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Full text of "A comprehensive medical dictionary ... containing the pronunciation, etymology, and signification of the terms made use of in medicine and the kindred sciences .."


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Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1864, by 


in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District 

of Pennsylvania. 


The present work is designed to supply a want which has long 
been felt by those commencing the study of medicine anJ the 
collateral sciences. 

An acquaintance with the dead languages, or at least with Latin, 
was formerly, and in some parts of Europe is still, considered 
absolutely necessary for a graduate in medicine as well as in the 
other learned professions. Although in the United States a clas- 
sical education is not made an indispensable condition for conferring 
a medical degree, yet, so long as the great majority of professional 
terms are in Latin, some knowledge of this language may be said 
to be absolutely requisite for the medical student. The fact that 
multitudes of our young men commence the study of medicine 
without any previous acquaintance with Latin or Greek, renders 
it important that the elementary works intended for the use of 
students should be adapted to meet this exigency. 

To supply the want above indicated has been one of the chief 
objects of the present work. In fulfilling this object, the editor 
has aimed, — 

First: to give a full explanation of the etymology of the various 
words denned in the Dictionary. The importance of etymology 
in furnishing, as it generally does, a sure clue to the true sig- 
nification of scientific terms ; in limiting and fixing their mean- 
ing, thus guarding against looseness or vagueness of application ; 
and lastly, and not least, in assisting the memory of the learner, 



since, by acquiring a knowledge of a comparatively few elements 
or roots, he is thus enabled to determine the signification of a 
multitude of compound words, — can scarcely be overestimated. It 
is admitted, indeed, that terms not unfrequently occur of which 
it is difficult or impossible to give an entirely satisfactory etymo- 
logy. In a few of the most doubtful cases of this kind, it has been 
deemed best to make no attempt to explain the derivation, since 
an etymology which is purely fanciful or speculative, seems far 
more likely to mislead or perplex than to instruct the student. 
It may be proper to add that, in fulfilling this important part of 
his task, the editor has not been content with merely following 
the generally received authorities in etymology, but has made it 
a rule, in every case of doubt or uncertainty, to examine the sub- 
ject anew, and particularly to consult the best classical and modern 
(foreign) dictionaries upon the point in question. 

Secondly: to give, whenever practicable, a literal translation 
of the various Latin phrases, sentences, etc. occurring in the work: 
such, for example, as Extensor Digitorum Communis, Motores Ocu- 
lorum, Hydrargyrum cum Greta, etc. etc. The importance of such 
explanations in giving clear and definite ideas to those who may 
be unacquainted with the Latin tongue, is too obvious to require 
to be enlarged upon. 

For an explanation of some of the most important elements and 
principles of the Latin language, designed chiefly for those who 
have not had the advantage of a classical education, the reader is 
referred to the Appendix, page 660. Connected with, and imme- 
diately following, this portion of the work, will be found rules 
and directions for the writing of Latin prescriptions. 

Another feature in the work, and one which it is hoped will 
prove of great practical importance, is the pronunciation of the 
various terms given in the Dictionary. What correct spelling is 
to the writer, correct pronunciation is to the speaker. If either 
should be wholly neglected, the most perfect language would soon 
become a babel, and fall into utter corruption. Every one who 
takes the trouble to reflect on the subject must be aware that if it 
were not for the constant effort or aim to conform our speech to a 
common standard, the language which we call English would in 
the course of a few years be spoken so differently in different parts 


of the world, as to be with difficulty understood, and in two or three 
centuries it would, in all probability, become wholly unintelli- 
gible, except to those few who might happen to be familiar with 
the local dialect. He, therefore, who is willing to take the pains 
to speak correctly, not only acquires an accomplishment which 
will raise him in the estimation of all educated men, but he con- 
tributes his portion towards exalting and extending the incalculable 
blessings which language, the great vehicle of thought and know- 
ledge, is capable of conferring on mankind. 

The various terms employed in medicine may be divided into 
two principal classes. The first class consists of those which are 
properly English or have an Anglicized termination, whether de- 
rived from the Saxon, as, Blood, Forearm, Nightmare, Rickets, etc. ; 
from the French, as, Bandage, Viable, etc. ; from the Latin, as, Ab- 
dominal (from abdominalis), Abortion (from abortio), Astringent 
(from astringens), Ferruginous (from ferruginosus), etc.; or from 
the Greek, as, Apoplexy (from a-o-kr t ^La), Artery (from dprrjpia^ 
Asthmatic (from aGdjiaruo^), etc. 

The second class comprises all such terms as are Latin or 
Latinized Greek, as, Abdomen, Amaurosis, Ammonia, Asthma, 
Cerebrum, Laryngitis, Oesophagus, Sternum, Vertebra, etc. etc. 

The pronunciation of the former class of words is attended with 
no particular difficulty. Those of the second class, however, 
though usually very easy with respect to the accentuation, and 
perfectly uniform as to the sounds of the consonants, present a 
very serious difficulty in regard to the pronunciation of the vowels. 
At the University of Oxford in England, and at Harvard in the 
United States, it is the usage to pronounce all Latin words with 
the English sounds of the vowels: for example, a when long (as 
the second a in ama're, ama'barn, ama'tum) has the same sound 
as our a in fate (never like a in far); long i is pronounced as in 
pine; and so on. But many of the institutions of learning in this 
country have adopted what is termed the " continental" pronuncia- 
tion according to which, the vowels are pronounced, not after 
the English sound, but according to that of the languages of 
Continental Europe. As, however, there is some diversity re- 
specting the vowel sounds of the different European tongues, the 


Italian, which of all the modern languages is perhaps most nearly 
related to the Latin, has generally been adopted as the standard. 
According to this system, a should be sounded nearly like a in far, 
e as in there, or like a in fate, i as in marine, or like e in mete, u 
like oo, and y like i, that is, like our e. In some portions of 
our country, particularly in the Middle States, there unfortu- 
nately prevails a third system, consisting of a sort of mixture of 
the other two already described. According to this system, — if 
such it may be called, — the vowel a is sounded as in fast or fat 
(never as in fate); i, when long, is usually pronounced as in pine, 
though sometimes as in marine; all the other vowels being uni- 
formly sounded as in English. The improper diphthong 02, which in 
every other modern language corresponds in sound either exactly 
or very nearly to e* is on this system sounded like our a in fate. 

As may readily be imagined, these three different systems ex- 
isting together in the same country, have had the effect to intro- 
duce almost unlimited confusion into the pronunciation of Latin 
words. Those who aim at correctness or propriety in speaking 
should, we think, adopt either the Oxford pronunciation or the 
continental; and whichever they adopt should be carried out con- 
sistently. It is greatly to be desired, however, that some common 
standard of Latin pronunciation might be fixed upon for the whole 
United States: it would be of immense advantage even were its 
application limited to scientific terms and phrases. 

Under the existing state of things, the editor has not felt justified 
in attempting to lay down any positive rules for the pronunciation 
of the vowels occurring in Latin terms. He has, accordingly, for 
the most part confined his labors in regard to this class of words, to 
marking the accent and syllabication, and to indicating such vowel 
sounds {e.g. short i and short y) as are essentially the same 
whether they are pronounced according to the continental or 

* That is, to the sound of c in the respective languages ; oz in French being 
equivalent to the French e, oz in Spanish to the Spanish e, and so with the 
rest. To sound cc differently from c tends to great confusion, inasmuch as a 
multitude of words are now written almost indifferently with the diphthong 
or the vowel: as, jEdile or Edilc, JEtiology or Etiology, etc. However such 
words may be written, the pronunciation ought, unquestionably, to remain 
the same. 


the English mode. The most important point of all is the accent, 
which can, for the most part, be readily ascertained, and, depend- 
ing as it does upon the quantity* (not on the quality) of the 
vowels, remains the same under all the different systems and in 
all the various tongues of the world. The principal rules for 
Latin accentuation are the following: — 

Rule 1. — In trisyllables or polysyllables, if the penultima be 
long, the accent must fall upon it: as, Abdo'men, Coni'um, Duodd- 
nu?n, Porri'go, Scapula'ris, etc. 

Rule 2. — If the penultima be short, the accent must fall on the 
antepenultima : as, Ac'idum, Abdominis, An'ima, Assafoet' ida> 
Chimaph'ila, Cimicif'uga, Hydrocephalus, Polyc/ala, etc. 

Rule 3. — Dissyllables always take the accent on the penultima; 
as, A cor, Coma, Li'quor, &c. 

It may be observed that whenever the accent of a Latin word 
falls on the antepenultimate vowel followed immediately by a 
single consonant, the accent is usually placed after the conso- 
nant, and the vowel is made what in English we term "short." 
(See examples under Rule Second.) Accordingly, we pronounce 
Abdominis — abdoniinis, Assafcetida — assafct'ida, etc., although in 
both of these instances the penultimate syllable is long in Latin. f 
The only important exception to this rule occurs in words having 
u for the antepenultimate vowel; as, Alumina, Sulphu'ricus, etc., 
in which case the accent should always be placed before the conso- 
nant, the vowel retaining its full or long sound. J 

It has until recently been the almost universal usage among 

* The quantity is determined chiefly by the usage of the Latin poets, and 
certain recognized rules of derivation. 

f It is very important to bear in mind the essential difference between a 
long vowel in English and a long vowel in Latin or Greek. In the former 
case the word "long" refers to the quality of the vowel, in the latter always 
to the quantity. The pronunciation of a long vowel in Latin or Greek is 
estimated to occupy just twice as much time as is spent in uttering a short 
vowel. In the present work, however, when the term "long'.' is employed 
in reference to the pronunciation of a word, it is to be understood in the 
English sense, if the contrary be not distinctly stated. 

% The plural of Greek nouns in -oma are, by common usage, excepted : as, 
aTo'mata (from aro'ma), not arom'ata. If the penultima be a vowel followed 
immediately by another vowel, the antepenultimate syllable is usually made 
long : as, am-mo / ni-a, ci-ne're-ua. 


classical scholars to pronounce the ancient Greek (like the Latin) 
according to the quantity of the vowels ; but within a few years 
some institutions of learning of the highest character, both in 
Europe and in this country, have adopted the modern Greek 
accentuation; that is, they pronounce according to the Greek 
accent, without the slightest reference to quantity. For example, 
aoipia ("wisdom"), and (bXixpavov (the "elbow"), formerly called 
so'fe-a and o-le-kra'non, would, according to the new mode, be 
pronounced so-fee'a and o-lek'ra-non. How far this new system 
should affect our pronunciation of Latinized terms derived from 
the Greek may be considered an open question.* 

As already intimated, the accent is the chief, if not the sole, 
point in Latin pronunciation about which there is no dispute 
among the learned. It has accordingly come to be regarded as 
one of the essential tests by which a finished scholar may be 
known. Our readers need scarcely be reminded that many Latin 
phrases and sentences have become, so to speak, parts of our own 

* While it must be admitted that all, or nearly all, the best English autho- 
rities on classical pronunciation recognize no other principle than quantity 
for the accentuation of this class of words, it may be observed that in Italian 
and Spanish, — languages much more nearly related to the Latin than ours, — 
words and names derived from the Greek almost invariably follow the accentua- 
tion of the original, while those of Latin derivation are as uniformly ac- 
centuated according to the quantity of their Latin primitives. Not only 
is the name Sofia (from the Greek ao(j>ta, whence our Sophi'a) pronounced 
so-fce'a (though in Greek the penultima is short), and its derivative filosofia 
("philosophy") fe-lo-so-fee'a, but the numerous class of Italian and Spanish 
words ending in -grafia (Greek -ypatyia), and -logia (Greek -Xoyia) always 
have, like the Greek, the accent on the penultima, although this is invariably 
short in the Greek; as cosmografi'a (cosmography) gcografi'a (geography), 
ortograji'a (orthography), &c. ; and analogi'a (analogy), ftlologVa (philology), 
etc. etc. Insania takes the antepenultimate accent, because the penultima of 
the Latin (insa'nia) is short; while mania, with the same termination, has the 
penultimate accent (ma-nee / a), simply because the Greek (fiavia) is so accented. 
Jgg^ The remark made above, that words in Italian and Spanish derived from 
the Latin follow the Latin quantity, while those from the Greek conform to 
the Greek accentuation, should of course be limited to such as have not become 
materially changed or corrupted. It will be seen that in the examples above 
cited no change has taken place, except substituting/ for <p, which does not 
in the slightest degree affect the pronunciation. 


language. He, therefore, who aspires to the character of a correct 
and polished speaker, cannot, without serious danger to his reputa- 
tion, neglect this important branch of orthoepy. It is true that a 
very few words of Latin origin (as Au'ditor, Orator, Seriator* etc.) 
have, on becoming Anglicized, without any change in the spelling, 
lost the original penultimate accent. But the large majority of 
Anglicized words retain the classical accentuation, as Acu'men, 
Albumen, Aro'ma, Cogno'men, Deco'rum, Dicta'tor, Fari'na, Far- 
ra'go, Horizon, Sali'va, Spectator, etc., all of which have resisted 
the general tendency of our language, which is to throw the 
accent on the antepenultima in such words: indeed, we not unfre- 
quently hear uneducated people say, Ar'oma, Cocf nomcn, SaFiva, 
etc. If, then, Anglicized Latin words, which are in everybody '3 
mouth, are generally pronounced according to the original accentu- 
ation, scientific terms ought unquestionably to be always so pro- 
nounced. This principle is, indeed, fully recognized in the accentu- 
ations given in the last edition of our Pharmacopoeia, in which, we 
believe, not a single instance occurs of a Latin name that does not 
conform to the classical pronunciation ; although, if English analogy 
were allowed to have any influence, we should scarcely pronounce 
Coni'um, Mati'co, etc., with the accent on the penultima. 

Of such Latin words as were used by the ancients, there i3 
generally no difficulty in determining the accentuation. But the 
case is different with respect to Latin terms (consisting chiefly of 
botanical and other scientific names) of modern origin. Among 
these there are a number of which the etymology is obscure or 
uncertain, and the accentuation is, in consequence, more or less 
doubtful. In such cases, the editor has not only sought to avail 
himself of the light which general analogy might shed upon the 
point in question, but he has carefully consulted all the best works 
accessible to him, relating to such subjects. Among these he 
would express his particular obligations to Gray's " Manual of 
Botany," Mayxe's "Expository Lexicon," Wittstein's "Etymo- 
logisch-Botanisches "Worterbuch," and, above all, to Dunglisox's 
" Medical Dictionary," which in relation to these difficult questions 

^Anemo'ne, when used as an English word, is always pronounced ancm'one. 


exhibits a degree of accuracy, as well as judgment, unsurpassed, if 
not unequalled, among scientific works of reference. 

Those who take a particular interest in such subjects are re- 
ferred to the "Table of Disputed Pronunciations" (see Appendix, 
pp. 698-9), containing a list of the most important terms occurring 
in medical works, respecting the accentuation of which there is a 
difference among the best orthoepical authorities.* 

Respecting the plan of the Dictionary, it may be observed that 
immediately after the term itself, if this be English, is inserted 
the Latin synonym, then the etymology, both being enclosed in 
brackets. If the term be Latin, it is immediately followed by the 
etymology, enclosed in brackets. (Compare Ablactation, Apoplexy, 
Artery ; also, Abdomen, Ablepsia, etc.) The French synonyms of 
important medical terms are also given, excepting such as are 
essentially the same as the English or Latin : for example, Ablacta- 
tion ("ablactation''), Bandage (a "bandage"), Uterus (the "ute- 
rus"), etc.; or such as differ only very slightly, as Apoplexie 
(" apoplexy"), Artere (" artery"), Hepatite (" hepatitis"), CEsophage 
(" oesophagus"), etc. As these would, for the most part, be readily 
understood without e, dictionary, they have generally been omitted. 
By adopting this plan, the attention of the student is particularly 
directed to those French terms which it is most important for him 
to acquire ; that is, to such as are essentially different from the 
Latin or English, and therefore not likely to be understood unless 
explained. Of this class of words the following examples may 
be given: — Cceur ("heart"), Clou ("clove"), Cou ("neck"), Main 
("hand"), CEil ( <!< eye"), Poumons ("lungs"), Toux (" cough"), etc. 

A considerable portion of the Appendix is occupied with the 

* In speaking of "authorities" In regard to questions of this kind, we do 
not, of course, allude to those persons, however illustrious, who are merely 
distinguished for their scientific attainments or for their general learning, but 
to such only as have paid particular attention to the subject of orthoepy. It is 
not to be denied that some, who are justly regarded as ornaments of science, 
either from never having given any attention to such subjects, or from mere 
carelessness, are most untrustworthy guides in all that relates to correctness of 
language, whether written or spoken. They seem to forget that thoughts are 
like jewels: the greater their value, the more important it is that they should 
be well set, that their beauty may be exhibited to the best advantage. 


11 Table of Materia Medica," containing the names of all, or nearly 
all, the medicinal articles of any importance, arranged according 
to their medical properties. Such a classification, it is believed, 
will be found extremely useful, at least to those who have not had 
time or opportunity to make themselves thoroughly acquainted 
with the vast resources of our Materia Medica. 

Besides the articles already mentioned, included in the Ap- 
pendix, it contains a tolerably complete Table of Doses, prepared 
with great care. It also contains a synopsis of the respective 
Nosologies of Cullen and Good. Although at the present time 
neither of these systems is generally followed, both have exerted 
great influence upon medical nomenclature, and may, therefore, 
justly claim some notice at our hands. It was believed that in no 
other way could an idea be given of them so clearly and so briefly 
as by means of synoptical tables. 

Among the multitude of works which the editor has had occa- 
sion to consult in the preparation of this Dictionary, justice re- 
quires that he should express his great obligations to a few to 
which he is especially indebted. His acknowledgments are pre- 
eminently due to Mayne's "Expository Lexicon" (London, 1860); 
a Dictionary of Medicine, original in its plan, and evincing in its 
execution much diligence, learning, and research. He would also 
express his important obligations to Gray's " Structural and Syste- 
matic Botany," and "Manual of Botany," to which he has gene- 
rally had recourse as his chief authorities on all questions relating 
to botanical science. To Hoblyn's "Medical Dictionary" he is 
indebted for the matter of a number of articles, particularly those 
relating to chemistry. The notices of the natural orders of plants 
and animals have mostly been taken from that justly popular 
work, Brande's "Encyclopaedia of Science, Literature, and Art." 

Nor can he omit to mention his great and important obligations 
to Wood and Bache's "United States Dispensatory," a work 
which justly ranks among the first of its kind that have ever 
been published in this or any other country. 


a, e, I, o, u, y, are long, as in fate, mete, pine, note, tube, fly. 

a, e, 1, o, u, y, are short, as in fat, met, pin, not, tub, mystic. 

a, &, and 6, are like a, e, and o, except that the sound is less prolonged. 

a, e, are obscure, as in the final syllables of America, writer, etc. 

g = y hard. 

9 is to be sounded like s or ss ; G and g like j ; s has the sound of z. 

-eh is to be sounded like k ; but ch without any mark should be pronounced as in 
chill or child. 

x, M, and n° are used to represent the French nasal sound, somewhat resembling 
that of ny in lony. R (small capital) implies that the r should be trilled : ii denotes 
the sound of the French u; v, that of the French eu, similar to the sound of u in 
the English word fur. 

An asterisk (*) affixed to a word or phrase denotes that it is either Latin or Latin- 
ized Greek, etc. 

= signifies "equivalent to." Thus, Cath. = Catharticus implies that Cath. is 
equivalent to, or stands for, Catharticus ("Cathartic"). 

|| placed after the phrase " Pharmacopceial name" denotes that the name belongs 
alike to the British and United States Pharmacopoeias. 

An acute accent denotes a primary, a grave a secondary, accent. 

^*As a general rule, no marks have been placed on the vowels in cases where 
these would naturally be pronounced correctly without any mark. 

7t5*§" When a reference is made to some other part of the Dictionary, the word 
referred to is put in small capitals: hence, if small capitals are used, a reference is 
always implied. See Hsematiasis, Hiematopoiesis, etc. in the Dictionary. 

Abl ablative. 

Ace accusative. 

Br. or Brit British. 

Dat, dative. 

Dub Dublin. 

Ed Edinburgh. 

e.g. {exem'pli gra'tid) for example. 
V . or f e m feminine. 


Fr French. 

Geu genitive. 

Ger German. 

Gr Greek. 

i.e. (id est) that is. 

Lat Latin. 

Lond London. 

M. or masc masculine. 

N. or neut. neuter. 

Norn nominative. 

Ph. or Pharm Pharmacopoeia. 

PI plural. 

Pron pronunciation. 

Sp Spanish. 

U.S United States. 

Voc Vocative. 

To render these explanations complete, a table of the Greek alphabet is subjoined. 





1 Letter. 






A a 











B |3fi 











r v 


g hard 









A S 










u or y 

E e 


6 short 









z S 










ch hard 



e long 



6 short 





$ 9 











Remarks. — r followed immediately by another y, by k, or by x, sounds like n: hence, ay- 
yeTov, a •'vessel," should be rendered by angeion or angion, if Roman letters are used; dyicv\os 
(" bent"), by ankylos or ancylos ; (iyx^ (to " choke"), by ancho, etc. T, though usually considered 
to be equivalent to u, is almost invariably rendered by y, in Latin. See dyKvXos, above given. 
K is usually replaced in Latin by c, as Kvvapa or xiv&pa, cynara or cinara (a kind of "artichoke"). 
As in Latin words of Greek derivation y is sounded like t, and not like u, 4®= so c should in 
such words be pronounced with its proper Latin sound, — always Uke s before e, i. and y. 

4®* At (in Greek) when changed into Latin, becomes as; and ot, 02; as atdioip, sethiops, 
oiSrma, oidema, etc. 

>&«>* II is represented in Greek by ', called the "rough breathing" (spir'itus as'prr), as in 
vn6, "under," alfia, "blood," etc. All Greek words beginning with a vowel have either the 
rough or smooth breathing (spir'itus le'nis). Compare aidioip, "black," atria, "cause," etc. 
The smooth breathing indicates simply the natural sound of the vowel. 



A, or an before a word beginning with 
a vowel or with h. [a or avj] A prefix 
in compound words of Greek derivation, 
having a negative or privative force: as, 
tonic, " possessing or imparting tone ;" 
a-tonic, " without tone;" a-cephalous, 
"without a head;" an-sesthetic, "with- 
out perception;" an-hydrous, "without 

A is also a French preposition, signi- 
fying "to" or "at," and forming a part 
of certain surgical and medical phrases, 
as d deux temps, a duh to* . "At two 
times." Applied to the operation of 
lithotomy, in which the calculus, from 
certain causes, cannot be immediately 
extracted, and is therefore let alone till 
during the suppurating stage, when ex- 
traction may be more easily effected. 

AA. A contraction of the Greek 
word ana (dva), signifying, literally, 
"up through" or "throughout;" some- 
times equivalent to "op each." Writ- 
ten in prescriptions after the names of 
Several different medicines, to denote an 
equal quantity of each. 

AAA. Abbreviation for Amalgam. 

Ab. A Latin particle signifying 
" from," " off," " away." 

Ab-ac'tus "Ven'ter,* or Ven'ter 
Abac'tus.* [From ab, "from," and 
a (jo, actum, to " drive," to " force."] 
Literally, a " belly expelled" or emptied 
by forcible means. A term in Medical Ju- 
risprudence for abortion induced by art. 

Ab'a-cus.* [From a0a%, a.i3aKoq, a 
mathematical table on which lines and 
figures were drawn.] An old name for a 
table used for medicinal preparations. 


Abalienation, ab-al-yen-a'shun. 
[Abaliena'tio, o'nis; from ab, "from," 
and alie'no, aliena'tum, to " estrange."] 
Formerly used for decay of the whole or 
part of the bod}'; also, loss or failing of 
the senses or of the mental faculties. 

Abanga, ab-ang'ga. The name of the 
fruit of a palm-tree growing in the island 
of St. Thomas (West Indies). The seeds 
are considered very useful in diseases of 
the chest. 

Ab-ar-tic-u-la'tion. [Abarticula'- 
tio, o'nis ; from ab, "from," and articu- 
la'tio, "articulation."] A kind of ar- 
ticulation admitting of free motion. See 

Ab- bre ' vi-at-ed. [ Abbre via' tus ; 
from abbre'vio, abbrevia'tum, to "short- 
en."] Shortened, as when the cup is 
shorter than the tube of the flower. 

Ab-bre-vi-a'tioii. [Abbrevia'tio, 
o'nis ; from the same.] A part of a word 
shortened by cutting off one or more of 
its latter syllables. Applied to many 
initial and medial letters, and contrac- 
tions, of medical terms, which will be 
found in their alphabetical order. 

Abcfs. See Abscess. 

Abdom. Abbreviation for Aboo'men. 

Ab-<lo'men,* gen. Ab-dom'i-nis. 
[From ab'do, ab'dere, to "hide."] The 
largest cavity of the body ; the belly. 
The same region in the lower animals. 
See Alvus. Imcs Venter. Venter. 

Ab-dom'i-nal. [AbtlomiBia'lis ; 
from abdo'?nen.] Belonging to the abdo- 
men : ventral. 

Abdominal Aor'ta. That portion of 
the aorta situated below the diaphragm. 




Abdominal Ap-on-eu-ro'sis. Tlie 
conjoined tendons of the oblique and 
transverse muscles on the anterior por- 
tion of the abdomen. See Aponeu- 

Abdom'inal Gang'lia (gang'gle-a). 
The semilunar ganglia, so named from 
their situation. 

A bdom'inal Ring". [An'nnlus Ab- 
ridin'inis.] The fancied ring-like open- 
ing on each side of the abdomen, ex- 
ternal and superior to the pubes. Through 
it, in males, passes the spermatic cord. 
It is also called the In'guinal Ring. 

Ab-dom-I-na'Iis.* [From abdu'- 
meii.] Pertaining to the abdomen ; 
abdom'inal; ventral. In the plural (Ab- 
domina'les) it forms the name of an 
order of fishes having the ventral fins 
under the abdomen and behind the pec- 

Ab-dom-i-nos'co-py. [Abdomino- 
sco'pia; from abdo'men, and cKonzuy, to 
"observe."] The examination of the 
abdomen by percussion, inspection, mea- 
surement, or manual examination. 

Ab-du'cent. [Abdn'cens; from a b, 
" from," and du'co, due' turn, to " lead," to 
"draw."] Applied to muscles by which 
the members or limbs are drawn from 
the mesial line (or axis of the body) ; 
also to the sixth pair of nerves. 

Ab-dnc'tioii. [Abdnc'tio, o'nis; 
from the same.] That movement by which 
one part is moved from another, or from 
the axis of the body. 

Ab-dnc'toi\ o'r/.v.* [From the same.] 
Applied to a muscle which performs, or 
assists in performing, abduction. 

Abelmoschus,* a-bel-nios'kus. [From 
the Arab, ab-el-mushk ; literally, the 
"father of musk."] Musk-seed; the 
specific name of the Hibiscus abelmos- 
chus. The seeds of this plant, called 
(j tana moschata ("musk-seeds"), are 
employed in the East in forming the 
J'oudre de Chi/pre, or Cyprus jiowder, 
used for flavoring coffee. 

Ab-< 4 p-I-th.ym'i-a.*[Froma6,"from," 
"off," and imd^ia, "desire."] A faulty 
term (partly Latin and partly Greek) for 
paralysis of the solar plexus, cutting off 
communication between the nervous 
system and abdominal viscera, the 
supposed seat of the appetites and de- 

Ab-cr-ra'tion. [Abcrra'tio, o'nis ; 
from ab, "from," and er'ro, erra'tum, to 
" wander."] Applied to a disordered 
state of the intellect. Applied also to 
the rays of light when refracted by a 

lens, or reflected by a mirror, so that 
they do not converge into a focus. 

Ab-e-vac-n-a'tion. [Abevacua'tio, 

o'nw; from ab, "from," and evac'uo, 
evacua'tum, to " empty out," to " empty."] 
A medical term usually applied to a par- 
tial or incomplete evacuation, but by some 
writers employed to denote an immode- 
rate evacuation. 

A'bi-eft,* gen. A-bi'e-tis. [Supposed 
to be from ab, "from," and e'u, to "go," 
on account of the great height which 
it goes or extends from the earth.] The 
specific name of the Finns Abies, or fir- 
tree. See PiNUS. 

A'bies Exeel'sa.* One of the plants 
from which the Thus, or frankincense, is 

A'bies L.a'rix.* The tree which 
affords Venice turpentine. 

Ab-i-et'ie. [Abiet'ieus; from a'bies.] 
Belonging to the fir-tree. 

Abietin, or Abieiine. a-bi'e-tin. 
[Abieti'na; from a'bies.] A resinous 
substance, also called the resin Gamnia, 
or third in order, obtained from Stras- 
bourg turpentine. 

Abi'etis Res-i'na.* The resin of the 
fir-tree; the Thus, or common frankin- 
cense; spontaneously exuded by the 
Finns Abies. See FRANKINCENSE. 

Abietite, a-bl'e-tit. [Abieti'tes ; 
from abies, and XWog, a "stone."] A 
genus of fossil coniferous plants in the 
Wealden and Greensand formations. 

Ab-Ir-r I-ta ' t ion . [ A birri ta't io, 
o'nisj from ab, "from" or "away," and 
irri'to, irrita'tum, to " irritate :" denoting 
the passing "away" or absence of irrita- 
tion or of vital irritability.] Diminished 
irritability in the various tissues, and so 
slightly distinct from Asthenia. 

Ab-lae-ta'tion. [ Ablaeta'tio, o'ms ; 
from ab, " from," " awa}'," and lac, lac- 
tis, " milk." See Lactation.] The wean- 
ing of a child. Some writers make a dis- 
tinction between ablactation and weanipg. 
By the former they mean the termina- 
tion of the period of suckling as regards 
the mother; by the latter, the same 
period with reference to the child. 

