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read E Scriptoribus 
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Biblical Criticism. By KiMCHi ••••• ••••• ] 

Itinerary from Tripoli of Barbary^ to the city of Casbenah 
in Sudan. By tbe Sbeikb L'Hage Kassem. Translated 
and illustrated with no tes^ by Jambs Grey Jackson 4 
Observationes in Phrynicbum Lobeckianum. By E. H. B. 8 
Observations on the Zodiac of Dendera. No. III. »•••• 19 

Carmina Samaritanorum Anecdota ; e duobiis Musei Bri- 
tannici codicibus edidit, Textum emendavit^ Latiue ver- 
tity et Commentario instruxit, G. Gesenius •••• 35 

Notae Criticae in Q. Horatii Flacci Opera nlanu Joannis 
Clerici marginibus exemplaris editionis Torrentii ad- 
scriptae. Ed. Salomonsen »-••••••••••••••••• 45 

Notice of '* L'Art de Plaire d'Ovide, Po^me en trois 
chants^ suivi du Remade d'Amour, Poime en un chanty 
nouvelle traduction en vers Frangais, avec le texte La- 
tin en regard, et De la Fid61it6, Po^me 6rotique en trois 

chants" ...••••' •• .• •• 53 

Theocriti qua?dam vulg. lectt. defenduntur et explicantur • 55 
Index of the Passages of Menander and Apollodorus, 
which Terence has imitated in his six Comedies that 

have been preserved to us ••••••• «•••••• 57 

On a new Edition of the Polyglott Bible ••••••• 59 

Notice of " Histoire de la Musiqu , par Mad. de Bavvr. — 

Essai sur la Danse antique et modeme, par M. E. V oiart" 60 
On the Various Readings of the Hebrew Bible. Lett. III. 65 
De Versibus quibusdam Horatianis. Disputatio H. C. A. 
EiCHSTAEDTiiy Indici Lectt. in Univ. Litt. Jenensi 
per sestatem an. 1820. habendarum praemissa •••••• 71 

Itinerary from Tripoli to Housa, and from the latter to 
Sudah ; together with a summary of an Itinerary from 
Tripoli to Timbuctou. By Muhamed ben Aly 
BEN Foul. Translated from the Arabic into French 
by M. S. DE Sacy, and from the French into English^ 

and illustrated with notes, by J. G. Jackson 75 

Notice of Mr. Barker's ''Germany and Agricola of 
Tacitus, with critical aud philologicah notes, partly ori- 
ginal and partly collected'* * %^ 


On the Pyramids of Egypt, Part III. •••••••«•••• 

Sophoclis vulg. quaedam lectt. defenduntur et explicantur • 


TOTEAOTS "EniTOMH. E codd. MSS. Graece pri- 

mus edidit H. Hase^ statuarum antiquaiuni Dresdae 

publicus custos. No. II. ••••#.•••••••••••#••••• 1 

Notice of '* Peintures Antiques et In^dites de Vases Grecs, 
tiroes de diverses collections^ avec des explications, par 

J. V. Millingen" •••• ^* ] 

NugsB. No.Vlir. ] 

A Letter on a Greek Inscription engraved on an Ancient 
Helmet of Brass^ discovered in the ruins of Olympia in 
the Peloponnesus ; also some observations on the Island 

of Ithaca, by the Che V. D, Bronsted 1 

Parallel Passages •••••• .. i 

Mors Nekoni: Latin Prize Poem. By R. Trevelyan 1 

Notice of *^ Cambridge Classical Examinations " 1 

The Scholia of Hermeas on the Phaedrus of Plato, pub 

lished by Fred. AsTius. Part III. 1 

Some Observations caused by the recent introduction by 
Mr. Bullock into England of various rare and curi- 
ous specimens of Mexican Antiquity ; intended shortly 
to be submitted by him to the inspection of the public. • 1 

Notice of ** Robertson's Latin Phrase Book " • • • 1 

Examinations for the Classical Triposes. First instituted 

at Cambridge, Jan. 1824. •••• • • 1 

Adversaria LiTERARiA, No. xxxvi. — Epigramma- 
ta, Epitaphia Variorum, No. vii. — Biblical Criticism. 
— Psalm cxxxvii, Latine Grasceque redd. — Eurip. 

Heracl. 1014. 2< 

Notice of *' The Characters of Theophrastus ; translated 
from the Greek, and illustrated by Physiognomical , 
Sketches : to which are subjoined the Greek Text with 
notes, and Hints on the individual Varieties of Human 

Nature'' 2 

literary Intelligence 2] 

Notes to Correspondents • 2^ 


On the striking Coincidences between the Allegories^ Si- 
miles, and Descriptions, in Tasso's Gierusaleaime Libe« 
rata, and those of Homer and some other ancient writers 223 

Notice of '' The Odes of Anacreon of Teos, translated 
into English measure by E. H. Thurlow, Lord 
Thurlow" • ♦. £29 

On the Genius and Writings of Claudian. Part in. • • • • 2S1 

Remarks ^n the English Translation of the Bible ; . with 
some suggestions for an improved form of the Text in a 
revision of its numerous Italic interpolations ; and of its 
pointing, and marginal additions •••••• •••••»••• 239 

The Arithmetic of the Holy Scriptures. No, v 249 

Is the Nightingale the Herald of Day, as well as the Mes- 
senger of Spring P No. Ill, E. H« Barker •••••• 255 

Nugas. No. IX. •••• ••••••••••• 258 

On the Pyramids of Egypt. Part iv. ••••••.....••••• 266 

The Scholia of Hermeas on the Pha^drus of Plato, pub- 
lished by Fred. Astius. Part IV. ••• ••• 273 

Biblical Criticism on the Ist and 2d chapters of St.^ Mat* 
thew ; comprising a view of the leading arguments in 
favor of their authenticity^ and of the principal objections 
which have been urged on the subject. By Latham 
Wainewright, M. A •••...• 279 

In Sophoclis CEdip. Colon. Emendationea ••••• 286 

Biblical Criticism — on some mistranslated passages of 
Scripture. J.Bellamy ••*••• • 296 

Notice of '* A Grammar of the Three Principal Oriental 
Languages, Hindoostauee, Persian, and Arabic, on a 
Plan entirely new and perfectly easy ; to which is added 
a set of Persian Dialogues, composed for the Author by 
MiRZA Muhamed Salih, of Shiraz, accompanied 
with an English Translation. By William Price, 
Esq. J.G.Jackson • ••••••••••• 307 

Remarks on some passages in the New Testament, inac- 
curately rendered in the present version •♦ •• 312 

Muhamedan Invocation: verses composed by Soli man 
BEN Muhamed, late Emperor of Marocco, wliich are 
chanted every morning at the break of day by the M&- 
den, at the top of the minarets. Translated by J. G. 
Jackson ••••••••••••• •••••• .•••••• 316 


Notice of '^ Observations on the History and Doctrine of 
Christianity^ and^ as historically connected, on the Pri- 
meval Religion, on the Judaic, and on the Heathen, 
public, mystical, and philosophical ; the latter proposed 
as an Appendix to the political and military History of 
Greece. By William Mitford, Esq." •-••••••••' 317 

Introduction to the second edition of the translation of the 
Mystical Hymns of Orpheus, by Thomas Taylor 322 

Museum in Greece, and Abb6 Fourmont • 33 1 

Cambridge Examination for Junior Sophs : i. e. Exami- 
nation of Students at the end of their First Year's resi- 
dence. First instituted in Lent Term, 1824. •-••••••. 335 

Technical Memory. No. ii .••...... 340 

Classical Criticism. On the Origin of the adverbs alioy 
aliquo, eo, eodem, illo, quo, quocunque, quolibet, quo- 
nam, quopiam, quoquo, quoquam, utro, utroque 344 

De quantitate syllabarum ancipitum in Fortuitu^, Gratui- 

tuSf Pituita. E. H. Barker ••••.-•..•. 350 

Oti the Origin of Milton's Lycidas. N. Ogle ^ SoQ 

In Demosthenem Commentarii Joannis Seaoer. No. 
VI ••. 362 

On the Error relative to the time of the departure of the 
Israelites from Egypt. J. E. N. Molesworth •••• 370 

De verbo axralvw vel otxrotmoo, scr. E. H. Barker •••• 379 

Litteras quaedam ineditae ex autographis inter schedus 
D'Orviilianas, in Bibl. Bodl. adservatas descriptae • • • • 383 

Adversaria Literaria, No. xxxvii. — In honorem 
Gul. Browne, Eq. (Greek verses.) — Artis medicae Laus 
(Latin verses.) — Ilovog XswroTo-iv o^8e7. — In Ventriloquum. 
— Latin Epitaph.— Illustrations of Herodotus. — Epi- 
grammata, Epitaphia, Variorum, No. viii. •••••••••• 386 

Oxford Latin Prize Poem: — In mortem Jacobi Cook. 
Welleslev ..•.. ••••..^ •• 396 

American Prize Poem : — Narcissus. E, S. Dixwell«« 400 

Notice of *' Journal of a Tour in Asia Minor; with com- 
parative Remarks on the Ancient and Modern Geogra- 
phy of that country. By W. Martin Leake" •••• 401 

Literary Intelligence 407 

Notes to Correspondents 409 




MARCH, 1824. 


If I may Judge from internal evidence^ I can have no hesitation 
in attributmg the 3ibl]cal Criticism on Gen. iv. £6., inserted in 
the Classical Journal for September^ to the author of the New 
Translation of the Bible; the errors and inaccuracies of which 
have been 30 ably exposed by Mr. Whittaker, Professor Lee. 
the Editor of die Quarterly Review, 8cc. I find in the Biblical 
Criticism die same groundless censures of the authorised 
version, the same palpable errors in Hebrew criticism, the 
same new and ftnciful interpretations of Scripture, as have 
already been noticed and condemned in die writings of Mr. 
Bellamy. The author of the Criticism in question proposes 
to alter the English authorised version of five passages in the 
Hebrew Bible, chiefly by giving a different translation of the 
verb ^nrr. " There is no doubt,*' says our critic, '^ that brVHn, 

h&ng derived from the Pihel tTTT, to make common, to make 

profaaae, implies uidioly, impure, unclean, profane/' 

It is well known that Hebrew verbs have often a different 
sense in the different conjugations. This is the case with the 
verb VtHi which is stated by our best lexicographers to 
signify ^* to profane" in the conju^tions Niphal and Pihel, and 
** to begin* in the conjugations Hiphil and Hophal. It is true 
that aVU in the conjugation Hophal only occurs in this passage 
(Gen. iv. 26'), but as die verb frequently occurs in the conjuga- 
tion Hiphil, in the sense of '^ to begin," it is natural to suppose 

2 Biblical Criticism. 

that its passive Hophal has a similar sense ; that if the one 
signiBes ** to begin/* the other would signify '^ to be begun." * 
This distinction of senses in the different conjugations may be 
observed in all the passages quoted by our author to show that the 
verb signifies '* to profane." rrMl Gen. xlix. 4., and f^^HKl 

Ezek. xxviii. 16., are of the conjugation Pihel ; and tH/I Levit. 

xxi. 9., )bnnb Levit. xxi. 4., ^K1 Ezek. xxii, 26,, bnn Ezek. 

"... a. «■ a .. W 

XX. 9., are of the conjugation Niphal. These passages there- 
fore give him no support in affixing the sense of ^' to profane" 
to the conjugations Hipbil and Hophal. Let us now inquire 
whether the passages which our author has quoted stand in 
need of the new translation which he proposes to substitute for 
the authorised version. The first passage is Gen. iv. 26., which 
is thus rendered in the English version : *^ And to Seth, to him 
also there was bom a son ; and he called his name Enos : then 
began men to call upon the name of the Lord.*' *^ If we render 
TtVltl began," says our author, ** it would imply that no person 
bad, before that time, called upon the name of the Lord : but we 
find that Adam, and Eve, and Cain, spoke with the Almighty ; 
that Cain and Abel offered to the Almighty," 8cc. The words 
^'to call upon the name of the Lord," or, *' of Jehovah" admit of 
two interpretations. It may be meant that at that time men 
Ibegan to address the Deity by his peculiar name Jehovah ; 
or secondly, that they began to assemble in a more public and 
regular manner for the purposes of religious worship. The 
words also might perhaps be translated, ** to call themselves by 
the nflme of Jehovah" i. e. the descendants of Seth began to 
distinguisb themselves from the profane offspring of Cain by 
openly professing themselves the worshippers of Jehovah. See 
Isaiah xliv. 5. 3py^Dtt^i Klp^ ntl, " and another shall call him- 
^Ift^y if^ name of Jacob" It appears then that no alteration 
b at all required in the common translation of 7)7171 in this 
passage. But there are material objections to our author's new 
translation: '* Then th^ calling on J he name of the Eternal 
Being began to be profaned" I observe tliien that HUpb 
sjgnifiieis to call, and not the calling : tVHT is a proper name, 
Mid cannot with any propriety be rendered ^* th^ JSternal 
Being:" still less can ^nVT be rendered ^^ began to be pro- 
faned" The vierb in its different conjugations signifies eithex 

' The words ^nVT t^y translated in the authorised version with 
sufficient exactness '^ th&n began men^ may be rendered more literally 
" tunc coeptum est, then it was begun,'* 

Biblical Criticism. 3 

to profane f or to begin; but surely the sense of the two 
conjugations cannot at the same time be given to the same 
word. 11ie Latin word ferrum sometimes signifies the metal 
iroUf and sometimes a sword, but no one acquainted with the 
first principles of translation would combine the two senses^ 
and translate ferrum, an iron sword, Mr. Bellamy has fallen 
into the same unaccountable error, and, if 1 recollect right, has 
given the same translation, began to profane^ to the same word 
tTTiI : and this circumstance strongly corroborates my conjecture 
that Mr. Bellamy and the author of the Biblical Criticism are 
the same person. 

Let us proceed to the second passage, Gen. vi. 1. '' ^nd it 
came to pass when men began to multiply on the face of the 
earthJ* *' If we now consider," says our author, ** first, that 
mankind began to multiply immediately after the Creation, 
that the Lord blessed the man, and said, ' Be fruitful, and 
multiply! the question naturally presents itself. Why is it said, 
tbey began now to multiply?'' &c. It is not said simply 
that they began to multiply, but that they began to multi- 
ply or to be numerous (as the word signifies) on the face of 
the earth. They were so much increased in number that they 
began to occupy a considerable portion of the earth. I will 
now ^ve the New Translation and the comment, the latter of 
which is so fanciful and extravagant that it would be absurd to 
attempt its confutation. '* It was when men began to profane 
in multiplying upon the surface of the ground ; — that is," says 
our author in explanation, ^' mankind did not distinguish between 
a natural and allowed manner of multiplying, and an unnatural 
manner, forbidden by nature itself! ! " 

The third passage is Gen. ix. 20. '' And Noah began to be 
an husbandman, and he planted a vineyard'^ Our author 
observes^ as well as I can understand him, that the literal mean- 
ing of the words is, ^' And Noah began an husbandman,'^ Had 
the writer consulted Waltheri Ellipses Linguae Hebraese he 
would have found that in this concise language, verbs, nouns, 
and particles are frequently omitted ; and would have been con- 
vinced, or at least would have had reason to be convinced, that 
our translators were perfectly right in supplying the words to 
be, corresponding to the verb JIITD understood. Tlie following 
18 the improved translation, in which, by the way, he inserts the 
word as, and omits to translate 1 in tTV) : '^ And Noah as an 
husbandman began to profane : he planted a vineyard ; — be- 
cause," says our author, ^* he ought not to have begun bis 
l^uflioess by planting a vineyard ! ! " I bad written remarks on 

4 Itinerary from. Tripoli 

the other two passages which your correspondent proposes to 
amend ; but after the passages already produced I think it use- 
less to trespass any longer on the patience of your readers : I 
will therefore only observe that he renders VS)2 TS ^3 '* because 

he persuaded ;^^ thus not only giving to T^ the sense of />er-^ 
suadingy which it never has^ but mistaking a noun for a verb in 
kaly though it is distinguished by vowel points (* '^)y which no 
verb in kal ever has. Our authorised version of the Holy 
Scriptures, though not without its faults, bears ample testimony 
to the skill, the labors, and the judgment of the translators, but 
has had the misfortune to be many times assailed by persons 
equally deficient in a critical knowledge of the Hebrew language, 
and in the principles of translation. 

Nov. 1823. KIMCHL 

ITINERARY frrnn TRIPOLI of Barbary to the 
City of CASHENAH in Sudan. By the Sheikh 
L'Hage Kassem. 

translated, and illustrated with notes, 
by james grey jackson. 

The first 13 days or Jpurnies. — The 13th day after departing 
from Hmpoli of Barbary, we reached Gadames. (For the journey 
to Gadames, and for the description of that town, vide the Itinera- 
ry from Tripoli to Timbuctou, in CI. Jl. No. 56, page 193.) 

14M — l6th Joumies. — After departing from Gadames,' they 

' The caravans which proceed from Tripoli to Cashenah go first in a 
south-westerly direction to Gadames, after which they change their course 
or direction, and proceed south to Fezzan or Mourzouk, where, having 
changed with the Fezzanees the merchandise which they carry from Tri- 
poli, they cross the desert directly to Cashenah in a southerly direction. 

It is easy to perceive that the Janet of this Itinerary is the Jenet of 
Major Rennell, that Tegherein is the Tai-gari or Teghery of Rennell, 
and we think these three last places are one and the same. It is a com* 
roon error in maps of Africa to lay down two places or more for one, 
which proceeds from tlie various ways of spelling the names; thus in the 
map annexed to Walckenaer's ^* Recherches sur PAfrique Septen- 

to Cashenah* 5 

proceed southwards during three days, when they reach a well call-, 
ed Tent MeUouleUy which possibly signifies in the language of that 
country, the well of the palm-tree, because there is only one palm 
or date-tree at this well. When the caravan is in a hurry it per- 
forms this journey in two days, and sometimes even in one from 
Gladames to Tent Melloulen. 

\7th — 19<A Jaumies. — From Tent Melloulen, after three days' 
travelling, they reach Zour^nit. 

20th — Z6tk Jaumies. — From Zour&nit they travel six days, and 
then reach the torrent ofAzawdn. 

27th Journey, — From the torrent of Azaw^n they proceed one 
day's journey, and then stop at the torrent of Tahamali, the envi- 
rons of which are shaded by an abundance of trees. 

2Sth^30th Joumies. — From Tahamalt to Tanout-Mellen, 
which, in the language of the country, signifies the white well, they 
reckon three days' journey. 

3\st — 33rd Joumies, — From Tanout-Mellen, or the white wella, 
they proceed during three days, after which they arrive at Ten- 
gacemj or the sheep's well. 

34<A — 36th Joumies, — From Ten-gacem they proceed three 
days successively, and arrive at Gatz. It is here that they gather 
the leaves and capsuiie seminalis of the senna, which is taken to 
Tripoli and Tunis, and is distributed from those ports, among all 
the apothecaries of Europe. 

37th'—39th Joumies, — After proceeding three days from Gats, 
they go and rest at a place called Egguagant ; this is the name of 
a river which washes the base of a mountain, which the Africans 
call Agroikh. 

AJ^thr-^2nd Joumies, — From Egguagant they proceed other 

trionale,** there is a Housa and a Haoussa ; but there is but one Housa or 
Haoussa in Africa, and it is spelt Aam^. Tedment, in this Itinerary, b 

Bennell's Tadent. Tadent is the name of the mountain at the foot of 
which is situated Tedment, A^iou is Assieu, Toghagit is Tagazi or Ta- 
gassa, A9oudi is Asouda, Aouderas is the Ouatarus of Rennell. Mr. 
Walckenaer justly remarks io his dissertation on this Itinerary, in his 
** Rechercbes Geugraphiques sur I'Afrique Septentrionale," that the di»- 
caooea, compared with Major Kennel i's, differ, but this must necessarily 
be the case in all African itineraries, where the journies are performed as 
the cumbioation of circumstances suggest. 

A^oudi, the capital of the territory of Ahir (which is the desert of 
Hair, situated south-west of Tuat) carries on a direct trade with Cashe- 

nah. The term Hair %^ signifies difficult, hard, harsh : from which we 
may presume that the district of Hair is rocky, stony, or difficult of pas- 

6 Itineraty from Tripoli 

three days, and then halt at the river Maiss, which has given its 
name to this place. 

43rd — 4>7th Journies. — Proceeding during four days' journey 
firom Maiss, they reach the town called Janet, which is built at the 
fbot of a mountain bearing that name. 

4iSth — 5^nd Journies. ^From the town of Janet they go in five 
days to refresh themselves at the wells of Tegherein, 

52nd — 54tth Journies, — rFrom Tegherein to Tedment three days. 
iDsdment is at the foot of a mountain called Tadent,^ where quanti- 
ties of senna are collected. 

55th — 62nd Journies, — From Tedment after eight days' travel- 
ling, during which, neither water nor vegetation is found, they 
reach and repose at a place called Asioiif where there are many 

63rd— 6Sth Journies, — After quitting the wells of Asioi^, they 
proceed five days among mountains, beyond which is a place called 

69th— 73rd Journies, — From Toghaget they journey 6ve more 
days to reach Tedek: the road is invariably among mountains, 
where no water is to be had. 

74th — 75th Journies, — After proceeding two days more from 
Tedek, they arrive at Ahir, Ahir is a country whose capita] is 
Asudi, The hal)itations are constructed with mats, made of a 
reed or grass called in the empire of Marocco JBordi, It is a kind 
of papyrus or soft reed, which the Arabs of Syria and of Marocco 
use to manufacture mats, which they spread on the floors of their 
houses and tents, and with which they cover their roofs. 

The inhabitants of Ahir live on Cassaves,* which they bring 
from Cashenah. The territory of Ahir is shaded by forests of those 
palm-trees which the Egyptians and Marokeens call doumah, the 
people of Gadames palms of Pharoah, and the Spaniards Palmita, 
They grind the fruit of this kind of palm, and mix the flour with 
that of the Cassave, and with cheese, and this mixture is their or- 
dinary food. 

Goats abound in Ahir, as also lions and monkies, which inhabit 
the woods; the population may amount to 12,000 souls, who are 

76th — 78f A Journies. — After leaving Ahir and travelling three 
days further, they stop at a river called Aouderas, which they 
cross, it being knee-deep. 

79th — %Oth Journies, — From Aouderas they travel on two days, 
and then stop at a mountain called Megzem, 

' See note in the preceding page. 

* Cassab it shoula be, for there is no v in the Arabic language, and 
the Cassab is the sugar-cane. 

to Cashenak. 7 

SI si-^S2mdJ0urnies. — From Mount Megzem they proceed two 
days, and arrive at a river which runs through a wood of date- 
trees ;. the name of this river is hin-Ouallem, 

S3rd — S4tk Joumks. — From Irin^Ouallem they march on twe 
days sucoessively, and then reach Aguadh or Agddes, Ag^des is 
a town^ larger than that of Tripoli of Barbary, situated in a pkiin* 
A market is held there ; the Tuareks carry on a trade with it lo 
cattle and sheep. The inhabitants of Agikdes procure their cloth- 
ing from Cashenah, Gouber, and Zenferanah. They give in ex- 
change, salt, which they procure from Bornou, from the territory 
of Fmeky and of BUma; the prince who reigns at Agides is called 
B4guir; be has sncceeded Wadelab. The extensive commerce 
carried on by this town renders it rich and florishing. 

85tk — goth Joumies. — Departing from Agddes, they are seven 
days crossing immense forests, where no water is found but what 
the rains have left. They then arrive at Tedlaq^ a very deep well, 
from which they raise water by means of camels, which are brought 
thither expressly for the caravans. 

9l9t — 97th J^umits.-^khtx having refreshed themselves at the 
welb of Tedlaq, they perform eight more days' journey, when 
they reach a place eallcd Kerfechu 

9Sth Journey. — After another day's march they reach a place 
called Tsdouah or Tsdwah. 

99th Journey, — From Tsawah to Madaouah or Madawah one 

100/A Journey. — From Madawah they travel a whole day, and 
repose at Takmakoumah. 

\OUt day's Journey. -^Yxom Takmakoumah, after another day's 
journey, they at length arrive at Cashenah or Kasnah, 


Casher.ah is a considerable town : it has seven gates or entrances ; 
an Interval of two miles separates each gate. The king who go- 
verned Cashenah is just dead;' his name was Kalinghiwah. 

The Sheikh El Hage Kassem Guarem, who commuuicated to 
me the above intelligence, and who dictated to me the Itmerary 
from Tripoli in Barbary to Timbuctou, transacted with the king 
Kalinghiwah a commerce in cloth and horses. He reported to me 
that the current money of Cashenah is a kind of shell which tjie 

' That is to say, at the close of A. D. 1806, or the beginning of 180r. 

8 OhservatioAes in 

Ambs call oudoa.' He assured me that many of the inhabifants 
were of the Christian religion^ and that the greater part of them 
carried, suspended from their neck, large wooden crosses. The 
natives are called Heznah. They powder their hair. 

The territory of Cashenah swarms with worms, with which one 
is quickly covered if one lies on the ground naked. To avoid this 
inconvenience it is the custom to spread a mat on the ground ; 
with this precaution one sleeps tolerably well, without danger of 
being tormented by these importunate and even dangerous reptiles. 

After having dictated this Itinerary, the Sheikh £1 Hage Kassem 
finished by assuring me, that to travel to Cashenah from Tripoli of 
Barbary, one has the sun in the morning on the left temple, and 
in the evening on the right temple, that is to say, that the journey 
IS performed by proceeding invariably southward. 

N. B« This Itinerary and that from Tripoli to Timbuctou ^ were 
given to me in 1 807» during the summer of that year, that is to 
say, during the three months that the caravan sojourns at Tripoli 
of Barbary. 

Copied at Tangier, 26th of June, 1808. 
(Signed) Delaporte, Chancellor of the French Consulate. 




** Ea, quae in Parergis continentur, primum in libellis acade- 
micis proposita sunt, jam inde ab initio anni 1815. per occasio- 
nem statorum solemnium evulgatis. Unde quae viri praestantis- 
aimi mihiq^iie benevolentissimi. Barker, et Schneider, in Lexx. 
sua, me nort nolente^ trans tulerunt, ea, si sine detrimento fieri 
posset, redidi.** Praef. p. Ixxx. 

^' His et tialibos auctoritatibus Blomf. sese tueatur^ si propter 
^3goy inter communia ambigui argumenti exempla relatum in 
judicium vocetur.^' P. 141. 

Longe praestat Nunnesii ratio, a Blomf. ad Msch. S. c. 


' Oudoa [e^^ Ouda] is the Arabic word for cowries, which pass as 
mone^ in many parts of Sudan. 
» Vide CI, Jl. No. 56, page 193. 

Phrynichum Lobeckianum. 9 

Th, p. £0I« tacite adoptata, quam si sequimur, non di£Bcile est 
repertUy cur Attici xsau^fio9a» potius quam xoatoSai/xovt iv dixerint* 
Verba aiim jn £9 et mv derivata proprie in auiaii corporisve 
affectionibus usurpantur." P. 79* 

^^ Iliaxo^rgi^ow nuper Blomf. Mschylo Pers. 773« de suo 
gratificatus est." P. 153. 

'^ JitipBoge Atticos activa signif. dixisse, magno consensu tra- 
dunt AmmoD. 41. Phrynich. S- U. 3.5. Lucian. Pseudos. 3. 
Mceris 1 27. Zonar. et Moschopulus, quorum testimonia con- 
scripsit doctissimus Barkerus in Critico Diario {Classical 
Journal) T. 23. p. 93." P. l60. 

'' JLocos Demosth. et Antiphontis^ in quibus Nunnesius 
tvayye\lfyr6en cum accus. rei construi ostendit, non l^homas 
citat, (ne quis erret cupi Britannis Editoribus 4, 370.) sed 
Steph. Thes., a quo quae sumsit ille, nolui recudere." P. 268. 
But JLobeck is himself mistaken. The words of Nunnesius, 
which are cited by the editors of the Thes,: — "Non Chari- 
clide, ut in libro vulgato Parisiis Thomae editum est : loci 
autem^ qui ab eo (nempe Thoma) citantur Demosth. et An- 
tiph. :" will not admit any other interpretation than that, which 
the editors have given, viz. that Nunn. had read those passages 
in his Ms. copy of Thomas Magister. Because that author as 
now edited does not contain those passages, it does not necessa- 
rily follow that the Ms. of Nunn. was not possessed of them ; 
neither does it necessarily follow that Nunn. intended to cite 
Steph. Thes», because they are found there. For, if, in opposi- 
tion to the express words of Nunn., Lobeck has a right to 
assume that Steph. Thes. was the book intended to be quoted, 
the editors have an equal right to assume that Steph. himself 
took them from a Ms. copy of Thomas. Lobeck has neglected 
to notice that the passage, which Steph. assigns to Antipho, in 
truth belongs to JLycurgus c. Leocr. 149-^ as the editors have 
remarked in the 7%e5. 

" Sic nuper Porson. Adv, 156. Atticum frXiviuov Soph. 
Track, 791. e Cod. Harl. eruit, quod ap. Plat constanter irytJ- 
fun acribitor ; sed et hujus manum a librariis corruptam esse, 
ostendit locus a Longino citatus 32, 110. At enim fallimur; 
nam Blomf, avias illas nobis evellit, ostenditque Helladium, 
Mceridem, et Gregorium prscepta sua ex ^iano, Libauio, 
oeterisqiie Sophistis, (quos dovs Attfaidis auctores esse docet,) 
derivrnta habuisse, idqae, quo majorem nobis, hoc Deque aotea 
n^Mcatis, oeque porro credituns, pudorem iocutiat, etiam con* 
stare inter oouies affirmat ad .£scb. 6*. c. Th. 6l.^ P. 305« 

^'^AvxV^ -D*^- A- ^ ^- *««XV*^ '^- Porphyr. Char. Uer. 

10 Observationes in 

511. in Cod. Par. Heliod. 2. p. 68. *jXffyaX(((r;^))|xoj Theophr. 
C. PL 6, 2. quae pleraque a Lexicogrr. aut omissa, aut in sus- 
picionem adducta^ neque in docta digressione Stephani Briton- 
nici 4, 347. comprebensa sunt." P. SS3. 

" Porsono ad Or. p. 9.6, contradicit etiam Blomf, ad Msch. 

5, c. Th. 42. Phrynicbi silentium invidiose interpretans : — 
' Nempe is putasse, videtur, formam quadrisyliabicam Tragicos 
nunquam adhibuisse.' Haec suspicio turn per se levissima, turn 
etiam supervacua est, quutn neque Porson., neque quisquam 
alius Phrynicbi praecepto in euni finem abusus fuerit^ ut Tra- 
gicos xuvayln}^ scripsisse probaret." P. 430. 

" Sed si addidero, id quod ex ante dictis intelligi fadllime 
potest^ neque Sturz* recte banc terminationem nominum propr. 
veteri Graeciae ignotum statuisse^ Lex. Xen. 4, 16. ; neque mc 
JBlomfieldio, Magixois, MotptxSvra, non paribus sjUabis, Metoixeiv, 
deciinari jubenti ad Pers. 65." [see Aristarch. Anti-Blomj. 98.] 
"''subscriptorem praestare posse, retro ad Phrynich. revertar, eum- 
que ab Abreschii suspicionibus vindicabo." P. 436. See too 
Lobeckii Diss, de Substantivis in as exeuntibus, in Wolfii AnaL 
Liter. 2, 59. 

*^ jdv}fi(i,u$ t7[t<jro\ifji.alov$, Demosth. Phil. 1, 45. de quibus 
nuper exposuit Edm. Barker, in Diario Classico 3, 590." P. 
^59. See too the said E. H. B. ad Etym. M. 857. Sturz. 

'' De Jungermanno^ ejusdem laudis consorte, commode nos 
admonent dccti Editores Stephani p. 347." P. 564. 

'* Valck. sententiae Scbaeferus et docti Lexicographi ad Steph. 
Thes. 346. subscripserunt." P. 570. 

*' Rursus alii a perf. secundo *ofu8opxo^, cui testis, non ratio 
dcest, hinc 6^v^opxelv derivarunt : Comicus ap. Plut. de Tranq. 
Anim. 8, 11. de quo v. Blomf. ad Msch. S. c, Th. 34." 
P. 576. ... 

'^ Scaligero si quis opitulari cupiat, is ejusmodi exempla pro- 
ferre debet, quale est illud in Epigr. adesp. 51 1. p. 227. •a/3po- 
^olJan^ jS^ftara, quod Jacobs, ex eleganti poetarum usu pro ajSpoov 
iroSoDv dictum esse putabat; sed recte Schneider* Lex. tk^poL 
woSfiSy scribi jubet. Nihilo melius est *&iipi7rovs, pro ixgos 9rouf, 
quod Scbn. citat e Paus. 2, 4. To &yaXfd>a foavov lorr Trpoa-oo'Trov 
^h ^oii XsT^s^, xa) oLxqiiroli^ fUtn XBUKorj Xiiov, ubi einpoi woSsj leg. 
esse Barker, in Diario Classico N. 32. p. 376. et Schn. in 
Nw:. Ed, mihi assenserunt. Sic enim Paus. aliis omnibus 11. : 

6, 19. np6(rayfroVf km) oixpov$ voSaj, xa) Tot$ %8*pa^t 6, 31. Xai- 
'pi$ eWi \l9ov xa) Tp6(Tam6v r$, xtt) ixpoi wwsj : cf. 2, 11. 7, 23. 
8, 25. 9, 4. 'Afigoiiuna olim vulgatum ^lian. V. H. 12, 24. 
Corayus non injuste barbarum et ineptum nominat. 'O uxgiiroui, 

Thrynichum Lobeckianum. 11 

ap. Pallad. Comm. in Hippocr. de Fract. 1. p. 285. T. 7. 
Chart, p. £10. s. 6. Foes, atque alios artis medicae auctores noo 
magis quam axgap^ei^^ o^ioxcoKov, atque similium rerum vocabula, 
suspicionem recipit. Meque Barkero adjiciam, axpimw^, 'si 
UDquam in Gr. lingua extiterit/ poetis solis concedendum esse 
affirmantiy qui quo magis poetae sunt, eo longius ab his officin»- 
ram inventis refugiunt. suis et propriis uti non detrectantes/' 
P. 603. 

" Cui repugnat o\ ^tXoiroKeis, Msch. S. c. Th, 178., ex alieno 
petitum, neque cum axpvniXsis, quod Blomf. in subsidium vo- 
cat, ulla ex parte comparandum." P. 607. 

" Alterius curationem prsestat Blomf. ad Pers. l60. : — * Lex. 
SGerm. Bagi^* Z'o^oxX^; fiapifiocv Xiyn rov vuvn^v, Brunck. cor* 
rigit fiapidav. Scbaefero ad Greg, C. 522, unice verum videtur 
fiapffiav. Mirum, cum ipse meminerit vulgaris vavfiarri;. Cer- 
tissime corrigo Raqi^irw. Lepidus est Bast., qui fiaplfiocv per 
metaplasmum dictum esse putat pro fieiplfiavTa,' Si quid est in 
iiac re lepidum, id totum, quantum est, in Blornfteldio residet, 
qui si argumenta proferre adigeretur, neque Bastii sententiam 
refellere, neque suam probare posset. *BaQipa$ suspicionis 
absolvit similiimum *yujtt^o/30(;, cui fMv6fia$, i. e. /ubovo/San];, et 
fortasse etiam ftouxi}goj3a^ et xuKofieis ex Hesjcbio adjungi pos- 
8unt. Nam x^ovo^a^ plane intestatum est/' P. 610. The 
editors of the Gr, Thes. p. cccxxv. have quoted Dr. Blomf.'s 
note with an approbation, which, convinced as they are by the 
reasoning of Lobeck, and of the Jena- Re viewer of the Persa, 
(see Aristarchus Anti-Blomf, 98,,) they must now retract. 

''A BpifMo Abresch. Jnim, ad Msch. 187* IqoLiutnuu Pers. 
^7.; a Spojxeeo, Iqo^ynua Eur. Med. 1180. derivat. Morosior 
judex, Blomf, ad Pers, 252. et Add, p. 199. Spajttt}jxa analogiae 
repugnare afiirmat, et turn h. 1., tum ap. Herod. d§o[ji,vjiJM repo* 
nit." P. 619. See Aristarchus Anti-Blomf. 99. 

'' Schaef., qui ad Dion. p. 20].- istius suspicionis adhuc im- 
munis, v. ^oXvxpiiav Lexicographorum memoriae commendave- 
rat, nuper sequuti sunt docti Britanni ad Steph, p. 352. : — 
' *Jwr6cafaroieo aut *Jv(riavoiToco, quia e ^ifs et ietvaraoo s. iavaroM 
compositum, contra Scaligeri regulam peccat. Verba enim 
cum su et dv$ composita descendunt ab adjectivis, quae cum 

iisdem particuHs componuntur, semperque in eco desinunt.' Hie 
tot taliumque virorum consensus propemodum a spe oppugna- 
tionis me deterreret, nisi copia et bonitate causae confisus in 
certamen prodirem atque ha^c mea oppugnatio non oppugnatio 
potius, qoam defensio esset futura." P. 626. Av(riavuTict), Bast. 

12 Observationes in 

^pec. Nov^ Ed. Aristan. 31. Agatbias ex offic. PlantiA. p# 
12. Suid. 1, 277. 

'^Eodem anno 1817. haec (de vv. *X6f /ftjg, Vsjifl^pij^, ♦Xs^i- 
Jiwlo), *iyipoKi^t$, ivipoKi^vis,) primum edita sunt, quo Thesauri 
Britannici Pars iii. in lucem prodiit, qua altero anno post ad 
nos delata^ cognovi eund. locum a doctissimis conditoribus trac- 
tatum esse p. 155. partim eod. modo, partim, ut fert natura^ 
paulo aliter." P. 629. 

*^ Inter ea vero, quae o in a vertunt, iisitatissimum est ccyyeXt- 
u^opos, Ion. ayyeXiiifogog. Hujus formae duodecim exempla 
produxeram, quae docti Britanni in Thes. suum retulerunt p. 
365., additis totidem aliis^ quibus ego novum, si iiberet, cumu- 
lum adjicere possem. Manet sententia, ab iis, quibus sermo 
curae fuit, nunquam aliter dictum fuisse^ neque me movet 
Zonar., ab iliis productus, homo sine censu et existimatione, 
qui si ayyBXio^ipog scripsit, (quod in tanta utriiisque literae simi- 
litudine ambiguum est,) Grammaticorum morem servavit, saepe 
proprias et legitimas, sed ex usu amissas, vocabulorum formas 
resuscitantium." P. 645. The editors quite agree with Lobeck 
in thinking that all. correct Gr. writers used the form ayye\ivipo- 
fos, and they never meant to produce the authority of Zonaras 
to show the contrary. Their object was simply to notice that, 
as Zonaras has the other form, Lobeck was not quite correct in 
saying, ^' Nunquam aliter dictum fuisse." 

*' Ut (xeXiijyey^f, Zupiijyev^j in poesi, sic 'Aa-iayevvig Dio Chrys. 
Or. ii. B6. in soluta oratione dici solet, Asiagenes Latine, ut 
*B(Rtig&nes^ Valck. et Wessel. ad Herod, 567., pro quo Apolli* 
narem metro inservientem Asiagennes dixisse tanto equidem 
minus admiror, quod Soph. ead. necessitate coactus *$6oygvvij; 
dixit. * 'ilcrMiTiyev)}^, quod Bhn^. Mschylo Pers. 12. tribuit, 
analogiae norma revincitur." P, 646. See the New Thes. 
2353. b. 

** Ex hac disputationis meae parte nonnuUa delibarunt Ste- 
phani restitutores : — ^ec Lobeck. uec Bast, illud *opinvj^opovg, 
voc. Lexicis ignotum, in aetemumque ignorandum, suspectum 
habuisse miramur : scribe, sensu sic flagitante, '^hpxiY^o[LogJ Ob 
earn ipsam causam 6pxiviT6[jLOvs uncis inclusum apposueram, ut 
Ipmiifopovs mihi suspectum videri significarem." P. 6b6. Dw. 
JBlomf. Gloss, ad Msch. 5* c. Th. 415. cites 6pxivi(p^gou$ without 
any intimation of doubt. 

^^ 'Axpiy^o\o$ in Epinici versibus, Athen. x. 40. 82. reducen- 
dum esse dixi Nott. ad Aj. p. 284. quam correctionem postea 
et Jacobs, adhibuit Anim. in Athen. 236. et Hermann, in 

Phryiiichum Lobeckianum. 13 

Wolfii Anal, P. 3. p. 73. contra Barker, disputans, meorum 
forte immemorem." P. 664. 

*' <hil^ei}\,os, quod Barker, in Diario Classico N. 25. p. 
171. ex tota Graecia exterminat.^' P. 666. See Barker, ad 
Etym. M. 1062. 

** Quum eDim in plerisque vv.^ quae cum eXxoo, ^pyo, ct 2p^o» 
compoDuntur, in confinio utriusque vocabuli o et f concurrant 

in ou confluxurae, *TOL\avTOv^og, froXtovp(pg, *xvyou\xo^^ dfji,a^ovp' 
yo$, (instabili ilia et erratico accentu^) a consuetudine impetratum 
est, ut ea quoque, quae, aliter se haberent, bunc flexum sequeren- 
tujr, voXi<r<roG^oj, reXeO'iovgyslv, IvTeorioupyoj, Travoupyoj, raXacioup- 
yog, quibus veluti ex insitu alieni surculi novus color tractus 
est.'' P. 667. Read xuvouXxo^, ^fta^ou^o^, roAoo'ioupyo^, and 
consult Aristarchus AntuBlomf. 111. 

'* Barker, in Diario Classico N. 28. p. 289., rejecta Porsoni 
(Prof, ad Hec. p. ix.) sententia Kspofiinfis ex xepurofiinfis, ut 
xviM^iyiMov ex xvfjiMToUyiuiov, contractual esse statuit. Nos ab 
utroque discedimus, neque nominativum componendis vv. aptum, 

neque genitivum nominum in 0$ contractioni obnoxium esse ex- 
istimantes." P. 693. But 1 hold with the editors that nepo is a 
mere contraction of the genitive for xepurom The simplest mode 
of determining t^e question will be this : — Does Lobeck admit 
that Keparo in xsqaro^arr^g is the genitive without contraction I 
If so, he will not deny that xepo in xepofianfis is, on the same 
principle of composition, the gen. with or without contrac- 
tion; and that admission will be quite sufficient. Does 
Lobecl^ deny that the contr. of KsguTo into xepo is repugnant 
to the geqius of the Gr. language ? If so, let him read the 
New Gr* Thes. p. II6. n. 2., and be satisfied. The editors 
may appeal to Lobeck's own words p. 669* : — '* Sic Vnj- 
^o^payeiv, (pro 0"n}jxoyi}rix^ J. Poll. *(JTi3ftoyov)jT*xij a nomina- 
tivo <rrvifA(ov repetitum annotavit,) xsiftotv^;, ^o-ijjctoSerY};, *a!f40- 
f66po§ Hesych. *(rfreppi,ofiyos Id. s. ^ajSoru^ro^, atque alia dicun- 
tur, quae, si longa requiritur syllaba, d in ^ mutant, aiiuy^i^ 
Tus, quod ApoUonius lonibus tribuit; et vero etiam nonnunquaoi 
incornipta forma repetitur, ipiuonorpoxlot Philo de Agric. 198. 
(FvegfjiaToXiyos, Albert, ad Gloss. N, T. 79. Itaque Eustathio 
assentiendum est haec et talia a genitivis imminutis repetenti 
p. 1895,33. Manifesta hujus abscissionis vestigia apparent turn 
in Lat. Lapicidina, Limitrophus, Homicidium, Camelasium, 
tum maxime in Gr. antiquitatis reliquiis, xsXaivs^^^, yvmifMrlis, 
'ilrXoysyijj Hesiodo, quod *'ATXaiyeviis,{ut *K§virMys^$,) scribi- 
tur ap. Athen., et quae jam latins diffluxere, VrAsyyoTroio^ ab J. 
^oIU relatum, otXexTpvoviXr^, &x(m6$tov, Eust. 1150,60. *xi^- 

14 Observationes in 

x,^Q¥y quod Anti*Attici8ta Bekk. 103. ex Plat. Comico refert^ 
et in v«Tbi$> ;^s^yivTa0, •opxvxrco^ quae specie diversa^ genere paria 
aMUt«^ He^ who, like Lobeck, is prepared to admit that ai/c^- 
^lopo^ is a contr. for aifJiMTOfAopog, should have no difficulty in 
QOiii^idering xfpojSan]^ to be a coatr. of xegotro^an^g. lo p. 672. 
h» says : — *' Fuit ban; certe Porsoni sententia Prof, ad Hec, p. 
ix«> in K§peur^o\o$ et Kipa(rfopo$ integrum servari xeoas, in ^xepo^ 
fip^g autem ultimam literam veteris nominativi xepo$ abjectam 
esse; quorum neutrum concedi debet. Persistam in hoc no- 
mine xepag, cujus quot sunt genitivi formae^ tot reperiuntur etiam 
compositorum schemata. (l.> KEPAOS, xepxo^oo$, xepoteXx^g: 
(2.) KEPEOSy *xepea\xvig, xepou^og, xegofopog, xepip^g in Opusc. 
de Voce. Milit. Suidae 3, 713. et Steph. Thes, Append. 76. 
([S.) KEPATOS, xeparo^ogog: (4.) KEPflS, *xspa>Tuirilv. Unde 
igitur xepu(r<p6pGs emergit ? £x xhotog inquam. Nam,'' etc. etc. 
As xegofioTtig is used for xsparo^ctTris, so XsTrroa-cofji^os is used by 
JSust. for XeTrrocrcoftaro^. The editors would think it quite as 
objectionable to derive with Lobeck xepo^opog from the gen. 
KEPEOS, as to hold with Porson that it comes from a supposed 
obsolete nominative KEPOS. For, even if xepexXxYig, xepoLg^^Yig, 
and xipotj^og were derived from the former, which they cannot 
admits the principles of composition might receive xeg for xegeo 
before a vowel, but would not receive xepo for xspeo before a 

'' Verbi, unde haec descendunt, totum veluti stemma in Novo 
Thes. adumbratum, omnesque ejus ortus, meatus, et cum aliis 
congressus notati sunt, sic ut mihi non necesse sit pluribus de- 
monstrare^ Grascos nunquam lirayogoLg^ VTrayopag, hifrjyogug, vm]- 
YipoLf, aut simile quidquam dixisse, non magis quam frpoa-ayogog, 
Kariyofogy quorum quae sit inter se relatio, facile, si qui» semel 
hue aciem intenderit, perspiciet. Neque nunc mihi operae est 
Schwei^h. refellere, cujus nota ad Herod, i, 90. a doctis The- 
saurarhs delibata, cuniulum continet errorum aliorum super 
aliis acervatorum, quum modo *k7rviyogiveiv cum xaTtjKoyeiv com- 
ponit, modo argumenti loco xomfiyogelv pro xarocyopeiv usurpari 
cotitendit." P. 703. 

^* Imminent hinc iterque praecludunt duodesperatissima verba, 
a. potius verborum monstra, quibus ne Scaliger quidem et Schasf. 
manum conserere ausi sunt: ^vrivfia-xnv et Vra^ioTpsp^ffiv, ab 
Eurip.y invita Prosa et Postvorta, in lucem edita. Horum 
prius duplici, quo saevius nos affligat, praesidio firmatum et plane 
irremediabile est. AiFert tamen hoc aliquid solatii, quod utro- 
que loco participium obtinet, dva-tvYja-xov et ha-iv^a-xovrog, quod 
genus vocabtilorum ad nomina inclinat, eoque liberiorem habet 

Phrynichum Lobeckianum. 15 

articulatiooem. Neque facile erat, aliud ejusdem sententias et 
meDsuras verbum producere. Quod si antiquitus lositum, usus- 
que djyutumitate consecratum esset, non jam barbarum illud 
diceremiiSy sed abnorme ; qualia multa^ a primo veluti satu in 
pravum detorta^ una cum seculis aetatibusque bominum invetera- 
runt. Nunc^ quia jam perfecto et concluso opere sese per vim 
iotniait^ vitiosum et est, et babetur." P. 6l6. ^^ Jv^ivr^a^xiso, 
Difficulter morior, Eur. EL 842. irav U ^wfu oivm xareo, "Ha-vcu^ 
pt¥f ^XaXa^e WSyijo'xoDy fovea. Sic leg. : non Suorty^o-xov.'' Blomf. 
ad Msch. Ag. 1264. p. 310. Here Dr. Blomf. assumes the 
existence of tbe verb $u0-9yi}arxeco, as a thing perfectly well ascer- 
tained, when bis only authority for it is a passage, into which he 
has himself introduced it contra Codd. et Edd. omnium auctori" 
tatem, when the rejected verb exists in the Rhesus 79 !• BaXAsi 
fif St/o-tv^o-xovTo^ aTftaro^ ^ovm, and when, if we can rely on the 
testimony of H. Stepb. {New Gr. Thes» 340. d.) luvtavdv is 
also found in Eur. And here I may be permitted to ask why 
Dr. Blomf. has corrected the passage in the E/ectra ? why does 
be object to the vulgar reading dwr6vri(rKov i Was it not from 
having perused in the New Gr. Thes. the canon of Scaliger 
condemning all verbs so formed as contrary to analogy ? 

** In hoc genere magnopere providendunii ne testibus levibus 
aut corruptis fidem habeamus. Q lod enim in Athen. Codd. 5, 
23. 253. legitur ♦ferjcTToXa^opo^, item vXa^ipog J. Poll. 3, 55. 
fFfvpaxrvTrelv Schol. ApolL Rh. 2, 84. yewoLl6Tiipa Schneider. 
Lex., meri sunt descriptorum errores, ambiguos literarum o et 
a ductus confundentium/^ P. 641. It is indeed surprising that 
Schneider should have received into his Lex, not only the ge- 
nuine form YevvoioTupeiy but the two corrupt forms yevvtiorupsi 
and yw/aHrmpai see Aristarch. Anti- Blomf. 9* 

*' ^rpamMriTLos brevi alpha in Democharidis Epigr. 2. non 
dubtto, quin depravatum sit pro ypotfjLfAor^xoSf Lineam pariens, 
ac fortaase etiam in Athen. pro ygafAiJLaliduirxuktBvig substitui de- 
bet id^ quod in Diog. L. legitur VjpajttjctoSiWxaX/Si};/' P. 669* 
See Mr. Barker in Wolfii Anal. Liter. 2, 543. 

^' Sed Pausaniae 2, 11. 219* debetur tempus perfectum, 
BlomfiekUo ignotum, qui ad Pers. 511. dubitare se profitetur, 
an V. ^xm jalia babeat tempora praeter praesens et fut." P. 744. 

^' (Cratini) versus isti ex Hermanni sententia, quern de h. L 
percontatus sum, sic distingui debent : 

AvT^iiMTti ii ^ipu TiSJftoAXoy xa) <rfoixov irpos aurc^ 
^Avf&qayWf xCricrov n [yoturaKriv] av6ipixo$ *lyij|3a, 
Ka) ^Ao«y d^ovov, coots frugiim^ irao-i roTf fiLypoio'Uf. 
^ki^Mf S/^vos mea opinione adoptandum est ex simillimo £u- 

16 Observationes in 

polidis loco ap. Plut. Symp, 4^ I. p. 662. quern Meineckius 
meus Cur, Crit. 58. dextre tractavit; sed praeterierunt eura 
emendd. Bodaei Stap. ad Theophr. 409* propositae, quibus res 
fere ad liquidum perducta erat. In eo pariter kutio-os, (dod xv- 
Ti(ri$, ut in £d. Pauw. scribitur,) (r(piKos, uvOepixos, fXofto^, Ca- 
prarum pabula^ commemorantur/' P. 1 10. The scholar, who 
is interested in determining the sense and the reading of these 
two Fragments, will not perhaps repent of consulting the ISlew 
Gr. Thes. p. 1422. e— 23. a. 

Here I am reminded of two other Fragments, which are also 
bandied, rightly or wrongly, in the Thes. The ingenious and 
acute Mr. G. Burges in his Comicorum Gr. Fragmm. Spec. 
Edit. (Classical Journal 44, 282.) cites the following verses of 
Pherecrates, as corrected And arranged by himself: — 

*'E^ap[Mv(ais y wrspfioXous detTrv* ij(r oa'ais, 
. Kotv vfyAagoi^ (i,*, &(nFep TsKeav pa^avoig IXcdv 

KAttodv re, *xaT6jX6(rr«org rSov *Tepwn(rfiJiT(ov, ^ 
See the New Gr, Thes. p. cccxxxix. a. et n. 1. and Barker's 
Amamtates Cr. et Philol. in Classical Journal 31, 112. In 
the notes oti those lines of Pherecrates Mr. Burges p. 285*6. 
cites from an unknown comic writer the verses preserved by 
Hesychius v. 'PafaviScoS^vai, which he thus corrects and ar- 
ranges : 

t/j yoip iv 
Toi TYis pa^avilog o^uSufti' eiaropm 
"EKiot frpog ^jxa j ; 
and he then quotes Harpocr. v. *0^vi6[AioL. On these passages 
he will find some things to his purpose in the New Gr. Thes. 
p. 199. a. et n. 1.; 204. n. 2. ; see also Barker's Amanitt. Cr. 
et Philol. in Class. Journ. 32, 375. 

^^ ^ Atque hinc est, quod rectius legeretur ap. Athen. 9> 9« 
(39. 432.) *AeXTiov ^e kol) arraya* (Eust. arraya),) xat oo;^l «t- 
rayivres. Id enim louge convenientius, quam quod vulgo edi- 
tor, xu) ovx^ array^ve^. Vident omnes.' Pauw. Hoc Pauwia- 
num arrayivres non verbum est, sed portentum." P. 117. In 
hb Diss, ae Substantivis in oi$ exeuntibus, (Wolfii Anal, Liter. 
4, 60.) Lobeck writes thus : — *' Pauwii emend, ad Phryn. 44. 
xtfi oM arrayavTe;, a Schweigh. praetermissam, Stephani Bri" 
tannici Editores (p. cccxxix. a. ccccxcviii. a.) ut mihi F. D. 
Edmundus Barkerus per Literas significavit, in memoriam rer 
vocarunt, hand scio an nimio inepti commenti honore. Idem 
addebat, Sturz. de Dial. Alex. 88. cur atti^enes Mgypticsi vo« 
centur, ex ^liano H. A. \5, 27. potuisse intelligere.'' But 
the editors wiU be still prepared to maintain that Pauw's con 

Phrynichum Lobeckianum. 17 

jecture is entitled to notice, and they cannot conceive yvhy iura* 
yarregf (as to the accent, see Lobeck Diss. 1. c. p. 59*) should 
be considered a portentum, or ineptum commentuniy vihen oA* 
Aayrs; is admitted to be correct: see Lobeck. Diss. I.e. A then, 
himself merely says that the plural itrrayoivrsi is not to be used. 
The words of Atheii. are these : ^Array&g (read with the Ms. 
*jTTaYoig, or rather arrdyag,) irff^*<nr«(riv o2 'AttixoI irapoi rov ogiiw 

kSyov TOuvofMt' zi yip eig a$ X^yovret hxTSTaiiivov (nrep $uo (rv\>^fiots, 
ire i^u to a irapoiXiiyov, fiotpirovoi loriv, oTov uxxpi^uSf 'Aidpi,oi$, u^d-' 
{Lag' XsxtIov Se xal urrdyen (Eust. less rightly uTToiya),) ku\ ou^ 
arretyy^ws. ^' Mirus vero Canon, quo confunditur primae decti- 
nationis nomen cum nominibus teniae ; nam arrayas primae de- 
clinationis est: itaque in accus. plur. etiam arroiyois formatur in 
Comici Acharn. : a quo multum differunt 6 oAiiuag rod flcSaf^avro;, 
et 6 axifAas rou otKapi^oLVTog.^' Schweigh. But there is no such 
confusion, if you read with the editors oLrriyag — irriyah. The 
meaning of Athenasus is this: the word arriyag is changed, 
vapd, Tov ipihv X<>yoy, by the Attic writers into aTrayug, and he 
dieii proves the truth of his remark by producing a grammatical 
canon. The words, Xcxreov $e kol) enriyeHf xdi oM aJTotyyug^ 
are intended to show that in the plural the said Attic writera 
have deviated alike from the canon and from themselves ; for 
they say orraya*, and if they preserved consistency, they would 
say aTTaydvTig, because arrdyag makes UTraydvreg^ otrraycig ar- 
rayavreg, as &h\oig otWdyreg. The opposition meant by Alhen, 
is quite destroyed by the vulgar reading, xoti ov^i array^vff, and 
the word itself is quite foreign to the purpose of Athen.; if AfX- 
reoy is not to be considered as applicable only to the Attiq wri- 
ters, Athen. is made to say what it is scarcely possible to sup- 
pose that he could mean to say, that irrayijyej is a barbarism. 
For he himself p. 652. quotes Phoenicides : Iv Aficroo/xlyij, xou8J» 
ijv TOVT«v oXw; Upog itrrayy^voL avixfiaX/iv toov figcofAdTonv, and adds, 
*Eif TStJroi^ T)j^T6oy xoA t^v to3 orrocyYivQg /xvijfiijy. Well then 
might H. Steph. Thes. exclaim: — *' Sed mirum quod Athen. 
1. c. subjungit, Asxrioy Je xoi) 'Arriyat, xa) ov^ uTToyrivsg. Nam 
illud arrotyiiv non solum ap. Aristot. legitur H. A. % £3. (19*) 
sed a Latinis etiam usurpatur, ac inter alios a Plin. 10, 48. 
Quinetiam Bust. 854(=i:795, 38.) To iroXaiJy arrayai (read ir- 
rayai) ftsv *^tt*x«j, array^yej Ss xmmg : indicans in communi 
Gr. ceterorum dialecto fuisse usitatum. £t paulo ante, iJigi* 
vwwTiv ol 'Arnxoi to arraydg, tg axTayijy xomT§pov Xtyrrai, xXiyo- 
fMvo; irray^vo;. Item Schol. Aristoph. (X 257.) *0 arrayis 

VOL. XXI X. a. Jl. N<X LVII. B 

18 Observationes in^ ^c. 

In p. 1 24. observations on the words avaroX'^, IwitoAi}, avargX- 
Xo), eirtrsWu), are introduced* The reader will find much on this 
subject in Barker's Notes on the Etym. M. p. 1081-2. and 
in the Classical Recreations^ p. 156-()2. '* In Prom. p. 176. 
line 99* 100. we approve of the separation between t^ and itotm, 
and think it equally just and ingenious ; but appareo or orior 
appears to be in this passage a more natural translation of mrel- 
Xuif than injungere, if it can be supported." Edinburgh Monthly 
Review of Dunbar's Additions to DalzeVs Collectanea Majora, 
for March 1821. That the word will bear this sense had been 
abundantly shown by Mr. B. in the Class, Recr, 1. c. 

In p. 187. Lobeck shows that xifiavos is used " pariter dear- 
bore quam de lacryma, Xifiotvooros de thure et de arbore^^ and adds: 
— '^ De singulis locis nemo praestet^ quum saepe Codd. inter se 
dissentiant^ Herod. 4^ T5. Joseph. A. J. 3, 6^ 136.; sed libe- 
riorem fuisse hujus vocis usum vel ex eo colligi licet, quod simi- 
liter %8X»vij de Supellectile testudinea, rpUXivx xf>Jlivri$ Philo de 
Vita Contempt, 896. et vaqld pro sardonyche JPhilostr. Imag. 
1, 6. 770. et iui\i(T(roL pro melle usurpatur Soph. (Ed* C. 
481. ut notiora praeteream." Hence Barker in Woljii AnaL 
Liter, 2, 63-7. {Classical Journal T. 18. p. 347. New Gr. 
Thes, p. 49. n. 1. 100. n. 3. 223. n.) has been rather unguarded 
in what be has said about the phrase lo-jxo^ fA6\i(r(rvjs, used by 
Epinicus ap. Athen. 432. 

'* Credo equidem Comicum (ap. Eust. 518.) */3gOToXoi;^oy, 
Fellatorem, ut intelligi voluisse, ita scripsisse. Ab hac commu- 
ni terminatione non videtur j£sch. recessisse, neque ai|xaroXei;^o^ 
scripsisse, quod Burneius ex Ed. Stanl. receptum malit in Dia- 
rio Classico T. 24. p. 348., quodque cum xafwp8oX6j;^«Tv ap. 
Aristoph. nuUam societatem habet." P. 573. Here we have 
oijttaToXeixoj for aijctaroX6f;^o;, an accentual error, into which Dr. 
Blornf, has fallen: see Aristarch, Anti-Blomf, 111. 

Thetford, Oct. 1823. 




No. in.— [Continued from No. LVIJ] 

To explain how foreign divinities and foreign rites and cere- 
monies became common in Egypt, it will be necessary to advert 
for a moment to the history of the Egypto-Greeks. 

In the 8th century before the Christian aera^ the' adventurous 
colonies of Ionia and Caria had^ amidst other commercial, or 
rather piratical expeditions, undertaken a voyage to Egypt. Their 
brazen armour, ' their courage, and activity were beheld with 
amazement by the Egyptians. At that time Psammetichus (son 
of Ecus, who was put to death by Sabbseon the Ethiopian) was 
one of the twelve lords, who, upon the death of king Sethon, had 
assumed the government of the country and divided it among 
them. Possessing chiefly the sea-coast, it appears that he had 
acquired considerable wealth by commerce, which excited the 
jealousy of the other petty potentates. In the disputes which 
ensued, Psammetichus secured the assistance of these wandering 
Greeks, by whose valor and discipline he ultimately became sole 
monarch of Egypt, about the year 670 B. C. In consideration 
of such important services he rewarded his allies with lands upon 
the Nile, which induced many of them to settle in that country. 
From this «ra a Grecian colony subsisted in Egypt, which main- 
tained an intercourse with their countrymen, and rendered the 
transactions of that kingdom a part of genuine history. — The 
Greeks upheld the throne of his successors until Apries, the 
fourth in descent from Psammetichus, having undertaken an ex- 
pedition against the Greek colony of Cyrene, was dethroned by 
Amasb, the cotemporary and ally of Croesus. Amasis rivalled 
the Lydian prince in his partiality for the language and manners 
of the Greeks. He raised a Cyrenian woman to the honors of 
his bed. The Greeks who had served his predecessors, and 
who, in consequence of the Egyptian law, obliging the son to 
follow the profession of his father, now amounted to near 
.S0^00O,.he removed to Memphis, his capital, and employed them. 

Herodotus, lib. ii. 

20 Observatimis on the 

as his body-guard. He encouraged the correspondence of this 
colony with the mother-country ; invited new inhabitants from 
Greece into Egypt ; promoted the commercial intercourse be- 
tween the two nations; and assigned to the Greek merchant s, 
for their residence the town and district of Naucratis on the 
Kile, where they enjoyed the free exercise of their religious 
processions and solemnities, and where the industry of the little 
island of .^ina in Europe, and the opulence of several Greek 
cities in Asia, erected temples after the fashion of their respec- 
tive countries. 

Herodotus visited Egypt about the year 450 B. C. ; there 
was therefore an interval of more than 200 years for ine expor- 
tation of the Gods and religious ceremonies of the Egyptians, 
and for the importation of foreign deities and rites of worship 
among the Egypto-Greeks and others whom commerce had in- 
duced to settle in that country. 

This shovis how the borderers of the Nile, according to He- 
rodotus, were familiar with the Gods, and many civil institutions 
of Greece, during the most florishing period of the Egyptian 
hierarchy ; and how the two systems subsisted and descended 
together to the Macedonian conquest, and, through the tolerant 
disposition of the Ptolemies, to the time when the sceptre of 
Eg^pt passed from their hands to those of the Romans without 
ever amalgamating. It was not the natives but the descendants 
of (he Greek colony from Lesser Asia, who had acquired not 
only a permanent settlement but the exclusive commerce of the 
country, hy whom the Egyptian symbols were mingled with 
those peculiar to the mythology of their mother-country. Un- 
like the Egyptians, the Greeks had no scruples respecting ob- 
jects of adoration : they welcomed those of every nation ; and 
when they could not borrow^ they invented. 

From these observations it is easy to reconcile the appear- 
ance of Egyptian symbols in the Zodiac, in conjunction with 
those of Greece. As, therefore, the Zodiac consists of an as- - 
semblage of mythological figures peculiar to Greece ' and 
Esypt, and as Uie Egyptians never adopted foreign deities, it fol- 
lows that the whole Zodiac was the work of the Greeks ; because 
tiie mixture of the mythological symbols of different countries' 
was compatitfle with their religious customs, and incompatible 

' As lAbra is decidedly foreign to Egypt, and therefore not against the 
argument, I have not thought it necessary to notice in the text its ex- 
ception to the classification there stated. 

Zodiac of Dendcra. 21 

with those of the Egyptians. And as some of the figures, as has 
been proved, were not invented until the time of Pnidar, it fol- 
lows that the construction of the Zodiac could not be earlier 
than the age in which he florished. 

in the fourth place, the antiquity of the Zodiac is contradict- 
ed by the style and condition of the Egyptian temples. 

The Ptolemies and Roman emperors successively adorned 
Egypt with numerous and magnificent edifices, which recent re- 
searches have identified with those which subsist at present. 
Granger, in speaking of the ruins of two palaces which made 
part of die ruins of ancient Thebes, says of the one, that the 
columns which supported the roof were of the Corinthian order ; 
and that the chapiters of the columns of the other were of the 

Of Tentyra Denon says,' ^' After having seen all the other 
Egyptian monuments, this still appeared the most perfect in its 
execution, and constructed at the happiest period of the arts and 


Belzoni mentions that in the ancient temple of Gyrshe in 
Nubia may be seen how the sculpture of primitive ages differs 
from that of the mere, modem school. The colossi in it, indi- 
cate that the artist meant to represent men, but this is all; 
their legs are mere shapeless columns, and their bodies out of 
all proportion ; their faces jare as bad as the artist could make 
them from the model of an Ethiopian. 

Ue farther observes that, '< from the gbod state of preservation, and 
luperiortty of the workmanship, the temple of Tentyra is probably of 
the time of the Ptolemies.'' ** The circular form of the Zodiac in the in- 
ner apartment," he adds, ** led me to suppose in some measure, that this 
temple was built at a later period than the rest, as nothing like it is seen 
any where else. The eastern wall of the great temple, is richly adorned 
with figures in intaglio relevato, which are perfectly finished,** " The 
temple of Edfii/' he continues, '< may be compared to Tentyra in point 
of preservation, and is superior in magnitude. The propylaeon is the 
largest and most perfect of any in Egypt, covered on all sides with colos- 
sal figures in intadio relevato. At £1 Kalabshe are the ruins of a tem- 
ple evidently of a later date than any other in Nubia; for it appeared 
to be thrown down by violence, as there was not that decay in its mate- 
rials, which I have observed in other edifices. There are two columns, 
and one pedestal, on each of the doors into the pronaos. They are 
joined by a wall raised nearly half their height; which proves the late 
period when this temple was erected, as such a wall is clearly seen in all 
other temples of later date ; and I would not hesitate to say, that Ten- 
tyra, Philoe, £dfu, and this temple, were erected by the Ptolemies ; for 

' Vol. ii. ch. IT. 

22 Observatiom on the 

though there is a great sicnilitude in all the Egyptian temples, yet there 
is a certain elegance in the forms of the more recent, that distinguishes 
them from the older massy works, whence they appear to nie to have 
been executed by Egyptians under the direction of the Greeks." 

On a MS. map of the course of the Nile, from Essouan to 
the confines of Dongola, constructed by Colonel Leake, chiefly 
from the journal of Mr. Burckhardt, we have read, says the re- 
viewer of Light's Travels in Egypt and Nubia, the following 
note : ' 

*' The ancient temples above Philoe are of two very different kinds : 
, those excavated in the rock of Gyrshe and Ebsambul, rival some of the 
grandest works of the Egyptians, and may be supposed at least coeval 
with the ancient monarchy of Thebes. The temples constructed in ma- 
sonry, on the other hand, are not to be compared with those of Egypt, 
either in size or in the costly decorations of sculpture and painting ; they 
are probably the works of a much later age." 

Mr. Davison found the colors in Tentyra, Thebes and Dios- 
polis still fresh and vivid. 

In another part of Belzoni's work he says, "I observed the figure of 
Harpocrates which is described by Mr. Hamilton, seated on a fuli-blown 
lotus, with his finger on his lips, on the side wall of the pronaos of the tem- 
ple of Edfu, as in the minor temple of Tentyra. On the propylxon of 
the temple of Dakke, are several Egyptian, Coptic, and Greek inscrip- 
tions. In the granite quarries 2^ hours south-east of Assouan, I found 
a column lying on the ground with a Latin inscription. Captain Chilia, 
in uncovering the ground in front of the great Sphinx near the pyramids, 
found at the bottom of a stair-case of S2 steps, an altar, with a Greek in- 
scription, of the time of the Ptolemies. Forty-five feet from this he 
found another, with an inscription alluding to the Emperor Septimius 
Severus ; and near to the first step was a stone, with another Greek in- 
scription alluding to Antoninus.^' 

• *» We thus find," says Mr. Burckhardt, " in Nubia specimens of all 
the diflFerent seras of Egyptian architecture, the history of which indeed 
can only be traced in Nubia; for all the remaining temples in Egypt 
(that of Gome, perhaps, excepted) appear to have been erected in an age 
when the science of architecture had nearly attained to perfection. ^If 
I were to class the Nubian temples accord irig to the probable order of 
their erection, it would be as follows. 1st. Ebsamhul ; 2nd. Gyrshe ; 
3d. Derr; 4th. Samne, &c." (Mr. Burckhardt enumerating downwards 
to Tafa, the 14th in his order of succession.) 

Such is the information afforded upon this subject by soineof 
the most recent and respectable travellers in that country, from 
^n attentive consideration of \vhich there appears strong evidence 
against the high antiquity of those magnificent fabrics. The first 
part of the evidence worthy of particular notice, is the existence 

* Quarterly Review, Vol. 19. 

Zodiac of Dendcra. SS 

of two of the orders of architecture among the ruins of lliebes ; 
the Corinthian and the Composite. 

The orders of architecture were unknown in ancient Egypt, 
Assyria, Babylonia, Persia, India, and China. Their invention is 
ascribed to the Asiatic Greeks who florished in the vicinity of 
Phrygia and Lydia. The silence of Homer respecting them in 
his architectural descriptions, particularly of the palaces of Al- 
cinous and Ulysses, is the argument upon which the opinion is 
founded that they were not known in his time. Perhaps their 
earliest appearance was in the temples of Jupiter at Olympia, 
and of Diana at £phesus, raised respectively about the years 
630 and 560 B. C. Scopas, of Ephesus, who florished about 
the year 450 B. C, employed the three Grecian orders in the 
second temple of Minerva at Tegea in Arcadia. The art of 
cutting marble, which afterwards furnished Grecian ingenuity 
with the materials of those inimitable productions which are 
still the wonder of the world, was unknown at the sera of the 
Trojan war ; for in the description of the palace of Alcinous, 
which is represented as shining with gold, silver, brass, and am- 
ber, there is no mention of that substance. 

The Doric, or, as it is emphatically called, the Grecian order 
was the first-born of architecture, and in its composition seems 
to bear authentic marks of its legitimate origin in wooden con- 
struction transferred to stone. It is probable that the. earliest 
Greek temples were of-wood, since so many of them were con- 
sumed during the invasion of Xerxes. The temple of Jerusalem 
was surrounded with columns of cedar; and Vitruvius informs 
lis, that the ancientTuscan temples were constructed with wooden 
Architraves. Four centuries from the Homeric times we find the 
Greeks arrived at the highest excellence in the polite arts. The 
progress and improvement in architecture appears to have oc- 
cupied a period of 300 years, beginning from, the time when the 
temple of Jupiter at Olympia, and those of Samos, Priene, 
Ephesus, and Magnesia, were begun, until the time of Pericles, 
when the ornamental style of the Greeks attained its utmost 
beauty and perfection in the Parthenon of Athens. All the varie- 
ties and ornaments in architecture, together with the Ionic and 
Corinthian orders, were invented within this space of time ; — 
whether all this was their own invention, and by what steps they 
made such progress, is not mentioned ; but the following obser- 
vationsT.may help us considerably in this difficulty. 

- *^While ancient Greece was harassed by intestine dissensions, and its 
northern frontier exposed to the hostility of neighboring barbarians, the 
eastern colonies eiyoyed profound peace^ atid norished in the vicinity 

S4 Observations on the 

of Phrygia and Lydia, the best cultivated and most wealthy provinces 
of Lower Asia, and perhaps of the ancient world. History and Poetrjr 
alike extol the golden treasures of the Phrygian and Lydian kings. Their 
subjects wrought mines of gold, melted the ore, moulded ngures in 
bronze, dyed wool, cultivated music, enjoyed the amusements of leisure 
and indulged the demands of luxury, when the neighboring countries of 
Cappadocia and Armenia remained equally ignorant of laws and arts« 
and when the Medes and Persians lived in scattered villages, subsisted 
by hunting, pasturage or robbery, and were clothed with the skins of 
wild beasts. Through the supine neglect of their neighbors respecting 
inaritime afiairs, the Asiatic Greeks acquired without contest and en- 
joyed without molestation, besides several valuable islands, the whole 
western coast of the continent to the extent of 600 miles. The loniaus 
possessing the mouths of great rivers, having convenient and copious 
harbors before them, and behind, the wealthy and populous nations of 
Asia, whose commerce they enjoyed and engros^sed, attained such early 
and rapid proficiency in the arts of navigation and traffic as raised the 
cities of Miletus, Colophon, and Phocaea to an extraordinary pitch of 
wealth and grandeur, and who, as their population and prosperity in* 
creased, diffused new colonies every where around them. Such multi- 
plied advantages could not languish in the hands of men who had ge« 
nius to conceive^ and courage to execute, the most arduous designs. 
With the utmost industry and perseverance, they improved and ennobled 
the useful or elegant arts, which they found already practised among the 
Phrygians and Lydians. They incorporated the music of those nations 
with their own. Their poetry far excelled whatever Pagan antiquity 
could boast most precious. They rivalled the skill of their neighbors in 
moulding clay and casting brass. They appear to have been the first 
people who made statues of marble. The Doric and Ionic orders per- 
petuate in their names, the honor of their inventors. Painting was first 
reduced to rule, and practised with success among the Greeks; and we 
may be assured that during the seventh century before Christ, the 
lonians surpassed all their neighbors, and even the Phenicians, in the 
arts of design, since the magnificent presents which the Oracle of Del- 
phi received from the Lydian kings, were chieflythe productions of lo- 
niair artists." • 

Thus we find that when the Asiatic Greeks first sent a colony 
to Egypt, they had made greater progress in the arts, particularly 
architecture, than the Egyptians appear to have made in any 
period of their history. A proof of their high civilization at this 
time^isy that in the very next century Ionia gave birth to philoso^ 
phy. At a very early period also, we find not only that the leading 
states of Greece, such as Athens, and Corinth, but little ob-^ 
scu re republics of Magna Grsecia whose names alone can be 
gleaned from history by the careful antiquary, such as Pa^stimi, 
Segesta, and Selinus, erected works which would be a considera- 
ble enterprise for the greatest nations of modern times. The 

Gillies' History of Greece, vol. i. ch. 7« 

Zodiac of Henderd. 25 

portico of the great temple of Selipus iu Sicily, . wbich is oiie 
of the six still remainiogy though prostrate and in ruins, on the 
site of that city, consisted of a double peristyle of eight columns 
ill front and seventeen in depth, each of which was 10 feet dia* 
nieter and 50 high. 

Let us now look at the state of Egypt about the same time. 

**.At the invasion of Sabbason,'' says Mr. Bryant* " the E^ptians 
were divided by factions and under many petty princes; and when tbe 
Ethiopic government ceased, thry again lapsed into a state of misrule. 
Of tbese commotions the prophet I«»aiah speaks, ch. 19. v. S. where he 
predicts the destruction of Egypt. 'From Sahbson to Apries ttiere is 
great uncertainty and confusion, owing to the feuds and commotions, and 
to the finsl dispersion of tbe people, which was attended with the niin 
of their temples and colleges.' In the time of Pharaoh'-Necho, Nebu- 
chadnezzar visited this coun try wi th such severity as almost to extirpate the 
nation. What Egypt then suffered may be learned from what was pre* 
dieted by Jeremiah, cli. 46. and Ezekiel, ch. 29. According to the hst 
prophecy, tbe desolation of the country &'nd dispersion of tiie fteople was 
to continue 40 years.'' " The accounts in the Egyptian histories con- 
cerning these times are very dark and inconsistent. So much we learn, 
that there were great commutiuns and migrations of people when Pha- 
raoh-Necbo and Psammetichus are supposed to have reigned. Arid 
both these and the subsequent kings are represented as- admitting th^ 
Carians and other nations into Egypt, and hiring mercenaries for the de* 
fence of the ountr^. Most writers mention an interval about this time 
of eleven years which is styled Chronos Ahanleutho*^ which Sir J. Mar- 
sham thinks relates to the anarchy brought on by Nebuchadnezzar.*' 
*• In the 27th year of the captivity, Egypt was again desolated by the 
Babylonian monarch, according to the predictions of Jeremiah, chapters 
30, 43, 44. ; and of Ezekiel, ch. S9. This is supposed to have happened 
in the time of Apries, the Pbaraob-Iiopbia of the Septuagint, and }nm 
also to continue 40 years." *■ 

This shows the great obscurity in which the transactions of 
the Egyptians are enveloped, in times subsequent to that assigned 
by Herodotus for the commencement of the authentic history 
of that people, which he informs us dates from the accession 
of Psammetichus. What he related, upon the authority of tbe 
priests, respecting events prior to this sera are palpable 6ctions, 
and all that we know of them is derived from glimpses afforded 
by the sacred writings. ^ 

> Analysis, vol. vi. pp. 390 et seq. 

» «* The ancient Egyptians," says Mr. P. Knight, "would never reveal 
any thing concerning their sacred symbols, ui^less under the usual ties of 
secrecy; wherefore Herodotus, ^ho was initiated and consequently under- 
stood them, declines entering into the subject. In the time of Diodorus 
the priests pretended to have some secret concerning tbem ; but they 
probiibly pretended to mbre science tlian they really possessed, in this. 

ff() Ob$€fVaHom an the 

Conmienciiig^ therefore^ with the authentic history of the 
Egyptians, the question respecting the erection of these temples 
in times anterior to the Ptolemies may be argued thus. — Psam- 
tnetichus ascended the throne in theyear 670 B. C, and reigned 
54 years. From the convulsed state of Egypt before his time 
it is reasonable to suppose that during the greater part of his 
reign be was chiefly occupied in consolidating his power. 
T^at be had not much leisure for the cultivation of the arts, ap- 
pears from his being engaged for 29 years in the siege of Azotus 
or Ashdod in Syria. He was succeeded by his son Necho 11., 
who reigned 17 years. No monarch of Egypt exceeded his 
zeal for the extension and improvement of his country ; his ex- 
ploits are well known, as also the effects of his military ambition, 
which proved fatal to Egypt. He was succeeded by his son 
Psammis, who reigned 6 years. Apfies then ascended the 
throne, and, after ruling Egypt for 25 years, was deposed by the 
rebel Amasis, who govenied for 44 years. Under this prince, 
Egypt appears to have been singularly prosperous. He was 
extremely liberal, as mentioned above, to the Greeks ; and in his 
own country, it is said, he erected several magnificent buildings, 
and enriched at a considerable expense the principal temples 
with gifts and ornaments. This brings us down to the year 524 
B. C, the sera of the Persian invasion. Now, allowing that 
Kebuchadnezzar invaded Egypt only once, and that there is only 
one period of 40 years in which the country continued desolate, 
there will remain, after the deduction of these, and the 54 years 
in which Psammetichus reigned, a period of only 52 years for 
the accumulation, by the Egyptians, of wealth and taste suffici- 
ent for the embellishment of their country by the erection of 
most of these magnificent temples, — a space perhaps too short 
even of continuous prosperity ; but as a calamitous interval of 
40 years happened between Necho H. and Amasis, their erec- 
tion by the native princes of Egypt must be considered impossi- 

as well as in other instances ; for Strabo, who was cotemporary with 
Diodorus, and much superior to him in learning and judgment, says that 
they were mere sacrifices without any knowledge of their ancient philo- 
sophy and religion. The hieroglyphics continued to be esteemed more 
holy and venerable than the conventional signs for sounds ; but though 
they pretended to read and even to write them, the different explana- 
tions which they gave to different travellers, induce us to suspect that it 
was all imposture ; and that the knowledge of the ancient hiei'ogiyphics, 
and consequently of the symbolical meaning of the sacred animals, 

Krtshed with their Hierarchy under the Persian and Macedonian kin^s, 
i^^Ifigidryitii^the LemguagefSf^ ; Cla$$. Journal^ VoL 34. 

Zodiac of Dendera. 87 

ble. — Whatever therefore may liave been effected befdre the 
Persian iorasion, 1 am inclined to aBcribe to the Egypto-Greelr»; 
for^ as these^ according to Henidoltis, kept up a constant inter- 
course M'iih their countrymen from the period of their first set- 
tling in the country, ^^P^ is ^o ^ considered at all this time 
growing into a Gree% kingdom. 

Much is said about Egypt's being the cradle of the arts arid 
sciences. Many of them may have been bom there, but I have 
■ot met witfa any satisfactory evidence that in that country they 
ever advanced beyond a state of infancy previous to the arrival of 
the Greeks. That the Greeks \vere indebted to the Egyptians 
for the prkieipies of architecture, or that the temples of the f3r-» 
mer vrere improvements upon those of tbe ktter, I see no 
reason to believe ; for, when the Asiatic Greeks sent a colony to 
Egypt, they were a more polished people than the Egyptians, 
and certainly much their superiors in the art of war, since a hand- 
ful of them enabled Psammetichus to subdue the whole country. 
Whence then did the Asiatic Greeks derive the elements of ci- 
vilization and the rudiments of the arts, particularly of architec- 
ture, in which at this early period they had made such profici- 
ency i was it from Egypt, of which almost nothing certain is re- 
lated by heathen writers previous to the year 670 B. C, and with 
which they seem to have had no previous intercourse ; or was it 
from their highly civilized neighbors the Lydians and ^Phrygians, 
with whom they maintained the strictest friendship, and whom 
even the Egyptians themselves acknowIe<lged to be an 6lder 
people f 

Of those who may be disposed to answer tbis question in fii-' 
vor of Egypt, 1 would ask — in what ancient historian is there a 
description of an Egyptian temple before the tiiiie t>f Psamme- 
tichus; or who, among modern travellers, will point to one of all 
those wbich yet exist even in ruins, as belonging to that distant 
age i Nay more, I doubt whether there was a temple at all in 
Egypt, in masonry at least, before this time. The sacred re- 
cords are silent on this subject, and the Hebrews had not « 
temple until monarchy was established among them. While 
under a theocracy, a tabernacle it would seem was necessary; 
but its form was not a copy from an ancient building, for the 
Deity condescended to give, himself, the plan to Moses, as be 
bad done that of the ark to Moah, and those who worked the 
ornaments were supernaturally endowed.— But I proceed*: 

The Persians during their sovereignty never relaxed in tbe 
persecution of this unhappy people ; — persecntion excited rebel- 
lion, rebellion* was punished with aggravated eruehy, «nd in thh 

28 Observations on the 

manner Egypt for the space of two centuries was the perpetual 
scene of crimes and punishments. As no one therefore will 
look for the embellishment of Egypt under the Persian dynas- 
ty j. the sra of these buildings must be reduced to the times of 
the Ptolemies. The steady patronage and liberal encouragement 
which the two 6rst of these princes extended to the professors 
of the polite arts is well known; and the state of the times im- 
mediatdy succeeding the Macedonian conquest, seems to have 
be^n peculiarly favorable to their views. The unceasing wars 
in Lesser Asia, and miserable disorders which afflicted the 
political world, suspended as it were the labors of man, and 
threatened the extinction of the arts and belles-lettres in Greece. 
To fugitives of every description, but especially to proficients iti 
elegant and useful studies JEgypt afforded a secure asylum. How 
fanciful soever might be their tenets, from whatever quarter they 
came, and whatever causes had driven them from their countries, 
all literary strangers were welcome to Ptolemy Soter. In this 
hejmitated his former general and sovereign Alexander, whose 
zeal in the furtherance of science may be estimated by the fact 
of his having sent at one time into Greece 10,000 talents to be 
expended on works of art. 

A proof that they possessed the power of fully gratifying their 
inclination^ appears in the account of the national establishment 
and revenues under Ptolemy Philadelphus. According to Ap- 
pion, the army of this prince consisted -of 200,000 foot, 40,000 
horse, 2000 armed chariots, and 300 elephants. His arsenals were 
copiously stored with all sorts of military engines, and with spare 
armour for 300,000 men. His navy consisted of 1 12 ships having 
from 5 to 35 tier of oars, with 3500 smaller vessels. 4000 mer- 
chantmen navigated the Mediterranean, and 800 splendid barges 
plied upon the Nile. The sum in the treasury at his death 
amounted to 190 millions sterling. — From these observations 
there can be no doubt that the Ptolemies were, in point both of 
taste and wealth, quite adequate to the erection of these splendid 
monuments of art ; and beyond the sera of their dynasty we need- 
ed not to proceed in our inquiries respecting them, if the style 
and architectural costume, as it were, of several did not indi- 
cate the workmanship of another people. Prior to the Mace- 
donian conquest, all the temples of Greece and its colonies, in 
Sicily and Italy, appear to have been of one order, the Doric, 
and one general form, though slightly varied in particular parts, 
as occasional convenience or local fashion might chance to re- 
quire# Their general form was an oblong square of 6 columns 
b; Jt3, or 8 by 17; enclosing a walled cel^ small in proportion. 

Zodiac of Dendera. 29 

in some instances left open to the sky, in others cpvered bj the 
roof which protected the whole building ; but in £gypt many 
appear in the costume of the happiest period not only of Gre- 
cian but of Roman architecture. 

Until their connexion with Greece, the Romany made no 
progress in architecture. But 200 years B. C. we find Cossu* 
tius, a Roman architect, conducting the building of the temple of 
Jupiter Olympus, the principal edifice in Athens, which had 
been begun by Pisistratus. / 

The conquest of Greece first gave them a taste for the fine 
arts, and that of Asia furnished them with the means of indul- 
gence* The return of Sylla from the Mithridatic war, was the 
a^ra which was marked for the first excess in architecture in 
Rome ; and marble first came into common use in the time of 
Julius Caesar. Under the emperors, the extent, the materials^ 
and the ornaments of the Roman dwellings almost exceed ber 

Augustus distinguished himself by his love for building. In- 
stigated by hts example, and by a desire to pay him court, his 
relations, his wealthy subjects, the governors of his provinces, 
princes tributary or allied, all engaged in some architectural en- 
terprise ; and the general tranquillity of his reign was favorable 
to their operations ; so that not only in Rome and Italy, but also 
in the provinces, grand and sumptuous edifices were erected. But 
of all who courted the favor of Augustus by the cultivation of this 
art, none equalled Herod the Great. He raised so many struc-. 
Uires of great splendor and utility, that the rebuilding^ of the 
temple of Jerusalem, though it occupied for eight years, the^ 
labors of 10,000 men, was but a small part of what he performed. 

Under Adrian architecture florinhed ; he was himself a. hard, 
student in this science, and antiquity does not record any persoa 
whose buildings are so numerous and widely spread. Much o£ 
bis time was spent in visiting the provinces, and throughout the 
vast extent of his empire he raised, monuments of architecture 
beyond the scale of ordinary edifices. Italy, Greece, Egypt, 
Germany and Britain were indebted to his munificence ; and. 
from the circumstance of his name having been engraved upon 
the walls in so many places, he is said to have obtained the name, 
of ' the wall-flower.' 

These observations account sufficiently for the appearance. of 
Roman architecture in Egypt. 

As, therefore, the history of Egypt before the time ofvPsamr. 
metichus is fabulous, and. as from his time to the Persian inva- 
sion the Egyptians were unable, from their poverty, civil dis-i 

90 ObiervAtiont on t^ 

Wismit^ aiuly I may add^ waiit of skill, to raise these superb 
•d^es; and as they:Mrere least of ail able to do so during the 
giMieriiinentof the Persians, it follows that thdr construction is 
to be ascribed to the Ptolemies and Roman emperors, the only 
potentates^ in point both of wealth and taste, fully equal to the 
aoeomplishment of such magnificent works. 

The other point of evidence to be noticed is, that even in the 
oldest: of the9e temples, there are images or figures whose in- 
vention or adoption into ancient systems of mythology must be 
referred' to a oonoparatively recent date. For instance, in class- 
ing these temples according to their probable ages, Mr. Burck- 
basdt places fibsambul as the apparently oldest ; but in his 
ckseription of that temple he informs us, that ^' The capitals 
of the: columns ! represent heads of Isis, similar to those of Ten- 
tyra ;^' and that: ^* the ornament represented on these heads is 
ia the form of & temple*'^ Now Mr, P. Kinght, as mentioned 
above, assures us that the figure of Cybele with a mural crown 
was not. known until, or very little before, the Macedonian con- 
que^t.^ This temple therefore cannot date much, if any higher, 
tban.tbis arnu. 

AgsaOf Belzoni says,^ that he observed the figure of Harpo- 
eratea, on tbeside wail of the temple of Edfu, such as it is de- 
aoibed by Mr; Hamilton, seated on a full-blown lotus, with his 
finger. on bis. lips, as in the minor temple of Tentyra. But as 
Mh Hamilton 'has given good reasons for believing that such a 
representation of Harpocrates was peculiar to the Romans, it 
ftUloMS that this: temple must have been erected by them ; an 
dfmiivn- corroborated by other features of this building. 

Without' entering into a disquisition concerning the origin of 
idolatiy, and its varieties, it is sufficient to know that the em- 
ptoyment ofidie human form by the heathen, was perhaps later 
lliaB. that of. any others in any given country; and that by the 
Mgyptians^'pr^er it never was employed at all. All the tem- 
ple^ therefore, m which they are fonnd must have been frequented 
only by those, to the genius^ of whose religion this species of ido* 
Uitry waa^compatible. They could not be the sanctuaries in 
whioh were, offered -up the adorations of the native Egyptians, 
t]OitWEbom>sttoh gods- were an abomination; and a perusal of the 
second book of Herodotus will convince us, that the Egyptian 
symbols to be seen tbere^ were such as had been adopted by the 
Egypto-Greeks. The distinction, however, betvi^een the Egyp- 
<siift»-proper'aiid;E^pto^reeks, does not seem to be attended 
(o^ by the father of history himself. Hence that confusion and 
fmp^pMnt-contradiction: when he treats of the gods, the religioiit 

Zodiac of Dmidtnu 3£ 

ritea and manners of the Egyptians, arisiag evidently (torn not 
discriminating between Aivkat was peculiar to the native figyptiant|i 
and what to the naturalized Greeks. If, however, we kieep this 
distinction in view, when reading this book, these discrepanciea 
will disappear. 

These observations on the Egyptian temples show, that in so 
far as they are concerned no argument can be drawn from them 
in favor either of the high antiquity or Egyptian origin of the 

It is, I presume, unnecessary to pursue this subject any farther, 
or to enter into a formal refutation of the common opinion that 
the object under discussion is an astronomical figure, or Zodiac^ 
constructed upon the principle of the precession^ and indicative 
of the position of the calures at a given time, since in a former 
part of this paper it was shown that the precession of the equi- 
noxes was not known until the time of Uipparchus. Hisre^ 
however, I cannot forbear adducing two respectable ancient 
authorities to prove, that even if the precession had been known- 
from time immemorial, it is impossible that the Zodiac in ques*' 
tion could have been framed in reference to it, and have been at 
the same time the work of niUive Egyptians. 

Herodotus "sayiB, ''The mode of calculation of the Egyptian's is more- 
sagacioua than that of the Greeks, who, for the sake of adjuatii^g the sea^ 
sons accurately, added every third year an intercalary tnontlu They di- 
vide their year into twelve months, giving to each SO days ; . by adding 
five day's to every year, they have an uniform revolution of tirde.*^' And 
Oeminus, a Greek writer of note, said by Petanius to have liVed in the 
time of S/11% informs, us that '^the Esyptians did not take the quarte^ 
of a day into account, that their sacred festivals might go forward, aS'- 
they would do by this omission, one day in four years, ten days in forty,, 
a month in a hundred and twenty, so as to go through all the seasons of 
the year in 1460 years ; whereas the Greeks bjr their laws and by an 
oracle were directed to- keep their sacred solemnities in the same months 
in the year, and on the same days of the months ; for which purpose 
they made use of intercalations, to bring the accounts of the motions 
of the Sun and Moon as near together as possible."^ 

These passages clearly prove that the Zodiacs of Egypt (sup* 
posing them to be such) were not constructed in reference to 
the motion in antecedeniia of the solstitial and equinoctial 
points ; because, even when the error of a fraction of a day be- 
came known to the Hierogrammatai, they intentionally neglected 

s Euterpe, ch. 4. 

* Geminus, cb. 6. de Measibiis, cited by Dr. I/>ng, Astron. vol. ii. 
f. 513. 

32 Observations on the 

it. indeed, it does not appear, that the priests or Egyptians in 
general ever used a more accurate year, not even after the cor- 
lection of the solar year by the Greeks. The year first used 
by the Egyptians, so far as we can learn, was the solar year of 
360 days ; the redundant five days not being in very early times 
considered as belonging to the year, and therefore devoted to 
festivity ; though afterwards they were received into the year by 
being added to the end of it. Hiis year of 36*5 days, which 
their kings took an oath in the temple of 1 sis not to alter by 
intercaration, is that used by Ptolemy in his Almagest, and to 
which astronomers in general refer when they compute by Egyp- 
tian years ; and this year, we find also, continued to be used by the 
Egyptians for civil, sacerdotal, and astronomical purposes^ dowii 
to the lowest period of their history, since even after the battle of 
Actium, when Augustus ordered the Julian year to be substituted 
fiorthat formerly in use, the Egyptians refused to comply with the 
mandate, and continued to reckon by their ancient months with 
the five additional days, with the difference only of intercalating 
» day every fourth year between the ^8th and 29th of August of 
the Julian year. If therefore these Zodiacs, as they are termed, 
were the work of Egyptians and referred at all to the division of 
time, they could be intended to mark only the revolutions of 
the civil year; a circumstance which disproves the opinion of 
their high antiquity. 

An argument against their being Zodiacs is furnished by the 
curious fact discovered by Mr. Call, that in several pagodas in 
India these self-same figures are arranged in th€ form of a 
square. 1 have added a sketch of one of these Indian Zodiacs, 
copied by the above gentleman from the. ceiling of a Pagoda at 
Ferdapettah near Cape Comorin. His drawing and account 
of it ar/e inserted in the 13tb Vol. of the Phil. Trans, abridged. 

Zodiac of Deiidera. 


This anrangeroent of the figures is sufficient proof that no as- 
tronomical idea was attached to them by those who introduced 
them into India ; and it is equally difficult to conceive that any 
such was entertained by those who placed them in the tombs of 

Tliat any thing can be drawn from the division into two bands 
of the Zodiac in the porch, or from the double appearance of its 
Scarabaeus, as M. De la Lande has supposed, is not the case; 
the former being plainly incidental from the nature of the place, 
and the other being as decidedly a sacred allegory. 

Upon the whole, 1 conclude that the term Zodiac, as applied 
to these assemblages of mythological figures in the temple of 
Dendera, and elsewhere in £gypt, b a mtsnomer, and that they 
are strictly panthea, or exhibitions of the divinities who presided 
over the several mouths of the year ; attributes of Bacchus, in 
whose honor were held the Isiac festivals, so universal in the 
ancient world. The divinities who presided over the months, 
were the principal deities of the Greeks and Romans, as we 

VOL. XXIX. a. Jl. NO. LVII. c 


presides over July. 











34 Observations on the Zodiac of Dendera. 

team from two lines of finnius translated from an ancient Greek 
poet : 

^' Juno, Vesta, Minerva, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars, 
Mercurius, Jovi', Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo." 

Now^ in an old Roman calendar inserted at the end of Mo- 
rell's Latin Thesaurus, these are represented as presiding over 
the months in the following order : 

Juno presides over January. 

Neptune Februarv. 

Minerva March. 

Venus April. 

Apollo May. 

Mercury June. 

It is evident that these are merely Roman names for the gods 
represented by the figures of the Zodiac! 
, I conclude this subject by recapitulating the principal points, 
which I consider as established by the preceding reasoning, 

1st. I consider it proved that the figures of the Zodiac were 
inystic symbols peculiar to the mythology of the Egyptians and 
Greeks, by whom they were considered as so many personified 
attributes of the sun, or Bacchus the god of the year. 

2nd. That they were not signs, or indices to the seasons. 

Srd. That some of these symbols are not older than the Ma- 
cedonian conquest, and that Libra, in all probability, belongs 
to the age of Augustus. 

4th. That as the ancient astronomers were in the habit of al- 
tering the figures of the constellations, it is impossible to speak 
with certainty as to the forms of the most ancient. 
' 5th. That many of these figures were invented posterior to 
the latest species of idolatry, viz. the deification of mankind, on 

• which account they cannot belong to a very remote period of an- 

6th. That none of the present temples , in Egypt can be 
ascribed to the ancient inhabitants, natives of the country ; and 
that most, if not all those in Masonry, are plainly referable to 
tfie Ptolemies, and Roman emperors, and consequently that no 
argument can be drawn from them in favor of the high antiquity 
of any of their inscribed figures. If these corollaries shall befoiihd 
tfie result of sound reasoning, the conclusion is legitimate and 
inevitable, that the Zodiac of Dendera, as it is termed, is npt a 
^ record of the Ultra-Mosaic antiquity of the human race ; a con- 
. elusion of importance to the more sober thinking part of the 

• Christian world. Another, perhaps of some value to the anti- 
quary, is, that all the temples, tombs, and other monuments. 

Carm. Sam. Ante, e duoh. Mus. Brit •, ^c. 3d 

up<in which such 6gures are delineated, cannot possibly date 
higher than the Macedonian conquest, and probably not be- 
-vond the age of Augustus. 

J. M. 
Newcastle on Tyne. 

duobtis Musei Britannici codicibus edidit. Tectum 
emendavitf Latine vertity et Commentario instruxit^ 
GuiLiELMUs Gesenius, ThcologuB D. et in Ac(h 
demia Fridericiana Halensi Professor Regius. 

Paks I. 

§ 1.— QujE nunc primum in lucem prodeunt Samaritanorum 
carmina, viros doctos prioris aevi non omnino latuerunt. Duo 
enim, quibus usi suiuus, codices penes Edm. Castellum olim 
fuerunt, qui turn in lexico Heptaglotto, turn in annotationibus 
Samariticis in Pentateuchum complura eorum loca excerpta de- 
dit.' Quum vero foliorum in his codicibus ordo mirum in mo- 

* In cod. Harlei. 5481. limine, manu Edm. Castelli scriptum exstat: 
*' Ex done reverendissimi viri aroicique mei maxime honorandi magistri 
Wheelock, Arabici in Cantabrigia Professoris, Oct. 1. (16)53.'' Ita vero 
idem ille in prsfatione ad annotatt. Samariticas TBibl. Polygl. Lond. 

T. VI.) : ** Ezhibemus item varias lectiones, collectas partim ex nu- 

peris annotationibus doctiss. Morini partim ex viri reverendiss. 

Jacobi Usserii Armachaniy Hiberniae Primatis, manuscriptis codicibus 
Saroaritanisy quos nubiscum communicavit^ et (uiorum unum pro solita 
ejus munificentia in me contulit (Liturgiam sc Samaritanam, cum foliis 
quibusdam valde imperfectis et sine ordine compactis commentarii Ara- 
bici in partem tantum sectionis unius vel alterius Genes. Exod. atque 
Levit.) partim etiam ex Liturgia Msta Samaritana, (quam dono mihi 
legavit amicus meus singularis, 6 fuueaplrTis D. Abrahamus Wbeelocus, 
Arabicas lingus apud Cantabrigienses nostros professor primus, cet)** 
£t in prsfatione ad Lex. Heptagl. <^ Nee doctrinalia tantum, sed ritusk 
lia, juridica, medicinalia .... notavimus e. g. Samaritanorum dog- 
mata da Dei vifa absoluta (▼. ^^ntV^ et t^V!SSZ> "^* T^SODf perfeo> 

36 Carm. Sam. Anec. e duob. Mu$. Brit. 

dum turbatus sit et disjectus^ ut six unum et alterum recte sese 
excipiant, vera horum carminum ratio Castelli aciem prorsus 
effugity et neque rbythmum ille neque alphabeticum eorum ordi- 
Dem assecutus esse videtur. Quo factum est, ut contextum 
carminum minime perspiciens, in singulis, quSB passim exhibuit, 
commatibus vel dispescendis vel legendis atque interpretandis 
non posset non saepissime a vero aberrare." Neque magis 
pristinum horum codicum ordinem carminumque veram indolem 
deprehenderunt et Thomas Mareschallus, qui magnam utriusqiie 
codicis partem Hebraico charactere transcripsit,^ et alius vir 
doctus anonymus, qui in plagulis quibusdam cum cod. Harlcj. 
5481. compactis singularum fere paginarum descriptionem La- 
>tinam dedit. Nos autem forte fortuna in bos codices delati, 
simulatque alphabetica esse carmina intellexeramus, et litterarum 
ordine et chirographo ducibus octo uovemve carmina e disjectis 
poetse membris restituere facili negotio potuimus. Horumque 
e numero sex, quae quidem publica luce digniora visa sunt, 
poslea otio dato emendata, perpolita, versione Latina, notisque 
criticis, philologicis et dogmaticis instructa prelo paravimus. 

Duplicem autem haec carmina apud doctos homines com men- 
dationem habitura esse speramus, philologicam alteram, alteram 
dogmaticam. Ac primum quidem patriae Samaritanorum poe- 
<feo8 unicum specimen continent, idque Arabica magnam partem 

tione (v. !£SZ^> iocompreheosibilitate (^^nt)^ providentia (^i\^^), 

constantia (r^^)) misericordia universali (^"^^^ et 4n2<f X de saera 

scriptura, traditionibus (^t^rX bonis operibus (f I^V)* sabbatho (A^^^ 

et VBin)^ Hebraeis (^SV)> sacerdotum lapsonim restitutione (^A*nr)> 
et, ob quod omni ssculo male audierunt, sed injuria, de imagiaibus 

' Vide quffi notavimus ad Carm. 1, 6, 7, 8. 13. 31. II, 5. Ill, 14, 18. 
et alibi. 

^ Exstat hie fasciculus, octo foliis constans in Bibliotheca Bodlaiana 
Oxoniensi, ibique inter codd. Bodleianos est No. 50S. Vide S. Ven. Alex. 
KieoU Bibliothecse Bodleianee codd. manuscriptorum orientalium catalo* 
gum. P. II. irol. 1. pag. 4. Caeterum qus potissimum codicum Harleian- 
orum folia et quam recte transcripserit Mareschallus, exploratum non 
habeo. Praeterea Brumim in commeotatiuocula : iiber die Samariter,(qus 
inserta est promptuario, quod inscribitur : Beitrage zur Philosophie und 
Geschichte der Religion und Sittenlehre von C. T. Staudlin T. L p. 80.) 
He ejusmodi fragmeota olim Oxonii e cod. Mareschall. 60., (qui idem eal 
ac Bodlei. 508.) descripsisse refert; sed neque unquam ususest his frag- 
ment is, neque hoc apographum in 8ch«di8 ^us manuscriptis^ quorum cura 
mtbi f est mortem ejus demandata fuit, exstitit^ 

Codicib. edidit G. Geseiuus. 97 

Tenione instructam^ quae iisum loquendi interdum subobscurain 
iUustrat: deinde eadem ad dogmata Samaritanorum penitius 
perspicieoda ataximopere inserviunt, et multo magis, quam ea, 
quae a receotioribus Samaritanis^ indoctis plerumque homiDibui 
per litteras impetrarunt Jos. Scaliger, HuntiDgton, Jobus Lii« 
dolphusj et recentiori memoria 111. Silvester de Sacy. (Cf. % 6.) 

§ 2. — Uterque^ quo usi sumus, codex hodie in Musei Britan- 
nici libris Harleianis asservatur^ uterque bombycinus est et for- 
ms quadrats. £t alter quidem (No. 5481.) isque paulo ma- 
joris foranas, nonagiuta quatuor paginis constans^ olim liturgicila 
et sacerdotum s. synagogarcharum I)ainascenorum ' usui destina* 
tu8 fuisse videtur. Foliis ejus admodum turbatis interjecta sunt 
alia, qua? commentarii Arabico-Samaritani in Pentateuchum 
fragmenta continent.* Ad marginem singuloruin carminum, vel 
ab eorundem initio et fine leguntur inscriptiones vel Samaritanae 
vel Arabicae ad rem liturgicam plerumque spectantes^ ut p. 14. 

«^U«Jt xjmjM ftlAAMf sabbathum nuptiarum benedictum ; p. 46. 
A^<\1^^ H^XA ritus adorationum ; pag. 62. \%\*^ All^in 
HSfii ^/mXII *L«^ i>^ precalio sacerdotis magni; rarius 
auctorem bdicantes, ut pag. 51. ^1^21 ^If \^X^ A^Z^ 
^!tt^ ^«V55l Xt yitiJtt ^2^V ;ia ^nra^ Sa precatio seniorii. 
Ab Galuga^* filii Tobia,Jilii Kahala, cuipropitius sit Dominui 

omnium, pag. 77. lyAsUM^t ^ S^Jg^ 2f^t^ senioris Zadaka, 
JUii hmailis^ 

Alter codezy minoris format, numero 5493. notatus, paginas 
quadraginta novem continens, calamoque paulo nitidiore exara- 
tus, privatis usibus destinatus fuisse videtur, eamque forsan ob 
cauasam saepius versionem Arabicam habet singulis carminibus 

' De muneribus Synagogs Samaritanae apud Damascenos vid. Hottin- 
geii Bibl. Orient, pag. S09. k 10. 

* Vide %upra Castelli verba, not 1. p. 35. 

' Ab Gabiga, i. e. pater elevationis s. ins^nificationis (a 12*1 niagnifi- 
cavit). Nomina propria, quorum pars prior est ^A^, Samaritanis frequen- 

tantur, cf. XTyS^ ^K, '/Wp IK, nJIVTT SM, T^ n«, HHttD SK 
in subscriptionibus codd. biblicorum. Vide Hott. I. c. de Russi Spec. 
Variarum Lcct. p. 176. Kennicotii Dissert. Gen. ed. Bruns. p. 861. 
Casterum Brum'my Castellum 8, vooe r^D nfta^« intelligeos, Ab Galug;am 
omnium horum carminum auctorem esse voluit. (Siaudlins Beitrage 
1. c. p. 87.) 

.. ^ Ci^ An^^.^ « '^^^^ ^^' ^"'• 

o. M- e ^ • .. ^^^ Deo jubente, lunam medio hoc 
y^^^ y ^■^^^' C*^' ^^ff, novemce. Qaum pro ccno faaberi 
?«,'».-«' *Upcer ^"j^ji^Mtfiedicam pertinere hos aiiDos/ ex his 

o^tipn (v<*^ . vV V^^"^^* hamantaDonim bibhcos esaratos 
lompore l^^^i" ^ ^ . . ,. 

es«»c ali«"f *%}i** *" ^* proximc accedunt, quae lo epistobs 
1 ,ittf«^=^J^I^t*i'"'''^"^ ^^ ^^^' Ludolfum conspiciuDtur: 
Hodier:"^* V)^^^''**^^' quod litters 9, t et Ut^ ita sibi similes 
i^ -^c :4ii'^ ujH^oNrafitur, qux res et Castellum in his codd. 
'^, ^;jAi* iuijiMitt ah initio sspe fefeilit. Versio Arabica^ 

..^otTi' ^Mf |*0Ut Actucl deft Samaritains^ vers. germ, qiix exstat in 
4.1111(1 Tib^rlilriierft A rcbio fiir alte und neue Kirchengeschichte 

*r WgiUii ywi BJOuOI ^ mense undecimo^ de quo vide Golium ad 

M^id h^j^ Mil le^eiidiim sit cJum^.* 

l«4*>c euiiii lisram coiiKtanter sequuntur in subscriptionibus codicum ; 

nil. |i 4pl Moltiii^^. 1. r. p. S09. 

Codieib. edidit G. Gesenius. 3^ 

^uatn noa cbaractere vulgari traDscripfam dedimus, charaotere 
Samaritico, adhibitis autem signis diacriticis (ex. gr. y pro >) 

exarata est, quemadmodum Abusaidte Pentateuchus in cod. 
3arberiniano. Passim tamen, ubi lioeae spatium litteris Sama- 
ritanis paulo obesioribus non suffecturum videbatur, medio 
cootextui voces qiiaedam Arabice scripts intruse sunt, ut : 

I, 14. . /f%^l l^S^^' ^^2./f 

§ 3. — Externa horum carminum forma s. rhythmuSy in aliis 
idius, turn HebraBorum, turn Syrorum Arabumque leges rhjth- 
micas sequitur. Rhythmicas dixi non roetricas, qiiandoquidem 
Hebraeprum more a numerandis ponderandisque syllabis absti* 
nentes, in versibus meiiendis et secundum normam quandam 
dispescendis acquieverunt. Ac pleraque carmina, ut supra mo- 
iiuimus^ ad litterarum ordinem digesta sunt, ea lege, ut unum* 
quodque comma binis constet distichis, ab ea, quam litterarum 
ordo postulate littera auspicantibus. (vide Carm. i. v.) Ipsa 
tamen disticha versuum Arabicorum instar caesura quadam, qus 
in medio est, in duas partes aequales dissecantur, ita ut eodem 
jure, quod fecit Castellus, tetrasticha vocare possis commata. 
Unius carminis, quod apud nos sextum est, alia est ratio, quippe 
cujus singula commata ternis distichis constant. Eodem aitifi* 
cio, vel si mavis lusu poetico, praeter Hebraeos delectari etiam 
Syros Persasque, res i)ota est/ iisque addendi, quorum libri 
nuper innotuerunt, Nazoraei vel Galil-aei,^ linguas morumque cog* 
iiatione cum Samaritanis nostris juncti. Insunt tamen his codi- 
cibus alia etiam carmina, eaque simul oftoforeAffura, iis similia, 

quae Arabibus lamica (uI^U^^) mimica (C>U4^)cet.nominantur; 

quorumque ea ]ex est, ut omnes totius carminis versus in eandem 
litteram exeant. £t lamicis quidem carminibus annumerandum 
est illud, cujus fragmenta longiora cxstant cod. 5481. p. 29* 
mimicis id quod exstat ibidem p. S5, 6, 1^ quodque simul ad 
prius alphabeticorunfi carminum genus pertinet, siquidem littera 
stropharum initialis alphabeli normam ubique sequitur. Aliud 

« Assemani Bibl. Orient. Vol. III. T. i. p. 63. 828. Eichhorn in prasf. 
ad Jones de Poesi Abiat. p. 93. 

* Codex Nasorsus e<l. Norberg, Tom. II. p. 185. sq. 

3 Ex eodero carminum geoere est subscriptio rhythmica codicis Bar- 
b^riniauiy quam dedit de Roiti in Spec. Var. Lect. pc 171. 

40 Carmi Sam. Ante, e duob. Mm. Brit, 

verBiculos babet in He desinentes (ibid. pag. 63. 66. 69*)* ^^^^ 
gidari autem versificatores nostri in versibus secundum alphabefi 
ordinem alruendis uai sunt licentia, quam eandem tamenin Naxo* 
nBomm ejusdeni generis carminibus reperies. Etenim pro ea, 
quam litterarum ordo postulabat^ littera, saepe alia usi sunt cog* 
Data : eamque liceutiam perpetuo admiserunt in litteris guttura- 
libus, s. c. pro K promiscue ponentes vel H vel H vel 3ff rarius 
in aliis litteris, ut Carm. vi. !?• Ihi. S. Waw pro Phe, ibid, 
commato Lamed bis, pro Rescb. Pendet vero ea, quam dixi- 
mus licentia maximam partem a singulari ilia Samantanorum in 
omnibus gutturalibus eodem sono pronuntiandis negligentia.' 

§ 4.<— Cuncta, qusB in utroque codice leguntur, carmiud 
hymnos psalmosque continent in usum cultus publici Samarita- 
norum compositos, et eundem fere apud eos, quem psalmi apud 
JudsBos, locum sustinuisse videntur. Poeseos genus, sicut 
Syriacum, plerumque cenue est, omnesque auctores in eodem 
ferme consistunt et sententiarum et imaginuni orbe : neque 
desunt tamen ingeniose et per lusum verborum dicta (i. 8, 12, 
£2. ii. 9, 17, 18, 22. vi. 15.). Raro ad altiorem spiritum 
assurgit oratio. Linguae idioma proxime accedit ad illud, quo 
Pentateuchi interpres Samaritanus usus est : attamen habet illud 
quaedam sibi propria, quae in versione modo laudata frustra 
quaesiveris (v. ad i, 4.), et nonnunquam vel ad dialecti Hierosoly- 
mitanae similitudinem accedit (iii, 12. v, 2.) vel vocabula habet 
ex puriore Hebrabmo Arabismoque depronipta (vid. ad iv, 14. 
V, 10.). 

§ .5. — Quae tribus quatuorve carminibus apposita est, versio 
Arabica, et ad lectionem et ad sensum con^tituendum magni 
ilia quidem pretii, longiore forsan temporis spatio post ipsa 
carmina et quidem eorum in usum confecta esse videtur, qui 
post linguam Samaritanam emortuam Arabico sermone tanquam 
patrio utentes tali ad intelligendum adminiculo opus haberent. 
Qui earn conscripsit, interpretum biblicorum instar^ id saepissi- 
me egit, ut metaphoras audaciores interpretaretur et extenuaret 
(i, 12. 15. 20. 22. iii, 4. 10.), qua iu re cum Abusaida Penta- 
teuchi interprete Samaritano-Arabico aliquoties ad verbum paene 
convenit, i, 12. Ab anthropomorphism is porro, et anthropo- 
pathismis, quos vocant, idem magis etiam, quam ipsi poetae. 

* De aliis quibusdam anomaliis infra notavimus ad II» 15. 
^ Vide Winer de vers. Pentat. Samarit. p. 60. et quae monuimus infra 
ad p. 43. n. 

Codkib. edidit G. GeraniqSk 4\ 

aUiorret (i^ 17. iii/10.). Diaieclas^ qua uAur/ Arabi^a, WNi 
oMaino pura eat, et verba habet verborutnqiie foimas^ qnm vd 
HebraiaiiiiMn aapiunt (i, 1. ii, l?*) cujuilqiie generiB muka oe^ 
cmmmt in Juikeoruin libris Arabke acribentium,* vet Aramet 
iattiHD et Sattiaritaiiisinuiii (ii, 15.). Aliqnotiea etiam, in ortiioi- 
gnifibMi cerfe, accuratiom grammatics regulas migraase videCikft* 
(i, 17. ill, H.). 

§ 0.— 'Longe utilissima esse pltirimumque valere htec carmina 
ad dogmata Samaritanorum illustranda, dadum vidit^ quamquam 
in its interpretandis interdum csecutiens, magnus Castellus,* mul* 
toque plus cdmmodi ad rem dogmaticam hiijus gentis accoratiua 
perspiciendam inde redmidat, quam ex plurimis aliis, quae adhue 
edita sunt, antiquis Samaritanorum monumentisy^ ne dicam de iia^ 
quae fecentiores Samaritani, antiquitatis domestics ssepe parum 
gnM, ad philologos quosdam Europseos^ barum rerum cupidoa, 
perscripserunt J^ Sulisistunt enim ea plerumque in ritibus exterriia 
dembnstrandisy neque interiora attingunt fidei penetralia, qutt 
in carminibus nostris panduntur. Atque his quidem confirmatur^ 
qoas nos ipsi, Pentateuchum Samaritanum cum Alexandrino 
conferentes alibi observavimus,^ in re critica, hermenentica et 
dogmatica cognationem quandam Samaritan os inter et Judseos 
Alexandrinos intercessisse. Utraque enim seriorum Judasorum 
famiKa, ab ev^, qua; Judasis Hierosolyniitanis placebat theologia, 
qua^que turn in verbis S. S. anxie baerebat et superstitiose^ turn 
innumeris prasterea fidem dabat traditionibus, valde abborrens, 
aliam puriorem magisque spiritalem doctrinas formulam sequi. 

' Vide de libro trigl. Barber. Adler in Museo Cufico Borgiano pag. 44, 

* Vide iocunii quem not. 1. p. 35. adscripsimus. 

3 Praiter utramqiie Pentateuciii verbionrm hue pertinet coromentarius 
Arabicus in Pentateuchum in Bibl. Bodleiana exstans, (Hunt. SOI. vide 
Nicolli catalogum p. 3. et specimen, quod inde excerptum dedit Schnar- 
remSy Repert. ftir bibl. Litteratur t. xvi.), liber Jotua Lugdunensis, unde 
mnlta excerpsit Hottingerus in Smegmate Orieutali et in £nneade disser- 
tationum ; Abulphatachi Chronicon (vid. Nicoll. 1. c. pag. 4.) cujus speci- 
mina dedernnt Schnurrerus et de Sacy ; prae caeteris autem Abulhassani 
Tyrii opus dogroaticum, Oxonii asservatum, cujus praecipua capita nota- 
vit Nicoll. ]. c. p. 3. 

^ Historiam literariam harum epistolarum ad Jos. Sraligenim, ad Oxo- 
menses (mediante Huntingtono), ad Jobum Ludolfum, ad Gregorium et 
de Sacyum Parisienses datarum vide apud 111. de Sacy 1. c. (Memoire, 
cet. ab initio). 

' Comment, de Pentateuchi Samaritan) origine, indole et auctoritate, 
h d. 14. 16. 

A& Carm. Sam. Anec. e^uoh. Mus. Brit. 

4ttblimiorein nonnooquam Sacite Scripturse sensum tribuere, 
metaphysicis etiam meditationibua induigere coepit. Notissima 
aunt Pfailonis, etlibri aapientise auctoris theologumena : hisvero 
aimilia sunt, quae poetae nostri de lege Mosaica philosophantur, 
^uam jam in bexaemero e Deo prodiisse docent (iv, 18.), crea^ 
Uirarum praecipuam (iii, 4.), mundi invisibilis micam et speciem 
esse volunt (iii, 17.)» quae tamen omnibus saeculis divina sapientia 
imbuendis sufficiat, cet. quamque ita fere exomant, ut de )Jytp 
Pbilonis vel de a-ofla rou 6eou agi videatur. Monotheismi prae- 
terea tenacissimi Dei unitatem et creationem ex nihilo eamqoe 
sine socio effectam magnopere celebrant atque inculcant, et, ut 
lionnisi spiritualem esse Dei naturam tueantur, quicquid more 
bumano de eo dictum videretur, magnopere estimescunt, idque 
atudiosi agunt, ut omne humanae imbecillitatis opprobrium a 
summo numine amoveant. Neque tamen a traditiouibus my* 
thisque omnino alieni sun^ easque tunc certe sequuntur^ ubi<^ 
eunque ad legem magnificandam et augustiore specie induendam 
facere viderentur (cf. Carm. iv, vi.). De Christologia unua 
certe isque tamen eximius locus exstat^ iii^ 22. 

^ 7* — Superest omnium difficillima de ^^a^^horum carminum 
disputatio. £t maximi quidem in hac quaestione momenti eat 
carmen quintum (cf. iv, 4.)^ quod Samaritanos poetarum nos- 
trorum tempore ab hostibus exagitatos et oppressos fuisse 
arguit. Jam vero in historia Samaritanorum ejusmodi conditio- 
nem circumspicientes^ copia magis quam inopia laboramus, 
Kulla enim non aetate vel cladium acceptarum disertafitmentio, 
vel talis reipublicae erat status, ut conditionem eorum tenuem 
fuisse et oppressam non possis non suspicari. Jam ante natum 
Servatoreni Joannes Hyrcanus Samariam, urbem munitissiniam, 
solo aequavit et templum in raonte Garizim exstructum funditus 
evertit;' quo facto Samaritani Judaeis aliquamdiu servierunt, 
donee una cum iis in Romanorum potestatem pervenirent. 
De injuria, quam ab Herode perpessi sunt, non quidem Jose- 
phus sed domestici scriptores memoriae prodiderunt.^ Judaico 
bello idem fatum^ quod universam Pala?slinam etiam Samarita- 
nos pressit, cujus rei si non alia vestigia exstarent, vel hoc 
sufficere posset^ quod Vespasianus cum exercitu per Samarita- 
nam regionem descendit, ibique castra posuit.' Maguam iis 

* Jos. Archseol. xiii, 17. 18. 

* Abulphatachus NeuesRepert. T. i. p. 155. 
' Jos. de Bello Jud, v, 3. 

Codidb. edidit G. Gesetaius. 45 

postea cum Christiaiiis inimicitiam intercessisse Procopii lotm 
prodity' quo regnante Zenone eos Neapoli in Christianos die 
Padtacosties sacra facientes irruisse, Z^nonem vero in eos ani- 
madfertisse, eosqae de monte Garizim deturbasse narratnr. Et 
major etiam sub Justiniano tumultus erat. Sainaritas enim at 
Judasiy Palaestinam incolentes, ad Julianum quendam regio im- 
perio delato, motisque in Christianos amiis, rapinas, caedes^ 
incendia adversus eos excitarunt : J ustinianus vero^ eis devictis^ 
plerosque eorum vi ad sacra Christiana traduxit, eosque qui 
profession^m Christianam recusarent, honoribus^ quos majoribua 
eorum superiores imperatores concesserant, privavit omnibus.^ 
Saracenis denique in oriente invalescentibus eos succubuisse^ 
quamvis nemo, quod sciam, diserte narret, pro certo baberi 
potest, et duram miseramque fuisse eorum conditionem, vel 
inde apparet, quod vel nulla vel rarissima eorum a pud hujus asvi 
scriptores mentio est. Plurimos eosque doctissimos et loca* 
pletissimos Damasci vixisse, multosque eorum non invito 
iEsculapio artem medicam exercubse et aliunde patet,' et sub-' 
scriptiones codicum Samaritanorum, qui fere omnes in hac urbe 
exarati sunt luculenter ostendunt> 

His vero ita expositis^ ut dicam, quod sentio, vel ilia sub 
Justiniano persecutio, vel recentior quaedam sub Saracenarum 
imperio^ vel in universum tenuis duraque illorum sub Muham- 
medanis conditio carmine illo quinto innui videtur. Et posterior 
quideni sententia aliquam commendationem habere videtur a 
nominibus auctorum, quas maximam partem Arabicae originis 
sunt, ut Abulphatach ben Jusuf, Saphi al Merhani, cet. Sunt 
tamen alia quaedam momenta, quae antiquiorem eorum originem 
prodere videntur. Ac primum quidem ipsa dialectus Samari-* 
tana jam ante saeculum septimum emortua esse et Arabicae 
cessisse videtur. Pentateuchi enim interpretatio Chaldaeo-Sama- 
ritana, non amplius usui idonea fuisse videtur, ut primum 
Graeca, deinde Arabica opus esset.' Occurrunt quidem recen- 

• Procop. de ^dis. v, 7. 

* Vide Procop. 1. c, Theophanes ed. Paris, f. 152. Eutychii Annales 
T. ii. p. 156. Photii Nomocanon tit. x. c. 8. Cf. Jacob. Gothofredi ad 
le^g. xvi et xxiv. Cod. Theod. de Jodseis et Samaritis. 

3 Abulpbat. Hist. Dyn. p. 343. Ibn Oseibea ap. NicoUium 1. c. p. 1S3. 

^ Vide, quae citavimus not. 5, p. 38. Plurimi etiara, qui in scriniis 
Europaeis exstant, codices in urbe Dainascena coemti sunt. 

^ Versionem Chaldaso>Samaritanam ante Origenis tempora confectam 
esse, et ex eadem fluxisse versionem Samaritano-Graecam, ab Origene 
ToD ZttjtAOfiiTixoi; nomine excitatam, perfecte demonstravit Wlnena Prof. 
Lipsiensis (de versione Samarit. pag. 9.). Carmina nostra post banc, 

44 Carnu Sam. Ante e duob. Mus. Brit. 

lioribufl quoqae lempoiibus codd. subscriptiones,' hac dialecto 
coosignatae, itA paucissimis iilae phrasibus iisque perquam tritis 
constaotes. Deinde ipsorom Theologumenorum ratio colorque 
tiiin poeCiciu^ tmn ad rhilonis |diiloiK)phimieDa prope accedens, 
statem antiquior^in referre viidetiir. Apud recentiores eoim 
periisse banc qualemcunque Ifaeologiae indolem et poeticam et 
philosopbicaiDy et Abulhassani opus dogmaticuniy qui in legibus 
litibusque demonstrandis paene totum versatur, et loca quaedam 
ill Abulphatacbi chronico dogmatica ostendunt Propius ad 
dogmalicam canninutn nostrorum indolem accedunt ea, quae in 
libro Joaua^^ opere quippe antiquiore^ ad theologiam pertinentia 

Sumta autem hac antiquiore carminum origine^ auctores illi, 
noniinibus Arabicis insigmti, miuime auctores, sed coUectores 
et interpretes horum carminum habendi erunt. Casterum oon 
prasfracte repugnarem, si quis post Muhammedis demum tern- 
pora haBC carmina composita esse contenderit : siquidem Sama- 
ritanorum haeresis prae aliis antiquioris doctrinae tenax erat, et 
iliedium etiam asvum, florentibus Syrorum Arabumque litteris, 
ingeniis poeticis abuudabat. 

§ 8. — Duplicem in his carminibus interpretandis rationem 
secutus sum, alteram philologico-criticam, alteram dogmaticam. 
In verbis explicandis cum parum siifficerent Morini, Castelli et 
Cellarii opera, ubique ca^teris dialectis Aramaeis, Chaldaica, 
ioprimis Cbaldaico-Uierosoljmitana, Syriaca atque Nasorasa usi 
sumus, eaque, quae nominavimus, opera philologica e carminibus 
Dostris et emendanda etsupplendaputavimus.^ In re dogmatica 
inprimis Philonem, libros quosdam Apocrypbos, aliaque Sama- 
ritanorum opera adbibuimus, aliaque multa nobis obtulissent 
Judaeorum libri dogmatici, a quibus tamen, ne justo iieremus 
longiores, abstinendum esse duximus, bunc de oamaritanorum 
tbeologia locum alibi seorsim tractaturi. 

quam diximus, versionem Clialdseo-Samaritanam edita esse, locus iv, 9. 
arguere videtur. 

' Vid. not. 4, p. 4a. 

^ Vide Castelli Lex. emendatum In notis ad i, 21. iii, 21. iv, 14. cf. vv. 
nSvpi nM8p> ^D9> siippletum vero in indice, quern in fine adjecimus. 


NOTM CRITIC JE in Q. Horatii Flacci Opera 
manti Joan Nis Clerici marginibus cremplaris editi" 
onis ToRBBNTii adscripts. Ed. Salomonsen. 

[Miscell. Critifla VoJ. i. P. iii.] 

Satirarum Liber t. Sat. i. v. 88. Torreniium hic s^quitur 
Sentteius, et legit an, addita interrogadooe post Jrenis. Melior 
¥ulgata lectio. Aiioqiii contorta est oratio. 

V. 120. Emendat Bentleius lippuoii quod Horatius ipse lip- 
pus esset; aed quid lippitudo ad compilationem ? Forte inepti» 
Vide Sat. iii. 139- 

Sat. II. V. 38. Ha?c sensu carent. Pro nan, lege rem, ut est 
in versu Ennii^ ad quern adludit Horatius. Vide Acronem. Beni^ 
lam male machos. 

V. 68. Rectius, videntis, nempe, mutoDis, cui cum verba tri- 
buaotur, ocuios tribui nihil mirum. Videnti relatum ad mala 
patientem frigidum est. Bentleius hic nihil vidit. 

V. 90. Ne, Est collectio e superioribus^ Ne ergo contem- 
pUre. Absurde argutatur hic Bentleius. 

V. 129. F. (v(t !) pallida, ul aoruvSerov servetur, non ne. De 
fMT vide I. Od. xiii. 3. 

V. 131. Bentleius legit doti hoc depr. Sed ro hac et abun- 
daty et friget. 

Sat. III. V. 7. Ciiare est frequentativum rou ciere, et saepius 
dara voce dere signif. Vide Ciceronem de Or. L. i. 59* Po- 
tuit in Musicis adhiberi. Non est mutandum in iteraret cum 

V. 14. Scaliger et Muretus: jntraettoga. 

V. 15. Seal. rasa. £ marg. Ep. Senecae cxx. £d. Jugaei. 

V. W. F. aty nam et est absurdum. 

V. 25. F. nee, id est, ne quidem. Pravideas est absurdum 
et inusitatum. 

V. 29. Acutis. Recte, nam opponitur simplicitati, cum qua 
conjunctn saepe est iracundia. Vide Senecam. 

V. 58. Tarditatem incessus piuguedine excusamus ; aed hic 
pinguis est convicium deterius tardo. 

V. 11 7. Bentleius vult Dhmm sacra, radere, vulnerareque 
aores sua aaperitate, reponendumque e Codd* sacra Divum, 
quas lenior molliorque est lectio. O aurea Britaniiaa ! 

Sat. IV. V. 14. Miuimo; nempe, pignore a me deposito, .cui 

46 Joannis Clerici 

ipse magnum opponat. Minimo emtre, minimo transigere di* 
cunt Latini. 

V. 20. Scribit Bentleius emolliat, ob duritiem versus. O 
delicias ! 

V. 34. Nil opus est mutari Pdetas in Pdetam propter se- 
quentia. Supplendum enim, nam Pcleta fxnum, etc. Mime- 
sis est de uno quodam poeta dicentium. 

V. 73. Ne mutsi cuiquam in quidquam, nam perinde est. 
Quis damnet dicentem : nemini recito, nisi amicis? Nemo, nisi 
putidus Grrammaticus. 

Sat. v. V. 92. Nolim delere hunc versum, quasi superfluum, 
nam non ita parci verborum Poetas ; nee quasi barbarum, nam 
condere locum tam bene dicitur quam condere urbem, aut pro* 
vinciam aut insulamy etc. Sic Thucydides xcopiov xril^ofuivov. 

Sat. VI. V. 4. F. multis, — v. 23. F. conspectos, id est, conspi- 
cuos, gloriosos ; cum constrict! dicantur captivi. Vide Georg. 
III. 17. 

V. 94. F. exactis annis, hoc est, exacto vitas tempore. In 
lectione vulgata, vix sensum invenias. 

Sat. VII. V. 3. F. lixisy nam quod lixae et calones sciunt om« 
nibus est notum. Uppis hie nullus est locus. 

V. llj 12. Inter et tn^er bene Latinum. Ineptit hie Bent" 
leius. Vide Bibl. Sel. T. xxv. p. 171. et Parad. i. Ciceronis 
4, unde frustra inter eliminare voluit Gruterus, contra fidem 
Codd. quern locum non inspectum fastidiose rejicit .Bentleius. 
Adde Cicer. de Amicit. c. 25. 

V. 27. F. rapta, a frondatore forte relicta ad ripam. 
Sat. IX. V. 1. Bentleius: Ibamut. Nihil opus. 
V. 36. Vadato, quod omnes Libri habent, frustra mutat 
Bentleius in vadatus. 

Sat. X. V. 27. Latine, id est, cum summam operam dent 
Pedius et Corvinus ut mere Latine loquantur, malisne verba 
minus Latina adhiberi f Nullus alioqui sensus, quidquid garriat 

V. 32. £ cod. emendat me tali. Vide eumdem ad v. 49. 
y. 37. Alii depingit, melius ; hoc est, lutulenfum Rheni fon- 
tem describit. Ineptit hie Bentleius, quasi a figulo desumta 
esset metaphora. 

V. 57* iMfractos, hoc est, in quibus caesuras . leges melius 
observentur. Nihil tamen muto. 

Sat. Lib. ij. Sat. i. v. 10. Male emendat Bentleius capit, 
prius enim est efficacius, aptiusque ad vehementem adfectum 

V. 31. Melius umqu^m, neque enim mentio est de versibus^ 

Nota in Horatium. 47 

aed de eonim eyentu, qui male ei cedebat^ quod Tiris honoratis 

V. 79* L. refingercj hoc est mutare, efnendare. ▼, i. Od. 

XXXV. 59. 

V. 84. fiene est laudatur, nee mutandum. 

y. 85. Latraverit. Recte, nee mutandum. Vide Epod. 
VI. 1. 8. sqq. 

Sat. II. V. 2. Quern pracepit; hoc est, quern prior dixit, vel 
habuit. Qui scripserunt qua, hoc non animadverterant. 

V. 29* Ordo est : quamvis ilia (caro, nempe gallinae) nihil 
distat hac (pavonis, scilicet), tamen patet te deceptum formis 
imparibus. Distat ilia est differt ab ilia, non excellit : quod cum 
recta Latinitate ac sententia Poetae pugnat. In utroque peccat 
Bentleius, Vide v. 53. 

Sat. 111. V. t)7. Vitiose Bentleius. Turn insanus, in £d. 

V. 112. Nihil opus hie legi projectus cum BentleiOf nam por- 
rectus est qui cuba». 

V. 172. Nil opus est legere hie perdere. Vultenim Horatius : 
postquam te vidi talos et nuces donare et ludere negligentius, 
intellexi te satis ad rem adtentum non fore. Non opus est, ut 
in re tantilla, tam adcurate loquatur Poeta. 

V. 189* Si legas quare, ut Bentleius, nil opus est ut mutes 
ac in at. Sensus est ; si modo fiat quod volo, patiar in factum 
hoc meum inquiri, justum ne sit, an secus. Si quid mutandum 
esset, legerem, v. 178. at aquam, hoc est, attamen nihil ini- 
quum jubeo, rationemque facti reddere possim. Quae est v. 


V. 208. Graece dixeris SiXXoxorovg ISias mn>celot$ xa) jtto;^li)- 
glas Sopu^coSoo^ jstffjEJbiyjEX.£yai xco^^orei. 

V. 259* Recte, ut antea recusatj negat ; non optet, ut vult 

y. Sl(j. Nihil muta, nam non opus est in fabellis adcurate 
loqui, prssertim ranas. Valeat ergo Bentleius, cum suo pemi- 
mio, pro dimidio. 

Sat. IV. V. IS. F. ampla^ quia marem continent. Alma est 
absurdum et inauditum, ubi de ovis. Simili argumento utitur 
ad V. 48. Bentleius. " 

V. 19* Bene mista, quia non solent mergi gallinae nisi aqua. 
Ineptit hie Bentleius, nam miscere vinum passim occurrit, sine 
additione vocis aqua, quia per se subauditur. Vid. Od. lii* 19. 
12 et Sat. II. IV. 65. 

v. 37. Si legas averrere, sensus idem est; hoc est, opipara 

48 Joannis Clerici 

mensa averrerc quidquid est pretiosorum piscium e foro pisca- 
rio. Ineptit Bentleius, nee se extricat. 

V. 49. Fecundi mutatum 'mfecunda, quod rem ita postulare 
putavit librarius. 

V. 60. Flagitat immorsuSf nempe, potor, cui perna et hillae 
iinguam salsugioe mordent, bibendique cupidinem excitant. 
Nugatur hie Bentleim. 

V. 65. Quod pinsuu Nempe^ jus simplex, quod fit eo modo 
compositum. Nihu multa. 

V. 66. Quam qua Byzantia. Sic bene alii. Hoc est, quam 
Byzantia muria quae in orca potuit, hoc est, diu servata est, 
Potuisset Byzantia orca prava muria putere. 

Sat. V. V. Sg. Lego : fundet ingefUes statuas* Hyperbole 
est, quae intolerandum aestum significat, ore vulgi, ut videtur, 
jactata. Infantes statua pro ligneis recens factis sunt commen- 
titiae non mnius enim infantes dici queant aeneae recentes ; et 
metaphora durior est, quam ut concoqui possit. 

V. 79* L* venit enim (magnum!) donandi, etc. Hoc est, 
an magnam rem putas, a juventute parca, et ventripotius quam 
Veneri, dedita muiierem non corrumpi. Nihil ergo muta. Vid. 

Ep. V, 87. 

V. 104. Sensus est : licet fictis lacrimis vultum, alioqui gau- 
dium prodentem, celare. Nihil mutandum. 

Sat. VI. V. 64. Cave referas satis ad pingui, cum Bentleio; 
referendum ad uncta, 

V. 83. Nee illi, nee ille placent. Lege; ne^ue hilum. 
Debet enim hie esse accusativus rei, quiun non invidit rusticus 
nunc urbano. Sic semper loquitur Horatius, more Latino, non 
Graeco. Quod praesertim in ejusmodi fabella fecit. Vid. Ind. 

