sacrifices <jr occasions 
iloublless to .some extent legnlatcd by custom : 'in 
ordin.iry cases it was left to the worshipjx-r to deterniiii.' 
what his ofl'et ig should Ik', in aciordance with li:, 
means, his disposition, and his motive, or his previi.u; 
intention or vow. It is very likely an ancient rule llii! 
the burnt offering should be a male; though iS. ili, 
shows that it not ahv.iys so. .Sometimes v. rv 
young animals were offered even as a burnt offenni; 
(1 S. 7g, sucking l.iinbi ; but ordinarily, no doubt. .1 
m.itine aiiim.d 1 liosen for this sacrifice.' 

That the offeiing of a human victim as a holoc.ui<l 
was not unknown in old Israel we le.irn from the si, r-, 
of i.'iihth.ih, Jndg. 11 1,/ 14-40. The narrator repre- 
sents this s.icrifice as extr.iordiiiary, but does not con- 
demn it .as abhorrent 10 the religion of Vahwe.'- I he 
stilemcnt in l K. 16 u to the effect that Iliel. who m 
the il.avs of Ahab rebuilt Jericho, ■ laid its foundatiop.- 
with .Abirani his firsiliorn, and .set up its gates with 
;«.'gnb his youngest son,' hardly admits any other inter- 
pretation than that he offered them as foundatmn 
sacrifices, in accordance with a w idespread and persisii-i-t 

It il,«;s_ not appear, hnwever, that human sacrifices iv.-r.? 

freijuent in the early centuries of the I>rae!ite iM-rup,'Ui.,ii f The otTerinil hi' parent- of their own s, ,n- .ei.l 
d.iUkihters, e-ltecially the tir-tiiorii, ahout whi..h there is -j 
much in the pr-.phets ami laws of the seventh century. ^ w.i- i- t 
the recrudescence of ancient custom, hut a new and f .rei-'ii . --It 
(•iee Moi.KCH, 8 ^ jr.). The lesson of I'.en.'J'J is th t ll„ i.ih 
\ ahwe mi;;ht idaim e\en an only son. he clip's not require -!,~;i 
sacrir.Ce but ;.'-i.e[its instead a victim from the tlock ; cp .Mi. -• -. 
The evpi.ition of .s^.ml's massiiirc of the ( lilieonites l,v r!,- 
exeiuti in of sei, a of his ;ons .and Etandsons 'heforc Yahu, ' M 
the famous saiutn.-iry of (;il«-on (3 S. -21 o). important as ti..- 
st irv is for the iili-.. ,.f expiati-.n and thus f,.r s.icril'u; cm. ■ ;.. 
tioiis. IS itsi-if to he coii-iilered as a sacrifice. Xor i- rhe 
deii.lioii of the inhahil.ints of a c-.nipiered city— or an Isra.-'-tc 
city that ha- lallen int.. the wor-hip of other Eo,ls(l,)t. 1:1 i.-/':) 
-to the .i.ily hy s|,ui.:liter .-inil hiiriiina {hiyi'tit, .see Ilw) 
projMriy re.ianled as a f cm of sacrifi. e. 

The offerings of, oil, and wine which formed 
part of the sacrificial feast have U-en spoken of .ri.-..e 

14. Oblations. "1 ""'■" ""^"'''■'i"'^ 'S ' 1 1. There ivere 
also independent othrings of the prn- 
din Is of agriculture. Th- deity which „-ave the mi lei-e 
to mans laliour received frinn him portions of all ; . n'v 
when these h.\d liei-n iliily rendered conir! the res! !.- 
Used by the owner (see Kra/er. CoLLn lh':ii;/i-\ 'J : ~' 
4.19 ff). 

These offerings, which fill under the gencr,d h"iil of 
first fruits, were called by various names; firsl-frirb 
Ifiiiuiim. Kx. ;il2ii 'J.'iiQl, tithes (w,/,/oV,7Ml, pr-mc 
portions (r.'i,f/it, portions set apart {tfnim.iii]. aid 
others. The original distinctions are not always cli-ir; 

' Mi.iU .spe.aks of hurnt .)frerill.!S ..f vearlinc cjlo. ; ti.e 
d.aly hurnt offerini; in P is a yearlini; land.'. 
^ Jci'HTHAii, i 6. Com|.are .Mesha's sacrifice of hi- - .n, 

" See HiKT. On these s.acrifices cp Tvlor, I'liiii. Cu;r-''\ 
1 I '4 '^J ; I.iehrecht. .?'i/rr(.,'i.U-i#«,/c, 2S4^ ; esiiecialU s,ri,,ri. 

I las l!,,uopf.-r.' /tilsihr./. Rlhnnl. 30 ly^ (180?). 
-> Sec jcr. T31 I-:z.:k. '.'U V .■.':! ,.,//: l,t->. ls.,1 20-2, 


jT. r.i. 



Ihe <Iefinil,nn, „f I' an,l ,h,: Mi.hna n,av somotime, l;e 
5..s|K.-ct.-.l of making sysL-nialic ,liMTi.„,.ul,u,i l*t«,.,.,i 
I.Tins oncf liMwIy f,,uiv,,lent. Tla- i.ri.l.ncy »f tl,,- 
nuul <lrvelo|„„L-nt «n. to rr,l„c..- to r„l.- ;„>d measure was nn.L- .nor,. I,,,-. «„,! ,,, ^nvt-rt mto n tav lor 
1..- siinwrt of ih,- .IcK-v, «h,,l forrneriv, as a Rift to 
■!.,-. Inly, had actuall> lall™ in uhol,- „r a, ,Mrt to his 
Mimisters. Apar.h..; w,-r.- ort.Tr,! not oniv of thincs 
l!i,itw..reiMt«., Imt also ofriax ami wool (H',„ -,^1/1 
I-4I. InasmiKl- as th.-s.. ..ffi-HnRs have a hisiorv of 
ill. T o«n It has s.v,,„.,l l,.s, ,0 ireai thrm s<.,,arat',.lv ■ 
-;.■ rAXAIIi.N. TlTHIs. R,.lii,.,„u,s ,l,.,ll,-a.lons of' a 

t.i^t thr« years of l».an.n,.. foI|o,v«l i„ ,|,e f,,„rth l.v 
I'l.. ivHisiK-ration of the cn,|, as hitl„li.„ ^ \,,~y lo,,...,,' 
-.uh ...rr.>,, to the sarriti.c- of the firstling," of 
• > mals; me f;-.,h. or iinnM,i.-,| corner of the crain. 
: 1; the gleamnKs^of the. hirvest-fieM. or.liar.l. ami 
ui, il.ev.l.,/. ; „„,! „„, spontaneous crops of 
I'lefallow yeard-.x.-a.o/i. ,s.h.- Natikk WoKsMi,.. 

The form of presentation of first-fniils is ,lescril«-.l 
on., in par. I„ Lev. o:! ,0/ „ ,oM ,a„.s ,., ,,1 the 
to. sheaf of Larey tm lymaliy fr,„„ ,,,ch lieM, or fron, 
ei.h villa-ei ,s hr.Hi^.lit an.l • waved' (*,=,/;>;. r.„ a 
i;.-.ture of throv, inR 1 U-fore Yahwe at the local sanctuary • 
until this „ ,lone the new crop must no, 1., „sc<l in any 
•■nn ,:•. Ml, unleavened cakes («,„„:/*) of the new n, are eaten for se^en davs (see I-|.Asrs, 
IM'^sov.-K). A, the end of wheat harvest a correspond! 
ihi; ceremony ,s the pn-sentation in a similar «ay of tno 
Iirnes of leau-ned hrea.l (oriyinally fron, each houM- 

.. nit.''"i"""'- ''"'' '■""•'■• '■""'■'''■'' ''•'■'<li-\ 

V" •^'■f ■^.prcscnlK^s that specinu-ns of' the 
chores, of the fnr.s of the land shall he brought I,v 

ali..r With a solemn liturgy of ihanksKJvinc. ; f,e pre- 
semati.m is followed In- a feast (see l«.|,,w s%si 

.\nother kind of ohiation, which, thoii^h of n.uch less 
primitive character than the kinds just n.ontioned. 'an 
\. ...ced luck to an early ,^.riod in the history of Israel 
". I anaatt. ,s the setimf; |«.f„„. the deitc of a table 
spn..,dwi,h fo™l and drink (see, f„r,hcr, Ih'I.hv. ^ , , , 
Such «a, the custotn at Noh (, s. -^ 4-6 [5-7!) as\«.ll a, 
..Jerusalem (,K.-,s). an,l p>ol,aUy';hi'r". '; ,?, 
h.icl a house or temple. On this tabic stood bread 

ht'h- 1 d """ '"""y''^, "''^^ '^•^■'-■''^■"»-'«> f"^ fr-h ''-"'^ 
t s r;"T" • ' '^'™",- •''■^' »— removed were 
eiun as h.,ly bread by the priests, and-undcr ev- 
c ptienal circumstances-by laymen who had ■ hallowcl ' 
Ihemsehes , , S. ,-, ,-6). It is natural .0 suppose h 
n,,,n,on.t: other peoples, wine too. in cups or ch'tlce ' 

11 tut (M. ,On p see below, §34,,,) [n the /,■,//. 
J -".t of other religions rtesh also'w.ts'thus se 1.. o'^ 

eoT I.,rael,te custom. Like the llesh or of m-md '■ 

,> '.. the lo.tves of 'shew bread' were 'the fo.Kl of I 

inil |;..s^[.,^)^ , 

Offi-rinss of wine in the form of libations were made ! 

« .;""Hy T'^ '^"T"^' § '■>: a libation of 
' . ,.r"iKTly any fermented .Irink other than wit.e is , 
■1 -■ . .if in a I.ate .,,w (V„,os7 ; 5,.,. ,^,|^„. , , | 
11. a no ancient sour.e; there seen.s ,0 Ih. no ^li^o ' 
> Me, lilutions should not have bc-en n.a.le. I lone 
■^v -ril, m which It was much used in other cults > 
-. .roush. with the other choicest products o he 
uid in the ceremony clesciiU-d in Dt. '.•G , .;f but did 

l».' .- in hb-itions.- was no. so use.l by the Hebrews 
P,- .i'T-^f^':^ ^''i'IV;'>-. Th^ophrastus in P„r„h,-n-. 


(ll'^biVi'.^', •'■•=• ^'-'^'■^i^'Mir^in Abel's oftring 
U.s, .,„/. ,, . ,) is.a niistr.ia.,bti.,n „f ,h.. amhi,,,,,,,, c.i;'." 


1 ha, >n,lependent libation, of .,,1 were tna.Ie is intrinsic- 

i" > ",'" ""l-lMl.le, tl uh l„,t eonclusivelv establish^ 

U re terence ,0 t.e,,. ,.. c. |ud,, !•, M,c, «;. " ,See NW 
//.( J*.3 . cp lielow, tj ,1 „, ) 

Sacrilices were Renerally offered at hotne ; every 

ullm-e iMd Its altar ,«,=/.,-/,, sl,,u,li,er pUc.,, uhCe 

IB. Seaaoni ," "'""'■* "tre sl,un an.l f.asis held • 

and OCCMiOM. """"'■ ""' "ir^llinu-s and other obli! 

III. I. Purr .'-'■'""'>,., "•"■ril't's were brought (.see 

■;' ■ •^' ■• S 41. I here were more famous holy 

P.K s to which .nen resorted in nuniUTs, especi,ill • 

. .it the amumn festival (see Kiasts. « ,,' -vll 

.mes of sicntice we,e in part hxe,l U ™:„>m ,! 

p..rt dependent on the occasion or on tl,,- will „f ,1 " 

w..rship|..r. To the lornier class U-loni; tl,.. P, „' .^ 

.-..neulturd season fcists .„ ,|,c U.«i„ninV aii.l e, d f 
• Krain harvest, an.l at the close of the un,,u;e ,.ee 
• ^ "- 1. -^ 'he las. thr„. cus..o,„ re,|u,red every man 
;o see , he face of Val,«e,' wi.h nn offerin,-- , Kv 
-•ii7l. Ihe n..w ni.T,n ».,s a favourite time f.,r'fe,sts • 
S..U1 e,,H-cts all his court to 1. pre-en, o, ,, h .^n 
occ.,s,.,n (.S.-20,/., cp ,.:,4/:); the annual s ,c i" 
h e of l,av,d s clan at liethlehen, is held on a new nioon 
, (.S..'05./..„i. ,SeeN,,wM,,oN. 'l he .Sabbath, appnr 
en 1> ,n a l.-.sscr deer,... ..njoy.-d th,- satnc prefere 1 , 
W hen a regular cullus U'came ..stablished at h.. irn- at.-r 
samtuari,.,. „„„e numerous victims w.-re,! n 
these .lays (se,. I.low, S 33>. Th.- sp,.ci,ic occ, io 
of sacruice w,.re n,anifold_,he circumcision or wian 
intr of a son. niarr.aRe. th,. con,i,i^> of a trav.lhr tlve 
niakinK of a cmp.ict. cnsiiltation of an e , e 
mn^tennR of a clan for war or the return r.'.n a 

«.re ■Hwr,.din.dhi?;,™^;;:--,;^i::^-;r-:^ 

of the most vari,.d obicts of h man ,l,.si,e. m",^ 
s.icT,lice,I ahk,. when tl„.y r,.joice,l in the evi.lence 

his help, an,l wh,.„ they h.1,1 need to propitiit,." the 

;mS,::tsa?;^"::.^ -f unci,.ani,..sL,.„ni:::i 

Ihe cmpani.s of worshippers for ,vh.„„ ami by 
whom sacnlices w,.,e brought ,,neinally . ..rresp,,,,,!,.,^ 

16. Wonhippen . '" ''''' '"^'"rul Ki..iipini;s r,f the 

(.„ c oA ,. ■"■"I'll-, the latnily or for itsi'lf 
(-.<'.. r.S.206,, the village communi.v at its „„„ 1, ■ 
P lee (.. ,. , . .S. 9 ,.). Kven a. th.. R.ater hol^ 1, .^" 
which w.-re fre,|u,n.ed at th,- festival s,.aM, ,s b^ 
nm nmdes fron, difteren, tril.s. these groups pr-'rv ^ i.lentity^ Deuteronomy assiinns this will i^. 

hith.-r , nn. in the I-assov,.r the • househol,!,' e^.n 
h-.n casually constituted, .■otuinue.l to ,h.. |.,s , an, 

h, Treat' ™"J"""'^' '" ^^^ " '''•'•'"^' -'^-^^'l «- li 

hioo ul "f »""hip|».,s ,li,l no, u.c„n„. ott wor! 

•1 1 H. T'TT-- "" '■'■'"■^'"•■•' ™"^- con,p.„„..s, 
, , , '■ ,'"•'■ "f ""r-l"l>l'.-'^ in nn.ient i, which 

How f ,r the persistence of tne family as a society of 
worship u, ,„e„a,ional religion is to ,„. attrib t« to 
the o, prop,.r f,,mily cults, the worshit, of 

::s:';od- e:^r^ ■"" ^"' -"^" •^•^ p--- -".i^ 

.iol'"' "■'"■''''Plf " prepare.: themseh,.s for paiti, ipa- 
ZhI ' "r^-'-f -'^ •'•"ly by ■ hallowing thin.selves ' 
l*/*W,^,./, ,S. Ifi, Vu, n,8, cp Kx.l!,,,,,,, ^,, 

was abstinence fo, a tm„. previous to the appearance 
■y the sacrecl plac,. from sexual intercours,. ' ,p , .S 
-15/. i.-x, I!l,sl;.i other preparatory ceremonies were 
imritications. ablutions, the washing of g.rmen" \un 
put on festal attire, garn.ents and or'naments not of 

1 Sheep-sheariuK „av aKo a ,i,„c f.r feasting, , S 25 .. 
J See W R.S A',-/. .SV,». ,■-■,, 454^-^ 

18. Character 
of worship.' 


every.i.n- «,Mr (Ex.Sjj 1 1 .■/. 12i5/. IIos.2,,[,,] 

Eirk. Itiij/ I.' ' 

l-'(ir the orclin.iry sai-rilice {zi'^i/i\ tin- .mistami- of a 

priest iimi.xessiry ; the riii-, wvw Mmplc ami kiioH n 

17. Prieiti.- '" ''"■ ""^ "''''''' '"^'"riL'^'l l>o<'k^, 

.iliDimii III iii>i.iiiti-> of s.iiriticea liy 
layii'.-Ti of all rank.-. ; ilir faih.-r ottVri-l sairukc- for liis 
hoil-i-a.ilil, the 'flil.Ts' for thi; tiail or the viliaKi- lolll- 
muimy, tin- lomnianil.-r for the ariiiv, the kllij; for the 
people. The offerer slew ami tl.ived his imii • riiiii ^- 
W, iii.ioecl. continued to U- the rule to the latest [htioiI ; 
doulitless he also in early thnes |Kaire.l the lilood u|kiii 
the sacreil stone or altar. after»aril;, a s|«h ilu-ally 
priestly ait. At the holy plaees »huh had a resident 
priesthood— often proprietary —the priests hunit the fat 
up<jn the altar ; for this s<-rviee they took loll i i .S. 
it\f.). The eiisloinarv right of the piiests mav have 
dilTercd at different places, as it certainly ehanKC<l in 
course of time lop I S. "ii i jf l)t, IS , Lev. 7 ^i." The 
priests participated als.j Ijy KUest-richt in the sacritieial 
feasn. The most im[xi,tant fu'K:ions of the priesthood 
were not. however, direction r,r assistance at sacrihces, 
but the custody of tlie s.inciuary, the consultation of the 
oracle, and instruction concerning piiritic.itions, piacurar 
rites, .-tnd the like. 

The worship of .indent Israel had a pre- 
v.iilinsly joyous ch.iracter ; to a,id drink and rejoice 
liefore Valiwe ( ! )i | .., a descripiioji ,,f 
it which holds gocnl to the end of the 
kingdom. The stated feasts in harvest- 
lime and vintage, th" new moon and sihUith, were 
all seasons of rejoicing ; and the occasions of public 
and private sacrifice ,it othiT times (six' above, Sir) 
were, in, of a joyhil n.iture. The ln..,|uet | 
was .accomp.anied by music ami song (.\m. .I.m, cp (is I. ! 
Tiot always nf wh;:t we should c.iM a religunis kind ; 
dances- also, .vere custom..-y i K\. :)-_'i9 i.s. 186 l-:.v. 
1 .'■> j.i Judg. 1 1 H 21 iq f. 1. liie excess<s to which such 
festivities are e>iposeil ilid not fail to occur 1 1 S. 1 ii »r 
2... IS.2.S7/ .\m.27/ IIos. 4.41. 

Hut while joyfulness was thus the predominant note 
of worship, it must not lie imagined ancient religion no other note. In times of private distress or 
public cil.iinily men set themselves to c.\pi.ite the 
offence, known or unknown, provoked Cods 
angc-r, to propitiate him bv gifts ,iiid recover his favour 
(see 2 .S. 21 1 f. 24 lif. I)i. 21 i f. etc. i. .Such scenes 
.as are descriU'd in i K. \9.2f>f. (the priests of on 
Carmelj were probably not without p.irallel among the 
Israelites on like occasions. Kastiiig Ijeforc Yalnve. 
wearing the garb of mourning, an ancient anil 
common nie.ins of ippealing to his mercy (see F.\snNr. 1. 
In ordinary cases propitiatory sacrihces differed from 
common s,icritices, not in rite, but in the spirit and 
mood of the worship|x.-rs. When Cod was manifestly 
perilously incensed im-n would hardlv venture to 
.appro.ach him with sacrifice till they ri-a.son to hope 
that his wrath was somewhat apix-ased (see <■ ' 
aS. 241. 1 . ..,.. 

Like other ancient inonarchs. -he kings of judah and 

Isr.ael built tem|iles at old holy pl.ices, such as liethel, 

19. Effect of ■^"'' '" "''■'' ''•>l"'-il'*. •1'' at lerusalem 

monarchy. ''*"'' ■'^■""•"'i:i- Worship at these royal 

s.inciiiaries was uni .r the direcion'of 

the sovereign ; on great occasions the king in pers.m 

offered s.urihce in them 1 1 K. .I564 ; especially fli-, 2 K. 

\<ii2jf.): the priests were appointed bv liini. It was 

prob,ibly in these temples that the custom of offering a 

daily holocaust grew up. This s.icritice matle earlv 

m the morning ; m the late afternoon the oblation of 

' ^Vc. A(>/.i4', 71. See IlHKss IS. 

■ ,^"- I'KlKsl, 1(4/ 

' lo prev.nt controvirsy or txtortion. t.iW. fs „n which tli.- 
ic«ul l.iritr for various species of siicrill, e w.i- ins.Tihcd w.-e 
KJnielimes set lip before ancient temples (~ee l /.? 1 f^i--- t/L 


bread or dough, oil, wine (the minJiJi) was pr „,. ■ 

iseei K. l(t.s. i'.. l»„ Kzra94/.).' I he ,.iiii,i.. . 
re,|uireil for f.H,.l by the king , household w.'ie, , , 
doubt, sl.iughtered at the temples with a ,|,',, 
cation; the n.i me /•./Mi «//(/, hi. ' butchers.' applied 1., ii„ 
paUcc gu.ird. lias !«en thought to bear witness to ih 
custom (WK.S AW. .s>«.^i', jrjhi. M ,|,e f.-stivals .,i„, 
on occasions greater niimU'rs of s.acrilices wei. 
offered by tile king and his court, as well as by il,- 
people who ciliie together to celebrate the 
Foreign luxuries, such .ts incense, cinie into use .,1 
these sanctuaries. The su|iport of the cuiip' 
came from the kings treasure, either from imp.. ', 
levieil /// iictuni (3K. 1U.5 K.zek. 4.''.9^ ), or by !> , 
.assignment to ihe temple of the revenues of a district 
(Sc-e lAX.XriciN. ) 

.\ considerable iiundHT of priests must have 1, , n 
.attached to the greater temples, and the necessin , f 
order and authority was doubtless early felt. ' |„ 
lerusalem we read of a chief priest and a second jii 1, .t 
Ihc U'tter org;'.nisation probably in part recognisi-.l m 
, |).irt creaiicl, a difterentiation of functiims. The s..nir. 
. conditions were f.ivo.'rable to the growth of the rai..i| 
I in elalxjr.itene!S and splendour, am, to a 
1 cstin.iie of its importance. In a word, the ritealiMi! 
and s.-; tendencies in the religion of Israil lu i 
their seac, at the royal temples, especiallv at Jerus.ileiii 
By degrees the worship at Jerusalem c.iine to lie a \erv 
different thing from that at the countrv high |,j,i, . ^ 
and thus things were prep.aring Ixjth for the deu:. ■.,- 
noinic reforms and for tin- ritual law. 

The gre.itest change, however, which followed 1),,. 

e5tab!:shinent of the kingdom w,is the institution of 1 public ciiltus m.iintaineil by the king for him-, if 

and his jK-ople. Thus a national religion cieai. ,! 

When Isr.iel took its place among the nations 

political and comm -ri intercourse opened the wav lV,r 

20 Foreira '''■''*-''""■'' 'nHuence. .Solomons 'n.-w 

influence '<^"H'le was built by a I'h.i-iii. ian arclii- 

tect after I'haliician models; .\],u 

exchanged the altar for a copy of one he had seen in 

IMinaseus. The more complete appar.Uus of woi-lnp 

— llie bronze reservoir and p..rtal>le lavers, the m.aiv 

utensils provided for Ihe service of theidtar, for e,v,ini|,le 

— suppose corresponding elalKiration in the 1!..^ 

vestments and ornaments of the priests .li-o 

were probably patterned after those in use in I'lurniiian 

temples. The influence of foreign religions was niuh 

deeper in the seventh century, during the long ni^n .f 

Maiiasseh. Not only were many new cults, es|)!v ,,f origin, introduced (see (,>i-i:kn ok Hi;\M\ 

N.MfKK WoKSHlF, S 5/1. but the worship of V^iiiu.'. 

was enriched by new rites and offerings ; the burniiu; of 
costly gums and spices, for example, is lirrt h?,ird ..f in 
this period.- The raci .'ice of children as burnt 1 ifer. 
ings, with peculiar rites, to Yahwe under the litle 
■ king ■ \/iam-»i,!l,i), which also liecame prevaletit 111 this 
.age, is probably a foreign— Pliii'nician or'* 
.ailopied by worshippers of Yahwe (see Mi 11. Kt 11). 

The reforms of josiah not only suppressed for a time 

these foreign rites, but also m.a'de a radical chain:- in 

20a. Reform "^''' "''"''-" sacrificial system bv dcMmv- 

and'reaction. "5. ""^ ^'^^ '''■'"'5' ciiTVii",' .'»iv 
their priesthoods, and forbid.liiig ilie 
offering of sacrifice at any place in the kingdom e.vcept 
the temple in Jerusalem." .A necess.irv corollary cf 
this restriction of sacrifice to one altar the slau^'!.l.-^ 
of animals for food at home without s.acrificial riles 
(I)t. 1215/ 2>-2s), contrarv to the ancient rule («e 
Lev. 1-3/1.* 

.\ large part of the occasional private and i.uniiy 

^ -See Ff.4.,ts. Is/ 

' On the later cilslom, see l«rlow, | t2. 
. 2 See IvcKNsK. i .. I, is w.,rihy of note that Erekii 
It no pl.i,-. in Ills reformed cuinis, 

■| llKlTKk.iNoMv, IsKAKI, » i?/; JoSlAH, | I 

Iii-i..^,,r.,i,,j; fp,. ,,.tj„j^^j changes ; sec Lev.tIs- 





ncrifi.M thus <lrni> „ut Th,. .i,„ 

k' I" ^it f.rus ,k.,„ i,r ? , "" """» "'■»■ all be 

^.'..s-,,; ..«!:;:■, ^"^;;l;::; 7V"" '■"■"• ^^"^ 

in^-5 MI...I.-, Vin.,n« „. I , ' ■ ■""' '"■'■" 111 ort'T- 

.1. Ihe |..,s«n.r ,-„u.s, 1„ e c'; "l '""r" """ '''""-' 

^^i/t.;^;;;::.;::''r;:- ■■•--.. ^ ".ay": 

n.M"fhos,.,al,,,,:^,:X^ r'M;.^dU.^^^^^^^ 
v«Mn„ „f the tithes „f „ne ,<■ ,r i„ h •""- '^""■ 
i'xU^^/.: s..e TAX.vnov ",".^' -mH^'M^'Tr 
coMWry pr.ests w ho were transport,. I !„ i , '■ ' '"•' 

mt allo«e<l to ..ffi-r vurilice^n^h .''=™s"l'-n. «<•„.. 

1>..1 -heir,- fron, t" " .- ues '""^'T """"'"' •'"•>■ 
""-try was th„s, i„ fa.r;stahlish.:i ' "'"' °"'" "',W..e cmtld visit the hT p ace ,' « T""'' ''''"' 
.11 " hut thrice a vear "" *"' ^•■"^^rifices 

bu, „„ce or t«iJ ' At'Z; ':" ;■""•"-"'>■■ I-rhaps, 
sacrifices are ofterc.l ,,,,.,''"""' '''^" ^'■•"-•'1 pon.p n. an .h"fe,,:"""'Th;'"''' , ■"■,"" "''" 
culius carrieil on f„r ih, ) ' , iwssihiliiv of a 

pro,.,,,. „f a sacer, , a ^ ',"' "'™<^ "•"' "i"- "'« 

thus prc.,«re.l. Thr "o,L "'•' '^'■f"^""'!. is 

^iv.,1. „;,,,h less cMi «i r^rr''-'' ^''": '"•' i-^- 

oM.-.hsrei,„,„„r;^t;e''n^\S^'"-:S years 
generations afterwards '• '^"'^ "'-'"y 

eniplms,, on the ol.len hasp , T'. , r ' k ^^f"-- '""^'n^'d 
ism accord with the proZ' ' ; f ""= ^■'•'■'•"'cal feast 
an,i hunmnity in the ,? ' " ,"'"""■' "' '''''"'y 

.0 ..c conscouMuis .h ".hrt,^;':^ >;,:"rr"'' 

a<ll^tallt sanctuary iniix-rille,! ti,; r '^'•'^'^ 'o 

I" .he < ,s t I' d at <^ll ■ T " ""■'"■ 
M-i;id.lo and death of osi„,'' ""-' ''"•'™' ••" 
deu,c.rn,„„nic reforms which .- '™""'" ^"■'" "'''' 

"f«'-i-ii.appoin,„,e„;V7d,e" U'';::;;r his r'^""' 

Ihcm, every trace ,,f these r .f ""l«-s hasi-d upon 

^o.onlv„.re the old ^^ :^'' jll^ i,:"^ T"'" ""^>'- 
and the foreign worship r estn e,l . *- '''"'''' '''■■'""" 
eftcacoas ,„ea„s of ex a, .^ ;,;':,'"' ^™«f^' ■■-<•• 
proieciion in private cu ts-in n J ■^'■"■r-iR divine 

oM Israelite pracfces i p. " /,^f '"'''■ "'^'^■•"^ "f 
are dcscrilK^-d in K,ek s'^ Vh ""'" ""'«'"■ "'^h as 
celebrated as n.vster^-s L """S'^ "'"' «^-r<- 

-™,c,.ta, >a:^:;i:^^>^e"u;;ch^:;' :"'"•"• ■'■'"■'^ 

sv'ine, doers, ,„iee 1 The!, ""'''■^" ''«>sts, such as 
th«ea„i„us , ale tl».m til"' ,''""° "^ "^^ ""^h of 
kishest grade of 'u,':,:":^ 'I'^f'''''™' /'''''-''''■'■ "- 
"ceptional 'holiness ' ^ convertible with 



1 )<^.ir, II : 

/; liliir^y. 

'■ "y/ ; 

l<-;i, 'P k-' m; in ,h^. „,j 

The ilcritiei il laws in H -ir.. , r .u 
, Species: ■,,,.; i..v'-'"";^". /''"■"""• ■•'«'■' 

<»7; animal, .a..nii,ed/A/ia/a,,| ;^J^ 7V"-'-''l'K«t. 

<>' h"ly place, not slau^hee,".'!.:;!,;; "''',•■-' H '■'""*>"<" 
ll>'« n„l In l,e eaten, 17 i., 7,, r . « , . ' ''i'^' "^P x^: ;» 
J«»cr,l,d (17 „ ,„„|,„|, :,;,^-„^/ ' .' /• ' ^- : l).e rh,,!,! is ,,«,can;;essa,:,:::nL:;,^,r/:':;;;:/cv'f' 


"nlv"inTaml'3"'hu.'!'r '''''" '•'"■''" '^'' '•='■■''». not 
I're-exihc usage and forn.ula,,,, , „ ^ rA' P"?"" 

aia. Eiekiel. ''7*;' ""me for a restored and mtnM 
culius in 40-4,<i Th.. , , I'unrud 
pose was not to create a . .V systcl f'" ■" '""- 
;;'«. but to i.Uroducesuch aL . d \?o''",' '" •'"" 
Iho-se invasions of Vahwes ho nes h , "''' '"■""" 
»"" in anger to destro h , se"r, .',' h' '"" "T"'^"' 
a" enti of the polluted worshf, u- "* ■■""' "'''^^ 
""-harac,eris,i[ nJliv s" ^^^ :,i„':';:7"'*; - «e ,Io 
an,l having from other sources re , son II '■['"^ "■"■ 
II"" ,nl)Out the temole « ,rc^ u ■ *■"""' '"f^mia- 

l-f-rethefalloZ h ; I''" '"• ' half-cenpiry 

'li^'ing..ish thc^i tt, , ''' ' ""' f '"' " '''"i™" 'o 
. and thus to use 40 48 f, i, r '" ^-"■^'^^'' '^-'^''' 
This .estiiiionyis'llf,,^;^' ;,;-->, ^' "- "■""-« 
had a prLst's intin,-,.,. , 'aiualili l»-cause Kj.ekiel 
andaffectio, orit • ""l"'"'"^"^<^ "■"' the ritual 

. |n totiiparin^ K/ek JO i^ ui.t .1. 