Ab-la'tion. [Abla'tio, o'nis; from 
an' fern, abfa'tum (from ab, "from," 
"away," and fe'ro, la'tum, to "carry," or 
"take"), to '"take away."] The re- 
moving of any part by excision, extir- 
pation, or amputation. 

A-blep'si-a.* [From a, priv., and 
P\c7Tcj, to "see."] "Want of sight ; blind- 
ness : ablep'sy. 

Ab'ln-ent. [Ab'luens; from ab, 



''from" or "away," and luo, latum, to 
" wash."] That which washes away or 
carries uff impurities. See Abster- 


Ab-lu'tion. [Ablu'tio, o'nis ; from 
the same.] The separation of extraneous 
matters by washing. Anciently an in- 
ternal washing by administering profuse 
libations of milk-whey. 

Ab-uor'mal. [Abuor'mis; from ab, 
"from," and nor' ma, a '"rule;" denoting 
a departure from the " rale," course, or 
custom of nature.] Contrary to the na- 
tural condition ; unnatural. 

Ab-o-ma'suui,* or Ab-o-ma'sus.* 
[From ab, ''from," and oma'aum, the 
" paunch."] The fourth stomach of the 
Rnminantia. From this part of calves, 
lambs, etc., rennet is prepared. 

Aborigenis,* ab-o-rij'e-nis. [More 
frequently used in the plural {Aborigi- 
ne*, ab-o-rij'e-nez); from ab, "from," 
and ori'ijo, the "beginning."] Native or 
original of a country : aborig'inal. 

Ab-or'sus. : " [From abo'rlor, abor'tus, 
to "miscarry."] A miscarriage in the 
first or early months. More properly 
Abortus, or Abortion', which see. 

Ab-or'tl-cide. [ Abort icid'ium; 
from abortus, and eoe'do, to "kill.''] The 
destroying of the foetus in utero. See 

Ab-or'tient. [Abor'tious; from 
abo'rior.] Miscarrying. Applied synony- 
mously with Sterilis. See Sterile. 

Ab-or'tion. [Abor'tio, o'nis; from 
abo'rior, abor'tus, to " miscarry."] The 
morbid expulsion of an immature foetus ; 
a miscarriage. In Botany, imperfect de- 

Abor'tion, Criminal. Foeticide. 

Ab-or'tlve. [Aborti'vus; from the 
same.] Causing abortion. Sometimes 
applied to treatment adopted for pre- 
venting further or complete development 
of disease. 

Abortus.* [From the same.] See 

Abrachia,* ab-ra-ki'a. [From a, priv., 
and iipa\iuiv, the "arm."] A sort of mon- 
strosity, consisting in the absence of 

Abranchia,*a-brank'e-a. [From a, 
priv., and iJpAyxia, the "gills" or "respi- 
ratory organs."] Literally, having no 
organs of respiration. A name given by 
Cuvier to an order of Anellidfe having 
no external organs of respiration. 

Abranchiata. See Abranchta. 

A-bra'sion. [Abra'sio, o'nis; from 
ah, "from" or " off," and ra'do, ra'sum, 

to "scrape."] A term for the partial 
tearing off or fretting of the skin. 

Abrotammi. See Abrotonuh. 

Abrotomiui. See Artemisia. 

Ab-rot o-iiiim Mas.* Another name 
for Artemisia Abrotongm, which see. 

Ab-rupt'. Abrupt us: from ah, 
"from," "off," and runi'po, rnp'tum, to 
"break."] Applied to leaves and rooti 
that seem broken off at their extremity. 

A'brus Pre-ea-to'ri-us.* [From afipog , 
" delicate," " elegant," andpreca'tor, " one 
who prays," alluding to its use for ro- 
saries.] Called also Wild Liquorice, Li- 
quorice Bush, Red Bean, and other 
names. A small shrub growing in the 
West Indies, Central America, and also 
in Egypt, having beautiful scarlet seeds, 
which are employed for rosaries, neck- 
laces, etc. The roots and leaves contain 
mucilage, and are sometimes used as 

Abs. A Latin particle, having the 
same force as Ab, which see. 

Ab'scess. [Absces'sus; from ahs, 
"from," and ce' 'do, ces'sum, to "go;" be- 
cause the matter "goes from" or sepa- 
rates itself from the rest of the body.] 
(Fr. Abets, ib'si'.) A tumor or swelling 
(usually large and deep) containing pus. 

Abscissa, Vox. See Vox Abscissa. 

Ab-scis'siou. [Abseis'sio, o'nis; 
from ab, "from," "away," and scin'do, 
scis'xum, to "cut."] Applied to a frac- 
tured bone when a part of it is cut off 
and removed, or to the cutting off of any 
soft part, as of a nerve, or the prepuce, etc. 

Absconsio* (ab-skon'she-o), o'nis. 
[From abs, "away," and con'do, to 
"hide."] A term formerly denoting the 
same as Sinus: an abscon'sion. 

Abs. febr.= Absen'te fe'bre.* " Fever 
being absent," or, in the absence of fever. 

Ab-*»iu'tliate. [Absiu'thas, n'tis.] 
A combination of absinthic acid with a 

Ab-siii'thic. [Absisi'thicus: from 
absinthium.] Belonging to Absinthium j 
applied to an acid obtained from it. 

Ab-sin thin. [Absiiitlii'na.] The 
bitter principle discovered in Absinthium. 

Ab-siii'tnl-um.* [Gr. dipivQiov.'] The 
Pharmacopoeial name (Lond. and Ed. 
Ph.) for AVormwood, the Artemisia ab- 
sinthium, and (U.S. Ph.) for its tops and 
leaves. See Artemisia. 

Absin'tliiutii Coin-inu'iie.* An- 
other name for the Artemisia absinthium, 
or Wormwood. 

Absin t Ilium 3Ia-rit 'I-muiu.* An- 
other name for Artemisia marxtima. 




Absinthium Pon'ii-cuni,* Ab- 
siit thinm Ko-iiia 'num.* Other names 
for Artemisia Pontica, which see. 

Absin'thium San-ton 'I-eum.* An- 
other name for Artemisia santonica. 

Absin'thium 'Vul-g'a're.* Another 
name for Artemisia absinthium. 

Ab'so-lute Al'co-hol. Alcohol as 
free from water as it can be obtained. 
See Alcohol. 

Ab-sor'bent. [Absor'bens ; from 
ab, "from," and sor'beo, sorp'tum, to "sip 
or suck."] Sucking up or absorbing. 
Applied to the lacteal and lymphatic 
vessels, and to the origins of vessels on 
the roots of plants. Applied to medicines 
which neutralize acidity in the stomach 
and bowels, as magnesia, chalk, etc. 

Absor'bent Sys'tem. A term used 
to denote collectively the vessels and 
glands which perform the function of 

Ab-sorp'tion. [Absorp'tio, o'nis ; 
from the same.] The sucking up of 
substances applied to the mouths of ab- 
sorbent vessels. In Chemistry, the suck- 
ing up or imbibition of a gas or vapor 
by a liquid or solid. 

Absorption, Cutaneous. See Cu- 
taneous Absorption. 

Absorption, Interstitial. See 
Interstitial Absorption. 

Ab-sie'inl-ous. [Abste'mius ; from 
aba, "from," and teme'tum, an old Latin 
word for "wine:" others derive it from 
abs, "from," and ten'eo, to "hold" or 
"keep," n being changed to m.~\ Strictly, 
abstaining from wine; but generally ap- 
plied also to moderation in diet. 

Ab-ster'gent. [ Abster'gens, en'tis ; 
from abstcr' geo, abster'sum, to "cleanse."] 
Cleansing; abluent; abstersive. Applied 
to medicines which cleanse from foulness 
or sordes. 

Ab'sti-nenee. [Abstinen'tia ; from 
aba, "from," and ten'eo, to "hold" or 
"keep;" to "abstain."] The refraining 
from, or sparing use of, food, liquors, 

Abs-trac'tion. [Abstrac'tio, o'nia ; 
from abs, "from," "away," and tra'ho, 
true tain, to "draw."] The separating 
of a fluid from a salt, etc. That mental 
power hy which ono particular idea may 
be dwelt upon to the exclusion of others; 
also, that by which general ideas may 
be formed from those of particular ob- 
jects. Applied also to the drawing of 
blood from a blood-vessel. 

Ab'sus.* A species of Cassia, tho 
seeds of which, being powdered and 

mixed with sugar, are used in Egypt as 
an application to the eyes in ophthalmia. 

A-bu'ta.* Another name for the Pa- 
reira Brava, which see. 

A-bu'til-on.* Called also the Indian 
or yellow mallow. It is mucilaginous, 
and sometimes used for diarrhoea in 

Abvacuation. See Ab evacuation. 

Acacia,* a-ka'she-a; gen. Acacia^, 
a-ka'she-e. [From dKrj, a " sharp point;" 
the name having been given on account 
of the prickles or thorns with which the 
tree abounds.] A genus of the Linnsean 
class Polygamia, natural order Legumi- 
nosse. Also, the Pharmacopceial name || 
for gum-arabic. 

Aea'cia Al'tera Trifolia'ta. See 
Spartium Spinosum. 

Acacia Arabica. See Acacia Vera. 

Aca'cia3 A-rab'i-cre (; urn mi. The 
Pharmacopceial name (Dub. Ph.) of gum- 
arabic, obtained from Acacia vera, and 
other species of Acacia. 

Aea'cia Cat'e-chu.* The systematic 
name of the plant which affords catechu. 

Aea'cia In'dica.* See Tamarind rs 

Aea'cia Ve'ra.* [FromueVu*, "true."] 
The " true acacia." The Egyptian thorn, 
or gum-arabic tree; called also Acacia 
Arabica. Also, the expressed juice of 
the unripe pods of the Acacia verarel. 

Aea'cia Ver'a-vel.* A species afford- 
ing the juice called Acacia vera. 

Aea'cia Zey-Ion'I-ea.* A name for 
Hxmatoxylon Campech ianum. 

Acajou, a'ka/zhoo'. The Anacar- 
dium Occidentals* which see. 

Ac-a-Ie'phe.* [Gr. aAcaAa^.] The 
nettle. See Urtica. 

Ac-a-le'phus.* [From the same.] Be- 
longing to a nettle. In the neuter plural 
(Acale'jiha) applied to a class of the 
Radiata, from the stinging pain felt on 
touching them. 

A-cal'y-cine. [Acalyci'nus, A- 
cal'yeis; from a, priv., and ca'lyx.] 
Having no calyx. 

A-eamp'si-a.* [From a, priv., and 
KajxTtrw, to "bend."] An inflexible state 
of a joint. See Ankylosis. 

A-can'tha.* [Gr. axavQa; from d*n, a 
"sharp point."] Applied formerly to the 
spine of the back, or rather of a vertebra, 
by the regular arrangement of the series 
of which the former is constituted. A 
thorn, spine, or prickle. 

Acanthacere,* ak-an-tha'she-e. Tho 
name of a natural order of plants re- 
sembling the Acanthus. 



A-can'tni,* the plural of Acan'thus, 

forming the Jussieuan name of a natu- 
ral order, now, which see. 

A-can thine. [Acan'thinus; from 
axayOa, a "thorn. "J Belonging to a 
thorn; thorny, prickly. 

A-ean'thl-um. ;: [From the same.] 
The specific or trivial name for the 
Onopor'dinm Acan'tltium. 

A-can-ilho-ceph'a-lous. [Aean- 
thoccph'alus; from anavOa, and Ke6a\fi, 
the " head."] Having a spiny head. The 
Latin term in the neuter plural (Acan- 
thoceph'alq) is applied to a family of the 
Entozo'a parenchymfata. 

Acantiao'des. See Acaxtiioio. 

A-ean'thoid. [Aeantnoi'des; from 
uxai'da, a "thorn,'' and £?<?«>, a "form."] 
Having the form of a thorn or spine; 
resembling a spine. 

AcaniSiopliorous, ak-an-thof'o-rus. 
[Aeantliopn ©rus; from axavOa, a 
"thorn," and (pepco, to "bear."] Beset 
with spines or coarse hairs. 

A-can-iho-po'di-ous. [Acantho- 
po'dius; from lixavQa, and -ov;, a " foot."] 
Having spinous petioles. 

A-can-lliop-tc-rjrg'I-i.*' [From anav- 
6a, a "thorn," and zrspvyiov, a "little 
wing," a "fin."] The name of an order 
of fishes having spiny fins. < 

A-can'thu-lus.* [From axavQa, a 
"thorn."] An instrument for extracting 
thorns, or spiculse of wood, bone, etc., 
from wounds. 

A-can'tlaus.- [From anav6a, a 

"thorn."] Bear's breech. A genus of 
the Linnsean class Didynamia, natural 
order Acanthncese. 

Acan'thus 3Iol'lis.* The systematic 
name of Bear's breech. 

A-car'da-a.* [From a, priv., and 
Kapiia, the "heart."] The condition of a 
monster-foetus, born without a heart, or, 
rather, deficient as to the whole tho- 

Acardioliremia,* a-kar-de-o-he'- 
me-a. [From a, priv., xapSia, the "heart," 
and alua, "blood."] A deficiency of blood 
in the heart. 

A-car-dl-o-ner'vi-a.* [From a, 

priv., Kapdia, the "heart," and ner'i-us, a 
" nerve."] A deficiency of nervous action 
in the heart, evinced by the sounds 
being inaudible. 

A-car-di-o-tro'pni-a.* [From a. 
priv., Kapdia, and rpopf), "nourishment."] 
Atrophy of the heart. 

Ae-a-ro-i'des. ;;: " [From ac'arus, and 
eUoq, a " form. "J Resembling the Acarus: 


A -car 'pons. [Acar'pus; from a, 
priv., and xap-6;, "fruit. "J Having no 

Ac'a-rns.* [From aKapns, that which 
cannot be cut on account of its small- 
ness; from a, priv., and xsipw, to "cut."] A 
genus of minute insects infesting the skin. 

Ac'arus Au-tum-na'lis.* The har- 
vest-bug ; the wheal-worm. 

Ac'arus Do-nies'tl-cus.* The do- 
mestic tick, found on the human body. 

Ac'arus Ric'I-nus.* The dog-tick. 

Ac'arus Sac'cha-ri.* ("Acarus of 
Sugar.") An animalcule found in sugar, 
causing " grocer's itch." 

Ac'arus Sca-M-e'i.* ("Acarus of 
Itch.") The itch animalcule. 

A-cat'a-lep-sy. [ Acatalep'sia ; 

from a, priv., and KaTa\ap.Savw, to " appre- 
hend."] Uncertainty in diagnosis, etc. 

A-cat-ap'o-sis.* [From a, priv., and 
KaraTTtvco, to " swallow."] Difficulty in 
swallowing. See Dysphagia. 

A-cau'Iis.* [From a, priv., an&cau'Hs, 
a "stem."] Having no stem : acau'line. 

Ac-cel-e-ra'tion. Increased rapidity 
of the pulse, respiration, etc. 

Ac-cel-e-ra'tor, o'r/s.* [From ac- 
cel'cro, aceelera'tum, to "hasten."] Ap- 
plied to a muscle of the penis (Accele- 
ra'tor uri'nse) whose action propels the 
urine; also named Ejacula'tor sem'inis, 
from a similar office as to the semen. 

Ac-ces'sion. [Acces'sio, o'nis; 
from ucce'do, acces'sum, to "go to," to 
"approach," to "be added to."] Tho 
approach, or onset, of diseases, or 
of fits, paroxysms or exacerbations in 
fevers, etc. 

Accessor!! lYillisii,* ak-ses-so're-i 
wil-lis'e-i. The " accessory nerves of 
Willis," so named from the discoverer. 
The superior respiratory nerves, a pair 
arising from the spinal cord and joining 
the par vac/um. 

Ac-ces'so-ry. [Accesso'rius; from 
the same.] Usually applied to muscular 
appendages that assist the action of 
larger muscles. 

Ac'ci-dent. [Ac'cidens; from ac'- 
cido, to "happen."] A familiar word 
used by the French as synonymous with 
symptom. See Accidentia. 

Ac-ei-den'ta!. [ Aecideuta'lis ; from 
the same.] Adventitious; happening 
unexpectedly. Applied by French and 
some English writers to textures result- 
ing from morbid action. 

Accidental t'ol'ors. A series of 
optical phenomena, so named by Buffon, 
and now known by the name of Ocular 




Spectra. If the eye be steadily directed 
for some time to a white wafer upon a 
dark ground, and be then turned aside, 
a well-defined image of the wafer will be 
perceived, with the colors reversed: the 
wafer will appear dark, the ground 
white. This new appearance is termed 
the accidental color, or ocular spectrum. 
By using differently colored wafers we 
obtain the following results: — 

Color of wafer. Color of spectra. 

Black White. 

Red Bluish-green. 

Orange Blue. 

Yellow Indigo. 

n f Violet with a 

ureen < ,.,,, , 

( little red. 

Blue Orange-red. 

Indigo Orange-yellow. 

Violet Bluish-green. 

Darwin classes the Spectra under the 
two heads of direct and reverse; the 
former depending on the permanence of 
the impression, the latter upon exhaus- 

Accidentia,* ak-se-den'she-a. [From 
ac'cido, to "happen," ac'cidens, "hap- 
pening," "that which happens."] A 
chance or occurrence happening to one 
unexpectedly : an ac'cident. 

Ac-cip'i-teiv :;: " [From accip'io, to 
" take."] A bird of prey. In the plural 
{Accipitres, ak-sip'e-trez) applied to an 
order of birds, including the hawk, 
eagle, etc., called also Rapa'ces, and 
Rapto'res, from their rapacious or pre- 
datory character. 

Ac-cli'mat-ed. [Aecliina'tus. Fr. 
acclimate, ak v kle v ina v ta'.] Thoroughly 
accustomed to a climate. 

Ac-cli-ma-ta-za'tion. [Acclimati- 
za'tio, o'jiis.] The process or state of 
being acclimated. 

Ac-cli'vis.* [From ad, "to," and 
cli'vus, the "side of a hill."] "Sloping 
upwards." Applied to a muscle of the 
abdomen, from the oblique ascent of its 
fibres, the Obli'quus inter'nus. 

Accouchement (Fr.), ak v koosh'moN«'. 
[From accuueher, ak'koo\sha', to "put to 
bed," to "deliver."] The act of being 
delivered; delivery. 

Accoucheur, ak r koo N shuit'. [From 
the same.] A man-midwife; an obstetri- 

Ac-cre'tion. [Accre'iio, o'm's ; from 
ad, "to," and eres'co, cre'tum, to "grow."] 
The process by which nutrient particles 
are added to the various tissues. The 
adhering together of parts naturally 
separate, as the fingers, etc. 

Acephala. See Acephalcs. 

Accphalia,* as-e-fa'le-a. [From a, 
priv., and KecpaXij, the " head."] A form of 
foetal monstrosity, consisting in the want 
of the head. 

Acephalobrachia,* a-sefVlo-bra- 
ki'a. [From a, priv., KttyciXf), the "head," 
and fipaxitov, the " arm."] A form of 
foetal monstrosity, consisting in the ab- 
sence of head and arms. 

A-ceph v a-lo-fora-chi'us.* [From the 
same.] A monster-foetus, having neither 
head nor arms. 

A-ceph'a-lo-car'di-a.* [From a, 
priv., K£<pa\f), the "head," and Kapdia, the 
" heart."] A form of monstrosity, con- 
sisting in the absence of head and heart. 

A-ceph v a-lo-car'di-us.* [From the 
same.] A monster-fcetus, without head 
and heart. 

Acephalochirus,* or Acephalo- 
cheirus,* a-sef v a-lo-ki'riis. [From a, 
priv., KscpaXii, the "head," and \tip, the 
"hand."] A monster-fcetus, without 
head and hands. 

Acephalocyst,* a-sef'a-lo-sist. 

[Aceph^alocys'tis; from a, priv., K£tpa\rj, 
the "head," and kvcttis, a "bladder."] 
The headless hydatid, formed like a 

A-ceph'a-lo-g-as'ter.* [From a, 
priv., Kctbah'i, the "head," and yew-ftp, the 
"stomach" or "belly."] A monster- 
fcetus, without head, chest, and upper 
part of the belly. 

A-c^p^a-lo-gas'tri-a.* [From the 
same.] A form of monstrosity, consist- 
ing in the want of head, chest, and 

A-ceph'a-lo-po'di-a.* [From a, priv., 
K£ij)ah), the "head," and xovs, tto5<'>s, the 
"foot."] A form of monstrosity, consist- 
ing in the absence of head and feet. 

A-ceph y a-lop'o-dus.* [From the 
same.] A monster-foetus, without head 
and feet. 

Acephalorachia,* a-sef x a-lo-ra'- 
ke-a. [From a, priv., KtcpaXfi, the "head," 
and pdxis, the "spine."] A form of mon- 
strosity, consisting in the want of head 
and spinal column. 

A-ceph v a-lo-ra'chI-us.* [From the 
same.] A monster-foetus, without head 
and spinal column. 

Accphalostonia. See Acephalos- 


A-ccph v a-lo-sto'mi-a.* [From a, 
priv., xapaXfi, the "head," and aropa. a 
"mouth."] A form of monstrosity, con- 
sisting in the want of a head, but with 
an aperture like a mouth. 



A-cepli'a-Ios'to-mns,* or A-^eph'- 

a-los'to-iiia. : " [From the same.] A 
monster-foetus, without a head, but 
having an aperture like a mouth. 

A-^eph'a-lo-tho-ra'cI-a.- [From a, 
priv., KapaXfj, the "head," and Q^opaz, the 
"chest."] A form of monstrosity, 
consisting in the want of head and 

A-^oph'a-Io-tho'rns.- [From the 
same.] A monster-foetus, without head 
and chest. 

A-cepU'a-liis. :l: ' [From a, priv, and 
Ks^aXri, the "head."] "Without a head: 
aceph'alous. In the neuter plural 
(Aceph'ala) applied to a class of Mol- 
lusea having no appearance of a head. 

A'^er.* The maple. 

Ag'era,* the plural of A'cer, a ''ma- 
ple-tree." — forming the Jussieuan name 
of a natural order of plants. See Ace- 


A'cer Sac-€ha-ri'iinm. ;;: The sugar- 

Aceraceav* as-e-ra'she-e, or A-^er- 
fat'e-ae.* [From a cer, the '"maple-tree."] 
A natural order of plants including the 

A^'e-rate. [Ace'ras, a'fj'a.] A com- 
bination of aceric acid with a salifiable 

A-cer'bi-ty. [Acer'bitas, n'tis ; 
from acer'bus, "crude," "harsh."] Sour- 
ness, with harshness. 

A-cer'ic. [Acer'icrts; from a'cer, 
the " maple-tree."] Pertaining to the 
Acer. Applied to an acid obtained from 
the juices of A'cer campcs'tre, and A'cer 
j>seu' do-plat' anus. 

Acerinea?. [From the same.] See 


A^'er-ose. [Aeero'stis: from a'cus, 

CK/'eris, "chaff."] Chaffy; like chaff. 

A-cer'vu-Ius. :: ' [Diminutive of acer- 
vwt, a "heap."] The collection of sand- 
like particles found in the pineal gland: 
an acer'vule. 

A-ces'^ent. [Aces'cens: from aces'- 
co. to "grow sour."] Becoming sour. 

A-ce'ta,* the plural of Ace'tum, 
"vinegar," applied in Pharmacy to 
preparations of vinegar. 

Ac-e-tab'u-lum.* [From ace'tum, 
"vinegar."] A little cup used by the an- 
cients for holding vinegar. Applied, in 
Anatomy, to the round cavity in the Os 
innominatum which receives the head of 
the 0--t/emori8. 

A^j'e-tal. A compound of aldehyde 
with ether; formed by the action of pla- 
tinum black on the vapor of alcohol 

with the presence of oxygen. It is a 
colorless, very fluid liquid, having a 
peculiar odor, suggesting that of Hun- 
gary wines. 

A^-e-Sa'ri-um, ::: plural A^-e-ta'ri-a. 
[From ace'tum, "vinegar."] A salad 
made of roots or herbs mixed with oil, 
salt, and vinegar. 

Aceta'rium Scor-bu'ti-eiiBn.* A 
kind of pickle for scorbutic patients. 

A^'e-tate. [Ace'tas, st'tis.] A com- 
bination of acetic acid with a base. 

A-cet'ic. [Acet'icus; from ace'tum, 
"vinegar."] Belonging to vinegar. Ap- 
plied to an acid the product of acetous 

A-oet'I-ea.* [From the same.] Phar- 
maceutical preparations of vinegar. 

Acet'ic A^'id. [A^'idum Acet'i- 
onni.] The sour principle which exists 
in vinegar. It occurs ready-formed in 
several products of the vegetable king- 
dom; it is also generated during the 
spontaneous fermentation of many vege- 
table and animal juices. Two kinds 
are known in Pharmacy. — viz. : Ac'idum 
acet'icum dilu'tum, " dilute acetic acid." 
or common distilled vinegar, with very 
minute portions of uncombined mucilage 
and extractive. Ac'idum acet'icum for' - 
tins, "strong acetic acid." This variety 
is obtained by distillation from wood, 
generally that of oak coppice deprived 
of its bark, and is then termed pyrolig- 
neous acid; also by decomposing the 
acetates by sulphuric acid ; it is then 
termed radical vinegar: and when mixed 
with camphor and essential oils, it is 
called "Henry's Aromatic Essence of 
Vinegar," and Marseilles or Thieves' 
Vinegar, or Vinaigre des Quutre Voleurt 
(ve'negR' da katR volwa'). See Gla- 
cial Acid. 

A-ceiJ-fl-ca'tiosi. [Aeetifioa'tio, 
o'nis; from ace'tum, and fa'cio, to 
"make."] The act or process of making 

Ac'e-tlte. [Ace'tis. i'fis • from ace'- 
tum.'] An erroneous name for the salt 
of acetous acid, in distinction from that 
of acetic acid, given when these acids were 
supposed to be different. The proper 
term is Acetate, which see. 

A^-e-tom'e-ior. [Acetom'otrnm ; 
from ace'tum. and \ikrpov. a "measure."] 
An instrument for ascertaining the 
strength of vinegar. 

A^'o-tojie. A substance found, as an 
impurity, associated with pyro-acetio 
spirit, or naphtha. 

A^-e-to'sa.* [From a ceo, to "be 




aour."] The specific name of Iiumex 

A-ce-to-sel'la.* [From aeeto'sa.'] The 
former Pharmacopoeia! name (Loncl. Ph. 
lS3t)j for the Oxalic acetoaella. 

A-ce/tous. [Aceto'sjts; from ace- 
tum.] Pertaining to vinegar; acetic. 

A-cc'tum.* [From a' ceo, to "be 
sour.''] Acetic or acetous acid in a very 
diluted state; common vinegar. The 
varieties of vinegar known in commerce 
are three: — Wine vinegar, Malt vinegar, 
and Sugar vinegar. The strongest malt 
vinegar is termed proof vinegar, and is 
called by the manufacturer No. 24; it is 
estimated to contain 4.73 per cent, of 
real acetic acid. See Acetic Acid. 

Ac'e-tyl. A hypothetical radical, 
produced by the abstraction of two 
atoms of oxygen from ethyl, by oxi- 
dating processes. It pervades a series 
of compounds, including acetic acid, 
from which it derives its name. 

Aclirenium,* a-ke'ne-uin; written 
also Aclie' ilium. [From a, priv., and 
XaiVd, to "open."] An in dehiscent fruit: 
it is one-celled and one-seeded, dry, and 
having the integuments of the seed dis- 
tinct from it. 

Aclieir, a-kir'_, or Ariicirus. See 

Achillea,* ak-il-le'a. A genus of 
syngenesious plants. The A. age/atum 
has properties similar to those of tansy. 
The A. millefo'lium, common yarrow or 
milfoil, is sometimes used in dyspepsia, 
flatulence, etc. ; also in haemorrhage. 

A-<-9si!'Iis Tendo.* (The "Tendon 
of Achilles.") The strong tendon of the 
gastroene'mii, or gastrocne' miun andso/se'us 
muscles. Also called Chorda Magna, 
or the "great sinew." 

Acliirous, a-kl'riis, or Acheiroiis. 
[Aclii'rus, orAchei'rus;from a, priv., 
and X £ ip, the " hand."] Having no hands. 

Actilamydeous, ak-la-mid'e-us. 

[Actilamyd'eus; from a, priv., and 
X^a^vi, a " short cloak."] Without calyx 
or corolla. 

Acinic,* ak'ne. [Gr. axvn-'] A shred of 
lint. A flake of mucous-like substance 
on the cornea. 

Acliolous, ak'o-liis. [Acli'oUis; 
from a, priv., and x°M, "bile."] With- 
out bile ; deficient in bile. 

A'chor,* plural A-clio'rcS. [Gr. dx^p, 
"scurf" or "dandruff."] A small pus- 
tule containing a straw-colored fluid, 
and forming scaly eruptions about the 
head of young children; a species of 

Achoristus,* ak-o-ris'tiis. [From a, 
priv., and x^ptW, to "separate."] A 
sign or symptom which is inseparable 
from (or which invariably accompanies) 
a particular state of health or disease. 

Acli'ro-a.* [From u, priv., and xi>° a , 
"color."] A colorless state of the skin, 
caused by the absence of the usual color- 
ing matter of the rete mtieoaum. Com- 
pare Dys'chroa. 

Acl^ro-mat'ac. [ Actii'omat'icus ; 
from a, priv., and Xpufia, "color."] That 
which does not admit the colors of the 
solar spectrum. Lenses in which the 
prismatic aberration of light (caused by 
refraction) is corrected, are termed achro- 

A-ctiro'ma-tism. [Aclironiatis'- 
rmis; from the same.] The correction 
of the aberration of light arising from 

Acli-ro'ma-top'si-a.* [From a, priv., 
Xpw/^a, "color," and o\pi<,, " vision."] 
Inability to distinguish colors: achro- 

Achylosis,* ak-e-lo'sis. [From a, 
priv., and X'Aoj, "juice," and hence 
"chyle."] Deficient chylification. 