V. 114. Si decorum spectes, melius legas: molestis F^libus 
insonuity cum de muribus sermo sit : sed decorum in fabellis 
non ita servatur. V. i. Ep. vii. 29* 

Sat. VII. v. 1. F>exspecto, nimirum, commodum tempus te 

V. 64. Malim superbe, aut, superbe, voc, sed forte m^us 
alius hie latet. 

V. 82. Lignum recte, nam vnvpo(r7ra(rroi sunt lignea. Ne ergo 
legas signum, cum Bentleio. 

Epistolarum Lib. i, Ep. i. v. 19* Melius: nee mihi res, sed 
me ;. Haec enim fuit Ari^tippi sententia. 

Vid. Ep. XVII. 23, et 24. et Livium L. xxii. 38,i 11. 

V. 105. Noli mutare respicientis in suspicientiSf nam illud qyio- 

Not a in Horatium. 49 

que de iiiferiore f^rga sqpeiiorem dicitor, ut respicere Deos, re- 
spectu^ Imp. Rom. Vide et Ps. cxxiii^ 2. 

£p. II. V. 10. Cogi posse uegat belli praecidere causas^ reddita 
Helena ; ut cum ilia regnet etc. Ne mutes quid in quod, cum 

V. 3 1 • L. cessantum d. c. hoc est^ educere ex animo otiosorum 
curam. Vid. Plaut. Prol. Casinae v. 24. in aut. Ed. 

V. 34. Si nolis sanus, curres hydropicus, videtur proverbium 
medicum^ quod metaphorice significat nisi antevertas vitium, 
adhibitis remediis ; cum nocuerit, adhibenda erunt, majore multo 

v. 60. L. amens, ut ira describatur. Mens avr) tou vou; su- 
mituFy qui adfectibus adversatur. Amens dolore frequens lo- 
quutio. Vide Curtium L. iv. c. x, 9Q. 

V. 67. Pet. Colvius in Apul. p. 211. citat: nunc pectore 
puro Perbibe v. p. an ex menioria, an ex codice nescio. Sic 
loquutus Seneca £p. xxxvi. 

£p. III. V. 4. Turres, hoc est, urbes, nam sine turribus non 
sunt. Noli mutare in terras, cum Bentleio. Hinc simulacra 
urbium turrita corona cincta. 

V. 30. Si tibi. Torreutium exscripsit Bentleius, ut s%pe, 
licet idem exprobret Dacerio ad ii, Ep. i, 142. 

Ep. IV. V. 11. Mundus victus rectum est^ nihil muta. Nihil 
opus domum memorari^ quae satis intelligitur. 

V. 16. Parcum legit M. Meibom. in Diogenem L. x, 131. 

Ep. V. Y. K Exscripsit Torrentium ad hunc locum Bentleius. 

Ep. VI. V. 32, L. et lusu digna, hoc est, digna quae jocis et 
risu excipiantur. Nihil frigidius lectione recepta. Sic Amxi' 
bias lib. ii« p. in. ut ea, qua offeruntur a Cbristo ludum 
atque ineptias nomines. 

V. 59. L. plateasque, nempe^ difFertas.. Male Bentleius 
campum, quod nimis distat a scriptura Codd. 

Ep. VII. V. 22. F. cuivis ; nempe dono accipiendo, quod co- 
miter offertur, nee tamen ignorat quid distent, etc. To tamen 
^usmodi sententiam postulat. 

V. 25. F. reddas hie et in duobus sequentibus.. 
. V. 29. Vulpeculaest sciurus^ animalculum e vulpium genere, 
quod tritico etiam vescitur, pra^sertim urgente fame. Nihil ergo 
mutandum contra omnes Codd. v. ad 2. S. v 11, 1 14. v. 33. F. 

V. 35. Somnus, aut securitas, ut interpretantur, non sat apte 
opponitur lautis cibis. Forte legendum scombrum, qui piscis 
sale conditus vilis erat pretii. 


50 Joannis Clerici 

V. 63. F. rem spondet ; hoc eat, ccenam : niminim PhiHppi 
puer^ quam tamen non accipit Mena. 

Ep. X. V. 19. Non loquitur de sottino, ae ergo muta /flfpf7/w, 
in tapetis, cum Bentleio, 

V. 37. L. victo vitulans. Vide Festum in vitulans, D^ri- 
Vatur a vitulus, non a vita. 

£p. XI. V. 1. Nota, frigidum epith^ton, forte lata, 

Ep. XV. V. 6. Dicta noii satis commodum/naiti vicus non 
did tantum, sed apta esse sulfura putabat expellere morbum. 
Vide ergo annon Apta ihelius rit. ' ^ 

V. 13. Equi non est jungendum cum est, sed cum ore. Agi- 
tur de uno equo, nee quidquam mutaiidum. Verum pro sed, 
aut set, ut scribebant, legendum et, nulla enim est oppositio. 
Multo minus sententia est, sed pars narrationis, ut signi6cet 
Horatius equum ad Isevum fiexisse iter^ trahente iliac frenum 

V. 16. Dulcis aqua. Recte, nana prope mare swpe p«tci 
salsugihem sapiunt. JNe ergo scribe jitgis, quod satis antece- 
dente voce exprimitur. 

Ep. XVI. V. 15. Etiam, si credis. Recte, crescit enim bra- 
tio ; nam plus est amcenus, quam dulcis. Cave ergo leg^s et 
(jam si credis) amosna, cum Bentleio. 

y.40. Defendit vulg. lectionem Torrentius et \Beii^&iflnfli» 
rejicit ; ac sane medicandum hiiic loco non convenit. V. vr. 91 
et 45. 

V. 53. L. admittis. Sententia est: boni quidem oderunt 
flagitia solo aniore virtutis, tu vero nihil mali admittis sola pcenas 

Ep. XVII. v. 49. lt.Jindatur, nam petit mtinus, nt bene Lam- 

Ep. xviii. V. 81. Cave scnhzsjidenter cam Bentleio. 

Ep. XIX. V. 4. Post Poetas debet esse comma, ad supertora 
enim refertur oluerunt. Ut est postquam, quidquid contra dicat 

Epist, Lib. II. Ep. 1. v. 2. Res Italas moribus orwflre rec- 
tum, manibns absurdum. Vide Ger. Noodt Prob. L. I.* c. n. 

V. 2, 3. Vide Ovidium Met. xv, 833 et seq. et Carm. L. 
111. Od. XXIV, 35. Piccarti Observ. Dec. xvi. c. 1. 

y. 6. Post ifig. facta. Bene interpretantur ;po&t mortem, 

Iuia non nisi morientes ab ingentibus factis destiterunt. Ntigatur 
^ent., cum ingentiafata scribit. 

V. 13. Nota hie varietatem m^taphorarum. ^Prdsgravare 
est niajoris ponderis haberi, pluris fieri. Sa^pe eo verbo iilitur 
Val. Max. Vide Lib. iii. c. viii, 5. 

Nota in Horatium. 51 

V. 3K Nihil muta^ adverbio extra usus propter ▼ersum. 
Olea est durum. 

V. 41. Pdetas, bene : nam et v. 34. pdemata dixit, nee opus 
est t^m adcurata oppositione, quam vult Bentleius* 

V. 75. Duett et vendit, bene, nam duo activa verba requi- 
nintur, non venit* 

V, 1 15. Cave scribas snelicorum, et melicin Sic enim dicun« 
tur Poetse Ijrici, non citbarcedi. 

V. 188. Incerti oculi ab varietate spectaculorum. Si quid 
mulandum esset, sqriberem potius indoctos quam ingratos, ut 
Bentleius, quod est procul accersitum. ' 

V. 240. Si displicet ducere ara, scribe ora. Sed nihil opus, 
nam et metalla duci et ductilia dicuntur. 

£p« II. V. 53. Forte emendari queat: expugnarey 5ectire>hoc 
est, adducere^ ut malim versus facere, quam secure dormire. 
Tacet hie Bentleius. Sed hoc sapere est; qua neque emendare 
potes nee ullo exemplo defendere, transilire tamquam sana neque 
in suspicibnem vocanda, ut loquitur ipse ad v. 87. 

V. 87. Fr;itres dicuntur quapiam in re similes, ut gemellu 
I Ep. X, S. Ei^o frater est hie similis, ita ut alter alterum laude 
. aeque indignum pariter laudet. 

V. 90. Vexat. Recte ; nihil muta. 

v. 92. JNoli mutare calatum in sacratum, cum Bentleio* 
Verba sunt duorum vatum, quorum alter de alterius opere : mi^ 
rabtle vUu et a Musis novem ccelatum, hoc est, ornatum opus. 
Nihil bic atultum, 

V. n\, "Rtctjerefugit : agitur enim de re praeterita. Turn 
demum 5t(a populus vpcat, quae ceftis limitibus jam clausit, quia 
refugit, seu vitavit jurgia. Refrigere jurgia, quis ferat, pra^ter 

De arte pdetica Liber, v. 2. Nihil mutandum. Sensus est: si 
pictor jungere velit humano capiti cervicem equinam, eique cer- 
vici varias plumas inducere, adjunctis praeterea ei membris undi- 
que collatis, ut etc. 

V. 23. Quovis lenius est quam quidvis, quod Bentleianum. ^ 

V. 26. Ijeviq, recte, quia aspentas saepe vim addit orationi. 
Ne ergo tenia scribas, cum Bentleio, 

y. 32. Faber quidam certus significatur ex iis, qui circa M- 
milium ludum tabernas habebant ; quem, a situ officinae, imum 
▼ocat. Nihil muta* Verba. ipsa ungues exprimet etc. satis pe- 
ritiam ejus exprimunt, nee opus est unum. dici, ut hoc intelliga- 

V. 43. Ut quae pro loco et tempore debent dici, dicat. Seo- 
aus est optimus. Itaque post dici pone comma. Pleraque vero 

52 Joannis Clerici Nota in Horatium. 

oniittaty ut in Heroicis Poematibus solet^ in quibus a media Ta- 
bula initium sit. Hac amet etc. delectum rerum et circumstan- 
tiarum significant^ seque ac verborum. 

V. 52. Ficta minime caedit aures ingrata repetitione^ quia pra&- 
cessit fingere^ now ficta. Vide ad v. 154. 

V. 59* Procudere habent alii libri^ et quidem recte, sed nulli 
nummum pro nomine. Noli mutare^ propter repetitionem, cum 
mutatus sit numerus. Collectio ex antecedentibus, non hri^ivtifJLoi, 

V. 60. Silva mutantur folih eleganter dictum, nee pronos 
ttiutaodum in privos, quod non significat singulos, ut vult Bent^ 
leius. Cicero civitale mutari similiter dixit pro Corn. Balbo 
c. 15 et 18. 

V. 95. Huic versui proxime subjungendus 98. aut duo inter- 
positi sunt Parenthesi claudendi. Tragicus est Poeta, qui dolere 
dicitur, cum dolentes inducit. 

V. 113. Sat rectum est j^ei/iVes. Nihil mutandum. 

V. 1£0. r//tioy, ut Uljssem vocat Homerus Odys. K, 38. 
Vide et A, 483. 

V. \9Q. Rectius esset^ deducas carmen, hoc est, deducere 

V. 154. Noli mutare plausoris in fautoris, propter verbum 
plaudite. Repetitio ejusmodi aures non offendit. Vide ad vss. 
52,59. Vide Vavass. p. llOet 119. Mque commode pro sf 
plausoris legere queas spectatoris, et interrogationis nota iseq. yer- 
tfum claudere. 

V. 16 1. Imberbi, Guietus e Nonio. Menagian. T. i. p. 
301. Sic Cruquius e Codd. 

V. 196. Consilietur, id est consilium det. Consiliare active 
idem apud Statium v. Silv. 11, 59. et in Glossis. 

V. 206. Parvus. Tan. Faber emendabat^ parcus. 

V. 256. F. alter na. 

V. 259. Mobilibus e Ms. C. emendat et tuetur P. Victorius 
ill Cic. Ep. Fam. L. v. Ep. 2. Sed ex iis, quae habet, legendum 
potius esset : Acci im-mobilibus quia scatebant spondaeis, mini- 
raeaue erant xivijrixoi. 

V. 260. L. missusy i. versus spondeis plenus ; nempe, iam- 

V. 3l8. Ducere pro deducere. Non est e statuaria desum* 
tuin, ut vult Bentleius. 

V. 441. Omnia quae sunt tomo facta, non sunt aeque bene 
tarnata. Ideoque tam jnale, quam bene tornata dici qneant. 
Hinc Xotyrjvo^ 6VTopvevTo$, in Ep. Inc^rti Poetae Anthol. inedita; 
Cm. Ep. 44. Prorsus ineptit hie Bentleius. Jsocratis et 
Platonis Aoyoi dicuntur a Dionysio Hat. T. 2. p. cccxvi, IS, 

Notice of UArt de Plaire d'Ovide. 53 

yKwrroig x«i ropetrrois hixoreg. Sic SidoDius Ep. J 3. Lib. ix. 
habet Horatiana incude formatos Asclepiadeos, ut videatur hue 


VART DE PLAIRE nOVIDE, Foeme en trois 
chants, suivi du Remede d*Amour^ Pohme en un 
chanty nouvelle traduction en vers Franfais, avec le 
texte Latin en regard^ et De la Fidelite^ Pohme ero^ 
tique en trois chants. Par P. D, C. Qvo. Paris, 
pp. 273. 

Of authors who, as Hobbes archly expresses it,' have been tra^ 
duced into £iiglishy Ovid is the most unfortunate. Sandys has 
ably translated and explained the Metamorphoses, but his work 
is daily becoming obsolete ; while the medleys which bear the 
names of Garth and Sewell have by no means superseded it : 
indeed, with the exception of Dry den's Virgil and Pope's Iliad, 
the worst versions extant are those of our Augustan age ; and 
the principal reason is, that they were done by ' a society of gen- 
tlemen,' not by an individual whose taste or genius prompted 
such an undertaking. Dryden, it is true, devoted his time 
to this portion of Ovid, but without much success; for its 
merit consists in beauties which cannot easily be conveyed 
into another language. A French translation by M. de 
Saint- Ange already existed, and that this is of a speculative na- 
ture seems evident from the theory of the poet. Following M. 
Dumergue,^ he has altered the title^ and gives the following rea- 
sons for so doing. 

Let scholiastes ei les anciens n'ont jamais doiin^ it cet onvrage 
d*aatre titre qae oelai de VArt de la Galanterie (Am Amatoria). C'est 
ainsi que Ja proposition de ce Pobme est indiqu^e dans raucienoe ^di* 
lion de la Biblioth^ae dn Roi. Franpois Jaretns, Joseph Scaliger, Claude 
Pateanns, S^n^ae dans sea Controveneg^ Aorelius Victor dans la Vi§ 
d'Aitguste, Freculphus, livre vmi, de ses Chronics, Entycbui et les 

^ Preface to translation of Tbucydidea. 
^ Solutions Grammaticales, p. 494. 

54 Notice qf VArt de Plaire d'Ovidc* 

Scholiasfes sar les mannscrHs, ne qnaKfient pas ce Po^me aniremenf. 
C'est doDo mal ^ propos qae les fradncf enrs Tont nomm^ tArt dimmer, 
II Yalait mieiix loi conserver poor titre VArt de la Galanterie (Art Amar 
toria), parce qu'en effet la galanterie pent recevoir les secours de Fart, 
plat6t que de le qualifier Art d'aimer, pnisqn*il est vrai qae 

SaDs art on sait aimer, sans art an coear soapire. 

Grammaticalement, ce titre est nne tradaction faative de celoi Ars 
amandi, qa*Ovide semble avoir donn^ a son Poeme. 

Les g^rondits ne sont qae des cas da participe passif en -dm, ainai que 
r^tablit le savant commentatear de la Minerve de Sanctitu. Toot g6- 
rondif a done nne signification passive. Alors, ars tmmndi^ ou il faot 
soas-entendre mt, signifie littlralement Tart de soi devant 6tre aim^. 
Tart de se faire aimer, Tart de plaire, oa Tart d'inspirer de Tamour. 

Accordingly^ the new translator (M • Piraulx des Chaumes) 
renders the first couplet thus : 

Tgnorez-vons, amans, Tart de vons faire aimer ? 
Venez k mes lemons, et voas saarez charmer. * 

Nothing affords so great a proof of Ovid's talent^ as the re- 
currence of images and descriptions without a sameness : the 
story of Cephalus and Procris occurs in the Metamorphoses, 
as well as here, and both details are admired. We shall extract 
part of the translation from the latter^ as enabling our readers to 
judge more decisively of the translator's merit : 

Le Boleil avait mis une ^gale distance 
Entre Tombre qui fait et Tombre qai s'avance : 
Le noble fils d*£ole, ^pais6 de chalear, 
Tient de Tonde limpide implorer la fraichear; 
Procris respire h peine, et T^poax qa*elle adore. 
Seal et coach^ sar Therbe, invoqae le nom d'Aare. 
Procris, hearease enfin, a conna son errenr. 
La joie a de son teint ranim^ la coulear, 
£lle se l^ve, et court, ^cartant le feuillage, 
A a sein de son ^poux expier son outrage. 
C^phale croit entendre un bote des for^ts, 
£t sar son arc tendu balance un de ses traits. 
Imprudent ! ah retiens ta fl^he criminelle ! 
fJ^las ! il a frapp^ son Spouse fiddle ! 
* Cephale si moi. Ce trait perce mon sein jaloax : 
Mon tendre coeur toujours fut le but de tes coups. 
Je meurs avant le temps, mais ne suis point trahie I 
La terre en dcvra moins peser sur ton amie. 
. Ame ^ue j'accusai, porte mon ame aux cieux, 
J'expire, cher epoux, dalgne fermer mes yeux.' 
II presse sur son sein son Spouse mourante ; 
II monille de ses pleurs sa olessure sanglante ; 

Si quis in hoc artem populo tion novit amtindi, 
Me legate et lecto carmine doctns amet. 

ThtQcriti Vulgata Lectiofies. 55 

Par degres 1» trepas tar elle vient pecer ; 

£t son dernier soupir est an dernier baiser. — p. 167-9. 

'Pie last line is rather an emendation, but none of the transla- 
tion is very close, and the whole has the air of an original com- 
positioQ. The notes display some acuteness, and illustrate se* 
veral points of literature ; we extract a few specimens : 

Qoi Marten terra, Neptnnam effdgit in nndis, 
CoDJngis Atrides viotima dira foit — v. 19. p. 34. 

U existe denx ^pitapbes grecqaes de ce roi des rois, qa'on croit avoir 
v§cn I'an da monde 3026, et avoir r^gne 18 ans. Elles sont rapport^es 
dans r^dition Variorum d^Aasonios. 

La premiere est ainsi concae, 'Etranger, voas voyez le tombeaa d'A- 
gaiiiemnoii,fils d'Atr^e, qui rat tue par iEgiste et par sa faneste* epouse/ 
La seconde : ' Ce monoment estcelai d'Agaroemnon.fils d'Atrides, au- 
quel la divine Clyt^mnestre, fille de Tyndare, donna injastement la 

Ces deax ^pitapfaes avaient ete recaeilties par les deux fr^es Cante- 
ms, sayans ijlustres do seizi^me si^cle. 

Yisite laorigero sacrata palatia Pboebo ; 
Ille ParsBtonias mersit in alta rates. — v. 7. p. 144. 

Ceux des Romains qui avaient une foi robuste, croyaient qa*Apollon 
avait combatta poor Augaste centre Antoine, k la bataille d'Actium. 

Qoi Pateal Jannmque timet, celeresque Kalendas.— v. 11. p. 216. 

Le mot Kalendes ^tait deriv^ da grec KoA.^ j*appe]Ie, parce que le 
premier de cbaque mois Je Pontife convoquait le peuple au Capitole 
pour lui annoncer la division de ce mois en katendes, en ides, et en 

We have only to wish that in his remarks on Ovid^ and criti- 
cisms on St. Ange, as Jerry Sullivan says in the Heroine, he 
would be so modest as not to show his modesty. 


Qucedam vulgata lectiones defenduntur atque explicantur. 

Nbque Theocritus B — ano eget auxilio^ et 

irv^ d htvTUinros avarg^u kg Jio^ euig — Id. xiii. lU 
omnibus satisfacit prster iUos qui Grasce scribendi, quam ipsi 

' Tbis word must be taken in the secondary sense of unlucky in 
English. - . 

56 Theocriti Vulgala Lectianes. 

Gneci, se magis pollere putant. — Volgata lectio^ qaam supra 
▼idemus, et vera et pulcherrioia est. 

Hoc modo Anglice interpretari Telim : — ^ When Aurora with 
ber splendid steed mounts up the sphere of Jove,** — Post ^ ^to^, 
constructione notissima, ovpavcv subinteiligenduro est. — Pro ova- 
rpi^et l^Aios oui^ — fingit G. B.lAa rpci^ov eSkog cuig,quK lectio sca- 
tet ineptiis. Namque oui$ et €1^$ sibi ipsis sunt infestissima : 
quandoquidem cuos est prima Diei lux effulgens ; sl^eo^autemyauc- 
tore Hesjchio etipso G. B — adstipulante, jiaifua, vim caloris 
meridiani, significat. Quae res quam pulcherrime cum matutino 
tempore Aurorave convenit ! 

Adde quod iXaif ^^^^X^ ^^ trochum agere, utve nostrates ver- 
terent, ** to trundle the hoop." Vide Bulengerum ''de ludis pri- 
Tatis ac domesticis Teterum." De hoc rpixpv lusu Euripidem 
quoque testem liabemus, Med. v. 46. — 

oAX' oTBe iralZeg ex rpix,on xeKavyL&fo^ 
arel^oixny x. t. X. 
Indeque B — ana emendatio priscorum auribus Gnecorum ad- 
modum ridicula sonaret : kXa rpo^ ^Adg^ Aurora trochum suum 
agit, *^ trundles her hoop ! !" — Atque testibus praedictis elBeogawg, 
Aurora meridiei, rel Aurora meridiana est ! ! quo nil potest con- 
cipi ineptius. 

Nunc autem de altero Theocriti loco pauca sunt dicenda. — 
9roXAol xiy{i<rov<nv m rpo^ov ipfAaTog Imrot 
vulgata est lectio. — Mutat G. B. communem ov<riv in ivvr^ Do- 
ricam terminationem. Sed hoc niinime necessarium est, quum 
ipse Theocritus^ in eodem Id^llio^ communem ova-} usurpet. — 
Flurima dari possunt exempla phrasis hujus ipfiLarog liraoi'^ sed 
'ov afAarog, ** rota Diei" vel ay^arog Tlinrot, nullibi nisi apud 
rata fient, utque ego opinor, longe distant a vulgatae lec- 
tion is claritate et prsestantia. Contextus totus nostro idiom ate 
redditus perfacile intelligi potest. — 

otfTTCO ft^va^ aywvixaiL Ovgavos ov^ ivtavTOvg' 
woAXo) xiy^<rou<riy irt rgoxov apfjMTog &Tror 
^ Still the heavenly sphere fails not in bringing round its months^ 
its years^ and often yet shall Phoebus' chariot-steeds move their 
orbit.'' — IToXXo) illud adverbialiter provoXXMug accipiendum esse 
videtur : et a^/xa rou 0oij8ou vel *H?Jou intelligere debemus. — 
His versibus autem perspicere datur^ Theocritum Magni Pto- 
lemaei systematis fuisae discipulum. Cujus systema non docet, 
prout hodierna est fides, ut Terra solem circumvolvendo^ sed ut 
tota coelorum Sphaera, i. e. Ovpavog, revolutione sua nobis efficiat 
et " menses et annos,*' — Mihi quidem pro ccrto videtur t^ 


Imitations in Terence. ' 57 

^ xiyffTv r^op^ov" poetam Solis per Zodiacum inniiere motum.— 
Dum eniuiy systemate supra dicto^ steliae inerrantes per grandem 
Sphserse coelestis revolutionetn semper in uno eodemque orbe 
feruntur, e contrario Sol movere suum circulum^ i. e. xiveiv 
Tfoxov, rectissime dici possit; quandoquidem circulus ejus a 
roagiio Stellarum circuitu indies se amovere vel abire, aut sep- 
teotrionem aut meridiem versus declinans videtun 

J- W. 
Dabam Liverpoolii^ Septemb. J 823. 

INDEX of the Passages of Menandkr and Apol- 
LODORUS, which Terexce has imitated in his sir 
Comedies that have been preserved to us. 

Andria. Act iii. Sc. 3. v. me obsecra. 

Menander. rco eXr^viCi^ON MH KiTANEK Qji^rj Xnivwti) 


Ibid. iii. 4. IS, quidnam audio^f 
Menander. t/ 8^ot axoucrco ; 

Ibid. iii. 5. 5. posthac incolumem sat sciofore me. 

*' Menander sic: eiv Oeos OETFEI OTK AN AUOATMnHE. 
— Et est sensus : tarn difficile est hinc evadere, ut qui hinc eva- 
serit^ immortalis videatur futurus.'^ Donatus. 

Ibid. iv. 3. 11. ex ara hinc sume verbenas tibi. 



EuNUCHUS i. 1. 1. quid igitur faciam^ 
Menander. tlra ri v-oiijcroo ; 

Ibid, ii, 2. 22. quastus, S^c. - 

POnOKAPnC hie inducens^ 

Ad £ IP HI i. 1. 183 19. et quodfortunam isti putani, S^c. 


Menander. eo iiMx&pUv /ts ! yvvalKot ou Xaiifiavw 

Ibid. i. 1. 47. Tile quern beneficio adjungas, 
KAXayreir^xh AN. 

58 Imitatiom in Terence. 

Ibid. ii. 1. 46. hamini fnisero. 

Secuodum illud Meoandri : 

Hectra i. 1. I. per polquampaucos reperies meretricibusjideles 
evenire amatores, Syra ! 

On these words Donatus remarks : '' Quidam non paucos, 
sed paucU legunt. Sic enim Apollodorus: — aXsra ICHPAC 

Bentlej has with great mgeuuitj restored this passage by 
reading — * 

Madame Dacier, in her note on it, tells us that her father. 
Tan. Faber, had corrected this most corrupt fragment fort 
heureusement, thus : — 

Ibid. iii. 1. 6. nam nos omnes, quibus est alicunde aliquis olh- 
jectus labos* 

Donatus — ** totum ApoUodori est, qui sic ait — 

Phormio i. £. 37* nos otiosi operam dabamus Phadria, 
Apollodor. NAXKEIX $»ruve]xaXi ilEOA. 

Ibid. iy. 1. 9. Senedus ipsa est morbus. 

Apollodorus. to y^po^ l(mif axtro vStnu^et, 
This sentiment is also expressed by Euripides (Supplices, v. 

Again in a fragment of the Phoenix: 

(See Porsoni Adversaria, p. £45.) 

Ibid. ir. 1. 21. solus sum mens, 

Apollodorus. eyw yap tifu rmv piuav if/^s \fAf(^. 





A N E w Polyglott Bible having been some time since projected, 
tnaj I inquire if any probability of its execution remains ? From 
the imperfect condition of many of the versions in Walton, such 
a work becomes absolutely necessary to the biblical student :— 
the Cophtic, Sahidic^ Armenian^ Gothic, and Anglo-Saxon ver« 
sions are entirely omitted, and many of those already printed 
may be much improved by a more accurate collation of Msa. 
Townley asserts in his biblical ilhistrations, that the whole of 
the Cophtic Scriptures may be found in a French library ; and 
no better editors of that version can be procured, than Quatre- 
mdre and Cbampollion. On the same authority it is asserted^ 
that Bruce's Ms. of the Ethiopic Scriptures exists in the pos<> 
session of the Kinnaird family, to which the book of Psalms 
alone is wanting, which may be supplied from the present 
Polyglott. Many better Arabic versions may be found, than 
that selected by Walton, of which the Pentateuch is the only 
tolerable part, and various Persian Gospels, superior to that of 
Tawnsi, are in the collection of our two universities, three of 
which Spelman edited at Cambridge about the year 1630. 

Should this work ever be undertaken, a large and clear type 
should be cast expressly for it, and much, room as well as con- 
fusion would be saved, if the interlineary Latin translation were 
placed over each language, as in the Hebrew of the old edition. 
The Vulgate might be placed over the Septuagint. In the sup- 
plementary volume or volumes the readings of Kennicott, of De 
Rossi, and of Yeates on the Buchanan Ms. should be inserted ; 
the Syriac should be compared with the copies recently brought 
from the East, and the various readings carefully recorded. No 
modern translation should be admissible : for not one of them 
can possess any authority ; and many are defective in the mi- 
nuter elegances of the languages, whikt words have been select- 
ed, which the natives regard as barbarisms. Burckhardt's 
account of the wretched medley of words in the recent Arabic 
translation should be a caution, that the undertaking be not 
ruined by the insertion of any version that is not recommended 
by its antiquity. 

At the same time, Castell's Heptaglott Lexicon diould be 
extended. Bar Bahlikl, and other native Lexica should be con- 
sulted to complete the Syriac, Damir on Natural History, the 

60 On Ancient Music 

K&miLS and Sibhah to complete the Arabic department; the 
Farbang-i Jehangiri and Berhan-i Kattea to supply all the defi- 
ciencies of the Persian. The Cophtic and Armenian, the 
Maeso-Gothic and Anglo-Saxon dictionaries already published 
should be added to the collection, that every version might have 
its corresponding Lexicon. Many new words would be disco- 
vered from the perusal of the Ethiopic Scriptures, to enrich that 
part of the series : and the Arabic would be found a great assist- 
ance in determining the sense of those which have no place in 
Ludolf, and as yet remain unknown, from our imperfect ac- 
quaintance with that tongue. 

Each individual language should be entrusted to not less than 
three collators; and proper compositors, previously exercised in 
the use of the respective characters and orthographical marks, 
should be provided to execute the printing. 

If the work were considered as a national undertaking, and 
edited under the auspices of Government, there could be no 
doubt of its success : — -subscriptions might, then, be solicited, 
and preparations made for its appearance, without further delay. 

It is hoped that these hasty remarks may have a tendency to 
revive the subject, and cause some plan to be suggested for its 

P. S. The Grammars should be published separately, and be 
more diffuse than those in Castell ; they should also be arranged 
in a more masterly manner. 


HISTOIRE de la MUSIQUE, par Madame de 
Bkwvl.—ESSAI sur la DANSE Antique et Mo^ 
derncj par Madame Elise Voiabt. PariSy 1823» 

Dissertations on the Arts and Sciences are of two kinds, 
each designed for a separate class of readers. The first, com- 
piled from actual research, embraces all the facts relating to its 
subject, and reasons on them with accuracy ; but is calculated 
only for the libraries of scholars, and such persons as are not 

and Dancing. 61 

frightened sit the dead languages. The second is not ^uite fair 
in its origin ; it appropriates the labors of industrious writers^ 
moulds them into an essay^ enlivening them with occasional 
touches of esprii, and sends them forth in an elegant form for 
the amusement of general readers. Of this description are the 
volumes before us : they form part of an extensive work, ei]iti>- 
tled Ij Ertcyclopedie des DameSf which professes to contain a 
complete course df instruction d I'usage des Jemmes, in eighty- 
four volumes* 

The materials for the Histoire de la Musique appear to have 
been collected by the late M. Pujoulx, at whose death the task 
devolved on Mme. de Bawr: she also acknowledges her obliga^ 
tions to Bumey, ,Choron/ and Castil-Blaze/ after whose re- 
searches she had only to compile an agreeable memoir, in which 
she has succeeded. That the learning introduced into the first 
chapters' should have been strained ov filtered through other 
works, is not unreasonable ; and that is evident from the al^- 
sence of references^ for which we must make allowance to a 
lady, and be thankful for her condescension : this complaisance 
to her predecessors is, however, attended with its evils, for she 
makes no distinction of authorities, but speaks of Moses from 
Clemens, and of Timotheus from Boetius. 

Among the specimens of Greek music which have come down 
to us, are three hymns, addressed severally to Calliope, Apollo, 
and Nemesis, attributed to Dionysius: they were published 
from a Ms. in the library of Cardinal St. Angelo at Rome, by 
Vincent Galileo (father to the celebrated astronomer) in his Dis^ 
course on Ancient and Modern Music, printed at Florence io 
1581. Burette reprinted them in 17^,^ with modern notes, 
from a Greek Ms. (which contained also the treatises of Aris- 
tides and Bacchius), in the Royal Library at Paris.' A fourth 
fragment was discovered by Kircher, in the monastery of St. 
Saviour in Sicily ; it contained eight lines of the first Pythian 
ode of Pindar, written in the characters which Alypius considers 

■ Author of the Dictionary of Musicians. 

^ Author of VOpiray and a Dictionary of Music, preferred by some 
to that of Rousseaa. 

^ 1. De la Musiqae ohez les Egyptlens et chez les Hebreax. 2. 
chez les Grecs. 3. Des instrumens Grecs. 4. Des jenx Grecs. 5. De 
la Masiqiae dramatlque chez les Grecs. 6. Des chansons et de la Mu- 
sique militaire cheZ les anciens. 7. De la Masique chez les Romains. 
8. Do plein-chant. 

^ In the Memoircs de rAcad^mie des Inscriptions. 

^ No. 3221. 

64 On Ancient Music and Dancing. 

«ailor would compare it to the flux and reflux of die sea ;. is 
short every thing vacillative might be represented in this ^' change 
sides and back again.*' The chapter on '^ La Danse chez les 
auciens'^ is rather a collection of passages relating to it, which 
are thrown together without reserve : but surely i)inahy JephH 
thah's daughter^ the maidens of Shiloh, David^ and Michal, 
might have been mentioned without extracts, as the references 
are generally known. This diarrhcta of quotations (for it de- 
serves no other name) is not so violent with regard to the clas- 
sics^ though a few notices from Homer and Hesiod are given 
in die words of their translators : indeed^ as the work is de-* 
signed for ladies, to have cited the original Greek would have 
been cruel. 

For the collected knowledge on this subject^ we must refer 
our readers to the ^' F^tes et Courtisanes de la Gr^ce:" let us 
now turn to the Romans. 

L'introUuctlou de la UaDse cbcz les Romains n'eut pas le mSme r^ 
soltat que chez les Grecs. La danse Romaine, sacr^e dans son originey 
^tait noble et s^v^re comme les objets qu'elle ^tait destinee ii represen- 
ter. Les Etrasques, en faisant connoitre k Rome Jes danses passionn^es 
de la moUe lonie, port^rent un coop funeste h. I'antique aasterite des 
jnoears des fils de Mars. Ce n'^tait qne par degr^s qae les Grecs avaient 
passe des danses alJegoriques aux danses voluptueuses : chez eux les 
flies de Bacchus et de C^r^s, symboles des plus saints myst^res, liees 
aa culte du soleil et de la reprodaction, ^taient devenues successive- 
ment celle de ramour, du plaisir et de la licence, dent elles offraient le 
tableau le plus energique et le plus seduisant. Les Remains, moins 
delicats et peut-^tre plus ardens pour le plaisir, commenc^rent par oii 
les Grecs avaient fini. P. 70. 

The next paragraph is equitable, though written with partial 
feelings : 

La danse ne conserva pas son veritable caract^re qne cfaez les peuples 
oti les femmes furent admises an partage des amusemens de la vie so- 
eiale ; ce qui en fait la charme, c'est Tassemblage des deux sexes sHinis- 
sant pour partager les plaisirs qui succ^ent aux travaux des champs, 
les joies de la victoire, ou pour c^lebrer les douceurs de la paix des 
foyers. A Rome, on appela sur la sc^ne des jeunes hommes pour rempla- 
cer les femmes. Mais les voiles et les bandelettes virginales ne donnent 
point la pndeur; le masque mime ne peut Timiter. Prives de cette 
sainte gaitlienne des moeurs, les acteurs d^pass^rent la mesure que les 
femmes seules savent conserver. Le goQt des spectateurs se blasa, et 
les uns et les autres s'adonn^rent aux plus deplprables exc^s. De-R 
rorigine da m^pris attache It la profession de danseur. P. 71. 

Those who wish for ocular information on the Roman dance, 
may consult D'Hancarville*s jintiqtiites d^Herculaneum, Pom^ 
peii, et Stabia, with representations from the antique, by David : 

On the V^rioui Readings^ ^c. 65 

ijbe ^' Seven Dancers'' are well known; a desiDriptioa of them is 
jpven at p. 79 — 81. 

- LoL danse, chez les Grecs, occupait la premiere place dans les institu- 
tions, civlles, morales et religieuses* Les Remains avaient ane mani^re 
.de peaser bien di£B§rente ; ils regardaient la danse .*' comme une esp^ee 
de chasse hontease et insens^e, indigne de la gravity d'un homme, et de 
Testime d^une femme honn^te.'' ' Ciceron pritendait que personne ae 
daiisait ^ jeun k moins qa'il ne f^t attaque de folie. Horace met la 
•danse an nombre des infamies qull reproche aax Remains.^ O'etalt 
parmi lea esclaves qa'on prenait les dansears de profession ; Texercice 
de I'art des Pjlade et des Bathille, comme de toutes les professions qui 
ne servent qu'^ Tamusement des bommes, privait le chevalier de sa 
noblesse, et ne Ini laissait pour d^dommagement que les louanges effre- 
.ii€es de la multitade^ an pea d'or, et quelquefois une pierre sepulchrale. 
P. 66. 

The dances of the northern nations form the intermediate link 
"between the ancient and modem times ; w^en we meet with ana- 
themad and penances^ amounting to a proof of their prevalence* 
It remains to say^ that these volumes are elegantly written and 
printed^ and will probably adorn many a boudoir, while their 
ponderous brethren ** cram the groaning shelves/^ 



Letter III. — [Continued from No. LTJ] 

Xhe only attempts which have been made in England to form 
^ standard Hebrew text of the entire Old Testament^ by the aid 
of -Kennicott's and De Rossi's collations, and of the ancient 
Versions, are Boothroyd's Biblia Hebraica, and Hamilton's Co- 
dex Criticus of the Hebrew Bible. Both of these works were 
mentioned in my last letter, and I, now proceed to give a more 
particular account of them. The text adopted by Boothroyd is 

' - ' In ataOther place she compares it to ** une belle et ravissante cour* 
tisane que Ton adore, qa'on convre de bijoux, mais que Ton n'estime 

* " Salluste, dans le portrait qu*il fait de Sempronia, complice de 
Catiliii% dit qu'elle exceliait dans la musique et dans la danse, plus 
qnl! ne convient.ik nlie femme honn^te.'* Note by Mme; Yoiart. 


86 Of{ iht Various Readings 

V chat of Vander Hooght, whieh may be conffidered at die estafei* 
lisbed Hebrew text^ having been taken as the groundwork bodi 
of K^^u^icott's and D^ {loai»> coU^tioo?, ^nd having b«m ge- 
nerally referred to aa the common text by Hebrew critioa for 
the last ira years. The readings of the collated Mss.^ tb^ Sa- 
maritan text| and the ancient versions, which are considered bj 
|b^ fLudior as preferable to ^e common readiogSj^ are inserted jm- 
IP^diateiy below the te](t, and referred to by small letteva. The 
cntiad and explanatory notes, which are placed at the bottom of 
the page, either support and illustrate the reading proposed for 
adoption, or explain the sep^e of the pi^ssage. I have observed 
in % former letter, thsit this VTPrk coBtf^ns mwy valuable Bolea^ 
and that the readings of the Mss. and versions are generally weU 
lelected. But many more might e^ily be added, which are 
iprefen^ble to the commop rendings, and some reading^ iu Bootbp- 
roydV margin are supported by very slender evidence, {t is to 
^ regretlf^d, bpwever, that a work so useful is 90 negligently esr 
^M\eq. it 19 necessarv to bring aome proofs of diia assertion, 
both to prevmt ani implicit reliance 00 the correctQi^9 of the 
work, and to induce the author, in case of a second edition, to 
take particular care in correcting the errors which disfigure the 
first. The table of errata prefixed to the second volume eon- 
tains 153 errors of the press. In addition to these, I have no- 
ticed, the fpllowiQg errors \n. the 24th chapter of Qenew* . 

Errors h\ the Hebrew text. 

Verse 46.: for -r^DXI read f^J. Ibid, for 0^3 read 1^0381. 

V. 55.: £k rniSS^ read *)*NC3f f 

En-orain the Notes. 

Mr* Boothroyd bi^ m general p^^te pa di«tii¥ftiaiPi between 
^e Msa, apd tho Editions. Thus '^^ the note on V. 2^. TWfy 
S, 64. Mas. inatead pif S. 57. Mfs. 7 Edd. J^ote on V. 47. S. 
16. Mss, wtead <4 S. 12. M^s. 4 Edd-jt Su. This, boweifer» ii 
Q^ an en'Qr of o^uch cppf equeuce, ^ n^^m'i pi^Pi^^j V> iutv^ 
WWi fcpm Dr. Kc|];inicc^t'« Mf|9.^ and ]^itioQ9 l^eipg Qi!Ww4 
tO(i^titier iu ^e va^ua rea^dipga 9ubjoip^4 to ^f^ text^ ^nd Qilly lo 
be distinguished by referring to his catalogue of Mss. and 
Editions, h wou^d have been better to have included b6tb Mis; 
mid J^dMlum Ujoder the general head ^ Cocfieea,'' ov^^ Godd. f 
apprising the reader of it in the prefeoe. I now proceed (e MtMsift 
errors of inore importance. 

of the Hebrew Bible. 61 

ntid nSrwr? TSh innMd of VpMb 73ini; A§ hwaord^ ittiM9, 
fkpiiuigiiiit : cumqui iik bUrimetf Yulg. 

yr. U. aft«r fh read S. rastead of y.4d. fot tUlffH read ftiUfHH 

t •*•• V. 47. -^ onW 8. W. Wss. f»ad 

▼•40. for ao. rcMl 40. Dl&in IS Mss.4£d<]. 

▼• **• ;— rroVT S. 31 Mm. read v. 53. for jmajD tead /rUTTapl 

rram S..S1 Mss. v. eo. — 90 read 60, and dele S. 

liiave already observed that none of these errors are noticed 
» the Cable of errata* 1 have not examined any other chapter 
so nioutely; but in the course of reading the ^ book of 
Samuel^ I have noticed (he foUowing errors, which are not in^ 
jerted in the table of errata. 

EmHTs in the Hebr^v^ tett* 
t San. fii. f 9. for ^ read *?m. lit- 41. for "TSf '*ad -Ui^, 

Errors in the Notes. 

* j^^. i. 6. for VnpaTn read — v, 25. for TDl rc»d Tja 

VlWlrtJI — vi. 2. w. [i. e. wantioe] CUf ^ 

— tt. S. JTXnOn in. Mss.— only Mss. v. v.*-o<rfy l l85. omits 
5 Mik sumMirt this rradiag. t32f. 

— iii. 1*. WB and Itf^ nu Msi. — vii. 33. wbtk n*>fT ^wH. loc 
-renly 1 M«^ reads ^^BL I Chron. xvu. 81.--Qf»rrWT i» 

*- iv. 7. VTOn &nd VTinp^ ni. the reading iCUroo. xvii. 21. 

Iflss.— only 1 reads V1W. alld — xiiL IS. DTWD— i*«d QIRD- 
po ocread HIVIO^I 8 codd. read — xt. 31. TWt'-^eed TWt, 

Much allowance perhaps should be made for enroi's nort 
easily avoided in so laborious a work ; yet it must be adffltffed> 
that, in endeavoring to restore the sacred text to tt higher de- 
gree of accuracy, scrapulous correctness is one of the most im*- 
portinf requiBifes. 

It is now time Co direct our attenticm to HamilCon'itf Codes 
Criticus. In a dedication to the ffidiop of Rapboe, Ao# Areh^ 
bbbop of Dublin — the leanied authbf of the discourseflf cu the 
scriptural doctrines of Atonement and Sacrifice^ Mr. Hstmtftdi 
ca& bis Codex Criticus, ^a preparatortf specmeriJ^ It fenlMi 
a dun octavo volume : from its size, therefore, it <;aDronIy epm^ 
prise a selectibn of the Aiost important varioos reafdtngy ; ftt*d 
many very worthy of note are necessarily omitted, 'tiae werk is 
preceded by a sensible preliminaiy essay on the nature and ncj- 
cessity of the undertaking. The text is that of Vender Hooght ; in 
which die various readings which Mr. H. considers as decidedly 
preferable to the common reading are inserted in hollow letters; 
amj the word or words, as they stand in Vander Hooght, are ex- 

68 On the Various Readings 

bibited in the margin, so that the entire of his text is printed. 
The inferior margin contains such various readings as were 
deemed worthy of notice^ though not entitled to a place iu the 
text ; these are divided into -f, probably true, and j;, possibly 
'true. The notes state the authorities which support the read- 
ings. An appendix is subjoined^ containing remarks on such 
readings as require longer notes to justify them than could have 
been admitted into the text. Nothing can be more judicious 
than this plan ; and so far as I have examined the work, great 
care seems to have been taken by the author to admit no new 
readings into the text, but on strong grounds of sound criticism, 
and on the authority of Hebrew Mss. As a preparatory speci- 
men it could not be expected to contain all, or nearly all the vari- 
ous readings which may justly be considered as preferable to the 
text of our common Hebrew Bibles : but, as far as the author 
has gone, he has shown judgment in his plan, and, I believe, cor- 
rectness in the execution of it. I trust, therefore, that he will 
receive such encouragement in the prosecution of his great work, 
as will persuade and enable him to supply so important a desi- 
deratum to the British public. After having said so much in 
commendation, I wish to make a few observations on the refer- 
ences and abbreviatioQs which Mr. Hamilton has used, and which 
are rather perplexing to the reader, but easily admit of improve- 
ment* It would havp been better if, instead of introducing new 
arbitrary signs, Mr. H. had, as much as possible, adopled those 
which have already been used by Biblical critics, and some of 
which may be considered as established by common consent. 
Besides these objections to the kind of signs used in the Codex 
Criticus, the text is also embarrassed by their number. There 
are 18 letters, referring to different authorities, nine of which 
I believe are new, and contain no natural connexion with, the 
authority to which they refer; I mean that they are neither ini- 
tial letters, nor known signs of the authority. I subjoin a list 
x>f references in three columns. The first contains the principal 
notes of reference in Boothroyd's Hebrew Bible ; the second, 
the principal notes of reference in the Codex Criticus ; the third 
contains notes of reference, most of which have been already 
used by Biblical critics, and which appear to me preferable to 
those of Boothroyd and Hamilton. I have retained what ap- 
peared the best notes in both the works referred to. 

of the Hebrew Bible, 


Marks pro- 



posed for 


A few Hebrew Codices - 

p. Mss. 



Many ditto . . . 

m. Mss. 



Majority, or a great many ditto - 
Omission in the text 



Interpolation in the text 

i i 

[ ] 

A word m the text wanting in 

^ ^ 

some Codices . . . 



A word added in some Codices 


A various reading worthy of notice 



Defective words 

a, b, c, d 



Erroneous words • - 

a. Cy i, Oy u 


Transposition - - 

W 9 ^ 9 



Samaritan text 




Septuagint version 




Targum - - 




Syriac version - - 




Vulgate - - - . 
Arabic version . - 







All the ancient versions - 




The readines of an ancient version 
differing from the Loudon Poly- 

(T) (V) &c. 


glott - . - - 

Aquila - - - - 



Symmachus . . . 



Theodotion . . . 



Parallel passages 

Kori reading 

Quotations from the Hebrew text^ 

par. loc. 








Quotations from the New Test. 


The exigence of the place 


I cannot conclude these remarks without acknowledging the 
important assistance which the works of Boothroyd and Hamil- 
ton afford to every Hebrew scholar^ who is without either the 
means or the inclination to consult the larger and more expensive 
works of Kennicott and De Rossi. If Boothroyd's Hebrew 
Bible b enriched by the remarks and conjectures of eminent 
Biblical Critics, and contains a more copious selection of vari- 

' The letter v would serve to refer to all the various readings, of all 
kinds, except additions, omissions, and transpositions. 
- ^ This and the two following notes are quite superfluous. The ouo- 
tations from the New Testament should be referred to specifically. The 
other two are not of suffiqently frequent occurrence to require distinct 

70 On tht VarioHli Hea^^ngi^ ^c. 

oits reitiings ; the Codex CriticiM is executed with more cart, 
judgment iin4 i^ceuraeji afid few readings are proposed by the 
aufnor to be yubstituted for those of our common Hebrew Bibiea 
to which the most cautious critic could object. In short, what 
Mr. Il^milton has done, he has well done. Perhaps the Cjmie 
is not yet arrived whea the text of the Old Testament can bo 
rest6red to the highest attainable degree of correctness. Tbi 
Mss. of one of the most valuable <^ the ancient irersions, tbe 
old SyriaCy have never yet been accurately collated/ and the 
Latin transUtion of that version is confessedly inaccurate ip 
many passag^es in the London and Paris Polyglotts. Nor UN- 
deed is the foliation of those Syrvac Mss. which were consulted 
for the London Polyglott by any^ means free' from materia) de^ 
fects.* Neither the Mss. of the Targqro, nor of the V ulg^t^i 
have yet be|en coflated ; though not a few important readiogB 
have bQcn noticed by Dr. Kennicott, as found in the Msa. of both 
these versions* ^ome additions may yet be made to the read^ 
ings of the Hebrew Mss., if some ancient Mss, of the Karaites 
could be procured for this purpose; and the increasing inter- 
conrse of the Bible society and the London society for converts 
ing the Jewaiy may open new sources for this branch of sacred 
criticism. To bring the authorised version of the scriptures to 
the highest attainable perfection^ is an olyect which ought to 
unite the hands and hearts of ev^ry Christian. But before this 
interesting work ean bie undcrtalgen with advantage^ a standard 
Hebrew text should first be formed. '' We are still studying a 
text/' as Mr. Hsvnilt^n jnstly observes, ^' drawn from qompi^ 
rativelv modern Mss./still obliged to corrept for ourselves what 
19 confe^edly incorrect, and still destitute of that standard-He- 
brew text which Kennicott and J>e Rossi looked for as the le- 
fitimate result of all their labors.^ That stich a revision of the 
,.Iebrew text may be accomplished with safety as well as wiA 
b^n^tj no one can dbubt who has been accustomed to coitsiilt 
tbl^ viirious readings. The great iresuFt would be^ that tbe^ 


' Perhaps a collation of the Mss. of this truly valuable version is not 
h/f distant. Profi!Ssar Lee has lof!g been emptayedk o» a new fditian of 
the Syriac Old Testament. Jd eke progress of thift work be hAa eoU^^ 
some velliable Mss. ; aad swrsly so uuwabk an sf pevtenity ^ ins litat- 
|ng a cpj|iitk>ii> at least of the ^riiaeMss. pscservcd in Eaghuadi wU) Ml 
fgseajMi the aitentiba of our k apeed amvirrikiefc. 

^ See Class. Journ. No. xlvi. p. 945. 

' podex Criticus, p. 11. 

90 Vtmhyi qHikm^m lUrafiunii. 7 > 

^ibbf with all ito diUtioguiabiag ebamclers aod ^odieaett* 
would remaia substaotidly the same aa at preianlt not dio 
iligiitaat change would be fouud in iti doctrines and its precepts, 
noT' iq the great outlines and main features of its historj. 
liaay apparent inconsistencies would be reconciled ; many ct^ 
scurities reaioved> and much new beauty and force woiild be 
ismtared to passages which long baffled the skill of our abljsst 
e e mmen tators^ ^' It is true/' says Archbishop Newcoroei a 
sealotts and able advocate for the improvement of our autho- 
lisfld version, ^' that nothing of this kind can be undertaken 
widMul temporary offence to the prejudiced and ignorant 
Battiie opinion of these will soon be outweighed by the 
jlidcment of the reasonable and well-ioform^. llie real ques^ 
IfoB amounts to this ; whether we shall supply Christian readers 
fud Qviatian eongregatioas with n^w means of instruction and 
pkMttl^ by enabling them to understand their Bible better! 
Aod let all who can promote a woik of such moment, consider 
this question with due seriousness and ftttentioa*''* 

Oct. 1823. KJMCHL 


i»b ii' 

De versibus quibusdam HORATIANIS. Dispuiatio 
. Hbnr« Car. Abr. Eichstaedtii, ImUci LedL in 
Vmo. litt. Jevev%i pof^ (Bstatem art. 18iO. haben* 
' ikirtm pramissap 

[Miscell, Critiea, Vol. |. P. fv.] 

In ^rricia Horatii carmimbus admodum pauca sunt^ qvm fim 
quamdaaoi procreatricem ingeaii et futrl^tg ^•iiitix^ prodsnt t 
plflraqae We de Gnecis fontibus non puree detorsit, sed tarn 
eaiMriate ao pssne dizerim immoderate deiivavit,* ut| si quis 

* Archbishop Newcome's preface to improved version of Minor Pro- 

^MkBter judicavit BeaUeias in notis ad hoe ipsupir 9«od[ praefandi 
materiem dedit. carmtu v. 9, p. 187 : " Nmmim BorattuM non muUm 

74 D€ Ytimbui qpibusflam UoMliank. 

vidts-riran ?«loci, Md grevv tdlo attigeri lt in ono Cerbeio 
itefcribeodo per muini et dimidiafai stropbam inunoninilurl 
Nam de Daoaidom ioelere ac supplicio quod plura profemt, 
justufiiiia sane caufa in eo erat, quod iUaram ezemplo docere 
Xydeo volebaty fastidia et aqpcrbiam peeUaniiii a diis plecti^ 
Jam tollhe ^uatuor illos versiia, qui posleriorem stropham 
efficiunt : lynoe ezpositiDni cam partiom aeqoalitate etiam vim 
et nervos restitutos fentietit* Sublatb autem venibus ne quiii 
Horatio quicquam detractum doleat, nihil detraxiraus, nisi quod 
ioeptu^ interpolator ex aliis et genuinis locis suffiuratus eiisetf 
Vix dubium enim est^ quin ex ii. Od. \S^ 33-6. , 

Quid rainini, ubi illis carminibtw sttipans 
Demittit atras beliua centicepa 
AureSy et intorti capillis 

^umenidum recreantur ahgues ; 

et ii* Odar. 19, 31. Sd, ubi Cerberus 

recedentis trilingui 
Ore pedes tetigitque crura, 

nostra iUa cooflata sint. Accedit, ^uod Cerberus multo gravins 
fa* L et lyricas dictioni conveoientius significatur descriptione : 
imnumis janitor aula,^ quam adjecto nomine, qui intdligendua 
sit janitor, tamquam aliquo interpretamento decfaratur. Quid? 
quod ea nominis adjectio tanto est frigidior, <|uum novam 
stropham ordiatur^^cujus baecomniuo ratio est^ ut vmt sup^rioria. 
infnngat Nullum equidem in Horatn carminibus exemptum 
inveni, in quo eadem. h. e. a^ue putida etinepta sit juncturia 
atropharum, neque cadere earn puto in artem poetae. Etenim 
Horatius aut integras sententias smgulis stropbis condudit| quae 
fiequentissima ejus et a Gnecorum libertate discrepa^s ratio 
est, aut sententiam priore stropha inchoatam sic persequitor 


- ^ D abi ta at eo a am e ntatorosi utri- v a e ab a l u m j un g a n d um ut ^itheton^ 
Nou'dubitabant interpretes Germanici, poetico sensu edocti. Ramlerus 
anim vertit : 

Ihfnen ZMerian€K u^h ieibit iet H'clU 

Heuknder Hwier, 

Ja,e9Wkht fidMiEOieiide. dir dier OWbui 

H uncy expuncta stropha, coocidft etiam ina dubitotio, quam eximare jam 
poterat eiegans oppositfo, litanMentk et VirgiUI statiiis foeitt, a Doemg^ 
ffocte aUatns, iEn. Vr, 418. 

Cer&eruff Km ingvuM kiraiu regmi trifm» 
Ptntmaif adveno n^iAam immami hmtra. 

Ittfteranf from TripoH to Sudah. VS 

AtdiiciiqiMi in pwHitrionm, nt et ttleiitio lectoris maiiHie sua- 
pensa teneatur^ Deque earere sequentibas poesit^ qui Telit aeA* 
Mtin poete perspkere. Qualia sunt i. Od. % 47*^* 

Vere te nostris vitiis iniqiium 


i. Odar. l^, 27.9. de ptueria Juods: 

T* — quorum simul alba nautit 
Stella refulsity 

Defiuic sazis agitatus humor. 
et aliia locia. In nostro non tautura nulla eat attealioius lua* 
peuaio, ted Mimma atiam importunitas dicentit ea et glossatoria 
more adjidentit, que dici sibi et adjungi nemo sanus postulabat ; 
nt turpem profecio caudam stropha, que prneedit, trabere 
videatur. Quamobrem collectis ratkmibus omnibus^ ad quu 
pauUo uberius explicandas ipsum me nomen ac dignitaa poets 
unpnlerant, quid tandem reHqui est, nisi nt stropham, tot i^tiis 
mquinatam, ^ sensui polcritudinis repugnantem, arti prorsua 
eentrariamj interpolator! reddamus, ab Horatio abjodioemus 1 
Qvm aententia si probata fuerit idoneis Judicibus, mox pergam 
quo Ofepi, similemque in duodecimo Hbn primi carmine fraudem 
qemonstrabo; sin displicuerit, unum certe nunc babeo^ sed 
acerrimi judicH masinipeque subtifitatis adstiputatorem^ cujus me 
consensu consoler, Fridf GuH. Joseph. SckelRfigium, quern ex 
dumetia pbilosophicis ad bos Musarum amoenisaimos receasus 
tandem i^iisse netamur. 


from the latter to SUDAN; together with a sum- 
mary of an ITINERARY from TRIPOLI to 
TIMBUCTOU. By Muhamkd bek Alt bbv 

translated frobf the arabic into french by m. le 




From Tnpoli, taking an easterly direction by the road of the 
HamamU^, to the station called Rus-AnMokht,* (the pronontoiy, 
cliffy or cape, of date trees) ia S miles* 

* This is Alnakhl in the French translation, but as the letter ft (£> is a 

7§ . Itinerary from Tripoli :. 

From the gate of the town the caravan proceeds and encamps 
at Ujjenzour^ the distance being 1 8 miles, or 3 hours. 

The wells which are found in this interval are from the Hama- 
midj to Ras-Annakhl 2 miles, from the latter to Querkaresch 4 
miles, from Querkaresch to Djeiizour 12 miles, in all 18 miles. 

From Djenzour they proceed and stop at Ezzawiah* of the 
West for the night, distant 9 hours, or 60 miles. 

The wells are, 1st. Sayyad^ at the distance of 5 miles. 2nd. Ei 
Mdyeh, 12 miles, or 2 hours. 3rd. Ettouibiyeh* 15 miles, or ^ 
hours and a half; (between £1 Mayeh and Ettouibiyeh there are 2 
Wells, besides those above mentioned, of which one is on the 
land the other on the West.) From Ettouibiyeh to Ezzawiah, 23 
miles,, or 4 hours. 

To return: from Tripoli to Ezzawiah of the West there is 1 day's 
journey, proceeding ivithout intermission from the rising to the 
setting sun. 

From Ezzawiah to Ezwagah (Zewaga), which is as far from £z- 
jEawiab, as Tripoli is from Mencbieh of Ezzawiah. From Ezzawiah 
to Ezwagah, 70 miles. Wells, 1st. the well of Dendanah, near 
Ezzawiah. 2nd. 12 miles from Dendanah the well of Zaraw, to 
the east of Ezwagah. 3rd. the well called. Beer Alkarhkh ^Ez- 

From Ezwagah the caravan proceeds and iencamps at Kaasr-eU 
Allakah, distant from Tripoli 2 days' travelling, or 170 miles, or 
27 hours. 

From Kassr-el- Allakah they proceed and encamp at Zotvarah. 
Thus the distances between Tripoli and Ezzawiah, between. Ezza- 
wiah and Ezwagah, and between Ezwagah and Zowarah, are each 
exactly 1 day, in all 3 days- march, or 200 miles, or 32 hours. 

From this place they go on and encamp at Sheikh- Seedi-Bu- 
udjeileh (Bouojeileh), distance 1 journey, agreeably to the before- 
mentioned rate of travelling, from the rising to the setting sun, or 
12 hours. 

From Bu-udjeileh they go and encamp at El Khattabah, distance 
1 day '&' journey. Wells, 1st. the well of Dikdacah, at the extre- 
mity of the ten'itory of Bu-udjeileh, and at the distance of 12 miles« 
or 2 hours. 2nd. the well of Wakhoum, distant from the preceding 
well i^ miles. 

From this town (Bu-udjeileh) they perform a day's journey, 
which brings the caravan to a narrow neck of land, between two 

solar letter, the / in the article becomes liquid or assumes the following 
letter, making it AnnakhU 

'' EzzazDiah, not M-Zawiah, by the same grammatical rule as above 

* Vide note ' (above)r 

to Sudahy by Houm. - 77 

taountains, which is full of ruoning streams, which eontimie fo 
refresh the country, until they reach the valley of Zenthan* 

Resumed* All this road from Tripoli to Fossato is but sand and 
flint-stones. After passing Fossato the road is altogether stony, 
having on the right as well as on the left a mountain; and this 
continues a day and a night, that is to say, 24 hours, till they enter 
Zenthan. From the gate of Tripoli to Zenthan, the direction df 
the road is always to the West. The inhabitants of this valley are 
called Zinata, they are the posterity of Helal, but the valley itself 
is called Zenthan.' 

The caravan sleeps at the entrance of the valley ; it then departi^ 
and proceeds through the middle of the valley during 12 hours; 
then it passes the night in the valley, and at the dawn of day it 
proceeds for 6 hours more, through the middle of the valley ; it has 
then passed through the valley, and sleeps opposite to Errodjeban. 

From the gate of Menchieb of Tripoli they invariably proceed 
to the West, leaving Tripoli on the East; but from hence, that is, 
after passing the valley, the road separates, and the caravap pro- 
ceeds to the south. 

From Errodjeban they proceed to the valley of Essian ; the dis- 
tance between these two*places is the same with that which sepa- 
rates the other^ wells. 1st. the well of Nakoua at 5 hours' distance 
from Errodjeban. 2nd. the well of Schahamnah, opposite to the 
valley of Essian, distant from Nakoua 5 hours and one third. 

Departing the following day from this valley and proceeding oo 
the journey 12 hours, brings them to the valley of Lathman, where 
they sleep. 

Pursuing their journey at the dawn of day, they travel 12 hours 
complete ; they encamp near a water, called the well of Saromam : 
whichever way the caravan might direct its course, it would find 
no water but at Sammam. 

After passing the night there, they depart at tlie following 
morning, after having filled the skins with water sufiicient for 4 
days' journey. The whole of this journey is a stony road, and there 
is not found earth any where. 

After 4 entire days' journey they arrive at a well called jB^^t 
Quercdbahf and pass the night there. 

In the morning they leave this place, and march on during 12 
hours complete. At the end of 6 hours' march they reach a well 
at noon, called Beer Rahmaneh, They dine near this well, aod 

' The note in the French translation of this itinerary says, this is am- 
biguous in the text; but we do not perceive any ambiguity: the inhabi- 
•tants of England are called English, as those of Zenthan. are called 
Zenata, or of France, French. 

* Without doubt a journey of 12 hours. 

78 limtratyfrom Tripoli 

AeaocNitkiae their j««nicy other ^ bours; tbej sleep li c ftmcm 
called Sedrat-HelAl. 

The fottowing momiiig they resmie their jouniey, and trttrel on 
ft days without water. After 13 hours' mardi they sleep at Genfiik 
MratffrMudk;'^ here ihere is only sand and frsvel. The exteot «f 
this gouth is 5 days and 3 sights. There is no water nor paslon^^ 
theie» hnt ostriches and wild hcasts. The 4th day, in the martmg, 
an honr after the rising of the sun, they find three wetts, whose ww- 
ler is sweeter than the feantain of Mawrah, in the town of TripA 

The caravan halts at these wells till noon; they water the camehi» 
^ine, ami bathe diere» and march on through sands tiU night; they 
alecqp at a ]rfaee called Beer Assidr, the well of thorny fawshes^ of 
which there is a row on each side, that is to say, on the right att4l 
on the left. 

After passing the night at this place, they proceed,, and travel aif 
day tiH son-set, when they arrive at a well, naned Beer EdcHel?* 
laoiidah> wfaieh is sitoatcd m the midst of the lemains of a mined 
town, where Uicfjr pass the night : from this place no water ia 
found during 9 jonmles ; they allow then here a suffieieat pro- 
vision of It, and march on during 24 hofurs, without the camels or 
thr men taking any repose, tiff they arrive at EKKeliat, where they 
pass the night isnd repose half tiie next day; they then proceed en 
m day and a a^t withool the men or the camels taking anysea^ 
when they reach Kadjoum, a pfoce where there are tnea^ aad a 
river wUoh runa daring the ramy season only. 

They pass the night at this places they then march o« againc a 
day and a night as before, and then encamp in a low plain, catted 

Ahmr another BMureb of 34 hours they encan^ in the vaiivy of 
Kana4, they (here pass the night; the next asemtng they prooetd; 
and march 3 days and 1 night, after which they encamp at tfae 
eatfemity of a territory, called Albesat (thai it to say, the plain) of 
the sons ef Hamnaim, and there pass the night, when after It Ml 
bonrs^ nnurch they encamp near the weH caSed JBeer hem Ikrme^. 
^ Here they pass the night, and in the morning they tahe a paevl- 
8ie»of weter ferS days, water tfae caasels, drink, and bathe, A they' 
choose, before they proceed. 

After journeying for » day and a> night they encan^ m^lhe ter* 
rkory ef Gaimiet, to the soetiK j^tween* Gadamea an4 the 
lower phin, where the caravan was en ca aspedi and <mUed 
Gmih dt Barka^U ^^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^uU days' joumev. 

To return to the inarch of the caravan. After having passed 
the night at the encampment just mentionet!^ it ^leparts tbe * nfait 

' OeulA aignificr a K)w phiia. 

78 limtrdtyfrom Tripoli 

Aea MNitKiae their j^srocy other 6 bours ; tbej sleep 9fk m fliee 
called Sedrat-HelAL 

The fottowing momiiig they resmie thehrjouniey, and travel oo 
ft days without waten After 13 bours' msrdi they sleep at Qeuik' 
MrratffrMudk;'^ here tliere is only sand aad frSTel. The extent of 
^is gouth is 5 days and 3 mghts. There is no water nor pasturage 
then, hnt ostriches and wild beasts* The 4th day, in the mannog, 
an boor after the rising of the sun, they find three weHs, whose w»> 
ler is sweeter thaii the feantain of Mawrah» in the town of Tripoli. 

The caravan halts at these wells till noon ; they water the camehi, 
4iae^ aad bathe diere» and march on through saods tiUiiigbt; they 
aleep at a ]rfaee called ^Beer Assidr, the well of thorny bushiest of 
which there is a row on each side, that is to say, on the right an4l 
on the left. 

After passing the night at thbplace» they proceed^ and travel aM 
day tiH son-set, when they arrive at a well, nanedl Beer Eddjet^ 
laoodah^ wineh is situated in the midst of the learains of a rained 
town, where iker^ pass the night : from this place no water ia 
found during 9 jonmies ; they allow then here a suffieieat pro- 
vision of it, and march on during 24 hofurs, wirhout the cameb or 
Ihr men taking any repose, tiff they arrive at EKKeliat, where they 
pass the night isod repose half the next day; they fben proceed en 
n day aad a a^t withoot the men or the camels taking anysee^ 
when they reach Kadjoum, a place where there are tnes^ and a 
fiver wUeh rune daring the ramy season only. 

They pass the night at this place t they then march am again a 
day and a night as before, and then encamp in a low plain, called 

Ahmr another march of 34 hours they encan^ in the vaHey of 
Kanad, they there pass the night; the next asemtng they prooerd, 
and march 3 days and 1 night, after which they encanip at the 
eitremity of a territory, catted Albesat (thai it to say, the plain) of 
the sons ef Hamnam, and there pass the night, when after* It Mi 
bonrs^ nnurcb they encamp near the weH caUed JBeer hem Ikrme^. 

Here they pass the night, and in the morning they take a paevi- 
8ie»of wnterierSdaya, water the caaseis, drink, and bathe, .tf fhey 
choose, before they proceed. 

After journeying for » day and a> night they encamp hn Ihe terw 
rkery ef Gadmes, to the soatlK ^Btween* Gadamea and the 
lower plain, where the caravan was en ca mped^ and ««lled 
GeaiM dt Barka^ix there are 3 full days' joumev. 

To return to the march of the cararan. After having passed 
the night at the encampment just mentioned, it departs th* - nfext 

' OetilAaignificralOwphiia. 

#a Sudahj btf Hau$a\ fp 

WMtmng Mid4Mivd« IH bourt» w^n it tNoimps tl a pbMBWMd 
GatfiA de C^rdeiUh, and thtte paste* the night. 

Ill the Morniag tbe earevaa preceedb and tra^tk for 24 k^m$, 
wmi'tmsmopB at a plaee oalled Gouth de Saddas, where there Se a 
well, called Beer Schafannah ; here they take 8 jotmiet* proHakm 
•# water. 

Thej depart in the memiiig frem Ihia weU» and in f4 bourl' 
nuurob Ibey reaeh Ootith de Zm^akm, and there eacamp, 
• AAer haTUig pasaed the night there and travelled am 94 heoii 
they arrive at Gouth Barakhn^h, and pass the niffht there. 

They proceed in the morning, and afler traveHmg M hooiB they 
eaeamp at El-Kakaa la the West, where they remaui till the Bent 

At £1-Kakaa the road separates, they proceed southward, w«lk- 
•i^ hi Ihe nidst of water and wells ; amr travelling t4 hounrs they 
eaeamp near ^e welt Beer-Ei-Zafim/f whose water never fails, 
bat bubbles ap with strength: berethey make provisiott of walar 
ftr IS joinniee. ' 

Departing from thia plaee Aey arrive, after proceedKa^ a 4t^ 
vaad a ni^f, at Karkouta* where tliey pass the night. 

From thence, after a march of 24 hours^ they encamp^ In the 
GooCh d'Eczarahnah, and after another journey of M hoors^ Ihey 
eaeamp in the G<outh€l*£lafiah^* they depart ftom heaee in tibe 
morning, and in 24 hours they arrive at tbe Gouth d^AdlriBeh, 
tfaore pass the night, and in 24 houra more they reach a goath, 
where there is a spring, eriled Aim Akff^wr^ (the fountain of fmris,) 
bettmse the water is clear and exeeUeat, and the sand does net 
qpofi it; they rest here 24 hoars. From hence i» seen Feiaatt, 
between the South and the East. There are 2 full days' journey 
between this fountain aad Feaaaa. 

Fren» Ain Ald^our they travel from morning till sun-set, aad 
Aea sleep aad pass the mfjoA m the territory of I>fma: pfoeeedkig 
frfMu heqce, iu the morning, after 12 hours* travelling they anave 
«Bd deep ia a country calM S&hha. 

Flram thence in 24 boura' march they arrive at Map&gmmk: tbey 
p a aceed m the menmig, and after travelHag 24 hours, that ia ta 
say-, a day and a night, they come to Q^M-Emmulfmuulff where 
there is no water, and where they pass the nigbt. 

. Proeaarting ia the morning they travel a diay and a nighty aad 
sleep at Gmtth eTAdhifniieh. 

At the dawn of day they provide water for 6 days^ and enter the 
Unritory gf the Tuajrecks ; here the road divides. 

They march a day and a night, and then sleep in the Ckmih ie 


* I. e. the valley of profit or gain. 

80 Itinerarjffrom Tripoli 

SarrqfthJ. Departing next morDing, after other 24 hours, they go 
aod sleep at the Gouth de Scharscfumm. The next morning they 
proceed and march till sun-set, when they enter the town of 
Tareknah, in the Tuareck country. At Tareknah * the road dividen 
and takes a westerly direction. 

They travel 2 days and 2 nights after leaving Tareknah without 
' the camels or the men taking any repose ; and after a further pro- 
gress of 12 hours, they enter the territory of £d-daum, which 
belongs to the Negro-country, and there pass the night, near the 
wells of Findi. 

Departing from £d-daum, after a full day's march, they reach, 
at sun-set, a valley called, in the Negro language, Sanindi. It is 
a delightful spot, abounding in fruits and all kinds of good thingiB. 
The extent of this valley is 24 hours' march, from morning till 
morning. After these 24 hours' march they discover 7 reservoirs, 
each 100 feet long, and full of water during the whole year. No- 
.thing, after the Nile, is more wonderful than this valley. 

They here make provision of water for 4 days, and then pursue 
their jouiney in. the morning; and at the expiration of a day aind a 
night they encamp in a Gouth, called by the Negroes JBaurauki, 
and by the Tuarecks, Saddjanah. 

They pass the night here, and after 24 hours' march they encamp 
in. a Gouth, called by the Negroes Kanindi, and in the Arabic 
idiom of the Tuarecks, J^ttfAromnnA. 

Departing in the morning, they arrive after 24 hours' march at 
a .Gouth, called, by the. Negroes €otfnc(/t,.and by the Tuarecks, 
Bokaham, or Foksham; they rest here till. the next day at noon; 
they then provide water for a day, water the camels, and bathe 

From hence they march a day and a night incessantly, without 
repose to men or camels, and without suffering the mo.unted camels 
ta browse, after which they reach a gouth, called by the Negroes 
Cabiciy and by the Tuarecks, Schahatah. 

They sleep there, when, in 12 hours' march, they reach the city 
of Housa, a town in the Negro- country. There is a market here, 
.and ^ales and purchases of provisions are made, and the men and 
eiUOels repose; also the merchandise brought by the caravan may 
be sold, if the proprietors choose. 

• Probably Gouth de Sharrejlhy q. d. the valley of princes. 

^ I doubt if Tareknah is a proper name; the word implies that there 
were two roads, one of which was the road of the caravan, that is to say, 
tarekna, q. d. our road — tarekekume, your road; tarekhume, their fioad : 
there is the more reason for putting this construction on the sentence, be- 
cause immediately afterwards the text says the road divides and takes a 
westerly direction. 

Hausa to Sudani 

m . . . ■ ■* 

Od quitting this town, they travel a day and a night, and tliei^ 
sleep in a Negro village, called, in their idbni, Bakoaknoki, and in 
that of the Tuarecks, Bakermi (Bagermi). This is not an inde« 
pendent town or chief place, bat only tike Ezwarrah (which depends 
01% Tripoli) and other similar towns. 

Water is taken here for two journies, and departing early in the 
morning they travel on till hetween sun-set and dark; they sleep at 
Sarreifeb, as they do at Djenaoor.' This place is called in th^ 
Negro language, Schakniri, and in that of the Tuarecks, Wanmum^ 
Tkty pass the night near these pits, JEUid repose there 24 hours. 

After a further journey of a day and a night, they stop at a town 
which the Negroes call Keekee, and the Tuarecks, Caouaz. It is 
not a chief place, hut is like the mountain of DjeMis* They 
leave this place in the morning and travel till son-set, and go to 
sleep at a town of Negroes, called by them, Canindi^ and by the- 
Tuarecks, Comirah. 

There, after passing the night, they depart in the rooming, ami 
at sun-set tlicy reach a town, called by the Negroes, Wanonki, 
sod by Ihe Tuarecks, Ca4ntcaou. There is no town greater than 
this I. th« inhabitants swarm like locusts, they believe in God and 
in hi^ prophet Mohamed: all kinds of goods and merchandise 
are found here ; there is not to be found in Tripoli the fourth 
part of: what is found here : here they sell for a hundred what is 
worth Jeo.* They pass the night at the entrance of the town ; in 
the morning, when the troops appear with their arrows, they opeq 
the bolts of the gates, and deliver an order of their prince for the 
caravan. No one can enter the town ' without an order from the 
El' Mai, that is to say, in Arabic, the Sultan. 

After leaving this place they go and sleep at a town, called by 
the Negroes, Caunzi, and by the Tuarecks, JEI-Birkak. The order 
of the £1-Mai is read^; the reader sits down with his legs under 
him, extends his two hands, and shakes them, to testify his obe- 
dience to this letter of their £I-Mai. ^ 

This night is passed amidst an abundance of every thing, and 
Ihey depart in the morning, and after having travelled from the 
early •morning till the middle of the afternoon, they enter a town, 
called by the Negroes, Birzizzi, and by the Tuarecks, Afnou, The 
caravan is received at this place by the peojile of the Viceroy, who 

"' I ' ■ " !■ I ■ ■ I ■ ! ■ 11. ■ I • ■ II 

* This is very ambiguovis;~perhaps the author means to say that fia^ 
kouknoki is as f^r frtim Sarreifeb as Djenzour is from Tripoli, 

* That is to (tay, what cost ten dollars in Tripoli selU here for a hun- 
dred dollars. 

* These words are guessed at ; the text is said to be uDintelligible. 

VOL. XXIX. a. Jl. NO, LVIL F-- 

is obedient to the El-Mai. The order o^ the El-Mai is presented 
to the chief, who falls on his knees, extends both bis hands, and 
a^tat^a them. 

. The caravaa again passes the nighl in abiiodanee: they git«' 
th^n for supper, sugar-canes and dates; they reduce the dales 
iAt» powder, so that th^y no longer form a body whose partidea 
adhere to one another, they then bruise the cane till it has lost M 
itt asperity, they then mix the whole with fresh nttk : lh<^y are 
yery expert in making this mixture with the hand. During the! 
whole year they use no other food but sugatr^'caiies, dliiett, and lifeshr 

^ter ftavfaig passed the liight in ainindaBce they leavle thia ttiWn 
IB the morning, and about the nnddlt of the aflu^moou thty ulrive 
at a town, cSled by the Negroes, SMci, and by the Tuareishs, 
B^^on. The troops of thie town come before the IttiVelteys, tak« 
tbeordte of the supitem^ chief, and do likelhoae of whoiH i^ hftVe 
abtady ipokeiu . . 

The caravan passes the night in abundance ; next morning they 
Supply it with wAter fto d^ days^ bee^nse this town is the last tf the 
towns of the prince of wb^m w(e have spoken. The ^alatab d^" 

CrtB early the next mornings ^d proceeding till sun-set^ it sle^ps^ 
thh forest ^ EI^Degar^, The whole of the foUowing da^ ' 
jowmey is through the foYest^ and at san-set they ^neaiiip %t itto 
ctitrail^ity; The soil of tlus forest is m black clay. 
. Tbfey strike their tentb at mornings and at sun-set tfaey rleacb U 
towfi^ called TKhtt^u^ where there is water. This tow* ^nd'itd 
pooulation exceed those of Cairo. 

The following morniag they quit this town, and th^y coine afed 
lodge in a town^ called by the Negroes, Zantou, and by ikt TAt* 
recks, Zancoulah, where they pass the night. 

The next morning provision of water for 4 days is made, when, 
after travelling during 24 hburs, they stop at a town, called by th^ 
Negroes, TlrH, and by the Tuarecks, Jlrrin. 
. The^^ pass the night there ; the following morning, after a jouruet 
of 24 hours, they arrive at a town^ called by the Negroes, SdMokf^ 
U4 by the Tuarecks, SoutM. 

[NotCk — Soudah divides the Sahara from Sudan^ and is about 150 
miles eastward from Timbu^tou, and about one third of tba difttunee 
from Timbuc'tou to Housa. In Mr. Walckenaer's map thsflfe is iti 
JLaU N. 19* Long. W. 4.30. Huousm, add in Lat. Ni 1$. Ldng. £< 
1.0. tlofisa* It is perhaps necessary to inform th^ African travel- 
ler as well as the African geographer, that these two places are one 
und the satne. Thik eonfusibn or ambiguity has crept ibto taodern 
maps oi Africa, firoin the sitaatibn of places in thie interior, as giveii 
by toe thiveller, differing from that given by another; the sam(( 
may be said of the oilhograpby» each traveller spelling tlic name 
according to his own oral inteiligetice of the woid ; these aie then 

ftf l^ndahi by Housai 89 

|Mlt dan^ ttt btber ttidpiS, ils in this Map of Mi^. Wikftender, varioosly 
•pelt and tariodiily ^tuated ; a circaoi^tanefe Which, it iliast be 
admitt^, id calculated to confuse aftd bewilder African trat^lterit 
Md whieh bit that liceount alone we think ought (b be disconti* 

Summary of a Joumejffrom Drtpoli to Timiuctou. 

From the gate of Tripoli called Menschi^h^ they travel westward 
fill they arrive in the Ttiareck country ; ther<i' the road divides, 
and they then proceed southward ; afterwards it divides a second 
time, knd goes due west to Zantda, whicih h one of the districts in 
lb« territory of thd Sultan of Boraon. 

. [Note. — All this is very ambiguous, since l^ireckna in the 
Twarcck coontry is south, not west^ of Tripoli. Again, if the road 
went due west, After travelling many journied south of the Taarecks, 
it would not go to the Bornou territory, which is unquestionably 
to the east. This circumstance alone would have prompted us to 
omit this part of th^ itinerary^ gimng thai only which Jinishes at 
Sudah^ and which bears the marks of authenticity; but as this sum- 
mary forms a part of the itinerary entitled " Itinerary from Tripoli 
to Timbuctou, by MuhaiUed bai Pottle translated from the Arabic 
by M. le Baron Silvestre de Sacy," we thought ours^lv^s bound t6 

{pve it entire^ and here therefore follows the remainder of this 

Afteir having entered the territory of the Sawaden,* they take, 
before quitting the town of Sudah, Water and provisions for 4 
'd'liys ; th^y then march on an entire day, and ^ndanip in th^ t^rri- 
lory d Sudan. It is a desert country, and is oalti^ Assudaki but 
not so called because its soil is black and like charcoaL TheJre is 
here a forest, which is abandoned and desert. 

The following day they pio ce c d from the dawn of day till sun- 
se^ when they encamp in a place, called Gouth el Caraoudi, where 
th^ soil is gravel. 

They sleep there, and departing in the ^ morning, after having 
tmtdled till sun-set, they encamp in a place, called Gouth el Wa* 
iifflff, Ithich has the siame name in the Tuardck dialect. 

0eparting ffoni hence in the morning they travel till son-set, 
tnd sleep in a town> called, in the language of the Timbuctou 
Negroes, Canikisehi. 

Leaving thit town, they "arrive £^t noon at Caonkisi* 



* Sowaden is the plural of Sudan; Sudan contains many kingdoms, 
SMft u kn ttierefore designates the kingdoms of Sudan, as the kingdoms of 
GaMUe^ Arragon, M«xito^ &c. are designated by the 3p«n^ ' 

84 Notk€ of Barker'^ Germany 

After iileeping there they depart in the oioming, and about nooa 
enter a town like ours (Tripoli) ; it is calleid ZanonzoukL 

Here they rest and pass the night ; the next morning they pasa 
through many inhabited places, and about the middle of the after^ 
noon (4 o'clock) they reach another town, called Caschikliku 

After having slept there they resume their journey next morning, 
and passing through a continuation of inhabited places they arrive 
at noon at the town of Tonsou-Anki, the town of Alkatatis 

They then depart, and passing through inhabited places, which 
resemble Quakaires, Djenzour, Al-Menschieh, &c. they arrive, at 
the end of 24 hours, about half an hour after sun-rise, at the town 
of Timbuctou, the greatest of towns that Allah has created, where 
strangers find all kinds of things ; a town full of merchants. 

Composed by me, Muhamed, the son of Aly, the son of Foul. 
My father 'was a free citizen, my mother a black slave, my 
country is Terables (q. d« Tripoli) and Timbuctou. 


The GERMANY of C. Cornelius Tacitus, 
Passow's Test ; and the AGRICOLA, Brotier's 
Text : with Critical and Philological Remarks, partly 
original, and partly collected, by £• H. Barker, 
Trin. Coll. Cambridge. Third Edition revised, Jor 
Schools and College-lectures. 12 wo. Price 5s. Qd. 

The Germany and Agricola of Tacitus, if not among the 
most valuable remains of antiquity, are certainly, with very few 
exceptions, the most precious legacy which has descended to ut 
from the later ages of Rome. Independently of their moral 
beauty and their Uterary merit (that of the Agncola especially )» 
the interesting information which they communicate respecting 
the early manners of the two most illustrious nations of modem 
times, and the policy, opinions, and internal condition of Rome 
itself during the times they treat of ; these, together with the 
beautiful portrait of individual virtue in the latter work, have ren* 
dered these two treatises the favorites of the modern reader ; and 
these, combined with the important merit of brevity, have mad^ 

* • - > 

and Agtitola of TacUu$. 85 

llwin it popular bMk for ttiidentf. It is not therefore wonder* 
fill ibat numerous editions of them should have been undertaken 
^th tfaw particular object, more especially of late years, since 
tb« antiqbities both of Germany and Britain have attracted 
niore than former attention, and have received much valuable 
illustration from the labors of native scholars. Of these Mr. 
Barker^s appears, from the number of impressions through 
which it has passed, to be among the most popular. We col* 
]ect from the preface that it is only the beginning of a series of 
editions of the Roman classics, on the same plan. 

- *' The Editor's attention will next be called to an Edition of Cicero's 
f^iUmofiim Orationt, which he will publish in the same form. He veiu 
tures to hope that the classical instructors of Briti&h youth will encou^ 
rage his efibrts to reform the present system of our classical School- 
books, of which a great part, (though there are some splendid exceptions,) 
is founded on old Editions, which are susceptible of infinite improve* 
ments finom the labors of numerous Scholars, who have appeared in 
these latter times. A little industry, a little learning, and a little re- 
search alone are required to present the rising generation with the 
golden fruit of these labors ; and if classieal literature be an object of 
prime importance in the education of our youth, it is of the greatest con- 
aequence that every facility should be anbrded for communicating a 
perfect acquaintance with the languages of Greece and Rome, because 
their utility to the student chiefly depends on the perfection with which 
they are taught by the instructor/' 

. This observation may be trile, but it is just ; and they who 
are aware of the importance of an accurate acquaintance with 
languages, and who have experienced in their own case, or wit- 
nessed in otiiers, the bad effects in various ways of a superficial 
knowledge of them, will feel the cogency of its application. 
Mr. Barker's notes (with the exception of the quotations from 
former annotators, which we think should have been translated 
for conformity's sake) are in Englisli ; a mode of commenting 
to which Owen's Juvenal first gave us a partiality, and which, 
though with some hesitation, we are inclined to prefer to the 
more received fashion, which rests principally on prescription. 
The Germany is printed from the text of an edition pub* 
lished by Fr. Passow, in 1817 (several of whose notes are 
also inserted), and the Agricola from that of Brotier. We 
have not had leisure to peruse the whole, and tlierefore can 
only characterise it in general, as containing a great deal of 
nseful as well as entertaining illustration, and as well adapted 
to the purpose for which it Was undertaken. Some of 
the notes are however too long ; a fault of which the Editor 
bimaelf seems to be in some degree aware.. It would have 
been more for th^ cooveniencl) of the reader if iboM had been 

86 Noim iff: Barker's TaeiVw. 

reIeg«M to the aippendiXj Mr, Borker'a ^urqef of illuMniboB 
fure sufficiently various ; ppetry^ history^ pbilo'opbyi dWipity, 
travels, aptiquiHe9> ure ail wd^ to k^r on tbQ paaaage unilar 

5Qiiai4erittioD, H^ rf mipda U9 pf Bentley'ii chadbcter of John 
Tzet^aa^ '* a mw of rambling learning/' Spqie of bis POlest oil 
tbp otber band, might be extended with advantage, by tbQ •ddi-* 
iion of further illustrations, We think- top, that many points arc 
passed over in silence, which to the learner require a con'iinent* 
On the whole, however, he is fplly entitled to the praive to 
which he lays claim in the Preface. 

'' He truste, that ip the selection" (of notes from preceding com^ 
inenti^tors) *' be bas always kept utility ip view, and that, if be baa 
not on every occasion siicces3fu|ly, with the aic) of bi^ learned predeces^ 
sors, removed the corruptions and the ol>s9uritie8 pf the tezt^ be has at 
least furnished bis readers with some means of forming clear ide&$l on 
the points in dispute. The 3rd Edition of Dr. Jubp Aucip's Trmaiatian 
^f these Tracts, published in t^iSt, has beep adyantas^ously consulted 
m some instances." 

We have not the two preceding editions before us, 90 that we 
are unable to form any judgment as to the comparative merits 
of the present. Mr. B/s observations on the welUknown 
words in the description of Germany, cb« 2. ''informem terris, 
asperam ccelo, tristem cultu aspectuque," may serve as a speci- 
men of bis style of annotation. 

'' Informem terris. What Tacitus means by this expression, will be 
felt by those, who compare with it what he says in ch. 5. TerrOf eiai 
€Upuaiio tpecie d^ert, in univeman tamen aut silvii harridan autpmhtdikuB 
fiidai and who recollect that in Ann. %^ 23, be sa3S» 'IJumi^ QmrmmUt 
t^rri$t ' tiie mountainous countries of Germany/ l/ingolivis is mistaken 
in supposing that Tac. intended to speak of the sterile appearance of 
Germany : — * Sic quoque Seneca dt Prov, 4. Germanos maligne solum 
sterile tuttentat, Enimvero nondum extra omnem dubitationera positum 
est, Germaniam omnem adeo informem fuisse. Nam si vel maxima 
concedamus, eas rej§;iunes, in quibus Romani iocursiones ffcerupt, sivf 
Sterile^ fuisse, s. pptius, oh rationes politicas, incuUas jacuissei an e^ipde 
tuto coUieere licet, Germaniam omnem si pun desertam, certe incultam 
liiisse? Deinde probe notandum est, vett. Germanos non amavisse 
lusuQi : eorum igitur terras inoultas esse, Uomanps luxui deditos eziride 
falso coUegisse miriim non est.' The culture and aspect of the soil is 
maptioued oy Tac, in what immediately follows, iriftem euUu ox/Mqclt^e, 
and besides in ch. 5. he represents Germany as ' $ati»ferax,^ Dr. Aikin^s 
version is therefore faulty : — * A land rude m iU tufface, rigorous in. its 
climate, cheerless to every beholder and cultivator except a native/ 
H^m, Sat 1, 8, 14. Nifnc licet Etqijilm /^Uiare mlubribun, ultqm A^ere 
in apricQ spatiari^ q^o tnoth tristes All>if informem qtectabant oisibtu agvun^ 
. **A»peTam calo, S^nepa 1. c.^ Germanos triste calumpremit.^ 

^*J^temcuUuaspeciuque. Seneca L c*, Germanos maligne sohm sterile 
initeniat, Tac. Germ, c. 5. Terra a^i aUquanto specie dMrt^ in taifverium 
lammaiUmkMklrrida^mUftbM^^ oiiaa 

Qh the F^ramidfi ^ Egypt* 97 

lltm ifrnpa f i fni k < £|t jviflloaja. ^fttutf prQ quiMf Jr^W tyi^^s^^if^ 
terr4» qumn eCsi optime colas, e( fttudiosissime aresi tamea aihil pro- 
roret, e quo Indtiain ctper^ poasis, Cic. de N. D. i, 40. Iderfi feie df 
ThnHcia Mela fe» <, 4. dieit, Rtgh nee ado Uia, nee toh.* LoDgpK^ 

lie signffication of tristU in the aboTe ranage, is remarkaMj 
well preaenred in the French triste. The aspect of modern 
Qeroiaiiy made the same impression on Madame de Stael as ita 
ancient appearance seems to have done on the countrymen of 

. We qhall only now mention a curious, and, we believe, origi- 
nal conjecture of F. Schlegel in his Lectures on die History of 
literature, which recurred to our recollection, on perusing the 
{Passage in ch. 3, '' Ceterum et Ulixeni quidam opinantur-^ 
didisse Germanise terras,'' 8cc. that this fancy originated in a 
confusion of the name of Odin with that of the Greek *0liu9vtbsf 
through the well-known propensity of the ancients to identify 
die iabulous heroes of all other countries with their own ; ' fbr 
which see, among others, Mr. R. P. Knight in his very learned 
^Inqniry into the Symbolical Lianguage of ancient Art and 
Mythology,"* Part ix. §.«09-211, Classkat Journal LlII. 
p. 68. ; a passage which Mr. Barker would undoubtedly have 
quoted, had it occurred to him at the time. Ulysses and Odin 
were both wanderers. 

' We observe an error in p. 90, note, col. 1. (at least if the 
word is meant for Latin) pyrata for piraia. This corruption 
)8 not unfrequent, and seems, like some others of the same kind, 
to have originated in those early times of classical printing, 
when t and y were to a great extent confounded with each 


Part llL-^iContinutdfrom No. IrF/.] 

AIb. Bryant thinks that these mysteries originated in the 
deluge ; which is not improbable as far as concerns some of the 
details, particularly where the ark or scyphus was introduced. 
J am however persuaded that the leading object of the mysteries, 
both Egyptian and Greek, was the '* loss of Man's first perfect 
^tate," his fall, and anticipated restoration. The rites of the 
funereal Osiris seem rather to have typified the sentence of 

* This propensity^ or somethine like it, prevails amoni most natioiis. 
A copious and amusmg article might be written on the subject 

88 On th€ IPyramidtof Egj/pt^ 

death on the first maiY, and bis restorntion by the promised 
seed. A greater than Noah was iinpiied, though the second 
Adam was evidently a type of the third. To this great aecret, 
it is probable that the earliest initiation offered access and par* 
ticipation. The name of Proserpine, and the story of Eurydice, 
combined with that of Hercules, seem to confirm this view. 
But I hasten from this digression to concentrate the s^cattered 
rays of the Egyptian fable, in order that they may fall in one 
powerful focus on the pyramid of which we treat. 

The funeral rites of Osiris were sometimes called those of 
Pluto or Serapis, which means the tomb of Apis/ We have 
before seen what reason there is for believing that the pyramids 
were dedicated to the triple deities of the infernal regions. In* 
the three heads of the Egyptian Cerberus, the triple image of 
Hecate, the triple image at Eleusis^ the triple image at EIe«* 
^anta/ die numen triplex of Japanese and Chinese pyramidal 
fanes, there appears a strong and satisfactory connexion widi 
the pyramid seated over the Egyptian hell or Necropolis^ and 
in the neighborhood of Elysium. I come to a part of the sub* 
ject which is in reality the strongest part of the argument, 
though hitherto considered as the most hostile to any aucb 
induction ; I mean Uie coffer in the central room. 

< This is Bryant's interpretatiou : but I should rather derive Sar from 
a Hebrew word signifying column, than from the Greek lofog. It har- 
monises also with the word Apis or measurement, signifying mystic years 
(Sari), counted by tekb. 

The most iKrect derivation is from Serap^ lo burn, whence Seraph ; 
since Serapis was so represented; and since it is evident that Moses cab-r 
balized in translating names, he may have done so here ; and if thin, 
meaning a column of measured time, evince connexion with the pyramid, 
the name Boore-Muth, cavern or well of Pluto, is a no less weighty than 
curious derivation. 

Even now the word Cabura in Arabic (in Hebrew, a pit with the sign 
of classi6cation affixed) signi6es fire-worship, and thus the most ancient 
mysteries of the three Cabiri. the £odsof fire and sons of Vulcan, to whom 
triangles were devoted, may be referred with great safety to Junereal rites 
eoactdl in the pyramids. 

. 80 the name Osiris may be derived ad libitum from three words ; 6rst, 
meaning Measurer (Apis) ; second, Riches (Dis, or Pluto) ; and thn-d, 
ieD^ the pyramidal number (Oshiri). 

The Gabiri are ealled the sons of king Sadek (Shem) by Sanchoaiatho 1 
but Shem was more probably one of them. Human victims were offered 
to them. Tbey' had a temple near Memphis, which none but priests 
could enter. One of the Pyramids is attributed by the Copts to Shem, and 
another to Ham. 

' * The whole island is dedicated to the Indiap Pluto, the trident-bearings 
•ihree-eyed ^triloehm) Mahadeva, who, as Iswara, is identified by name 
with Adonisiri, or Lord Isirist (Mitra) and who according to Saflchoniatho. 
%as brother of Cna (Canaan). 

6n <^e PyramMs of ^gi^t) d^ 

- Similar stories of the murder aiid mangling of a bodj, its 
deposition ina coflSn, and resuirection, were related of many gods' 
besides Osiris, and entered into the rites of many institutions. 
Tbus one of the Cabiri was murdered and commemorated with 
similar dreadful rites. Adonis was torn by a boar, the Egyptian 
imai^e of Typhon, sought, mourned, and restored to immortality 
by Venus. One of the Cabiri was to live half a year in heaveif 
and half in hell ; so was Persephone, and so was Adonis. A 
similar condition seems to have been, imposed upon Osiris. - ^ 

Bacchus was cut in pieces by the Titans, committed by 
Gadmus with his mother Semele to an ark, and restored to 
life by Minerva: it was also said that he was sewn into JoveV 
tbigh ; and the same account is given of Erechthonius and Miner- 
Ta. Bryant argues that the thigh was a symbol of the ark, which 
19 possible; but I rather incline to think, for reasons to be stated 
hereafter, that it was the type of a lost golden age. Certainly, the 
ibigh of Apis seems to have been consecrated to Osiris. It is 
offered to him amidst the Hieroglyphics, and forms the central 
figure of the Tentyrian Planisphere. It was evidently an im*' 
portant feature of the mysteries. Perseus and his mother 
Dam» were also committed to an ark. To this god, as Sagitta- 
rius or Apollo, the thigh was consecrated, and this perhaps 
explains die mystery of the golhbn thigh of Pythagoras, and 
the reason why Abaris on that account pronounced him to h^ 
Apollo. Of the 14 worlds, the tenth, of agrieuhurists, is seated 
by the Brahmins in the thigh of Brahma. It appears from Ho^' 
mer and Pausauias that the thigh was devoted to the gods at sacri- 
fices. Among the Jews it was sworn by, and one of its sinew* 
held sacred. The solar tripods were sometimes supported hy 
three animal, and the great deity is often represented on Basilidiait 
talismans by three human, thighs. Among the dismembered 
deities, Jupiter is reported to have been cut in pieces by thfi 
giants, and subsequently revived, as Jason^s father was cut in 
pieces and restored to existence by Medea. 
< The M anicheans and Rosicrucians perpetuated these mysteries. 
Manes is clearly the funereal Maneros of the Egyptians. He also 
Mfta deposited in a coffin, his bloody murder wept, and his resur**- 
rection affirmed; nor is it unlikely that the Persian heretics derived 
the Manichean story from the Magian mysteries of fire. The fune- 
real rites of Hossein in Persia are apparently a relic of Magianisml 

The mysteries of Freemasonry are derived from the same 
aourcc — the murder of Hiram — the conspirators— -the coffin, 
and the initiatory secret. Nor can it escape reflection where to 
look for the fouutain4iead,— -in the earliest and most audaciQUs 
MASON irC structures of the world, where theology was certainly 

9Q Oh thif Ptfrarnids of ^fi^ 

typified by the masonic etpblems of tbe triaogl^ wi the 

Buajra. The Great Pyramid was perhaps the fir^t great ^dg^i 
ven oow tlie sun rising behind a pyramid is a symbol of f r^e? 
fpasonry : and the Qiotto '^ Let there be light, and there ^as 
light/' derived from Moses^ was that of the RosicrMcifiiHi and 
Jtermetic philosophers^ and evidently applied to the secrets o| 
thp old fire-worship. A similar society to these, the t^ibim^l of 
^e Purrah, is still in existeqce in Africa^ and evidently a remqaat 
of Egyptian freen^asonry. 

•. My opinion^ therefore, is that the stone coffer in the central 
room was not the coffin of a really buried personage, as Strajbg 
^nA Diodorus, Pauw, and others imagine, but an ark or ti|ber.-r 
oacie^ used (like the coffin of Hiram and *^ Sarcophagus pf 
Hossein'') in the mysteries of the £g}'ptian Pluto^ theqce 
called Serapis and Busiris (house of Osiru)i, Nor is it. unlikely 
that tradition has reported truly of the last, and that the inyst&f 
rioiis chest has streamed with the blood of human sap^ifice^, 
f nd the gloomy chamber where it stands resounded with tfce 
thrilling shriek of dying agony. 

But let us proceed to the proofs. I have before^ inferred 
from many corroborating circumstances that tbe stone chest wap 
pot the sarcophagus of ai^ deceased monarch. The alternative 
is, that it was an ark or cista employed in the initiatory rites. Such 
chests, in short, appertained to almost all the ancient mysteries, 
: The form of this chest is itself mysterious; it is composed 
of two cubes, which symbolised the Gemini pr Dioscuri;' those 
conflicting principles of light and darkness which sprpng from 
the egg of Chaos. Cubic stones were dedicated to ^aal and 
Astarte, and Pluto and Proserpine, and, according to Proclua, to 
the mundane gods. The shrine of Butis was a cube of jSO feet ; 
the temple of Mecca i^ a hollow cube, and, as iPryant affimm, 
the Arabians of Petraea worshipped a black cubic stone, At ^| 
events the cube is adored by the Javanese and Chinese, find 
generally devoted to tricipital deities. Nor is it unlikely that 
the phrase nsed in the Sibylline oracles (lib. 5. ad fin.) ^f Katl or;, 
^Sigavif hiiois e^ixf/jxsve," referred to some similar representa- 
tion : moreover, the chest is placed in a mystic manner> that is, if 
the containing chamber were divided by three lines, it occupies the 
farthest line east iMid west, which is precisely that of the ancient 
tabernacles and Holy of Holies ; so, another line dniwn from the 
lateral holes in the chaniber completes the tripartite division. We 

* Agreeipg with this Urim aod Tbummim (perhaps from Horns, and 
Thiimmuc) in the Mosaic ark. 

.On the Pjfr«mi4ii qf Bgf/pl* 9t 

aro informed tbut th^ Mosaic taberaaclci was of dioiensioiit tiot 
Uidik^, and vlifipe exactly nmilar:' and was supposed to 
^oQtain the Sepbyrptb or spheric Hghis, and the two stones of 
^ law. NoW'W^ leaim from Plutarch that a chest coDtainiog 
n golden ark^ was used in the mysteries of Osiris. Syneaiiis 
infems lis that these arks, according to the priests^^ contained 
the hemispheres^ which agree both with the Sepbyrolh and 
Dioscuri. The two cherubim placed over the Jewish tabev- 
lyacle had perhaps a Qot dissimilar interpretation. At all events 
Iboso of Ez^kiel coincide closely with the attendant matquti of 
Serapis^ the calf alone being substituted for the dog. 

I9 the B9ccbanalian mysteries a coffer was used, containing 
the secret symbolsi of the deity. These are of Egyptian extraor 
tt0ii, (perhaps deposited with Osiris), consisted of the fkaU 
luf, grains of sesame, beads of poppies, pomegranateif dry 
9toms, cakes, salt, carded wool, rolls of honey and cheese ; a chM, 
WLHrpentf and afan« In the mysteries of Ceres there was a sioNlar 
froffer called ihemundm. Cerem,* which contained phalli, grains 
of wheat and barley, a comb, a mirror, and a serpent. We are 
told, moreover, by Suidas and Eusebius, that aria were devoted 
to the mysteries of^r^ and the three Cabiri, and more particularly 
to the great triple deity of £leusis, Bacchus, Proserpine, and 
Ceres* But that no link of affinity may be wanting in order to 
identify such arks with the pyramids and the sarcophagus, Pausa*- 
piaa informs us that the image of Bacchus or Osiris was found in 
an arkf which was said to be the work of Vulcao-rthat Vulcan of 
whom the pyramid is a symbol. He adds that the king who 
opened the coffer went niad on seeing him ; and a similar story is 
fold of Manerosin JBgypt ; the same author also inforois us that the 
triple-headed palladium of Troy was deposited in a sacred chast. 
To a similar source may be attributed the fable of the chest in 
which Minerva depofited £rechtbonius, consigning him to the 
care of three virgins. The curiosity of one, it seems, got the bet<- 
ter of her obedience ; and her fright at seeing his serpent ^ limbs, 
and her subsequent punishment, are circumstances which clearly 


* Exodus xxxvii, ver. 1. Two exact cubes. So is the incense-altar, 
ibid. ver. 25.; but it is worthj^ remark in this place, that as the cofiers 
agree, so do the tabernacle an<i its enclosing chamber ; there is scaroely 
any difierepce on this latter poipt, and the internal arrangement must 
have been as likea^ wooden and marble layers could be. 

* Clem. Alex. Cohort, ad Gent p. 19. 

* Pausanias. It was made of the bonei of Pelops, in which sense it 
agr^9 with the taliamapio figqres of Ouris made by Isis^ a^d SesQftris. 

9% Oh the Pyramidtof ^gypt. 

harmonise with the prohibition to Adam, and perhaps are cofr^ 
nected with the fabled coffers of Psyche and Pandora. Lastlj; 
to sum up the evidence, we learn that the image' of Osiris war 
consigned to a sepulchre for three days; and that, on the fourth^ 
the priests, opened it and brought forth a heifer to the people, 
as the deity restored to life. Other authority proves that it was 
in the immediate vicinity of the Pyramids, and near a temple of 
Vulcan* who made the coffer of Osiris, that this apparition took 
place. Now it is not a little singular titat Arabians,' most likely 
ignorant of these rites, should assert the finding of a statue, in th^ 
coffer of the great Pyramid. But, lest historical testimony should 
appear insuflScient, there are ocular and pictorial evidences now 
extant of the great leading (act here assumed. 

We have, as I hinted, no regular detail from history of ihe 
Epoptic mysteries connected with the death of Osiris or 
Apis; but the gap is well supplied by sculpture and painting; 
Thus on Alexander's Sarcophagus are portrayed the magnifi* 
cent water spectacles of the lower mysteries, the search of Isis, 
and the boats that accompanied her, and the great torch trans- 
ferred afterwards to Elensis. It is a remarkable confirmatiou 
of Bryant's hypothesis that the ship Baris, represented thereon, 
contains eight persons,^ the number in the ark. Among other 
appendages, are tumblers on their heads to represent perhapa 
the bouUversement of nature ; and the plough-share and sickle 
are very conspicuous, as well as the crocodile Typhon. But 
our main business lies with the sculptured tomb of Osiris^ He 
lies horizontally surrounded by the folds of a four-headed serpent, 
implying the four days of his sepulture, or the four great years 
during which the body was fated to attend its resurrection. At 
hia head is a beetle, the type of the lower hemisphere, darkness 
and death ; and that no doubt may remain that it was intended 
for his tomb, the same peculiar symbol decorates the entranced 
^o the tombs of the kings. 

£ have before me similar records arranged to accompany 
every stage of ^the same fabulous drama and every grade of initia- 
tion : but as my purpose chiefly lies with the funereal rites of 
Osiris and tlieir application to the Pyramid, I shall not bur- 

^ ' Plutarch de Iside et Osir. Bacchus slept three nights with Proser- 
pine. The word Orgies is derived from Argoz^ a chest or ark. 

^ To the north and south of this temple, were persooificaUons of Can- 
cer and Capricorn, the two gates of the Sun. 

» Ebd Ibn Alhokro. 

* The Sarcophagus of the Persian Ilossein is carried by eight men» 

pn the Pyramids of Egypt. ^ 

ffeplhe atteDtion with too much unnecetflarj .detail, however 
iptflrasting. Let us proceed to a second representabon of thetcr 
ritea, which is to be found in the Zodiac of Esne* On that re- 
piarkabie monument we have not only tht tomb of Osiris, but 
pariions of his dismembered body. We have not only the triple 
symbols of the infernal deity on the coffin, but the pyramidal 
temple of solar fire to which it is conducted. The ceffin is like 
that described by Plutarch in a scyphus, and resembles in shape 
the double cubic form of the chest in the great pyramid. The 
next historic picture in the series is from the subterranean crypt 
io the temple of Tentyra, and represents the four days' sepulture 
of Osiris* The first seems, to signify his death and subterra« 
neous place of sepulture. The second his tomb, the back of a 
lion, with the lamentations of the ancient Almehs. The scene* 
in the third represents the same tomb, and an ofiering of that 
thigh of Apis, to which Horus as Bacchus Bugenes* owed hit 
birth. The sphinx-like position of the god perhaps implied the 
day of his incarnation or new birth, in the figure of Apis, whea 
the voice was heard proclaiming '^ the mighty Lord of all things 
is bom.'' In the fourth picture, representing the fourth day, the 
figure is resurgant, and the presentation of the Tau evidently 
means resurrection. That the above leonine couch meant a 
tomb has been sufficiently argued. Bochart says, that Orph 
means neck, and Aridaca a tame lion; thence the story of 
Orpheus, and the eastern banner of Sol in dorsa Leonis. There 
is a similar figure between two serpents, appositely placed o» 
a mummy in the British Museum, with Anubis the barker^' 
waking the deceased from death. 

Lastly, Denon furnishes a representation of a tomb with the 
image of the funereal Osiris, mentioned by^Plutarch, reclined 
below, and the Ox Apis above, for such I conceive it to be, at 
the moment ot apparition. The triple image of the globe, wing^ 
and serpent, apparently dedicated to him, (see the Bembino 
table) is a circumstance deserving of remark. The re-appear- 
ance of Osiris in the form of Apis, was sometimes designated 
by a Sphinx with a hawk's head, and a bull's body. 

The meaning of all this seems to be a typical representation 

' The two 6r8t verses of Hosea, cb. vi. express the same initiatory 

^ He also was cut io pieces, and slept three nights with Proserpine s 
Tauriformis was one of his titles. 

3 Perhaps the barkine of dogs and hissing of snakes at Eleusis may 
b« referred to picturas like this. 

94 On fht Fytitmidi of ^gypi, 

of this B^niente of Aekih Oft the fik^t nkiti^ and to cotMprise *om^ 
thidilion of that prdiaked redeihption td Which initiadon offietied 
td dtristt the waj. It appears from the Zefiddvtsta that die 
firtit milo was r«pres6nted as a tnibotaur, like Bacchus Taurp* 
fbhnis;^ iknd it would se^m that Joseph and his proinUed 
Seed weffe represented under the same figure. There Was ud 
blame attaching to those^ who in the dearth of language eitpr^esed 
H ditine tradilion hf a hieroglyphic of astronomy ; nor toy irn^ 
propriety in Jacob's adverting to the typical yehicle in Which K 
true and gidrious prophecy wfts innocently conveyed^ though 
perhaps perverted, as it was by the Jews themselves shortly 
after, Huet thinks^ that Apis was Joseph ; this is not easily 

S roved; but if the above premises be well based, the prophecy of 
ntoh, respecting Joseph, could not well avoid iotat r^redce 
to the rites of Apis, or the funereal Osiris ; and it pr^s^nti the 
featured of an obvious connexion. 

** Joseph is a fruitful bnll by a ttell, Whose children rim* over 
riie neek ; the arckM have sorely grieted him ; and shot at^ and 
hatdd him ; biit bis bow abode in strength." 

Of all this, there are before me pictorial illustrations : the 
heifer by ab eye or welt, the pleiads or chickens upon his necV, the 
archers shooting at him ; bis scyphin, bow. Sec. 1 have before 
teidj that Apis was di!»membered lik« Osiris. In the ritetr* o^ 
BacMdho^ a heifer, substituted for a n^an, was torn to pieces by 
the teeth of the priests. The thigh ahd head seem to be the mo^t 
mysterious portions^ Sufficient has been said of the first { the 
ladt a^peard frequently tinder a sacred aspect. It Ibi^med the 
ornament of friezes and doorways ; it omametited the angles of 
lAtAn, and furnished the hom^. An Egyptian altar exhibits it 
either as its upper part or ill sacrifice upon it. It is seen fre- 
ipiently on MithrHic moitufu^nta^ Otie sculpture portrays it on 
a pilfer, arid near it three steps. With a figure of Mithra or Eros, 
SiMted on a fUinbotD: another represents it hung tipoa a tree, 
with a quiver ofartows. On the Zodiac of Estlfe, a figure com* 
bined of the head and thigh of Apis, is held by Tvphoti, chained, 
while another figure pierces it Witii a dart. The derivatioh 6f 
Gentdur here is sufficiently obvious, as well aS ihe reason why 
Sagittarius is represented under the forni of a Centaur whose 
arrow is directed towards the Zodiacal bull. 

I have compressed a variety of interesting subjecti here, the 

* Sometimes crowned with apples ; see Montfaiieon ; sometimeB hil 
head with horns wks hung on a tree to promote revivificatioD. A buU'a 
head hung upon an apple tree, was devoted to Mitlua* 

» Porphyry de Abstinentiif. 

On th§ Pyramids of Egypt. 9& 

riisqaisition of^hich might fill many chapten, in order to keep 
the Main argument in view. For any abniptn^s U'hith the 
compression may have imparted to my style, I beg to apolo- 
gise ; but 1 have always thought that trudi is better than fine 

The main inference is, that the coffer ill the Pyramid resem-» 
bledy in purpose, the cista and petroma of Ceres, the tabernacle 
of th6 Jews, and the coffer in which Bacchus was deposited } 
-dlit ^n the mysteries, it was used for the deposition of a similar 
image of Osiris, during his four days' sepulture, and perhaps 
for the members and relics of Apis. It is, moreover, proba- 
ble that it was the great dinouenient of the mysteries \ that n 
restorgent image of Osiris Tauriformis was made to rise there- 
frotD, <Mr at least a mimic Sun, to which the animal Was 
devoted^ which bore the same name, that of Pbra, and 
was an emblem of the great mediator and liberator, Orutf 
or Mithm. And 1 found this latter supposition, apparefatly 
l^tuitotts^ on several circumstances. If the Pyramid was 
a type of the universe, where could there be a bettei^ 
sanctiuiry for the tabernacle of the sun, than the centre of that 
etrmetiire i Analogy supports the inference ; for the lower room 
still bears the name of the Queen's chamber (the Queen of 
Heaven, Hecate of the three ways.) The supposition accounts 
for the £astem type of Sol in dorso iauri ; and if the propriety 
of placing a sun in the realms of Serapis or Pluto be questioned, 
it must be recollected, that there was a sun of the inferior world, 
<ir Sal Infems,^ which typified the Hiild calm of renewed life, 
that to produce light from darkness, a masonic emblem, illus- 
trative of the creation, and the moral effect of a new birth, was 
an object of the mysteries, and as we know a leading feature. 
The final '^ beatific vision'' has been already referred to^ and 
some dazzling radiance seems to have been connected with iU 
*' A miraculous light discloses itself," says Stobttus, describing 


' All the Pagan nations had a Nyctiliau or Sol Inferut^ who at once prfr- 
uded over funeral rites and Elysium, and to whokn pots of fruits and 
flowers in both capacities were oflered. Among the Syrians tbese^wert clil)« 
ed the gardens of Adonis, and among the Greeks dedicated to Pluto as 
Lofd and founder of Elysium, and deposited with the dead. They were 
occasionally gilt, bv which was implied either the lost solden age, or the 
lost golden fruit of Hesperus to he recovered by Hercules EngoniUii (see 
the celestial sphere) the trampleron the Dragon's head. The bierogly- 

)>hic of the sun in the lower hemisphere is thus represented 

according to Jablonski; but Serapis was the5o/ I^fenu^. -e^r-* — 
Phico was the Jiqfiter Infmu of the Greeks. Pluto is the sun under 
the earth, says Porphyry (apud Euseb. prarp. Evan. lib. iii. cap, 9). 

Q6 Sfiphoclis Viilgai/e Leciionti. 

the mysteries. But the* words of Apuleius in referring to the 
IkBt stage of initiation are remarkably in point. *^ I rushed for«- 
wardy" says that writer, '^ amidst surrounding elements" (typify- 
ing the wreck of nature), and beheld a Sun shining with 
THE SPLENDOR of daif amidst the depths of midnight *' " They 
(the candidates) saw celestial beauty/' says Plato, '* in all the 
^azzling radiance of perfection/' These descriptions^ compared 
with another by Timarchus in Plutarch, would lead us to ima- 
gine that a grand orrery or solar system was displayed^ accom- 
panied with a profusion of radiancci and the most resplendent 
machinery ; for the latter speaks of starry globes revolving to the 
90und of celestial symphonies and supernatural accents. I 
have before said, that the Rabbis affirm, that their tabernacle 
contained the Urim and Thummim, and tlie Sephyroth. The 
first are supposed to represent the zodiacal signs divided into 
two hemispheres ; the last a mystic astronomical system or orrery, 
of which 'the kingdom' is the centre. The word Sephyrotb 
means lights ; the Urim and Thummim, something burning and 

Thus considered, my inference as to the Central rooqs seems 
nearly completed, perhaps as nearly as any anal(^ can be trusted* 


yiilgata guadam Lcctiones defenduntur atque erpli" 


Quoad versus 147 et seqq. Sophoclis Electrap, ego quidem 
penitus improbo G. B—ii nimis audaciter fictas lectiones, 
tueorque communem lectionem his quas sequuntur argumentisl 
Plura depromere ex hac scena necesse erit, quibus depromtis 
vel leviter inspicienti erit manifestum, quoad haec loca et sibi 
coDsentaneum nee di£Bcilem intellectu esse Sophoclem. Scena 
nobis inducit Chorum ex Argivis Virginibus constitutum quse 
cum Electra coUoquuntur. Vid. Class. Journ. No. liv« 339. 

Chorus. Chorus, 

kK>C oS Toi riv y tf Aita At patrem a Tartari flomine, 

Tfltyxofvou ydfM/a^ ^Farlp* oaf" omnibus com muni, nee ploratu 

(rrao'ffi;, o5r« yooi^ outs XirotT;. nee precibus inter vivos resii- 

&\A'iff»rG0yjtfffrp/fley|7*&jx^atyov tues, Porro a mediocri ad 

Scphoclis Vulgata Leetionu. 


ev ol$ iafakiJ(rts Iotiv ou- 

tf ftoi tooy ivfT^ipwif if let ; 


&' hyv alHv "Itvv o\o^vgeTon, 

loo wavrXofMov Niofiot, ae 8* iycoye 
St h Tafoo ^rtrpaloo 

OVTOi (Tol fMVV», T^KyOV, . 

vpos Zri <r& Tcov IvSov eT 7rept(r<roi, 
o1$ 6(i^tev el, xa) yova. ^uvoupi^os, 
ola Xpua'oieiiig 
t^et xcii *Ipivot(r(ra, 
xpwrra t' a^eoov kv IJjSa, 

ya 7orl Mvxrivaleov 
i^ereu tihrargtiav Ji2f eS^pon 
^igfMtri iLoXivra ravJe yav ^Opta- 


vehementem evadis tristitiam 
semperque ingembceps teip* 
sam pessumdas. Cur mihi it»- 
tolerandapojicis mala e qaibus 
nulla est liberatio I 

Electra. , 
Infantula ! quKcunquei paren- 
tibns misere peremptis eorum 
obliviscituf ! — ^At Avis illage- 
mebunda mentem mihi abriL 
puify quae Itun^ semper ItuD 
lamentatur — Avis territa Nuif- 
cia certe Jovis ! Ego quidem 
te, O Niobe misefrima^ Deam 
teneo quae marmoreo in sepul*- 
chro siemper ploras ! 

Haud tibi soli mortalium ere^ 
nit calamitas ; qua sorte num 
tu prae iis qui sunt in aedibus^ 
abundas quibuscum versaris^ 
esque sanguine consors; talifa- 
to vivit Chrysothemis et Iphi- 
anassa^ atque felix ille qui te- 
nera in astate tutus ab his la^ 
tebat molestiis^— H}uem clara 
Mycenarum terra aliquando rel*- 
cipiet, ilium qui divino laetoque 
gressu hos ad fines advenit^ no* 
bili natnm Patre Orestam ! * 

Fingit conjectative G. B— -us^ ut infra videre et t^ * 

SlKKx iC dEyfi VT&kf aUffa itapoi ^^^> 
i^Mf cilifi¥''lTWf 6Xo^fevcu, 
ip9$f fir' AllofMW, JtiMf Syyoiii"^ 

fiUNnim admirabilium versionem ad literam factam dabimus*- 
'' Sed Parca mihi gemitu (suo) sensus rapit, quae Itun mise- 
nun Itim lamentatiu-y avis veluti lugemus, yens nuocia ! T 

PnebeiK nobis Msti omnes^ quos ^tem 6. B., ut aliquandb 
ndeatoTy pro nibUo estimate 


98 SophocUs Vulgata Lectionti. * 

•jpvi; arvCof&ffya' AAi ayyiXo;. 
Inprimis^ ait G. B. ** apoigt in linguam et metrum peccat^^' — 
£n veraum qui Stropbicus est ei ad quern adhassit 6. B. I 
quitur Electra^ 

otia re xa) ^wififii raS* oS tI jm, V. 131. 

cui suum subjicimus Antistrophicum 

Hie nil nisi quod aptum et suave sit vidimus. Notemus 
quod et Strophae et Antistrophae versus 4, 5, 10^ 11^ 12, IS. 
puri sunt dactylici. — Ego quidem non audio in rep " apape" cum 
G. B. Amphibrachuv^ sed re vera, prout metrum postulate 
anapsstum. Illud ps ante ^gs, procul dubio, commune est : 
f litera vel sola vel cum muta conjuncta eadem in syllaba coiens 
communem reddit antecedentem vocalem ; teste Homero, qui 
Sophocli quasi deus est. Primo, quoad quantitatis communi- 
tatem rou p literse, habemus hoccine notiBsimuo}. — Iliad. £• 
^Ag9$, "Apefy fiooToXotyi, ^lai^in, x. r. X« JDeinde de litera p 
cum muta conjuncta, 

ffo); o.rau0* &§iMHV§ %aroL fpiva xa) Ttarct, ivfiiv* 
i}X 2yf [uspfuiipify xard ^piva xai xxroL tviMv* 
Inde plena auctoritate communique regula vocalis natura brevis 
ante ^p consonantes producitur. — Hoc autem canone fitapape 
anapaestum. — Ergo recte se h^bet vulgata loci hujus lectio. — 
/' £pag9, ait G. B.y non alibi extat in sensu toO placuit." — Ne- 
que in hoc loco ^ at salvum nibilo minus esse potest vocabulum. 
Attamen, ponamus insincerum esse illud apagu Exulet igitur, 
ejusque vice fungatur va^ ^phag. At quid de illis iXX* tjxe y 
(i (rrwit(rai — Nullus extat accusat6r, nee ipse G. B.^- Aptum- 
ne epitheton est (rTovoea-a-a Philomelas? Nemo recusat — Quid 
autem de manuscriptis? Adclamant omnes, atque huic vulgatae 
lectioni favent. — Socientur deinde voces aXk* ifji^i y d orovoWo*' 
cum conjectura B— ana ^'irot^d ^pivag'* 

ciK>! ffie y d irrovowira vctpd ^pivag. 
At cum sequentibus conjuncta haec lectio sensu prorsus laborat. 
Nibilomiuus voces illae tftj y' d oTWottraa per se ipsas innocuae, 
imo et optimae quoad sensum esse videntur, fautoresque ha- 
bent eruditos codicesque omnes ; sed male concordant cum rf 
'* vagi.fpivaf.^^'-^Nempei quia posteriora haec non sunt a So- 
phocie, at potius merum G. B— i figmentum. — ^'Deliteris 
mutatis nihil est quod diepm/' ait G. B.; et -stU <:on8en- 
laneus adjicere poterat, ** neque est quod curem de manu- 
scriptia.'' Pereaint^i^ ille, iXx* i^y d ctwitrs*, et nov^apten- 

SophocHs Vulgat(£ Leciiones. 99 

lur vocabula ad illud ^' waipa, ^fwa^!* — Nitnirum vir doctua* 
postquam banc meliorem, ut sibi videbatur, inveneratlectionem, 
aibi conscius erat^ r^ ** igup§" avulso, sensum a se^ auoad ce- 
tera, esse foedatum, inde in Sophocleani versus effigiem refin« 
gere conatur baec '^ disjecta membra Poetae:" 

oAXa /t* if/it OTOVcp ultra wapet. fpivas. 
Sed quid de r£ '' oXAa [u\ " anne aiffert de r^ &KK' ^/ts i Prorsus 
oibil — responderet vel infimo ordioe puerulus. Qua porro de 
causa banc veram vulgatamque lectionem de loco deturbat 
B— us ? Nempe ad sensum refarciendum quern manu aUdacis- 
sima corruperat. Nunc de ayti quid dicendum i Habentne 
manuscripti i ne unus quidem. Deerat autem nescio quid ad 
barathrum implendum^ ingeritque illud miserum £yei. Eodem 
mode Atos aY/sXov expellit, et illico corruit, quoad sensum, et 
metrum fortasse, totius versus compages ! Sciverat hoc catus 
homo, versus namque debetur dactylicus : et dactylicum re vera 
prestant manuscripti omnes. At miratur 6. B. ** quid sibi 
velit * Jiif ayyiXos V nemo hominum satis bene definire potest." 
Atque ita mehercule quia G. B. et alii, ut opinor, admodum 
pauci, phrasis cujuspiam minus intelligunt sententiam, more ho- 
diemo decretum est ut exulfiat et ipse Zivs ! Ad rem redeamus. 
Elidere visum est B — o vocem Jio^, et substituere stSiOs. — Hoc 
aotem factO| et copia data aliis vulgatae lectionis vocibus ut sua 
sede fruantor, tale quid nobis exoritur MfXo^, 

' Sgftg arvKofAivap Miog "Ayyekos — ! ! 
Saiie mihi videtur idem accidere iis qui improba manu antiquo- 
mm scripta deturbant, atque illis qui veritatem minus colunt; 
bis enim qui unum duntaxat mendacium edixerint, necesse est 
ut amplius mille acciantur in clientelam ! ! 

Simili modo, qui nullo jure, nulla manuscriptorum auctoritate 
freti, vel tantillum rodunt ex Antiquorum scriptis, adeo sensum 
metrumve lacerant, ut omnibus pateat injuria* Hancque iterum 
atque iterum fieri injuriam yidemus, usque dum ipseauctor totus 
evanuerit; deinde in vicem ejus Imagiunculam quandam in 
pompa ducunt Hsbc omnia evenire cemimus in G. B — ii alio- 
mmque ipsi similium wafjLfiva 'Epyaa-Tifipl(p» Scilicet tra- 
hitur ad supplicium a Spvig em)lii>[ji.iva, extunditur autem in !pvis 
ii^ a^ofMV^ Uteris et sono (confiteor) alteri quam simillimum ! 
•ed Sophoclis sententias alienissimam. Ego quidem tueor com- 
munem lectionem, primo quod optime manuscripti eam exhi* 
bent, deinde quod omnes, justo titulo viri eruditissimi hue us- 
que eam adprobaverunt. — Mihi stai lectio communis, Namque 
iaesae loco, de quo apitur, videmus stjluns bene 6r«cum, et 
9ofi^ocle digniim ; ndemus quoque oraticmem peraonis aptam, 
coDtextui consentaneam, intellectuque facilem. i3 — nm autem 

lOO Sophoclis Vidgat(E Lectiones. 

lectioni desulil tituli quibus ullo modo hie vir eruditus etim trd* 
probare possit. — Communem lectionem Spups nihil m tnetrutti 
offendisse demonstravitnus^ neqiie opus est, prout G. B. opirm- 
tair, ut igaps pro '' placuit" intelligamus ; $ed ab alpco zufero, 
arripio, sustollo : — ergo apape ^pivots est^ abstulit vei arripnit 
men tern. 

Grascia lusciniis est regio notrssima, quibas de avibus apiid 
|>oetas freqtientissimam invenimus mentionem. Mihique reb 
Certa videtur luscinis aliarumque avium cantus in prima huju^ 
dramatis scena fuisse imitatos. Reprsesentabattir quoque £lec- 
tra^ quasi exieritaedibus patetnrs ; pro foribus autem et sub dio 
faos questus eifundebat : 

(TTvyepui^ TS yocov is t* oiv 

Aeucrcra) Trufi^eyyelg u(rTpoov 
piTToig, XetJcrcrco le to? ^fiap* 

fi^ ou*' — TgxvoXlrejp* £$ Sivfiwv, 

hrixcoKVCTcOf toov he %atpcJotiv 

'TTpo 6vpm ^p^co irutri Trpo^oDveiv, 
Siquis animum intendat veros ad affectus sententiasque quibns 
induere personam, hancce Electram, voluit Poeta, ne vocabulum 
quidem e communi lectione amovebit. Insanit ilia quodam 
ihodo lugendo. Quam pulcbre autem depingit Tragoedus nos- 
ter bunc animi illius affectum, evocatque sibi in auxilium am- 
plissimas orationis Graec2e imagines ! Versibus in chdricis^ de 
quibus nunc agitur, atque in mentione de Inscinia et de Niobe 
facta, respicit Electra et in suas fortunas et pristinam gentrs 
tnytbologiam. — Ut diximus supra, cTovdeaa-a lest epitheton lusci- 
niae notissimum ; hocque dato, veteres respiciebant ad cantutfi 
hujus avis, modulationemque subinde murmurantem, ut quse 
inemor esset, revocaretque Philomelas lugubre fatum. Quo 
teste igitur, quove jure, adimere velit G, B. hoc epitheton, et 
refingere novam suam ineptissimamque lectionem ariveo ali-ui 
Pro '* alh "Ituv," nobis largitur " alvov "/tuv,'* balbutitque ne- 
scio quid de alvSyufiog, ahoXotfi^Trris^ ahoiJi,opog, alvO'IIapis, Horum 
autem illustrium claudat agrnen et ipse a\vi-B — 0$ ! 

Quid enim fecit illud innocuum uUv i annon vmssime dici 
potest de ave ilia de qua et ipse Aristoteles scribit, 'H ie iificiv 
SBei ftsv (TVve^Sis yjlJi'ipots xa) ifiitrui Sexa^revTff f Detur nihilomi- 
nus B — io ut aSvov "Jruv diei possit de miserulo cujus membra 


* Post voces lAn wfl, ellipsis est xnf w B^im : TixioXiwg respicit ad Philo- 
iiielam priusquani id hiscmiam transformata erat; tiamque, isorore social 
Itun pwralumjuguh^.^Vi^, Ovid. Met. libi vi, dfS.- • ^ 

SophocHs Vuigata Lectianes. 101 

dihiikita igne toquit et ipsa maters Tereoque sue apponit ipa* 

Optimo jure nos quoque dicere possimus «iyi So^oxXii ! ! Tua 
namque membra, simili modo laniata, nobis apponit hodierna 
crudelftas ! At rem seriam agamus. — Maluit Poe'ta alh scriber^i 
n6o vemt illi in mentem illud admirabile aivw I Deinde ex arv- 
l^fuiva JA^f vera et manuscriptorum lectione, extundit 0« B. ir" 
i^^^fMV ei^eog ; aitque ** Perpetuo an vefuti sic usurpatur.** 
Quid velit vir doctus per hoc suum ^* Perpetuo/' ego quidem 
prorsus igi^oro ; sed hoc scio, et omnes, Sophocle lecto, sclent, 
haic poetae solemnem et perpetuum esse usum, hand equidem 
oFre, at to^, pro veluti, utpote, quasi, et similia. Quumque O. 
B. mihi e Sophocle monstraverit unum duntaxa^ exemplum ro8 
^^ & r%^ ego ilii aiterius^ scilicet tow ** »^," facile proferam bis 
mill^I — Nunc auteni, si mihi quoque venia daretur vocabula 
fingendi, faberque ^erem ad incudem B-^nnam, certe dicereni. 
illud irs ^fivoo^ fo-riv a(70<^oxXff7ov : est igitur merito rejiciendum.*— 
Dimisso auteni are vocabuio, divulsoqueacomite suo *^ iKofji^iv,'^ 
metrum B — io laborat. Hoc fieri potest ; sed de hac re ne 
^mus nimium soliciti. Reddatur *^ suum cuique," reddatur 
et suum Sophocliy et Graecae pulchritudini proprium. Sit 
nostrum utcoUigamus ^^ Poetae disjecta membra." — B B — anis 
eir^ i^OfMV ilBios redeant, solit »ut vice fungatur, aT\>^oyi,iytt 
Ails ayysXog, Vox om)fyiiiva est loco, et antiquis fbrtunia 
Philomela^ et Electrae affectibus, imo et avi lascinia apprime 
idoneus. Haec, arvKo^iya, namque, i. e. terrore concitata avis 
fttgit hominis coetum et frequentiara, seque abdit in sj'lvarum 
solttudinem. Duce Homero quoque, est avium terrore avolan* 
tittUfi epitheton, 

'Afi^) SI jxiv xXAyyri vsxveov rfv olcovAv £^, 
nivrwr* arvfyf/Jvoov, x. t, \, — Odys. xi. ()04. 
Jam tandem grandi impingimus offendiculo Aii$ ayV^^S' Aspi- 
ciamus hunc qui sequitur coiitextum. 


ogyig aTv}^OfJi,ita, Jioj iyysXog. 

Md warrXifuoif Ntofix, <rs S* tyooyi vifuo 6aov 
dr' h ri^tf werpodep 

Aitque paulo infra 

Chorus — (ad Eiectram,) 

yx TTori Muw^vaUov 

iS^pum ^Aoipr« rcufU yif 'O^T^n^* 
Hie ooBoe videre est concatenatam quasi senteattm de nmfuiiiiA 

108 SophocHi Vulgata Lettichtes. 

aliquo fortunarum Electm provido? Ponamus autem, casu ali- 
quot exeidisse e textu has voces Jio^ iyyeXo^ : tanta tamen em- 
phasi in proximo versu effert Electra, 

^ (re S* iyoryt vifMO Seov, 

ut cnipiam suspectum foret, his verbis auditis^ aliquam W9g\ 
*^ JiOf, mentionem nuperrime esse factaoi. At ^*cafimv est 
^Hgoi ofyyffXo;^" dicunt eruditi quibus displicet commuois lectio. 
Hoc autem baud impedit quin avis eadem^ casu quodam, et au- 
gurio esset et Jihg Str/ytKo^. Mitto G. B — ium ad Xenopb. 
Memor. lib. i. cap. ] . — *0 l\ oiHh xawirepof sla-i^eps roh iX- 
Xm, SfTOi fMtmK^v yo/xfCovre;,' oloovolf re yfwyreii xoA ^f^iMug xai 
avpifioXots xa) tva-iaif o3ro/ t§ yoLo xnnXaiL^uvwin rou; dfov; hot. 
rtuTcoy rii (rviA^ipovra rois /xayrevo/xgyoi^ o^jxa/vsiv. 

Horum sacroniin habita ratione, poterat Electra, vel Lusci- 
niam, vel aliam qnampiam avem utpote augurium habere^ et^ 
justissima appellatione, banc iavocare Jio^ ayyeXov. 

Ad haeC| erat Electrae cum ave ilia maxima fortunarum com- 
munitas. A sororis marito vi stuprata, horrendi bujus adulterii 
una cum sorore vindex fuit Philomela. A matre adultera^ el 
scelere iE^isthi^ patrem amisit Electra, et ipso temporis articulo 
quo cum Choro colloquebatur, s<ie1erum horum brevi se vindi- 
cem esse futuram, fratre adjutante^ sperabat : Quamobrem^ lu- 
gubri cantu audito, omne ut faustum accepit Electra, divinamr 
que quasi nunciam invocat Lusciniam, prisca forma etfortuha 
sibi sociam. — Porro quidnam nunciare Electras possum us effin- 
gere Lusciniam i Scilicet, omine accepto, et revocata Philomelas 
fortuna, ilia animo effingere poterat^ quasi modulo suo talia ver- 
ba obmurmuraret avis : ** Ego tibi a Jove nuncia sum. Quem- 
admodum olim ego^ dum humana forma vivebam, mihi ipsi 
sororique carissimse injuriam mariti ejus adulterio factam, par- 
ticipe iila sorore, ulta sum, ita tu, fratre tuo adjuvante, meoque 
propdsito exempio, patris delectissimi necem, impia matre alla- 
tam, ulciscaris." 

Exiude nobis liquida fit Chori sententia dicentis 


ii^etM idvarpliav, Jio; evfgon 

fiilfuert fioXovra rav te yav 'Opi<rrav> 
Scriptorum antiquorum plerique sibi ipsi saepissime sunt inter- 
pretes. Jio; eS^^ovi fi^fi^ari x. r. X. gemina est reo " Atos ay^ 
yeXos,** et altera alteram tuetur explicatque lectionem. Nam 
si Jiof iufpovi jS^ftari appropinquabat Orestes, sorori comes 
futurus in patemae necis ultionem ; pari ratione Jio; ofyyeXo; 
vel augurio, vel alio quovis modo, hsec annunciare poterat. Fit 
autem plenissima harum lectioniMii concinnitas adjecta ad Nio- 
ben apostrophe : 

SophoaUi Vulgat<z Lcctioncii 103 

Divinu Deqipe avis erat qui^ pietati suse consulerei Electrae 
videbatur : divino quoque gressu venturua erat Orestes : Dea 
denique Niobe erat. — Quam ob causam i Ob teneruin procul- 
duhio, ut Electra opinabatur, io filios amorem ; quibiuamissis, 
mater ilia piissima. 