■•.IS in,por...„r ,„ ..hJrve ll« 'V'^:r'r',r ^"'"'" "•''"•i'-t. 

IM.Wlc cerem„nies h.i.l. douhlles" ;„', "' ' ^' '"i. es. As ,h« 

rit.ial,, he fuller lil„r„i,al de , k " k' •^"' " "'""= -lemn 
example, vviih I,,,, ,i^if,. „"^ ,"\r''\' as cu,np.ared, for 
"la<l. „f ,!,,„. lle.i,h^s ihe „c es ,f 'T ^"n>«"nes been 

have already l*„,me a, ,„ "fnM f V,'f '?-7",'". "i'h »l'ich we 
repealedly names twooll erTS,','/? '■ ?'■!{'• '''''■-•'""«>. K,ek. 
and lres|«„ ..irerinK-RV ^/'^i^ 't^r''''-^' -' """"in? 
44=7.^9 4.',„v^ 4.1.0 (,ee be^uw ii .'/?'■ t," ■*" " " "^^ /■< 

«cnfi„d a^'^;;?^,-- K,^' ,f"; <^^.7x' i>;";;,!^ii 

named). "^ '" ""- "'her sources (hirds arc not 

otTered every morning, ,he rec- -.V , *1.')-'J^- A lamb i, 

(*U/>:''on,he„e».mT, %hL ,i'\|m"'' "",'' ""■■'' ''"■'•"i "s 
a;l<hti..n of a bull-xk (4, J/) 'IV ," ^ ""^^ -•"«■ «iib the 
offered on the llrsi dav as a ;(„■„'„■'?, ^T""l' " ''""«'• '' 
r«^Pl'=: during the seven ,h,x^" f iL f '"' '■" P''"« '"'■l 
buM.icks and seven nm- i " 'J''? '=ast, eacl dav sev^n 

sin offeri„K(4.5 =:>"). '•XeVe;';',':;;, """""^t: ""'l =' h-g-a, al^ 


■KVITICLs, SI ,^jr_ 

"■Seventh &sEI^ >>vS»i: p-it^; 

cent. laws. anhn.;!;'':!,!;;! ere.iTo"f"'^r'i'f ■ ''"^ ^'""' 

r-^". l-r.cp 15=,' riVu'al ,Vh l''' ' '° ' "'^"">"' '"" t bJ 
U„,„^ f f3,^,it,, • ''^al .;f ho, ^^^^ ^_t c 

- -v. ,-. ■,<)( nnmeu. 
, ^^5 i.KV„lccs M 5^ ,„d, on ..,7„, and .„„,,,, M„. 

1 1,. 


' 9/ See M-'RS","^^;.:'^,';,';;';.^ ",•«■ •^: ">= same kind) ; cp 

.1 ^!,"'1>:' aside the double reda 
I . r ■"'.""."; H' 21 is from K 
affirm::! :'™'^';^:-;!^^™^';-«id,out sacrificial ri 


su".nTiy ^rri "th^'oid:"',';': ••''■'" ,"■-,-'"-,;„■. „.hi,h rre 

-•"b;;:::.^;^';;;-^^^-;. new n.oo„s.a„d .abbalhs, 
Noevenin,; /„-,,,,.y. ,„ ,J 'J-. 

'b'^ yeneral rule for Ihe r,l,:„i,;;,";„ K. «■ j . 
'f victim, 4li I, CD c - ■ ,1,1 • "' offered « Ih each 

■xher^ fixed, "^ ' ' ' "" '"'""'"y °f »^ne for the hba. 


H'"'! '.im, «,, 

lion IS nowhere fixed 



'1 he number cf ihc-.e vu tim«. is nt-Lc ■,■»;! rily left iindetermincd, 
A t.ihle tor alur: f.»r I lie ^hi-wdrcail >it.imii in the leniplc (*1 an; 
lull n.i rules .ue ^iven lor the prtscnt^iitun <if nrtennn* upon it— 
|ir>>l>.iMy the ulj cufttuiu in, tn I* li.Hijwcil wnh<^ui ctianne.' An 
tl.ilH>r;iie ntiiul i^ pruviiici Cur the .iniMLr.iuon of the ali;ir 
> l'\ xiJT, »nd ft»r thf ♦'(.• j»/,i( wAi (in the first of the 
hrst iml sevenih inmilhs hy whit.h ihc icnipk- .ind arc 
(luriricd v4.'ii>^-jo - Ihc rue* of iuicnli> e art nwvH iii ««onic 
(IctJil: the sUyiii^ atul ilrcx^inti of the vi> tinii i !•' 18-4 ^ 1 )> (he 
(icsinptu.n nf tlic L.iirt .111(1 dltiir, -InaSrf Hij./'''; t'lc .t.ish- 
ini- of (he h!<Mul iii>t. lithe .iltar t4Hi8\ or nf ihc -itn ofttrin^ m 
roiixci r;iiiiiti .md ;iunfi( -iiion t eremoniv^— the apphcaiion to th« 
iilur .iiul olhtr prirt-. "f ihc leinpir ,tnd toiin (4^1 ao *.'» i j . 'Ilw 
fu .ind blo»«l ot s,i. nfi. cs arc ihr food of (^Hii-W;'. The fle-h 
(if pidilir sm nftcriiiE« is Knrticd ( 4^1 an; that f^f [invjte sin 
o(T«.riim> and nf trcspaii* oficriny* bclonij!* to the pru-sl* i-W ay: 
there arc kitchens in the inner tuiirt where* t'ley h-nl thtir me n 
and liake their ;«/;//■, i/i bread 1 *'» i>> / ■, and Ll,ainlM;ra lit which 
lliry eat ihu ' very holy" f.M»d i4'_* i^ 

Oi private sacriH.cs the freewill olTrrings of the prince t'lV.iA 
or .N'/t«//"/i are naciificed by the priests ip'. 2>; lUv private 
sacntiivs itf the pe-.tple aic st.un for ihcrn by the Lcvilci* 1 de- 
grailtd pnt-^lsof the oil) hifc-b places >, who wait uiK)n the offerer* 
nnd serve tbeni i 44 1 1 ) ; the llesh is boileil in kitLhen* in the 
four corners of ihc outer (_onrt by temple servants ip'rsi 241. 
The priests nre supported by offerings: the flesh -.f the i private- 
sin olfermus ;ind of trespass otfennj-s, the nbtation* of tluiir and 
oil. and tvcrvthini; that is demoted to \.thwe f.ill to ihein: 
besides this ifiey have a riuht to nit kiiuU uf first-fruits and 
dedirnlionn ( 44 7^ //". 1 

Ezi'kifl siipposfs that Iiis readers arc familiar witli 
the t**rnKs he uses and their signiticante; he ddes not 
deem it neeessary, for exuiaplc. to deline the nature or 
oceasiun of i!ie Ires[>.«is oltt*rin;j (sci,- lielow, § 271. 
The Siicf.i pitblna, which beloru the tall of Judah had 
l)oen niainiained at the kind's cliarges, arc to tx; pro- 
vided for by the prince from tlio taxes.'* The rules 
prescrilunj; the kinds and mimb'-rs of victims to be 
otTered at ihtj feasts, and tlie prupoitiun of Hour and 
oil with each, may perhaps make new requirements; 
but il may safely be a^bumed that there had lieen simi'ar 
rules fi\'-d by the lu.sIomi ot the templ« under the kings. 
The pfiiodical expiation of inadvertences or mistakes 
by wliuli the holiness of the temple migiit have been 
sullied, appears to be an innovation ; ■* iuit the rite is 
simple iind old, and had probabi'- been pr.ictised in 
earlier times when occasion required. In general, the 
ritual of public sacrifice docs not seem to be much 
changed in Kzekiel's new model ot temple worship. 

The consequences of Kzekiel's system would doubtless 
have made greater changes in the spliere of private sacri- 
fices. The tax to be paid to the prince and the assign- 
ment of all first-fruits to tho priests api^rently are to lake 
the place of all the offerings (Itrstlings, first-fruits, tithes, 
sacrifice for appearance at the holy place, and the like) 
wliich in fortner times the Israelite had ben bound to 
bring to God. Even the sacrificial feasts (hium'im) at 
the great festivals nere provided from the public treasury. 
There u-mld rem.nn Vows and treewili offerings, and 
the sin .ind tiesjxiss oflerings, in wliich, as it .ippears, 
no change was intended. In the -itual of private sacri- 
fice EZ'kie! proposed a very radical departure from 
immnmonal custom: the own-T was henceforth not to 
otter his own victim, but to look on wliile one of the 
inferior ministry of the temple f Levitos) slaughtered it 
for him. This innovation, however, did not j»revail ; 
in the ritual law and in the practice of the Herodiun 
temple, the worshipper retained his old right (see 
be'.ow, § 2L). 

The deslruetion of the temple in |erusalem did not 
cause a long interruption in sacrificial worship in jud.i 

22. Cultua 

Not only were there oiiier holv places in 

after 586 '*i*"1'Iti'1 (•^«t^ni<;nPi..\( Ks,§f^; Mizpaii, 
I), but there can be no doubt that the 
altar in Jerusalem was soon reljuilt and worship re- 

' There i* nn mention nf incense or an altar of incense, of a 
candelahr>iin. or of anomtim; otl. 

' Observe the iibc of itic term-; /i'///cr and hittri . see he'ow 

^()n the i]Utstiim how far this is a change of svstern, sec 
TAXArln\,§ 15/ 

* If -Ift tr-'t — 'n'r'i^h i!-r:f in t':c rcstnr^r; Icmpic. -.vhcrc in 
later time* .-» corresponding, hut much more elaborate, rite was 
celebrated annually. Sec .\t. iNement, Dav of. 



fKt.ibllshcd (ISR.AEI, { 45), with survivors of the r,' \ 
jirirjihood for its ministry. I'roli.ilily, liov»rvir, !!,■ 
pulilic sacrifices— the daily holocaust and the offirin-, 
on 8alibniiis and (east days— «hich had lieen siipimiT : 
hv the kini;, ceased, and only priv.ite saciihces «.■:.• 
offeri'd, as at other hiijh places. With Ihf appont- 
nient of a native governor and the rebuilding of ?!.,• 
tt mplr, th« public services were doubtless resumed .,n 
such a scale as the poverty of the community periinir- I. 
The, aiso. no douiit. conformed to the an^;. rit 
custom and traihtion of the sanctuary as .ts pns^;- .■ 
under these conditions; and as the prosperity oi i!,e 
Jews increased, and I'ersian kinjjs and ijoveinors I i 
time to time m.Kle contributions to the support oi n 
temple, It recover ' something ot its ancient splemt . 
The opinion that ; cultus was first resioreit by pi; 
returnin); Irom the exile, and alterwards thoium;' > 
retornied by Kzra in accordance with the pri'sciip.i- ... 
ot a liturgical work (' Hriesl's Code') which he bru):, ,i 
with him from Babylonia, rests in both jiarts on ! it- 
same late testimony, and greatly e.xa)jgetates the s:i..!,: 
that tin- It.ibylonian Jews bore in the developmeu' ,• 
Palestinian Judaism in the Persian period, liibyoni ,p 
influence upon the lerminology ol the later ritual, ii n i 
ii|K)n the rites themselves, is indeed manifest; bin. m 
view of the evidences ot the same intluence in oi.-t 
.Syrian religions in the Persian and (jreek period, i! ;a 
not clear that we must li>ok to the exiled pricsis m 
H.ibyionia for the explanation. 

An im|x>rtant landmark in the history of the ritual is 
the duicriplion of a typical series of sacrifices— sm 
oflering, burnt offering, peace ofterings— at the in,iut; ;r.i- 
tiun ot A. iron in Lev. !>, a chapter which is univci'.iily 
assigneij lo the original History of the Sacred lts:iiu- 
tions, and was written probably in the fifth ccm ay 
li.r. (see HisiORicAi, I.l ri-:KAli;KE. § y). Tin m^i 
agree closely with the older sacrificial torotk: ih.itiv 
refinements of the later laws are still iinkno,vn tu I'x* 
aullior, in particular such as are connected with ihe 
inner, the ^prmk!ing of blood in consecr.itioiis ,iml 
expiations, and the hkc. 

It can hardly be questioned that the phillulicnic 
priests of the Ptolemaic and Seleucid limes inirodiiteil 
22 a. Later ^'■"■'""^ ceremonies in imitation of the 
culls of Syrian-Greek temples, some of 
which were preserved til the destruction of lerus.ilem. 
The procession at the offeting of first-fruits, he.ideil In 
an ox with gilded horns and crowned with an ollvf 
garland, the flute player making music bef.ire ihi-m, 
etc, is an example in point,' But such innovations 
were probably in matters of vestments, processinns, 
and the like, rather than in the ancient rites ot s,i..rif;ce 

The two fealiires in which the riiltns oi 
later times differs most from the worship of o'.l I-tirl 
are the enhanced importance of the sacra /■ii/i!i. i .ind 
the greater prominence of expiatory riles, hoih ,ire consequences of the conditions of Ihc aqe. 

The Jews were a widely scattered people ; most of 
them could visit Jerusalem only at long inferwils— 
perhaps but once or twice in a lifetime. But s,i, rifir rs 
were regularly oflfered for them— the daily holno.iiisls 
the biirnt offerings and sin offerings on the s.thhafhs 
and new moons and at the feasts, Thes" sacrifios 
were now maintaineil, not from the revenues of the 
king or prince, but by a tax collected from lews in .ill 
parts <»f the \vorl(], who thus became p.irtici[iants in all 
their bent-fits. The eess.ition of the daily sacrifice w?s x 
calamity d"eplv affected the whole race (D:in,sn'f. 
11,1 I'j'ii.cp Jos. /.'7yi. '.'j). 

t^iacuhi of v.irious kinds were doubtless coninion in 
old Israel, as in other religions (see, ,■.<'., Di, ■.'li-,l; 
many of the purifications— which fall un.ler lie- s.irae 
head — are unquestionably .-incient customs (c.,.,',. Lev, 

' .)/ BikkTir'nn.-Ky, V\\\\o, De Fnto cophini. See ?penc«, 
/-f'ii' ritutxL lib, 4, cap. 10 



U,/r. cp nt.2ls Nu 19,. s.,l,.nm pul.lic «,W,„/„ 
.i..y'm .,«,•,„,„„ «l,.-„ S,„„. ,„|;„„j,v „'„ , 1,^ 


h,.. >c..,r (.,l..,v,.. ji ., , ; ,h.. Mi,:,.., .t.m,,,, o, 1^ ,„ , , 
. vrm, ., luv,. 1,:„1 in „,i„., , v,a,iv ,.vp,a,,„n 1 ' 

..1 111. >,Mr All ril.-s „f cmsocrali..,, a,„l inaucurali,,,. 
ar.. N-KU,, l,y p,a.„iar ,a,r,fires. N,„ infr.,,,,., ^^ 

II. I-...-k,.-. ,li..,«h„l,. c„l,us is r-car,!,.,! as U , ', .'.rv 
rii.- pr, „f mi, h a ,, ,i„.,-r,l„,n ,,f , ' ,■ ^' 

-"• H".n,, ,. :„.ki..,,„..v,u,,,y,i,;i ,?,;;:..'; ;,::-^ 

■■f .vp,a.„r, „|,.s; ,|„. ,|,.p„.s,„, „„| „„happv,.a.rof 
111" .I.-WS 111 lVil,.siin<. ,l„n„R a lari:,. par of ih, 

ly: dimT,-,,,,. l,..«.-,.„ ,h,. sacnluial «.,rsli p of 
nM rsrao a„.l ,|,a,, say. „f NT ,,„„., „„ , "■^.j/ 
r,.«.v,T U. .•xa«.>,..-ra,...<l. The puMic ,„i,„s 1 .1 i 
M,|».rse.le pnva.e sacrifics. Th.. |.-«,, ,.„„ fr, „ hi 
-"....T parts .,f P,,I.Mi„... fr,.,,,,,.,,,..,! J.-rusaL-m lie 
fexsts ,„ ^r,M nuiiil.Ts, l,ri„«i,„. „„. pr,.. r,U,l ..ftv n, , s 
.... IM.Mn,: h,.|r v,>«s : ,1,. p.,p„|.„i:,„ „f ,„.. ,i,v .Vf 
."..1 of n,;i«hl«,urini; J„,|.,.a al„„e «as suttin.- m „i,h 
.l»--,r sa,.,ih„., ,„ ,,ive ..nipl..,,,,,-,,, and Jlnt 
-r.L.iary „i„..s ,„ a j^r,.,, nunil ,-r „f priests. X or n,U5 
■■ "■ though, ,hat .he worshipper's were h„ tualv 

q.|.r..vse,l l.ya s,-„s,. of sin. or , hat tl xpint y ^ le 

.^f.hecul.usso ,l„„„„ate,| their .■o„„.p,io„'„f .f.ri;„ 
- ... .■xclu.le all others. The eoiltras. ,„i:, .^ 

and K «.,h.all „s s,„ ofteri„Ks a,„l tn-spass offir „k,; 
n,n If , f.nrly ...preseme.! the spi-it of t«o legislations 
"...I... leptinia.ely U- taken as evi.leiice of a c, rrei 

■;"' "« 'I"""''- '" >he spirit of religion in two afies » 

TMi' (Urltienee exists. 


It i, proposorl i„ ,he following para.ra,,hs l.riellv to 
'..-i.nlK.- the Jewish .sacnhcial system in its final f.irni, 
J3. Introductory. "■* " "-''' '" I'l'-iitiee in the Last 

.1.. I. n this system the ruli-s an,l rit.-s of s.icrifiee 
"> 111' 1 entateueh. of uhat.'ver at;e an,I „ wer, 
-ml,,,,,., . an, their often contiietiim- re.,.,ir™ ,'n, n 
^™. fashion harni,a,is,.,l. Th.-re was also a trail, ,'n 

"•Vie"™ ''V''''"''''r'' '''"'"•'■■•""'''■" ^''"-^^ 
....Lleu-nts niiidi more ,letail,.,l, withnm a kn„wl,.,lec. 

|ifw ,ch we shouW often U- hop..l,..sly a. a ^ss o^r 

fr,jr, to r,.cor,strue, the ritual. » Car ionrces, th,Tef„re 

iu,le. lK.s„l,.s th.. l>e„ta,e„eh, the .lescript inns o h^ 

ab -J™-'>:'""'--Siraeh. .he Kpistl!- of Aril-^ 

Ihiio. the M, losephus, ete.-an,I the tra.litinn 

™i«,l,„| ,n the U-K,.! nii.lrash (.U,i-7,.i v *'" 

^h'irf,. the Mishna. and the T,.s,.ph, , * ' ' 

I!..- a,n,pr..hensive nam,, for ,.fi,.r„.; s of all 

21 Offering '"' ™1'"K 'Citations t,> th,. sanetuarv is 

in general; •'"•'" ^W^^' ' .'"■.-^'nt, girV (Nu. ;,;.,;, 

Bpeciea. "•■'<^- ■ cp --ilso \eh. 10 ,, l.", ;,) 

• •^«r.t.,,,p„rs in ihrMlTl,'"- ',','■'' 'Vi.' 'V'":' ''"'>' '" ''':'''ii'^--'l 


• The .,ld Hehr..* nn^Ut. .pif,.. „,,i,h , , 

ni.s ».,, nsed more l,r.,a,lly ,s..e al.,,e. j ,,, Km 

or or i.iKes iiaked th..refrom. 

I he s(H^i,.s of sa, nli. eare the same as in V ,i\ ■ hum. 

mU t's'e r^r^ ""■■^"•«" («-/», ;s,ane of th."t 
The puhlic . are eith.T state,l or oc-asional. 
88. Sacra '" ;''"''' 1'"''''^ --.u nlji.s are : 

pubiica et n,'rr,il,!ra::?'r:;^i;;;;';v^;:;;''.':i';;';«:-v.^y 

':nrfe^.^- ^"''-■- '• i-y 'I'-cirai^^w;::;]: 

4. Il,.i;-,...,.fll.. 1.,.) .,f.\,.,n..,„a, . Uv !.Mj,.,c.t 
tJceasional pimulii are : 

J.'; Jr'r ■'" ""'"'"'= "f ""= '""^-S'-i™ (Nu.i.-,„>: Lev. 

In this .l,ssm.,y U. ,„el,„le,l also of con- 
se.,.a,,„n for th- „.m|,le a,„l altar .Lev. > ^ /. ■ ° ' 
I--V 40.^,; an,l the saeri,,..-, for ,1„. install ition o 
I'n.;sts .:sp,...,ally the 1,1^1. pr„M , Kx. 'n, !,..,. ilV" "' 
I ul.he s.Kri,iees as a rule are .-ither l.urnt oMerinKs 
. .11, ofterin,.s: the trespass o.feri„K is al«avsa pr,v,,K. 
s.i.r,,e.. and th,. ,a,ly pul.Iie ..-a.,, offering., are the 
I <. Linihs a. IV.n.,.eost ( Lev, •...•. „, see l„.low. g .or 
thecons,.er,ation c,.r,-mo„i..s als,, n,du,le .,V/,i«»„, ' 

M>^.„s. ,,i„l f,,.,|u,.„tly comprise more than ,„„. kind 

=i';:;ie:n:^'"""-^""^'^''^ '"'""""■>■• '''-p-r,,.,.! 

.4£jT;-;i,;i'';^-;7jr\.t;r:!;; ff-^::^^ ;!:: 

Volun.ary priva.e sacrifices were l,ro„Kl,t ti,l„.r in 
fiilfilnu.nt of a vow, as freewill oHer,„us. or as evnr,.s 

,,,!*'" '"^ ""'r' ""'^■'■""■"t to U.^.in «ith private 

I entaten.h, an.l to treat of ,l„. puhhe enltus 

II, the I,mpl,.. for the ,1,., ,i|s ol w) „ , 

. . '.".- 11, I. HIS oi v\l, we are mam V 

'lep'-nd.nt upon .l.-wish tra.lition ^ 

•I he victim niijjht iH- from the flock or the herd 

(1-'^. l2l ; a tiirll,-,l,,ve or a pii;,.on was also accept,,! » 
28. Burnt .'1'' 'i"i"liiil>.-d. It must 1r. a m.ii,. without 
Offering.-' ;;;™"^h. a buliwk. ram. ,)r he goat. .\ 

hrh.h,„ (KmAl.. lit 

'. Ili,l). 

, -e rtssyr. 

Aram..>yr. iurktH. The 

-^-ai ,;. ,.f ,„. "rh'.;;, ,:.;;™-?;^^, :r^; . T'«= 

'■■f:od, is, .f,|„ .,,„,, ,^, «»r,.,,l.; •,' V "''"*^"""= 

'jmo^sly a,^of,„ fr,.ely T^-!^,,"riV.],.''i°„;A"," ''>' '"'""•• "'f- 

\ \r,"y',,„'.''"-"- '■'■"•,•■► »': i.^>T7i^^mi 

■■-J W.i «";,;."'''"" '" '" '"'-'"' '■>■ "■- >™r'' ' »i" .'ff.ri,,,,.' 

c.Jem..,",'"il,'"= li'"""-'. ™P<'*''i''l':. <■..«'.. to uiHlerstnn,! ,!.„ 
* lhis1r;V;-" "'■ "' ->V:"'-'»^i" ^"1" Lev. 1... 

ini~is»h,>h.ii)s-;rvi„in thettiiiiiic. 

list of twelve defects which reridereil .an 
animal tinht for s.acnfic.. is Biven in Lev. •■2.-, • , uch 
more minute ruh-s are foun.l ,n th.. Tilniud.' If , ,e 
.h.ssect.o,, of the v,ctim disclosed abnormal or dis,.asc!j 
"rsans, this also eause.1 its rejection. Tl„. a.-e of the 
victim ,s.s,„„eti,n,.5pn.scril„.,l ; i„Ken,.ral, anim.ils 
li.datt.„ne.lthe,r full f;ro«.hwere preferrd for hurnt 

cTtT'T;, , ""-■ ""•■"■'■ '"■""Slit the victim to the 

-Hirto th<-te,nplc. ,-,.st,.,l Loth hands h.-avily up.,n its 
h..i'l. slau«h„.re,l and fiay,.,i ,t, a,„l cut up thV carc.a 's 
I lie pnest ...,.^^,1 the t,loo,l an,l ca,Tie<l it to the altar' 
.111.1 afterwar.l:, hurnt th,. flesh and 

t/Vv./ '•'"•■'" ^-r.""'"; •" '■^'"■ininn Iradi.i,,,, (see, r . ' 

■'n: !'"' '"■'"• ^■'"'i"-'. '" Lev. i.e. h... „,.k.,i„i,-; ,,i',:;ii,' 

' ' I'.iMi.-a .a,Ta. ,|u;e pulilico suiliplii pr., p,,p„l„ fm,,, 
priva a ,,,.,t. pro s,„«„li, l,.,n,inil,us'. f.,|,ilii,', i '. iW i,',,;, ■ 
l..-n,. •he,l,M,„c,j,.„ ,.n,.l,le l.y .I„,.=ph„s (. I,,, hi. .,, ) ,! L 
<' ■:;■:,.[''■:••'''"". 'f'-r- » is. a.,.l i„ the Mi.hT..a, 
1 ^rl'^ iii-lallati,.,, ..i,:nf„ ,, n.isht fr,.m an..dRr p„i,a „f view 
I..': ;:.S'f'-,'J as private, sacrifices, an,l are i„ fact' .so rej.,„i'. , 
... J, Ai-r, ir:t,Mtc a. 

■J n.eofrerine,,f birds as tiurnt offerincs is permitted as th. 
...ily k,n,l of sncritice possible I,, the ,«or \,^ ci.ils ""* 

* tin the name .see above | 12 

•■> See .lA KkWth ^ 7,,.,, A, At,,..'.; 4, /;,'*.v,V* ^laff. 


(*^4tov*t), uui U naliiralty f..llo».-,I l,y Phil.., />/ i-t.tiwh. 
'ii4i .Matij^'ry! hut Ihcir tr)lcrprvuti->n i-i n >t to li« acicptnlj 
K/ckicI w^iulu nave the s.ii riti> i'« of Ktjntrii ^Iniii hy l-<r>il<'*(<H:e 
ulf 1M.T, I Ji>; (ml lh<u i» Mi. »M»iciii e \\\M I til* rv«T U-. aiiw itt« pr^.tic^.'^J 11, »; ,.L.^' f..r iliv ^irtn^tilri -f ihc l-iirnt 
(jffcriiii; *A% in (hr 1 .iiirt >if th« rrti'^l- Wc I i mm i-). un th« 
_N. %iilr ..f lli« ^ (l^v. I It), »hrr« jU.. th*^ •♦in .iffvr- 
inif .tful the iTt-«[i,i»t titfrririii w«tii «lititi (i>e,i> « ofYvriMk!* ntikihl 
tw ^laiti many [».irt '>r the i 'lurt ; .1/. /./'.l4/w '. i ^,). Htrt 
wiTi riiii^. in thr (usritKiit lyin^ lh«\l> lint^, j».i*is .uP(>"riiin( 
Im-.*ih* with h .wis* i'> h^ii,; th«iii im uti, anU i<iw iiLirhl*-* 
ior tlri-sMUrf the^c . ^lik- (1/. }fiJJ,ytii 3 s '» i ,1/. /ww/ / 3 5 
.lA .V'i-f *//JM»l 4, .'t. .>. The t'|.>.«t wii» Lau^hl h> a pru-i in 4 
li;i*"n. .in.l troiii the \f-K'l iicaih-.! ihr 111 --H' h .i 
way that 'W'mr if tli* M> m1 -^ini- k t a. h of iht- four faue* nf llic 
allar. I ht- • ,tr- a-i \^,i> ili- n . m up a- . "r«liit»t t. a i vrtaiii 
iinlcT : ihv iiiwar(l<*,-in4l shanks (m iih the f^ei) wvt« »ashr<l ; aiiil 
all lh«; p.irTs .'f th»! animal. cm;(;(H the hide** ami the tunictil^ nf 
ihr Inifstini-*, were l>-frn« hv |>rifsi^ to ttte ali'piiitf a-<>< ciil u( the 
attar, whtTc thty were suited; tiiialty ihey were carficil up to 
the l"p "f lh<; altar, Hunu on ihc kcrcat lire,* ami bunicil. In 
laier tinier, at It-asi, an olilation wa» utfered with private hi>lu- 
taii-l^iNu. I'-iyf.). 

The uirerin*; -if a hird had nc- f-sarily a different ritual (I.rv, 
1 14-17: .1/. /.Al/i/wtl 5V Th.r iliive or pit;c..n, »hi*.h nii^hl 
l»c of either skx, wa-* taken liy ihtr priest tn tht altar ; a'w-'endiiii; 
the ramp and standiiikC at muc cnnirr, he pun htd off the hml* 
hi-ad with Ins llmiiili-iiail. -imrc/ctl out the hl.XKl no that it 
Hortfd down the sidi- of ihr- .iltar, drew out the crop with the 
t-TilraiU throii^jh .in o|»ftiin;; in i!ic hreast. and threw the^e, with 
Iho '^eath'.rs. uii tlic a«h heap K. of the altar. Tht 11 with hi* 
haiidii he rent the f uvl l>y itt m iiik{<t without at tu. illy pullin|[ it 
in two, rulilied it with vdt, and ilirew it u)>i>n the tire. 

In the I'i'tii.Ufuch. es|)tvi.illy in I.t*\. 5. tht-re is some 
cimf'1-.iiMi t«t\wTn trespass oMrnnjis and Mti otferinjis 
37 TrtiDMi'"'' ''*^-^'"" ^■'^- ** 3»; H"' '»nKiniil dis- 

off^rin?* *'"^''"" '*"*^ '" '>*-"'-^ '*•'"" '"^"'l riluai is. 
^' hnwfvtT, siifticientiy cltMr. and is iti 
j; justly olj-,fr\eil dy the Jt-wish iruliiiun. In ihc 
iillM the vicliin is regularly .1 r.un |.ir-'/. Vh Lev. Sis/. 
i9 66 [525]. Nu. SS Lev. 19i»/.. cp K/ra lOiy ; in two 
late laws kcf>fi, f^y. Lev. 14 u 21 Nu. ttu).* The 
aiiinml. actnntitin to the Jewish interpretation of Lev. 
fiis, nuiNt he worth at least twn shekels. The riluai in 
Lev. 7 I if- pri'scrilM-?i ihat the trespass nffcnnj,' -.hall Inr 
hiain. like the burnt ntferifii;. un the \. !»i<le (d the Kn-al 
altar:" the hlo-j-l is thmun af;aiiisi the precisely 
as in the hurtit ntf-Tiiii; 1 !( 26) ; when the anunal is cut 
up certain parts are taken to l»e Imrned uimn the altar, 
vi/., the fat tail, the f.xt that co\ers the cnlr.nls 
(ontontumi. the two kidneys with the fal \\\v:m thuni, 
and the excresirnce on the liver.* No oldation or 
liliation aicump.niies them. The flesh of thtr 
falls to the priests (accordini; to Lev. 7?. to the oftki.ii- 
ing priest); it is 'very holy.' and may Ije eaten nnly 
hv ni.iles in a sl.ite of ceremonial purity antl in a holy 

In the ucremonies for tht- piirifnjati..n of the lc|H;r prcs. rilM.d 
in Lev. 149.^, whi.h have a strikinj^ -and surely iioi juxidfntal 
— resemhlanL-e to the consfcratioii of priests (Lev. xi the hy lariih 
with whose Iiio.Ki the leper'-* ri;:ht ear. thumh. and j;reat tut: 
were anointed is called an (f/.lw ," Itut the ritual — note the 
' wavinii ' uf the I.imh, the .n * oiupanimcnt of oil, the anoinlin>{ 
with Moot! and oil. sprinkling i>i oil. etc. — has nothinj; ir. 
cuinm'JU with that of I-,ev. 7 (see l>eluw, | 28/'). 