Achymosis,* ak-e-mo'sis. [From a, 
priv., and X v p°s, "chyme."] Deficient 

Acia,* a'she-a. [From a cm, a " nee- 
dle."] A word used by Celsus, sup- 
posed to mean the thread in a needle 
with which a suture is made to join the 
lips of a wound; also, the suture itself. 

A-cic'u-Ia,* plural, A-cic'u-la*. [Di- 
minutive of a cus, a "needle."] A little 
needle: an ac'icule. See Spicula. 

A-eic'ii-lar. [Acicula'ris: from acic'*. 
ula.~\ Like a small needle; spicular. 

A-cic'u-la-ted. [Acicula'tus.] 

Having acieulse. 

Ac/id. [Ac'idus, Ac'iduiii; from 
a! ceo, to "be sour."] Sour; sharp to the 
taste, like vinegar. As a noun it signi- 
fies a compound substance which unites 
in definite proportions with alkaline 
bases, and has the property of turning 
vegetable blues to red. 

Ac'ida,* the plural of Acidt'm, an acid. 

Ac*I-«lif 'er-ons. [ Acidif 'erus ; 

from aq'idum, an "acid," and fe'ro, to 
"bear." Bearing or containing acid. 

A-cidi-f i'a-blc. [Acidiliab'ilis ; 
from a</idnn, "sour," and ji'o, to "be- 
come."] Capable of becoming acid. 

A-cid v i-fi-ca'ti<»ii. [Acidifica'tio, 
©' m'*.] The act or process of forming, 
or impregnating with, acid. See next 



A-cid'I-fy. [From acfidus, "sour," 
and fa do, to "make."] To make sour 
or acid : to convert into an acid. 

A-citl'I-fy-ing 1 . [ Acidif icus ; from 
atfidus, awl/acio, to "make."] Making 
acid: converting into an acid. 

Acidifying Priu'ci-ple. That 
which forms an acid. 

Ac-id-im'e-ter. [Acidim'etrum ; 
from ac'idum, an "acid," and txirpoi>, a 
"measure."] An instrument for mea- 
suring the strength of acids or the 
amount of free acid. See next ar- 

Ac-id-im'e-try. [Acidime'tria ; 
from w;'idum, "acid," and fisrpxo, to 
"measure."] The process by which the 
strength of acids is measured, or by 
which the amount of uncombined or free 
acid is determined. 

A-cid'i-ty. [Acid'itas, aftis ; from 
aq'idus, "sour."] The quality of sour- 
ness. See Acor. 

Acidometer. See Acidimeter. 

A-cid'u-la-ted. [Acidula'tus: from 
acid'ulus, "slightly acid."] Slightly 
blended with acid. 

A-cid'u-lous. [Acid'ulus ; from 
the same.] Slightly acid: subacid. 

Ac 'i-dum,* plural Ac'I-da. [The neu- 
ter form of ac'idus, "sour."] An Acid, 
which see. 

Acies,* a'she-ez or a'se-ez. [From axfj, 
a "sharp point."] A name for iron or 

Ac-I-nac'i-form. [ Acinacifor'mis ; 
from acin'aces, a "scimitar."] In the 
form of a scimitar. 

Ac-I-ne'sI-a,* or Ak-l-ne'si-a.* 
[From a, priv., and <ivr)aig, "motion."] 
Loss of motion in the whole or part of 
the body. 

Ac'I-ni.* The plural of Acixrs, which 

A-cin'I-form. [ Acinifor'mis ; from 
a<:'uin8, a "grape" or "grape-stone."] 
Having the appearance of a grape or 
grape-stone. See Acinus. 

Ac'i-ndse, or Ac'i-nous. [Acino'- 
sus; from the same.] Having acini, 
or full of acini. 

Ac/i-nus,* or Ac/I-nos.* [Gr. axtvos, 
the "stone of grapes;" a "grape."] Ap- 
plied in the plural (at/ini) to the small 
granulations composing the substance 
of the liver and other glandular bodies. 
Also a term used in Botany to denote 
the small berries which form the fruit of 
the bramble, rasp, etc. Also a species 
of thyme. 

Ac-i-pen'ser.* The sturgeon, a 

genus of fishes from which isinglass is 
prepared. See Ichthyocolla. 

Acme.* [Gt, dxyJi, the "point," 
"top," "period of greatest vigor. - '] The 
highest degree, or height, of a disease; 
the crisis. 

Ac'ne. ;: [Supposed to be derived from 
acme, because it is apt to affect those 
who are in the bloom of life.] A papu- 
lar eruption, mostly occurring on the 
face, but sometimes extending to the 
neck, shoulders, or breast. 

Ac'ne Rosa'cea*(ro-za'she-a). Pim- 
ples on the face; the conspicuous erup- 
tion, of a bright rosy hue, on the nose 
and contiguous parts of the face, in 
drunkards. Called also Gut'ta Ro'sea, or 

Accelius,* a-se'le-us, or Acoe'lios.* 
[From a, priv., and icoi\ia, the "belly."] 
Having no belly ; wasted to such a degree 
as to have this appearance. 

A-col'o-gy. [Acolo'gia; from aVoj, 
a "remedy," and Aoyoj, a "discourse."] 
The doctrine or science of remedies. By 
some the term is limited to the considera- 
tion of surgical and mechanical remedies. 

A-con'dy-lous. [From a, priv., and 
kov6"\o;, a "joint. "1 Without joints. 

Ac'o-uite. The common name for 
Acoxitum Xapellus. 

Aconitia,- ak-o-nish'e-a, or A-con'I- 
lin. [Aconiti'na; from aconi'tum.'] 
An alkaloid constituting the active princi- 
ple of aconite. It is a powerful poison. 

Ac-o-nit'ic Acid. An acid obtained 
from aconite. 

Ac-o-ni'ti Fo'll-um.* ("Leaf of 
Aconite.") The Pharmacopceial name 
(U.S. Ph.) for the leaves of Aconi'tum 

Acuni'ti Radix.* ("Root of Aco- 
nite.") The Pharmacopoeia! name || for 
the root of Aconi'tum napellus. 

Ac-o-ni'tum.* [From Ac'onse, a place 
in Bithynia where it was common.] The 
Pharmacopoeial name (Br. Ph.) for the 
leaves and tops of Aconi'tum napellus. 

Aconi'tum Jfa-pel'lus.* The sys- 
tematic name of aconite. 

A'cor, o'r;'*.* [From a' ceo, to "be 
sour."] Acidity, as in the stomach from 

A-co'rl-a.* [From a. priv., and Kopiai, 
to "'satisfy.''] Insatiable hunger. 

A-cor'mous. [Acor 'in us; from a, 
priv., and *%«>$, the " trunk of a tree."] 
Having no stem. 

Ac'o-rus,* Ac'o-rum.* [Gr. axopov.] 
The Pharmacopceial name (Lond. Ph. 
1836) for Acorns calamus. A Linnaean 

A 7 



genus of the class Hexandria, order 
Jluiiuyynia, Jussieuan system Aroidex. 

Ac'orus A-si-at'i-cus, Ac'orus Ve'- 
rus. ;; Other names for Acorns calamus. 

Ac'orus tala-mus. :; The systematic 
name of the common sweet flag. See 
preceding article. 

Acotyledon,* a-kot-i-le'don. [From 
a, priv., and xotuXt]6jjv, ovog, a "seed-lobe."] 
A plant having no seed-lobe: without a 
cotyledon. In the plural, applied to a 
division of the Jussieuan system. See 
next article. 

Acotyledones.* a-kot-I-le'do-nez. 
[From the same.] Acotyledonous plants; 
plants whose seeds have no distinct co- 
tyledons. The term is usually applied 
to what are more commonly named 
cryptogamic plants, such as ferns, mosses, 
lichens, etc., in which there are no seeds, 
properly so called, but which are propa- 
gated by undivided spherical bodies 
called spores. 

A-cot-y-led'o-nous. [Acotyledo'- 
neus, Acotyle'donus ; from the same.] 
Having no cotyledon or seed-lobe. See 

Acoumeter, a-koo'me-ter or a-kow'- 
me-ter. [ Acou'metrum ; from dxovco, 
to "hear," and fitrpov, a "measure."] An 
instrument for estimating the extent of 

Acouophonia,* a-koo-o-fo'ne-a. 
[From (xkovcj, to "hear," and (povrj, a 
"voice" or "sound."] A mode of aus- 
cultation in which the observer places 
his ear on the chest and analyzes the 
sound produced by percussion. 

A-cous'ma, atisS' [From dxovco, to 
"hear."] A species of depraved hear- 
ing, in which sounds are imagined as if 
really heard. 

Acoustic, a-koos'tik or a-kow'stik. 
[Acous'ticus; from axovcrni, a "hearer."] 
Pertaining to sound, or the sense of hear- 
ing. Anciently applied to remedies (called 
acoiintica medicamenta) for deafness. 

Acoustic Duct. See Meatus Atj- 

Acous'tic \ervc. The auditory nerve, 
or Portia mollis of the seventh pair. 

A-cous'tics. [Acous'tica; from 
dxovco, to "hear."] The doctrine of the 
theory and principles of sound: the sci- 
ence of sound. 

Ac-quis'I-tive-ness. According to 
Phrenology, that faculty or propensity 
which impels to the acquisition of pro- 

Acra'palus.* a-krep'a-lus, or A- 
cra?p'a-los. :;j [From a, priv., and xpai- 

■rra\r), "drunken or gluttonous excess."] 
Correcting the effects of excess in eating 
or drinking. 

A-cra'nI-a.* [From a, priv., and 
Kpavlov, the "cranium."] A species of 
defective development consisting in par- 
tial or total absence of the cranium. 

Acratia,* a-kra'te-a. [From a, priv., 
and K(,aTo i} " strength."] Weakness, im- 

Ac'rid. [From a'cer,ora'cris, "sharp."] 
A term applied to substances producing 
a disagreeable sense of irritation or burn- 
ing on the tongue or in the fauces. 

Ac'ri-mo-ny. [Acriiito'nia: from 
a'eris, " sharp," " acrid."] A sharp, acrid, 
corrosive quality, biting to the tongue. 

Acrimony of the Humors. A 
change supposed to take place in the 
fluids of the body, causing disease. 

A-crin'I-a.* [From a, priv., and k/jiVw, 
to "discern," to "secrete."] A diminu- 
tion or total suppression of the secretions. 

A-cri'sI-a.* [From a, priv., and xpicts, 
a "judgment."] A state of disease in 
which there is either no crisis, or in which 
no judgment or opinion can be formed. 

Ac'ri-ta.* [From a, priv., and xpiico, 
to "discern," to "perceive," to "judge."] 
A subdivision of the Jludiata of Cuvier, 
including animals which have no trace 
of any organs of perception or of any 
nervous system. It comprehends Polypi, 
Infusoria, and other animals of the very 
lowest type. 

A-crit'i-cal. [Ac'ritus; from a, 
priv., and xpi-ds, "judged," from Kpivb), to 
"judge."] Having no regular crisis. 

Ac-ro-bys'tl-a.* [From clxpov, "ex- 
tremity," and 6vio, to " cover."] The pre- 

Ac'ro-dont. [Ac'rcdon ; from 

axpov, "extremity" or "summit," and 
6dov$, oSovt-os, a "tooth."] Applied by 
Owen to scaly Saurii having teeth an- 
kylosed to the summit of the alveolar 

Ac-ro-dyn'I-a.* [From axpov, "ex- 
tremity," and ocvvr), "pain."] Acute 
rheumatism of the extremities, head, 
hands, or feet. 

Ac'ro-gren. An acrogenous plant. 
See next article. 

A-cro£'e-uous. [Acroi'enus; from 
axpov, "summit," and ye/w, to "be born."] 
Growing from their tops. The Latin 
term in the plural feminine (Aerogense, 
a-kroj'e-ne) is applied to plants which 
grow from their external points, and 
whose increase is in length mainly. 

Ac-ro-ma'nl-a.* [From axpos, "ex- 



treme." and \iavia, "madness."] Con- 
firmed or iucurable madness. 

A-cro'ml-al. [Acromia'lis.] Per- 
taining to the acromion. 

A-cro'niI-on.' : - [From uxpov, "ex- 
tremity'" or '•summit," and tj/zo b -, the 
"shoulder."] The projecting process of 
the Scapula. 

Ac-rom-piia'11-on. * Acrom pha- 
lon. • Ac-roiii-ptia'U-um,* Acrom '- 
phaliim. '■■ [From axpov, " summit" or 
"point," and d)ipa\6;, the "navel."] The 
centre of the navel, to which the cord is 
attached in the foetus. 

Acron'ycal. See Acroxyctots. 

Ac-roii-j'C'tous. [Acronyc'tns; 
from aKpov, "extremity," and vv^, vwcroj, 
"night."] Applied to stars appearing 
at sunset and disappearing at sunrise 
(sunset and sunrise being the two "ex- 
tremities of the night") ; in other words, 
to stars or planets when opposite the 

Ac'ro-spire. [Acrospi'ra; from 
axpov, "extremity," "end," and cmtipa, 
any thing wound round another.] A 
sprout or plumule from the end of seeds 
when germinating. 

A-crot'ic. [Acrot'icus; from avpoj, 
"extreme," "outermost part."] Belong- 
ing to the external surface. Applied in 
the plural neuter {Acrot! 'iea) to an order 
of the class Eccritica, in Good's classifi- 

Ac'ro-iism. [Acrotis'mns: from a, 
priv., and Kporoi, the "pulse."] A defect 
of the pulse. 

Ac-tin-i-for'mis.* [From cbcriv, or 
dxrif, a " ray."] Exhibiting the form 
or appearance of rays. The same as 

Ac'tin-ism. [ActinLs'mus; from 
aKTif.] That branch of Natural Philoso- 
phy which treats of the radiation of 
heat or light (Mayne); but more usually 
the chemical power of the sun's rays as 
distinguished from light or heat. 

Ac-tin-o-car'pous. [Actinocar'- 
pus; from a<Av, a "ray," and Kap-o^, 
"fruit."] Having trophosperms radiated 
like the rays of fruit. 

Ac-tin-oc/er-ate. Ac-tin-oc'er-ons. 
[Actinocera'tus, Actinoc'erus; from 
cbcriv, and Kzpa;, a " horn."] Having parts 
like radiated horns. 

Ac-tin-o'cles. The same as Actixoid. 

Ac'tin-ohl. [Actinoi'des; from 
cbcriv, a " ray." and dios, a "form."] Re- 
sembling rays, or a ray. 

Ac-tiii'o-lite. [Aetijiol ithus: from 
axriv, a "ray," and \i6o;, a "stone."] A 

species of mineral composed of radiated 

Ac-tin-om'e-tcr. [Actinom'e- 

trum: from turn*, a "ray," and /xirpoi-, a 
"measure."] An instrument for indi- 
cating the strength of the sun's rays. 

Ac-tin-o-zo'um,* or Ac-tin-o-zo'- 
©n :J (plural Actinozo'a). [From axriv, 
and ifixt", an " animal."] The name of 
certain Acephala Gastrica having ap- 
pendages, and often the arese of the sur- 
face, radiated. 

Ac'tion. [Ac'tio, o'nis ; from a'go, 
ac'tum, to "do," to "act."] The exer- 
cise of an active power ; a faculty or 
function of the body. 

Ac'tive. [Acti'vus: from the same.] 
Acting with energy. Applied to treat- 
ment of the sick, to certain medicines, 
and to surgical remedies. 

Ac'tu-al Cau'te-ry. [From Kaico, to 
"burn;" or Kavrvpiov, a "red-hot iron," a 
"branding-iron."] A red-hot iron, or 
fire, used by surgeons as a cautery, be- 
cause it really burns away the part or 
surface to which it is applied, in contra- 
distinction to caustic substances, termed 
potential cauteries, which produce a 
similar result without actual burning. 
Also called Ignis actualis, "actual fire." 

A-cu'le-ate. [Aculea'tus : from 
acu'leus, a "prickle."] Having prickles. 

A-cu'le-us. ■ [From a'cus, a "needle."] 
A prickle arising from the bark or epi- 
dermis of any part of a plant, and 
which may be peeled off with the bark. 

A-cu'ml-nate. [Acumina'tns ; 

from acu'men, acu' minis, a "point," 
"sharpness."] Pointed; tapering to a 

Ac-u-pres'sion. [Acuprcs'si© ; from 
a'eusj a "needle," and pre' mo, pres'sum, 
to "press."] Dr. J. Y. Simpson's plan of 
securing against haemorrhage in wounds 
or operations, by inserting a needle 
through the skin below the divided ves- 
sel, and returning its point to the cuta- 
neous surface again, the ends being left 
out to a sufficient extent. 

Ac-n-punc'ture. [Acupunctu'ra; 
from a'cus, a "needle," tind pun' ijo. jjuuc' - 
turn, to "prick."] A small puncture 
made with a needle. 

A ens Caii-iiu-la'ta." A trochar: a 
cannulated needle used in surgery. 

A cus In-ler-piinc-to'ri-a. A 

couching-needle, used in operating on 
the eye. 

A'cus Oph-thai'mi-ea. A couching 
or ophthalmic needle. 




A'cus Tri-que'tra.* A trochar: a 
three-cornered needle. 

Ac-ut-an'gu-lar, or Ac-ut-an'g-u- 
late. [Acutang'ula'ris, Aeutangu- 
la'tus; from acu'tus, "sharp," and 
an'(julu8, a "corner."] Having sharp 

A-cfite'. [Acu'tus; from ac'uo,acu'- 
tum, to "sharpen," to "point."] Ending 
in a point. Applied also to diseases 
having violent symptoms attended with 
danger, and terminating within a few 

Ac-u-te-iiac'u-lum.* [From a'cus, a 
tf< needle," and tenaculum, a "handle."] 
A handle for a needle. Also called Porte- 

A-cy'a-uo-blep'si-a.* [From a, priv., 
Kvauog, " blue," and /JActw, to " look," to 
" see."] Defect of vision by which bluo 
color cannot be distinguished. 

Acyesis,* as-i-e'sis. [From a, priv., 
and ta'iricii, "pregnancy."] Sterility in 

Ad. A Latin preposition signifying 
"to," "at," "by," "towards," "near," 
"with," etc. In compound words the 
d is usually changed to correspond with 
the following letter. Thus, ad becomes 
ac before c, al before I, ap before p, etc. 

Ad. or Add. = Ad'de, adda'tur* etc. 
"Add," or "let there be added." 

Ad Def. Auimi = Ad defectionem 
animi* (ad de-fek-she-o'nem an'e-mi). 
"To fainting." 

Ad Deliquium* (de-lik'we-um), or 
Ad Deliq'uium An'imi.* "To faint- 
ing." Used in directions for venesection. 

Ad 2 Vic. = Ad du'as vi'ces.* "At 
two times," or "at twice taking." 

Ad lib. = Ad libi'tum.* "At plea- 

A-dac'ry-a.* [From a, priv., and 
Sdxpiov, a. "tear."] A deficiency of the 
iachrymal secretion. 

AdaMnonia,* a-de-mo'ne-a. [From 
a, priv., and tiaipuv, "fortune."] Restless 
or unhappy thoughts; anxiety. 

Ad'a-mant. [Ad'ainas. Adaman'- 
tis; from a, neg., and <5u/<aw, to "subdue."] 
Literally, "that which [on account of its 
hardness] cannot be subdued." Diamond, 
the hardest of all substances. 

Ad-a-man'tine. [ Adaman'tinus ; 
from the preceding.] Having the hard- 
ness or lustre of adamant. 

Adam's Apple. See Pomum Adami. 

Ad-ap'ter. A tube used in Chemistry 

for increasing the length of the neck of 

a retort, or for connecting the retort 

with the receiver, where the orifice of 


the latter is not large enough to admit 
the beak of the retort. 

Ad-de-pbagi-a. [From a^v, or 
aofav, "abundantly," and ipaytXv, to "eat."] 
Voracious appetite, or Bulimia. 

Ad'di»son's Dis-ease'. The 3felasma 
aupra-renale, first described by him. 

Ad-di-ta-men turn. [From ad'do, 
ad'ditum, to "add" or "adjoin."] A 
small suture sometimes found added to 
the lambdoid and squamous sutures. 

Ad-du'cens.* [From ad, "to," and 
du'co, to "lead," to "draw."] Drawing 
together: addu'eent. 

Ad-duc'tiou. [Add actio. o'ms; 
from the same.] That movement by 
which one part, as a limb or finger, is 
drawn to another, or to the mesial line. 

Ad-duc'tor, o'r/s.* [From the same.] 
Applied to muscles that perform adduc- 
tion. See Antithenar. 

A'den,* gen. Ad'euis. [Gr. d6ijv, a 
"gland."] A gland. A bubo. 

Ad-en-al'g*I-a.* [From dSf/v, a 

"gland," and oikyos, "pain."] Pain in a 
gland: adenal'gy. 

Ad'en-em-pnrax'is.* [From abr\v, a 
"gland," and t^ppa^is, "obstruction."] 
Glandular obstruction. 

Ad-en'i-form. [Adeniform'is ; 

from a' den, a "gland."] Formed like a 
gland; glandiform. See Adenoid. 

Ad-eu-i'tis, %dis.* [From dirjv, a 
"gland."] Inflammation of a gland; 

Ad'eu-o-dyn'I-av*' [From dd>v>, aSevos, 
a "gland," and dSvvrj, "pain."] Pain in a 
gland. See Adenalgia. 

Ad-eu-og'ra-ph$ r . [Adenograph'- 
ia; from d^, a "gland," and ypdcbw, to 
"write."] A treatise or dissertation on 
the glandular system. 

Ad'en-oid. [Adcnoi'des; from defy, 
a "gland," and eidos, a "form."] Resem- 
bling a gland. 

Ad-en-ol'o-gy. [Adenolo'gia; from 
ddf\v, a "gland," and A<5yoj, a "discourse."] 
The doctrine of the glandular system. 
The science which treats of glands or 
of the glandular system. 

Ad'en-o-me-niu'ge-us.* [From d8fjv, 
a "gland," and /^"lyf, a "membrane."] 
Applied to mucous or pituitous fever 
{Febris adenomeninqea), because the 
membranes and follicular glands ol the 
intestines were held to be the chief seat 
of the complaint. 

Adeu-on-co'sis,* or Adcn-oii-lco'- 
SlSL* [From d()r\v, a "gland," and dyxoco, 
to "puff up" or "swell."] Swelling of a 



Ad v en-o-ner'v©us. The same as 
Adenoneurosus, which see. 

Ad en-o-iieu-ro'sus.* [From dbfy, 
a "gland," and vcvpov, a "nerve."] Ap- 
plied to the plague {Febris adenoneu- 
ro8a), because situated in the nerves 
and lymphatic glands of the axilla and 
groin : adenonerv'ous. 

Ad'en-o-phar-yn-gi'tis, idis* 

[From d<\fii>, a "gland," and (pdpvy%, the 
"pharynx."] Inflammation of the ton- 
sils and pharynx. 

Ad v eii-oph-tlial'mI-a.* [From dfav, 
a "gland," and d/.QaA^dj, the "eye."] In- 
flammation of the Meibomian glands: 

Ad'en-o-pliy'ma.* [From dSiiv, a 
"gland," and (pvp.a, a "tumor."] The 
swelling of a gland. When it occurs in 
the liver it is called hepatophyma. 

Ad'en-o-scle-ro'sis.* [From dSm; 
a "gland," and cxXipoa), to "harden."] 
A hard, indolent swelling of a gland, 
not of a scirrhous character. 

Ad'en-ose. [Adeno'sus; from a den, 
a "gland."] Having many glands; 

Ad-en-ot'o-my. [Adenoto'mia ; 
from dJ/71/, dSivas, a "gland," and renvoi, 
to "cut."] Dissection of the glands. 

Adephagia. See Addephagia. 

A'deps, gen. Ad'I-pis.* A Latin term, 
signifying fat, animal oil. 

A'deps Aii-ser-i'mis.* Goose-grease. 

A'deps ©- villus.* Fat of the sheep ; 

A'deps Pra3-pa-ra'tus.- s Prepared 

A'deps Su-il'lus.* Hog's lard ; Ax- 
ungia porcina. The same as Lardum. 

Ad-he'sion. [AdJiaj'sio, o'nis; 
from ad, "to," and hse'reo, lise'sum, to 
" stick."] That property by which cer- 
tain bodies attract others, or their par- 
ticles adhere to each other. One of the 
terminations of inflammation. 

Ad-he'sive. [Adha?si'vus ; from 
the same.] Having the property of ad- 
hesion. See Glutinous, Viscous. 

Adhe'sive Iii-flam-raa'tion. [In- 
flamma'tio adhrcsi'va.] The process 
by which the sides of incised wounds, 
being brought into exact contact, unite 
without suppuration, constituting union 
by the first intention. 

Ad-lie'sive Plas'ter. [Emplas'- 
trum Adha'si'viim.] Common name 
for the Emi'LASTuum Resin.e, which see. 

Ad-I-aii'tuni.* [Gr. ddiavrov ; from a, 
priv., and Staivo), to " moisten ;" so named 
because less juicy than many other 

ferns, or because the leaves are not 
easily moistened.] A genus of ferns 
called maiden-hair, from which a syrup 
termed capillaire is prepared. See Ca- 


A-dra-pho-re'sis.- ;: [From a, priv., 
and bia^opiw, to " perspire."] Deficient 
cutaneous perspiration. See Adiap- 

A-di-apli'o-reis.* [From a, priv., and 
iiapipw, to " differ."] Formerly applied 
to medicines which did neither good nor 
harm ; also to neutral salts : adiaph'o- 

A-df ap-iieus'tl-a.* [From a, priv., 
and 6ia7rueu>, to " breathe through," to 
"evaporate."] The absence, obstruction, 
or diminution of perspiration. 

Adipocere, or Adipocire, ad'e-po- 
ser'. [Adipoce'ra; from a'deps, ad'ipis, 
"fat," and ce'ra, "wax."] A peculiar 
substance like fat, or spermaceti, formed 
by the spontaneous conversion of the 
flesh of man or other animals when 
placed for a considerable period in moist 
situations or under water; also called 
Grave- wax. 

Ad' I- pose. [Adipo'sus; horn a'deps, 
ad'ipis, "fat."] Of the nature of fat; 

Ad'ipose Ar'te-ries. The branches 
of the diaphragmatic, capsular, and 
renal arteries, because they supply the 
fat round the kidneys. 

Ad'ipose Membrane, Adipose 
Tis'sue. Cellular membrane with fat 
collected in its cells. 

Ad-i-po'sis.* [From a'deps.] The 
growth of fatness or obesity. 

A-dip'si-a.* [From a, priv., and Siipa, 
"thirst."] Absence of thirst; a genus 
of the order Dysorexise, class Locales, 
of Cullen's nosology. 

A-dip'sous. [Adip'sus, or Adip'sos; 
from the same.] Allaying thirst. Ap- 
plied to medicines and fruits which so act. 

Ad'jec-tive. [Adjecti'vus ; from 
adjic'io, adjec'tum, to " add to."] Ap- 
plied to coloring matters which require 
to be fixed through the addition of an- 
other substance termed a mordant. 

Ad'ju-vant. [Ad'juvaus; from 
ad'juvo, to " assist."] Assisting other re- 

Ad-iuix'ture. [Admsstu'ra; from 
ad, "to" or "with," and mis' ceo, mis' turn 
or mix' turn, to "mix."] A mixing or 
blending one substance with another. 

Admov. == Admo've,* "apply," or 
Adinorea'tur* "let there be applied." 

Adnata. See Tunica Adnata. 




Ad'nfiie. [Adna'ttis; from ad, "to," 
and nas'cor, na'ttis, to "be born," to 
"grow."] Connected or grown together. 

Ad-o-les'cence. [Adolescentia, 

a 1-o-les-sen'she-a ; from adolea'co, to 
"grow," to "grow up to maturity."] 
Youth; the period between puberty and 
full development : from fourteen or fifteen 
to about twenty-five in males, and from 
twelve or thirteen to twenty-one in 

Ad-op'ter. The same as Adapter. 

Ad-os-cu-la'tion. [Adoseula'tio, 
o'nisy from ad, "to" or " towards," and 
o/culor, oscula'tus, to " kiss."] The im- 
pregnation of plants by the pollen coming 
in contact with the pistils ; the joining or 
inserting one part of the plant into an- 
other. Also the external contact of the 
genital organs of the opposite sexes in 
birds and fishes during impregnation, 
instead of the insertion of that of the 

Ad Pon'dus ©m'ni-um.* " To the 
weight of the whole." Used in prescrip- 
tions to indicate the proportion of some 
particular ingredient. 

Adrag-antliin. See Tragacanthix. 

Adst. Fe'bre = Adstan'te fe'bre* 
"Fever being present," or when the 
fever is on. 

Ad v ult. [Adnl'tus; from ado'leo, 
adul'tum, to "grow up."] Applied to 
animals arrived at maturity ; also some- 
times applied to plants. See ^Etas. 

Ad-ul-te-ra'tion. [Adultcra'tio, 
o'nwy from adul'tero, adultera'tum, to 
" adulterate," to "counterfeit."] The cor- 
rupting of pure ingredients with others 
resembling them, but of inferior value. 

A-dus'tion. [Adus'tio, o'nis; from 
aiu'ro, ad us' turn, to "burn," to "scorch."] 
A synonym of cauterization; the appli- 
cation of the actual cautery to any part 
of the body. See Ambustio. 

