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Colledianea, de Rebus Hibernicis. 



" Hi tba% anfiuiereth a Matlfr hefire h heareth //, ith folfy 
" and Jbamc unio himJ^ 

Prot. xvlii. 13. 

Js GaDowanos, ex Galleda in HTSPAKlA oriundos,.HIfi£.£LNl^ 
ami aomen liium indklifle. 

S. BojCHARt de Ant. Goflelim Tctef. Gailorum 
HiHor. judiduin, V. p. ii8tf< 

Caffitetides infiiUe decern funt iinmero. — priaus temporibus (bli Phoenices 
a Gftdibiis eo nesodatom Wcnint, ceUntes alioS iftam naTigatjopem. 

- Stxaho, Lib. 3. p. 1 75. 

Qa pcae dooter que la eorrefpondence qu* enrdnt les AneUns Bretons pendant 
taat de fiedes, €o\t avec les Phcnicienv ibit avec les Carthaginois, ne leuc 
cot doond one connoinance parfait, noo feulenent des moeurs & dcs 
coatnincf, mais aiifC de la Religion Phcnidennc. Ce' Commerce meme 
n'aEurait pa fe finitenir pendant un d long efpace de temps, fi les Pheni- 
dens n'eafietit point eu dans ces Ifles de grands ctabliflemcns, avec liberty 
Aj fmt pr^fifiom puiRqm de lew Relsgnrn^ qui, par consequent, ne pouvoit 
hxz iirnorce des natureb du pais : il eft m£me tres TraifcMbtable que ce 
lilt de ces Infidaires, dont les Saxons re9urent la connoiilance du Culte 
d' Aftarte, c*eft-A-dire d'lfis, par le moyen du commerce qu'ils curent de 
toot temps liir les cdtes des Ifles Britanniq^cs. 

Abbe de Fontenu, mem. de Litter, T. 7. 

I will (bid thofe that cfcapc of them, unto the nations, to Tar(hifh, Pul and 
Lod, that draw the bow: to Tubal and Javan, TO THE ISLES 
AFAR OFF, that have not heard my fame, neither have ieen my 
^ory, and they (ball declare my glory among the Gentiles. 

' Isaiah, Ixvi 15^. 




•^*-"0" K^""^*— 0""4*~ 


On tfwilbiHl kf -terms indent, Minment 6ldtgn& da hetetzi^ do monde; 
He il 911 leyr fait fsafie 4e k fttpidit^ on ■»> Toit .c|K*imMaifec« & t^nc* 
bfcs. Mais rignonmce eft en nons, qui les m«naif»n* maL. 

Lett, fur I'orig. des Sciences : addrefsces 
a M. Voltaire par M. Bailly. 

Les OrienUms aTouent que les noms de Gog ft de Mago;* dc Gin ft de 
Magin, de Tchin ft de Matckin, (oat fyaoDymes. Tchin eft ie mot orien- 
tal dont nous aTons fast le nom de la Chine. 

Lett, for TAtlantide de Platon. par M. Bailly. 

Les langaes bien connnes, hien ctndHea pcmront dope reveUs I'odgine des 
peoples^ Icnr parentc» 16$ paYs qi^'ils oat habitcs, U tcnna des cou^if-* 
ftnoes oji ils fi>nt amves ft le degre de matorite de leur eiprit. 

On pent regarder les penplesde la Grece ft de rUalac eomme ks delctndans 
des Phenidens ft des Phry^ena : mais ks penpks dn Noxd, qui parlaiant 
riRLAMDOIS ft k Runiqiie, avaient done nnn origine coaamiiBC srtc ks 

Lespeuples en roiagcant n*ont point changd de nom, ni d*idees: ils ont 
impofe a des paXs nouTeaux des noms andens^ des aooas fismsHcrs ft chers. 
Le prelent eft le fils du pa6^ il lut re0emblc : ce que nous liibna de ccs 
anciens terns eft Thiftoire de nos fbndationa en Axneriqne oil nout avons 
tranfporte la France» TAngUtcrre ft TEiiMignt. 

Il ne faut pas entreprendre de lever entierement le voile d* Tantiquite ; ce 
voile eft charg8 du poids de tant de fiedes, il faut tant d'efTorts pour en 
fottlever unc paitie ; c'eft bica aflcz d'^percevoir qudque dioib* 




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S E C T J QN; I. 

IHE begiiming of joaticms^ (iays our prince of 

poets, John Milton) thofe excepted of whom facted 

books have fpokai, is to thi$ day unknown. Nor 

only the be^nning, but tjlie deeds alfo 4>f many fuc- 

ceeding ages ; yea, periods of ages, either fwrholly 

imknown, or oblcured and blemiihed . with fabks. 

That any law <^£ fup^ftition of the Druids forbad 

die Britons to write their memorable deeds, I Jknow 

not why any, put of C^far, Ihould alledge. He 

indeed faith, that their dodrine they thought not 

lawful to commit to lettew ; but m moft matters 

elfe, both in' private and publick, among which well 

may hiftory be reckoned, they ufed the Greek 

tongue. And that the Britiih Druids, who taught 

fhofe in Gaul, would be ignorant of any language 

known and ufed by their dtfciples, or fo frccfuently 

writing other tilings, and fo inquifitive into ^l^gheft. 

Vol. IV. No. Xni. B would 


would for want of recording, be ever children in the 
knowledge of times and ages, is not likely. What- 
ever might be the reafon, this we find, that of Britilh 
affairs, from the firft peopling of the ifland, to the 
coming of Julius Cflefar, nothing certain, cither by 
tradition, hiftory, or antient-fame, hath hitherto been 
left us. That which we have of oldeft feeming, hath 
by the greater part of judicious antiquaries, been 
long rejefted as a modem fable *." ^ 

Scripture, is certainly the only ftandard of all 
antient hiftory, and the touchftone by which the 
truth of it may be tried. Heathen writers, who, 
unaffifted by this, attempt to' fearch into antiquity, 
have no ftay whereon to reft. Herodotus on all oc- 
cafions talks familiarly of a myriad of years before 
his time. The Greeks, fpeaking of t^eir own coun- 
try and its inhabitants, 'thought it enough to fay 
that they ever were Airtx^^cn^, or Aborogines, and the 
antient Irifh denominated themfelves Aiach-tuaib f . 
In Egypt, the priefts were the poffeflbrs of learning, 
and intrufted' with the public records. Heredotus, 
Plato and Diodorus w^nt thither for information ; 
when they talked of th^ duration of their monarchy, 
the round number, the priefts generally affeded to 
fpeak in, was ten ihoufand years ago. But they who 
pretended to be more exaft, told Diodorus, that 
from their firft king Ofiris to Alexander the great, 
were precifely 23,000 years. 

The Greeks ftill knew lefs : they were totally ig- 
norant of the hiftory of the elder ages and remote 

♦ Milton's Hiftory of England. 

t O Conor'i State of Heathen Irifli, No. XII. 

countries \ 


countries ; therefore they made their invention fupply 
the want of the knowledge of fafls, 

quicquid Grascia mendax 

Audet in hiftoriis 

Yet this is the foundation of hiftory imprefled on our 
minds at fchool ; and with great difficulty can we 
uafliacUe ourfelves from our fchool education^ when 
we come to more mature age. It is not furprizing 
tbat the Irifh bards and hiftorians ihould follow the 
examples of the Greeks, whofe fables are extolled to 
the ikies by our tutors : and fo wanton have been our 
own countrymen to miflead the world in our own 
hiftory, that Jofeph of Exeter, afterwards archbifliop 
of Bourdeaux, famous in poetry and good learning, 
under Henry 11. and Richard L ^ompofed a poem 
under the name of Cornelius Nepos, where he makes 
the Britons aid Hercules at the rape of Hefione, and 
Apollo to aid them in the Trojan war/* And indeed 
diis critick age, (fays Selden, fpeaking of the Welfh 
Brutus) can fcarce any longer endure any nation, 
their firft fuppofed audiors name, not Italus to the 
Italian, not Hifpalus to the Spaniard, Scota to the 
Scot, nor Romulus to his Rome, efpecially this of 
Brutus *." 

And the very learned Gebelin exprefles himfelf 
thus, ^^ on eft tojours etonn^ quand on voit des 
lavans auteurs s'egarer a ce point : il eft vrai que les 
Grecs eux-memes font de mauvais guides (ur Tori* 


* Seidell's Notes on Drayton's Polyalbion. 
t Hiftoria CiTile du Calendrier. 

B 2 How 



How then are we to trace the origin of Weftem 
nations? Are we to follow the fabulous Greeks, 
Graeci profeftb, levis, inconftans, mendax, fuper- 
ftitiofa gens femper habiti ; qui «T5«*«e5^«I«r, veritatem 
novis fubinde figmentis ita immutarunt & pene 
obliterarunt, ut &c. &c. * Or fhall we depend on du- 
bious etymology, and adopt the fyftems of Bochart, 
Heydegger, B^rofus Annius Viterbenfis, &c. Gan it 
be proved that countries have always been named 
from chiefs, princes and dukes, in preference to the 
fituation, features, or produce of the foil ? No— the 
contrary appears in ten thoufand inftances. What 
then is to be our guide ? The fureft, is the language, 
laws, religion ahd cuftoms of the pedple, compared 
withthofeof other nations; "le langued*une nation,*' 
fays Fourmont, " eft tojours le plus recbnnoiflable 
de fes nionumens ; par elle on apprend fes anti- 
quitez, on ci^couvre foti' online.** 

It is by this never foiling toucHftone, that our 
great and impartial antiquary Lhwyd, takes upon 
him to decliare, that the ^>///V«/ Scots of Ireland, were 
diftinfl: from the Britons of the fame kingdom ; and 
that one may obferve in Cornwall, from the names 
of places, that another people once poffefled that 
country ; as one may from the names of places in 
fome^ parts of Wal^, gather, that the trijh nation 
once ihliafeited there, particularly in Breckriockfhire 
and Caerinarthenfliire f . 

' By the fame guide^ I jtttige that the antifent hiftol-y 
of Ireland, is grounded on fad, that they are the 

* Delphi Phasnicrnant'es. 

f Letter to Mr, Rowlaiidj Mbna Anliq. p. 342, 337. 



Immediate defcendants of the Pelafgi, and of the 
Tyrrheni, the defcendants of Atys or Atac, fon of 
Cotys, foil of Meon, the firft king of Lydia and 
Phrygia ; but whence the name of Atac ? from 
whom do the Irifh call themfelves Atach-tuatb ? it 
bears the fame meaning as Peni, and both Atac and 
Peni in the Chaldaean language imply exiles, wan- 
derers, Phoenicians. — ^Aiteac in Irifh alfo means a 
giant, a ruftick perfon, agriculture, (whence Attica) 
and likewife a firfl: bom fon. Diodorus tells us from 
Sanchon. that Oiiris left the care of tillage in Attica 
to Triptolemus, which in the Irifli means no more 
than a tiller of the ground, i. e. Treabh-talamh ; and 
Tarcon who headed the Pelafgi when driven by the 
Helenifls from Maeonia, I apprehend was fo called 
from ^DTIO Tarcon, a Hebrew word, fignifying an 
exile. See Plantavit's Leacon Synon. Heb. and 
Chald. — In like manner Diodorus, after he has given 
a long detail of the genealogy of Ceres j fays it is 
only an allegory or figurative narration, for that it 
only alludes to the times, when bread corn and thofe 
fruits of the earth that are called by the fame name 
with the goddefs, were imported into Athens. Now 
this is the deity the Phoenicians worfliipped at Beth- 
Car, and is the Irifh Ceara or Kara, of which here- 


The Oriental writers that have mentioned the 
Britannic iflands, are many. Rab. Ab. Chaija, in 
his Sphaera niundi. Abarbanel, not only calls Ire- 

B 3 land 


land Little Britain *, but fays, that the children of 
Melk and Tubal inhabited both iflands : Mefk was 
a name they gave to the Etrufcans, and Tubal in- 
habited Spain, from both which places the Irifh claim 
colonies. Abarbanel is known to be well verfed in 
antient Oriental hiftories ; he fays, that the chil- 
dren of Mefe and Tubal went to dwell on the 
the banks of the Euphrates, but foon removed from 
thence, and came at length to the Great Wejlern 
Iflands. From hence may be derived the name 
Iber or Hiber, in like manner as the children of 
Abraham, from paffing over the Euphrates, were 
called Hebrews ; and it is remarkable, that if the 
Irifh Seannachies have impofed upon us, in the date 
when their anceflors took the name of Hiber, they 
have done it with great art and cunning, making it 
correfpond with that of the Hebrews. 

Aben Ezzra fays, (in Obadiah,) that when Jofhua 
took polTef&on of Canaan, moft of the inhabitants 
retired to Greece, Italy, Gaul, and to fome wcflern 

Sedor Olem mentions an old cuflom prevailing 
amongfl the Jews of the fecond temple, of celebra- 
ting a great feaft on the 1 5th and 1 6th days of Nifan, 
for the expulfion of the Magogian Scythians from 
Beth-fan, by Maccabeus ; for, fays he, they were fo 
very powerful, that neither Jofhua, David or Solomon, 
could ever extirpate them, upon which, the Scytho- 
polians retired to Greece, and fome very far diflant 
wejiern countries^ with whom they always kept up a 

* Hence Ptolemy calls it Little Britain: Strabo, lib. 1. 
p. no. Britifli lema and his aotient Abridger^ explains it by 
tlie Britons inhabiting Icrna. 



correfpondence *. Joannes de Fordun, certainly 
hints at this part of the Scythian hiftory, where he 
lays, ** ex variis quippe veterum fcriptis cronogra- 
phoTum intelligitur, quod gentes ant'iquiffimsc natio 
Scotorumi a Grsecis & ^gyptiorum reliquis, caeteris 
maxi rubro cum rege fubmerfis, primum caeperat 
exordium f ." 

Cumberland obferves, that he believes that Lucian 
de dea Syria, points out Noah by the name of 
Deucalion Scytha : that the name of Japhet is clearly 
diicemible in the Greek 'Umrb^, and the Latin Ja* 
petus, as Ham or Cham*s name is in Hammon or 
Ghemia the old name of Egypt, the land of Ham ; 
and it falleth out well, fays he, that Paufanias in his 
Corinthiaca informs us, that the Phliaiians affirm, 
that Aram among them was contemporary with 
Prometheus the fon of Japetus, and three ages (or 
one hundred years at lead) elder than Pelafgus, the 
fon of Areas, or than ^Avr^xfm at Athens. And 
Paufaniaus moreover obferves, that the Philafians 
had a very holy temple, in which there was no image^ 
dther openly to be feen, or kept in fecret. So, the 
learned Dr. Baugmarten, (after proving that He- 
rodotus miftook every thing he had heard and faw 
of the Scythians) adds, ^^ all we know of the real 
religion of the Scythians, terminates in the worfhip 
of the invifible deity : they admitted of no images, 
but, like the Magi, only made ufe of fymbols : this 
is inconteftible from their punifhing with death, 
without refpeft of perfons, any one who was con- 
vided of im^ge worfhip. They certainly brought 

* Sec Preface to No. XII. 

f Selden Jud. dcx Script. Anglic. ^ 



tliree new divinities from ATia, and neither wor- 
Hupped them in images, nor dedicated to them 
temples, groves, or any thing elfe. And all the ce- 
remonies pertaining to the worlhip of thefe three 
deities^ may be comprehended in the word HAM AN9 
iignifying no more than a confecradon or religious 

ufage ♦," 


* Bangmarten's Remarki on the £n^1t(K Univ. HifL toL ii. 
p. I2K From this mami many of our great mountains receive their 
name* T^c an old Irifli £ible ftiH in cvicry one's month of 
Sliabh-na-Mann mountain. They fay it was firft inhabited by 
foreignerty who came from very diftant countries ; that they 
were of both fexes, and taught the Iri(h the art of O Shirisy or 
Ouris, that isy the management of flax and hemp, of cattle, and 
of tillage. — ^They all wore horns according to their dignity ; the 
dlief had five h(»i>s. The word Ouris, now means a meeting of 
women and girls at one houfie or barn, to card a certain quantity 
of wool* or to fpia a quantity of flax, and fomctimcs there are a 
hundred together. Wherever there is an Ouris, the Mann 
come invifible and afiift. When a Seiferac or ploughing, by 
joint ftock of horfes, is going forward, the Mann then affifts 
in ibape of invifibie horfes ; — ^but (add the monks) if the Ouris 
is begun on a Saturday night after twelve o'clock, or puifued on 
the Sabbath, the Mann moft afiuredly will break the wheels, 
and ipoil the crop. Compare this dory with Cumberland's 
explanation of Sanconiatho, and we ihall find it to be his Meon 
or Ofiris, who invented weaving and ploughing, and Ofiris in 
the Chaldce was written Siran or Ciran, an old Irifli name for 
a plough. (See Ben Uzziels Targum.) and in Irifli Qis-aireacor 
Oifarac is a chief ploughman ; and man in Heb. is a plough, 
(Aratrum) and bharajh in Hebrew, is alfo to plough, a word 
not far diftant from our Ouris, but this word having no root in 
the Irifli, may be written O-Shiris, the S being eclipfed, forms 
Ohms ; or as the vulgar pronounce it, Ouris. The Egyptian 
god Ofiris, fays Halleway, means, " the Giver of good things," 
and is derived from the Hebrew Hafhar, to be rich. Bifliop 



Ail this petfe&Iy correfponds with the do£lrme <^ 
the Hibernian Druids ; the three Afiatick divinities, 
I believe, were Dagh, Anu and Ceara, by which 
they (ignified certain conftellations that influenced 
the Earthy and all was comprized in Mann, by which 
I have always underftood they meant the invifible 
God, the all healing and all faving power, whole 
prefence in their Oracles, was named Logb^ or the 
j£therial fpiritual fire. 

*^ Although you may truly fay with Origen, th^t 
before our Saviour's time, Britain acknowledged 
not one true God, yet it cam^ as near to what they 
Ihould have done, or rather nearer, than moft of 
others, either Greek or Roman, as by notions in 
Cac&r, Strabo, Lucan and the like, difcouriing of 
them, you may be fatisfied* For although Apolk), 
Mars, Mercury, were worfliipped among the vulgar 
Gauls, yet it aj^ars, that the Druids invocation, 
was to One all healino or all savjing power*'* 
(Seklen on Drayton's Polyolbion.) 

^^ And long before Csefar's time, Abaris, (about 
the beginning of the Olympiads) an Hyperborean,' 
is recorded for Belus's Prieft (or Apollo), among 
the utmoll Scythians, being further removed from 
Hellenifm than our BrityhJ'* (Malchus Vit. Pythar 
gorae« Seldon on Drayton.) 

This Abaris we have prpved from good authority, 
was an Hibernian Druid« (See No. la. Preface.) 

Cumberland fets thefe names in a rery clear light, be fays* 
•* When the Egyptians defigncd to honour OfiriSy under the 
name at Meon, they meant to fig^ify the perfon or deity that 
gave them habitations^ eftates, refuge, and all the benefits of a 
colony : whence the Iriih word co^mhantm^ to dwell together. 




The antiquity of the Pelafgi is equal to the times 
of the Affyrian and Egyptian monarchies (Cumber- 
land)* They peopled Sicyonia, or on the N. W. 
fide of Peleponneflus: This kingdom was firft called 
jSgialea, and Herodotus aflures, that the Greeks af- 
firmed, that the people of this kingdom were called 
Pelafgi ^gialenfes before Danaus came into Greece, 
and before Xuthus's time, whofefonjon made them be 
called Jones.* Now the beginning of the kingdom of 
the Pelafgi ^gialenfes, is 1 3 1 3 years before the firfl 
vulgar olympiad (Eufebius's Chronicon and Caftor's 
table of their kings by Scaliger),— and Uflier fixes 
it in the year of the world 191 5, about the middle of 
the third century, after the flood. 

Paufanias exprefsly teftifies that the people of 
Arcadia were all Pelafgi, and their country Pelafgia, 
before, the time of Areas, from whom the name of 
Arcadia is derived, (Pauf. Arcad. at the beginning). 
Now if we compare with him Dionyffius Halic. we 
fhall find that one Atlas, who formerly dwelt on 
Caucafus, was the firfl king of Arcadia ; and Apol- 
lodorus informs us, that he was the fon of japetus, 
and brother to Promotheus. And fince Diodonis 
aflures us that the eldeft Promotheus lived in the time 
of Ofiris, whom Cumberland has proved to be Mif- 
raim, the fon of Ham, Japhets brother, we (hall 
perceive that Arcadia is intimated by thefe Greek 
writers, to be planted about the third generation 
after the flood, not long after the planting of Egypt 
by Mizraim. But, the planters of it were then 
called Pelafgi not Arcades. Dionyf. Hal. affirms 

* Herod. Polymniai p. 214* 




that tbe Pdafgi were feated in Argos, fix generations 
before they removed into iEmonia, and he modeftlj 
intimates, that in many men's opinion, they were 
fprung out of the earth about Argos. Paufanias 
lays, that when Ceres came to Argos, Pelafgus en« 
tertsdned her in his houfe^— but Ceres was liis, and 
Dion. Hal. fays, that Pelafgus was the fon of Ju- 
piter by Niobe, the daughter of Phomeus, who was 
the firft mortal woman that Jupiter embraced. 

Again, the Pelafgi are allowed by all to have pof* 
fefled Thefprotia, where the oracle of Dodona was 
founded, and this is confefled to be the elded in 
Greece : no matter by what means it was founded j 
Herodotus's ftory is, that when the Phoenicians pre- 
vailed in their war in Egypt, fo greatly as to come 
to Thebes, the metropolis of upper Egypt, they 
crarried away captives two priellefles, who founded 
the oracles of Jupiter Hammon in Africa, and that 
of Dodona in Threfprotia ; this ftory, I fay, proves 
that there were Pelafgi in Threfprotis at that time. 
Thefe fame Phoenicians or Pelafgi, built towers, and 
gaurs, or oracles, in Ireland and in Great Britain; 
but the hiftory of thefe people in that iiland is ob- 
literated ; the art of conftrufting thefe was fo well 
known*in Ireland, that Merlin perfuaded king Am- 
brofe, that the ftones of Stone-hengc, were brought 
to Ireland from the utmoft parts of Africa by giants 
(Atach) and from thence to England. 

Dionyf. Hal. fays, that the commerce of the 
Tyrrhenians perfe£lcd the Pelafgi in the naval art, 
which they would have long enjoyed, had they not 
been obliged to give it up to the Carthaginians. 
If the Britilh ifles were firft difcovered by the Car- 


tbaginiaiu, they certainly had a right to quarrel with 
the Pelafgians for attempting a fcttlemcnt in them. 
And wc {hall hereafter find the inhabitants of Ire- 
land applying to the Felafgi to relieve them of the 
Carthaginian yoke of flavery. 


The lovers of Irifli antiquity will not think this 
account of the Felafgi too prolix — the ancient hif- 
tory of this country, though blended with the lables 
of the Bards, correfponds with the mofl pai:t of the 
hiftory of the Felafgi. 

In the preiace to my laft number, I Ihcwed the 
millake of Keating and the bards he had copied, in 
making the Firbolg and Tuath Dadanann, colonics. 
They were only the names of the different orders 
of priells, that arrived with the colonies. I take 
the firll to be the more antient order. 

In a very antient MSS. of the Seabright coUefUon, 

is the following paflage. Tangatar Fomharaigh 

(Afrigh) go h Eirinn, agus do chuirfeat daor-cios 

uirre. i. da trian Itha, bleachta, cloinc, agus uinge 

dh6r on tfroin no ceann on chionn amac. Tanaig 

Luch-Iamhfada o Chrotun na cuan, i, Eamoin 

aKIach, a tir Tairge, dfhurtacht Eirinn, agus ma- 

ith fldhe Tuatha Dadanann maile fris, agus do 

:albhdaois Tuath Dadanann clocaha agus crain 

talamhan a reachtaibh daoinedh, &c. &c. " that 

This MSS. has the name of Ed. Lhwyd, in the firft page. 

£r Ed. Luidij CIS dooo R.. CI. V. Hep. Aldrldge. S. T. P. 


PREFACE. xifi 

X&, The African fea commanders, came to Ireland, 
and impofed very heavy taxes upon the inhabitants, 
▼iz. two thirds of the produce of the land, of their 
kine, and of their children (for (laves j, and more* 
over one ounce of gold annually on every nofe or 
head. But Leuco— longimanus (long handed) ar- 
rived to the fupport of the Irifh j * he came from 
the harbour of Croton, or ^monia feliz, in the 
country of Tarcon ^ and with him came certain 
youthful Sorcerers, called Tuatha Dadanann, who 
had the power of metamorphafing ftones and trees 
into fighting men, 8rc. &c. 

I fliall not take up my readers time in comparing 
the f2Lblc of the latter part of this narration with 
that of the antient Greeks, but proceed to the hifto- 
rical part. 

Etrufcorum Rex Tarcon, Graecus ex Maeonia, 
primo prsefcdus Tyrrheni tantum, mox ipfe rex 
hGtus } fratre Tyrrheni ycl filius, civitatcs 12 
ftruxit. nomen fuum Tarquiniis indidit. Crotonce 

habitavit. (Dempfter, Gori, &c. de Etruria Re- 

LeQos Caere viros, leftos Crotona fuperbi 
Tarcohtis domus — - — (Sil. Ital. 1. 8.) 

^& JEdh ChtHii De<^ni. N. B. the contraction TaitgCy m tbe 
Irifh, has been coxjvcitcd by JKeatiag to Tairgirc, and then it 
reads, the land of promHe, in dead of the country of Tarcon,— 
this was an excellent hobby-horfc for him to ambl^ on. 

• Eirinn, in the original,' it 'was called Eire, £iris,'aAd Eirinn, 
among other Jjo^ticarnatnes. 'And this is the Iris of Diodonis 
Sictti, whibh he fStfS was inhlibrted'hy BritGOis. (Lik 5> pslge 
J09} — This is a ftrong confirmation of Ireland being known by 
the name oif E^iddnia^^'nd £$re, at tbe'Iaiaetime. 




I caiteot here pafs over two words peculiar to 
Ae Irifti in this we&etn part of the globe, fignifying 
afon or descendant of the fame ftock, and to diis 
day prefixed to fumames of Families. I mean MAC 
and O, both of oriental origin. In the Irifh text, 
at the beginning of this feftion we have macraitby 
i. e. youthful males. TTiis word occurs in Grenefis^, 
chap. xlix. ver. 5. the Eiiglifli verfion has it tranf- 
lated habitations ; Simon and Levi are brediren, in- 
firuments of crUeky are in their habitations. Mon- 
tanus, dubious of the word, inferts the Hebrew in 
ihe Latin text, in Italicks, thus, ^ arma iniquitatis 
torum machara.^ Rabbi Mdr who lived in the tittie 
of the fecond temple, gives another turn to the 
whole verfe. *' By the bleffing of Jacob upon 
Simon atod Levi, the weapons of vengeance are their 
tarrni'VDO (machirothim) childrenJ^ ** That is,** 
fays he, " they love weapons as their children : and 
hence," adds he, " ^fi mak and ^♦^o niachir is a 
fon, and the words are ufed by the inhabitants t)f the 
fea coafts, and in the cities on thofe coafts.** I fup- 
pofe the Rabbi meant Phoenicia. OBrien fays,the Irilh 
write O, Or U A, to imply a fon. The broad vowds 
being ufed promSctroufly, and dipthongs and trip- 
Aongs in IrHh, having the found of monofyllables 
only, they might write bu, ua, or bua, but O is un- 
doubtedly moft proper. O implies the Son in ex- 
cellence ; Mac, ^ defcendant, according to OBrien ; 
I believe he is right, for macar, in Chaldee is 
fpondere. The learned Abbe Renaudot, fays, that 
the Egyptian name OSlris, is formed of Chiri or 
Chkis, that ts the SUN, and O, (filius,) Son, there- 


PREFACE. xvii 

fore OCHIRIS or OSIRIS, is le fU defoleilpar ex- 
allenc€y the fon of the Sun- And here occurs ano- 
ther old Irifli word Chris and Chreafan, i, e. holy, 
facred. Crifean, !• e. Sagart, (Vet. Glofs.) i. e. 
Crifean is the fame as Sagart, a Prieft, I take this 
name to have been given to the Druid in his holy- 
office of facrificing to the fun ; it has alfo a great 
afBnity to Kreejbno^ the name of a Hindoo deity. 
(See Halhead's grammar of the Bengal Language, 
page 20.) And according to Gori, Cerm in the 
Etrufcan Language, (ignifies facred : Did we ever 
hear of a Mac-Morgan or an OGrifSth ? Was O, or 
Mac, a common name with the Gauls or Welfh 
Britons? How came the Erfe and Irifli by thefe 
oriental appellations? or by the Egyptian Ifis the 
moon, in Iriih Eas, and Eafconn the full moon. 

S E C T I O N IV. 

The nexLt colony recorded in the Irifli hiftory, are 
faid to be the Cruiti^ or Cruitni or Pea£ti. " As 
a bhfhlathamhnas Eiremoin tangadur Cruitnith no 
Peafti, fluagh do thriall on Tracia go Eirinn,*' — 
i. e. in the reign of Erempn, the Cruitior Cruitni or 
Peacki, migrated from Thrace to Ireland, — to which 
Keating adds, " according to the Pfalter of Cafliel, 
written by Cormac, the reafon of this migration, 
was, that Polycornus the tyrant and king of Thrace, 
Tefolved to feize upon the only daughter of Gud, a 
chief of the Peadi. Herodotus places the Padyae and 
Crithoti in Thracia Cherfoneflus. Thrace, Samos 
and Crete, had been peopled by Phoenicians, Pelaf- 
gians and Etrufcans ; Polycrates the tyrant, (prt^- 

VoL. IV. No. Xm. C bably 

xviii PREFACE. 

bably miflaken by Cormac for Polycornus) drove 
the Samarians to Crete, and purfued them from 
thence to different places, and at length fays Eufe- 
biua, they retired to Italy. 

The Greeks were chiefly indebted to the Thra- 
cians for the polite arts that flourifhed among them. 
Orpheus, Linus, Mu£seus, Thamyris and Eumolpus, 
all Thracians, were the firft, as Euflathius informs 
us, who charmed the inhabitants of Greece with 
their eloquence and melody, and perfuaded them to 
exchange their fiercenefs for a fociable life and 
peaceful manners ; nay, great part of Greece was 
antiently peopled by Thracians. Tereus, a Thracian, 
governed at Daulis in Phocis ; from thence a body 
of Thracians paffed over to Eubsea, and poflefled 
them£elves of that Ifland. Of the lame nation were 
the Aones, Tembices, and Hyanthians, who made 
themfelves mafteYs of Baeotia ; in fine, great part of 
Attica itfelf, was inhabited by Thracians. But tho* 
the Greeks knew they were fo chiefly indebted to 
them both for the peopling and polifhing of their 
country, they have with the utmoft ingratitude 
and injufticc, ftyled them Barbarians. yd«p^«^«r a 
word that originally only implied foreigners, from the 
Phanician ^^2 ^^^> ^^^ ^^^^ bara, wandering, of 
another nation, dehors. * 


* There are many places in Ireland apparently named by this 
Thracian Colony, after others in'antient Thrace, fuch are, 

Thrace, Ircland- 

Antrium, Antrim, the Capital of the Pea6ti. 

Gcloni, Gailcan. 

Lygos, Leighis, 




Thefe Peadi or Paftyae, are not the Pifti or woad 
painted Britons, (theWelfli) defcribed by Caefar. 
They are diftinguifhed by the Scots by the name of 
Peafti, a word that founds exaftly the fame as 
Pafttyae. The Thracians were remarkable for 
branding their foreheads and arms, but never paint- 
ed thw bodies. Tracam^ in Irifh, is to brand with 
a hot iron, and probably was the origin of the name, 
and not from Thiras, as Bochart after Jofephus ima- 
gines ; and perhaps Thirax, mentioned Gen. x. 
2. to be the youngeft fon of Japhet, was fo called 
from inftituting the cuftom of branding.— 

— Membraque qui ferro gaudet pinxifie, Gelonus. 

Says Claudian. 

Inde Caledonio velat^ Britannia monftro 

Ferro pi&a genas \ ■■ ■ — 

The cuftom of fealing or branding was very anti- 
ent. God from the beginning, gave his people 

Atbyrat, Riv. 



Uifccdama, (OB. diaionary). 


EI7, Eili. 

MacUeiia» Riy. 





Saxnacy about Lough Erne. 




LifmaCy Lifmuc. 




Saorcil], Sarkell. 

And a bandred others, may be drawn from the fame fountain 
beady««-and in other parts, the names of many places of antient 
£truria are to be found. 

C 2 typical 



typical things and anions, which he called^^;fj ; 
and fome facraments which appear to have been 
termed feals and fignets. St. Paul calls the circum- 
cifion of Abraham, ^/eal of righteoufnefs, (Rom, 
iv. II 4) In the fame epiftlc he exhorts,—" Grieve 
not the holy fpirit of God, whereby ye are fealed 
unto the day of' redemption." Ifai. xlix. 16. 
** Behold I have graven thee upon the palms of my 
hands.** Exod. xiii. 9. " And it fhail be for ^Jign 
unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial be- 
tween thine eyes." But, beiides thcfe public or 
ecclefiaftical fcals, each man (or nation) had his pri- 
vate feal for a counterpart, or correfpondent Hiero- 
glyphic to the faid public ones ; to teftify for him, 
in all his public arts, whofe fervant and fpiritual 
child he was. This, among other facred ufages and 
rites, the firft apoftates to heathenifm carried off 
with them, perverting and abufing the fame, to the 
laft degree of infatuation. For, they had not only 
their figns which were ityJixfUi» ^ tin ^im^ images and 
emblems of their Gods, in their feals, drinking 
cups, military ftandards, and many other things ; 
but, they themfelves were ordinarily confecrated to 
their Gods, by burning or branding fome name, 
mark, emblem (ir<»p«(n}^a» ftgnature) or number of 
their faid Gods, in their own flefh, on their hands, 
necks, foreheads, and other parts. Thus Ptolemy 
Philopater, was furnamed rJixxi^ iiu r« ^vaa* mrvH 
xttratx^tih bccaufe he was ftigmatizcd in his body 
with ivy leaves, the emblematical mark of Bacchus : 
The votaries of the Sun were marked with the nu- 


meral letters XII. for the number 608, which was 
the Sun's number. • 

Whence alfo, the bead in the Revelation, is faid 
to caufe all, both fmall and great, rich and poor, 
free and bond, to receive a mark in their hand, and 
in their forehead. So idolaters in general, marked 
themfclvcs in their (kin and flefti for the devils vo- 
taries. To oppofe this abomination, God forbad' 
his people to print, any marks in their flelh, (Lev. 
ix. 27). So in Revelations xiv. 10. " If any 
man worfhip the beaft and his image, and receive 
his mark in his forehead or in his hand, the fame 
(hall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, and 
fliall be tormented with fire and brimftone.*' 

Herodotus and Strabo, having noticed that the 
Thracians followed this cuftom to excefs, I have 
ventured my opinion, that they might have been fo 
called from tracarfiy to brand, a word in the antient 
language, ftill prefcrved in the Iri(h; at the fame time 
I acknowledge, that the Hebrew words trak •^i^, 
impeller e violenter,taruk,^xw/,/^^^ro» expellere,^J^/> 
expulfio, pina & phinah^ expellere, ghalal expcllere, 
tuatbath, expulfus ; Jtbak & nathak (in the Chal- 
dee,) cxtirpare, expellere, feem more rationally to 
be the origins of the names given by the Hebrews 
to the Tracians, Turks, Dacii, Paeni or Phoeni, Phoe- 
nicians, Galli & Gallati ; and probably to our 
Tuath-Dodonians, and our Attach-tuath and Attac- 
cotti ; for it is evident from holy writ, that all thefe 
nations or people, foon after the flood, had drawn 
the wrath of God upon them,, and were told, that 

* Halloway'* Originals, Phyfical and Theological. 



they were to be a wandering and an expelled peo- 
ple : So were the SaccCi whom I mentioned in my 
lail No. to be the fame as Scythe. — Sacas enim vel 
Scythas quod idem eft. (Strabo, Bochart, &c.) 

This calls to mind a pafTage in Epiphanius, in his 
Epift. ad Acac. & Paul, " from the age of Therah 
downward, Phaleg and Ragau, removed towards the 
•clime of Europe, to part of Scythia, and were joined 
to thofe nations from which the Thraciam came." 
Bochart, endeavours to confute this paffage of Epi- 
phanius ; I think he has failed. But certainly this 
gave room to Grotius, Salmafius, and Stillingfleet, 
to fuppofe that Peleg was the father of the Scythians, 
who were the firft that peopled Greece, under the 
name of Pelafgoi, and fuch a wandering people 
might have been fo called with great propriety, as 
I fhall hereafter ihew, both from the oriental and 
the Irifh languages. 

Stillingfleet confirms his opinion, he thinks, by 
etymology ; I go on the fame uncertain ground. 
He fhews the affinity between the Hebrew and an- 
tient Greek, from the various dialects and pronun- 
ciations of the latter, which in the Doric comes 
neareft to the eaftern tongues ; and from the re- 
mainder of thofe tongues, efpecially where the 
Pelafgians have been, which Bochart thought of 
Phoenician, but our Author will rather have of He- 
brew extraftion. I have purfued the fame path, in 
all my publications on the Irifh language, antiqui- 
ties, &c- And fo great an affinity has the old Irifh 
with the Hebrew, that my friend and correfpondent, 
J. J. Ileideck, ProfefTor of Oriental languages, 


PREFACE. xxiii 

will not be perfuaded, but that a Jewifli colony once 
fettled in Ireland. 

The Scythians were certainly the defcendants of 
Magog, not of Phaleg. They mixed ;with the 
Phoenicians of Beth-San, Tyre and Sidon. They 
conquered Aflyria, and when they loft that crown, 
fome remained in Calo-Syria, where they were 
again joined by the I^senicians. They pafled with 
them, from thence to Crete : And it has been the 
opinion of many learned men, that the Phsenicians 
were originally from Crete. Fortunatus Scacchus, 
a very learned man, in his Arcanum, S. S. Myro- 
thec. chap. 1 7. Corethos & Pheletheos non Ifraelitas, 
fed alienigenas fuiffe. — Phcenices Cretenfium co- 
lonos, eo nomine fignificari alii arbitrantur, cujus 
fententiae eft Auenor in eadem radice jy)y Phac- 
nices ab Creta originem traxiffe, Cretenfiumve 
coloniam Phoeniciam extitiffe, dicunt aliqui fobodo* 
rari pofie, ex Phaenico porto, quern infulac Cretae 
adfcripfifle ferunt Ptolemacum in ora auftrali. 

Facit etiam ad hoc probandum illud Sophon. aVeh. 
qui habitas funiculum maris gens perdiiorum^ i. e. 
D*rn3 *1J ghui or ghoi Cerethim, i. e. gens Cere- 
thim.—— Again in Ezech. ch. 25. Ecce ego exten- 
dam manum meam fuper Palasftinos, & interficiam 
interfedores, & perdam reliquias maritimas regionis; 
the Hebrew text reads thus, Ecce ego extendam 
manum meam fuper Philifthiim, & fuccidere faciam 
Cerethos. And in this place Aquila, Theodotius 
and Symacchus, have retained the word Cerethem 
xtftStfft^ but fome Greek copies have K^nr^e?, Cretas. 

This probably led Tacitus into the miftake of de- 
riving the y^ws from Crete. Judacos Creta infula 




profugos, noviflima Libya; infediffe memorant. 

(L. 5. Hift.) 

The Hebrew •li ghoi, fignifies a detefted people. 
Homo gentilis. Sic Judaei quern vis vocant, qui 
non eft de populo Ifrael, maxime tamen Chriftianis 
hoc'nomen dedere. Nam Turcas appellant lifmeelim, 
five Ifinaelitas. Etiam unum hominem nominant 
ghoi contra verum linguae ulum, & naturam voca- 
buli ; (Buxtorf Lex. Chald.) In like manner, the 
Irifli call the Saxons Guith-ban ; the white detefted 
people ; and Guith-ban, became at length the name 
of England : (Shaw's Irifh Did.) but their own 
people and fellow countrymen, the Scots of Britain, 
they named Eilbonnac, from Eile a tribe, bonn good, 
and aice race j and thus I believe Eilban foon became 
the name of England, inftead of Guidhban, whence 
Albania. This I am induced to think the origin of 
the word, becaufe I obferve in the Irifh MSS. the 
Scots feated in Britain are named Albanac, and in 
truth, it is the name the Highlanders or Erfc diftin- 
guifh themfelves by at this day ; whereas by Eiris, 
or Eirinn, and Eirinnach, they mean the owners of 
the foil. 

Bilhop Cumberland derives the word Palseftinus, 
from unQ pelas or plas, which he obferves from 
Caftle's Heptaglot. fignifies to befmear with duft 
and afhes : and therefore the propter origin of Feleus 
at the mouth of the Nile ; but h^ allows, that in the 
Samaritan or Ethiopic, the fame word whSi imports 
peregrinatio, migratio de loco in lopum. So likewife 
Pleas, Phleas or Fleas, in the antient Pelafgi^n-Irifti, 
fignifies to wander, to which add g/joij a people or 
nation, it forms Pelafgoi, the wandering people ; the 



very idea by which the Greeks have expreffed that 
people, quafi Pelafgoi, cranes, wanderers. The Irifh 
ftill retain th^e word in phleafgac or fleafgach, a 
wanderer, ftroUer, having no fettled home, and with 
the modem Irifh, it implies a piper, fidler, or harper, 
ftroUing from town to town, or from houfe to houfe. 
It is of no great importance, if this be the proper 
etymology of the Pelafgi or not ; certain it is, that 
the Irifli do preferve the remembrance of Plafg or 
Pela/gus, in their genealogies. In the Reim-rioghhre, 
or royal calendars, in the fuppofed colony of theTuath* 
Dadananns, they make Pleft or Paleft, the fifth ge- 
neration from Noah, and Pelafg or Plafg, the fif- 
teenth ; and five generations from him, they place 
Breas, who, it is faid led the colony to Ireland. 

As I think it is evident, that Phoenician, Pelafgian 

and Etrufcan colonies, did fettle in Britannia magna 

and Britannia parva, or England and Ireland, I am 

naturally led to feek the etymology of the name 

Britannia, in the Iriih language. Setting afide GeoflFry's 

idle (lory of the Trojan Brutus, we will fliew what 

others have faid of this -name. And firft, that great 

etymological luminary, Bochart ; he derives it from 

the Phoenician barat ager, and anak ilannum, i. e. 

the field of tin ; brot in the Irifli, means the borders 

of a country, from whence by tranfpofition of letters, 

the French border^ and Englifli border. I think 

Bochart was mifled by Strabo and Ptolemy, who 

write it fi^GrKfucn (Brettanica) which is certainly an 

adjeSive, and is defeftive in fcnfe without fw? (an 

ifland) joined to it. 

Secondly, Camden, he is certainly right in the 
termination t«w« (tania) which in Hebrew, Syriac, 


xxvi PREFACE. 

Iriihy and all Oriental languages, fignifies a country 
or region ; but he is as much at a lofs what to make 
of the firft part of the word brity as I am of the 
latter part tannike, unlefs I derive it from tinam, to 
fufe, to melt, which is certainly the root of the 
Englifh word tin. 

England was called Luigria by the Irifh, and by 
the Wellh corrupted into Lloyger ; it was fo called, 
fays Lewis, before the year of Chrift 586 ; (hortly 
after which time, Lecefter, the chief city of the 
Mercians, was called Leogera; and when they became 
Chriflians, their bifhops were called Prscfules Leo- 
gerenfes. (Antient Hift. of Britain, p. 29.) 

It is allowed by. all hiftorians that thefe two iilands 
were vifited by the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, 
for the lead, tin and copper, with which they 
abounded. In Iri(h brut and luig fignify lead ; acn 
and tan^ and ria a country, hence Brutaon, Bruttan 
and Luigria, do all imply the country of lead and 
tin ; and fo much for Gcoffry's Laegrus the fon of 
Brutus. Brut in Irifh, fignifies alfo pitch, tar, or 
whatever is readily fufed, or a^Sed on by broty i« e. 
fire ; whence I believe the Hebrew rrsQV prut, 
lead, or any bafe metal. 

But fay the opponents of Irifh hiflory, there is no 
foundation in the annals of the Phoenicians or Car- 
thaginians, that they did fail to Ireland or England ; 
that remark is eafily anfwered. Nor arc we without 
authority that they did come here. Gorijonides in 
his book de Hannibale, 1. 3. ch. 1 5, fays, that Han- 
nibal conquered the Britains, who dwell in the ocean 
fca, C31J^9W3 D^DtSn^n n*DtDn> We have no fuch 
conqueft recorded in the hiflory of Magna Britannia, 


PREFACE, xxvu 

but as I have ihewn, more than once, the hiftory of 
Ireland or Parva Brittannia, decls^res they did conquer 
this country, impofed grievous taxes on the inhabit- 
ants, who vTQTe relieved by their old friends and 
allies the Pelaigians or Etrufcans, from Croton. 

Thefe iflands were known to the Carthaginians, 
Greeks and Arabs, by the name of the fortunate 
iflands. They were the Elyfian fields of the Arabs 
and of the Greeks. Selden has written much to the 
purpofe on this fubjeft, in his X. Scriptor. Anglic 
And Ifaac Tzctzes pofitively declares, ** in oceano 
infula ilia Brittania, inter Brittaniam illam quae fita 
eft in occidentc & Thylen quae ad orientem magis 

vergit." ^^ Id eft," fays Selden, " Britannia 

magna feu Albion quam fic coUocat ille inter Bri- 
tanniam alteram feu parvam, quas Hibernia eft & 
Thulen, de cujus fitu baud parum difcrepant cho- 
rographi turn veteres tum recentiores ; I/Iuc aiunt 
(adds Tzetzes) etiam mortuorum animas tranfvehiy ad 
bunc modumjcribentes ;^* to which Selden replies, *' et 
fane Tzetes hofce intelligo, in litore Britanniae magnae 
volunt reperiri navigia ilia animabus onufta, indeque 
ilia cum remigibus, impetu unico, ad HIBERNIAM 
adpelli, tunc SCOTIAM itidem vocitatam. 

Juftus Lipfius is another authority. He quotes 
the following paffage from Ariftotle. " In mari extra 
Herculis columnas, infulam defertam inventam fuifle, 
filva nemorofam, fluviis navigabilem, frudibus 
ubcrem, multorum dierum navigatione diftantem, in 
quam crebro Carthaginienfes commearint, & multi 
fcdes etiam fixerunt ; fed veritos primores, ne nimis 
loci Ulius opes convalefcerent, & Carthaginis labc- 
rcntur, edi£to cavifle & poena caipitis fanxilfe, nequis 




eo navigafle dcinceps vellet." (Ariftot. in Admiran- 
dis.) To which Lipfius obferves, " quod verumi 
ccnfeo dc una aliqua novarum infularum > quia multos 
dies navigatione impendit : neque probabile igitur 
Canarias, aut alias vicinas, fuiffe. Nofter Seneca 
(nam illc Tragediae Medeae certo auftor eft) de iis 
ipfis praedixiffe vidctur, pucris jam decantatum 

venient annis 

Sd&cula feris, quibus Oceanus 
Vincula rerum laxet, & ingens 
Pateat tellus, Tiphyfque novos 
Deteget orbes, nee fit terri^ 
Ultima Thule. 

Qnod ille tamen proprie de Britannicis infulis in- 
tellexit, & in Claudii gratiam fcripfit. (J. Lipfius, 
V. iv. p. 594.) 

To this let us add the remarks of Culverius. 
" Gefta haec anno xxi, poft alteram illam Etrufcorum 
contra Cumanos expedirionem, quam fiipra memo- 
ravimus. Ac tanta quum foret eorum terra marique 
potentia, longinquas etiam navigationes extra Colum- 
nas Herculis in mare Oceanum aliquando inftitu- 
erunt. Diodorus 1. 5. Hac igitur ratione Phcenices, 
inveftigando ultra Columnas oram, quum Africae 
litora legerent ; ingentibus ventorum procellis ad 
longlnquos in Oceano traftus fiint abrepti. Ac per 
multos dies vi tempeftatis jaftati, tandem ad pradiilam 
infulam adpulerunt, naturamque ejus ac felicitatem, 
a fe perfpeftam, in aliorum deinde notitiam perdux- 
erunt. Ideo Tyrrheni quoque, quum maris imperio 
potirentur, coloniam eo deftinarunt, fed Carthagini- 



enfes illis obftiterunt. Sed quam magnum atque 
celebre per omnem ilium terrarum orbem, qui in 
Europam, Afiam & Africam diftinguitur fuerit Tyr- 
rhenonim nomen, oftendere voluit Ariftides. (Clu- 
Tcrius, Ital. p. 445O 


TTie remarkable piety, morality and philofophy of 
the Hibernian Druids, added to the early eftabliffa- 
ment of the Orgia of the Cabiri in this iiland, caufed 
it to be named Infula Sanda ; and the fecundity of 
its foil, and temperature of the climate, gave it the 
name of the blelTed and fortunate iiland. In treating 
of the Cabiri, I (hall have frequent occaiion to mention 
Sanchoniatho ; and I mull here premife, that I believe 
the Greek tranflation by Philo. BibL is a mere for- 
gery, worked up with Greek ideas on a Phoenician 
allegory, mifunderftood and interlopated by Philo, 
in every page* This I venture to fay from com- 
paring the Irifli hiftory of the Cabiri, with the Phoe- 
nician, for example, why ihould Quranus^ the Hea- 
vens, marry his fifter Ge the Earth, and bring forth, 
ift, Ilus, who is called Cronus ; 2d, Betylus ; 3d, 
Dagon, who is Siton, or the god of corn ; and 4th, 
Atlas ; becaufe in the Iri0i ftory, Aoran the plough- 
man marries Ge, or Ce the Earth, and the firfl 
plowing brings forth Ilus, weeds, ftones, orts ; the 
fecond Biadhtal food, (for fome corn will require but 
two piowings) but the third produces dagb^ or deagb^ 
great corps of wheat, when follows athlus^ i. e. ruadh, 
fallow J to recover for another crop. Cronus does 



not fignify Time in thk paflage ; crann is a plough^ 
fear crainn a plough^man. (See Shaw's Eng. Ir. Did.) 
In other places Philo has hit upon the ptoper fenfe ; 
for ail and cronj fignify time in Irifti. 

Strabo in 1. iv. p. 198, fays, *' infulam effe prope 
Britanniam in qua Cereri & Proferpinae facra fiunt 
eodem ritu quo in Samothracia ;'* and this he affirms 
from Artemidorus, who wrote under Ptolomaeus 
Lathyrus, and none of the Helenick Greeks, had 
then entered Britain, as Sames has well proved in 
his Britannia antiqua illuftrata. 

The information given us by Sanehoniatho, that 
the Diofcuri and Corybantes made improvements in 
fliips and veffels, wherewith they pafTed over the fea, 
(within the twoncxt generations aftertheflood, accord- 
ing to Cumberland) will evince us, that thus men might 
pafs early even into'iflands and countries, feparated 
by fea from each other, which muft needs help to 
forward the difperfion of mankind into many coun- 
tries. And accordingly we fihd the fons of Sydyc 
called by Sanchoniatho, Samothraces, which imports 
they got into that ifland, and into Thrace, near ad- 
joining. For Herodotus fays, the lliracians were 
initiated according to the rites of the Cat>iri, whom 
he records to have been in Samothrace, and hence 
to have removed with the Pelafgi into Attica, and 
thence into other parts of Greece, where Paufanias 
aflures us, that their myfteries were upheld even to 
his time. Not that Samothrace implies the Thracians 
of Samos, but the Orgia of the Cabiri. 

From the Irifli MSS of the Sebright coUeftion, and 
from others in my own poffeffion, I have been able 
to colleQ: much of the Druidical religion. Of the 


P R E F A C K xxju 

Cabiri, I Ihall now only fpeak. The names and 
explanations of tfaefe Cabiri appear to be all aUe- 
gorkaly and to have fignified no more than an al- 
manack of the yiciifitudes of the feafons, calculated 
for the operations of agriculture, from which names 
certain planets and conftellations were denominated, 
and irom hence the origin of the figns of the zodiac* 
And thefe we ihall hereafter find run through the 
Mag€igian Une, viz. the Tartars, Arabs, Perlians, 
Turks, Mogulls, Chinefe, Japanefe, &6. &c. and 
will account for that valuable difcovery of Mr. Call, 
who £>uik1 the twelve figns of die zodiac painted on 
the cieling of a Pagoda, at Vardapetha, near Cape 
Comorin in the Eaft Indies, and in the iame manner 
we reprefient them *. Monf. Bailie has, in my opi* 
nion, proved very clearly that the Chaldee and 
Egyptian aflronomy, was but the debris of the fcience, 
and that it originated widi the Scythians. Does not 
Lucian place the tranfafticms of moft of his Syrian 
deities in Scythia ; Why fend Lete or Latona to 
murder her guefls in Scythia ? 

The Irifh Cabiri I find mentioned as of both fexes; 
in (hort, they appear all inanimate, Aefar, Samh, and 
Samhan excepted, viz. 

Ae£str, i • dia i • Logh, i. e. Aefar is god ; the 
Logh, the fpiritual flame. Is not this the rv wt^Hot xiya. 
&c. of Zeno ? Notanda igitur, & hie yCtyt vocula qua 
crd)ro in hoc generationis re utuntur, ut Senecac, 
*' Caufa autem, id efl ratio, materiam format ; in* 
corporalis ratio, ingentium operum artifex/' ingen- 
tium, totius mundi,. ait, incorporalis, quia mens iplk 

# Philof- Tranf. vol. 62, Anno 1 772. 


xxxu PREFACE. 

Dei eft, & animus, ut fie dicam ignis *. This in fhort, 
was the. bafis of all Stoic philofophy, and by a per- 
verfion of the original fenfe of the Druids, arofe all 
the nonfenfical mythology of the latter Egyptians, 
Phoenicians, Etrufcans and Greeks. 

In the laft number I derived the word aefar from 
eafar the creator. I find it fince written aefar, and 
in Shaw's Irifh Dictionary Aesf hear, which pronoun- 
ces the fame : the/ with an hiatus, does not found, 
and is. thrown in by the poets, to divide the fyllables. 
Dr. Hyde in his religion of the antient Perfians, ex- 
plains the name Azer, to have fignified Abraham 
in the Zendy meaning thereby fire. Et quia Azur 
eft ignis, ideo fulmen feu fulgur-autem Mohom- 
medanus interpres hoc etiam eife ex nominibus Dei 
excelfi* (p. 64.) f. 

Ain or Aion follows iEfar, with the following ex- 
planation : 

Ain, I ; Aioil, i ; Mac Seathar, i | i Seatharan, 
i. e. Ain or Aion, was the fon of God, and called 

Sanchoniatho tells us, that u^tiriycf^ the firft born, 
was called A/«5f, from whom proceeded riirU, and this 
Aion was the firft that gathered the fruits of the 

* Juft. LipfiuB ^C StoiClS. 

f I take this opportunity of returning thanks to my learned 
correfpondent Boirimh. I acknowledge his corre6^ion in this 
word ; if poffible, his letter (ball find room in this number. 

i Samaritan, Sahar, i. e. Dcus. Heb. "ItOty Shatai Dominus. 
Seathar, a name of God, fo called from feathar, ftrong, in the 
fame manner that Ei among the Hebrews was an appellation of 
God, from the Hebrew EI, which fignifics flrong, powerful. 
O'Brien 8 Irifh Lexicon. 


PREFACE. xxxiii 

Biihop Cumberland^ to fupport a fyilem^ rimkes 
Protogenes and Ain^ two mortals, from whom pro^ 
deeded Oenns and Oenea. Sanchon. fays no fuch 
thing ; fae makes Pratogonns the fame as Aioil, from 
whom proceeded Oenea ; but^ fays the faifhop, Aioit 
was the firft gatherer of the fruits of the earthy and 
of trees, confeqaently this was Eve^ znd Pratogenu9 
was Adim \ though he acknowledges that Aion is 
made mafculine by Philo Biblyus, rlf Almt^ but, fays 
bCf tbe tfanfcriber ignorantly conftdered Aioiil as an 
appeilatiTe^ in trhkh notion it k mafculine, Hnd tioC 
as lie ou|;hc to have done^ as a proper name of al 
vonum, in which fenfe it muA be feminine. (Re« 
marks, p. 219.) 

h the Jaft mimber, I proved Seathar to be fynam-t 
mem to Aefar» i. e. Ood i now Ain iii the Irifli Cabiri^ 
is f^ed next to ^&r, and is faid to be Mac Seathar,^ 
the fon of God, the Aion ot* Aon, i. e. the firlt, tlie 
(mly (me ; from whence he was fumailied Sa^aran. 
Aion *, confeii^ttently is Adam, and be was the firft 
gatherer of the fruits of the earthy which be found 
ready fown ; and fa was Seatharn oi' Saturn of the 
Romans, fof which reafon be was reprefented with a 
fcyihe in his hand, A»y^*, i K(it^ vtl <ifptnattf, Hefyc. 
Dagoa i^Cronus or Satwrn of the Hioenicians^ Cronus- 
We is our Grearni and Dagh, foi Dagon was the 
god of agriculture, not of time. Bnt them where 
ftadl tre fiEtfsd Ete^ SaoHroniatba tells you plainly, 
from Aion proceeded Gsariy by Phita written Genea; 

* Am, Aoir» Aion, honourable, praifc- worthy, refpcAfuI. 
Greek Aioe, laus. (O'Brien.) And fuch was the Irifh Chead-om, 
orHhead cm, the firft man, i. c. Adarfi. 

Vol, IV. No. Xftl I> buf 

xxxiv PREFACE. 

but Gean in. Irifh is a woman, fo called becaufe flie i» 
agan or geanach, that is, precious, dear, lovely, fair 
to behold ; and the Arabic verfion would have 
called her aghanet, immerfed in love, or the effe^ 
of loving, and ghunnas, a perfed beauty, and fuch 
was Eve ; and from Gean a woman, the Irifh very 
properly derive in-ghean a daughter ; it is fur* 
prizing the Greek word yv»« a woman, did not 
occur to the Biihop* 

Such appears the work of Sanchoniatho to an 
Irifh fcholar, and when we confider, that in the Irifh 
language, Seanachith is an antiquary, an hiflorian ; 
and Seanacha-nathj the art or fcience of an antiquary ; 
we are almofl inclined to believe Mr. Dodwell, and 
to reje£k Sanchoniatho as counterfeits But furely 
Philo Byblius, Porphryry and Eufebius were better 
able to judge than any moderns : and they never 
called in queflion his being genuine. 

Here then is an ingenious Phcenician or Druidical 
ftory, literally copied from the Holy Scriptures. 
Blufh then, ye opponents of the Sacred Writings ! 
ye multipliers of Adams ! ye fland here corre&ed by 
a Phoenician and a Heathen Hibernian Druid. 

Ceara, i , ainm do dhias, agus ainm don dagh, 
agus Ceara, i ; Maloi±, i. e. Ceara (Ceres) is the 
name of ears of corn, and the name of a plentiful 
crop, and ceara is a flail. 

Ceara to this day is the word ufcd by the Irifh, for 
heating oats in a pot, and placing them in a hole in 
the dry earth of the cabin floor, where they are 
trampled on till the hull parts from the feed. 

Ceara prefided over bread, corn and wheat. The 
Irifh fable gives her a daughter named Por-faibhean ; 



this is the Claffic Proferpina ; the propriety of the 
name is not to be undcrftood, but in the Phoenician 
and the Irifh. Por HD is feed, race for planting or 
propagating ; Saibhean ]'BEf (avena) is oats, or fmall 
grain. Ceara, fay the Irilh poets, invented the Cearan 
or quern, i. e. the hand mill, and the cearran or 
fickle ; but Porfaibhean, (Proferpina) invented Leite, 
an excellent food, made of oatmeal, called ftirabout, 
from leite a ring or circle, or to move in a circle, 
becaufe it muft be ftirred about during the operation. 
Porfaibhean, fay the Irifh fables, eftablifhed an annual 
folemnity named Luithre or Taithre, that is, the 
harvefl-home of the oaten-meal, and by the latter 
name, it is now known to the poor farmers. She 
invented or difcovered alfo, the flige or large horfe 
Ynufde (hell, to lift up this leite : fhe was made a 
conflellation under the name of Leithre ; thefe fhells 
fhe made into fcales for weighing the meal, and in 
this form fhe is reprefented in the zodiac. The 
Greeks robbed us of this conflellation and called it 
Litra, which is fynonimous to Libra. It has been 
underftood that the conflellation Libra or Litra was 
a kind of innovation ; that the Greeks were not ac- 
quainted with any fuch is certain ; yet we find them 
among the Saggittaries and Capricorns on the old 
Egyptian remains. (Hill's Aftronom. Dift.) 

Porfaibhean is faid to have invented another mofl* 
wholefome food of the hulls of oats, named Saibhean, 
pronounced faivan, and now called fowens ; a food 
well known by that name in the f uburbs of Dublin ; 
eaten with white-wine and fugar, it is equal to the 
be/l b/amanche. 

D 2 It 

jgcxvi PREFACE. 

lit k very plain thsu: Ceara is the Egyptian Ifis. 
^' J'ai d'abord Ibup^onne que c'etoit-la le fymbole 
que portoit Tliis Egyptienae aux approches de Pin- 
ondatioo, & qu'oA lui donnoit alors le nom de 
Leio ou LatoBe, qui dCt le nom du lizard, amphibie. 
Ifis preiuHt de fon cpt^ le nom de Di-Ane *, Fabon- 
dance & Ton mettoit en fa main la figure d*une caille^ 
dont le nom fignjfie aufi ialut, fecurkd TS'hvf flay, 
lea mots Latin falus & fajvus en viennenl, il fignifier 
auifi coufumix une caille. (^elquefois on trouve 
deux cailles aux {H^a d'Ifis, pour fignifier une entiere 
lecurite. Abbe Pluche is fometimes very happy in 
his Egyptian etymologies, and fometimes much egare. 

Ceara is called Malok or maloid, a flail in commoa 
Irifli. I doubt if (he invented Urn in&rument of 
bufbandry. Mai. in the Hebrew is to cut, to bruife* 
The Phoemcians had a temple to Car, Beth-Car, 
I Sam. 7* 1 1« Halloway derives the word from Cor, 
the caeleitial revolutions and its effe£l:s, which are the 
chief and firft fruits in animals and plants. 

hcr\2 C^rmel, Spica-plena & pinguis granis abundfi 
refertur. (Pl^mtayit's Synon. Lexicon,) this is our 
caoTy a. berry, a full grain. 

Carmel c^itur quafi t<^ "t3 pulvinar plenum, 
id eft, fignifkat plenam granis. Buxtorf. Chald. 
Lex. Melilaj fpica, a confiicando, quafi fricatio 
confricatio ; (ibid) here £5 our frication invented 
by Ceara, from whence we may conje&ure, Maloidj 
formerly fignified to tread the com, and now it 
means a flail, ufed for the lame purpofe. 

Bates obferves, that Carmel in the Bible, ibme-^ 
times exprefles a field of com, fometimea green ears; 
and fometimes ripe ears, . fit to be rubbed in the 


PREFACE. xxxvii 

hand. The green corn, fays he, whilft in the pulp 
will neither threfh or rub out : and com in die full 
car, juft cut, will rub out, but not threfh. The 
green com they dried at the fire, or toafted it : and 
the full ripe grain in the ear, they rubbed out and 
eat with oil. —here are three ways of eating com, 
in bread, parched, and in grain. 

Ann, mathar dias, agus mater deorum ; non 
mater deorum, acht ro bo maith dinno biathal fi 
dias, I. Eo-anu. Vegetation, of com gathering into 
ear, not mother of the Gods, fays the Gloffarift, 
non mater deorum, but as (he prorides bread, com, 
or food, bearing the ear — (he was the eo— (good) — 
Anu — whence Juno with the Latins. Ani & atiu 
in Irifli, fignify riches, abundance, continuance of 
ftdr weather, a drinking cup or horn, a cornucopia ; 
dear, beloved ; and Ann-oid, a temple or church — 
Aon, excellent, noble ; Anann, a poetical name 
of Ireland. 

Mathar and Abar, in Irilh, are' fynonimous 
words, for the firfi caufe^ whence, compounded with 
Aghas or Achas fignifying, good-luck, felicity, prof- 
perity, &c. they form Mathataghas & Abarachas, 
an epithet given by the Dtuids to the true God, 
Aereby importing the Deity to be, the great firft 
caufe of all felicity, faith, religion, &c. &c, (See 
Agh fiiUy explained in Pref. No. i o). 

Prom this Druidical name, is derived that ridicu- 
lous Greek myftical word ABRAXAS^ fo much 
noted by the Fathers. The word was probably of 
Egyptian origin, for by the Emperor Hadrian's 
letter to Serviahiis, we find the primitive Chriftians 
in the Eaft, mixed the Gods of the Heathens with 

D 3 the 

xxviii PREFACE- 

the Chriftian Religion, and if they had not miftaken 
the fenfe of thofe words, there would have been no 
crime in adopting fo noble an epithet, -^gyptum 
(fays. Hadrian) quam mihi laudabas, Serviane ca- 
riffime, totam didici levem, pendulam, & ad omnia 
famae momenta volitantem. Illi qui S$rapin colunt, 
Chriftiani funt, & devoti funt Serapi qui fe Chrifti 
Epifcopus dicunt. (Vopifcus in Vita Saturnini 
Tyran.). ... 

The Gnofticks, Bafilideans and Valeatiniaas, had 
the Abraxas ; Irenaeus, TertuUian and Auguftin, 
notice the idle fable of the Greeck letters in the 
word, compofing the number 365, and that they 
fuppofed, there were fo many Heavens. But Mi- 
thras and Abraxis, are fynonimous words for the 
the Deity, and are to be found on the fame medals^ 
often with the word I A and A D O N A L the 
firft {landing for JEHOVA, the laft is a Phoenician 
and Irifti word, fignilying Dominus. How then 
did Mithras make oiit- 365 : indeed, to form Aba- 
rachas into this number they were obliged to tranf- 
pofe a letter, and to turn CH into X, and then it 
was made up in this manner,, viz. « i. g 2. i ioo. 
« !• i 6o. « I. (T^oo, which added together make 
up the number 365. , Brafilides eftablifhed his doc- 
trine in Spain, arid there we find the name written 
Abraffes. The Etrufcans had alfo their Abraxas ; 
he is found on their coins with Serapis, Canubis, 
&c. Our Hibernian Druids alfo prefixed the word 
CAD, i.e. Holy to ABRA, and of this, the 
Gymnofophhifts, are faid to have formed ABRA- 
CADABRA, and to have made Amulets, as a 


P R E F A C E. xxxix 

charm againft fevers, to be worn round the neck in 
this form, viz. 

■ . , A . . . 
I cannot help thinking this and the number 365, 
are tricks of the later monks^ becaufe, St. Jerora 
exprefsly fays, that by Abraxas, the Baflilideans 
meant the Almighty God. ^^tfilides qui • Qmnipo- 
tentem deum portentofo nomine appellat Abraxas^ 
{& eundem fecundum Graecas literas, & annui curfus 
numerum dicit in foils circulo^contineri, quern ethnici 
fubeodem numerp aliarum liter arum vocantlVJithram.} 
Father Montfaucon has, given ibme hundeds of draw- 
ings from the various medals ftruck with t^iis word 
Abraxas ; where he is reprefented in every diftorted 
form, of half man half beaft, the imagination could 
invent. (Antiq- Vol. IV., page 357^) Our Hiber- 
nian Druids, like their Scythian anceftors,] admitted 
of no images. ; /: 

■^j^, "n^^ An or Aun was the name of" an ob^ 
jcft of worlhip in Egypt and Canaan ; Abbe Pluche, 
takes no notice of it. Gen. xli. and 45. it is An, in 
verfe 5, it is Aun. The word, fays Bates, is 
ufed for the ftrength and power of God. The 



apoftates no doubt, meant by it, the heavens, and 
the Prophets turn the word upon them> *s in Amos, 
V. ver. 5. SrS fl ftMI become pb,^, there was a 
Beth Aun near Beth EU Joft. vii- ver. 2. Hof. 5th, 
the calves of Beth A»f The On or Aun of the 
Egyptians, was in their jnci*e degenerate days, the 
city of the Sun, if we C^Dt truft the bcx. Ezek. 30, 
and 17. The 70 were good judges, but are not 
well underftood ; the introduftion of foreign words 
ufed by idolatrous nations,' into the Hebrew text, 
were known to the Ixx. and our Commentators 
would do well to follow their explanations. 

Hence the Ban-ana plant, worlhipped by the 
'Egyptians,' ^s the fymbol of fe<:uiidity \ hence alfo, 
•the Irifti dealb-an-dea, a butterfly ; literally, the re- 
prefehtation bf the goddefs Anu ; the Egyptians re- 
-prefentVd a?r, as the caufe of vegetation, by a 

Ami. I. Ith. I. lath, Anith. i. Anann. therefore 
Ith wjis mater deoruril, Hkewlfe ><n^n *^^^> Chaldee 

obftetrfx. Kn^n hhita*' Vita. Ith, in Irifli, is 

-wheat, bread corn ; and here we find Anu joined 
'with Ith and Anu doubled, in Anann, a name of 
Ireland. Ith or It, is derived from the Hebrew 
ntsn it, et, itah, wheat. This Hebrew word fays 
Bates, is ufually put under ^jj-^ henut, for what 
reafon doth not appear. I put it under this root be- 
caufe it is the only corn we always bind , or tie up 
with a bandage. 

We find Ith or lath, in a multitude of compounds 
in our frifli Cabiri, as Anith, Jath nan Ann. 
Amudith, lomadith, Maloith whence maloid, (as 
befpre), Sughith. and many others — in our dial- 



onaiies we find Ith^ com ; Idiam^ to eat ; Ithadtas, 
an car of com ; Itbfbn, a dray for corn ; Idiir, a 
corn-field, foil, land, country ; Amudith, the pleu- 
tifiii Ith ; Dearc*ith, the berry of wheat ; Sugh, 
&p, juice ; Sugith, wheat in fap. Ctefias fuppofes 
the Aflyrian Derceto, to be the fame a$ Dagon, 
i. e, frumentttm, — it was a good guefs of Ctefias^ 

Auguftin fays, Seia, was the goddefs of new fown 
com; and Segetia when it began to fpring up, — 
Saoi or Saoidth in Iriih, is grafs, corn in blade — 
rUUtt Anona, cibus, pec. equorum ut al. Viftus, 
commeatus, frumentum, tributum annuum ad an- 
nonam confervandam. ♦ 

Ainith, is the Anaitis of the Perfians and of the 
Copts, f But Anith or Antca was Ceres, as Mon. 
Gebelin proves. In Orpheus, there is a hymn ad- 
dreifed to Ceres or Deraeter, and one under the 
name of mother Antea. J Anaitis and Z^retis, 
Diana Perfica. (Selden.) 

This was the Al-Itta of the Arabians, al being 
only a prefixed article. Gad autem feu Dea fimpli- 
citcr eodem modo vocabitur, quo Herodotus alias 
ab Arabibus Vcncrem, Alitta appellari teftatur quod 
eft Dea, quaravis alii nomcn apud Herodotem AUeh 
effe putant — quod Domina fit Regina nodis, hinc 
igitur denuo patet, Venerem eandem cum luna in 
Oriente habitam fuiffe. Milfius, de Gad. p. 341. 

The Chaldacan Anedot, mentioned by Syncetlus, 
leems to have the fame origin ; — and hence I think 

* Cattellui. 

f Reland in his kttcr ttf Wilklns on the Coptic. 

J Hift. AUcg. du Calcndr. page 575. ' 



the Greek fable of Peleus and Telamon, both bom 
of the nymph Endeis, the daughter of Gharicio, i. e. 
(in Irifli Ceara-clu) the renowned Ceara, — and hence 
the ruflick Roman feaft of Anna Perenna. Hence 
alfo, the Etrufcan Ammudatis. ; Ammudatis &: 
Deus magnus, invenio Ammudatexn Deum cultum : 
fed quis & a quibus ne (Edipus divinarit * 

Ajid the Syrian Mylitta f (or Mulita, i. e. Venus.) 
the Lus-for-oir^ and the I^tisfo-iar of the Irifh, i. e. 
the light in the eaft, and the light in the wed ; the Lu- 
cifer of the Greeks and . Romans, but they knew 
not, as the Irifh did, that ihe is fo called, becaufe 
when (he departs out of the funs rays on the weftern 
iide, we fee her in the. morning juft before day 
break: it is in this fituation of Venus, that ihe is 
called the Moming-ftar, as in the other jQie is called 
the Jlvening-ftar. 

But as I have reafon to think thcfe dry fubjefts 
unpleafant to my Irifh readers, I fhall give the names 
of the refl of the Cabiri in a lift, and leave to them 
to compare the names and attributes with thofe of 
other countries. They may refl ,afrured that the 
bafis of all the Mythology of the Eafl and of the 
Wefl, lies concealed in the philofophy of the Irifh 
Druids j and that .there are fuiBcient monuments 
ftill left, to prove the affertion. 

Dagh or Dagh-da^ explained in No. 1 2. 

Lute & Lufe, bandea, u e. a goddefs. I believe 
the Gloffarifl fhould have' explained this in the maf. 
culine, a God. Louthat was the name of one of 

•,* Dempfter dc Etruria Regal!, 
t ^bO ^lili plcniiu4o» 


PREFACE. xliu 

the celeftial powers or good angels of the Gnofticks. 
Lahat, was an epithet of the fupreme Qod, with 
th e Fhcenicians. 

Nath, I . dia an Cacht. Nath^ the^ God of wif- 
docQu Nath ainm coitceann don uile aifte eigfibh* 
(Vet. Gloff.) i. e. Nath is a name common for all 
fublime compofitions, as hymns, &c. . Nath. i. 
Tine. i. Tin-cofg. i, tes^afg. i. e. Nath, Tine, 
Tincoig, fignify teagafg, i, e. wifdom.-: — ^This was 
al£> an Egyptian Deity. Urbi8(Sai^);praBfiBS Dea, 
^gyptiace quidem Neit : Graece autem, ut illorum 
fert opinio A^nptf* (Plato in Tim.) i. e* Minerva nam 
Ad«i« antiquis Graecis^ Tufds veroTina. (Gori). 
But we fee Tine and Nath, are fynoiiimous names 
for wifdom, in the Iriih. 

Neit, dia Catha. Neit, the God of war ; neit in 
Jrifh fignifies war. 

teaman Dogha. i . Uibhle tenedh. i • Ceara. Sy- 
nonimous names of the fame Deity. Eiriu, Eire, 
Eirinn, Por, Porfaibhean, fynonimous names. Por, 
is feed or race for plsinting or propagating. Saib- 
hean, fignifies Oats, (]^Sff Avena) and Eirinn, is 
fertile foil, ♦if) peri, in Heb. is fruit, corn* N. B. 
Eire, is a poetical name of Ireland, and is the Iris of 
Diodonus, inhabited, he lays^ by Britons. 

Ain. Mac Seathair. i. e. Ain, the Son of God. 
Ain. I. Tauladh. i. Phan, Fen, i. Mulach, fyno- 
nimous names of the iame Deity* 

Tath. I. Tait. i. Taithlann* i. Foghmhar. i. e. 
the Deity of the harveft. (See No. x 2.) 
Geamhar, i. e. the Deity : prefiding^ over com in 

the blade. 



Raidhe. !• Redhe. i. c. Sub deities of Re, the 
mooiu Faun8, Rufticks, labourers in the field. 

iEdh. I. uSth, I. teinne, the Deity of fire. 

Samhan. i. Samh*fhiunn, i. e. Samhan is the 
end of fummer, the clofing of the light of Sam, 
the Sun. (See No. 12.) 

Dius, I ; Congo, i ; goirtog, 1 ; fambolg;, i ; bolg, 
1 ; bolog, I ; comhartha, at neamh ar clith na ma- 
dideana, i. e. Dius and the following words jfignify an 
ear of com ; it is a iign in the heavens, at die left 
of the Virgin. 

See the learned Dr. Hyde on th^ Sibyllsu In 
Arabic daufeh is an ear of com ; and dufliiza is the 
Perfico-Indian name of this conftellation ; but here 
we are told the word implies Virgo. Secundum Phos- 
nices & Chaldseos, autumnal! tempore (quando fruges 
ad meffem maturae) praeeft (ignum- virginis feu paellas 
ipicas in agrolegentis ; hinc, ihfigni Aftronomo Perfa 
Albumazar, in Sphaera PersJndica in primo figni 
virginis decano oritur puella cui Perficum fiomen 
dujfnza feu virgo. Apud, Arabes & Perfas h<>c fignum 
lynochdochic^ vocatum eft Sumbul feu Sumbula, i. e. 
fpica qua tamen proprie & abfque figuf a^ eft tamen 
primaria hujus figni ftella ^icarum fafci(!uhifli re- 
pradfentans, hM2lB^». fibula in Hebrew is fpica ere^ia. 
in the modem Irifh it implies a gathering in of the 
com, whence fabhal a barn, granary, &c. Samhbolg 
an ear of corn ripened by Samh the Sun. 

Samhan-draoic, 1 ; Cabur, i j comhceangalladh ; 
of this hereafter. 

€anh, i ; Re Ian, i; X#uan lan^ ^e full moon; 

hence the Kann or Diana of the Etrufcans. 




Samlian, i ; Cdfil, i ) GioUa^ i. e. Satan, die 

The Greeks were acquauited with tina deity ; but 
I do not find iiiej received hkn inta their catalogue, 
which ia the more furprizmg, as they acknowledge 
htm of Phoenician origin, as we learn from Dama/aus 
in his Life of Ifidorus. Phot. BibL Cod. 242^ p^ 1074. 
*^ AfUapios, who is worfliipped at Beryte, is neither 
OreciaJi nor Egyptian^ but Phoenician ; for Sdyc had 
children, who were called Dic^ures or Cabires. The 
eighth was ESMVNVS, that is to fay, ASKLEFIO& 
He was a youth of fuch exqufite beauty, that Aftr$ims^ 
queen of Phoenicia, and mother of the gods, ftU in 
love with him, if die feble Is- true. He, who took 
delight IB attending the flocks, percehring the goddeis 
attached herfeif to him fo ftrongly, that he had n0 
meaaa of avoiding her, caftrated himlelf with a h2d> 
diet. The goddefs, grieved to the foul at this a£lion» 
called the youth Paian^ (»«; n«r«y« »mxwwm t^vMnVxtf*) 
and placed him among the gods, that his paffion 
fliould never be forgotten* On this account he was 
named ESMVNVS by the Phoenicians, though others 
lay he was fo called by being the eighth fon c^Sadyk; 
Efmiinus in Phoenician implying that number ; how- 
ever this is he who carries light hi the midft of dark- 

The reader will find moft of thefe deities among 
tbe Phoenician and Chaldsean gods mentioned by 
Halloway. And in Relandus, he will find Bcth-Caf, 
Beth-Anath, Beth-Er, Beth-Ere, &c. &c. 

Lemery at the word Oriza (rice) on the faith of 
Kron and other voyagers, fays, that in India is a 
paged, remarkable for the delicacy of its workman* 


xlvi P R E F A C E- 

(hip ; it is the figure of one of the Japanefe divinities^ 
placed in a niche, and what is moft furprizing, that 
the god and the niche, is no bigger than a fingle graia 
of rice. This work is a ftru&ure fo much diftin«- 
guifhed, that with an eye-glafs one can fee the eyes^ 
nofe and mouth, and all proportions are in the greateft 
exa£biefs. This little god with its niche, is placed 
on xln&fpike of an ear^ which grows from the rice, and 
half of another grain of rice^ makes the pedeftal of the 
little idoL I take this to be a figure of Ith or Anu« 

I Ihall now fay fomething of Samhain-draoic, and 
free my readers of a dry fubjed on which I could write 
volumes. ^ 

Draoic or Draoieachd, as it is now written, is 
formed of Draoi or Drui, a Druid ; and is a word by 
which the Irifh exprefs magic, enchantment, forcery^ 
&c» Draoitheachd, properly the druidical worfhip 
and facrifice, (Shaw) proceeding from Draoi or 
Draoith, a Druid ; (ibid.) This word I thought to 
be derived from the old Perfic Daru, a wife man ; but 
I think Plantavit in his Lex. Synon. Hebr. and Chald. 
has given a more fatisfadory folution. CTH daris^ 
exponere, declarare res quaeiitas, unde i^v,fy druida, 
quafi interpres, & expofitor. 

Samhain-draoic, is therefore the orgia of Samhan, 
I ; Cabur ; but Saman, as we have ihewn in the laft 
number, was the angel of darknefs, prefiding over the 
fouls of the departed; how many of thefe angels 
were concerned in the Cabiri, I do not learn, but I 
have reafon to think there were three, becaufe their 
emblem was three hollow brafs rings, called Samo- 
thracian rings, by Artemidorus, many of which are 
in my pofiefTion, and many are daily dug up in Ireland. 

I have 

PREFACE. xlvii 

I have here annexed a plate of them ; and probably, 
thefe are alluded to in the Revelations, by the three 
undean Ipirits, like frogs, coming out of the mouth 
of the Dragon, ch. i6, 13. 

Cabur^ i ; Comhceangalladh, i. e. they were united 
to each other in the mod folemn manner ; galladh 
is a promife, a vow, a pledge ; geallam to )>romife, to 
devote ; cean, favour, fault, crime ; ceangail, a bond, 
a reftraint ; ceangallach, obligatory ; comh-ceangal- 
ladh, aflbciated together by facred obligations ; ca- 
braim to join, to write, to couple ; cabhra, auxiliary. 

1^23 Cabir in Hebrew, may be tranflated ftrong, 
potent, mighty ; Job, viii. a, the words of thy mouth 
be like a cabir wind ; 1 5* i o. more cabir in days than 
thy father — here it means numerous. 36, 5. Be- 
hold God is Cabir, — great or abounding, — Or does 
Job here point to the Cabiri of the Canaanites ? — 
but ■^3n chabir, from whence the Irifh Cabur, is to 
conjoin, ailbciate; to enchant, to conciliate, to 
calm, to reconcile, to footh. Gen. xiv. 3. all thofe 
chabiru, were joined in the vale of Siddim. Ex. 
xxvL 3. five curtains Ihall be chabur together ; and 
Job. xvi. 4* I could chabireh, i. e. heap up words 
againft thee : play the foothing orator againft you. 
Plalm xciv. 20. Shall the throne of iniquity have 
chabir with thee, i. e. fellowfhip. 

This word Chabir, fays Bates, is ufed for fome 
fpedes of idolatrous divinations, conftrued con- 
juration and enchantment, as Deut, xviii. 11 that 
ufeth divination, or are obfervers of times, or an 
enchanter, or nSn 12n Chabir Chabir. Leigh fays, 
the word is ufed to exprefs that fpecies of pretended 
fpiritual influence or fupernatural power, like the 


xtviii PREFACE. 

real power of words and mufic over ferpents^ from 
conjoining or confociating thein,-'but the word 
ezprefiy means a companion^ an aflbciate^ company, 
as Jud. XX. I . All the men of Ifrael were gathered 
together againft the city, (Chabirim) knit together 
as one man, and Job xL 25. ufed it in the lil^e 
feufe^ the Chabirim (companions) make a banquet 
for them. 

Bochart, Selden and Cumberland have been mif- 
led by Paufanias and other Greek writers, in explain- 
ing Cabiri to fignifiy Dii potes, vel Dii magni. 
Sanchoniatho tells us, from Sydyc came the Di<^curi, 
Cabiri, Corybantes and Samothraces^ thefe firft in- 
vented the building of a nA«?«f, or a compleat fhip. 

Bochart acknowledges^ credebantur enim iis im- 
btttt jiiftiore& fieri, & fandiores & in C|uibufcunque 
pericutis pracfentiflhnos habere Deos, & a nat^ra^io 
maxime eflc prorfus immunes. On voyages thej 
were the prefervers of fi>ips from ihipwreck ; our 
Druids therefore named them Di-Ofcara *, the guar- 
£an angels of travellers, voyagers, &C Hence Jafon, 
Orpheus, Hercules, Caftor, Agamemnon, Ulyfles, 
and Pollux, fought to be initiated in the Samothra- 
Gian rites* But what is fUU ftronger, Curra-bunnith 
in Iriflt, implies firip^-baikiers, for the Corybantes 
were the facrificing priefts of Ceres, who was Ifis, 

^ M7 reaxlers mud not be furpnzed at ikidiHg dilFerent ex- 
planations of the fame Phoenician words, drawn from the Irilh 
language. As new light is thrown on the fubjcft by the more 
antient MSS. that have lately com« to my Tievr. Thus, in a 
lonner poUlcatioa, I coHat^ the IrHh DHinr, with the Punic 
Diofcuri ; but on comparing the paflage of Sanchoniatho, with 
Bochart's Remarks, they evidently were the Druidical DI- 
Ofcara ; for Ofcara fignifies a voyager by fea or land. 



the great aavigatriX) (o cailed for the hUk Efs^ a 
fliip, as I have (hewn in No. Xil. 

The learned Spencer, that princeps Criticorum, in 
his Diff. de Origine Areas ic CherubinprUm, plainly 
ihew8 that Cherub in Hehrew does moft properly 
imply (irength, migjbt, power ; but that Chabir im« 
plies /hciij and were often written one for the other* 
It is the fame m Iriih. Cairbre is the moft proper 
word anfwering to CherubyW^Me^nceCairtH-jeLiSeachar^ 
and a hundred other princes of Ireland were (o c^led* 
That Samnos and Samnothracia Tjirere fp csdled from 
the rites of the Cabiri, having b^n edabUfbed there 
by the Pelafgi, is allow^ed by all authors. Bochart^ 
from a paijage in Herodotus, conje£tures they were 
called D>p^*19D Samadracos, pro morione Cumitur, 
quafi Saiaodbraces Deos, id e^ Cahiros, oris atque 
corporis habitur imitetur. We have fee^ a better 
derivation, in the Ibr^egoing pages. From what ha^ 
been laid, I conclude, that the myiteries of the Cabiri, 
confided in the Arkite worfhip, fo le^r^ediy handled 
by my worthy and learned friend Mr. Bryant* 

The Greeks had ccmfounded the Samap ai^d the 
Cabiri, wiuch were nam^d Axnam^ or the internal 
deities, from the Coptic amenty i. e. infernum» and 
turned the name into Eumenides, u e. the good 
minded deities ; yet they always worfhipped them in 
fear and terror. From ament, came ament-dis, the 
deities of hell. The word may be found in the 
Coptic Pfalter, pfalm xvi. " Becaufe thou wilt not 
Itavc my foul » (M^entJ hell.*' Again, in Luke, 
diap. xw. ^ And in (ament) hell, he lift up his eyes, 
being in tornnents ;*' from this Coptic or Egyptian 
Vol. IV. No. XUI. E word. 


word, are derived the Iriih amain, aimhncac, dohm- 
ncac ifrein, all fignifying the infernal deep, hell, &c. 

Another name of the Iri(h Cabiri, was Tromh-dhe, 
tutelary gods, fays Shaw ; but where*s the proof? 
trom, I ; caimfeacus, i. e. Socii. Vet. Gloff. Hib. 

If thefe Phoenician deities were known to the 
Welfh Britons, then we may conclude, that the Iriflt 
and Welfli were one and the fame people : but if we 
find, (as is really the cafe) that they were not known 
ta the Welfli, or to the Gauls j we muft conclude, 
either that the Irifli are of another defcent, or that 
they had an early connexion with Orientalifls, who 
did not only eftablilh their religion, but their lan- 
guage in Ireland ; which I think has been fufficiently 
proved. And thefe deities may have come to them 
by the Pelafgi or Etrufci ; for, Samothracia Sacra 
Etrufcormn inventum. Dardanus coram auftor. 
(Virgil. Gori. Dempfter.) And we find moft of the 
names of the Irifli Cabiri on the Etrufcan monuments, 
as Ami, Ithia, &c. &c. 

The Pelafgi and Etrufci, became one nation and 
people. Nempe Pelafgi, cum Tyrrhenis five Etruf-^ 
cis permixti. (Cluverius, Ital. p. 438.) Pelafgi, com- 
munemque cum Tyrrhenis terram incoluerunt. 
(Marcian. Heracl.) 

S E C T I O N VI. 

Before I quit this fubjeO:, I muft reply to a general 
obj edion made to the introduftion of Etrufcan co- 
lonies, to this ifland. It is known that the Etrufcans 
were a very poliflied people, of Oriental origin, and 



remarkable for their Ikill in arcliitefture ; where then 
are their buildings to be difcovered in Ireland ? 

It is certain that our Druids, and the Etruicans, 
like all other antient idolaters, firft had no covered 
temples, but made the holy fires, on the tops of 

" Mundus univerfus eft; Templum Solis.** 

(Alex, ab Alex.) 

Here they worfbipped Aefar, firfl: towards Samh^ the 
fun, and next towards the facred fires, as being the 
things in which the Logb chiefly dwelt. They direded 
their worlhip to Saman and the Cabur^ in caves and 
darknefs. Such I take to be the cave of New Grange, 
fo well explained by Governor Pownall. In this 
cave were three altars, correfponding to the fuppofed 
number of the Cabiri. But I have great reafon to 
think, they afterwards ma^e their holy fires in the 
round towers, and that the building of them was in- 
troduced by the Tuath Dadanann priefls from Etru- 
ria ; becaufe we are told, that the old priefts, the 
Firbolg, oppofed the doftrine of thefe Tuath Da- 
danann ; a holy war broke out, which ended at 
length in two battles, one fought at the plains of the 
North tower, and the other at thofe of the South 
tower. All this is the exa6t xefemblance of the 
Perfian hiftory. They firfl: made the holy fires on 
the tops of hills, but Zoroaftres, finding thefe facred 
fires in the open air, were often extinguifhed by rain, 
tempefts and ftorms, he direfted that ^re towers 
fliouid be built, that the facred fires might be better 
prcferved *. 

* Fridcaux's ConnefUon, 8ro. vol. i, p. 306. 

£ 2 And 


And it lb happens, that the tower of Calhell, ad- 
joins a building called Cormac's chapel, that is of 
true antient Etrufcan architedure. The capitals of 
the pillars are of the rude Etrufcan order ; the arch 
is femi-circular, and in (hort, there is nothing of what 
we call Gothic, in the whole building. Cormac was 
proclaimed king of Cafhel, in 902, and at the fame 
time exercifed the fundions of archbifliop of that 
See. O'Brien fays, there is fufficient evidence that 
he did not build this chapel, but only repaired that 
and the two churches of Lifinore. The tradition of 
the oldeft people at Cafiiel, is, that it was a Heathen 
temple. A plan, elevation and fedion of this very 
curious building, fimU be given in the courfe of this 
work, when we treat of irifli buildings in general. 

The Seanachiths, or faiftorians of Ireland, have 
recorded, that the Perfian religion thus reformed, 
was proficfled in Ireland, E. gr. Anno mundi 281 1, 
do gafaii Tighearxnas M^ollamheim, M^Eitriail, 
M^Iriail faidh, M^Eireamoin, rioghacht Eiri n 
oir ase an Tighearmas fo do thionfgain iodhal adh- 
radh do dheanamh ar ttus do Crom chruaidh, 
amhuil do rin Sorq/iret^ fan Greig ; L e. in the year 
of the world 28 1 1 , Tighearmas fon of Follaman, fon 
of Eithriall, fon of Irial the prophet, fon of Eremon, 
fucceeded to die throne. It was this Tighermas ef- 
tabliihed the worihip of the idol Crom Cruach, as 
Zoroaftres had done in Greece. I take this from 
Keating, who probably fhick in Greece, inftead of 
Perfia ; and Crom Cruach was not an idol, as I have 
explained in my lafl: number. 

There was a Beth-Kerem, called alfo Beth-Akke- 
rem, (Jercm. vi. i.) in Codice Nidda, xi. 7. this 



place is deicribed abounding with a red fand, and 
the Arcams ifluing from it were of a bl€K>dy colour j 
this correiponds fo perfe£kly with the fabulous ac- 
counts of our Crom-cruach, that I could not avoid 
mentioning it. 

The Greeks had the name of Zoroaftres in great 

efteem, /peaking of him as the great mafter dt all 

human and divine knowledge. Plato, Ariftode, 

Plutarch and Porphyry, mention him with honour^ 

Pythagoras, an £trufcan by birth, was the difciple of 

Zoroaftres ; Porphyry fays, *' that by him Pythagoras 

vas deanfed from the pollutions of his life paft, and 

ioftrufled from what things virtuous perfons. ought 

to be free ; and alfo learned from him the difcourfe 

concerning nature, and what are the principles of 

the univerfe;** and lamblicus tells us, that Pythagoras 

ftudied twelve years at Babylon under Zoroaftres, 

and in his converfe with the Magi, he learnt from 

tfaem arithmetic, mufic, and the knowledge of divine 

things and tbe iacred myfteries pertaining thereto. 

But, Pythstgora^ did nof bring this dpdrine into 

Greece iu(^d Italy^, with that purity with which he 

received it .from 2Loroaftres. AbuUPharagius, an 

Arabian -writer, by religion a Chriftian, tells us, that 

Zoroaftres foretold to his Magi or Druids, the -coming 

of Chrift, aiid that at the time of his birth, there 

fhould appear' a wonderful ftar, and left it in com- 

aiand with them, that when that ftar fhould appear, 

tliey flioujld follow the dtrej^ns of it, and go to the 

place where he fhould be, born,- and there offer gifts 

and pay their adoration to him \ and that it was by 

this command^ that the three wife men caoie from 

the Eaft, that is, .out of Perfia, to wor(hip Chrifl at 

E 3 Bethlehem. 


Bethlehem. And fo far Sbariflani, though a Ma- 
hommedan writer, doth agree with him, as that he 
tells us, that Zoroaftres foretold the coming of a 
wonderful perfon in the later times,, who Ihould 
reform the world both in religion and righteoiifnefs. 
(Hiftoria Dynaftor, p. 54. Religib Vet. Pferfarum, 
c. xxxi; Pridcaux's Connection, v. i, p. 328.) 

I mention this circumftance of Zoroaftres's hiftory, 
becaufe it is very fur{)rizing that the Irifh Seanachiths 
fhould know any thing of Zoroaftres, if they derived 
from the JBritains, and from Gaul ; biit more parti- 
cularly, becaufe we find in moft of the ahtient records, 
it is pretended that an Irifh Druid did foretell the 
coming of Chrift. And there is great probabiKty, 
that this was borrowed from their knowledge of the 
hiftory of Zoroaftres, through the Etrufcans. 

Another ftrong circumftance of th^ Etmfcan co^ 
lony from Croton, haviag arrived in Ireland, feiiid 
mixed with the Thtackn Paftyfe, feems' evident 
from the name of Crtitherii, Cruthi, Dafcr^ite, lia- 
latadia, Dalradii, Dalradii, Dalrieda',^ being t&e 
common name of the fame people fekted in TJlfter, 
who afterwards paffedovfer to Scotland. '- < 

Perdt ad terram Cruthenorum feu DalRietmorumr 

^ O^i^^ Patricii a Patr* |un.) 
Dal Radii didi Cruthefti* (Colgan.) . * • . . " 

Dalaradios — ^populos Ultonisc, ex qbibas OTiun^ 
dus fait S. Comgallus & qui proin^e cbgnati ejus 
ab Adaninano vocantur, eodem vocari Cruthi- 
meis. (Colgan)! H^re we find the Oetbi or PaSya 
of Thrace, as mentioned before 5 the tHAti^^ Cruthi- 
meis, fignifies Judge of the Crilthi. , 



Dalradia Regio Ultonise, hodie Ibh-Tach. 


Dal apud Hibernos communiter ufurpatur pro 
ftirpe, • ut Dal Raidhe, (feu Dal Raite) Dal Cais, 
Sec. Ibh has the fame fignification, (OBrien's Did.) 
Ibh a country, tribe, people; this is the Ch aid. 
JTiK provincia ; confequently, Dal Raite, fignifies 
the tribe of the Rheti ; populi a Tufcia ducunt 
origmem, a Rharto Lydorum duce ita didi« (Demp- 
fter de Etruria Regali.) - Ibh Tach or Tagh, muft 
alfo mean the tribe or defcendants of Tages ; Etruf- 
cus divinationis per auguria inventor ; hence the 
Salantini dim Dol-ates, (ibid.) — ^that is ^he Dal 
of Atys. But fays Colgan, Dalradia or Arradia, 
is £ud to be fo named befoi^e the arrival of Patrick, 
from a certain king or queen, named Aradius. 

Atetiuni, Regia C//miV Rex Etrufcorum. Arre- 
tium etiam didum Etrnriae . urbs antiquiflima, ac 
potens. Colonia erat. Aretia Jani Uxor. (Dempfter.) 

la the Etrufcan antiquities difcovered by Inghira- 
mhis, we find one moft curious, written in Etrufcan 
and Latin, on a fheet of lead^ env'^loped in wood 
.and pitched canvas ; k was t^ritten by Profperus, 
the Augur ; and runs thus. Pater meus Vefulius 
Antii Fefulaniy & Atcae; :Ceci)ma& .filius me non 
folum Exhvukam^ fed cttiam Qraecam ic Hebraicam 
linguam docuit ; poftea ^tigurandi artem & ipfius 
naturae arcana^ — igituf com H4. re$ fe habeant, quae 


* In Span!fh» Del. Arqb, da)f familia. Heb. ^.^^ dall, cx- 
tnduff, H'ST <ial»^li propago. — Sll, in Irifti, has^'thc fame fig- 
nification, Hct>. S^E^ S^iU- Arab Sil-filch. 




apud me funt, Romanis non relinquenda decrevi — 
quare in firmiori loco & tutiori hujus arcis cornua 
mea aurea^ & omnia facra Di-Anac repofuf & penates 
fneos & multas fcripturas, quas omnes apud me 

Cl3l3CCCXIX : ex Tranfalpenninis Coloniis 
magno exercitu comparato, Vulterram verfus venit. 

CIoI^CCCXXXIX : CfotoliaB concilium— Adri- 
enfes obfeffi, poftquam opem a Rhethiis promifTam 
diu fruftra expeftaffent legatos ad Vultcrranum fe- 
natum mittunt, orantes, ut ipfis Colonic ignofcereti 
verum non ignofcitur : donee Adrienfes prsefeftum^ 
& defedionis duces Alco tradidiflent — qui dam- 
nati funt* 

. Thufcorum colonias hie reponit Fefulanos Cuftos 
hujus ScorneUanae Arcis. 
Brigania— Ebodera — Ccneftiacum Caerites— Spina 

eifdem Pelafgis fabrica Fefulenfibus ^CortQua 


Arretini autem habent. 

Birgiamj Ogigsiniim, Cirtonam, Arietiam, AI- 
benium, Ogigium, &c. ttaliae habitatorea iunt Abo- 
rigines, qui ex -ZEgiptiis prddiere. Profpcrus Augur. 
hoc fcripfit. 

To this let us add, that the fitd Strufican king 
after the fabulous time of the Etrufcans^was Meleus. 
Rex Etrufcdrum totat Italiae imperavit : he confe- 
queirtly was the leader of the Pdafgian colony to 
Spina, and afterwards to Spain, where Herodotus 
finds him under the name of Melefi-gehes, and 
thinks it was Homer.— Decere eum dum juvenis 
clTet, regiones & urbeis vifere, — ^porro quum ex Hi- 


P ft E ? A C E. lyu 

fpania & Tyrrhenia in Ithacam deveherentur, con- 
tigit Melefi-genem occulis jam anti parum valentem, 
extreme laborarc— This fhcws Ae origin of the 
Irifli Hiftory, and though I beKeve that part of the 
Irifh records not to be true in every part of the de- 
tail, there is good authority to fay, that fuch a co- 
l9ny did arrive from Spain , of which I fhall treat 
in a future number. In fhort, die hiftory of the an- 
tient Pelagi and Ethnifci, is Ae fame as that of the 
antient IrHh. 

It is not only in hiftory, that the Irifh fliew an 
Oriental origin, but in the arts and fciences, the 

terms, names and appropriations ; — ^for example, s 
in the military line ; with what contempt the Irilh 
troops, called Galloglafs's and Keams, are mention- 
ed by all Englifli writers. Words corrupted from 
Ciola-chlas, and Ceama ; but thefe are riebtew 
names occurring many times in the facred fcriptures. 
S»n chil, Viri ftrenui. \'\^f\ chioz miles armis ac- 
cinctus. So in Irilh CuJith, Charioteers. HlS^ 
Kiiluth, Copiae militares, Turmae militum : Amilfadh, 
light troops, lying in ambufli, 0*^011 hamus, miles 
eques levis armaturae & expeditus ad cu'itum. 
Ceama, is from ^♦jn"^p Karuain, milites evocati, qui 
precibus folum ad militiam sifliunebantuf. '. 

The ancient Irifh had a corps called Shililah; 
they fought with fpears made of oak, pointed and 
hardened in the fire : thefe were a kind of light 
armed irregulars.. In Chaldee 'khSb^ fhilaha is a 
miffile weapon j telum, gladiiis, ; miflilo* (Caf^elus) 
and p*7gf fhelak, burnt: whence the common name 
at this day, 1 viz. fliileelah, a flick Burned at the end, 
carried by the Feafants to defend thcmfcrvds.* * 


he P R E F A C E. 

Biillrufii ; or from the hUhfoir protedUng, faving^ 
defending, & gwna^ juncus. 

Their is another Iriih word, derived from the uTe 
of the bull-rufh, not to be found in the Welih, arid 
that is Romany a rope. M^iS^D in Ghaldee Simuna^ 
juacusr, a buU-rufh or ftrortg grafs, of which ropes 
are made, fays the Lexic<mifts. The only Wclfli 
words for a rope in Lhwyd, under funi^, are rhaf, 
tant, kord, rheflfyn. The words here collated, arc 
in fuch common ufe, that if the Welfh language 
had ever admited them, they could npt bay^ been k>ft, 
as Mr. Lhwyd jufUy obprves of the Iriih word uifccy 

V • > 


• »•••••» J, 




o R, 



(From Keating's Hiftory of Ireland.) 

A. D. 4. iJO gahh Fearadhac Fionfachtnac, M'- 

Crioxnthain-Niadhnar, Mac Lughoi-Riabhndearg, do 

fiol Eireamhoin, rioghad Eirin 20 bliadhain. Nar 

Taothchaoch inghean Loic, mac Daire do CrakhiA 

tuaith mathair Fearadhac, as uime do garthaoi 

Fearadhac Fachtnac de dobhrigh go raibh ceart agus 

firinne da ccoimead lo na Imn an Eirinn. As na 

reimhias do bhi Moran mac Maoin an, i. e. an ceazt 

Brcithon aga laibh an lodhan Moruin aigc, agus do 

bhi do bhuadhaibh aice gi be do cuirfeadh fa na 

bhraghaid i re linn breidieamhnas eigcirt do dhean- 

adh, ^o niadhadh an lodhan go daingion timpchioU 

a braghad, agus go mbiodh ag fafgadh ara bhraghaid 

go mbearadh an bhrath choir ; agus do niodh mar 

an cceadhna leis an ti do tigeadh do dheanamh 

fiaghnaife bhreige go hadmhail na firinne dho, gon 

on lodhfin ata feanf hocal, mar an orduigheann neach 



an lodhan-Moruin^ do bheith fa bhraghaid an ti bhios 
ag deanadh fiadhnaifi a ndoigh go ndiongnadh firinne, 
agus fuar Fearadhach Fionfadnanc ba£ a Liatruim : 
that is. 

Anno Domini 4. Fearadac Fionfaftnac, fon of 
Criomthan-Niadnor, fon of Lugh-Riabhdearg of the 
line of Eireamon, was king of Ireland, and reigned 
20 years ; his mother Taothchaoch was the daughter 
of Loich, fon of Darius, a Cruthenian ; he was named 
Fearadac Fachtnac, bccaufe of his juftice and equity 
during his government. In his time lived Moran 
(fon of Maon) the upright judge^ who had the lodhan 
Morain : this ornament was worn on the bread, and 
if any one gave falfe fentence, the lodhan Moriun 
would clofe round the neck, till he had given the 
proper verdid ; and it would do the fame if put on 
the breait of a witncfs, if he was delivering falfe evi- 
dence* Hence it became a proverb, to threaten the 
witnefs with the lodhan Morain, in hopes of forcing 
the truth from him. 

And in another place, Keating fays, " The famous 
Moran (Mac Maoin) was one of the chief judges 
of this kingdom ; when he fat upon the be^ch to 
adminifler juftice, he put the miraculous lodhan- 
Moruin about his neck, which liad that wonderful 
power, that if the judge pronounced an unjuft decree, 
the breaft-platc would inftantly contrad itfelf, and 
encompafs the neck fo clofe, that it would be im- 
poffible to breath, but if he delivered a juft fentence, 
it would open itfelf, and hang loofe upon his Ihoul- 

Where the monk found the name of this king, or 
•f his judge, docs not appear. 0*Fhiherty makes no 




mention of them ; however, we are obliged to 
Keating for the prefervation of the name of this cu- 
rious breaft-plate ; the (lory is evidently made out 
of the following Icifli words : 

lodh^ lodhan, a chain, collar, gorget, breaft-plate. 
fodhan, (incere, pure, undeiiled. 
lodhana, pangs, torments, 
lodhadh, a iDiutting doling, joining* 
It is evident that the lodhan-Morain was the breaft- 
plate of judgment. That I now prefent to my readers 
is of gold, of the fize of the drawing ; it was found 
twelve feet deep in a turf bog, in the County of 
Limerick, on the eftate of Mr. Bury, and is now in 
the poffcffion of Mrs. Bury,- of Granby-Row, Dublin. 
It is made of thin plated gold, and chaced in a very 
seat and workman-like manner ; the breaft-plate is 
fingle, but the hemifpherical ornaments at the top, 
are lined throughout with another thin plate of pure 
gold : thcfe arc lefe expofed to injury when on the 
breaft, than the lower part ; there muft have been a 
particular reafon for lining thefe circular concave 
picxes, -which I think will appear hereafter ; about 
the center of each is a fmall hole in the lining, to 
receive the ring of a chain that fufpended it round 
the neck ; and in the centers in front, are two fmall 
conical pillars of folid gold, highly poliflied. The 
chain was found and fecreted by the peafant from 
Mr. Bury. In cutting the turf, the flane or fpade 
ftruck the middle of the ornament, and bruifed it, 
as reprefentcd in the drawing ; every other part is 
The whole weighs twenty-two guineas. 



Another was found ibme years ago in the County 
of Longford, and fold for tvrenty-ilx guineas. 

The breaft-plate of the high prieft of the Jews, 
was named ]\ffT] chofhcn, £xod. xxviii, 4. and in 
Exod. xxviii. 15* DfiC^D \tffn choihen mefhephot, 
that is the breait-plate of judgment. The Greeks 
name it A«yi«y, i. e. rationale, quia ad pedus, rationis 
quail Tedem, fiiit appofltum. 

It is very particularly defcribed in Exodus xxviii, 
and 1 5th verfc, " Thau flialt make the breaft-plate 
of judgment with cunning work, after the manner 
of the Ephod thou ihalt make it i of gold, of blue^ 
and of puiple, and of fcarlet, and of iine twined 
linen fiialt thou make it. Four fquare ihall it hCy 
,heing doubled. And thou ihait (ct in it, iettings of 
ftones, even four rows of ftones, &c. And thou ihak 
make upon the breaft plate chains at the ends, of 
wreathen work and pure gold, and .two rings of gold^ 
and thou (halt put the two wreathen chains of gold in 
the two rii^s, &c- and thou ihalt put i^ the breaft- 
plate of judgment the URIM and the THUMMIM, 
and they Ihall be upon Aaron's heart when he goeth 
before the Lord. 

There is no miftaking this defcription of the 
breaft-^plate of the Jews ; the chains excepted, it has 
no refemblance to that of our Hibernian Druids. 

Looking into JBuxtorPs Chaldee Lexicon, I found 
loden fignirfied the breaft plate ; and that Moran, did 
the fame ; but { could no where &nd loden-Moran 
compounded. Xhq commentators in my poffeflion, 
afforded no information ; I then applied by letter 
to R. J. J. Heideck, Profeflbr of Oriental Languages, 
and received the following anfwer : 

« Sir, 


" Sir, 

** I find tDSSyon 3trn chofen hemefphot, or the 
breaft plate of judgment, named y)1D yv loden 
Moren, by Rab. Joda in Talmud Sanhedrim, p. 1 34. 
And in Comm. £in Jacob, p. 1 50, it is derived from 
the iipperfed verb tS^ETt which he fays is Morcn, and 
OdC^ he fays is the fame as loden, and he ados, that 
the words Urim and lliummim have the fame fignifi- 
cation ; but Rab. Simon in Ejus: p- 135 stnd 151, 
more plainly fays it is Moren loden, which according 
to Rab. Solomon larchis, is alfo loden Moran. Rab» 
Meir calls it Doen Moren. The Rab. in Talmud 
fay, that the Meffias (hall be called loden Muren* 
for he (hall be the judge, as in Ifaiah xith. Thus, 
Sir, it is very plain that the Iri(h name is derived 
from die Chaldee Chofhen Hemeflipot, or loden 
Muren •• 

I am, &c. 

Temple-bar, * John Jos. Heideck, 

ift July, 1783. Prof. Ling. Oriental. 

In the Irifli language Dunn is a judge, and Maof , 
a lord or chief. The explanation given by Buxtorf 
to Moran or Maran, fo perfedUy correfponds to 
Keating's pidure of Moran, one would think the 
Iiifb word had originally the fame meaning. y^Q 

* The Irifli word it often nvritten lodh, and I think has the 
fame meaning as Unm, viz. an oracle. Heb. ^ iad, oraculum, 
prophetia, as in Ezek. iii, and xxii. And the iad of the Lord 
was there upon me ; iad is a hand> and thus it is tranllated in 
the Englifli ; but the commentators all explain the word by 
frcpbaia Domini. 

Vol. IV. No. XIDr^ F Maran ; 


Maran ; Dominus dicitur autem de politico & ec- 
clefiaflico domino, id eft, docbore excellente, reli- 
quorum fapientium capite : qui funul judicandi habet 
poteftatem. Maran de fummo, qui pracerat reliquis 
fapientibus quern etiamnum hodie commxmes Rabbini 
ypcant Morenu.^ Inde & Chriftus vocatus fuit per 
csccellentiam Maran. Hinc vox ifta Syra in N. T. 
Maranatha Dominus venit^ qua extremum anathema 

All the Hebrew .writers confcfs themfelves igno- 
rant of the materials and of the form of the Urim 
and Thummim. Kimchi obferves, it is no where 
explained to us what were the Urim and Thummim ; 
it is plain from the Scripture, they differed from the 
ftpnes of the bread plate, (in voce T^O 

• Munfterus Jays^ what they were no mortal can tell. 
Sirachis thinks they were gems ; and^Schindler us, 
that it was only an mfcription or writing of the name 
Jehovah, or fome other word, introduced between 
the linen of the breafl: plate. Some alTcrt the words 
were written upon a plate of gold. 

Many opinions might be coUeded, but fays Rab. 
David, he fpoke beil^ who ingenuoully confeffed, 
that he knew not what it was. 

, That it was ,ah inftrument of divine revelation* 
is very plain. ./And according to Jofephus, this 
oracle ceafed about 1 1 2 years before Chriil. We 
learn from the Holy Scripture, that God revealed 
himfelf chiefly by four ways; ift, by Nej^uah, i. e. 
by vifions and apparitions ; 2d, by Ruach Hecodefh, 
i. e. the infpiration of the Holy Ghoft ; 3d, by Urim 
and Thummim ; 4th, by Beth-Kpl, i. e. the. daughter 
of a voice or an echo. The Hibernian Druids pre** 



tended to enjoy the fame divine honours, calling 
them by the fame names, except the laft, which they 
termed Mac Col or the fon of a voice, 1. e. an echo •; 
The anfwcr to thefe oracles were always delivered 
from the Dary the facred oak tree. Mr. Hutchinfon 
has (hewn, with a great deal of learning and judg- 
ment, that the Heathens, in fome of their facred trees, 
recognized the very tree of the knowledge of good 
and evil; and alfo, more particularly thought he faw 
frequent mention of it in the old Teftament, undef 
the name of ITV^ hadar, i. e. the refplendent tree; but 
wc are no way informed of what fpecies of fruit the 
TT dar was. (Holloway Orig. Phyf. & Theol.) 

The antlent Britons call the oak dar and derw, 
perhaps from ^^1 for its durablenefs ; from a con- 
tra&ion of their dar an oak, and dewin a prophet, 
they feem to have formed Derwiddon, the famous 
Oak Prophets called Druids, (ibid.) f 

The prophets and their aOions mentioned by 
Mofcs, which were before him, or which are occa- 
fionally mentioned by others after him, prove that 
there were fcveral before the flood and the patriarchs, 
and fome few others afterwards ; of whofe predic- * 
tions, fome are recorded, *till Mofes who was like 

* Brcith'Call 19- sin oracle in Irifh ; eorrefponding to thd 
CbaldM {(Sp rnH Binth Kola, i. e. filra tocU : from the Irifli 
Ajreacal, the Latin' On^Uliiyai. CalUxnfauin is another name of 
an oraclcs neaping the Y(rice of Man, i. e. Deus. 

\ There cannot be a ftrongcr example of the Welffi and Irifli 
languages having been the fame ongina*ly ; and of the corruption 
of the Wdfh. I have clfewhgre fliewn the derivation of Dru or 
Draoiy a Dmid* the plural of which is Draoith, whence the 
Wclih DrwiddoHf. pefrhaps ^th Dwisx in the terapiAat^jDJi. 

F 2 the 


the great prophet, was raifed up. Ecclcf. Antedilur. 
xiii. Gen. 6, and 5. dicitur fpiritus Dei difceptafle 
cum filiis hominuni quae vox \n DUN per totam 
fcripturam fignificat publicum officium in Ecclefia, 
feu predicationem qua arguimur, reprehendimur, 
difcernimus bona a malis ;* hence the Irifli Dunn, 
i. e. OUamhan a dodor, a Druid in his Oracular 

The antient Heathens, the falfe priefts to their 
falfe Elahim, performed, I think I may fay, almoit 
every individual article in the inftitution and exer* 
cife of the prieflhood. And though among the mo* 
dem Heathens, fome abufes had by ignorance and 
miftakes, crept in ; yet in the main, they retained 
many of them, and fomething aiming at thofc they 
miftook: which is another demonilration, that all 
thefe inftitutions and typical actions, were in being 
and praftifed before the difperfion at Babel, f 

The Heathen falfe prophets, pretended their deity, 
their lights their fpirit conveyed their wills to them, 
by all the methods, by which Jehovah conveyed his 
will, or the knowledge of things paft or to come, 
to the true prophets, by oracle, by dreams, vifions, 
fpeech, &c. and imitated as far as they could, the 
true prophets in their anions, &c. which is demon- 
ftration that oracles, prophets, and all thofe methods, 
were in being and pradifed before the difperfion at 
Babel. As it is clear, that while the cffencc was 
united to a man upon earth, and the Holy Ghoft 
fupcrnaturally infpired the apoftles, &c. Chrift fuf- 
fered fatan, the infernal fpirits, to dwell in men, and 


* Hutcbinfoiii Data ia Chrift. p. 62; f il>id. 82. 


by fome of their mouths to prediil^ &c. and as hx 
as it was in their power to know, I think it may 
rcafonably be fuppofed, while there was an oracle 
and prophets before Chriit came, the devils might 
be permitted to do what they could among the apof- 
tates the Heathen, in thofe points. And as when 
the divine oracle had long ceafed, and prophecy alfo 
ceafed with the apoiUes, &c. there was no further 
pretence to oracles, prophets, &c. among the Hea- 
thens. It almofl amounts to evidence, that there 
had been fomething of that nature, and that it was 
no longer permitted : whether this be not one of 
die callings out of Satan defcribed under various 
names in the Revelations, may be confidered.* 
Wh^cr our Magogian Scythians received the ufc 
of the Jodhan Morain, whilft they remained in the 
Holy land, or if it defcended to them fince by com- 
munication with the Phoenicians, Thracians or Car- 
thaginians, I cannot determine. Certain it is, they 
imitated the Urim and Thummim in the ornament 
before us. The Jews borrowed or were permitted 
to ufe feveral ornaments in their church, common to 
the Heathens. They alfo named them in their own 
language, fo as to correfpond as near as poffible with 
the Egyptian or Phoenician language in found, f 
Such may have been the words Urim and Thum- 
mim, which arc fuppofed by fome, to fignify light 

• Hutchinfon Data in Chrift. Sec alfo, Princcrus de dm- 

t The learned MilHus is of a contrary opinion : undc coHigo 
facra gentilibus cum Ifraclitis communiay non a gentllibui ad 
Ifraelitaa, fed ab Ifraelitis potius ad alias gentcs mauaflie. 



and pcrfedion; but why then arc the Hebrew words 
in the plural number. The 7otranilate them by Ai,A4r«-<i 
j^ 'A?ii$u»fp i. e. manifeftation and truth, becaufe the 
anfwers given by this oracle were alays clear and 

In Irifh, uram and urm is to refolve, and tumam 
to enquire into diligently, and fo to diftinguifh ; In 
the preamble of the Seanacafmor^ or great code of 
Irifh laws, (the oldeft the Irifli have) are thefe words, 
ag iumas olc on maith agtu maith on ok. i. c. en- 
quiring into and diftinguiihing good from evil and 
evil from good, that is, the oracle.*— Thefe word is 
ftrong in the compound Brei-thumnas, an oracle. 
Dr. Hyde, derives the word from nlDH ihamur^ fa- 
crificium juge. Such fays he, was the Urim & 
lliummim, which the Arabs call temima. In Bux« 
torf 's Chaldee Lex. we find ESDD thamam, abfol- 
verc, perfeci, compleri, Halloway under the He- 
brew Hhartum, a magician, fays, it partakes of 
taman to hide and conceal. I believe it rather 
means to difclofe a thing hidden. Ireland, till lately, 
abounded with Tamans* I know a farmer's wife 
in the Co. of Waterford, that lofl a parcel of linen : 
fhe travelled three days journey to a Taman, in the 
Co. of Tipperary, — he confulted his Black^ook^ and 

aflured her (he would recover the goods ;-9 the 

robbery was proclaimed at the chapel, offering a re<» 
ward, and the linen was recovered ;— it was not the 
money, but the Taman that recovered it. 

The learned Dr. Spencer, thinks the Phefal and 
Mafach of Micah made of the two hundred ihekels 
of filver, to have been the fame as the Urim and 



Thummim. • Urim, autem inftrumentum conca- 
Yum decore &bricatum Theraphim antiquitus ap- 
pellatum fiiiffe vidctur, — Urim & Thummim per 
aperttun duplicati Pe&CH'alis latus immifla concavum 

Ulius medium occupaffe & quia nonuUi Urim 

& Thummim voces tantum inertes lamina quadam 
aurea exaratas, & in pe&oralis arcano reconditas^: 
alii ea duas tantum virtutes. 

Chrift. a Caftor tells us, they were two imagps, 
which being fliut up in the doubling of the Breaft- 
plate, did from thence give the oracular anfwer by 
a voice : and Dr, Spencer is alfo of this opinion. 
Dr. Pocock treats this as a conceit both abfurd and 
impious, as favouring more of heathenifm and ido- 
htry, than of the pure inftitution of a Divine 

Dr. Prideaux, thinks the words Urim and Thum- 
mim, only meant the Divine virttie and power , given 
to the Breaft-plate in its confecration, of obtaining 
an oraculous anfwer from God. 

In Levit. viii. and 8. we find the Urim and Thum- 
mim, mentioned without the twelve ftones, viz. 
he put the breaft-plate upon him ; alfo he put in 
the breaft-plate the Urim ou Thummim. And, 
Dcut. xxxiii.' and 8. Let thy Urim ou thy Thum- 
mim be with thy holy one: Here is no mention made 
of Breaft-plate or Stones. 

The Hebrew copulative particle \ ou, fignifies 
cr, as well as and. So that Urim & Thummim, 

* Judges, chap. xviL 4. and 5. 




may be fynonimous words, correfponding 
Irifh Uraim or (vcl) Tammam* * 

The High Prieft was not to confult the Ur; 
any private perfon, but only for the king, fori 
prefident of the Sanhedrim, for the general 
army, or for for fome other great prince or 
governor in Ifrael ; and not for any private 
but for fuch only as related to the public intere^ 
the nation, either in Church or State. 

Our Hibernian Druids never confulted the lod 
Morain, but in the courts of juftice, or on affair. 
ftate ; to all their decrees Urraimj L c. implicit o 
dience was paid. 

In dubious cafes, or where the intereft of 
'Church was concerned, or the eledion of a kii 
they confulted the Liath Meisicith, or Lia 

* To avoid this confufiolit the Iriih language either prefis 
cei ke, L e* feeing that, or affixes gusf i. c. fa€k» deed, trulj ccoy kcoy and: from whence the Greek mm : ougusf contra! 
ed to agui : or, oundea^ i. e. and in truth, contra^ed to andet 
it ia remarkable that agus is only to be found in the £gy ptiat 
Bafc, or Cantabrian ; and in the Irifh^ £rfe and Manx :— ^ 
from oundea, is formed the German unde, the Teutonik endc 
and the £ngli(h and. 


I / 




This very curious monument af antiquity ^ is the fro* 
perty ofT. Kavenagh, Efq; of Ballyborris, in 
the County of Carlow. 

It is a box, the fize of the drawing, and two inches 
deep, it is made of brafs cafed with filver : it con- 
tains a number of loofe iheets of vellum, on which 
ve >rritten extra£b of the gofpel and prayers for the 
Tick, in the Latin language, and in the Irifh charac- 
ter. There are alfo, fome drawings in water colours 
of the apofUes, not ill executed : thefe are fuppofed 
to be the work of Saint Moling, the patron of that 
part of the country. 

hi the center of the lid is a large cryftal,* the 
fize of the drawing and one inch and a quarter 

thick ; 

• Crioft-al in Irifli, fignifiefl a holy ftonc ; and is probably the 
true etymology of the word, and not from »pv^, f^g^h ^^^ the 
Greeks could not be ignorant^ that cryftal was the produce of 
hot countries as well as of cold, — the beft is found in the iflaad 
of Madagafcar :•— the ftrongeft cryftallizations are formed by 
heat. - . , ^ 


thick ; this is the Melficitb : it was originally tet 
through the cover, fo that the light could pafs 
through : on the back of it, there is now a foil of 
tin, moveable, evidently the work of a modern 
day. At the right hand comer at top, is another 
cryftal on a red foil ; next to it a bead of a tranf- 
fparent compofition : the ornament that ftood next 
is loft : thofe of the two left hand corners have 
been taken out, and the fockets filled with common 
glafs on a red foil. At the right hand comer at 
bottom is an oblong piece of cryftal on a red foil \ 
next it a tranfparent bead ; and laftly, an amethift- 
drop of a deep purple colour : there have been oma- 
mexits at the two ends of the Meificith, which are 
alfo loft. 

The box reprefents the Roman Thuribulum, in 
which the incenfe burnt during the facrifice. Se- 
veral drawings of thefe may be feen in Montfaucon. 

I am favoured with drawings of feveral boxes of 
this kind, fabricated fince chriflianity, being orna- 
mented with cracifixes : this has no marks of that 
kind, and appears to be the Druidical Liath Meifi- 
cith or Liath Fail, in which they pretended to draw 
down the Loghj the cffence or fpiritual fire, and pre- 
fence of Aefar, (God) whenever they confulted 
this Oracle. 

Hence the A*y«^, the articulate voice or fpeech in 
man, (in its kind or degree) what the Divine 
A*y#f, word, is to the efTence, viz. the Irradiaion ad 
extra of the mind or foul. The fame notion, there- 
fore, the Heathens had of their God, tht folar lights 
and called it accordingly, by the fame name Aoy«<. 
(Holloway's originals, v. i. p. a22.) With fubmif- 



fion to this author, the word Logos was applied by 
John in oppolitio^ to the Druidical Logh, for John 
wrote againft Ceriiithus, a converted Druid, and 
therefore very properly ufed this word ; from Logh 
is derived the Iriih and Coptic Lo, day, the light of 
the day. 

How this fire was communicated, I cannot pre- 
tend to fay, but, as it is well known, that Cobalt 
ground up with oil, will lye an hour or more in that 
unions ftate and then burft into an amazing 
blaze : * it is probable that the Druids, who were 
(kilful chimyfts, (for their days) could not be igno- 
rant of fo fimple an experiment. A fire lying fo 
long concealed, would afford them ample time for 
prayers and incantations. 

Nothing could fo well fuit the purpofe of the 
Druids as bringing fire from oil. Oil was the em- 
blem, the facrament of that complex vertue, of 
wifdom, juftice and mercy, called Holihefs. " Myf- 
ticc fie intelligentibus. Oleum eft ipfe Dominus, 
a quo ad nos pervenit mifericordia." f Specimen 
quoddam divinatis in oleo prs omnibus terrse, at- 
que arborum fru&ibus, veteres omnes agnoviffc 
quamdamque excellentiam divinitus quodammodo 
in eo oleo coUqcatam oftendunt. I And thus pro- 
bably the facred fires were lighted. Juftus Lipfius, 
thinks this was done by an inflrument like a fun- 

• Experiment lately made in London, before Mr. Banks. 
(Letter tome). 

f Clem. Alex. p. 129. 

I Scbac. Myroth. p, 224. ibid. p. 567. See alfo Eufcb. 
Demonftr. £v. 1. 3. 


nel, coUefting the rays of the fun in a point ; a thing 
impra&icable in this climate. The fire was facred^ 
*^ nofler ignis, adionem divini ignis imitans quic- 
quid materiale reperit in facrificio deftruit, 6t admota 
purificat, & a vinculis materiae folvit, ac propter na- 
turae puritatem ad Deorum communionem idonea 

Chriftianity took its name from the emblematical 
inflitution of oil. The emblem was 'og^, oil ; the 
a&ion was anointing: the perfon anointed, was 
nWD Mefuh : ' thofe who anointed or conftituted, 
are D»nt£^0 • Th^ ^^^^ conflantly ufed in this cafe, 
is n^B^D Meifiah, rendered anointed. Whence the 
Greek Mimmt^ y^f^rtt the Meffias, Chrift. 

Mr. ODonnell, of the Barony of Innifhowen, in-» 
forms me, there was in the hands of the Rev. Mr. 
Barnard, of Fahan, a precious box, fet with flones ; 
called in Irifh, Meeihac, a word fuppofed to be He« 
brew, and to fignify a Vow. This is ornamented with 
a crucifix and the twelve apoftles : Another is de- 
fcribed by Sir Henry Piers, in his hiflory of Wefl- 
meath *, by the name of Corp nua^ that is the new 
prefence, Ae new body : a name given by the firft 
Chriftian miffionaries, in oppofition to the Druidical 
Aefer, or Logh, the fpiritual light of the Godhead, 
they pretended to draw from Heaven. 

The cryftal ilone in the center, is named Liath 
Meifidth ; or the Magical ftone of fpeculation. 

Liath, i. e. Lith, i. e. Seod, i. e. Liath & Lith^ 
fignify a gemm. (Vet. Gloif. Hib.) 

* Ccllc6Unca Vol I. Wc (hall give drawings of thcfe, in the 
courfc of this work. 



Mdfi, i. e. Dealbha Sithbheara, i. e. Meili fig- 
oifies, magical reprefentatious. (ibid). 
Mdfi, a judge, feiries, ghofts, hobgoblins. (OBriea 

and Shawe.) 

Lith, folemn, feftival. (OB. & S.) Lith lai, fefti«- 
val days. Lia £»!, the fatal (lone, (ibid.) 

Leice, (corrupted of Liath-cith) a precious ftone, 
a diamond : In the highlands of Scotland, a large 
cryftal oi a figure fomewhat oval, which priefts kept 
to work charms by ; water poured upon it at this 
day, is given to cattle againft difeafe^ ; thefe ftones 
are now preferved by the oldefl and mod fuperfti- 
tious in the country, (Shawe). They were once 
common in Ireland : I am informed the Earl of 
T]rrone, is in pofleifion of a very fine one. 

a/i«$» gemma, politus lapis ; hence Pbilo4stbosy qui 
gemmas amaL (Pliny). 

Mais & Meifi, have both the fame fignification in 
Irifli, viz. Draoidheaft, * i. e. Druidifm. Cith, is a 
vifion ; whence cim, I fee ; ocitear, feeing that. 
The correfponding Hebrew words are {({j^g ma£i, 
prophetia dura, ^'^ maza invenire, comperire; 
in chi, revelatio ; Chald. ^^ chitfeh, videre ; Arab 
khd, a phantom. 

The ufeof this flonewasftri&ly forbidden to the Jews 
by Mofes,in the xxvi. chap, of Lev. ye fball make you 
no idols nor graven image, neither rear you up a 
ftanding image, neither fhall ye fuffer the flone 
IV3efD niafhcith, to be within your dominions. 

^ Ewcrj term appertaining to the tenets of the Druidical re<- 
figioOf ia tranflated draoidheacht, by our modern JLezico* 



But fays Millius, wic muft diftinguiih between 
roSD niezceh, de rudi & impolite lapide and the 
n*3l7D malhcith. •'Gbfcurius eft vocabulum & variis 
expofitionibus obnoxium. He then fliews where 
OnkeloSy Bechab and Maimonides, have miftaken 
the meaning of the word, and quotes Manilius, who 
diought it was ^teflelata pavimenta ; and concludes 
his opinion that the word Mafiicith is derived from 
n3{y> afpicere, profpiccre— id ei^^, lapidem adfpeftus. 
Et mihi expofitio Ebn Mafcith, placet, lapides in- 
gcnio & arte fidi & formati : — ^id eft opus ingenio- 
fum & artificiofiffimum ; etiam lapides intelligam 
Magica arte parata ; which is evidently our Liath 
Mttficith, here rcprefented. 

The compofition of cobalt, ground with oil, muft 
Ibmetimes have failed and, from various caufes, 
not blaze : then probably the Aefar was difpleafed ; 
and vengeance was denounced on the (tate^ or per- 
fon offering the oblation. 

This feems to be well rcprefented on two an- 
tient Etrufcan Rcleivos, engraved in Dempfter's 
Etruria. Tab. xxxvii. 

No. I. Reprefents a facrifice or thurma, for a 
bounty recieved. The fire blazes on the altar, one 
man is pouring on wine or oil ; another holds 
a Iamb ready for the facrifice, and a third is bring- 
ing turma, or a difh of the fruits of the earth. An 
old man richly drefled in a lay habit, attended by a 
domeftick, ftands by the altar : behind are mufi- 
cians,— All is joy. The Etrufcan Infcription is, 





in Irifh 

/. e. 

The joyful fcaft Tor any bounty* 

No. 2. Rcprcfents an altar without fire ; the 
irtiit has placed a fmall blaze on the ground^ to 
ihcw the difappointment. A woman flands by the 
altar with a lamb in her arms, to point out the in- 
tention of the facrifice. The fame old man and his 
attendant are retiring from the altar in hafte and 
coniufion. A Druidefs leans over the altar lament-^ 
ing and explaining the caufe of the ill omen* The 

Infcription in Etrufcan, is, 

> ■ 


In Irifh 

Returning unfuccefsful from the feftival facrifice of 
the Lamb (vowed) to Holy Ithia. 

N. B. The Etrufcan Infcripion is to be read from 
right to left. 

Vol. IV. No. XIH. G THE 


1 HIS little image of brafs, is of the fize of the 
drawing ; it was found under the root of a tree, that 
was grubbed up in the County of Rofcommon ; it has 
been gih, but the gilding is wgm off in moft places. 
It is in the coUedion of the Mufeum of Trinity 

■This hnage has the -appearance of an idol ; the 
hands hold the corners of the beard, like the Etrufcan 
Silenus in Gori's colleSiGin j but, the pofrtion of the 
arms and feet have every appearance of its having 
been the ornament of a crucifix. 

Tie Irifh Druids, like their Scythian anoeftors, 
nitted no image worlhip. The unchifelled ftonc 
the emblem ufed by all antient nations. The 
nefe and Indians ftil! retain this ftone, though 
r pagodas are crowded with images, and Paufanias 
ares that all the antient Greeks had no other 
ilem of their deities. 




all A2EN' IJMAQt ^3 

Maximum Tj/nrius fays^ that befqr^ da^ tifn^ of 
Mahummed, the Arabians, had ^ otb^r ; and tiic 
ilaier Deorum of the fijooians, wsu a isii^c^ rough 
ftoae. T^e Xtniiican& x?laiia tba art of maldng himu 
g£s ; they oeitaifily leavnt it ^f th^JEgypdaM; Wt-th^ 
Etrufcans were the firfl that foiane^ihetaafteriuiture) 
the ^Egyptians deferve no eulogium on this account, 
their figures are clumfy and unnatural ; thofe of the 
antient Etrufcans are as bad j but the figures of the 
more modern artifts of that wonderful people, are 
equal to the works of the moft celebrated Grecian 

In the Gentleman's Magazine for December 1742, 
is an account of two filver images found under the 
rains of an old tower, which had raifed various con- 
jeftures and fpeculations amongft the antiquaries. 
They were about three inches in height, reprefenting 
men in armour, with very high helmets on their heads, 
and ruffs round their necks, and (landing on a pedeftal 
of filver, holding a fmall golden fpear in their hands. 
The account is taken from the Dublin papers; the writer 
refers to Merrick's tranflation of Tryphiodorus, an 
Egyptian (that compofed a Greek poem on the de- 
ftrufltion of Troy, as a fequel to Homer's Iliad) to 
fliew that it was cuftomary with the antients, at the 
foundation of a fort or city, to confecrate fuch images 
to fome tutelar guardians, and depofit them in a fecret 
part of the building ; where he alfo inferts a judicious 
.ex^ition of a difficult text of Scripture on that 

The defcription of thefe images correfponds exadly 
with the Etrufcan ftatues, fee Gori's Mufeum Etruf- 

G 2 tum, 


cum, pi. 40, 45, 108, 117, vfaere die helmets are 
nearly half the hei^t of die figures. 

If any gendeman in Ireland is poflefied of diefe 
im^es, die audior of die CollefiaDea, will diink 
himfelf gready obliged, if he can be indulged vdth 
a fi^ or a drawing of diem. 




1 H E horn from which this drawing is made, is of 
ivory, has (ixteen fides, and is mounted with brafs, 
indifferently gilt. Round the mouth piece is the 

following infcription : cf guraniUjBf flDlaftati me 

fecit Deo gjcatiast, U % U Tiguranius O Lavan * 
me fecit Deo gracias, I. H. C. that is, Tiguranius 
made me for the love of God. It was the property 
of Thomas Kavanagh, Efq ; of Ballyborris, in the 
County of Carlow, who has generoufly added it to 
the College colledion. 

ITie famous horn of York, is alfo of ivory, and 
like ours has fixteen fides ; it is fomewhat larger 
than this, and is flung with a belt ; ours is made to 
(land. Drake in his antiquities of York fliles that, 
'' the famous horn made of an elephant's tooth, 
** which is indeed the grcateft piece of antiquity the 

* Probably O Laffan, and anceflor of the Laflan family, now 
refideot in the County Kilkenny. 

" church 


*' church c»« exhibit, having been bcftowed by king 
*' Ulphus, the fon of Toraldus, who by reafon of a 
"difference like to happen between his eldeft fon 
*' and his youngeft, about his lordfhips when he 
** ftiould be dead, prefdntty took this courle to make 
" them equal. Without delay he went to York, and 
*' taking with him the horn wherein he was wcmt to 
* drink, he filled it with trine, and kneeling do^^ 
*' before the altar, beftowed upon God and the 
*' blclTed St. Peter, all the lands and tenements *." 

In antient tiflftts thert are fevtral inflances of eftates 
that were pafled without any writing at all, by the 
lord's delivering of fuch pledges as thefe, a fword, a 
a helmet, a cap, a horn, a bow, an arrow. *• Nuda 
verba abfque fcripto vel charta, tantum cum domitii 
gladio, vel galea vel Cornu," are the exprefs words 
6f Ingulphus. Comua nets religionis & fanftitatis 
crant, res & perfonas pecuUari fanftitate donatas, & 
religiofus obfervandas indicantia. Hence Keren or 
Koran in Hebrew and Chaldee, and Cearn, Com, in 
trifli, fignify a horn, cup, glory, majefty ; whence 
kearn, Viftory ; kearn aifdhe, k trophy ; keam duais, 
athleticfc laurel ; Jerem. 11. and iii. " he hath cut off 

his fierce anger all the korin (glory) of Ifracl ;'* 

— ' — addit corrtua pauperi vinum. 

Hence horns were ufed as marks of religion, 
lility, and of things and perfons devoted to religion, 
d an indication of religious obfervations : they 
:re dedicated to deities, and often hung upon the 
:ann naomhtha, or holy trees of the groves. So 

* See alfo Camden's Britannia. 



the Egyptians in their hieroglyphics esqirefibd liis 
by hiMns, and the £trufcan$ and Greeks ornamented 
their deities with horns. Dr. Spencer ihews, that 
long before the age of Mofes, the horn was the em- 
blem of ftrength and royalty, of dignity, and excel- 
lency. Amobius fays, rivers were reprefented by 
homed ftatues ; and Porphyrins, that every facred 
image had its particular horns allotted them ; but 
the learned J. Douglas (in his Annal. Sacr.) proves 
that the altars of the antient heathens were made 
entirely of horns ; miror & innumeris ftruftam de 
comibus aram. (Gydippe, Ov. £p. 20.) whence the 
Iriih words cam an altar, camac a jH-ieft, fuit-ceamach 
a donation to a religious purpofe, and hence the Latin 
Cameus Apollo. Jupiter's nurfe Almathsa, (i. e. 
the Irifh Am-alt-itha or the mother nurdng Itha) was 
reprefbnted by a horn full of fruits and flowers, a 
cornucopia, which ftill paiTes for a fymbol of plenty, 
though the phyfical reafon and ground of the device, 
has been long fwallowed up in fable and romance, 
while nothing more was fignified by it, than that 
plenty of the rich fruits of the earth is produced by 
the operations of the horns or rays of light, and one 
name in Hebrew for that fire at the orb of the fun 
was mn chriun, whence the Irifli chrian or grian, 
the fun, the folar heat, and the Latin Granneus 
Apollo ; hence alfo the Iriih Cruinne, the Mundane 

There is a curious paflage in Inghiramius's Etrufcan 
antiquities, tranflated into Latin from the Etrufcan, 
that not only points out the origin of our Anu *, 

♦ Sec Preface. 



from whence the Latins formed Diana, but fhews 
that the great Meufe deer was common in Italy as 
well as in Ireland, but at that diHant age, was an 
animal unknown to the Etrufcans. The infcription 
was written on lead by Frofperus Fefulanus in Ul- 
terranenfi Collegio Augurum Socius, and runs thus : 
— " poftridie, dum foderent in loco, ubi futura erat 
porta, inventa funt Comua Cervina immenfa magnita- 
dimt, qux eum ad fex cubitos fepulta elTent ; vifum 
eft omnibus prodigium ; comua Di-Ana: folemni 
ritu Se facris ceremoniis dicata fure ; sedificata arce, 
Mutius Maurus primus cuftos, aurea cornua eorum 
loco pofuit fuper aram, & quas inventi fuerunt fubter 
aramadtrcs cubitos in temploipfi us Di-AnEe."Thefame 
is recorded by Alcus Filaccus; and the infcription con- 
cludes with thefe words, *' demum defperata fa|ute 
hie ea rcpofui, qua: ad Di-Anam pertinent, ne ^ 
Romani potirentur. Frofperus Cuftos Ajcis.** 

Thefe horns were facred to Ana or Anu, who with 
Ith and Dagh prefided over the produce of the earth 
and waters, and were denominated Mathar, i. e. firft 
caufe, whence the Romans formed their unknown 
gods, the Deas Matres, that Spon takes for deified 
women, who while living, were thought to have the 
gift of prophecy ; but the Druids taught they .were 
only the Adhbhan or Abhan, compounded of abhar, 
the caufe or inftrument of fertility, acting under the 
power of iEfar (God) and hence they were deno- 
minated Aufanii. But the etymology of Anu is in 
e Irifli language fignifj'ing a cornucopia ; a cup, 
enty, &c. ITie fub-druids always carried an- Anu 
th them, and it was held facred, that every fpring 
Ireland, {hould be fupplied with a horn chained 


to a (lone. Sir John Chardin remarks, that the der- 
vifes of the eaft always carry with them the horn of 
a goat or of an ox. 

In the third vol. of the Archaeologia of the London 
Society of Antiquaries, are the drawings of fix horns, 
and a very ingenious diflertation on the Charter 
Horn, by Mr. Pegge. The Pufey horn (there de- 
fcribed) is that of an ox, tipped with filver, and 
mounted with feet, like ours ; on the middle ring is 
this infcription in black letter. 

King Knowde geve William Pcwfc 
This Home to holde by thy Londe. 

The horn of Corpus Chrifti College Cambridge, 
is alfo that of an ox, and mounted with feet. The 
charter horns of Carlifle cathedral, as they are im- 
properly called, are fuppofed to be the teeth of fome 
very large fi(h; they were given by Hen. I. to the prior 
and convent of Carlifle, with a large eftate to be 
held per quoddam cornu eburneum. Lord Bruce's horn 
is an elephant's horn or tooth; it is a hunting horn, 
flung, and moft elegantly ornamented. 

The Earl of Ormond's horn is remarkable. In 
his will, dated July 31ft, 1 5 1 5, he makes particular 
mention of it, as in this extrafl:, taken by Thomas 
Aftle, Efq ; from the regifter called Holder j in the 
Prerogative Office, viz. ** I Thomas Butler, Knt. 
erle of Ormond do make this my lafl will and tefta- 
mcnt, &c. Item I give and devife to my dar dame 
Anne St. Leger — ^to my da' dame Margt Bolin, late 
the wife of Sir Wm Bolin Knt, my manor of Newhall * 
in Eflex-p— Item when my Lorde my father, whofc 



foul GoUiii^ afifoiie, left and deliyered unto me a lytk 
tohjie borne of ivory^ gamiihed at both thendes with 
gold, and corfe thereunto of whyte fylke, barred with 
barres of gold, and atyret of gold thereupon, which 
wa» myn auncetours at fyrft time they were called to 
bmat&y and hath fythen contynually remained in the 
fame blode, for whych caufe my feid lorde and father 
commanded me upon his bieffing, that I fhould do 
my devoir to caufe it to contynue ftill in my blode 
as far furth as that myght lye in me foo to be done 
to the honor of the fame blode. Therefore for the 
accomplifhment of my feid father's will, as farr as it 
is in me to execute the fame, 1 woll that my execu- 
tors delyvcr unto Sir Tho. Boleyn, Knt. fon and heir 
apparent of my faid dar Margaret, the faid lytic white 
home and corfe^ he to keep the fame to the ufe of 
thiffue male of his body lawfully begotten. And for 
lack of fuch iffue the faid home to rcmaync and be 
delyvered to Sir Geo. Seyntleger Knt. fon of my faid 
dar Anne, and to the ifluc male which fucceffively 
Ihall come of the body of the faid George. And fo 
to contynue in the iffue male of the bodies of the 
fame dame Margaret and dame Anne, as long as (hall 
fortune any fuch iffue male of the body of any of my 
faid daughters. And alls for default of iffue male of 
the body of any of my faid daughters, the faid home 
to remaine, and to be delivered to the next iffue male 
of my faid auncetours, fo that it may contyncw flyl 
in my blode hereafter, as long as it fhall pleafe God, 
lyke as it hath done hythcrto to the honor of the fame 

The antiquity of our horn may be judged by the 
letters I. H. C, which are cither the three firft of the 



II ! 