In the oldest laws alwut the tiUm this 5.[«'cies of 
sacrifire si-ems to have Ut-n rtquiri**! onlv in expiation 
of the unlawful appropriatinn of the pro|>erty of another 
(conversion), or of the tribute clue to Yah we (see Lev. 

1 X man mik;ht have his snrriflce offered hy another ; hut the 
othtT was n.Jt nt-::u>sarily a prit-st. 

- The sta>inii ..f the pa>chal lamhs by the priests had a 
particular rca-ori in the urgent iie^d of exj>editit)n. 

3 The hide ftrtl to the priest who conducted the Kicrificc (Lev. 
7"): a dilTer<-nt rule seems to have prevailed in Ihc Herodian 
temple; see Schiirer, t,"//'^' *J ^44. 

■* A"/. An'.\t.. -.-d. Thackeray, 535./^. admiies the <itreiigth as 
Well a> the skin with which this was done. 

* fleb. lisiiPN (C*'K), <B TO JTfpi. TT^s iT.\7ifi^«Afios, r\ ir\rinnt^tin, 
V^. h'-'ftia /r,» ,Mi\-t<\ On the technical meaning of the term 
sec- i.ol. 4204, l>ei;in. 

•* The female victim in Lev. Tc, is a sin offering. So are a! -.o 
the doves .iiul the offeriiii; of (lnur allowed to he .sidisiituted hy 
the po'>r. Lev. 57-n; see Lk\ iTJCt's, || ". 

S The same juris of the >heep are luirned uhen it is a ^in 
offering or a jjcacc offering;, or an inaUk;uration sacrifice. 



61-7 i:»-->y.j. r»l4lft; rp Lev. •.*Vi4-t'* and \u, .'. ' 

In ftmh ta«s reitilntton of the pi. -urty with \ t 
additiDn of oiu'htth \\% \.\\nr must U' made, nml ,1 r 1 , 
idlriid . >a ■ lUs(i,i>-» (dtrmtii. ' The iv\u\ ^I'.im \^\' . 
ably or)t;ma)ly <ii>;iati<-il the muUt by \\hiih <iiit h . ■, 
otli'iue puiiish.-d ; the applit.ition lo the s-uriti. . j. 
leetiiidary. An altm in %\\\vx i« n im'-tl in a K. 1.' 
as .ine *)f the BoureeH of the priests" tnnMue; - , 
i|M-ne» of s.tctihce ,t'-tm is nn-ntion'd first in 1 ■< ,. ' 
but in a way \«hi(h implies it was well kniAMi 

In the redartiMit of the law* the ilistincttve ( liara* t- ■ f 
the </>,/w ill h>?it, and a ' trespass oMrrmg * i^ pr<Mt :-t 
ill m.tny caws in whuh the «»(1#-n<i* is of a ditt-r' t 
n.ilurc and resiitutmn is im|w>ssible isee. c.^'., I,-.. 
xn f. \T rf. 19-0^1; the lonfusion with the iin off. tini; 
remarked .iU»\e thus arisrs. 

Thi' \i.tinis required by the laws differ in ditf-T, ,it 
caM-s— a bullotk. he ^0,11, sin- ewi- lamb or k i, 

*g. Bin '"" '^ ''"^'' '**''*' ''*^'*'*^^'- If'*^ niiMi.,i! , 

— 1^ .J brought to the temple court, and aft. r it,.- 
^"^' im)>ositi.iii uf h.inds, as in the burnt nff. ■ 
is sil.iin by the offerer (Lev 4v.*|on the N. siih m ; ■■ 
nitar. Uie distinctive fe.itnre of the ritual is th ii i; - 
priest, instead of dashin^j |p^?) the bhunl aj;.unst v. .- 
sides of the attar fr()m the i^round, ascends tli.- i • r 
and, dipping his hn^'T nito the Uiton, smiMr-< ■-■ 
' put ' ) 1>Iuim1 u;)on lai h of the f.iur horns of tht .,;i r 
in (»rd<T ; the rest "f the blo<Kl is jKau'-d nut .n '■.<■ 
Kise of tht; The parts offereil up.»n th«' alf ir ':■■ 
the same whji h are thus cunsunu'd in the |MMce ntt. r !i.;s 
{^ m\ and the tres[>ass otfeririK (ji 371. The H. -j 
iR-loitj;s to thi- prie»its : it is, liki* that of the ,;■■»; 
' very holy.' and must 1)0 eaten under the same psir- - 

The holiness of the A.;//,/7A i.s -ti other respects in i- 
intense than that of the ,ilim; i ' m uinp which i-^!:!-. 
in cnnlact with the flesh Iwccii-j 'sacred' top H i>; 
Ui.'). is. I-ecomcs the projH-rty of - m ctt^i, 
of the temple; an e.irtht-n [xit in whuh lh<' ft- -li •. 
Uiiled must l»e broken, a nutal one scoured and iuim ,] 
a K'THient uikjii which the bl.Mid has an identally s|i:t!.(| 
must U' washed in a ' htdy ' place {].e\\ tiij-^Ql^ , - 
The character of the siicrif'-e account- f-r !' - 
hi^hrr dfj^ree of holiness. 

In otti-rini; ^ <I<»ve as a sin offering' the kill^ ;t 
with his thumb-nail (as in the burnt offrriiu;!, but .ior* completely sever the heat! from the Imdy ; sI'rl^i^'■s 
some of the blotnl ujxm the side of the altar (not on the 
horns), and stjueezes out the rest of the bh)od .it i!.- 
base; there are no altar portions to burn;-' the fk-h 
gors to the priest 1 Lev. .17-9 626 [19]). 

In cases of extreme [Miverty a sin offerini; consj-imc 
only of a tenth of an ephah of fine flour, wi(h(»iu oil or 
frankiucense, was accept etl ; the priest buriu-d a Ii;iiidf;il 
of it upon the altar and tt>ok the rest for himself as 111 
other oblations (I^ev. 5ti--j)- 

A late law (Lev. 4 ; see Lkvitr I's, § 51 csinbliv' ,■; 
a sliding scale of sin offerinRS aceorflinj; lo tlir -1 it,, n 
of the offerer : the common man has to bring a !• ;ii l;.- 
^oat or sheep ( I 28 12!, as was doubtless the oM'T I'lie 
(cp Lev. 't6 Nu. 1527).* If 1<KJ po*>r for such a s.ur;I:ir. 
he is allowed lo substitute two doves or piye-iii-, mie 
as a sin offerini; and one as a burnt offerini,' ; or, in 
extremity, an oblation of flour (see alH^M-) ; "^ a pnrKe 
(K*e*3| in a similar case must offer a he jjoat (I,e\. 1.:/. 
cp Nil. 7i6, etc, 1 ; the ' nointed priest' a buHock i«ee 
tx'low, § 37(1. 

The name * sin offering;' sujjgesis to tlie luojcrn 

' .\fTinity lo H has Iteen noted in the priniarv Mrriiv.iTi .f 
the^c t^r:'ik, 

2 Heh. hattiitk (riHen), (B to irepi T17? aMaprtnc, \ c. ■•■'■'.ia 

•' K T this reason a second bird Is ord«vt! as a htirnt iH'crin:. 

* Female \i('tinis in pimuLt, see. ct^., Schoein.mi!, :'-■-■■ : p 
a: -; N'u. r.'. In. I'l ,. 

* These niiti'jatitjiisare n<it understoo<l to appK- to thu-c 'in 
offerini,'s in which a certain victim is prcvrribetl for ail, 



I;, til.- srcn.l ,1 . 7"" '""<;''' ■■M'-mi.s axaiiiM moral,, ' 

sVt'Ml. f. 61. I'-n.jj/, ,-»L' Ian. I, or 

In ™n,uv.i„„ «.j,h ,h^ ^^,,„.,^ ,^^. .^ 

n,.M.M,,c,..n.n„,«.uharc..rcnu,„i,.,,f .,,,,,. ;;;;'^,.':^ 

Mt, Peculiar ?'""'• , "'•-"""-tdur.iu.rist,, „fil,fse 
piacula. I* 'h" ';''• riti- f.„ itu- |,u, ,li. ,,ti.,n „f ,h 


, , • -. iMi I Ml) MM .luoii nr the 


.I'^J'' 111.- fxpiMIUill of llu- l.-rni nf rh. V ■ 

II,. l«.s, ,l..,cription „f ,h.. peace offermK r.lual is ii, 
' ■'■ ^-^-^P""'!'"*: t.j .ha. of ,he burn. oflVrn';,; il' , ' 

29a, Peace ;'';''' ■'':"' ' "//^ ^3/: 22., jr.. .\u ir../ir' 

™l»'>Mioii of h ml? ■'" ^"^•'^''■"Mum and 

"^-^.n? ,;, „ ; J'-7T f"--'^''"-'>- -'^ "' <'"• l>"rnt 

^'-'I'sri'?";;.^?*. '!:'"''' P"rifica,io„, I.„.U,.,: «, I 

'';/h« atoTo.'i'',"-^"-^' » ■*■ "" '•>' ■-•" H.ual (Uv. j 
On .h= ,„„■ W,f„,„„ a„a i„ m«ning s« .bovc, , „. I 


x;'.r :;;.:;;;;,t;;:rrj;; ''■■'' 'V'^"'---^ 

IV. re-,, en... ,,1 '., '" "'/" ''I""' "'•»'. ='n.l the 

-.1. .1..- kni .'> ' .,.'.^;;;,:,':" " "; ''■ "•.-..,.,1 

>'■« Mtrum, ""'t'.i II. .s.. i„ iiie 

••i'.-.u.i„,..„ ,.,. ii'".'7' v..::. ;,:'V" /•■■■■;'■ "; ■ '^ 
".in ";' m/'^-' ""''" ""'■■ '■' "•' Mi h.i'i,;:: Im;";::" " 

"" AraMc ana..,,,,,, .,| ,',,;, .) ;' , ''""■''■,""• -:'■"*"■■" «//.." 

Ih.'si- parts h.ivinL' (.-.ri r.-niov.-,l ii, . 
- -./ ). In f..nforn,i,y ,uih ih,- exan,,,!.- i ' . i 

^';.r;s;..r',:;;i';.:;;;"r„ ^^'"''' '■-■'-•; :^^ 

;;--, "■-'"« :M;!-f-:ir;;;,;.r;r';^ 

Mae . , .._^^. ,^„,. ■-- 


.i ' 'iif';;;;-!-;- -^i,;- ^.-^^^ f. iI; .h^ v,^ c .„.. 

i '-'■ -"< 'i- -I. (-.ill- 1 Sd ;v;s^:::/;f:t''i "" 

I KiM-^ him t he Tcasl (lln .r™«. ^ '-""ni "l pnt-.tlj hn,, 

..".1 :.."■. t,- i,r, '.•o'h'i:':,!'':;""!'' " -' -"' <' "- »»>- '--■ ■> 

;;.^:f^:?ff;rS.:^:;':^-— -i^--^' 
ro£r-''— ---^^^^^ 

0»<»i.t. °;""'«1 .'"'■'■■'l' •. .. „ tA.III 

.;-;.■». 2:-^, r'?,;.-;S"i.,;'r £',,,; 

I he /,„/„* «.a,s accompaiiie,! t,v a prescriU-d . 1 la,i„n 

Th. rtesh n7>K . '"■^■'"' '^ '"^''"'''•'' '*<-•« « 30). 

s.ic.rmce, -none „f „ nmsl be !.-f, ^mi! mumirs' (7.7 

lJv.°"."" ■"'""'^ °f '■""Pre.a.ion, «e Dillmann.Ry«.l on 
- The votive offering might also be an Smk, ( ,(,. 


I'-Mi'.l I.) 111.- ..iiiM r.-lri. i/i~ i/iim. j(>.; i I lir 
1 1 "< llllW H til' villi.' «liu li li HI I.V Mli 31 <t 

I .r llw n. riti. ij 1.1 \.,ii«.- 1 I..I.I lint,' nrnl 111 l.« Hi. 
1 1'/ fur the I'ui.inr, h u ilMrifore trviilrmly liii iiUt 
riik! fi* .11 liM»e Miiiw MiriHici, 

.v. .,r.|,r.|j !.,i|,, lalm.i.ll/' 4.11/w, |Arf>th« limn (mtiw.l il., 
I. ill. i(l,« ,11,1 Ur/Dt, tl,. i1,.h .,( »),!, ii ».., r.ii.ii !iV ll.v 
|"1' -l', lir.l h. llip \<-.,.m .irt.tiiij. ,.f ih. i..i,^r..j.,(Hrfi (I.,v. 
'.'■li .IriiHl Ih.- |».i. .• ..llr.iiu ■'( ill. N.i/lnl. (Vii.n ij). 

rill- ..nTiiii: "f I-mmh..! Infu.l. .il.i.. i.. il..iitiil,-.» .m 
..M ,il,t,m ,M.. lU.i,., ^ 1,1. il,.. .ak.-. nf uiiliMirni'il 
lin-ul «.>.|ii til u- ,11 .1. .,,iii„.,,»|.iii,M, t,, tin. oriliii.iry 
nil'. I^'V. Jii. ril.ri. «.inv 111. n l.iri In Iv ii.i «ulli. 
...■lit r.Mv.ii l..f r.-ij.iriliiiK tliu / t/.ih ■•> ,i I.iIm i1.-hI,i|i. 
iir lit. 

I !<■: ll.imr ^■^^ .i^l.ili... ' |U.liw. lll.ll.lxliivillli ' (. (1 »uitM 

mir-ttiat. Ij'V. T.. i,.i,i<i>.«i,|.w -.'Jj,,. V,-. 4.'r,-.,i /n. ,...i.'<.i>»«< 
.1 .'.«.»; iM 11^ ill ...Ml..-, i.'.ii Willi hi. iiti.« u ..l.t ( \iti. 1 ^ 
^T"" I"'?' ^"5 '"■"" ''"' '""jiii.. 11.11 "ith «../,( ,i4 1, ip Jvi. 

\7 *' ;i-1 111, 4,„l lilt- Uw in U-V-. -J.. J, »,i, iip(i.ti«ii||y 

III II 11 ■« 1, i,.rh.i|.., .1. |..« ~ li..l,ii-.. >i,l.,ii,, .1 ^itrili. r . I 
lii.itilii.le t..r «i.ii.,l iiLiiiif. .1,111 ..I ,.!' l,.,l . t.,,liic„. Ml. Il 
*». -lellifr^iii u ft .lit .1 ^r.Ml jwiil, Ilie ,i(.(.,ii.iil i..iilli. t in t!ir 
tl*-. lUiy lie r»|il,,| l.y iln- f,i, i ||,,,i ||i, /,<,/,,i ».„ ,,^ai.l.a 
I.V -.iiw . .iiniiilir. a. » .li.liiiil .iKii.:, ,.f ...urilki:, by utFrer. u» 
a v.tiieli Ml . ;.lmlm. 

rillii.. ij,i^...ifllie .'.'/.l'«/'>llii'Iiiii|;.iaK'i tlii- <.l|.'/4.i* l.i 
which, I li.«ikiil'ili>iM:.hii.i i»ili-viitr.| —I .-, , llif »,i. rill. .» 
mill.. Iiy iiilKnim :ii tli.' Ii-.i>t^, i.%|«.ii,illy in the >|iriii);. 
Mil- .iiiiin.iU lliiiH .)tr.T..l fiirni^h..<l tlii.. Il.■^ll l.n th.- 
» ti-a.t.s which aiu »> nlti-n tiiiiini.iiilcil in 1 1|. 
{f K'. I'.'oA, 11 /' I; tlu'v iiin;ht !»• |iiin hawl iiiili 
the |ir.)i«..U uf til.- ..lie nf th.- is.-c.iniri tilh.. i|>i. 
1 1 j< f.), iir l«'>i-ii tin. cattle titlic | l.rv. iT jj). 
Il-.i.|r.i the li.t^i^iH l,;'i>nim, «liich ».re i.lilii;aiiiry, 
th.- U.ilil)i..ilistiin;iiiih -'.»///«.' DOT*./*, 'j.iy.iiiH >,i. ritice^.' 
at til., fi-a^ti, rthi. Il nnijlit l«- cilh.-r volm- i.r lr.-.-\iill 
offi-niii;-. ; the i.iiili- lull.- iiii.,;|,t I,. uwhI f,,r tlu-sc uImi. 

rill- \mi'i>i.ili) ciiiii-ts i.f iL.iir .iinl eitlier 
111. rely ki-..-,ii|.-.| 111 a in.i.H or liakiil ur Iri.vl in caki^nnf Silt is ri-r|iiireil in all, 
.iiiil a jMirtion <if frankincense .iciijin- 
[Mines in.iiiy of these : le.ivi-n, anil honey, 
which III i.ihi.T cuntries w.h cijinin..iily u .-.1 in sacriti- c.ikes, are |iri.liibiie.l i Lev. '.'i 1 1. I'll.- minA.i/i H 
I'ithiT .in inile|K.n.l.-iii; -v.>lu»t,iry or 
— ir the olili|{atury con. ..init.iiit of cert.iin sjjecies of 

sulci iliies. 

rile rules for the minh.i/i .is an offcniii; liy itself are \ 
fouiiil in I.ev,-J, rtliich cories|)..n<K to 1 I'mrnt offerini;i, 
.nn.l :| i|..-i,,.- ..ilV-iing), Vht- toil.- . .irielics .ne ; 
recin;iiiv-.l : | 

in I'hc olilation of line vvh.-it Hour i: j. .)-»/ii3o\itl,' ! 
I^-v,2i-i. -i-H .1 yoiiveor fi.-i-vvillotf.Tlni;, Th- i|U.intity 
is for the i;ivi,-r to iletermine : tr iiliii-in hxes the niininiuni 
M one teiiih of ,in ephih. For e.i.h tenih of an c|ili,ili 
one Liu of ..M is r.'.|uireil. * I'he oir.-r.-r [iiit the Hour ' 
an'l [i.irt of tl..; oil into a v.-ss.-l .mil miv.-.l ihein l.y i 
stirrini;, tr.insf.-ire.l the iiuss to .i litiiri;i(,il ve.s.-l. 
poiireil the r.-st <if the oil .ner ii, ,iii,l put fraiikincenw 
on to|) of it,-^ The priest c.irries it to the, t.\kes 
a liimlful of th.- ni.iss .mil puts it in anotln r vessel 
Willi all the fr iiikiim-nse, .isceiuls the, puts s,ilt 
U|>.ii th.- olilation, ami pl.n:i-s ii up..n the lir.-. The 
portion thus c .nsuin.-.l is c.ill.-.l llii- .j;<-,ir,//i i Lev. -J j. 
' reminder,' l'.\' ; the rest of the .loui;h 
goi-s to till- pn.-sis It IS v.-ry holv.' like ih.- sin 
oir.-rilii; .111.1 th.- in .p.iss ..ffi-riiii;. Wmg ci-il,-il to tli,- 
priesthof.d from ili.- -^s of Y.ihu.- mule hv fir.- ' ; 
it may leii !«.- leavene.l i l..-y. it./, [-j/ ]i. but i.-:'li.ik--.l. 

', 'ilic I'a...)V,.r'int!i.. 
by iii.i'iy as a y!.... 

'^ Sue alwn-c. j| 14, 

■< On ilic- pri-p:ir.ili..n ..f ili..- wli-,i, .ee .1/, M.n.ihr'th 65 ; . n 
Fo.iu, It. ' ' 

* I'rL-paratii.n of th.. -'il. ^r. .t/.-x.f /, iM B . ^ ; .e.- On.. 

I 111.. 11 i. ..I..crv',-.l. c.irresponds tu the slayini; and dressing 
of a vnaiiiil.y ihe owner. 



niulit 111 |itu->ily fimilli-t uiih . 

SO. ObUtioni.' 

jon.l pa...i;ze are regardi-.l 

■ mill I' itrn 
Irmple |ifn... t 

11*1 lheul)lation«rftiikiiil»iki..| In ili.'o»eii ivjfi 
2« i,.e IIXKtUKUs, IINI \li^ Of |li.-,e 11, 
ilt-ulil«s l» . i)ip.|.-«- mil. .miieil c.iki.»l*.f//.7yti 
Willi oil. aii.l unlcll. li.-,| » iler« [r.'litlml sliH-,l|.. 
oil, were nii.l.- ..( Iiii.- (|.,.ir ; the kii: r, 
Ihnker c ,k. » »h.iilenis| with oil. iIm- r,-kitim thm 
l.l.-.iil with only anil .ill.-r l..ikiii|f .m 
«llh oil 1 IS u,- <li.n|i.| liillter itl. riws«- f,lk. . 

Uiki-il in 111.- leiiipl.- ; the oftiirr U..k.- them int.. \ 
put int. I ,1 liliiri;!, .il y, .„.| »a|| ||„ .jnai,. 
fr.inkin. ,ns. . .in.l hi..ii,;lit n to Ih.- [iriesl, wh, 
ei-eihsl .IS HI the l..iiiii-r it..- 

(1 I ll.lke.loiiai[M.l.llei.r ( In .1 | llev. o> / 

H»'.. rjrrf" ""y nm- rvr^ rnr: r^.i.-. in.iy, ur.- .1. .. riU.I in • ifhr.i, n/ /,.,.. „n.l in I/. 1/ ., 
.'.. : 111. ».,i/i..,'-,ir4i..iuri.l,||.- ; ll.s ma./l „ih »l, 
iMii Willi .1 ., II, whi. h lltp iK.iiyli fri»-.l in its ..wi, * 
( ...Kiv.., ( 7 

'Ihe iL.ur .iinl p.iri of tlw- oil w.t.- put in .1 \. , . 
iiiix.-il l.y siiiriiii;, ilu- in.iHswas kn.-.i.l.-il » iih Ink' 
y\.iler, Uikisl m, the ijriilille or fii..| m tin- p,i!i 

lifferer chos.- ,ls he vo».-il to 1I..1 ; tli.- 

were th. 11 111.. ken into pus i-s. th.- n .t of tie- oil 
i.y.r them iI.ev.'JM, un.l fraiikiiiiense pl.„-.-il' 
Ih. 111. The priest priHi-eileil as 111 the pii-iioiis . 
.\ll lll.le{M'lllIellt olil,iti..|i is prescMlH-.l |, 

liw .IS th.- s.n oftcrini; of the yi-ry |«i..r 1 1 ,.-\ . ,', , , 
It coiisist.-.l of one tenth of an eph.ili ..f tine Hour (, 
with. lilt oil or fr.inkilKviisr. The priest liiiiiii.l .1 1 
fill ol 11 ..11 the altar as ,111 ami ti«.k 1: 
for liiiiisilf .\ off.-ruii; of c.irsc I. 

Mieil. with.'Ut oil or fr.inkincense, is riTpiire.! m 
p.-culiar r1t11.1l ol till- of je.ilousv, N'li, .'.,1 ■' 
}i M.ll'HV, OKliI \l. Ill I. The ot.i.ltliili .It th,- m.l 
tloll of pliests anil the (Lilly ol,l.iti,.ii .,1 t|.,- Inijli 
Will l»e treated In-low under t.icni fu^/u-i j) yj.i,. 

The tjeneial rule for the otilrillou acii n.p.n 
private iacriliees is l.ii.l down in Nu. I5iiS. 
victim from the tiock or the herd.' off.-ri-il .is 
;<'Aj*, whciher in hillilmen. ol .1 ".iw, as a li.- oil 
iiff,-nn>;. or ,it the fe.ists, must lir accniipaninl I -1 
olil.ition proporti.iiied t.. the value o' thi- .ini-iial - u;i>, 
a l.inil. or ki.l, one tenth of .m ephali of im, tl,.-,- 
mixed one fourth of a hin of oil ; with a r.iiii, tc, 
tenths of flour, .me thiid of a hm of ml; with i,.-.| 
c.ittlc, thns- tenths of tlour and om- hilf .1 h:ii ,.f ,,.l 1, r 
e.ich The pn-paralioii .in.l ..If.-riin ol V;- 

nl.l.ltion ,ire the s.lllle us in Ihe lllde|i.-ndellt ol.l.ili, II 1 

line Hour lalKive, ,;l. 

The f.illowini; olilalions are pn-scriU-d ;is the ..- ...111- 
p.inimeiit of cert.iin sacrifices of puriticaiion : 
(,;l In the Isi-coiidary) ritual for the purirti .itmu .,f .|:- 
lepers (Lev. 14i„ f. .11 jf.). with the anim.ils i.. i«. 
oft.-red. are recpiired thns- tenih.s of an ephah ..f line 
flour mixed with oil and 'inel.'ii; of oil (:-. loi ; iiici.-.i' 
|Kiv.-rty the lloiir may lie reduced to one tenth, 1. ;i ilv 
<|u.intity ofoil ri mamsthe sanie(i-. 21), 1.., (i,- 

N'a/irite, on lli.. completion of his vow (\u. I'm. In. ti 
hrili.,'.wilh his thn-e victim ,. a li.iski-t nf unlcucii. 'm-.i,! 
of Loth kinds which an- h.ikeil in the oven u:,- i.ik.-s 
mixed with oil and wafers smeared with oil ; aluv, .< ; 
accrdini; to the .Mishiia, ten of each van'.-tvl - u; i 
th.-ir [the victims' j ohlatinn and liliiiiioii -i.f.. .i- 
iiiiil.-ist.i.jil l.y [.-wish tradition, in adiliiion lo ihc t.ii..->. 
th.- olilation of fine flour and 1 1 aci nrdiiii; I" r . - 
should accomp.iny every liurnt ofr.-rini; nnil p-i ■ 
ottering.'' The purification of .1 w.miin .iii-r 

chililliirlli required a lainliasaliurnl; 1 1..-., llioi; 
an oblation is not n.iiiied in the law, but th.- i.i ..- w.u 
broui;ht un.ler the i,'i-ni-ral rule of Nu. LI i-s. 

1 .in- nut ..fl'tred ,111 ih.. n.-.a.i-..i. .|)..-rill..-d. in. I ihcr.- 
fore- are not ineiitionnl in Ihc rule. 

• >m ..fferiiiiisani! trc.j.a.. i.tTerinRS have no i.Ii!ati-v;s. Tne 
Mi.hna makes .in exiepl-.m ..f Ihe sin .ifferini; anj trcspa.- 
utf.-rin^ ol ihe Ippt-r, Lev. 1 1 1,, ( ,1/, .\f;-H,ilk^-^th ii- >. 

i* I Ili. i. iierhaps only an exeEetical uliL-iltun. 


n iii|{ 

■Nil l.'n-Kl |>fi, 



114. Ub«U«M.' I' 


• »"" .(>.. .,W..t„.n. ,„,| ,„ ,h., 

'"' ''■'•"'"■I'i'K....** .•...•„„.. 

'; ■"' '■' K'^.ti- l«.„., ,„h„..L, 

■ '■«nu ..ra,,„;'":.h 7"^ •""■• '" •' '-^ 

■•'"''--. I- »"^;i\:r,, ;•''■; 'Ti'' ■•"•'•' 

.>,M„„,., „„,.,, „ """ " '"•'■I" 

• ••'-••";:';;;:,:'::',:::!:':::; -- 

•>vi mn MM.Tirii;., ,«• t,. ... J ' •^" ""'. "'-r 

"■■;-'■•.. -hX. :„';;,;fr„.;r;;:f:'„:;; ""•,'• 

•iril.iri. \ hUiii..,. . "I'l.iiii.ii . » ,„.r 

N"ilim«i.M„li,ii(i,.|.,,„,m . , . 

■''«•".'.. ..." .... vi.^hn//,';:' :'";•; ;;:;'"•';•"''''•■■•' 

'V iIk- K.ililuv I „,„,,|, K ■ 11,,,., , •""" r""i;iii 
<.if. /..'hdh.m 10,, . '''"■' '"" •""* It 

'" I"imn.-m of ,.^,.r,. ,„,v„'. ,, . '',,"''^''"-"'y 

Ir.iK.,! Ilw lluur ami „, II,.. „r,,,..j 
..r ,..,„„,;„. .■nn«„f„,m,„f 

--1- v>-fkmon.' .;';;x"'■'''■^■''''-"• 
Hlr (ii,toni of otTeumr , ,I,,|,. 1 

J..... and K,,,, ,„ „,^. I_ _r 



■nipUt, h^wrvi-r ih. 

M.M,., i.,r ij,,. ,1,,,.. i,,.,._ n„' 

nllrrn,.,,, , j/ i,<,i,„,-, t,, -'' 

'•lit- h.llf «.,. .,ff..„.,| ,„ , , ' '''""'« II, Ih,. t, ,1,,,:,. ; 

, - — IcKi..., )'. „. '""■' ''' •'»<l' "Illy .. 
Ifi" «KuUr ,l„i„« .,,,1 . , ■ I 

7 »■ 'I'- ""."il-.^ ..( ll... , ,uZ .r;»il' ', *'"• '''-"''"•■«'l 'l-ilv 

'f •..umin^ ,,„i. I ,„, „ I. ,^ ' l»i««i-'.i,,l„n t.) ,, I ,. '. 

■.f il 


lit Fnuikln- 
ctMt; Mit. 

;r,iiil -nM>l I 

?n.l .,1 ll„ s,„„„| „r,hc ,'„i,! ,1 • ','■'■ "■"■"•' ''"■ "iiifl.*, 
iwiit, „f ,h, „„.„ I „,,, , T" • .^-"'K'l " '•■ ll,t N f 

-iii-.f .1,. i.i..»i"J,;';,',h: , r''''\r. ••■•■ '^"""•i n- 

T.ic,;<. r,,„| Ih, v., , ■ '"•" « 

''uiif u,,, ,u„.V;i"" :■"■■ '■> •' '''•""• 11, 


■V".»\ ..„ I., It, 
11". .,,1,1 ,„.„r„| 
ih>f >,. >i,|,. 

3> Stent 

pnblics : 



'"'iiiiUr ,„a„.,.-, r.l'r ' , ? ,h '•"^""; ""^ P""' i" a 

^'"..1 iMii, „ ,h.. . , ,, ,? '"'f,, "1' r '"='"" '"-!'■ '" 'i>"i iii,^ 

• 11,1-) »tri. ^luMl.d ■ 1 
.'kr, .,„d ,1,.. »„„. f„^ „,^ |.| 

- .;_,ili< mm,, of lli,- i.],..,, |.,„| „ 



.ll IMllM.I Ih. 
lleU re,|,.ftli>tlv ll 

P"t-r, ..i,|j,i,,„-;,f , 
huw tarrlcl .ill ih,,, 
in oriler It.s ,(,j„ |, 

prayer,. Tl,. oir,.ri„K of in, ,■„,. ,„',, ■' * 'T ' """"'"" 

r.h«.l u,„ler K. KSs., | : \ ,' T,''';'." ^''•'' '''"'"•■■I' "- 

•'"'" "ll" "frt- f,„ lh..,|.,) 

*^y up Ihc ,1,,,,.^ 

».ilud ll., 

rti^ ulhtrn 

lU. ihc hul, 

,ll..i,. Tlnrj 



nf .111 ci,'„h , f ,.'"'" ''"^ '-"h coiiMM,.,! ,.|- on,- ii.,„h 

-;,.„': :"r;;'T.:;;'r;""V'*' ■■■•"'•'■■'''''-' 

' Heb. T^j, A i,„^^. 
- They arc not meant to be /»/,■*,■«, 


illx-. .-ill.l la.l 

a lar and ,1,,,,. ,„..,„ up.. "L " , ' i',"" ,".'' "' "'- "■" "' ^ 

i "<r.redthr,,),|.„„'„, , , ■,, "" ''"."^■"■'"""": He alt 
of all the »i„. 1; , '"'^'' '""■-'' ^.I'riH.i, 

] »«!'" Tii„e li,ne. i„ all. ""■ '■•"" PH'Mraled Ih, ;„. 