■ — - h Taf(f viTpatef 
eiU) iaxpiit* 
At deme iliud Jiog ayyiXo$, et, ego non dubito affirmare, statia 
corruperis lectionis integritatem. 

a>iXi \C iy%\ ar&f(» ala-a. Tapi fpivei^, 
ut emendat 6. B.— nic notare cogor sermonis ambigui- 
tatem. '^Parca me gemitu rapit/' Anne gemit Parcar 4 
"Itw luyoy ^/ruy JXo^^frai,— praeeunte eda-a vocabulo, articuluf 
iU§a(8i quidem antiquie Grapimatices veras habemiis lectiooe^) 
ad eilva jure referendum est ; indeque nobis alius exoritur sb* 
loecismus. Parca (i. e. uhu) luget Itun, miserum Ituo! "Art, 
pro veluti, otiatur et redundat, nam re vera audiebat Electa 
lusciniam : sed bsec vox are pro '' veluti*' Sophocli est alienis* 
sima.— '"^ii^fMV ! ^^''AKuv, to a-rivtiv/* ait G. B. ^'auctore Bekke- 
ro:** — quod ego (pace tanti nominis) multum dubito: at rem 
ita se habere coucedamus ; afypi^ev, etiam pro <rrhuv, omnino 
otiatur et rauroXoysI cum precedeoti irrSytp, ** Postremo 
(ait G. B.) Biisog iyyiXos amice convenit cum dicto Pub. Syn 
' avis exul byemis titulus tepidi temporis/ etenim 9tioi vel Ro( 
est tempos sestivum/' Sed ** tempus tepidum'' est verni tem- 
poris epitlieton. Quam amice convenit, ut ait G. B.^ ^er* 
nam tempus cum tempore aestivo ! ! jrs ^ia Sitpiog ft{|fi!! 
Sed nasquam Lusciuia, ut aestivi temporis^ ut fiSto^, id 
eat xaifuuTOf ftfo-iifA/Spivou ayyt Ao^^ (quas res cum bis miUe 
avibus communis est) at verni temporis avis celebratur. Prao- 
teiea, infelix hoc " ttiso^'' £yyeAo^ prava positione adeo detor- 
qaetur, ut Electra se ipsam eTSio; AyyeKov nuncupasse videatur ; 
hoc modo namque currit B— -ana sententia : 

opvis ir afyiuif, etieos jfyyiAo^ 

Avis veluti lugemus caloris raeridiani nuncia ! 

J, W. 
Dabam LherpooUi, Septemb* 1823. 



'ASnASior xxoAUiN eijs ta ^hohca tot 


E Codd. MSS. Grace primus edidit H. Hase, Sta- 
tiuirum antiquarum Dresda publicus Custos. 

•• ■ ■ 

No. II.— [Cowc/M(fcrf/row Ho. LFL] 

j\d librum secund. jEthicorum Nicom. P. a. et P. b. sine titulo. 
VR. a. fol. 61. b. VB. HI b. Fl. a. el^ tS ^. 'Ap^crrorix. 
UiiTtoov, idem Fl. b. fol. 362 b. Omnes ita ordiiintur : Jirr^^ 

tW), .TO jxgy Xoyov Ix^Vj to o ou, Sfrrij xa) ^ apffz^ — 

Nic. ii, 1. P. a. fol. 32 a. VB. f. 1 11 b. 
; P. b. fol. 28 a. Fl. b. 362 b. 

^.Jva il iriXov yivr^rcti voog ^lyei ft^ 7ragoLytv8(rtai ^u<rei, houperi^p 
XCM'iyoog to ^6(rei, ^Jcrsi yap Xiyerou VTrap^eiv, o(ru ae) f^wwrap^^ 
olov ^t/<rsi 7ay to /Soou xaTO) ^ipecrSai xai to xoD^ov avco* xoii* erepov 
ti TgSyrov XeycTai ^ucei xaJ o If af%^? f^^ a'vvv7rap)^u, airo U nvog 
j^ovov irapaylveTUt* eo$ h'jr) to ^Aetorov jxi^Sev ^jxaJv iroXuTrpayfiovovV'- 
junf ft^Te Sr gSou; /x)jT6 Sia' iiSoi(r}iaXias,ohv SSovtcov ^(ng xa) ysve/* 
eoy« uKKooq is xiysrai ^uo'ei^ o3 iTriSsxTixo) e<r[J.ev. ovTcog xa) rot. evay- 
t/« Tcp auTw ylvovTM f6(ru, ohv v6(ros xo) uyis/a t^ Sextixc^ (rdofAau^ 
in $6 XlycTai ^Jo'ei vpo^ £e yJiXKov to Sext^xov ici^vrce tuu 'jrpog o 
fry 61 a^o T^^ fvascos a^ipptM$ /xaXAov. outco^ Se ku) fi vyislu jxey 
f uo-64, ^ 8« yoVo^ wapa ^uo^iy ylverai (rrepr^(ris rig oxxrct Tf^g uyietas* 

Ad 1. ii. c. 3. Commentarius, cujus versio Latina legitur 
partial apud Felicianum p. 42. (ed. Paris.) 

P. b. 31 a* 

VR. a. fol. 736. 

V. b. f. 114 b. 

Fl. b. f. 368 a. 
^' Ilegl fjISovois Se xai Au^a^ loriv ^ apcTij." oo touto Alysoy oti hoi 
rovro ecTTi ^repl rjiovoig xa) Au^aj, iTreiS^ axoAoufloucri rulg xaXalg 
evepyeloiis ai Igr* avrdg ijSovaL aAA^^ toOto /xsy o')}]Xff7oy IJeto Toiy 
apermv, sixotco^ Se axoAouflely AeysTai Tai^ xotXalg evegyelotig roig hr 
avTuig ^ rfiovotg. 'EweiS^ wgpi ^Sovfi^j xai Xvyrag so-riv rj ijiixv} ocper^, 
T?j yoip avTYig ear) xa5 fPtp) ijl^ovoig xaJ Au^oe^ elva* to 9rpo(r^xoy /xsTgoy 

' Car. ii«i Fl. b. 
^ Desinit in his verbis Fl. b. monens in marg. fxna mivre 9vXX« tCfn^ug ri 
/vojxivoy : leguntur:rcliqua f. S68. recto. ^ P. a. adrafy. 

Epit. SckoL iti Aristoi. Ethka. lOS 

yiwaf. ^ i^Aix^ ipni^^ 06 yip Sij ^ Sioofoifriit^* aun^ ytfp ^a¥epw cff 
oux loTi ^e^i ^$ov^; xai Xutcas. i) Se i^Siio; ^rco^ «Sy »)} irc^i ^oko^ ^l 
Avm; ; ipoty% wamp Sgyavaf xatawap oaf Axoi rif t^^ ooXi^ixijy 
Hfm Yffp} o^Xouf^ T^y Se rexrovix^ %Bp\ irtXexuv ^ Trgiova xoii tA 
iXXa S^a¥a, ij [AoiKkof Aarmp vwrntelfuvw x«)uXi]y; 8y rpowov 4 ft^ 
fbouo-ixi} 78pi fftlXo; krrly, ^ 2e yseo/xer^/a 9rfpi [liynios, "Opyawm 
jxey oSy t^; oper^^ ' ^imu^ r^v ^Soi^y x^e) ri^y Ausnjy o^x etiXovoy. W 
ooSfV y£^p XP^^^ aureus 00$ tpyivoi^J /xftXXoy Si Sbixtv flyai rjf 
oprn}^ (iwoxBlfMva oSrcogy ms Tp ftovo'ixjf xd^' f&eXi]. t^v y^^A lyipyeioiy' 
«oief|^ re Tf g/ rs rc^ md)) xai ra; vpa^u$j xat r^v Tfmraov irvpLjuTfldv^ 
KCKtoamp dowrtx^ 7sp) rc^ /x6Xi|* rcoy oSy u^oxsif^fycoy lor) xa) SXiff 
X^yoy l^oyrcov ra iradi}. ou jw^yoy $? r^l ?radi} eSo'^fp ifafitv, oXXfl^ x^ 
al vpfl^eify m} y^ip voam^ vaiu mreu ij^v^ xal Xvmi, ivmp 
vgoekSdv ipsl, shiOTco$ vsp) {jSovas Koi yjme^ i(rxh ^ ^9ix^ ^gT^ 
£(nrff^ UTOxe/jbteva. 

"A^ioif xa) Touro (ijr^crai ^ irep^ Xiytrat, irayri voSei tiirfforfidci if Soyi^y 
xa} XiJmjy ; &101 jetey ydp iiyrjo-oLvro ysvix&rretroL Uvea lio raSrce 4r«0if 
xor^ Toy * ApiCTToriKriVy Mxtro^ Se ysvixoLj tocTS haigHariut'^ ro ]Aif 
icoAo$ ei^ Suo woL^y ^^ov^v xa» Xt^TPjyy r^ Is aWst wavroi iroA^ elf 
fBofifV oataynff'iui xcl\ Xv9n]y. oToy Ipyr^v /xgy xtfi f ^|3oy si^ X«iD}y> 
Uptrog ie slf ^Soy^y« ri^v Se mii^lav hmvov ti elyai Ix Xuirij^ xft) 
ifSoyiJ^ xatrsftsy yoip r^y cvSetay Xu^ fjroi^earu tcS Iff-iSujxouyri, X^trA 
Se Ti|y Ix^r/Sa ijSoyij. 

Tunc pergit fol. 38 a. P. a,, VR. a. 74 b. V. b. 1 16 a. J»i r«p«w« 
r«ti TiVis }JsyBiv fti} slyfti aur^i yivr^ p^r^^i njy ^rpdGniv Sia/^iv rm mi^m 
€ij toSto elyar oiKKoL tov '-^pioTOTeXijy xlygjy, frupe7re<r6ou avToi rolg 
TraBttrtv ourco^, coj t^ ptey uyteta •jtapenrroLi ij eS^poia, tj S^ vrfirw "^ 
Sucjxgo'a. l^icxewTeoy Se wep) TOUTcoy ?p^ei 8g 13 lw<flujx/a, Sa-yreg eipni- 
rai pLiJ^iv TiVOL r^lovy\q xal Xv^^ xal 6 fluft^^. KotX yoLp aurhs Soxel jxsP 
ii^QW^g ylveu-iui xai XtS^nj^ * SijXoi de xa) ^'Ojxijpo; Xeyoov, ^ 

COOTS TToXu y\vxl(OV jxgXiro;9 xaTaXg<j3ojxgyo<o 

av^cov iv <rTr}de<r<rt, xa) ru k^rig. 
ipa hs jxi} ourco^ ^IXxtoy oiya)6ev Kafifiv ri %ori g<rri to vdiSo^ xo) r/ya 
ay auTOtI ygyoyro Tfl^'° ciSij. To'coj yap 4x>j9oi? ^avglra* rwy oiWoov ysyt- 

' TJiv aftTriy in texta ; in marg. ri fii^X, htdrtfa, ^ (pafjuv Par. Codd. 

3 6pyavov Par. Codd. ♦ VR. a. et Par. 9ro««T«i. 

* P- b, et VR. a. in textu ndtroi sic. ^ VA. et Par. ^»rr»ic. 

7 V. b. 2»axir<rdiu. ^ Cf. Comm. Aid. 34. a. 1. 38. Fol. 44. a. 12. 

9 VH. a. in textu juuyrot, in marg. t. y\v%, %»ra fxiXiro; Xfi^o/iAoato, ^ &ifiK. 

*° Ttt car. Rom. et Flor. Codd. 

106 Epitome SchoUorum 

ipfi'^f a-^cipiv ^ ^Pf^^ jXoyoy, AafA/Sovoyrff^ ro tnrwctrrtop r^ jplcpf 
X^«p. odx fS* otirt ycip vay iraflo^ <r^pov o&rt ^oy wrwavrlov r» 
kSyep, aWoi r/va^ oixs7a loriy oyaStp.' 

I Tod^^ yotiy avadeii xm\ <rx>^pouf ra ^$i] ^'syoftev xcel 2fta ra 
£>6XTixoy ftppiov T^; 4^^^> ffj^fXelv fjiiv TflevrfAiof &jxi^;^ayoy riSf 
W^^Sf xoo-jx^o-ai $6 eoinrep xo) to Xep^Sey lyoy Suyaroy. en} 8* Jtv 
icffxo(r|xi]]Xffyoy fv rp rcoy vafifloy o^ftjxerpfa. ori Sf lor/ ri ^ptxr^xov xa) 
ir^ifrixoy tij$ ^'^^X^^f a-Ksrriov h oXXoi^. Tcoy Se Ix ro5 ilegiiraroci^ 
TODy TTukxlwv vap* otfSey) eup/<rxo/&ey^ roy^ ogio'/xoy ro5 vo^ovg. revy 8ff 
SoTspoy */lySpoyixo^ f^y ffigi}Xff vaflo^ ely^ei r^^ ^^tip^^^ xiyijo'iy aAoyoy 
8i' ' MroXi}4'iy xoxoS xai ay«9oO* aWo yip 9 Xaiufiivtav, ov ri ^mmv* 
^h '^ r^ ^picp koyog &(nreQ ol ix rris CToSis, eikkoi ro rou akvyw rr^g 
4^?^ ftopAu xlim^iMt. |3o»j8oj" SS ri woflo^ r^j ^^^S x/yijo-iy oXoyoy^ 
^otfo-ay ri (uy^os, iXoyov ftey Xa^oLvaw xai auro^ rijy rou a;X^ou '* 
^f ^'^^C^^ fbop/ou xiyi]<riy« ro Si fuytit^s vpooTiMgf l^eiS^ ylvovral 
Tiye^ XAi aXXai xiy^o'si^ rov ikiyov rij^ 4^^;^^$ [loplov jttfr* olxtiaxTstog '' 
r^f irp^^ riva; xa) SiXXorpim'soos fipax^lois, ras ovv ftfr^ fipa^eias '^ 
evx £i^ioy iSytiTO jyofta^siy 7tf4i}/^ ovx oTSa Ss Sirco; raDr^e '^ elvv. vao-a 
ydf xfyi)<ri( roD vaSijTixou rij^ ^'('X^^ fAcplov uv fi^ Xuviavy vadog '^ 
ay s7i} roD (reoftaro^. ou /x^yov Sc^o'uy /xeyedsi. ro Ss'^' xar oXXo/coo-iy^' 
Anrtp xoA vaaa x/yi)(ri^ <r60fU3ero$ od xor oAXo/floo-iy*^ ay ftij Aaylaypy*^ 
TO** iteitog av Toii ^ii^arog irgotrxihM. ori ratlra ^oixty ij Kurei ri 
vcttn jXfrajSoX^ ryi$ ^v^iis' ^ ^i 'Avigivixos elirciv h* imoXti^iv iyatoov 
^ xaxmv ylve(r9on ro waiost Trpoorov /xgy Io*«j rJYVOiifrsv^^ on yherou 
rtvct Taftj If avr^j** r^j ^avreurtug x^P^^ cuyxarafllo-fco^ xa) wro- 
Xij^fco;. xa) yip xari r^v aXa^o'iv aur^y^' Zri ifih tj Xvinigiv ^oat^j 

^ i,»jk rha derant a Cod. Par. b. motilissimo hoc loco. 

3 AyaQm Par. b. o»xu iwn dyaOa PI. b. VR. a. olxua cariV i^9o;* ftfitfc o&c elxfta 

* Fl. b. f. 368. verso. ^ VR. a, in textu vtfi ftaBm, 

^ Codd. Par. tipianofxhof, ^ rhv om. VR. a. V. b. Florent 

^ ill Codd. Par. ' »KXo y»p Codd. universi ; legas autero (tKayoy, 

»° 6iri£«»»*i» VR. a. 
" Par. b. Rom. et Flor. fionOn. VR. a. in marg. ttrws fionBof> i ii aXXn fiifix, 
fioifin. '* X6yw Fl. b. 

*' Paris, omnes — x«of. 
14 7^ fZy fAtrti /S^. abest a P. b. VR. a. in marg. tsnug as o^ »>-^* ^ fiifi^t 
Vac e^ fAiT^ /Sp. " V. b. et Fl. b. va$n. 

'6 VR. a. V. b. Fl. b. Tti/ro •Tti. '^ Fl. a. t.^h. 

•« P. P. Td il *9 Addit P. b. Iirl toD. »° VR. a. ^XXttwtrnvc. 

»• Fl. a. >Mf$dm. ** Fl. a. rf. Fl. b. car. articulo. 

*^ VR. a. et Fl. b. ^yvonun ; in marg. ^yvei|(riv k fiifiXAs, 
»♦ Fl. a. adrwJ. Fl. ^. l{ «^;ic f WT. »» Fl. a. adri. 

in Aristotelis Ethica. lOT 

htvr§ yiwreu xado^ Tig; ^'HX^f > 3ti oi fi^yoy ' linA Ti$ fooXi(4^ll^ 
aXki. xa\ itph rni uiroXi^rpgcoy r^ icaiy^ yhorreu, 

VR. a. 76. 

V.b. Il6b. 
IMpfuovci ii Touro ftoXiora tfel hnSviilai, I&ov y^ ri; iroAXoau; if 
hnOu/d^ eyeysTO xoXou ^ xctXoS ouSmrw yoig* tnro>44fi(o$ ir^mMf 
ycyo/xfyi);. ?ri ^oAXaxi;' yfyovrai ou ir^yrctf; VToXii\pff»; yiyofttini; 
e7 ri^ ieyctiiv ifipe<rF$v ; oloy imSdy &ro aurgtfeff'aXoi; ' Xoyou xiy^rou 
T^; 4^0%^; T^ oXoyby* od y^g uiro\a|x|3ayo/xffy r^Tff iyaQiv ri i^^ 
wapnlyeu,^ i)j! !?uos v^* ISsa; xivovfMtQci, Irri ST Srff xai u«'0Xii4rffi 
TOtf ayoAw ixokouteV ri ^f(r$ai. rg Si vroXiftl'ff rou xoxoD fao- 
XotftfT t2* XuTffKrtai^ xiyou/Affyij; SijXoy^i rij; ^'t^fy flS; tou fMi 
«yd9ou i)8fe; oyro^y rou Si xaxov, XuTnjpov. [i^ffwor* oSy jf ro itmiog. 
xhi^i$ Tou kkSyw r^; 4^?^ ^o ^Sso;^ ]^ XtnnipoS^'^ k&» rt yAi 
IJksret ^afrafflav oxoXoud^^ "^^ Traflo;, fay rs fiwd' t;]roXi]\piy irMnroi; » 
kr}" 4^T ^ Xu^pof yhvrMf % xa) ili^wbi^ ymf^xoorara^* %ii^ Srra 
T^v 8f ^^yijy xai r^y Xuinjy. yfy»X£^ Se vodij of ftiy Ix r^ oro^ 
ff^curoy fflyoi ^Soy^y xa) Xuvi^yi ^ifiov, mSu/xfay. yhetriM fitey ydf ii 
mft} f^ao'av Si' vff'^Xi]4'iy oyaSou xo} xaxoS. oXX' Sray /xiy m^ kl 
vofown Toif ayoiioif xnnjfTM ^ ^^u;^ '' ^Soyijy ^^ tlvai, irav 8f ei; k\ 
irapowTi roi; xaxoi;, Xu9n]y. Iloiaa*^ Si iw) roig /xeXXouo'i t^Smp- 
fMMi; ayotiolf hrtivfAia ops^is axura (&$ ^aiyoftcyou '^ oyaloD. xoxoy 
Se ff'^oo'SbxcofLeyeoy ro o'Ujx^aTyoy mflo; l(r«; xai ''^ Xuanjy ^ofiov JXtyoi 
afiey S« onro^^ai r/ Sijff^re roy /xey'* ^ojSoy ir«peiX^^aftey co; irof^ 
yiyix^y, xaigreg eJSog XthnK oyra. Srri ya^ 6 f oj3o; Xuinj fTMrpoaS- 
xatfUvTi*^ xoi ou;^ »; oSfloSijiroTe'^^ ou yig ffitftey ^ofieladcu roy v^)- 

* Fl. a. fAxpoc * VR. a. vi yijp odx c'xfi h fiifi\oc* 

3 Sic V. b. el Fl. b. In texta VR. a. et Fl. a. woXiriwis. 

4 VR. a. 1n»e ;ri, a'XX* < filfik. Ma>Mf it rt (sic FL a.) ^ 22 ^xXn^ STn. 

' Fl. b. drpntUae. 

6 Sc Fl. a. et Fl. b. VR. a. tmt wftTftu^ •XfMt* ^^ ^1 /St')Sx* ^oxiT i»a iV^v* v/j^f 
i^J^* Sxw;. ««l ^f XMviJ lin»( iS^f wmf, m>X iXug V fi^f^ myoOfxiBiu 

7 FL K mHXav ' Desont hsc VR. a. 

9 VR. a. in marg. ^* nihe, 
*^ In margfne V. b. ApoUinaris : pathos motio irrationalis partif in anuiift ab ja- 
cnndo vel molesto. " VR. a. If' ^i. Fl. IvL 

•* ymiu^oTOf VR. a. •' V. b. FL a. et Fl. b. rn ^v^j. 

»♦ V. b. Fl. b. «i2«y4. 
*' Fl. a. %€ur9i9. Sic textos VR. a. sed in raargine : &w( vSt^'O* Axx' 4 ^^^^ 
makn et sic V. b. 

*^ V. b. et FL b. ft^fxhw, we, 
■7 VR.a. &«( xol X^vnT. i> ^•NsolnsFl. b.a4dit.^ 

*' FL a* ■0'Tt vpoo-^oxaoiMni iwa^y VR. a. Ivwf irpoo-loiatfifyvtf xaxf|«^, et sic V. b. et 

^ VR. a. In mui^. : m1 i^ oaWiivotc. n 2> MBx. f'x" orw JqvtTi. V. b. 9w Uv. 

](^ MpH^^ SqhoUorum 

i^/m^9wioi^^ .iikXk ^JtXMra Soxu ^S^i sIimc xcH xupiatg, Sr^y mp 

aKrixfijxgyov aur^ 'naiog vagviTtsu.^.ksym ie to igacos^ Kara, w^ocrSo- 
xlav yiv^ftevov rou jxigSsv so'saiM xaxov ^ xav ysv)]rat KguT^asiv auTou. 
imo :yip^T9$oii7riS rms wokipifMeog ylvtrM to tig(ros owe auriis r^i 
H^ttcW^st^ &ro; Tciios, oAX^ rou IvaxoAoufiouvro^ xiin^jtutro^ h/^ r«S 
^Jiyf* T^ Sf iffy^if TiSinTig vagvpionf. Keyoutn fiiv yoig auTify m^ 
Wf^wvy ^TvoM. 2x71 Sf oux eTT^iufita, oAX' uvo to ourd ^ yevo^* ogi^eig 
fip offtf flp. oXX' 4 fAffy mduf^Mt rou 4$f o^ tJ/iXtt)^, ^ St rou AyTl^(Mny0-«ef . 
ra>f .Si ouSf cu), rod avriXux^oi* ol yoDv varepig opyi^ojctfvoi roi^ 
•Uvfivoux ^^lyovrai roS a:yT(^tm-67y• ju.^^or oSv koimu^ Ictt) xa) opyi} 
iw^trkg Tfj^-^t/x^s uko rou ^Sixi^xevai SoxoSyro$* xoJ aXX« r^ ^Xs/o) £y ri; 
^ flvpl TOifrcov Xeyaiy. 6 $f WJtT»it roi ftey voAAa ^uhrr^i irjKooif 
4, iiwrtiTti^ mdi}, ^Soy^V xa} Augnjy, iv re iXKoi^ xo) l^rsiSiey Xty^* 
ff0^ii0(i ^ly 7 Suo yetg «tur«l Tifya) jeteS' frtpw tU ertfov p§l, vefi 
^ipy^f fsif/wv Xttl Ausn]^ • co; 8soy rotmi; roi^ ine^eo*! yeyixoK oScri ram 
4Xcoy Vdttcoy aweurruw, ttrri V ots ttotrctpidfJi^fiTOH va9i| ^. ^oyi^, 
Ajn^y, f ojjSoy xai iap(rogy tvituft/flty, fluftoy, T£^ yv<»gi[iMTaTa mg hi^olyB' 
lUi naactpAfUiiiLnvog.^ I'^X^ ^i^ oux 9 iMyov yeviKwrmrov ftiv ^ivah 
i^Sttjv xai A(iv)]y, ^Sovijy ftsy ivipysiav rou xar^ ^ucr<y a:y€f4^oS<Vro*jy'^ 
Xvnjy ^V Se, oray 8jEtToSi^i}rai to xara ^u(r<y hspyelv, els y^fjmTa 
Tsy Tm miant ivaycoyi^v ^* Troiela^dcu, flyai it Toura>y etdri, t^v Si 
b fUpu AfyojCAfyijy )]Soyi9y9 xa) ti}\ hv [ji,ipn XuTijy, OfMowfjt^ov to1$ 
yyitrr jijy /xiy oSy Sia;^u<riy ivt to«^ iroipovtrt ijSgcri, njy 8g '* Xvgn^y 
oi. o'vy^o'iy f^} toi; ^^ipoucriy XuT^poi;. tt^Xiv St iipo'os fiev ij^o^^v 
rm *^ ha Trgotr^ouleLV tqS |xi|$iy i(r9(r&M Ssiy^y, ^ xav yiv^reu, T^part^ 
ceif ToO Seivou. ^ojSoy Ss Xv9n]v S/a Tcpoa^oxlav Setvouv. 9r^o^ Se rouroig 
ctptjielv etiiot&l roi 9ra9i], Tijy ^iXlav ku) to fil(rog, fiXiav Xa/xjSavoy- 
Ts^)u T)]y rfiif kvTifK&KoMToov lyyoiay." auri] y^^^ ^Sij SiiSicrig rig, 
aXAJt T)}v xaTpi to ^iXstv yivopLevriv xiyijc/y t^j ^pt^X^^* ? otynKsfrM ii 
xcni TO fiKreiv x/yi)(n^. aydeysTai 8g to jxgy ^jXely eiV tijv rjBovrjv, 
oixfiiti(r<$ y4p Ti; iila ylvtroii vpog to ^iXoujX8y(>y. roumvT/oy 8i jy 
T» iHo-eiVf aXXoTpiuxTtg xai Xusnj ly tix» ogav xa) axousiv ToO ftritrou- 
f^vou tj oXwj OTTCttcouy eTvyx,iveiv Tcp jxicrouftevw. (rvvapkipiourcu he h 
rolg itiit(ri xa) X^P^S xai 6py^, oov ij f^iy xap'^ ^^^ ^^oy^y StvayeTou, 

' Tpoa»f JwowAir Fl. b, 5 VR. a. tow; ir; ocmtyiwyov. J«al n iB/j8x. wpif X(ylin«y» 
* VR. a. ^oXXn )3(^X. irapa. ' V. b. et Fl. b. — ;ixar. 

• ^ V. a. ttwi $df€ros, ^ VR. a. in textu adrov, 

^ VR. a* in textu hmraTw ; in marg. ayc&rara ti /3. 
^ V. b. fAi9if»7. ^. addit ; desunt VR. a. 

^ Sic V. b. TR« a. im marg. i^we xaraptd/uiov^rva xal iS^i h /Stj^X. 
«» Car. oAe V.«?. »« VR. a. in textu, V. b. Fl. a. Fl. b, aufAxoharov. 

" V. b. et Fl. b. XtJwn. '* V. b. ivaywy^r. '3 J^ o„,. y. b. 

i« V. b. Fl. h. r»^ Fl. a. v»f«5. >' V. b. et Fl. b» •fOMir. 

in Aristotelis Ethica. 109 

ntnfi-iS o5^« ^n^ ^i^^S ^pfxripki} too Iftiul^^idu rh tw/jyw^otifr*. 

Xiv^nyf elSo^, ?«rlp Ictt) Xwnj h' uiroXvj^iv tov vfiikriaimi vojui/^ttiF. §vptk 
S* «& n^ xai roi i?<Kx %bA^ «I^ raora hfayofjkeva, ohv vifA,€<riv fuJew jm\ 

v&ey riisfihor ^ijAorvvr^a yap ri^ xdei >car0^ ro ^Xow*X0$ (Mfjxkrictii- 
J§lx¥oa•^ a auTo kit) wapetB9lYfji,enog» ou y^ep €l rii $&« /xyo» jroXft 
»• T. A. — 

P,a. fol. 46 b. 

P. b. fol. 39 a. 

VR. a. fol. 9la. 
V. b. fol. 121 h. 
n. a. fol. 49 b. 

Toa-wnf tt v5v l^-itrxwrreoy— -»»? irtp) ipyijv fte&otffteg ■ xejl 
dm^Xi^ xai fXAsitl/iv. kvcoifi^^ elmi Trp&regfjv keyer ^tethni* ^ 
itpatni^ %oli 6 ^fo^ xac) d^o nXomovog xa\ iufI tAv ceAXedf t^v r^ 
f iAo<ro<^a>y 09iro|u^{irr&. xai i^ <0|»yiAonj^ $« x«) 6 6py(9\Ag nefrii t^ 
tfirffp/SoA^ TErayjXfivof, ^KXaiiv ovojjm. Ircog Se xte) ^ AtpyflO'loi vetp*"* 
Atfrou xMyLdKrrtiLi, xdiiroi otopy^Ttit xtng azi IXeyovro d?ri rSy *JEXX^ 
MW. i«l |ft^ afOL ^ fih icqaimig Ixfiro M tw ^avypv % iopy^rw, MVk 
TOW pio-flo^ %«VTo^ '<fpi? 6py^g xa) ?r« fitJv 8f i opytl^opi^evov x«i c&f Wi 
xal xarei rovg aWovg hogia-fiohg, TraXiv* 8s jx>j ^pyi?0]bbfyoti frs jBtij 
rgO(riixei, avrog edero 8s toO frpdov ovofJM xaJ trpaonffrcx, oov6fia<r8 ti)V 
TOiatmjv apsT^v. waXiv 8ff ogylXog ftsv oovopMl^tTO xcxroL t^v <^U0-ix^y 
ex'iSsionjra xaJ 8uy<x]x<v. awrdj 8« ^vsyxs roSvifia wrl tov Ip^ovra t^ 
$rf, Ti)f Ss IXXsi^fiy kopyr^<rl€iHf MpLaa-e* xa) yip ouS* «tv eupoipiff »r} 
Twy aXXcoy xaxmv itoLpwvoiLa<riuivetg uvreig^ onco r&v miw9. hm. ri 
rag Suvaftsi^ froipcovofAoia-iou olov s^) ti}^ ivdgelag, 8 ftsv IXXsiVevv 8s7Xo^ 
xaXeirM* 6 82 uTrep^iX^ew 6pi(rog. o3r$^ 8s 8oxei jxsv ffvro rod igi' 
tf-ovf ^ CDnjK«(r$ai. cu fu^v r^si oSrov^* |Xffra)3^/3Xi)X6 ys^p roSv^fUL tuA 

Textus P. b. fol. 39 b» 

VR. a. fol. 93 a. 

V. b^fol. l«ea. 
KaXel te ri^y [isf iiper^v aXifisMtv^ juso-or^ro^^ oSo'af xai rojr x«f 
«^ri^ aXijdij * rnrtfe. ra u^«pp^rrtf auT» b t^ trpo^ rod^ irsA^riT ^pX/ae 
x«n X^yw x«i l^ep hdaixvofuvov Mia rvy^eafet Sna, ^Sn M •li 

» V. fc^— T<T«. * m(Tm V. b. VR. a. » P. a. ^v* VR. a. «. 

4 VR. a. et Fl. a. ir^. ^ AddanC P. b. VR. a. 0t V. b. ftdroT;. 

^ Felician. Baffovg, Ita quoque in texta coniia Codd* anctoiitofeiii eft onuiiDO 
7 |4i«o«4fa V. b. 8 p, b. et VR. a. iXffi" 

Ot 10 Epitome SchoUorum 

i[Xio¥ i^eufWrUf^ otVe M to iXixrrbv. hi ti fiheh xei vig) 9roXXo5 
woiMurdeu r^y eeX^eioiy. roov H* kokmv njy [iiv wregfioKiliv,^ npotnrot" 
^<riv M TO ftfii^jy xa} X^a> xo) Ipyw oSo-^v.^ Ivofiifyi hi avTo$^ 
lt>ial^ovetav xa) rov ej^pvrot aXal^wci, irpingov InyMXfiiuiymv aXaXfivwf 
rm ^r^tfiroiotfMVfloy (UtvTtlav i} tro^luf,^ wrfreg ol o-o^io-Ta) Vpoo-eroi- 
oSiTOy'ica} Zk»^rm yof^oov rouro hpaivrcw rh ovo/xa. oSro; Ss Travras 
T^ far) T^ ftfT^oy xa) aurwv Xlyovra^^ avotvrag aXal^ovois oivo[jiMar§ 
Koi rfv Kotxlav eiXut^ovelav. rovs S* M to fXarrov r^ avr&v xaret^ 
yorretg tcS koyep xoA vpotTTniovfiivovg IXarrto ^etv roof wrag^ovrow 
aahois fM^l^povs pAV xoii avroug. Uda-a yap eir) ' fTo i^vjios (nrov^ii,9 
fUix!hs^^9 ^^otPag dvop^our^ kou t^v xaxlciv eipanfitav* Soxei ii rio'i /xi} 
whcu xaxla ij slgawelot, rov yetg ^eox^niy eToeova ^ijo*! yeyoviveu. pi^r^- 
jTors Sff odx'^ yjV elpoov 6 Sooxparrjg. nxpi^viptov te to" fbij^ffv^l tcuv 
jl^lpeov d^w oSixog ciMv 6vopiJifyiv, aXXoi tov$ froWovg hcLpiMpTctvoV'^ 
T«f a&TW,** o«ey Bpaavpi^x''^ ^ Mivoom, aW* e\syiv, »$ loixiv ^euroy 
•fil|8cy ely^ (1. f iSeyoi) vupafidXXtov Ti]y avt^ftMr/yijy iroflav vplg r^y 
.fotf 6eotf. TavTft yap xo) ly t^ nKehowos *A'jro\oy(ct eTpijTai. t<ra)^ 8e 
lift} Ti ^opTixoy ^uXttTT^yo; xa) hray^Bg ou hoL Ti)y ^rpo; t^ 4^65- 
ioi fiXtea, ht* iXarrov iXjsyn ^tg) lavToO, Sn-e^ ovx eoriy elpeovtlw ^ 
^0 Tp^i slpowelas, 6 ju.ffy Iv/^foyo^^ irpwnreitovi^Tos rmg xa) ixucofuif 
y^ti T^ 4^ffuS»* 6 Ss ^apiBVTKrpif ?jxoio;^ ^uXaTTOjUrsyou Tiyo^ ro CTc^^Se^ 
M roT^ X&yois. 

VR. a. fol. 99. 

V. b. 124 a. 
Els ri T^/roy Tooy *Hiixm '^pio-TOTeAou;. 
Tii; flefffT^ Se ff?p} 7a$i}, ?flo^ ritepiMi axoueria. ^ itpihtn^ wsfjl 
axowriow xa) 6Xou<r/ot; st^eiy x. t. X. 

V. b. 125 b. 
— oloy it r6gctvyos irgocTotrrei ala^gov ti tcpa^ah, imeiklitrag yor 
yfonr xai rixvow tavarov, xa) vpo^avros ftey <rco^oiTO| /x^ vpi^avTog 8f 
cnroly^o-xoity^ 6 8s toSto uvojxetyoi hri rep xaXoi, apL^nrfiyiTeirm yetp 
WBp\ ToD TOioUTOti voTipov ex»v ^ axwy iroisi urofte/yei taI ^iO'Xpo^ m 
ircori]g/^ T6uy ^iXTorcoy^ Iautw vapapi^h^a'as rov xaXov. O oix 
iiro/i)0'6y 6 Stoxpanfi^ aXkei roov rpiaxovra xiXetKrayrwy aysTy Igri tor 
MBT^y Tiya T«t)y TroX/reoy^ Xeovra SvopM, Iva ^ xoiycovi^o^, auToT^ rcoy 
wpiiwm xeiTafp6viii<ra$ xai rrif iauroii trayniplag xal rm rixvow xai 
,r^f yuyoixo; ov^ ^f^ptniirM rh irgaxfi&f iii to xaXh xo) ri Hxatw. 

• VIU a. V. b. l(atfanai. » V. b. oto. it. 3 Omitt iirio^X^ VR. a^ et V. b. 
♦Om.V.b. ^ ' P. a. y R. a. et V. b, adr^. ^ V. b. suMciWv. 

^ VR. i* t» adrohr, V. b. re? adrtiy >4y«yra. ■ 

» V.b.'?^y»>6«plP.1).«i^ «> V. b. <nroi;^, 

*o V. b. habet lacttiuuB. '.* AddU P. b. (a^. » tn^r^; FJ. a. 

in Aristatelis Ethica. Ill 

Cod. P. a. fol. 53 h. 
VA. b. 127 b. 
VR. a. 109. 

(Ad 1. 111. c. V.) 

^A 8* ^^^if Aey«i ivvarov fuy oig &xo>iOui» Xoififfiivm roig wpou^fii^ 
>oi$, iwfarov ii auto %oA* our/. ^i)(r} yiq irotvra roy fto;^9i}poy ety^ 
9o£v a 8ei vpirreiv, xa) cov a^Bxrlov xai hoi r^v TOiavTi^f* iyvoianf 
Sii$xovf Hoi) xeaiovs yiy«(rlai. Xeyei Se ev irgoaiplo'ti ayvoiav, ^Tfltv ri^ 
wgpalpeanv ^^ [J^oxi^petv 8i* ayvoiay roD avfjifipovro$. rijy 8* aviify 
xpei xafloXou xaXii ayvoiov, on /x^ ire^i ey ri loriy^ f/ti]$e ffvp) jui/^xy vpa- 
j^<y 4 roMcvn] ayvoia^ 4f^A^ xafloXov. roy ourw; ayyoouyra^ ^6Xl|0f ril 
ovfA^ipovra ivavra. oi S^ Si^i r^y iyvoiouf axovcta Xeyrrft/ riy« 
dfuifT^fMira. rsx/xi}pioy Ss o'uyyytipfM]^ Tuyp^0eya(;(riy o» iatovaria vf- 
miiixhis xai ^repl ' ra>y yo/xoiy xa) mpH rajy Sixa^yrcpy. ii) S* ly rep 
^Bfi ayvoM luiviirou xai slx^o)^. aTrioi y^ip auro) auroi^ o! iiiqwgu 
T^^ TOiouTi)^ ayvota$ ft^ IgriftsXovfteyoi^ rod Siayiyonrxtiy tc^ ei^ oXi)- 
te^ avff^ipovTu Tiva BOTiV, xol OTi j^ xox/a xo) ^ aSix/a Myrcoy X^ 
funroov fiXeifieptSiTaTQv rm ^oyri. ravra Ss is e^v, Iwfarau fiiv xai 
hrtcr6M rols irposi^fiiyoi^. 6 y^p piA^ivifos >^yoh-^ iv ayvQiiv ficy k 
worn* oi fbfyroi &' ayyoiay vpamiy rigy iy roi; 'xpet^whv. a}X iifna 
ayfoidf, rrjv xat^Xov ^ r^y hv ry vpoaipivu, ^ri^ lor) ^ roS (ruf&f t«> 
povTOSflvvaTM li xou xai' axni ri elyoi 6eooprifjM vpos rovg hiywtM^ 
exouffiei rd ajxaer^ftara. ?xaoToy yetg ayvooSyra ri^ aur^ (ruftfspov 
ftjxapraysiy* irpo; yap rou^ ourco u7rofxnfOfj(,ivov$ Xfy^ou on oyyoouo'i 
^y c6^ oAijSco^ of |xo;^$i}^oi ro (rufu^ipov a^roT;, ov ft^y hoi r^v roiau- 
Tijy ^yydiay to axouo'ioy TJyirou, u\Ku hi rijy ly r^ xoidixcuFra^ xal 
flrepl a ^ vod^ig. 

iiSn] yap Ioti ruyvayovo'a sXeou xai (rvyyv»iifis, xai Sia r^y roi- 
avnjy ayydiay TrparropLsva, hopll^ei Si xai rfya eoriy ly ol^ ayyoia. 
Srri Si avnj ^ij fori ]J' srgpi ri, ^ ly Tiyi,9 i} Tiyi'® wgarru ]J cyexa 
Tiyo^xai 9rco^. o^jxa/ysi Se to Tif^ ti;'' 6 v^arrioyi Svep ovx ^y ayyo^ 
treiif*^ jx^ ftaiyofteyo^* (ouSsi; yap ay lauroy ayyoijo'fie'' /xig ftaiyofttyof.) 
TO 8c r/ Ioti to ^rparr^jxiyoy OTtp Ix^sTrrcoxe xai aurou; eog 6 Al<rx^^f 
ri iMiTTixim iXgye [mv yap ov^ ds pLvarixotf lAate Si tivdv [Awmxi, 
Xtti Sei^ai ns /SovXojxiyo^ roy xaraveXn^y rcS ^iKcp xai roOro vpa^at fion* 
XofABvos a^fis hfara^BV airov. oXXo oSy rparroov aWo hrpa^tv, ^yy^fi 
o&y S Swga^i, To Se vspi r/ xai ly riVi 1^* Sy eoixs ^ipsiy. Sio xai ou- 

* YOM^m? addit V. b, • P. a, et V. b, • , yoovyr«. ' V. b, irnpa. 

^Y.h.9»fL f— Xoy|*— V.b. ^'niV.b. 

7 .T. b. wd' ITMiTrey. »Deert4P.iu 

9 VR. a. 9 tic t<m 4 «ip2 rt^nn, 4 WSx. 
' r/Vif V* b. " Alterom rtf omisram in Paris. 

«* V. b. iywikti. *' Addunt wjiIttw* VR. a.V. b. F. a. 

Hi Epitome Schbliorum 

r»^ hre) if mp) rt xot) h r/vi olcsf $1 ivvofei' 7np) rlva Tppirrt^. ei yeip 
Tov vTov olriieig voxif/^iov elvM a«roxreivoi^ ^ep) ov vj irpa^tg^ i^^ce. 
Svyarov ouv feri ^avai to ey rivi T^ep eirgu^ev avvoioov,^ olov cv l<p^. 
ovx foixff ie It) touto ^ipfiv, ^e^vepiv 8* lerrai ixiyov uorggov- — tovto 
St T^vi, Rrav ayvojf tij tJ !pyomy. kyvoii yoLp m iirga^ev, Trmgi 
flp^ev. tfj3«Aff^ jxev y^p ri^ to 8o§u hr\ rh TXfjfrtov, oog h(r(pMpa^iuifov^ 
ikotie V auTOV XsXoT^coft^vov. xai Ej3a\e jxey ri; eo^ x/(r(n}giy^ %v di^ 
X/80^. TO Si hsxa rlvos el iXXov ftev evixjx icp&^UB, iXKo 8* oara^oLlinf 
oTov CO J TO fupfiuxov dov$ en) (reorriploi ayvof^<rag ?r/ iotyoL<niuov^ lyy. 
xa) Iti oraynigtot ftev tfroucre tov l^eoT^Kora kottrrov, hot, avav^^,*^ 
tkate V avoKTehas ovk M touto) vultrUg. to 8s vcog ei avro^ ev^ r3 
^pilMt icaUiV htai<re Vb (r^oSpoog, oi(rvep oi yujxva^o/tevoi. 
.. nep) irivTU ^ ravri ^Civ" T^^ TOiatJnj^ kyvolctg owrug h rai$ 
xaiexaCTa^* Trpi^etn [Trivra ftsv Jf^j o6ie]$ £v ayvoYi(reie, rourifrriv 
6u (rr^y^y^irertd itore otyvo^^^ aMv, xoii rl Tcpaxrei xeii h rm vq&T' 
TBI xal irwg xeti rSiXkoL. in le eatrrlv e\ [i,^ irov e'lvj iMUVopt^evog. fv SI 
n «yvo^(r«i adrov ov^sv TM.iv6y, xa»]'* 6 toutoov ti ayvo^cra^^ axcov 
toxei ffwrOiijxgvai xa) jxaXiTTa, ^)jO")v,'^ Iv toTj xugiwrctToij. xupi&Ta^ 
ret, V ehat Ssxsi Iv m 4 vpoi^^g xeti ri o3 ?VffXtf. 2ti Si to o3 evexa xu- 

fiirrariv e<mv h^^ Tjf ayvola, S^Xov. xvpioorarov ykp \v rep ayvoeiv 
•7 jxaXto-TJC <(>ai)j t*j elvai Si' iyvoiotv. toOto Si ■' to o3 evexa. 0Tai> 
y^^p ^IvrjfTul Tig S,}<Kw [lev evsxev Trga^otg olof ayudov xa) cJ^IXi/xop 
tow TOiouToy, Sio xu) 01 airoXoyovfjLevoi *9 |;r} touto fiiXio-TU el&iourw 
xuTofeuyeiv TrjV ttgoulpea-iv^ auTouv afioSvTfi^ IfeTa^eiv. xa) t/vo^ eye- 
yfv hrga^eVy Trorepa (raoa-aij |3ouAo)xfyoi ]^ oLKOXTeivau a^eVof yaf xeii 
tiXKa mvTet, toL- 81* iyvoioLV e\g tovto kviyrrai (xa) ycip 6 to r/ 
Ijrpa^EV aTfVo^o'a^^ e\g toOto avayei,**) olov m e^sTrea-ev avrov Xiyovra 
rUog evexev iXeyev, Wregov fy* e^oiyyelXti Toi pLvtrnxoi Ij oJ. AAA* 
4XXa TI hiycov iXotiev i^oLyyelXagj"^ 

P. a. P. b. 

VR. a. 161 a. 

V.b. 143 b. 

FI. a. et b. 367 b. 

3 P. a. addunt Itrvif^ VK. a. hi testa quoqoe. ^ V. b. et VR. a. Ayrskrv. 

* P. a. cuf . 6 P. a. ifiaTiKt, 7 i} omiss. in Par. 

"• P. a. &voMifxivri V. b, et VR. a. in marg. airojSafif. 5 Oayoa-tfAof P, a7" ** 

^ V. b. ii9afl4'i} VR. a. &v»X^4'^ in marg. &Wf^4'V ^ ^i^'^ttrwg il h Ui^^mt'kn. 
" 9»Kriy, soli V. b. et F. a. ' " V. b. xctQixaaror, 

*3 VR. a. in marg. dyvnaeu vi /Si/Sx. >4 Uncis inclusa aiu V. b« 

" f vrlff soti VR. a. et V. b. »« h om. a VR. a. »7 .P. g. & 

'* Sic VR. A. in marg. P. a. ad rolt r5. 
' *9 Sic VR. a., V. b., F. a. P. a. AwoXiyoo/*. - 

in Aristotelis Etliica. 113 


*A&it»&'lw ^iXwr4^6u 'lVrafitin9jU4t §1; ro tikra t&v 'Ht^x, *Ap» - 

Incipit :' Aiyoiuv ti (^^^ irepi iXmi$ipUTrifrQ$. eivf xai' tms Hct^n 

imffii^iXnv X. T. K . • 

P. b.97a. ^ 
Fl. b. 370 a. 

A4I verba textus^ Ovx h rf Iwip^tt H sheu r^ a^sjoLKiva^ aXX' It 
Tff TTfoatfia'ir eXsyg Ss xo^ h roli Tottixoi^' xa) bv aKKotg Xoyoi;, ori 
owe fJo'iy at iuvufii^ug ^MXToA, aX\' a\ irpoaipivMig^ 

P. b. 97 b. 

ibid. 98 a. 

De fioofMkox^^^ loquens ^ 
"Evexev Ss roD yiXeoTO$ xivslv, ou$svo$ (^siSerai om ^iXot; oTr* l;^« 
tpoo. ev/ore $s ovds rwv AesDy xa9oLirsp ol rris voiKalas xoofjico^tag. vni 
yoi^ fi»fio\op^las ouSff rcov 6imv otvelxovro, . 

Ibid. 81 a. 
Aiiifip xm *Ap. ^ctvatxrietv xoiksi r^v TPapaxs^jLewiv xaxlav TJ7 /xtyge- 
Aofrpnrtffn — •— — rw Ss SeeopsTv t^j xuplaog xaXowftevij^ «rwT^jx>jf ;• 
n^ <)«^ diD»^if}TiX0c; xvpioag fTrKTr^fta^ ovofjM^eov. J] hFiJrrifMiva Xiy$t 
ro¥ t«;^v/tijv vavro^ yap rs^vhov to Trpevov 6tQ)gri<rai ixwrpv igyw* 
oloy (TXuroTOftoVy ro 9rai$) oLpyi^i^oy umhr^i/.cty xcCi ypa^ioDg elSevai oTov 
Sffi Tov ^p00A yeygi^iai. V ^ov i^ieoTlv ^ rov rj^opt^ivov tj roy Xuff-ou/xs- 
poy x« T* A* 

Ibid. 81 b. 
*HyoLq kxpt^ifXvfla pi^ixpovpeTrii, oltpo Se rij^ Iojis ^r^iri iomanis ror 
fMy0tXoirpnn] [liya voirja'tiv ro Ijpyov. oTov el 8ioi xotTa(rx8voura<rial t$ 
euhov rp warpldi raXarraov exotrov — oup^} ^oi^erai. pi^ixpov piiv, iroXv- 
j(g9V0Y Se ^ ^oXtiTsXoJy X/$coy riyeoy^ oux eori y^p toixiXao; iroifiirarrx 
ceipiloig ii o'pi.oipiyiois ^ aAXo^ no*) raiovroi^ A/dai$ /3§a;^a ri aToSfH 
{«f ?pyoy. 

P. c. 123 av 

VR. b. 77. 
V. b. 176 a. 
Fl. a. 369 a. 

Kai yotp 6 hrteixiig $»a yvfjLvuirloov xa) Trovoov^ icnipoLtrrron wotqx" 
vxwaXfiiV^ avTw iideoi xa\ tol ^paof/MTX xa) ra irora, lav ^i liirf Aa/Si} * 
fti}^ayfi0yra/ rag i^apaa'xevdg favKoi xa) evt^oyoi, olov cog oiTrsvXyiga)" 
ftsyoi^ xa\ opioog vfiovYig hexu jx)];^aveo/tevoi, Svoog TaAiy ttIoociv^ vj ^a- 

' Post Tevixor^ p. b. lacimam habet. Verba xal h aXXoi; Xoy. solus Fl. b. 
^ P. b. «foa«p • . » 3 Addunt tuu vovm V* b. et Fl. a. 

* «»pf»rxfva^<rat V. b. • 5" iiri)gx<» V. b. 

' VR, b. sictAfdBXttWfxifoi. V. b. ct Fl. a. »«irXnfw/i«'»oi. ^ ^iy„^tg p. c; 

VOL. XXIX. a. Jl. NO. LVIT. H 

I;14 EpiiQme Scholiorum 

ym<r*n.ii rijp/ it oifpoiiV'Jianf ifiov^ XApww^^reu.* hot. yoLf ri^^ hc^^ 
iKk9 h^ (Us yjatipwHTi, raura troMuo'i. to Se [mjI^ eripw,^ to fu^rt Ij^ff- 
cSat fiyjTB Xvire'i(Tiuiy TroXXoig Xvm^pov xu) rh 8ox6tv yj xpuricrTy^ «VT«p 
flyai^ 7ca.Ta(rTa(n$, oSb fvj^] ttoAXqV oCKytmv elvai touto $»a^ T^y 
^uo'iv yac ^s) TToyffi^ to l^mv, S(rvip^ xa) ol fuo'/oAoyoi Aeyouo'iv* [o 
ya^ *Ava^»yifai skiy^ at\ irovfiv to ^oy7 $|«^ tcoi^]^ odcrA^o^wv- 
TicSrM Se Au;^ w^ ^-vyxarflcOffi^yos^ Xeysi, oAX' Icrop&v* tyf) ouxf^ 
xfi '° auTOi;] " aei h ^ovm xlvai to ^ooov. xa) Toy 'Ava^ay^fov ^tm* 
Tai '^ 6 Be6^pua'Toi\ '^ ev *Hiixois9 Aeyeoy .^i l^eXauvei ^Sovi^ Au^v^ 9y' 
hvavriWf oTov [^J*^ a»ro toS t/viiv'^ t,^v utA rov Si\p^y« aM) ^ TU%ot7- 
(roe toutIctti ^ti ^ oSv a^v sTi] io';^upa c&tts '^ fe/oTS TTiivav e^iXauvst xai 
axo)]; ^Sov^y orav uciuaviv i] aXAoif tio'iv oxovcr/tirao-iv iia^egovToog %«/- 

. Codeac VR. a. deskiit iii 1. iv. pergit vero textus in Cod. 
VR. b. titulum ferenti^ 'Aoiraa-ioo toO ^lAocro^ §1$ ra 'Himoif 
inoipienti : 

Othi Sfiopov KttKis SiSojXfyoy ii A log ha ^iXioti ^ix^fy ^ Swioih Xiye 
(aic) 8e Toy fi«y«Aoir{«vij wsfi toBtu fiaXXoy SoesravAV o!ra woAv^j^^mk 
Ttttv %ya)y «Ioy yoou^, isov^, xa\ rixywt ayao'X£v«$ x«i ofXAft Tcl 70M(v- 
T« Aire^ ^i/ftftM f 0Tiy>*— 

13 a. 
VR. b. (locus mutilus :) 

— Toy Sg fcsyaA^\pt;;^oy xai eo^ aXijico^ ^iXoVo^oy Kihyfi^ rwrru 
voXv fAoiXXov, sis 6 UKaroov ^vifrh h rep Oeairirep r^ oi h r^ SaXaTTt^ 
X^^i* ^^* ^"^ ''^P* auToD Xffyei. T/ye^ o&v «< rou fi.8yaXo4«i!p^otf 
l/kiiA/oci xa) koyu hreii^ anipwiroov et&r^ (sic) X6ycs ovx Scrtv ; 

Ad I. VII. 
: Pariss. Romani (V. b. p. 857 b. et VR. b. p. SO b. ixi^M^ 
Ao^) et Florentini (Fl. b. 397 b.) omnes. 

'^O'VOO'IO^ €$ TO ^Ta TflOy 'ApiOTOT, 'HilXCOVf NixopM^ov, OV XOtT* ip" 

X^$f ^^^* ^'''0 [i^itrov, UTTO Toil p^TOU, To3 ooTcoo'i SifffioVroj. Sri [Aev 

' xapffwrctfTrcu V. b, * fxniht^v P. c. 

^ ftt/Ttf xal clyai xarao'T. P* c. (i0Tfi. clVat x. FL a. 

^ ^hyuAi i^mi e2lrec ^Xev. thv f . VR. b. ^Xyeoulvf' tl^at ffoyn V. h.^ Fl. ft. 
' (JeyiT aic P. c. ,6 wf ^% P. c. w; solum V, b. 

7 &ft (uoyinr rw ^^ V. b. * Uncis inclusa desunt Cod. P. c 

9 ffvyxardnhfAhog F\, a. «° o^X I^huim* Fl. a. 

" Caret uncis inchisia P. c. 

** Sic Fl. a. VR. b. in inarg. ta-ws aWtaTaf ft H fiififK. fx'* f*^^^°^ •• 

^3 [ ] Lacunam Cod. P. indicant. '^ [ ] Lacuna P. c. of Fl. a. et V. b. 

'^ Textus est Codd. Fl. a. et V. b. uifonlynif est P. c. — VR. b. Avl mmi et in 

*• T«T* P. c. '7 xai^«f«v P. c. 

in ArittoUhs Ethica. wa 

P. a« 1«0 a. 

P. b. 104 b. 

VR. b. 37. V. b.36l- 
OS fAp it ri; dnp/SoX^MMV iXyifiAttif ^mtTM If \tmh taopJb* 
itwfff iikkk cvYYVmiM^s ot^m. oToy Jirts &9nnp i* mep^ rep ^oSrxrn 
^lAoxr^Ti}; * ^i r^^ ^^ ^nTroipiiJfos xpiwru9 fiwMfisvos r^bg ml 
viy NmrtokepLOf, MfPCP^ f^v 'rivo; i^^^X^f varepov 8f o^ dTOjDbl- 
MMf ri (niy^ ray itKyriiivew ^avspos ' yivrrcii. T&v flcfriv 82 
rpAro)f tWiiYotysv otirh xa) So^oxXrig xa) Ala^Xog' leixf it xa) i 
Kapxlvos ^otywf roy Knpx6ova, ^Tro/xevoy diro ikty&Km ij^wm. o5- 
roi ^ ouy oux sio*} [laKoLXoh aXk' si rig wgi; &g ol toXXo) ou ^vyotyrftf 

5i»4&y»y «tf^ ol iroAXo/.]? Ibixf SS 6 'ilp. ri Hfyo^yrou'P (rvp^fi^ y«- 

^i}( «£^ija»y. f^y^ (M¥ ykp iroXXov xororp^cvy riy ycXeora rrXfvr«y 
^cx«y%aa'eyi ort^ xal oXXoi^ o'tijxjSde/vei. 

P. a. 125 b. 
V. b. 365 a. 
VR. b. 47. 
(Camm. Aid. f. 119 b. 50. FeL 163 b. in fine.) 
Oloy C0( ffy xm ^iXoxt^ti} ta 2o^oxAffovf. ayMrs/o'Si}" ju«v ydt| 
vff-o rou 'OSvo-o-eoof re^ t|fffuSij Xeysiy irgi; roy ^iXoxr^y^ o^lc^ljECfeAm 
8f, ^alpmv xoA ^$o/tffyo; T«p fti^ \psu8so'0ai. 

VB. b. 387. 
*-«Olxiia r^ ToXiTixep ^ irsp) ^Soy^^ xa) Xvm}^ Steofla* ev/bif jpiey dSy 
8oxf 1 pLufiefAtot ifiavii elyai aya$(ty* ^$ ^^S ^a<r) xa) 'ilyrio-fey^ ycyo- 

P. a. 138 a. 
V. b. 372. 
VR.b. f. 68. 

*/!; yap JSWsoo'iinro; sXeye^ ou avpifialvu ^ ^t^i$. ^roi 8f xJo'iv Xeyti 
rijy Sffi^iy^ t^ Tcp oVri IXut riy Xiyov roov (pourxivroov jxi) elvai oyaflivri^y 
^oyi^y. ou jxgy y^p airdpxmg Skue Xiymv^ to eyavrioy xax£p ctyMv. 

' P. a. ct P. b. fl. » VR. a., Fl. a. et P. a. ct P. b. *«XoxT»iTcu. 

5 ^naSis Fl. b. ♦ *« solus V. b. ' 

^ lirl ^y. p. a. ^ Uncis inclusa oro. P. a. et P. b.' 

7 Lacuna in texta Par. ' etfA^foalng Par. ^ Lac. in Par. 

'^ Sii0fi»yTov Fl. b. {mraf ttVTCtf Fl. a. VB. b» tS* ^uTfofurru VR. a* 

" inn tiff 9ttt P. a. 

Il6 JEpitomeScholiotum< 

bntrlov St' rjf^ Xuiri},.X4exa»/ovri^ ^Soyi}. Jeyudrnf ipeir x«x» yAp ^ 
liovov TO ayadov evavrtov, otXXot xa) to xaxov. dog TJj flpacruTijri ov /UroVoif 
4 av^peta [IvavTiov, ayaiov oica]/' aKXoi xou xaxov, ^ 8siX/a. dtoinp 
mg huyria toG \v(rayrog avTu elvM optwg istg, ft^ ftovov aya$oy elya# 
rep xaxo) havriov, aXXa xou xaxov, bItol ^pocreXa/Ss ti^v ^^ov^y fb^ tlvai 
xmxiv, 6^ flSv euXiyoog o-uXAoyi&rai tijv ^^oy^y ayaSoy fivai. ^ Se ix) 
mo'iy sTpifxey. ou yaip av ^alv^ r^g ehat T^y ^Sov^y rep X^^ avn}V 
^vvairrioy^ iv m eiXriirrM. oux so-ti he xuxhv rj ifiovij' rouro yap o^- 
wp^e^* .-.'. . av . ; ^a/ij. to ftij xaxoy elyati ^Jov^y. *' 6 SJ jxsra Tflfcil- 
T«6 \oyog" loixe Xiynriat npog rovg p^ij ^itrxwrag riXog Avai Tifir 
i^oyi^y fbi}8e to apicrov, hori eio'i ring rfiovai ^cffjhai, oToy a\ rm 
oxoX^o'Tcoy, Sroy ydip It) toutco tw Xoya' fcnr/ rtva ^Soyijy . • . . .* 
ifytrrai • . . .^ to^ apKrrov xa\ tovtov 'rrj suSaijxoy/fle. aXXa 9rpi^ too; 
MiTfldi Seixyim'fle; lyiVTocyTar 9 ri ydg xwX6ei^° ^av^iMV rjhov&v ov(roQVf 
tlval ttfa i^oyijy TO agKTTOV roov avipamlvcov aya^aov, SitrirBp xal" 
itrtO'TrifLri rig Io"TJ' if apltrrri tmv ovTcoy, oloy rj crc^ia. xa/roi ToXXay 
Tfp^yfluy^'^^avAfloy oSo'coy, oToy T»y fSayauo'eoy^ ^auXa>y 8ff ou;^ oig xaxmv 
ctKOU^riov, ttXX' co^aTsXaJy'' xai't jxijSeju.ia; o'^rouS^; af iW. a Se l^i}; 
^irifepffj** «UTa'^ Wf ««y ly iiXijflei awo^aiyofteva to /tgyiOToy xaV" 
Apiirrov T)Jy ^Soviiy, Xeyei yap icreoj 8J'^ xai avayxaleog^^ aXpn&rarov 
§lvai, SijXovoV**® Tijy iJSovijv. to 8tf ai^gTcoT^ro'y ti It* TsXei ** Stt* 
TOW Aoyou, xaJ (ryyi)yogf irai ** tw Aoy^, Tavreoy alpsTWTaToy*^ siyai- 
TiJy** )j8oyijy Xsyo'yrcoy** §1 yotg Ixacmjj Jffoij eWl Tiveg hipyeiai*^ 
ayfftToSio'TOi^ oloy al Tcoy apitrrmv oray ly Tpoijyov/tteyoi; xar aiperotg 
ylveovrai, fliihvog hfjCiroUt^ovTai. xa) ea-rtv rj eiihaifiovta if Tacrooy rcov 
S^fwyi* roureo'T/ Twy aptrcoVf higyeia tJ rivog avToov avsfMrohwTog, OIO10 

* V. b. «ine ii, rrtt y^(ntn %axSiv ovct, sic. * Uncis inclnsa loH V. b. et Fl. b. 
3 In Cod. Fi. a. et'in P. a. per compendium sic scriptum vV^ 

^ VR b. in marg. ^ il fil^X. iinm odikvi, I^kv Sx\n4>^v. Nulla desunt in FI. b. 

* TouTw x/yw Fl. a. ^ Lacuna in oran. Codd. ^ Lacuna iterara. 

* To sine accentu Fl. a. 9 lyiVraTai P. a. et P. b, 
>° rl xo! xoXiJii V. b. Xi5«, ^ jSi'^Sx. in marg. " Addunt ^ PP. 

'^ P. a. — ypu'v et prima sjllaba deficiente. Fl. a* et VR. b. aiaxpSv in textu, 
notante altera iu margine, nxvohr h filj^X, 

*3 P. a., VR. b* et FJ. b. «dT«x5v. «♦ xol om. PP. 

*5 Addunt rax<* post lirif jpet VR. b., V. b., Fl. a. 
'^ PP. . . rwy VR» b. ^vTw sine accentu ', V. b. &y t«u jo^ei Iv aXftdu. 
>7 Om. jw? PP. '8 Om. a P. a. et VR. b. 

•9 imyxaror P. a. »° Om. ^nXovori P. a. et textus VR. b. 

" ** Sic VR. b. in marg. Textus omn. librorum Iv^TeXu. 

a* a-vvnyoftT rl Fl. a. et VR.' b. P. a. ti, 


*3 Fl. b. sic ttleiTw »♦ Om. t»i» P. a. ct textos VR. b. 

*5 h(yf addunt V. b. ct FI. a. et Fl. b. *6 l?77««» Fl. a. 

in Ari^oteliS' Ethiciu 11? 

tiig ro^£9t$«i ratniv $6 rourep xftl-i^' ifSoyifb Mpytui yoip itiro^iioren* 
^T3)f xocrc^ .f oo'iv i^eaoSf aveykiri^KT'tosp foivepov cog otv eiri rig rj^ori '^^ 
MpwTOv xai reXstoraTOV rm ayoiiao¥» el ovroog erupts ^ociXtov oik 
0'eoy ^^veoy.' Ioti $6 eo; fijcri T£^ I^^; t^^ fpiirecogtcroug^ etvay^ 
xalov aigeTeorirriv elvM r^V ijSoyijVy elve^ kKutrriig e^icag xai ' 
ra^ ^^^* $<^ juksv oSy roureov $oxei raurov awo^alvi<riou rayar 
tiv xa) Trjy ifiovviv. ou ft^v outcuj ^«' • aXKei icphg rohg Kiyw 
retg yhetnv elvou ij ^avXoig rivoig twv ayaiooVt ag xa) h* oiM ri 
furj sivai TO aya&ov^ mylverai xeil m^npel h^o^oogf cog evov^ a&njv 
.rhApurrov Kiyav. Ins) h ys rolg NixofAaXiloig iv$ev^ &siXffxrai xmi 
flffpi ii^ovoig ' ApKTTOTeXrig (ra^oog flipy^xsVy auTifv'° ft^ slvai Taorov'* tj 
ku^oufJLOvlci, a}^\oL irotp»xo\ovQelv aiinteg rolg axfjLoimg rijv £pav. (nj/xeico- 
Twv ^6 ToD fMj elvM toOt*'* 'AptuTOTeXovg, «XX* EuS^ftou, o*^ ^v t^ 

'* Xfyfj"^ wepi rfiovrig^^ eog ouSg^reo-wtf^) Tijj'^ auTijj SiffiXffXe* 

yfiivow.'^ «^iji> elre £u$^|iMt; rawra loriv, eTre 'ApitrroTeKovg iv^o^wg 

VR. b. desinit inComm. 1. vii., omisso . octavi libri Com- 
mentario, fol. 79. (V. b. 377 a.) 

'H^9 rfiavii ftaXXoy ev . . • • av^pla IttIv ^ sv x/vsjo-ei. ^ yelp 

jjcmj*® xai aXtiisa-rarri ^SomJ ra wa^otureog Jp^ovri xal aU) 9r«p* t^ 

T«y xaXX»VT6ttv*" decopiav Ive^yoOvri, o 8g kiyov(rl Tivej, fAfTajSoAijv ** 

.mKvrctfv^ yXyxu, «■«§) Trig wovijgiaj xai fUftf TajSoXijj *^ fuo'fi** Aeyowo"!. 

TOiavri} Ss ij ^ipTT/\, 

Cod. Fl. a. habel *A<rvMlo\i eig to tf Twy 'i^picrT, 'HiixSni Ntx9(uar 
.X6/««'(FI. b.399 b.) 

Incipit : Mrra** Se T«UToe 8s wep) ^t>Joig' ecog toD X«vflavovT«^«K 
e^ovo'iv auTolg.^^ 

Desinit: t^ hrapxsiv xa) ou o'^rovSao'roy xa) veg) ftev toutcdv^ TaSf 
fMi eipriTat : f, 401 a. 

' Car. h V. b. et Fl. b. * AwoMirai PP. 

3 Quanquam pravfls sunt voluptates Fetic* 
♦ Addunt *i VR. b., V. b. et Florentini. 

5 Om. xai Fl. a. <* t^; VR. b. ^ ^j ^Aya^of PP. 

» P. b. Iy. 9 P. b. hOa V. b. ^ 

»° P. a., Fl. a. et VR. b. atrwf, " >tii rauriv VR. b., Fl. a. 

«» t6»t' PP. »3 yS P. b., V. b., Fl. a. et Fl. b. 

»♦ Indicant i«Mcu^am soli P. b. et Fl. b. '* xiy«v VR. b., V. b. et FL b. 

•6 hioiag ^ iSfiSx. in marg. VR. b. *7 Addit solus Fl. a. 

»» iiti^tytAhov P. b., V. b. et Flonr. *' Addit V. b. iih %al ^ ^*. 

*? Ooiissum in Cod. VR. b.. nullo spatio relicto ; in marg. Vn. 
* ' xaXhia-Tnv VR. b. in marg. xaXXt^ 
** VR. b. fMtra^y^nf. V. b. et P. a. furafiorJi. 
*3 Text us VR. b. f^nxiTajSoXoy. V. b. rf/xiTajSoXt'af. 
. ^ VB. b. ^ ^ ;3/j$X. xai taw; ycyea^rai f^crtw;. AXX^ fx^, ^9fi» 
»5 Fl. a. /uit/x"* *^ *'*• l»» •«wTerf. 

118 Notice of Millingen's 

Saquitiir io Fl. b. f. 570 «•» pott Coninieiitarkiiii L ii-^ 
Aspasio tribuUiB) — qui desinit verbis : fl ftiv dSv rwuf fuiuum^ 
t) Q-xwfifui /xfo-tv ri. Deinde Michaelii Ephesii ScboliA kgualiu^rt 
in ff Elbicor. 


DE VASES GRECS, tirees de diverses colUctiofu, 
avec des explkatiom^ par J. V. Millingen. FoliOk 
Rome. Pr. 71. 7s. 

According to our intention declared in the account of Mr. 
Millingen's English work^ (see Classical Journal^ No. lv. p. 
144.)9 ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ describe that splendid French volume wliich 
the same learned author published at Rome under the title above 
mentioned; a folio of considerable size^ beautifullv printed, and 
illustrated with sixty-three plates. Sixty of these exhibit tlie 
paintings found on various Greek^ or, as they are often improper^ 
called, Etruscan, vases ; and three plates represent the difierent 
forms of those vases. All the paintings have hitherto been unedit- 
ed, with the exception of two ; which were so inaccurately copied 
in former engravings, that their subjects could not be ascer- 
tained • Notwithstanding the great variety of designs compre- 
hended in so many plates, and the impossibility of remarking, 
within our limits, the very minute details, we shall endeavor to 
gratify antiquarian and classical readers by indicating, though 
briefly, the principal subject of each painting. 

But we must previously notice the Introduction (occupying 
thirteen pages), in which Mr. Millingen most ingeniously traces 
the history of earthen vases. He observes that they were in 

{reneral use among the Greeks until Alexander's time, when, 
uxury having been introduced, silver, gold, and even more pre* 
cious materials superseded clay in the formation of vases. He 
describes the various purposes, civil and religious, to which the 
ancients applied their earthen vases : these, originally, were not 
colored ; they were painted black, and subsequently, as the urts 
improved, were ornamented with "figures. That monuments of 
brass or of marble should have disappeared, while vases of so frail 

Peintaresde Vases Grecs. 119 

^^ snlwtmice as clay should be found at the present day in cooi- 

^Bsderalile nanbersy our learned author aftcrii»e» to the custMD of 

gpiacH^ these with the dead, whose tomlMr.were preserved froM 

^^^iolatioii by a feeling of religious respect. He divides the vases 

mnto seven grand classes^ acc(»rding to the subject of their paint* 

ings : 1. Those relating to the divinities ; their wars with the 

^iantSy their amours, the sacrifices offered to them, &c. 9. 

nrbose relative to the heroic ages ; the most numerous as well as 

^e most interesting^ for they comprehend all the mythological 

&ctft from the arrival of Cadmub till the return of Ulysses to 

Ithaca; the Heracleid, the Theseid^ the two wars of Thebes^ 

dM wars of the Amazons, the Argonautic expedition, and the war 

of Troy. 3. Dionysiac subjects : Bacchus, Satyrs, Silenua, 

Nymphs, dances, festivals, processions, &c. 4. Subjects of 

civil life : marriages, amorous scenes, feasts, hunting-partiea, 

warriors, theatrical representations, &c. 5. Those relating to 

Mineral ceremonies, a very numerous class* 6« Those relative 

to gymnastic exercises ; and 7* Those alluding to the mysteries 

and preparatory ceremonies of initiation. Most vases, says 

Mr- M., exhibit pictures on both sides, though one has seldom 

aaj relation to the other ; that which is painted with the most 

care, may, be considered as the principal face; on the reverse. is 

generaUy found some gymnastic or Dionysiac subject. Vases 

abound in most pacts of Greece, iathe kingdom of Naples^ and 

in Sicily; the finest have been discovefed at Nota, Locn, and 

Agrigentum. As the potter's wheel, tbe art of noodelling in 

day, and even paanting, are said to have been invented at Co«- 

riBlfai we may suppose this place the first in which painted vaaes 

vsere made ; probably about seven hundred years^ before the 

commencement of our era. But we must pass over without 

notice a multiplicity of curious and interesting remarks in the 

Introduction, and proceed to our author's explanation of the 


(Plate i.) represents that memorable punishment inflicted by 
Bacchus on Lycurgus, king of Thrace ; a subject not yet dis- 
covered on any other monument of ancient art, though the story 
has been related by Homer, Hyginus, Apollodorus^ Sec: in^ 
spired witb madness by the offended deity^ Lycurgus is seep 
killing his own wife and son, whilst he fancies that he is de« 
stroying the vmea of Bacchus. The vase which exhibits thia 
painting once belonged to Mr. Millingen, and is now in the Royal 
Museum degli Studj at Naples: the sul^ect was probably 
copied, says our author, from some ancient and celebrated pic^ 
tare : according to Pausanias (Attic, c. xx.), the punishment of 

120 Notice of Milliugen'* 

IijcurgU9 was represented in the temple of Bacclius at Athebt.— ^ 
(Plate ii.) shows the reverse or opposite side of this vase, with a 
figure of Bacchus caressing a young panther that sits upon his 
knees ; a person standing hefore the god pours outra libation, 
«od behind him are a Menade and two Satyrs. — <( Plate Hi.) In 
this we see Perseus holding up the formidable head of Aledusa, 
which turns into stone two Satyrs preparing to attack bun.-^ 
<P1. iv.) illustrates the story of Peleus, who, having pursued the 
]>eautiful Nereid Thetis through various transformations, sur- 
prises her at last, and she consents to become his wife,-r-The 
Muaae vase exhibits another composition^ (PI. v.) presenting two 
different -subjects; one consists of seven figures, a warrior at- 
tacked by Menades or Bacchants ; the other, a combat in which 
five warriors are engaged, and this, Mr. Millingen thinks, may 
represent some circumstances of the Trojan war, or perhaps a 
military dance, such as Xenophon denominates oftXawuloi (Cyrop. 
^i^vii.) — In (PI. vi.) Medea appears sitting at the foot of a tree 
round which is twined a dragon, or serpent; to this she offers a 
epporific potion, while Jason approaching with a sword, pre- 
pares to kill the monster, that he may seize the golden fleece 
preserved under its guardianship. Venus is seen on one side, 
encouraging the lovers in their enterprise ; and on the other side 
is a winged youth, whom Mr. M. regards as Alastor, 'Akourtwp^ 
the «vil genius of Medea, often mentioned by the tragic au- 
thors: thus £uripides (in Medea, v. 1333.) 

: Tov <rov ^ 'AkouTTtip* slg f/t io'xrjpifotif flao/.r— . 
•(PI. vi]«) represents JEetes, kii^ of Colchos, to whom Phryxus 
brings the golden fleece. Most of the circumstances in this com- 
posiiion might be supposed to indicate Jason ; but Mr. M, 
considers the presence of Mercury as a decisive proof that 
Pbnyxus was the hero intended. — (PL viii.) This subject, from 
a vase in the author's collection, alludes to the story of Cseneus, 
whom two centaurs attack, and overwhelm with branches of 
trees. — In (Pis. ix. and x.) we discover Theseus preparing to de- 
trtroy Procrustes by means of the bed whereon this famous robber 
had tortured so many travellers.— (PI. xi.) Hercules, or rather 
Theseus, as Mr. M. conjectures, overcomes the Marathoniaa 
bull, in presence of Minerva. — (PI. xii.) represents Theseus 
offering a sacrifice to Neptune, and soliciting from this god the 
destruction of his son Hippolytus, whom Phaedra had unjustly 
accused. — ^Pl. xiii.) exhibits the unfortunate youth, with his step- 
mother Phaadra, and tlie nurse, who appears from other monu- 
ments to have acted a conspicuous part in this tragical adventure. 
*-~The story of Orestes furuislies an interesting subject for (Pis. 

Peinturesde Vases Orecs. 

xiv. mmI XV.) : we behold bim standing near tbe tomb of bis H^^ 
Agamemnon^ at the foot of which sitis Electra, his sister, with 
wbom be proceeds to concert measures for the punishment of Cljf^ 
temnestra and ^gisthus, who had usurped the throne ; — and (PI. 
sv,) represents probably the marriage of this usurper with tbe 
wicked mother of Orestes ; for a male figure bearing the nameof 
AinXTOS holds by the hand a female mxMeAKATTEMNEX-^ 
TPAf wbo wears a radiated crown, whilst another female seems 
to offer such a box or casket as usually contained the nuptial 
presents.— (Pl.xvi.) from a vase in the Royal Museum at Naples, 
relates to the same subject : Electra appears sitting on the step 
of a sepulchral monument, in an attitude expressing grief; her 
brother Orestes is near to her on one side, and on the other his 
friend Pyhdes. — The subject of (PL xvii.), Mr. M. thinks, 
may have been taken from the Tragedy of Troilus, composed by 
Sophocles, but now lost. In this painting we see some Trojan 
women making libations. and offerings at the tomb of Troilut, 
whose name is written on a column. He was the son of Priam, 
and, although mentioned but once by Homer, (U. xxiv. $57.) 
is celebrated in the work of Dares Phrygius as a most valiant 
hero, who, on the death of Hector, commanded the Trojan army 
and killed many Greeks with his own hand ; he was slain at last 
by Achilles. The vase exhibiting this picture is the only monu- 
ment hitherto known that celebrates the memory of Troilus.-^ 
(PI. xviii.) Here, on a cippus, we perceive the name OOIiV/JI ; 
by the side of this monument sits a young man seemingly en- 
gaged in conversation with a woman, who holds a casket of offer- 
ings; to be placed on the cippus. Many^personages* in the heroie 
ages bore the name of Phoenix ; Mr. M. thinks it most pfoba* 
ble that he to whom this painting refers, was the son of king 
Aroyntor, and, together with Chiron, the preceptor of Achilles. 
In (PL xix.) is represented a sepulchral monument resem- 
bling a small temple, containing the figure of a warrior, the de» 
ceased, whose buckler and Kvrifiki$ are suspended from the wall ; 
ji. woman and a young man bring offerings to the tomb. — On 
a vase painted at least four hundred years before the Christian 
era, are two subjects, (Pis. xx. and xxi.) The first relaties to a 
circumstance in the famous war of the seven chiefs against Thebes. 
We see Ampbiaraiis with his shield, helmet and two lances, and 
his Squire Baton, in a chariot drawn by four horses : a female 
figure precedes them, which appears to be Eriphyle, the wife 
of Amphiaratis. The second picture represents also a quadriga 
with two warriors, whom we may suppose Aniphilochus and 
Alcmaeon, tbe sons of Ampbiaraiis : a woman liketiise . precedes 

lt% Notice of MiUingen- » 

the otTi and «y inseriptioD &PnTAB shows her to betlMip; 
flUotber Eriphjle. Mr. M. observes that thore is.iotne unceiw- 
tmty respecting^ the two male figures^ which may be AitatistaiL 
and IMymces, — (PL x%iu) alludes probably to an event neotioai* 
ed ooly by the schpliast on Euripides, (PbcenisssSy ▼. 5S»)yet of 
soBue cetebrity as it has aflbrded a subject for pictures on maiqr 
vises : Tydeiis appears ready to kill Isroene, near the fountui 
which afterwards bore her name. — (PI. xxiii.) is from a vase in 
the Vatiean M useum ; it was published by Passeri, (Pict. in Vase. 
Tom. III. PI. cclxxx.) who pronounced its subject ta be the 
Apotheoeis of Hercules and Hebe. The ingenious Abb£ LafMci^ 
not satisfied with this explanation^ proposed another ; regarding 
it us » scene from the Heraclides of Euripides. But our ieamei 
author with much diffidence states his reasons for supposing it 
to represent CEdipus at Colonos, with his daughter Antigone^ 
Theseus, a fury, and other figures. — On the reverse of this vase 
we find a very different subject, (Pi. xxiv.) Bacchus holding a 
vessel called cantharus^ into which a young Satyr pours wine ; 
there are also Menades or Bacchantes, &c. — (PL xxv.) Jupiter 
nmhr the form of a bull carries off Europa, whilst Neptune 
soenis to ficivor his brother's enterprise, by calming the waves.—* 
(PI. xxvi.) represents young persons who, under the influence of 
a winged Love and of Venus, seem disposed to indulge m 
anMMtHis dalKance. From employing their pencils on scenee of 
tUs kind, aome ancient artists celebrated by Atbenaeus acqpiired 
the tide of Pomographs, or painters^ of courtesans. — (PI. xxvii.) 
eodubits the comlMt t»etween Hercules andGeryon, who doc^ noi 
appear with three bodies, as geuerally described, but with three 
beada, such as Hesiod mentions (Theogon. v. 2S7.) Minerva eo^ 
courages Hercules, andMercury attends, holding a«olive*branchc 
'— »ln (PL xxviii.) Busiris, king of ll^pt, having made prepara- 
tioiis for killing Hercules, according to bb annual custom of 
aacrifieing a stranger, is here seen on the point of perishing by 
the batid of diat hero, who, escaping from the slaves who had led 
him to the altar, attacks the tj rant with his ponderous dubw 
Two women, of whom one plays on a double flute, th# 
otfler holds a vase and a basket, appear as assistants at the ia^ 
tended sacrifice.— ><Pb. xxix.aml xxx.) relate to Apollo, who ia 
die former is seen richly habited, and playing on the lyre ; near 
him IB a female engaged in divination by means of some small 
objects, shells, flints, or pieces of clay throuii on the ground \ 
die may be supposed a priestess ; and a young man on the other 
aide of Apollo has perhaps come to consult the divini^ at 
IMphos. On the reverse of this vase Hercules appears carry* 

Peinttim de V0se$ Or€c$: lift 

ii»«ff the Meted tripod of the Befphie Oimcle, tod ApoUej 
Midieg e brench of karel, eodeevours to legein it^ while the 
P^thien prieatest Xenoclety terrified et tiie ditpate, waits to tee 
the result froai a window of her dweUingt^ — (Pl« xxxi.), a vase el 
cooaidcrable antiquity in the Royal Museum at Naples, repre* 
scBta Ae contest between- Hercules and Eryx ; as on most oc- 
casions Minerva and Mercury atteud the Grecian hero. This 
Mribject has not hitherto been discovered on any other monumeoCb 
-^PL xxxii.) alsoexhibits a subject for the first time — Hercules 
ftrnggling with Nereus, who had assumed the form of hal^ 
nuuii, halMsh. — In (PI. xxxiii.) Hercules appears wielding hi* 
dubiq^inst the Centaur Dexameuus, whose name is written in 
the bciistrophedon manner : Dejanira and OEneus also are seen ; 
and the difficulties of this subject are happily removed by a 
p a a si y which our ingenious author has discovered in the Scho*- 
liast df Callimacbus, on the following line : 
Bwfi, Ti, A^$t(jis9olo jSooirrao'if OWiihixo. Hymn, in Del. v. 10£. 
-*11m same vase^on its reverse, (Pl.xxxiv.) offers a scene from 
civil life ; a man of middle age seems listening to the animated 
eowveraation of two women : the name IITAAJES is inscribed 
over his bead, and refers, in Mr. M.'s opinion, to the person 
iar whom this vase was destined.-— (PI. xxxv.) shows Hercules 
awaking from his slumbers, and four Satyrs or Cercopians vt4io 
during the hero's sleep had stolen his bow, his quiver, and dnb^ 
and are now seen running off much alanned.-^PIs. xxxti^ 
xxavii^ and xxxviii.) are from a most beautiful and valuable vase 
in the collection of Prince Torrella at Naples. Its principal 
bee represents the Apotheosis of Hercules, who is introduced 
anu^ the gods by Minerva ; this goddess brings him in her car 
drawn by four magnificent horses. The reverse of this painting 
exhibits a combat of Amazons, with some warriors; and the 
vase, round its neck, is ornamented with Dionysiac figures of 
yomg men dancmg to the sounds of a double flute, on which a 
vroman plays. We see also a woman offering wine to two wari* 
riora, and a young man who brings a vessel containing probably 
oil or perfumes used on coming from the bath.— In (PI. xxxix.) i 
female elegantly attired is seated on the steps of a sepulchral 
monnment, attended by an old woman, such as we may suppose 
the nurses who generally accompanied young princesses on the 
ancient Greek stage ; another woman brings a perfume-vessely 
a garland, and a basket.— The reverse (PI. xl.) exhibits a man 
crowned with myrtle, who presents a cup or patera to a female 
richly dressed. These paintings do not offer any circumstance 
anflinently marked to authorise conjectural explanation. — In 

.t24 / Notiae o/JMilUogen-s / * 

(PI. sU.) we: bi&hold VehUfl heautifiilly clothed with' gfiitlttenia 
which she . bad received froai the^ Hours, and reaplendentrwilli 
golden ornaments, whegce Homer. (Hymn^in Veoer.) styles her 

'ApfcUrn irokixfVTOit XP^^^* ^^^ Xf^^^^^^^^^* ' ^^^^^ crowiMKl 
with myrtlci and: winged, stands near his. mother ;: an4 a young 
woman propitiates the goddess by. offering incense ^oii a iittle 
altar. — Paris and Helen are easily recognised in (Pi. xlii^):^ the 
jKene is Menelaus's palace; Helen caresses a winged child^ 
Love* or Desire, whom she, sitting, holds upon her knees*; while 
Piiris, splendidlyrdressed, stands before her. — The subject of (PI. 
xliii.) has been already published, but incorrectly, by O'Han- 
carville, and previously by Passeri. But Mr. M. gives an ac- 
curate delineation and a new explanation of it* Instead of as 
jallusion to the story of Telephus, as supposed by D*Haocaff* 
vilje, he discovers a scene on Mount Ida, where Paris appears, 
with Venus leaning on a column ; the god Pan, a Satyr, a 
/.winged Love, and a woman (either OBnone or H^en^) till up 
ibis interesting composition. — (PI. xliv.), from a vase found at 
ilLthens, represents seven figures, forming a. nuptial- procession^ 
ia nhich Apollo is seen with a branch of laurel, and Diana with 
her bow and quiver. — (PI. xlv.) shows a young man seated, who 
holds in one hand the triangular harp called sambuca, and with 
the other a little bird fastened by a siring : near him is a womaa 
bringing a vase, a half-open box, and a diadem or ornament itm 
the head ; a winged Hermaphrodite genius places over the 
woman a crown or garland ; and the vase was probably des- 
tined, like others that present similar subjects, as a gift from .1 
lover, or on occasion of marriage. — (PI. xlvi.) represents a scene 
from one of the ancient burlesque comedies, such, as Aristopha- 
nes censured in his play called The Clouds : four men, ridiculoualji 
dressed and ma3ked, seem acting, in a theatre dedicated to Bac- 
chus, what Mr. M. thinks may have probably been a parody oi 
some tragedy of Procrustes. — In (PI. xlvii.) a winged female, r& 
prejsenting Victory, receives an offering from a young warrior ;— 
and on the reverse, (PI. xlviii.) we see an altar or cippus inscribed 
with the word NIKA, Victory ; near which stand two young 
men, who, before their gymnastic exercises, seek to conciliate the 
goddess's favor. — Of a large and highly interesting picture on 
a vase in the author's collection (PI. xlix.), the principal figure 
is Achilles, as an inscription indicates ; this hero is engaged in 
combat with a warrior, whom we may believe Memnon; Iwc 
goddesses, Minerva .and Victory, attend Achilles; Memnoc 
fallen on the ground supports himself on one hand, whilst witl 
the other he seems to implore mercy. An armed hero, probabij 

Peintures de Vases Grecs. liS 

iEndb/ ' appears eotning t(^ the assistance of Memnoti/and aii^ 
other; imperfect from some injuries which the vase has received/ 
eodeavours to prevent him from interfering- in the combat.^ — Oiip 
ifce reverse, still more injured than the principal face^ this vasef 
exlifbita (PI. 1.) the altar of Minerva at Chrys^, with the Palia- 
diun/i or image of that goddess : a serpent is seen inflicting on^ 
the leg pf Philoctetes that wound which induced the'Greekii to 
latrh him at Lenluos, when they proceeded against Troy ; three 
otiier figures appear in this ancient composition^ perhaps Ulys- 
ses^ ChalcaSy and a priest of the temple. — (PI. li.) represents 
alsD th^ akar of Minerva and Palladium^ over which the word 
Chrys6 (XPTSH) is written; near this stands Hercules {HPA^ 
KAHS)f and beyond him JnsonXlHSIlN)y' by whose side is an oir 
destined for a sacrifice to the goddess ; a winged Victory (iV/Kfl) 
makes an offering at the altar in favor of the two heroes^ and ai 
young man prepares some objects necessary for the sacrificial 
rites. — (PI. lii.) offers a subject that admits of two interpreta- 
tiona : an altar is seen with a statue which may represent either 
Minerva or Diana^ from different circumstances. ' If we suppose 
it Minerva, the three female figures sitting at the altar may be 
Ino, Autonoe and Agav6^ the daughters of Cadmus, soliciting 
expiation for the murder of Pentheus. If the statue represent 
Diana, we may regard those females as the daughters of Proetus 
king of Argos,' who was cured of madness in the temple of 
Diana at Lyssa in Arcadia : our learned author's remarks in- 
duce us to consider this as the more satisfactory interpretation.— -> 
(Pis. liii, and liv.) show two painUngs on one vase: A youtig war- 
rior seems to have alighted from his horse that he may receive 
from a female of high rank, the vessel containing wine or water 
which one of her maids presents to him ; another young- warrior, 
sitting on a horse, leads or holds that from which his companion 
bad alighted. On the reverse are two warriors,(perhaps the same) 
who bring before some prince or great chief, a female; she;ap- 
pears in a state of dejection! — (Pi. Iv.) exhibits the fine figure. of 
a young warrior who seems to take leave of his aged father ; 
whilst a woman brings a vessel, probably with wine : and on the 
reverse, (PI. Ivi.) are two warriors or hunters engaged in conver- 
sation with a woman holding a vase and a cup. — The subject of 
(PL Ivii.), from a charming fragment in the Queen of Naples' 
collection, Mr. M. refers to a marriage : one man, five females, 
an imperfect human figure^ and part of a horse, form this com* 
position. — In (PI. Iviii.) a young man^ on his return from the 
chase, drags a boar towards an altar ; and a woman brings a box 

inilkjMAiittt4M)CffM.-^PJ. lix.) &ffet§^ in two cwipartmcttti^ 
whiPMical defligu of a maa falling fjKun an ass, and another a 
linaing towards bim. — (F. Ix.)^ from a vase in the Rojal lii 
lausA at Naples, represents three fine female figures; -< 
boUs a box, containing probably some offerings for a divioi 
another caresses a little winged genius or Love ; near the tl 
is a 9WK^p the emUem of domestic virtues. Although i 
picture does not present any determkied object, it is big 
uiterestitq; from its details,- the elqpance of its composili 
and fine executioiu 

We trust that our slight indication of the principal suUe^ 
ei^bited in each Plate of Mr. Millingen's splendid voTui 
may prove acceptable to many readers ; but they must com 
the work itself if desirous of examining his learned illustratic 
which fully evince an intimate acquaintance with classical m 
fuityi and .consummate skill in a most interesting braudt 


No. MIL— [Continuedfrom No. LV.] 

collecting toys 

And trifles for choice matters, worth a s^nge -, 
As children gath*riog pebbles on the shore. 

Paradise Regained^ iv. dS5« 

IN No. Lv. of this Journal, p. SO, 1. 10, read^ 

Impigra prsM^ipiti celerabat Luna meatu, 

Atra quidem, at radiis circum iliustrata supernis. 

The verses "Ad Chrysidem/* p, 172, ought to have c 
eluded as follows : 

* # * * 

teX^iy^oo hia^ vsiioug, Xtir^p iiwioov, 
ir&Tii$ avigwitQi^ 7PpS6poiuog ay>joi%g'' 

0*0) V av 7rap6evtKvi$ iflieog Troieonv 


i. H|9p. PdvM. i^# 169> Speech of Meiiekii» to Telenacliiia. 

TxfS*^ 0^ sTyex* ifuio voXiT^ l/x^yi}Tfly ^IXov;* 

*Agytl»v, CI vwiy &rf i^ aA« yArroy tScoxf 
. yi}v<r} flopo-i ytvMeu 'OAvjemtio^ eifu^a Zwf 
xmt Xfy ol "Apyei vitrcrx %i>a¥, xa) iwfuir hmp^atf 
If 'itftxi}^ kywfin o^y xxiwuwi %aX rixsi ^, 
«... i^,m<riy Kauiivi, fulav iFO^uif e^aJioiirci^af 
a1 ^spivaisroouo'iv, ayoo'O'oyrai 8* l/utol aur^' 
M(( xc.taff* ivdctS* i^yrf^ ^oy^^ ouSa xsy n/^^; 
ofXXo Silx^iyffy ^iXfoyrc rs rsp?rofteyco re^ 
'(^1^ 7* ^^ ^ '00(y«TOM fiiXoey yt ^; ifif«xaXtn|f6y« 
Such a proposal carries with it an appearance of absurdity to 
modern ideas ; yet a similar one is made by tbe Sultim to the 
Priiice <)f the JSJack Islands in the Arabian. Nighu^ aad 
cepted. (^Night xxvii.) 

Grecisms and Latinisms in English writers^ 
[Continued from Nos. XLVIIL and LIIIJ] 

Gifford's Massinger, vol. i^ p. 190. (Unnatural Combac, Act 

\v, 3C. K) 

Or twine mine arms about her softer neck — 
i. e. her $qft neck : our old poets frequently adopt, and indeed 
with singular good taste, the comparative for the positive. He 
quotes the following as instances : 

When 1 shall sit circled within your arms. 
How shall 1 cast a blemish on your honor. 
And appear only like some falser stone 
Placed in a ring of gold, which grows a jewel 
.But from the seat which holds it ! 

Old Poem. 

. I ■ . 1 beseech ^ou 

To tell me what the nature of my fault is 
That hath incensed you ; sure 'tis one of weakness 
And not of malice, which your gentler temper. 
On my submission, I hope, will pardon. 

Unnatural Combat^ as above. 
Judge not my readier will by tlie event. 

Virgin Martyr. 

Tbu usage (which Mr. Gi6Ford has not exactly defined) corre* 

lift NugiZ. 

spdtids with' that o^ the Greeks (Matthias § 4a7..^*) f M the 
Komans ; especially in some particular words^ as yfoirf^, ocior^ 

The double negative likewise occurs freqileiitly in our elder 
writers : 

And he hoped they did not think the Silent Woman^ 
The J^ox^ and the Alchyinist^ outoloue hy no man. 

Sir J. Suckling's Session of the Poels. 
He had not a word to say for himself^ nor knew not in the 
world what to allege in his own excuse. 

Old Translation of Gusman cTAlfarache. 
So Massinger : 

in the blossom of my youth^ 

When my first fire knew no adulterate incense. 
Nor 1 no way to flatter but my fondness. 
The same idiom occurs in our established translation of the 

The late accomplished translator of Ariosto has copied this 
ancient idiom : 

r '- D^ath, 

Nor yet discomfort^ never enter here. 

Rose's Orlando, Canto v. 
It .a|>pear8 ta be one of those modes of expression, whicb 
having been originally in common use, have now become vul«. 
gjarisms ; such is the usage of '' as ** for the pronoun '^ that," 
which is to be found in Locke and other writers, (Essay on 
Human Understanding, Vol. i. p. 94, ed. 1817, note: '* These 
M'ords of your Lordship's contain nothing as 1 see in thei») 
against me" So Osborne : '^ Under that general term were 
comprehended not only those brain-sick foi>ls as did oppose the 
discipline and ceremonies of the church," &c.), and many other 
phrases, as well as modes of spelling and pronunciation, in- 
flections, &c. which are now confined to the common people, 
or to particular districts. 

Extract from " Luther's Table Talk," in the Tenth Number 
of the Retrospective, p. £9B. ^' He shed the blood of many 
innoceht Christians that confessed the Gospel, those he plagued 
and tormented with strange instruments ;" i. e. others, tovs Se, 
in Latin, iUos. 

In the dedication to Bishop Taylor's Ductor Dubitantium^ 
a remarkable number of Grecisms and Latinisms occur. ''It 
was impossible to live — but as slaves Uve, that is, such who are 
civilly dead, and persons condemned to metals (mines)." '' But 

Nugd. 129 

warn Imt jojrsr fre mere tnd unmixt'' ^' I wis wiiling to mgi^ 
tiate (negotiari) and to laboar/' *' You will best govern 'by 
the ai^uments and compulsory of conscience, and this alone is 
the greatest (ty roSro iUyi(rrov)Jirfnametit of obedience/' 

Vol. iv. of Gifford's Massinger^ p. 304, note, Mr. Gifford 
observes oa Shakespeare's expression, 

■■ ■ . my way of life 

Is fall'n into the sere, the yellow lieaf — 
** The ftct is, that these ingenious writers'' (Mr. Gifford's 
stipites, fungi, &c.) '' have mistaken the phrase, which is neither 
more nor less than a simple- periphrasis for life" He cites 
examples of this periphrasis from the old draniati9ts: 

. So nracb nobler 

Shall be your way of justice. 

Massingef^sThietry and Thmdoret. 

Thus ready for the Way of death or life, 

I wait the sharpest blow. 

So the Greek tragedians : « 

Tfiwod ft' kjta.yK6!fyu(Fi cVf/^opSf iioij ' 

Eurip. Heraclid. 237. 

^taTopri<rM flTwy cBov potJXMViiAroov* 

lb. p. 318. 

1 pray you, take me with Vou ; 
i. e* *' let me understand you.'* Thus <n)fi»regifepuv in the latter 
Greek writers. Polyb. iii. 10. c!i^ p^opU o4j^'olov n ^v (ruft^sp^ 
icytpfftjyai havroog oSn roig ySv Xeyofblvor^i o&rf rolg ii^rroL rotura, 
pi^tn^ofiivots d^' iiiMov : *^ absque qutbus nonlice); iptelligere," 8cc. 

In a late poet we have : 

No voice from some sublimer world hath ever 
To sage or poet these responses given : 
L e. JuBC responsa, a response oh this subject — a solution of 
certain difficiuties which had been previously spoken of. An- 
other modern poet has not scrupled to imitate the classical 
anacobithon : ' r 

Has Hope, Uke the bird in the story. 

That flitted from tree to tree 
With the talisman's gfittering glory, , . 

Has Hope beenjhat bird to theei i. 

The following lines, by Joannes Charga; ^n Italian poet, 

130 Nuga. 

appear to us singularly expressive of the feeliugs natural to a 
person in the situation of the writer* 

Stntx resipiscit. 

Hei mihi misero, hei mihi ! 
Tempus quam cito praeterit ! 
Homo quam cito de&cit ! 
£t mors quam cito criminum 

Poenas exigit omnes ! 
Magnam qui bene fecerint 
Mercedem referunt : ego 
Annis jam gravis, et gravis 
Culpa, en distrahor omnium 

Per tormenta malorum. 
Nox caecis tenebris preroit 
Morbo languida lumina : 
Menti et sensibus incubat 
Quidquid est miserum et grave : 

Vivum es, Charga, cadaver. 
Vivum : nam patulse vi^ent 
Aures ; sed tuba^ in ultimum 
Quas te judicium vocat, 
Quali| proh pietas, sono 

Metus duplicat omnes ! 
Ergo tarn miser et nocens 
Ad quem confugiam, nisi 
Ad te. Rex mens, et Pater ? 
O Rex, O Pater, O Deus, 

Tu mei miserere. 
O et perfugium et salus 
Humani generis, pie 
O Jesu, precor, ah precor 
Ilia luce novissima 

Tu mei miserere. 
Tu quem sanguine, quem cruce 
^temis redimis malis, 
Pro tua pietate me 
^temis recrea bonis, 

Et mei miserere.' 

' These lines have much of the pathos of Herrick's beautiful 
** Litany :" 

When I lie upon my bed. 
Sick at heart, and sick at head. 
And with doubts discomforted. 
Sweet Spirit, oomforl me ! 

Nnga:. 131 

JSrrors in the Orthography of Clauical Hameip t^c^ 

iCimHnued/rmn N0. XLVIII, and Lll.y 

Wb have strung together some additional instances^ arranged 
Ander their proper heads. 

1. Change of termination. — Under this head may be specl- 
6e4 Aloeaes {Alcesti was mentioned before), Colchos, Tralle 
for Tnelles, Eleusina, otherwise Ekfuyna, Leontium for Leon- 
tid, Leucadia for the rock of Leucas (Class. Journ. No. Liv. 
A^ 258,), MoUa for iBoIis^ Bactria for Bactra, Cqtprea for 
Capr^i^ Mjfune for Mycenae, Clazomene (Classical Journal 
No. 1.1 y. p. 288.^ d» Clazomenia (xlviii. p. 338.), for Cla- 
jfjomesoi^i. The terminatioitiei^ sigmfying the territory of a town, 
has in many cases superseded the proper termination of the 
town itself, in the same Dn^nner^ con^mo^ Ivrmfnations have 
jiuperseded uncommon oqes. 

£. Change of voweU.-^rJS for Ef Mmathia^ J^feria, Ciero^ 
Maa, Teg^t Nemaa auid .the Hemaan games (originating in the 
frequency of the termination ^{^, Pagoioan^ ^etion : a^so fojr 
OS, as (Enone, CEnotria, 8cc« and vice versa. 

E for JE may be considered as legitimate in most cases. 

Y for /, Ilyssus, Tliyatyra, phyllyrea, for philyra, Stagy 
rite, Phygalm, Cyrrha, Tysiphone.rysris, Syr$n, 

1 for X, Cariatides, Lestrigon, TrogMite^ PhiUiu 

When these two vowels occur in (contiguous syllables, they 
are not unfrequently interchanged ; as in Typhis, Amphyctions, 
Amphytrion, Tyrinthius, Orythia for Oritnyia^ Sybil, Sybilli" 
ne, Sysigambis^ Bythinia^ Lybia. 

A for /, Catahne ; and vice versa, Alexipharmic. 

3. Dissolution of vowels, &c. — Coos for Cos; Hyge'ia, 
Cassiopeia, Teian, and many other forms of llie same kind ; 
Alpheus, P^neus, &c. as dissyllables (Pope has Sperchius, II. 
zziii.) On the other hand, Briar^iis, otherwise Bridreus. Mil- 
ton adheres to the Homeric form, only changing it to a quadri* 
syllable : f* Briareos or Typhon." We have also Typhosus for 

Sometimes a vowel is interpolated, as Dionysius for Piony- 
sus, Dionysiodorus. 

Change of Consonants, ^rc^^-^Tbe most common corruption of 
this kind consists in the insertion apd omission of h after ja conso* 
n^, fis in Anthony, Chalcas (originating in the frequent occur- 
rence of compounds with;^aXxoV). On the other hand, Calche- 
4oj$ : Chora^bus, Chorypheus (of which the origin is obvious)^ 

aSfi Nugte. 

On the other hand, Ereclheum or Eryctheum, and Ericthonim, 
Ericfho^ Naptha, Riphaan for Rhipaari, We have also'Pyren- 
neeSy and many siaiilar reduplkations* 

The English poets (with the exception of those who were 
themselves scholars, and wrote on the classical model, as Mil- 
ton, Akenside, Glover, Gray^ &c.) are not very scrUpiAoffs 
'with regard to the orthography or prosody of aneietit namesi 

We might take this opportunity of t(Kudbing on a Mmber^ 
prevailing inaccuracies in v^brds of classical: origin, as apothegni, 
^issyttabie, suppositious, descendant y dependant, resisUhice'lpii 
the other hand, existence, independence, S^c), dissevkion, r^ 
fiection,extacy, ap6sta€y,corrmcation, vaccillation, extrinsical, 
pkilanthropky, incohtestible, S^e. Sfc. Ifc. We ihight also s^ 
'ionfiething on the niiiuberless portents in the sihape of Greek and 
Lidtin compounds \\4fich the daily newspapers offer to out* viiew, 
^s' Eidouranion, Kateidoscope^ Dioastrodoxon, PeristrepMt, 
Panorama, Sinumbra, Kalydor, Therapolegia (a curious torn- 
plication of barbarisms, signifying an office for servants). • But 
we leavb this, and other matters of the same description/ to 
llibre experienced ^ord-mongers than ourselves. 

V . Parallel Passages, Ifc. (Continued.) 

1. Ohvrai yap ol f/iiif, TJ[ otTFOvo'lct uf ri xra<r0ai, ujEteif Si Tf 
mXSeiv x«» r^ eroifAot £v ^yJe^M. Thucyd. I. 70. ' 

. dumque agmina longe, 

Dum licet^ Hesperiis praeceps elabere terns, 
Ne nova praedari eupiens, et parta reponas. 

Claudian, de Belto Get. iKXX 

2. MiO-to TroXtnf^v, Sang co^eXsiv itarpetv 
figaSbg feenkat, iieyiXa 8e j3Xa^0iy TOii)(h$, 
xai iroptfuov uvrm, r^ WXei T &ji^^aifov. 

Eurip. ap; Aristoph. Nub. 1404^^ 
— — — cetera segnis, • (. •■ 

Ad facinus velox.— — 

Claudian. in Rtffin* i. 299* 

preferring such 

To offices and honors, as ne'er read 
The elements of saving policy, 
.But deeply skill'd in all the principles 
That usher to destruction. 

Massihgef^s Bondman, Act I. Sc-S^ 


engraved on an Ancient Helmet of Brass^ discovered 
in the ruins of Olympia in the Peloponnesus ; which 
Helmet has been most graciously accepted hi) His 
Afqjesty, from JVf aj. Gen. Sir Patricia Rossi, 
«K*JIM[. K. J. and placed in the British Museum: 
also some Observations on the Island of Ithaca^ by the 
Chevalier D. Bronsted, of the University of 
Copenhagen, Agent of the Court of Denmark, Sfc. 

j. Ithaca, April 3d, 1820. 

I 'HAVS the pleasure of sending to your Excellency some iti- 
formatiott from these classical rocks^ where I have passed the 
I^ days of a brilliant and truly Greek spring with my patron 
and frieind Lord Guilford. 

Atih>ng us the pre-eminence will be always git en to our t<^- 
nerable master^ Greek Antiquity^ to whom we owe so much. 

Firsts Aen, I will speak of an ancient and interesting Greek 
monutnent, which I had lately the pleasure of examining in the 
island of Zante. 

SUS. It is now in the possession of Colonel Ross, the English 
resident in the island of Zante ; a soldier of a cultivated tnind, iti 
whose house I was received with the sincerest hospitality. 

Mr. Cartwright, the English Consul-general at Constantino*- 
pie, who travelled in the Morea in 1817 with Signor Pouque- 
ville, found, near the site of the ancient Olympia, three antique 
helmets of brass, one of which was the helmet I have mentioned; 
the two others were more ornamented, but without inscriptions : 
he afterwards gave that with an inscription to Colonel Ross, 
who tiow possesses it. It is of a common oval form, in good 
preservation, and has on the front, nearer to the upper extremity 
than to the lower, the following inscription perfectly legible ; 




1 34 A Greek Iliscription 

Will your Excellency permit me to request the asststance of 
^'our penetration in the explanation of these curious Iine$> and 
to give your opinion in writing (before you continue to read my 
letter) on the singular word TOIJITVPAN, which has not a litde 
embarrassed me. 

For my own part, I have no doubt that this helmet rs a frag- 
ment of some work of the celebrated Onatas^ a sculptor of 
£gina^ who in the fifth centsry befpre the Christian era was' the 
glory of his country^ as Albert Thorvaldsen forms that of ours 
in the present time^ and of the same Onatas of whom t^ausa- 
nias speaks so frequently in his itinerary of Greece.' If I was 
the fortunate possessor of the incomparable statues discovered 
among the ruins of the temple of Egina in 181 1^ by my friends 
Messrs. Haller and Linekh, Cockerell and Foster,^ I would 
give iantii to adif this helmet to those admirable relics of the 
ancient Fginian school of art, as the fragment of a great work 
of the same family. 

I find myself, sdthough in an island extremely classical, desti- 
tute of Greek books, except three or four faithful companions 
which never abandon me; Homer, Strabo, and Pausanias^ 

Perhaps the aid lent me by these my masters, will be sufficient 
to support the opinion which I have advanced on the origin of 
this helmet, furnishing at the same time the necessary historical 
illustrations on the great engraved works of which the helmet 
^appears to me to be a fragment. 

Two passages in Pausanias are particularly interesting, as 
containing the history of the noble Olympic monument, to 
which, in my opinion, this helmet belongs. 

The first passage is found in the sixth book of his Itinerary, 
chap. 12* 

*^ Near this (the statue of Theagenes, a Thasian hero, in 
Olympia), is a car of brass with a man in it; near the car are 
two horses running, one on' each side, with boys on their backs. 
They are monuments of the Olympic victories of Hieho, son 
of DmomeneSf who was king of Syracuse after Gelo his brbt/ier* 
These ofiTerings Vere not sent by Hiero, but they were present- 

■ Pausan. lib. v. cap. 25. ; cap. 97. ; lib. vi. cap. 13.; lib. viii. cap. 42.; 
lib. X. cap. 13, &c. 

* i presume that it is known to the true lovers of the fine arts, that 
thesQi precious marbles are in the possession of His Serene Highness the 
hereditary Prince of Bavaria, ana that it is two years since the Chev. 
Thorvaldsen terminated the successful restoration of these statues, 
which are sdll at Rome. 

on a Brazen Hetmet* 136 

^ Co JujMter by Dioomenes. The car is the work of Oaata^ 
of Egjmtu The horses and the boys by Calamis."' 

The secood important passage in Pausanias^ is in b. viii* 
diap. 42« where the new statue of the black Demeter (Ceres) is 
mentioned^ which was made of brass by Onatas the son of 
Micon, and a celebrated sculptor of Egina, for the Figalesi, a 
people of Arcadia* 1 explain elsewhere my opinion of this 
mystical object of the worship of the Figalesi ; it is sufficient 
at present to observe, that Pausanias wishes to prove by chro- 
nological combinations, that the brazen statue of the black 
Ceres was made by Onatas in such a century (yeveai), at least 
half a century after the invasion of Greece by Xerxes. This 
he shows in the following observations, which are singularly 
applicable to our present object : 

*' Because at the time of the European expedition by Xerxes^ 
Gelo, son of Dinomenes, was king of Syracuse and other parts 
of Sicily. After the death of Gelo the kingdom came to Hiero 
his brother: he died before he could send the offerings to 
Jupiter Olympius, which he had vowed to make for the victory 
of horses ; Dinomenes, his soUj offered them instead ofhisjiither. 
These are Kkewise the works of Onatas, and may be found in 
Olympia with the following inscriptions. 

^' This on the gift : 

*^ For having in thy sacred contests^ 

Jupiter Olympius, gained many victories^ 

Once with four swift horses^ 

And twice with a noble horse, invincible in the course, 

Hiero dedicates these gifts to thee ; 

But Dinomenes the son offers them to thee, 

A monument of his Syracusan father/' 

^' The other inscription says : 

*^ Onatas the son of Mico made tliese, 
Who dwells in the island of Egina.' 


After these clear indications from Pausanias, and the discus* 
aions of the celebrated Schelling,} it appears to me useless to 

' Of the edition of FaciuSf (Lipsiae, 1795. 8vo.) vol. ii. page 167. 
* EditioQ of Faciusj vuL ii. page 483. 

' In the book published b;^ him with Sig. Wagner on the statues dis- 
covered *m Egina : (^ Uber die ^giuati.schen Bildwerke.") 

136 A Oreek Inscription 

speak of what has been already established by crithers, ^nfely/ 
the age and great merit of Onataa. I infer from the Gompa-" 
rison of the passages, quoted from Pausanias, with our inscnp- 
tion, that the first line, which in the common Attic dialect runs 
thus — 

'' 'lEfPnS 6 JEINOM^NOTS/' 
" Htero son of Dinomenes"— 
can only designate thai Hiero, of whose tows for his Olympic 
victories, and of whose monument erected after his death in 
Olympia Pausanias speaks in the passages I have quoted, in 
short, of the brother of Gelonus, that Hiero who was the first 
king of Syracuse of that name, who reigned about twelve years 
(according to the computation of the Olympiads, 47B'-466. 
before J. C.) and whose valor and victories Pindar has sung in 
four immortal hymns, the first in the Olympic odes, and the 
other three among the Pythian odes, in our collection.' 


^^ Greater praise cannot easily be given to a prince, than that which 
Pindar bestows upon this Hiero, P^^h, Od. 11. v. 108. 

Similar incense is bestowed on him by the poet, perhaps with too ]i-< 
beral a hand, in the third Py thic, v. 124. and elsewhere. His actions are^ 
sufficiently known from Diodorus Sicultu (b. xi.) and other authors.* 
(Visconti Iconoeraphie, vol. ii. p. 17.) 

Many beautiful medals referring to Hiero the first still remain, (see 
p. c. Torremuxza Sicilian. Vet. N. Tab. 98 and 99. Mionnet Description 
de M. A. vol. i. p. 3S0. and supplement p. 453.) Most of these are of 
copper, with the portrait of this prince, generally well done, on one side, 
and on the other a cavalier armed^ with his lance in the rest, and under him 
this legend, iepsinox. The symbol on the reverse perhaps commemorates 
some victory gained by that running horse whose name, (^ififiwtg) is pre- 
served by Pindar in two places, Olymp* i. 24. and Pyih. iii. 132. 

At present I dare not decide on the difficult question, at what time 
these medals were coined, and the others resembling them, which are attri- 
buted to the first Hiero. 

The fact that the diadem (an ornatnent used by the Oriental despots) 
was not adopted by the Grecian princes until after the invasion of Per- 
sia by Alexander the Great, first induced Spanheiiii to pretend (De 
Praest. & U. N. vol. i, p. 545.) that all the money which bears the effi- 
gies of Gelon and Hiero I. decorated with that symbol of despotic power, 
(either unknown or detested by the Greeks in the fourth and fifth cen- 
turies,) must have been coined in memory of those princes afier their 
death, and at a time when the diadem was not unknown in Greece. 

Eckhel (a name venerable in history and in the numismatic science) 
embraced the same opinion of the non-^nchronism of the medals which 
exhibit the names and portraits of the Syracusan kings, and establishes 
his opinion in that singular treatise, introduced into his immortal works, 
(D. N. V. vol. i. p. 251.) by powerful arguments derived from the history 
of the art, Greek paleojE^raphv, and from the numismatic science : hit 
affirms that the style or the designs on these medals, the form of the 

on a Brazen Helmet. 137 

/ But there are other circumstances commemorated in our in- 
scription which Pausanias does not mention^ namely : 

letters upon them, and the custom of the age of which we speak, of never 
portraying Ihmg princes upon the medals which they coined, absolutely 
prove that Gelo and Hiero did not exist in the fifth century before the 
Christian sera. 

FnMn the force of this reasoning the most skilful antiquaries have 
been induced either to adopt his opinion in every respect, or to remain 
doubtful of the exact period of the coinage of the money commonly atr 
tributed to the two first Syracusan kings of the Dinomenean family. 
See, for ex., Sig. Lanxi, in the third dissertation on the antique painted 
vases, p. 150 ; Sig. AvelUno^ in his Numismatic Journal, No» iii. p. S7 \ 
ViKonti^ Iconographie Grecque, Tom. il. p. \6. In consulting my learned 
friend Sig. Car§lli^ I find that his opinion does not differ from that of 

I do not pretend entirely to solve this enigma, as Sig. Avellino justly 
terms it; on the contrary, I shall perhaps contribute to render it still 
more inexplicable by publishing a silver medal (that in the frontispiece) 
from ray collection, which appears to me curious, and has not been en^ 
^aved. A Horseman with a helmet, on the right. Reverse : A Victory 
m a swift car ; on the left, lEpaNos ; in the space above the horses, a star ; 
behind the yictory, H — . I obtained this medal in Sicily, in the city of 
Ce^e. It is in perfect preservation ; and I consider it a little treasure 
on account of its coarseness, which in my opinion shows the true state of 
the art of coining in that part of Sicily, in the remote time of Hiero I. 
Here we see the portraits of that prince and his courser, verv different 
from the beautiful representations of him on the common medals. One 
would suppose it to be the tall, lean, and aged, but renowned Don 
Quixote de la Mancha, mounted on Rozinante, rather than the youthful 
king, the Olympic victor, on his noble palfrey, Feremau. 

I do not expect that any objection will be made to the Omega (a), or 
to the form of the characters on this medal. It is true, that they are 
different from those inscribed on the helmet, which were undoubtedly 
cut, if not in the time of Hiero I., at least not many years after his death. 
But what connoisseur in Grecian antiquities will affirm that the innova- 
tion of Simonides in the Greek alphabet was itmnediatefy adopted 
throughout Greece ? Such an opinion would be contradicted by the his- 
tory of every human invention, and would be confuted by the evident 
proofs which we possess from Grecian art. There are still many preju«* 
dices on this subject, even among the most respectable literati, who look 
upon a statue, a basso-relievo, a coin, &c. as of remote origin, because 
they are executed in the antique style. Even Winckelmann was not 
free firora this error. But let us consider the great difference between 
Greece in a state of freedom, and any country in Europe in the present 
time. In those great political bodies which now form the different states 
of Europe, almost every tiling proceeds from the Capital. In the Capital 
thejitthion is formed, which is often influenced by the Courtf where. 

138 • A Greek Inscription 

That thb Stracvsans who came prom Cuma, 


MONUMENT, (of which our helmet is part) of their 
PRINCE. For it is thus that I explain the two last lines of 
our inscription, which are thus sounded in common Attic dia- 
lect — 

supposing that some verb or participle, as, for example, uflxovro, 
jxiov, a^ix^tevoi, was omitted in the engravings on stone. 

The form of an apostrophe given to the preposition, J/ in- 
stead of AlAy although before a consonant, is not extraordinary, 
particularly in engravings, which are seldom spelt correctly. 
As to the circumstance of "the Syracusans coming 
FROM CuMA, passing BY Thurium," it wiU be sufficiently 
explained in remembering that seven or eight decedni after the 
unfortunate catastrophe ' of the great and rich city of St/barisp 
the rising Sybaris (Thurium) Horished anew in the fourth and 

thing that is good or beautiful in its kind. It is the greatest misfortune 
of modern art, that it is too much influenced by fashion. 

It was very different ia Greece. Greece in a free state bad no Capital* 
was never subjected tu fashion. A custom, a mode of execution, a style 
of art, was continued in one country, while it was abandoned in another, 
perhaps very near it. While things were executed in one manner in 
Athens, they were very differently performed in Egina ; while one style 
of writing was adopted at Ncapoiis, another was long after in use at 
Crotona, or Metapontus. Let us look, for instance, at the two curious 
medals of Hyrmm and Metapontus in the Museum of Sig. Jorio, lately 
published by Sig. Avellino, in the first division of the Un^lished Motm- 
meatSf (Naples, 18S0) in 4to. p. S-10. These interesting coins have the 
legends on both, reversed, one of them indented by being beaten on 
two medals of Neapolis and Agrigentum, in a style apparently recent ; 
that of Neapolis still shows, by the side of the second type of Hyrium 
with the retrograde inscription, the letters onoAX of the first coin with 
the common legend NEonoAiTftN. 

It does not therefore surprise me, that I have at last found what Eckkd 
desired to see, (Doctr. N. V. i. p. 252.) a coin of Hiero I. the great friend 
and patron of Simonides (see Xenoph. de Regno, Cicero de Nat. Deor. 
B. 1.) which should bear the impression of the Omega of Simonides^ while 
the name of the same Hiero was written differently in other countries, 
where the Simonidean innovation had not been introduced, both at that 
period and for some time after ; fori imaeine that Onatat did not execute 
thegroup in brass, of which our helmet mrmed a part, in Syracuse, but 
in l^ina his native country, or perhaps in Olympia. 

' Well and clearly explamed by Diodorus Siculus in the twelfth Book 
of his Historical Library, and remarked by Strabo,(Geogr. b. vi.) by Elian, 
(Hist. Anim. b. xvi.) and by other ancient authors. 

on a Brazen Helmet. i39 

fiftli centuries before the Christian terz, and precisely by the 
same means which, before the exterminating war with Crotona, 
had rendered the ancient Sybaris great and powerful by the 
great fertility of the soil, by navigation and commerce.* 

It appears also, that at the time of which we speak, as well 
as afterwards, the passage from Thurium to the Peloponnesus, 
and nominaliy to Cyllene, a famous port in Elis, was common, 
and established in a regular manner ; and I suppose that the 
Syracusans, mentioned in our inscription, coming from Cuma 
and wiping to pass into Elis, perhaps to be present at the 
celebration of the Olympic games, preferred a journey of a few 
days through Greek Italy (Magna Graecia was thus named), 
through friendly and partly allied countries, to a long and 
uncertain voyage from Cuma to Cyllene ; and that they em- 
barked at Thurium for Cyllene, where Alcibiades embarked 
with other fugitives (after leaving the Athenian expedition in 
Sicily), to go to Cyllene, and from thence to Lacedemonia. ^ 

We may rather be surprised at the manner of writing the 
name of the city, Tvran instead of Tvrian, which is the same 
as OovplavJ That the omission of the iota in the name of 
the city is surprising, I confess before I say more : that circum- 
stance alone has made me doubtful of the explanation, which 
1 have presumed to submit to the examination of your Excel- 
lency and our learned friends. But I am somewhat encouraged 
by observing the extraordinary differences, in the ancient authors, 
in the manner of writing the Greek names of places. Those, 
for example, who have read Strabo, Ptolemy, and Stephanus 
Byzantinus, must have perceived the strange dissimilitudes in the 
local denominations. There are many varieties entirely pro^ 
vincHtl, of which we are. ignorant, as we only know the Greek 
language from tlie authors (who are not silent). We sometimea 
find these provincial varietiigs inscribed on marbles. Deprived 
as I am of books, I shall only cite one example, which will at 

' Let us remember, for example, the memorable words of Diodonis on 
the rising colony of Thurium (Bib. Istor. lib. xii. p. 485. ed. Wesseling 
in fol.) 

* Thucyd. b. vi. p. 237. (ed. of Eur. Stefano 1564 in fol.) 

This handsome and ingenious but wicked man had his own reasons 
for not going to Athens to give an account of his conduct. 

3 I say only '* the same as Bovpinf** because it appears useless to de- 
monstrate the ancient value of the T for 6, and of the sign y instead of 
the diphthong or ; as the Greek paleography, which is known to every 
one, is not here spoken of. 

140 4 Gr^tk Inscription 

least be new, for it is taken from an inscribed marble^ lately 
brought from Arcadia, which I shall perhaps soon publish. 

PausaniaSj. in B. viii. ch. 63. (ed. Facius voU ii. p. 514.^) re-r 
marks the names of the four tribes, ^uA^i, of the city of Tegea, 
in Arcadia, — ^iTnroiolTis/AiroWcoftau^, *AiavEaTis,9nd KXotp^rigi 
but on a fine and rather antique marble, a long inscription, 
which treats precisely of the four tribes of Tegea, mentions the 
names of the citizens of the last, as Kpapeoorai TroA/rai.' 

j3ut if we merely consider the name of the city before men- 
tioned, we shall find a great variety in its denominations in the 
different authors. The plural form Bovpm is doubtless the 
most common among the ancient writers. Thucydides writes 
tbe name Oovpia ; Ptolemy and Diodorm Siculus write Boupm. 
In consequence of these diversities, Stephanus Byzantinus gives 
^U the three forms, BoiqiOi^ Oovpia, and Bovptov. Titus Livius 
declines the name Thurify iarum. and one of the two ancient^ 
tabula itinerar. writes Turii and Tuns, a form not far from 
that of our inscription TVR A. 

The question which now remains to be considered is th^. 
most important, as it relates to the historical part of the in* 
scription; it is this. Why were the Sybacusans in 

tion on the helmet, which without doubt covered the head of 
'^ the man in the car" as he 's called by Pausanias,^ that is, of 
the statue of the same Olympic victor, Hiero king of Syracuse, — 
the inscription, I say, sculptured in such a place, in a country 
so celebrated for brilliant actions, and the gift of a king, must 
indicate some remarkable event, some great and signal action 
of the Syracusans in Cuma. If this is not proved, our inscrip- 
tion will not be fully illustrated. 

* This interesting marble was found in Pakoepiscopi, the site of the' 
ancient city of Tegea in Arcadia; it was obtained by Colonel Ross, and: 
taken by him to Zante, where I lately copied the inscription. The caco- 
graphy of the word KXa^Zrat in the marble, is the same provincialisnr 
which is so often heard in Greece in the present time. In Epirus, in 
Attica, and in many parts of the Peloponnesus, the common people almost 
always pronounce n^Bty 'Ap^avfrnf, &c. instead of nx^t, ^Akfiwirvs, &c. ; a vice 
exacUy contrary to that called by the ancients vfavUtrfi^s, See the 
curious verses of jlrtsfopAones, Vespe 4S-46, where Alcibiades is ridi- 
culed for his bad pronunciation : 

Etr' *AkKifitaiyif ttm v^Sg fM vfav^ttras 
oXac ^^Xo; riiv xi^Xnv TtohBtnuf iy^tu 
instead of SpaC — elwgo; — xa^xo;. 

* See note 1. p. 1S6. 

on a Brazen Helmet. ^141 

' f httve no doubt that it relates t^ the assistance genferotlsly 
gtyen -by fliefd to thd' Cumeans^ whefi thejr were attacked a 
ae^dild' time by llie 'Tynrheneaiis, Who possessed sbihe naVal 
iih^\ and were jealous of the ftbrishing state of Cuma and of it$ 
i«kMtiasin^ pow^« The most circamstantial' account of these 
ftl^ibs with which I aifi iiCqu^nted, may be found in DiodoruS| 
in the eleventh book of hid Historical Library: ** When Acesto- 
irides was archon in Athens, >he sent to Hiero » considerable 
nuniber of galliesx to succour the Cumeans of Italy, who had 
implored him to assist them against the Tyrrheneans; who were 
powerful at sea. The commanders of this navy went to Cuma^ 
united with the Cumeans^. gave battle to the Tyrrheneans, and 
gained a great victory, which relieving the Cumeans from their 
anxiety, they returned to Syracuse." ' The anonymous author 
of the chronological list of the Olnngiajds * onl^^ remarks two 
hostile enterprises undertaken by the Tyniieneans against Cuma, 
and that both ended unfavoraUy to ibe aggressors, llie first 
occurred in the first year of the 64th Olympiad, which eorre 
sponds with the year 524 before our era; and the second, about 
half a century after, in the third year of the 76th Olympiad, or 
the year 474 before J. C.^ I understand from chronological 
arguments, which any one may easdy combine, that the as- 
sistance of Hiero, to which we suppose that the iauthor of our 
inscription alludes, must have been granted to the Cumeans in 
the second defensive war whicb they supported against their 

Pindar has not passed over this generous action of Hiero. 
The verses in which he celebrates two of the most brilliant 
victories of the Syracusan princes of the Dinomenean family^ 
that oyer the Tyrrheneans near Cuma, and that other, renowned 
in Grecian history, over the Carthaginians near Imera in Sicily^ 
are of the greatest beauty.^ 

I Diodorus Hist. Lib. voU i, p. 443, ed. Wesscliag. in fol. 

^ Intitled 's.vwfuYk itrvo^iSft^ and published by Joseph Sbaliger as the 
ChroDicon Eusebii. ' ^ ^ 

^ Here are his own words 9 '6Xvf««u»lojp i^ iru «' 61 nara t^y 'IraTdat KvfjMm 
«oxx^ TvfftfiSf 9uil H)ac<JMh^ (AvoUtiailvixiicmJ' And aftev wards : ** *0\vf4fKiniog 

The diligent and learjaed Chsverio has not forgotten these places in his 
singular itineraiy compiiaticm, Ualia AntiqmyVkh. iv. p. 1106. ed. Lugd. 
Batav. 1624. in fol. 

^ See note 1. p. 136. 

s Pyth. i. 137. I cannot help transcribing these transcendant verses. 

14!2 A Grrtek Inscription 

From diese combimitioiis I do not think it presumptaons to 
concludei that the commanders of the Symcusan navy, after 
having gained so brilliant a victory, eagerly repaired to Olympia, 
to join their Sovereign, who, to mark his satisfaction, command- 
ed that their valor should be recorded on the great monument 
which he had dedicated to Jupiter Olympius, and that his orders 
were executed by IKnomenes, his son« 

that my reader jpiX/xxn* may at least find something^ bcaatiful in this 
little treatise: 

kim t r wf mp f0mit^KfnUnf clfAigor 

Tebf itfl KitfjiMS* 
Oik lvfaau<riwf if* 
Y«ir iafJiatrBhrMf vaOof 
Oxxngifm &vh faSit 
*Of ofiy h voyrftf fi&haS* &Xtxiav, 
*£XXa^ l|f Xxwy Ao^i/af 

n»f lAcy ZaXttfjuVo; 'A^nva/Wy x^f 

Uph KiBaifihog fxay^af 

Taia-i Mfi^et fjth %»fjuaf &yxvX6To^ot* 

Xie^ it yt rii fvv^My cLxriif 

*JfMpa, iratiitrtny vfjuwt 

Atiyofxifsvc nXiaaiSt 

Tiy lii^arr* ^/uif* ibfnSj 

IleXf fAttvy pvfifwi xojbciyTttry. 

Then grant, O son of Saturn, grant my pray'r ! 

The bold Phoenician on his shore detain ; 

And may the hardy Tuscan never d^re 

To vex with clajn^ous war Sicilia's main; 

Rememb'ring Hiero, how on Curoa*8 coast 

Wrecked by bis stormy arms theirgroaning fleets were lostr 

What terrors ! what destruction tliim assaiPd ! 

HurPd from their riven decks what numbers died ! 

When o'er their might Sicilians chief prevailed, 

.... Their youth o*er whelming in the foamy tide, . — - 

Greece from impending servitude to save. 
Thy favor, glorious Athens, to acquire, 
. Would I record the Salaminian wave. 
Famed in thy triumphs ; and my tuneful Ivre 
To Sparta's sons with sweetest praise should tell, 
Beneath Cithasron's shade what Medish archers fell. 
But on iair Himera's wide-water'd shores 
Thy sons, Dinomenes, my lyre demand. 
To grace their virtues with the various stores 
Of sacred verse, and sing th' illustrious band. 
Of valiant brothers, who from Carthage won 
The glorious ineed of conquest, deathless praise* 

on a Brazen Helmet. 143 

If I have discovered the true meaoing of the inecriptioo, 
bidi 1 cannot absolutely affirm, the sense of it will be as 
follows : 

^ Hiero the son of Dinomenes^ and the Syracusam who were 
vkknious at Cuma, comity by Thurium^ erected this monu- 

** Si quid novisti rectius istis, 

Candidus imperti ; si non, his utere mecum." 

Ithaca is really a beautiful rock. I have been almost all 
round it, for the second time, during the last three days. 

I had only two books with me in my knapsack, the Odyssey, 
and the admirable work of my learned friend Sir William 

Your Excellency knows that I have no inclination to what is 
called sentimentality .* 

But I can aver, that, with you, I only pretend to simple and 
natural sentiment: I behold with the greatest pleasure the beau- 
tiful and classic height, called by the inhabitants the Mount of 
the Eagle, euros, arro-jSouvov,' clothed in the brilliant verdure of 
April, or red with the glowing colors of sun-set ; I can affirm 
that every one, even those with the least degree of enthusiasm, 
if they understand Greek, will read the 14th canto of the Odys- 
sey with singular and almost domestic pleasure, at the unchanged 

' On the Geography and Aotiquities of Ithaca, in 4to. 

* The Italians, who ravtfly sufer from this ultramontane malady, will 
pardon me this word, which, fortunately for them, does not belong to 
tbeir fine language. I wish to express by it, an extraordinary delicacy 
of sentiment, an extreme sensibility, a disposition of the nerves and 
fibres to feel in an excessive manner, (jntper^ientiref ^tpattrBartcrBm) any 
thing fine or great in nature or art, &c. which we of colder dispositions 
6iily JeeL Besides the momentary transports, and a great number of 
local exclamations (which are of no consequence, since no one pays 
aiiy attention to them) arising from this disposition, it leads some of 
our authors, and almost all our authoresset of Travels, to repaint amply 
in print the beauty and grandeur of nature. These delightful descrip- 
tions are of some conseouence, as they might at least spoil the taste of 
those who read them. Certainly it is a bold and arduous undertaking 
to describe the extraordinary beauties of Nature, on which the Almighty 
has lavished all the colors of the universe, in a thousand various tints. 

3 Which unites the two parts of the island, the Neios and the Neritos 
of the Odyssey. 

The summit of the mountain iu^k is covered with ancient polygonal 
vralls, which have been perfectly described by Sir W. Cell. I consider 
it as the site of the dwellings of the heroes of the Odyssey. 

144 A Greek InscripHan 

fottntain of AretkusOy under the majestic rock of Ktpoii (which 
still bears the name of KioMoC}^ ami near the house of the faidiftll 

The work of the learned and diligent Sir W. Gell is certainly 
Taluable. It would be a great advantage to scieiiee if we bad 
many such monographs on Greek locality. But that peat 
which contains the combinations and results of ancient literature, 
is weaker than that which is purely topographical. In this last 
respect almost every one is satisfied with him. Two only of 
these localities seem to me to want further elucidation: 1st, a 
part of the island towards the North-west, and principally that 
height near the place called Porto Polk {UiXis-Xifiifi) whete 
there are still some remains of polygonal walls, extremely 
ancient : 2d, to discover and establish, by ermeneutic arguments 
taken from the Odyssey, another locality for the Grotto of the 
Nymphs (Odyss. Canto viii. vs. 96.)9 and the discovery of the 
ToAurAayxTo; Ulysses, and that the little bay now cafled A^ii^ 
could not be the port of Phorkys with the Grotto of the 

If I am interested so much by micient Ithaca^ I celtaitiiy 
have not felt an inferior pleasure in the modem island. Clie 
principal object of Lord Guilford in this journey, iii virbich X 
have accompanied him since our parting in Rome, is to afran^^ 
in a better and more definite manner the public instruction m 
the Ionian isles, and to establish a university, an institution 
extremely necessary and of good augury to the intereatiiq; 
Greek nation. In order to promote the execution of his bene-^ 
volent designs, the Earl of Guilford was lately made President 
of the university aud of the department of public instruction is 
these islands, by His Majesty the King of England, and con^ 
firmed in his tide by the Ionian senate resident at Corfu. I 
have every reason to believe that this true and generous friend 
of the Greeks is satisfied with his reception in the principal 

' See Gell on the Geography anci Aatiquities of Ithaca, p. 40* seq. 

^ It cannot be the port of Phorky^ for various reasons, which pernafw 
I shall explain dseWhere. Dexia being in the great port^ and thus, atf 
one^may say, under the eyes of the pretenders {m^t) of the OdyMey: 
would not be a proper place ibr the discoy^ of Ulysses. ' As> all the 
localities of this fine rock perfectly accord with the evelbts in tfae^Oc^a* 
sey/ and with the prudence and circumspection for which its heroes are 
remarkable, I am persuaded that the localities of the Grolte^ of the 
Nymplis and of the discovery of Ulysses may be found in some other 
bay, corresponding to the port of Phorkys of Homer, m the eppotUe 
more southerly part rfihe inand. 

on a Brazen Helmet. 145 

ulaiids of Corfu, Cephaloniai and ZAute, which we have lately 
mitied — ^bul 19 no place have we met with so sincere a zeal fc^ 
diis important object, with so active and truly patriotic an en* 
thomsm, as in the small and poor island of Ithaca. I have 
fdl great pleasure in witnessing the universal joy which was 
produced by the account of Lord Guilford's plans for the 
improvement of public instruction, and the foundation of a uni- 
versity. The brave Ithacans, animated by the example of their 
chiefs, the Regent Count Bretds and Signor Zavo, (Lords of 
the country, who have often hospitably conferred favors on us 
foreigners,) and the zeal of their English resident Captain 
Dumas, have voluntarily offered more considerable subsidies, in 
land, materials for building, 8cc. than could have been expected 
from so small a place. 