P. M. F«idi«» •» "»' **""" '°'' P' '"' 


, /(fir) 



O F 



JL H £ harp from whence this drawing was n) 
was handed to me with the following anecd 
*^ Brien Boiromh being flain in the eighty-ninth ' 
of his age^ at the clofe of the mod memorable, 
renowned yidory he had gained, over all the uq 
powers of the Danes, on the plain of Clontarf i 
Dublin, on Good Friday, in the year of our I^ 
1 014; his two fons by his fecond wife, viz. T< 
and Donogh, fucceded to their father as Coregn^ 
on the throne of the two Munfters (Thomond i 
Defmond.) Teig being treacheroufly flain at the 
ftigation of his brother Donogh, anno 1023, Dono 
took upon himfelf the fole government of La 
Mogha, and foon after became chief king of 
Ireland ; but, after great lofles and humiliations, 
was dethroned by his nephew Turrlogh, fon of Td 


c^fe>/? vMf? 


anno 1064 *• He then went to Rome to crave the 
remiffion of fins, particularly of the murder of his 
brother Teig, and carried with him the crown, harp 
and other regalia of Brien Boiromh, which he laid at 
the feet of the pope. The holy father took thefe 
prefents as a demonftration of a full fubmiffion of 
the kingdom of Ireland, and one of his fucceflbrs 
Adrian IV. (by name Brakfpeare and an Englifhman) 
alledged this circumftance as one of the principal 
titles he claimed to this kingdom, in his Bull of 
transferment to King Henry 11. Thefe regalia were 
dq)ofited in the Vatican till the reign of Henry VIIL 
when the Pope fent the harp to that monarchy with 
the title of Defender of the Faiths but kept the crown, 
which was of maffive gold. Henry fetting no value 
on the harp, gave it to the firft Earl of Clanrickard, 
in whofe family it remained till the beginning of this 
century, when it came by a lady of the De Burgh 
family, into that of Mac Mahon of Clenagh, in the 
County of Clare, after whofe death it pafled into the 
poflei&on of Counfellor Macnamara of Limerick.'* 

In 178a, it was prefented to the Right Hon. Wm. 
Conyngham, who has depodted it in the Mufeum of 
Trinity College. 

This Harp is thirty-two inches high & of extraor- 
&iary good workmanfhip : the founding board is 
of oak ; the arms of red-fally : the extremity of 
tbe uppermoft arm in front, is capped with filver 
extremely well wrought and chiffelled : it contains 
a large cryftal fet in filver, and under it was another 

* See Annals of Tighernach. Chronicon Scotorum. Annali 
of InmiMan, and Law of Taniftiy. CQlUdanca, vol. i, p. 540. 



fione, now loft : die buttons or or^ainent^l Jqpuotbs 
«t ihc fide$ of this am are of filvcr. On the from 
am 9t a^ are the arms of the O'Qriea fsuapily^ 
chafed in fUver, viz. the bk>ody I^ii4» fu|)port64 by 
lions : thefe are reprcfenled as large ^ the origiit^ 
in the corner of the piate at a» 0« tjli^ £i<le8 of 
die front arm, within two cirdes, are t\ro Irtfli wolf- 
dogs cut in the wood : -the holes of tine foiAftdiiig 
board, where dae ibings entered* are fi€;atly onu^- 
mented with ictitcheons of brafs carve4 wd gilt :— 
the large iounding holes have been eMFHan(ieiited, 
pFoba^dy with filve^., a$ they have bieisn the object 
of theft. Tjstts hairp has tw€nty-ei;g^t kieys^ ^n4 ^ 
many ffaing hole&, confequeiatly there were a$ many 
firings. The foot piece or r^ is brol^w^ qS^ $xi4 
the parts to 'whioh it was jotned are \my ceHW< Tb^ 
vhoie bear& evidence of an expert aniit. 

In Mfimtfaucom's .^yptian smticji^itj^ * h ^ wot 
man playing on a triangular harp, ^hw^ ^ . fize of 
our irilh Harp. Polyd* Virgil, fayft, the harp of 
the Hebrewa, was \sl the form of a Gr^eJc delta 4 
and had twenty -ib^r ilriiLgs f. The fa^uknis. bifto- 
fy of the ChM^^ informs us, that f Qu-rhi too]^ th( 
wood of Tong, made it hollow, and formed a Kivie 
(harp OiT iyre, &ys Gougct) of twenty -feve|i firings 
of filk ; it was three feet fix iftches high c this inilru- 
ment he called ZJ : he took the wood of San^, a^x^ 
made a 5^^ or 5^ (harp^ lyre oj giutjgir) of thirty- 
lix firings: But Niu-aua ( of .the Chinefe) 
made feveral Uiflrmwnts of mufic. ,Seng and the 
hoangj fervcd her to communicate with the winds. 

* Fompe d'ifity Vol.4, t ^ iiiv«4it; ver. La^^cxT. 



B7 tikc Ktfueney Ihe united aU ibunds into obc, and 
made concord between 1 the Aui» moon and fiar«. 
She bad a Seh of fifty ftringfi, wbofe foupd was fo 
affeding, it could not be borne i therefore flie re* 
duced them to twenty-five^ • 

Here are fo many old Iriih words fignifylx^ mu- 
fick, melody, harp, &c« oixe would be inclined to 
think, diat the Chinefe had borrowed thefe terms 
from the Scythians. 1^ antient Irifli had fouy 
names for the Harp, a»d probably each was af « 
diffiefent conftru^tion, viz. i . Clarffeh or Ciar|each» 
2. Cionar, or Cionthar. 5, Out or Crutt. 4* 
CrabtsBc Cruit or Creamrtiiie Ouit« Clar9 f^g^nl^s 
atrougbo A <l^» ^ table, a board \ and feh, %be 
and feach, is harmony, melody ; Arab* fhook, haor* 
monious ; io that Clarieach implies the scu&oSaan 
tables. Oiouar is evid^tty the Hd>rew aad Chaldes 
tniys Cinum uside «»f;p«^ Crut is a^Ub the CfaaL- 
dee tnn*p i^ijhris, unde Githaara, »<5«p« & guittant ; 
but the Creamhtine Crut or Oeam-Crutin, by the 
aame, iMports the Siarp ufed at potatioois m: carau- 
&k; whence Creamh-nual a noify /drunken cosv 
fsmy, -whicb exadly cozr^cfponde widi the ^deferip- 
tion given by Midras Rabba in Echo, of the Ghaidoe 
^-\p Krut or Krutin ; it is, fays he, a profane mu- 
fical inftrumeat vfed in drinking houfes snd -mo&c 


Lomna is a coed or firing of a harp, vAmaoct 
Lomneir, vulgarly, a Harper. U^sad, is alfo a cord 
or ftring, and tead mietahe, the ilcing of a harp ^ 

♦ Chinefe Hiftory by Le Rcmx dc« Hautct-Roye*, Royal 



becaufe made of wire, it is literally the Chaldee 
VIKtO M!DnD inetallicum netum, or wire ; hence 
Teadidhe a harper, and Teadh-loin a harp ; that is, 
the merry making ftringed inftrument, from loine^ 
merriment, cheerfulnefs ; loin-dubh, a black-bird, 
L e. the black harmonift ; loineach, a chorus, a 
highland catch, (Shawe). Arab A^n placidus. The 
Irifh Teadhloin, pronounced Tealoin or Telin, is 
certainly the etymon of the Welfli Teylifiy a harp ; a 
word I can find no derivation of, in that language ; 
and I think, proves from whence they borrowed 
both- the inftrument, ahd its name. 

iTie Irifli diftinguifli • very plainly between the 
ftrings of the harp and thofe of the fiddle ; the laft 
they name feith or feidh, * that is 'd^Jinew ; whence 
fcidhlin, a fiddle ; and perhaps the Englifh fiddle, 
phiol, violin. Feith is litterally the Phoenician and 
Chaldean ||pj) phetha, i. e. nervus ; Perfic phei. 
Feith in Irifh is alfo chord, a rope, and there is 
every reafon to think the Eaftern people made their 
iirft chords of finews,. as we find in the Chaldee, gid 
fignifies a finew, and gidlim & gidal, a rope : iather, 
a finew and a rope : pheth a finew, and phethil a 
a rope, &c. 

Mr. Harrington in the Archacol.*YoL» III. and Mn 
Evans in his diflert. de Bardis, think that the 
Crwdd or Crwd was peculiar to the Welfli nation. 
I believe the only honour they can have, is the in- 
vention of playing on this inftrument with the bow : 
yet this feems to have been known to the Irifli alfo, 

* Hence the Latin fideSy fidium ; the ftrings of a mufical in- 



for in our common Lexicons ve find Cruit, a harp, 
a fiddle, a crowder. Montfaucon in his fixth Vol, 
coUe&s upwards of twenty Latin and Greek names 
for harp and lyre, and obfervcs that many of them 
fignified the fame inftrumcnt. 

** The fecond kind of Britifh bards/' fays Selden, 
" arc thofc that play on the harp or crowd : their 
mulick far the mofl part came out of Ireland 
with Grufiith ap Conan, prince of North Wales, 
about king Stephen's time. The Britons affcfted 
die mind, compofing Dorick ; which is fhewed in 
that part of an old author (Marc. Heracleft.) affirm- 
ing that iftifmfnm^ x«f''> ^* ^* ^^ make them gentle 
natured, the weftem people of the world conftituted 
the ufe of mufick in their alTemblies, though the 
Irijhyfrom whence they learned^ were wholly for the 
fprightly Phrygian." * 

In an antient MSS. in my pefleffion, called the 
Romance of Cearbhall, is this pafTage, ^^ agus ro 
boi Cearbhall an tan fin ag orphideadh d' Aofar 
cumtha idir anda codhlai : i. e. and at that time 
Cearball was playing on his harp to the Almighty 
Aofar (God) after his firft fieep." N. B. this paf- 
fage occurred to me fince the explanation of the 
Etrufcan Aefar in my laft number. 

THE j C R O W N. 

The Crown here reprefented, is copied from an 
tngraving given by the tranflator of Keating in the 

* Remarks on Drayton^t Polyolbion, p. 1759. 

Vol. IV, No. XHI. H frontif- 


frontifpiece to his hiftory of Ireland; there nas 
been (fays the tranflator m the preface) a difpute 
among learned men, whether the antient kings of 
Ireland, of the Milefian race, wore crowns of goId> 
after the manner of other nations. We are inform- 
ed by HeOi. Boetius, in his 2d and 1 oth books, that 
the kings of Scotland, from the time of Fergus to the 
reign of Achaius, ufed a plain crown of gold, m/r* 
tans valliformaj in the form of military trench; 
and it is more than probable^ that in this pradice^ 
they followed the Irifli monarchs from whom they 
derived their defcent and cuftoms. And this con- 
je&ure, is ftill rendered more reafonable by a golden 
cap, (or crown) fuppofed to be a provincial crown^ 
that was found in the year 1692, in the county of 
Tipperary, at a place called Barn-an-£li, by the Irifli, 
and by the Englifli, the Devils bit. It was difcover- 
ed about ten feet under ground, by fome work- 
men that were cutting turf for firing. This crown, 
weighs about five ounces i the border and the head 
is raifed in chafed work, in the form here reprefent- 
ed, and it feems to bear fome refembiance to the 
clofe crown of the eaftem Empire, which was com- 
pofed of the helmet, together with a diadem, as the 
learned Selden obferves in his titles of honour, chap. 
viii. page i « Some of the antiquaries of Ireland, 
have imagined that this was the crown worn by 
fome provincial king under Brien Boiromh : others 
are inclined to believe, it belonged to the Irifh 
monarchs, before the planting of Chriftianity in this 
kingdom, and they give this reafon, becaufe it is not 
adorned with a crofs, which was the common en- 
fign of chriftian princes. However, it is a valuable 



piece of antiquity, and would unavoidably have been 
melted down, had it not been preferved by Jofeph 
Comerford £fq ; a curious gentleman, defcended 
from a youiiger brother of Comerford, of the county 
of StaflFord, who attended king John in his expedition 
into Ireland. 

Another clofe crown of gold fimilar to this, I am 
informed, was found fome years ago, on the eftate 
of Mr. StaflFord. A cow plunging in a bog, trod 
on the crown, and piercing it with her hoof, carried 
the crown on her leg into the gentleman's farm 
yard. The balls of this crown were not chafed, but 
raifed almofl globular, like thofe reprefented on our 
Vifcounts Coronet's. Mr. Selden remarks, ** that 
teftimonies are not clear enough in credit, that tell 
us Dunvallo Mulmutius, king of the old Britons^ 
and the old kings of Scotland, even from Fergus the 
firft, wore golden crowns; but it feems from old 
Britiih monies, that the diadem or fillet perhaps of 
pearl, alfo was worn by king Cunobelin." 

OFlaherty in Ogygia, page 46 ; fays, the antient 
kings of Ireland, from whom Fergus defcended, 
wore golden crowns ; that the Irifh name of fuch 
crown was Aifion, and afterwards Coroin ; and he 
particularly mentions a gold crown of king Catir, 
who reigned A. D. 174. Now Aifion inEtrufcan, 
is the name of the golden crown placed on the 
heads of the dead princes. Corona aurea nobiliores 
defrindi ornabantur, (Gori.) wjjj^ afun in 
Hebrew is death, mors, exitium ; & aifion, in Irifh, 
is alfo a relick ; as, aiflona na naomh, holy relicks ; 
aifline, a fhroud. I believe 0*Flaherty has mif- 
taken the diadem of the dead for that of the living 

H 2 prince. 


pxince, for in all our Lexions, OBrien's ^cqp' 
we find coron, crun, fleafg, cruineacan, fynonim 
for a crown ; and I cannot help thinking that C 
was a fi^iqus nam6> frosa the Hebrew or Per 
«^n3 Kater or I^ter, for both Vafliti and Eftl 
were crowned with Keter Maicuth^ that is, 

crown or diadem^ or enfign of the kingdom, 
Citarisand fillet on it. Bom the vulgate and LS 
turn thefe words diadana ; and fome will have Ce 
in Efther, to be but the fame word from whe^ 
Citaris was firfl: made. However, the Hebrew cc 
pared with the profane writers, fays Seld 
juitifies clearly that there was a crown of gold, 
wel) as a fillet far a royal enfign in Perfia. Ai 
or afiAn ii\ Iriih> properly fignifies any royal enfi 
as a fcept^r, or ftaff of dignity, (in Arabic Afa). i 
Gf . foidis dino an tuafal Jacop Jofeph oirnindte ag 
afun in a laimh. i • flat in a laimh, (Leabhar breaci 
i. e. Straightway the noble Jacob fent his ion Jofe 
properly arrayed, and with a ftaff of dignity in \ 
hand: Here afun is explained by flat, a rod, 
fceptre ; and this word in Hebrew, fignifies to g 
vera. Saobhath is another Irifli word for a Dxui^ 
Rodj.: from tbf? Hebrew \ff^}ff fhebet, which implii 
Virga, fceptrum tribus. 

P L A T I 




thought thcfc alfo were a fpccies of fibula. I am of opir 
nion,Mr. Simon, (author of the effayon the Irifli coins) 
j udged right, in thinking ihey were ufed in the religious 
cereiyionies of the Irifh Druids. I think they were 
paterae : one of a mod delicate conftrudion. Fig, 
7. was fent to me fince the former were engraved : 
this, from its make, could not have been a fibula ; 
it weighs exadly two guineas ; was ^found in a bog 
pn the cftate of James Cuffe, Efq ; of the county of 
Mayo, and is now in the poffeflion of Judge Hellen : 
hitherto, nothing fimilar to thefe inftriiments, has 
been reprefented or defcribed in any book of an? 

Fig. 5. was drawn firom an urn of baked earthy 
and of very rude workmanfbip ; it was found near 
Baalnamolt, on the mountains between Cionmell 
and Capoquin, under a fmali tumulu$, with the mouth 
.downwards, covering fqme black earth (tained by 
the burnt afhes of the corps, and part of the jaw 
bone and ikuU of a youth not burnt : it was prefent- 
ed to me by the Rev. Mr. Ryan, parifh prieft of 
Baalnamolt, ^ud is now in the mufeum of Trinity 
College. The Irifh MSS. mention, thsit in times of 
Paganifm, the dead bodies of Princes and Druids 
were burnt, but that thofe of chiefs and generals, 
were buried with their arms, &c. So that like the 
antient Etrufcans, * the Irifh ufed both modes of 
burial at the fame time. 

Fig. 6. Is a drawing from a yafe of brafs ; it was 
found in a bog twelve feet deep, near the ruins of 
Grey Abbey, in the Ardes of the county of Down, 

? P. Bonarota. EpIIl. Tho. Coke, page 35. 



on the eftate of William Montgomery, Efq ; A. D. 
1742 ; it is in the College Mufeum. The form of 
mis vafe is much in the flile of the antient Etruf- 
cans : I think it was a praefericulum ufed by the 
Druids in their facrifices* Montfaucon, in Vol. V, 
has an antique lirafs vafe, a trois pieds, that much 
refembles ours,— he thinks that ferved as a praeferi* 
culum and for culinary ufes aUb# 




PLATE Vn. ^Fig. L 

1 S the drawing of a mufical inftrument ufed in the 
chorus of the antient Irifli : the circular plates are of 
brafs, and the brafs wire or worm part, round the 
fhanks, jingled, when the plates were ftruck upon by 
the fingers. Six of thefe were found in 1781, in 
digging up part of the park of Slane, the feat of the 
Right Hon. William Conyngham ; one of them is 
in the College Mufeum. In the firft volume of the 
Academy of Cortona, are two plates of various kinds 
of Etrufcan Crotolae, ^^ inftrumenti da fonare, detti 
dagli antichi Crotala-**— ** Crotola quoque dici 
fonoras fpha^rulas, quse quibufdam granis interpofitis 
pro quantitate fui, & fpecie metalli fonos edunt.'' 
(Jof. Sarifber. Policart. 1. viii. c. 1 2.) ITiis is the ex- ' 
ad defcription of our Samothracian rings, of which 
hereafter. Crotala is an Iriih word, formed of crot, 
or cr^t, the hand^ and ala to Jhake. Cibbual has 
the fame fignification, viz. cib the hand ; bual to 


■p If ^B <9 ap ^1 itwh«» 


ftrike; i. e. inftruments ftruck with the hand* 
Corabalnas is formed of cor nitifick ; and bafnas of bes, 
fxa3j keeping time^ and nafc a rm^^ a circle, i. e. 
I e. an inftrument wherewith to mark the time in 

The antient Irifh had aUb a bafe called coman, 
vulg5 cronwy a word formed of cor mt^ck and an 
or anan, bafe^ chorus- Cbaldee yj^m enan LcboruS| 
there was another named iachdar-coannus, latin 
Cantus BaiTus, of all which I fhall treat fully, when 
defcribing the mufick of the antient Irifh. 

They had alfo a Cibbual or Coraba$, compofed of 
many ihiall plates of brafs, or of fhingles of wood, 
Mened witb a thongs that was held in one hand and 
ftruck on the palm pf the other, vulgarly now called 
a clapper or rattle \ this was the antient fyftra of the 
Egyptians, named in Scripture mmahnahimy agreeable 
to the Hebrew idiom, fignifying xh^ Jhakln^'fl9atin^ 
inftruments, tranflated by i.XX i»a^(tA« cymbals, 
David had this inftrument, am(Mig others, founded 
before the ark of the Lord, when he fetched it from 
Keriath Jearim^ 2 Sam, vi, 5. but he would not ufe 
the £une that the Egyptians did ; therefore as theirs 
were of brafs, his are faid to be of fir, with addition 
of thin plates of fbme metals *• 

Whether our Jrilb Corabas may ferve to explain 
die following lines in Virgil, which Servius and 
Pierus think were altered from the prigmal, I leave 
my readers to judge. 

Hinc mater cultrix Gybcle* Corybantiaque aerea, 

Idaeumgue nemiM ■ 1 .^ 


,^eid iH, v. 3. 


* Holloway't Origtaala, to), i, p. 145; 



The Stoc or Trumpet, and of its ufe in our 
Round Towers.— Fig. 2. 

Reprefents a brazen trumpet of the antient Irilh, 
many of them are found in our bogs. This draining 
was made from one in the College Mufeum. They had 
various kinds of trumpets, viz. the ftoc, buabhall, 
beann, adharc, dudag, corna, gall-trompa. Stoc is 
the Chaldee yi\^T\ takuh (buccina) with / prefixed. 
Corna the Chald. KJHp karna : buabhall, beann and 
adharc, from their names, betoken they were made 
of the horns of animals. Dudag, I conceive, mud 
have been a very (hrill trumpet of brafs, from its 
name, dud fignifying the tingling of the ear, whence 
the poetical compound dudaireachd the noife of horns 
and trumpets^ Gall-trompa implies the foreigners 
^Englifli) trumpet^ 

The conftrudion of the Stoc here reprefented, is 
fmgul^r, the mouth hole is on the fide, and fo large, 
no mufical note could be produced. It was a fpeaking 
trumpet, ufed on the tops of our round towers^ to 
afTemble the congregation, to proclaim the new moons 
and quarters, and all other feflivals. The takub of 
the Chaldees and Hebrews was for the fame ufe. 
Buccina incurva : ufus ejus multiplex erat j ad con- 
vocandum ccetum Ecclefiae ; ad indicandum feflum 
Sabbathi ; novilunii ; pafchatis, &Cf-ir4r/w erat bens 
pojfe infiare. (Buxtorf.) 

Virgil, Statins, Silius Ital. and many others, give 
the invention of trumpets to the Etrufcans. Tuba 
primum a Tyrrhenis inventa (Ifidor. L ii. Etym. c. 20.) 



Tabam Tyrrheni primi invenerunt ; laudatoque 
Viigilio deinde addit : hanc a Tyrrhenis praedonibus 
acogitatam dicui^t, cum difperii circa maritimas oras, 
non facile ad quamque prasdae occafionem voce aut 
boccina convocarentur, vento plerumque obftrepente. 
Hinc poftea bellicis cenaminibus adhibita eft ad de- 
ccncianda figna bellorum, ut ubi exaudiri praeco 
prs tumultu non poterat, fonitus tubas clangentis 
attingeret, (id. 1. 17.) denique dividendis vigiliis^ 
ineundo praelio, &c. &g. in all which fervices, I believe 
the fpeaking trumpet, not the mufical, muft have 

Acron will give the honour of this invention to 
Dircxus, froia thefe lines of Horace, 

Poft ho3 iniignis Homerus 

Dircaeufque mares aqimos in martia bella. 

I)ircaeu8, I believe, was a^ horn-trumpet maker, and 
took his name from the Irilh adarc, 2^ cow's horn. 

'Hiefe trumpets being found in the earns and raths, 
(fepulchres and forts) belonging originally to Irifh 
cMefs, Dr. Molyneux attributes them to the Danes, 
^th much the fame fuccefs as Dr. Plot does the 
l>razen Celts found in England to the Romans. The 
%re of that given by Molyneux in his Natural • 
Hiftory of Ireland, differs from this, in having two 
^l^ near the fmall end to fufpend it- 

The Earl of Drogheda has one, with four fmall 
^^ pins or fpikes within the mouth or greateft end, 
famingly to hold faft a fecond joint, that probably 
tcnninated in the form of our modern fpeaking 



In ^die fecond vol. of the Aichdogia of Cbe London 
Sodety, is a diffiertation on the lound towers of 
Ireland, by Mr. S. Breretcm, that perfedly defcribes 
not oidy the ufe of tfaefe towers, but of the trumpets, 
his words are, ^^ When I lately made the toor of 
Ireland, I fxw fieveral of thofe buildup called Peni- 
tendsd Cowers ; not one of them had either belting or 
girti^;, nor die leaft fign c^ there having been any 
room in them, till withm ten feet of the top ; that 
zocfBt had windows eicadly iacii^ the cardinal points^ 
from thence downwards to the entrance, which is 
about fifteen feet above the furface of the ground, 
only a few ilits were cut, juft to give li|^ to perfons 
going up or down flairs. Thefe towers are all buih 
of ftone, and exceeding ftrong, the (tones and mortar 
remarkably good ; and in general they are entire to 
this day, diougll many churches, near which they 
flood, are either in ruins, or totally defbroyed.'' 
*^ I think them rather aniient Irijh^ than either Pidilh 
or Danifh ftru£tures, having never beard of one like 
them in Denmark, or any other part of Europe, ex- 
cept in Scotland; I faw one at Abemethy, near 
Perth, which exadly refembles thofe in Ireland. Upon 
looking into Gordon's Itinerarium Septentrionale, 
I find his opinion is, that it was the work of the Pids *; 
'what reafon there is for fuch a conjefhire, I do not 
fee ; I rather think we may conclude, when the Irifli 
made their incurfions into Scotland, they buik the 
two towers there, after the model of to many they 
had \th behind them in Treland. However ,^ 1 deem 
their antiquity to precede the ufe of bells^ caft ones 

♦ Of the Pcafti a Thracian colony, fee Preface. 

• at 


2t leaft, in dstt country ; and from their fitnationd 
near churches, and having a floor and windows ontf 
2t die top, I verily believe their principal ufe to have 
been to receive a perfon to call the people to Diw>rft!ip 
with fome wind inftrument, which would be beard 
from a much greater diftancc than finall uncaft bella 
po&bly could : one of thefe towers at Drumiikm^ is 
at this day made ufe of as a belfry. In Mahometan 
countries, the vcnces of their Muezins, or callers to 
prayers, who (land for that purpofe on turrets, much 
higher than their mofques^ are heard to a very grcH 

''The JEgyptians at this day, proclaim Ac timectf 
worfiup with fome wind inftrument from a high 
place ; which I rather tdkt notice of here, becaufe 
the late Bifliop Pococke often mentions th« amazing 
mjmmty he had obferved between the Irish and 
the iEgyptians in many inftances." 

Tlie trumpet and the horn were founded on the 
tops of the hills and of the towers, on any approach- 
ing danger ; and on the declaration of war againft a 
fleighboiHPing ilate ; on tUs occafion the Dtuid lighted 
a number of (ticks called crois-tara, at the hxAj- fics^ 
with thefe, the people ran frx)m place to place, ^ and 
followed the horns to the hills. Croiftara, fays Mr« 
Shaw, in his Irifh Lejdcon, is a fignal to take up 
arms, by fending a burning (lick from place to place 
with great expedition* This word is of Chaldce 
origin, tTin chris, the folar fire, and X'^o tara, an 
affembly *4 Gabaltara was another Irifh name of 

* Hence Tamhiur, the feat of the Irifh raonarchs, was naaei 
1'^^> becaafe of the trienaial aiTcmhly of the ftates therew 



this ceremony, from gabal^ burning with great flame^ 
Whence the Phoenician and Irifh Uilegabal and the 
Arabic Algabil, unum efle e Dei epithetis* (Bochart) 
and the Greek Heliogabalus, the prieft of the SUN, 
a word that originally had not one Greek letter 
in it. 

The troops being aiTembled together by this 
means, as foon as they came within fight of the 
enemy, they fet up the war cry, the CRIOM-ABU, 
two words of Chaldee origin yfy\ OTH chirom- 
ubau; the firft fignifying bellum, internecio; the 
iecond exultare, and then rufhed on to Catha, Chal- 
dee ttnin^H* See Job xxxviii. 23. In latter ages, 
each tribe had their particular abu, but the antient 
general term, is preferved in the Leinfler family, by 
the motto, CROM ABU. See Criom or Griom 
further explained in PL XL 

Fig. 3* is the drawing of a brafs fword in my pof- 
fellion ; it is twenty-two inches long : in the College 
Mufeum is one about three inches longer. Many of 
thefe are found in our bogs, that from which this 
drawing was made, was found with about two hun- 
dred others of the fame kind, in the bog of Cullen, 
in county Tipperary. The handles were of wood 
or bone, and were rotted away, the rivets only re- 

The weapons of the antient Irifh were all of brafs 
or copper, mixed with iron and zinck ; fo were 
thofe of all other antient nations ; for although they 
had iron, it being a metal rery difficult to be ex- 


trailed and fufed, they only mixed fuch a quantity 
with the copper as to harden it ; this metal, fays 
Montfaucon, became as hard as iron, all kinds of 
cutting tools and inftruments were made of it, but 
the art of tempering this mixture is now loft. 

Where with our brazen fwords 
'^ (Drayton's Polyolbion) 

ll^lie Author (fays Selden) thus teaches you to 
know that among the antients, brafs, not iron, wa^ 
the metal moft in ufe ; their litde fcythes where- 
with they cut their herbs for inchantments \ * their 
Priefts razors, plow fliares, their mufical inftru- 
ments and fuch like ; how fpecial this metal was, it 
is with good warrant delivered. Nor with lefs how 
frequent in the making of fwords, fpear and armour, 
in die heroick times. As among other authorities, 
that in the encounter of Diomedes and Hedor 

-brafs rebounds from braft. 

And Goliah had an helmet of brafs upon his head, 
and he was armed with a coat of mail, and he had 
greaves of brafs upk>n his legs, &c. 

Sed prius .^Iris erat quam ferri cognitus ufus. 

Lucret. L 5. 
aeratum quatiens Tarpeia fecurem. 

.£n. xi. ver. 6^^. 
JSratsque nucant peltx, micat asreus enfis. 

lEji. vii. ver. 743. 

* See one of thefe, PI. X. Fig. 4. 



The fpcars of the Lufitanians, fays Strabo, were 
pointed with brafsf ; the Cimbrians and Gauls had 
brafs for their weapons ; the Danes made their fhort 
fwords, arfow points, fpurs and knives of brais« * 

When iron became known, and its fuperior hard- 
nefs acknowledged, it was fcarce. The Sarmatians 
had ao iron in all their country, f The Germans 
had none in Tacitus's time i and in Britain, iron 
was yery fcarce, as Caefer fays, fo that it is no won- 
der that antiently their weapons were made of brafs. 

The Caledonian heroes of O S S I A N, flione in 

According to the Arundelian Marbles, iron was 
ifiot found out till 188 years before the war of Troy. : 

Some of our brafs-fwords were fcnt to governor : 
Forwnal}, who has given the following accurate dc- ; 
fcription of them in the Archaeologia, Vol. iii. page 1 
555 9 ** Aat the fociety might have a precife and ; 
philofophical defcription of the metal, 1 applied to - 
the mailer of the mint { and by hift dtredioa, Mr. 
Alchorn, his Majefty's Affay-mafter, made an ac- 
curate aCay of the metal. It appears, fays he^ to be , 
chiefly copper, interfperfed with particles of iron, \ 
and perhaps fome zinck, but without containing , 
either gold or filver : it feems probable, that the 
metal was caft in its prefent ftate, and afterwards 
reduced to its proper figure by filing. The iron 
might either have been obtained with the copper 
from the ore, or added afterwards in the fufion, to 
give the neceflkry rigidity of a weapon ; but I con- 
fefs myfelf unable to determine any thing with cer- 
tainty. — Thefe fwords are as exaffly and minutely . 

* Worm. Mon. Dan. 48*. f Paufaniat, Attic. 1. i. 



to eveiy apparent mark, 

"Wiiliain Hamilton's col 

TXiufeum, as if they came 

the former found in the 


parity of reafon, may lik 

tame people. It does nc 
that the Romans were 
foldiers or merchants. 
Icaft the G ADIT AN 
To this accurate ac 
(which perfectly agree 
ihail only add, that the 
cli, cliabh, ciiath k cl 
as in Hebrew 1^3 cli, 
axe, nVitJ clath, a fwoi 
-4rom cliabb or cliav, ; 
and the Welfh klodhw, 
libum, the name of th 
Arthur. Tbe Irifli had 
edfword, named airbei 
Anting the form of airb 
oDe^ but thjs is certai: 
harpeQ^ i. e* brevis glad 

Vol. IV. No. XIIL 

P L 

FIG. u 

1 S the bitt and h6adftall of a bridle, both q 
it wsfcs found in the county of Rofcommonj^ 
now in the College mufeum. TThe bitt is c) 
ordinary neat and curious workmanfhip: \ 
brated artift of Dublin, affured me, that it i 
poflible to make a better joint, at this day, th^ 
of the center of the bitt. The curb and chaiii 
of gold, but were fecreted by the peafant that. 
it. On. the top of the headftall, an elegant pj 
brafs is erefted, to which a plume of feathei 


^^ ■ 

Fig. 2. Is a brafs fpur neatly wrought ; ia 
feffion of the Rev.. Mr. Archdall. 

Fig. 3. A furprizing large fpur of iron, in 
College mufeum. 

Fig. 4. A brafs fpur of the College mufeum, 
fhape is Angular, and by experiment, this fpur n ... 
luve been worn low on the heel, in the Hoping po- 
fition here reprefenterf, the circular part being 
chamfered off within-fide, for that purpofe. 


1 2 fent. 

I ' - » - 


v&aia 1 


_ _ I 

|.^ve been worn low on the heel, in the flopin^ > 
^tio^ ^^^^ reprefented, the circular part P^ 
chamfered ofF withiii-fide, for that purpofe. 

P LA ^ 

1 on witnm-ime, tor tbat purpole. 

P L A 

Tuagh Snaighte — ^ — Chip Axes. 


Represents fevetal tools of brafs found in 
our bogs, called by the antient Irifh Tuagh-fnaighte, 
or Chip Axes, from the Chaldee ppi^ tuach to ftrike, 
•whence the Arabic Tufli, an -/ixe. Multitudes of 
thefe inftruments are daily dug up in Ireland. In 
this plate and the next, I have given the drawings of 
every fpecies I could colleft. Some are in the Col- 
lege mufeum, but the greateft coUeftion is in the 
poffeflion of the Rev. Mr. Archdall. Some were 
ufed with handles, part of the wood adhering ftill to 
the bottoms of the fockets ; and thefe had loops for 
the convenience of taking them off readily to be 
ground. Thefe are all drawn of the fize of the 

Fig. i . Has a fquare focket j this refembles fig. 
2. taken from a drawing in the chief d'Ouvre d'un 
inconu ; fome peafants digging in Normandy, 
found as many of thofe in one fpot, as loaded a 
hotCc. Monf. Dela Roque, the Antiquary, waSipre- 

1 2 fent. 


fent, he thinks they were Roman ; for, iays he, ia 
his letter to Mr. Hearne, " you have juftly obferved 
thefe are neither arrow heads, or Britifh axes, or the 
heads of Roman Catapults ; they are neither GauHjhj 
Saxon or Danijh^ nor yet facrificing hatchets ; and 
you juftly conclude, that although thefe inftruments 
were not military arms, they were carried by the 
Roman foldiers for the cxprefs purpofes of afhler- 
ing and chifleling the ftones, with which they faced 
the intrenchments of their camp." 

Fig. 5, and 8. Are gouges or femi-circular chiflels ; 
the fmall one has no loop, nor has the fmall flat 
chiffel ; thefe were for flight work, and had fuffici- 
ent holding on a wooden handle. Montfaucon, 
properly claffes all thefe with implements ufcd ia 

in architefturc. 

With fubmiflion to Mon. Dela Roque, Mr. Hearne 
and Dr. Plot, thefe inftruments are not Roman ; 
they are neither Gaulifh, Sa:!^on or Danifh, nor 
Britifli or Welfli ; but the manufafture of an antU 
ent people that pofleffed thefe iflands and the Con-, 
tincnt^ long before the Romans wei'e a nation, or 
the W^lfli arrived in Britain. For, as the ingeni- 
ous Dr. Haviland obferves, * the migration of th€i 
Gomcrites, (the anceftors of the Welfli) into Europe, 
is not related as planting colonics, and furnifliii^ 
them with inbabilants, but as a warlike- expedition, 
as an invafion and irruption. They are reprefeuted 
as conquerprs, fubduing and driving the former 
inhj^bitants out of their pofleflions, • or where there 
wa,s room enqugh, incorporating with tl^em ; and, 

* Diflcrt. on the peopliiig of Brit&In. Ardiasol. V| I. 

• as 


as is always ufual with conquerors, compelling them 
to obfervc their laws and cuftoms ; to learn and 
fpeak their language, and take their name. This 
feems to Mr. Haviland, to be the cafe of Britain and 
the neighbouring continent. They were invaded 
:md fubdued, and obliged to take the names of their 
conquerors, and to quit the original name of their 
family ; which, being by the filence of hiftory wholly 
loft, was abforbed in the appellation of Celts, Gauls, 
Germans, &c. who having gotten pofleffion of the 
counttv, afterwards aflumed the claim to be the 
itborigines of it ; whilft thefe who were really fo, 
might be induced to rcfign willingly their preten* 
fions to it, and to change their names out of a va- 
nity, either of being thought the defcendants of the 
eldeft branch of Noah's eldeft fon, rather than a 
younger ; or elfe from imagining the appellation of 
a conquering, more honourable than of a vanqulfhed 
nation And he further obferves, that Javan and 
his family, c^me into Europe about four hundred 
years at leaft, before the Gomerians began their 
migration ; a period fufficient for ftocking all the 
fouthern and Weftern parts of Europe with inha* 
bitants; he then proves them to have migrated 
from Thrace and Italy to Britain, agreeable to the 
antient Irifh hiftory, explained in the Preface to this 
t^rork. Thefe are the people, thefe great Wclfh an- 
tiquaries Lhwyd and Rowland, difcovered by the 
names of places |o have exifted in Britaiii before, 
the Gomef ites ; and thefe are the people, thrufl 
by the Welffi iiito Mann, Ireland, and the Highlands 
of Scotland; deftfoying their records and monu- 
ments of antiquity, aud leaving them to cut each 



others throats, in the idle difpute of which nation 
defcended from the other. In fliort, thefe are that 
mixture of Scythians, Phoenicians, and ^Egyptians, 
known by the Greeks by the name of Pelafgoi, who 
gave the name pfBruttan, to Britain, becaufe it 
abounded in Lead j and of Korn bhuabhal or Corn 
yuaval, to the promontory of Cornwall, becaufe 
formed like an ox's horn ; who named feveral otlicr 
promontories in Ireland, fheep's-hcad, wolf-head, 
mutton- ifland, cow and calf, &<:• &c. and the dc- 
fcendants of thefe people arc now fettled in Ireland, 
Mann or Mona, and the north of Scotland ; fpeakr 
Ing their primitive l?^nguage, and ftlU adhering to 
feveral oriental cuftoms, unknown to the reft of 
the weftern world ~ they are the anciSn peuple per-? 
due of Monf. Baily. 

Dr. Borlafe defcribes many of thefe brafs inftru-* 
ments found in Cornwall : he rejefts the opinion of 
their being Roman chiffels for cutting ftone, and 
adopts Thorefby's of their having been the heads of 
offenfive weapons, originally indeed of Britifh in- 
vention and fabrick, but afterwards improved and 
ufed by the provincial Romans, as well as Britons. 
I believe the Britons did not trade with thefe to 
Herculanum, or to Carthage ; at both places they are 
found in great numbers. The Doftor piques him- 
felf on his obfervatipn, that; none of thde inftrur 
ments had been found at Herculanum: fmce the 
Doftor publilhed his hiftory of Cornwall, they have 
been difcovered there ;: Count de Caylus, faw them 
and has given drawings of them, by which we are 
convinced of their form and fize, being exad- 
ly the fame as thofe found in thefe Iflands. 


B R A S S T O O L S. 59 

Mr. Lort has given a great variety of brafs 
inftruments found in Britain, in the 5th VoL 
of the Archaeologia, he calls them Celts ; he fays. 
Dr. Borlafe faw plainly, that, as heads of ofFenfive 
weapons, they were too aukward to have been in* 
vented and &fhioned by Romans, and too corred 
and fhapely to have been the work of Britons, be- 
fore the Julian invafion. But as they had been 
often found in Roman (lations, accompanied with 
Roman coins ; he fuppofes them to have been of 
Roman workmanfhip, after the old Britifh models. 
Dr. Borlafe and Mr. Lort, had feen brafs cafes of 
dicfe inftruments, which fitted them as exadly, as if 
they had been the molds ia which ^e inilruments 
were caft. I cannot conceive why thefe gentlemen 
helitate to call them molds ; as a certain proof that 
they were manufa&ured in Ireland, where the Ro- 
mans came not either as friends or foes, the molds 
are found in our bogs : they are of brafs alio, mixed 
with a greater quantity of iron, or in fome manner, 
tempered much harder than the inflruments : half 
of a mold is reprefented in the next plate ; it is much 
burnt by coniUnt tailing of the hot metal. 



Tuagii Snaigbte, -^hip Axes, 


P L A T E X. 

Fig. I. a. 3. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 

EPRESENT different forms of theTe braft 
inftrumeiits fisiimd in our bogs* Fig. 3^ aiid'9. are 
fnoodied at the fides, and formed ^to fit the band, 
bdng ufed withmit handles \ the reft were handled 
vith cleft flicks, part of the wood remained in the 
bottom of firr eral ibckets« Fig; 4. is a fmail fecuris, 
(aUed by the Irifli a Searrj to cut herbs, acorns, 
imfletoe^ Ice. it has a doable edge very fliarp. 

Fig. I o* Is the half of a mold^ dcfcribed ia die 
foregoing Plate. 

Fig. 1 1 .. Is a dtaSd of tba>t fpecies of black ftonei 
called by the French piere de touche, or touch 
flone ; being ufed by the Goldfmiths for trying the 
colour of gold and filyer. . This is in the College 
mufeum, moft of the others are in poflcflion of the 
Rev. Mr. Archdall, in whofe collcftion is alfo, the 
Coopers adze or axe, of brafs, reprefented at the up- 
per corner of the plate j it has been much ufed, 
but from its form I dp not think it is antique. Our 
Coopers ufe the fame inftrument, in barrelling up 





Orneis Ghriom — Implements of TVar. 

PLATE XI— Fig. I, 

1 HE head of a jsLvelfn or dart, formed of a rery 
hard black ftonc, very ikilfully wrought with a tool ; 
it i« drawn of the fize of the original, in the College 
Mufeum, and is t£e largeft I luite feen ; fixed t« a 
fpear and thrown widi force, dds weapon muft have 
brought more certain death than 9 mtt&et ball. 

Fig. ft. An arro^ head of the fame, of the fize of 
the original ; thefe are found of tlie fize of one third 
of tfais ; die peaianitd call them £tf arrows, and fre- 
quently fet diem m filver, like this figure, and wear 
diem about the neck as an amulet againft being 
aithadh or eif4hot. The fcale wffl ihew the fize of 
the reft. 

Fig. 3 and 4. Brafs fldans (fcians) knrves or dag« 
ger& J the hanctte of 3 h broken ; 4 is caft in one 
piece, Ae rivets being either ornamental, or to flop 
againft the t(^ of the fcabinrd \ f3t7 fcin, a knife ; 
ProT. xxiit, dv 

Fig. 5. The brafs head of a hunting fpear, very 
aeat^ call^ in Irifli higbean fealgach. 



^S* ^9 7' '9 9 ^^^ ^^* '^^ brazen heads of 
Laineach-catha, or military fpears. Chaldee ^}^ lanek, 
a fpear. Another Iriih name for thefe is Roimhne ; 
thefe were thrown at the enemy, fo named from the 
Phoenician rima, to caft, jacere, whence HDI rimahh, 
a lance, Greek hf^'H** Arab, rumh, and Latin framea* 

Fig. II. ITie brafs head of a Tuagh catha, a 
general name for the war axe, from the Chaldee mO 
tuach to ftrike, whence the Greek thuein, the French 
tuer, to wound, to kill, and the Arabic tawur, a 
battle-axe or halbert ; the Irifli cath a battle, fldrmifli, 
compounded with arbhar, a hoft, forms catharbbar^ 
commolily written catharb, 'as if contra&ed of cath 
and treab, a tribe, but it is undoubtedly the Syriac 
and Phoenician Ml*1Vr)3 catharba ; tiirma mixtionis, 
is a bad tranilation of this word hy Bochart ; hence 
the caterva of the Romans. Perfic kaw, warlike ; 
Khefb9 war ; Arabic ketal or katal a foldier ; whence 
the Iriih proper name Cathal, by which they tranllate 
Carolus, quad Cath-areolas, expert in war. 

The Irjfli had three names for the Tuagh catha, 
or battle ^xe, whether they were different weapons, 
or fcteral names for th^ fame, I cannot determine. 
1 ft, Tuagh deilfgiathanach, i. /e. bjpennis. 2d, Tuagh 
deilbhealach, literally the axe that kills at the meeting 
of two roads, before and behind, haying two edges, 
and is probably the pic-meallach or mbealach, or 
Lochaber a;Ke of the Erfe. The large rivets of this 
weapon^ fliew it was mounted on a very ftrong ihaft. 
it was an excellent weapon for the defipnce of an 

As the Irifli cath, is derived from the Hebrew 
ilirUK agioth, bellum quod ante urbem geritur, fo is 



O F W A R. 6$ 

griom or criom, from the Phoenician and Etrufcan 
KSin cherme, i. e; bellicofo, e lo crede un fopranome 
dato dagli Etrufci a Perfeo * ; hence the Irifh grim« 
carbad, currus falcatus. Griii^-cliath, hurdles ufed in 
ficges. Griamhuil, martial. Griamht, grit or greit, 
a champion ; whence the proper name Garat. 

* BrooJBi dc £rcplaoo, voh ii* p* 133* Gori^ ▼. ti, p« 247. 


Purin. — Seic Seona. — Cloch Tag. 


1 T is with great rcludancc this and the following 
plates are introduced in this work : they were referved 
for a complete eflay on the religion, philofophy, and 
fuperftitious ceremonies of the Hibernian Druids, for 
which the Irilh MSS in my pofleffion, afford ample 
materials ; a fubje£l moft defirable to the literati of 

Purin was a fpecies of divination by fmall ftones 
or bones, in number five, fo called from the Chaldee 
HID pur, lot, (fors) in the plural \nlD purin. Efther 
ch. ix. And they caft pur to confume them ; where- 
fore they called diefe days Purim. P«/r, a confrigendo, 
ex ufu Perfico, unde phors, fors & fortuna. (Plantavit.) 
This kind of divination, is known in Arabic by the 
word Makton, i. e. Ariolus, . qui glares, filicumque 
jadu vaticinatur. (Caflelus, p. 22 1 2.) It is now played 
as a game, by the youths of both fexes in Ireland. 
Niubur faw it praftifed by the boys on the banks of 
the Nile, and thought it worthy of a full defcription. 
Sec hU Voyages. 


V * I. 


It was named Seic Seana or Seona, whca bones 
were ufed. Seie is a bone, and feana or feona» di- 
viaation, charms ; hence feuna a charm for protec- 
tion ; feunta enchanted ; fean^tini, an order of the 
Hibernian Druids, or Diviners ; whence the Latin 
Senones ; Chaldee yw ihinu, Arab, fenat, a nxyftery» 
miracle ; Pert fen holy. Gearog is another Irifli 
vord for Sors, and hence I believe the Calabrian' 
Zingari, (i. e, SeangearogO Gypfies, who arc 
fuppofed to fpeak an Oriental dialc;;^ * ; but certainly 
their name for a bag*pipe, viz. Cormali^ is the Iriih 
cora muQc, and mala a bs^ ; the mufical bag; ! 

The Irifli Seic Seona, (Shec Shona) was readily 
turned into jack-ftones, by an EngUih ear, by which 
name, this game is now known by the Engliih io. 

Cloch Tag is certainly the ftones of the Etrufcaa 
Tages ; it has another name amongft the vulgar, viz. 
gob ftones, becaufe one part of the cerempay is, ta 
convey them into the gob or mouth. 

In the memoirs of the Etrufcanacademy.of Cortona, 
is the drawing of a pi6lure found in Herculanum, 
reprcfenting a marriage ; in the front is a forcerefs 
cafting the five ftones : the writer of the memoir 
juftly thinks (he is divining ; the figure exa£Uy cor- 
refponds with the firft and principal caft of the Irifh 
purin ; all five are caft up, and the firft catch is on 
the back of the hand, the drawing is here copied ; 
on the back of the hand ftands one, and the remaining 
four on the ground ; oppofite the forcerefs, is the 
matron, attentive to the fuccefs of the caft. 

* Swinburn's Travels into Sicily. 




C E A D R A I RE. 

PLATE Xin. Fie. i. 

1 HESE golden ornaments of the Hibernian 
''^Druids, are frequently found in our bogs : they repre- 
fent the moon at the firft quarter, whence the name 
cead firft, rat quarter, or divifion. Re Moon. They 
were carried in the hand by the Druids in many re- 
ligious ceremonies, particularly when in proceffion 
to cut the facred mifsletoe, which was always per- 
formed on the firft quarter of the moon's age. Pliny 
fays it was on the 6th day of her age, ante omnia 
fexta luna, qus principia menfium annorumque his 

This ornament is extremely well expreffed on a 
bas-relief, found at Autun, and was engraved by 
Auberi in his antiquities of that place. Auberi died 
after the firft book, and part of the fecond had been 
printed off; the work being then imperfcft, was fold 
for wafte paper ; there are very few copies now to 




be found of what was fiHifhed. ' Montfaucon had one, 
which he thought the only complete copy in the 
world : he has copied the engraving of the bas-relief, 
and thus defcribes it : 

" Here we fee two Druids ; one crowned with 
leaves of oak, agreeable to Pliny's words, Druidas 
fine ea fronde nulla facra conficere ; this is pro« 
bably the arch Druid, having a fceptre in his hand. 
'' Near him is another Druid, not crowned, holding 
in his hand the figure of the moon, fuch as Ihe 
makes on the 6th day of her age. I think no one 
can doubt, that thefc figures reprefent the Druids 
proceeding on that ceremony. They were great 
^* aftronomers, and as it was eflentially neceflary to 
" perform it on the fixth day of the Moon's age, an 
^^ aftronomical Druid here holds a crefcent, to figmfy 
" that the felUval is arrived. This explanation of a 
*' monument, hitherto undecyphered, I expeft will 
" meet no contradidion." 

So fiaur from contradifHng the Reverend Father 
and Antiquary, I perfectly agree with him, and have 
copied the figure, carrying the crefcent at Fig. 2. 

The fcrupulous, awfiil regard, which the Druids 
paid to a few plants, as the Milletoe, Samolus, and 
Selago, which they accounted facred, and the extra- 
vagant opinion they had of their virtues, may be 
reckoned among the greateft abfurdities of their 
fyftem : yet in this they imitated the antient Perfians 
and Mafiagetes, who thought the Mifsletoe fomething 
divine, as well as the Druids *• 

* Borlafe's Cornwall, p. 147. HydCf p. 249, 355. 

Vol. IV. No. Xra. K There 


There is another kind of golden crefcent oltea 
found in our bogs, much refembling the former, 
except that they have fmall buttons at the extremi- 
ties, and the blank part is radiated vith. a tool. I 
have feen one, that inftead of being tooled, was plait- 
ed like a lady's i^ into radii &om the center. 

The following figure will expldn the firfl kind. 

One of thefe is reprefented in Montfaucori, on the 
head of the great Sphinx of the Egyptian Pyra- 
mids; • another broken on an Egyptian head, Vol 3. 
Plate 14 ; — but a perfed one may be feen in that 
author on the buft of the Apotheofis of the emperor 
Claudius, drawn from a Roman marble ; | the head 
is here copied at Fig. 3. 

• Vol. 4 + Vol. 9. plate IJ9. 



Thefe were worn on the head behuid the ears^ 
and by the Druids in their facrifices and other cere«« 
monies behind the oak-leafed crOwn, and failened 
with 3, firing behind, looped to the buttons. I have 
tried one of thefe on the head of a man fix feet high, 
and it fitted well in that pofition^ Xenophon, in his 
Cyropsedia fays, the Tiara was fometimes encom- 
pafled with the diadem, at lead in ceremonies, and 
had frequently the figute of a half moon on it: 
others are of opinion, that the diadem was in figure 
of a whole moon, and that from thence the Tiara 
was called Lunetta; others again, that the Tiara 
was in form of a half-moon. Pafchalius, de Coronis^ 
diftinguifhes no lefs than five different kinds. The 
figure here reprefented, was prdbabiy the form of 
the Tiara, and might be defcribed by fome as a half-^ 
moon, and by others as a full moon. 

On this Plate, at Fig. 4. is the drawing of a l>eau- 
fiful bra& vafe, dug up in the barony of Inis* 
Owen, and county of Donegal ; this and the Lu-> 
netta, are of the fize of the originals. The Rev« 
Mr. Marihall, of the parifli of Fahan, thus defcribes 
the vafe ; ^^ In the year 1769, in deepening a ditch 
along the highway, about three hundred feet from 
the church of Fahsm, I found an urn of brafs open at 
both ends, with two ears of fnakes pretty v/ell wrought, 
about two feet under the furface of the earth, and 
near it, a flratum of human bones about eighteen 
feet long ^nd eight inches thick, and of uncertain 
breadth, as . we did not open more than five feet 
wide." This urn is now in poffeffion of the Right 
Hon. John Beresford; the outline of it is in 
tbe true antique Etrufcan tafte } the extremities of 

K2 the 


the handles are horfes heads, extremely well exe- 
cuted; it had three feet, formed of the heads of 
animals ; two are btx>ken off; but has neither top or 
bottom. I coiijedure it was ufed, to cover the 
burning incenfe on the altar at iacrifices t it is cer- 
tainly the workmanlhip of an expert artift. 
• 1%^ urns defigned to contain human bones, were 
6f gold, filvi^, brals, marble or glafs, but general* 
ly of pottery ware: among the barbaronis nations, they 
were of rude fafliion, and coarfe clay, and rather 
finoked than bumt^ fiich aa reprefented in Plate VI« 
Patroclus*s was of gold, * Corineus's of brafs, f 
but the (tern Lycurgus, confined the Spartan umt 
to the more fdber drefs of olive and myrtle. From 
the elegant form of our bra& urn, i attribute it to 
the Etrufcan colony from Cortona, mentioaed in 
the Preface. 

The handles of this Vafe, are very fimllar to tbofe 
of the brs^s Lamp dug up at Herculanum, a city that 
once wsls poffeiTed by the Etrufcans.— On vpit del 
liiorceftux de chainettes tenant aust ailes de deux 
Aiglcs adapt^es par le moyen d'une piece de metal 
aux deux cdt^ft de cette lanterne ; laqiielle a auffi 
fon anfe en forme de col & de t€te de Cheval.— Cette 
Ville ayant et^ habitue, d^s les fl^cles Ics plus an- 
ciens, par les Ofces^ & occupee depuis par les EiruJ- 
ques. \ 

* 11. 23. ver. 253« \ Jfin. 6. Ter. t%6» 
% Rec. Gcn» Hiftorique h Crit. d' Herculaoc, p. 38 and 111. 



Fainidh-DFaokach. Tair-Faimh< 

Boil'-Reann, &c. 


iM O author^ unacquainted with the language of the 
£]& and Irifh, and with the records of that antient 
people, was better qualified to write on the tenets,, 
rites and fuperftition of the Druidical religion, than 
Ae late Dr. Borlafe; to great claflical learning and 
e^^ifive reading, he joined a knowledge of the 
Comiih^ Welfh and Breton diale£ks, and his fituation. 
was in the center of monuments of that wonderful 
fed of Druids, the wifdom of the common people, or 
veneration for the architeds that built them, have 
left undifturbed to this day. How infufficient the 
language and writings of the Welfh, are to explain 
thefe monuments, is plainly proved from the Dodor'a 
Hiftory of the Antiquities of Cornwall. From the 
authority oi Caefar, he piques himfelf, on the inftitu- 
tion of the Druids being jirji invented in Britain. 
Caefar was right ; Druidifm originated from diat 
mixed colony of Phoenicians, Pelafgians, Magogian 
Scytbians^ Etrufcans and Hiraciana, we have ihewn 



in die courfe of this work, to have formed one co* 
lony in the Britiih iiles. From them it defcended to 
the Gomerian WcUh, who having conquered and 
expelled the primitive inhabitants to Scotland, Ireland 
and Man, retained but the debris of that religion, 
they fo much admired in their enemies. This will 
accoimt for the Dodor's furprize, that though the 
Wellh were of Celtic origin, in common with the 
Swedes, Germans, &c. &c. he was not able to find 
the lead trace3 of Drui^iiixQ in any other branches of 
the Celtic tribes. 

Thefe primitive inhabitants, who gave a name to 
Britain, from words in their own language, fignifying 
a country abounding in lead, and to Cornwall, be- 
caufe a promontory, in form of a cow's horn, were 
not afliamed, (like the Britons) to promulgate the 
tenets of a religion, they thought pure and undefiled. 
Like the antient Phoenicians, Egyptians and Scy- 
thians, they acknowledged one true God^ Creator of 
all things, omnifcient and omniprefent ; forbidding 
the ufe of images, they worfhipped the fun and moon, 
as the good and evil fpirits, and as the Cad-maol or 
facred minifters of Aefar, the living God; and under 
them they thought there were innumerable genii, or 
aerial beings, empowered to rule and govern all 
fublunary matters. This was the religion of the 
Phoenicians*, Sc)'thians, &c. and this was the religion 

* We arc very much inclined to think the fun and moon were 
the two great obje6is of the worfliip of the Phcenicians ; 
they certainly once had a knowledge of the true God ; 
their idolatry and fupcrftition were borrowed of the AfiyrianSy 
Babylonians and Perfians ; how far they retained, or loft, a due 
fenfe and notion of the true God, is hard to determine ; and of 
their idols we know nothing particular. Eng. Un. Hift.v.ii, p«333* 



grew out of that mixt body, the firft inhabitants of 
the Britifh iflands, which had in fome meafure diffufed 
itfelf with its colonies into Gaul. It was not fur- 
prizing therefore, to find the Gauls in Caefar's time, 
referring to Britain in matters of a religious nature ; 
but from Britain, the appeal was made at that period, 
to the heads of that order, the Welfh had thruft into 
Ireland and Mona, (ifle of Mann.) Hence, when the 
Saxons, in their turn, had conquered the Welfh, and 
driven them to Anglefea and Cornwall, where their / 
Druids had re-eflablifbed academies and feminaries 
of learning, the conquerors declined feeking to them 
for inflruftion, but fent their youth io the fountain 
head, to Ireland, for education. 

Do&or Borlafe, was furprifed at the great confor- 
mity in temples, priefb, worfhip, do&rines and divi- 
nations, between two fuch diflant people as the Britifh 
Druids and the Perfian Magi. ^^ Whence it could 
proceed, fays he, is very difficult to fay ; there 
never appears to have been the leaft migration, any 
** accidental or meditated intercourfc betwixt them, 
*^ after the one people was fettled in Perfia, and the 
^' other in Gaul and Britain ; and whether the Celts 
^' (much lefs the Gauls and Britons) can ever be 
" proved to have been one and the fame people with 
*• the Perfians, fince the general difperfion, (which 
** is a time too early to produce fuch a minute con- 
" formity) is much to be queflioned. This RxiGt 
agreement betwixt the Perfians and the Wcflern 
nations of Europe, was too obvious to efcape the 
*• notice of the judicious and learned PcUouticr j 
" therefore he takes it for granted that the Celts and 
" Perfians were one and the fame people :— but this 

*' union 



<' union muft have been fo early, (for we have no 
^^ tracks of it in hiftory) that it can only account for 
an agreement in the eflentials of religion, which 
in the firft ages of the world were few, fimple and 
unadorned, and fpread into all parts, and there 
^^ continued in great meafure the fame as at firii:. 
^^ We had our inhabitants from Gaul, as the neareft 
^^ part of the continent to Britain, and with the in* 
^^ habitants came the Celtic language, but the Druids 
^* bad no being when this ifland was peopled, their 
^^ difcipline being invented afterwards^ as is plain 
^' from the Germans, Danes, Swedes, and Ruffians, 
^^ who were branches of the Celts, and yet have no 
^^ Druids ; they were a regular order of priefts, not 
^* fetched from abroad, but inftituted and formed at 
^^ firft, either in Britain or Gaul, znd peculiar to tbefe 
^^ two nations 'y an order gradually &(h]oned and 
^' fliaped, partly by their own invention, and partly 
<' from the adopted precepts of fome philofbphers 
they converfed with, increafing in learning and 
authority, age after age, till by its luxury in both, 
^^ it attraded the eyes and admiration of all the 
" curious and learned. To fix the aera of their an- 
*' tiquity , would be a vain attenq)t, and therefore 
" I (hall only make this general obfervation, that if 
♦* the Druids were really Celtic priefts, they would ' 
** have fpread with the feveral divifions of that 
mighty nation, and their traces would confequently 
appear equally ftrong, and lively in every country 
" where the Celts fettled, but as we have no warrant 
^* from hiftory to fuppofe this priefthood fettled an- 
tiently anywherebutinGaul and Britain, they cannot 
beib antient as they are fuppofed by the Germans. 







^^ TbeDruida were probaLbly obliged to Pythagorasfcx' 
the dodrine of tranfmigration and fome other 
particulars, and at that great philofophor had been 
a difciple either of Zoroaftres, or fome of ths^ 
'* Perfian's immediate fucceflbrs, there can be no 
'* doubt but he was learned in all the Magian reli« 
'^ gion which Zoroaftres prefided over, regulated 
^ and eftablifhed in Perfia ; it was with this Magian 
'* religion, that our Druids maintained fo great an 
^' unif<»inity. Now we can well imagine that fo 
** curious a traveller as Pythagoras, could be induced 
^' to traverfe almoft the then known globe, in order 
^ to conv^fe with Brachmans and Druids« I would 
^* only obferve, that what is faid here, is agreeable 
to the general chara&cr of that inde&tigable phi- 
lofopher. He firft travelled into Mgjft to converfe 
with their prieils ; thence into the £aft, to hear the 
Brachmans,thepriefts of India ; and it is not at all 
improbable, that his infatiable curioiity would not 
^^ let him reft till he had feen alfo the other extremity 
^' of the world, to converfe with the Druids; gather- 
ing every where, what he thought divine, good 
and wife, and communicating the do&rines he 
treafured up, where he found the people docile 
and willing to be wifer. 

ABARIS formerly travelled from an ilhnd 
oppefite Gaul, and moft likely Britain, into Greece, 
and renewed the antient league of friendfiiip with 
^' the Deltans. Now this prieft of Apollo is reported 
*' to have been very intimate with Pythagoras, who 
^^ made no ibruple to communicate to him freely 
^^ (what be concealed from others in fables and 







^ enigmas) the real fentiments of his heart, and the 
•* dcepeft myfteries. 

•* In the next place it may be obfenred, that the 
*^ Phoenicians were very converfant with the Periians, 
*^ and nodiingis more likely than that the Phoenicians, 
** and after them die Greeks, finding the Druids 
*^ devoted beyond all others to fuperftition, (hould 
•* make their court to that powerfnl order, by bring- 
*^ ing them continual notices of the Oriental fuper- 
^^ ftitions, in order Ao promote and engrofs the 
*^ lucrative trade, which they carried on in Britain 
^* for fo many ages. The fame channel which im- 
'^ ported the Perflan, might alfo introduce fome of 
*^ the Jewifh and Egyptian rites : the Phoenicians 
^^ traded much with iEgypt, and had Judsea at their 
*^ own doors, and from the Phoenicians, the Druids 
*^ might learn fome few- Egyptian and Jewifli rites, 
*^ and interweave them among their own ; this is 

mticb more probable than that the Druids ihbuld 

have had their whole religion from, ^gypt, as fome 
'^ think, or from the Jews, as others with as litde 
•* reafon contend." 

This extrad from the learned DoSor^s work, 
fupports the Irifh hiftory, whilft in my humble opi- 
nion, it tends to confute his own fyftem of the origin 
of the Druidical religion. Partiality to the Cornifli 
and WeUh Britons, has carried the author to fuch 
a length, as to affert, that the Druids were an order 
of priefls peculiar to Britain and Gaul ; at the fame 
time, and in almoft the fame page, when he produces 
a long firing of fuperftitious ceremonies, in order 
to fhew the very great refemblance betwixt the 
Druids sgad the Perfian Magi, he is obliged to borrow 



mod of his traditions from the Irifh and the Scots ; 
yet not one word of the Druids of thofe countries* 
He firft (hews very plainly that the Gauls and 
Britons were the only Celtic branches, that had this 
order, and then carries Pythagoras to inftruft the 
northern Nations. — Would not the dodrine have 
been common to them all in that cafe ? would the 
ambition of Pythagoras, have permitted him to have 
been filent of fuch a journey; AbarU^ we have 
proved was an Hibernian Druid, acknowledged bj 
Pythagoras himfelf, capable of inftru&ing, inftead 
of being inllru£ted. Abaris was a Philofopher of 
an order eftablifhed in Ireland, ages before Pytha* 
goras was bom. Pherecydes Pythagorias praeceptor 
primus publicavit Draidamm argumenta pro animae 
tmmortalitate. * Ceterum cuilibet vel modic^ per« 
%icaci patcbit Druidas philofophatos plus mille annis 
antequam Eruditio Pythagoras innotuiflet in Italia, f 
Plus odingentis ante annis Philofophati funt quam 
Grsd elementa literarum Cadmo fuerint aflecuti. } 
Ariftote avoit ecrit en fon Magicien (felon que 
Laert le reconte) que la Philofophie a pris fon 
origine de Semnotheis des Gaulois anciens. § 

The learned Dodor faw thefe evidences againft 
his fyfteip, and therefore candidly acknowledges, 

* Hoffman's Dift. (In verb, page iii.) N* B* Phearcadach 
or Fearcadachy was the name of an Irifli Druid* I do not fay he 
was the mafter of Pythagoras, yet not impoffible. He is faid to 
have been the Author of an Uirecheacht, or Grammar. 

t Step. Forcatulus^ de Gal]. Imp. & Philof. page 41. 

X Jo. Picardi Celtapasd. ]. 2. page 199. 

§ Coutumes des anckns Gaulois La Ramec par CaiUenau, 
page 52. 



dnt St is extremely probabfe, that there were Druids 
ranorkable for their leamingt tnd even aatiqiiicy» 
before the time of PTthagoras, who Uved 600 years 
before our Saviour ; and in another place, he lay $» 
Druid is formed of the Iriih draoth or druith, wiie 
meat magi : — had the Dodor been acquainted 
with the Iriih MSS. he would have found many 
other fynonimous general names for this order, viz. 
Bolgith, Dadanann, Maghi, fee &c. and that the 
Druidical Oracular Stone called L^gbatiy which yet 
Trains its name in Cornwall* and as he confefes^ 
is not to be explained in that or the WeUbdialed, ia 
the Irifli Logh-onn, or ftone into which the Druids 
pretended that the Logh or divine Eflence defcead- 
ed, when they confuked it as an Oracle. Nor caa 
I think with die Dodor, that fuch wife and philofo* 
phic men as the Britifh Druids, did ever worihipi 
ftones and Rocks, as Gods. It is true, that in our 
modem Iriih Lexicons we find Art a ilone; and to 
fignify alfo God } but Art, God, is a comiptioii 
of the Chaldee {tnntC'^tt^ Ar-aritha unum e Dei 
nominibus apud Cabbaliilas notarice fignificans 
unum principium unitatis fuas } principium iingula- 
litatis fuse, viciilitudo ejus unum: quo fignificant 
Deum eife unicum, immutabilem, & fibi femper 
funilem : hence 'Afti% divina potentia (Hefych.) Many 
iuch miilakes are committed through want of know- 
ledge in the antient language of thefe iilands : for. 
example, thofe Porticos of great ibones, in Ireland, 
formerly the Adytum to the DaMr-Granu or Oracle, 
now called the leaba or beds of Darby and Granny. 
'l^n'T dabir, adytum feu Oraculum,pars templi verfus 
occafum in qua erat area & thuribulum. pj Goren, 



Area. Some have thought, with great plattfibSky, 
tfaefe Dabir granu were edlfe, hi which the Druidi 
inftru&ed their dilc^les. Docent Druidai multt 
BotnlilIinx>8 genfia clam & diu, vicenis aimis, in 
fpecu, aut in abditis fakibus. The Druids teach 
the firft of the nobility, long and fecrctly, for twenty 
years together, in caves, cells and the m<^ ludden ' 
recefles of woods. (Pomponius Mela.) 

Neitho* the Irifh or Britains, owed any of thefe 
fuperititions to Ae Greeks, is plain from Strabo, * 
vfao quotes Artemidorus, to prove that the Samd- 
thracian Orgia, were eftabliflied (in infulam pr<^ 
Britanniam) in an iiland near Britain, eodem titu 
f» in Samothrace. Now Artemidorus wrote ia 
the time of Ptolemseus Lathyrus, when all the 
learned agree, the Greeks had not navigated into 
Bntaln. A cargo of Egyptian and Jewifh ceremo- 
nies, would have been but an indifferent traffick for 
lead, tin and copper ; and the Greeks I believe wonld 
have efleem ed this a contraband trade. 

Where did the Doftor read of this eommerce, 
betwixt the Greeks and the Brittanic liles. Orpheus, 
or rather Onbitiacritus, indeed, mentions Ireland, 
but, fays the learned Bochart, he learned the name 
and fcite of it from the Phoenicians : the Greeks at 
that time had not failed into thefe parts. Nempe 
edo&us a I%oenicibus. Graecis enim turn tempoii* 
bushsc loca erant inacceifa. Onomacritus lived 
560 years before Chrift. Polybius who lived only 
124 years before Chrift, acknowledes they knew no- 
thing of the northern Nations. Itaque multa po- 

* Lib. 4« Bochnrt Phal. page 722. 



tuifle illis efle perfpe£ta de ocddentalis Oceani infa^ 
lis quae Polybius ignoraverit ; fays Bochait^ fpeak- 
ing of the trade of the Phcenicians to thefe Iflands* 
Caifiterides, as I have faid before, was not a Greek 
name, the Greeks borrowed it from the Phoenicians, 
tT1DD!l g^^fo^9 i^ ipfum eft quod xmrwlrt^f (Bux- 
torf). In Arabic kafdir ; and in Iriih keafda, tranf- 
lated by our modem Lexiconiits, iron inftead of 


If the great affinity here produced betwixt the 

Irilh and the Phcenician languages ; if the many 
authorities of the ancients here quoted to prove the 
inhabitants of the Brittanic ifles, could borrow no 
accompliflunents in arts and fciences of the Greeks ; 
if the acknowledgments of the beft Wclfh antiqua- 
ries are not fufficient to prove that the primitive in- 
habitants of Brittain, were Irifhj if the authority of 
the Iriih hiftory, agreeing in all points with the 
writings of the Orientals, does not prove, that the 
antient Iriih, received Colonies from the Eaft^m 
Nations, feated in their firft ftagc of migration, in 
the Mediterranean fea ; I muil conclude with the 
old adage, '* there is no one fo blindy as be that will 
not fee.** — ^Britain and Gaul, looked up to the nor- 
thern hive } the modem Iriih hiflorians, have erro- 
neoufly followed their example. ^* Cavar un chiodo 
& plantar una cavicchia j** it was cutting down an 
oak and fcttting up a ilrawberry. Ireland knew no- 
thing of the northern nations, till over-run by the 
Danes and Norwegians. 



SOILFEAC H.-.Fig- i. 

Is an amulet of brafs, commonly called Soilfeadi : 
this was worn on the arm : it may be feen on all 
the Etrufcan ilatues. 


The Druids ring or Ainic Dniieach : they are of 
brals and hollow : are found in our bogs of vari* 
ous diameters : the largeft I have feen, and from 
which this drawing is made ; is in the colle&ion of 
Trinity College. The Irifh Druids never walked 
abroad without the ring and ftaff. The Brachmans 
of India do the fame,-— geitabant annulum & bacu* 
lum ;* — N'oublions point les Brachmanes, qui por« 
toint toujours un anneau & un baton. Artemidorus 
calls them the hollow brazen rings of Samothrace, 
for divination : In his Oneirocritica, he fays, it is 
unlucky to dream of them. Annuli vacui enim 
cavique & qui divlnum ac facrum quippiani intra fe 
habent, dolas & iniidias fignificat, ob id, quod in 
fc continent occultatum*. Montfaucon fully de- 
fcribes them, as a rings ufed in divination } but he 

♦ PhUoftratus in vita ApoUon. Tyan. 1. 3.— — Photiuf, 

p. ioo6. 
t Oneirocritica, 1. 2. c. 5.-^^— Danet'i Greek and Roman 




had not feen them ; erant etiam annuli incantatl, 
tcfte Clcmentc Alcxandrino, (Strom, i. page 399.) 
quibus fotura profpicieabantur : tales enmt duo an- 
nuli Excefti Phociorum Tyrranni, quibus utebatur 
alium contra alium impingcndo, ut ex fono quid 
fibi agendum, & quid fibi obventurum eflfe edifceret. 
Ule tamen infidiis oppreiTus occifufque fuit : annuli 
namque illi incantati, qui ipfi mortis tempus indica- 
Teranty ejus vitandae modum noa docuerunt. * 


Fig- 3- 4- 5- 
Theie Chain-rings of the Druids, chains of know- 
ledge, or chains of divination, as the words exprefs ; 
are of brafs, hollow, and ui^ited by a flender plate 
of brafs. They are found in our bogs in great 
plenty ; fome are in the College coUeftion, fome in 
my poiTeifion, and many in the colledion of the 
Rev. Mr. Archdall. They cpnfift in general, of one 
large and two fmall rings : fig. 4. reprefents one 
that probably had four fxnall rings annexed to it. 
Some imagine thefe reprefented the fun, moon and 
earth, and that the large ring in the center was the 
earth: Others that they reprefent the Sun, 
Venus, and Mercury; but all agree, that fome 

* Montfkucon, Vol. VI. page 2a6. 


T E R A P H I M. 85 

of the planets were intended to be thus rfepre-^ 

The Jews had fome Talifmen of this kind, as 
we learn fi-om Rabbi J. Karo, — figurs folis & lunss 
& fideriim tarn planae qiiam promihem^s interdidse 
funt. At verd, fi fiant difcendi, docendi, refque 
dubias decemendi gratia^ licitse funt omdes, idque 
etiam promihentes. * The Thracians and lUyrians 
had the fame mafbematico faHum* Kimchi, Selden 
and St* Auguftihe^ think die Teraphim which 
Rachael ftole from Labail wete of this kind. 

The Teraphim of the Bible, which we tranflate 
Gods^ all the Jfcwifh Rabbies own to be a word 
of no Hebrew Etymology. The 70 tranflate it fome- 
times an Oracle^ and forrtetitties vaki idols. Some 
think it to be an Egyptian word and the fame with 
Seraphis : but it is moft probably of Chaldee 
origin. The name certainly palTed to images of the 
human form : fuch was the Teraphim, Michal put 
into David's bed, to reprefent him there, — that 
which Rachel ftole from her father Laban, was 
fomething fo fmallf as to be concealed under her as 
ihe fat in the teiit. Laban was a true believer j 
we can fcarce think he had images of the human 
form. Genef. xxxi. ver. 37. they are called the 
injlruments of his temple, ver. 30. his Gods. — 
Judg. xviii. ver.^ 5. they are confulted by the 
Danites,^ and a true anfwer returned from God^ which 
induced them to take them away, and fet them up 
for public ufe, which they continued poffeffed of, 
even under Samuel and David : furcly thefe were 

* In Shtilcsin Aruch. lib. Jore Dea* c. 141. 

Vol. IV. No. Xffl. L not 


not images. Hofea iii. ver. 4. ITie children of IfracI 
(hall abide many days without a king, and without 
a prince, and without a facrifice, and without an 
image and without an Ephod and Terapbim. 

The Teraphims were afterwards univerfally known 
by the name of Talifmen, as they are to this day 
all over India. The Perfians call them Telephim, 
a name not unlike Teraphim. They were made of 
different metals and fizes, cad under certain con- 
Jlellations ^ with figures of fome planets^ and magic 
characters engraven upon them* Such is that at 
figures 9. and ic. They were to be confulted and 
prayed to at certain times, under particular afpe£bs 
of the planets, from which the Jews aver, they partly 
received thai power ^ and partly from the chara&ers 
engraven on them. • One Rabbi goes further, and 
pretends that they gave anfwers viva voccj-f and 
attempts to prove it from the words of Zechar. 
*' the Teraphims have fpoken vain things.'* chap. x. 
ver. 2. 

Sanchoniatho, fays, that the firft idol made to be 
worfhipped and the fir ft moveable Temple in Phoenicia, 
were made in the ninth generation : thefe, Philo tranf- 
lates ir«p gjipoir/Iif.NowletusconfidcrthewordsofAmos, 
chap. V. ver. 26. But ye have borne the tabernacle 
of your Moloch and Chiun, your images, thenar 
of your God, which ye made to yourfelves ;— — 
this is again recorded in the A&s of the Apoftles, 
chap. 7. ver. 43. Yea, ye took up the tabernacle of 
Molpch, and they?/7r of your God Remphan, figures 
which ye made, to worihip them :— from hence I 

* KImchi. t R. Eleaz. c. j6. 


T E R A P H I M. 8^ 

conjcfture the firft Teraphitn was no more than 
feme fuch thing as our Druids chain or Tair-phiam, 
introduced by the Phoenicians, and reprefenting cer- 
tain planets ; Jacob probably forefaw, that thefe 
would one day become fuperftitious inftruments of 
idolatry, and therefore, when he made a reformation 
in his family, he buried them and all their ear- 
rings under an oak, which was by Shechim. Genef. 
xzxv. ver. 4. 

Berterus is of opinion the Serapis, knd Talifman, 
were of the fame kind ; inde Teraphim, & Arabum 
Talifmae & iEgyptiorum Serapides, & Appollonii 
Thyansei, Annuli quibus fpiritus familiaris inclufu& 
fuerit-* Hottinger proves that the Syrians and 


« Page 196. M. Gebdin, thinks the Greek Telefma is de- 
riYcd from Q/V Tfeleniy a refemblance, a portrait ; images dei 
Dicux ; that may be, for the Phoenicians and our Druids, fi<* 
gured the Deity by a circle, the Egyptians by a ferpcnt curled 
in a round ; the words of Sanchoniatho in the Phoenician lan^ 
guage coined by Hutchinfon or fome other, are, 

Zus hu afphira acranitha meni arits chuia % 

Tranflated by Hutchinfon. 
Jupiter IS a feigned Sphere, from it is produced a ferpent« 

The correfponding IriHi, is, 
Sot lia afpeir acreannaith miana airfad chua, i. e. The Om- 
nifcient of the well formed £rnlament, is expreffed by a circle* 

Afphira hu chial d'Alha dilh la ftrura ula fhulma \ 

Mr. Hutchinfon. 

The Sphere (hews the divine nature to be without beginning 

or cnd« 

L 1 Iriih 


Chaldaeans had thefe Teraphim before the time of 
Abraham, and that they were of Chaldee origin ; 
£t fane Ifraelitas non ab ^gyptiis ut vitulum au^ 
reum, fed a Cananeis & Amorrhaeis accepifle, et in 
^gypto intuliffe*" What feems to confirm Berterus's 
opinion, is that pailage in xx. Exod* ver. 23. *' Ye 
fhall not make with me Gods of filver, neither fhall 
ye make unto you Gods of gold/'— here the Chaldee 

Bible has tySi1tff^ D^JfllN aophenim ou Seraphim, 
i. e. wheels, circles, rings, or feraphim. Munfter 
tranilates aophanim angels ; but jg^ is a wheel, 
circle or ring, and is always ufed in Chsddee to ez- 
prefs the celeftial circles, as the zodiac, squator, &c« 
in the lame language -^^^ Tair fignifies divination, 
fors; whence the Irifli Tair. — ]£)XTD Tairaphin 
might have been the original word, formed by the 
Hebrews into Teraphim. ^«^/^ tara, in Chaldee is 
vinculum, catena, a chain. 

But what, in my humble opinion, fets this in a 
clearer light, and proves that the ^^pfiv were a kind 
of chain, compofed of hollow brafs rings, is a paflage 
quoted by the learned Selden ; in his difcourfe de 
Teraphim, he quotes the Chaldee Paraphrafts in 
thefe words, " de iis autem oracula Chaldaica ita 
praecipiunt inpyu w*fi Uult^u sfi^itx^t here he would 
change ekatinon to u^it^f and thus tranflateit, 


Afpeir 'ha ciul d'AIla, duilc la ftara uilc (huiloior. 

The finnament is the circle of God^ Ac ekmenU arc theteia 
fufpcnded in all fplendor. 

N. B. ^^> round, h the only word iu Iriih fi»r the fir- 

T E R A P H I M- 89 

pperare circa Hecaticam fphiBruIam. Hecate was cer- 
tainly a Chaldean Deity, under the name of -fj^^ 
Achad, by which they fignified the Moorij as Millius 
has well explained ;* but if the word is to be chang- 
ed, I beg leave to read it KMliuct, that is a chain, f 
a word formed evidently from the Chaldee ^^y 
ghadan. Catena pretiofa, unde Hifpan. Cadena.'^ 
And 4-f6(pmxn is the fame as ;pe^«A<vS, gyrus, a circle 
or ring, and this might have been written in Chal- 
dee ^21 nOE^ yi9r\9 ^* ^' Catena circulis inflatis ad 
circumferentias : the exa& defcription of our chain 
made of hollow rings: Again, the Paraphrafts ex- 
plained this by irrrAS an -^Egyptian word, corref- 
ponding with the Irifh jogh, ince, jonga, a chain. 

KflK>p Cumberland, in his remarks on Sancho- 
niatho, page 270, explains a paflage much to our 
purpofe, - " To prevent miftakcs, fays he, it muft be 
Botcd, that Inachtis here mentioned ai the fame with 
Pojidon, and feither of jEgialeusy is about 250 years 
before that Inachus who was founder of the king- 
dom of Argos. And to mc it is no wonder that 
this name, or rather title, Ihould be given to feveral 
men, becanfe I believe it is derived from the eaftern 
p3y anak, and fignifies Torquatus, a man that wore 
a chain as a badge of honour. The Anakimi in 
Phoenicia long after, were called fo on the fame ac- 

Anak is the root of the Iriflx ince, a chain : 
whence muince, a chain or collar, worn about the 

• Dificrtatio vi, dc Idolo THR* 

t Mcurfii GlofT. Graecum. Thcodorat. Hlft. Eccltf. U 2. 
chap. 8. 

X PlantaTit. Lex. Synon. Chald. Hebr. 



(muin) neck : Ince leems to be the root of many 
things wrought in metal as ionga, a nail ; ionang an 
anvil ; ingir an anchor ; ingleid a hook ; ionga 
an ingot ;. and henger in old Pcrfic is a fmith ; — 
whether iEgiaieus, was fo called as the fabricator or 
wearer of our jog-eolas or chain of knowledge, and 
Pofidon, from our Pifa-iodan or Urim and Thum- 
mim, I Ihall not pretend to determine. . 

In the preface to this number, I have faid, that 
the work qf Sanchoniatho, muft appear a forgery to 
^ perfon fkilled in the Bearla-pheni dialed of the Inih 
language : indeed, it rather appears to be the work 
of an Irifhman, ill explained by a Gr^ek, Mont- 
faucon has given his opinion of it in the following 
words, ^' Fabulam putant eruditiores efle, quidquid 
Eufebius poft Philonem Bybl : refert, & Sanchonia^ 
thonem nunquam extitifie. Nee defunt qui fufpi- 
centur ipfun^ Eufebium & Sanchoniathonem & inter- 
pretem ejus confinxifTe. Non puto autem banc irau- 
dem pofie in Eufebium conferri, quandoquidem 
Porphyrins ab EuTebio allatus, p. 485, de Sanchoni- 
athone loquitur ejufque aetatem.adfcribit. Expeiflat 
fortaife ledtor, dum quid de Sanchpniathone ejufque 
interprete fentiam, expromam : meam. fentenfiaoi 
paucis aperig : Sanchoniathonem puto . nunquam ex- 
titiffey fed decernere non aufim utrum Philo Byblius 
fefe Sanchoniathonis interpretem confinxerit, ut 
fabulas proferret fuas ; an vero quiipiam' alius falla- 
ciai auctor. Philonem Byblium ^mentitus fit, quei^i 
quam quidam, ut diximus, nunquam extitiffc ut ncc 
Sanchoniathonem putant." Vol, iv. page 385. In 
fine, Aftor-ith, Derc-ith, Eag-ala-bal, & Gealach-bal, 
are Irifh names for the mopn j Uile-gabal, & Mea- 


T E R A P H I M.. 91 

lacfa-bal or Moloc, are Irifh names for the Sun^ 
words which could have been introduced by that 
nation only, that worihipped the moon under the 
names of Eafc, (i. e. liis) Aftorith, Aftarte, Derceto 
& Re ; and the Sun under thofe of Elagabalus, Ag- 
libolus & Malachbelus. The vulgar Irifh at this 
day, retain an adoration to the New Moon, eroding 
themfelves, faying, ^^maytl^u leave us fafe as thou 
baft found i/x,*'— -imo ipfi Lunam ut deam adora- 
bant : hi Lunam adorabant ut deam, alii Lunam 
ut deum*. 

As a proof that our Irifh Druids did not borrow 
the terms of their religion from the Celts, but from 
the Egyptians 9 Syrians or Phoenicians, take the fol- 
lowing examples. The great fpirit (God) is ex- 
prefTed by die word Ti, as Ti-mor ; or Fo-Ti j i. c. 
the great fpirit ; the prince of Spirits : it is the fame 
as the Chinefe Ti ; the Phoenician |(pej phta ; 
the Egyptian ^7« phta. The wicked or evil fpirit 
is named CISE AL ; it is the Phoenician ^t!^n» ^^" 
brew '^pn chifel, i. e. blafphemavit.f So fikewife 
the Irifh Magh and Maghan, an epithet of God, is 
the Hebrew jjq magon, nomen Dei, i. e* the fhield 
or buckler; Eilegabal in Irifh, exprefTes the reli- 
gion or fed of fire worfhippers. J ^^i Th\i ^^^' 

• Mootfaticofi, vcr. 4. page 591. ' 

t Do lodar utlc re Cifeal, they were all led by Satan. See 
the Dtdion. of O'B. and Shawe ; hence Cha£l is the name of 
the Locuft in the Bible : fadum ell a vcrbo SDH chafal, quod 
confumerc iignificat. (Jonath.) cgnfument te ut Chefil. Na- 
hum, ch. 3. vcr. 16. 

X Eile, in Iriih and Arabic, exprefTes not only a people, but 
their Religion. 



gabal, Sacerdos Soils inter Phoenices. (Bpcbart)* 
Algabily unum effe e Dei »epithetis inter Arai>6S, 
(idem). Re the moon in Irifh, is the ^Sgyptian 
^n the Sun. There are very many words to be 
foun4 even in our common di&ionaries^ exprefling 
Divination, that cannot be explained in the Celtic 
][anguage, yet are all found in die Oriental tongues. 
Such are Adhab, y^9 — Seona-iaohhtha, Afar^ 
lachad, Garl-lachad, — rXhefe three are evidently 
Hebrew words ; i Kings chap, i c. f^^W ^TSS^I 
Viyi2 ^^ ilacad ihebet Benjamin, & cecidit ibrs 
tribus Benjamin, the 70. Sortitum eft ncSiwrfw Ben- 
jamin ^ or, capta eft Virga Benjamin, according to 
Schacchus, who ohferves, that wherever the Vulgate 
has fortior, fortiris, the Hebrew is always oxpreiTed 
by ^^S lacad, a word that imports to take in the 
hand } to lay hold of.* as in Jof. chap. vii. 1 Kings, 
f hap* ^ s^d xiv* 

^ing^ and fuch trinkets ufed in Divinatiqn, might 
havebeenimpbjTted from th$ ]ga(t;, and with tliem their 
oriental names ; but when I can produce upwards 
pf thr^^ f(Por^ other wojds on the (ame fubjed^ that 
cannot be explained in any of the Celtic dialers, 
can there be a doubt of a communication, in former 
days, betw^fn this Ifland and the Eaft. In the a- 
bove examples, you have Goral, this is not Celtic, 
but it js Chaldee ^mji gural, fors j —This again is 
compounded mth fean^ a charm, in the Irtfh and the 
Perfic languages ; and in the Irifh formjs fean*garal, 

* Arcanoram Sacr. Script. Myrothecrum, chap* 1 5. Inagu- 
rationis Oracula, qua forma ab Ifraelitis fortibus quacrerenturi 
page 833. 


T E R A P H I M. 95 

contraded to fean-gearrog, feaa-gaire, bona £or« 
tuna, bonum omon : hence I fuppofe, the Zingaii 
or Gypfies of Calabria. So Coic an omen, a mif* 
tery ; bass the palm of the hand ; Coichi-bais^ Le- 
gerdemain ; Ferfic^ choko-baz^ whence the vulgar 
EngUft Hocus Pocus \ — ^the laft 18 Celtic, and it ii 
Perfic, the former are not. The Phcenican words 
Adonai and Adonathadh, fignifying fovereign, and 
ferercignty, were never admitted into the Celtic 
dialeds, or we ihouM meet with them in antient 
Authors, as we do Rie and Bren, &c. &c. but the 
former words occur frequently in the Brehon lawj 
of the antient Irifli and in the common Didiona- 
ries. • 

That great luminary of learning, ^onf. Grebdin^ 
has given the original Cehic, fo ^eat a fcope, that ac- 
cording to him, we might fsty, every word is Cdtic 
and Hebrew : however, when he comes to detail 
the remains of the Celti, he omits (very properly) to 
mention Ireland, as if he was (enfible, he could not 
rank the language of this country with thofe of 
Wales, Bas-Breton, or Cornwall. ^« The Celtic,'* 
&ys he, ^^ was the fame in its origin as the Eaftern 
tiHigues: it was the firft language fpoken in 
Europe, where it foon fpHt into various dialeds, 
in proportion as Europe was peopled, and as thefe 
became a roving or fettled people, or had more 
" or lefs communication with each other." From 
hence, it mud be concluded, that as Ireland was at 
the extemity of Europe, it was laft fettled, and confc- 
quently the language of the people moft corrupted, 

* Sec Brcho»'» Laws, ¥oU i. and; Shawc's Irift Dl&kwajy. 






moil different from the Eaflern origina] : but that 
is not the cafe ; it is the moft pure, mod like the 
original, and confequently, there muft have been 
fome conununication with the mother tongue, to 
have reftored it to its primitive roots.^ Again, our 
learned Author fays, " from the Celtic fprung the 
antient Greek or Pelafgian, before the days of 
Homer and Hefiod — from the fame fprung the 
Latin ; the Etrufcan ; Thracian, Phrygian, or 
Trojan ; the Teutonic j the Ganliih, which in- 
" eluded the^ Alps, France, Paybas, Switzerland ; — 
the language of the two Britains (I fuppofe he 
means Ireland and Britain) the Cantabrian or 
Old Spanifh ; and the Runic. It is true, that 
*' Fraxice was at one time over-run by a Scythian 
people named Alani or Teifaliani, headed by 
their king Goar ; thefe almoft fwallowed up the 
name of Gauls and their language; the remains of 
thefe Scythians adually exifted in the 1 1 th cen- 
tury, on the borders 'of Poitu and i'Aulnis: 
*' Moft of the Gauls mixt with thefe conquerors, 
** and formed one people, infenfibly lofmg all traces 
of their origin ; fame few retained their liberty 
and language : ift, Thofe that fled to the extrenu- 
ty of the great Peninfula called Brctagne : 2d, 
Thofe who dwelt in Britain, the country after- 
wards poffeffed by the Englifh, who forced the 
*' Gaulifh Britains to the mountains of Wales, and 
to the rocks of Cornwall, oppofite to Bretagne in 
France : thefe again reunited with the Bas-Bretons. 
Thus difperfed in. inaccefllble mountains, and 
amongft barren rocks, their conquerors did not 

think worth '0iaring with them» this ftiadow of 

« the 




T E R A P H I M. 95 

*' ihe great Celtic nation, retained their antient 
** cuftoms and fpeak a dialed foreign to that of their 
** conquerors; but this is again fplit into three 
^* other dialefts, the Welfli, Cornifi), and Bas- 
** Bretx>n." * 

I believe Monf. Gebelin, will find many learned 
authors, to oppofe his fyftem of the Pelafgian and 
Etrufcan languages being of Celtic oH^n : and as 
to the Iriih, I muft here obferve, that fo far from 
the antient Iriih allowing themfelves to be of Gaulifli 
origin, they have uniformly ufed the words galf, 
i. e. ghoi-eile, gallna, & gallda, tp e^refs a fo- 
reigner^ or one fpeaking a diflerent la^nguage, al- 
ways diftinguUhing tfae.£rfe;and Irifli by Oaodhlag. 
Hcb. t^;i ghoi, a foreigiier. Chaldee lyfyf] Chiluni, 
foreigner, {{^;| gala migraxe. 

The ingenious Mr. Cleland, faw clearly that the 
antient Druids of thefe iflands, had a correfpondence 
with the Eaft : it was fuddenly cut off, fays he, by 
the intervention of fome powerful nations, but at what 
period is uncertain : it might have been hiftorically 
or figuratively expreffed in the -Egyptian; annals, by 
ATLANTIS, an iflaad of immenfe extent, be- 
ing fwallowed up by an earthquake, with all its in- 
habitants, which probably means no more than a 
natural or moral feparation of Britairia^ perhaps both, 
from the continent. \ The following affertion of 
this author, requires to be authenticated, ~ it feems 
to open a new light to northern hiftory, if a fa£t. — 

Not more than twenty, years before Julius Caefar 

* Gebelin. Prelim. Difc. to his Etymological DiiElionary. 
f Way to words by things, and to things by words, p. i !• 

' ^* invaded 


96 A I S I N. 

^ invaded Britam, one ODIN or Woden, had 
^ raifed a party in Britain, to (hake off the yoke 
^ of Dmidifm, and to put the civil power into the 
^ hands of the laity* But he was fuccefsfiilly re- 
^ fifted by the majority, whofe attachment to their 
old laws, engaged them to rejed the innovation. 
WODEN and his partifans, being over-power- 
ed, retired out of the land, and made their efcape 
to Germany, where they obtained a fettlemcnt, 
and preferved the Britiih manners and language, 
among the lefs cultivated nations, which furround- 
ed thCTi. Woden did more ; he propagated his 
new ideas of government, and drew the whole 
north to his party ; and I have fome reafon to 
think that the £ D D A or Icelandic records, con- 
tain Woden's fyilem of innovation.** 

FIG. 6.— Is of Brafs. 

I take it be a triangular Talifman ; one of tiie 
ftar4ike ornaments is loft, i r r r a s» In ^mftx*fi 

In rflytfff. 


Thin plates of gold joined together by a fcmi- 
circular piece : thefe were fufpended by a ftring 

* Obfopceutj de Oraculls Chaldaicig. 


A I S I N. 97 

round the neck, and hung at the breaft : they may 
be feen on the Etrufcan Tages^ and many ftatues of 
their Augurs, which Gori and Dempfter have very 
good naturedly turned into Gods and Goddefles. 
On the external plate is a fmall loop, into which 
was fixed a {lender golden wire, on which perched 
the Augur's favourite bird : The Hibernian Druids 
fixed on the Wren^ an Englifh word derived from 
drean, L e. Draoi-en, the Druids bird ; it was alfo 
named Draolen, i. e. Draoi-ol-en, the fpeaking 
bird of the Druid. Toithen is another name, fig- 
nifying the bird of Toth or Thoth. The Druids re- 
prefented this as the king of all birds, hence he was 
called by the vulgar Breas-en, king bird ; Righ- 
beag, little king ; Ri-eitile, flying king ; and lafUy, 
Briocht-en, the bird of witchcraft. The fuperftiti- 
ous refped fhewn to this little bird, gave offence to 
our firfl chriflian miilionaries, and by their com- 
mands, he is ftill hunted and killed by the peafants 
on Chriflmas day, and on the following (St. Ste- 
phen's day) he is carried about, hung by the leg, 
in the center of two hoops, croffmg each other at 
right angles, and a proceifion made in every village, 
of men, women and children, fmging an Irifli 
catch, importing him to be the king of all birds ; — 
hence the name of this bird in all the European 
languages, Greek tP6;&«a(^, iu9%x%U* Trochilus, Bafi- 
leus ; Rex avium. Senator ; Latin, Regulus } 
French, Roytelet, Berichot ; but why this nation 
call him boeuf de Dieu, I cannot conjeaure. — 
Welfti, Bren, king ; Teutonic, Koning vogel, king 
bird ; Dutch, Konije, little king. 

FIG. 8. 



Solid rings of brafs : they arc found fingle and 
double : they pafled as money in the Brittannic 
lilands. Caefar makes mention of iron rings and 
pieces of brafs, ufed by the Britons as money. In 
Irifh, they are called Boillreanrij to diftinguifli them 
from other rings. Bodl^ round, circular, a ring ; and 
reanrij bargain, fale, covenant : from boill, probably 
the Latin obolus ; which Plutarch, from affinity to a 
Greek word, thinks to have fignified rods^ and that 
the firft money was in that fhape. Some of thefe 
may poffibly have had the value engraved on them, 
NJVSi biliona Chaldee, figura vel fculptura annuli. 
The Greeks had alfo ring-money. Annuli iis pe- 
cuniae facculi & cibi obfignati. * 

There is a paffage in R uth, chap. iv. ver. 7. gives 
room to think the ring was ufed by the Jews as a 
covenant : the words in the Englifh arc, " Now 
this was the manner in former times in Ifrael con- 
cerning redeeming, and concerning changing, for 
to confirm all things : a man plucked off his ptp^i 
narthik, and gave it to his neighbour, and this was 
a teftimony in Ifrael: and therefore the kinfman 
faid unto Boaz, buy it for thee, fo he drew off his 
narthik:*' the vuIgate have tranflated it Shoe-j 
Drufius fhews the word is Chaldee, not Hebrew, 
and implies a cafe ; fo he tranflates it a Glove^ and 
Arias leaves you in doubt what he means by vagina^ 

• Gronovius TLe£ Grxc. Antiq. Vol. 6- page 169- 



In Irilh, Nuirt is an amulet worn on the finger or 
arm, a ring. Ollamh-nuirt, an amuletj or bracelet 
given by the Ollamh, to be worn as a charm. Sphaera 
folis eft Narthik, fays Buxtorf, in his Chaldee Lexi- 
con. Quando egreditur fol e p^mj Narthik fua.f 
it there fignifies the horizon. That the Jews ufed 
rings and amulets for this purpofe is plain from 
Hottinget. Sunt nempe Amuleta, Talifmac & alia 
id genus, quibus Oriens ita fcatet, — ^pierique enim 
tales xiummi in fcriphone habent. Nummus facer 
eft & Ecclefiafticus, vel politicus & civilis, vel kab- 
balifticus, vel denique magicus ir fuperJiitiofusj-'^iXix 
femim adhibebant, ftannum, orichalcum, conchylia, 
l^ides, ofla demortuorum. In like manner, rings, 
amulets, bracelets, and even houfehold ftuiF, was 
ordained to pafs for money in fmall occurrences, by 
the Brehon-laws of the antient Iriih. | 

FIG. 9. 10. 

Are drawings of a medal of brafs lately found 
in a bog at Allenftown in the county of Meath : the 
drawings are the fize of the original : there is a fquare 
hole pierced through in the middle, feemingly to fit 
it on fome other apparatus. On the face Fig. 
1 o, is an infcription in old Syriac charaders ; the 
bottom line feems to be compofed of Olaph (capital) 
& Olaph (med.) Cquoph, Lomad, Tau. On the 
reverfe fig. 9. appear to be Aftronomical characters. 
I take it to be a Talifman, and can give no further 

f Joma, foL 54. % CoUedanea, Vol. i 


lao R I N G - M O N E. Y. 

Plate XIV. was engraved and wdrktid off, «hen 
another medal or talifoien, was put into my hands by 
Uie Rev. Mr. Archdall. It is of brafs, and in fize, 
eka£tiy the fame as that reprefented at fig. 9. and 10. 
U the 14th Plate. This Was alfo found in our bOgs. 
The tofcTiption on one fide, ii the £ame as that at 
fig. 9» which I believe to b£ aftronomical charaders. 
l^e infcriptton on the other fac:, is in two lines 
as in fig I o, aud that over the fquarc hole is the 
&me, whidi I read PUR, i. e. Sori : but the in- 
Icription under the fquare hole, is totally different, 
&om that under the fqaare hole of tig. i o. The 
letters mzy be found in the various Syriac alphabets 
of Claude Duret, and Dr. fiarnards tables, but they 
do not all tfxift in iny one alphabet. Hie infcrip- 
tion on this face is exa&Iy delineated in the follow- 
ing figure; an explanation is eameftly entreated 
from tfie learned. 


A lingl« medal with an oriental infcription, be- 
ing found in any part of Ireland, would not hsTC 
eflablifhed its currency : one piece of that Icind 
might have been dropped from the pocket of a cu- 
rious perlbn ; but, when a fecond is produced, fimi- 


R I N G . M. O N E Y. loi 


lar to the firft in metal and figure, and a third is 
found in Dublin, of copper, with the fame infcriptidn 
as at fig. XL on one face, written apparently in the 
Mendean or Tartar characters (which feem to have 
been formed from the old Syri^c); and all have the 
Uke chara&ers on the reverfe, which feem to be 
Chinefe ; there is great probability, that thefe are 
Chinefe medals imported to this country, by our 
£aft-India ihips. 

It is not furprizing, to find a Chinefe medal with 
a Syriac infcription on it. The learned Kircber 
has ihewn, that infcriptions on ftone, in Syriac 
Eftrangelon chara£bers, interlined with Chinefe, are 
to be met with in China ; and* he. has explained a 
remarkable one of this kind, in his Frodromtis Cop* 
ius: from whence he thus argues, ** An illud for« 
^' fitan quod h Syria in ^gyptum & ^thiopiam 
^' utpote confines regiones tradu£lac Colonias & 
" Lingu2& Syras & charaderum fiierunt traditrices? 
certd argumenta quamplurima conje&urae fa&s 
veritatem comprob^re videntur.— -Verum operae 
^^ precium feciam, fi hoc loco Syriacam infcrip* 
tionem iifdem charafteribus Strangelicis, quibus 
in China expreifa fuit, una cum interpretatione 
" ejus exhibeam/' 

Haec tibi Gogque,Magogque aliifque exordine cun^is* 
Marfon atque Aggon tibi quot mala fata propinquant. 

Sibylla* L carm. 
(See his chapter De expeditione iEgyptiorum feu 
Coptitarum in India, China & reliquas Afise regiones 

* Les Chinoit a'ont qu'une feule monnoie de mauvais cuiTrc^ 
qu*oii appelle cacJbe ; clle offre un trou quarr^ dans le milieu^ qiri 
fifrt a Tenfilcn Senarat Voy* i La Chiac. p. 36. 

Vol. IV. No. Xm. M I muft 



I maHi take this opponuehy oS beggiiq; Fathet 
Keating's. pardon, for faying at page «. Aat 
O^Fbherty bad not mentioncNi Mtaraa: In the 
Ogygia page 300^ at A. Di 90, (iHflead 6f A. Ih 4, 
at. Keating haa it); I fold Monui flamed, »id die 
iODHAN MORAIN or Bt^eaft-plafc of 
Juxdgmeat, there trans&rmed kilo a Ring : a &e(& 
inftance of the mifbfces ofourIriA.anti<iiHffias. 

I now fubmit this inveftigation of die antiqnitte* 
of Irelattd to the judgment of die iso^artial pnblic. 
Senfibte as I am withal, that, the nature of die futi- 
' jed is rather curioui, than entertuning ; the tittk 
nalbn I hare to anticipate any thing better tbM a 
cool reception, or ,total dtiiregard of the antfiy, cm 
be but a recommendation the more tc the fitnr, iii 
whom a Iot^ of literature it not the lef», for the ge- 
neral negted and flate of hnguor, in vMcfa tbey fee 
h in tt^» kingdom. 

If in the courfe of my refearches, I have foiled in 
etynrK^gy, I hare done no worfe dian f lafo, Ctcero, 
Voffius, Ifodore, Perron and Ballet, have done be- 
fore n»e. ITie amient hiftory of Irefeftd, had been 
mifreprefented ; its monuraents of aBtu^oity unex- 
plored ; if my readers think, •! have mifemployed 
my time and troaUe; I can only lay, that' I am 
ftMTy I have not been able to bffer more than a rufli 
%ht, inftead of the torch I propofed to carry for 
, mto the datk depths of the hiftory of a rOnotc 
intient people ; and I am unhappy in that F can 
fliew what I have been aiming at, and not what 
e hit. 
)uBLi», U««Bfcr, J783. 



The reader will find d further tllujirdtim cf the hollovi) 

hrafs RiKG, fig. 2, 3, 4. and of the hollow Ring-« 

Chaik fig. 5, Plate XIV. In the following Authors^ 

1 N Soimerat's voyage to the ^aft-Indies and to 
China, Vol. I. Plate 73, ^ is the figure of a Tadin^ 
a religious mendicant of the fe£t of Vichnou ; he 
is dancing and finging in honour of his Deity ; with 
one hand he beats time on a fmall tambouring and 
with the othdr on a brafs Crotal^ (before defcribed)* 
On the ankle of each leg^ is fixed a hollow brafs ring^ 
in which fome round pebbles have been introduced 
to add to the mufick. The Indian name of thefe 
Rings is Chelimbou. ^^ Le Tadin va mendiei' de 
^^ porte en porte en danfant & chantant les louanges 
** & les metamorphofes de Vichenou : pour 8*ac- 
^^ compagner, il bat d'une main fur une efpece de 
tambour, & quand il a fini chaque verfet il bat fur 


* Voyage auiC Indcs Orientales & a la Chine, fait par ordre 
da Roiy depnis i774Jufq'eo 17&1. Par M. Sonacnit. a Paris, 
17829 3 Ton. 4to. 

M 2 ^^ un 


*' un flatttm de cutvre arcc une baguette qu'il tient 
•* dans les deux premiers doigts dc rautremain: 
*' ce plateau lui pend au deflbus du poignet, & 
** rend un fon tres-fort & tres-aigu. Sur le che- 
** ville dcs pieds, il porte des mmeaux dc cuitic 
que Ton appelle Chelimboui ces anneaux font 
creu & remplis de petits callous rond qui font 
beaucoup dc bruit." (Vol. I. page 258.) 
Plate yj^ reprefents another fed called Poutchari, 
devoted to the worihip of Manarfuami^ whidi is for- 
bidden by the Brahme's as being idolatrous. This 
fed go in groupes, commonly three together. 
Whilft they fing their hymns, one rings a fmall 
hand bell, another beats a tambourin, and a third 
ftrikes two hollow brafs rings together, lifting the 
right hand, high above his head, and holding the 
other near his center. (Vol. I. page 259.) 

Of the Ring-Chains, Kircher has treated largely 
in his CEdip. JEgypt. Theat. Hierogl. Vol. IV. this 
cxtraft is made from page 563. 

Catenarum quas 5yr^ vocaat, Origo. 

** Symbola Hieroglyphica uti ex omnibus mun- 
^' dalium rerum claflibus affumpta fuerunt, ita 
" magnae quoque virtutis & efficaciae, ob miram & 
*^ occultam cum fupramundanis cauiis connexionem 
*' fuiffe, ex -^gyptiorum opinione ampl^ in hoc 
opere demonflratum ex omnigena eruditione fuit ; 
neque enim quisquam fibi perfuadeat, primos 
hujus leteraturae inftitutores temer^ & fortuito 
quariunlibet obviarum rerum imagines ad facrs 
" fculpturae inftitutum adhibuiife, led eas fibi po- 
*' potiifimum, quas longo ftudio & €xperientia ex 




abditis naturalium chara&eris saorum figillk) adl 
mundaBas geniorum catenas magnam habere fr- 
militudinem, proprietatexn & anabgiam ooram^ 
«* afiumendas duzerunt/' 

^^ Qusc quidcm tanto putabaatur efiicaciores 
<* qiiaato majorem ad miwdany, alicujufi Catena nir- 
^ men choragum fimiUtiidinein expn]nd>ant; ut pra- 
'^ inde hinc^ numinum Cit/inw^ qiaas Syras ^€>caiity 
originem trazerint ; ad qnas. omnia ea, quas-five 
in Sidereo^ fire Hylso ixnnidoy m qnadrapedL- 
^ bus, volatilibus T^ctabSibuS) mmcraUbus, ad 
nximen cettx Cateiu^ cujufpiam pnefidem, analo- 
giam q\iandam virtutibas fuis praefeferre videban*^ 
** tur, tanquam numini iflius Catenas tutelae com- 
** mifla, affumenint.*' 
^^ Hoc pafto Catena Oiiriaca, Hermetica, Iflaca, 
Serapica, Memphtsea, atque innumeras alias, quas 
in AJhologia & Medecina adduximus, erant certse 
quaedam rerum ex diverforum mundorum ordi- 
nibus aflumptanim clafles^ in quibus fingulas res, 
quantumvis etiam difparatae, Numinis Catenas 
alicui prefidentis virtutes & proprietates expri- 
** mebant." 

This learned author in ^Egyptian antiquities 
reckons various kinds of chains from three links or 
rings, to feven : this accounts for that of five rings 
in our plate XIV. Thofc of three rings he thinks 
were dedicated to Ofiris, Ifis and Amnion. 

To this we will add the explanation of Joga by 

^ ivyyK cnim multae afcendunt lucidos mundos 
'^ iniilientes & in quibus fummitates tres funt, fub- 
" jedum ipfis princeps, fub hoc aliae, quae patris 

*' opera 





operaintdligentes intelligibilia fenfibilibusoperibus 
& corporibus rcvdcrunt/' (page 481.) " Quas 
quidem catenas tancae effecaciae ^ poteftada efle 
credebant, ut mox ac myftici eorum charaderes, 
juxta legum iacrarum pradfcripdonem, iimulachro 
^ fuiflent infculpd, hoc ipfo virtutem acquirere ad- 
^ mirandum contra omnes advcrfarum poteftatum 
<^ machinationes putareat.'' (Sarcher.) 

This accounts for the multitudes of thefe chains 
being found in Ireland. I have in my pofleffion a 
filver ring for the finger ; the device is one of thefe 
ring-chains-^Jt was found in a bog near Athlone,--* 
it contains alfo fome ^Egyptian charaders, 



From Charles 0*Conor, Efq ; t$ 
Colonel Vallancey. 

S I R, 

Your favourable reception of two letters of 
mine, on the Pagan ftate of IrelarBd^ encourages me 
to offer you a third, and I offer it with fome confi- 
dence, as wiiat I have written, and what I have now 
to add, will be found to receive no mean fupport 
from your own learned refearches on the origin and 
literature of the antient iiAabitants of this country. 
Your knowledge on this fubjed, was drawn from va- 
rious, but clear fources : mine muft be more con- 
fined, as it has been extra&ed chiefly, from the 
documents ftill prefeired in our antient language. 
In the darknefs which enveloped our earliefl: domef- 
tic accounts, I found fome obje£ls vifible, and in* 
deed diftind enough, to enhance expeftation, that 
diofe on which time had caft a fuller light, would 
be worthy of attention. I have endeavoured to 
ihow, that many fads expofed in our more antient 


io8 Mr. O * C O N O R ' s 

repoTtSj are not the inventions of our old Bards, 
but the remains of fome memorable tranfa&ions, 
over which poetic licenfe had fpread a garb of fa- 
ble, in the times which preceded the more en- 
lightened periods of civilization. In labouring to 
feparate the true from the falfe, I had the exam- 
ple of many able antiquaries to juftify me, as I had 
the example of others to guard againft, who on the 
prefent fubjed, publiflie4 little eUe, befides their 
ignorance and confidence. In the moft celebrated 
countries of Europe^ as well as in this detached 
ifland, many important truths regarding the early 
ftate of mankind, have been obfcured in the iables 
of the poets, our firft hiftorians. It was thus even 
in Greece^ whofe old inhabitants borrov(ed die ele- 
ments of their knowledge, from nations they after- 
wards ftyled Barbarians. Thm earUeft accQunts 
are fhrouded in fi^on and mythology, and to drip 
o£F that covering, has given employment to fome 
great names of the laft and prefent century. They 
laboured with great advantage to literature, and 
added to the fum of our knowledge. They would 
{till add more, had they undertaken the prefent 
fubjeft, and previoufly ftruck out for themfclvej^ 
the lights you have ftruck out for others, who may 
hereafter employ their abilities upon it, to difcover 
the antient courfe of governnient and mannera in 
Ireland^ through the feveral ftages of youth, oiatu- 
rity and decline. But this fubjed fhould be under- 
taken in the prefent age, before the documents we 
have left are loft, or rather before the few who can 
read '^nd explain them, drop into the grave. 



Some of thofe i^aterials difperfed ia England and 
France^ cannot readily be confulted. Some that I 
have been collecting for many years are valuable ; 
and of fome equally valuable, put into my hands by 
CoL Cwmingham and yourfelf, I have (I think) 
made fome good ule. I was fiair from being dif- 
couraged by an idea induftrioufly propagated, that 
the old annals of this country, axe unprodudive of 
the inftruSion which hiitory fliould afford, for rec- 
tifying civil legiflation, or fecuring the juit rights q£ 
individuals in every degree of fubordination. I was 
as little obftruded by another idea, which undouibt^ 
edly has plauftbility to countenance it. Many fen- 
fible men cwnot conceive, how a nation rfiflandersj 
cut c^ for many ages, from intelledual intercourfes 
with Greece and R^me^ could antecedently to the re- 
ception of Chriilianity, tranfmit any hiftprical me- 
morials of themfelves, while the other ncM'therfi n^ 
tions of Eurt^ tranfmitted none, 'till inflxuded by 
the example of their Roman conquerors. This ne- 
gative argument, and the great pains taken c^ late, 
to fhew its fufficiency, might have weight with your- 
felf, fir, on your revolving this uncommon circum- 
ftance firft in your mind. But on refle&ion, you 
did not think it enough, to refl upon a bare n^a- 
tive, and you found no difficulty in iuppofrng, that 
this nation undifturbed through many ages, by 
foreign invaiion, might in their Pagan flate, obtain 
the elements of arts and literature, from inftrudors 
different from thofe of Greece and Rome. On ex- 
amination, you difcovered ftrong maxks of fiich an 
event, and they led you to conceive, that this fe- 
queftered people^ might in favourable conjun&ures, 


no Mr. 0*C O N O R's 

improve the rudiments of fdence they fortunately 
received ; and that once pofleflM of the means ^ they 
did not negleft the fra6lice^ of regifteriag the opera- 
tions of their own minds, on every fubjeft that oc- 
curred to them. Examples of fuch improvements 
in other countries, and in early times might be pro- 
duced, and fatally, fome examples alfo, of a relapfe 
to the favage ftate, through conquefts and extirpa- 
tion. But fuch calamities, in the extreme, vere 
never experienced in Ireland. 

On this fubjed you have been almoft fingular in 
hitting on means of inveftigation, the moft effe£hial 
for obtaining the certainty which removes doubts, 
and filences controverfy. They are means which no 
Britifh Antiquarian, before you, the excellent Mr. 
Lluid excepted, had the patience to employ. To 
your knowledge of the Hebrew^ SyrthChaldaic^ and 
other oriental tongues, from which the Pbtenician 
was derived, you have with great labour, added the 
knowledge of our own Iberno^CelfiCj as prcfervcd 
in our old books ; and thus enabled to compare the 
latter with Xht former ^ you could on finding in the 
language of Ireland^ a much greater number of 
Hebrew and Punic terms, than could fall in by mere 
accident, conclude that the tradition among the old 
natives, of early intercourfes between their An- 
ceftors and the Orientals, is well-grounded. You 
made the trial, and, very probably, fucceeded be- 
yond your expedation. This led you to examine 
whether the writings which contained the words^ 
had retained ^nyfads alfo, which might be quoted 
as additional proofs of thofe early intercourfes. In 
this refearch likewife, you had fuccefs : Prepared by 


no prejudice in favour of our domeftic reports^ you 
have examined them with the circumfpedion, and 
with the doubts alfo, of fevere criticiim. On more 
than one capital pointy you found their evidences 
coniiftent: You found them fatisfa£lory alfo, and 
the lights you received impelled you to feek for 
more. In the ancient religious rites of Ireland^ you 
found feme that were not of Celtic^ or pure Druidic 
cxtra£tion, but in oriental hiftory, you immediately 
difcovered the fource, from whence thofe religious 
rites have been ^orrowed. 

On fuch fouiklations, the confronting of domeftic 
with foreign teftimonies, muft be found ufefuL 
Some confronted by myfelf in former effays you 
have not rejeded ; on the contrary, your fuperior 
erudition brought additional force to fome of the 
fa&s I have paralleled : and doubtlefs, it is not a 
little extraordinary, to find feveral reports of our 
oldeft bards, confirmed by old Greek writers i 
though it could not appear fo, but that we know, 
the reporters on one fide, could not poflibly hold any 
communication with the reporters on the other. 

By comparing the languages of nations, you could 
trace the fpeakers of each, to their true origin. The 
language of the Phanicians^ you foupd to have a 
dofe kindred with the Hebrew ; — ^that of the an- 
tient Irijh to be Scytho-Celtic^ derived from the pri- 
mcEval language brought into Europe hythtCeltes and 
Scythians. How, therefore, the language of Ireland^ 
(a country vaftly remote from the nearcft parts of 
Afia) could be mixed with a great number of orien- 
tal terms, you have accounted for. — You have proved 
from authentic hiftory, that in an early age, a fwarm 


112 Mr. 0<C O N O R ' 8 

of Scythians have fettled themfelves on the con- 
fines of Falejiine and Fhaniciay where they had aa 
opportunity of adopting fome rites of the Hebrew- 
Theology, and of learning fome oriental Arts. 
Whatftay they made in thofe parts, before they 
took another flight is not known, but that they mi- 
grated weftward, and traverfed various regions from 
time to time, which bordered on the Mediterranean^ 
Tyrrbine^^nd Mgean feas, you have fufficiently (hewn, 
lliat a party of thefe Scythian rovers (hould in the 
courfe of ages, find their way to the Britannic^ifles^ 
we need not deny, as the fad is poilible; and 
denial will be vain, when the fad is proved true. 
It will reduce fome modern hypothefes into a he^ 
of ruins- 
Several of thefe fafts extraded by you, fir, from 
foreign documents, are paralleled by fimilar paflages 
in our b$^k of Migrations. Therein we have a re- 
cital, that the leaders of the laft heathen Colony, 
who poifeiTed Inlandj were of Scythian extraction, 
and named themfelves Kinca Scuity i. e. defcendants 
oi Scythians. That in the eaft, they learned the 
ufe of fixteen letters from a celebrated Pheniusyhota 
whom they took the name of Phenii or Pheniciani ; 
that the defcendants oi iim Phenius traverfed feve- 
ral countries, particularly, thofe bordering on the 
Mediterranean and Greek feas, that they failed 
through the ftraights of Hercules^ landed on the 
iiland of Gadir [[Cadiz], and having failed along 
the weftern coafts of Spain^ fettled there among the 
Celtes of that country, and particularly in Brigantia : 
that finally, they failed from Spain to Ireland^ where 
they have put an end to their peregrinations and 



dMkflers, and made a lafting lettlement. I need not 
inform you, fir, that thefe accounts are fwelled with 
t(ie fabulous and marvdious: It is enough that 
fomc of the principal feds are fupported by parallel 
relations from foreign hiftory. 

Of this origin of the Scots from Scythians y and of 
their mixture widi the Celts of Spain^ and of dicir 
arrival in Ireland from that country, the tradition 
has been inTaxiable. It has been invariable among 
Ac • Scots of Britain alfo.f Ncnnius the Welfli anti- 
quary has recorded it, and the excellent Mr. Lluid,| 
has horn, refearches on our Celtic tongues, de-«. 
clared the expedition of the Scots from Spain to 
Ireland, an indubitable fad. In my former letters 

• Of the expeditioQ of the antient Scots from Spain to Ire^ 

land^ and of their cftablifhing colonies ia future times, in Norths 

Britain, all the hiftoriaos of the latter country have been full, 

dom to the feventeenth century. John dc Fordun, Hc&or 

Bocthitts, Bilkop Leily, and Chancdior Elfinftoa, have been 

ttDanimous on this head. So cooftant a tradition arooogft the 

old Caledonians was far from being rejeded by Bucbatman^ 

Thus he begins his fourth book, '' Cum nojlrst gent is hiflartam 

aggrederemuTy pauca vtfum eft fupra repetere : ea potlfimum^ qua 

a fi^ndarumvanltate ahefent^ et a vetujiss rerum fcriptoribus non 

Sfentirenu Fritnum omnium confians fama eft, quam plurima 

ttiam indicia confirmant, Hijpanorum muUitudinem^ Jive a poten^ 

tioribus domo pulfam. Jive ahundante fobole ultro prrfeHamy in 

Hiberniam tranfmifijfe : ejufque infula loca proxima tenure, &c. 

f Noviffirne venerunt Scoti a partihus Hifpania ad Hiberniam, 
Nen. edit, per Bertram. A. D. 1757. 

X Ninius and others 9 wrote many ages ftnce, an unqueftiomAk 
tratb nsdjcn thty ajferted the Scot\fh nations coming out of Spain, 
Sec Mr. Lluid's traailation of his letter to the Welfii, in Bilhop 
Ntcholfon'i Irifh Hiftorica] Library, page 228. 


114 Mr. 0*C O N O R*f 

to you, fir, I hare ezamined this matter more in de-* 
tail, and to thofe I refer. 

I (hall now take a Ihort view of our infuhr af* 
£dr8, and begin at the commencement of the Revo- 
lution now mentioned. After fome (harp confli^, 
the foreign invaders brought the old natives to fub- 
mit to their authority, and to a monarchical form of 
government eftablifhed, under very limited powers. 
It is remarkable, that the Scytbo-Cehic dialed intro- 
duced by thofe firangers, was fo intelligible to the 
old Belgian and Danan inhabitants, as to require no 
.interpreters between them. This fed ufeful to hif- 
tory, is of ufe in chronology alfo. In the times an- 
tecedent to the Roman conquefts in Gaulj the feveral 
Diale£ts of the Celtic j or Hcytbo-Celticj underwent 
no great variations in the weft, from the fhores of 
the Baltic to the pillars of Hercules. It was only 
when nations quitted the roving ftate, for fixed fct- 
tlements and regulated government, that thofe dia- 
lers were formed into diftind tongues of different 
fyntazes, and that the copioufhefs and ftrength of 
each, was in proportion to the degree of improve- 
ment made in die civilization of the Tpeakers. Of 
thefe Celtic tongues of different conftrudion, only 
two remain at this day preferved in old manufcripts ; 
one in Ir eland j and the other in Wales ; the latter ^ 
formed from the old Celtic of Gaul^ and xh^ former 
from that of Spain, mixed with Phoenician or Cartha-^ 
ginian terms. In both, we find a community of 
Celtic words, both being certainly derived from the 
primceval language of the greater part of Europe ; 
but the different fyntaxes of thofe words, prove de- 
monftrably that the old Scots of Ireland, and old 



Cambrians of Wales^ originated from dififerent Celtic 

The firft inhabitants of Ireland being fwarms 
mofUy from Britain^ fpoke the BritiJh^Celtic un* 
doubtedly ; but they fpoke it in its original fimplidtyt 
and with fmall variations — confined to a few words^ 
as the fpeakers were to a few ideas, it was adapted 
to the rudenefs, and accommodated to the igno- 
rance, of the earlier ages. Until the introdudion, 
or rather improvement of literature, the primceval 
Celtic was a language of great fterility. It fplit firft 
into dialeds ; and when civilization and letters were 
introduced, thofe diale&s (as I obferved before) 
were gradually formed into different tongues, — 
The dialed brought into Ireland by the Scots^ took, 
the lead (fo to fpeak) in forming the language of 
Ireland : But it took a long time, undoubtedly, be- 
fore it arrived at the energy, copioufnefs and har- 
mony we difcover in fome fragments of the heathen 
times, which are flill preferved. 

In fa£l, the tongues of Wales and Ireland on the 
Introdu^on of letters, and in the firft ftages of 
improvement, were no better than the imcouth dia- 
ieds of a people emerging from antient rudenefs. 
They muft expire with the caufes that gave them 
eziftence; and bad they furvived in monumental 
infcriptions to this day, they would be no more in- 
telligible to u^, than the Latin jargon in the days 
of Numa Pompiliusy would be intelligible to the Ro- 
man people in the times of Au^uftus. ^ . 

In this, and my former letters, I have been, per- 
haps, more minute on this fubjed of the antient 
languages of Britain and Ireland, than an epiftolary 


11^ Mr. 0*C O N E R's 

corrdpo pd encc reqnires. Widi your leave, I 
thought it proper (as another opportunity might 
not feoft offer) to cppofe facts, to fbme late hypo- 
thefes eftabliihed on very precarious authorities, and 
rendered Toluminous by bofe conjedures and ex- 
tended declamations. I have been equally minute 
on the origin of die iaft heathen colony diat pofielTed 
Ireland ; and die more, as in their pofterity, they 
became a moft: diftinguifhed nation in the iveft, by 
the name of Scots. Tlieir arrival from a Scytho- 
Cekic province of Spain, as well as their defccnt 
from Scythians, nrho travelled in an early age from 
Syria to Europe, Sire feds which required to have 
ftrong lights thrown on diem, as the excellent writer 
of the hiftory of Manchefttr^ has pronounced thofc 
feds febulous. In fliewing his miftake, I owe much 
to your alfiftance. 

* Tliough this Iaft pagan Colony have arrived from a 
country long poffeffcd by the Phoenicians and Car- 
thaginians, and imported hither the elements of arts 
and literature;; yet it mnft not be forgot, that they 
alfo introiduted the courfe manners of tbdr Scytho- 
Cekic ariceftbrs, and that on their arrival- in Ireland 
they mixed with a ftill coarfer people than diem- 
fclves. The arts in which they were initiated were 
yet in tlw^ir' infancy, and t)fteil neglefted in the 
etadle. ^ IVe are told, th^t after the cohqueft they 
made tX the /old inhabitants, their chief occupation 
confiftedlti cutting down i;5rood^, and marking room 
for themfelves in a country almoft covered over with 
forefts. That they alfo ctaployed a part of their 
time in building of Dunis, ftrufturcs of more than 
ordinary tanvenience for the habitations of their 



leading prfetce$.~Thi8 accmint may be wdH credit^ 
cd. Without fuch occupations, thofe New-comers, 
^{fould foon degenerate into ^ nfatidn of hunters and 

Tlie clearing the country of woods, ftiewB fiiat 
agriculture was not neglefted : But the form of go- 
Temment tm&H prove .a great impediment to the 
Improvement of arts. On the demife of Herem$n^ 
denominated thejirjl kiifg (fSnets ; we meet wi<fc a 
catalogue of fucceflors, taken oecafibnally from one 
■or other of the four families who claimed a right 
to regal elevation. Election became the fource of 
-Moody contentions, and a monarch rather intrsded, 
Iham chofeh, was neceffitated often to goVcrtij and 
to be governed, t)y a faftion. Scarcely any ^anie 
to the throne of Tcamor, but through the Mdod of 
"feas immediate 'predeceflbr. ' The conftitutiod Sn 
fome periods became a fpccies of militiry gove«»- 
-ment. We tneet' wiife princes of fcgiflative genius, 
who fought a fem'edy to fo great an evil, but ob- 
^Iriidcd by ciiftbiks too prevalent to be reirioved 
-fliorougMy, ffiiyc'bttiy oiiild apply palliative^, and 
-fiic tempwii^ ad^^nt&gesf adiniriiftered ih a long 
reign, under ^ Wife and popuiai* prtnce. Such ad- 
-vanteges -tttittei'^lUch a g'&veriiment cdme'^but fel- 
*>m. Thelx^-^f-the people iihpiie(fedwfth«ek- 
own impbrtfantt, ih tfte frequency of efeStei^, 
could notl>e bfodght'to part 'with a ruinoas fihietty. 
Wherein they could not, or would not fee the flavifli 
dependcftce on wtnch they held h- In the exceR of 
Ihe (Kftemper, an ' Ultonion prince named Achay^ 
^tiphaticOTjr ftylW 07&»r-i^7rf^^ mounted the throne, 
in the- m2miii^^*''df h& predeceffor§ : But what ho, 

N obtained 

ii8 Mr. O ^C O N O R's 

obtained by violence, he merited by his admirable 

He reigned long, and as one of his inftitutes had 
a happy effeft in tempering the manners of the peo- 
ple through the turbulent times which followed, a 
few obfervations on his conduct as a legiflator, may 
not be improper in this place.— Through an in- 
fluence which military power can never obtain, that 
martial prince prevailed, in the inflitution of the 
Teamorian Fes-, an affembly of the ftates, to be 
held triennially, for promulgating laws, and repref- 
fing the. crimes, which generate from civil aflbcia- 
tion, after quitting the favage ftate. Of the parti- 
cular ordinances of this firft Teamorian Senate^ wc 
have very few memorisds : They muft be imperfeS 
no doubt, as nece0arily conformed to the prejudices, 
and adapted to the manners, of a people emerg- 
ing from barbarifm, and perhaps ftill agitated by 
by the malevolence, which commonly fubfifts be- 
tween .an old nation and its recent cpnquerors. In 
the convulfions attending divided intereils, and in- 
truding . ambition^ OUam-Fodhla, fprefaw infrac- 
tions; of his laws; and in confequence, a fre- 
quent fufpeniion of the National Fts^ or fenate, 
which he inftituted : . Senfible, morieover, that le- 
giilation would be hurtful from ignorance, and rui- 
nous from the partialities of a fa£Hon, he applied 
the be(l remedy that could be devifed ifi • fuch cir- 
cumftances. He iludied with afliduity, and he 
brought others to ftudy the extent and proper ufesof 
the menjal faculties, as preparatory me^nsj for ob- 
taining the ends of good government. In this idea, 
he ereded the Mur-Ollavan at Termor j Sk receptacle 



for the order of Fileas, under whom the principal 
youth of the nation were to receive their education. 
His own example furniflied a rule, and his patron- 
age ferved as an incitement to philofophic exertion, 
in this college of the Fileas. He endowed them 
alfo, with inalienable property, and obtained immu- 
nities for them, which fuperceded every care, but 
fuch as attended the duties of their profeflion. 

For a long time the conduft of the Fileas was ir- 
reproachable. They began with fimple, but folid 
maxims, fuch as fearching minds ealily difcover* 
Happily they departed not from fimplicity in the 
progrrfs of their improvement, but taught what to do, 
and what to avoid, without entering into metaphy- 
fical refinements, which oftener darken than en- 
lighten, the knowledge we ftand moft in need of : 
They foon became refpefted by the chiefe of the na- 
tion, and their privileges, like thofe of the Druids^ 
were held facred. Even in the fierceft domeftic 
hoftilides, their diftrids were fpared, as any viola- 
tion of their property, or infult to their perfons, was 
attended with indelible infamy : a moft happy im- 
prellion this on the public mind, which in particular 
communities fecured the advantages of civil fo- 
ciety, amidft the horror of domeftic warfare, and 
prevented the evils of univcrfal depravity. 

Under Ollam-Fodbla^ and his fucceffors, the Druids 
had their feparate fanduaries alfo, for proteding 
others, as well as their own order from political 
perfecution. As miniftcrs of religion, their authority 
with the people was great, and crimes which hu- 
man laws could not reach, they in fome degree pre- 
vented, or at leaft leffened, through the faiidions 

N2 of 

I20 Mr. 0*C O N O R's 

of future puuiflunents in a future ftate. They 
preached the rewards of virtue alio in anodier life, 
when attended with no reward in the prefent. In 
this fervice the Druids were aflifted by the Fileas ; 
the truths of natural religion were the lefs dq>arted 
from^ and probably the wife OUam-fodla intended 
they fhould be a check alio, on an order of mea 
who (hewed a ftrong difpofition to ilrengthen their 
power over the people, through the effectual means 
of fuperfUtion and ignorance^ That in the pro»grela 
of time» great corruptions took place among the 
Druids, ibme of our old a^als inform us, and that 
they have been (^pofed, and c^pofed widi ibme 
fuccefs, by the Fileas, we are aflured alfo. 

The Gompofitions of the Fiieas, hiftorical and 
inoral, wer^ delivered in poetic numbers, adapted to 
the variations i|i the compofitions of their Orfidies, 
as the muficia^s were denominated* — Whatever the 
(ubjed; the heroic, the mirthful, or the dolorous^ 
corrdpondent mufic was prepared. In their pub* 
lie entertainments, in private aflbciations^ in funeral 
meetings, verfis and.fong in union, excited the paj^ 
fions intended to be tiaifed. Thi foul was either 
fwelled to an enthufiaftic imitation of a martiai an* 
teftry, or humanized, by attending to the di(brd9e$ 
of unfuccefsful heroes. In no nation had Ac. union 
of poetry and mufic more pow^rftil eSe^^ aad they 
operated to the times near our own. SpetUJtr, th* 
bed poer, and confcqucntly dle.beft judge of poetry of 
the fixtcenth century, acknowledged the- ej^ceUency 
of our Irifti compofitions, and as to our mtifig the 
three fpeeies of it were admirably fupported ia 



Ac prefent century by Cardan, a fine natural gefiius, 
ivfao died in 1738. 

The inilitution of the order of Fileas was the refult 
of profound refle&kxi, midoubtcdly. Whether they 
difcovered a capital truths or occafionally miftook 
error for it, in dieir inveftigation of the mental 
powerS) we may conclude from dieir undifturbed 
rqKife^ that dieir efforts were vigorous, and in moft 
inftaacea fuccdtful.-^Wc are however informed^ 
that in courfe of time, they deviated from their ori* 
ginal principles. From being inftrudors indiffe* 
ready to all parties and mediators in their public 
contefts, they became incendiaries^ and inc^ndia^ 
ries, of the worft kind, from the influence of their 
eloquence. In the firit ceotury of our era, they 
were expelled, as nuifancies, out of four of our 
provinces. Through the power and inteipofition 
of Concovar Mac Ntjfk^ king of U^er^ they were 
reilored to their former immunities, but put under 
a new reform, on the firft principles of their inftitu- 
tion, which for a confiderable time had a good eSied. 
In the third century, during the rdgn of the philo- 
fi:^hic Cormac Cuitmy they afifled that monarch in 
his conteil with the Druids, and edified the public 
by their conduct, from that time down to the re- 
cq>tion of the gofpel, and for a whole century after 
that happy change to true religion. In the fixth 
century they relapfed again to the old corruptions. 
They inflamed domeftic contentions by virulent in- 
ve&ives, and invidious panegyrics. Public admi^ 
jiiftration was infulted, and its mifbikes were exag-* 
gerated ; private characters were invaded, and the 
peace of families pij^ic and private^ was equally 


132 Mr. 0*C O N O R's 

deftroyed. A remedy was applied in the great 
Council of Drumkeat^ A. D. 590. Through the in- 
terpofition of fome princes, aiiifled by the celebrated 
Columb Kille^ the Ftleas were again reduced to order. 
OUam-Fodbla died at Teamor. He. was fucceeded 
by three fons who reigned one after the odier in 
regular fucceffion. The wifdom of dieir adminiftra- 
tion kept a turbulent people in quiet ; but the fpirit 
of their father's government, did not defcend to his 
grandfons. One confpired againft a reigning uncle, 
and ufurped his throne. The ufurper fell in the 
war raifed againft him by another of thofe grandfons, 
who likev/ife feized on the government of the king- 
dom, avenging a father's death, and gratifying his 
own ambition at the fame time. Thus did Mifnile 
commence, in the family which laid the foundations 
of law and of a regular civil conilitution. The third 
grandfon of Ollam-fodla^ who waded to regal power 
through the blood ofhispredeceffor, was cut oflF in turn 
by his fucceffor. The pofterity of the Ultonian le- 
giflator was for the prefcnt excluded from the throne 
of Teamor. The Hercmonian line was reftored to 
its former regal authority in the perfon of Sioma^ 
though advanced to a great age. 

This revolution which brought about a change of 
family, had good confequences during the life of a 
wife and old monarch. But after a reign of twenty 
one years, public peace was difturbed by the am- 
bition of Rotheada^ prince of the Momonian He- 
berians. He made war on Siorna^ killed him in 
battle, and had his vidory rewarded by being ele- 
vated to the throne of- Teamor. This new revolu- 
tion involved fatal confequences. The claims of 



fcur families, who formerly had a right to regal fuc- 
ceiSon, were revived* Through a period of near 
two hundred years, the nation had hardly any re- 
pofc ; the greater part of the time was wafted in 
bloody contefts, nor have we now any documents, 
which make a proper diftin£tion between the legi- 
timate monarchs of the nation, and the intruded 
monarchs of a faction. We have before us only a 
catalogue of kings, moft of whom were fet op, and 
acknowledged, by their feveral parties ; princes of 
whom nothing is recorded, but that they killed one 
another in battle, and obtained power from violence, 
rather than law. Their civil diforders offer us no- 
thing but confufion and obfcurity. 

Civil evils brought to fuch an excefs, necefTarily 
produce fooner or later a change for the better* 
In the inftance before us a remedy was applied by 
three able and popular princes, whofe names- deferve 
to be recorded, yiddb roe^ Dithorba and Kinibaotb^ 
of the Ultonian line* They fet up a fpecies of Re- 
publican monarchy of which we have, I believe, no 
example in hiftory. With the fenfe of the nation 
on their fide, they agreed to rule alternately by 
feptennial adminiflration. Kimbaoih was the laft, 
and the ableft of thofe adminiftrators. He erefted 
noble buildings at Eamania^ which thence forward 
became the feat of the provincial kings of Ulfter ; 
feveral of whom are much celebrated by their good 
government, and their patronage of ufcful arts. 
JfiVn&7c/i&, the founder of the Eamanian regulations, 
was fuccecded in the throne of Tecmor^ by Macha^ 
his queen, a moft extraordinary heroine ; who to 
the amiable qualities of her own fex, added every 


124 Mr. 0*C a N O R's 

mafcvlkie eackmmept wbidi could r^comnoMmd the 
otber, %o popularity aad affeiftk^ Sbe was the 
GBif fepiale that tb6 mooA ever j permitted to reign 
over the whole kingdom. 

That queea^ a»)u&£kly with her hoibwd Kim- 
ba^iAy preferved the Heremonian line (which became 
ahttoft extind) m the perfon of yoimg Hi^my. 
They adopted him» and his natural taletrts rendered 
lum wor&y of the education they gave him. Macha 
, warred upon by Reacbt4 Ridarg of the Munfler 
Hebcriam, commanded her troops m periba againft 
that prince^ and £adling in battle, ended her reiga 
glorioDfly. Her advertsffy feized on her throne^ 
and diflinguifhed him&l£ by martial adventures iit 
North Britain. Huggny^ having arrrved at full ma- 
tufity, called him home^ ta defend by arms, die tide 
he obtained by arms; Reachta fell, in the ei^ge* 
ment with this young sulverfiiry* Hugany revenged 
the death of his protedlreisy and by a general adop^ 
tion of the people, was proclaimed monarch of the 

wfa(^ illand« 

This w^s a great reVoliitiail, becaufe it was pro* 
du£live of gfeat a&ioni. Before I enter on the 
chatiges made by Hugmy^ I ihall, with your kave^ 
take a retrofped of the antecedent times from Hers 
m^n to Kimbaotb^ and his adopted fon. Tigemaebi 
and other antiquaries have pronounced oor accounts 
of thoiis times uncertain; and thus it is. doubtlds^ 
in the infancy of all profane hiflory. Our antient 
genealogies of the four royal families of the Mi^ 
l^iott Rofc^ vary fr^m each other, and are very 
inaccurate in the copies^. Several generaiiQixB are 
Ibifted in, to countenaKje the fc&eme of technical 



cfaroBoIogy> vrhich ferae fenadues have fovmedi for 
eftabli&iQg a higher antiquity of the Irifli monarchyy 
than is confiftent with the ilate of arts and civiliza- 
tion in Europe before the commencement of the 
Perfian empire. Tigemach therefore, and the anti- 
quaries I have mentioned, are in a general view, 
very right in their judgment : yet in the obfcurityof 
the earlier periods of our hiftory, fome charadcra 
appear with brilliancy. Amergin^ one of the leaders 
of the colony of Sc6U frcnn Spam, has been through 
all the fucceeding times, celebrated for his ki^owledge 
even in the infancy of £cieace. Uchadan of Cuala 
has been celebrated alfo for his (kill in metalt^rgy^ 
and his ere£iing his finelting forges on the baii^ 
of the Liffey* In the fame ^urly age, We read of 
the art of dying cloaths, in the reign of the mo^ 
narch Tigemmasj who difgraced himfelf by the tn« 
troda£lion of idolatry into the Druidie religion; 
finally, we read of Ollam^Fodbla^ confpicuous in^ a 
particular manner, through his legiilation, and hi$ 
endowment, as well as regulation of the order of 
Fileas. Such men are vifible in the darknefs for*- 
rounding them : like beams of fun ihlne, which 
through the opens of a dark (ky, enlighten the 
fpots of ground they fall upon. 

Hugony began his reign by bringing the ftates of 
the nation to confent that for the future,the monarchy 
ihould be cofliined to one royal family only; and 
they all have bound themfelves by the moft Iblemn 
religious tefts, to continue the regal authority in 
Hugony' J poflerity. It was ieemingly a wife inftita- 
tion in a country long torn by inteftine divifions, 
occafioned by the claims of feveral families to a par- 

126 Mr. 0*C O N O R'f 

ticipadon of regal power: but through the negled^ 
or perhaps the difficulty of eftablifhing the right of 
fncceffion by primogeniture ; this conftitution of 
Hugony failed in the third generation. 