Adventitious, ad-ven-tish'us. [Ad- 
veiiti'tius; from adve'nio, adven'tum,to 
"come to," to "come to accidentally."] 
That which is accidental or acquired, in 
opposition to what is natural or heredi- 

Ad-vcr-si-fo'H-ate. [Adversifo'- 
1 us: from ad ver'sux, "against," and/o'- 
lium, a "leal."] Having leaves against 
or opposite to each other. 

Ad-y-na'ml-a.* [From a, priv., and 
cwants, "power."] Loss or deficiency of 
vital power; adyn'ainv. 

Ad-y-nain'ic. [Adynam'icns.] 

Pertaining to Adynamia. 

uIM't'ilis (e-de-i'tis), lrfw,* [From 

aidoTa, the "parts of generation," the 
"pudenda."] Inflammation of the pu- 

-dSdceodynia,* e-de-o-din'e-a. [From 
aidola, the "pudenda," and divvn, "pain."] 
Pain in the genital organs, from what- 
ever cause. 

JE-doe-o-gra'phi-a.* [From alcoTa, 
the "pudenda," and ypa<pw, to "write."] 
Description of the parts of generation. 

^E-tloe-o-lo'gi-a.- [From aifola, the 
"pudenda," and Adyoj, a "discourse."] 
A treatise on the parts of generation, 
their structure and functions ; also that 
branch of Anatomy or Physiology treat- 
ing of the same. 

./E-dce-op-so'pIii-a,* or i£-dop-so'- 
plil-a.* [From aifola, the "pudenda." 
and xpo(piu>, to "make a noise."] The 
sound caused by the escape of wind 
from the womb per vaainam, or from 
the bladder per urethram, in females. 

vE-doe-os'co-p$ r . [^doeosco'pia, 
or iEdoeop'sia: from alSola, the "pu- 
denda." aKoziw, to "see;" dipig, "vision."] 
Examination or inspection of the pu- 

JE-dce-ot'o-my. [JEdceoto'mia; 
from alcoTa, the "pudenda," and Ttyivu, to 
"cut."] The anatomy or dissection of 
the parts of generation. 

^-grag'-ro-pi'llis.* [From aiyaypog, 
the "wild goat," and ■nl'Xos, "hair wrought 
into felt."] A concretion found in the 
stomach of goats, deer, cows, etc., com- 
posed of hair collected on the tongue of 
the animal in licking itself, and swal- 

iEg-ilops(ej'il-ops).o'pK<r.* [From euf, 
diyog, a "goat," and axp, the "eye."] A 
sinuous ulcer under the inner angle of 
the eye, so called from its resemblance 
to the larmier or infra-orbital glandular 
sac of goats: now considered to be only 
a stage of th&Jistula lackrymalis. 

vEgobroiicliopliony, e go-bron-kof- 
o-ne. [^TE^obroiioIiopho'iiia; from 
ai'f, a "goat," and bronchdpho'nia.'] The 
bleating and bronchial voice ; the prin- 
cipal symptom in pleuro-pneumonia. 
See Bronchophony. 

iE-jro'iii-a.* (Contraction of JEgo- 
pho'nia.) A minor degree of a?gophony, 
or a resonance of voice intermediate be- 
tween well-marked bronchophony and 

il&ophoiiy, e-gof o-ne. [iEjsopho'- 
nia; from <ii'£, diy6$, a " goat," and (jwi), 
the "voice."] In auscultation, a strong 
resonance of the voice, jerking and 
tremulous, like that of the goat or kid. 



/Enlipile, e-ol'e-pil. [From JFJolus, 
tho " god of* the winds," and pi' la, a 
'•hall."] Literally, "bolus's ball." A 
hollow ball of metal with two orifices on 
opposite sides. If water be placed in 
such a ball and converted to steam, the 
escape of the latter reacting on the atmo- 
sphere may be made to communicate a 
rotary motion to the ball. 

iEora,* e-o'ra. [From aiwpcco, to "raise 
into the air."] A species of gestation; 

^Equilibrium,* e-kwi-lib'bre-um. 
[From iv' quits, "equal," and li'bro, to 
"balance," to "weigh."] Literally, a 
"balancing of forces." That rest which 
occurs when many forces applied to the 
same body are equally opposed. In Me- 
dicine it signifies the harmonious action 
of the organs of the body. 

JE'quI-valved. [JEquival'vis; from 
te'quus, "equal," and va1'c?c, "folding 
doors."] Having equal valves. Applied 
to a dehiscent pericarp so formed. 

A'er.* [From dtp, dipo;, " air," the "at- 
mosphere."] The natural air we breathe : 
atmospheric air. 

Aerate, a'er-at. [From the preceding.] 
To impregnate with carbonic acid gas. 

A'e-rat-ed. [A'eratus.] Applied to 
liquids impregnated with carbonic acid 

A'er Fix'us.* Fixed air, or carbonic 
acid gas. 

A-e'ri-al Ac'id. Carbonic acid gas. 

Ae'rial Plants. Certain plants which 
can live by absorption from the atmo- 
sphere, without requiring their roots to 
be fixed to any place ; as the Flos a'eris. 
See Aerophytitm. 

Aeriferous, a-er-if er-ous. [Aer'ifer ; 
from a'er, "air," and fe'ro, to "bear," to 
"carry."] Air-bearing. Applied to the 
air-passages, the windpipe, bronchi, etc. 

A'er-I-fi-ca'tion. [Aeriiica'tio, 
o'nis; from a'er, "air" or "gas," and 
fa'cio, to "make."] The converting of 
a body into gas. 

A'er-I-form. [Aerifor'mis; from 
a'er, "air" or "gas."] Having the form 
of air or gas : gaseous. 

A-er-o-dyn-am'ic. [Aerodynam'i- 
cus; from dfjp, and <K>//a/i<?, "power."] 
Pertaining to the force of the air. 

A-er-o-dyn-am'ics. [Aerodyn- 

am'ica; from the same.] The doctrine 
of the air and its properties while in 

A-er-ogr'ra-phy. [ Aerog-raph'ia ; 
from a'er, " air," and yp<i</>a>, to " write."] 
A description of tho air. 

Aerolite, a'er-o-llt ; written also 
A'e-ro-llth. [From dijp, tho "atmo- 
sphere," and XiQo;, a " stone."] A certain 
meteoric stone which falls from tho 
heavens: an aerolite or aerolith. Also 
termed a Mcteorolite. See Brontolitii. 

A-er-ol'o-j?y. [Aerolo'gia; from 
drip, "air," and Xoyoq, a "discourse."] A 
treatise or consideration of the proper- 
ties of air. 

A-er«©m'e-ter. [Aerom'etrum ; 
from dfip, "air," and p.hpov, a "measure."] 
An instrument for ascertaining the 
mean bulk of gases. 

A-er-om'e-try. [Aerome'tria ; 

from the same.] The ascertaining of 
the physical properties of atmospheric 
air, their nature and history. 

A-er-o-plio'bl-a.* [From dnp, "air," 
and <po0og, " fear."] A dread of any cur- 
rent of air ; because in hydrophobia and 
some other diseases it induces a parox- 
ysm : aeroph'oby. 

Aerophyte, a'er-o-phlt. [Aeroph'- 
ytum; from dr)p, "air," and <pvroi/ f a 
"plant."] A plant that lives in the air 
without being rooted in the earth. See 
Aerial Plants. 

A-e-ros'co-py. [From drip, "air," 
and cKonta), to "survey," to "examine."] 
The investigation of the air. 

iErose, e'ros. [^Ero'sus; from tes, 
ve'ris, "copper" or "brass."] Of the 
nature of copper ; coppery. 

A-er-o-stat'ic. [Aerostat'icus ; 

from df)p, "air," and cranKr), the "science 
of weights."] Pertaining to the scienco 
of the weight of air, or Aerostatics. 

A-er-o-stat'ics. [Aerostat'ica ; 

from the same.] The doctrine of air, 
its specific gravity, and properties in a 
state of rest. 

A-er-os-ta'iion. [Aerosta'tie, 

o'nis; from o'er, and sto, sta'tum, to 
"stand."] Literally, " standing (or being 
suspended) in the air." The raising and 
supporting of heavy bodies by the buoy- 
ancy of heated air or light gases re- 
ceived into a spherical bag called a 

iE-ro'sus Ea'pis.* ("Coppery 

Stone.") A name for lapis calaminari*, 
from the notion of its being a copper ore. 

./13-ru'g'iii-ous, or ./E-ru-g'In'e-ous. 
[iErugrino'sus: from seru'go, sent' (/in is.] 
Pertaining to copper-rust, or verdigris. 
Applied to a bluish-green color liko 
verdigris, or like the leaves of some pine- 

J E-ru'g'0, :i: "gen. iE-ru'&in-is. [Con- 
traction of a/ris rubi'yo, the "rust of cop- 




per." See .32s.] The rust of a metal, 
especially copper. The Pharmacopceial 
name (Lond. and Ed. Ph.) of the impure 
subacetate of copper. See Verdigris. 

JEa 9 * gen. iE'ris. The Latin term for 
"copper" or "brass." 

JEs Co-rin'thi-um.* [yEs, " brass," 
and Corin'thius, belonging to "Corinth."] 
A kind of brass produced, as it is said, by 
an accidental mixture of metals at the 
burning of Corinth. It appears, how- 
ever, from Pliny, to have been in use in 
Corinth long before the burning of that 

JEs Us'tnm."* [^Es, "copper," and 
iis'tus, "burnt;" from u'ro, us' turn, to 
"burn."] Burnt copper; a preparation 
consisting of equal parts of coi>per and 
rough brimstone, laid in strata, with a 
6inall quantity of common salt sprinkled 
on each layer, and exposed to the fire 
till the brimstone is burned out. It has 
been called JEs Vcn'eris ( Venus being one 
of the ancient names for copper), jEs cre- 
ma'tum, Ci'nis se'ris, Cro'cus Ven'eris, etc. 

iEsculin, or iEsculine, es'ku-lin. 
An alkaloid lately discovered in the bark 
of the jEsculus Hippocastanttm, or horse- 
chestnut ; supposed to be a febrifuge. 

iEstates,* es-ta'tez. [The nominative 
plural of xs'tas, "summer."] Heat-spots; 
freckles; sunburnings. Sec Ephelis. 

jEstliesia,* es-the'se-a. [From diadd- 
vojxat, to "perceive," to "feel."] Per- 
ception; feeling; sensibility. 

jSSstliesis,'* es-the'sis. [From the 
same.] Feeling or sensibility ; also, sense 
or sensation. 

iEs-thet'ic. [JEstSiet/icus ; from 
the same.] Pertaining to the under- 
standing, or mental perception. The 
Latin term, in the plural neuter (jEs- 
thet'ica), forms the name of an order of 
the class Neurotica in Dr. Good's ar- 

iEs-thet'ics. [iEsthet'ica ; from 
the same.] Literally, the science of the 
sensations or perceptions. The science 
which explains the cause of the pleasure 
or displeasure derived from the contem- 
plation of the works of nature or art. 

vEs-ti-va'tion, or Es-4i-va'tion. 
[iEstiva'tio, o'in's; from sesti'vo, seati- 
m'tum, to "spend the summer," to "re- 
tire for the summer season."] The stato 
in which the different parts of the flower 
arc folded in the bud: prefloration. 

JEs-tu-a'ri-um.* [From sen' tits, 

"heat," "boiling water," the "tide."] 

Literally, a place where there is boiling 

or raging water: hence, an estuary (i.e. 


an arm of the sea, or part of a river in 
which the tide rises). A stove for apply- 
ing dry heat to all parts of the body at 
once ; also a vapor-bath. 

iEstus,* es'tus. (See preceding arti- 
cle.) Heat, as well natural heat in in- 
tense degree, as that which is the effect 
of inflammatory disease. 

iEs'tus Vo-Iat'I-cus.* The sudden 
flushing of the face; also Strophulus 
volatieus, or wild-fire rash of children. 

JE'tas,*gen.JE-ta'tis. "Age." Differ- 
ent writers have designated different 
stages in the lifo of man; but perhaps 
the most usual division is into five 
periods, as follow : — 

1. Infancy (infan'tia), generally con- 
sidered to extend to about the seventh 
year, or to the second dentition. 2. 
Childhood (pueri'tia), extending from 
the seventh to the fourteenth or fifteenth 
year, the period of puberty. 3. Adoles- 
cence (adolescen'tia), or Youth, reaching 
in males from the age of about fifteen to 
twenty-five; in females, from thirteen 
to twenty-one. 4. Adult Age, or Man- 
hood (viril'itas or se'tas viri'lis, the 
"manly age"), extending from the close 
of adolescence to about the fiftieth year. 
5. Old Age (senec'tus), which compre- 
hends the declining portion of life. 

The Roman writers again subdivided 
Manhood into different stages, as iE'TAS 
Firma'ta, the prime or full strength of 
man, — the age from thirty to thirty-five; 
jE'tas Matu'ra, the age of maturity or 
prudence, — the age of fifty. 

Old age was variously subdivided, as 
jE'tas Provec'ta, advanced age; JE'tas 
Ingraves'cens, the age when the weight 
of years begins to be sensibly felt; JE'tas 
Decrep'ita or Crep'ita, decrepit age: 
reckoned from the sixtieth year, and end- 
ing in death. 

iE-the're-a.* [Neuter plural of ivtlte'- 
reus, "ethereal."] The Pharmacopceial 
name (U.S. Ph.) for preparations of 
ether. See Ether. 

uE'thl-ops,* or E'tliB-ops.* [From 
aiQiop, " black."] A name anciently given 
to several black powders. 

iE'tliiopH An-ti-m©-m-a'li*i.* A 
term applied to a compound of ^Ethiops 
mineral with the sulphuret of antimony. 

JE'tliiops Ular'tial. An old name 
for the deutoxide of iron. 

iE'tliiopsMin'e-ral. The black sul- 
phuret of mercury {Hydrar'gyri Sulpku- 
re'titm Ni'grum), As an anthelmintic, it 
has been called Poudrc Vermifuge M< srett- 
rielle (poodit veVineTuzh' meVkU're-ell'). 



^'thiops per se* (per Be). The 
name given by Boerhaavc to the gray 
oxide formed by long agitation of mer- 
cury in a bottle half full of air. 

i: thiops Ve£-e-tal>'I-lis. !: A name 
given to a species of charcoal, prepared 
by burning the Fucuh vesiculusus in the 
open air and reducing it to a black 

JEth'o-g-en. [From alQo;, "fire," or 
"light," and yevvaw, to "produce."] A 
compound of boron and nitrogen, which 
gives a brilliant phosphorescent light 
when heated before the blow-pipe. 

.E'thri-scopp. [From dipda, the 
"clear sky," and cncoTfw, to "observe."] 
An instrument invented by Sir John 
Leslie for indicating the power of the 
clouds in preventing radiation. It con- 
sists of the differential thermometer, 
having one of the balls excluded from 
the light and the other placed in a 
polished metallic cup. Exposed to a 
clear part of the sky, the heat radiated 
from it escapes rapidly, and the tem- 
perature falls; exposed to a cloud, the 
radiated heat is restored and there is no 
redaction of temperature. 

vE-tlm'sa Cy-na'pl-um.* Lesser 
Hemlock, or Fool's Parsley; a plant of 
the order Umkelliferx, possessing poi- 
sonous properties. It yields an alkaloid 
called cynapia. 

JE'ii-ol'o-gf. [^Etiolo'gria; from 
alria, "cause," and Afyo;, a "discourse." 
The science of the causes of disease. 

Aetites,* a-e-ti'tez. [From dfroj, an 
"eagle," \iOog, a ••'stone," being under- 
stood.] Eagle-stone. A clay-ironstone, 
hollow, and containing another substance 
within it of variable composition. 

Af-f'cc'tion. [AJrec'tio, o'nis ; from 
nffi'cin, affectum, to "affect," to "dis- 
turb."] Nearly synonymous with "dis- 
ease," as inflammatory, nervous, or rheu- 
matic affection, etc. 

After-ens.* [From ad, " to," and/Vro, 
to "bring."] Applied to the lymphatic 
vessels, or Vasa afferentia: afferent. 

Afferent ia,* af-fer-en'she-a. the plu- 
ral neuter of Afferens, which see. 

At'-iin'i-ty. [Afiin'itas, a'tis ; from 
ad, "to," "on," and finis, "boundary:" 
ajfinis, "on the boundary," "near," 
"connected with." "neighboring."] 
Literally, "connection by marriage." 
That kind of attraction by which differ- 
ent classes of substances combine to 
form new substances, as in the case of an 
alkali with an acid, forming a salt. As 
marriage unites persons of different or 

opposite sexes, so affinity unites sub- 
stances of different and often opposite 
qualities: e./j. a supporter of combustion 
with a combustible, an alkali with an 
acid, etc. Affinity is sometimes used, 
but less appropriately, to denote attrac- 
tion in a more general sense. See Af- 
finity or Aggregation. 

Single or Simple Affinity is the 
power by which two elementary bodies 

Elec'tive Affinity denotes the pre- 
ference which one body manifests in 
combining with another rather than 
with a third or fourth, etc. 

Double Elective Affinity occurs 
when two compounds decompose each 
other and two new compounds arc 
formed by an exchange of elements. 
Thus, when sulphate of zinc and carbon- 
ate of potassa are mixed, the sulphuric 
acid leaves the zinc and unites with the 
potassa, forming sulphate of potassa, 
while the carbonic acid combines with 
the zinc, producing carbonate of zinc. 

Qfies'cent Affinity is that which 
tends to maintain the elements of a 
compound in their present state, prevent- 
ing decomposition. 

Divel'lent Affinity (from diccl'lo, 
to "pull apart," to "separate") is that 
which tends to arrange the pai'ticles of 
a compound in a new form, producing 
decomposition. In mixing different com- 
pounds, if the sum total of the divellent 
be more powerful than that of the qui- 
escent affinities, decomposition takes 

Disposing Affinity is that which 
promotes the tendency of bodies to 
combine in a particular way, by pre- 
senting to them a third substance which 
exerts a strong attraction to the com- 
pound they form: when the combina- 
tion has been effected, the third sub- 
stance may be withdrawn. Some writers 
call this tendency to unite the affinity 
of intermedium, or intermediate affinity. 
Berthollet styles it " reciprocal affinity." 

Affin'ity of Ag-g're-ga'tion. A force 
by which two substances tend to com- 
bine and form an aggregate, without 
their properties being changed. An- 
other term for the attraction of cohesion. 

Affin'ity, Chem'i-cal, or Affin'ity 
proper. That property or attraction by 
which different elements unite with each 
other, forming new substances. Se« 

Affinity, Intermediate. See Af- 
finity (Disposing). 




Aflin'ity, Vi'tal. That power which 
forms the solids and fluids from the 
common circulating fluids. 

Af-fla'tus.* [From ad, "to," "upon," 
and Jlo, ji a' tu m, to "blow."] Applied to 
a species of erysipelas, as if blown upon 
by an unwholesome blast. 

Af-flux'us.-* [From ad, "to" or 
"towards," and Jlu'o, flux'wn or fluc'- 
tnm, to "flow."] Afflux; a name given 
in former times to a supposed reciprocal 
influence of terrestrial bodies: it was 
compared to the effect of a magnet on 
iron, and of amber on chaff. Affluxus or 
afflux is also used to denote the flow or 
determination of blood or other fluid of 
the body to a particular part. 

Af-fu'sion. [AiFu'sio, o'nis ; from 
ad, "to," "upon," and fun' do, fit' sum, to 
"pour."] The pouring of water on a 
substance to cleanse it. Applied to the 
pouring on a patient, in certain fevers, 
of a liberal quantity of cold water: the 
cold affusion. To this head some writers 
refer Lotions, Aspersions, Shower- 
Baths, which will be noticed in their 
alphabetical places. 

Af'ter-Birth. The common English 
term for the placenta, cord, and mem- 
branes, or sccundines. 

Af'ter-Paiais. Those pains, more or 
less severe, after expulsion of the after- 
birth, from the contractile efforts of the 
uterus to return to its normal condition. 

Agalacta'tio. See Agalactia. 

Ag-a-lac'ti-a. :;f [From a, priv., and 
yaka, yaXuKro;, "milk."] Deficiency of 
milk after child-birth. 

A-gam'i-eus.* [From a, priv., and 
yduo^, "marriage."] Sometimes applied, 
in Botany, to plants the sexual organs 
of which cannot be detected: crypto- 

Ag'aiii-ous. [From the same.] Sex- 
less. A term applied to the cryptogamous 
plants, from the notion that they possess 
no sexual characters. 

A-gar'I-cuni.* [Said to be derived 
from Aga'ria, or Agarum, a region of 
Sarmatia, where it was first discovered.] 
The agaric, a species of mushroom. 

A-giir'i-CHS.* [See preceding arti- 
cle.] The generic name of the mush- 
room family, order Fungi, class Crypto- 

Agar'icus Cam-pes'trls.* The 
Linmean name of the common eatable 
mushroom of Europe. 

Agar'iCUS *'hi-riir-;'o'rinn. :;; 

("Surgeon's Agaric") See Agaricus 

Agar'icus Min-e-ra'Iis.* ("Mine- 
ral Agaric") The mountain milk or meal 
of the Germans; one of the purest of the 
native carbonates of lime, found in clefts 
of rocks, etc. It is named from its re- 
semblance to an agaric in texture and 

Agar'icus <luer'cus.* ("Agaric of 
the Oak.") Bole'tus Ignia'rius, or Touch- 
wood : a fungus formerly used for ar- 
resting external ha?morrhages. 

Agate. [From Acha'tes, a river of 
Sicily where agates, it is said, were first 
discovered.] A hard siliceous stone, used 
by lapidaries for engraving seals, ca- 
meos, and other objects of ornament. 
It is composed of chalcedony blended 
with jasper, quartz, and other minerals. 

A-ga've A-mer-i-ca'na.* The Amer- 
ican Aloe. 

Aga've Cu-ben'sis.* A species of 
American aloe, the roots of which 
resemble the red sarsaparilla of the 

Age. See tEtas. 

Agedoite. See Asparagin. 

Agenesia. See Agennesia. 

A-gen'e-sis.* [From a, priv., and 
yiwaui, to "beget," or yevoi, to "be born."] 
Applied to anomalies of organization, 
consisting in the absence or imperfect 
development of parts. 

Agennesia,* aj-en-ne'se-a, or A- 
gen'ne-sis.*" [From the same] Impo- 
tence, sterility. 

A 'gent. [A'gens; from a' go, to 
"act" or "do."] Any power or influ- 
ence which produces an effect on the 
human body. Thus, we speak of a 
"morbific agent," that is, something 
which causes disease. In Chemistry, a 
substance capable of producing chemical 
action or a change in the composition of 

Agerasia,* aj-e-ra'se-a. [From a, 
priv., and ynpas, " old age."] The non-ap- 
pearance of the effects or infirmities of 
old age: a green old age. 

A-ger'a-tum.* [Gr. dyfipaTov.'] See 
Achillea Ageratim. 

Ageusia. See Ageustia. 

Ageustia, ;: a-gus'te-a. [From a, priv., 
and y£»V(f, "tasting."] Loss of taste. A 
genus of the order Dyssesthestse, class 
Locales, of Oullen's Nosology. 

Ag-glom'er-ate, or Ag-glom'er- 
iit-e«I. [Agglomera'tus; from ag- 
glom'eto, agglomera'tum (from ad, "to," 
"on," and glo'mus, a "ball"), to "wind 
upon a ball," to "gather into a ball."] 
Applied to glands. Applied also to tho 



stamens of plants when collected in a 
globular form ; and to amenta, or catkins, 
similarly disposed. 

Ag-glu'tl-nant. [Agglu'tinans; 
from ad, "to," and glu'tiuo, glutinaftum, 
to "glue."] Applied to external appli- 
cations of a gluey nature, which favor 
the healing of parts by keeping them 

Ag-glu-ti-na/tion. [Agglutina'tio, 
o'nt's ; from the same.] A gluing or join- 
ing together: also the action of an ag- 
glutinant substance. See Collesis. 

Agglutination, Im-me'di-ate. 
Union by the first intention. 

Agglutination, Jle'tli-ate. The in- 
terposing of some substance between the 
lips of a wound, or the flaps after ampu- 
tation; as agaric, charpie, or lint, on 
which cerate is first spread. 

Ag'gre-gate. [Aggrega'tus ; from 
a yy re 9°> aggregatum (from ad, 'Ho" or 
"together," and grcx, gre'gis, a "herd," 
"flock," or "crowd"), to "crowd to- 
gether," to "gather together."] Applied 
to flowers which have a number of 
smaller flowers collected into clusters. 
Applied also, in Chemistry, to several 
substances of the same kind producing 
one, its chemical properties not differing 
from theirs. In the plural neuter (Ag- 
grega'ta) it forms the name of a family 
of the Mollusca, Acephala nuda, which 
are united in a common mass. See Ag- 

Ag y gregaie. A body or mass made 
up of smaller bodies or masses. The 
smallest parts into which an aggregate 
can be divided without destroying its 
chemical properties are called integrant 

Ag-gre-ga'iion. [From the same.] 
A collection of many individual par- 
ticles, etc., into a cluster or mass. Also, 
a form of attraction, commonly called 
that of cohesion, by which the particles 
of bodies are aggregated, or retained in 
the state of a solid. 

Ag-i-ia'tion. [Agita'tio, o'nis ; 
from ag'ito, agita'tum, to "shake," to 
"agitate."] The act of putting into 
active or violent motion. Mental emo- 
tion, from the violence of some prevail- 
ing passion. 

Ag'li-a.* [Gr. dy\in.~\ A whitish speck 
on the cornea of the eye. 

Ag-Io-l*u'H-a. :;: * [From a, priv.. and 
glol/ulus, a "globule."] Decrease or 
diminution in the quantity of blood- 

Ag-lu-tl'tion. [Agluti'tio, o'nis; 

from a, priv., and glu'tio, gluti'lum, t^ 
"swallow."] Inability to swallow. Seo 

Ag-ni'na Mem-bra'na.* [From 
ag'iuis, ;i •'lamb," and membra na, a 
"membrane."] The name given to one 
of the membranes of the foetus, on ac- 
count of its tenderness. The same as 
the amnion. 

Agni'na Tu'ni-ca.* [From ag'nus, a 
"lamb," and tu'nica, a "coat."] The 
lamb's coat; the amnion. 

Agnoea,* ag-ne'a. [From ayvozw, to 
"be ignorant."] The state of a patient 
who does not recognize persons or things. 

Ag'nus Cas'tus.* The chaste tree, a 

species of Vitcx, formerly celebrated as 

an antaphrodisiac. This name has also 

been given to Castor Oil, or the oil of 

j Ricinus communis, from its effects upon 

| the body and mind. 

A-gom-phi'a-sis.* [From a, priv., 
and gompho'sis, the "insertion of tho 
teeth in their sockets."] Looseness of 
the teeth. 

A-go'ni-a.* [From a, priv., and yovog, 
"seed," "offspring."] Sterility, or bar- 

Ag y o-ny. [From dyov, a "contest," 
a "struggle."] The last struggle of life, 
closing in death. 

A-gres'tis.* [From a'ger, a'gri, a 
"field."] Pertaining to a field; the 
specific name of many plants. 

A'gri-a.* [Gr. dypia, the "holly."] 
Another name for the Aquifolium, or 

A'gria.* [From ayptog, "wild," "un- 
tamable."] A pustular eruption, with 
redness and erosion ; named from its in- 

Ag-rl-am'pe-los.* [From aypiog, 
"wild," and h/zteAoj, the "vine."] An- 
other name for the Bryonia alba, or wild 

AgV5-mo-ny. [Agrimo'nia Eupa- 
to'ria.] A plant of the order Boeacese, 
used as an astringent and stomachic. 

Ag-s'I-o-rig'a-num.* [From iiypio;, 
"wild," and opiyavov, "marjoram."] The 
Orig'anum vulga're, or wild marjoram. 

Ag-ri-o-thym'i-a.* [From aypiog, 
"wild," and 0-^og, "passion," "rage."] 
Furious insanity. 

A-grip'pa.* [As if JEgrippa, from 
ecgre partus, "born with difficulty."] 
A term applied to children born with 
the feet foremost. Hence the name of 
some celebrated Romans. 

Ag-ros-log'ra-phy. [ Agrosio- 

gra'phia; from aypcoang, a kind of 




*' grass," and ypa<po), to " write."] A trea- 
tise on grasses. 

A-gryi>'m-a.* [From a, priv., and 
vm>os, •' sleep. "J Sleeplessness; watchful- 
ness, or wakefulness. 

A-gryp-no-co'ma, aft».* [From 
aypv-vos, "sleepless," and Ku^ia, "lethar- 
gy."] A lethargic state of wakefulness, 
with low muttering delirium, aptly ex- 
pressed otherwise by the term Coma-vigil. 

A'gue. [Supposed to be derived from 
the Gothic ayis, "trembling."] The 
common name for intermittent fever. 

A'gue-Cake. [Placen'ta Febri'- 
lis.] Enlargement of the spleen, the 
effect of protracted ague. 

A'gue-Drop. A solution of arseniate 
of potash ; Fowler's tasteless ague-drop, 
for which the Liquor arseniealis is sub- 
stituted. It is used as a remedy in in- 
termittent fevers. 

A'gue-Tree. Another name for sas- 
safras, given on account of its virtues as 
a febrifuge. 

A-gyr'ta.* Formerly, a mountebank ; 
a person who collected a crowd about 
him ; a quack. 

Ah'ri'zous. [Aiiri'zus; from a, 
priv., and pi^a, a "root."] Applied to cer- 
tain acotyledonous plants, because repro- 
duced by spondee, without radicles, strik- 
ing root from any part of their surface. 