But this is not the only reason which has induced Lord 
Guilford to prefer Ithaca for the establishment of the university^ 
The decision on the choice of the place of erection belongs to 
the Ionian senate, and as I am persuaded from the wisdom of 
that illustrious body that it will consider the opinions of the 
respective authorities with the greatest care and attention, I 
dieri^ the hope that the beautiful and ancient Ithaca, and not 
S. Giorgio in Cephalonia (which was mentioned in some £n- 
gUsh newspapers,) will possess the rising institution, and thus 
become the nurse, or, as one may say, the faithful Euryclea, of 
a youth which forms the hope of Greece. Perhaps some 
scboob may be opened in the Ionian University, in the approach- 
ing year, whose young professors, who will be aU Greeks, have 
bran for some years preparing themselves to fulfil .their impor- 
tant destiny, in English, Gergian and Italian colleges. 

To diose who are acquainted yrith the poetical and historical 
interest of Ithaca, vvhich has been rendered famous by ** That 
master of the lofty song, who soars like an eagle above alt 
others^ it is gratifying to think that on this classic rock, a 
l^t will be kindled that will one day disperse t^ darkness 
whidi yet covers diis degraded and unfortunate, but still beauti-^ 
fill and cddvated country. — May God accept the augury ! The 
1^^ which be kindles in the human mind, is not only a light, 
but a flane, not only beautifnl but powerful, not only q>leiidid 
aad iDoftriociSy but sparkling and ardent, — that light is sufficient, 
not only to dinolve the lead of ignorance, but also the iron of 




1. Eurip. Hippo]. 201-^. 

Empv jxoi Ke^oikri$ hrixpuvov l^^'^* 

Shakspeare. K. John. 
I will not wear this form upon my head^ 
Wben there is such disorder in my wit. 

2. Horat. ad Pison. 39. 

, — versa te diu, quid ferre recusent. 
Quid valeant humeri ■ 

Epictet. £nchirid. A? . 

t a 




3. Eurip. Orest. 1531. 

Shakspeare. Merchant of Venice. Act v. So. 1^ 
An oath;, an oath — I have an oath in Heav'n ; 
Shall I lay perjury upon my soul ? — 
No, not for Venice 

4. • J. Hales. {Golden Remains, Sec. p. 174.) 
— - in this chorus and quire of these angelic tiiougbts, the 

DfBvil finds a place to rest himself in. 

Shakspeare. Othello. Act iii. Sc. 3. 
Utter my thoughts f why, say they're vile and false^*^ 
As Where's the palace whereinto foul things 
Sometimes intrude not ? — who hath a breast so pure, 
But some uncleanly apprehensions 
Keep leets and law-days, and in session sit 
With meditations lawful ? — 

5. . Anthol. Epigf Meleag. lin. 7« 

OSpios vfJt'STipas Tveuceroi els oSov^f * 

Shakspeare^ Othello, i^ct if. So. 1. 
•y ■ Great Jove, Othello guard. 

And fill his sail with thine own powerful breath } 
That he may bless this bay with his tall ship. 

6. Horn. II. N'. 474. 


Parallel Passages. 147 

Dan. X. 6. 
— his face was as the appearance of lightnings and his eyes 
lamps of fire. 

7. Alcaeus. Naufrag. 

nip (uevyetf irrkog larojriSmf l^n, 

Kat^MKlisg fMyiKou xoli^ ocuto* 

Isaiah, xxxiii. 23. 
Thy tacklings are loosed — they could not well strengthen 
their mast^ they could not spread the sail. 

B. Dante. Purgat. iv. 30. 

questa montagna k tale, 

Che sempre al cominciar di sotto & grave, 
E quant' uom piit va su, e men fa male. 
Pero quand' ella ti parra soave, 
Tanto, che'l su andar ti sia leggiero, 
Cam' a seconda giik '1 andar per nave ; 
AUor sarai al fin d' esto sentiero. 

Hesiod. 'E^y. xoA *Hii.. 289. 

T^i S* upvni$ t^pcoTOL 9io) irpoiripoiiev Hy^kolv 
*AiMfttror pMxpo$ Ss xa) Sp6iog olfMs hr* uHt^v, 
Koi rpfixjus TO irgooToy* hivpf 8* ilg ixpov Txijoi, 
*Pifiibfi ^ livurot insAffiy ^oXsir^ ^Trep iowret* 

• »§. ^ Pindar. Pyth. vi. 10. 

Tov oure x^'i^^S'®^ ^y^Pp^S iTretxrhg ixtfcoV, 
*E7rifipopi4iv vi^iket$ argarig oifu/Xixo^, 
Our iytiMsis pi>^ovs dXog 
"AifHf vap^ipof yjipo&B% rMrrojxevoy. 

Lucret. iii. 18. 
Af^parent numen Dtvftm, sedesque beatae ; 
Quas neque concutiunt venti, neque nubila niinbis 
Adsperguttt, neque nix, acri concreta pruina, 
Cana cadens violat — semperque innubilis aether 
Integit, et large diffuso lumine ridet. 

Compare also Dante. Purgat. sxi. 48. 

Pecch^ non pic^gia^ non grando,* non neve, 
Non rugiada, non brina piik su cade, 
Nuvole spesse non paion, n^ rade. 

I This is a curious instance of ihe Latin word preserved in Italian; 
the modern form is grandine. 

148 Parallel Passages. 

Hi coruscar, n^ iiglia di Tauoumte, 
Che di la cangia sovente ^ontrade* 

10. Q. Mary's Adieu to France. 
(See Seward's Anecdotes, iv. 293.) 

La nef qui d6joint nos amours^ 
M'a tu de moi que la nioiti£. 
Uue part te reste, elle est tienne* 
Je la fie i ton amiti^y 
Pour que de I'autre il te souvienne. 

Horat. Od. i, 3. 5. 

Navis quae tibi creditum 
Debes Virgilium, fioibus Atticis 

Reddas incolumem^ precor^ 
£t serve? animse dimidium meae. 

11. Shakspeare. Hamlet. Act ii. Be. 1. 

the Spirit that 1 have seen 

May be the Devil — and the Dev'l hath pow'r 
T'assume a pleasing shape — yea, and perhaps 
Out of my weakness and my melancholy^ 

As he is very potent with such spirits^ 
Abuses me to damn me. 

Burton. Anat. of Melan. p. 50. (4to ed.) 
■' of all other, melancholy persons are ippst subject to 

diabolical temptations and illusions, and most apt to entertaip 
them — and the Devil best able to work upon them. 

12. Dante. Purgatorio. vi. 102. 
Giusto giudicio dalle stelle caggia 
Sovra '1 tuo sangue, e sia nuovo e aperto^ 
Tal che 1 tup successor temenza n'aggia. 

Pope. Elegy on an Unfortuqate Ladv, 35, seq. 
Thus, if eternal justice rules the balj| 
Thus 9hall your wives and thus your children fall-— 
On all the liqe a sudden vengeance waits. t 

13. Eurip. Orest. 1037. 

"AXis TO jxijTgo; alfu ^»' <ri 8* o6 xrevA* 

, Shakspeare. Macbeth. Act v. Sc. ult. 

But get thee back — my soul is too much charged 
With blood of thine already ■ 

14. Eurip. Hippol. v. 247. (Ed. Barnes.) 

Ti yap optoutriM yveoftov, oSuva' 
To Se /xaivojxevov, xukoV i\ki xpctTii 
Mil ytyvwirxovT ivoXMai* 

Parallel Passages. 149 

Gray. Eton College, ad fin. 
Yet ah !. why should they know their fate i 
Since sorrow never comes too late. 

And happiness too swiftlyflies — 
Thought would destroy their paradise : 
No more — where ignorance is bliss, 

^is folly to be wise. 

15. Plautus. Amphit. Act v. Sc. 1.40. 
Invocat Deos immortales, ut sibi auxilium ferant, 
Manibus puris, capite operto— -ibi continuo contonat 
Sonitu maximo — aedes primo ruere rebamur tuas. 
iBdes totae confulgebant tuae, quasi essent aureae. 

Hom. Od. r. 37. 

ElkirivoLl Tf ioxoi, xa\ xloves u^'^* ^X^^^^f 

^ahovT i^6otX[ji0ois, (i(re)7rvgo$ aldoj^svoid* 

^H fiaXa ri; 6>e2^ IvSov, of ovgavov supbv ^ouj'i. 

16. Theoc. Id. xV. 39. 

06 ¥oiets 0T$ wxTos cuopi %ov olSi n rolxpi 
narres apt^gaZees ;— 

Hor. Od. iii. 16. 9. 

concidit auguris . 

Argivi domus, ob lucrum 
Demersa excidio ; 

Soph. Antig. 295. (ed. Br.) 
Touro xoH voXsis 

17. Shakspeare. Macbeth. Act v. Sc. 6. 
Upon the next tree shalt thou hang alive. 
Till famine cling thee. 

Soph. Antig. 308. 
Ov^ vf/iv ''Aifig (Mwog etpxi(reif wph av 

18. iEsch. Choeph. 30. 

Topog yap opioipi^ fo^og — 

Pers. Sat. iii. 115. 
Alges^ cutfk excussit membris timor albus aristas. 

Soph. CEd. Col. 1460. 

■ tg axpoLV 

Id. V. 1625. 

' ■ floore 'jravreLS igilas 

J?T^<rai ^fiip hlo-avTois iial<pvns rpix^S' 

wo Parallel Passages. 

Sfaakspeare. Macbeth, Act v. 
and my fell of hair 

Would at a dismal treatise rouse and stir 
As life were in it ■ ■ . > ■ 

19. Eupolis, of Pericles. (Plin. Ep. i. 20. p. ^6. Elz.) 

— — vpog OS y CM touto) to^ f) 

OZrcog e)c{j\u, xa) jx^vo^ iwv pviripeov 
To xivTpov eyxuriXfte rdig axgocojxlvoi;. 

Shakspeare. Henry V. Act i. Sc. 1. 50. 

When he speaks. 
The air, a charter'd libertme, is still, 
And the mute wonder lurketh in men's ears. 
To steal his sweet and honeyed sentences. 

£0. Cowper. Alex. Selkirk. 

Ye winds that have made me your sporty 

Convey to this desolate shore 
Some cordial endearing report 
Of a land I must visit no more ! 

Soph. Philoct. 254. (ed. Br.) 

03 fu^e xX)]Seov euS* t^ovTOs oTxaSs, 
Mr^^ *EX\oLios yfis y^yj^c^MlOf SiiJXSs vou* 

21. Lucan. Pharsal. vi. 511. 
desertaque busta 

Incolit, et tumulos expulsis obtinet utubris. 


Isaiah. Ixv. 3, 4. 

, A people which remain among the graves, and 

lodge in the monuments. 

9,9,. Id, ibid. 

Which eat swine's flesh, and the broth of abominable things 
is in their vessels. 

Shakspeare. Macbelh.^ Act iv. 
Lizard's leg and owlet's wing, 
For a charm o£ powerful trouble. 
Like a hell-broth boil and bubble. 

23. Soph. Antig. 891. 

CO rujx/3o;, CO vvfifilov, d xarafnca^^g 

oTxijo-i^ aUt^govpogy ol vogeuofAM 

^gog TOL^ ifAaurrig, mv uonfJiZy h vtxpolg 

ParuUel Passages. 15£ 

Shakspeare. Rom. and Jul. Act iv. Sc. 3. 
As in a vaults ati ancient recef^cle^ 
Whercf for these many buodreid years, the bones 
Of all my buried aneettors lie packed* 

24. Id. Sc. 5. 

All things that we ordained festival, ^ 

Turn from their oflEk:e to black funeral. 

Our instruments to melancholy bells — 

Our wedding cheer to a sad burial feast—- 

Our solemn. hymns to sullen dirges change — 

Our bridal flowers serve for a buried corse. 

And all things change them to the contrary. 

Epig. Meleag. iii. 1. 

ie^ctro, vupdivlvig ifj^fji^otrot Xmy^ivoL* 

*Hc^og S* oXoXuyfto^ avexgaryev, Iv S* *T[jt,iifMog 

Siyuiiig, yotpov ^iiyiLa, [M6apfM<raT0' 
Al S* aura) xai fteyyo$ ISoSouvouv iragc^ vourrcp 

IleDxai, xa) ^tififya vig6e» l^aivov ohr 

25. Shakspeare. Twelfth Night. Act iv. Sc. 5. 

This is the air — thilt is the glorious sun. 

Eurip. Hippol. v. 179- 

26. Cowley. " The Muse/' 
Go, the rich chariot mstantly prepare, 

The Queen, my Muse^ would take tlie air. 

The wheels of thy bold coach pass quick and free, 
And all's an open road to thee — 

Whatever God did say, 
Is all thy plain and smooth, uninterrupted way. 

Find. Ol. vi. 37. 

a ri^og, Sfoa x6\6u9o> r Iv xaAoLpS. 
j3aa-ojttev oxy(p¥ — 

27* Dante. Purgator. i. 96. 

Che gli lavi *1 viso. 

Si ch' ogni sucidume quindi stinga ; 
Che non si coiiverria, I'occhio sorpriso 
D'alcuna nebbia andar davanti al primo 
Ministro^ ch' £ di quei di Paradiso. 

132 Parallel Paslsagtsf. 

Milton. P. L. xi. 410. 
but to nobler sights 

Michael from Adam's ejes the film remov'dy> 

— — then purg'd with euphrasy and rue 

The visual nerve^ for he had much to see. 
And from the well of life three drops distiird. 

£8. Gray. Elegy. 

Eacli in his narrow cell for ever laid. 

Horat, Sat. i. viii. 8. 
Hue piiiis dngustis ejecta cadavera cellis.. 

99. Shakspeare. Merchant of Venice. Act iv. Sc. 1. 
And yet, thy wealth being forfeit to the state. 
Thou hast not left the value of a cord. 

Hor. Sat. ii. ii. 95. 

te, tibi iniquum, 

£t frustra mortis cupidum, cum deerit egenti 
As, laquei pretium. 

30. Anthol. Epig. TTMNEa. 
; ear* yotp icnj 

Virg. ^n. vi. 126. 

facilis descensus Averni, 

Noctes atque dies patet atri janua Ditis. 

Watts. World to come. P. 118. 
Trap-doors are always under us, and a thousand unseen ave- 
nues to the regions of the dead. 

31. Eurip. Med. 369. (ed. Pors.) 

SoxfT^ yoip iv jxe t^vSs 9aiicetj(ral 'nor* av, 
61 fiij ri xsgSalvowrav ^ Tfp^vcujuivijv ; 

Shakspeare. Othello. Act i. Sc. 3. 
For I mine own gain'd knowledge should profane. 
If I would time expend with such a snipe. 
But for my sport or profit. 

32. Henry IV. P. ii. Act i. Sc. 1. 
The times are wild — contention, like a horse. 
Full of high feeding, madly hath broke loose, 
And bears down all before him. 

Hom. II. Z\ S06. 

Parallel Passagei. 15S 

ilwtws Xoveo^ou iSp^lof workiMio, 
xvii6co¥f u^^ou a xapi| Ip^M, ttft^) 8ff;^itir«f 

Compare also Vii^. JEn. xi. 492. 
S3. Luc. i. 79. 

Piod. Ol. K 131. 

Seofuv 8* oio-iy aiwyxa, 

rl KB ug ktfiwfMM yhfOLg h (rxm> 

So Sir W. JoDes, in his Ode in imitation of Aicaeiis. (ad fin.) 

Since all must life resign. 
Those sweet rewards which decorate the brave 

'Us folly to resign^ 
And creep inglorious to the silent grave. 

34. Le Baiser d'adieux. 

(See Dibdin's Tour. Vol. ii. p. 49.) 
Puisse alors I'amant qui t^adore, 

Te revoyant aux memes lieux, 
Sur tes livres merges encore 

Retrouver son baiser d'adieux ! 

Shakspeare. Coriolanus. Act v. 249. 
Now, by the jealous Queen of Heaven, that kiss 
I carried from thee, dear, and my true lip 
Hath virgMd it e'er since, 

35. Pind. Ol. ix. 50. 

xotKew wphs erfftaiv 
tveurxorrfor' — 

Horat. Od. i. x. 17. 
Tu pias gratis animas reponis 
Sedibus, virgaque levefn coerces 
Aurea turbam 

36. 1 Sam. vii. 10. 

— but the Lord thundered with a great thunder that day upon 
die Philistines, and discomfited them. 

Horn. 11. ©'. 75. 
Avros V l^^tini l^Y^* hrvm, iouSfUPw 8 J 


154 Parallel Passages. 

^X6 criKus [Mta KoAv *A^icbv^ o\ Seidims 
Again. ^ II. J^. 595, 

37. Ovid. Met. xiii. 262. 

, ■ ■ ■ ■ Sunt el fnibi vulnera, civeSi 

Ipso pulchra loco 

Shakspeare. Cortolanus . 
I have wounchi to shovpr you, 

Which shall be yours in private, 

SB. CampbelL LochiePa Waroitig4 

nris the sun-set of life gives aie mystical -lore. 

Aristot. Poet. p. 75-6. (6d. Tyrwhitt.) 

39* Col. R. Lovelace, (to Amaraota.) 

^ like the San, in*s early ray, 

Shake your head, and scatter day ! 

Perhaps borrowed from Dante. Purg. ii. 29. 
Da tutte parti saettava '1 giorno 

Lo Sol 

40. Horat. Epod. xvi. 42. 
— — arva beata 

Petamus arva, divites et insulas. 
Reddit ubi Cererem tellus inarata quotahnis, 
£t imputata flotet usque vinea, &,c. 

£sch. Frag, e Prom. Solutp. (Ex ed. Bud. Vol. ii. p. 44.) 

tv* OUT agorgov oure yuirovog 

ref/i,vei $/xeXX' igovpaVg oAX* airocnogot 
yidi ^igovci filoTOv ei^iovov /S^oroi;' 

41. Shakspeare. Hamlet. Act iii. Sc. 3. 
' — a sea of troubles. 

Soph. (Ed. Tyr. 1526. 
SoiEsch. P. V. 771. \ 

• Pallid Fear .—Gray. 

Parallel Passages. 155 

42. Find. Nem. vii. 104* 


. Psalm Uiv. 3. 
Who whet their tongues like a sword^ and shoot out their 
arrows, even bitter words. 

43. 1 Tim. ii. 8. 

I will therefore that men pray every-where, lifting up holy 

Glover. Medea. Act iii. Sc. 1. 

You shall lift 

Your blameless hands, sweet supplicants! 
The dove-like voice 6f your untidnted age 
Shall win their guardian mercy, when the pray'rs 
Of man, fiilse man, grown reprobate by time, 
With all the pomp of hecatombs, would fail. 

So Horat. Od. iii. xxiii. 17. 
Immunis aram si tetijgit manusp 
Non sumtuosa blandior hostia 
MoUivit aversos Penates 
Farre pio et saliente mica. 

Compare also Isaiah i. 15. 

44. Shakspeare. Troilus and Cressida. Act i. Sc. 1. 
Call here my varlet, Til unarm again, — 
Why should I war without the walls of Troy, 
That find so cruel battle here within i 

Anacreon. xiv. 17* 1 ) 

|xari)y 8* ^a> jSoe/ijv . /. 

J. I.* 

• r 

■■ ■ i 


Poema dignatum priore Aureo Numismatum quod tx 
judicio dedit GuL Turton, 31. X). Swansea^ ValU^f 
sub auspicm Georg. Augustiss. Vat. Princ. 1806. 
Atictore Raleigh Thevelyan. 

-qus, Tiberine, videbis 

Funera, cum tumulum prseterlabere recentem ? 



S E G N I u s insigni venalem ' funere laurum 
Prosequar inferiis, tauto sed debita fato— 
At non praecipiti * celebremus funeris horam 
Carmine supremam — vetuit^ nam Cambria Musis 
Prsemia proponens^ et novit Cambria Musas 
Montanumque melos — novit melioribus alinis ! 
Quippe ortus sacra referens ab origine Virtus 
Explicat infanti ingeuuas conamine vires. 
Primus ubi vitae calor, et florentis honores 
Prima juventutis maturat gratia, in ausis 
Emicat exultans melioribus ; ilia Penates 
fjativosque focos circum indignata morari, 
Donee inassuetos nisus docuere pericla, 
Inque reluctantem demisit vividus hostem 
Impetus — hostilique juvat rapuisse lacerto 
Tela suae fabricata neci ; seu fama superstes 
Exhilarate seu nobilitat Victoria mortem. 
Haud aliter (patriis surgiint ubi amata Camoenis 
Ardua Snodeni, seu Plinlimmonia rupes 
Nativis nimbis, quam circumsidit opaca 
Majestas scopulorum, atque atri verticis horror) 
Haud aliter conjuncta Jovi^ flammae arbitra dm, 
Ales ibi primo linquit conamine nidum, 
Montanumque Larem — vim vis nativa ministrat ; 
Infantemque juvat volucris libramina pennae 
Prima novis mandare Notis, sociaeque procellae, 
Yere suo ; luditque cavis emissa juventus. 

^ ^ Morte venalem petiisse laurum/' Hor, 

* Nelsotd vitam a primis annis repeti voluit, qui hscce prsemia pro- 
posuity neque pauciores quam vers. SOO componi jussit. 

Latin Prize Poem. 157 

Quid memorem nulla imbutam formidine metitem. 
Cum yel adbuc tei^eris heros pubesceret annis i 
Quid memorem Syrtes^' turbantibus aequora veotis, 
Funerea caligantem formidine ponturo } 
Quid memorem fluctus montaaa mole ruetates ? 
Vel ^ua spumifera gurges sibi tortilis unda 
Insidias servat ; vel qua latet abdita arenis 
Rupes^ letiferumque caput vix tollit ad auras i 
Sen pluvii rores, demissa aut nubila nocte 
Incertam obscurare viam, lucemque diemque 
Eripuisse volunt ; notos tamej) indice cursus 
Fida comes ^ monstrat, dubius nee fluctuat error, 
Respectatque suas alio sub sole iatebras.' 
Quid memorem Zemblen, spectataque frigora Cauri ?^ 
I<}onne vides, qua perpetuum succincta procellis 
Bruma Larem jejuna tenet, glacialiaque arva i 
Oceani quippe in medio exitialia monstra ^ 
Cemere erit, (neque enim dims Sjmplegadas olim 
Cantatas toties, aut concurrentia saxa 
Deprensis urgere legas tot funera nautis) 
Tantam ubi dissolvaut hyemem resoluta caloris 
Yi subita insoliti glacialia flamina venti. 
His porro in regnis exacto tempore blandae 
.^tatis (neque enim mutata mitigat annum 
Temperie autumnus) longis obducta tenebriii 
More gemunt reduci infelicia sscula noctem. 

En ubi nativis circumdata Bastia ^ nimbis 
Candescit longe, et victas dominatur in undas.— * 
Immatura illic succisae fata juventae 
Deplorare datum est ; quos funere fudit acerbo 
Insanam et pompam fremitumque minacis Iberi, 
Qui toties victus pallebat morte future, 
Qui toties terram, toties qui labra momordit 
Dedecori assuetus, patriaque labante superstes ! 

Nobiliora manent, et adbuc solennia pandit 
Gaudia Ldbertas ; licet arva revisere cara 

> Hebom solerua in superandis maris periculis mira fuit. Vid. WkHe, 
p* S5f et seq. 

3 PhUoflophi opinantur fleet! ma^ttem ad Norvegianoi montes; ibi 
enim istius matens asagna latet oopia. 
^ P. 25» 1FU<ey et 26, et seq. 'Gladales moles. 

^ Apud JBorftw et Cafaot res geatas. WkiU,^.4S. 

168 Mors Nekoni : 

Natalesque licet turres^ patriunque tropaeis 
Instaurare Jovem ; fiiso qui victor ab hoste^ 
Corde videt memori nota dulcedine valliss. 
Sed graviora manent; toties celebrata, per undas 
Ardua qua Hesperidum fulgent spectacula nautis^ 
Saxea qua candent Teneriffi ' culmina ; Solem 
Qua juvat occiduum demissa luce morari ; 
Hie Natura potens sua propuguacula in aequor 
Objice secreto firmat ; dum verberat unda 
Littus agens turritum : at uon agitata periclis 
Pectora Nelsoni — quid possit vivida virtus 
Experiare licet, duris spectata juventae. 
Audio jam victrix * sententia pendet ab ore ? 
'' Aut petiisse juvat laurum, patriseve sepulcrum"- 
Nec mora, et ultores decorat Victoria nisus. 

O fortunati ! reduces quos patria novit 
Materno mulcere sinu ; seu munere functos 
Victrici lacrym» sacrant moerentis amici 
Languentes fato ; fati sive hora superstes 
Conspectu ponit dulcique in luce suorum. 
At non te, Nelsone, gravi sub vuliiere fusum 
Exitio stravere, et acerbo funere Parcas, 
Servatum in meliora; aegri' dum vulneris ictu 
Palleres, dubio et fluerapt sub flumine venae ! 

At non ilia vigil patria est oblita suorum 
Aut custos patriae Kegalis cura — virilem 
Nam simul ac vidit languentem vulnere formam, 
Atque ora Herois multam testata procellam 
Vidit et obstupuit, — multi monumenta doloris,^ 
Atque inter lacrymas generosi lumen ocelli 
Emicat ut pluviam ridenti luce serenat 
^thereus color, et genialis taeda diei I 
Majora aggfedior — major patet area votis ! 
Jam patriis latet insidiis et marte fugaci 
Gallia secreto servans sub tc^mine portus 
Exitii foetos, vastae et molimina classis,^- 
Hos tecum tacitos casus sub corde volutansj 
Grande Decus, servasti ; baud segnior alite cursu 

» ITAite, p.67. 

* *f Weitmmter Abbey, or glorious victory !'' Ibid. p. d3. 
3 Ibid. p. 72. 

♦ Geo. III. Nekanum pd meliora promovit. Ibid. p. 76, «t 77. 

Latin Prize Poem. 159 

Arboreosque lares latebrosaque tegmina nidi 
Accipiter linquit, cauita et circumvolat arte 
Omnia perlustrans late loca^ donee in auris 
Versat praeda vias^ et non sua flamina tentat. 
Gallia sic naves fatis commisit iniqais. 
Nee mora ; longinqui tardum maris aequor arandum 
Tentandaeque vise, longisque ambagibus ultro 
Seu vigili cura circumvolitare carinis 
Hostiles latebras, puppi aut custode tueri. 
Interea Italiae ' raduntur littora, et alte 
Nigrescunt ponto horrendi capita alia Vesevi, 
Culmine nimboso — classisque exosa Tyrannis 
Jittora nota petunt Meletes/ qua vividus ardor 
Heroum innatae servabat semina mentis. 
Haud locus hie, dulces strepitus versante camoena, 
Insignire animos fortes qui vulnere laurum 
Saci^runt, dulci pro libertate labantes, 
Cum fuso cinxit Solymanus marte Valettam. 
Conspectu interea multas telluris in altum 
Anxia vela dabant, longe candebat in undis 
Concelebrata suis olim Trinacria ^ monstris ; 
Hie in secessu tuto locus ; insula portum 
Efficit effiisa mole ; hie molimine rupes 
In coeluni, et ponto incumbens .^nea minatur 
Objectu laterum, longinquatque incubat uadae, 
Obdqcto terrore, quietisque imminet oris, 
Fontani hie latices, vivo et libamine pocla 
Dulcia praebebant asgris medicamina nautis ; 
Scilicet incestat validas languedine vires 
Salsugo, fessosque salo contaminat artus : 
Jamque ubi dia salus morbo rediviva femoto 
Languenti laetum revocabat lumen ocello, 
Volvisti tecum interea, dux inclyte, casus, 
Pendentemque tuis terraram viribus orbem. 

En mare velivolum ! en famae novg serta Britannae !^ 
Quid memorem ut dubio generosum fluictuat eestu 
Pectus, ut ancipiti fallentem prospicit hostem 
Oceano, et multa vitantem ambage Britannos ! 

En ubi nunc pelago nox abstulit atra colorem. 

» WhitCy p. 81. * Ibid. p. 82. ^ Ibid. p. 83. 

^ Ibid. p. 88, pugna navalis ad Mgypti oras. 

Wo Mors Nelsoni ; 

Undabat classis per arnica silentia Lfioae 
Exspirans tacite exitium ; monet aura quietem : 
Sed brevis ilia quies ; tonitralia murmura belli 
Excidii prsesaga sonant ; mors sola Britanfios 
Impavidos terrere nequit ; spes acrior ignes 
Accendit ; stimulosque imo sub peetore versat. 
Quid juvat Aonio undantes Carthaginis arces 
Expediam yersu ? ast itennn velut Actia belia, 
Miliacas oras instructa classe videres. 
Hie, ope navali, Europte spoliator opimo 
Ibat ovans luxu^ et dira in caligine Noctis 
Latior immeriti ex{]4icuit vexilla Triumphi — 
Non impune taoien : ceu tempestate coluoibas 
Actas praecipiti notos mutare meatus 
Cogit hjems, densaque incumbens grandine turbo. 

At vos antiquum (et tangunt mortalia Musa^) 
Imperium Romse, et navali caede superbos 
Carmine sacrastis dominos rerumque potentes ; 
Nectite (et urget opus) capiti nova serta Britauno, 
Et fortes Fortuna juvat: Clementia ' lauros 
Vindicat ipsa novas : ecce, ut deferbuit omne 
Murmur et obductae tristissima mortis imago ! 
Per fluctus, interque natantia fragmina classis, 
Cemere erat miseros, iterum quos nostra remisit 
Gratia in alterius vital et luminis auras. 
En ubi uavifragis* per aquas jam flammea moles 
Incepit longis aperire vaporibus ignem ! 
Exitium fovere Noti, percussaque flamma 
Turbine, quaeque latens summi iastigia mali 
Ascensu superat tardo, exitioque sequaci 
Navigium involvens, inter tabulata volutansque 
Ad ccelum undabat — subter formidinis ora 
Inclusorum intus, venture et fnorte paventum 
Insanus pallor — casus licet obruat hostem 
Cognato tanget dementia pectora luctu. 
Sea nee adhuc, tandem posito certamine, cessat 
Dirum opus ; ultricesque ciet lux ultima mentes ! 
Et jam sublimi perftidit lumine classes, 
Funerea et varias omavit luce tenebras, 
Luna ; et spectabant tacito terrore cohortes 

White, p. lOa. * L*Orient, White, p. 104, 

Latin Ptizc Poem. id 

Mortis opus ; sobituin disniplo tiirbme fulnieii ^ 
lotoouit — surdasque tremor diveriberat aures ! 
Atque odia oblits stupuere alterna viciasiin 
Attoaitae classes — qiMOtos heu-stragisacervos 
Attulit una diesJ^^iMmtos meliora. merentes 
Funera^ letali cita mors immersit in unda ! 
Nee grave cessat opus : reduces s6d marte furores 
Ingeminant ca^o — anne audis resonantia looge 
Fulmina misceri, et miserum increbrescere murmur I 
Et fore Nelsoni quse sint jam fata requires^ 
Quisquis^eris, fidse testans conamina Musae : 
Vuluere languentem, et BritoDum fortissima frustra 
Funera plorantem exbilarat Victoria signo 
Nuucia sublato. Haud epulse clangorque tubarum^ . 
Non canor insultans hosti, non Iseta triumphum 
Prseciii^it vox: sedjam.religione serenat 
Summa Ducis mentem pietas, quem la^ta deconU 
Ante alios^ fortes mulcens dulcedine sensus. 
Postera lux caedes^ et vasta silentia belli 
Paudebat, veterique ibat jam laetior unda 
Nilus — *^ Caesareas veoisti victor ad oras, 
Nobilior, miseris pnebens solamina rebus I 
Omnis et ^gyptus celebret vexilla oalutis, 
Omnis Arabs.' — Olim Italiae spoliator ad oras, 
Julius, et pavidis fideus Antonius armis, 
At non Marte suo : jam libertate labante 
£t patria amissa^ dominis parere superbis 
Sub juga misit opes assuetum, (inbonesta merentuni !) 
At tibiy Dux Britonum, victricique ordine Classi 
Gratulor ! haec norunt olim penetralia Musae, . ] 

Quaeque tuum vel adhuc sacrant modulamine Qomen*" 
Haec dedit antiquo seattoUens gurgite Milus 
Grandaevus pater, argenteamque recondidit undis 
Canitiem, et glauca nituere aspergine vultus. 
En, Nelsone, tuo pacatos Marte Calabros, 
Sicelicosque sinus, quoaque in sua r^;na remisit 
Italiae reges tua vmdex Gloria, reddunt 
Arva tua reparata manu, atque insignia sumunt 
Rura nova, et luxu segetum qui floret opimo 
Dives ager Brontes,* veteri non degener asvo ; 

* WMtef p. 110. Arabes plurimi venenint ad littora, &c. 

* Ibid. p. 149. 

VOL. XXIX. a. Jl. NO. LVII. 

- J 

I6t 'Mors Nelsoni: 

Brontaeumque teoet ductum de faimtnt' nomen ; 
Fulmine in iEtnei^ olim nascente latebris. 
Quid memorem^ Galli pulsis oltricibus iris, 
Sceptra tua donata manu : tnonte undiqiie curvo 
Parthenopes^' conspersit ubi Nature racemis 
Textilibus colles^ nectuntque umbracula sjlvas 
Nativa — antiquatn et retinelitia moenia pompam 
Horrescunt — viridi hie dives consurgere dorso 
Campus amat, glaucas vel in umbras scena recedit— • 
Sive ruinarum nigra succincta corona 
Obruta procumbunt yeterum palatia regum, 
Non inhonesta situ — desiderioque reposcit 
Flebile vectigal (defuncto) pristina virtus ! 
Quid vel opes memorem* £oas, victricia regum 
Dona, aut gemmarum pretioso flora comantes 
Artifices formas, partse monumenta salutis i 
Quid memorem absent! sacret queis patria nomen 
Accumulans donis ?•— patriae te munere gratae 
Praesentem majore manent — focundia ocelli 
Eloquitur tacita — et solvit tibi lacryma grates ! 
Sed nee clara diu, positis felicibus armis, 
Deperiit virtus, patriseve amplexibus fasesit : 
Scilicet insidiis secretum accendere bellum 
Teutones,' et Boreas linquentes frigora geutes 
Incipiunt, pavidum et junxerunt foedere martem. 
Non tulit hoc Britonum, quas fulmine foedere sancit, 
Majestas male lassa — at amantes otia pacis 
Advolat ipsa suas ales Victoria Classes. 

Est locus aggeribus^ qua se protrudit in 
Pondere fixa suo, vastae et molimine Tunis, 
Obvia bellantum furiis — fulgentia ionge 
Fulmina, et ultrices einiserat irrita flammas 
Funeream expirans noctem navalis ESogro. 

Quid memorare ' artes veterique ignota Camcenas 
Arma Jovis nostri valet indignantia R6mam ? 
Sa?pe etiam ut campos imtnicto marte vidersm 
Erigitur nigrens bellum— tonitmque trembcunt 
Ardua terrarum artifici, glomeratitque sub aure 

* Descriptio Sinus Neapolitani. ^ White, p. 134, 185, 136. 

^ "Northern tJoiifederacy.^ White, p,lS3. " 

^ CroDbergias arx. Ibidi^ p. 167. 
r Racentioresbellandi 


Latm fm% ^mn. ^§$ 

Fumiferam noctea^ c^mp^lii^ ''}f^e ,U^f^m . : 
Fulmineique ' orbe^ ca;li in ir^giQjaQ 9i^reD^ 
Per siidQiD niUlant : gua pmmw iiitQii9t m— 
Parte alia, ca^ ^ki no^itmu^ p^r ujqabrani . 
Flammarum longos vige^ aijbe9Cfure tCRctii^, 
Scilicet interna^ T^^h claijus^^gue );^t|S9CUQt 
Csedes, ^lip (p^tsipf u!|tf icjeipqu^ aul^ imo 
Occultant animam ciapatro ; ipo^ teipjpor^ c^rtp 
(Ut jubet ars belli, et ^^^ SQlertia qijEUor !) 
ErumpuDt cav^, 21^9 effu^^ (Qi^errima clades. 
Saepe etiam cum incaui^ petit ^lupiip^na clas^ia 
Voivuntur vivis ^fn^ii^if^ igi)ibu9 orbe9 : 
Qualia nee Siculi^ ^nq^ni iCvclopes ip antris 
Fulmina, nee rapidis y^^p C^rauoia tjelis* 
Nee non ip cf^e^ ^S^lC^W moirtaUa corda 
Per varias artes swfifo^ ^tijfpc^ere ci^us 
Sors belli docet— ^i fimir,e^ propugi^cjula ducit 
Et placido fluitarq ffffi^M f^oUpqu^ prpAindam 
Oceani lassare i^^fr^i^iwjU^ trapstris 
Bella vomi, csecunx nj^f^qriMVi u^Uantia n^^rtejoi. 

Nee te/ qui resides ai^unoy irasq.ue tuorum 
Irritus ardebas gf^^i^KI j^ceodere eieusu, 
Praeteream indecore{(|^ m est et in hq^^ Camoenv^ 
Insignes miraij f^^ijmfis ; ii^s^^pia l^u^se 
Semper amant— vi^jit qPf>!)U^ te ^el/sQiw yijrtii9, 
JEmula tunc licet ; et Wnt^ prasco^ii^ l^udif 
Ingenio insignita 9119 4^liaY)t ; i^t ^upji9 
Pubescens prima lanug^pp Vj^t^iit aitfis* 
Nee mora, et ^>P«^|i^i3 ^^xtf^t U^akai^ Murqs 
Anglica — nigrantes illip fjpleq4l^e X^pnea,^ 
Hostilemque' VL^ffJi^ff^ pma^ v^d^9^« 

Quo, Nelsone,^ ruis viyl^'avpi pectpr^ s^psus 
Vertuntur varii i l^ec tt^ tfi credere mffpfi, 
Cum nee adhuc cecidijt jbl^QX, ja^gt^qiiiB ef cjlat iraf 
Confuss sonuf urb^y et iUa^U^ m^ 
Cum nee adhuc 8opii^'fM;^ip^---<Q0Qat|tU^r .eupj^^ 
Majestas excelsa Ducem, et formidine cingit 
Niluiea» inetorem ora4 treiMdantia corda 

> ** Bombs.*" » << JEfloatiog JbAttoFi«i4? 

' Hostica ▼ezilloruni insignia. 

^ Incaute Nekonus victa fsil^ p^fails sa immisciiit. WMep p. aof . 

164 MorsNetsanir 

T^nta tropaea ducis sobeunt — labentis imago 
Cronbergse indecores animi ! sublinrior extat 
Nobilis insigni veniens in corpore virtus — ' 

Singula sed memorare piget : memorare juvabit 
Labentes aiiimos Galli^ l^elsone, sub ictu 
Ssepe tuo^ et rapido prostratum fulmine Iberum. 

Grande opus aggredior^ carmen vocat ultima cura— ^ 
Cycueum melos extrema dulcedine fundit 
Musa iibens/ invita ; ipso de fonte decoris 
Surgit amari aliquid — grandes testata Triumphos 
Ardua Traductae cerno — concedite luctus, 
Pierides^ rursum/ Abramae quas culmine aacro 
Fors vel adhuc lusisse juvat^ volfique iaviliam 
Quae vel adhuc colitis, cineri solatia ioani ! 
Quid loquor ? — ecce procul naves dum casca volutant 
Murmura, praesagique nitent jam f uneris ignes ! 
Quid memorem Galli pavidos in praelia sensus, 
Frendentemque animis, et vana minantis Iberi 
Extri^ctam pompam i quique ut solet asstuat ima 
Corde pudor victo, mixtoque insania luctu ;' 
Et timet incursus, indignaturque timere. 
Hostium adhuc vultus faciesque simillima fato 
Advenisse diem, longum qui tradet in a^vum 
Anglica facta, monet ; nee nostrum pectora labij 
^temamve metu sensit corrumpere famam 
Ista dies, fastis semper servanda Britannisi 
Nonne vides vel adhuc belli cum ifluctuat ordo, 
Ut tacito^ fulget victrix sententia signo ? 
*' Quemque^ suo expectat functurum patria Marte/' 
Et jam prospicitur nitidis incautior armis 
Staus celsa in puppi virtus Nelsonia ; Vestem 
Laetior ars lautam multo discreverat auro, 
Gemmantesque orbes, multi monumenta Triumpht. 
At non ille virum (monuit praesagia mortis 
Dira Comes !') curat repetita hortamina ; in ipsis 
Vicit ! jucupdumque thori succurrit in armis i 

■ III* pi n il l i n I 'x 

* Ahroma in culminibus victoriam gratulatus cecidit Volfiuu 

* Varii hostium sensus in pra^lia euntium. 

^ ** England expects every one to do his duty!'' per Tiiegi^k ex-> 

'vComes— Seot^y qui cum NeUono procubuit. -^ 

Latin Prize Poem. 165 

*' Non me longa di^ nee inutilis auferet aetas. 
Nee patrias victus remeabo inglorius oras." 
Talis in occulto sedit sententia seosu. 
£t jam procubuiaae suorum funera vidit, 

SJonsortes laudia ! sed quos mox ipse secutus) 
emessam et primo ploravit flore juventam, 
Plurima quse patrios urgebat flebilis ignes. 
Nee memor invisi' venientis ab sthere teli 
Ingreditnr — ^reducem at fatum patria alta videret 
Non dedit! extremam subito perlata* papillam 
Hasta volat^ sacnimqueiiserens bibit acta cruoremj. 
Dum V18 letalis sibi aufficit ; abditaque intus^ 
Spiramenta animse funebri vulnere rumpit* 
£t jam Yeotura labuotur frigida leto 
Membra : diu dubia vitae nuiyc fluctuat a:grae 
JLux rediviva mora ; qualis flamma ultima lambit 
Fessam abitura faceoi ; nigrescuot omnia circum ; 
Nee tamen indecorem tua te Victoria liquit 
Extrema jam in morte; suumque heroa abiturum 
Voce ciet 1 sed vitam exhalat victor anhelam 
Spiritus, insignique juvat succumbere fato! 
Sic vetuit patrias Tincentem cemere sedes^ 
Sic fioem fortuna dedit 1 brevis occidit aetas, — 
Multorum est infleta, auras ut transit arundo, 
Ignotamque viam radit : Te insignior bora 
Abripuit, neque enim canis aspersa senectus 
Te manet, aut quasso lan|;uebant corpore vires ! 
Nee fuit in fatis luctu tibi condere soles ! 
Te non Oceani magna illaetabilis unda 
Gurgite sub vasto pulsat : (sed plurima functum 
£xul ibi jacet umbra Ducum) — jactare favills 
Hasc juvat insigni, tristis solatia casus ! 

£t jam' vernus honor, visit qui serior agros, 
Purpureum spargit redivivis floribus annum — 
Pectore sed moesto languescunt gaudia^ honore 
Indelibato; et sordent milii munere inani. 
Quid si per vacuas moduletur carmina sylvas, 
£t reducis paeana levem suspiret amoris 

' Quod ob velocitatem non sentitur. 

^ Etsi base a Virgiijo adumbrarim, medicorum narratipnibiis conseii* 
tiunt qiiam aocuratissime. 
' Hosce versus a Grayo adumbravi : 

** In vain to me the smiling mornings sbin^" &c. 

i66 , Mors Nelsoni : 


Turba qiierens avium ? — Hon illis floreas aaiii 
Arridebit honos, illis qui nocte sepuldri 
Lethaeum ducunt per.ssecuia lotiga soporem 
Torpentes animae ! nunquatu tios dlifce juv6iittfe 
Floriferum ver et vitae revolubilis 6itl6, 
Nativum in solem, aut vitales reddet in aurafty 
Cum semel occidimus leto^ liitbeiique pereutn 
Nocte cadit, longa obductiind Caligifni rati ! 

Audin sacra gravi rebonat qtia Nsi^nia pulstti, 
Funereumque melos ? — -Awtn sifttra j:ubeiitia lubttts 
Percurrunt Thatoesin ;* ibat qui tnstior uudis^ 
Segnior undantem dum .volvit funere fluctufn, 
Ipsa ut grassatur majestas nigra sepnlcriy et 
Tarda trahit longinquam, et bonesta sub ordine^* pdihpiftm. 
At te sacra manent regali splendid^ luxu 
Atria defiinctum ; grandesque piacnia manes 
Placarunt vel adhuc : sligdamiis funera daxo 
Tanta pio, et lauto jam fturgit poitdi^fe niol(». 
Quid si Pyramidum veneranda nible quiesdimt 
Funera in indigno recubantia matlsbleo, 
Regifici cineres i veniet felicior altks 
Qua sit nulla fides tumulum inotistrantibti^ illii^. 
Cum memor Histoiide sseclis tnikiisara futiiiid 
Vb tradet nomen, nuper quod j^Ioit brbisi 
Et fama in fidi vivet dulcedine setisus 
Laude recens, memdresqne iteriihi refvifesclit in aKtibbls. . 
Hand aliam ob ciLusatn, media inter fiilmil^a belli 
Projecere animam pro libertate libetitetn 
Dura cohors^ Borese, manserunt qu'am pik Odihi 
Atria; fusi epulis diim libant vSha deorum, 
Quae functorum umbris veneranda Geira^ nlitiiiltrat, 
Ambrosio heroum instaurans convivia luxu ! 

Quid si felici expoiiens iuiitikhine idtahi 
Pictura argutos diicat^ )}Ost fUnera vuhiis i 
Te casu nullo^ ndllo ddebile stedo 
(bum morietur opus nostri pbst tettipus ApeHis) 
Te manet Aonio mbhUilAetitum munefe ; in aAnbs 
JBtemos comitem trabet : aut in corde Britannum 

* Proqesjsio in Tha$Mnno flijpiine. ^ iMuftpruin sc. Nobiliorum. 

"^ 6Ahorum religio ; quae docuit hferoas recipiendos esse in Odini para- 
dise, &c. 

^ Ministra Odinianeis epulis. Vid. Cray. iPde'm. ^'Jtatal Sisters;*^ 
Gondula & Geira S^ctd, &c. 

Cambridge Chuica^ EifamnatwH$, l&J 

Nobtfkis eoodetiir oput ; neque faniB peribit, 
McBsta licet, maestive abolescet gratia facti. 
Qualis ubi .£olio taogens modulamine chordas, 
£t varia eliciens queruli suspiria venti 
SMpeoaam JDOvet aura cheljn — tractim ilia susurroa 
Temperat argutot omnero, liquidosque tumeaceoa 
Labitur in cantus, atque aethera carmine mulcet : 
Sic (Ma mens animi, longoque ezercita lactu 
ftwiscPBua ciety arcana dulcedine, tristes, 
Comuttens citharia moestas diacrimina vocis. 
Sat yero in luctum resoluta est nsenia : tardum 
Hinr«t opui — tameh insigni fiidisse juvabit 
Hsc tineri^-*-cineretn fido cumulamus bonore ! 



Xhe present Dean of Peterborough^ late Professor of Greek 
at Cambridge, has conferred an obligation on scholars by the 
publication of this elegant little volume. It consists of '' Ex- 
tracts from Greek, Liatin, and Ei^lish authors, ^yen as sub- 
jects for translation, and of Miscellaneous Questions proposed 
to the candidates for di£ferent classical honors'' during the 
time of the Dr/s professorship ; and is intended for the use of 
academical students, and of those who may be desirous of 
forming an idea of die nature of Cambridge classical examina- 
tions. To such it will be highly interesting, and more especi- 
al^ since the late important change in the system of examination 
for desrees. Independent of its utility in this respect, it it 
valuable as a selection of beautiful and interesting passagea 
from the best ancient authors. It contains Dr. Monk's exuoii* 
nations only, there being five or six Examiners to every Uni- 
versity honor : as, however, all the various' departments have at 
9ome time been allotted to the Professor, this volume, taken 
altogether, exhibits a fair specimen of a Cambridge classical 
examination, as conducted since the year 1810 (Preface); with 
the addition of a Latin theme, and one or more copies of Latin 
veraea on ^ given subject It should be added, that tha can* 

l68 Cambridge Classical Examinationt. 

dickies (Preface) are assembled io a room, with tbe useof pen^ 
inkj aod paper alone, two or three hours, or more (generally^: 
we believe, ft'om three to five) being allotted, in proportion to' 
the length and difficulty of the task. 

We give the examinations for the years 1817-199 regrettiiig. 
only that our limits forbid us to insert the Miscellaneous Ques- 
tions, which embrace a vast variety of subjects. 

University Scholarship, 18 17. To be translated into floglisb, 
the whole of Thucyd. ii. 70. — into English, Demosth. io An- 
drot. KoA jx^y xaxilvo ye Set (Miielv vfjicig, x. t. X. Aristot. de 
Rhet ii. 11. 

Chancellor's Medals, 1817- To be translated into English, 
Soph. Antig. 1 192, to the end of the narration. — ^To be trans- 
lated literally into English, — also into Latin Lyric verse. Find. 
Ol/ vii. first strophe, antistrophe, and epode. — ^To be translated 
into English, Juv. Sat. xiv. 256-304. — ^To be translated into ' 
Latin, a passage on Homer, from some English author. 

Chancellor's Medals, 1818. To be translated into English, 
Apoll. Rhed. iv. 350-393; parallel passages to be quoted 
from Homer, Euripides, and Virgil. — Into English prose, and 
into Latin verse, ^sch. Agam. 226, strophe, antistrophe, and 
epode; Lucretius's imitation to be quoted. — Into English 
uoose^ Aristoph. Ran* v. 895, strophe— ^v. 992, antistrophe.-—^ 
Into Ei^lish verse, Id. Thesm, 1136-1155; the metres to be 
mark^. — ^To be turned into Attic Greek, Id. Lysistr. 1297- 
1328 (chorus of Laconians) ; passages of the Tragedians here 
imitat^ to be given.— Into English, Cic. Epist, lib. vi. 18, to 

Tis 8* aprrijj l8p»Tflt .— Pers. Sat. v. I6l-l9l.— Into Greek, 

Diyden on the Grounds of Criticism in Tragedy, '' To instruct 
delightfully," to ^^ degrees of moral goodness in them." — Into 
Greek Tragic Iambics, Milton's 23d Sonnet. — Into Greek 
Tragic Anapaests, Comus, 892-901. 

Univ. Schol. 1819. To be translated into English, Thucyd. 
ui. 45. — ^Lysias contra Agorat. iluvSayojxai $* aurop xa) wspt tmw 
^pccsv, to l^;^upmgo; ffyeivTO. — Plato, Phaedon. 29. TfoSk; too- 
Ta»y oSr«»$ ix^vraav, to ?^i} 6 Ktfiiig, ; 

Chancellor's Medals, 1819. Soph. Aj. 550-583u— Find. 
Ql. ix. 1-62. — Into Greek, Sir W. Temple's Essay on Poetry, 
** The more true and natural source of poetry," to '^ the verj 
first conception." — Into Latin, Gray's Letters, xxxii. " I am 
equally sensible of your affliction," to ** aggravated our sorrow.** 
—Into Greek Iambics, Lycidas, 64-84. 

iThis work is ^ first printed in the new Cambridge type, ft 
modification of the Porsonian, and which, thongb it does net 

^ QhscrvatioM on the Sthofia^^. \€^ 

poisesii dw imrirBlled brilliancy of its predecessor^ is supurioc 
to it in leal elegance. Some of the letters are new, and hasn 
inoniae.wdl with the former, with the exception of the i^^ 
which we widh to see altered.' The size is a inedium between 
tb^larg^ one, in which Blomfield's JEschylus is printed, and* 
that used in die English Mattbiae. 

TTie Scholia of Hermeas on the PuiEDRUs o» 
Plato, puilishid by Fredericus Astius, Profes* 
SOT Landishutanus^ Lipsia. 6vo. 

Part lit. — [Continued from Ifo. LVI^ 

Xiff p* 136, L 6. Hermeas explaining what Plato says abont 
the horses and chariot of the gods observes, ApiiM 8f xeu imr^v^ 
Tom fcom r«f Immpag avrow xeu rpirag iwfapatf oxouorrtov, a$ «i 
wfMfeu iMTflutuyetNri, S»* coy o Zftic xeu tatnov avctyu xomtarm^ ng9 
t»o/i^|3Xqjxfyi}y axrrtf frrparutv r<ov dstmt xeu leufMveov^ xeu irarrdv 
itewkatS rm, ^^[mux eanot^. In this passage for ^yfviiJi.9vet, itf the 
last line, it is necessary to read f^i}|njftfy«, Buspenaedfrom. For 
fiermeaa says, '' that Jupiter elevates not only himself [to the 
Borvey of the supercelestial plf ce], but likewise all the army of 
gods and daemons, that are in subjection to him, and in short, all 
the natures that are suspended from him." No error is more 
common in Platonic manuscripts, through the carelessness of 
transcribers, than the substitution of i^piffjuofx for c^pnjfMMu 
In the same page L 17* Hermeas explaining the words emr 
ployed by Plato respecting Jnpiter, viz. ngosros i§ wopeuneu^ 
observes, ort uiuvo^ twi r# voigrov aurog xeu tviipDoaif Muronr riu§ 
otxmeug ap^eui <rv9eiyu raet?J<a wennet. But here for seurraant it is 
necessary to read §etuTW. ' And then what Hermeas says, will bf 
in £nglish, ''Jupiter himself proceeding to the intelligible, 
and establishing himself in his proper principles, leads on high 
together with himself all the rest [i. e. all the other powers that 
follow him].'' It is requisite also to observe, that the outueu 

* The same may be said of the new ^ lately introduced ioto the 
Glarendon press^^and which, though haodsome in itself, mars the uni* 
fiMrmi^ of that type^ perhaps the most beautiful existing. 

170 Ob$eroation$ on the Scholia of' 

apx'^, or proper principles, in which Jupiter is here stid to 
tablish hinself, are according to the Orphic, which is the eamo 
with the Platonic^ theology, Heayen, Night, and Pfaaaea. 
And in the same page, 1. 20. Hermeas says, xui i) ^wotm 

/SoAai; Sun^ox!^ 9 j^)' Y^ig B<m vwosraunti rwu Ttpcfrf^Miron^ % U 
frwmxt^. Here for % /tsv and % Sf, it is necessary to read ^ /k^ 
and 4 Sff. For the meaning of Hermeas is, that the providential 
energy of Jupiter produces things into existence, and that bis 
creative power is also providential, but that these two, provi- 
dence and productive power^ differ in the conceptions of thooiu 
Eor productive power gives aubtisteoce to things, biM^ j^rovi- 
dence is the cause of their preservation. 

P. 1S7> 1. 12. KCLi ha nj; Etmui to yoniiov xm atrioif n;; ivi^ 
ipwricog auTMV Xa/t/Savsi, In this passage for to yoviftov, it is ne- 
cessary to read to [AonfLov : for Vesta, according to the Platonic 
and also the Orphic theology, is the cause of statility, and nojfc 
0l fecundity. In the same page, 1. M. Hermeajs having ofap 
served, that the centre of the earth and the poles &Ok ave 'Said 
to be VmitM by pwtidpataon, adds, first xoey to rnvrpw 1^^ yv ^ 
f$f$g 4t6ki»s >^^IU¥ f'Wsnf, ^1 xoi xara rono¥ euriv axunffx, eOjC «a 
fffimfuoj-mvottrea. JSut here for «XX* 00, it is requittte to vead 
mK>! ^u^ For according to the Platonic pbiloaephy, the cestn 
if the «ai% and the poles are viUdh/ thou^ mot locaXti 
avoved. P. Id9f !• 14. mff <£i)^^e/»i my ij/Asregwy. xoXotifMWM « 
WKii^,'¥^m$ A^TCoy wa-mvivourm yo^p Km m Asim xm ai vjfuw^pm 
i^p^i iaafaroi) w$ wpoXaiJMOvro^ Se ffvt riov tetaav too aScawrov xeii 
lyi^^ov^ ovvo^f ware xou tov TOp^ovrft ewtyvmM, oti 'ki Aeioi ifu^M 
ai$uHLm sM'fir ovrmg curt to KoXou/Mvur i^ya§ fM^i) mi^erspa, «tn 
il«K<NK)jMM}^ xo» defi4M9*j3ijTi]0'iy ^(FX^f ^^ 4t6amros 8^** Heie, for 
Wf ^poXufvirwros it is obviously necessary to read aX>! 00$ '^f^ 
hUfimnoi, and then vi4iat Hermeas says will be, in Engtira i 
*< AfMrwards, Pkto^speak^ of onr souls ; but be says they «re 
^Ikditttttkon^li not as being mfortat, (for all souls, both such •«§ 
MVe divkie «nd ours, are immortal,) but because in (Kvine «oiib 
mninortlility Aines forth and is apparent, so that any one mi^ 
kaow that divine soials are imnaortal. After tibis manner, bit 
evfS, that OUT souls are xall^ immortal. For our partial soul, 
ttt being defiled with vice, causes its immortality tp be dubi« 
otas," In the same pag^, 1. 24. vuv In to s^co km to yarroy [tou 
oupayou] Ti^y xugTijy zvK&f ocunjy ^rao'ay Ti^y Oopavov jSao'iXeiay. 
Here, a word is evidently wanting between nviv and atmpf ; and 
it appears to me, that this word is vspiexov. And in the same 
page, 1. 6. from th^ bottom, Hermeas says, Tt it to* vrrn^aif mn 

HinmemM m tk€ Pkainis rf Pkto. 171 

iM Imfe Ibr tyxF* ^ ii mMJoUmt tkit it ii nerMiin to wm4 
iepyiu. For B kmi e M a ttii phce iifiims ^y PMo Mjt 
Ibat acmby wlien they airive «t Ae MUMMl^f kvivm^ alMri i^ 
itslMK^? For liptel Aej are tisefe th«^ ^ aoi Ikccmdm M^ 
lad, Akid An is mdeat Iram wlat he laiMdialely tAar adi^ 
oo-f yap ayuvi, taoaena / i fi e Awrrnii luti I jpa riym yiyovr«i* P. 

piTw^ *•• fciAaynmj t^pifnu* ti|if yw^ aX^iiittv tuv twf wuctm^ ••* 
di0» tti$w 9i|ai, ittu v« trttiay oX^flnii^ c^ t«y Aiy^ l iie il wyHrt* 
ttti* xot lb; Si iiXjilnflajoi teoXiyN txti tt/mott^. O y«f tik 
Oj^^so; w9fi Tifj^ iVlwia^ Asyvyy wmv ycy 0C> 4^1^ '^"'^ 

kftqvVf1|f Of 01 oopxiF vrCiy c^vooR vwn|« 
The (datti of Troth, njs Hermeas^ ^hkh is here crfebnlel 
by Phlto, obacordj sigmlieft that divine order ivfaich Orpbaoi 
iM otfier dieologista diaiominate Ni^. In this pasiage thero* 
fare, htenediately aftar km yo^ Mt, it is n ece s sary to «di 
^hiSf. for Nigh^ according to Otphens, contains thi^tmlA 
AT We i^ods* 

* Apah, p. 141, 1. 4. Hermtea^ on the words of Plato, i| ysip 
tij^p^^uetos 1^ %du aa^iMttifms, observes, «%(o)fi«rof snsf )i^m \ 

£a^oy 1^1 touro ; xtti roi xai^ttijfTov tiri rov tHnj^u^yisa tsets^ 
lb ye ^xai II ^iwt$ %a% ^ ^frti;^ fp^fi otiro. Htfre m the ksl pttft 
of thn plsssage, leeti toi ti t^etiptrw k. r. ^., for xai roi, it is n«oet^ 
^iry tb r^ad xai ri, and to make the whole of this part iateno^ 
^tfve, Tiz,,'xAi ri lun tfatpttov tun rov umpovfanw rmrerv, tirtu yt 
km 1) 4^iM^i; x^i 19 ^)ri;;(i) eyti oono ; And theti what Hermeai siyi^ 
^6rijD be, in Eng!ish> ''What is the meaning of Plato when ht 
feys, ^at die supercetestiat phcfe is Without color f Is it in th0 
same way, as we assert of nature and soul, that they are coloi^ 
less i But tf this be Ae cMe, winit will there be peculiarly ex- 
<^eBit in the sup^rceleslial place, since the uncolorad is pos*- 
»es8ied bbth by nature And soul T That this is the true readi- 
faig, will be lit once evident, from considering that aocfording Co 
Plato, the dupercelestial place mdicates one of the bignelC 
6rders of the gods. In the same page, 1. 17* Hermeas hafing 
observed that heaven is the first that is illuminated by the diyin# 
^ht of Phanes, adds that according to Orpheus Nifljnt is ulritetf 
to him ; in confirmation of which he quotes the following Or* 
phic lines : 

Jlpwroyovoi *f% ftty otn-jj ttnipaxtv o^«Aftoi0'iv, 
Et fwj iVuf if^ /xovyq' 01 8* aXXoi onravrtf 
Bavfiafyv xakponfrtg w a%kpi fryyof dttKmr&r 
Tom awtarpaimt xf^f a$ȴctroio ^cofifprof. 

172 Qbtervatiom ori the Scholia of 

On these lines the Professor observes, ''Inter fragnienl^ 
Orphica leguntur hi versus, sed pluribus in locis corrupts 
Postedorem yersum Bentleius Epist. ad Jo. Milliunp p. 465^ 
Opusc. pbiloL e Proclo sic exhibet : 

Tbisi last line is in Proclus m Tim. lib. ii. p. 132. as follows ; 

lo wbiqb line To qv is evidently erroneous, and therefore ^ent- 
Ifij has substituted for it Toiov. But the true reading for tt^ ox 
if, I qonceive, that of Eschenbacb in his Epigenes De Poesi 
' iQrphica p. 7S.*, which he derived from a manuscript of the above 
work of Proclps, not having, ^ he informs us, the priiite4 
copy of it to consult ; and this reading is, To) jxev. In p. 141^ 
!• 9Q. Hermeas speaking of the order of the Cyclops says, or 
y^q' wpwroi^ toutoi; to (rp^fta ex^aiveffiai i} ScoXoyia ^o*!, xa{ 
wfwras oLgxptg xai mtius tow Tr^cvra^^ou <r;^i}ftar«)y rourou^ nvou tou^ 
liou^ Kvx\cowa$' 8iq xai TsxTOVop^eipa; aurou^i} flcoXoym <^i90'ir 

ovni y^p rpias tori rt^eo'ioup/ixi) t»v <rp^ii|xara>v*- xeu sv JJa^^ 

fMViSi} Sff, 60ey Xeyi) o nxaroov iviv xai vegi^spe^, raiynfit jr^if rttj^vp, 
mv^TTeTM. According to the Grecian theology, the order of 
ibt Cyclops consists of Brontes, Steropes, and Arges^ and ii| 
Ijierefgre^ as Henpeas says, triadic. And this order is occultlj 
jyndicated by. Plato in his Parmenides by the terms eu$v, fegkr 
i^$gi$p XBu fcixroy; i. e. by the straight, the circular, and tmi!( 
wmch is mixed from both. Hence in the above passage, imme- 
4iately after the words &)h xcu vegi^spe^, it is necessary to add 
4uu^ jxixroy. In the last line of the same page Hermeas obr 
serves, o 8e n>MT(oy, owtg fuv evpe xara^arixofs vsro rou $fo\oyo(i 
fjfiWf Touro avTog airo^auxcos TrporiViyxajo. o yog txeivo^ yuxr^^ 
fnrev, ouro^ rotn'O axpoiMtrov o Ss exsivo; avofeenxcog a^feijlise^ 

MavToavviiv ie oi Scoxsv ep^siv wiftvUia isonnmr 
Tovro ourof xarof arixo)^ nvxv vepi rpf to tt^s akn^iovs sxionjjxi}^ ye« 
ifOS,euQ'$a ovTcog ovca* rpia airo^arixa 7rpQeyeyxa(/i.evog rpioi, xetrafct^ 
Tixa mtXiv tTToyei, am row oyto$ rpict vgoiveyxcov* Hermeas 
IS here speaking of that divine order which is called by the 
Chaldean theologists voijto; xai votpo$, intelligible and at the 
same time intellectual, as being mingled from both, and which 
jtt unfolded by Plato in the Phsedrus. Hermeas, therefore, in 
the above passage observes, that the part of this order 
which is celebrated by the theologist Orpheus affirmatively , is 
unfolded by Plato negatively: and that what the theologist 
speaks of negatively, is enunciated by Plato affirmatively. 
Hence, immediately after the words o^ 8s nkotrm omp fuv wpt 

Hermeas on ilic Fhadrus of Plato. 173 

Tuerufetrntms inra tw InXoyMi ff^h9, Twnro asufs mM^^mrinmg vfif 
wyxfltTV, h appean to me requisite to add, onp It mtft «rof«n- 
m; Twrt «rro$ auerAfanxcD; «nro^affii« 

P. 149» 1. 4. TO ysp fv vf ^PyX9 ''^ ^"'S^^ foi|TOK tivMiolaf 
&fMn-«u. Here for n 'pvx3f ^^ ^ nece&siry to read n^ 4^*901^* 
For the meaning of nenueas is, that the one of the soul which 
is a participation of the ro Iv the one itself, is capable of being 
united to the highest intelKgibles. This is evident from what im« 
mediatelj follows : f i yap xoi o fygpysia vovg o wnpiipufufo^ <k^tiK 
«« fsKTtti r« onvr, oAX* oiiSey rouro ^-po^ nsv i|fM*y .4^u;^* ifjxaw yvp 
im^ OToy v^^ aorw rrga^iup' i| iff vrogfis ti|; ^l^t^^, « tori rs 
h mxfni§f xtfpMD^ Tvre evtowna, oroy ro ng; aXqtffiae^ iSp irf^iov. The 
plain ^ Truth belongs to the highest order of intelligibles ; and 
this is only to be seen according to Plato by the hyparxis, which 
is the summit, flower, and the one of the soul, eneipzing enthu-^ 
aiastically^ or with a divinely-inspired energy. P. 143, L 15. 
exeurrog 9^ rovrew roi^ vmp camv ^g cXXofiTfi, rovrfori, aXi|tffMcy« 
Here for rois vwip auTov, it is necessary to read roig wo eumf, as 
will be immediately evident from a perusal of the whole pas- 
sage. And in the same page, I. 19. in the words i) h yavroiy 
tfpX^ x^ 'f^^S 90i}rou; 680VS KM wetrrct reu ear aweov tuou wkMW 
i^wTog, for tar atrrm it is necessary to read ear aurov. For 
what Hermeas says is this, ** that the principle of all things filU 
the intelligible gods^ and all the natures that proceed from him^ 
with divine light." P. 144^ 1. 17* i| /xcy yap w reng iSeai; Sixoio* 
intmi xetna voegtog ve^ip^ei, » Se fV roi; fisoi^, tsueg. In this pas^ 
sage^ for «i h it is requisite to read i| Se. P. 145, L 9* AXXa ro 
AfyofMyoy roiourov toTiy* irkiiovs fp(ou<ri Suvajxtt^ ai iiteu ^Iweu, ra^ 
ftfv wrtpnpeis, retg is xetretiiwrspag. Here, immediately after retf 
jU¥ vmpTsgag, it is necessary to add rag ie [Mcairepag. This is 
evident from the remaining part of the sentence^ viz. reug jxiy 
ov¥. wgeoTurretig reoy Suva/irffcov eut roig irpaynaTOig rcov voijrcov nri/SaX- 
XoucTi xai rep wrspovpancp rovcp, raif Ss fua'atg rotg wrog cvgavov, reug 
8c soYaroi; xora ro ^fu^ixov ftoXiora iSieofta. Here Hermeas 
qlearly says, that divine souk have middle, as well as first and 
last powers. 


176 On Mr. BuUocVs SpedmeM 


it, tbe obligation of standiDg pre-eminent in scieiDce. It 
would not^ however, amongst other nationsi be an ungenero^s 
competition, if they, by revising ^ome institutions, and establitk* 
ing others on improved principles for the encouragenient of 
aaences and the improvement of arts, would take as a model 
the generous example of France. To foreigners and to stran- 
gers, as to Frenchmen, all her precious collections are equally 
thrown open; 4hey are to all alike accessible. France then 
has a right to receive, even from foreigners, the tribute of 
praise. It may be an empty, but it is a flattering gift; and 
nations that take gold have no right to feel envy. Some per*- 
sons have felt regret that defeat imposed on France the neces- 
sity of re9toring those works of aft, of which the Vatican and 
other public collections had been despoiled by her arms. It 
was argued, that though in Paris, from the attention with which 
strangers who visited the rich collection of the national gallerjr 
were received, where every thing worthy of admiration was par^ 
ticularly pointed out to their view, these precious objects of art 
were less the property of France tiian of tlie world, and that At 
arts and sciences derived an additional advantage from the 
mutual comparisons which the concentration of those objects 
offered the opportunity of making* This advantage was certainly 
inappreciable ; but the claims of justice were much more sacred^ 
and the restitution which w*as made by France conferred glory 
on her conquerors. With the conviction that this resignation oa 
her part was a debt due to justice, France ought to be con<* 
tent ; she Will feel flattered, however, by bearing the voice of 
Europe whisper, that if any nation could have a right to emdy 
that precious collection, that nation would be no other than 
France, who showed herself worthy to possess it by the noble 
use she made of it whilst in her hands. 

Intending to say something of a curious collection of jantiqui^ 
ties lately brought to this country from America, 1 )iave said 
more Ithan I had purposed on that which is not immediately 
relative to my subject ; it is however so connected with it^ that 
if it was an error, it was one likely to be incurred. I shall now^ 
iiowever, make some remarks on monuments, of which the 
curiosity, not the beauty, the novelty, no? the art, eminently 
intitle them to learned attention. 

For a series of years it had been the custom to state, in cour 
tradiction to the evidence of older writers, that the con t in e nt 
of America possessed no inontunental antiqiuties ; that. nothing 
existed there characterising the manners of die populous iaoa 
civilised Indian nations which once inhabited, and wboM 

of Mexican Antiquities^ ^c. 177 

^tescendants still inhabit those extensive regions. This assertion 
■MFiis so often and so positively repeated, that general opinion 
"was almost inclined to lean towards it, especially as none of 
the antiquities of the Mexicans or Peruvians seem hitherto to 
liave found their way to Europe. We were informed that 
those nations were unacquainted with iron, and we came to the 
hasty inference that of monumental remains they could have 
none ; as experience informs us that the monumental remains 
of nations are chiefly buildings of stone, or sculptured images 
of art. We gratuitously assumed that the Indians, not being 
acquainted with iron, had no mode of supplying its place ; 
though perhaps the efficiency of their tools of copper was the very 
reason that t^it^y had not discovered the use of iron^ in which 
the mines of those countries are abundant. However this may 
be, specimens now in England of Mexican antiquities prove, 
not only that monumental records of stone preserve still the an- 
tiquities and manners of the Indians, but inspection of them 
will convince us that in the art of sculpture they had made 
great proficiency, if not arrived at some excellence; but we 
cannot suppose, when we contemplate these existing monuments, 
that in other congenial arts, especially painting, they could have 
be^ less advanced. And here I may remark, that from the few 
Mexican paintings now extant, preserved from the fury of 
religious persecution and other accidents, it would by no means 
be fair to Judge' of the v proficiency which the Mexicans had 
made in this art. We should rather form our opinion of the 
degree of merit which they had attained in it, from the contem- 
plation of their best sculptured remains, more of which, it may 
now be expected, will be brought to Europe. 

At the time of the conquest of Mexico by the Spaniards, 
historical, and other paintings were of infinite number, and threw 
great light on history, being of the utmost utility in preserving 
' uDCorrupted the traditions of ancient times. It is certainly a 
paiiiful reflection to think that almost alt of these have been 
destroyed, together with many other monuments of Mexican 
amtiquity ; we only know that they once existed. It is not, 
however, so much owing to the neglect of individuals to the 
antiquities of their nation, that so few of the monuments of 
earlier ages have come down to us, as to the suspicious eyes' 
with which the Spanish Government ever looked on those who 
seemed too curious in their investigations into her possessions, 
in the New World, or any thing connected with them. 

Amongst the native Indians, as. well as the Spaniards, several 

X78 On Mr. Bullock's Specimen^ 


kitelligent individuals gave deep attention^ atid besloWed greaC 
cesearck on the antiquities of New Spain. This their learned 
works, still existing, amply testify; but a name which deserves 
]Mirticular noention was that of Doctor Siguenza, Professor of 
MatheoEUitics in the College of Mexico : he made an ample a^ 
lection of Mexican manuscripts, and wrote works of profound 
learning on Mexican antiquity , which have unfortunately all 
been lost. Some few other names might be mentioned ; blit the 
collections which these individuals made have been dissipated and 
destroyed^ or doubtless at the present day it would have been 
|in interesting object to have had these remains secured against 
accident, by having pictures and fac-similes made of them, 
which would in a manner have multiplied the Original, and 
through its copies have preserved it from destruction and obli- 
Tion. With regard to Mexican antiquities and paintings, it may 
Iruly be said, that piety and ignorance, zeal and apathy — in short, 
die most contrary cauties-^have conspired for their destruction. 
Even science herself may be arraigned as an accomplice in this evil 
work ; for, led by an eager desire to advance her interests, more 
than one European has crossed the Atlantic to explore the na- 
tural productions and antiquities of New Spain — from which 
country when about to return to their own, to enrich it by coni- 
inunication of thie fruits of their laudable zeal, at once their 
hopes are ruined, and the labors of years defeated, by the jea- 
lous policy of the Spanish Government, which, after having 
robbed them of the valuable collections they had made, (which 
collections are dispersed never to be recovered), thinks it a boon 
that die dungeons of the Inquisition are not decreed to them for 
their habitation during the remainder of their days. Such (eit- 
^ept the Inquisition) was the fate of the unfortunate Italian^ 
Boturini, who visited Mexico in 1736: with great expense, and 
iacredible zeal, he had made a vast acquisition of Mexican arw 
tiquities, with whict^ he was about to leave New Spain, when by 
erder of the Government he was arrested, his whole collection 
seized in the most unjustifiable manner, and he himself sent to 
Stpain; where, after some short period of time had elapsed, he pub- 
lished in 1746^ at Madrid, an account of the loss he and science 
had sustained, (in a detailed catalogiie in one vol.) of the precious 
oollectian which hi» long residence in Mexico had enabled him 
to procure, and his knowledge of the Mexican language, whicK 
he had learned on purpose the more easily to make inquiries 
amongst the N<ative Indians respecting their curiosities. Thus 
even the scientific zeal of an individual was in a measure the cause 
of many records of antiquity being lost. For had they not been 

: ofMcxicaan Antiquities^ ^c# Vt^ 

0ollected together bj him, they woutd have stood the chance at 
least of rich merchandise, the safety of which is not entrasted to 
one but to various vessels, some of which mast reach the des- 
tined port it is pleasing however to think that much more 
enlightened views actuate the present government of Mexico, on 
whose talents and patriotism already seems to dawn the auspi- 
cious morning that precedes a brilliant day, now about to giid 
tluit newly*emancipated and magnificent land. Perfectly op- 
posite and contrasted as their policy in public matters is to the 
selfish aad narrow line of conduct so long persisted in by tbe^ 
motber-country towards her colonies^ History and Science seem 
likely to incur a separate debt from the generous consideration 
shown by a Minister in Mexico to their interests. Don L. 
D'Allemagne, wisely judging that several original Mexican ma- 
ttoscripts of the most rare antiquity, preserved in various archms 
in Mexico, ought to be published, as the means of preserv* 
ing these precious remains from the accidents to which the 
Revolution or other causes might expose them, displayed 
excellent Judgment in committing them to the hands of Mr. 
Bullock; whose zeal and interest in the pursoitof discovery 
during his residence in Mexico, as well as perfect experi^ 
eaee in such inquiries, were at once a full pledge that the 
greatest care would be taken by him of the valuable deposits 
committed to him, and which he was under promise to return 
safe and complete to the Mexican Government from this coun- 
try, in which they have sought a temporary retreat and refuge^. 
If however that interest which they so fully merit, should create 
a desire to have fac-similes and copies of them, it is proposed 
to publish a work on Mexican Antiquities and Hieroglyphics^ 
which would comprise what indeed it would be to be regretted 
should not see the light, when so fair an opportunity seem» tia 
present itself. Certain painted Mexican annals, which for SCO 
years have been buried far from the busy examination of men in 
the archives of Mexico, the keys of which were always preserved 
in the Palace of the Viceroy, are now in the possession of Mr* 
Bullock ; in short the most ample materials for a work of this 
nature exist. With respect to Mexican antiquities it is difficult 
to judge what the public feeling may be; it cannot be said that 
any scarcely have been seen, much less published, in Europe : 
dus ought to be a reason why they shoidd be received widi 
avidity ; it may be a reason that they may be treated with: 
In France, from the direction that the literary ioquirieaof tfa* 

180 On Mr. Bullock's Specimens 

present day have there taken, and the zeal with which an-- 
tiquarian research is encouraged^ and success rewarded^ it 
could not be doubted that this undertaking would meet with 
a highly favorable reception ; the beneficial results which France 
has derived from her generous and enlightened system, have dis- 
played themselves in the brilliant discoveries in Egyptian Hie*' 
fc^lyphics by Monsieur ChampoUion, who is now employed in. 
publishing another work of the most varied learning relative to: 
Egyptian antiquities, entitled the Egyptian Pantheon. Turning 
our eyes however to^ England, it must be owned that the intrin- 
sic merit of a work is but a poor pledge to the undertakers of 
it, that it will meet with public favor. Men of science do not, 
as in France, (I allude here particularly to the members of the 
Institute) direct the public mind. Neither learned bodies, nor 
societies, if the name of the author is neither eminent nor faghion*; 
able, and especially if the work would be expensive, think of con-, 
ferring patronage or even notice on it. It is certainly to be 
lamented that the Universities must equally share in this charge 
of indifference : their neglect to the interests of Oriental Litera- 
ture could not be more strongly instanced than in their deeming 
it unnecessary to patronise in the least degree Dr. Morrison^ 
who, engaged in the task of composing his Chinese Dictionary,- 
(a work wanting to the literature of Europe, and necessarily one 
of great cost,) would have been highly flattered and encouraged 
if the Universities of his- own country had taken an interest in the 
work which he was carrying on in China. 

I may be excused for here making some digression respecting 
the intended translation of the Imperial Dictionary of China, 
which, had it been completed in the manner in which it was com- 
menced, would have laid the extreme regions of Eastern Asia com- 
pletely open not only to the Historian, but to the Philosopher ; for 
ibe arts and sciences would probably have reaped as rich a har- 
vest, in this magnificent depository of the learning, the customs, 
the~ religious opinions, the history, and the revolutions, which,, 
during the space of 3000 years, have taken place in the furthest, 
east. That this great work was begun was highly creditable to the 
India Company ; and if England has not, Europe has, sufficiently . 
extolled their munificence. Perhaps content with this prema-^ 
ture praise, the patronage which shone on the undertaking haa 
run its full course ; but the work, it is to be feared, in the end will- 
prove incomplete and abortive. Had Sir. William Jones been 
alive, he certainly would have regretted that an undertaking had. 
been abandoned, of the importance of whicjb to knowleg^ he 
^as a judge qualified to decide; but the spirits which seem tc^ 

nf Mexican Antiquities^ ^e. 1 81 

Jiave fmsided over the commencement of the work themselv^tf 
Aave departed, and their enlightened intelligence others caml<»C 
boast. There is indeed, in the preface affixed to the third part 
of the Dictionary, rather a tone of regret : Dr. Morrison coiw 
eludes it by saying, *^ this Dictionary has unavoidably been pro* 
tracted till most of those who were immediately interested in 
the author and his work have sunk into the grave. I have hur- 
ried this part to a close, and I must do the same with what 
remains unwritten of the first." I shall in a subsequent page 
extract from the last Number of the Journal des Savans, Mon-' 
sieur Abel-R^musat's criticism of this third part of Dr. Morri- 
son's Dictionary : the work has been indeed so hurried, and the 
original plan so altered, that unless Dr. Morrison meets witb 
renewed encouragement to pursue his original plan — ^and it 
is not too late— the work had better be discontinued altogether; 
It is a fact worth observing, that of the vast Continent which is 
divided into Europe and Asia, the extreme east and the extreme 
west have preserved and committed to durable record the early 
history and traditions of the human race. The great portion of 
the earth intervening has been so subject to revolution, that in 
those parts where monuments have existed sacred to history and 
science, they have, in the convulsions of kingdoms and the de- 
structions of dynasties, been destroyed. The erratic tribes of 
Tartary, who spread over the remaining wide extent of Northern 
Asia, have generally been illiterate ; and it is in vain to search 
amongst them for historical records of distant ages. To have amal- 
gamated then, in a manner, the literature of Europe and of China^ 
which may stand relatively to each other as silver to gold, both 
precious, but the one more so,* would indeed have been ah object 
worthy of the cost. Europe excels in science, she is adorned 
with arts, but of the early history of Asia she is ignorant — of 
Asia, glorying in being the mother of the human race. But 
China preserves the most ancient records; with her august 
emperors, in antiquity, the Pharaohs of Egypt cannot compete; 
her antique annals mount upwards towards the flood ; and ques- 
tions of vast interest, touching the history of Asia, and con- 
sequently of mankind, said to be derived from thence, her im- 
mensely voluminous writings, there is every reason to suppose, 
would resolve. How much then it is to be regretted that this 
fair prospect shone, brightly indeed, but momentarily, causing the 
jgloom which succeeded it to be more disappointing. Had Dr. 
Morrison's Dictionary and Encyclopedia of China, (for his 
work comprehended the provinces of both these, and was a 
translation with considerable additions of a Chinese work of thi 

182 On Mr. Bullocks Specimem 

•ame natdre^ very Extensive, compoaed by order of die Em- 
peror Cauihi nearly two centuries egO|) been completed, it 
would have amalgamated together European and Asiatic learo- 
iog. To the completion of this great work, the India Company 
bad, it ia said, resolved to give the munificent donation of 10,000/. 
I have faera made rather a longer digression than 1 had intended ; 
but when I was speakiug of hoped-for encouragement to one 
literary undertaking, it was not unnatural to mention disappointed 
expectation respecting another ; but that my expression of regret 
on this subject may not appear undue or out of measure, I 
shall quote from the last No. of the *' Journal des Savans,'' 
which is of the date of February, 18£4, and but just published, 
all extract verbatim from the conclusion of the article by Mon* 
aieur Abel-R6mu8at, in which he reviews the last part Uiat has 
9onle out of Dr. Morrison's Dictionary — his words are these : 

M. Morrison ne s'explique pas positivement sur les motifs qui 
Fobligent k pr^cipiter ainsi la fin de son travail : ** He has hurried 
this part to a close, and he must do the same with what yet re- 
trains unwritten of the first;" c'est ainsi qui'il s'exprimoit en 1821, 
^n donnant son Dictionnaire Anglais-Chinois. Si des malheurs 
,priv^ ont 6puis6 sa Constance, ou si des d^penses trop prolon- 
gl^es opt laase la munificence de la Compagnie des Indes, M. Mpr-i 
fison doit deplorer, comme nous, les circonstances ind^pendantes 
de sa volonte qui le.contraignent k laisser imparfait le magnifique 
monument qu'il avoit entrepris d'elever k la litt^rature de la 
Chine ; et, de quelque mani^re que ce soit, les amis de cette litt£- 
fatur^ auront k regretter de voir ainsi manquer une occasion qui 
peut n^ se repr^senter jamais. 

This is the manner in which M. Abel-R6musat, who is Pror 
fessor in the Royal College of France of the Chinese and Tar- 
tar languages, a member of the Institute, and lately chosen a$ 
secretary to the French Asiatic society established now nearly 
(wo years in Paris, expresses himself. The profound learning of 
M. Abel-R6mu8at causes much more lustre to be added by him 
to the situations which he holds, than those,*^^however honorable, 
can reflect on him. With M. Abe1-R6musat I fully concur, 
fhat injudicious indeed were the counsels that could revoke the 
execution of what seemed to have been fully resolved on, and 
\vhicb was even in part completed ; but the work, it seems, is to 
tie brought to some kind of a conclusion, and the last No. is a 
specimen of the new plan on which it is to be conducted. Let 
Us. hear what M. Abel-R6musat thinks of this new plan: he 
says, (I again quote his exact words) — 

II a fallu renoncer k suivre, dans les explications, le diction* 

<^ Mexifan A ntiquities^ Sfc. 1 83 

«aire de Kbattgp-bi, supprimer toute definition, toute citation tex« 
taelle» tout developpement. Non^fteulement on ne trouve plus ici 
ces digreasions int^ressantes, qu6iqu'un peu d^placees, ces excHr- 
aioAa Sana le champ de la litterature ou de la po^sie, trop multi- 
pliiea dant lea clefs pr^c^dentea ; mais on y cherche en vain la 
strict aicessaire en ce genre ; nulle explication d'usages, d'allusi^ 
ons, nul rehseignement litt^raire, sciekitifique, philosophique. Un 
mot ou deuXy quelquefois une ligne, rarement quatre ou cinq d'expli- 
cation Anglaiae, voilk ce qu'on lit it c6te de la tr^s-grande majority 
des carStct^f<is. Snr douze ou quinze mille qui sont accumules 
dans ce yoluine, il n'en est peut-6tre pas deux cents dont les ex- 
plications approchent un peu, par leur 6tendue, des articles da 
m&me genre contenus dans le premier volume; et il fautremarquer 

3ue le second contient plusieurs clefs des plus importantes, comma 
es pins ridhes en derivi^s, celle du cmtr^ pour les affections de 
Tame et les operations de Tesprit; celle de la fixaxn^ pour les acti- 
ons manuelles et la plupart des mouvemens materiels ; celles du 
$oUil^ de la lune^ de Vean^ du feu, de Varhre^ des quadrup^dest des 
maladiiif de Vmil et de ses facultes, des pierres^ aes cdrtales, &c. 

Tous les derives de ces diff^rens radicaux sont done reduits k 
une s^che et sterile nomenclature, privee de tout inter^t et presque 
6hti^rement depourvue d'utilit6 : car il ne faut pas oublier que 
la difEcult^ de la langue Chinoise consiste beaucoup moins dans 
ces milUers de caract^res, la plupart synonymes les uns des autres, 
on ^-peu-pr^s inusit^s, dont le moindre 6colier pent trouver le 
sens isdie en s^aidant d'un dictionnaire tout Chinois, que dans ces 
acceptiond modifi^es et ces sens de composition qu'un petit nom- 
bre ae caracteres peuvent prendre en 8*unissant les uns avec les 
autres, et dotlt bien souvent on ne sauroit deviner la valeur 
d'apr^s celle des monosyllabes qui les constituent. C'est done 
dans la multiplicit6 des expressions de cette nature qui y sont 
interpr^ties, que resident en r^alit^ la richesse et la bonte d'un 
dictionnaire Ghinois, et non pas dans le nombre plus ou moins 
considerable des caracteres qu'on y a rassembl^s ; de telle sort^ 
qu'un recueil de deux mille termes usuels bien choisis et expliqu6s 
dans toutes les acceplions qu'ils. peuvent prendre et dans toutes 
les combinaisons polysyllabiques oi^ ils peuvent entrer, seroit 
infiniment plus utile k ceux qui veulent entendre les auteurs, que 
ne le seroit un vocabulaire ofe quarante, soixante, ou m^me cent 
mille caracteres, si Texplication qu'on y joindroit devoit ^tre 
r^duite 4 une interpretation de quelques mots. C'est pourtant Ml 
tout c6 que M. Morrison paroit avoir I'intehtion de donner dans la 
' suite de son ouvrage ; c'est de cette manifere, je le r^p^te, que sont 
expliqu^s douze ou quinze milliers de caracteres, sur quarante qu^ 
cet ouvrage doit contenir. Ce n'est pas Ik, k proprement parler> 
achever le dictionnaire qu'il avoit commence ; c'est en donner un 
autre, d'apr^s un plan infiniment moins judicieux. Le Dictionnaire 

184 On Mr. Bullocks Specimens 

da P. Basile de Glemona se trouvera, en totality, un line beaacotif^ 
plus utile pour les ^tudians, parce que, s*il contient moinft de moU 
simples, il renfenne bien plus d'expressions composes : car on 
peut appliquer au petit nombre de ces derni^res qui a trouv^ place 
4an8 les vastes colonnes du dictionnaire Chinois- Anglais, ce que 
disoit M. Montucci dans une occasion semblable, en parlant des 
explications du Lexique du P. Diaz : 

Apparent rati nantes in gurgite vasto. 

It ia impossible to read this criticism of M. Abel-R£- 
ipusat without agreing with him in every part of it; and 
I think it is impossible not to share in his regret also^ that 
the magnificent monument erected to Chinese and oriental 
learning should be left imperfect^ and au opportunity, as he 
observes, loist, which may never recur; though I feel still 
incfined to hope that learned apathy to the interests of learning 
will never reach such excess in this country, as to suffer a work 
of this kind unheeded to die. Amongst the £a8t India Direc- 
tors there are many highly enlightened men, and they must well 
jfnow that the East India Company could not confer a greater 
obligation on the learned generally in Europe, than by causing 
this munificent undertaking to be carried through in the most 
complete manner; appointing, if necessary, coadjutors to Dr. 
Morri8on,^-that if the work is accelerated, which might be ju- 
dicious, the perfection of its execution might not be impaired. 
The India Company owe it to science, they owe it to Europe, 
tiiey owe it to themselves, as they did commence the work, to 
complete it in a manner worthy of them : the expense to so 
opulent a body of conducting it on the most liberal scale, 
could be opposed by no one who has once turned his eyes on 
die map of Asia, and knows the portion of the east subject 
to their sway. — It is difiicult to imagine that this work would 
not prove highly useful to this country in its commercial 
relations with the Chinese. That cautious government, it is 
true, will not admit foreigners into the interior of the Em- 
pire ; — 'but the interior of the Empire would, by the perfect 
knowlege which Europeans might henceforward attain of 
thdr language, in which they might study the genius and 
manners of this Asiatic race, be perfectly thrown open to them ; 
and they would then be. able to avail themselves of that know- 
lege in their commercial* dealings with a nation, between which 
€6untry and this, from the nature of the importations, perpetual 
ffttde must exist, the temporary interruptions to which are pro*> 
dactive of serious inconveniences, and which a thorough acquaint 
tance with their language and manners would teach us to avwii 
or at least in the alternative to remedy. But besides the advan* 

of Mexican A ntiquitiesy .^c. 1 35 

tiges of siich knowlege of their language and manners with 
reference to China, it must not be forgot that the written lan- 
guage of Japan is perfectly the same. In manners also, in the 
punctilious etiquettes of diplomacy, the Chinese and Japanese 
are perfectly similar. It is true Japan has for near two hundred 
years forbidden all foreign trade, but that policy might not al- 
ways last; — revolution, which caused it, or other causes, might 
lay it aside, and then the East India Company might find its ac- 
count in understanding the language of Japan, ai^d creating a 
competition between that £mpire and China for the European 
trade, which doubtless would benefit the East India Com- 
pany. But howsoever this may be, M. Abel-Remusat's 
apprehensions seem justly founded. It must be confessed that 
the bright prospect lately held out to oriental literature appears 
completely changed and overcast. If this is the result, it cer- 
tainly must be lamented; but some person, to put a counter- 
balance in the scale, may say, 

** That an Asiatic Society has been eBtabliahed in London." The friends to the 
liteiatace of the East will hear this intelligence with pleasure ; and every thing may 
be expected from a society dignified by the sanction of an august name, and reck- 
oning amongst its members men the most distinguished for their rank, talents, and 
Ibrtone : bat frequently much more depends on the direction that is given to the 
motion, than the force which is employed in the impulse. The benefits of public 
institutions, according to the judgment which is shown in the application. of their 
energies, either soon shoot up into giant growth and vigor, or roust await the slow 
|»rogresa and the uncertainties of time. The Asiatic Society, however, must feel de* 
ftirous of conferring solid advantages on Asiatic learning ; it must command those 
great works to be undertaken, and it must exercise particular discretion in the selec- 
tion of the persons employed in the execution of the task, as it is not the number of 
the persons, but the persons of the number, which is the object to be aimed at in 
the selection : by the execution of such works it will at once anticipate three ce-ntu- 
f ies of frivolous memoir-writing, each of which, it is true, of life might boast, but 
only " to have lived its little span, then fluttering died." Those who are inclined tt> 
indalge In hopes that the languishing work of Dr. Morrison may derive fresh youth 
Irou the establishment of the London Asiatic Society, will not find that those hopes 
derive diminution from the consideration that several enlightened, distinguished, 
jmd influential members of the Asiatic Society are immediately connected with 
India and the Lidia Company. 

But to return to the subject of which I was before speak- 
ing, the Antiquities of Mexico. To Mr. Bullock, the 
highest praise is due. He has done not only what no £nglisb- 
man, but what no European has done before him ; and the 
complete success which has attended his exertions, entitles 
him to the congratulations of those who feel an interest in 
the objects of his inquiries. It must be remembered too^ 
that the great difficulties and expense, with which he has 
had to contend, intitle him to a considerable share of pub- 
lic patronage ; for besides the manuscripts which he possessesi 
entrusted to him by the Mexican government, an infinitely more 
extensive collection^ perfectly as curious, (which is saying a great 

iW On Mr. Bullock's Specimens 

deal,) has come into bis possession. He was the first foreigner 
who for purposes of research visited Mexico since the Revolu- 
tion^ which alone made it a country accessible to foreigners^ 
The Revolution, besides giving ingress to foreigners, had, as 
always is the case in times of such general commotiooji yn** 
Iiarred and thrown open many offices of records and other 
inlaces of security ; and those things which had perhaps been 
stored up for ages, during which space of time they never might 
have seen the light, on a sudden uerc found in the possession 
of the multitude, from whose destroying hands each work that 
was obtained might attribute tp the person so fortunate as to 
recover it, its preservation. At a time precisely like this, Mr. 
JSoilock arrived in Mexico ; and from hands like these, many 
iQ.ost valuable antiquities were by him rescued, which are now 
safely brought over by him to England. Besides a collection of 
paintings, in every respect most curious, he has also brought 
over with him a collection of Mexican sculptures of most am* 
gular fashion, and exhibiting a proficiency in that art, which 
from the accounts of Dr. Robertson and others we had no rea- 
son to expect. In looking over some of the Numbers of a work 
of M. Champollion's on Egyptian Antiquities, I was extremely 
imrprised to perceive a singular conformity between the ESSP" 
tians and Mexicans in their sculptured monuments. Toese 
nations, so ifar removed from each other, in many respects so 
contrasted, the former famed for its early wisdom and Science. 
th|e latter supposed to have understood nothing of science, and 
of arts to have had but few ; the one boasting an august anti" 
quity, to whose Pharaohs mankind first learned to kneel^ 
uiemselves the earliest Kings and Legislators of the human 
race, — the other confessedly but a recent nation, and lately 
formed to habits of civil life : yet between these two nations, as 
far as the consideration of their sculptured monuments extends, 
a striking correspondence of taste seems likewise to have pre«* 
vailed. Both the Egyptians and the Mexicans seem to have 
considered the just proportions and size of objects, according to 
nature, as too small, and participating in the inclination to re^ 
present in stone, animals as objects of Idolatry, they also figured 
them of colossal size ; but as the animal productions of Egypt 
K^ere very distinct from those of Mexico, we cannot look for 
idols of exactly the same type. 

Whilst Egypt adored her gods under the forms of the 
ox and the crocodile, and every monstrous shape, the Mexicans 
paid religious worship to that species of serpent which naturae- 
iists term the rattle-snake. Perhaps, in their long migrations 

of Meanean Antiquities^ 4^\ 187 

through the lonely forests of America^ where gloom and soli- 
tude evbr teign, they first imbihed this superstitious- custom. 
The scenery and the awful grandeur of nature around, wber^ 
thick volcanoes unceasingly pour forth their fiery eruption^ 
and lightnings and hurricanes continually agitate the atmos^ 
phefe, were calculated to create in the wild and ignorant Indian 
superstitious feelings ; but all superstition is connected with m 
vague religious sentiment, and causes an inclination to pay to 
some object, whether natural or supernatural, religious reverence. 
Though infinitely various as well as exquisitely beautiful 
in the lesser. tribes of animal life, and producing vegetable na-t> 
ture of as full growth as elsewhere, America seems not to have 
possessed many species of large animals : the rattle-snake was 
certainly the most dreadful tenant of her forests, and to it, as 
the type of the destructive or evil principle, the Indians seem 
to have offered up their vows. I have observed in all the rare 
antiquities of sculpture, either actually brought from Mexico 
to England by Mr. Bullock, or the models of which, still ex- 
isting in Mexico, he has taken in the most ingenious and labo- 
rious manner in plaster of Paris, that this frightful serpent ia 
every where conspicuous. A small Idol iti stone, of exceedingly 
good workmanship, is overwrought with this serpent, its scalea 
exhibiting the appearance of ornamental foliage — its eyes and 
mouth were doubtless once adorned with Jewels. But besides 
tbis small image, there is another of colossal size, on which 
interlaced snakes form a kind of ornamental tissue. This image 
was highly worth the pains which were taken to model it, as 
it was out of the question to bring over so great a weight j 
but it is much too ^' bizarre '' for my pen to attempt to de- 
scribe ; aind I should strongly recommend persons who feel an 
interest in Mexican antiquities, to judge with their own eyes of 
this curious object : they will even, perhaps, learn somewhat 
of human nature from it, for they will see into what de- 
lusions it is possible for mankind to run. There is also another 
rattle-snake in a rearing and upright attitude, of colossal size, 
amongst the collection, like the other images, no doubt once 
^n object of worship. It is a singular fact that the serpent, in 
antiquity, amongst nations very remote from each other, seems to 
have been an object of mysterious veneration and early tradi- 
tion : the book of Genesis, the most ancient as well as sacred 
record, makes particular mention of that animal, ascribing to it 
originally a superiority of instinct over the rest of the ani- 
mal creation : the relation of the fall of man has an im- 
mediate connexion with this reptile. Could it have been 

188 On Mr. Bullock's Specimens 

•possible that tradition might have preserved some faint recol* 
lection of this original history, and thence ascribed to it a 
participation in certain religious mysteries. If we examine 
jthe most ancient monuments of Egypt, we shall find it very 
singularly represented in connexion with Egyptian superstition^ 
• ms with Mexican it undoubtedly was : but what could have 
procured for this dangerous but despicable reptile such re- 
spect i in the Egyptian temples, it is painted on the walls in 
£very crawling attitude : but in Egypt the serpent was not the 
formidable animal that it was in the rattle-snake of America, and 
the Egyptians were a nation infinitely more enlightened than the 
Mexicans. However this question may be decided, it is quite 
evident that great analogy existed in some respects between the 
Mexicans and the Egyptians. 1 do not mean, however, to say 
that there was a probability of the one nation being derived from 
the other: their languages seem to have been very different, and 
language and physiognomy alone can prove codimunity of descent 
in nations ; without these, other similarities in national customs 
can only be arguments of the probability of early intercourse :— • 
l>ut I think this a most interesting inquiry, as elucidating in some 
measure the history of the origin and descent of nations. The 
•Bible Society, fiom the number of languages into which it 
is translating the Bible, is furnishing the means of what 
would once have been thought an Herculean task, of insti- 
tutitig a comparison between all the languages in the 
virorld; the results of which comparison, when attained^ 
would be like the unfolding of some precious volume, containing 
a fiiithful history of some of the most important events which 
liave happened amongst mankind, and of the knowledge of 
which man was as yet ignorant. After the task of referring the 
derivative to the elementary and primitive languages, we mav 
then refer these languages to the regions of the earth to which 
they primitively belonged ; it would be an after question, and 
. one depending on the former, to resolve what might be the 
causes of languages being found in the particular parts of the 
earth in which they now exist, so widely separate from the coun- 
tries in which they were first spoken. The ambition of kings, 
mustering amongst their troops foreign and distant nations, 
might be the cause of those strangers afterwards settling in new 
habitations, and carrying with them their language. The lead- 
ing of a conquered nation into captivity, which was an early 
•custom, to people another country, would have been a second 
•cause of the migrations of languages; the conunon wants of 
life would have induced some tribes of men to change their 
habitations, in search of others gifted with a more fertile soil \ 

^f Mexican A ntiquitie^;^ 4^cs 1 89 

finally, storms and tempests at sea would frequently have driveo 
out of their due course to other lands, trading and other vesseb* 
In this manner I conceive the Otaheite and Society Islands, si-* 
taated in the bosom of the vast Pacific Oceau, to have been peo> 
pled; in this manner the Japanese historians say that their 
islands were first itthabited ; in this manner. North and South 
America may possibly have been peopled. 

Between the Mexicans and certain Asiatic people consi-> 
derable analogy seems to have existed in the mode of comput- 
ing time. From their own accounts, the Mexicans had, after 
long travelling, arrived in that portion of America in which they 
fixed the seat of their Empire. Their singular and just method 
of computing time, strictly regulated according to the period of 
the natural year, would certainly add weight to the argument^ 
that they probably derived their origin from some more civi- 
lised nation. I might here make some digression on the sub- 
ject of the Mexican cycle of time, but I shall spare myself th^ 
trouble by referring to a colossal sphere, which Mr. Bullock 
has brought from Mexico — an exact model of the original, 
built into the wall of the Cathedral of Mexico ; under which 
reposes in pacific sleep many a blood-sprinkled Idol, curioua 
from their antiquity, curious from the ideas associated with 
them. The same gentleman has also brought over a model of 
the famous Sacnfical stone, belonging to the great Temple, the 
sides of which are most curiously eloquent respecting Mexican 
antiquity. The stone being very large, the compartments on 
the sides are numerous ; and, represented almost to the life, 
are seen the sacrifical rites, the sacrificers and the victims. 
This stone, which is spherical and situated in the church-yard of 
the Cathedral, had only the upper surface exposed, till Mr« 
Bullock dug round the sides and brought to light their myste- 
rious sculpture. The native Indians of Mexico know well the 
purpose which this stone answered, and whenever they pass by 
It, it is now an Indian custom to stamp on it, to express the dis- 
gust with which the recollections of the inhuman sacrifices o£ 
their ancestors still inspire them. It is computed that at least 
5,000 victims were annually immolated on this memorable stone^ 
the upper surface of which, having a basin excavated in the centre, 
to catch the blood as it fell from the unhappy victims, with a; 
channel to convey it thence to the ground, both of most capa- 
cious size, silently, but significantly declares how numerous were 
the wretches immolated at the bloody shrine of the Idol I I was 
led, from mention of the model of the sphere, to mention this also. 
At the end of this article is an engraving of the Mexicans spher^ 
which is of colossal size^ The copy from which this engraying[ 

190 On Mr. Bpllocks Spedmeni 

was done, was made in Mexico from the original spheit, 
but is not extremely correct, as \i'iil be evident ob com- 
paring it M'ith the plaster of Paris model of it executed 
m Mexico by Mr. Bullock, and to be seen amongst the 
other curiosities of his collection. It is^ I imagine, a sphere 
of days of the Mexican month, of which the proper sym- 
bols are carved circularly round the stone. What all the other mys* 
terious emblems mean, with which the rest of the stone is covered, 
i know not: two rattle-snakes are twined round the extreme cir- 
cle of the wheel, diverging from each other at the tails; they 
curve in opposite directions round the stone, and meet together 
with their h^ads facing each other, the jaws of each distended in 
the act of devouring a human being; between the fangs of each, 
the head of the victim is visible. 1 hope that the circumstance of 
this curious stone, or at least its model, having been brought to 
England, will awaken interest and create research. I do not 
doubt that all the other mysterious emblems which cover 
the stone are capable of elucidation ; but that elucidation must 
be subsequent to, and the result of, profound meditation, 
and research into the genius, and customs, and science of the 
ancient Mexicans. But if any one is inclined to think that 
die solutions of the questions which may arise in the mind from 
indulpng in this train of thought, require but slight exercise of 
die reason, and depend on obvious and easy considerations, let 
faim be aware of his mistake : the mind when willing to arrive at 
probability, in judging of facts belonging to the history of 
nations which have passed away, as the breeze of evening 
sweeps over the dust of the plain, never to return, has 
something more to do than merely to adopt the plausible opi^ 
nion of the moment ; at least, if its object is, not to persuade 
others, but itself to feel conviction on the subject. In this casek 
must, in its intellectual flight, wander over the Instory of many 
ages; it must visit nations and tribes of men the most remote 
from each other ; it must compare manners and usages the most 
different; and finally, its own nature, as far as its piercing vision 
can irradiate the obscurity, it must scrutinize and explore. Af- 
terwards, as the fruits of its exertions, enriched with multiplied 
and varions knowlege, it may perhaps venture to judge, and to 
judge with confidence, on questions which others might not be 
eqtuJIy qualified to decide. But to resolve cer^in questions, re^ 
apectiug the manners, and customs, and genius of nationa, where 
me motives of human conduct require distinct analysis, and se- 
parate inquiry, in order to determine the reason of national mui-' 
ners and raws, deep knowlege of human nature is neceaearf « 
This knowlege is- neeessary to clear up and elucidate the 

-of Mexican Antiquities^ ^c. I9I 

ititlquitfes of nations ; and \rotild alone b^ equal to the task of 
investigating and explaining the antiquities of Mexico and Peru, 
and the vast continent of America. And most worthy these regions 
areof all that genius could accomplish in discovery^ all thatscience 
could lend in lights though her torch wererobhed of its divinest 
fays, and all that munificence could expend in cost^ in order that 
nothing either on the surface of the soil or beneath it^ 
whether physical objects^ as vegetable^ or mineral, or geological 
^bstances, or artificial^ as ancient buildings^ records of painting 
and history, and other monuments of the various arts indigenous 
and underived, peculiar and proper to the original Indians and 
natives of America^ might pass unnoticed or unexplored. In- 
tending now to draw to a conclusion, I may be excused for 
having ofi^ered these few observations. I must, however, first 
say something of the second engraving, which represents another 
Mexican cycle of time, consisting of 52 years, which was a 
period of time which they used in their historical computations,, 
as we do our century. It might then, the slight impropriety of 
ihe expression being excused, be called the Mexican century : 
the various years each had their proper symbols, by which they 
were distinctly particularised on the stone. I might here say 
aomething of the Mexican mode of reckoning, employed on the 
wheel, but 1 have no inclination to enter into any difficult 
digressions. I shall observe, with respect to the engraving of this 
second cycle, that it is not a copy of a stone, but of a painting, 
of which Mr. Bullock has the original, which once belonged to 
the celebrated Boturini, together with some other pictures now 
in Mr. Bullock's possession ; not remarkable, it is true, from 
tfae manner, but very remarkable from the subjects of the paint- 
ings, and from having formed part of the Mexican museum 
of the learned, but unfortunate Boturini. But it is not only 
the antiquarian that will derive gratification from seeing Mr. 
Bullock's collection ; to the naturalist will be presented a much 
more ample field for contemplation. The western hemisphere, 
if we can believe description, seems in some parts to be the 
paradise of the earth. In the formation of some of the vegetable 
and insect tribes, and in the plumage of the birds of those 
countries, nature seems to have luxuriated in beauty ; the na- 
turalist would only feel hesitation where he should begin his 
inquiries, so various are the riches that present themselves to' 
bis view. Of the gigantic range of the Andes, whose summits 
are covered with eternal snows, who has examined what are 
the natural productions i The soil of Mexico teems with 
the most beautiful and extraordinary vegetable productions.' 

192 On Mr. Bullock's Specimens 

Mr. Bullock, who spent a year in Mexico, and has just 
returned, did not forget to bring with him to this country, 
a most varied collection of specimens of fruits and flowers, and 
trees of Mexico, modelled in wax and other ingenious ways, 
perfectly representing the natural object. The Horticultural 
Society are indebted to him for many species of flowers, 
never hitherto introduced into this country. The beauty of 
the humming, and other Mexican, birds, of which he has a 
great variety, as it would be difficult to imagine, it would be 
vain to attempt to describe: it i^ said, however^ perhaps by those 
who would envy America the beauty of her feathered race, that 
the birds of those countries do not sing — how true, this may be 
I know not : it seems to be mere assertion, without any proof. 
The two other engravings, which follow those of the cycles of 
time, are from original pictures drawn in Mexico. Of the parti- 
cular places represented, the first is a distant view of a moun- 
tain, not far from the once famed city of Tezcuco, so cele- 
brated among the Spanish writers ; the last King of which, as 
well as the last Sovereign of Mexico, was most ignominiously, 
after a long captivity, put to death by Cortes, on some slight 
and unfounded suspicion of plots against the Spaniards. The 
tity of Tezcuco is still full of ancient monuments, though 
Robertson declares, in the most unqualified manner, that there 
were no remains of ancient monuments in all New Spain, or if 
there were any, some rude, shapeless and unintelligible mounds 
of earth only. This great and unbecoming mis-statement in Dr. 
Robertson should be a caution to those who are inclined to 
imagine, that truth must flow in the channel of polished periods, 
not implicitly to believe all that they find in the pages of cele- 
brated writers, whose reputation depends much more on the 
style of their language, than the justice and truth of their obser- 
vations respecting ^cts. Dr. Robertson writes at a distance 
from the facts and scenes which he describes, — he is but too 
frequently, in what he says, as distant from truth ; in fact, even 
now, the ruins of the palace of Tezcuco bespeak its former 
grandeur, though many of the stones, which once embellished 
this edifice of Kings, have found their way into the humble 
dwellings of the Indians, of which they now compose a part. 
The mountain, of which a representation is given, is, as I have 
said, not very distant from Tezcuco : this mountain is covered 
with the ruins of ancient Indian buildings ; at about two-thirds 
up the mouutahi is a curious bath hewn out of solid porphyry ; 
the floor has been rent by an earthquake ; two stone seata 
cut equally in the rock remain associates of the solitude of tfae^ 

192 On Mr. Bullock's Specimens 

Mr. Bullock, who spent a year in Mexico, and has jus^^ 
returned, did not forget to bring with him to this country., 
a most varied collection of specimens of fruits and flowers, anc= 
trees of Mexico, modelled in wax and other ingenious ways a 
perfectly representing the natural object. The Horticulturar ^ 
Society are indebted to him for many species of flowers^. • 
never hitherto introduced into this country. The beauty oft: 
the humming, and other Mexican, birds, of which he has a^ 
great variety, as it would be difficult to imagine, it would b^^ 
vain to attempt to describe: it i^ said, however^ perhaps by thos^^ 
who would envy America the beauty of her feathered race, thar ^ 
the birds of those countries do not sing — how true, this may 
I know not : it seems to be mere assertion, without any proo 
The two other engravings, which follow those of the cycles ofc " 
time, are from original pictures drawn in Mexico. Of the parti — 
cular places represented, the first is a distant view of a moun- j 
tain, not far from the once famed city of Tezcuco, so cele — 
brated among the Spanish writers ; the last King of which, a:^ 
well as the last Sovereign of Mexico, was most ignominiously. ' 
after a long captivity, put to death by Cortes, on some slighv^ 
and unfounded suspicion of plots against the Spaniards. Th^^ 
tity of Tezcuco is still full of ancient monuments, tliougl — 
Robertson declares, in the most unqualified manner, that therms 
were no remains of ancient monuments in all New Spain, or i 
there were any,* some rude, shapeless and unintelligible mound: 
of earth only. This great and unbecoming mis-statement in Dr 
Robertson should be a caution to those who are inclined t 
imagine, that truth must flow in the channel of polished periods ^ 
not implicitly to believe all that they find in the pages of cele^ 
brated writers, whose reputation depends much more on the 
style of their language, than the justice and truth of their obser- 
vations respecting facts. Dr. Robertson writes at a distance 
from the facts and scenes which he describes, — he is but too 
frequently, in what he says, as distant from truth ; in fact, even 
now, the ruins of the palace of Tezcuco bespeak its former 
grandeur, though many of the stones, which once embellished 
this edifice of Kings, have found their way into the humble 
dwellings of the Indians, of which they now compose a part. 
The mountain, of which a representation is given, is, as I have 
said, not very distant from Tezcuco : this mountain is covered 
with the ruins of ancient Indian buildings ; at about two-thirds 
up the mountain is a curious bath hewn out of solid porphyry ; 
the floor has been rent by an earthquake ; two stone seats. 
cut equally in the rock remain associates of the solitude of the 


• 4 


of Mexican Antiquities^ ^c. 193 

place^ a road on the left presents an abrupt approach. Of the 
period when this bath was made — ^so singularly situated, almost 
on the summit of a mountain, where one would have imagined 
there would have been little temptation to bathe, except, indeed, 
the fatigue of the ascent might have rendered the coldness of the 
water refreshing — who can now tell ? The conveyance of the wa- 
ter to the bath must have been a work of considerable labour ; 
and one would have thought that the wings of the Zephyrs 
so high up the mountain themselves would have been sufficiently 
refrigerating. That, however, which is most surprising, and ren- 
ders this place an object of curious attention, is the immense 
labor which niust have been exhausted in cutting the solid 
porphyry. Our wonder is excited by the Egyptian art and labor 
bestowed in working porphyry; and knowing that of all stone this 
species of granite is the hardest, and perceiving how very slowly 
modern art proceeds in the labor of cutting it, what must we 
think of this work of ancient American art ! Can we believe 
that the ancient Indians, who were very superior to their pre-; 
sent descendants, were as unacquainted with every species of me- 
tal instrument as some authors pretend ? It is impossible. The 
fact is, they had copper either naturally so hard, or they had the 
art of rendering it so bard, that it answered all the purposes of 
iron to them ; with copper tools, perhaps, this curious work might 
have been accomplished. There. is something very picturesque 
in the appearance of this bath : the luxuriant green of the Nopal 
tree, the vegetation of which shoots all around, singularly con- 
trasts with the purple of the granite, over which it seems as fain 
to spread its leafy protection. Having mentioned the name of 
Egypt, with reference to the cutting of granite, I cannot re- 
frain from remarking one more analogy between the Mexicans 
and the Egyptians ; it is this, — many and vast Pyramids exist at 
the present day not very far from Mexico. I know that some 
authors have denied this, and put a veto on the world's belief 
of it — however this may be, these Pyramids exist, and are 
likely to do so. Baron Humboldt, who has been in Mexico, 
particularly describes them, and gives a drawing of one of the 
small ones extremely curious ; it has a staircase ascending to 
the top, itself being made of cut stone, and very high, on a 
basis very small proportioned to its height. It muist be granted, 
then, that ancient Pyramids exist in some of the Mexican pro^ 
viDces, and that the most interesting antiquities are to be dis- 
covered in the New World. 

VOL. XXIX- Cl.Jl. NO.LVir. N 




prehending a Methodical Digest of the various 
Phrases Jrom the best Authors, which have been col- 
lected in all Phraseological Works hitherto published, 
for the more speedy progress of Students in Latin 
Composition. By W. Robertson, A. M. of 
Cambridge. A new Edition with considerable Ad- 
ditions, Alterations, and Corrections. London : Bald- 
win. 1824. 8w. 15^. Pp. 1023. 

Xhis is a very bulky octavo^ sold at a reasonable price^ and io 
respect to paper and print got up in that plain and unambitious 
way, which is best suited to School-books, and reflects credit on 
those, who have projected and executed the Work. The vaiua- 
Me assistance, which it will afford to the Student and School- 
boy in Latin Composition, can scarcely fail to obtain for it a 
distinguished place in the list of School-books. Its pretensions 
to notice are so modestly, and, so far as we can in the abeence 
of the pid Edition judge, so correctly, and so concisdy set forth 
in the Advertisement prefixed, that it would be injustice to the 
Work and to our readers to state them in any other words :--^ 

Robertson's Latin Pbrase Book having been long out of print and be- 
come scarce, many eminent teachers of the classics have expressed a desire 
to see a new and improved edition. That there was ample room JTor im- 
provement is obvious on the slightest inspection of the old work. The 
English is obsolete, the arrangement confused, tiie order of printing sudi 
as to render it difficult for consultation or reference, the redundancies so 
numerous as to increase most unnecessarily and seriously the bulk of the 
volume, and much of the Latin drawn from barbarous sources. It has 
been the aim of the present editor to remedy these evils, and to render 
the work better adapted to the use of the Middle and li^rckisses in oar 

It is a peculiarity in this Phrase Book that it comprehends all previous 
publications on the subject : but the present edition has this advantage 
over its predecessors, that it is enriched with many hundred phrases 
which have hitherto been mirecorded, and these have been drawn ftxMn 
the purest fountains, by actual perusal; ^m Cicero, Tacte, XVroMi^ 

Thus, while the size of the volume has been usefully diminished, its 
capacity for reference has been increased, and its value for purity consi- 
derably enhancdd. . . , . . 

Notice of Robertton's Dictionary^ ^c, 195 

But while the editor is CfJlipg public attention to improvement! al- 
ready made, he would not be thought iovensible to the necessity of future 
improvements, and will thankfully receive such animadversions as may 
render another edition still more useliil. 

The ina^eaiifig taMUhn paid to LMi Compomtim renders works of this 
description more important; and by , the Lexiam Cieenmianum of NvsO' 
Imtj and this improved edition of Robertion, the access to Latin peculia- 
rities is made more easy and sure; for if correct Latinity were only to be 
acquired by an extensive and deep acquaintance with the various works 
of classic authors,, it would be absolutely unattainable by any one in 
siaiu§tupillari, and could scarcely be taaght in our schools. 

We congratulate the classical public on the multiplied facili- 
ties for writiog elegant and correct Latin, which are afforded by 
this and similar Works. We would strongly urge on the at- 
tention of School-masters the propriety of giving every possible 
encouragement to so desirable an accomplishment^ which has 
been often unattained even by Scholars, whose fame has extended 
over civilised Europe, and whose vforks will be read with in^ 
siruction and amusement to the remotest period of time. To 
write Latin with facility may be a matter of easy acquirement to 
most scholars of extensive reading ; to write it elegantly may be 
an object iof no difficult attainment to a student of good taste 
and memory, intimately conversant with the language of the pu- 
nfit authors; but to unite rhetorical elegance and grammatical 
aGCttracy, hie labor, hoc opus est, and yet the student need not 
despair of uniting both, if he will depend on his own right band, 
obeer bis heart with contemplating the bright example of the 
venerable Dr. Parr| and pursue his career of iiiiprovement withf 
diat *^ soul of fire/' which '' no labors fright, and no dangers 
tire,^ and which takes for its device the animating words of the 
Latin poet : Posmnt, quia posse videritur. 

We 4isU cite from the VVork under consideration two speci- 
mens of the manner, in which the Editor has executed the task 
assigned to him ; and these specimens will convey to our readers 
a pretty good idea of the plan and utility of the book for assist- 
ing the sjUident ^i Latin composition :-^ 

** To abandon, renuntiare, amovere, amandare, remittere etc. ; as, To 
abandon one*s friendshipy amicitiam aliciii renuntiare, Cic. : Ht has aban^ 
doned virtue^ uuntium virtuti remisiL Cic. : He has abandoned or renounced 
all cwU offices or empip^/ments, Civilibus ofBciis renuntiavit : I abandon m^ 
province, provinciam remitto : To abandon one, whose re^tation is attacked^ 
dimicanti de fama deesse, Ck.^ 

** Lean, maoer, macilentus, gracilis, tenuis, exilic, st^igosus. As leAn ai 
a ro^, ossa at(]ue pellis, nisera macritudine ; nihil ahu<l qiMam Sypha^ 
hominis ; nudior Leberide. Ita proverbialiter dicitur de veheinenter te- 
nuibus ; Leberis enim serpentis exuviata significat. Night watchings 
mate bodies lean, vigilis atteliuant corpora.'' 

196 Examinations for the Cldssicjal THpoits^ 

From the last inntance our readers will perceive that due at- 
tention is paid to proverbs^ which contain the condensed force 
of the languages^ as well as the collected wisdom of the peopleb 
The proverbs of the one tongue are translated by the corre- 
sponding proverbs of the other. 



Jirst imtituted at Cambridge, January^ 1824. 

To he translated into Greek Prose. 

JjIt son, you are yet young: time will make an alteration 10 
your opinions ; and of many^ which you now strongly maintain, 
you will hereafter advocate the very reverse : wait, therefore,' 
till time has made you a judge of matters, so deep and so im- 
portant in their nature. For that, which you now regard as 
nothing, is, in fact, the concern of the very highest moment ; 
I mean, the direction of life to good or bad purposes, by cor- 
responding investigations into the nature of the Gods. One 
thing, and that not trivial, I can at least venture, in all the con<« 
fidence of truth, to assure you respectii^ them ; the sentiments, 
which you now entertain, are not solitary, first originated by you 
or your friends ; they are such as, at all times, have found ad* 
vocates, more or less in number; but I speak the language of 
experience when I say, that not one of those, who in their 
youth had been led to think that there were no Gods, has found 
his old age consistent in opinion with that of his more juvenile 

To be translated into English. 

Rem populi tractas i (Barbatum hsc crede Magistrum 

Dicere, sorbitio tollit quem dira cicutae.) 

Quo fretus ? die hoc, magni pupille Pericli. 

Scilicet ingenium, et renim prudentia velox 

Ante pilos venit ? dicenda, tacendaque calles ! 

Ergo, ubi commota fervet plebecula bile, 

Fert animus calidae fecisse silentia turbae 

Majestate manus ; quid deinde loquere ? Quirites, 

Hoc, puto, non justum est ; illud male ; rectius illud. 

Scis etenim justum gemina suspendere lance 10 

, Jn^itiifed at Cambridge^ Jan. 1824. ' 197 

Ancipitis librae ; rectum discernb^ ubi inter 

Cttrva subit, vel cum &llit pede regula varo : 

£t potis es nigrum vitio prsefigere Theta. 

Quin tu igitur, summa nequicquam pelle decorus. 

Ante diem blando caudam jactare popello 

Desinis, Anticjras melior sorbere meracas ? 

Quae tibi summa boni est f Uncta vixisse patella 

Semper^ et assiduo curata cuticula sole. 

Elxpecta : baud aliud respondeat base anus. I nunc. 

Dinomacfaes ego sum ; suffla : sum candidus. Esto^ 20 

Dum ne detenus sapiat pannucea Baucis, 

Cum bene discincto cantaverit ocjma vemae. 

Ut nemo in sese tentat descendere ! nemo ! 

Sed praecedenti spectatur mantica tergo. 

Quaesieris : Nostin' Vectidi praedia i cujus ? 

Dives arat Curibus, quantum non milvus oberret. 

Hunc ! ait i hunc, Diis iratb, Genioque sinistro ! 

Qui, quandoque jugum pertusa ad compita figit, 

Seriolae veterem metuens deradere limum, 

Ingemit, Hoc bene sit ! tunicatum cum sale mordens 30 

Coepe ; et, farrata pueris plaudentibus olla, 

Pamiosam faecem morientis sorbet aceti. 

I. Ver. 1. MagittrumJ] What remuneration did the Sophists usually 
receive for their instructions? Did Socrates require any from his disci- 
jdes? What was the accusation brought against him? Before what 
court was he tried ? What time intervened between the representation 
of the Clouds and his death ? 

II. 3. PupUle,'] Give an account of the life of the person here ad- 
dressed, with the dates of the events you mention. 

III. Tketa, 12. Jntkyras, 16. Jfanttcoy 24.] Explain these allusions^ 
and confirm your assertions by quotations. 

IV. State the arguments used in the dialogue of Plato, of which this 
Satire is an imitation. 

To be translated into English. 

Alteba jam teritur bellis civilibus aetas ; 

Suis et ipsa Roma viribus ruit. 
Quam neque finitimi valuerunt perdere Marsi, 

Minacis aut Etrusca Porsenae njanus, 
iEmuIa nee virtus Capuae, nee Spartacus acer, 

Novisve rebus infidelis Allobrox; 
Nee fera caerulea domuit Germania pube, 

Parentibuave abomimitus Hannibal ; 

198 E^tdminations for tht Clascal lSif9k$^ 

Impia perdemus devoti s&nguinis ietas ; 

Ferisque rursus occupabitur solum, 10 

Barbarus, heu ! cineres insistet victor, et Urbem 

Eques sonante verberabit ungula : 
Quaeque carent ventis et solibus ossa Qairini 

(Nefas videre) dissipabit insolens. 
Forte, quid expediat, communiter, aut melior pars, 15 

Malis carere quaeritis laboribus f 
Nulla sit hac potior sententia : PhocaBorum 

Velut profugit exaecrata civitaa > > • 

j^gros atque Lares patrios, habitatidaque fana 

Apris reliquit et rapacibufif lupis : $0 

Ire, pedes quocunque ferent, quocunque p^r undat - 

Notus vocabit, aut protervus Afrkus. 
Sic placet ? an melius quis habet suadere ? secunda 

Ratem occupare quid mdramur alite f 
Sed juremus in haec : simul imis saxa renarint €5 

Vadis levata, ne redire sit nefas : 
Neu conyersa domum pigeat dare lintea, quando 

Padus Matina laverit cacumina. 

I. Ver. 5. Spartacus.'] Give the date and circumstances of the insur- 
rection of Spartacus. Upon what occasion jvere gladiators first exhibited 
at Rome } Describe their weapons, and their manner of fightiag. 

II. 17. /PAocifOftim.] What circumstances induced the Phocsans to 
leave their country ? At what ^iacet did they stop in their dight ? Whei« 
did they finally settle? Give your authority for what you relate. 

III. Give the names and laws of the difiRereat lyric metres uaed by 

Translate into English Prose. 
(From Theocr. Idyl. xxv. 9A\ — 261.) 

OT [idv irplv TToBug »r;^ov, Sgo$ ravv^uXXoy egeuvwv, 
Ilph lieeiVf a\KYi$ re TrapaurtKoi veipriivivou, 
"Htoi 6 jxsy (Hiqarf/pL 7FpoiaU\o$ i<rux& ^*^ ^^f 

Av^yt^ripag wewaAaxro ^ivec, yjxhffKiv re vpSa-ancw, M5 

STrfiioCrB' .yXuxrcfji 8e fcepth^aro yintoy, 

Avrdg eyco mpLVOKTiv ip^U crxtegolcrtv lxp^9i)y 

*Ev flep wA^svTi, KsSeyjtiiyo^ OTnr^* Txoito* 

Ka) jSoAof ia-a-ov \Afto$ iLpicrrepw ilg xiVi&va 

TqiKr/wj: ou yoip t» ^Ko$hot ^apxig oKitrdgy ' £30 

^Oxpuoev, X^PV ^^ ifuXf&&vro9 I/Xfli5<rf «o^. 

Airmg t xpara iotftivlv &irl xfcvi^ ix* htinptf 

^Igfsiituted at. Cambridge^ Jom. 1824^^ 199 

SKSTtT^fiwog, Xa[Aogov$ di ^amf ^rsSsi^sy iSorretg. 

T(3 S* eyoo aWov Afdroy ino vetjpvis npotaXkov, 235 

*A(r^aXioQv ?ri jxoi vph irAmog tht^vye %e<po^ 

Me(r<nQYug S* ^4^y trvffiiwv, ^j wiifMVog eSqx* 

*AK\' ou$* mg uro fi6p(rav e$ti fF0>M£^yv9s log, 

'^XX' mere vpoiragoi$e iroimv ave/xfloAiov axhcog. 

7% tpWw o& fiJike(rkov, iurApievog hv ^gB<r)v uh&g, 240 

Aiepieiv 6 U jx* elds itipiyKyiifooiJ^iVog o&^otg 

B^ Mpi^og' [ji,anp)i¥ ie wup* lyvu^trtv iKi^M 

KipKor u^ap Ss ftc^^ k[ji,y^(ruto' irig ii oS A^%^y 

nivroiev eikvu-devrog wrou kayovag ts xcA Ij^uv. 
*/2f y JTAV ^^fMtroffijyo; ^v^Pf ^roXlcov i&^i^ ipyonv, 
"Op'TTfiKug Kotfi^nr^iv ep$vt9v tuxsaroioy 
6aX4raf Iv irvfi irp&TOV, hroi^ovltp icuKXot il^gcf, 
Tov jctey M ix %ei^<tfv Ifuyty r^vJ^Xoio^ l/7iV60^ 250 

KAii/mifHsvog, njXou Ss ftip ^Sijcrev u^* opft^* 
^/2^ It Ijbto) XT^ alvog oaxixpoiiv aigiog iXro, 
Maif/^Awf XP^^S ivM* lyn S* itipifji^i ^iX^iMoi 
Xeip) iFpo»rx,^iifJi^^v, xci he SfMov ilnXxKa }Jiin^v* 
T^ V mff jMmXMf xojptfi}^ S^ree aSov uiloagf 255 

AuTorj hfi XouriotQ KUp^arog ayoieXouov 

Bnpig itfuufuoiir^iO' %iwt S* ^e, 9rp}y y Ijuu* ixfo-toij 

'IVpoiffv Iv yctlr^' xoel Ssr) Tpo[i,ipoig irocrh hrtfj, 

Nevcrritjm KtfecXjl* Ttgi ykg <rx6Tog Serai ol ipLfw £60 

^Hk6e, ^(vj a-tiiriimg iv dffrstp.iyKBfaXoio, 

I. V. 223. irplf (^'liv. Explain the degree of latitude with which the 
Greek writers use the different tenses of the infinitive fnood. Is there 
any difierenoe between the usage ofvfU with a subjunctive asd with an 
infinitive ? 

II. 236. How is the quantity of the second syllable in ^i^Xix^ro 
accounted for ? Show from a comparison with words at all sifiailar Iti 
their composition, whether there is any method of remedying the appa^ 
rent defect. 

III. 336. <^»xewy. What other form of this word exists ? Which is 
the more ancient ? How is the present Ibrm explained ? Produce a few 
similar forms from Homer. 

IV. 341. «dipi!ny. ^ Which of these is the preferable reading? Establish 

at Ig^fty. } your opinion by autherity. 

V. Derive ir^Uih^e, 33». A»«fA»^^y, 339. «ip*yxW^v8f, 34t- &H^f 343* 
i^MiaToio, 348. Tavvfxou;, 350. Xi»ini, 354. Give the different derivatiops 
and accentuations assigned to «9foo; Recording to its significations. 

SOO Eapamnations for the Classical Tir^HSf 

VI. To what dialect, and what stage of that dialect, doea the language 
of Theocritus belong? Specify in a few instances the difference between 
that dialect and others to whioh it approximates. 

Translate thefoUowing into £n6LISh Prose. 

^otfjA yap Tflto-y If aXi^Aay- 

XTOv woTf yeis 'Ewa^oio xopav 
'Aarioav pi^oLV ^urew- 

Aios h^Afji^fuovos 0sjxsdAo<^. 

"ivvovg ufLel^avTes dooi$, 30 

Avla T avT eperpiMV 
Al^gov$Tsv(OfjM(roKriv a§Kkov6Sot,s, 
Kelvog Spvig IxTsAeura- 

(TUy [AiyaXuv ttoXIoov fMLTpivO' 
O^potv ymcriai^ rov ttotb 
TpiTeoyiSo$ ev irpo^oal$ 
Alfivag 6em avegi eliofJLivep 
Falav di^ovri ^elvta . 
noMpatev EtjfoL[M$ xarafiag 
As^ar' alfnov S* hrl ol Kpovlcov 
Zeus ^emip ixXay^e j3f ovrav 41 

Mvix' otyKvgotv nor) ^akKoyevvv 
Nai KpvjiJi^vivToov ewsTOtra-e, ioois 
*Apyovsxot\iv6v, JooieKo. hi wgo- 

*Aiuipug l^ fiJxffavoO fepofiev 
NiroDV vireg yulug epi^fj^cov 
EivaXiov hopv, jx^- 

Secriv av<rira(rirotVT€$ oiyAng. 
TouTOLKi 8* oUicoXog 

AatfMOP BVYlktsV, ^M^lpLUV 50 

*AvBpo$ ulhlov 9rpo(ro\piy 
Brixifievog, ^iA/mv 8* hirieov 
^Apxero^ f ff/voij St* hk^ 

dovTt<r<nv €vepyiroii 
^tiwif hrayyihMfTX Tfirov. 

*A'Kkjk yap vinrw itgofeurig ykt)' 


Fouaixoii Treug ifitrov 'Ewoff-fta 
"Ei^fuyai. riyvwTKB S* huyofU^ 

*Av y ivivg dpira^aig ipoupag 60 
Ae^trepSi wgorv^ov 
Sivtov fiMoriUfTi iovvau 
OuS* carl6^<ri vtv, aXr 

A* iigaos, W «XT«i<riv flop»v, 
Xiipl o\ x'^^% avTBpti(rottg 
Ai^aro ^XoacoL iaiftovlxv. 
UiutofMH 8* auToiv xara' 

KXtxTdfurav ex iouparog 
'EvoA/flc fiafUiV ^ a>^af 

*E<nrigas, i^pep %%K&r^t% vixoiU' 
voai. 70 

^H fiav viv Srpwov iafMi 
AtiCiicSwig iipouK&h 

rwcriv ^uAai^tfi* tcov 8* lAa- 
iavTO ^peveg. 
Kat vvv hv r^ afdirov vol- 

0*0) xep^t/rai Ai^iag evgv^opoo 
SvepfieLf TTgiy oopagM Ei yoLp oi- 

xoi viv jSaAs ifkp ^imov 
*Aiha (TTO/cta, Talvagov eig Upav 
Etj^afuog lAdflov, vlhg Itr" 

vag^ov no(riihcuovog, Mfot^, 80 
Tov TTOT EvpooTU TiTVOv iuyarr^p 
TlxTS Ka^cov vap S^ieug' 

Terparcof wetlBwv x' hrtyuvofj^i" 


A\(i.& fi\ xc(tav Kk^€ «'uy Javaol^ 

' IwtituUd at Cambridge, Jan. 1^$^ 9$if 

EifMtav airetpov. Tort yip i^d- 'E^tty/trrflorai ^IdtxtSoifMi 

PiND.PyM. IV. 22-87. 

I. V. 25 — ^28. Where was Thera, and from what state colonized? Who 
was the daughter of Epaphua ? What the colony here predicted? When, 
and by whom, established ? Explain the change foretold in 39 — 32. 

II. 36. T^itmiloi. Describe its situation ; and give a brief sketch of 
the supposed course of the Argonauts to account for' its introduction. 
Explain in connexion with this the fact mentioned in vv. 44 — 48. 

III. Explain the sense of u^o/uMyw, how derived, v. 37* the quantity of 
the penult of •ym/p«y, v. 42. with exceptions eithet real or apparent; the 

formation of ^««toov», >. 43, ixBovvtatrty^ 54. 0SifA9f^G9> oirtpKif, 70. 

iV. Explain the construction of odi' airi9n(ri nv, and produce examples 
of the different uses ofnr in different dialects. 

V. Who are the ^yool mentioned in v. 84. ? With what propriety is 
the term used ? What is the event referred to in the last three lines? 
Give the diate usuall;^ assigned to the Argonautic expedition, and caleit- 
late the distance of time l^tween the two events. 

To be translated into English Prose. 

(Ari^toph. Acharn. 593-617. 666-675.) 


A A, Tuirn Avyei; oru Toy CTparr^yov, wrcup^oj mv ; 

J I. r/M.yap tlfii WT00^6$j A A, aXXA rig yap el ; 

J J. Sttis ; woX/nj^ Xg'l^TO^^ o5 (TTFOviap^iByig, 595 

aXA*, 6^ OTOV vep 6 TroXefAOSf (rrgaTeoviir^s' 

<rv y, ej Jtou vep 6 %ih£iuo$^ jxicridcp^/Si]^. 
AA* lyjiiptyrow^fTOLV yaq [it, AL rgelg yt x6xxuyeg» 

rwJT oSv iyd fihKtyrrSfievos^ l(pJFeKri[i,ifiv, 

ogoov woXioitg ftev av^pa$ h rou$ ri^eci, 6OO 

veavloLs ^y oloxtg (rU| SioSe^^axpro^^ 

Tou; ftsy cff-} SpaKifig, pn(r6ofopovvTa$ rpu$ ipU'^^fAa^f 

krepovg Se Ttapoi Xa^ri, rohg S* h Xaifn, 
repyiToii6Sa>gov$, Aioii^iiaXaCfivag, 605 

roup S* Iv KaiMiqlvrjif xotv n><^, xay xaruyiXiif* 
AA» l'Xjiip^Tovifiri(rav yip. AL ounov St r/ 
vfuep ftsy kii [iKriopogelv aff^tiyvmif 
Tcoyh) Se fM^Uv* moy; cu MupikiSf^, ^ 

^$1} 7reirpi(r^\ixa$ o'u no?iio$ w¥ ; kvii* 610 

avevfuo'ff* Ka) rouor/v ye (roi^poov Koigyurvif. 

olSiy rip x^imv rooi^ircuf 4 ^0^^ Jtooyap; 

0^ ^axrlv* i>X 6 Koiavgotf xat AofMXOS* 

pip iw* ip&ifou n xci XP^^ vgcoviv iMTt » . ^ -^V^ 

♦ ♦ "^ ♦ » # 

hrovos, 'A^oi'pvtx^* 

oTov 1^ aiApeacon irpiubicov 

fiiif^LXng ivn>^T i^SA^fMyo^ odgla piwt^, 670 

fytW iv hruvipuidSis Ji<rt itapaxitfAmfai, 

ol II Bao'iuv ic»etxu7ci(n >uircLpa(Mrv)ui, 

ffVToyoVi iuypptxinpov, »s */m, AM/Souo-oty roy $ifju<ffn^» 675 

t. T. 593. Give an account of the original institution of the atfomiyol, 
•ad Che modificatioii which the office mhs eq u m tiy underweiU. Account 
ix the use of the article before ^fornyof. 