The art of navigation introduced by the Phoeni- 
cians, and by a colony from Spain,, was not XoXi for 
a confiderable time in Ireland^ nor exchanged for 
the wicker veflels (of later ages) covered only with 
cow hides. With a well appointed fleet, Hugony 
failed along the coaft of Gaulj where he landed, and 
foon efpoufed the daughter of a Gallic prince, by 
whom he had a numerous offspring. Thence he 
failed into the Mediteranean and Tyrrhene feas, and 
from this voyage we have a proof that the people 
of /r^Ai/i^had ftill kept up intercourfcs wMi Spain 
and with the Carthaginians, who were mafters of a 
great part of that country. Had we the detail of 
Hugony*! voyages, they would doubtlefs, throve 
very confiderable, and ufefiil lights, on our antient 

Before Hugony* s • time, Ireland was divided into 
five provinces, each governed by a prince of great 
family and connections, with privileges and powers 
alfo too great, for the proper exertion of monarchical 
authority, over thofe fubordinate ftates. To remedy 
this evil, Hugony had fufficient influence to diflblve 
thofe provincial governments. He parcelled out 
the kingdom into twenty-five diftrifts, named from 
twenty-five of his own children he appointed for 
their govcrment. On thefe diftrids the revenues of 
the monarchs, were for a confiderable time cefled, 
and coUeded. 



This change from an Oligarchical, to an Arifto- 
cratic monarchy, had at worft, a better efted than 
the former conftitution ; and, during Hugonyh own 
time, it produced the good intended. On the mur- 
der of that great prince, by the hands of a brother, 
Laogary Lork^ a younger fon of Hugony^ feized on 
the throne of Teamor, in prejudice to his eldeft bro- 
ther Cobtach : A civil war was the confequence, 
and it defcended fatally to their pofterity. ITie na- 
tion diftrefled by their contefts, fought a temporary 
relief, at Icaft, from recalling to the throne, the fa- 
milies excluded, by the late law of fuccef&on. Mo^ 
corb (Grandfon of ReaSta Ridarg mentioned above) 
was favoured by the people in making war on Melga^ 
the reigning monarch, and had fuccefs. On de- 
feating and killing his fovereign again in battle, he 
was proclaimed monarch of the whole ifland. 

Between Mocorb*s pofterity and thofe of Hugonyj 
civil wars for dominion were continued ; and the 
people fenfible, too late, of fighting for the heads of 
parties only, called the Ultonian Race of Ollam-Fodla 
to the throne. Rudericy king of Uljier^ by defeat- 
ing and cutting off the Hugonian reigning monarch 
Crimthan Cofgrach^ took the general confequence of 
fuch viftories. His troops led him to Teamor imme- 
diately, and was there (about eighty-five years be- 
fore the chriftian era) proclaimed king of Ireland. 

On this laft revolution, the Hugonian fuccelTion, 
ratified in its inflitution by the moft folemn, civil, 
and religious tefts, was utterly fufpended, and in 
appearance abolifhed. After Ruder ic*s death the 
government of the kingdom was contended for, be- 
tween the families of Ulfter and Munfter, through 



128 Mr. 0*C O N O R's 

fix reigns. General mifrule made way finally, for 
the reftoratkm of the Hugtmians in the perfon kA 


Achay owed his elevation to his condud and cou- 
rage, through his vi&ory over Facbtna^ the reigning 
Ultonian monarch; who like his predeceflbrs, 
would not outlive the lois of his diadem ; but fdl 
in battle. His fucceflbr began his reign, by a ftrain 
of policy, which to us at this diftance, appeazs unac- 
countable. He utterly abolifhed the Htq^osiian Ari- 
ftocracy, and reftored the antient provincial govern- 
ments. By entering into matrimonial alUsinces 
with fome of the new provincial kings, and ftrength- 
ening the Degad Hugonian family in the government 
of Munflier, he provided for the quiet of his own 
reign ; and if he obtained regulations for keeping the 
governors of provinces, within bounds confilteat 
with monarchical authority, it is certain that they had 
no long duration. After the happy reign of bis fuc- 
ceffor Conary (A. D. 60). Crwahan Nia Narjf^ 
gained renown in his foreign expedition, at a time 
when yuli us jigricola fuccecded in fubduing the Pids, 
allied at that time, with the Irijh Scots. Notwith- 
ftanding the great fuccefs of the Roman general, yet 
our old books inform us, that Crimiban returned to 
his kingdom laden with fpoils. As he kept his 
court at * Bcn-hedar, he probably, had fome fuc- 
cefs againft a Roman party in the neighbouring ifle 
of Angkfej^ then called Mona-Conahi. 

The death of Crimiban (A D. go) by a faill from 
his horfe, was fucceeded by a revolution, which 

* Now the Peninfttla of Howth,Bcar Dublin* 



^veatencd deftni&ion to ^ royal lines which go- 
Teraed Ireland for feveral ages* The princes of the 
Mile/uM Race, endeavoored at this period, to re^ 
dttce the Belgians^ and other tribes of the old Britijh 
inhabtiantSy to . a ftate of fenritude ; a policy the 
nore CKtraordinary, as the fike was never attempted 
before, in thi$ or in any odier northern country. 
Ituras inftoleraUe to die Be'giamy who itili were 
poffefled of a power in Lnnfter and Cormqgbt^ and in 
iSi the pTDTiaces had fanned the majority of the 
fm^e* The weakeft pardes among them, though 
ftripped of power, had always preferved peribnal* 
liberty, and impraring the opportunity for a general 
revok, ihtj arofe under Carbry^ . a bold and fkilful 
Ittder, and fubdning aM oppofitton, they feated him 
ontheftooe of Deftxnyat7A»cr, and proclaimed him 
ling of Irelmd. iditer this fuccefia, Carbry reigned 
C'^r the Iri& nation for five yearsy and died on his 
p •ow ; an end which was feldom the fate of any of 
k iV///^« paredeqclfors. ■ 

Umm the fon of Carhry did not .mount a throne 
which his father obtained by an ufurpation, juftified 
by the neceifity of the times^ By a greatncfe xi 
foul, of which little ,men are incapjibfc, Moran pre- 
vailed ia difpofisng the people -to cail Feradacb^ fori 
^i the late monan:h Crimthan to the throne of his 
Anceftors. Feraduch was not ungrateful; on his 
acccflion, he put his reflorer at the Jfee^d of bis coun- 
cil*, aad between them was experienced, one of the 
happieft reigns, recorded in Irifli hiftory. Under their 
»^Bwniftration, a gpod ufe wfesmade of Ac Jisdhan 
Morainn of which you giv*: ib dear an account in 
fm leaned refearchca. 


130 Mr. 0*G O N O R's 

In a few years after the deceafe of Feredach (fur-' 
named ihejujf) the body of the people, headed by 
the provincial kings, hoftile to the Hugonian line, 
began another infurredion, and placed £//>«, king 
of Ulfter on the throne of Teamor. Tuatbal^ the 
fon of Fiacba-finolay and grandfon of Feradach the 
juft, was obliged to fly into North Briton ; where 
he was prote£bed under his grandfather king of the 
Pids, 'till parties at home were formed for refto- 
ring him to the dignity^ and to more than the power 
of his royal Anceftors. In the year 1 30 (as I have 
•noticed in my former letters) Tttatiaif with a body 
of forces, landed in Ireland, fubdued all his ene- 
mies, and reigned during a period of thirty years. 

The lights which you, (ir, have from your orien- 
tal erudition, cad on the origin, religion, and Utera- 
ture of the antients of this weitem country, incited 
me to re/umcy and I truft will incite others to begin, 
inquiries into the internal (late of manners and go- 
vernment among its inhabitants, from the times 
wherein they were obliged to truft folely, to the im- 
provements they could make on the elements of 
knowledge, which you have demonftrated to be im- 
ported hither in an early age. I have in a particu- 
lar manner been attentive to the laft Pagan people 
who took pofleffion of this ifland, and brought its 
old Bridfh inhabitants to fubmit to their fupremacy. 
This colony have denominated themfelves Srarf or 
Scois^ and in the progrefs of their power they were 
known by the fame name to the Romans. The 
Epocha of their arrival cannot be afcertained with 
any precifion, through the inaccuracy in our regal 
genealogies, and through the vanity of fomc Sena- 



chies alfo, who to gain a high antiquity, have made 
no diftindion between intruders and legitimate mo- 
narchs, but put them in regular fucceilion to each 
other, as a fon fhould fucceed to a father in a 
courfe of hereditary right. This catalogue has been 
juftly rejeded by Tigernach^ and other of our antiqua- 
ries, from the reign of Heremon down to the Eama- 
nian sra ; and of the monarcbs who Succeeded to 
that era, Tigernacb mentions but a few from die 
reign of Kimbaoth^ to the revolution under Tuathal 
the acceptable. We may therefore reft fatisfied, that 
the Iriih antiquaries, who date the arrival of the 
Sr0/j, from the time which followed the commence- 
ment of the Perfian empire under Cyrus the great, 
come neareft to the truth. 

In thiS) and in my former two letters, addrefied to 
you, fir, I have endeavoured to convey fbme ufeful 
idea of the ftate of this ifland through the revolu- 
tions anterior to the fecpnd century of our chriftiai:^ 
era. From the beginning, one monarchy was efta- 
bliflied on principles, abfolutely neceiTary to civil 
affodation. But our government was originally de- 
fedive, through the onufiion, or perhaps the difE- 
culty, of putting liberty itfelf under proper legal re- 
ftraints. In a word, the antient ftate of Ireland 
may be compared to one, by turns thriving and 
fickly in his infant ftate, gathering fti^ength with his 
growth, but fubjed to convulfions, though with fome 
intenniifions, in his moft fiourifhing ftate. The firft 
part of this defcription regards chiefly the times an- 
terior to the fuccefTion of Tuathal the acceptable, 
the fecond relates to the three ages which preceeded 
the mifSon of faint Patric5 by far the moft iriftruftive 


132 Mr. O^G O N O R's 

part of bifli hiftory : Of that cnli^tened period I 
puipoie to trouble you with a foufth letter, (hculd 
you think this worthy of a piace in die CoUec* 

You know, fir, from what materials I have bor- 
rowed moft of what I have hhherto advaiKed, on 
tbe pagan ftate of Ireland* In an adver tifemem pre- 
fixed to my firft letter, the chiefeft are enumerated, 
and £bme of my deficiencies may be accounted for, 
through wattt of accefs to other valuable documents 
Icatteted in France and 'England^ written in the an- 
tient language of this coimtry ; inteDigfble but^ to a 
&W, and I *nay fey negiefled by the' far greater 
4Uimber of my countrymen, moft of what is ufcfiil 
in thofe manufcripts, may be loon loft to the pub- 
lic ; and. tbe- flight put upon them, has encreafed the 
mumber of wild fchemes lately piibHfted^ on die 
fiibjed I have undertaken in thefe letters ; of theft 
themes, the author of OesfAN, and^is namcfeke 
Dr. Mac P/vr/&» have beeft th^ moft eonfpicuotts 
iabricaitors ; but in juftice^- we muft own, that our 
-countryman ]V£r. £^^^r</,' has pitched 4!he bar be- 
yond all our artifts in. iiypothetic hiftory^ ' In repre- 
llcniiing the ancient Seiu, ** ps an aggri^dte'tf'Vtf^a- 
*' iondsy fwho Jo lutem the Jenth odniiiry^-'h^A m 
/^ SOME ME A«TirR:E5 confined dieir Rejldence fb parih 
*' ctdar fp^ts ;^* he pin^Uihtt his ignorattr.^., and 
lirrough the far greater part of his tbpof:rM^hv of 
Ireland^ he pubUflies bis dreams, withom ^nj jnalk 
-of pfanifibie argumient, to fet off* the iixnt^ranre or the 
dreams : If itideed, it be- a merit, thA*- he eivr^? out 
the leaft jabour for an adverfary, he Joubtl^ft e'^- 
joys it, beyond any writer antient or modern. 



Vour ifM^h^ tW, is df ^oifeer kind; v^eu'have 
cue oiit trotk, n0 dc^bti fer xsntkiAtt dnd ^ruriofity : 
bat St is to fAib^tie^ incredulity ^ ^d to gun adverfa- 
neato j<Mt Me^ ^ fefcie caj^tdl fk£b^ ili4iieli will 
bear no controvetfy^as #el) a^ by {^obabte fa£is^ fo 
vhkb, in yc^ niw^r of af^lytng Atefe, ft# fifties 
vitt obj€a» Alt 4lii9 h Wi^j tthtive tb tilie fdiirees 
^0in^iS^faiiih yoti;b{KV€f deHved l&e matefiaJs of tmr 
aafidltt(la^^age^^th«-#udimett(s of our vai&€ik lite- 
iiiliuve^ and^^d ftindMienfats oif otrr iaiSifH fbeo- 
togy,' tycit fdl &i» is -not enough, rtlatire to oiir ih- 
te^^iiPfiif^ory, fro<h ^lie time thitt ^ inhabitants of 
this ifland'fe^atxfe a detached pedj^le^ cxdiided'iTom 
all intelledual int^rCQprfes with the polifhed nations 
of Europe. The' public will expert a knowledge of 
our infulaf fta(6^4i(M;:from\fu[l^ded reprefentationSy 
from me, who have .b^^p born in this country, or 
even frotn yddrfdf ^sObo liave been born in anotbjsr ; 
>i4t.frpQi 4;)^4iiit9x4cal matter tlUtp^efefvedf in our 
old books, aiid tbat, in the origin^ and fimple form^ 
with a Latin or Engtifli tranflation in a feparate co- 
lumn. This is "^zf^T.^PUi/ltie has recommended 
in his letter to you of Auguft laft. In this as in 
iitid(b either 'iiiftadceft,' the jiidgMieht ^-^isgt truly 
gi^batr mafi is de€i!(tve, 4fflld happy witl^^^fe ^nations 
be, if guid%d: by his judg^ieftis te gte9:ter matters. 
Iii^l^tiim to*ybW iM((fe#llA^^ <jlb[ttyi$y that, 
^* YovfhsLvekifiikit4 ifiert?iA>|he t^ftoyQulbsy^^ven 
^* of ibmc ^ our manuftripes,- in feveral olyour 
^* c^HeAiMS'/Mbut^hd^dds, ^ ^h equal |ttftiGe, 
^ tluit youn -AiBlraf^s ^nly ene^e^^ the c^riofity, and 
^ ibe.jiift 4e«^^fld €^f the publfe'fer feme intjre 
" pfece^f** and^te'fuWheradtfs, *<that 'tfff thfeis 

Yo h. tV. No. Xin. O « done. 

C '34 ] 

^^ done, the andent period of Iriih hiftory, which 
*^ precedes official records, cannot be iaid to ftand 
^^ upon proper authority/' In fimsfying this de- 
mand of the public, no man has been more adive 
than your worthy friend CoL Burton Cunningbam. 
He has been equally adive in improYing the modem 
ftate of his native country, in every pradicable mea- 
fure, and particularly, in labouring to open to it, an 
inezhauftible treafure long n^leded, and yet with- 
in our graip, on our fea coafts, I mean our fifliery : 
Of the honour done me under his roof, as well as 
under yours, I ihall ever retain a grateful memory ; 
I therefore need not aflureyou that I am. 


Your very faithful, and 

, Obliged Servant, 
Dec. 10^ 1783. CH. O'C O N R. 


Therfe cannot, in my opinion, be a ftronger tefti- 
mony, of the truth of • the Irifh hiftory, relating 
to the time ofHugapy^ as estraded by Mr. O^Conor, 
in the preceding pages, than in. the name of Hugonjj 
or Ugon^ Ugolne or ^Jgain^ as it is written by the 
Iriih. The learned Dr. Swipton, has noticed this 
name in a paifage of Homer, and proved it to be of 
Oriental origin, in fo able a manner^ I ihall here 
tranfcribe the Doctor's words, from page 7, of his 
Diffirtatio de Lingua Etrurim Regatu Yernacula. 


Linguae Pelafgica %r Hebraea vel una Ademqae 
faere, vcl parum inter fe diffimilcs— Quod Phry- 
gum & Lydorum linguam attinet, de hac vix quic- 
quam ccrti ab authoribus traditum invenimus ; at 
Orientalcs plurimum redoluifle fuadent cum tcfti- 
monia fupra allata,tum ejufdemrarae^quae abHome* 
TO & Hcrodoto aflervantur^ lacinis. Quippe quum 
Fhoenices, Pelafgi, Phrygcs, & Lydi vcl pro parum 

*' diverfis, Tel pro uno eodemque habeantur populo, 
ut ex prius obfervatis faltem fit verifimilC) aequo 
jure colligitur Phrygum & Lydorum linguam vix 

'* leviter ^ Phoenicia & Pelafgica difcrepuifle : neque 
Phrygas & Lydos diverias fuiiTe nationes primitus 
fas eft fufpicari, cum contrarium liquido evincat 

'^ Herodoti, Diodori — -Siculi, Sindari, Paufaniae, 
Strabonis, & Plutarch! authoritas ; quod duximus 
notandum, ne fidem hiftoriae hac in re negligen- 
tiu8 videamur fecuti, unde propofito nos minus 
latisfecifie. viri do£bi arbitrentur. His pofitis, ut 
lucidior appareat Veritas, vocabula quaedam Phry- 
giae Lydiaeque originis, ad Homero & Herodoto 
defumpta, jam in medium proferemus: primus 
igitur Homerus in arenam defcendat, canens. 






Loquclam duplicem hoc loco & alibi memorat 
'^ Poeta ; alteram Diis propriam, hominibus alteram. 
^' Priorem fuifTe Hellenicam vel inde patet, quod 
^ fingulas ejus voces^ quarum ufpiam meminit 
^' Poeta, funt mere Hellenicae ; pofteriorem vero 

O 2 " vel 

( i3« ) 

^^ vel ipfiffimam P4iryf iam» vd diak£him Phrygie 
^^ quatefimiHiBKtm» cxfummo quoPhryga^tradanint 
^^ Gri^i fafttt & arfofaatia^ Iket eoucladere. Sk 
nxnnea ^^Afty^ duabtis TtscnBa Hdlemck Gonibet, 
tiz; B^rft^'Afu^, ac forton dcax)tat9 Yclftremiuir; 
^^ cui necefTc dft ut A)ymim flcquipolleaty «un utrum- 
^^ que robori, quo patre evafit {meftantiotv tcccptuffi 
^ debiaerit gigav^ fi fido» Poietas & ^s {cbdUaftas fit 
^ adtkibenda. Nomen autem hoc ab Hebnea n- 
^^ dice dedUcendum qois' hob videt? Verfama |-|i(;i 
^* Gaa vertit Scbindlerusw i. l!lb.jgKxt%y ^ledabilij, 
ftrcnutts ftik, ftremie h g/eStL a* IntimuB^ fu- 
petbiit^ anrogaas {vit». 2ic. Ad^edivufai igitiic pK3 
Gaivy Vel ^ffi^ GraM^ Latine keaat ftroBm^ 
fartiiyico. At.^in prkicipio Hefah-aeis^ QfaafttfiSi 
Syri^ & Arabibii» nomiha Terbdia formatr; ^uih 
ft ia IkigUa Arabica pro iurticulo -^ Emphatict) 
fsspius. uiui)»ri igiidrat nidhifly qm ¥el priaiii at- 
tigk labUs literantrum OmeataliBn : quataufarem 

*' fubftabtivum i|i»M9K- ^^^^S^i^ "vimm ftt«iiuitt» 
^^ fortem. &;c. yA EinfiiKaticc viruot cottore nrscd- 

^ a « a 

^* lientem, adinodum: fbttem, te*. eomitaife: potrft 
defignare^ ac iddiico defcripCfGnr Hdmstice & 
notion nominis Graed BfUfun fignificatui ad 
amuiTim r^otidtre. Sed & id xid3is eit ani- 
madvertendum^ quod duas fortitur fignificadoncs 
verbum ^p,«'«» (cui cum voce ^tJifm^ af&iffima in*' 
tercedit neceffitudo) binis verbi ^\^y Gaa fenfi- 
bus prorfos acdommbdatals ;- nee quenquam liitere 
puto iti Uteris Graecis mediocriter ver£ritam, duo 
repieriri noitilna, quibus baud ram apud Gr&cos 
*^ inhgnitur monftruhi ab Homero hie hiSjtiSxvoXi 
^^ viz. Tv>iify & B^WpM^, quse didis fcnfiBuc otmuno 

** convcniunt. 



C n? J 

^ eoBvanSiuit. Nemen igitur proprium Ahymlm a 
^ feftte Hebneo profluxifle, & ad linguarum Orioi- 
** t^am ftOTmam eadgendimi 4uto conckidamus." 

Hence the Iriih name Bri-an^ Bri-air, O'Brian, 
&c« Brie, (Heb.) films Afer, Num, d6. a* from 
Ac Hebtew ^itq feitk, rotMiftuB, firmus. 

A^m the &me Qriemal fbttntion, flows the fbl- 
kmmg names in die (rifli catalogue of monarchfl;, 
whidi whether real or fiditious could not have been 
^ren or invented by -Gaids ^gt Welfh Britons ) and 
which I cannot print in Hebrew for want of type* The 
Oriestid readers will lenow them^ and to sdl others, 
itit ^matter elf indflfereiice. 

t)f the Fi RBOLG Line. 

'Gtmnj Sesn-ganti, Gannann.'] Espkdned .in the 
feiegomg by Dr. Swinton. Add, (^n^on, nom» 
mi. Eiiod. lo* mStf ^ Machab. 1 2 th. Gcnuhath 
fiL Adad, 3 Ku^, ii. 

Lakj *Lak^ Luie.'] f^eci fil. S^midoc, i Paxa. 7, 
Lacad, fubjugara. Lacfaem belhnn. Ett u&an Luco* 
mo. i. e. magnus Loic. vd Hjeros. 

Agmamain.^ i. e. Pugnator (cauia) M«9n/. Ag- 
ag, nomen Regis Amalec. i £. 15. Age, pater 
Senuna. Aggi fil. Gad.— Hence Agamemnon. 

Bras^ Breas.2 i* e« Bri-as, nobilis &c fortis, Beri 
fil Supha 1 Para. 7. Beria f. Afer, Gen. 46. Berfa, 
rex Gomorrhas, Gen. 14. Brie f. AIer,Ninn. .26. 

Eat^ Ead^ EadJam.'] Eddo nomen viri £fdr. 8. 
Eder f. Mufi i Para. 1 3. Ethai nom. vir. % Reg. 
15. Ethcel nom. V4 i. Efdrj Ethi, i Para 12. 


C '38 3 

Lamad valde. Hcnc Arg-eadJam, a name the 
Bards have millakcn for Airgid Jamh ; i. e. filver 
handed, and trumped up a (lory to accord with 
their blunders. 

Plofg.'} Explained in the Preface. 

Lar'Coig.'\ i. e. Heros belli. Etrufcan Lar, Dux. 

Natbj Ned.'} Nahath f. Rahud, Gen. 36. 2 Para. 
31. Noadia nom. v. 1 Efdr. 8. Nad-ab, f. Aaron, 
Exod. 6- 

Lucurg.} i.. e. Laoc-arg, heros heroum, hence 

Libon^ Libum.'] Laban, frat. Rebeccas* Gen. 34. 
Lobana nom. v. i Efdr. 2. Lobni, f. Gerfon, Exod. 
6. Libemia, navis bellica. 

And from the fame fountain flows the Pelafgian 
Ogygesj the name of Noah ; in Iriih Oig-Uige, heros 
navium. Whence Uig-ingc, an aflemblage of (hips, 
a fleet. Ard-taoifeach Uiginge an Admiral. 
fVy\^y^ dag-ugith, navis Pifcatoria. kUH ^^8^ 
navis Piratica. Thefe and a thoufand other words 
may be produced in the Irifli language, flowing 
from the Hebrew, that never did exiil in the lan- 
guages of the Gauls and Welfii Britons. And I 
cannot bring a ftronger proof, that the Fir-bolg of 
Ireland, were not Belgians, than the few examples of 
proper names, in the above quotations. 




The Author takes this Opportunity of ac- 
quainting the Public ; 

That the Provofl and Fellows of Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin ; have appropriated a very handfome 
and fpacious room, to anfwer the purpofe of a 
PUBLIC MUSEUM; and it is hoped that 
the people of Ireland, for whofe ufe the eftablifh- 
ment is made, will contribute whatever may ferve 
to render it valuable or curious. Among many 
objeds of attention, the foifils of Ireland afford a 
copious and almoft unexplored field for difcovery, 
and thofe various inftruments of war and peace, 
thofe rich and curious ornaments of drefs which are 
every day found buried in our lands, prove valua- 
ble memorandums of the antient (late and condi- 
tion of this kingdom. 

Any information on thefe or other fubjeds of 
this kind, with fuch circumflances of place, fitua- 
tion, &c. as may give additional light, addrefled to 
the Rev. WilUam Hamilton, F. T. C. D- will be 



attended to :-«-any accidental expence of carriage, 
&c« from rMQiote part^ of th^ kingdom, wll-be chear« 
filliy dbiVa;^ed by ih6 coflege :— aifd gelllleincn who 
do not wiih to deprive their family of fuch matters 
of curiofity as have an intrinfic value, (hall receive 
(if defired) an ^rrrnntabie receipt 

P R OF O. 






Ddcripdons Natund, Civile Ecclcfiaftical^ Hiftoii- 
caly Chorographical^ &c« With a Table of (^b* 
ai£5 annexed. 

. 1 H E neceffity of ibme fcheme, like what is here 
iMt^pofed^ will appear to every man^ who reads 
Mijin*^ travels through England^ Scotland and hre* 
landf printed London 17 19, Theprefent State of Great 
Britain and Ireland, London, 17389 and other 
^ters antient and modern : fome extracts out of 
lAich have been made in the Preface to the antient 
^frefmt Jtate of the County of Down, in order to 
flww how the Irifli nation have been mifrcprefented 
by imters of other countries ; not to mention their 
grofsmiftakes in refpe£t of the Eccleiiaflial and 
QvU State of this Kingdom. To remove therefore, 



the prejudices wehave laboured under, and to do juf- 
tice to this country, is a part, and only a part of 
this defign ; while more material advantages muft 
neceiTarily flow from it. It is acknowledged that 
the numbers of inhabitants are the riches of a coun- 
try, and that Ireland is not half, nay, not a fourth 
part peopled : What then are the motives that in- 
vite ftrangers to a country, either with a view of 
travelling, refidence, or trade ? The ornaments and 
natural advantages of I t ■ t he fertility of the foil 
t he healthinefs of the ai r . t he fitnefs of the 
country for carrying on different kinds of manufac- 
tures — ^navigable rivers flored with fiih, and har- 
bours large and commodious for traffick. Ireland 
is happy in all thefe particulars ; to which may be 
added the hofpitality and civilized manners of the 
inhabitants, the equal adminiflration of juftice by 
the execution of mild and wholfome laws, and a 
perfeft fecurity of our religious and civil rights, un- 
der the government of a jufl: and gracious king. It 
may be fufGcient, at this time, to hint at thefe ad- 
vantages to engage gentlemen to enter into this 
fcheme, the expence of which is fo fmall, and the 
benefit of it fo gteat. 

It is therefore Proposed, 

That until a few gentlemen of this country, can 
be formed into a fociety, to conlider of proper me- 
thods for acquiring and propagating a competent 
knowledge of Ireland, in its feveral parts, from 
their ^own experience, correfpondence or other- 



That every fecond publication of this Collec- 
tanea, fliall be allocated, to record fuch anfwers, 
to the following quaeries, as (hall be communicated 
to the author, without waiting for the. completion 
of any particular province or county : to be confi- 
dercd only as the depot of materials and informa- 
tion for future hiftorians. 

At the requeft of the author, three thoufand 
copies of thefe quasries were printed and diftributed, 
in the year 1773, at the expcnce of the Dublin So- 
ciety. The committee appointed to digefl the an- 
fvers, in daily expedation of as many, as would 
complete a certain diftrid, poft-poned their publi- 
cations. The committee was difolved and moft of 
the anfwers have been miflaid. 

The author here offers a fecure depofit of fuch 
anfwers, he ihall be honoured with ; and it is de- 
fired that they may come free of the expence of 
poftage, addrefled to him under cover to Mr. L. 
White, Bookfeller, Dublin. 

qis E R I E S 



&£COMM£NJ)£D to thb CURIOUS, 


To enahJe them to maJu f riper Enquiries into Natui:al 
md other Matters relating to iieJbveratCcnxniU^ 
rf Ireland, /o far as they lie in their te/peSiw 
Na^bourhoods or Knowledge.^ 

i> A I IL 


Ito QwU^es for Healdi, wi& trkat Conftitutioas; it 
aigrccs btO.— kg Qualkks for Si^^Uksby JXSa^ 
Epidemical, &c. 

What is the fituatios m j^neral of any county 
widi refped to fcas, lakes, bogs, mountains, and 
the poifits of the he»etw, H)i:LlL W*K. & 

Extmonfihary plianoirMia^ as iMiecM, fgnts 
fiftui, ©V. 

£x|)erimi^ on xftbufiftsdns-by AuxNMters. 

Tempdls, hunicaneS) thtrnder, lightning, ^tfid 
cifiefts, and actiAcms fmm '^enu 

Ethc^a, ty fimple, ^ubte, 8sf r. lUfle£ti6n« 

a. W A T E IL 

Their breadth,, iburce^ progreft, end,— yhtfdier 
giaraHy,^ftony,— muddy,— faudy ?— Whether re- 


146 WATER. 

markable for iriiitcning ? Whether fubjeft to inaii' 

Navigation of them, how far ?-- Where obftrud- 
ed ?— How to be remedied ? 

'Remarkables belonging to them ; as fubterrane- 
Otis paflages, cafcadcs, waterfadls, &c. 

With what kinds of fifh repleniflied? — Their 
plenty, fddbns, way of breeding, haum, manner of 
.taking them, &c« 

2. Lakes. 

Their compals,— qualities,— <-what foil at bot- 
tom,--— with what kinds of fi(h replenifhed, &c. — 
whether flumps of trees, buildings, &c. are dif- 
covcred in them ?— -How fupplied with water, — 
whether by rivers or fprings ? 

3. Fountains.. . 

1. Medicinal^ ^d whether Saline^ difcoverabie 
by theii- ta^t.-^Sulf bureaus y difcoverabie by their 
ftink, and tinging filver of a black or coppo: co- 
lour.-— Kif/r/Wi/j^, known by their rough acid taftc, 
and. turning blue with ^alls«~Cj^a/;^^6M/^y known 
by their turning purple, or fome fhade of ptiiple, 
or red' with .galls, green tea, an oik leaf, or any 
auftere vegetable ? — Their kinds, qualities, and vir- 
tues, and their mechatiical ufes, as i}i dying, &c.— 
What forts of earths they pafs through ? 

2. Reputed Holy We Us. — To whom dedicated.— 
When, and by what numbers vifijed i 

E A R T H o R S O I L. 147 

3, Petrifying Springs. — What proofs of them ?— — 
Leaves, mofs, &c. petrifyed to be preferved, and 

£a^/— Difference of faltnefs in divers of them — 
How, and with what fort of fifh ftored ? — ^When firft 
vifited by herrings, pilchards, &c.~Plants, infeds, 
&c. to be found in them ?->— Tides, currents, whirl- 
pools, &c. 

Harbours and Creeks, — Obfervables about them. 
— ^Their depths, (hallows, flielves, banks, bars, &c. 
Whether clay, Ouzy, or Tandy ? 

Shores.— What noted fiflicries on them? — ^How 
funufhed with oar-weed, (hells, fand, or other ma- 
nures? — ^Whether kelp be burned on them, and 
in what quantities 

Promontories.-— Of what (lone or foil formed? 
Whether low or bold ?—- Whether hawks, eagles, 
&c. breed in them ? — How uleful to mariners^ 

3. ^ A R T H or SOIL. 

The qualities in general, — whether black,— red 
—white— fandy — ftony — ^gravelly — mixed — depth 
or (hallownefs of the mold. ' 

Chalk. What Mixtures in it ? 

Clay. Whether fullers-«-pptters--^bnck— pipe — 
umber, &c. 

Medic$$uily as Ochre, Iri(h flate, &c. 

Corr.4and. Of what grain produ&ive ? Fertility 
— barrennefs — methods of cure, manures, &c. 
What fort of tiUage is carried on in your neighbour- 
hood ? With what fuccefs, and in what manner ? 



What maamM ^reufiad'? In fidiat propprtioa ta the 
acre ? And n^h asiwws bf^it 

Meadows. High or low, — greatdr w kflbr ^o- 
dttC€.^^-~-£«iperinBk(at8 in improrisg (kem-^-*with 
mhat : nranurea ? 

Ftfftum. Whether fitteft fpr.ttsmng or fattoftittg^ 
»**-^&dr batter or cheefe ? 

Moor and jB<?j/. Whether red — black-*<'-M<^y ? 
How improv€dyor itnproveabV? What timber ttees, 
tbrlveibelb in them ? Treos, hotns, .&c. feund^buned 
in them, and at what depths ? 

'What am the different dlvifions of laad vfed^and 
the tpiaotity i;dduited to acrosyas-neady^as poffUfr 

Mttuntaim. Then- heighth in rqratc, or -bBrtrial, 
dthet in gradual afccnt, or perpendicular k^hth, 
by the Iforxctlliati tiibe^ or any other method. 
Whcthsr they extend N. or E. S. op W. "if ^Viifca- 
noes lit tfaent? Whether prottitiLble M >ban«» ? 
Their produd as to minerals, vegetables, ani- 
malsy &c. 

Vallier. 'Tlieir extent, fruitfiilnefs, or fearrennefs. 

Maries. Their fort?, j>ropertics, colours. Whe- 
ther they .yield an ebullition by immqrfing them in 
vinegar or other acids^? 

4. ST o n:« s U'S E'F ul. 

Lhne-Jioneu Wiiite)*«*^-bkitic^-^ay^^>vflfi6tted« 
iEafe or . (iifficulty in* ' burnang. <Whai!t ^ kilas^ «lfed ^ 

Porpbirji^^^Mnrhie^ .Ibeir - quaHdes^-^-^-oobJ^^* 

USEFUL STd^NE»,&c. 149 

Flints. Black, tYairi^areirf, flefll-colbttrfed, &c. 

Pebbles. Tranfparent — red white— -blb)s—— 

black, ftc* Whether they taike a poliih^? 

Free-ftone^ The diflfercnt fom. A^Hiether fit for 
columns, door-cafes, mouldings, vafes, malt-kilns, 
cifterns, &c. Whether it eadures the weather or 
fweats ? 

Whetjlones^ Rag/iones, Millfiones^ Firefionesy Siates» 
The di&ront forts, fize^. or colours. 

5. Stonbs Cwrmuj naturalfyfirmed^ 

In Jhap9* Hef^Mbllflg fhell-fiiK-— e«her fifli — 
birds — ^plants — ^Parts of creatures — and their co* 
l6urs^.refembtif{g artificiiil things^ as btitt6h^---^fflbes 
-^tlpHecb^ &c. 

Mr Gitiat. iM Seff74(!6ttes«--Ghtlftd}s---Aftroit!es 
— Selcnite^--*af)is Judikus, &t. THcfar cofoursi 
fizes, figures, &c. 

6. P L A N T S. 

* ' f 

WMk. Tbe MiMft^^KM nortr ftattdmgu^'^ 

Trees. iDiflbreiK' fibMs of the faite i^i^des^-uil'^ 
common accidents attending them— -remarkaMe iix 
kind, fi^e, &c. Any peculiarities belonging to 
them — What foils they thrive bcft in? What ani- — 
mals or infe£ts they produce ? To what ufe applied, 
as xtMHj phyfi'd^, dying, &c.— Fruit-trees. 
Vqjl- IV. No. Xm. P Sirubs^ 

150 PLANTS, &c. 

Sbrubsj Herbs. Uncommon — curious— ^-medi- 

Grafs. Foreign, as clover, faindfoin, ryegrafs, 
lucerne, &c. and with what lands they agree beft. . 

7. M I N E R A L S. 

• Sihetj copper^ lead^ iron-oar^ coals^ talcj &fr. 
Obfervations on mines, as quantities, goodnefs of ore, 
how wrought, &c. Indications of mines, &c. Whe- 
ther trees thrive well or ill where they are ? Any 
preternatural colour in the leaves ? 

8. A N I M A L S. 

Birds of Pqffage^ infers yfijhesj quadrupeds. Whe- 
ther unufual or extraordinary in colour, fize, fhape, 
&c.— ^The fldns of curious, birds or quadrupeds to 
be ilripped off, (luffed, and communicated. 


Woollen^ Linetij Hempen j &c. Where in reputation, 
or carried on with fuccefs ? In what manner ? Whe- 
ther any and what improvements have been made 
therein ? If fiiheries, or falt-works are carried on 
in your country, in what manner, and with what 
fuccefs ? 

10. BUILD- 

B U I L D I N G S, &c. 151 


Publick. As remains of monafteries, charches, 
&c. towns, villages, and incidental obfenrations 
on the errors in maps* 

Private. As gentlemens feats and improvements. 


Cbarity-foundatims. Public fcfaools-«-libraries~- 
infinnaries— —hofpitals-— --work-houfes— •by whom 
built or' endowed ? How fupported ? Are the poor 
fiilly employed? If not, how to be remedied ? 

A N T I Q, U I T I E S. 

L What is the antient and, modem name of the 
pariih, and its etymology, and in what county is it 

IL What number of towns or villages are in it, 
their names, etymologies, and fituation. 

m. What antient manor or manfion-houfes, and 
by ^om built ? 

IV. Are there any particular cuftoms or privi- 
|%^9 or remarkable tenures in any of the manors 

Pa V. Are 

V. Are there any wakes or patrons, or other 
cuftoms ufed in the parifli, any annual proccffions 
or ambulations, and on what days of the month, 
and on \fhat opcs^ion ? 

yt.' Ate th^ere ^ijy tra^ditions, rej)>ain8,or ruins 
of monafteriesj colleges, or feminarics. of leamini^, 
or of religious hpufes? ^^^e th^ beft ac;count dig-^- 


Vn. Are there any croffcs or obeliiks in the 
parifh? or aoy Ul^i;riptjiQ^$ og^J^op^^Qij^ood? Give 
an exa£t copy ^or them. ' 

Vni. Are there any Raths, Irijh ox Damjb^ any 
caftlps^, or other pipcesi qf. anti«}iitx, l^«nwft«W in 
yQ^r garil^i,}^ ^h^ ^?.e thpyiL «3i4:^|fcl«f\tjja4itio?^W^ 
t^circ^ o^ hji^oric^l ap, wpts^ <^ A^ 
ing of tbeij^ if you. c?wi. 

YjL. Have there been any medals, corns, or other 
pieces of antiquity, dug up in your parifh ; when, 
and by whom ; and ia whofe cuftody are they ? 

X. Have there been any remarkable batdes 
fought, on what fpot, by whom, when,^ and^ what 
traditions relating thereto? ^ 

XL Are there any Kearns^ Druidical temples or 
altars, tumuli, ftone ' coffins, or oAer antient burial 
pkices ? pleafe to describe them, and add a (frawing^ 
of each, if you can j have any been opened ani 
V^kat' dilbaveries have been made therein ? 

XII. Are there any vaults or burial places, pecu- 
liar to antient, or other families ; what are they, and. 
to whom do they belong ? 

XIJI. Are there -any antient, or modem remark- 
able monuments, or grave iCones, in the cbi\rch, 


A N T I <^U I T I E SJ 153 

or chancel, &c. ? Pleafe to give the infcriptions and 
aims, if any, on the fame, if worthy of notice, 
especially if before the 1 6th century. 

XIV. Are there any antient manufcripts in 
the pariih, what are their contents, and in whofe 
pofleflion are they ? 



L E T T E R 


D A V I D s M A C BR I D E, M. D. 

T O 

• • 


JOHN WALSH, -Efqj F. R. S. 

Ac«)mpaiiying two Letters from Mr. Simqn to Dr. 
Macbride, concerning the Revivifcencc of fqmc 
SNAILS, prefervcd many Years in Mr. Simon's 
Cabinet, Read at the Royal Society^ May 5, 1 774. 

r • 

DEAR SIR, Dublin, 22 Jan. 1774. 

T • 1 ■'■ ■ ' 

A INCLOSE to you two letters, which I received 
fix)m Mr: STuc^feY Simow, conteming that extra- 
ordinary fad ih Natural Hiftory*, which you feemed 
to regret had n6t been fufBciently auAenticatcd to be 
conmiunicated to the public ' in the Philofophical 
Tranfa&ions of laft year.— ^'he Royal Society 
are undoubtedly in the righl %o be extremely cau- 
tious of allowing any thing, fo very much out of 


156 Dr. M A C B R ID E'S 

the hitberto-obferyed courfe of naturet as tbis isy tp 
appear in their publications, without the fiilleft 

In Mr. Simon's letter of- the 26th of November, 
you will pleafe to obferve, that he mentions a par- 
ticular ihell, ' whofe fnpil had come ont repeatedly 
four diflferent times, in the prefencc of different peo- 
pie ; each of whom have aflured me that they faw 
it. That gentleman htving done me the favour to 
dine with me, a day or two after the date of that 
Iftter^ Jlc br9Uglit t^e i4c|itiQal (h?ll (as fee ileylaf^d), 
in order that we might try if the fnail would again 
make its appearance. 

The company were not 'difappointed j for, after 
the fhell had lain about ten minutes in a glafs of 
waiter ^at ha4 the cqH barely taken off, the^fntil 
began to appear; and in five minutes more we 
perceived half the body fairly pu(he4 out from 
the cavity of jhe flielK We then r^movc^ It 
into a bafiiijj jha[t the fnail m^ht have xnQX^ fCQpe 
Aan it had in rfie glafs : and here, in a very ftjion 
time^Ve faw it get ib^ve the furface of the wa- 
ter, and crawl up towards the edge of the bafin. 
While ^t was tb\is moving abou^ with i^ h/E^ms 
cred, a fly chanced to be hovering near, and, pctr 
cqvi^ thp fi»ii, dfaift^i (jb^iyni vi>W «t ' Th<j fttli 

^f^mi t»4-fi^g':G>ft. .We :%^^ waudw 

?]fcK>^^ ^fio ;f(>i: u£W4r4s of aft.h<MJ^i whf»ws 
'cfitojApd yi i^to % iwi4f T^puti^i, phi^J, ^b^l^ Mr. 
Sil»>V'ba4.tef«ly^pe6» wf^ to k?sp,it, ^« ¥f%s fe 


LETTER. 157 

9ad I oUerred, a$ twelve o'clock, as I was gtifaig to 
b^ thai dia fiiailwas fiill in modoft: butnert 
uoxmngy I found h in a torpid ftate, fticking to the 
fide of the glafs. 

In a few weeks after the time aboTe-menttoned, 
I took an oppoitunity of fending this fhell to Sir 
John Prikglb, who fliewed it at a meeting of the 
Society ; but, as he has been pleafed to inform me» 
fome of the members could not bring themfelves to 
believe, but that M*. Simon muft have fuffered him- 
fclf to be impofed on by his fon, who, as they ima- 
gined, fubftituted irefli fliells, for diofe which he had 
got out of the cabinet. 

When Sir John Pringle acquainted me with 
this difficulty, I wrote to Mr. Simon, and that pro- 
duced lud letter of the 4th of February. I after- 
wards alio examined the boy myfelf ; and cotzM 
find no reafon to believe, that he either did, or 
could iTiipof^i on his father. 

Mr. Simon is a merchant of this place of a very 
reputaj^ chara&er, and undoubted veracity. He 
lives in the heart of the cky, a circumftance which 
f ofidered it almoft impofiible fer the fon (if he had 
been fo ^ofed) to collet freik fheHs. The la- 
tber of Mr. Stucrey Simon was Mr; James 
Simon, a felloe of the Royal Society ; who, being 
a lover of Katurat Hiftory, as well as an Anti- 
quvian, ma^ ^ fittle cdle^on of fbffils, which is 
ftiB in the fon^s polfeffion, and contains fome arti- 
cfcs Ao* are rather uncommon. 


158 Mr. S I M O N ' S 

Should Mr. Simon's letters be inferted in the 
TranfadionS) they will no doubt be the means of 
exciting Naturalifts to enquire into the extent of 
vitality in the lower orders, of animals. 
1 am, dear Sir, your moft obedient, 
and very humble fervant^ 



S I R, DubliDy 26 Nov. 1771. 

A N accident having brought to light what fome 
Naturalifts have not had an opportunity to examine 
into, and which has been a fubjeft of fome conver- 
fation amongft gentlemen to whom I have then* 
tioned it, has made me commit to writing the fim- 
pie fads, in order to put others on nvaking fur- 
ther experiments on the fubje£k — Abput three 
months fince, I was fettling fome fhells in $l drawer ; 
amongft which were fome fnail-fhells. I took them 
out, and gave them to my fon (a child about ten 
years old), who was then in the room with me. 
The- Saturday follo^^ing, the child diverged him-: 
felf with the ihells, put them into a flower-pot, 
which he filled with water, and next morning put 
them into a bafin. Having occalion to ufe it, I ob- 
ferved the fnails had come out of the ihells. I ex- 
amined the child. He aflured me they were the 
fame I gave him fome days before ; and faid he had 

a few 

LETTER, 159 

a few more^ which he brought me. I put one of 
them in the water; and, in half an hour after, ob- 
fenred him p\Lt put his horns and body, which he 
moyed with a flow motioA, I fuppofp froni weak- 
nels. I then informed Major Vallancey and Dr. 
Span of this furprifing difcovery. They did me 
the &vour to come to my houfe the Saturday foU 
lowing, to examine the fnails; and, on putting 
them in water, found that only one had life which 
was that I put in water, for he came out of his 
fliell, and carded it on his back about the bafin. 
The reft, I fuppofc, died by being kept too long in 
water ; for, on the firft difcovery, I let them re- 
main in the water until the Monday following, 
when I poured off the water, the fnails being 
ftill out of their fliells, and feemingly dead. They 

lay in that ftate until Tuefday night, when I 
found they had all withdrawn into their fhells ; 
and, though I feveral times fince put them into 
water, they Ihewed no figns of life.. Dr. Quin 
and Dr. Rutty did me the favour, at different 
times, tQ examine the . fnsdl that is living; and 
were greatly pleafed to fee ' him come <^ut of his fof 
litary habitation: in which he has been confined up- 
wards of i&fteea years, for fo long I can with truth 
declare ht haa been in faiy^ poffeffion ; as my father 
died in January 1758^ in whofe collcftion of 
foflils, tbofc fnails were^ and for what I know 
they might; have been many y&rs in his poffef- 
fion before , they came into my hands. The (hells 
are fmall, and of one kind : • white, ftriped with 
brown.-:* — Sirice this, .difcovety, I have kept this 
i&ail ]A.a.iimdl'DhiaU wid^: a cover with holetf. 


i^o Mr. S I M d N ' S 

to lel m aSr; Had ht Jfeems i^ preMt rtrj 

iboBg, and fii health. I fltail be extrekiiery ^^i^ 

if tys pkun aiecotot I have given yon wpAA induce 

gentfemen t6 tttike feme fiirdier dcptHihettts on 

thk fofeje& 

I am. Sir, 

* • 

Your moft obedient, 
hunibe fervaht, 



BEAR SIR, Strtad fircct, 4 FcE. 177J. 

I R£GEIVED>yaiirle(tef} aad feethatSk 

JoHK PjLiii^JUB received the Ijbadl fofe. Ycni hf^ 
that ibme ^ntlemfi^ ard jncfiaed to thitik, my fi* 
haa insj^ofed on me £hefli ihelia, m th^ ^e»i of 
thofie I gaar« Um. He had nof opi^oitQidt^ x^ g«t 
any other ftells, bdng at tkit timf and* fo# fe^erd 
days after^ confined te the- boufe tritb a cold. I 
am pofme they axe tke fame I ga»i Mm, hayifl^ 
moit of the fame fort of flklk ki njs caMttee, and 
MtMrly thia fame fiae. > 

The nixut iheDa^. wUck .pcodncndr Ae- fnutiS »t 

ef tb(e fai»e kwd aa thbiome^p^fdlAi lo'Sfr joftn 


LETTER- i6i 

Pringle ; and I now fend you one of them, with 
the ihail in it, which I take to be dead. Havmg 
put it in water feveral times, it became foft ; and 
a part of it pufhed out of the ihell, but (hewed 
no other (ign of life. I would have fent you a 
few more of the fhells, but that the Bifhop of 
Deny, and fome other friends, have begged of 
me to give them a (hare. 

I am, dear Sir, 

Tour moil obedient, 

humUe fervant, 






o p 



t~ ^. 

^— "^ ^ « 

I I 


or TBB 


O F 


wasftsm xt iiswify 

L The DcftMitcf itt Old Inhabi. 

taati finom the Pmjbmo«Sct*< 

TBiAMt of the East. 
n. The early Skill of the Ph jkm#- 

S c T T H lA M t, in Kavigatioiiy 

Arn^ andLccten. 

m. Several Accounts of the An* 
CISI17 Iriih BAKOty aathen- 
ticated from parallel Hiftory^ 
Sacred and Pk^fue. 

ftc, fte* &c. &c. 




FeUow of the Royal Society^ and of the Sociedca of Antiqnaries of 

London* Edinbm^Khy and Perth; Member of the R^yal Iriih 

Academy, and of the Phil. 8oc. of Philadelphia^ Jec» 

Sapientiam ORmium antiqvorum cxquiret Sapient. Ec c l s •• 


D U B L ]^ N t 


\ / 







Subject and Sbavant, 

DvBiiir, I Avo« 
17 S 6» 

Gnariu raiianceu^ 



CHAP. L Genealogical Tables of the Irijb 

Coloniei <— .^ i 

n. 7be Topographical N(mes of 

Ireland -r^ 14. 

IK. Expeclition qfParthoUm aj 

iV. ■ ■ afUemed — 40 

V» » . ' ■ ■ ." ^ /A^ lirbolg^ Fsr 

D^Omnann or Ftr Galeon 129 

VI,. tf the Tuatha Da* 

dann -s* — - 151 

VII. ■ > of Phenius Pbarfa 254 

Vin. ■ of Milefim 29 1 

IX. proved from Spa* 

nijh Authority — *■ 325 

X. Conclufiqn —r 335 

XL Of Paganijh in general. Of 
the Pagan Religion of the 
Ancient Irijh — 38a 


Itrrors to h c9mS€J:^for ^AicA the £i6tor wtiijl pkad hi exeufi^ 

fas Jiftmce frtm the fftfu 

Page iy f^ corrdpond read contfpondj^ _ 
z, line I ^^ fir if read it* 
zi» note, fir pofTetati, rttd pofterxtati, 
1 8, (note m) fir TattefTus ttdd Tarteffus. 
32, line I J, yir aittft aliowed rtiid muft be alldwtdv 
>45y (note 1) fir ee readftt* 

i6o, line kft» fir Eocad read Eocad illdathac«_ _^ .. . 
1 76, line 1 2» /or abbat irM</ about. 
201 y line 23, y^ ibut readtonu 

- 24, /ir Ancdcrcus reai^ABcttxt^ ^ 

— .line laft, fit qu'um r^4</ qu'iUL . - 

— — id. fi>r feu /W fur. 

268, Kne 24, y^ tfteit rW tLeir. ^ • ' 

i6S» 3^ ^*^^ ^' ^^^ (^)i /'•' ^'^^ rfiii/ interwcate; 

2j$^ line 29^ TV ^t'^^^^'^'^'^ ^^"^ ^''^^'^^^'^^^*- 
305^ line 6, y^ purfed read purfued. 

314, line fj^ fir prohpetia r/o^ prophetia. 

333, Ime r 5, /or tran r^it// tranflated. 

339, line 10, fir according r eiu i ac cordingly^ - - 1 

345^ Notes,, line 2, fir town read tower. 

346, line 1 4, fir penuriam read penuria. 

418, line 27, fiir Celebris rr/z/7 celebres. 

434, line I-, fir 1^8 read i^o^-. 

44 7^ ajter Pileagh^ add Filek» in Perfica Magi of the 

470; Ibe 17, fitr ftand rco^fbrnds. 

5 1 8, lindaft, fir Sudela read Suadda. 

541 y (note K) fitr warmths r^^/ warms* 

544, line 25, /ar urfus rfWurfa, 

t i 1 

1 N T Hod u c t i o r 

THE Iriih Manufcripts contain a more perfed ac« 
count of the emigrations of the Armenian- Scy-* 
thians, or Perfians, &c. from the banks of the Gtfpian 
and Euxine Seas ^o Pcriia ; to the Iflands of the Medi- 
terranean> to Africa^ to Spain, and to the Britannic 
Iflcs, than any hiftory hitherto known. 

The detail of thefe emigrations perfcSIy correfpond 
with the Punic Annals^ tranQated out of the books of 
King Hiemfars library for Salluft 9 they agree with the 
traditions of the Sreieri, alias Sbowah^ alias jlmazing^s, (a) 
of the Mountains of Barbary^ even in the name of their 
leader ; they agree with the mdlt ancient Armenian Hif- 
tory, written by Afofes Ciironenfis {h\ in names and 
h&s, and with the ancient hiftory of the Perlians i and, 
laftly, they correfpond with the mod authentick Spaniih 

Confcquentiv, . thefe Mff. cannot be the forgeries of 
Irilh Monks 6t the 9th and i th centuries^ as has been 
aflerted by fomc modern writers top haftily. 

Many of thefe MIT. were collcdcd into one volume, 
written in the Irilh language, by Father Jeoff Keating. 
A tranilation of this work into Engliih appeared many 
years ago, under the title of Keating s Htjfory of Ireland* 

The Tranflator, entirely ignorant of ancient Geogra- 
phy, has given this hiftory in nglifh drcfs, fo ridicu- 
lous, as to become the laughing* ftock of every reader. 

(a) See iomt^ curious jccovntt of this people at the cod of dmp* 4th. 

(b) An author of the fifth century. 

b Tho 



The Euxine Sca^ of the original, becomes the Baltic 
in the tranflation ; the liland of Sicily, GothEand ; Ga* 
diz is France ; aind Frange, or Farangah» (as the Arafat 
write it) that is, Turqucftan^ alias Touran, b tranilatcd 
into GauK 

ThoTc blunders gainc room t(r a fnodcrn author (c) t^ 
obicrvc, that the Irifh hiftorians jumped htrni the Baltic 
to the Nile, and from the Nile to the Baltic^ as cafy asSi 
man (leps^ over a gutter. He fliould have learned the 
language of the original before he had ventured to cri- 

Thus has the Irilb hif^ory been looked upon as the mod 
fabulous of ait hiftories, and on that accoimt unworthy 
of attention. 

If fable inaacient hiflory rs made the criterion of its 
validity, we mud explode th^t of all other nations, ex- 
cept the Jews. The Arab writers have met with a good 
reception in the teamed world, yet their works are fiilf 
of falmfous narrations, wonders and incredibiruies r they 
not only deal in fi^ions, but difcover a moff remarkabfe 
ignorance in Chronology. Yet thefe fiiults have not fo 
hr prejudiced the learned againft them, as to think them 
rir no particular deferving of credit. The Authors of the 
Engirm Univerfal Hiftory declare the ignorance of the 
Arabian writer?^, in chronology, even when they treat of 
Events that happened not many centimes before the 
Hejra *f And Nlebuhr who lately travelled In Arabia, with 
^^vantages that fall to the dure of few of our modem 
travellers (beinff both a fcholar and a philofopher) in* 
ferms us, that tne Arabs were utterly ignorant of the an* 
cient hiftory of their own country. 

The Qr^ek^, to whom we are much indebted, are lliR 
more fabutous r they knew little of the Geography of the 
Cflobe ; and the Romans left. Tq ufc the^xpreffion o^ 
a Icarnerf OrfcntaHft (d)^ they .were fike a fine^uftre in a 
large hal| : they m'^ght diffufe their rays a greait way 

(c) The writer of the Southern Tour in Ireland. 

{4) iEiohsodfim*t QUbiSMnQ m Eiftem Lang, p. 291* 


around t but they couM nbl Hhimixtate alt the extremi- 
ties : they could not throw fight into every dark recefs. 

•' Herodotus, the oldeft Ureek hiftorian, knew no- 
tliing-of Britain ; and the Phenicians, who traded hither 
for tin in the earlieft times, atways conc&aled the name of 
the place, in order the better to fecure fo gainful a trade 
to chemfelvcs, calling it the Caffiterides, or Tin Iflands, 
without any other dengnation. 

" The Britons themfclves, from their firft ptantatioii 
here under the Tyrian Hercules, by Phenicians Jrom the 
Hid Sea and Arabia^ had been fecluded many ages from 
the reft of the world $ and as this plantation took place 
iefnn Gaul was peopled, there was therefore the Icfs 
chance 'of their learning from the refl- of the world, any 
thing more than what they happened to have brought 
over with them*" (e) — We cannot agree with the DoSor, 
that our Scythian Pheni were in poflcffion of the Britan* 
nic Ifles before Caul was peopled; The Irilh hiflory de- 
clares thefc iflands were inhabited when they arrived 
here, and confequentiy Oaul was alfo, from whence the 
firft inhabitants paffed over to Britain. 

The judicious Qiiintilian thought he pafled not too fc- 
verc a cenfure when he wrote/ Grads hijloritis pierumque 
poitica JimiUm effe Uantiafn. And Strabo i^ yet more fe- 
Tcrc. •« Though the Greek hiftorians have pretended 
*« to give a hiftory of Cyrus, and his particular wars with 
•* thofe wbo were called Mejfagttip .• yet nothing pr^cifc 
•* and fatisfa^ory could ever be obtained i not even iii 
** refpeS to the war. There is the fame uncertainty 
" with regard to the ancient hiftory of the Perfians, as 
•* well as that of the Medcs and Syrians : we can meet 
** with little that can be deemed authentic, on account 
of the nveaknefs of thofe who wrote, and their uftiforni 
love ef fable. For finding that writers, who profcf- 
fedly deal in fidion without any pretenfions to truth, 
*^ were regarded s they thought that they Ihould make 
•* their writings equally acceptable, if in the fyftem of 
** their hiftory they were to introduce circumftances 

(e) Dr,8tQkely*8MflnoirMSo«.ADtiq« Dec. 31!^ i76i« 

b 2 " which 



** which thcjr had neither feen, nor heard, nor receiTed 
** upon the authority of another peribn: proceedings 
'< merely upon this principle, that they (hould be moft 
'< likely to pleafe people's foncy, by having recourfc to 
*^ what was marvellous and new* On this account we 
may more (afely truft to Hefiod and Homer, when they 
prefent us with a lift of demigods and heroes, and even 
** to the tragic poets, than Co Qefias, Herodotus, Hella* 
nicos, and writers of that clafs. Even the generality 
of hiftorians who wnte about Alexander are not iafely 
to be trufted : for they fpeak with great confidence, 
** relying upon the glory of the monarch whom they cc-* 
" lebrate, and the remotenefs of the countries in which 
he was engaged; even at the extremities of Afia, at a 
great diftance from us, and our concerns. This ren- 
•* ders them very fecurc ; for what is referred to a dif- 
'< tance is diiEcuk to be confuted, (f )" 

In another place Strabo goes on in the fame ftrain. 
^' The writers, who muft neceflarily be appealed to, 
'^ were in continual fpp0fiiiott^ mid uniradiQid 9ne amtber- 
*' And how could it be otherwife ? for if they erred fo 
** fhaipcfulty when they had ocular proof, how could 
** they fpeak with certainty, where they were lead by 
** hearf^'?'\(g) 

The (Grecians, fays Mr. Bryant, were grofsly igno- 
rant in refped to foreign events, they were a bigotted 
ptopie, highly prejudiced in their own favour ; and fo 
despoted to idle tradition, that no arguments could wean 
them o£ their folly, (h) 

After inch a weight of evidence, (ays Mr. Ricbardfon, 
is there great prefumption in luppofing, amidft fo much 
error, forae amendment poifible r Can there be any im- 
propriety in the enquiry, how for the records, and the 
hiftorians of a people might, in rcfped to their own an- 
nals, corred the miftakes and the fidions of ftrangers ? 
Or, can there be much harm, in dire&ing, if poffiUc, 

(f ) Strabo, Ub. ii. p. 774. 

(K) Lib. KV. p. 1006. 

(h) Mytbolosy, voL L p. 100. ind 143* 



the attention of ingenioas and learned travellers to the 
difcovery of fuch ancient materials, as might tend either 
to authenticate, or to confute the hiflofians of more mo« 
dern times (i^? How flender, indeed, were the bed pre- 
tendons of the Greeks to any real knowledge of the hif- 
tory, language, or manners of ancient Periia 1 Xenophon 
and Ctefias were amongft the few who ctould have even 
an opportunity of confulting authentic records i yet^ by 
a lingular fatality, there are not two produdions of anti- 
<]Qity more queftioned than the Cyropoedia of Xenophon, 
and the Annals of Ctefias. 

* Notwithftanding the fentiments of Plato and Cicero, 
the Cyropcedia has been followed, as an authentic hif- 
tory, by Africanus, Tofephus, Ufher, Prideaux. And 
the authors of the Univerfal Hiftory confider its autho- 
rity as far preferable to that of Herodotus. Scaliger, Eraf-* 
mus, and many others, look upon it, on the contrary, as 
a mere colledion of figments. Dr. Jackfon, declaring it 
to be more feigned than real, fays, *^ it has mifled every 
** writer who has attempted to follow it." The Dodor, 
at the fame time, ftyles Herodotus the moil accurate and 
faithful hiftorian, and confiders Ctefias in a very diffe- 
rent light from the learned in general. To Ctefias, on 
the other hand. Sir L Newton pays fmall regard ; but to 
Herodotus, notwithftanding the anathema of Strabo, he 
looks up with high refped. He calls him, after Cicero, 
the Father of Htftorjy and endeavours to reconcile with 
him every point of early chronology. When fuch men 
differ, who can decide (k) ?— tjbi tanta efl contentio, ibi 
▼el nuUam vel incertam efle veritatem. (I) 

Yet, as St. Paul faid in another cafe, I think we may 
fay in this. That God bath mt left us without ^a witne/s, 
but hath given us certain notes and marks, if we were 
fo diligent as to mark them, whereby we may eafily point 
out the original habitations of the firfl colonies of man* 
kind. Among the various expedients by which learned 

(i) Dlflert. p. 396. 
k) lb. p. 300. 
1) Voffivp. 



men bave tried to clear up the mlft that liangs orer the 
early accounts of all naiions, none has been fb generally 
approved in theory/' or fo fuccefsfuUy applied, as that 
Which makes identity or remarkable fimilarity of lan- 
guage, manners, and religious obfervanccs, it3 prtncip«4 
foundation* Both ancient and modern critics, proceedr 
ing on thi^ plan, have made fuch dedudions from rerj 
fcanty premifes, as almoft challei^ the ceftainty of 
ilrid: demonftration. 

The fttbJeQ, however, is by no means exhaufted s in 
the extennve field of etymology efpecially, there is am- 
ple room for cvcfy proficient m every tongue to exercifc 
his induftry as well as ingenuity. Whoever will be at 
(he trouble of comparing the common Irifli, fpoken ver« 
nacularly at this day, in the weftern (kirts of Europe^ 
with the languages of the Eaft now in ufe, and with 
thofe which £or ages paft have been preferred only i]| 
books, will not eafily be perfnaded that chance ever pro- 
duced the plain analogies that every where prifent tiiem*- 
JTeWes ^ an obfervant eye. Chance may, and often does, 
produce refemMances ; hot whole tribes and fpedes of 
relatives and correlatives mn(l have their £3undatiba in 
jiature, whofe works are varioufly untfonn. 

It is unrcalbndble to fuppofe, that the pro^r names 
of men, places, rivers,. &c. were originally impofed in 
an arbitrary manner, without regard to properties^ ctr* 
cumftanccs, or particular occurrences : we (Hould rather 
think, that in the earlieft periods, and efpecially where 
the ufe of letters was unknown, a name nduaHy convevttl 
a brief hiAory of the thing fignificd, and thus rccoracd, 
as it were, by a method of artificial memory ; manifeft 
and numer OI18 inftance$ of this are the Patriarchal names 
recorded by Mofes. 

The poets were alfo the only hiAorians of the Heroic 
Ages s and they, imitating the former ufa^,. are fiill of 
epithets expremve of remarkable qualities, pnopenies^ or 
local exploits. The firft profe writers ftudicd more to 
pleafe after the manner of the Poets, than to inform their 
readers ; and therefore are their works filled with impro- 
bable (lories, faid to be tradition, and witi| 


f W T R d IVU G •?! O K* vi? 

ednvagaar fiAions^ chitfty catcistatedl fot amnfement* 
Even the iwoft tpftortd sincienU mud be read with ex- 
tieme caution^ cbmfstttd wkh others; and with them- 
feH^es, fitted by the rtdes of j«ft eriticrrnty and fome-* 
timet fiihjefied c^ the fetere toitvre cf etymdogtcal dif- 
^ifiti6A< (m) 

After this «ottceffion^ the raoft fimgori^c advocates for 
die anthenticitj of tlneattdent Ii^ m^ntnil«nt$, ftifl re- 
maiiiing, cannot fake h amrfs that we apply the fame 
(Mteliftone ff> domdftir ae t& foreign irouehers; Bjr fudi 
^wal^fi^ perhaps feme fzy^ maj be admitted, whereb;^' to 
dkkotet ^' wi& i»iti thi ancieni inhabitantr rf not mtlj fh 
*• Brififlf IJkf^ tm ef 41 4onJidiriMi p^trt ffffyeJUrn £u- 

And tKfe 19 Ml the ffiAy advaittage w^ AmM reap hf fbch 
M hr^^igatiiMi ? vMVf pafla^s, in the writings of the 
infpircd penman^ become elucidated thereby, (j^) St^di- 
gioM eia&Mii and cercftxionies, borrowed hj the. jews 
mm fM idriatro«» nations in the Eaft^ ate often ex- 
tftdfed bf a (ingle worrf, the true fignification: oF'^ich 
It M#t K^ be foiiM in the Hebrew, Chaldean, or Arafbtc 
biigiiaj^es t the fiuiie wordt a^e frequently t6 le met in 
the Infti MSS. denotilig the feme ceremony, and this 
i^ 4ei€fibed^ ai to leave lio robm fer conjedure ; kv ex- 
ample, Samac, Smac, «r £Wlitt> in Irilh, is the pdm of 
the hand : at the c<Mx>n^ion <h a Iting, or the orcnnation 
^ St Prieft> the Chief Pried pafled the palms of bot^ 
iMJidt dowa the tenplet of the Prince or Prieft^ and fa^ 

^m) The Eatktnm aU wrote citetr hiftoi^ in ^aigiatt^ The 
Aa/pciam had tbdr 'itparMciV IstfidCf WftorUw SacMota^ atd 
in «vwy umfje were i^nxwl-al Inierpwiea, m Cleniement Alcx^ 
andriouf «alli them; The Grceka imitated the ./Btyptians iowrit* 
iD( hMorical Enigmas.*— Ulloi Inter Gneoos, qui fapicntic famam adep- 
ti foDty res non fennone perfpicao propofuiae, led cnigmatibus invd- 
vjie. (pMi&n. ni Areadida.) Hiftoiy infomu ut that the oU tCfdu 
were remarlcable for their iEnigMM and Hjoroglypliici } the modei» 
IKih writers not ible to difSapTer thh mode 'of writing^ harve underftood 
tbdr Seaotches Uterali^y and 'hence flow the abfurdities in the IriOi hif. 

(n) Q^ lioc dtdflwt et btiWiii Gitmrwm lingtta Hebraictm ^eaeitrec 
TCriMiem ? (Hierom ]Ep. td Sennitm It Fret fab ioit.) 


Tiu i IN T R Q.D U G T I 0:fJi 

was then faid to he ftnac^di htxtctfmacd ot/fifa^, fignU 
fy authority ; one fet over the. people : eriocb-fmacd A 
Government^ from crioch % Territory $ and^ as a verb, 
Jmacdam is to govern. The fame word is ufed by Mofes, 
when he put \ b(hua in authority, with (he fame ceremo- 
ny. '^ And Jofliua the fon of Nun was full of the fpirit 
*^ of wifdom ; for Mofes "^^ faii:iach'd him, laying bis 
'' hands upon him : and the children of Ifrael hearkened 
** unto him, and did as the . Lord commanded Mofes." 
(Deuter.34. V. 9.) Afecond example is in the Irifli word 
cmarcallf u c. Stgnum X, tha^ is, the fign with which the 
^miry or Noble, was anpihted on the forehead between 
the eyes; it is the ancient Hebrew, Samaritan, and Irifli 
X Thau ; and hence arofe the office of the Jewiih Priefb 
called Imnurcalimy or Immarcalin. Thefe, am) manj 
Other examples, will be, fully detaile4 in the pourfe of thif 
work, (o) See Notp A. 

- The annals of Ireland teftiiy, that the ancient Irifli 
were the defcendants of Magog, confequentiv they were 
Scythian^./ As fuch they have biitcn cfleemea an illiterate 
and favage people. The Authors of the Uniyei^ Hif* 
tory, to fupport a fy(|em, and too ctofely adherijng to 
Greek authorities, deny the iifc pf letters tq the Scythi- 
ans ; yet when they copie to trc^ of the Tartars (the 
defcendants of thefe Scythians), they confpfs, it i^ more 
than probable, that the Tartars had the ufe of letters, 
firom thp earlieft times ; and a o'tpdern, author inGfts, that 
the Irifli had not letters, before the coming- of Patrick into. 
the Ifland : the reader will and fuch undeniable proofs of 
the ancient Iri(h having had the ufe of letters, and of 
having been flcilled in all the fciences of the times, as 
will leave great room to regret the dcftruftion of records, 
monuments, &c. by our zealous Chriflian miflionaries 
on their arrival in that Ifland. , 

As Scythians, the inhabitants of the Britannic Ifles, 
prior to the final fettlcment of the Gymmcrig, or Walfli, 
from Gaul, were to be deemed a barbarous people. The 

(o) The Coptic Jmarwd, b«iecliauk^is Jilfo the IrHh fmaorrbd, anoim- 
pd, Smtsrtd in £nglifl), ^ / 


i NT R O D U C T ION. U 

9iodem hiftorian making tio diftindien between the No- 
floadc or Northern Scythian, and the civilized or Sou* 
thern Scythian of Armenia, has treated them as the Great 
Montcfquieu has the Tartars, and drawn conclufions 
which are by no means fupported by their manners or 
their government, 'p) 

Few circum^ilances, lays Mr. Richardfon, have been 
lefs attended to, by fome of our gteateft writers, than a. 
proper diftindion between the ruder and the more poliffa- 
ed people who fill the immenfe extent of Tartary. Men 
totally dii&milar are grouped together under one indifcri- 
minate charader, merely becaufe they are known in Eu- 
rope by one general name, (q) 

With the Greeks, all were barbarous but thcmfelvcs. 
The Hebrews, whofe ancieiit Schools and Academies 
ihone in all the learning of the Ages. in which they flou- 
riflied, were yet barbarous in the eyes of the Greeks. 
JudsDOS barbarorum efle ineMtffimos : ideoque folos illos, 
nullum inventum vitae utile, peperilTe. (ApoUonius, 
^p. Jofeph. coitfra Apion). 

, (p) Thefe Sc}tbiafit> we /hall (hew from good Authority, formed tbv 
Peman Nation^ and are now known by the nanric ofTouranlans, Thefe, 
Hyt Sir WilUiim Jones, are Ae Scythians of oar ancient Hldories who 
Mn faid to have imr^ded the Kingdom of the Medes about 640 Years be- 
ion Chriil ; hut mtr h^ bijf&nant are apt to CB$pmnd them toitk the Se^thiaHs 
eftbuNertb* (Hiftory of Pcrfia, p. 45.) 

The King of thefe *twraniani or Scythians feerris properly to have pre- 
fetved the title oi Afaafith that is, Fettbercfthe Ftrfans: The family of 
Othmati, who now reign at Conftantinople,, are willing to be repQted dcf- 
cendants from this F^ing of Touran, and aire flaitered with the Epithet of 
jffrajiab Jab or powerfnl |s Afrafiab. (Jones* Hift. of Perfia, 44) But 
tnft Title thereris reafen to think defcetided to them from tbenwt Pbarft 
Kmgof PoDtuSy of whom in the following Hiftory. Pban from whence . 
jffrajah was the general name of thefe Southern Scythians, from their 
great Anceflor Pberiut Pbarfa^ 

(q) Diflert. p. 146. \i feems probable from Herodotus, that nether 
the Scytbiaoa nortlie Thracians were unacquainted with the Aflyrian let- 
ters, (Un. Hii>« vol. XX ) A confiderabie part of the Scythians had a 
body pf/a%os, to regulate their condudl by, is atteAed by £phorus. (Item, 
Hiftory of Turks, Tartars, Jtc). The Scythians have been highly extol- 
led by fphorus and Strabo, for their wifdom, juftice, integrity, and moll 
ioblime friendftiip — it ftiould feem therefore, that this people had not only 
^n excellent fyftem of civil and religious inftitutions, but likewise a moft 
powerful motive to an obfervanct of them. (Idem.) 

f The 


The Spaniards^ whom Strabo allows to havt been a 
lettered people from an early period, were ftill denomi* 
Bated Barbarians^ by the pedsmtk Greeks. 

Hamam Barbara a la gente 
que fus Ciencias, i Ritos^ no bevia, 
de que fingio en Pamafo tener foente. 
Rotna^ quando uftirpola Monarquia, 

i junto con las ciencias, a fis Erario 
cl Teforo del Mundo concurria. 
Al inculto Efpanol fu tributario 
lambien le tkuno Barbaro, i agora 
es nombre de ignorantes oitltnario. 

(Lupercto Leonafdo. p* 74.) 

In the Following pages, if will appear, that the hbif 
of Nfagogian Sc/tfaians, of whom we treat, were a po- 
lifh^ people before they left Afia ; the fifft aftronomers^ 
Jiayigaieors, and traders, . after the flood, and courted by 
the Arabs, the Canaanitcs, the Jews, and Egyptians, ti^ 
fettle among them. That, from their firft fettlement ia 
Armenia, they foon pafTcd down the Euphrates to the 
Periian Gulph, round the Indian Ocean, to the Red Sea^ 
up the coaft of the Mediterranean aimoft to T^re. The 
Greeks knew them by tlie names of the Phcenicians of the 
Red Sea, by Ifthyophagi and Troglodytae : in Scripture 
they are called Am Siim or Ship people, and Napbuih IXk 
ri or Maritime folks, (r) 

Thefe foon mixed with the Dadanites and Canaanites, 
allied with them, and were abforbed under the general 
name of Phcenicians ; yet ftill among themfelvcs were 
diftinguifticd as the fons of Japhet GaduU Thefe affer- 
tions the author of this Vindication thinks can be well 
fupported by facred and profane hiftory, and with great 
deference fubmits them to the learned reader. 


(r) The Don fettled on the Coaft of Gaul.— Aborigines primos in hit 
regionibut quidam viiTas efle firmerunt Celtas nomine R^ii ambabllei & 
niatris ejoa vocabulo Galatas di^os $ ita enim Calloa fenno Gnecos ap« 
pelUt t Alii Oorienfes antiquiorem fecutos Hercalem Oceaai locos habi- 
tant confines. (Amn, Marcell. L. 15.) 

^ The 


Tbe Oreckt (and the Latini tbeir Copyifts) hare made 
ftnmge faavock of the names Gedki and Scytbi ; (s) from, 
a fondncfs for the letter S, they frequently prefixed it to 
the proper names indifcriminatcty wkh other words, and 
thus Confounded two nations as chfferent in their origin as 
any two people can be ; this has been juftly obferrcd by 
^fae learned Ibrt. Lex. Suio Goth, in voce Groter. viz. 
'^ id tantom monebo, Gr»cos qui vocibus fsepe S prsepo-^ 
*< fuere, GMorum nomen in Scytharum commotafic^ 
** quippe qui doocnt^ ipfofmet indrgenas nomine Scytha- 
^* mm fcmet non appeHaffc." 

To a common reader, it mufl appear the' reveries of 
an etymologift to compare the language and deities of the 
Brahmans with theft of the ancient Irifh ; but to the phi* 
lofopher, who has penifed the works of that learned aftro- 
nomer, Monfieur Bailly, there will appear folid reafen 
for lb doing : the Brahmans and Gtiebres were originaHy 
a mixtyre of Dedanites and Perfians» or Sevthtans. Fo^ 
hi, the civilifer of the Chinefe^ was a Scythian* The 
^iponefe were Scythians. 

AmK^harfis, a Scythian, was admired by Solon, for 
Us learnings Abaris, an Hyperborean Scythian, and 
Prieft of Apollo, was revered by all Greece for his pro-- 
found wifdom and learning. Suidas tcftifies that he 
wrote a Treatrfe Ofi Theogony, and feveralother works. 
Hunc Abirim, cefte Suida, prseter alia tnulta, fcripfifle* 
Theogoniam ; ideoqne Mundi orgines : nam ea con- 
junda erant apud veteres. (Bumel: Archsea PhiL) 

Deucalion, who carried the worfltip of Adonis into 
Syria, wa» a Scythian. Zoroofter, if not a Scythian, 
at leaft ftudied Aftronomy in Scythia ; Aftronomy took 
its rife in the Lat. of 49^ or 50^ ; here the Arts had their 
birth, and from thence fpread towards the South. 

It will not be furprifing to find a people, at length fix- 
ed in a fequeftered cpmer of tbe Globe, whofe hiftory by 
their frequent migrations mud oonfequently depend much 

<i) A mala entm wlsi ^romintiadone mail feri^Oy it mala fcripdo 
erroremtnidit pofliMatl. lo, de Leet. £t verba valent ofo lecut iMimmi.' 



xii I N T K O D U C T I O N-. 

on tradition^ work~ up the events of their anceftors in 
Armenia, Perfia, Aflyria, Spain, &c. into one hiftory 
of the country they at prefent poffcfs : nay even to bor- 
row events of, their other Colonies, which never were 
tranfaSed by themfelves : it is a foible common to all 
other nations. 
. It is to be obferved,. fays Mr. Bryant, that when G>- 
lonies went abroad and made any where a . fettlement, 
they ingrafted upon their antecedent hifiory the fubfequent 
events of the place* And as in thofc; d^ys they could car* 
ry up the Grenealogies of their Princcito their very fourcc,- 
it will be found that the firft King in every Country un- 
der whatever title defigned, was the Patriarch, the Fa- 
ther, of mankind. (Memoire read at A. S* London, 

' I muft beg leave to repeat, that, whenever I mention 
the Irijbi I mean alfo the Erfgf or Highlanders of Scot- 
land. From a long attention to their ancient hiftory, 
m^n^er^, religion, antiquities, and languages, we pro- 
nounce them to have been one people ; the poflTeflbrs of 
thc^ Brietannic Ifle«, before the arrival of the Cymmeri, 
sind by them thruft to the North of Scotland, to Ireland, 
and to Man ; in vain, therefore, do thefe nations difpute 
fer feniority. 

.Many plauiible arguments have of late been ufed, by 
the writers of Scotland, to prove the antiquity of the Er/i 
nvcTtht Irifif* :Thp moft ingenious are thofe of E)r. 
Macphcrfon, whofeeitors I beg leave to re.3ify (t). ** He 
** fays, that the indigenai name of the Caledonians is the 
only one hitherto known among their genuine defcen- 
dants, the Highlanders of Scotland.- They call them- 
** (elves ^/WiV^ to this day. AH the illiterate Highlan- 
'^ ders are as perfcd ftrangers to the national name of 
'^ Scot, as they are to that of Parthian or Arabian. If 
** a common Highlander i^ aflced of what country he is, 
*^' he immediately anfwers, that be is an JlkanUb or GaeL 

(«) Critical Difl*ertations on the origin, antiqujties, &c. of the Caledo- 
nians, by John Macpherfon, p. D. miniAer of Slate, in the lOe of Sky. 






INTR0DUCTlO>r. xlil 

<^ It is unneccflary to produce authorities to (hew that 
<' the ifland, which now goes under the name of Britain, 
was in early ages called Albion^ To fearch for a He- 
brew or Phoenician etymon of Albion has been the fol- 
ly of fome learned writers* In vain have fome at- 
tempted to derive it firom the White Cliffs near Dover, 
'^ or from a Greek word, which fignifies a certain fpecics 
of grain, or from a gigantic fon of Neptune. 

In the Celtic language, of which fo many different 
" dialeds were diffufed over all the European nations of 
the Weft and North, and, let me add, the Scythians 
of Afia, the vocable Alp, or Alba, fignifies high. OF 
the Alpes Grajae, Alpes Poenina*, and the Alpes Baf- 
tarnicx, every man of letters has read. In the ancient 
language of Scotland, Alpis fignifies, invariably, an 
eminence. The Albani near the Cafpian Sea, the 
Albani of Macedon, the Albani of Iialy, and the AI- 
banick of Britain, had all the fame right to a name 
** founded on the fame charaderiflical reafon, the 
** heighth or roughnefsoftheirrefpeSive countries. The 
fame may be faid of the Gaulifh Albict near Maifelia. 
It was natural enough for man, who had b^en once 
fettled in the low plains of Belgium, to give the name* 
of Alba^ or Albin, to Britain, on comparing the face 
or appearance of it to that of their former country • 
*' And it is to be obferved, that almoft all the local names 
of the Celtic tongue are energetical, and defcriptivc 
of the peculiar properties or appearance of places. 
•* That all the territories once poffcflcd by the old Ca- 
" ledonians were formerly called Alba in Galic« and 
Albania in the Latin of the latter ages, is certain be- 
yond contradidion. But had the Scots of Britain come 
'* originally from Ireland, their Latin name would have 
** been very prob^^bly Hiberni, and their Gallic oneun- 
" doubtedly ren)«im Eirinich. 

** To flrengthen the obfervation I am to make, it is 
'' almoft needlefs to mention the lonians of Afia, the 
" Phocseans of Graul, the Boii of Germany, &c. all 
** thefe, and other innumerable colonies, who left their 
** native countries, and planted themfclves in foreign 





<< regiona9 made 9 point of retaining the proper names 
<< of thofe nations from which they were originally 
'* fprung. 

<< Had the Scota of Britain been a colony from Ire«* 
<f land, in fpite of all the hard things faid by Strabo^ 
'^ Mela, Solinus, and others, to the prejudice of the 
^< old Hibernians ; nay, if the univerial confent of 
*' mankind, inAead of three or four ancient writers, had 
'^ agreed in calling the Irilh Sav^ts, Cannibals, &c. 
<' the Scots, notwithftanding, would have admired their 
'' anceftors fuperftitioiiAy, and retained their name, 
'^ rather than degrade themfclves into jUbamth. But no 
'' Britifli Scot has ever yet called bimfelf an Hibernian 
** in a learned language, nor Eirinieh in his own mo* 
** ther tongue. Every Scot who underftands the Galic 
<' calls himfelf, as I obferved before, either Gael, that 
*^ is, one of the Celts, or Jlianici ; in other words, a 
** genuine Briton.** 

The Dodor firft produces good authority, that the 
name of Albania was common to the whole Ifland, and 
not locally confined to the Mountainous parts of Soot- 
landp The general features of England are not moun- 
tainous, particularly that part' oppofite the Continent 
would not appear fo to a Belgian. Confequently, Al- 
bania was not derived from Ali or ^/^, high- We muft, 
therefore, feek the Etymon in fome other language. 
The learned Do^or has forbidden any refearchcs for 
the word in the Oriental tongues : this is prefump- 
tivc ; ..he mufl not exclude that of the Pant Hi- 
hemi^ the. Inhabitants of the liland before the Britons 
arrived ; thofe inhabitants who gave names to all the 
great features of the country* which Llhwyd obfcrves, 
are not derived in the Welfh Dialed- 
. In the Erfe or Irilh we find *^tf«,,.the corruption of 
Labafif to iignify light; the word ^*>.Phcenician and 
Chaldee, from p^, hban^ infUmmare, whence p^, 
Alban^ Lux matutina, Oriens, Aurora. (Bochart (t). } 

(t) In likft manner IIMi ^ ^^*» lumfn» fplendor, iUuminatio, Lux 
matutina, mane, diluculum.. Isnis accenTus et lucens^ flamma j foeu^ 
As a verb, TK, and "IK, or and ar, Uixit, llluxit Tl^rT hir, illumi- 
navit^ lu€«m emiiit, iUuitrayity lucidam fecit s inflammaviu 



In like manner from the Hebrew anV taKab, Tomaffin 
derives onV labet, whence Lux, lumen \ Saxon Lcoht, 
AngL Li^ht. 

Tiip cbviCon of the Country between the Euzine and 
CalpianSea? was into Iberia and Albania, i.e. "Dy £br« 
and p^M Alban, or Weft and Baft ; hence Iberia^ a 
-pyji 7^#> of Spain and Ibernae, or Hibernia, the Ultima 
habitatio, or babitatio Occidentalis (u). 

The local pofitions of the two Britannic liles confe- 
quently gave the names of lemia and Albania ; that is^ 
jH-p-VTH Aharun-ai, the Weftern Ifland, and *K-p^H 
AUban-ai the Eaftern Ifland — from the firft comes ''Aom^, 
the Lake, near Tarteffus (w) ; and hence Lough Ahern^ 
DOW called Efiu^ in Ireland, which difcharges into 
the Weftern Ocean. The Chaldecs wrote this word 
HniK Aoria (x), whence the Irifti /cr, the Weft (y) ; 
from AJfaan we have the Alhus pagus, a Myofliomo diftac 
duobuSf aut tribus curfibus, verfus ad Ortum (z). 

Hence allb> I think, is derived |nnirPO Pc-harun, 
i. c, the Ripa OccidcnUlis, now the Pyrcngei, bccaufc 
they extend to the Weftern Shore, as the p^M^ Alban, 
or Alpes, do to the Eaftern of Gaul (a). 

I acknowledge that Alp, or Ailp, in the Irifli and 
Erie, do fignify high ; but I deny the words were, ever 
applied to Topographical dcfcriptions, becaufe they do 
not betoken a great eminence or altitude ; Alp in that 
cafe became Alt^ as Alt-Oiftny i. e. Offian's Mountain 
in the County of Donegal, which the Scots would re- 
move to their own G)untry if poffible ; the root of 

(u) Bochart, G. 8« C 6$4« 

(w) Bochart, Geo. Sacr. C. 605, 

>x) Ji^niW OccWcns in ufu Perfico per antiphrafin. Planuvit m 

^\ FuiA or Fuinttch wai another nams of IrQland, fynonynwus to 
Jcma from the Syrian Fcnia or Phcnia, occafus folia. In a former 
work, I have oWcrred that the Iri(h might have named the Erfc EUe- 
bonnach, or the good tribes, to diftinguHh them from t^Britona 
whom they named Gui^n, or the white foreigners, i. e. ]2/*^13* 
it) Ptoiemy. , j,r t 

(a) The Spanifli name of the Pyrenaeans, is Mo/net dt jSfpa, from 
DS)J^ aphas terminus finis. Vefper. Heb. Apbfe.Erttt finis tcrrr, &c. 
The Spanifli naiqc cofsre^^ondl with Pe*banm. 


kVi In T R o bu ClT!b?^. 

\yhich is 7^ OI, or Hoi fb), i. c excelfusi or*fiich iii 
Eminence was cxprefTed by Mulf as the Mul of Cantirc^ 
in Scotland ; the Mountains of Beia-Mutach^ in the 
County of Watcrford in Ireland, &c. &c. from ^yb Mol, 
Exaltatio, Emincntia. Alp implies a fmafl altitude, it 
hiHt an afcent, and is exprefled by the Lettei' A ; fee the 
Iriih Didionartes : hence it fignifres a Oirt, a Wag^n^ 
a Chariot, bccaufe it elevates the rider. It is the Onen^ 
tal Alp or Alcp, the firft letter of the Alpliabet^ which 
fignifics in Chaldee the Trunk of a Trg»^ out of which 
all the reft of the alphabet did grow ; it is therefore ex- 

prcffcd in Syriac and Arabic by a fingle ftroke 1, I ; 

in Samaritan it refembles the trunk and branches {^. 

As it (ignifics the trunk of a tree in Chaldee, fo it ex- 
prefles a Ibip, not only bccaufe the firft Veflels or Canoes 
were made of the trunks of trees, but becaufe it refembles 
Navis ingensf a large Ship with its trees or nuift«, with 
an additional Alep, as Htibn ; whence, iti Syriac, Alphra 
Si Sailor, and probably the name Alphred, Alphric, &c« 
hence A in Iriih a fmall eminence, and h in Hebrew^ 

TlKfc names were evidently given by an Oriental 
people, who colonized the Weftcrn part of the World, 
who called that divifion of the Globe 3'Tyorb, whence 
Eorp or Europa, and the Hebrides on the Weil of 

'Who, on difcovery of the Britannic Iflcs, named the 
Eaflern Albania^ and the Weftern Itrruty or Iberna. 

Who finding the North of Scotland (that is, the Nor- 
thern part of the Eaftcrn Ifland), cold and barren, nam- 
ed it Choledinah, i. e. ^in Choi, terra frigida, ficca & 
ilerilis nn denah, Orientalis ; Who ftill finding a coun- 
try more eaftward, named it Dinahmarchk, if. e. rm 
denah, Eaftcrn, pnyD merhk, more diftant, (hence 
M^ce-donia qus eft Albania.) 

Who finding the Scylly Iflands to be barren rocks, 
called them ^^^Thw Sulah-ralh, i. e. the 4>arren head 

(b) CebeUn. Dia. Etym, Latin. 



land, whence Stiares ; and who finding Britain to a- 
bound in mineraU, named it '^<*I'nnD;^ aprutinai, i. c. 
(c) Terra mineralis, whence the Irifh name of it Brutan- 
aoi ; and who finding an Ifland centrical between Bri- 
ra'm and Ireland, named it n30 Mendz, whence Man*, 
or the Ifle of Man ; yet the poets derive the name from 
Mananann, or the God of the Sea^ as hereafter (d). 

Who gave the name Caftiraoi to the Silures, becaufe 
they abounded in tin, a name.brought with them from 
Caucafus ; for Cau or C9 fignifies a mountain, and C«x 
oar, iron oar, Cqflir, tin, lead, i. e. Royal Oar, con-, 
ccaled in the earth, whence the Chaldaic and i. tabic 
m'DOp Caftira (e). 

Who, fordiftindion fake, named another Ifland on 
the Weft coaft of Scotland MO Bua, i. e. Occafus Solis, 
whence »m Ai regio, infula & Bua, formed the name 
Euboea, both on' that coaft and in the Mediterranean, 
their fituation being all to the weft ward; hence Bua Saca, 
the Weftern Navigators, or Bafques, or Bafcanians of 
Spain, a name given them by ^he Tyrians, from their 
bein^ the firft navigators to the Weft, a name they glo-- 
ried in, and ftiil preferve. 

This derivation of the name of Britain is not novel : 
we find it given by the gncients to many G>untriet 
abounding in mines, and we likewife find it to be the 
allowed origin of the name of Britam by our Engiifti 

'* There were the *VVim Britini on the Gold Goaft, 
near Cape Cantin, where they give a weight of Gold for 
a like weight of Salt. (Abr. Peritfal. Itin. Mundi, writ- 
ten in Hebrew) — There are, fays the fame Author, the 
Britini on the ^thiopic Coaft, known by the name of 

(c) Plantavit at ^^, 

(d> Iriih Meahon. PerC Miyand, the center. Et opei habitante^ 
(mcDds) in nMdio tmhUkp terre. Esak. xnxvlit. xi. Chaldee, 

(c) 8cbvoaira Koffiterp ftaimnm. Soio-Gothice Kafter ptdinbutD. 
^r* Jcc99irife$>. Vide Tommafltn, Gloff. Hebr. Jhra. Lax. Suio- 
Goth.) N. B. Cas or Ceat is Our in s«o«>^ ^^^^ Aona often lies 
above groond, bat lead and tin are caftir, concealed in the earth } hence 
the learned Tomaffin derives the ChaM, Caftira, quail ^^^9 celare. 

c Stnegm 



find the word oorroptcd imo zgmpthm and in Taf|;iim 
Jobi 28. 18. it is (kid to be fTOonimoos to zkakith : bot 
the original word is the Irifh or the Scythian Scaih* 

Dr. Stukciv nving an account of a glafs um difcovcred 
in the Ue of EI7 in the year 1757 (f), obTerres, that 
the Britons were famous for gbifs manofiidoryy which he 
looks upon as a ftnmg prefumptive proofs that Briimn 
was mgifuUfy pidpkdfrmn Tyre. That the inducement 
the Tynans had to come and fettle there, he thinks was 
the Comifli Tin, and that Hercules of Tyre brought the 

firft Colony thither.** <« He further obfervcs, that he 

leadiiy difcovers the Erfe and Irifli to be the remains of 
our oid Britifh race, who biiilt Ahmry and ti0Kehenge^ 
and are buried in the magnificent Barrows around there." 

The latter part of the DodoPs oonjeAure I beliere to 
be perfedly nght, and that the Erfe and Irilh were the 
inlKd>ttants of Britain before the Cummerig or Welch — 
and that they built Stonehenge was the tradition of the 
country, when the Saxons firft poflefled Britain, is 
clear from the Saxon Chronicles quoted by Abp.Uiher. 
* But as to the manuEidure of Glafs, I mufl diflent 
from the learned Dodor, that the Britons, meaning the 
Welch, were ever pofleired of that art. It is cndent 
from the venerable Bede, they were ignorant of it : his 
words are too explicit, to admit a doubt. '' Anno 4ta 
Ecgfridi Regis A. D. 674.: Benedidus Bifcop Abbas 
Minumathenfis, Galliam petens, Cementarias abflulit, 
oui lapidcam libi Ecclefiam juxta ftomanorum morem 
hu^rent. Perfedo opere, mifit Lej;atarios Galliam, qui 
Vitri fadores addiiccrent, Britanms incognitas artifices, 
ad cancellendas Ecclcfise fcneftras." — ^And Stubbs in his 
Ads of the Bp. of York fays, that Wilfred jun. who 
died A. D. 711, was the firft that brought workers in 
fione and glafs windows into England. 

If the Welch Britons had ever poflefled this -art, they 
would not have loft it, bccaufc glafs beads was an or- 
nament of the Sacerdotal drefs ^ the Britifh Druids ; 
we mkymrefore conclude they purcjialed them of the 

(f) UkL.\ofM6dq. Soc. X^MidoD, 19 Mar. t76s« 

\ - Erji 

I N T R O D U P T I O N. wi 

Erfi or Irifi, or. of their allies the Dmtu fettled in 

It is not prefumptron to derive thefe Oriental names 
from the Scythick or Irilh language \ the Sc^hian$ we 
treat of were Perfians and Parthiaiis, and their language 
was Phoeniciany Syrian or Chaldaic. Linnia vcl una 
Syriaca feu Chaldaica P^his, Medis, Perfilque necnon 
& Elamitis communis erat. (Thommaffin GloC Un. 
Hasbr. Prsef. ^ \s.) Haec autcra Syriaca feu Chal- 
daica lingua ea eft^ quam paulo pofl Babylonicse captivi- 
tatis tempore fponte & ultro Tudaei omnes didicenint* 
(id. ibO 

In vain do the Erfc and Irifli endeavour to.boaft of 
their antiquity over each other ; both were in pofleffion 
of the Britannic Ifles at the fame time ; both were driven 
to their prefent abodes in the fame inftant. One^ inha- 
biting the Eaftern Ifland, called himfelf j/Ikmut; the 
others inhabiting the Weftern Ifland, properly namo^l 
himfelf lamacb, or Eirineach ; but both preserved the ge^ 
neral name of Gaidbl, or Vrs Gadul, i« c. the defceiv- 
dants of Taphet^ by Magogf to diftinguilh themfelves 
from the Sons of Gomer, &c. with whom they mixed in 
their migrations. In vain do the Scots make a diftine* 
tion betwixt Gaodkall and Gaili their artceftors wrote k 
GaiJal and Gaodhal, as the Irifh^ but by a vicious pro- 
nunciation» not long introduced^ the d was afpirated 
and loft its found (g). 

<< lar-ghael (properly lar-ffaedhil)^ fays Dr. Mac- 
/* pherfon, is that diviuon of the Weftcm Highlands 
" which is partly comprehended, within the County of 
^^ Argyle- It plainly fignifies the Weftem Gael, or 
'* Caledonians, in contradiftinfiion to the Pifis and 
'' Caledonians, who pofleflcd the Baft coaft of Scot- 
<< land.*' Can there be a Itronger proof of our deriva- 
tion of the name Caledonia ? . 

(s) By Gal or GaU, the Eife and Iri(h mean a foreigner ; henee^ 
in all their writfaigs. Gall an Englifliman or low country Scotchman ; 
GaiUachd, the low country of Scothind. (See ShawoTt Ui€t, of tl^ 
Erft and IrUh ) Guoidhyl, Scociay et Hihcrnla. Lexicon Geosr. F«r. 

" Thfty 

trfii I M T KdfellCTiai*. 

<*f irarifcy •Wver caHdi ithcmfelvcs ^Sctits^^ihcl>etsfr 
fays ; yet he informs us, " that the procuratorsy fcnt hj 
** tfcc ftates of Seotftatid, to ,jJlead their caufc againft 
^ King tidward; before the' Court tdf Rome, contended 
•« ftreiMiOflly, that the Scotswcre dcfccnded Tirom Scota, 
«' ^thc'daogfhcer of Pharaoh King o[%gfyt. That tfcis 
•* 'SoHa-camc into Scotland, 'together ^ith her fim Ere, 
^* ^hom toe had by ^athcltis, or Gadelns. That Ar- 
^^ gadia, ^r Tafher larghaei, derived its nameTrom the 
■^ ptogenj df that ^fon and 'father. In -fine, ^at the old 
^ ifiame m yiW«/*/tf was changed into that of .Scotia, as 
** foon as the Scots were fettled in that Ifland ; and the 
^ Sttttts did, ever fiiKe that period, retain then* name 
** ^antt rndepcndancc, while the Britons ctf the Southern 
** ^l^ifion changed their" -name and maftcrs firequent- 

TBhis is the Hiftory df the Hfli, 'andtif all the Gaed- 
4ftfl.' 'In the Bllownig pages we fliall Ihew the alkgori^ 
*od 'meaning of iScota^ I'harai^h's daughter^ and the true 
-dterivrition^of ^he name bf Bcythians. 

' 'If'this was wot thfe general arAient hiHory.o? sdl -fiic 
A)bth^ti .Scylhians, "^how .comes it Hiat^the Caledonian 
-bfftory fliould'cen^fpond hi ill pafttcuhirs, fabulous and 
•Yeal, <wirh vhat*x>f'(he flfiifa^ If (h^ 'tjaledonTans h^d 
"UUilY'Mi'ilhrteoris of 'their origin, can it *be thought 
ithittifo -wife a peojMe would, in- the '13th Century, hav« 

borrowed of the Iri(h a hiftory, that in all/appearance b 
-fojl' of -Romance ; 

nPhe fefa^is, it was the tradition of ihe'bards and fean- 

' # ft 

iKkies^oPbofh nifions, wbd- were -one people from their 
lAepartupe ifrom the ^fj^ian -Sea (many ages before- the 
IhiftbofiChritt), till flic idihlSentury of the prefcnt Ara, 
•^en if >was thought proper to make a diftini^ion throtugh 
•liatfoiia^prcjudicJc. i ' 

Very little is to be found in hifh^ry, facred or pro- 
fane, of the Sons of Afagog, exprefsly by name ; all 
tagrec that he was the 'father of the Scythians, and ori- 
;gmally planted in ArtMnia with Mijhfch ^ndSTuiaL 

(h) Oiflertation, p. 14* 


IN T R O D V C T I O N. xxiii 

B^nfus^ 9 ChaldaKUi by birth and a yer^ wcipnt hif* 
torian, affirms, that Scytba was the firft King of ifrnM- 
ma ; and tl^at his hiftory was collc£lGd from the books ^ 
tljie Scyibians and Chaldaans. From hence they extended 
into Mijipotamaf Ba&ria, and Eailward to HinJffiaa, 
fTubetf Tariaryy and to China and Japan. Sac9, nam 
Sc Badrianam occupaverunty*& optimam Armenia tcU 
lurem, quam a fe Saccafenam denominaverunt (i). 

The orahmins are fuppofed by Monf. Bailly to have 
been originally from Caucafus, and laftly from Babylon ; 
and the Miffionary Father Georgius proves the Tibetans 
^o have been Scythians. In my opinion both thefe peo- 
ple proceeded from that mixture of Scythians and De- 
(Unites recorded in the Iriih hiftorv. The Dedanites 
are called Tuatba Daiiaan, the defcenaants of Cufii ; and 
they accompanied the Scythians weftward to Phoenicia, 
ana thence to Spain and to Ireland. The Books of i}\fi 
jBcahmins relating to Philofophy are faid to bp written in 
Pbaldaic. * In the Min. of the Soc. of Antiq. of London 
as the following cxtrad of a letter from a merchant in thp 
£• Ixidiesy to his friend Mr. Hollis, dated Benares, ad 
Dec. 1765. . 

*' Ca/bi is the Uaiverfit^ of the Bramim^ fituated on 
shf: S. Side of the Ganges m a fine G)untry9 6po mile,s 
from Bengali. — The city Is l^rge» well built> the houfqi 
p^ hewn done. The inhabitants are much more conr 
verfable than thofe of the province pf Bengali. .Among 
.them are faid .to be many men pf learning, yfhs> teach 
the HanCcrit and Ferfian languages. But what is moft 
extraordinary* there are fome who ftudy the Cbaldaic^ 
in vvhich it feems their Books of Pbyfick are chiefly 
jwritten. (Min. A. S. 19 Feb. 1767.) 

The Empire of the Scythians over Afia was 1 500 years 
anterior to that of the AiTyrians (k). The Scythians 
having at difFerent times very remote, pofleflcd diflFe« 
rent parts of Afiaj their Colonies frequently changing 

(i) StnOxi^ U XI. p. 511. 

(k) Recherche fur rorigine dep Am de U Grece. The Arabisa 
writers are of the feme opinioOy at wf (hall (^ew hereafter. 




their name, eafily Io({ the remembrance oFtheir ofigiii(I}. 
The Scythians conquered India and Jfia before the time 
of Abraham, the father of the people of God. He ir 
modern comparatively fpcaking with the Sac^ : with 
them we muft feek for the mod remote antiquities, and 
their hiftory is the moA^ ancient of all hiftories (m). 
The Mongulsy defccndcd from the ^aca^ live at prefent 
in the fame G)untry poiTcired by their anceftors. TTic 
Kalkasy a tribe of the Monguls^ inhabit the ancient SirUa^ 
watered by the Kerhn and Salinga Thcfe Ka kas extend 
to the IndiaSf to Thibet^ and to the frontiers of China (n}. 
The yapomje, defcendants of the Scythians, dill pre- 
ferve the name of ' aca^ in Sakai one of their principal 
Cities. Nangan-Satai, Amanga-Sakai mark the ISang 
and Amang of the Scythians^ mni whom many of the 
Mountains, Rivers and Trads of Country of Japan, have 
taken their denomination. 

Armenia was originally of great extent ; the Irifh 
hiftory extends it from the Cafpian and ' Euxim Seas 
to the junSion of the Tigris and EuphrateSf and from 
the TV^w Weft to the MiJiterraneanSe^^ De Herbe- 
lot fays, that the Eaftern people often gave, the name of ' 
Armeniab to thofe nations, the Gredts and Romans 
called Patthians^ or PirfianSf for both derive firom the 
fame Origin ; the letter tb is pronounced as S. by the 
Turks and Perfians ; and in another place he fays, ihe 
Country of Armenia was the ancient Parthta. 

nKrD"nK Arminah, (Armenia) Vir Gog nuncupatus, ex 
Mago^ Provincia (I^v. De Pomis. p. i6.) The Mago« 
^gians were Scythians. Armenia unde prinWim hebraizan- 
les populi pfodierunt. (Thommaffin.) They fpread from 
the N. E. Coafts of the Cafpian Sea, between 40 and 50 

(1) idtm. 

(m) Idem. 

(n) Idem. This avthor is foppafttd in this fettltmeiit of the Scjthiaas 
in Japan by ftyeral Arabian writerty and by Dr. I. O. Scheuchier in 
hit Hiftory of Japan. The Doaor had readed in China and in Japan, 
and having (hewn that they differed from the Cbin^ in hmpi^^ rdi- 
f ion, mannertf and cuftoms, drawa their origin firom the Northern 
banks of the Cafpian fea. See our collation of the Japooeft and Irifli 
languages. Colle^nea; No. X. ' 



degrees of N. tat. as £sir as the borders of Kitaja. The 
Tartars of Cafan^ the Bofcarian Tartars, the Dagaihrn 
and Na^uan Tartars are all defcended of tfaeie Scy- 
thians. The Ki61blecs or Noblemen in Perfia value 
.thcmfeives mightily upon their being of thi; Turcoman 
or Scythian extradion* The famous Tamerlane was an 
Ufbckian Scyth, and the Ottoman Emperor, the G^at 
Mctfruly and the K. of Sopra, are all of this extradion : 
thefe Scythes were the mother of many glorious nations, 
9. nurfe of illuftrious heroes,, and a ftem of mighty Mo* 

Arminah the Arabic name of Armenia. This diftrid, 
according to Eaftem Geographers, is much more exten- 
fiye than the Country fo called by Europeans, beinr in 
general confidered as nearly the fame with ancient rar- 
thia« Richardfen's Arab. Didioaary. See alfo Mofes 

Hieronymus & pleri({ue Hcbrssorum, omnes Aramcos 
Syros efle credunt, ab Aram filio Semi genus & nomen 
ibrtitos. Quod quia bis per omnia cum antiquerum 
pognat fententiam, quam Plinius. e monumentis vetuftis 
' m lucem revocavit, vizr " ultra funt Scvtharum populi, 
^ Perfe illos Sacas in univerfum appelbvere a proxima 
^' gente, Antiqui Aramsoos." — >-»(^6 tamen utrique 
parti fit iatisfiidum, • concedamus Aramseos alios efie ab 
Armenis, & eos quidem quos Grscci Syras vocant^ He- 
brsBorum lingua Armeos, ab Armo ^ici : illos autem, 
quos Scjrthas nominamus, antiquitiis didos, & illos qui- 
dem Aramasos, cffc ; vcrikm non Hebraica, fed fua, id 
eft, Scythica lingua— coniitendum erit a Judseis totam 
StytUcam^ Armeniam vocari. (Goropius Becanus Indo« 
Scythfqa L. 5^ ' 

Our Magogian Scythians thus feated on the Cafpian, 
Euxine, and Mediterranean Seas, and on the 'great 
Rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, and on the Pcrfian Gulph, 
were by neccffity, the firft navigators. The firft boats 
were nmple, made of a tree, lK>llowed to contain one 
man ; tbefe ferved for inland navigation : hence ^y Es, ' 
a tree and *t Si, a (hip, is written Efs or Effi in Irifli, 
which fignifies a fliip. 




n'3cTfia. Sku Im. Siccitas — r- ^ ^ Niqris- id. 
£9^ Slim Navc4. itpm arjdaj defcrta loc^ Nietajplior. 
Barbari, fcri, dofectonim loconun incolfc Feia ani- 
.inalia« Quid icntin fcris ^el defertorum loconim lacolu, 
iotm jiavibiu ? Sed tami vifum non eft prioribus icripto* 
nbm. ^U Sif Navis» pon incptc fodan duccrctur a 
am ia& (faccrc) /clifo % vcl ab fy fif^ Lignum. (Thoni' 
waffia. GloiT. Lex. Hebr.) ^ 

HcnGe the great Nav^ator of our Scythians was Bann- 
ed Milis, the Hero of the Ship* (i. c Hcrcafc$) fynoni* 
mous to Siim Breac, Miles Septentrional is eft^ notipr 
fub HercttUs nomine. (S. Jerom. Edit. Vcron. toxjoi* f. 
c. 672-) 

Jkfiies eft une oonftellation Septentrio^ale qu'on coa- 
noit fous le nom .d' Hcrcule. (Religion des p^aii. 
Tom. I. p. 440.} (Sec Chapter Milefius.) The firA 
Etnifcan King after the fabulous times is iaid to have 
bfcn MeliMS' He led th« Pelafgian Cofeury t^ .^fiji? and 
to SpaiP* Herodotus mCfUtio/is jiixrij i^^ds JhiQi there 
under the name qf Melefigenes, a;i4 ^iwks it m^ 
Hoaner* (See CoHcftanca, No. 13. Prcf. i^i, HcIU- 
dins teUs us that a man called Oi$ wJip appeared in tbe 
AedSca, with tbe tail ^ a ?6(h, taught Aftipnomy and 
Letters (x>). Thus (ays Sir J. Newton ^hcy paint/eda 
Seaman. Oes;^ Euiadnust and Ofwtfs ii^ein to be tt^e 
fime name a little varied hy Qorniptiojn^ an^ this name 
leems to have been given in commop to Xeveral feaaicAy 
who came thither from time to time, and by ^onieqvcnce 
were Merchants— lb that Letters, Aflronomy^ Architec- 
ture and Agriculture came into Chalc^ by fea, and 
were carried thither by feaipcn, who frequented the Per- 
fian Gulph (p).-Thus Ofar-ftpbui^ Ufortho.n, Ofor-chor 
is the Hercules ^gyptius of Manetho fq). The name 
Vlfffis feems to be compounded of MT^M Aoula. prin- 
ceps, & 'K Si. a Ship, and Hercules 4nay derive from 
Atreac-Aoui-effl i. e. primus Rex Navis. 

(o) Photitti, p. 15^4. 
(p) Chronol. pw 2ii« 
(q) id. p. 137. 



' So MiAh Alpha in Chaldee is the trunk of a trei^ 
uikipi hence the tt^^lTfy Es^ais, i. e. the (hip^nan, or 
f fee-man of Sanchoniatho, the U/$us of I%ilo» having 
taken a tree and broke oflF its bou^s, firft ventured up^ 
en it in the fea. Crann-Jkambt i. e. a floating treej is a 
common name ibr a boat in oM Irifh. 

The twifting of the fmall branches into a kind of wat- 
lingy and covering them with the hide of a cow or a baf- 
blOf was the next and moft ufeful contrivance for inland 
navigatioil. -With thefe they crofled the Euzine and 
Cafpian Seas, and even ventured on the Ocean, as the 
Irifli of the Weftem Coaft ftill do, in the fame kind of 
boat. Hence Scoth, Sgoth, or Scuth, fignifying fmall 
branches, or wattles, that is, fmall branches mterwoven 
( Arabice Sacbut Virgas) might alfo fignify a (kiff or fhip, 
the name being ap^ied, from their ufe'. 

But the true derivation of the name &Mem and Sattbif 
i. e. Ship-men, Navigators, or Swimmers, I think, is 
lirom the Oriental irw Sachu, or irMTW Sadmtbf Natath, 
from nrw Sachah, or nilD Sachah natavit ; Syriaic 
HMD Sacha (r) natavit, remigavit aquis : it alfo iig<- 
nifies proBmditas; and ihields being made of wattles co- 
vered with hides, we have KHtt^ Shacha, HPTW Shaeta, 
Gabata, Scutella, whence the Irifli Sciata^ Sdutba, a 


(r) Hence the Shtma of Barisary ; a colony of Scythi from the Caf- 
•pian And Euxine feas, who peopled Africa, under Nemed, a Scythian. 
See Salluft Bell. Jug. c. zzj. Thefe people call themfelves Amss^b^ a 
corruption of the Old Arabic and Perfian Almazun, Nauderi. (Sec Go- 
llus in V. Oman,) We (hall treat fully of this people hereafter. Thqr 
were nivigators and merchants, hence their Hebrew name Mabmr corrupte 
Mamr^ from ^n& Mahar,.pretittmy merx. mercator, et H^ Tanamer- 
cede condujcere^ whence ifamritam. Hence their metropolis was named 

"13/1 Tagger, QCgopiator, Irifli Togra, Grarce Ti»if , now Tangier. 
The celebrated emporium of Africa , and by tranfpfifition of Leuers we 
bave the £ngli(h Truck, U e, traffic, and probably it is the origin of the 
name Turk, Irifli Tozra and T^rc, traffic, forum. Suio Gothice Torg^ 
forum ; caeterae dialedi Gotbicat onmes voce hae carent, quod factt, ut 
tanto obfcurior fit illius origo. (Ihre) Apud Poionas Terg, apud Ruflat 
Torg, mercem, nee non mercatorem et item forum denotat. (Behorizti 
litt. Camiol. in Prafat.) Hence Heft fays the Sbcwa are compofed of 
Catulians, Numidians, and Turks. (^ Does Tbor the Northern Mer- 
cufy derive from this word > 


Ihiddf a twig haSuty or snj thing ocmcsve like die aa* 
dent target The word is nfed, in the Oriental tongneay 
to fignify whatever a£b in, or upon, water; it (gnifiea 
alio to waih, MMD Sacha, lavit, aUotos feit» quia natator 
non natat, nifi iavet (Schindier.) H liT U ^ U ^ Sachua, nmr- 
Tigable riyers^ deep watcrty whieh cannot be pafled witiv* 
oota boar, or by fwimming — »Qaas fob pede tranfiie non 
poteraty fed natando trajiciebant. mSTtOO Mfcuthat bat- 
neum — and hence the Scythian or Iriflf Sctot^ SmU, a 
ihip, the Egyptian anurtm (keitia, ratesy naves plane 
(Kircher) ana the Turkifli Anrtf, Navigii genus, vnlgo 
Saiqacy (Du Cangc). Scytho Scandice» Situl, ^Lang 
baat cila Skuta, Navis longa. Ibid. Skaid^ Skana^ Skuta, 
rodarferior (Vcrelius. Lex.) In monumentis Anglo- 
Sazonicis Navigii genus nominatur Saitbp appeUatum, 
fed quod hoc pcrtinere, non autumavero (Ihre). Saith 
a oTKuToCf Corium ut narigia corio induda (Junius), 

In like manner, the woras fignifying a hide, do aUb fig- 
.aify a boat, saentAdi, OMiarii ; ^ulMroAir, Giriarii Urbo^ 
Scythopolis. In IriA, Bolgh, Bok>» a hide from jfo bolgii 
tegere, whence p^s Bolun, a hide ; and this wwd gave 
name to the Bdgi or Scythians, on the Gifpian Sea, and 
to the river Bolga or Volga, becaule inhabited by thefe 
Scythians, who pafled weftward ; whence PUugb in the 
Armenian, Fluk Arabice, Vhg Sclavonice, and Filukm in 
Italian, a fliip. Gr. B. iisxi^ Navis, Scajriia (s). 


(*) The Celts or GoiiMritet» and dw Sqrtbians or Bfa^ogiaoiy 
both named Bol^ or BdgB» from the inventioD and nib of the boat or 
0iip covered with Hides. Why m^ not the Kdtoi or Cdts hate derived 
their name from another invention, in boat4>tiildingy that is, from the 
Phcenieian or Hebrew Kala Ets ? XUp ^^ fifnifiesy aflkre, tamiMm 
cera, and f|f £ts-a tree. ^ Kali et Vl^hp ^sliSf toftiim, whencethe 
Latin Coliaay and non a o^oido ignc^ nt ait Varre. (TomaAn. Glofll 
Hebr.) From the OrieQUl Kala, this learned Stymologift derives K£;^» 

lignam. K«Ain|i, Chalybet, femim, feilicet isnitwn $ et XsAtfX/or^ 
Cbalandiam, Navicula ad incendenda cmincs alias, hinc Chalannns, Ca* 
laaous. Media Lau diaos, Gallice Challan, kautm cUlkm. A rfyp 1^*1* 
eft Saxon, Ctdi Angl. Keel, Oall. Qaille, Hifp. Qgilla. * Forte W hinc 
Chalottpe^ Navis minor (Tomaflin). 

If then the Greeks adopted the Scythian and Oriental word fiaUi^m 
U 9, Navis from Bol|, a boat covered with hide, whence Be|gs) by the 


A modern Lcxiconift (Willmet Leic. in Coianum) 
has given the Arabic word a difFerent ezplanatbn, viz. 
flttky and Chald. '^B plak in gyrando, circumvoivendo^ 
fororianftcf manimas habuit Virgo. Navis gyrando. fpcc. 
area Noachi* tumentior rotundiorque pars cujufque ret— • 
true, our boig fignifies a fwellihg or rotundity of any 
kind ; but the application at the word to a (hip can have 
no reference to Noah^s ark. 

Canhf Corrach, Croich^ in Irifli, fignify alfo a hide 
and a boat ; hence the Magogians^ or original Scythi* 
and Inventors of this kind of boat» called thcmfelves, or 
were called JitMclhCotbi, i. e. the Old Navigators or 
Ship-men, a name corrupted by the Latins into Atla- 
cotti ; hence the Oriental WMOrO M-Cutha Navis ; 
^gypt. Katoa. Sic Kitii populi Scythiss circa mare Caf- 
|Ham apod &rabonem : nee aliunde nomen hoc^ quam a 
Eitbiis hodieque Cmtaini^ (BoKhornius)— hence (kibi, 
G^ibi, Gita, were.fynonimous names of the children of 
Gemer and of Magog, confufed in fucceeding ages 6ya 
mixture of the Siutbi s whence Syncellus Sxol^flu, ^ 
rvrdw M^fxmi f«rix«pia»c. Scythse, qui etiam Oothi foa 
lingua $ & Tribellius Pollio Scythse, i. e. pars Gothorum 
A&im vaftabant : the Greeks and Latins knew not how 
CO make the diftindion, which caufcd Salmafius to ob* 

fuam aipiitocnty tlwy might have given the name Ktini to the fame mari- 
time people, who vre know did alfo conHru^t hoats, hy burning the tree 
hollow by firci which operation would be named b^ the . Orientalifta 
nTfyp Kahih-etSy and by the Greeks might have been comipced to 
Mltoiy i. «. tree-bumert^ for making boats, in the fame manner they 
formid K«AeT Lignum ; yet I muft own, that KaitH is in my opinion 
formed of the Scythian Ktile^ Arbor ; and net from Kala, ardeic ; 
henee in Arabic KsUs, navigavit. So in the Soio-Gothica, Ek, an Oak, 
forms Eka, and EkAock, a Ship, a boat. Scapha ; inde dida quod ah 
€X€09m9 rolxMe conlieQa Aierit, quod genus navigiomm fine dubio om- 
nhim aotiqviflimum foit, et quo prvcipue ufos Aiifle veteres Ootboe, ee 
Gcrmaooi, apud auAores, relatum legiroiis* Arrhianus dc expedit. Alat. 
M. p. 9. Edit. Gronov. nominat eorum waoVa /uovo^t/Aa* quorum apod 
Oeus «areAAar f Jerepkv fuilfe dicit. PHn. L. XVI. c. 40. Hift. Nat. . ^. 

perhibet Germanls prcdones flnguKs arboribu« caratis navigafle, eoram- . 
q«e qoafiiJim.trigintt bomlnum tulifle. Kec dubito^ quin ▼etemm caa- • 
dScse i^ofidem formsl faerint» tie quibus A. Geilius, Serecca^de brevitate 
YltSf *G, ibi nous, (ihre, 0100". Suio«Goth.) 


^ J 


ferve, hoc nomen Sxui^c varle a Orascis enunciatom dtp 
&inulta8f4fToij(rciafftf incarrit : nam Xxv^iK^rirnsk rirTi^t 
kkm eft. 

Thus alfe the Gomcritcs named one tribe of themfelves 
Brigmitiff from their being ihipmen, and uiing a veflel 
called Brig or Brigantin. (See the conclufion of this In* 

Si tanto autem in pretio ftudioTe habentur Vetera Prin- 
cipum numifmata, aut nummi coram imaginibus infculp- 
ti ; quanti eftimanda font vocabnla bnge numifmatibus 
^aibufcumque antiqniora, quse licet magis fluxa ac fragt- 
hori commendata metallo, hadenus tamen linguae; 
mondo ipfi poene cosvs veftigia fervant. 

Hence the general name of thefe people was Scuthi and 
Go-im ; that »» Shipmen and .Seamen ; and hence Gcim 
and Cuthm are ufed by the Hebrew writers to ezprefs^* 
r$ipurs, or people that came from another country by 

In like manner the ancient Perfians were called JgnHf 
that is, Japhetansy from jlighf the Armenian or Scythian 
name of Japhet : the Arabs converted this word into an 
opprobrious meaning, and fignified thereby Barbarians, 
but it really means no more, than thoTe nations which 
are not Arabians by birth or origin, and in particular the 
Perfians, and all comprized under the Pcrfian Empire. 
The Perfians called their ancient Kings Molouck Agem^ 
King of the Japhelans \ they would not ftile their Kings 

The pofterity of oar Ma^irogians navigated the Eu- 
phrates in thefe Skin wattled Boats, in the time of Hero- 
dotus, who, in his Clio, gives a very particular account 
of them. »« The VciTcls, fays he, that dcfcend the ri- 
** ver to Babylon, are round, and in great meafore com- 
•* pofed of (kins. 

** For when they have cut the ribs out of willows, 
'^ growing in the hills of Armenia, they cover them with 
** hides extended on the outfide to ferve for a bottom, 
" making no didindion of ftem or ftera. lu thefe vef- 
** fels, lined with reeds, and freighted with merchandize, 
'* and efpccially with ca/ks of PaJm Wine, they venture 

" on 



«^ OB the riycr. Two men (landing ufH'ight^ with a pole 
*^ in the hand of each, ont pulling-to and the other 
<< potting ckffy dired the cottrfc of thefe boats ; (bme cf 
** which are very large, and others Icfs : but the mod 
*' capacious carry the weight of 5000 Talents (about 
** 160 tons). Every veffel has an Afs on board, and the 
" greateft more. Aker they arrive at Babylon, and have 
*' difpofed of their goods, they fell the ribs of the boat 
'* with the rieds ; and loading the hides on the ASts, 
*' return by land to Armenia, the River not being na- 
*' vtgable upwards by reafon of the rapidity ot the 
*^ ftr'eam(o)/' Herodotus does not mention how thefe 
Hides were put on ; they were fowed together with ftrong 
woollen yarn, as pradifed at this day in the Weft of Ire- 
land ; afad the Omanites of Arabia, the defc^ndants of 
our Magegians, continue at this day to few the planks of 
their VeiTds together, aa we (hall hereafter have occafioa 
to mention. 

In fine, thefe Sons of Japhet, being by fituation and 
by nec^fity (oh the banks of the Cafpian and Euxinc 
Seas) lutuifaiors and/i/kirfni^, had the honour of givUig 
names to (hips and boats of all manner of conftmdion, 
being originally of their invention ; and the names of 
navigating veffels in all languages are to be traced in 
their dialed, even at this day, namely, in the SfytbUp 
and all its variations. The Hebrew, Chaldaic, Arabic, 
aad oB the European dialeds retain thefe names, and 
the i n ve n tor s are (till known by the name of ScuM, in 
hotaour and Iti memory of their invention. 

Can there be a more honourable name than that df 
a Scot ? Has any nation contributed fo much to the 
ufe, or tb the luxury of mankind, or to general know- 
ledge^ by bringing the learning of the world to one oon^ 
centrical point ? What nation on earth have fo great a 
r%ht to grve maritime laws to ail the world as the Sub- 
jedtt of the King of Great Britain, the defeendants of 
thefe Skuibi^ or Shipbuilders, and Navigators — ^Maflers 
•f the Scat thefe three thoufand ye^rs ? 

(o) Littcbury*! tnmflatlon, p. laa. 




The Turks dcTccndants of thcfe Magogian Scvthiam^ 
have always kept up this title of Sovereinis of the Seas. 
The Legends on the G>ins of the Tarkifi Emperors niir 

Souttan el Berein uc Hakkan el bahrem : i» e. tit* 
Tirrm et Imferator Maris. 

The Breber or Amazig of Barbaiy, the defcendants of 
the old Numidians took this title atfo ; but when the 
Moors drove them to the mountains, and ufurped the fo* 
vereignty, they aflumed the title, and we find round the 
Tunifians coins of a modern date. 

Sukan Ben Mohamed 

Elban Uhhakan Cfaao Garbed 

Elbahr ben Elfuitan ThoTcb fi 

Achmet. 1139. Tunis. 

RiK FiliMs JAUmtd 

&*lMPiitATOK PrifUfpt Gmrbafa 

MARIS, filitts Rigis cmfm im 

jtcbmrti 1139. Vumis* 

Qui refpondet 
An. Chr. 1716. 

When our Nemediani pafled from Africa to SpaiOf 
they preferved the title, fabling that Siim Breac (or Her* 
culcs) was married to the Sea, to Erythra ( Arthrac) the 
Ship, Sec. When this colony pafled to the Britannic 
Hies, and the Tyrians and Carthaginians were featcd in 
Spain, they ufurped the title; but, with the Sooti or 
Scythi of the Britannic Ifles it has invariably remained* 
Their countrymen, fcated at Crotin in Italy, preferred 
%ht title, ana from them it defcended to the Etrttfcani, 
liditiouflv forming the name of the Voyaging Hercules, 
by two y>id Sdythian words, viz. Fear, homo ; Jam ot 
T^mman, Oceanus, whence Verturnnutt In Etrufcan, fig'' 
nifies Neptune, Hercules the Voyager, &c. &c. 


I^tRbUUCTION. ixxili 

Tne M^ogian-Scythian language originatlv varied 
Vciy little trom the Hebrew and Chaldee. Even the 
^fbIth•Weftern Scythi, who took on them fo many namei 
in their emigrsttions from the Cafjpian Sea by land to Eu- 
rope, ytt IxKkft of the name of Scutbi, and fetain moft 
of the words relating to this Art, fomewhat corrupted^ 
though they have entirely loft many others. 

For example. The Scytbo-Svarulians retain tHe following 
names far a Ship» as we learn from Vefelius. Karfi^ Af- 
kur, Skuta, Sncekia, Byrdiiigur, Skeid, Okga(p) (the 
Uig of the Irifli, and the Ogyges or Noah of the Greeks) 
Bufa, Knor> Kugg, Kuggur. The Ifelanders have Skeid^ 
and Jackty a corruptibn of Sacha^ Sachiit, Scuth. 

The Suio Goths have Skuta, Julie (roftened fronl 
Gaul) Naler. Flaccus L. r. Argoti. faysi the Phrygian^ 
called Ju/as thofe fhips the Greeks named >auAor, gaulas ; 
hence the J$ily boat of the Englifli Navy. Feftds fays, 
the Latin ^gyale was a fifhing veflel ; the modern Latins 
wrote it Ciula. The Author of the Life of Alfred informs 
us, that King built fhips called Ciula or Galej^- 

Bonde is toother Suio-Grothic name fdf a Ship. Junius 
Etys, it was the fame as the Kacfi, or Garbh of the Irilh^ 
and the Caravell of the Englifh, and the Carabus of the 
Latins. Ifidore thus defcribes it. Carabus cA parva 
fcapha ex vimine fada^ quflfi c#nte3a nudo corio, genus 
navigii prseftat---it was then our Skut, the Arabic and 
Indian Urabb. Tacitus fays, the Scythians called them 
Canurgy i. e. houfes | lb in the Syriac, Noufa, Navis^ 
templum : he defdribes them to h6 buik arfis lateribuSi 
lau alvo, fine vinculo ^ris aut ferri connexas. Hence 
the Suio-Goths diftinguilh them by Jag^bandUf from tag^ 
iiinis, with which they were fewed $ and by Slthbundin^ 
iiervis coitftrida fcapha $ and by Skut-iondh^ that is hide 
fewed, or with thongs cut out of hides. Thefe they dif- 
tinguifli from EcJtj Eiiot, Ekftoekar, or War Ships made 
of trees or planks^ whence Xik-eqUt. The northern Lexj^ 
conifts derive bvndi from bindtt, to bind ) it is evidently 

(p) Okga, Vigi Kmg all dtrive from ^f^ tbwg rotttndvt. Sc« 
Tommaflin, p. 324. Henct Cc»ck»bo«t. • 

d from 



from the Hiberno Scytbic hunaJb, to build» to conftraa, 
whence Curacb'bunadbi to build or conftruA a Shipof hides ; 
this formed the name C§rrybant4S, part of the IXofcuri, 
-who were fuppofed by the Greeks to have been the firft 
Ship-builders. Arabic Curracis Navis longa ; hence 
Coircej the city of Corke in Ireland, from a fettlement 
of the Scuthi, famed for this naval archited ; the Citj 
ftill retains a Ship for its arms or infignia. So in Uke 
manner Bonde is an honourable Eunily name among the 
Suio-Goths, carrying the fame Armorisd, viz. a Ship ; 
Chaldaice n33nv Khor-bana, to build with bides ; hence 
fatiiotfi^y aU'ttLS^ domusy from the laft comes the Gothic 
Ek, a Ship ; fo Long in Iriih is a Ship and a Houfe r it 
is the fame in the Chinefc, who borrowed it from the Ja- 
panefe» originally Scythians from the Cafpian Sea, by 
their own hiftorical accounts. 

Of thefe confuted, or fewed Veflels, Homer is to be 
underftood as Pliny explains the paflfage, L- 24—9— 
Thus again Antiphilus in Anthol. Gr<ec. 57. 

To/Ji^ ^' It It f TfXAAor IfihMunf fill ailnff, 
*A^xi xnot r^lxfitt dffUnln l^irirai- 

Non clavus sereus nee ferreua eft in navibus, 
S^d iaterum compagcs lino vincitur. 

The Finns carried the art with them ; they built vcf- 
fcls of this kind to hold twelve rowers on eadi fide, as we 
Icam from Sturlon. T. a. p^ 324. " Bina navigia per 
<< Finnones prope lacuum finum fibi conftnii curavit Sir* 
'< gurdus, quorum aflferes aniinalium nervis jungeban- 
<< tur, nuliis compads clavibu9 ferreis : interiora navis 
«' cum falce faligna ligebantur : duodecim utiinque ad 
«« Utera coniidcntibus viris reraigatoribus.*' 

The Tyrians, neighbours to, our Scythi, feated at Dor 
and at Bethfean, or Scythopolis, foon learnt this art from 
them J ufing the word «]D Sap, for ^ytjf^ khur, a hide, for they 
are fynonymous ; they formed 19D fapan, texit, obtexit, 
Siplna^ Navis, proprie magna & teda. Hence, finding 


1 M ^ R O Df U'C; T i O N. xrxv 

oar Scuthi fcated ^ Ar^(Hb 9^ Qa^i^^ a^id that . it was 
fo named frooi cbc Irifli word (ignlfying Shipmcn, 
(whencci the Greeks Erythrca); thcy> ^i^bitipua 
of the honour of being ifipoght the only Seaipen^ named 
it SapaOj or Span, whence Spain* Hifpania. In the fame 
manner thejr tranflated the Hibernp-Scy^hian 7artefs, ^nd 
TarJbHif !• c. uitifiia habitation ukima Colonia, into 
%^a2^'(q) Ihereaxy whence Iberia, as Feilus Avicnus ho- 
Bcfthr ha9 proved, of lyhich hereafter : — from this «]o or 
^ Sap, or Schapt conges our Scip> Ship, &c. 

That thefe kind of Ship^ were in ufe over the Globe, 
fcom the Wcftern Ocrajgi to the Nile, is elegantly hand- 
ed down to 08 by Lucan, L- 4« v. 130. 

l^qne habuit rip^sSicoris, campofque reliquit 
Primum cana falix madcfado vimine parvam 
Texitnr in puppim, ccefoquc induSa juvcnco 
VeSoris patiens tumidum fupcrenatat amnem. 
Sic Venetis ftagnattte Pado, fiifoque Britannis 
Navigat Oceano : fie, ciim tenet omnia Nilus 
Conferitnr bibula Mcmphtis cymba papyro. 

Our ^fagogian Scuthi^ or Ship-men, being featcd jn 
Armenia, recorded the jfcfting of the Ark, giving the name 
i>i Leahan^ Leabaruy Baris, Gradij) or Garrad, Corracf 

(q) N. B. 7orp.aoi in Irift fl^iftcs the Wcftern Country, i. c. 
'K^"^ Rcjio »4 dprfum, 

(r) Labean fronv pV Arbor. a«ris, frorp 0^>3 Cofiura, ^0113 
CorUriai Grxc. ^ftrvs )D^3 aptavit CociiiiQ. Syr. burfia, CorUrius. 
AnbiGey bar). Naota |drata» iiarjat Navib aaagna baUaca, (Gisg. CaA.) 
Talmod : HT^HH Corium, pannum. Pefficd, Bena paanum. ^upcrob. 

Nqitune was namtd Scyphiis and Scythius. 

Arab. Bheza, a kind of a ifhip, named a tiree. 

h^Op Pe^' Wem quod ^2jg Patftf or Pafal, decorticare,'hinc ^i^^Mu 
Lat. niazeluSy Navis modica, tujufmodi olim iiebant ex uno arbona 
crunco doiau et fculpto, vel etram ex cortice, nam ^DJ) pafal, dolare, 
Icdlpere, (ThommalBn) and by change of letters ^t)D '^^peij Vas magntim. 

Coptic^, Efot. Mercator. navigator. Irlfh Eft. 
Copt. gol. egeou. Naves. Irifh Uige, 

The Egyptians fay, the art of niing the wind by means of fails was 
exceeding «ncient. They give the honour of this difcovery to h-ii t and 

da fays 


(fc. i^c (all fignifying in Iri(h an Ark« Boat, or Ship), 
to fuch mountains on which it was recorded the Ark of 
Noah refted; and at the fame time adopting his name 
Naoi^ to fignify a Ship or a Nfariner (s). Hence the cor- 
rupted names, Carduchi, CarJithCenfyai^ CirJumi, G^nU, 
Curdi^ and more correSly by Al. Polyhifter, Conyrm (t), 
i. e. the mountains of Anrarat. From NM I>amajctnus 
we find this mountain was alfo called Baris. '< An a 
<* Grsecis apud quos Baprr barhari navigii genus eft, aut 
'' ab Armentts qui Deam coluerunt hujus nominis,** fays 
Bochart, from this paiTage of Strabo, " Abus mons eft 
** prope viam qua itur Ecbatana^ prseter Barrdis des 
** tcmplum." We (hall h<?rcafter (hew that J9feirr-A7x was 
Luna^ and that the Egyptian Ifis received her honours as 
a Navigator h'om the Iri(h word Ef$^ or Ifty a (hip. 
Bochart thinks Bans may be a corruption of tne Hebrew 
nnD bertth, i. e. foedus, ^ia in Uh ipfo monte Deusfee- 

fays Gougety over and above the little cradit which is d«e to the greater 
part of the hi (lory of thlt Priiicefsy we fliall prove that this diftoveiy 
cannot be afcribed to the Egyptians. It is evident, that having leamc 
the art from the Scythians, and adopted the won! Efs, a ibip^ they 
afcribed the honour of the invention to their goddefs Ifis. See aUb, Ann. 
K«g. i769» 

(0 ^^^ Navis. 

(t) Qjitii Arabice Corevr eft navis praelonga \ navIs nr«agns. Bochart. 
Csrica navigii fpecies, Navit oneraria, (Da Cange,) ttfed in Richard ll.*s 
time i Caricum, onus^ id. whence cargo. 

In the hiftory of Armenia by Mofes Choronenlls, we find the B^gi or 
Boloy under the name of Acmi \ this in Arabic is the plural of Curd^ or 
the Curdi of Curdiftan, and in tiie Perfian hiftory they are faid to have 
dcffcended the Euphrates and Tigris, and fettled in Cutkm or Nabath 
of Babylon; that is, fays De Heri»elot, about the KAbathean fcAa; 
and here they were diftinguiihed by the name of Ztbmk, Some have 
thought that they vrere originally ChaMsrans, and that th^ were named 
Keldan or CbaUsans, the Caflidanim of th^ Hebifws and Aiabs* 

We muft here obferve that the Nabathean Fens are iaid co have been 
called CmtbM^ and that an ancient King of Babylon there cut many canals 
from the Euphrates into the Paludes, and from thence uuo the Tigris. Ce* 
ith or Cutb in Irifli is a Canal ; a fofs, a ditch j on this iail branch ftood 
Apmmdf and at the forks of the Euphrates and Tigris ftood C^kt^ or 
Corcbe. in Irifti Catircbe, the city of Corke. Nimrod Oijgas is eflet qui 
efTodtt aliquot fluvios in ^ Irac, quas deduxit ex Euphrate, et dicitur 
cjufmodi efle fluroen Catbm in via Cupb^, (Ahmed). In Perfic, Irac, or 
Eiak,. or Ark, is alfo a Canal, the lame as Cutb in Irifli, changed by the 
Arabs into KLuAi« 


dm C09^rapfitf fiin tam: cum N^^ .^uam cum hw^Mm ge- 
were uuhurfi^ inde dafa i« figniim^figiirU. This leads 
me to ihc trup d^rivatioA pf the name of Jrmenia. The 
Ma^giaiM or Armenians ajways' recorded thi^-Govenant 
of Gfod with mankuKJa j^nd annu^Uy eclcbratcd the 
Mi$n^ Armion^ or Breith : ' and hence Jlr'tnion-ia^ li^ 
terally imt>Iied the country ol die Mountfd^ of . the . Co- 
venant (u). . ;' 

The Prophet Jeremiah \rccord? ihe^ Moyntain of the 
Ark and of the G>venant>, in cK^p, 51. ver,a7. ** Setyc 
.up the ftanda#d in the Undy bjow the trumpet ainqng the 
GnnT: preparethc.G^/m againll her>5 call t^ctfecr againft 
her the Kingdom of J/rrar^j,, Al^inni and AfAmax:^^ 
for the Hebrevtr. Mini the Cbffldce ha« 0»D "V* W-Mini, 
the Mpunr:.^ the Coy?;napt* . And here I muft obfcrye, 
that ApT^Tfit vs a Scythian namefo^ the movmtain. of the 
Ship, iox/jlru ov Aorth^ or Aith>. >& at Ship) andy/ra 
mountain : ifi the Egyptiafi l^i^g^^guage erhot^ fis gin^erbstt^ 
nAvigatifi^^ ia Iri(h Artkgim naMigaVe ; for ^n in Egyp* 
ticky and gim in Irifli^ is . th^ < verb facer $* V aUD*. \^ to 
this derivation^ feeing . the Hebrew Etymolqgifl^ have 
£onc fo much out of the way fpr^ ^n explanation of Arra^ 
rat» viz. iaTm^fUiiedi£i.h f^imru $ aut ex UebrgDO:et Sy- 
xo mafjtdiffh^ .five lu» curreutis : and we learn from Haif" 
b9f theArmenian> that, the i^^me of the mountain in 
.their language is Aurtb^ which perfedly eorrefponds with 
the Iriih Jbrths of Arth^^a S^ip* So Author and Ed^ 
thar S^m Eatharaca Ship, from K*^in, thora pellis & ac 
water : hence the Phcenkian Hercules was named Mtlic- 
ariusi or AliU^Aortb, the King of the Ship, or the SaiK 
or of the Ship (x) : it is therefore probable that DT)K was 
originally i^nw the f^au being miflakcn by Q)pyi(l$ for "^ 

R (y)- 


(o) Pd^cd Armon, a pttrdte, ao eamft, fvrety, (Hpuhtion, an^ 
thing by which. a promife is confirmed (Kichardfon). Armen, name of 
a mountain near Burfa in Bithynia. (po.) 

(x) Hence Melicerta fbnof Athamas Kin; of Thebes» was transform* 
ed into a Sea God ; worihip was paid to hjm'by the Greeks, and g^amet 
loftitoted'to his honour. 

(y) Midacritus. Plumbom ex C^fliterides infuU primus apportavit 
Midacritus. Plinius, L. VU« c. 36'. Bochart thinks this name is cor- 
rupted from Melicartus the Phoenician came of Heicules -, but Midacru 


x«v«i r H T R 9 O O C T 10 N. 

TheMagogiavs (z) henwred Noah bjr rlie tuone isf 
Oig'Ufg^y&sLth^r-n^oi, Qtifiunx KiiJIurus^ PeM^^mmboH, 
that is» the Giant or iicirb of the Shirp f the Shit> Voya- 
ger, the man of the Oe^ti^ wh^Acc the Greek Q^f^^i, 
Sa^urnus (a) the Chaldee iXifuthrus and (he Ettufcan Vet- 
tumnusy i. c Neptune. .... 

Keift, ov Cetfty in^ ItkfSL i^aYi Ark of Shtp^ in oH Per- 
fian Ke(hti, hence Runjbur Kiihte, a trading Vtfel ; 
K'ejhti Noefh; Noah'd Ark. Abydenils^ #hd retonts the 
name of Xifuthrus^ is fuppofedtd have tiken his aHlrii& 
from the Archi^e^ of the Mtfdds and Bahylonians^ btft 
yit find no foch ^«oi-d fbr ft Ship in i\» Chaldean Ldi»- 
msi^.Caf4f U another name ibr a Shtpirn Iriti fiii Anfbi^ 
Grab). td^'n^Tj^haViba Chi Navicuk. Carabu#. bli^Kar- 
bit. pellis SiGid-Cenfh iSf Ch-Cf^nk wad a i^Mie iyftfdab, 
i. t^ the ihan ^thc Ships : ¥bid wasthd OtMpi'tft flMh 
of thd l^ft. UaotBiidtTMib (Arab. Nahbifa)> tea /Ship 
dnd a Saiidr : iri Eg/piia^ titU (ndtatl62> nbph> Mra- 
ta : icnn is tfae Ode^H, th^' Stu, henCe If^MM i And 
from Qia-ikaioh^ the mM of the Ship, I don]e£lut« eiihfc 
the Grictek ktC^tvg.*. MV^^ Was the guhe-p^fiMi^ though 
by the Greeks inttitFdAed as a woAian. Se^ Xetic^H 
de squfvocisi & DtckenfMi Delphi Vhdkffx&z. p/ 163. 
Ctf^/ i« linothcir Ififli word ibf ^ Ship. Cdfaeb a fleet. 
Cak/Hcan^ anrnrinef. CaUa'ihda-natzl t i^ tW Chulf^ 
^srr Chebaly & KVl^rtCh^bta Mftur^ ; froiit I^M i«4eH?«d 
the Chaldti «Jk ani, A^ jViK «ifel, i Ship(b/.' •• •» 

. ♦ •• ••• : . . •'• " •■ Various 

fui is eviiieatlf the JB/^fpGan lubie Af4(ti« .ftme perttsu :. in tfaat JaigUiit 
med ic a prepofite^ as med-peb do^»p4(9o, frqiif^jnft|»el domious^ m«d« 
ouro regnum^ from of f rep^, wbec^e (i>p/)o Pharaoh : med lalM fwiea- 
tia from fiil>c ftplcns, in Ji^e manncjt med-cinhot; af /iiUor/ £«, Midar* 
chot, whttjcd M^datritos, bf fhrtrtni^itJon 6f a Ifetter. 