Air. [Lat. A'er, A'eris; Gr. diip; 
from aw, to "breathe."] The natural 
air, or atmosphere : atmospheric air. 
When pure, it consists of about 20 parts 
(in the hundred) of oxygen and 80 of 
nitrogen; it contains also a small quan- 
tity of carbonic acid, the proportion of 
which varies greatly according to circum- 
stances, being far more abundant in the 
air of a densely peopled city than in the 

Air Bag, or Air BimMer. See 
Vesica Natatokia. 

Air, Fixed. [A'er Fix'us.] Car- 
bonic acid gas. 

Air, Iu-Siam'ma-ble. Hydrogen gas. 

Air PtsBiip. A machine by which 
the air in a vessel may be withdrawn. 

Air, Vi'tal (formerly called dephlo- 
gisticated air, empyrial air, etc.) is a 
term applied to oxygen gas, from its 
being indispensable to life. 

Akinesia. See Acixksia. 

Al. The Arabic article signifying 
"the," prefixed to many terms formerly 
in use; as al-chemy, al-kahest, al-cohol, 

A'la,* plural A'la». [Supposed to bo 
a contraction of axil' la, tho "armpit."] 

A wing. Applied, in Anatomy, to parts, 
from their resemblance to a wing, as alee 
nasi, "wings of the nose," etc. ; also, to 
the armpit. In Botany it is applied to 
the side petals of papilionaceous flowers, 
and angles formed by leaves or stalks 
with their branches, etc. 

Al-a-bas'*er. [Lat. Alabasfri'tes, 
and Alabaster; Gr. dXj(3a<rrjA>;, and d\a- 
Bairpov.'] A species of white gypsum (sul- 
phate of lime), used for ornamental pur- 
poses. The name is also sometimes ap- 
plied to a form of carbonate of lime. 

Al-a-bas'trum.* [From the same.] 
A term applied to the five green leave3 
forming the calyx of some flowers before 
the expansion of the bud, from a sup- 
posed resemblance to an alabaster box. 

Ala? Ma-jo' res.* (" Larger Wings.") 
Another term for the labia externa of the 
pudenda. See Labia Ploendi. 

A'lpe Mi-no'reS.* (" Lesser Wings.") 
A term applied to the two small folds 
formed by the nymphee. 

Aire Wa'si.* (" Wings of the Nose.") 
The lateral or movable cartilaginous 
parts of the nose. 

Ala? Ves-per-til-I-o'nis.* ("Bat's 
Wings.") The broad ligaments situated 
between the uterus and the Fallopian 

Ala?forirnis. See Aliform. 

A-la'lI-a. :|: [From a, priv., and XaXtaj, 
to "speak."] A defect of articulation. 

A-Saii'lEiie. A starch-like powder, ob- 
tained from the Angelica Archangel ica. 

A-la'res Ve'nav* [See At.aius.] The 
superficial veins at the bond of the arm. 

A-la'rI-a ©s'sa.* The lateral pro- 
cesses of the sphenoid bone. 

A-Ia'ras,* plural A-la'res and A-Ia'- 
ri-a. [From oVo, a "wing."] Wing-like: 
applied to the pterygoid processes of 
the sphenoid bone, to a ligament within 
the knee-joint, and to the inner veins of 
the bend of the arm. 

A'late. [Ala'tHs; from a' la, a 
"wing."] Winged, as certain stems and 
leaf-stalks having side membranes. 

Al'bi-cans.* neuter plural Albiean- 
tia, al-be-kan'shc-a. [From al'bico, to 
"grow white."] Applied (in the plural) 
to two small bodies on the base of tho 
brain, the Corpora albicantia. 

Al-M-easi'Iis.* [From al'bu*" white/' 
and cau'lis, a "stem."] Having a white 
stem : albicau'line. 

Al-bl-itae'ty-lus,* or Al-bo-«lae'ty- 
lus." :;: " [From al'btis, "white," and 6aicrv- 
Xoj, a "linger."] Having white, digitated 



Al-bl-flo'riis.* [From al'bus," white," 
and jlos, /{<>' 'ris, a " flower.'*] Having 
white flowers. 

Al-bi-ner'vus. ■' [From al'bus, 
" white," and ncr'vus, a "'nerve.''] Hav- 
ing white nervures. 

Al'bl-nism. [From al'bus, "white."] 
A diseased .state, in which the skin is of a 
uniform dull, milky white color j the hair 
resembles bleached flax or silk; the iris 
is pink, and the retina and choroid, seen 
through the pupil, present another shade 
of the same color; the sight is weak, 
and strongest in the dark. 

Al-bi'no. A term applied to an indi- 
vidual marked by the above character- 
istics. Ther.3 is the Ethiopian variety, 
found among negroes, and the European, 
found among Europeans and other white 
nations. See Leucopathia. 

Albino-Skin. See Albixism. 

Al'bito. [Probably a contraction of 
al'bus, '•'white," and ii'thos, a '"stone.] 
Soda Felspar, a silicate of alumina, re- 
sembling felspar in its properties, with 
the substitution of soda for potash. 

Al-M-vcu'ter,* Al-bi-veia'tris.* 
[Fr >m al'bus, "white," and ven'ter, the 
"belly."] Having a white belly. 

Al-bu-gin'e-ous. [Albugin'eus : 
from albu'go, albu'ginis, the "white of 
the eye.''] "White like the sclerotic coat 
of the eye: also, pertaining to albumen, 
or white of egg. Applied to a membrane 
of the eye, also to a covering of the tes- 
ticles, each named Tunica albugin'ea. 

Al-bu'go,* gen. Al-bu'jri-nis. [From 
al'bus, "white.''] The white of the eye; 
sometimes the white of egg, or albumen. 
A white opacity of the cornea, not superfi- 
cial, but affecting its very substance : also 
called the "pin and web." See Argema 
and Lbtjcoma. 

Minim Gra?cum :: - (gre'kum). Ste/- 
cus '-'I'liis. The white and solid excre- 
ment of dogs which subsist chiefly on 
bones. It consists, for the most part, of 
the earth of bones or lime, in combina- 
tion with phosphoric acid. It was for- 
merly used in medicine : it is now some- 
times used to soften leather in the 
process of dressing it after the depilatory 
action of lime. 

Album Bfl'gram.* The excrement 
of mice ami rat- : formerly used both 
externally and internally as a remedy, 
but now very properly abandoned. 

Al-bu'men.- gen. Al-lm'min-is. 

[From a? bus, " white."] The white of an 

egg. A peculiar constituent principle, of 

essentially the same character as the al- 


I bumen of an egg, found in the animal and 
vegetable kingdoms. It is distinguished 
by its property of coagulability on the 
application of heat. 

Animal albumen is the chief solid in- 
gredient in the white of eggs : it also 
enters largely into the composition of 
blood, muscles, etc. It may be obtained 
pure by coagulating the white of an egg 
with alcohol, washing thoroughly with 
that fluid, and then drying it at the 
temperature of 120° Fahrenheit. 

Albumen, Vegetable. See Vege- 
table AlBTMEX. 

Al-bu'ml-iioid. fAlbuminoi'des; 
from albu'men, and tiro;, a "form."] Re- 
sembling albumen. Often used in the 
sense of Proteinaceous. See Pp.oteix. 

Al-bn'ml-iiose. [From albu'men.'] 
A product of digestion found in the chyle 
and blood. It differs from albumen in 
not being coagulable by heat. 

Al-!m min-ous. [Albuisiino'sus.] 
Containing or resembling albumen. 

Al-bu-min-u'ri-a.* [From albu'men, 
and uri'na, "urine."] An albuminous 
state of the urine. See Nephritis Al- 

Al-bur'num.* [From al'bus, 

'•white."] The soft white substance 
between the inner bark and the wood 
of trees. See Sap-Wood. 

Aleana. See Alkaxa. 

Al-cargen. Another name for Ca- 
codyld A< in. which see. 

Alehemy. al'kem-e. [Alehe'mia, 
or Alehym'ia. Supposed to be derived 
from the Arabic definite article al, and 
\vua, a "melting" or ''pouring."] A chi- 
merical art which proposed to find out 
the means of effecting the transmutation 
of metals and preparing a remedy for 
all diseases. 

Alehornea I,ati folia. See Alcor- 


Alchymy. See Alchemy. 

Al-ci-cor'nis.* [From aVee, an '"'elk," 
and cor'nu, a "horn."] Having horns, 
or similar objects, like those of the elk. 

Aleoate. See Alcoholatks. 

Al'co-hol. or Al'ko-hol. [From 
the Arabic definite article al, and kohol, 
an "impalpable powder," "something 
very subtle."] The Pharmacopceial name 
(U. S. and Br. Ph.) for rectified spirits. 
A term applied to the pure spirit ob- 
tained by distillation from all liquids 
which have undergone vinous fermenta- 
tion. When diluted with an equal weight 
of water, it is termed Proof spirit, or 
Spiritus tenuior of the Pharmacopoeia. 




The first product of distillation is tech- 
nically called low wine, and is again 
subjected to distillation. The latter por- 
tions of what comes over are called 
feints, and are reserved for a further 
process in the wash-still. The second 
product is termed raw spirit, and when 
again distilled is called rectified spirit. 
The strongest alcohol which can be pro- 
cured is termed Absolute Alcohol, or 
Anhydrous Alcohol, to denote its entire 
freedom from water. 

Alcohol, Absolute. See Alcohol. 

Al'coliol Am-iiio-ni-a'tuui.* The 
Spir'itus amiho'nise aroinat'icus. A com- 
bination of alcohol and ammonia, pre- 
pared by passing ammoniacal gas into 
alcohol, which must be kept cool. 

Alcohol Amylieum. See Fusel Oil. 

Al'co-liol-ates. [From al'cohol.] Ap- 
plied to officinal medicines, differing from 
alcoholic tinctures, first, in the men- 
struum containing the volatile principles 
of medicinal substances, and, secondl}-, 
in their mode of separation, which con- 
sists in impregnating the alcohol with 
medicinal principles, first by maceration 
and then by distillation. 

Al-co-liol'ic. [Alcoliol'icus; from 
al'cohol.] Pertaining to alcohol. 

Al'co-hol-ism. A diseased con- 
dition of the system resulting from the 
use of alcoholic drinks. 

Al-co-hol-i-za'tioii. The develop- 
ment of alcohol in a liquid. 

Al-co-ho-Iom'e-ter. [Alcoliolom'- 
ctruin; from al'cohol, and uirpov, a "mea- 
sure."] An instrument for ascertaining 
the quantity of alcohol in any fluid. 

Alcohometer. See Alcoholometer. 

Alcornoque, aPkoiOnok'. (Fr.) The 
bark of the Alehornea lati folia, growing 
in the West Indies and South America. 
It is bitter and tonic, and has by some 
been regarded as a specific in phthisis. 

Al'cy-on,* gen. Al-cy'o-nis. [Gr. 
<i\K-)3v, from uAj, the "sea," and kvcj, to 
"conceive," because said to hatch its eggs 
in the sea.] A bird of the swallow kind, 
found in Cochin China and the Philip- 
pine Islands, whose nest, composed 
chiefly of a gelatinous matter, possesses 
nutritious properties, is esteemed as an 
article of diet in China, and used as an 
analeptic and aphrodisiac. 

Al'de-hyde. [From al, first syllable 
of al'cohol, and de-hyd, first two of de- 
hydrogena' tu#, "deprived of hydrogen."] 
A colorless liquid of a Buffocating odor, 
and readily absorbing oxygen from the 

Al-de-hyd'ic. [Aldehyd'icus ; 

from al'dehyde.] Pertaining to alde- 

Alder. See Alxus. 

Ale. The fermented infusion of pale 
malted barley, usually combined with 
infusion of hops. 

Al-ee-tru'rous. [Alectrii'rns ; 

from d\tK-cop, a "cock," and ovpa, a 
"tail."] Having a tail like the cock's. 

A-lem'bic. [Alem'bicus; from the 
Ai'abic al, and a^U^, a "cup" or "pot."] 
A glass, metal, or earthenware utensil, 
fitted to receive volatile products from 

A-lesii' broth. [Said to signify, in 
Chaldaic, the " key to art or knowledge."] 
The Salt of Wisdom of the Alchemists. 
A muriate of mercury and ammonia, 
corresponding to the Hydrargyrum 
prsecipita'tum al'bum of the London 
Pharmacopoeia. It is a compound of 
bichloride of mercury and sal ammoniac. 

Al'e-tris Far-I-Bio'sa.* Star-grass. A 
plant of the natural order Asphodclise. 
It is intensely bitter, and is used as a 

Al-ex-an'dri-a.* [Named from the 
place of its growth.] The name for the 
Pru'nus laurocer' asus ; the Alexandrian 

Alexipharmacon. See Alexi- 

A-lex-I-phar'mic. [Alexipbar'- 
micus: from uAt£a>, to "ward off," to 
"protect," and ipapnaKov, a "poison."] 
Antipharmic ; neutralizing the effects of 

A-lex-i-py-ret'ic. [Alexipyret'i- 
ens; from dAf£cj, and Trvperui, a "fever."] 
Driving off fevers : febrifuge. 

Al&ze, or Alese, a v laz'. [From uXe^w, 
to "protect."] A cloth folded several 
times in order to protect the bed from 
discharges of blood, etc. 

Al'gtt.* An herb or weed growing on 
the sea-shore: sea-weed. 

Alg-acea?,* al-ga'she-e. An order of 
plants including the Ahjte or sea-weeds. 
They consist of leafless, flowcrless 
plants, without any distinct axis of 
vegetation, growing in water. 

Alg»,*al'je, the plural of Al'ga. a 
"sea-weed," forming the Jussicuan name 
of a natural order of plants. See Fucv- 

Al'ga-rotb. [From Victor Algarotti, 
a physician of Verona.] The oxide of 
antimony in the form of a white powder. 

Al-&e'do, d'tn*B.*[From <iXyo>, "pain."] 
Violent pain about the urethra, testes, 



bladder, pcrinamm, and anus, caused by 
sudden stoppage of severe gonorrhoea. 

Al'gid. [Al'gidus; from al'geo, to 
'-be cold," to " suffer from cold."] Chilled 
with cold. 

Algid Chol'e-ra. [Cholera Al'- 
gida.] Applied to Asiatic cholera, on 
account of the diminution of temperature, 
this being one of its chief characteristic 

" Al'&i-da Fe'bris.* A term for a ma- 
lignant remittent fever, the Fievre algide 
(fe-avR' aPzhed') of the continent, char- 
acterized by icy coldness on the sur- 

Al-gfo-i'des.- [From al'/ja, a " sea- 
weed," and eli-o;, a " form."] Resembling 
the al'rjpe: al'goid. 

Al'g-or, o'rz*.* [From al'geo, to " be 
cold."] The sense of coldness in the 
onset of fever : dullness. See Rigor. 

Al'I-ble. [Alib'ilis; from a'lo, to 
"nourish."] Nutritious. 

Al'i-ca. :: " [From the same.] A kind 
of grain like wheat, supposed to be spelt, 
from which the ancients made their 
tisanes; also a kind of pottage made of 

Alices,"* al'e-sez. [From aXt^w, to 
"sprinkle."] Spots on the skin pre- 
ceding the eruption of small-pox. 

A'lien-ate, or A'lien-at-ed. [Alie- 
iia'tus: from alie'no, aliena'tum, to "es- 
trange." to " withdraw," to "put away."] 
Applied in Botany to first leaves, which 
give way to others different. 

Alienation, al'yen-a'shun. [Alie- 
na'tio, o'ni»,« from the same.] Any 
species of derangement or wandering of 
the mind. 

Aliena'tion of Hind. Applied 
more especially to insanity, as distinct 
from derangements symptomatic of some 
other disease, as delirium, etc. 

Al'i-form. [Alifor'mis ; from a'la, 
a "• wing."^ Having the form of a wing: 

Ai'i-mcnt. [Alimen'tnm; from 
a'lo, to "nourish."] That which affords 
nourishment. See Alitura. Pabulum. 

Al-I-men'ta-ry. [Alimenta'rins ; 
from a'lo, to " nourish."] Pertaining 
to aliment ; nourishing. 

Alimentary C'a-nal'. The entire 
passage (from the mouth to the amis) 
through which the aliment or food 

AlimtMi'tary I>nct. [Dne'tns All- 
mpnta'rins.] A name sometimes ap- 
plied to the thoracic duct. 

Al-I-men-ta'tion. [Alinienta'tio, 

o'nis; from alimen'tnm.] The act of 
taking or receiving nourishment. 

Al-I-paj'iios,* Al-I-pse'iius.* [From 
a, priv., and Xiiraivw, to "make fat."] 
Applied to very lean persons; also to 
dry external remedies, as powders, etc. 

Alipede, al'e-ped. [Al'ipes; from 
a'la, a " wing," and pe8,pe'di8, a " foot."] 
Having winged feet. See Cheirop- 


A-lis'ma Plan-ta'g'O,* or Plan- 
ta'g-o A-quat'i-ca.* The water-plan- 
tain, a medicinal plant formerly regarded 
as efficacious in cases of hydrophobia. 

Al-is-ma'ceons. [Alisma'ceus; 
from alia' ma, the "water-plantain."] 
Having an arrangement similar to that 
in the alis'ma. In the plural feminine 
(Alismacese, al-is-ma'she-e) applied to a 
natural order of plants. 

A- lis 'moid. [Alismoi'des: from 
alis'ma, and zlfos, a "form."] Resem- 
bling the alisma. 

Al-i-splie'noid. [Alisphenoi'des ; 
from a'la, a "wing," and os sjy/ienoi'des, 
the "sphenoid bone."] Applied by 
Owen to the middle or great wing of the 
sphenoid bone. 

AI-I-tu'ra. i: [From a'lo, al'itum, to 
"nourish."] The process of assimilation 
or nutrition; food or nourishment; ali- 

Alizarin, or Alizarine, a-liz'a-rin. 
[Alizari'na.] A coloring matter ex- 
tracted from madder (Ru'bia tincto'rum), 
called in France alizari (aUe x za v re'). 

Al'ka-hest. The pretended universal 
solvent or menstruum of the ancient 
chemists. But. if it dissolves all sub- 
stances, in what vessels can it be con- 

Al-ka-Ies'cent. [Alkales'eens; 
from al' kali, and -es'cn, a Latin termina- 
tion signifying to " grow," to " become."] 
Having slightly, alkaline qualities; be- 
coming alkaline. 

Alkali, al'ka-le. [From the Arabic 
al, definite article, and ka'li, the plant 
from which soda was first obtained.] 
A substance of peculiar properties, 
uniting with acids in definite propor- 
tions, thus forming salts, and having 
the power to change vegetable blues to 
green. It may be said to be the reverse 
of an acid, the properties of which, by 
combination, it neutralizes. 

Alkali. Caus'tic. [Al'kaliCans'- 
tieiim.] An alkali in a pure state; in 
which it possesses strong caustic powers. 
Usually, caustic potash. 

Alkali, Fixed. Applied to potash 




and soda, because they are permanently 
in a solid state. 

Al'kali, Fos'sil; AS kali, Min'e- 
ral. Other names for soda. 

Al'kali, PBilo-gis'tl-cat-ed ; Al'- 
kali, JPrus'sian. Applied to a fixed 
alkali when mixed with an animal sub- 
stance, and lixiviated, because it is then 
found to be saturated with Prussic acid; 
and from a former theory of this com- 
bination it received the first name. 

Al'kali, Veg'e-ta-ble. Another term 
for jwtash. 

Al'kali, "Vol'a-tlle. Another name 
for ammonia, given on account of its 
volatile nature. 

A 1-ka- 3 i £ Vn-ous. [Alkalig'enus ; 
from al'kali, and ytwaw, to "generate."] 
Producing alkaline qualities. 

Al-ka-lim'e-ter. [Alkalim'e- 

trum; from al'kali, and phpov, a 
"measure."] An instrument for ascer- 
taining the quantity of alkali in impure 
potash or soda. 

A I-ka-1 i in V-* r.v . [ Alkalime'tria ; 
from al'kali, and jicrpew, to "measure."] 
The process by which the amount of 
free alkali in various substances is de- 

Al'ka-line. [Alkali'nus ; from 
al'kali.] Having the properties of an 

Al-ka-lin I-t.v. [Alkalin'itas, 

a'fi's.] The peculiar properties of an 

Al-kal-i-za'tion. [Alkaliza'tio.] 
The act of imparting alkaline qualities. 

Al'ka-loicl. [Alkaloi'des; from 
al'kali, and clto;, a " form."] Resembling 
an alkali. Applied as a noun to the 
alkaline principles found in vegetables. 

Al'ka-na, or Al'ca-na. The name 
of the root and leaves of the Lauso'nia 
Iner'mis, a plant employed in the East 
for dyeing the nails, teeth, hair, gar- 
ments, etc. See Hennb. 

Al'ka-net Root. [From the Arabic 
al'kanah, a "reed."] The root of the 
Anciiusa Tinctouia, which see. 

Alkekengc, al'ke-kenj. "Winter- 
cherry; the fruit of the Phys'aUa Alke- 
ken'gi, used in nephritis, dysuria, as- 
cites, etc. 

Alkoliol. See Alcohol. 

Al'la-nitc. The name of a mineral 
containing cerium,, found in Greenland, 
and named in honor of Mr. Allan, who 
first distinguished it as a species. 

Al-lan-to'ic. [Allanto'ieus; from 
allnn'to'ix.] Belonging to the allan- 


Allantoic Ac'itl. The substance 

Al-lan'toid. [Allantoi des; from 
dWds, dWavTos, and £t<3o$, a '"form."] Re- 
sembling a sausage. 

Allan'toid Membrane. A mem- 
brane communicating with the bladder 
by the urachus, and containing the foetal 
urine: it exists in almost all the Jlam- 
malia. Also termed Allanto'is. 

Al-lan to-in. [Allantoi'na; from 
allun'to'is.] The nitrogenous constituent 
of the urine of the foetus of the cow. 
Also termed Allantoic Acid. 

Al-lan'to-is, i't/vs.* [From dWSs, 
dWavTos, a " sausage," and u6o<;, a " form."] 
The human allantois is a small, very 
vascular vesicle, sprouting from the end 
of the embryo. Also synonymous with 
Allantoi d membrane. 

Al-lan-to-tox'i-cum.* [From dX- 
\ag, and to^ikov, a "poison."] A poison 
developed in putrid sausages made of 
blood and liver, often proving speedily 

Alliaceous, al-le-ii'shus. [Allia'- 
ceus; from al'lium.] Of the nature of 

Al'Ii-um.* [From dXiofxai, to "avoid ;" 
because of its offensive smell.] The 
Pharmacopoeial name (Ed. and U. S.Ph.) 
of Allium sativum. A Linnrean genus 
of the class Hexandria, natural order 

Allium Ce'pa.* The common onion. 

Al'lium Por'rnm.* The leek. 

Allium Sa-ti'vum.* Garlic. 

Al-lee-o'sis.* [From dXXo(do), to 
"alter."] A constitutional change. 

Al-lo-path'ic. [Allopath icus.] 
Belonging to allopathy. 

Al-lop'a-thy [Allopath i a; from 
aXXo;, "other," and ndOog, "affection"]; 
written also Al-lce-op'a-thy. The 
curing of a diseased action by inducing 
a different kind of action, yet not neces- 
sarily diseased. Pee Homceopatiiv. 

Al-lo-trI-oph'a-£y. [Allotrio- 

pha'gia; from dXXdrpioj, "another's," 
"foreign," "not proper," and tj>ayui, to 
"eat."] Depraved appetite, or a desire 
for improper food. 

Al-lo-trop'ic. Pertaining to Allo- 

Al-lot'ro-pism. [Allot ropis'mus ; 
from aXXug, "other." and i-pcwi?, "conver- 
sion."] The existing of the same com- 
pound in two or more conditions, with dif- 
ferent physical and chemical properties; 
as sulphur melted at a high temperature, 
which, before bright yellow and brittle, 



becomes dark, tenacious, and may lie 
drawn out into threads like caoutchouc. 

Al-lox'an. A new product obtained 
in the oxidation of uric acid by nitric 

Al-lox'a-nate. [Allox'anas, aftisJ] 
A combination of alloxanic acid with a 

Al-lox-an'ie. [Alloxan'icns; from 
dllox'anJ] Of or belonging to the pro- 
duct alloxan. Applied to an acid into 
which alloxan is converted when brought 
into contact with soluble alkalies. 

Al-lox-an'tin. [Alloxanti'na.] 

A substance obtained by boiling and 
evaporating a concentrated solution of 

Al-loy'. [Fr. aloyer, to "mix metals."] 
A combination of any two metals, ex- 
cepting mercury, etc., the least valuable 
being called the alloy. See Amalgam. 

All'splce. The fruit of the Jlyrtus 
pi /if iit't. 

Al-lu'vi-al. [Alluvia'lis ; from al- 
lu'vium.] Applied to rocks or beds of 
recent formation, which still acquire the 
matter deposited by the waters. 

Al-lu'vl-um.'- [From al'luo, to 
'"wash."] The formation of new earths 
or islets by the action of water accumu- 
lating mud and debris in particular 

Almond, a'mand. [Amyg-'dala. Fr. 
amande, a'mo.vd'.] The fruit, both bitter 
and sweet, of the Amygdalitis communis. 

Al'mond-Oil. A bland, fixed oil, 
obtained usually from bitter almonds 
by the action of a hydraulic press, either 
cold, or by means of hot iron plates. 

Al'mond-Tree. The Amygdalua 

Al'monds of the Ears. The small 
external glands near the ears. See 

Almonds of the Throat. The 

Al'mis.* The Alder; a tree of the 
order fi'jtulaccse. 

Al'mis Olu-ti-no'sa.* A tree grow- 
ing in many parts of Europe. The 
leaves and bark are bitter and astrin- 
gent, and as a tonic are used in intermit- 
tent fevers. 

Al'mis Ser-rat'n-la.* The Ameri- 
can alder, possessing properties like the 

Al'o-e,* gen. Al'o-es, in English 
Aloes, al'oz. A genus of plants of 
the order Asphodel is, characterized by 
an intensely bitter taste, belonging to 
\he Linna?an class Hexandria, natural 

order Liliacese (or Asphodelex of some 

Al'oe Bar-foa-den'sis.* The Phar- 
macopoeial name (Lond. Ph.) of Barba- 
does aloes, or inspissated juice of the 
cut leaf of the Aloe vulgaris. 

Al'oe Ca-pen'sis.* The Pharmaco- 
poeia! name ( U.S. Ph.) for the inspissat< d 
juice of the leaves of Aloe spicata, and 
of other species of Aloe. 

Al'o£ Hc-pat'I-ca.* The name of a 
kind of aloes the source of which is un- 

Al'oe Pcr-fo-ll-a'ta.* The tr e 
formerly believed to yield Socotrine 

Al'oe Soc-o-tri'na.* ("Socotrine 
Aloes.") The Pharmacopceial name j 
of Socotrine aloes, obtained from the 
Al'oe Socotri'na (U.S. Ph. j; but accord- 
ing to the British Pharmacopoeia, from 
one or more undetermined species. 

Al'oe Spi-ea'ta. - : " The tree which 
yields a kind of aloes used in place of 
the Socotrine. 

Al'oe Vnl-ga'ris.* The tree believed 
to afford common hepatic aloes, but 
said (Lond. Ph., 1S51J to be from an un- 
certain species. 

Aloes, al'oz. The English name for 
the juice of the several species of Aloe, 
reduced to an extract. 

Aloes, Socotrine. See Aloe Soco- 

Al'oes Wood. A fragrant resinous 
substance, consisting of the interior of 
the trunk of the Aquilaria ovata and A. 

Al-o-et'ic. [Aloet'icns: horn Al'oe, 
" aloes."] Applied to any medicine con- 
tain ing a large proportion of aloes. 

Al-o-g-ot'ro-phy. [Alog'otro'phia ; 
from ilXoyoi, "without proportion," and 
rpejxo, to "nourish."] Applied to the 
morbid or excessive nutrition of any 

Al'o-in. [Aloi'na.] The cathartic 
principle of aloes. 

Al-o-pe'ci-a. :|J [From dXumil, a 
"fox," because subject to loss of hair.] 
The falling off of hair from the beard 
and eyebrows, as well as the scalp; 
baldness the effect of disease, and so 
distinct from Calvities: alop'ecy. 

Alonchi, al-loo'che. The name of a 
gum obtained from the tree of the Ca- 
ncl/'i alba. 

Al'phl-ta* [the plural of aX^ror, 
"meal"]. Another name for barley- 
meal: barley-meal fried. 

Al'phoid. [Alphoi'des: from al'- 




phos, a "skin-disease," and cl^os, a 
" form."] Like Alphas, as Lepra al- 

Al-phon'sin. [From Alphon'so 

Fer'ri, of Naples, its inventor.] An 
instrument for extracting balls from 

Al'phos,* Al'phus.* [From ii\66s, 
"white."] A species of leprosy; the 
Lepra alphos. 

Al-pho'sis.* [From the same.] 

Al-pi'ni, Ral 'sa-Biium.* [After 

Prosper A (pin ««.] The "balsam of Al- 
pinus." The balsam produced by the 
Amyris Gileadensis. 

Al-pin'i-a.* [Named in honor of Al- 
pinus.] A Linnaoan genus of the class 
Monandria, natural order Scitaminex. 

Alpiii'ia CarHla-mo'inum.' The 
plant said (Lond. Ph. 1S36) to produce 
the lesser Cardamom seeds, formerly 
referred to the Amomum cardamomum, 
and now to the Elettaria cardamomum. 

Alierantia,* al-ter-an'she-a. See 

Alteran'iia Xer-vi'na.* ("Nervous 
Alteratives.") A class of substances, as 
spirituous liquors and narcotics, which 
produce gradual changes in the brain, 
attended by disturbance of the intellect- 
ual functions. 

Al'ter-a-tlve. [Al'teraiss; from 
al'tero, altera'tum, to "vary."] Applied 
to medicines (Lat. Alteran'tia) which re- 
establish the healthy functions of the 
system without any sensible evacuation. 