"mini; l,y ., .|epuu„„„ .„.,„,„,,., f, ; , , '"""""« ■•""> 


■ " • — e t-c:t:r;„ "' - . 


I", I 236. 


«as such n (Ifh-jj.ilic.n nf the laity for v.nh (if the tniMity- 
f.ur wifkly i..urvs of |)ri<-' ,. Any riii-ml»Ts .if a 
ili|>iil.iii.iii v\hM wi-rr imt |iii'-.fiil Willi th.-ii Icliims in 
(111- ti'ni|ilc hi-l.l a s|x'eial syn.ii;i)j;nr scr xv at lioiiie. 
Ihf aijf cif ihii iiihtituiion is not known; it luni; out- 
livoi! Ihi- ili-Mrmtion of thi' li'iiiplr. ' 

In to III,' <|ai|y liunil otliTiiiHS iiiori> numi-roiis 
s,ii-riliii-s w.ri' iiMilr on tlir ami iii-« moon*. 

33. Additional ''"' '"■"' "' ""' ■"'"■"" '"'' *'■''*'' ''^■"' 

aabbatlis and ■ V" ' ."'V "'"" -■'-"" .f'-^'^"- •""1 'I''- 
festivals- "'V "' \t..u,iii,-nt. Nu. an/., «lmh 
lixi's till' kiiiil anil nuinlxT of the 
liiiiiii'. for ihes.' oic.isioiis. i* 1.11,- (m-,. .NiMiti ks, § 
!•)) ; but tin- iiiMlii|) of, a« wi'll .is |iriv.iie 
s.iiriliifs at f.-sliv.ils is loniiuoii. .mil il.nilitlcss aiuic-nt 
anioni; tllr Isr.nlit.s as wrll as otli.T i«'o|ilis. • 

< ill lire S.,l,l,:ali ih,^ a.l.liii,,ii..I (.«,,j,i///) ,.„ rili.x- wa, a l.iirnt 
"ITcriiij "' l»" y.irlliiri lu- l.iinl,.. «|ih lliiir ulilation and 
hl..ili.,ii .1, o.niiTij 1 . mil- (I«.i itiillis ,,f an ,-,iliah ..f I'liii: flour 
wall .iiif li.ill ., hill ..f ,, 11. ami h.ilfa lull ..f wim- ; , p K< 11114.. 
Nil. l:.^/: i-l, .1. riievi.ritkv like .ill lli.- .i.l.lin„ii;il ,.i,rili.-.-» 
w.iN iiiailc, -ly afUT Ihc iiiorninn lii,l.« .tiisl, l,y ilu- 
^iiiu- ^)^i^■sl^. aii.l wilh ilie -.iiiii> ril, ,. Thi- |irivsls .jf ihc .lUI- 
Boiii^ i.,llr„- |,r.,ii..ui..,-,l at 111,. |,i,,,K-r pl.icc an .iil,lilu,lial 

biMie.liili..ii .111 III. .-I- ,,( llir ill, iii« ...iirst: (.1/. niiiilJ :> i). 

''"' 'he "I"' 11 11 .ire iii,Mril.i-,l(.\ii. L's 11-iOlw.) I.ull.jrk.. a 

rain, ami -. v.n jiarlii...; lit lanil,, a, l.iinit ..ffirinus. wilh llie 
i.liiali..ii .in.l ,l,iii.,ii,lf,l f,,r t-a. h l.y llic riik- in Nu. 
I-ii-ij. witli 111,- r,; furllii-r. a lit' j;,..,! as a sin 
..iK'riii,: f'.r 111, |,.,,j,lr (I, !,.«. « ,7). At ihc Passmer. tliu 
first (fificiiili ,.f Nis.iiiii.. ill,' si-v.-nlh ilay .if ihoftasl in, lusiv,', 
utTc onr,'r,',l , I. lily ilif same aiMitional vi.ainis as ,in the new{Nii. JSig-i^); ,,n ihi- s,',,in,l ,lay (sisU'iiilh .,f Nisan).'' 
lusi.les lliise, ,)iie he lanil, as a liiirni ,'tTeriin; in conn,', lion 
iillllihe »aveslicaf(l.>'V. -J:! i.ti,; see liehm'. I14/I). Al I'enle- 
, 'isl, the s.iiiie ailtlili..iiai -.If.Tincs as .,n the first i.t' the month 

llie.'lila n.ini llie n.-vv H.inr ('the two l..aves,' l,eV' i:l i;.2i ; 

see « n/'l. aii.l wilh this lir.-.i.l. one hull.itk. tw.i rams, ami 
se\en lie I'lMitis .is livinit ..tferiiiKs .111.1 .1 lie ..; .is a sin ofter- 
iii.t ;'^ tiii.ilU, iw.i he lamlis as jieace otferirHs ,if the ue.inle (see 
liel.iw. ji 4"). 

'I'he lirsi .,f ihe seventh inonlli, the civil new vear. was ccle- 
liMU'cl l.ylh.' s,,.. ailed Keast of TruniiKls. Its -.aritlces are 
lirst. the .Lilly l,.,l,naust ; se, ..ii'J, tlieolTeriin;s f..r the new miMin ; 
ami ihini, the s.,crilii es pr.iiier lo the vason \\,,, ,,ne ImlloL-k, 
,.iie ram. an,l seven \earliiij; he l.unlis as l.arnt oflVriilKs. with olilali.ins, anil .1 he i; a sin .ifferini; (Nu. ■-".1 1-6)' 
If ihe il'iy .lis,, a,lMlh. ihe a.l.lili.mal \l.lims f.,r the 
s.l.aalh,-!,.! .lire, lly afl.r ill,- ,l.,ilv s.ncril'ice. The 
. Tiler ,if VI, liins in ,a, h is - hull ,. ss, ,anis. I.inil.s. i;,,.iis ; whi, h { 
Is 1.1 I.e n..l,-,l, he, ausc l.y i;cn, lal rule tl,,- sin .itferinn should ' 
lii,ce,le liiirnl oflernms. The .vlililional .ilVerini;s ,,f the I Lay i,f 
.\i.,iieiii,,ii (i.,ih of ilie seventh mi.nlhtare the same as those ! 
f the .Ni'W \,arMlay (Nil. ■.".I7.11): the |ii;i,:ular s.i. rilices .if I 
■'• ate di I (sec l«|.,w. ( ,;l, .\| r.iN'rna.Ns. the 



«i,MI,'sl fe.i.t .,f ii„- y,.,r. ih,' a.iilili"i.alsacrili,esarcimilliiiliid 

Pr "'i-;l h t\r..Hii /r.). Iliiv l.,ciii ,.,1 ihelirsl ,lav(l;lh) 

wilh Ihirl.'in l.iill.i, ks. !»., r.anis, ami l,.iirl,'en l.iinlis as l.unit 
oil, 'ring's, wilh 111, ir res|K', li,,-,ihlalions and lili.ili,.iis sevcrallv. 
ami a he C'.il .is a sm ..iTeiin- On the su. , .'edinn days the 
liniiili,r of liiillo, ks iliniiiii-hes l,y one .'a. h .lay, s., that ,',n the 
sv\,nlh ila\ theie ar, seieii hull's ks. til,- other vi. linis remain- 
1,,'! throu,;li..ul ihe s.inie. On the ii»;lilli ihiy the sai.tifl, e . .,n- 
sisi, ,,f one l.iiM... k. .ni,- r.mi, ami seven he lanilis as a hiinit 
olleriiii: Willi their oM.ilioiis aii,l lilsitions, .m.l a he ^oat as a 
sin otTerini; (\u. lili ;;. ja). Al this feast .ill ihe Iwenli-.f.ur 
lonrses of prie-ls 1. 10k part, in a tivcd or,liT (.1/. \uil-,\li .,<|. 
A , entii'.tiy [M'luliar to Taherii'itles was the lili'ition of w.iur : 
s.-s'i.e:.. ,«.«„. j 

I.x L'.ii' niiTi'lv pix'scril»'s lirrail .sh.ill .always 
St. ill. I on till' i.ilili' iK'forr V.ihw.' : 111..11' |i.iriii-ular 

34,i.Sliewbread.'' ''"'•■^!""'' ■"'' «';'" '" '•'>■ -'■» ^o \ 

I-,,- 1.1 \I1|, IS, ^ 21 i. -fh.' Iiri-ail j 111,,'!.' .,f 11!,,' tloiir, II',., I, ntlis ,,f an i-phah of «|ii<h ! 
U'ls i,'i|uir.',l for iMih LmT I'u.K,' sii, It loaves were 


1 .iSee H'lnilinrcer. AV 

" Seeal'ov,'. ji .1 (l/,ki,ll. 

■I See. ,'.^-,. f,,r tile l-.,;\ piian-. Ar^-vft.m, r«/ ■ f r 
the (Ireeks.;, I. Kl,ili,i,ilt,rl„n,t^''\ 1.7. 

■I S,'e N'.w. //. I ■_■ 1 :■ /, ; l'.v.s,,ui<,» i=. 

» Ihls.lnpii, alniii results Imui l.ikin.; tlii- l.iws it, \n. L's ami 
Lev. -JS as 111,1, |,e.l,lent of ea, h ..ih.'t ; s, , k. ■\k,l.,iiii l/,„„. 
IO!h 4Sl'i' 1, ,. p.„^i|,|,. III.,, Ih,. pr.i, ,„,. „.,, ,„„ s„ |,„i,|, „ 
this e.\e>tfcsis ; ..p k. 'larph-.n, /.. . 

•: See aliove. t H- H-i'. C';r7 Cn* (1 >,. IM «|,] K.<. ■.'.■,3,1 
S'l ij 10 v), cp Ilal.yl'.niaii ahtl /■rmi : also n:"W'1 '^. hit 
an.uih-cmeiiton the I.i!,U(, Ch, '.1 i,' '.'.I iq N'eli. Ill 34); 1-;P!,-| 'S 
Nil, 4 7. iff usually ufiroi rnt irpot^cirriwf (vj in NT), Vy. fanrt 


ilile in two [iili's of six eai', 

ins stooil U.'siile lllein. I h, 

ilili'illl ; the load's 111, 11 «, ,, 

.■ priests within the pimiais 

VU. . (I 
I priesls ],,, 


.livi,|e,| l,e| 


34/). Pecoliar 

' hakcrl anil set u|Mjn tli. 
fr'inkinceii' in Kolilen 

bre.ul W.IS ch.illjjeil e\. 1 
, lein.jvtil 'Vcre e.iten li\ 

(■111 a holy place'). 
i .Vi.' .;,lalls are derived fnjni Jose|ihus.lIld the MisI, 
Ihe I,., ves w, It unleavened ; the douwii was mixed will, „ 
I only II. . I. like other ol.'jalions, wilh oil. They were is 
should infer from the iluaiuily of ll.iur. of cinsiilelal.'l.'' - 
11. xor.lini; to the Mishn.i. shape.l like a l,ii, k, ten liai. . „ 
I. Ill,;, hve wide, ami seien lin,;ei. ihi, k. In Ih, t hr, 
the loaves weie l.y a t.ilinl) ,.t K.ili.ilhite I 
1' !-■): ill Ihe lirsI eenlury ol our era I, v a family of 
< .aim.i. Willi whom ihe .in a seerel.'-i They w, re in, 
111 1,11ms, ail'! h.iked in .1 ..hamlier on Ihe N. si.le of ih^ , 
,1.1111. I he loaves weie pile.l on two silvers, six on e.e j 
llie salili'U'i f,.iur prie,ls of the iiulKoinK ,.,urse em,,, 
1, iiiple 1,1 remove llie ol.l Uiives an.l frankinteiise, f.,ll,,„ 
f'lur of ihe new outs,', iw., liearini; Ihe salvers wilh tii., and Iw.i the urns uf fresh frankim euse. The. h.m , 
so effected that there was ii.i ni.iineni viheii llieie W'ls n, ,, " 
U|siii the tahle. The last weeks ,, Illation earri,,! ,„ 
klmense hurned on llie Rreal allar (al Ihe 1 Kis,- , 

crifi, .s of Ihe,l,alh), ami the loaves ,,,„,,„ 

eeii Ihe in,, .mini; ami Ihe outi;,iinv; , , ,1 

priests : e.i, h ,-ourse ijave some ,,f ils l,i.ives i,i the hiuh pti, a 

hx. ■.•,', j,j provi.les vessels for wine I., siailil uijoii the t.,l,i, ", 
well as ihe,l ami the (raiikim eiise ; accoriliiiu 1,, 1 M i,' 
1 2J, .Xnliisrhus K|ii|ihanes ,;arrie,l <,ff wilh Ihe t.alile its il , ' ,„ 
ami .'l It 1, mil likely thai emply , ups were »el ■„> ,„ 
\ahwe : liiil thele IS no reterem,' ill 111,- OT |o ihi 
of wine wilh ihe, ami neiihe 
Mislina meiilioiis il.* Nee K 15. 

T'lvo interestiiiR surviy.ils of ancient ai;riciiltiii,i: ,;,,-, 
are the presentation of the slie.if of li.irley at Ih,- |',„s. 
r ami of the twoloayes al I', iii,,osl 

(I ey. 2:l()-14 1S-30 : SCV LKVIII, Is ij 

201, The olil (incor|i,ir.ii.-,i ,1, 
Hi re,|uiieil In the case of the I'assoyor that .11 ih,- !,'. 
Hinniiii; of h.iryest a lirst-fruit sheaf of barley .sli,:.!'! k- 
lirimi;ht to the priest lat the local holy place l.'w In. sii,,ui,i 
xV'ive it lufiire Yahwe ; until this h'ls l«t-n done ih, mh, 
crop may n,it lie ttseil in any way— in brea.l. p,in!„,i 
corn, or j^rits Is,-,; alHive, ji i'4). When this lii,' «,,.! 
ni.ul,' p.iitof the pul.h.cliltnsof the leliiple 111 |i-ri.sil..|„ 
ils was ^really ch.iiit;eil. The reapmi; .1 i|,e 
b.irley (on the nii;ht preceilint; the sixli'enlll of Nis.ini 
U-canie a lilurt;ical ail ; the sheaf itself xvas not u,n,-,l. 
but the gr.iiii was threshed, winnownl. il,i„s.|i 
ro.isted, Kr.iiind. sifted, etc., in the temple pi 
mixed with oil. hke th.' onlin.iry miuh.ih. ■ 
burnt. Tin' .11 i.iiiip.iiiynii- s.urilice a 1 
lamb as a liuriii olferiiit; (I.' \. ■l:\\sf. ). 

The two leaveiieil lo.ives of new when 
Pentecost (S 14) were also orii;iiially a IihmI 
ill I'ller times they were pies.'iited ill the I, iiipi, 
whole |)eo|)le. T'he ,,f the tin,' il. 
the ieavening and b.ikln); of the l.iaves. an- 1 
rei;ul.ited. Two yarlint; lambs .ire prc.s,iit. 
the l.iaves. waved Ir-Ioii' Y.ihwe. and offered .1 
offerings (S .(Ol. The br.'ad does not come ii| 
all'ir. but is eaten by the priests. The adilitiini 
otleriiiKs on this d.iv li.ive Urn cnilnier.iti d 

(S j.i; 

.\ ti.ilion of wine and an obl.llion ,',,tv 
pulila burnt offer i 11 1; : the .Lilly holiKansi ,\ii Js-- 
l;x. •J!l4,i/: I ; the addili.ii.,,; I.uriil 
ofteriiii;s ,111 sabli.iths. m-u in.sins, 
.mill festivals (I,ey. o:ii, ,7 \ii.os„i4 o!ii,s,-i, ,,,1: 
the 1.1111b olTeied wilh the lirst slie.if (|.,'v. -.'.'i 1 , 1 . ..ii.l 
the biillmk of burnt oirenni; s.icriti.e.l wilh ih,- mm 
ofleriiit; of the conqrejiatiiiii 1 Nu. 1.1.'4J, lli,' 
of olii-rini: wine is referred to only 111 Nu, •JH7 : ' m ■}:>■ 
holy \cyz. i" riji 071,111 oRer a libation of str-in 
drink {••c. itinrpai to Y.ihwe. 

' .1"/. iii.i". 11)7. Seeesp. .1/. .lA'B.M.iM 1 , ■ 

a .1/. I ..(.;,( :lii ; .1/. M,:i;i/lm !t i ; /,',-. .X,: ; , ,» ,■ I 

rt.-. On llie«|ietialarl.,f lokl I.; - iritLial cakes v . Alii, -n,t,-, 

3 115. 1' 
» See also A/. Aris)., ed. Th.i. keray. s »/ 
* Kx. im.) prohihiLs a lilsilion on the inner, 
" See aliovc, f| 14 ami |1<I. 

4.! 12 





, 111, Is 

II. .111 ,11 
.illi'Miii; : 
■ I. .1 till' 
iin. iiii.l 


3S. Libations.' 


The passage i, difficult : !fl„i>- U „ . .1 u 
l'."J ...M-=wl,j-,|,. u,us„^\e'J '''i-^^;' "■'"'^ '-"loant .1 is 

■"K^ also «;, ma, . ",; ""|r">';'« ""■ '""■^t .„.,.,. 
^•rIl. his l,,,n,l ,0 he ,hf, ;, " ''";'' '""•^' ' ^'-uh,-,! 

"li IliL- hi,. Is ,l,.s,nl„,l L \i "^- , '" "II- "■line 

-"•■• K «!?"™.;:;;":;f^ 

MM,.. l„||e as thr l,l,,l,.„i . f ■ '^''■'^' •" ""■ 

m-r,,.,.^ I,„l,„.a„s,/J 't,, , ;;'."'';■ ^"^"MMMyii.j; ,|,e 
S.1'..",, <hr,.,„.h „„. wa, . , ; "'.r" ^"","'' "I- f-n, 

r'•''■•■■p;■f■i-M^;;;'^ "'r;.r7''^'^''' 

!»'iMK i)i,u,v,| I,,,,, ,„„,,| ., "• '"ni<T, 111,, wine 



«utr--- '" 1.1.U-.: „f I,;., ■::;-:;«;-• ■;'- 

-. ,.!,. a,, n;;;,-:;ri"!/>" -'•--"- 

'■'•*• •'fslUlm.a,!;^,,;;;;''''"'''^*-^'''"'! '■"•I'- 
.«W>,,.1, a,„l l.„r„,.,i„„ „,,,'"; ","■"■ 7"">'''l 'A.-rv 

"^■•n„Ks,- „,•!, th,- c,.,„i„,,i, •'" '"■''■'"= 

>.'r«.. .|,M„l,l„.s „f sal. T \ """"'"'I -al'. 

>'-;'lius (./«/. vii li rear '' T",'"''' '" ""■ "'"I'l.- : 

•■«sl,.r llu- nialm,.,,,,,,,. ,V '' '" 'I'-I'verc,! M llic- 
(N.,,,„„,,„.,i,',:; ,,'1 '•■;'"^'';i'- K'-ksal, 

37. Public Vf " " ""''■"•'' ""• ""- '"■«.«■ ,..!...; 

^f--- ■tn..:r„r::";:;;'..-;:,;t;;."'^-'V"'" 

"f I ..l.'au.|,„| Hr.,„|, .„ J.,,,,,.',' 'V "f '"■ :'"^^-" 'lays 
-e...lavs,,fTa..rnad," a utr'"',''''''''''' '■'''''■' 

*'.>• "f Out fesiivai. \, ; ' ' ' "' 'I"-'"*: i'-ii;iith, 

'*r.",cs ar,. Ki«,, ,„,,,',?';'' '"';■* f^"- •'•I's-' m„ 
rf'«"-l-s .he:a„„.a', , ,, , "I'rf ■ '^ ,"'^' ^''"•" *» 

""•nnn (S2«.M, ,.„.,.,„ ,|,„ ,,, ."'^ ""• l"'»-"'- sin 
'■■"«1» .1/. .l/,v„M.v/, 1. ,.';;"','- "" ""l"-"i"" "f 
F-lsua-l.Tlhesanieieiri, „ ^'' ''""" ''V "•" 

'••'""■-. um.ri„,s „f . he ,.,,, of .^, „„.,„ ^._ 

™^;';;:.Mi^;:::;lr;:t;':.,H-i^';;.^^ .;.....«:„. „„,He 

na, ir, u.n |K,||„,| j,,,^ I ■"•" In- ».a,-r l,'..,n ,|, ,,, I ,1,,.. 

«»a- rarri,,! „ff |,j. ., ,|r ,iM""nl; ",'■,', ''' "' ''"' •'''"^^ " ''• "■ e 


hI.T,'. ■■,>'■'■"• in. 1. This K ,1,. „.,. , . .. . ^ 

',3, "'' ■"■"'''" i "'<^ holy pla«: "' '"' "'^"'«» 

: aSii demands, with ih,. ad,l,i,,,„,i I 
E' at as a Ml, ofl-,.ri„K U """' ""^''"'P'' ■•' '•« 

>lia. is. the K„at cl„^s .„ 1" , ""■ ■I'"'" "f a'""'",,.,,! ■_- 

i""M..r ..pi.,',,;, ..';;;;:,;, '; «-;'«-r.'d aft,.r 

'"•'iM'.iry ,„„al ,' ns thsl, [,.!""!.,;.; ' "'^' ''■'•*■ »'"> tlie 
l«-.i;in M,th'tl„."s,,l'r,|i',"'|,!.\7, ';' ■^'"'"■""•"t ( K;,! 
"■'• '■! I was ,arr„.,l l,v ,, „'""""' '" K>"'m1 : '^ 

'■it,r pi,„ti,,- ,r ,„,, ,,, „,. "'•","; .»T„r,l,nK t.. the 
f-> <'l ih- l,l,„„| «,.,,„■•"""• 'I' '■■■'. 4 7. B; the 

«-'•'!-. -.i: :;:;,i;"r;';r;:,;'"''"^'- '■'"•- 

I'lirii,-,!,,,, ,|,e altar ,,/ l„,r,> ., v,elinis «,-n. 

H'-li uut up as I r„ ■ / '\"^' ' "''' ^•■''' -'f "i- 

«-is and hi. ;. .;,",..■"•, "" ' ""• '"■•■■I. I-RV .„. 
"'- ••'sh,.s fr„„, „,, ,'''""' '"" '" "'•■ 1''^"- »h,-,e 

""I l«.-eat™ (Lev ti,,,?. [ ^ "" ""' "-"'I'l'- 
.•iilfiMlant «h,, .■,,„,.;.„''' ' "' '''• "'-I I lie 

('I l),'cas„inal sill ,,ti, ri„,.s ' ''i i, 
;-•".. ,„te,l pr„.s, „,.,, J ,.;,"^, , ' -" ..ft. ;....»; cf the 

•--.ause Ih,- pr,.„„ss ,s d, ,l! " '^'I'.l-'.l as p„l,li,., 

•'-i":..nK...'ev,i.:,„,:.:x ^i^rr^r'^'-r^'-'- 
'i'.- vKtiii, is a i,„ii . , „. ,,,. ' '" i"'"i''.' 1 1 -•/;). 

I'l"-. >|.nnkl,.,| s,.v, „■ ,'..'""' "^ ;■''"■'' ""■' 111- 
"• ""• li.'n,s „f „„. .,|;7 ."-f""- "'- >.'i. -...! appl„..1 
pn.«.,lure is the sanie'.a.s',,, th,",","'",',',' „''" , ^"'"- 'I'""! 
b,illonthcDav„r.\i„,i,.„„,„ ■ "''""■ ''"^l' I'n.sfs 

' «h,.i.. e,>„K„.|.;,„„„ ', ' 7 '"■ ' I'.- ^ tr.M„,i; „, „,^ 

'"""-■-■r is th.. hi-.h .lies, -T ';>■. ""■ -I'i-''' : 'lie 
'- ..»n sin .,H-,.ri„i I » ,.■ 7"n' ''^ ""■ -"'- - m 
^■'■- is \,.. IS... .;'..,., ;^" "'•:■'■ I"' I ... Lev. 

•""I ii,„n. an,l a h,' Jim ''■'''"■"" "I'l-'H""! 

;i.'''.^:;*::::;?;i.::,:T:^,/^-''7-"^"-^ ^n 

""•ll.>l..lnde .. i,l„ff *■"* »"'."'• "Mial ,1;„!,,; 

fnl himself ., l,„l|.,,,,|f ^,^ ;""'•. '■->•!'. iK-saellliecs 
r'l-s. The ,lisp„si„„ , f ,,,','■'■""'' "'"' ""• ""« 

l-">- pass I,..., i„ V "'•" " "^'^ l"i"i.-.l ■ lait i 

-.--■-'sin ^ri:,;;':i!''''^'r •!'•■' •'^''''"'.ii-vhU 

"•■•I- "-.i.he .,;!^;^;';!-™'';,"f«-. .Mth" 

88. Bcape-go-*- ''■"' '«■••" --"i '-• ,' ":l":"l'l>' 

»d heifer. 

"»v,.i : \,.^,, , . .,., 

'I>^'-"- -> .h..y,.ar |s,.eU.|„„ j; T, 

'1'^' i;".,t esp,ai„,|i f„r 


;S„.XT..MMKsr, iHvop. 

r- \«^"u';{:^v':x:f") "'<*": p-- 1^ a,, i,„ii-,„.,„„,,, 

' I h.. .'oil '.""■'■'■'''■'•'■''''' "'■ ."^lad. 

f'T ll,„ d„-..r5^.'.fMu'h//,';,.;;^;;""'^~ ■'"■ '"" «i<l."Ul .siKniilcana 



peculiar nte «liid.. tliousl, «,clely riiflbrinff fron, 
ordinary sauntui-, niuit !« ni.-niioiic.l liuru, is Die 
IjiiiiiMij.' of ihc r«l liuUt-r, will, whose ashes ,s i.rcparwl 
a liuly water lliat p„ri;.s the uncleanne,s arisni;; from 
Clitaet will, a <|.a,I l„Kly ,.\u. l!.). 'l he riles, as ,le- 
sm K.,1 11, ih,. .M,>1„,, (/■„.,/,i, are plainlv assimilafd 
to tho^e of a huriit ott,■nll^■ (see Clkan anu L'xci.k \n 
§ 17; Xl-MHKKs, ;; ao|. Another notewortliy 

//./,«.•,/« IS the slayiiiK of a heif.r to alone f.M- a 
niuidor the ix'r|»-tiatur of uhidi ca^.■^,t !».■ 
(L)t. I'll -01. 

In the clirections f,.r the consecration of Aaron anil his 
Sons (Kx. -jy, 

39a. Instal- 
lation of 

c|i i.t\. Si, .liter thes.icnlice of a hall a„ .. 
SMI ort'.-riiiK (.il)o\e. sijrl .iiul .1, as 
a hurnt olferiny, aiioiiier r.ini. cilled ihe 
•installation ram' (:-k-3 ^-m. :■, ,,) is 
offered. Its hlood is rul.l»-d oa the lip 
of the caiidid.,tes rii;ht on his nsht tluinth. and 
Ills riKliI sreat fw ; ' the Wood is then dashed aij.iinM 
tlie altar as in other sacrillces. 'lo the parts ii,iially 
Imined «lp,>ii the altar in the sacrilice of a 5h,-ep as a 
IHMce ofteniii;. is .i.Uleii in this case the rii,'hl lej;, which 
111 a l.iynian s sacniice would fall to the uriest. From a 
basket coiii.nnin^ l,,,,ves of hread, cakes nude with oil 
and wafers snieareil w.ih oil—all of line Hour up Lev.' 
!'•.'/'■■ S 301— one of each kind is laken and placed 
wilh the p.,rlini,s and the Ici;. on .\.iroi,s hands' 
and ■ waved' l>y .Moses Vahwc. Ihev are theii 
l)uriie<l n|«,n the The of the ram, which 
Movs waves U-i,,,,. V.ihwe, is his porti,,n ; the rest of 
the tiesh of the is hoiled in a holv place and win, 
the rem.iinder of the contents of the lask.-t, eaten !,y 
the newly consecrated priests. Any that is left tiil 
moriiini; must be burn.d ; it niav n..t be eaten after 
tlut tunc. It is implied in Ek. 29 :.i /f. isivondarv) the .same ceremony is to U- |x.'rfornied whenever'a 
high priest is to lie inducted ; cp Lev. ,>ij;_^ 

In Ki. 29i6/. the blood of the bull otTered as the 
sin oliering of the priests also purities the altar ('re- j 
inoves Its .sin.' ' e.vpiatcs for it ' ; see 
'•elow. S^;,: cp E/ek.4:i.3/A Thus i 
the hecoincs 'very holv'; what- 
s«ner touches it is thereby made .sacreJl I ;.,•'., U-longs i 
totioUi. In a still liter Mipplemem. F..X. .•iOa'i If the ■ 
holy anointinj; oil is applid to the tent and all its i 
furniture, as well as to the priests. ' 

Peace ofteriiiKs wi-re ordinarily private s.icrifice.s : the ' 
fcist of the worshipjjers was their characteristic feature. '■ 
40. Peace '' '■*' ""'"''■ ""' improbalile that at 
offerings in "": '"•''* '"^^bvals the kings furnishe.l ; 
sacra publica ■''"""^'* '" >^'^-^' numlxTS las their free- 
■ will otferini;s) f.,r the assembled ix-ople 
anil Lzekiel plainly contemplates the continuance of this 
custom Ma ,71; hut in I' there is no recognition of 
ofreniiKs of this kind. In the compleie.1 sacrificial 
system there are. however, certain public or qviasi- 
puhhc .sacritices which fall under this head. The iiist il- 
lation ram of the priests i K.\-. 1><>| is plainly a ,,.-ace 
otfenim' uilh certain peculiar rites. Th.- inaimural 
sacrillces of A.iron in Lev, 9 include an animal from 
Ihe herd i.-.^i an.l a ram as | offerines for ihe 
|)eople; whether the amhor means it to Ik? umleiMoo.l 
that their tlesh was eaten by rcpr.-senlatives of the 
P<^ple or by the priests is not clear. The aniiii.,1 
sacnhce of the two lambs offered with the two loaves of 
new whe.,t at Pentecost , Lev. -J.) • , :,re imblic 
jx-ace offerings : ■-■ the tlesh fell lo the pn.-si- .,,,,1 was 
very holy. With this exception the rule Ir.Ids that all 
piibhc s.,crifices are either burnt offenieis or s,,, 

Sib. Consecra- , 
tion of altar. 