(z) Alteram i'gitur duorum in Genefi accedit, vei pro Arrarer^ Aniit 
€(k legendum, ut Area dicatur in montibus Tauri confedillo, Tel fi aflu- 
minaiDia Armenia major ,A):^arfC yocari (loncedatt^r^ Gorapiiia Boca- 
nus. . Indo-Scyth. 1, 5. This author. has miftaken the icx^9, pi Arth, 
deriving it from r\'i'^i^ arith, rjvusj ftagnuro> in Iriftiirrith^ the mUbke 
c£ the Hebrew copyifts (if any) lies in the firii R,. which ihouid he V j 

(a) Aatharbr Seathar, Lord, it is alio a name of God. In Phoenician 
n^~"l£Dlt& Soter-Noah, Dpoiinus No^ In IriHi Seathar.oam^ either 
Dominus Noah,, vcl Dominus Navis. 

(b) From D5)Kis. Lignum, or /^IC^n K.cft. Saiix.' HOP^i? K*^*"* 
/ruftrum lignj, l)\*5 Kli. Cochleare lignum. Ccas or Kas in Iriih i« a 


IK T R O D U C T I O N. xxxix 

Various are the opinibhs of the Earned concerning 
the name Scytht. As to the derivation foinc give of it 
firom (horning, it is eaiily determined whether it be well 
grounded or not. If it could be fhewn that the Scythians 
ufed a word like this to fignify a bow, an arrowy or to 
flioot^ yrt this would be ot very little weight, as the peo- 
ple themfelves teftify that they did not call them- 
feives Scythians on that account. Among the Greeks, 
this word fignified neither to ihoot, nor a (hooter, 
not even in a figurative renCe; XxtAi^tit rather fignified 
toearoufe ; and the Medes and Perfians were no lefs fa- 
llious for Ihooting than the Scythians; what reafon then 
fliould mov6 them to give their neighbours the name of 
SboHift ? as if bows and arrows had been unknown to 
(hem (tijey called themfelves Bolgi, and the fynonymous 
word is (mJ0flCi9 G>riarii). When C^axeres com- 
mitted fome youths to the Scythians for mftrudion, it 
was not on account <^ their being good markfmen, but 
becaufe they were famous for hunting, to which ihooting 
was not an indifpenfable qualification ; and In the chace 
the Northern Scythians were known to excell, as much 
as the Southern Scythians did in navigation and com-; 

tf, aid Uairkeis a cock-boat } Uif% Keating^ p. 148. KiA a fmaU boat 
OB the Thame*— Scytho.Scandic« Km* pelles. Kk in Arabic is a rock or 
impediment under water, dangerous to mariners, whence the ktb a dan- 
geMos fiuid bank in the harbour of Dublin. The CiAi and the Cuthc or 
Cfanlci were the fame people. Chutmi eiiim iidem qui Ciflli, nempe Su-) 
a«UB ineolc ad ortum Babylonic. Bochart, Vol. 1. 1, iii, t, 5. ad ortum 
Babylonia, that is in Oumn^ where we place the Cuthit. Ciflli is from 
Cm* a fiiip, or 9M\ Ualrceas, a long boat, a cock-boat ( hence one of 
fha Irifti primes was named U^inmt, firom his conftmding a number of 
rmall veflels. See Keating, as above* 

The Arabs woiildcali thefe mariners or fliipmen, Crab \ they would call 
themfe l ves CarUtj and Ctrhstiaty and uitdcr this name we find them in 
Agathareidw. His autem (i. e. CafllmHis) contigvi habitant Carbl 
KaifCsi incottrinente, quam portus exciph profundus in quo plurimi 
Iberunt fontes ; deinceps autem adhoeret gens SabKorum. And Diodo"' 
rut. Poft has funt Ke^f Coi Carhi d}Ai, quos fequuntur Sabci. Pliny caJU 
them drhoMU This mixture of people on the coaft ofOman, particularly 
at TttstUg is noted by the Arabian Geographer. Here, fays he, are wan- 
derers from every race. Bochart derives the Carbi from ^^p Kcrab bel- 
lum, and thinks they were a warlike people \ we read of thtm in the hif- 
rory of the merchandize of the Red Sea, but I don't rccoUefl fhe inhabit 
unts of the coaft were ever remarkable for miliuiy exploits. Scytho* 
Scandicd Karfi ; Aaglo-Sax. Caravall, Navis. 


^1 I N T R O D U C T ION. 

mcTcc (c)» But thcv were all more famcms for the Smrd 
than the bow i for Herodotus^ in his account of the adi-^ 
ons between Cyrus and the MaiTagetse, fays exprefsly, 
that both armies were equal whilft they ufed only their 
arrows, but that the Scythians turned the fcale when they 
came to handle the fabres ; hence the Irilh never named 
any of their princes or generals by any words implying 
bow or arrow ; but many were called Swordfmenf a$,CoI- 

})a-Clianih, &c. &c. : or they named their IVinoes by 
bmc word betokening art^ fcience^ knowledge ; as Seal 
and Scalaith, which i$ the Phoenician. and Chaldaan boXX 
Seal, intelligerci intueri, afpicere, confiderare, atten- 
dere, animadvertere ; thence Seal fignifies a Prince oi^ 
Governor^ and Scal-iath, a Lord of a certain diftrid* 
Omnibus autem (Scythis) nomen efle Scolotis R^i«. 
cognomen. Sed Scythas Grseci appellavere^ (ays I(en>- 

(c) Mor an muirrioch im Crath tonn ; i. e. they traffickod much by 
fea. (Liber I^ecanusy a very ancient Iri(h MS. p. iS.) 

This line of Japhet derive all their names from the fea or fea diores in 
profane hiftory. Ctunberlandy by arguments not eafily anfwered* pnfwm 
Nereus of Sanchoniatho to be Japhet. (in Iri(h Nsnire a Ciilor). The bi* 
ihopalfo proves that Pontus. was the fon of N^reut. Pontus had two 
children, a fon PofadtH or Neptune, (in IriOi Frfa'toim a dweller on the 
lea), and a daughter ^a/w, who, being a charming finger, was the firft 
whd compofed Odes (in Iri/h fiUmmf to fingO Nereus, Pontus, andl 
Pofcidon or Neptttne, every body knows to relate to the fea and its fea 

The like confirmation we have from the Greek hiftories, that the line 
of Pofeidon or Neptune ii confiftent with Sanchoniatho*s genealUgy bere, 
snaking him the grandfon of Nereus or Japhet. They own that PaAidoii 
had leised on Attica by a ftroktof his trident before Athena came there. 
In Apollodorus we find, that from Ottaimt is derived hgcbtUf and in his 
line the eldeft PtUtfgas is placed very near the beginning. See Cumber- 
land, Sauchon. p 259. 268* 

The bi(hpp» with good authority, has proved the PeUfgi or Pd^gi were 
Japhetans. All writers agree that they were Phoenicians ; cconfcqueatljr 
the Phoenicians were Japheuns, and not of Ham, as has been gaierally 
imagined, from thft Greeks confounding (hem with the Canaaniies, with 
whom they mixed. I judge, fays Cumberland, that the prime families 
of Japhet and Ham were feated at no great diftance from each other, and 
fometimes had fair correfpondence, and. fometimes fell into wars j of 
^ friendly comport between them SanchonUcho affords an inftance 
in his own town Berytus, which he tells us CrniMs gave to Pcfidan and 



idodu (d). The name is pure Scythian, andl deicended 
to the Germans, Antiquiffimum Germanicum Tocabo* 
Inn eft Scelto^ quod Judicem fignificat : Brabanti met 
)iodieque ScboUfs aut Sceltes dicunt^ (Boxhornius. Orig« 
GalL p. 97.) Thiit, fays Mr. Baumniten, is no other 
tjian the word W/tfii, which, among European and other 
adjacent Tartars, Unifies no more than a Lord of the 
Country : The Scholati of Herodotus were, by his own 
account, of Royal extradion, and all of them were difr 
tiaguiihcd by a Royai appellation. 

Baron de Tott. t. 1. p. 51. fays the word Sultan is on- 
ly title ot birth given to the Ottoman princes born on 
the throng, and to thofc of the Guinguis family. How 
ti%t Baron could make this miftake is inconceivable : if 
the Baron had recolleded the Legends of the Turkifh 
Coins, he could not have committed fuch a blunder. 
Spuitna gl Bgran tu hakJtan el Babretn.^Rcx Terrs & 
Impcrator Maris. The Tunilian Princes take the fame 
title • Sec. p» xxxi i • 

As to the name ^tfTtf , Mr. Baumgarten thinks it isde* 
rived from fUffic, fchc, £otay or fcbaU which, in the 
Ferfian, Turkim, and many Tartarian dialeds, even 
fo.&r as Hindoftan, fignify an hundred ; and as it 19 
wcU known, th^t a multitude is often denoted by a deter- 
minate number, fo. Sa^a or ^^^^ literally fignifies an hun* 
ilred hords, but is underftood to imply a people confiding 
i>f innumerable hords, which, fays he, is ccrtainl}r the 
proper denomination of the entire body of the Scythians. 
(e) This, I own, correfponds with Pliny's defcription ; 
Ultra funt Scythanim populi. Perfse illos Sacas in unip 
verfum appellavcre i proxima gente, antiqui Aramasos : 
multitudo populorum innumcra (f ); and with the Iri(h 
Sgotbf a multitude^ Chaldee OD. nm»JD» tXiX>, i. e. Co* 
pia, multitudo abundantia, from the roo^ yjD Saga, 
augcri, abundarc. Wc have given a derivation well adap- 
ted to hiftorical fads. 

(d) Ub. XIV. p. m6— 50. 
• (e) Obferr. on iIjc Univ. Hift. Vol, II. 
{f) Lib. VL ch. XTii. 



Ptolemy properljr pUccs the Som in Badriana ; aaid 
aw Cbomar was their Metropolis, the Aulliors of the Uair. 
fiiftory fay, thefe muft be Gctmrigns^^Wc fliail hereof* 
ter fiiew that the Goilhenans took a very- different foue^ 
Ud that Cbomar in Irtlh fignifies a plain, or vaH^ bc& 
tween hills, whence we have a Bmli^Ci$mara in Indhm^ 
a ViHage fo ealted from its fituation ; and this is the trot 
Origin of the name Gmmerit, a pec^e living in VaU 

This conBifion of general names made Stiiabo (ay, 
' that the ancient Greeks called all the Northern Nati- 
< ons Seyibi and dlu-Scfibi, without dtftindioii | but 
' they knew little or nothing of thefe people, or of tht 

* Perfians, Modes, or Syrians $ andalltheyhadwritlcii 

* of them was mere fable, (g)" 

In tike manner the more niodern Byzantine biftoriaBf 
have confounded the Gothi, Hunni^ Getse, often orf- 
litog them Scuthi« Vel vemm ignomntes, vc\ intern*- 
peftivam aflFcdantes fermonis caftitatem Scriptores By- 
'zantini folent, tta et Gothi apud iilos non raroScythanim 
nomine veniunt. (J. Gotthiif Strittcnis de Gothis.) 

The learned Ifare makes the fame remark, and in a 
former page we have (hewn the caufe of thi6 eonAifion. 

The iimilarity of languages between fhe ancient Geic 
and the Scnthi deceived the Greeks, and in ftibfeqoent 
agesy that great body of Southern Scythians, who pafled 
the Hcllefpont after the routing by Darius, imported into 
Thrace fuch an abundance of Arabic and Perfian words; 
as renewed once more the Oriental dialed amongft the 
Get39. The Perfians, originatly Scythians, (Ptrfas tfi 
mginttus Seytbas* Am. Marcell.) on the contrary had in- 
troduced fuch a number of Gothick words, as to deceive 
the learned, who have efteemed thefe nations of one Ori^ 
gin. (Scythgp funi tarn Perfie ptam Gothi Gomumifne^ 
iays Mariham. ) The Iri(h, originally a Scjrthian dia- 
led, improved by the abode of the Southern Scythians, 
their Anceftors, in Perfia and Armenia, comprehends 
the roots of all thefe languages. 

(s) Stribo L. XI< 



The Author of the Richerdei Jkr F^rigine if lapngris 
iis Aih de la Gr^a, obfervesy '< that the name oi^colati 
<< ii anterior of that aXSeythiy and that of Sacas muft have 
^* preceded that of Scdati fince the prince that bore it 
'* was borii of the Sac^ The name of this people, fo 
^^ ancient, has never been changted, or at lead has re- 
*^ ceiled fo HtUtTariation, as to be difcovered, not only 
*' m China and Japan^ but alfo in ev^ry country they 
** originally inhabited- The Ufink Tartars^ a divifion 
'* of the MngUh^ catl themfelves Zi^ais ; and their 
" Codxitty, of which ^amarc^ndi is the Capital, is called 
#< Zagathi^9 or Zagais, which is the fame as Saci»iaJ^ 
Wc mall only add on this fubjeA, that the learned Pro- 
ftffor Bayer obfervesy that the word Scytht was unknown 
to the moft. ancient Greek writers, and that it is not 6f 
Greciaai origin s and he adcb, it was not the name the 
Scythians ealhri themfelves. Bayor is fo far right, that 
ihey called thentfelves originally JMgi, that is, Hyde- 
men, becanfe tfadr veffels were made of Hhrdes, and the 
Greeks cohfequently call them cKidm, Skuthai, t. e. 
Qydemen, Goriarii (h), when thefe Boigi had mixed 
with the Dadanites, and bad traded to Babylon, where 
tfaey foM thef Seoth of their Bolgi $ rfrey then took on 
them the n^me >of Scothi or Scuthi, the Chaldean name 
far a ihit># and by (his name they were known on the 
Red Sea, where they failed the iEgypfian Ihips ; hence 
the Allegory, that their King was married to Scota, a 
daughter of the \^gyptian monarch : as Erytbrus, or 
Hi^rCules, ivas f$id to be married to Erytha^ i. e. a Ship. 
So we (hall find Niul was married to the Si^ita or 
fleet of the Egyptians. They called themfelves Mil-efs 
or Lords of the Ship, Sailors, whence the name Milefs or 

(h) The Greek word corrcTponding to Bolgi, Is tncv^cu i. e. Coriarii^ 

whence Stephanus juAly derives the name Scychat, and axv9o«roArf« 
Coriarii Urbs, i. e. Scythopolis. Steph. tfe Urb, p. 246. In like man*> 
ncr the Irirh Ifcip. Scip. Skiph, a flii> ii the rTS)^rr"^2 Sichiphe of the 
Crientalids, 1, e, Sicca*peIIls or Navispellis. See p. xxviii. 


jtiir introduction: 

Mtlcfios(i), fynoojmoaf to Mikcaoft or Mdicaitus, 
and probably Mercalcs is alio derived (rom their Arg^hd^ 
a Sailing by the Gmipafs. ^Tbe GmqMds if .fiiid to have 
been luiown to ^he Chinefc 1115- yean bcfiireQirift 
(Play&ir) ; why aoc to the Tartars and S^hians } Jrg 
is^ (hip* and iul'u to turn romidy it fignines alfo an in* 
dex. Earc is the Heatrens, and Earc-ini dcferibes the in* 
fimment turning to a certain point of the Heavens (k). 

In like manner Sum BrutCf our .Voyaging Philofepher 
(Hercules) having fettled a O>lony of his GMnmercial 
pcojje at Tan^ or Taagur (called by the old Scytht, 
T§gr4i or Tpgar, that is a hdr, a Mart, by the Tyrians 
^ggir) is iaid to have (lain JnUeus and to have married 
his widow Jinp^ becaiife Tangier was. the Emporium of 
Africa, as Plutarch, Pompon-Mda and Pliny relate* 
An Irifli MSS. called theJSookof Leacan relates the care 
of the Egyptian fleet being committed to our Magogr- 
ans* ^^ Afcha^s was the i6tlL King of Aflyria : in the be« 
ginning of hi^ reign Mofes paft the Red Sea and Phara* 
oh perilhed i^ the purfuit. Four years after this memo* 
rable event &ru Son of Efru^ Son of GatSUglas^ (ailed 
away m^ith part of Pharaoh's fleet." 

The Magogian Scythians, mafters of Amenia and 
Mefopotamia^ diftingui(hed that part of it between the 
Euphrates and the ^gsean and Mediterranean Seas, by 
the name of Jar, Jaran, Eire, or Eiris^ (ignifytng by 

(1) This ii the meaning of the names in Inlh, we ere aflvred by thf 
fragment of a very ancient poem written, it is faid^ by Amergin, whe 
was a Milefian. and arrived in Che firft expedition ^ this fragment is pre* 
lerved in the Liber Lecanas or Leabar Lecan, p. 13. and concludes tbes« 

Toatha mac Mileadtt 
MUeadh Loiiige fibeanv 

i. e. 
Lords were Milefius fons 
MiJefids of the Libeam (hip, 
Lfbsam IS the Chaldee K^j^^^ Libcmia Naves caudicansp et bellicc fx 

tabulis craffionibus UBx, unde AtCtpvoi* (Plantavit, Lex.) 

' (k) When the Greeks came to underftand that Cuii in the ScytlUaq 

language was a club and Krr^ a hero, they thought HctqoIcs derived from 

F.rranlor the Clab*Hero, and thus they reprefented him \ and the fymbol 

of Herculet being the trvnk of an olive tree confirmed them in the mif- 




1 N T R O D U C T I O N. xk 

thcfe words, the Weft ; they are the fame as the Phoeni- 
cian 'iTTM'Ahur, pnriM Aharon, i. e. po(lremus» occiden- 
Ulis (I). . Hence we ^nd in Rivola, that Jhiran is the 
name of Armenia^ and AUmac an Armenian^ in the 
Armenian language. The country Eaftward of th<5 
Euphrates, the Scythians named Oire, and Oircbi, de- 
notingthe Eaft, from nntor Lux, item Aurora (m).— - 
IVof- JSayer thtnM this name was . pecuhar to O/rtoesy 
and that it was written Urhoi (terminatione Aramaeai), 
L e. S0I9 Lux, IgAis(n). — The level plains of this Coun- 
try the Sc^hians named Uirg, or l/r, words which ex-^ 
prefs a moift pkce, a valley; hencetheCityof Z/r, near 
Ni/Husy on the River Aftgiehmut ; Ur alfo hgnifies Fire^ 
Light, the Sun; hence the Vr of the Chaldees oh the 
South banks of the Euphrates : the iimilarity of names 
has occaiiohcd much confiifion in the Geography of the 
Ancients (o)« 

Ebir Scuit /-n f ittrnay? the 5th in defcent from Magog, 
pafled over the Cafpian Sea, and peopled that Country, 
named Scythia inira and extra Ifhaum^ or the Northern 
Scythians, or Hyperboreans. Thefc people did not fet* 
tie in towns, but led a wandering life, whence, they were 
named, by the Southern Scythians, Tfi^h-rianuigb, or 
Tuaraniu^h, the wanidering people. They were after* 
wards diftin^ilhed by the Perfians by the name of Divet 
or Evil Spirits, and m Irifli hiftory by the name of Sidh 
or Devils : hence Sbadukian in Perfia, the Country of 
the Fairies or Dives.. (Herbelot. p. 765.) (Bailly fur 
I'Atlantide, p. 1 84.) — The PerGans fay that the Teurani, 
or Northern Scythians, were fo called from TMur, Son of 
FmJ§mn, a King of Perfia of the firft Dynafty, named 
Pifthdadiens : that Tour had an elder brother named Irag, 
who had Perfia for his inheritance ; and Tour was oblig* 

(1) Bocluut. PhaL 

(ro) Idem. 

(n) Hiftori« Ofrhomue, p. 4. 

(o) Saoe, oam et BaAnanim occupaverunt, et optimam Amacnis 
tcilttrem, quam a ft Sacafenam danominavenmc* Strabo, L. X. p. 51)^ 
Thut we fee in the time of Svabo, the Sacit-Seana^ the Old Sacs, were 
iUll ezifting In Anncnia. 



ed to pafs the Giim, or Otnii, and to reign in the TraiK* 
ibxanc Provinces. Mirldiound wrkes^ that tfafc Cltj of 
Mauaralnachar on the Eaft of Bsbr Khczan, i. c. Caipinn 
Sea, was built bjr Tour, horn whom all (levond the Ok«- 
U8 was named uouran. Aimed Ben Arabnah fays, chat 
Turquf/bm was named from this littr ; but the learned 
D'Herbelot dearly proves, that neither was TurqueSim 
named from T^ur^ or Iran from trag'y as the Pernans 
£ibuIoufly rebte* 

The Arabs, Perilans, and T«rks have alwajrs difUn- 
goifted the Northern from the Southern Scvthians : by 
the name Jaguige and Maguige, or Gog and Magog, fiiyt 
I^Herbelot, td^uiideFftand the (ame as tliej do hf ($m 
and Magin^ or tV^im and Maicbin ; that is, the Nor- 
thern Chinefe and the Southern Chinefe* See lyHei^- 

f ^^ 

lot at Magittge. Hence we find the City of Afegog in 
Syria, &c. Our G)lonv of the Magogians never went 
North of the Cafpian Sca> but extended from thence 
Southward and Eaft ward. And under 4he word Tui4:> 
D'Herbelot obferves, that- the Arabian oAd Periian A'u- 
thors agree, that the Share of the Land that fdl to 
Japhet and his Children, was from the Gordian Moun- 
tain to the Eajhrn Sia^ and ail to the North of it. 

The Perfians were Scythians, defoended from Mount 
Caucafus, they firft fettled about the Cafpian Sea, then 
in Armenia, and finally in Perfta. The ancient hiftory 
of the Perfians, is the hiftory of thefe Southern Scy- 
thians, the aaoeftorB -of the Trifti> - In the foHowing 
flieets fuch ftrong likenefles will appear, as to remove all 
doubt, that the tranfadions attributed to the ancient 
trifli in Ireland, were the tranfadions of their anceflors 
in Armenia, Pontus, Bithynia ; tm the Euphrates, the 
Perfian Gulph, the Coaft of the Red ^Sea, &c. &c. 
That the fabulous hiftory of the Greeks is t)orrowed of 
the ancient Perfians, and is to be difcovered in what is 
improperly called the ancient hidbqry x4 IfielfiQd. 

The learned Monf. Bailly has opened an extenfive 
field of knowledge in the Perfian hiftory (p), proving 

(p) Lettres fur rAtUntide. 



them to have faaen originally Scythians : Wc ihall here 
call in the authority of this Author to our aid. <* Vous 
coiiuricn4rez Monueur> cjue toutes ccs fables grecques 
reCnnbleiit bcaucpup aux fables^ qui font la premiere bif- 
toire des Pcrfes. La guerre de Moifafor, pent etre le 
modcle de la guerre de Briaree & des autres Gtans contre 
Jupiter : mais celle de Moifafor m£me n'eft-elle pas * 
(^videmcnt c^pi^e fur la premise hiftoire des Perfes> qui 
^tant plus detaillee & plus fimple^ montre qu'elle eft la 
fiittrce de toutes Ics autres, bninies par le terns, & char-* 
gto de mervcilleux par la tradition ? Ce mSine Hcrcule 
|i'a-C*il pas delivr6 Prometh^e, d^vore par un aigle fur le 
Caocaft ? No voila-t-il pas encore Hercule dans ccttc 
Scythie, ou nous retrouvons toutes les origines, ex^cu* > 
tant fes exploits & portant fcs bienfaits fur le Caucafe, 
d'oik les Atlante$ (q) font partis, ainfi que le culte du 
Soleil, icouUs Ptrffs pnunent ieur origim U Ucomtngnce' 
meni dg Ieur bifioire f (,P- JPS-) 

Des que les Perfes out ^tendu Ieur empire jufq'aeu pied 
du Caucafe, ils ne font pas remonth vers le Nord, ils fe 
iiNit au contraire port^s vers le midi. GiamJUd a quitt6 
les montagnes pour defcendre dans les plaines, o& il a 
fond^ Pirjepolis* Je ne fai fi les id^es nouvcUes que je 
vous propofe r^pandent un preftige autour de moi : mais 
ces conclufions me paraiflent de la plus grande evidence; 
dies me femblcnt plus Ores que la tradition & i'hiftoire 
xn8me ; car la tradition eft fouvent corrompue ; I'hiftoire 
eft menteufe, la vanity nationale & tant de pr^juges 
Palterent I Q>mbien les variations des langues, les equi- 
voques des Homi di$ peupUs, les changemcns des dinomi^ 
nations geographiques n'y ont ils pas mtroduit de notions 
faufles !— Cc n'eft pas que Tancienne hiftoire toute ob- 
fcure qu'elle eft, ne joigne quelques £uts i la lumiere de 
ces r^fultat« philofophiques. — ^Toutes les guerres (de 
Pcrfes) avcc les Dives ont Ieur theitre pres des montagnes 
de Caf, qui ne font que le Caucafe.^^lt ne decide point 
fi elles font relatives aux tems qui ont pr£c6de*ou fuivi. 

(q) If M. BaiUy*t conjcdurei are right, that this was the original 
feat of the Atlantet^ the name may have travelled with this ancient peo- 
ple to Ireland. 



le delage ; mais je vois qu'elles parient tojours des mdh-^ 
tagnes de Cafou dc Caucafe. Tc vois quels font tcs com-' 
mencemens dc Fhiftoire de rcife— je conctus que c'eft 
ou nord du Caucafe qu'il faut cherchcr Fortgine des Ptr^ 
fans. (p. 209O 

La bnguc du Hanferit ne Tous a^'-elie pas d6iiontr(jr 
* que les Brames font e'trangers ^ I'Inde ? — ^M. le GentU 
ne vous a-t-il pas dit q'uils ^taient venud du Nord ? 

Les Scythes devenues trop nombrcux par une pdp&la^ 
tion exceffivc, defcendirent de leurs montagncs dit Stra-> 
bon, & fe jetterent fur le roiaume de Pont^ fur la Cttp- 
padeci ; & dcmsn un de leurs chefs, batit fur les herds 
du Thermedon une ville nommee dc fon nom Acmme* 
U entra enfuite dans la Pbrygie, il y batit une feconde 
JawnU (r). Or» cet Acmon ^ait pere d'Uranus, (Ic 
premier Roi de TAtlantide) qui epoufa Tit^e fa foeeur. 

Acmon» chef des Atiantes, venu avec les Scythes, & 
defcendu commc eux du Caucafe, femble nous indiquef 
de chercher le peuple Atlantique vers ces Montagncs. 
(p. 112.) 

Monf. Bailly then proves the Perfians were -ddcend- 
ed of the Scythians of Mount Caucafus. That the fa- 
bulous Perfian hiftory of the Dives or Evil Oenii, and of 
the Peri or Good Genii, was no more than a diftindion 
drawn between them and their Northern anccftors. 
That the Pi(hdadian race of Kings made war continually 
upon thefe Dives ; in all thefe febles, the reader will find 
a Arid conformity in the Irifli hiftory* The Pi(hda- 
dians of the Perfians being the Tuath-dadanns of the 
Irilh hiftory. The Paras or ancient name of the Per^ 
iians are the Pharas or Pharfai of the Irifli* Ccs Peris 
ibnt bons, (fays the learned Bailly) ils^caient puiflaiis, 
mats pour la bien£ai(ance. Je vois entr'eux & les Per- 
fans une alliance & des fecours r^ciproques : ce iait eft 
deciftf dans un terns 6u les peuples Aaient ifoles : ce 
font At% colonies qui aident la Metropole voiez comme 
les Pcrlaas ont exagere la puiiTance des Dives, qui ont 

(r) Sec Ag^hamon or Achmon. Chap, i, of this Work. 

iNTRODUGTlOli. 4^ 

hi ni0ycii9 psir ks Perils &c. &c« (Lettres fur V At*' 
laiiddc. pb I03«) 

My reader beine now prepared for the ancient hiftoiy 
of Ireland, we muft obferve, that the ancient Armenians 
and Ma^ogian Scythiana, firom whom the Iri(h defcend* 
cd, having been one and the fame people, both 
named Jtirimacb, or Ahiranach i it will not be furprizing 
to find, that the tran&Aiona of their Anccflbrs in Ar^ 
m^Aiaf beiQ|[ either handed down b/ tradition or records^ 
liave been miftaken for the tranfaSions of thefe pec^ple in 
Eirin or Ireland ; and the fame <if the Expeditions of the 
Scythians into Iran or Perfia. 

For exaosiple t when we find in Mofes Choroiienfis 
the fiibulons ftory of Noah's Kiece^ voyaging acrofs thd 
Eaxine Sea, and fettling in AburaH or Eirinn^ i. e. thd 
Weft, WQ are not to be mrprized to find the Irifli Barde 
bring her to Krin or. Ireland ; or when we find in the 
Annals of Armenia a people named Gein^Tbonni, that is. 
Sea-faring' men, from whom they fay, came Cadmus ; 
we are not to follow Mofes Choronenn^, and fay. thefe 
were Canaanite^ (from a popular notion, that Qidmus 
was a Canaanite) i they were indeed PbofnUians, the 
offspring of Magpf^ among whom we (hali find Cadmus 
in the feqoel of this Hiftory, and the caufe of his bein^ 
thought to have been an Egyptian. If the Armenians 
have their Gslam, a hero and leader^ the Iri(h have their 
G^iamh, which was a Cognomen of MihfiuSf the con** 
queror of Spain and of Ireland Gplamb dies, and leaves 
his Kingdom to JItremon i — the Armenian Gilam dies, 
and leaves his kingdom to Herman : ** Gelamius Har« 
** man genuit^ et poft aliquot inde annos mortuus eft, 
'' cum id mandati filio fuo Harmon dediflet. Mofes 
** Choronenfis," p< 34- ^^ Hte autem narratlones, feu 
*' vers funt, five fallse, nihil laboramus." Idem. p. 19. 
If the Armenians fay they are defcended of Japhetus 
Haig or Oigf that is, Japhet the Gun?/, Mre fliall find, 
the Magogian Scythians, or Iriih, to draw their defccnC 
from the Anceftor of Magog, or Japhet Gadulf whenct 
they have to this day diftinguiftied themfelves by the 
nanie of Gaduli or Gaodhal i and this was the moft proper 

E name, 


name, bccaufe the facred penman gives him the epithet 
of Gadul ^n:k, by which he means a man of extraordina^ 
ry ftature. And Scm, the brother of Japhct Gm^I- 
Genefisy chap. x. vcr. i. the Seventy tranflate it Japhct 
the elder; yet Mofes mentions him lad ; but if ckkft 
or youngeft» the word blJi gadul implies gnaif magnum 
eflfe vel fieri. Goadal Glas oraidhtor GaoJhalf from 
AjA^ Gadul GIaz, illuftris Gadul^ the Irifli derive thek 
name of Gadelians. (Keating, p. 68. from an ancient 
poem). And the Pofterity of this Gadul-glas were called 
Scutha, for the rcafons already affigned. 

The general difguft to the ancient Hiftory of the Iriflii 
has arifen from the ignorance of the Tranflators, who, 
zealous for the antiquity of their Country^ did not, or 
would not fee, that the early periods of this Hifto- 
ry, related not to Ireland, but to thofe parts of 
Afia their Anceftors came from. Thus in the third 
Chapter, we are told, one of their Chiefs fettled here 
300 years after the Flood : without confidering that 
their Anceftors at that period were fettled in Bjthima 
and Paphlajoma, where hiftory informs us, a partial 
flood took place, (the famous Samothracian flood ;) the 
Bards and Seanachies explain this tranfadion, as an 
event that happened :(00 years after the Noahatic Flood. 

This Samothracian AckkI, as Diodorus obferves, was 
not a poetical fidion, but real truth, becaufo pieces <^ 
Architedure were frequentlv found under water. 

* In thetimeof Auguftus, ttie Samothracians^flicwed the 
altara that were ereded over the Ifland, where the waters 
bad reached, and where their Anceftors had retreated ; 
fbffile bones have alfo been difcovered under this water 
mark. J- 

The ancients were unanimoufly of opinion the Poutus 
Euxinus was only a Lake, which being overcharged with 
waters, huAat firft into the Pr$p9ntis, and then into the 
JSlgaan^ walhing away by degrees the earth, which kept 
it within its firft bounds, and forming the two channels 
of the Bofporus Thracius, and the Hellffppnf. They were 
alfo of opinion, the Pahs MiBOtis^ the Pontus Euxinus, 
the Prapontis and Meditirranean were originally fo many 



Lakes, *which by the impetuofity of their waters, opened 
Ifaemrelves a paflage between the Mountains of Atlas and 
Caht into the Ocean. Hence the fabulous tradition in 
Infll Hiftory of the formation of all the Lakes in the 
kingdom, and the burfting out of the great rivers, whicl^ 
account has been defignedly omitted in the fucceeciing 

Thefe traditions are a confirmation of the early periods 
of their hiftory ; and if we can confide in Etymology, the 
ancefiors of the Iriih gave name to that Coaft which had 
been fo torn by the Sam$thracian flood, and divided into 
fo many lilands, as the Archiptlago now abounds with, 
calling it in their language Jiri^gM (s) i. e. the Sea of 

Mr. Whitehurft, after having proved that all Bafaltes 
are Lava, obferves, doubts may arife with refpefi to the 
origin of the Bafaltes or Giants Caufeway in Ireland, 
fince no vifible crater, nor the leaft veftige of an cxtin- 
guifhed volcano are now remaining, except the fubftan- 
ces before mentioned, from whence fuch immenfe tor- 
rents could have flowed, as are now fpread over fo great 
a part of the North of Ireland. 

Thefe circumftances render it neceflary to obferve> 
that whoever attemiirely views and confiders thefe ro- 
mantic CliflFs, together with the exterior appearances 
of that mountainous ClifF, will, I prefume, fays he, loon 
difcover fufficient caufe to conclude, that the crater from 
whence that melted matter flowed, together with an im- 
menfe trad of land towards the North, have been abfo- 
lutely funk and fwallowed up into the earth, at fome 
remote period of time, and became the bottom of the 
Atlantic Ocean. A period indeed much beyond the 
reach of any hiftorical monument, or even of^ tradition 

** But though it does not appear, that any human 
teftimony or record, has been handed down to us, con- 
cemii^ fuch a tremendous event, yet the hiftory of the 
fatal Cataftrophe is faithfully recorded in the Book of 

(•} AA or Ai U an lilaiid, a fSgSoo or ttrritory. Go^ ii.tte Sss. 

E a Nature, 


Nature, and in a langqagc and charaders cqoaliy intd- 
ligiblc to ail nations, therefore will not admit of a mifin- 
tcrpretation : I mean thofe ftupendous Cliffs which en- 
viron a part of the Atlantic Ocean." 

** Tbefe are chaiaders which cannot miflead, and 
the confideration of fuch di&ftcrs, together with that of 
.the caufe ftill fubfifting under the b^om of that im- 
menfe ocean, almoft perfoade me to conclude that Ire- 
bnd was originally a part of the ifland of Atlantis, 
which, according to Plato in his Tinueus, was totally 
fwailowed up by a prodigious earthquake, in the fpace 
of one day and night, with all its inhabitants and a 
numerous boft of warlike people, who had fubdued a 
great part of the then known world." 

The lame obfervation is made by the ingenious and 
Rev. Mr. Hamilton, in his Letters concerning the 
Giants Caufeway. — '' The promontories of Antrim bear 
very evident marks of fome violent convulfion which has 
left them (landing in their prefent abrupt fituation ; and 
that the Ifland of Hagberv and fome of the Weftcm 
Iflands of Scotland, do rcall/ appear like th^ furviving 
fragments of a G>untry, great part of which might have 
been buried in the Ocean." 

To this let us add the tradition of the old Irifb : They 
fay, great part of this Ifland was fwailowed by the 
Sea, and that the funken part often rifes, and is to be 
feen on the horizon frequently firom the Northern CoaiL 
On the North Weft of the Ifland, this part fo appearing 
is called Tir-Hudi or the Country of Hud ; that it con« 
tains a City which once poflefled all the riches of the 
world, the Key of which lies buried under iome Druidical 
Monument. This is evidently the loft Citv of Arabian 
fiory, vifited by their fabulous Prophet Huq. See Sales 
Alcoran, Preface. On the N. E. of Ireland this refurg- 
ang part of the ifland is called O Breafal, and cornipted- 
ly O Brazil. The Scythian name of the famed Atlantes, 
literally turned by the Greeks into BafiUa and O SeriBa^ 
fignifymg the Royal Ifland of the Gods. O in Irifli, 
corrupted of Aoi, or Ai is an Ifland or territory : Bnas 
is King, Prince, Royal, and Al is God> the irradiator 




and Bna/al is Royal. O SaraichU fignifies the Ifland taken 
awajr by fuddefh iorce ; but the former name O Breafil 
is pore Chaldce^ yiz. ^na"^ Ai Brazit, bearing th6 
(atne fignification as the Irilh in Letter and Senfe, viz, 
the Rojal Ifland, a name probably introduced by thcDa- 
danites oFChaldea, wih whom the anceftors of the Irifk 
mixed, as will appear in the following hiftory. 

** L'un le nomme ile Bajilee^ Pautfe lui donne le noni 
de Oferida, &ce mot comme pour-appuier leur temoig* 
nage fignifie dans les langues du Nord, lie de Pieux 
Roiaie ; Pile Atlantide de rlatoh ; I'Ogygie de Homere. 
(Bailly fur FAtlantide. p. 368.) 

Jii^Bnafal of the Irifh Scvthians would be written 
Barzelin or Brazilin by the Chaldeans hti^ BarzeU for- 
rum, forfan ex Bara, feparare. Chald. Barziiin, plur. fbnt 
PrarfeHl. (Thoramaffin.) Here we have the derivation 
of the IrHh Brcas, a Prince, a perfon feparated or diftrn- 

Kilhed from, the community. BarzeL Heh. Syr. eft 
rzel, forfan a Pharas, dinimper^. (Thomm. Caftell^ 

Having traced the Scythians, the defcendants of 
Magog, from Ada to_ Europe, let us turn our enquiries 
to the Cihes or Cimirs, the defcendants of Oomer, the 
other Son of Japhet. Here we Ihall find fiich ftrong 
narks of diflindion in every 'ftep, as clearly to point out 
in very few words that the Uault and Cimmgrag or Welch 
Britons, were a very foreign people to the Hiberni* 
That they had no connexion with each other from the 
time the Hibernian Scythi expelled them from Aiia, 
till their meeting many ages after in Spain, Gaul and 
the Britannic Ifles, where they had been feated fo long, 
as to be called Aborigines of thofe Countries. 

The beft Author on this fubjed is Moniieur Brigande^ 
who in Z762 publifhed a fmall Pamphlet, addrefied to 
the learned Academies of Europe, under the title of 
Dtffertation fur In Ciltes BriganUs^ printed at Breghente 
dans le Tirol. 

'^ It is the unanimous opinion of all authors, fays he, 
*• who have written on the origin of nations, that the 
•' Cilies were the Children of Gmtf^ the cidcft Son of 

^^ Japbit. 


'' yapbd* This nalion, from which ib man^ others 
'' have rprung, have prcfervcd the name of their proge- 
'' nitort from the moft early age after the dehige, down 
*' to our own dajs.^ 

*' Cimkri^ Cimtriaui, Camiriamj Omhriani^ AwArwit 
G^mMf Camkr!^ #r Sieamhri^ are no other tlmn Gwigri 
or Gmuriti^ written or pronounced diverfcly, yet In fucfa 
a manner as nerer to lofe fight of the original name of 
their great Anceftor. 

^' JoTephuSy an hiftorian well (killed in the antiquities 
of nations, ezpre&ly fays, Gomer was the father of the 
Gomerians, and of^the people whom the Greeks called 
Gataii or GatiBm St. Jerom and Ifidore atteft the £une 

*' The Ciltes or Gauls, fays Appian, whom Plutarch 
calls Cimbri^ irere the famer people, and fpoke the fame 
language. Zonoras attefts that the Gomeri, and Gauli 
were the fame. 

^* Eratofthencs, who lived about 276 before Chrift, 
fays, that the Toliftobrogi^ were part of the Hefperian 
Calatif who prefled by an irruption of the Scytbi paflcd 
into BjtHnia. 

^* It is eaiier to find an etymology for the name dbih 
than to prove it to be the true one. If we fcek it in the 
Hebrew, the wohl GaUtba, which may be read Gaitbaf 
anfwers our purpofe, as that word fignifies, thrufi iut U 
a dijianctt fujhid forward. The Greek and Latin lan- 
guages offer no rejource in this etymology. 

*• If, according to Strabo, we feek the meaning of the 
name of every nation, in their own language, then the 
Celtic word Guafled, fignifying, ravaged, or having been 
trejpaffedon, pcrfcdly correfponds with the hiftory of this 
people ! it is the name this mjured people might proper- 
ly have adopted, when puflied from their ancient fettle- 
ments by the Scythians, and preffed to the very Weftern 
extremity of Afia. The name given to this people in 
another part of the globe, by Cratofthcnes, confirms this 
ctymologv. Tokd eus ti hro an injury by foreigners, now 
corrupts by the Bretagnes into Mftoladan, is certainly 

the Tolijlobragi of £ratofthene$. 

" Galatia, 


^ Gaktia, where they firft were known by this name> 
iigntfies the dwelling of the Galates ; not of tfaofe GaiaUs 
who came from Gmr/ concluded by Beilavefus and Sigovefis 
or Bretmus, but of that more ancient people, who were 
CKpcSed their country fay the Scythians* 

** From Bithynia they foon penetrated into Europe, 
hy the Thracian Bofphorus or the Hellefpont : where 
Calcedon, i. e. Catfthn fignifying very deep^ and Bgre^ 
cintbeu e. Berfch bint^ th^ fiirteft roadp are names left 
fay the Oonierites or Celtes, to record the route they 
took, and the deep ftraights they had to pafs. By a like 
application to the Celtic language, their progrefs may 
fae marked, in the names of places at the extremities of 
the North, South and Weft of Europe. 

** They were fettled in Spain long before the Phoeni- 
cians, who did not arrive there, according to Uflier, till 
A. M. 2750, or 1250 years before Chrift. 

** The Celtes were compofed partly of Hufbandmen, 
and partly of fiihermen or navigators of the fmall fcas c 
the latter were known by the name of Brigantes, fo 
called from the name of the Fiffeis they conftnided on 
the Lake of Cf^nftance ; and no further proof need be 
brought of thefe people having inhabited Britain^ than 
the word Brtgantini ftfll ufed by the Englifh for a fmali 
(hip (t) Le nom de Brigantin, venu de ieurs batimens 
du 4ac de Conftance fait encore la preuve de ce fait. 

** Thefe Brigmites inhabited York and Northumber- 
landfliire : the capital of' York was Brigantium, changed 
afterwards to Rvoracum or Ebr^t ^n ufual corruption, 
and not derived from a chimerical King Ehraufust who 
never exifted but in idea. 

** In fine thefe were the moft ancient inhabitants of 
Spain, France, Germany, Portugal, England, and of 
Ireland in fartJ^ 

(c) Probably from Bru^ a Boofe, at in tha IriOi and Chlnefe, t9ng 
fignifiei a Ship and a HQ^tt, and in tht Syriac, Ifgujs Navii, tcmpiuiDj 



That thefc • Ccltcs were the primitive inhabitante of 
Spain, France, the Britannic Ifles, &c. is moft probdr 
ble. Our Ma^ogian Scythi acknowledee, they found 
ail thoTe places inhabited on their arrival. In Ireland 
they fay, there were 200 families only^ dwelling chiefly 
on the Sea Coaft. Qf England they are filent : bat 
according to the moft learned Welch Antiquaries, thcjr 
not only muft have driven out the Citftri, but remained 
long in the Ifland, to have given names to all the great 
features of that Country, which they acknbwled^ to 
have been preferved, ancl which cannot be derived in the 
Welch language, but are all to be found in the Irifli. 

Not like the Celtes, (who to ufe the words of MonC 
Brigante, n^avoient d'setitres roonumens que denoms de 
leur Ungues qu'ils donnoient a leurs ColonieSf & aux 
Villes qu'ils conftruifoient, ils ont 6t€ plus durables que 
d'autres elev^s a plus grands friais, pui^'uils font parve- 
nus jufqua nous avec la m8me fignification quils avoient 
il y a deux ou trois mille ans). Our Fifioici'Stytffi have 
tradition^ have hiftory to produce of their emigrations, 
from Afia to their find fcttlement in Ireland, and laftly, 
the Language of their ancient documents, fo very diffe? 
rent from the Celtic, sind fo conformable to the Oriental| 
is a ftrong collateral proof of that hiftory. 

It appears to me, that the great Miltfian expedition 
from Spain to Ireland, took place, much about the fame 
time, that the Celtes returned from Gaul to Britain, and 
in their turn drove the Scythi to Ireland, and to Scodaadi 
that is, about 500 Years before Chrift, and that all Irifh 
Hiftory relating to this part of the Globe, wa^ abibrbedin 
the Spanifti hiftory, and Oriental traditions, except the 
bare mention of their arrival in Britain in the 4th Chapter, 
and of their conqucft of it and of part of Gaul in the 8th 

In the following hiftqry, we have fliewn the perfed 
identity of the Itifh language with the ancient Pirfitm^ 
in Epithets, titles of dignity, names of Priefts &c. 
\x. becomes neceflfary to (ay fomething on this fubjed be- 
fore we clofe the introdudion. 


It is iflftpoffiUe to aflert pofitiveiy that ihelrUhUa- 
g«age is the fame as the aiicient Perfian wa«» becaufe^ 
what the old Perfian was, no mortal can pretend to know 
With any Ihadow of exadnefty as Sir William Jones oh- 
fervesy and the Greek hiAorians can give us little or n6 
l^ght on this Subjefil. Yet the proofs we fliall adduce in 
the feUowiing Sheets, certainly amount to more than a 

That great traveller Cbardin^ whom every Orientalill 
muft mention with reverence, enquired diligently into 
the ancient Jaagoage of the Perfians, and declares, after 
all his refeaiches» &t the old Perfian language is entire- 
ly loft-^ which no books are extant--and ofwhich there 
are no nidimetits remaining-*— That the Gmetrtt who are 
the remains of the Parfii^ have an idiom peculiar to them* 
feIv€S9 whidi is fiippofed by the Perfians in general^ to 
be rather a jargon oJF their own, than a part ^ their an* 
cient tongue — that, if you believe their own aecnunt^ the 
Magi, who refided at Te%a in Carmania^ have pre(erv« 
cd this language from father to fon» after the diflblution 
of their Monarchy, but, that for his part he has found 
BO reafon to give any credit to their ftory-<-that they havci 
indeed, feme books in ftrange chara£ter8» but he cannot 
perfuade himfelf that they are old Perfian Letters, efpeci* 
ally, fince they bear no kind of refemblance to thofe on the 
fomous monuments at P€rfep9lis. (Chardin T. v. C. III.) 

Now, as we (hall find in Chap. 2. of this Work, that 
the ancient Iri(h did ufe the fame (acred letters (called Og- 
ham) as are to be found on the monuments at Pirftt^Us^ 
and have aifo innumerable words in common with the 
old Perfian, ftill to be found in their Lexicons and Au- 
thors, there is great probability that the ancient Perfians 
were Southern Scythians, as all the Greek and Latin his- 
torians aver, and Monf. Bailly has proved; and that 
their language was the fame ; becaufc we have more 
than broken Phrafes or detached epithets to judge by, 
we have hiftory and letters. The Turks did undoubted- 
ly fpeak the fame Language, but the prcfent Turkifh is 
improved by mixing it with the modern Perfian ; we can 
feck no affinity there. Change of Goremment always 



cffedt a confideraUe change iif the language of any 
Nation, fo that literary and civil hiftory are very neaifjr 

The hiftory of the Perfian toi^Cj fays Sir William 
Jones, may be divided into four periods. In the infiincy 
of Cmiumirat and his defcendants, it is natural to fop- 
pofe, no great pains were taken to cultivate and pcdilh 
the language, and we are aflured by Herodotus, that- in 
the reign of Cyrus, the whole education of Perfian 
Youth, from the Age of 5 to 20, oonfi((ed in three points 
only, riding, throwing the javelin and the pradice of 
moral virtue. The Volumes of Parchment on which the 
Perfians were obliged by a certain law to write the An- 
nals of their Country, mentioned by Diodorus, Sir Wil- 
liam treats as invention, but allows that the ancient Per- 
fians of the fecond Period, were not entire ftrangers to 
the art of compofition either in Verfe or Profe. 

At what period our Hibemo-Scythi had the ufe of 
letters, we cannot pretend to fay, but it is certain, from 
the Authorities we (kail give of the identity of the Irifli 
Ogbam letters with thofe of the Monuments at Perfepolis 
(which no one has hitherto attempted to decypher) that 
they brought letters with them into Ireland from Afia ; 
Moreover, the names of all Officers xA Church and State 
in the ancient Irifli being found to be Oriental, as we col- 
led from the Sacred Scnptures and other writings, leaves 
no doubt, tn my opinion of the identity of the people, 
and of the languages having been originally the fame. 

The Irifli Language is the mod copious of the Uni- 
verfe : it abounds in S^nonima, fo much as to include 
the roots of all the Oriental and Occidental dialeds, a 
ftrong prefumptive argument of the migration of the 
people, and ot their having letters during that migration « 
or thefe words could not have flowed down to the prefent 
period, in the pure manner they are now to be found. 

The Old Perlian may perhaps have been as copious ! 
according to the learned Lexicographer, Ihn Phacred- 
din Angjou (u) it contained Seven dialeds, four of which, 

(u) In pratfamliM opcris Phvhangh Gihso|hlri. 



Viz. the Hcryij Scgbzi, Sogdi and Dravult, arc now be* 
come obfolete. The modem dialed of Pcrfia is a ftrange 
mixture of Latin, Greek, German, Arabic, and Turk* 
iih, (w) fo that no fatisfadory collation can be made 
with that and the Iriih. We muft therefore refer to the 
Arabic, Hindoftanic and Tibetan ; the two latter have a 
great affinity to the ancient Irifli, particularly the facred 
DialeQs, or Sanfcrit. Qus Indica apud Veteres appel* 
lantur, pleraequs hodierne Perficx convenirc (x). Monf. 
Bailly and Father Georgius have therefore good grounds 
for aflerting thefe people were originally Scythians, or 
according tolrilh hiflory Scythians mixca with Chaldsean 

The hiftory before us is without order, though the Se* 
anachies have not failed to fix the chronological events. 
It begins with the expedition of Partolan from Bithynia 
or Migdon to the Weft, three hundred years after the Sa- 
mothracian flood. The dcfcent from Caucafus, or the 
Mountains of Rifad and the banks of the Cafpian Sea, 
which took place many ages before, is not mentioned till 
we treat of the Firbolg. This is a ftrong argument that thcfe 
are the produce of tradition : But furely they are not to be 
dcfpifed on that account. What is every fpecies of an- 
cient hiftory, the facred writings excepted, but mere tra- 
dition? the tradition of Pagan Priefts, the inventors and 
propagators of error ; and though the ground-work was 
truth, the finilhing was the ornament of imagination. 

It is an indubitable fad, that the ancient Irifti had let- 
tjcrs, before the arrival of Patrick or other Chriftian Mif- 
fionaries. The Ogham infcriptions found In Ireland are 
the ftrongeft proofs. This was the facred charaSer, and 
in this the Priefts condefcendcd to infcribe the name of a 
hero, or the event of a memorable battle : we muft ever 
remain ignorant, I am afraid, if the records oi the na- 
tion were tranfcribed in this charadcr or not. — We find 
alfo many fymbollcal marks on monuments ; but befides 
thcfe they furely had a literary charader. Euftathius 

(w) Jo. Scaliger. Lipfiui. Gravius. Bnrunus. Waltonus, &c, 8cc. 
(k) Uibntti. 



tells us, the Scythians wrote with charaders and emble- 
matical figures ^x). The charaders Were probably Pal- 
ttiyrene ; becaufe in all the Iri(h MSS. I have feen, where 
the alphabets are prcferved, there are careful delineations 
of the old Hebrew and Palmyf cnc [ettefs, called by the au- 
thors Egyptian ; but on comparing them with the Pal- 
TOyrcne taken from coins by Gebelin, they will be found 
to be the fame. There are no MSS. of the Irifli written 
in thv. charader now cxifting : There is no copy of the 
facrcd writings now to be found in the Hebrew letter; 
that now ufed is the Chaldaean : and, what is ftill more 
forprifin^, there is no copy of the Bible now extant, 
written m the Chaldee, excepting the word yebowih^ 
which was in Hebrew : yet Qrigeh mentions to Have 
feen fiich copies. In what charaders were the Infcrip- 
tions on the pillars of Hercules at Cadiz ? Phitoftratu's 
fays, they were neither Egyptian, Indian, or in any 
other charaSer then known, (y) Or in what charaScr 
was the dodrine of Zarduft written ? probably both in 
the Ogham, which Gebclin and others think is the fame 
as the ignote letters on the Marbles of Perfepolis. — Quid, 
quod infcriptrones Perfepolitanac, quse adeo cruditas ex- 
crociaverunt, notas quasdam Hiferoglyphicac cffe vidcntur, 
quibus Zarduft (Zoroafter) qui prope Pcrfepolin cultum 
fymbolicum condiderat, aliique Magi, prsecipua cultus 
fui capita, profanum vulgus celare ftudcbarft. (z) 

Boxhornius and Monf. D'Ankarvillc are clearly of opi- 
nion, the old Greek and Ifelandic, German or old Teu- 
tonic letters, in which all the Irifli MSS. are written, 
were the ancient Scythian. Graecis litteris ufi funt Galli 
pariter & German!, at non acceptis a Graecis, fed Scy- 
this, a quibus & fuas Gracci, Scytharum foboles, accc- 
pere. No^a^vulgarcs numerorum nihil aliud fum, quam 
littcrse ScythicSB. Indi eafdem numerales notas habcnt, 
fed habent a Perfis. Perfae autcm ortu funt Scythae. (a) 

(x) Commen. in Hoiher. fiiad Z. p, 489. 
(y) Vit. Apolonii. L. i. C. i. 
(z) a. Millhis Orat. de Fab. Orient, p. 77. 

(a) Boxhornius Orig. Gall. p. 106. Sec the Irifti nomerih collated 
vith the Indian. Collectanea, No. XII. pi. II. . , 

L Al- 


L' Alphabet encore a pr6feiit en ufage chez la plupart 
des peuples de TEurope, remontc^ a la plus haute anti- 

Juit6 : il eft meme anterieur a I'arrivee des Pclafgues 
an8 la Grcce : Les caraderes Pelafgues, vQ ieur ori- 
gine^ dcvoient tenir a ceux des Ifypgrhriens, Sc commc 
on a d^couvert de nos jours^ que les plus hautes Sciences 
furent cultiv^cs avec le plus grand lucecs dans Ic pays 
habitus par ces ni8mes Hyperboreens, nous avons lieu dc 
foup^onner que les monumens litteraires> detruits dans 
la Grcce par le deluge dont la tradition s'eft confcrv^e, 
tenoient a ceux des ces peuples, & que les lettres Pc- 
lafgues, furent a peu pres les m8mes dont fc fervoient les 
Hyperboreens. Dc tous les alphabets, auxquels on pent 
comparer celui des Pclafgues, il n'en eft aucun avec lo- 
quci on lui trouve plus de rapport, qu'avec celui des an* 
ciens IJlandoii. Cet alphabet appel^ Scytique, Danoisy 
ou Rhunique, fut autrefois employ^ par les Goths» Rien 
n'eft plus (inguliei; dans les caradcrcs Iflandois, que les 
lettrcfr S & T : dies ont tres exaSement, la fomle de 
cclles des plus anciens Grccs, ou des Pelafgues ; mais 
I'une port le nom de &/, qui de la langue Pelafgue, af-* 
furement originaire de Scythique, pafla peut-6tre dans la 
Latine pour exprimer le Sdeil diurne : & I'autre qui la 
fnit imm^diatement, porte le nom de Tyr, qui dans la 
langue Iflandoife (i?nifie Taureau (b). Les Caraderca 
P6lafgues ant£rieurs a Cadmus etoient done ceux que Ta- 
cite appele hs plus anciens cara&eres Grecs. Nbs lettres 
capitales font done les m8mes que cclles des Pclafgues & 
des anciens Attiqucs. 

That the Pelafgians were fouthem Scythians defcend- 
cd from Magog, mixed with Chaldean Dedanites (c), wc 
flatter ourfekes has been ftrongly proved in the Preface 
to the Xllth No. of the Colledanea de Rebus Hiber- 

nicis ; 

(b) Recberchet fur TOrig. ic Its Progrl des Arts de la Gr6ce, L. a. 
C ». 

(c) Tbe Arcadians challenged the name of Pelafgi from their pretend- 
ed founder Pelafgus, who did get fuch footing in PeloponefuSi that the 
whole PcninfttU was called Pelafgia. (Univ. Hlftor.) 


63 introduction: 

nicis ; and, we truft, the Reader will be convinced in 
the following pages that Cadmus fprung from the tsunc 

Our Pheenicians did not always leave letters where 
they came ; the ancient Poeni of Africa and the Baleares^ 
both Phsnician colonics, were ignorant of letters. Li* 
teras vero antiquiffimi Peeni in Africa quoque ignora- 
runt, & iifdcm Baleares, indubia Pheenicum colonia, ca- 
ruerunt, videnturque pofterioribus temporibus demum in 
Africam illats. (d) 

But thefe old Poeni and Phoenicians were not Tyrians, 
as the Septuagint and the Greek hiftorians imagined ; 
they were our fouthern Scythians, a nuritime people that 
dwelt on the coaft of the Red Sea, from Mount Cafius 
to Dor. Phoenice enim, & amseniffima erat regio & ob 
mercaturam ditiffima, quae incolas affatim alcbat. Hoc 
nomine lxx intcrpretes terram Canaan vocare folent ; 
proprie autem ita vocabatur ora ilia maritima, in qua 
Tyrus & Sidon urbes conunerciis ohm florentiffima!, 
(itre crant ; hinc incols Phoraices. Q. Millius. DiiL 
dc Terra Canaan, p. 130. 

Our Irifli r.ojrtl Katendar makes Plafg a Toatha Dadaon, or Chaldean 
Dedaoite, via. 
Anno ante Kativ« Xti 1S96. 





Blofg. or Plafg. 
(d) Orism. Gent. p. 122. 






E 1 ] 






THE Irifli Hiftory opens with their defcent 
from Magog, in two Lines ; one called the 
Firbolg, or Scythian Line ; the fecond, the Fhe« 
noice or Phssnician Line : to thefe is added the 
defcent of a Colony of Dedanites, or Cfaaldaeans 
their Allies, whom they trace to Chus. 

The FIRBOLG Line. 

Aiteachta alias f^tthochda 
Broum al Bramont. i. e. ce Bacche. 

A Eafro, 

A n*dicaiim cf ibe 

Eafru, Afru, or Qlru 
" Staim or Efs-tieama, L c. Dux Navium, i. e« 

n^-*iK Si-tora. 
BeoSin i. e. TQ Boun. prudehtem cfle : Hercules 
Ogham or the Philofopher. 
J Earcoloin i. e. ^ATWl Erkol, the Merchant, or 
"^ Tra4er, from the IjiOx Earrdha^ Wares, 
Commodities, Merchandize. 
ScmeoH or Siim Abreac, th« Dux Navium, or 
original Hercules : the Sem, Som, or Som- 
noutha of the j£gyptians. (a) 

Loic aL Lac.-al. Lacan 

(a) Moft Nouns in the Old Irifli, Perfian, Arabian and Chal- 
daean languages, when applird to anyjthiog having life, form their 
plurals in An/'^be-fcrne^-pebplfc^ nations, Ibt.'^and of the lin- 
gular in n by way of eminence. Staim, Beoun, Earcoloin, Se- 
meon, faid to be the 4 Son; of N^ed, I think were diffin^ent 
names of one perfon, the '* Hercules, of the Eafi.** 

* m • 


' / 

Anckfa iSfiery of Ireland^ 3 

^as led the Irifii SeaaaGhi^ to ^flert, he was tbe 
i^deft Soa of Magog, \^ereas it only h^re Implies^ 
ibat i^^bocda, was tlie e4disft ki the Magogian 
Line, to whom their 'biftory extended. 

Br0U4fQ or JCe-^cche, the ijluftrious Baec^ms^ 
Ke or Ce, is ftill preferved in fevcral ancient Perfic 
names, it figfiifies a Prince (fays Sir Wm. Jones in 
:hk life of Nadir Sltab*) llvis Bvoum or Bacc^bc 
«overr-un tbe Indies. 3achft in Irifh figniSes fire, 
hacban or beocany a fmaH fire : beocas or huacas^ 
^be lighted wick of a C^ndXt-^bacuasi an Ove« ; 
-htcahy a t^akehoufe ; hence the "Englifh to bake. 
Bacht fignifying Jire^ became an Epithet <^tbie 
^i[n;^4)elice Aufonius obferves, that in Egypt -they 
-cailkim^Ofirhy but in the IJtand tfOgyp^^ "ibey give 
ikinifhe nameif Baccbt^. f-Epigr. 30. j 

Thi€ derivation from the Iriih or ancient Perfian 
^Language, is one ftreng proof -cf Monf. BaiHy'« 
-aflertions, 'that the ancient Seiitkem Scythians 
0r Perfians, were the original inhabitants of Ogy- 
gla or Adandst (See his Letters fur T Atlantide', 
p. 402.) — ^Les Atlances, aiant rompu la ligne de 
operation, & forc^ le paffage, fe repandirent fuc- 
GcJlivcment de proche, en proche & de liecie & 
fiecle, dans les Indes, dans la Ph6nicie & dans 
I'Egyptc. (ib. p. 47i.)-^lcs traces dcs origincs 
feconfervcnt dans les langues : une fcienceeft ilfiic 
du pais bu les nK)ts techniques dont elle fe fert ont 
pris naiflance : c'eft un principe inconteftabljC. 
(ib, p. 393.-^c) The Root of this word is Scy- 

A 2 thian, 

(b) Np'nv atica, prifia. Arab. Atijj. 
^(c) Hence Hacanacb or Paganacb. (P for B and g for c) a 


4 A VtndiaaUn rf the 

thian, Ti^. bacam to heat, whence Baccbusj the 
origin of heat, it is corrupted to Btnt and Briiey 
whence in the Oriental we have t9E9*D Bott, luci- 
dum, and Botta, Splendor : in like manner the 
guttural in bocbt^ poor, is dropt in the Orientaly 
and written ^GJD Boti, i. e. pauper. (See J)aT. 
Depomis.) fd) 

Eafru or Ofru, was the Father of the Ofrhoeni, 
or Parthians. Ofrou vel Ofrois cognomine dido 
a viro qui ibi regnavit fuperioribus temporis, cum 
homines qui iftic colebant in foedere eflent Perfa- 
rum. (Procopius). On which paflage, Bayer 
notes, Per(as vocat qui tunc quidem Parthi fuerunt. 
(Hift. Ofrhoena, p. 34.) 

Theod-Cyreneniis fays, quae Ofrhoene turn erat 
earn antea Parthyacam fuifle didam. — It is the 
fame thing if called Ofrhoens Parthians or Perfi- 
ans, for they were originally one people. Scythae 
Farthos, Bactrianofque condiderunt. (Juftin) Con* 
fequently Broum, the father of Ofru, was the Bac- 
chus of Ba&ria. All that part of Mefopotamia 
including Media and Parthia, was called O/num by 

Heathen i. c. a fire worihipper, and noc frooi Pagus a Village;, 
as Dr. Johnfon has ir, or from Pagus, Gens as Salmafiusi or as 
Baronius thinks, from the Qiriftians becoming mailers of die Ci- 
tie», and the heathens dwelling in the Villages. 

(d) Porro cum IJngua Scythica cujus propaginem noftram 
cognacafque plures clTe, infra docebimus, feciindiim Ebneam an- 
tiquiffima fit : fieri non poteft, quin fub ea Ticxnitudiiie, cui 001- 
nes fubfunt lingua, varioe in hac remanferlhty quae prifnaevae cog- 
nationis indicia perhibeant. Ec illo fiicdamento nixos quam plu* 
rimos eruditonim origines linguarum Europceanim ex Qncnte 
deduxifle videmus : & quia non pauca feliciter fucceflenmr, ope- 
rofo Iatx>re quicquid habent I'mgax Occidentales ab Ebroea dert« 
vare, aggre(fi funt. (CI. Ihrc prooem.) 


Ancient Hiftory rf Ireland * 5 

oar Scythi ; Sbiruan by the Perfians and Jl Mab 
by the Arabs. (Hyde de Vet. Perf. p. 415.) 

Parthi, gens oUm Scythica, tandem fugerunt 
▼el tranfmigrarunt Aib Medo ; iic di&i a Me- 
dia, propter naturam Soli, in quo confederunt : 
quod palttdofum eft, & humile. (Steplianus in 

The P H E N O I C E Line, from Phenius. 


Baotfa or Bith, 

Fhenius Farfa, from whom Pharz or Pontus and 
Fars, Paras or Perfia. 








Agaman or Achemon, Father of Uranus^ firft 
King of the Antlantides. See Introd. hence 
Perua was anciently called Achemenia. 




Emir gluin Finn, 

Agmon Finn, 







&. J PiruHcdUm if ttm 


Gtaiam, xn Mifefs, 


According to the Irifh Annals, Magog*s pot- 
fcflions contained all Armenia, Pontus, and Me- 
fopotamia. His defcendants, one of whom was 
BsLath^ Boeth or Biti^, had the Country border- 
ing on the Bofporus Thracius, from him named 
Bith'Aon^ the territory of Bith. (e) Of his Son 
Phenius Pharfa wc fhall treat in a pameular Cliair- 
tttr*' ... 

Bithyniar was anciently inhabited by Tarkms 
nations differing in manners and language, rhr. 
the Bebryces, Mariandyni, Caucones, Dolliofies,, 
Cimmarii, &c. &c. to enquire into the origin oF 
thefe different nations, would be both a tedious 
and ufelefs tafk, fay the Authors of the XJniverfal 
hidory, and as to the beginning of this Kingdom^ 
we are quite in the dark* (f ) It is one of the moft 
ancitnt Kingdoms recorded in profane hiftorv; 
Ajypian t'etls us that 49 kings had reigned in Bi- 
thynia before the Romans were acquainted with 
Afia, confcqucntly Bithynia mufl have been a 
Kingdom before the Trojan War. It was known 
by the name of Myfia, Mygdonia, Bebrycia, Ma- 
riandynia, and Bithynia. (g) 

(e) AonorAoIn, 15 rhe dimmmive of Aoi, a Region. •« 

(f) Un. Hift. V. 10. p. 124.. 8vo. 

(g) Herodotus, p. 406.- S»eph. Byzant. p. 223.— Appia»Q# 
Vol. 2. p. 296. — Schol. Apoll. L. 2. — Eufebius p. 15. — Eu- 
ftath. in Dionys. p. 1 40.— Solinus C. 42. 


BcKodoblft &)F9» Hut tkofe vbo firft CQOqwred 

Ak C9«mr]f(» QUie from tbe: Ip^tr^ra of $mnm^ 
Stq)hami&» thai tl ^«ii3 c^4i Bebryci^ fioia ^^ 

bo& the Som of Jupiler »d Tbracr. SQ]i»qs 
fays the fame ; but Appian c^Us bim B/du^ Biti;H49, 
by which he c^rtatnly tcfera to ciur 9ith ^r Qs^th. 
Arrlan iays» chat Thyuw and Bitbynuft nee^^ tb^ 
Sons of Pbmoiit : wbern^ Fh^mi^ in. tbc IriQi 
Auals ift the Son of Baoih.. The Hi¥f^r Bior^ 
tmoUy (or the Wayeful-Watfr,) fi^pair^t^d Mby- 
via from Paphbgoiiia ; the Greek;a nam^d it the 
Porthentta* and there vas the iflaad Tbynu9 at \t$ 
mouth } hence the Tunny Fi(b» a namo givon i^ 
from its rifing and defcending like wa^ye$9 whi^ 
probaUy gave the appellation of the fiipr -tennis 
aad Ifland Thynui ^ Chatcedon on the Bo^ru9» 
^n$ famous for the Pelamide$ or Tunny. Fiih> a^ 
Gellius and Varro inform us. 

Hfifiod alfo makeiL Phineus the fatb^ of Bi^hyr 
nus and fo does Eufebius, if Salmafius conjedures 
righty for he obferveg, that Author always fiibfti- 
tutes Phenix for Phineus ; but Euftathais contra* 
difts them all and avers, thefe Princes ^cre the 
Sons of Odryfes King of Thra.ce , he does not 
mention his authority, (h) However it is evident, 
that the Greeks carried the Genealogy of Bithus, 
up to the moil remote times, and according to 
C uftom, he was the Son of Jupiter. 

(h) Pindar. Nomeor. Od. 1 1. — Ptol. Hepheft.— Epiciurmus. 
— Pifander.— Pherecjdcs as quQtcd by the Scholiaft of AppolJo- 
nius mention; Amycus and Phpcus, as both reigning in pithynia 
at the lime of the Argonautic Expedition — in ihort the Greeks 
can carry no hiftqrical fa£by beyond that Epoch. 


8 A VifuUcaHon cf the 

By their fabulous Accounts the Bebryd inhabi- 
ted Bithynia in the time of the Argonauts ; Amy- 
cus, they fay, was King, and was flain in fingk 
combat, fome will have it by Pollux, others by 
Jafon, and others that he was carried home to 
Greece in Chains, li) 

The Bebrycians and Cimmerians were Gome- 
rites, and the Irifli Hiftory infers diat the Magb- 
gians were routed from this Country by the Sons 
of Gomer, and fome were conftrained at lengdi to 
defcend the Euphrates, till they fettled at the Bor- 
ders of the Periian and Arabian Gulphs, and along 
the Eaftern Ocean in Oman, where we (hall pre- 
fently find them under the name oi Men cfOman^ 
or Fir-D*Omanan. 

Thefe Bebryci and Cimmeirii were in their turn 
dtiven Northward^ and puflied up the Bolga or 
Volga into Germany, from whence they penetra* 
ted into Gaul. The Bebryci firft fled into Cyzi- 
cus, that is one part of the Kingdom of 

(i) Sec aUb Silius Italicns. L.. i . V. 40. Tzeties. Scho). 4^ 
L7coi>hr. — Feftus Avienus — Steph. Byzant - £uftathtiL% &c« 
I cannot agree with the Marq. de S. Aubin that the Cininjerii 
were fo named from Gomer ; Cluverius, Grotius, Pontanus and 
leibnitz, have ftilly proved in mr opinion, that the names Cina- 
merii and Cimbri, are not fynonimous with Corner though they 
were Gomerians. The Iriili, 4^guage affords a derivation 
adapted to their fituation, viz. Cufwuar^ a Valley, Gumma' 
raice^ people living in a Country inll of Valleys and hills, 
and I take the Arabic Kumra to have the fame (ignification, 
though commonly tranflated Rocks tumbled from Mountains 
into Vallies. 

Infemb preflas nebulis, pellenre fub umbra 
Cimmerias jacuiiTe domoi, noAemque profiindam 
Tartarean narrani urbis. 

SlL. ItAL. L. II. 


Ancient Hiftory of Ireland. 9 

they were driven entirely out of Aiia by the 
(Eolian Greeks under Orejies^ fome years after the 
taking of Troy. Here they mixed with fome fu^ 
gttive Trojansy and together came into Gaul, as 
vc colled from Timageneij copied by Ammianus 
Marcellinus. Quidam aiunt paucos poft excidium 
Trojoe fugitantes Graecos ubique difperfos, loca 
faaec (Gallia) occupafle tunc vacua.— Hence the 
tradition of fome of the Gauls, of their being 
Trojans, and with them the idea came into Bri- 
tain and gave rife to the Story of Brutus. They 
fettled in France about Narbon. Feftus Avienus 
lays it was their Capital. 

Genfque Bebrycum prius 
Loca hacc tenebat : atque Narbo civitas 
]^rat ferocis maximum regni caput. 

The name Bath in Irifli is fynonimous to CiftAie 
or Scutbaj and implies a Seaman, a Navigator. It 
is remarkable that the Claific Authors have made 
Amycus, the firfl King of Bithynia, the Son of 
Neptune by the Nymph Msai« Melia^ that is, the 
Sea (k). Appollodorus calls her Biiiiynis, — ^and the 
Son of Amycus was Butes,"-H&i/r4<, ^oiaiT«, f^rS, for 
the Greeks write the name varioufly, and he was 
beloved by Venus ; froRrwhom came Eryx, who 
afterwards reigned in^ Sicily. He and many of the 
Princes of Afia, are faid to have come to the 
Aififtance of King Priam. In fine, the Greeks 
feem to have had fome knowledge of our Iriih 
Baith Phenius and Magog, and to have ground- 

(1^) hVd. Melah from whence Malah a Sailor in IriHi. See 
No. 14, Coll. 



TO A Vindieaihn ^ ih^ 

ed their fable oa the Irilk Sh>I7» tri^M Qr |pUe : 
tt muft furety appear to ei^fy iiap^nial Re^Kiff » 
•that this hiAory of IrclaJid is not the iPi^bficaUi^a of 
illiterate Monks of the 9th and loth Cr^tmic&; 
but that it was the kiiloty of the peoplf ffPQI whom 
they defcended ia Afia^ aiul the traditipn brqvigbt 
with them tAto this Couotry^ 

Ncc mora : continuo vaftis ci»m viri^u$^ ^^x% 
Ora Dares, virum fe muriafiure toiUt ; 
Solus qui Paridem folhui cosbtefid^r^ CQfitra, : 
Idemque ad tutnuhun^ quo m^i^imu^ ocenh^t 

Hedor, . 

Viftorem Buten immani corpore, qui fe 
Bebrycia veniem Amyct de gf nte fqrc^t, 
Perculit, et falva moribund u^ e^cj^dit arena. 

Vitg, ^ntfii. S- V* 364. 

The learned Bddiart, happy ia mr^ft of his den?9* 
tlons, has certaialy failed ia (h|Lt f>f Jlithynia ; be 
derives it from ^3 hetca^ iatcricit; "wfaj^liceit 
figaifies the womb as the moft i^t^i^ part. TI^ 
Geographical (ituation of Bithyni^ will aot allow 
of fuch an Etymon^ two Sides of It bek)g 5i?afiied 
by two Seas, the Bolporus and Emiine.— We muft 
aot pafs over the City of Frfnf&m ia Bithynia^ 
which Stephanus informs us, and ^Qch^rt coa^ 
firms, to have been a Colony o-f Ph^niciaps.-^ 
Proneftus he derives from the Syrian Biranta^ 
which is the Irifh Brdateacb, or Br^intea<;bi ^ 
palace.«-*nfo»«.KT^ Proneftuj Urbs Bithyni^e propc 
Drepanem, quam extruxere Pba^aices. (St^ha^ 
nus.) Socrates writes the word Prenctos. Cedrenus 
makes it Prainetos. Fa&utn videtur nomen ex Sy- 


Anchmt Hi/birj^ rf Irelimd. ki 

ro IIKiyVia Biranta,; quod pro Caftro Tel Fsdatlio 
YttSm oocwrrk ta Faraphraftis^ Sed et Hebraic^ 
W^rfO^ Bkn;^ot Tuitt Arces aut CaAella (I). 
Braoicac is compotsnded of two Scythian words^ 
Ilia, Baron. Frincepsy Teach Donnis; wbenee 
Bnofiteach n Palace. Arabic^ Tekbt^ tlsie Royal 
Reidfencc. Tak an arched Boildingy Tawkia roof- 
iag^ a honfe ; whence the Irifh teach a bonfe* 

&Qine of the Perlian Writers fay, that Agamon 
wasi dfes firft King of Perfia, the name in Iriflv 
fi^Mttc!! esccelOag in battle \ and fo CapelUis has 
ttanffaMed it. Adbaemenes ipib interpreter hcUa-^ 
tor bom&s (Reland de vet. Ling. Perf. p. 109.) 
Agfaiiny, Perfam notat, agbim, Perfiam, ui^ 
Pctfior* Aghemian et Azjemian et Achemonii, 
R c iM w i w AchaemeniL 

Aher Achaemenium fecludit Zengmata Perfasn. 
(Statina.) Videtur itaque quod apud antiques Pcr- 
fsL di&L fuerit Achsemenia, Ht diftxngueretur . a 
Ptrtia didai Erak. Perfia a Sinu Perfico oricnta* 
liter, apud Autores alios vocari f<riet Acha^menia 
& Perfie Achasmencs. (Hyde. Vet. ReU Perf, 
IK 416.) 

Bochatl derives Ae name from nD^HW Achiman^ 
ad vcrbum ^uU fratir meus?«^idem potnit efle 
cognomen primi Regum Perfce quern Grseci vo« 
cant Achscmenem. . Achiman, frater proeparatus, 
vel frater dexterss^ aut frater quid i filius knac, 
Nunb. 13. 

Emir-glun Finn. Emir gkf. &g. Arab Jnwr 
a great man pi. Omra, keU is Synonimous whence 
Kai^rur Kai'Eafru^ &c. 

(1) Bodwn Gcog. Sa<rr. L. 1. C x. 

12 A VinJication tf the 

Glun^ the knee, a generation, gus an ireas gbm^ 
to the third generation ; (O'Briens and Shawes 
Did:) Thus Emirgluin Finn in the Genealogical 
lable (ignifies Emir of the race of ¥inn : the ez- 
prcfTion is truly Oriental, Gen. 30. V. 3. Go 
in unto her and (he fhall bear upon my knees diat 
I may alfo have children by her—- et parit fnper 
(^3^) genua mea. — ^Targum* Pariat liberos qnos 
ego excipiam, gremio geftem, fofcam & educem 
ut meas. In^ntes fuper genua collocantur a nu* 
tricibus tz matribus, gremio tenentur & geftan- 
tur (Schindler) — Can this be the ex[Janation of 
the following verfe. Gen. 50. v. 23. Etiam filii 
Machir, filii Manaffis, nati funt fuper (jpp^ *D^) 
genua Jofeph — Targum. Quarc me ezceperunt, 
cum in lucem ederer, genua obftetricis incunra- 
ta; necaderem? 

The Irifh word Raigbj the arm from the (boul- 
der to the elbow — the thigh from the hip to the 
knee, has the fame (ignification, whence i{iei^» 
peperit, (he brought forth, Raigbj Raigble gene- 
ration : this is from *7*i^ & NTl** irai and iraia^ 
femur, the thigh. £t filii ipforum egredientes 
fmnorum eorum, i. e. e femore eorum. Cantic. 7. 
V. 2. — ^The fceptre (hall not depart from Judah, 
nor a Lawgiver from his (bJ*) R^igil) generation^ 
until (nV^Q7)Shiloh (hall come. Gen. 49. V. 10. 
— Shildi, the Iri(h Shioi the Son, i. e. the Mefliah. 
The Leabhar I^eacain or Liber Lecanus, (ays, 
that the Genealogies of iamilies from the deluge 
to St. Patrick's time, were written on the knees, 
(gluinibh) and on the thighs vlorgaibh) of men, 
and on the holy altars. (Leab. Leac. f. 14.) the 
meaning of which is, that the genealogies of the 


Ancient Hijhry rf Ireland. 13 

dire& line and collateral branches, were engraved 
on the altars in pagan times, (m) 

The third Genealogical Table in the Irifti Hif- 
tory» is that of the Chaldseans, called Tuatha- 
Dadann, being a colony or tribe of Dedanites, 
vho mixed with our Scuthi, tvhen feated on the 
Feriian Gulph. As we fliall treat of this people 
at large in the 6th chapter, we here only ihew 
the line up to Cbus, according to the Iriih 





Peleft, ^ 















{«} Qjiaere* May not this be the oripn of tbofe Infcripcioot wt foA 
•Q the TbJshf and Arms of the £trufcan Figures ? 


A Vhu&cmm (f tht 



The ^ofagrafbical Names of Irdand. 

i.TNIS NA FIODHBHAIDH, i. c. a Woody 
X liland. It was fo called, fays the ancient 
fable, by Nion, fon of Pelus, who difcovered it. 

A fable it certainly is, as relating to Ireland. 
The Irifli hiftory favs, Adna, ion of Bith, of the 
family of Nion, firic difcovered Eirinn, 300 years 
after the Samothracian Jood. See ch. 3. — ^This 
woody ifland was probably one of the ^gean 
Iflands, fuppofed to have been formed by that 

2. Crioch na Fuineach. The territory of Fu» 
ineach, that is, fays Keating, the neighbouring 


If the author had attended to the original, he 
would have found a full and proper explanation of 
the word, viz. obheith a bhftxinead chrioch na 
tri rann don Dpmhan : ioaaa •Fuine agus Crioch. 
Fuin Laidne Finis, i. e. from being the end or 
extremity of the three divifions of the world : 
Fi2in 'fignifies End, Extremity, and Crioich Coun- 
try. Fuine, in Latin finis. There cannot be a 
fuller or better adapted name for Ibernia, which 
is tlie Phasnician tranflation of Crioch na Fuin- 


Ancient M^otj if hefand. 1 5 

each. Fuin alfo figaifies the Weft, as Fuin-trath, 
Occafus vcl inclinado ScAk ; it is both a Pheni- 
ciaa and a Syrian vrord^ N^!lO phenia vefper. 
(GfasJdee). Phenia da iuma (Syrian), i. e. the 
cod of tbc day. Veipera. Fhinicha^ (^y^O &IHS, 
ttrnmius ^ plaga mimdi. 

3* Ealga ; that is^ the Noble Ifland. 


There is tio foundation in hiflory for this name. 
The firfl difcoirerers of the Britannic Ifles, would 
certainly have given that name to Britain, by .pi:e- 
eminence. Mod probably this name alludes to 
dieir fettling in £lgia, or Elegia'^ a town and dlf- 
trt& of Armenia Major. 

4. Aeri or Eire, ib called, fay they, from 
jkriaj the old name of Crete^ or from JEHa^ that 
port of Egypt from , whence the Gadeli came to 
Grete^ when Sru^ fen of Eafru^ was baniihed fr(Hli 


jEria was one of the Thracian files, Eirene one 
of the Iflands of the Peloponnefus ; and there 
were the Eirinaij feated between the mountains 
ef Geraunii and the river Rha in Ssrmatia. No- 
thing more ca^ be faid of this derivation, than 
that the name was common to that part of the 
globe from whence they origihally came. Aoria 
in Ghaichre Signifies the Weft. .M^*-)*tM 

^. FbBHLA, fo called from the wife of Mac 
Ceacht, a King of the Tustfaa Dadann, named 
Muc Ceaeit, or Raiior. 


1 6 A Vindication of tbi 


A more eligible name cannot be given to the 
wife of a Prince who bears the name of the Son of 
Science. C3Qn chacam, Fodbal, or Fodbla(n)jfi^Di'' 
fies the Graces, les Verfus ; it has the fame mean- 
ing in Arabic, fee D'Herbelot at Fadbail : hence 
one of the learned Irifh Kings was named Cinn 
Faodbla na Fodhlama^ i. e. the Head of the Learn- 
ed. He was alfo called Cinn Fadhla Mac Ollam. 
Fadbailj Les Vertus ; c'eft le plurier de Fadhilah, 
i. e. Vertu ; hence Fadbel was a common name of 
the Arabians. See alfo Fodbail in D'Herbelot. 

6. Bamba, from the name of a third Queen of 
the Tuath Dadann, who was the wife of Mac 
ChoU, otherwife called Eathor. 


The Dadannites were Chaldeans, as we fhall 
prefently fhew ; and as they had a fettlement on 
the Euphrates named Banbe, not far diftant weft 
of Babylon, our Magogians might have poflefled 
this place, as it will appear hereafter, that they 
mixed with thefe Dadannites, the fons of Rhegh* 

7* Inis Fi^iL, or the Ifland of Defliny ; from a 
(tone that was brought by the Dadannjites into 


Of this ftone we have treated in a former Num- 
ber of the CoUedanea, to which we refer, and 
fhall fhew its origin in the chapter Tuatha Da- 
dann. See alfo Chap. X. 

(n) Cinn FaodhJa na Fodhlama, the Chief of the Graces of 
the earned. Cin Fadhla Mac OlUai. The Chief of the Grace^ 
Soa of the Sciences. Arabic oiW, yUn. Heb. & Chald. (]^m alaph. 

8. Muc 

Ahcierit Hljloty '^'Ireland. ij 

^. Muc tsLAKD. Wheii the Dadanns found 
fhe Milefiahs attempted to lani ; Ky their i^agical 
cndiahtments they threw a cloiid on the iflina, bV 
which it appeared no bigj^er thah k help's back»~ 
Miic is a hog. (Keating.) 

Rt'U A k Ki 
l^uc was the name of icn Ifliandi liiTlisnidS; 
and of another in the Perfian Sea ; both named 
by our Magogians, who proceeded from the^ Per- 
fic Gulph, through Oriiah to t^haehicia s of whffih 
hereafter. Ut in PHaehicc dua fiierunt infulas 
magni nommw, Tylus himirum. & Aradus^ ita in 
ihari Pcrffcb Tyliim & Aradiim infiila's Geo^rapH 
aefcribiirit^ fetqiie in iis.vetiifta terhpla in Phaerii- 
ciorurii riiodum ektruflta : (BbcharC, 'Canaan^ 
p. 68^.)— Mqch is white ; '^rhencc Iviqc-trath^ Aii- 
rdr^j Ir^ and ^pb Mofc^ Heb. Cotton* Moch is 
the fame as Vli^ii Aiban, (white) and (ignifies the 
dawning df the day, Aurora ; hence wakb iii Pcr- 
fic, Aurora.— *-It is evident this name i^ould hot 
have been given to a Wcftern Ifle, of* to any of 
their wefterh difcbveries; but moft properly iii 
their route Ea/iward to the mouth of thePerfic 
Gulph.-— Afar^ is in <iomnion ufe at this day to 
exprds the dawn of day ; matutina lux albcfcere 
turn primilm oritur 5 arid Tylus was alfo called 

9. Scotia. This nathe is faid to be given it 
by the Tons of Milefiiis, who named it Scotia, 
from their 'mottier's name Scota, or perhaps from 
themfelveS) they being originally of the Scythiaa 

B Re. 

1 8 -A VindUatm rf the 



The name Scutb, we have ihewn in the Intro- 
dudion, fignifies a Ship^ whence Scuth-aoi, Scy- 
thi^ i. e. Ship-men, mariners. 

i o. Ptolemy calls it Ivema : Solinus names it 
luerna : Claudian ftiles lerna, and Euftatius Ver- 
na. Alid it is the general opinion, fays Keating, 
that thefe Authors, not perfe£tly underftanding 
the derivation of the word, varied it according 
to the particular fenfe of each. 


All thefe names proceed from the Phaenidan 
]YinN Aharun (m), eztremus & occidentals. Oc- 
cafus Soils. lernia or Eirin as the natives at this 
day write it, was not only called fo with refped 
to its pofition from the place of its firft difcoverers, 
but alfo as being the wefternmoft of the Britannic 
liles. Brittain being to the Eaft of Ireland, was 
by them named Alban and Albania, the Eaftem 
liland, i. e. •>N-]*»3f7n- Itaquc cum in Circejo con- 
ftet locum fuifle confpicuum, & in mare promi- 
nentem nominatum ab Elpenore ; credibile eft 
Phsenices nugivendos, eodem morbo correptos quo 
Graecorum grammaticuli qui ad fuam linguam 
omnia referunt, voluifle hunc locum ita dici non 
a Gracco Elpenore^ fed eo quod citius ibi fcilicet 

(m) IDTIK aharon, extremus, occidentalis. *WH Ahur, 
poftresnuna oc6idens inde p*V11D Mofaamiiy i. e. Mauri, quaii 
poftreini vei occidentalis di^i. nK3*inM Achemae vel perapber. 
HM'VI Chernae, Punicd,' Ultima habitatio Cerne infula inde 
didla. Hence Aopv^ Taiteflbs ell Hifpanica urbs circa lacus 
A?emum. Avernier Graced ki^^ Punice bitfa Aharona, i. e. La- 
cus extremus. ri*)nMn * D'H im h'haron, mare occidentale. 
Deut, zi. 24. (oee Bochart, vol. i.) 

Ancient Hi^ofy ^fj^land. 19 

niJf t^aVrt biWin-or^ aifjqfcit lax. niatutfesu : Ma- 
tudna \mx albefcerc dicitur ciim primuAi ptitiir* 
Unde eft quod albam vocant fermone vernaculo; 
Bb'chart, Catnaan, p. 592^. . I . 

.II. IfiERmA, or Ib^vn.aoi. This namc^Ws^ 
given it by the .fon$ of MiieiiuSf. who fis^xf^^ ffpmr 
Spain. Some fay from the river Iberm in. $fiain ^ 
others from Heber the fon of Mitefus : but Cormac 
Mac Cuillenan fays^ it was^ io called ffptn :Ai4 
word Eber^ which figq^^.tl^e W^ft; (h), ; .. 

. « • ■ « ■ 

R E.MAilt *#• - •• ' 1 

There ^aanot^ber a ftFc^g^t P^roof than this jia&' 
&ge in the records of Irelf^id,- to point put who 
were the pcppie that gave this name to Ireland s 
it .could not have i)een the^Gaiilsi Britons;' or any 
other N^rtbeira Nation, we are certain^ becaufe no 
fuch word exifts in any of thofe dialeds zs,Eber txf 
d^oote the We(l. .Bocbart, 9II9WS. that the Phas^ 
nicians; were acquainted with Ireland, and; that they 
named it rM3**Dy Iber^nae^ i. e<r ultima hs^bita^io'j 
becpiufc^: fays h<^ they knew of no place more weft-- 
ward, than a vaft Ocean. Eber in the plural nj^akes 
t'^^DV Ibrin, terminos & fines fighificat, and ^M 
ai 18 anlilapd or Country^ whence aoj, and naoi, 
in Irifh ; and if we recoiled that ]yahn hilbin, and 
I^^^M albin, imply.the Eail] Qrtus & Aurora, there 
certainly cannot be a doubf 1 bat tbefe Iflands were 
fo named with refp^6k to their fituation of each 
other. The words are Irifli and Phasnician ; but' 

(n) Eier dnd Eor^, or Earp^ (whence by Corruption Europa) 
^re Irifh and Pbaeniciux words, fignifying the weft, the extre- 
mty I from y^ orb, nSlf cber, and ^ny orup. Occidens^ 
tnnsy dorfum. 

B a they 

A&f iitfi not Welidi, ^au^, dr DatnlAi. (See 

i2# Ir, Ire, Iris. It i^ called Fonh^ or, Fe- 
aaron Ir^ &c. that is the land of /r, who was the 
ftfft fcSft 'Vrf Mkfiui, tliat' ^ds buried in this Iflc. 
It "^ks^ laHb 'caltcd 7r^ti, that is the grave of /r— • 
thfis K^atki'g. 

7 ■" ••• ■ • ; ' R-i M A k K* - 

- Ira or teraa yrVl^ - Ivas certainly k proper 
name in the Eaftern Qotintries ; ther^ was leraa 
(Luna aut menfis) Servus ^gyptius Sefan filii 
Jcfi. I par. 2. — Steptis^nHs. • 

- Iferii -!l'*»i*^ ^tmor domini Jere. y/n Tn*^ 
J^rlho dr Jeridio$ Luna, Civitai in Betijamin 
Tribur ^ T%c¥e wtts Ir-ftiemefli, a GSty erf Chanaan 
AM fell t6 the ^ibeof ban, and Ir-peel hi the 
TVibe of iB^amniv But as this Ifiand was well 
kn<^n in aheient hiftory,^ by the Greeks, by the 
Epithet of hoify^ I am of Opinion, both Much and 
his^ fighiiy the holy Ifiand^ Mitch in Irifli is an 
Epithet of the Deity ; andlr. Ire and Ms^ fignify 
Religion.- In Arabic bura^^ Religion j and 
mnckdufs is holy* 

13. Ana^ AiSTAN, Anu or Nan>ju. Anodier 
tfAmc of Ireland. 


Ith Nanu, i. e. Infula Veneris feu Matris Dec- 
rum'. See her Image, chap. 6* 

(0) Iran is the name of Periia. Iran on Tonran^ i. e. Peiiia 
kod Ttirkcy, or Scythia^ both, peopled hf the defcendants of 
our Magogian Scythians 1 and in another part of thb hiftoryy 
we are told that It was bom in Irene, an Ifland fituated in Ac 
Thraciau Sea. 


Ana or Anu, and fometiiij5;Bi IjTanJi, \i{it^ a psjra- 
gogick ^ as Nathar father J^r Athar, &c* &C|. 
wc have ihewed in the laft Number, wa^ wor^ 
Slipped in Ireland as MMthr or prima caufa^ 
She was thq Anaea or Analtis. of the Eaft. ]^fany 
teazles vere dedicated to- her, amoi^ oth^ 
Agb^beitb-Anaj or Agbctana, or Ecbata^si,^ ]^ 
Armenia. There waj^ Ani in Armenia (iDe JjEej- 
belot) ^ ra TAj- 'Ay««t iV» and Anaeas tpmplum. 
rStrabo) i. e, Anaitidis Bochart Phal. pi; %4^ 
She wa^ the Venus, of fomc and the. Diapa of 
otber/3 (p), (;^ primus crefta Veneris Anaitidif 
ftatua Babylone & Sufis, & Ecbatanis, & in P^« 
fis, & Bactris, & Damafci, & Sardibus, Deanji 
oftendit efle colendam. Anaitidi multi Dianani 
eflc voluerunt, quia, communi fano cum Deo 
]Dn Omano, id eft. Sole, colebatur ; ut teftatur 
Strabo Lib. 1 5. Viciffim alii yenerem effe ma* 
luerunt. (q) 

Caeterum ex loco Strabonis, in quo veifamur^ 
in quo 'Arai* Anasa vocatur, qu;ae aliis Anaitis, re- 
ftituenda funt loca ^ eadem Anaitide. 2^ Mac- 
chap. 1 • V. 1 3. 1 5^ In iis enim pro 'Ayai« Scrip- 
turn Nar«i«. Nempe in his verbis vtpi tw VavaUv 
N initio vocis aflumptum ex fine prascedentis : indc 
ortus error latius fe propagavit j nam fy eodem 
verfu legitur T«f NAr«i*tf iip» per rtu^Afdu^^ ut in 
Strabone, and ver. 1 5. m VtuauH etiam fexo mur 
tato. (Bochart^ vol. i. p^ 345.0 

(p) See Scnbo. AgathtEs, Lib. 9. Paa£inia$ in Lacoo. Plu- 
tarchiis in Artaxerxe. 

(q) Bcx:hait. She is the Ani of the Thibetans ; whence one 
of their religiQiis fcdi is fo called, (Alpb. Tibetaniim| Geor- 
gii^ psaop. 



A Vindication of the 

She was worihipped in Ireland under Ac name 
of Ana, Anu and Nana. Many places and rivers 
were dedicated to her, as the Nany water, a river 
betweeii Dublin and Drogheda. 

Thefeare the Ainm Ebirt or Topographical 
names pf Ireland. ' Ebirt^ i. e. Eb-irtj or Elhartj 
the defcriptiori of the Earth, from Niy Eba com- 
pofuit, in ordinem digefCt. tfiw arets. Terra. ^'W 
'SS* Ebarts. Berofius tcHs us the Pbacnician word 
was AreU Noah terram vocajffe Aretiam^ hence 
the Iriih art^ or iri for the Hebrew Arts^ hence 
alfo the Arabic and IriQi ard and the Latin ari: 

f • 

« • 


Aneintt fB/ioty 9f hdand* 23 

CHAP, m, 

Partholan or Par-tola m. 

THIS C!hapler Keatiko entitles, ^^ ofibefir/t 
Inhabitants rf Ireland after the Flood.'* He 
dra\vs the contents from an ancient Poem, record- 
ed in the Pfalter of Cafliel, and many other MSS. 

The fubftance of the Poem is as follows. 

Adhna mac Bitha go cceili 
Laoc do muintir Nin mac Peil 

« > ^ 

Tainig an Eirin da fios 
Gur Imeann ffar a bhfidhinis 
Rug leis Ian adhuim da fgar* 
Teid da thig dinifin fg^al 
Afi fin gabnail go grinn 
As giorra da bfiiar Eirinn. 
Tri chead bliain iar ndilia 
Is fgeal fior mur rimhim 
Fa nis Eire uile og 
No go ttainig Partolan* 

i. e* 
Adhna fon of Bith, a champion of the Jamily 
of Nin, fon of Pelus, (r) went to explore 

I* • 

(t) Pelm, Tcl Pelagusy the Water-man. Bitlma filius PoG- 
donb. (Nepctmiy cognitus enu ant^ Hcfiodi tempore, teOe 
EiiftathiOy p. 13, m lU. a. 

^4 jLtSfi^cfltic^ qfi tibi 

(i. e. pnVI** the Weft.) He pluckt a handfiil of 
mfs, and brought it home as an example of the 
fertility of the foil, and he was the firft that fettled 
in£irinn\or the Weft.) Three hundred years 
^er the flood, we Recount it fpr certain (Eire 
uile ) all the Wfeft lay wafte,' till Fartdan arrived 

To this it U added, that Partolan fet out from 
^g4pn. Th.Q po^m coficludes with a lift of the 
pri;icip^. ffficc^s ^M stccpmpanied liim, and 
Uliih tl*cm ii U feid, iKcre Bipifll affis Bebdladhn 
dqnnuim^ i- ۥ gipbsl wd Babel, two Canaanites 
or Merchants. 



As pw Wk hiftQT»Pf yftuld not willygly want 
an aera for this expedition, they have amgned the 
date to twenty-t\j^o years l^fp^ the bir^h of Abra* 
ham. * * 

I think there can b? Qo doubt, but the flood 
here mentioned^ >^g$ tl)at f siUed by Qipdorus and 
Stra'bo, the S^upptjitacii)!) flppd, which, fays Dio- 
dorus, *^ The S^n)ptl)^aciai^ faiftpry afferts to 
have happened before any floods recorded of 
other nations. . The 'dgtugc, fays l^c, was pro- 
duced by the ^juption pf the waters, which at 
firft broke through tji^ Cyanpean rocks, and 
** afterwards ruflied inl^ jhe tf^llpipont. The 
** Euxine fea, formerly 9- great lake, was then fo 
** much fwelled by the waters whicli entered it, 
*' thaf not being capacious enough to contain 
« therp, they overflowed into' thfe ftfcUcfpont, 
^ where they fubiperged'a great part of the tnari- 
^\ J;mc Afia, and alfo overwhelmed great diftrifts of 
** Sarii6iii?ace. fii'cbhfirination of &iit fidicrmen 
^* m latter times have dragged up uone ca- 


Ancient Ufftfiry if Ireland. 25 

f^ pitalsof pillars in their nets, which prove that 
^^ the fea covered the ruins of their ancient towns^ 
^' It is reported that the inhabitants who efcaped^ 
^* fled to the more elevated lands, but the fea 
(till increiEifing they invoked the Gods, and 
thereby being delivered from their perilous fi- 
'^ tuation, they encomps^ed the places where 
they were preferved throughout the whole 111^ 
and, and there raifed altars, where at this day, 
f^ they perform facrifices tp their gods/' (Diod, 
vol. 1. fee. 253. 1. 5. p. 369. Wcffcl.) 

As to the firft inhabitants of Samothrace, adds 
Diodorus, there is nothing handed down to pof- 
terity relating tp them, which we may depend on. 
Th^ had anciently a peculiar language, not un- 
derftopd by any other people of Greece, whereof 
£ome words were ftill u£ed in the worfhip of their 
gods, when Diodorus wrote his hiflory. (s) 

pur Southern Scythi, inhabitants of Armenia, 
had extended toPontus, Bythina, and Paphiagonia, 
(t) bordered on the welt by the Euxine and HeU 
lefpont. The Samothracian Bood recorded by 
Piodorus, had deftroyed Eire uile^ all the Weft of 
this Country, and 300 Years it lay wade, till Par* 
tbolan made an excuriion to thofe parts, and 

(5) The Greeks at that time were well acquainted with the 
Tfrian, or, as they called it, Phaenician language, and with the 
Felafgian, and Thmcian or Pbrjrgian ; and .thefe are tfae only 
nations recorded by them to have inhabited this Ifle. In a for- 
mer work we have ihewii, that the Cabiri, Diofcuri, &c. were 
of Irifh origin, and that Artemedorus mentions the Samothracian 
iacred rings to have been ufed in Ireland, many of which are 
found at this day in our bogs. See Colledbuiea de Reb. Hi* 
bem. No. 13. 

(t) See chapter Phenius Pbaria. 


x6 A Vindication of the 

brought back to Armenia, a handful of grafs, as 
a teftimony, that Vegetation had again taken place, 
after fo dreadful a Cataftrophe. 

An Irifli MSS. called the Book of Leacan is 
more particular with regard to Partolan. It in- 
forms us, Partolan arrived in Eirinn in the 6th 
year of the reign of Ktnm ; and in the 1 8th year 
of Mamyntas the nth Emperor of AfTyria, the 
plague deftroyed the race of Partolan, for having 
murdered him as well as his wife and children who 
were taking care of his patrimony in Setbiana or 
Scythia, during his abfence, whence the Son of 
Partolan who was concerned in the murder receiv- 
ed the opprobious name of Talomach or Telemacbtu. 
(u) Hence it appears our adventurer did not take 
nis wife and family on this expedition. 

If we turn to the account of the Ogygian and 
Deucalion floods, recorded by the ancients, there 
feems ftrong fufpicioiis of their having blended the 
hiftory of this flood, with that of the general one of 
the facred fcriptures. 

Nothing in the antiquities of Greece is more 
obfcure than the hiftory of Ogyges and of the De* 
luge which happened in his time, fays Abbe Ba- 
nier, and adds he, whether he was a Grecian or 
a foreigner, or at what time he lived* Monf. 
Fourmond makes him an Amalekite, the fame with 
Og, Agag, orOgog, who left his country and fetr 
tied in Greece. Some place this deluge in Atti- 
ca, others in Egypt, and St. Jerome thinks it was 
the Red Sea : thus^uch is certain, fays Banier, 
he was not a Native of Greece ^ his name fliews he 

(u) Taolmac a parricide, Shawes Ir. Did. 

< was 


Ancient Hi/lory rf Inland. 17 

xiras a foreigner, but of ivbat nation, I cannot de- 

Ogyges, as I have (hewn in a former number 
.of this work, is a Scythian name, compounded of 
Og oy Oi^j i. e* Dux, heros, and Uige a Shipt 
Deticalion^ was a Scythian, the Son of Promethe- 
us : his name bears the fame fignification as Ogy- 
gcs, viz. Dettc^ the floater, (natator) L/^;2ofthe 
Sea, and hence the name may refer to Noah. 
Oguige may have been one of our Scythian Chiefs 
i^ho had led a Colony to the weft of Thrace, and 
there have perifhed in the Samotbracian flood, be- 
fore the expedition of Partolan took place ; This 
flood was the moft ancient known to the Heathen 
-writers, as appears from Diodorus ; and according 
to Salinus it was the Ogygian flood.— ^Prims nor 
vim aftris inundatio terrarum, fub prifco Ogyge. 

It is remarkable, that the Greeks record, the 
marriage of Ogyges with Thebe^ of Hercules with 
Erythia^ and our Irifli hiftorians marry MiUefs to 
Scota ; but Tbebe^ Erythia and Scota^ are fynoni- 
inous names for a Ship ; thefe and many other cir- 
cumftances in the hiftories of thefe heroes, tend 
to fliew, the -Greeks, as Monf. Bailly has proved 
in his Atlantis, owe the bafis of all their fable to 
the ancient Scythians or Perfians. 

Sir L Newton fixes this deluge 1045 before 
Chrift. Petavus^ and Banier at 1796 before 
Chrift : fome Centuries later than the period af- 
fixed by our Irifli Chronologifts. 

Partolan fet out from Migdon, which was the 
name of Bithynia the refidence of our Magogian 
Scythians at that time. There was another Mig- 
don feated on a River of the fame name, which 
vraters Nifibis and Uir, and then falls into the 



tK 8 A Vindication of tb^ 

Tigris, (x) Thefe Migdous are both in Magogs 
Country, but it is more probable Partholan depar- 
ted firom Bithynia and fettled in Eirinn i. e. the 
Weil, in an ifland near the Shore, which points 
out to us that of Samothrace. 

The names Adhna and Partolan are oriental, 
p)^ Adin, a proper name, i Efdras 2, and 8, the 
fignification of the name in Hebrew and Irifh is, 
deliciofus^ aut ornaius* 

Par was a common Epithet in the Eafl, parti- 
cularly in Mefopotamia, (y) Paradajh bar Gabarou 
was third King of the Ofrhoi,-^there were Par- 
tbamafpates^ Pamatafpates^ Parafmanesy he. &c, 
&c. (z) There was yVin Tola, Son oflflachar. 
Gen. 46. I Paral. 7. Jud. 10. nu;-*?n Tha- 
laflar. Regis Syriae, Kai. 37. Tt>r\ Tha|e, nome^ 
viri, 1 Para. 7. pb**/! Tilon filius ^imon, i Par. 
4* the name Tolan, or Tolam fignifies a Peach 
Tree ; our DiAionaries tranflate it, the holm 
Oak. — ^Perfice Talane, a fruit refcmbling a Peach. 
Arab. Talnak an Apricot.— The reafoos of thefe 
names we ihall treat of hereafter. 

Talmai, was one of the Sons of Anac^ whom 
Caleb expelled from Arba. Jofh. 15. Ch, 14. V. 
& expulit ihde Caleb tres filios An^c, viz. Sefac, 
Abiman & Talmai, natos Anac. We ihall ihew 
in the Sequel, that Anac an4 Gadu/j were the 

(x) But fays Keating, Mjgdon was in Greece, and in this man* 
ner has pervened the whole of the Irifli Hiftory : — frothing 
can be more clear, than, that the early part ' of Itifli hiftpTy, 
relates to the traniadtions of their Anceftort in Annenk, Qithynia, 
Parthia, Perfia, &c. > ^ 

(y) jn3 Bara. pam Ara)>. £zcelluic^Scjen|isi. pneoeUuic ca 

(z) Bayers hiftoria Ofrhoena. 


Ancient Hi/iory of Ireland. a 9 

peculiar Epithets of the Sons of Magog, \(^ho mix- 
ed with the Canaankes in proccfs of time* 

The Poet informs us that Partolan and his pro- 
geny poflefTed the liland 360 Years, when all the 
inhabitants were fwept away by a peftiience. 

Thus our Mago^an Scuthi of Armenia conti- 
nued to extend their depredations towards piTTi^ 
Eirinn or thft Weft, and to gabb^ wherever they 
went ; gabh is the verb made ufe of in ail the Iriih 
MSS. it (tgnifies to lay under contribution ; the 
Noun is Gabbaily as GabbaU Eirinn^ the Book of 
contribution, commonly called the Book of Con- 
quefts in Ireland ; this book contains the contri- 
butions of every State to the Monarch. We have 
often quoted it in the preceding Numbers of this 
vol-k : the word ia Oriental, as nVo:i ^IS^I Gabhi 
Gimela, Gameli tributa, (Bochart V. i. p. ii48)« 
It atTo iignifies to govern, in both Hebrew and 
Iriih, hence ^^;i Gabhar, gubemo. Arabice 
gabii Colle&or tributorum. 

This expedition of Partolan's, took place ac- 
cording to die Irifli Aimais^ a little before the 
birth of Abraham. During the life of that Patri- 
arch, we find the Scythi of Armenia making war 
on the Ganaanites. The ii^pired penman having 
eccaiion to ^ak of Abraham, has recorded this 
b£}i i and but for Abraham, we fliould probably 
not have heard of it, Genefis 14 Ch. ^^ And it 
^ esLxat to pafe in the days of Amrapbel King of 
^ Shinaar, Ariocb King of Ellafor, Cbedorlaomer 
^^ King of Elam, and Utddal King of the Goim ; 
^* that thefe made war with Bera King of Sodom, 
** and with Birjha Bang of Gomorrah, Sbinah 
King of Sodom, and with Sbemeber King of Ze- 
boum^ and the King of Betar^ which is Zoan 

« —All 

. I 

3cJ A Vindication of the 





— All thcfc were joined together in tKc Vale of 
Siddim, which is the Salt Sea.—^Tw^/^^^ years 
they ferved Chedorlaomeri and in the 1 3th year 
they rebelled.' — And in the 14th came Chedor-^ 
laomer and the Kings that were with him, and 
fmote the Rephainu in JJbteroth Kamainij and 
^^ the Zuzinu in Ham^ and the Emims in Sbavth 
** Kiriathim. And the Horites in their Mounf 
** SWr, unto EUpdran which is by the ^ildernefs. 
*' •^— i^d when Abram heard that (Lot) his 
^^ brother was made captive, he armed his train* 
'^ ed Servants, born in his own houfe^ 318, and 
^^ parfued them unto Dan, and unto Hobah which 
^^ is on the left hand of Damafeud/ And he 
brought back all the goods^ and his brother Loty 
and his goods, and the women alfo, and die 

The Syrikc Copy calls Tadal^ ^aril E. of the 
Golita : The Arabic veriion has Aritfcb King of 
Sarian, Chadharlaomar King of Choraftafi and 
Thadaal King of .the Nations. The laft is named 
Tbargoi by the LXZ. and is faid to be King of the 

Jofephus calls this the Waf of the AfTyriiins^ 
who had united with the Chaldxan. Dynafttesi 
Mr. Baugmarten obferves, the conqueft of the Ca*' 
naanites by nations fo remote, muil be treated a^ 
an abfurd impoflibility. . 

Aquila, Symmachus and Procopius, think, that 
Amraphel was King of Pontus, not the Pontu^ 
Euxinus ; but a City in Coelo-Syria fince named 
Hellas. See alfo Menochius and Corn, a Lapide.- 
Amraphael, fays Dr. Hyde, was Kitig of Shi^ 
naar, not in Chaldaea or Babylon, but Shinaar in 
Mefopotamia, (a great city at the foot of the 


Ancient Hijiory of Ir^eland. 3 1 

Mountains 3 days journey from Maufil,) now writ«> 
ten Sinjar in the Arabic, the Singara of Ptolemy^ 
with him Abraham fought, as Eufebius fully 
proves. At that time Alfyria feems to have been 
wrefted from Ninus and to have fallen into the 
hands of the Fer/iansj as at the time of this war, 
all the neighbouring Eangs were confederate with 
Cbedorlaomer King of Elam. As therefore there 
could not be two mpnarchs in one place, Ninus 
mud have been excluded from Alfyria and retired 
into Chaldaea from whence he came. Arioc was 
King of Ellafar : according to Eufebius his name 
was "Apfi^ i. e. Martius feu Martialis, for '^I'^lt^ 
Arioc as the name ftands in Scripture is not a 
Chaldaic name, and as fat* as we know, has no 
fignification. (Religio Vet. Perf. p. 46.) 

The Perfians were Scythians, Farfi or Pheni as 
we fhall prove hereafter, and Aireac a Puno-Scy- 
thic name or title fynonimous to *'kpi^ : thus the 
Perfic Cofrou^ z title of their ancient Kings, in 
Irifli is written Cofracb^ i. e. mighty, powerful, vic- 
torious, corrupted by the modern into Cofcarachd. 
Khofrou, ou, Cofroe, nom commune a pleufieurs 
Rois dc Perfe. (DUerbelot) — Armcni dicunt 
CbuefreUy quod vetus Parthicum vocabulum fuifle 
non dubito, nam Haicana lingua nobis veterem 
Parthicam conferyavit. (Bayer, Hift. Ofrh.) 

Shinaar or Shingara was in Mefopotamia, 
* then in pofTeilion of the Magogian Scythians ; they 
had aub extended themfelves into Arabia and been 
feated early on the Perfian Gulph. Grotius 
brings Arioch from the Elifari of Arabia, menti- 
oned by Ptolemy, and Bronchartus declares it is 
very uncertain where this City was. Elam was in 
Arabia. Elim locus in deferto trans mare ru- 


3^ ^ A Vindicatim of the 

brum. (Hieronym. Eofeb. &c«) By l£lam in 
Scripture, fays Dr Blayney, in his tnuoflation of 
Jeremiah, is not always meant Perlia : before the 
days of Cyrus, there were two cfiftind Kingdoms 
fo called. 

Various are the opinions o^ the learned, v(rhere 
Thadal King of the Goim dwelt, and of the mean- 
ing of the word Goim : Grotius Ifld Heidagar are 
of opinion it was the name of a people or pro- 
vince. Dnifius thinks, that Mofes intended to 
iignify a mixture of ftrange people, whofe King 
was named Thadal. Symmacbusj who was a Sa- 
maritan by birth, and muft allowed to have beeii 
well informed of the opinions of Orientalifts, fays5 
they were Scythians* 

Eupolemiis another author of great repute, fays 
they were all Armeniamj which is faying they 
were Scythians, (a) I ain of opinion the Goim 
were Scythians or Armenians^ feated fomewhere in 
Oman^ which was the name of the Sea Cbaft from 
the Perfian Gulph, round the Eaftern Ocean^ 
and along the Eaftem border 6[ the Red Sea ot 
Arabian Gulph ; of which hereafter, when we 
treat of the Fir-bolg. D^^^IJi Goim- is the plural of 
Goi which in Hebrew, Chaldee atid Irifli, implies 
a foreigner ; (b)— -but I take Goim to be a Scythi- 
an word, here ufed by Mofes ; viz. Go-^nij fea- 
fiiring people, fynonimous to SctOh-aoi or Ship 


(a) Eufeb« depneb. Evang. p. 418, cum appetitos bello 
Phcnices Armenii fupera^enty ipfomque Abraami nepocem cap- 
civum abducerunt, &c. &c. 

(b) Whence the Irifh named the Gauls and firfl inhabitants 
of the Briti/h Iflands Goi-ban or Guiban^ that is the fair-haired 
foreigners ; hence Gui-ban, is Britain. See the laft No. of the 
Colledanea. Shawei Irifti Didiojiaryy &c. &c. 


Ancien^t^ Hi/iory ^ Ireland. 33 

people^ for in Irifli Go is the Sea, and am people ; 
the Irifli Cto^ (the Sea) is derived from the Hebrew 
riU or rPip Goh or Kph,;to collet together, (B) 
And God laid let the waters Up** be gathered to- 
gether, hence the Chaldee W*»')p3ffl & •»!?» mekoi, 
Conceptaculum aquarum. The Rabbins u£e the 
word in the plural as ^^^PQ mekoaoth, Concep- 
tacula aquarum, La(;us (c) hence tf>7{ m/^ in Irifh, 
a CanaU a ditch. NilU Goha is ufed in tne fame 
Tenfe ; it fignifies Ci(lerna , major (d) and this 
great Ciftern in 2d Chr9n.. C. 4. V. 2. is called 
?!?\aC3**n im raozak. i. cMare fufile, and by us 
rendered the brazen Sea ; whence I think it is 
plain that Goim in Hebrew here implcs the Sea : 
in Irifli Cam is the Oqcan, Camus and Camog a 
bay, a fmall bay, and in- Arabic Kamiis, is the 
Ocean : from riU or fTlp as before. 

As Go fignifies the Sea, and Goi a marine peo- 
ple, foUigej and Mugie ^in Irifli, imply a Ship. 
Uig-inge (many Ships )-a fleet. Ard'taofac*Uigingej 
(the high chief of many Ships) an Admiral* Ugh-^ 
ra a Sea fight. Turkifli Ghemi, a Ship. It is 
an Egyptian word : Kircher writes it Ogoi and 
Egeouj, (Navis.) Dr. Woide in his Egyptian Dic- 
tionary has Goi J (Navis. j In the C'haldee, the 
word is in the feminine gender, 2isrpyryidag'Ugith^ 
Navicula pifcatoria, from Dag a fifli, Pf^yTt dugith 
liavis^ Scapha. Elias in Tiftibi Explains lK*»i^*l 
dugia to be a great Ship, Navem magnam, ex- 
plicat, e* multis remis conftantem, five triremem, 
quam Galeam vocant (e)« Paufanias informs us, 

• (c) BuTtorf/ 

(d) David dc R>mis. 

(e) Buztorf. 

C that 

34 ^ VinJitatisn if the 

that the Fhsmicians named die God of the Sea 
Ogoa^ for this was the name of Neptune at Mylifla 
in Caria, a Phoenician Colony ; hence as 1 have 
before obferred Oigaige^ was cue of the Scythian 
names of Noah (f) (C). 

From thefe arguments^ I conje£tnre that Thadal 
or Thiral King of the Goim was feared fome- 
where in Oman, near Mount Seir, or t he fettle- 
ments of the Canaanites. -His name feemi to im- 
port that he was a King of a maritime people ; 
and from the words of Mofcs, it is evident that he 
alfo contributed his quota of land forces, in this 
expedition. The names of thefe Princes, is ano- 
ther reafon to think they were Scythialis. 

Amra-phel, is an Irifii title, iignifyiiig. Lord 
of Lords, King of Kings. (See Genealogical 

• Tables of Magog at beginning of Chap. L) 
jfmra is the plural of Emir, a noole, a chief, and 
Fal or Fhal is a King, a Prince, a Lord, in Arabic 
Amer, Emir or Omar is a prince or leader, in the 
plural Omraj Ommera^ and Fal^ fuperior. Omar 
is a title given to all nobility of the firH: rank in 

• the Mogul Empire, (another teat of the Magogian 
Scythi ;) it is alfo given to commanders of bodies 
of troops : in the plural it is Omtnera^ that is, '^a- 

(f) Inter alia Noac cognoitiiim meritifiiind ccnfctur Ogyget, 
Dickenfoni Delphi Phamidzantes, p. t68. 

Atavus Ccelius Phaenix Og)'ges. Xenophon. 

PI ures inunda clones fuere. Prime novimeftris ioundatio ter- 
ranum, fub prifco Ogyge. Solinus. 

From Uigc, the Chaldeaeans and Jews formed k»jrt Dughii, 
which Rab. Benj. p. 9. explains as R. Elias does, nWH 
Dughioth, quae vocaniur GaJIerj^. Hence I think the Iri/h 
uames XJgan^-fnor^ the great SaiJor. 'Difgan^ Dvgh-artiy &c. &c. 


Ancient Hi/kty of Ireland* '^5 

bobs, (g) Phal or Fal, is thd Clialdee ji^n^gPhohha 
Magnates, (htiomo di conditiofte) (h) whence the 
Irifh Fdllaghlm to govern; and the diminutive 
Flaith^ a chief. Chaldee tfl*?9 Phlat or Phalat, 
Dorttinus, Princeps, rtomen proptium (i). Ara- 
h\c€ Val, a noble, a prince, hehce the Irifh Amra-^ 
pbal the chief of the Emir's (k). Cead-dr-uiUamra^ 
head or chief of all the Omra, was fyndnimous to 
Emir al'Omra^ or Amra-phal^ itid the title taken by 
CAedarloamar King of Shinaar. Aireac is alfo a 
common title of a Prince or chief, thcre-afc fcven 
degrees of Aireac recorded In the Irifti hiftory (!)• 
It is the Cantabrian or Bafquenza Erreque^ and 
the Arabic arek. Tidal of Tlral is a proper name 
in the Irifli, artd fuch it is herfe recorded by Mofes : 
he was I think the Kitig of Oman^ 6V Panchaia^ 
u c. F/janic-aoij or the Country of the Phanic or 
Phenij of which hereafter* 

Oman or the Sea Coaft of Idiimaea, was origi- 
nally the fettlemcnt of tits t>f the family of Sem^ 
from whom all Idumaea was calltd the land of Uts^ 
(m) and the chief of thcfc was the King of Edbm, 

C 2 that 

(g) Niebuhr*s travels in Arabia, V. 1. 1>. i S* 
(h) David de Pomis. 
(i) Idem. 

(k) Tihe Irilh Lexicon ifts bav(S omicced the lingular Number^- 
and all have inferted the plural, amra: See the Table, No. 14 
and 1 6, page ^o. 

(I) See CoUedtanea No. X, and Shawes Iri/h Diaionarj, 
whence in Iriih Aireac-daLta^ and in Arabic Erkani Dwakt^ 
Miniiler of State. Aryk of noble* blood, &c. &c. 

(m) LanEleniations, C. 4. V. 2i« Many authors agree that 
fome of the early defcendants of Cufh, fettled frrft in the land 
bordering on the Red Sea, moving gradually from thence to the 
South extremity of Arabia^ and afterwards by means of the eafy 



36 ' yf Vindication of the 

that refufed Mofes a paflage, \7heref0re he pafied 
along the Shore by the Red Sea, till he had clear- 
ed the territories of Edom : " And they journied 
from Mount Hor, by way of the Red Sea^ to 
compafs the land of Edonty fn) for the King of 
Edom had faid : " Thou fhalt not go through 
my territories ; and he came out with much 
people and with a ftrong hand ; therefore Ifrael 
turned away from him and took his pafllage by 
" the Red Sea''. 

From this Text of the infpired writer it is very 
clear, that Edom did not extend to the Red Sea 
in the time of Mofes, as Sir J, Newton has.fuppo- 
fed : and it is as evident, that Oman was inha- 
bited by a- people who' gave protedion to the IfraeU 
ites, in this troublefome march round the Sea 

paflage over the Screights of Babai mandab traniplanted theia* 
ielves into iEtfaiopia. 

According to Eufebius this migraeton happened whifd the 
IfraeKteS'Were in Egypt. This perfedlly corrcfponds with IriiK 
hiilory .* they acknowledge one Colony to have been Cufkites. 
See Chapter VI. Tuatha Dadann. And hence probably the 
Arabian Cufhites were called Ahafitd from ffo^u;/!! a mixtare ; 
this made the iEchiopians boaft of their antiquity as from Ham^ 
and of being older than the Arabians. See Ludolf, Hift. of 
i^hiopia. And -further, the Cuthite$> Scuthac or Irifti ailert 
that they were feated on the Coad of the Red Sea when Mofes, 
made his paiTage through it. See Chapter 8. They probably 
were- the Troglodites of Ethiopia, being Mariners and Fifher- 
men, and Strabo tells us th'^fe people livwi on fi/h : Q^^D Sa- 
caiim in Hebrew may alfb iignify Dens and Caves, as well as 
Tents. Some of the Catalonians and Bifcainers, the defcendants 
of thefe CuthjB m Spain, fill I live in the fame manner, follow* 
ing the trade of fiffiing and dwelling under Tents in the Cftvems 
of the Rocks on the Sea Cokll, of which the Author has had 
occular proof. 

(n) Numbers 31. V. 4. and Ch. 20. V. 14, 20. 

•• Coaft, 

Ancient Ht/hry of Ireland. 37 

Coaft, or MoTes Would not have Ventured into 
fuch an ambu(h; for here would have been a proper 
place for his enemies to have attacked him, with- 
out the poflibility of a retreat. Weihall hereafter 
find, that the Greek writers have placed the Scy- 
thians in this trad: of Country (D)« For God had 
enlarged Japbet^ and he was to dwell in the Tents 
rf Serttj and Canaan was to be his Servant. The 
Canaanites had now ferved the Japhetans 1 3 years ; 
there is no trace in Scripture that the Scythians 
retained the Sovereignty after the lofs of Pentapolisj 
but there isftrong proofin the fequelof this biftory^ 
that they united with them and became one people, 
known in profane hiAory, by the name of Pbani- 
cians, and in Scripture by the name of Canaanites. 
It is not clear from Scripture that all the Canaanites 
owe their origin to Canaan the Son of Ham, for 
"pns Canaan in ELebrew is the name of Noah's 
Grandfon and alfo a Merchant. OurMagogiaa 
Scythi being the firft Navigators and Merchants 
would call themfelves Ceannaith and Aonaic^ that 
is, Merchants. If, fays Bates \siy3 Canaan is from 
yS2 Canaa which cannot be difputed, then it is a 
miftake, though a common one ; that a merchant 
was named from Canaan, Grandfon of Noah and 
father of the Canaanites, beoaufe the word iigni<* 
fies merchandizing independent of them ; and the 
land as well as the people of Canaan, was named 
from their trading, and |ob, Ifaiah and Hgfea, ufe 
the word as z merchant. Bates .Critica Hebraea, 

p. Q,j6. 

Thefe words ceannaiTgim to buy orfeU, and Aonac 
a fair, a place of traffick, are in common ufe in 
Ireland at this day. AonachTaikean, was the general 
mari of the la^hole Kingdon;!, Keating p. 359^ Anof, 


38 4 Vindicatm tf'fki 

Aonaii ,Qv Sinewy iignifie& alfo a Fir tree^ z, tall 
ftraight tree 5 a prop^ pillar, ftippprt, ^ Column, 
and beace liDctaphorically, prpte&ion ; Example, 
tug ^e4 bp in a cincacy he gave ao Gows for his. pro? 
tcftiou.— Whence it becavie an Epithet to many 
petty princes : in hr^hxi; anuk, a column, a pillar, 
a root, a caufe ; hence the GaduU or Magpgian 
Scy thians, being of tall ftalure, might have taken 
the name of Anakim ; and for this reafon Arba 
m^ht have called his Son pys Anak, i. c. the Fir 
Tree, the Column, i&c. Jot 14, 15. etexpulit 
inde Cakb tres. filios Anac, Sejfai^ Ahiman^ and 
jTo/iRa^ natos. Anac ; here we meet three Names 
correfpoQiUing to the Jrifl), viz. Anac^ Achamm^ 
and Tvlam* Jibe Jews invented Grange Stories of 
theiie AnalUnu Benjamia Judaeus, in his itinerary, 
&ys, that in Dama/ctiSy he &w the Rib of one of 
thefe Anakim^ that meafured 9 fpaniih palms in 
length, and 2 in breadth ; . it was preserved in.the 
palace, and had been taken from a Sepulchre ; — 
dicitur iile fuiilib ex antrquiifimis regibus Anak^ 
nomine Abjhamaz ut ex Sepulchii illius lapide in- 
icripto eftindicatum: in qua fcriptum etiam eft, 
lUum toto. ofbe regnaffe. The Hebrew language 
has loft the proper fignification of the word pyif 
£nac, Gigas. pL Enakim^ ad omnes Cigantcs 
tradufkum, q« d. Torquati, {Cajii) vcl quia^ injice- 
runt terrorem Statura fuq^ (Benjamin).) — The 
Syriac {^^psy Anakia, which alio in the Samaritan 
fignifles adjuvit ; fubvenit alicul. Ramus propa- 
go, comes neareft to the fenfe of the Irifh j the 
Arab, nooj a fir tree is not far diftant^ 

^ Arba^ the name of Anaks father, feems to point 
out tl^at they were Merchants or Shipmea, for 

i^TIN ^a in ChaMee, is^ Navis. y^r^N with y 

■ • <- • • 


Ancient Hifti^yi {^Ireland* 39 

in the termination fignifies y^t/r, whence J. Capel- 
lus thinks he was a Giant oi four Cubits ; quatuor 
cubitorui^ datura nompr fuerit, quam ut famas 
refpondeat, obferves Bochart. (Geogr* Sac. L. i. 
C. I.) — Again, Arba in Arabic fignifies Negoii'^ 
urn ; as the y is frequently written for M in many 
places of the iacred Scriptore, i am of opinion ^nak 
and Arba imply a tall Gigantic race of Men as our 
Scythians were, and Merchants. It muft be ob- 
ferved that j4nac in Iriih does alfo imply a man of 
extraordinary Stature ; but when it iigniiies a Gi* 
ant, that is, a wild ungovernable ftrong num, 
robbing and ranfacking bis neighbours ; the word 
Fi (i. e. bad, wicked) is always prgefixed, hence in 
our Irifli Lexicons Ftanacb a Giant. 

From hence I deduce pjjr'^lin Chadre Anak^ 
in Iriih, Cadhair Aohach^ i. e. the City of the 
Merchants ; the Cbadrearufk or Carthage of Plan* 
tus, for in his time it was the Seat of Merchan- 
dize, and the Carthaginians gave it a proper name, 
i. e. Se4es Mercatorum, for if Anek or Bene Anak 
had been a proper name of the Phasnicians, as 
Bochart pretends, why did not their firft Colony 
in Utica take that name ?^ Where they were feated 
300 Years before Carthage was built ; the reafon 
is plain, — this Colony was not conveniently feated 
for traffick — ^they were making fettlements on the 
terra firma, till Dido came to Africa, and built . 
Cadre Anak. See nes^t Chapter. 

The £oem on the expedition of Partholan, con- 
cludes with a Lift of the principal Officers attend- 
ing him on the expedition, and with them, it is 
recorded, were Biobal agus Bebaly a dha Ceannui^ 
the, that is, Biobal and Bebal, two Merchants ; 
and this is the firft account of traffick in the Iriih 


40 A Vin^catitn ^ tbt 


KemED or NlpMAD. 

NI O M A D (i. c. the leader of a multitude, ) 
is faid to be the Son of Achemon or Agfazr 
moD, ^on of Pacip, Son of Tath, Son of Scara, 
3on of Sru, Soa of Afru, Son of Bram, Son of 
Aiteacbt, defcended of Magog. Nemed failing 
put of the Euxine Sea, came to Aigen, (that is, 
.^gina, one of the Infuke Aiticas,) from thence 
be failed to Eire, (that is, ^ria,) or Crete ; and 
purfuing -his Voyage, S. W. landed in Africa. 

Here they were iflftru^ed by the Africans, to 
build houfcs and palaces ; the names of the Afri- 
can Architeds who tapght them this fcience were, 
Rog, Robhog, Rodan, and Ruibne. They had 
feveral Slurmilheg with the Airicaos, and in the 
fourth bailie Nemed was flain : from this time the 
Africans grew more troublefome, and after feven 
years, Siim Breaci the Grandfon of Nemed, led 
a Colony to Greece ; this weakened the main bo- 
dy, who fuifercd great hardOiips from the natives 
of Africa, till the arrival of the i'irr D'Omnann. 
Siim Brcac left Greece, and fcizing on the Greci- 
an fleet, failed lo Spain, from whence they came 
to Ireland, and to Britain, where the poitcrity of 
this Siim B.cac were fettled, when the Ct;uitne ar- 
ed in Scotland. The African Pyrates called 
ifharctigb, harrafled the Nemgdians in their fet- 
nents in the Weftcrn IQe, and arc faid to have 
:ci;eded fo far, as to have Iain them under con^ 
jptiop ill Ireland, 


Ancient Hijiory of Ireland. 41 


Keating the compiler of the Iriih Hiftory, has 
coinmitted many egregious blunders in this Arti- 
cle : from Crete he brings them to Ireland, but 
ihc beft authoriiics carry them to Africa, to 
Greece, to Spain; and fo to the Britanic If- 

•The Punic annals refleft a ftrong light on this 
remote part of our hiftory. We have fhewn in 
the introduftion, that the original Perfians and 
Parthians, were Scythians ; who defcending the 
Euphrates, fettled on the Perfian gulph, and from 
thence along the Sea Coaft, up the Red Sqa to 
the head of it ; poflefling a narrow (kirt of fandy 
foil, called Oman ; whence Fir D'Omann : 
here they were known by the Greeks, by the name 
of Ichthyophagi, (o) and Troglodytar, fifh eaters 
and dwellers in Caves : by the Hebrews they were 
denominated Siim and jim-Siim 0*»*»Tf Oy or fhip- 
nien ; the Egyptians called them Nephthyn from 
the Coptic Neph a Ship» (p) hence the CS^ninSD 
Nephthuim of the Scriptures ; but the whole Coaft 
of Oman was called by the Arabs Al-muzun i. e. 
Terra Oman, pars Arabias, aliis quoque Nauta^ 
Naucleri (Golius & Gigg.) This great body of 
Scythians or Perfians and Parthians, pafledover to 
Africa, to the fupport of their Countrymen the 
Nemediahs^ and eftablifhed themfelves in Numi- 

(o) Not only the inhabitants but the animals of this Coail are 
ichthyopha^ at this day^ Monf. Niebuhr, who was lately in that 
Country^ fays, they feed their Cows and Affes with fifli^ and the 
ground is manured with then). 

(p) It is acknowledged that the Greeb received the worihip 
of Neptune from the Lybians. 


41 A VifiOicatioH (f the 

dia, Gaetulia & Utica, about 300 Years before 
the arrival of Dido from Tyre. 

Niomad or Nemed, the leader of the Euxine 
Colony, was fo named from Nipmad a multitu3^, 
it is the Perfian N^madud, innumerable : And as 
the Axzhxchabajh (q)or habaflmt ba«th^ fame figni- 
fication, and is fuppofcd tp be the root of the 
name Abajftnta^ given to the inhabitants of ^thip 
opiii, that dwell n^ar the coafl of the Red Sea ; I 
have no doubt but the Arabic Name, is a tranfla- 
lion of our Niomad, becaufe the A,baffinians arc 
fuppofed to be compofed of a mjxed body of peo- 
ple, who were conft^ntly eroffing the Red Sea 
irom Oman, and tbcfe were originally Scythians, 
P^rfians and Parthians. 

Neracd having performed thefc Voyages, was 
hcxBoured foon aitetr with the napie of ^yim Abreacj 
or Dux Navium, a iian^e which defcended to his 
Grandfoo, of whom, hereafter. The Authors of the 
Univcrfal Hiftory, qader the article Numidians, 
obferve that Ifidt^re intimates that the Medes and 
Pipxftsins in ancient times planted a colony in Nu- 
midia, and that S^Uuft morf thaiU. infmuates the 
lame thing. The writer of that Article in the 
Univerfal Hiftory (r) has not done jiifticc to SaU 
lufl, he was nql of that opinion although he was 
£b informed from the written Records onhe Coun- 
try, and with that extract Salluft has blended his 
own opiniop, warped by the writings of the 

Greeks, who have alway confounded the Phaeni* 


(q) Srephamit prlus Nomaeos vocatos atc^ ac deinde Styiftas^ a 
Scythe HercuHs filio. (Gorop. Becan.) 

In Iritli Ablius, a herd, a Ptock, a multitude $ Aibhfioch, a 
great multitude. 

(r) I^tc t)r. Sv/iiircn. 


Ancieni Hiftqry ^ Ireland. 43 

4:ians. The words of Salluft are thefe, *^ As to 
*'^ the firft inhabitants of Africa, and thofe that iu 
-'^ fucceeding ages fettled there, and how they in- 
*^ corporated, I (hall give a very brief account, 
different indeed from the common one ; but, fuch 
as was interpreted to me, out of the Punic books ^ 
which were faid to be King HiempfaFs^ and what 
the people of that country take to be fad. Buu 
let the Authors anfwer for the credibility of it. 
The original inhabitants of A frica were the Gas*- 
tuliani, and the Lybians, a^ rough unpolifhed 
people, who lived upon flefli taken in hunting, 
^^ or upon herbs like cattle^ They were under no 
oiaoner of confinement from cuftom, law or 
government, but, ftroUing about here and there, 
took up their lodging where the night happen^ 
^' ed to overtake them. But, after Hercules died 
in Spain^ as the Africans have it, his army that 
was made up of divers nations, upon the lofs 
of their leader, and a buftle made by a compe* 
tition for the command, difperfed in a fhort 
time. Of that number ih^Medesy the Perjians^ 
^^ and Armenians paffing over by (hipping into 
^^ Africa J feized upon thofe parts of it that lie up- 
on our Sea ; but the Perjians lay more upon 
the Ocean, (s) They niade ufe of their Ships 
^^ turned bottom upwards, for houfes ; becaufe 
there was no wood in that country, nor had 




(s) De fuertc, que concuerdan todos en el brigen de eftas Na- 
ciones, y que vinieron defde Oriente acompanando a Hercules^ 
cfpecialmente los Pharujiosy de losqualeshacen tambien mencion 
I^onifio, Pcalomeo, Em-abon, y MephanOy que cita para lo 
fncfmoa Arteznidoro. Efpana primkiv. V. i. p. 252. 


44 -^ Vindication of the 

^* they any opportunity of buying any, or bartcr- 
^* ing for it with the Spaniards : a wide fca and a 
^* language to them unknown, rendered all com- 
merce imprafticable. (t) By degrees, they by 
intermarriage mixed with the Gaetulians ; and 
becaufe they were often ihifting about from 
place to place to try the goodnefs of the Soil, 
they called thcmfelves Numidians. To this day 
the cottages of the Numidians which they call 
Mapafia^ are of a« oblong form bulging out, 
like the hulls of Ships. The Libyans joined the 
** Medes and Armenians^ who lived nearer the 
^* African Sea. The Getulians lie more to the 
^ Torrid Zone, and thefe quickly built towns : 
For, being divided only by a narrow Sea from 
Spain, they carried on a traffick there ; but 
the Libyans by degrees altered their name, 
calling them in their language Mauri inftead of 





The greateft part of our Pharfai or Perfians remained io 
Spain, Pbaruiii quondam Perfe; Comites fuHTe dicunuir Hercu- 
lis ad Hefperides rendentis. (Pliny.) 

Deinde Pharufii aiiquando cendeme ad Hefperides Herculedi- 
tes^ nunc incuiti, & niii quod pecore aluntur admoduin inopes. 

Efta dilatada relacion haceSaluftio de los fucceflbt, y PoblaB- 
ooes de las tres Naciones del Exercito de Hercules, que defpues 
de fu muerte falierou de Efpana, yen la Africa poblaron tan di- 
Jatadas Provincial a que oy correfponde lo que ay defde el Reyno 
de Tunez hafta le ultimo del Reyno de Maurruecos, defta fuer- 
te ; las Lybios, y Medos toda la Cofta del Mediterraneo conlas 
do5 Mauritania s Cafarienfe, y Sitifenfe, y parte de la Tingitana, 
y los Gctulas, y Perfas la Cafta del Oceano, y en ella lo reftante 
de la Tin^itana con lis Defiertos interiores de Zoara y Bitedulge* 
rid. (Efpana primitiva. V. i. p. 251.) 

(t) This HKift be an obfervation of Salluft, who had forgot 
that Hercules had eflablillicd a Colony at iDades before the dif- 


Jncieni Hijlory of Ireland. 45 



M^^//. (u) But, the Perfians became in a (liort 
time a flourifhing peoipie. Afterwards toOy the 
NomC'Numidians^ by reafon of their vad num- 
bers, feparating from their parents, podelTed 
" themfelves of the Country about Carthage^ 
which is called Nuniidia. After that both par- 
ties depending upon the mutual alFiftance of one 
" another did, by force of arms, or the fear 
thereof, bring their neighbours under fubje£ti«* 
on to them, and acquired to themfelves a migh- 
ty name and great glory ; but efpecially thofe 
who bordered upon our Sea, becaufe the Liby* 
^^ ans are lefs warlike than the Getulians. Fi- 
*^ nally the lower part of Africa was mod of it 
^ over-run by the Numidians, and the conquered 
^^ people mixed with and went by the name of the 
" Conquerors. 

^* Afterwards the Phoenicians, fome to leflen 
^' the over-great crowds at home, and others out 
** of a deiire of power, engaging many of the 
commonality to put themfelves under their lead- 
ing and diredion, as well as others that were 
fond of novelty, built Hippo, Leptis and other 
Cities upon the Sea Coall.— As to Carthage I 
^^ think it better to fay nothing at all of it than 

" but 

pcriion of his Army and their return to Africa, nor was the Sea. 
too wide, at the entrance of the Srraights to Gibraltar, for Mari- 
ners rhat had navigated from the Euxine to Gades, and returned 
10 Gsetulia coaftways. The Perfians that croifed over to the Oce- 
an might have been in want of timber for fome time, to con* 
ftru6t boats for fuch a navigation : thofe rhat coafted the Medi- 
terranean, could not have penetrated far inland, when they re- 
turned at night to their boats and made houfes of them. 

(u) This is a miftake either of Salluft or of the Original. 



46 J Virtdicatidn of the 

" but a little, bccaefc I am in haftc to return to 
** my proper fubjcft." (x) 

'llierc is fo grcalt a conttadidioh and inconiif- 
tency in this account given by Salluft, we can 
hardly think the whole is of that author*s compofi- 
tion. The Punic Account of Perfians and Arme- 
nians forming that body of people that fettled 
about Carthage is certainly true, for they were the 
original Phaenicians, that is, our Southern Scy- 
thians from the Red Sea ; and that thefe Perfians 
did fettle in Spain is confirmed by Varro and 

The whole Country from the Cafpian Sod, to 
the Perfian Gulph was in their pofTeflion, and there 
could be no let or hindrance to theif Expedition, 
down the Euxine Sea to Africa, or to the Oma* 
nites following the Nemedians^ 

The Punic, or Numidian account of the colo- 
nizing Africa, from the great body of Armenians^ 
Scythians, Perfians, &c. of the borders of the 
Cafpian and Euxine Seas, and of Oman feems tobe^ 
confirmed by the prefent race of people inhabit- 
ing the Mountains on the back of Blrbary, ex- 
tending from the ancient Carthage to the Promon- 
torium Herculis near Sta Cruz. Thefe very* anci- 
ent people are named varioufly by the Moors and 
Arabs, viz. Breber^ Shawa^ Shilhoa^ &c. but 
they call themfclves Amazing^ the plural of Amazirii 

Mauri certainl/ derives from ^MIO Mahar, pretiiim ; and freoi 
TXID Tana, inercede conducere, was formed Mauritaoi j they 
were Merchants and Navigators, from Mahar, by tranfpofitton 
wc baveMerces, Merx, Mercator.— Mahar or Maur, therefore 
was the concradted name implying Merchant : hence the F^* 
Muirigh 9f Africa^ who difquieted the fettlements of the Milefi- 
ans in Ireland. 

(x) Bellum Jugurh. C. 20, and 21. 


Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. 47 

Tlicy are mentioned by Leo Afr. and by Dr. 
Shaw ; In a former work, I have Ihewn the few 
words of their dialed given by the Dr. are Irilh. 
Mr. Geo, Hoft^ Daniih Gonfulat Algiers, has late- 
ly publilhed a niorc minute Account of this peo- 
ple, and an aitij^e Vocabulary- 
He fays the general opinion is, that they are the 
remains of the old Gaiulmm and Numidiam^ mix- 
ed with -ZEgyptiaAfe, Phseniciahs-, Tiirks', &c, &rc* 
The name Breier^ he was told, derived fromth6 
Meorifh bar^ Itind^ and beria, a fldrm — i. e. n 
Country always in troubles and war. It is more 
probably derived from Ban a Ship, Bari^bari., 
Shipmen j Showa feems to be the Hebrew TVH^ 
Sha^ha natavit, whence Sacuth i. e. Scythi Ship- 
men,* (See Introdu£fcion) and the Arab bar], 
Nauta, Pirata, is very much allied to Breber. 
Thcfe Breber, are called Shila znd' Amazing^ the 
firft, I think is the Arabic Ghilan or the Cafpian 
Si^a, whence the Arabs call Galieia in Spain, Gia^ 
Hahi^ that isj a Colony from Ghilan.^^Amaxingj 
Mr. Hoft thinks co#rc8 from MdHY-i. e. Mizraini, 
hence he concludes they m^ah ^Egyptians ; I take 
it to be the old Ariibic word, Al-mafettn, i. e Nau- 
ta, irfaucleri; (GoliUis, Giggieus, iii ¥• Otildn. 
Sec Ghap. 5.) •• •' 

ITie anci«it^S<iythfAn« or Petfi iris were feated 
on thefc Seas, and on the coaft of Oman, and 
were the navigators of the Eaft ; they were there 
not confidercd as a Nation, and are always menti- 
oned in "cripture by the name of Ship-men : it is 
probable that the moit wealthy formed the Canaa-. 
nitesy and fixed at length in Tyre and Sidon, for 
there is no authority in Scripture, to fay they 
were the defcendants of Chanaan, the name im- 
plying ' 

48 A Vindication of the 

plying Merchants alfo, as we haVe flicwn in the 
preceding Chapter. 