II. 6fl»4» Whftt M the third foot in this vene? Explain the general 
principle of the combination of letters leagtlieiung a preceding short 
vowel; and show from it what will be the effect produced by the con- 
currence of fcV, 

III. 698. I& there any error in this line, as it now standa? If so, cor- 
rect it. 

IV. 609. At what period of the .war. and by what circumstances, 
were military operations transferred to Tnrace ? Mention the principal 
events which occurred there, with dates. State the metrical canon 
bearing upon the qmii^y of ^p(»x/««k, give apparent exceptions to 2t/and 
account for thenu Give the vahie of the drachmay obotue, and mina; 
and mention from Aristophanes the daily pay of other services among 
the Athenians. 

V. 603 — 6. Explain the allusions in these lines. 

VI. 608. Mark the breathings accent, &c. vfafjoiytwnf and explain its 
Ibrmation. In 611, explain the oompoeitionofv^Bdv*^, and compare it 
with similar usages : m 617« explain the formation and senee of lit<rTu;. 

VIL 614. hKoicCfos* Who is the person here intended? Trace the 
relation, and point out any other circumstances which confirm or inva- 
lidate the consistency of Aristopfaanes's deseription. Where did Lama- 
chus die, and when? 

VIII. 615. Common readiagy Mf. On wiiat gimitsds is it objection- 
able ? How may the cormption be accounted for? Explain If^. 

IX. 667. 'Ax»^i^ Where was Acharnse ? and to what tribe did it 
belong? What account does Thncydides give of their strength and im- 
^ottaiuce at tbi^ time? atid what was the ground of their dissatisfaction. 

X. (S73. Bturtttf. WlMrs was the place rvferrod to, and for what 
famous ? Explain the allusion of the p ase »g e» and aecoiuit Ibr the use of 

iQu Give the metrical names of vv. 667. 678. 

Translate into Latin Lyrics, and affix the metrical names 

to the lines qfthejtrst Strophe : 

"Opvig, a ntaqoi ra$ vn^Svag 

EuRiP. Iphis. in Taur. 1089 — 115£, 
At$o, the Antistrophe to oe translated into English Prose, 

ik^ktkd at CiMMdg9jJ4^ 18U. 90$ 


To be turned into Greek lambU Trhn^trt. 
Beat us ille, qui procul negotiis* • • « 

To be translated into Latin Pross. 

Thb best way to represent to life the manifold use of friend- 
ship^ is to cast and see how many things there are which a man 
cannot do himself; and then it will appear that it was a sparing 
speech of the ancients, to say, '' that a friend is another him- 
self;*' for that a friend is far more than himself. Men have 
their time, and die many times in desire of some thu^ which 
they principally take to heart; the bestowing of a cmLA, the 
finishing of a work, or the like. If a man have a true friend, 
be may rest almost secure that the care of those thiols will con* 
tinue after him ; so that a man hath, as it were, two lives in Us 
desires* A man hath a body, and that bod^ is confined to a 
place; but where friendship is, all offices of life are, as it were, 
granted to him and his deputy ; for he may exercise them by his 
friend. How many things are there which a man cannot, with 
any fscei or comeliness, say or do himself? A man can scarce 
alledge his own merits with modesty, much less extol them ; a 
nan cannot sometimes brook to supplicate, or b^, and a num- 
ber of the like: but all these things are graceful in a friend's 
nioiith, which are blushing in a man's own. So again, a man's 
persw bath many proper relations which he cannot put off« 
A man cannot speak to his son but as a father; to his wife but 
as a husband ; to his enemy but upon terms : whereas a friend 
sday ^peak as the case requires, and not as it sorteth with the 
parson: but lo enumerate these things were endless ; I have 
given the rule, where a man cannot fitly play his own part; if 
he have not a fri^ he may quit the stage. 

To be translated into English Prosk. 

At Marius, 'cupientissnma plebe Consul factus, postqnam 
ei *provinciam Numidiam populus jussit, antea jam infestua no- 
bifitaci, tum vero multus, atque ferox instare : singnlos tmoiOf, 
modo universos lacdere : dictitare, sese Consulatum ex victis tl* 
Ks spolia cepisse ; alia prseterea magnifica pro se, et illis doleB*^ 
tta: interim, quse betto opus erant, prima habere: ^postdare 
tegtonibns snpplementnm : anxilia a populis, et regibus, aociis- 
que arcessere : praeterea ex Latio fortusimum quemque, pieros- 
que m9itia, paucos ftttia cogaitos accirci et ambteado cogere 

t04 EdaHtmoHonsfor the Ckmkai Tripoks, 

3 homines -efDeritis stipendiis secum proficisci. 'Neque illi Se- 
natuSj qu^mquam adversus erat^ de ullo negotio abnuere aude- 
bat: cetenim supplementnin etiam Isetus decreverat: quia^ 
^neque plebi mintia volenti putabatur^ et Marius aut belli 
nsum^ aut studium vulgi amissurus. Sed ea res frustra sperata. 
Tanta lubida cum Mario eundi plerosque invaserat. 

' ' LuDi forte, ex instauratione, Magni Romae parabaotur : 
instaurandi bsec caussa fuerat Ludis mane servum quidam pa- 
terfamiliaEi,^ nondum commisso spectaculo, sub furca csesum 
medio egerat circo : coepti inde ludi^ velut ea res nihil ad religi- 
onem pertinuisset. Haud ita multo post, Tib. Antihio, de 
plebe homini, somnium fuit. Visus Jupiter dicere, '' Sibi ludis 
praesultatorem displicuisse : nisi magnifice instaurarentur hi lu- 
d\, periculum urbi fore : iret, ea consulibus nunciaret/' Quan- 
quam baud sane liber erat religione animus ; verecundia tamen 
majestbtis magistratuum timorem vicit, ne in ora bominum pro 
ludibrio abiret. Magno illi ea cunctatio stetit : fiUum namque 
intra paucos dies amisit : cujus repentinae cladis ne eausa dubia 
esset, segro animi eadem ilia in somnis obversata species, visa 
est rogitare, ** Satin' magnam spreti numinis haberet mercedem i 
majorem instare, ni eat propere ac nunciet consulibus." Jam 
praesentior res erat : cunctantem tamen, ac prolatantem, ingens 
vis morbi adorta est, debilitate subita. Tum enimvero Deorum 
ira admonuit: fessus igitur malis prsteritis, instantibusque, 
consilio propinquorum adhibito, quum visa atque audita, et ob- 
teniatum toties somno Jovem, minas, irasque coelestes reprse- 
^entatas casibus suis exposuisset; consensu inde haud dubio 
omnium qui aderant, in forum ad consules lectica defertur : inde 
in curiam iussu consuluro delatus, eadem ilia quum Patribus in- 
genti omnium admiratione enarrasset ; ecce aliud miraculum ; 
qui captus omnibus membris delatus in curiam esset, eum fimc- 
tum officio pedibus suis domum rediisse, traditum memoriae est. 


Utrumqu£ ex tuo consilio: nam et 7oratio fuit ea nostra, 
ut bene potiiis ille (Caesar) de . nobis existimaret, quam gratias 
ageret: et in eo mansimus, ne ad urbem. Ilia fefeilerunt, faci- 
kin quod putaramus. Nihil vidi rniniis. Damnari se nostro 
judicio, tardiores fore reliquos, si in his non venerimus, dicere. 
Ego, di^similem illorum esse causam. Cum multa; veni. igi- 
tur, et age de pace. Meone, inquam, arbitratu ? An tibi, in- 
qoitp ego praucribam i ^ Sic, inquam, again,: Senatui non pla-. 

at Cambridge^ Jon^ IsSjMk' 205 

vere in Hispanias in, nee ezercitus in Oraeciam transporUiri ; 
multaquej inquam, de Cnso deplorabo. Tun ille, £^o vero 
ista dici nolo. Ita putabam, inquam : aed ego eo nolo adesge^ 
quod aut sic mihi dicendum est, multaque quae nuUo modo pos-' 
sem silere^ si adessem ; aut non veniendum. Summa fuit« ut 
ille quasi exitum quserens^ ut deliberarem. Non fuit negandunt. 
Ita decessimus. Credo igitur faunc me non 9amare : at ego me 
amavi ; quod mihi jam pridem usu non venit. Reliqua^ o dii, 
'^ qui comitatus ! qus^ ut tu soles dicere, vexula ! O rem per- 
ditam ! O copias desperatas ! quid, quod Servii filius ? quod 
Titiuii ? quot in his castris fiierunt, <}uibus Pompeius circumsi- 
deretur ? sex legiones. Multum vigilaty audet Nullum videp 
finem mali. Nunc certe promenda tibi sunt consilia. Hoc 
fuerat extremum. Ilia tamen xttroocAfl; illius est odiosa, quam 
paene praeterii ; ** si sibi consiliis nostris uti non Iiceret, usurum^ 
quorum posset, ad omniaque esse descensurum.^ Vidisti igi- 
tur virum ? Ut scripseras. Ingemuisti i certe. Cedo reliqua. 
Quid? Continuo ipse in Pedanum, ego Arpiniim: inde ex- 
apecto quidem AoAayfucray illam tuam. Tu (malum) inquies^ 
'■ actum ne agas : etiam ilium ipsum, quem sequimur, multa fe- 
fellerunt. Sed ego tuas litteras exspecto : nihil est enim jam, 
ut antea, '^ videamus hoc quorsum evadat." Extremum fuit de 
congressu nostro : quo quidem non dubito quin istum '^ offen- 
derim. Eo maturius agendum est. Amabo te epistolam, et 
iroAiTix^y : Valde tuas litteras nunc exspecto. 


1 Relate the circumstances which immediately preceded this first 
election of Marius to the Consulship, and state what causes comributed 
at this time to render him a favorite with the people. 

Mention also in what manner, and from what orders of Citiasens at this 
period, the Consuls were elected. 

S Postc[uam ei ^oninaam Numidiamjxppu/us jussit. Was this in con* 
formity with the usual practice ? 

On what occasion did the Romans first interfere in the affairs of Nu- 
midia? and when was the country reduced to a Roman prootnce f 

3 Explain the expressions ^ postulare legionibus supplementum^^ 
*^ auxilia a populis arcessere," and *^ homines emeritis stipendiis/' 

4 '* Neque p)ebi militia volenti putabatur.** Explain the construction 
of these words, and quote instances of the same construction. 

5 State what these ^Ludi magni'' were; mention when and by 
whom they were instituted, and what were the *^ spectacula " exhibited 
at them. Explain also the meaning cf the phrase ** ex instauratione.^ 

e From a review of the conUnU of this letter state your opinion as ttf 
the time when it was written. Mention also how far, and m what way 
Cicero and Atticus took a part, both then and subsequently, in the- con- 
test between G«sar and Pempey* 

SQ6 EgamnatiaMjQk iU CloMsicai Tnp$Me$f 

7 Qiiottiiwtiui^Miairbieh ^ontio^ U used in thtiMoe sense as^io 

8 JEipfa 
^ Che w< 

9 PouHoul the difiercDoe in signification of the wocds amaim and itU' 

ffire; and translate ^ Te semper aroavi dilexique." Cic» £p. ad Fam. 

10 ^Quicomitatus!** Name some of the principal persons hereal- 
Med to as the adherents of Caesar. 

11 Explain the phrase <* actum ne agas:** also the words ** Eatre- 
mvm fiii% de congressu nostro^" and illustrate by quotations this use of 
the preposition ** de/' » 

19 Cfire the true meaning of the word '^ofFendere.'' Translate the 
two expressions, ** Non dobito quin hunc offendam i** and '*Non dubito 
as kunc offnidam.'' 

THUCYDIDIS. Lib. IL Cap. 43. 

To be translated into English. 
KAl eTBi fM¥ ir^Q<ni*ivTo^ r^ TiXu roiotit ffvlyofro* rob^ ii Aei- 

(a) m^hM9»* ^y iv rif 9rpof oo82y X''P®* odirfA^ vfjM^ sttoVfle^ fMpwwi, 
Xiyaav So'et h rtS robs ToXe/ut/oo^ SifuSmrieu, ievoM, ivitrrnr iiXXA 
yJ&Kkiiit rypf rijf woXeats 9wafMv uaV ^yApav i^to 9sGO|Myov^| xa) l|pet(r- 
rig yfyvofiAniiog uMis* x«} Srav 6fMV fieyaXi^ M$j| ehw, lydvfAw/A^- 
yoi; on roXfMBvrfff , kmI YtYvAvxwftis tA Uorm^ koA h tb1$ tpjfhi$ 
a2(rp^tiy^|xsvo» iv^peg aurei ixT^a-avro' k»i oirors xei) Tnipct rou trfakef" 
H/rmVp wjKowf xa\ rigv WXiv ys 7% o'^srlja; apvnis i^mvTBs orffp/b*- 
iMili'# N«XXiOToy Se ftpovov ^cdrjf wpo'iifjwfou xoii^ y^^ r^i <r£0f*ara 8i* 
S^VTfff ^ iSia roy ay^pow hrmwv iXafi^fimyoVf xoi riy tm^ov eritf^ja^M- 
rey^ ovx |y » xf lyrai jxoXAoy^ &XX' ly ^ ^ So^a aikm iroipd rtS Ivru- 
pyri ice) xo} Xoyou xa) f^pyou xoupcf a§l^vri<rTos xarotXsijfeTut, 
) oLV^poav yoip evKPavoov icifToi yr^ ra^g, xa) oi amiXSov [Mvov h rp 
•2xf/a (niyMfva iirtygA^^ &XKat xa) h r^j ft^ irpo<n}xoMrp orypdtfo^ 
/xy^jxi} Wfltp* IxocrTcp r^^ y^otfiiig fiaXXov t^ rod &you lySiairftraf. od^ 
yvy djUiffi; ^i]X60(rayrfff y x«l (0 r 2 ffSS^iftoy^ r3 IXstlfejpoy* ro 62 lA^iits^y, 
ri fS4n;;^oy xghfuvrsf, ft^ irfpAop<(0'Sero^$TOAffuxo5f xiySuyou;. su ydp 
ol xaxoirpayowTtg Sixfti^epoy ^^eiSoMy £v rou |8/ov, o7f IXvi^ o^x 
Itrr' ayoidofi' oAX' ol^ ^ hvavrla iiitaSoX^ b r^ ^^y In xiySuyfurrai, 
xo} iy elf fJCAXioTa fuyoiXa roL iiafefwru, ^y ri vr^io'coo'iy. aXysim^ 
rips yo^ ay$gi (4) y t fpim^fMC fx^vn i^i^T^ fMva roo fMiXaxxTJ^sei 
xoxoMrifi t^ 6 fAsrit ^fisfiijf xfl^ xoiyijf iXiriSof* offia yiyvijMVOi ee9od<rii^^ 


, liliii^tcd at Cimbridge, Jan, l»^< fl07 

%Mp oTfe fffh wf, Ti\tUTiiSf d|Mi; a Aiinif* xai (Xs fofuSttifMi^drf Tf ( 
fifos tf^ims X0(} hreXiurtitrM ^UHfurg^* x^oKtwif piv oSy elSa wd^ 

mri «(k} tfSroi ^MAAso-dt ' x«} Aoin) o^ S» if ri$ fiii ^m^iyuwo^ 
t^f&A&v ortphjourM, it\?i o3 if Ui^ ywiyawi a^AipsfffAf. Kognpib 
Vi XP^ ^ iXKwv vatiwf i>artii, fSl$ hi ^Xix/a rixfaariv iroi Ari«»* 
IS/f rs yc^ Tflov o^x ^coy XijAt 0} hrtyiyviftsfot Tk<r$v l<rofr«M' iral rj[ 

Y^p Aif Tf Wy ri t| 8/x«ioy /SdoXi^ivrflaf A if ^^ tuA waiiag ht rei 
o/ioiou (g) ireipapci>JjfUfoi xiySoyfivoKriy. 2(roi S* a& ira^/S^xari^ rff 
Tf irAffloiTtty xfpSof Sv^ ffiTT/%f Trf /Sifv, ^flo-df xa) roVSf fipetxpf ^fo*- 
9«A, xo} Tjf TflvySff f^xAti!^ xou^/^o^g. to y^ ^iXhtjuf ip/iffonf fb^yoif 
xol oux h rep 4XP'% '^^ ^Xixmi^ to XMpiabmif, mrmp nyig ^ouip 
|t5XXoy rfywu, SiKKot rl rifx.oa'Saei* 

JToiflr} 2r «S Sroi reoySf naqntm, % &liXpol$, igw lUyuf rov uyeofeu 
rif yip oSx ifra Smag Anivt hcMfwr xo) yA>a% if naf vwtpfi^^f 
ipwni$ oup^ Sjbtoioi aX^' JXiyex) %f /pou; xpidf /)]Tf* W ^yo( y^ TOii^ 
(Scri v;^; roy ayrfsraeXov* ro hi pJj IfMfoleof iLfafrayonloTto tufolf rf- 
T/ftijTai. ffl Sf /tf SfT xa) yovmxeta$ r) &pvn^s, oireu fvv if X'lt^^f 
Srovraif fbvqtrtf^yai^ fip^X^W ''^^tpeufifru Saof o-iQfiayfip. (0 ri^ Tf yei^ 
vw^ovoij; ^tfcgfos ik) fti) X'ipari ysfMiUf viuf pLr/ikni ^ ^^^^ >Mu 
Jig af W MXi^Hrrov uoevYis wipi ^ ^fiyou I y toTj ifno-i x)Jo$ jj, 

(0 £I|^0ti xa) ffjxoi Xo'ycp xara riy fifMV Zira flp^oy /xp/jf op«* xm} 
l^f , ol doarroiiifo^ roL fUy^ ^ xaxorfM^nreu* roiii, mrwfrtMg srouSoc; 
ro avo rouSf Stj/xoo-Za 4 ^r^Xif ff^pig ^9 flpetpM, cof fXifi^y grt^a w * 
Tola's^ rs xol roT^ kmrofUfOtg rdoy roiwySf ttfrnum wpontnWa, mIAa 
y^$ o7$^ xerrai iiperiiis [isynrTa, rolfrii xa) £yojf$ ipwroi iroXirfJotKru 
yt/y Sf osroAo^vpajxevoi 3y vpocr^xfi Ixao-rcp, ariTU 

T0 be translated into £n o li b h. 
JIA rouTO UspiKXia xoii rou^ roiovrou^^ ^poyifbov^ ol^jptf^ ifah 
QTi rk uufoig iytiici, xoA ra roif ayigAvotg Svvayrai detopilr ghcu ii 
TomTOv$ rf/ovfieia Tovg olxoyofuxou^, kol) ^oXirixov;* "^tv ua) r^ 
6x»pporvyrf¥' rouTw wpoTetypviofMf rep MpiMnf A$ o'atlQwraf r^f 
^p6vri<rtv' Solifyi Se TYjf roiOAirnif xtviXiji^w* ou yap vat'euf iw^kiif^if 
ha^6ttpe$^ ouSs fiiarrpsf ai ro jfS^^ xm t» kov^* JUf, &i ri '''i^Y^^ 
yoy SMTiy ip6euf i(rai IpJ^i, )) oux^ l^mr «XXi ret^ mp) ri^ ir;«xr^ 
_ At ftjy y«g apxjx) rm vpaxTmf, ro o3 fyfxa rot TrpaKToT' vS ii hub* 
^dagfi«ycp h* ^f^, ^ >d»n(if, ^ilbg 0^ ^fsireu 4 »pild* *^ ^^^'^ ^^^ 
rou hexa, ovSi hotroW al§ft(r9ai icavra xcii Trgirruf* Ibriyoij^ Xtt* 
x(» 4^X11^^ «Wn^- ''^/t' iyr/wi t> ♦pa^iy J^ mm fmoL 
Kiyw iXtfiiif v$p\ ri itviffowtva iyadi vgaxrixijy. 

908 ExdminatioMforthe Clamcal TriposeSf 

1. Give tbe dates of the commencemeot kpd conclusion of the Pek>- 
ponnesian'War in years B.C. and in Olympiads. 

'8. State the causes, principal events, and consequences of tiiis war* 
What part did Persia take in itf What was the greatest military and 
naval force employed in it, at one time, by the Athenian State ? 
. 3. Where and what was tbe xoxxi^rar «p««rT«oT mentioned in the be- 
ginning of this oration as a place of public burial ? What sepulchres of 
eminent persons did it contain ? In what instance was the custom of 
burying the slain in this place departed from, and why? 

4. What is the character of the s^le of Tbucydides? What is said 
of it by ancient authors ? What Latin historian most resembles him in 
style? What expression has Thucydides made use of regarding the 
importance of his own work, and with what justice ? Enumerate the 
principal Greek historians who preceded him. 

5. What is the character of Pericles's eloquence? How is it described 
by Aristophanes ? What line of policy was pursued by Pericles ? What 
Statesman in the English history most resembles him ? 

6. (a) ixoitoufTms (jAiJryuf fiinoi ih w^xuav, Bekker in his edition reads 
M>ix/ay. liow are these two different forms of the word denominated by 
grammarians ? Which is likely to be the true reading, and why ? 

(b) 'Avifiv yaf iTtt^oHfi itaaa yn rafo{. How has this sentiinent been imi- 
tated by a Latin jpoet ? 

7. (e) v^ AUufAOff TO lx<vdfp«y. What force has the neuter article with 
an adjective ? 

(df) avift yt ^fiftifjM t-^wri. What force has yi in this passage ? 
_ 8. (c) ixo9^po/uMn fjMM^f n it<$fauvBnvofMi. Do you perceive any singula- 
rity in this expression? In wnat species of writers may the same par- 
ticularly be observed ? 

9. Cf) cTriVroyrai ffofhrtf. Quote a similar mode of construction 
from Virgil. 

(g) wapafia\>ofjihot — vafnfiviKaTt, What are the different significations of 
the preposition in these two com|)Ounds? 

10. (A) pBifog yaf ToTc fw^*** x« 7. X. Illustrate this passage from Horace. 

11. (i) anf Ti yttg i«rapx«6(nif, x. t. X. Uow has Euripides flattered the 
Athenians in their pride of ancestry ? 

(*) f*^ X'^?'^* ytiia-Bat. Why is the dative case here used ? What was 
the general condition of the female sex in ancient Greece ? How did it 
differ in the more civilized ages from that in the heroic times ? What 
effect had this condition upon the manners^ morals, and literature of the 
Greeks ? 

12. (0 Effn''** ««1 ^f^^ >^Y9» airirt, 

sMTs T^y fofxof. To what law does this refer? By whom was it intro- 
duced into the Athenian State ? 

m /Mv— r^ iu What is the peculiar signification of these particles 
thus used ? 

ri AwJ ToDIi irtfjiotrtek. Supply the ellipses in this expression. 

4 iroxif fxi'xji trie n/8»ic O^t'i'ii, What was the mode of education here al- 
luded to ? and what privileges did the objects of it enjoy ? What age is 
implied by r^ nfins ? 

fftl^am nforiBtt^^ From what is the allusion here taken ? 

voTcii rt. Why does the former of these words receive a double ac- 
centuation ? 

iQ^ftwivuii^fnte. Illustrate this expression by a similar one from 

iTexof>ve«jiMf ti. What is theNSertvatuM of ihis word ? What were the 
principal funeral, eeremoniea observed - by the Greeks ? 

1. where was the birth-place, of .Aristotle? :What remarkable bene* 
fit did he confer upon it? Where was he educated? Who was his 
principal instructor r Who his most celebrated pupil ? Where did he 
teach ? What was the naol^ of ftis-^mnasiufn, and the appellation of 
h\» sect? What was the distinction between hii acroatic and exoteric 
philosophy? In what light did Aristotle seem to regard those works of 
the former kind which he published? Where did he die? and which of 
his pupils succeeded him in his school X 

S. What was the fate of Aristotle's works? dy whom were they 
brought to Rome, and wlio first performed the office of a skilful editor 
towards them ? What influence have they had upon Philosophy in suc- 
ceeding ages. 

To be translated into Engi^ish Pbosb. 

*i2( dSv ft^ jDbovov xphovreSf aJJiot xaS inopoufuvoif oSrw r^v 4^oy 
fifm, §1$ aToXoyi(r|xov rols W¥ fifv ou ifagowi raov irdXrrwv, inep^* 
cofji^ivoig Si uff^y ti ISixo^rrf* s8 yoip Im, i 'ildjjMelbiy Sr^ roiatmi 
ii^u 4 mXi^ elvoUf bwoidg m aif^ b Xfjptnroiimfog, Irri St iytiioSf fi,^ 
Toig vpoyovoig ^fJ^Sf uXKoi r^ rw ^v^fioa^lvovs &vavBplei ^-^ocrsixacrS^- 
yai. llcos ovv av ji$ r^v roitt&rr^ ul(r^6vriv Ix^uyoi ; 'Eoiv robg 
trpoxaraXufifiivoyras tA xotvoi xoA fiXiMpanrcii rwf ivo^rmv^ oiml* 
iTTwg ovras rols rjiso'i, ^vXi^cis. i^ ycip wvoM, xoH ri rtis Sijfta- 
xgarlas ovojxa, xeirai jxev h luitrop' 'fiavovtn V W avrA xara^svyov- 
T€s rm >Jy(af dg «r» to toXu; o2 rols ipyoig irXflarov airi^Qms* 
"Orav ow XafiriTg ^opot ^evixeov arefivoov xa) xiiptrypMToov ev rolg 
"EWria-tv hriiviMvvru, hravaytiv otiriv TtiXsvite xoA toov XoycoVf ia^ep 
Tag fii^Mwretg toov xyipvypMroov 6 vofMg xiXMuet TrotslciMp elg /3/oy 
e^io^eoov, xairpoirov caylppovx' oroo te tuvtol fs^ij . fuagrupiira^, |xi) 
fitfionothi aurep rou^ ivatvovg. 




No. VII. 

In Homerunu 
Mortales, me etiam mortali semine cretum^ 

£t paria ausi estis credere iaia mihi/ 
Ac non naturae superatas carmine leges i 

Versatile in humanas jura superna vices ? 
Non homines, non me Musae peperef^ ; sed a me 
Principium Musse patre tulere suum. 

%^0 A4t>e9f$aria LkerariA. 

D. . o. M. s. 

Lact* LutsATius. Causidious. 
Spikitvm. Deo. 


Probitatem. Famx. 

Nefas. Erebo. 

OssA. Sepulcro. 



In Voluptatem. 
Socii voluptas quae doloris est comes, 
Non est Yolnptas cum dolore, sed dolor. 

In Fortunam. 
NonnuUis Fortuna parum dedit, et nimis ullis ; 
Visa tamen nullis ilia dedisse satis. 

Quod vitare nequis, tamen evitare laboras, 
Orbis sum prisci, sumque catena novi. 

Pulvis et umbra sumus : pulvis nihil est nisi fumus. 
At nil est fumus, nos nihil ergo sumus. 

Jut summum* 
Quando jus summum summa est injuria, summus 
Juris-consultus quis, precor, esse velit ? 

In Medicum senem. 
In medica vult jam sexagenarius arte 

Ut sibi sit lusus, non medicina labor. 
Sic tamen ut ludat, ne aegroti dicere possint : 

'' Mors erit id nobis, quod tibi lusus erit !'' 

Amam et amens. 
Dicite, cur longa est dmentis sjllaba prinia, 

Insano contra cur in amcmte brevis ? 
Hoc, credo : furor est amenti par et amatiti ; 

Sed furor est illi longUs, huic brevis est. 

In Medicum. 
Res misera m^dicus est, cui nuhquam bene e«t. 
Nisi male sit quam plurimis. 

Adi>ersaria Literafh. 91 i 

In Cieadam: 
Centendo sfttatem male cautm cicada per^ ; 
Hyberno patior sidere muta Aimein. 

Causidici curru felices quatuor uno 

Quoque die repetunt limina nota fori. 
Quanta sodalitiunl prasstabit commoda ! cui noa 

Contigeriot socii^ cogitur ire pedes. 

Orbia dimidiuin : totus cum coojuge ; tolum 

Cum solo deinceps sola datura fui. 
At vires auxere Dei. Namque omnia poptiis 

Abstulerat. Sic nunc omnia terra dabit. 

i ' 

Medela malis. 
^^ Eja agite^ o cives !'' meiiicastri exclamat agyrta ; 

^' Eja agite ! En^ vestris certa medela malis ! 
Sive dolor mentes, seu morbus torserit artus, 

Hanc sequitur pbialam non dobitanda quies/' 
Plebs ridet scurram ; sed seria, vera loquentem :— 

Mors sequitur ; mortem non dubitanda quies. 

Biblical Criticism. 

Having lately read in the Classical Journal various discus* 
sions respecting an expression of St. Paul in his Epistles to 
the Corinthians, ch. zi. r. 10, I beg to offer the fblloWing as 
not an improbable explanation. A friedd mentibned it to me^ 
and some one acquainted with Oriental manners may afford it 
additional light. 

Eastern kings, despots, and princes used to send messengers 
into distant provinces, cities, and towns, in order to select the 
most beautiful women for the gratification of their own inordi- 
nate passions : and I believe a similar pra'cticie prevails at the ^ 
present day in some parts of Asia and European Turkey. Can 
any thing be more probable than that these messengers did not 
besitaf \ in furtherance of their mission, to enter the churches 
and meetings of the persecuted Christians, and that therefore 
the apostle warned the woman to have power on her head, (or 
a covering, in sign that she was under the power of her hus- 
band), ha rov^ ayyiXou;, because of the messengers. I believe 
the marriage vow has. been respected during the worst ages of 
Eastern despotism, at least to a certain extent ; and that it has 

3 12 Adversaria Liter aria 

always been more or less the custom of modest and particularly 
of married wom^ in the East to coyec the headi and conceal 
the face from observation. Amongst the Roqaans we know 
that the very act of marriage implied to cover the head, ' caput 
velare flammeo/ and that the veil was of a yellow color^ to 
conceal the blushes of the bride. 

The apostle may therefore have said, in compliance with the 
feelings and prejudices of the agei every woman praying or 
prophesying with her head uncovered dishonoreth her head; 
nay more, exposes herself to the risk of becoming an object 
of profane research or admiration ; to obviate these dangers 
in a great decree, if she be not covered Met her be shorn ;' an 
operation which would deprive her of the natural attraction of 
her hair. Nothing can more strongly mark his disapprobation 
of a woman being uncovered, than this expression, ^ for that is 
all one as if she were shaven,' which we are afterwards informed 
Mas shameful. G. C. F. 

PSALM CXXXVII. Latine redd. 


Ad moestanoi Euphratis moesti consedimus oram ; 

£t patriae memores strinxit imago sinus. 
Quaeque dabant coeleste melos, diim fata sinebant^' 

Cessantes rami sustinuere lyras. 
'' Captivos versate modos, vestramcfue Camcenam,^ 
, Dixit Iduqiseis turba ministra malis. 
Quomodo felices conjungam voce canores, 

Cum procul a Solyma dissita prata colam i 
Nee mea (nativse capiant si oblivia curse) 

Percurrat solitum dextera fausta itoelos ; 
Nee carmen facili labatur duke palato, ' 

Si c^dat e memori corde Sionis amor. 
'^^ Dihiite hostili Solymaeos ariete muros 1**^ 

Sic jubet e moestis Iseta redire mi4is. 
O Babylon ! Babylon ! fusis volventibus, aetas 

Ducet ad aeq^uatas funera certa vices. 
Felix qui mentis pensabit mutua ; qui te 

Prosternet saxis^ progeniemque tuam. 

k. Tbevblya^. 


Idem Grace redd. 

Adversaria Literaria. S19 

dfufus yof 'kmrnfTi fiofw^uvot Aiyv^ciwty 
otixfTf ray xidapa¥ i)X0u;y«fM^« ■ ilXXa xoi MiifW¥, 
eaUfow IvcfAiPiotv Tivfff ifTinrayTD XupcpStiy, 

n»i ow X9^ '^^^ «OA$oy fy ^(Ayfi 4fMy MiStiy ; 

(a vpiy oSuMi^; ^-f idffO'fiai) yAoKrcra irayoir «y. 
£i o-co Ai]doifii]y, SoXvfjM, km «fii|;^ayo; ;^<p 
ftijTore ray /xoXvoy jxiAfow «vX(f%o^oy tyfipoi* 
ap«t. xXufiy ffSoxi^tror' agttiov Eimipv ao'fiM, 
yjfietri rep, ors Aj0ay, *' e^aCf Tfc tii%to mfymv** 

raxojXfyi]* /xoxapioTO^ ^ b^t- onrofy' ctvohwrn 

riy iftvianr pi^m rt ^iX' i( ra tra rcxy* ava ^er^^ 

Eur. Heracl. 1014. 

Jlpio'enras, carr^xowras' hvTsutiv St ;^gi) 

Toy vpoa-rpovam, riy re yiwouof KoMh^ 

Oxmo ye pJv roi raft' ^er tanlv fuy ov . 

Xpi^l^oo, Aigrcoy S* ay- ovSsy a^Sotpt^inv filov. 
^* Sensum borum verborum minima assecuti $iiot interpretes. 
Quorum conjecturis omissis^ nieam interpretationem proponam. 
Plerunique solent homines^ qui aliqui(| ab aetate, sexu aut coudi- 
tione sua alienum faciunt, ipsi sui acGusatores fieri^ ne in ayoi^* 
ivia-las suspicionem incurrant, et ex ignorantia peccare videtur 

ivideantur.] Ita Macaria y. 47^* Alcmena r. 978. et hoc loco 
flurystheus. Verte, Nunc auteni licet supplicem et timidum 
me vocare. Cicero pro Milone c. S4* Timidos et supplices, 
et, ut vivere liceat, obsecrantes. Scilicet non diffitetur- se ab* 
jectum et timidum vocari posse, qui sevitiam suam in Herculem 
ejusque liberos excusando mortem detrectare conatu9 sit. Hue 
enim spectavit tota ejus oratio. Nulla difficultas ^st in voce 
ifpwrrpivaiov, qusB Ixin^y aignificat ap. Soph. Ay 1173. Phil. 
930. Major in altero vocabulo yiwaiov, r ortem, Animosum, 
quod cum mea interpretatione conciliari uequit, nisi per iro- 

The above note, which is taken from Elmsley's edition, doe* 
not remove the obscurity of the passage. It will scarcely ba 
disputed that in the same sentence both adjectives must be 
ironically or literally understood. In this instance the latter 

•14 Notice of 

must evidently be ihe case. 7^ irfwrtftwrnw^ rifr rt ymoiiw is 
the same as roy vf^vrq^ ^ t^ y. jlie words of' Eniystheus by 
no means imply an acknowledgment of pusilhnimify^ but ra- 
ther indifference as to the impression produced on his auditors. 
The meaning of the passage is this. '' You have brought your 
accusation, and you ha?e heard my defence. From this you 
may form your judgment^ you may call me a crouching sup- 
pliant, or the reverse. However, thus the matter stands : I 
neither desire death, nor shall 1 be wanting in courage to meet 
it*** Had Eurystheus intended to anticipate the charge of 
cowardice, as Macaria and Alcmena (alluded to in the note) 
those of forwardness and cruelty, these deprecatory expressions 
would have prefaced and not concluded his speech. On the 
contrary, he commences in a fearless manner : 

The inconsistency of this commencement and the termination, 
if interpreted as in the note, is obvious. Had his address been 
supplicatory as well as exculpatory, the argument (a strong one 
in those times) that he acted at the instigation of Juno, ffTr' 
hcST'K'^h ■''''^ F'hf ^'ould have been more vehemently insisted on. 
In fac^ the language and conduct of Eurystheus, when in the 
power of his enemies, is manly and courageous, and not pier- 
fectlv consistent with the character attributed to him in v. 800. 
sqq. where he is represented as declining the combat with Hyl-^ 





translated from the Greeks and illustrated by Physi' 
ognomical Sketches. By Francis Howell. Ltm- 
don, Taylor : royal octavo, price 11. Is. imperial 

We are glad to see Theophrastus before us once more, in a 
new coat retaining much of the original cut, yet free and flow- 
ing enough to admit of the old Grecian moving himself with 
grace in its easy amplitude. We have also in this translation 
ibe original text appended, which is, to say the least of it, a' 

the Characters of Tkeophrastus. 615 

very candid mode pf iovitiiig compari^n and'critkimi ; and, ki 
addition .to the text, we have an elegantly written preface, wherein 
the Science of Mind, as studied in Oiodem times^ is concisely al* 
luded to, and a series of notes at the end of the Yolttme, in wUck 
it is more attentively considered, and treated with a cloeenesft'of 
reasoning and seriousness of sentiment, a degree of knowlege 
of the world, and observation of individual character, wMdl 
shows the writer to have brought to his task of translation m 
mind congenial with that of the celebrated person, whose most 
celebrated work he has translated, in a manner which will mak^ 
the Needhams and Newtons of days gone by ** hide their dimi- 
nished heads/' 

As one of the most forcibly delineated characters of Theo- 
phrastus, one which we may contemplate any day from the 
life^ in the hundreds of Essex, the fens of Lincolnshire, or the 
wolds of Yorkshire, we would quote The Rustic, p. 16. to 18« 
As a specimen of the original vein of thought, and solidity of 
reflection, which distinguish the translator of, and commentator 
on, these Characters, we will give his remarks on The Fear- 
ful, not as the best, but as the shortest, and therefore the most 
suitable to our comments in this place. 

The Fearful.— Reason is an unfit remedy for alarms that spring 
from the poverty of the animal system. The more the Coward reasons, 
the more he quakes: when danger must be met, the best course he can 
take is to leave reason and imagination behind, by a reckless leap int» 
* the very midst of things.' The only remedy that can be applied to tJie. 
mind, is that which is furnished by habit^ and familiarity with' danger.' 
But It is the body that is chiefly in fault ; and it should be corroburatCKi 
by ample and generous diet,' and a full measure of exercise in the open 
air. In the early cure of physical timidity, the different constitution 
and circumstances of the sexes must be onserved : the fears of a slrl 
may, with propriety, be allayed by reasoning ; because it is not desira- 
ble, nor inoeed possible, if it were desirable, to give hardy insensibility to 
the body ; and also because the perils, to which women are ordinarily ex- 
posed,* more often allow of some recurrence to reason ; and demand calm 
recollection, rather than force, or enterprise : but the feaisof a bcnr ought 
never to receive so much attention and respect. Every motive or shame, 
every prudent femiliarising with danaer, and every physiod corrobora* 
tion, should be employed to conquer a defect which, so far as it prevails, 
reiiders a man miserable, contemptible, and useless. 

It only remains for us to say, that this volume is illustrated 
with fifty engravings on wood — one from the antique, the rest 
from original designs, very forcible and characteristic in ex- 
pression. The engravings themselves are exquisitely done, and 
if we particularise those of Williams above the rest, it is onij 
because his name being less known to £ime than his merit de* 
serves, it becomes a duty to. promulgate it, in those laha %to^ 

ild Xiterartf IntelUgmi^t^ 

rTftiioas ipeciiD^i of bi^ libility^ iX\ eqtia^' exicelleht ; ai 
iu uis designs for Wiffen's Garciiitsfso de -Vega, abd Tasso,' 
Drj^den's Fables in Whittingbam^s edition^ and many btbe/ 
itorks of a similar description. Our readers will ieasily imagine 
Ibat widi tbe concentration of so much talent as this bbok et- 
hibits, both in its text and ornaments, it must form a most de- 
sirable adjunct to the library of the gentleman and the scholar ; 
and altogether we may venture to pronounce, that Theophrastus 
wasnever introduced, even in his own Attic age, with so many 
advantages into polite society. 



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M. JuLiEN is preparing for publication the works of Meu- 
cius, the celebrated follower of Confucius, who florished about 
500 years after him. He will give the Chinese text lithogra- 
phised, with a literal translation into Latin of the text asxwell 
as of the most necessary commentaries for understanding it. 
It is the first attempt of the kind that has been made in Europe, 
and will probably attract considerable attention, which in 
England ought to be more than elsewhere. '^The only com- 
plete Chinese text of any work printed before, was the Tchoung 
Xoung of Confucius by M. Remusat, with the translation and 
a few notes : but the work is short, and there is no literal trans- 
lation from any commentators, and it was printed by govern- 
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for some time ; but scarcely any thing has been known of Men- 
cius, though his works form one of what the Chinese call the 
four books, a place next in order to the king, which are of the 
first rate in their estimation. The work will soon be ready for 
publication, and is to be dedicated to Sir William Drummond. 

Present State of Dutch Literature, While our magazines and 
reviews are filled with dissertations on French, German, Italian, 
and Spanish literature, that of our industrious neighbours, the 
Dutch, seems neglected and forgotten ; and yet their literary la- 
bors, within a recent period, have been numerous, and in many 
instances, to say the least of them, very respectable. We hope, 
therefore, that a short sketch of their roost celebrated living au- 
thors may not be unacceptable. Beginning with the poets, we 
may observe en passant, that the Dutch language is highly poeti- 
cal, or at least not less so than the German. It allows of the 
boldest combinations, adapts itself to every kind of metre and 

Literary Intelligfnce. 219 

▼erse, and in the mouth of a well-bred Dutchman^ and especially 
of a Dutchwoman, its sounds are far from being harsh or gra^ 

Thdr first poet is unquestionably BiUer^k, a man of a most 
comprehensive mind. His earliest work appeared in 1776, and his 
productions have since increased to fifty volumes. But although 
his greatest merit is that of a poet, yet many of his works are on 
philology, jurisprudence, physic, geology, and general literature. 
He is an enemy to German literature ; and occasionally very se- 
vere against those of his countrymen who condescend to imitate 
it : nevertheless, a mental affinity with the great poets of that nar 
tion may be traced in his writings. Goethe is the only author who 
is sometimes honored with his praise. One of. his most recent 
productions is the beginning of a great epic poem, entitled the 
Destruction of the World (De Ondergang der eerste Waereld). 
Bilderdyk*$ best pupil in poetry is Dacosta, a youth of the Jew« 
ish religion, full of fire and energy. He was not eighteen when be 
^ published a metrical translation of the Persa of ^schylus ; and 
^ two years after, the Prometheus of tbe same author ; and latterly a 
volume of miscellaneous poems. It is remarkable that Dacoita, 
though such a warm admirer of the Dutch language and poetry, is 
a Portuguese. 

Feith^qf Zwolky in Overyssel, a contemporary and formerly an 
intimate friend of Bilderdyk^ is the third in rank. He, together 
with the latter, enjoys the honor of having, in the latter part of 
the last century, revived Dutch poetry from its lethargy. Though 
he is greatly inferior to Bilderdyk in learning, he is superior to him 
in the gentler feelings of humanity, in a sweet religious melancholy^ 
and perhaps even in the harmony of his numbers. He has writ- 
ten some excellent hymns, odes, romances, and didactic poems. 
Of the latter, The Grave, and Old Age, and Solitude, and The 
World, are the best. His poem on De Ruyte is considered as a 
masterpiece. Reithherg^ the poet of the Happiness of Love, may 
be considered as his pupil ; and De Kruyff^hUly deceased), the 
author of the Hope of Return, most resembles him in genius. 

Tollene, of Rotterdam, is the favorite of the nation. He is a 
merchant, without a regular literary education, but well read in 
modern languages, and the history of his country ; of which he 
takes frequent opportunities of reprinting traits of^^ Dutch heroism, 
little known by the generality of readers. He handles every sub- 
ject with the happiest facility. With equal energy and warmth of 
feeling he describes a battle, or the individual deed of an ancient 
Dutch hero ; the humiliation and exaltation of his country, the sor* 
sows and the happiness of love, domestic felicity, and the great* 
ness and destination of the poet. ToUens' writings are universally 
read; w&ich may appear from the fact of 10,000 subscriptions 

220^ Literally Intelligence. 

liaving b^en obtained to a recent cheap edition of his works: a 
circumstance unparalleled in a nation not exceeding two iniUions 
of people, nis latest, and at the same time one of his best works, 
is the Wintering of the Dutch on Nova-Zembla in 1396-97. He, 
as well as Ftith, is an admirer of German literature ; and the ibr- 
ner has published a very pretty volume of imitations from the 
German and French. His school is the most numerous in Hol- 
land. Some of his best pnpi]s are ARersttttss, who has sung the 
Redeemer, and latterly the merits of Rubens ; Messcheri, who se- 
lected the new colony of paupers at Frederiksoord as a subject for 
an excellent poem ; who, with several others, are all natives of 
Rotterdam. ToUens has declined the honor of a bust, which his 
admiring fellow citizens offered to raise to him. 

Kilmers, of Amsterdam, is another poet of renown. In I8O6, 
when the republic was threatened with a French invasion, he pub- 
lished a fragment of a MS. tragedy, in which he makes a Greek 
Weep over the ruins of Corinth for the fate of his country under the 
IRoman yoke.^ This poem made a very vivid impression on hb 
eountrymen, and stimulated them to a powerful resistance; aad 
•the allusions to France were so striking, that the paper in which 
ihe poem was published was prohibited there. The muse of this 
poet is bold, fiery, and sublime. God, virtue, the arts, and his 
%^untry, are his themes. One of his larger poems, the Dutch 
"Nation (De Hollandsche Natfo), has already gone through five 
editions.* Tlie only fault attributed to him is his selection of ima^ 
g^, which are taken flrom a great distance, whilst the objects near 
ilm afre neglected. He died in 1813, and by his death escaped 
^e imprisonment which was already decreed against him in Paria. 
His spirit has passed, in a gre«t treasure, to his friend and r^" 
^Mm, CorneUns Lootsen, a poet of talent, butof less literary know- 
ledge than Kihners. He is distinguished by a high flight of ima- 
gination, strong ardetit language, and an abundance of poetical 
images. His theme is, for the most part, his "father-land." His 
i>est poems areTtie Bataviaas at the period of Caesar, and The 
Victory of the Netherlanders at Chatham. Van HeU, ooe of tiie 
anost learned lawyers of Amsterdam, is also considered as a distin- 
guished poet. He has furnished very good translations of some 

Henry Hermann, and Barnhard Kfyn, also natives of Amstec'- 
dam, may be mentioned as young men of great promise. 

ImIo/^ and Spandau, of Groeningen, are two other respectable 
poets. The productions of the former are few in number ; be trausr 
fates with fticility from foreign languages, and even has composed 
aome verses in German and French. Spandau has written more : 
domestic happiness, love^ and patriotism are the favorite topics 
^ bta ^use. He is inferior to KUmerSy Laotsen, or ToUens, 44 
energy, ardor, and imagery ; and he wants the power of language 

Literary Intelligence. 221 

8o emiuenily possessed by the lalter; .nevertheless his writings are 
distinguished by an nnassuraing warmth, a beafntiful, dignified 
simplicity, loveliness, and clearness of diction^ and above all, a 
purity of taste, in which he surpasses many of his contemporaries. 
In one of his poems, entitled The Netherlands, he first ventured to 
'strip off the fetters of rhyme, and sing the heroic and literary 
greatness of his small country with a truly Ossianic enthusiasm. 
'Simons is particularly known for his bold poem, Verg^et ua^ 
afkomft, 6 Bataven, which he wrote during the French usurpation, 
and which was translated for his present Majesty while Pnnce 
Regent, as a proof of the spirit which then animated the Dutch 

JBorger, who died in 1820, in his 36th year, left but few 
poems: but they prove that hemight have become the firftt poet 
of his country. His works, De Historia Pragmatica^ De f^storia 
Providential Divinae, &c., deserve to be more universally known. 

The scarcity of theatrical productiotis at the present time seems 
to be felt in Holland as much as elsewhere. There are some good 
pieces of Bilderdyk and his wife, such as Cormac, William of H9I- 
land, Floris V., and a translation of Cinna, by the former ; dnd 
Elfride, by the latter : but they all present great difficulties in the 
performance. A Prize offered by the National Institution in 1818 
prodoeed some original tragedies : among which Dacosta's Al- 
fkms 0/ Portugai, and Mrs. Bilderdyk's DargOy were mentioned 
as the best; yet the prize was adjudged to no one. A second 
competition was not more successful, although it called forth two 
other productions of the same author and authoress, of which 
Montigny and Diatrice, by Dacosta, is now frequently performed 
at Amsterdam and the Hague, with considerable applause. 

Among the prose writers t/. H, van der Palm (Prof, of the 
Orient. Lang, and Preacher at the University of Leyden) holdi the 
first rank. His numerous sermons 2tte graced by a nmple, yiei ini* 
mitable eloquence, grounded on the most extensive biblical study. 
His memoir on the Liberation of the Netherlands is well worthy of 
being translated, although it would be difficult to transfer to a 
translation the various beauties of style, and the harmony of the 
periods which grace the original. The other pulpit orators of re- 
nown are Clarisse, at Leyden ; Broes^ Roll, and Stuart » at Amster- 
dain ; Dermont, at the Hague ; Van der Hoeven, at Rotterdam ; 
and Schrant (a Roaan Catholic) at Ghent. Their best historians 
are Stuart and ScheUema. The style of the former is harmonious, 
and full of the finest iUustratiotis : biit it is not sufficiently com- 
pressed. That of the latter is too close an imitation of the diction 
of old Hoost. In fact, the Dutch prose (with the exception of 
that o^ Van der Palm) h^snotyet risen to that height to which 
their poetry has raised itself. (JJterary Gazette.) 



lo our next we shall give — 
Coincidences between Tauo and Homer, — lit SophocUt (Edip, Colon. 
Emend, — Notice of the Odes of Anacreon of Teos, — Biblical Criticism on the 
first and second Chapters of St, Matthew* 

^ £. R. G.'s verses are correct in metre, but deficient in style and expres- 

Arithmetic of the Holy Scriptures came too late for our present No. 

We shall continue S.'s Comments on Demosthenes in our next. 

Notices of Wor ledge, Tancoigne,8iC. in our next. 

TJs Remarks on the English Translation of the Bible will also appear in 
the next No. 

J. B.'s Biblical Criticisms came too late. 

W. T. P. S.'s short articles will appear in our next. 

We have received J. J.— N. O.— G. P. C— 

The notice which we promised to give of Professor Boissonade's 
AristanetuSf has been deferred from a wish to make it as interesting as 
possible, by subjoining to it a rapid view of the other Works of the 
Professor — all of which are now before us with the exception of Holstenu 


No. LV. Page ISO. line IS. Lege uti, pro usurpare, 

{iVI. S18. 3. . Sedredeamus — 

8. Sic pro hi. 

S 1 • Debetttr jur^rando. 


Insert Ike Four Plates opposite page 192. 




JUNE, 1824. 

On the striking Coincidences between the Allegories^' 
Similesy and Descriptions^ in Tasso's Gierusalemme 
Liberate^ and those of HomUr and some other An- 
cient Writers. 

Jlj omsr has been in all ages deservedly admired as the first poet 
of any eminence^ whose works were preserved by the care of lite- 
rary characters^ influenced by the principle of a sacred species of 
veneration, which owed its origin to the superior character of 
bis two immortal works, distinguished for sublimity of subject 
and for the elegance displayed not only in the ideas, but likewise 
in ihe force and purity of diction ; far ^superior to the conceptions 
of those ^*bo were the ordinary geniuses of the period in which 
be lived, whose compositions were no doubt consigned to obli- 
vion, when eclipsed by the brilliancy of so great a master, or, as 
Val. Maximus styles him, such an *^ ingenii coelestis vates,'' from 
whose deep draughts of the Castalian spring succeeding poets 
have in all ages been inspired. There appears a superiority in 
his poems, which can only be compared to the expression of the 
countenance of one of the noblest statues of antiquity^ He 
hardly seems a ** denizen of earth,'' but appears to stand like the 
** heavenly archer'' in serene majesty, above the other compo- 
sitions of mortals — possessed of a description of sublimity which 
disdains the common career of sublunary objects. Whether he 
actually wrote the Iliad and Odyssey from his own conceptions 
iJone, aided by the tradition of preceding times, appears to have 



lo our next we shall give — 
Coincidences between Tasso and Homer, — In SophocUs (Edip, Colon, 
Emend. — Notice of the Odes of Anacreon of Teos, — Biblical Criticism on the 
first and second Chapters of St. Matthew, 

£. R. G/s verses are correct in metre, but deficient in style and expres- 

Arithmetic of the Holy Scriptures came too late for our present No. 

We shall continue S.'s Comments on Demosthenes in our next. 

Notices of WorledgCf Tancoigne^ &c. in our next. 

YJs Remarks on the English Translation of the Bible will also appear in 
the next No. 

J. B.'s Biblical Criticisms came too late. 

W. T. P. S.'s short articles will appear in our next. 

We have received J. J.— N. O.— G. P. C— 

The notice which we promised to give of Professor Boissonade^a 
Aristanetus, has been deferred from a wish to make it as interesting as 
possible, by subjoining to it a rapid view of the other Works of the 
Professor — all of which are now before us with the exception of Holstenii 


No. LV. Page ISO. line 13. Lege uti, pro usurpare, 

l^/L 318. 3. ■ Sedredeamus — 

8. Sic pro hi, 

S 1 . Debetur jur^rando. 


Insert the Four Plates opposite page 192. 




JUNE, 1824. 

On the striking Coincidences between the Allegories^' 
Similes J and Descriptions^ in Tasso'is Gierusalemme 
Liberate^ and those of HomUr and some other An- 
cient Writers. 

Jtl o M ER has been in all ages deservedly admired as the first poet 
of any eminence^ whose works were preserved by the care of lite- 
rary characters, influenced by the principle of a sacred species of 
veneration, which owed its origin to the superior character of 
his two immortal works, distinguished for sublimity of subject 
and for the elegance displayed not only in the ideas, but likewise 
in ^he force and purity of diction ; far ^superior to the conceptions 
of those who were the ordinary geniuses of the period in which 
he lived, whose compositions were no doubt consigned to obli- 
vion, when eclipsed by the brilliancy of so great a master, or^ as 
Val. Maximus styles him, such an '^ ingenii coelestis vates,'' from 
whose deep draughts of the Castalian spring succeeding poets 
have in all ages been inspired. There appears a superiority in 
his poems, which can only be compared to the expression of the 
countenance oiF one of the noblest statues of antiquity^ He 
hardly seems a ** denizen of earth,'' but appears to stand like the 
''heavenly archer" in serene majesty, above the other com po- 
sitions of mortals — possessed of a description of sublimity which 
dbdains the common career of sublunary objects. Whether he 
actually wrote the Iliad and Odyssey from his own conceptions 
alone, aided by the tradition of preceding times, appears to have 


Coijicidences between 

been doubted by some of the learned. He has been accused of 
deducing his plan from the poems of Orpheus and those of one 
CorinnuSj said to have been contemporary with the heroes of the 
Trojan war. I have read a disquisition, — certainly, it must be 
confessed, an idle one, — which tends to prove that the works im- 
puted to him were actually the compositioi\ of Thales the Mile- 
sian ;-^but, whosoever tlie author was, we luite abundant seasmi 
for considering him a most extraordinary, unrivalled genius. 
Among other works of estimation which have been formed on 
the model of this great *' high pnest of all the Nine" in after ages, 
appears that chef-d'oeuvre of Italian Epic poetry immortalised 
under the name of the Gierusalemme JUberata. A critic of the 
first eminence in the literary world considers Tasso as having 
far surpassed the Iliad in the chief circumstances connected 
with the characteristic features of the heroes who figured in die 
days of the Crusiides ; as well as in the manner in which their 
characters are respectively sustained^ and in the fire and variety 
of section contained in his descriptions of warlike manesuvres. 
He has certainly painted with a masterly hand those fine con- 
ceptions traced out by Homer ; and it will be easily perceived 
in the course of the following observations, that be has pursued 
in no small degree the minutest touches of originality displayed 
in the sublimest parts of the Iliad and Odyssey. 

The character of Rinaldo, the hero of the first offspring of 
Ta$»so's genius, is generally considered as more interesting thaa 
that of his great prototype Achilles. The poem is written in all 
the spirit of ancient chivalry^ and contains many giganUGand/ 
other fabulous adventures. 

The hero of the piece is indeed represented as ppssessiag 
great, muscular strength ; but he is nevertheless rem^kable for 
courtesy and magnanimity, and all other heroic qualities conspi- 
cuous in the character of a knight errant. Like the heroes of the 
Iliad, he exerts his bodily powers in a supernatural manper, a^ 
bears down all opposing knights, whether single or united, 

These adventures are occasionally diversified by episodes aopd 
other entertaining digressions; and enchantment, fairy, sceo^^ 
and romantic occurrences,, are among the other beaptie^ of tb^ 

Tasso has closely imitated Homer in the following passagfi^ pf 
the Gier.. Lib. In Canto i. S. 37* the catalogue of the aimis* 
and nations employed is given before the commencement of Mjf 
weirlike achievements or hostile conflict,, in the same maQ^iNr 
as Homer describes tne heroes of Greece in his catalogue qf (Imp 
Ships, Iliad, lib. |3'. 495. ; though it maybe here observed^ that 

- » » k 

- ^-. 

TassB and Homer. 285 


there appears a ^eatef diversity in the enumeration of the forces 
of the Crusaders^ and that the Italian poet has improved upon 
his model, as his descriptions contain more variety of sentiment, 
and are divested of the tautology of (hat part of the Iliad. In 
Canto III. Herminia points out and describes the Christian war- 
riors to Aladin from the top of a tpwer^ in the same manner as 
Helena does those of Greece to old Priam, 11. •/. 171* 

It is worthy of remark that the Gods occurring in the poems 
of HoQier^ are brought forward by Tusso in the shape of good 
and evil angels^ by whose ministry many actions of note are 
performed, and warriors excited on several memorable occasions, 
.in Canto vn. S. 68. Godfrey of Bouillon speaks to an aged 
warrior in the same style and manner as Agamemnon to Nestor. 
The coincidence is striking, particularly as Godfrey i» formed in 
many respects on the model of the son of Atreus : 

Oh pur avessi fra V etade acerba 
Diece altri di valor al tuo simile. 
Come ardirei vincer Babet superba, 
£ la Crdce spiegar da Baltro a Nile* 
Compare Ih jS'. 371.— 

T(B X8 ra^ :^f4uo'eiff vokis ilgitfcfioio avaxrof, &c. 

In Canto vii. S. 105. the description of the warriois charge 
ing in battle bears a very lively resemblance to that of Hoaseri- 
IL S'. 446. The same occurs in Canto ix. S. 51* 

S* affronta iiisieme orribilniente urtando 

Scudo a scodo, elmo ad el mo, e brando a brands. 

Su¥ f efinXof pifob;, cuv 2* ^yx^^f &c. 

oToip a<nrl^g off.paXMO'ircu 

"EwXijvt' oAX^Aijiri, &c. 

(Clorinda fights like an Amazon, and bears a marked reseih* 
blance to Penthesilea, Dictys Cret. and to the Camilla of Virsirs 
JBneid.) Alecto inflames Argillano in a vision, being incited by 
some evil angel to kindle commotion against the Crusaders, in 
die same manner as she is represented, instigated by Juno, JExi, 
7. stkriog up the fury of Tumus against the Trojans. 

Canto IX. S. 38. An old warrior falling on the field erf battle 
i^ compared to an ancient tree, blown down by a storm. A 
simile of this sort is very common in Homer, who compares the 
fall of Simoisius to that of a poplar, and that of Orsilochus and 
CretboB to that of two tall fir-trees.-— 'Canto ix. S. 46. Godfrey 
is repk-esefited as similar to the Po overflowing its banks and 
rasbing with Ireaiendous force to the Adriatic; and in the Iliad, 

226 Coincidences bettf^een 


Hector is represented in the same manner under the image of a 
torrent from the mountains. — Canto ix.^S. 47- The same war- 
rior attacks the enemy precisely as Agamemnon is described, II. 
A'. 265. 

Con la spada e (fon gli urti apre e dissolve 

Le vie piii chiuse e gii ordini pik forti. 

Airetp 6 Tm aXKtov IreirfloXfiro irrl^ag avigah, 

S. 74. 'I'he simile of the horse is very like that of Virgil, Geor. 
111. when he describes that animal as leaving his stable and 
galloping over the plains. — -S. 79. I'he scene between Argillano 
and Ariadino is the same as that between Hector andPatroclus^ 
11. if\ 852. 

Pari destin t' aspetta, e da piii forte 

Destra a giacer mi sarai stesso accanto. 

— aXXa Toi ^^1) 

"Ayx^ 'JFOLfio'TTixev iivarosxai [lolpu xparairj, 

The expression ^' or tu qui mori intanto, d' augei pasto e di 
cani"-— is the same as the imprecation of Achilles, when be 
threatens to resign the corpse of Hector -to be torn by dogs and 
birds of prey ; and the latter part of the stanza — *' indi lui preme 
col piede" — is nearly a version of the 862d verse^ where Hector is 
described as drawing his spear out of the body of Patroclus, 
afler pressing it with his foot. — S. 92. Here we have ^ version 
of the 489th: v. of the 2d book of the Iliad, almost verbatim — ' 
Non io, se cento bocche e lingue cento 
Avessi, .&.C. 

Canto X. S. 2. The Soldan is compared to a wolf driven 
from a sheep-fold, and obliged to retire, persecuted by the 
shepherds' darts, as in the Iliad. — S. 14. The chariot-horses are 
described in the same manner as we find them by Homer. 

Canto XII. The first stanza '^ Era la notte'^ is strictly Home- 
ric. The story of Clorinda, from stanza 23 to 35, is similar to' 
that of Camilla and Metahus in Virgil. — S. 42 and 43. Clo- 
rinda and another warrior go by night to set fire to the enemy's - 
machines, in the same manner as Diomed and Ulysses in the 
Iliad, and Nisus and £uryalus in the iEneid, leave their in- 
trenchments in the night for warlike purposes.»-S. 70. Tancredi 
having mortally wounded Clorinda, be, recognising her, breaks 
out into lamentations, as Achilles is said to have done, at the 
death of .Penthesilea, Dictys Cret. 

Canto XI v. S. 2. The Divine Spirit watches over the fates ^ 
of Godfrey of Bouillon, like Jupiter over those of Achilles ; and ^ 
both send. dreams to the respective chiefs Agamemnon and: 

Tasio and Homer. 227 

Godfrey. Tbe^ seDtences of this stanza remind the reader Very 
forcibly of the beginning of the second Iliad — "/. X\oi jxfv ^a 
Offoi re xai avfpi^..£3Soy nuwvxtoi — ^'essi ogni pensier che 'I d) 
conduce, Tuffato aveano in dolce obblio profondo/' — Warriors 
are represented goinj; to the Infernal regions, that is, into the 
subterraneous parts of the earth, led by an enchanter or magi- 
cian, as Ulysses at the instigation of Circle, or iEneas conducted 
by the Cumsean Sibyl. 

Canto XV. Carlo and Ubaido take a voyage in the enchanted 
bark, and view the shores of many renowned places, as Ulysses 
is described in the Odyssey. As Tiresias, in the Infernal shades, 
foretels what is to happen to Ulysses ; and ^neas in the iEneid is 
informed of the conduct and fate of his posterity in like manner ; 
so also Tasso represents a nymph foretelling what progress 
Europeans should make in the western world — after a native of 
Liguria should have dared to sail beyond the columns of Her- 
cules. In S^eca there is some prophecy of the same kind, 
and it is foretold that Thule shall not be the '' ne plus ultra** of 
navigators. Conjectures of this sort appear to have been com- 
mon amongst the ancients, if we may judge from what Plato 
says in his Tiroaeus about the isle Atalantis, probably Hispa- 
niola, beyond which was a vast continent, extending to the 
ocean ; and which appears to be confirmed by Diodorus, who 
speaks concerning an island beyond the pillars of Hercules ; 
Mrhicb had been discovered by some mariners, probably driven 
there by a tempest; for Aristotle himself says, that a Carthagi- 
nian vessel, which had been apparently blown out of its course 
by a strong westerly wind, had discovered shores hithertOb un- 
known. In Amm. Marcellinus, we have an account of a vast 
island, probably the same as that which- Plato mentions, which 
the historian says had disappeared under an inundation of the 
ocean ; but it is easy to perceive that this was a ready method of 
cloakiog his ignorance of a country then nearly unknown, add 
which few persons dared to visit, from the dread of exposing 
themselves to the perils of the vast Atlantic. 
« Canto XVI. Armida is an enchantress like Circe in Homer's 
Odyssey ; and the knights behold emblematical figures in her 
portico, as £neas does in that of Dido. Her gardens resemble 
those of Alcinous, in the island of Pha»iGia, by whom it is ge- 
nerally supposed Homer intended to personify Solomon. Her 
parrot is taught to sing verses on the shortness of human life, 
comparing men to leaves of trees, hs we find them described, ii. 
^. OJfi mp ^}iXw¥ ywrii, k.T.k. Kinaldo is represented itiveigled 

SS8 Coincidences between T<tNlo and Homer. 

in love by Armicla, a9 Ulysses by Calypso ; and two vlrarriors re^ 
cover him from enchantment^ as that hero in the Odyssey, dist- 
enchants his companions, when he requires of Circe to resKtore 
them to their primitive forms. 

Canto XVII. A catalogue is given of the Indian warriors^ to 
whom are given the epithets of *^ espugnator delle <;itta'^ (grroA^ 
^opi^s) and ^'domator de' cavalli" (i7Firo&i[Mi^), with others of the 
same import as those applied by Homer to his heroes. A youtb 
is represented voyaging and watching the pol^r star, and other 
constellations, as Ulysses does when he sails from Calypso's 
island ; though it must be allowed he appears in a less perilous 
state than that of the hero. Rinaldo receives a shield ou which 
are displayed the valorous deeds of his ancestors — in which re- 
spect the poet evidently appears to have imitated Homer, He- 
siod, and Virgil. 

Canto XV] 1 1. Rinaldo is warned to beware of the dangera 
of the enchanted grove ; and desired to shun the sweet voices 
or songs of any persons that should accost him, as Ulysses i« 
by Circe to beware of the Sirens. 

He draws his sword to destroy the enchantress, as Ulysses 
does to prevent being transformed by the spells of Circe. The 
scalade of Jerusalem resembles in many respects the assaiiU of 
tlie Greeks on Troy, in the .Xneid. The effects of the batter*- 
ing ram are compared to a rock descending from a mountain aod 
overwhelming every thing in its progress ; and a simile of the 
same description is found in the Iliad. St. Michael appears to 
Godfrey, as Venus to ^neas, when Troy was jj^ken. iJike Nep<- 
tune, Ugoue undermines the walls, and Dudone, like Juno^ ad«- 
mii?isters arms to the combatants. Rinaldo breaks open the 
door of the temple (with a beam), as Hector does the gate of 
the Grecian camp. 

The simile of the shepherd driving bis flock to shelter is 
nearly the same as that of Homer, when he describes him fore- 
, seeuig the coming of a storni and committing his fleecy charge 
to the covert of a rock. 

The magician Ismeno in the 2d Canto of the poem cerlaiolj 
partakes of the qualities of Moeris, in the 8th Eclogue of Vir*- 


Che trar di sottjo ai chiusi marnii 
Puo corpo estinto— 
Stepe animas imis excire sepulcris. 
I cannot help considering the flight of Erminia, in the begins 
ning of the 7 th Canto, as bearing a vivid resemblaaoe jlO the 

N^ict^f Lord Thttriow's Antt^iSn. ^^ 

■ '• • • ■ '• 

fligbt of Pottipe; tb(e Greats after the battle of Phar^alia, ai 
described by the itidsterly pen of Luc^n« 

It 18 perhaps to be lamented that both Tasso and Danie 
should have selected subjects, of so bizarre a nature^ for the djjSr 

Elay of so macb grandeur of invention ; but their choice nm^t 
e iexcused \vhen it is considered, that they were in perfejc^ 
character with the age of comparative barbarism in which they 
lived. ' 



... « ^ 


• «*r^' 


t:ramlated into English neasure by E. H. THURXiOW, 




vTe cannot say much in praise of this performance ; but th^ 
example of a man of rank engaging in literary pursuits is in it- 
self SO' satisfactory, that we ought not to criticise too severely, 
^he attempt is sufficiently creditable, and therefore we are no 
more disposed to quarrel with Lord Thurlow for having given 
lis an mdifferent translation of Anacreon^ than with the Hon. 
George Lamb for having given us an indifferent translation of 
Catullus, or with Lord Leveson Gower for having made an 
unsuccessful attempt to render the most untranslatable of. 
all poems. One merit, indeed, this version possesses, unknown 
to former ones; a freedom from meretricious additions. Tlie 
leitor of ititefpolating thoughts and images of the translator's 
own, and of making a writer speak as if he belonged to a differ-' 
«nt age, is one in which the translators of the Elizabethaii age^ 
and those of the school of Dryden and Pope, however widel^ 
differing in other respects, e<}ually agree. Our style of transit* 
tion is infinitely improved smce the downfall of the French 
school ; we are, however, in some danger of falling into an op^ 
posite error, that of marring the beauty and ease of our version^ 
by a too rigid adherence to the words of the original. Qf tb^ 
first-mentioned extreme, Cowley and T. Moore, in their traas* 
iationa of Anacreon, are flagrant instances; of the tettef we 
know no example more striking than JLord Thurlow himself. 

830 Notice of Lord Tfaurlow's Anacrton. 

It is impossible to give the meaniag of a poet without giving « 

Kttle more than his words ; Lord Thurlow, however, has not 

only not done thb, but has retained in a great measure the Greek 

idioms ; thus purchasing conciseness and partial fidelity at tBe 

expense of frequent obscurity and almost uniform harshness. 

For instance, in Ode xix., of which he has given, two different 

versions : 

The dark Earth drinks, and then the trees 
Drink her, and then the flowing seas 
Drink the wide air, and then the sun 
Drinks up the sea, and, that being done. 
The thirsty moon doth drink the sea. 
What barm then, O companionsy think. 
That I myself delight to drink. 

His study of obsolete words sometimes betrays him into un- 

couthness; as in Ode xxxix. 

■ with odorous oil 

Myself I bathe, the Syrian spoil ; 
Withhold a girl, too, in my arms. — 
The two best rendered are the twenty-eighth and the fifty- 
first ode ; we shall extract the former, adding, however, that we 
had rather meet his Lordship as an original writer than as a 
translator, in spite of the unmerciful treatment which his politics 
procured for. his poetry in the Edinburgh Review. 

Best of Painters, hear my prayer. At once like arm*d Minerva's grey. 

Best of Painters, now prepare, Shedding feminine dismay. 

Master of the Rhodian art, And wet, like beauty's queen above. 

To paint the mistress of my heart: And trembling with inconstant 
Tho' she be absent, yet attend, love. 

And paint from me my lovely Paint me the cheeks and arched 

friend. nose. 

Paint roe the hair in tender state, Let milk be mingled with the rose; 

The hair both black and delicate; Paint me the lip, persuasion^a 
And, if art so far can dare, throne, ' 

Breathing oduurs thro' the air; And pouting to be kiss'd anon. 

And paint me ^rom the perfect Paint me the delicate chin below, 

brow And let the neck like marble glow. 

The pure and ivory forehead now, Stately, and fair as nascent day, . 

Only more holy, chaste, and fair, And every charm around it play. 

O'ershaded by the violet hair. And, painter, what may yet re^* 
For me the eyebrow neither part, main, 

Nor wholly mingle by thy art ; Stole her in robe of purple grain, 

But like herself the brows design, Through which some part of her 
Undiscernibly tojoin; may shine 

The circling eyelids black as night Of all, that's lovely and divine ! 

Make for my divine delight; £aough — her very self I see ; * 

And make the eye of living fire. Picture, perhaps, thou'lt speak to 
The soul and fountain of desire, me ! 


Sic corrige, nostro perk^ulo : libfi impressi " her sea," pessundat 

lU. . ■ '■ ' 




Part III. — [Continued from No. LIF.'] 

Est talis, ut si in recentiorum numerum pooas, stt baud dubie primuSi 
et veterum ultimus. 

M. Ant. SabelUau Hut. 

Ea fuit Claudiani virtus, is spiritus, ut in quamcunque partem se ver- 
teret, summus et elegans exbteret poeta : ita est aliquanao festivus, ita 
concinnus, itaelegaos, nihil ut fieri possit argutius; ita vero aliquando 
insur^ity et artificiesa ▼erborum conclusione carmen explicate nihil ut sit 

Franc. AtuUnut Prof. Ed. Claudmni Aldin. 

Est suavis, luculentus, et inoffensi stili, sen ten tils acHtus, in narrando 
subtilis et enucleatus, rerum quoque prope omnium peritia, nullius quod 
quidem.praedarum solidumque poetam absolvat, inscius. 

Joach. VtiHianui Uh. di Poetica.* 

In thie two former parts of this article we have given our view 
of the poetical character of Claudian, as a whole^ and of the 
merits and defects of his matter, his style, and his arrangement. 
We shall conclude with an abstract of the poet's life, and a br)ef 
sketch of his several poems. 

Claudius ClaudianuSy a native of Alexandria, (not, as some 
have supposed, a Spaniard or Florentine,) appears to have been 
bom about the year 363 or 370^ and to have florished as a poet 
principally during the last ten years of the fourth, and the first 
ten of the fifth, century. Whether he was the son of a cele- 
brated professor of tlie name is disputed ; it is certain, how* 
ever, diat he received a very superior education, from tbe extent 
and variety of knowledge which his works contain; that he was 
of a good family, and that he was early introduced to tbe notice 
of distmguished men; being admitted about A. D. 395 into tbe 
train of Stilicho, whose movements be accompanied during tbe 
five years precedii^ the latter's first consukhip, and under whom 

' We have extracted the above from tbe S81 testiMHmia which tbe ex* 
emplary diligence of Barthius has collected in the preface to bis editioe^ 
as speameos of tbe estimation in which Claudian was fonnerlj held by 
sebolan. Among bis authorities are spme names which a,ssociata oMf 
flrhh die nco in «i^ as PMrarcbt Boccaccio^ and Lope de Vc§a« 

232 On the Genius and Writings 

he acquired those political predilections aud aotipatbies -Mnicb 
afterwards distinguished hhn. Through the gpod offices' of his 
patron^ he rose high in the favor of the brother Epiperors^ 
Arcadius and Honorius^ by whom he was honored with the 
military tribuueship (at that time a mere title of honor, bestowed^ 
like modem knighthood, iudiscriminately^ on all kinds of merit) 
as well as with many other distinctions. To the kindness of the 
Princess Serena, the wife of Stilicho, he was likewise indebted 
for the hand of a rich and noble lady, whom he married on his 
return to hts native city. Of the succeeding portion of his life^ 
■until the disgrace and death of Stiiicho, we can only gather io 
general that it was passed in literary pursuits, in the society and 
correspondence of the uoble and learned of his time, among 
whom may be numbered (besides the Princess Serena, who 
appears to have been a patroness of the polite arts) Olybrius, 
Gennadius, both orators and writers, the prsetoitian praefect. 
Hadrian, and the philosophic consul Mallius ; and in the com- 
position and recitation of those historical poems which raised 
him to the bead of the poets of his time, and procured hioi the 
honor of a statue in the forum of Trajan. On the fall of Stili- 
cho his fortune probably changed* Whether we are to refer tp 
this period the persecution which (in retaliation for some re- 
ported sarcasms) he experienced from his former patron, the 
praefect Hadrian, and which, by his own account, involved him 
in poverty and danger,' is uncertain ; as indeed the whole of his 
latter history. Some suppose that he sought a retreat at the 
«ourt of the East, which he had so often treated with ridicule ; 
ibat he florished there as a Greek poet, under Theodosius IL, 
and there ended his days. On the question of his Christianity 
we have spoken in a former Number, though with more hesita- 
tion than was necessary ; the designation o? hini by Orosius as 
" paganus pervicacissimus " is sufficient testimony in the nega- 
tive ; and the epigram on James the Master of Horse (Carm. 
4axvii.) is a proof that the assailant of Eutropius, whose powers 
were peculiarly adapted to grave satire, wanted as little the will 
as the ability, could the attempt have been safely made, to paiot 
in lively colors the superstition, the absurd dissensions, and the 
grossly corrupt morals of the Christians of his age.* 

' It would appear however from the poet^s epistle to Hadrian (Carro^ 

s^xiz. S4.) '' caris spoUamur amicis: Hunc tormenta pe<;afit ^ iiit 

undiqoe tniditur exul :*' that the main cause of the prefect's resentmeat 
^vas the poet's connetion with some adverse paf|[y» 

* We need scarcely say that the above notice is compiled afandst 

of Claudian. . 23$ 

The poem on the joint Consulship of the brothers OljfbiriKs 
and Probinus, which stands first in the editions ; of Bartl^iMi^ 
Heinsius, and Gesner^ is appropriately placed at the tfaresboJi4» 
whetlier by way of dissuasion or encouragement;^ the jeadeii, 
being of a moderate length, and containing on the whole a faif 
average specimen of Claudian's characteristic merits and defects 4 
excepting that its subject is less interesting than tha^ of many 
others^ and that it contains none of his finer passagef of descri|^ 
tion or sentiment. The mixed style of Claudian's , diction, i^ 
exemplified in the very outset. . .i 

Sol, ^ui flaramigeris fnuodum complexns habenis ''' 

Volvis ioexbau^to redeuntia specula curau, ' ' ; 

Sparse diem mQliore coma, crioeniquet rep^xi ;. 

Blandius elato surgant temone jiigales, ., 

Efflautes roseum frenis spumantibus iguem. 

The two first lines, though too high-strained for aa exordiuai^ 
are in themselves good, and the second even majestic ; but ki 
the third he gives way to his love of conceits, and the fourth and 
fifth are mere bombast. After a magnificent eulogy on the an- 
cestry of the consuls, the poet proceeds to the main subjifct of 
his poem, their elevation to the supreme magistracy, which he 
accounts for by one of those awkward and uncalled-for pieces of 
machinery so frequent in his poems. The goddess Rome, desi- 
rous of doing honor to the representatives of a family by which 
she had so long been illustrated, descends for the purpose of 
supplicating the Emperor Theodosius to this effect* The de- 
scription of the goddess is copied, not very successfully, from 
tbe common representations of Minerva; one of the circam- 
stances, however, is poetical, and worthy of Claudian* 

Dextrum nuda latus, niveos exserta lacertos, 
AudaceiQ retegit mammam ' ■ '' 

■ nodas, qui sublevat eosem, 

Album puniceo pectin diicr'uninat odro. 

In the same passage we have an instance of the futility of lit- 
tempting to improve what is unimprovable. Homer had sud, 
in describing the descent of Neptune, 

Claudian was not satisfied with this. 

Nee traxere moras, [equi so.] sed lapsu protinus uno 
Quem poscuot tetigere locum. 

wholly from the PfoUgoaMna of Gcsntr and others, and fima the poet's 
own works. 

834 On the Genius and Writings 

Now the very beauty of Homer's conceptioa consists in the 
comparison it suggests. Neptune passes from one place to 
another by steps^ as a man would do, but with swiftness im- 
mensely greater ; and it is in this image of human power, in- 
creased to a preternatural degree, that the sublimity of the pas- 
sage consists. But in Claudian there is no comparison ; his 
coursers do not clear the aerial space by successive bounds, 
though fleeter than the rush of a storm, or the leap of a cata- 
ract ; they are in heaven and on earth in the same moment, and 
by this utter want of proportion disturb the unity of the scenef, 
the magnificence of which is merely earthly magnificence, exalt- 
ed so as to suit a celestial subject. * It is true that this concep- 
tion of Deity is not the sublimest imaginable ; but if a writer 
will represent his gods as magnified men, he ought at least to be 
consistent in his representations. He must not confound two 
opposite systems. — ^I'he goddess presents her request to the 
hero in the moment of his victory over the rebel Eugenius. The 
picture of the field of battle is another example 9f a beginning 
of faultless beauty and elegance, marred in its effect by a turgid 

tfctigere locum, qua fine sub imo 

Angustant aditum curvis anfractibus Alpes, 
Claustraque conjectis scopulis durissima tenduot — 
Seroirutse turres, avulsaque mcenia fumant. 
Crescunt Id cuiuulum strages, vallemque profundani 
i£quavere jueis :* staguant imroersa cruore 
Corpora : turbantur permisto funere manes. 

. The goddess prefers, her desire in good set terms of panegyric 
on the conqueror and on the subjects of her petition : the mo- 
narch graciously consents: the joy of Rome, and the prepara- 
tions for the solemnity, are described. And here we have one 
of those pleasing touches by which Claudian sometimes relieves 
the glaring monotony of his pictures. The mother of the con- 
suls elect is introduced as embroidering with her own hands the 
robes of office which her sons are to wear on the day of their 
inauguration . The piece concludes with a congratulatory oration 
from Father Tiber, and a meeting of the rivers, from which 

* Cowley, whose vast poetical superiority, and extraordinary rugged- 
ness of versification, equally combine to place him in a strong antithesis 
with Claudian, whom he rebembles only in his love for conceit9»iinpcoves 
iipon this: 

Silauebter the wearied Biphaim's bosom fills ; 

Dead corps imboss the valiB with little hills. Davidm. 

ofClaudian^ !2S5 

Pope borrowed the parallel descriptioii in bit WMsor Forest * 
The different rivers are happily characterised. ' 

lodigenas fluvios, Italis quicanque suberrant 
Mohtibus, Alpinasque blount de more pruinas : 
Vulturnusque rapax, et Nar vitiatus odoro 
Sulphure, tardatusqiie suis brroribus Ufeos: 
£t Phaethooteae perpessus darona ruio« 
Eridanus, flavaeque tereos querceta Maricse 
Liris, et(£bali» qui temperat arva Galesus. 

We have been the more particular in our notice of this poem,, 
as we wished to afford such of our readers as may be uaac-* 
quainted with Claudian a clearer notion of his manner^ both of ^ 
plan and execution^ than could be collected from a mere genenU . 
description. * The succeeding ones will not detain us at much 

The next in order is ' the Rufinus, the most vigorous of all 
Claudian's writings^ and, with the exception of the Rape of ^ 
Proserpine^ the most chaste and elegant in point of diction. It 
appears to have been written at twd several times^ like Dryden^s 
Absalom and Achitophel ; and the two parts may be considered 
ai two separate poems, each embracing a separate series of. 
action. The boldness, of Rufinus's alrocities, the entire and 
perfect blaclmess of his character, as delineated by the poet, un- 
qualified, as in the case of Gildo or Eutropius, by auy ludicrous 
or contemptible attributes ; the strikingly contrasted figure of 
Stilicho, and the heroic cast of the story (at least in the latter 
parts), give an imposing brilliancy to this, poem, which is gene- 
rally wanting in our author's narrative poems. It opens with 
the celebrated passage, 

Ssepe mihi dubiam traxit sententia mentem, Sec 

which we could never regard otherwise than as a poetical hyper- ' 
bole, intended to aggrandise his subject, and as much a fiction, 
in a different way, as the machinations of Alecto which imme- ' 
diately follow, or the 

jam respirantlbus astris, 

lufernos gravat umbra lacus 

and the 

TolUte de mediis animamm dedecus umbris, 
£t Ditis purgatc domos — — —— 

at the end of the second book. The other remarkable passages 
in this poem aire the description of the infernal senate, imitated 

J!S6 On the Qreniust mid Writings 

frtai t^rgil; ik&he»xA(vll, tbougb mispla'ced, eulogy on a coon- 
try life (i. 196.); the ammated picture of StiKcfao's preparations 
for battle^ and of bis and his army's indigoation at their recall 
(ii. 171 sqq.); Rufinus's dream, and the weiUtold story of his 
assassination (ib. 5M sqq.); and the concluding scenes wbicb^ 
in spite of the unfortunate simile of the bees, is superior to any 
of the Tartarean descriptions in the Rape of Proserpine* 

The short poem in honor of the Thurd Consnlsbip^ of Hono- 
Tius is remarkable for nothing but the celebrated lines '^ O ni- 
itiium diiecte Deo, Sccf debased as usual (and indeed more than 
usual) by a lame and impotent sequel. That on the Fourth 
Consulship of the same emperor is worthy of much more notice; 
die introductory and concluding portions of the poem are a mere 
fkrrago of monotonous' and extravagant adulation, relieved onlj 
hj the poet's unfailing copiousness of allusion and illustration, 
and by the lusciousness of his versification. We arc repaid^, 
however, in the body of the poem, by an address of Tbeodoaiua' 
t6 hiif son, containing an exhortation to the public and private 
i^fCnes, founded on the dictates of philosophy and the example 
of the old Roman worthies; a passage, for sustained noaial. 
lieauty, superior to any thing in Cflaudian. and not often pand^ 
leled in any of the later Roman poeta. (v* d 1 4-352, aa4 agW« 
595^-4 IB.) This, and such paissages as this, serve to account 
for, and in a grefat measure excuse, the exaggerated opinion' 
which Claudiairs contemporariea (to say nothing of many later 
critics) entertained of his merits. Claudian's style naturally ri^es 
witB his subject, and it is here more than usually good. 

In the Nuptials of Honorius and Maria, which have been 
made the model of innumerable epithalamia by the modem Latin 
{k>ets, Claudian has attempted a new style, and we thinir unsuc- 
cessfully. With the exception of the inimitable CatuUus^akid 
perhaps^ one or two others, the Roman poets have unifbrndy 
failed in attempting the lighter graces. Their language was as 
little susceptible of the subtler beauties of diction, a« they tbenBh' 
selves were of the minute refinements of sentiment. Its very 
stateliness and ponderoQsness makes it unwieldy and unfit for 
the purpose. This defect may be traced in almost all their 
love-poetry. Venus is an inferior copy of Aphrodite. Clau- 
dian's general habits of style were also against him. What 
pomp and circumstance could do, he has done ; but of graceful 
levity he was utterly incapable; the recondite delicacies and 
lesser shades of thought are lost in his coarse aqd glaring deli- 
nieations. There is however much splendor and much play of 

1% l.» 

fmnpllD Jiis; de8C»tpt<0|i9 ; and. bii. Palae« >of Venot d^Mnrtctty 
hol^ not the lowest place ajoong the. aiay timiliir pictures in 
a^iqat ami modem pof^ts. We canaot lefiite oureelvee' the 
pfeasure of q^tiog the deifciifidoB of Maria and btr iwKher^ 

Cunctatur stupe^ta Vemitf. Nunc ord puelle, 

Nunc Aavo ntveam miractir veitice aiatreih. 

Hff c modo creacentii pie iMe para altera Lansi 

Assur^it ceu forte minor suh matre vireqti » 

LauniSy et ingentes ramos, olimque futuras 

Promittit jam parva comas : telnure sub uho 

Ceu cemtns PaMtana rosae per ju^era regnant; 

Hffic largo matufa die, saturataque verms 

Eoribusy indulgetspatio; latet altera nodo» 

Nee teneris audet folils admittere soles. 

. Tb« poem concludes with a welUwrougbt panegjrio on Stills 
<jbo. The '' Feacennioa,'^ wbieb follow, are rather ingenkwir 
than plajfful. Claudian's writings are in general oneaceptkma^ 
Uy pvre^ but ** the cuslofli of tfae country'' has here belmyed 
h^ into occasional licep^usness^ and accordingly into grose* 
Bieas ; for the Romans bad not the art of being indecent wMl a* 

Tbe poem on iiae Gildonic war is a fragment It is almost 
cffilirely occupied with inartificial machinery and long speeche#> 
wbidi bring us to the beginning of tbe action ; tike a splendid' 
ardiway we could name, which leads to nothing. It pomes ser 
bowever considerable historical interest. 

The next is on the Consulship of Mallius "^llieodonis; tbe most 
muformly beauttful, and, with the exception perhaps of tbe Epi* 
tfaalamium, the most pleasing of ail Claudian's occasional peems« 
This is owing to the natnve of die subject* Tbe pursuits ct hir 
friend were in a great measure congenial to his own, and hif 
peacefol virtues and love of sdence are tbe sulgect of tbe pane« 
grric. Claudian evidently felt more at home than usual, and bis^ 

K raises of philosophy, though accompanied perhaps with a tittle 
uman ostentation of knowledge, contrast very agreeably with 
tbe uninterestii^ bustle and cumbrous pomp of his state poems* 
Its fault is a want of variety. Tbe description of tbe consular 
games, at the end, would have been better omitted ; they are 
however curious in an antiquarian view. Some of the illustrative 
similes are highly majestic. The line. 

laeeris morieiites criaibus bjdri 

LambuDt umdido Fiiriarum viacla veoeoo — — 
and tbe expiesrioo, ^^ crebrisque wticantem Urbibus Italiam,^ 

SS8 On the Genius andffritings of Claudian^ 

are among the instances'Cfew, h is triie^) in Chiudian, of tb^liappy 
effect of a tingle well-chosen word. 

This is followed by the two books against Eutropius, which 
some critics have considered as Claudian's chef-d'ceuvre. It hi 
certainly written with unusual energy, and the ingenuity with 
which he varies ihe topics of abuse displays his invention in a 
higher point of view than even his paiiegyncs. His bfows fall 
^' thick and threefold/' All his wealth of language and imagery, 
all the varieties of grave invective abd cutting irony, all that art, 
fancy, or historical recollection can suggest to him, are expended 
in aggravating vileness, and making contempt itself more con- 
temptible. Claudian had a strong propensity to the sarcastic ; 
and his Roman predilections, as well as his party spirit, are 
called into full play on the present occasion. The unheard-of 
enormity of an eunuch-consul is the burden of his song, iipon' 
which he rings all imaginable changes. His object Was to make 
Eutropius supremely hateful and ridiculous, and he has certainly * 
succeeded beyond his intentions. The picture of unmixed de-* 
formity, after a time, becomes wearisome. This attempt to 
impart an abiding interest to a subject purely disgusting, ia one . 
which has baffled greater powers than Claudian's. VVe need 
only refer to the tenth satire of Juvenal, Cliurchiirs '' Times," 
and Gifford's ^* Epistle to Peter Pindar." There is alsb in 
some parts of the poem' a mixture of the pure heroic, which does 
not harmonize with its general character. The latter part of the 
second book is interesting as the earliest remaining instance (with 
the exception of Juvenal's third satire, which however is inferior- 
to Claudian's in burlesque pomp and sustained gravity) of that 
species of composition which has been cultivated with such sig- 
nal success in modem times under the title of mock-heroic. 
For this Claudian was peculiarly well fitted by his ordinary 
habits of style, which, even on serious subjects, sometimes be^ 
tray him to the verge of burlesque. 



7%e English Translation of the Bible ; with some $ug* 
gestions for an improved form of the Test in a revi" 

. sion of its numerous ItsAiC intet^olations ; and of its 
pointings and marginal additions. 

A HB English Translation of the Bible, published in the reign of 
King James the First, is deservedly acknowledged a lasting mo- 
nument of the learning of that age. The various attempts and 
essays of individuals towards ^ny new and improved Translation 
of the whole or parts of the Sacred Volume, in English, since 
that period, have only proved the general integrity and fidelity of 
the former translators, and added lustre to the character of their 

Subsequent editions of the Bible have improved the orthogra- 
phy of the language in proportion to the improvement of the 
English tongue, and this is the only change the Translation has 
undergone for the long period of two centuries, including tlie 
exchange of the old Black letter for the Roman. 

With respect to the punctuation, it may be difficult to pro* 
tiounce on any considerable improvement : the elements of this 
part of the work are few, but important, and in some cases dif- 
ficult: the division of chapters into paragraphs, the right placing 
of capital letters and distinguishing words, and ihe reading points^ 
constitute these elements. 

The most material and glaring defect in our, English Transia* 
tion is the introduction of Italic words in the body of the text 
in almost every verse ; ds if all those words so marked and dis«* 
tingnished were interpolated and surreptitious, or additions of 
Ae translator to supply the defect of the Sacred Original. This 
consideration leads to an inquiry into their description and use. 

Ail the words printed in Italics are reducible to two classes : 
1. Grammatical; 2. Explanatory. To the first class belong 
all the auxiliaries of verbs and pronouns^ which are by far the 
more numerous : and to the second class belong all words de- 
signedly introduced by the translator to explain the sense and 
itieaning of the original, and to prevent ambiguity. 

The editions of the Lafin Vulgate Bible do not afford the 
least example or precedent for the numerous Italic interpolations 
oljected to in the English editions, and in the Versions which 


240 Remarks on the English 

have emauated from them in the Welsh^ Irish, Gaelic^ and 
Manks dialects ; thus, as our translators seem to have followed 
the rule of Theodore Beza in his Latin Version^ so the modems 
have followed them in foisting into the text these numerous Italic 

It would be important to know what has been the rule of 
foreign translators in this respect^ particularly the German, 
French, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, and other continental nations, 
in their Versions of the Bible ; and whether they have followed 
the like practice, and to what extent : and also how far the same 
has been adopted in modem Translations into the languages of 
the East and other parts of the world. 

It is certain, that the example of antiquity is avowedly against 
the practice, and that all the ancient Versions make no such dis- 
tinctions, but do fully and absolutely express the text as text 
without reserve: an examination into the languages and Version^ 
published in the several Polyglott Bibles will amply explain the 
practice of the ancient interpreters aa to this matter. 

The Greek Translation of the Old Testament, and the Latin 
Versions of that text, declare against the practice of such inter- 
polation, as unmeaning and unknown ; and certainly, «o high a 
precedent as the Greek Version is an authority not to be de- 
spised ; from whence not only the Latin Vulgate has obtained 
its rule, but has set the example for all succeeding Translations 
in all languages. 

The Psalter Psalms published with the English Common 
Prayer, as also the Epistles and Gospels, are all, and altogether 
uniformly printed without interpolation; there are no Italic 
words introduced to fill up and make good the supposed want of 
sense and meaning, and the reading has everywhere the advan- 
tage of a complete and perfect text, without the appearance 
of human intrusion or addition. 

The numerous interpolated words in the Bible Psalms and 
other poetical books are highly derogatory to the majesty, bre-. 
yity, and simplicity of the original Hebrew, which,, if it be 
allowed an absolute and perfect text, should likewise be allowed 
an absolute and complete Translation; and if t^at Translation is 
not made, nor can be effected, without the supposed auxiliaries, 
and interpolations here objected to, then it follows, that either 
(he original text is defective and imperfect, or the translator is. 
incompetent to the work, or that the blame^ble scrupulosity 
of the translators, in attempting an absolute accordancy in 
words and phrases, has driven them to the opposite extreme 
jof introducing into the text words which have no foundation 

Translation of the Bible. S4l 

in the original^ but are necessary to give the sense and meaning 
of it ; thus in avoiding one error they have fallen into another, 
and whilst on the one hand they maintain the integrity of the 
Hebrew text^ they on the other impeach it as deficient and want- 

The text of tlie Church Bibles is the authentic text : from 
this text the Word of God is read in all churches, and the word 
of man is not admitted in it ; but if the reader should be tena- 
ciouSy and equally scrupulous with the translators who have 
devised these interpolations, how shall such a reader consult 
M'ith his conscience, should he pass over those Italic insertions 
svb silentioy as not being the Word of God, or read them in the 
audience of the people as the Word of God, knowing them to 
be devised by menf Certainly he cannot but read the whole 
text as he there finds it writteu or printed, and no such reserves 
and distinctions can in this case be admitted. 

That alone is denied to the Bible, which is allowed to all the 
learned books of the ancients in the^translations of their works, 
if such interpolations are to be persisted in ; and that which is 
allowed in the translation of common Hebrew books is denied 
to the Bible. 

Having remarked, that all the interpolary words may be re- 
solved into two classes. Grammatical and Explanatory, I shall 
now offer some pertinent examples; and first of the former 
of these two : 

1. Joseph says to his brethren, ^' I am JosepU your brother," 
Gen. xlv. 4, The interpolated word is here marked in Italics, 
sis if it had no warrant in the original; but here a manifest vio- 
lence is done to the original in excluding the avowed sense in 
.9II similar cases, granted according to the rule of the Hebrew 
tongue ; and therefore, when Joseph thus addresses his brethren, 
he positively and without reserve says, '' I am Joseph your bro- 
ther/' The rule of the original language has no other form of 
expression for the present teuse in this construction of speech, 
and that translation is not justified in the interpolation which 
excludes the aflSrmation contained in it. But of how much 
greater consequence are repeated affirmations of the 
Almighty in sealing his word to his precepts in the most solemn 
form, *' 1 am the Lobd !" Surely the testimony of the whole 
Hebrew tongue can never justify any translator for interpolating 
in forms of speech like these, and rendering them imperfect. In 
like manner the Almighty affirms himself to be the Saviour and 
Deliverer of the Israelites, in that form of words so often repeat- 
ed in the Pentateuch, '* I am the Lord your God.'' *^ i am 

1242 'Remarks on the English 

the Lord thy God.*' Exod. xx. Prayer Book Version, **X 
am the Lord thy God/' 8cc. By the same rule as the Prayer 
Book Version translates, ought the Bible Version to be revised, 
and these objections would cease. 

The Prayer Book Version of Joel, ii. 12 — 17. Isa. Ixiii. 
1.5 — 11. Jer. xxiii. 5 — 8. Mai. iii. 1 — 5. Isa. vii. 10 — 15. 
xl. 1 — 11. affords no example of interpolated words by Italics, 
but renders the original text and Bible Translation complete 
and entire, after the ancient manner. 

Now the reason why the translators have introduced the Italic 
among the Roman letter of the text, is the Hebrew ellipsis of 
the verb to be, and hence they have so commonly and perpetually 
supplied the text in the words am, are, arf, is, was, vjere. See. 
whereas the construction of the language in the Hebrew always 
directs to the words called elliptical by the noun or pronoun, 
and by the verb or participle with which it is found ; and unle^ 
this rule be made a principle in a Translation, as it is in the ori- 
ginal, the Translation cannot but be defective. These remarks 
extend to the grammatical construction only, and to such inter- 
polated words as come under this head. 

All the Italic words in the first chapter of Genesis in the 
English Translation should be revised and printed in the text- 
letter, excepting those which come under the second class, or 
are Explanatory : viz. he made, ver. 16. J have given, ver. SO. 
land, ver. 9, 10. 

The words '' dry land " in some editions, and m others with 
Italics, " dry land/' ver. 9, 10. show a want of uniformity in 
the printing, and we shall see that the earlier editions have 
the advantage. 

Barker's Bible, Basket's Bible, Oxford Bible, 
8vo. 1639. 8vo. 1754. 4to. 1800. 

Gen. i. 9. dry land dry land dry land 

ibid. ^10. dry land dry land dry land 

Exod. iv. 9. dry land dry land dry land 

ibid. xiv. 29. dry land dry land dry land 

ibid. XV. 19. dry land dry land dry land 

Jos. iv. 22. dry land dry land dry land 

Neh. ix. 11. dry land dry land dry land 

Psa. Ixyi. 6. dry land dry land dry land 

Jbnah i. 9* dry land dry land dry land 

\ ibid. ii. 10. dry land dry land dry land 

' Hence the words '' dry land" ought to be restored in thesd 
verses of .Genesis, and the present Italics exchanged. 

The Italics in verse l6th expose a defect, not in the originaT, 

Translation of the Bible. 243 

<but io the Translation, for ''the stars" are here mentioned in 
apposition with '' the great lights '' which God made to rule 
the day and the night ; and should be rendered thus, 

"And God made two great lights: the greater light to 
rule the day : and the lesser light, and the stars^ to rule 
the night/* 
The Italics in verse 30th are explanatory, and find their au- 
thority from the words going before, *' And God said, Behold^ 
1 have given you every herb, &c, — And to every beast of the 
earth, &c. I have given every green herb for meat: and it wiqi 
so i^'-r^hut the sense is complete without this interpolation. 

The Hebrew verb which signifies to bring forth children, 
should be accordingly rendered, ch, vi, ver, 4. " and they bare 
children to them :" there is no propriety in mutilating this text 
with Italics. See ch. x.2\. Nor is there the least occasion for 
Italics in cb« vi. ver. 1.5.; the passage may be rendered as fol- 
lows : 

'' And this is it which thou shalt make : the length 

of the ark three hundred cubits : the breadth of it fifty 

cubits : and the height of it thirty cubits/* 

From these remarks which have been made, and innumerable 

are the examples which might be produced, it appears, that the 

Translation of the Bible, as it is now received, is capable of 

great and extensive improvement in the restoration of all those 

numerous Italic words which are essential to strict grammatical 

.sense, and in a careful revisal of many words, thought jiecessary 

to clear the reading from obscurity and ambiguity. 

There is, moreover, wanting an adjustment of the paragraphs, 
by which the argument of the Sacred Te^Lt may be more cor- 
rectly pointed out, and in which there is found no small differ- 
ence in comparing together the same in different editions of the 
£ible ; there are also many instances of these paragraphs being 
.wrongly placed in all editions, of which an instance may b§ 
found in the 6th chapter of Genesis. The command of God to 
Noah for building the ark, and the decreed destruction of the 
earth, begins with the iSth verse : '' And God said unto Noah.^' 
.Here begins the paragraph, which ends with the chapter. 

With regard to the reading points, the later editions afford 
some examples of alteration not for the better : in the second 
.verse of the first chapter of Genesis, the Oxford 4to. edition of 
1800 has made a division, which the Hebrew critics call a verse 
within a verse, marked with a capital after a full point, thus, 
'^ And the earth was without form and void ; and darkness 


l^emaj'ks on the English 

was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God 
moved upon the face of the waters.*^ 
Edition by Barker^ l639- 
*^ And the earth was without form, aqd void, and 
darkness was upon the face of the deep : and the Spirit 
of God moved upon the face of the waters/' . 
This verse in the old editions conforms with the Hebrew 
more correctly than in the edition above-mentioned; but the 
pointing in both examples is incorrect The verse divides itself 
into three parts, and requires the colon points thu^ — 

'' And tlie earth was without form and void : and 
darkness was upon the face of the deep^ and the Spirit 
of God moved upon the face of the waters." 
Edition l639. Exam. ^. 

Ver. 5. ^* And God called the light Day, and the 

darkness he called. Night : and the evening and 
the morning were the first day." 

'^ And God called the light Day, and the 
darkness he called Night. And the evening 
and the morning were the first day.** 
Exam. 3. 
'^ And God called the firmament. Heaven: 
and the evenhig and the morning were the se- 
cond day." 

'^ And God called the firmament Heaven. 
And the evening and the morning were the se- 
cond day." 

Exam. 4. 

*^ And God saw every thing that he had 
made: and behold, iV was very good. And the 
evening and the morning were the sixth day.** 
In ^either of these editions is the pointing correct, and the di- 
viding of one verse into two gives the appearance of an interpo- 

Exam. 5. 
** But unto Cain, and to his oflering he bad 
not respect: and Cain was very wroth, and his 
countenance fell." 

'' But unto Cain and to his offering he had 
not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and 
his countenance fell." 
Exam. 6. 
^* If ihou do well) shalt thou not be ac- 

Edition 1800. 

Edition 1639- 
Ver. 8. 

^Edition 1800. 

Edition 1639. 

Edition 1639. 
Gen. iv. 5. 

Edition 1800. 

Edition 1639. 
Ver. 7. 

Translation of the Bible. 245 

cepted ? and if thou doest not well^ sin lieth 
at the door : And unto thee shall be his desire, 
bud thou shah rule over him.'' 
Edition 1800. 'Mf thou doest well, shalt thou not be ac- 

Ibid. . cepted ? and if thou doest not well, sb lieth at 
the door. And unto thee shall be bis desire, 
and thou shalt rule over him.'' . 
In these examples, the old edition of 1639 has the preference 
to the new : and for this reason ; the pre-eminence of Cain, on 
account of his transgression, depended on his repentance, but 
the condition is made absolute in the present pointing of the 
verse: the translation of the verse is obscure, and should be 
revised thus : 

'' If thou doest well, shalt thou not be ac- 
cepted? and. unto thee shall be his desire, 
and thou shalt rule over him: and if thou doest 
not well, sin lieth at the door." 

Examples of the Paragraphs. 

Gen, i. I. 

Id tbe beginning Edition 1639. 




And God said 




And God said 





And God said 





And God said 





And God said 




And God said 





And God said 




And God said 



Cb. ii. 1. 

Thus the heavens 



These are the generations 





And the Lord God 





And a river went out 



And tbe Lord God took 



And the Lord* took 




And the Lord God said 





And the Lord God caused 


Cb. iii. U 

14ow the serpent was 



And when tbe woman 




And tbe Lord God called 




And the Lord God said 




Unto the woman 




■ Here is an error in the printed teiU 

t4& Bimarksonihe EngUsK 

6fa.iii.2l. P. Unto Adam also IBOO* 

S2. P^ And the Lord God said 1639. 1800. 

Cb. iv. 1. And Adam knew 

8. P. And Cain talked 1800. 
9« P* And the Lord said 1639. 

16. P. And Cain went out 1639. 

17* P* And Cain knew 1800. 

19. P. And Lamech took 1639. 1800. 

£5. P. And Adam knew 1639. 1800, 

Cb. V. 1. This is the book 

3. P. And Adam lived 1639. 

6. P. And Seth lived 1800. 

9. P. And Enos lived 1639. 1800. 
12. P. AndCainan 1639. 1800. 
15. P. And Mabalaleel 1639* 1800. 
18. P. AudJared 1639. 1800. 
21. P. And Enoch 1639. 1800. 
0,5. P. And Methuselah 1639. 1800^ 
@8. p. And Lamech 1639. 1800. 
32. P. And Noah was 1800. 

(Jh» vi. 1. And it came to pass 

5. P. And God saw 1639. 

8. P. But Noah found 1800. 

9. P. These are the generations 1639. 

14. P. Make thee an ark 1639. 1800. 

From these examples it appears that the pointing of the parar 
graphs requires revision : and that some rule 3hould be adopted 
to direct the printers, who follow different copies, and conse- 
nuently these variations are increased or diminished according to 
tbecopies and the rule of the old and^new editions. 

The contents of chapters ought to be so indexed as to corre- 
spond with their divisions into paragraphs: this i^ not uniformly 
the case ; aAd there are editions which afford considerable ex- 
ceptions. Neither do the old and modem editions agree in the 
form and manner of enunciating the subject matter ; particularly 
in the New Testament, where the contents in the later editions 
considerably amplify beyond the limits of the former : compare 
the chapters in the Epistle to the Romans in the different editions 
published by authority. 

As an improvement in this article, it is recommended to insert 
ithe index of the paragraphs in the contents^ together with this 
Aun^ierical jSgure of the verses^ after the following manner : 

Translation of the 


Edition 1639* 

Gen. cb« i. 

1. The creation of heaven 
and earth : 3 of the . light, 
6 of the firmament^ 9 of 
the earth separated from the 
waters, 11 and made fruit- 
ful^ 14 of the sun, moon, 
and stars, 20 of fish and 
fowly 24 of beasts and cat- 
tle, 26 of man in the image 
of God. 29 Also the appoint- 
ment of food. 

Chap. ii. 

I, The first sabbath. 4 
The manner of the creation. 

8 The planting of the garden 
of Eden, 10 and Jthe river 
thereof. 17 The tree of 
knowledge only forbidden. 
199 ^0 the naming of the 
creatures. 21 The making 
of woman, and institution of 

Chap, ill, 
!• The serpent dec^eth 
Eve. 6 Man's shameful fidl. 

9 God arraigneth them* 14 
The serpent is cursed. 15 
The promised seed. 16 The 

?uni8hment of mankind. 21 
^heir first clothing. 22 Their 
casting out of Paradise. 

Chap. iv. 
1. The birth^ trade, and re- 
ligion, of Cain and Abel. 8 
The murder of Abel. 9^ The 
curse of Cain. 17 Enoch 
the first city. 19 Lamech 

Edition 1800. 

Gen. ch. i. 

1. The creation of heaven 
and earth, 3 If of the lights 
6 f of the firmament. 9f The 
earth separated from the wa- 
ters, and made fruitful. 14 ^ 
The creation of the sun, moon^ 
and stars, 20 ^ of fish and 
fowl^ 24 i[ of beasts and cat- 
tle, 26 ^ of man in the image 
of God ; and his blessing. 29 
% The appointment of food. 
Chap. ii. 

1. The first sabbath. 4 f 
The maimer of the creation. 
8 ^ The planting of the garden 
of Eden. 10 % The river, and 
its four heads. 15 ^ Man is 
placed in Eden, and the tree 
of knowledge only forbidden. 
18 ^ The naming of the crea-^ 
tures. 21 ^ The making of 
woman, and institution of mar* 

Chap. iiL 

1. The serpent deceiveth 
Eve. 6f Man*s fall. 9% God 
arraigneth them. 14 if The 
serpent is cursed, and his over- 
throw by the seed of the wo- 
man foretold. 16 IT The pu- 
nishment of mankind. 21 ^ 
Their first clotlung. 22 f 
Their expulsion out of Para- 

Chap. iv. 

1. The birth, occupation, 
and religious behaviour of Cain 
and Abel. 8 ^ The murder of 
Abel, and the arraignment and 
curse of Cain for it. 17 IT E- 

248 Remarks tmihe English Bible. 

and his two wives* 25 The noch bora; the first city built; 
birth oiF Seth, 26 and Edos. the generations of Cain. 19 

% Lamech and his two wives. 

25 f The birth of Seth and 


It is not any part of my design to enter upon a minute exa- 
mination of the preceding examples^ but to show the necessity 
of adopting some regular method for indexmg and establish- 
ing a Canon for the more certain direction of all persons, 
who, in reading, are willing to consult the contents of each chap- 
ter, and also of commentators, who may derive great advantage 
from seeing the limits and bearings of the arguments in the 
sacred text : and that the introduction of the ^ into the contents 
of each chapter, together with the number of the verse, is the 
more conspicuous and certain method to effect it. 

With respect to the marginal readings, they require many ad- 
ditions for the further understanding of the text; and that th^ 
may not be confounded with the old readings, a suitable distinc- 
tion may be devised. 

And with respect to references, those of sacred and aposto* 
lical authority should be specially distinguished : and next to 
them the parallel passages ; and as to all others, care should be 
taken in the selection ; for it is not their number, but their use^ 
that is important. 

Having finished my remarks, such as they are, I pro- 
pose with ail due respect my opinion, that there is wanting 
a revised edition of the English Bible of the present au- 
thorised translation, on the plan of the editions of the 
Latin Vulgate, and a restoration of all the italic words to the 
letter of the text or Roman character ; that an uniform text 
may be given, consistent with the nature and description of a 
complete and perfect translation — and the more simple the form 
of it is, the better. Such an edition would remove many objec- 
tions arising from the crude and unfinished appearance of the 
present text, disgraced and injured as it is by unmeaning and 
unwarrantable interpolations, as they now stand in a character 
different from the text : all such objections would immediately 
vanish, and the Bible appear in its native beauty and splendor. 





No. V. ^Continued from No. LVL} 

II. Measures of Capacity. 

1 HESE mentioned in Scripture^ as in other writings, are neces- 
sarily of two kinds, or are employed for measuring substences 
in the two different conditions of liquid and dry. They would 
appear to have been more uniform, in their contents, among 
the Hebrews than ours are ; for their nS)K or bushel, add their 
/D (for liquids), were equally large.. 

. It is very certain that there was a standard of these measures 
in '' the most holy place /' and that it stood before the ark of die , 
covenant. Moses was ordered to place '''the Omer of manna' 
before the presence of Jehovah :" iTIiT ^Js!?— TD *ipyrT (the *lDy 
was the tenth part of the HSM or Hebrew bushel): and it seems 
that the vessel was not of wood, but of gold : Exod. xyi. SS, 
36. Heb. ix. 4. That there were various other meas'ures in 
use is not improbable ; although Moses has not inserted in his 
writings any account of their contents. At this no one needs 
to be' offended ; for in fact measures of this description could 
not properly be specified in the book of the law, because the 
standard vessel, which was of gold, could not, without risk of 
being injured or stolen, be put into the view of every Israelite.^ 

To notice, however, some probable examples of standard 
measures of capacity, by which the sacred utensils were deliver- 
ed to the priests and Levites : Numb. i. iv. : it may be remarked, 
that belonging to the table of shew-bread, there were not only 
golden tankards (JllpJID) in which wine stood, and from which it 
was to be poured out, but also small drinking vessels, shaped like 
our cups, likewise of gold. No^, considering Moses as merely 
yersed '' in the learning of the Egyptians," we must think it 
probable, that all these vessels had their contents very accurately 
determined. The very same, probably, was the case with regard 
to the basons belonging to the altar of burnt-offerings ; and for 
regulating the baking of the shew-bread, the flour for which the 
law fixed by bushels, there may have been a standard iHQA 

* Michaeiis' Comment on Laws of Moftts, \\\. ^^«^^<-%^%i 


The Arithmetic of 

within the Sanctuary, Before the tabernacle stood the brazen 
laver. In the more particular description of the vessels delivered 
to the priests it was perhaps specified^ how much water this laver 
contained, both when quite full, and when filled only to a certain 
mark ; and accordingly we find, that the contents of this brazen 
sea, as it was called, are mentioned in both respects, in the his- 
torical books of 1 Kings (vii, £6.) an/i 2 Chronicles (iv. ^•) 

The Scripture Measures of Capacity. 


In Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and English. 


shot 3b 

TTOT (Noticed only by Home.) 





£)^( or Afay(jub, 





Bai9 or MfrpfTi};.|Lagena or Bathus. 

•|J17 H/uuxoppf. 



Dimid, Cori. 


A Log. 
A Cab. 


An Omer. 




An Ephah. 

A Chomer. 


0.625 of a Pint. 

About S Gills. 
li Quart 

n Gall. 
H Galls. 
lit ditto. 






A Bus 

|75 Galls. 5 Pints.! A Qua 

Sect. 1. liquid; or, according to Wine-measure. 

^ a hollow, or palm of the hand : — denoting, therefore^ that 
quantity of a liquid which may be contained in &e hollow of the 
hand. In Num. vii. 14, £0. it is a Censer, Suierxij. 

yh in Lev» xiv. 10, signifies that measure of oil, which lepers 
were to offer at the temple after their cure ; and, by Jewish 
writers,' is said to have contained the quantity of sis. eggs. Its 
ideal meaning is uncertain ; but have we not traces of this word 
in the Greek Aijyco, 1 cease, in the Swedish lagg, extremity^ 
and the English lag? May it therefore denote, the small or lasf 

np the sixth part of a ilHD, or the eighteenth of an hSK ; 
and therefore containing three pints and one third English. The 
least measure noticed in Scripture is npil^H^; 2 Kings vi. £5. 
''fourth of a Cab.'' 

rn was used for measuring oil : Exod. xxx. Ezek. xlv. 46 ; 
and wine : Exod. xxix. Levit. xxiii. It was probably thus de- 

' Kimchi and others interestingly noticed by the learned Leusden, in 
Dissert xxxl Pbilol, Hebr., &c. pp. ^OS— a09. i 

the Holy Sdriptures. 351 

momtoated/ because ^employed in presenting (from nSt to pre* 
sent) the liquids for the service of God. The Scripture fur- 
nishes no sufficient data for determining its capacity. 

TWiD was exactly double the size of a V^, or 2J gallons. Ac- 
cording to Dr. Bernard^' — ** Uma Romanai sive sesquimodius 
Romanus : i. e. £4 sextarii Romani." 

/a rendered $ond; but also ftrrpign}^: 2 Chron. iv. 5.: and 
xBpufiiog : Is. v. 10. It was the tenth part of the Omer in liquids^ 
as the Ephah was in dry things : Ezek. xlv. 11. In John ii. 6. 
fUTpiifrct$ should be translated^ not by the modeni word ^' fir- 
kins/' but by measures or baths, ^ So large a quantity (about 
40 gallons) was probably designed not only to supply the new 
married couple with wine during the seven days of their nuptial 
feast (Jud. xiv. 12. with Gen. xxix. 27, 28. Tdbit xi. 19*) and 
to provide for their future occasion ; but also to prove most 
^qsecially the reality of the miracle. ' 

lltyn the same as the IQ, xopos^ was the largest of these mea- 
sures: Ezek. xlv. 14. 

Sect. 2. Dry ; or^ according to Corn-measure. 

71121 is represented by Mr. Home^ as the smallest: but 
whence has he taken it— for it has not been noticed by Godwyn^ 
Stocke, Buxtorf> Lamy^ Calmet, or Parkhurst i 

The Up is explained by Josephus^ by ^icrrviy, the Roman 
Sextarius : — a little more than our pint. It does not appear in 
sacred history, till the reign of Jehoram^ king of Israel ; 2 Kings 
vi. 25. X \ 

IDJf, being the 10th part of an ephah, and equal to about six 
pints English, is said to have been dius applied from its primary 
meaning to press, as being the most contracted of these mea- 
sures : Exod. xvi. 36. 

Xomi, a Grecian measure for com : Rev. vi. 6. : by some 
reckoned equal to about a pint and a half English. It should 
be read a Chanix, ^ instead of our indefinite and unmeaning 
translation^ ^' a measure.'^ 

It I . ■ . I 

> In his elaborate ^ Mensurse Concav. Antiq." appended to Dr. Po* 
Cocke's Comment, on Hosea. 

^ Dr. Campbell's Four Gospels translated, &c. ; see particularly VoL 
iiL pp. 295, S96. Edinburgh ed. 1821. 

3 Dr. Pearce's Miracles of Jesus vindicated, &c.; Part iii., cited ia 
{^arkhurst's Greek Lex. p. 432. 

^ Introduction to the H. Script. &c Vol. iii. p. 60. 

' Part I. of a most judicious JPrelim. Dissert., No. viii. of Dr. Camp^ 
t>el]> Vol. i. pp. 316<^S28p 

Sl5!i TM Arithmetic of 

HMD Kterallj denotes a measurci ; anci^herefore widi propriety 
applied to a specific purpose. In the reduplicate form : Is. 
xxvii. 8 : riKDKDy it signifies a repeated or exact measuring. 

nS)K or, more frequently tlS^^, which may be literally called 
the baking measure: for this quantity was U3ually baked at one 
time ; as well as the radical intimation of the word. The Sep- 
tuagint have often translated it by UefAfia, a baking. Equal to 7J 
gallons ; or near an English bushel. ' 

'^n? containing half an Omer or Cor. So several of the 
■Hexaplar versions Hf/i^ixopov, and Vulg. dimidio coro : Hos* iii. 
2. Sixteen pecks, or four bushels, or two strikes. 

"IDTT derives its appellation, according to Godwyn,^ from ^DDTT 
an ass, because it contained the quantity of grain which 
an ass could conveniently bear. But, says Parkhurst, ''the 
largest measure ; in which many things were often jumbled (from 
^DTT to disturb) together." It held to the amount of 32 pecks 
and upwards, or about 1 quarter:^ — and consequently equal to 
eight cubic feet of water. 

Chap. hi. Weights. 

As the ancient Hebrews were chiefly an agricultural ^ people, 
they were not much addicted to commercial pursuits — and con- 
sequently a primitive simplicity would characterise their weights 
and all their mercantile transactions. Indeed, all their weights 
refer to money ; and might properly be arranged under our Troy 
or Jewellers* weight. 

Among the Biblical terms usually applied to this subject, the 
following deserve notice : 

7pt^ to weigh, is the word most generally employed to express 
this idea : Gen. xxiii. 16. ^p/), in Dan. v. 25, 9,7, is oiily th^ 
Chaldaic form of the same word. 

DK^ literally a stone, signifies also a weight ; which was, as 
frequently with us, of stone: Deut. xxv. 13. and Prov. xri. 
11.' are beautiful allusions to the stony weights of the Hebrews. 

' Gusset, &c. quoted by Parkhurst, in his Heb. Lex. p. 34. 

* Moses and Aaron, Civil and Eccles. Rites^ &c. p. 26S. 

^ A Quarter of v^heat vt>as so called, on the supposition that it weighed 
500lb,, or a quarter of a Ton, — A cubic foot of water weighs lOoO ounces; 
of course 32 cubic feet weigh 20001b., which were formerly a ton. The 
bushel, or one eighth of a quarter, is equal to 1000 ounces, or a cubie 
foot of water. — Joyce's Pract. Arithm. pp. 48, 49. 

^ Fleur^'s Manners of the Ancient Israelites, he, p. 63. 

^ The Hebrew weights were not made of metal, lest the rust should 

the Holif Scriptures. 


ths t6 ireigb/balinot, make even : — aod of amiltil^ import is' 
the teruk 

ItH t-'though it does not occur as a verb^ yet ^' in Aral^ic 

tbe cognate verbs f^^y and ^^ signify to weigh^ balance;"' and- 
i3^XMD a pair of scales : Lev. xix. 36. Jer. xxxii. 10. Ezek. v. U 

n^ a particular weight ; from its radical signification of dis- 
tributing or computing by weighty as well as number. 

Rev. xVi. 21. seems tbe only example^ in the New Testa- 
ment, of the occurrence of this term ; where ruXotvrietioi, the 
weight of a talent, is read by the Syriac ]jj*ao, obviously 
from *133 a talent. ^ 

A standard was provided for the Hebrew weights in a variety 
of ways:* — by the golden candlestick in the sanctuary: Exod. 
XXV. 31 — 39. ; and the silver sockets on which rested the vails 
of the tabernacle : Exod. xxxviii. 27* — besides the particular 
specifications of Exod. xxx. 13. Lev. xxvii. 25. 

Tbe superintendents of weights and measures among the 
Israelites were much in the Egyptian style, the priests and Le- 
vites. To them the standards were delivered ; and indeed, 
article by article, to particular persons ; that so, if of gold or of 
silver, they might re-deliver it by weight ; besides, the whole 
tribe of Levi were maintained by the public, in return for their 
devoting themselves to the sciences.^ See likewise David's ap- 
pointment : 1 Chron. xxiii. 29. 

The Weights mentioned in Scripture. 











Libra ^ 



A Gerah. 
Half Shekel. 
A Shekel. 
A Pound. 
A Talent. 

lbs. oz. pen. grs. 





2 6 


rnil, the smallest weight, seems to be thus denominated as 
resembling in smallness the dust which a saw makes from wood. 
Thus the smallest coin among the Greeks was called Xnrrov, 


eat them, and they should become lighter. They were all made of 
stone : — and hence the Vulg. resuling of Prov. xvi. 11. — Lamj^'s Introduc- 
tion, &c. p. 254. note. 

" Dr. Castell, referred to in Parkhurst's Hebrew Lexicon, p. 10. 

^ For additional illustrafion, the reader may consult pages 392 — S9i. 
•of VoL iii. of Michaelis' Comment., &c. 

^ Michaelis'Comment., kc. Articles lit. and ccxxvii. in Vols. i. and iii* 

S54 The Atithh^etic of the Scriptures. 

lilde ; and our ancestors also had their mite. The variations of 
its weight, by different writers, are from five to twelve ounces* ' 

)jp2, to separate or cleave asunder, is a shekel broken in two ; 
a half shekel. Gen. xxiv. 22. 

7\W the standard weight, to which all others were conformed ; 
as they are in England to our pound, significantly derived from 
pendoj I weigh. It is generally reckoned at about half an En- 
glish ounce. The weight of Absalom's hair, mentioned 2 Sam. 
xiv. 26., was 6^ pounds of our Avoirdupois or grocers' weight. 
A comparison of Exod. xxx. IS. with Ezek. xlv. 9» 12. proves 
that the common shekel and that of the sanctuary were really thf 
same. The reason of the appellation ttHpn bplO was because the 
standard of this, as of all other weights and measures, was kept 
tfi the Sanctuary, according to 1 Chron. xxiii. 29 ; as with us in 
the Exchequer.' 

TMIO usually estimated from Ezek. xlv. 12. at 60 shekels 
or 2} pounds : but by Josephus and Parkhurst at 100 shekels, 
the latter directing to compare 1 Kings x. !?• with 2 Chron. ix. 
16. It is observable, that this word is to be found ^ only in the 
books of Kings, Chronicles, Ezra, and Ezekiel. 

^33 a talent, appears from Exod. icxxviii. 25, 26. to have 
been equal to SOOO shekels; and consequently about 125 lbs. 
Dr. Cumberland, however, estimates it at 93| pounds ; and 
Michaelis, at little more than 32^ English Avoirdupois.' 

AiTgUf in John xii. 3. and xix. 39* a pound ; and is supposed 
to have been somewhat less than 12 ounces, as it is well known 
the Roman libra^ was. This word, says Scapula, is used by the 
old Greek writers; and by the Sicilians' for the obolus^ or 
weight of 12 ounces. 

January y 1824. J. W. 

(Money m our next) 

' Thus remarks Parkhurst, who has given a judicious discussion of the 
subject, in his Hebrew Lexicon, p. 767. 

* Calmet's Bib. Encyclop. on Mina, Vol. iL last edition. 

3 These distiognished writers are noticed byParkhurst—- Hebrew Lexi- 
con, pp.Sld,S14.' 

^ Dr. Adam*s Roman Antiquities— Weights and CoinS| p. 490. fifth 
edition, 1801. 

' ' Encyclop. Britan., on Medals, No. 45. 


Is the Nightingale the Herald of Day^ as well as the 

Messenger of Spring f 

No. llL^Concluded from No. LFJ] 

Que bien cantan los Ruisenores 

Las maoaDitas con zelos 

Y con tristezas las noches. 

Principe d'Esquiladie. 

Xuis ia, as Mr. Bo wring remarks in a letter addressed to me, 
^'a curious fiction of the Spanish poets, that the Nightingale 
aiogs of jealousy in the mornings and of sorrow at night.'' 

The same enlightened gentleman has referred me to Sbak- 
seare's Song in the Passionate Pi/grim, beginning : 

As it fell upon a day. 
Id the merry month of May, 
Sitting in a pleasant shade, 
Which a crove of myrtles made^ 
Beasts did leap, and birds did siog. 
Trees did giowy and plants did spring: 
£rery thin^ did banish moan. 
Save the m^ktingak alone t 
She^ poor bird, as all forlorn, 
LeanM her breast up-till a thorn. 
And there smig the dolefulFst ditty, 
That to hear it was ^eat pity : 
Fie, ^e^ fie, now wouM she cry. 
Tern, Tern, by and by. 

'' This," says Mr. B., '< evidently supposes the nightingale to 
811^ in broad day-light." 

Strada's verses have been already referred to ; but I must re« 
fresh the mind of the reader with an excellent translation of 
tbem :— 

'' Ed. Br. If your Ladyship will allow me, I will repeat some 
lines, which I met with the other day in an old neglected Poet, 
Crashaw. They seemed to me wonderfully beautiful, diough 
somewhat of the quaintest. 

'^ Lady M. But are they to the purpose i 

*^ Ed. Br. You shall hear. They are taken from a piece 
called Music*s Duel. The contest fs between ' a sweet lute's 
master* and ' the harmless syren of the woods.' 

He lightly skirmishes on every string, 

Charged with a flying touch; and straghtway she 


256 Is the Nighting^the Herald of Day^ 

Carves out her daijaty nptes as readily 
Into a thoyiMd, sweet, distioguMlMd toiiMy 
And reckons up, in soft diviaioxi9^ 

Quick volumes of wild notes 

Now negligently rash, 
He tjirpws his arm, and with a longrdrawn dash. 
Blends idl together ; then distinct]^ trips 
From this to that ; then quickrreturning skips> 
And snatches this again, and pauses there. 
She measures every measure, exrery where 
Meets art with art -, some^mes, as if in doubt, 
Not perfect yet, and fearing to be out^ 
Trails l^er plain ditty in one long-spun note. 
Through the sleek passage of her open throat. 

' . ■— 1 ■'— . _ He, amazed 

That from so small a channel should be raised 

The torrent of a voice, whose melody 

Could melt ioto such sweet variety. 

Strains higher yet; as when tl^ trumpets call 

Hot Ma^s to tjie harvest of Path's field, an^ woo 

Men's hearts into their hands ; — ^This lesson too 

She gives him back. Her supple breast thrills out 

Sharp airs, and staggers in a warbling doubt 

Of dallving sweetness ; hovers o'er her skill, 

And folds, in waved notes, with a trembling bill. 

The plyant series of her slippery song; 

Then starts sh^ suddenly into a throng 

Of panting munqurs, stilFd out of her breast. 

That ever-bubbling spring ; the sugar'd nest 

Of her delicious soul, that there doth lye 

Bathing in streams of liquid mdodie. 

Her voice now kindline seems a holy auire. 

Pounded to th' naine of great Apollo's lyre. 

Of sweet-lipp'd Angels, ever murmuring 

That men can sleep, while they their matins sing, 

t^^^ divine ^rvice,) whose early lay 
Prevents the eyelids of the blushing day. 

Sihame now s^nd anger mix*t a double stain 
In the Musician's face ; yet once again. 
From this to that, from that to this he flies, 
Feels music's pulse in all her arteries. 
' Caught in a net, which there Apollo spreads, . « 

His fingers struggle with the vocal threads^ 
With flash of hijgti-born fancies, and anon 
Creep on the soft touch of a tender tone, 
Whose trembling murmurs, melting in wild airs, 
Kuns to and fro, complaining his sweet cares. 
Because those precious mysteries, that dwell 
In music's ravish'd soul he dares npt teU, 
But whisper to the world. 

iSweet soul, she tries 
To measure all those wild diversities 
Of chatteriBg strings, by the small size of one 
Pgpf ^ifuple vc^e. Tailed vn> iiv>^t^x»xk^% 



as well as the Mi^^Mhger of Spring ? *5t 

A\^% in TBin ! for ^m€ fifer Uft^ii- tftr6ftt 
Yet summont ^li if^ sweet powers £dir a ndtifc, • 
She fails, — and MliDe grieve&-::-;and grie^ng di^S, 
She dies, and leaves ner life the' victor'^ ^rize, 
Fdlii'dg lipoti his lute. Ob| fit to nave^ 
(That lived iit sweetlji;) d6M> so' tir^t a g)iv6 ! 

" Lady M. There il 'e^rtaliil3r A fihe bW Spirit of genuine 
poetry in these vetses;'' 

Knij^h^s^ CtanrteAy Md^. d> 964. 

The writer of this ^tide oikgM t0 h^V0 kiib\\'tr^ <si at lenst 
might as well have noticed^ that the idea of thfes6 likib» ttni^ taken 
from Strada ; and the same remark may be applied to thii ^kfriki 
of Chaucer, which are quoted by Antiquarius in Classical Jour^ 
nal56, 365. ^ , ■ . 

It may be reih^rkied too'y that in citing Crashaw's lin^sj c^t9|ii| 
liberties are taken in Knight^s Mag, The entire,p^9^f 19 qilOted 
in the Retrospective Review, Ko. 11.. p. 246i $i|^4i u^M'P^^^^^ 
with the following remarks :-^^^ Our quotations! ffrpm this, peg* 
lected Poet h^ve been so copious^ that we haye no 9pace left 
for observing upon any of the other pieces of trahslatibu except 
one; and that is so eminently beautiful in itself^: and ia translated 
with such a wonderful power over the resources of oiit* language^ 
that we hope to find favor iii the eye^ of oUr reader^ by extract- 
ing the whole Poem. The original is^ it^ the Latin bf Strada ; 
the subject^ the^'eU-knowh coiltest o]^ the muisiciah and night- 
ingale* Crasfaaw entitles it^ Music's DuelJ* 

But before I dismiss Knight* s Mag,^ it will be right to criti- 
cise what is said in p. £59.: — '^ We migkt have been reading 
Tom and Jerry, or the Scottish Chiefs, or the Article on Night^ 
ingales in the Classical Journal, or a great many other things, 
all and each worse than reading Sir John Suckling^ s Plays** 
But be it known to Edward Haselfoot that those, who admire 
the notes of Nature's sweetest songster, may be excused for in- 
quiring into its habits, and that a qiiestioti, ll^hldi ^ hot been 
satisfactorily determined by ^ily modern draithologUt^ M not un- 
worthy even of a philosopher's attention. 

J. W. in Class, Joum. 56, 343. refers to the Electra of 
Sophocles for a proof that '^ the Nigbtingide iftay be a morning- 
songstress" I thank him for hia reference. But has he ascer- 
tained the fact ffom any modern ornithologist, that it is the /e- 
male, which sings ? ' 

'^ But best, Ihe dear good angel of iht springs 
^ The Nightingale. 

B. Jonson's Sad SkephM. 

258 Nugap 

This 18 a translation from a verse of Sappho found in the 
Schol. on Soph. El. 147. It is given by Brunck^ 

Bentley, in his Ms. Notes on Hephsestion^ preserved in the 
Library of Trin. Coll. Cam.^ has altered it to 

R. Wal pole's Specimens of Scarce Translations of the 17 th 
Century frotn the Latin Poets, to which are added Miscella- 

■ neous Translations from the Greek, Spanish, Italian, etc. 
London, 1805. p. diS. 

Ovid. Fast. 2. 

an veris prammiia venii hirtmdo f 

** Expressit Sapphonis sententiam^ ''^f^i Sf/ysXos, etc.'' H. 
Ciofanii Obss. p. f28. 

In the Royal Poem entitled the Kif^s Quair James repre- 
sents himself as '' rising at day-break^ according to custom, to 
escape from the dreary meditations of a sleepless pillow :— * 

And 00 the small grene twistis set 

The lytel swete Nightingales, and sung 
So loud and clear the hymnis consecrate 

Of lovis use, now soit, now loud among. 
That all the garden and the wallis rung 
Right of their song.'' 

Geoffrey Crayon's Sketch Book I, 149. Ed. l^. 

Thetford, March 1824. 


collecting toys 

And trifles for choice matters, worth a sponge j 
As children gathVing pebbles on the shore. 

Para^te Regained, iv. 325< 

No. IX. — IContinnedfrom No. LYdL} 

Parallel Passages. {Continued.) 

3. I never saw a fool lean ; the chub-faced fop 
Shines sleek with full-crammM fat of happiness^ 
Whilst studious contemplation sucks thqjuice 

From wizards' cheeks, who making curious search 
For Nature's secrets^ the First innating Cause 
Laughs them to scorn, as man doth busy apes, 
When they will zany men. 

Mttrston ap. Retrosp. xi. 131. 

Go, wondrous creature ! mount where science guides, 
Go, measure earth, weigh air, and state the tides ; 
Instruct the planets in what orbs to run, 

Correct old Time, and regulate the Sun :— « 

« « ♦ ♦ • 

Go, teach Eternal Wisdom how to rule — 
Then drop into thyself, and be a fool ! 
Superior beings, when of late they saw 
A mortal man unfold all Nature's law. 
Admired such wisdom in an earthly shape. 
And show'd a Newton as we show an ape. 

Papers Essay on Man, £p. ii. 19. 

4. Scared at thy frown terrific, fly 
Self-pleasing Folly's idle brood. 

Wild laughter, noise, and thoughtless joy, 
. And leave us leisure to be good. 

Gray, Ode to Adversity. 
The expression in the last line appears to be borrowed from 

Let fumbling age be grave and wise^ 

And Virtue's poor contemn'd idea prize. 
Who never knew, or now are past the sweets of vice ; 

While we whose active pulses beat 

With lusty youth and vigorous heat. 
Can all their bards and morals too despise. 
While my plump veins are fill'd with lust and blood. 

Let not one thought of her intrude, 
Or dare approach my breast, — 
But know I have not yet the leisure to be good. 

Satire against Virtue. 

5. I .1 quot in aequore verso 

Tritones, quot monstra natent, quot littus arenas, 
Quot freta pisciculos immensi gurgitis unda 
Abscondant, quot sylva regat volucresque ferasq^ue, 
Quot fumi vomat ^tna globos, quantasque faviUas ; 
Haec mihi nota panim, fateor ; nee notius illud. 
Qui sttftus est coelo, qua sidera lege mOventur. 

!?60 Nuga. 

Iijivenies aliquos astrpr^m arcana protfessoi 
Metiriqi^ auaos co&liim, terrasq^ue^ fretumque^ 
Ignaros qnp. npatra taniep^ corpuscula limo 
Subsistant^ seu quis clau^ia sit spiritus umbi^is, 
H^u fi^or^ heu fugiesta lues^ heu flebilis horror. 
Omnia malle hominenij, quain se, discernere !' sicne 
Ultima cura sui est, quanx par fuit esse prioren) i 
Petrarch. Epist. Poet. Lti. n. Ep. iii. p. 1344. coL 2. 

Similar are the complaints of a kindred thioker ip later times : 

■ And thus they spend 

The little wick of life's poor shallow lamp 

In playing tricks with nature^ giving la>ys 

To distant wprlds, aijidi triflipg in their own. 

Ah ! what is life thu3 sp^nt i and what are they 

But frantic J who thus spend it?— — 

True ; I. am no ^oficientj^ I confess. 

In arts like yours. I (;aniiot call the swift 

And perilous lightnings from the angry clouds, 

And. make them hide themselves in earth beneath.; 

I cannot analyse the air, nor catch 

The parallax of yonder luminous point, 

That seems half quenched in the immense abyss. 