The prevailing conception of sacrilice and offerin.- • 
the or IS that of a gift or present to (Jud. The t,.. 
41. Sacrifice a *5^'"'^'''^' 'crmb miii/iuh and koi/^ui 1„ ■ 
gifttoOod '■^l"'«s "''s iilca.' .\/i>,)i.,h api ,' 
ei|u.,lly to C.iiiis j;ift uf the frul. ■ 
the earth and to .\bels of animals from his Hock ii .. ;. 
J j-j. J(. The same word is used of a gilt to a fcii. 
in.iii as a token of hiendship (Is. :iy,i. an iia i 
homage (i S. 10.; I K. In.;,, tribute to a sn,-. • , 
l.|udg. 3.S ■;/. 2S.,Sj6i. to propitiate a pou,.' 
person who been wronged or oflendea (Gen. y-, .' 
J.i 10/ ), or to procure f.iv, mr and .rssistaiice ( ( ien. K , ■■ 
IIos. 1061. etc. In the later technical language it ■• 
ritual /v,A,>, 'present,' is the comprehensive nam, ■ r 
s.icriti.e and offering of every kind. 'Ihe genei.J 1 . no should come into the presence of 1,' 
wuhoiit a gift hohls in all ages ; see Kx. u':J,-, 31 . . .,' 
l>iir.. l-.cclus. 3;-M .1/. ll:ii;i^.,h 1 ,. Gifts to G..d 1 ■ . 
made with the same variety of niotne as to ,;, • 
Theophi.istus names three; homage, gi.itituile ,1 
lleed (9 ■>"/' ^'li '■'Mi)!' f, 5,d xa/)"!" « J.o x.'^ -1.1 
a>atf.i'i.. aji. Porphyry, /),■ al<slin.-l2^\. Pliilo ,1 -• ., 
guishes sacrifices in which men pa'v to (;.,.! • ,. 
honour due to him with no .self-regarding imaive (,. .,1 
those brought for the 1h;ikiu of the offerer, eitlurll • 
he may obi.iin goinl il,im.s or W delivereil from ,.y\\ 
Ihe commoiust gift to (.oil is something to eat 1 ■■ 
drink, the tiesh of the domestic aiiiniais used for I . ,' 
by Ihe Israelites, grain, fruit, oil ami wine^i 1 >,.! 


phrase 'food of God' (c-.-'-k'c.iN. which >,.eu, 
pe.iiedly even in comiwralivelv late conievts isec 1 ,v 

: 'I'v 'oc'^-,''',"'' '•''•''■ ^J' cplCi,; alsoI.e^.;l:; 
, 16 .\n. J82J4i. shows to end such otTeriiigs u.-,. 
made; cp I)t, 32jS ; the gods whom the Kr, •,, 
I worsliippe<r • eat the fat of their sacrifices and di ink li c 
I wine of their libations'; bee also the protest of 1\ .•.,..' 
Doubtless those who first used the phrase -fu'c , f 
God' meant it (juite liter.illy (.slm the end of th. 1' ,1 
j tablet of the nabylonian Cosmogoiiie Fpic) ih,.u..i| 
observation and retU-etion may have e.irlv I,.d' n.uiT, 
, ilrart the distinction which modern jieoples in ^nv 
ph.lies of culture often m.ike between the visible 1! i.i-s 
cfered and their subtle essence or 'soul' whicL t^. 
deity extracts for iiis enjoyment — a coriceiiii, n ii 
literal, though not so a.s the other. The m.A- 
of presentation varies. riie shewbrcarl (ori-in li'v ic- 
coinpaiiied. doubtless, by wine; mh- above, Jj u .'"i, 
ki-pt standing continuall'v on a table in the hoc-.- ,,f 
Nahwe (, .s. 216 Kx. '.'S :,o Lev. 04 5.,, . j^ ;„,,,,, 
sacrinces certain p,arts— in the holocaust all the tl.-.h— 
of the victim were consumed by fire upon the alt a- ,5 
were also sacrificial cakes of varirms kinds and unb.U-,1 
dough ; other offerings, as the firslfruits, were vet ,1 ,,,1 
tiefore the altar with a dedicatory formula (In -'i; , , , 

or -w.aved' ; tint is. with om-of ihos,. fictions soc'n li 

in, in niakelielieve thrown upon the fire. 

The custom of burning the offerings to God i:,<.ii 
n (ire si-i-ms to have Inril adopted liv l!;,- 
Israelit.-s.ifier their settlement inCanaan, fiMiii tli. oi.lcr 
mhabil.mts ls.-e above. S ,21, probabh wilhoul pmhIi 
iii'imiyor rellictioii alK.ut the signilii an, e of ti„' • ,-»■ 
m,.,ie or the reasni, for it. The verb whi. h is o.nii,,. ,,:r 

U-,-,1. h,,w.-v,r UvA',,-. see at. AC. ji I I I. implies ih ,t l.V 

object was so much to consume by fire as to in ,:<.• 1 
savoury smoke (see lN< kxsk, § 1 and n. ,1. la this 
fr.igraiit smoke, as it .arises, the finer es.sence of \\x 
gift, etherealised, is coiiveve.l to the 1' .iv.' Tli:, :s 

.l,.^'''^''~'*';'''''■^Ii' '■''"''""•''"''"-"''"" ''i=>''''"i">'- of 

Illu pi., -si i, .( Litt-r :i,i,iinnn. 

•- riii- resells fron, tnin-ftrriiii a l,,:al rile in vvhul, ihe 
1.1,1 ,„ v,e„ real sel.imUi, 1., ||,e tciaral San, tuary ; s« (i 14 

ana j4/,. " ^ 


, li It, 24. 

ff^r. % 4. 

Cp also in XT, .Mi. ,: 

' Sreal.o 
(Jipoi ). 

t.l",'"' '','• ■''■''''■ ' *■ -'■•" Mantev. On Id, 
Ha,.,,..,„ilvMs I.) Tlit,i| sre Ifcrnavs. ■:■.'. 
» l>..l.lll..ri»;„„| v,,live ,,IT,:rii,cs to Itllinl, s «l,i, 
llmJi-r Ihe ileliiiai,.n , ,f sacrifi. e are not coasi.lereil in 
^,f \'.in K n, 1 M IM.^. 

• ■'5'' '''.' !'"■ "'■ l''n*vry explains the \x. 
airatfaian^ttr (/V abitin. - 5X 



food an,l .lr„,k ,„„ „ , , ' ," '' "■'""« '"■fore God of 

ar^.ry he will ,„„ enjuy ,| L V, ,, j f ' ,' ^ -'' '>'> : »».■.. he i. 
a. 1 H"'<-- .s .. l.„,r Kl),„,,' , ,, """"' "' ^"""alic k,,,,,. 

Ml '■•",„„,„ |,n^.,„.sa,n,i.,-s(,v/,./, /,■/ 


42. Sacrificial '"v^' "' »i"'ii >i'-.f^.vM'!!;';"';,;' ''^ 

feast.. » ;"■ "'^ f..n„lv. nei«hU.ur.s, !„ ; ! ' 

!-7"n. it is a „,,»•„•.! sun ^; , ',^' T^''^"' '"» 
0-1 ..nU „,..„ j,„„ is an e -mi r ' '""•'[ '" "''"'' 

•.i-.'lHhiehisest.,l,|„|,.,,,,,V""' •' '' I l^•^vr tll.„, 

--tbeadn,,,,..,.,,,,:',:; ',;^i";>';— fa«if.. I. 
luiur... and cffuruy of »airi, ^"i "pNc.n „f ,|„. 

"P-S...1 i„ „,e <r^ a^d ris'd,«''" '"■'^ •'"'""">• 
'iMWvit «.vs pn...-nt in ,. "" '" *^'>- !>"« 

«...h,p,vrs.» ^M . , " '' "'"-'••"'UMK« of Israd,,. 

i.KH. upon ,he on, ,," th"; '''''"" .'''^"«- •■"'>■ ' 

-■>■'■ --u,n,oni;,;::T'^,;^-'P'-tsa.n,. ' 
■1" "■" maMU,n„ ,1.,, „,, ,,,,,,|i,J ^, UT> , """"'"• 

- •^ywas',;::-::;,;!^,Vr:-.""''^'^""""^ 

'.«! ..r..l „,«, or n,,i it „,„ ,,;','■''' "--^'""Pnrni.nship ,,f 


43. Blood ■"" f-n, Hrs, „, L! .''^i.t^f':;;" 

>l-;vca.tle and .-ai il.^n,. ,|,.- k ! | , ' '"■^'"' '" < 
'"il"! up. and c..nin.,n,l,.d I, ,, ,^ , ' '^"^^'" ~'""<= ( 
'"-"•. nnd n„. s„, ,« . y ,.''r ^""•"■' ■^'■'u,l„.r I 

•*-iu,.,^;;rs ;^crv:'^''''"''''''■"■'^''f''- 
|'->'l »as the e.s..,„i , h " %/""""tu„- of i, „,,„ 

^-'-.ider,h.„,l„;«!nn.o^;,"7,;'f ^"■'■"-•" ^ 

^ and,s,he„e..„sarva;^ :; ',^';!^""""'V : 
't'iKi..ns cons.vralion Tl„. ..a '''"-^- "■* 

■"-'■I ^■>nn,,'i^\J,i'^:'"fr'''''f ■'''''"'•' I 


- Ihe 

~.' of 

li-l' r wh. ni 

'<"■ Inm 111,. 


sa^l l.Mt in an ouil,„..,k of .h,,!,.,, -,, ii '?': '" " 
">a,ie „,.h „ a cross on .hJd L.r of .:;:;;'"" '""'^' ■"■" 

" |„,„,.r «,„'J, ' ° " "",'■ ("'-.sons or ai„n,:d. 


"■" anproUd,!,.. ,h.u ,n "r , ur i, "'1 '^""'- " ''■ 

■su.ortcr.n^..' Th,. r-tti" o Ml ""' '""•'" "^ "« 

J''- « .-s «.-'mpl,t,..d .; „i," ,.'T"' '" ^' "'">""; -u- 

f'T th- or ,ll.,r and f' '"""'" ''' ''<•''" aliM, 
"■>" fron. a«,d,.n,al „d „t ""•"■ l;""'-'"'l l.unn.a- 

f m .he con.s,..r;,.;;'';'';t:;:.f';,''"''«,.,, 

'"'lu.ess ■ are ,.fl.u,.,l l,v ,h,. 
I'ltl'Tenl frn„, ,1,,.,^. „,,,.^ 

"r resioralion of 
anie ni<;ins. 

av.T.inK or n.„,ov,n« d„;7^ ';•,!'";■"' "' » "'oa-s of 
f'^a.on mad,, of i, i„ n^„ "''"l^-"" »t is the ,hs. 
P-ured, spl..she.| o „ r "' ™''"'"'' "'"■"-• '• i» 
(-'-.A,^' altar ■^;^?'^;, ;■•'"'■ "■--Hrlhaal Mon. 

n.e,hately to the atl.n ,M^f h , ""'• '"""«'" ""- 
"«'n-d. hut- a. leaM ea L '"- '" "'"'"■ " '« 

-"v.-,ed to h„n ' „ Ara v,"r'""'"^ '*>-''"v 

;he ^-....e-tha. .^:;'t «^^„:;"'> 

■n blood ,ov,.n.,n.s Utween n,c„- ' 
1 lie prof.ine use of hhxxl 

taM,- |,|o 

is and to 
■ 'iu.i; [larties. as 
dio to U- nut, d 
's stringently pn.hihited ; to 

"*;;:::^ui,::^'™«'-''^'-'-'<' anion: 

fH;;;f;i;:;:;:i;'::,;^j;;;-;,-.:''-''-'».tsan<,;;!v'; ' , ;-;;:;^;;;;^-"-"V-.isriJj;avi 

- --on against :i^--:l;kvs r;;: 

■"""d-i i.y i".-.ui. , c.;;n ;',':;.""'"- »'■'> the d,'i, ;;:•„. 


andnio.,!,;' ;^ '■'-'■" ' one of the „,„.t 
a-unials uere n, oM u ^^'s^,";;;" "? ""■ '"""-tic 
s"a»-- a„,l the hlo,,,,';.'f '""'='','•' ''''^^ '^acriticial 
abolition of tlie hieh , "'" """•■ aft'T the 


j previously U^.„. -j-,,^. |,|, ' "-;"" •>'""' '" 'aiMlluj; had 

n,.,,re ,au« .....,„„;;; If :;;|;;f -- ^p-- of sacrifice 


' '" "'"^'unheres ni ,Jr,"' """ '''"^"' ''^ ••' ''""1 

«'>.•" "lisase,! .l^nnclic 1. :;'''■*• "" '•■^'' ''a-^'eroii, 

»'• n>a.v |H-rh.ip, rece Ive ,1, ^ , '"^''''''al stone 

safest d,s,.,si,i,',„ of i, *■"!,, '^]'''^',^"''^' ""s is the 

^ "I'at ni.'ie .l,.w.lo , i , T H •■■ '"'"•■ "f •' some. 

: "-"-.friKht. \\ :, ,; k.: 'S,.'^-;' V" ^^"•"- 

• .':'""l or ,11 IS ,ha. the hfe in j ,h .'i"' "' '"'""-f"' ^"^ 

• '- '>'-don a fact ,.f „,.. ™" '•, "^'"'-ory „f Lev, ir„ 
i Ml,,, „f ,1, '^mipie-i ol,,s,.rvaiio,, 

i n>:„i,;::^,,^^ ■;;;;,;•;:;,••'•", "aveU,.n noted aU,ve 
«lHeh alone 'thevh;;,.',;''"'"'''''^- '-""<• r.I,,ion. i„ 
rehKion of rsraelihe'v l,.e,,m '";!*■'■. ,'" "'^' ''ati' 
Yah«e or of the e ns ,„ .'"f ■;;;" "' "',- ""^^'"l- of 

sanetion. Thiscon,i,"t;o:,:^eam.r!;%"""7 ''*' 
"f apprehension ■ the rites an n ' «, '^ '''^'"S" 

inherent ,«,t,.|i,.v of the M,^ j '"; ,f "■""'•'■' by the 

V. 70 ,v/: : tt-,.lll,. /;,.,',^'.",'f./^ ;-; ^.'r «'>'"• 1" 

f- "".-i.... of i, i„ '^^:'r'^'^^:^s::^-:}tx^. 

of Ihe 

^ uf ,he 
«1, 7,,v 

. - ■*^'- (i "1 111'- ir|M:r, 

!- U^'^Nr-^'-Ch. „.h:,s,-,.ll..,..,^.,,, . . 




OjRTaiion, but as the means which God has appointe<l.> 
1 he iTi'ire fwjsiiive the cunception of rchKion Ix-eonies. 
the less muii\e there is to seek any other expl.ination 
of such pr..Liios than that ( lias e.iinTnani]e.l Iheru. 
If, rinally, the irrationality of sueh eeremonies tomes to 
lie I, It, ,iinl their ineonifriiily with spiritual reliijion. 
allet;.)ry aii.l synilxilisni will hiul some jirofuunil sii;Mili- 
f.mee in them. Vet the iK' mullllMile will iloulil- 
iess c.intimie to h,ive f.iilli in the \irtue of the ceremony 
i!5elf, ami to uiKlerst.iml Ijeller th.ui their leathers ils 
true import, liee.mse the ol,l .miniism is still a re,ihiv lo 

A correspomliiii; change is wrought in the coiieepiion 
of • uncleanness. ' Whereas orii;inallv it w,is a pli\ 
thiMK whose evil w,is in ils,-lf, it becomes in the 
reliRion a pollution offensive to V.ihwe : it n incom- 
p.ililile with his holiness and the holiness »liich he 
deinancls of all that approach him ; its consi'ijuences 
are not only ii.itural liut ; it rec|aires to lie not 
merely pureed Init expiated, rndeanii.'^s is in this liijht 
a wroni;. ,ind iiiv<.lves guilt. On the other haiid, 
a not incoiisideralile cl,iss of what we regard as moral 
offences were iiichiiled in the c.iteijorv of talmos re(|uir- 
iliR punlications. We have dithcull'v in realising that 
guilt was iK'iieveil to h.ive the sanie physically con- 
t.igious (|uality as uncleanness — one man who 
touched hfrcin icin) could infect and liring di^feat upon 
.a whole army (Josh. 7). .Almost eipially strange to us 
IS the notion that guill. like uncleanness. can l)e con- 
tracted without knoMledgi' and intention; and the 
Hrst intiniation a man ni.iy have that he has offemli-d 
<iod is he suffers the conseiniences uiUm\, with 
its converse, that misfortune is the eiideiicc that 
he has offendetl without knowing how. These are 
things, however, which must In; kept in mind if we 
are to understand the piacular aspects of Israelite 

.\ man who has offended (iod may seek to propitiate 
him by .1 gift, as he might an earthly rviler : so li.ivi.l 

44. Propitiation '" ""^ ''""-' °^ t''''^'"' "'''''" '"'"" ! 
and expiation """'''".'''^ '" "'<-■ tlireshing tlo,>r of ! 

.Araunah (3 .>^, 24 iS-i.;!. More fre- i 
quently, pcrh.ips, he ni.ule a vow that if God's anger 
under which he suffering were withdrawn, he would 
make him a s|wci(ied sacrifice, either holocaust or (xMce 
offering.- or l).>ih together, with s .h and such victims. 
This probably in all periods the most numerous 
class of voti\e offerings. The same means by which 
man in pros|X"rily sought the continu.ince and incre.ise 
of (iods fivour were employed to reiover it when in 
any way it had lieeii lost. 

The sjiecial fi.icula called sin offerings have a very liinilej 
rani-e of empl.^Miienl (sc-e, | jSa). They are i.iescriWd 
chieHy f„r ceremonial faults or as imri!ic;ili..n. ■ 
the tre,<pas4 ottering is even m.ire narr.mlv re^tti.leil lal..,v.- 
* 371, I he xreat expiali,.n the »h.,le people, in Liter tiims 
at lea,t, the s.;a|>e-i<.«t ; n.jl any form uf s.iurilice. 

Sacrifices offered to propitiate the offended deity 
rerpiire no [ rites; the oiit[»uring of the blood, 
the burning of the fat or of the holoc.iust. are precisely 
the same is when these s|x-cies of s.tcritice are m.ide. 
say. in gr.itituile for the signal goodness of God. I he 
lilood of the sin olfering is smeareil ui»)n the horns ,,f 
the ali.irinsteMil of l»_.ingsplash.-<iag.iinst ils corners: but 
whatever the origin of tins rhifcrence mav 1».-.' we iii.iy. 
in view of the whole of the liait'.lth. confideniiv 
aHirni that it is not a puriwsed heightening of the 

In the discussion of Hebrew 

lileas concerning the 

' The c.m-t.-int ten.lenry i« \n .i^Mmilate cerem,mies of pro- 
tection or piiriritali,,n !•> the ritual of ~.i. rili, e to I ;-,l 

^ Neither -m ..fferini; Ir,->, ..(Terini; coul.l lie vowe.!. 

' Ifa . .nieclure m.-iy he all..»..l. »e m.iy siirrni^e th.u ihe 
pr..s.n.e,.f t he (..ilhiu-.l man re.piire- a purificali,.n -.ftheailar ■ 
or th,it ihe !,lo. ,1 uhich in the primitive rite w.-is aniilie.l t.. the 
person ,,f the t . he cleansed has in the cult heen traii^ferre,! 
to the jltar. 



[ effect and operation of sacririce the meaning of the 

4S. Effect of *'''^'' '''t'tf Willi its cognate words an 1 

■acrifice ■ *.*""">"'5 h'"^ lilled a large place ; and, 

tenni '"' '' ''"'' "^ method which has Ixen 

fruitful of error in the stuflv of the ( 1 1 

Ihe investigation has frei|uently set out from'etvniologn.,' 

assumptions instead of from the plain facts of usage 

A'.Wr, a word of jural a,s.H ialion's, i, the mean,- |,avin.- • 
fill. hrilK— by whi. h a man Inivs himself off from the , 
sequences of Ins deed: see Kx.-ji3o( = a ransom for his lit.) 
.\il.35i^i.,j Pro>.li,5l;i,i Joh.');ij4 Am. .'.11 iS.l-Jj (l.,v,,-; 
cp I-.4. II); Kx.;lOij (head money). The lerl, *,/A/ I.- ■■' 
nominative Use of the intensive stem) means t,i iiuke saiisfa. \in 
hy such means; see cMiecially 2 .S. L'l | ( ;en. S'.'at) | ji| si,,,r 
the ohjcct ij lo avert llie consequence, .jf misdoins, thei.-., 
often sunihes to seek r>r pro. are remission, nilhout recar.l . 
material, lo ju ipiii.iie ; thus E«..TJ3o <M,,„. ■ ' 
tercesslon «llh (;„1 for for.;ivene,, of the people's sin), , p . i . 
;«ii«. 1 he piissives regularly mean 'he forgiven,' f.^f.. I,. '■. 
1 ."5.814 Hi. ;;!"; and conversely the active, frenuenllv 'f. r- 
jiive, e.f., Krek. 1.1,, J Jer. l»2i. With these senses ai',1 ■ .r, 
III coiiimon life anil religion ihe uses which we shouM I 
speiihcally ritual c.innect ihemselve,. offences .nitaiiiM (. .' 
are n.n confined lo ni,.ral wrontj-doinK ; Ihe infriiiKeliienl - , i, ,i 
iinviiuiiiK -of rules or of the many laws en, .r-i. 
eikl ' uncleanness * nia\- have dire unless expi it-,' 
I he delilemcnl may \k contracted liy thinij.-. ••« well as hv pl-r'^, , " 
and these also reipiire I.) he pu'Keil in "a similar way; 111 li.e 
I imsecralion of a new altar it is necessary 10 "remove ils smi t 
•expiate' (.f;>i/,'>) the allar (K^ek. 43 lo st) ;1 Ihe semi- o,i',r ,1 
purihcation of the temple is a removal of Ihe sin of the sa u lu rv 
an expiali,.!! of the house (Kiek. 4.'. 20); cp Ex. 2D 3*/ l.,-v,'. .i 
M IS 24. The sacrifices or rites, of whatever nature, hy wV , ,1^ 
1 .e consecMiences of uitniiiint; or inadvertent invasi.>n ..t" v„ 
,phereof holiiiess'arenullideciareexpiat.iry.and ihev.r!,^ •« * 
Is the technical term foi their effecl. Oilier verljs are fo.|,.vV.i', 
joined with it, esiwcially hittrt, KSri ('irivalive), 'rem, I. -u, • 
(, if things), Hilar, IJK, 'make pure or clean' (,]f ihii,-, anj 
persons), kiil.liis, s'^f , ' make holy,' 
p.irl of ihe preceding terms. 

The Mori! kifft-r is 11. ,1 so common in old t,ir,:ih as mi hi ' e 
ex|x-(.lcd. It occurs with cpecial fre,|uencv in the cdd I ."« - ' r 
the tres|ass offering in Lev. .'. and the supplements l.j ihcin I'i t 
u,ual formula, standinK .after Ihe directions for Ihe s.i, mi , 
hting, ' and Ihe priest shall make propitiali,,n (-icr) in hi", '-i,.,;; 
(_sy), and he shall lie for^iv en ' (see Lev. .', ., u,/- 1 ' i-, is •: - 1 ! , : 
"7 IO22 .\u.5s); also in Ihe purilicalion of the leiier (I , \ u 
" — "P 29 3' ,si). the X.a/irite delile.1 hy death (Nu 

.vhich is the positiv 


purificati.m .after childhirth, goiiorrho-a. men,irrhat;ia ll 
Mj/. Iai5 ).,); further, in the sin otlcrint! of the colkh-i: .1. ,, 
or an individual for an in.-ulverteiit omission (\n. 1.". ■;'. , ,, 
Lev. 4202S31 35). and in Ihe several strata of the riin.,1 t ,1,, 
Dayof .\ionement(Lev. IC). |n m.jst ,if these pas-.-ite- >iU,t 
Ihe priest is suhject. kipfr («'f.Ai<r»ouai). ' m.ike pn.pili ,ii, r ' 
miuhl equally well \x Irandaled, "make inlercesdon. as in V • 
(.ovi>-.-. r.-fiir,', ,/,/»^^,.i^/, etc.), hy.Saadia(«C,n'///a>-a, ' 
fori^iveness '), and others. 

The propitiatory or expiatory effect of sacrifice is not 
restrictetl to any sjiecies or class, tlmagh 
siwciric offences have prescrilied pi.uul.i, not only 
trespass offerings and sin offerings, hut also the private 
Imrnt offering (Lev. I4I. and even offeriin;- ,ni 1 
oblations 'atone' ; the whole public cultus is a^ii, ms 
of propitiating (iiKl and olitaimng remission for sii! imi 
uncleanness (l-;«-k. 45is 171. Nor is the o|jer.iti,.n of 
propitiatory sacrifice centred exclusively, as li,is .,ft™ 
U-en contended, in one p,irt of the ritual, the she, 
and application of the victim's blooil ; it is on 
cert.iir. [jeculiar purifications that this is reallv Ihe c!i-.' ; 
elsewhere the very forniulati'in of the laws show, il..,! 
the whole ceremony atoning value (see. t.i;.. I,,i 
■4 2« 31 35 ."1 10 I ;. .-ic. 1. The 3111 offeriiii; of the p,iii|K.-, 
which is only a little meal, is as effectual as the hl.Kidv 
s.iciiticcs of his more prosiK.'rons fellows. 

The term iiff'ir is us<il in rel.ition to other than 
s.icriricial expi,itions ; 'hus when a pkigue br,,!,. ,„ii 
.\aron went among the [xsiple wilh a cens, r of i,iirii,rii; 
incense and ni.aile expi.iiion for the |>eop|eic;'T '■;'i£:"', 
and the pl.igue stayed 1 \u. li)4(, /: [ITu / |, . the 
sl.iiighler of ., unilty man by I'hini-has m ide e\j ; iii'.n 
for the Isr.i.-lites I \u U.'ii-,l; iiuinhT profanes Ihe and. 
no blood-wile u'v.»*cii sh.iU lie taken for it. ' th, |.;»«J 
which h.i, lii-en shisl shall not lie expiated sav,- l,v the 
IiIoihI of him that shed it' i.Vu. X>i'/\ ; an oitcr.iig ul 

t ("l> iw^iaHii'h m /i'ru in K'^iiinnuiii, t i, . t'liil. i. 1".' ; . 


jewelry from the sjioils of war serves ■ m ,-, i 

for our iivf,' (Xu. 31 yA ; c^"Z v 'o™,''^ "P'"""" 

H.S/: I610. ' • <^P niso .Nu. 819 Lev. I0i6^ 

Whether the prini:,r.v meaimis <'f the root ,. i. 
Hehrew was ' cover ud ' i.^ in \ ■ ^*= '" 

off, as in Synac we nc^d „n^ h '' '"■ '"*'*■ "'!« 
as it is not uied n^he or in -. nh?" '",''""■'• '"■""""'' 


t>n k^pf..\relh. see Mercv Sfat 

«. Theory V"""'"^ f"^ "»^ oft-repeated prohibhion 

Of blood "f •^^•""'K U«Hl : K.,r the hfe of ,he l^v 

atonement. '* '" ">f l.l.K,d. and l ,.,ven Ho 

p..:,o„ for v,.u::,::s"";,r"r U f^^f-^^ e.x. 
bv v,rtue of -the ii e (",i, ".''p .'":"' ':!'::'^" 'T^^^ 
io,.l c,f the anini ,1 s , h.. 11 ' ', *' "''" ""-' ''f'' "f 

■W IS l]« ^,rnu,,l thing in s;,< rili™ 4 '^ "' " '!'' '° 

47. Efficacy of •'""' ^"""''^ 'he favour of Yah've In 

•acriflce : ?'""=* "f prosperity thev acknowledted 

popular beUef. ^'^ RO"<lness and [.eiouRht its eon- 

^-«s they n j;;;;i;;::['USh^":f '::yp.t ;;r .::[ 

•""It the .merr „f ■, kin,. r . ^ '"■ '" '""' 

WyMn,„Kh„M of these f.ilse ,.,ncent, ,ns ^'^ 

">.;ref..r,., ,he prophets ,l,r,v. th.'r a^^k ' " "' 

I jv prophets of th,. ..i^.h.h ce,„„rv not onlv denoiinre 
"• "'""■- ^'"•' '-''"uptions of the worship at the t" s 

M,The •?'"' ".«h pl„ces-,he drunken' rev, ':;"",',:: 
propheU. "'"''"'•ated prostitution, the .-r,-,.,! of th,- 

--ienvthe^ffi.''"''^' ^^•"■'™""'^''-^t^ 
^^^) the efheaey of si.cnfiee altoRether. Wh..^, 

-•' rtn i« nr.:b.l,:'^.'\."-.'T-^'"'- '"•■>•' Oooo). 


was he necessary consequence of their ide , , f i ■ i i 
ofreigon Vihweic,,; . "' ""^"^ "".i of („,d .|,„i 

--P. nothing in X^>^ T^^^:^ ^X^t r^^ ''''' 

"' ■'" the relai„,„sofVife -tl S'""'"--'"!" f..||ow.„,en, 
'-S i» not sonteth n^J ^, fr , r;;:";"'" "' ^'«'"''""- 
put of reli.'ion It i« ?, r ''"'"■ '" ""' •' """"r 

sul stnnc *- • "he wrhce '",'f '""'i" ''"' "^ ^•"" ^""' 

.n^.ttoc^.M rt;-:;ari:;ikexr 

■" -'■ —^7/. ler. t)30 / 2lj^, (.[(.. 

Munm^rup'S •"",« il;^li"'X':r.'VK'i',b"l 1, J"""'"" i' 
\al,»e; lK,»tothe exalt,:,! ,;,„| •/ "h'u I "'' ,' i'!''""'" '' 

thousand, „f ran,s, „, ,i,,| f,„, J .f „; \"^,\^l '«••■ /'"'I't 

Vahui ,„.k ,Vl ' ;^;^ ";'".,*''"' '? «""•'. ••""! wha?,l," 
and 10 „alk in hum.ii.yli h' 1?^. :^'r"'° ^'"' '" l"Ve charity 

i.l "^ ) lu lie laken, not 'instead ,if (a 

..l,*," llr";'' » ;.'• . " .^y t« rfcall«l lh..t in .v. ,, _ 

'"''' ""<'^>- ^Pl«-^'-« in laier Jewish thought 


-.unl^tri!;:;!"'':;!;;:'''''' 'r'''-^ ''-'inctly enter. 


the proj.hets h.ul n v,-,lhe i if ' "*■'"'"" "'"'h 

plaeJs thentselves' an I n, .. V c.lT"''"^ "'- '"«■> 
able chances in the 1,1 ' '^""'•'-■'luence c„„s,<l,.r- 

"a-e the reliu or of the ul,;i in i'"'''''''' "'"••''""-'''>• 

.he pr„s„.rity of .hee,;n™u: v\h :.^;;™:;;,;'';"" ;;- 

eollectuins of /,;,-;//, ,„.„l,. " 'M'< ""s upon it. I he 
following cent r^es • ,"'""' '" ""■ ^'^'h nn,l 

prescriptio,". " "" '•'^*-''''> """I""' ""h ritual 

sa<^fi:;hH:^t'^'„:'\;:r 'rr' -^-'^r-iods 

'-.'' Ml the actual worship and in tlie 

49. Persian '■-"•";'tK.n of the p, ,i,,i,. „,, ,„„^. ,^,^.^ 

and Oreek 1" '''"fii"" that it h.ul h;i,i ,,n,i,T ti„- 

period!. V"P ■ '^"'' '■■*'•■ •^'•''- 1 -ff. :'<■ t ' ir 


Jrmks the hio,>d of goats ' (I's 'ifil * "u ' '. '''.'"" '""' 

saenhces of God are a broken spirit, a broken .„ut 

*<r«r" ■ 


contrk.: li.M't (itnl dors ii..t S|)imii — rr|>i'ntnrn(', not 

t'"!"'"' 1'^ •"'1 "i/..<:\>7f.). Tlu: I-r.n.i l.^ ti-.ahl;, il 

t ' |ir.iLli,sc iiT)ri;,liim'« ami jiisiiip w pn.-f.rri'(l liv>i.«l 
Hj: qi I s. IS.'i) ; till} s.icrilKc at 

t-i s.icril 

"ulii-il 1111,1 .lie aUiniin.ition of Y.ihive. Imt tin- 
pMvtT oi" thf ii|)ni;lit is »fli-|)lo,vsmg to liiiii (I'rov. i:),;, 
C|> L'l .-7 ; sn- alv) lr,6). 

I lio traihini,-, of the «isr onticiTnini; sacniici- in the 

SfDiiil iTiiturv li.c. are M. II ilhistr.iti'.l liy |i>>iis v>ii ..I' 

60. Sirach- ^"""■''- "'' <l'«'iil"-< wuli fmhu^i.iMn 

Fhilo ' ''" ^l''""'"'"'"' "f •'"■ tfiiipii- MTviir «li,n 

till' llii;h pnrst Saiiiiii ■ilfrrs sacrilm' 

(aOii //I, ami cvidoiilly lias iimih iiili-n-st in pnrsthc. k1 

aii.l culliis up r II jr. 14/. 1. Hilt his r.'lij;ious i-siini.ite 

of sacrihci? is thnmiiijhlv ethical. 