Con>merce and a defire of Conqueft to fccure 
that commerce, fcems to have been the motive of 
the ramblings of the Omanites ; as Merchants 
and Traders they called thcmfelvcs Aonakim or 
Enakim and Ceananitbim : (y) and the place o( 
their rendezvous was named in Iriih, TochrUi 
Toghruj or Tugra ; in Syriac Tin Tagger negoti- 
ari. Tagger, Negotiator, hence .Graece -rtyyi^ 
Tingir, the . celebrated Emporiuin of Africa. 
N*liin Tugro, Paenis, commcrcium. (Bochart.) 
hence Tocar or Togat in old Irifli, fignifies a Ped- 

The Son of our Nemed was named S'iarn^ a 
contraction of Si-tiearna i. e« Dux Navis and the 
Son of Stairn was Siim-^Breac i. e. jDux Navium, 
this was the Phsenician Hercules ; (z) he led the 
Nemcdians to Greece to Africa and from thence to 
Spain. Geryonem a (Graeco) Hercule devi£luHi 
non regnafle in Hifpania circa Gades, fed in Gra;- 
cia circa Ambraciam (Hecateus) : there were feve« 
ral Heroes of the name of Hercules and the Greeks 
attributed the exploits of aU to one» but our S//;» 
^Breac is the mo(t ancient of all. In the Sequel 
we ihall fhew that the ancient names, of Hercules^ 
as a Voyager (a) are refolvable into this one of 


(y) Irifh words fignifylng Merchants, .Traders. . 

(2^ The Sods of Nemed arefaid to be S alrn, Heoan, Earco- 
Iin, Smieon, I take thcfe names to have been common to one 

fa) Hercules in the Trifh Hiftory has t^o Charaders, that of 
a Navigator and that of a Philofopher j at Hercules in Oocidui? 
terrse partibus. primus Philofophiam infliuilt, £175 Cct^rertus, 


Ancient Htftory of Ireland* 49 

Siim ^Breac (or Dux Navium.) Siim is the plural 
of Si a Ship, compounded with XV Es a tree, it 
forms Effi or Efs as commonly written in Iri(h. 
The Chaldee word is •»!£ SI, wtiich lignifies dry* 
nefsy (ficcitas,) hence it has been tranflated a de- 
fart or wilderncfs, but Thomaffin proves it to be 
derived from Es, a tree, becaufe the fir ft boats 
were made of trees. In the Chapter Milejiiu^ we 
(hall find the Irifh hiftorians claim a fettlement on 
the Coaft of the Red Sea, at the time Mofes 
pafled through it, they fay, their anccftors were 
at that time entrufted with the command and care 
of the Egyptian Fleet. The divine Hiftorian makes 
no mention of thefe people, but they are recorded 
in all Jewifli traditions. The Author of the jidi 
Pfalm, particularly mentions them in the 9th 
Vcrfe : They that dwell in the D^^'^S (Siim) Wil- 
demcfs, or Ships, (hall bow before him. — ^but, 
Afaph, the Author of the 74th Pfalm, has beauti- 
fully and poetically related the deftru£tion of the 
Egyptians and recorded ouY Siim on the Coaft of 
the Red Sea. Here, Pharaoh is compared to the 
great fi(h or Leviathan, which is faid to be fre- 

Henoe ,the Romans named him Semo, and Fidius ; the firft, from' 
our &Vm, the next from FaJ^ Scieiitia ; Fiodh Woods, Letters^ 
(See hereafter,) In Gruter we have three infcriptions to Hercules 
under thefe Charadters, Semoni, Sanco, Dxo, Fid 10, Sa- 
crum, — Sancto, Sanco, Sbmoni, Deo, Fidio, SAcituie,—- 
Sanco, Fidio, Sbmo-patri.— *^emo, Sagus, Sangos, Sanc- 
tus, idem qui Fiditt.% five Hercules, Vofs de Idol. p. 46. 
putabant hunc (Fidium) eile Sanflum a Sabina lingua, & Her- 
Cttlem ab Groeca, (Varro). propter viam fit facrifichim, quod 
eft proficifcendi gratia, Herculi aut Saucp, qui fcilicet idem eft 
Deus ( Feftus^ hence Segthir^a a City of Old Spain, (acred to 
Hercules and I think S^unhim alfo derives from this Name, llit 
Egyptians knew him alfo by the name of Sem^ or Sam^ and 
Somiiouiha. lamblichus, Pan. i£gy. L. 2. C. j. 

D quently 

50 A YindUaiion rf the 

qucntly left upon the Sands of that Sea, i>7 the 
fudden ebbing of the Tide ; and his Anny is liken- 
ed to Tunny fifli, (I think) they arc tranflated 
Dragons, (b) V. 1 3. ^* Thou didft divide the Sea 
*^ by thy ftrcngth : thou breakeit the heads of the 
*^ dragons \n, the waters, thou breakeft the bead 
^' of we Leviathan in pieces and gaveil him to be 
" meat to the people of Siim :'* that is, they were 
devoured by fifhes, the food of the Siinu The 
queftiou is who were the Siim : The Targum has 
N^^D^QM ifarchia or aphricia, i. e« duces, 
pur *Brea£ or *Bareac^ whence the Greek «» •fy?* 
NeptuAc ; (c) hence the Carthiginians named Af- 
rica njinan Ha Barca : (See Hyde). 

It is curious to obferve all the opinions on this 
pa£(kge collated by Pole, but Bocbart, Aben 
Ezra, Geierus, and Munfterus, have certainly hit 
on the right meaning. Nauta^ vel iranfmarim^ 
Ichthyophagi five iili ad mare Rubrum quo Sato* 
monis pertingebat Imperium, this refers to the 
7 2d p&bn, but the 74th fpeaks of a tranfadioi^ 
of a prior date. That the word is modly ufed for 
a ihip, is, evident, from feveral other paflagea in 
Scripture, as Numb. 24. 14. — ^The Siim from the 
^Qa/l of Chittim.-*-Ifai. ^i. neither (hall gallant &' 

(b) {'in Tanin, Draco^ Caetm, Balama, Serpens, hinc Qvftof » 
Gail, un TA011; grandiar jpifcis i Ponto Euxino in mare Medk. 
incrfldibili agmiaefe ft eflfuiKkns (Tomaiiin). 

(c> ^ Hnodoto Nspmoum fcimue Lib^'cum fciflt Deum, 
cj^jiiB u^mctk^iff dr/}s ^ iniik null! ufurpaverunc nifi Libjet. 
Boctert, Gt(|. Sack. L. 4. C. 29. Tke Egyptians have com- 
nuitcfl lbs fiune miilake in the name Gigtm^ given to oor Her* 
cukt: dePwedfooiD l/4f-M« the Ships piDtedor, whence TiTiSV, 
TXtkTdun'if GigoDy Pataceus, ( Hefych. } Patacei funt Ki 
Vti9tTi\QMn\^ in tuttlis nai^ium exculpci, (Herod. L. j. C. 37.) 


Ancitnt Hifipry *^ IreUnd» 51 

pftf$ thereby^ Sec alfo Pau.-i 1. 30. £zdk* 50, 9* 
Tbefe m;»ritinie people ^ro again to be found 
ia Canaan, on the Sea Coaft, near 7yr0 v berc 
they are ^Ainguilhed by JoQiua. (and in King^> 
fcQfii the Canaanite^, by the name of Marine pe- 
ugrinaHn^ or marine f(flkf^ x. e. IIT mifl JS4^- 
h^b Dor : (d) this place waa on the Coaft of tne 
Meditcrn»^an (near Tyr:e). in that lot, that feU 
to the half trib^ of A4an;ifl*€h : the Ganaanitiss or 
Tyrians drawn thither for the fak^ of th^ trad^ 
carried oa by the Na^th Ikr^ had fo well forti- 
fied it, that Jolhua could not take it^ ^* but ihp 
*' CamttmHt vioulddvi^Uin th^ land — Yet k ci^me 
^^ to pa& vhen the Children of Ifrael were wapc^n 
*^ ftroeg» that they pu^ the Cana^mte^ to tribute^ 
"* hut dkl mot utterly drive ^em o«." J^fth 

About this time» I thiiak, they miiA ^lib have 
fettled at fiftkfan^ a city at the conftwx of. the Jor- 
dan with the Lake of G^nefereth, where they 9^{q 
followed their trade of flibing, and perhaps caqgie 
down the Cifm into the Mediterranean. J^ethjkn W9(8 
ksnwn to the Greekp^ by the nanie of Scythapolisy 
it is aUb in the half tribe of Manaifeh^ (e) the 
inhabitants of this City were iSh> a terror to the 
Jews, having falcated Chariots^ ( f ) fach a^ they 

D 2 ufed 

(4) lo H^brflpo labftur Naphotb Dor vel Naphathdor h- 
Nephatdor, & Dor Napher, (igniflcat aut Dor generaiiomm Vel 
peregrinationem. (Bonfrerius, Clencus, Brocardus.) 

(e) 2xi;9o«roA^* Coriarii Urbs, from the Boats of Hides, 
with which they navigated the Sea of Galilee. 

( f ) Falcated Chan ts having been ufcd by the Welch Bri- 
tons and not by the Gauls, is one flrrong argument ufed by Dr. 
Stukely, to prove thofe Britons were Phisnicians and not of 
GaoIiAi extradt. The Dr, did not know that the Scott the 


$2^ A Vindication of the 


ufed when in Europe. Jos. C. 19. ir. ^^ tbe 
*^ Children of Jofeph faid, the hill is not enough 
*^ for us : and all die Canaanites that dwell in the 
land of tbe Valley, have Chariots of Iron, both 
they who are of Bethflian and her towns — and 
Joihua faid thoa fhalt drive out the Canaanites 
though they have Iron Chariots/' erant hi 
fslcati currtiSj qui faicibus & gladiis armati homi- 
nes & obvia quaeque fecabant & demolebant. 
(Pole. Bonfrerius.) 

Of the fettlement of our Scythians at Bethfan or 
Scvthopolis, we have already treated at large in 
a K)rmer work (a), and (hall only here add, that 
at what time they fettled in that city is uncertain ; 
but as Dor or Napbetb Dotj in the fame territory, 
exprefsly declares it to have been a fettlement of 
maritime wanderers^ fuch as our fouthem Scythians 
were, it is not improbable, that they fettled in 
both places much about the fame time : fome of 
their defendants remained in Scythopolis in the 
time of Judas Maccabaeus, who died 161 years be- 
fore Chrift. They are plainly diftinguiflied from 
the reft of the Canaanites, as at peace with die 
Jews ; — " from thence they departed to Scydio- 
polis, which lieth 600 furlongs from Jerufalem : 
but, when the Jews that dwelt there, had tefti- 
fied that the Scythopolians dealt lovingly with 
them^ and entreated them kindly in the dme of 
their adverfity, they gave them thanks, defiring 


prior inhabitants of tlie Ifland taught the ufe of them to the Gm- 
merii or Welch Britons^ whoqa Cxfar found in the Ifland. The 
Charioteenof the oldlrifti were fiun«iis to the arrival of St. 

(a) CoIIedtanea. No. XTL 

^ them 

Ancient Hi/ioiy rf Ireland. 53 

^ tfaoBi to he friendly ftill unto them/' (2d Macca- 
bees, zii. 29.3— And I think the iaf*»ir^f or i^Limirt^ 
of Maccabees, were the defceadants of our Oman- 
ites, removed from the Red Sea, and feated on 
the Mediterranean, near the Dorians. 

Bochart feems to think, that all the Nafbtbu- 
Mm of the Scriptures were Egyptians, defend- 
ants of Mefraim ; in this number, he includes the 
Icthyopjiagi & Troglodytae of the Red Sea, with- 
out the ieaft authority for fo doing : be derives 
the Hdbxcvr mnSD Mephthuah from the ^Egyptian 
Neptbyny from a paflage in Plutarch ; Ni>6i;y vocant 
terras extrema & montium abrupta, quae mare at- 
cingunt* Plutarch is fo hx right in die word re- 
lating to maritime affairs ; but if the Reader will 
confult the Coptic Lexicons of Dr. Woide, or of 
La Cro2se or Jablonfld, he will find the word is 
derived from die Coptic Nefb a Ship, a word the 
Egyptians borrowea frt>m the Seytldans who na- 
vigated their Niobb or Niobhiith, i. e. Ships: 
hence Niobb^fan^ or Niofb'4any (killed in ihip-af- 
&irs, formed the name of Neptune, (b) 

Nephtin. Hoc nomine, juxta toties citatum 
Plutarchum, intelligebant ^gyptii Finem^ Vener^m^ 
&f Vifforiam (c). Neptunus. Quid de illo feafe- 
rint iEgyptii, habemus ez Herodoto in Euterpe. 
^^ Neptuni nomen ab initio non ufui|>aflent Pe- 

(b) The Irifli write the wordNiob tnd Miobh, orNaoibh 1 
chc Arabs Nabbua, as before. 

(c) This is a miftakt, Netth or Neidh, was yi^tory or (he 
God of War: it is a name well known in Irifli hiftory — ^bot 
Naith or Natk, is Scientia, Minerva, hence Geanachi-Nath, 
ikilted in antiquity, formed the ^n-ged name of the Phamician 
Sancheniathoi and hence the bhuider of the Crctffi in making 
MinerfBy the Goddefi of Science add of W^r. 


54 A VkdhOivn if tie 

JftfgU tdfi Afri -Temper himc Dewn in honore iui- 
bttiflent* Eutn iEg^tpCH. i^Hur putant.efe^ fed 
4mHo hooore profequumur." Qiiapropter aocnen 
ilUu$ JSgyptiis etiam ijomihuney cttjus originem 
banc fere fuifle puto. .Skut.emia» ut iu)Mrt dud- 
mxxi^ Nephtin appcUabant ea« cerrae partes^ quae 
daare Ittingunt : hoc nomiiie .r<f)ifr^/a marinam 
deam inteUig^ntes ; ka porro excadete origine 
4Btefculmum nomen cffeceituit N^phtpn^ feu JN^fb- 
fim^ quo Agnificare volueruat Numen iilad litto- 
ribus preeiidens. PhfleruSt ia LcTtc .£gypt-He- 

To make the God ofj^ Sea, and the God of 
s^ Mariners, preiide only over the fe&rihore^ was 
tth insdifiertent compliment to his divinHyrfbip : but 
la the Scythian feind Peono^Hibemican istnguage^ 
lift fittd (he: real: derivation Ntcbh-tan^ ikiUed in 
ihiptnng; fyobkiintobs io: which is Sim-^Breffci 
^Bareac or AirMc^i^'.t^.Jhxlgi luviimi ; whenpe tile 
Fbasiiician i^*i3'lS>K aparkiu or aphmkhz ; whtcfa 
Xbe Greeks, not underfttoding the etytnonV or re^ 
folved to derive every thing from their own lan- 
guage, formed into 9Lw>npx*^9 i* ^- Nepttme, quafi 
0t initi(y : a name without any meaning for a ma- 
rine Deity ^ utilefs they aUitded to NmA* 

Conformable to our Iriih hiftory, and to the 
Funic attfials in Salluft, the Bnber^Jfriker of the 
mountains of Barbary, the inhabitants of that 
country prior to the Moors^ fay, that they were the 
remains of the old Numidians and Gsetulians, aftd 
that they came originally from Arabia^ under their 
great leader Mekk-^iii. That is N*^D'10WT3*^rf?» 
Melachim Apharikia, i. e. Dox Nautarunu *^ Som 
** blivw nu kaldedc Breber-Zlfriker^ og ere af 
*f S^bseerncs ftamme, fom med deres Konge Me- 

A&cieHt Hi/i$ry bf Inland. $$ 

^ bk^Kriki «re kdinme fr& det lykkolij^e Arlbien 
« til Africa (d)/' 

SyAonimous to Siim Aphrakidi wa6 thit Ccltibc- 
riali name dP Htirculds, vi2. EndwecellUs^ c&N 
rupted from the Scythic Anam^do-feljil^ \^ e» thi 
failor bf the Veffcl, or (hip ; ^ nllttie orighlaUy Pu- 
ttie, ^•«DB-1H7ID» ana-da-phefil, natltbJr nSLVfe^ 
from h!S* ana, natare, navigio vehi, whence ^3W 
ani, navii, Hibernice Naoi. ^^DS5 pefil, (vel phe-» 
fil) idem quod ^9 patfal, decorticate ; iiinc f>a^i^Aor, 
Lat. phazelus^ navU Thodicd^ tujufmodi olim ii6- 
bant ex uno atboris trunco dolata & fculpti, vel 
etiam ex cortice, nam ^D£h doiare, fculpere. (T6a 
maiEn.) (e) 

From all which it appears evident, that the voy-- 
Aging Hercules and Neptune wet6 ot-iginally ot& 
and the fame perfon ; a Scythian of the Euxind 
Sea, who traverfed Alia and Africa, froih lii^hehcd 
he paffed into Spain, and frotn thefice his de- 
feendants came to the Britannic IDes. (f) 

Bocbart plainly proves that thefe Dorians camd 
to Gaul ; I)orienfes, antiquiorem fequUto^ H^r-^ 
culem, 0(:eani locos habitafle confines. Ldcutf 

(d) Travels of Mr. Hoft, Daiiifh Cofiful, to M^ko aad 
Fez. Brebrr it evidently our Bar-buris. Du4 N6vit. 

(e) Henct Saxon, Snacca^ Navis genus, apud anriq. Danos 
ShiAia^ Navu velox, ab >^m', Navis, 8t bp Kal, ▼e!oz-«(T(H 
maflin). The name EnJovealius is on the inoft ancient coins o^ 
Spain ; it was at length cdrrupted to Endovelicus, Is tha^ of 
Hercules was to Goles, See Mufeo de las Medallas defconocidai 
Efpan. by De Ladanofa, p. 66. 

(f ) FrOiti il^is Siim Breac, was formed tlie ftory of Bebiys^ 
K. of %^in, of his pailing into Bythinia, and there forming the 
nation cfllled Be-brices, from whom defcended Amycus^ father 
of Bui€s I hence the Bebrician Hercules, fo fatned in Grecian 
hiftory. See chap. 7. Feniuia Farfa. 


56 A Findkaticn of the 

dl in MariCtiUno ; cujus aj^nam ipfa verba, * quia 
maxim^ ad rem fiaiciunt. '^ Ambigentes fuper 
origine prima Gallorum fcriptores veteres, nodti- 
am reliquere femiplenam : Sed poftea Timagenesy 
& diUgentiu8 Grscus & lingua, quae diu fufit ig- 
norata collcgit ex multiplicibus libris : Cujus fi- 
dem fequuti obfcuritate dimota, eadem diftinde 
docebimus & apertd. Aborigines primos in his re- 
gionibus quidam vifos efl*e firmarunt, Celtas no- 
mine Regis amabilis, & matris ejus vocabulo Ga- 
latas didos : ita enim Gallus fcrmo Grsecus appel- 
lat : alii Dorienfes antiquiorem fequutos Herculem 
Oceani locos habitafle confines (i )• This Tima- 

fenes, Bochart thinks, vas not the Mileiian, but a 
yrian mentioned by Plutarch, uho extraded nu- 
ny hiftories from Phsnician and Syrian records ; 
to which be adds, Antiquior ille Hercules non po- 
teft alius elTc ; quam Phsenicius, qui primus, imo 
folus, ufque ad Gades & Oceanum penetravit. 
Graecos enim nemo crediderit voluifle fequi barba- 
rum ducem. Tacco quod Phaenicii asvo nulli fu* 
ere Dorienfes ; Nam Dorienfium pater Dorus & 
Phaenicius ille Hercules pares erant aut fuppares. 
Itaque non puto haec aliter pofle conciliari, quam 
ii pro .Grxcis Dorienfibus, Dorienfes e Phanieia 
intelligas ex urbe maritima Dora vel Doro. 

Stephanus explains all this difficulty, he telJs us, 
that the Greeks called thcfc Don of the Phaenici- 
an coaft, Dorites & Dorienfes. Dorus j urbs Phaeni- 
ces, ut Jofephus & alii ; gentile Dorites ; Paufa- 
nias autem Dorienfes appellat. Bochart then con- 
cludes, An hi Dorienfes Hifpaniae amgl Dorio vci 

(f ) MarccUinus, I. i 5. c. 9. 


jftuient Hi/lory of Ireland. 57 

Dttrio & Aquitanix Durano, hodie DordonaR^ 
nomen fecerint, viderint peritiores. 

There can be no doubt, I think, but that the 
Don of Gaul and Spain were originally of this 
Scythian colony of the coaft of Phsenicia, and that 
they taught the Tyrians the way to Gades and to 
the Britannic liles (g). Bochart is fo clear, that 
the Phsenician Dcrites fettled in Gaul, that he has 
one long chapter, to prove the ancient Gauliih 
language was fimilar in many inftances with the 
Phoenician. Our learned author was not acquaint- 
ed with the Irifh language, or he would not only 
have found all the old Gaulic-Dorian words he there 
quotes, to have been originally Iriih, but fix hun- 
dred others that he has omitted, all correfponding 
in letter and fenfe with the Chaldee, Arabic and 
Fhaenician ; but this was not the language of the 
Northern Belgae, or of Gaul in general. 

If then the Dorites from the Phsenician coafl: 
found the way to Spain and France, what was to 
hinder them trom finding the two great iflands of 
^Britain and Ireland. 

Let us attend to that learned Aftronomer 
Monf. Bailly, L'hiftoire ne commence qu'avec les 
cites : elle parle du fejour des hommes, & non de 

(g) Con las colonias que hemos referido de Curetes Perfas, 
MedaSy y Armenias^ j aiin con orra de Dorienfes, que defpues 
dirdmoSy emprehendio Hercules fu venida a Efpana. Ya vi- 
mas tomo toda la Amiqueda lo confcila. (Efpana primicava* 
Don. Xavier de la Huerta.) Tom. i. p 1 88. 

Aborigines prinios in his regionibus quidam viflbs efle firma- 
nint CeJtas ndmine Regis amabilis, & noairis ejus vocabulo Ga* 
latas didos : ica eiiim Gallos fermo Gnecus appellat. Alii Do- 
rienfes anriquiorem fecutOs Herculem Oceani locos babitafle con- 
fines. (Amm. Marcel! . 1. 15.} 


58 A Vindkaikn of the 

<k letttt Toyagcs* Leg traces de ces voyagU dnt 
6t€ cependent conferv6es dans la tradhiott. (h) 

Thefe Southern Scythians or Perfians, and the 
Dorites, Formed feveral colonies and fettiementft 
in their migrations. They were efteemed pirates 
by the fettled nations, and with fubmiffion to Monf. 
Baiily^ we have more than tradition to mark tbeir 
migrations and depredations. ITie Grecian hillory 
records, that Minos King of Crete, who flourifhed 
B% C« 1406, was the firft Prince who equipped a 
fleet to clear the Grecian coafts and the adjacent 
iiles, from the pirates, who abounded in thofe 
days, and were efteemed an honoyrable clafs of 
adventurers. (Playfair, p. 87.) The author of 
Efpanna primitiva, is ftill more clear. Entre las 
nadones Oriehtales que havia traido en fu compa- 
liia Hercules a Efpana fueron mucbos moradores de 
la cividat de Dora, h Doro, uiia de las mas cek- 
bras de la Fenicia. Eftos pues accompannaroh a 
Hercules en fu expedicion a Francia, y poblaron 
en ellas las coftas del Oceano. Aili lo dexo eferito 
^ images y y por fu autoridad lo repitio Amttiiano 

Thefe people were afterwards joined in the Me- 
diterranean by ^Egyptians, Copts, &c. particularly 
after the routing by Nebuchadnezzar, and re- 
mained mafters of thofe feas till the days of Pom- 
pey, which we fhall notice hereafter. 

There is every reafon to think this expedition of 
Siim Breac from the Euxine fea and laft from Af- 
rica, was the firil colony in Spain, becaufe the 
moft ancient names of Spain, I mean thofe given 
it by colonifts, are Irijh ; for example, Tartefs 

(h) Lettres fur le$ Sciences, a Monf. Voltaire. 


Anthnf Hifhr^ tf Inland. 59 

{Tartcflfus) is fynonimous to Iberia^ or Eber-aoi^ 
that is> the diftant country ot hibitatioa. Scik 
Tor, trans, Tefs habit&tio, Colonia ; and Sets or 
Sheijh iignify Sedes^ Colonia, hence Tariefs and 
Tarjheis or TarJHs are fynonimous (i). There- 
fore when the Tyrlans were flicwn the Us^ay to that 
Country, by our Irifli or Scythian Navigatorsi they 
tranflated Tartefs into their ov^n Language^ via. 
''W-^Oy Eber-Ai, (Irilh Iber-aoi), whence the Latin 
Iberia^ but Tarteflus was the firft nimei Sinus 
ultra eft, in eoque Carteia Tut quidam putant) ali« 
quando TartefTus, et quam tfanfve£i:i ex Africa 
Phaenices habitant. (Pompon. Mela. L s. c. 6.) 
Tarteflum Hifpaniffi ctritatem quam nune Tyrii 
mutato nomine Gaddir habent. (Prifcianus« 1. 
5. col. 648.) SalluftiuSy 1. 3. Hiftor. apud Prif- 

Hie Gadir urbs eft difta Tarteffus prius. 
Oadir hie eft oppidum 


Nam Punicorum lingua Confeptuin locum ' 
Gadir vocabat ; ipfa Tartejiu prius 
Cognominata eft. 

(Avienus, v. 267.) (k) 

(i) Hence many places in Ireland were named Seh tierrm^ 
the chiePs fettleroent or feat« now written Siftemagh. 

(k) Gader and Gades are difllcrent names. The ifland was 
called GaMs or Gadas^ that is, the Ship Ifland. The town was 
called Gadir, i. e. TartefTus. Gadir in Phxnician and Iri/h 
iignifies an indofure, as Avienus obferres ; but I think it de- 
rives from nijf Ghadah, tranfire^ and ly hir, Vrhi % and 
bence Godhir correfponds to Tartefs, i. e. ultima habitatio. 
Tarteflits ultra columnas Herculeas in qua regnavit Arganthoni* 
us ; Urbs autem eft ad Oceamim magna vald^. ( Hefychii 
in Gaie). Cadhair, Cathair in Irifli bas the fame figoificatiou 
as Gadir, vix. Sepes, Anglicd, a fiarrow. 


6o A Vindication of the 

In like manner did they give the firft name to 
the iflands of *Gades, or Gadiz, calling one Cof- 
inis^ the Ship Ifland, and the other Artbaraoiy 
the Ship Ifland, whence Catinu/a and Erj- 
ihraa (1). Long or Lonn, a Ship, was another 
name of Cotinufa or Gadis. De fuerte que es la 
Erythia antigua la que oy fe llama IJla del 
Leon (m). 

Gadir prima frctum folida fupereminet arce 
AttoUitque caput geminis inferto columnis. 
Haec Cotinufa prius fuerat fub nomine prifco, 
Tartcffumque dehinc Tyrii dixerc coloni. 
Barbara quin etiam Gades banc lingua fre- 

Pdenus quippe locum Gadir vocat undique fep- 


(Avicnus Defer. Orbis. v. 6ii.) 

This, I think, mud have been the firfl: difcovery 
of Spain, by our Southern Scythians, Iberians, 
or Perfians, from the Euxine fea. llie fecond 
vifit paid by thefe navigators to Spain was from 
the Red Sea, a voyage well known in the days of 

(1) Potto in medio fub vefpcris column is 

Extremz Gades apparent hominibus 

Infula e circumflua in finibiis Oceani. 

Ibi Phaenicum hominmn genus incolunc, 

Veneranres magni Jo vis (ilium Herculem, 

Atque banc quidem incolx fub prioribus hominibus 

Didam hodie Cotinu/am^ vocarunt Gades, 

Dionys. Afer. 

[m) Efpana primiti?a. Don. Xavier de la Huerta. T. i. p. 
194. So J/pAa was the Phznician name of Hercules and of 
Chaipe, from »C^K Alpbi^ Navis. 


Ancient Hiftory of Ireland. 61 

Solomon, in whofe reign TarteiTus was called by 
the Jews Tarfis (or Tarfliifli, as in our tranflations 
ofthc Bible.) (o) 

Fhsnices praecipue frequentarunt Gades &: of- 
da amnis Tarteffi, qui idem ac Theodorus & no- 
tiore nomine Baetis, ac Civitatem TarteiTum, qus 
videtur fuifle Tharfis (Majanfius. Topogr. Hifpa- 
nix, p. 213.) Not to tire my readers with the 
accumulated proofs and learned quotations which 
the bed Spaniih writers have difplayed, in favour 
of this opinion, (fays the ingenious Mr. Carter, in 
his journey from Gibraltar to Malaga, v. i . p. 
64.) we (hall content ourfelves with briefly ex- 
amining, whether the fituation of this country, 
and its produds, agree with the cargo Solomon's 
fleet brought from Tarfis, and then leave the fa&s to 
fpcak for themfelves. Mr. Carter then proves that 
Spain abounded in filver and gold, in monkeys and 
peacocks, and he quotes Pliny as a proof that 
the oppofite coaft of Africa was in his days full of 
elephants ; therefore as Tarfis was fo univerfal a 
mart, it is no way furprifing that they fliould 
be fupplied with plenty of ivory from their neigh- 
bours. But in the preceding chapter we have 
ihewn from Salluft, that the Perfian colony under 
Hercules, or Siim Breac, did adually fettle on 

(0) I could prove, (kj% Huet» that Tariliiili was likewife a 
general name for all the Weilem cbeft of Africa and Spain, and 
m particular of that coaft in the vicinity of the mouth of the 
river Guadalquiver, a country fertile in mines of Silver ; but 
thu was not fuiEcient for the exceflive expences of Solomon. I 
fliall undeniably eftabli(K the truth* that the C&pe of Good Hope 
was known often frequented and doubled in Solomon's time, and 
for many years after. (Navigation of the ancients by Hnet, bifli* 
op of Avranches.) 


62 A Vindication of tic 

the coad of Africa near the oceaiiy from whence 
probably feme removed to Jehuda and MadagaA 
czTy where their defcendants are yet to be found f 
the chief body remained in Africa, and their de- 
fcendants are now known by the name of Brc* 
ber, &c. 

The people of Tar(i$ or Tharfis in Spain, arc 
faid to be defcended from Tharfis, fon of Javan, 
fon of Japhet. Primus Tharfis filius Javan, nepo% 
Japhct, ad occidentem ^enit. (Pedro de ZamgoM 
MSS*) Tharfis a quo Iberi. (Jul. Africaaus ap« 
£i|£eb.) Tharfis ex quo Iberi, qui Sc Tyrrheni 
(Ph. Labbe.) Tharfis a quo Iberi (Eufeb. in 
The£) From Tharfis came the Spaniards (Chro- 
nic Allex.) (Syncelius in Chronogr.) 

I make no doubt but the Aboriginal Spaniards 
were Tharfitss. All the patriarchal names in the 
facred fcriptures were prophetic ; and thi;s mm^ 
was well adapted to the fon of J a van, and our 
Scythi may have accommodated the name Tar- 
fieis, to Tharfis. In Ireland there were two tribes 
or clanns named, viz. Clanna Baofcartij or the Bif- 
caynian tribe, and the other Hui Tairji^ (u e. 
Tharfis) or the fops of Tharfis. The latter are 
faid not to be Gadeliam^ but to have been the 
Aborigines of Spain^ who accompanied the Ga* 
delians to Ireland. What a wonderful coincidence 
of hiftory at fo remote a period! And 1 am of 
opinion, thefe Tl^arfiia pafied into Africa with 
our Gadelians or Breberi, after the breaking up 
of Hercul^s's army, as defcribed by Salluft. Qui 
in Africam trajcccrunt, crant T/jeHitoSy {zy$ Poly- 
bius. (1. 3. p. 187.) Or they may nave been tran- 
fported thither by Siim 'Breac or Hercules, as the 
Sicanians were to Sicily, from the river Skantft 



^mieni Hi/i^ry of Ireland. ^3 

in Spam, as PhiUflus fapud Diodor. 1. 5.) faith ; 
and Dionyfius s^ffirms, they ifrcre a Spaniih peoplq 
who fled from the Ligures ih Italy ; he meang, 
fays Sir J. Newton, the Ligures, who oppofcd Her- 
cules when he returned from his expedition affainft 
Geryon in Spain, and endeavoured to pate the 
Alps out of Gaul into Italy, for Hercules thatyear 
got into Italy and founded the city Croion. This, 
adds he, wa3 the JS^ptian Hercules who had a 
potent fleet, and in the days of Sobmon failed to 
the Straights ; he was called Ogmius by the Gauls^ 
and Nilus by the Egyptians. (Chronoh p, 181.) 
See Niul^ fon of our Fenius. Chap. 7. 

Goropiua ventures to affirm, that Andalufia fup- 
pUed tfa^e Tyrians, Grecians, Carthaginians, and 
Romans fucccffivdy with more gold and filver 
than the Indie& have fumiihed to Old Spain in 
thefe latter days. From Spain moft probably was 
imported that great quantity of golden cups, in« 
gots, chains, fliields, vafes, &c. &c. that Old Ire^ 
land abounded with, and which are daily found 
la the bogs of this country. 

About 200 years after Solomon, Pharaoh Ne^ 
cho manned a fleet with our Q^^!S sy am fiim, 
s^nd fent them from the Red Sea, with orders to 
return by the Mediterranean ; in this voyage they 
fpem three years, not from their unfkilful- 
ne& in navigation, I think, but in (topping at 
tb^ir colonies in this route, fettling favors and 
comp^irs* When they arrived to the mouth of 
the Streights of Gibraltar, Mr. Carter fuppofes 
they met with fome Tyrian (hips, who might tell 
them they were in the Mediterranean Sea, and 
near heme. This difcovery I attribute to the, infor- 
mation of the firft colpny, their countrymen, un- 

6^ A Vindication of the 

der Siim Breac (o). Mr. Carter thinks Solomoii'i» 
people were not fo enlightened, nor could it be ex- 
peded from them/ their voyages being at leaft a 
century anterior to the fettlemcnt of the Tyrians 
at Carteia; for Solomon died 975 years before 
Chrift, , and the Tyrians did not fettle at Carteia, 
according to Bochart, till about 896 years before 
Chrift, or 840 according to Eufebius ; then, fays 
Mr. Carter, they cither new-built or re-peopled 
the city of Tarteflus, dedicating it to their tutdar 
god Hercules, whence it obtained the liamc of 
Melcartbus or Melcartheia^ fignifying the city of 
Hercules in the Pha&nician tongue. 

If Mel'Carteia fignifics the city of Hercules, 
his name muft have been Melj for the latter part 
of the compound muft here fignify the city ; — Mel 
(ignifies a failor or navigator, from rfn Me- 
Ian, Nauta, Irifh Mellach, Arab. Malah; and 
doubtlefs this was converted by the Greeks to 
MHAQN, the name Yic was known by at Athens (p \ 

(p) Ariftotle does very plainly diftinguifli thefe colonies of 
Spain, but like all other Greek authors ftill confbuods our firft 
fettlers with the Phxnicians or Canaaniref, r«; vfoim^ rttt 
foiT/jc4»y ittI Ttfp%<y(Tor — they fay rhe firfi Pfuenicians (which 
he carefully by the word firft) diftinguiflies from thofe, which 
in the fojlowing words he ftiles z^Uuol^ t!ic x.t?orxtfrW T«tr«t- 
XftfA x«\«Aceiu — the Phaenicians that inhabit Qadir— for this wis 
after the firft Phznicians made their fuccefsful voyages, 
(Ariftot. Bafil. Edit. p. 553. f)ir//uour.) 

(q^ Hence Miln the Conftelhtion of Hercules, before which 
IS that of the Harp or I.vra. Miles Septentrionale eft, notitior 
fubHercuIis nomine. The Greeks will have thb harp to have 
been made by Mercury » and the Conftellation Miles, they have 
called Thefeus, Thamyris, Orpheus, and I know not what. 
Thefe Conftellations received their names from the Soudiem 
Scythians, ages before the time .of Tliales, who brought diem 
out of Egypt into Greece. 


Andent Hift^ty if Itekndn C5 

llie learned Gebelin £iw i^ainly that the ancient 
and original Hercules was a navigator and a phi^ 
bfopher^ and that all Us names tended to prove 
t)us ; yet allegory got fb much the better of his 
ideas^ that this voyaging hero was the $un ; we 
Iball rectify this mifta&e Hereafter ;— pourquoi eft 
il appcll^ Tbebainf fays this allegorift,-*— 7i6^£f/ 
par example ^toit un mot Oriental qui fignifi- 
oit une Arche^ un f^^ntf— -— mais les Orien-^ 
taux faifoient voyager le feleil. dans tm vaifleau, 
il isn etoit le pilote. — Le Soldi, Hercule, etoit 
done apell^ avec raifon dans ce fens le Tbebain^ 
c^eft a dire le Navigateun-^^nf Irifh hiftory in* 
forms U89 that the hero Siim 'Breac, fon of 'Staim^ 
(i. c. Efs-Tiama^ Dux navis, ptO-^it Si-torn) fon 
of Nemed, made an expedition to Greece, and 
from thence carried off a number of veflels and 
barks, probably the veffeis of Minos.--^Our heroes 
Ihip was probably named the Sun^ or one of the 
Phocean ibips might have that appellation^ and 
others were made of wicker covered with bolg or 
cow-hides ; — the name of the Sun in Irifh is Gri'^ 
any hence he is called Ogham Grianach ; and 
from this circumftance arpfe the Greek fable of 
carrying off Geryon's cows. Hence Erythea is 
faid to be the daughter of Geryon ;-r- Erythia in* 
fula Geryonis in Oceano, fie di&a ab Erythea 
Geryonis filia, ex qua & Mercurio Morax natus 
eft. (StephanusO (0 

E^ Ni. 

(r) Hercules him&lf wai named Etythrui^ that b, Attkrmh^ 
m Irifhy the Navigator^^tiOy faj the Greeks, the name was given 
kira from a temple which he had at ErTthrx in Achats i:— the 
God, fiiys PaufaniaSj is upon a kind of R^ft^ and thej fay it wa§ 


^6 A rMUcaim tf <&r 

Ninuruoi Poetx oioaiqsR (criptomra pugpoll- 
mi, HorcuUs oq^cditiqiiem lA iiii^ilaft fonm^^tas 
cxtencferunt, quo iUiua &x^, quern 9 So^r %(c<^ 
pit, trajectffe fabuUMur atpu4 it^UodoriHi^ in ^ 
bUothcca, L. 2. — ^Aa<l woen tfie Gre^ fet iip 
their Hercules (for every lotioa had their I^c«* 
les) their poets couid not do Icls, tba^ figi^pe OMf, 
an expedition for him to TarteCus, to c^ry 6f^ 
our Grian (hip, (or Geryon) and hi[s bplg, o^ coifr 
hide boata.T-Hence the coof ufipn of die tW9 Qer- 
yons, one in Spain and one in Greece.— Jn thb 
nest chapter, we find Siim Breac fei^es 9A th« 
Grecian (hips and carries them ojQF. Q^ypni^ 
regnum in contineftti fuifle circa Aiobroaam & 

Vnnight icom Tyre into Phznicia by £es) — it was drawn on fliore 
Vy a cable m^de of the hair of the heads of the Erythraean wo- 
men. 6utfroinan ancieot Greek infcnption prefenred in th^ 
proceedings of the Etruican academy, we find, that the wife of 
Hercules ^iras aUb named Kryiha. Tberexfe conniins fix Mnes^ 
sod ooncludea thus • 

£rytfaa de genete Nympharum hoc facrari iblqin» 
Amoris mopumencum (ub %go, coma^a. 

Contiene due verfi efametri, con quattro pentametri, ^ ^ in 
fomma una p'etn del genere di cut parliano, pofta dalk Ninfo 
SfytAm^ m^lit ttErcJi^ ad eilb maftto luo fotto un Fagio. 
VideSagi di DilTert. Acad. Etruf. l^om. z. p. 1 16. 

From the Ship being named the Sun, i. e. Grian, he is called 
Ogham-Grianach in Iriih hiftory, and is faid to be Mac Ea« 
lathan or Ealahan, i. e. the fon of the fciences ; in Arabic, EI^^ 
ht is the Sun I and EJaMoun fignifies the Divinies, Philofophersy 
ftnd they give thi& epithet ro Socrates, Plato and AriAotle :—- >it 
is plain firom whence the Greeks borrowed the fable of Hercalet 

the Sun. 

« • 


Anei^nt Hi^toty rf Ireland. 6y 

Amp}]|ldcho3) indeque Herculem bovcs abegiflc 
illius proviacia Regi Goryoni nomen fuifle ; prae* 
jcFiim cuQi Hifpanorum nemo fit, qui id nomen 
fciat rcgibua fuis fuifle, aut isetas ia ea provincia 
boves gsgni* (Arriaii L. 2.) 

Hence the ftory of Euryftheus obliging the Gre- 
cian Hercules to britig back the cow» of Oeryozi 
from the coafts of Iberia. 

^* It is plain, fays the learned author of 
Bfparta Primitiva^ that Hercules was neither an 
Egyptian, Tyrian, or Grecian. The army he led 
to Africa, and thence to Spain, was compofed of 
Dmansj Medesy Armenians^ and Perfiansj i. c. 
Scythians^ as is well attefted in hiftory. The name 
of his ihip was Apollo, or the Sun ; the Greeks 
have wrapped this up fo clofe in their mythologi- 
cal fables, it is almod impoflible to come at the 
truth. Atheaeua tells us, that Pherecides, de- 
icribing the Ocean, fays, that Hercules penetrat- 
ed that quarter, like an arrow fhot from a bow. 
Sol ordered him to flop : terrified, he obeys. Sol, 
pleafed with this fubmifiion, gave him a patera or 
cup, by which he fteered his fleets, in the dadk 
nights, through the Ocean, to return again to 
Aurora. In that cup or fcyphus Hercules failed 
to Erythraea. But Oceanus, to vex him and try 
his flrength, daihed with all his might againft the 
patera. Hercules bent his bow, and direded a 
dart at Oceanus, which obliged him to defift ;*^ 
what docs this mean, but that Hercules navigated 
to Spain in a ihip named the Sun ; and being 
forced into the Ocean by a ftorm, he, by the help 
of the magnet, fteered fafe into port : hence the 
North or Cardinal-point is ftill marked with a 
dart. Many authors have proved the ancients had 

E 2 the 

68 ATtndkatitm 9f iU 

the ufe of the compafs : the properties of the mag- 
net were known to them ; and in honour of the 
difcoverer, it was called the Herackan ftone, and 
the place abounding with it was named Hiracka. 
Refert Steficborus^ Solem in eodem poculo per 
Oceanum navigafle, quo & Hercules trajeccrit. 
(Atheneus.)— See alfo Macrobius, Belonius, Sat- 
muthus, Bononius, Calieus, &c. 

*' Hence from patera and poculum, i« e« Scy- 
phuSy we derive the word veffel^ fignifying a flup, 
and from Scyphus we form the word ihip. 

^' From tl^ general conftrudion of thefe veC- 
fels with the hides of animals, come the various 
names of Bulls, Rams, Cows, given to flups. 
Sunt Lybicac naves, quas Arietes, & Hircas : ta* 
1cm navem verifimile eft, & taurum fuiffe navem, 
qui Europam tranfportavit. (Jul. Pollux.) 

^^ Hence the Cows of the Sun, the Horfes of 
Achilles ; what were they but fliips ?-— Tlie Horfes 
of He&or, loaded with com and wine, were no 
other than vi&ualling (hips (s). I Tie Jeguas 

(mares) of Diomedes, which pafled from Thntce 
to Peleponefus and ate human flefh, were armed 
pyrates, as Euftatius has proved, llie fame were 
the horfes of Rhefus of Thrace, and the 3000 
mares of EridUionius, defcribed by Homer. The 
celebrated horfe of Belerophontes called PegafuS 
was a ihip, as we learn from Palephatus. Belero- 
phontes Phrygius vir erat genere quidem Corin- 

{%) Hence hit Phrygian name Ekator^ Dominus ntvb. Ebi 
navis ; (Ihre), --^Eak ni Erfe fignifies a horfe» he has therefore 
been taken for a horfe-bresker by a modem tranflator of Homer. 
£ka is a corruption of the Irifb Uige, the Egyptian Ogot, Chald 
Dugia ; whence the Latin HucAa and the prefent HotAa or Hu 
ker of the Iriih. 


Anoint H^iry ^Ireland. €g 

liiiiis, bonus, pulcherque bdt : hie cum navigium 
fibi preparaffct, maritima circumquaque loca de* 
prsdabatur. Nomen autem navis^ Pegafus erai. 
The fame, fays Palephatus, were the horfes of Pe- 
lopes, which the Romans often underftood in 
a literal fenfe, and their poets worked into 

^* Fromthis mixture of Mythology, Allegory, and 
Theology, arife thofe abfurd fables of the Greeks ; 
and wimout reading a number of authors, not ad* 
mitted at this day m our fchools, it i& impoflible 
to underftand the writings of Hefiod and of Ho-* 
mer. Who but an OrientaUft can tell, that the 
fliip of Hercules, called by fome the Apollo^ is th« 
lame named Leibte by Atheneus/^ 

Leibie is derived from 3if> lahab, inflammare^ 
whence iTDTT^ lehabat, inflammatio, an epithet of 
the Sqn ; hence p^ AlboDf Aurora* 

We may now readily account why all mariners 
give the names of animals, not only to their (hips, 
but to rodb and headlands or promontories; 
as, the Stags, the Bull, Cow, Calf Rocks ; the 

Eromontories of Ram*head, Dog-nofe, Sheep- 
ead. Sheep-haven, &c. &c* &c« 
A figurative expreflion of a iimilar nature has 
been ufed by the ancient hiftorians of Ireland* 
When a colony of our Magonan navigators fet- 
tied in Egypt, lands were amgned them on the 
fliore of the Red Sea» Pharaoh embraced this op* 
portunity of manning his fleet with them, and 
afEgned. to their care inge Scutba^ i. e. many 
tirtOX> Sacutha, natationes, or fhips. Our hifto- 
rians converted this paflage to it^ean ScgUiy that is, 
daughter $cou, and iniift that qu« Niul^ or 



♦ «^ 

IzyjScTcrj Greeki, 

)urjC if, mrxk h% hiAc, 
ftira K^cuki wn a Scruuan ; 
p^'-; * in tbe iirbi of beba: 
fali-r rf Hrrc*-^cA bdi^g tiic fcibcr cf 
•atk/n, te^rotcitn of a moc2£r, bsif-voaaa, half* 
irrpcm. MonL GebeHn fini fees aa aBrgorkal 
meaning of die Sun is this rapffdiiio o of Hcfods 
to Scnliia* Nous ks £ificMu ■cynokie iocs lam 
ir^rkable point dc tvc^ noas en aSont rrpBqiifr 
one, dont Hercule eft egalement Pobjet, qui le 
prefenie comme dant Ic pere dcs SqrtheSy k far 
laquelle qodques anteota fc font aj^myfs poor 
Cure defcendre r£dlraient ce people^ de nocic He- 
rou'^U is foffident for an allcgorift tlitt half a 
dragon or ierpent is enveloped in Ae ftory ; — it it 
immcdiatelT a fign of the Zodiac^>*41ercnlet hav- 
ing made bimfelf mafter of Gerjroa's cows, wan 
the fign of April ;— 4ie arrives in die noith getf fir 
marfoniu^ this is the Sun in die fign of Cancer in 
the month of June ; — he repofes on the Li<m'$ 
fkin ; he is then in th6 fign of die Lion, that is^ 
July ^---on his wakening be fees only diis raonfter, 
balUwoman, half^ragon; hatf a beautiful girl^ 
half a frrpcnt ;— -this is Virgo, in Auguft ;— -and 
every one knows the ferpent was andendy Ae figa 
of September ;— ^by this monfter he had diree 
font 9 and tbefe are the three laft months <^ th< 
year ; and the elded was called Scjthus^ and 

(0 Niul wflt made Ard-tniittdi Ui{-{nge, tyr Sciidia-infip% 
thtt ii« ComtiMflder of the Fket i bf the JEjgfpitkm aftmcil Nil^ 
•r Niiu0» i. e. Herculei^ fajrt Sir J.Newton. See Chronolog. 

jfmieHi fBfNij tf Ireland. yi 

U SagiltaHil^ or Nottmb^r :— Ce'ft k makre de 
lA Scythie^ foit patceque (klis ce ti^ms la dn ^ 
ach^ye fes rccoltes i (u) 

In v^n his the leatned Ettfebhis Mchimed, 
Hhrkks^ S4l ipffk nonp^t^/iJ-^^EA Us, fi ad reliqut 
dcftenderc liibeat, quicqnid' ex prttclaf li phyflolo- 
gia fupereft fiirtileiti in iiiodihii fatU^ c(yaif^ues> 
Udeo^ue homines iftos impudentiae jure poftulabis^ 
<ltii unufii eiiildemcfUe fokih, ut hbc pr&cipu6 fe* 
Up^tdj tiOli Apollinem modd, fed etiant HerCtti- 
Ibtn & Bacehum & iEfculflplum efie ftatiienittt. 
Nam quo medd piter idcfm fuetit fimulqufs tAlMt 
ApoUdi inquam & iillbtilaplus i (^tntaddd ipfe ad 
Hercutem tfaducatur, ciim Alctheliik Mitre mor^ 
taU utiqHfc hiuUere nsitym ipfimet Herculeui e£fe 
fkteaiitur ^— Qdomodd Sol in fiirotem aCkns liberoft 
fuos jugularit r~4^ain uttnmque fani HercuU at- 
tribuitUr. (w) 

Q0i in vaftfiBmis llKs antiquitatis teguDnibui 
t>6i'a^m, ffepe in Hfcrculeni off^dam. £jt^ lii» 
bdres qui vulg6 1 2 humerantnr, tifqtie adeo riiuU 
tifilicamur apud fcri]^oi'es veteres^ ut opiher/ plui' 
5t) j)dfii* rec^nferi. (x) 

All Allegorift ftids a ready clue to eittricate 
hinifelf out of this labyrinth ; the twelve ftlc&ed 
libouf s df Hercules are the twelve figns of the Zo« 

. .(ti) Mbhf, Gebelin. has been mifled b^ the Greek int erprete r s* 
Theogoniae Hetiodicae interpretes» Herculis nomine folarem in- 
telligunc poteftatem : Gerjonem vero, cujus boves ab illo orbi 
terflilim itlatfts f^bulantnr, hyemem efie volunt. {L. Gatl. Rho- 
tfigmnf Lea. Anrigutr. p. 1 9a.) The repofie of Hercules 00 the 
liott^ fkin, was his refting at the ifland of Lonn or Long, that b 
Ouiisi Lonffbafliip, it was the old name of Gadb. See here- 
Jiflcr ' lua de L«€On« 

(w) ^ufebius Praepar Evang. p. 1 ao* 

(x) Momiaucon. 


72 A Vindif^tticnj^ ibe 

iUae, one for lacb month'; and the fifty, taken in 
lump» are figns for the week^, with people who 
did not reckon time by weeks .! 

The miftake is really fet to rights ; — 9t fimila- 
rity in found hat caufed ail this copfufion : In Iri& 
Earc^iul^ the Index firmamenti, is an epithet of 
the ftui9 and (q is Earc-Jbul or btd^ that is, Ocuiut 
ftelif Earcj the firmament, tranflated H^ven vi 
our DiOionaries, is the Chaldee ir^fn reki^, ez« 
panfio, expanfum, Goehim. Coelum qupd^ fuper 
liniveiiSMn terram expanfum, & laminae inftar dir 
du£kuiii eft« (Scbindler.) Rabb. 3^p^ rakia, orbis 
coeleftis. N3^l^ Iriqha, GortiQa^ vdum-extenden» 
coelum HS^^'SL ficut Cortin^un* Plalm 104. But 
unfortunately for our mythologifts, f^rk^ or Erk^ 
alj was alfo one of the names of the fun in Arar 
bipk, ^d the phaenician^ honoured that planet 
with the epithet of ^~*1W or-coll, illuminator omr 
pium (y) ; thefe names afforded a fipe opening for 
a Grecian mytholo^fl, and Hercules muft be the 
Sun, whi}ft in their owp dialed, they wrote his 
liame hj^csaW, which they derive from Heroy Jur 
no, andib/f/, glory, a ftrofig teftimony that they 
knew nothing pf lu$ origin* This name they cer- 
tainly borrowed fn>m the Arabs, viz. airek-lij, i* e* 
nauta mari^ ; in Irifli^ yfrg-Lij or Aireac-Li. (z} 

The Greeks having miftaken the Tyrian Her« 
cules, or Orcbol the Sun, for the voyaging Her* 

(y) Htrnilexn Solem efle, ?e] a Sole oonien ejus» idque Pbae* 
mcium sc qusfi ^TniM orchol, illuftrator omnium. Vkletiir 
a MacQib«.iv. 19, ao. oecarric Seldea^de Diis Syr. Syntagm. 
ad4icam. p. 26a, Beteri. 

(x) Li, the Se8| the Ocean, Ncprune. See Cb. X. M/tho* 


Ancient Hijhry of Ireland. 73 

culesy and feeing the ^Egyptians paint the Sun 
fomctimes in a (hipy at others on a crocodile, con- 
cluded that ^U thefe emblems belonged to our Her- ' 
cules. Clemens Alexandrinus underftood thefie, 
emblems in the proper fenfe. L. 5. p. 566. £x 
!£gyptii8 alii quidem in navigio ; alii vero fuper 
crocodilum, folem pingunt. Significant autem, 
quod Sol per.aerem dulcem & humidum ingredi- 
ens, gignit tempus. See alfo lamblichus Panthe- 
on, ^gypt. L. 2. C. I. p* 152. 

Our Scythian or Perfian Hercules, the Siim 
Bteac of Uie prefent hiftory, was a voyager, mer- 
jchant and philofopher, but mod famous for the 
latter : Ce bercs avoit etc pitu cUebre par fan fqa^ 
voir que pour fa forces ^ pour an f aire un grand 
fbikfopbe. (Gebelin.}— :-As a navigator he was 
known to the ancient Irifh by the names of Siim 
BreaCf Dux Navium, Conductor Navium. Ma-- 
nanny ^auta, Chaldee ^y^flO Monini^ Salfilago, as 
the Hebrew n^D Melach, Nauta, Arab. Malafa, 
Iriih Mallach, from n^ falivit. (a) 

He was called Carqfoir, from the Iriih Caras^ a 
firft-rate ihip, becaufe made of planks, from UDp 
karas, tabula navis, Afler. hence the firft naviga- 
tor, Chryfor of Sanchoniatho, and heiiice the river 
Cbryfus in Spain* 

Hie Chryfus amnis intrat altum gurgitem. (Avi- 
enus) In mentem mihi venit, an ei nomen dede-« 

(a) The Maldcyant probably derive their name from this root. 
M^laicam linguam, Indis plerifqne inte))e£bun, & vulgo ufurpa* 
tam originem foam debere ferunc promifcu^ fifcatmvm coIIutio- 
ni, qui ex regionlbus fuis undequaque ed» communis arris fuse 
ezerctndse gratia confluxienint, & Malaccas urbis fundamenta po- 
iucrunt. (Die Philolog. G. Car)iolen(is Amftel. p. 6.) 


74 -^ Vindication of the 

rint Phacnices, in honorem Diamkhii fui, qui 
dzdus fuit Chryfor^ & navigationis parens habitus 
eft, ut ex Sanchoniathone Philo rtfert. (Majan- 
fins Topogr. Hil^anids.) 

He was callfed E/s & MiMfs^ i. t. Dii* Navi- 
um; hence the Romans wrote hb name AJts^ 
which caufed Voflius to fay they had confounded 
Hercules with Atuz ot the Tytian Mars, a tiam^ 
derited from TtV aziz^ robuftus ; but our toyag- 
ing Scythian was named ^"W^H Ais^es^ homo ha- 
irisy the fhipman. The Sun being dlenonlinated 
tar*<W Oi^col by the Tyrians, aln epithet bttokch- 
inr that planet to be illu/lrator omnium^ the Oreeb 
nuilook the epithet, for another name of bur Scy- 
thian voysiger, viz. %1^n Harokel^ or Erkot^ i. c. 
Ncgotiatot ; and hence that great confufion in 
ancient hiftory of the firft Hercules, (b) 

Hie ancient Spaniards, like the ancient Irilb, 
record the primitive Hercules to have bedn a na- 
ifigator and a philofophef. On the medals of Car- 
ieia and of Gddizy publifiied by Floret, we find 
him with a trident in his hand^ betokening bis na- 
vigation in three feas, the Atlantic, Mcditerra- 
ncan^ and Euxine ; wc fee him aftridc a dolphin : 
—on others, he holds the cadiiccus, and on feme 
the olive or mulberry branch, the emblcrti of lite- 
rature^ converted by the moderns into xht/phlo^- 
tut or Acrojlolios, with which the prow of his top 
was ornamented. 

As a philofopher^ he was known to the aiid^nt 
bifliy by the name of Ogham or Oghma^ from ^h 

(b) See Seidell ^nt. Add. p. i6s. Elenchus Voc. Hebr. k 
Ecrufc. of Ainadtttius, p. 63. The Oriental Erhl, appean 10 
be derived from the iriih or Scjthian EataigA, warei, comnio- 
^ ' merchandize. 

a circle, 

jfntient Hi/lcty rf Ireland. 75 

a circle, becaufe he vras the inventor of an alpha- 
bet named Oghaniy formed on five circles, from 
the Iriih Ogh and the oriental Ti%\ hog, circulus. 
See Plat. i. fig. i. This is called A-B^Gitar Og- 
ham, or Ogham-Craobh (c), the branch Ogham ; 
thefe are Chaldaean names, viz. T\X Gith, Jlrues 
Ugnafomia torcukris. T\p Krib\h, Volutusj hence 
Craobh, a twig, becaufe it will bend. 

The cabalifticai Sephiroth of the Jews, begun 
with a circle \ under this circle was, Sapientia, 
Prudentia, Benignitas, &c. This circle is named 
VD Kcther or Cether.-^Kether, vei prima Sephi- 
rah, eft circulus (d), hence in Iriih Ceitbar or Ke^ 
ibarj a rod, a bundle of rods, and in Chaldee the 
fame word fignifies Virgula una omatu caufa ho- 
tata, — ^ApeK, virgula, fuper litcras notata; ■ " ■ 
hence ni Geth, Literay ]rf^y Githan, CharaHer, 
figura literarum, from whence the Irifh Abgitar^ 

From this Ogham or Bafis, was formed the 
linear Ogham, called Ogbam-Craobh^ confiftin^ 
of a perpendicular line, reprefenting the ftem or 
trunk of the tree ; on each fide of which the cha- 
ra&ers-are drawn horiaontally, at in iil. L fig* %. 
according to the ancient verfe following : 

(c) Copied from an indent Irifli MSS. called die Book of 

(d) See Dr. Burnet's learned Archol. Philof. C. 8. See al& 


j6 A fhtdianim ef At 

na haonar dom laimh dds. 
Luis dif gan ciflds. 

Fearan crxur« Sml ceathnr gan char* 
Is 'Nmn con a coigear. 
ihiatb na haonar dom laimh dL 
Dmr^ dis go ndd^mi. , 
&c. &C. &c« 

That is, 

B one ftrd^ on the Rigbt'band fide ; L two ; 
F three ; S four ; and N five. 

H one on the LeftJhmdy D two, Ac &c (See 
Irifli Grammar. Edit. 2d, odav.) 

This perpendicnhu: pofition of the Stem . or 
Trunk, was altered by the modems to an hori- 
zontal pofition, and the ftrokes or charaders be- 
came perpendicular; but they referred to the 
original pofition by calling the under part of the 
Horizontal Line, the Rigbt^bafid fide, and the 
upper part, the Left-band fide. This could be 
done only by drawing the fcheme as in Fig. II. 
by whicn means the Alphabet was read nrom 
Right to Left, according to the Oriental manner, 
which I apprehend is die true reading of every 
Ogham Infcription of ancient date. 

The Uireeacbt na Ngaois (d) or Primitive in- 
ftru&ion of Wifdom, commonly called the Prim- 

(d) The name of the moft tncient Gnunmtr of the Iriffi, 
which appean to contain nothing of the original but the Name. 
It kf fityt a celebrated Irifli GrnAunarian, replete with ufeleb 
termt^ which feem to have been invented nther to punle tluia 
to inftru£l : there it no illnftratioiv^the fenfe» and the expkna- 
tion b conceived in terms more difficult than the text. 


Afuieni Hifiary of hrOand. jj 

mer of the Bards, direds the reading from left to 
right, according to the examples copied from that 
b^k at Fig. 3. but this is evidently the work of 
modem bards. 

Hitherto there has been but one Monument dif- 
covered in Ireland with the Ogham infcription at 
Callan Mountain in the County of Clare : (See Pi. 
!• Fig. 6.) although many are mentioned in 
Irilh MSS. no pains had been taken to difcover 
them ; this one is a fuffident proof of the former 
eziftence of the Character ; until more are difco- 
vered and companions made, we muft fufpend 
our judgment of the value of each Chara6ler, be- 
caufe the Book of Ballymote, the only one that 
we have feen, (except the Uiraceacbi) gives many 
ridiculous explanations of the Ogham^ which aU 
vary in the powers of the Charader. (See Note 
GG for the accounts of the difcovery of this 

The Strokes or Chara^lers being drawn hori- 
zontally, refemble the Ukim Alphabet of the Chi- 
nefe, introduced by Fo-hij who according to Monf. 
Bailly was a Scythian, (e) 


(e) Couplet fitysy the firft Chinefe Letten confifted of ftraight 
lines, horizootally drawn parallel to one anodier, and were of 
diifereut lengths and varioufly combined and divided. Maninius 
fays the iame» and thej both give feyeral (pectmens of the jnoft 
ancient manner of writing them, Thefe Line-Letters were con* 
uined in the Book called Yekim or Ukim which was thought to 
be older dian Hu-kim, and was afcribed to Fo hi j but no body 
Mndertook to explain thefe lines before Yen Vang a tributary 
Prince iioo Years B C. Couplet adds, before the time of 
Fo-hi they had knots oS Lines, inftead of ftraight lines for letters. 
The? hadalfoa fort of letten like the prints of birds feet, afcri- 

j% A Tindhmion rfthe 

One of the Alphabets in the Book of Bally mote, 
is in the form of Fig. 4, which very much refem- 
bles the unknown Charaders at Perfepolis. Celii- 
us thought thefe CharaSers related to the Runic, 
but the ingenious Gebelin juftty obferves, there 
is a greater refemblance between the Irifli Ogham 
and the Perfepolitan unknown Charaders : in 
both, the valud or power of the Letters, depends 
on the number of Strokes, or darts, and in each 
the number never exceeds Jive : the Ogham Cba- 
ra&er called Amhancdl^ compofed of four ftrokes 
croiTed by three others, is alfo to be found on the 
Perfepolitan Infcription. (f ) See Fig. 5. 

Gebelin is followed by the learned Monf. Bail* 
ly, *who produces this fimilarity of CharaSer, as 
a ftrong p^oof, of the ancient Perfians, having 
defcended from our Southern Scythbus. (g) Bailly 
is of opinion they were numeral Charaders. ^^ Les 
uns ?sf les autres femblent appartenir a une langue 
numeriquty fbndsejur Cinq,, U nombre des daigts de 
la main.*^ 

The Ogham ferved alfo for MufKal Notes, in 
which cafe, the Aicme A was only ufed ; this 
Aicme or Divifion contains the five Vowels only, 
as I. II. III. nil. mil, (land for A. O. U. E. I. 
Hence the Vowels were named Gw, or Guth^ i. e. 
the Voice, (Lat. Vocalis), and the Ogham when 

bed by Kircher to the 'Emperor Choam Ham. (See Couplet 
Scientia Siiienfi& Pro^Qi. Deciar. p. jSi, an^ 54* & Martin. Sin. 
Hiil. L. I. p. 14. 

Fohi taught the Cbiaefe to write by Lines oc Slfirqkes. Jack- 
Ion's Chron. p. 434. 

(f) Gebelin. Origine de L'ecriture. V. z. 

(g) Lettresfur rAdamiide, P*4S7* 


AncUnt Hifiory rf Ireland. 79 

u&d for Mulick^ was called Mcgb or Modh. (h) 
Cu is the Hebrew nVi Gaba, mugire, boare, 
whence yO Goha, expirare — imo & Gaka^ extoU 
tere &« — ^Nam ut Hinnitus, ita & Mugitus ac Bo-> 
^tus, exultantiMzn aniipalium argumenta funt — 
hinc r«»* deploro, gemo, mugio. — Syriace Gaba^ 
exclamare^ hmc^dfVrof, Clamor, Vox, — hinct)]^ 
lUha, Graspe Kok)cuC«* Canto* — ^tunc jyyiO Mega- 
he, Mugiens, Sonaus, Gu Mvk^o^* reibno. (i) 

Tbe general naipe of the Ogham, when written 
on the right Line was Fiodb or Feadbj that is. 
Trees J b^caufe the tree was the emblem of Litera^ 
ture aiBon^ft the Scythians ; hence Hercules or 
Siiiai Breac, received the name of Fidius : hence 
Rus a tree, and Rus knowledge ; whence Rut-- 
tarn the trunk, Club, tree of knowledge, was ano- 
ther name of Hercules ; Rujiam Nomen propr. Viri 
&Pcrfis, Hercules. (GoUus.) 

Feadb which fignifics a Wood, Trees, &c. was 
the expreffive name of the Alphabet, not becaufe 
the ancients wrote on wooden Tables, before the 
invention of Parchment, but becaufe a Tree was 
the emblem of literature, (k) Feadh fignifies a 
BuUrufh, alfo, which was the Egyptian Hiero- 
glyphick of Letters, if we believe Horus Apollo ; 
Plate 2. Fig. 6. To this they added a Sieve ^ be- 
caufe, fays he, a Sieve was made of that Vegeta- 
ble. But, Creathy or Criaih in Irifh, fignifics 

(h) Uiraceacht, 

(i) ThoQunafrm, GlaiT. Un. Hebr. 

(k) Ipfae literse, Feadha^ i. e. Sylvz, antiquicus di^x funt i 
& antd pergainenx ufuni Tabulae erant d betulla arbore compla- 
natae quas Oraiun & Taibhie Fileadh, i. e. Tabu las Philofo^Vni- 
cas dicebant. Qgygia. p. 233. - DilTert. on the hifbry of Ire- 
land, bj Mr. 0*Conor. 


So A tindicatim cf ibe 

Artsy Science^ Knowledge, and a Sieve y CreataeH^ 
% hurdle i. e* Sieve-like^ made by weaving the 
branches of trees, as Feadbj does a BuUrulh and 
literature ; now as we find moft of the Hieroely- 
phicks, given by Horns Apollo, to correfpond in 
the fame manner, in the Irifb Language, and not 
in the Egyptian, or any Oriental diako, the Sou- 
thern-Scythian, Irifli, or Perfian^ excepted, wc 
have given fome examples at Note K, and ex« 
preflea our ideas, that sdl the Hieroglyphicks gi- 
ven by Hocus Apollo, are Scythian and not 
Egyptian ; and that the Work under that Tide, 
18 the impofition of fome Greek Philofopher. 
The words of Horus Apollo Q)* 47.) are 

<^omodo iEgyptias literas. — rCaeter^m JEgyptias 
literasy^xxi facrum fcribam, aut finem inventes, 
Atramentum^ Cribrum^ & Jtmcum pingunt. To 
which the Commentator adds, ^gyptii ex Junco, 
& Papyro Cribra primi invenerimt. It is more 
probable that the iEgyptian Juncus and Papyrus, 
were the fame, and that neither were originally 
the iymbol of literature^ as Creat in Iri(h fignifies 
a Tree, and Creat-rach a Wildernefs, wnence 
Feadh and Creat are fynonimous» 

From Feadh or Fiodh, a Tree, proceeds Foedhj 
Fodhj Knowledge, Art, Science, which in the 
Sanfkreet or Brahman languages is written Ved. 
(f and v being commutable,) and from Hercules 
being the inventor of this Feadh or Fiodh he was 
called Fidius. 

In the Bhaguat-Geeta of the Brahmins, tranflat^' 
cd by Mr. Wilkins, and publiflicd by Governor 


Anoint ib^etj if Ireland. 8^1 

tMiUgsIn 1785, wc fiad the origia of thia Ved 
u alfo from a Tree» 

Leflure - 1 5* 

Of Poorooih-ottoma^ 



The incorruptible being is likened unto the 
tree Afwattu^ whofe root is above, and whofe 
branches are below, and whofe leaves s^re the Vedf* 
He who knoweth that, is acquainted with the 
Vedi. Its branches growing from the three Goon 
or Qualities, whofe lefier ihoots are the objedts of 
the organs of fenfe, fpread forth fome high, fome 
low* The roots which are fpread abroad below, 
in the regions of mankind, are reftraio^d . by ac- 
tion. Its form is not to be found here, neither its 
beginning, nor its end, nor its likenefs. When a 
man hath cut down this Afwatta, whofe root is fo 
firmly fixed, with the ftrong ax of difintereft, from 
that time that place is to be fought from. whence 
there is no return for. thofe who find it : and I 
make manifeft that firft Pooroojh from whom is 
produced the ancient progrellion of all things/' 

** There arc two kinds of Pooroojh in the world, 
the one corruptible, the other incorruptible. 
There is another Pooroojh moft high, the ParaviaU 
ma or fupreme foul, who inhabiteth the three regi- 
ons of the world, even the incorruptible Ee/warJ* 

This is evidently a refined Sophiftry of the 
Brahmans, on the original emblem of the Scythian 
Tree of knowledge.— Eefwar is the Irifh Aosjhear^ 
(pronounced Eepuear)^ an attribute of the great 
Creator ; it is the Etrufcan EJar^ f b in Irifh pro- 
nounces Y ; thus fhead, is the Sanfkreet Ved, — 

F the 

9z A VtnMcatim rf the 

iS^t,lirthmztLvii Kreejhna^ Itnincamadcmof tfaeDe« 
ity, according to their interpretation) is the Irifli 
Crifean^ holy, pure, whence Crifean a PriefL In 
the fame manner the Irifli Ogh or Oigh a Circle^ 
is the Sanikreet Tog ; and there is no word, fays 
Mr. Wilkins, will bear fo many interpretations as 
this. Its firft fignification is junffion or union : it 
is alfo ufed for mental and bodily Application : 
but ill the Baghavat Oeeta, it is generally ufed as 
a theological term to exprefs the application of the 
mind in fpiritual things, and the peiformance of 
religious ceremonies, hence Togee a derout man." 

In the fame manner the Irifh Ogb a Circle ) 
Ogh^ pure, clean, undefiled, holy t Oigb^ a Hero: 
Eagy wifdom, mental application. Not only in 
this work, •but in all other tranflations and e^pla** 
nations. of the Sanfkreet or Brahmanic Philofophy 
and Mythology, we find the words correfpond 
with the Irifh, both in letter, in fenfe, and in fome 
places the Irifh gives the explanation, as for ex- 
ample; Gnea in the Sinfkreet, is the obje& of 
wifdom, but Gnia in Irifh, is Wifdom, Science^ 
Learning, becaufe Gnia is a ttee^ and fynony«* 
mous to Feadh, or Ved. 

The Irifh have another Ogham, called Ogham 
Coillj that 18, the Ogham of Mercury, Or the Cir* 
cles of Tait. Colly i. e. Tait^ i. e. Mercurius, fay 
the Old Gloflarifts. In Chaldee the name of Mer- 
cury is D*^*?13 Kolis, (I) he was fo called from ^3 
Col. mehfuravit, ^)Vb Colli, Circulus, Arab. Kil. 
Mekil, menfura, metrum : hence Err-Cuill in 
Irifh, illuflris Mercurius, which being confounded 
by the Greeks, with Earrcol the Merchant, gave 
rife to the Greek fable of Hercules difputing the 
tripod with Apollo<( 

. (1) Plantavit. Lcx.HebT. 


Ancient Hi/lory of Iteland» t^ 

The Ogham Coll is not an Alphabet, as oiir mo- 
dern Bards have made it, but Circular Scales, iot 
the due ordering of the terminating Vowels in 
Verle, and was otriginally the fame with the 
Arabic Derwyet (m) or Circles given by the learned 
Dr. Clark, in his Profodia Jrabica, publifhed at 
the end of iPocock's Carmen Togrdij Oxford 1 66 1 . 

The Citcle thus became the Embleiti 6f l^oetry^ 

Circulus Poematis GenUs : Ad Anni autem fimili- 

ttldinem Poematis etiam genus Cii'culus appdllatur, 

tujus Ariftoteles Aiialyfticis meminit. (Hieroglyp 1 

Hori. ApoUon: p. 412.) 

We refer a more particular defbription of the 
Ogham, to a future publication, aiid JOball only 
obferve, that Our Scythian Herd, being the fup- 
pofed author of this menfuration Table of Verfe, 
he was called Meafar^ from Meas exa£t meafure- 
ihent. Cadence, whence probably fiSa^. Mufa ; if 
not from *^pliD Mofar, Eruditio ; hence the Greeks 
made Hercules, the Mufdgetes^ or conduftor of 
the Mufes* Abbe Le Fontehu, quotes Diodorus, 
Ifocrates, Paufanias, Ariftotle, Didnyflius Hal. 
to prove Hercules was a than of univerfal know- 
ledge, (killed in TJieology, Philofophy, Aftrono- 
flay. Poetry, and the Art of Divination, and 
therefore a fit perfoli to be honoured with the title 
of Mufagetes (n). 

The Scythian or Irifli Hercules having voyaged 
into Africa, and ftudied under Egyptiah Artifts, 
as our hjftory confefTes, might there have learned 
the Rudiments of Literary writing* I confefs, 
I am inclined to think that Ngmed and his Colony, 

(id) , Hence the Iriih Draohad a bridge, an Arch, #r Circle, 
(n) Acad. Bell. Lertr. T. 7. p. 51. 6a. 

F a were 

84 ' ^ TtndUatim tf thi 

yrere the Phsnkian Kings (Shepherds) as Africa- 
Qus calls th^m^ for the 6th aiid lalt is called Affix 
by Manethoy and bv Africanus and Eofebiu^, he 
is called Archies : out by Syn^cellus he is nanic4 
Kertusy which I think is a corruption of Qreai i. ^ 
Science, another name of our Irifli Hercules* 

The Emblem or Symbol of! I,«iterat;ure, wiuth the 
Irifh is a Tree, (o) or a Seipent, or both : the 
Tree has been converted to a Club : Cull the Irifli 
. name of Hercules-Merjcurius^ fignifies a Club, and 
alfo a tree ; hence we find on ail the moft ancient 
medals of Hercules, a Club, a Tree, a Serpent^ 
or a Lyre, for he was Ogham^ that is, the llarmo- 
nic Circle, the Hercules Ogniiiis of the. Gauls ; he 
was the. Ruftam of the Periians, becaufe Hms in 
Irifh fignifies a tree and knowledge or Science* 

The Olive tree in Irifh called Stol-Ogj or, Sgd^ 
Of, that is, the Botrus Herailisj or Berry-bearing 
tree of Oga^ was particularly dedicated to him : 
hence the Greeks made that Tree facred to Miniy- 
va, who in the Tyrian language was called Oga^ 
not Onga, with two gamma, as we have proved 
in the introdudion ; nence Scol Sgol metaphori- 
cally fignified learning, wifdom^ prudence. VOO 
Sgol or Segol in Chaldee implies, proprietas, fub- 
flantia, proprium, anditisthe Vowel of three points, 
•V , becaufe like a B$trus or clufter of Berries, fay 
the Hebrew Lexiconifts. But Scol is any tree 
bearing Cluflers : Heb bi5ffi^'» Efhcol, botrus ; (p) 
and from the fame Root we have b'SQ) Scol & Sdu;m 
Efcol intelligentia, intelligere & vlTOOi Scola the 

(0) Particularly the Mulberry and the Olive— Hercules's 
Club was of the OHve tree. 

'(p) The place was called the Brook E/kcol becaufe of the 
Clufters of Grapes. Numbers Cb. 13. V. 23. 


Ancient IS/iory rf Ireland. 85 

takAc. ^?awi Eflicol Carmen eruditum, Wih-Viu; 
5cal-tana a Matter of Arts. M^^5tt«D Meflicaloth, 
Sdentiae. The Rabbins faw plainly this 'nletapb6r 
of the word Scol ; in the Tilmud, Sofa and 7>. 
muray we have this explanation, QmA eft ^"3^ 
Elbcol ? (i. c. quare fie dieit^r) Tir in quo omnia 
Jknij and fnch was our Scol-Og or Irifh Hercules. 
In Kke manner Tt^ Sith, the OliVc tree, in Irifli 
Suitby fignifies a man of letters ; it is fynonimous 
to •Hrt Atf Ddr^ lays Sctnndhn*, which Word we 
Iiatne (hewii from Hutchinfoh and the Rabbini, 
jali^Krays Iignified the tree of Knowledge in the Gar- 
den of Eden ; the word fignifies Spldndor, Gloria, 
in its proper fenfe^ and thus f^\ Sith, is derived 
fro^ lit ^in, Splehdor, fnlgor ; thus Caftellus, 
makes )ettf Xi ET-Shaman, the Olive tree, thie 
Fy&tis or Cyprefs, (for it is doubtful which), to 
ht ^•in ^ Dar ; multum fallor, nifi fob Saman 
file idenl fit quod 'i*lll ha Dar Lev. 23. 40. Ci- 
trcfe, viz. ySr\ Targ, irbor oleagiAofa \ cujUs Vcl 
cortice elicitur Oleum Av. t . 6c ilfOa (be Catub^ 
fec\ihdum .Gatub) apud Neheni ; aperte hoc indi- 
cat. Aff. Hof. 2. 5. See GafteHus at pQ? Saman. 
Here we have the Olive tree explained by Targ 
whehce IVtrgtim, Explanation, Interpretatidn and 
tyy Cattdf^ which fignifies Writing, biit ^hatit 
Aitt miore, "Ht^FQ Cattab or Kettub, is a name of 
Meikriiry, the fuppoTed Author or inventor of 
Letters. SUWrO Mercurius qui Scriptura; praseit. 

\ iGraotfa is another name of Hercules ill trifli, 
becaufe the word fignifies Wifdom, prudence. 
Letters : it fignifies alfo the Sea ; but I doubt 
much if this is the true meaning of the Word, 


16 ^ Vinduatim rfibe 

for Tmt Goit in Egyptian is the Olive : ynlefs 
they borrowed the word from our Nemediai|S 
when in Africa, hence Aireacb-Gaatb ^ Epithet 
of Hercules in Iriih, of whjch the Qreeks fonaqd 

Herculem primum Olcaftri ramp coronafle. 
Ad Graecos autem ex Hypcrboreis ufqfve ab Her- 
cule Oleaftri arborem tralata memorant, qui di- 
cantur ultra Bpream Iiabitare« (CasL Rhodiginu^. 
Xicd. Antiqu. p. 483 : hence I prefume Odin took 
on him the namf Gaut ; from the Sui-Gotfa. 
Goeta, ^nigma : commemorare, inyenire^ acqu^ 
fere). Sec Ihre at Goeta (f). 

In Mpntfaucop VoL 2. p. 225, we find a Sym- 
bol of ^ercuUs^Mercuriiis or as we ihouki expre^ 
it in Irifli of Ogbam-Tbotb ; it is a Tree converted 
by the Greeks into a Club, with theCaduceus 
$it top : at bottom lye fome Sff)l or Secol ; VdiW 
(tfh 2. Pig. I.) Montfaucon tinnks them Ears of 
Com, aind that this l4eda| was deigned to fignify 
llercules. Mercury and Ceres ; there is no Inr 
fcriptton. Scribunt (jrrasci Hcrculis qlavam fuifie 
ex Oleaftro, quam apud Sardonidf m is repcriflet 
[ui^etiam depofitam in Troesscne apud ^ercurp 
Itatuam quern voai^io^ vocamt. (l^ud. Cod. Rho- 
^igtnus. Ledionum Antiquarum. p; 458,) Oleam 
in Olympia plantafle |lercules memoratur. (id, 
ip.) a. at in the figure at top are two JTIIH Che^ 
rut or palm branches, to fign|fy t^t Hercules was 

t KH'a Vit, Virtus, HV^ Cpgitare HDy CoDfiliuni JJVi 
G^ithan Cbtradler, figura lit eranim. ru Gdth Struas'lij^nea quae 
refert fbrmam torcularis : Angl. to get b^ heart,^ to forget. So 
Carmen from an^ Cerem Vines 1 the weaving of the brancbei 
•oe through another* 


Ancient Hi/loiy rf Ireland. ij 

theinyentorof writing, for jyf^T] fignifies Sculfta2,nd 
Ramus Pdmse. Hence Chreat in Irifli, Art, Science, 
tnriting ; and hence one of the names of Hercules 
in Irim is Chreat, hence the Greek x*?^<^^» ^^^ 
•/afdrrofy x^p^^M** x*p«u('''''f» Latiu : Char after, pro 
Scriptura, et literis. See Prof. Bayer de Num. 
Heb« Samar. p. 22. Nota: and Buxtprf. Lex. Cald. 

P.- 3«- 
In the fame Author Vol. i. is a Hercules of 

Tarfus, with a Serpent twifted round a pole fixed 

in the ground; this cannot be the Hydra, fays 

Montfaucon, for Hercules is not in the attitude of 

ftriking it (PL 2. fig. 2.) It is not the Hydra, but 

the Symbol of Wifdbm, and therefore properly 

applied to pur Ogba. It is very remarkable that 

this Serpent is the Arms of the sincient Milefian 

Irifli, who draw their Origin from this Siim Breac* 

*^ The Milefians from the time they firft conquer- 

^ ed Ireland, down to the Reign of OUamh-Fod- 

*^ hla made ufe of no other Arms of diftin&ion in 

^^ dieir Banners than a Serpent twifted round a 

^ Rod, after the example of their Gadelian An«- 

^ ceftors : But in this great Triennial Afiembly 

at Tara, it was ordained by Law, that every 

Nobleman and great Officer fboi)ld by the 

Heralds, have a particular Coat of Arms affign- 

** ed to him'\ (Keating's Hift. of Ireland^ large 

fol. p. 143)- 

In the fecond vol. p. 224. is another Hercules, 
ftanding by the Scol-Og, the Olive Tree, or Tree 
of Hercules, the fymbol of Literature } he holds 
in his left hand 1 fprig or branch of the fame 
tsee, and with his ri^ght he refts on his club. (PK 
2. fig. 3.) At the foot of the tree is the lyre, the 
fymbol of Hercules Mufagetes, and from the 

' branches 

88 A Vindication rftke 

branches are fv^peaded two Oghams, the O^iam 
Graobh and the Ogham Cuill, formed by tkis 
Greeks into a crown of laurel and another of ivy* 
Near him is an altar dedicated. to Oghai* Most? 
faucon does not tell us where the monument was 
found, but by the infcription it was Romai). Ii| 
the fame chapter is another Hercules Mufagetes^ 
quejoue afluellement de lyre^ who adually is puiying 
on the lyre, fays MondEaucon, in a furprize^ for 
he bad jufl: before told us, that Hercules Mufageies 
was imported from Greece to Rome by Fulvius, 
who had placed him with the nine Mufes, as the 
proper guardian of them, becaufe of his great 
ftrenjgth. The original bad no fuch idea» he was 
the author of poetry and harmony* The invent- 
or of an Ogham Craoffh charafter, which was ufed 
in facred writings, and which at the (ame time 
fei;ved for muficisu notes; ai^l of ^ C^bam CoiU 
or circular fcales of Profodia ; by cafting the eye 
on the Ogham figure^ will be readily difcovered 
ihe origin of <&e Greek mufical notes, confiding 
of letters (landing in all direfkions^ according ^ 
they are clafied in our ^^^Ti^r-thns 


See Burnet's ic^cellent dif&rtation on the mufick 
of the ancients* In like manner^ our Oghani 
notes marked the accents in yerfificatiph, whence 
i think the Arabic word Aghenij which figaM^ 
^the true pronunciation of die vowels in reading 
that Language, Hence Hercules was called Ida^ 
not from Mount Ida^ as Gebelin properly obferves^ 


Anment Uijhry nf Ireland. 89 

but from yY' ida, fcience, knowledge^ h e. Eid^ 
connoitre. (Gebdin, p. 235. Allegor. Orient.) 
Hence Ead m Irifli fignifies knowledge, fcience, 
poetry, mufidc, and Eadarmas, the art of invention. 

In like manner our Philofopher is fometimes re- 
jirefented with three apples or oranges, as having 
gathered the fruit of the philofophic tree. In this 
light Cedrefnus underftands this fable. At Hercu- 
les, inOcdduis tirrs partibus, primus Philofophiath 
tnftituic. (^em mortuum ab ipfo prognati in 
Deorum numero retulerunt. Herculem iilum 
pingunt indutum loco veftis pelle Leonis, clavam 
fbrentem, ac tria tenentem mala^ quae fabubntur 
cum Dracone clava occiflb abftuUfie. Hoc -no- 
jtant eum mala, ac varia cupiditatis confilia clava, 
lioc eft Ph3ofo{diias ope viciife. (Cedren. Annal.) 

In like allegorical fenfe are the two trees of 
/Geryon or Hercules, which dropped blood and 
mittL. Arbores ilKc etiam efle tradunt, quae nuf- 
quam alibi terrarum inveniuntur, appellatas auteni 
Gerytnuos, ft duas tantum effe. Ortae funt autem 
jozta Sepulchrum, quod illi G«ryoh ftatuerunt, 
fpecicm ex pinu, piceaque commixtam habentes, 
fanguinem verb ftiUare. (Philoftrat. de Vit. Ap- 
pollon. 1. 7. c. 1 9.^ • 

Strabo, 1. 3. deforibdl thefe trees in a different 
manner, Gaditanae yero arbori, & illud innatum 
cflc traditur, quod uno frado ramo lac effluit ; 
quod fi radicem abfcinderis, minii humor exun- 
dat — ^all allegorical of the tree, the Irifli emblem 
of ieaming, fdence and philofophy, originally the 
fymbol of our learned Hercules, or Siim Breac. 

To prune the tree, or the vine, fignified to com- 
pofe a hymn : to wreath the pruned branches into 
Ogham or Circles, had the fame fignification. 
Hence in Irifli Damhy a poet, a learned man. 


90 A VindUstion of ike 

Damba^ a poem from the Chaldaic nfi^i dama, 
fuccidere, excidere. The Jews altered tihie firft 
letter of this word into T and wrote it "yCK Zamar, 
•which iignifies to prune the vine, and to fing 
pfalms, or compofe hymns. Zanuar putare, prae- 
cidere vineam. Zem$ra Palmes, Surculus, Pro- 
pago. Mazmerot Falces vinitoriae. Forfan ex 
Dama^ Succidere, Excidere, D. vel Dalet, verfo 
in Z, vel Zain — ^hinc Zamar^ Zimmar^ pfidlere. 
Zemir^ Zemira, TAmra^ Cantus, Gantio. Zammer 
Chald. Cantor, Muficus. Zemaraj Cantio, Muii* 
ca. Mizmor, Pfalmus. Attenditur in his forfan, 
quod in vocibus etiam & cantibus lint inciliones, 
ficnt in avibus minuritiories. Apud Gallos ia 
Taille in utrumque fenfum fle£dtur, five in Vin^, 
five in Mufica ; Hue refer Chaldaicum Mezameraia 
Pfalterium. ' Jerem. t. ii. i8. ubi Zain pro 
more verfo in D, fit Me-Dameraia & inde GalL 
nunc Mandore. Nee ' aliud forfan eft n«r^o/pc* 
Pandura, Inftrumentum Muficum: unde apud 
Lampridium PandurizarSj hoc inftrumento ludere. 
Ab hoc Zamar fit Hifp. Zambra Saltatio Mauro- 
rum, item Hifp. Zambra Fefte des Mores, Bal, 
Danfe, Ital. ZimarOi Azimarre ; Gall. Simarre ve& 
tis magnifica cantorum in publico, (lliomaflin, 
GloiT. Univ. Heb.) To which we may add, hence 
the Irifh Damh/ky and the Englifli Dance. 

The origin of this fymbol is to be found in Iri(h 
documents only. The olive tree and the vine, fa- 
cred to Siim Breac, (the father of letters and of 
poetry and of mufic, the inventor of the Ogham 
tables, for all thefe purpofes) was the emblem of 
literature in general. To prune the tree, to weave 
thefmall branches into Ogham j Crowns or Circles, 
fignificd to compofe in vcrfe, and hence each letter 


Ancient Hilary of Ireland. 91 

of the Iriik alphabet was denominated from trees, 
and fo were thofe of the Samaritan, er Hebrew, 
and the Chaldaic, as we (hall prove hereafter. 

In likis manner the Irifli or Scythian Curm the 
vine ; Hebrew Cerem forms the Latin Carmen. A 
Cerem eft etiam Grae* Kp«m««*> fufpendo, ut fufpen- 
duntur vites: Hinc etiam Carmen^ ijuod primi 
verfus comici decantati fuerint, in curru vehente 
fcenam, vitibus obumbratam. (Thomaflin.)— 
The origin of the fymbol was concealed to this 
learned Gloffarift. 

To this let us add the emblematical ufes <^ 
trees in the fcripture. Gen* a. v. 9. ^^ the AUim 
made every tree defirablefor the in/irument rfvifion.** 
What it was they coveted to fee or know, needs no 
^xplaioine, fays Mr. Hutchinfon, for after the 
writing of the law, we find .this was an emblematical 
inftitution, mentioned Nehemiah 7. v. 15. They 
were to live under booths covered with boughs of 
the emblematical tree as of Sitb^ the olive and 
boughs of the tree yexo^ (Seman) 0//, &c. This 
furcly could not be the olive tree, and we know of 
lio other bearing oil : it muft have been the Dar^ 
Cafbub or Morus^ the emblem of literature, all 
Uerived from the tree alphabet of the ancient Scy- 

' The next figure is a Hercules playing on the 
lyre, from Count Caylus. See his antiquities, 
V. I . p. 47.-^The figure before mentioned from 
Montfaucon, did not verify it to be Hercules, but 
here the club is to be feen lying by his -fide. 

(PI. a. fig. 4.). / 

' And m this admirable Antiquary's collection, 

V. 88. is the true Hercules Ogmitu of Gaul, 

being a terminus in Bas relief on an urn found at 


9^ A Vindication (f the 

Sifieron^ a fmall town in Provence. (PI. 2. fig. 5;) 
On one fide he is wrefUing with a man, to fliew 
his conquefts and his ftrengdby and twer Ogham's 
fupported on a Tripod, ieparated the figures. 
Deux couronnes font plac6es aupris du vainqueur, 
comme pour ranimer fon courage. This may have 
been the defign of the Roman artift who made 
this groupe in Gaul ; but the original idea was 
an Ogham Craobh and an Ogham Coill, as 
Hercules is here reprefented. with the C^du-^ 
ceus, an inftrument fnatched from our hero, 
and dven to Hermes by the Greeks. If we 
confider the conftrudion of the Caduceus, wb 
fhall find in it every fymbol appertaining to our 
hero. It is defcribed as producing three leaves 
united, whence Cooke thicJ^s it intimates a triple 
perfonality in the Deity. Homer exprefsly calls it 


Kfwnhtf Tfi«rtiHAoy. Tbe galden three-Ieafed wand. 

At the extremity of it was annexed a circle, the 

Ogham, an emblem of the Hermetic wand, fays 

Cooke — ^two ferpents entwined the rod, one of 

which, fays Cooke, might reprefent the arts for 

which they were particularly famous, as their mu- 

fic, eloquence, and aftronomical learning. He is 

fpeaking of the Canaanites ; but one of them at 

jeafl was diflinguifhed as a feraph, by the expanded 

wings — ^it is the compleat hieroglyphic of the 

mighty ones (a). The wings were added, from a 

whim of the Greeks, making Hermes a fwift mef- 

fenger of the gods. The Dodor then concludes, 

(a) Dr. Cooke's Enquiry into the Patriarchaf Religion, 


Andent U^i^ry rf B-eiand. 9 j 

by deriving the name Mercury from the Celtic 
M€rc merchandize, and £/r, a man, which is, 
lays he, the true meaning of "pjys Canaan, a 
trader. This may be true of Mercury as the God 
of Merchandize, but has nothing to fay to our 
original Caduceus. Now the very derivation of 
the word Caduceus or Ceryciusj as originally writ* 
ten^ fully explains whence the word is derived^ 
Cerycium eft legatorum .ornatum. Alexander ab 
Alexandro. Sane nee dubium, quin latina vox h 
Graeca originem ceperit. Neque obftat, quod 
xirfi^xvo' vulgo fcribatur per fi. A xHfJxioy igitur, vel 
podas itflipi/jciov five xapt/xfov dixere latini Caduceum'— 
Voifius — See him alfo at Caduca Oliva — ^but the 
Greek word is formed of the Irifli Crocy the iignum 
honoris, the horns of glory, the fame as the He- 
brew ]*ip whence the Iriih Cearn-<}uais or Kearn- 
« duals. Athletic Laurel — fo likewife Keam-Croc^ 
the honorary reward for an athletic prize. 

Hence Count Caylus, the beft antiquary of this 
age, was much aftonifhed to find a Caduceus in 
the hand of Hercules. Hercule paroit avec le Ca-> 
ducee, ce que je n*ai remarqu^ fur aucun autre 
monument & dont je vais me fervir pour expliquer 
un paflage du Ciceron : ou POrateur Romain de- 
mande a fon amis Atticus,des Hercules — Mercures. 
J'avois toujours penfb que par-cette expreffion, il 
falloit entendre des ftatues d'Hercule, fimplement 
terminees en gaines : mais on voit par ce monu- 
ment, que ces ftatues renunifibient de plus les 
fymboles de ces deux divinit^s. (b) 

Without the affiftance of Irifh documents, this 
muft for ever have been inexplicable to all antiqua^ 

(b) Cfljlus Antiq. v. 2. p. 21-8. 


9^ A Vindication of the ^ 

lies* Oiir Hercules fnatches the honours due l6 
T]hoth ; he pretends to the invention of lettersr andl 
of verfe — the fcales for boA thcfe arts are honour- 
ed ^ith his name Ogbanh-^jd the Irifli antiquaries 
diftinguifli the cheat, calGng the letter Ogham 
f\m]p\y Ogbam-Craobbj the Ogham of the branch, 
but the other Ogbam-Cuilly or the Ogham of Tait^ 
i. e. Mercury. Cicero mentions a Hercules, the 
fiippofed author of the Phrygian letters. (T. 4. 
P« 434*) Hercules traditur ^gyptius ; qucm ai- 
unt Phrygian litteras donfcripfifle. 

And Cedrenus confirms our Hercules to have 
been the firft eminent philofopher. At Hercules^ 
ijfi Occiduis terra parcibusy primus philofdpbiam in-^ 
ftituit, quem mortuum ab ipfo prognati in deo- 
rum numero retulerunt. (Cedr. Annal. f. 16.) 
IThe learned Monf. Bailly has proved the primitive 
Hercules originated with the Scythians. Ne voila- 
i-il pas encore Hercule dans Scythie^ ou nous re- 
trouvbns, toutes les origines^ executant fe& exploits, 
& port ant des bienfiaits fur le Caucafc, d'oules At-^ 
iantes font partis, ainfi que le Culte du Solei/j & 
ou les Perfcs prenhent leur origine, & commence- 
ment de leur hiftoire ? (Lettr. fur I'Athntide, p; 

3O9O ; 

Having now anticipated what txre had to fay of 
Hercules in the chapter Mythology, we return td 
the old names of Spain, to (hew that no other lan- 
guage but the Iriih can explain them ; which we 
think a ftrong preflimptive proof that, the ancient 
Irifli were the firft colonifts bf that country. 

We have fhewn the iignification of the word 
Tar^ i. c. Trans, extra^ whence Tar-tefs and Tar- 
feis. The Turdetani of Spain are in fome authors 
called Turduli j thefe are allowed to have been an 


Ancient Hijlory of Ireland. 9| 

ancient colony of Phasnidans. Strabo places them 
about the river Boetis and Tarteflus. Dutan in 
Iriih fignifies a nation, a people; JDt^Iand, re« 
gion9 country^ Duile fignifies a pleafant country* 
nrom dtdlam to take pleafure, and is fynonimous 
to Aileasy hence ^ar^dutan, the diftant nation ^^ 
iar-duiky the diftant pleafant country, the Efyjsan 
fields^ Hebr. D^y aUu^ Istari* Turditania regio 
Iberis, quae etiam Baetica vocatur circa Baetin 
fluvium* Incolac Turditani & Turduli» (Ste* 

The river Batisj was fo called^ becaufe it divi^ 
ded Turditania into two equal parts nearly. Bae- 
tican nominarunt Phaenices ab amne Basti qui me-^ 
diam fecat. (Bochart.) In Iriih Beith-is, Beith* 
as, Beith-ifce, the middle water; the river that 
divides into beitbj twain. 

Lujitaniay Was fo cal|pd from its plenty of her^ 
bage, whereby fo many cattle were fed and multi* 
plied, that the Romans invented the fable of the 
Lufitanian mates breeding by the wind. In Lufi- 
tanis juxta flumen Tagum vento equas faetus con«« 
cipere multi audores prodidere, quae fabulae ex 
equarum fascunditate & gregum multitudine natac 
funt qui tanti in Callaecia & Lufitania ac tam per- 
nices vifuntur, ut non immerito vento ipfo con-^ 
cepti videantur. (Juflin. 1. 44. c. 3.) Luis or Lits 
in Irifli is herbage, and Tan is region or country ; 
Luis-tan therefore fignifies the country abounding 
with herbage. Los in Irifh alfo fignifies the quick 
growth of herbage. Los^ i. e. Fasy names extre* 
mely applicable to the foil of Lufttama. (c) 

(c) ^}i;h. Lafad, from Las and Sad, humor, a Sad^ mamma 
Uber, hence Lat. Luxuria. Iral. Lu^o, Lufluria tt^)D Phous, 
abundare, multijplicariy augefcere — Lat. fiifus, fiivio. Effiiiio 
Otll. projfiifion. 


9^ J fhuBfoHon tf th. 

The next dmfion of Spain vas Tarracmy uk 
which was the city of Cantabria^ where our Iriifa 
hiftory profe&dly (ettled a colony, calling them- 
fclvcs at this day Clanna Baofcatm^ or the Bifcay^ 
nan tribe. Cantabria might be fo called from the 
worfliip particularly paid there to Conn (Irifli) the 
full moon. Cann^ti-bria the city of Bona Luna. 
Aftures & vafcones in finibus Cantabris crebo rc- 
bellantes, Wamba edomuit, & fuo imperio fubju-^ 
gavit. (d) Civitatem, quas Cartua vocahatur & 
Pampilonem ampliavity quam Lunam vocitavit. 
Hence I think tnis province was called Tir^-Cann, 
whence Tarracon, unlefe from the remotenefs of 
the harbour, from Gadir, it was called Tar^Cuan^ 
the diftant harbour. 

Gadir, fuppofed to be fo called from the Punic 
word fignifying an indofure, Sepes. In Iiiih Ga« 
tair, Gaidir, Cadair, Catgir, the C being com-^ 
mutable with G, and D with ?*; it is now written 
Cathairj and fignifies an inclofure, fuch as we 
daily meet with in Ireland, called Ratbsj whence 
Mr. Sbawe in his Irilh and Erie didionary tranflatcs 
Cathair, a barrow, an intrenchment. 

Anas River — inter Tagum & Bxtim medius 
Luiitaniam a Baetica dividit. Bochart derives it 
from M3y Am, Syriace Ovis, in Irifli Uan ; but I 
think all the rivers thus named in Ireland and 
Spain, were dedicated to jinu or NanUj mater de* 
orum, hence Ana^— LifTey, the river that runs 
through Dublin. 

Ur, many places in Spain and Ireland have this 
name at the beginning and ending of words. See 
Gregor. Majanfms de Hifpania Progenic vocis Ur. 

(d) Wamba oaly reftorcd ic to its ancient name. 


It fignifies a low ground^ wh^'ncbin Ifakb,' ct244 
V. 15. it is ufed for a valley^**- hodie apud VafcoBes 
/mriti vailein iignificat. Hence in Spain .Graccb« 
urriSy Bit^uris, Calog/urm, Es^uris^ Jlac-iuris, 
Lacc-urris, /Ur-gailium, Ur-tefe, Urrgavo, &c* 
and in Ireland Ur*gair, Ur-nargalla^ .fiailc'-Ura, 
Ur-gial, &c; &c. from* Uir, a valley, aifituatiofi 
by the low banks of a river. . 

II, begins the ancient name of many towns in 
Spain, which makes Majahfius think^ the word 
fignifies a town ; it is the Irifli and Arabic Eilei 
which iignifies a fettlement, or colony, as £ile- 
0*CarrolT, Eile-Uagarty, &c. • So in' Spain Ucr- 
gavonia, Ilerdam, Ilipa, &c. 

0£ tfaiele we fliall fpeak more particularly id t 
work on the ancient Topography of Ireland. 

To conclude — It is, I think, pretty clear from 
Strabo, that fome colony of people, remarkable 
for their ikill in navigation and their knowledge af 
letters, difcovered Spain and fettled in it, before 
the Tyrians f and that thefe mercantile people, be* 
ing fupplied by the iirft' difcoverers with the preci" 
ous commodities of that country, had fent. out 
three expeditions before they found out this ^ifeat 
feat of wealdi; the words of ^ Strabo will juftify 
what I here afiert, and who this fiift colony could 
be, but oiur Nemedians frten tlie Etucine fea, andr 
laftly from Africa J, I cannot devife. No biftory 
lays claim to the dificovery but the Iriih, and -to 
them, in . my -opinion^ it id ' joftly due. Strabo» 
L 3. p. 1&9I1 fays, '^ according to the Giiditaiuan 
records (preferred it fioems in the tieknple of 
Hercules) being ordered krf an oradft to lead a 
colohy to -the pillari 6f Hercbles, thofe that were 
fent outi^ being <^Qni6 to? the entrattcp. of the 
, - G ' •* Straights 


9«^ JkTmiUMM^fAt 

^ Straighti aear Ca^, thought diis to be the €&d 
^^ of the hMuMi woHd^ and the fpot where Her- 
^^ cu}es (our Siim Bfcac) had finiflied his czpe- 
dkxcm ; here diey baked and o&red a facrifice 
for obiaink^ better if^ormatian : but, the pre£t- 
^es bemg ud^Yovrable, they returned kome : 
^ being. &m put zfeamd timey they advanced be- 
^ yond the Streights to an iftmd confecratcd to 
^ Hercules^ fituate near ^$iobia^ a city of Iberia, 
^'^ wliere tbey offered &crifice8, judging the pillart 
^* of Hercnldt had been fixed at this place ; but, 
<* no good &men appearing,, diey a^ain retmmed 
^* home : being fent out a third time with a fle^, 
^ they landed in the hland of Gades, and there 
^ biiih a tcmpte at the eaft end of die iftuid, and 
** a city at die weft.'* 

Kothbig can be mors evident, either that the 
Tyrtans dui not find themfelves fhfficieady ftrong 
Snr thi^ two firft expeditions to force a fettkment 
amon^ft our Feimke^ or that it was fo long after 
the piTlars had been ereded, that the memory of 
them had efcaped tradition. But what had the 
dUeotery of the very fpot where die piUars ftood, 
Co do with tike gold ahd filver of Spain^ . whkh diey 
Und^btedly were feckiag ? It mud dierdbre have 
been for want of fuiBcient force that made diem 
Minrff a fecoad dme^ And when they hod made 
good their fettlement at Gades, we find a kiitf of 
the Turctitaai, boldeilougk to contend widi then 
fisr^ Ae command of the Straighta4^ fea. A king 
1^ Spate equips a fleet to engage ibe Tyriana, the 
JbopoQfd ftiil navigators of me world : the bA ts 
ytMed by M acrobms'iii his SatunoUa, lib» i. e« so. 
^^'Thesony Ung bf t&e . Mediterratean fids of 
^ Spain, intooding tv pinnder and delboy the 




*^ Xem^G^i Gades^ failed thitttcr widi a. powler&I 
*^ fleets whicb the Pbi^ici^ljS (i. e. Tyrknsr) op-^ 
^ pdEnd wic& thetr long (hJ(K, smd haying di^tid 
** /A^ victory for a hng. tim with equal ftkcefi^ 
^^ (sqiftQ mai^e; Theroi^'^ fleets ftruck with a pa-« 
^^ nk terroif turned offcm s( Aiddjeiiy aad was coa- 
^ fume^ by a fire fvpm beaivcA. Soia^ few of 
^' the oharmers who e&aped the fire, being taken 
<< up by the Fheefttriaos (Tycmtts) declared,, tfaoti 
'^ thetr panic proceedect from their hatiag feeoi 
terrible liofis ftasdingaa the prow of the fliip» 
and t&at fttddetity the (Si>am<h ov ) Iberiaa fliip» 
^^ weife coniumed by fiery rays Itke thofe of the 
« fun." Thcfc fads rchticd, no doubt, ori^* 
sally by the TyriaAs, is a eonyiaciAg pr<m£ that 
they were not the fir A nsitigators to Spam ; and it 
aeede no (tomment to prove, that if the Ib^iant 
wegfe able to equip a fleet to engage the ikaty of 
Tyre, tbey were able to fend an> invading fleet t6i 
Great Britain and Ireland, prior to the Tyfisn 
icfttldmeat at Gades. Beikfes, it waa of thd utmoft 
impQXtance to Theron to dear the fdas to the 
weftvajd of thefetroublefome neighbours, for, by 
having a port at Gades, thipy intercepted his com* 
mookatibn ti3 the Caffiterides* Now, ai we hear, 
of no ibwe difturbances of this kind after fheron^a 
defeat^ it is certain, the two powert .entered int9 
zm alliinee, aAd on this account, probably, tho 
lieriana (hewed tfae^yrians t|ie vta^ to the Gafli^ 
teridea. . 

There is a ftrong fimilarity in Irifli hiftory tpr 
this acconut^f Theron'^ de^at ; it ia in die reign 
ef Dathf^ whom the . Irilh hifttnrians place as low 
dcnth ajR jAomo Domini 438. lliey make him die 
kdft; of the^ Pagan kin^ :— ^ xw^ thtt8» Dadu, 

G a i. e. Fea- 

loo A VifuUcMi^n of the 

i. e. Fearadac a ccd ainm. Ocus in tan ro gabh 
righ n'Eirinn, do coidh is in domhan fair na heor- 
ba go Helpa. Ro bhoi tra fear fircn anucht 
tfleibbe Helpa in tan (in* i • Menia a ainm : boi tor 
daingin dithoghsl ag fear Menia, &c. &c. Ar 
tainig Saignen-teineadh do nimh cbuige ann fin 
gur ru8 marbh in righ ann, i. e. Dathi, whofe 
real name was Fearadac ; when he was king of 
Ireland (i. c. Eirin |nn» or •^N^^ay Iberia,) pof- 
fefied to the weft of the weft to Helpa or Calpe. A 
certain king, called Menia^ was then building a 
ftrong tower in the bofom of Helpa — ^^the ftory 
goes on to inform us that Datfai befieged the 
place, and was ftruck dead by lightning. Heha 
has been miftaken by fome Iri(h writers for toe 
Alps ; the place here figniiicd was certainly Alpi 
or Chalpe, i. e. the Ship-hill ; its original name 
was ^rianW, corrupted from Bari-rosj in Irifli, 
the promontory of the fhip. Thus Ros-barcotij the 
Uttle promontory of the (nip, in the river Barrow, 
navigable from thence for mips to the fca. Thus 
aifo what the Scythians firfl: named Cadasy Caras^ 
Long or Jribracb^ that is the Ship Ifland, Gadis ; 
the Tyrians named ^^shik Alpi, i. e. a ftip. La 
Ery thia antigua la que oy fe llama ifla del leon : 
En 'ueneracion de ejia Heroina^ y de Hercuksj let 
Pbenice llamaron Alpba^ fays die learned D. Xa- 
vier, in his hiftory of Spain, fpeaking of Europa 
carried off by a bull, for Alph'a iignifies a bull and 
a (hip ; he afterwards proves tluit the fliip was 
named the bull. 

On the oppofite (hore was AbiU^ corrupted 

fromv;B0A):(ft<iiAitH) or Bologh, a ihip, and diefe 

formed the two pillars of our ^Hercules. The 

Spttniards A<)w call AWa by the flame of 2/m0, 

i which 

jbuient Hilary tf Ireland. 


figiufies an Ape, and we call it Apes-h31 ; 
Jima is a corruption of Q*^^!S ^iim^ the plural of 
Si, a fliip. , .. ^ ^ 

It is very remarkable that the ancient Irifh fpeak- 
ing of Spain, always exprefs it by lar^Eorpa^ that 
is, the Weft of the Wdl, 6r Weft .cf Europe. 
The Arabs and the Prophets do the fame, as we 
fliall ihew in a fubfequent chapter. This expreifion 
of the Iriih, (hews plainly, when thefe names 
were given to Spain, their anceftors were feated 
to the eaft ward of it, and gives great room to 
think the aflertion we have made of their blending 
the ancient hiftory of their anceftors, when feated 
in the Eaft, with the hiftory of Ireland, is well 
founded. One, out -of many examples, I ihall 
quote of their great navigator Ugan-mor^ from the 
annals of the four mafters : Anno mundi 4606. 
lar mbeitb 40 bliadhann comblan (PDgoine mor na 
Hgh Eireann agur iartba Eorba go biomlan go muir 
Joirrian^ do rochar la Badbbhcadbj L e. after IJgoh 
the great had been king of Eireann (tranilated 
Ireland) 40 years, and all the vajidfiht weft com- 
pleatly to the Tyrrhene fea, he was Jt^iUcd by 
Badbbhcadb. * Thefe parages evidently mark thie 
tranfadion to have happened wben they wtre:f<^tf d 
in Sicily or fome of the iflands <^ the MediterrsU 
nean eaftward of Spain, and not when finally^ fftr 
tied in beland. ' 


i#s Jl finfUtaiicn 9f tbe 



Th dektmbmiM of /Ar micient PERSIANS «r. 8CVTH1ANS, 
MtfJ^i/ i^ SALLU8T, PMlCOPIUfi, &fr. 

TBE African Pyrates csrtled F0moraigb are find 
to hart barafled this colonv of Nemedians in their 
^eft^rn fettlem€nt$, and to have foBowed ttacm 
fo IrelaHd^ 


Ppmoraigh Afrik, is a general name in ir|fli 
%l^ory for the Caitba||^ians ^ the name Signifies 
'Marine Heroes or Princes ; Init here I t^e 'Femo-- 
rajgb to imply that body'Of PerfioHs^ t^ho, ac- 
cording to the Funic annab given 4is by Sidtul^ 
lid ^before itecited, did not quit Africa With the 
^reat body of Nemedian; ^9t iecfkd i towards th^ 
ocean. Thefe people Would naturally endeavour 
to fiMire ihe beneftt of ilie facrafive trade carried 
on by the colony fettled at Cadiz : and being as ex- 
pert mariners as their brethren, would endeavour 
alfo to purfue them to the Britifli ifles, from vtrbence 
a more lucrative trade was eflablilhed by the Spa^ 
nifli colonUls* This conjedurc correfponds with 
the following account of thefe people, delivered 
to me by Mai. Tifdal, who received it from Capt. 
Logie, the Englifh conful at Morocco* 

A manu- 

Attaint i^bif if Itdmd. ^^og 

^^ A manufcript of a moft ancient date is now 
in the poflcflion of the Emperor of Morocco, de- 
Jcribiiig the people jof the {voviiiGe oi^J&udafhm 
South Barbanr. Their ^eaures, complescioa, and 
language, differ totally £rom ibplk of any other 
peo]Je on that continent/^ \ 

^^ Although <hift manufcript is foold, it corre& 
ponds ezadly with die charade of the prefent in- 
habitants of mat country^'^ 

*^ it relates, that a part d ^k people being 
once opprefled by their Prince, crofled the Medi- 
terraimean into Spais ; finom thence they travell^ 
North, and found iineans to provide yeifel^ fit»|i 
thofe fliores, in which they mnharj^d, and landed 
in a mountoinoiis part of iom^ of the Bntifli iflei^ 
At thig prefent moment the people of Sudan ^L 
ways fpc»k their own liagiiage, (iinlefs in their 
intercourfe with the MoocO ^^^ ^* i^uftjc hat 
a great affinity with the Itifh and Wd& dia^ 

^^ They are red haired, ^(tckled, aU re^ 
^eds a ilrongcr bodied, and moce eiiterpriaing 
people than the Moors. Their language is xraUed 
ShUoagh $ they wear a checked woollen coireiin^ 
pat on in the fame manner as the Highlandirs;ofuf 
aUy wear the Kelt." 

*^ They are the greateft travellers, aod moft 
daruig people of the Morocco dominioiisi, an4 
conduct all the Caravans.' (e) 


(e) Mn. Lsgif , tbe QxifuPs wife, wis a native of Wnles^ 
aiMl iofbriBed Maj. Tifdal (he underftood many wor^s fpokefi 
bj xh/tSt people, and fomecimts «4iole femences. 


i€4 A fiedUmUm ^ Ae 

frm the Trmmk ^ C. B06T, Do^ CmfU mi 
hUrmxB^frmm \j6o u 176S, trmmfimud frtm 

bk WmksfMijbid m the Dm^ lua^ap^ im 



^^ Thcf who IXC fatigfird vkb coqednics, nay 
fcAjf$ dtnwc fbc pfinntivc mhabitaiits of If one- 
CO from Ci^tfw, Ibfiot Noah; bccaufc 00c of the 
funmce$ h to tlm dzj calkd Cbms^ the name of 
Cham's '{cm : there is alio a.&sito or Satts in tfau 
coont/y, which was the iname of Clnu^s fen, 
but ibe Moors call the defeendentt of thefie old 
inhahilitnfs Breber and Sbtab. We (hall pals 
over thcle and other fabulous (lories told of Ne^ 
tune^ Atlas J Antem, .&Cs!and (ball .oirij obferve, 
that the inhahitanfB . confift of various people, 
/who bare arrived here from. the £aft, atid^erent 
periods^ and who,.. by £bcce or intermarriages, 
nave thnift the original inhabitants to the moun^ 
tains ; but at what period and in sirbat order tbi$ 
came to pafs, is not eafj to determine. Some- 
thing may be gathered from Salluft a^d Procafiut, 
which are the mod circumftantial accounts I have 
met with. The words of Salluft are thefe, &c, 

** I'he Breber are well grown, taH and lean ; 
they fuffer the hair to gfow long behind, and 

(f ) See thii ptflTage quoted before. 


Jnaerit-Hyhry 4f 'Ireland. 105 

^faaiTe the foicpart to xhe top of their heads. A 
kind of Krf^A or Sbirbil 'coaftitutcs their drefs ; 
they feldofh : wear ihirt or breeches. They are 
light, briik and airy, and handle their fire arms 
^th uncommon dexterity^ twirUng them round in 
the air and catching them as they defcend : their 
nnilkets * 9xt fometimes* highly ornamented with 
filver and ivory to the price or fixty or eighty du-^ 

^^ They live in the mountains in great fquare 
buildings, which commonly contains a family in 
each fide ; the building is generally provided with 
a lofty tower* or fpire, fometimes with two, from 
which they defend themfelves ; and if they find 
the enemy too ftrong, the alarm is given from the 
tops of the towers, and inftantly they gather from 
all quarters to oppofe the enemy. They call fuch 
a houfe or barrack Tagmin or Tigmin : (g) they 
are built of ftohe, clay, and lime. Befides thefe 
buildings they have many towns, and in thefe r&- 
iide the principal Amr-gar.^* (^) 

^* The name of Breber may have bcch given to 
.this mountainous part of the coui£try by the Arabs^ 
in whofe language Ber figniiies country, VLtidBurr 
M'Bureui^jB^dcwrti or it may comd from the La- 
4in^ Barbatia, or the Greek. ^pf^A^^Ji . 

\S : 1 he Bhber aijfc certainly the . old inhabitants 
of the country called Morocco; probably they 
were the andwnt Gatuii^ who were diftinguilhed 
from the Melone Gatuii or- Blacks that lived to- 
wards Guinea; The GatuH feciri to have been 


(g) In IriiK T««gh c r Tigh, a boufis 1 Muin a monmain. 
(h) Amr, or^Emir in Irifli, a chief. Sec ch. z. Amr«»gar 
or Cart, the head Emir or Chief. 


1^ JL VhidktliM^^Ae 

Fbiliftjoctty SaJwana and jSg7pl|ui»; ^ name 
iof Gidi^ (i) is imell known toimig diem, for tfae 
diildren cry out to one ilronger than tbcinlehrcs in 
fighting, you are a Goliab. Dapper cites Mannol, 
<bat tbc Jews of Barbary were the fiift inhabitants 
t>f the Eaftcriy defarts of Africa, tfae defceodatfts 
of the Sabseans, who wece oondufised to iSdm 
J^t from Arabia foliz, by dieir leader Melek^^ 
rike. (k) Thb Arabs pronounce it Afrikia, but 
^diofc Gsstuii who live in Tingitaiiia, Numidia and 
Lybia, are called Breber^XiI$ber.^^ 

^^ They call themfclves Amanhig (1) or , Ana- 
zirg, perhaps from Mazr^ by which they mafy 
mean ^Egyptians ; the Moors Call them promifcn- 
iouily Breberox Sbilba. In fliort it is almoftim- 
ipc^bk to get a perfed knowledge of this ^o- 
pie ; the remote and retired iituadon of their 
places of abode ; their zeal for their religkM and 
iheir enmity to chriftians, cuts off all communioa- 
tion with us/' 

^' The Breber have a langui^epcculiar to thcSHw 
felves. J. Leo calls it^amejet inRtaiA^si Tmia* 
jsprgt; it has little or no affinity with theMoorifli 
or Arabic ; they now ufe the Arabic cfaarader, 
which they learned of their Mahomedan paftofs. 
But, whether this language is < thcold Gseculiao, 
KuAidian, Phsenidan, Turkiik^or ^Egyptian, or 

(i) Gokidk or GoIaV, t colninoa tflkktic iiiire1«id for t^ftftmg 
jmn : dib is no proof cf At ir loowledge of ihe fcripmrei. 

(k) H*jniiVrr6o Melacb-IphtTkia. Nautx Ouk, pro Mch- 
chim, Naune, a Salfa fie didi. ' (Thomaifiii.) Iriih Mdiach, 
a faUor, Mil>a-Bhreac» or Siiin Breac, at before. Hence 
Africa wosJoiown by die name otMatc^. (Hyde.) 

(1) Arab, Al-Macun, Natics. See bcfofe. They write die 
•ame Jmaziftg. 

a mix- 

Andmf H^fUry jof Irdand. 107 

a mixture of all, muft be determined by the 
lear&eit« The foUowing Uft :of :wards I ^ot from, 
a learned Talhy who for many years was Iman in 
l^menart^ among the fircber/' 

^^ By this iift it will appear, this language has 
not the lead affinity with the Moarifii. Dr. Shaw 
has given a few words of what he calb the Zhav)-^^ 
iab Ipoken by the Brcber in the Alfgberjke moun- 
tains ; in this lift we find hand,* breads milk^ 
white, iron, barley^ are nearly the fame ; bvit a 
houfe he calls aiham^ the nole anfem^ &c. Per- 
hapt the ShavAah is a diak£t of the Lybians and 
Phae&icians, and the T^amaxim of the old Osc- 

^' As to the derivation of the name Mauris it 
has been obfienred, Pliny and Varro call the Per- 
JBans Fartj/i^ and the Arabs name them Fars ; but 
Jbow jFar^ could be changed into Marufi^ and 
thi^ again to Mauri^ is not eafy to determine. 
AgaiA, if we follow Salluft, and fuppofe Mauri 
comes from Medi^^ it is full as ; nor 
is Bochart^s opinion more probable, in deriving 
it from ^ Hebrew Abw;^ fignifyine W«ft, tho' 
it is trvie, the Moors call all thofe dwemng between 
fekmfan and Asfi^ Morgrebi, that is Wefteri^, 
and nom Asfi tor Nun, they are named Sufii ^nd 
the Spaniards call them Algarbes^ from El-garb 

For this Audior's Uft of words, fee the end of 
this chapter. 


io8 A ViniiaaUn tfihe 

FftOM SHAWS Travels ikto AFRICA. 

" THE KahyUs of Africa, fays Dr. Shaw, (in 
his travels through Africa), from their fituation 
and language, fecm to be the only people of thefe 
'lungdoms who can bear any relation to the anci- 
ent Africans ; for it is fcarce conceivable but that 
the Cartbaginiamj who poflefled all Africa, muft, 
in confequence of their many conquefts and colo- 
nies, have in fome meafure introduced their owa 
language, of which we have a fpecimen in Plau- 
tus ; and a dill greater chan^ muft it probably 
have fuflfered from the fuccefuve admifEon of the 
Romans, Vandals, &c. into their countries. 
Thus much is certain, that there is no affinity at 
all betwixt what may be fuppofed to be the priori- 
tive words in the Showiahy (as they call this lan^ 
guage at prefent fpoken by the ' Montagnards) and 
words winch convey the fame meaning in the He- 
brew and Arabic tongues." (m) 

^' There is alfo a language of the mountaineers 
in S. W. Barbary called Sbillab^ differing in fome 
words from the Showiab ; but the meaning of 
thefe names I could never learn." 

For the lift of Showiab words from Sbawy Sec 
the end. 

(m) Then the Shtwiah ctnnot be PoDiCy for that had a great 
affinirj to the Hebrew. 


Jncient Hi/lory rf Ireland. 1 09 

Frm the Travels cf Mr. JEZREEL JONES inia 
J/rica,publi/bedattbeendof CHAMBEKLAYii's 
Orath Dominica. 

DissBRTATio de Lingua SHiLHSNsr,. 

Ad ampliffimum Virum D. Job. Chamberlaynium. 


NULLUS mereo honorem qucm mihi in com- 
municatione laboriofiflimae sque ac utiliflimae 
tas Orationem Dominicarum colledionis cxhibu- 
ifti ; virefque mihi deefle fentio, infigne hoc Poly- 
glottum fpecimen epiftola quadam illuftrandi, 
prxprimis cum ndrim multos viros clariifimos fe- 
liciffimd hoc jam peregiflfe fucceflu. Tentabo ta« 
men (cum in magnis ct voluifle fat fit) tuis ut ob- 
fequar imperatis, aliqua de Sbilba vel Tarmazeght 
lingua hie apponendi, quae ut a me nCfeeba in ob- 
fcuris delitefcente pro folita tua humanitate be- 
nign^ accipias, obnixe rogo. 

Diverise Knguae hujus dantur diale£^i in Barba- 
ria, qus ante Arabicam, primariam Mauritanixy 
Tmgitanise, et Caefarienfis provinciarum linguam 
ibi obtinu^rCy ct hodiernum inter Atlanticorum 
SiU Dara et Riepbean montium incolas foliim ex- 
ercentur. Differentia dialeftorum et fermonis^* 
inter ho8 et alios vicinarum provinciarum incolas, 
ea primo ftatim auditu judicatur qus eft inter 


tio A Vifd^ciOkA of tbt 

. Wallieatn et HibemicoM ; aft^ fi fenfus vocum accu- 
rate examinetur, plan^ alium dc iis ferendum eft 
judicium, Meis auribus* lingua SbWknfit^ cun 
prinuiia iSiaA regioQca adnrem^ iommsk WaHkarum 
iff Hibernicarum in gutturali prommtiaii§ne v^um 
referebant : Sic, cum mihi dadylos offement, di- 
centes *^ Umx ieenf^ (n) [fume dafbylos j ^p8 mc 
igni dadybs torrere vdfe credcbam^ c«m tamcn 
ignis in lingua bac apbougho^ (o) vicino Hifpana- 
XMxcifuego^ fignificet. Muki montium horum in- 
Gote, dentiffms recLa&, ftbilaatcm bqnendd edc- 
bant fonum : £t cum, per aliquot tempus, in 
Sanda Cruce (prouti a Lufitanis, qui ante cen- 
tum et quod excedit annos, earn imperio fiibjcce- 
rant, appellatur) degiflem, intcgram provinciam. 
et diftri&am particolarkim fecietatmnl huac fibi- 
landi modum afeftare infveni ; an Ut Tirum aiU 
qoem clariffimum virtutumqac fama percelebrem 
imitarentur, an ut fefe ab aliis tribubus et pro- 
vinciis dafltnguetenCy non cooftat. 

Lingua Shilhenfis \A TamazegAtj pvatter phmi- 
ties McSa^ Hahbae, et provindam: Dane vel Dra, 
in plus viginti viget provindis regni Sas ia Bavba- 
rfa Meridioffiali, qua^ omaes Ite (p) praefixdnrfaa* 

(n) TVm^, I. e Jit^yks^ tiM dare tree. 

(o) Foigh^ fo'^gh^ ^'g^ ^^ becoken iire; as d^ftibigMttmt^ 
1 . d9 friuga teine^ he blazed i^ the fire. It holds io tfi com* 
pounds aiid fynonima, as fiagha^ burning with tnger i fota^ 
boiled; fiuc-eac^ burning with hal^ •^ fighrmhar^ i-fi^-'^ir, 
harreft i. e. the divifioiT oithe fear in the hot feafon ; i^^tt^ft i . 
o^AngA^ ripened wiith hear, applied to com, fhnc, ftc. hence tiie 
hmfiois. But Aio^ in Irilh implies cold, chiJIiacTa. 

(p) Jai^ iaih^ a diilrid or region, often written in Iriih widi 
a (ingle i : — fo alfo^ ihh^ a tribe or clan^ is freqiientlj written 
in the/ame manner, and is always prefixed, as indiefiiregoin^ 
examines of the- Skilhc 


Anckht Hi/hryi af^r eland. \t\ 

bent, uti inter HebraBos (kb lege : Ite Bei^min^ 
pro Benjaminitae ; Ite Hwi, pro Hhritae; Ite 
Hitti, pro Hittitae ; he Jeboz, pro Jebuzitae y 
fie etiam lie^Ben Onwran ; Ite Me/egeena ; be Off a $ 
Ite Acboi ; he Stuckevj quse ampliffima provincia 
ex moltig famitiis vel Iteij urbes, villas, muro* 
que cidda loca, Federtij Agadeers^ Tel Kerrra to- 
eaf&» inhabitantibus compofita eft. Nomina ha-* 
l»ta(cttlis hvkJQs proviaciae impofita magnam afini^ 
tatem cum aim linguis habent : v. g^ Kerria He* 
braka vdx dk pro loco Jearim, Kirrhtb Jearinu 
^rope Saffy, fab 32 latztudinis grada, datur hu^ 
julifiddi tocM Kirriath Mobamed el Gregj (q) voca^* 
ta», i. e. Mimimea Mobametis Gvaeci. Turrim 
appellant bta^je^ {y\ quod idem eft ac hourgh vel 
iorrot^b } eaftellutti Keifarrea^ u e. Casfaris man^* 
fionem^ (s) vMante Saepiflimi diverfitas linguae 
hnjtts itk fono taatum conftitit, diverfimode in di^ 
verfi» provineSs ufitatd ; et m nonnullis locis plu^ 
rimas habeiit voc^ rem eandem ezprimentes^ 
pMuti apud Arabes, Royl Infan, Ben Adam vu 
ftm^ Haflan, Lavud, Zamel eqtam ftgnificat, Za^ 
iHel (amen et Lcwot (t) frequenter et in quibufdam 
locis pto Sodomitai fumumur. Muita dantur He* 
br8ea» Lalina, Gratca, Punica, ac Cartfaaginenfia 
r€>cabulain lingua Shilhenii ; e. g. Ayyel (u) in* 

(q) GaAnr MtAtmed iUQrtigi^ i. e. thecitj of Mohamed of 
Ae Grecian flock, i. e. tribe. Kaer^ a city. 

(r> Bwrg^ a houfe i lurg-aras, a great houfe ;. hruigf-Jme^ 
the fame. 

(1) Oufe^aras^ cmfk-Um^ a caftle. 

(t) Im. iinfbl, guilty of heinous crime^ ibmication. Sim-a!^ 
t pleafant horfe. 

(u) Aiif bjeautiful, innocent; A7-^f#»»> a fmall flock of young ; 
mNeaHg ^F^t adtrliog; #;Zi/, a deer, hence the Giftek rAli/p 
a, fs^wn I M from the Hebrew aiM. 


tti A Vindication ^ the 

fantem ct Tayydt (w) fcrvam in Siiihcnfi ac He« 
brs&a figniiicaty voces tamen hs& etiam pro ccrva c€ 
cerva fumuntur; et Ayletb Sj&irZuir ccrva inatuU-> 
na in Hebraso erat, uti in noftra bibiiomm verfione 
redditur ; Zebbar, autem, ct Sbabatj admodum 
itmiles fibi voces, horam matutinam vel tempw 
aurorsR apparencis, quuin mofcharuiri clerici po« 
pulum ad pracces convocant, fignificat. Shilhcn&s 
populus cundem q\ieni Arabes, Judaei, et Hiber- 
ni habent ritum mortem amicorum dcplorandiy 
vociferando (x) wiley! wiley ! wiley ! wogb / 
wogb ! wogb ! wogb / mogbl moot ago ! wiley ! 
wogb ! terram in ordine pulfantes, fcalpentes vuU 
tum, et evellentes crines fuos, dicendo ivoe! woe ! 
woe ! woe ! cur mortuiis es ? woe I woe ! Sttepi-* 
tus fc. hie, fimul ac anima corpus reliquit^ afliftf^- 
tibus vicinis per dimidium horae vel intecptm ho*^ 
ram durat; poftmodiim dolorofas e^^lamaalcfl* 
cantilenas interogant mortuum, cur moriendo 
eos reliquerit, optantes ut mors cos pocius c% 
hac vita eripuerit^ et quod ipfis cum bonis refiduis 
faciendum fit. Et, fi cognatus aliquot menfes 
pod eos vifitaverit, renovant lamentationes, et 
fepulchra mortuorum cum amicia adeunt, quae 
Tmendina) civitatem mortuorum eodem quo Judasi 
lub lege nomine appellant. Sed Hebtaeji iilis in re« 
gionibus degentes fepulchrutn^^//i&a Hyeem domunz 
vel manfionem vivorum } Shilhenfes, autem, jf^i/Zi^ 

(w) Taille^ '^f^g^ one who receives wages, henee the Greek 
telos^ veiligal, and the French tailie^ a rax. 

(x) Bfuiile ! bhuiU ! bhuile / och ! och ! och ! much m* 
chta ! bhuiU I och ! this is the IrifK cry ac this daj at a fiine- 
ra] or wake, which m Engli(h is— madneG I rage I defpair ! ohf 
oh I my fwollen bread f defpair ! oh ! teidft > wtucha^ be pe- 
ritlied. This is f he 11;/^ nos o{ the modern Welfh, the foiZr 
Midluhe or vuiU nee) of the ancient Iri(li, and the buiie-lu of 
the moderns. 


jlfOiHif^Mj/Uiey if: Brehmd. 1 1 3 

dme^^ifm^jmfMni' (y>' Habhiis ebram fixmUs eft 
JUHimkoi involvtmt enini\fefe lodicibus ycI tich- 
/kftrr(*z):diinEi)U8:uIfaisiIar^ et 3Td ^lon^is:;. mn^ 
ncMiH^iirkicatwn'more, liberos bameTis; drcom^ 
fttuat, duf il labbribus afftietss. Ftotixo$* inftitm 
ttMonea de ora^fi^oe linguaroBi Bobylpnic^ 
m^fl^extUBt* ipfe cuni' multis aliis Rabfaaais ere* 
debat, Hebrasam linguam uhiverfattni tdoi tcni- 
pons fuifle, Deurnqtie infinitos noflc modus Om- 
aipOMitlaM Tuam tbmnifoffllra et ImgvRi^ iUam 
indftrcrfiffinxas prb bcne-ptacit6 fao dlafeftos feper- 
andr;.ipie in opinibne verfabatur artifices et in- 
fpefiare^^ operis buj^M^ cdecitate^ Uppitudiue ocii- 
loTUHD^ et* morba giit«orali aiRi£los fuifle^ quof- 
dam furdos, alios mqtos fados ttCt^, in fumma 
^iflam caliginem Ho^^^tA vaporemqcie iixteffefltum 
eoram coiKudifle : alii ^ffirmabant, Deum- total!- 
ter imdle^m ac judifittim ipToriim pr^ivafle^: fti^- 
pidofque fabricatores rcddifle, pro fumma iilctiHa 
fuperba-cctelutn afcendere tenfante; S'cd bac 
iii h iTdfiSoty Nigri ex regno Toitibotoo, in Barbae- 

(y) fMim^-Jeent-^nvaa-meH'^ih^ i . fallann deanta for meaia 
Um^ an inclofure made for rhe dead, literally for rhofe who die 
officknefs, i. e. a natural deaih j fat^ fail^ (Ignifics an inclofure 
of every kind, as a ring, a bracelet, a rampart i fail muice^ a 
pig-ftye ; fail ca9ra^ i . caor-iatm^ a (heep-foid, and hence the 
Bncifli word fold. 

(a) The author refers to that part of the ancient drefs of the 
Irifh called the Philead or Plaid, a large cloaic of one piece of 
cloth, wove with variegated ftripes, the ground of which was 
generally red. It was the Pledoch or Paledorh of rhe Chaldae- 
ans, fee note 6. at the end of «d vol. It was alfo named in 
Irifti Suandchy in Arabic ^^m^a or SuHa^ the Plaids of the High* 
landers of Scotland. (Richardfon's Arab. Diftion.) See Lick- 
fees in the following lift of words. The ftuif of which thefe 
FiUead*s are made» is called Tartan^ on oriental rame 

H riam 

114 ^ Vindkatiott rf the 

riam vcnientes, intelligunt aliarum Nigritanise par- 
tium incohs ; ut ni mootiigooma eft, quomodd Tales 
. fratcr ; et fay-borokoy eft, in boni falute, gratias 
ago tibi ; y gooma (a) eft frater, in Shilhenfi, et 
wiltooma, (b) foror ; ^ yoosj (c) filius ; yooilty yel 
wilt J filia ; ben (d) et bint^ filius et filia ; dada^ 
baba^ pater; etymma^ mamma^ mater, inShilhen- 
ii et Hebrsea lingua.** 

(a) Cm, gpm, is kindredy as in cnm^freaJh^ i. e. gom htadth 
vel beniiAf generarion i corn-Mi vclgomde^ the chief of a tribe ; 
chwoir, a ufter in Welih, hugun^ a After in Hunearian, i. e. 

Jhtur-gm in Iri/h | hence the common Irifh wordfcwt^tfir, x. 
gomafty fociety, from whence the Latin anmmtnio and the Eog- 
Jifh coufmumm i Irifh tombac, a conipaniony from torn and mee^ 
both (i^ifying allied in blood. 

(b) Seems to be compounded of fuilt and cm^ i. e. allied hf 
blood. , 

(c) Va^ any male defcendant, cormptly written o in the laft 
ceneary ; uat^ uafal ( Arabice aifil) implies fiift bom, nobly de- 

(d) Ben, daia, mama, are all common in the Irifli as well as 
in the Hebrew. 


Ancient W/hrf tf ir^md. 115 

T * ■ 

» - t - »? ' . » • I . 

••• T ' «,. ' • ■ ,''» ^ .:.,,-"•.• 

V iPl-C A B U L A R Y 




FnoM mi Authors b£fo&b mentionep. 

. ' \ J V 

I . « 

> k 1 » A * «i« ^ 

• "" < NO T E. 

T\HE wprds do not always agree in ortbos^ra- 
' pbyj 'for example, Jones writes ' Oiif, - For 
three ;c'5iE^i»m^9' four ; Sutheq/lj fix; 5^, feven. 
loQGii writes the lame Words Karady Semusy Sadisj 
Sa: Df;Shavi^ writ^^ Abrdm bread, Jones and 
HoftfpeU it;^£/&ro0^ ; the word begins with the 
letter airiy m , botH^ and being pointe4 is , pro- 
nounced gutturalj as' gh ; therefore thcfc are the 
fame wqrds^ pronouAcfed. siccording to the-p^pvlA* 
cial ()iale£ts. The Orientaliil will alfo find.m^y 
words arb tnere corruptions of the Arabic^) which 
muft unavoidably happen, from their long inter- 
courfe with the Mooi^« 

I « * « 

< i 

FROM Dr. S H A W E. 

Showiah. ^ Irish. 

Ahrim v?V^- . 'Arin breads g^xmfo$dy 
Aghroume 3 ^^^ entertainment ;, wKence 

Guirme i8!»i»;i. Quaere? 

H a 

Showiah. Irish. 

Afiife, ayaisy band^ cU^ Bhos, bhus^ ab^i^iie,^ l&r 

png (f^ bands 
Agais cbeefe 
Akham tf ^012/^ 

Akfoume fle/b-meat 
Aman water 

AbelK)ttfe afiol- 

Allen tbe eye 

Anfeme tbe nofe 
Aoude ? f /. 

Arica tthm&pnf^f^ ^ 
Afeegas a year 

I • 

palm ef ibt band 
Acaidh ^fn babitfltian 

Jikenejfj. mtcb or equals 
^ og-fteHh;^ Arab. Ju- 
hoofli a bey 

Aghfamh, has tenellus 

Aiphan. a river^ am an 
ibe vfot^ 

WHBfS^^^mfi muir- 
ea44ch dtminlfe^^ Asab^ 

BiH !;>/, ttaH j^^/ 

Ag 3^t in.tffi^^phcg:. 

• » 

)5:|n ifA? grtf, .Ail ^ ^pK 
Anfron ' ' 


Oreud ajlead^ezdxaberfe 

\. « 


Atzs a dwellif^g 

... « 

Saigheas an e^ 



'Afia n doj 
Awifnkee mUt 

Azrimme ajerfent 

tefduai tad 

Etgusmatty berM 

Foufe iht head 

treiuna. 117' 

fcd '<» JiJJj/^ ^ tifnCf fa- 


'£aicni Ttciy '^d^ 


IMalfiaax neto bukir 

Aidbblieil wicked^ the de* 

lar ihe itxji, fittiitgfuh 


Fafag r£r hair rfthe heod^ 
the beard 

fl^<6 1^ ' woollen blanket J This h the ancient Oighe 
^x yards long and two or Okc of the Irtjh and 
broad J the drefs by day Erfe^ now called the 
and the sdvering by Plaid* 
night ; it is a lod/e but 
troiMf/ime garluent. 

Note. I>r« Shaw 4eriv€S this word from the 
Arabic hauk or heiauk to Weave, (texk). Ho(t 
calk it Haiken ; they are both of the fame ongia 
"Wfti the itHh djghe or Oice^ figntfying i Veb of 
dbdl, 6t Any thing/^Ypvc^*,. Another name for it 


ii8 A VindiaiHM rf the . 

in Irifh is Suanacb (a), in Arabic Smia^ a gar« 
mcnt, clotfai» tuii^» ^fh, tiara^ tun^d by tke 
modern /iX2h% into femma^ which figmfies a i^ 
cies of loofe upper garment of the Arabians, fome* 
what refembling the Plaid of the Highlanders of 
Scotland (b) ; but the common Irifli name i^ FbU- 
leadh (i|'r Ftlleadbj fignifying a Clatb ; Filleadb beg 
the little cloth, i. e. the ke/t^ of petticoat, part of 
the highland drefs ; hence its diminitiTe Fillag^ a 
fliawl, wrapper, little plaid (c) ; thefe are ^U made 
of a Variegated woVen ftuflF called iartauy in which 
the red colour is predominant : hence the pbale^' 
^/i& of the Chaldxanfoldiers. See note G.' The 
wprd ii^ derived frpm the Scythian or InOifileadb 
or J^llam, to fold, to plait, to weave : in like man- 
ner the Irifli /eol^ pronounced JboUi a Wcavcr^s 
loom, a web of cloth, f^rms the Perfian^ZK^iw/, zp. 
ornament worn by the women on the neck, like 
our handkerchief or kercher ; henc^ the Perfic cbu- 
la, a weaver, in Inih /eoladair ; hence Jeolj a £ul 
(of a fliip), znd /echdoirj iigniBes a failor alio ; 
for diftindion, this .^oKd is now not ufed in the 
former fenfe ^ ^nd a weaver is4iapied^Fighidoir* 
in Aribicjhaulj cloth. 

Showiah. Irish. 

^aken tbere Ag fm 

Jitta the body Scit a bone^ kitxtbefiin 

(a) A Highland plaid, a f^t. Shawe's Irlib T>i€L 

(b) Rkhffrdfon's Arab. Dia ' •. 
(* ) Shaiye's Dia. ^•- ' ,, . 

pigAi a weby was.miftaken by the Greeks farOjuia^ fcienoes, 
henoc 0£ga Minerva, or the Graces, was njade to preside over 
Weaving. • See 0^A«», bcfort defeWbed. ^ ' 


Ancient Wfiery tf hreland. 


Qh dee, btmus^ prudetu 

Kabylcaih clflns^ tribes 

Oaly ajheep 

Su^agy butter-milk 
Takflieefh agiri 

Kyldi the Sun 

Taphoiite the fun 

Tafia a tree . 
Teg-mert a mare 

Alowdah a mare 
Tigenoute Heaven 
Toxde the moon 

Eala, frudentiai fapkntia 

Bailee /ft&^, clan^ colony i 
kebaile the illufirious 
tribe or clan ; the latter 
word is Jrijbj Etrufcan^ 
and Chaldean ; baile is 
Pbanician. Sec Ch« IX. 

Oluidh ajheep (d\ whence 
olan or oUan, a Jkece^ 

Sfiag a mixture of new milk 
and butteT'milk 

The feminine of Akflieefh 
a bov. See it. The T 
pruned tofemnines^ is 
the Irijh Tcjhe 

Keal the Heavens j unleJB 
from Qo^fupremus^po^ 

4n epithet^ Te-bot or Te- 
bhot, intenfe heat 

Abafta arborarius 

Eac a hor/cy marc the fame j 
T feminine pr^xed 

Al-oidea a female horfi 


Gilc, gpalacb 

(d) jShawe in hit Irifli Di6t. by xniftake calb it a Cbw. 