Such powers I boast not, neither can I rest 

A silent witness of the headlong rage. 

Or heedless folly, by which thousands die. 

Bone of n^y bpne, and kindred souls to tpiuje. 

Qowper^s Task, iii. 

6. The river that nms^ slow and creeps by the banks, and 
begs leave of every turf to let it pass, is drawn into.little hollow- 
nesses, and spends, itself in snialler portions, and. dies with diver- 
sion ; but when it runs with vigorousness. and a full stream, and 
breaka down every obstacle, making it even as its own brow, it 
stays not to be ten^pted by little avocations, and to creep into 
holes, but runs into th^ sea through full and useful channels : so 
is a man's prayer ; ifit moves upoa the feet of an abated appe- 
tite, it wanders into, the society ojf every trifling accident, and 
stays at tli^e corni^a of t)^e fancy, and talks with every object it 
meets, and cannot apiye at Heayep, See. 

Jeremy, Tttjflor, S^rmqn of Lukewarmness and Zeal, 

p. 125, Ed. 1668. 

An Italian poet, P. Salandri, in a sonnet translatedi by Mont- 


I Cf. Thomas a Kempis de Imit. Christi, Lib. i. cap. 2. 

gomery, uses a sknikff im^ tcr Hhfstrate the chmger of giving 
way to every. nbaH temfKstiofi^ 

Fresh {r6ta t&e 6dsoM of afn ATpii^ hift 

When ti tcfy fi'vutTiet sparkles into day^ 
And suYlbeii^s b^the and bVight'en in its rill^ 

If here" & Atuh stnd there a flower in ptay 
BeiM^lig t6 iip, the fittfe cliahBel £^^ 

ft ebbs^ ai[id tanguisbesy a^d died siway. 

7* He that is no fool^ but Can consider wisely, if he is in 
love with this wottd, vit€ tieed' not despair hxit tb^t a witty man 
might reconcile him #ith tortures, and make him ihhik charita- 
bly of the rackyand be brought to dvteH with vipers* and dragons ; 
or to admire the harmony that is ndad'e by a fierd'or evening 
wolves when they miss their draugllt of bfoodib their midnight 
revels. The groans of a: man in a fit of the stone ^e worse 
than all these; and the distractions of a tronbled t6tf^ei^ce are 
worse than those g;roans; and' yet a carelestsr tn^i^ sinner is 
worse than all thsft. But if Mte could' from 6tt:6 df iHie battle- 
ments of HeaVen es^y> how mant men and ^onien at this time 
lie fainting' and dying fo^r Wa^t or bread^ how mtiny young men 
are hewn down by the swbrd of war, how many pooi^ orphans 
are now weeping over the grkVeS of theit fatiier, D>^ ^Hose life 
they were enabled to eat ; if We cbuld but hear HoW rtiny ma- 
riners and passengers are^ at tUis pfelsient in a sf 6ttiA', and shriek 
out because their keel dashes stg^in^t a rock, br b6ige^ under 
theiih ; how ftfaftiy people there are that weep with want, and 
are mad with oppression, or are' desperate by too quick a sense 
of a constant infelicity; in all reason we should be ^d to be 
out of the noise and participation of so many evils. This is a 
place of sorrows and tearsy of great, evils and a' constant? calami- 
ty ; let us remove hence^ at least in affections add preparation 
of mind. 

!tayior*s Hot^ Djfing, Chap. i. Sect. 3. fin. 

The fiM of tke extracts, whibh We shftU quote a!r apposite to 
the above nobi^ passage^ is a^ striking instance of tlie manner in 
which a great pMticai^miAd gives back the conceptibiisr of others 
modified to its own cha<ract^r;- the second, of the'difference be- 
tween the same thoughts as illustrated by agi^atter Orless'power- 
ful genu^^: » diff^rencfe- which' will be further illustrated by a 
comparison of the sipnile of, the .Rock (Sermon on the Miijacleat>f 
the Divine Mercy, p. £61. ed. 1668.) and that of the Rainbow 
(Sermon on the, f!aith and Patience of the Sain|t8„ p. 83. and 
again on the Opening of Parliament, p. 92.) with the rifacia- 
mentos of the same images by later writers. 

9Q0 Nuga. 

Invenies aliquos astror^m arcana protfessoi 
Metiriqi^ auaos co&liim^ terrasq^ue^ fretmnque^ 
Ignaros qu^q npatra taoiep, corpuscula limo 
Subsistant^ seu quis clau^ia sit spiri^us umbi^is, 
H^u furor^ heu fugiesta, lues^ heu flebilis horror. 
Omnia malle hominenij, quain se^ discernere !' sicne 
Ultima cura sui est, quam. par fuit esse prioreii) i 
Petrarch. Epist. Poet. Ub. ii. JSp. iii. p. 1344. col. 2. 

Similar are the complaints of a kindred thioker ip later times : 

■ And thus they spend 

The little wick of life's poor shallow lamp 
In playing tricks with nature^ guying la^ys 
To distant \yprlds, ai;id( triflipg in their own. 
Ah ! what is life thu3 sp^nt i and what are they 

But fraptic, who, thus spend it? 

True ; I, am no ^oficientj^ I confess. 

In arts like you^s. I (;aniiot call the swift 

And perilous lightnings from the angry clouds, 

And. make them hide themselves ia earth beneath * 

I cannot analyse the air, nor catch 

The parallax of yonder luminous point, 

That seems half quench'd in the immense abyss. 

Such powers l boast not, neither can I rest 

A silent witness of the headlong rage, 

Or heedless folly, by which thousands die. 

Bone of n^y bpne, and kindred souls to tninie. 

Qowper^s Task, iii. 

6. The river that runs slow and creeps by the banks, and 
begs leave of every turf to let it pass, is drawn intolittle hollo w- 
nesses, and spends, itself in smaller portions, and.dies with diver- 
sion ; but when it runs with vigorousnesa and a full stream, and 
breaka down every obstacle, making it even as its own brow, it 
stays not to be ten^pted by little avocations, and to creep into 
holes, but runs into the sea through full and useful channels : so 
is a man's prayer; if it moves upoa the feet of an abated appe- 
tite, it wanders into. the society ojf every trifling accident, and 
stays at tli^e cqrDi^s of the fanpy, and talks with every object it 
meets, and cannot ajpriye at H^eavep, See. 

Jeremy, Taylor, Sermqn of Lukewarmness ar^d Zeal, 

p. 125, Ed. 1668. 

. • 

An Italian poet, P. Salandri, in a sonnet translated^ by Mont- 


% \ 

\ Cf. Thomas a Kempis de Imit. Christi; Lib. i. cap. 2. 

gomery^ uses a sknikff ivtrtt^ to- Hhfstrate the damrger of giving 
way to every. MfiiaHtemfKstiofi^ 

Fresh fr6in the bdsott of afn ATpii^ bin 

When si Coy ri'viiTet sparkles into day^ 
And suY»be$^^ b^Aef and brighten in its rill^ 

If here a Atuh atod there a flower in play 
Betitflhg to di'p^ tike fmf e cfiannet M, 

ft ebbs^ Viiid fakiguistKls^ a^d died away. 

7* He that is no fool^ but Can consider wisely, if he is in 
love with this ytoAd, vire tieed' not despair btdl tb^t a witty man 
migbt reconcile him t^itti tortures, and make him ihhlk charita- 
bly of the rackyand be bfought to dwell with vipers' and jfragons ; 
or to admire the harmony that is ndade by a herd' of evening 
wolves when they miss their draught of bfood'iti their midnight 
revels. The groans of a' man in a fit of the stcfne ^e worse 
than all these; and the disthittions of a troubled tditscUnce are 
worse than those g;roans ; and yet a carelestsr taktfy sinner is 
worse than all thsft. But if Mte could from 6m df V/ie battle- 
ments of Heaven esfpy, how mant men and ^onien at this time 
lie fainting' and djving for Want or bread; how mtiny young men 
are hewn down by the swbrd of War, how* matiy ptyof orphans 
are now weeping over the gr&Ve^ of tbeit" fattier^ hf ^Hose life 
they were enabled to eat ; if w'e cbuld but hear how n)iny ma- 
riners and passengers are at this pfesient in a statin; and shriek 
out because dieir keel dashes' ag^in^ a rock, Or' b6ige^ under 
them ; how ttt^y people there are that weep with want^ and 
are mad with oppression, or are' desperate by too quick a sense 
of a constant infelicity ; in all reason we should be glttd to be 
out of the noise and participation of so many evils. This is a 
place of sorrows and tearsy of great evils and a constant? calami- 
ty ; let us remove hence, at least in affections add preparation 
of mind. 

Tayior^s Hoty i^ng^ Chap. i. Sect. 3. fin. 

The iiM of tke extrctctd, whibh We shttU quote a!r apposite to 
the above nobi^ paiSsage, is* a> striking instance of the manner in 
which a great pMticai^inihd gives back the conceptibiisr of others 
modified to its own character;-, the second, of tHe'difference be- 
tween the same thoughts as illustrated by a gi^at^erdrlesr power- 
ful genu^^: » differences which' will be further illustrated by a 
comparison of the sirnile of the Rock (Sermon on the Miijaclest>f 
the Divine Mercy, p. £61. ed. 1666.) and tkatoJPthe Rainbow 
(Sermon oii the, I^aitU and Patience of the Sainjts,, p. 83. and 
again on the Opening of Parliament, p. 92.) with the rifacia- 
mentos of the same images by later writers. 

362 Nuga. 

dlM^etyot, rolorh rt Tep\ fpwa^v elamros oKhSi^ 
o7t lAft^oy xipaov fiiyav ougffcri Speoa-avre^ 
SaTTOucriy* mo'iv Ss rap^lov oSfMLTi ^wiv' 

Xi^orre^ yhoMT^ifViv afai^(rw iLiKet» SScog 
ofxpoVy fpst^y^jxfvoi ^oyov aT/xaro;* iy Sf re lufto; 
(rr^leo-iy aTpof/Js im, ififtarivnou ii re yaar^p* 
ToifHf X. T. X» IL xvi. 156* 

Ah ! litde think the gay licentious crowd, 

IVhom pleasure, power, and afBuence surround, &ۥ 

Ah ! little think they, as they dance along, 

How many feel, this very moment, death. 

And all the sad variety of pain ! 

How many sink in the devouring flood, 

Or more devouring flame : how many bleed 

By shameful variance betwixt man and man ! 

How many pine in want and dungeon glooms^ 

Shut from the common air, and common use 

Of th'eir own limbs : how many drink the cup 

Of baleful grief, or eat the bitter bread 

Of misery : sore pierced by wintry winds. 

How many sink into the cheerless hut 

Of cheerless poverty : how many shake 

With all the fiercer tortures of the mind, 8cc. 

Thomson's Winter. 

Ask the crowd 

Which flies impatient from the village-walk 

To climb the neighbouring clifi^s, when far below 

The cruel winds have hurl'd upon the coast 

Some helpless bark 

While ev'ry mother closer to her breast 
Catches her child, and pointing where the waves 
Foam through the shatter'd vessel, shrieks aloud. 
As one pooc wretch that spreads his piteous arms 
£or succour, swallow'd by the roaring surge. 
As now another^ dash'd against the rock. 
Drops lifeless dow n ■ ■ 

Akenside^s Pleasures of Imagination, Book ii. 

*S« Ben veggio awinta al lido omata nave, 

E il nocchier, che m' alletta, e il mar, che giace 
Senza onda^ e il freddo Borea, ed Austro tace. 

Nttga. ^6d 

E sol doled V increspa aura soave : "^ 

Ma il vento e Amore e il mar fede non ave^ 8cc. 

Tasso, Canzon. 

Fair laughs the morn^ and soft die zephyr blows^ 

While proudly riding o'er the azure realm 

In gallant trim the gilded vessel goes. 

Youth at the prow, and pleasure at die helm, 8cc. 

Gray*8 Bard* 

g. ■ Prd quanta est gloria genti 

Injecisse manum fatis, yitaaue repletos 
Quod superest donasse Deis ! — Lucan. iii. 24d. 

Oldham uses the same turn of expression in speaking of the 

deadi of Rochester. 

He — gave the devil's leavings to his God. 

It has been a matter of doubt, whether the second syllable in 
Maria is to be pronounced long or short. The ancient Chris* 
tian poets, with the exception of a few of the later ones, who 
lived when accent was beginning to be confounded with ^antity, 
invariably make it short ; custom, however, and association, are 
on the side of the received pronunciation. We have selected 
the following examples, arranged as nearly as possible in chrono- 
logical order. 

Prsedixit Mariam, de qua flos exit in orbem. 

Tertull. Lib. iv. adv. Marcion. 181. 

Detulit ad Mariae demissus virginis aures. 

Juvencus de Hist. Evang. i. 52. 

Angelus affatur Mariam, quse parca loquendi. 

B. Ambrosii Disticha, 5. 

Ante pedes Marise, puerique crepundia parvi. 

Prudent, contra HomuncionitaSf 9^. 

Conspexit Mariam, celeri procul incita gressiu 

B. Paulinas de S. Joanne Baptista, 149^ 

Sic Evae de stirpe sacra veniente Maria. 

Sedulii Carm. Lib. ii. 30. 

In diis writer it is uniformly long, with one exception : 
Quis fuit ille nitor Marise quum Christus ab alvo. 

lb. 49. 

Tu Mariam sequeris, dono cui contigit alto* 

Aldmi Lib. vi. 201. 

Porta Maria Dei genitrix intacta cieantis. 

Aratoris Hitt. Aportplic. i* 57. 

86* Nuga^ 

saacliis le S(>»ilB8^ mcftk, 

Implebit^ MarU, Cbfktum paries sacra virgo. 

Amcsni Enchirid, Novi Testamenti, 3. 

Nomen honoratam benedicta Mariii per «vui»« 

Venant. FortutMi. dt Partu Virg. i. 229. 

Claudian makes it altort. Vid. de Nupt. Hon. et Mar. 11^ S7> 
1 19, 17», 251, 8cc. dc Bello Gifdon. 328. and in Ijric poetry, 
Fescennin. iv; ult. So in the Apocryphal compositions printed 
iivitb the works of Claudian^ and aaeribed by some to St. Ua- 
masus, by others with more probabiluiy to Claudiaiym Mamer- 
cus : Carmen Paschale,^ 1. Miracula Christi, 7* In the Greek 
Christian poets the name seldom oceor^: the onty aatboricies we 
have been able to discover are the following* 

Ka) Muglfi ifuA8(r(rtv ixeuXero rwro tsXb&^M', 

Nonni Farapbp^ Evang^ S. Joann. Cap, ii. 23. 

And so throughout: see especially the accMrat of the raising 
of Lazarus from the dead^ in the 11 th chapter. 

■ sx Moipliis 8J 

S. Greg. Naz. Carm. xxxra. 

In our review of Mr. Landor's ^' Quaestiuncula/' No. Li V. p. 
329,' we announced an intention of noticing, in a future number 
of the NugiSf such of the criticisms interspersed throughout that 
work, as appeared to us worthy of remark. 

P. 195. " Fassula juga/' for ** Faesukma," in a fragment of 
Gray, to which Mr. L. objects, is sanctioned by the practice of 
the best writers. So Hor.^ Carm. Saec^ 479 ** Bomulae genti" 
for " Romules.'' 

Mr. L. has not quite done justice to the Latin poems^of Gray, 
which, unequal as they are, and notwithstanding occasional faults 
of diction and rhythm/ are in many parts, characterised by a 
chastised splendor, and an exquisite Latinity, which are almost 
perfect in their kind; In p. 223, Mr. L. cites iBn. ii. 53. '' In- 
sonuere cavse gemitumque dedere eavemee,'' as^ an instance of 

' Our censures of Mr. L.'s '' menda'' (ibid.) and some of those on Mr. 
L/s use of the tenses (lii. S29. sqq.) have since appeared to us without 

^ Such as, '' Qjuamdiu sudum explicuit Favon) f' '*CUudi»laborantein 
9umeris; loca— " "Per invias rupes, fera per jnga;" "Nare captan- 
tem— Mane quicquid de violis eundo-Surripit aura j" which last we notice 
as a singular instance of an exquisite beauty cheaply purdiased by a 
trifling irregularity. 

tautology, through th^e comtmm enxMr of eoQitidering cava as a 
substantive. P. £27> in Aa iiiie of Statius (not Claudian as Mr. 
L. quotes) '^ £t sunulant &8S08 curvata caciMoioa somnoa/' Jes- 
SOS somnos impiies^ bj a comiuon figure, de^^p superinduced by 
weariness, in the n^ page, on iBn. vi. 467^ 

Taliims JEm&s ardentem et torv^ tuentem 
3Lfembat dictis animum, lacrymapque ciebat — 
Mr. L. observe!, ** Non lenibat anioium, neque, etc, tum, id 
u dixerit poeta^ dicto contradicit, qui adjicit '' nee magis move- 
tur quam cautes." But lenibat has here the force of '^ atUmfted 
to soothe.*' So Horn. II. xix. 310. 

In this part our author proposes several new readings and in- 
genious explanations of Virgil : we shall only quote one : Georg. 
i. 22. 

Quique novaS: alitis nou uUo semine fruges. 
Mr. L. reads non uno. The want of metre in the lines quoted 
p. 237-8, 

Mutare dominum domus haec nescit suum. — Politian. 

Aut vidisse urbes ipsum aut narrantibus illa.-^Vida. 
may be removed by transpoaition^ hk the latter page a cu- 
rious remark occurs : '' Hie observandum est eum (Virgitium) 
ante omnes poetas sive Graecos sive Romanos parcum esse ad- 
verbiorum.'* The lines quoted in page 245 from Joannes 
Campellus's poem on the battle of Lepanto, 

Donee Naupacti faciet victoria famam, 

Servent Octobres Venetorum annalia nonas — 
have a parallel in the conclusion of Milton's juvenile epic on the 
Gunpowder Plot : 

■ quintoque Novembris 

Nulla dies toto occurrit celebratior anno. 
We resist the temptation of extracting several o£ our author's 
remarks on passages in the ancient writers, and shall conclude 
with quoting two or three of the striking sentences scattered 
through his work. 

'^ Videre ut puer, sentire ut vir, bonum oportet omnem poe- 
tom."p. 236. 

^* Italorum est, in re poetica ut in familiari, magnificentia 
qusedam parsimoniae." p. 244. 

*' Cur delectet aliquid multo gratius est qusrere, quam illud 
quod propositum nostrum exigit, cur desinat delectare." p. 250. 


266 On the Pyramids of Egypt ^ 

From Southey*s Madoc, Canto HI. 
fTis pleasant, by the cheerful hearth, to hear, &c.] 

Suave focum juxta 'st narratam audire procellam, 

Ventorumque iras, vastique pericula ponti ; 

Dummodo nos media liceat revocare loquela, 

Mosque malis ipsos^ quae audimus, cernere tutos: 

Turn rursus narranti inhiare, haurireque casus 

TerrificoSy ipsoaue frui sic posse timore. 

At quum vera Koti vis ingruit^ et niger uno 

Yertitur agmine nimbus, et immensus ruit aether ; 

Quum vis cassa, artesque viriim adgnoscuntur inanes ; 

Quum nibilum, quacunque oculos versere^ videndum 'st 

Saka nisi spatia, aut qua mons praeruptus aquai 

Suspensam in puppim jam jam lapsura, cadentique 

Imminet adsimilis — ^terrores hostibus illos, 

O Superi ! neque enim, cui talia contigit olim 

Exantlasse, feros si circum tecta procellae 

Audit forte sonos, memori non pectore totus 

Horreati et casus nautae miseratur iniquos. K» 


Part \V .--^{Continued from No. LFIL] 

Let us examine if any facts can be gleaned from the story of 
Apis still farther to corroborate the main induction. 

It appears then, first, that the Ox Apis. was dedicated to 
Osiris or the sun, and the Cow Mnevis to the moon,' Apis 
was generated by celestial ^re/ 

After his recognition he was placed in a vessel^ magnificently 
adorned and richly carpeted,' and carried to Nilopolis, where he 
was kept 40 days, a sacred number connected with Ae myste- 
ries of fire, and sanctified afterwards by the Jews. He was 
thence conducted to Memphis, where he had a sumptuous 
palace, and the place where he lay was mystically called the 
Bridal chamber.^ This palace was close to the temple of 
Vulcan, and the cow, his dam, was kept on one of its sides. 

__^_^^ ■ ,_ ■■ ^ _ _ ■ -^ 

* AmmiaDus Marcell. lib. xxii. ^ Pomp. Mela. 

2 A pictorial representation of this now exists. ♦ Thalamus. 

On th€ Pyramids of Egypt. 967 

His birth was aoDually celebrated for the space of 7 days, during 
which oxen were immolated. His natural death was not waited 
for ; but when a certain stated period was come^ he was drovmed 
in itie fountain of the priests : he was then embalmed in certain 
secret caverns, which no stranger ever approached, which the 
priests themselves never entered but on that occasion, and which 
6e/oiige<{to an ANCIENT temple of Serapis at Memphis.' 
To this temple there were two gates, called Lethe, death, and 
Cocytus, mourning,^ which being opened on this occasion 
yielded a harsh and jarring sound, similar to what the subEme 
Milton ascribes to the 'Agates of bell/'^ 

I shall not go over my former reasonings ; I leave their com- 
bination to my readers. I merely pause to observe that the 
facts I have recited standing solitary and naked, point with ^reat 
precision to a Necropolis either beneath or attached to the Great 

Let us proceed to the last strong circumstance of the story — 
the five-and-twenty years period of his^ life. Before Aseth^ 
says Syncellus, the solar year contained only 360 days, who 
added five to make it complete : in his reign one calf was raised 
to the rank of the gods, and named Apis ^ (the measurer). The 
kings initiated in his mysteries were compelled to bear his 
yoke, and swear to the maintenance of the new Period. . 

Every scholar knows the tradition of these days being won 
with dice in hell. The story extended to Scandinavia; and 
among the Egyptians they were consecrated to the birth of the 
five great gods. The number five was particularly sacred. It was 
a symbol of Hecate and a second life ; it was a powerful tidis- 
man in the mysteries of magic, and has descended to us in the 
sacred Pentalpha ; it composed the famous period of silence. 
The number five, multiplied by itself, is equal to the number 
of letters and the cycle of Apis. 

Now it is a remarkable fact recorded by travellers, that the 
only Hieroglyphic within the pyramid is over the entrance to 
the central chamber, and is a symbol of Apis, a figure of Jioe 
lines, or Pentaglyph* "^Vbe same achitectural ornament on the 
cornice of the temple of Dendera, with the arabesque metopes 
between, seem to have suggested the Doric triglyphs. As these 

s Pausanias. ^ Plutarch. 

i **l have built my church upon a rock, and the gates of hell shall 
not prevail agsdnst it.'' St. John. 
4- Apiy measure; thence perhaps Apiker, bounds. 
' Fahficius Bibliothec. apud Savary. 

268 On the F^rtmid^. 6f JSg^^. 

Uwt were dedicated to Hecate and perhaps N^Mi^ 'sb ttmy vfe 
aafely presume that the Peiitaglyphs were dedleated to'Api^i 
nor is it anfWorthy of notice that the metope is th^ figilhs of k 
globe in a rectangle; light rising from the reeepttitAin^ of 
nature* It is not unlikely that the abote Pentaglyph itnpfied 
f Silence." 

^ i have stated die sum of what is known respetting the WON 
abip ; of his mysteries as Serapis we have no tietailea accbunt^ 
and therefore can only infer thetn fW>m the gleanings of ancient 
miters, the vestiges of cognate theologies, and theit cottibina'^ 
tion with monumental documents that remain. Ffom these it 
appears that tbey Were the oldest in the world, and entered itito 
Ifae leligious dogmas of most, if not all of the primsbval natipnd. 
The ancient Persians pictured the first man with a bdirs fa^d;* 
The Hindoos anciently and still venerate the sakne character. 
One of the avatars pictures the bull-man perishing in the flood; 
A bull-headed human form is frequent among Javanese monu- 
ments, and agrees precisely with similar figures on those of 
Egypt. The monuments preserved by Hyde leave nothing 
undone on the same subject as far as concerns the Mydiraic 
rites. The Osiris of £gypt was sometimes pourtrayed with a 
bndi's head, sometimes with builds horns. Among the SyrianH 
Astarte was a human figure with a bulPs head, for she Was 
male and female. Among the Phoenicians, Moloch bote the 
bead of an ox on the shoulders of a man. The Greek Osiris, 
Bacchus Bugenes or Tauriformis, wore the same f6rm; sd'did 
the Minotaur. The golden fleece and golden apples were 
guarded by bulls. Even the Druids devoted two' milk-whitti 
aleels to the mysterious misletoe. The same traditional hi^fo^ 
glypnic appears repeatedly among Jewish antiquities.' Tliey 
luid scarcely left Egypt when they recurred to the worship of 
the Calf Apis ; and as it was their first ofience, it adhered to tlieni 
tin their punishment and dispersion. *^ Thy called, oh Sama- 
ria! has cast thee ofi^.'^ Their chimerical bulls or cherubim are 
evident il^yptian figures. The twelve bulls of Solomon's bra- 
zen sea, arranged in threes towards each cardinal point, may be 
compared with the twelve bulls surrounding the pyramidal apes 

, • 


' See Gibbon's account of the Zendavista and Persian tenets. An 
apple formed rudely into the shape of a bull was offered to Hercules. A 
buirs head hung upon an apple-tree was sacred to Mithra Victor, see 
Hyde. It is not a little singular that the root of the word malum, apple, 
way be traced in two other words, malum and melior, implying gooa and 

On ihe ^yramitk (^ Egypt^ ^6Q 

of tbe HidiopoUtan piliir^ «Tan|[;6d also ki threar fto each car- 
dinal poiiiU The Bebemotb and/Lemthan of tbe RahiHoa aM 
the Osiris^ Apis^ and river dragon Typhon of .tb^' ]%fp&ui». 
To the first were given the Elysioa coilos of Hemdy (bediotiaaiil 
faiUs promised to Joseph the patriarchy ajrubelbed- as an on, 
3S were his sons Maoassefa and £phraan ; to the last was cohh- 
aigned the Ocean. His final wound I need not insbt.npon ; Ink 
the division of Behemoth, the Paradisiac land^ among, the elect, 
is of great importance to my cose* It agrees with the division 
of Apis ; it most partacularlj coincides with theappropriatiim 
of his thigh, the chosen part of the gods, the region sacred lo 
oaths ; the Mcroaof the Greeks/ &e Paradisiac Meros of the 
Hindoos, die tmdi world of Horticulturists, seated in the thigh 
of Brahma, 

It b wortl^ here of remark, AaJt pots of floweft, sisiilay tp 
what %i«fe qdled the gardens of Adoois, (see Coptic Manuscript 
im- Dtnoo,) were offered to the ox; neidier will it be unintf- 
]H)rtant to add, that apples and apple-trees were connected with 
(the mysteries of Apis. 

- What is human reason to infer from all this singular analogy 
of iacts, and images as singidar ) My inference is short : Ths^ 
the whole is a. hieroglyphical portraiture, (of .what Moses 
dteecribed in words,) vix., of the fall and expected restoration 
of man,.with some dark shadowing of the means through the 
death of a second Adam, leader or teacher, (ox in Hebrew.) ' 

There is nothii^ in' the least illogical in our supposition, 
diat Ham, whose name Egypt bears to this day, and who lived 
with the antediluvians, should have handed down the creed and 
traditions of the first men to his children, in the only language 
they possessed; nor is it wonderfttl, from the metaphorical na- 
ture of that language, that these traditions should become di»> 
torted, and vary from the true and simple statement of Moses, 
himself an Egyptian scribe. 14 either the general coherency 
nor peculiar variations, of these traditions, ought therefore to 
excite the least surprise. But it is incumbent on me to proceed 
to a more elaborate proof of my- hypothesis. My first position 
is, that Apis was a symbol of ; when con^- 
nected with apples, his paradisiacal state was implied ; when 
connected with water, scyphi, crescents, &c., his partial de- 
struction by a deluge. 

' Connoted perhaps with merum^ wine. 

270 On the Ptframids of Egypt. 

It is scarcely necessary to argue that all the pagan fiibles of 
apples are referable to the forbidden fruit — those, for instancy 
of Atalanta, of Hercules, of Discord and the rival goddesses. 
Let the reader exata^ine these fables, and judge for himself. 

It is calculated that the vernal equinoi, at the creation^ was 
in the first degree of Taurus. Two thousand years after^ Aries^ 
by the precession of the equinoxes, occupied its place, and 
Aries is, accordingly, the first sign on the most ancient of the 
zodiacs. Taurus was, therefore, an apt and legitimate symbol 
of antediluvian man, and we may presume that the mysteries of 
Apis related to that state. 

The mythological account of the fall differs little from that 
of Moses. According to Plato and his disciples, man fell when 
he descended from his intellectual to a sensual state, and multi- 
plied himself. This was apparently Milton's idea. It waathe 
version of a large portion of the early Christians, and thence 
the celibacy of the monastic orders. Moses, therefore, may 
have employed a delicate metaphor to express what Plato phi- 
losophically inferred^ and the double interpretation of fruit and 
fruition at this day warrants the inference. . The Mahometans 
say, that iucontinency was the cause of the fall. 

Another pagan fable bears a remarkable coincidence to the 
narrative of Moses. The pagan ]^ve,;Persephoneh, (which 
name signifies lostfruitf) is condemned to Hades, or death, for 
eating a portion of the forbidden pomegranate. 

Numerous pictorial and symbolical representations of the 
same event may be referred to. I apprehend that, according 
to the laws of hieroglyphical writing, the narrative of Moses 
could not have been more closely adhered to. I will endeavour 
to refer to these pictorial descriptions in the order of the Mo- 
saic account. 

Montfaucon exhibits several instances of the Bull-man, or 
first parent, crowned with apples. 

Osiris was represented as enclosed in the thigh of Apis, an 
emblem of Paradise. 

Protogonus and Eon, the first man and woman, were de- 
scribed as sailing through space in an egg-shaped vehicle. 
There are similar representations among the hieroglyphics. 

On one of the Egyptian planispheres, exhibited by Kircher, 
instead of Astrea, .who represented the paradisiacal state, there 
appears a fruit-tree, with two dogs in the branches looking 
different ways. Now, two cynocephali were symbols of light 
and darkness, of good and evil. 

On a mythraic sculpture^ preserved by Hyde, there are two 

On the Pyramids of Bgypt. SS71 

firutt-trees. The first has a scorpion winding round it, and near 
it a ladder, which was the mystic symbol of descent or fiiil. 
Scorpiop on some Egyptian 'zodiacs, is a serpent-^in others 
Typhon, depictured as the devil now is, with a serpent's tail 
and breathing flames. 

In Montfeucon there are many representations of the Hespe« 
rian tree, with a serpent twined round it, and a male and female 
on the opposite sides. 

So much for illustration of the Mosaic theory of die fall. 
Tiie Hesperian gardens, in fact, were the pagan Paradise-^the 
golden apples the fruit of the tree of life— ^nd the dragon, or 
seraph, the angel who guarded the way of it. Sometimes, 
indeed, a chimera, resembling the Jewish cherubim, was sub* 
stituted for the seraph or fiery serpent. At others, die golden 
apples were converted into a golden fleece, and the bulls (the 
cherubim of the Hebrews) with^ery breath, were the guardians. 
Griffins (a mixed monster,, also resembling the cherub,) are, in 
a difierent hieroglyphical version of the same story, guarding 
Ae ''. treasures of the everlasting hills" promised to Joseph. 
Throughout it is the same Mosaic story, only differently colored 
by the picturing vehicle. 

I conceive, then, that dramas, not unlike the sacred mysteries 
copied from them by the Romish Church, were exhibited during 
tbe preparatory stages of initiation, and subsequently explained ; 
that in the sacred chest called the Sarcophagus, a figure of 
Osiris in inferis was deposited with a serpent and a phallus, a 
dry branch, as at the mysteries of the Greek Osnris ; that 
portions of the dismembered Apis were most probably deposited 
with them, and particularly the thigh, from which Bacchus and 
JErechthon were bom. And indeed it is not unlikely that M tht 
remaining symbols, placed in the Mundus CererU, and dis^ 
cidedly Egyptian, were during initiation produced and explaiii^ct 
These consisted of a phallus, sesame, pomegranates, a dry 
.9tem, baked cakes, salt, carded wool, honey and cheese, a child, 
a serpent, and a fan. Tbe meaning of these symbols will be 
easily caught at by those who are conversant with the subject of 
hieroglyphical inquiry, but would require a separate treatise^ 
and in short composed the subject of a set lecture at Eleusis« 
I shall only remark at present the assertion of the Rabbins, that 
the Mosaic tabernacle contained the dead staff of Aaron which 
sprouted into life, and the Urim and Thummim ' supposed to 

* Perhaps derived from Orus, light, and Tbammuz, mourniDg. 

VOL. XXIX. a. Jl. NO. LVItL X 

278 On the Pjfmmids of Egypt, 

r^re$Qnt tfae aix sigtif of the upper^ unci . six of the lower 


. Bot wbelber these circuoi^faiiieef were . ts 1 haw: sMppoaed 

^ notj there pa» be little cl^ubt that the Sol lDfenis> identified 

with Bacchus, Adonis, Osiris, and Serapis^ thil midttigfat sun 

which wes. tbe type of aa after state, was the great object of 

the mjrsteries and. goal of initiation.' 

I assume as proved that Mizra and Mithra bodi meaning 
the SUA aaatd agreeing in name^ the rites of tbe.cai^ern (eaiples 
dedicated to each were, similar ; that both had their lioa-oaasked 
piuejks ; ^ that the same baptism of fire and water took place, 
the same sidereal paasage, the same sacram^t of bre^^ the 
same mark^ (sea Apocalypse) on the forehead, and the same 
final apparition of the renewed sun bursting from his. parent 
lot:k. .And here I cannot help remarking, by way. of extant 
illttstretiott, that the Hindoos paint Veeshau, the same person 
ae ths Koii*4eaded Mythra, bursting from a stcaay comoMi in 
the form of a Uoa. 

. • IndBiun, it is my induction from the foregoing premises diat 
the ancient gloomy ritual of. an assassination, a dismembered 
body, a coffin, and a resurrection, were acted within the ^domy 
vecesB of the Great Pyramid; i^nd that the skuagtitered Adonis, 
fhe sbin and lamented Apollo, the third person of the Dioscwi 
pkunkteA by his brothers, the dismembered Bacchus, die «s» 
sassinated Qsirii^ the Maneros.of the JSgyptians, the Balder of 
ihp Scandinavians, the Manes oS the Magians and Rosycruciais, 
tbe;H^fa« of ibe Freeitiasons, were the same person-; and that 
Ifaeae parental features of one theology, these ^verging strefeunt 
i»f CQgiHkte myisteffy, <may be tmced from the ^nda of die earth 
10 the po^ramidtileista, as their ioimtaia-head, and to the centnl 
4{haniber i^ Ihe first ^^eat lodge. 

^ 6ee note on Plato and Elysium. 
' ^ See DenoDy and Tertuliian adver. Marc. p. 5^* '^ lions of Mithra* 

3 Tbe modern Hindoos mark their forehekds with a Y ; but the 
IBgyptians msupked the initieie^ forehead with a T, and to that no donhl 
,tlii Apocalypse alluded, because at was a symbol appertaining to the 
Sol.inferus or Serapis, and hi| four-headed qbimera of a mm^ lion^ eagle 
and dog. 



The Scholia of Hermeas on the Ph^drus of 
Plato, published bi/ Fredericus Astius, Profes- 
sor Landishutanus, Lipsice. Svo. 

Part TV. -^Concluded from No. LVJI.J 

■■ P. 145. I. SO. (0(rir9p ow 9^* tifiont ro do^ctvriHW tmoS^^m iretpet 
Tov Xoywi xoi ri}f lioofoiag x«i ra fMTpa, Tiai otirco arraBiSfloo^ rep 
^puxmuf TO) T8 iufuo xou T]) 8Tidupa, IV* otrreo ravra [Mrffffiwrtt vpo^ 
fojf rotf rf ^ftMu xeu vatrcov ruv xeirot rov jSiov, x. t. X. In this pas- 
•soge, after 719^ hav^M^ sooietbiDg is eridently wanting to connect 
with to; fMTga, and tliia sometbing I conceive to be rov opov. For 
the doxastic part of the soul, according to the Platonic philoso- 
:pfayy i« the last of the rational parts, and receives from dianoia 
or the discursive energy of reason, (^isfoStxi} rov \oyov tvepytia) a 
ioutidary and measures. In p, 146. 1. 24, Hemieas observes 
ihatiPlato, indicating the difference between divine and human 
^ottls, says of our soul, or» [Myts, dogt;j3ovjeteyi} wn roov ifntooi^ tjiv^ 
'fiflij fMVYjv ri}V xf^aXi]v wcs^pm ei$ rov s^eo rov otigayov, xut iSf ly n 
fxop ovTcoVy xai ovTw vretTUi Irri rep rot; wgavov vorm, iseopovirotv oMr- 
'W$p firi (r;^oXi}^, vw /Asy ro8f, yuy $ff roSff. In this passage for nri 
^yoAi}^ it is requisite to read ewt (rxoni^. For. the meaning of 
Ilenneas is, that our soul standing on the back of Heaven, and 
.raising the head of the charioteer to the eupereelestial place, 
«wiU survey, as from a watch-tower, at one time this object, and 
at another that. And this ^mile of a watch-tower is very fre- 
quently used by Prockis and other Platonic writers; but for 
axcvmi they sometimes substitute -Tepuojrri, which has the same 
meaning. Thus Proclus in Plat. TheoK p* ?• Op9w$ yap xai 
9f AXxi^ialiii ScoxgoTVjg eXsysy-, et$ eavrvjy ncriovo'av Trpf ^^n/^cynv, ra 
re aXXa vavra xotro^e^^t, xori Bwv. owgvov(ra yaq sif n}y eavrt^^ 
.§ys8<rw, xat ro xsyr^oy avpLTraayis K^^U ^^^ ^^ 9rX)}dof avotrxetia^o/tsyi}, 
>X0U nyy iroixiXf^y reoy ev atm} iroyro^dMroov ivvufAeoop, vk tmrtit awi(fi 
njy axpav rcoy fynw vtpttanviK i. e. ** For Socrates in the [First] 
Atcibiades rightly observes, that the soul entering into herself 
will behold ail other things, and deity itself. For verging to her 
own union, and to the centre of all life, laying aside multitude, 
and the variety of the all-manifold powers which she contains, 
she ascends to the highest watch-tower of beings.'' In p. 147« 
1. 22. Hermeas, in explaining the words of Plato, wFoPgvx^ai 
fy|xweg»^ffpovT«» observes, twrojSfuj^iai ouy yivwrat, cos rov ytmri" 

374 Observations on the Scholia of 

WfyoM avToov Xoiiroy Ppitovrog %a$ /3ooXojXfyou ivefyy^a'ai, ^ xai rotr 
e%i}fi0(TO^ XofTOV * * * yevoftfvou. In this passage the asterisks 
denote that somethiDg is wanting^ and the learned Professor ac- 
cordingly says in his Notes, *' Desunt nonnulla in Cod/' This 
something I conceive to be the word |3a$ti. For it appears to 
me that Hermeas in the last part of this sentence alludes to the 
Chaldaic Oracle, which says, fuvj irnufia jttoXt^vY}^, jxijSs jSafwji; ro 
tviTeSov, i. e. ^* You should not defile tlie spirit, nor give depth 
to a superficies ;^ the Oracle by the spirit indicating the aerial 
vehicle, and by the superficies, the etberial and luciform vehicle 
of the soul. Hence the meaning of the passage thus completed 
will be in English, '' Souls therefore become submerged, in 
consequence of that part of them which is effective of generation 
[or a descent into the regions of sense] becoming heavy, and 
wishing to energize, or in consequence of the [etberial} vehicle 
possessing depth" 

P. 147* 1* ^* from the bottom, outco Se ouv xai etmM ai ^^n^cu 
Tteu aii^Ktnegai skti xcltol ra$ voija-eff km oe(r;^))ftoyf^, xai xiy^uvsuotf* 
(Tiy aei si; yevariv weyep^Sijvar ty) ouv fiaSurei tcov ^coXsvovtwv amh- 
xacTiV avTOiv ras vori^eis' eirsfSij )) /SaSio-i; oixsiov t|} ftera/Sarix)} eanashf 
af(r9i)a'ei. Here for M(riri<r6i, the last word of this passage, it is 
obviously necessary to read votjo-si : for the transitive intellection 
of souls is assimilated by Plato to walking. This is evident 
from the words themselves of Hermeas in the present passage. 
P. 149* 1* IB. Opa le 9rco; axpifioos kou evravia, oog kch sv toi; oLVotntr 
peOf Tf^v ha^opav ijjttiy rwv re ieioov koh avipuiTrtKciov ^^v^floy '^agum^o'tr 
ov yoLp avXeog etvev, tav xariSi} rf, TOurecTTi, fcsgixoy xm oroftoy. 
Here, immediately after eiTrey, it is necessary to add sav xariSif, 
aXX*. For the words of Plato are Jecr/xoj re Aiponrrsms oh' ijrif 
av ^vx^, ieep yevojxevi), xariSi] ri roov aXvjicov, /tep^pire rr^g eregas 
^vvoira^os vepiolov eivai umiiMifa x. r. K P* 150. 1. 20. ey iloXireitf 
xai aXtTotg ras rv^ag atpsKriai ^i)<ri, xai avohdoa-iai auTM$. [n 
this passage for aXiras I read aXXoia;: for Hermeas here alludes 
to the 10th book of the Republic of Plato, in which it is said 
that various fortunes are imparted to, and chosen by, souls. 
P. 153. 1. 28. vpoorov jxey /3toy Xeysi, ov yecoerri xareX9ou<r0t axo TOti 
yoijTOt; ij ifv^fi hat^Ti svravdu* swsiSij Se xp^yig oog ey TrXaxf* Sittij coti, 
irfgi Tij; f^eo^^ Xeyei evravia* Here for Sitti} it is manifestly 
necessary to read rgimj, as there can be no middle in two things 
only; and from what follows it is indisputably evident that this 
emendation is requisite. P* 155. 1. 6. xoti xaioXov Suo voivrtrnf 
avafitfjLVTf^crxeTai v^ 4/t/;^i9^ toov vov^tcav^ In this passage for Suo it is 
necessary to read hai for what Hermeas says is this, ^' that 
the soul through, or by means of, all things obtains a recoUec*- 
iion of intelligible natures.'^ P. 156.1.24. Hermeas, in ex- 

Hermeas on the Phadrus of Plato. 275 

plaining what Plato says about the ascent of souls^ observes, 
'' that at first they are unable to soar on high, and to proceed 
from sensibles to dianoetic objects [i. e, the objects of the rea-. 
soning power] ; for the conceptions of the soul are called dia- 
noetic; and afterwards from conceptions to intelligibles." This 
is the true meaning of Hermeas in the following passage, as I 
have corrected it ; a8uyarou<riv sti to aifoo avcam^vai, xai otto toov 
euaii^Tcov evi rot voijTa' (lege iiotvor^ra) ytvuriui (jot yap rv^g i^^X'i^ 
vonifjMTot havor^TOt Afyoirai), nff outco$ am roov voijretfy* (lege voij- 
/xarcDv) 69ri tu voijra. P, 159* 1* 10. AWot Xtyof/^ev, on vvv ov 7rep$ 
r£0y.^iXo<ro^a)y rwv yfir^ otva^temooif utco toov s^Boov evt rot vor^rot \9yu, 
oXXflc vepi rov egoorixov rov hot rov xetXXou^ STrexeiyo. Here,' for the 
last word, e^rsxeiva, it is requisite' to read bv exeivet, u e. evt rot 
voi^Tot. For Hermeas says that Plato is speaking of the amatory 
character, who through beauty ascends to the vision of intelligi- 
bles. P. 162. 1. 2. xat sv ovco w^ktv irpo$ roi; voijTOif, xou ti} dsco- 
ftot £Xfivj2 ^otipoijav, Kou yeyYiiev ri ^v^, orotv Ss ;^flopi; yevr^roti, 
ftfra^opixrof iravra Xsyn, x. t. X* In this passage, after ysyi^rai, 
something is evidently wanting, and this I conceive to be the 
yrords odvvaroti )tou aSi^ftovsi, And my conjecture is confirmed 
by what Hermeas says in 1. 29* yeyvjiBVp BiretBotv h x^S^S aurora 
yiwirui, ohvuTut xou aSi]/tovei. What Hermeas also shortly after 
adds respecting the meaning of the word oiSi^fMVuv, well deserves 
to be noticed by lexicographers, viz, ro aSr^fuovsiv jxeo-ov Xvnfii e(rrt 
TLou ri&ovtjSy Oiov rrj jxsy jxyi]/x}] %aip6i, t^ ie ft)] Trupwui to jxyijftoygt;.- 
Toy, \v7reirai. P. l63. 1. 5. aya^ryoijy is 00$ otto rri$ Tryfyjxoyi]^ sms 
yai Seofteywy. The Professor rightly conjectures that after Sso/ts- 
ya>y a word is wanting, denoting respiration : for he says, '^ Ex* 
cidisse mihi videtur verbum, vi respirandi praeditum/' But he 
has aot favored us with the word that is lost, and which I con- 
jecture to be TTVor^;. 

P. 165. 1. 16. Hermeas having observed, that as here we ho- 
nor a statue, not on account of the subject matter of which it is 
composed, but on account of the divinity [which it represents], 
adds, Toy eturov rponav xai evruuioi oioy uycO^a eetvreo roy epoo[MVQV 
^OMi» fiXsvcov yap vpo$'auro, xat ampi,t[jLvr^(ntoiMVo$ rot; xoAAovf, 
T0UT6<rri T]} hotvoiu fiKevoDV xou otyavifji^iroov rouro ro xot?<!Ko$ tis rot 
ywfTot 81S19 xai yrfivm ymvy^ytMTot fieia x. r. X. In this passage, for 
y^tmVf in the last hue, I read yyijo-fco^. For the meaning of 

• The Professor also for wiw here reads hwimta. 

* The Professor reads luwo^rttfy ; but it appears to me to be more pro^- 
bable that Hermeas wrpte iwi^rwu 

< • « 

276 Obsfertations on ike SchoHd 6f 

H^rmeas is^ thaft Are lover looking to the objett of m$ lov^, and 
throagb this obtaining a recollection of tnie beanty, i. e. iobkitig 
with his reasoning power^ and referring this beauty to intelligible 
fonnsy and progeny which tore genuinely divine, becomes prolific; 
and generates virtues^ and all such things as are afterwards men^^ 
tioned by Plato, yoy»j*Of yivrrai, xai ysvvct uperets xeu vocrroi, oa-a 
ev rots i^tis Xsyii. For nothiifg can be more absurd than to 
suppose Hermeas, after be had said that the lover refers beautf 
to intelligible forms, would add^ *^ and to the divine progeny <^ 
earthly natures." In p. l67. 1. 20. Hermeas having obsefved 
that man is a microcosm, and that according to Plato the parts 
of him 'are analogous to the ^tis-df- the universe^ and to the 
parts of which a city consists, adds^ avuXoyoif ovf rco avpoLvm mot- 
1JC6 Tov ey'xE^aXor ertzira rntthi o 6vpL0§ suysvsarepog eart nj^ eitfib^ 
fi^tus KM avotXoyei roi; vpcrjroX^iiouin xcti avotomWov&i irxv to ^rXijft- 
lieXaogKou arotxrws xwovyAVCV ev rj} ^roAei^ o Asysi tmxovptKOV xxi 
ffT§arK»Tixov, xoci rtfirig opeyeratxau gwwXijTTgi rep apcckiycp x. r. X.. 
In this passage, for the last word, avaXoym, I read ctkoycp. In 
p. 168: 1. 4i from the bottom, Ikrmeas explaining what Plata 
says about the. amatory eye, to epoDTixqv oftjxa, and ha thig observ- 
ed that a maii then becomes properly amatory when be is con-- 
verted to himself, adds, rovro ie eirrai hct rwv cfi/jLortov, orotv, 
xafeo^ emiy ey ra> i4Xxij3ia^ )3ovAojXevo^ savrov i$8fv Tt$, ei^ itepaf 
inj)(i/iv tfViSjj* ^oii yap Urt rwv aKririTobv ^oarrovs fiovKopinfOi ideiv, 
ouBev aXAo rovrot; vapaSsiyii^a, w^tcxop^iv, ciq$ oi^SaAjxoy, miSij etg 
avroy cuvrps^ei to ogay xoa to opurtxov, sv yap toi{ xocroirrgots aK\o 
e(rriy to opoov, xai etXXo stfri to opurixorf. In the latter part of this 
passage, for to ^poov in two places, it is obviously necessary to 
read to o^jxeyoy. For, as Plato says in the First Alcibiades, 
'^ If the eye would see itself, it must look in an eye, and in that 
place of it, yihere (he virtue of the eye is naturally seated ; and. 
(be virtue of 4he eye is sight.** Hence, as Olympiodorus- ob- 
serves in this case, that which is seen and that which sees concur 
ili one and the same ; for it is eye perceiving itself in eye. But 
in mirrors that which is seen is one thing, and tliat which sees^ 
another. The cause of this mi^ke originated, I have no doubt, 
from TO ogoofMvov being in both places written originally in the 

Ms, TP optoVj just as it is common in Gt«ek manuscripts to 

^^■^■^ ^^H^Hv ^^^_-:^,^ 

write for avipooirog, avs ; for (Tconj^fa;, apg ; and for bvpavos, ouy^. 
P. 173. 1. 24. wo Tfloy TToXXay "Jff eiwsy, oti ij TOiauTij ^jXo<ro$ja ovit 
&m ^iXo(ro^coy* i} y,mp ovtm$ fiAia ^ tou you eo-Ti xoipcovioi* Here, 
fcr. ^»X6<ro4)ia, i should conceive ;it is iinmediately obviou&that 
we should read fiXia. P. 174. 1. 15. from the bottom : vm^ ^i 

Hefmedi dn ike'Pfuedrus qf PbUlD. 277 

on TOtnr* htysi, vri Sn fcey ta me^* mMTve)(nKa in^juvnt n$m}^ 
f«0' otf^-of ^ tiffTf ^ T)^ ff^Q^ TC0r$f«»y eAAtt|X)(oy 'SiBp^eo^an, 40; Xdu tirl 

r«i$ MovcroaSf htoig W9irfnfi yivireu* Here, for nri t1];^^^lrlX1|< it 
ift necessary to read ffir» n?^ Tonfrnn^;, as is evident from die latter 
part of tbe passage. P. 175. 1. 4. /9auAn-«i yoft Tt(uur$m irup^ 
rcoy vioff our $f toiurovr km yapnai too$ $eo9s otf ^1 M^roof 8tff njui»F| 
p(XA«e $1 ^torov;. In this passage, instead ctf 81 axnoni^ at the end 
of it, it is requisite to read h stttrrovg. For the meaning of Hei^ 
meas is, *^ that it is not proper to honor the gods for their fllifce^ 
but for the sake of ourselres ;" and this assertion is botti Pjitha»- 
goric dnd Platonic' P.^ 178, h 31, orav wv ^ti(ri, 8t;y>)ii«fW> 
T6ig Seigvivas toi$ iv rc» eutriifrm xo^fuu vu^oejrXerMrm, m; on himl 
iaifiovag rivdg xctTe^ovrtig ra^ ^v^otg tepirriv yc/Wiv,' tw% 01 twrit 
ysg, TotrreoTiv m Asiai ^Imxaf Hut Oi isoi oqam$g f^fnoi^ icoLtwfrmfTAi 
nj; yswoiwB^ x^i dtosiS^ ^ifa-ftvrtf^, TajXiywToyavfipflWroisyflprtfSow^ 
rovres-n, p^ponrrai ly/xiy oiroSoi^, Here for xdirounAffVUs i readr im»^ 
Tm%<rrwfTHgy and theh what Hermeas sajs will b^ in English, 
** When, therefore, (says Plato,) we are able to sail bey^ndtbe 
Sirens in tbe sensible world, which may b^ coinsidered as certain 
dsmons who detain souls in the realms of gienehUson [or tbe re- 
gion of sense,] then the grasshbppers [by which Plato occultiy 
signifies divine souls,} and the Gods, perceiving us d}>pbsiiigf ge- 
neration, aod living in a deiform manner, wiU cooferon us 'the 
greatest reward which can be conferred on men, i* e. they will 
use us as their attendants and associated." ' In order,* however^ 
to understand completely what is here said by Hermeas, and also 
in a former part bS this paragraph about the rmtytg or gratt^i^ 
hoppers, it is requisite to observe that, as, accordinff te Ptoto^ 
there are three kinds of Sirens; the ce/es^A/^ which is under 
Jupiter; the genisiur^c, or pertaiiaingto the realms of genera* 
tion ; and the cathartic, which is under the dominion of Pluto j 
these rsTTiyeg or divine souls have a similar division* Hjbii^ 
when Hermeas at the beginning of this paragraph says, omtits^^ 
fhjcriy, OTO Sei^oiv xotisKKOfs^Mt nut x«r^xtiXooftfvoi bwiiaS^rrv n)^ 
&rix6ia$ TtccTpilog^ ovT» %cu Yi(Mtg 9ot9 xi}A4}jXf &de um toureoy r<oi^ ^ttmfui^ 

' Hence the excellent Sallust, in bis treatise De Dik et l\lttlSd(>, ob^ 
serves ia Cap^, xv. •ww fturyaf vo ^w avn^nr •» h ^rtfAt^riii <^^<«F«f»f <tf»*i«« 
nnt/* ynvirm,- /< For divinity itself indeed ia anindigent; but the hpnorf 
which we pay Idni- are for tbe sake of our advantage^'^ 

378 Ohitrvatiom on the Scholia^ ^.i 

Mtf xoi rm rwmyonf xat ug uwiw xecrafepcofL^, niXiacAmn^a r^ 
oixfidt; TorpiSo^ KM Ti)$' ug ro voi^roy avayoay^i^ by the reov rtmyMi^ 
the middle Mini^ or genesiurgic rnriyiq are indicated; but in 
the former passage, which we have cited^ Hermeas alludes' to 
the first, or celestial kind, 

P. 179* 1« 11 from the bottom : siievatitht, on ro fiey fliitf 
Ufuwwg icavi vapiOTi, fJiMis S^ a^tffwg rep deico o'uva^Sijvai ou Suvofuidt^ 
fti| &a ftoo-ou riyo^^ oioy tou Saif&oviou^ ctftnrsg m rou ^coro; SoofMhc 
rou otspo^ Tou Siftxivouvro; ij/xiv to f co;* Here^ for Sioxivouvro^, it is 
necessary to read haxoyourros • and then the passage will be^ in 
English : ^' It is requisite to know that Divinity is present with 
all things without a medium, but it is impossible for us to be 
conjoined with him without the intervening agency of a certain 
nature, such as that of demons; just as with respect to the light 
(of the sun) we are in want of the intervention of air, to ad- 
minister to us the light,'' P. 180. 1. 3 from the bottom : coo-^s; 
Sf T(» xayoyi TO hatTTpofov Kgiverat, xai rp ogir^ ro vagu tt/jv ogdijy, 
roy avTW r^orov wnrep smovet avi^Xiev o ^iXo<rof o$ njy aXiiieietv, ^ 
xeu T» OfuOM TLui ret iragy^KKayiLiva Kphvoi^tv. ourcog o^ffiAsi o ^i^reoo 
tunw&L tp^ffv TO oikrfi^. In tliis passage, for eixoya, it appears 
to me to be obviously necessary to read xawva. P. 199« )• ^. 
rotyro^ou yap ey r^ Tifuucp Sc 9yi§iaKe$ rovg AiyvTmovg wg ap^MOvg, 
Here for syjeia^ei it is requisite to read fyxcojxia^ei, as will be 
manifest from a perusal of the beginning of the Timseus. 
P. £02. !• 29* OTFsp ouy roi; taoig o xo(r[iog, rouro km tco inrovSatcp ^ 
wigi Tot^eeog sytpysfa. In this passage, for ra^ioog, it is necessary 
to read vpa^tcog; for what Hermeas says is this, ** that what the 
world is to the Gods, that the energy of action, or the practic 
energy, is to the worthy man." For, as the energy of divinity 
about the world is directed to that which is external, so likewise 
is the energy of the worthy man when directed to practical 
affairs. P« 185. 1. 4 from the bottom: ro y»p WFega^ov aB$ 
iaifMva Sffi xuXsiv, oioy rou Xoyou Saijxoya ro Aoyixoy, rot; you rov 
0ffoy, Here for rou Xoyou it is obviously requisite to read roti 
^Aoyou; for the meaning of Hermeas is, ^Mhat it is'^ways 
necessary to call that which transcends (another thing) the d$mon 
(of that thing). Thus, for instance, the rational is the daemcjii of 
the irrational nature, and divinity is the daemon of intellect 
P. 193. 1. 5. oisv IwoxpuTTug fiovKofievog Ssi^ai, on oux eoriy cnrXot)* 
(ro (ra}fi.a), eivsv* si fy )]y ro trwfia, ovk av ijAyijo'sy, fi Se cruyjeroy, sk 
«oorcpy xm cuyxiirm xui xoMoy* ori 9x rea-a^goov aroi^eum, tspfjuov, 
4^^t;, XM uypov. In this passage, after oypou, the words xeu 
^f>ou are manifestly wanting ; for the foiir first (j[ualities which 
Hippocrates attributed to the humors, are, the hot and the cold. 

BiBlkatGriHcim. 979 

Urn mtmtuM the dry. And in the last plae^ in p» 904; hQ^ 

Hermeisis says, ro yap ro^y xaXstv umpfieum r« oyfifeoirm fi^ptt 
VFcofTcov ie rat Ilviayopov xou ingi ri tf7i<rriiftoyooy o'O^eov x«eAAii]ct8yc0i% 
d nviayopeif tPJieov, ro teioy /xovoy o-o^oy sxoAea-ey, es^ f^aipsroy rift 
oyojXflt TO) dtfep axoyupiMs, rovg Ss ^psyofi^wovs cro^ia^, f)iXo(ro^ov^ 
txa^80'sy• In this passage, for reoy nvdayogov, it appears to roe to 
be necessary to read rcoy vpo nvBotyopov ; for then the meaning 
of Hermeas will be, ** that all those prior to Pythagoras, who 
had a scientific knowledge of any thing, were called wise ; but 
Pythagoras, when he came, gave the appellation of wise to 
divinity alone, as thus ascribing to God a transcendent name^ 
and those who aspire after wisdom 4he denominated pkihia* 
phertr T. 


On the First and Second Chapters of St. Matthew; com* 
prising a view of the leading Arguments in favor of 
their Authenticity^ and of the principalObjections which 
have been urged on the subject: By Latham "Waine- 
WRiGHT, M. A. F. S. A. of Emman. Coll. Camr 
bridge, and Rector of Gt. Brickhill, Bucks, <§^c. 

No. I. 


JB^EW circumstances perhaps have been ultimately more favora- 
ble to the interests of Christianity, than the numerous objections 
which have at different times been urged against the divinity of 
its origin. Other religions have been indebted for their pro- 
pagation and support to the sword of conquest, and the counter 
nance of the civil authority ; but when left to depend on the 
unassisted influence of their intrinsic merit, have either utterly 
ceased to exist, or have^ at best, been confined to some insigni- 
ficant and unlettered sect What to them has proved the source 
of ruin or contempt, has to the religion of Christ been the 
uniform occasion of advancement and triumph. The more its 
evidence has been submitted to the test of examination and 
inquiry, the more its doctrines have been exposed to the scrutiny 
of dispassionate reason, in the same proportion have they ob-* 
(alned the approbation j^d belief of the wise^ and have b^ea 

980 BiUical 

able td resist the secret ihadiiiittiQds of interested mdke^ lod 
the ondisguised attacks of prejudice and power. If indeed onir 
boly religioDy smidst the formidable obstacles Mrbich apposed 
Its progress^ has ever had cause to be seriously appreUi^vt 
for its security end honors, it has arisen, not from die ytoleoos 
of its external enemies^ not from the subtle efforts of men whom 
interest has led to conceal their animosity, but from the divi* 
sions and contests of those who have loudly asserted the truth 
of its claims^ and who have been foremost in the ranks of its 
avowed partizans. To separate from each other solely oh ao- 
count of some frivolous cfifierences of opinion, and to form 
themselves into distinct slasses and denominations^ either from 
a desire of increasing individual importance, or from a mistaken 
pride in controverting the creed of the multitude, has been too 
frequent a practice among the followers of Christ, from the era 
of his death to the present hour. But this, like many other 
evils which at the time excited no slight degree of alarm, has 
been productive of unintentional good* Amidst the vehement 
contentions of the early sects respecting th^ foundation of their 
speculative tenets, or the extemid discipline of the church, they 
all professed to resort to one mode of determining their dif- 
ferences — by making timt final appeal to the same authority, 
and by acknowleging the wiitings of the apostles to be the only 
standard of their faith and practice. The same zeal by which 
they were actuated in disputing the orthodoxy of their immedi- 
ate opponents, naturally created the utmost vigilance and 
jealousy in protecting the sacred writings, which all parties 
equally admitted to be inspired, from surreptitious interpolation 
and from every artifice which could affect the integrity of t)ie 
original text. To dhis spirit of caution, so unremittingly exer- 
cised by the primitive adherents to the Christian faitib, it was 
owing that a feUt of the books of the New Testament which 
are now considered to be of eqtial authority with the others, 
were not at first ecknpwleged to be canonical. These, it is wefl 
known, were the Second Epistle of St. Peter, the Second and 
Third Epistles of St. John, the £pistles of St. James and 
St. Jude, and the Apocalypse. It is sufficiently obvious, how- 
ever, that their subsequent admission into the Canon, at no very 
considerable interval, must have been the result of a strict 
inqniiy into Aeir pretensions, and of a fnH conviction that they 
w^e the genuine productions of the authors to whom they are 
ascribed ; while, at the same time, it contributes to confirm otir 
confidence in the remainder of the New Testament, by showing 
Ae bigfi degree of impTobabili^ ikak aiif spnriouy jeomj^oshion 

BibUcal Cfkiciim. ilSt 

cMmng'iBviiiedefraiibiiyCoukl loiig siitcedl in ^Vfingdt^ 
tection* In truth, both eoclesitttical liistc]iry> and the proem 
to St. Lake's Gospd, acquaint «b with the lexistence of other 
Gospels and other writings assamh^ to be inspired, during the 
apostolic age. Some of these coinpoMtions' were contempo- 

^ Of the ntunerous apocryphal wotics which appeared during the four 
6r8t centuries, while some are entirely lost and are known to us only 
from the description of ancient authors, and the fragments which have 
been preserved oy the latter, others have reached the present times, and 
afibrd curious specimens of human folly and fhiud. Among those 
wbioh hare been destroyed by the ravaged of time, the following are 
some of the most remarkable : The Gospels of St. Peter and of Judas 
Iscariot ; the Gospel accordinjg to the Hebrews ; the Gospel according 
to the Egyptians; the preachmg of Peter; the revelation of Peter; the 
acts of Paul and Thecla ; the Gospel of Marcion ; the revelat'ion of 
Cerinthus; the Gospel according to the twelve apostles ; the Gospels of 
Thomas, of Matthias and of Basiiides; the preaching of Paul ; the acts 
of Paul ; the acts of Peter; the acts of Apdrew and John ; the Gospels 
of Bartholomew, of Tatian, and of Apelles; the Gospel of the Naza- 
reUes, which the learned have determmed to be only another name for 
the Gospel according to the Hebrews; the Gospel of the Ebionites; 
the Gospels of £ve, of Philip, and of Jude; an Epistle of Christ pro- 
duced by the Manichees; a Hymn of Christ which he is said to have 
taught his disciples, received by the Priscillianists ; the judgment of 
Peter; the revelation of Paul, and thb revelation of Stephen. Gfthe 
apociyphal books which are still extant, the following catalogue will be 
ibund to contain the principal : the letter of Abgarus king of Edessa to 
Christ, and our Saviour's answer; six Epistles of Paul to Seneca, and 
eight from the latter in reply; the constitutions of the Apostles; the 
Creed of the Apostles; the Gospel of the infancy of Christ; the Prot«- 
Evangelion of James; the Grospel of the birth of Mary; the Gospel of 
Nicodemusp or the acts of Pilate; the martyrdom of Thecla, published 
by Dr. Gxabe from a Ms. in the Bodleian, and supposed to be no other 
tban the acts of Paul and Thecla mentioned by TertuUian; St. Paul's 
Epistle to tlie Laodiceaos ; and Abdias's history of the twelve apostles. 
Amidst so incoojgruous a mass of writings, some of them coeval perhaps 
with the primitive church, it might appear to be no very easv task to 
discriminate our own authentic books from those of a spurious character. 
Nothing, however, can be established on a firmer basis than the genuine- 
ness of oiu* canonical scriptures, as we possess an uninterrupted series 
of gmtaUom from them, handed down in the writings of the Fathers 
from the earliest perio(^ where the authenticity of the former is either 
expressly affirmed or evidently implied. If to this irrefragable proof we 
add that afforded by the oldest Syriac and Latin versions, which are. 
referrcKl by some divines to the first, and by others to the beginnins of 
the second century, the Diatessaron of Tatian composed in the middle 
of the second century, the ca^aicgtietof the canonical scriptures contained 
in the works of the Fathers of the third and fourth centuries, and the 
testioMny of Heathen and Jewish authors, we shall have a body of evf- 
dcnce in &vor of the authenticity of the New Testamenti to wiudv nb 

982 Biblical Criticitm. 

nry with the publication of our own Scriptures^ while otheiv 
are known to be the indisputable forgeries of a later period ; 
and in order to attract the notice and secure the belief of 
Christian converts, they were confidently ascribed either to the 
apostles themselvesy or to persons who were known to have 
enjoyed their friendship. Of this indeed we may rest persuaded, 
that could any diligence of research have proved these writings 
to be genuine, they would have been received with all that ardor 
and confidence which the venerable names attached to them 
would naturally inspire. But though many of them contained 
an admixture of truth with falsehood, yet the vigilant examina* 
tion to which they were of necessity made to submit, would 
soon disclose the futility of their pretensions ; and they were 
accordingly rejected as unworthy of admission into the catalogue 
of canonical works publicly recognised by the primitive Chris* 
tians. Admitting, as we unquestionably must, that the highest 
degree of vigilance and circumspection was exercised by the 
early followers of Christ in the formation of that Canon of 
Scriptures which was for ever to regulate the faith and to 
involve the salvation of succeeding generations,' it mus^ require 

other compositions in existence can lay claim, and which completely ex- 
dudes the pretensions of those fictitious writings enumerated in this note. 

Respecting the writings of the apostolic Fathers, a preat diversity of 
opinion has prevailed ; and though vast learning has been displayed in 
establishing the authenticity of many of them, there are others which 
are universally admitted to be spurious ; some divines, indeed, have not 
scrupled to question the authority of all of them. 

' Aespectmg the origin of the term canonical^ as applied to the 
Scripturet^ there are tliree different opinions. The learned French critic 
Dupin observes, that as one signification of the Greek word K«y^, Is a 
catalogue, the books of the New Testament were termed canonical, 
because the catalogue of them was called the canon. To this, however, 
it is replied that there is no authority to show that the word K«iyi^ was 
used in this sense till the fourth century, long prior to which the same 
term was applied to the sacred volume. 

The eccentric Whiston imagined that the books of the New Testa* 
ment were called canonical because they are enumerated in the last of 
the apostolical constitutions or canons, forgetting that for the same 
reason many apocryphal writings would be entitled to that appellation. 
TV) this it may be added that these constitutions have long ceased to be 
considered as genuine. 

The third and best reason alleged for the original application of the 
term is this, that the word canon, both in Greek and Latin, properly sig- 
nifies a rule or standard by which other things are to be tried ; and as the 
sacred books are acknowleged by all Christians to be the standard of 
their feith and practice, the collection of them obtained at an early period 
the title of canon. The precise period when our present canon was 

Biblical Criticism. J28i$ 

arguments of more than ordinary weight to induce us to reject 
«fiy part of the sacred text which has reached^ without dis- 
turbance, so late a period as the present. Notwithstanding the 
reliance which it was natural to expect would be reposed on the 
authenticity of every part of the New Testament, still there are 
n few passages which have at different times been openly called 
in question, and which it therefore becomes our duty to ex- 
amine with all that diligence and candor so peculiarly required 
in a subject of this nature. 

Whatever may have been the origin of these objections^ 
whether they have arisen from an imperfect comprehension of 
the proofs, by which the genuineness of ancient writings can 
alone be established, or whether, which has not unfrequently 
i>een^the case, they are to be traced to the powerful preposses- 
sions generated by the tenets of particular sects, no friend to 
revelation would willingly suffer them to be disseminated without 
examining the foundation on which they are alleged to be sup- 
ported, and without ascertaining the degree of attention to 
which they are really entitled. 

It is well known to those who are at all acquainted with 
theological science, that the authenticity of the first and second 
chapters of the Gospel of St. Matthew has been the subject of 
controversy, and has been more particularly contested by that 
class of Christians who avowedly disclaim the divinity of the 

As this part of the sacred writings contains the detail of 
Christ's nativity, we shall not be greatly surprised at the anxiety 
displayed by the advocates of Unitarianism to annul a portion 
of the text so subversive of their favorite opinions, and which 
they trust, if once expunged, would effectually undermine the 
belief of the received doctrine of the miraculous conception. 
Ab long as these chapters are considered as forming part of the 
original Gospel of one of our Lord's immediate disciples, as 
long as they retain the confidence which has so long been 
reposed in them, it will be in vain to attempt to invalidate the 

formed cannot be ascertained with any degree of certainty. There does 
indeed exist an account of its having been arranged and settled at £phe- 
sus before the close of the first century, but it is now generally rejected 
as destitute of sufficient proof to entitle it to belief; and it is the opinion 
of many eminent critics, amongst whom are Griesbach and Semler, that 
the scriptural canon could not have been formed before the middle of 
the second century. See Jooes on the Canon. Dupin's Hist, of the 
Canon, Marsii's Michaelis, vol. ii. notes to ch. 7. sect* 6. Pale^'s Evid. 
vol. i. 

fii84 Biblical Critimm. 

doctrine which they explicitly declare^ by reftBooiiig oq the 
abBtrfH:^ nature of die fact^ or by any arguments derived froia 
the antecedent probability of its truth. 

This a priori mode of reaBoning, bowever^ha8 too firequently 
been resorted to in discussing the credibility of the pecjdiar 
articles of the Christian faith; but by no class of men has 
it been moie notoriously perverted, thisn by those who withovt 
hesitation reject from their creed every doctrine whicb eannoft 
be supported by obvious analogy pr undisputed ex{)eri^Ge> 
On the same principle many have ventured to %MestioQ the 
divine origin of Christianity itself; and because it was promui* 
gated at a period $o remote from the creation of tfie world, they 
Ihink themselves justified in refusing their assent; falsely 
assuming that what so intimately concerned the felicity of hm^ 
man creatures, if communicated at all, must bave been so from 
the beginning, or at least long anterior to the general depravity 
of the species ; and that it is in the highest degree improbable 
ithat the Deity should restrict the revelation of bis aoercy within 
the narrow limits which the present case apparently supposei. 
3ueh, however, is the nature of the proofs in our posaessioB, 
auch the powerful body of evidence which the inquiries of evcMry 
day tend to confijrm,^ that it appears almost impossible^ oour 
jsisleHtly with the unbiassed exercise of our sane faculties, te 
depy that the ChristidO religion has actually been pubJished, 
though not till four thousand years after the formation of man.; 
nud that the sublime truths whicb it unfolds are not the less 
intimelely connected with our highest interest because they bave 
Jhitherto extended. U> only a portion of mankinds Our previpo^ 
f^onceptions of what would be the conduct of the Supi^me 
Beifiikg under any proposed circumstances, or of the pianner 
jm which hewouMl display his attributes in the government; of 
bis intelligent creatures, have bo repeatedly led to the most 
.palpable errors, that they ought to obtain but little influence in 
;Our estimate of the positive proojgs of any refigious system 
<«Sefed to our examination. !Nor will it require any elaborate 
investigation to impress upon the mind a conviction, whicb 
daily oDservation alone is almost sufficient to produce. In the 
'pheenomena of external nature, in the occurrences which exciCe 
Tour attention in the records of history, and in the moral systeoa 
.which influences the conduct of man both. as an individual, and 
as connected with society, numerous instances might be alleged^ 
apparently at variance widi the perfections of the Divine Bemg, 
or, at least, very remote from our preconceived ideas of their 
probability. Their actual existence, however, is not on that 

MMicai Crtiidm. B85 


a^cowt die' less cerlain^ nor ieti the e&fl of pro0poclif# 

^ JiH that the ratiooal part ef the crealieii oao be tdmtted to 
claim, with justice^ or ratbernaturalty to expect, from the bene^ 
yoleoce of the Deity, is, that a preponderance of happioeai 
^uld be placed within their reach, soooer or later^ cfanog' the 
ci94P|tin4iance of their existence. The means which the Alnoighlj 
piiay «dopt in the plenitude of his wisdom for effectuating aadl 
f§curing this happiiile«l,/may very consistendy be aopposed to 
(i^tfii % sutgect liar remoTed from die reach of hMBum txaamm 
tifm, . and even beyond the limits, of Immim comprehcMioii* 
Why man should originally have been so coostmcled as lo be 
liaUe to fan from his primeval state of bliss, when assailed by 
teniptatioq, and why so many ages should elapse before Ihie 
adveqt of that iIlustriaaS:oharacter appointed to be the great 
ipftruiBent in accomplishing bis redemption, are questions whi^ 
iuviAve no greater difficulty than is to be discovered in ibat feng 
.^ntested ppiot, the origin of eviL To expect to ifithopi'the 
connsels of the Supreme loteUigence, with focidities so inade»* 
i)ui^e a^ our own, and to make &e iMsoval 9i ieyiSry shade of 
4iirkness. the previous condition of oiir aaeetit^ is .what r; we 
practise on no other subject; and it baa not yet; been explained 
js^hy we should adopt so nnreasotiable a condkiitt in that of 
lielif^on. t 

(. ^fter all th^ objedtons whidi, have been advanced ngaimft 
the historical detail of the great legi3lator of the Jews^ and aU 
tl^eliold attempts which ha?e been made to destaey its dredlbi- 
Ij^y^ sfUUito ^ery unbiassed inquirer it will be found lo be more 
«;ptisisteet with the facta of subsequent history, and wilh the 
obeerxations of phQosophers relative to the superficial atrimlMO 
of the globe> than any hypothesis which the in&feUly of eona 
and the love of distinction in others have led them to Ipin^ni*' 
Our proper object, therefore, is not to institute an inquiry how 
fEur the Mosaic accmmt acconds wkfa dm ideae^hich we have 
previously entertained respecting the n^ans which the Almighty 
would select in the creation and government of the universe, 
but whether the authority of the writings ascribed to the Jewish 
lawgiver is supported by incontrovertible evidence, and whether 
diey contain nothing which the consent of cultivated understand-^ 
ings has decided to be contrary to the first principles of reason* 

* :r 

^ ' See Bryant's System of Anciei^ Mytholof^; I^aurice^s Indian An- 
ij^Wtie^; S^ William Jones's Discourses before tbs AsiaticSeaiety^ 

S86 In SophocUs (Edip. CoUm. Emendd. 

When we are satisfied on these points, when we find a hisliorjr 
of the origin of the world, of which the particulars, though ofteik 
supernatural, are after minute examination allowed to be recoo- 
cilable with the known attributes of the-Deitj; when this 
history is proved by arguments, which the most labored ingenu- 
ity has hidierto been unable to invalidate, to have been written 
by the legislator whose name it bears, our assent seems una- 
voidable. No other conduct remains for us to pursue, but to 
ascertain the correctness of the text which is submitted to our 
notice, and to mterpret its meaning in conformity with the laws 
of criticism invented by the wisdom and confirmed by the expe- 
rience of profound scholars. 

Thus also, when a revelation of more recent date has been 
once proved to have been communicated to the human species, 
we are not to proportion our belief of its contents to our ante- 
cedent sentiments of probability relative to its mode of promul- 
'gation,^and to the nature of the doctrines it professes to disclose. 
We are not to say, though we certainly cannot, after a fair 
luVesti^tion of the arguments in its favor, refuse our assent to its 
general truth, that we think ourselves at liberty to make a reserva- 
tion in this belief with r^ard to particular passages, becanse 
they appear to us to affirm what we can never be persuaded the 
Deity would have ordained, and because we conceive that in 
executing the same design he would have selected a mode much 
less complicated and refined, and more level to the apprehension 
of ordinary understandings. 

This conduct and this language are altogether inadmissible in 
the examination of facts which are to be established by historical 
testimony, and are indeed, at all times, far removed fi-dm that 
diffidence in our own faculties and that perfect reliance on the 
divine perfections^ so congenial with the condition of bttman 


liiMENDATioNES liSB maximam quidem in partem, jam de* 
cenhio propo scripts diu meas inter schedas latebant, tempus 
sese proferendi opportunum expectantes. Quam vero occasio- 
nem / nemo Divom promittere posset,' earn * fortuna en i obtu- 

In Sopicclis CEdip: Colon. Emendd. $187 

lit ultro.' Fabula etenim hac Sophoclea nuperrime bis edita» 
fneam quoque ipsius sjmbolam voloi conferre in coenam a Rei- 
sigio Eloisleioque lautissime instructam. Idque eo libentius 
feci, quo perspexi melius plurima esse loca duiimviris illi9 vel 
neglecta peuitus vel arte, qua par fuit, uon tractata. Neque id 
miruro cuivis oportet esse videatur in fabula, quae una inter 
omnes Sophocieas maxime corrupta multoruiti ingenia potest 
exercere, cuj usque sanatio, * siquid recte curat um velis/ medi- 
cis ejusmodi committenda est, quibus, morbo penitus cognito, 
remedium sit facile inventu, aut, iisdem de remedio desperanti* 
bus, peritiorem quibus opperiri hominis fuerit parum sani. 

In Uteris Graecis, quae quidem ad res scenicas pertinent, plane 
is hospes fuerit, qui nescient fabularum Sophoclearum esse re- 
censiones duas e veteribus Grammaticis profectas; quarum 
altera primitus ab Aldo, altera postea fuit a Tumebo typis ini'- 
pressa. £x his duabus, quoties inter se dissideant, quod sa&p^ 
ittciunt, toties Aldina scriptura majorem sibi auctoritatem vin- 
dicat apud Brunckium, Reisigium, Elmsleiumque ; mihi vero 
Turnebiana visa est saepius verba Sophoclis exbibere. In 
vulgus quidem levis, ut cum Reisigio loquar, fama permeavit de 
recensione Turnebiana minus vetusta, utpote a Demetrio Tri* 
cHnio ins^tituta ; • cujus in caput immerentis iram omnem Brunck* 
ins evomuit* At Gramniaticus amvu[jt,a$, Tviclinio nondum 
nato ipse mortuus, potuit Anti-Triclinianis dicere, ' me, me^ 
adsum, qui fe^i, in me convertite tela ; feci etenim, ut Sopho- 
clis verba genuina ne sint oblivioni tradita; nee tamen intercedo, 
quo minus vapulet Triclinius pugnis maxime ponderosis, qui 
meas partes, subdititius plane Sosias,^ agere voluit, interque can- 
tos lusciniae Sophocleae oyxa<rSai, more asini, ausus est impu- 
dentissime. Totnov) yowv, vai Svpiyya, vaiz^ frale rw JoXcp/ Verum, 
facetiis hujusmodi omissis, ad quas animum meum sjlexit Rei- 
sigius in Enarrat. ad CEd. c. did. suo versu in Brunckium non 
optime facto, ad recensionem redeo Tricliuianam ; in qua 
Demetrius quidem habet aliquam partem, praecipue inter ea, 
quas pertinent ad cantus Chori et roetra hie illic resarcienda ; 
nihil vero majus fecit, neque fecere potuit. Quo tempore vixe- 
rit ille vetustior Grammaticus, se nescire fatetur'ElmsIeius, 
neque ego possum dicere. Id ununi scio, eum ante Suidae 
tempora vixisse. Suidas enim, qui, sasculo P. C. N. circiter 
undecimo, Scholi? in Sophoclem descripsit, semper fere verba 
Sophoclis ipsa citat, Aldinae scripturae congruentia. At col- 
latis inter se lectionibus variis, quas utraque recensio exhibent, 
liquidp patet Aldinam de Pseudo-Tricliniana per lapsus scriba- 
rum devenisse. Illud etiam adjungo, quod Pseudo-Triclinianae 

VOL. XXIX. Cl.JL ' NO.LVlir. U 

S88 In Sophoclis (Edip. Colon* Mmendd. 

lectiones, in pejus mutatse^ ad scribetidi rationem vetustiorem ea> 
quakn Aldina scriptura indicate pertinent^ et inde fere omDei 
videntur derivari. Nempe in Aldina recensione non nisi cursivae, 
ut aiunt, scripturae vestigia se produnt^ at in Pseudo-Triclini> 
ana, quadratse. Fuit igitur ille liber> quern Suidas manibus 
versavit, recentior altero, qui Triclinii in manns venit. Ple- 
rumque tamen neque banc neque illam recensionem per se 
cassa nuce emerini, licet ex utrisque inter se comparatis lectid 
genuina fere semper erui possit. 

£ decern libris manuscriptis, quorum collationem edidit 
Elmsleius, quatuor Aldinam, totidemque Pseudo-Triclinianam 
recensionem exhibent, inter quas medium locum tenent duo illi 
Par. F. et Rice. B. Ad Aldinam referri debent Laur. A. Par. A; 
Rice. A. et Laur. B., ad Psendo-Triclinianam vero T. Farn. 
^'ar. B. et Vat. Brevitati igitur consulturus non Mss. ipsos, 
8UO quemque nomine, verum recensionem alterutram Uteris A L. 
aut PT. indicabo, nisi rationem aliam sana ratio ^stulare 

, Etsi plurima et gravia sunt in fabula Sophoclea, quae nostras 
ciiras enixe petunt, nefas tamen essetinsigneiragmentum histo- 
•ricum de re scenica prsetermittere^ quod primus edidit Thiers- 
chius in Act. Philolog. Monacens. i. 3. p. 322-326. e schedis 
Victoriaiiis, dein Elmsleius de Codice Laurentiano descripsit. 
.Unda Victorius suum apographum hauserit, non liquet. Id ita 
Thierscbius evulgavit. 

Tov eiri KoXoovcS ' Oiilirovv M TereXeunjxoT/ rco 'jramrea So^oxXvig 

htTTi TSTapTOs axo KciWioUj 1^* oi foLtrh oi ^rXeiouj tov So^oxXia 
TeXeVTri(roir Soi^lg Se toOt' Iotiv Sf euv ^fiiv 6 'ApuTTO^ivvig ev tol$ 
BttTpa^oig hn KaXXiov kviy^i rwg ^ffrgotniyobs 6w6§ yrj$, 6 81 
^pmiypg h Movareng, ag <ruyxafl^xg rolg Bargop^oij, $ij(r*i> *o3 
l^otxap ' Z*0(f oxAej 8^ TroXtfv ^povov fiiovg afrsiavev evdalpuov avrjp xa) 
he^iog TtoWag TOivjcrag xa) x^Xag Tgaycpdiag xaXwg ^ersXivryio'ev ou^h 
UTTOfj^sivug xuxov Itti Se Top \6yoti4m ^ 'hwelao Kohcovcp to dpaixa, xehaf 
icrr) yotq xa\ erepog KoXoovog vpog rm EvptMraxsico, frphg £ oi futrbap' 
yoyvTs^' fcgo&XTrjXsi&aV 9 xol) tyjv '^apotpi^iav en) rolg xot6v<rrepiKov<n 
.TflQV xongwv haioiHivai, o\(;* ^Xteg aW' elg tov KoXeolfov h<ro' ftyij/xoveuei'^ 
T»v SweTv KoXoovolv ^gsxp&TVjg cv" veraXvi ^lot TOufow,'* oirog 
VOT B\<rv}\ieT elg KoXoovov cp^^fxviv ov roy 'Ayopalov oKXoL tov taB* 

1. Ita Victor, at O«5i9ro8a ElmsL 2. Ita Vittor. at Ms. teste 
Elms, miloijg. 3. Mixloovog vult Thiersch, advocato Diodor. Sic. 
xiv. 17. at Mlxoovog EInjsI. ex Aristoph. Lys. 679. ""Ag Mlxaav 
typct^* It* hiF^v x.T.X. 3. fj^h legit Elmsl. 4. Manifesto 


In Svphoclis Ctldip. Colon. Emcndd. 989 

le^enduni tfAg rfw/ittavg. Etenim in Ranis kfitr^wm .^scbylus* 
£t ^ic legit Clinton in Fastis Heilenicis inter Addend, p. viii^ 
niiperrime vufgatis. . 4. Vice oS films), ovreo^. 5. i?ofoxXti|( 
£lnisl. 6. xoLXmi r^ est Thiersehi at^Werferi emeiidatio ircXfu* 
;n)(r' : liiibi vero tautologuni sonant airstfavcy et htixnivf^u 
Scripsit^ optnor, Phrynichus KetkS^ htkery^*, memor Sophor 
cleaef sententiae in Fragm. Inc. 58. (6$ rpKrixfim Kthfot ^qvrmv, ot 
ruina ^p^divrts Wxi) Af^AoDO-' t^ "Aiiov. Fuit enim Sophocles 
unus roo9 Mwrroov: ideoque apud inferos^ rSi ^'ovrmv opyi* svrvp^ija^ 
Mm, ut cum Euripide loquar in Here. F. 613. 7. Legi debet 
hnflof, 8. npoa-Btrrfixsurotv emendat Thiersch, ex Harpocrat. V. 
KoXxoftrks* 9* (i(^^ *ou legere Yult Thiersch. 10. Excidisse 
videtur ii. 11. Harpoerat. Ms.> olim Burneianus^ exhibet I7f* 
raXijj'' t. e. frBfoLkSicoVp unde nihil extrico. 12. Harpocr. 1. c« 
o3roi^ 7n$tv rjxBig i$ Kohsovh { ft^y od rh K.T.K Recte iradtv^ et 
vero proxime ^xei^ et ^ /Ur^v: in quibus latent odx cl^ et if/xijy: 
latent quoque in fio^ASfr* voces fSo^xSa^ 2*4^*. Etenim scripsit 
Pherecrates — A. o3to^ ^olfv Ei<r^xSff^ o\|f' ; B. o^ eif KoXsnrii^ 
lff/E»i)v; A. O^ toy 'Ayopaiov' B. aA\0^ — A. woi; B. roy "Imuf^ 
Verbi <g|tti}y gt. est aut lectio varia ^of^^y. Sermo fuit inter 
herum et servum^ qui rationem tardae profectionis reddit, JDe 
voce o\(;e sa^pe depravata monui ad ^schyl. fumen. 974. et io 
Addend. Locis ibi citatis adjunge C£d. C. 1536. BstA yip 
eS jxey o^i 8* eWopooci : ^scbin. p. 76. HSt. i^i [AerafMtyicivorrsf 
T^y eXeudepiav. ' ' 

His dispositis ad ipsam fabulam accedo. Verum ultra limen 
pes* Criticus sine offensione procedere nequit. Ita enim se 
liabent vv. 3 — 8. 

rl$ riy wXetvfyniv Ol^hrwif %eA* ^lyApaii^ 

(TfMXph jxey l^aiTovvrUf rou o-ftixoou 8* 1t$ 
jxfifoy ^igovTU, xa) r^ i^agxwv epi>oi ; 
crripyHM yoip ai 'koAm jxs yi XS^^^S ^tiywy 
[Auxpos hiicxu xeii ri yewaiov r^/roy. 
Voces ;^oyo^ ^uyooy fittxpo^ nemo hommum explicuit; ecquis 
vero eas potuit explicare f Hoc primum. Deinde coUato Fhi- 
loct. 538. *Ey(i S* inayxv^ ^pou/xatoy ifripym xaxci, liquet abunde 
nomen desiderari^ quocum arigyenf jungi po&sit. lUud etiam 
statuo^ quod rpirov caudam quasi inutilem hie trahit^ arti So- 
phocleae incongruenter. Quid plura i Rescribe^ quae Tragicua 

aripyttv yoip al vadai 79 %« XP^^^ ^^^^ 
fjMXgois hl&a-xn xoti ro yevfum rgl^v. 
Namque arumna et longum tempm doceni vet genere noUUm 


290 In Sophoclis CEdip. Colon. Emehdd. 

aquo animo tolerare semitam vita inhospitalem. Nunc demun 
intelligitur, unde venerit lectio varia Tragdov vice ^vvm in PT. 
Nempe super rqifiov fuit scriptum vogov. Hie r^/jSoy eadem 
metaphora dicitur, qua Ixr^/jSeiv jS/ov in (£d. T. ^48. neque 
non conferri potest Euripideum jxoutnxov ^ apa "Epcog SiSacrxef, 
xav ifAovcos ^ TO ir^iy^ cum Sophocleo SiSoo'Xffi xai to yewaiov ; 
etenim in utroque loco xa) significat e'eit Anglice. Manifesto 
sentential tenor postulat mentionem et ^svou et r^//3ou. Fuit enim 
CEdipus et ^evo$ et irXavi^n]^. Quod ad syntaxin^ hUaxetv nva 
Ti, earn ne pueri quidem ignorant. 

6. Reisigius in Enarrat. p. xxvii. per transennam vidit dis- 
crimen inter ^igeiv et fipe(r6oii ri. Nempe hoc significat auferre 
jure propriOf illud cortcessu alterius auferre, Thuringensem 
Jatuit plurimis in locis^ ubi hodie exstat fiKrioy .^epBiv, olim ex- 
stitisse [jnfTio<pope'lv : neque verba prorsus eadem esse fepeiv et f o- 
peiv, Sed de hoc alias. 

1 1 . STYi<r6v fie Ke^i^pviTov wg frvtolfAeia, Ita Mss. omnes. , At 
Brunckius TrviifLeia, probante Elmsl.^ non item Reisigio^ qui 
jure miratur sententiam inconcinnam colloca me, utpercontemur: 
quasi sede opus sit ad sciscitandum. Gl. est in Ms. Laur. A. 
ftftdijo-oftsfia : cujus auctor tog pro stts) accepisse videtur Elmsleio. 
Atqui glossae scriptor in codice suo legerat oi TreutrovfLeia, ubi 
audiemus. De Attico illo futuro vid. Grammaticos, qui colli- 
gere solent exempla^ pueris quidem, non Criticis, profutura. 

12. — fji^otviivetv yap rJKOfjLsv Hevoi frgos okttcIov a v axov<ra>(jt,& 
TsXeiy. Ita AL. at PT. ;^aV At nusquam alibi tres sjllabas 

[>er crasin una fiunt. Id perspexit Elmsl. qui ad CEd. T. 749* 
egit a% §* axova-oDpLev—et nunc in textum intulit. Verum nulla 
est antithesis inter f/^otviivsiv et reXelv. Debuit a "v r ax.o6fraoyt,e9 
TeXelv, For we strangers are come to learn, and, what we learn, 
to do. 

14. et sqq. IJoiTig rsLXetliroDp* OlSiVouj, Kvpyot ftev, o1 IloXiv trri^ 
yov(Tiv, (ug oL'K ojx/jtarwv Trgofreo' Xwpog V oS* \glg oo$ airBix&frou 
fipvcov Ji(i,vYig kXaUg afjLTriXov, Ita Ms. Laur. A. At Schol. 
•pro vai;. lect. ec$ avopLfAurop i et Aid. cu; <roi<p' eIxao"«j. Verum 
^PT. Olliirov — 18^0^ (ug airnKafrai, Ex hisce (ri^ elxotTai placuit 
Reisigio. Atqui illud ,f pertinet ad (TTeyovaiv : cujus vice (rri' 
^owrtv emendat Wakefield, ad Georgic. i. 71. diu ante Doed^sr-r 
linum in Specim. p. 42. Placuit quoque Musgravio cu^ flevo/ct- 
ju^rcp, cui scrupulum injecerat illud vpo(roo. At dum levia VV. 
DD. persequuntur, praetereunt majora. Nemini etenim sub- 
oluit deesse bis verbum, quod vix semel deesse poterat. Eo 
restituto, plana fiunt omnia. Lege igitur — irupyoi fiiv, oi IloXtv 
m^ou(r*f o58' tio** air* oiip^ircov vg^aroa' Xcogog 8* oa^ {Upog w$ axsi- 


In Sdphoclis (EdiprColqji: EmeAdd. 291 

niurcu,) Bpuwv : subaudito fcrr/. Dicto^oTS*, Antigone digito ii^- 
tendit ad turres, quae visas sunt extra scenam^ toXiv <rTipov<rau 
De pronomine oSt sic posito vid. Schaefer. in Meletem. Crit. p. 
84. Quantillo opere oi$ excidere potuerit post ovs, intelligas ex" 
eo, quod (T . et $ saepe confundi soleant. Quod ad ioQutionem 
air' oy^iuarm 'irpotro), confer similia dicta irpo(re»6ev Ojx/Jtaro^ in 
Agam. 948. et aiPOTrp^iev o(^$aAjxoov ui Arcbiloch. Fragm. x. 

17. — WKVOTTTepoi 8* EA(ra) kolt avrov nu^royt,ou&' ayfioveg. Ista 
eia-oo kut uvtov pessime tautologa Sophocles quidem scribere 
non potuit. Poeta dignum esset xar otvXov more tibia. Gt- 
enim non luscinia ipsa^ veruui tibicen, imitatus luscinianiy melos 
canebat. Quo modo avfiove$ tua-roiAsiv a Sophocle dicuntur kut 
av\oVf sic et Euripides teste Hesychio V. 'Arfiovet — robs oiuXovf 

19 — ^2. Hoc tetrastichon ita pessime ordinatur : 

o5 xooXa. xiiA^ov toOS* en offVroy weTgow 
fioLXpav yotq ci^ yiqovri npova-Taktis o^ov 

OIA, iciAi^i vDv /xs Kcii f6KoLir(r6 rov ru^Xov* 

ANT* p^povou jxey oSvffx* ov fMiislv jX8 $s7 ro^f. 

. Minime patrem decuit imperiose loqui xuiiKs wv fte/Anti« 
gonae verbis xwXa xaft\{/ov responsurum. Hoc primum ; deihde 
o3 et ToDSe sic posita Graece dici non possunt. Id senserunt 
Valckenaer et Pierson : quorum hie in Motis Mss. penes me 
Toluit iou, ille ab, quod prasstat. Postremo (xev post p^ovov 
nuUam apodosin habet. Versibus transpositis lege 

01 J. xa9»Sf vuy jx' Ixti* f6Xoi(r(re roi^ tv^Kov" 
ANT, ^p6vo\} fih ivex* ou vvv fiotielv (le hi rolr 

fAaxpotv yotp w$ yipovri fppova-T&Xr^^ 6dov. 

Ubi versus ille caesura carens^ convenit pulmonibus exhaustis 
defessi senis; neque minus venustum'est in re tali asyndeton 
illud, Ttocii^e, f6Xa<r(re. Vox IxeT pertinet ad x^pov iBpov, de quo 
dudum sciscitabatur CEdipus^ ad sessionem idoneo. Mox vuy 
l/i^otiiiv legisse videtur Schol. od hi fie fiaish rouro vvv. 

£3. Ad voces ?frou xaiivrafity ita £lmsl. ' Recte Brunckius, 
latet in verbo xadea-ra/ttey motus signification Ita Euripides Or^ 
1330. "Agap** avayx»j5 8* §1$ }jt}yh xaHa-TotiABV. Utrobique sen- 
tential conveniret iXjjAuiajttey.' Atqiii motus signiiicatio inesse 
nequit verbo xuiitrTafisv : potuit quidem verbo xuiicrivui. Et- 
enim Wrivai significat sistere sensu active, at o-r^vai stare, sensu 
iutransitivo. In Oreste illud apapt satis aperte indicat xaSeo-ra- 
/xffv a notione motus longidsime distare, Ctct^\d, ^Q^^^>\\sk 
est ia loco, non propere de loco uiovet\^. 

S92 In Sophoclif CEdip. Colon. Emendd. 

24^ 6. Hoc distichon alii aliis personis tribuunt. Onmet 
perperam. Scripsit Sophocles : 

ANT. rds yow 'Ai^vag oKa- 

OU. Toy Ss xcopov ; 

ANT. o5' 

T&S yip ; Ti J ijuSa toStov ?|»iy f v wop^ ; 
Inepte vulgatur Hag yap rig ijuSa toutov ^ijxiv liiTropcoif. Vice tow- 
Tov Keiskius coojecit towto y', et sic Ms. Par. F, At touto re- 
ferri debuit ad proximum nomen (x»pov): id vero fieri non 
potuit^ servata lectione vulgata iroig rtg ritj^ot : quas verba mani- 
festo pertinent ad rotg 'Aiiivas oISol. De phrasi ou* v&g yoip, quid 
verbis multis opus est ? Mox meum iilud Iv vopco scrupulum, 
quem Scholiastae vox liuiripw injecit, pulchre amovet. 
26—31. Ita hi sex versus pessime sunt scripti ; 

OIA. &X)C Ha-ug 6 t^tto; fj pMico jxoXoDo'a ^roi ; 

ANT, voA tIxvov eling hrrl y If oix^a*fjw.o^. 

ANT. aXX* IcttI jxev oixijtoV oTojxai 8e 8eTv 
oii^ir irexix^ y^^p oEvSpa r^vSs vwv ogoo* 

OU. ^ SeDgo vqo<ml'Xpvra xa^opiMt)ii,evov\ 

ANT. xa) 8^ jxsv oSy fcetpoirru. 
Inter haec video plurima aut inepta aut ialsa. 1 . Ineptum est i{ 
liAdto iMXova-i vol ; quasi nomen regionis Antigona indagare po- 
tuisset non ab faomine quodam, verum e lapide aut ligno, cui 
vills nomen^ quod fieri soiet apud Anglos, esset inscriptnm. 
2. Graece dici nequit hie sfofx^a-ijxo^. Verbaliain --Hn|Gtos signifi- 
cant id, quod fieri potest, non id, quod fit. At sententiae tenor 
postulat Ivo/xijTO^ vel simile quid. 3. Olxijro; est falsum, uti 
patet e 39* "AdiKrog ov^ olxtjroV. 4. Ohfiou est infrequens vice 
oTjxai. 5. Inepta sunt oio/xai Ss Seiv ouSlv. Certe aliquid erat agen- 
dum. 6. Antigonas dicenti viXots avlgot rovSe vtov 6§& respondere 
non poterat CEdipus { SeSpo ^rpoors/p^ovra. Etenim si prope aderat 
ille homo, CEdipus poterat rem omnem sciscitari ; neque opus 
erat verbis illis inutilibus ^ Seupo irpoo-Tfl^ovra. 7* KaiopfAoifMvw 
abundat propter vpoa-relx^ovra. Nihil interest celeriter, necne^ 
ille bomo advenerit. 8. Vim particularum xa) ivj ftev oZv me 
nescire fateor. Apage hasce sordes et restitue Sophoclea 

ANT. &}X oerri^ 6 roVo; { /xafiw /xoXovtra rov ; 

01 A. vai, Tfxvov, ei ri^ soriy l^axoifniM^* 

ANT. oOOi icrr ifioi y* ow xXijT^j* 

0/J. ^Ojuai S*— 

ANT. dSa>y 

ou $ei* 9reXa; yap ivipot ^roS* ayufiv opw* 

01 A. ii iwpo irpoo'iTTet^orrUf 

ANT. Ka^opiiMfMVwt* 

xa) i^ {pi,iy eZv) wuj^a* 

In S^hociis C^dip. CqIqu. Emendd. S93 

Inter haec jxaflo) — row conveniunt cum Sophocleis i^ ftfltflcTv !tov 
in Aj. 33. Mox redde l^ajfouo-iff o;^ 9111 potest audire. . Id enim 
CEdipus curabat, ut sciscitari posset aliquem^ sede sua non re- 
licta. Dein probe rationem reddit Antigona, cur homine quo- 
dam visOy ab indecora compellatione se abstineat. Mox, dicto 
eyi^ofA^oa, CEdipus sciscitandi cupidus^ sedem relicturus est ; quern 
tamen reprimit Antigona verbis oBwv ov Ss7. Dein ttoS* ivvsty, de 
qua fprniula loquendi vide Indices, quos describere npn susti- 
nebo, generate quid, uti par est, de hominis adventu indicat. 
Postremo voce efog/xci/tevov audita, CEdipus iterum reprimitur a 
filia, voces /jtlv* ouy proferente, et vocibus gestum cousentaneura 
exbibente. Omnis profecto hujus loci veuustas pessum isiiat, 
nisi CEdipus in sede illicita ab homine, in sceuam jam intraturp, 
repertus esset. 

35. Sitoiros vgo(rYix6ig wv fieS)]Xouftsv fppi(ren* Ita cum Steph. 
Elmsieius. At monstrum barbariei est illud oSijXoufiey. Verba 
transitiva non admittunt a privativum. Frustra H. Steph. a^- 
XovfjLev contulit cum ayyooDjxev. Qmnes Mss. rcov a ir\Kotj[Aev 
^pa<ron : quod aperte vitiosum est. Intelligi poterat twvS* a 
iaropovfAev. At Sophocles scripgit, vgoCYiKets, oov aSijX' To-jxev, 
^ijoLi. Ubi wv est Attice pro roitSroov & — 

36. Ilph v5y ri TrXsiov IcrTopglv. \ Ita AL. 'irpiv^ ru PT. Neu- 
tra lectio est sana. In tali loco plurale ra irhjtm est ineptum. 
Scri^sit Tragicus. Uplv tr h ri vMm Wropelv yJ. Saepe ia-Togeiv 
cum duplice accusativo jungitur ; et sa:pissime ev penUus ex- 
cidit. In Class. Journ. No. xxii. p. ^45. emendavi Sqph. 
Aj. 130. et Eurip. CEdip. Fragm. xii. legendo 'Us ^jxaglv xA/- 
vei rs xocvaysi waXiv et 'AX}! ^pt'Ag sv ri fiiTa^QXois iroWag e^si, 
collato Phoen. l683« Iv ^/xap jx' cSXjSicr', 6v $' uvwXstrev: ubi 
Valckenaer citat Sosiphanis fragm. apud Stob. p. 187:^111. 
^Ag h T eScoxe ^iyyog ev r* u^iiXero et Hecub. 248. Tqv tcoLvra 
S* Sx^QV^fjiMg iv ft* u^elXsTO, quibus ipse addp Pindar. Isthm» iv. 
Q6. ais,ipu y»p ev y^iu rpa^eia vlfag voXeftoto re<r(rapcov hlpm iqii" 
fUfi(rev (jt^oLKuigoiv lo-rtav. Quod ad ev u, cf. Platon. Theaetet. p. 
178. ed. tiip. %v ftsvroi r» — ipea-xu: Menon. p. 334. sv ye Tr^i}- 
Teig pcara voofroov: et Eurip. IVfed. 375.' ev ri yLOi irqiaavreg. 

42. Toig iroivi* ogdxrag Evpi^evl^oig y ev$a$' m Elvoi Xewg tuv, 
Ita Mss. omnes et Suid. V. Niv. At Eustath. p. 763, 37. Rom. 
flTDj. Primus Vauvillier reposuit iv Eliroi. Sed et oS* legere 
debuit, propter antithesin in S^e et aXXa, ^ aXXaxotJ xaXi» 
44 — 48. Versus et personam sunt iterum in pejus mutaiae : 
OJJ, etXX* IXsoog /xgv to'vS* Ixerriv Sefa/aro* 

tug ou^ tlpag yr^g Ttjo"!' oiv i^sXioijt! er*. 
SE. riV 1(7x1 TpuTo; 

294 In SophocUs CEdip. Colon. Emendd. 

BE, oXX' ovSi ftfyroi rov^avi(rravoii ttoXmoos « 
ih^* fO*Ti tap(rogf irph av hhei^oo t/ hpw* 
Ita Aid. sed FT. IXe» — otjy Ifwv n — vpiv y' — rl Ipav. Unde le- 
▼bsimum quid lucramur. Sed fortiter nego quemlibet vulgata 
posse intelligere. Primo^ ftev iiullam apodosin habet : 2do^ 
Grsece dici nequit per votum hs^oLlaro, 00$ av l^eXtoifti : debuit 
esse 00$ e^ixico: Stio^ Ineptum est manifesto eigag yy^g rrjtrSe: 
4to, Seotentiarum uexus inter CEdipi et Hospitis verba plane 
nuilus est : 510^ Deest nomen post e^avKPrivui, quod CEklipum 
significet : postremo^ inepta et ne Greece quidem dicta hviel^co rS 
^gw, Hsec tamen pede inoffenso praetereunt VV. DD. nesci- 
entes scilicet Sophoclem scripsisse : 

0/J. SiXX* iXeco; jx' av rov ixEn]v ie^aiaTO* 

BE, t/ S* Ictti tout© ; 

OU* (TVfA^opas ^vvtvifu BfAvis, 

(Tws ovy^ Ugas y av t^o-S* av «f sX9o»j** err 
«XX' ouSJv ov TOUT l^avifrravai — 
BE, iroXeoDs 

8«x', eoTi 6dp<rog, wgiv o*' av Iv5ff»f co* t/ ipag ; 
Nunc demum omnia facillima intellectu sunt. £ verbis hos- 
pitis jam CEdipus inteliexerat se ad lucum Furiarum advenisse ; 
noverat quoque in fatis esse evravia se xaftTTsiv rov Takahcogov 
filov, uti in V. 90. planissime indicatur; quo spectat illud ^ujx^o- 
pas $uv9i]ft* 8|x^^. Jure igitur non votum, h^alaro, eloquitur, sed 
vaticinium^ av h^alaro : quibus dictis hospes jure excitatus rei 
adeo mira? causam sciscitatur, quam tecte OBdipus exponit verbis 
Scog o^x ^pot$ y* av T^o-S* av h^ixBoijjJ Iri : et tamen, quam debilis 
sit ipse senexy recordatus, verba nimis arroganter dicta temperate 
dum metuit ne per vim e lucu depellatur. Metum vero esse 
inanem bospes ostendit, 7rp)v av hhl^Yj cuncta rol$ ev reXsi : quern 
tamen, ad id agendum abiturum, manu retinet Qildipus ; cujus ad 
gestum referri debent verba r/ ^pa$: quae Ms. Vat. optime conser- 
vat, uti patet ex Eurip. Hipp. 3£5. TlZpag; jSiaCij X^^S^^ e^aprco' 
ftrvi). De verbo ccos saepe depravato multa possum dicere, sed 
paucis ero contentus. In CEd. C. 1210. <rw; conjecit Scaliger, 
restituit Brunck. qui et a-wv reposuit e Mss. et edd. antiq. vice 
}^wv in Pbiloct. 2 1 . Praeclare Coraius emendat Herodot. i. 209. 
legendo IxsT troos, 1(m), pro exei cos hfio) : quocum mirilBce facie 
Aristoph. Eq. 610. (r(o$ eXfiKvias: quern citat Valcken. ad Pboen. 
732. quique poterat emendare Bacch. 791* legends aXXd^ Sscrpo^ 
^vycov Jeii(reig, woS* e* (raog fra\iv ava<rTps^co, Uxr^v: ubi ^axreig Tyr- 
whitto, et ifoha debetur Motis Mss. penes me. 
Digaum sane, quod parte aliqua exscribatur. Lexicon est Phile- 

In Sophoclis CEdip. Colon. Emendd. 295- 

monis, V. Seoo$, unde sua hausit Eustatht I\. N. p. 941. Bas. 
treoos 6 6koK\ri^o$ 6 irapst rolg ^Arrixoig (rw$ Xiy^ou^^fos H wprircu 
xa\ triXvKwg. 'AgKTTO^oivifis' Outco Trap* iJjxTv ij TFoXig fJMhurra o'ms 
av ell}' Xiyovcri di xol\ tra rot. cwot, ol iroXaioi, froLf o[$ xai aSi % (reox 
EvpiTrtBrjs *T^t7rv\rif EifrifjM xa) <roi xa) xarecffayKTii^het' xat 
*Apt(rro^ivri$ *H luaJ^ci yotp (r£ xa) rot, xgia, [p^eo xigdi^og addit EiK 
stathius.] Poteram quoque muUa de jy sic repetito^ verum satis 
est allegare Matthise Gr. Gr. §. 599. et VV. DD. ibi citatos. 
Quod ad ovSev ov tout (vel, quod prsetuleriur, to^) de corpora 
^eiXTixmg dictum, id plane tuetur Ajac. 766. S j^vfiiv eiv et ]£18. 
"Ot ov^ev oov Tov fi^yfiiv arriarris wrep : plura de phrasi ilia vid. 
apud Valcken. ad Phosn. 60l. et Matthiae Gr. Gr. §. 437, 

49. OIJ, Ilgos vvv iicov, c3 (elve, (Arj ft' uTii/Mtri^g. Karissime in 
formula 'jrgo$ ieoov sic vvv interponitur, Malim Mvj vpis (re timv. 
De (Ts sic interposito vid. Porson. ad Med. 325. De /t^ — fuij 
repetitis vid. mea ad £sch. Suppl. £84. p, 1 15. Sed ut verubi 
fatear, Sophocles aliud quid videtur scripsisse^ nempe Ilipeg^ 
lur 01 A, 7rpo$ 6evov, ^elve. — Die to frugeg, hospes ab CEdipo se 

51. xoux arijxo^ ex y l/tou ^avffi. Amat Sop)iocIes ye post 
ex ; cf. Philoct. 700. fa ye yoi$ IXsTv: cf. et CEd. Tr 516. irpi§ 
y* 6/tou. Hie yero praetulerim ex ^evot) propter lusum. Dixerat 
CEdipus (elve: responderi poterat ax ^«Pou. Et sane PT. i^ 
efjLov. Similiter propter lusum in 52, malim Tig ^, 6l<ri\ o^cogog 
^ Vt, Iv 00 jSejS^xajxgy ; vice Tig 8* Icrfl* — 8^t : etenim responde- 
tur "Go-* olL — Xtaqog piv — oS* ?(rr'.— Ibi Bruuckius Tig fcrfl* 
probante Reisigio, cui displicuit Se et Vijfra ; neque injuria : sed 
frequenti^sime Se S^ conjuuguntur : vid. Orest. S9. 5£. 6£. 

54, 5. i^ei ii viv 2'efcvi^ IIo<reii8wv, Nusquam alibi Neptunus 
appellatur (refivog. Ibi fortasse latet *0 ZrivowofreiSMV, de quo no- 
mine vid. Atben. ii. p. 4£» A. 

58. et sqq. Locus est pessime interpolatus : 

— — 01 8e tXijo'ioi yuM 

TOvS* iTnroVijv KoKcovov ev^ovTul (t^ktiv 
oLpyi^yh elvat xa) ^epoucri roSvOfta 
TO TOuSe xofvov iruvreg (oyo[Ji,u<r(Ji,ivov, 

Ita Mss. plerique. Verum et abundat dvofioiarfievoY post ^egovtri 
TovvofjiM, et ovCfjiM xomv intelligi nequit^ subaudito KpXMVi&Tai, uti 
Scbol. interpretatur. Sunt tanien^ qui conjungunt ^ravre^ cum 
yvai, quod fieri potest; nam yvYi$ siguificat iticvlam, masculino 
genere, at yvoH solum foeminino. Mihi vero displicet to5vojx« tI 
roDSe, articulo inutiliter repetito. Scripsit^ opinor^ Poeta, u\ hi 
wXijcr/oi yiui Tov J^wrfnjv KoXcovov sSp^ovrai ^ycriy *Ap^ylv^ o3 xXe*- 

S96 Jn Sophoclis (Edip. Colon. Emend4* 

m ^i^wffi TovvoiiM : deleto versu ultimo, sea podus ad eundem 
locum, ac de quo veoit, detruso. Etenim mox l^tur : 
64, 5. 0/J. if yap Tiveg vaiotxri Tou^li robs riwwg ; 
SE. xci xipToi TOu^ TOO 6eotj y IvcDyuftoi* 
Venim CEdipus dicere dou potuit rouirh rou^ roarov^. Etenim 
lie 6 sunt Seixrixco^ usque usurpata^ At csbcus, quo digitum in- 
teodere debuerit^ nesciebat. Mox xapra ye hie nequeunt dici, 
semper fere tlpoovixaag usurpata. Postremo tautologum sonaot 
TouSe Tou teov Wiiwfuoi post o5 ^ioov^i ovvofucL, Quid plural 
L^e — 

0/J. { yap Tive; votlou^i tou^ lyyu^ rmu^; 
H£. rp irouSt rou x^aro^ 9eoD y' hroir^fJLOi. 
Ubi intelliguntur Athenienses Ixcovtifioi '^di^va^, quae fuit Toei^ rou 
xfoTos 0SOU. Historia de Minervae ortu est notissima ex Calli- 
macheo fuuTrip S* ourig Irixre deav, *AXKa Aiog xopv^u. Mei xporo; 
servant particulas et xapra et iFuvres, necnqn ToiSi latet in 

70, ly 2. Locus difficillimus ita se habet in Mss. pleiisque: 
0/J. ap* iv Tig aurm xojxto^ e^ U|xa)y jXoAoi ^ 
B£. co; 9rpo^ tI xI^oov ^ xaragru(ra}v fioAoi ; 
0/J. eo^ av Tpo(rap)cm [iixpoi xeplavri pLsya,. 
At locus expeditu facillimus ita se debet habere : 
0/J. ip* av Ttg axnm vof^Trog Ix ^evoov pLoXai ; 
BE. ig Tc^lg t/ Aif cov ; 

0/J, *' ftij xaTapy!(roDV ii*6\vji^ 

og ay, 7FpO(ragxoiv (rpuxpoi, xspdavjj [liyaj* 
Exstat in Phoen. 760. verbum xarapyelv simile rm xajapytXfiiv, 
Redde ^ ne tardus veniat is, qui, leve quid subsidium ipse prae- 
bens^ maguum aliquid lucrabitur/ 

75, 6. hreiTTeg el Fewaiog wg Mivri itXv^v row daifMvog. Non bene 
dicitur Graece ymalog cog i^oWi. Debuit esse yewalog eiciSelv. 
Mox nequeo intelligere ttX^v tou iai[iovog. Scripsit fortasse poeta 
Fevvalog elcihlv: mox adyiiMvelg latet in TOuSai/xovo^. JNempe 
colloquio protixiore defessus CEdipus ducebat singultus. De 
verbo a^rjfjLovelg alibi depravato vide mea ad Troad. 654. et Mus- 
grav. ad Eurip. Fragm. Incert. 81. Verum locus est mutilus. 

79, 80. o?8g yap xpivouc/ ye *H ^prj <re jx/jxv£«y vj Tropeuscfla* ^oAiv. 
Sic Mss. plerique. Elmsl. ad Med. 480. legebat olh yap xpi- 
voucriv eS : quam conjecturam nunc repudiat, neque vulgatam im- 
probat. Atqui vulgata est improba. Dici nequit ol^e. Non 
enim homines adsunt daxrvxihiXTOi, Istud yag e Ss venit. 
Fuit ol $6 scriptum pro oStoi $1. At yag omisso^ versus deficit. 
Opportune igilur Laur. B. ol is xpivoucnv coi ye. ubi croi ye ve- 

In Sophoclis CE^ip^ Colon. Emendd. 297 

niunt e Par. F. oTSs yag Koivoija-i <roi (sic). Scripsit Sophocles 
o« a yrig x§ivov<r hoi, */f ^grj ere iLliLnw. Junge y^? Tva tifti ter- 

84, 5. Ita distichon tnisere corrumpitur^ "D, itir^iai ieivwireg 
ivri vvv eBpoig npwroov l$* uftcov T5<r8f y^^ ?xaft\|f' lyco. — At 
Graece dici nequit xafimeiv l^a;. Legi debet el rci vtJv e^paig 
IlQwroov Ip' Ujitwv raio-Se yu? llxaft\|f* lyco. Dicitur yt;7a et yow 
Kufi^Teiv : hoc de quovis homines illud de homine^ quern curva 
senecta premit. 

91. Elmsleius omittit lectionem variam veranique m Flor. £• 
rov TotXonwwpov j3/ov. De syntaxi vid. Valck. ad Phoen. 1518. 

9^. Kip^ ftgy olxYjo-oiVToi Mss. plerique ; at Par. F. olxija-owa. 
Neque xiphg olxlt^etv Deque xiphg olxeiv est locutio proba. Sen- 
tential tenor postulat IxriVovra. Similiter rgo^sia Ixr/veiv vel 
iuKorivew saepe usurpatur. Vid. Valck. ad Phoen. 44. 

93. "Avtjiv l\ Tol$ 7re[i4foi(riy, o7 ft' a^\a(ray. At tautologutp so- 
nant o7 ft* an^Xac^y post roT; n^lft^^ao'iv, i. e. ^Troirlft^^oo'iy. At 
scripsit Sophocles rois yrifji^fouriv a ft* uTrfiXaa'sv, i. e. a Ifts a^^Xa- 
cev. Respicitur ad rem, quam commemorat Schol. ad CEd; C. 
1370. ol vep) *ET60xAla xai IloXvvelxriV 8i* l9ou^ ^XP^^^ ^^ warp) 
OlSiVoSi wefiweiv 1^ kxitrrov Upsiov pt^olpav rov eSftov, fxXatoftsvof ^ore, 
eTrs xaro^ ^cyniiyi/^v elre h^ &rovorjVf la^iov uvtm mft^/av o $s ftix^o-^ 
^v^eog xa) rekieog uyewcos (f. ayi\a)g risui non deditm) opi^oog (f. 
CDftou^) youv a^^^ Ifflpro xut aurtov, di^oig xoiTo\iyeogsi(r6o^i : propter 
quas diras patrem filii expulerunt, uti patet e Phoen. 67* 

106, 7. "It cJ yKuxeion TralSeg ap^aloui JS'xo'roo* 
"It, w ftgyiVrij^ HaXXiSo^ x^eXouftevai. 
Ita distichon vulgatur Sophocle iudignuro. Nusquam alibi 
FuriaB appellantur nomine ykuxeiott, neque Pallas fteyfo-n] per se 
dicitur. In yXuxeiai Traihg video latere vocem ykavxa>nihg» 
Sed nihil ultra. Meliores Codices sunt expectandi. 

111. — vopevovrai yap ol^Se $^ T%ng Xgovcp TraX^io/. At nusquam 
alibi Tivs; indefinite dictum cum olBe S^ jungitur. Lege oTS* Ihh 
Tiveg XP^^^ ftaXaloi, Sic 'iSelv veoivlag in Aristoph. Lys. 1211. 
Plura de phrasi ilia dixi in CV. JL No. xix. p. 37 • 

G. B. 



On the mistranslated Passages of Scripture: Joel ii. 23. 

— Job xix. 26. — Deut. xxiii. 1. 

Objectors have stated that there is no positive declaration 
in tlie Old Testament concerning the resurrection, or a future 
state. But when it is recollected that the most learned among 
this class were not critically acquainted with the Hebrew lan- 
guage^ but have presumed to confirm their opinions from 
modem translations, and those too, so tortured by sophistry as 
to make truth bear some resemblance to falsehood, we need 
not be alarmed at their ingenious arguments: particularly as 
men of this description, who call themselves philosophers, be- 
cause they deny the Scriptures, are for the most part ihosCji 
whose pretensions to morality would have disgraced the pagans 
of India, or t^e vain philosophers of Greece. Deism, which 
embraces a denial of the moral precepts of tbe Bible, roust 
necessarily make men bad subjects, because they have nothing 
to stimulate them to act faithfully but what is in agreement 
with their sensual appetites and interests ; men in whom there 
can be placed no confidence, because they have no conscience ; 
bad husbands, unnatural parents, and false friends ; for as they 
believe that at death all things with them are no more, they are 
always in the habit of acting from the impulse of the moment, 
which is always in conformity with the gratification of their un- 
lawful pleasures. In order to meet and silence the objections 
of these sceptics, I shall endeavour to prove that the doctrine of 
a future state of things is clearly held forth in the books of the 
Old Testament. 

Among the great number of passages on this subject, from the 
beginning to the end of the Bible, I shall select one, which, as it 
stands in the translation, is conclusive, but when truly rendered, 
is far more expressive and beautiful: — it is in Job xix. 26, 
which is thus rendered in the Bible translation, and though^ 
after my skin, worms destroy this body^ yet in my flesh shall I see 
God, Here is a positive declaration, that from the most remote 
time the doctrine of a future state was acknowledged. But this 
passage, as well as many others, has been passed over in silence by 
the Sadducean writers of former ages, and also by \hose of more 
modern times. ' The subject of the resurrection is as clearly 
asserted in the Hebrew, as it is lu the English translation, or as' 

On some mistramlationi of Scripture. 299 

It can be in any thing I can say on the subject; but the manner, 
or order of that resurrection, or in other words, the nature of 
that body which is to rise again, is certainly more clearly and more 
energetically described, more consistently .with the principles 
of true philosophy, and right reason in the original, than in any 
translation I have hitherto seen, all which appear to be very in- 

These words, as they at present stand in the translation, give 
us to understand that the very same skin and flesh, which was 
then parched on his bones, the very material skin composed of 
the elements of this world, should cover his body in the eternal 
world, which is plainly contradicted by the Apostle, who, de- 
scribing the resurrection, says: How are the dead raised up? and 
with what body do they come? — thou sowest not that body that 
shall be, — there is a natural body, and there is a ^ritual body, 
Howbeit, that, was not first which is spiritual", but that which i$ 
natural, and afterwards that which is spiritual, The^postle's 
meaning is too plain to be mistaken: there is a natural bpdy, 
vjz. a fleshly, or material body, subject to change, and suited to 
all the purposes of this life: and there is a spiritual body, 
or a substantial body, not subject to change, not subject to, or 
composed of, the perishable- elements of this world. But it is 
not my intention to enter into a metaphysical disquisition con- 
cerning the rising of the dead, or rather the continuation of life, 
and with what body they shall come ; but to give d true transl^r 
tion of this important passage, instead of a comment, or^ which 
is the same, without crowding in words which are npt to be 
found in the original, as is the case in the Engljsfa translation^ 
and in all I have met with. 

Job was here speaking in confidence concerning the coming 
of the Redeemer, and the certainty of the resurrection ; he de- 
scribes his coming at a remote period, viz. pinW Feaharoun, 
or latter day, U^[f\ 19^ by, he shall stand upon the earth : but 
being sensible that before that period he should not be an inha^ 
bitant of this world, he says, and though, after my skin, worms 
destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God. Thua it is 
rendered in the English, and in all the European Bibles : but 
the words though, worms, and body, which render the passage 
^ inconsistent with the meaning of the writer, are not in the origi- 
' nal. There are three words in this verse in the translation 
which confound the true sense, viz. though, worm, body: the 
conjunction though does not refer to that which our translators 
have made it, viz. the worm: for it is not in the origina], and it 
ought not to be in the translation. And if it were in the orifgU 

300 On some mistranslations 

Dal as a cotfijunction, we could not adopt the soMuncdVe form 
of tbe verby because we have no such mood iii Hebrew. Bui 
admitting even this was the case, it would then be altogether 
inapplicable, unless HDI, Rimmah, or mh)n, Thoulagnathi 
the worm, had occurred in the verse. Job was informing his 
friends of tlie dissolution of his mortal frame, and M^p^, Ntifce^ 
pou, which means, to enclose, surround, or shut in, is a familiar ^ 
expression ; it refers to those who should perforin his funeral . 
lite, by enclosing, or shutting in his material body ; therefore be 
says, and after they have enclosed this my skin. From the end 
of the 19th verse to the end of the 25 th is read parenthetically t 
he there says, all my inward friends abhorred me; but which 
should be rendered, all my men, my privy counsellors loathed ine: 
and It is to all these his relatives and friends that be refers, where 
he says, after they have enclosed my skin. It should be remem- 
bered that Job was the king of Idumea. 

But the most serious error is in the last clause, tXttll^ HIOS^ 
TVDtk, yet in my flesh shall £ see God, which rendering contra- 
dicts Scripture, as it is said Jlesh and blood cannot itiherit this 
kingdom of God. This error has been inade by rendering tlH$ 
D mem, prefixed to 'HlKi beshaari, by in, which has no such 
meaning ; it is here a preposition distributive, truly rendered by 
from, out of, noting a state of separation, see 1 Kings xvii. 19. 
^TJ^DD Minnegnuraiffrom my youth; Ezek. vii. 26. MpTD^ 
from the ancients. Tnis last clause is a declaration of his belief 
in the resurrection^ ^*lt2fIlD1 Vumibbshari, will then read X,t%Ay, 
yet out of my flesh, and the whole verse will read, and nU'tet 
they have enclosed this my skin, yet out of my Jlesh shall I sei 
God. This is also consistent with every other part of Scriptiut^ 
where a future state is spoken of, absent from the body, ptesent 
with the Lord. 

It is also recorded at a very early period in the book of Ge^ 
nesis, that Enoch walked with God, and he was not, for God 
took him : and in Isaiah it is said. Thy dead men shall live, to^ 
gethet with my dead body shall they arise. Awake and sing, 
ye that dwell in the dust : for thy dew is as the dew of herb^, 
and the earth shall cast out the dead. Ch. xxvi. 19. From all 
which it is evident that the doctrine of a future state is clearly 
held forth in the books of the Old Testament : but were we t6 
etiter into a description of the sacrifices under tbe Mosaic dis^ 
pensation, and their application consistently with the whole tenor 
of Scriptilre, it would afford, in addition to the above, conclusive . 
proof that the doctrine of a future state is to be found in tfa^ 
Old Testament. 

of ScHpture. SOt 

In thexxxviii. 4, 7* of tbis book we read as follows: Where wast 
thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? wli4n the morn" 
kig stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy ? 
Many translators and commentators have put forth ingenious 
theories concerning the meaning and application of this passage. 
Schultzii Schol. in Vetus Testamentum, gives the following inter- 
pretation : lp2 ^^D 1IT pH, cum pariter stellae matutinae ca- 
nerent. 1p2 '*22D, stellae! quae aurora exoriente demum dis-* 
parent. DVP^^ '^^, filii Dei; ex parallelismi legibus iterum in- 
telligenda sunt sidera^ nam omnes creaturae filii Dei vocari pos- 
sunt. How things inanimate are to be called DTI/K ^U sons of 
God, appears to be altogether inexplicable. 

Most people have concluded by the passage. Darkness was 
upon the face of the deep, that there was an infinitely extended 
chaos, that this world was the first great work of the Creator i 
and if so, it must necessarily follow that, excepting the short 
term of six thousand years, God had dwelt from eternity in soli- 
tude, and that Adam was the first of crekted beings. This caii-^ 
npt be admitted, because it is said^ when the foundations of the 
earth were laid, that the sons of God shouted for joy. 

If we carry our inquiries beyond the boundary of the solaf 
system, to the region of the fixed stars, the utmost stretch of 
human thought is lost in infinite space: — no idea can be formed 
of the vast, the incomprehensible distances of the fixed stars. 
For when the earth is at its aphelion, or its greatest distance 
from, and at its perihelion, or nearest approach to, the north-* 
pole star, which is the whole diameter of the orbit of the earth, 
or two hundred millions of miles, no sensible diflPerence can be 
observed either as to the altitude or magnitude of the star. Like 
the sun of our world, the fixed stars shine by their own light, 
and therefore, like our sun, may have their systems, and planet-' 
ary worlds revolving round them. Hence it does appear, that 
the fixed stars, receiving no light from our sun, may be justly 
said to have been a distinct creation. 

In answer to those writers who are of opinion that this pas- 
sage was understood by the sacred writer to refer to inanimate 
things as being the UT^l^ ^U sons of God, I find that the 
words DTI^^^ ^i)^, benee Elohyim, are always applied to intelll-' 
gent beings^ aud never to inammate things. From this it appears 
sufficiently evident, that the race of beings mentioned in tbi» 
verse under consideration were created prior to our world, and 
that these beings were present when the foundations of the earth 
were laid by the creative efflux of Infinite Wisdom. 

The sense of the original is given in the authorised tratitUAUn\\ 

302 On some mistranslations 

but there are words added which have no authority from the 
Hebrew text. V*)K*'^T0^2 iTTI nS)VT, JVhere wast thou at tie 
foundatiom of the earthi—U^Tbtk ^H ^D 1X^*^1, when theg 
shouted, all the sons of God, or^ agreably to our idioni^ when 
all the sons of God shouted. 

Jer. iv. 10. Then said 1, Ah, Lord God, surely thou host 
greatly deceived this people, and Jerusalem, saying, ye shall 
have peace. Thus these writers say, God is accused by the 
prophet of having deceived him^ and ail Jerusalem, by the pro- 
mise of peace ; but the very reverse is stated to be the case, as 
he says. Whereas the sword reacheth to the soul. 

This impious charge has ao authority from the Hebrew 
Scripture. And therefore, before infidel writers had exposed 
their ignorance by such a blasphemous assertion, diey ought to 
have been better acquainted with the Sacred Original. 

The word tWJ^, gnaasah, which is translated done it, is to be 
truly rendered as the same word is rendered in 2 Sam. ii« 6, 
requite; and the clause reads : Shall there be evil in a city, and 
the Lord hath not requited it? 

It does indeed appear, according tb our acceptation of tlie 
word deceived, that there is some degree of plausibility in the 
statement of these writers ; but if, as in the passage above, the 
original text had been attended to, nothing of this nature could 
possibly be understood. 

The words DtWH KUH hashee hisheetha, are rendered thou 
liast greatly deceived; but the verb means to desolate. 

This word has various modes of expression, all partaking of 
the nature of the root, as words have in all languages, and con- 
sequently have various applications according to idiom. It 
means desolation. Lam. iii. 47. Fear, and a snare is come 
upon us, DlWil, hasheeth, desolation and destruction. Isaiah 
zxxvii. £6, That thou shouldest be to lay waste, rWMh 
lehashoth (destruction), i. e. for destruction : and so referring 
to an invading army rushing to destroy: ch. xxiv. \%, hi the 
city is left desolation; and the gate is smitten xvith destruction. 
Job xxxix. 17> Because God TWT^ hishah, hath deprived her of 
unsdom. £ Kings xix. 10, Let not thy God in whom thou 
trustest deceive thee : *|Kt^ yashika, desolate thee. It is evi- 
dent that this passage also means to waste, to desolate, as the 
king of Assyria was then desolating the cities, and if they 
should continue in opposition to his conquering arms, they 
were threatened with entire desolation. <Thus the opposi- 
tion is applied to the Hebrews as the cause of their desola-* 
tiop* Jer. xxix. 8, Let not your prophets and diviners die- 

^Scripiurt. SOS 

cent (deaobte) M«; tfatl is, ie the cmst q/^JfOirf dt^iok^Hmi lilt 
¥erb is in the liiphil conjiigmtioii, but the Inmslttors hsve ^MH 
dered it as if it hsd been in the conjugation Kiii ; 90 th«t tht 
csusatiTe power of the Terb is dot noticed in the authorined ver* 
sion. It is little short of blasphemy to Uy, as the ciauie it 
translated^ Thorn luKtgreati^ deceived this peopk and JtrHMkm^ 
Fsa^ Ixxxix. 28. The e/iemv shall not exact on him, that ii| 
shall not desolate him by makifig coktribulions. 
, So that whether we take the words ilMVTT MIWI AffiAtft 
hisheetha, to desolation thou hast desolated, under HMV shtiah, 
L e. to waste, desolate ; or 7Wi n^shah, i. e. to eiact, deprive ; 
or under Kl£fJ nasha, to exact, seize, it is of no consequenct| as 
under all these words th6 meaning and application are tho inmei 
and consistent with the narrative. Tliis proves that these wordtt 
are of the same origin^ and that TWi nashah, and NV3 natha^ 
to exact, or seize, are under their parent root IIMV shaah, to 
waste, .to desolate: although the Lexicon writers, copvinf 
after one another^ have erroneously divided the word into throe 
roots. All these calamities, signified by these words^ are the 
common result of an invading army, which desolates, seizes, 
exacts, deprives* 

Hence, as it is not possible that God can cithar decaiva or 
tempt man, it will appear that objectors, who enddavour to ca- 
lumniate the Scripturesi and by »o doing to destroy all social 
order, have been altogether mistaken concerning the rarhition 
of words accorduig to idiom. The true translation is conArmad 
by the obvious meaning of Ihe word in other imt§ of Scriptura 
ui the authorised version* 

The word HtM^ laamor, is in the aolborised ^ttmn r$mi^f' 
ed saying: but the prefix b lamed, which means Jhr, has baail 
omitted by the translators; which will then f^nA Jhr inyitms 
and the clause will te^,f0r saying, Peace shall be ammg yMi» 
This is certainly a irtry important i]<ieation^ tm Q^, ti^mUt^ 
catly with his trvtli, coukl not promise peac<; Up J^ffu^i^km, ami 
then violate his soieom wofd^ any mme Ibao Im^ ^/>mI4 d^fe^ipg 
tie people. Aad if, m aborve obsenfeA, dri^ikal wriU(r§ huA 
attended to the origiual Hebftir^ ihtfre wotM bav« imm m^ Mk 
cessity foe diem to have munle ihi^ mpMj* 

The onpmd lUbmr hfmms m Hiti Hm ^U^s^Asti^ytf W# 
wfpcktm taf.wm br<Mig|bt ab>Mit hf due p^g^pk, wA Uf my fiMm0 
ia fbe mttGftOatm ^ f^ y^mtmn 44 ii^ii* At tM# p^i^ttt^ 

ed to mtsem slMas fftoa as tim ms^ ms t Hkt^ hi4 f^nttfi^ itm 
VOUXXDL UJL %ii.\S\Vi. '^^ 

304 On ^ome mUtramlations 

protection which God in his providence had given tbem, wbcs 
they observed the commands, statutes, and judgments, as re- 
corded in the sacred volume. And, therefore, the people who 
had embraced idolatry said, that they should have peace, not« 
withstanding all that the prophet had declared ; and the true 
translation of one word, which has been omitted in the transla* 
tion, will remove the objection. The verse truly reads, Then I 
said, Ahf Lord God, surely to desolation thou hast desolated 
this people, even to Jerusalem,Jbr saying, Peace shall be among 

Such are the objections which the enemies of divine revelatioB 
advance against the Scripture, to invalidate its truths. But the 
reader will have reason to conclude in the course of our investi- 
gation, that the genuineness and authenticity of Scripture cannot 
be questioned — the Scripture requires to be honestly represent- 
ed in order to carry that conviction. to the impartial reader, 
which will effectually silence the calumnies of the infidel. 

1 shall now heg the attention of the reader while I examine 
another passage in the authorised version, of a very different de- 
scription, which, whenever it is read, must necessarily cause a 
blush on the cheek of modesty. I am sorry to say that in Jeromes 
translation, passages are found, where no such meaning can 
possibly be understood in the inspired writings. This feel- 
ing is universal; and it is the best proof that such passages 
in the authorised version as are not sanctioned by the true 
translation of the Hebrew, which cause a painful feeling in 
the mind of the bearer, particularly in divine worship; it is 
the best proof that such passages cannot constitute a part of the 
Word of God| and that these errors have been made by the 
translator Jerom. 

But some have asked, '' How is it that translation has been 
given after translation in all Christian nations, and yet that the 
present translation abounds with errors i what I have none of the 
Rabbies, or the Christian commentators, found out these contra- 
dictions f'* Such persons may now see that some of our com- 
mentators have found out incongruities in the authorised version 
before my time, and this, I hope, will be a sufficient answer to 
those, who may in future ask such a question., 
. The passage is in Deut. xxiii. 2. He that is %oounded in the 
stones, or hath his privy member cut off, shall not enter into the 
congregation of' the Lord. 

.. How Jerom, the author of the Latin Vulgate, could make 
such a sense, so opposed to the literal meaning of the He* 

krev, is ooly to be accooHlcd for on lot Ml tnmUlk^ Drom 
the Hebrew teil. I shall confirm tbe tme IniidatHm bY olbtr 
pvagesy where the words we tnil; tnmhitecl in the mitnom^ 
TersioDy which will ( [ should suppose) be acceptable to ^rour read* 
iM. This is one of those numerous passages which require inv- 
mediate correction. There is no necessity to enlar|te on the an- 
.diorised version of this verse; I shall proceed to show that in the 
tir^iual Hebrew nothing of this nature is signifiedi and coni«« 
quentiv that the sacred writer had no such undetrMandinft ; it 
-bas^ through the errors of the translators^ been foUted into all 
the European translations. 