Tlie l.mi; pa,s..i;i.-, alitlnO [ai ji-3-J|. is of liijh ui,,rt.-iT„e 
111. .ii,;li..m, \\k saciilices of llic wick^-d arv a 1 . ktry ,.f 
(■ "I: tif Mill iii.l a.:t.ept them, f..r>;iie null's vi i;,r it,L- 
mi Inlii.l,- ,,( tlu-ir s.i.;rilu;i.> (:i4iyl: it is vain lo trv 10 LriLi- 
<.,<l liv ..iriTMiKs (cp /uM/.is:, I..), f.T ho uill II.. I a. ...pi lliem. 
..r i.» ..II an utirii;litc.ius s.i. rill, e, fur the i.uiil is an ia,|,;e (.fi u//:); .^lierinss iii.idc of h.miIs wruii^ liy 
•.•vl..rl|.iM fi.iiii ihc |>...)r ar.. liki- innr.lir (:I4 i<..jj. cp 1 1 .\ 
iiia.i Mtt.i fi>is f..r his sins .-(nil th.-n repels them is as vWio, 
after perfuniiiii.; his .ii.hifi,,n i.>(l,.,ins' him fr..m L..iila.t iiitli a 
de.i.l !, ,;.j..saa.l l..u. hes it acaiii ; wh.. will hear his|ii.iver, 
■T what is dure in his humil...ti._in :• (34 .'j/l. Ol^.llJn.e 
■ " •' ■■■ ' ' ■ ■ Like die plaee of s.i. rili.v ; ho mIid 

i.iiy ..tli-rinils; he »h.j i;i\es hec.l l.i 
. .s ;i p,.ai:e utfi-rin^. He win. sh..\vs 
and he 
lue..f li,..l 
l.y .ihstaiiiiim fruin unii^ 
hi uheii men 
nj.iui.-d h) the 

I.hI an.l l.n 

ohserves die l.iw inak. 

the c. .inm.itultnents s.i 

kin.hiess ijflers (ijie fl.ji 

a,HVriii^;.i The accept 

ill:,; ivickeilness, .m.l firiiivenes; 

Hess (a.'i I f/.\ Literal s.u rili. es .a 

visit the ti.inple, liecausc thev arc enj..iii..d h) ti 

nient (:: 5), n..t In-canse they h.ive a ..r relii;i. 

themselves. Hut die charailer an I ,lis|«„ition iif the w.irsliipiKr 

IS siill the essential thin? (:■..</!':). The s.»me lessons arc 

empliasised elv:*he:c ia the !).i..k ; see, , .v., 7 »Jf. 

Kor a repri-sentntivc of llcllciiistic Judaism wc turn 

to I'hilo. it must siitlicL. to cpinti. a siiii;lc passai^r. 

■J here are »h.. think that sl.uii;hleriiic halls is reh.;i..iis- 
ness. an.l «h,, -et ap.irl f,.r s.icrifii e inespiahle si„n, rs 
they are! -a p ..f what they h.oe K'H I'V theft .r hre.u h 
of trust or r..lili.ry, in ..r.ler to es, ipc panishment f.r their 
inisdeeils. T.i such I waal.lsav: Th, trihunal ..f ii,.d is inc.r. 
niplllile; Ih.jse wh.i haie a unilly i,ins.i,.n, e he tarns aiiav, even if thev ..fTer a hnn.ln-.l l.nlK every .l.y; l.m th',. 
I.l.ameli-ss, nen if thev l.rin- n.i s.icrifi.e at all. he receives (..«! dehjhl- ■..! tireless all.ars surr..iinile(l t.v the ch.jrus of 
virtues, n<.t in altars hta/inj; with a i:reat tire that the impious 
sa. ritices .jf unhal!.>wed men (.ii-Kpcui- dtivrm f^vai.ul have set 
.lHaille, which il.. hut remiml him ..f th- iu.i'.ran.e an.l ileep 
i;allt ..f each wh.. s.> .ilfirs (/),■ Hantat. .\.h\ ii. | 25 1 j/j 
.\l in^ey). See als.) (7/. .I/,.i, i,i. | „,. •..,;,: an.lon the 
char.iLler of the w.)rshipii..r, es|>eciallv /V ■.■id. ( s, J..,! : l\ 
iit^-rifi.antH-us, | iff.; /),• /»,■,-.. mcntr. ( 1, 2 2^±/., Frai; 
34. etc. 

The sii|i(.riority ..f upriRhlnrss and Roodnoss to sarri- 
fice is infri;;|ui.|itly i-ttiph.isisi-il hy I' 

81. SchooU of "'''"'' ■ """■ ''"'■' '^''''''"-' ""■''O- ;i'i'i 
law: efficacy I",'.' ';'"'"«■ 'p ^"■ !'■' I'^ri 1"- 
of lacriflce. .V,"' '' ' ' '■ "^ ' ■'"■'" 'I"""''' '" ■"'""f- 



'I'liat (J.mI h,is ri'ij.ird. ti..i t' 
mannituil... .tnd c.> ,,f th ■ oH.'niu; Imt to th. 
of th(? \vorship[j.T. is amhoi itativt-ly .1. 

Without lUvcllin.; l.mjjiToti this' ..f ti-.i.h- 
ini;. wi. p.iss ilin-ctlv t.> the inquiry. W' «.is t.iii-ht 
in I' sch."i!s ..f th.- first .in. I s, cotui Christian 
ci'Mtiun-s. or ik-fini'd by thi-ir autli..nly conirriuiii; — 
«. thf i-fficicy of s.icrili(f or ..f parti, sacrilici-s ; /•, 
till' r<-li.i;ious and moral roiulitM.ii. of th.-ir ifticaiy (tj 
5^1 ; and ,-, tin- iikkIc of th.'ir .i|i.r.ition IS .s.v? 

(.11 The frti'ct of .sairihci' is rxprrssiii as in the 
I'l'iitati'ilrh, l.y the v.-rli .(■;//. r (set- sj 451. 
' 111,1 ke propiti.itioii,' : m tr.inslatini; iKi'ssaii.-s 
in which it occurs wc sh.dl rendi-r as consistciitiv as 
possible '.itone.' Tin- Keneral prin. ijii.- is that all 
private s,iirificesat.ine. ixcept iH'a.v oflerimjs (inclmlini; offcriim-si, with which 11.1 .■.infcssi.m of s„i is 
made- .>in otf.'rinu's and prescrifn'il trespass ofT(srini;s 
atone in tin- spcci;ic f..r which tln-y are apiwintt^l 

' Cp the saying of Siaioii the J.,.1, .-;,■„-/,>. i .,. 

» In the 'w.irhl lo come' the thank olTerini; t/.'.f.i*) will be 
the only sjM;cics of sii.rilice ; Tarn hum.}, Kntor, 14, 



in the liiw : for kinds of offence the Inirtit offerin.: 
at..iu-s li.ev. 14) IS .hscussi'ii in /',«. .1A'«,M,./// ID ,. "i 
In the or .ill >.i.)\i fiiHu.t are .sonietiines retarded 1, 
ai.itiMit; ipii.pitiat..ryi : so IC/ek, 4.'. •; 17 (, ij 4; 
I'la. ular vahii. attached, h.meier. es|>eciallv lo tile s: 
otf,Mni;s— Ro.tts .It the new m.Kins and feasts. ,i! 1 
on the D.iy of .\toiiement (siv i J71. In :/ 
Sh,-hii\iih\3 s till- things for which th.'se sacnn. , 
r.s|».cliiely at.iil.-d are cla.ssilied. It would Ik' piolii!, , 
to enatuer.itc Ihem here : it must suffice lo say that l!i. i 
are without exci'pti.iii eases of itjnoranl or unwitm,- 
intrusii.ii of the ■ unclean ' into the spli.-ie of ' holm, -.~ 
as wlii'ii a III. in c.-rcinonially unci, .an. in ii;noratii. ; 
th,- fi.t, enti'rs the preciiu ts of the t.-inple, or , ■ 
■' f.i.i.l without kn.minn that he unci, .m ,■ 
thit th.. f.....l was holy, and the like l-l' It:"- pit- p- 
Vi-ipi 6-1,-0 nit3=. I/. Sh.'b. I4 end. ep 1 sendi. f,, ' 

the speciil sin ortiriiit! of the D.iy of .\t,in,-tuent. wi 

1,1. .0,1 is l,r.iu^;ht into the ailytuin of th,. ti-inple. at. : , 
for the 5.ime kind of -iffenc-s, Imt for such as «... 
coinn.'lteil presuniptnouslv ; cp lav. Ilii6 with ; ,. 
' l',,r the lest of the transijressions di-lined in the ;. . 
vi'tiial or liein.ais. presnmplu.nis or inadviTlent. .1,. 
sci.iiis or uncoiiscioti.^ of otiiissioii or commissi ,,; 
imhiiliii.,' sins the [leualty of whiih is excision fnan ; .. 
] fhy (i,Kl|,.r death by the seuti-uce of a c..;.. 
the sca|iei,'oat at..ncs' (ih. 16 eu.l|. This i, ii„. 
aatli,,ritative stati-nient, Ixised upon Ix-v, IH.-i 1, 
.\ii,,th.r authorit.itive formul.ition of the ihxtrin.- ,,f 
sicnti... is fouiul in \l. ):'miiSS/'.: Sin ofleriii,: .; | 
prescnlieil trespass oHi-rint; atone :' death anil th,~ i ...v 
of .\tonement atone if accoinp.inied bv ri-p..iit,iii,, '; 
rel».nt.incc (by itself I atones venial sins wlieih.i ,,1 
omissum or of cmmissum. and in the of 
sins it sus|K'nils the punishment till the l)ay of .\t ,,„.. 
ment ronu's ar.aiml ard at.iues. Iql If ,.1 nian s.vs 
■ I will sin ami rejieiit over .uid over ni;ain.' no ,.•.,;, r. 
tiiiiily of effectual te|ii.|it.mci- is jjivin him ; if li.. - m 
' I will sill ami the Day of .Ntonenuni will atom-,' i';.- 
D.iy of .\t,,nemem il.H-s not aton,- for him. I' 
(jressi.ins which ,ire lHtwi.en a man and (lod, the I i.iv ,,f 
.\t..nein..tit atones; tr.uisijressions that are U-tu..!, ,, 
ni.m .111.1 his f.-Il.iws. the Day of .Atonement .I.h-s n..; 
at. .lie until he pr.,piii.ited the injured party (, ;. '.r 
I'.'W./. 3');^. ed. Sitomiri. 

S..iiuwhat fuller, an.l f .riilid l.y hil.lical proof texts, i- th- 
te.i, limy of K. Ishma.'l .•.mceinilu; four kinils of sins .c.i i'., jt 
at..nenuiil. whi.h, in slightly varyitij; forms, is rt]M..lni lii 
many, an.i may 1« rei;arde,t as cont.iininB the t;<r. m!!v 
a.-.epu,l d.Mirine: see 7\'s. 1 '.!/// A';////>7w.'... (4,.; ■ } „,) 
ef.1 ■/,■>. I. ■/.a 4^,4; ye,-. ,V//,V.u',i,-A ,,'■; /.■'•. .Sa>,/,,„-,„ 
27<r: .y,i;i/t,i, \ ilhr... f 7(-6a. WcissI, ct,., Isliniaelre, -■i-c, 
th.. .1. ,stise,ii,ius of (;,k1 as expiating; sin in wh..le or i 
see I..1..H. ]t .;_,. 

! 'i Hie .Mishna and R. Ishmael incliid,- 
am..n,i,' the things which obt.iin the remissi, 

82. Moral and '""' ^'""^ '"■ "•'"'"">• '" 'i>' 'i'" -'">" 

religioui ""''""■''■ i" k'cH' r,-!«.iitance i- n- 

conditions of L'"'""' "' ""' '"^"'""' "' '"''"'''"" ' '"'" 
nces. or wlu-ther they extii.iie s,a rr 

,1/' /■/■ t'fit-rj'.t. without teoitd t.. ! .. 

peniliti.e of the sub;, It. 

I'll', latter theory w is he], I by som," eminent auih-rin.s, 

am.ins; them, if h.' b ■ ri.,;liliv ,itai,Tstoo<|. by K l;;.|.h 

th.-, !i. wh.i tuaint.iim-,| that ti ,- i; e.xn ;: a 

,.l th.- Illy of .\t.iiiem,.nl (th,. sca|K.t;,iati aton.-- 

Ih.- sins of all Israelites who liail m.i ilelilieral. 1-. 

th.-nis.-lvi-s outsiile its elf,-rts by hreakini; w:l i 

nli-ion of th,-ir i»-ople,' in.I.-|>.ndentl - of ainll 

th,- (ondiict or disii'isition of hiiiis,.|f. a vi,-a v. huh 

nnL:lit lind 5iip|H>rt in a ht,-ial interpr,-t.iii..n ,.f l.-i 

liWj, ln/,-r. r.///,jS7. wli, r,. this,. of K ilihi 

is ri-c,ir,l,-,l. it is ask.-,l with surprise wlii-lh.r !.- i.i.i 

ha\.- m,/aiit repentance is not essential, an.l i; :- 

1 See als,, Ter. T-irc. on I.*v. iIq. 

'^ 1 he\- expiate , ert.tin sjie, itie.i otfenres. 
^ ^ Hy atlti-isiu, the ,-ff.i. in^ . -f circumcision, irreverent !i!.ertics 
in the interpretation of the l.iw. 




1 lor 
■- iiiit 
I l.'ie 


.xpl.-imed ,h« he hel.l that in this r«poct Ihr IHy of 
A..m..,u„t «,.,, |,k,. ,i,mh, „f «huh al^ h. ,.urm- 
c,.,.tr.iry to the i;ci,eral ..i.,„ion^ th .t ii 1, *" 
evt-n without r.ri.-„..,nce ' 1 h- „ i *-''l"""^» "'" 

< I rxpLilion .111,1 the fori; •.e„eis of sin, , ,^ '^f , 

...ore sw„.pi„,„v i„ y,,.. t c-"/ A/' "«"- l' o ■ ""i .' 

n , LiitaiicL , for it is .s.iul, • Unlv ' (-.. I ,.» •.• „, . if ' 

■ s f-«.v.„, I.U, ,f „ „„ a,o„,.,i,„it'i>-n':;,i,';; 

..t r pent K. lu.lah (U'n 'Hail tam;ht ■ U-ath uui 
<!.•• n^.yof Atu„cmo„tat,.„,,. „,„, r.pemanc rl. 
«...<■ ...on,.s w„h ,l.,,th. ami th.- ,larof d.a.h s ke 
K,^.a„ceJa„oth.r r,.a,li„« i,. ■ f,y\u..::7 ^,^^ 

......I- with this doctrine tlic- importance of re^. ', , nee 

ili^ of v,:;^:';;;:;;:,^'"*^'""" "" "'""'^"- '^- "- 

Ihe nature of rcpc-ntance is «ell d.fiiu.l, Wh ,, . 
.ly re,H..n,ant man? ,, i,. ..k,,,, ^ne, the re, Iv s I 
.1.... Iiavmfi sinned and repented, does , lot vield' o t e temptation a>;ain (1 •,:«,/ 8o^), Genu He re L 



... 1- hand ; though he were to Uitlie in ,a 1 the « JteT I 
.n the world ,t would avail him nothing Imt if 7! 
.hr-v ,t a«ay. a Unk of forty s.,Hs.2a-JT, l^ ' 
. . c leni 1 for It ,s said. He who confess..s and or! i 
-v.k.s his transgressions shall oht.iin niercv ,i'r W? 

r.....ance that ^i^'ngs 'Ulr';;^."';:^^ ^r^^d t 
n.-!>..ed b> chastisement ( l',7,„,,- 86,,^) 

;^.-. .lender propitiated the^J^ ;!nM U V'^' 

.inu me oot.iimnK of forgiveness ici) .Mt -,,, f \ 
f 1 '.giveness l,e not granted at .lie first seek, e {he 

; ; ;,^^» ;;, c:,f t,^^- ;;: 

;;-.;;;... .;f".ih::;H,^ie.:;;;^;;ro;r;^::! 

Mcnce. for example, a criminal semenctd to \ 


*-l'a<urri-,,wn,lin^-|,ruCf.hirc, Mi. IS ,5_^ 


'^^Im^'^:! '"■"■'^■■a ...nitcnf, confession, rmy 
■h, I « T "" "M'i'".'>i> for all his ci lines 

.™»nrEr:?r;? ■';:•;■?'■■ "'"*~ 

h. general formulation of the doctrine is. • the d,^ oh 

(cl ll,e only explicit answer to the .piestion how 
mat of Lev. 1, „ ,s« ,,,,„,,., ^ ^,„ . ^^,^^, ^__^ l_^ 

83. Howdo«i f"">'<^.s the hlood ^6,fh,d on i.ev 
WlCrifice '•'■■• ^P I'""'' S.', /.Vw//,w 6,7 1. riie 
expiate? <lU'-st.on, How has the 1, d ,|,is 

.c pass ofterings were, and wha, thev were fo, v i^ 

;;.n..tives i^re usei^^il^^^^y ii' '^r T^ ; ^rjl: 
» hou r ' ''"''""^"i""' •■M..a.ion, procure remi si, ■ 

"■.,mp„.s d,mn ,<..,A,- •, the sins of Israel ici, \l,c V, 
, the school of Hilld replied ; What is tr„ii,l, ,1 ' 

comes up again ;s..cri,L. washes ,;;,::S;:J; 
I fr,-.- fr,m, s,n (/'«/>!./,;, „,. 1,,,,^.^, ,,,^, 

I -ureof re,.n,ancea:;f:tsn.i";o,i^::(i:t;^ zj!:: 

> ncss. the hi.,- p,,ssage in I'lnl,,, /,,■ rv<^.^/^^;;J J'^'; 

uer,v:;i-,;:'j^^,r;i-;rr;. -•••--- 

84. Jewish '"'■s|»cls, the Jewish !.,„ ,^s j, ^.^^ 
sacrifices: '''"""""L*' p.'.,tis,-d in his i,,,,,.. n^ 
the Gospels. " '■'•i"' ih..i l..s nioth.r ,.f).T.',l in ,l„i. 


H^ Up, the l-assover with his dlscples the .ilgl.rheC'e 

J:''^t. i^.^: ""' ""= '''•^ "in-i. <nro.J!,. .,„, , ^„„„ ,^. 
.«y had ,u«„„ed iK." " he l!. i L if'l' " '.'""-.^ t'' ""'• 

pcrio,! „ would doubtics. ha« i;l::;;tt.t7.':.i;,';:i/:^7'''' 




his death iMk. llij,/f and si. The Fourth (iospi-1 
U-Ils of scv.r il iitlur visits tu Jtrusalum at tlie annual 
feasts ll>ij /: i,^ 7,^1. jesu, (,,,15 ,he le,KT whiiiii 
he has healed otter the saenlkes appointed in the 1 1» 
for his purifiiation iMk. ]„ and s, Lev. H). I he 
injunction to efleit the nvoneiliation of an injured 
fellow- Isr.iehle Ufore oft'eriliR saeriliee (Mt, 5ii A 1,1 
sup|K)s.s the eoniinuaiKe of Kurihee anionK those 
who should t>e his ilisciples ; cp also 2:1 iS jf. .■ ;. 
There 15 in the (ios|>els no siuh deiiumialion of 
the s.ieriticial worship of Jesus' c<iiiteni|>.iraries as we 
find in the [)roi)hets (si-e al«)ve, S 481; the forms 
of I'harisaic piety which Jesns assails are of a ilitferent 
kind —the ostentatious fasts, alnisj;iviiiK. and [jiMvers. 
He (juoies llos. 1)6, ■ I desire niercv and not aacriiue' 
l.\Il. I'lj rj7). as proof giKxlness to our fellow- 
men is of niiKh higher v.due in the sij;ht of (;o<l 
thin offerinss to himself; the scritie who recognises 
that love to y'ti\i.\ and is worth more than all Imrnt 
cflerinKs and s.icritiees is not far from the kintjdoni of 
tiod (Mk. I'J ij--4i. Such utterances are, however, not 
infrequent in the words of the scriln-s IheniseKes. It 
cannot lie .said that the le.ichini; of Jesus in this re»|)c-ct 
differs from of the Jewish masters of his iiine.* 
IhuuKh it m,iy Ix- inferreil from his whole attitude 
he set less value on oliservancrs of any kind thin 
they did. Mt.. indeed, represents him as deiLirinij 
em|>hatically that not the minutest particle of the l.nv 
should to W observed 'till all things !«■ .iccmi- 
plisheil' — /.c. , so long as the present or.ler .>f things 
lasts (a 17) ; and as hiddini; his disciples do and ohserve 
all the things that the scrilies .ind I'h.irisees. as the 
custodians of the law and successors of the l.'gisl.iior. 
enjoined CJ.'ti-ji; hut this is rather the ev.iiii;elist's 
altitude thin the masters ; cp Mk. 'nff.^ =Mt. V.<\ff.). 
In the iccounls of the list sup|ier Jesus c.ills the wine 
'my covenanl IiIikkI ' IrA alua. /loe r^j 3a((7)«?(tl,^ in 
olivious allusion to the lilood liv which the covenant at 
Sinai was ritiljed 1 IX, -^40 Si. ' The various additions. ' 

• whu h is poiir.-.l out in U-lialf of many ' 1 Mk. I. ■ unto 
remisMon of sins ' 1 Mi. ). lirinR out the accessorv idea of 
atonement through his liliH)d : cp Mk. IO45 Mt. -JOiS 
(see lielow. g fioi. Scholars have often found in the 

• new coveii.inl' an implicit .ihrogation of the old, with 
all its instituiHiiis ; it is certain, however, that the e.iily 
Christians in r.ilcstme s.iw nothing of the kind in it : 
they continued to worship in the temple like tlieir 
fell.jw-countrymen. The inference is first expliciily 
ilrawn by the author of the Kpistlu to the Hebrew's 
(chap. 101. 


ording to .\cts Paul more than once plans .1 
journey so as to bring him to Jeru.salem in season for a 
88 Paul ''■'''''''''*" -0'* :'" 'he former piissage the 
words are Licking in K.NH. etc. ); heileclaies 
m his ilefencc Ufore Kelix that he came thither to 
worship rJ4ii|, to bring charitable gifts to his country- 
men and make otrerings iir/)o<T0O(ras, 'Jli'i, aii<l was 
arresleil in the temple in the nmlst of this pious ociupa- 
tion (f. i3). To give the lie to re[)orts that he |ler- 
su.ided Jews in the provinces to aUinilon the ob.serv.mce 
ol the l.uv. he consented to .i^sume the cost of sacritiies 
for the release of four Jewish I'hristi.ins from the 
.N'aziriles vow i\u. tin yr), .ind. afti-r the usual puriii- 
cations. .ucoiiip,inied them into the temple ilil j..-."ii, 
wher.- .iffenng was made each of them, thus proving he himself liv«l in observance of the law ( ; . 24 1. 
il le.illy ni.iile a profession so contrary to his 
ept .iiid exiniple it is difiicult to Ijclicve (cp 
f. : also .-^c IS, § 71. 

That 1' 
own pr. -i 1 1 

' Withi. 

KaMiis Liii 

'J .See .il. 

It this ihf sitcrill.f woiilil he of no avail as the 

.;lit. See iiUiv. . I sj. 

'^•\ii\<,fl..M>A Sulck.ll, te,h. To infer from .Mk. 
r-'2H.^4 Jesus himself prijh.-it)l\- ofTcreJ 
■'Mk. Uj4 Mi. ;«.-«. ,p Lk.Sijo iCor. Ujr. ,., .,,,• I.I...I ■ ; ^p ler. 31 :, H- !• 'i ,- If -.., 

onginal form of the saying, see Kcchakis i , J| f/ ' 


'the tlPW 





W'e have already referred (al»ve, § 4a) to i 
important passage, i t'or. lOiS.i)^ , in which I'.iul. 
w.iniing his re.iders against heathen sacnticial ti-.i- 
argues, as from something that would |jc undeisi,, 
and conceded by all. that, as among Jews icp .il 
Heb. 13,,, I so also among (ieiililes, those who eat i 
rtesh of the sacrifices, sluiring it willi the altar, liei 1 
commensals of the (Jml whose allar it is - the sacrilu 
nieal is a communion, just as the Lhnstian eucharisi 1 
in which men partake of the table of the Lord. 

I'iguies drawn from sacrifice — some of ihein m 

ingenious— are not mlrei|ueiit in 11 

I'.iuliiie e[)islles. In Rom. l.lis Paul descrilx's him-, 

as a priest ( \«itoi;()>oi I of Jesus Christ to the (Jenn:, . 

the ministry of the (;os|x-l is a sacerilotal funue 

iif/)oe(yyoiVra Td n'a>7^,\ioi' roe tffoc I, w Inch he |x-rt. ,1 1. 

in oriler that the offering {v^loa<po^<a\ of (consist ,, 

ofl the Centlles, may lie in.iile acceptable to (;.«!, b, n, 

consecrated by the Holy .Spirit. In anticipation .,1 ;, 

approaching death he speaks of his bloi«I .as a libiti., 

[xjurid out upon the sacrilice and priestiv miiiiMn , 

his couM-rls (Phil.-_'i7, cp 2 lini.46); Christians .;: 

exhorted to furnish their Unlies .1- a sacrifice, li\;i ■ 

holy. Well-pleasing to (JikI, iI r.itional woi-i^ 

(kom, PJi, cp iPet.'is); the . .iributi.ins of il, 

I'hilippians to the ajxistle are 'a gr.itifying odour, .11 

accepi.ible 5,icrifice. well-pleasing to (io<l ( Phil. I , , 

The references to the death of ( hrisl as a sacrifi.. « ' 

be discussed Ix'low (Ij 571. It is to Ix- noted here ,.i,h 

that P.inl dix-s not, like the author of the Kpi,il, ,, 

the Hebrews, explicitly declare that the sacrihces ol il,, 

law came to an end with the death of Christ. 

draw from his silence the inference that his |e opponents them.selves no 1 

sacrifice as binding is most unsafe. 

The argument of the llpislle to the Hebrew, s 
develo[xil in a running comp.irison Ix'iw.-en tin- s.n r;^ 
fices and priestly ministr.itions of i|„. 
old covenant and the work of l hri-i, 
to which V e shall return in a later paragraph (stv ji iSi. 
Here we snail touch only u|Min the author s view 01 ih,. 
intent and efl'ect of the sacrifices of the law. ,Si, r,|.,i,.s 
and offerings are made for sins ir.i. cp Sj ilg). 

In the phr.ase ' jiifts and sacrilii es ' (<upa Tt «al Vvtrmd tlit 
words, ai.i.r.linu I., [iro.iiliiifc' OT use. corre-s|K)nil i,, l(.l, 
tori;,), and <///n/i.i/( ri.peciivelv. ari.l. dins coupl.-cl, ih.- H,m 
are l>y pre-eminen. r rilices,' the Ifviruii, ' oUati.ins,' i.. ; ,- ., 

rr»-i I, as \T commeulalors frct|uently lake Ihcm (rp r;\ .-ift, 
anil siicn^ces'). 

They do not, however, really take away sin or puri;.' 
the conscience of the sinner ;' the IiIikkI' of bulK .ii«l 
goats cannot possibly do that (104iil: thev s.n,. 
rather, in their stalcil rixurrence— the author is tliinkiiii; 
of the .solemn pt,:cril,i of the Day of .Alonemenl ir, 
bring to mind the sin which they cannot i-xpiate 1 In ,, 
The system, indeed, contemplates onlv wh.u «<• sh-i:M 
call ceremonial faults. The sin offering of the I ',u .,f 
Aton.Miieni, wlii>se bltxxl is taken by the high pmM 
into the adytum of the temple, is offered for the un- 
witting offences of the |x-.iple (d->>'07JMora, St;; c 
I<JN(iK.\Ni I- I. .Sacrifices and offerings c,miic:t o.|.,n- 
the worshipiK-r to his integrity in the forum 1 : mii- 
science; they have to do oniy with such niirt, - .is 
foods and drinks ,iiid diverse ablutions' presiripli' us 
of l««lily purity im|x.s<sl till the time comes for m l,;iii; 
things right (!iq/ |. The blo.«l of goats and bull- .vm\ 
the ,is|n-s of a heifer spiiukling those that h.,i> ,.11- 
tracted defilement, make them (ceremoni.illvl 'IlN ' m 
that their Ixxly is ; in to the puiLi'a; A 
lonscienie (Dili. The application of blo,„| is a ni' .f 
lustration or piirific.ition ; at the ratific.ition of ihi- 
covenant .Moses sprmkli-il \\w l.iw txxik ,iiid ih- i. ■.!.;? 
with the blixxl of young bulls .ami goats, 'with u.iirr 

'That i», in.idvcrli-nt transCTessi^in .,f the rules „f and 
: more prohatile mterprrt.-tii 11 >! 

86. Hebrew*. 

Nscare connet.lion. 



..Illume,..,,. .U,l:"'f *Chr„ " "' '.'^hrV'TV'"'" .here was „„ longer reas..,, or '' '•""":" 

67. Death of 'he CliriMian faill, which |'a,il ,ltliur.-,l 
Cllriit:Pauli]M'" * converts .1- •■ 1 . 
• - from thiibc whi 


epUtln. """' ""'w who w,T. 

J >. for. If,,,). Hy his cieaih „u-u ar. 

U-fort- him 

'•.l"m,-d. justifiHl f" iv,n ■ ', ''*■''"' '""• ■^"• 

I../: icph.i^n .. ' lu '• ^ ' 'iRss.s.uc.i. 

I- »as expiatorv h ' ,L„, •■ ";""' "^ '■''^'^'' "'" 

■i.'k-.ltic more Kencr il 'n.«.,.- f '■ "*^*' ""H'l'v proh- 

«-.. ..n.i .he a.M!;?;;^;'o:„"^r"'''i;;";' T^'r^ '^'^""• 

■V" i,;r'-atfr .•niphasis is lai,| on the i.l,-, ,,f ... ,;« 
'>lh.- I'asvner „„l .1, . '*■"'."' ''•"'■n on ih.- eve 

.;...;., on. w!,:t::;;,';tL;:;z:;l:r:;^ 


one word suMlus l„ sul'l'.-si i. ' "''" H'" 

infr„,u,,n,v. to .say .he K ,, ' '" '," ""' "< "'"^ 

I •!- greater ep.s.l^s M ^;, Umr:t;;" "'7"pho„ „, 

--' -.»-ly m anusion .o s ' ;r,,'''7 '^ 

:-:s-«.;:^rn=i{ r^^ 

'-■n connnen,e.l orl au've IVX"," '"'"l'--""'" ^ns 

.i.e \n't^i:::;;i.:;r-!'*"r'"'^'^^" '"''''-■'•" ■'•••< 

'he chara.„.ristie terms in ■ r, I "'r" "'''^ 

or w,lh these sacr,hres ai;. ■ ^'.\-'^''"''' "' 'he 
their .leriva.ives • vl" i; '•^'■«0M-. <t.\d.T„^a.. a,.,l 

^ordofthefmiiv-^trp ;'''■■'■'■ '^ "'^' '""y 
Kronp of wor.Is is h .w -V """ '''eratnre. This 

B8.IllHebr*Wf. I:.'.';;'..'''.',"'.''ha<l.,«s of ,h,. h..iui,ly 

^»cn...itasa|„Mra.i,'n ' M'") -h"« » ihut the au.h.T 

' 99). The „,a,n t^^^ V^e Z^" T" T' '"■■ '" 

•■'e.l, is the true hieh p iL v "'"■'™'\'"«-.' 9-5 
«"'-' have sonK..hi,,K , ffir. oirV^T-- '"'^" '""■^' 
function (8,). ( his. ,1 f ' '* •"" ^"""""live 

'haps. 8-10,3, in com, ,h::'"'"'v " '''"■'"''•■'' "> 

particnlarlv to the sacT, icl ■■ j """'' '" ''''' '""•' 
covenant was rat^ic^. , » ^ , n ' ''i' "^"'^ ""■■ "''' 

whch the J..„,sh system culnn„:ue;i ' -•'"-'"-"■ "' 

(»^4l. thr.mjih his <m^ 1 "1 T ■""■ hcau., ,ts,.|f 
reuemption.r 7 9,/ n s v"" """"' '"' •"•"'"' 

U.can,v thevha.l no re. 1 eticao 'nh ! •, "'"""'■ J""' 

I '»^i:''y-hehi,JT,:,' ;:^\;^rr'Vr' 

»h,ch they , nay conrtdentlv app , ^i^ Z^f: ' 


"-VCO ..,,.n, nrru^^^^ -'■'■,'"" also estat.hshcs ,h., 

f'a'urc in t » ll,^ ,nrmi.l , ■.•,"- , "' m.~l ch3ra,:<-r -li.. 

re wtMMt 

■ » 


on llM'ir miniis, aiitl ii.i l.ini;rr rr ncriil«.-M thi'ir >ini and 

iii..|ii,ii.-s 1 11)1'.//, .|i xiy. i .1 ifmiMhin winch 
ni.iki-i III! iiitur Miriluc uwl' ' «. r«j tlmi){» nre 
eMji.. Lilly nii|i«.irriv in thu aiiih ir'i tiiMimnil ..f ilia 
tuI'M-il ; tint. Ihi- iiiijM.rl.imo ail.uli..! i.. ih,- «uli|.-. me 
cfffil of ('lirKt -s iti |M(ri;itiK th'ifjii-»ciincr iti man ; 
an'l. jiiDii.l, ihir iihiinili' rnl. thf cn.Uimi of a in-w 
way of aiii'^v'. lii tioil liy «liuh ni"n may lontiilitiily 
ilraw lu-ar lo lnin. In 1I1-.1; ruiuf|)iu>ii!i wi- v.- » 
|»i»HiviM-iliKal ami ri'liuiou-, ini.Tprit,iti..ii ami valuation 
of I'l.' ihMlli of t liri-.t Koiiii; lar U-y.iinl (hi; nirru sa.ri- 
filial i:X|)i.aiiiii of •.niH or fori'n-.ic jiiiiitiraiion of the 
siiintT. H.nv tin; l.loivl of CliriM hi'. tht»o elTtxIj ilia 
wriicr iliH'? not rrllfct, any nmrt; than lie or hit con- 
teni|iiiranis ri'il.Miil on ilie luoUe of i)[)craiion of lh< 
blixKl of the U r sacrilitis. 