Thaulafa a fever 
Tbcjg^^ce dates 
Thtxnzet harlejf 

Uudmis the face 


'Tetl»a» aftar^ uphmt lathra mcvin^ in ar$k^ 
Yibownc &^iznx Bonar 

Itch fat Ith 

Jifua idNlH^ Sugha 

Ikcr ri/e Eirig 

tot a womaUy with tbt 
feminine T thaxnhatot 

Truit the foot 

Xeileadh, tolaSasiijJick 


Tum-yias r^m imtb in^ 

Bad, aodan, Perfic^ adim 

SIUM yOCUM. J. Jones. ' 

Azgar a tew 

Awin the eye 

Apboofe the hand, 

Aram a camel 

Afcra a dry cow 

Bin, ainn 


Eirim to ride 



SHU.MA. il\kmBU 

Afreefe s tmfe lEifg, as cuill-«i%, aqma 

kntusj gne-eifg id. 

BoOtloBie £071^ mso$ Lorgdi 

Bezq)1i multum £a(ba parvdm 

Ben tf y^» Ben 

Berr ilumf Axab. bur, Ir»l>arr. fmnin^ 


Qiodcmj a plaw^a coulter Guithe a trench madebf 

the pkeuf 

€bmlfur the nojb Ghomar. an fron« See the 


Daddali, &2AAz^ father Daid, gaid 

Doonit ? . Dana, dandha, don, donad 

jjoay ifaa 3 ^^ Dona-eifadh, feeking wee 

Eemough ibe mouth lomogh the mouthy the teeth 

£l-chottum a ting Guit a periphery^ Cuidhall 

awbe€i^iX.^pKif. Ax^ 

£agb^ ) Heads Eifeachd a head 

Eaghph JnHf^ 

EUVunmur ^ ^>a/4 ^pig Seama 
Ei-ldiaa nfirpe^t^ Buafa 

Erby, god Earba fupreme power^ 

command^ OhbicKn ve^ 
nerationj honour ; Orb- 
huid an otd name of the 
Sunj Quaere ? 

EUgoomena a cord Guimionn 



A Vindication if th€ 

IFool a bean 

Qho& a day 

Hemp beads 

. Iri8H« 

Faill the kernel cf any pod 
or nut 

Ghoftaois days pafl^ oU 
age ; gus until now 


Ilackem la governor Aghach warlike^ brave ^ 
Hackema 3 power ^ (sutbo^ An Agl^t a commander 


Kowata power 

Kuphcl a lock 

Lorje lame 
h'lL\xrmoo% Jig'free 


Cobhail a fecure inclofed 

)Ladla a balance^ fcales Laide, Icite, Idthid, hence 

Mac Aodba Laide na 
lann, a proper name^ 
Jignifying the admini^ 
Jirator ofju/iice 


Cranngormas, crann gor- 
min, i. e. the carmine 
tree ; hence the curmi or 
cochineal, an infe^gor 
thered on the fig^treCy 
which produces the car- 

LezgjJromlczgSLta to melty 
dijolve^ to drep 

Lea<*fabh a Jlone fawed ^^ 

Gargy hardy firm 


Lazjecb marble 
L'guerga a nut 

Amsnt I]^fifirj rf Ireland^ 1 23 

Shulha. ^ Irish. 

lAKktxi fubffuffim * Luaigh, flea/am j cbeerfd 

Lickfe^s the phid «r Leig-feis. See the mie t9 
blanket Joneses letter 

LoiMvLm an incendiary Loigifm, to inflame 

Lickfua a garment ^See Lickfqeas 

Mifmafh ripe fruit TAe2& fruit 

Naana the private parts Naire 

Ogfaoyule an afs Ogh-iol, Jong-eared 

Ourgh gold Oirgbc, goldy gilt. 

Oogar a trough^ difb^ a Uag a difby Uige a fbip^ 

kneading trough 

Aoaf, &f^. 

Ockud a knot 

Uice il^^hr^, ucham traces j 
bamefsj &c. 

Dhha ;29 


Ogfaorome bread 

See Ahram, in the Show* 

Phla ^/of 


Rofs ^/fztf , pulcher 



Smin te//^r 


Serr)id 4 ^^ 

Searram to lockup^ French 



Si-en knowledge 


Shcch (?A/ 

Sheifliir, Seifir 

Tan»tfc€t a r^^m 

TonnphU a v^el or pit to 
bold water 


A ViiuSaiiwm ffAe 

Tcciqr the date-irte 
xuDSgceosL tf cburcb^ 

Urkiib the neck 

JJrg^ a many beras 
TeafcTy mudf 
Y^kdjfoar, imnocem 

YvoasLgdodj bomjl 



Arcab fhe fUktdt^MMi 

See £rg«z im the Shoiraii 

Gk-gle, gle ^kanSt^ 
is my let 

Avra, icA-raicb^ 4i-reicfa, 

Frrnn the Travels of G. Host, Danish Consul 

ia MAXt>cco. (e) 

Shtlha or Br£B£R. 
Aiur the mom 



Solus light i fol, aibl, a 
round ball thrown into 
the air in htmottr rf ibe 

(e) Bfierretninger om Marokos og Fes, famlede der i Lao- 
dmtfm 1760 nl 1766, of G. Hoft, Kong}. Msjeft. utifetig 


Aficient Biftwj^ Ireknd. 


Shilha ^r BfeiEBsiu 
Aklid a powerful kkig 

Tamcrgart a qnfien 

Aram a camel 
Taramt ajbe caml 

Albs a hojffe, 

Azgaix abiill 

Argiul an afi 

Aid a deg 

Agbaio a head 

Ami the nuMh 

Adad a finger 

Admar the breq^ 

Akal land 

Adarar, q^rfick^amoun^ 

Argruip, bread 

Aman ii ribband 

Adhit jT^/^j 

Aichiladh p&xverfid 

Amra, emir. 5i^ CA. JF 
Jab. FciMu^ Gart^ 

T feminine prefixed 
See the preceding /[/{. 

b is the ArcA. alb 

Ois-gart a. ram^ afcfa iS 
dry c$w 

Arab* Air, Kulj 


Agha, aighe, bigb^fupreme 

Aidnie ^ j;0r|^^ 
Ard. Arab, adar 


whence Guirme an inn. 
See before 

Mann a band, meann a 
hoop^ a rib 

Arab, uid ; whence the 
. Irifh Udbball an apple 


126 A7mSca6m9f dm 

Shulha «r Briber* ImiiBir 

huSbi^fiak buiier Aodh M \ 

Absumteans Boiiar 

A£aak a baicbet Feacha 

Aih kad come bitber Tar ais oom^ ^ifc 

Amdaknim tbou art my Madaighni 

Ainargt I knew Atnmghim 

A^axmilk K^Q&ai^tL food rf tbi caw 

Enchar tbe nofe See Anfiern, before 

Emgart tbe tbroat Arab* gurdea 

Gen, ken, to repofe Connaoi repofe 

CzvLxJii down Eagaram tofe down in or^ 


Igna Heaven Eagnas atmrffbare 

luttijiars Raa 

Materit wbat do you cboofe Ca tu airead 

Matfergelt welcome Maitheas oirchiolt, boun^ 

teoia donation 

Med tckit from whence Cread as teighit* 
came you 

Rgilem iaikom he comes Gioladh go (kein be comes 
Jhraight bouncing along 

Sadamar tofpeak So domairadh to /peak ci* 


Tclag a mark^ Jign Tallam to cutj to notch 


Ancient Hijhry rf Ireiand. 


Shilha §r Brebjer. 
Tafoght tbe Sun 

Tvulcid/etting/un n 

Tdhaft a caw 

Tit tbe eye 

Tamait a beard 

Tamzit land 
Tanaut ajhip 
Tagimi a boufe 
Takiet an ounce 
Tadhiit wool 

Tekir wax 
Tzzctpridfy envy 
Teilintit lentils 

Tcrkcm roots 
Urerg gold 
Urt a garden 

Te foight darting beat 

Taifo concealed^ feafcar 

•Arab. Akhnus 

Tairg tbat will not berd or 
flock ^ fo ois ajbeep^ be* 
caufe it flocks 

lL2ltligbt^plendor ; wbence 
Titbin tbe Sun 

Tom-art tbe bujhf limb or 
member ^ 

See Tamazegbt a province 

Tain-ait water^babitation 


Taic a given quantity 

Tzod^hn wool-yam^ At. 
Juzzut wool 




Taiile tbe Linden tree^ 
taili, a bunch 

Arab. Yrkim 

Oirgbe, Ur 

Ghort, Schvonici Vert. 

There is certainly a great affinity between many 
of the words of the Sbowiab and Sbilba and of 


lit AVlndkaikmi^lii^t 

the bijb^ yH Hie languages, aneiiftfj^diftora 1 
meaft. the lanffu^g^ ipAen by the^ monntainoert 
of Africa at this day^ aad that of the Irifh : the 
pronouns, inflexions of nouns, and conjsgationM 
of verbs, have no affinity with the Irifh, yet there 
is great reafiukita think,. the languagra \)icne:tiaKe 
the fanve ; at leaO:, that. the ancient Scythians, . or. 
PerfianS) were tbcx inhabitants of that country: 
We have (he wa that Togfaj the ancient name of 
Tangier J is Irifli; this is iituated at one extremity 
of the moiiiitaiiis inhaled by thefe Shilhct or Btt& 
ber t at the other' extremity is Mount jftlas for- 
merly calkd Dyrim*. Extra CoIumnaruQi fretujii^ 
procedenti, ita ut . ad fmiflram fit Africa^ Mons 
e(l, quern Grecci Atlantem (Atlas) nominant, bar- 
ban Dyrim^ (Stntbo, L. 17.) Direme in^^U^ 
f}p!^i^Ie^ 2^ Jtb-los^ the iharp^.oFxor 
nical point, and this mountain was remarkable for 
both* Bocbart derives Dyreme from th& Phaenisian 
Jddh^y gift9i\<)c mi^htf ^ Dr. Shawe fnom^ibe:H^t 
bpew , i2^r^9i fouth > neither of thefe. corrcfpon^ 
with the dcCcxIpffon.of the ancient Geographers : 
it was deep and inacceflible* Mons nomme Ailas^ 
qui anguftus & undilque teres eft. (Herodotiftii) 
And then he adds,.& adeo celfus (utfertur) iit ejus 
cacumen nequeat cerni, .quod a nubibus nunqi^am 
relinquatur, neque sefttite neque hyeme': . quern 
t^. . cdomnamc ccdii < iudigenae aiuntv< Ab-hoe 
monte. cognomicisuityx (Atlantes foil.) hi homines* 
This defcription- of r Herodotus • perfeftly corrc* 
i^nds with our Iriih Direme and Athlos. 


Ancient Ryhry rf Inland. 1 1 9 



The fir Bolg^ Fir UQmnann^ or Fir Galeon. 

THE Records from which Keating formed 
thu Chapter, inform us, that thcfc Scythi- 
ans were named Fir D^Omnanrij or the Men of 
Oman ; that they were called Fir-bol^ and -F/r- 
boloj becaufe, do gnitis baris d^ bolgaiby they made 
boat$ of the hides of beads, and thefe boats being 
round, they were named Fir-Gakon : but Keating 
m the Sequel has followed an idle childilh Story, 
unworthy of the hiftorian. 

Simon Breac^ Son of Sdarn^ Son of Kumed, 
landed in Greece : The Grecians jealous of their 
numbers, as they multiplied, opprefled them } 
forcing them to fink deep pits (domhnan^ (ignifies 
deep) and to dig clay, and to carry it in leathern 
bags (bolg is & bag or a belly or paunch, or any 
thing fwoln out). The Numidians groaning under 
the Grecian yoke, rcfolved to quit the Country, 
and fcizing upon fomc Graecian Shipping, 5000 
6f them, under Simon Breac, put to Sea, and 
failed till they reached Ireland. 

The Uft rrince of this race, married Taihe^ 
daughter of Maghmor^ a Prince of Spain ; flie is 
buned in a place, called from her Tailtean at this 

Th^ Rem Riogbre or Book of Kings, places 
their arrivalin Ireland A. M. 3266, but the Liber 
Lecanus fays, fome of them came in the Reign 
of Salla/ler^ that King who faw the hnnd writing 
oa the Wall, and from whom Cyrus Son of Darius 
took Babylon} and that they landed in the North 

I Weft 

130 A Vindication <fAe 

Weft of Conacht, at a place called hbber Dmb' 
nauj from tbefe Fir lyOmbnann (or Men of 


We are told that this people were called BiJg 
or Boloj from being the conftruders of wicker 
boats covered with bolg or hidesf . It appears to 
have been a Veflel common to the Celts or Gome- 
rites, as well as to the Magogians or Scythians, 
fcated on the Euxine and Cafjpian Seas. We have 
already treated of their conftruftion and ihewn 
from Herodotus, that the Armenians came down 
the Euphrates to Babylon in this kind of Boat in 

(t) In a iimtlar maimer the Afiatics pafled the Riven in die 
days of Mofes : viz. b^ Rafb buoyed up with inflated SkaiL 
Quoinodo aatem maximos & rapidHfimos fiuvios traj e ceriBt^ 
& hodid trajiciant, in Oriente artem habent facillimam per 
Rates qitz in S. Bib] lis vocantur ^0£n ^i^o§^t 9P^ conftant ex 
pluriinis colligatis Lignis, margin i applicatis n^a/kx /e//i^ ad 
tnflar Veiicarum. Hac arte fit ut nuUus fluvios eis obftet, & mag- 
na mercium onera per Tigrim & Euphratem faciii negotio 
deporrenr, (Hyde.) Kf^AApa^aci^ vel poti(is Kf^AAfc^iti^* 
Hebraicd dicitiir mDinn hVi Chibbel Ha Raphfoda Et nnDsn 
pro (JxeJiflur 2d. Paral. 2. 15. i. e. tumnlcuanae navis genere, 
quaruin pnma inventio debecur Phaenicibus^ (Bocbart Geog. 
Sacr. L. I. C. 27.} YitCiirSrta tor y^^^t o/etvoTwr Aioa. 
xtf potf>^ ir^^c^W Xfi <orAW(t afi'^crrtr twAft/aftr (Sanchoniathanr-* 
the principal materials of thefe crAO(« VefTels were the ftt/b or 
Bolg the hides that covered the timbers^ for a Raft of timbers 
required no other machine to float them. Thefe Rates or Rafts 
were made of the trunlcs of Trees, which in the Scythian Dia- 
\t&, are named B%L — Boly tnincus, unde Stfa eft difEndere & 
Bohoeri, opus ex rruncis arborum confe^um (Ihre. Lex Snivo* 
Goth.) So that the name was applicable to thefe Scythians^ if 
they. conftru6led their Vcflels, either of Trees, or Wicker co- 
vered with hides. BaoJ Coriurii bovinuip (Verelius Scjtho Scan* 
dicse Lex). Baelg^ Saccus (!d) Bnlkc Onus Mavis (id). 


Ancient Hiftory of Ireland. 131 

his time. The Comerites who traced the Danube 
and the Borufthencs out of the Euxine, and the 
Bolga or Volga out of the Cafjpian, might have 
taken the name of Bolgi or Belgi, for tne fame 
reafon; and carried that name with them into 
Germany and Gaul,* as they did that of Brigantes, 
firom Brigantih, , a Celtic name for a Ship. This 
ai^pears probable ; becaufe we find ffom Caefar^ 
that the Belgh Veneti and Aquitanij on the Coaft 
of Gaul oppoiite to Britain, differed in their man- 
ners, cuftoms and language, from the Gauls, or 
Celtes, which would not have been the cafe, if 
the Belgi of the Coaft had defcended from the 
Bclgee of Germany : therefore the Belgi of the 
Coaft muft have beeii the Fir^bolg of the Irilh« 
Lazius derives the nameBelgae, Celtae, Galatae, 
all from the Hebrew D^bJt g^iUm, u e. inundatus. 
Galimj hoc. eft GtuUliy Walli^ unde tiimirum oh 
varias locorum pronunciationes, Celta^ Galatay 
Guelga^ Belga^ vocabula prodiere \ (a) thefe names 
he confines to the defcendants of Japhet only, be* 
caufe he was favedfrom the flood ; why then were 
not- thefe names common to Sem and Ham alfo ? 

From the words of Csefar and from ancient 
hiftory, there appears to have been two nations ofthe 
name of Beige, migrated from Afia into Europe, 
and both feated at length in Gaul. The firft, I 
take to be the Belgae of Germany who proceeded 
along the Danube, and the Volga; who after- 
wards took the name of Brigantes from Brig, a 
kind of Ship ufed by the Celts : (See Introdu&ion) 
formed the Celtic Nation, an4 were the Sons of 
Gamer, who took on them the fyaonimous «ame 

{a) Luius de Gentium mignc. p. 1 2. 

I 2 Bri- 

152 A ViTuScatsM qf tb$ 


Brigantcs^ L e. Ship men, (S^ IntroduBkmJ^ 
The iccoad, the Fir^Bo^ or VituBdgtt we are now 
treating of, who took a contrarf route down die 
Eophrates and foated themielves in Oiinnr, n*ikirt 
•ctf Cooncry extending Coaftwayi from the Fetfic 
^alph to the -Arabian Onlpb, and who were the 
Pharnicians of the lUdSea, the PbenJOUe of Iri& 
faiftory : ^ lea peupks anciens, Chinoia, indtcns^ 
^* €haldedn8 h Ptrfana itaient frerea: on voit 
*^ cbiremeni quib one une origine commune^ 
'' (BoaUy for I'Ada&ttde"^ p. 448> 

Mbfes Cboronenfi^ an Armenian, has cleared 
up thia pan of our Hiftory, The Bolg or Bok^ or 
Bul/ariii fays be, nnder the name of Acrad de» 
iieended the Euphrates and Tigria ; thia be takea 
from Armenian tradinons: Acrad ia the plural of 
Cwrd^ a particular nation So called, originally 
from die Gotdkm Monntaiof , whi^b feparate Ar«> 
menia from Media t The ancients named theie 
mouMaina and its inhabitants, CordttetU, Cardu^ 
ehi ; they fpread into Afiyria along the Euphratea 
and Tigris, and gave name to the Country called 
Kufdiftkn \ it was late before they received Maho-* 
bomedifm, and were ahravs enemies to the Muflf- 
tthnans* Tins natiM eftaolKhed a Principality in 
the Country of Lor ; they alfo peopled many fet* 
tlements or the Chaldean Irak^ about the N^Aa^ 
ihrnMH Fens« So«f>e Authors have thought they 
were Cbaldseans.. Lar^ gives name to a Country 
called Lifri/iMft^ between Khujijlan ^d Kermany 
Prorhlces which extend to the Perfiah Gulph. 
iThis I take was formerly governed by their own 
Princes, who faid they were defcended from Siroes 
Son of Co/roes^ who were of the profcflion of the 


4Mbgjiy or Fire m)sfliq)pc)QS. . Thug ^ lU»rned 
JD'Hertwlot (|>). 

The T«rk$ 4^ that wut<rf hH mm> m^ 
A^ntus, J!a£ VilqfUi^ a^ AIirkpil4» tUi jiis ^rjigiiiof 
tJbe Mog^ and Tartars, fays^ ibat Qa;(^((^^ 
Son of Jai>bet wa6 ovecfpfncby %iirk^ M4IIed to 
4i)c basks of (be Riy^r i^;<arf f^ere <^(»9RQr 
aootho' Son of Jatpbot, idr ovc bim th^oe^ Tb»t 
Turk had a 3oa <alicd ^i^4ir {ic> 

Our Fir.bDlgor Fir X)*Onihiifaiia wsreiaUb caileti 
Fir Oafeon bccaufe ibojr V«0els iMfc. fyptm^. 
Hcxodptus deiiciibes them of that fprpi C^) ^ 
Gol^ i. 4s, rpud^, G^Kibr Pbstoicibu^ r^MiiAam 
iaAat.(e)« Qmius^ gcnvis <iav^ pciii mt^ndMim 

<bp SeeDird, I^n-, 2Sohak« in mochn' plao^ binder Ai)^ 
dus ioumed Author inforny us^ xhac the Patthians i^jcid; Boi^iajv 
ddceoded from Fan«-iluit the Dileioitts, Cprdes, and Odental 
Taifb (ar Tartan,) were defeeaded of tfee IVifi a ns that feme 
Anbiaii Anthan (will hive the Qifde^ <9rfaD oaeiuttemaiMli 
Schchere^^ur in Aflfria, now calkdOin^^l tti beff' Ai'aWtn 
defceng and heiQg feated in the Momfs of Ac Nalwf lyaqg^ 4^ 
die mouths of the Euphrates and Ti^ti^, were called itf^^ife- 
Agnm^ that is to fay, Barbarian Arabs ; a nameiivlu^ is ftiljl 
appliid CO the foffam. 

FnoB Sg(f a Ship is derived Belgion, dicaamrbfaaeof 
Nq)cune'ji Som^ vrhoai Heixndet flew Zid Jnpiter ^vfrt|i wicH 
a Oim of Stones. 

Bai^ Scapha. Of. B. SetAxv (Ihre. dafi Suiv-Goth.) Aq- 
iM|ua flWvna eft, 'Heduleoi S^^pno tanqnam navigio veitto im- 
iMoia mam Mxis&Sk. Rodboidfiim AtL T. a.p. et. «d Sa- 
iVpn. Macrobii. L. 5. C. zu Skep, Cjmba, ab jtr^ffct; pci- 
Icre, trudere, (Wacfater.) 

(e) immt^elat. 

(d) Introduction. 

(«f} Hi^pdiiiis. 

<f )P<a«i Ayienm. 


134 -^ Vindkafim tfihe- 

And liencey fays Bocfaart, the nune of thp 
Ifland GauJon in the ^crean Sea, which ^Diodoru's 
Siculus f&ys, was inhabited by Fhsiiicians. " From 
the fame root- is the Aftnenian Gdleirim and tfab 
Iriftk Gkala^rambj a' Row boat, k Ferry boat!. 
The northern Scythi foftened this word to Iiille, 
{Srtpha,) whence JoUyboat, a term now inufein 
the' EngUfh fleet* Ts^wi hai the kme denvatioii. 

The defcendanfcs ctf th^ Fir-Galeon, arc proba- 
bly, yet fcated in that ^Province of Perfia csdled 
Chilan, which extends along .the banks of tht Ca^ 
^Ikn Sea from '74 deg. long* to 76 indufivc, 
Qoid from 35 deg. lat* to 2^. ' The Arabs^ad Ptr^ 
iians call the Cafpian Sea, the GhUofi Sea. Some 
Oriental Geographers comprife the Province of 
Mazanderan^ m the Province of Ghilan, making 
it includk the ancient Hyrcani. The Arabs write 
it Qhjlau or (Jilan ; (g^ and th^ Province of Gali- 
cia in. Spain, they call Gialiam. Th^ old ^ Spanifli 
iiame-of Herules was Goks ; De Laftonosa thinks it 
was tol'rupted from Hercules': It may be derived 
from Qofj navis. Sec the preceding Chapter. 

ll^e liame fyOmbnan qx P'ON^n is derived 
from the place they fettled in, viz* the Province of 
Oman' in Arabia : a narrow bdrder of land on the 
Sea Gdafl, ' extending from the Perfic Gulph, 
along (he Eaftern Ocean, up the Red Sea : th^ 
Arabs of this diilrid are called Qmdnann at this 
day ^ io thofe of Temen a(re called Temen^n^ in the 
plural (t). ' The 

(g) D'Herbeloc. Gilan 1$ [alfo the name tfa town |a Ara- 
bia fel«. ■ ' 

f Oman or the Sea Goaft of Idumxa, originally belonged to 
t£imif)r of Sem, and was peopled by yt£» wheoce (damaea 
ic called the land of Utz, Liimentat. C. 4. V. 21. and their 
Chief was the King of Edom, who refufed Mofes a paflage, 
wherefore he pafled along the Sea Coafl : confecmently the Se- 
mites were not in poiTefTion of O^an at that rime. The Scythians 


Ancient Mijhry of Inland. 135 

The Iriih hiftdry fays they were in pofleflion of 
this Country whenMofes paffedtbe Red Sea, as 
we fhall fiM in the Chapter of Phen^as Farfa. 
Ilie Sea Coaft of Oman abounds in fifli, alid lies 
convenient for trade to the Eaft. Arrian tells us, 
its ancient inhabitants were remarkable for con- 
ftruding Vefleis, that ^ercfewed (h). This cor- 
idponds with the make of our Bolg^ or Corracy 
the Wicker-boats covered with hides : the hides 
are fewed together with coarfe woollen rope yam ; 
a rope of a nariher fubftslnce would tear the hide : 
this is not only foft, but fwells in the water and 
fills the hole made to receive it. 

The learned traveller Mr. Niebuhr, was in 
Oman a few years iince, and found that the people 
Hill fewed the planks of their boats : ^' the Country 
^' of Oman, fays he, is bounded on the £. by 
^^ the Bahr-al43man, the Sea of Oman, that is 
^ the Ocean ; on the N. by the Perfi^ Gulph 
^^ and on the W. and S. by vaft deferts — it is 
^> mountainous and divided between many inde- 
^^ pendant princes ; the Imam of Oman is the 
^ moft confiderable. This prince has four Ships 
'^ of War, which in times of peace annually fail 
^ to Kiloa and Sinsjibar for Slaves and Elephants 
*^ teeth and other, commodities of Africa : he has 
*^ alfo 8 Veflels as Guarde de co/hs. llie Omanites 
^* are the beft failors in Arabia. The fails of 
^< fome of his Ships are not made of matting as 
'^ thofein Yemen, but ttf hempen cloth as in £u* 

rppe (i). The Ships or Yifiels called Trankis 



had dciven them into the snore i(uerior pans, or thejr had retired 
from it, being a barren fpot. 

(b) Peripl. mar. Erythr. p. 20. 

(i) The art of making hempen fails, might have been taught 
them by our Magogian Scythians, who were remarkable for this 


13$ : 4 Viw&fafi»n fjP ^ 

<^ or ?4r«f, iflrc very b^a4lp .propdrttoe t^ tbek 
leiigth, .^nd «re of ^ vi$ry::pat;t}cuUr conftniftir 
pq. ; /^ jMtl^A/ ^H^ not nailidi bw fmif$dt<fffftb^. 
The.B^'ffif^nf^ 9dda our author, ufe large roittul 
baiH^^i whiiph tbey caU ^t^» iufte^ of boots 
(k)' th^y ace fmcared <m the oatfide with pUch t 
they, are .pfpfal pa (feallpw ivajcr, but v^ry in* 
^^ qoqveiueRt fpr a man fuk ^c^uftomod to tbrai» 
(< as by their ipund ficH'm, (hey arc yery apt tq 
^* turn ip the roid^urrent/r 

Where^T oiir Bplg t^ve ftttlfd» tJiey )elt bot 
hiiKl tbem^thv very exi;raiordiQary kind of Baat« 
Strabo, from Artemidorus^, .laeatioiia thi^ boltt 
j^ii^ ufed-oti'tbe Red Sea by ^ Sabcd^ and that 
they erpdf^d t9 j^thiopia i^ iiavigiisexcptio con? 
k&ih ; (0 the fam< h^ teU$ us (rate uled ia Spaitu 
Qur ScytbiftM b€«[ig feared ui Ojtna^ by Pbe* 
mu9 thp. 3pf$ of Bitbs Son of M4gpg^ took on 
them the name of PbenhakAtl^ tribe. ^ chUdfen 
pf Pheaiv(. This provinoe wa^ sMo aamed F^n^ 
cl>aia^ iif which was tjbe Riyier Balg; or £aJg. 
Omamtis (quorum fed^s ci^a; Qin«^ aiqnetni qui 
Lat eft Ptplcmari icFbaig Arabttm (m), ^ lOxt 
OiDani^e^i fays Niebuht* h id true, jjkice Mabo^ 
medana, b^t are ef^eetnedHei^eiickfiy land drink 
wine :" there fecms. to be (aoie of the old ^y^ 
thian bl^ (till in their veins ; • to which liet us add, 
that the Jhrad, or Cw<ks fettled in L^^ draw 
their origin ffom Siroe^ Son oiChfrifes (a) an an* 

. . • . 'citot 

iTiBnufaQiire, when ^ted in -Btitn 6r ScjdiopoHi. ^Cbl- 
lednnea. No. 13. 

(k) Kisffa^ a. panier, bafkdt, &c. Such are ufe4 at this d«j 
on the River Shannop, Barrour, &c. 

(1) Lib. 16. 

(m) Bochart. 

(n) Siroes and thofroes, are the Sru and Afru of the Phe- 


Andmit Ui/i$ry ^ Ireland. 137 

j(jc»c King of Perfia, who was a worflii{^>er of fire ; 
tbde and other parallel circumftanccs, that ap- 
pear 10 the Ijifli hifiory, wiU prove that the fabu- 
Jm8 tuftory of the ancient Perfian% Parthians and 
AmiinianS) (who were all Scythians) is grafted on 
the &me (lock with that of the Magogian Scytbi- 
fui9 or Iriih ; was imported with them from the 
JCafty and is not the fabrication of the ignorant 
monks of the 8cb, 9th or loth Centuries* 

The learned Gebelin in his Hiftory of Aflfyria^ 
pbi^es, that the Scythians probably poiTefied 
part of Arabia, in the moft early period : ^* on 
^^ Toil: qtt'uflie Colonie da Caucafe arriver a' V 
** iUitikban, a pu e^ fuivant la dire&ion de cette 
^^ chiunc,arriver jufqu'auxmonta^neftderAn^ie, 
^^ & les peupler a uneiepoqu^ qui echappe a tow 
^' les calculs de philofophes" (n). 

There is great probability of this learned Au- 
thor's being in the rig^ ; for the names of many 
places in /jrabia feem to be of Scythian origii^ 
&r ewmple, a rough and barren covntary, abound- 
ing whh rodcs and (lones, in Iri(h is <^ed Aidm 
or Aidme^ and hence Edom or Idumaea, might 
have been properly fo named by them ; for it does 
not appear to have received its. name from Edom 
or ££iu, bccaufe Mofes tells us^ that ^^ £fau went 
" to dwell in Mount Seir which is in £dom" — 
this paifage feems to point out» that the Country 
was fo called before he went there $ and it is not 
probable that Efau^ having driven out the Horites, 

nian Trifli. Sni SonofAfru, Son of Gadui, Son of Niul, Son 
of Phenius^ fee p. 30. The Armenians often change an initial 
vowel into Ch. M (A) Gjaldaicum ad y^ .GraKnim ; t & n 
Chald. (z& t) ad '4/ : y (ain) ad f (Mofes Choronenfis p. 3.) 
hence of Afni, or Ofru, they formed C//£/rdf. 
(o; Hift. d' r Afie. p. 1 97, 


138 Ji Vindication of the 

would name the Country Edom, a name that had 
been applied to hiin by his brother, as a reproach. 
Ed9m is a rocky barren Country, ivhence the 
name Arabia Petrea, and fuch a Country is ex- 
prefied in Irifh by Aidme or Adme^ and in the 
'Arabic wtihd is a defert, widas tL barren fpot ; nor 
was this Country named Seir from ^yo Seir 
hairy, as fome authors have aflerted, becaufe 
Efau was hairy, for Mofes exprefsly fays, thefe 
are the Sons of Seir the Horite-^thefe are the 
children of Seir in the land of Edom ; whence 
Reland — di£ta funt montana Seir, de nomine Seir 
Choritac, qui ante Edomum iiltc habitavit (p). 
Again, Ifaac had promifed that Efau (hould dwell 
in the fatneis of the Earth and of the dew of hea- 
ven ; a diefcription in no manner correfponding 
with Arabia Petrea. 

According to the Irifli hiftory this Colony arriv- 
ed here Anh6 Mundi 3266 ; that is, about 73S 
years before Chrift: the Liber Lecanus fays, this 
happened in the reign of Belejts^ who is Nabo- 
naflar, and his ^ra began 747 years before Chrift, 
and he died 714 before Chrift^ therefore thefe 
two Chronicles fo far agree. ^ 

This Belefis is called by fome Nabulaflar, and 
by others Nanybrus. This prince belides what 
he muft have fuffered and apprehended from the 
Scythians, who during his time prevailed in Afia, 
was in imminent danger of bemg blaftedinhis 
hopes by an invafion fmm Egypt : he was fuc- 
ceeded by his Son Nabocolaifar, that is, by the 
great Nebuchadnezzar of fcripture (q). Belefis 

(p) Gen. 36. Ch. 20. V. Rel Palaftina V 1 . p. 68. 
^ (q) Hiilory of the Babylonians, p. 947. 


Jincknt Hi/iory (f Ireland. 139 

^f^as aUb a great aftrologer, and predifted to Sar- 
danapalu&y that he fhould over-throw the Medes, 
Perfiaji^ and Babylonians ; who, allifted by fome 
Arabians, intended to fubvert the Empire. Sar- 
danapalus coining to a battle with them, routed 
them with great flaughter and purfued them to the 
Mountains : they fight a fecond and a third battle, 
and Sardanapalus remaiins vidor (r). Sir J. New- 
ton places the Phaenician fetllement at Carthage, 
£83 years before Chrift ; and, fays he, prefently 
after they fidled as far ^ to the ftraights mouth 
isind beyond. The ^ra of Nabonafiar he places 
at 747 ; the invafion of the Aflyrians by the Scy^ 
tfaians in 635. 

Therefore the Iriih Annalifts may be right ; and 
others fay that another Colony of Fir D*Oman 
came in that year Cyrus took Babylon^ which 
happened according to Sir J. Newton 538 years 
before Chrift ; and he places the routing of the 
Scythians and the feizing of the Aflyrian Provinces 
of Armenia, Pont us and Cappadocia, by Cyax* 
6res» in the year 607 before Chrift (s). 

As our Scythians mixed with the Tyrians or 
Canaanites, and became one people and fhared 
their fate ; there is great reafon to think, that this 
is the fir ft Colony that fettled in Ireland, and that 
the great Milefian expedition was in the reign of 
Nebuchadnezzar, of which we ihall treat in a fub- 
fequent Chapter. ' 

It is impoffible to fix tiie date, when thePhscni- 
dans firft difcovered the Brittannic Ifles. Pliny 

(r) Ua. Hift. V. 4. p., 303. 8vo. 

(f) Mr. Richardibn, makes this period to be the commeoce^ 
nient of the Kaianinn or fecond Dynafty of ihc Pcifians. See 
next Chapter. 


140 A Tindkation rf the 

(and Bodiart after himO atdAuic$ tbb difeoim 
to the Pbacnician Hercules, and n^ fml cbc fim 
of that name in EtifebUiSf placed 19 the /-jd tot 
of Mofes : there were many of diat tiWK^ Vturo 
cpuiUs no lefe than 40 ; Herculca waa an hpoonr- 
able tide, given particularly to CopiiQaoders of 
Sea Expeditions, ^ name Aireac4ul in hiSb^ is 
fynoinmous to MtU^fi^ or the Commander of s 
Ship, (a) However, Strabo aflures ua, diat the 
Phaeniclana traded to the Britannic Iflands by Ae 
route of Cadiz, in tbetime of Joflma, andwccaa 
prove that City was buik to faciUtate the Commem 
of the Weftern Ocean ; hence I mnfieivi; itsnanKi 
viz. Cades ^ which in Iriih fignifies a Ship ( kma^ 
times written Cares : in Arabic Kad^, a 6hip.— 
Eaibar^aoi in Irifli is die Ship Iflaod^ wheooe ti» 
Greek name of it, JEtiynsa^ 

All mytholggifts. »eree that CadU was fonoded 
by Archilans^ Son of Phssnix, and acooniing to 
Einfiebius, Phsenia; and Jofliua were cotemporuies. 
N^w according to Irs(h Hiftory, iJiul or Cadmus 
was the Son of Pbenius, (b) bui 811 h Newtcm 
thinks the Phsemcians did not reKfa the Britaniiic 
Ifles till the re^ of Jehoram : and aUhougfa Eu* 
felMus places the foundation of Cadi^ in the tiaie 
of Jofhua i Strabo, on the contrary, telb us, that 
Cadiz: on the Spaniih Coaft, and all the Phsmician 
Colonics on die African Coaft, were iubfi»|ueiit to 
the Siege of Troy, and Velleius fuppoiting this 
aigc||inent; phces the founding of Cadiz, is the 
r^gn of Codrns } in &Qrt all Authors dilagrce on 
this Subjed. 

(a) The Amathufians called hixn Ms/u, which is plainlf 
the HeVcw nbo Malacfa, Nauta, navigator, 
(h) Sec Chapter 7. 


Ancient Hi/i$rj rf treland. 141 

The Carthaglmam, though a Colony of the Phae- 
nidans, knew thefe iflands very late, and were 
themfeives the difcoverers, for Strabo afTuresud 
that the old Phasnicianj were fo jealous of this 
commerce, that they kept it a profound fccrct 
from Strangers* Can we then flatter ourfelves to 
find the exaft time of fuch an eftabliihment in any 
Greek or Latin Attthor. 

If Himiico the Carthaginian was the firft thai 
difcovered the Btitannic Ifles for his Countrymen^ 
it muft have been fubfequent to the Siege of Tyre, 
and the Expedition of Alexander, that is, about 
300 Years brforc Chrift, and about that time Py- 
dieus the Aftronomer of Marfeilles is faid to have 
vtfited them : vet we find no traces in Antiquity 
rf a direft traae by Sea, between the Greeks and 
the Britons. The Tin trade between Marfeilles 
and Britain mentioned by Diodorus, muft have 
been carried on by Land from the Coaft of Gaul, 
imported there from Britain, and fo in 30 days 
to Marfeilles, as Strabo explains it, yet Diodorus^ 
in another place, fays, that the Merchants tranf- 
ported from Britain to Narbonne when that City 
was built by the Romans. 

In fine, about Eight Centuries before Chrift> 
feems to be the period when both the Bo^^f or 
Be/gaj quitted Ada in their different Routs, the' 
Gomerians by land to Germany, Gaul, &c- and the 
Magogians to Perfia. Nam tametfi hi popitii 
(Bulgarii, Armeniacas linguae pronunciatione Bui" 
larit) non ante feptimum a Chrifto feculum in Eu- 
ropam commigrabant, quin tamen fedes antiqui- 
tus in Sarmatia circa Volgam flumen habue* 
rint, nulla nobis in praefentia fubcft dubitandi 
caufa. (x) 

(c) Mofcs C^orenenfis p. 90. We have flicwn from this Au- 
thor cba( the Southera Bolgae cook the name of Akrad. 


142 / ^ Vtmiuation of tbe 

The fettlemcnt of the Firbolg in Oman, at a la- 
ter period than the Irifli hillory pretends to, is 
mentioned by the Author of the Chronicon Paf- 
chale, who (ays, that there were Northern Saaba 
or Scythians in the iricinity of Elam^ Chuz, and 
Shinaar, in his time. The Perfians acknowledge 
that in old times, their Empire was for fome years 
linder the Scythian yoke. Bodies of tbofe peo* 
ple^ fays a learned author^ mighty in confe- 
quence, have naturally enough eftabliflied them- 
felves in various parts of their new conqoefts* 
And when the Perlian Kings recovered their in- 
dependency, they might neither judge it ncceflary 
nor political, to depopulate their provinces, by 
driving out colonies which, by their proper ma- 
nagement, would foon become naturalized and 
valuable fubjeds. (d) Arrian alfo mentions a rc« 
gion called Scuthia, near the Perfian Gulph. D* 
Herbelot at the words jlgriretb and KiJhiaA^ has 
given a detail of a conqueft of Perfia by the Scy- 
thians from the Oxus and Gihon. Kijhiafb Ben 
Zou or Zabj was Kine of Perfia and of the Family 
of tbe Pijhdadiensy of whom we IhalL fpeak in the 
next Chapter : the Perlians had another Kijbtajb 
Son of Lohorafb, in whofe time, they fay, lived 
Zerduflit or Zoroaftre, Legiilator of the Ghebres 
or Worihippers of fire : and that it was Zoroaftre 
that obliged them to build Mejhged or fire towers, 
and to bury in Urns ; before bis time the Kings of 
Perfia were either buried in Caves natural or artifi<> 
cial, or in the earth, and over their graves mounds 
of Stones were made, like little hills, (e) 


(d) Richardfon's Di/T. on Eaftern Languages, p. 464. 
(e^ DHcrbclot, p. jj 1 7. The Pifdadien of the Perfians are 
the Tuath Dadami of the Irifh,— the ull towers of Irehiid were 


Ancient Hi/hry of Ireland. 143 

Mr. Bryant differs from thefe Aadiors^ and 
does not allow the Scythians to have had any pof* 
ieffions in or about Oman. He obferves that Jo- 
fephtts calls the Ck>ttntry Cutba. (f ) 

I have fliewn that the Irilh record themfelves by 
the name of a*»nj3-Mp*>ns? Atica Cuthim, or Ai- 
teach Cothi, corrupt^ Afacottij by which they mean, 
ancient mariners, or Shipmen, from •^^m^ me 
Cutha, navis. (g) 

This was the reafon I fufpeded, the infpired 
penman fignified the Cutba by the word Goimj 
in enumerating the Kihes that made war on the 
Pentapolis, and that Tiddal was a Scythian^ as 
Symmachus and Eupolemus aflert, and was feated 
in Oman^ where the Iriih hiftory place the Scythi- 
ans at a very early period, as we (hall find in the 
Chapter of the"^ Tuatha Dadann. And it is remark* 
able, that the words *»U Goi and ^rK2 Cuthi, are 
both ufed by the Hebrews to exprefs a foreigner. 
^ Goi, homo gentilis. Sic Judsei quedivis vo- 
cant qui non eft de populo Ifrael, maxime tamen 
Chriftianis hoc nomen dedere. Etiam unum ho- 
minem nominant G(d contra verum linguas ufum 
& naturam vocabuli* Sic pro ^U Goi in Deutro- 
nom. C. 7* V. 2. in aliquibus editionibus legitur 
•»J715 Cuthi. (h) Jofephus therefore being a Jew 
underftood the name Goim in the literal fenfe that 
all Jews do, and called the Scythians Cuthiy as 

cfie fire towers of the difciplesof Zerduft and the forms of bu* 
rial here mentioned, were pradtifed by the ancient Irifli : muU 
titudes of rhefe Mounts ftill remain. 

(f) Analyfis V. 3. p. 177. 

(g> See Introdudtion p. 1 8. hence I think the Qialdee Kni3 
Cutha, a Swan, a bird remarkable for fwimming, and for bail- 
ing by the eredion of its wings. 
• (h) Bnxtorf. Lex. Chald : ad verbum m. 


i^ A Vindiu^onif the . 

Gentiles, and fo might determinate the Country 
tbey poflefled Ceclirii* (i) 

'rhe Cuibai twre Ferfians, i. e. Scy thians^ Antea 
enim Cuthaei fuerunt appellati Ferfa&« Apertpa ve« 
teres Chathaeos fea Perfas« (Hottii^et' Arch. Or. 
6S7. Boch* PhaL p. a^A*) 

Before we quit this ( haqpter , we tnuft remark^ 
that the Irifli. records affert^ there came over with 
the Firbolgj three families who were not of the 
Gadelian R2CCj viz. the families oiGMrai who 
fettled inSuccain Conachtf of Tairji who fettled in 
Crioch o Failge^ and of Gailan who fettled in 
, Leinfter, to which we may add that Gaiiaa of 
GailittU was the ancient name of the Province of 
Leinfter. (k) 

It wa& not improbable, that fome Arab families 
fhottkl mix with onr Fir bolg wlven leated in 
Oman : and thcfe three family names are of Ara^ 
bian origin. 

Gaikin, it is the Arabic name of a Satyr* Tbi» 
Word is alfb become a prc^r namc^ |>articularly 
to fuch as appeared fierce and cruel : Om Gailan^ 
literally the mother of Satyrs or Demons, is the 
name of a tree called in Latin Spina -^gyptia^ or 
Acacia* The Tairfi were the Cebcs of Spain. See 

(i) Some authors believe, chat by Cuih upon che River .Gibon 

i> meant only cb« ancient Conntry of che Scythians upon the Araz- 

es. The words Cuthzi and Cutha, vrhcnce fbme have derived 

Scythae and Scurh ' , are the fame at Cufh, the ChaJdees general* 

\y put the T (Tan) where the Hebrews write S (Shin,) and 

therefore fay Cuth and Cut for Cufli. Un« Hiftory, V* 1 8. p* 

154. Svo.— but thefe learned Autbori furely wiit not fay, that 

tht Chaldees would have written CttjA for Oak — therefore tiiey 

/retained the original name CutAa 1 and here it muft be remarked 

that Ceas in the Iridi language is a Skiff*, and Uairceaa a foiall 

boat, fo that Cufli might be written for Ceai» •€ Ceafli* or Kealk. 

See p. 22y Introdudtion. 

(k) Keating's Englidi Edition, foK p. 41. 


what the modem PerfiaRsvcall iJ/v i. e. Demons, 
J>m m the ancient PeUavi^adi^a Gaiii e.:a.Qi- 
Mtj (y It dfp figmfies iUuftcious, raagnahimotti. 

(Heb,'rD Cab. ,poteftas» ... - •,,•».• . ., 

.^.f^»?b4r'»;i^toper namcaiacMigft tke MuffolaKuw. 
Gebcr;pii« 9f /the.taqft celebrated ;of the Arab 
fJiWMersi there was. aifip. » Qiafee^^ furtaraid 
^hamfcddio, ¥,;bo was .aa rArab • 6f Andalufia iii 
Spain ; he wrote a poem on poetry and Grammar* 
-iCD'Hcrbelot.l .llhw -jiarae .is now commonly 
pronounced G^//;y in Jrcland, bm alwaw: wrtttci 

Hence we may account, for the great fimihnitT. 
bctwcei^ theAxabicand Iriih languages , atotithi 
mixture of the Scythian with the Chaidtc and 
Atabjc £»rmed th^ dialett. called by -theilfilh 
Bearlg^Tkem QX the Pbomci%a '4iaiea. . A^'hisb;. 
Dears rrom feVeral drcumAaffcc* in the «ouifcdf 
Jis hiOory,. and from .the acknowledgment ofihc 
Welch AntMiiaries, parriculariy; JLhuyd,-«hat the 
hifliwero«he whabitants.iof. ^r^tain, fcefore the 
Gomei&es or Walfli :-thi8 may account for the 
^ ^^.'J''f^^ ^«»^<*«.. ^'hich are to be found 
m the £iighfh language at this daji, the. roots of 
which cannot be traced in, the Welch, Cohujh, br 
^rwr/f d^aleas, or m the Suxon or Normal bat 
weretooft probably adopted by the Britons, «n 
their mtx«ig with Ibme .^ the J^Mnian-A-i/Cv^ba 
romawed m Bntam, wh?n. the great body irere 
cxpdkd to S^/and Ireland, and M««x/ where 
then- defcendants Ihll remain. 

^^: ^y** otOmaa being .the general mari/ 
ners for the great powers fcated on or near the 

fe£l« •;• «™T' ''"J. ". Bacchus, .^ee thefe woi^J, in jy 
Herbelot. I take the Arabic proper name Giafar to be the fane 

^ Red 

146 A Vindicatlm of ibi 

Red Sea, partictilarly^ the Arabians^ Erfptiam 
.Edmitesj Canaanitesi &c. mod have xrrqrod the 
-Indian Ocean, to Opbir fbt Gold, Ivory, and 
.Peacodts, &c. Commodities, the Scripttire in- 
forms us, were brought irom thefe parts. It vnH 
naturally refult, that <mr Scythas muft have had 
name& for thefe cornnlodities. We (hall prove 
they had both fcytbian and Indian liames : the 
latter they could not hare acquired in their own 

The Irifh hiftory abounds with Anecdotes of this 
kind $ and their Seanachies, as we - have fhewn, 
worked up the traditions of the tranfadions of 
thieir anceftors in Armenia^ in Partbiaj Ttniran^ 
and Oman^ as if they happened but yefterday, in 

. The Irilh hiftory tells us, that this Mand once 
abounded in Gold, (Afofd or Aphos) and that 
there was a great fmeking houfe at a place called 
Aphoft or Afo/i on the River Lipbiy where Gold 
vrzsAearvain (bearbhain) i. e; refined : that they 
had two kinds of Gold^ viz. Orbtddb (Tellow 
gold^) and Orbdn^ (White gold,) and that the 
name of the Artiil who (irft purified and wrought 
this metal was Inachadan, or the maker of Inach's. 
The paiTage is thus exprefTed in the-Liber Lecantu. 
In the reign of King Tighearmas, (m) this prince 
civilized the people ; he introduced dying of 
Cloths with purple J blue^ and greetiy and to him is at- 
tributed the boilings or refining (Jbearvan) of gold 
{Apbojd^y-^^*^ Inachadan ainm an Cearda ro bearbb 
an d*or agus i Foarbhiih (no Aphofd) irrtbir 
'Laiphi ro bearbban.'* i. e. the name of his Re- 

(m) TheTshmurasofdiePerfians, 



Ancient Hiflory of hreland. I47 

finer was Inachadan^ and he refined the Gold^ 
for Aphofd) at Foarui or Apbofd^ on the £a(t Side 
of the Laipbi^ or River Liffey- 

Here we have the word apboft for Gold ; (n) 
a word unknown to any of the Celtic nations. 
"We know that Ireland never did produce gold^ 
confequently this word is exotic ; but, we know, 
that the Scythians inhabited the River Phqfis in 
Colcbisj where Gold did abound ; the River was 
therefore named from this precious metal, and 
Colchis was the Chavila of Mofes, ubi aurum eji^ 
fays the infpired penman. 

Per Cbavilam intclligcre Colcbidemj (fays the 
learned Reland) propre diftam quae -Phafin flumen 
a nteridie habet, & a feptentrione montes Scythi'^ 
cos, quos varie varii nominant. — Qui enim fine 
praejudicio vocem rfr'tn Cbolch (unde addita tcr- 
minatione //) confert cum nV»TI Chavihy facile 
videt non adeo magnam ^c inter has duas diffe-* 
rentiam, quin longe majores admittere debeamus 
in aliis regionum & urbium nominibus, qus aut 
ab incoUs, aut ab exteris, a prima pronunciatione 
detorta font*— Atque ita latiffimum Scytbia fpatium 
Cokbis tribuat, fie ut dicamus in ea Aurum praef- 
tantilEmum, & Smaragdos & Cryfiallos inveniri, 
quandoquidem generatim de Scytbia (cujus partem 
effe Colcbida) affirmant vetercs, & aurum & reli- 
qua Mqfiy memorata ibi reperiri, & optimac qui- 
dem natae fuiffe. 

(n) The word is Hebrew from T9 phaz. confolidaf i j whence 
^DIO MouphaZj confolidarum : quod auri optirni Epitheron eft. 
Hinc Phaz^ Aurum & Oupfiaz, nomen proprium loci. Jercm. 
ac T. 9. Alias Ophir dicttur. forfan Ophir & Aaphir, ab his 
puiviloilis anreis fluminum nomen habet. Nam *)DK Aphir, 
pulvif eft. (Tomaflin).— 

K 2 To 

148 A Vindication iff the 

To this learned AutTior's obfervattoAs, we couU 
add the audiorky of many Claflic Writers to prove 
the Pbas or Phqfis (the noS 2 Chron. 30. 15.) 
^2& in Sc^thia, and that this part of Scythia was 
called Armenia major. — Scythia includitur Pbqfi 
flumine* {Juftin. L. i^^^^fpim vwAfji^kti i-7rSxt;6i«r. 
(Plutarch.) — Apud illos dicuntur torrehtcs aurum 
deferre, quod barbari excipiunt tabulis perforatis, 
& ianofis pellibus, unde fiOia eft aurci velleris fa* 
bula. Strabo. Geogr. L. lo. (o) 

Fhas^ or, Apbos was the Scythian name for 
Gold ; this is evident, hence the tzmc of the Ri- 
ver of Colchis. When thefe Scythians defcended 
the Euphrates, and fettled in Oman^ oh the Pcrfi- 
an Gulph, and crofied the Indian Ocean in pur* 
ftiit of further difcoveries, if they found any River 
affording Gold or Gold dull, they would certain*- 
ly give It the fame name* Accordingly we find 
die Phoi in the ifland of Taprobane, (recorded by 
Ptolemy,) and the Gold brought from thence is 
mamed in Scripture tg^ Auphaz. Dan. C. id. V. 
5. Canric. 5. V. i T.-*-the word is tranflated Obri^ 
kum, by Mohtanu^ and others. Taob or Tatp in 
Irifli and Taph in Arabic, fignifics the banl^ of ^ 
Hiver, (p; the Sea Shore. Orban is a ipecies of 
Gdld in Irifli ; Taoporb&n wrH exprefs die banks or 
Shore producing Gold, and probably is the iAean«> 
ing of Taprobane : Bearvain^ we have feen, is liHh 
for refined Gold, B and P are commutable Let- 
ters^ Pearvain may alfo be the pnS3 Parvain of the 
Scriptures, 2 Chron. 3. V. 6. where it is written 

(o) Terra Gog vtl Mhgog eric ScythiaB pan circt Giucafaiii 
quant Cokhi & Armeoi. 6«;liart. Here ikan is«Bveloped die 
Story of the Golden FJeece. 

(P) ^^ i^^ ^^" <<^ol>^ ^^ Banoa. Upon the Banks of Banna. 


jtncieHt Hifiory of Ireland. 149 

Pawaim (q) u e, Syra & Pbaenicia flexione Par- 
vaiin ; (Bochart.) which fomc have idly imagined 
i¥as Peru i^ the new world. 

Some of thefe Colchi fettled in India, between 
Calcutta and the Promontory of Cory ; the Country 
13 now called Cochin. Colchi Canancina (Cadal). 
Al Cochin urb* U Empor : Indian citer% in Qra urbs 
Regia fub iiufitanis inter Calecutum ad Bor. 1 9.' 
U Cory promont. ad Auftr. 30. L. (Arrian. Pto- 
lemy.) See Fcrrarius. — ^They were great Voya- 
gerSy fay thA Iriih Records* Mar an muirriuch 
im troth tonn i. e* they trafficked much by Sea* 
(Liber Lecanus, p. 18.) 

From Taprobane, they brought Jphofd Gold 
VSNti dm or Sim Silver, tilOf^Dj or Cearb Arab. 
Gburhf They brought alfo Deudan Boirre^ or Deu-^ 
dan Fih^ Elephants Teeth or Ivory, in Arabic 
Dundana FtL The proper name of an Elephant 
in Irith is Ji7, i. e. the Sagacious. Boir or Bohr 
U a word they muft have learned from the Indi- 
ans. Elephants are not Animals of the cold €U- 
maies, therefore they could not have a Scythian 
oame for them. Barro^ Elephas Indis ita dicitur, 
tefte Ifodoro. (Reland de veteri lingua Indica. pw 
211.) Bochart derives this name from ^ys Baar, 
a fool, bomine Jlulto & bruto^ quod etymon miniptc 
convenit Elepbantibus^ quorum ingemum celebratur^ 
fays Reland. Ut enim alia praetercam tutiifime 
etymon nominis inde ducitur unde res ipfae ortae 
fimt. Apud Indos Voce Barro vocatur, unde & 
vox ejus barritus dicitur, barritus pro fono qus 
& ni fallpr, ^bur. (Reland de Ophir. p. i8t.) 

We are told by the Greek hiftorian, that Gold 
was firft wrought by Indus a King of Scythia : In- 

(q) £t texit Djinurn & Aurum Aurum O^DD Parvtim. 


1 50 J Vmdkaiiw rf the 

dus may be a corruption of our ArtiftU name /ii- 
achadani the word implies a maker of Inacb^Sj by 
which I underftand p^y Anak or £nak, any Uiing 
made of Gold. 

Bifhop Cumberland in his Sancbaniatbo p. 267. 
proves Pqfidon or Neptune to have been the grand- 
child of Nereus or Japbet, and from ApoUodorus, 
he proves Pofidon or Oceanm to have been the Father 
of Inacbus. And it is no wonder, fays he, that 
the title of Inacbus fhould have been given to feveral 
men, becaufe I believe it is derived from psy Anak, 
L e. Torquatus, a man tbat wore a Chain of gold as 
a badge of bonour : The Anakims in Fbmnkia long 
after were called fo on the fame Account. The 
learned Bifliop has miftaken the wearer of the Gol- 
den Chain, for the fabricator of it ; Anach in 
Iriih fignifics a Merchant or one that trades in Gold 
&c. or manufactures it. 

Our Scythians being Merchants, and dealers in 
Gold duft, &c. muft have had the knowledge of 
Letters and of Figures ; by their trafficking with 
the Indians, they probably learned the Indian Nu- 
merals, fuppofed to have been brought by the 
Arabs into India, and fo to Spain. A plate of the 
Irifli Numerical Figures, compared with the Indi* 
an, ^as given in the Colle£hmea, No. XII. 

If all thefe proofs are not fufficient to convince 
the readers of the truth of this very extraordinary 
hiftory of the ancient Irifli, and of the great im- 
portance of their ancient Records, in the general 
hiftory of the ^eftern World, I confefs, 1 know 
not what can be iBsitisfaftory to fuch Readers. 


jtmiifni m/hry tf Ireland. 151 

• • » 


The Ty^TffA Dapanjji History, 

IHETutthaDadanOt fays Keating, were the 
pofterity of thofe who followed the third Son 
imad out of Ireland, (Eiria) when the Fo^ 
nioraigh (Giants) bad uf^rped the Kingdom, and 
enlaved the inhabitants* This people rather than 
bear the heavy oppreflipng of thofe Pyrates. left the 
Iflaod under the command of Jarbaniel Faidh, a 
Son of Numad and fled, fome to Basotia, and 
others to Athens, and fettled pear Thebes.: but 
the trueft account is, that they landed in Achaia. 
Here the Tuatha Dadann learned the Art of N&^ 
cromancy and Enchantment, and became fo ex- 
pert in Magical kno^rledge, that when the Gity of 
Athens was invaded by the Aflyrians, thcfe Sor- 
cerers, bv their diabolical Charms, revived the dead 
bodies ot the Athenians, and brought them next 
day into the field, which forely vexed the Aflyri- 
ans. The force of their Encnantmem being de^- 
ftroyed by the Skill of an Aflyrian Druid, they 
fled, wandering from place to place till they came 
to Norwavzjxa Denmark^ where they were much 
admired tor their (kill in Magick, 

Their principal commander was Nuadbab Arpir 
^dlamb. The Danes being a very barbarous amd 
illiterate Nation, entertained fuch a regard for 
thefe Strangers, that they gave them four Cities 
to inhabit, where they ere&ed Schools. . The 


15a Jtfin4ie9$iw 9f fhi ; 

names of thcfe Cities were Falias, Gorias, Finni- 
as» and Murias. Morf hios taught in Folios^ Ali- 
as in Fmniasj £rus in Goi4asy and hernias in Jtftf- 

They removed from Norway and Denmark, and 
fettled in the North of Scotland, Rear t)obar and 
Jar-dobhar. From, the four Cities of Norway, 
they brought four great Curiofities. 

The firft was the Leug Fait^ or Lia Fktf : tjbls 
Stone was pofleifed of a wonderfut Viitue, for- it 
would make a flrange noife^, wbenef«r a Monareh 
of Ir^had was crowned upon it^ It wa« called t6e 
Fatal Stone, and gave the name of Inis Fail to 
Ireland, that is, the Ifiland of DeHiny. In wbate- 
.ver Country thisi Stone ftontd be prefelred, a 
Prinqe of the Scythian Race ftoutd undoubtedly 
govera according to this Ve^fe. 

Cmeadb Scuit Saor an tee, mvtnafe- breag an 

Msrr ' abbf uigid an Leug fait, dSgbid Saitbiea do 


or, as HeftoF Boctius has trai^ated 


^i fiallat fatum, Scoti quocunque tocatum 
Invenietu la{»d[cm> rcgnare tenentur Ibidem. 

Fergus the gtseat having fubdued Seo^nd, fent 
for this Stone, and received the Crown of Scot** 
hj^d upon it : it was prfsferved witk great mnera- 
tkm intfac Abby of Sconc^ till Edward thefkft of 
England, carried it away by violetice, and placed 
it. under the Coronatiofi Chair in Weftmiiifter 

■ ITic 

Ancient Hptbry $f trehnd. 153 

' The Second Curiofity was a Sword ; the tbir4 
was a Spear, and thefourtb, tlietCoircan DaglidA 
0r ibe CaMroi^of Daghda. 

The Tuatha Dadann contiluied Seven Years in 
Scotland, and thei% removed to Ireland. Wben 
ibey came upon the Coaift, they fbrmcd a mift 
about them for three days, aod 10 this undiftomed 
manner they marched thro' the Country, without 
being dilcovsered by the Eir D'Ooianann, till ^usf 
came to a Mountain called Sliabh an. laroiMy vAtm 
they challenged the King of Ireland, (Eirina) ei- 
ther to deliver up the Kingdom or to come to baltte^ 
This audacious fummons caufed the Idonprcb to 
march againft them, but the Fir lyOmnana una^ 
bte to withftand the Enchantments of their Ene- 
mies were defeated with the lofs of tea thaufand 
men. This contention lafted thirty years, fcti fo 
many the Poets reckon, between the battle of 
South Muigh- Tuireadh, and that of North. Muigll 
Tuiteadh. (r) 

Some derive the name from the defcendantft of 
Danan, Dai^hter of Deal Caoith, Son of £at4* 
Ihon, Son of Neid : the names of thefe bcothcrf 
were Brian, Juchor and Juchorjba. This Goleny 
were called Tuatha Dadann or Dedann, as tb^y 
were the pofterity -of the three Sons of Dadan, 
who were fo expert in the black art, and the myf- 
tery of Charms and Encham^mentS) that the inha- 
bitants diflifiguifiied them by the 'name of Gods, 
as appeaire from -an old poem, wherein thefe three 
brothers arc ftilcd Gods.- 

Oth^s derive the name from Tuatba a Lord^ 
Dee Gods and IMnan Poets, for they chiefly ^p*- 

(r) The Towers of tht MagL 


156 A VifuUcation of the 

That the Father was of the race of (the Fom- 
tiaire) and the Mother a Tuatha Dadann, (define 
fomora dofomh de thaoibh a Athor, agus do Tua- 
thabh Dadann a mhathar,) by name Ere daughter 
oiDealbaoitb ; and that this Colony came to Ireland 
705 years before the birth of Chrift» or in the year 
of the World 3303 (t). 

F^m Soqhart we coUe£l that Dedan Son of 
BJ^fgma^ 3on of Cbus^ fettled 19 or about Qmdm : 
R^iffgma urb3 & fiaus ^n\^ in MariPerficci,;^* 
i^ e^dkoi Utspre prope Rhfgmam ad oriejO^mimt 
. ^rba P^n% hodie Dadent mf dio fsre fpatio isicr 
fre^i^tn B^or^ id eft, odium Maris Perfici,. & 
On^npFum fluviun;^ Om, qui Lar eft Ptoleinsi & 
(Palg vql) Phalg Geogr^pbi.Nubicnfis. Ab hao 
\kT\>^9 J)(i4^ did^ur etiam vicina regb Ckioarda 
Barboza in defcriptione Ormuz ; avanti neUa deUA 
tq/iii € un ^Itra Urra nminaia Dadeite (u) 
. The Rfad^r muft obferve that there was aao* 
thpr Pedan, defcended of Abraham, who fettled 
at Dedan in Idumsea on the Mediterranean, o£ 
whom the prophet Jeremiah fpcaks, C. 25. V. 23 
and 49. V. S.. and K^ekiel mentions both* Dcda- 
danim in the %y Cb< Our Dadannites \^ere thoie 
that carried tbp Ivory and Ebony to Tyre : coiin- 
modities that could only be had by their traffick 
with India^ and with Tartefs in Spain. 

It is furprifmg that all the modern Irijh Hiftori- 
ans have neglected to collet the nam^ of the 
Pagan deities : much hiftorical information might 
be obtained from fuch a work. Tbeir hiftory in- 
forms us that they mixed and eml^odial with the" 
Chaldeans or Dadanites, confequently that Colony 

(t) Fomhaire that is of cbe Citj of Fomm, a fettlement of che 
I>a4gnim on the Tigrb. « 

(u) Bochart,- Phab. Ch. 6. 


Amient Hiftcry of Ireland. 1 57 

introduced their ov/HxtvyAt, of wbrfhip : The Brnh- 
mans of India are fuppofed by Monf. Bailly t<>hbve 
been origmally of Chaldsa : (v) The Tibetans are 
affirted, by Father Georgius Who Uvcd amongft 
tbem many years, to have been originally Scythi- 
ans, and to have adopted the ChaldastA deities. 

Thefe affertions are verified in greiait meafiire by 
Iriih Hiftory : In an irifli MSS. of the Seabrfght 
Cottedion, is a lift of the fubaltern deities of thf* 
Tuatha-Dadann. The paflage runs thus. 

As iat fo (ios Maitiic Tuatha Dadann, i. t. here 
follows a Lift of the Mast be of the Tuatha Do* 
dann, viz. 

Mogh Nuadhat, Airgiod lamh, 
Lugh Lamhfhada, i. e. Luamh, 
Eocbad ill dathac, i. e. Dagh-daa, 
Manaan mac Lir, 
Phrcich uainc, 

Eachdan mor, Aongas Og: Budth-Dcatrg. 
Carmad milbheoi, fons of Daghda, 
Pbearaman Son of Budh-dearrg, 
Ealcmhar brogha na Boine, 
Aod, Eaduir, 

Seacchfa craob dearrg, agus Trom a bhean, 
Dolph dead (holas, 
Abartach Son of Ildatha, 
Fear Fi, Son of Eogabal, 
Ilbreac Easa Ruid, 
Uilimid Sidhc, (w) many Demons, 


{v) Tbe Brahiaios ftudy tbe Chaldaean language, all their 
boob on Phyfick are writteij in that language. (Letter from 
fieiares to Mr. Holies). 

(w) Uilimid Sidb. Many demons, they are enumerated in 
the MSS. which we refer to the Chapter on Religion. "W 
S«l 'DKmon. ntt'3 Cafdai Chaldxus, Divinus : nam divinandi 


158 A Vindicdthn of tBe 

Don Oiligh, Don Crot/ Don Dulbhac, Draot 
or Priefts, 

The Children of Caill, Ccacht and Grian, 
Clann Taireann big reann. i; e* Uar, Jurcai 

N* B. As Uar' (in ainm Brian mac TuirrioB, 
agus iolomad eile nach airmhthcar funnta, L e« 
Cull, Ceacht and Grian were the Clann of littid 
Tourane and their defcendants Uar^ lurca^ lurca- 
tbcy and from Uar defcended Brian who waf 
named the Touran \ and many others not here 
enumerated (x). 

R £ M A B K 8. 

Touran or Turqueftan, the.Country of the Ori- 
ental Turks, an ancient and martial people, who, 
under the name of Getes, Moguls, Tartars &c* 
have at different times, poured in great numbers 
into the more Weftem and Southern Kingdoms. 
Thefe are the Scythians of our ancient hiflories, 
who invaded Perlia and the Kingdom of the 
Medes, but our bef): hiftorians are apt to confound 
them with the Scythians of the North. (Sir Wm. 
Jones, Defer, of Afia). 

anes proficebantur Cafdaim, i. e. Chaldaei. Ea erat t6tius j;eii- 
tis jadbintia, ut Divtnos fe profiterentur. Forfan a Ke Quafi fc 
Sad DBeaKMi 1 quafi Oaemones ft Divini. ^omaflin^. I think 
friom n3 Ke or Ce illuftris & Sad. See Gr explained belbre. 
Scytho-Scandicd Seiii Ars magica : Seidmatiur, Magus. 

( x) The Makomedans borrowed the nances of their Genii or 
Angels of the Jews ; and both Jews and Chaldaeans learned the 
names and oflkes of thofe beings trora the Perfians or ancient 
Scythians, as they themfelvescAnfefs in Talmud Hieros in Rofti* 
hafhana. See alfo Sales All Koran, Prel. dife. p. 7a. but the 
Catalogue of Genii given us by the Tuatha Dadanns of which 
we ihall treat more at large in the Mythology, feem to be par- 
ticular to rhem and to the Tibechans. 


Andefit Hijlcry of Ireland. 159 

Touran is faid to be fo named from Tut the 
Son of Fcridum: D'Herbclot has confuted that 
opinion, but' has not given us any other deriirati-^ 
on. I am of opinion, that on the divifion of this 
great Empire,- the Northern part, beyond the 
Oxus, was called Tua-Ran, or the Northern 
Divifion: and here dwelt the original Perfians or 
Southern Scythians. The Perfian Hiftory ihews 
they always laid claim to Iran or lar-ran the Wef- 
tern Divifion :• thefe are Iriih names. Afrafiab, 
King of Touran, twice invaded and poifefled Per- 
fia : it is allowed his name implies Phars-ab, the 
father of the Perfians. Sir Wm. Jones thinks it 
was a common name for the Kings of Afiatick 
Tartary, as the Grand father of Cyrus, whom we 
commonly call Aftyages, bore the fame name. 
The family of Otfaman, who now reign at Con- 
ftantinople, are willing to be reputed defcend* 
ants of this King of Touran and are flattered with 
the Epithet of Anafiab Jah or powerful as Afrafiab. 
(Jones's Pcrfia, p. 44). In fine they are the dc- 
fcendants of pur Irifh Phenius Pharfa, of whoni 
in the proper place. Sir Wm. Jones places the 
iaft Afrafiab at 667 before Chrifl. 
: 'The Touranians in our Irifh hiflory, are fre- 
quently called Frange or Farange. The Arabs 
always call thefe people Farangah, the Englifh 
tVanflation of Keating in his ufual flile, will have 
this ta be France. It is to be remarked that the 
Tyrrhene Sea, in the Irifh hiflory is calle^i Tou- 
ran : and that Hyginus makes Tyrrhenus the Son 
of Hercules,' and Etruria his County : this feems 
to flrengthen our Irifh hiftory (Hygin. fab. 74.) 


i6o :4 Vkidkathn rf tl(e 

The word MaHie icicles herei ^ {omethiagJU^ 
ferexcellmt^ beyond the reach of, moitats : it is the 
Arabic Majed, fuperavit aliam gloria^ k taaquasa 
Bomen bonos^ decus generis a-m^oribu^ ad poJP> 
teros tranfmiflum : Mal> M^Vd /W«] Hefych. . Mub^ 
mag&um Perf. JVfotha^ Brahmaxie^ Mbatatu 2tot 
Matbuv^mxm xjoaxexlcm I Coptice mf>ut^ . poruv, 

. T. Mogh Nuadl^at Airgid lanili. i. e* Mo^ 
Nuadhat o£ the Silver band or Gold-haod ; In axio»- 
tber place we have proved this to be Zorduit the 
firil (^r Zoroafter), whofe Pcrfian iiame fignifie^ 
Goli^ or filver hand*-^his dodrioe ejoteaded orver 
ail Indi^. Maximam fuperltionum partem, quae 
Indos, SinaSy & vicinos populos a feculis mulds 
bccsecatos tenent ex dodrina Zoroaflreac oriGfinem 
diicere. (Eufeb. l^enaudot. ia tiiil. Patr« Alex. 

2» hu^ or l^j^ Lambfliada, dbiat Luthe.ta^ 
Lama : it is fometinies written Liiaml^ and in d^ 
Lexicons tranilated ati .Abbot. The omce'of Lff^ 
oxa was common to all the Southern Scythians.'?*-* 
Lo'Sibyfiiy '1ribecanorum.f^8pa. ^thiqp l^yh^ feu 
Louk, mbreTibetanorum.Lou, eltLop Prefl^mrj 
Saoerdos, Prince^, Summus. ^ iLam<an| ita 'ha- 
beas fupremum Chatay^ qui iWcKi LhalEae obUr 
mxit, (T. p, &if^) (y). Lama Riin4>oiqhe, Tibe- 
tanorum PontifcK maximus (id)» . * 
. 3. Eocad ill dathac D^h-daa^ i« e. I>ia Teib^ 
ith, Dagh (bonus) the Qod of Nature^ the Eoca^ 

(y) T, this Letter ftands for the Alphabetuni Tibeianusx, 
pnblirtied ilt RcMue, A. D. 1 76Z. by Father Auguil. Anton. 

(1. e. 

Ancient t^/kry ef helani. ' i6i 

(L t* Pebis fanftus) of many colours. Dace Tibe- 
tanonim nefcio quein patrem Bavani fingunt, quo 
tempore voeabfttur Sati. Quod quanta impietate 
Indi effutianty fatis admiran nequeo ; nam^ fi ea 
mater eft Ifuren omniumque Deor um & ab Entc 
iupremoy ut illi folemnitut profitentui', df^lve^c edi« 
taeft; unde in fcenam venit novus ifle Dace, 
a filia ioftpius ob earn caufam appellatus^ quod 
feip&m a cultu Ifuren ad Viihu honorandum ad- 
ducere aliquando ftuduerit ? Dak-po habent etiani 
Tibetan!, eumque prineipcm fir caput loci Docam 
foper aera pofiti interpr etslntur.-^Les Indieiis ont 
ie Lingam qui ajoute encore qudque chofe a Tin 
famie dil Phallus des Egyptiens & des Grecs : its 
adorent Ie faux dieu Ifur fous cette figure mon- 
ftreufe & obfcene, qu'ils expofent dans les tem- 
ples, & qu'ils expofent en proceflioa infultant 
d'une maniere horrible i. la pudeur & a la credulitd 
de la populace, (La Croze, p. 431)* Pafupati 
Tocant Nepailenfks PhaUum feu Lingam, quadri- 
formem flavi, Yubri, riridis, albique colons : (T. 
1 52O hence the epithet illdafbaci, i. e. many colour- 
ed :— he is called Dia Teibith^ Chaldec n**)aD Ta- 
baiib. Arab. Tubeat^ u e. Natura* 

4. From Dagh-daa proceeded Fhrech uaine, 
L e. fettled Limell i,. ^gypt, Brj^chi or Brehi bi- 
tumen : Lutum ex terra & aqua feu argilla, & per 
apocapen, vi^ certe dubito quin, & hxc ipfa ad 
materi^m creationis (ignificandum apud iEgyptios, 
accepta fuerit : huic fi addas Am^ qua in nominum 
prsefertim compofitione ^e^yptii, ut Grascos prae- 
teream, Amanem fpritum inteilexerunt, erit Bre^ 
cham feu Breham & per crafin coalcfcente £ in A 
Bram»'^&c ti'^^lQ Brica^ puUities, faecundatio, 
(onnat muuduia Briaticum Gabbaliftorum, mun« 

L dus 

i62 A VbuBcaiicn rfthi 

du8 matcrialis (T. 104). Sk enim Brahma cbui« 
litionis, efflorcfcentis & creationis matcrialis fpiri- 
turn piincipem, five potcntem fonat & ccrtc vox 
Brechi vel Brehi tria ilia pcrcommoda notat (id). 

And from him proceeded Bud-dearrg. I think 
dearrg is a contra&ion of Darrioga, Rex Supre- 
mus, which correfponds with the Chaldean Ji^ 
Daragy Dux, an Epithet given to Budya ; Spar- 
theboe filius^ qui regnavit Indiis tertius poft Bac« 
chum, Arrian. Rer.Ind. p. lyj,. — (T. 104) — (z). 

5. Seacchfa Craob dearrg. In Indiis Xaca re- 
ligio ^)er omnes fere earum regionum populos la- 
tiffirae funditur ; tempus quo Xaca vixerit, incer- 
turn eft, plures funt <x Europoeis fcriptoribus, qui 
floruifle velint Salomone in Judasa regnante ; non 
idem eft et Xaca novus, i. e. ApoUonios Tjane- 
us, qui floruit A. D. 6o. (T* 1 6 1 )• Tfl^yn cun- 
dem efle ac Buddum, La Crozius aliique noa du- 
bitant. Xacse nominis origo a ^ca Babiloniorum 
& Perfarum numine repetendo« Tibetanorum 
litera fcribitur Sachia^ quod idem eft cum Secbia 
Sinenfium (T. 2 1 )• Les Japonois le difent on- 

(z; Le Xaca dct Jtponaisy le Soixunoiia rhutana da Pegu, 
le Soiiunofia*kodajn de Siam, le Botta dcs Indieiis, ne'footqn ua 
fetti & sieme perfoimage, regards ici comme un Dieu, la comme 
vn legiflateur— — fi jai bien pronvd que Buiia^ ^hahhi Mtrcwrt 
ne ibn( dgalemenc que la mrme lovcnteirr dcs Sciences & des 
arts: ils'emiiivni que unites les nations derAfie, aocieiines& mo- 
denies n6nr en k philofc^hie & pour la teligioo, qu'un feol & 
meme legiflateur place a leur origine. Alors je dirai que ce 
legiflateor unique n*a pn aller panouc dans TAfie, ni en meme 
terns parceque lans doote» il o'afaic pas d^ailes ; ni fucocffite- 
ment parce que la vie d'uo Iioauiie ne fufiimit pas aux vojagesw 
L*exiftcnce JU ce fntpU trnterieur eft prouv^ par le tableau 
qui n*oflfre que des ildbris, Aftronomie oublide, pfailolbphie 
inelde a des abfurdR6s, phjiique deg6n6re6 en &bles, Teligioa 
^puree^ mau cackie ious. uoe idolaoric grafltere. (M. Bailljr. 
p. aoo). 


Antkta Hiftdty <f Ireland . 165 

ginairc du pais, o^ il eft adore fous le nom de 
JBudbu^ & de Sommona'cadam & le font naitre peti'- 
dant le regne d^n Einpereur de la CIune» qui vi- 
voit environ mille ans avant I. C. (Barner. & Maf- 
char. dc' Re!.- Japon. T. V. p. 12). Foe, Fo aut 
lachia Sinenfium Deum, tempore quo Solomon rex 
In F^leftina imperabat (T« 45). Scia-chia iliud 
eflc & fcribi a Tibetanis ^id).^-^he termination fa 
or fo, has the fame meanmg in Iriih and Tibetan, 
viz. great, magnificent, to augment, to increafe. 
Tfre epithet of Craob dearrg is alfo Tibetan, viz. 
Ctirbe, Curve & Curphi Buddiftarum aut Tibetan- 
orum, eft Cbrbicius tt corrupt^ Cubricus, no^r 
men Manes*. Ea tribuitur pf imo humani generis 
gubernatdri Regi Principi, Regi honoris decorum, 
fplendidam, ac venerandam iignificat (T). 

The WiiPe of Seacchfa was Trom : (he is faid alfo 
to be the wife of Dagh. Trom in Irifh fignifie^ 
pregnant^ heavy^ ahd hence Tfom-^nlathar a -Ma** 
tron. Troth is hef e compounded of Tra and Am. 

Geminam ducit uxorem Xaca, viz. Tra-zimo 
& Sa^zana : addenda eft f ertia Ri*tha-khje. Tra- 
zimo mihi equidem aliud ^non «ft quam pariens^ 
aut mittens vita mater, Dfak Tibet : Drek Syr. 
gignefe & parere (T. 34.- 718).— hence our Tro*» 
mather — Quaere, do not thdfe names explain the 
Infcription ' found in England, that has fo much 
perplexed the learned Seldcn i 


R. FVS. L. M. 

(^id fibi vellet Tramai, nc hariolari quidem au« 
fu8 fum : Atqni fi Aftarte Deum fuerit Mater, 

L 2 Aftartas 


i64 4 Tmdic0Hm rf tb$ 

Synt. ftd P^ Aftu-Qtjijk 

. N. B. Ccurm^d is aAoth^r nwic for Qe^cditft: 
£> it may be Tr^mM Uwr Ck^madl-^v^ha fecios 
to be peeidiarly called uppA in 4«s Use, «$ ptefi- 
ding over the Dea^ A|atres« 

$. Pheara^iaq^ Sop of Budb^dMrrg. Thtawas 
Faramaa tbe^foQiidcriof ^eBmmms: lairemaur* 
qu^ que le^ B^me^ aimalent a qtre aj^fiQll^s P^p^o^ 
mfnttf pw rcCpc)^ pQ\up 1?^ m^ niqire de kur An- 
c^ftrea qui port<4^at cf aop^ (Moq(, Bailly» Lett* 
fur ks ScicAcea, p* 2q2). Faujiii^ yous 4it» 
xiue Mercvre, le m^tn^ que Butt^ Pti Budda un^ 
d^9 fon4ik.tew& de 1^ 4oiQxi|i6 dea P^x^focne^ ou 
Br»Hite«» Qft appqlle P»ram«^iHi iG^bcKn Hift. du 
Calcndricr Pr<^f♦ pt 14)- 

7. Dolph de^d (l^pl^ ; P«dpb vith tfa^ fluaing 
teeth (n). Tbi9 ib the Ssdambus of the Babylo- 
^ams, ymti Adir-daga of the Aflyrians^<*-cadein 
qu« Sc DeveetQ D^ Syria ic Heliapolitanau 
Aui$«i: Delepbeat» quifi vk^m fpmnam s^onc, 
teftc H^cbioy Vc^cx^m »Vf Koi? vqc^. Veni» 
^ }llms opuma Del^b^t : 4igyptiiii DeliAav aut 
JOelpbaty 0«.ydacbu3 pifci« (T. i?»4). — ^Eam ipfiun 
flfSe Derceto jc SalambQ* £cce Pi-delphav plur. 
auiQ. me quoque tftoe^t^ prodit apert^ Grae- 
cum ^wffir m Biv^g ; & ^ Arabico imcrprpte 
Salaba per Epenth. pe Salaalbs^ Qxyrincbum 
apud iBgypt.--<^ae vox fi a Grsccis ad nativaiu 
dialedum trsA$ferat9r» babebimu* <;ontinuo Ofci^ 
rinfoi^ Ofuidis Sinumt C« «t^i^ Jfin f^^iUcet vi Ouri- 
dis fluvida,^ caque ignea tumidaim* Nanant enim 
iEgyptii, ut eft in Q«dip. KUtqih. T. i. p. 35*, 

(a) The 'fiih called Dolph.— Oxyrinchus is tnuiikted a 
Molkceor ward poimttD the I]Qi{duiv 

Jmient M^hty if Mand. 165 

(kiij/iimlmm dSrwf^ pf^drndum Cyiridti a T^fhtm 
tgk^w/n^ 4U «l fSltm finje&um^ \x mirum tibn fit, 
Mdd pUc&m httnc iEgypdi, tamopete v^aerari 
miduerint) (T. i24)*-i'httice from the Dolphdead 
ShdhS) it formed ^e abote moft ridiculous alle«> 
gory \ a proctf of the SoiHthem Scythians h&ving 
been that andetit peofJc of Afia fpokim di by 
Mm£ Bailly : Gtt ancieii pcuple a eu dtsSciaices 
jpeifc&ion^eS) une philolo|Aie fiiblime & fage( 
bfid this ags^ is exem^ified, by all tbefe names 
tttr^bg to one and die fame meamnc; in the IrUh 
lianguage. The God of Nature, the Oenitalia, 
ttnd the Sciiieii, the fignification of Budd, Se^^- 
fa, &C, Ut. Nam Ti-Sumani j£gyptii (kiiitalia 
vocant & Snmonas M^tq/irtmi i. e. Semen Apot 
ints^autMenthamAf/M^ Toveir Td^A^^ftrSanguinMi 
ac geidturam Ammonis, (T* 156)* 

Otir account oi tbe MaUbe^ condndes with a 
Aort lift of miraculous thin^ impoited m Irdand 
by Ae Tuatha tladann^ whSch here require fomt 
exfJianation, before tve ptoceed-^tfae \irords are^^ 
Tugfitt febid ioftgontaca fai^hnathaiha leo, i. e. 
they brought with them theur ufual wonderful ct»- 
fliofities, vie. 

1. An Leug faiL u an ctoch Cceisdeadb, 
^t 18, the Stone of the Chefdim, or of £ncbant- 
mcnt, which always dedaxcd llu: true monarch 
ud prevented all controverfy. 

R £ M A a. K s« 

Tfaii k the Meiidth or Orade diicribed in the 
13th No. of the GoUedafiea. Th« Irifli Axitiquaw 
lies have confounded this Intone, with another, 
£ured to ihe Scythians only} tfaeMeifcith belong- 

i66 Jl VinJSealkn of tie 

tAto the GhaUeans, ilie odier Stone is pecutiar to 
Japhct's race^ and is common with the Turks and 
Tartars. It is called Carrig am Aibar or the Stone 
of the Father. This &bulous Stone i^ well known 
in the Eaft, an account of it is to be met with in 
DUerbelot, p. 890. cxtraded from Oriental Au- 
thors. ^^ Before J^het feparated from Nrah^ 
fay they, the Patriardi beftowed to bis Son his 
bleffing, and a moil valuable SfiCMie on which was 
engraved die gr^at naffie rf, Codj and inftrude4 
him at the fame time, that in this myfterious 
name, was comprized ail that was efTential in Re- 
ligion and in divine worlhip.' This Stone the 
Arabs call Hag^r al nuabar^ that is, the Scone of 
i;ain, a name comipced from Carig am Aibar. 
The Moguls name it Gioudebtba/by (i; e. Seoda 
Tcofac, in Irifli, the Chieftan's Stone ;) the PerQ- 
ans call it Sehiideh'u e. the Bton^.- It had the pow- 
er of producing rain or fur weather^ as Japhet 
faw agreeable to his vrifhes, and though by length 
of time, it has been confumed pr lofl:, - the Tartars 
or Oriental Turks bav^ ftones in which they fay, 
■there is the ianie virtue as the Original had. And 
the mod fuperllitious amongft them, tell you, 
that they have bden reprodueea and multiplied by 
a kind of generation from this firit Stone^ ths|t^Q» 
ah gave to his Son." (b) 


(b) The old Romans converted the vrord «m Athar into Mar- 
tial is and Manalis ; kenc6 the Lapis Manaiis^ vel Lapis Marii^ 
aJit^ kept in the temple of Mars at Rome, without the Porta Ca* 
'pena* b Dnmghts tfae-old' Romans ufed to catty m yroctSBom 
.this La^ Martialis to pracure rain. The Romiih Chrnvh coiH 
verted this corrupted MarSia/is into a good Saipt» and the BatiKi 
of St. Martial in the Ceverfms^ has sow the lame taio prodiicm^ 
power.' The Catholic Roman Calendar i^ b gpoi a Cdmaieiit 


Ancunt Hj/hry of Ireland. 167 

It is evident from the above extraSs, that the 
Arabs have made the fame confufion as the mo- 
dern Iriih ; miftaking the Leach Fail of the Iriih 
and the Lak Fail of the Perfians, for the Carig am 
Athar ; The Clock na Soineana is confounded with 
the Clock na Cineambna'y the firft figniBes the 
Maiiheac or Meifcith, the JUDUKD pfi^ of the Jews, 
forbidden Levit. 26* i. the fecoad, Japhets 
fair weather Stone, and the third, the Stone of 

2. The fword of Nuadhat of the filver hand : 
agus ni gabhtha Cath fris, which was never ufed 
in battle, i. e. the Sword of Zerduft the firft. 

3* Coire an Daghda, nock teigbeadb damh di" 
omdhar uadka : the Coirr, Knot or twitted Qirdle 
of Daghda, which he conftantly wore* They 
fought the battle of Muiphe tuireadh, (of the 
Towers of the Magi) with, the Fear«bolg, ba 
haintahia ^ttrocair ro fearadh an cath (in eatorra,) 
with brutal cruelty on both fides ; Eacbad Mac 
Earg was Tuigb fhlaitbj or Chief Commander of 
the Fsr-bolgj and he cut off the hand of Nuadhat, 
and at length his head. In another MSS. we are 
told, that the Tuatha Danann, ever remarkable 
for their Sorcery and Necromancy, made a Silver 
band for Nuadhat, whence his name of Airgiod- 
lamhy or Silver handed, proh dolor ! 

To an Ori^ntalift, acquainted with the fabulous 
hiftory of the Perfians^ there mud appear a f£rik- 
ing coincidence, of ns^mes and fads, between the 

on Ovid's Fafti, that from thefe a Monk, has adtually fupplied his 
books of thofe which are loft. Stepheiu« MuffiiTxl, aiid Middle* 
ton, have only (ketcht this conformity of Ceremonies^ but Mr. 
Bowman has proved it is univerfal in the early fuperftitioni of 
the Roman Religion. (Mio. Antiq. Soc. 8 Feb. 17 $9.) 


i68 4 FhdkafiM ^ tke 

Perfian and Irifh Hiftory^ Ilia fu0b^ Dadmm 
are the Pijbdadmt^ of tlie P^rfitxi^. Nu^idii^t Air- 
giodUmh, is the Zerdo/i (of Gpld^tumd) of the 
rerfians ; a&d Eochad Ma<; Earg (or the Horfe- 
man) is the /Irj-afp (or the illuftrious Horfeman) 
King of the Scythians, who gava th^t pretended 
prophet fo much vexation. 

Firft then» Tuatb and Pyh (q) ar« fpaonnims 
words in the Chaldee^ and both figpiiy myftery, 
Sorcery, Prophets, &c. they are both of the fame 
fignification in the Irlfli, therefore by Pijhdadann 
and Tuatia Dadannf I upderftand the Dadapites, 
defcended of Dedan, who had (ludied th^ Necro- 
mantic Art, which fprung from the Ch^fdim oi 

In Liber Amch under tS we find tU^-l963 Tuta? 
Dagon, explained to be the priefts or Sorcerers of 
Dagon $ in Hebrew top lut is a Myftery, a S^ret : 
(Liber Zohar Ch. 97. we find Tut or t9l9 the namq 
of the Chief A^^el> ^o of the Mefliah ;) and hence 
I derive the Tutapbath wom by the Rabbins on 
their foreheads in the Synagogues. |n Chaldei 
NtO^iiS Tiita is any thing myfterioiis, (Rabboth 
Cap, 28.) In Arabic Tawid, Averynca* 

Chaldee nSfS pitzah, aperuit, interpretavit, N!{g 
Sors. MO^^D Sors. Syriace ^DS prsBdicavit : Perfic^ 
pifbin guftun to predift, (Jal g^tun the &me, 
whence our Lia Fail)^ In Wfli P^fhcgj Sorcery^ 

(e) Tua$ha Htren taircaauis 
dos nicfead fithlaich nua. 
Fates Hiherniif vadcinabantiir 
adventurum tempas pacis novum. 

(Prima Vm Patricii. Colgan p. a.) 


Andifit B^/hry tf Ireland. 1 69 

jbrtime^tettiQgi conjuring, &c.»-*the word is 
now taken in a bad fenfe as in the Hebrew dS ma- 
ledicere. (d) 

As to the Iriih Thna or Tiuij (in the plural 
Tuatba^) there can no doubt arife of the figni- 
fication of the word, and that it is here applied to 
the Dadannim ef Chaldaa. Symmachus and Hi- 
eronymus are expUcit, as coUe&ed by the learned 
Bochart. *^ Proinde ut Bacchae Tbyadesj fic Ba^ 
'^ bykmi barufpicu a Symmacho vocantur evcti. 
^^ Dan. a. ay^^-^HieronymuSy pro arufpicibut, 
^< quod nos vertimus in Hebreeo f^^U habetur, 
<< quod folus Symmachus euobV interpretatus 
^' eft/* (e) 

6««ff $acrificula Bacchi. (Apoll.)*-"^*^*^^ <iuas 
'Gr»ci folent ^9fkrw%im^if appellare, i. e. qui exta 
inipidunt, & ex iis ventura praodicunt. (f j 

In a former number of this work, my readers 
were advertifed» that the war between the Fir4>cl^ 

(d) Th« Perfiani deri?0 ths name PiJkJaJium from fijhdai 
a Lawgiver. Peifli-nihaud is a Law : and fb is dad in Arabic ; 
in Irifh Daih : in Chaldee and Hebrew m dath ; but there is 
no fuch word as Pi/^ in die Chaldee, fignifying a law, and from 
the Chaldaeaos we derive this Colony with fome good pretence. 
Mirkhofid a«d Khoiidemir afTure us, that the 4 Dynafties of 
the Perfians include all the Kings of Afiyria, of Chaldaea, Ba- 
bylon, Modes, and Perfia, known to the Greeks, who like the 
Hebrews, have often taken Viceroys and Governors of the ancient 
Kmgs of Perfia for abfolute Monarehs, becaufe diey were better 
known to them than the Sovereigns were, whofeReGdenoeswere 
in Provinces very diftant Ax>m theou 

(e) Bochart. Geogr. Sacr. L. i . C. 1 8.— to which be adds» 
ut jam nulli fit pbfcurum cur Graeci tot voces barbaras^ ufurpa* 
verint in Bacchi facris : illas finltcet d magiftris Phaetiicibus ^l- 
dicerant, Tuath in Irifh is alfo explained by phoras or fbras, 
an Cxpianator, revealvr, Interpretor, &c. 

<f) Lexicon Graecuni ad facri apparatus inftruftkmcm. 
Aotverp. 1572. 


X70 A Vindication of the 

and the Tuatha Dadantij from every circumftance 
that could be colle&ed in Irifh HUlory, was cauf^ 
cd from Religious motives : fome innovations at- 
tempted by the Tuatha Dadann, in which they 
fuccecded ; for this reafon, I was then of opinion 
that Bclg (ignified a Pricft, as balg is a man of eru- 
dit^on, (a^ a further purfuit in this dark and myf- 
terious hiflory, has convinced me that I was right 
with refpeft to the principal objeft, the war, and 
perceiving that the Scene lay with the Chaldeans, 
I was milled by Buxtorf, who makes Bal^ a Sed 
of the Jews, ni^St Bilga Nomcn Sacerdbtis cujuf- 
dam, qui ex captivitate Babylonica Hieroiblymam 
rediit. Nehem. 1 2. 5. — cujus Sedatores didli fue- 
runt Bilgitx : videtuf & Ordo virginum facranim 
abeo fuiue, de qupordine quaedam piita m C^TO' 
Miriam filia Bilgae^ i. e. de ordinc live obfervan- 
tia Bilg9s difta-^the iignification of our ^r bolg 
has been fuificiently and fatisfa£torily explained in 
the preceding pages. 

It will appear, diat this war between the Ftrbolg 
or Fir D^Omariy or men of Oman^ and t|ic Tuatha 
Dadann^ is the War dcfcribcd by the Perfian Hif- 
torians, to have fubfifted between the Pifdadian 
Kings of Perfia, and the Touranians or Scythians^ 
caufcd by Zerduji the firft, (or Zoroaftres, on 
the introduftion of Pyrca or Firctowers, like thofe 
ftill remaining in this Kingdom,) in which attempt 
Zerduji loft his life. 

In this inveftigation, fo many circumftances, 
proper names &c. concur, to eftablifh the feftj 
that they have induced me to follow my originaj, 

(a) Arabicd Beig whence Baligh or Belch, the Ci^f ^ 


Ancmt Uyiory of Ireland. i y t 

the Itiih Hiftpry, in the explanatioii of Perfian 
names i becaufe the IriiQi names appear to be t{ie 
iimple tranflation of the Perfian, and at the iai|i.c 
time, the words are to be fpund in the Arabic or 
Ferfic, though now become obfolefe ; this I hope 
will be a fu^cicnt apology for differing fo much 
from fixe leaned authors , who have gone oyer thi$ 
ground before ftm ; it is alfo to be confider^, 
that thefe Authprs have had iy> ipther rcfource for 
^eir inYcftigation, than' the Arabs, and the 
Greeks;, the firft profp/Ted eiicgiies of the Perfes^ 
or fire worihippers, the latter ignorant of almoft 
all Afiatic pohce or religions, yet pretended to 
jsnow ev^ thi^g, which made I^ucian begin gne 
of his S^tyrical pieces againfl: hi/lpriaqs, with de-* 
claring that the only true propolition in his work 
was, that itjbotdd contain nothing true. (H) 

My guide in this intricate path, is mor^ than 
language > i^ 1$ a chain of hiftoricai events, (whe- 
ther real or fabulous, J do not pretend to deter* 
mine) which iltuftrate the f^arly part of Perfian 
hiftory, and plainly prpv^, that both the Perfian 
and the triih or Scythian Anecdotes, mud have 
been handed to us by one and the fame people. 
The divcrfity and difficiilty of languages, fays the 
{earned Sir William Jo^es, i^ a fad obflacle to the 
progrefs of ufeful knowledge ; the attainment of 
them is however indifpenfably neceflfary : they are 
the in/irunients of real learning, (b) ^ 

To underfland the fubjequent part of this Chap- 
ter, it is neceifary my readers be made acquainted 
with the Perfian hiftory of the Pijhdadiam^ and 
with the Writers of the life of Zerduft. 

(b) Addreft to tbe Afiatic So^ietf. 


tfi A VihdicMtiM rf the 

Mj hiftory of the Bsrfian Empire, fiiyt Sit 
William Jones, is exttaded from federal Aiktidt 
Writers, and might have been coi^derafoiy enlar- 
hrged, if all the ntbies and dull events, which aft 
found, it muft be confefled, in great abundance 
in the Originals, had been traafcribed at fiiU 
length. The Perfians would not readily fotgive 
my prefumption, if they knew what X liberty I 
have taken with their Ghronologjf^, smd bow manj 
thou/and years I have retrenched nrom the {urete&d- 
ed duration of their Empire. 

From Richardson's DlfertiOhn an tbe Lanpa^es^ 
&c. of tbe Eqftem Naiumt^ p. 47. 



^ The reigning families of Periia, previous it 
the Arabian con(|ueft, are comprehended, by 
^^ their hiftorians, under four dynafties (or &nii- 
^ lies) ; the Pijhdadians^ the Kaianians^ the As- 
^^ kaniansj ^jiAxh^ Saffaniant. ThePeribuis, like 
*^ other people, have aflumed the privilege of re- 
*• mancing on the early periods of Society. The 
firft dynafty is, in confequence, embarrafled by 
fabling, (c) Their mo A: ancient prindss are 
** chiefly celebrated for their vi£tories over 
^* the Demons or G^oui, called Dives : and fome 
** have reigns alfigned to them of 800 or 1000 
** Years. Amidft fuch fidions, however, there 
^ IS apparently fame truth. Thofe monarch^ proba^ 
^' bly did reign, though poetic fancy may have 
*^ afcribed to them ages and adventures, which the 

(c) Sir William Jones {ajty the Perfitn hiftory begins co be 
full of abfurd fables in ihe reign of Dkmb. B. Chrift^ 424. 

« laws 




Atident J^«r)r of hrelatuk lyj 

^^ laws of nature rejeO;. We difpute not the ex« 
iftence of our Englifh Artbuty though we believe 
not in the Giants and Magic of Qeoffrey of 
^^ Monmouth. The Dives may have been favage 
neighbours conquered by the Pijhdadian Kin^s, 
and magnified by tradition as beings ofafuper** 
ns^turai fpecies. l^e Gods, the Titans and the 
^^ heroes ot the Greeks } the Giants, the Savages, 
^ and the monfters of Gothic romance, feem all 
^ to have originated, from fimilar principles; 
*^ from that wud irregularity of fancy, and that 
^ admiration of the marvellous, which, in various 
** degrees, runs thro* the legends of every darker 
^^ period of the hiftory of mankind. The iongc- 
^ vity, at the fame time, afcribed to this race of 
^ monarchs, may either have been founded on 
'^ fome imperfed antediluvian idea, or may be re* 
*^ folyed, by fuppofing^mVw, infleadof im£ra;i^tf* 
^^ aki and that the Caiumaras^ the Gbemjhids^ 
^^ and the Feridoufu of the Eafl, were merely fuc« 
^^ qefl&ons of princes, bearing one common fur«. 
^^ name ; like the Pharaohs, the Ptolemies or the 
« Caefars of the Weft/' (d> 

'^ With the iecond dynafty, a more probable 
^^ fy(^em of hiftory feems to commence ; yet ftill 
^^ the era of Kaicobad the founder of this houfe, 
^^ cannot be precifely freed. Though hidprians 
** differ, however, with regard to the Chronology 
^^ of this prin<;e |n one point, which may lead us 
^^ to afcertain it with tolerable accuracy, they ap<- 
*^ pear, -in general, to be unanimous. Darab the 
^^ younger, dethroned by Alexander, is called the 
^^ 9th Sovereign of this line. He was^ affaffinated 
** about 300 Years before Chrift. If 30 years are 

(d) Q-amra in Irifh, is head cf the Nobles. 

*' allowed 

1^4 ^ Tindkation tff tie 

'^ alldwcd therefore as the medium of each reigii, 
^ or 270 for the nine Kings, Kaicobad's Sove- 
^ reignty may poflibly hdve commenced about 
*' 600 Years bcfofc c/iir era, which will compre* 
*' hend the whole of that period of Pcrfiih hiftory 
^^ for which we are indebted to the Greeks. Sir 
*' I. Newton, it may be objeded, with other 
** Chronologifts, have allowed but 26 Years to a 
*^ rcigii, and made that the unlverfal ftandard for 
"^^^ all nations : but with fubmiflion to thofe learned 
** men, nothing tarries with it a ftrongcr teriden- 
** cy to unhinge all chronology, than fuch an un- 
** modified fyftern." 

*' The Kaianan dynafty being (iippofed then to 
^' commence nearly about 600 Years before the 
*' birth of oiir Lord, this brings iis to the reign 
of that King of the Medo Perfians, called by the 
Greeks Cya9:eres ; (e) which according to Sir I. 
Newton's conjefture, is (lippofed to have begun 
in the Year Nabonaflar 137 (jibout 610 before 
Chrift.) From this teriod till the M^LC-edonian 
conqucft, we have therefore the hiftory of the 
Perfians, as given us by the Greeks ; and the 
hiftory of the Perfians, as writteh by them- 
" felves. Between thofe claflfes of writers, we 
might natutally cxpeft fome difference tfffafts ; 
but we fhould as naturally look fo^ a few greaf 
lines, which inight mark fortie^m/Aj/-//y 6fjl$ry: 
yet, from every refearch which I have had an 
opportunity to make, there feems to be nearly 
^' as much refemblahce between the annals of 
^^ England and Japan, as between the European 
and Afiatic relations of the fame Empire. The 

(c) i. c. Cai Cofrn. Cee p. 6i. 

^ " name's 







Ancient Hijlory of Ireland. i 7 J 

nimes and numbers of their Kings have no 
analogy : and in. regard to the mod fplendid 
fads of the Greek hiftorians, the Perfians are 
entirely filent. We have no mention of the 
Great Cyrus nor of any King of Perfia^ ivho ia 
the events of his reign, can apparently be forced 
into a fimilitude. We have no Crsefus King of ^^^ 

Lydia : not a fyllable of Camby fes or of his 
frantic expedition againft the Ethiopians* 
Smerdis Magus and the fucceilion of Darius, 
the Son of Hyftafpes, by the - neighing of his 
horfe, are to the Perfians circumftances equally 
unknown as the numerous aiTaHinations record- 
ed by the Greeks. Not a veftige is, at the fame 
time, to be difcovered of the ramous battles of 
Manlthon, Thermopylx, Salarnis, Platea, or 
Mycale : nor of that prodigious force which 
Xerxes \^d out of the Perfian empire to over- 
whelm the States of Greece. Minutely atten- 
tive as the Perfian hiftorians are to their numer- 
ous wars with the Kings of Touran or Scythia : 
(f) and recording, with the fame impartiality 
whatever might tarnifh as well as aggrandize 
the reputation of their country : we can, with 
little pretence to reafon, fuppofe, that they 
fbould have been filent on events of fuch mag-* 
nitude : had aiw record remained of their ex- 
igence, or the fainteft tradition commemorated 
their confequchces." 
From this learned Orientalift's refearches, we 
have two points, eflabliflied in favour ofourlrifli 
records, firft, that they were not copied by Irifh 
monks, either from Greek or Latin Authors, for 

(0 The people whofe hiftory we arc now treating of, 


iy6 A VifHiicatm rf tii 

no tranladioiis of the Grecians at tbit period^ as 
aflcitcd by their writers, appear in the Irifli hifto- 
ry : fecondly, it corrdponds fo much with the 
Periian hiftory, that it mult have been brought 
with them from Afia, and in point of time there 
is a great coincidence. 

The Irifli Annals inform us, that Megb Nuad^ 
bat or Nuadhar, that is, the Magus Nuadhar, was 
the leader of this Colony into EiriTi^ which we 
tranflate Ireland, but may have fienificd Iran of 
Perfia^ and that this event took place. Anno 
Mundi 3303, that is, aboat 705 Years before the 
birth of our Saviour, (g) 

Mr. Richardfon clearly proves that the firft King 
of the fecond Dynafty, begun his reign about 600 
Years before Chrift. Nuadar was the 8th King 
of the firft Dynafty, and there were three between 
him and Kaicobad, or the firft King of the focond 
Dynafty, (as in the following taUe) : allowing 30 
years to each, and adding tnree times 30, or 90 to 
the fprmer number, the Sum is 690 Years from 
the end of Nuadar's reign, which fubftracced from 
705 leaves 15; that is, about the middle of Nua- 
dar 's Reign, he led the Piflidadian Colony into 
Perita, or Iran, foon after which he may have mi- 
grated with the Pbsenidans to Eirin, or. fent off 
a Colony with them. 

It will appear hereafter, that this Noadbar 
Airgiodlamh, or filver handed^ is Zerdu/i the ift, 
whofe exiftence PUyfair makes about 600 years 
B. C ; he calls him a Periian^ we contend from 
Irifh hiftory, and other corroborating circum- 
ftances, that will appear in this chapter, that be 
was of the. family of Dadan^ fon of Rbegma^ fon 

, (g) Sec Page 73. 


AncientHiftory tf IreHtnd. 


of Cti/b^ Ibn of Cham or Ham ; yet the circum* 
ftance of Airgiodlamh's death by Eocbady (that 
1$, tbciUildlrious horfeman^) correfpoiids m name, 
with the death of Zerduji the sd, who lived abo^t 
490, &i C. according to Playfair, and was killed 
by die Sbytl^an King Arjafp^ which is only thfe 
Inih CSoKrAix/ tninflated into the Perfic language, 
viz. Arj illuftrious, afp a horfe, of this hereafter, 
(a) The Perfians have blended the tranfadion of 
one 2enluft' ix&th the otheri ! . 

(a) Tauk was the old Arabic name for a horfe, as y^ coIled^ 
ftom Hj^ek ftjDCes on Abttlfaxa^. The ancient Arabs, fays thac 
tutbor^ worAitpped chefe idols i IPW under the figure of a man % 
Savm, under that of a'woman 1 TagouiA a fion 1 Tltei a horfe, 
and iVi^* vulture. Arabesaottrnvidentur hasfonwn ^icuiffe 
ez appellativb horum jxuninum fignifiouiooibusi and here we 
muft obferve^ that modh or wodh b mhodh, i^, e. 'mKodh in 
Irijh, a man j Saobha a remitrkable womaij» ' .called 

Shcbba^^and Shevan a Milce» a fabidous fiiiry* Queen ; ahd 
EocorToc; is a horfe. -^ The termiliation ad impiiet iAs/hrf,; 

> J 





A Vindpc4ttimY tie. 

I. • & 

Thi; DyNA&TY qvTHK PaAQiAH^k 


» • J 

• • • c* 

According to Visd^^ fln^GUi^Attte^ fixMtbe 
ewriieft Hiftovy ta the Gfaxiftian £ki^* (^ r 

« I • ■ * 
• • •-. - 

^ 4i * \ 

» . - . < 

P I S H D A D LAjK K i N^4i^ i 

» • 


• '• • 

I Cai^iun^ratii . ^ 

. Ihterrc^um - \ 200' 

5. Z^ak or Dohak . looo 
6 Afridoun or? 

Fcridoun S ^^^ 

7 Manougeher - 120 

lopo. years 

» • k« ■ 


8 Noudar 

9 Afrafiab 

10 Zab - 

11 Guihtafp 

Cotemporary with 
^Pharaoh ot Mofes, 
according to the 


20 or 30 

2989 Sum of their Reigns. 

(b) Supplement to DUcrbalot bj Vifdelou and Gthnd. 

» < 

C AI- 

Anchnt lUfiary of Irskind. 



Reigned years* 


1 Caicobad * 

2 Gaikotis 

3 Caikhofru . «. 

4 Lohorafp 

5 Ki&taip . * 

6 Ardfhir or Bar 7 

batoan. . j 

7 Cjveea tloaiai 
& Dorabthc i(lr nor 14 
9 DoriUi the ad. 

cboquered by^ 14 

1 30 


*_f _ 

7.40 or 740 Sttm^ CO ' 
Ma Ttta 

■ • ! • . - . . . ' 

(c) )^(^rodQ(u% Xenophoo, Pauianiai, Jfuftm, and oithetJiif'^ 
R>r!a>»y '(fiffer fo remarkkbly, efpepiallj with rtgard 10 naoicv 
eras, ttAd' tBi of tbe early kings of PeHfil, diat, if it was of the kail 
ifflpormide to i^cttnoilc them, k would be jinpoffible. (Rkh- 

mdfon's 9iflevt4 ]n 24a. 

Kings of Perfia according to the Greeks* 

Cyaxercsy fbn of Aftyages. Ante Ghr. 61 o< 

IXirius the Mede. 



Smerdis Magus. 

Dariusy funof Hyftafpes^ 




J 8o A Yindkaiion if the 

Third Dynasty of thb. Greeks. 

Alexander be^im bir Remi in Perfia, 331 hdbxc 



Thcfe three fums added * togedier, cttdnfivc of 
the interregnum of 200 years, make in the iBvfaole 
406a years, to which add the interregnum, and 
Caiumarafb muft have reigned 4262 years before 
the chriftian era ; but, allowing 30 years to a rdgn, 
according to Mr. Richardfon, and multiplying 
that number by 7, the Kings . before Naoudar, 
and adding the 1 5 he is fuppofed to bare reigned 
before he led the Piihdadians into Jhm, according 
to Irifb hiftory, then Caimuratb begun his reign 
only 930 before Chrift. 

Giyhtafp is proved by Dr. Hyde to be the Dart- 
us Hjjiajfes of the Greeks, and to have reigned 
5 1 9 before Chrift \ adding 300 years to this num- 
ber for the ten preceding Kings, will bring the 
commencement of Kaiumurath's reign to 819 
years before Chrift, which only exceed the Iriin 
Chronology by 1 1 1 years. 

Artaxerzes Longimanuf. 

Xerxes 2d. 


Darhis the baftard. 

Arraxerxes Ocbus. 

Ayfes. . 

Darius Codomanus. 

Alexander ante Chr. 33c. (Sir J. Newton.) 


Ancieni ttiftcry of Ireland. 181 

It is remarkable, that the fabulous reigns of the 
Pifhdadians end .vith Manoughcr, and a more 
ratbnal account begins with Naoudar, ivith whofe 
life our Tuath Dadann biftory commences, with- 
out ailigning any time to him or any of the reft of 
the Dvnafty : but in the third Irifli Dynafty, that 
is, thu Milefian line, we (ball find Dobac^ Tagh- 
murofj Queen Homai^ and others, with Scythian 
names, and a regular Clu^nology aligned to them, • 
as if they lived but yeilcrday. We fhaU here col- 
late die two hiftories. I muft firft premife that 
Kai in Perfic, and Ce or A>, and Cai or Cu in 
Iriih, fignify a prince, a giant, a hero, as in Iriih, 
Cfi-iaubej me great, the illuftrious Bacchus. Cai- 
cuUan or Cu-cmlan, the grea( Ciallan. It is writ- 
ten O and Co/, and it wb fignijfies a houfe, a fa- 
mily, a hulband. Kaiyan is the Perfic plural— 
hence Kai-cobad is the Greek Cyaxares, Kai-Kus^ 
Darius the Mede. Kai'-Kh^fru^ Cyrus or Chof- 
roes, &c. and Qm-amra in IriQi, is ^ng of the 

I. Kmomerasi is allowed by all the Asiatic au- 
thors to have been firft King of the Piflidadians ; 

(d) before his time there was no Kijig, they 
were all Emr*Sj independent ^ of each other, by 
which much confufion enfued ; they therefore 
elected him Kai-omara^ i. e. head of the Amra^s. 

(e) He civilized the people, taught men to build 


(d) And it is as remarkable that be rook the tide and fumame 
of BulgMan^ as if defcended of our Bol^ ; but the Periians fa7, 
the name b contracted of Abuyihan^ i. e. the father of the world { 
it is compofed, fay they, of a word which is Hebrew, Syriac 
and Arabic, and of another that is purely Perfian, and therefore 
Kaiumarath is Adam. 

(e) Sir Wm. Jones, in his hiftory of Perfia, had inadvertently 
faid Caiumaras feems to be the K. of Elam, mentioned in Scrip- 

i8i A Vindicadim of the 

houfes, and to live in vSlages, to mannfa&nre i3ks 
and cloths ; in fliort they make him Adanty ^prbich 
is a plain proof that the Pcr(ian$ knew littie or 
nothing of his hiftory ; others make hhn the fon 
of Aram, fon of Shem, fon of Noah, and that he 
dwelt near Mount Ararat ; all this is afcribed t6 
the Irifli Tighermos or Tihcrmas. Sec Art, IH. 

II, Houihang (f ) is faid to have beftrid a mon- 
ilrous animal, called Rakhjhcj which he iband in 
the New World, being the iffue of a male Croco- 
dile and a female Hippotamus ; this (teed fed upon 
the flefl) of ferpcnts and dragons. With this mon- 
iVer he reduced the people of Mahiferj who had 
fifhes heads ; this is fuppofed to be the conqueft of 
a peopk that Kyed on the Perfic gulpli, called by 
the Greeks Icfotbyopbagiy and are the very FirMg 
or Br D*Oman, mentioned in the laft chapter, and 
the fubjagation of thpm by the Tuatha Dadartn^ 
mentioned in this. The Magogiap or Perfian Scy- 
thians having been remarkable for their iiifaing on 
the Cafpian and Eu^^ine feas, on the Euphrates 
and the Tygris, and on the coaft of Oman^ or the 
Perfic gulph, the Indian fca and the Arabian gulph. 
Oman was a narrow ftrip of country bordering all 
thcfc, as already explamed, 

aire. Ke corrc^ himfeJf in xh? preliice, a«d plac«s Ctiumaras 
about 890 before Chrift. But this obfervation confirms oiir cx- 
plajiation of Caedflrloniar or Ccad-ar-ule Omra, fignifying the 
fame as Cai-umara, head or chief of the Emirs. Cai-oiweras has 
the fame (i^nificarion as Ccad-ar-«le Omra, i. e. chief of cbieft. 
Cai in the Pcrfian (ignifies a great King, Sir VV'm. J. Inlriih 
Ce, Cai and Cu. 

(f) This HoufTiang obtained the name of Pirtidad or the Le- 
giflator. Sir Wm. Jones. From the romantic hiftory of this 
Prince, it is more probable he wss fo called from Pifh and Da- 
dan, that isy (killed in the magick of the Chaldaean^ or I^- 


AfkietH H^§ij nf Ireland. 183 

Nothing can bea^'ftronger evidencfft ihat the 
Bcrfianrkiiew no more of Ac Pilhdadian^ than the 
bare name, than by beginning their ratiofiiil hifto- 
ry by the ttord Kmfon^ ^oV the fecond Dynafty,) 
the fignification of ^hicb is Kin^. Would ihey 
itile me firft Dynafty Law^givers and tb< fecond 
Khpf Are not all Kings in the Eaft, Law-givefs^? 
This HoMjbatig holds the place of Sianiekm the 
Fiflidadian Dynafty, according, to fame AHatic 
writers V and they give him the name of Piflidad, 
or the Law^'girer. 

QI. ^aghrnurasy fumamed Divhnd^ \. e« the 
bumbler of the Devil, fuppofed to be the fon or 
gratidfon of Hotiihang^ and by fome.his coufin 
only. * He is the iirft Perfian Prince, recorded to 
have had a prime miniller ; he fortified the fron- 
tiers of Perfia, and laid the foundation of I/iacarj 
or Perfipoiisy which was finiihed by his fuccefTor 
GUn^d. Shedad, fon of Ad, a King of Arabia^, 
nephew to Ta^muras, fent an army ^gainft him» 
' under the command of Dohac^ fon of Oluan^ who 
furprized him, and obliged him to fly and to aban- 
don his ftatc to the Ufurper, [He firft ufcd a 
compleat fuit of armour : he was called Divbend, 
or the Tamer of the Giants. Sir Wm. Jones, 1 

This is the Tighermas or Tihermas of the Iri(h 
hiftory, who was continually alarmed with the 
pretenfions of the family of Heber-fionn. The 
firft gold mine was difcovered in his reign : he di- 
vided the people into claffcs, and obliged the qua- 
lity of every perfon to be known by his garb. The 
cloaths of a ilave of one colour, the habit of a fol- 
dier two, of the officers three, &c. (This is 
afcribed to Gjamftiid, fuccefibr to the Perfian 


184 A Vmdicakhn ^tbe 

The Liber Lecanas concludesithe reign of Tig- 
hennas, by aflening that he flew 7000 Jadi ( JcW!) 
Leab« Lecaii. fol. 1 4. In what pare of Ireland trcre 
the Ifraelites fixed ? Tahmurus lived B. C. 835. 
Our Tiber mas is placed at 1 1 88 B. G. 

The Irifli Prince is faid to have died <m the eve 
of the feftival of Sambna^ (g) as be was vwfi^ 
ping Cram cruadh^ the fame God thai Zerdifi or 
Zoroa/ires adored. The Iriih Seanachies have pb* 
cedTighermas at Anno Mundi a8 1 6, (h) about 600 
years before (Airgiodlamh, or) the firft Zcrdnft 
appeared, and 700 before the fecond Zerduft. 
(The name of Zerduft's Gcd, was certainly Ke- 
rem Kerd, i. e. the great Creator, (i) the invifible 
and true God, and hence the Iriih Crom Gruadh.) 
He was fucceeded by Eochad Eadgothach^ fon of 
Daire, or Darius. 

W. Jamfhid^ (k) or Giamjhid^ or rather G/tfin 
Shid^ his name being Gjem^ to which Shtd was 
added as a furname. Shid in the Perfian lan- 
guage, fignifying the Sun ; hifr eyes having fuch a 
luftre, that none could look on him in the facc\ 

(g) See Collbaanea. No. 1 3. 

(1) Iftae tainen iduiplatricae ^entei (Ceylonenfes) non plane ig- 
norunt Peiim, quippe qui abeis lingua Indica agnofcirur Kertar, 
fadtor omniudi rcrum, C rcator mundi. This is the Cmathoir of 
the modern Iriili, via^ Cruachoir neamh agus realinhan, maker 
of heaven and earth. (Vide Iriib creed,) and Hyde, p. 134. 

(k) Giamihid was a Scythian. Dos que les Perfes ont 6ten- 
du leur empire jufq'uflu pied du Caucafe, ils ne font au contraire 
port^s vers le midi. Giamfliid a quitch ces montagnes pour de- 
. fcendre dans les plaines, ou il a fond> Perfepolis. (&iilly fur 
TAtlantick, 109.) In the courfe ofchis work, it will appear, 
that Zerdull was a Chaldean, who reftored (ire worfliip in 
tpwen. Monf. Bailly has inconteftably proved, that fire wor- 
fliip owed its origin io the Nonhern Scythians^ 


Ancient ISjiory of Ireland. 185 

It is not certaia whether this prince was the fon of 
his predeceflbr, bis nephew or his grandfon* He 
divided his fubje&s into three clafles, viz. foldiers, 
huibandmen and artizans, and direded that the 
di&rent degrees of people (hould be diftinguifh- 
able, from their garb. (1) In his time mufic and 
aftronomy were firft introduced into Perfla : he 
iirft built granaries, and in his time wine was 
brought into general ufe. He inftituted the Nat$' 
ruzy u e. the folemn obfervation of the new year^ 
which fieftival laded fix days ; on the laft day of 
this feftival, a youth went about crying out, / am 
al Manfur^ u e. Auguft, my name is al Mobarek^ 
i. e. the blefled. 

He gave the left hand the preference, which has 
been obferved at all times (ince in the £aft, fay- 
ing, it was fufficient for the right hand to have 
the advantage of being the right, and that the 
lejft (hould be expe&ed to make fome compenfa- 

Giamflied at length took it into his head that he 
was immortal ; fent figures rf bimfelf throughout 
the empire^ and ordered them to be worjhipped with 
divine honours. This caufed a rebellion in the 
province of Sigjijian^ from whence an army march- 
ed under Dahac which defeated Gjamftid, took 
him prifoner and put him to death, by fawing his 
body in two parts. 

The Irifh Luaghad lamhfadha, appoints Bras- 
comhrac, (m) or Tournaments to be held at Tail- 
tean on the firft day of Auguft, every year, a day 
which is ft ill diftinguiflied by the name of Lugb^ 

(1) See the IriiK TigKermas in the preceding article. 
(id) Sec note N. 


iS6 A Vindicatkn ^tbe . 

fia^j in honour of his name, (n) Lanib is a 
hand) and fadham or fhadhlan is to diftingufli, 
that is, the man who d^inguifhed the lift band from 
the ri^ht. Hefirjl introduced idolatry ^ and erefted 
Pagan altan^ though fome have afcribed this to 
Tighermas. His wife's name was TaUte^ who was 
married to Duach Doil^ a great general, after Lu- 
agh's death. Luagh (ignifies a bright flame, a 
-dazzling light, cx)rrefponding to GjemfhiU. Lu- 
agh is alfo an image. 

V, Dahac, Zahac, or Zoak. This monarch 

fained the crown by the fword, and govenied 
erccly, with little regard to his fubjeAs : fac was 
deeply fkilled in the occult fciences, a completely 
wicked man, with a deformed body and a terrible 
eountenance. The Devil having for many years 
obeyed him, demanded that he might have leave 
to kifs his (houlders ; which being granted, .an 
ugly ferpent immediately took poft in each» and 
gnawed itfelf a den in his flelh. A Sorcerer . fug*- 
gcftcd to him a remedy for this evil, via. that of 
wafhing the ulcers with warm blood of men, and 
of applying to them the brains of men newly flain. 
The Pricfts employed all their arguments to en* 
gage him to have recourfe to the blood and brains 
of Iheep ; but to no purpofe : thofe however, that 
were entrufted with the care of thefe unhappy 
wretches deftined to (laughter, often, out of mere 
pity, let them make their cfcape : fo that flying to 
the mountains, they there formed therafelvcs into 
a particular nation called the Curdes. Among 
others put to death for this cruel tyrant were the 

(n) Nafa, a celebratior*, feftival. hWhr-najaifli in Pcrfia is 
Michrx celebratio, ftu Laudatio, feu Saluratio. Hjdciai. 


Ancient Hijl&ry nf Ireland. 187 

fons of a certain Blackfmitb^ whofe name wad 
Gao^ Gau or Gav* This man, driven to madncfs 
at the fight of his children's blood, ran up and 
down the ftreets crying out for juftice, holding a 
leathern apron in his hand, as if it had been a 
ftandard. In a ftort time he became formidable ; 
and placing Phriduny the fon of Giamjhid at their 
head, they conquered Dahacj took him prifoner, 
and confined him in a cave. The biftory of Da- 
kacy fay the authors of the Un. Hiftory, is too ab» 
furd as well as fabulous to be related ! ! 

Duach Fionn, fays the Irifli hidory, was fon of 
Seadhnaj who liad bis limbs violently drawn afun« 
der: but Duach Laighrcach feized upon the 
crown. An. Mund. 3480. The remedy of the 
Brains in Dohak's ftory, is worked up in the Irifh 
hiftory into a Ball of brains ; and they fay, when- 
ever a chanfbion overcame his advcrfary in ^ngle 
fombaty he took cut his brains, and mixing them 
with lime he made a round ball, which, by drying 
in the fun, became exceeding folid and hard, and 
was always produced in publick meetings as an 
honourable trophy of experienced valour. Gabb 
or Gou in Irifli is a blackfmith, and the Gou of 
Tamhra was an honourable poft, with many pri<* 
vileges(a); he had the charge of all the fires, 
common and facred, and hence the name Gabhj 
from Gabbadh to burn, to blaze : as gabh an teine^ 
the fire burns ; Gabh-adhradb or Gabb-ara, a wor- 
ihipper of fire ; whence the Perfic and Arabic 

(a) See Collca. No. XIU. The word is fpelt GM m 
Iriih, and pronounced Gou ; the proper pronunciation of Gabh 
is Ga^ i in Perfic Ga^jan^ Faber ferarrius. Hyde Rel. Vel. Perf. 
Dirfe/c Gaviani, Perf. the ftandard of Gaov D'Herbelor, 

P' 3*4. 


i88 A Vindication rf tbe 

Gbebr^ Gbabry Guebr^ and Gbavr (b). In Arabic 
Kubis 18 a fire; and Mr. Richardfon, p. 143I1 
tranflates Gebr^ one of the Magi, a prieft of the 
worfhippers of fire, as if from Kibr or Kubr^ no- 
bility, eminence } — I am of opinion that Gabbar 
18 the Scythian word fynonimous to the Arabic 
atajh-pereft^ i. e. a worfliippqr of fire, and not 
from Kubis. (c) 

Thete would be a link wanting in the chain, if 
we could not produce a Gav or Gou in the Tua- 
tfaa Dadann hiftory, to correfpond with the Piih* 
dadian Gou. Goivne Gou, i. e. Goibhine Gabb, 
or the Smith Gou, is recorded in many Irifh Ro- 
mances. Gorman M^Cuilinan, has preferved the 
following fragment. *^ Neafcoth, — This is an old 
** ftory among the Irifh. — Goibhne Gobh the 
^^ fmitn was making arms for the Tuatha Dadann, 
*^ at the time of the battle of Mugh Tur (the Ma- 
^^ gi's Towr). Lu£kure the carpenftr was mak> 

ing fliafts of fpears, and Credne was making 


(b) Nam hujus religionts hemines omncs in genere i Ferfis M^ 
Aammedams vocirannir G/uhr & G/unvr^ Turek Ghiaur, Her- 
berto noftrati Gmvtr, E^ quia iftorum homtnum lingua a reliqob 
Perils non intelliginir, Mercarores ibi apud IfpahaA uegotiantes 
earn vocare fo]cnc linguam Guf^icam, volcntes linguam non io- 
tdledUm ; unde in Gallia Gafconica Gu^Uh vocitanir etiam 
quxvis lingua parum intelle^ia in genere i & hinc quoque nobis 
Anglts fermo incongruus feu inarricularus, & minus inceliigibiJiSy 
dicitur Guihrifii feu GMeriyh, Hyde Rel. Vel. p. 3 59. 

(c; In Seguin** Theflalonian coins, p. 1 4. there is the figure 
of a man, with a hammer in his left hand and a kty vtk his right 
hand; and the infcriptiiMi is KABEIROC. This, lajs D. Se- 
guin, is certainly a vulcan, cdm utrique circa ignem Tcrientiir. 
71:e Greeks borrowed this name for Vulcan, either from the Per- 
iiqnt or from the Magogian Scythians. Origenes contra Celfum 
meminit {\%fcSr 11 Ka^f/poir where the Gabhar are called Gahri^ 
a word not muck altered from the Petiic. 

" rivets; 


Ancient Hi/lory if Ireland^ 189 


rivets } they were all three mod expert work- 
men. At this time it was reported to Gou, that 
his wife had played the wanton : he had the 
Ihaft of a fpear in his hand ; and fnatchiQg up 
his uir^netfi — ceirde^ i. e. his working apron, or 
defender from the fire-fparks, he run out, and 
throwing about him his pole and apron, he 
found that he killed whomfoever he approach* 
ed ; and whoever (hewed contempt of this pole 
and apron, were afilided with fwellings, boils, 
and putrified blood, and would burn within as 
if on fire : and in memory of this tranfaftion, 
*^ the hill where the battle was fought was called 
** Neijb-Scuith (d), i. e. the Apron of the Scy- 
« thians." 

VI. The Phridoun or Feridoun of the Plihda- 
dian Dynaftv, is the Irifh OUam Fodhla^ a prince 
remarkable for his wifdom, as Olam his name im- 
plies : in Arabic Alim^ in Hebrew and Chaldasan 
Alaph. See Fodhla explained, before Olamh 
Fcdhla, the head of the Mufes or Graces. 

VII. Naudar, Nodhr or Nuadr, \ras fcarce leated 
on his throne when the Touranians or Scythians 
conceived hopes of conquering his empire. Pa- 
fliang was at that time King of Touran, dire^ de-^ 
fccndant of Tur, the fon of Phridun, and claimed 
by right the kingdom of Perfia. Afrafiuh his eideft 
Ion raifed an army to conquer Iran : the two ar- 
mies being oppofite to each other, a Scythian 

(d) Neifh, or Netfh 19 an a{m>n, it fignifics a defence, a guard. 
Uir-neifi is a Smith's aprou, becaufe it defends him from the 
fparks of C/ir, i. e. fire. Ctirie is a trade, a (hop, &c. In the 
Arabic Axar is an apron, and Azur a defence. Nujhir is an 
apron, and l^ujr a defence. In Irifh, Veas is ^n apron and a 
defence. In Armoric, Davenjhitr an apron. 


1 ^ A Vindication of th^ 

cbainpiotl i^hole mme vras Bafmm ^halleiiged any 
of the Perfian in^arriors to (ingle combat ; whi(^ 
was accepted by Gi^&^^, grandfon of Ga^ or Gahh 
above mentioned : the combat terminated in fa^ 
vour of Gtfai»-~N,ot long after, the rwo armies en- 
gaged; Afrafiab attacked Nuadr in his camp^ 
took him prifoner, and ordered hi& bead to be cat 
off* Some Aftafic l¥mers make this prioce co* 
Cemparary witb Jofhua> and others place him 
much higher* The Scythians now remained maf« 
tcrs of all Perfia (e) ; at length they concluded a 
pcacc^ and fought out the lawful heir of the houfe 
of K^iomaraSy and put the crown on the head of 
Zalr. Some authors pretend that Zerduft flou« 
riihed in his reign. 

Nothing can be more ftriking than the affinity 
bet^'ecn the (lories of the Iriih Nuadhat and the 
P^rfian Nuadr or Napudhar : The Irifii hiftory re- 
preGerits a religiou$ war betwceisi, the Scythians 
and Tuatha Dadann \ the caufe rj^ exprefled by 
Muigh Tttirridh^ the Magian Fire Towers : the 
Tuatha Dadann at length prevail;; Nuadhat lofes 
bis right-hand in one battle ; his cpuntrymen, by 
art*magick^ re»ptaced )it with a (ilyor one; hence 
his name Airpodtamh^ u e. filvcr-banded ; in a 
fecond battle he bfps his besKl. . H^i^s^.the lead- 
er of the Tuath Padan^' 

. In the Perftah hiitory Gobad- Cwhlch word we 
havejhewn tq be tbero^t of Gh^br the (irc-wor« 
(hippcr) fights in fmgle combat and kills the Scy« 
thian ;^ Naoudhar is at length routed, and be- 
headed in prilbn \ — and fome; place the prqphet 

• * 

(c) Afrafiab, a Tartar or Scythian King, reigned over Ber- 
(la fifty years. Lc Brun Voyage a Perlc, Tom. z. p. 387, 


AnckfO. Hi/i^y tf Inland. i^t 

Zesduft in his reignr : There wer^ t w<> proi^ete o£ 
thiB name ; the time of their exiftence k much, 
diluted,, as weil uXhe identity of the perfon and 
eitymology of the name* (f > 

We find his name written in the Arabic and 
Peirfic very differently ; as Zerduft, Zerdaft, Zer- 
riduiht, Zarraduditt Zaratufht, Zerdhuibt, Zerd- 
haflit, Zardufht^ Zartuiht, Zeratufht, ZarhuA» 
Zaratuihtriih, Zaratuihtra, Zertooft. Bar Bahltu 
the Syrian derives the name from Zar, gold and 
di^t (for debujhi) a kingdom, i. e. Aurum r^gni* 
Dr. Lord was informed by a Perfian Prieft, that 
the right pronunciation was azar-doji^ i. e. igoia) 
amicus : {dq/i a friend is from dqfl the hand ; be* 
caufe we take our friend by the hand.)/ The Icarn-^ 
cd Hyde fayi this, is % miftake of the Perfian Poeft^. 
aad that die A in Azar could not have been 
dropt ; thf name he aJSows is diiHcult to be esc* 
plained: Zf/nbe rfaya is gold;^ of moneyj, ^and. 
ibi/bt i& deformed* Pravus^ mdo afpeilu^ deforms^, 
i^ d. jiurt4» frj^mm I / qu«e quidem fignifkatio 
j^QriliDultumi i)»adrat,. fays d^ learned Dpdtot ;. 
an jSirabiaft explains it by 'Zerdih-diki and zerdi-^ 
bafti pufe gold ) fed h«c etiam non fatisiaciunt, 

pliea the;Dtofitori 

In i7d7;Le;BrnftiConvc;cfed with b Prieft of the. 
'fii»'J2hy*iiBvintarpreter^ whq told him that tb^ 

(f ) Hcrbclot vous dira que les premiers pyr6cs connus ont 
^bftiti;9iiv^s cUos I'Adber^dgian, qui eft. Ig parrie la p],us S^- 
^|HtH>B0^1« i< raivcienoe M6die, & toujoun for des znoocagne). 
Je TOiu al fait remarqiier que Zoroaflre (ou Zerduft) le reftau* 
p»n3ar4f cf <<uke, fonl auiTi de^ ipoamgoe;, avak inftra 4aiis 
iqi Tjbf^ffi 4< deforiptionf, qui portent rimf reiote. du cllmat dei 
495-; 4*W» c^fiH^ pliM fepceotriooaU que Je CaucaJe. (Bailljr^ 
fur TAclantide, p. an.) 



igi A Vindication tf tbt 

name of their great prophet was Zar-Jioi^ whom 
the Perfian Mabomedans miftook for Abrstham* 
He told them, that he came firom God ; to which 
they replied. If you ^>eak the truth, walk over 
fome melted gold and filTer which we will prepare ; 
and if you do this unhurt, we will believe yoil 
and obey you. That he did fo, without receiving 
die leaft injury, and on this account he was called 
Zaer-xpejly which fignifies a peribn wa(hed| ol* 
bathed, : in melted gold or filver« Uneperfonne 
lav^e d^ de I'or ou de Pargent fondu. (g) 

The leader of our Tuatha Dadann or Chaldasan 
colony, was named AtrgUdlamb^ that is Silver- 
hand : this I take to have been Zerduft the L a> 
prophet of the Perlian Piihdadian ; and 2Lerduft IL 
coming after (about 150 years) took the name d 
Zer-d^^ that is. Gold-hand, for zer in Perfian is 
gold or filver, and dofi is a iiand (h) ; and we 
have, in the fecond D^afty of the Iriih hiftory, a 
Sior-lamhy which name I fufped to be taken from 
Zer^q/ii in Iriih, lamb is afaand, and deas- tb^ 
right-hand, by pre-eminence : /aman is to handiej 
in A rabic and Perfic ; dq^ is the hand, without 
diftinftion, but turns tirdun is to handle (in iriih 
curradb'lamh\ and in Arab, lamifeb faktun^ is alfi> 
to handle, or to apply the hand ; hence I conjec- 
ture, that the Irifh lamb and d^as vtetc once com* 
mon in the Arabic and Perfic: however^ our 


''g) Voyag. de Com. Le BruD. T. 2. p. jty. Is not te 
Scydiian ftoTy of the filver Iiand as probable as anj c#f die Ptriie 
iablcs of this l^t>phec. , 

(h) The Perfian fcholar may here objedl, that the adjedive 
fhould have been ufed and not the fubftuitiTe, viz. Ztrfmrn gol« 
den, bit it is commoa in all languages to compoand twa fabna- 
fives in proper names. 


tftoilBtors : ms^ ^toptimb rll>fl^h«ide<i^: 'tUcPfWnl'e 
as the P^fian 'jtrdfiir ^raz^^hfi^j which thb OreekB 
have turned imd :Art^werfeesrfcdn^miaau$i v ' . 
IntheiAfabic book of'SiiriatD' 1 Magjaftlsf %€t^^ 
Ax&j, -it 1 k fud^^ was of . Palcilme^ • a fervarit lof ta; 
Jewifli; prophet} and dn^hehad the art of hold-* 
mg lire in: his; fasmd/i without tieing bQtiit^crrfQf^ 
fering painvyghem inaQultgmdrit&biaiitts'eiQ^^ 
Hon ftiit' cpmbtifta, as Hyde- tiranflates k c*^-*-!Might 
not this gtvcf him the nztae of: Mbfa^baHd i* and fo 
by pre«etninence Silveivhaitd^ Gold-haxid; &c^ i--^, 
or might not Dr. Lord be rightly informed by the 
Perfian* Pri^^^who laid : his. ixame was Az^-doji^ 
that is:- 'Eh^-hahdy':the Perfums^.'-or 
corrupted to. Zer-doft?-^^*-and« few' a:^r in Perficj'fijj* 
nifies i^oney^irs well ^asgold, lb the Scythians 
adopted ' Air^uid^ whic|t iigfaifics money and 

lllVPP ' • ' ■ ■ -— ' \ » ; .. . >. r ' '. 

Tbem^is^ good realbivr in my .opinion^ to fu^of^ 
tius ZMbi/i^iik Firft vrns^timSamobeU oziZanttfkft 
of iherSdyihiios? tThe naiiie')in Irifh will bear 
the fame .t:onIlni&ion,:a8'>fiir^iij^ A»Ri& ov^Zerdu/i^ 
iiz* Qim oT^Sim is filv^r,raiid 'Lrax orLttr.isa' 
hand*: Sb^kadiiisAtriqpThqtt dillant from Zamblzisi 
than mariy^ other. names tliielSrcdcs hare .twifted 
firom their oHgfiial-fignlftcatldmand or&ography. ' 

Herodotus fay^/ '^'that thfe* inhabitants;: along 
the coafis^ of ^ Hellefpont .. ioformed him, diat 
2l4&nolxU JaSiifibc^n a fla^- Xq Pj^tbagoras^ fon of 
Mnefearcbus' 1-* a^d that after having obtained his 
liberty^ he acquired great riches, and . i^turned 
into his own' country. His principal view was to 
poliih a rude people, and make them' live after thd 
manner of the lonians. In order to bring this 
about, he built a ilatelyipaldtC^^ where he regaled 

N ail 

>^4 d^V^coHm nftlm . 

all the inhabitamtf ef.the.dty by turM, inimQat- 
V)g) dtioAg the ret>aft>^ that tbcy %Eho tived as he 
did, were to be imiaiDitai.-^AlL the while he had 
people employed inrbuilding a chamber imder- 
ground; and haTiog fiiddcni^f'. 4ilapi>cared9 be 
conoealed himfelf ior three years;-^Hk people 
mouraed for him as jdead ; but in diid fourdi year 
he ihewedhijnfctf.again, and this pretended mi-^ 
racic ftruck his oouatrymen lb, that they bdicred 
all be £aid, and he was at laft deified»*^He ^ft 
gives a ridicdbus^^. accDtmt of the:, manner they 
hid their wants before • him, b'y throwing a 
9ian up into the.'air. and: catching. him on the 
points.. of diree fpear9;<»--tbut, adds lieradoftus, I 
don't.beliGve all thefe ctreiimftancek, and fare I 
am, that Z^it^Mr /lived bmg before. Pytbagoras,*' 
Zerdu/l made his iirft appearance,, iome .fayt in 
Medhj others in Ecbatana ; — ^he abiented himfidf 
&r ' fome time, and pretended he had beesr taken 
up to Heaven, to be i^ftruded in thbfe dodtiaes 
he wai about to deliver.— He retired td a csive» 
^nd there lived a long. tisKe, where he wrote his 
ho6k ;*-^fo did Maihomet, and there he coodpofed 
his Alcoran ;»^fi> did Pydiagoras, for this i^lo* 
lapher ^ded at part of impofture, as well aa Zcr- 
duft, Z<^oafter^ . or Zamotods^-^TI^ey * who pro- 
fefled this religion of Zerduft in Lncian^ time» ^ as 
reckoned up £7 him, were the PartbUms^ Perfians^ 
Saffriansj Afiim^ Saiansy Medesj ahd toaxiy other 
barbarous nations (i). From all> Aefe circumr 
ftances I conclude, that Zamolzis and Zerduft the 
Firft were the fame peribn with our jSirgiodlamhy 
and that Zerduit the Second may have been the 

<i} LvcMUi de'Lpngavk 


Jnciait tiifioiy if Ireland. 195 

fame iv!th Zorbaftet ) yet there is gteat room to 
think the lift was a borrowed charaSier. 

Our Iriih hiftori^m make Airgied lamb a Chal- 
dasaa, from which country many refpedable au- 
thors bring Zerduft. If we are to fuppofe the 
Greek Zoroaftres to be the fame perfon ; which 
the learned Mn Richardfon much doubts. As we 
ihail have occafion to mention the opinion of this 

Seat Oriental fcholar frequently, on this and other 
bje&Sy we will here fubjoin t^e paragraph from 
his diflertation, Se£t* ad. ^^ The language fpo- 
^ keti anciently in Perfia opens a wide field for 
^* unfatisfaSory enquiry. Dr. Hyde derives it 
*^ firom that ox Media ; which is much the fame as 
*' deducing one jargon of the Saxon Heptarchy 
^^ from another. The union of thofe people^ 
^' named by Europeans, Medes and Perjians^ is 
^^ of fuch high antiquity, that it is loft in dark^ 
^^ nifs : attd long precedes every glimmering we 
*' can difcover of the origin of their fpeech : 
*' whatever their hnguage .was, therefore, itmuft 
" have evidently been very early thd fame, with 
'* the fimple and common variation of provincial 
'* idicmi« Bid in ibis tongue we have no genuine 
'^ remains. We are told irtdeed, that it was thq 
language in which. Zoroajier promulgated bis 
religion and laws: b^t this advances notour 
enquiry : for where or when did Zoroajier live ? 
** ^d where do the works which have been at- 
•* tributed to him exifk ? The writers both of the 
•* Eaft and "Weft fpeak fo vaguely, and differ fo 
^ pointedly, with regard to this perfonagc, that it 
^^ is compleatly impoifible to fix either the coun^ 
** try, or the period which gave him birth : 
** whiUl Zeratujht of the Pcriians bears fo little 

N ft ^ refemblance 




tgbr A Vindicttium cftbe 

^^ refcmbUonce to the Ztarocfier of the Greeks^ 
*^ that unlcfs Dr, H]rde9 and other Orientaiifts, 
^ had refoived, at all events, to reconcile die 
identity of tbdr perfons^ we fiioald have niBch 
difficulty to difcover a fmgle fimihr feature* 
^ lliofe fragments of his fuppofed works which 
*^ the learned Do&or has given us under the title 
^ of the Sadder y are the wretched rhymes of a 
** modem Tarfi Deftour (Prieft) who lived about 
^^ three centuries , ago : — and the publications of 
'* M. Anquetil du Perron (Oriental Interpreter to 
^^ the King of France) carry palpable^ marks of 
^ the total or partial fabrication of modem times, 
^' and give great weight to the opinicm of Sir John 
*' Chardin, that the old dialed of Perfia (excq>t- 
^^ ing what remains in the prefent language) is 
^^ loll : that 'af^>arently no books now ezift in 
^' it/' 

However, as the name of Zerduft has been 
tranflated by many into Zoroq/ierj e contra, we 
Ihall make a few quotations on this fubjed in fup- 
port of our Irifh hiftory, and fuppofe them to have 
been the fame perfbn. Our Irilh Seanachies (k) 
fay, that the Tnatha Dadanann (of .whom ^>- 
podlamh or Zerdu/i was their head) were defcen- 
dahts . ||| Chanu In another Irifh MS. Airgiod- 
lamh is^alled Cat CuUanj or the High Prie/l, and 
is faid to have foretold i^M Niun would come ; 
tjiat is, the Mtjftab ; in another place he is called 
Draoiy and foretells the coming of the Mdfiah 
alfo : of all which in. their order. 