I find that in no other part of Scripture are the words HSl^ 
HXStt^, dakah — shaphkah, translated to convey an obscene ienae{ 
of which the reader will be convinced by referring to other parta 
of Scripture^ where^ they are truly rendered in the authorised 
version : this will prove^ so as to admit of no contradictioUi that 
they have been misufuterstood and mUapplied, 1 have often 
•said that this is that kind of proof which we muit nacei- 
szyily have recourse to^ if we wish to have the true meiiiinj 
of the sacred writer ; it silences all the speculative on^ 
nions of commentators^ however sanctioned by hoary-heaned 
error, by grammars and lexicons, or by any authoritie«| however 
learned and respectable : it is appealing to that authority which 
cannot be controverted. 

- The word n3^ dakah means, to be qfflieUd* See ProVt 
iavi. 28. afflicted^Pnvi. xxxviii. 8* broken — li. \T. a brokitt tpl' 
r&— xliv. 19. oppre$sed^\%xiv» £h O lei not the oppremd r$' 
imm aghamed. 

nSSKf shaphkah, like the above word TtSn dakah^ (f only m 
tiaoslated in this verse in all the Scripture. 'Y)m word fn#e»w 
-mi act of Meparatim, fee Ezek. xxvl, H,^%%h M.— *vtt/^ 17/— 
Jer. vL 6. — Dan, xi. I5>— « Sam. »x, 1^.; and when ic w em* 
neded with ITTO kerouih, wbicb meam t9 eui^ and applied (U» 
man, as in this passage, ft means U^ cut offf U^^ mutilate $ 
literaDy a man «bo had lost a limb. 

Yet, it appears very iocoosisteot wtcb tbe geM^al IffMT 
of Scripiare, with divme order, aa well ae wm fimm»f tbel 
becasse a persos kad lost a m«fldkr of bis body l»e ^iIkmM mi 
be pmantlfpd to taiUr as io db €m%f^^ifdkm W «'<^<^M ^^ ^ 
for this is dbe plaaa WMamm% m ttue wO^^ntM if^m^s ifi^ dmll 
met emUr itAi^ the compt^§tim ^ iU Lord. Wim idk U;m 
umdmaem of ow wosid^ a^odrdief to *4ifmi, iim ^A^mm^ m %\mm$ 

906 On some mistranshtions of Scripture. 

maimed, and the bUnd, always entered into the congregation of 
the Lord^ see John iz., we shall find that this passage wiU 
be perfectly correct, to which no ol^jection can possibly be flnade 
in future. 

The reader will remember that no one baving any defect at 
hb person was to officiate in the office of the priestbood, and 
therefore the word HS* yaabo, which is rendered enter, vis. 
shall not enter into the congregation, has here a different mode 
of expression, viz. to qfiiciate, as in other parts of Scriptoia ia 
die authorised version ; for those who officiated^ necessarily eth 
tered into the congregation of the Lord. 

The verse truly reads : The wounded, afflicted, cutf or irati/f- 
lated, shall not officiate in the congregation of Jehovah* 


N. B. I should be much gratified if any of your learned cor- 
respondents would favor me with th^ true translation of such paa- 
sages as the following, which do not appear to be conformablB to 
the Hebrew text. Acts ii. 23. — 1 Pet. ii» 9* — £aek« xiv. 9*-^ 
ix. 2.— XX, 2.5, 26.— xxiii, $, 9, 11, 1«, 13, 15, 16, 17, «0v^ 
Jud. ix. 13. — 2 Sam. xiL 11. — Isa. vi. 10. — iii» 17.^-^ Kings 
XX. 9. — Psa. Ixxviii. 13.-— li^viii. 13, H.-^Cant* vii. I, 2, 3.r^ 
viii. 3.— £zek. i. and x. The descriptions of tiie cherubifli 
differ widely from each other, the fac^ of an ox in the first chap- 
ter being omitted in the tenth chapter, and the face of a cherob 
instead thereof: and yet the prophet says in. the last veiae at die 
tenth chapter. And the likeness ef their faces was the mam 
faces wUch I saw by the river Chebar, described in iba. fint 
chapter, viz. The word of tfie Lord came expressly vnto Eukid 
the priest, the son of Busi, in thfi land of the Chaldeam, by the 
river Chebar, 



Persian^ and Arabic^ on a plan tiNTiHsiiY new» 
. and perfectly easy; ta wkkh is added a Mt of Ptrsim 
JHaU^itB, comfosedfor the author hy Mmza Mv- 
HAMED Salih, of SkirM, accompanied with an En* 
giish Translation: by William Frice, Esq., Assist^ 
ant Secretary to the Rt. Hon. Sir Gore Ouseley, 
Barf.f Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary to the Court of Persia. London. 
1838,. xiiL ofui 23^ pages in 4t(K 

HB author of Ais Gramoiaf wm cboien on aecoutif et hk 
prenous knowkge of Ihe Persian language, to be attached Co 
Sir Gore Otieeley't. Embaiey to Perm in 18K), whicii etnhvinf 
wee accompanied bj MU^zm Abou Hhaman, afterwards named 
Abou Uhasseu Khan, Persian Ambassader to tile court of Ert- 
^andv and through which embassy he availed hinMcIf of tlVe 
opportunity to learn of Abou 'Ihauen Khm the cwrect Pei^ah 
pBMniBdationy and to acciirtistti bioMelf to the ose of the hn- 
gntge as spoiom in Perm, During^ the residence of the Affl- 
hassador at Shiraz, Mr, Psiee lonned an acquaintance with s 
Pennao of that town ealied Mhza Silik, who had the reputa- 
tioD of being a matt oC letters^ and %irbo attached himself to die 
British legation. Mr. Price persuaded Mirza 86Uh to eompose^ 
in bis language, that is to say, in the dialect of Shiraz^ which 
is oosBsidered as- the purest in Persia, a collection of dialognes* 
These dialognes, written in the style of convenation^ and thm^^ 
skted literally into English by Mr. Price, are 10 m number, 
mmI occupy 84 pages of this vohinie; they are presented also to 
the aeader in the Pernan cbamcter, accompanied with an En- 
l^ish translation^ and also in Roman characters with a French 
tmnaiation. Mr. Price has rendered an essential service to 
peseoBS studying the Persian laiq;uage by the publication of 
these dialogues. But we feel compelled to limit ourselres to 
this sbgle eulogy. We will only add, that the author of these 
disiogoes, Mirta S&Uh, afterwards came to London to learn 
English, and after retummg to Persia in 18 19^ he lately per* 

308 . Notice of Price's 

formed a second Toyage to England, charged with a special niis« 
sion from his sovereign to His Majesty George the IV th : re- 
turning after this mission, he went to Paris, and departed from 
thence in the course of 18^3 for St. Petersburgfau^^We ^ovT 
pass on to the Grammar of Mr. Price. 

We know not upon what foundation Mr. Price could esta* 
blish that the Hindoostanee, the Persian^ and the Arabic, are the 
three principal languages of the East, to the exclusion of the San* 
acrit, of the Chinese, of the idioms of Tartary and of Tibet, 8u:,; 
but this question is scarcely worth a discussion : what la more 
important is tlie announcement which he has made, of having 
composed his Grammar, or more properly, the three Grammars 
which he has united in this volume, according to a plan alioge^ 
ther new, and which is recommendabk by the extreme /aciaty 
which it presents to students. If, to possess the merit of intro- 
ducing into the study of a language a new and an easier method 
than was before known, it be sufficient to limit oneself to simple 
rudiments^ extremely incomplete, to neglect in a considerable 
degree the rules of Syntax, and to place at the end what preced- 
ing grammarians for very good reasons had been used to jJaca. 
at the beginning, we will readily admit that Mr. Price baa fuU' 
filled all these services, particularly in his Arabic Grammar* 
But we fear not to acquaint him, that what renders the study of a 
language difficult, is not a voluminous grammar, or a multiplicity 
of developements, when well classed after a methodical analysis, 
or a synthetical ■ arrangement, but it is rather a too great con- 
cision, an insufficiency of developements, and above all, the 
want of method. Of the three languages of which Mr. Price has 
undertaken to give the grammar, none presents more difficulties, 
none consequently requires more method in the exposition of its 
multiplied forms and its Syntax, than the Arabic language ; and 
our author has also devoted to that language a much larger space 
than to the two others. Nevertheless, it appears to us, that we 
are left to desire in this work complete portions of Arabic 
grammar, which are indispensably necessary to the student. 

It is almost impossible to assimilate Arabic grammar with 
that of the Persian language* On the other hand, it is not diffi- 
cult to co-dispose the forms of the Persian with those of the 
HindoQStanee, although this last language has a greater variety 
of inflections ; Mr. Price, whom this observation could not ea- 

" On this double method vide La Grammaire Arabe de M. le Baroo 
de Sacy, voL ii. pages 13 and U. 

Oriental Grammar. 309 

^t9Lpe, has edited harmonicallj the Persian with the Hindoosta* 
nee : but as I do not understand the Hindoostanee I shall con- 
fine nijr observations to thq Persian and Arabic grammars only. 
The first of these languages is remarkable for the very small 
namber of forms which it employs ; and all the etymological 
part, that is to say, that which teaches the knowledge of the 
inflections of nouns^ pronouns, adjectives, and verbs, might have 
been explained in a still shorter space than Mr. Price Ims taken 
to elueidate them. But we find not in what he has said on this 
subject much exactitude. The Persian language has no cases ; 
these are supplied by particles: but our author attributes to 
tbem a decliufttion of six cases ; no doubt because there are six 
cases in the Latin. They have two ways of forming the plural 

of nouns; in adding at the termination ^t or L^: and he altoge- 
ther omits the second form. In receiving these inflections, the 

singular sometimes suffers alterations, as ^jJ^f plural (^j^ X 

^{sL, plural \^\^ X Mr. Price does not even notice this. 

The Persian language has no pronominal adjective, vulgarly 
called pronoun possessive ; where these are used in other lan- 
guages the Persian language substitutes pronouns personal, or 
trefixes which represent them^ and instead of saying my book^ 
is book, it uses the term the book of me, the book of him. Mr. 
Price leaves this to be discovered by the student, and translates 

these pronouns personal, £23«« or jix ^ or Ox ^t orij&x 

by my, thy, his. See. He does not inform us that in certain 

cases we ought to write, in isolating the prefix, ^t x w1 x J^» 

He omits to notice how mine and thine, &c. are to be expressed 

— bymeansof^t^t joined to the personal pronoun ^ ^b^f 

mine ; ^ e^b^' ^^^°^* ^^ ^^J^ °^^ ^ word of the compounds 
so frequent in Persian, or of the manner of indicating the de- 
pendence that one noun hath with respect to another noun, or 
with a pronoun ; as, in the House of the brother of the King, 

»Ijm j^)/i ^islisL X and it is remarkable, that in this respect he 

has committed a great fault in the title of his work, in writing 

^y^ for ^ ' a fault, however, which Sir William Jones had 

committed before him. 

The same negligence is remarkable in that which concerns 
the conjugation of the verb. All the Persian verbs relate to two 
forms, which are distinguished by the termination of the infinitive 

in ^ or in ^l our author neglects this distinction; he gives 

3 JO Notice of Price's 

for a paradigm of the active voice the verb ^At^ ^ ^^ ^o' 

that of the passive voice he chooses the verb (djAJu& x kut^ to 
speak correctly, as there is no passive voice in Persian, it would 
haye been better if he had given the conjugation of the verbs 
ity^ X i^^yi X and of the verb C^S^ which, joined to the 
participle of the past active, serve to express the passive voices 
The conjugation of the Persian verb is composed of a very 
small number of forms and inflections, which thej modify by 
the help of two particles prefixed, add auxiliary verbs^ frooi 
whence the result is, that it can be reduced to a very bniiled 
table. Our author has preferred to present it more developed,- 
possibly to co^dispose it with the Hindoostaoee verb ; but, not- 
wiibstapding, he has omitted one of its primitive aqd simple 

tenses, the preterite ^jj^ x which, according to our author,. 

appears but imperfect, and consequently united, to the particle 

^» Jn fact, the great number of irregular Persian, verbs which 

teke their imperative and indicative from a verb disused or obso* 
lete, forms almost the only difficulty that occurs in the etymolo^' 
gical pert of grammar. We might seek in vain the slightest 
notice of this in Mr. Price's work, who, satisfied with this mu- 
tilated skeleton of a grammar, says not a word of Persian Syn- 
t^, n^r of that of the Hindoostanee. — We now pAss to thie 
Arabic grammar. Here the author commences by the verb, 
according to the usual custom, and he chooses for a model the 

verb ^-j, to which he gives the signification of to bless, a signi- 
fication which it never has in Arabic but in th^ derived forms ; 
whilst under the primitive form, i^^y its ordinary signifii.cation is 
to kneel, iu speaking of the camel. 

By an inconsistence, he translates the participle active ^[jUp 
feminine Afii^L^ by blessed* But what is still more ex- 
traordinary, because it is not less, opposed to alt tbeoigL 

of language, as wejl as to Arabic grammar in parti- 
cular, is, that our author gives entirely the conjugation of the. 

verb, ^\^9 to be, to which he attributes for the infinitive, bt^^ 

a word of his own invention, instead of b^.^ x and divides this 

erb into active and passive voice. He has given to this last 
Voice, of which assuredly no one ever heard before him, 

Orfe.ti4«/ Grammar. 511 

the same meting as in Ih^ active vqice, Hvitbom' having been 
enabled by this circumstance to p^rcfive hia errof* After aimi^ 
lar mijsiakeis, there are no other particular errova that ean sur- 

prke ua; we are not astonished to find Persiiin word^, as i)tfi^^U^* 
annulment, (page 85); or Arabic words with a form apbropri^t^^ 

to the Persian language, PS ^^£bU«, (whic^ Mt. Pric^tjcaoslati^ 
by Sanctity^ p^ge 48)^ classed among Arabic words ; ta bc|6 tbe» 
nouns divided^ we knpw not why, into si::!: declinatioiifi ; tp 6q4 
nodiing said on the irresular pJurals, called by graippi^aiiai^ 
rompus, the knowlege of which is indi8pen9^ble» FiqaUjf, tO^ 
find everywhere numerous errors pf Syntax; errors wbicb, ipi|» 
work composed with more knowlege o( the subject, om woji44: 
be disposed to attribute to errors* of the pre^s;^ after wfaicb k ifi- 
aUnost useless to say, that the Syntax, which occupies 14 pagqs^ 
is nothing but a number of rules taken up at a hazard, wbich <{^iv 
be of no use whatever, for want of method; and (hat those, tl^ apr. 
pKjcationof whicb is most frequent, are there wholly omitted,, iftbiiat 
others, which might have been omitted without detriment, ar0. 
inserted. One observation alone will justify this opinion, bowevj^l?- 
severe it may appear: in this Syntax we find not a single word on 
the employment of thie various modulations of the A<uist^ mopdff-: 
which £rpenius and most of the grammarians who succeeded ii||9i, 
have denominated antithetical future, apocopal, and paragogical. 
Moreover, in thi& lespect, Mr^ Price has been in unispq with 
himself, since in his pajuidigms of the conjugation of verbs he 
has entirely suppressed all these inflections. 

A remarkable singularity of this grapKimar is 'm. tbal wiAoat 
doubt which the author denominates a plan entirely new, and 
in that he has placed last, whiat all former grammarians have 
considered as preliminary notions necessary to the understanding 
of all the rest. Thus he has placed the ri4es of permutation of 

the letters I x ^ X ^ X at the conclusion of the etympjo^cail 
part of the work, whilst they are the key of all* the irregularities 
of the verbs and the nouns ; and it is not till after the Syntax 
that he speaks of the division of letters into classes, according 
to the parts of the vocal organs whicb perform the principal 
part in their pronunciation; of their systematic division into 
radical and servile letters, solar and lunar; of the formation pjE. 
syllables ; of the accent ; and of the punctuation. The author, 
it is true, has said somewhat respecting the servile letters in 
regard to the inseparable particles, page 76, and following pages^ 
but that of itself is a farther proof of the disorder which prevaiii^ 

312 On $ame mistranslations 

diroaghout die work. A very incomplete treatise of Arabic 
P^oso((y termioatea this Grammar. 

We are aony that we can say nothing in praise of the Gram-* 
mars of which we have above given an analysis. We presame- 
that what makes the Arabic grammar^ above all, so defective, is, 
that the author knew the Arabic language merely as an integral 
and necessary part of the Persian, and that he never studi^ it. 
for itself, and systematically. We dare assert that all persons 
so situated cannot analyse, nor consequently translate, two lines 
of Arabic without exposing themselves to fall into the most 
serious errors; and if we have stopped to discover so many 
faults, it has been thoroughly to convince such as are desirous of 
understanding Persian otherwise than for the ordinary purposes 
of life, that it is indispensable that they should first acquire a 
solid and methodical knowlege of the Arabic. Tbe contrary path 
will never produce but half-learned scholars, who will be stopped 
at every page of a Persian book by Arabic phrases or parts of 
phrases: they may perhaps sometimes be able to guess the 
meaning ; but they will uever be able to render a satis&ctory 

Nevertheless we recommend to the amateurs of Persian lite- 
rature Mr. Price's work, on account of the Persian dialogues 
which it contains. 

' Note.— The foregoing is a translation of a French article, by 
the celebrated Orientalist, the Baron Silvestre de Sacy. 

Sceaux, March, 18M. 



Some Passages in the New Testament, inaccurately sym- 

defied in the present version. 

To aXy^iis owSmtotb IX6y5crrai.— PlATO. 

When writer after writer has employed his hours of study on 
the subject of erroneous translations in the common version of 
the New Testament, it will hardly be thought inconsistent with 
|i general feeling of respect to that version to state a few instancea 

of the New Testament. 313. 

of Uiem. Still less will it be so tboughti wben higher interests 
are involved in the elucidation of what is lumecesaarilj obecure^* 
and in the detection of what is absolutely false, in it, and the 
groundwork of misplaced caviland dispute* Are the interests 
of the Christian religion to be thought inferior to ^hose of a- 
translation of its documents? An answer in the affirmative may, 
be consistent with Popish superstition— but the sensible and. 
mahly reasoning of Protestants will deny it frankly, and will 
burn^ if it be necessary, every translation in the world on the. 
shrine of the purity of the Christian records. 

It is not denied that many passages of the New Testament 
afford unnecessary scope for the objections of the sceptical* 
When one passage has been called * arrant nonsense' by the 
learned Dr. Campbell, it becomes ns to think there are mistakes, 
in others. 

. It IS my intention to collect such passages, as administer to 
tlie scoffs of cavillers without any foundation in the original 
Scriptures. And, in doing this, 1 humbly trust that I am for- 
warding the interests of knowledge^ of religion, and of truth. 

1. The passage alluded to above is the following: '' Behold, 
I, having examined him before you, have found no fault in 
this man, touching those things, whereof ye accuse him. No, 
nor yet Herod : for I sent you to him : and^ lo, nothing worthy 
of death is done unto him J' Luke xxiii. 15. Kei iSou, ouSfy 
S^m tavuTov iarl imp!uyiM¥ov aurf* Translate it by him: and 
all will be correct. See Campbell's note. 

2. ^* And shall not God avenge his own elect, who cry day 
and night to him, though he bear long with themt' (Luke xviii. 
17.) Can this be the word of God i say some. The Greek is. 
fuoixpoiviiooif W oArois. Dr. Campbell shows us that it should 
be translated, though he delays them long* And this removes 

3. I deed scarcely point to that use of the word thought m 
St. Matthew, vi. 25. 28. 31. which is now obsolete, and affords 
matter for objection. For take no thought we should translate 
be not anxious* Nor. does' this translation disagree with the 
words in the 34th verse : '' Be not anxious for the morrow : for 
the morrow shall be anxious for the things of itself," Sec. 

4. I refer the reader to Paley, L^rdner, and other writers, for 
a less obiectionable translation of Luke ii. 2. 

5; We must be very careful not to asoribe more contradiction 
to the Evangelists thin really exists^ By our translation Mat- 
diew is in express opposition to the other three, who say that, 

S14 Om seme mstrandations 

when the Morjrs arrived^ ther found Ae stone rolled awaj and 
tfae tomb enptj; crpag, ' Tney have taken away the Lord^ and 
we know not where thej have laid him/ 8cc. But Matthew ib 
■wde to say, when the Marys came, ' Behold^ there was a g;ref|t 
earthqurice/ fce. Bnt it should be,^ There had been a great 
earthqoake. See Dr. Campbdl/' This observation is extnrcted 
Ami a hte work, intitled, The New Trial of the Witnesses: 
in whieh indeed it is the aulhor's intention to subvert the Christ- 
ian faiths but an enemy is sometimes beneficial. I^ somer 
times, the only way to rescue passages of the Scriptures from 
contradiction or objection is to give tliem a new transhtion, 
Aen it is a great point gained, if our adversaries have led the 
way, and by their (concessions have already allowed us to take 
the eonrse we wish. Siirefy in this subject a» in ill others is 
the observation correct. Fas est et ab boste doceri. 

€. ^ A chronologieal objectton arises on a date assigned in 
the begitiffiRg of St. Luke: ' Now in the fifteenth year of ihk 
reign of Tiberius Gaesar, Jesns began to be about 30 years of 

3e/ The solution turns on an alteration in the construction 
the Greek. St. Luke's words in the origim^ are allowed bj; 
the general oinnion of learned men to signi^, not that ' Jesu) 
began to be about SO years of age/ but that he ^ was about SO" 
years of age, when he began his ministry.' This copstruction 
bemg admitted, the adverb 'about' gives us all the btitnde Wft 
want, and more especially when appKed, 4M it is in the preseoC 
instance, to a decimal number." Pali's Evidences,, Vol. H. p. 
178. Ed. 1811. 

7. I have pointed' out in No. 55, p. 1€[2. of the ClassicaF 
Journal, a new translation of a passage in the second chapter of 
St. John's Gospel. The passage, as it standisr in our common- 
version, is' feulty in two respects. One of the fiiulty versions^ 
viz. that of r/ Ijxol xet) (roS; is difierently translated in Mr. Yalp/s 
hte edition of tfa^ Greek Testament, and the words are tlinsno- 
ticed : ^^ Verti possunt h»o verba. Quid hoe ad me et tef Nolf 
solictta esse: banc rem nee ego nee tu curaie dbbemus.'*' 
The present transiatton of this passage is at ail- events highly 
harsh and objectionable. 

8. '' But i say unto you, whosoever lodketh upon a*womam- 
to lust after her^ hath committed adulteiy with her already in 
his heart." Mattb. v. 28; Dr. Lardner has observed that yoiH 
alxa should here be trandated a married woman, and that, if it 
were so, all apparently needless severity would be destroyed* 
It is certain that yvvalna is used' in the sense of mfh in the 91st? 

qf the ^€W TeaamefM. 315 

and S2d verses of this chapter. And ni ywfmnMt W ike Greek 
expression in that sentence to the Colossians: * Wives^ fubmk 
jourselves unto your own husbands*' This meaning it alto 
particularly supported by the words ^Sig i/&o/;^f vo-f y c^n^ iy tf 
imfSlcf, adroS. How could he be a [mix^$, were mt the womaa 
a wife ? 

9« The story of the woman taken in adultery has been made 
a subject of objection. Bishop Pearce is of opinion that this 
story is an interpolation ; and it is certain that many Mss. omit 
it. In a future edition therefore it might be printed in italics^ 
to avoid all catiL 

10. There are some passages^ which contain formularies of 
language, known indeed to the individuals for whom the writings 
of the JNew Testament were immediately intended, but evidently 
ttnfit for our lai^nage. Thus Romans vi. 17. '' But God be 
thanked, that ye were die servants of sin, but ye have obeyed 
that form of doctrine which was delivered you.'' Could St. 
Paul thank God that his Roman converts had been the servants 
of sin ? In such passages the idiom of the Greek should be de- 
serted, and should give way to our own. The passage before 
QS might be translated : * But God be thanked that, having been 
Ae servants of sin, yot^ have obeyed,,' &c. So again in Mattb. 
zi. 25. " I thank tbe^, O fattier, Lord of heaven and earth, be* 
cause thou hast hid thede things from the \^he and prudent, and 
' bast revealed them unto babes.'^ Dr. Campbell has made some 
good observation! od the principle of this note. Perhaps indeed 
he has carried it even to excess : but th^ principle itself is, I 
think, indisputably correct. See his preliminary observations. 

I hope hereaftir to continue tliese observations^ should you 
have patience to bear with them. In the mean while I will just 
notice that Mr. Bellamy is inaccurate, when he writes in his 
Antideist, p. 82, 83. that, instead of ** for the time of figs was 
not yet," it should be translated, '' where it was the season of 
$gs." Surely the position of ou in ou yip i{y nat^g (runan forbids 
us to construe ou for oS, where : ov followed by ydp can mean 
' noAing but the negative particle* 

I cannot refnun, before I conclude, from observing thai ot 
<rrpuTiu6(i,eyoi in Luke iii. 14. deserves to be translated, ' those 
who were on actual military service,' instead of 'the soldiers.' 
Michaelis, and after him Bishop Marsh, have already shown the 
minuteness of this participle, and have derived the legitimate 
conclusion from it of our historian's correct and exact informa- 

'316 Muhamedan Invocation. 

It it for tbe poor, ratfier than fcur the rich, that these new 
translations are proposed : for the poor should not blunder and 
stumble unnecessarily: and what the Author of Chnstianiqr 
said while on earth, should be thought by Christians still neces-^ 
sary : ilret^o} ffU0tyysA/^oyr0ti. 

s. r. 


Verse$ composed by Soliman ben Muhamed, late Emperor qf 
Morocco, which are chanted every morning at the break of 
day by the M6den, at the top of the minarets oft/iemosgiiii, 
throughout the empire, at the conclusion of tlie iklen el ^j^, 
or the morning invocation, calling the Musulmen to prayeri. 
Transcribed with the Oriental punctuation. 


^XLsj LjcX« J^I u^6 

.r^ xou ^' ^h 

Glory be to God alone 

The night departs and scatters the darkness with her, and the 
morningi in succeeding her, briiftgs back the light. 

Homage to (him) that is the King ; let none share with Him 
praise; and thanks be rendered to him^ for all the benefits he 
sends forth upon us. 




Observations on the History and Doctrine of Chris* 
. tianity, andj as historically connected, on the primeval 
religion^ on the Judaic, and on the Heathen, publiCf 
mystical, and philosophical ; the latter proposed as an 
mpendix Jo the political and military £Rstory of 
Greece. By William Mitford, Esq. 8vo. 1823. 

jLhis Tolume is of a mixed character, and, under the ap-* 
pearance of loose observations on religious history, will be 
found to supersede many bulky commentaries. It is indeed a 
pleasbg fact in the annals of literaturci that a layman, havings 
in the course of a prolonged life, given to the world the best 
historical work of modem times,' should adduce his testimony 
to revelation, without omitting such doubts as may arise in a 
serioi^s examination. That laymen should undertake auch a 
task IS less extraordinary than desirable ; '' they are not, like 
ecclesiastics, open to the imputation which allurement of worldly 
interest, or impulse of professional engagements, might stimu- 
late them to labor in it ''(p. 3.): nor is the circumstance un- 
common: De Groot, Jenyns, West, and Lyttleton, devoted 
their talents to divinity ; Weston wrote Sermons, and a dis- 
tinguished poet of the present day has followed his example. . 
Mr. Mitford commences his observations with the doctrinal 
portion of his faith, which we shall consider hereafter. In the 
first historical chapter, intitled '' On the Old Testament,'' be 
sums up the early account of mankind in these words : '' Man^ 
with reason for his guide, was placed in this world for trial.'' - 

Reverting, then, to the first human pair, it is obvious that, of the 
matters, countless in the peo]>led world, adapted to try human virtue, 
and continually occurring, nothing existed for them in the circumstances 
in which they were first placed. Their trial was necessarily to be pecu- 
liar. As far as human imagination can go on the subject, it could only 

■ ** His great pleasure consists in praising tyrants, abusine Plutarch, 
spelling oddly, and writing quaintly ; and what is strange after all, his 
is the best modern -history of Greece in any language, and. he is perhaps 
the best of all modern historians whatsoever. Havmg named his sins, 
it is but fair to state his virtues— -learning, labor, research, wrath, and 
partiality. I call the latter virtues in a writer, because ihey make him 
write in earnest.'' Lord Byron. 

S18 Notice of Mitfbrd^s Ob$ervations on 

be by the imposition of a command which there might be temptation to 
transeress : the act forbidd^if, in ifeeif innocenty aod faulty only as a 
breach of the command of a benefactor, on whom they were wholly 
dependant It appean indieattd that they were ereatecl, not netesisariljr 
eubject to death of the body, but dependant on food for iti Aipfkirt; 
¥friit food was tirholly vegetable ; and to obviate decay of the body, the 
fndt of a partieiitar tree was necessary. But whether they irert to bold 
immortality on earth, or rather, as requisite toward maidng rdom for 
millions, their posterity, the dutiful were to be translated, without death, 
lo another world, is not said. For the purpose of their trial, another 
fruit was before thefn, temptiss otherwise thian by smell or fhtror, b^ing 
called the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. This they were 
forbidden to taste, under pain of becoming immediately subject to death. 
They were tempted ; and, yielding to the temptation, they disobeyed the 

So much, observes the historian, is distinctly stated^ and more 
tinnecessary : with the same view he proceeds to discuss the 
circumstances subsequent to the Fall. 

Here, then, to revert to the important consideration, that mankind has 
been placed in this world for trial, it cannot but be obvious that^ by 
beiils subjected to the death of the body, a wide field is opened to the 
mind of man for the exercise of virtue. • . . But while man was not abso- 
lutely mortal, yet, for the maintenance of life, food was necessary, and 
for prevention of decay the occasional use of the fruit of the tree, called, 
for Its particulair virtue, the Tree of Life : no violence on his original con- 
stitution was required to make the body subject to death : the simple 
denial of the food which had power to prevent decay sufficed ; and that 
denial ensued. * 

The institution of sacrifice Mr. Mitford considers as tending 
to remind liiati of his degradation and final lot in this world, and 
here offers uotme curious observation^ on the death of Abel. CaiOi 
be supposes, ruminating on his degraded state, the result of bis 
father's crime, and presuming that he was entitled to live on the 
produce of the soil (the sacrifice being always a meal, of which 
some faint vestiges remain m onr graces), refused to offer 
animals. He objects to the term murder in recording tdis 
event, that word not corresponding in his opinion to the crime 
of Cain. It was an important lesson to new mankind, he con- 
tinues, that Abel, approved of God, was allowed to perish by 
violence at an early age, while the sinner was not only permitted 
to live, but received into divine protection ; but he was banished 
from all existing society. Lis own family excepted, ^' to vi'ear 
out a length of days, little probably in happiness, but with 
opportunity for the repentance to which the admoniuon he ha^ 
received was so strong.** 

CoDsidering together these circumstances, the failure of Almighty 
Providence to interfere for prevention of death, by human violence, to 

tie approved worshipper^ and tfw aissumpQe of )NFOteclio»^ \xi Ihia life^ ' 
to the guilty homicide, they could' aot fai^ to mark strikiugly to> Adaa»» 
and his cising progeny, how little, in the new state of mankindi the 
deatli of the body was, in the Creator's estimajtioD^ to the dying man an 
eTii ; and afibrd ground for hope^ though throughout the Old Testament 
it is not found fully declared, that the body alone was, for AdMi's 
crime^ made perishable^ and that, from* God's almighty justicb^ amenda 
for the worthy, suffering here^ wene to be assuredly expected hereafter. 

. Previous t^ the deluge human life was extended far beyond 
^hat it baa sinGOrbeen permitted to attain ; tbe trial of hun 
manity waS' dierefore proportionably severe, as the opportunity^ 
for indulgence was enlarged, and the expected judgment delayed. 
In Enoch we find an instance of proportionate reward, and in 
later times a most remarkable test : 

' How much then, or how wholly, probation was the purpose for which 
mankind has been placed in this world, is strongly marked in the 
various trials recorded of one singularly favored,' the destined patriarch 
of the favored nation, Abraham^ Among those trials the command to 
sacrifice his only son is eminent. It could be, to Human understanding, . 
only through faith in God's goodness, and clear confidence that some- 
thing better than any precarious enjoyment in this world was reserved 
for both himself and his son, that Abraham was prepared to obey the ■ 
severe injunction, 3ut tbe time foe the perfect sacrifice was not yet 
come ; and Abraham's faith having been proved enough to be recorded 
for example to his posterity, other trials moreover being in reserve for 
his riper years in this world, his son's life was, for the occasion, saved; 

Instances of trial for the selected nation s^e numerous. 
After the delivery of tbe Decalogue^ Moses was again sum- 
moned t6 the mountain, and detained till the people became 
outrageous. On another occasion, intimidated by reports, they 
refused to march for the promised land, a disobedience which 
appears to have been more heavily visited than any other, not 
only by pestilence, but by protracted wanderings in tbe desert. 
The greatest test seems to nave been removed : 

To stop the extravagant corruption of morals, which mieht lead to 
excessive trial, both for the Jews, who were to possess the forfeited 
country of the Canaanites, and for the surrounding Gentiles, to whom 
the Jews were to afford improving example, extirpation was decreed 
against that whole people, while charity was commanded to all others. 

After briefly noticing the fluctuating «tate of the Hebrews, 
under their early governments, he devotes a long discussion to 
the apostasy of Solomon, of which a passage may be extracted : ; 

It seems evident that the authors [pf the Old Testament] had no satis- . 
factory assurance of a future life. To me then it appears an allowabla 
coEgecture, that anxious meditationon thifr failure^ working on Solomon's 
powerful mind, while temptaxion abounded aroi^id, was of principal 
efficacy to.pvoduce, after, a youth of piety^ and glpry, that disreg^d whifiH 

VOL. XXIX. ClJl. «0.\N\\\. -^ 

320 Notice of MiUbrd's Ob$ervatumt on 

\im sbowedy in advanced years for the admonitions of the prophets, and 
the sacred history of his nation ; and then it would he no extraordinary 
course of human conduct to allow others to seek, if not even himself to 
hope for, protection in temporal enjoyments from those imaginary divi- 
nities which surrounding nations adored, and, neglecting tbe God of 
Israel, yet were florishing. Solomon having so given himself up to 
doubt that, at lefieth, having yielded to temptation, proceeded to 
concur with the promgate nations around him in idolatry, the similar 
errors of princes , of inrerior mental powers, his successors^ and the influ- 
ence of their example on the multitude under them, will less appear 
surprising. It seems to me then becoming Christians, ^ho are favored 
with views not open to them, to mix some generous pity with our just 
reprobation of the errors of the ancient Jews. Warrant for us to vie in 
bitterness of reproach against them with their own propliets, surely is 
wholly wanting. 

The latter part of this extract is above all praise: but it 
seems strange that Solomon should be ignorant of the motives 
of the faith of Abraham^ nor can we concur in the ingenious 
explanation of his apostasy : a more plausible cause is assigned 
in Scripture, where his dereliction is obviously attributed to the 
allurements of the haram, composed of the beauties of sur* 
rounding nations, principally, we may suppose, of Egypt and 
Phoenicia, the attendants on his queen^ and the presents of 

He does not profess to pursue Jewish History throughout^ 
but some passages at the close of this portion of his work amply 
illustrate its spirit. Among various observations on the Law^ 
the question of slavery naturally engages attention, and his 
remarks on this subject are superior to any thing we have met 
with : 

It is unquestionably a Christian duty to improve the condition of man 
as exiensively as possible. The Jewish dispensation did not require this; 
hut, on the contrary, by its limitation of intercourse, was considerably 
adverse to it. Rules for the Jews, therefore, concerning slavery, as con- 
cerning numerous other matters, will not be rules for Christians, and yet 
may deserve the consideration of Christians. The very first article in 
the Jewish code relates to slaves ; and it sanctions the slavery, not only 
of Gentiles to Jews, but of Jews to Jews ; giving different rules for 
their treatment. If indeed dispassionate consideration be given to the 
subject, it will be obvious, that, in the state of mankind m the early 
ages, slavery was an institution, not only of convenience, and almost of 
necessity, toward the wanted cultivation of the soil for the production 
of food K>r increasing mankind, but really of mercy. Among barbariaq?, 
from earliest history to this day, it has been little common to spare the 
lives of those overcome in battle. The conquerors had not means to 
maiutain prisoners in idleness, and could not safely set them free. In. 
that state of the worlds theiiefbre, wars being continual, it was obviously 
ik hiiffiane policy to provide that, prisoners being made valuable .properly, 
it should be the conqueror's interest to preserve them. . . But the neees- 


octrine of CkrittiMiiitp. SH 

stty for 'slavery i6 an evil peculiar to the infancy of nations.' Wherever' 
the state of population and of civil society is such that slavery is no 
longer necessary^, or of important expediency^ it must be the interest, 
not less than the naoral and religious duty, of the governing among 
mankind to abolish it. 

Policy/ however, though to be controled by religion and morality^ 
should not be confounded with them. That slavery, authorised by the 
Old Testament, is forbidden by the New, cannot be shown ; and, if trial 
is the purpose for which man has his existence in this world, the allow- 
ance of slavery, far from being adverse, is an additional mode for both 
slave and master. 

The succeeding observations on the Gospels are not suffi* 
cientiy connected to animadvert on : they are valuable princi^ 
pally to the learned, and, we think^ should not incautiously be 
entrusted to others. The chapter on Demoniacs exemplifies a 
saying of Lord Halifax, that nothing is so apt to crack in 
stretchings as an inference. 

The portion which treats of Heathenism, as far as it goes, is 
a manual of mythology. Here we think the historian appears to 
most advantage, as he has certainly acquitted himself with most 
success. Candidly acknowlejging his ignorance of Hebrew and 
Theologyi he seems to exult m having reached that part of his 
work which does not require an acquaintance with either^ 
although the subject is extensive and perplexed. In treating of 
the mysteries he is clear, but not copious, and as this topic it 
fully discussed elsewhere, we hasten to the conclusion : 

Trial, we are assured in the gdspel,.was not to be ended by its de- 
livery, but rather the contrary ; and, in all accounts of the early perse- 
cutions, this appears to have been fully understood by the converts of 
the^ evly ages, whence came their fortitude in bearing the severest trials. 
Nevertheless contests among themselves, mostly on matters'of faith, 
foretold in the gospels, and reproved by the apostles John and Paul, 
were, among such strange doctrine, maintained with violence through 
centuries ; and thus was afforded the opportunity, which the able im- 
postor Mahomet used, for claiming in his outset to be divinely war* 
ranted (as the able author of the History of the Middle Ages has well 
observed) not to be the opponent but the successor of Christ; not to 
abolish but to correct corrupted and degraded Christianity. 

With regard to the sections on Creeds and Prayer^ they 
must be read with caution, for to the sciolist they contain dan- 
gerous matter. Such, perhaps, is the character of the whole 
work : with candor and research, anxious that what is received 
for truth should be so established, he has stated doubts and 
proposed alterations, which may stagger the uninformed, while 
tfiose, who have seriously considered the subject, will poMlbly 

\m loformed and certainly pleased. He appears to. have gW en 

up his solitary orthography, retaining his pecaliarities ol style in 

many expressions and sentences, of which the last is an excellent 

test for clear heads i ' 

£zcess in abuse of these extravagant advantages, by the chiefs and, 
in natural contequence, by their armies of monksy their ingeniouslj 
provided instruments, at length provoked the reformation; heguo, in 
the early dainrn of literature, by ouc WickUfie, prosecuted, in a more ad- 
vantageoua age» with larger success, by Luther, and, though in its pro- 
gress disturbed by political contests, unfailingly attending the ecclesi- 
as^cal, brought to the best perfection yet attained among national 
establishments (I venture to declare my opinion) however, as a human 
w^irky sitill imperfect, in the established church, of Eugland, 

The typographical faults of this volume are numerous, and 
oiily partially noticed in the tables of Errata. 

Xr(fr((^tfction to the second, edition of the translfltion of 
'ii^uoMAS Taylor. \2mo. 1824. 

\js, this Introduction, the t):;an8latot prof^ to have depion^trated 
that the Orphic Hymns virere the Invocations employed in the 
Eleusinian Mysteries ; that tiiey are perfectly conformable to all 
thjat is transmitted to us by the ancients concerning the Orphic 
dogmas; that these dogmas are perfectly conformable to those of 
l^yU^a^goras and Pl^to ; . and that tjie Hymns were niqt, as was the 
Qpipipjtt of i:jir.whitt, written during the deqljne apdl fall of the 
ttiicwQian. Empire. 

Part I. 

•The Grecian theology, which orig^inated from Orpheus, was not 
only'proipulgated by him, But also by Pythagoras and Plato; 
#h6; for their transcendent genius, will always be ranked by the 
ktelligent among the prodigiels of the human race. By the first 
of these illustrious men, however, it was promulgated mystically 
fnd symbolically ; by the second, enigmatically, and through 
ifUgQa; and scienlifically by the third; That this theplogy, 

Indeed, wtts d^i^d from Or^tretik is di^rlf tMfifled h'j tTidfc 
tWb great philofto)^ic luminaries Iambiicbti%* aii<i Prbblto.* Fl6r 
hy them we are inforthed, '< that what Or(!>tfetts deliv'er^d myUli* 
^ally through Arcane narratioils, this Pythagoras lekmed ^httk ife 
celebrated orgies in the Thracian Libethra, b^ing* initiatifd tify 
Aglaophemus in the mystic wisdom which Orphe\ci^ deiiVed tMa 
his mother Calfiope, in the mountain Pangeeus." 

This sublime theology, thbugh it was scientifically dilsseminkM 
by Plato, yet conformably to the custom of the itiost ^ndetot phi- 
losophers, was delivered by him synoptically, and in such a W&'y 
as to be inaccessible to the vulgar ; but when, in consequence 6f 
the commencement of a degraded and barren period, this thepldi^'y 
became corrupted through the negligence ahd cotifusiota of its 
Votaries ; then such of his disciples as happened to jlVe When U 
was thus degraded and deformed, found it necesjsary to unfold ft 
more fully, in order to prevent iti becotning ^tterty extiAct, The 
men by whom this arduous task was dicco'mplished were the last 
of the disciples of PlatO ; men who, though they liVed in a baife 
age, possessed a divine genius, and who having happily fEtthomieil 
the depth of their great master's works, luminously and copiously 
developed their recondite meaning, and benevolently communi- 
cated it in their writings for the general good. 

From this golden chain of philosophers, as they have b^eh , 
justly called, my elucidations of the present myistfc hyinns iife 
principally derived : for I ktaow 6f too other genuine sources, if it 
be admitted (and it must by every intelligent reader) that tUe 
theology of Orpheus is the same ^s that of Pythagoras and Piat6. 
Hence I shall not take any notice of the theories of Bryant Att& 
Faber and other modem my thblogical writers. 

That the philosophic reader therefore may be convinced of thle 
truth of this observation, the following epitome of this theologi, 
derived fVom the abovementioned source^, is sil^bjoined. In \m 
first place, this theology celebrates the immense prihictple 6( 
things, as something superior even ^0 being itself; ^i tX&tAh, 
from the whole of things, of virhich it is nevertheless lAeffably^tHb 
source ; and does not therefore think fit to connumeraie it ^th 
any triad, or order of beings. Indeed, it even ajpologft^ for kU 

6fo'{ vn'o rag fxarfOf ntvvffSttf t^plA r4ir a^Bf4M •v^iav tuhtv tiitu* XiitalbUcbilft dS Tft 
Pythag. p. 135. 

* TlvBayoptiQS o Ttfjutt0( tic%tai raif TivBeiyo^ttWf apX<*<^« uvfiu h airlf tu OffkltfU 

ififAttBiv ofyteto-Bui •» Ai^9foi{ Toif 8pexiOif, AyXio^a/xot; ciXiT«f /uiralt«oTref, «l» 

/3S4 Introduction to Tajlor's 

tempting to gire an appropriate name to this principle, which ii 
in reality ineffable, ana ascribes the attempt to the imbecility of 
human nature, which striving intently to behold it, g^vesthe ap» 
pellation of the most simple of its conceptions to that which is 
Deyond all knowlege and all conception. Hence Plato denomi- 
nates it the one and the good; by the former of these names in- 
dicating its transcendent simplicity, and by the latter its sub- 
sistence as the object of desire to all beings. For all things 
desire good. But Orpheus, as Proclus well observes,' " availing 
himself of the license of fables, manifests every thing prior to 
Heaven (or the intelligible and at the same time intellectual order) 
by names, as far as to the first cause« He also denominates the 
ineffable, who transcends the intelligible unities, Time." And 
this according to a wonderful analogy, indicating the generation, 
i. e. the ineffable evolution into light of all things, from the 
immense principle of all. For, as Proclus elsewhere observes, 
/^ where there is generation there also time has a subsistence." 
And in this way me celebrated Theogony of Orpheus and other 
Grecian theologists is to be understood. 

As the first cause then is the one, and this is the same with the 

.goodf the universality of things must form a whole, the best and 

the most profoundly united in all its parts which can possibly b^ 

^ conceived : for the first good must be the cause of the greatest 
good, that is, the whole of things; and as goodness is union, the 
best production must be that which is most united. But as there 
is a difference in things, and some are more excellent than others, 
and this in proportion to their proximity to the first cause, a pro- 
found u^ion can no otherwise take place than by the extremity of 
a superior order coalescing through intimate alliance with the 
summit of one proximately inferior. Hence the first of bodies, 
though they are essentially corporeal, yet Kara axetnv, through 
habitude or alliance, ^xe most vital, or lives. The highest of souls 
are after this manner intellects, and the first of beings are Gods. 

^For as being is the highest of things ^Sier the first cause, its first 
subsistence must be according to a superessential characteristic. 
Now that which is superessential, considered as participated by 
the highest or true being, constitutes that which is called intelli- 
gible. So that every true being depending on the Gods is a 
divine intelligible. It is divine indeed, as that which is deified; 
hut it is intelligible, as the object of desire to intellect, as per- 
fective and connective of its nature, and as the plenitude of being 
itself. But in the first being life and intellect subsist according 
to cause : for every thing subsists either according to cause, or 
according to hyparxis, or according to participation. That is. 

1 In put. Cntyt p. jiS. 

^th^ Mystical Hymns ofOrpheus^^ S%5 

«Tery thing' may be considered either as subsisting occultly in its 
cause, or openly in its own order (or according to what it is), or as 
'participated by something else. The first of these is ansdogous 
to light when viewed subsisting in its fountain the . sun ; the 
second to the light immediately proceeding from the s,un ; and 
the third to the splendor communicated to other natures by this 

- The first procession therefore from the first cause will be the 
intelligible triad, consisting of being, life, and intellect, which are 
the three highest things after the first God, and of which being 
is' prior to life, and l^e to intellect. For whatever partakes joS 
life partakes also of being : but the contrary is not true, and 
therefore being is above life ; since it is thev characteristic Of 
higher natures to extend their communications beyond such ai^ 
are subordinate. But life is prior to intellect, because all intel- 
lectual natures are vital, but all vital natures are not intellectua}. 
But in this intelligible triad, on account of its superessential cha- 
racteristic, all things may ^e considered as subsisting according 
to cause : and consequently number here has not, a proper sub- 
sistence, but is involved in unproceeding union, and absorbed in 
superessential light. Hence, when it is called a triad, we must 
not suppose that any essential distinction ^takes . place, but must 
consider this appellation as expressive of its ineffable perfection. 
For as it is the nearest of all things to the one, its union must be 
transcendently profoiknd and ine&bly occult. 

All the Gods indeed, considered ^according to their unities, are 
all in all, and are at the same time united with the first God, like 
rays to light, or the radii of a circle to the centre. And henpe 
they are all established in their ineffable principle (as Proclus in 
Parmenid. beautifully observes), like the roots of trees in the 
.earth ; so that they are^ all as much as possible superessential, 
just^s are eminently of an earthly nature, without at th^ 
45ame time being earth itself. For the nature of the earth, as 
being a whole, and therefore having a perpetual subsistence,. is 
superior to the partial natures which it. produces. The intelligible 
triad therefore, from existing wholly according to the super^sseur 
tial, possesses an inconceivable profundity of union both with 
itself and its cause ; and hence it appears to the eye of intellect 
as one simple indivisible splendor, beaming from an unknown and 
inaccessible fire. 

The Orphic theology, however, concerning the intelligible 
Gods, or the highest order of divinities, is, as we are informed by 
Damascius,' as follows : ♦♦ lime [^s we have already observed] is 
aymbolically said to be the one principle of the universe ; but 

! Vid. Wolfii Anecdot. Qtme. torn. iii. p. %S%, 

5S6 Jnfroduction to Taylor'^s TrkndiaHm 

cilfr and ekaos* are celebrataed as the two principles iminbdiatelj 
|io8ierior to this one. And being, simply considered^ is xepm 
•ented under the symbol of an egg,* And tl^ is the "first triad of 
the intelligible Gods. Bat for the perfection of the second triad 
Aey establish either a conceiving and a conceired egg as ti God^ 
«v a white garment^ or a cloud : because ^om these Phanes leaps 
forth into light. For indeed they philosophise variously con* 
eeming the middle triad. But Phianes here represents intellect. 
To conceive him however besides this, as father and power, con- 
tributes nothing to Orpheus* But they call the third triad Metis 
as intellect f^ Ericapeeus as powers and Phanes as father, Bnt 
sometimes^ the middle triad is considered according to the three- 
shaped God, while conceived in the egg : for the middle alvrays 
represents each of the extremes ; as in this instance, where the 
«gg and the three-shaped God subsist together. And here you 
asay perceive that the egg is that which is united ; but that the 
tbree-shaped and really multiform God is the separating and discri- 
aunating cause of that which is intelligible. Likewise the middle 
triad subsists according to the ^gg^ as yet united ; but the third * 
according to the God who separates and distributes the whole 
intelligible order. And this is the common and familiar Orphic 
theology. But that delivered by Hieronymus and Hellanicus is 
«« follows. According to them water and matter were the first 
productions; from which earth was secretly drawn forth : so that 
water and earth are established as the two first principles ; the 
latter of these having a dispersed subsistence ; but the former 
eonglutinating and connecting the latter. They are silent how- 
ever concerning the principle prior to these two, as being ineffable : 
for as there are no illuminations about him, his arcane and inefia^ 
ble nature is A-om hence sufficiently evinced. But the third 
princi{^e posterior to these two, water and earth, and which is 
generated from them, is a dragon, naturally endued with Uie 
Beads of a bull and a lion, but in the middle having the counte- 
nance of the God himself. They add likewise that he has wings 
on his shoulders, and that he is called undecaying Time, and Her- 
eules; that Necessity resides with him, which is the same as 
Nature, and incorporeal Adrastia, which is extended throughout 
the universe, whose limits she binds in amiclBible conjunctioi>. 
Birt as it appears to me, they denominate this third principle as 

: * iThese two principle^ are called by Plato, in the Philebas, hound and inJinUf, 

* This Orphic egg xb the same widb the mixture from bound and mfinity, men-* 
^Hwed hj P!ato in tfaie Philebnt. See the third book of my translation of IV\>ciiifc 
on the Theology of Plato. 

" *^ ii>( wt^ is emitted tn ths ottgtnal. 

♦ fAiiKOTi is erroiieonsly printed instead of wort. 

^ T9 Tptroy is I conceive erroneously omltted'in the original. 

festablisbed aecordhi^ to essence ; knd assert, biBsid^ tlns> Aut'it 
Bubsists as male and female, for the purpose of ethibking tike 
generative causes 6f all things. ' 

I likewise fihd in the Orphic ibapsodies, that neglecti^ tlie 
two first principles, together with the one principle who is delivered 
hi silence, the third principle^ posterior to the two, is established 
by the theology as the original; because this first of all possesses 
something effable and commensurate to hunan discourse. For 
in the former hypothesis, the highly reverenced and uhdecayiAg 
T^me, the father of eether and chaos, was the principle : but in 
this Time is neglected, and the principle becomes a dragon. It 
likewise calls triple eether, moist ; and chaos, infinite ; and ErebilkiB, 
cloudy and dark ; delivering this second triad analogous to the 
first: this being potential, as that was paternaK Hence the 
diird procession of this triad is dark Erebus : its paternal litid 
summit sether, not according to a simple but inteHectual subsist- 
ence : but its middle infinite chaos, considered as a progen)^ 6r 
procession, and among these parturient, because from these t^e 
third intelligible triad proceeds. What then is the third intellrgi- 
ble triad ? I answer, the egg ; the duad of the natures of tti^le 
and female which it contains, and the multitude of all-'varioas 
seeds, residing in the middle of this triad : and the third amoi^ 
these is an incorporeal God, bearing golden wings on his shoifl- 
ders ; but in his inward parts naturally possessing the heads of 
bulls, upon which heads a mighty dragon appears, invested with 
the till-various forms of wild beasts. This last then must be con- 
sidered as the intellect of the triad ; but the middle progenj^, 
which are mantf as well as two, correspond to power , and the e^? 
itself is the paternal principle of the third triad : but the third 
God of thi3 third triad thi$ theology celebrates as Protogonu9, 
and calls him Jupiter, the disposer of all things and of the whole 
world; and on this account denominates him Pan. And such is 
the information which this theology affords us, concerning the 
genealogy of the intelligible principles of things. 

But in the writings of the Peripatetic Eudemus, containing the 
theology of Orpheus, the whole intelligible order is passed over ih 
silence, as being every way ineffable and unknown, and incapable 
of verbal enunciation. Eudemus therefore commences his gene- 
alogy from Nighty from which also Homer begini^ : though Eude- 
mus is far from making the Homeric genealogy consistent and 
connected, for he asserts that Homer begins from Ocean and 
Tethys. It is however apparent, that Night is according to Ho- 
mer the greatest divinity, since she is reverenced even by Jupiter 
himself. For -the poet says of Jupiter, '* that he feared lest Be 
should act in a manner displeasing to swift Night," ^ So that 


' »f ero yap fxri vuxti Son avoBv fua pffot, So DfCmsn^XUA ', V>^\ VMXftsAL ^1 ^\\*,tJiw 
ib€ pdated editions of Homer read if^ot. 

'dS^S Introduction to Taylor's Tramk^ion 

m • ' 

Homer begins his the Gods from Nighi; But it 
appears to me that Hesiod, whea he asserts that Chaos was first 
generated, signifies by Chaos thii incomprehensible %iid perfectly 
united nature of that which is intelligible ; but that he produces 
Earth' the first from thence, as a certain principle of the whole 

' procession of^ the Gods. Unless perhaps Chaos is the second , of 
the two principles: but Earth,^ Tartarus and Love form the 
triple intelligible. So that Lne is to be placed for the third 
monad of the intelligible order, considered according, to ita oon- 

..YertiTe nature; is thus denominated by Orphens .in his 

, rhapsodies. But Earih for the first, as being first esl;abli8he4 in 
a certain firm and essential station. But Tartanu for the middle, 
as in a certain respect exciting and moving forms into distribution. 
But AcUsilaus appears to me to establish Chaos for the first prin- 
ciple, as entirely unknown ; and after this, two principles, £lrei!!M 
as male, and Night as female ; placing the latter for infinity y but 
the former for bound. But from the mixture of these, he says^ 
that JEther^ Lowe^ and Counsel are generated, forming three 

.intelligible hypostases. And he places JEther as the summit; 
but Love in the middle, according to its naturally middle sub* 
aistence; but Metis or Counsel as the third, and. the same as 
highly reverenced intellect. Apd, according to the history of 

: Eudemus, from these he produces a great number of other Gode. 

Thus far Damascius, with whose very interesting narration the 

doctrine of the Chaldeans concerning the intelligible order accords, 

. as delivered by Johannes Picus in his Conclusions according to 
ihe Onkimisn of the Chaldean Theologists.^ ** The intelligible co- 
ordination (says he) is not in the intellectual co-ordination, as 
Amasis the Egyptian asserts, but is above every intellectual 

* Tifv 18 printed instead of rnv. 

^ As the whole of the Grecian theology is the progeny of the mystic traditions 
of Orpheus, it is evident that the Gods which Hesiod celebrates by the epithets of 
Eartht Heaven, &c. ciaonot be the visible Heaven and Earth: for Plato in the 
Gmtylus, following the Orphic doctrine concerning the Gods, as we have evinced 
In our notes on that dialogue, plainly showsi in explaining (he name of Jupiter, 
that this divinity is the artificer of the sensible universe ; and consequently Sattam, 
Heaven, Earth, &c. are much superior to the mundane deities. Indeed if this be 
not admitted, the Theogony of Hesiod must be perfectly absurd and inexplicable, 
for why does he call Jupiter» agreeably to Homer, (varn^ av^goyy rt Otan t«), 
** father of gods, aitd men ?" Siiall we say that he means literally that Jupiter is 
the father of aU the Gods ? But this is impossible ; for he delivers the generation 
of Gods who are the parents of Jupiter. He can therefore only mean that Jupiter 
it the parent of all the mundane Gods: and his Theogony, when considered ac- 
cording to this exposition, will be found to be beautifully consistent and sublime ', 
whereas, according to modem interpretations, the whole is a mere chaos, more wild 
than the delirious visions of Swedenborg, and more unconnected than any of the 
impious effusions of methodistical rant. I only add, that thv is again erroneously 
printed in the Excerpta of Wolfius for ynn 

3 f)tyiA( in the original should doubtless be fna-i, 

4 Vid. Pici Opera, torn. i. p. 54. 

of ihiMystwal ffymn$ of Of^^ 5^9 

hierarchy, impaiticipably conceal^ in the abyss of Ae first unity, 
and under the obscurity of the first darkness. Coordinatiointel- 
ligibHis.non est in itttellectuali coordinatione, ut dixit Amasis 
Jl^^tius, sed est super omnem intellectualem hierarchium, in 
abysso primce unitatis, et sub caligine primarum tenebrarum im- 
participaliter abscondita. 

But from this triad it may be demonstrated, that all the proces- 
sions of the Gods may be comprehended in six orders, viz. the 
intelligible order, the intelligible and at the same time intellectual, 
the intellectual, the supermundane, the liberated, and the i»»ii- 
daneJ* For the intelligible, as we have already observed, muibt 
hold the iSrst rank, and must consist of being, Ufe, and intellect: 
i. e. must abide, proceed, and return ; at the same time that it is 
characterised, or subsists principally according to casually per- 
manent being. But in the next place, that which is both intd^gi- 
ble and intellectual succeeds, which must likewise be triple, but 
must principally subsist according to Ufe, or intelligence. And 
in the thira place the intellectwd otA&c must succeed, which is 
triply convertive. But as in consequence of the existence of the 
sensible world, it is necessary that there should be some demiurgic 
cause of its existence, this cause can only be found in intellect,, 
and in the last hypostasis of the intellectual triad. For all forms 
in this hypostasis subsist according to all-various and perfect 
divisions ; and forms can only fabricate when they have a perfect 
intellectual separation from each other. But since fabrication is 
nothing more than procession, the Demiurgus will be to the 
posterior orders of Gods what the one is to the orders prior to 
the Demiurgus ; and consequently he will be that Secondarily 
which the first cause of all is primarily. Hence his first pro- 
duction will be an order of Gods analogous to the intelligible 
order, and which is denominated supermundane. After this he 
must produce an order of Gods similar to the intelligible and 
intellectual order, and which are denominated liberated God^. 
And in the last place, a procession correspondent to the intellec- 
tual order, and which can be no other than the mundane Gods^ 
For the Demiurgus is chiefly characterised according to diversity, 
and is allotted the boundary of all universal hypostases. 

All these orders are unfolded by Plato in the conclusions which 
the second hypothesis of his Parmenides contains ; and this in a 
manner so perfectly agreeable to the Orphic and Chaldaic the- 
ology, that he who can read and understand the incomparable 
work of Proclus on Plato's theology will discover how ignorantly 

* 1. e. 9m yenroi, voqTsi hm VMpoi, votpoi, uvipucfuM, amoXwoi live wtfovfmnn, et 


330 Introduction to Tiylort Orphkks. 

ike latter Platonistft h^ve been aliased by thie modetns, as figiMticI 
and corrupters of the doctrine of Plato. 

According to the theology of OrphetiS therefore, *all tlrrngfi 
ociginate from an immense principle, to which through the imbe- 
eility and poverty of human conceptioti We give a name, though it 
is perfectly ineffable, and in the revereUtiai language of thr^ 
Egyptians, is a tkrice unknown dmHcntis^ iu the contemplation 
of which all knowleg^e is refunded into igtyoranc^. Hence, As 
Plato says, in the conclusion of his first hypothesis in the Pairn^e- 
liides, *• it cau nieilber be named, nor spoken of, nor conceived by 
opinion, nor be known or perceived by any being. '^ The peculi* 
arity also of this theology, and in which its tran8<^endency cdbsistS 
is this, that it does not consfder the highest God to be sim^ply the 
principle of beings, but the principle of principie»f \. e. of deiibrm 
processions firom itself, all which are eternally rooted in the 
unfathomable depths of the immiensely great sonrc'e of their 
existence, and of which th^y may be called superelbseUtial ramifi- 
cations; and superluminous bloissoms. 

• When the ineffable transcendency of the first God, which Waft 
considered (as I have elsewhere observed) to be the grand princi- 
ple in the Heathen theology, by its most ancient promulgators, 
Orpheus^ Pythagoras, and Plato, was forgotten^ this oblivion WaS 
doubtless the cause of dead men being deified by the Pagans. 
Had they properly disposed their attention to this transcendency, 
they would have perceived it to be so immense as to surpass 
eternity, infinity, self-subsistence, and eveti essence itself, and 
that these in reality belong to those venerable natures which are 
as it were first unfolded into light friam the arcane recesses of the 
truly mystic unknown cause of all. For> as Simplrcius* beauti- 
fully observes, ^' It is requisite that he who ascends to the prin- 
ciple of things should investigate whether it is possible there can 
be any thing better than the supposed principle ; and if something 
more excellent is founds the samis inquiry should ^ain be inadiS 
respecting that, till we arrive at the highest conceptions, than 
which we have no longer any n^x)re venerable. Nor should w^ 
stop in our ascent till we find this to be the case. For there is 
no occasion t6 fear that our progression will be through an uUsub^ 
stantial void, by conceiving something about the first principles 
which is greater than and surpasses their nature. For it ts Hoi 
posiibkfor Ott^* conceptions to take meh a mighty leap as to efuitl, 
and much l^s to pasi beyond the dignity of theJlrH princip&s d/ 

' '^0( the first prindpie (says Damascius, in Ms. vtft »^x**^) ^^® Egyptians 
said nothing, but celebrated it as a darkness beyond all intellectual conception, a 
thrice unknown darkness," vp^jrny. opx*}^ cmviAyniUM'ojyf axorog vkiq ?ra9wy . yvicriv, 
crxs'Tof "ayvwB-Tov, rotg touto tvipnfxi^dyris, 

» InEpictet. . ,. 

Mm»mmGr<i/e!Q€,4^. SSI 

things,*^ He s^dds, '^ This therefore i& one and the beslexteasioii 
[<xf the soul] to l^the highe$t,] Qod, and is ail much aa possible 
irr^prehensible ; viz., to know firmly, that by ascribing to him tha . 
most venerable excellencies we can conceive, and the mqst holjf 
anil primary names and things, we ascribe, nothing to him whic^ 
is suitable to his. dignity. It is sufiScient, however^ to procure 
our pardon [for the attempt] that we can. attribute to him nothing 
superior." If it is not possible, therefore, to form any ideas equal 
to the dignity of the immediate progeny of the ineffable, i. e. of 
the first principles of things, liow much less can our conceptionil 
reach the principle of these principles, who is concealed in the 
auperlui;ninous darkness of occultly initiatmg silence ? Had the 
Heathens therefore considered as they ought this transcendency 
of the supreme God and his immeaiate offspring, they nevqr 
would have presumed to equalise the human with the divine 
nature, and consequently would never have worshipped men aa ' 
God^. Their theology, however, is not to be accused as. the 
cause of this impiety, but their fprgetfulness of the sublimest jof 
its dogmas, and the confusion with which this oblivion was neces- 
sarily attended. 

■p— r 



■ ■ . • . ■ . I 

Xo one who can divest himself of u)t\ political -inter^t, and: 
CpQtemplate the present struggle in Greece merely with the 
fiQelingCb of a cla89ical antiquary, it mayi perhaps, seem desirable; 
that the Turks should: still continue to extend their iron sceptre/ 
pver that ill-fatjed country, since those barbarians, from a total? 
apathy respecting works of art and ancient monuments, are ea-v 
sUy induced, by bribes to facilitate tbe resear^cihes of inquisitivei 
straugers, and even the reoaoyal of statues, vases, inscriptions,: 
and o^her precious remnants of former ages. *^ Bi\t/' saya an> 
accomplished traveller, (Sir William Oell^ in an article on the-. 
Elean.Inscriptiop, ClassicalJournal, No. xlyiii. p. 401.) '^ the^ 
r^Kolution has put an end to all hopes, pf future. discovery.; foKi 
if the. Greeks triuoiph, no governnoejit of theirs would ever per*; 
miti9B excavatiQuby th^ Franks." We nnay, indeqdj reasooabljri 
aiipposfiitM tbe rulers of su<;b a sta|e as regenerated .Groecet. 

330 Introduction to Taylor^ Orphius. 

ike latter Platonists h^ve been ablused by tbie modetns, as fatittici 
and corrupters of the doctrine of Plato. 

According to the thfcology of OrpheuS therefore, *ail tbfngi 
Ofiginate from an immense principle, to which through the imbe- 
eility and poverty of hntnan conceptioti we give a name, thongb it 
is perfectly ineffable, and in the reverential language of th^ 
Egyptians, is a tkrice unknown darkntu^ in the contemplation 
of which all knowlege is refunded into igworanc^. Hence, as 
Plato says, in the conclnsion of his first hypothesis in the Parme- 
liides, •• it can neither be named, nor spoken of, nor conceived by 
opinion, nor be known or perceived by any being.'^ The pecnli* 
arity also of this theology, and in which its tran8<^endency cdbisist^ 
is this, that it does not consider the highest God to be sim^ply the 
principle of beings, but the principle of principled, i. e. of deifbrm 
processions firom itself, all which are eternally rooted in thd 
nafothomable depths of the immensely great sonrc'e of their 
existence, and of which they may b3 called superej^sential ramifi- 
cations, and superluminous blossoms. 

When the ineffable transcendency of the first God, which waft 
considered (as I have elsewhere observed) to be the grand princi- 
ple in the Heathen theology, by its most ancient promulgators, 
Orpheus^ Pythagoras, and Plato, was forgotten, this oblivion waS 
doubtless the cause of dead men being deified by the Pagans. 
Had they properly disposed their attention to this transcendency, 
they would have perceived it to be so immense as to surpass 
eternity, infinity, self-subsistence, and eveti essence itself, and 
that these in reality beltJng to those venerable natures which are 
as it were first tinfolded into light from the arcane recesses of the 
truly mystic unknown cause of all. For, as Simplrcius* beauti- 
fully observes, ^' It is requisite that he who ascends to the prin- 
ciple of things should investigate whether it is possible there can 
be any thing better than the supposed principle ; and if something 
more excellent is found, the samis inquiry should ^ain be inade 
respecting that, till we arrive at the highest conceptions^ than 
which we have no longer any n^x)re venerable. Nor should we 
stop in our ascent till we find this to be the case. For there is 
no occasion t6 fear that our progression will be through an unsub^ 
stantial void, by conceiving something about the first principles 
which is greater than and surpasses their nature. For it ii noi 
posHblefoT out conceptions to take »uch a mighty leap as to efanfel, 
and much l^s to pasi beyond the dignity of theJirH principhs of 

' « Of the first prindpie (says Damascius, in Ms. vtpi »f x**^) ^^® Egyptians 
said nothing, but celebrated it as a darkness beyond all intellectual conception, a 
thrice unknown darkness," irp«;Tt|V opx*)^ ayu/Ayn)u»0'cuyy o-x>oto( vvrjt imvuj fviaiy, 

» InEpictet. . ^ .. 

MmBwnmGr<ifiotr4^€. SSI 

ihings.*^ He s^dds. *^ This tberefore i& one and the beslexteQsioii 
[of Uie soul] to [the highest,] God, and is ail much aapos^ibU 
irr^prehensible ; viz., to know firmly, that by ascribing to him the 
most venerable excellencies we can conceive, and the mqst holf 
anil primary names and things, we ascribe, nothing to him whic^ 
is suitable to his. dignity. It is sufiQcient, however, to prpcnrQ 
our pardon [for the attempt] that we can. attribute to him nothing 
superior." If it is not possible, therefore, to form any ideas equal 
to the dignity of the immediate progeny of the ineffable, i« e. ot 
the first principles of things, how much less can our conceptionil 
reach the principle of these principles, who is concealed in the 
auperlui;ninous darkness of occultly initiatmg silence ? Had the 
Heathens therefore considered as they ought this transcendency 
of the supreme God and his immeaiate offspring, they nevqr 
would have presumed to equalise the human with the divine 
nature, and consequently would never have worshipped men aa 
God^. Their theology, however, is not to be accused as^ the 
cause of this impiety, but their forgetfuln^ss of the subliraest jof 
its dogmas, and the confusion with which this oblivion was neces- 
sarily attended. 

■p— *■ 



. » 

Xo one who can divest himself of i^l political -interest, and: 
CpQteniplate the present struggle in Greece merely with the 
feelings^ of a clas9ical antiquary, it mayi perhaps, seem desirable 
that the Turks should: still continue to extend their iron sceptre/ 
pver that ill-fat|ed country, since those barbarians, from a totalf 
apathy respecting works of iirt and ancient monuments, are ea-v 
sUy induced by bribes to facilitate the researdies of inquisitive 
strangers, and even the rcunoyal of statues, vases, inscriptions,, 
and other precious remnants of former ages. *^ Bi\t/' saya an« 
accomplished traveller, (Sir William Oell, in an article on the. 
Eleanlnscriptiop, ClassicalJournal, No« xlviii. p. 401.) '^ the. 
r^ii^olution has put an end to all hopes pf future. discovery ; for-i 
if the. Greeks triumph, no governcneiit of theirs would ever per* 
mit^an excavatiQa>y the Franks/' We nnay, indeed^ reasonably; 
aiipposfiitl^e the rulers of such a stafe as, regenerated .Groecet. 

SS3 Museum in Greece^ 

would not allow the tombs of their illustrious ancettors^ lflrti# 
Yiolated by every foreigner who could afford to Mtcr 
for the purposes of dilapidation — they #iiiiU BOTaflbw 
temples to be defaced, nor tbeb feilipllired ornaments 'to be 
exported. They mighty fao^en^r, be eticourag^d by the exam- 
ple^ and assisted bj i^jp^nicMit persons of other nations^ in insti* 
tuting a grand Nvtkmat Museum; such a receptacle for anti- 
quiliea a» myfimcy has delighted to form whenever favorable 
iate&fenee excited a hope that the Greeks might ultimately 
nKover their independence. For the situation of this MuaciUMi 
^thens^ at first view, presents itself as the most suitable fiaco%. 
but many circoastances would^ perhaps^ recommend some other 
spot lesa exposed to maritime invasion, and more central; to 
which might be sent with the greatest convenience, every inte- 
resting object discovered in the different provinces. 

However abject the Greeks may now appear; debased by a 
galling slavery of centuries under the Turkish yoke, I am ftrily' 
persuaded that the meanest among them would, in a state of 
emancipation, feel conscious pride from having contributed^ 
towards such a collection : the shepherd, the ploughman, the 
little children, by a voluntary donation of those valuable relics 
which chance daily offers to them in the classic soil of Greece, 
would soon abundantly furnish the galleries and cabinets of our 
imaginary Museum; and this, in due time, would be further en- 
riched by the result of excavations and researches, made, eitb^ 
at the expense of government, or of wealthy and patriotic indi- 
viduals, among the ruins of numerous places celebrated in an- 
cient history, but hitherto not explored, though it is almost cer* 
tain that they contain subterraneous treasures which would prove 
inestimable to an antiquary. 

Of such a Museum I have often fancied various departments' 
assigned to the superintendence of well-informed and diligent 
officers, native Greeks, assisted by learned antiquaries and iuge-' 
nious artists from different parts of Europe, Englishmen,' 
Frenchmen, Germans^ Italians, and others, who, through the 
medium of their respective ministers and consuls, might com- 
municate to the who(e literary world most accurate descriptions,- 
delineations, models, impressions, or casts of every thing pre- 
served in this greiAt National Repository, of whidh my imagina-' 
tion has already formed the plan— appropriating, on one side of 
a stately edifice, proper galleries for the reception of statues and 
places for the scientific arrangement of sepulcral monuments^ 
marble reliefs, historical and mythological; terra^-cottas^ bronzes, 
&c.— -on the other ^de, spucious chambers containing ioacribeil^ 

and Abbi Fourmmi. S33 

rUeSj fiMt of every sort, armor and impteneiito of war; 
oBMcal- iMtmiiiaits ; personal ornaments of gold and silver, 
trinkets of varioas materials; articles of domestic furniture; and 
cabinets replete with gems and medals. In another part of the 
building should be deposited exact models of all the temples 
and ancient structures worthy of notice throughout Greece; and 
finally^ cedar presses, for the preservation of manuscripts, in a 
lai^e room furnished as a library with shelves, which we may 
believe would soon exhibit many thousand printed books through 
tbe bounty of several European states, the bequests of opulent 
Greeks, and the donations of foreign travellers and students, 
who, it must be supposed, would, frequent in multitudes this 
school of antiqusrian science. 

Had such an establishment, depending on the emancipation 
of Greece, existed in 1729, when, by desire of Louis XV, 
Monsieur Fourmont visited that country, the destruction of 
many interesting monuments would not have been perpetrated; 
for that French Abb6, actuated by tbe most insane kind of vm^ 
nity, personal and national, was induced, as we learn from bif 
own lettfers (now in the Biblioth^que du Roi), to obliterate many 
most valuable inscriptions, lest any future antiquary muEht have 
an opportunity of copying them — and Mr« DodwM, found 
among the ruins of Sparta, a few years agt», some fine slabs of 
marble from which the letters had beeb barbarously chiselled 
out and erased; and this operatioii bis guide, besides other per- 
sons in the neighbourhood, attribntad to a Frenchman, whom 
they dignified with the title usually bestowed on £nglish travel- 
lers, mHordos. (See DodwelFs Classical and Topographical 
Tour through Greece^ Vol. ii.. p. 405.) That this can have 
been no other than the Abb6 Fourmont, is evident from his own 
letters above-maitioned ; in which he particularly boasts of the 
havoc that he made at Sparta, not leaving one stone upon ano- 
ther; emplcejmg, for above a month, thirty, forty, or sixty 
workfliien, who, says he, ** abattent, detruisent, exterminent la 
vitte de* Sperte.^' *< Imagine,^' he adds, '' my delight at being 
employed in the final demolition of this place. 1 know not that 
any one has, since the restoration of letters, conceived the idea 
of thus overturning whole cities.^' And that himself or his 
country might possess an unique collection of drawings and co* 
pies of inscriptions, it af^pears that besides Sfiula he dilapidated 
other cities of the Morea ; Hermione, Trezene, Argos, Phlia- 
sia, 8cc. But it was of his Spartan exploits that he seeoM 
chiefly proud : " Je n'avoii que ce moyen Id pour rendre ilbutre 
mon voj^age:** and he consequently adopta the title of 2ir«^i«^ 


334 MuMum m GreecCr^^ 

Ttft^fl' \t is, however, some consolatioa to find thai «i«ijo£llMh 
ii|OSt able judges do not consider Founuont byMiymeabs g«ill]f; 
to the extent which he himself acknowleges; and they arecoiH 
tent to regard him rather as a liar and impostor, who pcohabljr 
defaced a few monuments that he mighi the better escape delec«- ' 
tion with respect to those inscriptions which he forgedi '^ For 
it is worthy of remark," says. Lord Aberdeen (see bis letter ia 
Mr. Walpole's. Collection, Vol. ii. p. 500.) '^ that the only in* - 
scriptions said to be destroyed (by Fourmont) are precisely those 
whose existence is most doubtful, and which it was ooiostiiocumr. 
bent on him to produce," His lordship also remarks, that 
although many of the inscriptions in Fourmont's collection ap* 
pear to have been accurately copied, the originals existing at this 
day in different parts of Greece, yet these he never thought 
wprthy of publication ; while the pretended discoveries commu- 
nicated by him to the French Academy seem founded chieBy op 
fabricated documents, and inscriptions of which be affirmed 
that the originals had been destroyed. Against the authenticity 
of these inscriptions, it is here unnecessary to state the decisive 
arguments adduced by that distinguished antiquary, Mr. Payne 
Knight^ in his '' Analysis of the Greek Alphabet." 

There are, however, among the learned countrymen of 
Fourmont two very ingenious writers, M. Raoul Rochette, 
aod M. Louis Petit Radel, who, it is said, have shown 
much ability in endeavouring to prove that his inscriptions 
aqe genuine, and bis Journal accurate. Whether they 
have avsailed themselves of any English traveller's tes:tiaiony I 
koow.not^ but: the following passage in Dr. Perry's '* View, of 
the Levant," (Folio, London, 1743. Preface, p. xiv.) haa often 
excited my horror and indignation. Having mentioned hia de* 
sign, of visiting Ephesus and Samos^ and the reports concerning 
their uninteresting condition, and the paucity of their ruins, he 
adds, that on the subject of Delphos, Argos, and Sparta, nearly 
the. same accounts were giv^eu, '' Indeed," says he, '' the two 
last-mentioned did exhibit remains of antiquity suflicient to^ en- 
tertain the curious and. the connoisseurs, till withib^ a fewyean^ 
last past, consisting chiefly of pieces of pillars, and other frag- 
ments of marble, which were fraught with abundance of ancient 
Greek inscriptions^ StG. But a certain French gentleman, tr»- 
veiling in those. parlMbout ten years agp, by the order and at 
the expense of his Most. Christian Majesty the King of France; 
and moreover being vested with extraordinary powers and (xivi- 
leges from the Porte of Constantinople to examine, transcdbe^ 
and carry away whatever he plea8ed-*4ie (the said French gen- 

Cambridge EsanmationforJtmidr, Sophs. d35 

Heman) bating c6t>ied oflF all the inscriptions, and taken a full 
account of every thing that be fonnd there, did afterwards cause 
manj of those precious remains to be broken and mutilated ; 
^nd many others, which were not so easily disfigured, he qaused 
to be turned with their faces downwards ; i. e. with those sides: 
or parts on which the inscriptions and other works of sculpture 
were, to the earth. We could not easily be prevailed on to ere-* 
dit this report, that a gientleraan, and especially of so polite a 
nation as France, could be capable of such barbarous conduct : 
bat one of our own retinue (not to mention several others who 
attested the same thing) averred to the truth of it; and said fu^- 
dier, that he was one of above two hundred Greeks, whom this 
gentleman had farred^to aid atfd'sfssist him in copying off the in- 
scriptions at Argos and Sparta." 



(i. e. Examination of Students at the end of their First 

Year's residence.) 



Thomas Smart Hughks, B. D. Einman. 
James Scholefield, M. A-. Trin. 
Edward Bu^hbt, M. A. St' John's. 
William Greenwood, M. A. Corpus Christi. 


I. *F/ic€ii^nep woWoi iwc'xelpritrav iLvara^aoBat itriyiiinv irepl r&v 
wvtkmpo^opifiULkvfav €P fifuv irpayfidrwv^ icaSiifs vapibovav ^fiiif oi h.v^ 
it^ffs avrdmai Kal vvtipkrai yevd/MVOt ro^ \6yov' iho^e Kafiol, irap/tf 
Ko\ov0riK6ri AytoBev Tratnv itKpifiws^ KaSe^fis trot ypayjmt, KpaTurre deo- 
^cXe, cva Iriyv^ff %€pl iv Karrfj(itOtis \6ywv tt^v &er<liaX€tav. 

1. Translate this passage literally, and mention what h^^pothesis 
it has been brought forward to confirm with regard to the three' 
first Gospels^ 

2. €W€ibiiv€p irdKKol, <&c. Do you suppose the narratives of these 
persons to hare been fabulous and false, or only defective and 
imecurate ? 


336 Cambridge Ewamination 

3. lo what point of view has the passage from ** iiiiyifiny ** to 
" Tov \6yov *' been considered by Bishop Marsh 1 

4. weirXrfpo^iifAiytoy. How do you deduce the meaning given 
to this word in our translation ? 

5. airroTTTai Kal vinjp^'ai. Whom do you suppose that St. Luke 
alludes to by this expression 1 

6. TovX^yov. What meaning do you ascribe to this ezpressioni 
Give your reasons. 

7. TapfiKo\ovdrfK6ri. Render this word accurately into English, 
. and illustrate it by classical authority. 

8. Oeo^iXe. Is this word used here as a general appellative, or as 
a proper name 1 Give your reasons. 

9» icarii^iaf. What is the primary sense of this word 1 Is it here 
necessarily limited to that sense, or may it be used in a more 
general one ? 

II. In the absence of all direct evidence upon the subject, where 
is it most probable that St. Luke composed his Gospel, and about 
what time ? 

How does the preface just quoted appear to refute the opinion 
held by some, that he wrote it at the request and dictation of St. 
Paul 1 

What peculiarities are observable in his style, and to what other 
parts of the New Testament does it bear the greatest resemblance? 

How may the defect of chronological arrangement in the 
facts and narratives of St. Luke's Gospel be satisfactorily ac- 
counted for ? 

What mention is made of St. Luke in Scripture, and whom did 
he accompany in his travels 1 

What other book in the Sacred Canon is it probable he wrote 1 
State the grounds of this probability. 

III. Who was Marcion, and what where his tenets? What liberty 
has he been thought to have taken with St. Luke's gospel ? Upon 
what authority does this rest, and to what credit is it entitled 1 
HoW did he contribute to establish the genuineness and authen- 
ticity of our canonical Scripture 1 

IV. Explain the primary meaning of the word hiaSriKtj, and how 
it comes to signify a testament ? 

What is the derivation of ehayyiXiov 1 How was its meaning 
restricted during the first century at least, and to what was it 
afterwards extended 1 

V. Draw a map of Palestine, divided according to the tribes. 

. VI. Chap. xiii. I. Twv TaXiXaifovyiv to al/ia IlcXdros ^/xc^e fiera 
T&y dvtriwv ahrGv, 

Chap, xxiii. 6. IliXaros ik aKovaas FaXiXa/ov, emfpw-riaey, €l o 
dvdpwifos FaXiXc^Ios kariv. 

What was the peculiar character of the Galilseans ? From 
whom do we learn iti and how does it illustrate the foregoing 
. quotations 1 * 

for Junior Sophs ^ 1 82^4. 337 

Was there any peculiaritj ia their dialect 1 If so^ give some 
illustration of it from Scripture. 

What feason can you give for our Saviour's being called a Galt- 
laean. Matt. xxvi. 69 1 

VII. 'Ev iret bk 7revreicai5emr^ r^s ifyeiiovlas Ttfieplov Ka/^apof 
— — — Kal ahros ijv 6 *lifffovs dftrel eruv rpioKoyra &pj(6fjLevoSf tov, k»s cvo- 
fjilSero, vlos 'loxrr/^. What chronological difficulty seems to exist 
here, and how may it be obviated ? 

VIII. Chap. ii. 1, 2. 'Eyiyero bk ey rals fifxipais iicelvais, If^XOe 
h6yixa rrapa Kaitrapos Aiyovtrrov, airoypia^oBai vdaav Ttjy olKovfiiyrfv^ 
AvTTi fi CLTToypatp^ vpwTTf kyiv€TO fiyefiovevovTOs rfjs ^vplas KvpijWov. 

Translate this passage : state its apparent anachronism, and the 
different methods which have been proposed for rectifying it: 
which do you prefer ? 

Are the words avoyp&<l>€(rBai and 6.iroypaipr^ rightly translated in 
our Version ? If not, how ought they to be rendered 1 

Tldtray rrjv oiKovfjiiyfjv* How must this expression be limited 
here ? Give an instance from the New Testament, of a similar 
limitation of it, as well as one of a more extended sense. 

IX. What was the difference between tcXuvtis and hniioaiwvris ? 
How do you account for the hatred which the Jews so constantly 
expressed against the former? which of the Evangelists was a 
T€\wvri$1 what was the office of ap^iT€\iavris held by Zacchsus 
(chap. xix. 2.) ? 

Explain the terms ypa/ifiaTels and ^apitraioi. Why are they so' 
often coupled together in a bad sense in the New Testament ? 

X. EvboKito, W(iat is the classical meaning of this word ? and 
in what senses is it used by the writers of the New Testament 1 

5e7 Tov viby roff hvQp&jrov iroXKa vaOeiv koI airohoKifiatrdfjvai avo 
rwv Trpetrpvripwv, With what peculiar restriction is the expression 
o vlos TOV aydpuirov always used in the Gospels? What is the 
original sense of aTrohoKifia^at, and how is it here used ? oi Trpeafiv' 
repot. What are the different significations of this term in the New 
Testament? and what is the meaning in this passage? 

TO Trrepi&yioy tov lepov. Is there any authority for our version of 
wrepiiyioy ? Hesychius explains it by the synonymous term dicpeo- 
T^pioy : from hence, how would you translate it ? 

^rivapiov^ 'Lovhaptoy, &c. What kind of words are these used 
by St. Luke ? Is there any evidence that a similar mode of usage 
was adopted by classical authors of the apostolic age? 

oy rpoTTOv opyis rilv ^avtfis voaaiav {jcrvyayeC) viro tcls irripvyas. 
How comes the word voaaui to signify the young of a bird ? 

yeieaQai Bavarov, From what language is this idiom drawn ? 

Chap. iii. 14. 'ETnypwrwi' ^^ avrov Koi (rrparevufjLeyoiXiyovres, &c. 
What is the difference between trrpaTevofieyoi and arpaTiiJTail How 
has the very appropriate use of the former word in this passage 
been shown by MichaeUs; and to what arguuieut U \\. ^Y^Vvc^^W^> 

538 Cambridge Examination 


X I. For what reasons does it appear probable ** from the nature 
of the case/' that the first propagation of Christianity was attended 
y^ith difficulty and danger 1 

II. Give *' from prorane testimony " an account of the sufferings 
of the first propagators of Christianity. 

III. Show '' by indirect considerations'' that the story we have 
now is in the main that miraculous story which was delivered by 
the Apostles. 

IV. Mention the reasons for which we are apt insensibly to 
undervalue the aggregate authority of the written evidences of 

V. In what centuries did Celsus, Porphyry and Julitfn live 1 and 
If hat arguments can be brought from their writings for the authen- 
ticity of our Scriptures 1 

VI. What is meant by " Apocryphal Books of the New Testa- 
ment 1" Mention some of them, and state in what their authority 
falls short of that of the books composing our sacred Canon. 

VII. In appreciating the credit of a miraculous story, what 
*' considerations relating to the evidence '' may be left out of the 

VIIL What are the instances with which the Mirac}es of the 
New Testament bave been confronted ; and what objections may 
be taken to them ? 

IX. Mention some of the facts related in the New Testament, 
which by their conformity with independent accounts establish 
its genuineness. 

X. Show that the success of Mahometanism affords no argu- 
ment against the truth of Christianity. 


I. Mention according to the order of their position the provinces 
into which Italy was divided, and the period at which each was 
brought under the power of Rome. Describe the situation of La- 
nuvium, Aricia, and Interamna. 

II. Give a narrative of the circumstances which attended the 
deaths of Sp. Maelius, Saturninus, and Drusus. 

III. ''Duodecimtabulae.'^ What disorders in the Commonwealth 
caused the framing of these laws? State the purport of any of 
those fragments which have been preserved. What measures^ were 
adopted, at other times, to remove the causes of contention be- 
tween the different orders of the people ? 

IV. In what respects were the usual forms of trial abandoned 
JO the case of Milo 1 Independently of this Oration, ha» any jnfor- 

for Junior Sophs^ 1S24. . 339 

mation been left which may guide us in forming an opinion of bis 
crimimility ? Give an accoont of his subsequent fortune. 

V. Mention the orators who preceded Cicero at Home, or were 
this oontemporartes, and the peculiarities by which, in his opinion^ 
the eloquence of each was distinguished. 

VI. Give the statement, made by Cicero, of. the course which 
he pursued for perfecting himself in the art of oratory. 

Vn. Mention the public offices which were held by Cicero, and 
the dates of his appointment to them. What circumstances 
caused him to undertake the government of Cilicia ? Give an ac- 
count of his proceedings in that province. 

VIII. '* Cn. Pompeii justissimi viri." State some instances in 
the conduct of Pompey towards Cicero by which the propriety of 
the epithet here applied to him may be estimated. 

IX. At what times were the different Comitia instituted 1 Ex- 
plain the formation of them, and tlfe purposes, peculiar to each, 
lor which they were assembled 

X. Give an historical explanation of the following passages : 
''In qua tandem urbe hoc homines stultissimi disputant? 

Nempe in ea, quae primum judicium de capite vidit M. Ho- 
ratii, fortissimi viri: qui,nondum libera civitate, tamen po- 
puli Romani comitiis liberatus est." 

'' Doctis^imi homines memoriae prodiderunt, eum qui patris 
ulciscendi causa matrem necavisset, variatis hominum sen- 
tentiis, non solum divina, sed etiam sapientissimae deae sen- 
ten tia liberatum." 

'' Quae ego vidi Athenis 1 quae aliis in urbibus Graeciae 1 quas 
res divinas talibus institutas viris 1 quos cantus 1 quae car- 
mina? prope ad immortalitatis et religionem et memoriam 

XENOPHON. Anabasis, I. 11. 

I. By whom, and when, was the office of Satraps instituted 1 
What was the nature of the office 1 and how many were there of 


II. Draw an outline of a Map extending from the ^gean, and 
marking the relative positions of the principal places mentioned 
by Xenophon in his first two books. 

III. By what other name was Lydia called 1 What different 
families successively reigned in iti Enumerate in order the kings 
of the last family ; and mention, with dates, the events by which 
that family acquired the throne, and by which their empire was 

IV. Give the English values of the iapeucis, olicXos, olyXosg 
KWiBiif x^^^ irapaffdyyiitt ardiiov^ wKidpov, opyvid. 

340 Technical Memory. 

V. Explain the follqwing phrases: OiaOai ra ^Xa— l^cpe mi 
ijycr — d/ii^l &yopav w\fiOov(raV'-^€hvo'iK&$ i\eiy — erajfitiaar ewl rer- 

VI. Translate and explain efx(iaXX€i els tov MalaySpw, Also, 
Sirm p,^ iarai Im rf abeXff. What other senses has lire with a 
dative case t 

VII. Distinguish accurately the ovKiTai, yJMXdl, and TreXTCLtnaL 
What Grecian nations excelled in different kinds of military force? 
and which of them are mentioned in these two Books with their 
characteristic excellence 1 

VIII. What were the dialects of the Greek language 1 In which 
did Xenophon write! Mention some particulars in which his 
style differs from other stages of the same dialect. 

IX. Sipin^ iiTTfiOtls T^ l^o,xP' What battle was this ? Give its 
date in years B.C. and Olympiads. Do the same with the battle 
of IssuSy and describe its geographical situation. 

X. Explain the following assertion of Tissaphemes : eyw yeirjuy 
oIkQ rp *EXKabu 

XI. Translate the following : 

1. Kal Tois (TTpaTiufTais uKl>€l\€TOfxio06s vXiov rj rpiwv fxtivwV xal 
TToXKaKis i6yT€$ km ras Ovpas awnrovy, *0 Ik kXiribas Xkyiay biiiye' 
cat bfjXos Jiv aviufxeyos' oh yap r[v irpos tov Kvpov rpdirov i^ovra iiif 

2. 'Ev TOVT^ hk rf TOir^ ?jv fikv 4 yv ^cbiov, &vav ofiaXoy Caawep 
QaXaTTaf a\ptydiov bk TrXfjpes' ei bi n Kal &XXo evfjy vXi/s ^ KaXdfdov, 
Avayra Ijy €vu}br}, davep apufxara* biybpoy b* oitbky eyjjy, Qijpia bk, 
irXeloTOi fiky oi &yptoi oyoi, oifK oXiyai bk arpovOol al /ueyaXat* kyfjaay 
bk Kal QtTibes Kal bopKabes' ravra bk to, drjpla ol iTrirets kbitoKoy iytore* 
Kac ol /iky ciyoi, kirei ris biu)K0i, Trpobpafjioyrei ayeiarrlKeffay' iroXv yap 
TOV Ittttov QcLTToy erpexoy Kal iraXiy evrel TrXrjtnaSoi 6 tirwos, ravTa 
ewoiovy &<tT€ ovk Jjy Xa^eiy, ei firj biaardyrcs oi linceis Orjp^ey biabc" 
j(6fieyoi rols tnirois* 


No. II.' — [Continued from No. LL] 

I HAVE already troubled you with some observations relative 
to artificial memory : but I am so confident of its utility in a 
great variety of respects^ that I am unwilling to drop the sub- 
jecty and cherish the hope that I shall be able, from time to time^ 
to bring under your notice fresh results of this study. 
In No. 51. of your Journal I made some remarks which 

Technical Memory. 341 

were intended to be general. I stated, however, two or three 
particular illustrations of my design. By them we were ena- 
bled to arrive at an easy method of remembering the duration of 
the iriru\ia-fMs, the date of ApoUonius Tyaneus, and the difference 
of the expressions^ pollicempremo, and pollicem verto. 1 purpose 
to continue these particular instances^ and am confident thalt 
ihany^ who now read without benefit, would by a little attention 
stay the swift flight of knowlege ; fi^ in the mind those flutterii^ 
facts which wander there in confusion ; and, by giving them a 
local habitation, enable themselves to say of them in die words 
of Ulysses: 

OlS', ov yap eixpag xapSlag iifouvi fMV. 
After premising that no order is to be expected in the position 
of the following facts, I proceed to particularise a fourth memo- 
rial association. It was not until a few weeks since that I dis- 
covered that I had from time to time read and forgotten the 
Glyconic and the Pherecratic measures. I determined to invent 
some mode by which these metres should not elude my me- 
mory hereafter. 4. I fixed the Glyconic by this Glyconic of 
Horace : * Urit me G^cerae nitor/ 5. The Pherecratic by a 
line of the same writer in this metre : ' Insignemque phareira,* 
And thus by a little exertion I succeeded in imprinting on my 
mind tivo points of knowlege, which no care or attention had 
hitherto been able to secure. 

6. In Falpy*s Grammar, p. 12, we are told, that *a contrac- 
tion of two syllables into one, without a change of letters, is 
called Synaeresis :' and that, * if there is a change of vowels, 
it is called Crasis.' How shall we^ remember this ? For the 
difference does not seem suggested by the derivation of the 
words. In Sj/naresis, a and e are contracted into one vowel, 
the word remaining the same. This is a sufficient distinction. 
7- ' The penultima of comparatives in kov, is long in the 
Attic, short in the Ionic and Doric dialects.' Valpyh Gram- 
mar, p. 153. Consider a word like xaXXlovi^ at the end of an 
Iambic line in the dialogue of Euripides. 

8. The Choriambic foot consists of one long, followed by 
two short, and one long. By an inversion we obtain blccho- 
riamb. Though, it must be confessed, this may be better known 
from the choreus, and the iamb. Some grammars, we have 
observed, state the choriamb, but omit the choreus, which' is 
synonymous with the trochee. 

^ 9. The Ionic a niajore we obtain from the word majoribfis. 
The Ionic a minore is v^ — , the reverse of the former. 

10. The Proceleusmatic I remember by repeating iVb two 
first syllables^ which are Latin words ; pT^SOb ^\q^^» 

S42 Technical Memory. 

U. The Dochmiac by prefixing its two last syllables: m&s- 
dochmiac. ' 

12. The first of the Pasonic feet is '^•^^^. Paeonia, a district 
of Macedonia^ is so marked. The second places the long syU 
Jable in the second place : and so the thirds and the fourtn^ in 
the corresponding places. The measure of the Epitrite feet is 
precisely the reverse of this. Thus, the third Paeoo is '-'v/-^ : 
the third Epitrite is — v/-. 

13. *ETvifu¥ro is an instance of the Antispastic. The termi- 
nation avTQ, the same number of syllables in these words, and the 
past tense of the Greek word, cannot fail to bring this to the 
memory. — Terv^o is an instance of the Amphibrachys: but the 
derivation of the word, meaning a short syllable on either side, 
takes away the necessity of any artificial association. The Am- 
phimacer is easily remembered for the same rjsason. it had 
been well for science, had all words been formed thus conveni- 
ently for the purposes of the memory. 

1 4. The Bacchic is «^ ~. Now lacchus and Bacchus are used 
for the same person. The term lacchic will fix in the mind the 
measure of this foot. 

15. The P3frrhic may be remembered by the word a-i/pi. 

16. The Molossus is marked like the united words /uttuAo; and 
CVS I ft-coAocro-u^. 

17. '' Latins patet 6iio(lvXog quam ojxoedvo^," says SchweighaBih' 
ser ad Polyb. i. 10. The former is more full than the latter. 

18. In distinguishing the accentuation of words in r/xrco, rpifa, 
&c. Dr. Valpy {Gr, Gr. p. 168*) writes: ^ koLorpi^os^ he who 
feeds the people : • . . Aaorpo^o^, he who is fed by the people.' 
Who can forget this part of an hexameter : Xa | org^e^ | he who 
is I fed by the | people. 

19- Of the two Plinys the elder was the naturalist. We 
often hear of * natu maximus,' seldom of ^ natu minimus.' 

20. ' Cohors ' was larger than 'manipulus.' Think of a mere 

21. Cicero reckons three Jupiters. The termination of Ju- 
pi/e^*' may establish the fact in the memory. 

22. ' Attici dicunt T/9ij|tAi, r/flijj, r/flijo-i,' says Dawes. *Ai ^ v^i 
will make this easy. , 

23* Z^(ro»r6, and/taAAov ay.l(ro//x)]v are solecisms. The oi in 
these words and in o-oAoixtcfto^ will make this plain. 

24. We readily know, and never mistake the quantity of adi- 
tns, obitus; why should Me perpetually hesitate in^ that of 
coitu^ and abitus i 

25. T^i)(Oi is, cursus : rpoxh} fota. That is €ur%UB, which 
has the acute. 

Teehmdal Memory. 343 

26. ^' j'^ovSvAofi: quidam ciroySuXoi;, minus Atticie/' Porson 
ad Phoen. 1428. That is, some spoil it by writing <nro-ySJxof;. 

27.1 Monk says, ad HippoU 37, that atvim has for its future 
ulfia-ai in Homer, aivia-n in the Tragics. This is easily remem^ 
bered : as a'ma-tis eannot be admitted into Homer's verse* 

28. The quantity of lAixpos will be easily remembered, fironi 
the circumstance, that, were it a pyrrhic, no controversy w^uld 
exist as to the pronunciation of ' omicron/ 

29. The Alcaic stanza may be learnt from that stanza in 
Horace : * Noa, si priores Masonius tenet | Sedes Homerus; 
PindaricsB latent, | Ceaeque et Alcai minaces, | Stesichorique 
graves Camoenae/ Nor will the stanza, beginning with ^ Sappho 
puellis,' &c. interfere with this, on the ground, that that stanza 
might with equal propriety be called, a Sapphic, and therefore 
deceive us ; since that passage must be considered as ambiguous; 
as it contains the name of Alcaeus as well as of Sappho : ' Al^ 
case, plectro,' &c. 

30. ' 'i4yrfX«e{6T* edd. Mss. Quod dedi, (sc. avreKilitn') est c 
Schol. Altera forma utuntur Attici, ut Orest. 446. sed hand 
praeferunt/ Porson ad Med. 1213. The passage in the 
Orestes is this : 'A?J^ avriXa^ou xa) t^ovoov Iv tm fiipn. Here it 
is manifest that avrtXat^va-o would not have suited the metre. 
Hence we may remember the distinction, by imagining that avrt^ 
A^^ucro would have been introduced into the passage in preference, 
had it been metrically correct, 

I shall bring this number to a conclusion by a few genera) 
observations. The uvlit^ of this science, if we may dignify the 
system by so high and venerable a title, is sufficiently demon- 
strated by the custom of the earliest ages, still existing, and perr 
haps gaining ground in our day, of softening the difficulties of 
committing ethical and sacred maxims to the memory, by the 
sweet numbers of the muse.' The ' '^/tf "Exlvi];, Helenam 
propter,' and other metrical rules, may not be distinguished 

Vlt is singular, however, that the author of Lilb/'s Grammor has con* 
tnved to leave a difficulty, which is perfectly uncalled-for and unneces- 
sary. In such lines or parts of lines as * Callis, caulis, follis, collis,' * £t 
vermis, vectis, postis/ • Mos, flos, ros, et Tros, mus, deiis, mons, pons, 
simul et fons,' ^Rus, thus, jus^ crus, pus/ &c. how could it have escaped 
the writer not to place wordsof similar termination in alphabetical order^ 
as < Crus, jus, pus, rus, thus,' ^ Flos, mos, . . . dens, fons, mons, simul et 
pons'? 'CoUis^. similarly should precede 'foliis,' and is besides easiljr 
remembered when following ' caulis/ This irregularity has been avoided 
in Valpy's Metrical Rules > which have been topied in Granft ImtUutei 

344 Classical Criticim* 

indeed for the harmony or softness of the poetry : but the 
confinement of certain necessary parts of knowlege within the 
limits of versification is of course intended for facilitating their 
remembrance. The very earliest knowlege we acquire in this 
country is impressed on the memory by die same means : for 
who is ungrateful enough not to acknowlege himself indebted 
for some of the earliest points of his information to the metrical 
smg-song of ' Thirty days hath September^' and ' The Ram^ the 
Bull^ the heavenly Twins ' f The very common remembrance 
of the appearance of the 'Rutupina ostrea' for sale in our shops^ 
by the fact that they are in season in the months which have the 
letter r, is founded on the principle of facilitating knowlege. 
It may be objected^ that there is but little dignity in this method: 
but utility is preferable to illiterate dignity; and knowlege, 
acquired by this mode, is decidedly preferable to ignorance 
without it. The acquisition of knowlege, gained by whatever 
means, will always shed a lustre on the meanest individual : and 
every objection to our plan may easily be refuted by the very 
common truth : Vita brevis, ars longa. 



On the Origin of the Adverbs Alio^ Aliquo^ Eoy Eodem, 
IllOy QuOy Quocunqucy Quolibety Quonam^ Quopiam^ 
Qtioguo, Quoquam, Utro, Utroque. 

These, and perhaps a few more adverbs which end in the 
letter o, and involve as a common conception the point where a 
body that has been in motion stops, or a metaphorical meaning 
strictly analogous, have perplexed and embarrassed every gram- 
marian that has hitherto directed his thoughts to the history of 
their origin. Some maintain that they are obsolete datives of 
the several pronouns to which they are allied; others regard 
them as ablatives ; one critic of note asserts that they may be 
either datives or ablatives, according to the relation in which 
they stand to the rest of that particular sentence in which they 
happen to occur ; and others contend that they are accusatives 
plural. From this difference of opinion among the learned it 
may be lawfully inferred, that the derivations which they have 

< Chsmal Criticism^ 345 

^given were distinctlj felt to accord imperfectly withllie ineaning 
of the words themselves^ and that the termination alone deterred 
iiiem from adopting others more appropriate and intellisible. 
•Facciolati in his account of Eo and Eodem evidently follows 
the general opinion that they are ablatives/ whilst Gesner, less 
decided, views Quo as being in certain of its significations closely 
-allied to a dative, and as having in others a more striking aflBnity 
to the ablative.' Neither case, however, seems at all fitted to 

' Eoj, ^9 oo2^ abla^vus pronominis. J«, Jd, adverbii more adhibitus et 
multa significans. Primo enim est illuc, in eum locum, &c. 

fiodem. Id in tpid mtdedmo luogOf ablativus pronotjainis Idem adverbii 
more usurpatimi, et significat in eundem locum. Faccioh sub Voce. 
'Xo tt Eodem* 

Quo adverbialiter cum pomttir ihterdum ex ablativo ortum videtur, tU eum 
M^unctos sibi habet comfarativos^ magis, minus, &c. (Quo when construed 
with the comparative is no adverb, but a true ablative of the pronoun, 
and ought on no account to be' confounded with the adverb of ][>lace, 
which has led to these remarks.) Interdum es dativo secundts declinationiSf 
cum expliceri potest per ad ouid, vel cui rei. Forte ad dativufn sunt qui re- 
feranty cum est adverbium toci, ad quern vel in quern itur* Gesn. Thes. 
sub voc. Quo, 

Ferizonius in his notes uppn Sanctii Minerva, pag. 489* ed. 1714. 
Axnstel., professes to entertain no doubt whatever that Quo is the dative 
of Qui. Quin et in dativo, says the learned critic, a Qui dixerunt olim 
. Quoi, quod frequens apud Plautum et Lucretiuni, et sine i Quo. Nam 
sine dubio dativus est Quo in hisce, Quo tendis f Quo cum pervenissent, 
apud Uv. i. 57. Quo secures attulisti ? apud Petron. p. 38. Mortis verp 
signum quo mihi pacis auctori ? Cic. Fam. 7. 23. In prioribus intelligitur 
loco, in posterionbus usui vel negotio, per cujus ellipseos notionem refer* 
tur id ad omne genus et numerum. Notwithstanding the author's sine 
dubiOf nothing more is necessary than to answer any one of the questions 
which he has put to demonstrate that Quo is no dative. Take, for in- 
stance, the first, Quo tendis f Would a Roman answer to this, Fenusia 
tendo; or Pu/eo/ts tendo? Neither Cicero nor Pliny sanction any such 
construction. Horace indeed gives Carthagini nuntios mittam; but 
• Carthagini seems in this passage to signify the people^ not the place, for 
Cartke^niensibus civibus meis, as we say misit mihi Uteras, 

Sanctius maintains that these adverbs are accusatives plural; thus 
Quo tendis ? ad qucB tendis ? vel qua ad f vel qtue usque ? quasi sit ad qua 
loca usque f Nam mihi sunt accusativi plurales, ut, quousque, L e. ad quae. 
Id. pp. 525, 526. atque ibi Perizon. The author of the Port-Royal Gram- 
,mar, and Ruddiman, seem to concur in opinion with Sanctius ; of these, 
however, the latter is obviously in extreme doubt whether to refer them 
to the dative singular or the accusative plural. Quo (quod vulgo pro ad- 
verbio accipiunt; antiquus dativus esse videtur. Potest etiam dici quo 
pro neutro plurali qua esse positum per ellipsiu prsepositiouis ad. Again, 
Sic eo et Ulo (quae vulgo advcrbiis accensentur) antiqui accusativi fuerint, 
pro ad ea vel ula negotia, loca, &c. Nisi malis ad dativum sing, haec re- 
ferre. Gram. Maj. Vol. i. p. 203. Neyir Method, &c. £ng. Transit 1758. 
JSook 6. Sect. 1. Cb. 1. 5. p. 94. Vol. ii. 

346 Classical Criticiim. 

conyey the idea of motion teroiinated at the point which thoc 
adverbs describe^ a conception which in Latin it seems the 
province of the accusative alone to express. Our object m the 
following remark s, accordingly^ is to prove by such evidence as 
the case will admit, that these words were originally the accusa- 
tives of their respective roots* This opinion is not only counte- 
nanced by the meaning of the several words, but derives power- 
ful additional support from such forms of construction as the 
following: Quo tu te agis? Quonanij nisi domum? Plaut 
Trin. 4. 3. 71' Quo te, Noeri, pedes? an, quo via ducit, in 
urbem? Virg. £cl. ix. 1. i. e. an in urbem, quern in hcumm 
ducit f Quonam haec omnia, nisi ad suam pemiciem pertinerei 
Caps. B. Civ. i. 9* i- c. ad quidnam, nisi ad, &c. 

At a period in the history of the Latin language contempo- 
raneous with that in which we may suppose these words to have 
assumed their adverbial character, the elision of the final m oc^ 
curs so frequently as to afford us, without violating any known 

Principle whatever, at least a plausible solution of the difficulty, 
'he rejection of this letter in verse, when it is the terminating 
•consonant before a word which begins with a vowel^ and the 
well-known fact, that in the oldest inscriptions its absence as a 
final letter is almost universal, furnish rational grounds for be- 
lieving that these adverbs may without any obvious impropriety 
:be referred to the accusative case singular. At an early period, 
-of which, however, distinct traces still remain, this case in words 
of the second declension, as the roots of all those adverbs mani- 
festly are, terminated uniformly not in t/m, but in om or o. The 
-extant proofs of this peculiarity are too numerous and too well 
authenticated to leave any room for imputing it to accident or 
the engraver's oversight. It is to this antiquated form of the 
' accusative then, and not to datives or ablatives singular, nor to 
accusatives plural, that we think the language indebted for such 
words as Quo, Eo, Eodem, &c. ; and the ellipsis may, we con- 
ceive, in perfect accordance with existing constructicHis, and the 
actual meaning of the abbreviated or adverbial form, be thus 
supplied ; Quom (in locom) : Eom (in locom) : Eomdem (in lo- 
com): &c. 

It seems not improbable that the Romans imparted somewhat 
of a nasal enunciation to their m and n ; and that it is from them 
that such of the continental languages as are the immediate de- 
scendants of the Latin have derived this marked peculiarity of 
utterance. Hence the Omnis of the Romans slides with faciUty 
into the Ogni of the modern Italians, and hence the ancient 
writers, as is remarked by Columna on Ennii Frag. Hestdiii 

Clamcal Criticism. 347 

p. 182. used adoenies for adveniens, abses for absens^ 6cc, It 
seems |Mrobable then that in ordinary coBversation the pronun- 
ciation of the soft final m was scarcely perceptible, and in some 
words the existence of the letter was at last forgotten. But 
when the language became an object of more genersd study, 
wfien^ in consequence of the progressive improvement of the 
people at large, it became more cultivated and refined, and its 
grammatical principles were more perfectly understood, its 
sounds were uttered with greater clearness and precision, and the 
indistinctness of the unlettered age which had passed away ftras 
succeeded by that fulness of articulation which every polished 
people is ambitious to employ. In a writing and a reading age, 
besides, the eye and the ear exert themselves conjunctly to s^ 
cure for each letter a distinct utterance ; in the ages of rudisr 
antiquity, when written documents are far from bein^ familiar 
even to the best informed, the ear alone, whose decisions yield 
in accuracy to those of the eye, is the only guide to whose 
counsel and direction it is permitted to resort. Hence there 
seem to be grounds for concluding, that in an early state of so^ 
ciety those letters that are uttered with a soft and somewhat 
inaudible sound are frequently lost, and, even when the intro* 
duction of writing b^ns to give stability to the external forma 
of the language^ are not al ways ^resumed, though their absence 
is sometimes indicated by such marks as have been invented to 
announce an incomplete orthography. When, however, llie 
superior cultivation of the people has rendered the perfection of 
their language an object of care and attention, the anomalies 
which originate in conversation gradually disappear, and the more 
full and perfect forms of the language are, partially at least, re- 
stored. It need not then surprise us much to observe the oc- 
currence of words in the earliest remaining monuments of the 
Latin language deprived of certain essential letters, which in its 
more advanced state again resume their proper place ; nor on 
the other hand ought it to be held wonderful, if, in many cases, 
letters that at one time formed primary constituents in the struc- 
ture of certain words, when they were, once dropped, were ever 
afterwards forgotten and neglected. Now if, agreeably to these 
doctrines, it can be shown, either from any peculiarity in the 
pronunciation of the final m in the most improved state of the 
language, or from the monuments and inscriptions of earlier 
times, tbatjt was not sounded or but feebly articulated, and that 
in inscriptions it was of so little consequence as to be often en- 
tirely disregarded, we are certainly warranted to conclude, that 
no objection can be drawn from the circumstance that £q, Quo, 

348 Clasmal Criticism^ 

&c. want the final m, so powerful as to render it absdlateljriie^ 
cessary to resort to any other case than the accusative for the ' 
solution of the apparent difficulty which their termination in- 
volves. . '^ 

Of the facility with which the Romans^ even in the most per-'' 
feet state of their literature^ dispensed with their final m, none 
can entertain any doubt who recals to mind the fact already- 
alluded to^ and familiar to the most ordinary scholar^ its regular 
elision in every kind of verse^ when the following word begins '■ 
with a vowel. As this elision is universal^ we cannot be per- 
suaded to consider it as a poetical licence^ nor an unauthorised 
innovation on the established pronunciation of Latium. The 
poet was taught it by the practice of his country , and merely 
adhered to a usage which he found he had neither the right nor 
the power to alter. 

Again, in regard to the final m of the accusative singular^ ge- ; 
nitive plural, &,c. we may observe, that its obscure enunciation 
appears to have led to its exclusion from all inscriptions of very 
ancient date. Some contrivance, indeed, such as the apostrophe 
before s of the English genitive, may possibly in these cases 
have been employed to denote the absence of a letter, though 
none such, so far as 1 know, is mentioned by those who have 
examined, collected, and arranged the inscriptions that remain. ' 
Of the fact itself there cannot perhaps be adduced a stronger 
and more conclusive proof than that furnished by the inscription 
dug up about three centuries ago near the Porta Capena, com- 
memorative of the reduction of Corsica and Aleria by L. Scipio, 
a son of Scipio Barbatus. It is thus exhibited by Sirmond and 
Aleander : and by Hobhouse, Illustrations, &c. p. 1 70. See also 
the preceding page of the same author, where he quotes another 
inscription equally illustrative of the opinion which we have ad- 

Hone oino ploirume. cosentiunt. R. Luonoro. optumo fuise. 
viro Lucio M. Scipione filios Barbati Consol. Censor. Aidilis. 
hie fuet. Hie cepit Corsica Aleriaque urbe. Dedet tempes- ' 
tatibus. Aide mereto. These words in the orthography of a 
later age are as follows : Hunc unum plurimi consentiunt Roma 
bonorum optumum fuis$e virum Lucium M. Scipioneni. Filius 
Barbati, Consul, Censor, Mdilis hicfuit. Hie cepit Corsicdm 
Aleriamque urbem, Dedit tempestatibm (zdem merito,^ The 

^ Sed et patet illud, quod dixi, ex antiquissima inscriptione L. Scipio- 
nis, ubi m in aliquot vocabulorum extremo omittitur, tanquam litera olim 
minus, at a posterioribus magis frequentata, vel certe adscititia, et ideo 

Classical Criticism. 349 

omission of the final m throughout this inscription caHnot be 
accidental. The peculiarity which so strikingly attracts our at- 
tention, in contemplating this very ancient r^lique^ gives a strong 
appearance of plausibility to the opinion which has been ad- 
vanced ; and when we consider that this explanation coincides 
perfectly with the signification which the words referred to bear^ 
whilst all others deviate fi-om it more or less, the evidence in 
favor of the origin for which we contend seems to be as clear, 
full, and consistent, as the philologist can reasonably expect. 

The termination am is well ascertained to be a more ancient 
form of the accusative than um in words of the second declen- 
sion, nor can it for a moment create a doubt in the mind of any 
intelligent inquirer. On somewhat better grounds, however, 
it may be questioned how Quo can be a product of Quern ; a 
position obviously assumed when we maintain that to all the 
words mentioned, in locum must be supplied to fill up the ellip- 
sis in their construction. 

Whatever be the rationale of the declensions — whether, as 
many grammarians think, their number may safely be restricted 
to three, or whether they may be divided into five, as is uni- 
formly done by the practical teacher of the language, or whether 
they may with still greater propriety be reduced to one, iappears 
oil this occasion to be a question which it is of little consequence 
to investigate. That the same word assumes the garb sometimes 
of one declension, sometimes of another, is a fact of too ordi- 
nary occurrence to be denied; and the simple mention of this 
circumstance is sufficient to account for the apparent anomaly, 
observable in attempting to derive Quo from Quern. Quo, qua, 
quo, in the ablative; quorum, quarum, quorum, and quels, in the 
genitive and dative plural, with other cases as analogically formed 
as these, clearly demonstrate the relation subsisting between Qui 
and words of the first and second declension; whilst Quibus, the 
obsolete nominative plural ques, quern, cui, &c. evince its affinity 
to the third. The forms cuimodi and cuicuimodi too, which are 
decidedly genitives, refer us at once to Quus, or Cuus, a, um, as 
their nominative, and prove the regular inflexion of this word in 
ancient times, either as an adjective of the first and second de- 
clensions, or of the third, at the pleasure of the writer. From this 
Quus then is formed in the accusative Quum, or Quom, or Cum,^ 

addi modo, modo omitti, solita. Denique colligitur id e% eo etiam, quqd 
tola haec consonans in metro, sequente vocali, eliditur. Perixon. in 
Sanqt Min. p. 487. Ed. Amstel. 1714. 

350 De quantitaie syUaiHirumjWcipitum 

which grammarians denominate adverb, conjunction, or. prepo- 
sition, according to the place it holds, and the duty it performs, 
in a sentence.' There can be no doubt^ then, that the acirusadve 
vras anciently quom ; and, if this is admitted^ we have only to 
contend for the facility with which the elision of the final m is 
effected to establish a perfect coincidence between the form of 
the word and its appropriate and characteristic meaning. This 
correspondence between the origin and the meaning — a corre- 
spondence which ought to be the groundwork of* every philolo- 
gical investigation— -cannot, on any principle with which we 
are acquainted, be reconciled with the formation of these words 
from any other case than that to which we have referred them. 
If sucn be the origin of Qmo, the other wprds mentioned are 
so obviously formed on the same principle as to need no further 
illustration or comment. 

A,* J2« C* 
Edinburgh, April, 1824. 


Fortuitus, GratuittiSy Pituita. 

** Gratuitus sicut et fortuitus, auctoritate Horatii contra val- 
gum, penultima producta/' Chr. Becmani Bomensis Manur 
ductio ad L. Lt necnon de Origg. L. L., Hanoviae 1629. p. 
514. ' 

*' A Jbrte est fortuitus ; ut a gratis, gratuitus* Fortuito 
non tarn adverbium est, quam quasi adverbium. Nam intelli- 
gitur casu, luterdum tamen junctim legas, Casu et fortuito. 
Sed turn potius fortuitu scribendum, ut est in melioribus Ubris. 
—--Ex gratiis autem factum gratis xuTci (ruyxox^v: a quo gra- 
tuitus : ut 2i forte, fortuitus J^ Jo. G. Vossii Etym. £. Xr. 

** Fortuitus, paenuhima producitur ab Horatio Od. 2, 15, 17. 

' The preposition, as it is called, seems to imply time, and intimates 
that some act or condition is contemporaneous with another' mentioned. 
It is spelt quom in an inscription quoted by Lanzi, p» t54. Dr. Butler's 
derivation from <rvy or ofMv is not, we think, probable. See bis Praxis, 
&c. But this subject would require a dissertation. 

in Portuitu^t Gratuitui^ Pituita. SSl 

Necfartuitum spernere cewHem Leges tmebant. Sic Phsedrus 
^y4f4. Auson. in vii Sap. de Sohne v, 3. At Manih 1, 
182. Petron. Sat.c. 135 JuvenaL Sat. 13, 225. et alii corri* 
piuDt : nisi oralis ad synaeresim recurrere, et trisyllabam vocem 
facere : quod tamen durius esse videtur.*' Forcellini Lex. tot. 
jMtin. *^ Gratuitus, psenultima syllaba brevis est^ Stat. SUy. 
1, 6^ 16, Quidquid nobile Ponticis nucetis^ Quod ramis pia 
germinat Damascus^ Largis gratuitum cadit niinis. Posse 
tamen prodnci quidam putant, exeroplo rod fortuitus ap. Horat. c.y^ Forceffin. 

* '' Fortuito, mediam ut plurimum producit, Plaut.ilii/, 1, t, 
41. Horat. Od. (I.e.) Nee fortuitum spernere cespitem. Sic 
gratuitus, pituita.'* Ph. Parei Lex. Cr. '* Gratuita opera. Cist. 
A, 2y 74.. penultima longa^ ut ap. Horat./or^utViim/' Pareus. 

** ' Fortuitus/ inquit Serv. in JEn. 6, 179. ftur in antiquam 
silvam etc. ' ab eundo est et a fortuna compositum.' Quod 
▼anum : itus est termination ut m gratuitus. Sed illud recte, 
quod ibidem ait, 'Producit autem I, et corripit/ laudatque 
J uvenal. Sat. 13. extr. Non quasifortuitu nee ventorum rabie, 
sed Iratus eadat in terras^ et vindicet ignis. Et contra Horat. 
Carm. (1. c.) Hie enim nisi I litera longa sit, non stat versus. 
Hactenus ille. Versus Horatii est alcaicus dactylicus; tui 
aecundus pes est iambus. Sic corripitur Manil. 1, 182. Nam 
neque fortuitos ortus surgentibus astris : producitur in illo tro* 
chaico Auson. vii Sap. Solon., Non erunt honores unquam 
fortuiti munerisJ* Gesner. THes. L. L. 

'' Gratuitus, quantitas tertian syllabae prorsus est anceps, 
eodem modo ut in fortuHus, cujus tertiam Horatius produxit 
(1. c.) Stat Sih. 1, 6, 16. Et quas pracoauit Ebosita cannas, 
Largis gratuitum cadit rapims. Sunt pbaleucL'' Gesner. 

'' FortmtuSg aoceps est ; usitate autem corripitur. Plautus, 
Horatius, Ausonius, Bucliananus, et H^nsius produxerunt: 
Manilius contra et Juvenalis corripoerunt ; quorum tamen in 
lods qui cum Olao Borrichio in Pamasso in Nuce ad ▼• 830. 
4nnt^s9 comminiacuntur, ^uasiybr tui tus tribus syllabis loogis: 
ultima nempe ob sequentis Tocalmli incipientem consooantem 
per positiooem looga: dicti hi poetas posuissent, temere nituntur 
contra. Analogia emm, quae est in gratuitus, de quo panlo 
post, huic figmento obstat; si enim Papinius Statins penulti- 
mam in gratuitus corrifHt, cor non similiter eadem in Jortuitus 
corripi qucat ? Cf. Pott. Giess. 7 1 • et Voss. Jrt. Gramm. 2^7.^ 
Noheoii Xer. AtUirBarbarum 1,275. 

" Graf lAw, aocept ; luitate autem corripitur, DouMqni- 
VOL. XXIX. a. Jl. NO. LVIII. 2 A 

85£ De quantitate syllabarufn g^pit^m 

dem I. 1. Pnccidaneorum in Petron. 16. produci tantum 4«- 
bere contendiC ; sed contra Statii^ luculeotissimi poetae, auQton* 
tfui est 1. 1. Silv. Carm. u\u, ubi legas v. l6. Largis gnUui- 
turn cadit rapiniS' Neque enim hie comminiscenda o-t/y/ij^^i; 
est, quasi gratuitum tribus s^^Uabis dixerit Nusquam ^nim 
Papinius in phalaecis in hac regione, spondeo est usus, quod 
Catullus sibi permisit. Rectius igitiv statuetur penultimit 
anceps, ut eadem mfortuitus, de quo supra. Nam si Papinius 
tertiam in gratuitus corripuit, cur non similiter tertia in/orfut^tii 
corripi queat? Ac si Plautus, Horatius/Ausonius tertiam in 
fortuitus produxere, cur non ad illud exemplum tertiam quoqae 
in gratuitus producere liceat V Noltenius 1. c. p. 283. 

*^ At anceps est penuUima in fortuitus : quod aliqui semper 
corripi putarunt. Sed tantum abest^ ut evincant quod volunt^ 
ut ne illud quidem^ corripi earn posse, solide probent. Jiive- 
nalis versum adducunt, cui tres primae syllabse constituant da- 
ct^lum. Lociis est Sat, 13. 

Non quasi fortuitus f nee ventorum rabie, sed 

Iratus cadat in terras, et vi?idicet ignis. 
Ita enim ex Aldina et Ms. nostro legendum, nou judicet, ui in 
Yulgatis et altero est Ms. nostro. Sed profecto argumentum 
hoc invalidum est^ cum dici possit secundam et tertiam in far* 
tuitu s. fortuitus, (utrumque in Mss. legas^) contrahi xarci ifwI^ 
^<ri¥: quomodo et Horat. dixit £p. 1, 1. 

Pracipue sanus, nisi cum pituita molesta est. 
Nam produci primam^ liquet ex illo Catulli ad Furium, (23, 


A te sudor abest, abest saliva, 
Mucusque et mala pituita nasi. 
Sane pene ultimam in trochaicis istis liquido producit Plaut 
jful. actus 2, scena 1 : 

Post mediam tetatem, qui mediam ducit uxorem domum, 
Si earn senex anum pragnantemfortuitufocerit, 
Quid dubitas, quin sit paratum nomen puero Postumus f 
Apud liorat. quoque legere est (1. c.) 

Necfortuitum spemere cespitem 
Leges sinebant, 
£t ap. Auson. in Ludo Sapientum est iste trochaicus, 
Non erunt honor es unquam fortuiti mnneris. 
Estque scriptores hosce secutus Alciatus, cum scripait I. 2. 
Heipegy, Juris c. 7. 

Frustra putavit esse te, Virtus, datafn, 
Qu<efortuitis serviebas casibus. 
dNec ivi fortuitus tantum, sed in gratuitus quoqite eos iugit 

. ^ 

m Fortuitus^ Oratuitui^ Fituitoik' 953 

ratio, jyioii tamen assentio Jano Douza^, qui in Precidanei^aA 
Horat. (fL, 16.) to I in hujusmodi male corripi putat. Nan^api* 
Stat, eat phalaecius iUe Silv. 1. 

Largis gratuitum cadit rapinis" 
6. J. VoMii Aristarchus p. 104. 

'^ Hsc qui non considerety facile in quantitate labetur. Ita 
priDiaiD in pitmta corripere non dubitabit^ quia ap. Horat. 911 
^p. 1, 1,(108.) 

Prmdpue sanus, nisi cum pituita molesta est. 
At bic trisyllabum est. Produci vero primam, indicat CatuUi 
hoc od Furium, 

Mucus et mala pituita nasi. 
£t Persii istud Sat. 2, (57.) 

Somnia pituita qui purgatissima mittunt*^ 
Vo88« 1. c. p. 71. '^ Pituita per synaeresin vox est trisyllaba 
ap. Pers. (1. c.) Primam syllabam aperte producit Catullus ad 
Furium s. £3, 17. 

A te sudor abest, abest saliva, 

Mucusque, et mala pituita nasi. 
Itfltque trisyllabum etiam est ap. Hprat. Serm. 9,, £75. stomachth' 
que tumultum Iientaferet pituita^ et Ep. (1. c.)" Oesner* Thes. 
L. L. *^ Pituita^ humor redundans, ex ore naribusque fluens, 
producitur, Horat. Ep. (1. c.) ubi tamen synaeresi hoc vocabulum 
contrahitur in trisyllabum ; nam prima syllaba semper reperitur 
producta. Ol. Borrichii Parnmtus in Nuce ad v. 1630.'^ 
Noltenius 1. c. p. 332. ** Pituita, sanguis imperfecte coctus, 
humor crudus, aqueus, excrementitius, vel naturaliter vel praster- 
naturaliter in corpore genitus: quo pertinent mucus uarium,. qui 
ex capite redundati saliva, pblegma, phlegma ventriculi et inr 
testinorum : a ^rrveo et irirvco, Spuo, et virvieo, Coagulo: Ridet 
Quintil. 1, 6. (al. 10.) eum, qui dictam putavit, qmsipetatvitam. 
Prima syllaba producitur, et tertia, Catull. (1. c^ Secunda et terf^ 
tia aliquando per synasresin coalescunt, Pers. (1. c.) Horat. (I.e.)*' 
Forcellinus. *^ Sic et GatuUus pituita primam cum produxit, 
Mucusque et mala pituita naso, non corripuit Horat. sist cum 
pituita molesta est., Sed trisyllabum posuit ita ut medium ele- 
mentum, ^olicum fiat digamma : quod et elicitur ex ^ii Sto* 
lonis judicio, qui a petendo vitam duci ratus est." J . C. Scaiiger 
Poet. 7. p. 844. ^^ Pituita, J. C. ScaL (1. c) Catullus pituita 
primam produxit, Mucusque et mala pituita nasi" [ap. ScaL 
est naso,^ '' nee corripuit Horat. nist cum pituita molesta esL 
Sed trisyUabum posuit ita, ut medium elementum ^olicum fiat 
digamma: quodet elicitur ex £lii Stolonis judicio, qui a jie- 
tmdo vUam duci ratua est. QuintiL (I. c.) Quamvis aotem 

354 De quantitate sytlahantm andpitum 

pituita aliis formetor a tchra, quia sit knius hwncfr, adntskKT 
picis, tamen ^lium sublevat Plato, in Tinuto: ^Xeyfut Si j£i 
xa) oiX^pw in^ irirroov foaififjMTosf, %-« ylnrm xarapfoixa' iti 
8ff rovg rdwovs, tU od^ psi, xamHairobg Svra^ wamla yoo'^fMcra fiXiy- 
^fy. Et quia pituita vitae quasi hostis et plurimorum morbonun 
causa est, sane a petendo vitam inerito dicitur/' Cbr. Becmani 
Manuductio ad L. L. p. 850. ** Pituita si coacerretur aot 
corrumpatur, multos morbos saepeque mortem adferre solet, 
eoque ^lio Stoloni videbatur sic dicta, quia petat vitam. Quam 
etymologiam merito improbat Fabius (1. c.) Gnecis vocator 
fXiyiJM, quod, (ut est in £tym. M .,) ireipoi to fXiyn xar atriffor 
air ^^fVYgoraTOv yig hrri, Verum antiphrasis nihil est nisi iusci- 
tiae asylum. Quare videndum an non pituita potius dicatur a 
irfrra, i. e. Pix, nempe quia glutinoso lentore pici similis sit. 
Atque hoc etjmon ifirmat, quod eapse de causa etiam herba 
genus dictum sit irirra, cujus tactu, si cum melle teratur, digiti 
cohaerent, Plinio auctore. ^KsyfiM autem, ut ego quidem so- 
spicor, non ita quidem dicitur, quia sit per se igneum, sed quia 
per accidens causet febres. • Quippe ^Xiyiia 6^ xa\ aXftvpof miy^ 
wirrcov vo^iloltow Sara yiyyerai xara^^lxot, Pituita acida et salta 
fons est morborum, quicunque e distillatione Jiunt^ ut ait Platp 
in Timao." G. J. Voss. Etym. I^. L. 

The above passages are all, which I have seen on these con- 
troverted points, and from their juxtaposition it is no very trou- 
blesome matter to make our way through the difficulty and to 
put the student in possession of rules sufficient to direct his 

1 • To determine the quantity of the penultimate in fartuitus, 
gratuitus, we must de6ne the etymology of those .words. Ser- 
▼ius derivesybr^tithi5 from eo and fortuna : tile habeat seam 
servetque sepulcro. Vossius with more sense and feiici^ derives 
it {fom forte, and therefore considers uitus as the mere temiina* 
tion, and in like manner he derives gratuitus from gratis. Let 
US for a moment admit the absurd etymology of Servius — then 
the word fortuitus has its penultimate short to a certainty; for 
it would follow the same analogy^ as in circuitus: Virg, JE0u 

Undique circuitum, et certain quatit improbus hastam. 
But if we have recourse to the opinion of Vossius — then also (lie 
quantity is manifestly determined to be short,yar/i/t^tis. 2. But 
an objector will start up and say' that an adjective so formed and 
terminated is a novelty in tlie Latin language. 1 answer that 
the principle of formation and the kind of termination appear in 
at least two adjectives, ybr^KtVitf and gratuitus, anid tnerefore. 

. \mFortuitus9 Orgtuitusif Bittdta. 35S 

however novel the fact may be, it is not singular. And who, in 
the consciousness of universal knowlege and the pride, of accu« 
rate learning, will venture to assert that the whole compass of 
Roman literature supplies no other examples? Does not the 
parent Greek language abound with novelties, and even with sin- 
gularities ? For instance, XavSivtiMf, a word coined by Simonides 
(op. Aristot. Hist. Anim. 5, 8.) is formed against analogy, and 
to the best of my belief unsupported by any other Greek word of 
kindred formation. 3. The words circuitus and tennitas show 
that there was nothing in the sound oi fortmtus cacophonous 
enough to be rejected by the delicacy of a Roman ear. 4. The 
language of Roman satire, like the Greek iambic, approximates 
to common discourse, and, as Juvenal has used fortuitus, the 
probability is that the word was so pronounced in ordinary con- 
versation. 5. Statins has shortened the penultimate of gratut- 
tus, and would, no doubt, have served fortuitus in the same 
manner. But, supposing the common pronunciation to have 
been fortuitus^ gratultus^ neither gods nor men would have 
tolerated the impiety of a poet, who violated the sanctity 
of the language by substituting t for i. 5. The advocates for 
lengthening the doubtful syllable in prose confidently appeal to 
Horace as Augustan authority. But the authority applies only 
to verse, and undoubtedly a modern writer of Odes may follow 
the example of Horace. But 1 ask, has Horace treated any 
other word in a similar manner i If so, he has availed himself 
of a poetic licence, and bis authority in reference to prose will 
avail nothing. 6. Horace had the authority of Plautus to plead 
for his usage, and the language of Roman Comedy would -deter- 
mme the point in favor of Horace, if this be the only instance, 
in which Plautus can be himself accused of violating quantity 
to accommodate his verse. It may be reasonably supposed that 
in the time of Plautus great liberties were taken with the Roman 
tongue and that the quantity of many words had not been ob- 
served with uniform exactness by all Writers. ?• But cannot 
fortuitus and gratuitus be pronounced as trisyllables i I reply 
that they cannot be so pronounced in prose, because the Latin 
language has no diphthong ui, but the contraction of ti, i into ui 
may be occasionally admitted into poetry, as in the instance of 
pituita. It must, however, be confessed, (and I am indebted 
to a learned friend for the remark,) that in the £olic dialect, 
froin which the Latin is derived, the diphthong ui exists, as in 
tviSs op. Sapphonem. Priscian p. 22. : *^ Apud iEoles vi ssepe 
amittit vim liters in metro, ut Sotw^, *AKKi ro/S*.'' See Mait- 

356 On the Origin of Mihcm^'s Lycidas^ 

taire*8 Gr. L. Dfdiecti p. 327. 8. I shall be happy to see flfe 
subject, which I have attempted to discassi argued by abler pens 
than mine; and I claim no other merit than that of a pioneer, in 
clearing the ground for a future sidventurer, 


Thetford, May, 1824. 


Since the days of the impostor Lauder no one has dared to 
accuse Milton of plagiarism. It is far from the iotention of 
the writer of the following pages to fasten that charge on the 
immortal poet. Jf we look to the essay of Dr. Farmer on the 
learning of Shakspeare, or consult any of his numerous com- 
mentators, we find that all his dramatic and poetical works are 
built on some tale or history, yet we do not presume to consider 
him as a plagiary : therefore if we discover a monody on the same 
subject as that on Lycidas, treated in the same allegorical manner, 
similar in structure, containing the same imagery, and often the 
same expressions, we may conclude, that it was the model on 
which Lycidas was formed, without accusing Milton of intended 

It is singular that neither Warburton, Hurd, Warton, John- 
son, Todd, nor. any other acute and able commentators, dis- 
covered the source from which this monody was derived. 

Milton's profound knowlege of the language of Italy aod 
of her Latin writers is too virell authenticated to require farther 

Among the most celebrated of the Latin poets of Italy is 
Balthasab Castiolioni, a Mantuan, bom in 1468, who 
was made Bishop of Avila by the Emperor, when sent by 
Clement the Seventh on an embassy to that monarch. 

Castiglioni was distinguished for his learning and for his 
wprks in prose and verse. Some of his poetical compositions 
have been highly lauded by Julius Scaliger. Among his poems 

On the Origin of Milton's Lyddax 3d7 

is an elegy entitled Alcon. Serradiis qpeaking of thb poem 

sajs : 

Castilionius (sciHoet lolas) deflet poets Falconii Mantuani juvenis 
mortem, quern secum domi ab aetate ineunte aluerat, habueratque comi- 
tem et socium studiorum ac vigiliarum suaram omnium. 

Milton in his monody laments^ under the name of Lyoidas, 
his friend and fellow-student Edward King, who was ship- 
wrecked on his passage to Ireland in a crazy vessel, ^faich 
foundered during a calm, not far from the coast of England. 

The similarity in (he subjects of the Elegy of Alcon and 
the Monody of Lycidas is evident. Let us now exai|iia6;the 
manner in which both the poets have composed their poems. 

Milton allegorically says of Lycidas : 

For we were nursed upon the self-same hill, 
Fed the same flock by fountain, shade, and rill. 

lolas, i. e^ Castiglioni, tells of Alcon : . , 

Nos etenim^a teneris simul usque hue vixinun anrnis, 
l^rigora pertulimusque eestus, noctesquey diesque, 
Communique simul sunt pasta armenta labore. 

In the above quotations both are allegorically represented in the 
characters of Shepherds, each pursuing with his friend their 
pastoral avocations. 

Dunster acutely conjectured that the lines 

I come to pluck your berries harsh and crude; 

And with forced fingers rude. 