Altern. Moris = Alter'nis ho'ris* 
"At alternate hours," — that is, every 
other hour. 

Al-ter'nate. [ Alterna'tus ; from 
alter'no, to "interchange."] Applied to 
leaves or branches recurring by turns 
■with those of the opposite side. 

Al-tha?'a.* [Gr. aXdala, from a\9(o, to 
"heal."] A Linmvan genus of the class 
Jtfnuadclphia, natural order JIalracese. 
Marsh -mallow. 

Althaea ©f-fic-i-iia'lis.* The marsh- 
mallow, the root of which is ordered lor 
use in the Pharmacopoeia (Lond. Ph.); 
the leaves and root (Ed. and Dub. Ph.); 
and the flowers and root (U.S. Ph.). 

Al-tlie'in. [Althsei'na; from al- 
llh-i'n.] An alkaline substance discov- 
ered in the marsh-mallow, similar to 

Al-tim'e-try. [Altime'tria; from 
al'tus, "high," and /icrpto), to "measure."] 
The art of measuring heights or alti- 


Almlel, al'oo-deP. A pear-shaped 
vessel used by the earlier chemists, re- 
sembling the head of an alembic, with 
the exception of the beak, etc. A scries 
of these vessels, joined together, is used 
for distilling mercury in Spain. 

Al'u-la."* [Diminutive of a'la, a 
"wing."] A little wing. Applied in 
the plural {al'ulee) to the membranous 
scales above the haltcres in certain 
Diptcra, and under the djtra of some 
aquatic Coleoptcra. 

Al'imi. [From alu'men.~\ The Pcr- 
sidphas aluminvc et j^'^asssc. See Al.u- 

31 EX. 

Al'uiii. Am-mo-nl'a-eal, is a double 
salt, consisting of the sulphates of am- 
monia and of alumina, in which ammo- 
nia takes the place of the potassa of 
common alum. 

Al'uin Curd of Ri-ve'ri-us. [Al- 
bu'nion Aluiiiiiio'siun.] A coagulum 
formed by briskly agitating a drachm of 
alum with the white of an egg. 

Al'nni Oint'ment. A preparation 
consisting of common turpentine, lard, 
and powdered alum. 

AI'miii Wa'ter. A solution of alum 
in water, used by painters in water- 

Alum Whey. [Serum Alumin- 
o'sum.] A whey made by boiling two 
drachms of alum with a pint of milk, 
and then straining. 

Al-u'men,* gen. Al-u'min-is. Alum. 
The Sulphas alwninse etpotassse, a double 
or sometimes a triple salt, consisting of 
sulphuric acid and alumina, with either 
potassa or ammonia, or frequently both. 
The alumen of the Pharmacopoeias is 
prepared from schistose clays. In Italy 
this salt is procured from alum stone, a 
mineral substance occurring in most 
volcanic districts. 

Alu'inen Ex-sie-ea'tum vel IV- 
lum.* Dried alum (or burnt alum) ; the 
Pharmacopoeial name of alum when it 
has undergone watery fusion and parted 
with all its water of crystallization by 
the action of heat. Its chief use is as 
an escharotic for destroying fungous 

Aln'nion Ro-ma'nmn.* Roman 
alum; the purest variety of alum, con- 
taining no ammonia in its composition. 

Alumen Ru'pe-um.* [From ru'pes, 
a "rock."] Roche or rock alum. A 
variety of alum brought from Roccha, 
formerly called Edessa, in Syria. That 
which is sold under this name is common 
English alum, artificially colored. 



A-lu'ml-na.* [From alu' men/' a\um."] 
The base of alumen : al'umine. 

A-lu-ml-na'tus.-" Containing alu- 
men: alu'minated. 

A-lu-mlu-ii er-ous. [ Alumiiiif '- 
erus: from alu' men, and fe'ro, to 
"bear."] Bearing or having alum. 

Aluminium. See Aluminum. 

Al-u miu-ous. [ Aluaiino sus ; 

from alu'men.] Pertaining to alum. 

A-lu'ml-uum.* The metallic base of 
Alumina, sometimes spelled Aluminium. 

Alums. [Alumina, the plural of 
Alu men.] A group of salts having a 
constitution similar to that of common 

Alun. ii'lux '. The French term for 
Alum. See Alumen. 

A-lu'si-a.* [From d\ico, to "become 
insane.''] Hallucination; illusion; men- 
tal deception, error, or misconception. 

Alu sia Elatio* (e-la'she-o). Senti- 
mentalism, or mental extravagance. See 

Alu'sia Hyi>-o~ehon-dri'a-sis.* 
Low spirits, or hypochondriacism. 

Alutaceous. al-u-tii'shus. [Aluta- 
ceus; from alu'ta, "dressed leather."] 
Applied to the leaves of plants resem- 
bling a soft, tanned skin. 

Alv.Adst.= Al' ro Adstric'td* "The 
bowels being bound." 

AI-ve-a'ri-um.* [From alvea're, a 
"beehive."] That part of the external 
meatus of the ear where the cerumen is 

Al-ve'o-lar. [Alveola'ris.] Be- 
longing to the alveoli, or sockets of the 

Al-ve'o-lar Struc'tnre. A term 
applied by Hewson to minute superficial 
cavities found in the mucous membrane 
of the stomach, oesophagus, and small 
intestine, and which he compared to the 
cells of honeycomb. They are distinct 
from the follicles. 

Al-ve'o-late. [Alveola'tus; from al- 
ve'olus.] Having little troughs or cavities. 

Al-ve'o-li.* [See Alveolus.] The 
aire >lar processes, or the sockets of the 
teeth. Hence the term alveolar as ap- 
plied to the arteries and veins of the 
sockets of the teeth. 

Al- ve'o-ll-form. [ Alveolifor 'mis ; 
from (dve'olun.] Formed like alveoli. 

Al-vo'o-lus.* plural Al-ve'o-li. 
[Diminutive of al'vcus.] A little hollow. 
The socket of a tooth, or other cavity. 

Al've-us.* [From al'vus, the "belly."] 
A trough or channel; any large hollow, 
such as the hold of a ship. Applied to 

tubes, canals, especially their enlarged 
portions, through which some iluid Hows. 

Al'veus Am-i>ul-les'eens. : [See 
Ampulla.] The dilated portion of the 
thoracic duct at its commencement from 
the receptaculum ehyli. 

Al'veus Com-mu'iiLs. 1 ' The com- 
munication of the ampullae of the semi- 
circular canals of the ear. 

Al vi-du'ea.* [From al'vus, the 
"belly," and du'eo, to "lead," to 
"move."] Medicines which promote 
evacuation of the contents of the intes- 

Al-vl-flux'us.* [From al'vus, the 
"belly," and Jlu'o, flux'um, to "flow."] 
Diarrhoea; a flux or discharge of the 
contents of the intestines. 

Al'viae. [Alvi'nus; from al'vus."] 
Belonging to the belly, stomach, or in- 

Al'vine Con-ere'tion. [Enterol'- 
ithus.] A calculus in the stomach or 
bowels. See Bezoar. 

Al'vus.- The belly, stomach, paunch, 
or intestines. See Abdomen. Venter. 

Al'vus As-tric'ta.* [From astrin'go, 
astric'tum, to "bind."] A costive state 
of the bowels. 

Al'vus Co-ac'ta.* Literally, hard- 
bound belly. The state of costiveness. — 

Al'vus Flnl-da.* A loose state of 
the bowels. 

Amadou (Fr.), a'ma-doo'. Literally, 
"touch-wood," a kind of fungus. A 
substance used in graduated compresses; 
also to support varicose veins, and pro- 
tect abraded surfaces, etc. 

A-mal'g-aan. [Amal'gama; from 
il/ia, "together," and yafisa, to "espouse."] 
A combination of mercury with any other 

A-mal-g-a-ma'tion. [Amalg-ama'- 
tio, o'n/s.] The process of combining 
mercury with a metal, or forming an 

A-manl-tin. [Amaaiiti'ua; from 
duavirai, "fungi," or "mushrooms."] 
The poisonous principle of fungi. 

A-ma'ra.* [Xeuter plural of ama'- 
rus. "bitter."] Bitters; medicines with 
a bitter flavor and tonic property, as 
chamomile, gentian, etc. 

Aniarauthaeea?.* am-a-ran-tha'- 
she-e, or Am-a-ran-ta'ee-a?. i: [From 
amaran'tkus, or amaran'tus.] A natural 
order of plants, mostly tropical. It 
comprises the Amaranthua and other 
flowers which are always dry and not 
liable to fade. 




Am-a-ran'thi,* the plural of Aina- 
ran'thus. A natural order of plants. 
See Amaraxthacic.k. 

Am-a-ran'thus.* [From a, priv., and 
liapaivu, to "wither," or "fade."] A 
genus of plants with unfading flowers. 
"Written also Amaran'tus. 

Am'a-rin. [Amari'na; from ama'- 
rits, " bitter."] The bitter principle of 

Am*a-ryl-li-da'cese* (-da'she-e). A 
natural order of plants, including the 

Aniaioria Feforis. See Chlorosis. 

Am-a-to'ri-us.* [From a'mo, ama'- 
tum, to "love."] Belonging to love: 
am'atory. Applied to the oblicpue muscle 
of the eye, used in ogling. 

Am-au-ro'sis.* [From duavpow, to 
"darken."] Partial or total loss of vision, 
from paralysis of the retina, usually at- 
tended with paralysis and dilatation of 
the iris, though occasionally it is rigidly 
contracted. It is also termed Gut'ta 
sere' ' na. The term Amaurosis was origin- 
ally used in the sense of obscurity or 
dimness of vision; but now it is em- 
ployed to denote a particular disease. 

Am-au-rot'ic. [Amanrot'ieus.] 
Belonging to amaurosis. 

Am 'foe.* [Gr. dfiSri, a "rising," "some- 
thing elevated."] An old machine for 
reducing dislocations of the shoulder. 

Am'foer. [Suc'eiiium.] A trans- 
parent bituminous substance, of a yellow 
or orange color, having electric proper- 
ties ; anciently called >)\cKrpov, whence the 
word electricity. 

Am'ber, Ac-'id of, or Suc-cin'ic 
Acid, is obtained from amber by dry 
distillation. It is a delicate reagent 
for separating red oxide of iron from 
compound metallic solutions. 

Am'ber Cam'phor. A yellow, light 
sublimate, obtained by the destructive 
distillation of amber in a retort or 
alembic. It has been termed volatile 
resin of amber. 

Ambergris* or Amfoerg-rease, am'- 
ber-gres. [Ainbragri'sea; from the 
French ambregris (oM v br-gre'), or "gray 
amber."] A concrete bituminous sub- 
stance, of a grayish or ash color, inflam- 
mable, and when heated emitting a 
fragrant odor. It is found about the 
sea-coast of warm countries, or floating 
on the surface of the ocean, also in the 
intestines of the Physeter macrocephaltte, 
and is supposed to be a morbid secretion 
of that and perhaps other species of tho 
Physeter. Chiefly valuable as a perfume. 

Am-foi-dex'ter.* [From am'ho, 

"both," and dex'ler, "right-handed," 
"skilful."] One who uses his left hand 
as well as his right. 

Am-blo'sis.* [From ri/i6'X<5w, to " have 
an abortion."] Miscarriage. Hence the 
term amblot'ic (amblot'icus, plural am- 
blot'ica), as applied to medicines sup- 
posed to cause abortion. 

Am-bly-a'pha-a.* [From d^Xvs, 
"blunt," and a<pf h "sense of touch."] 
Blunted or dulled sense of touch. 

Am-bly-o'p£-a.* [From d//6Xvs, 

"blunted," and dixp, the "eye."] Im- 
paired vision from defective sensation of 
the retina; incomplete amaurosis, or the 
weakness of sight attending certain 
stages and forms of this disorder. 

Am'bon.* [Probably from dvataiva), 
to "rise," to "ascend."] Literally, an 
"elevation." The margin of the sockets 
in which the heads of the large bones 
are lodged. 

Am'fore-ate. [Am'foreas, a'tis.] A 
combination of ambreic acid with a base. 

Am-fore'ic Ae'id. A peculiar acid 
obtained by digesting ambrein in nitric 

Am'fore-in. [Amforei'iia; from 
the Fr. ambre, "amber."] A fatty sub- 
stance forming the base of ambergris, 
and differing slightly from cholesterin. 

Ambrosia,* am-bro'zhe-a. [From 
ajxdpoToq, "immortal."] Literally, the 
"food of the gods," that which confers 
immortality or life. Applied to several 
plants, on account of their good quali- 
ties, as tansy, wormwood, etc. Applied 
also to several alexipharmic medicines. 

Am-foii-la'cruJii.* [From am'bulo, 
to "walk."] The space between two 
striyse, or each stn'ga, formed by the 
small holes on the shell of the Echinus, 
as of a walk or path. 

Am'fou-lance. [From the French 
ambulant, "ambulatory."] The kind of 
movable hospital accompanying an army. 
In popular language, a wagon or car- 
riage for conveying wounded soldiers. 

Ain-bus'tion. [Ambus'tio, o'nis ; 
from ambu'ro, ambus' turn, to "burn."] 
A burn or scald on any part of the body. 

Am'e-lin. [Ameli'na.] A new base 
precipitated in the alkaline solution from 
which melamin has been deposited, on 
being supersaturated with acetic acid. 

A-men-o-ma'ni-a.* [From ama'nus, 
"pleasant," and ma'nia.'] A hybrid term 
(half Latin and half Greek) denoting a 
gay or cheerful form of mania. 

Amenorrkosa,* a-men x o-re'a. [From 



a, prir., pfiv, a "month," and piia, to 
"flow."] Absence or stoppage of the 
menstrual discharge, including Emansio 
mensium and Suppresaio mensium. 

A-men'ta,*the plural of Amentum, 
which see. 

Aiiieiitacea?,*" am-en-ta'she-e. [From 
amenta 1 ceus. See next article.] The 
Jussieuan name of an order of plants 
now distributed among different orders. 

A-men-ta'ceous. [Amenta'ceus ; 
from amen' turn.] Having an amentum. 

Amentia,* a-men'she-a. [From a, 
priv., and mens, the "mind."] Idiocy; 
fatuity ; imbecility of mind. A genus of 
the order Vesanise, class \euroses, of Cul- 
len'a Nosology. See Dementia. 

A-iiien'tum, :;: ' plural A-men'ta. 
[From «/i,ua, a "thong."] A catkin, or 
imperfect flower, somewhat like a rope or 
cat's tail. Also termed Nucamentum. 

Amer(Fr.), a'maiR'. ("Bitter.") The 
bitter principle produced by digesting 
silk in nitric acid. 

American Balsam. See Balsam 
of Peru. 

American Gasnbog-e. See Gamboge. 

A-mer'i-can Seu'na. The common 
name for Cassia Marilandiea. 

Am'e-tnyst. [Amethys'tns; from 
a, priv., and /isOuukco, to "make drunk."] 
A violet-colorei gem, a species of rock 
crystal. Its name is derived from its 
reputed virtue of preventing intoxica- 
tion: topers were formerly in the habit 
of wearing it about their necks. It con- 
sists almost entirely of silica. 

Am-i-an'thoid, or Ani-i-an'tohl. 
[Amianthoi'des, or Amiantoi'de's; 
from amian'thus or amian'tus, a fossil, 
fibrous stone.] Resembling amianthus. 

Am-i-an'tliiis.*" [From a, priv., and 
piaivu), to "defile."] Literally, "that 
which cannot be defiled;" because cloth 
made of it could always be purified by 
burning. Mountain flax; an incombus- 
tible mineral, consisting of very delicate 
and regular silky fibres. See Asbestos. 

Amide, a v nied'. A saline compound, 
in which a compound of nitrogen and 
hydrogen occurs, containing an atom 
less of hydrogen than ammonia. 

Ami-din. [Amidi'na; from the 
French, amidon, "starch."] A substance 
intermediate between gum and starch, 
obtained by the solution of the latter in 
hot water. 

Amilen or Amilene, am'e-len. A 
liquid hydro-carbon, obtained by dis- 
tilling hydrate of oxide of amyl repeat- 
edly with anhydrous phosphoric acid. 

Ammi. See Sisox Ammi. 

Am-mo'ni-a. :; - The volatile alkali; 
ammoniacal gas. A transparent, color- 
less, pungent gas, formed by the union 
of nitrogen and hydrogen. By Priestley 
it was called alkaline airj it is called 
"the volatile alkali" to distinguish it 
from the fixed alkalies, — soda and pot- 
ash. Its present name is derived from 
sal ammoniac, of which it constitutes a 
basis, and which received its appellation 
from being first prepared in the dis- 
trict of Ammonia, in Libya. 

A m-mo-n i a-cal. [ Ammoniaca - 
lis.] Belonging to ammonia. 

Ammoni'acal Al'um. A double 
salt, consisting of the sulphate of am- 
monia and alumina, the potassa of com- 
mon alum being replaced by ammonia. 

Ammoni'acal Gas. Ammonia, the 
volatile alkali. 

Am-mo-ni'a-cum.* [From "Anuwv, 
a name of Jupiter, who had his temple 
in a part of Libya, where the tree chiefly 
grew.] The Pharmacopoeial name j| of 
a gum resin, from the Dore'ma ammoni'a- 
cum: ammo'niac, or gum-ammo'niac. 

Ain-mo'ni-se L.i'«pior.* ("Liquor of 
Ammonia.") The name of the concentrated 
solution of ammonia. One volume of 
water takes up about 750 times its bulk 
of the gas, forming a liquid possessed of 
similar properties, and termed spirits of 
hartshorn from its being produced by 
distillation from that substance. 

Anunoniaqne, am'ino'iic-ak'. The 
French term for Ammonia, which see. 

Am mo-iiite. [Ammoni'tes; from 
Jupiter Am'mon ; worshipped as a ram.] 
A kind of petrified shell, like a horn or 
snake. From its resemblance to the 
horns of the statues of Jupiter Amnion, 
it is called Cor'nu Ammo'nis, "horn of 
Amnion." From its coiled form it is 
popularly known as snake-stone. 

Am-mo'ni-um.* The supposed me- 
tallic base of ammonia. 

Ammoninret, am-mon'yu-ret. 

[Ammoniure'tum.] A combination 
of ammonia with a metallic oxide. 

Am-ne'sS-a,* Am=nes'ti-a.* [From 
a, priv., and fivnan;, "remembrance."] 
Want of memory: forgetfulness. 

Am'ni-i, Id'quor.* The fluid con- 
tained in the amnion. 

Aan'nl-on.* [From d^ivoi, a "lamb."] 
The soft, most internal membrane, con- 
taining the waters which surround the 
foetus in utero. Also called Agnina tunica. 

Am'nl-o-tate. [Amni'otas, a'tts.] 
Amniotic acid combined with a base. 




Am-nl-ot'ic. [Amniot'icns.] Per- 
taining to the amnion. 

Amniotic Ac'itl. Same as allan- 
toic acid. 

A-mo'me-us.' ;: ' Having an arrange- 
ment as in the Amomum : amo'meous. 

A-mo'mum.* [From anufios, " blame- 
less."] A Linnasan genus of the class 
Jlonandria, natural order Seitaminese. 

Amo'mum Car-da-mo'mum.* The 
former name of the lesser Cardamom 
seed plant; now ascertained to be the 
Alpinia cardamomwm. 

Amo'amim (ira'na Par-a-di'si.* 
Grains of Paradise Amomum : a plant of 
the order Scitaminese, the fruit of which 
is well known under the name of Grains 
of Paradise or Mellegetta Pepper. 

Amo'mum Re'pens.* The plant 
producing the Cardamom seed: but this 
is chiefly obtained from the Alpinia car- 

Amo'mum Zin'gr-ber.* The ginger- 
plant, or Zingiber officinale. 

A-mor'phism. [Amorpliis'mus; 
from a, priv., and nop<pn, "form."] The 
state of being amorphous. 

A-mor'phous. [Amor'phus; from 
a, priv., and liopfij, "form."] Wanting 
form; shapeless. 

A-mor'phous Qui-nme'. The sub- 
stance Quinoidine ; so named because its 
salts cannot be crystallized. See Qui- 


Am-pel'ic Ac'id. An acid obtained 
by Laurent from the oils of bituminous 
schist. The term ampelin has been also 
applied to an oily matter prepared from 
the same substance. 

Am'pe-los-a'gri-a.* [From d/nrcXo;, 
a "vine," and uypio;, "wild."] The Bry- 
onia alba, or wild vine. 

Am-phem-e-ri'iia,* or Am-phim- 
o-ri'na.* [From dj*f>(, "on" or "by," and 
iipipa, a "day."] Applied to a fever, 
such as a quotidian ague, or hectic, oc- 
curring "day by day," — that is, every 

Am'plii((i/i^r). A Greek preposition, 
signifying "on both sides," "about;" 
sometimes "on," "at," or "by." It is 
nearly allied to «//•/>«, "both," and to 
dfi'pis, "on both sides," "in both direc- 
tions," "around." 

Am-phi-ar-tliro'sis.* [From <VM 
"both," and apQpov, a "joint," an "ar- 
ticulation."] A movement partaking 
both of Diarthrosia and Synarthrosis, as 
in the tarsal and carpal bones, and the 

Am-pliib I-o-liie, or Am-phib'i-o- 

lith. [Amphibiol'ithns ; from am- 
phib'ius, and Ai'Qo.,-, a "stone."] A fossil 
relic of an amphibious animal. 

Am-plsib-I-ol'o-g-y. [Amphibi- 
olo'gia: from amphib'ius, and \6yo;, a 
"speech."] A treatise on amphibious 
animals; the science of amphibious 

Aan-phib'i-us.* [From <«/ickd, "both," 
or du<pi, "on both sides," and Siocj, to 
"live."] Amphibious. Applied to plants 
and animals that live in both elements, 
— on land or in the water. In the neuter 
plural {Amphib'ia) it forms the name 
of the second class of the Enecphalata, 
or vertebrated animals. The animals 
of this class commence their larva state 
as fishes, and undergo various degrees 
of metamorphosis in advancing to the 
condition of reptiles. 

Am-phi-di-ar-thro'sis.* [From 
du<pi, "on both sides," and didpOpotrtg, an 
"articulation."] Applied to the articu- 
lation of the lower jaw with the tem- 
poral bone, because partaking both of 
the nature of ginglymvs and arthrodia. 

Am-phi-ga'mi-us. :; - [From dp<p(, 
"on both sides" (and hence "doubtful"), 
and yAfiog, a "marriage."] In the neuter 
plural (Amjihiga'utia) applied to plants 
(the Cryptogam ia) whose fructification is 
unascertained and may be of both sexes. 

Am-phip o-dous. [Amphip'odus ; 
from dp'P'i, "about," and ttovs, -zofiog, a 
"foot."] Having feet round about. 
Applied to certain Crustacea. 

Amphiscius,* am-fish'e-us. In the 
plural, Ampliiscii, am-fish'e-i. [From 
dficbi, "on both sides," and ckio, a "shade" or 
" shadow."] Having their shadow to the 
north one season, to the south another. 
Applied to the people within the Torrid 
Zone. Amphis'cians. 

Am-pliis'to-mous. [Amphis'to- 
111 ms : from rfp^t, "on both sides" or 
"both ends," and aroua, the "mouth."] 
Applied to certain Entozoa, having a cup 
at each extremity, by which they adhere 
to the intestines. 

Am-phit ro-pal, or Am-phit ro- 
pous. [Ampliit'ropus : from dp<pi, 
"about," and rpoxcu), to " turn."] Applied 
to the embryo of any seed when it ex- 
tends round the albumen. 

Am'pho-ra.* [From dfKpi, "on both 
sides." and (fcpco, to "carry:" because 
carried by two handles.] An ancient 
wine-vessel with two auricles, containing 
about nine English gallons. 

Am-plior'ic. [Amphor'ieus.] Be- 
longing tothca?/j/»Wfl; resembling that 



of an amphora. Applied to a sound 
(the amphoric resonance) in ausculta- 
tion, resembling that heard on blowing 
into a decanter. 

Am-plex-I-cau'Iis.* [From am- 
plec'tor, amplex'us, to "surround," and 
can'lis, a "stem."] Surrounding the 
stem: amplex'icaul, or amplexicau'line. 

Ain-pul la, plural Am-pul'lse. A 
big-bellied jug or bottle used by the 
Romans for containing wine. In Anat- 
omy, applied to the trumpet-mouthed 
portions of the semicircular canals of 
the ear. See Alveus Communis. Also 
a small membranous bag attached to 
the roots and immersed leaves of certain 
aquatic plants. 

Anipiillaceous, am-pul-la'shus. 

[Ampulla'ceus.] Appearing like an 

Am-pul'Iu-la.* [The diminutive of 
ampul' la.] Applied to a canal or bag 
slightly enlarged in the centre. 

Ani-pu-ta'tion. [Amputa'tio, 

o'nis; from am'puto, amputa'tum, to 
"cut off."] The operation of cutting 
off a limb, or projecting part of the 
body, as the breast, etc. 

Am'u-let. A supposed charm against 
infection or disease : such are anodyne 
necklaces, used in teething of infants. 

A-my-e'll-a.* [From a, priv., and 
fivcXog, "marrow," "spinal marrow."] 
The condition of a monster foetus, born 
without the spinal marrow. Such a 
foetus is said to be amy'elous. When 
the encephalon also is absent, the foetus 
is termed amyenceph'alous. There may 
be absence of the encephalon, — of the 
cerebrum and cerebellum only ; in this 
case the foetus is called anenceph'alous. 
Or the cerebrum merely may be in a 
state of defective development, or atro- 
phy, more or less partial or extensive. 

Amyelous. See preceding article, 

A-myg-'da-la.* [Gr. auvydahi.] The 
fruit of Amyg'dalua eommu'nia, the sweet 
and bitter almond. 

A-inyg'da-lae* (the plural of the pre- 
ceding). A popular name for the exte- 
rior glands of the neck and for the 

Amygdalae A-ma'ra?,* and Amyg-'- 
rtalae Dulees.* Bitter and sweet al- 
monds ; the fruit of two varieties of the 
Amyg'dalua commu'nis. The bitter al- 
mond contains prussic acid, and enters 
into the liquor or composition called 

Amygdalae Pla-cen'ta.* "Almond- 
cake;" the substance left after the ex- 

pression of the oil, which when grouni 
forms almond-powder, so generally used 
for washing the hands. 

Am-y'g-da'le-us.* Having an ar- 
rangement as in the Amygdalus. Amyg- 

Am-yg-dal'ic. [Amygdal'icns ; 
from amyg'dala, an "almond."] Be- 
longing to the almond. Applied to an 
acid obtained from amygdalin. 

A-inyg-da-lire-rous. [Amygda- 
liTerns; from amyg'dala, an "almond," 
and fe'ro r to "bear."] Bearing almonds. 
Applied ti a geode with a movable kernel. 

A-myg'da=lin. [Amygdali'na ; 
from amyg'dala, an "almond."] A 
white crystalline substance obtained 
from the bitter almond. 

A-myg'da-line. [Amygdali'nns ; 
from the same.] Belonging to the almond. 

A-myg-da-li'tis.* [From amyg'dalx, 
the "tonsils," and i'ti's, denoting inflam- 
mation.] Same as Tonsillitis. 

A-inyg'da-loid. [Amygdaloi'des ; 
from amyg'dala, an "almond," and el6og f 
a "form."] Having the form of an 

A-myg-da-loi'dal. The same as the 

A-mjg'da-Ius.* [Gr. dnvy6a\os, the 
"almond-tree."] A Linnaean genus of 
the class Icosandria, natural order Ro- 

Amyg'dalns C©in-mn'nis. ;i: The 
tree which yields the almond, both bitter 
and sweet. 

Amyg'dalns Per'si-ca.* The peach- 

Am'yl. The hypothetical radicle of a 
series of compounds, of which the hydrate 
nf the oxide has long been known as 
fusel oil, or as the oil of grain-spirit or 
potatoes, as it is produced in the ferment- 
ation of unmalted grain and potatoes. 

Amylacea Corpora. See Neuro- 

Amylaceous, aru-e-la'shus. [Amy- 
la'ceus; from am'yl urn.] Starch-like. 

Am'y-len. A substance obtained by 
distilling fusel oil with chloride of zinc. 
It is a narcotic poison. 

A-myl'ic. [Amyl'icus; from am'- 
ylum, "starch."] Applied to an acid 
obtained from starch. 

Ainylin. The same as Amidin. 

Am'y-loid. [Amyloi'des; from 
am'ylum.] Resembling amylum. or starch. 

Amyloid Defeneration. See Lau- 
daceocs Defeneration. 

Am'y-luin.* [Gr. a/ivXov, "fine meal."] 
The Pharmacopceial name || for starch, 




being the fecula of the seeds of Triticum 
vulgarej (Dub. Ph.) the Seminis feculse. 

Am jluni Jla-ran'ta?.* Arrow- 
root, — a nutritive starch prepared from 
the Jfaranta arioidiuacese. 

Am y-ous. [Am'yus; from a, priv., 
and uvg, fivds, a "mouse;" also a "mus- 
cle."] Without muscle ; fleshless. 

Amyridaceae,* am-ir-e-da'she-e. An 
order of dicotyledonous plants, abound- 
ing in fragrant resin. 

Ain'y-ris.* [From a, intensive, and 
fivpov, a "sweet-scented juice."] A Lin- 
na?an genus of the class Octandria, natu- 
ral order Amyridaccse (formerly a divi- 
sion of Tercbinthacese). 

Am'yris El-e-mife-ra.* The sys- 
tematic name of the tree which yields 

Am'yris Gil-e-a-den'sis. :;: The sys- 
tematic name of the tree which affords 
balm or balsam of Gilead. See Alpixi 
Balsam or. 

An (av). A Greek particle having a 
privative force. See A. 