* (£;) Or Seanachi nath» i. e* SanchoniathoX or diofe verfed n 
tiae fcience of antiquity. 


Artcient Hf/lary rf Ireland. 197 

Agatfaias fays, the Pcrfian name of JZ$roq/ier 
was Zaradus^ that is, Zerdaft^ (ph&'Ji 9 z^f^r 
ttrp^ «%/ ZA^ilni;) that it is uncectain when he lived 
or promulgated his laws* The modeim Perfians 
fay, that he lived under Hjfiaffes (lege Giiflitafp) 
but it is not known whether dus was the iather 
of Darius or another of that name. But thus 
much is certain, that be was the head of the Ma- 
gian reli^on. (m) 

Caflianus fays he was Cham : Quantum antiquae 
traditiones ferunt, Cham filius Noae. (n) 

And Porphyrins, that he dwelt in Babylon with 
other Chaldees : he calls him Zabratus. The Iri(h 
MSS. fpeak of a Prophet Abratach, but no parti- 
culars of him iflre handed down to us* Trogus 
infifts that he was King of Ba£bria, and warred • 
with Ninus (o). Auguftme £aiys the fame, (p) 

Suidas mafass him a Chaldasan, s^d Atnobia- 
nus, an Armenian^ 

In the Perfian Book called Mog> Zerdu&t is 
iaid to be the Son of Sad yuman ; which perhaps 
was written for yemen or yfimany a wor4 iignifying 
the right hand, and Sad^ means a bodily defed ; 
this name perfedly correfponds with the ftory of 
our Airgiadlambj who loft his tight hand in the 
battle of the Fire tower, and Zerduft is faid to 
have loft bis Ufe by a Scythian prince, v\ attempt? 
ing to introduce Fire towers or pyrea : but all 
agreed, that his mother's name was Dogbdu^ whofe 
Son (Zerduft) was ni^med Hakim^ feu viri dpdi ^ 

(jn) Agfttliias de PeT& lib. 2. 

(a) (^ffianmColkciQnifl* 8vo. Cap. 21. 

(q) Tn)gus. L. I. 

if) Auf^iftintu De Ciyic« Dri. ^ I. ii. C. 14. 


198 A VifuHtati^t of th 

philofophi : (2) Now Dagbda n a name wdl Imowi| 
in the Irifh liiiloty of the Tuafha Ihd$nHj fornc* 
times a God, at pdiers fll Cpddefs : (b) he is pla? 
ced in the lift of Kings next to Jirgiad lamby an4 
his children are faid (o be numerous, amon^ft 
others i$ Cheacht^ a name correfponding to ue 
Periian and Chaldee Hakim or Chakim^ ^gnifj^ 
ing Wifdom t tlie Brft Grammar of the Irifh lan« 
guage is called Uire Cbeafl na* Nghaoi/b^ that is, 
the beginning of Wifdom of the learned, com- 
monly called the Philpfopher's Primmer, the 
Primmer of the Bard^, &q. &c« as the Irilh Seana^ 
f:hies explaiii. if (c). 

Zerdpft wa» Chief Prieft of his order, he was 
nampd Mog or Mogh, Pbiih^ Kaliv^ pr Caliv \ 
(plur. Kalivanj) Kai-Kaliv^nj Chief of the Magi. 
Damjhmandj Pkarkandy vel Cbradm^ftul^ Sapien* 
tes, Scientes ; £bdem Senfu eft Rod* And his in- 
ferior Priefts were nzmc6^ MardhCbod^^ i. ۥ Yit 
Dei; Mardi-Chdspvand Vir Domini, rtXParu^ 
t. e* Vir l>onus, vtX B^bman^ i. e. Bonis moribu$ 
praeditus* Sic quivis vir fpiritualis feu infcrioris 

(a Hyde ds Vet. Porf. B^ig. p. }i 9. 

(b; He is fon^ioi^ Q^jled Ruq4 «fr l!«i Buad nfia^ 
ainman DagH^* L e. the omniicient RuaJ^ a name of Daghdal 
(Vet. Clofs. {ilb\ Rod in Per(ic, is the fame as Ditru^ L eJ 
a Magus. Of fBc CI ana Daehda we f^iall treat feparately, h\k 
children ar^e called Mithr or Midkr, tl^ac is, the rays of the Sun | 
and his wife's name is Garwum, 

. (c) This name Naghaoijk^ is banded dpiqrn to ^e Iri(k iinoni 
the Perfian Noguflta which was a particular fe£l of the Fire^ 
wprilifppers. Nogufha ex Chebi^omm Se6tis quaedam Sefb. c(L 
Nogufha eft Se^a Gh^broriim et Mofcorum -^^ in pietifque 
Lexicis exponatur Chebr ieu Infidelis, fpeciatim Ignkola. — fed 
in alib exponitur Sabius. (Hyde from Perfian Authors^ p. 
358). This SeQ were the Tounm atxi X>maiiite Sqrtbians^ of 
whom we arc now treating. 


Ancwit Hifiary ^ infUmd. 199 

ordinis Saccrdos generali Epitbeto (d). TUg ig 
the Irifh CoilUus an Epithet givea to St. Patrick 
(e>. CuUdeaPrieftofGacU idailleackaNiia.> 
In all our triih MSS. Lcj^coiis we £n4 MfigB^ 
ea^Iaincd , by mnm dileas do dbiaidhf u 4U 3. Jiamip 
(acred to God; that is^ a ikcrcd dame. JPbiIca 
or tileadh were men in lK>ly i>rders that compoiie^ 
hymns for the Church Service: Draw M the 
Lnflinameof a, Prieft of the lower clafs, Had-aire 
or Reat-aire, a Clergyman; (AU*e, 0£E[ce« fundion^ 
and CaiXmbin or Cu Cullan^ diat is, the bixi 
PrUJi (or Zerdu/l^ 1% faid to have predided the 
coming of the MeiCah ; in thefe words I find it 
tecorded in Arch Biihop Cormac^s MSS. Lexicoiu 
^' Niuuj L e. Mac Seatbar^ ut dixit Cu Cukin^ 
<« prophetans de Xti adventu : Nian dmne tUfa^ 
^ eadhon, Mac Seatbar dmne ticfa^ ^d add$ 
^* Cormac^) ipfe cjt (\x&d^ i. t.) ^fu$y \.,t.Nian 
'' fiudl cmt as a many viz. /& fm rfGmiJbidi 
*' cme^ as a maiC^. Satbar or Sea^ar (as it 
ftands] in the modem Iriih Didionarles), we have 
ihewn at p. ai. (Note) a is the Phaenidan "^W 
Soter Domiiius, Deus Tg)) p"^ ^Man, exdtare. Sic 


<d) H^de, p. 3(3* Henceprobablj oorOyUh^ or leaned 
Prieflbi in like miiner from die Iriib Karfa or For^i an hh- 
ftrndor, a good rasn, Perfic Fars&y panu vir» pivs, devottu^ 
U formed die Englifh ^^or/Sii. (VieTri).. 

^e) Colloqoia quaedam de-rebus Hibem. m quibw colloqven- 
tes intraducuntur St. Patriciut'Coillius & Offeniis Hibemic^v 
die ticleof a M8S. in tbe Clarendon colleiStioQ. 

(g) Hie pronunciation of i$fk In Irifh it Eelk. Jefa» C^rifi^ 
ftyt lyHerbelor, is called Ifla hy tbe Nfufuloant: Jofhtiva in 
Hebrew, u nfed bj die Sjrnant and Aerabs to iignify a. Saviour^ 
and with them is become a proper name i and this name the 
Mahomedant particularly «pply ^ Joihua^ the fiKoefibr ot 
Ifcfei^ and to JefiU| iim of Sirach, But ibmQ Hebrews, 


^66 A Vindication of the 

Tponuiit ex Arach, • 6i.cio1pgitHr, Ante Solem ]V 
;»«», Sobolcs cft^hdmtiii- cjTO, • Pfil; ' 7^^^ 17. 
pyj*? Trt; NirwJ; cyaod fotunw eft cxdta^c, 1. & 
' lexdtktdfug rcft ' (Jbrpiientcs in pulvcre, ijleb voca- 
ttir nomcii'ejus (fdKcetMcffia) p3*»^ inun,— hie ♦ 
jioh eft * radicale, fed forma: iiifinitivi inf^rvit. 
Effct Siutem thcma r»3 Nun undc j*0 iV/;i, filius^ 
foboles.; •Buxtbrf.Chal. Le?. p. got rb). 

In Sherijidnd a Mohammedan writerp wehatre 
this remarkable paff^gCj thus tranOat<:d by Df. 
Hyde. £x eis qaac prsdixit 2cra4ulht in Librp 
Zendayefta eft, qub(l dixit ultimis temporibus ap- 
parituriim Hpmincm* difium Oflj/m-ierberha^ qui 
munduih religione & juftitia oniaturii$ eflfct (i^. 
Oeinde ^Jus tcihipore appariturum cfiam ^Petyrai 
qui rqbus ejus 3^ regno ejus moleftiam afferret per 
Vigmti annos, ph Hy de tranflates OfbM derbegBa 
J(iomp* m'Ondi, & I^yarah tyiibolm. fn a former 
number v^ have fliewh LeBruij's account of Oflum^ 
which he , Ic^rntf itoitx the modern P^rfi^n Gucr 
br*S'rte]f* •• 


« »\ VI* 

Cbabeaiis and Arabs take Jofhova Ebn Noon or Joftut fon of 
Niiby to have been a peribn raifed above human nature^ and c« 
have pkartaken of the divipe. nature. This eztravannt opinioR 
has been embraced ly/'fome Mufulmans aUb, 'and the Scutes 
(Scdt) have adopted ir in their JH. The Tarikh Mon- 
tekhd>,' itt7, that Joffaova* Ebn Noun vrasftiit by God, "Co ^riwe 
the Giants out of jirj/ia, i,. eT Jericho. • That he ; vrat coterapo* 
rary with Nnadfiar, -of the.I^ihdadianrace : Of Riha or Ariha 
we fbrll fpeak hereafter. 

(h) Gen. ai. 23:', ^5 Nih a Son, onein-aftate of fubjec- 
«on. Pfel 72. V. I/, hbnamc J>r rain (as a verbS ^ !?• OM 
become' a.^i»r before the ^m : Prev. 29. V. 2t. at laft he fliall 
be mo me Nun, more tlisai one bred as a fbn. See Bates and 
Pitkhurft. ' • ' ' " ' 

"(i) Hjrde, p. 38^3- 

(k) Ces Giiebres tromptdii !es*annees d& mondedepttts Adam^ 
iu^ls noinnicnt comoie nous : mais lis donnent d'autres aoms a 

' ft. 

jfncknt Hyiorj of. Ireland^ .aoi 

It it mort than probable tbat ourTuathaDa^ 
daim brought this predidt-ion with them, from 
whence* the Iriih Monks formed the ftory of OiflM 
and Patar or Padar, i. e. Patrick ; though all ac- 
4aiowledge that Oiflnn lived long before that Saint, 
(at leaft two centuries). I qannot find any other 
name, by which Zerduiht is f^id to have called the 
Meffiab in his prsedi&ion. Abulpharagj tells us, 
that Zeradufhf foretold to the Perfians, the coming 
of Chtifi, and ordered them to prepare Gifts for 
him; that a Virgin fhould conceive; and that a 

£es ddBsendans. lis difent que lors'quil fiit parvenu a fa 30 
aonedv Onflon vine au monde, & ils reconnoiiTent pour ua 
chif (ii famiUe^ & apres celui-cl cut pour fucceffciir;y«»"^, 
qu'ils pretendent qui fiit leur premier Roi, & qui vecot yoo 
ans. Voyi^ die M. Le Bnu^ Vol. a; p.. 389.«^See alio \A 
No. of Cbllcdaaea, Pref. p. xcvu^I cannot fee b)r wMt auduv. 
rit^ Dr. Hyde tranflates OflMna-derbegha, by, homo mundi, 
a/Kioa in PerQan, leanied, as maria afhina^ learned in myHeriev^ 
Hyde, it is true/ followed his original, but every Arabian Scho- 
lar knov^ that darhehu^ is the other worM, the everlafliag 
Kingdom, Eternity: ^he ftmphtt^^ofi' ISngdom vomld Uift jmr 
0ver^ Petyar or petygrah, in Periianis afflidion, mifety, a 
giant, genius, .demon, a ftightful afped, an enemy, a name 
eafiiy converted to Pataric or Patrick : and we are told in Irilh 
hiilory, that when Patrick arrived they named Km Tealguln, 
or'TelcMn ; which (imifies a Demon. This is moft probably 
the origin of the ftory of Oiibin, peculiar to the Irifli, Scots and 
Manks, worthed up hj chriftian Monks into Oi/hin and Patrick. 
Obferve there were two of this name, viz. Patrick Rufdelst and 
Patrick Alftire, both faints. 

Les Guebres d'aujourdliui, font de panvres.ignonuii, quixxit 
perdu par la fuite des terns, k par les grands changemcnsy qui 
tout arrives en Perfe, la veritable connoiflance da Culte de l^urs 
Andtraus, dont ils n'ont r^tenu que la lettre, comme les Sama* 
ritans, on^ retenu ia.Pentateque. j^^efepdant, )es Guebres dc 

toA A VindieaH0i rf th 

Star fliould appear at the time of hte birth, and in 
the centre of the Star would be feen the figure of 
the Virgin. " Ye therefore O, my fohs, :£^ Zcr- 
^ dufhty will fee this Star before all other people : 
** when it appears, go ye the way it direfis, wor« 
^ ihip the new bora, and offer your gifts, iac he 
** is the word.'* This Prophecy was delivered in 
Bacbara where Zerduji dwilt. The iriihhiftory 
informs us that a Draoi Bachrach, i. a^z^Daru or 
Prieft of Bachara did prophecy and focctel the 
birth of the Mefliah: that he fhould be born in a 
wonderful manner and fhould be barbaroufly 
murdered by the great council of his own nation. 
See Keating, p. i8j. — ^and more at the dofe of 
this Chapter. 

' In the Sadder of. Zlerduiht as ^ven us by t)u 
Hyde, we find the fire temple or Tower, or Houfe 
of Prayer, named Apbrim^ban ; the facred feflivali 
had the fame name : The Perfians in India had a 
flated feftival once a- month. Hoc convivium feu 
hae EpuiflB pluraU habet TiiomRV\Apbrinaghanj u c. 
Benedi&alia feu benedicendi Epulas (1), in the 
lingular number it is Afherin ; (m) or Affiin (n). 
In the Chaldee we find p^^iQM Aphriun, Templuro. 
In Irifli Afrithgnam (o) is to bids (gimn or gmm 
is the verb agere vel fecere^. The Qxappel, Mais- 
houfe, or Houfe of prayer, is known at this day 
in Ireland, by no other name than Ti^Afrm^ i« e. 
houfe of benedidion* 

(1) Hyde, p. 269. 

(m) Do.-^— 199, 

(n) Ricbard(bn« 

(o) Brigit the daughter of D^^2^ a Goddefi, worfliipped 
\j the Fileadh, and great was her afrithgnum^ (l>lciBiij;) efteem^r 
ed I (bandea agus ba ro mor an afritbniam)^— ut m CSaatm 
Ganticonim ^opi ?•? fibi flscit Salomon^ id eft, p^OM fiW ftek 
JSalomon. See Aldrete Antigu^ de Efpana, p. 203. 


Anci em Bi/hry tf Ireland. 105 

Here can be no doubt of the round towers in 
Ireland^ Jiaving been Fire towers ; the Ti-aifrionn^ 
the houfe of benedi€tion. The Arabs cau them 
Perkm^ i» e. a &e hearth, in Irifli Breocan. The 
conftruftion of them was weH adapted to the pur- 

E>fe: the door being always from la to 15 feet 
om the bafe, die facred fire at the bottom could 
not be molefted by the wind : it was covered by a 
Cupola at top9 (p) and four fmall windows in the 
fides near the the top, let out th^ fmoke. The 
diameter of them is no more than fufficient for the 
Cai'Culane or Draoi to perform his facred office : 
his Zend or prayers were not to be heard by the 
congreration, as in the fervice, his m outh was 
.covered left he fliould breath on the holy fire, fo 
that he mumbled or muttered his words (q)« 
When he had done, he probably afcended to the 
.door or to the top, and gave his Apbrin. The 
facred fire was fed by the wood of a facred tree ; in 
Pcrfia the name of that tree is Hautn al Magjus^ 
f . e. Haum Magifrum : in Irifh Om and Omria was 
Crann-naomM or facred tree ; we tranflate it an 

(p) Zerduflit extruxit domicilia ignt% Sr fecit ea cum cnpolc 
l^xcelfa, & ignfm gladio' nop fodieiiduiii-«-(Buiidari an Arab), 
hence the coftom cfftli^ Sc7Chtsn$ b^sgirig up the Sword bj the 
&cred fire, which facred fire was named Atejh-Bthrtm literall/ 
ignis Martisi and tbf Grecb tbQU|bt their chief God wsi Man, 
whereas it figniftes « rod .fire, like the cplovr of that Planet* 
Noa licet apud PeHas Jgnevi «*ItrQ ant glgdio explorare, jic vim 
ei^ inferre videantur ; uti aec apud Scfthas Mogolo-Tataros, qui 
pam nolont tale inftruofentui^ adai€fver<e prope ignem^ Hyde. 

W Hyde.— —Hence 7i//»//4-f«/«/ in Irl/h iy Gihberi/h^ 
i- e. the muttering of (be Tuatha, TasHclr ^ Ifus-dail^ 
Wit, cunning, Augury. 

(t) Hjde, 466. O'Brien's Iri/li Diftionar/. 


2^4 ^ Vindicaiim rf the 

ThePerfo'Scythi of Ireland named thefe Towers, 
Tuir-Beily or the Towers of Baal or Bclus^ a 
name iacred to the Sun ; ^ whence Bel-ain, a year^ 
L c. the Circle pf Bel*) In Pharh. Gj. a Perfiau 
author, we are told that Ardejhir Babek, a Perfian 
King, conftru&ed a certain lofty building which 
he named Terbaii, to the Eaft of the City of Iba^ 
ragbun in Perfia,— ^aUa etiam veterum templorum 
Perficorum nomina in fequentibus memorantur, 
et eorum omnium nomina hodie recuperare & re* 
cenlere, eft plane impo0ibile, Hyde io8i. 
. The facred fire was named Hyr, in Irifli Ur^ it 
was alfo named AJur^ whence the Adair of Ire* 
land, names of places where fome facred building is 
jilways to befound ; ourmodem Churches are com- 
monly annexed to. thefe old .fire toWers ; a ftrong 
argtmient that thev were originally (acted build- 
ingp. ThePraefeaus ignis was named Uyr-bad, 
in Irifh Ur^Baidbj fcil. Ignis Sacerdos ; we now 
tranflate biud a prophet, (a) The tfrbad continu- 
ed night and day in the fire tower, and all other 
Priefts were fubjed to him ; (b) we have the fame 
accounts in the Irifh MSS. This order was alfo 
named Mogb. Primus ordo antea vocabatur Mogh 
& poftea Hyrbad. (Hyde) Mogb Mugh or Mogb 
was the name in Ireland, hence /ird-magb the 
Metropolitan See. of Ireland, and all thofe old fa- 

(a) It isYery remtrkablc dmt die word Bot or But in Iriih 
figDifies alfo the facred fire : and tbat this fhould be the name of 
the Idol of Mithra, or the Sun in Cejrlon^ But in Periic (ignifies an 
idol of any kind. Idolum in infula Selan feu Ceylon colitur, eo- 
dem nomine gaudet. Et hint quod inter Mithr^ iconifmos. 
Doctor religionis feuSacerdoiSeianenfiaai lingua vocatur PuJum. 
Hyde p. 134. 
* (b) Halisni a Pcrfian Author. Hyde 366. 


Anciefd Hifit^ tf Ireiahd. ioj 

ihily names begtimfaig.wkh the Epithet M&g^ as 
M&g Mathghanma, Mig aidir, Magcana^ Mag 
Giolb Riabhj, M% Rlghnuil, M6gh Luigh 
Mac Luchta, (c) &c. &c. and this name was borrow-* 
edof the Chaldeans, another ftrong circumftance 
from whence Zerduft came, correfponding widi. 
our Irifh traditions. OHm in Ghaldaoorum Curia/ 
horum Redor fupremus ( Jererau 29. 3. 1 3.) dke^ 
batur ;i!D**^*> I(ah Mag u e. MagtK^runi Prsfectus. 
Our Tuatha Dadah brought with, them the €orr 
er Cohre an Daghda^ the twifted |Lh>>tted Girdle 
of Daghdaj whidi was never to be p^ off. (d) 
This Girdle had (bur facred knots on it ; it was 
made of wool or Camels hair ; eorum dngulum 
hodie eft funiculus ex lana, aut pilis camelinis 
tortus, corpus bis cingens, 8c a tergo duplicando 
claufus feu connexus. lite autem Nodus nen venit 
in numerun hodorum (jul mox recenfebuntor r 
iftud Cingulum eft ^mdrinode. Si aliquis adeo 
iniauftus (it, ut Cingulum amittat, non debet ede- 
re aut bibere nee colloqui nee h loco fuo movere^ 
donee aliud acceperit a Sacerdote talia vendentc. 
(e) quia dum difcindm eft, fupponitur non bene- 
didus & poteftati DiaboK fubjeduB, uti & olim in 
Anglia didum ungirty unbleffed. Et omnes tarn 
Viri quam Faemins hodie utuntur eadem cinduri 
ab anno aetatis 1 2tno» cum praefumantur Religio* 
nis Principia inrelligere. Magorum iftud Cingu* 

(c) Mughy qnafi Much. Mugh, Much, Mughfiiine trt 
Ainmlain dileas do dhiadh. Mugh, Much, Mughfiltne» three 
divine aames. (Connac's Glofll) 
(d) Sec. p. 76. 
(c) H/de, p. 37o» 


9#0 J VhuBeaAn ^ ti0 

lum aeftimttur fan£kiffiiinlm» pfiDcipu) qii6d fit in 
fignum obedieirtiaB ftri&ori^ erea Deufiu 

The Pcrfians call thig Girdle Cant^^ that i» 
e«rkd or twifted, m IrHb Cam^Ty Csmmt^ &c» 
and Carr $r Coirr are Synonimeiig. (f ) Qi/hti ia 
another Perfic naoic ^ in Irifli Cat (g) whence the 
Ceremony of recdting the Child iMo the Church 
k named Cermotds Kit/bti hjfiun* In the S^a&t 
if44i4r Ne/r^ is^ the explanation of this Girdle. *^ I 
^ am Zerdviht the prophet; I am the prophet the 
^ great God (ends unto y6u^ >ild have brought 
^^ this book Zendavtfta from Pat adife and Sua 
^ Sudra (Ca&ck) and thtir Cf{i<&fi (Girdle,) he 
^ gare me faying^ put oil thitf Budra and girt this 
^ Lt^ti round your Lines that your Soul may be 
^ freed from heU, and find fahrafion/' The Su^ 
in ia called Siuadh by the Irifl^ SiM^ii^ i« brat 
Ottamhan, ir & the Mbintle of ad Ollam or Do£bor« 
(Vet. Glofc.) (h) . 

It may be iaid dtat tihe few fite towers ezifting 
is Irdand, plainly. eTince thai this fire worlbip 
was not an eftaUiflted reUgioit, and that they muft 

(f) That Cotre in \t\Os. \% t Ring ^ Cfirdle, is evidenr from 
Cornac Mc Cuiluan ; iir his Leiicoa lie explains Boige, baig^ or 
iaic^ a rin^ bond, twift or turn, by Coife, vift. Bofge ainm 
do Cdire famrf fognitiri \t fabea; Ceaniv, ife dfat Cruth fbgoiad 
k haes Ceardkt 9 Sfobkrtid afl^ agys nl ba aio amfoin jarsmh 
^ daifCeano ^i^c amri }. e. |fe^ is fbe name of diten CMnr 
or rings made by ingenious braziers : it Is fo named from die form 
given ic by the Ardft of which nine make a Chain, and not to ex-^ 
ceedthat number, except the great ftrong head (ring.) 

(g) Ca$ a twifted Lock of biir. 

(h) Whence ^uadh (ignifies, a Nobleman, a Nbn of Letten, 
becaufe d^inguiflied by the ^uadh or Mantle. 

^ have 


Kave bectt. .applied to fame 'Other i^c : ^ta^ ob*: 
jcdkm^ I aiif^er, that many luive been' puUed 
down^ and that thefe were omy Gathedrak }: ibaC/ 
odier buildiiigs of wattles and firaw^ . (or Qorrido* 
res) to coyer the congregation^ may have bcen^ 
creded round tfaem, and we ihall find mod of th^. 
Irifli Towers come&ed with pur Gathedrak^ asiac- 
Cloftiej Ca/belly Ghmdahugb^ &c» &c. Notan* 
dum efty-quod omne Pyreum fuit Ecclefia Cathe^ 
dralis dotata ad alendum Epifcopum, & Sacerdotea 
necefiarios^ (i) and like thcGi&^^^x of India^ they 
often prayed to Cnlinary fires^ where, a Tower was: 
not conveniently at hand« , See Chapter Religipn. ^ 
Befides thefe, there were the Antra Mtibra^ 
the Cavies of the. Sun, or jof Mibr^ in Ireland : 
was an Abufe of the. Perfic Religion, (k)- 

(9 Hyde tb6; Bcftre xhc tuneo(Zerduft ift. (or ourAirgiodr- 
lamhy) there' were no covered temples ; they thought the re- 
pr^entative of the Great God Hiould not be confined to a temple ; 
many tof our Scythians ftill adhered to that Se6t, and this ae-* 
counts for the multitude of open Temples to be found in Ireland 
mod Britain. ' Zerdiift^ ad was only the refonrter of the Tower 
Seft» boppofition to^di^ othor^ which coft Jiim iiis life^ Origt- 
aitui. itaque un jverfuseorum cultus fiebat abique templis. Thus 
J^ireiA Nephwjrp Afrqftah prevailed on the Touran's or Scy- 
thians to ereft fome ih Turqueftan or ScytWa. See D'Herbelot 
at Afraliab. - • * ' ^ . . ^ • ; 

(k) MiStr^ ioihe irifii Gioi&ries^ is iai4 to figmfif^ the Rajs, 
of die Sun. See CoUea. XII. . Mihr in Pcrikn is xk^ name 
of tbe Angel fuppofied to fuperintend the orb pt the Sun. Scptem-" 
ber in Pema is named Mihr froni this Angel f and th6 i6t)i day 
oF every month is alfo called Af/A*.* ia confcqucace ci'wbidi: 
they imagined the horn of an Ox Jeilfed on that day, muili be kn-. 
pc^aatfld with cttXDrdinary amMemoiiia^ vinues. (Richard- 


'PoT^hjrj gives a yeiy pardcalar defi^ipddn of: 
diem I he &ys ^dt Zoroafler retired' to a natural' 
Cave to contemplate on the Creator, and on Mim- 
tfaras the father of all : that afterwards dbr Perfi^ 
ans made Artificial Caves, in which the MyAeriea 
of Mithras were celebrated : and as diefe Caves 
were mider the Earth, the water oonftandy Arop^' 

eld through the roof, which was attributed to the; 
ymphs Nmadesj being always prefent, Thif . 
Cave was dark, yet the Symbols of aU • Virtucfi 
were difcemible in them. Porphyry then enteiw« 
into a more minute detail, miadag the Mydiology : 
of the Greeks, and ipeaks of Satmik,. iGeceSs Boo?- 
ferpine, &c. . ^^ 

It muft be evident to every Reader acjCtuainted: 
with Ae Religion of the Perfians, v^hondithef ^^: 
lowed covered temples or Images, that Porphyry^ 
and Enbulus, whom he quotes, have £sili^ at--^ 
tributed the Roman and Grecian ^orihip of Mi-^ 
thras, to the Perfians, whofe Religion was, in eve- 
ry reiped, diametrically oppofite to that c^ the, 
Greeks and Romans : in this part of their Mytfao* 
logy, there is nothing in common, but the name t 
for how could the Romans borrow alt tneit figures 
and compound figures of Mithras, of the Peruans^ 
who had neither Cells, Statues or Altars i The 
Gtf»rr, the defcendants of th6 aadent; Perfians, 
have never had any yet. 

The Romans muft have borrowed thcfc Mythrki- ! 
tic rights of that great fwarm of Pirates, (mend-^ 
oned p. 176.) who bduig an aflemblage of Barba^^ 
rians of different nations, inhabited all the Sea 
Coaft round the Mediterranean. Amongft them^ 


Ancient Hi/tery rf Ireland. 209 

Were fome of our ancient Scuthi or Seamen, ori- 
ginally Perfians, but, they confifted chiefly of 
Phrygians. They \lrerc Mailers of the Mediterra- 
nean Seas, till about 678 years of Rome, when 
Pompeius was ordered to extirpate them, which 
required the united forcd of all the maritime pow'* 
ers for eight years. (1) 

This mixture of people, jumbling together the 
Mythology of the Egyptians, Tyrians, Pcrfians, Sy- 
rians, &c. formed a Religion of the whole, imports 
ing it to the Greeks and Romans ; and hence aro- 
fc thofe' abfurdities in both, where no refem* 
blance of the Original is preferved, the name ex- 
cepted, (m) 

As a proof that the Roman Mithras is of this 
Origin, all the figures that have hitherto been 
produced of that Deity, will on examination be 
found to be in Phrygian drefs, not in Perfian : 
Phrygian or Cilician, is the fame thing, for thefe 
Pirates are fomq|imes called Cilicians, and Strabo 
in two places telk us, the Cilicians were of Troy, 
and every one knows the Troad was in^tefier 

Porphyry therefore had not the leaft authority, 
or Eubulus, whom he quotes, for making Zoro- 
afler the author of the Mythriaci : if by Zoroafter 
is meant the Perfian Zarduji : No myfteries could 
be moi?e repugnant to the genius of that philofo- 
pher, and to the religion of the ancient Perfians : 
this has been obferved by Julius Firmicius, *^ Vos^ 

(]) Plutarch in Pompeio. 

(m) See Explication de dir. Mon. fiog. qui one npport a Ja 
Religion dei ancient peupie. 

O •• itaque. 

aio A Vindication of the 

'^ icaquc, qui dicitis in his Tcmplis rite facrifica-^ 
" ri, non Magorum ritu Perfico : cur hasc Per&- 
*' farum facra laudatis ? Scio hoc Romano nomine 
^* dignum putatis, ac Pcrfarum facris. At Pcrla- 
** rum legibus* fequatur/' (De Error, profan. Rc- 

Ug c. 5-) 

Therefore whenever wc read in ancient authors, 

that the Perfians ereded ftatues to deities and con-> 
ftrufted temples, we mud underfland they fpeak 
of fome nation or people furrounding the Perfians, 
who, adopting fome part of their religion, altered 
and accommodated it to their own. And in par- 
ticular of other nations where thefe pirates had 
been, and there was very little of the then known 
world where they had not been. 

Wherever they went, their Priefts accompanied 
them ; thefe aUb they named Tuatba Dadann^ 
feigning they were originally Dedannites of Ghal- 
daca, as probably they were. \Vhen the African 
pirates preffed hard upon Ireland^ the Iri{h applied 
to their old colonifts at Croton in Italy : thefe came 
to their affiftance, bringing with them certain of 
thefe Tuatha Dadann, who, by their magic, fays 
the fable, could turn (lones and trees into men. 
(a) They fettled in Samothrace, in Crete, in Cy- 
prus, and when expelled the Mediterranean, 
mod: probably wandered to Gaul, the Britannic 
ifles, Denmark, Scandinavia, &c. And hence 
the great fimilarity in the Pagan religion of the 
North and of the Eaft, becaufe the fundamental 

(a) See Colleft. No. XII. Heree was the firft conuminadoii oi 
that religion they brought from the Eaft. I think there can be 
no doubt of the Chaldaeaias embracing this oppominkj of attempt* 
ing to eilablifli their damnable doflrine through the world bj 
means of thefe fea rovers. 


Ancient WJiory of Ireland. 211 

prixiciples of all f agan religions were the fame, 
having been fixed on certain data before the dif^ 
perfion, as we fliall ihew in a diftind chapter. 

Thefc Tuatha Dadann, though they could not 
cffeAually introduce image worfhip amongft the 
Scoti of the Britannic iflcs, did however prevail on 
them to adopt the cave worftiip of Muidhr, or 
Grian, that is, of the fun j an inftitution entirely 
of their invention 

Several of thefe Antra Mithrae exift ill Ireland 
and in Britain at this day : they are of a wonder- 
ful conftru^lion : fuch is that at New Grange, dc- 
fcribed by Governor Pownall, in the fecond vo- 
lume of the Archscologia, and of which a plan, 
fe&ion and view is here given. PI. 3 and 4. 
Grange I take t<> be a corruption of Grein-uaghy 
that is, the uaghy cave or den of Grian^ i. e. 
Mithras or the Sun. Uagby Coire or Gmre^ figni- 
fy a cave: (b) hence that remarkable Antrum 
called Carrig'Coire^ or the cave of the rock, in 
County of Waterford, near Tramore. ITiis was 
a natural cave: that of New Grange is artificial* 
One fimilar to the latter was difcovered in 1778 in 
Wales, in the neighbour^iood of Sir N. Bailly. (c) 
Thefe were the works of the old Scoti, prior to 
the arrival of the Cymmerigh in Britain. 

The mod remarkable caves of this kind are in 
the ifland of Inis Muidhr ^ now called Innis Murra^ 

(b) Arabic* Ghar, Aghwar, a Cave. 

(c) A very extraordinary Catacomb has been difcovered in 
. the neighbourhood of Sir N. Bailly. It ii a circular vault about 

ten feet diameter, and eight in height, formed of vail rude 
ftones, and placed under the center of a great camedd or heap 
bfftones; it is deemed a matter of great curioficy. (Letter to 
Aniiq. Soc. Lond. dared Borow-hill, 19th Feb. 1778.) 

O 2 and 

4 ^ 

212. A Vindication of the 

and the Holy Ifland, or Ifland of Saints. It is 
about nine miles diftant from Sligo. (See P|. 5.} 
Here, not only the ruins of the caves are to be 
feen, but the Clock Greine, Sun Stone^ or Muidbry 
from whence the ifland takes its name, is (till re- 
maining in its mofl; perfed: (late, being a conical 
pillar of flone, placed on a pedeftal, furrounded 
by a wall to preferve it from profanation. This is 
the Hvif®- of the Greeks, and the Mahody of the 
Gentoo^. Apud Emiflenos Solis fimulacrum 
erat grande Saxum conicum nigrum, quod ja£la- 
bant a Cselo fuifle delapfum. (Herodian.) 

Captain Pyke landed in the ifland of Elephan- 
ta, near Bombay. In the midfl: of a Gentoo tem- 
ple he found a low altar, on which was placed a 
large poliflied ftone of a cylindrical form, ftand- 
ing on its bafe, but the top was rounded or con- 
vex. The Gentoos^ fays he, call this the ftone of 
Mahody J a name they give to the original of all 
things. And this Hieroglyphic of the Supreme 
Being is intended to (hew, that it is beyond the 
limited comprehenfion of man to form to himfelf 
any juflt idea of him that made the world, for, 
they fay, no man can behold the Great God and 
live, which is the reafon he cannot be reprefented 
in his proper fhape. Upon the Captain's enquiring 
the reafon of placing fuch a ftone there, and in 
that awful and folemn manner, it was anfwered« 
That this facred ftone is dedicated to the honour 
of Mahody^ who created the univerfe, and his 
name is placed under it, and therefore that ftone 
which defends the name of the great and incon* 
ceivable God from all pollution, is itfelf a holy 
memorial and monument of what cannot be dc- 
fcribed ; but is Qot itfelf a God, yet being thns 
^ placed. 



• Gov. 

V. 11) I have com- 

pared it w 

in thePhxn-Malts 

of Banbel 

i Intended to exprefi 

MiDHR, 1 

n Ogham, and readi 

jl«^M, Ha 

1 and 501. 

h e. Magnus Deus, in Irifli Mab or Maitb-de^ 
ponus deus. 

1 M 


L. . J 

fcribcd; i/ut i$ out auwha a wuu^ ^v uuau|, 

^ placed, 

• Ancient Hi/iory ^Ireland. 213 

placed, though a ftone, no prophane or poUuted 
man ought to touch it. 

Hence v^e fee the reafon of our Muidhr being 
placed in an ifland far diftant from the (hore, and 
furrounded by a lowwall ; of the cells of purificati* 
on within the building ; and, hence the early miili- 
cmaries in Ireland, immediately erededchappels of 
the chrlflian religion in this ifland, which, no 
doubt, were much reforted to. 

Linfater, in his voyage to India, p. 81. tells 
us, that the Brahmins report, that their holy men 
in the Rajah's country, can give an account of 
thefe monuments, and that they are recorded in 
their Hanfcrit books. That no offerings were to 
be made at the altar of Mahoody but by thofe of 
clean and unpolluted minds. lie faw one ereded 
in a tangot water to prevent any unclean thing 
comkig near it. At the North aiid South of the 
tlland of Elephanta, there are other Pagodas full 
of imagery, except the interior of the Mahoody 
temples, and each has a fpring of water or a' tank 
near it, to purify all that entered. 

This is certainly the ftone Herodian* fiaw at 
Emifia^ in Phsenicia, where, fays he, they wor« 
fliip Heliogabidus ; but he faw no image fafliioned 
by men's hands, but only a great ftokie round at 
bottom, and diminifhing towards the t6p in a co« 
nic form. Our Muidhr and the Mahoody of the 
Gentoos are not conical, but only columns of 
circular bafes rounded at the tops. 

Muidhr in Iriih, in the ancient GlofTes, is writ- 
ten for Midhrj which is explained by the Ray of 
the Sun : but the Mahoody of Captain Fyke is 
certainly corrupted from the Gentoo Maha-deuj 
!• e. Magnus Deus, in Irifh Mah or Maith-de^ 
l)onus deus. 


214 -^ Vindication of the 

As to names we muft Qot be furprized: . tp. fiad 
them corrupted, if introdu,ced by that' ftrange 
mixture of pirates and .th^ir priefts heretofore. :dc- 
fcribed. Pliny is deceived by a 4efcriptioa of this 
kind, primus certe omnium, obelifcoram ercfti*. 
onem inftituit Mitres^ qui in Solis urb^ rcg^iabat, 
fomnio juffus — poftea et alii regum in dida 

urbe.. (d) . ^ . - 

Hence Obeli (ks were dedicated to the Suj>^ by 
all nations^ obeli/cum Deo Soli fpeciali munerf dedi^ 
catumfuife. (Ammianus.) 

Qhinen£ps & Indi prater imagines in pagodis & 
delubris praegrandes aliquando etiam integrMrupes^ 
praeifertim A natura in pyramidakm formam Tecgc- 
bant, in Idola formare folebant. (Mafficus,. Hyde, 

Multjitu^es of tbc^e ilon^$ are to be found in 
the Brit^npic ifles^ to which, the . Bntiih Druids 
were ft rangers ; in general jhey are jjinwrou^; 
iMCh, I think, is Radftpne Obeliik. 

The Pagjtn Irifh learnt .from tbefe iXua^ha Da* 
dann, to dedicate ObicUOt^ bo|th tp Sua and 
MoQP, tbatj§, to Mfii0C'bfil:znA £aga*bal, or Do- 
minus Sol et Doiftinu3 tunus : forMolc iftlrifli, 
ftgnii^s fire, ar)d is an .^pifib^et. of theStth, ^nd 
£^7^,Qr Eac i& the Mopn : ;jrf;iefc went ucfder the 
general name of Uil^ or Duile, i. e. the £)^mem8. 
Indealbha ainmann Aitoir na nidhat; no Arracht 
na Ndui$fi j^o gnitis ai) geinte, i. e. verbi gratia, 
figursE Solis & Lunae^^^k.fc. Molcagus Eag--f^(Cor. 
rnac iyic'Cuilcnann)-rrrth»tj .ijs, Indealbha is the 
name of the altar or Idol of.thcElerhehts, made 

• ■ 

, (d) Nat.Hil^^, 36.C. S..' , 

..1 ■.. by 

Ancient Htfiory of Ireland. 2 1 5 

by the Pagan Iriih» that is, of the Sun and Moon, 
or Mole and £ag. 

The defcription given by Herodian made Dr. 
Hyde think Elagabalus is corrupted of ^jya^^^b^iy 
Agli-bal, feu Eglibal, i. e. deus rotuiidus ; Avhere- 
as £1 is Deus, and Gabal an intenfe fire, therefore 
Elagabal was a proper epithet of the Sun. We 
find the infcription in Spon and Gruter ArAi-BOAQ 
Agai Bolo ; the fecond a in Agai, has been taken 
by fome for a and corrupted into AgH ; but if we 
examine the figure in Spon, there can be no 
doubt of the true reading ; the deity is there re- 
prefented with a moon on his flioulders, and con- 
sequently it was the Deus Lunus of the Syrians, 
whofe name in their language could not be better 
cxpreffed. than by J ARE-BOL, or *?yn-rn**, i. e. 
Lunus Dominus. See Pocock's travels, v. a. p.. 
165. D*Herbelot at Riha ; of which the Irifli re- 
tain Re^ (the Moon.) Jericho^ or the city of the 
Moon, is called RIHA by the Arabs, and fome- 
times A*RIHA, as ILIA-U-ARIHA, or Jerufalem 
and Jericho. 

The Irifli language clears up this matter, and 
fliews, that Halley and Pocock are right. For 
Re, Ire, and Eag are fynonimous names of the 
Moon, and Male or Mole fignifics Fire and the 
Sun. Gabal fignifies the fame, and hence Elaga- 
bal was the Syrian name of the Sun alfo j i. e. Do- 
minus ignis, (e) 

We have here given the figures of Malacbal and 
Agaibal, from Spon, pi. vi. fig. i. and think there 
cannot be a doubt of their having been introduced 

I (e) Eandem Pyramidis figuram tcI Obelifci^ videtur habuiil^ 

Elagabalus, quo nomine Sol in Sjria ab EmejIJenIs colebatur. 


fi 1 6 A Vindication tf the 

by thofe wonderful pirates, who made religion % 
cloak for their depredations, and formed a moft 
ridiculous religion for the Etrufcans, Grcekis and 
Romans, under Deities, whofe names arc only 
to be explained by a rcfearch into the languages 
of thofe nations that compofed that neft of ruffi- 
ans. And we flatter ourfelves, this obfervation 
will throw new light on the Greek, Roman, 
and Etrufcan antiquities, folving many curious 
monuments and epitaphs that could not be ac- 
counted for in any other manner. 

But ftill the pbelifcal monument of the great 
Deity prevailed in the Britannic ifles, being moft 
congenial to the ancient religion of the Scythians, 
and of the Eaftern part of the world. 

Deus^ Amazonum, cui omnes facra faciebant, 
nihil erat, nifi lapis niger. (ApoUon. Rhod. Ar- 
gon. L. 2.) 

Aflyrii primi erexerunt columnam Marti^ eum- 
que inter deos coluerunt. (Chron. Alex. p. 89.) 

Veneris iPaphiae fimulacriim vetuftiffimura, al- 
bse Pyramidi diflimile non erat. (Max. Tyr.) 

Et eadem Specie in hodiernum ufque diem^ 
apud Indos, fimulacrum frngilMX Mahadeu, (Pel. 
della Valle.) Jablonfki.^ / / " 

Pyramidas atquc Obelifcos ignis naturae, Gonunx 
vero. Soli tributum. (Porphyrins, ap. Eufeb. pr. 

Obelifci e.normitas, ut Hermatales adfirmat. 
Soli proftituta- (TertuUian.) 

Obelifgum Deo Soli fpeciali munere dedicatum 
fuiife. (Am. Marcel.) 

' Nomen antiquiffimym Obelifci apud iEgytios 
fuiffe Pyramis. Etenim, Pirc vel Pira, ^gyptii 
dici Solerfiy tritum vulgatum eft. Deinde, Mue^ 

, i. e. Splen- 

Ancient Hifiory of Ireland. 217 

X. t. Splendorem & radium defignat. Erit itaque 
Firamue^ Radius Solis. (La Croze. Jabloniki.) 

Non pauci (Sinenfes) muta fimulacra, vel eti- 
^ am informes adorant lapides ; namque ii ferm^ dii 
gentium funt. (Maffeus. Ind. Sinens, p. 27 r.) 

And that the Allah Acbar or Dcus maximus^ 
the black ftone of Mecca, was of this kind origi- 
nally, there can be no doubt. Mohammed not 
being able to get the better of the fuperftition of 
the Arabs for this (lone, converted it into a pious 
fraud : the killing and perambulation to this flone, 
annually, the proceilion round the low wall, plain- 
ly indicate it to have been a Muidhr. See 
ch. X. 

In this chapter we have (hewn the OSSIAN 
or OISIN of thfe Gaodhal or Scots and Irifh, is 
of Oriental origin. He is always reprefented as a 
divine Bard, even by the moderns. Originally 
he was a prophet ;^ hence be was called the divine 
Oifliin, fon of Om, or Uaim, i. e. of Terror, one 
of the emblems of the Deity. Camden calls him 
Ofshin Mac Owinu See Om, in the Hindoftan 
and Irifh collated at the conclufion (f ). He was 
at laft miftaken for Uifean, the bumbled one, 
otherwile called Socrai^ that is, Legion. See Oo- 
fana and Sookra^ in the Hindofts^n, as before. 
The two charaders have been blended and minced 
together at the pleafure of the Monks and Bards, 
till at length they have loft all idea of both. Like 
the modem Guebres, who informed Le Brua 

(f ) The Irifli, fays Camden^ retain many fonncts of Fin Mac 
Huyle, Ciker Mac OsAiin, and OsAiin Mac Owim. See alfo 
Mr. Hill's collection of the poems of Offian, p. 32. . 


21 8 A Vindication cf the 

that Oiiin was the fon of jAidam, inftead of Alatn^ 
unlefs it be the miftake of Le Brun. 

Still fome parts of thcfe modern poems prefcrvc 
a few lines of the original fpirit. As, in die 
prayer of Oiihin, Patrick addreiTes him in thefe 
words : 

Bherimfa mo dhearbha dbuil 
Oifin nan' glunn 
Nach bhuil Neamh aigt^athair 
Aig Ofcar no aig GolL 

That is, 
I pledge my dearcft hope, 
O Oifliin ! of divine defcent : — 
Neither your father is in Heaven, 
Or Ofcar, or yet Goll. 

Hence the Old Perfians and Guebres feigned he 
vi^as a prophet from Heaven ; and when the Chrif»- 
tian writers came to be acquainted with oriental 
mythology, they miftook Oilhin for the Mcffiah. 

If the ancient Irifli had not underftood Oifhin 
to have been of divine defcent, it is not probable 
that the firft Chriftians in Ireland would have 
taken his name ; aAd if .Oifhin had been fo zea- 
lous an oppofer of Chriftianity, as the modern 
Poems make him, they would have deteftcd the 
name, and have taken another ; yet we find no 


Ancient Hiflory of Ireland. 219 

Icfs than fix .Ohtifluan Divinea of this name, re- 
corded by Colgan, viz. 

Oflan confcfe. Athrumae, 

Offan alter Athtrumae, 

Oilin fil. Eraani difcip. S. Munnae, 

Offin Abb. de Cluainmor, 

OfEn fil. Kellachi, 

Oilin hua Lapain Archid. Dorens. 

I am here fpeaking of the original Oifhin of the 
Eaft. Doubtlefs there may have been many of 
more modern times, who took that name on them- 
felves; but oriental anecdotes, ftill preferved in 
the writings of the Perfians, and among the ig- 
norant Guebres, or Fire-worfhippers, point out 
the origin ; and the accounts given of this pro- 
phet by the Orientalifts are fiill as confufed and 
conttadidory as thofe of the Irifli Bards. 

E X P L A- 


the Plan cf the Temple of the Monument of Muidbry 
in the yland of Innit Muidbrf now Inms Murra, 

h^ h^ h^ The walls built without mortar of large ftones ; the 
wall from five to ten feet chick and ten feet high. 

C C C. Cells covered with earth-r-all that partfliaded 
with a light ink being earth thrown up, fo as to make the Ceils 
in a manner fubterraneous. Some Cells are fallen In, others look 
horrid and gloomy, having a {inali hole at the top and another 
in the fide, feemingly to give air not light. They have all been 
vaulted with the fame rude ftanes. 

The Cell C at tke entrance is lighted by the door. It appean 
IS have been the place where the Candidate was refted, before 
admittance into the other Cells. 

i. d. The entrance fo narrow as fcarce to admit a man to 

» • * 


A. B. St. Molafes Chappeli. C St; Coium Kills Chappel. 

D. , The Altar. 

The Chappels are all built with lime and flane in a rode man- 
ner. They are modem to the reft of the building. 

FIG. 1. 

The Maidhr furrounded by a Wall — 

FIG. 3. 

The Monument of Mahoody at the Ifiand of Elephanta in the 
£aft Indies, from a drawing made by Capuin Pyke. See Ar- 
chaeologia of the Antiq. Society of London. Vol. VI. 


Fig. I. 7'he Figures of Malac-bal and Agai-bal from Spon. 
Fic. 2. The Mi/^f©* qui a Solr cecidit, from Dr. Hyde. 


A Vindication^ &c. 221 

The learned Benediftin, Author of the Reiigi- 
on des Gaulois, and of the Explication de divers 
monumens finguliers, qui ont rapport a la Reli- 
gion des plus anciens peuples, was not a ftranger 
to thefe itinerant Chaldees or Tuatha Dadann. 
Speaking of Ajlrohgy^ he fays, " this Science 
owes its origin to jajironomv. Thofe whb made 
the courfe and movement of the Stars their profef- 
fion, finding little or no profit thereby, transform- 
ed themfelves into AJirologers^ and availing them- 
felvei of the weaknefs and credulity of mankind, 
always defirous of looking into futurity, they turn- 
ed a moil noble. Science, into tricks and impofiti- 

" The firft that brought this Ad Into vogue, 
fays he, were the Chaldees. Strabo remarks, that 
they had an Obfervatory at Babylon, where Af- 
tronomers were maintained, whom they called 
Chaldeans : fome of them made regular obfervati- 
ons, but thefe were laughed at by the reft, who 
turned A/irologers^ and were permitted to leave Ba- 
bylon, and to migrate over the world. Some 
went to Egypt, others to Greece, and in fine 
over all the world." " From hence arofe three 
different Schools of Judicial Aftrology, one of the 
Chaldees themfelves, a fecond of Egyptians^ and a 
third of the Greeks.*^ (Dc L'Aftrologie Judiciele 
p. 430.) 

With thefe Chaldees proceeded alfo the ad of 
divination by Plants ; hence all the terms of Divi- 
nation ufed in the Irifh Language, of which hun- 
dreds are to be found in the Old MSS. and fome 
in the common Di&ionaries, will be found to be 
Cbaldaic^ and always afcribed to the Tuatha Da- 

" dann. 

224 -^ Vindication of the 

Images have been found ; the drawings of fome 
have been fent to me fince the publication of my 
laft No. } but whether they are of Pagan or Chrif* 
tian dtite, I can form no j udgment : One is here 
reprefented, which I think was Anu or Nanu. (Sec 
PL7.) it is of brafs, near 4 inghes high ; it was found 
in the bog of Cullen, County of Tipperary, and is 
now in pofleffion of Captain Ouilcy. Hyde allows 
the Perfians had a Venus. Nufquam autem reperi 
Perfas ullas alias habidjfe Jiatuas prater illam Vene^ 
risy (h) exceptis Hybridis illis & haereticis in Cap- 
padocia Pertis, quorum Scrabo m^minit fe vidif- 
fe. ** Ifti inquit didi funt nup*i9oi Ignis accenforcs^ 
qui Iconolatriam cum Pyrodulia mifcuerunt/* Ejus 
verba funt. ^^ In Cappadocia (nam ibi eft ^Jxor 
Tribus quaedam Magorum qui Pyrsethi vocantur, 
& multa Perficorum deorum Templa) non cultro, 
fed flipite quodam ma£tant facrificia, tanquam 
mallco verberantes. Sunt & Uv^ai'^ua fcil 2W91 Sep- 
ta quasdam ingentia, in quorum medio eft &:»fc»^ 
Ara feu-Focus in quo Magi cinerem multum & ig« 
nem perennem fervant ; & eo quotidie ingreiE 
twiS^tiair accinuut (feu canunt preces fuas) fere per 
horam ante ignem Virgarum fcifciculum tcnentes/' 
Many of thefe circular Septa are ftill exifting in 
Britain and Ireland, with the Altar in the Centre 
—in Ireland they are called Druid*s Temples^ 
they (hould have been named more properly the 
Temples of the Draoi or Magi. 

(h) The Perfian names of Venus Is PiJoucAt or Biducht^ Na- 
nea and Metm. The Irilli names are Bidhgoe, Anu, Nanu and 
Mathar. The Syrian names are Nanai and Anai. The Irtfh 
fbnietfmes write the name Nang^ as Nang-hte^ tcI Nang'^dat^ 
i. e. Dies Veneris. See Chap. Religion — The Perfian temple 
of Nanan is mentioned 2 Maccab. Ch. 1 . V. 12. 

Afident Wftwy rf Ireland. 22$ 

My readers muft bj this time have perceived a 
great coincidence and affinity between the ancient 
uifhy (or Scythians) and the ancient Perlians. I 
am adfiraid the Iriih ifere^Pagkhs, though like the 
Perfians they had the kiiowledge of the true God : 
and that all that I can fay in their behalf, or Dr. 
Hyde in favour of the Perfians, we mufl allow^ 
that the vulgar at leaft, were little better than Ido- 
later8.-^(i) In Ireland they were contaminated by 
the Tuatha Dadann. 

From this digreflion we return to the Dynafties, 
where we fliaU offer a few more ftriking coinci- 
dences of names and hiftorical relations, and then 
proceed to the &mous Phenian and Milefian Hif- 
tory of the Irifh. 

Daghda or the deity of fire, fucceeded Luagh 
tan^bade. Keating cans him Daghda the great, 
and only fays, he reigned 70 years in Ireland ^ 
yet in all the Irifli MSS. we find the defcendants 
of this Dagbda , came to Ireland with the Tuatha 
Dadann. Confequently he could not have reigned 
in Ireland, (k) 

P Dagbda 

(i) Porpbfry has quoted an oracle, which, he fayt, wai pro- 
nounced at Delphos, of a ycrj ezmordinaxy nature : it mas 

Chaldees and Jews are wife in worfliipping, 
A felf begotten God, of all things King. 

The Chaldees were the Magi as can bevproved from Lfterttus ; 
and were undoubtedly the Magi of Ireland, known by the name 
tj^QiUei. ThePeHians call thofe Magi who were employed in 
the Sendee of their Oods, (6ys Dion. ChryfoAom,) but the 
Greeks being ignorant of the meaning of the word, apply it to 
fuch as are billed in Magic, a Science unknown to the Perfians. 
(Dion Chr. Grat, Boriochus.) 

(k) It b to be obferved, (lays Mr. Bryant,) dat whta Colo* 


iil6 A Vhidkatim rf the > 

Daghda ill Irilfk iiftbty Is the father cf many 
Chil(ueA, who with himfelf had die power of ap- 
pearing in fire, and .of comnlanding^ tt to be pre- 
ferit on all occalions. t)ioli Chryfoflom from good 
authorities relates, ^h'^t he learned of Zoroafter. 
It IS rcjiorted, fays he, that through love of wit 
dom and jufticc, ZofOifter ^or Zerduft,) with- 
drew himfelf from men, and lived alone in a cer- 
tain mountain : that, afterc^rards leaving the moun- 
tain, a great fire defcending from above continu- 
ally burned about him. Upon this the Kin^ and 
Xiobility of Perfia came and prayed with Imn to 
God, &c. (I) 

Dagbdd was the God of the Elements (m) the 
Godofprorpcrity, o^ generation, and of vegetati- 

Kbamdni, or Ic/Jeierzadj fumamed Hmai^ a 
C^eeh of the fecond Perfian Dynafty. Some Ori- 
entalilts fufpe& no fuch Queen exified, andtbe 
Tarikh Cozideh makes no mention of her. The 
Orieh^adi writer^ &y that (he was a great ArchitcS) 
and adorned the city of Perfepolis : to her aUb is 
attributed a multitude of fmall Pyramids, fcattered 
throughout Perfia and every where overturned by 
d^ S6kiiers of Alexander the Great. 

About five months after her accellion to the 
throne, fhe brought forth a Son, who the Aftrolo- 

nies wkm abrotd and made zty where a Settlement, tbej in- 
grafted upon their anttcet/ent hifiory^ the fubfequent events cf the 
p]ace« And ts in thofe days they could carry up the Genealo- 
gies of their princes to their very Source, it will be ^und that 
the firft King in every Country, under whatever title de^pe^^ 
was tiie Patriarch, the Father of Mankind. (See Preface.) 

(1) prat, Borifthen. 

(id) ColWbmea, Vol, 3, p. 594. 

Anaent I^opj of Ireland. 227 

r\ deciared would brin^ great misfortunes on 
Country, and they advifed, he fliould be im- 
mediately (Kftroycd. The tendemels of the mo- 
ther would not piermit Uomai to follow their Coun* 
fels { ihe therefore made a little wooden Ark, and 
having pi^t the child into it, fuffered the vcflel to 
fail down the Gihon or Oxus. It is faid, Homai 
was with Child by her £sither Bahanfan. The 
Child was found on the Water by a Dyer who 
nurfed and educated. him : He was named Daraby 
which implies, ppJkp^ or found on Water, (n) 
Young Darab arrived at the age of maturity, de- 
termined on the profei&on of Arms, and joined the 
army then marching againft the Greeks : he was 
at length difcovered to be the Son of Homai ^ who 
having reigned 30 years, refigned the Diadem to 

The Surname Homai, given to the Queen, (ig- 
nifies a bird peculiar tO'the £aft, which is fuppo- 
fed to fly conftantly in the air, and never to touch 
the ground : it is looked upon as a bird of happy 
omen, and that every head it overftades will in 
time wear a Crown : it denotes a Phoenix, a large 
royal Eagle, a Pelican, and a bird ofParadife. (o) 

Irish History. 

This ftory is told in a different manner in the 
Iri& hiftory, viz. Anno Mundi 3559, Macha 
Mong^ruadh obtained the Crowru In the Govern* 
ment of this Princefs the Royal Palace of Eaman 
was ere£led« There were three Irifh Winces who 

' (n) Richardfoii Diflertat. p. 54. 
(o) Richardlbii Arab. Di6tionaiy» at Homai. 

Pa for 

228 A VinJicatim cf the 

for a long time waged continual Wars for the Go- 
vernment of the Ifland. 

Their names were jlod Ruad^ Diatbarba or 
Diarbaj and Cimbaoth (Cambyfes) : after wearing 
one another out with ftruggling, they came to an 
agreement, that each fhould reign fucceffively for 
a certain^ number of years. 

Aod Ruad was the firft that wore the Crown, 
and died, leaving only a daughter behind him, 
named Macba Mongruadh. Diatborba next ob- 
tained the Government, and reigned the whole 
time ; then reigned Cimbaotb his full time, and 
Aod Ruad having left no Son, Macba Mongruadb 
claimed the throne in right of her inheritance. 
Diatborba oppofed her, thinking himfelf next in 
fucceflion on failure of male ifiue in Aod ruadb : in 
confequence of which, a civil war' broke out. 
Soon after, their forces met, and Macba obtained 
a compleat Vidory. The competitors of the 
Crown being apprehended, a Council was called 
to determine what fentence fhould be pafied upon 
them ; and thinking the peace of the Government 
would never be fettled, if they were permitted to 
live; they condemned them all to deadi. 

The Queen being of a merciful difpofition, 
interfered, and defired their lives might be faved. 
And being a Lover of ArcbiteSure^ me propofed 
thefe terms : that^ inftead of Death, their punifh- 
ment fhould be, to ercft a moji Jlatelj Palace^ 
\vhere the King fhould always keep his Court. 
They agreed to the Condition, and the Queen un- 
dertook to draw the plan of this Strudure which 
fhe executed with the Bodkin of her hair : be- 
caufe, fay the modem bards, Eo is a bodkin and 
v)uin the neck, whence Eaman ! ! ! 

(p) Keatiflg, p, 1 56. 


Jncmt Hi/lory of Ireland. 229 

Matba in Irifli, fignifies a Royfton crow, aa 
ominous bird, an eagle, a pelican ; Mong is the 
creft of a bird, the mane of a horfe, &c. and 
ruadh is red. Mocha mmg^ruadh is the bird 
machaj with a red creft, and certainly implies 
the bird of Paradife, the fame as Homai in Perfic ; 
from hence we have the Iriih word moing-realtj 
a comet ; literally, a ftar with a red tail, or flam- 
ing creft. 

If fuch a perfon as Queen Homai did^exift, I 
am of opinion ihe adorned the city of Balch, or 
Baligh, which was alfo called Balch-Bachara, and 
Ibmetimes only Bachara (a), which by fomc Arab 
writers is (aid to be fo called from Balch an Oak, 
but more probable from the Perf. Belgh^ and the 
Iriih Balg and Bocbra^ all fignifying wifdom ; and 
this is the true meaning of Eanu^ or Eamainfi. (b) 

In Balch-Bachra, Zerdulht is faid to have pro- 
mulgated his dodrine, and then to have prophc- 
fied of the Melfiah : conformable to this we find, 
ia the Iriih MSS. he is called the Draoi or Daru 
of Bacrm^ i. e. Draoi Bachracb a Pried of Bachara» 
It is certain, fays Keating, (from ancient MSS.) 
that Bacrach a Druid (Draoi Bachrach) did pro-» 
phecy and foretel, that a moft holy and divine 
perfon ihould be bom in a wonderful manner, 
and be b^baroufly murd^rqd t>7 the Great Covin- 

(a) &bii fculptilia cqlentes eadem lingu^ dicebonnir, Bochar^ 
quod exponimr iut-freftan | atque eciifin ezponitur mejama dam^ 
I e. Locns colleAionis bciendae : unde nomiminir urbs Avicen* 
me. MocAata propter Dodorum Vironim ibi confiuxum.—* Ia 
Iriik ioc/uM is to argne on a learned topic, whence hochain a 
logician. Soma Ohim/uan^ u e. Muir OlamAan, the congregation 
of the learned : the apuiemy of the learned. See hereefter. 

(b) Hyde, p. 153, 493. 


230 A Vindication of the 

cil of his own nation, notwithftanding lus defign 
of coming into the worid was for th« happinefs and 
falvation of the whole earth, and to redeem them 
from the deiufion of infernal demons, (c)] 

Keating's tranflator, miftaking hacbrach the ad- 
jeflive for the noun, makes it the name of the 
Drmi ; but it can be no t>ther than Zerdujbu who 
loft his life in that* city, as before related. In 
fome Irifh MSS. this prophet is called Dunn^ in 
others Iri-el Faidhy i. e« the holy tr the prophet. 
Zerduji took on him the name 01 Er as we have 
fliewn before, and Dun was the Chaldaean name. 
]11 Dun per totam fcripturam fignificat publicum 
officium in Ecclefia, feu prsedicationem qua argui* 
mur, reprehendimur, difcemimus bona a msdUs : 
hence in the Irifh Dunn, i. e. Olambj i e. rfM 
Dodor. • 

R-om thefc proofs of the affinity of the Irifh 
language and hiftory, with thofe 01 the Chaldees 
ind Ancient Ptrfians, there can be no doubt of 
the Irifh being (as they affirm) of Scythian and 
not of Cckic or Oomerian origin. They who pro- 
fcffed this fire-worfbip in temples or towers, that 
is, the religion of Zcrdoft, in Lucian's time, as 
reckoned up by him, were the Perfians^ the Par^ 
tbiansj the BaSlriansj the 'Chowarefmaim^ the Art- 
ansj the Sacans, and the Medes (d) ;— ^our of 
thefc nations were Scythians. Accordingly we 
find moft of the Perfian names of the true God, 
of the Demons, Peri, Angels, &c. prefervcd in 
the Irifh language, yet the naniies of Pnnces, of 

(c) Keating, p. 187. 

(d) Lncian de Loogsevit. 


Andeni I^ftory ^ Ireland. 2,3 1 

Heroes^ &c. are tranflated into the Scythian or 
In& diale£^ : For eiumple, 

Persic. Irish. 

Qiodai God -Chodhia, Combdhia 

Biflitema Ditto Biiheach-tiema 

Mana Dim Mana, Manann ; 'Arab. 

Mann beneficit^ Man* 
nan, benignus^ and with 
the article al^ Deus 

Ard the name (f the An-- AttonerfthenamesjofGod 
gel who frejides over 

m^iemCcBJf/iialParadi/ey Naemh, Neamh, Heaven j 
i. e. Dara naem tbe from the Arabic nam, 
abode of the Blefed nzym^ delight Joy^ prof- 

perityy benefits ^ favours 

AivLTBSiXithe Angel of death Saman 

Derviche, qui rcgarde le Dearc, i. e. deora Dc, 
pauvrctS religieufc i. c. feeiing charity for 


Afuman^ felon les Mages de Perfe, le nxeme 
qne Mordat^ Tange de la mort, ou cclui qui fe- 
pare les ames d'avec les corps, les auteurs dcs pa- 
raphrafes Chaldaiques de TEcriteure fainte le 
nommeat Malakadmouta^ i. e. Tange de la mort. 
(D'Hcrbelot)— — See this Irilh feftival defcribed, 

Colleftanea, V. 3, p. 444* 


232 A VituUcation of the 


The Irifli deity Saman was fuppofed to be the 
judge of departed fouls; at his difcretion they 
were condemned to be punifhedin hbir4n^ pr 
given over to Ifrion pr Ifr-in^ i. e. the land or 
abode of the Isn*s (e) ; or they were to reaflfume a 
being on earth. The Brahman* s believe^ ttiat thofe 
that ihall worfhip God from motives of fiiture hap- 
pinefsy fliall be indulged with their defire in Hest- 
vcn for a certain time,— but, they Jhall return U 
earth — ^they fhall aflbciate with the firft organized 
Purman{i) tbey fliall meet. They fliatt not re- 
tain any confcioufnefs of their former ftate^ unlets 
it is revealed to them by God. But thofe favoured 
perfons are very few, and are diftinguiflied by the 
naniQS of Jates Summon^ i. e. the acquainted with 

(e) Ms, Ar. lin a demon, genius, ipirit ; pm the foul ; ymm 
hm Jan the name of an imaginary being, who makes a great 
figure in eaftern fabiilous' tradition/ He Is fuppofed to have oeea 
chs Monarch of that race of creatures called hf the Arabians Jam 
or Jirm, and alfo of the Peris or Fairies, both of whom hihabtted 
the earth before Adam's creation, but were then baniihed to a 
comer of the world called Jinniftan, (or difobedienoe to the Sa- 
preme Being«-^With thefe the Piflidaditos are fiud to hav^ 
waged war. (Richardfon.) 

^frin in Irifli fignifies hell. Befere Chriftianity was inttoduoedy 
it was the name of the cruel demon thas puniflitd wicked mor- 
tals : it is literally ^^tyfr-Jin, or cruel Jin or demon of the Per- 
fians. (See Richardfon's Di^. p. 274.) He was called GW/-inr, 
in Arab, ghullin or the malevolent demon. Arth.gailan a de« 
jnotf, wn gailan the mothier of demons. ' We how trenllate Gof- 
lint the D^vil. jSo we tranflate the Irifli IthAJimi Hell .* bat ft 
cxprefles Paradife \ the hh maniion or country, Vimt of Uirin, 
i. e. Paradife % Old Feriic H^varm Paradife. Mr. Richardfon 
fays, hura^Am is the Virgin of Paradife ; hera is a Virgin and 
Ain is Pamdife ; I have fomewhere niet Untran an ancient Per- 
fian word for Paradife:' All thefe Irifli words are evident^ 
Periian, and were introduced by the Tuath-Padann. *- 

if) T^rtnanTSi^vmi. (Holwcll.)— Irifli farrawii. 


Ancient hiftory rf Irehnd. 233 

Adr fonner ftate ; fays Mr. HoUweU, from the 
isformation of the I^xxkdit, his inftru^or (h) ; I 
confefsj that finding fo much of the Brahman 
language and mythology to correfpond with thofe 
of the ancient Irifli, I am inclined to diink yates 
Sunmm is the Irifh Shietigb Sbambna^ i. e. one 
favoured by the deity Sanum. 

Before the labours of the ingenious Mr. Holwell^ 
in learning the language and doftrine of the Brah- 
man's, what abfurd (lories have we been told of 
the tenets of their religion, and of their God 
Srimbi from whence Brabmin ^ fxie&j becaufe 
produced from the head of Brimh^ i. e. Wifdom ; 
(i) and of Abraham^ they have no idea. Brimh 
in the Shanfcrita language is wifdom ; the Bedang 
or commentary on the Bedas begins with a dia* 
Ibgue between Brimh and Narud^ i. e. Reafon. 

In old Irilh Beid or feadf is a book, a com- 
mentary : Bed'fairimbadbj is a commentator^!, e. 
an expofitor of the Bed. 

Brum or Bricm is wifdom, whence Brumaire a 
pedant ; Nard is (kill, knowledge, reafon (k). 
' The Shanfcrita Bedang^ is called Sbq/ier ; which, 
£iys Mr. Holwell, may be literally tranflated tbe 
body offdence. 

(h) Fiaidu a learned nuuiy a teacher. (HolwelK)-*Ia Irifti 
bvn-dach or pon-dath, an infthidor oi wildoniy ooe endowed 
with knowledge 1 hmatam to poffeis, dath i. c. filthy wifikmiy 
Hull, poetty, &c. 

(i) Brafamar penetrant tomei chofei, D'Herbelot, p. 195. 
la Mih Briom wndom, Mionn the head : Briom-mionn. 

(k) The IriihGlofiarlfti eren dare to (hew the derivation of 
the word Briom or Briomha % SrimAa, i. e. Brimdha quafi 
FnornhJiha^ i. e. t^inm prima, dha vel doa^ Scientia See Pri* 
omhdha, Nard, ire. in Shawe's Irifli Didiooaij. 


^34 ^ VindicatiM tffbe 

In old Ir^ Sm or Sbeis^ u CrSo^ifaios (Sopluos} 
is fcience^ and SeUe or Sbeifi^ is a dialogue^ or 
difcouidb between learned . men ; the n^a^ ii y ia 
which the Bedang is written (1). 

Zerdujij it is laid, ftudied with the Brabndm^ 
and mixed much of their religion with his own. 
According to the Iriih MSS. Brmm or Brkm was 
Ac grandfon of Magog } £:>r his wifdom he was 
named Ce^bacbe or Cm-baccbe^ the iUuflrious Bac- 
chus or the illuftrious Mwnu^ i* e. Arhr S^iensy 
die Mulberry tree ; (of vAsldi hereafter}--^ei5 
£tid to have fettled in Triaib-Baiccbe or BaSria^ 
i. e. the country or lordfliip of Saccbc; where 
moft probably the Brahmn religion had its fource. 

At a proper time^ we fliall fb^w fuch an affinity 
between the ancient Irifli and the Shanfcrita and 
Bengalefe languages^ as wilLleave no doiibtof their 
having been one people J orat leaft intimately <x)n<' 
nefted with each other. 

To conclude, this is the'hiftory of thelrifli 7W- 
iba Dadann and the Perfian Pyhdadatm : if Acre 
is any truth in either, there is certsiinly much 
fable. I am of opinion, that both thcfe and the 
Cbe/dim or Chaldeesj were originally Scythians : it 
is certain we find thefe Tuatha Dadann, named 
Geafadin in the Irifh hiftory. See chapter divina- 
tion. They may have wandered to Ba£Ma and 
Hinduftatij and there eftabliihed the Brahman 
religion. I think, that no nation was called by 
that name, and that their catalogue of. kings, is 
fabulous : they came to Ireland and Britain io 
imall bodieSj accompanying the Pbeni or Fhenici- 

(1) See Holwells diiTenadon on the Brahman religion^ in 
Dowe's hiftorj of Hindoftan. * 


Andent Hifttry rf Ireland. 235 

ans (m). Some may have returned from the Eall: 
to Meflbpotamia) improved in £aftem knowledge, 
and have fettled in Singaraj from vfaencethey 
may have migrated Weuward into Europe, and 
carried ivith them the name of Zingari^ Sitigarij 
and Cingari^ by which they were known in kaly : 
but the Hebrews ftill called them Cut him. David 
de Pomis takes them for a mixed people, ai^d Elias 
Grammatuus thinks thefe are the Zingari of Italy. 
Rabbini Sanlaritanas O^rfQ Cuthim vocant, co 
quod venerunt a Cuda & adduzit Aflur de Bahy^ 
Itmea^ de Cutba^ de Jva^ de Amaib^ & de Srfar^ 
vainly & coUocavit eos in civitatibus Sanuniaytcc. 
•«-et videtur mihi, dixit Elias grammaticus, ^qndd 
-ab illis venerit populus, qui ultrd dtrdque vagtOur 
in terra hoftiatim mendicantes, quos Itaia Zi^^fae* 
ni, 8c Zingari appellant (n). 

To fuch ftrdlers or emigrdtdt^, the Hebrews 
and Syrians might properly give the »name of 
Dadan. When ERfa migrated frcm T^re to 
Carthage in Africa, the RwnlciaaiB caUed her 
Dada nrom mT tladeh to migrate ; whence > the 
Latin I^do (o)« The Poets took great liberties 


(m) Sec No. XIII. Collea. 

. (n) David de Pomit, p. 92. Zii^gsao vel Zingan), Peffona, 
che va einuido il muxxio per giuntare altnii fotto il pretefto di 
dar la buona ventura, Lac. Proeftigiator. (VocabuL delU 
Crufca. — It is incredible how far thefe CfaalHim or IManites 
pufhed themfelvts ; we find them in the Scytho-ScandicalKaleft 
under SkatU^ idem A et Sangaire^ Prefi ; Poeta, idem Sacetttos. 
Veralius Lex). 

(o) Dido, ab HTV dadeh Hebreo & Syro es vagar i andar de 
una parte a otnu Aldrete Antig. de -Efpaiuiy p. 196. Sefe 
alfo Etymologicum magnum.*^It u remarbd>]e duit thefe Zin- 
jpri or Gyphes of England call diemfelves Wimana Sfuol^ 


a ^6 A VindicatiM tf the 

proper names,*— Quoties Po6ta afperai inTe« 
nit nomina, vel in metro non ftantia, aut mutat 
ea, aut de his aliquid mutilat (p). The Tuia 
Dagpn of Aruch (p. yy,)— may have been 
ken by the Copyifl: for Tuta Dadan, the Ji 
in Dadann, may have been taken for ^ daleth, or 
the word defignedly changed to Dagon, by a 
zealous Jew, as thofe of the Afiatic OJhan ttnd 
Petyarab^ into Oifllin and Patrick, by an Iriih 
Monk. Our knowledge of Oriental hiftory, 
is in its infancy ; in the prefenc century only, 
we have learned, that, the Brabmanh fo far 
from deriving their name ixom Abraham^ they 
have no idea of fuch a perfon ; and that inftead of 
being the moft grofs idolaters, they would think 
it the groffeft impiety to reprefeat God under any 
form (q). Their ancient MSS« are become obfo* 
lete, and great attention fhould )be given by our 
kamed countrymen in the Eaft, that the Se^ 
naffeys of Hinduftan, do not impofe on the world, 
by ralfe interpretations of their old books, as th^ 
Senacbies of this country have done with the Iriili 
MSS. What information may we not eiqseQ froni 

which in the Iriih language, meant, the defeendants of Rheaia, 
who was die &ther of Dioan : but whedier this is their interpre* 
tation of the aane, I am not infbmlcd. All Perfian Nouns and 
moft of the Chaldaean, (with very few exceptions), when i^pplied 
to any thing having life, from their plurals in on, as Dadan, 
Omanan, Yemenen. Xenophon mentions the Qialdaeans as a 
warlike, nation of Annenia. They were great wanderers, 
whence the prophet Habbakuk, C. i. V. 6. — ^I will raife up the 
Chaldaram that bitter and fwift nation : who go over die breadth 
of the earth, to pofiefs dwelling places which belong not unto 
diem. (See. the Biihop of Waterfbrd's Minor proph.) 

(p) Servius. 

^ Holwell's IntroduAion to Dowels hiftory of HindoiUn* 


AiUmi Mijkfy oftriknd. ayj 

the learned labours of Hohvell^ J^met^ and £b/« 

Our Scvthians, the fons of Magog, fon of 
Jai^iet, being now mixed with the fons of Shem 
and Ham, in Ghaldea, Oman, and Perfia, 
thought proper to diftinguifh themfelves by the 
name of Gadul, (now written Gaodhal). Bj 
'Gadul they meant, their great progenitor Japhet. 
It is very remarkable that Noah ihould give an 
epithet to one of his fons and not to die reft. 
Sem the brother rf Japbet Vi*^:! GaduL Becaufe 
this word fignifies great ^ (magnum effe vel fieri), 
the Hebrews thought it fignified ^A/i^ ; whereas 
Mofes names him laft : Sem^ Ham^ and Japbet — 
and if the eldeft was diftinguiihed, why not the 
youngeft ; and would not the fecond fon ezpeft a 
priority in name over the third ? The LXX tranf- 
late Gadulj the elder: Heideggar, Buxtorf and 
Bocbart agree that the word may be ufed in that 
fenfe:— the true meaning of the word isofn^ 
confequence to us,— -Japhet was ftiled Gadtd and 
our Scythians, being descended from him, diftin- 
guiihed themfelves by that name, and to this day 
have preferved it (r). They were tall of flature, 


(r) Synonimous to Gadul, is the Iri/h OigA^ and the Anne* 
jDian ^igAf somen Gigantis, (fays Ri\rola)» et Aigbafinach, Ar- 
mum ab Aigh oriundiy— horum gigantiuca erat Jaftticus ille 
HaigA^ Celebris ac fortu praefe6his» jaculandi peritiflimus^ arcu* 
que pocens. See Mofes Cheronenfisy L. i "C. 9. 

Arab. Kadul mamum efle— 4a like manner the Irifh prdpd* 
jiame Tuat/tal or ^oo/, is the name as the Arabic Tula, Toola 
Tawil, whence the Engliih tali. 

GaJuIf fajs Mr. Bates, Cfrom Mar. de Cal.^ fignifies anj 
greatnefs, or augmentation of quantity, quality, time, age, dig* 
nity, riches, or any thing elfe.— I grant it does, but it is more 


and to thi» jperiod h»Ye beoi icB»r|iied for their 
fize* Synonimous to Gadtd they called themfelvcs 
FbaiDigb <»r Fhamic, L «. ftroag^ migfatj^ and 
this is the origin of the Fhamiciaiis of C^mmor of 
the red taj arom whence Strabo and Herodotus 
deduce their <ur^gin» 

It appears that focm after the engagement our 
GaduU had with Abraham, after the faouM of the 
Canaanites, as before cited, they sdUed vn£, them, 
,and became, as it were, one peofde ; inflruding 
them in navigation, and permitting them to ihare 
their commerce w^ the Indias* 

The learned Gebelin, faw dearly, diat the 
Phaenicians and Canaanites^ were different people ; 
he follows Sir J« Newton and thinks the firft were 
Idumatans, whereas, they dwelt only on the bor- 
ders of £dom, vi^. in Oman» Ajouton qu'il ne'ft 
pas etonnant que les Pbeniciens qwique Etrgfigeri 

frcqufntly tpplicd to quantitf than to quality, as Gen. ai. t. 8. 
the child grew — 26. 1 j. the man waxed fgctat and went for- 
ward, and^grcw till he became very great.— 38. 11. till Shelah 
my fon be grown. — Numb. 6. $. fliau kt grow the lodu of the 
hair of bis bead. And in the odier fenfe it b fomcdines ufed by 
the Irifli, and «xp)tiiv«d in the Gloflaries bji E^^f i. e. noble 
potent, miffbty. Thefe Goiiul or Giants were in poflciGoQ of 
the Brittanic liles when the Cimmerii or WalHi repoilefled them- 
felves of Britain, (for they were the Drimitive inhabitants). In 
commemoration of the expfnlfion of tnefe Gadnli or tall men, 
they annually burnt a Gl^ntic figure of wicker, as before refa« 
ted : from that time the Gaduli remained inhabitants of Ireland, 
Mann and the North of Scotland. The Welfh hiftorians alfo 
mention the battles they encountered with Giimu in Cornwall^ 
who were the fons of Gog and Magog. The Wal/h antiquaries 
have likewife carefully diftinguiflied the Scythians or Magogians 
from the Gomerices, by the name of CvidlrY, hence Humfrtdus 
a Welfh author, fays, Scotos Hibemqrum prolem, & ipfi& om* 
nes optimd norunt, eodemque nomine a nonratibus fcilicet Gir»^ 
hil appellantur. 


mt» CinumBhu^' atf ent hi flqipeOes du mSme itom, 
puifqu'iU etoient venus s'etablir* anrec eux: ne 
d6nfie-4'on pa^ anx Anglab le nom de Bretons, 
^lae^tt'^ ne le fbieni pas d'originic, & ne confend* 
t*-on pas &ns oefle le nom^ des Gaulois arte celui 
des^ ri:aAcox8 rs) ? 

We muft for ever remain ignorant, if the Ca« 
naa^tes or Fhsemcians diftingoifibcd the GaduU in 
their writings : it is probable, the name was loft, 
except among the Scytiuans themfelVes, as that of 
the Idumaans was, after their being fubdued hf 
the Jews ; and that of the Moabites iSttx the con- 
qneft of Nebnchadonofbr. In a letter from Suron 
kii^ of Tyre to Solomon, in a fragment preferred 
by Eufebius fromEopoIem&s, die Tyrians certaitt*> 
ly makes a diilinfHon ; they fay, ^^ in compliance 
^ with your remiefi we fend you eight tbotfand 
Tvpi»r S; fo(vt«£»f^ Tyrians and Phoenicians (t)« Stra- 
bo calls the companions of Cadmus, fometimes 
Arabians, and fometimes Phsmicians, which fliews 
he was fenfible that they were a mixed people. 

If the Phoenicians had been Idnmaeans, as Sir 
J. Newton thinks they were, and had navigated 
the Indian Ocean, they wonld not with propriety 
have given the name Gadid to the Mediterranean 
fea, for it cannot be called a great fea, when com- 
pared to the Ocean ; yet this was the name givcm 
to it by Joihua, Ch. i. v. 4. ufque ad ^"^yn O^fl 
Mare Gadnl. — ^hereitis tranflated the great fea: 
there is a probability that this fea was fo named ii| 
compliment to the Gadelians as being the firfl: navi- 
gators, as the Perfian Gulph was named Bath-Far^ 

(5) Gebelin fur rorigine des Phaeniciens. 
(t) Pnep. Evang. p. 449. 


240 A Vhuiicathn rftii 

fa (Baahr-al-Fan) from Fhemut Faucfi^ of wfa&mm 
the next chapter. 

The Sqrthians thus fettled in Oman^ and be* 
come the traders of the Eaft, would naturally call 
themfelyes Anakimy from Aonac or Anac, a mer- 
chant : the Hebrews would name them 0^319 
Arbim from 3^y merchandize, traffick^ and by 
the infcrtion of an q)enthetic N comes Erenbi and 
Erembiy the name ot a nation mentioned by ffowr 
2iidStrabo. Homer's Scholiafl: fays, they were 
the fame with the Troglodytes^ but both he and 
Bochart allow that they might have been a branch 
of the Arabians (u). Thefe I take to be the true 
derivations of the Anakim and of Arba the fon of 
Anac, of the fcripture : Aonac^ it muft be obferv* 
ed, does likewife fignify a prince, in Irilh (v). 

And thefe Magogian Gadulij thefe tall Scytluans , 
were known in fcripture by various names beto- 
kening, tall men, terrible to their neighbours, 
from their flature and warlike ai^arances. Tlie 
Moabites called them QM3M Amim (w), by a cor- 
Tupt and abominable pun&uation pronounced 
JEmim ; the Angular number is Amy a word com- 
mon in the Irifh language with the fame fignificap 
tionas in the Ghaldee, viz. Amb a tall man, Am-> 
hoc (x) a dwarf, Ambas an ungovernable man, that 
will not live in fociety ; hence the Arabic Ammety 
a plebeian. It alfo (ignifies a community. Our 
Scythians or Omanites or Phsnicians ot the red 
.fea, were always the dread of the neighbouring 

(u) Strabo. L. i. Horn. Odyfs. /k V. 83. U Schal. in loc 
(t) Arab. Anaky Princes, chiefs, tall men, and in the Chal- 
4ee lO"ttt Arba fignifies a trading ihip. 

(w) Deuteronomy, Ch. a. CS^DK is the pfaral ef OM 
(x) Amhac, i. c. cm-Amh.'^^m b a negative. 


Ancient Hi/lofy tf hekmd. £41 

fiatJis. Fond of conqueft, and by trade mer- 
chants, they rambled dirough Aiia, in the charac- 
ters >of foidiers and traffickers ; yet were good ciii- 
sens and governed by wife laws. In their turn, 
diey diftinguiihed fome of the Gomeritesy that did 
not icttle an towns and cities, by the name of G^/7/, 
Ceilt or Keihy which fignifies terror, a wild man 
or woman, a fyhreftrous perfon, and hence I think 
Ac /name Celt, in like manner the word Amb 
fignifies terror and a giant ZSNStt Amim, Emim, 
timores, aut terribiles, vel populi, (five infula 
aquarum) : iGigantes quos ezpulerunt Moabitas a 
tierra ipforam, Deiit. 2. InOenelin. 14. non eft 
f)rapriinn, ibd vertendum terribiles vel horrendos, 
mod fecit Chaldaicus interpres : fie etiam tranf- 
ferendnm ^fie apud Hierohymus in quaiftionibns 
jvis Uebraids in Genefin. licet i.xx fftfMnac 
tcanftulexint. Puto tamen popubseflfe Raphaim 
a Moabitis Mmmdx&fm ab Ammonitisvero Zunh- 
xumim^ Dcut. ^.(y)* 

There are few of my readers, even of thofe, 
who are natives of this country, that have had an 
opportunity of fearching the ancient MSS. of their 
mother lianguage. I conclude this chapter, with 
an exptainattoA of fome words mentioned in the 
preceding pages, not commonly known. 

Mag j^r Mugby or M^gby a minifter, a fervant, 
as a word in lancient times related only to the 
church. Mu^ or Muchy ainm dileas do dhidbay 
Am, is, Mugh is properly a fa c red name ; ths i% 
the exfdaaation in many ancient Irtfii Gloflaries. 

(7) Stephanus, Locorum defcriptio; Iriffa Rahhaim or E(eah» 
ham^ to TX)b, to plunder^ to raviih^ to overoome bf ftrength. 

Q^ From 

24^ . A VindicaiUm (ftbe 

From this Scythian word, the ancient Perfians 
(originally the fame people as the Scythians^ 
formed Mag ; and from the Irifh Sag-art a Prieft^ 
(literally a worihipper of God), they took the firil 
part of the compound and formed Mogujbek : thus, 
Nim. Laud, and Nim. Sion, Perfian authors, ex* 
plain Mogujhekj by Perfian words which fignify 
Magufeorum Sacerdos ; i. e. Ignicolarum Saccr- 
dos ; for having loft the derivation of the word, 
they conftantly tranilate Mog, a prieft of the Fire 
worth ippers (z). 

A nomine Mag Chaldau fecerunt Jfi Mag, undc 
Graeci fonant M^r^ & hinc Arabs formarunt fibi 
Magjus^ & fie Syri & Judari & aus Gentes, &ys 
Dr. Hyde. But I am of opinion it was a name 
common to the Chaldees, Phaenicians and Scythi- 
ans, all fire-wor(hippers. The Greeks have pre- 
fcrved the true original fignification of the Scythi- 
an origin. Claudius Dausquejus in notis ad Ba(i- 
lium, p. 372. has Md^>o;<7i^, i. e Magus Deu&» 
& M^Ve- atiW Magus Divinus. 

Cbaifneac and Aifneacb are Iriih words fynoni- 
mous to Magus : the Greeks converted thefe to 
\>^%)u Antea enim Magi a Periis appellabantur 
OJlana. (a) Suidas makes this OJlana fucceflbr to 
Zarduft, but as Reland obferves, this ihould be 
Ofanes and is the Oujhan of the modem Gebr men- 
tioned by Le Brun, the Ofhan of Zerduft, and the 
Oifin^ and OJfian of the Irifh and Highland Scots ; 
a prophet, one fciit from God, a facred perfon. 
This word was common to the Chaldees and Phac- 
nicians. pnChazan, or Hazan, Speculator, In- 

(7) See Hyde, Rclig. Vet. Pcrf. p. 37a. 

(a) Suidas. RelaDdus de Vet. Ling. Pen. p. 191. 

^ Ipe&or, 

Ancient Mi/iory of Ireland. 243 

fpeftor, Cuftos, qui provifioncm & curam alicujus 
rei habct : Mini/ler & (Irifte Infpcftor, Minifter 
Svnagogae, ut eft JEditiius Diaconus, qui. alias 
dicitur U>fStD Shamafh, Nuiicius Ecclefiae, qui dcf- 
tinatus eft bynagogas neceflartis operis praeftandis. 
Hie maxime oratione five precibus & cantu Eccle- 
fiae prasibat, praeerat ledioni legali, docens, quod 
& quomodo legendutn & fimilibus quae ad facra 
pcrtinebant : Unde quandomodo pro Cantore, 
Praecentore fumitur— & pro Miniftro in genere, 
de filiis Samuelis, patri diiGmilibus & adjudican* 
dum ineptis — uSam. 8k 3. — ^pro Miniftro facro- 
rum paffim ufit^iffimum. (b) The root is in the 
Irifli, aifneifim to explsun, to expound, to interpret 
— --whence Aifn^ach> vei Chaisneach : Cuifion, 
Wife, prudent : according to the provincidl pro- 
nunciation of n which is fometimes Heth, fome- 
times Cheth* * Another word for Magus in Irifh 
is Reat^re ; the latter part of the compound fig* 
nifying illuftrious. In our niodern Didionaries 
Reatmre is interpreted a Clergyman, ^ Minifter. 

The word is Chaldee and Phaenician. 
Raten idem eft quod Magus. ' Talmud. Sota foL 
22« I. whence the Perfian Rady a prieft of the 
Guebres. (c) 

Thefe words evidently prove, that the ancient 
Irifh when in Afia, mixed with the Cbaldees and 
Phaenicians, I here me^n the Canaanites, becaufe 
I think it is clearly proved in the fequel of this 

(b) Buxtorf. Dex Chaid. p. 730. 

(c) Hyde. And hence the Iriili names of Daghda is laid 
to be Rad, vel Ruad. Road ro feas, i. e. ainm do Daghda^ 
1. e. the omnifcient Ruad, a name of Daghda. (Vet. Glofs.) 
This Daghda has been miftakeir by the Perfians for the mother 

Q^ 2 Hiftory, 

^ift<3fry, ^at the Phmikiftii^ were <^dly ZcpOr 
f^$p (d) 

We (hall Jicreaftcr xx^m more fully o;ad)t Rcli- 
%\Gj^ of the anqent Iniih, mA ciA^ iMmca 9»A 

From the mod edeeoioi Gtie^ And jLattn Au- 
ihojfl, fMe have lb<3WA, jthat the Piir^azis, Bac* 
trbos, and Perfians^ were origiiiaUy ScythiflBfi, 
o^nfequently the defcmbrnts of Mago^g) Son of 
jAphet. We haffe /feeo from Moles Chqttn^m&s* 
^t the ancftimt Arm^ntMs yr^^ iftirodfe .Scythi- 
ans^ locking |ip to Japhet jas ^ir gceat progcai- 
tm. From the fanne Mefea, we iiaire mmx the 
^ftivifuHi or ftf^arattoa of jthe jSooa iof Gonuer aod of 
JMbgog, attiK^iordersiof Ae*Ca%lanSQa^ where 
2)0th wete known by tbs ndme oi Suka or Jy^i^; 
lltat ifthe iGpmerkes |)j'QCced6d Nor^ward aod 
Weftward, ipunferngthe Bolg or Wo^a^ i.^ the 
Danube, tilt il&ey fettkd iA .Germany flUDut Gaut : 
jEfcat ihe Magogians took, a: osoiitraFy rovte, and 
purfuing the Euphrates, were known by . Ae mcae 
a( Cmnkt^ aad (ettled in iGVbot^ in Acabia f clix, 
and in modera Peifia. Wc hare feen Ibinafiy co- 
anoideiicps and fiaoilarity of Aneed0ti&s.and liames, 
an ihe andpnt Hiftorios jof the Pedians aad crftbe 
Iriih, as clearly demonftrate, they were originally 
the fame people, fplil inip nations xif ^SSerent 
name^, tn thfe rrrofltitions of Ages, and both re« 
;t9Jiiiu;ig their ancient traditipi\s at this day* 

{d) It is the opinion of Monf. Bailly, that the Flu^kiics 
were oijjirinaUy Scythians. (See I^ettres fur rAdamides.) 


Ancient' Hjfiiny if k^eHmd. 1^45 

We Auft dctaiii obi^ roadem, a Wile Ibngef oh 
this fubje£b, to enquire iiitb tfte A&ddck hiSt&rf of 
ibefe peo|He« 

Mirkbbnd mH Kbdndemiry Arabiailt Author^, 
tht S(diffjft' ^ndr ^^'ri of the Eaft^ have colleftetf 
tiie Orimdal tradition of Japhetf; from thenv w<^ 
karh, '' that Ji^hett had eight Chifdi^eh^ Viz. 
«* Turf^ Tchin, Seclab, Maihduk, Oomarif oV 
^* Eeimak, Khozar, Rous, Barzag; to' wtiich 
^' fome hive added three others, viar. Sadefllinp 
^^ Gaz, aiid Khalag. Much difpute ha^ arifeif 
^^ about the priimogehiturc of theie, foi»e giving 
** it ta Tut'k, others to Tchin^ &c. &c. as- natio<- 
*^ iial partiality di&ated. Japhet had for hibfHlirif 
^* of the habitable globe^ from the Ciff/nM Sea^ 
** td the Eajiem extremity (c) and all to tht Utrrth^ 
♦* (f) and dying iii a good old age, left thfe S<5ve* 
•* reignty to Turk, aikd this is the J'aphef Oglauj 
^* i^ c. die Son of Japhet of the Tartars^ a/nd^ (Dri* 
^^ ental Turksv whom- they acknowledge^ t^ be 
. ** the author <rf their nrcd. 

Turk having many talents and' good qudivfes, 

fuperior to his brethren, was declared b^' hfs 

fether, to be ma(!er and fovereigni of all the 
^^ Countries theyr pdSefled'^ Which ^ere alreiady 

M^ell peopled ;. and as their numbers increafed; 
^* Gdlonies were feht out from time to time, ^icH 
^^ became the parents ofj^hegr^atefl: nations- of th6 
*^ world* 

" Turk governed h\% fubjeds with great' wiC 
'^ dom and juftice during 240 years', and^eft- foiir 
^^ Sons, ibme fay five, vis^ Toatok,^ Geftgllel, 

(e) That is from the Cafpjan Sea to; China. 
|Q ScvtEia intra & extra Imaiun, Touran, Tartar^, ^c; and 
al 1 thi? Oficiital Tvx^ ot Tamrs. 

•* Baregia, 


24S A Vindication of the 

^^ Baregia, (Barefgia or * Bafegia, alias Pir She- 
*' her) and Ilak or Imlak. 

" The Laws made by Turk^ are named Jaffa 
^^ and lajfak^ by the Moguls^ and thcfe laws were 
•* renewed and augmented by Gingbizkban. All 
*^ who commit Crimes againft tbefe Laws, are 
^^ faid to have fallen into the lafla, ^this is their 
mode of Speech,) and are puniflied either by 
death or whipping. 

The pofterity of Turk was divided intpdi>ur 
great tribes, as the Jewi(h and Arabian nations 
have been, fince that period : thcfe tribes were 
named Erlat, Gialair, Caougin, and Berlas or 
" Pcrlas, of the laft came Tamerlane, and this 
fourth tribe was afterwards divided into twenty 
four others by Ogouzkhan. 

Thefe 24 tribes were divided into Right 
wing and Left wing, called by the Mogols and 
" Tartars Givangar and Berangar^ and though 
*' thefe two wings compofed but one nation ; by 
" a fundamental law of their government, they 
•* were not to mix or intermarry one with the 
«* other. 

•* It muftbe remarked, that MogoFand Tatar, 
being defcended of Turk, and having given 
names to two great nations of Mogols and Tar- 
tars, thefe are both comprehended by Oriental 
" hiftorians under the name of Atrak, and by this 
** name fome authors undcrfland the Karhai or 
•* Northern Chinefe, or Tartars adjoining China. 
•* Tchin was the father of the Chinefe. 

** From time immemorial fome of ihefe Turks 
** have lived a wandering life, like thofe people 
*^ called Nomadcs by the Greeks,^and Bedoui by 
•' the Arabs. The Oriental Turks call them 

*' Gutchgungi 









Ancient Hift^ry tif Ireland. 247 

** Gutcbgungi Airak^ and of thofe vagabond Turks, 
** .was the Turcoman Nation formed. 

" The Perfians and the Poet Hafe% e:yplain the 
** word Turk to fignify a well made young man. 

" Thour the Son of Feridoun, King of the 
*^ Pijbdadiany was father of the Touran (or Scy- 
« thians.)*' (g) 

Thus, the learned and mod excellent D'Herbc- 
lot from the Authors above mentioned. 

The true derivation of the word Turk is from 
Tark (Ir. Tore) the head, the fummit. And Tcr- 
ky or Turky fignifies not only promotion, but 
excelling in learning, becoming fuperior. Turk 
was the Epithet given to Magog on account of his 
rare talents, and of the advancement or fuperiori- 
ty over his brethren. Turk, fays Mr. Richardfon, 
fignifies a Scythian : alfo the Turks, comprehend- 
ing likewife thofe numerous nations of Turks be- 
tween Khorafme and China, who all claim defcent 
from Turk the Son of JajAet, As thofe people 
have in general fine Countenances with large black 
eyes, the Pcrfian Poets make frequent ufe of this 
word (Turkj to exprefs beautiful youth of both 
Sexes. (Arab Did. p. 536.) Turkman, a Va- 
grant Turk, (id.) 

From thefe quotations, we colledt the opinions 
of the Eaftern writers, of the extent of Japhct's 
Children in the Eaft. The Chief of them was 
Turk^ and he is plainly diftinguiflied from Corner, 
confequently he was Magog father of the Scythians. 
Tor^ Torcj and Torn^ in Irifli, fignify a Prince ; 
(in Chaldee plia Toran.)— Tir/: in Irifti fignifips a 
Law, a Royal mandate, in Perfian TerghUrii is a 

(g) D'Herbelot, at Turk, 


248 A VittScaHm of tBe 

Royal mandate. In Arabic Tirel^ z- ftisad' nifiuL. 
Tcrc a King, a* prince, Tkritb' a: Law. 

So much coimifion and contradidion prtfzSSs^ 
in the Arabian hiftories of the early age^^ that all 
wc can learn from them k, tfiat by* tradfticm the 
Tartars, Moguls, Kalmucs, and -ancient Pbiiuis 
were the defcendants of Magog, particulari^ the 
people named by them Touian. 

JUS Magog fiiius Japhet. Cromer 8c BfiigogV 
iinde orta^ funt dua: gentes Gvg and* Magvg^ & ab 
his Scytha^ qui et Magogi dicuntur. In fart&na 
Aint regiones 6bg. and Magog, quas flli-ddQiinaiu^ 
Jug feu 6ug & Mungug. CaAcUbs'. 

Syr. Magwg: Grcns Scytfiica:. 

JU' Gog nomen propr. Regis, alii» R^poni^^ 
viz. Afisr minoris' Ezech. 38. 2. '(h)']Msigog3 the* 


(fa) Agreeable to tke Mmc QoShta of callmg RrhMi sA«r* 
Tnees ;. tfae* namr y^Wf iignifies: a Piui Tree; Magfg^. ikk 
men' viri« Bvafiiiumi . Jo^to Bini ^ons caadidutf &.fidgendu^^ 
nutceriem refcrens fi'culneatn. Accedunt LXX. % Ptn ^ 50 
S^ris Sandal urn, quod fecund. Bocanologps, fimtHtudlnefift iUbec, 
qtnildain ami' Bra(i1io'& Pino.^*— -Whendfe Arsifak atod PfcHmoi' 
compare theif Miftrefles to a Pine Tree, QjfnXi ot &I111 TtfSt^ 
fays Sir Woi. Jbries^' thefe compaFiffKis \mo]d^feei&ii^rced/iaour 
idioms, but have widoubtedly a-greatdeiica^ inibeicraiidefieft 
their mit)d!( in a peculiar manner. 

There is s( beautifhl Allegory, of this kind in the' Annuls of bk- 
nicfallen. Ad. Anno Dom. 1314', confifttng of aSriafiCi o^ftui* 
Lines^. laid to be QKikbA exteuapore bf Turloiigh OVtievonitfab 
peach of bis & vouriee Chief Dotao^^ O'Dea. 

Tfuagh an teidhm, tainlng* thiar, rug \ks borB. 

TaoisCuchrteaim dainidbdfasftnh 
Donncha Don ; Conn is cial, cm mo chuirp 
' Craobh dom cheill, an- tviclbm tffiagh« 


Anai»f Hybty 0f hehmd. 949 

lir ArlfiOr Hiflovy of tfie Tuatka^Dadazli wefiak| 
die Teuraniiui Scymansi partituiady: mentioned) d 
ire find' aifb^a large pant of aadem Droland nanMni 
ifgid Y wd have foea on)r general name fop the 
Seythiaas was Bd%.' In t&e Mop of Ferfia pubs- 
lifted in Dusin^& Atlas, ^ore find a province* namedt 
Firi /• to the £aflKiiraFd is, Kefynani^ more £aft)v2uni 
k NedBa^ and diis ia bdrderedi by. the Province df 
Bebges,. extending frot^n die Indian Obeaac ti 
T&ibuvan^ uo. Scytfaiar. Yologefus acaardingtotbe 
Arubs^ waa Sing of Armamu See liereafterv 

The Mediterrannean from Gacfiz to Minouca i$ 
called by the lirifli Muir Touran,. ^hense dK Tyrr^ 
hisne Sea^; from Tyrrbeaus, fays HygihniSytke Son 

To this let Uf add, the greao aiffinity we hw9& 
ftewn in a former wodcy betrween the- anoienfl 
Language of the Iriffav and that of HxtKalmuc MoJ^ 
gull and of die Cbin^e (i) and in my opinionv. i^ 
amounts to^ a demoni&ation^ that the Iiift hilhtry^ 
i^fennded^ on" troths, andiisofthe utmoft: itiipoivi 
tance, to elucidate thehiftory of the Weftern^Na^ 
(ions (^ Europe; 

Various caufes contributed CO fpSt this greaD biK« 
dy into diftind nations. Commerce, Conquefty and 

Dkcii'the'ldlsalatl of late 

upon the weftern Shore I 
B^ rmhleis death and monhrin^ iiMi 

a valiant Chief a no more I 
Ah' I woe is me 1 my foundeii! feafr 

and kindred ftiend {o true ! . 
My-mj09d has l^ji a tov^rtng bra/wh 

votf Donogb dear^ in you I 

(Tranflated by Mr. O'F.) 
(i) Cdlleaanea, No. X. 


2^0 ' A Vlndicailon of the 

above all, inoovations, into thdr ancient eftablHh- 
cd Religion, by the conftru&ion of Towers to 
contain their lacred fire, and mixing with the £la- 
mites, the defcendants of Elam Son of Shem. (k) 
Some of the Periian Kings of their mod early dy<- 
nafty, were confefledly Touranians or Scythians : 
in fad, they were all originally of that race : In 
the Pcrfian detail of the Religious war, they ac- 
knowledge the Scripture name of Magog inftcad 
of Tour or Turk. When Farqftab or Afrqfiab the 
Scythian King, (whofe name, they tranflate, Fa^ 
ther of ibe Ferftans^ over-run their Country in 
confequence of this innovation of the Fire tow- 
ers, they tell you, that, when they had at length 
driven him back to Touran or Scythia, north of 
the Perfian Empire, a Wall or Intrenchment was 
built between them called Sedd Jagioug 'u Magioug 
i. e« the Intrenchment of Gpg and Magog. By 
Jagiug and Magiug^ they mean the North and 
South people of the iame Nation, fays D'Herbe« 
lot. (I) Some Afiatick hiftorians, fays xhc fame Au- 
thor, carry this Wall beyond the Cafpian Sea, 
others fo much towards the Eaft, as to give room 
to think it is the fame wa]l that fcparates China 
from the Mogols. 

It was evidently a divifion between the Original 
Scythians and the Mogh or Rad^ the Magi or fire 

(k) Shem being theeMedSon of Noah, and in pofleflion of this 
Country before the Magogians fettled here, the Pcrfian* thought 
it would be an honour to derive themfelves from Elam ; this 
mixture of Elamiees and Scythians or Magogians contributed 
much to the enmity that ever after fubiifted beiween the inhabi- 
tants q{ Touran and Iran— for Japhet nvat to iiiMll in the Tenis of 

(1) Majug-Magog— that part of Eaftern Tattary bordering on 

Chtim, . 


Ancient Hiftory of Ireland. 251 

worshippers in Towers. The fame Tntrenchment 
is faid CO have been made in Ireland, from Drogh- 
eda, to Galway on the Weftem Ocean, it was 
named EJkir Reada^ or the Magi's divifion, 
(vci) dividing the Kingdom of Ireland into two 
equal parts ; the Northern half was called Lettb 
Connj and the Southern half Leitb Mogbj that is 
the Magi's portion ; and moft of the Fire towers 
of Ireland, are in the Division of Leith Moghj or 
ofthe Magi's half.— (L) 

And therefore when Patrick arrived in Ireland, 
to convert the inhabitants to Chriftianity, finding 
his predeceflbrs had little fuccefs, he faid, that he 
was a prophet from Neimh-Thur, the (fire) Tow- 
er of Paradife, where he was bom. 

Genair Patraic Ncmthur- (n) 

His proper name was Succat. Succat a ainm bi-^ 
irtAhrade. (o) He faid he was come to preach 
the do£brine of the great Prophet Oijhan (the Mcf- 
fiah) (p) but the Magi^ wilhing to keep up their 
authority and religion, then declared, if Nian i. e. 
Oijhlnj was come, that he, Succatj muft be Pate» 
rabj that is the Devil, (q) and from hence his 
name Patric. Other Irifh Magi declared he wa» 
Tailgbean^ Arabic^ Talyh gin, the wicked Jin or 
Demon : a name fuppofed to have been given by 
the Druids to St. Patrick, fays Shaw, (r) Succat 

(m) Read-aire, a Prieft, Shawe^ O Bnen, &c. it is the 
Perfian Rad^ i. c. Magus. 

(n) St. Fiec's Life of Patr!ck.-*yw« Heaven, Paradife, it is 
the Arabic name' of the Celcftial Paradift. 
(o) Idem, 
(p) See p. 100. 
(q) See p. 1 80. 
(r) Shawe's and (XBrien's Di6^. They fav it was a holy name 
given by the Druids ? Telcbincs, mali dxmones, Saidas. 


I / 


a^ A Vindicatim (if tbi' 

finding the fire worXhip eftabUihoi hen^ aaA the 
idea^ ol tbeir great proj^et, Airgiodlamb op Zerdufi^ 
appeaidng in fir^ caufed his difdples- to declare 
that- iie appeared ivl the fame maoaer. Afpidebat 
ia vifu nodis. Milcho memoratus: & ecce Patrid- 
us^i quail totu^r igneus domum fuam iogFcdieba* 
tar^ fiammaque: de ore eju& &• narUfSf^ oculis^ at 
auribui egreffa ipfum^ cremare videbat4ir% Alflcbo 
i^ero GOSiai& flaanmigeiani ar fc repulit> noc i{^um 
ullatenus tangere prasvaluit: flatnaia dlfiiifa^ dex> 
tporfonp divertit, & dtta»^ fiUas ejusr par-vulae in- ano 
leSx> quiefcenteg arripiens uique ad oineres- com-* 
liaffit. ^ 

. Patric tki en' explains this dream to Milcbo^ ig-r 
nis quem vidifli de me essare, fide^ eft- Su^^ 
Trinitatis, qua totos iliuftroi^ (9)k 

And in the Life of St. Patmkrb]f his^awn difci- 
]^ Patrieiusc Junr* the Magi or Draoi are fxu- 
cularl^ mentioned^ Fuit quidam Re^^ fnvox ^ 
gentiUs. Tniperator ia Scotia. (Hibennia)' Loeg^iift 
nomine ;: cujos (edes erat, & fceptrum regale i» 
Temoria. i£c Magics Sc ArufyicH- & veneficoft & 
kiaancatones & nequiflims artis inve^toregy habu- 

Srom all thefe- circumftance^, it appears^ that 
the ancient Perfian mode of worihippihg the Dei- 
ty: in Fire, was^ the Religion of the ancient frifl), 
and that this fire was contained in thofe Towers 
no^x^ exifting in Ireland; k app^rs alfo thdt Aey 
were well acquainted with the name and dipfhine 
of Zerduft the firff, and of ZoraftcrV or Zerduft 
the fecond. The Records ilill exifling, afford us 
ample matter to prove that the ancient Itifli adopt- 

(j) Sexta Vita Pttnciii Colgim, .p. 67. 
(c)j Seciinda Vita Patr. Coltfan; p. 14* 

Jkutut i^crf tf Ireland. :^^ 

ed this Religion much about the time of Zerduft 
the firft, and that at the fame time oppoiite parties 
or Seds^ fupported the RcUgion of die Chakfees, 
of which we (hall make fome mention in the courfe 
of this Work. 

Thefe worfluppers of the Dtujnity in Fire-To w- 
erSy were diftinguifhed from thofe that followed 
the ancient Touran or Scythian mode of worlhip 
on hills, bv the Jiame of *BQth-i7%u:i&</^^ or 
Dlachdgay (u) a word of Phaenician or Chaldce 
Oijgin, no Beth, domus pT\ dlak, (x) ardere. 
Wir\^ n*a NT^DS Sp^» adaliku "bnurtii biA 
mkado(ba« Combuflermit igne domum Sanduarii 
Pfal. 74* 7. in IrifhTlachad or Dlakhad benur 
jbeith jcaida. 4^inpf?^ diakta inceadii«9* 

:6i) ^ Kfltin^ 1*111^, OJBrftiH Slvtwc^it Tlacfcdgfi. 
if) J^nt^^9?i^ fpbqd«iiJUuc<tnin, O^ftpUm* The i 
wifxvon ^4 is a conra£Upn .of ^Ao, holy. 


' I 

954 ^ Vindication of the 



Of Phenius Fharsa* 

We Jbail divide this interejiing Chapter into three 


THE great King Fenius Farfa, was the Son of 
Baoth or Bith, defcended of Magog, (a) He 
was a prince who applied himfelf to Letters, and 
made it his bufmefs to underftand the feveral lan- 
guages of the world. From the time of Adam to 
the general confufion of tongues, there was but 
one univerfal language, which the ancient Chro- 
nicles of Ireland call Gartigaran, or Garti-ghe- 

This learned prince laid the foundation of an 
Univerfity at Eodan or Eothan, as wc learn from 
' thefe Lines. 

A Moigh Seanair ria Jin ttor ro tiomnladb an cead 

Ag Cathair Eodhan d^fhogluim gaca hiUbhearladh. 

In Seanairs plains, oppofite the Tower, was efta- 
bliihed the firft School. 

At the City of Eoden^ to teach the various lan- 

(a) See p. 5. 


Ancient Hi/lory of Ireland. 255 

The perfons who had the care or fuperintend- 
ance of this School, were Fenius Far/a King of 
Scythia, Gadel Son of Eathor, a Gomerite, and 
Caob Caoin Cbreathacb^ from Judea, otherwifc 
named, lar Mac Neamha or Jar £bn Neamha* (b) 

Nion Son of Pelus, Son of Nimrod was then 
Monarch of the Univerfe. 

The above three eminent Linguifts firft invented 
the Alphabets, which they infcribed on wood, as 
the learned Cion-fhaodbla who wrote the Uaire* 
cheacbt juftly obferved. 

Fenius Far/a continued twenty years Prefidenit 
of this School, where he educated his youngel^ 
Son Nitil^ who was born there. In the 42 d year 
of the reign of Nion, Fenius King of Scythia, be^* 
gan to build this School at Eadban^ and when he 
had prefided 20 years, he returned to Scythia, 
and began to build feminaries of learning m his 
own Country. Gadel Son of Eathor, he ordained 

Niul the fecond. Son of Fenius ^ was fent abroad 
to travel, with ^ numerous retinue ; and when he 
came to the borders of Egypt j he ordered his peo- 
ple not to forget that they were Scuthi, and that 
they Ihould ever diftingui& themfelves by the name 
of Scuitb ; and it was the pofterity of Niul, that 
were cailed Scythians, do Jliocht Niul do goribar 
Cinn Scuitb. (c) 


(b) Caoia Chreatach, in Hebrew, fignifies a Writer of Ele- 

(C) The IriAi hiftorians here contradict themfelves : In the 
fecond part of this Chapter, it will be. found, that Niul vn^ 
fome time in iEgypt, when Pharaoh delighted with his great 
abilities, beih>wed on him his daughter Scota^ from whom rhejr 
pretend the name Scuth a Scythian. Long after this, Milefins 


»5^ ^ findhoHm if Ae 

Hienitn took on kim the name of Oooii, Ogai 
or Eocha) becanfe iie inyentoA ^e Bech-Loftsiikm 
0|^am. i*emus Faria Alphabeta prima Hobraso* 
tarn, >Gtecopum9 LatinociMn & Selh-Luifinon an 
Qgham oompofuit. (Liber BtfHymole.) (d) Sut 
the Ukachraft naKgaois or£iemeiit8^<dic leam- 
edy fays it was Cathmus *er Oadraus <he Son of 
l>^ius mho itaugbt (Lctteiv to the GtmAis. Abgi- 
tur i&reacad .dona^ ni be Feniw £em amunghar 
acfat F6HM>xce fml ve mnir atuatdh, ag«s Cadnns, 
is iad rannighthar Abgr Greaca : i. 'e. certain f^* 
nicians from the Nopch SeaandCladaiusJnftfufted 
the £»vcek8 in Laitevs. 

^Wftien f onitts was near 4be ^ift of deatii, lie 
demi&d liis Kingdom to tf&mmal bis ddclft Son, 
and left nothing to ^ial, 4mt the ^advantage ari' 
fiiig from inftru£ting the youtfi of'the^ountities 'ia 
the ieamed Languages. 

JFtFom sUs (Fenitts, the Irifii Mrere called X)ic- 
Fheni or Feni^ic : a Feniufo Farjai^ Hibemi noni- 
nantur Fimu Unde apad nos uk^^Vevm iyA Fenii- 
^k) foftori FeTiti^ in fAnrafti numevo dicuntur ah 
iUo. (e) Femus was King of the iAcrmenian SciiAi, 
and nisRiSfidence Aras about ^e Mhrtanftb. "When 
«be defoendants of M-iiA were *expcKedf rom 1E^p(» 

art ivct ip ALgyf^^ •and nifties 'anoAer ^(Va, DBHgfttcr ^^ ...^ 
ther Pharaoh. — ^T he whole it allegorical, iigrufiring.riiatdie J& 
fypuajx Kings delivered to, their Care, his Fleets, Ships, i. e 
ScuitA. Niui was the firft diflant Voyager, and probably in JEr 
gyptian Skips, hence Gm ."Seukk^ \, e. ^e narme tribe mari- 

(d) See this effpIafnedCb. X. •Se^. 2.— ^-»£^9x,oc ^ixio*^ 
mmfd ^1^1. (JMogenes LAertius.) 

(jc) Cdlgan's Triadis Thium, p. 5. Odtelks derives niaem- 
cia'^itNii<elie'SyTiac F^tkim\,9, gloncfas, magm^t : -but ihtt 
^ord wonld^havebesn nmtten, •Paini^hin ln(k, 



jfncknt Hi/iiry of Inland. 257 

they returned to their own Country up this River^ 
under the.condu& pf Sru^ as will be related in the 
lecond part of this Chapter. 

R E M A R IC S« 

Salmafius obferves, that Eufebius always fubfti-' 
tutes the name Phanix for Phineus ; hence we may 
fuppofe all the Greek authors have done the fame, 
except Arrian, who fays, that Bitbus was the fa- 
ther of Phineus. (f ) The Irifh hiftory makes Phi- 
neus or Fenius, the Son of Bithus or Baoch, and 
Bit/jusy the Greeks fay, was the Son of Jupiter, (g) 
We require no better authority for the antiquity of 
our Fenius : for, whenever the Greeks were loft in 
remote Genealogy, a God was brought in to ftop 
the gap } and Jupiter may here have been fubftitu- 
ted for Japhet. 

Fenius is a proper name, compounded of two 
Irifli words, viz. Fenn or Fonn^ fcience, learn* 
ing9 fagacity, and aoisj which has the fame flgni- 
fication. Thefe words are alfo Arabic, Fenn, 
Science^ Knowledge, i&f{^, the fame. Hebr. nSS 
Phinna and n3*»3 bhinna, Wifdom, Knowledge, 
Q/in hu(h the fenfes. (h) The name Fenius be- 
tokens a man of great erudition, and fuch he is re- 
prefented to have been. He is alfo named Farfa 

(0 Seep. 7. 

(g) P* S- 

(h) Probably the Son of Eleazor whe was called ^mo 

Phenas, derived his name from this word, as the Talmtid (Sanhe* 
drim C. X.) fays^ that he was p rV3 3K Ab bith Din, or 
bead of the great Tribunal or UniTerfity. 

Jofeph was called by Pharaoh n^j^Q D^OST^ Zephanas Pt^na, 
a name apparently ^en him on account of his Wifdom. 

R or 


tSS A Vindknaim of fbi 

orPharfk, from the Hebrew and ChaMeK VBTf^ 
l^isiras, toescplain, to flieW the tneamiig of ^hat i* 
laid or writ : — ^^ It is Reading forth wfaalt Wis 
wrapt up before. Nehem. Ch. 8. V. 8. wr&O 
m« pharfti, expla&ullg and giving fenfe, and 
caufed them to underftand tne reading. The 
** Phairifees ate thought to be naifned from thence^ 
^* ^ Estpoundersof tbelaiw ; as feparadfts, fay o- 
thers: and from their oftentaticm, enlttrgii^ 
and laying open the Phyladeries, in general, m 
their own piety and go6d works, lay others : 
^ yet perhaps it was but the name ^tbe bead of 
that fed, as ttnS) pheres was a name in ufe 
among them/* (i) Fares, Arabic^, agnomen 
fttnilise. Nomen Arboris, Caftellus. 

Arab, farli^ one whd knows, or undeHUnds 
ally thing j firafet^ Sagsklity, Penetration, Judg* 
ment, Jirn^y expounding, ferzy^ (killed in the law^ 
fiiVh^ clear diftm& Speech. 

Feiffici f^fity fpeaking ; a good genius or an- 
gi:!.; F^n^aii, wifdom. Science; ferzane^ a learn- 
ed mto. 

And probably the ^T19 perizi ^fpc^^roi Fhe- 
rl^ite^ may oWe their origin to this name. Hicy 
miiced with theCailaanites, (as ourMagogians did,) 
and ate hot entimeriited atnong the Children of 
Canaafa by Mofes, in Genefis loth Gh«<— The Ca- 
naanite and the Perizite, Jofhua, Ch. tU'^-Aere 
fays the very learned Reland, Area patet latifTittia 
in conjeduras, quibus non dcledamur, fpeaking 
of the aboTC paffage in Joihua. 

It is alfo to be remarked, that the Arabians caH 
Armenia^ Barza, and the Armenians write it Ba- 

(i) Bates, Critica Hebnea. 

riz : 

Ancient Hijtcry ef Ireland. 259 

liz : in the Armenian I find no explanation of this 
word, in Arabic Barza and Baraza fignifies ExittUy 
which made the learned Bochart think this coun- 
try was fo called by the Arabians, becaufe there 
Moah and his family defcended from the ark. 
We find the old Ara(bian name of Armenia was 
Pbarda or Phardfa^ for D or Dal with a point 
over it founds, ds or z\ dhfal^ and from thefe va- 
riations I conje6:ure that tzns phars was the 
original name, from this Phenius, and that the 
other names are a corruption of the Original. 

Pbenim Pbarfa or Pharas, was a name analo- 
gous to the arduous taik he had undertaken, of 
prefiding over a feminary of learning ; the modem 
trifli fometimes write the name Fearfaidh^ (the d 
not founded), whence I formerly conje^ured, that 
they meant a Sidonian man. Faras or Foras is 
the proper orthography, agreeing with the Chaldee 
ttr\S ud Arabic Fery%^ hence the Irifli Foras-focalj 
the expounder of words, i. e. an Etymologicon ; 
and the Irifh hiftory I am now tranilating is entitled 
Foras'feas an Eirinny i. e. an explanation of the 
tranfadionsofthelrifli(a), or the hiitory of Ire* 
land explained. 

Fan is acknowledged by all Afiatick writers to 
•be the father of the Parthians and Perfians^ a 
flrong argument, that they defcended from the 
fame dock as the ancient Irifh (b). 

R a ^* The 

(a) FTom Par(a or Phtrfii» an tnftni^tory a pious devout man 
u derived die Engltfh %rord Parfon. 

It muft be noeioed that Farfaid was very probably another 
Oftme of the iame perfon^ lor Farfad or Frn^d in Arabic iigni- 
fies the Arbor Sapiens, the Mulberry tree, the Moms ; the arbo- 
rum fapienttfliina moras. See a few pages further. 

{b) Ferfanun noipen ab Arabico Paras, Equus derivarunt 

26o A Vindication rf the 

The Arabs fay, that Pars was defccndcd from 
Japhet, fome fay, he was the. fon of Azar or 
Arphaxad, fon of Sem, fon of Noah, but all 
agree that he gave name to Perfia, which is 
called in general terms the county of Farsj and 
oiAgem: the ancient Perfians called it Plrs 
and a native of it Parii ; Pars, Parii, Parthi, 
are the fame words, flowing from the fame 
*^ root, for th in Perflan and Turc, is ' pronoun- 
^' ced in the fame manner that we do S (c)". 

Aboulfarage fays, that in the reign of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus one named Arfhak, an Armenian, 
revolted againft the Greeks and founded the Em- 
pire of the Arfacides : we, fays he, call them Par* 
thi ; and Vologefus, one of their kings, is called 

jamdodum Viri eniditi ; (ic ut nomen Perfarum Efuiut nottt. 
— hodie licet & voce paras, E^o utantur, tamen Ofp vulgados 
eft & niagis Periicum : — Quid obftat itaque, quo miiiiis creda- 
mus non ipfos Perfas hoc fibi nomen dedifle, fed genta vicnMs 
•*At de nomine Panborum, quod nonnulli Periicae originis efle 
volunc, incertior eft diiquifirio : Stephanas ait profiigos ^t/>&7fltr 
eo nomine appellari iingua Scythica. Sunt autem Perfoc a Sty^ 
this orti^ uti Curtius, Arrianus» Ammianus Marcelliniis (radi- 
denxnt ; & Jufttmu ante Sc/tbico fennone Panhos eznles did 
raonueraty & fic Ifidorus Orig. IX. 2. at Suidas Hafdoi. ll%fci%n 
yxSvtrvi Zxu}4i.^*Sed dicamus pott us, quod jam alii videront 
Perfas k Panhos differe, ut Aflyriam ab Atyria, Theflaliam 
a Thertalia, Tyrum a Sarra, i. e. unam eandemque Tocemefle, 
^ in T, mucato. An non nos quoque a VDB habemos noftrum 
Paard ? an non (imiliter ^tL^laxts^ & Pardus Latinum a Pan con- 
cinne' derivarur, quae vox & Turcu & PerHsy pardum notat, uti 
Ruflis Bars, S in D mutato ? — Vix enim aliqua cum veri fpecie 
aliunde ejus vocabuli etymon petetur, & probabile eft animali* 
bus quie in Perfia frequentia funt, nomen Perficum adhoefifle. 
(Rcland. Differt. de Vet. Perf. Vol. 2. p. 218). 

(c) DHerbelot ar Pars, Parf. Aig, was the Armenian name 
of Japh;:. Vologefus is evidently Baal-Gaois^ i* e. Dominns 
i^heniusy g^vit &/ ^im both fignify wifdom. 


jfncient Hi/iory cf Ireland. 26 1 

king of Armenia. The Belagefe are now 
ieated on the eaft of Perfia, and extend from the 
Indisln Ocean to the Thouran, or ancient Scythi^ 
ans. ^ BaUgaois in Irilh is fynonimous to Fenn-aois 
or Fenius^ fignifying a man of learning, a man of 
wifdom. excelling in wifdom : Fai-gaois, a prince 
of wifdom, it bears the fame meaning in the Ar- 
menian language. 

Fenius was king of Pontus, or that country 
where the river Biortannis flows. The river Par- 
theneus of the clalfic authors divided Bithyna from 
Paphlagonia, and both thefe provinces formed 
Fontus. In this country the ancients place Phde^ 
nix or Pbenicus : — ^Bithynia condita eft a Phanice^ 
quae primum Mariandyra vocabatur, is the inter- 
pretation of a paiTage in Eufebius by Hieron; 
Phaenix Cadmi frater, a quo Phaenicem dici vo- 
lunt, Colonos deduxiffe legitur in Bithyniam, fays 
Bochart : (d) we fhail prefently find that he was 
the father of Cadmus: Phxnice, nomen ortum 
quidam efle putant, a Phaenice Agenoris Neptuni 


A Phaenice feptimus in Bithynia regnabat Phi- 

neus vel Phinees, quo tempore Argonautae expedi- 
^ tionem fufceperent in Colchidem : inde Agenori- 

dem Poetac vocant, quia Agenoris filius erat 

Phaenix (g). 

Bochart fays, the Phaenicians were in that coun^ 
.try long before that expedition: Inter illud tem- 

pus quo colonia Phaenicorum in Bithyniam mifla 

eft, & Argonautorum profe&ionem, intercedunt 

(d) Eufeb. Chron. ad num. DXCIV. Boch. Geo. s!ix. L. x. 
C, 10. 

(f) Nori(r. Epoch. Syro-Maccd. Sceph. dc Urb. 

(g) Apoll. L. 2. Argonaut. 



i6i A Vindkathn eftbe 

Anai i6o, ilfis accedo potius, qnibus, cuteTCiifi- 
mile non fiat ut Phaenicis filitts Flunaeiis AigDimx* 
torum aetatem atdgerit. 

There waa alfo the iiland of Fhseniu^ fi> caHed 
fays Herodotus, from thofe PhaE&idaxis that hdd 
Mariandmam, i. c. Bithytiia (h). 

Pliny carries them into Thrace, vhidi is oa 
the oppofite fhore. Auri metalla & oonflatunm 
Cadmus Phasnix adPaagaummontem (i). 

Stephanas fays, Paphlagonia was fo caUed from 
Pajdilago the fon of Phineus,«-why not ffithynia 
from fit^v^ or Baoth, father of our Ftienins tmx&u 

Pheniiis eftablifhed a feminary of learning at 
^bthan or Eodhan, oppofke to die tower of Ba- 
bylon : that is, oa the banks of the Euphrates, in 
Me&potamia, within the bounds of his own 
Idngdonu JE^-t/am and Einian in Irifli arc fmo* 
nimous names, fignifying etceUeace in learning ; 
they are words commonly cotnpoimded with fcien- 
tific terms, to ezpre& the pibf^dors of arts, as 
Bar4aim or Seir-tann^ or Sar-dan, a Do&>r 
of Mttfic. Tann is the Phasnician or Chsddasan 
nsn tannah, tloicere, difcere, whence M^ taona, 
Doaor Talmudicus, ^*OPI tannui, Dodntta^ Studi- 
urn : — dan is a Brrfian word of die fame fignifica- 
tion (k). Herodotus gives an account of a fchool- 
mafter called Phenias, who in early tii9e tai^ght 
youth >pdt;</4«Ta. (Vita Romeri perHerodot.) 

In the map annexed, on the banks of the Eu* 
f]liratds and oppofite to Babylon, we find the 
towns of Sifpbara and Naardu : the firft implies 

(K) Lib. 4. 
(i) L. 7. C $6. 

(k) Keating's tranflator Biakes thi% the citj cf Athens, in the 
plaint of Seanar ! ! J 


Ancwit Ui/iory of Ireland. 263 

the city of learning: M^Sd Saphera, Libroruip 
peritus, Lherator (l). Nard ia Irifh and Hindof- 
taiiic is icience^ and at this Naarda was a moft ce- 
lebrated Academy of the Jews, WyTKIJ Naarda 
Celebris Judaeorum Schola ^in\ Nard-fgol in 
Irifh iignifies an qniverfity^ 1. e. the fchool of 

Fenius had two fons ; the eldefl:^ who was to in- 
herit his crown, be called Nion-thiallj that is, the 
(on of his inheritance. ]*^^ Nin in Hebrew and 
Chaldee is a fon^ and ^n3 nubal is to inherit, {t 
is applied to a ftate <>f inheritance which falls from 
father to the fon^ and roll$ down with the tide 
of time frpoi hand to hand, and keeps defcend* 

lie named his youngeil: fon Niul^ and gave him 
^r his portion a compleat education, the name fo 
implies ; and it likewife fignifies the Mortis or 
Mulberry tree, an emblem of knowledge with the 
Egyptians, the Iriih and other ancients : arborum 
^ iapientiilima morus (o). — Sapiens arbor moras {f)p 

The Arabian authors are not determined what 
tree the Nobel was, fbme call it the palm^ others 

(0 Ju<igcs> i«V, II. & nomen ^y^ Debit, antea ISHOr 
rvip Chiriadi'-Sephtr— it wu alfo called Kirttth-Sanna, tixmi 
the Arabic Sanna, Lex (Irifli Seaaa ) . ead em Urbi ac Kiri^h- 
Sepkir» (Reland). The Iriih ward correfponding tp S^/dr is 
Sopar or jSophar* as Sophar tobar, i. e. toh^r go nioinad cplas, 
that is, Sophar tobar fignifies the Tobar or Spring of inuch 
knowledge, the P7erean Spring. (Vet. Glof. Hib. in my poC) 

(m) Stqih. Morinus, de Paradifo terr. &.de Bocharu Scrip- 

(n) Bates Crit. Hebr. * 

(o) Plinj, L. 1 6. C. S.I. 

(p) Junius, 


2b4 ^ Vindieation rf the 

the date tree : fome explain it by damfh^ i. e. the 
tree of learning, ioidanijh is wifdom. 

When Null came to Egypt, and made them un« 
derftand the fignification of his name, the Egypti- 
ans would certainly tranflate it into their own lan- 
guage: and confequently called him Katmis or 
Kadxnis, i. e. Morus £gjptiaca : and the iignifi- 
<;^tion of this word in the Egyptian, is analogous 
CO the names in Irifli, Arabic, and Perfic, for 
Kad in Egyptian is intelledus. Kadmai^ Sapien- 
tiae amor. — Katmasy Sapiens infans. — Katmeb or 
Kadmeh, Sapientiae plenus (q). 

Here we have the Nuil of the Irifli ; the Danaus 
of the Greeks, and the Cadmus of the Phaenicians, 
concentered in one man. Nial in Irifli is not only 
z letter of the Alphabet, but alfo the fcience of 
Letters ; in Hebrew bTO nuhal, duxit pafcendi 

(q) Woides ^gypt. Lex. In In/h Kad, Cend or Kead, us 
Keadh-fadhy a fenfe, faculty, opinion. Cadacb^ iuvcntio.^, 
i genuity. 

The fcripnire fiirnidies innuinerrble examples of proper names 
.of men^derived from the names of trees. We ihall mentio . a few» 

Accos, i, e. Spina. 

Aialon, Ilex, fil Scllum, i par. fil Amaiai : i par, 

A I Ion, Quercus, pater Sephei. 

Ela, Quercns pater Ofee. 

Gineth, Hortns- pater Thebni. 

Guni, Hortus, fil. Nepthali. 

|thamar-infuk Palmae^fil. Aarxin. 

Sanig, Palmes^ vel Ramus ^ fil. Reu. 


Sinaeus, Spinofus, fil. Chanaa*^. 

Sufan, L ilium vel Rpja, Uxor Joacim. 

Thoas, Hjacinthus, fil. Nacbor. 

Thamar, Palma vel Dadylus Uxor. Her. 

Vide Srephanus Nom. Heb. Chald. &c. 


Ancient Hifiorj of Ireland. 265 

caufa ut paftor grcgcm, Ar ^nD^M al nehlthe 
Daftylus, per metaphor, educavit. 

In the Chaldee W3i Bacca and JTin Thoth, 
fignify the Morus : W33 Baca prifci omnes, qui- 
bus Arboris fpccies eft, vcl de Pruno vel Pyro, 
expon. Modcrni de Moro. Arab. & Pcrfic. 
NDl Baca eft Arbor balfamifera. (Caftdlus). 

It is vorthy of remark, that in the Irifli and in 
the Hebrew, moft Nouns (ignifying a tree, im- 
ply alfo learning, wifdom, &c. The Irifh from 
nence, form the names of each letter in the Alpha- 
bet, and fo did the Hebrews as we fhall (hew in 
the Eflay on the Ogham (r) : we (hall give a few 
examples here, referring to the names already 

Broum, the grandfon of Magog, was alfo called 
Ce'Bacce the illuftrious Morus, and it is faid, he 
had BaC'tria for his lot, i. e. tria the region, of 
Bacce. Bacca in Chaldee is the Morusj and fo 
Brom in Hebrew is a precious tree, it alfo means 
a philofopher ; and in Iri(h Brom-aire is a wit, a 
learned man. Q^!D^*D Bromim, pretiofa; arbores. 
Scriniola rerum pretiofarum. Ezech. 27. 24. 
pn^*^ Bromihim, Ch. filius Philofophi. (Caf- 
tellus from Pefach. f. 49). 

Hence the Magogian Scythians adapted a fyno* 
nimous name for Broum and Bacce^ viz. Nosj i. e. 

(r) Each letter in the IriHi alphabet, bears the name of a 
prcicular tree— the leaf is the page or column of a book— the 
root or trunk implies i2ience*-to prune the tree, or to wave the 
branches implies Poetry-^ it is the fame in the Hebrew, a re- 
markable circumftancc unnoticed by any authors, I have read, 
except Bi/hop Louth, who explains a certain meafure in Hebrew 
Poetry from a Verb (ignifying to prune a tree. We r€fer parti- 
ruian to the Eflay on the Ogham* 


26$ A Vmdicatim tf the 

knowledge^ wifdcm. . Arab. Nejha Grsece Wr in* 
fcltigibie, and from thefe words arolic all the fa- 
bulous names of Bacchus, viz. Dia^N$s cr Dhny^ 
/iuit Bromiu^, &c. &c. and Baca happening to 
%nify crying and howling^ both in the Oriental 
aftd Scythian dialeds, hence all the fabulous fto- 
ries of his hGwling Orgies, which corre&onding 
^ith the Gre^k 3ropios confirmed the Poets in 
li^ opintpn; all which fymbolical names they 
iprobably had from the Scythians and Ar^i^oii^ 
Bicb^ m Infill ailfo fignifies dnmkennefs^ apd h^nce 
be w$is made the God of Wine, who jprobaUy 
never pbnted a Vineyard or iqueezed ^ Grapc< 

The aUcTOry of wUdom and learning, under the 
fymbol of the tree having not been underftood^ by 
0itr tranflators, much ofthe beauty of thefcriptares 
is loft, parti<:ularly in the prophets. Had our tranf- 
Utors conAilted the Talmud, they would have 
4|oae well : thefe aiufaors were learned Jews, and 
in moft places gave a proper efplanationj: for ex* 
ample: A^ in Irifh is a tree, and it ilgnifies 
jknowledge ; fo in Hebrew ^m As or £s a tree* 
jblikmb. I J. 2o. when Mofes lent out to fearch the 
land, he bid them try if any ^{f £s were there : 
did Mofes mean a tree ? did God promife a land 
flowing with milk and honey, without a tree ? or 
could Mofes fulpea it ? No ! The Taknudifls %, 
fearch for the wife men, the Ats or £s, and they 
returned andfaid they found the learned (Giants) 
there, the Anakim : this is the interpretation of 
thefe learned men, and moft congenial to the text. 
If the Hebrsift will read the 7th Ch. Jefaiah, with 
this idea, he will fee great beauties : the learned 
^tre^s) men of all nations ihall acknowle4ge th^ 
Meifiah. Was Amos a gatherer of fycamore 


fimiDi? a poor trade for a prophet? No! he was 
diegatfaeier of wifiiom. Gh. 7. V. 14th («). 

Tnis beautiful allegory in the fcripturea did wi^ 
tSaofC Mr. Bates. ** \H Ats or £s a tree^ &vs 
^^ he^-^All die anions of the mind are exprtfled 
^ by words that ftaod for, or give an idea from^ 
<< fomedung fen/ible. Q. Gen. a. the /iv^ c^ 
^ iMtdifid^^ of good and enl,-^4he tree of life* 
^ -—And as the churdi is the j^arden ci God^ 
^ thence frees are the children of God :— 4^ the 
#r^/ of the wood fliall rejoice,— -the trees of die 
^^ Lord are fuU of lap-*and by the compatilbn 
lEasfku 31ft. and all the trees in die garden of 
Eden were figUradTe of greatnefs, ftrength, 
glory, honour, &c. and odier excellencies 
God would blels his peofde widi,— hence p^ 
^^ iets a Counfellor, i. e. a tree, a wife man.*— ^1^ 
*• Dz. Job's Country.-<Bates, Crit. Hebr.)-— to 
^^ which we flntl add that the Talmudifts are of 
tt opinbn that Job was defcended of Japhet'** 

(t) In like maaner ^TD Cattab or Cttib, fignifies a writer 1 
Scriba, icrip&: it is the name of the Chaldsean Mercury^ who pre- 
fided over the fciences. Caiiai^ Mercuriusqui fcriptarae Draeeft, 
m*reO Cottabith, Daaylos. ym nehl Daajrlus. n\n Thodi. 
Moms arbor, in Isbrb precum famitur pro Fragis & Moris 
rubi. fioxtorf. 

£zekiel oompariDg the Icia^oms of the Eafttodie ticesinthe 
gaiden of Eden, thus menuoos their being conquered bjrthe 
Kings of theMedesandChaldaeans. Behold, lays he, the Aflj- 
rian was a Cedar in Lebanon with fair branches, his height vras 
exalted above all the trees of the field, and under his ifaadow 
d«rek all great nations.— >Not any tree in the gatxien of God was 
like unto him in his beauty : omnit arbor in bono Dei non tait 
fimilis ad eum in pulchritudine fua — pulchmm feci eum m muU 
titui^ tamorum ejus: & emulatz funt eum omncs arbores 
Heden quae (erat) m l^orto Dei. (Montanu»). Ezek. Ch. 31 . 


d68 A Vindication of, the . 

The Irifh choofe for fuch names, the trees they 
called Athair foadJha or Airigb feadba^ i. e. noble 
trees. So in the Phaenician and Hebrew Adan 
a willow and Adon^ a Lord, have the fame root ; 
whence the Greeks called Adonis 'iTgi?^^ (Hefych). 
Itaios, i. e. falignus. Prom this word Atiur which 
in Irifli fignifies a father, an origin, a principal, 
ftrength, power ; in Arabic Atir^ {and with an ad- 
ventitious R. Atrary father. Uncle, brother), 
Bocbart thought, the Phasnicians named men from 
plants, becaufe he derives Atir from the Hebrew 
S**!fn hatfir, a plant in general : — ex iis Ci. e. 
Apulejo & Diofcoride) Africana & Punica planta- 
rum nomine pro viribus exfculpturi & Hebrseis 
Uteris exhibituri :— A^ aggredior ut dodiores pf ovO' 
cem ad meliora tentanda^ quam quod audeam bunc 
conatum mibi /uccejfurumj (Vol. i. p. 752). Aiar 
in Iriih figniiies noble, illuftrious, hence Atbat' 
Itifay the moft noble of herbs, ground ivy, (hcdc- 
ra tqrreftris :) — many learned commentators are of 
opinion that the trees mentioned in Judges 9. Ver. 
1 3. is not a parable, but that the Olive was the 
cognomen of Otboniely the fig tree of Dehor a^ and 
the vine of Gideon : indeed the preceding vcrfes 
have much the air of Scythian compofition. On 
the ele£tion of a King or Chief, the elders of the 
tribes were to meet, at Beitb Milidby the houfc of 
the princes. In Judges we arc told, they met at 
the houfe of M/7/o, i. e. omnes principes ad quos 
negotia publica refcrebantur,, qui congrcgari in 
loco dido Beth MilJo, Gallice la maifon de la Villi 
(Vatablus).-^And the Vine faid, (hall I leave my 
wine, which cheereth kings and men — it is unfor- 
tunately and improperly tranflateJ Go/iand man: 
C3**m*7N Elohim, verto deos, i. e. judiccs & cos qui 



Ancient Hifl^ry of Ireland. t6g 

in magiftratru funt: homines autcm dicit vulgus 
promifcuum, fays the learned Drufius: Elohim 
here is the Irifh Laochj and the Etrufcan Lucumo a 
prince, a chief, whence MiULaoch Rex Regum 
and the Hebrew Melek. 