Shatter your leaves i>efoTe the mellowing year— 

w^re derived from these words of Cicero : 

£t quasi poma ex arboribus, cruda si sint^ vi avelluntur ; si matura 
et cocta, decidunt; sic vitam adolescentibus vis atifert, senibus maturi* 

The mind of Milton was so imbued with classic lore, that 
Dunster's suggestion bears the air of probability ; particularly 
as the word cruda is used by Cicero: but as the Elegy of 
Alcon contains the following lines, and since, as will be seen, 
the structure of the poem is throughout the same, I am inclined 
to consider the idea as emanating from 

Non metit ante diem lactentes messor aristas, 
Immatura rudis non carpit poma colonus. 

Milton tells us of his friend's untimely end : , 

For Lycidas is dead, dead ere his prime. 
Young Lycidas, and hath not left his peer. 

358 On the Origin of Milton's Lyddas. 

C«8tiglioiii cotnmenceB bis poem with 

Ereptum fatis primo sub flore juvents, 
Alcooem nemorom decus, et solatia amantum* 

Lyddas' love for tbe Muses is celebrated ; and the elegtiat 
latinism from tbe first epistle of Horace^ 

Seu amdu amabile carmen, 

is made to adorn the beautiful apostrophe— 

Who would not sine for I^cidas ? He knew 
Himself to sia^ and build the lofty rbyme^ 

Castiglioni thus speaks of bis friend : 

Alcon delicis Musarum et ApolliniSi Alcon 
Pars animae, &c. 

When tbe following lines from both tbe poets are considered 
together, it is presumed that the associieition of ideas wiU be too 
endent to require any metaphysical elucidation. 

Milton under the fictitious images of rural ^nployments 
describes his studies with his friend : 

Meanwhile the rural ditties were not mute. 
Tempered to the oaten flute'; 
Hough Satyrs danced, and Fauns with cloven heel 
From the glad sound would not be absent long ; 
And old Damcetas loved to hear our song. 

Castiglioni in the same figurative language writes : 

Quern toties IVmnt et Dryades sensere canentem. 
Quern toties Pan est, toties miratus Apollo, 
FUharU Pagtoret 

The former speaks of 

————Fauns with cloven heel. 

The latter enumerates among the mourners for Alcon, 

C apripedes Satyriscos. 

Milton in the following words conveys a poetical and touch- 
ing[ thought : 

The willows, and the hazel copses green, 

Shall now do more be seen 

Fanning their joyous leaves to thy soft lays. 

the origin of which is found in 

Non tecum posthac moUi resupinus in umbra 
Effugiam longos sstivo tempore soles ; 
Non tua vicinos mulcebit fistula montes, 
Docta nee umbross resonabunt carmina; valles. 

On the Otiginof MUtOD's Lyddoi. 359 

Even the line 

Ay me! I fondly dream 

has a thought responsive to it in 

Vana mibi incassum fingebam somnia demens. - 

In the ensuing verses of our Englidi l)ard are a few lines 
on which I wish to offer some remturk^ since the reference of 
Milton has not been noticed by Warton : 

Were it not better done, as others use 
To 8i>ort with Amaryllis in the shade. 
Or with the tangles of Neasra's luiir? 

These lines contain a sarcastic allusion to Buchanan^ who 
often wandered from his severer studies to sfort with Amaryllis, 
or sing of Neasra : . 

Cum das basia, nectaris Neaera 
Das m! pocula, das dapes Deonim, 
Ut factus videar mihi repente 
Unas e numero DeAniy Deisve 
Siquid altius est, beatiusve. 

Milton was residing in the country when he wrote the 
monody on his friend, consequently his mind was alive to every 
rural image ; yet even this lament. 

Thee, Shepherd, thee the woods, and desert caves 
With wild thyme and the gadding vine o'ergrown, 
And all their echoes mourn : 
The willows and the hazel copses green 
Shall now no more be seen 
Fauning their joyous leaves to thy soft lays* 
As killing as the canker to the rose. 
Or taini'Worm to the weanling herds that graze. 
Or frost to flowers, that their gay wardrobe wear. 
When first the white thorn blows ; 
. Such Lycidas thy loss to shepherds^ ear' 

has a passage so responsive to it in feeling and imagery, that, 
when considered with the other similarities, it leads us, at least, 
to conclude that he remembered it : 

Arboribus cecidere comae, spoliataque honore est ^ 
Sylva suo, toUtasque negat pastoribus umhra$, 
Prata suum amisere decus, morientibus herbis 
Arida; sunt sicci fontes, etflumina sicca. 
Infcecunda carent promissis firugibus arvia, 
£t mala cresceotes rubigo ezedit aristas* 
Squalor tristu hahet pecudei, pecudumque magUtroi, 

Those who are accustomed to watch the operations of their 
minds, to trace with patient care their ideas tof their sources. 

360 Oh the Origin of Milton's LyeidAi. 

and to observe accurately the various associations arising from 
the same origin^ and spreading into various ramifications 
unconnected in their details^ will readily perceive that the fol- 
lowing passage^ (with the circunistance of bis friend being a 

Iflopastus stabulis saevit lupus, ubere raptos 
Dilani&t^^ ferus miseris cum matribus agfios ; 
Perque canes pra*dam impavidus pastoribus aufert*— 

gave rise to the prophetic insinuation of the execution of Arch- 
bishop Laud, whom he contndered as the cause of all the 
schisms then existmg in the church-^ 

Besides what the grim wolf with privy paw 
Daily devours apace, and nothing sed : 
But that two-handed engine at the door 
Stands ready to smite once, and smite no more. 

The opinion almost receives confirmation firom the fact, that 
both the poets make a sudden transition to rural imagery of a 
more tender character : Milton iu his beautiful invocation — 

Return, Alpheus, the dread voice is past, 
That shrunk thy streams ; return Sicilian Muse, 
And call the vales, and bid them hither cast 
Their bells, and flowrets of a thousand hues. 
Ye valleys low where the mild whispers use 
Of shades, and wanton winds, and gushing brooks, 
{'* Nil nisi triste sonant et sylvae, et pascua, et amnes, 
£t liquidi fontes; tua tristia funera flerunt*') 
On whose fresh lap the swart star sparely looks ; 
. Throw hither all your quaint enamellM eyes. 
That on the green turf suck the honied showers 
And purple all the ground with vernal flowers. 
Bring the rathe primrose that forsaken dies, 
The tufted crow-toe, and pale jessamine^ 
The white pink, and the pansy peak'd with je^ 
The glowing violet. 

The musk-rose, and the well-attired woodbine. 
With cowslips wan that hang the pensive head. 
And every flower that sad embroidery wears : 
Bid Amaranthus all his beauty shed. 
And da£fodillies^fiIl their cups with tears, 
To strew the laureat herse where Lycid lies. 

This invocation has one in the Alcon so nearly responsive to 
it in the names of the flowers and the scope of the passage^ that 
the spring from which it flowed is clearly seen : 

Vos mecum, o pueri, beneolentes spargite flores, 
Narcissum, atque rosas, et suave rubentem hyacinthum^ 
Atque umbras bedera lauroque inducite opacas. 
Nee desint caaia^, peTm\iLU(\w<& c\!a!Qa3CGL^.^momo, 

On the Origin of Milton's Lyddas. 361 

Escitet ut duices aspirtns ventus odores. 

• •#•«•« 

Iiiterea riolms iBtertexent amtraQthis, 
£t tumulo spargent flores et serta Napass* 

There are no lines in the Lycidas which exceed in magnifi* 
cence and beauty the simile of 

So sinks the day-star in the ocean bedy 
And yet anon repairs his drooping heady 
And tijcks his beams, and witn ne^-apnigied ore 
Flames in the forehead of the morning sky t— 

Uidess eo many corresponding parts had been discovered, I 
flhoold have hesitated in saying that it mqr be deemed a splendid 
paraphril!^ of • 

Adspide, dec^dens jaih Sol declivis Olympo 
pccidit, et moriens accendit sidera ccelo ; 
Sed tamen occiduo cnfki lavertt sequore ctirrus, 
Idem iterum terras orienti luce revise t. 

Miltpn's thoughts rise beyond the simile^ and he triumphantly 

exclaims : 

Through the. dear might of him that walkM the waves 
Where, other groves and other streams along, 
With nectar pure his ooz^ locks be laves, 
And hears the unexpreSsive nuptial sons, 
In the blest kingdoms meek ofjoy and love. 

Castiglioni too places his Alcon in Elysium : 

£t nunc Elysia laetus spatiaris in umbra, 
Alcone et frueris dulci, aeternamque frueris. 

It is presumed that no doubt can eter again be entertained 
of the origin of the Monody on Lycidas. The poem of Aleda 
may be compared to the sketch of an inferior artist which Mil- 
ton studied^ — his genius enlarged the outline, made every form 
bolder, added strength and beauty to every part, tben touched 
it widi a master's band, and imbued it witfi colors eoft and 
atroi^ and ridi and varied. 



In DEMOSTHENEM Commentarii Joannis Sea- 
G£R, Bicknor Wallica in Com. MonumethuB Rectaris. 

No. VI. — [Continued from No. LVI.'] 

Jn Aristocratem, p. 638. 1. 14« ^igt, av U ri oi>ft/3p roiouroy iUf 
Jarcog ^ rep xoi e[?0\jBf, iaraXXay^ ftev (Charidemus, psephismate 
Aristocratis Sacrosanctus) ex Spaxrig, ixSah Se si; iroAiy olxjj nw, 
Tiis fMV ^wrlotg fti}xeri xupio; eov, $i' ^; iroXXd^ TOiei rav itwtipmuvoliif 
uwi T&v viyLoWf roif 8* lieo*! xa} raT; mluftMei; rovr' ffirivft^mr irf«r- 
reiv^ ctXXo ri ^ o-iyeovra Se^o-fi Xapi%}ftov lav ovroy uj3^{([9iy ; 

F. olWo Ti <^ SirHNTAS iefi<rii XeiplhiiMf l^v ATTOT ififil^; 
aihov, Ibi| illic. 

In Aristocratem, p. 644. 1. 25, Aoyi^^ftsyoi 8' Srt fMfripa^Opiff' 

(SoxotKTi) S/xaicV Tivft flyai f ovov. 

Rectius a^o^t^/y^y^'* 

In Aristocratem^ p. 645. I. 11. kK>! kipartw aur^y nhtwfnfl 
ahlav, xeii [UToi railr' wtbg vgoo'yp&i^fotg otyiyifuoy HifMy rplrov rom) 
hxaoTVjptov KoA TO, TOxnoD vo/tifta 9rapaj3sj3i]xcof ^o/yp. 

aur^y rijy airiay) Merum crimen, merum nomen bomicidii, 
sine adjunctione liciti vel illiciti. 

In Aristocrateniy p. 647. 1. 9* olK>! o\)^ o3to; iypte^ ramoL, 
aXXa Toy /tgy oS^y ahiouraa'dou* roy Se axpiroy^ Trctpaxp^f^M IxS/SocT'* 
0ai. Distinguendum roy Se^ ixgirov vagap^ijftot IxS^Wiai. 

Toy jxey) Accusatorem. — aSwoy) /x^ vpo9'o<p>iOyTa ^iXloi, taif jx^ 
^Mjakoi^ TO iriiMTTOV ftepo; T^y ^fnj^eoy, 

Toy Se) roy aySgoipoyoy. 

InAristocratem, p. 667. !• IK ev iij Aap^/oaup rivig ivdganm 
ylyvovTut 8uo. Oipcrayopag ovopiM aurm ictxipop rep ^ 'E^fjxwrog. o1 
wagcarXSia'ix rolg ^ag' uftiy yvovreg veg) t&v rvpiwoof, awoxTnfWowri 
^tXlirxov hxatcog, r^y avT&v varpUct olojxeyoi Ssiy lActidepouy. . ii 8^ 
Toiy rm urrsp ^iXiVxou XeyovrtoVj !ts ijxio'floSmi ftey roT; h Iltghitp 
^ivoig, glp^e 8* Zyjuv roy 'EXA^OTroyroy, fteyioro; ? Jy row viragp^onri 
iygatps ri;, 5i(rKBp oirog vxtviy iav ri; avoxretvv^ ^tXla-xov, ky£yi^ 
ftUToy Ix reoy avfji,fjiMXo»v eWr irgo; ^^lo^^ deouroffie elg ftn^y ^y aio-* 
;^y))y ^ 7^Xi; ^jxfioy lAijXuiei. ^X9 ftsy yc^^ 5 Sepcetyipag, xa^ 6 *E^^ 
XiO'Tog, elg Aia-fiov, xa] epxouy sxei. ei 8^^ t ^^nrrro ri; Ta»v <^iX{crxotf 
7a«8eoy ^ ftXoov, l^e8(8oT' iv inro rou u/xerepou \tn9^/0'|x«rro$'. 

Corrigendum, 'EHEJlJOiVl* 5y. 

Constructio est, A U t^ tq^v <^iKi<ncQti valim % f iXcov ip^wrno 

In Demosthenem Cammentarii. S63 

(to5 SifcrctySfot) xa) rou 'E^xforou,) f^sS/Sovr' Af (j Stpfr$tyogag 
xo) 6 '£^^xsoToO ^^ ^0^ ujXffTffpou ^^^MTftaro;. 

In Aristocratem^ p. 673. 1. 26. odxouv rou (ri Markland) xo- 
jtufTo'iai Tfl^ flhroXfloXOT'a x^?^ vroo^Oft^rou Xxgi8^/xou^ 8ia/3ayro^, 
^iio'lv 6 a^m9 Kpitcaryigf 9tp\ rooy wtetpxpvrwv yfysyijo'lai (Mtfyu$ 

Construe, 6 Apx"^ Kpiiomis fiia)v, 
iuipivTOs, (i. e. 2re SiajSejSijxei 6 XagtSij/xo^) rod^ xivSJyot;; vsp} 
TW¥ ttmeipx^VTeov ysyevija'flaiy fts/^ou$ roav xgorepov* 

In Aristocratem, p. 689* K 2. xa/roi o^f^foo'is cog Ix^Xa^oy of 
irj^/oyoi rou^ aSixoSvra^ Ifletirou^, si ira^onrXijo'ico; uftTy. IxsTvoi Otfjt,ic 
T9xki» AajSoVre^ ftfTf^ov aurdov a^tovvra ^ponh, i^fiXua'ap Ix rij^ 9r(f- 
Afov;, xtf} ftijSio'ftiv xariyvooa'Mf. xei KlfMnfu, 7ri r^ xirpiof /tcerr- 
jc/yija'f ToAire/ftv If' ioivrov, irapot, rpfig ftev af^av ^fij^u; to ft^ 
fflBVfliry ^i}|uueo<rai. vsyr^xovra 8f raXavra flo-nrgo^otv. xa) rourov riv 
Tp^srov Tpob-e^epovTO Ti}XixauT* ^eurou^ ayaifll elpyao'ftffvoi^ MpAirotg. 
itKciUog. o6 ykp avroig mtSfSovro r^v avtov IXnilfp/av, xa) ftsya- 

Ante reov fpyeov subaudiendum &rrl. 

od yip etirolg x. r. A.) Non enim factis illorum sdam 

libertatem magnanimitatemque illis vendebant. cum fwctis 

illorum libertatem magnanimitatemque suam non mutabant. — 
Eadem construe tio irep) vapaicp. 

P. 349. 1. 24. ToXX^v aio-xwwjv x«J (iiyiki>vs xmivvovg rwrr 
iXfi TJ ir^Xei, Sia r^v ^tio^poxsgSeiay r^y TOvroU| xoli ri XPHMATilN 

In Timocratem. 

In Timocratemi p. 702. I. 10. ahw(reifi>S¥og y&p fu ■ ■ elg 
iffma xariim^a'mf* h St rourcp to vffjXTrrov ftego^ toV tf'^^coy ou ju^rra- 
Kafiw, clfXff %iX/a;. Iy» Sf, c&nrffp i}v S/xaiOV| jxaXiora ftiy Si^ 
rod; ifo&^y huroL Se xa) 810^ rou^ Sixa^ovTo^ ufuov, io'coAjv. 

Reclius Tovj^ Sixoa-tfyra;. qui tunc judicabant. non enim iidem 

In Timocratem, p. 706. L 8. M i\ rij^ ifpimig irptncatlag rp 
MotoTf, h Tcp ^lMf, hmiiv sv^m i xi^gu^, hrix^tgorwlav mteh 
rm ifipuw. 

rp Mexarj)) to5 '£x«roftj3aicoyo; ftijy^^. Infra p. 708. I. 10. 
T^; ixxXif^totg h ^ rohg vSfuovg iri^fiPOToy^o'aTSy ouoi}; hitxarrig rov 
ixarof/^Movog [M^vog, SfloSsxderi} tov yoftoy flo^vrvxiy. 

In Timocratem, p. 707* K 5. o2 ii flffo-ftofltTai rou^ Iy8ei;^ffyr0e; 
tWctyinm il$ ri Sixoor^pioy xor^ T^y y^ftoy* 1^ ft^ oyioyrooy ri; ^pt lor 
vtfyoy^ df xarotXvoyr^ r^ iwmfoptot^tv rm¥ y^jxcoy* 

^64 In IHtnosthenem 

% fii) eaUrrm $U ipmv iroyoy) alioquin ne ascendant (pjpomo^ 
TeantuFy provehantuc) in Areopagum. 

In Timocratem, p. 714^ !• 10. iroXXols tw¥ vofuoy vpoireye- 
y^flniTd* Toy Sf viiMV elveu xipiov riniS otxh tou /xcra- tov vuy ifQCpirttL 

fiiydyy oux Iv^i^f itxaiof ehou, tou^ ourou^ reoy yifim catoffty^e^, 
luvovi* SoTtpov, 1j M6ii(ruii, xuplovg eitrar avtwyxeiv fcrl t^ if'^foa, 
if J^g hl6ii(rat, xoH wfOTBpov xoi^ai xvp/ouf, ^ 6 t^$ SxaiTroif 

Ldbenter legerem, oux lyo/xi^s Sfxaiov elyoi, rous OTTHS rw 
n^ft^cov itvaytYpaiitfUfw^ ** Zo'Ttpof, ij irliifi-eaf, xvplcvg ^hour*^ m- 
nyxtif M T^ 4f>^p«v a^' ^ rr/tijo'ayy — ^x. r. A. S^teabaw toci 
Mtis accurate dat Taylor: Qui vero postea legein banc tulit^ 
qiodo recilatam ; non aequun censuit legibus iiji, quae dioei^ 
jubentur auctoritatis initium capere^ interjecto i^Uqaq leijEippie 
postquam latse fuerint^ auctoritatem dare ab eo ipso die ip quo 
wtae essent^ atque eo pacto ratas habere priua quam ipse, ]fktof 

In Timocratem^ p. 7^8. 1. 18. 6 is, ifoXJmv Svtoov xai tsiv&p, 
cSv ly Tcp v^ftflp Teie^Ks, (Timocrates scil. cujus lex debitores pub- 
licos, qui vades darent, immunes a vinculis prsestabat) |xaXi<rT 
o^/ov hrr ayavaxr^crai, j3ou\oftai vpog 6(ioig eSmy. Si* oXou yap raS 
vofi-ov TOO xaracT'njo'ayri tou; hyyin^TO^, ifcoLfraq Xiyei. tm Ss ft) 
xaliOTavri ffigre ^eXrioug, /t^re V^ipovs, fii^i' !hMs trpocrixpVTi rov 
yoDy u/tiy, ox^iuloof oSre S/xijv^ oura ri/uopiVy vpo<ryeypct^eif, mM! 
a&euiv TSTTohixe TO(ravTriv, S(niv olov re ymvieu irXela^ip^ 

Hujusce loci sententiam quod non vidit Reiskius, idcirco 
pravam lectionem, airotyrag, verissimae^ airavroL, praetulit. earetvra 
tamen in plurali numero est, et neutro genere ; non in singulari 
et masculinox ut Reiskiq yid^batur. Delenda interpunctio |Mt>8t 
iyywYTus, — rtS xarcun^ayn tou; JyyuijTa; obroeyra ^^^f W^ 
qui vades dederit, omnia dicit. JLegis omnis provkip, cautionei 
omnes, omnes sanctiones, ad illurQ dkiguntur^ illuoi spectant, 
qui vades utique dederit. Sed quid faciendum debitore qui 
▼ades non dederit i De hoc consulto et vafre tacuit Timpcratesi 
inquit Orator, quo effu&:iant serarii. 

In Timocratem, p. 737. 1. 17. Kolroi, A '^kfi'&cpogng, oi pih 
iitrtg iiiulv xipioi vopLOi, rouroucr} ff-otouo*! xugiou; asrayreoy.-— rovrotir^ 
Judices, scilicet. 

In Timocratem, p. 739- 1. 5. c^m toIwv x^ tout* f mti&v ^<roy 
dftti; hafipers^ oS av^pig hxafrrai, iMyaXo^gwriw^ roof ^ijd^oHf* 

ooroy iut^ipere rwv ^Topcoy p^eyocXofgoavifi^) Vobis ipsis, scilicet 
bumilionbus, non parcendo legibus abrqgandis, st quia vesuum 
pcstiam commeruerit. 

Commentariu 3CiS 

In Timocratem, p. 759* L ult. olofu^t rolvw ovuto^ ouST i^lwoy 

§Mfie)g ieSrjcrsTat, avTog Trtiasral ti xaxiv, w^ij Si Touj. roiou- 

rotf^ Xeyou; jSlXriov irpoeixr(xoivon [Mxgot ifoanoL^, ^^$% ^v' ^rrov e^a^o^^ 
Tariff, oray ftev y^i^ ^"T^^ ^^^^ ftijSs}^ Sefl^o-EToi *A6f^ifxt(ov, jx^ M^ 
iowireo ^evUfuevos u/xa^. ou yog tout' l9i)X6y, oAA,' ^ttw^ u/x^T^ axupoi 
r£y irpooTi/tij/taTfioy yfv^o'eo'flff. 

Interponendum &a. ou yfli/? JLl toSt* fSijxsy^ oAA' hoog-T^ 

X. T, A. 

/» Aphobum I. 

In Aphobum I. p. 818. 1. 6, ouyap S^Sovro; rovrou fid^'/Sov) 
o-rroy rp iMirp), r^y $s vpolxa, byovtos, ovii roy olxoy juuo-flovy efleAoyrop^ 
^kAA4 fbST^ reoy aXXeoy imrpifreof SM^iiplt^etv a^mvros, hroi^cen 
koywg vtp) rovrcoy S.^i^fM^eiptis' ov^i rcy olxoy ftio-floDy sdfXoyro;) 
** Clocatio aedium intelligatur cum omni instrumento et fecul^ 

tatibus." Wolf. Atqui asdes elocandse non erant, cum De4> 

mostfaenis patris testamento Aphobo habitandae fuissent relictae* 
ttirip Sff rourcp ('ii^^j3c») r^y jxijregtf r^v ^lueripMf, xu) vpoixa oySoijW 
xovrft ftya^^ xa) rj} olx/a xai o-xeus^i X9^^^^ ^^'^ Ijxoi^. P. 814. 
!• 25. oSto; yip i^Afo^of) eviv$ /tera roy roD ^arpo^ flaydtroy^ wxei 
ri^y oix/oy slo-sXSfloy xara ngy Ixa/you SiaS^xijy. P. 817. !• 20. ijy $€ 
rcivVf a yvypa^iai f^crh h t^ haiiixvi, Suo /xey raAotyra Jvifiofomet 

>M^uv fwfluj, T^y 8* aSeX^iJy, oray ijXix/ay f;^ij* rouroy 8* ("-^^jSoy) 

jySoi^xoyra /xy^f xcii r^y /xijTega r^y l/xtjy^ xa) r^y olxiioey olxefiy. 
Oi^piinr/Sijy S* I^So/x^xoyra jxya^ Xa^ivra xugirm-oKriatf sa^ hyco uvijp 
yiyo/ftijy. r^ S* aAAa, o<r' l/xoi x^P^^ rourcoy xareXel^in, xiH to fti<r- 
Oouy Toy olxoy, ^^ayi^ey Ix rij; Siod^xij;. 

In Aphob. III. p. 8.57. Ubi notandum olxlav et oixoy dis* 
tingui, olxo^ igitur hac oratione est, Passessiones. Property, et 
in hoc sensu est apud Lysiam in Aristogit. p. 906, '^ substantia 
universa" ut Keisk. interpr. 

In Aphobum, !• p. 820. 1. 21. Tauras ro/ywy f^" ^^ '*'§*»- 
Xoyr« fMfoi$ airo tou igyourniptou, xa) to l^oy airaw oxtw Ircpy. S 
Sdbf M Spaxjxj} Ti$ ti6^ /xoyoy, aAX«^ 6/toii T^idxwru fi,ms evgijo-fi. 

''Triginta minarum usura drachmalis annua conficit S60 
drachmas. Haec octies iterata conficit 3040 drachmas, seu 
triginta minas cum excessu 40 drachmarum. unde constat i/xoci 
significare Circiter, Praeterpropter, cum pauculo quodam aut 
defectu aut excessu. Non fiemper exacte summam positan 
aequat ; neque semper infra eam subsidit, quod sunt qui opinati 
sint, sed etiam ultra summam datam assurgit.^' Reisk. 

Summa drachmarum S60 octies iterata conficit S040 drach- 
mas i Qui potest? Immo vero drachmas 2880 conficit ; b. e. 

366 In Demoithenem 

t8 minasi et 80 drachtnas. Hie igitur certe iiMv infra sutnnniin 
positam subsidit. 

In Apbobum I. p. 827. 1. 18. &rrig yAp Ik rerrdgaw raXivrmf 
noHi Tfiay})Jlaai¥ rois ftiy rpla rdXavroi x»\ h(r^i\la$ Trpolxa tiScoxe, 
Tf 8* if^fjk'ixovra iMf&s xofKOwrdaif ^eofeph Si^rou irao'iy Sri odx airi 
luxfag oMciSf aXkoi irXioy ^ din^Mxrlas, J^g hfio) xariXiTn, roan 

iftiXjtv. wXsov ri hirXao'lag, ^^ I/to) xareXiirf, non est De pecu- 

ma plusquam duplo majore quam ea pecunia quam mihi reli- 
quit ; — verum De pecunia plusquam duplo majore ea pecunia 
tutoribus data ; quam pecuniam^ plusquam duplo majorem, mihi 
reliquit. Secundum idioma notissimum, casu eodem positum 
est relativum ^s, quo antecedens, quod reticetur ; alioquin esset 

In. Aphobum 1. p. 827* L 24. Sequitur o6 yoLp Hflcot) rov ftlv 
vl&v Iftf itiviiTa ifiovkero xaraXiTPitvy toutou^ ii, vkowrtoug Sfra^f ^t< 
«XotMrifiorf^ou^ iroi^crai l9rcflu|xi}(rey, iLK^ Inxu roO TtXifiwg rcov ^1 
KaroAjurojXffvoPV Bv^qivx^i^ Toa'ouTOv Stpyupiov xoi Jij/xo^vri ra hvo 


oStco) Quia tunc quinquennis erat Demosthenis soror. 

In Aphobum I. p. 828. 1. 25. IroXfiot roiW irpof r» Sioinfif 
- Xiyeif, ig &ko roov ^pt^iJMTeov Xpea re ^aftToXXa Ixririxsv urep l/xoo 
^ij]E40f oPVTi xa) 6i]pi?nr/$)], roi^ (rvveKirpoiroiSf xa) ws ToXXa reSv Ijxco? 
Ao/SoieVi ovSerepov Ip^oov nn$6<xvuvai roureoy, 

ir^^ T(^ SiaiTijr^) xXnipoorep videlicet ; a quo provocare licebat^ 
et ad judicium venire, alperh recusaverat Aphobus : quod docet 
Orator p. 813. ei jxev ffjSouXero "A^o^og — ra ^txcua votelv, ^ mq) 
Af hafepii^iiu Toi$ ye olxe/oi^ mrpmiv^ ou8£V iv SSst hxw¥ ou$6 

In Aphobum I. p. 833. 1. 8. haXotfiovreg hi xa) rixXa ctW- 

Xi^ ^^^ ^oLvru, vXbov ^ rot ^fJi^tc'eaTwvxP^F'^'^^'^ i^^^ xaraXgi^iyj* 
nu xoiv^ iroofTtg iftf irj3i)rou0-iy^ ig TrBVTeraXivTOv is [Mvof riis wc'lag 
wai^S, fx TOO'aun}^ tovs X^vg aTeyijvo^acriy, wgwroSw fih 1^ aurwf 
wx aTOfcdvovrts^ Toi St xe^oXaia favspd air68eixvwfTtg, &kk' ounot^rA 
itpyaioL oSreo^ avaiSso^ avijXdMrflai f ^o^oyrs;. 

Interponendum OT inter as-n^v^oa-iv et irpoVoSbv. ov, vpo- 

coSdv ftfv 1^ aurdiv oux caro^alvovreg, rot Se xe^oXflua fmvtga ovo- 
Ssixvun'e^^ aXX* aurc^ taI oipX^'^^ oihwg uifcuiwg awiXm'Sai fafrxomg. 
Ut nunc se habet hie locus, manifesta repugnantia est inter rot, 
x§^akBUU favepot, earoiuxvivM, et rA ipxpiiet at^Xwatai ^Mrxtif, 
Medela measi Reiskio succurrisset, nihil iroixiXov ad inexpUca- 
bilia explicanda excogitavisset. 

In Aphobum II. p. 838. 1. 2. ovSs ratka avofalpovrts, i^ oh 
Tfju^ifT^fJLiwt Toii eic^pas (une^ ^oii scilicet) eia'aplpm. Sli^rc yip 

Commmtarii. 367 

taivfif T^¥ eMa¥, rig ^v, uet) %w Taf^ori fiot, xa) rttog Immrtoi^ ri 
jxev yap ivi TakavroLy xa\ reig dySojjxoyra ftva^i &wh reov mripeov 
TaKivTiov xa) rpKr^tXtoov IX«j3ers. dtTT ouSe ra^f {ntip Ifiou tig ri 
$i}ffrtf<riov.lrift^aa'9s; vfAiTepou yotg '^a-av h iKtlvoig roig ^ovotg* 

Toov TtrragMv tuXolvtwv xa) T^icrviX/floy) Talienta duo, Demos- 
thenis sororis dotero, acceperat Deniopho; tninas octoginta, 
dotem matris Demosthetiis, Apbobus. Si his addantur fq>taa* 
ginta niina?, quarum usuiufructum habuerat Thcrippides, erunt 
talenta quatuor, et trfginta minae ; h. e. talenta' quatuor^ et tria 
millia drachmarum. 

lo Aphobum, III. p. 844. 1. 6. £! ft^, xa) xpingiv fio$ S/xi]; 
ywoiiiw^g %pog "A^ofioy, cl avSpeg hxa<FTa)f awffiri rnXKnTovrtop (ittfy$ 
xa) htvirBp* avrov ^iwrafuivov paiieog i^iXiy^ag hi n^y vtfi^miav 
tm a8ixi]/u^rcoV| tavfi^aarmg Ay Itroog fuXaj3oujxijy^ fti) xa) wv od wvri6& 
ift^ai iri wapaxpova-eral 7ro$' txacrra vfjLoov aUrm. *' Locus cor- 
ruptus^ quern neque Simonis Fabricii| aut Hieronymi WoI6i, 
divinatio videtur persanasse, neque nostra nobis satisfacit, 8cc.'' 

Mihi videtur corrigendum esse^ ft^ xai m ou iw^dZ hl^m v^ 
wapaxgova-tral vof exacrra 'TMIN avrdov. 

d/tiv cohaeret cum ifi^ai^ aurmv vero cum ixaara. 

In Aphobum^ III. p. 848. 1. 21. fnp) Trig fuaprvolag pLh Ifvy^ 
T^y ^o'avoVf vep) o3 pMXiTra irpoo'tixsv airm riv Xoyov vtMurtai* 
TCBp) V iXXoov ^(r)v h^a^rslv, ^^svlopi^og, P. 859* h. orat. yycicrto^f 
yag i^ a^rvig axoua'avreg, ra fM[MtpTvprif/,iva cog larif oXijf^, xa) tip 
MiAvav ori vvv /xly Trep) irarroov fritriv l^airfiv* ro ti srpcoroy Mp 
rgtaxoyra fc^voy [Avm l^jfrsi. 

In Aphobum, III. p. 851. 1. S. xa/roi ir£g a^iiif i<m xara'- 
ymvai rmv luagrupcov hi rouro, o1 ftoyoi rcoy ^rcG^ror' ^oovicfiifoov 8/xi)y 
|y ufMV Toy iKoxovT avTOv airolg [laprvga rwrwt hnhlx^nmv^ ytyt^ 

F. xarayvmat t»v futprvprn ha TO f TON. (Aphobum scilicet.) 
-Non enim video quo rouro referatur. 

In AphobiHn^ 111. p. 854. 1.7. Aphobus;, Demosthenis tutor, 
damn^tus fuerat, per fraudem, ut quidem aiebat ipse. Demos- 
thenis; qui Milyam manumissum esse affirraasseti ideoqne ilium 
Aphobo ad tormenta dedere adnegasset^ Phanum<]ue, scu Ste- 

fihanum testem produxisset verborum Aphobi ipsius, Milyam 
iberum essci quondam confessi. Phanum vel Stepharium nunc 
falsi testimonii accusat Apbobus, defendit Demosthenes ; docet- 
que^ testimonia dicta de Milja non effecisse ut Apbobus causa 
caderet : rolg il iiaprvvi (inquit Orator) r/ fMfuigrvpviThu ; futf- 
rvgowTi %agaywi(r$ai wgog rep 8iam}r^ Noiagf^cp, Sre A^oBog »gM-^ 
Xiyei M^kiav iXtJispoif ilvai, a^iiirra M rou Ji|fid(r(AroociNRra<k« 

VOL. XXIX. a. Jl. Y(0.\S\\\. ^^ 

368 In Demo$themm 

• ■ '• 

^xoTjTpf To/ytNT voLD^ vfuif oivoi^, ffi r$i if viCiv ^ fV^top, ^ <rof mtt^;, 
j^ y^ ouro) iauiiaa-iog Soxel yivMat, xo) Aiyeiv Ss«vo^, cocrr' Ix rflu>- 
fi|j') riis {f^prvpiag iila^cu uv' Stvigclavoav, df i/u rijv icpdlx "Afofiog 
r^( luijfrpog ri^g iaurou, xa) ri ?Jyoov ; <3 t^o; ^tif» hiMXayeig eJveu 
Mikiav h\tudipw ; xa) ri ftaXXov Ip^eo r^v vpoTxa ; 

Vulgata lectio est, xa\ r/ Xfycov «3 irpog toD <^io^ diuikSyi^Bif cTvai 
Idtkiaiif iKtutipoif ; opLoKoytig intulit Reiskius e codice Ms. quem 
Augustanum primum appellat. — dpi^oXoyt^cras habet codex Ms. 
Bavaricus. Profecto corrigeodum '^ xai ri el, Xeycoy, 6o tt^^ tov 
Jii^, (o[M\oyTfia'a elvcn Mikuav ekeviepov ; t/ /xaXXov 6;^(0 r^v ^rpoixa;" 
^Istis verbis, xal t/ tl, Xffyaw— ^a t^v 'jrpoixa, inest proso- 
popceia. in eis Aphobi personam suscipit iJemosthenes : sunt 
enim quae recte dicere potuisset ille. 

In Aphobum, III. p. 855. 1. 16. ri cro^ voirjo-ouiriif ol yMqrup^\ 
ov yap oSro/ ys fMpLagTvgijxourw dg ofioPioyeig M rolg ifMig ^veltjsiv, 
xo) Ktt^fiv roaf^piiFoia cog arauTOf* aAA' Iv Tcp Xo^ycp reaha yiygafag 


F, e£^ oopi^okoyeig M r. e. S. 

In Aphobum, III. p. 858. 1. 8. vspi Se rot; xuraX^f6^ivou rot 
Xpif^oiT hiov, j3ouXo/xai <ra^g vfJAv hriibf^M ^sviifji^svov. Talenta 
ilia significantur, de quibus In Aphob. I. p. 830. IroXfti^o-e ^au- 
ffOLuiai icavTWV SffH^Jrarov, cog rirragx /xoi raKoLvra 6 Trariip xarikiire 
xuTOpoopuyfiivay xa) roureov xvgiav r^v luvpripa molv^e. 

In Aphobum, III. p. 858. 1. 12. v§p) be rou xaTaXei^Ji^yai ra 

'.^p^ftar* iviov, /3ouXojtt9E» (ra^aog u/xiv IviSel^ai \psuSojttevoy* rourov yap 

Tov Xpyov xatr^xiVf . ivti^vj rd vp^ftara [liv voKkoi ^i^r^vev Svra, ovx 

it^i $* e^iSsT^ai raufi' wg &iroh^coxev, 7va 1^ elxoVcov ov^h vpo<rrixo¥ 

^fjAif fav^ xojx/^ffo'fiai ra y* ovra Trap* i^fuv. 

Iva 10 elxoTctfv ) Ut probabile fieret, nihil esse causas cur 

pecuoiam recuperaremus^ quae jam tum penes nps esset. 

In Aphobum, III. p. 859. 1. 27. ^pofiriv aMv v6(ra eXi] ret, 
^(^/xoT^ TO vA^So;, xaS* a rhv Mikvav, dg slSora, l^^n^o-sv* oSro^ Ss 
^'fuS^jXfvo^, 7ffp) vavToov i^r^o's. vep) piiv roivuv, l^ijy eyeo, rovrou^ 
9agaj^oo(rco (Toi tov l^ovra ravr/y^a^a, co^ (tu jxs 9rgouxaXe<ra). 

'' Constructio h%c est : %apaSa)(roD (toi tov ixfivra ravrlypa^ct, 
(»g (Tu fM grgouxttPUo'co vf^i rourou.'^ Reisk. 

Mihi secus videtur. nam vtp) fiiv ro/vuv rouroti, est, De hoc 
quidem igitur, (i. e. utrum de omni pecunia, an de tr^inta solum 
minis.)— wg est, Quemadmodum. 

De hoc quidem igiiur, inquam ego, servum ilium tibi dedam 
torquendum, qui provocationis tU4R exemplum servat, (quo ex- 
emplo uriptum est) super quibus rebus provocasti me. 

rayrlypa^a dg au f4r6 ^rpouxaXea-ctf, The copy of the terms of your 
ciaJlenge to me. 

X^ofntnentariu 369 

In Aphobiimi III. p. 859. K ult. v^oft^cravro; H fi9u, riv ir- 

ca$y iv avQiu6a'Yi$ rkvavrloL toutcov TcaroL rvig ivyurgcSf &plv^fi,l otm 
irav9*9 vvsg m ay h^aiTri(roi$ ^v^s to trpMrov, fiaTayi^oiJi.ivou rou 

wpoo|xo(r«vToj 8e jxou) Et quum ego prius juravero . jSaca- 

vi^ojxsvou roil TTtfiSof) per quaestionem habitam de servo qui pro- 
vocationis tuae exemplum servat, ut appareat, »uperquanatn 
pecunia Milyam primo ad tormeiita poposci&ti. 

In Onetorem. 

In Onetorem, I/p. S66. 1. 10. o<pXovTos U(mi t^ 8/xijv ^A^ofiou 
'Tfi^ hriTpovriSf xot) ouSev ZiKotiov ttoibIv iiiXovrog, hotkvuv jxsv ^fta^ 
*Ov{)Tot)g oux hre^etpvia-ev. ovx u7Fohicoxco$ 8g rijv wpdiKU, (sororis suse 
scilicet, quam duxerat Aphobus, retinente dotem Onetore, ne, 
si Aphobus judicio tutelae damnaretur, amitteretur dos) aX\' 
ctiMf xupuis cay, dg anoXsT^nrvlas TYig ofSeX^vis, xai hbg xoiJi.l(raffiM 
w ^apksvof, canripJ^ouriM- feurxaov r^v yriv, t^ayeiv yJ 10 airrig 

Potestne i(o$ significare dotem ? habetne locnm in soluto ser- 
mone i Si ita sit, corrigam lubens, xoA JflS xtypt^ia-utrtM w ^wir 
[isvog. Sed melius forsan esset legere, xoA iovg, ('il^'jSfip r^ 
vqoixet scilicet) xofila-aaiai A* ov Suyajttsyo^. 

In Onetorem, I. p. 867> K 26. lycJ roivuv 6[M\oyQVfiiv(og othat 
Tftur' eXsy^coy, (o$ ouS* ufrregov axaio(roiVf oto[MU paileo$ mht^nv i^ 
a^Toov rm fcmpayiuivwf ; coerfi' ufiTy y&tio'iou ^avspov, Hn xiv i(I fui^ 
' ev\ TOVTOtg, uKK' M rm h^ rei^ioov ufrodouvai, r&gyvpiov el^ov, oux 
av fTOT evniloo'aVf ouS* uv TrpoUvro. roioiureis avayxa$ bI^^v avroi^ to 
'jtgciyiAu, ' 

Ordo hie est, — oTo/xai ^oBleog In-iSe/^eiy 10 aurcoy roov ^ewpetyfj^i^ 
v(ov(6g ouS* ua-fspov airs^oaoty. Deinde rescribehdum opinor, waV 
Ujxiy yBvitriai ^avspiv, Sri, xiv ei jtt^ hr) rovroigj aXX' I7) rw itot 
raxioov mtoSwvm rapyvpiov, EIXEN, ovx iv ttot* xjpeioo'aVf^ w9 av 

xiv s! |x^ lor) Touroif) etiam si non his conditionibus, aXX* nr) rco 
$ia ra^iuav aToSouvai ragyvgioVf sed hac lege ut Onetor et Timo- 
crates, quern, maritum suum prioreroi Onetoris soror reliquerat, 
confestim Aphobo, novo marito, dotem numerarent, EIXENp 
(sororem Onetoris Aphobus, scilicet) ovx ivtor iexMvoLV, 

X, T. X. 

In Onetorem, I. p. 869* 1* 23. jxij yitp hi vpig rouroy, toioutov 
ovrUf aXX* ouSe vgig iXKov ouS* fl?y slg o6iivei roiouroy cwiXXof/fut 
irwoufuivog (sororis suas conjugium videlicet, cum talento dotis) 
aiJLcipTvgcos av tirpa^iv, aKKot rwv roiot^coy mxa x«l 'Y^^mu^ <i«vwm^^ 

370 On the Error relative to 

^«By xei it/yaripcov ^Iwg ^TXetp'^o/MV, infip m rag aff^ukda^jiMKktrnt 

Hie yaiMvg aignificare videtur, Codivivia nuptialia^ 
In Onetorem^ II. p. 876. 1. 19* tou$ ?povsawo r^^ olxla$ afour- 
qsif xeii ToAarroy imv^v Avon r^v vpoixa fy^civ, hf tp to xcop/oy ourore- 

Opinor '£^' ^ ro p^eo^Iov a^rorrriftijo'dflu. 

Ow /Ae Zrror relative to the time of the departure of 

the Israelites from Egypt. 

LnE opinions of some of our most learned bishops, kindly con- 
veyed to me^ have enabled me to assert with a degree of confi- 
dence, which I should not otherwise have felt, that I have dis- 
covered a very remarkable mistake of all commentators infixing 
the time of day at which the Israelites quitted Egypt. This 
discovery, though at first sight apparently insignificant, leads to 
two results, by no means unimportant. It brings to light, on 
the one hand, some beautiful and additional specimens of the 
wonderful harmony and minute accuracy with which the Paschal 
types accord with their antitypes. On the other hand, it pow- 
erfully tends to set at rest that controversy in which so many of 
the most profound theologians of various countries and times 
have engaged, respecting our Lord's anticipation of the Last 

However, as the subject, though important, possesses none 
of those attractions derivable from a reference to the dilutes 
and passions of the day, it would be presumptuous in me (an 
individual unknown to the literary world) to suppose that, by 
printing a small tract, I shall in a great degree succeed in ex- 
citing public attention to it. 

Permit nie therefore to introduce it to the notice of the 
many, critical and scientific readers, into whose hands your 
Journal usually passes. The subject is curious, and may not 
be uninteresting to your readers. It adds, I think, a new evi- 
^lence of the tr;^th of our religion, to the bundle (if I may so 
express myself) .which we already have collected, and wbich^ 
, united, Hhe whole, force of infidelity never has been, and, I trusty 
never ml] be, able to break. 

the Jews' departure from Egypt. 371 

Many expositors, and of no little eminence, appear to have 
been influenced by a persuasion that, for the accurate and com- 
plete accomplishment of the paschal types, it was necessary that 
the sacrifice of Christ, and of the paschal lamb, should take 
place on the same day. But this persuasion appears on exami- 
nation to be totally erroneous. The sacrifice of our Saviour, and 
that of the paschal lamb^ were not designed to have taken place 
on the same day. Their doing so, instead of producing a close 
fulfilment of the paschal types, would exhibit a very remarka- 
ble discrepancy between some of the types and their antitypes ; 
and could come to pass only by our Lord's setting an example 
of opposition to the Jewish ecclesiastical authorities, in respect 
to one of the most solemn observances of the law : an example 
entirely at variance with his general declarations and conduct. 
This persuasion, then, seems to have taken its rise from two 

I. From a want of accuracy in distinguishing the objects 
which the several paschal types were respectively designed to 

II. From a mistake^ into which, I believe, all commentators, 
without exception, have fallen ; in fixing the time of day at, 
which the Israelites took their departure from Egypt. 

I. In considering the principal circumstances of the Passover 
we shall perceive &at there are five perfectly distinct classes of 

1. The Deliverance of the Israelites from the Egyptian 
bondage was a type of our deliverance, not only as to its nature, 
but also to the month, the day of the month, and the hour 
of it. 

2. The paschal lamb, with its qualities, typified the Redeemer, 
ill virtue of whose merits and atoning sacrifice both these de* 
liverances were vouchsafed. 

3. The sacrifice, the sprinkling of the blood, 8cc. were types 
of the death, sufferings, and bloodshedding, of the Redeemer. 
By these he reconciled us to God, and purchased that dispensa- 
tion of grace and mercy, of which His protection, and miracu- 
lous superintendence of His chosen people, formed a part, and 
to which they were subservient. 

4. The eating of the paschal sacrifice was a symbol, end 
means of their participation in the benefits of the sacrifice, and 
also a type of that feast, which was, in the fulness of time, to be 
established, and at which our souls and bodies are strengthefted 
and refreshed by the body and blood of Christ, as our bodies 
are by the breaa and wine. 

the Jews' depiarture Jrom -Egypt.' 375 

testniMniy of the history before us. ' We there rend, (hat the 
Israelites were positively forbidden to stir but of their doors till 
the morning* I contend, thed, that no movement whatsoever 
towards the collection of the Israelites was made till day-light; 
and moreover, that there is reason to doubt whether Pharaoh's 
orders could have been transmitted to all the proper officers, to 
permit this collection, till some time after day-light. Then, 
when these orders were transmitted, we must consider the time 
required (whatsoever degree of preparation we may suppose 
to have been previously made), to assemble a mixed and t/7i- 
orgamsed multitude, consisting of men, women and children, 
and computed to amount to 1,.500,000 souls; carrying with 
them whatever articles of clothes and furniture were portable^ 
and taking also their jtfoc^ and herds, '' even much cattle" It 
is not probable, it is scarcely possible, (however disposed the 
Egyptians might have been to assist and hasten their departure), 
that they could have been assembled and pirepared for their 
march^ for many hours. 

But if we could admit that they might have set out in the 
morning, it is utterly impossible they could have commenced 
their march early in the morning. What then becomes of those 
passages which we shall presently have occasion to. consider, 
and in which, it is said, they came out of Egypt *' by night, ^* 
Aloreover, in such a climate as that of Egypt, it must at all 
times be an important object to travellers to avoid as much as 
possible the heat of the day. But in how great a degree must 
this have been important to the Israelites, journeying as they 
were, with their wives, their children, tbeir Jlocks and their herds, 
and carrying their kneading troughs (and probably as many other 
articles as they could bear) on their shoulders. Yet, if they did 
set out in the mommg, I contend they must of necessity have 
set out so late, that the whole journey must have been performed 
in the very hottest part of the day, which the above view of their 
situation renders extremely improbable. But if we suppose 
them commencing their march '* between the two evenings,*' 
perhaps after three o'clock, or between the ninth and eleventh 
hour, then the sun bad declined considerably, and the heat was 
beginning to abate. The last and heaviest part of the journey, 
when they would suffer most from fatigue, would be accom- 
plished after sunset ; a circumstance highly important, if not 
essential, to a body so composed and encumbered its they were. 

The inference to be drawn from all this is, that (supposing 
no express scriptural authority for the morning or the evening 
commencement of the march) it is probable that <hft i^ic«R;\^ftff^ 

372 On the Error relative to 

' 5. The coneomitantSy such ils the eating it wiih bitt^' herbs 
atid unleavened bread^ and in the posture of travellersi &ۥ were 
ty(>es of the conduct, of the dispositions, and of the circumstances 
of those M'ho should be delivered. 

The two first of these are the objects to which our present 
feniarks must be directed. 

The principal object of commemoration in the Jewish Pass* 
oirer may be easily and abundantly ' proved to have been the 
deliverance from bondage^ according to a promise made to Abra- 
ham. This deliverance was the type of another deliverance, 
also promised to faithful Abraham and to their forefathers. 

*' While the punctual and specific performance of one promise 
was a pledge of the faithful fulfilment of the other, it also typi- 
cally represented the nature and the time of the deliverance, 
which was the subject of tlie latter promise. It foreshowed, . 
that as they had been delivered from the house of bondage in 
£gyp^ ^f when t/ie fulness of tin^e should come, the true 
children of faithful Abraham would dlso be delivered from the 
bondage of the law, and of sin, and death. Here then is the 
jtype and the antitype* In the month Ahib or Misan, on the 
fifteenth day of the month, " between the two evenings/^ at the 
,time of day, but not on the day that the paschal lamb was slain, 
the children of Israel marched out of Egypt, received the punc- 
tual fulfilment of the former promise, and were delivered from 
the '^ house of bondage." In the same month, on the same 
day of the month, probably oh the same day of the week, and 
iabout the same hour of the day, the latter promise was fulfilled ; 
our deliverance from worse than Egyptian bondage was com- 
pleted; and Jesus on the cross exclaimed, '' It is finished;" 
bowed his head, and gave up the ghost. But St. Paul teaches 
us that it was by faith that the patriarchs embraced ** the pro- 
mises, not having received them,'' but having '^ seen them afar 
ofl^." By faith ! But what was the object of their faith i The 
Promised Seed — the Seed that was to, bruise the SerpenCs 
head. ** The Scripture foreseeing that God would justify the 
heathen through faith, preached before the Gospel unto Abra- 
ham, saying, in thee shall all the nations of the earth be blessed." 
** Abraham," said our Saviour himself, ^' rejoiced to see my 
day, and he saw it, and was glad." The object then of his 

' A collection of several opinions and proofs on this subject may be 
seen in the Appendix to my Sermon on the Passover, published at Ri- 


the Jews^ departure fr&m Egypt. ^673 

fiutli was Christ our Passover, lliis, he was sensible, wtis 
the procuring cause of all God's promised blessings to bis ppv- 
terity. The Iamb itself was no more the procuring cause of the 
deliverance from Egyptian bondage, than of the deliverance' of 
mankind from the bondage of sin and death. It ^ould be of 
no value or efficacy whatsoever, but as it typified, and was a 
eacramentat memorial, representing the sacrifice of the ** Jamb 
slain from the foundation of the world** In both cases the 
same propitiatory sacrifice was the procuring cause of God's 
merciful dispensations, in both the same *^ fore-ordained** 
scheme of redemption was kept in view. The day before the 
accomplishment, then, of the former promise, a ^pe was or- 
dained to represent the procuring cause of both deliverances. 
This type was to be annually continued till the Deliverer prefi- 
•gured by it should appear; iu short, it was to '^ show the Lord^s 
death till he came.'' And as this type of the Deliverer was 
ordained on the evening before the former deliverance, so the 
last anniversary of the type was observed the evening before thib 
latter deliverance was accomplished. Immediately after this 
its final anniversary, it was solemnly and authoritatively abrogat- 
ed by the appointment of another rite, which is to ^^ show the 
Lord's death till his coming again** The sacrifice then of the 
paschal lamb typified neither the deliverance of thd world, nor 
the day of the deliverance. If it had any reference to the time 
-of the deliverance, it marked only the hour of it." *' 

From this it follows that, to fulfil the types, our Saviotir 
could not have been ordained to suffer on the day on which the 
paschal lamb was slain. If he had suffered on that day, tlie 
fulfilment would have been less minutely accurate than it* really 
was. The completion of our deliverance was to be expected 
on some anniversary of the deliverance of the Jews. And we 
are informed that such an expectation did prevail.' To the 
particulars of this deliverance ours ought to correspond : aad^it 
may be shown that they do correspond most circumstantially : 
they agree in the month, the day, and the hour. ^ • 

II. For the other source of the persuasion which we have 
Jbeen considering, is. the Mistake into, which, commentators haye 
fallen, in fixing the time, of day at which the Israelites left 
Egypt. For ^11 commentators have agreed in laying down thp 

* There was a tradition among the Jews, that they should be redeemed 
en the very day of their coming out of Mgyptf vi9. on the .15th of Nlsab. 
Whitby's Annotations, MaU. Jixvi: 2. ' .^, 

574 . On th€ Error relative to 

MORKIKG as the tioie of their departure; whereas^ it was, in 
Unctf ai I have ab:eady hinted, *^ between the two evenings" after 
the '' ninth houvy^ about the hour when the Saviour exclaimed 
^ it ii ^finished/* when the '* vail of the temple was rent ia 
twain from the top to the bottom/' that the free approach to the 
mercy-seat was opened '' to all believers ;" that the rocks were 
rent; the graves unclosed; and that heaven and earth proclaimed 


The proofs, which may be brought. to establish this curious 
fact, appear to me irrefragable. They may be classed under 
two heads ; viz. proofs deducible, 

'^ I. From a general view of the transaction, as related in the 
twelfth chapter of Exodus. 

ir. From the direct testimony, and from the expressions used 
in various parts of scripture, describing or alluding to tiiis event. 

I. From a general view of the transaction, it will appear ex- 
tremely improbable that they could have commenced their march 
much before the above time, and still less could have all quitted 
£^ypt. The destruction of the Egyptians took place at mid^ 
MigMm When it had taken place, it is no unreasonable presump- 
tion that $ome considerable interval had elapsed befpre a mes- 
senger was sent to Moses. The time consumed in unavailing 
lamentations, in the copfusion and consternation that must have 
ensped, and rendered them, at first, incapable of deciding upon 
the measures to be taken, in announcing the calamity to Pba- 
jraoh, in assembling his counsellors ; all this mu^t have occa- 
sioned some delay, even before a messenger was despatched to 
Moses. Then the children of Israel, dwelling in a district of 
their own, and being withal treated as slaves, it can scarcely be 
supposed that the abode of Moses was near the king's palace.' 
Therefore, before he could have come, to receive the orders for 
thfsdi^issalof his countrymen, it must have probably been morn- 
i^f^9 OK very nearly morning. Consequently, the business of 
assembling Uie people for their march could not have commenced 
till that time. 

Bpt w^ firrive at this conclusion more directly, by the express 


* In Exodus, ix. v. 89. is a strong, if not decisive intimation, that the 
tdwelliDC^pUce of Moses was ^out of the city." And this is conformable 
both with the history of the first settlement of the Israelites in Egypt, 
arid with what we might reasonahly presume would be their situation, 
when we consider the cruel and jealous policy of the Egyptians, in de- 
Stroying their male children* It is not at all probable that the Egvptiana 
would suAer a people, at whose increase they were so greatly alarmed, 
to remain within, or even very near, the walls of their capital. 

the Jews' departure ^rorh E^pt: 375 

testRiMmy of the history before us. ' We there read, (hat the 
Israelites were positivelj forbidden to stir but of their doors tifl 
the mortiing^ I contend, thed, that no movement whatsoever 
towards the collection of the Israelites was made til/ day-light: 
and moreover, that there is reason to doubt whether Pharaoh's 
orders could have been transmitted to all the proper officers, to 
permit this collection, till some time after day-light. Then, 
when these orders were transmitted, we must consider the time 
required (whatsoever degree of preparation we may suppose 
to have been previously made), to assemble a mixed and t/7i- 
arganised multitude, consisting of men, women and children, 
and computed to amount to \,50O,o6o souls; carrying with 
them whatever articles of clothes and furniture were portable^ 
and taking also their jtfoc^ and herds, '' even much cattle" It 
is not probable, it is scarcely possible, (however disposed the 
Egyptians might have been to assist and hasten their departure), 
that they could have been assembled and prepared for their 
march, for many hours. 

But if we could admit that they might have set out in the 
morning, it is utterly impossible they could have commenced 
their march early in Uie morning. What then becomes of those 
passages which we shall presently have occasion ta consider, 
and in which, it is said, they came out of £gypt '' by night. ^* 
Aloreov^r, in such a climate as that of Egypt, it must at all 
times be an important object to travellers to avoid as much as 
possible the heat of the day. But in how great a degree must 
this have been important to the Israelites, journeying as they 
were, with their wives, their children, their JfocAs and their herds, 
and carrying their kneading troughs (and probably as many other 
articles as they could bear) on their shoulders. Yet, if they did 
set out in the mommg, I contend they must of necessity have 
set out so late, that the whole journey must have been performed 
in the very hottest part of the day, which the above view of their 
situation renders extremely improbable. But if we suppose 
them commencing their march '* between the two evenings,*' 
perhaps after three o'clock, or between the ninth and eleventh 
hour, then the sun had declined considerably, and the heat was 
beginning to abate. The last and heaviest part of the journey, 
when they would suffer most from fatigue, would be accom- 
plished after sunset ; a circumstance highly important, if not 
essential, to a body so composed and encumbered ils they were. 

The inference to be drawn from all this is, that (supposing 
no express scriptural authority for the morning or the evening 
commencement of the marcb) it is probable that the Israelites 

376 On the Error relative to 

nmrched from Ramesetr ^* b^tMen the tttfo evenings^* or after 
three o'clock in^the afternoon of the fifteenlh of Nisaa ; ihe nery 
'^ seas^m '* at which, on the day before^ they were oniered lo 
sacrifice the paschal lamb; and that they reached Suocotb jome 
time after sunset^ in the course of the night. 

lU It is now to be shown^ what countenance this deduction 
receives from accounts of^ and allusions to, the traosactioD^ to 
be found in scripture. 

1. Negatively. There is no passage in scripture,^ io which 
.the morning is said to be the time of their departure^ Under 
this head, too, may be classed the arguments derivable from the 
embarrassment under which commentators of acknowleged 
eminence are evidently placed, when (under the supposition of 
the morning being the time of the departure) they attempt to 
reconcile the apparently opposite declarations of scripture^ that 
they were brought out *' by day and by night/' This embar- 
rassment y/ill be pointed out in noteif, as we consider the several 
texts descriptive of the time of the going out of Egypt, 

2. The first passage, tending to prove that they went out of 
Egypt in the afternoon, is written in the 41st and 4SDd verses of 
Exod. xii. 

Even the self-same day it came to pass, tliat all the hosts of 
the Lord went out from the land of Egypt. It is. a night to 
be much observed unto the Lord, for bringing them out from the 
land of Egypt. 

So they marched out that day. But further we read, it is a 
tdght to be observed. What night? why, the night of that day, 
the 15th. The night in which they were brought ** out of the 
* land of Egypt." This was not the night of the fourteenth, for 
in that night they were not to stir out of their doors tUl the 
morning. But it was the night of the fifteenth^ the night of 
their arrival at Succoth, the halting place of their fibst 
MARCH out of the land of their captivity. 

The solution is easy and natural, if we suppose the Israelites 
to have set out ^' between the two evenings,'' and to have arrived 
at Succoth at night. Then we can comprehend with ease, and 
reconcile without violence to the simple and obvious sense of 
the historian's words, the two circumstances of their marching 
out of Egypt " in the body and strength of the day,** and yet 
observing the night unto the Lord for bringing thfim out, &c. 

3. Another passage is Numbers xxxiii. 3. *' On the morrou' 
after the Passover,. ihe children of Israel went out with an high 
hand in the sight of the Egyptians.^* They went out with 
an ^' high band ;'^ they would hardly (however urgent the Egyp- 

the Jews' departure from \Blgypts 3f77. 

tialis might have been) have broken the command of their God^ 
iind have quitted their houses before morning* And accordingly^ 
they went out in the sight of the Egyptians. They assembled 
themselves and their flocks and herd^ m broad day-light ; and as 
soon as all was reader, (which 1 have endeavoured to show scarcely 
could be the case till the afternoon,) they set out. 

4. Compare this passage with Deut. xvi. 1 • where it is ex- 
pressly declared, '^ the Iiord thy God brought thee forth out 
of flgrpt by night J' 

In this comparison the following points may be noticed. In 
Numb, xxxiii. it is said, they departed from Rameses on the 
fifteenth^ on the morrow after the Passover, and in the sight of 
all the Egyptians. This agrees in all respects with the state- 
ment (Exod. xii. ^^9 that not a man was to stir out of his doors 
till the morning. Therefore, hitherto, there was no going forth 
by night » They '' departed,* they set out, some time in broad 
day-light on the flfteenth. . Their being brought forth out of 
Egypt could not refer to the time antecedent to their departure. 
Their departure was not at night. Consequently the phrase, 
'' by night,*' is fairly referable to some part of their march^ 
subseque?it to their departure. And what part of it more pro-r 
perly, than their arrival at Succoth, the close of their 
march, the flrst stage of their journey out of Egypt r 

5. But the passage which appears to speak most decidedly 
, upon the point, and indeed, to mark distinctly and positively the 

time of their quitting Egypt, is Deut. xvi. 61 '' At the place 
which the Lord thy God shall choose to put his name in, there 
thou shalt sacrifice the Passover, at even, at the going down of 
the sun, at the season that thou camest forth out 
OF Egypt." 

This passage amounts to a clear determination of the time of 
their setting out,— namely, ''even," or between the two evenings; 
the time at which the sun was on the decline. The ** season" 
evidently means the precise time of day, as may be proved from 
the words connected with it ; for the two first expressions de- 
note time of day, and they are all obviously meant to specify the 
■same time, viz. the time for slaying the paschal lamb« Thus, 
the time of day for slaying the paschal lamb, the evening, the 
time of the going down of the sun, and the time of their coming 
' forth out oj Egypt, were the same. . Consequently, we have an 
express authority of Scripture that the Israelites left Egypt, not 
on the day, but at the hour, when the Passover was slain. And 
this has been shown to be the hour which best agrees with all 
the circumstances of the transaction, and which affords a simple 


On the ErroTf ^c. 

and natural metbod of reconciling those expressions, in wltich 
the going out of the Israelites is said to have taken place, in 
some passages by day, and in others by night/' 

Now if these reasonings be correct, a beautiful and wonder- 
fully circumstantial cotfformity between one of the chief paschal- 
types, and its antitype, is exhibited. In the perfection and 
closeness of their correspondence, they stand, perhaps, unri- 
valled ; and present to us a most striking evidence of the divine 
origin of the law, and of the identity of Jesus as the true pas- 
thai lamb, prefigured in it. 

Another consequence is, that the discovery sweeps away the 
groundwork' of the celebrated controversy respecting the day, 
in which our Lord partook of the Last Passover. 

** For it was not only not essential, but not conformable to the 
accurate fulfilment of the paschal types, that our Lord should 
have celebrated the last Passover before the national day. It 
is in the highest degree improbable, and at variance with the 
general tenor of his character and conduct, that he should do so. 
There is direct evidence (Matt. xxvi. 17* Mark, xiv. 12. Luke, 
xxii. 7.) that He did not do so. An explanation can be given 
of those phrases which might seem to imply the anticipation of 
the national day. Therefore, as long as the first covenant was 
in force. He set an example of obedience, in all things lawful, 
both to its ordinances and to its. ecclesiastical authorities. He 
annulled nothing,^ He resisted nothing. He removed nothing of 
the law, till its destined purpose had been effected, and theyk/- 
ness of time had come. The paschal supper was not abrogated 
till the last anniversary of it had been duly observed. The ad- 
juration of the^ High Priest was not despised^ till our High 

* I cannot but think, that an inaccurate view of .the paschal types 
and a pious desire t^ reconcile a seeming discrepancy, predisposed the 
manv learned men, who have maintained the anticipation of the national 
day for celebrating the Passover, to admit and support the arguments for 
an act so anomalous, and so uncongenial with the principles upon which 
our Saviour generally appears to have modelled his conduct. The state- 
ments in Matt. xxvL 17. Mark, xiv. 12. and Luke, xxii. 7. are so plain, 
and decisive, that nx> effort is necessary to understand their purport; but 
considerable ingenuity has been required to raise a doubt upon them. 
The difficulty, too, and the differences of opinion among critics, in at- 
tempting to account for the anticipation, is remarkable. The reader may 
see them briefly stated in Jennings' Jewish Antiquities, p. 455. In the 
second part of the Appendix to my Sermon on the Passover, I have en*- 
deavoured to show, and I trust nut unsuccessfully, that there are insu* 
perable objections to the scheme of the Anticipation, and clear evidence 
on the other side. 

De Verbo 'Axraim vel 'Axratvoa. 379 

Priest had offered , the one great and all-sufiBtient sacrifice. 

The vail of the temple was not '* rent in twain," till Jesus had 

given up the ghost, and the eternal mercy-seat had been ^' opened 

to all believers." His conduct, to the last, was in unison with 

His solemn declaration ; Think not that I am come to destroy 

the' law, or the prophets.: I am not come to destroy , but tofuU 

JfU. For verily I say unto you^ till heaven and earth pass, one 

jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, tilt all be 


Southampton, May, 1824. 

De Verbo 'Axralm vel *AxTMvico, scr. E. H. Barker. 

[Vide Misc. Cr. V. n. P. i. p. 6S.] 

Insunt Emendationes Suida, Elymologicorum, Hesychii, 

Mschyli, Platonis, et Orphei. 

iliiSCH. Eum. SQ. '/l^fi^rs o-coxsTv jxijrf ft* axralvuv fieuriv, ubi 
notavit G. Burges. : — '^ Phot. JSooxeiv uvt) rou la-x^siv. Extat 
iterum a-ooxoo in Soph. El. 117*f neque pluries ap, Tragicos* 
Inter** [roi] '^ avu^ \sy ifji^svet recensen debet et axrafvetv. Phry- 
nich. Arab. 23 : *AxTaivoo(rar (niiJLaivei yiv to uxpooerat xoLi ivapM 
xai iMTewgla-m* Ala^vKo^, Ovk It' uxtxIvw, ftjo), pAgvrovco^, olo¥ 
cvK ir 6§6ovv 8uva/xai Ijttaur^v,'' [ifiauTov, D. R. ad Timaei Lex. 
20.] '' IDiccTcov h rco ^^al^covi ig aito Trspitr'jFcofMVoy, Corrige h 
TM^^ietfVi: V. Kidd. in Critical Review Jan. 1803. p. 142.*'» D. 

* Locus est hie: — '* Suid. v. 'Ofn/yoxooro; : Alytt oify h *AXKifiUiiij (Plato 9y 
120. list.) O0it^a>,\& vpig Mit^ay <rt itT rov ^prvyoxoiroy, (see Schol/PJat. 74.) 
^«oj8xlir«iy xal aXXot/f TOio{rrot/f* i v <lMlimt, ^Ort od irpof Tof^f rvy^oiras Ay^ Io'TI^ 

wgiff ii rovs Aft<rrous. What say 8 Kuster to h ♦aiWi? • Pesiime;' and well 
he might — the disease b admitted, where is the remedy ? Alas^ Sape 
evemt tit, qui artem noiiram esercent, ut, dum astra tptculantur, ea, qiusante 
pedet sunt, rum videant. If K. had submitted to the drudgery of reading 
. a few lines of Leopardus Emendd. 9, 5. he would not have permitted the 
illusive h ^aiintft to remain unaltered, and his significare nimirum vult, 
wpuld have been countenanced at least by a Greek word : — ' Htec Platonis 
verba Proclut aut Plotinut (oU alius quisquam interpretans, inquit, *EM^Ai. 
VSIV, oT» oi TTfos Tovs rvxivrus ay'^v lari, i. e. Significans non esse Alcibiadi 
certamen cum vulgo out aliquo e plebe. Neque enim ex Phadone Platoms 
sequentia ^verba deprampta esse credendum est, ^Hwin is, as w^haU have 

380 De Verba 'Axruii^ 

R. ad Tiniiei Lex. I. c. :— ^^ In Phadoiie cum huic glosses noii 
satis aptum locum reperirem^ oborta tiiihi snspicio est, Phryo* 
h ra 4>alBpo9 scripsisse, propterea quod in illo Dialogo plura, 

?uam in uiio alio, irtirofijjttlva xa) ^ivot xot) agp^aiorpsr^, qus ill 
latone reprehendit Dionys. H. Ep. ad Pomp. 127.> reperiuntur. 
Sed ne hie quidem verbi sedem ita demonstrare licet, nihil ut 
dubitationis supersit. £t erunt fortasse, qui Phryn. memoris 
kpsu Phadonem pro libris de LL, 2. p. 583. iaudasse dicant: 
*Ev CO XP^^ /x^cx) xsxrijroef r^v olxeiav f ^ovr^eriv, iriv fMtlyereit re xa\ 
j3oa aTocxrcog' xa) orav iiXTMVaxrYi hottrro, Ta^^a'roL utuxtoo^ ai infif. 
Sic tres Codd. Par. Leid. et alius, quo HSt. usus est, item 
Stob. Ms. et Schol. Plat, ad h. 1. hatic lectionem produnt." 

,Idem D. R. in prima TijTUBi Editione: — ** Hanc rarissimam 
vocem e Plat, expulit sciolorum imperitia, dicam, an audacia i 
Neque hujus rei testem dabo Timaeum, cujus hac parte "fides 
propter crebras interpolationes vacillat, sed alium locupletiorem, 
omnique majorem exceptione, Pbryn. Arab. Ilpoirap, So^m Ms. 
aliquando, si Deus sierit, a nobis luce donandum. At enimvera 
liqdide mihi videor posse afSrmare, verbi axroiwiy nuUom in 
P/uedone vestigium reperiri, quin ne locam quidem, cui satis 
apte converiiat, nisi forte hue referre veiis p. 398. Ilep) hxeiw 
oroXuv xpovov «rro)jjMivif, xm ireg\ tov oparov toVov voKksi avTirelvjourot, 
Kx) 7oXXa iraSouira, Scripait igitnr Phryn., ni fallor> Iv fPotlBgco, 
in quo Dialogo plura sunt, quam in quovis alio, v69roiY}|xgya xa) 
^ha xoci apy(onmprn% quibus Philosophum, qiiando se ^ttoUit, 
delectari notat Dionys. H. £p. ad Pomp. 127. Neque in 
Phadro commodae verbo sedes diu quserendse sunt. Ecce enim 
p. 348. (=31. Ast.) "/lo-T Itti ra «cr;^«« ufipoo xotShai tap linra, 
TOV i^h, BKovTot ha, TO |x^ ocvrnemiv tov Se u|3^io*Tijy, /taXa axovTa. 
Quid si hie olim Grammatici legerint, hoi to ft^ axTaiveiv?* 
I^Scholia tamen Herineae,p. 168. lectioni vulgata^ favent, ^11$ iiij 
■avTiTgivfiv to a\oyov.} ** Ibidem pergit Plato : Eia^oftsyo^, ^g^- 
ju^sTi^cov, eXxcoy rjvayxoursv uit 7rpo(re>\,ielv roig TraiSixoi;. An hie pro 
Ixxcoy quondam scriptum fuit uxtolIvoov, vel, ut Phryn. jubet, ebc- 

> Taivooy i Vitii certe suspicionem movet Cod. Voss., quem in 
Bibl. Leidensi contuli, sXxeoy, prorsus omittens* Sed viderint 
acutiores.'' [Nihil varietatis notavit Gaisford. Lectt. Plat, e 

occasion to obsenre, one of those infantes scopuli so dangerous to literary 
•adventurers." Photius v. X)f'rvyoi6vo; : Alyn o5t I? *AXJ«iBi&^, O&K^AKkSi irpi 

ibi iix^aivMy cum Leopardo leg. monet Porson. ad Suid.^ Dobraeus p. 
7Hz, Sed aliquid humani passus est V.D. mihique amicissimus; nam 
locum frustra queesivi in Porsooi Appendice. * . . 

« vel 'An/Tttwoci. ' SSI- 

Membr. Bodl. Oxon. 18^; Scholia Hermese I. c. "On eXxerou 

yiv Sets iij trifutri lepoirofukowru ^ ^in^X^ thro rod uKokiurrou rwf 
Imroonff etur^ Si iiviiXxu riv x^lfwa roov JWrcov a/xa rw ufAelvovi T«y 
Iwwotif eif ra voijm ciSif.] '^ Timsei glossam cum Suidas descri- 
beret^ aliam quoque interpretationem^ quas Platonis loco iDirifice 
convenit^ adjecit, ^ %gos a-vvowriav 6piJLa»J' Cf. Timaei glossamr 
^Pufk^ir poiJi^ilVf rovTO de a^o r^^ xiy^crmo^ rou pifi^u* Ubi D^ 
Jl. : — *' Hoc verbum neque ap. Plat, inveni, neque ap. uiluin 
veterum Scriptt." At refer ad Plat. Crat. s, 9^., cum Schnei- 
dero ki Lex. Cr.; et sic Ms. Clark.^ teste Gaisfordio Lectt^ 
Plat. 35. Vide quae notavi ad Etjm* M. 1121. StUrz* 

Pergit vero G. Burges. ad ^scfa. Bum. I. k: — ^" Aliud for- 
tasse exempluro cacr^mv [Uvo$ ex tat ap. £tjm. M.: '/IxraiW 
i%\ Jtjtcov, 'AxTdtlvew, to fiersmglfyirdcu, xol) hretlgecrdM, xcA yaih' 
ftSv* IlcLqi TO i^XTfti cacros xoti pfHtM icxroo^ et^ o5 to xou^/^o» 
ifafaL A'urxji^f e^ o3 ixroUvco, [' lege ct^' o3 axralv&f rh xoo^/^6» 
mafa Aia^v^f D. R. ad Tim. 1. c. ' Etym. annotat derivari ab 
AyeOf ex quo primum fieri axrog, deinde verbum uxtm, significans 
Koofllju ap. JBsch., ex hoc autem axralvw.* HSt. Thes. Siue 
corruptelae suspicione citavit Staul.] xu\ uxtoTivov [i^ivo$f ri ctviyov 
xa) Swa/x8V0v avopiow* Yerum ipse fortiter nego hie stare posse 
AxTouveiv. £tenim scripsit Tragicus, 

w$ jxijri (Tcoxeiy ft*^ oXX' UTFaKrabeiv crariv. 
Unde bis corrigas et intelligas Hes. : ' '^Xexraivsi* S(r;^6<> yetvgiSif 
fbn-feogf^ei.'' [' Sic ipse male scripsit pro axTutvei/ D. R« ad 
Tiriiaei Lex. ; seu potius scriptum invenit*] ^^ 'AnetxTivmr o- 
xivelaiM /tij Swaftsvo^." ^AiraxTolvoov correxerat Is. Voss., con- 
jecerat Kuster. ' Apud Hes, est multo rarius comp. 'AiraxTat-- 
yeiv: ^ATraxTuhoav 6 xiveio-iai jttij Swva/xwoj.' D. R. 1. c] ** Ne- 
que de nihilo est illud ovxer axralvoo in Phryn." Hactenus G. 
Barges. '^ .^chjli locus, quern Grammaticus " [ap. Bekk» 
.Anecd. Gr. 373.] "et Phryn. respiciunt/' [imo Phryn. verbis, 
AW^yXoSj Ovx ir ixrahoo, ^er) fiapi}T6y(0Sy oTov ouxer ogiow Suva- 
ftMi l/xauTov, plane respexit ad versum quendam deperditae jPh- 
buta,^ ** est in Eum. 36., ubi Scholio subjecto,'' [Xmxfnr xoo- 
/fit^BiVf (niiMilfu Se xai to Yuugiav xei araxroos infiav* "AXXas, o'co^ 
xsiv Si^ TO yripa$ :] 'Axrutfuv praeponendum est, non SiOTcsnf" D. 
R4 K c. R^ecte; nam v. Seoxsiv, cum sit intransitivum, non 
potest significare to xou^/^efv. Scholion illud tacite sic, ad D. R. 
mentem, edidit Schutz. ad ^sch. V. 4. p. 408. : Seoxeir h^ ti^ 
ffipag. *AxTcdmr xou^/Jify. S^futivu $f xai to yatu^i^v xa) kr&x^. 
rcio$ ir/fiav. In verbis orraxTw^ infiav respicitur Plat. locus, quem 
D. R. supra citavit, atque adeo bine firmatur lectio Platonica 
aKraivmi^, quam idem vir doctua protulit, .£x hoc. Scholio 

382 De Verba 'Atcmim 

quoqne disci potest, Etym. M* et 6r com Orione Tbebaoo 
(ad calcem £tyin. G. 618.) quibus itxTolveo est to xovflt^», ad 
JE^ch. Euin. 36. respexisse. Pauw. :-— *' Ut neque Yaleam, neque 
me erectam tenere possim gradiens ; rpixoo H x^P^^^^ aptissine 
3equitur; et aninio et corpore perturbata erat vetula. J^oa, 
iFmxog, ireoxeiv, Corpore volenti esse" Vide HSt. Thes. v. Sto- 
}tia», et.Eust. 854. i\dde Orionis Thebani Etym. 142.: Saoxos' 
htiierov 'EpiMU, ^roi 6 Wxpgo;. Sooxtlv, arr) Iff^^uciy. ^H <raoixi>$, 
tj i dxicos (revifiivos, ij opjxwv' ayyeXo^ yap. 

Ad £scb. referenda est glossa Hesychii hsc : *Axralveir (w 
reeop/^siv. '^ Equidem arbitror locum a Phryn. citatum, Ovx et 
oKTulvo), altum esse atque ilium Eum. 36., deinde ap. Etym. 
M. 'AxTuhov fiivog quoque .Xscbyli verba esse et inter ejus 
JFragmm. referenda." Sqhutz. ad £sch. V. 5. p. 267* Recte 
omuino statuit Scbutz* Sed mirum est viris doctia hodieque 
non suboluisse veram lectionem in Etym. M. sic corrigendo: 
'AxTouvopi^ivoVf TO aviyov xou ivvifievov avoptouv* Nam vulg. istud 
axrulvov fuivos parum Grscum videtur. Cf. Etynn. G., a quo con- 
jectura nostra satis firmatur: ^Axraheiv ri fuvrHogify(ptai xa) 
enalpenf, icapa to ^xtoh uxtos, to py^t'OL ii auTOXi axTm, cif* o3 ro xov- 

^l^ vag AWx^^f ol^* oS axTuiveo, /xero;^^ axraivo/teyov to iifayw 

xot) tvvoifievov avopdovv, Corrige, a^' o3 itxTuhoi, to xovfifyi imf 

' AWx^^i f'^oX^ a^craivofMvov. Orionis Theb. optiscuhim ad 

calcem Etym. G. 618.: 'AxTulveir vtp) to axT^ axrog, xoA ^fUL 

uxTWy a^ o3 TO xou^i^o) vap* Al^iXcf. Lege ifU^oL , alp* oi 

aXTalvoo, TO xovfil^a) irap* A\<rx^^» 
" Sic lego, , 

Xp^^o'^9 Si' ip[Mov i^afji^el^iMtifiioX^g 

Illud ixT, plane tuetur ^scb.inlocosimillimo; etenimin Earn. 
36. Pythias, quae jam e scena egressa est, iterum extempio 
redit, Furiarum visu adeo perterrefacta, uti ipsa dicit, 

(0$ [A^Te (Tcoxeiv i^f^Ti jx' axTalveiv jSao-iv : 
quem locum respexit Phryn./' [imo alium, in deperdita Fabula 
inventum, respexit, ut supra notavi,] ^' in Lexx. Bekk. 23. sive 

ap. Ruhnk. ad Tim. 20. ^lerp^uXoj, Ovxir axTulvco, ^o") , 

oTov ovxer 6pdo\jv Svva/xai Ift^ur^y. Ad.similem fere locum referri 
debet gl. Hes. 'AxTatvou(ru* T^g/tot/o'a ^ Mrfakms xpUTOvo-u, ubi 
tamen lege aTgefuowa. Similiter ap. Eur. servus in scenam 
fioXtg ciKTMvifjLevog, prs timore redit.'' G. Surges, ad Eur. 
Phaetb. Frr. Ms. in Class. Joum.y 43, 166= Fr. Tr. Friede- 
manni et J. D. G. Seebode Misc. Cr. V. 1. P. i. p. £2. He- 
sychii glossam sic correxit G. Wakef. ad marg. : '^ F. Tge;^otMr« 
i c^c^S^^ouGT^, ^x^pTmpi'' St^ fiVhvV mvktaudum eat :— ^^ In iiostria 

Litterce qiuBddni inedita^ ^c. 38S 

Horn, exemplis Od. "S^. 3. legitur^ iroieg 8' inptxraffwro. At 
Hes. aliam prodit lectionein : 'TvoootTuhoyro* Ir^s/toy. Quam 
ipsanoy noD vuigatam^ ob oculos habuit vetus Criticus, Lysanias 
ap. Etym. M. 739. Awravlag M roD rpifAm fv^) mMeti.^ 
[Vide 6. Burges. ad ^sch. Eum. 1. 1. et Nov. Thes. Gr. L. 
1088 — 89.] '* Hes. ^AxTahowrw Tpif/i,ov(ra, ^ 00*^0X00^ xgAtToDa-a/' 
D. R. ad Tim. 1. c. lllud aa-^aXms xpetrovoru firmat Hermantii 
conjecturanii Pseud-Orpheo^. 376. feliciter restituentis yerbum 
Sacruhiiv : 

i^omlviig oporgi ysoyiXou vouSog avTr^v, 
Jdoilr^S iv xoKjFcp xexXruYorog ufJL^i yoAaxri* 
Xgh ^i ^^ rerXr^ooTi v6€p &xTcnvi[MV aU), 
ftij 1F0$ '^Treiavoio Kuteis thro ielpMrog t^m 
ix x^^P^^ oliouris fiakciv, x^Xov cthh iplt^g 

** Pro alviiiev, quod aperte mendosum est^ conj. xrfimviiAt^ 
Bernard, ad Hiom. M. 177. Sed magis placeret /teXsSfleivsfMy 
eodem sensu." Tyrwb. *' De corrupto aivifit^ equidein pro- 
babiliujs esse exbtimo verbum^ quo Jirmiter tenere, quam quo 
(Curare, cavere, indicetur^ positum esse. Praeterea in tali loco 
non est mutatio facienda, nisi quae literarum similitudine sese 
tueatur. Quare neque xnpamiAsy nee ftsXsSaiyl/tfy placet. Pro* 
pius ad AINEMEN accedit "AKTAINEMEN. Itaque hoc repo- 
8ui. Hes. *AxTcthii¥* lurnsoplfyw. *AxTahova'a* rpiiMwrUf ^ 
io'eaX&s xpuTov(ra. JSscb. Eum. S6. *Il$ fni^re crcoxsiv pJfn fC ox* 
rmvm fiouni.*' Hermann. 

Ceterum de vv. ^AxralvM et *AxtuI^, deque compp. fuse 
actum est in Novo Thes. Gr. L. 1086—90. 

Thetfordia, Martii 12. A.D. 1824. 


« \ 



UUera quadam imdila ex autographis inter schedas 
.D*Orvillianas, inBibliotheca Bodleiana adservata 

Viro celeberrimo auiicissimoque J. Ph. D'Orville 

S. D. P. Wesseling. 

Di ODOR us ante hos duodecim dies in meas asdes imipigravit ; 
hospitio exceptum comitesque schedas diligenter examinavi^ nee 
multum, quod Camussati esset^ reperi : variantes^ quse dicuntur^ 
bona? sunt notary sed paucissimae libris posterioribus adscriptae. 
Gratia? horum omnium caussa a me tibi debentur et habebuntur. 
De Wolfioy quod narras^ gratissimuni accidit: perge^ quasso, 
Diodori apud eum causam agere, quam et ipse ubi paulo plus 
otii fuero nactus, illi commendabo. Montefalconium in opere 
egregio strenuum esse laetor^ speroque et ibi me reperturum 
quod Bibliothecae Diodori prodesse possit. Tu, si occasio ferat^ 
exquire ex illo, ecquid ejus generis Mss. catalog! sint compre- 
hensuri. Maffei Antiq. Galliarum exemplar a te dudum habui ; 
itaque hoc, aut si prius malueris, commoda occasione ad te re- 
dibit. Politicum carmen de Constantini donatione legere non 
memini : forte non aliud atque illud erit, quod ei^ Bulengeroi 
ked soluta dratione scriptum, Fabricius L. V. bibl. Or. C; 3» 
[Vol. 6. p. 5.j inseruit. Noviin re literaria nihil hie geritur; 
neque enim nova tibi erit Graeca historia numis ab Havercampo 
illusttata, quam fugientibus oculis huper inspexi. Ferunt Otto- 
nem Balduini opera recensaturum, [sic] et alium> cujus nomen 
baud succurrit, ex juris consultorum familia, Habebis intra 
decem aut xii, dies a me dissertationem in numos quosdam 
Thesauri Morelliani^ cui locum in Miscellaneis, si vacet, P^to, 

Vale et me ama* Trajeeti £4. ixber [1735.] 

Clarissimo Amicissimoque Viro Jac. Phil. D'Orville 

S.P.D- J.Alberti. 

Post continuas dilationes^. quae vel Jobi , patientiam expug- 
nassent^ tandem prodiit Glossarium meum^' quod pro amicitiac 

' Cui titulus Glossariym Gracum in tacros novi FaderU Ubros^ ex Mt$, 
primus edidit^ notisque illuitravit Joannes Alberti^ Ecclesiattes HarUmemis. 
acce4unt ejusdem Mi^elUinta crilicain Glos&as Nmnicas^ Suidam, Bes^chium ; 
et hldex auctortm 'ex Phoiii Lecico mdUo. ^^* Iw^. lifilvVC^J^* .\ 

Littera quadam inedita^ S^c. 385 

tessera ad te mitto, ea lege, ut sicubi erroreiq detexeris, caiidide 
(ut inter bonos solet) roe moneas, ne in Hes^chii editioneni 
forte propagetur. Versor nunc in lit. J. pag. ^40. citiori (ut 
spero) gradu stadium conepturus. * Pro transmissis novissimis 
Observationibus gratias ago maximas. - Sed aliud est^ quod te 
porro velim. Ableganda sunt quanto odyus exemplaria ad CIL 
Viros Wolfium et Fabricium. rasciculum cui credani, nescio^ 
neque tibi gravis esse vellem^ ut banc curam suscip^res/ quum 
apud vos commoda dabitur occasio. Quaeso itaque^ ut quam 
primum me certiorem facias^ quag via tibi certissima videatur^ 
quaeve nunc forte occasio ad manus sit, ne ulterius morantem 
gelu opprimat. Sic optime de me mereberis/ quem tuum esse 
nosti. Vale. Harlemi pridie idus Jan. moccxxxv. 

Eruditissimo Afdicissimoque Viro J. Ph. D'Orvillio 
S. P. D. Ti. Hemsterhuis. 

Me nuper ab itinere Groningano reducem adventiciae literas 
tuae exceperunt : ii^ apertis, quicquid ex procrastinatione moles- 
tiae animo adbaeserat, illico dissipatum est. Gratulor, Glossis 
meis in honoratiorem l6cum promotis. .Eloqui non possum, 
quam mihi tuum fratrisque tui carmen, quo Petrum nostrum^ 
suavissimum illud caputs condecorasses, placuerit. De Luciano 
actum est : in vincula solutus, nunquam redibo : tempore non 
suo injuriam insignem mihi fecerunt Bibliopolae; Gesnerum 
optem in banc provinciam succedere ; videtur enim mihi a literis 
Graecis non mediocriter instructus, et ad versiouem conficiendam 
.facultate singulari. Nescio quanto opere Anti-Pauwiana tua 
desiderem : tergum egregie laceratum nullam nobis misericor- 
diam coromovebit : vide tamen, ne cicatricem ducant vulnera 
in Miscellaneis postremis impressa. Quanquam viderit ajxa- 
f^^vv^ pessime tamen rem egit: scribendum enim w^ SScop av^^ 
rw^ x^ovs afji^ap^ioiv, vertendumque quasi aquani p^r hortos flexu 
multiplici derivaret. En tibi meam drsputatioheiti de Lysiae 
loco, et emendatione Meursiana : si punctum tuum ferat^ non 
intercedo, quin Miscellaneis inseratur ; sin minus, Pythagoraei 
xvifMu scriptorem nunquam divinassem t ita mihi salivam movit 
nobilissimus Hudecoperus^ ut te obtester, ne desinas ilium 
meo quoque nomine, si quid valere potest, instigare ad ornanda 
Miscellanea^ Jure fatalem annum erudite orbi conquereris: 
paratas habebam ad Juliani Caesares adnotationes> quas rogatus 
ad Liebium mitterem : jamque maiium admover^m epistolae 
obsignandae, quum de obitu ejus nuncius ad me perfertur. Quid 
tandem est illud scripti, quod titulum Chrestom^thiae Burman- 
nianae pniefert ? an pater horribilis libelU, «vc e3[\\m ^^i^v^v^^^'^^^ 

386 Adversaria Literaria. 

ttis i percupio videre. Arnaldi vita in summopericulo veraatur, 
loDgiorem ejus usuram^ et meliorem in nonniillis mentem ex 
animo precor : de bis aliisque plura coram : quamvis enim nec- 
dum ceiti quicquam constituerim^ credo tamen me Amsteloda* 
mum Usee feriis venturum. An urbe aberis^ et quo maxime 
tempore I facile enim intelligis, me gratissimo itineris illius fructu 
nolle privari* Plurimum salve a Venema et Burmanno nostris^ 
cum quibus banc vesperam jucunde ponam : genio tuo poculum 
libabitun Optimo fratri tuo multam a me salutem. Vale et 
me ama. 
Franequera, xxvii Junii, mdccxxxvi. 



In honarem Gul. Brewne^ Eq. S^c. 

^tii^^ Hapifatr^w [mUwu Tivpag re, 
^olfie, rot^ f xd* cttiroxa xariptorm 
Exy^oeg 7rapa$9 fisv axotKrov, orri 

^rjp crs xiXTimu. 

Xo) yotp larpop (^iXov f ^o;^* aXXoiv 
Ihpiep fue du/xo^ &ifayy$9, Ah- 

Tip <ppevl$ xapwl}f yXuxuv fuvooSr* ix 

. My&iK airofrviy'iio ;^uroS a/t^} ru/xj3ov 

NexTapog iptrap. 

Elfri fAOf TayicTT, 'TyUiUf rixiw 
Xpotreas oLytoovvla$ (pipiCTOV^ 
Eliri jbioi rdx^^T o<ra xoippi'OLT aAA^if 

Zwog idnxs. 

Adversaria Literaria. 387 

UoXTioacis ^T^yrfTfOL (pipomrog a&TcS 
Ei&a7i£}f xo6paig ipAQufi epanrtov ^ 
^AyTiaoy ff afia$ xXlo^ oSdi^ ipp^ 

• ^ 

2^y votrtov ^viy apya'Kemy SftiXo^, 
7%y yoou xa) du/to$oga^ fUpifUfaAt 
7%v iiaX$(rT l;gdai^6V o(va^ re Nepri- 

pioif ^A'iiwpsug. 

Ntiv KaiMni^ icXei va^ iyipapsy t'/^ag^ 
MoxtfTiHag ^BpB^eu acoroVt lie SI 
*il^doy£(rran]£ X^^^^ euflaijTOV 

Bv^Ksv ayAfa. 

'^XX* Td*, *^;^o7, IIep(r$^ou6Lg hopLOpis, 
TiS xXurov pLoXfras ^ip tiramv^ tv^a^ 

X)]/Sf ICOtlgOL. 

RbnneIiL: Co//. Reg. 



Scire potesiate^herbarum tuumque medendi. 

O beatorum series soluta 
Temporum! o ssevi nova regna Lethi! 
Posteris semffer sacer, o Satoris 

Lapsus Adami ! 

Nubium nigrans globus incubantem 
Portat tdtorem^ furit ense rabro 
Aogelus^ claustrisque patet reclusis 

Pestifer Orcus. 

Irruit longo glomerata tractu 
Turba morboruuii varias nocendi 
Instruunt fonnas^ et ubique luctus 

Semina fundunt. 

Multa per terras pyra fumat, exit 
Ipsa prsegustans aniidio cruentas 
Mors dapes^ captatqae^raves apertis 

Naribus auras. 

388 Adversaria Literaria. 

Imbibimt herbs nova jam venena, 
Et tument fe^is epul^i calentis 
Febris bino ardens furor^ hinc veteroi by- 

dropicus humor ; 

Pestis hinc velpX| maculisque Lepra 
Squallidis, mersaeque novis tenebris 
Luminum taedae, gemituque tracta 

Tussis anbelo. 

O simul luctus hominumque Princeps ! 
En jacent fracUe tibi spes futuri ! 
Sed patet coelum precibus, trementem 

Porrige dextram : 

Quae manus poenas, eadem levamen 
Suggerit, sacro -tumet omnis intus 
Halitu tellu8, nova crescit herbi» 

Undique virtus : 

Tardius prsedam sibi destinatam 
Mors rapity certam mmus ilia dextram 
Sentit^ et segnem retrabit maligno 

Lumine gressum. 

O fatiscentem^ Medicina^ vitae 
Tu fovea flammam; reducemque labris 
Spiritum includens selidis, rapacem 

l)ecipi8 Orcum : 

O juventutis columen labantis ! 
Seu manu mulcens tenera cerebrum 
Febre correptum recreas^ vel ipsis 

Mortis ab ulnis 

Surripis lenta tacite puellam 
Tabe languentem ; gerit ilia mortis 
Inter amplexum decus, et doloso 

Pulcra dolore, 

Spes fovet ; vires tamen intus urget 
Morbus invictasy nisi tu benigna 
Das opem dextra^ meliore replens 

Flumine venas : 

Te vocat tristi prece, lacrymisque 
Mater effusis^ puerumque molli 
Mulcet a^rotum gremio> necisque 

Pra^cipit amens 

Adversaria Literaria. 389 

Tela ; tu matris miserata curas 
Detegis noxaib^ subito per omnes 
It salus nervos^ solito et tenore 

Vita recurrit. 

Non tamen justa careat Camoena 
Ille^' Mosarum pariter tuique 
Quern decus versu memoret fideli 

Musa quotannis ; 

Hunc suae gratis citharse Patronum 
Laudibus vates celebret^ modisque 
Integret nomen^ geminoque rite 

Plaudat honori. 

Pott : Colleg. Sand. Johann. Cant, 
In maximis com. Cant. 

IIo7i>,axig 'HpaxTUr^s (po^epcSf lx^n](r€V aymooy 

T(Svy tfrfTwg ''Hp^ fl^xe xorearcaiiipri. 
7&V K6pa rplxpavov roy ivipQsj ^ir^^i v&^oAw$ 

MoSpog scoy Sstr/xcp x^ip^s ihr^ars ^peT. 
Ka) TaSpoy yair^g fi\aa-T7j[MM /tiyitf'rov iyixcf, 

*Ps7a [jlolTC ^)fVi*s xawpoy, xa) s-oXuSai^aS* o^iv. 
*^XX* ore croig ayayoTtny, ^Epwg, fieKiefra-i ^ufiiyn 

Eipovox ey A'ohaTg ioya reTOXTo xipcug^ 
Tpijfpa Ts xa). r^rpaypk rpi^^slg wro x^^P^ ^^X^^'^ 

*Eppay7i r{KaxaTQ)y ly (rrpo^a!Kiyyi woxog. 
'AXK(Sy [ily fiAy^ooy xpsitrtrcoy t^o, riyis ulyicrroy 

JS^fjfm-ayrwy, r^Qwy \67rT&, viyoay ifJt/iSs. 

1. Dalton : SchoL Reg. Buriens. 

' GuL Browne, Equ. qui musis iodulgens prasmia (quorum aemulunii 
felix fuit hoc carmen) apud Cantab, constituit. 

S90 Adversaria Literaria, 


Salve ! magisa tui Bntanniaeque 

Salve ! gloria temponim tuorum! 

Qualis nemo fuit> n^ est; eritv^ 

PosthaCy o utinam repente voces 

Sint centum raibi> sint et ora centum, ut 

Te tuf similis poeta laudem ! 

Audin'? nunc hominemve foeminamve 

Juxta, nunc procul et remotiores 

Hac^ illaCy puerumve ineptientem 

Credas multa loqui, simul diserta 

Ac vox parturiit sonos in alvo. 

Atqui nu tremit os loquentis, atqui 

NQ motum est labitfm. Quid ergo ? fallor ? 

An verum est i loqueris, tacesve i certe 

Et nusquam tua vox et est ubique. 

Tweddell: Tr%n.Coll. 

In max. com. Cantab. 

Thefollowins Epiiaph on the tomb of a favorite dogyfrom the 
British museum^ is so plaintive, and cotUainsto muchyim-' 
plicity, that it xsnU of itself be an apology for its insertion. 

In obitum Canis dilect^e. 

■» « % 

Gallia me genuit, nomen mihi divitis undft 

Concha dedit, formse nominis aptus bonos ; 
Docta per incertas aiidax discurrere sjlvas, 

Callibus hirsutas atque agitare feras : 
Non ffravibus yinclis unquam consueta, teneri, 

VuTnera nee niveo corpore saeva pati ; 
Molli namque siou domini, dominseque jacebam— 

£t noram in strato lassa cubare toro. 
Et plus quam licuit muto canis ore loquebar — 

N uUi latratus pertimuere meos ; 
Sed jam fata subi partu jactata sinistro, 

Quam nunc sub parvo marmore terra tegit. 

AdiHirsaria Literaria. d9\ 

lUustratian of Herodotus. L. ii.Ch.57« 

We cannot, perhaps^ have a greater example of the power of 
superstition over the mind of man/where reason b unenlightened 
by divine revelation, than the testimony of the great historian 
now before us ; assuring us, that the most civilised nation on 
the face of the earth was deluded by the juggling of two com- 
mon gypsies, if the conjecture be correct, that the present race 
of gypsies came originally from Egypt. . 

The most successful artifice^ which they seem to have prac- 
tised to delude the people, was that of causing their voice to 
appear to proceed from the stems of trees, from the bowels of 
the earth, or from any other place which might suit their pur- 
pose ; an art well known at the present day under the name of 

Those, who were unable to acquire sufficient command 
over their voice, made use of another species of imposition, 
easier indeed, but more liable to detection. A tube was 
conveyed to the statue of the deity from a particular spot where 
the priest concealed himself, and in this manner sounds emitted 
by the priest appeared to proceed from the mouth c^ the image. 

The words (if they could be so styled, as they were little more 
than an unintelligible confusion of sounds) were hastily collected 
by the scribes in attendance, and delivered to the person who 
consulted the oracle. 

The former method was common among almost all the more 
civilised nations of antiquity. It is mentioned repeatedly by 
Isaiah, and it is probable that the witch consulted by Saul made 
use of similar practices. It was considered, of course, a crime 
among the Jews to consult familiar spirits, and it is one of the 
abominations mentioned by the prophet, of which he advises the 
Israelites to beware ; ''-When they shall say unto you. Seek 
unto them that have familiar spirits, and unto wizards that peep' 
and mutter, should not a people seek unto their God? for the 
living to the dead?" Isaiah, viii. ig. 

To terrify the imagination, and preclude suspicion, some 

' To peep signifies to cry as young birds, to chirp, to whisper.— Dr. 

392 Adversaria Literatin^ 

wizards resorted to hollow places under ground, to which prac* 
tice the following passage seems to refer : ** Thus said the 
X^rd, that created the heavefi^^ I have not spoken in secret^ in 
a dark place of the earth*" lisaiah xlv. 18, 19* 

Perhaps^ then^ the origin of the fable of the doves was derived 
from the noise which was made by the peeping sounds alluded 
to by the prophet, and not as the historian supposes by the hear- 
ing a strange and foreign language. 

G. P. C. 

In Herodotum, vii. 187* 

OuSey fMi i&OfML frapl^TOTou irpoiovvoii ra ^ieipa tmv x-Qraftcov 
fori T«y. 

Several emendations have been proposed by commentators ; 
"Eimjf onf, him. See. 8cc» 'Evleov would certainly explain, the 
passage ; but Valckenaer considers that the word "Eyioi requires 
after it a genitive case, as "Evm rm votuimov, "Evisl rmv XP^f^' 
rm, &c. 

A more simple and moderate alteration ipay be found in the 
substitution of 'Erreaorcov, which is as frequently used in Greek 
as synonymous with k^yrcov, as ' existere ' in Latin for esse. 

1 should, however, prefer the originjal reading given us by 
Schweighaeuser, with the separation of son in the following 
manner; ?; ri rm, i. e. f^hos, Which is omitted by ellipsis, of 
which Lambert, Bos, and Viger, give us several instances : *' To 
y ifiov Iroijxov, idv oUtos IJIXij," Plat, in Theag. *' EU to irav aet 
^evov *' supple fiigo$ ;^govou. ^schyl. in Choephor. 682. &c. 8cc. 

Zeunius says, in a note to Vig. de Idiot. Cap. III. Sect. vii. 
Reg. 5. ''Miraest hujus nominis 'ftepo^' sive expressi, sive 
subauditi elegantia, si adjectivum additur conveniens.'' 

1 do not exactly understand, how Schweighaeuser could have 
translated the passage in the following manner, unless it had been 
altered as above : 

'^ Minime mirandum mihi videtur fluminum nonnullorum 
aquam defecisse." G. P. C 

Adversaria Liter aria: 393 


No. VIII. 

£u%^ pro novi anni felicihus ampiciis, 

Orta dies coelo est, nostrae orta salutis origo 

Qua fuit^ et vitae spes rediviva novae, 
Orta dies coelo est^ generis qua gaudia nostri 

Sunt nova, et est iterum pristinus ortus honos^ 
Orta dies coelo est, veteris qua clauditur anni 

Cursus, et auspicium surgit in orbe novi. 
Sit precor orta dies^ quae noctem e mentibus attain 

Tollat, et a vitiis pectora pura ferat. 
Sit precor orta dies, quae vel sine nube malorum 

Prima hie felices inchoet orta dies, 
Vel quas perpetiias a;temo tempore luces, 

Primaque. coelestes inchoet orta dies. 

Ad Gellium* 

Odi te, Gelli, nee possum dicere quare. 
Hoc tantum ; sed et hoc, idem amo te nimium. 

XJnius alteriusque eadem mihi causa profecto est, 
Odi te quod amo, teque amo quod mi odio es. 

» ' ■ ■ ■ 

Ad Zoilum. 

Nil opus est nostros ut rodas, Zoile, versus. 
Ipse ego qnos toties rodo, vocoque nihil : 

Luactas perquire dapes ; servire palato 
Si vis, ne rodas, Zoile, rosa prius. 

Ad insulmm quendam. 

Vis nobis joculum referre, <cuncti 
Quo risu moriamur, o Fabulle : 
Ne tantum scelus in tuo9 sodales 
Committas; joculum referre noli. 

Hieronymus Arconatus poeta Germanus Lectori de libello suo. 

Si quid in his chartis occurrat mollius, aures 
liadere quodve tuas, lector amice, queat ; 

Da veniam : hand alii mores sunt temporis hujus. 
O te felicem qui levitate cares ! 

Ut sine labe tamen nostros percurrere lusus 
Possis^ virgineus nee notet ora rubor ; 

394 Ai/ocTsaria Litetaiia. 

Pnidentes imiteris apes^ quae dulcb amaris 
Ex berbis etiani fiogere mella queunt* 

Ut cuique est animus^ sic prodest carmen obestve 
Aspergi macuiis mens generosa oequit. 

Fero et spero. 

Fata ferenda fero patiens, melioraque spero : 
Sperantem nescit deseruisse Deus. 

Ad Chrysidem* 

Errabam, fateor, Chrysis charissima, quod me 
Indignum quondam rebar amore tuo. 

Nam tu virtutem tribuis, te dando ; tuusque^ 
Si quid amas, dignum reddit amoris amor. 

In No. 53 of this Journal^ p. 170^ was quoted a poem of 
Hugo Grotius^ entitled^ ** Hyporchema in obitum Aldinae Ca- 
tellae," consisting of verses composed wholly of short syllables. 
The following, from Acidalius^ deserves quoting, on account of 
die rarity of this species of composition, as well as from the 
oddity of its construction. Acidalius delights in passionate 

1 protestations of friendship, ringing changes on words. Obsolete 
anguage, and merciless elision of vowels. In this last respect 
be is the very Antipodes of modern Latin poets in general. He 
bas written some admirable epigrams. 

Ad Amicum. 

Animitus ego te amo, animitus et amor ego tibi : 

Tibi sum animula ego tua, mea tu es animula mihi : 

Tuum animum habeo mihi, veluti tibi meum aaimum babes. 

Quid, animule mi, igitur inanima tibi mea manus 

Avide ita petitur f eane librum in animum bunc 

Pare pote melius erit aliud ? an animo aliquid 

Alibi potius habeo f quo ego neque video, neque 

Scio, ne^ue dare tibi queo melius. At age age jam 

Cape tibi modo, quodliabeo reliquum, uti sat habeas : 

Capiam item ego mihi tua. Tua mea, mea tua dehinc : 

Neque tuus eris, ego neque mens ero. Mens eris. 

Tu, ero tuus ego. Satin' ita tibi sit? an et aliud 

Cupis f Ego tu ero, tu eris ego : jam ^ge, quid ubi superest i 

Adi>ersaria Liter aria. 


In Navolum. 

Desine collectis infestse^ Naevole, linguas 
Foemineum probris dilacerare genus r 

Unum nam satis est, una simul omnia dices, 
Nasvole ; te talem foemina quod tulerit. 

Jn Navolum. 

Sic est, Naevole ; qunm tua ilia primum 
Vidi carmina^ nee bonum poetam 
Verus te potui vocare censor, 
Et malum timui tamen vocare. 
Per lusus igitur jocumque, vatum 
Dictus es mihi pessimus bonorum. 
Indignaris, ut audio, levemque 
Fers parum leviter jocum et moleste. 
Serio tibi dehioc loquar/meamque 
Mentetn, ut sentio, serio fatebor: 
Non vatum mihi pessimus bonorum 
Posthac> verum eris optimus malorum. 

In Hosciumf 

Di male te perdant, Rosci, quod te mihi jactas 
Assidue^ et toties exanimas miserum 

Laudibus insulsis ! utinam bona numina surdum 
Me faciant, tu ne me toties facias ! 

Epitaphiumin Fr. Rabelaisium. 

Somnus, et ingluvies, Bacchusque, Venusque, jocusque, 

Numina, dum vixi, grata fuere mihi. 
Cetera quis nescit i fuit ars mibi cura medendi ; 

Maxima ridendi sed mihi cura fuit 
Tu quoque non lacrymas^ sed risum solve, viator. 

Si gratus nostris manibus esse velis* 

In Ineredulum. 

Quum sine chirograpbo dicas, incredule^ credi 
Posse nihil, credis hoc sine chirographo I 

In PompUium. 

Inbumeros mihi «e numeros saspe unius horae 
in spatio jactat fundere Pompilius. 

396 Oxford Latin 

Haud niirum : innumeris quoniam visus mihi duUus 
Vel modus est, vel pes, vel caput in numeris. 

£t quidni innumeros numeros se fundere jactet^ 
Cujus tam extra omnem sunt numenim numeri i 

In Fannium. 
Magnus es in vulgo, Fanni : me vulgus iniquum 

Despicity et duris vocibus exagitat. 
Scin' quod ego interea roecum i mibi gratulor unum id^ 

Fanni, tam vulgo displicuisse tuo. 

From the Italian. 
(See Roscoe^s Life of Lorenzo di Medici.) 

The night that Pietro Soderini died^ 

His soul went posting to the gates of hell : 

'' What ! hell for thee ?" indignant Pluto cried : 
'' Go^ and with brainless babes in Limbo dwell. 

Idem Grace redditum. 

^up^iSiov IliTpolo Scifiptvoio iavivrog 

TapTogou iv irgotvpois *KixqiL irpo&elv *Al^$' 
'^ 06 (Tol y 8\$ avSgfioy [MipM de/ti^ el<rufixe(rtav 



Arrectis suspeiisa animis se Europa tenebat, 
Arctoi sibi prsecipiens commercia ponti; 
Cum tu ! per saevas glacies^ et inhospita regna, 
Ignotum aggressus praepandere gentibus aequor^ 
Cum tu ! grande decus Britonum ! medio ipse laborum 
Deiicis in cursu^ et coepta imperfecta reli^quis. 
< Spes erat, et sero quamvis conamine^ tandem 
Insolitas aperire vias^ ipsoque sub axe 
iBquoris inclusi glacialia rumpere tiaustra ; 
Scilicet^ ut cursu breviore, et tramite certo 
Navita longinqui penetraret ad ostia Gangis^ 

Prize Poem^ 397 

Catiiaiaeque oras ; longum nunc usque coactus 
Kadere iter, tardos et circutnfleetere cursus. 
Sive vias lustret^ qua Gama ingentibu9 ausis 
Insuetum sulcabat iter, (non ille minacis 
Vim metuens ponti^ et dubii prope littoris ^ram 
Vela legens^ seu magno olim molimine fama est 
Phoenicas tardis cursum intendisse carinis) 
Saeva illic niaria^ et longo procul Africa tractu 
Liistranda, atque obeunda feri plaga torrida solis, 
Arentem Angolam contra^ Daradumqae sonanteoi. 

Quin ubi se tandem extremis Cafraria terris 
Ostentat^ superest diris tamen usque procellis 
Vexata, et rapido fervens Mozambia fluctu, 
Seu quis Erythrseum littus, mollesve Sabaeos, 
Seu porrectam ultra speret sibi Persidos oram. 

At Bengala tibi, jam turn cum littora linquis 
Afrorum, procul ingeuti jam dissita ponto^ « 
Poscit iter durum, et discrimina longa viarum : 
Neu facile est, si quis Sinas et inhospita quaerat 
I littora Niphonae, tutam expediisse carinam 
Aut superasse f return, qua Java, et maxima propter 
Sumatra, Eoos claudunt vasto obice ductus. 
Nee facile est illi scopulos vitare latentes 
Et dubios aestus, et quas jacet undique caecis 
Interstincta vadis magno crebra insula ponto. 
Nee brevior, cursus si quis te,' magne Magellan ! 
Occiduas per aquas Auroras ad regna sequatur ; 
Longa via hie nautis etiam et discrimina rerum ; 
Atque ubi Atlantsei longinqua ad littora ponti 
Perventum, et magno (M-opius jam Plata sonore 
Audita in morem pelagi devolvere fluctus ; 
Iliinc continuo devexos cursus ad Austros 
Flectendus longe, geUdoque sub axe necesse est 
Noctem intempestam, atque acres perferre procellas. 
Ante aut diffuso quam circa lumine coelum 
Rideat, aut detur delabier aequore aperto 
Pacati maris, et tutos accedere portus. 

At non aetemum adversis cohibenda periclis 
Mens Humana, alio demum conamine quaerit 
Pandere iter pelago, tanfosque levare labores. 
Si forte Arctoo breviores tramite cursus, 
Eoumque aditus faciles speraret ad orbem. 
Nimirum extremo qua littora iuhospita fluctu 
Curvat, Atlantaei fugiens procul aequoris oras^^ 


3^ Oxford Latin 

Hudson! sinus aut sublimes aluns Aretos, 
Qua pelagus petit^' et BoresB lavat olnma regna; 
Hie fteXZy si qua fides, aestu interfusa reducto 
Dant aditus nautis, atque ostia recta f ianun ; 
Inde ea Rnsstaco sese immiscentia ponto, 
- Mox Asias fines, projectaque Kamschadalar 
Littora discurrunt supra, extremosque Curilos. 
Inde ergo ingentes terrae, atque expansa paterent 
Ante oculos spatia Oceani, et commercia rernm. 
Hinc ubi Tartareae specie jacet undique sa^va 
Littus arenosum, et tristes longo ordine campi, 
Quos contra opposito murorum limite claudit 
Dives opum Sina, et varias exculta per artes.. 
Quid dicam ? quam crebra ingens exinde per squor 
Insula se lasto nautis ostendat bonore 
Munera gemmarum et fragrantia aronmta jactans ? 
Usque ubi Tematem supra, arentemque Tidoreoi 
Innumeras offert ultro tota India merces. 
Parte alia magno sese California tractu 
Porrigit, unde viae faciles tranquilla per alta. 
Ante oculos donee niitibosa cacumina longe 
Attollunt Andes, donee Peruvia circa 
Ostentat pulcbras urbes, et ditia regna 
Ai^entique frequens rivis, aurique metaUo. 
At vero noc frustra multo conamine geutes 
Explorare iter, atque aditus recludere caecos 
Aggressse ; usque adeo magnis obsistere coeplis 
Taedia longa viae, et gelidi inclementia ponti : 
Ergo ilie hunc iterum qui possit adire laborem. 
Qui possit duns virtutem opponere rebus, 
Ille, decus Britonum, et seri lux incljta saecli 
Exoritur, quem nee casus, nee fata priorum. 
Nee super incumbens prono de cardine mundi 
Oppressit bruma, aut angusto limite clausit; 
Verum ideo magis obniti, et vi tendere contra, 
Impulit nstemae succensa cupidine famas 
Virtus, et dubiis jamdudum assueta periclis. 
Ipse etenim iaustus molitus jam ante labores 
Pacati late lustraverat aeqnoris undas, 
Felices(]|ue habitu terras, qua foed^re justo 
Hospitii exceptus fAh\ mitia ssBcla virorum 
Devinxit, pulchram referens «ne sanguine laumm. 
Ipse etiam Australem loogi spatiatus ad axero, 
jEitremos vetarum cutsua fiM«««enX vilt^^ 

Prize Poem. 9Q9 

Gentibus ostendens qui certus denique finis 
Terrarum oceanique jacet, qua navibus obstaiit 
^terna^ glacies et non tractabile ccclum. 

Ergo ilium tantae sortitum munera laudis 
Jarapridem, ingentique animo majora moventem, 
Ipse pater populi, non unquam passus iniquis 
Virtutem in tenebris condi, et sipe honore jacere ; 
Ipse adeo movet auspiciis^ et rite secundans 
Hortatur studio^ neque enim non denique qordi est 
Imperium Oceani| et Britonum proferre triumpbos. 

Ergo alaeris patrios pcntus et littora linquens, 
Scilicet baud tantis impar conatibus beros, 
Magnum opus aggreditur^ jamque ^equora nota remensus, 
Securas sedes. et moUia rura Taitae 
Devenit^ bospitioque iterum laetatur amico. 

Mox Kamscbadalas tractus, glacialiaque arva 
Propter, Hyperboreum lustrans interritus orbeni, 
Extremum penetrare fretum, optatamque laborat 
Ire viam, et patriis praepandere classibus aequor. 

Jamque ilium Catharma sui prope littoris oras 
Imperii fines obeuntem, atque ultima regna, 
Laeta suis opibus, tanU nil invida coepti^ 
Adjuvat, atque ultro portu tutatur amico. 
Ipsa etiam, bostili quanquam succensa furore, 
Gallia suspendit saevi fera munera Marti»y 
Compescitque odiupii studiisque sqcundat euntem. 

Jamque ilium ingenti dudum Bfitannia plausu 
Poscebat reducem, ventosque in vota vocabat, 
Longum iter increpitans, et taedia iniqua viarum: 
Tum vero, ut tardi ulterius longo ordine menses 
Transierant, necdum patriis successerat oris 
Exoptata rates, dubios quis^ue iude timores 
Spargere in ambiguum, et cunctandi quaerere causas : 
*^ Quo nunc sub coelo ?. queis demqiB erraret iaundis? 
Quaeve adeo ibrtuna virum^ casusve tulisset P 
Atqui ilium interea peregrino in littQre longe 
Gens hominum effraenis fatali oppTessefat iolu* 
Heu finem coepti invisum \ temerataqoe jura 
Hospitii ! heu pelagi necquicquam erepte pcridis ! * 
Hoc illud fuit f Haec demum te fata manebanlt? 
Nee fas optati metam tetigisse laboris. 
Nee patriis iterum incolumem considere tenris! 
Ergo te Britonum fletus, te publica cura, 

VOL. XXIX. Gib J/. NO. tVUL «. 1^ 

400 American Classieal Schook. 

Tantum opus aggressum, et magna inter eoepta cadentem 
Condecorant : neque enim non te per saecola geutis 
Indigetes inter, laudumque exempla priorum, 
Anglia in aetemum referet, studioque fideli 
Kite tibi justos memor instaurabit'honores ! 


Ex JEde Christi, 1780. 


\Ve have been favofed with the Prize composidons at Boston, 
of which we insert a specimen. In these poems we observe a 
marked improvement; and we shall hail the prepress of that 
laudable spirit which pervades those establishments. 



Aspice^ qua teoerum caput ille inclinat ad mida» 
Flos uiveuSy veluti lacrjmas iofbndere fonti 
Optans ;• dtim salicis circum proteuditur umbra^ 
Quae Phoebi radios excludit^ et aeris aestum. 
Heu ! fuit hie quondam Narcissus, imagine formas' 
Captus, qui solitus ripas accedere fontis 
Hujus, quum poctis tenebras Aurora fugare 
Coeperat ; baud unquam rediens vestigia vertit^ 
Donee Sol ponto radios absconderat alto. 
Ad fontem recubans voces sic fudit inanes ; 
'' Eheu me miserum ! cur. Oh placidissime DivAm^ 
Ob Veneris proles, cur nostros occupat artiis 
Tarn erudelis amor, merui cur talia dira i 
Rusticus incultus si captus amore puellas. 
Nee mora, quin vinclis Hyinenasus jungeret ambos ; 
Ille tamen, toties qui in flammas pectora* misi^ 
Vadere damnatur, ntillo miserante, sub Orcum. 
Quum vagus hue veiii per sylvas sedibus errans 
Primum, tunc animi levis, ac intactus amore, 
Huic vitreo similis ibnti ; nunc denique cascus 
Spicula eontorsit Deus, et sunt omnia mota. 
Hanc Nympham, juro per Divos, semper amabo. 
Dixit^ et in sylvis Echo respondit " amabo." 


Notiee of Co\. Leake's Journal j ^c. 401* 

Irrita vox, eheu ! captas pervenit ad aures, 
Spesque levis pectus meduanUs falsa revisit. 
Nam putat audiri dilectae roente puellae 
Vocein/ac exclamat, dum gaiidens omnia lustrat^ 
*' Oh pueri comites^ Nympbaeque valete decora?^ 
Nam mihi, quae cordi, dudc pignora priebet amoris, 
Hicque manens, laudes sylvas resonare docebo.'^ 
Sic dicensy palmas duplices submersit in undam, 
Ut daret amplexus, et figeret oscula labris^ 
Forma tamen fugit, percusso fonte^. sub undas. 

Desine plura loqui, chordas nunc, M usa, coerce ; 
Hoc satis est : noli miserabile dicere fatum. 
Mox vide. Narcissus per tempora maxima cunctans 
Quasritur a Njmphis monies ubi nubila tangunt. 
Delude ubi labuiUur tacitis in vallibus amnes ; 
Jam voces Dryadutn resonant in saltibus atris. 
Naiades et sonitum reddunt : '' Narcissus ab agris 
Pecessit ,: comitepn p^r cunctas .qu^rite terras !'* ' 

Aspectum fallit Nareissus, et ipse videtur 
Flos niveus vergens ad fontem^ nomine scripto 
Narcissi; atque canit moeste super aura sepulcrum. 

in this poem we scarcely object to any part of the metre^ 
except to nomine scfipto : but we might find instances of a 
similar position in our College privies, ^c should uot be placed 
before a wprd hegiiining with a vowel. 



with comparative Remarks on the Ancient and Modei^n 
Geography of that country. By Wi lli am Marti n 
Leake, R R.S. &c. Qvo. Lond. 1824. 

In tracing vestiges of Grecian art amidst that barbarism and 
desolation which have pervaded the Ottoman empire, a traveller 
finds peculiar difficulties opposed to his researches in Asia 
Miuor^ whilst this region offers a more fertile field of discovery 

402 Notice of Col Le^ke'9 Jourrial 

than any other Turkish province. Ha^ng noticed the hatred 
which Musulmaus generally bear to Christians^ our learned 
author adds : 

In Asia Minor, among the impediments to a traveller's success may be 
especially reckoned, the deserted state of the country, which often puts the 
common ne.pe8saries and conveniences of travelling out of his reach; the 
continual disputes and wars among the persons in power; the precarious 
authority of the government of Constantinople, which rendering its pro- 
tection ineffectual, makes the traveller'^ success depend upon the per- 
sonal character of the governor of each district ; and the ignorance and 
the suspicious temper of the Turks, who have no idea of scientific tra- 
velling — who cannot imagine any other motive for our visits to that 
country, than a preparation for hostile invasion, or a search after trea- 
sures among the ruins of antiquity — and whose suspicions of this nature 
are of course most strong in the provinces which, like Aiia Minor, arc 
the least frequented by us. If the traveller's prudence or good fortune 
should obviate all these difficulties, «nd should protect him from plague, 
banditti, and other perils of a semi-barbarous state of society, he has 
still to dread the loss of health, arising from the combined effects of cli- 
mate, fatigue, and privation, which seldom fails to check his career be- 
fore he has completed his projected tour. Asia Minor is still in that 
state in which a disguised' dress, an assumption of the medical character, 
great patience and perseverance^ the sacrifice of ali European comforts, 
and the concealment of . pecuniary means, are necessary to, enable the 
traveller thoroughly to investigate the country, when otherwise qualified 
for the task by literary and scientific attainments, and by an intimate 
knowledge of the language and manners of the people." (Pref. p. iv.) 

These remarks were written before the insiurrection broke out 
in Greece : an event which has thrown many, additional obsta- 
cles in the way of travellers. To Colonel Leake, therefore^ our 
obligations are the greater for having given so much valuable 
information respecting a country where few will, probably, ven- 
ture to extend their researches^ for a considerable time. 

In January, 1800, our author set out from Constantinople, in 
company with the late General Koehler, Sir Richard Fletcher, 
Professor Carlyle, and others, well armed and disguiised as Tatar 
couriers, and with servants of different descriptions, forming a ca- 
ravan of 35 horses. From Iskiod&r or Skutdri (in Greek Xxoura- 
^lov) they proceeded to Kartal, Pandikhi (Havrip^ioy), and Ghebse. 
Near this place they met a Moliah (or Turkish priest) travelling 
luxuriously in a Taktrevdn (or covered litter), reclining on soft 
cushions, smoking the Narghil6 (or water-pipe), and accompa- 
nied by attendants, mounted on horseback and splendidly 
dressed : his baggage consisted of mattresses and coverings for 
his sofas; valises containing his clothes; a large assortment of 
pipes, — 

of a Tour in Asia Mmon 4/OSJh 

-<-tabies of copper ; cauldrons^ saucepans, and a complete balterk de cui- 
sine. Such a mode of travelling is undoubtedly very dilferent from that 
which was in use among the Turks of Osman and Orkhan. The articlear 
of the Mollah's baggage are probably for the most part of Greek origin^ 
adopted from the conauered nation, m the same manner as the Latins 
borrowed the arts of ttie Greeks of a better age. In fact, it is in a great 
degree to Greek luxuries» with the addition of coffee and tobacco, that 
the present imbecile condition of these barbarians is to be ascribed; and 
** Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit" applies as well to the Turk as it 
once did to the Roman; for though Grecian art in its perfection may be 
degraded by a comparison with the arts of the Byzantine Greeks, ^et in 
the scale of civilisation, the Turks did not bear a higher proportion to 
these than the Romans md to the ancient Greeks. (P. 4.) 

The first chapter conducts us from Ghebse to Kizderwent 
(or the *^ Girl's Pass"), Lake Ascanius, Nicaea, Lefke, Shugbut, 
Eski-Shehr (the ancient Dorylauim), Seid el Ghazi, Doganlu, 
Kosru Khan, Bulwudib, Isaklu, Ak-Shehr, llg£in, Ladik^ and 
K6nia. In the course of this journey our author renuirks that 
the Turkish Isnik, which represents the Grecian Nicasa, was 
never so large as the ancient city, from the ruins of which it 
seems to have been almost wholly composed, its batlis and 
mosques exhibiting numerous fragments of Greek temples and 
churches. (P. 11.)* Of an extraordinary monument in the valley 
called Doganl6, an engraving is given from the sketch made by 
Oeneral Koehler, while Mr. Carlyle and Col. Leake copied the 
inscriptions. This monument appears to be a sepulchral cham- 
ber excavated in the rock, widi an ornamented front rfsrag more 
than 100 feet above the plain: the lower part resembles an altar, 
and probably conceals the entrance into a sepulchre where lie 
the remains of some personage in whose honor this magnificent 
monument was formed; ** for in some other parts of Asia Minor, 
especially at Telmissus, we have examples of the wonderful 
ingenuity with which the ancients sometimes defended the en- 
trance into their tombs.'' (P. 23.) A ruined fortification in the 
vicinity of this monument, our learned* traveller is inclined to 
regard as indicating the site of Nacoleia, the chief fortress of 
this country in the time of Arcadius, and named by Strabo 
among the cities of Phrygia £pictatus. As to the sculptured 
monument, it may be supposed a work of the ancient Phrygians, 
who^ like other nations of Asia Minor, in a state of independence 
before the Persian conquest, used an alphabet slightly difiering 
from the Greek, and derived from the same Oriental origin. 
The characters of its inscriptions resemble the Archaic Greek 
in some respects, whilst in others they are manifestly semi- 

404 Notice, of Col. Leake's Journal 

Both in the resemblance and ditsunilitude, therefore^ tkej accord with 
what we should expect of the dialect of the Phrygiaos, whose cooDeuoa. 
with Greece is evident from many parts of their. early history; at the 
same time that the distinction between the two nations Is strongly- 
marked by Herodotus, who gives to the Phrygians the appellation of 
barbarians. (P. 27.) 

In cue of the iuscriptions Col. L. discovered the words 
MlAAl FANAKTEl ^'to King Midas;" furnishing ao imme- 
diate presumption that this monument was constructed in honor 
of some Phrygian monarch of the Midaian family. This opinion 
is supported with our author's wonted erudition and ability^ and 
he recommends^ as we sincerely do^ that future travellers should 
devote some time to a more complete examination of this highly 
interesting object than circumstances allowed to himself, fhe 
second chapter illustrates in a very masterly manner the ancient 
Geography of the central part of Asia Minor^ establishing the 
sites of many cities respecting which we have hitherto been 
almost wholly ignorant. And the third chapter continues the 
author's route from Konia through various places^ until his arri* 
val at the sea-coast, where he embarked and landed at Tzerina 
or Cerina, in thd island of Cyprus, near which are some cata- 
combs, the only remains of ancient Ceiyneia. (P. 118.) Here 
he remarks that — 

— ^the natural formation of the eastern part of the north side of Cyprus 
is ver^ singular: it consists of a high, rugged ridge of steep rocks, run- 
ning m a straight line from east to west, which descend abruptly on the 
south side into the great plain of Lefkosia, and terminate to the north 
in a narrow plain bordering the coast. Upon several of the rocky sum- 
mits of the ridge are castles which seem almost inaccessible. The slope 
and maritime plain at the foot of the rocks on the north possess the finest 
soil and climate, with a plentiful supply of water; it is one of the most 
beautiful and best cultivated districts 1 have seen in Turkey. (P. 119.) ' 

Among various interesting, curious^ and useful remarks, which 
our author, as usual, intersperses throughout his works, we 
shall notice one, in P. 124, showing, that from a comparison of 
some computed measurements with the real distances on the 
map, a Greek mile may be estimated at about two-thirds of 
the geographical ; and as the word |ui/x« was borrowed from the 
Latin, Col. Leake concludes that the measure must have been 
originally the same as the Roman mile, though it is now shorter ; 
the distance however is merely computed, not measured, and he 
never could obtain an accurate definition of it from the Greeks. 
The ruins of Assus, opposite to Molivo, (the ancient Methym- 
na) in Mitylene, afford numerous remains, furnishing perhaps 


of a Tow in A$id Minor • 405 

the moil perfect idea of a Greek city that anywhere exists— 
temples, sculptured figures, inralls and towers, a gate in cook- 
plete preservation, a cemetery with gigantic Sarcophagi, an 
ancient causeway, and architraves with inscriptions. On one 
of these we read .... lEPETS TOT AIOS .... KAISAPI SE- 
BASTfll. Another records the name of one who had be- 
queathed lands for restoring the city> and from the profits of 
which the temple had been rebuilt. Ek tvis irpo(r66ov rcov oiygeov, 

ii TtWtxovTog, tTWMuao'ti). (P. 128.) 

The fourth chapter treats of ancient places on the road from 
.Adalia to Shughut, with remarks on the comparative geography 
of the adjacent country. ^ 

We snail here direct the inquisitive reader to our learned 
author's observations on the site of Apameia, respecting which 
be examines the ancient evidences. 

Because it is a poiot of great importance to the ancient geography of 
the western part of Asia Minor; not less so ttianTyanaisto the eastern; 
and because, adds he, in regard to both these places, I have the misfor- 
tune to differ from the author, in whose opinion the public is justly in 
the habit of placing the highest confidence. P. 103. 

It IS. scarcely necessary to mention that Col. Leake .here alludes 
to the celebrated geographer Major Rennell. 

The' fifth chapter relates to ancient places on the southern 
coast of Asia Minor; and here a due compliment is paid to 
Captain Beaufort's excellent work on Karamania, a countiy 
now poor and deserted, but appearing, from the numerous 
remains of antiquity that it exhibits^ to have been one of the 
most populous and florishing regions of the ancient world (p. 

In chapter vi« we have remarks on the comparative geography 

of the western and northern parts of Asia Minor; on the 

principal places in Penea Rhodia, in Doris, in Caria, in the 

valley of the l^seander, in the valleys of the Caystrus, on the 

coast of Ionia, in the vallies of the Hermus and Caicus, and in 

the adjacent country, in Troas, in Bithynia, and in Paphla^onia* 

Here (p. 240.) our author gives a very remarkable inscription 

from Branchidae, in the Boustrophedon manner of writing ; it 

was copied by Sir William Gell from the chair of a sitting 

statue on the Sacred Way, or road leading from the sea to the 

temple of Apollo DidymsBus. This road, which on either side 

was bordered with statues on chairs formed of single blocks of 

stone, the feet close together and the hands placed on the 

knees, is an exact imitation of the avenues to Egyptian temples. 


406 Notice of Col. Leake's Journai^ ^c. 

Respecting the remains of Ephesus Col, Leake obserfes, that,, 
though still very considerable and of easy access. 

They have hardly yet been sufficiently explored, or at least they have 
not yet been described to the public with the accuracy and detail which 
they merit* The temple of Diana Ephesia, the largest and most cele- 
brated of the Asiatic Greek buildings, is the only one of the great eiam- 
ples of the Ionic order of which we do not now possess particulars more 
or less satisfactory. The temples at Samus^ Branchidb, Priene, Mag- 
nesia, and Sardesy have been measured and drawn by experienced archi- 
tects, but not a stone has yet been discovered that can with certainty be 
ascribed to the Ephesian temple, although very little doubt seaaains as 
to its exact situation. P. 958. 

For the total disappearance of such a vast edifice our auAor 
accounts, by remarking its position near the sea, vhich facilitated 
the removal of its materials for the construction of new build- 
ings during the long period of Grecian barbarism : whilst that 
gradual rising of the soil, which has not only obstructed the 
port near the temple, but has created a plain of three nules 
between it and the sea, must have buried every vestige of the 
temple that escaped removal ; an architect, however, would 
probably still find beneath the soil sufficient traces to afbrd 
a perfect knowlege of the original construction, 

for CoI« Leakeys very interesting remarks on Troy, which 
occupy above thirty pages, we roust refer to the work itself-r 
noticing a very curious sketch explaining the supposed altera- 
tion in the coast and in the rivers of Troy since the time <rf the 
celebrated war ; and a map of the Troas from Rhosteium and 
Alexandreia to the summits of Mount Ida. 
. Although many remarks on the central parts of Asia Minor 
bave already been made by our author in a Journal published 
among the collections of Mr. Walpole (vol. ii.)i yet so much 
new matter has been added that the work before us appears as 
a most valuable acquisition to the dassical antaqaary and geo> 

We cannot close this interesting volume without aoticii^ die 
admirable m^ip of Asia Minor which illustrates it,, executed by 
Mr. John Walker^ after the drawing by Col. Leake. 

< \ 




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Contents of the Journal des Savansfor November, 1823. 

1. Klaproth, Asia Polyglotta; reviewed by M. Abel Remusat. 

2. D'Ohssbii, Empire Ottoman, tome 3; M. Silvestre de 

3. Chefs-d'oeuvre des Tli6|tre8 Strangers ; M. Raynouard. 

4. Eusebe Salverte, Horace et PEmpereur Auguste; M. 

5. C. C. Sallustius, curante J. L. Bourneuf , M. Letronne. 

6. Carmen Almotenabbii, &c. ; M. Silvestre de Sacy. 

For December, 1823. 

1. Guizot, Essais sur THistoire de France; by M. Daunou. 
£. Hug et Cellerier, Introduction critique au Nouveau Tes- 
tament ; M. Silvestre de Sacy. 
3. Chefs-d'oeuvre des Th^^tres Strangers ; M, Raynouard. 



408 Literary Intelligtnce. 

4. Silvestre de Sacy, Les Stances de Hariri (io Arabic) ; M. 

5. Civiale, sur la Retention d'Urine ; M. Abel Remusat. 

6. Explication d'une ln9cripUon de la Statue de Memnon, par 
M. Letronne. 

For March, 1824. 

1. Sir R. K. Porter's Travels in Georgia; reviewed by M. 
Silvestre de Sacy. 

2. M. de St. Surin, CEuvres de Boileau ; by M. Raynouard. 

3. M, £. Cbevreuil, Recherches Chioiiques sur les corps gras 
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Sorelle, et de Jeanne d'Arc; by M. Daunou. 

5. SauvageSy Dictionnaire Languedocien-Fran^ais ; by M. 

For April, J 824. 

1. S. Lee's Edition of Sir W. Jones's Persian Grammar; M. 
Silvestre de Sacy. 

2. Moreau de lonn^s, Antilles Fran^aises ; by M. Tester. 

3. Duplessis Mornay, Memoires^ &c.: by M. Daunou. 

4. Campenon, Vie et de Ducis ; by M. Raynouard. 

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6. Note coucernant une Inscription Grecque trac6e sur une 
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Recherches sur le culte de Bacchus, &c. par P. N. Rolle : 
ouvrage qui a remport6 le prix propos^ en 1819 par rAcad^mie 
des Inscriptions. Paris. 1824. 3 vols. 8vo. 

Th^^tre choisi d'Eschyte; contenant Prom^^, l^es Sept 
Chefs et Les Perses; publie d'apr^s le texte de Sphijix, avec un 
index des mots les plus difficiles, paj? L. Vaucher D. Geneve. 

1823. 8vo. 

Fr. N. Gisl. Baguet de Chrysippi Vita, Doctritta et Reli* 
quits, Commentatio in Acaderaia Lovanieiisi prsemi^ omata. 

Lovanii 1822. 4to. 

De ambitu, utilitate et necessitate studii Exegeseos aacras: 
oratio festa d. xii. Apr. recitata, auctore L. de Sinner, Stud. 
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Boissonade. Paris. 1824. 32ino. This Edition is inscribed to 
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Schneider's Lexicon, Greek and English. 


W. R,f who discusses the question^ ^ whether horse-shoes 
were used by the ancients?" (Classical Joumaf, No. lvi. 
p. 367.) is referred to a curious coin, ap. Patin. Numism. 
p. 7. foh Anist, ld^7. 

The passage to which Ricardus alludes is perfectly correct: 
o7 ye refers to 'At^vag in sense, not in construction^ by the gram* 
matical 6gure Synesis. 

Is Calpe Obsessa a Prize Poem ? Our friend C P. G. »will 
perhaps state the date, author, &c. 

The Inscription wiU reifuife a 'wood-cut, which C. P. G» 
will perhaps send* 

W. H. B» came too late.^-^JTJ Murem, &c. in. our next. 


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By Thomas MiItchell, A.M. 

I^ate Fellow of Sidney-Sussex College, Cambridge. 
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These editions of Virgil and Horace are intended to supply a 
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it is extraordinary should not before have been remedied. Of 
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