Ana {ma). A Greek particle, signi- 
fying "through," "up through," "up- 
wards," "again;" sometimes "according 

For the use of ana in medical formu- 
laries, see AA. 

An-ab'a-sis.* [From dvd, "up," and 
Saivcj, to "go."] Literally, an "ascend- 
ing." The increase of a disease or of a 
paroxysm. See Acme. 

An-a-bat'ic. [Anabat'icus.] Per- 
taining to anabasis. 

Anacardiaeens,- :: an-a-kar-de-a'she- 
us. Having an arrangement as in the 
Anacardium (cashew-tree :) anacardia'- 
ceous. Applied in the feminine plural 
{Anacardiaccse, an-a-kar-de-a'she-e) to 
an order of dicotyledonous plants, in- 
cluding the cashew-tree, the sumach, etc. 

An-a-ear'dl-nm.* Anacardium Oc- 
cidental. Cashew-nut, or marking-nut. 
The nut contains, between its rind and 
shell, a red, inflammable, and very caus- 
tic liquor, or oil. See Cashew-Tree. 

Aii v a-ca-thar'sis. ;;: ' [From dvd, "up," 
and KaOaipoj, to "purge."] Literally, a 
"purgation upwards." A term used to 
denote cough with expectoration, or 
expectoration simply. 

An-a-ea-thar'tic. [Anacathar'ti- 
cus; from the same.] Promoting ex- 
pectoration or vomiting. 

An-a-cyc'lns Pyr'e-thrnm.* The 
Pharmacopoeia! (Lond. and Ed. Ph.) 
name for Anthemis Pyrcthrum. 

A : i-.u\ ro-mous. [Anad rouius ; 

from dvd, "up," and fyfyoj, a "course."] 
Swimming up into rivers from the sea. 

An-ae'ml-a.* [From av, priv., and 
ai>a, "blood."] Deficiency of blood: 
more correctly written Anh^emia. 

An-jvm ic (or Anemic), or An-aV- 
mi-al. [ Anaem'icus, or Ansemia'lis ; 
from the same.] In a state of ansemia. 

An-ae-mot'ro-phy. [From arise' mia, 
and Tpo^i}, "nourishment."] By this 
term and hamotrophy are implied simply 
a deficiency and an excess of sanguineous 
nourishment. Atrophy and hypertrophy, 
as commonly understood, include the 
idea of diminished and increased magni- 
tude ; while ansemia and hyper semi a have 
reference only to the quantity of blood 
present, without regard to its nutritive 
properties. — (Prout.) See Ax^emia. 

Anaeroid. Pee Aneroid. 

Anaesthesia,* an-es-the'se-a. [From 
av, priv., and dicBdvofiat, to "perceive," to 
"feel."] Loss of feeling or perception: 
an'aesthesy. A genus of the order JJysas- 
thesia, class Locales, of Cullen's Nosology. 

Anaesthetic, an-es-thet'ik. Anas- 
thet'icns; from anasthe'*ia.~] Having 
no perception nor sense of touch. 

Anaesthetics. [From the same.] A 
term applied to certain medicines, such 
as chloroform, ether, <fcc, having the 
power of rendering the recipient insen- 
sible to pain. 

Anal. [Ana'lis.] Pertaining to 
the anus. 

An-a-len'sis.* [From dia\au6dva), to 
"take again," to "recover."] Becover- 
ing of strength after sickness. 

An-a-len'tic. [Analew'tiens: from 
the same.] Belonging to analepsis. 

Analeptics. [From the same.] Be- 
storative medicines. 

A-iial'o-g-otis. [Anal'ogiis: from 
dva, "according to," and A6>oj, "ratio" 
or "proportion."] Literally, "propor- 
tionate:" hence, corresponding to in a 
general way. 

Analogue, an'a-log. [From the 
same.] Applied in Comparative Anatomy, 
bj T Owen, to a part or organ in one ani- 
mal having the same function as another 
part or organ in a different animal. 

A-nal'o-sy. [Analo'gia; from tho 
same.] The relation of things or parts 
of a different nature, but similar in their 
function, and so contradistinguished 
from the term Homology. 

A-ual'y-sis.* [From dvaXvcj. to "un- 
do."] The process of separating any com- 
pound substance into its constituents. 

An-a-mir'ta Coc'cu-lus. :: Tho 



plant -which affords the Cocculns Irtdicua 
fruit (Ed. Ph.). 

An-am-nes'tic. An-am-nos'ti-cal. 
[Anamnes'ticus; from dvafivfia<o), to 
" recall to mind."] Recalling to memory. 

An-an'drous, or An-an'drl-ous. 
[Anan'der, or Anan'drius: from av, 
priv., and dvrjp, dv£p6$, a ''man," a 
'•male."] Applied to plants which have 
no male organs. 

Anaphrodisia,* an-af-ro-diz'e-a. 
[From av, priv., and dppociaia, "things 
pertaining to Yenus."] Impotence; 
incapability of sexual intercourse, from 
whatever cause. 

An-a-plas'tic. [Anaplas'ticus.] 
Of or belonging to anaplasty. 

An'a-plas-tj'. [Anaplas'tia: from 
dvd, ••again," and xXdcrcru), to ''form" or 
"fashion."] Literally, forming anew. 
Surgical operations for the restoration 
of lost parts, or for the reparation of 
certain deformities or natural defects in 
the structure of the body. 

Aii-a-ple-ro'sis." :S [From dva-r\rip6cj f 
to "fill again." to "supply."] The sup- 
plement of parts destroyed, as in wounds, 
cicatrices, etc. 

An-a-ple-rot'ic. [Anaplerot'i- 

cus.] Belonging to anaplerosis; sup- 

An-a-sar'ea.* [From dvd, " through," 
and ca^l, the "flesh."] Dropsy in the 
integuments of the body. General dropsy, 
as distinguished from dropsy of some 
particular organ or part. 

An-a-stal'tie. [Anastal'ticns; from 
dvd, "upwards." and oriWu, to "set," 
"send," "contract."] Formerly applied 
to medicines that were styptic. 

An-as'to-mo'sis.* [From dvd, "by," 
'• through." and orfya, a "mouth."] The 
communication of branches of vessels 
i with each other. 

An-as-to-mot ic. [Anastomot'i- 
cns.] Of the nature of anastomosis. 

An-a-tom'I-cal. [Anatoni'icus.] 
Belonging to anatomy. 

A-nat'o-mist. [From dvd, "through," 
"up," and r£(ivoi, to "cut."] A dissector 
of organized bodies, whether human, 
brute-animal (then called Zobtomist), or 
vegetable (then Phytotomist). 

A-nat'o-my. [Anato'mia; from 
the same.] Generally, the dissection of 
organized bodies, whether human, brute- 
animal, or vegetable. 

Anatomy. Ar-ti-nVial. [Anato'- 
mia Artificialis.] Imitated dissec- 
tions in wax, etc. 

Anatomy, Com-par'a-tive. [Ana- 

to'mia Comparati'va.] The dissec- 
tion of the lower animals, plants, etc., 
to illustrate those general principles of 
organ izati' in which are common to an 
order, class, grand division, etc. 

Anatomy, I>e-scrip tive. [Ana- 
to'mia Wescripti'va.] Details of the 
situation, form, and relative attachments 
of the various parts. 

Anat'omy, Gen'e-ral. [Anato'mia 
CJenera'lis.] Description of the struc- 
ture and nature of the various tissues, 
apart from any consideration of the 
organs they compose. 

Anat'omy, Human. [Anato'mia 
Humana.] Dissection of man. 

Anat'omy, Med'i-cal. [Anato'mia 
>Ied'ica.] Embracing Descriptive, Phy- 
siological, and Pathological Anatomy. 

Anat'omy, Path-o-log'i-cal. [Ana- 
to'mia Patholog-'ica.] The investi- 
gation of changes in the structure of 
organs by disease, or from congenital 

Anat'omy, Phj's-I-o-log^i-cal. 

[Anato'mia Physiolog'ica.] The 
examination of the organs of animals to 
understand their respective functions 
in the healthy state. 

Anat'omy, Special. [Anato'mia 
Specia'lis.] Properly, the anatomy of 
a single species, as the anatomy of man, 
of the horse, etc. — Cruveilhier. In 
this sense it is contradistinguished from 
Comparative Anatomy; but, according 
to most writers, it is that branch of 
Anatomy which treats of the particular 
organs or parts (in a state of health) as 
contradistinguished from General Anato- 
my, which treats of the tissues, etc., 
common to the various organs. 

Anat'omy, Surg'I-caL [Anato'- 
mia Ohirur'giea.] The examination 
of the various organs, muscles, nerves, 
and blood-vessels, their precise situa- 
tion and relations to each other, with 
a special reference to surgery. 

Anat'omy, Tran-scen-den'tal. 
[Anato'mia Transcendentalis.] 
That branch of Anatomy which treats 
of the development of parts, their analo- 
gies, their primary model or type, ap- 
proximation to, or deviation from, that 
model ; also termed Philosophical 

An-at'ro-pous. [Anat'ropus: from 
niarpfrrw, to "subvert."] Applied in 
Botany to the ovule, in which the hilum 
and internal vmbilicus are opposed to 
each other. 

An-au'dl-a.s- [From av, priv., and 




avJij, "speech."] Dumbness; privation 
of voice : catalepsy. 

An-a-zo-tu'ri-a.* [From av, priv., 
azo'tum, "azote," and ovpov, "urine."] A 
variety of chronic diuresis, in which there 
is a deficiency of urea. See Urea. 

An'ceps.* [From am, contraction of 
d(i(pi, "on both sides," and ca'pio, to 
"take," to "compass."] Ancip'ital. 
Having the sides sharp like a two-edged 
sword. A term used in Botany. 

An'chi-lops.*' [From ay\i, "near 
to," and ajip, the "eye."] Supposed to be 
a stage of fistula lachrymalis before the 
inflamed swelling bursts ; afterwards 
called xgilops. 

An'cno-ne.*" [From ayxu, to "stran- 
gle."] The sensation of strangling, in 

An-cho-ra'lis.* [From an'chora, an 
"anchor."] Applied to the coracoid pro- 
cess of the scapula. See Ancyroides. 

An-cnu'sa. :;: " [From ayxco, to "choke," 
to "constringe the fauces."] A Linna?an 
genus of the class Pentandria, natural 
order Boraginese. 

Anchu'saTinc-to'ri-a.* [From tin'- 
go, tinc'tum, to "dye."] Dyers' alkanet; 
a plant of the order Boraginacese, the 
root of which abounds in the red color- 
ing-matter called alkanet, used by dyers; 
also for imparting a deep red to oils, 
ointments, and plasters. 

Aiicliusin. an'ku-sin. [Anchusi'- 
na.] A red-colored principle obtained 
from Anchusa tinctoria, termed by some 
Anchusic acid. 

Anchylosis. See Ankylosis. 

Ancipitius,* an-se-pish'e-us. The 
same as Anceps. 

An 'con.*' [From dy<wv, the "elbow."] 
The elbow; the olecranon process of the 

An-co'nad. Applied the same as 
anconal used adverbially. 

An-co'nal. [Ancona'lis.] Belong- 
ing to the aneon. Applied by Dr. Bar- 
clay, of Edinburgh, in his proposed no- 
menclature, as meaning towards the 

Anconeus,* ang-ko-ne'iis, or an-ko'- 
ne-iis. [From ati'con.] Pertaining to the 
elbow. Formerly applied to various 
muscles attached to the olecranon ; now 
limited to one. 

An'eo-noid. [Anconoi'dcs; from 
an'ron, and £160;, "a form."] Resembling 
the aneon. 

Ancyloglossia. See Ank vloglossia. 

Ancylosis. See Ankylosis. 

An-^y-ro-i'des.* [From ayicvpa, an 

"anchor," and e7(5o?, a "form."] Resem- 
bling an anchor. See Anchoralis. 

An-dra-nat'o-my. [Andranato - 
mia; from dvf\p, dvApos, a "man," and 
di/aTCfii/o), to "cut up."] Dissection of 
the human body, particularly the male. 

Androgynous, an-droj'e-nus. [An- 
drog-'ynus, or Androgyn'ius ; from 
avijp, dv6p6i, a "man," and yvvfj, a "wo- 
man."] Partaking of both sexes; her- 

Android. [Androi'des: from dvrjp, 
a "man," and eicoi, a "form."] Resem- 
bling a man. 

An-dro-ma'ni-a.* [From dvfip, a 
"man" or '"male," and pavia, "madness."] 
Same as Nymphomania or Furor uterinus. 

An-droph'o-rus.* [From dvf,p, a 
"man" or "male," and <pipa), to "bear."] 
The slender pillar which supports the 
united anthers in monadelphous and 
diadelphous plants. 

An-drot'o-my. [From dvvp, a "man" 
or "male," and ripvoi, to "cut."] The same 
as Andranatomy, which see. 

An'drum.* [Probably derived from 
and, a Hindoo word signifying "tes- 
ticle."] A species of hydrocele, pecu- 
liar to the south of Asia, and described 
by Kseinpfer. 

An-el-lop'ter-us.*' [From uraX«j, to 
"unroll," and -nrkpov, a "wing."] Applied 
to insects with four wings, the two supe- 
rior of which are flexible: aneilop'terous. 

A-nel-la'ta,*or A-nel'li-des.* [From 
anel'lus, a "little ring."] The fifth class 
of the Diploneura or Helminthoida, con- 
sisting of long, cylindrical, mostly aquatic 
worms, with red blood, covered with a 
soft and more or less segmented and an- 
nulated skin. The earth-worm belongs 
to this class. Also called Annelata, 
Annelida, and Axnelidans. 

Anemia. See Anemia. 

Anemic, Anemial. See An.emic, etc. 

An-e-mog'ra-phy. [Anemogra- 
pbia; from dvepo*;, "wind," and ypd<pco, 
to "write."] A description of the winds. 

An-e-mol'o-gy. [Anemolo'gia; 
from (iiepoi, the "wind," and Xoyoj, a 
"discourse."] The doctrine or science 
of the winds. 

An-e-mom'e-ter. [Anemom'e- 

triuii; from arcpos, the "wind," and 
perpcu}, to "measure."] An instrument 
for measuring the strength or velocity 
of the wind. 

An-e-mom'e-try. [Anemome'- 
tria; from the same.] The art of as- 
certaining the rapidity and direction of 
tho winds. 



A-nem'o-scope. [Anomosco'pi- 

nm ; from avejiog, the "wind," and oko-hcw, 
to "examine."] An instrument which 
shows the direction of the wind ; a 

Aii-en-ce-pha'11-a.* [From av, priv., 
and iyxcfaXo;, the "brain."] A kind of 
foetal monstrosity characterized by ab- 
sence of the brain. 

An-en-ce-phal'ic. [Anencephal'- 
icus; from the same.] Pertaining to a 
monster-foetus born without a brain. 

An-en-ceph'a-lous. [Anenceph'- 
alus. The same as Anencephalic. 

Aii-en-ceph'a-lus.* A monster- 
foetus without brains. 

An-en'ter-ous. [Anen 'terns; from 
av, priv., and tvTtpov, an "intestine."] 
Without intestines. 

An-ep-i-thym'i-a.* [From av, priv., 
and i-idvjjia, "desire."] Loss of any of the 
natural appetites, as hunger, thirst, etc. 

An'e-roid, written also An'aeroicl. 
[From av, priv., and dftp, "air.''] A de- 
fective term, meaning "without air." 
See next article. 

An'eroicl or An'aeroicl Ba-rom'e- 
ter. An apparatus consisting of a flat, 
circular box of some white metal, having 
the upper and under surfaces corrugated 
in concentric circles. This box, being 
exhausted of air, is affected by every 
variation of pressure in the atmosphere, 
the corrugations on its surface giving it 
greater elasticity. 

An'e-sis.* [From avirjui, to "relax."] 
A remission or relaxation of a disease 
or symptom. 

A-ne'thum. ;j [Gr. avrjOov.] The 
Pharmacopoeia! name (Br. Ph.) of Ane'- 
thum grav'eolens, or dill. 

Ane'tlinm Fo?-nic'u-lum. :i: " Sweet 
fennel; also called Foeniculum dulce, F. 
Germanicum, F. Vulgare or Officinale, 

Ane'thnm Orav'e-o-lens,* Ane'- 
thuin Yul-ga're.*" The common dill 

Asi-et'ie. [Anet'icus; from Streets, a 
"remission."] Applied to soothing medi- 

A-net'I-ca.- Soothing medicines. 
See Anetic. 

An'e-tns.* [From livcais, a "remis- 
sion."] Applied by Dr. Good as a ge- 
neric name for intermittent fever. 

An-eu-ral'tri-con.* [From a, priv., 
vevpov, a "nerve," and aXyo;, "pain."] 
An apparatus used by Dr. Downing for 
applying warmth and sedative vapor for 
relief of neuralgia. 

An'eii-rism. [Aneuris'ma, a/is; 

from dvevpvvw, to "enlarge."] Fr. Ane- 
vrisme, a'na'vrezm'. A tumor filled with 
blood, from the rupture, wound, ulcera- 
tion, or simple dilatation of an artery; 
also applied to dilatation of the heart. 

The old distinction was between true 
and false aneurism: the former compre- 
hends dilatation without rupture of any 
of the arterial coats; the latter, dilata- 
tion with rupture of some of the coats. 

False Aneurism admits of some dis- 
tinctions. When the extravasation i3 
diffused, the disease has been termed a 
diffused false aneurism; when circum- 
scribed, a circumscribed false aneurism. 
The French writers term the former 
anevrisme faux primitif, the latter anev- 
risme faux consecutif. 

An'eurism by An-as'to-mo'sis. 
A mulberry-colored mark, in children, 
caused by an anastomosis of the minute 
arteries. It sometimes increases in size, 
and is at length attended with pulsation. 

An'eurism of the Heart. Enlarge- 
ment or dilatation of the heart. 

An'eu-ris'mal Xee'dle. A slender 
instrument for passing a ligature under 
an artery in order to tie it. Used in 
operations for aneurism. 

Anen ris'mal Va'rix. [Va'rix 
Anenrisma'lis.] The dilatation and 
pulsation of a vein from the passing of 
blood into it from an artery; both, with 
the fascia, having been wounded in the 
act of blood-letting, all the openings 
having become united into one by adhe- 
sive inflammation. 

Aneurysm. See Aneurism. 

Anevrisme. See Aneurism. 

An-frac-tn-os'I-ty. [Anfractuos'- 
itas: from onfrac'tus, a " winding, bend- 
ing, or turning of a way."] A term 
applied to the furrows or suhi between 
the convolutions of the brain. 

An-frac'tus,* plural An-frae'tus. 
The same as the preceding. 

Angeiospermia, ;;: ~an-jl-o-sper'mc-a. 
See Angiospermia. 

An-sel'i-ca.* [From ariyelus. an 
"angel;" named from its virtues.] Gar- 
den Angelica. A Linna?an genus of the 
class Pentandria, natural order Unibelli- 
ferae. Also, the Pharmacopocial name 
(U.S. and Ed. Ph.) for the root of An- 
gelica archangelica. 

Angelica Arch-an-gell-ca.* The 
plant called garden angelica. 

Angelica A-tro-pur-pu're-a.* A 
species possessing the same properties as 
the garden angelica. 




An-gi-ec'ta-sis.* [From dyyeXov, a 
" vessel," and Zktcutis, " extension."] Dila- 
tation of a vessel, as aneurism, varix, 

An-gi-i'tis.* [From dyyeXov, a "ves- 
sel."] Piorry's term for inflammation 
of vessels, particularly of the capilla- 

An-gi'na.* [From ayxw, to "stran- 
gle."] Applied to diseases attended by 
a sense of suffocation, or by sore-throat. 

Angina Maligna. See Cynanche 

Angina Parotidsea. See Paroti- 

Angina Pectoris,* an-jl'na pek'to- 
ris. Spasm of the chest. A disease at- 
tended by acute pain, sense of suffocation, 
and syncope. It has been called also Asth ' - 
ma dolorif' ieuin, Sternal' gia, Sternodyn' ia 
syncopa'lis, Sternoear' dia, etc. 

Angina Tonsillaris. See Tonsil- 

An-gi-no'sus.* [From angi'na.] Hav- 
ing Angina, or accompanied by Angina. 

An-gi-o-car'pi.* [From dyyeXov, a 
"vessel," and Kaprzog, "fruit."] The name 
of a tribe or division of Fungi which 
bear their seeds internally. 

An-gi-og'ra-phy. [Angiogra'- 

phia; from dyyeXov, a "vessel," and 
ypd(pa), to "write."] A description of the 
vessels of the body. 

An-gi-o-len-ci'tis.* [From dyyeXov, 
a "vessel," and Xevkos, "white."] Lite- 
rally, "inflammation of the Avhite (or 
lymphatic) vessels." A diseased condi- 
tion of the lymphatic vessels. 

An-gi-ol'o-gy. [Angiolo'gia; from 
dyytiov, a "vessel," and X6yo$, a "dis- 
course."] The doctrine or science of the 
blood-vessels and absorbents. 

Angiospcrniatons, or Angeio- 
spermatons, an-ji-o-sper'ma-tus. 

[Angiosperm'atns; from dyyeXov, a 
"vessel," and <nrepp.a, a "seed."] Hav- 
ing seeds in a capsule, or seed-vessel. 

Angiospermia,* an-ji'o-sper'me-a. 
[From dyyeXov, a " vessel," and o~irepp.a, a 
"seed."] The name of an order or divi- 
sion of plants. 

A 11 -gi -o- t e-lec-ta'sl-a,* A n-gi-o- te- 
lec'ta-sis.* [From dyyeXov, a " vessel," 
re\os, an "extremit}'," and tVraaij, "ex- 
tension."] Extension or dilatation of 
vessels or their terminating capillaries. 

An-gi-ot'o-my. [ Angioto'mia ; 
from dyyeXov, a "vessel," and re/xvo), to 
"cut."] Dissection of the blood-vessels 
and absorbents. 

An'gle, Facial (fa'shal). [An'gu- 

Ins Facialis.] A straight line from 
the most prominent part of the forehead 
to the front edge of the upper jaw, and 
another from the external auditory fora- 
men to the same point. Some writers 
attach great importance to the facial 
angle as a measure of the brain as com- 
pared with the rest of the head. If the 
fore part of the cranium (in which the 
intellect is supposed to reside) be very 
full, the facial angle will be large; if 
that part be very deficient, the facial 
angle will be proportionally small. 

An'gle, Optic : An'gle of Vision. 
That formed by two rays of light pro- 
ceeding from different objects, or oppo- 
site extremities of the same object, and 
meeting in the pupil. 

An'gli-cus Sii'rtor.* [An'glicns, 
"English," and su'dor, "sweat."] The 
English sweating-fever, or the Ejihcm' era 
malig'na of Burserius, described by Dr. 
Caius as "a contagious pestilential fever 
of one day." It made its first appear- 
ance in London about the year 1480. 

An'go-ne.* [From dyxco, to "choke."] 
A sense of strangulation and suffoca- 
tion. More pi'operly written Anchone. 

Angor Pectoris. See Angina Pec- 

Angostura. See Angustura. 

Angnillifbrmcs,* an-gwirie-for'- 
mez. [From anguil'la, an "eel."] The 
name of a family of fishes resembling 
an eel in form. 

An-gni'na.* [From an'guis, a "ser- 
pent."] The name of a family of reptiles. 

Angninida*.* an-gwin'e-de. [From 
an'guis, a "serpent."] The name of a 
family of the Qphidia having the An- 
g uis for its type. 

Angular (ang'gu-lar) Ar'te-ry, 
An'gnlar Vein. Terminations of the 
facial artery and vein near the inner 
angle of the eye. 

An'gnlar Proc/ess-es. The orbitary 
processes of the frontal bone. 

An-gn-la'ris Scap'n-la*.* Another 
name for the muscle called levator anguli 
scapula, the "elevator of the angle of 
the scapula." 

Angnlate, ang'gu-lat. [Angnla'- 
tns; from an'gulus, an "angle."] Hav- 
ing angles. 

An'gn-lous, or An'gn-lose. [An- 
gnlo'sus; from an'gulus, an "angle."] 
Full of angles. 

An-gns-tl-fo'li-ate, or An-gns-tl* 
fo'li-ons. [ August iio 'litis; from an- 
gus'tu8, "narrow," and fo'lium, a "leaf."] 
Having narrow leaves. 



An-gus-ti-sep'tus.* [From angus'- 
tu8, "narrow," and sej/tum, a "parti- 
tion."] Having narrow partitions. 

Angustura (an-giis-too'ra, written 
also Angostura) Bark. [From Angus - 
tu'ra, the name of a town of Venezuela.] 
The bark of Qalipse'a euspa'ria (Lond. 
Ph.), or G. officinalis (U.S. Ph.). 

Angusturin, an-gus-too'rin, or An- 
gos-tu'rin. A neutral principle, ob- 
tained by submitting the alcoholic tinc- 
ture of angustura bark to spontaneous 

An-he-la tion. [ Anhela'tio, o'n is ; 
from anhe'lo, anhela'tum, to "breathe 
short."] Shortness of breath. 

Anliel'itus.* Same as Aniielation. 

An-hy'drite. [From anhy'drus (see 
next article), and \i%s, a "stone."] An- 
hydrous sulphate of lime; a mineral. 

An-hydrous. [Anhy'drus; from 
av (same as a), priv., and vdojp, "water."] 
"Without water. 

An-I-dro'sis. ;: [From av, priv., and 
Idpob), to "sweat."] Diminution or sup- 
pression of the perspiration. 

Anil. See Indigo. 

An-il'ic or In-dl-got'ic Ae'id. An 
acid formed by the action of nitric acid 
on indigo. 

An'i-line. [From an'il, "indigo."] 
An oily liquid formed by the action of 
caustic potash on indigo. Also applied 
to a greenish substance obtained from 
nitro-benzole : it forms the base of seve- 
ral beautiful dyes. 

An'I-ma.* [From av£p.oi, "wind," 
"breath," or "spirit."] Anciently, any 
simple volatile substance; also, the 
purest part of any substance. The vital 
principle of animals or vegetables. 

An'ima Ar-tic-u-lo'rum.* Lite- 
rally, "life of the limbs;" a name given 
to colchicum on account of its medicinal 
virtues in rheumatism and gout. It 
formed the basis of many popular reme- 
dies against, gout, such as the pu/vis 
arthriticus Turneri, and the Vienna gout 

Aii'I-inal. ;: [From an'ima, the "spirit," 
or " life."] An organized body, endowed 
with life and voluntary motion. 

An'iinal. ( Anima'lis; from an'- 
ima, "life."] Having life; pertaining 
to life. 

Animal Ae'id. [Ae'idnni Ami- 
male.] An acid existing in animal 
bodies, or which can be obtained from 
them, as Allantoic, Ambreic, Butyric, etc. 

Animal Charcoal, or Animal Car- 
bon. See Carbon. Animal. 

An'iinal E-con'o-my. [CEeono'- 
mia Anima'lis.] The system of all 
matters relating to animal life; physi- 
ology. See Economy. 

Animal Heat. See Calor Ani- 

Animal Jelly. See Gelatin. 

Animal Kingdom [Reg'num 
Anima'le. Fr. Eigne Ani ma I, ren a'ne v - 
mal'] denotes, collectively, all those be- 
ings possessing animal life, the study of 
which is called Zoology. See Zoology. 

Animal .Magnetism. See Mes- 

Animal Temperature. See Calor 

Animaleula. See next article. 

4.11-i-mal'cule. [Animal'cialum 
(plural Animal'eula), which see.] A 
microscopic animal. These animals 
doubtless exist in the atmosphere, and 
in all rivers or ponds. Those best 
known are — 

1. Infusory Animalcules (Animal'eula 
Tnfuso'ria, often called simply Infusoria). 
Observed in nearly all fluids impreg- 
nated with any animal or vegetable sub- 

2. Spermatic Animalcules. Supposed 
to have been discovered in the semen. 
See Spermatozoa. 

An-i-malea-lum,* plural An-I- 
mal'cu-la. [The diminutive of an'i- 
vtal.~\ Literally, a "minute animal." 
A creature whose true figure cannot be 
ascertained without a magnifying glass. 
See Animalcule. 

Aii-i-mal'i-ty. [Animal'itas.aV/*.] 
The assemblage of faculties that distin- 
guish animal organic matter; vital act- 
ivity of an animal body, considered as 

An-I-mal-i-za'tion. [Animaliza'- 
tio, €>'nis; from an'imal.] The process 
by which food is assimilated to the va- 
rious substances of the body. 

An-I-ma'tion. [Anima'tio, o'nis; 
from an'imo, anima'tum, to "give life."] 
The effect produced by the vis vitpe 
("power of life"), by which life is begun 
and maintained. 

Animation, Suspended. Sec As- 

Anime, an'e-me. A resinous sub- 
stance, improperly called gum animS, said 
to be obtained from the Hymense.a Gour- 
baril, and used in perfumes, varnishes, 
and certain plasters. It resembles copal 
in appearance, and is often sold under 
that name. 

An i-inists. [From an'ima, the 




"soul."] Those physiologists who refer 
all the phenomena of the living body to 
the direct agency of the soul or a prin- 
ciple distinct from the body. 

An'I-on.* [Gr. dvhov, the present par- 
ticiple of avtijii, to " ascend."] A term ap- 
plied by Dr. Faraday to the body which 
passes to the positive pole — to the anode 
of the decomposing body — as it is sepa- 
rated by electricity. See Ration. 

Anise, an'iss. The Pimpinella An- 
isvm, which see. 

An'5-seed, or An'ise-seed. The seeds 
of the Pimpinel'la ani'sum, much used as 
a carminative. 

Anisette tie Bonrdeaux, an'ne x - 
zet' deh booR v do'. A liqueur made by 
distilling anise, fennel, and coriander 
seeds, previously steeped in brandy, 
with sugar, and one-half water. 