And Phenius called the primitive language, be- 
fore the confufion, Garti-ghearan^ i. e. the primi- 
tive language, the radical tongue : the parts of 
this compound are now become obfolete in the 
Irifii language. Gart is beady primus chief, and 
ghearan is the Armenian gberen lingua : under JTSl 
gart in Caftellus, is the Axibicjaniim qu^fi Ghar- 
tum, radix arboris & cujufque rei, iit prudentiae ; 
the Iriih root is garam to call, to fpeak, whence 
the Greek Gher-uein loqui, narrare : PerH cha- 
rufliidan, vocem toUere (t). 
The defcendants of this Phenius, called them- 
felves Feni'OiCy or Fonn-aice^ and defcending the 
Euphrates fettled in Onianj as before related, and 
from hence I conjedure the Phaniciam of the Red 

(t) Hefiod. V. 260. Viejrra, p. 5|. • Unleli we take the 
word from Gort, a Garden, and fuppofe it refers to the Gheren 
or language of Eden, which the Talmudifts might exprefs bj 
TU Gord a Grove, many trees planted together. Talmud 
Erobim, f. 19. 


tj6 A VtfuBcalwn if the 



Of the TravA rf Niul into M^t. 

THE faihq^of this young man's learning reach- 
ed the cars of fharam Cingris^ King of iE- 
gypt, who invited him to his country to inftrud 
the youth. Niul accepted the invitation, and the 
King being delighted with his learning and beha* 
viour, J)cuowed upon him his daughter S^ota^ and 
gave him the Lands of Caper-Cherotbj that lie up- 
on the coaft of the Red Sea. He fpon after crcd- 
ed Schools at Caper'Cherotbj where his wife was 
delivered of a Son, who was called GaodbM. (a) 

During his refidence at Caper-Cherotby the Chil- 
dren of Ifrael attempted to free themfelves from 
the Slavery of JEgypt, and encamped near Ci^per^ 
Cberotb. Niul having learned fropi Aaron^ the 
diftreffed fituatioa they were in, was fo aSeded 
with the relation, that he offered his friendflim 
and fervice to Aaron, and fiimifhed the Jewiih 
Army with Provifions. 

Niul now began to fear that the Egyptian King 
would be difpleafed at the Civility he had fhewn to 
his enemies, and having communicated his fears 
to Mofes, he propofed to Niul to accompany hhou 
to the promifed land, and prevailed upon hxm to 
deliver up the fhipping which belonged to the 

;(a} So named from Japhec Gadul-^See Introdudioii. 


An^tnt Hi/i^ 0/ Ireland. 17 1 

Crown of Egypt into hifi hand$« Niul having 
agreed to this laft propofal, Mofes difpatched a 
^rty of men^ who took pofleflion of the Ships, 
and ftood down the Red Sea. On the next day 
was the miraculous paflage when Pharaoh and 
his Army were drowned. 

Niul then brought his Ships to land, and re- 
turned to Cspir^Cheratb^ where he is fuppofed to 
have died, as there is no further account of him. 

The SoccefTor to the Crown of Mgypt was 
Pbaraob an Tuir^ who, determined to revenge 
Inmfelf on the Scythians for the affiftance rhey had 
afforded the Ifraelites, entered Caper Cherotb with 
iire and fword. The Chief of the Scythians at 
this time was Sm, great Grandfon of Niul who 
kd his people to the mouth of the Nile, and there 
embarking, fet fail and landed in Crete, (b) From 
Crete they (ailed through the ^gean Sea into the 
Penius Euxinus and up the Bior-tanhis as far as na- 
vigable, and then marched under the command 
iSiHiber'Scot into the Country of their anceftor 
Pbeniui Pbar/a. 


If the Scythians or Fein-cicej feated on the Coaft 
of Oman, were the firft navigators : the fame of 
dfttr {kill in Marine Aftrohomy, by which they 
were enabled to make long Voyages, having reach- 
ed Ae ^Egyptian Court, it would be natural for 
the iEgyptian monarch to invite a body of them 
to fettle in his donunions, to inftrud his fubje£is 

(b) See Ch. 4. Nemed.— « quotati<»n from Rand, de Duceto ; 
?>crt6ted from Loland 


ayi A TindicaSlM ef. the 

in the only art, in which thefe learned people were 

Accordingly we find themfeated at the Sea Port of 
Caper-Cheroth on the Red Sea, where he furnilhed 
them with Scuth, i. e. Ships, (^gyptiace Skeita) 
and that appears to be the Allegory of marrying his 
daughter Scota to Niul, which was the name of the 
Egyptian Hercules, according to Ptolem. Hephs&f- 

In like manner it is faid, that Hercules having 
conquered and (lain Antaeus King of Mauritania,, 
married his Widow Tingiy from whoin the City of 
Tiggir, or Tingi, now Tangier, had been fo call- 
ed by Antaeus its founder : Pomp. Mela* L. 3« 
Plin. L. 5. C. I. — ^I^lutarch, in Sertorio — Jablon* 
(ki Panth. -/Egy. L. a. C. 7. — whereas we have 
fhewn from good Authority, that Tiggir was fo na- 
med from the Syriac, Pbaenician and Irifli words, 
implying Merchants. — ^I'angier was the Emporium 
of Africa. 

The Egyptians, on a religious account, bore a 
great averfion to the Sea, which they called Typhorty 
becaufe it fwallows up their Nile, and hated Sai« 
lors fo much, that they would not fpeak to them : 
and though they were not fond of going out of their 
own country, for fear of introducing foreign cuf- 
toms, yet they were not ignorant .of Sea affairs. 
Sefollris built a formidable navy of 400 Ships of 
war, for his expeditiotl to the Southern Seas ; and 
alfo a very large Veffel of Cedar 280 Cubits long» 
gilt without, and beautified within, which he de- 
dicated to Ofiris. (c) But Sefoflris according to 
Sir I. Newton was Niul or Nilus i. c. Hercules. 

(c) Diod. Sicul. Eupolcmus, Un. Hlft. 


and fucb too^ asi had iiavi|^ed Co the EaA^ from 
irtiincs tkey lutdy in veryietfrtyttme^ broiitltt the 
l«mafiO(fitksi ba Cshnck bjr tlie IfthniDQ of Sues t 
the «ft!ibliflif»$m df a port at CsperXb^rtahj a. Ht- 
tte bebw Si/^y wai ib6ft eonvenieiit. for:tfais tradd 
m all refpe£ls, (d) 

PhlIi$ftmtU6 mattd that a certain Frin^^ tiaaied 
Efjfitas was maiier of tfaeRtfd Sea, and made a 
bjt4xw or ^^gulatipn that the Mgjptizhi fhouM 
ttot ^t«r that Seawhh aniy Ships of^war^ nor. with 
Mort tbaoi oiie mcrcbadt ^ip at a time. To cvadtf 
whkh^ the .^Bjgyptiaiis built a large teflbl^ tofuj)^ 
ptf At place m ina*y« (e) 

Some cakeErythra^ to be the fame with ETau ot 
£dom ; we daha Aiqi a^ a Scythian of Oman; 
Aonbaire in ItHh ffgiiifies a Shipmitny the v^A is 


dW ©Iltf 11 y _^ .. . , — 0/ r 

f^linbecttbe&Mtt. liiieAmirtd Sdenca ^wt^t aokivtkti^ 
iirl«rwr' A^^ V /• iiiM/Mrr&^^<^^T«) cireunAuictt €oncribme4 
to retard the Ji^rrary progr^ of ebe EgyptiaB^« In thofe earif 
ages t^ey hadl np way of f aaimunicttting theif ideas but by tirtvQ* 
^fpiia, wMch, at beft innls a vety Itotwrfeft And doiibtfbl me^ 
^M,'^ CmitkfH niyai mnknvMk'io ihiim^ end ftrmigel^ who went 
tbiclief on bufinefs were punifti^ with dea&ar lUver^-r-^pecuiiehi 
of ibeir ikiUin «rcki#e6hiTf^ fiwlpcuTOi snd Geometry fleauitD, but 
tliefe dliplay their induftry mare than their tafte.— (Play&ir*t 
Qfooorogy^ p. 65.) ! ■ The B^ftians fay the An of uiing 
Ae wihd^y mdDbtsf Sails tCrar dxcecdtng atrcient; thi^ give the 
kousuf df dtii» lUToovefy •!& iS&^bat, ^Mt asd abov^ (he ]itt46 
credit which is due to the greater part^ipMie Vi^ry dF tfaii Prin-* 
ce(Sy we (hall prove, fays Gouget, t^t thu difcovery cannot be 
tics^bed to ihe Bgy|^tiahs;-^Tbey certainly borrowed' the Sc/dii- 
an word Eft or I/s 9, Ship, and dedicated this machine'aiad iff 
difcovery to that Goddefs, froinTiNi affiniiy of name. 
[t) De Vita Apollonii, L. 3. c. 35. 

S alfo 

iJird fuppHtd the iTraditdt ^th prbtffiMi, ^mj 
^d moved lower doitm trith his Sh^p^* ^ 
fliaraob fhotild erafs ttpoh them hi their tti)£rdi 
round t6e bdirders bf Omah ^ the idppofitt CmA 
— ^for they Wert obB^d tO]rt tound the bMdeit rf 
£dom as befbir related. Aiid in four years after 
this event, fays die Book oF Leacaki, (lati Irifli 
MSS.) the Scythians fled whh great part of tha- 
rabh's flefet. Nilus, fays Sir f . Ne^wtbn; t^as the 
iEg^^tian Hercules, imd in the days of Sototnon 
failcx! to the fh^gbt^, he "wzz the OgtfuiKs t)f the 
Gauls. (Chronol. p. 181.) 

lliis is an £aftern Stoty faaftded db\^ to u^ hi 
Hebtcw and ift Arable, by Ac Rabbins and Muf- 
fulwahs. Rabbi Siitron, v^ho livtd 46o yearn be- 
fore Chrid, relates it in this manner, ^ bhe wat 
*• at Merchants Ships, that brhig their food flt>m 
^* afar: theffe afe the words 01 Soiom^h, ftov. 

C 3I. V. I /^.--Merthantif Shifts th* 1533 fff^iW 
anhth drtirM, \vhitfr Were trti the Red Sea, 
-when Ifme! paflfed it— //tot a/ir ft&rf ^mi^ 
them fobd'\ this^ailude^ tbthe provifions tfaefe 
^^ Merchants gave to the i9fo!ns of Ifmd, who camt 
*• from Jfigypt without Store of prbvilh>n& Da- 
^ vid mi^mions thefe Ships in Pfalm 104. V. ^7. 
** — ^there wettt the Ships, (that is, bn the Red 
^ Sea,2 when God fcorhed at the L^ifftbttrij that 
" Is, rharadb. — And betaufe thefe Canaan Shipt 
gave Ifrael of their provifions, 6od would not 
deftroy their Ships, but with aiti £a(fc Wind ear- 


Mkfte 6f the Egy^Mtt vd^«gmg Meretrf^. Sir I: NMNoolkln 
bim to be Sefac or Sefo(bris» and that he was called Nilus, Iroto 
the great inproveiiicnt he made to the Nile : iM this Nite he Gjrt 
was the Ogmins of the Oauls. (Chronolog^r fi i 5t .) - 

« ricd 

^wkn^ Ni^ tik^i^- r^Jf 7 

« tW tlKun, far 4ow* ^ 1^ 5?fi, :?«4.*|8 l?ia4 
" WJiisrbYitbA p^rtifjpv.^Pfni^i^SQeiv^ 9f Qpd j To 

^y./wwqinfqr!^4^y:t^^ cjQ^VSryjftiiih the 

tfa^ it .29 q^pS^alt ^o 4iAUgui^ the iHi^anMig of the 
Scriptures in feveral place^i wbcf^-t^^p w^rds 

The Muflulma&B that have made mention of thefe 
Ships are Mederek and the author of the Tebiian ; 
they fay, ^' that when the Ifraelites had paffed tha 
*^ Red Sea, they ^ere under apprehenfion that 
^^ Pharaoh would crofs in Sbifs^ and flank them 
^ as they encamped on the oppoiite Shore of the 
^^ defert ; for they knew not that he had peri(he4 
^^ in the waters. Iherefore^ God caufed the body 

(n) I iber Zoar. p. 87. Exod. C. %%. Piov. C. 31. V. 14. 
Vulgate. Sbe is like the Merchants Ships, flie bringeth her food 
fnom afar. Malm 104. V. 26. There go che Ships— there is 
that Leviathan who thou haft made to pkj therein, thefe wait all 
upon thee, that t^ou mayeft give them their food in due Seafon. 

£xod. XV. 1 5. Then the Dukes of Edom^ (Hall be amazed, 
the mighty men of Moab, trembling fhall take hold upon them : 
all the inhabitants of Gmaan ihall melt aw^y. See Biumgar* 
ten's remarks on this Verfe. Un. Hift. V. 1. 

We ihal] not defend Rab. Simons ex^anation of thefe pafla- 
ges : they are certainly ibrced— the Srory of the Ships and qf the 
lupply of provifions is fuificient for our purpofe :— it was not fa« 
bricated by an Irifli monk, no more than Caper Chiroth for V\^ 
hachiroth. From what boob did they Aeal thefe paiTages ? from 

« of 



jf Ttndicaiim rf ibi 

^* • of Phsffaoh to Boat on t&e wavesfin ;ii^t of 
^^ thdr camp ; which - vis immcdotelif known, 
^^ by the Steel Cuiraft he wore' ; aofjd tJiis miracle, 
^^ of a body fo heavily loaded with Iron, 'floating 
" on the water, convinced' ^diembf'thecohtinu- 
^^ ance of God-s kindneis ind prote£tion. ' ' On tlye 
other hand, the JEgy ptians ' lecihr their King 
did not return, iaid, he was goQe m a Shlb to 
^^ fome Ifland, either^ to hhnt or to' iifli ; . but, 
** God here" performed another initacle' 3? for* the 
^^ waves threw up Pharaoh's Corps oh ihe GqM of 
^^ Jigypt, that all his fubjeils might .be EVe wit* 
f* neffesofhisdeith;'? -I ' ' - ''' * - 

'. • » i 


C U AB. 

Anatkt Hi/My if Irelmd. «79 



WHEN the Gadeli arrived ifi diat part of 
Scythia, from whcnee they originally de- 
fcended, viz. Armenia, they were harrafTed with 
continual wart by their kindred, the pbfterity of 
Nkunmll^'^t eldeft Son of Plienius Phairfa, who 
weic alraUl they would put in fbme daim to the 
GoverBJneitt of . ^ Conntpy : their . diflfentiong 
continued (even. years,: in which time Rejkoir the 
Grandfi>Bi of NionnmaU was ilain. The Children 
of .AStt/then retired to Amafnn^ and after continue 
ing therefor ibme tin^, they fiiiled down the natv 
i:ow Sea (the HdUfpom) that, flows/firom the' Nor« 
them Ocean (die Eukinus.) They had :been dri^ 
ven «pon an liland caifed Caroma in the Poniick, 
where tbey ftaid one year*. I Tbey were there in«i 
formed by a Caiker^ or Ptophet, whom diey cqn-* 
fulted, and who always attended the Gadeli^* dial: 
it was ordained, they flioald have no refting place, 
till they arrived a(t a eertain Weftern Tfte. Oyer*, 
iwed by this predidion of the Caikerj they pro* 
ceeded on their Voyage, weft ward, and landed at 
the Ifland of GuMa. Here fom$ lay they continu-. 
ed 150 years^d'othersJay 300 years, but certain 
it is, that ibmeof their pofterity inhabit that Ifland 
at this day, from hence they moved to Spain, (o) 


(o) PhanifiL quondam Pcrfae, Conitcs fuiflb dicuntur Hercu- 
lis ad Heiperides tenden(is. (Pliny.) 

Oeinde Pharufii aliquando tendente ad Hefperides Hercule di- 
«es nvnc inculti, Sr niii quod pecore ^luntur' admodum inope?. 
(Pompon. Mck.) 


aftlfhmd^ vrhidhk cbmgumly tii part w ctfl o w ed 
at |iig^ watery or where there k a Airroundilg 
Slab or Strand k^ atlmir ^er« . . 
J Gyt£a, Csnttm^ prbpne iUud,. quod poft aqoa- 
riim inundationem ' Te Aianet. fiaiid ,di^e enim 
dRinftatem liabet cmh An^* Sax^c^^ .inundatto. 
Aim ^/« (IHre Ijcx. Suio-GqiIu;^ Gus has a 
very different originv unknown to Ihic. 
^ Ooth4and raaxiina iniula ManiBaitbici^-^aud 
paod a^lebaeubert^te^ itaappelhcunaf^fuiff^ cre« 
dantiian^ infiilasn, taaqisambonain' terrain. (Ihre.) 
.«' 'QuahLBritoiies'ia&ilan;! Guoid yidlGoitbe» quod 
J;Adtie diyortiuip. dki poteft* (Unde Ve^) aow^ 
Wight. (Lekuuhis, Eat Ghronteo incerti Auth.) 
i' Frequent mtniion k made m.Iriih hiftory of 
our 'Scuthc:, as ^itipihen^ being: ^en in pd&f- 
fion; of if^^cj touched there ia 
their way to Spain; anerwards - ill : their emigrar 
tidri. from. Africa •; again an their jreCufn from 
JBgypt^ It wilbnot.faefe be improper to.enquire^ 
from ancient hiftorjr» who w6re die firft. ixibabi« 
raiits T)f thk Ifland» and of the tsajfify. 0i the peo«- 
ple and places contained-^in it. tW. karned Bpr 
chaff hasattenj^ced tc^ prove all wa3 Phaenician ; 
we fhall proceed cma^ good grounds in*PFPTJ^g ^ 
was. Ibemq-Scythian. 
- ' Firft^ of its aadent nanfes, Sicania and Sicilian 

Siqania^ it is faid, took its name from the Si- 
cani. > Bochart derives this name from the Hebrew 
word X30> faken, a heighbour, and thinks they 
were fo called by the- Fbasnicians,*becaufe they 
were adjoining them, [when they Settled there. 
Proinde Sicanos a SicuUs,' ut quidem puto, neque 
gens neque fermo dtftinxit, fed fitus & variae ut 
evenit in eadem gente.fa&iones. £t Punica voce 


Ancient Hi/hry of Ireland. ft^5 

-Siqmixn vel Sicani OSBfli A^ Sicfalorum Pdsnik 
cirant proximi, qus^ vkihosrdixeris. ; Servius telft 
iis^ the Stcsuii were frbm Spain^ in liib. 8. iEn; 
Sicani fecundum nonuUos, pppcili fant Hifpaniae; 
a fluTio6icori'4i£H : Diodorus, L. i;, fays, the mcft 
accurate ahcient authors declare they were indigenl. 
'Veteres Siciliae jncolas Sicanos indigenas efle tra^ 
dunt fcriptores accuratiffimi. Timseus fays the fame. 
Thucydides. informs us the mod ancient inha- 
bitants were the Cyclopi and Lacftrygoni ; but 
jfrom whence they came, or to what place they 
wentj he is ignorant : but he thinks it is mod pro* 
baUe the Sicani Were from -B^rw. - (Thiicyd. 

' Tiiat they were origiiially^irom Iberia^ on ^hc 
Ethcine Sea, 1 make- no doubt; and in the word 
Sicarttj I thtiik is percepQble, 'the name &ir/ift^ pY 
SKpihen, by which they Were always knoWtt^ tb 
the O'rientaKjls. . MflP Sachii, navlii i^ Ant, 

Lcsjlrygoni^ feem'S to have much the fame origitf. 
Leaflar in Itifli- is-^' boat, or any TeflcS made of 
pian£, as a furMA, batrd, &e. gSntu itk conai, is 
a refidence or 'dwelling, hence Leaftargonai fig- 
hifies thofe Ihair ihide their relfidence chiefly in 
boats and fli?is.' "''f>' '^^' -. . » 

The ancient Irifli were in gdf^at'fKtpmen,' fea- 
men, or fifliermen ; but fome '6f them i^maine4 
at home to cuttitate ttie foil,' iind to follow trades 
and manufi2L£ture^ ; tl^fe relidents on fiiore would 
be called Cncldibh^ the plural of Giidai or Co- 
claidh, which fignifies' a fettlement, a refidence. 
Our Colonies would then be divMed into two di- 
iHnft claflcs of people, one, the Leaftargonai, who 
iiwclt in their boats of teaftars, and the other, the 

' ■' . CUn 

l^laudb or fi(ttlcip£^^ wW. PCV^ wt^t tgl il^ bitt 

the ibippfi^ cf : WWtitoeikffafff. T^U is the ch*- 
i[*acr of the JCyfl<^ givtf .by HpwcTt I4i?« 9- 
Odv^'' yct^l^cjr wqrf thoraw,pf.N?i>t)jne. 

Ne<: f»i?er uUuf fid^|l qui coofbyat.. 
mme to 3ic% ill owe fleet ; . fe^eff qc Bochaxt do- 

nv^ Cyclpps frfl^i.aiV? p*^ (?^fk^Jj4?lMb, i4 eft, 
Sixm l»Uy|?«!t»«u$^ Vd Sif^u^: ad Lybiam : ^vt 

quia ^•/nxf^ lb AiCvc^ communi cls^e in infulain Y^ 

tetere^ ctjijiFv Ipqomm ii^o]^, Pqiwjp^ di^ifunt 
]lQ|gdiK» Chfk Ufkt^ i- e. 3mfis j^iyhieta9i- Quod 

oculum^ eumque orbicularem : It. j^ pl9>ying Q4 
ifcfi IbfOTAQ-f^cythHua wordp ^itoc^lQibui» U ^t ^Und 
l^nfama^ or huflwidincn. • 

Falaspbatus vill barp it ihcy wff* fo called bc» 
cMb tbry tobibited a rpu^ i{land> wh^^as 5i<;ily 
«4I calkd by tbe ancient ^rifh Tri<eaniac, and 
by tbc Gr9eH» Tfir^fw iind Tri^i^ctra by tb^ Ro^ 
maiiB, becwfe it was triangiiUr* 

Thefe Leaftar^OO^i were of a ftrong robuft face, 
«a ail our Scytibi wcr^ j hence the Tyiian$ called 


playing bn tbfe ilAftie Lciftargtii ' (Ship-p^c^) t 
tiic Grbeb * trinllkted this iiitty L^^^i/Zn/, ahd it^ 
pbfttd thtlxx ta be men-^ter^, Kke tions. 

Gitra Ttriim aiDHtm & LeOtitmos tM\p6i iot,^ 
hrVsSt dicuntur L^ryigdiies^ immune g^htsfs 66»- 
tninum, Itrino tfiore hufft&na t^rae tefci fblihtttU 
i&Ltixxt in LycapbtdTl^m ^ ftiitt autem in Sitilia, ut 
nugantur, qui vefciuitur htimana carne. 

Bochart proves the Cyclopes & Lasftrigones 
vrere one Md the Iztht people} he quotes the 
words of Tbucydides bdbte tnehtidMd ; and 
from the Bchdlifflt ibf llieocritus he protes plainly 
that the Sktirii were defcended from them. 

Let u$ now fiippofe our Scythi reconnoitring 
this HIand. In failing round it, to t!hc ndlth, they 
eftter the Streights or Fate dJF M^na, iamou^ for 
the 'rapidity of its etirtrtits and iht flosvifig and 
ebbing of die Ifea, Itrhlch is itreguhr^ atld lortie- 
fimeft rufltes iti i;rith fuch yiolenct, that (hfp» rid- 
ing at anther are in danger. At the Mrth en- 
trance of this Stfeighty they obferve a Rock on the 
coaft of Italy, which, they call Scaolab or Scalagh^ 
that is, i^Untered off, or dillded from the totai- 
fltnt ; in Hke mfanner they b^tnied fimifar rocks, 
iww ealled Skeligx and Skult^ tfh the S. W. tt^fttH 
Ireland^ On the S. fide of thi^ ftatr ow gtit, tien 
to Sieily, thtv fihd a kind of ^^irhirlpool, whidt 
they name Carrb-deis^ u e. the AripV impediment, 
for carb is a ftnafl (hip or bbit, a coafttr, <in A^ 
rab. karibj Cb. )st3Cf^ ^ariba)j- and enquiring 
intb the taufe of thefe diffietkies, are Informed by 
the natives, that the ifland, beiti^ feparated fromi 
the continent, left thefe impediments ;*^hencrf 
diey would name the illand Scaolaoi or beachan- 


^S6 ; AVifuReahniftii^ 

aoi» (the Jfland feparated from the maunhnd}-^ 
ix^ence Sicilia and Sicania. ThU was the opinioii 
of the ancients,' as is evident from Strabo, Mela^ 
Virgii, and Pliny. Tranquilius Faber pretends to 
afcertain the sera of .this memorable event ; that it 
was about the time the IfraeUtes were delivered 
from the ^Sgyptian bondage,, which he coUeds 
from Euftathius, in his obfervations on Dionjiias 

' Zande quoque junda fuifle 
Dicitur Italian, donee confinia pqntiis 
Abftulit} & media tellurem reppultt anda« 

Ovid. M$t. L. i^^ V. 29o« 

f * 

Hsec loca, vi quondam & vafta convulfa ruina 
(Tantum aevi longinqua valet mutare vetuftas) 
Diffiluifle ferunt ; cum protinus utraque tellus 
. Una foret, venit medio vi pontis, & undis 
Hefperium Siculo latus abfcidit, arvaque & urbcs 
l^itore didudas angufto interluit sftu. 

Virg. JEncid. L. 3, V» 414, 

On which Servius-*— 

Ut etiam Saluftius dicit, Italiam Sidliam con« 
jundam conftat fiiiiSe, . fed medium fpatium, aut 
per humilitatem obrutum eft, aut per an^uftiam 
fcifium. £t prseter Charybdim illam notiifimam 
d^ qua diximus, aliam defcribit (Etymologus) dr- 
^a Gades ubi mare abforptum majore cum impetu 
redit. Meminit. & Suids^ & Strabo. . 

So that wherever our Scythi found a dangerous 
pafiage for ihipping, there we find ^Carb-deii^ or 

* « Bochart 

Andeni Hi^or^ i^Jreland. %%f 

Bochart<flientions another 06 tbef Syrian .coiiil; 
Cbaribdim Tocat Syriae locdm inter Apamaiani 2p 
Antiochanr, in ^quo Or(Mite$ abfQrptu$ poft 40 
ftadia rurfus.emergit. 

THis learned man derives Scylla frpm bipD Scot 
eadtium^ and Qiaribdis frpm nSfM^^^^IH Chor ob- 
dan, foramen perditionis» My readers will ju4ge 
which of the two explanations is moft agreeable to 

Sicilia, the name of the ifland^ he derives from 
VtoOT Siclul, i. ew perfe£lio* Quia inter omnes 
infulas quae notae erant turn teinporis, facil^ pri? 
mas obtinet ; or from VDlt^M Efcol, . bottw,. Syris 
^D Segol &; Segul. Unde eft quod Grammatici 
Stgel vocant a forma botri vocale punQum h tribus 
punftis in triangulum fic v digeftis.*— Ea ipia voce 
puto Phaenices Siciliam a|^llafle, quad botrorum 

That the ^xsxfml was fo called, from a bunch, 
we readily albw, for the name of every letter, 
and every pc^nt, alludes. to trees or its fruity (as 
we ihall ihew in a Treatife on the Ogham) agree- 
able to the defcription of the alphabet by the Iri(h 
Grammarians : but here we might go further, an4 
fay, it was called Sicily fromS^a%, the olive-tree, i. e. 
the SgoU facred to Qgtf, our Hercules ; the Tyrian 
Oga or Minerva— for fgol in Irifh is an olive ; it 
is alfo the morus or arbor fapiens^ both which were 
dedicated to Mercury and to Hercules ; — for on 
the north fide of Sicily are the imall iflands of 
-^olus, that is, of Eolas (fcif^nce) an epithet ia 
Irifh of Hercules ; and amongft thde was Infula 
Hcrculis ; Longinis, the fhip<*SAand, ^c. oppofite 
to ^vduch was the town of Mylae, i. e. jira the 

Sailor, another epithet of Hercules* Sgpl in Iri(h 



k iL elillkf » i huhdki a Mddtiidr ; boidB tftefiog^ 
M #wd^ ft ikiilt of herrings^ ScCn } but as Sksfy 
SffBs fihiitful Kii the tiMy fibdiart Ibron %|0 into 
M'^VtlD fegulaja, id eft, Infull botrormtt, rel Iifr- 

Ififr fti'entftlWtt Ilk emjeattwfxohi the NaJEOt^ 
at the tho\x& of tti« rivei Tdgidt ia this ifloid, bt^ 
big hcPbd tb Baecka^^ NJiA-^ iifti /unriten. Ho- 

AiriftC eflaM Apud i^i (Naaos) finguiwem 
quatidatn elfe tino pneibiitstiv, ex qaa couftet 
vfittiA htah ill affeftam (BMchut) Dew er|^ i&4 
rolatn. (Dkxt. JL 5^ ££ Scdfnas> Naxos Aookf* 
fia ^iti3 quam lUtim dida, vel qadd hio%nta lA- 
htfo patri) vc4 qci6d ftrtilitate yixiam lontat cae- 
teta^^^*-'^^^ fit detorfit iTidorus NaxDs infub a 
Dk^yfio (&@^ qaafi Diottaxos^ quod fertititate vi- 
tium vincat ceteras. 

9M:iuiilS Aoestiot ftfew the dcriVafion of Naxos ; 
I i&hik k'0\n^$ kt Aamt CD our Scythi fisidaq; 
there eticdSitm oU uiM^ i^Ubh in kiSh h oghit^ 
a C6tf upti^ft ftcftft tbe Arabcck «/»t«&4 iicth ndiidi 
figiAff (dd ^m^^^O and %2 are cointaQsd>Ie ( otAa 
k ^e Arabic ^dtd trith the tfadTpDfiiion of one 
letttt'i The Iiifli An^Mi^ifai die Klavd of Old 
Wine i tfoA trbe&ce Naxos, atid coafeqoently 
Ae Oreekg v^k^yid dedieaife fo delicioos a fpot M 

Ff^ti the Mftfa W€} ^oceed to tlie weft ; there 
we <itid the JSgiades InfolaCy and the moft weftcm^ 
called Iliera, i. ^ lar-aoiy tbe Weftem UaBd ;~. 
and taking a tbor foutsbwaid, we ftmpt at ibd 
femkerti promontory catted Odb^4eusj i. e the 
S^ath Point, wj^eflce Odyflea & Odyfleum Preiw 


Ancient Hi/lory cf Ireland. ^89 

Bocfaart thinks the name derived from Din ha- 
das, i* e. niyrta$. * 

In their paflage to the Weft, they find a bay 
favourable for fifhing, where the fifh depofit their 
fpawn and breed; this they call hubaraiy from 
lucbar, fpawn of fifh, and hete they build a fifh- 
ing town called Hycara — "txmf^. ttL^Z^iM* x<^P">n 
Hycara barbaricum oppidum. 

M113 p*^n Chik-caura Sin^s Pifcis, fays Bo- 
chart. Here, I think, and at Drubhan, or Dm- 
phan, i. e. the village or habitation, our Scythi 
firft fettled, and between thefe points is Sicania. 

We have no account of iEtna, the burnin|^ 
mountain, in our Irifh hiftory: it is obferved^ 
that Homer did not mention it ; that great author 
^ould not have omitted fo fine an opportunity of 
exerting his poetical talents, had it burned in his 
time ; and had the expeditions of our ancient Irifh 
to this Ifland, been the fabrication of modern 
monks, they would not have had the ingenuity 
to have omitted it. 

The Caiker or Ftofacbe^ attended them in all 
their expeditions. The office of Caiker is often 
mentioned in the Irifh hiftory as a Prieft and Pro- 
phet, peculiarly adapted for military fervices, like 
the Sagan of the Jews. 

This paflage and. the explanation of the word 
Caiker will tend, perhaps, to explain one of the 
moft difficult texts in the holy fcriptures. I iqean 
the 6th, 7th, and 8th verfes of the 5th Chap, of 
the and book of Samuel. ^^ And David and his 
" men went to Jerufalcm, unto the Jebufitcs 
'' the inhabitants of the land ; which fpake unto 
" David, faying, except thou take away the blind 
^' and the lame^ thou fhalt not come in hither : 

thihli:ing David cannot come in hither'*.—— 

T « And 


a^o A VimBcaiwi if the 

^^ And 'David faid, whofoever gctteth up to the 
^^ gutter (aquxdud or fewer) and finiteth the 
'^ lame and the blind ibat are bated of David's fotdj 
*' he fliall be chief and captain^. 

The text has y^ aor and nog pbiffkcbj trai^- 
ted blind and lamCj and inftead of Phiflach, the 
Chaldee has "ipn Chaker. ^y Aor fighifies to 
watch, as well as to be blind, whence "^s Air^ 
Vigil, Angelus perpetuo vigilans, nunquam dor* 
miens : hence Aire in Inih is a chieftain, an offi- 
cer, a guard, — ^and we have Caiker and Rifacbe 
fignifying the war friejl or prophet : thefe, pro- 
bably, were mounted on the walls of Jeni&lem 
encouraging the foldiers and bidding defiance to 
David, and not the blind and lame; for, why 
fhould the blind and lame be hated of Davids s foul f 
«^-<(a) Or how could David diftinguifh the lame and 
theblind^ fromablemen, whenpoftedon lofty waUs^ 

^pn Chaker in the Chaldee is to praedid, to in- 
vcftigate, to fearch into nature«---Sephiri ha'm* 
Cha^r ^prwn **DSD Librifcrutationisy i. e. Pbxfi^ 
ciy which perfefUy correfponds with the office of 
our Caicerj who was not only a prieft, but an 
officer ; for, in the clofe of this part of the hiftory, 
we are told, that the principal commanders in tms 
voyage were Ealloid^ Lamhfionn^ Cing and Caicerm 
That in their voyage to Guthia^ they met with 
Murdbuchon (Syrens) who fung the officers to 
fleep, and would have killed them, had not Caiker 
given them a charm (b). 

(a) And the Inhabitants of Jebus faid to David, Thou flialt 
not come hither.— The fuoceeding words of Samuel are very 
difficult. (Keaniott.) Difl*. p. 33. 

(b) n!3in & 1'^ wit(i a 3 inftead of p, in the Chaldee is 
conductor. The Irifh, at leaft the modern Irifh, can make no 
diftinftion, the C being always founded as K» and this letter 
they have not in their alphabet. 


Ancient fUftary of Ireland. 391 



The Vofa^i cf the Milesians from Guthla to 
An Spain^ i. e. Tie SpcUn^ i. e. The Ship 

B RATH A, fon of Deaghatha, was the prin- 
cipal commander in this voyage and condud- 
<ed the Gaduli from Gutbia (Sicilly) to An Spain, 
.Spain, llie officers under him were Oige^ Uige, 
Mantan^ ^xid Caiker. They failed from Guthiaj 
(i. e. Sicily) leaving Catria oh their left hand^ and 
keeping the S. Weft Coaft of Eorp (or Europe,) 
Janded in Spain. 

The poftcrity of Tubal the grand fon of Japhet, 
were the inhabitants of the country at that time, 
^nd with them the Gadelians fought many dcfpe- 
rate engagements (c). Bratha had a fon born in 
Spain, whom he called Breogan : he built the city 
.of Breoean near Cruine. 

The nimous Gallaniy who was called Milefs and 
Milefpain (d), was the fon pf Bille^ fon of Breogan. 

(c) Tubal &ve Jubal, ,qitin|o g^ninis Jfltpheti filii Noe, didus 
Audus^ &ab«0()uodinvMiitttitaoiaobierit. Atlas Mauricanus^ 
primus Hifpanise r«gnuin .obcinnit, ut ex Latinis aflerunt £ule-> 
1>ius U Hieronymus, ex Hebraeb Jofephus, & ex Chaldxis Be- 
ToTus. (Tarajpiia, Htt/Hifp. p. S >. 

The Spasifh.writem £if that Tubal was called Tarfis ; tbit 
•that he wasth^ grandfon of Japhet, <mr Irifh hifbry informs us 
chat the fons. of Tatfiis accompa9ied them to Ireland aod were al- 
ways diftinguiifaed not to be of Gadelian race. 

(d) Goles, the old Spaniib name of Hercules. (De Laftono- 
ia on ancient Spanifli medals). 

T a This 

^gt A VhuBcaiiM of tbe 

This family had almoft made a cooqneft of the 
countiy, and obtained fome of the princ^al offi* 
ccrs in the govermnent. Gallamb or NBIefioc 
Mile-^Sfain at length refolvoi to vifit his reladons 
in Scrtbia and accordingly fitted oat 30 fliips, and 
fteenng for Creiey he pafled it by and a(cen<&ig to 
the Euxine fea, entered the Biariannis. 

The King of Scythia received him kindly, made 
him chief commander of his forces and bellowed 
his daughter Seang upon him. By the continued 
courfe of his Tidories he became the darling of 
the people, which raifcd a jealoufy in tbe kmg, 
who refoWcd to crufli his greatnefs. MUefs in* 
formed of thisbafc defign, anembledthe Gadeliah 
officers, and they came td a refolution of forcing 
their way into the palace and killing die king, 
which they immediately put in execution. They 
then retired to their &ippine9 and embarking in the 
Biortanais (or Partheneus^ failed through the 
Euxine & ^eeanfeas into the Mediterranean, and 
(leering for the Nile landed in iEgypt. 

When Mclefius and his party landed, they fent 
meflengers to Pbaraob Nedcnebus theJEgyptian 
king, to notify their arrival. He welcomed ihcm 
to his Court and afCgned a trad of land for th6 
fupport of the Gadelian forces. 

j£gypt was at this time engaged in a defperate 
war with the Mtbhpiam : Pban^ finding Milefius 
to be an expert foldier, made him general of his 
forces. Milefius engaged the Ethiopians with 
fuccefs, and at length brought them under tribute 
to the crown of jSgypt. Upon this, Pharaeh 
gave his daughter Scota in marriage, (by her he 
had two fons Heber^Fwnn and Amerpn) (e). When 

(e) We have already explained the allegoiy of Scota 1 and 
iliewn it (ignifiecl hb fleers, his ihips. Heberfionii and Amergio 
ke made Comaianders of the fleets. 


Ancient Mjfi^y. iff. Jrekmd. £93 

MiIe0iM arrived ia j^gypt^ he appointed twelve 
of tbe moft itigcnious .youths that attended him^ 
to be inftrudled in the fciehcea of iEgypt, with a 
de/iKn oi teaching his countrymen the trades and 
uyiteriesi of the ^Egyptians (r). 
. When he had been feven years in iBgypt» 
he recoileAed the remarkable praedi£Uonof liie 
Caihrj the principal Draoij who had declared 
diat the poftcrity of Gadel fhould find no reft till 
they came to a weftem Ifland. He therefore fitted 
out fizty fliipSy and failing from the Nile into the 
Mediterranean^ landed m Thrace : leaving that 
foon after, he came to the weftem Ifland, viz. 
GUTHIA9 which lies near a Frith or narrawjea^ 
that extends northwards. Here he dwelt fome time» 
and in this Ifland his wife was delivered of a fon, 
whom he called Calpa ; they next failed up the 
narrow feas that divide Afia from Europe, keep* 
ing Europe *%n their left or weftward* They 

(f) The Gred( bifloiy infiyrmsiiiy that Milemm in Ipoia, was 
firft coloDiz^ b^ Phamicians from Crete— 'that this colony was 
attacked by the Perfians and tranfplanced into Pedia — diat the 
Phaeaiciam and Milefians joined with the Perfians againft the lo- 
nians, at the battle of Mycale» and that thty were made flavca 
by the Perfians, bm kindly treated by Alennder /— «nd m tha 
time of Pfiuniticus a colony of Milefians (ettled ia Greece. The 
Sacae joined die Perfians at the b&nle of Marathon and broke the 
centre of the Adienians, 

The Liber I^ecanas^ an ancient Irifli MB. infimns nt, that 
onecolooy of the Milefians arrifed in Iveland in the hft jear of 
Cinbaoth orGambaodi, (I e; Cambyfes) fon of Cbas (i. e. Cy- 
ras)-^— it then defcribes the diyjfions of Alexander's emjpire 
among his Generals, and fays, another colony arrived in Ireland 
in diat very Tear wherein Ale]Wdcr defeated piur^ {• e. Pia- 
rius,^-— (|jeab. L^can. foL 1 3). 


^94 ^ fimKnaSm ^Ag 

Aen tetitmed to Crrtm (g^ ortbe comttrf of tbe 
Crctam^ at a place called Alia, (L c. Albcftnm) 
aod Toyaging £re>aii fhcacc teaiviiig the grcatcf 
.AnKTa on their rights dier came to frario, (CadkX 
kecpmg the S. Wefl:c(Mft(ofS|ai]i^midieir right 
till Aej anif«d in the hartNmr of Biafian, (Bif- 
cmj) (h> 


We have afa^eadf ftewn the ej^itfael^ Mikfi ttd 
Mikfpain, fignify the hero of the ftip; a ifstal 
commander. Af// is a i^mpion, herd, ofiocr, 
the feme as Mai or Malc^ CtaML Na^malca^ 
Rez« £/i and 5>7m figntfy a fllip^y fromi^yEs^ 
£gnum ;^ or NS^^SID Spma or Sapina^ liavis magni 
& te£lay whence )Jta Span of S^pafn^ Nama^ Se6 
I Kings Ch. 9* 26. Ch. 1 6. 2^. Ez. €3i. ^. 29* 
&c. &c. Milefpain is then Tynonimous to the 
Chaldean HIXlD 3*1 Rab Spania, 4. e. Bilagiftcr 
Kautarum, Jon. Ch. i • 6., Again rfns mallach in 
Hebrew and Melach or Melachoir in Irifb, fignify 
a lailor : Nauta, remc^^ qui mare feu aquas re- 
mo mifcet & vertit, fays Schindler. In Arabic 
Mullah is a! failor and Sufind a Ihip ; the Efs of the 
Irifli, they have cohveftcd into Ajuz.* The Chal- 
dee Nifa and the Syriac Nou&, a fliip derive from 
this root, whence re(tf^ & r^vf. 

( j) The reader will recoiled that Nil or Niltii, the foo of 
Feniuf was the Hercules who founded Croton : Sff I. Newton 
Calls him die \£g7pcian Htrciih»^ (Chronol. p. 1 ^ j. Se^ 
Ch. 4th. 

(b) Albiftrum, oppidum Bnuionnm. Ptoleot Femrius. 


Ancient IS^^ry tf Ireland. a^^ 

Tuatha mac Mileadh, 
Mileadh longe Libearn, 
Lords were Milefius fons^ 
Milefius of the Libearn (hip, 
fays one of the oldeft Poets of the Irifh. 

Hence Homer calls the Ihip Argo «rAcri.^iAvtroi. 
(0^ ft) which Euft. explains thus, ix «r<iVi dat. pL a 
Sing, mic & /uiAf i carae eft ; why not from 'vZ^ omnis, 
tottts, excellens* 

Hiftory inform us, that about 6*^0 year$ before 
Chrift, P/ametticus king of -flEgypt prefented the 
Milejiam with lands on each fide the Nile, and put 
children under their tuition. They are faid to 
have been the firft foreigners permitted to dwell in 
j£gypt. In confideration of their placing him on 
the throne, he went /o far as to compliment them 
with the poft of honour, when he marched into 
Syria^ where he warred many years. This fo in- 
cenfcd the Egyptians that two hundred thoufand 
of them dcfcrted and fettled in Ethiopia. To re- 
pair this lofs he opened his ports to all ftrangers, 
^om he greatly careffcd ? Thus the authors of 
the UniTcrlal Hiftory, from Greek authority* 
Thefe authors have noted in their general index, 
thai he invited the Scythians in great numbers^ but 
in the hiftorical detail, they fay, he met them in 
Syria, and by treaties and prefents prevailed on 
Acm to march back again. They obferve, that 
before Pfametticus, the -^Egyptian hiftory has been 
covered with an impenetrable nU/ij it there begins to 
clear up a little (i). If thefe laborious miners in 
ancient hiftory found the records of fo enlightened 

(1) Un. Hift, Edic. 8w. V. ?. p. 81. 


^9^ A Ttndkatim rfthe 

and leaned a people as the Egyptians, to be mm 
tniji^ and only clearing up a little^ in the fevemfa 
century before Chrift. Alas ! what are we to ex* 
ped from the rude and uncultivated Scythians, 
the barbarous, unlettered Scythians according to 
thefe authors — yet Berofus formed his hiftory, 
from the books of thefe unlettered Scythians ! ! ! 
but thefe were fouthem Scythians, (from whom 
the Iriih are defcended) : and as Sir Wm. Jones 
obferves, authors ancient and modem, make no 
diftin£tion, between the northern and fouthem 

The Englifli tranflation of this pafiage of Keat- 
ing, is grofsly perverted. Gutbia^ as ufual, is 
tranflated Gothland^ inftead of Sicily. Cafria an 
Ifland at the weftem point of Sicily is called Crete. 
Croton is faid to be the Piffs ; the greater Bruin 
are named Great Britain \ and Erotha or Cadis is 
called France. For the amulement of thofe that 
underftand Jriih, we have given the original in a 
note (k)* 


(k) Do trialas as fin go hoilean chn'goridi^r Gori^i^ fua (ka 
bhfairge caoil cheid faa Aigbea ba tuaidh— agus do rino Seal 
comhnaithe an fin, gan an rug Scota an mac d'an^trthear 
Colpa— an diamh. Triaiiaid as fin fan caol muir ba nialdk 
fgaras Afiea agtis Oirp \e ceilc : agus lamh de rin as Otrip 

fiar : Rangadar Crucin taitb re raidhtie Alba, agus trialJad 

da eis fin, iamb deas rin an Breatan-mor, go rangadar Emm/m^ 
agus lamh dheas riu an bbfearain gac fiar bu deas, gar gabhlal 
cuan da eis fin fan Biafgan. 

The CrQtonians were invited to Ireland to extirpate Ae Afri- 
om Pirates. See Colledanea, No. XII. Frbm tbe Liber Le- 
c«nu8, we learn, tha^ the Cnitine (called Pids in tbe Englifli 
tranflation) were baniihed by Erimon«*therefere thefe CrutiDe 

C011I4 not be the Pidi of the latter days^At length fome of 

' • '*- 


Anemt Byhry rf hntmeU ^ 

Tht xAd name of Gadift wa$ Erpbia^ called by 
our Iriilh hiftorians Erotha^ I think from Earth or 
jlortb a (hip* We have iecn before that the Rab- 
bins derive Sfmn from the Fhaenician S^na a fliip, 
« circumftance in our favour. Bochart derives it 
from ^gttr Sapban^ which he tranflates a Rabbitt 
but the Saphan was a different animaL 

G^es was certainly called ErythUu Ab eo la* 
ttxt quo Hifpaniam fpedat paihbus fere loo, air 
texfL infula eft ionga lii M pais : M lata in qua prius 
oppidum Gadium fuit. Vocatur ab £phoro & Phi- 
liftide Erytbiai a Timaeo & Sileno Apbrcdifias^ 
sd> indigenis Junonis. Erythia di&a eft, quoniam 
Tyrii. ab orieine eorum orti ab Erythroeo mari 
ferebantur (1). Again, Tertia Afbrodifias^ in- 
fula quae prius Erytbia inter Hifpaniam & Gades, 
£atys Stephanus« And Strabo, videtur Gadibua 
Erythise nomen tribuifle Pherecydes : alii autem 
^oc nomine, inteliigunt infulam urbi adfitam, 
ynius ftadii freto divuiim. 

. It was in thisiifland the Poets feiened Gefj§n to 
bave dwelt, whofe herd^ were ftolen by Her- 

We have fliewn that the ihip of Hercules was 
called Grian^ or the Sun ; whence the fable. In 

fbem were allowed to iettle in Magh-breafh and to copy all the 
ftdvastages of nature onmolefted, viz gaco Geis, gac Sein^ gtc 
Sreath, GotliaBin^ jgac Mna, gac Upa^h^the Crutine on their 
part were to give diemMna breas, mna buais& buai gne, & ratha 
Greine is Ea^^ i. e. fhiitfti], flcillfiil, women who excelled in 
figure and on whom (hone die profperity of the Sun and Mom* 
(Leab. Leacan. fol. 14). 

The chief called CruUAfieaean^ (en of LocH wastofiirui/h 
women (or Erimon : in this fame year he went to aflift the Brea- 
tani, !• e. the Bruiii* Thefe Crotonians according to Philiftus 
and DionyfinSy were fettled in Italy by our Niul^ or Nilus, who 
Ibunded Croton* (See Newton's ChroiioL p. i8i. 

0) Wwy- 


19S AYm£ca6m^A^ 

an aaaent hiftoria wc find a Hcrcoles or HSeft. 
The firft Etnifcan Kiog (after die fidralons dmcB 
£179 DtmpftCT) vas Mekia^ He led the Pela%iaii 
Colosy to Sfbua in bafy, and tfacaoe to &fmtu He- 
rodocof mcntimif him ; finds him in SfmOj imdtf 
the name of MeUfigenes^ and diinks it vas Homer : 
bot it was -our voyaging phflofepher MUes^ €St 
Hercules. By diis name the GredLS and Romans 
transferred him to the celeftial ij^here. MUet Sep- 
tentiidnale eft^ notitior fub Hercufis nomine (St^ 
Jerom» T. i. CoL 6J2J) 

Miki eft une conftelladon Scyteutrionak ipi'ott 
oonnoit fous k nam d'Herciile. (Rcfigion dcs 
Ganlois, T. i. p« 40w)<^Hence the Lyra in the 
celeftial fphere is placed before Miles of Hercules. 
See C vf. Hence the name of Malachans or Mai« 
byans of India : Malaicam linguam indis pleriique 
inteUedum U Tulgo ufurpatum originem fuam 
debere f^uttt pronuAruoe fifcaiwrum coUuvioni^ 
qui ex re^onibus fuis undequaque e6, commu- 
nis artis fuse exercendse gratia confluxerunt & 
MaUaccm urbis fundamenta pc^berunt^ (a) 

(a) G.Ckrlidciifis DBC Pba. AMeL p. «• 


jlnciint ISJlwy tf trelandf ^99 

€ R A P. VBL PA R T ri. 

ON the return of Bfilelius to Spain, he found 
the inhabitants in mod deplorable circura-^ 
fiances, being over-run by plundering fbreighers^ 
Vfho had ran&eked the tirhole country. Among 
others were (na Goti) the Gtiti, whom hd over- 
threw in fifty^four pitched battles. 

the children of Breogan increafed in Sj^ift W H 
numerous progeny. At length ther^ was a gi^d4€ 
fcarcity or corn and other provKiOtts in S^un ; 
and at the fame time they were under fudh cotiti'* 
nual alarms, from the inroads of foreigners, that 
they were obliged to be perpetujllly in th^ field 
under armis, for fear of being ftirptfeed. A Coun- 
cil of the Ghids was affetnWcd 6ti this occafion^ 
to confider to what country they fliouM ftcer their 
courfe. ' After frecjuent confultatibn, M, a prince 
of confummate leatnihg an*d prudetrcd, and of an 
enterprizing ^nius, propofed to fail in fearch of 
the Weftern Ifland, which by an old tradition of 
the Caiketj was to be the reliitlg-place of the Ga- 
delians. Oir do bhi caidrhmb agus roinn roime/in 
idir Eirinn agus an Spain on iraib fa iuzg Eocba 
mac Lire tigb d6agbna6 firm mB^>^u e. for 
there had been a gteat frichdfhip'^d aHianc'c be- 
tween Ireland ancf Spain from the time of Eocha, 
fon of Lire, the laff King of the Fir-Bolg's. It 
was therefore agreed that Itb fhould go on the 


300 A Vindkatim rftbe 

difcovery of this Ifland, and return widi a report 
of particulars, (b) 

Itb landed on the northern coaft of Ireland; 
and having facrificed to the God of the Seas vrtk 
great devotion, found the Omens not propitious. 
On enquiry, he found the three fons of Cearmada 
Miorbheoil, fon of Daghda, ruled the ifland, and 
diat they were aflembled at Oileach Neid, in coo* 
iequence of a difpute about the Seod or boundaria 
of their provinces, which was likely to be decided 
by the fword. (c) Ith advifed them (deanqidb m 
in/i/i dfaUamnugbadh amail as teacbtaj to divide the 
government of the ifland, as the law (of the land) 
had regulated ; that, as to his part, he was but an 
adventurer, and driven there by ftreis of weather, 
and Ihould foon return* He then extcrfled the tern- 
perature of the climate, and the produce of the 
£>U, and recommended unanimity, as the extent 
of fo fertile an illand, feemed fufficient for all 
their wants, if equally diivided between thcou 

Thefe encomiums gave fome fafpidon, and the 
three Kings fearing Ith might return, and attempt 
to refcue the Ifland from them, refolved to put 
him to death. Therefore when he had departed, 
in order to return to his fhip, Mac CuiU, one 
of the princes, was difpatched with a fmali de** 

(b) By this paflage we are to underfland, that the Mildkns 
lad no communication with Ireland, fidce the time of their nri- 
Tal in Spain i bnt diat the old colonies feated in Spain hid made 
the vojage, previous to the Milefian ezpedhion. 

(c) Thefe were Tuadia Ihdanns. Keating's traaflaior calls 
5^a jewel; the word has that fignification^ but here meansn 
mtrenchmcnt, a boundary line ; in Arabic and Peifian, Sedd, u 
StddMagiug^ the boundary of the Magogiau in Taituy. 


Ancient Hifiory of Ireland. 301 

tacbment to overtake him. Idi perceiving the 
party purfuin^ him, drew up his men, and made 
a retreating fight, till he arrived at a certain ad- 
vantageous fpot, when facing about, a defperate 
engagement enfued, and Ith was mortally wound- 
ed. The name of die place where this battle was 
fought is called Maigh Ith, or the plains of Ith to 
this day. Ith was carried on fliip-board, where he 
died of his wounds before, they could reach the 
Spanifli coaft, and before the fbip reached Spain 
with this melancholy news, that incomparable 
prince Milefpain died alfo. Ith was the fon of 
Breogan, grandfon of Milefpain, 



On the return of Mileiius to Spdn, he found 
the country over-run with foreigners, particularly 
na Gutij called by the tranilator Gotbs. It appears 
to have been the army of Gud or Gut^ that is, of Ne- 
buchadnezzar. Gud was one of his Perfian names, 
to which they added Arz^ as the Irifli do Art or 
Ardj fignifymg a chief, a leader, a demagogue, 
value, efteem, veneration, honour. ^' Gudarz^ 
^ fays Abw al Tbabarij Mircandj and other very 
*' cdebrated oriental hiftorians, was the name of 
^^ the General of Lohorafb, who pafled with the 
** Jews, for a great King whom they called JVif-^ 
^* bucbadnezzar \ the Arabs called him Bakhtnaf- 
** far\ Ptolemy named him Nabonaffary and ma« 
^' ny called him Rabam. Gudarz was one of the 
'* greateft captains the Perfians had ; he conquered 
'* Judaea, and took Jerufalem in the reign of Lo- 

bar off ^ and fupported many wars againfl Afrajiaby 



^ King of Turqncftaii or Scydna.^ (d) We flial 
fliew prdendjr, that diis watlfte priace peifaed 
the Tyriani into Spain ; Itli was govenior of Tyre 
tHien Godarz befieged it. He protNd>lj flew into 
Spain to avoid £dling into tbe conqueror's hands, 
and bearing of Gud coming dovn the Levant, 
made the beft of his way to Irdand. 

Ith is here laid to hare been the ion of Bieogan, 
grandfon of Milefius. The vanity of die uri& 
Seanachics had formed this connexion between 
their anceftors and the heroic governor of Tyre. 
The Liber Lecanus flatly contradids this genolo- 
gy. At folio 1 19, it fays, *^ tbc ra^e of bb were 
neither Mile/tans^ lyOmbnann's, Bdp^ or Nt^ 
medians J but far fuperior to aUtbefe. Mac Con 
defcendedfrom Ith, and extended bis arms to tbe 
Britannic IJles and to Gaul.** This ftrongly 
marks the intercourfe and mixture of the South* 
ern Scythians with the Tyrians. 

There is great reafbn to think our bb was the 
bb^baaly bbo-baal or Etb-baal, of the fcripturcs, 
L e. DominHs Ith ; for Baal is only an epithet in 
the Canaanitifli tongue, like Arz in the Per- 

Pbaenicia being freed of the Aflyrian yoke by 
the death of Salmanazar, £cU into the power of the 
Cbaldaeans, but by what means does not appear in 
hiftory. We only learn from Berofus, that Na- 
bopalafler, (or Gudarz) whole reign commenced 
626 years before Chrift, was mafter of ^Sgypt, 
Paleftine, Phaenicia and Caelo-Syria. 

(d) Dfierbeloc at Ldioraip. See alfo Urn Hift. vol. $> P- 


Ancient Hi/icry of Ireland. 303 

Previous to this, Gudarz had curbed Afrafiab 
King of the Tour an Scythians, and driven 
the Omanite Scythians into Phaenicia. On the 
approach of Gu4arz, they would certainly en- 
ter Tyre with their old allies the Canaanites ; from 
thence they efcaped with them to Guthia, i. e. Sy- 
racufe, and from thence to Spaun, and from Spain 
they had a conftant intercourfe with the Britannic 
Ides. They had long, before worked the Tyrian 
ihips, and been the carriers of the produce of 
thefe iflands to Spain, from whence the Canaanites 
tranfported them into Ada. 

In 586 before Chrift, Nabuchodonofor befieged 
Tyre, ITie Governor then was Itb^ or liho-baal : 
the city held out thirteen years, being taken 
in 573th bef Chr. (e) He was a moft proud, ar- 
rogant and afluming prince, and even went fo far 
as to rank himfelf among the gods, which brought 
that heavy judgment upon him of the prophet 
Ezekiel, ** Say unto the Prince of Tyrus, thus 
^ faith the Lord God, becaufe thine heart is lifted 
^' up, and thou haft faid, I am a God, I fit in the 
** feat of God, in the midft of the feas, yet thou art a 
^^ man and not God ; though thou let thine heart 
•* as the heart of God, Behold, thou art wifer 
^ than Daniel : there is no fecret that they can hide 

(e) ThiTty-fix years after this, Babylon was taken by Cynu. 
Daring this interval many nations were to be fubducd, according 
ro the predictions of fome ancient prophets. (Jer. 25, Ezek. 31^ 
&c.} The nations thus foretold, were the Ajfyrians^ ElMmiies^ 
the "Nmrthnn nations^ probably xJti^ Stythians^ Edooi, and rh« 
Kings of the adjacent countries, Zidon and Tyre^ and ]a(i of all 
Egypt. The feveral prophecies emitted by men infpired, coa- 
ceming the fate of thefe kingdoms, were exadly fulfilled, as 11 
evident in the hifiory of that period. (Play fair's Chronolog. p. 



304 ^^ VbiScgtiofi ^ the 

'* from diee— with thv wifdom and with thine m- 
^ dcrftanding, thou naft gotten diee riches, aad 
^ haft gotten gold and filver in thy tfeafures, 
^ and thine heart is lifted up becaufe of thine 
^ riches. Therefore, thus laith the Lord God, 
^ becaufe thou haft fet thine heart as the heart of 
^ God, behold therefore I will bring flrangcrs 
^ upon thee, the ftrong men of the (Groim) nati- 
^ ons, and they (hall draw their fwords againftthe 
** beauty of thine wifdom, and they (hall defile 
^ thy brightnefs— they (hall bring thee down to 
^ the pit, and thou (halt die' the death of them 
^ that are flain in the midft of the feas — ^thoa 
^ (halt die the death of the uncircumcifed, by the 
" hand of the (Goim) ftrangers/* 

During the liege moft of the Tyrians fled by fea 
with the greateft part of their effeds, infomuch 
diat when Nebachadnetfar became matfter of it) 
the prophet tells us, there was not wherewithal to 
reward his foldiers. They had been moving off 
before this, from the time of Nabapalaflar : fettling 
in Guthia or Sicily, Rhodes, and other iilands of 
the Mediterranean, and in Spain, and probably 
in the Britannic ifles, and on the coaft of Gaul ; 
the great body appears to have gone to Spain* 
*' Is this your joyous city, (fays Ifaiah) whofc an- 
** tiquity is of ancient days ? Her own fleet (hall 
** carry her afar off to fojoum." (Ch. 23, v. 7.) 

It i^ the opinion of fome writers that Ith was 
killed during the (iege, as there is no further ac- 
count of him in hi(lorv« How then would the 
words of the prophet have been fulfilled, viz. 

thoujhalt die the deaths of thofe that arejlain in 

the midft of the fea : thou (halt die by the hands 
^^ of the Goim." All which came to pafs accord- 


iftj^tgfcaxij*iAiirecof45f<.i? tju»,parj of.the^^orld,, 
ymr^ !rjr€»,QWBifpjtJia^ cvric^d hcf afv. off. 

V^mofL, approivci Spjpiihi a^tiqvl^Jc^s^ arei ofr 
qmDip9:thdt he^e^ to, SpAia ^iid buUti the city of, 
hhobaal or Thobal^ now ca^lc4 Santttbcs^ . whercr 
I^ud^doiy>lbx; pvu^e4 tiim* 

Hl^QCT) iifforms us, that two years . after, the^ 
taking of "tyre, Nal)uchadonofor returned, to thati 
city, and repairing the Tynan (hips be had taken 
in the port^ afid. QOfifltrju^iog others, h^ became 
mafter of a ftrong fleet on the Mediterranean. 
On. .thia u^pUigrnce, //^. might not think hioifel^ 
ia^e iiirSpaf n;i well kpowin^^the enterprizing gcni^i 
ujft'of-tha^prince, an4 would therefore meditate o«» 
i;eau)V4ng; beyond the reacb of hia power. Ak 
this pf sifidr \ ^^^ of opixu9n, the great M^leftatk 
qga^itiq^ (2^ it is called^, took pl^p froip. Spaia 
tQ ]irii)aR4 V othe^ parties x^ould xxaturaUjc follov^ 
^|i€;ij.Nat[uphiadpnof9r iieacl)i,ed Spaifli, Vwte^ i^ i& 
SaA^y \t did nqt leave onePhsenician ijn the v^.lu)lft 
kiqgdpm^ fpqpdi&g:n9leis.thaanine,]rqa^,ii^ dxjivn 

Tl^q leff ned Cour; de; Ge^elin has entered xf^\% 
nutely on the conqueil of Spain by ^abu^hado^o^ 
fi^^ \^ H|e calls nipx the firfl; known. copqi^erjQr ; 
he glv/^ vs the pjl^re. of populatioii, ^d of tha 
gi:e9^qpf^rittioin^ of focieties i^ Weftern, Afia at. the 
^fftc ti^ftpf in<;e j^jpyarcd. He fcUaws hiija ffep. bjs 
ftep in his expeditions, and at length into, opap.^ 
i))P^the: motives -that carried him there, andgb^ 
fi^eKf: t^?^ mai^iy learned meat^^d doubted, of thi« 
cjqjedi^tipi^ gf N^buch^dosofor, particularly Bq? 
qhf rt^ w^Q io^ reali:pn^ not worthy of himfelf treats 

[f^ M|9ndf prignitif. Toi9e 8. El&i d'kiftaire ^erale. 

3o6 A VindicMon^ tf the 

it ai a &bte. He then ihews tbat the Phacniciaig 
had the ufe of the compafs, and navigated to tfar 
Weftem ocean ; and iinaliy combats the opponents 
to this part of hiftory, and proves the critidfizis of 
Bochart, to be full of error. 

We (hall ufe the author's words on this fubjed, 
and fubjoin fuch authorities, as witt^ xa our hum- 
ble opinion, confirm his argument. 

From Court be Gebelik^ 



** Ezekiei, ch. 30, v. 5; Speaking of the coir- 
quefts of Nabuchadonofor, fays, that this prince 
conquered Chus^ Fbntj LtaJj and aTyfrVS, 
caUOrbj or cal-Gharb, the Cbubj and the men 
of the land that were in league againft him--' 
^gypt from Migdol to Sienna. The laft cotm- 
*' tries are well known ; the qiHeftion iaf to deter- 
•* mine the reft. Chusy all tne learned agree to 
•* be Afiatic Arabia, particularly Arabia Felix : 
•* the LTcx have rendered the* name Chus by Pcr- 
^^ fians, applying it to Sufiana, called at this daj 
** Cbu/ijlan^ or the country of Chus, becaufe a 
** part of it was inhabited by Arabs. 

LudviTZs ^Ethiopia, particularly Nubian bor- 
dering on -/Egypt, as Bochart clearly proves. 

Pbta is incontef^sibly that part of Africa Weft 
of ^gypt, in whidi was Cyrene,'TJtica and 

*^ Chub muft have been the Mareotidis, or the 
mountainous countrr between ^gypt and Ly« 
" bia, iat Icaft there Ptolemy places the Cobis: 
•^ there was^ Cuba in the mountains of Dagbifi^ 
" in Perfia, on the borders of the Samura. It is 
V evident that Cob^ Cuby is the fame as Goby Gwy 

M figni- 








Ancient Hi/tory of Ireland. 307 

^' fignifyifLg a country neanthe .waters : hence the 
" Cub of -ffigypty the Cub of Samuraj the C«i*f or 

Bituriges who fettled on the Loires, and many 

adjacent riycrs. (b) 

The my Orb, Earb, Warb or Ghacb^ can- 

not therefore be any of thofe countries, and 

being enumerated alter alt, confequcntiy was 

beyond them all. 

** It will be Qeedlefs to repeat what the learned, 
'* ancient or modern, have laid of the iituation of 
*' this country, becaufe none have been able to 
'^ difcover what part was meant by it. 

*' The Lxx inftead oi all the Gbarbj write all 
*^ the mixed people^ which is nonefenfe. In the age 

they lived they ihould have been better ac* 

quainted with this country than we are ; but, 

it is a very melancholy truth, that the lxx or 

their copyifts, were in general but indifferent 
*^ fcholars. 

'^ Don Calmet and M. de Sacy, render thefe - 
*^ words, all other people^ a tranilation as falfe as 
^^ ridiculous : they would have done right to have 
" inferted the original words, all the Gharb^ and 
*' have declared their ignorance of what country 
*' was meant. 

*' Bochart faw clearly that Phut was Africa ad** * 
'* joining ^gypt, and that Lud was Ethiopia, « 
*^ yet he forgets himfelf, and copies thofe that 
" tranflated caUgbarb Arabia. 
. ^^. Did not thefe authors fee that Arabia was 
^^ already mentioned under . the name of Chus ? 

. (b) Prom this root I have prefumed to think, that the C^U 
Goim of the iiifpircd Penman, ii^nifies marine people, foreiga 
nations, and that he alludes to • the Magogian Scythians feated in 
Oman, onthePeriknGulph. 

U 2 "and 

3bff A VmScdtton of fSe 

« khd tliW they ddtroycd the ^fed^-ajjWcrf jitei 
^ gredioh' ti £zel5di^& defeription, ^ha ddenfies' 
^. the conqciefb* of Nabuihadonofof, rcj^dttttj; 
" from Eaft to Weft- 

^ Certainty it ^a^ an Arabia^ but n6t tliat of 
•* Afirf, as^ we (haH fafy pftfore. 

^"^ yx» Gbarb fignifie^ the Weft, and ac£o#diiig 
*^ to different dialeda, is written - or proitt>vtnced' 
«* GBarkj GBarVy HarB^ Warh^ Erby Erabj Eu- 
*^ rdpj M different nations ptoaouUte the letter 
•* P (Aini Ghairi, or Ghnain) fignifyin^ ahrajs 
" the, night, evening, fun kttmp Weft, (c) 
This name confequentiy beeatme general to 

t&e Weftem extremities of every continent 
^. Before ^d Eaftern people haid foiled on the Me- 
•* difterrahean^ and difeovered countries lying more 
^ Weffward, they gate th6 name of ArtMa^ or 
^ Gfbatb or Warb^ to that part rf A^; whiicS 
^ bears the name at this day, and whidh was thai 
" tfce liioflf Wefterft country. 

^« Bbt, when tbdt knowledge fn geography ^thi 
^ cfiiWfeed^ the Weft of Africa and of Emope, 
*^ became fo many Gftirt/'i. 

** Thus Spaitt^s formertf called HeJ^efiu by tlie 
f^ Europeans, that is, the Weft ; and the Piromon- 
^ ibijof Sardmiii wai? called Etdbiktlwh. HeJferiB 
^^ itri& fflciefwife the name of Weftern Africa : thvs 

(c) Tfie trilh write it A6rp» Eofp, Orl), Sarb; Arb^ as Eorp, 
Ckpy &c. i, e. EMpe. EuhAtbbi, of Eii-ekrbti, t9trmf^ frttj- 
ci^' Vef^erar T^c 1 sfifrof opilinMi- tinir tfre friA Bm li froot 
>fnur'0ro^^dovfom. iKott. 5V t. ^ akd i ^ral. lo, v. it. be* 
caule the Iriih retain the orientah name ef naming the Oirdinil 
pUtSi Ek Gf . Oy>» Oriehs, the Baft; fenite in fr^t. iUcr» 
th6 SeMi tfr thdrrgfit htiAl— ^, And £&^ behind, th« bicfc, 
Stt. bdltfWdL am^Tia^lW'OIi. &t. if Ab Nbnh, or die 
feft hmrf. , 

^ Maxifnus Tyrus ;m his i%&l 4Ucowr(ie ^^pqa^ of 
/^* tbc Mefp^rians of irjrii?^. (d) 

" The name Gbsrb^ and /?^ all t be Gharb, 
.eipift at tfai^ day, /]gmfying..thp, two fides .of the 
Strpjghts of Gibraltar* 

^^ From this yyi pronooi^ed Gharb^ Qojnos 
C^r^;i, giv^n ^ the Langu^dQciaru to the weft- 
em wiod^ aiid to that part of the Mediterai^ 
neaa bordering that .prpirinice. ¥xtx;fiA^ by 
^ the Oriental afti<;le al it forms Algaryes^ the 
*' moft fovthcni province of Portugal : it w^. al- 
f^ fo jL 1)^6,' comnum to Spain and the ^rican 

^ Under the oiame of Jharves^ fays Father 
'^ (^ien de la Neuvflle, in his Hiftory of Portu- 
^, was comprehended a gneat number of coun- 
tries in Afncsi and Spain. Thofe on the coaft 
of Spain extended from Cape St* Vincent, to 
the ; city of Almeira. All An4alu(ia ' apd the 
J^ngdom .of iGrcnada made part of Al^ariM^ 
4ad under this name is cont^n^d all t^at part 
'^ of Af!^ica extending from t^ Ocean to .Treme- 
^^ con, ti(iat is, the Mngdom^ pf Fez, C^uta, aad 
Tangier, or ail that is oppofite to Anc^ufia 
and , Giienada. For this reafon tbe Kings of 
^ Spain (Ule th^mfelvcsELxN<>s of ,xli* ^hs . Al* 
^V OARvss, and the Kings of Portugal call.t^em- 
^ felves Kings of Ax-garves on thu ftae and be^ 
** ywd the Sea. 

The CaUgbarb or all the Gbarb of Ezekiel 
,was a known .and. ordinary tfenomipatkin, per- 
icftly cqincidiag with . t^e Spaivfli Alg^rves^ 



{X) Thefiefpemiu of Africa were probaMy oor Iberiansof 
M| the luune Lfttitiiled^r Helkotfed. 

** and 


310 A Vrndication of the 

*• and ncccflary to point out the extent of Nabn- 
^^ chadonofor's conquefts in Spain and Africa, (a) 
** The Journal des Savans for April 1758 fur- 
•* niflies another authority of Spain being called 
*^ Gharb, and that the Oricntalifts bad manj 
** Gharbs. It is an account of an Arabian MS. 
** named Ketab Kharidat El Adgiaib^ or the 
** book of the pearl of miracles, coinpofed by 
" Zein-eddin-omar^ fon of Almoudhafiar, fumam- 
f * ed Ben-El-Ouardi, who lived in the 1 5th cen- 
." .tury. 

** This author diftinguiffies many Gbarbs^ 
aiTiong others the Gharb-al- Aufoih^ or the mid- 
** die Gharb; under this name, he fays, the 
** Arabs comprehended one part of Spain. He 
•* mentions Gbarb-al-adna. or the neareft Gharb, 
** which makes part of Alexandria, Barca, and 
"n Sara, or the Weftern Defcrt. 

** Did, then, Nabuchadonofor adually conquer 

the Gbarb, and all the Algarvesj that is. North 

** Africa and South Spain r — We anfwer in the 

" moft pofitive manner. Yes : — becaufe Ezekicl, 

** the Chaldsans, Strabo, the Jews, &c. tell us 

« fo. 

** The Chaldaeans, fays Strabo, Lib. 5, ex- 
tolled N abuchodraffar beyond Hercules ; tbcy 
fay, that having reached bis columns^ he tranf- 
ported many Spaniards to Tlirace and to Pon- 

tus. Cb) _ 

« The 

(a) This is a very learned and Ingenious ezplanatioo of Ct/- 
«r4, fignifying Spain : and it is very furpnfing that all the andcot 
Irifh writers call Spain bv the names of lar-E^b^ and Si^ na 
KEwrpa^ that is, thg IVtft of the Wefi. See two quotations, chap. 
4. at the end. This name evidently was not given to Spain bf 
ij^lri/li, when they were inhabitants of Ireland. 

(b) Megailhenes ait« Nabucodroforum Hcrcule ipfo fbitiorem 





Ancient Hifiary vf Ireland. 311 

** The Spaiiiih Jews of Tdle<k> &y, that they 
^^ \inere originally planted there by Nabuohodono- 
for, and that they are of the tribe of Juda, the 
^ther tribes having been captured before by the 
•* King of Nineveh. I know very wdl that 
** the traditions of the Jews are generally ill- 
*^ founded ; but in an age when the conqueft of 
Spain by this Prince is quite forgotten, how 
could they invent fuch a ftory ?^t muft be a 
^' &Q. We may alio add» that thefe Jews were 
thofe that fought refuge in Egypt, notwithftand* 
ing the exhortations of Jeremiah, and that this 
^' Prince found them there. How could he pu- 
^*^ ni(h them more, than by tranfporting them to 
^ Spain, where they could hold no corrcfpond- 
'^ .ence wkh thofe he had tranfplanted into GhaU 
« dwu 

The great diftance of Spain from Chaldaea 
may be an obje&ion .with fome ;— -to thefe I an- 
fwefy that they have no idea of a hero, who, 
^^ from the banks of the Euphrates to the Medi- 
^^ terranean, left not an inch unconquered :•— 
*^ iEgypt and Ethiopia alfo, fweeping all before 
** him like a torrent, to the very exttemity of 
^^ Africa ; croffing' the Mediterranean, routing the 
^* Pbamciam from their fettlements in Spain^ and 
** forcing the natives to follow him to Thrace and 
'^ to Pcntus. 

fuifle, atque sdTerfus Lihyam and Ihriam bellum geflifle, iiiqoe 
fiiba^is, partem eorum ad dextrum Ponri latus in coloniam mif- 
fifle. (Abydenus apud Eufebkun, Praep. Er. c. 9.} 

Imo&fifntliterDionjfitis in Periegefi fcribit«-— Qos Prifci- 
anuft ita reddidit. 

Qnem juxta terras habitant Orientis Iberes ; 
Pyrrennes quondam celfo qui monte reli^o. 
Hue advenerunty Hircanis bella ierentes, 

" Thefe 




ed by the pnphet Ezckid, -by^Smriio, «d^tlte 
Jcrwft of Ibiedo :--^tbrf(rafeall6i%itiidi#i 
-iwither could copy the ftory'iMm -die nA^d-^ 
Nor is ancient hiftory wi^Ht apaiallel :6i m 
*^ cxpediticm full as exteidlve and as 'Mpid. 'Tile 
^ conquefts of ytftiia extended irom ^^lina to 
Ganl, and to the extrettHty of Italy.-'-^^TIlb 
King run from Weft to E^ft, andfMm^'laft to 
Weft, \rithout being once ftopptd^in-fais ca- 
^^ reer.-M>i the other hand, Nib«R:h«fcSftii^iiSl 
^^ 'a recent example before faim: flie sSlbiopifln 
^^ IJauraca, or Hiearccm, c»mqii€ired -^^ypt ^alSd 
' ^ f anited in ^sdn. 

'*^ ^oa Prince ambitious of glofy^adidl'gMedy 
*^ <^ cofRcfueft, thiflT itas '9a example t^io mfli in 
^^ memory, too favourable, not to fpur hiiO^^teto 
' ^ imitation ; but Nabududonofof^vaus tod by the 
- ^^ ftroHg'eft' of all paflions, ^uliai ^f^««M^,'^«in>Qr- 
1^ 4vic the Pbaeniciansr to th^ utmpft 'tJ^mndes, 
^^ They^had ^lli^d with t|ie Afifttics'-^^ditfft iHm } 
*«• puniih them ' for this, be '' htf&gfA 'Tyre, 
^* •where, *rfter tbirreen yesM^fpencIn ftirn^ing 
^' and the bfs of his troops, the inb^abiiaiit^bf Ae 
** city found means to efeape/andto 'Wihne by 
^^ Tea with all their riches, leaving faimoaly the 
*^ bare walls. — ^This called lap new^iil&iiis^df re- 
*^ venge ; and the only expedient Idft ^was -ate^ ptir- 
^^ fue (hem in Africa and Spaii^ ; by this he was 
"fUrc of enriching his afmy, an4 pf " ftliaing a 
^^ troublefpme and powerful people. 

^'lliis happened about 300 years 4)b|bre the 
^^ firft Punic war : the Carthaginians -baid ^en 
*^ but a precarious exiftence ; and it is ^evident 
^ they owed their fuccefs to tlie di£afters'of their 

^* neigh- 

Ancient ^l^/hKy^^'hUand. i.3 13 

**)j|fil^hoiirs9 pacdailatty.of T^ >tbttir f metro- 
^^tpoltty liy the^effoittoof tfahimightyPrince/' 

Thus /M. ^ Qebeliitj-^^who .in va vevy ^naflet^ly 
sn&ner^ iia8r>fiiyy proTcd that ^NabwchodonctfiDr 
purfucd the Fhasnidans, ftq> by iijep, firxMa Tvre 
4or Sicily, fidaita, •a]id.taBpaiiu~*niu8 ])rognemTe 
•motion of the ^ Conqueror imufl: iiavc readied the 
.cacBiof Jb^in^Spain, isndlhave caufed new^akrmfr; 
^^'^lie therefore 4ook:diefiopportuiiiiy«f'%iftg to 
•ibe-BritanmaUefi, where:^ .find by tbednfir re- 
-cords, diat thoprophefier of -liaiah ami of 'Jere- 
;iiiiah^were' .wondmoUy fulfilled* 

Fran r the : time \ of Nebuchadnezzar^^ roudag 
•tfaei Tynans, Africans, ^/Egyptians, Arabs, Bb« 
. rites, JkCfdKle people a&mbled and compoftd a 
\htgc . body .of .di&rent nations, .poffisffing >the 
-iisoids^and &a coails ^f •tfae> Mediterranean, ^efta- 
•bliflnng a nisxed xeUgionndicrerer they^<K^cnt, in 
^JGyprus, ^in Crete, in: Greece, i&c. ^&c,.«and at 
•lei4;tbrbecame>a ^Birann.of pbates, till driven^ out 
-by .'Bompey ; poffi^faig (the Mediterranean mear 
<^o years* Hie .Gredan Oracles owe their origin 
:|o: thofe= banditti, whoimade religion a-maflc' for 

' Tliius .we: daily difconrer, that the hiftoriear£ids 
rtdated in the lacred fcriptttres,'and thepuaifh- 
rnients pronounced againft the lieathens, by the 
-mouths of the holy .prophets,' are confirmed by 

the joint concurrence of a multitude of -heathen 
.authors, who- never- had an opportunity of read- 
^ing thofe • books,': and cannot be fuppofed to be 

prejudiced in their favour, llie miracles therdn 

mentioned fully prove, that the perfons who 
' wrought them were commii&oned by- God : and 

the completion of the fevcral prophecies and pre- 


314 ^ Vindieation if the 

4i&ions therein contained, ' clearly evinoe their di- 
vinity: fince no created being can^ ^tbout the 
affiftance of Almighty God^ pry into the womb of 
futurity, and foretel events feveral ages before 
they came to pafs. 

The next that has explained this paflage of Exe- 
kiel, is Signior Anton. Vieyra, • Profeflbr of Ara- 
bic in Trinity College, Dublin. ^' Algarve Lufit 
^^ ab Arab. Gbarb. Scribitur etiam harb, warb, 
^' garb, garv, erb, ereb, europ, quorum fignifi- 
*^ cationes fuiit, nox, vefpera, occidens, plaga oc- 
^' cidentalis.'' This learned Arabic fcholar quotes 
the authority of Zein-eddin-omar^ mentioned by 
Gebelin, and then concludes, ^* Non ergo inld- 
V lexerunt notionem vocis warb^ apud Ezekiel, 
^' eh. XXX. V. 5. cum illam per mi/iellaneam turbam 
reddiderunt. Nee minus inq>ta eft Calmet in- 
terpretatio ejufdem vocis, i. e. alios popolos. 
Fallitur etiam Bochartus, qui per vocem warb 
Afiaticam Arabiam intellexit, quae jam defig- 
nata fuerat per vocem Chus, illam Arabiam pe- 
cul. vero feUcem, indicantem. Vox ig^tur warb 
<« loco citato, Arabiam utique fignificat fed mm 
Afiaticam, cujus jam meminerat propheta;— -^ 
Quam igitur nifi Hifpanam- Arabiam, feu Hif- 
pania ipfa, ad quam Nabuchodonofor pervenit, 
quamque (ut prohpetia impleretur) in ditionem 
redegit. Id vero totum confirmatur a Stn- 
« bone.'' (c) 

Thefe authors are fupported by Jofephus and 
Eufebius. TheSpanifh hiftorian Tarapha places 
them in this order. 

(c) Specimen Etvmolog. oftendens Affinic. Uog. Hifp. mm 




jtncienf Hiftory of Ireland. 3 1 5 

Atino 840 ante Chr. Pbaemces populi Afiatici, 
-a mari quod rubrum vocatur, in hoc noftrum pro- 
ficifcentes, & banc incolentes rcgionem longin- 
-quis continu6 navigationibus incubuerunt. 

Anno 798 ant. adv. Chr. ^gyptii populi, fub 
duce Tarracone, poft Phasnices (referente £ufe- 
4>io) mare per annos 35 obcinuerunt. 

An. 764 ant. Ch. Milefii populi, per annos 28 
mare obtinuerunt, unde in Hifpania imperium te- 
nuifie putantur, quum ab eifdem in partibus illis 
per hoc tempus civitates aliquse inyeniantur efle 

Ann. 571 ant. Chr. Nabuchodonofor hujus no- 
minis fecundus, magni Nabuchadonoforis filius, 
tertiufque Chaldseorum rex, Hifpanias occupat, 
tefte Jofepho, & quum annis 8 regnaffet, domi- 
nium Hifpaniarum, ad Carthaginieniium populos 
traniivit, tefte Eufebio. Cd) 

Laftly, The Authors of the Univerfal Hiftory* 
Befides the Tyrians, Egyptians, and Pharnicians, 
^fay they) who obtained rooting and dominion in 
Spain, Eufebius mentions feveral other nations 
who did the fame, before the coming of the Car- 
«thaginians ; fuch as the Egyptians a fecond time ; 
, — ^the Mileftans ; next the Carians ; the Lefl>ian8 
^nd Phocians ; and laft Nakfichadonofor^ who aban- 
doned it to the Carthaginians, though it is likely, 
that, as the Spanifh writers affirm, a great part of 
that vaft hoft which he brought with him fettled 
there, and built cities and cajttes^ which they called 
by their own or fame Chaldee names ^ by which they 
may bejiill traced up to the original, (e) 

(d) Fran. Tarapha Barcipnen. De Origine ac Rebus gcftis 
Regum Hifpanise, 155). 
<c) .Un. Hit JOaaV. Vol 18. P. 5 1 a. 


3r6 AVhtiUaAmf Af 

This NebochaiM&r of the Hdnevs, die Qmiarx, 
«nd iZtfi^om of tbe Perfians, tbc Bsi^laq^ of die 
ArabSy vA the Nelwebedgmfor oiibc Gredtf, ac- 
cording to. all Oriental Authors, was a Geanal of 
Lohoraib's army and Governor of Babylon. On- 
-datz had frequent battles with the Sqrthians of 
Touran: Lohoraib had been murdered by cbe 
Scythian King, as we have related, andihewn the 
Uttory coinciding tbcre^vith in ibc Irifli biftory ; 
and hereunto we ihall add another proof, in the 
collation between the Perfian and Iriih .acco^nu- 

Lohoraib, (or Lohor-afl),) was a cruel Prince^ 
fvf% Mffcond, and on that account was. ^dfh diffi- 
. culty acknowledged to be King. His cnudty at 
, length indnced bis ion Gu/biajh^ or Kifliufy, that 
<is, bor/e^earedf (by the Greeks call^ T»(i;«ic.aiid 
'Hyi)a4>cs) to attempt to murder him. Others Uj 
it was ambition prompted him to this r^ enter- 
. prize. However, his attempts having be^ fruit- 
iefs, Gttibtafp fled to TurqudUn, or Touran, 
•that is, to the Scythians, where ^be^was. well re- 
ceived by the Scythian . King, whofe daughter be- 
ting enamoured with his perfon, w:as given. to him 
: in marriage, on condition that . he ^uld make 
war on his father Lohoraib. 

This coming to th^ ears of Lohoraib, he imme- 
. diately fent the Royal Tage or Crown of Pieriia to 
Qnihtaib, and retiring to Balkh, refigned. the So- 
vereignty, into his hands. He. was not Jong re- 
tired in. Balkh, before Arjajb^ .ne|^ew oifarfiiAj 
King . .of the Oriental Scythians, .befieged the 
town, took it,, and put. Lohoraib to 4eath. 

This ftory is told in a very different manner by 
another Arabian Author, named Khondemir ; he 
fays, that Loboxa/b . Always (hewed a.greater. Iotc 


Anti^nt Hifttfry cf Irefnnd. 51 y 

M Bis nephew tHair for his* naturaF children^ 
i^cK mdfuccd Gufhtafp to retire to the GaEEto, 
whofe King was Caifar. He continued to live in- 
cognito at the Court of this Prince, till one day 
there was a ^c^t annual afTembly, at which Gufli- 
taflb was-pretent. It was the cuftom for the Prin. 
cefles to choofe a hufband at pleafure out of this 
aflembly (f ) ; the mark of her choice was by pre- 
fenting an orange, and Guihtalb was the happy 
man. The father was much furprized, that flic 
fliould fbew this favour to a flranger ; but as it 
had been a long efhiblimed cuftom, he gave his 
confent, and made a law to abolifii the annual af- 
fembly. The Prince baniihed them from his fight 
for a confiderable time ; at length, confented to 
fie himj provided he would undertake to rid the 
country of two monfters that had ravaged moft 
part or tfie flate. — ^Having accomplifhed this, he 
was admitted io favour. Gufhtafo took this op- 
portunity to prevail on the Grsecian to fefufe pay- 
ment of the annual tribute to Lohorafb (g). The 
Periian King forthwith conceived that fuch a dar- 
ing proceeding could only be propofed by his fon 
GiilHtafb ; and having been confirmed in it by his 

ny TW l^air rf TaHtcn, in IrHh Hiftoty, was an Annua! 
h&tAAf^ wAene marfiagfes were contraded. Keating, p. 220. 
See the kifb cereoieay of the Gulden Apple or Ball, ki the 
Cmcki/lm. Ch. X. 

(^ This paiTage (hews the miftake of Khondeoiif, or the 
trlmnttc^ tyHerbetot ; for it was Touran or Scythia on the 
Oikiis wai tributary to Iran or Perfla and not Greece.— It is to 
heobfervcd, dnt, after the conqneft of Touran by Kai-kofra» 
tboagh the people were left to live under their own laws and 
their own princes^ yet they were obliged to own the fuperiority 
of the monarchs of rran, and to pay them a confiderable tri* 
bute. Un. Hift. V. $. p. 379, 8vo. 


3i8 A Vindicathn (f the 

ambafladors, he immediately prefented the crowcr 
of Periia to him, and leated him in the royal 

Mircond fays the daughter of the Scythian King 
married to Guflitafp was named Catabun ; and, 
inftead of an orange ufed at the eledion of a huf- 
band, he makes it a golden apple^ ftudded with 
jewels. (See conclufion of this chapter.) 

Gujbiafp being feated in the throne of Perfia, 
and knowfng the great (Irength of the Touranians 
or Scythians, built a wall 140 parafangs long (24a 
leagues) to fcparatc Iran* from Touran^ i. e. Per- 
fia from Scythia* In this Prince's reign appeared 
Zerdud 2d, (Zoroafler) the legiflator oi the Gue- 
bres or Firc-worffiippcrs. Guflitafp frequently 
retired to a mountain to read the book Zendj or 
the Bible of the Fire-worfliippers, that Zerdufl liad 
prefented to him. Notwithftanding this wall, Ar* 
giafb King of Scythia found means to plunder Kho- 
rafan, to take Balkh, where Lohoralb was killed, 
and to drive Guflitafp to the moimtains of Par- 
thia, where he relied in inacceflible pafies, 

Khondemir accounts for this ftep of the Scy-. 
thians in this manner : Guflitafp fufiered himfdf 
to be mifled by Zarduft ; and not fatisfied with 
the eflablifliment of Magifm in Iraa or Perfia> he 
prevailed on Guflitafp, not only to reFufe the tri- 
bute or fubfidies he had been accuftomed to fur- 
nifli Arjafp, but to write to him,, to endeavour to 
prevail on him to adopt this new religion ; which 
provoked Arjafp to march into Iran* — At length 
Asfendiarj fon of Guflitafp, drove him back to 
Scythia, and obliged the Scythians to conftruft 
fire-tQwers, and adopt the religion of Zarduft. 


Ancient Hiftorj of Ireland. 319 

IjitSH HisToiiY ccrrefptmding with the preceding 

- Pbmian History.. 

LAOGHAIRE, or Laohare Lorc^ was Son of 
Ugan mor ; he taid claim to the government and 
fixed himfelf in the throne of Ireland ; he was a 
defcendant from Hetemon. His mother was a 
Frangej i. c. Farganah(h), her name was Cai/ar 
Cruthacby a daughter of the King of the Frange. 
Lore fignifies cruel ; — ^he was perfidioufty flain by 
his brother Cobhtaig Caolmbreag^ at Didion Riogh^ 
near the banks of the Barro, who alfo attempted 
to murder his grandfon Maoin^ called Labhar^ 
Lringfeach^ or the Bi>ok — Horje-eared Prince : but 
his friends conveyed him to the'Frangs, fome fay 
xxyArmenia^ where he was kindlv received by the 
IQng of the Frangs, (i. e. Scythians). Laohare 
Lore being murthered, his brotheif Cobhthac Ca- 
oibreag fet the crown upon hi^ own head : but 
vengeance ibon overtook hirti^ for he was at 
length fet upon and flain by M^ac^in. 

Maoiftj or Labbar^Loingfeach^ fucceeded him ; 
he was called^ Labbar^ or the Book, becaufe a 

¥ : -T » 

(h) My copy of Keating has PrangCy which is certainly a cor- 
mpcion of FarganaAy the name of the oountrtiss beyond the 
OiuSy (viz. Touran or Southern Scythia)thc metropolis of which 
bears the fame name. It is fometimes called Ami^fuan and 
Afidugian (the Didion or Dighion Riogh of our Iri(n) though 
properly fpeaking it i^ one of its dependencies, as well as Coba 
and Nefla. lyHerbelot.-^— The Englifh Tranflator of Keating 
will have this to be France or ^rmMf«<«-Take your choice. 
Reader. ■ Sec Englifli Keating, P9I. p. 162. 


5S0 • JtVhi3SM&m,9fii1»^ 

certain Draoi, Dru^ (i. c. Zarduft) prdented him 
with a booky and a&ed. Can Loingjeacb (labbar^ 
i. e.) read? it was replied^ He can; then, fays 
the Z9hio% ke ftftll becaUbdI:tf^*r^£«fi9gy^ii(i)u^ 
He was called LaingJeaiJL^ diat is,. Httrfe^eMTy be- 
caule his ears were remarkably long. This Draoi 
jdanted-^a^wiUow-ttee^ whiehheiiiraAerwards out 
down was made, into a Haif:! for me King.'s Mufiw^ 
da% but the inffamment. would found' but oqc) 
tune^ and thatt was^ D(k chbms\ Cbaf^uU an Labkra^ 
Loin^Boci^ u e. LaUira Lpingfeadi has the twa. 
€^^ o( a-herfe. (k) 

This Prince was a kai^ned^and valiant mai^ aiid( 
a.(rquired fuchv reputation when^he commanded tbc 
army oftbcFizai^'Sy that Moria^ tbe.dwgbtes of 
Sfioriat^the King of Fear-more), charmed witbi this- 
relation^ of hia esploits^^ conc^ed 9^ wqnderfulc a^ 
f^Qiotk far him^ and to-^fotiner her galEon eiix- 
ployed'* an eminf nt Mufician, eoie. Craftim^ ta 
ry 2u letter tp Fwangfy vi^k* a mbkp^jmt- ofji 
axKhto delit^r thm; to him asia.t«ftimany of'hcr 
1oy4. : Latxhra^ was refiajv^di x^ vipdleate and pcoK 
feeute his. righ& to. the Ctown, c^ Irjum^ rL,e, Ii:aiia, 
Perfia) and whearhe had cpnwuwkat^ hisidefiga 
tp fMne d£ the prmc%aL miAiftei^ oi^ th^ F^aog 
Coi^t* thair were his friends,,^ az^dx^nfrc^f^ fo^ hi^- 
intereft, they took an opportunity to prefs the 

(i) Thore w'luv it fannv na grtat Ifaming aiOQng thfi For-, 
fnimhefbro the. time of ZM-duftifr. (2f9m»!(W^&) wbo) is< fiipgf^[«<h 
td havet flouriiked undt r GuflnaTf , i. d Dauriu^ Ffyfiafpis. (Uxu 

(kp 2eMuft i» faki ce htve plantei a^jQUOg CjrfMrQis, wLtckta. 
ftmn9CQ}ou» msniiei* g^ew up in erne, night Ci9 W' at great troc: 
ihif was t« convince Guflimfpt, or Uia<iA^«ii:; tbacbci was a nn^.- 
prophet ftxjin God. (Hy<le» BoL RerC Vet;).. . 


Ancient JJiJlory rf Ireland. 321 

King to affift him in the recovery of hi$ right. — 
The King of Frange, convinced of the juftice of 
his caufe, complied with their requeft, and gave 
orders for a body of troops to be got ready, (and a 
number of ihips ; with thefe they fet fail and land- 
ed in Loch-Gorman, i. e. the harbour of Wex- 
ford). Labhra foon furprized the ufurper, and 
put him to the fword ; on which he was proclaim- 
ed King of Irinn, (i. e. Iran, Perfia) If a reafon 
fliould be alked, why this Prince chofe to fly to the 
Frange^ and* feek refuge there, rather than to any 
other country ? we are to confider, that he was 
nearly related by blood to the King of Frange, an4 
there was always a ftri£t alliance between Irinn 
2xA Frange* (y) Keating, fol. ed. p. 161, &c. 


One circumftance (fays Mr. Richardfon) which 
rouft have greatly contributed to the prefervation 
of written and traditional hiftory in the Eaft, is 
pride of blood ; upon which their great men value 

(1) Afrafiab or Farfkb, 9th King of die Piilidadian Djrnafty^ 
was fo flamed becaufe he was ab (acher, Farfi of the Pernans.-^ 
Touete les iamiilet Turqnes qui ont fkk du bruit dans le mondo; 
pretendent defcendre de ce mnd Conquerani. Selgiuk fonda- 
tcttr de la Monardiie des SeTgiucides voulait que I'on criit qu'il 
etoit le 34ixie de fes defcendants, en ligne droite & mafculine : 
& les Monatques Ottomans qui pr^tendant toucher aux Selgiu- 
cidcs par la iamilles d'Ogouz Khan, prennent volontiers dam 
leun titres celui d' Afrafiab, tant pour marquer leur noblefle ; 
que pour faire eftimer leur valeur, particuiierrement deputi 
qu'ili ont dans les dernier temps comportd des grauds avantages 
lur les Perfans. 

X them- 

3^2 A Ttndktttim of tbe 

themfelvcs far beyond the proudeft Eutopon 
grandee. Genealogy has confequendy been cul- 
tivated with fingular attention. Seljuck^ the 

founder of the Selju|dan dynafty of the Turb, 
claimed kindred to Afiafiab, an ancient King of 
Scythia or Touran ; — ^and one of the firft cares of 
Tamerlane was, to afcertain his relationfhip to 
Jengiz Khan ; — ^farther it was unneceflary to go. 

I need not acquaint my Readers, howmudi 
tbe pride of blood prevails in Ireland : In the an- 
cient records befcCre us, we find the Seanachies 
have worked up the ftories of Heber and Here- 
mon with the early Dynaftics of the Perfians. 
They were in fad once one people ; but the dif- 
tindion of feparate nations was certainly made 
before their anceftors left the Eaft ; and before 
their Genealogifts venture to trace the anceftors 
of their Kings, they will do right in examining 
minutely the early hiftories of the Iranians and 
Touranians. (m) . 

We have fliewn the origin of the great divifion 
between the Scythians and Perfians : that the for- 
mer were pretty much fubdued before the time of 
Raham or Nebuchadonofor : yet they had fbrength 
fufficient, even then, to drive Gufhtafb to Arme- 
nia, and to pofTefs bis kingdom ; — is it then to be 
wondered at, if Raham, in this fcene of confu- 

(m) The Liber Lecana% fol. 1 3, fay$, that fbme of Ac Tii- 
atba Padann came to Ireland in the laft year of Cambooth, 
i. c. Cambyfo fon of Cir, i. e. Cyrus, and that fome of the 
Milefians came in the 5th year of Alexander's reign, that Alex- 
ander that fought Daire-mor, i. e. Darius Magnus; and that 
thefe Milefians brought with them an account of the divifion of 
Alexander's army among his Generals. Others came to Ireland 
in that very year wherein Alexander defeated Daire mor. 


Aneitnt Hijiory of Ireland. 323 

fion, fliould fet himfelf up as King of Babylon^ 
and do his utmoftto drive fuch powerful eneimes 
as the Scythians of Oman and Touran before him^ 
together with the Oanaanites. It appears that he 
did, and at length blocked them up in Tyre, from 
whence they efcaped to Spain, and from thence 
to Ireland, Brittain, and Gaul : from Brittain and 
Gaul they were again driven to Ireland, the North 
of Scotland, and to Mann, where their defcend* 
ants flill remain, having moft wonderfully pre- 
ferved their ancient language and traditions, (n) 
The hiftory of Ireland therefore becomes of much 
confequence to the Weftern World ; and whoeyer 
will take the pains to collate the ancient Perfic 
and the ancient Irifh hiftory, will find many more 
ftriking coincidences, than I have enumerated, 
provided they have fome knowledge of both Ian* 
guages. We know very little of Aiiatic hiftory as 
yet, particularly of the ancient Perfians : the dif- 
coveries we may expefb from the Afiatic Society 
of Literature, will undoubtedly one day throw 
greater lights on the hiftory I am now vindicat- 
ing ; and I flatter myfelf the Reader has feen fuf- 
fiaent to wipe oflf the afperfion, of its having been 
the work of ignorant monks of the 6th, 7th, or 

(n) Cdrpri mufc do rafidhe an Erinn a tiribh Bretain, ar in 
taaro badh mornean nan' Gaoidel for Breathnac ro randfat AN 
bain etorra iferanda, 7. ro Breach durais (die caruit) 7 ni ba 
Lughae no trebhdais Gaoidhit fria muir an oir. i . muir an deas 
1. Coire-brecain, idir Eirenn 7 Albain. i. e. 

Cairbri mufc voyaged from Eirinn (Ireland) to Brittain ; for 
when the Irilh were more powerfui 4an the BritronSy they di- 
vided the lands of Albania between them, and they dwelt ia 
every habitation 1 there is no account at what time chey tra- 
verfed the Coire breacain, that is, the Eaflem Sea that lies be- 
tween Ireland and Albania. (Cormac M*Cuilan. Glofs.) 

X a 8th 

324 ^ Vindication of iBe 

8th centuries: If thofe monks had underftood 
Greek and Latin, which I much doubt, the mate* 
rials were not to be found in any authors in thofe 
languages : and the Arabian and Perfian Authon 
who treat on this fubjeft, have been only in part 
tranflated within this century :— In fliort, we knew 
little of them before the learned and laborious 
D'Herbelot, who publiflied his BibUotheque Qri- 
entale in 1 776. 


Andtnt Hi/lory rf Ireland* 325 




FrMS Spain tf Ireland^ drawn from Sponifli Authon, 

F^anc. 7araph^ Bariconen. de oripne at reinu gejiu 
Regum nijpania A'A^r.— --^wy^i^, ^S53* 

P. II. Hyberniam item Infulam non prbcul' ab 
Angiia, ab Ibro duce Hifpaho nominatam feruni^ 

3ai primus magna hominum congrcgata multitu- 
ine, earn occupavit. Sive (ut alii fcntiunt) ab 
Ibcro fluminc Hifpaniae celebcrrimo. 

Pedro Mexia. Hijl. Imp. 

SURE itis that in the days of Gurgwintiusor Gur- 
guntius King of Britain, the Chief Governor of 
Bizyon, with four brethren Spaniards, two of which 
are faid to be Hiberus and Hermion, not the ions 
(as (ome think) of Gathelus, but fome other per- 
naps, that were defcended of him ; who under* 
(landing that divers of the Weftern Ifles were emp- 
ty of irinabitants, aflembling a great company of 
men, women, and children, embarked with the 
fame in Sixty great Veflels, and proceeded to Ire- 


$26 A Vindication of tie 

Thus it fecmeth certainly, that the Spaniards of 
the north parts of Spain, inhabiting about the 
countries of Bifcaie and Galiicia, came and peo- 
pled Ireland, as both their own hiftories and die 
Britifli do wholly agree — ^but from whence they 
came firft, to inhabit Spain, cannot by me be 

N. B. This pafiage is tranilated in Tbm^s 
Siore-boujcj printed in London^ 1619, and dedi- 
cated to Sir PhiU Herbert, Knt. of the Bath. 

J^adre Pineda en monarq. Ecelef. L. 27. C. xa. 

Hibernia, one of the Iflands adjacent to England 
and ^bout half |rs fi^^, i^ fo called^ according to 
fome, from the winter feafon, becaufe of the length 
of the winter there ; Others fay from Hyberus a 
Spaniard, who took polfeOion of and peopled ir 
with a great number of Spaniards— others lay, 
that the inhabitants of the banks' of Hybero, now 
called the Ebro, were thofe who peopled it. 

Tefora de la lingua Cajiellana par D. Set. de Cobat' 

ruvtas. Madrid^ 1611,. 

The four firft books of the general chronicle of 
Spain, which were abridged by Florian de Carapo 
in Zamora 15, 44 fol. fay, that ihe King Brigo of 
Spain, fent inhabitants to a great Ifland which h at 
prefent named Ireland, and formerly called Hiber- 
nia, in the neighbourhood of England, in order 
that they might take pofleflion of it and peopled it, . 
and that thofe who went thither, were called Bri- 
gantcs. — I remember, lays de Campo, that in a 
norm at fea, having taken fhelter in the harbour of 


Ancient Hlftory of Ireland. 327 

Catafurde, (a) the inhabitants of that place, and 
many others of the country round, {hewed great 
fatisnidion at feeing us (Spaniards) and took us 
by the hand in token of friendfhip, telling u^, that 
they were of Spanifh extraction. 

There were other ancient people of England, 
called Brigantes, who it is aflured were originally 
Spaniards ; they inhabited the diflridt in which now 
ftands the City of Briftol, and the town of Galez 
fronting Ireland, an Ifland very near its c6aih to 
the weft« (b) It is indifputed that from thcfe Bri- 
gantes, after they had multiplied confiderably in 
diat country, they pafled over to Ireland, and this 
agrees with the records of Ireland, who, as we 
have faid, publicly avow themfelves to have been 
of Spanifhr defcent. 

Hijioire generale d^Efpagne^ par Jean de Jerreraf, 


D'autres Efpa^nols paflerent en Sicile & y fixe« 
rent leur demeure, (^elques f9avan8 pr^tendent 
que ce pais fut anciennement appelle Sicanie du 
nom de ieur chef. II y eut d'autres Efpagnoles qui 
allerent en Irelande. 

Hijioire de Portugal^ 8 torn. 1 amo. Tom. i . p. 6. 

Lorfque 4eux peuples fortent de la meme fource^ 
quoique dans la fuite des terns il arrive parmi eux 

(a) Waterford. Keating mentin];is this Author, in the hiilory of 
Mileiias : the Englifh tranflator has omitted the paflkge. 

(b) The words of the Span ifh author are, la ciudad de Briftol 
J la villa de Galez frontero de Irlando, ilia mny cercan^i de fut 
riberas af occidente. 

The anchor certainly meant Tierra de Galez, inftead of Villa^ 
de Galez ; the fenfe would then be, in which ftands the City of 
Biiftdiy and die Country of Wales, oppoflte to Ireland, 


3 29 A Vindicaticn of tic 

de$ chs^gcmeQS coofiderabIe» dans kurs . bibits, 
leurs mopurs, leurs ulages^ leur lan^^ge, dvu 
feurs figures meiiie» il$ confervent toujours %ud* 
que trace dc leur ancienne reflemblancc. 

Telle eft celle qu'on trouve entre les Iberians k 
les Hihermens, toux deux^ fortis des ancieju Ibe- 

The Iberians of Afia were originaUy Scythiana, 
divided at length into Armenians a,nd Periians : 
tbey are fuppofed by fome Authors to have been 
the Iberians of Spain, tranfported there by Nabu« 
CQ^fofpr, or Nebuchadonofor, as we learn firoffl 
a fragment of Megafthenes preferved in Eufebius. 
Strabo has the fame remark, but a^ Voifiiuaaid 
]^cba.rt obferve, Hifpanos ede colonos Iberumin 
Afia. Voffius (C. 33. de Idolol.) takes the proper 
method to prove they were one people : The Afi- 
dtkk Ibe)^ians, iays he, worflupped the Heavens, 
the Sun and the Moon : i(y, did the Iberians of 

The Afiatic Ibefiaaspaid a particular veaeratioii 
to .Mars, who is faid to have been a Thraciu, an 
anpieftt Qolony tA Scythians : & Iberia habuit ho- 
mines, ut Strabo, narrat, bellicofos & Scythaninv 
more ac Sarmatarum viventes. 

They were in truth all Scythians, and all wor- 
ihippea the Deity Mars under the fame name, viz. 
Ai^/M, a name well kno^n for the Ood of War \si 

the Irilh MSS. (c) See Chap. X. Mythology. 


(g) It is alfo worthy pf reiuark, that the country between the 
ifcuxjne apd Cafbian Sea, is name4 Iberia aJnd Albania, that is dw 
Eaft and Weft Country, viz. nn;;and JN^^K thcfc Seas lying due 
^aft-aMd Weft of each ocher» in the fame manner a$ the two If- 
lands of Britain and Ireiand, which alfo received the names of 
Iberia and Albania on the fame account : the names are Irifti and 
Phaenician as we have fhewn in the Incrodudtion. 


Ancisnt Hi/i$ry of Ireland. 329 

Scyths^ per acixucen jurarent, ut Lucianus in 
Toxart refert y non um eo videtur fpe&afle, quod 
acinacen crederunt Deum ; fed quia Martu efle 
fymbolum putareat. Quare, fi Hifpani Iberum 
Alias fuerint propago, hinc fortaiTe Martis cultum 
acceperint. Martem quidem in Acd^ Tarracon* 
neniis Hifpanise oppido, divinos adeptum honores, 
teftis nobis Macrobius, L* i. Saturn. C. 19. Ac- 
citani, inquit, Hifpania gens, fimulacrum Martit 
radiis ornatum maxima religione celebrant, Neton^ 
vocantes. (Vofs. de Idol, ibid.) Neton is here 
made the accufative cafe of our Neith, Ibmctimes 
written Neidb. 

Varro and Pliny place the Iberians and Perfians, 
as Colonies in Spain, but neither have deferibed the 
route of their migration : the Irifli hiflory details 
the particulars, ^^ee Ch. 4.-*it produces the fame 
Authority as Voifius brings, with refpe£t to the 
name of a deity \ and the Accitani were not of 
T'arracoa, but of Turdutani the Seat of the Phas-i 
nicians in Spain. Acci, Julia Gemella, ubi in 
antiqua infcriptione extat integrum nomcn, Colo* 
nia Julia Gemella Accitana, quae hodie eft Gua- 
dix. (d) 

Another (Irong proof of the Spanilh Colony, I 
draw from the name of a very extenfive tribe fet- 
tled in the South of Ireland, called Clanna Baoif*^ 
gaine or Blfgaine^ that is; the Bifcaynan Tribe. 
They make a great fig'Ure in the Annals of Ireland, 
in the third and fourth Centuries . There was a: 
territory n&mcd Corca-Baifcinn after this tribe: 
7^e celebrated Fionn Mac Cumal, or Mac Cuil, is 

(d) Mftjtinnus. Topogr.» Hifpauiae. 

/ called 


330 A Vindication of the 

called Fionn ua Baifcne^ a charader drawn from 
the Perfian Rojium and Asfendyar of which in its 
proper place. 

In the Annals of Inisfallen belonging to Trinity 
College, is the following Note, ^^ Clanna Baifgine 
*' i. e. Filii Bafgneorum vocabantur, Phenicise 
^^ cenfendi funt origincs : nee etiam a primogeni* 
tore quodam Baoifgne nominato ita did:os exif- 
timo, fed potius a Vafconibiu Cantabrix (ex qua 
regione Milefium noftrum Hifpanum in hanc 
infulam cum fuis antiquitus tranfmigrafTe tra- 
*^ ditum eft) nominatas & progenitas fuifle noftras 
** ejufmodi Cohortes Bafgineas." 

There was another ancient Tribe in Ireland, 
called Hut Tarji^ that is, the Clan of Tarfi^ which 
muft be a Corruption of Tarfis, which wc have 
fcewn from good Authority was Tarteffus. Thcfc 
are iaid not to have been Gadelians, but the Abo* 
rigines of Spain, who accompanied them to Ireland. 
Tarfis is faid to be the Grandfon of Japhet, whom 
others named Tubal. See Note (a) at the begin- 
ning of this Chapter- 
Finally, from Roman Hiftory we draw another 
f)roofof aSpanifli Colony coming to the Britannic 
Acs in the time of Julius Casfar : it was probably 
the laft expedition from Spain to Ireland. Dion 
Caflius (e) informs us, *' that when Caefar came 
" Prastor into Hifpania vetcrior, he made war on 
" the Heniiini a people of Lufitania, and in a fliort 
" time he defeated arid conquered them. ITie 
" deftruftion of this people fo terrified their neigh- 
*< hours, that they determined to leave their habi- 

(c) Edit. Stephand. L. 37. p. 5, &c. 

** tations 


Ancient Hlftory of Ireland. 331 

" tations and cities, and retire with their families 

l>eyond the Douro. 

But Caefar having notice of this refolution, 
** prevented their putting it into execution, for he 
" fell on them before they fet out on their jour- 
" ney, defeated them and took their cities. At 
" the fame time news came that the Hermini had 
** revolted, and had laid an ambuft:ade with an 
" intent to cut him oflf in his return. Hereupon 
" Caefar took a different route, attacked the Her* 
** nuni again, defeated them and drove thofe that 
** fled into an Ifland, not far diftant from the 
^' Continent, and then manning fome barks, he 
*' attacked them in the Ifland, but, the Hermini 
" repulfed the Romans with great flaughter, and 
** fprced them to retreat back to the main land. 
" This obliged Caefar to fend to Cadiz for larger 
" Ships, with which he pafled over to the Ifland, 
" deftroyed fome of the Hermini^ and drove the 
" reft out of the Ifland. 

" The Ifland into which the Hermini fled, being 
" reduced, Caefar ftdod out to Sea with his fleet, 
" cruifed along the Coafts of the Bracari and G^/- 
" licia^ and doubling Cape Finijlerre^ failed along 
" tlic northern Coalls of Gallicia (in the bay of 
** Bifcay,) and made a defcent on the City of Co- 
" runna, the inhabitants whereof, terrified at the 
'^ fight of the Roman Fleet, immediately furren- 
" dered to him.*' 

From this minute detail of Caefar's tranfaftions 
in purfuing the Hermini, it is evident they did not 
attempt to land again on the Spanifli Coaft, or fto 
turn into the Bay of Bifcay, where Caefar's fleet 
would have again purfucd them. The Wind muft 


352 A VimEaaim tf the 

hare been Soudierlf , to bare cairicd Casbr dev 
of N^riwn or Cape Finifter, the diroS Toate to Ire- 
laniL We hear nothing of the Hermim in GanI 
or in Britain^ but we find the Qanna Heremom in 
Ireland. Qm there be a doubt of thefe people 
having been the Hcrmini of Spain, efpeciallj if we 
confidcr that Cadar followed diem at Sea, Ixdf the 
way from ^nln to Ireland* This tribe I think was 
originally of Armenia^ defccnded from Hermam 
Son of Gelam, who defcended the Euphrates, and 
£3rmed the Phoenicians of the Red Sea. (f ) 

Extract of a Letter from J. Talbot Dlllok, Esq^ 

to the Author. 

^^ Aereeable to your defire of communicating 
any information that might occur in the courfc of 
my reading, relating to the peopling of Ireland 
from Spain, I herewith fend you an extrad from a 
writer ex profeflb on the Subjed, Don Franciico 
Huerta, member of the Spanifh Academy, and 
Author of a Treatife entitled Efpana Priwitvoa^ 
which I have btely received from Madrid ; Tliis 
work is in two vols, iimo (g) } and as it may not 
be eafify obtained in Ireland, I am to requeft your 
acceptance of it. 

The Author informs us, that after twelve years 
clofe application to his fubjed, he luckily difcover- 
ed feveral ancient Manufcripts, amongft othersy 
the valuable Chronicle of Petrus CadTarauguftus, 
which he promifes to publifli, and to give full infor* 

{?) Sec my Trifh Gnrniirwr firft Edit. Prcfecc p. xliin. for 
% more panicuUr account of the Hermini. 
(g) Printed at Madrid, 1 738. 


Ancient Hl/hry ef Ireland. 333 

mation how it fell into his hands, adding, it once 
belonged to the celebrated Arias Montanus." 

** In the courfe of this work he means to prove, 
that the ancient Colonies of Spain peopled England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, conquered Africa, and 
gave Kings to the Celtic nation ; polTeflfed Sicily, 
laid the foundation of Rome, and extended them- 
fclv66 univcrfally over the Wcftern Empire. 

** Thefc are the outlines of his great undertak- 
ing, in which the writer, as far as I can pretend 
to offer an opinion, proceeds with all the candour 
and coolnefs of a judiicious critick, added to the in- 
formation and temper requiiite to an antiquary. 

I fhall clofe this with a tranflation of what he of- 
fers on the Subject ; for this purpofe I have tran- 
che whole Chapter. 

CHAP. VII. P. 49. 

Tharfis fends Colonies from Spain, who people 
England, Scotland, and Ireland. 

The colonies of Tharfis increafing every day, 
they extended thcmfelves not only over the pentn- 
fula of Spain, but to the neighbouring provinces, 
amongft others to Britain and to Ireland. 

That the Spaniards peopled England appears nn- 
doubtedly from the people fettled there, , named 
Silurij of whom mention is made by Pliny, Soli- 
nus and Ptolemy ; moreover, Tacitus, fpeaking 
of them, cxprefsly fays, (in vita Agr.) that the 
ruddy complexion of the Siluri and their hair fre- 
quently braided, added to their (ituation oppofite 
to Spain, gives teftimony and convi&ion, that the- 
suicient Iberians crofled the Sea and poflcfled that 


334 ^ Vindication of the 

liland. The Hlftorian Jornandes is of the fame 
opinion, concluding Scotland to have been peo- 
pled from Gaul and Spain. '^ Calidoniam vero 
incolentibus rutilse comae, corpora magna, fed 
fluida, qui Gallis five Hifpanis, quibufque atten- 
duntur (imiles, unde conjeftavere nonnulli, quod 
ea ex his accolas cofitinuo acceperit." (Hill. 

. Of thefc Colonies of the Siluri yet remain thofe 
iilands, which by alteration the Englifh name 5a/// 
in the Virginian Ocean. 

That the Spaniards peopled England, we are 
convinced by the Brigantes of that Ifland, menti- 
oned by Tacitus, Seneca, and Ptolemy, derived 
without doubt from the Brigantes of Galicia. 

That Ire/and was peopled by Spaniards, may be 
proved from Dionyftus and Prifcian^ and by mo- 
dern writers : the natives themfelves acknowledge 
the fame, and this wc (ball fpeak of hereafter. 

Petrus of Zaragofa, writes thus on this head, in 
his Chronicle An. M. 2870. Tharfis Colonias & 
claflem mittit ad Oceanum Septentrionalem, qua: 
Albionem & Hiberniam populaverunt ; infulas mag- 
nas> & Romanis inaccejfas. This Author alfo re- 
lates the Heber in the year of the world 2919) fent 
Colonies to the Septentrional Ocean, who landed 
in Ireland ; and hence probably its name Hyber- 
nia, from their Chieftan Heber.'' 


Jncieni Hifiory of Ireland. 355 



TH E reader is now in poflfeflion of the hiilory 
of Ireland, as colleded from ancient records 
by Keating : The author of this vindication has 
made no addition to the original Keating except 
fuch paiTages he had pafled over ; as in the chapter 
of the Tuatha-Dadann, becaufe that paflage is a 
proof that the Omanite Scythians were well ac* 
quainted with, and mixed with the Tauranian or 
Tranfoxane Scythians, and called them by the 
Perdan name, viz. I'ouran, and in the chapter 
Milefius, it is evident, that they knew them by 
the Arabian name alfo, viz. Frange or Farangab* 

There are many ancient records unnoticed by 
Keating, (till worthy of being known : the hifto- 
rical events are detailed in various manners; 
names and anecdotes are interfperfed, that would 
tend CO fupport the general hiftory. If all thefe 
were colleded and tranflated by a judicious hand, 
they might throw great lights on the ancient hif- 
tories of the Eaft and of the Weft. 

In the courfe of this work, the reader will ob- 
ferve that no pofitive references have been drawn 
from Etymology ; it has only been admitted when 
accompanied with hiftorical evidences, or ancient 
authorities, or fupported by other concurrent cir- 
cumftances } in fuch cafes, the light afforded by 
Etymology, is not to be rejeded. 

The Iri(h hiftory is uniform throughout: it 
bears no affinity with that of any of the Celtic na- 
tions ; it differs from that of the Walfh or Britons, 
as much as the languages of the two people do at this 


2^6 A ViruScaiian of the 

day. It differs from that of the Goths or Teuto- 
lies in every particular. Here V9C hear nothing of 
Odin or his fon Skioldy yet Odin "is iaid by Man. 
Mallet, to have been the fupreme God of die Scy- 
thians ^a% The Diar or priefts of Odin, do in- 
deed bear fome affinity in name with the Draoi of 
Ireland and the Daru of the Perfian Gbebres : and 
Oide in the Irifti fignifies a teacher, from whence 
probably Odin derived his name : but the Diar or 
Drattar of Odin, were Lay- Lords as well as 
priefts, an order of men unknown to the Pagan 
Irifli. . 

It has been eroneoufly afferted by Lhuyd and 
others, that there is a real affinity between tne Ian* 
guages of the Irifli and Wallh, that tiky arc in 
great part radically the fame. Lhuyd has (hevm 
that many names of places in South Britain and in 
W^lcs, the meaning of v/hich is loft in the Welch 
language, can only be explained from words now 
extant in the Irifli or Erfe, and confeffes, that he 
is of opinion the Irifli did inhabit Britain before 
the Walfli ; that they were the old original 'Celts, 
and that the Cymri or Welfti, were another and 
different race of Celts, a branch of the Celtic 
Cimbri, who fucceeded the other and drove them 
northward : but this is mere conjeifturc. The in- 
genious and accurate tranflator of Mallet has 'col- 
lated fpecimens of the Pater Nofter iu alt the Cel- 
tic and Gothic dialefts ; and after itianv learned 
obfervations on thcfe dialcSs, he acknowledges, 

(a) Northern Antiq. p. 60. Mallet was mHlcd by the By- 
untioe hiftorians who have confounded the Goths, Huihu, &c. 
vkii tUc Scythians, a9 we have Hiewn m a former pnx of thu 


Anciint Hjftory of Ireland. 337 

diat he tanmot* think the Irifh and the Walfli 
equally derived ftom one common Celtic ftock;! 
at leafl not in the fame uniform manner as any 
two branches of the Gothic : Scarce any refem- 
blance appears between them, fays he, fo that ii 
the learned will have them to be flreams from one 
common fountain, it mud be allowed^ that one 
or both of them have bqen greatly polluted in their 
courfe, and received large inlets from fome other 
channel (b). The hiftory before us has fhewn, 
that they were originally drawn from one fountain 
head; this vf^z ^t point du portage j (theCafpian 
fea) the flreams from it flowed in dire&ions diame- 
trically oppofite, and did not unite till they met in 
the Weft of Europe (c). 

We have taken upon us to (ay, that our Mago-* 
gian Scythians were the original Phapnicians— rit 
will be afked, where are the remains of the fine 
arts of the Pbasnicians to be met with in this coun<^ 
try— where are the temples, the colonades, &c. ? 
— to this I anfwcr, that the Greeks confounded 
the Fhasnicians with the Cainaanites ; and that our 
Scythians were the carriers of their merchandize, 
their navigators; were acknowledged as fubjefts^ 
but never admitted a fhare in the government, or 
to the rank of Noblefle. They had the ufe of 
letters, a knowledge of aftronomy, of marine 
aftronomy in particular, and of navigation ; but 
had no knowledge of the fine arts, their religion 
forbid \U If the King of Great Briuin was to fend 

(b) Northern Antiquities. Tranflator's pre&ce, p. xli, 

(c) The Liber Lecaaus calls the defcendants of Feaius, F#iV 
me muiricuadh. Fenicians of the Northcr,i fea, (i. c. the Caf- 
pian fea). 

Y his 


538 A FimBcatm cf tBi 

his whok navy to North Atecrica, wUti ordcfi 
never to return, woald tbe fetdemcnts forriied by 
our admirak or captains, or by ihdr crews, ever 
produce an el^ant pitee «f archkedare; yet 
every private man on board had fecn St. Pauk^ 
and WbitdoH: could they form a colufiftn, or 
mould a comkc ? 

The Pfaeniciani ient a nuinerMs colony to 
Gaol I'^W here art the Tyrian or Sidonian m^ 
mnnents «f grandeur ro be found in that co^n- 
? yet the Gauk learned the terms of (late, and 
the milkary art from the Phaetiicians, and 
adopted them* Hence Bodiart has been m^d, to 
diiidc that the language of ikic Gauls had a great 
affinity virith the Tyrian, {i* e. Canaanitifli) but 
atttfaofe words, produced by Bochart, are as much 
Irifli as Canaanitifr; yet no language differed 
more in fyntax tlian the Fhaenician IriA or Berla- 
Fheni and the GanaaattM. The Diftionaries of 
the old Ljfh are ahnoft the Di£Uonalies of d>e 
Chaldce Arabic and old Perfic, but the grammar 
differs very widely* 

When the Scythians divided from tiie ^etfiaas, 
and fettled in Touran, they did not cultivate ar- 
chitecture and build magmficent temples us the 
Perfians did ; yet tfaofe Touranian Scythians were 
a lettered people, as early as their brethren of 
Perfia. The' Scythians r^ained, as long as poffi- 
ble, the Patriarchal mode of worfiiippingthe deity 
in open ^r, and of foerificing to him on altars (x 
ftone, where the chiffel had made no impreflion, 
furrounded by piHars of unwrought ftones. The 
Perfians adopted the worfhip of lire in towers, 
and^ith fword in hand obliged our Scythians their 
ancient brethren to accept of this mode of wor- 

Ancieni Hijlory of Ireland. 339 

fliip (d)« We accordingly find the fire tower in 
Ireland, and under the Perfian name of Aphrin. 
We find the names of the Perfian Priefts of the 
Ghebresy flill exifling in the Irifh language ; we 
find the Perfian hiftory, (fabulous or real) to be 
the hiflory of the ancient Irifh : can there be more 
required ? 

But our Scythians mixed with the Chaldseans 
and Canaanites, and from them formed a mixed 
religion ; we according find all the fuperftitious 
terms of both Chaldaeans and Canaanites, m divi- 
nation, &c. &c. exifling at this day in the Irifh 
language. We find alfo the Chaldaean names of 
their priefls had once been cdmmon to the Irifh t 
Thefe fhall be the fubje& of the next chapter .^^ 
Were thefe terms and names common to any of 
the Celtic nations ? No ! if they can be traced in 
the Celts or Goths, I will acknowledge mvfelf to 
have been in the wrong'^-nand the Irifh hiftory to 
be an impofitioni bat I fhall exped: fomething 
more than argument to convince me of the error : 
fome pxoduSions of words or paflages from the 

(d) Porro ex Shahriftani & Xenophdnte & (terodoto conftat 
tarn Pedal quam StytAas Sabias So) is cultores, & igmmfacrum 
fervaiTe anti ttmpora Zoroafiris, At cmn ille novos ritus inftitue^ 
ret, & cjiu fuafu piurima Pyrsea extmens Gufhtafp, ad novos 
liibs ritus aaiic6 invicaret vicinum t«> Turan feu Scythise orienta** 
lis Regem Arjafp (die Irifli Eochftdh Aincheaon) ifte pro vetere 
religiose Zelotes plan6 fuccenfuit, & propterea aicerum bello 
tavadeQ9 di^a Pyrea diruic, U folo fequavic, ad tales in Religi- 
OQC innovatioiies a Guflitafpe invirari renuens. Donee tandem 
vi£tor ev!i4eD9 Gufhtafp, ea rurfus inftanravit, ut MegjJi 
(Aphrin) Hiftoricus P«ria inGu&afpis vita multis tradit. — A£cy« 
this etiam feu Tarcaris ignis hodie (at & olim faabecur iacer r 
^x non pari rituum apparatu fervatur. Hyde^ Hift. Rel. Vet. 
Perf. p. 19. 

Y 2 hiftories 

340 A Vindication (f the 

hiftorics of the Celtic or Gothic nations^ of affinky 
with thofe in the Irilh hiftory. 

In comparing the Irifh hiftoij with the Perfian, 
the reader is at liberty to run from end to end of 
Keating for a parallel^ 1 think even to the firil 
century of the chriftian sra. He has been candid 
enough to acknowledge in his preface, that he 
arranged the chronology and the reigns of the 
kings, to the beft of his judgment, having no 

Anno Domini 27, 29, and 79, there arc fome 
curious particulars deferving notice, as they feem 
to confirm the preceding pages, and afford us an 
opportunity of explaining the mode of the bride's 
prefenting the golden ball before mentioned. 

The facred hiftory inform us, that £lam the fon 
of Shem was the father of the firft inhabitants of 
Perfia (e): they were in the Irifh phrafe the 
AiUacb Tuatba^ the ancient lords of it: But 
Japhet was to dwell in the tents of Shem, and ac- 
cordingly our Magogian Scythi^ that is, the Par- 
thians, Perfians, Touranians and Omanites, dif* 
poireflfed them of their country j dividing Perfia 

(e) Dr. Hyde thinb the Pars or Pcrfie were feared origimlly 
to the Eaftward of the Elamites, whom he places in Medit. 
Amiquiiliinuin Perfix nomen Biblicum eft Elctm qui Per&nim 
pater : unde difcimus Perfas fui& filios Elam 61ii Shem. Hinc 
apud Rivolam Per&e Armenic^ vocaatur Settunsik, Semitat. Sed 
regio Elam (quae Elymab) ubi primd fedein fizit, pn>pn6 eft 
ciienor Mediae pars, feu potius pan quae eft Media citerior & 
4>cc4dcntaIior. Nam Medi qui filii Madai filii Japhet, fiierane 
pan 16 oriental lores : & quamvis a dwerfi Parenie orii^ eadem 
tamtn vfi funt Itngua, ad quoJ fortt aUtr alterum cugerii^ vel 
faliem Cammercium inter fe hahuerint. £t his ambobus adhuc 
orienraliores erant Perlae proprie fie di^i qui Provinciam Pan 
ad orientem Mediae inhabitabant. Hift. Rei. Vet. Perf. p. 41 1. 


Ancient Hi/iory of Ireland. 341 

into Iran and TouraUj that is on this fide of the 
river : (Oxus or Ghihon) and on the other fide 
of the river. 

The original Parthians were Celtesj fay the au- 
thors of the Un. Hid. becaufe Cluverius fays they 
w^re Scythians : they were neither Celti or Scytho- 
Celti as we have proved in the foregoing pages. 
The Parthians and Badrians, fays Cluverius, were 
Scythians driven out of their own country by civil 

The modern Perfians are a mixture of many 
nations ; the Parfees are probably the only re- 
mains of the ancient Elamites. How long the 
Elamites were difpoifeiTed of their country does not 
appear in hiftory : The prophets always fpeak of 
Periia by its ancient name £lam. It is extremely 
probable, that when the Scythians quarrelled about 
the divifion of the country, that the .Elamites re- 
turned into Iran and fomented that animbfity 
which ever after fubiiftcd between the Touranians 
and Iranians, and fplit them at length intp two dif* 
tin& nations, driving the Touranians more £a(ter- 
ly into Thibet and 1 artary. 

There is a paflage in the Iriih hiftory above 
mentioned that feems to refer to this : it is placed 
at A. D. 54. 

" Cairbre Cinncait, (i. e. Carbre Cathead) 
filled the throne, he was defcended from Rionoile 
who came into Eirinn with Labhra Luingseach (f )* 
He was a Fir-Bolg or Fir D'Omhnam (g) } this 

(f) Giifliafp. 

(g) He iTiight be of the Oilean Rana» the Ifland of Rana on 
the coail of Oman, whence he is faid to be deicended from 


34^ -^ yind&anim rffbe 

prince fixed himfetf in the goTeranxAt by s moft 
barbarous a£L 

There was a confpiracy formed by the Afieacb 
Tuatba (h\ (the Plebeians) the common and raf- 
cally people of the kingdom to dethrone the reign- 
ing monarch and to murder the nobility. 

To accomptiOi their defign, which was carried 
on with the utmoft fecrecy, they refolved on a 
mod magnificent entertainment^ which was 
three years in preparing^ and was to be celebrated 
at a place called Magb Cru in Connacht (i). 
When every thing was ready, the king, princes 
and nobility were invited and fatally accepted of 
the invitation. 

There were three perfons particularly the ring- 
leaders and principally directed this confjpiracy; 
their names were Monach^ Buan and Cairbre 
Ginncait (k). The fe^ continued for the ^pace 
of nine days in great fplendor, when the * Aiteacb 
Tuaithe, led on by their 'generals,, fell fuddenly 
upon the royal guefts and put them to the fword 
without diftinftion, except three queens, who 
were all big with child and txioved the compaffioa 
of the traytors. Thfe (}ueens were fent into Alban 
(1) (Scotland) where they were delivered of Tud- 
thai Teachmhar^ Tiobruide Trioch and Corbulan. 


(h) The ancient liOrds of the Soil, i. e. the EUmites. Anihic 
Mk Atudy the nobiiity. The pune for Plebeifun i$ ^Atf^^ 

i. e. Giants, xnonilen. (See the Leabar Leacan) a word (lifer- 
ent m conftni£tion and fenfe to Aiteac TMatha, 

( i ) Magh Cm, the blood of the Magi, or the murder of the 
Magi : — this alludes to the maiTacre of che.Magi in the reigD of 
^merdis the ufurper of the Perfian crown,' in which Dianiis 
Hyftafpis (Guihafp our Loingfeach) had fo coniideTable a /hate* 

(k) There were three perlons concerned in the death of Smer- 
dis, viz. Otanes, GobVyas and Afpathines. 

(1) Probably Albania on the Cafpian fea was here {intended. 

Ancient Hifiarf ^ Ireland. 34^ 

^Elm wa& placed ofi i^ throne by the AUeiic]^ 
Tuatha^ after the death oi Cairbxre Qoncait* 

Tuatbal Teaehtmar beiag now of age^ was in^ 
vited by his party to retvuri^ to hia qouatry aad to 
deUver xjlxtmi ^mt of the baad^ of thefe tyrants. 
The prince unwilling to rely on the profe^opg ^ 
an unfteady people, refund the oSi^r, unld« they 
would fwear by the Sm and by the Moon to d^ 
him homaige : tbi^ beiag AibmM;(ed to^ the exiled 
kiflg returned, was reccixcd by the general acda^ 
mations of the people, the tyrants deftroyed a94 
an ead put (0 the ufurpation. 


Here the tranfiator of Keating has thrown in aa 
interpolation of fome num^nt to our modem ge<r 
nealogifta : a digreifion they will neither thank 
him or me for. Since I am r^ing the lives of 
the Irifli naonarchs, fays he, it may not be improi* 
per to obvi^e an obje^ion that might be oflieFed 
concerning ihe genealogy of this prince ; for if it 
fhouki be thought furjprifing that the Iriih writera 
of late ages deduce the defcent of the lungs either 
from the fons of Milefius or from LughaiSifon of 
hb ; and likewife if it fhould feem unaccountable, 
that the piineipal families of Ireland to this day 
derive their original from fome of the branches of 
die Mileiian line, without owning themfelves^to be 
the defcendants of any officer or foldier who came 
over in this expedition. The ancient records of 
the kingdom,, particukirly the books that treat of 
the reigns and conquefbs of the kings, take ex- 
prel^ notice of the ruin and extirpation of the poftet* 


344 ^ Ttndication rf the 

rity of the Milefian foldiery : for in procds of time 
they degenerated into a barbarous and rebellioiu 
race of men, and ufed their princes in the mofi 
feditious and inhuman manner ; for which turbu- 
lent and diiloyal proceedings the monarchs by dc- 
grees weeded them out oi the kingdom ; the few 
that remained were fo vile and infetmous^ that the 
antiquaries never prefervcd their genealogies, but 
pafled them over m filence as a reproach and fcan- 
dal to the IriQi nati(Hi — but to return to our hif- 

Elim was flain by Tuatbal Teachtmar, at die 
battle of Aichle. 

A. D. 79* Tuathal Teachtmar fucceeded, when 
he had iixed himfelf in the government, he con- 
vened the Feis Teambra or general meeting of 
Teamhar (m) confifting of the nobility, who joy- 
fully recoenized his title to the crown. And as a 
farther teftimony of their loyalty, they engaged to 
continue the fucceflion in his family for ever. 

Tuatbal feparated a trad of land from each of 
ihe four Cboige or provinces, at th^place where 
they met together, and of thefe divifions he made 
the county of Midhe or Meaith. In each pordon 
he ere£led a palace. 

In the part taken from Munfter he built the 
T/acbtga M'here the facred fire was ordained to be 
kindled ; as had been the cuftom of the Dnd of 
tlirinn (Ireland) upon the eve of the feftivalof 
Samhna^ to burn facrifices (don Ard Dia) to the 

(m) Fcis a convention, convocation, fynod, from whence 
i/Tue certain laws and regulations ; it is the Arabia flrte, aa 
ad'embiy, publilhing, divulging ; whence Fei/el a decree, a de- 
ftnitive fentence. Feifely a judge, arbitrator. 


Ancimt Hifioty of Ireland. 345 

great God (n). All othier fires in the kingdom 
were extinguUhed on this night, and were relight- 
ed from this holy fire, for which every houfe paid 
a Screaball to the king of Munfter, becaufe the 
TUichtga was conftnided in his divifion. (See 
note Moidh). 

The fecond palace was ereded in the divifion 
taken from Connacht ; here was Anuifneacb^ the 
Nmfneacb or contra£i:edly the Uifiieach ; here was 
the Mordail or convention on Am Beilteinej or 
the day of Beuls fire, i. e. the firfl: day of May 
annually, when they offered iodbbbartha (iovara) 
or iombartbaj i* e. facrifices to the God Beui. At 
this Aonac or Fair, they ufually bartered goods 
and merchandize. 

On this day there were always two fires lighted 
in honour of Beul in every diftrift throughout the 
kingdom, and it was ufual to drive the cattle 

(d) This is evidently the PerCan ftory of Darius Hyftafpis 
who fucceeded the ufurper Smerdis and eftabllflied the fire town 

TIachtga, i. e. Tlacht or DIacht-agha, the holy fire, from 
the Chaldee pbl dkk artiere. 

See the feftival of Samhna explained Collectanea, No. 1 3.-^ 
it is the Perfian feftival of Afuman^ the angel of death, and is 
now kept in Ireland on nil fouls. 

Chuig 'a prrovince is the Chaldee X\X\ chu2. Arab, Kiffiur 
and Kutr. Midht^ fays Keating, (i|niBes a part or (hare^ and 
therefore this territory was fo called becaufe it confifted of arpor* 
tion of each Chuig^ nothing can be farther from truth. The 
fpot was chofen as the great place of facrifice. 

Prom Tlacht^ I think the Irifii Tola is derived, which figni- 
fies a church officer, that is, one who has the fuperinrendance of 
the fire ceremony. In Arabic Tawliyet, the fuperintendency of the 
affairs of Mofques, or other religious foundations. (Richardfon. ) 
Arabice T^th<wil a folemn oath made among the Pagan Arabs be- 
fore a fi^e called Huler. 




546 A Tmdicatim ^^l&r 

f^ldSir iba Bbeil tmm) between the tvofnref 
Beol, as ai prelenralion agaaft difloqiera, fi>r tke 
year following. The fira daiji of May flik ntnni 
the name of am BeH tehw^ or, ib jB^ ftmc^ L c 
ihe flay- of BeuU fire<M(o). 

R 1 M A a c» 

All the ftres were eztuigtiifhcd except iSkm hdy 
fire, from whenos they were reHgfafecd^ and every 
hotkif keeper paid a Screaball (ihe IrUb tranflate it 
three pence^ I know not how much it was)--this 
16 the cuftoih of the Go^brcs in India at this day as 
we learn from Dr. Hyde. Sed poftquam Tctenim 
Perfarum Gens propter MDhammedanortim op- 
preffionefH) pennriam & paupertate hboraret, 
preBter Didmasy excogitarunt alium Sacerdoialcra 
Reditum augendi modum, quern quondam Ami- 
cus nofter Safraz Avedik Armenus Ifpbanenfis 
melioris notde Mercator mihi retuHt. fe. ^^ (^od 
a4 Aprilis quotannis eft quoddam Beram Gbav- 
rorum, in cujus craftino h domibus fuis foras 
ejiciunt omnem Ignem } cui poftea redinlegran- 
** do, de novo accendunt Lu(:ernam apud domum 
^* Sacerdotis iui« eo nomine ei fol ventes 1 00 de- 
^' nariolos, qui £aciunt 5 Abbafaeos, feu 6 Solidos 
** Angltcanos cum tribus Denariis AngUci8'^*^ 
Dido itaque die non licebatullum Lumen autjignem 
accendere nifi in Templis — de quare extat locuf 
Talmudicus in Gittin^ 17. i. — Citata enim Iocs 
fpcdant aniiqua ilia tempora quibus Ifraelita: erant 
in Captivitate inter Medas^ . qui vocantur Pirfd^ 

(o) Plaotaviu a Piani^ C 30. V. as. 


ylncttnt Hifhry of Ireland. 347 

& idem Ritus ufque ad hodrcrnum diem continua- 
tm eft in Ltrcrum & Beneftcium Sacerdotum, aui 
etiam confeeratas Virgas populo vendunt : Hyde» 
p. 351.-^1 was an ancient cftabliflicd cuftom in 
Perfia and Ireland, as the Dr. explains it :-^his is 
the fire of John's Eve. 

The Irifh antiquaries not knowing what to make 
of the obfolete word Midh or Matdh (p), a place 
of facrifice, have worked up the ftory of taking a 
part of each province, deriving Midb from mir a 
part or portion. NoAing can be more diftant 
from truth. The center of the Ifland was judici- 
oufly fixed on, for the folcmnity of the grekt fcfti- 
vals, viz. the Feis ; it was an eafy journey from 
all parts of riie Ifland : hither they rcpaJircd' to bar- 
ter their commodities and to facrifice to the great 
God : to pay their tributes, and tp learn what 
new laws were promtdgated for the better govern- 
ment of the kingdom. The place was therefore 
called Moidhj or Muidh, or Mfzft, that is, the 
place of facrifice. It is the Hebrew HSyji Mood 
facrificium folemnitatis in dido tempore cclebrari 
foKtum. Veteres facrificia ftata dicebant. It is the 
Arabic Mudbeh or Muzbih, fwith a Dfkl), i. e. 
a place of facrifice. * The Rabbinical or Chaldee 
word for Mood is y\3iD Kipur^ whence the moun- 
tain of Kipnr in the county of DubKn and die 
Keptr in the county of Limerick, on both of 
which the altars yet remain. There was another 

(p) Mokl ft Vow. Moid-ghealUdh to iiiaire a iblemn vow : 
each pTxjviACe being obliged eo furuifli a proportion to die gftftt 
{acrificcs ac Midh^ th« Seanacbies have forged the ftory of takiag 
a part of each province, to fumifli a bad etymology. 

The moft ancient fire temple of the Periians was at iVirfo^— 
f • om whence probably Nohber in Meat h North of Ttamar, 


34^ ' A Vindication of the 

day of general facrifice called Dia Tait anfagbmbat 
die day of facrifice in harveft, which might aifo 
take its name from the Chaldee /W^*n be Tatb 
iacrificuim. The Nuifneacb or corrupTedly the 
Vifneacb^ befpeaks itfelf ; it was the Nuifc^na-eicb 
or the facrifice of the horfe, an animal efteemcd 
lacred to the fun, by the j£gyptian, Phaenicians, 
Periians and Scythians. The old Germans alfo 
cfteemed the horfe as the moft noble vidim. tJ 
it\t'^ ei\c%aJTotfftLf rii 2Wi7» the Pcrfians immolated 
Holocaufls to the fun, fays Xenophon : — ^£a autem 
facrificia non foH fed deo iiebant ; fed quicquid 
deo fuerint, Grseci volunt eas id feciife Solij eonim 
adiones perperam interpretando^q). The Nifacaa 
horfes of Media were preferred by the Perfians, 
being reckoned moft beautiful ; the Connacian 
borfes were preferred by the Irifh ; but, Keating 
makes the king of Conn