Hy Iho liile of ^ iilean ani! terms, *uch a« ^vriftiv 
fl M 10 i'l la J.', KOlfa^^fti' I I 11 n 3 J, ayta^ttp 10 i^ jy, w.inU 
if I'ilTfTtrn .iss.H i.ilioii nDiiicntiKn ui-uur; Atirpmvif V i J, avoAii. 
rtfwtfn l_» u, liiru ' Aatrtrcii- _'is; hut tin- i u-risin: I'.iuline 
'ju-lify ' IdiNdiu. f) ail J Lijun.itc W'lnU anil piir.i ^-s art: ul»M.ia. 

The rrfiruiictj to the death of Clirijl in i I'tt. are 

ill till- nature of alliisions ratlur than of ilotlrinal statr. 

B» 1 Pat. ""•'"' "^ arKumi'iii ; their phra!><K>liij;y 

ofti'u su^i^i-sts ri'ininisct-nce* of farlier 

NT Hriiinf;s. ( lirisl dnil once for sm-i, a riRhtfoui 

man for uiiriijh us im-n. that he- niit;lii hrniK us to 

lio<l(;ti8); he sarttTid lor Ins folUmers, UavinK them 
an c\am|ile cj.i. . |) 4ii: ix-rsccuted Chrijtiani are 
partaWiirs of Christ's siitfcrinns (4m. cp 4>. i-tt |: he 
larricil ilirir sms in Ins Unly on to the cross rjj4. - the 
wholr |)a'sai,'r. rr . ^i .15, i^ an applit iii.ui nl Is. a.'l to 
Chi 1st ; thiy are nilciiKil (f\iT(iui«>)r( 1 Imm tin- foolish 
way of life they li-ariied liom their lathers by mstly 
blooj as of an unsjiotti-il lamli. Christ 
(liS/l; one of the ends of C'hristians' election is 
sprinkl'ng with the l.lood of Christ {I i). The latter 
phrase sui;m-^ls a passajje m Heli. i]'2n. cp IOjj 
9iiii)jO, in which epistle alone the expression occurs. 
Ill 1 13/ it is not iraproliilile that the blameless lamb 
of Is..').); (cp g) is in the mind of the writer, who 
miki's such larije use of that chapter in 'J^i ff. ; for 
tile rest cp i:ph. 1 7 ( •redeinplion djroXeTpuwu: through 
hii Mood, the riiiiission of our t.-ospasses ' ) kom. 3^4/. 
Ilel). yi,i. A direct .illusion to the p.ischal lamb (Ex. 
I:iii would proh.ibly have licen more distinct. 

The references to the sarrilicial .isix'it of the death of 
Christ in the Fourth (ios|iel are few and of the slightest 
kind. Tiie IJaptist h.iils lesns as the 
l..inili of (Jixl which likes away the 
of the world (l.<, 1, with evident 
allusion to Is. a:);, cp 4/. n ; in 17 rj 'in their behalf 
I hillow myself,' liymfui is a word of .assucia- 
tinns, whether we refer it to the conse, r,ition of the 
victim or (with ("riMter iiiohabil.lyi to the preparation 
of the pnist for his luncii.ins. In 1 In. the allusions 
are more fre'|Ui-nt : we read not only th.u Christ 
laid down his life for us -when lore we oin,dit to lay ! 
down our lif- for the brethren i;)i'. .— and that our sins i 
are reinitted for his names sake |-Ji.i. but also that he I he iiiicht t.ike away sin (3sl, that i 
he is a [iiopitntion ii\a<Tfi6ti for our sins anil for those 1 
of the whole world (:>.. li 0, .md the bIo,id of lesus 
cle.inses us from every sin (Ijc,'. lint everywhere such 
ev|>ressioiis as Christian rather [ 
than .as p.irt of the distinctive Joh.inuine conception of 
the salvation in ( hrist. i 

The l.iinb in the .\pocalyj.sp is probably, as in Jn. I 
1 1), ih-rivetl from U. ;,:>, ; as in i I'et.. the idea of pun h.xse : 
\iyof>dj;fii'. I Cor.lij. 7.. 1 |,y the hlond .,f Chri-t has ' 
iK-en combined with the o'.dir 1 oneeption of the expiatory 
sutTerim; of the of Vahwe ; see 56/: l:is U j /: j 
The other re|)n'sentalion of pnriticalion by his blixid i 
apiioars in 7i4: I'P '.i-''*. and mile the in 1 5 : j 

It does not fall within tlic scope of the present article i 

60. Johaonine 


to diKiui the vnriout iN-oties which theologians hve 

•I. OWMlil ''"'" '""* '" """' "' ' "'' '"•"•'*'""ni,' 'h« 

of IdtA. •">^'"i'i'l death ol ( liMsl. nor even •!„ 

conslrnciions of biblical tlu-oloi'v. M n,, 

of these, even amolii; thi- most recent, rest UIKill I I ,. 

found iiiiiunderstandmns o( the nature of the ol »,„ n. 
nce». and entirely ignoie Jewish conceptions o( the 1 ti. | 

423 « 

and o|»Titioii ol 5.icrm.e Ihe task winch rrinain 
us 15 only to explain brieilv the f.icts that have Ihi 1, 
in arr.iy in the lorenonn; nir.iiir.iphs. 

lo 1« um with. It 19 iieces»;iry to s.iy that in 11 s, 1 1, 
the death of 1 hrist as a sacrihce tjie NT 
usinj! hj!urative l.iiii;iiai;e. Sunr modern thi oloc 
imkrd. still alhrni 'the ajxistlrs held it to 
sacrihce in the most literal s«'nse of the word ' 1 1'.it. i 
in H.istiiiKs, />//|i|i/i; but such writers dn , 
enpeet us to t.ike their 'literal' literally. Ihe ,ii,:i 
of the Kpisile ti the Helirews. for ex.iniple, n t;,; 
Ihcde.ith of ( hrnt as the true s,icritiie, iHvauv I, 
was reallv cttei inl what the Ol' .s,urihces oiilv 1 
figured ; but he WIS too Rixxl an Alexandrian to id. 1 
'trill' with ■ lili'' 

In the 5<'( ond pl.ioe. it is essential lo note wli n • 
problem winch confmnted thi'si- earlv Chi -i 
thinkers, in the effort to solve which they came t.. , 
ceive of the deith of Christ as a iurihce. Tlnv ,; 
not set out. as has fris|iienily Ijcen siippoM'il, to ni,« 
the question how (iod without detrimi'nt to his in-i 
or to his moral ;;o\i'rnment, could remit sin. .in.; 1.; 
the solution in the sin ottennxs of the law , bv u ' 
hU«nl the sinner ' coveri'd 1 so the common 1 1, - 
loRicil met,ipliori and pr.iiected fioin the ntlii' 
wrath of t hid ; the\ .1 more urfjeiil task. 11 mi. : 
to account for the death of Jesus. 

I he dr ith of Jesus was a severe shock 10 the f •: 
his disi iples ; and thouKh the resurrection s|«'.'.|.,\ r 
isi.iblished this faith, they h.i,| need l»ith for it-. (,! 
hrmation and for its defence before their uiiU'; j: 
countrymen, to whom a crucitietl Messi.ih was ■• 1 
su|ierablc siumbliiiK block, of proof fnini the ;.i 1 : 1 
that his sufferings were the fulhhneiit of pr. ■],|.. , 
That there were [irmlictions they could not doiilii : . • 
as now with a new insii;ht they se.ircle'd the .sir |i;ii;,. 
it WIS .IS if the Master himself o|)emsl their Miai'l 1 
understand them 1 l.k. \Ht^J^. 1. ami interpreted to th. 1 
the prophecies coluerilinK himself (:-■. js ..71.1 

Thus the of beni), die reiiitatioii of Ir 

claims, liecame their most conclusive tleiiiniisii it;"n 

Aimiiii; the scriptures which they thus for the fiisi tmi' 

undeistood. Is. .'i:) was. with giKHl re.ison. the m..- 

importanl. Not only did the picture of the sulii 'rn 

Serv.iiit of Yahwe seem to foresh.ldow even in iti initi 

det.iils the e.\|H'rience of Jesus, but in f.ici the auili r 

the ch.ipter had unilert.iken to solve the same pi "i.'-in 

vi/., Why ilid the .s-rvaiit (Isr.ieli. for no fauit ..1 !.,■ 

i omi. sult.-r seemed the extremities of ii..iis .! - 

I ple.isun'? His answer The sufferings of the S.-niM 

of V.ihwe are an .vpiatioii lor others' sins. ■ lin- I...1J 

i l.iid on him the iiiiijuity of us all and by his .stn|ies ve 

I are healed.' '-' 

I The idea that sins coulil thus U- expi.iied l,\ tl-n- 
\ silfferinj; of one who had not deserved it 11. 1 n- 
piii;n.iiit to ancient minds, in wlmh the .s<-nse of '." 
, solid, inty WIS slroimer than that of ticiil- 
it seemid. in fact, most natural. The snfferints ,.'. lii 
rii;htions Were frei|uently representi'd as an .11. ii' im ir. 
j for their |K-o|ile, Thus, of the Maccabivan iii.irtii- .1 
is s.iid . 'Ilnins; ln'Come as it were a Vlcari.':;s i-v- 
j piation (dKTii/.i'xoi') for the sins of the nniMii. .11. i 
' throiij^h the blood nf those kikHv men and thci at .lurj 
death it\a*TT7;pioii fai'droi'^ diiine providenrc -\\M 
j Israel which liefoie \x-vn evil entreated' > t M..a 
i 17 11, cp <i37-i9) ; cp also Rom. bj t'ol. li*.^ 

I J S« Holtrmann. .VT Thtol. 1 1*7 /K 

^ 1 ..-eis... su i,^.,'k».;_ /.•/ .■4-;3; Ho.t.Tniann,.Vr7".T.""* iriL' 

' See above, i 5a, end. 



.! i..!. ■■( 1 l„„t ,. ,n.,n,l.,, „ mT, ■ , aI I X ^^H "^ "^ 

Ill- t.rM ,.„nl .■^ >,a.s. ll„r.l,„.., .lul Ih. 
■!■ Ml, ..I < hri,I »„, ,„„ ,.,r |„, „»„ „„,, „ „.„ ,„„ 
■iuM,|.h .,1 lh,-«,anl ,.»,-r the K-«l. .>„ l.,e»,,la.,l,|c 
II .;:-ly ; il «a> an .xpuih.ii f..r i|,.- Mri, .,| ,,ihiT, 
Ihly i> th.- ira.lilioii «huh I'aul lu,l i.-,,n,..l , ,lmc' 
J ;;l. I hi, .-x,,,,,!!.,!, was LriKiiiallv lh..uKlit ol ,i'l 

"■'""",' "' ""' )""'"• -nt ..f s,,,; l,v Mr.,.,. „| „ ii,e 

»in. H ,..«. |,„all, »,>ul,l oIh,-r«„.. 1,,,,^ u-,-., >,„„.,| 
ui.nll,.M,tl,-ii.l.T,ii.-r..ihilu-ilaiMl hu I, dr.,i.-,l 1,,„„ 
ilii. M.I.- I'.iul «,„k> .ml In, ih.-..rv .,( acn. iiMnt I l,c 
.v,w>, alien (,l i-x,„alh,n w,ih siirKitv ,i, ih,. law ai„l ii, 
.>■...... 111.,,, „|,,u, ,,, ,|„. „„„. I,..,,,, ,„ ,j^, ^„ I, ,„ 

,.|-:unliuali,^.ui«ai„lt,.,„„ in ,,,.ak,nK „| u,.- »„,k 
. > ' '..1,1 ' l,ut ,..•„ „, l|.l,r,«,, «h,,e „,, „,.,, „, „,^. 
'I'.ili I't < lirul ,1, a ia.rilR.. „ „„„i .1.-. 
v-..|-' . II » Ihal II,.- pr.m,* .,f ,hc «h„le i; ihat 
< =.-tl.yl„.Yl.-,ll, n,a,l.. ar..a! evp,at,„n f,„ ,|,.. .„,„ 
. f "II ... liy «!„, I, ,|„.v ar,. r.-,l,..„,.,|. I, „a, n..|. .I„.,i.- 
....■ '^■•' '""■■•■l.'K'M "f ll.e .Iraih of ( |,„„ as a sacr.hce 

>I.K br.,ncl,t ,„ ,h.- „i..a „r ..xpia„„„ a„.l prn|„i,af„i,, 
'.." ih- ..I.|«.Mtc. H..nce ih.. f,.--,l„n, an,l varu-n ,n 
."...IMnni; liis ileatl, lo th.- ,liH,r.'„t ^i^uvs ..fcrr 
-1, iiM.ev a tl,..v M,K«.-st .I.H.r.iil as|,efl, „f h„ „„rk _ 
'V.-.,u.nai,l >a.r,t,.c- tl„. |.a.s..v,.r, ll„M-vp,a.i„ns „f the 

..!> ..f \t..„,.n„,„. II,.nc.-aK.,,h,.fa,t that Ih.r.. i> „,| 
.1". lr..,e of th.. sacrih.e of 1 hn„ ,„ ,1„. NT as tl„r.- n,ay 
"o,",\ n 1 ";■"""'' "i "■"''•'"I"'"" T i.f J..M.I.. at„.n ^ 

i.:'vt'[Uv:'^-:,7::^:;";r5-:r;^' ';--•:;-:• 
« ■b^ography.^K::;^,.^,KL^;f;^:':;:,'lJ,t-„;;f ; 

.""■"',"'; ',n'!"' ,'^'7- ■''-" ■•""'I'' •«•,.^.r,■■^!^.,: ;,■,;'■ 

; ., Ill Ihr Hil.V ,licli.,n;,r.-* .if >.l',i,krl nLh,,. \.,.',l' 

::i:;,,,;^ir»,^n;:'n— ;;!:;^:£ 

.r.,,: Il,lmaiin,.;l//. //»:■/.,»„■ \l^,u. il. „ / ..'r')'^.,}/, 

: ^;;,^ai4^r,f)-:;^-rwi^i--^^.-'^^ *■"- 
;•■"?-' -I ..-.^--li-iiy k'j ",: 1, ' : i L-^r:;,^ 

.1- ,,ii rvi«.,|l|,„i uf ,|,c ,y„L.,„ |„„ ,,|„, , . /■' "• .."'"..I) 

kir ">;'■"■ ' "''^■/' '''V'' ^'""'^ -f^i- 1 ;. -nau :. ■ 1 " 

Xl' „'""'•' ^'V ii..-1'l'Ji.i..i, M ,1,.: : ;„.:„;ari^, „„ ,|„ 


■ACBIIXOB. In K„m. ...... ,h,. .,„.,, .j,,,,^ 

that „„l„„„.M „|.,l,. .|,,„,h,,„ rol.i,.„4,|„,' ,.u' 

"•.iit.ipr.-l.-. intli.. liKht of l.t,;„«h..r,. no. onlvi. 

ioi,„„a,„l...l ,„ |,u,,. II,.. ^,a>t„ in,.,K.-. ol il... ^,„u „f 

I ic n.ition. «,ih hi.., I,„, „ „ alv, io,l„d,l,„ I,. i„vi-t 

. 1.-.1W., or KoM ,,,a, „ „, or,„Mak..,i unto 

th«. loril.».inaU>iu,nat,o„ ,.5;..^,,„V..h». th, (,.Hl 
. "'"I >l,o„ Shalt i,„t l,r,„K n„ ,-,l«,„„n„„„„ ,„i., ,|,v h.mM.- 
...a, to |..,,,„„. an ai,,,lh, in.i lik.- „ . th.a, » u.t.rly 
'lot. >1 a„,l ..I.,,,,;,,,,,,. „, ,„r „ „ ali,,ll,, ' ,„■,. .\l»,MI. 
■VvnoM. ^. I,.,,,.,,,/,. ln|,.v./«/n.,M, i,J, 
th,, .,« ,, ri-i,.l.ri.,l • |..:t .,.. on.. I.laspl,,.,.,,. ,h„ J .,,1. 

«h,cho,l,,.rn.,... ..„....,„ .,ah: may anv ■ t,..,! 

hr .,,Hr..i tl,,,,^;, „1 Strang., t, l„p|..» ,^,^, „,^^, j,^ 
; t..'..a,n.,r ake any to.,„„„- th.i, niav 1.- .|,.,lKat, ,1 m 

i'l'J,^' , I ? ■'7";'''"^'- »'"' "'". I" A'" 11» i; «.■ Imd 
.el.,«„,!,.,kc,f |.p|„.„„,„„„, ,„ „„, ,, ,,^_^, 

.inil hn |.«i,h loiiipanion, ih.n th. i, ..(i,,,,.' h„ at 
.M,t not |..-.n .,f the- „,.„i asmivai,,! kin.l. ,h..x !.„,.. 
...■ilh.r r,,l,l,.r, „| ,e„,pk., („^,,,x„,,,, ,„„ i,iaspl,..,„„. 
, of our ^'.Mtiifsi. 

* .^■"/"'r.''."',"r".j"'''''''' "f"'"" ''''■ '""I''' '" .'"U-.'I".., 1 .Mac- 

; '^^. aiiYui'^^^r-r^v",;;; !,;ai,':;'M:;r;"'?' ■ '- - ^'"• 

BAOAUIAS ( s- (/;>//). 4 |.;„|. i , .W = sii.m m-m, e. 

8A0A8 (acTAA [.\)), i i;!.,l.r.,3 .\V. kV Avim,- 

«v .\/...M,. Ih.; AV is ,U.„>,.i from thu <i.„,.va 

BADDEUS. RV l.on,,, , . (AA^i^,,,,; [„■, , ,.„,. 

'«; .Vf ll,|.i, II. i. 

SADDLE. -I I,. «or.l a;-!-;. ,„,,,,.,,.,. j, i„ , „, ,, 

r.n.hT,.il,!,!!,.' i„ I A'. l„u AV-. ha, ■,.,rrup.' up 
■K l-o|;,„|,. The «o,.l l,„.rallv „„-a„, ■ ,Le .If 
ri.imK - ,.r. ri.l,„>; .,-.,1 up (MAi<r,,i. s ,.!,.>.„,.). 
a.,.1 II, ( ant.S.n ,t d.-aily n„a>i, .!,.. .„ at ol Smo,,„„, , 
l;-.l'".'i.i'n (i-cc- kV aii.l 1.11 IKK,. .V.,, ),„ ,.,„|,.,„,,. 
Ilii, .s.'i„i- »,11 not suit ,n la-,. ,.•.,., .\ ,„^^,,„,;i 
f,nc-,i,U„„n 1, H,.-, ..uj;- ,.,.,. T.yf,..,,K^ , 

M.-.!,. n.„,l..,|„. a,., r.f.m.l ,.,. ,„, lli. . .,„ V'f „•„ ■VJ'i 
N".--.......ll.> rally ,„,..,„•,>, hind. "^= " ■"'"■'>■ 

SADDIJC kV lUdduk fcAAA,.YKOY l\]. cAiiov- 
AnYKHY 111]. <:tiA„YK|l. -, 1 I.Ml.hJ .Nr-ZMMiK^ 

SADDUCEEB -Phe origin of th.- nun.- S.i.l.hUin, 
(L.p.T1>. ^,, pi,,l,al,|j., rath..r than C'pnSi h.i, l«.cn 
uxpl.iiii. ,1 in i«o »a\, : 

I. A, if i,o„, ,„„.,/, ^. ,p.^,. ,i,^. s|„.|.,llv ri^h.,-o,i 

a most .msati5factory,l,ri,a.i„ii. alth„„i;h ..a .,| l.y 


1. Name: ■';;'""""■ ■""l "il'.r of ihc I, Thl- 

current ,^'': '""" ■'"•'''<■ ',— i) to '.,M„i 

explanation*. !'""*' " ^■•"T''"""I l.v no analoRv. nor 

.,., . '" ^ •' "■'"■'• •'>■' ' M'iii..-i .11 .lii nppro- 

\>'uu: Ih.T,- IS no .■,„l,.n.,. th. .v„l,l,„„.s .v.T 

m.Tle any sp«ial dam. lo riKht..n,s,i,.sv.- as under- 



rtdtnl tiy Ihf J«w», ami cerwiiilv (hry wnrp not rmlitnt 
wilh 11 liv thfir (.[>|x>i»-m» Muh a cl.\im w.u moft 
likrly 111 Im- iii.iik' liv tfw I'h.iriviv 

3. Krtjm the* uitiu' /.tilttk <;*i)t llft^ i« 
iWJt niuih niiHi; viiisl.nii>ry th.iii Ihf i>ih"T, fiir il diM-% 
not .ucuum fur (In- «iil ,itlr«tnl (Imililc./ Ill ij.ljHkiui 
(C'P^n'i Ami lif-iiilf* th»Ti' In no Uir«Hl [»ii»if of u cuii- 
iintiipii »ii)i /.,v\,iV Ihttf |i.r«.m •>( iiaiiir tune 
lufii tiiKKc^lril : 1,11 .1 tert.iih /.iiliik, .ilh<f.u»c ull- 
kiio«n. «ha c« wi 1 i.i Imn uiih ,i ivrt.uii 
lUnlhin, A ilisii|ili' c.f Anlininui of Nnho. 0*1 »ii 
unknown (ouiiilrr of ihf iniluti.iiic ijariv , u I Aulok 
the pru-vi in the tuiif o( D.nul .mil soli.iion 

•I. Kor \\w hrst (ili^ti i|ilc of \nin;oimM »■<• only 
the .iiithurilv of ihc AU.ih li K N.ith in. ,1 lilf loni- 
(jil.iMon, |>roli.iliiy of Ihf niiiih ktiiiurv. »hiih i.irrii'S 
110 weight with rt-K.iril to .itnt'. i-jiihrr liy 1000 
y»-,ir«, It ij hkfly th.ii ihit r<|iri-.<nis a Cilnuiilu' 
tnilili m. Mnic ihf lliH'ihiifi.ini urc vimi.linici lonfiiwil 
w^ilh. and in the /';i^/',;i put tor Ih.' MdiUicofs. 
The »lory is. in the I'oinnion k.ihtiiitk nmniifr. dii** 
vilely to a di-^in- to aiiount for tin- »ii|.|)om-iI orn;in of 
SadiliKTisin from th<: will known duiumi.f .\nlii;oniiH 
{I'ifti iK-th. I ,y ih«t wr should wrv.' lio.! without 
fX[wi.t.iiioii of riw.ird. whith n thtn Mill to haM' Uin 
|K-rvi-rti-.l hy hn (liv i|i|.-» to niiMii thi-ri' will lie no 
rfiriliuiioii iiftiT ilc.iih. A|i.ui from tht- 
niiiiii- of the story, ho«i-\iT, Ihf s.iyiiiK refirs i|iiiif us 
niuih 10 nwards in Ihi* life as to ilii' future, nml. in 
any ta!>e, aimunts only for one side of S.idiluerisni. 

t. The -econd /.idok la |»'rson assumed to aceoiint 
for the name I. .ilthouijh sii|i|iorte<| hy Km-nen, may Iw 
dismissed ,is purely ln|» 

c. The le.isi unlikely is the third (Zadok thi- priest, 
temp |t,ivid ind Silomoni Kzekiel cert.iiiily insists 
stro..^'ly on the 'sons of /.idok' (pnj •]-• as llie only 
legilim.iie holilers of the priestly o(!iie ; hut his pro- 
phecies wire miered in cin imii«i.iiii.s wholly dill'erent 
from those in which the and I'liirisaie 
pa-lies iKs.iiue ilistiii(;uishi<l. In 1,/ekiels tune Israel 
apiH-ars to l«-.n sunk in idol,itry. ,uid he depicis 
an ideal st.ite of things which for the niosi |>.irt 
never re.ilisid. A great Rulf is rised l.tweeii his 
time and of K/ra. Modern Imlaism. a svstem 
• luile distinct from anylhini; preexili. . iii.iy !«• said 
to have lie^un wiih K/r.i. ami the jieople ne\er aj;aiii 
fell into idol.iirv. The hre.icn of continuilv is so 
delinile miijht lie true or in the sixth 
century 11. r. (ornis no ar^-uineiit for wli.ll was the f,ut 
in the third century. It must 1,^- remenilR'red tixi 
E/ekiel himself a priest. .V much sironj;er ari;u- 
nieiit mij;ht lie derived lr,,iii the Helirew text of Kcclus. 
f>Iii|ci| leil. Scliishlrri. Mine th.uiks to him who 
chose the sons of Z.idok for priest,' if the p,iss,i(;i- is 
Renuine, as it probahly is. Iloweier. there is evidence 
that this view did not prevail ixclusnelv. for in 1 Ch '.'1 
the sons of share in the priesihiKxI. and in 
later times the priests are desi^natcil liy the wider term, 
•sons of .\aron. ■ Ihe f,.nii of the ii.iiiie is not the 
only ditlicully: itd.K's not ,ip[)ear Ihat the Siddiic les 
ever daimeil to I,-, or wen- rt.-Karded .is, vms of Z,iili,k. 
Whilst they chieily IHontjed to the priestly or aristocr.itic 
cisle, \r.\.ny in its essence (xjliiical, and ihe 
n,inie. which deii.iies a ceri.un set of diHirim-s. o"- r.ither 
Ihe nei»,ition of them. s..s-ms to h,ive Uvn applied to them 
as a term of reproich liy their opponents. is ii 
s.iy. it W.IS used as a ilieologiol. not .1 ( lertii. 
refcrrinK not to the origin of a particular familv. party. 
or cisle. hut to [lie sixtial form of supposed hetenxloxv 
which hap|H'iie.l to tx; characteristic of that partv, so 
that a might have U-en descrilx-d as a Sadilucee 
on account of his views, alihoiiKh not nc-cess,arilv lieing 
a memlKT of the party— ,1 case which, however, was 
imliktOy !•"• txttu. 

3. A third explanation of the name may perhaps be I 



haiiUded, thnug' 
1. Amthcr 

K"''l diflidrnie In nimh , , tiM* word ziHiflt is used 111 t •• 
■use oi M,imch,t',iii. or. in ,1 neti, 1 
sense, for inhdcl, one who do. , , . 
Iwlievc m Ihe rcsiirreiiion or in the oiimi|ii>ienieol i„ ,,; 
Il has l>i,enail(i|Hed in .\>ic (!i», //*"". phir : (• / < 
and t.iH.iJitii'"") with the me,iniiii; of mhdtl ,iii,l , 
' m Armenian up Kznik 1 5th cent | ,iK,iinsi li< o , 
ihap ',{ on theerrorsof /oro.isirianismi Mai'imi , 1 1 , 
cent I S.IH thai Ihe n,iiiie ,uov 111 the iim>' ol M,ui, ■ 
(hnoie his te.uhiiiK, .iiid enplains th,il it is derivisl ii, , , 
the And. or, of Ihe .\\esla. Ihe oimii.ii 
.\\isi,i w,is the inilv s.icrrd l><«ik, ,iiid a (wrvin wi,, 
followed imly the conimeniary was cillisl .1 /iml 1. , , 
one who reiecinl ihe word of (iml t,i follow w,,ii i 
iridiium, irreligious. Mm the term cannot I .»» 
origin, ite<l III the lime of M.ines ( jrd cent. ,A u . i,.r 
the A'lid ' commrntary.' wh. never view lie laken ol n, 
d.ile. W.IS hy then alre.idy lietciming uninlelligihli |t 
must l«, nimh earlier .mil h.ue .ici{iiired Ihe g. n • I 
sense of iiilidel m ry sihiii. .M.isudi. indeed. Inn,, 1 
impliis that C^j was »*ei\ long IWore in this s. n,. , 
and ni,tkcs Zoroaster the author not only of Ihe A' , 
hut of the And and r,i2end (suiiercommi'niiirv ; n, 
of which he s.iys were deslroyisl hy .Mix, mil. 1 i!.- 
• •real ' M.ikrui (i5ihc<ml I. who Imrrow- largeh 1, ,1,1'udi. conhisei tlii' /anadikah with the :..iniiii, 1 
and "sadducees, nnd s.ay5 ih.ii they ileny the eMt, ; 
of angels, the resurreition, and ilie piophits ," , 
Moses, whence It l«fii suggisti'd lh,it /.iii.i,| i. ,h 
is a corruption of i^.iildukim Ihe reverse ni.iv. Ii .1. 
ever, lie the else. It is (|uite |iossilile ih.u the I'.i. in 
wiird usisl alMiut joo 11. i', in ilie sense of ■ /,„, ,, 
Irian.' ' ,ind if so, il might well U' applii'il liy opinm, ms 
to a p.irly in ludaM who syiiipaihised wilh f.,i, ;:>; 
idi-as, and relisted U-Iiefs which were liegimmig t 1. 
rig,irded as distimtively lewish. It would thus l.m 
l)een Used at hrst in a (onteinptuoiis sens)', and l.ii. r, 
when Ihe original meaning forgotten, was, in ".,■ 
well-known Jewish niinn.r, tr,iiisformed in siu li .i ,,t,, 
,is to liear the inierprci.iiion of ' sons of Ai.lok ' 1 r-j';:' 
with a sugge.stioll of ■ righteous' lz-p~ltt. I'his w i:',; 
explain Ihe daghesh (for siippnsserl ji with palh.ih r...\ 
the 1 for •. It iii.iy lie mentioned. Itiough i«'rh,i[,s , i 

mere coincidence, :,in,iJit,i is umsI for Sadil s 

in .\raliic translations of the ST. Thai they di,| uot 
hold /oto,isirian \iews is no olijtvtion to this c\|,;,i:!.i. 
Hon. In Liter Jewish literature ICpikurus Oi-\- tx :» 

used for a frcthinker. wilhout any idea of his I I:^^. 

the views of llpicurus (s«v Kl'ii 1 kk.wsI. and is .-n. 
necled, liy a |>opular elymology, with the r.sit "-si l;i 
fact, after the red me.ming of the n.ime U.:; f,,r. 
golliMi. Kpikiirus lxs;ome5 in the 'ralmiut do< ti vi ilv 
almost ihe exact representative of the earlier f mi 
.Sadduci'e. the errors chietiy condemneil in the ■ s, 1 1 
U-iiig their deni.d of the resiirieciion and the rei'<i;<,n 
of Ihe oril law li is very prol,.dile thai .s.i,li|ii,... 
never .my more detinue s.-nse this, 

Ihe Ugiiiniiig of the p.irly natiir.illy can 11,1 !.■ 

tr.iceil. In Us asi>ect it must have e..~i.i| 

3. HUtOiyof ^'^"''''l), "^ IHiteniially eu-r smc- il„r.- 

Sadducees. T'" '' .•''•"'^'' "'''"•' '^ ""' \'," " ' "" 

U-iow IS cf)rrrit. I>Ktnti.i!h t ^ \ 
it is in fssciu-e tht* opiwtsitc of tht* I'hiiriviu- (|.\' ; -p- 
ninit. its orii,'in gm-s U.nk tn thi* (ir-t iK-i,'iniiiiii;> .! i 
Liw whuh h.ul t.. l)t' int*T|)rfU'<l. Vhr untcrl.iii.n ■! 
ilif t'vitit-no' ari'l its jKimity pn-vt'nt our .isMj^niin; i;a 
ilcfinttu dJi"' for the first (Pharis;uci ,inipIi(iiMtion ol ihe 
Torah. Wo may. howevt-r. tivl mih- Xhv I^uv Umk 
ttf hjtra enlar^wl thr exisinii; (l'ininn-rits suftki. rsiU i- 
iiift'l all the re(|uin-nn;ins of tin- time. It rini-t ii.i\'-- 

» The iitirstion <if xhr origin t)f the /-.r.wstriaTi wiiii .;> i> 
exircmply dilTiinli, and very little U nrrtairi cm rjii iliit ihc 

'•! The mraninn of ' infulel ' would then !«; due lo tfie Um 
influence of Chri<>tianity and Ulain. 



U-.n Iiirr Ihr |,r..Krrwiv «»,.»,! t^»n lo 
iM.Mi..n |„ ,h.. \|,.|„,.. i,ui.,i, .l/,,.n, ^„,r ihr 
. .r,,,iii,,,| nulhnriiMs, il„. ri.,1 I,nk ,n ih.. ih..m of 
It ,.liiu.n l-^3., n-r-r) 11 IV M.rct Sv„.,«<,«itt. ■ I ,,11,1 

"'" l"f»"".'l ii'imc I, of Miiinii II,.- |u,i ,,,r..l> 

.'.Iv .-..tlv >„ ih,- vl M...,, N„ ,,.,„|„ „„■ „,„ 
M. p. h,.,l l.-.ri l,,k.-,. I.(.,„. hi, l,„„. , |„„ I, «^„„ „,.„ 

I.., r.,.,r.l .|„ , ^,, f.,r,h,.r Uuk, U ,- .h.ill 

|.ih.i|.!. n.,t I.. t,,r «,,„,« III |.l,,.inK ih- .„ )«•. 

killim.m of Ih.' [ra.llll,^ ul.,lll ,o,i h , , ,1,1,1 ihi, 

,it;i,v. v..rv «.-ll «„l, II,.- o.ii. I,i,„,„ „|,„i, (,,„ Uvii 
,li i«ii fr,.in ullur c-wl.™,-. .iIi.t t(„. |,„„, „, .m,.,. 
.u,l,r ili,-i.„ ,1 |,i,|„„ii l,t.,„„. |«,„,.rful|f ,,H.-,ir,l hy 
1I...I l.-fv.iii inifii.-!,,.- I,, uhirh iiLiv I,: i,.„,.,i ,ha 
i'l"' ''iiiX |i..|,iil,irilv "t 111.- il.Hlnii,. „| ., |,„„rr !,(.. »i,|, 
^ ■ iiiln .mil (luiiuhiii.-iiiv Ih.- riv- <.| ih.- liljrril 
1 ..u. or ,ili.«,l „f ih,.,.!,,^,,,,! ,l,.„.|,,,,„irnt. |,rt iho 

I iniiii,,!, ,,r,, ,„„s,-r,,,in,. „,,|,„ „. ,, I, „,„ „, 1^ 

■.N|.|».M-,I llul Ih.- !„,, |,.,ri„-, ,,,-r,. fr,„„ ,|„. f,,,, >|,,,r,,|v 
.i'A„\<;\. still 1,-s, ll,.-y ,i,-,|uiriM ,li,l,n, liv.- ruin.-,' 

" '■ '"^"•ri'.illy 1 pn.lMl.l- i|,.,t the ,|i,,.r,,..,„ ,. 

ii^rrawl KMiUially, nrid »,„ mi,-„,ifi,.,I, „„| ,„ ,.,„ 
;--iiiiili-ly r.-.ihv-,! ,n ih,- r.-ll^;l..u, ,vin,,l ,,f Ma.ial«-ari 

""""■ ^' '" ""' 'i'^' u I 111.- nam,, to in.liciil,. 

■ ..Mit,.n,.-i i-..n»ci,,ii,l, C-lt, „ ,!,„., „,„ ,„,„^ ,„ ,^^. Q.,, 

.if in K.,lus an,!, in la.t, ih.- .-arli.-M ,l,„ ,i„,» »hlih 
rh,iili,m.s.ul,lui,-.-,ar.-lh,-(;.,,|K-lH, 1,1,1 ii,.i In i Th.-r,, 
^. li.m,-vrr, ii,. r,-av,n t„ rrj.-, t ih.- i..,i,i„„„v „f 
l--,|,lmH that 111,. I, ,n,e »a. i.v-,1 in the Ma.i.ibi-an 
|.i.,.:, anil if 11 tt.,> ih,.„ «,||.,.,,al,|„i,„|, «e n,.,y 
ii-iiiH- that II «a. nv-,|. ,f „,,i K,.„,.r,,|iv. at l,-a,'l 

■'•'" "'"•'"'■ •" "' "•■"^li*''- " I" 'l,-n.,te .,|.|».Mt,„„ lu 

c|,„ 1.,1,,-s «huli an- afi,-r«ai,K as |-|ian,aif I„ 

' I''"" ""■'■ -'l«-i.v»:i|,|«-ar a»a il.-tiniit- i«,liii,al p,irlv 

HI m,-si,i. ih.,ii«li c,i,n,-n,i.nt. vi,-w uhuli is ih,,. i,, the 
,..l..uriiiK of til,- hi,l,.rMn. rn,l,-i- ih.- e,,rli.-r Maca. 
iM.iiis, an «,. 1,1,1 b,. ,.x|K-,tr,l, th.-y .m- n„l ni,„h in 
"i-l,iut-; 1,1,1 »ith il„: lla,Mi,,n.ians ili,-v akMin com.- 
ill" |ir„min,-iR,-. !,,hn Hyr.anus <l.-hnil,-iy alli,-<l hiin. 
w-.f "ith th.-iii. Ali-van,l,-r laniiiru-,. a< l«in< hinw If 
hik-h [.n.-M. »a» M,j,|».rt,-,1 l.y Ih.-ni dp Suit.ili. ^HA, 
:iii,l hi- «ar may U- ri-sar,l.-,l a-, .i coni.-si U-i«,.,n thi- 
l'h.iri-.iic an,l the Si<l,liic,-an panic. I„ p,,l„i,al 
M.iiions ihi-y -.hoH a sMiip,,ihv »iih f„r,iKn inllii,-!,,,., 

..hich «.is M„.ln;lv „.pr,,l,,,l..,| |,v ,1,.. „,iti„„.,|„tlc 

I hari,r.-, 1 III,, „,. |„„| ,h,.|„ nccusci, ix-rhaps jnsilv 
,if l,..,ralmK (,r,-,-k r,-li«iou! pra,tin-». ,u„| rv.-n of 
■" V"".k' lliini. 1 h„ ,s ,|„. !,.„ Mirprising ,f it I,, con- 
v,l,r,,l th.,t ih,. |„,|.,i„„ «hi, h th,-v pr,.fc-s.-,l can have 
h.iil.t,, U.S,- a ni,„l.-rn plir.i«-i „„ r,-liKi,,iis h,,l,l on ihrm 
li ».i, raihi-r Ih,- ni,„hii„T) l.y «hi.h a .■,-ri.,in 
n,i,-,„ «a, «,Mk,-,|. an,l when , inunis,.,,,. ,., chanRt-rl 

I '""''' '"■ •"'• '1 I" tlH- nt-w i,„„litio,is. In the 

■* '" l"-n,«l Ilii-ir inflm-me diniinish,-,! aij.iin. The 

pinv. .il«ays 111 a niin,,niv. «,is not liki-lv t,, U- larju-lv 
i,rrim..,l. (h.-y appan-ntly had no ,-x„t,.„c,. oulM.f,- 
l,rUMl.-fn«itli the t,-nip|,. an.l its ritnal, the centre of 
rri!ci,.i,s ami i«,liiirai lif,-. Will, the fall of Jen,..,.-,Irm 
u>^ -livipiH-ar fron, hi,lory, .,ri<l a cenuirv l.ii,-r the 
M.-hiu M„,«s of them only |,y tradiiio,,. |S,i-. further 

I'H.VKIM-,-.. ^ l;-:ini. ' ■ 

II «-.uM s.-eni th.ii,lu(;.-.-ism is t,, Ik- riehtlv 
r,-gir...-,l .,s n,-Kativ,-. \\herev,-r r.-f.-r.-,u ,■ i, n,.„|c to 

It. Ill,- MiKK.-ilion is that i-.ri.nn vi,-ws arc 



nejatiT* '■'l'" '''I- I'l"' natnrallv i,,ll,,».s fr,,ni 
« has U-,-n s.ii,i ,iU.,,.. l-haiiM-,-,,,,, 
r,-pr-,„i, ,|„. t,-n,l,.n,y „|i„.h „|ii„,,„,.iv r,-Mili,-,l i„ 
""••'■"I .lii,lais,n. It »as at on,,.- ex.h.Civ,- ,n that it 
sti,„,„„„ly .,pj,„e.l all d.-alinps «iih |I„. f„r,-i,'n,-r in,l 
!«'|,ii ir in il,,,t It provHlwl f..r the spirit n«-,l, ,,f the 
l»; :'" llie ,l,xtrin,-s Hhith we fin,l ,|ie .s.i,l,lii,-,.es 
f'■i•■ln^' .ire precisely those which had Uvn ,l.-,l„ced 


fron, ihe U» an,| ,l„. , .,„ „,, ^ui„^„„ 

"( .lie .line. I, |i„,.„„„ «,„ „. ,„„„„„,7, ,, ,,,,•;'' 
.>>l.-ni. II I*,.,,,,.. „,.,„..„y ,„ ,,.|apt „ to ,,ltP,..,| ,.,„. 
diiion, n.,i ,„„i,„,|,|,„...| ,,j. t,„ |,,^, „, ^,, 

hr,„.e .,r.„e tli.- „h„l.. „, ,„.,, „ „„„ , ' ^^ 

u", I ■'"•"'•■'""■ »»'•■•' "'i'-l"ltH .1 ^l.-.,il.„V,n «a. 
.h„ul,l l,r atl.-cl,.,l l,y It,.. „t„,„^ .,,„., „„,„. , 

I"!"' """■"■'". ^ li-i •• I"-... riKlill, o, J„„i" 

il„- nioM ,l,..,„|„d «,„r,e or coM.for, ,„ .ntl.-V- 
n,K Hence nr..,.. ,he ,U,rin., ,,( ., f,„„,.. hf.. „„h 

.-».ir,l, ..>,, p„ni,|„„r„„ ,„„,,„ ,„„„„^, ,,„ „„. ,,,„„,,„ 

I life. How k,.„lv ihi, prcrf.. ap|..,l,,| to the jewi.h 

I n-d .1 eM,l,„t f„.„, ,h.. |. ,„ „. ,.,;.„ , 

hap, to no ,.,..,:.. h.„ „ ap|,-,,',-,l. for >.,n„n, „■,,«,„.. 
more ,»„K„.„„|v ,N.„„r.,|u, h,,«e>,.,. ,t «a. |» thi 
*""•""• "'•''> ""' 'li'ir sunpalhi-,.-,,, that the n.-.-.! 

(or « fnliire r.-. i,n, at„.n in the ..„„.■ of j,,, «. „ 

iip|«<rcni. It ,., th,M,f,.r.-.„nlv «h,ii uonid I.- ,.v,„., t,-,| 
«h,-,i «.. find that those who rej,.., s.„ I, ..,mr,.rlal.le 
»;,i,l, are ., nLiiiv,!, mimII p.iriv of the w,ll-to-do Ireif, 
.i»o(K„., „„„, <<,„ru»,,, \M,iU,, h,,«.-i,r. it api„-ai. 
I.. Ii.ive l.r.i K.n.r ,llv lt,e .a,e that SaiM.u.-an i.ew, 
»-i,-h..l.ll,yll,ear„i,..ral,, I; ,- . prini.iriiv, ih. wievllv) 
P-iriv. we inuM l.-„,„e. .„ m,kk..,„.,1 ,.|h„.., „, reK,,rU,n({ priex, a,„; .s.,.|,|u,„. a, ..,nv,-rlil,k- tem.i 

M.iny of Ih,- prle,,, „, ... |,|,.,,, ,. .„ „„ ^... , ,. f™„ 

he,-, o( d.Hi,.i, ,p,„„.,| ,„ ,|„ Mi,,,,,,, ^^f, „, 
ille prK-SI I;,,.,, ,.„... .,,,,1, „„,„.„„., „„. „.,,,„,„„„ 

li.-l«..-n the hiKli.-r an,l the low.r pri. >ts T"» 

,ns Kr.-al,-,-„ ihe..risto, r.iiic p.iriv an,l il „„„„„ 

I«-,.pl.-. .\,,r aK.iin «,„ ih,- iliM", r.iue U-i«,,.„ |-|,.,r,se. . 
mill SnMi,,,.,., ,«,I„„aiK ,„M,,..ral,|.. 'I h,., ,,„„,.| ,„ 

tok'elh.-r on the .s„,h. „ ,A.i,l-.-)M. an,l pr„..ts and 

lh.iris.-.-s could cnil.iie in a common ,; (|n 7,, 

.M. I hat the .s.„|,|„„.,-, «„r,., h„«ev.-r, in an .,liK.,r. mmoniy „ ,.,„|,.,„ ,r„„, ,h,. f.,.., ,h.„ „„.^ ,;;,,„ 
to havet,.un,l .1 .a,|,isal,le 1,, conlorm M timc'io the 
in.ire popular Ph.iri,.„c pr.,. lae- , .4-. . l,i„,,- ,^f_ 
..lllioilKh ue an- S,„|,|„,.„., «,. ,„, „|,,,„| „f ,^^ 

the «h.,l.- («sMRe show, a «tronB';,nti.Sa<l,luc,-.,n i,.,i. 
mi;.' ( pal,,. J,,s. ./«/. x,,„,l, 

-l-.ikinK then the vi.-w ih.ii s,i,l,h„,.an opinions »,-re 
hel.l m,-„nly hy n,e,nl.-,s of the ,1 ,n,,nt aristocratic 

~ ^ '^ " opMi|,„is 

B- Data. '■'•'"■"'■•'-""■""» toe, 'nsHli-rth, 
, . in d,-tail. The lurnisheil l,v the NT 
thouKh cl.-ar, are meak-re. 1 h,- account in [osephus is 
fnll.-r (s,-,- ,-s|,.ci.ii:y ../,/, xviii.l..,. /i/»:h,J. His,-n„-nis are, howev.r. coloure.1 partlv l,v his own 
slioUK I'hansaif pr,.ii„lv . .„„| ,„|| „„„el,v a ,1,-Mre to h,n„.-ir „, „.rni, ,,f (.r,.,.k p| „,|,r„. „ ,„„,, 

l*ren,en,l«-r,-.l that pi, il,.sophical noil, „„w|,„hapi..,l,-,l 

t,. the Greek n,i,„l „,.,e entirely for.-ign I,, the ,,„ , , 

of though! un,l,-rlyinK l„li,.f or ,|„l..|„.f 
In this rtsp,-,.t Jew an,l <.„ek st.irt fr,„„ .l.tterent 
pr,-mi„-s, r^pr,-sentinK -i r:„i.i| ,li5iinctiun. Kouijhly 
>|«-.ikinK. the one f,,nn,ls his failh on th.will of (i./l 
, an.l the recelati,,n l»,nii,l up „„h ,1, ,he oil,, , i!,,!,,,,., 
I his s<hen,e of th,- universe- from a iiiei.,pl,»Mcal con- 
ception of the n,-cess.irv eo-„liii,,ns of U-mi; ' 

I he .li,t,n,„v,- S.„i,lu.-, m,,v U class,,! (a, 
l.y Schur,ri uii,l,.| three h.a.l, : ,,» I'licv d,,,,,,! the 
rcMirretiion, p,-r,onaI imnioriahiv, nn,! reiril,i„;,,n in .1 
utu,^e hfe : (.) ,h,.y ,|,.„„„, ,„^.,,,,, s|„H,s. an.l ,1- mon, ; 
(,y lh.-v,!,-n,ed fale ,„>a,Wi.,i. ai.,1 Ih.muI.,,,-,! h,.-,lo„, 
of action for ev.-ry m.m ,0 c|,.«.,e ^ohI or ev,l, and 
w,.rk out hi.s ,>-.Mi h.ippi,,,.,, „r th^ re^eise 

< With r,-u'.,r,I to the hr,t point. .s,„l,|„r„.i,,„ „„. 

■'""' ll.vr,-pre„„i, i|„.„i,i |,.„„|, ,|.„„i,., ,„, \\ ,, „ 

ev,r ,l,xirin.-, n,.,y 1,. i„f,.r,,.,i ,,,„„ „„. -i,,^.,,, ^^ .^ 

' Jl.i, ,rtn„ |«„,il,|v ,,„„ ,,, Ih,. , In „„„, ,„._.5,_ ,v..,...c 
I" m.,r.. ,,, „,„ ,„ Ik- ,r„.,f,l f,„ ,|i„..,„ h ,,lo,icul /a, ,V l,ul miv 



I a " ft 


eviili-nl ihu ili. 
6. BMuirtction. 


K llllll 

pins of tlir Tur.ih »;is 

of .1 fillilrr lifi' anil fiitlirp 
iii.iii IS nut ii.tulijUil III It. 
!>j''< I nf, at .uiy rail', llu- tMiIit-r 
si> ttM.hiMi.;. a|>.irt 

fr..iii the iMiliration to Ik- Inini the 
nan i;i\.-, l.iit t< sit l,,ith tin- pi.iitiral ilriails (if thi' 
ntiMl Ml YaliHtism, Smd w.inls as ' IikIiiicss' ami 
' pill It V liul a tmlmical iflii:i. ms nii- mini,' i|iiitr distant 
from 111,- i-.Mit.iit wluili has l«'.ii |.ul 
liy lat.T l-'i.iiii a law li.Hik th.- Ihi- 
»pmtual. Ih.- I'lii.itioiial «iti- hltiii^iy c-\i hi.lcd. liitii 
the caiisi's i.f till- (lf\il..jimi-nt »liirli wi- liml in the 
nthiTcaniiiii, a! Ii...iks, m riiarisivism, ail<l ri later liMisli 
lIliMIKllt, vw linil nut tnliT lltic' (s«v I'llAKIst Ksl. 
That ilivi'l.ipiiiiMit M IS iiiHi-ssary. ^aiMiii rtis^i milv 
fiiipli iswi-.l til,. iMilur iKiiiit .'f M.'v> liv r.jiTtiiii; tin- 
nr« ilin-iiin.s with innaryiiii; i oii^nalisiii. \Vli<-n »r 
iiiiisi.lei that till' XiililiiKHs hail a .-.•rtaiii SMiipathi with 
lirMk anil lou-iyii inlliiiims iji-niTallv, this atlitiiilc 
nia> U- tlioiit;lit r.iiiaikalili-. It Is iitil su it »i- n);hli\ 
iiii.l.isl iii.l III,- iiitiin- ,,f ih,- .iiii; 'lal I'ur.ih an.l tin- 
Siiiilic iiiiiiil uliiih IS ili-.-ply im,-ii-,ii-.I in th,- pr.iMi-nis 
of the jiri-sfnt, lntt shows only a sli^^ht (.i|>.i,-itv ot 
iluliti.itioii for ili-alini; with the ,|iifsli..iis o( ino<liiii 
tllf,i|o(;y. Thf Jewish Illillil tan lllilei-,1 insist on the 

f'lieiiess of ti,Ml : lint how ini^plaetsl in .1 Miilrasli. nay. 
lii,w iiii|Hissil.le, w,MiM I.- f-ir iiist.iiiif a lii-iussion of 
the do. ttiM'- of hom'iousi.i. ,-\iii if n coiiM .irisc. .Sui li 
i|ilesti.iiis h.ue. or Hill. -Ill -itti .1. ti. >ii l.if tlic wi-stem 
niinil. llii'v liive none l,ir tlie lew. .Mori-over. «f 
lil.iy will siipiHiM- III the .irist.x r.itio party a cert. nil 
in.iti-ii-iliviR' ti-ii.|i-ii.A- w.uiM show Itself, that 
pi.liti. s H..11I.I ,il.s ifl, attention to tlie est liisioii i;f inoie 
lontempl.ilii.. piuMiits. Whilst thus|inj; to prinii- 
live. I0r111.1l lii.l.iisiii. the would, so far .15 
they were dlsp..x.-,| t.i U- 1 Iiuik with .sus- 
piiioii ..n I'h.iriviie d.-velopiiients. .is ti .1111111,', by .1 sort 
of s»-lf-i.iiitr-idKMon. I., viti.ite the oliservani-e of the 
Law. 1 he I'll irisiv w.i-,, imleisl. ex.i. t in [viylni; lillu-s 
of the iiiiiil . 111.1 the eiiiiiniiii ; lull a l.lti r leai her conl.l 
s-i\, • U'liofM-r i;nes ,1 |Kior man a mm attains six 
lilessini,'s : liiit h.. wh.i .iil.lrissi-s to liiiii so.illMn(,' words 
.itt.lins eleven lilessii;.,'s ' • .-rra iirt 'j;"" nc'S jr'3:i ""J 
*C"ET'^l nin^)- fti-^i'li's Ihed.ui^er 
iliidi-rinillint; the folltld.lti.ins ,ni 


uh t,' 

W llllll 


th.- Xi.l.lai. .111 |».sili .11 rest.-.l. may .ilso 
■ U'.ii ,1 eoiisiit.mi.ius ill -lie to .irn-fil the hrt-^kiiii; 
up ..f svstelll hv whuli .iloli,- the n.llion l,.lll.l 
rii;hllv s,-n.-ii.i.| Th.-v a. . onliii>;Iv rei.-ttisl enliiely 

'I r-'l 111 liii.iii 5 s-^r r.'-p) l.y win. h the I'h.iiiiit.-s 

sii|ipiein.iit.-.l the wiiK.n I..iw. .Vteonlmi; to I'h.iri- 
sait .l.^triiie this wis of .s|iial aiilli..rily with llm 
writti-n I..UV. and in .1 m-hj' even m.ire l.iiiilini;, sunt; 
it piovideil for WIS Tii.l to lie f.iuiid in the l..ivv. 
Liter tf.iihers el.iiiii,- I III,' whole of Ir.lilllion was 
revf.ileil to .Moses, who tran-.iiiitlisl it ..r.illy to Joshua 
.in.l the seventy fldilv Th.- .Iiltuuitv of preservilli; it 
int. lit lliioii(;h v> nianv untunes ev.adeil liv the 

ll IV of a s.»rt .if .i|!ie sueeesMon ( ■t*-!,-^ n'^C^ri. a 

series of .lUthoril.itivt' t<- ii hers. I h'' whole of this 
sii|«"i,tiu. luie. ,111,1 then-willi the d.Klrin.-s iltshiieil l.v 
ll. ihi.f .1111..II-.; whuli that of the tutUlf llle, weie 
ij;noied hv lii.- Sul.liutfs. 

2. With re>;.ii,| t.. the setcnd s|«vilie [ -the di^- 
liehef ill alii;-ls, spirits, ,ini| demons — the 
p..Mli.m 111 .idvan.e ol the 
r.irih, where wi- still lin.l of the liehef, 
. ..llllll. Ill to .ill priniiloe |»s,pl,-s. m th,- eMsteiiie an.l 
|>-.,\,'r ..f iliiMoii.. How thev eoiii.l .iliandon this, still 
111.11,- h.iw iiii-v .'.ul.l i-\pl.iin It I,- ,., th,- nil- e.inii'-. i.-,l 
with \. i--,li n,-i| , not know. It is, however, a ii.iiiiral 

tonse.iuenee ,.f iii.itc-ri.ilisli.- |.-ii.|em-y and of the 

alliliiile ileseril«-d .il.iv.- No i|,,ii|,i ' it «.„ ;dso 
einpli.iisi-,1 liv op|»isition to the I'h.irisaie il'-\'-io|inienl 
of -iiiu'i-loloicv .ind .l,-iiionnloi;y. .Moailv n llie |l.«,k 
(if Itur.-! iM..;.'ls hiii- n.iines ; in the- Miilr.ishim ami 

T. Angali. 

9. Torali. 


the T.nlinuil the system is further eviendid. and, 1 
the ■ K.iliUil.ih,' 11 passi-, .ill liounds 

,1 l-or the tliiril point the lieeilom of Hill nml 1 
denial of Lite— we have onlv the authontv of lovph 
g iyg0.^rtU ^"^''''"'f I'"""'""" 'I'" •'"■* »-iy ot st.ii, 
th,- i.ise IS eiiiirelv iili-Ji-wish. allh. r 
the ipiesllon of ImmIs ptoMileme nndouliledlv .:, 
cussed. Ill spite of Its not lx-iii>; liy ,.t|,. 
eviileni't-. it is very Jost-phiis' aet.iui! : 
sulislanli.illy .oro-it. I he il,«tniie is in .ii;ie, n,. ■ 
with the wollilly. ni.ileri.lhstie iit,-r of S.iddiii.-. , -. 
noted aUive, and with thin i<'ii.|,-niy to keep i.. . 
siinplest t-lenit-nls of faith. n-jivliliK .iir.i.hmvtiire ..| 1 
sil|>.-rn.itiir.ii. It als.i prol..ililv npn-si-nts the |i..nii 
view of the I'ent.ileii. h i, , •. , |)t. 4 and l!i. -rht- .s.i.i 
diuees would not hue denied i;.«m1 and Im.I ai ii. ., 
lilolliihl then- res|H-i livt- eolisiipii-m,s 111 this vvoi 1.1 ;/, 
a saiiitn.n is netess.iry ^ lint tiny w.uilil 1. . 
aiiv theory of prislestiiialion as well .i> thai ol 1.- -. 
r.iriliution. I'ossihly I' intluenie ni.iv U- ii.i. , r.:, 

'I here reinains vet a f.iuith p,.iiit to U- eonsiil- 1. a, 
A.-fordinu to the iluirch l.iih.-rs (IhiKi-ti, leroiii. , i-'. 
.N.i.l,liiiis-, atiepli-d only the r.'.i.ih, 1 -,. ,. 
MK -ill llie olh.-r f-inoniial li.i..k~. I .. 
Mt-iiis to in- !\ ini^.'olnepliim,l on Mi -Jj , . 
Wliv shoiil.l Jt-siis h.iverhosell an aiKum. lit fn-n li;,, 
I '.lit. It. -in ll, wli.-n others mori- oli\ ions wer.- 10 U- [ .1, | 
in tin- other liooks, unless the .s.nldint-es ai know 1, ,!. . ,| 
onlv the .iiilhoritv of the I'enialeinh in su, h 111.111,-1,1 
Ueh.ive. however, no sm h a view, wii,,ii 
eould h.irdly fail to !«.- to tln-ir 1 li.n,;.- if ther,. „,-,]. 
tin- le-isl Kroiind lor 11. Ihe arcumeiil from sili-n. 1 ,4 
imr coinlusitc; Inil it is very strong here, for n. 
loiild have l«-eli Iwlter caleiil.ited toil.iin.ii;,- ,ini.p|».,;. ,,| 
than to show thai he n-je, teil anv ,.( the,, , ,;| 
luioks. The trnih is. however, that the lews I .i- 
.tlwavs ri-i;,irded Ihr lorah as m ,1 wholly .luf.i.u 
level of holiness and authority from tin- i.iln-r 1- i.. 
In the time of l-lira. wlinh inav 1«- ii-(;,irde,l ,1-, iii,- 
.st.irliiii;-i*iint of lud.iism. as we underst.ind 11 i!:,- 
Torali must have U-eii the only s.nre.l writing'. nUn 
tliKinntMils won their way only (jradu.illy to .i laii' 
I«isition. rhi-ioiiservalive >.i.|diiit-<-s woul.l. noili.ui.i, 
hold more rii;idlv tli.iii others to the supreme |».sii.. 1. nf 
the r,.rah. and w.mld view with a leii.nn sii^pi, i,,ii uy 
enl.itcenieiii of the eaiion as showmi; .1 rii.ii;.,n; 

tend.-in y. .1 p the .iltituile of tin- I' il I,,-, 

low.iids tin- .\ii.Hr\|.h.i. I It niiisl l«- a.lmiltnl 1,.,. iiiu 
the [irophets and hat;io(,'rapli.i f;enerally len.l ii- -.- 
eoiinteiiiiue tu I'liarisaie views the Tor-.l 
were. Ill f u t. .1 result of the same deii'topnn-nt. I 
we nis-,1 hot supiK.v, thei.-loie, thev re|eel,-,| 
Ihe S.ulduets-s may wt II h,i\e nsi-d lliein otil 
ev ample of hie and instruction of manners'; at 
arKuiiieiit in Mt. -.'-J u is prolialilv ihosi-n from tin- 
in on ler to Ik- t-ritieism. 'rin' st. item. -lit 

fatli,-rs IS no d.-itl.t par th din- ton \,'i\ coin, 

Iilsi, 111 wiih tlie.S\\i vKii \^^ ,,/ r- I whi.ilnl .i,,. ; 
tin- r.iiah the s.iiiie reasons which cans, 
Sid<llltis-H to rei;.ir.l it wilh s|Mvial veiier.ituui 1, 
curiously enoni;h. use the very |iassai;e quoted n 
as .111 ari;iinient for the future life. \ 1 

l-or tin- hlrratur.- st-c -ScKlBKS ami I'iiak 





8AD0C. I. IN i/i.i. //> 4 l-\d. 1 1. s. 

J. l.r.„-.». I Ii. Will). Ml. ll,. .Veto SI .VI... ,, I, 

SAFFRON iCii:. tiH.iin: KpoKnr, •'.oil I ,'>. 
Tin- lt,l.n-ww..r.l IS> iilt-nlii ilnilli Sm ;,..i ■ -, 
.\i ^v,»•<■'/>«'. 01' ivh., h d.noi.- thi-ii.« in ,,T , <<■.,, 
'Ill,- s-iiiie w,.iil is foiiM.I 111 I',. I- in .111.1 .\ii.i-! .n 

Ih,- i.ilter prolialilv 1. .now, -.1 h Il.l, ; l.ii; 1 ( ^ 

.("». St. ii'il. .iiid tin- 10111111,111 .iritm m-. iiiv m V 

-Sins. ilt»iti'"tu. t In-sotirce of s.ltlroll is ( e,^ /, . ..;'r ,",.. 

1... a pl lilt ,.f doiiliiliil oiiyin,' wluch. tll.>ll^h fmii