Anisi Semiisa. See Aniseed. 

An-i-so-net'a-lous. [Anisopet'a- 
lns; from avurog, '•unequal," and pct'a- 
lum.] Having unequal petals. 

An-i-so-ph jl'Ions. [ Anisophyl '- 
Ins; from avtaos, and cjvWov, a '"leaf."] 
Having unequal leaves. 

An-I-so-stem'o-nons. [Aniso- 

stem'onis; from avtaos, and a-iipov, a 
"stamen."] Having unequal stamens. 

A-ni'snm.* [From aviiiu, to "emit."] 
Anise. The Phnrmacopceial name (U.S., 
Lond., and Ed. Ph.) for the fruit of Pim- 
pinel'la ani'sum. See Aniseed. 

An'ker. A liquid measure used at 
Amsterdam, containing about thirty-two 
gallons English wine-measure. 

An-ky-Io-bleph a-ron. :;: [From 

dyKv\r), "noose," and (i\i<papov, the "eye- 
lid."] A preternatural union of the 
two eyelids. 

An-ky-lo-glos'si-a,* or An-ey-lo- 
glos'si-a.* [From dyicv\ri, a "noose" or 
"bridle," and yXoxraa, the "tongue."] A 
natural defect termed tongue-tie. 

An-ky-lo'sis. ;;: [From dyKv\rj, a 
"clasp."] The consolidation of the ar- 
ticulating extremities of two or more 
bones that previously formed a natural 
joint; stiff-joint. 

An-neal'ing. [From the Saxon 
on-nhm, to "set on fire," to "make 
hot," to "burn."] The process by which 
substances naturally hard and brittle 
are rendered tough. It consists in rais- 
ing the substance (glass or metal) to be 
annealed, to a high temperature, and 
then causing it to cool very slowly. 

Annelida?. Sec A NELL AT A. 

An-noi'to. [Derivation uncertain.] 
A kind of reddish dye, obtained from 

the Bira Orcllana, or Orleana ; the 
Terra Orleana of the shops. 

An'nu-ens,* plural An-nn-en'tes. 
[From an'nuo, to " nod."] Applied to the 
muscles called Recti antici capitis, be- 
cause they are employed in nodding the 

Annular Bone. See Os Annulare. 

An'nu-lar tar'ti-lage. [Cartila'go 
Annnla'ris.] The cricoid cartilage. 

Annular Lig'a-nsent. [Ugamea'* 
tnni Annulare.] A strong ligament 
encircling the ankle: also, the wrist. 

Annular Process, Annular 
Pro-tu'be-ranee. [Proees'sus An- 
nularis, Protuberan'tia Annula- 
ris.] The Pons Varolii; also called 
Tuber annulare, and Corpus annulare. 
See Pons Varolii. 

Annular Vein. [Annularis 
Vena.] The vein between the little 
and ring fingers. 

An-nu-la'tus.* [From an'nulus, a 
"ring."] Having rings: an'nulate, or 
an'nulated. Applied in the neuter plu- 
ral (Annula'ta) to a class of worm-like 
animals. See Anellata. 

An'nu-lid-a.* The same as Anel- 
lata, which see. 

An'nu-lus."* A Latin word, signify- 
ing "ring," forming a part of a number 
of anatomical names. 

Annulus Abdominis. See Ab- 
dominal Ring. 

An'nulus Cil-I-a'ris.* The ciliary 
circle or ligament; a white ring forming 
the bond of union between the choroid 
coat of the eye, the iris, and the corona 
ciliaris. It is the annulus aangli/ormie 
tunica? choroid err of Soemmering. 

An'nulus L<ig'-a-men-to'sus.-<- The 
ciliary circle or ligament. See Annulls 

An'nulus O-va'lis.* The rounded 
margin of the septum which occupies 
the place of the foramen ovale in the 
foetus. It is also called the an'nulus 

An'ode. [From dvd, "up," and Woj, 
a "way."] In electro-chemical action, 
that part of the surface of the decom- 
posing body into which the electric cur- 
rent "ascends" or enters. 

A-nod'ie. [Anod'ious: from the 
same.] Used by somo writers in the 
same sense as Anastaltic. 

An'o-dyne. [Anod'ynus; from av, 
priv., and o^vvn, "pain."] Applied to 
medicines which assuage pain : antal'gic. 
Sec SoPrENS. 

A-nom a-li-flo'rons. TAnomali- 



flo'rns: from anom'alus, and /Ion, a 
"flower."] Saving anomalous flowers. 
A-nom'a-lI-pede. [Aiiom'alipes, 

p'erfi'»y from anom'alua, and ^>e«t, a 
"foot."] Having anomalous feet. 

A-nom'a-lO'veph a-lus. i: [From 
dv-ofiaXog, "irregular," and KC(>>a\>), the 
'• head."] One whose head is deformed. 
See Anomalous. 

A-nom'a-loiis. [Anom'alus: from 
av, priv., and bpa\6s, "level/' "even," 
"regular."] Applied to diseases or 
symptoms out of the regular course. 

A-nom-o-ceph'a-lus.* [From a, 
priv., vo/i6f, a " law" or "rule," and xapaXy), 
the "head."] Oue whose head is deformed; 
the same as Anomalocephai/os. 

An-om'pha-loits. [ Aiiom'phalus ; 
from av, priv., and d^paXog, the "navel."] 
Having no navel. 

A-non'y-mus.* [From av, priv., and 
owfia, a "name."] Literally, nameless. 
A term formerly applied to the cricoid 

Aii-oph-thal'mi-a."* [From av, priv., 
and 6!>9aXp6g, the "eye."] The condi- 
tion of being without eyes. 

Aii-op-Io-the'ri-um.* [From .av, 
priv., mXov, "armor," amlflnpiov, a"beast."] 
A fossil animal found in the Paris tcrtia- 
ries, destitute of horns, tusks, or claws. 

An-op'sl-av* [From av, priv., and 
o-bu;, "vision."] Defect of sight. 

An-or 'chous. [Anor 'chits ; from 
av, priv., and op\is, a "testicle.''] Having 
no testicles. 

An-o-rex'I-a.* [From av, priv., and 
8ps{i;, "desire," "appetite."] "Want of 
appetite: an'orexy. A genus of the order 
Dj/sorexise, class Locales, of Cullen's 

Aciorinal. See Abnormal. 

An-oi'mi-a.' [From av, priv., and o"w, 
to "smell."] Loss of the sense of smell. 

An-os-phre'si-a.* [From av, priv., 
and 6'ff/>p>7(7(f, the "sense of smell."] Loss 
of the sense of smell. 

Au-o'tus. ;i: ' [From av, priv., and uv;, 
o>r<5;, the "ear."] Without ears. 

AiVser.* A goose. In the plural 
(An'ser-es) it is applied to an order of 
birds including all the web-footed water- 

Aii-ser-i'nns.* [From an'ser, a 
"goose."] Pertaining to a goose: an'- 
serine. See Pes Ansebinus. 

Ant-ac'id. [From dvri, u against," 
and ac-'idum, an "acid."] Destroying 
or counteracting acidity, by combining 
with and neutralizing it. 

Ant-ac'ritl. [Antac'ridus ; from 

dvri, "against," and ac'ridus, "acrid."] 
Correcting an acrid condition of the se- 
An^ag'o-nism. [Atitagonis'imis; 

from dvTif "against/' and dywvi^co, to 
"contend."] The action of muscles op- 
posed to each other in their office. 

Ant-ag'o-nist. [Anta^oBtis'tatfrom 
the same.] Applied to muscles whose 
function is opposed to that of others, as 
abductors and adductors, extensors and 
flexors, etc. 

Aiit-al'gic. [ABital'gicus; from 
dvri, " against," and uAyoj, •• pain.''] The 
same as Anodyne. 

Asit-al'ha-liiic. [Antalltali'ims ; 
from dvri, "against," and al'kali.] Neu- 
tralizing alkalies. 

Antaphrodisiac, anCaf-ro-dizh'e- 
ak, Aitt-aphVo-dit'ic. [Aiataphro- 
disi'acus, Aittaphi-odit'icits; from 
dvTi, and 'AtppoSirri, the name of " Venus," 
also "venereal desire."] Tending to sub- 
due amorous desire: anti-venereal. 

Ant-arc'fac. [Antarc'ticus; from 
dvri, "against," and dpKriKos, "pertaining 
to the north."] Opposite the north; 

Antarc'tic Cir'clo. A circle extend- 
ing 23>V degrees from the South Pole, and 
marking that portion of the southern 
hemisphere within which at the winter 
solstice the sun does not set. 

Aiit-ar-ihrit'ic. [Aiitarihrit/icus; 
from dvri, " against," and dp'JpXris, "gout."] 
Relieving gout. 

Ant-asth-mat'ic. [Aiitasihmat r - 
icus; from dvn, "against," and ac-fyuz.] 
Relieving asthma. 

Ant-a-tro'phic. [Anfiatroph'icns; 
from dvri, "against." and drpapia, ••atro- 
phy," "defect of aliment."] Overcoming 

Anteflexion* an-te-flek'she-o. [From 
an'te, "before," and Jlcc'to, flex'um, to 
"bend."] A bending forward: anteflexion. 
Aiiteitex'io U'ter-i.* Anteflexion 
of the womb ; the fundus sinking for- 
ward between its cervix and the neck 
of the bladder. 

An-tett'na,* plural Ait-tfen'iia?. [A 
Latin term signifying a "sail-yard," and 
applied to the horns of insects, because, 
extending on each side of the head, they 
arc supposed to resemble the yard-arms 
projecting on each side of the mast of a 
ship.] Certain articulated filaments in- 
serted in the heads of the Crustacea and 
Irueeta, peculiarly devoted to a delicate 
sense of touch. They are popularly 
called horns, or feelers. 




An -ten 'n ate. [Antenna'tns.] 

Having anteimte. 

An-ten-nif 'e-rons. [Antennif 'e- 

rus ; from dnten'na, and/Vro, to " bear."] 
Bearing antennae. 

An-ten'iil-form. [Antennifor'- 
mis; from anten'na.] Having the form 
of antennse ; resembling antennae. 

An-te-pec'tus.* [From an'te, "be- 
fore," and pec'tus, the " breast."] The 
anterior segment of the Pectus, or inferior 
surface of the trunk in insects. 

Ant-eph-i-al'tie. [Antephial'ti- 
cus; from dvri, "against," and ed>ta\rrii, 
"night-mare."] Efficacious against 

Ant-ep-I-lep'tic. [Antepilep'ti- 
ens ; from dvri, and tmXapia, " epilepsy."] 
Efficacious against epilepsy. 

An-te'ri-or.* Before, as applied to 
muscles and nerves. 

Aii-te-ster'num.* [From an'te, 
"before," and ster'num, the "breast- 
bone."] In Entomology, the first or 
anterior division of the sternum. 

Anteversi©,* an-te-ver'she-o. [From 
an'te, "before," and ver'to, ver'sum, to 
"turn."] A turning forward. 

Antever'sio U'ter-i.* ("Anteversion 
of the Womb.") Displacement of the 
uterus, the fundus being thrown forward, 
so as to compress the neck of the blad- 
der, the mouth being turned to the 

Ant-hsem-or-rhag'ie. [Antbaem- 
orrhag'ieus; from dvri, "against," and 
al/jtofpayia, "haemorrhage."] Checking 

Ant'he-lix.* [From dvri, "against," 
"opposite to," and cXi*, the "helix."] 
The inner circular ridge of the external 

An-thel-min'tie. [Anthelmin'- 
tieus; from dvri, "against," and eXpuvs, 
eXptvdos, a "worm."] Expelling worms 
from the intestinal canal: vermifuge. 

An'the-miK.-:- [From dv9ao, to " flow- 
er."] Chamomile. A Linn«?an genus of 
the class Syngenesia, natural order Com- 
posite (sub-order Corymbifcrsr). The 
Pharmacopocial name || of the Axthemis 
Nobieis, which see. 

An'tnemis Nob'i-lis.* The herb 
which yields chamomile flowers ; called 
also Cham.emk'um, Cham^me'ltto No'- 
BILe, and Chamomil'la Roma'na. 

Au'lliesiita Pyr'e-thrnm. |: The 
pellitorv of Spain. The root of this 
plant, called Pyrethrum by the Pharma- 
copoeias, is a powerful sialagogue. On 
account of its acrid and stimulating 

properties, it is used as a masticatory 
in the toothache, rheumatism of the 
face, etc. 

An t her. [Anthe'ra; from dv6o$, a 
"flower."] The part of the flower which 
contains the pollen, or the male fecun- 
dating principle. It is the head and 
essential part of the stamen. 

An-ther-itVi-um.* [The diminutive 
of anthe'ra.'] Applied in the nominative 
plural (Antherid'ia) to collections of 
cells found in cryptogarnous plants con- 
taining bodies analogous to the sperma- 
tozoa of animals. 

An-ther-if 'er-ous. [Antherife- 
rus; from an'ther, and/e'ro, to "bear."] 
Bearing anthers. 

An-the'sis.* [From avQiu, to "flow- 
er."] The production of flowers. 

Anthiarin, an-the'a-rin. The active 
principle of a gum resin obtained from 
the Anthiaris toxicaria. 

An-thi-a'ris (or An-ti-a'ris) Tox- 
I-ea'ri-a.* The scientific name of the 
Upas Tree, which see. 

An-tho-ear'pous. [Anthoear'- 
pus; from diBog, a "flower," and <cap7r6j, 
"fruit."] A term applied to fruits pro- 
duced from masses of flowers adhering 
to each other, like the pine-apple. 

Aii-tho-cy'a-nmn.* [From avBog, a 
"flower," and kvciios, "blue."] A sub- 
stance obtained from the blue of flowers. 

An-tho'di-um.* [From aiOos, a 
"flower."] A kind of calyx, common to 
many flowers. 

An-thog'ra-phy. [Anthogra'» 

phia; from iivdos, a "flower," and 
ypd(po), to "write."] A description of 

An'thoid. [Anthoi'des; from ui0o?, 
a "flower," and elcos, a "form."] Re- 
sembling a flower. 

An'tho-lite. [Antholi'tes; from 
dvOog, a "flower," and \idog, a "stone."] 
The fossil impression of a flower. 

An-thol'o-gy. [Antliolo'gia; from 
avQos, a " flower," and Xoyog, a " discourse."] 
A treatise on flowers, their nature, quali- 
ties, appearance, etc. 

An'tlio-ny's Fire, Saint. [Ig-'nis 
Sane'ti Anto'nii.] Another name for 
Erysipelas, which see. 

An-thoph'I-lus.* [From avBog, a 
"flower," and <pi\ot, a "lover."] Lite- 
rally, "loving flowers." Applied in the 
neuter plural (Anthoph'ila) to a family 
of hymenopterou8 insects: anthoph'ilous. 

An-tho-plio'ri-uni,* An-tliopli'o- 
rum. :;: ' [From dfOo;, a "flower," and 
cpipo), to " bear."] A prolongation of the 



receptacle, bearing petals, stamen, and 
pistil : an an'thophore. 

An-thox-an'thin. [Anthoxan- 
thi'na: from a»6oi, a "flower," and 

\av06i, "yellow."] A substance obtained 
from the yellow of flowers. 

An-tnra'el-a.* [From a»6pa$, a 
"coal. "J See Frambcesia. 

Anthra'cia Rubu-la.* Dr. Good's 
term for the disease called "the yaws.*' 
See Frambcesia. 

Aii-ihra-cifer-ous. [Anthraoif- 
crus; from avOpa^, "coal" or ''carbon," 
and fe'ro, to "bear."] Containing car- 

An'thra-cite. [Anthraci'tes; from 
avdpaj:, a "coal," and \ido;, a "stone."] 
A species of stone-coal burning without 
smoke anil with little or no effluvia. 

Antnraeo'des. The same as An- 
thracoi'des. See Axthracoii). 

An'thra-coid. [Anthracoi'des; 
from ilvdpat, "coal," and elcoi, a "form."] 
Resembling carbuncle; having the na- 
ture of carbuncle. 

An-thra-ook'a-li. The name given 
to a remedy recently employed in certain 
herpetic affections. The simple prepa- 
ration consists of a levigated coal-dust 
and pure potassa: the sulphurated pre- 
paration is composed of sulphur, levi- 
gated coal-dust, and caustic potassa. 

An-tlira-eo-tlie'ri-uni.' : ' [From 

avQpai, "coal," and Oripiov, an "animal."] 
A fossil animal found in coal and in 

Anthrax, ac/s.- [Lat. Carbua'ca- 
Ins, a " little coal ;" Gr. dvQpa*, a " coal."] 
A carbuncle. A hard, circumscribed, in- 
flammatory dark-red or purple tumor, 
accompanied by a sense of burning, re- 
sembling a boil, but having no central 

An-thro-po^'en-jr. [AntSiropo- 
gre'jiia: from avQpoj-o;, a "man," and 
yivzais, "generation."] The generation 
of man. 

An-thro-pos?'ra-ph t v. [Anthro- 
pog'ra'phia; from Svdpcmos, a "man." 
and ypafya, to '"write."] A history or 
treatise on the structure of man. 

An'tlsro-poid. [Antnropoi'des; 
from <! dpcmosf a "man," and elcos, a 
"form."] Resembling man. 

An-tnrop'o-lite. [Anthropoli'- 
tes: from a^dpto-o;, a "man," and XiOo;, 
a "stone."] A petrifaction of human 

An-thro-polo-jry. [Anthropolo- 
«jja: from avOpcmog, a "man," and \6yo;, 
a "discourse."] A treatise on man; a 

description of man : also, the science 
which treats of the physical and intel- 
lectual nature of man. 

Aii-thro-pom e-trj'. [Antliropo- 
me'trsa: from avdpamos, a "man." and 
perpov, a "measure."] Measurement of 
the dimensions of man. 

An-thro-po-nior phons. [Anthro- 
pomot* plans; from SvOpasog, a "man," 
and popart, " shape."] Formed like man ; 

An-tliro-popli'a-?rns, : ' : " plural An- 
thro-poph'a-gi. [From u^pwrroj, a 
"man," and <£ayo), to "eat."] One who 
eats human flesh : a cannibal. 

An-thro-poph'a-gy. [Antnropo- 
pha'gia: from the same.] The eating 
of human flesh. 

An-tbro-pos'co-py. [Anthropo- 
sco'pia: from aSpamog, a "man," and 
cm-Eta, to " observe."] An inspection of 
the lineaments of man. 

An-tiiro-po-som'a-tol'o-try. [An- 
thropcsomatolo'gia: from avdpuzos, a 
"man," ov/ia, the "body," and Aoyoj, a 
"discourse."] A description of the 
structure of the human body. 

An-thro-pos'o-phy. [Anthro- 

poso'phia: from uvdpoj-os, a "man," 
and copia, "wisdom."] Knowledge of 
the nature and general character of 

An-tfrro-pot'o-my. [Anthropoto'- 
mia: from aiS/.wrof, a "man," and rcpvcj, 
to "cut."] The dissecting of man; hu- 
man anatomy 

Ant-hyp-not'ie. [Anthypnot'i- 
cus: from dvri, "against," and mvo$, 
"sleep."] Hindering sleep. 

Ant-hyp-o-chon 'dri-ao. [Anthyp- 
ochoiidri'acns: from dvri, "against." 
and v-oxovcpiavoi, "hypochondriac."] 
Overcoming hypochondriasis. 

Ant-hys-ter'ic. [Anthyster'icns; 
from dvri, "against," and AyateVia.] 
Overcoming hysteria. 

Anti-. [Gr. dvri.] A prefix signify- 
ing " against," "opposed to," or "cor- 
rective of;" as anti-bilioi(8, aiiti-ltthic, etc. 

An-ti'a-des.* [The plural of dvndg, 
dvrid<'o<;, a "tonsil."] Another name for 
the tonsils. 

Aia-ll-a-di'tis.* [From djrriag,ayfiaiog f 
a " tonsil."] Inflammation of the tonsils. 

Aiitiaplirctlisiac. See Axtaphro- 

Antiari*. See ANTHIABIS. 

Antiarthritic. See Ant arthritic. 

An'ti-as. '• The singular of Antiapes, 
which sec. 

Ant iasl lunatic. See AntasthhatiC. 




Aaatiatroplaae. See Antatropiiic. 

Antiba'aelaial, an-te-brii'ke-al. [Aaa- 
tiba*aclaia'lis.] Belonging to the anti- 
brachium, or fore-arm. 

An-ta-bra'-elal-aain.* [From dvA, 
"against," and bra'chium, the "arm."] 
The fore-arm, as opposed to, when bent 
upon, the proper arm. 

An-tl-ca-claoc'tic. [Aaaiicaclaec'- 
ticus; from dvri, "against," and ca- 
chexia, a "bad habit of body."] Op- 
])osed to cachectic diseases. See Ca- 

Aaa-ta-car'da-aam.* [From dvri, 
''against," and icapdia, the "heart."] 
The scrobic'ulus cor'dis, or pit of the 

AnticheiiV' an'te-klr. [From dvri, 
"against," and x^P, the "hand."] Op- 
posed to the hand. A name sometimes 
applied to the thumb. 

Aia-ti-cli'iial. [Antioliaia'lis; from 
dvri, "against," and cli'no, to "bend."] 
Bending in opposite directions. Applied 
in Geology to strata which decline both 
ways from a longitudinal ridge, called 
the anticlinal axis. 

Ati-ta-diaa'io. [Antidiii'icus; from 
dvri, "against," and dlvog, "giddiness."] 
Believing from giddiness, or vertigo. 

Aaa'tl-dote. [Aaatid'otaam, Aaatid'- 
otus; from dvri, "against," and diSco^u, 
to "give."] A medicine given to coun- 
teract the effects of poison. 

Antidotus. See Antidote. 

An-ti-dys-«m-ter'ic. [Aaatidyseia- 
ter'icus; from dvri, "against," and 
coocvTcpla, "dysentery."] Preventing or 
curing dysentery. 

Aaatieplaialltic. See Antephialtic. 

Antiepileptic. See Antepileptic. 

Aaa-ts-feb'a*ale. [Ajatifcba*i'lis; from 
avri, "against," andfe'bris, a "fever."] 
Subduing fever ; febrifuge. 

Aaa-ta-S'a-lac'tic. [Aaatij?alac'ti- 
caas; from dvri, "against," and yd\a, 
"milk."] Lessening the secretion of 

Aaa-ta-laoc'tic. [AaataBacc'iicaas; from 
dvri, "against," and ekhko?, "hectic."] 
Assuaging hectic fever. 

Aniaholix. See Antitet.tx. 

Aaa(aia<'3aiai£atio. Sco Anthelmintic. 

Aaa-ii-Iay-da'op'ic. [Aaafrilaydrop'- 
i«*ns; from dvri, "against," and vSpuyJj, 
"dropsy."] Curative of dropsy. 

AaBtiBaypaaotaV. Sec Anthvpnotic. 

AaatiSaypocSaoaada-aac. See Anthyp- 

Aaa<iIay«toric. See Antiiysteric. 

Aaa-t a-Ic-ier'ic. [ Aaati-Ictcr'icaas ; 

from dvri, "against," and iia-epos, the 
"jaundice."] Curative of Icterus, or 

Aia-ta-latla'ic. [Aaatilith'icaas; from 
dvri, "against," and XiGog, a "stone."] 
Preventing the formation of stone, or 

Aaa-ta-lo'ba-aim.* [From dvri, "a- 
gainst," and Ao6'c%, the "lobe of the ear."] 
The tragus, or part opposite the lobe of 
the ear. 

Aaa-tl-loi'iaaie, or An-tl-loe'mic. 
[Antiloi'inicaas; from ami, "against," 
and \oiu6g, the "plague."] Curative of 
plague or pestilence of any kind. 

Aaa-ti-lys'sic. [From dvri, " against," 
and \vaaa, " canine madness."] A re- 
medy against hydrophobia. 

Aaa-tl-mo'iai-al. [Aaat imoaaia'lis ; 
from antimo'nium.] Pertaining to anti- 

Aiatimo'iaial Pow'der. The Ptthis 
antimonialis (Ed. and Dub. Ph.), or Pul- 
vis antimonii compositvs (Lond. Ph.), used 
as a substitute for James's Powder. 

Aaatiatao'nial Wine. ["Vi'iaaam Aia- 
tiaaao'aaii.] A solution of tartar emetic 
in sherry or other wine ; two grains of 
the tartar emetic being contained in 
every fluidounce of the preparation. 

Aia-ta-aaao'aai-sitc. [Aaataaaao'aaias, 
sa'tis; from antimo'nicnm ac'idum.] A 
combination of antimonic acid with a 

Aii-ti-moaa'ac Acid. [Aaatimo'aai- 
caaaai Ac'idaam.] A substance other- 
wise called peroxide of antimony. 

Aaa-ta-BiBo'aaa-oiis Ac/id. Formed 
by exposing the white hydrate of the 
peroxide of antimony to a red heat. 

Aaa-tiaai'o-aaite. [Aiatiiii'oiais, i'tis ; 
from antimo'niom acid.] A combination 
of antimonious acid and an alkaline 

Aaatiaaaonaaiati. See Antimony. 

Aaa-ta-mo'iaa-aam Tar-tar-a-za'- 
taarn.* The Pharmacopceial name (Ed. 
and Dub. Ph.) of emetic tartar, or anti- 
monii potanxio-tartras (Lond. Ph.), ortar- 
tarized antimony. See Tartar Emetic. 

Ais'Jo-sjio-ns.f. [Aaalinao'aaiaaiaa; 

conjectured to be derived fiom dvri, 
"against," and min'ium, "vermilion ;" 
because used in aid of rouge for height- 
ening the complexion.] A metal of which 
many of the compounds are used in 

Aaa-ta-aao-plarafic. [Antiaaoplarif- 
icaaN; from dvri, "against," and popping, 
"disease of the kidneys."] Curative of 
diseases of the kidneys. 



An-tin I-rul. Applied the same as 
fintinial used adverbially. See Gla- 


An-tin'I-al. [From ami, "against," 
and iviov, the "occiput."] Opposite the 
occiput. Applied by Dr. Barclay as 
meaning towards the glabella, or space 
between the eyebrows. 

Antiodontalgic. See Axtodoxtal- 

An-ti-or-g-as'tic. [Antiorgras'ti- 
cus: from ami, "against," and opyd^to, 
to "excite."] Allaying excitement; sy- 
nonymous with sedative. 

Antl-par-a-sta-ti'tis.* [From an- 
tiparas'taUe, Cowper's glands.] In- 
flammation of Cowper's glands. 

An-tip'a-thy. [Antipathi'a.* Gr. 
amutadua ; from ami, "against," and 
nadoi, "feeling," "affection."] Any op- 
posite properties in matter; also, aver- 
sion to particular objects. 

Aii-ti-per-i-stal'tic. [Antiperi- 
stal'ticus; from dvri, "against," and 
peristal'tic] Applied to inverted peri- 
staltic motion of the bowels. See Peri- 

An-ti-pes'ti-len-tial. [From dvri, 
"against," mndpestilen'tia, "pestilence."] 
Same as Antilobiic. 

An-ti-phar'mic. [From dvri, "a- 
gainst," and 6ap^iaKov, a "poison."] The 
same as Alexipharmic. 

Anti-phlo-gis'tic. [Antipnlo- 

gis'ticus: from ami, "against," and 
(p\iyo}, to "burn."] Applied to treatment 
intended to subdue inflammation, or ex- 
citement of the system in inflammatory 

Antiphthisic, an-te-tiz'ik. [Anti- 
phthis'icus; from dvri, "against," and 
<ptiiai$, " consumption."] Checking phthis- 
is, or consumption. 

An-ti-pnys'ic. [Antiphys'ictis : 
from dvri, "against," and (pvsdio, to "in- 
flate."] Dispelling flatulency. Also, 
against nature [from <pvjis, "nature"]. 
For the purpose of distinction it would 
perhaps be preferable to write Antiphu'- 
aic when we mean "dispelling" or "cor- 
rective of flatulency." 

An-t I-plas'tic. [Antiplas'ticus : 
from ami, " against," and -Xdo-cw, to 
"form."] Unfavorable to healing, or 
granulation : disorganizing. 

An-ti-pleu-rit'ic. [Antiplcurit'- 
ictis: from dvri, •• against," and irXevptTis, 
"pleurisy."] Curative of pleurisy. 

An-ti-po-dajj'ric. [Antipodag'ri- 
cus ; from ami, "against," and vobdypa, 
the "gout."] Curative of gout. 

An-ti-pro*'ta-tse Glan'dn-Ia?. * 

The antiprostate glands; a name for 
Counter's glands j also called Antiparas'- 

An-tl-pros-tat'ic. [Antiprostat- 
icus: from dvri, ('against," a "d pros- 
tata glan'dula, the "prostate gland."] 
Opposite the prostate gland. 

An-ti-pros'ta-tus. * The same as 


An-tip-sor'ic. [Antipsor'icns; 

from dvri, " against," and '^pa, the 
"itch."] Curative of the itch. 

An-tl-py'ic. [Antipy'icus ; from 
dvri, "against," and nvov, "pus."] Pre- 
venting suppuration. 

An-tl-py-ret'ic. [Antipyrct'icns ; 
from dvri, " against," and~vpero s , " fever."] 
Curative of fevers. Antifeb'rile : feb'ri- 

An-ti-py-rot'ic. [Antipyrot'ieus ; 
from ami, " against," and rip, " fire."] 
Curative of burns. 

An-ti-quar-ta-na'rI-an, An-ti- 
q uar tan. [Antiquartana'rins^ from 
dvri, "against," and quarta'na fe'bris, a 
"quartan fever or ague."] Curative of 
quartan ague. 

Antirachitic, an-te-ra-kit 'ik. [An- 
tirachit'icus; from dvri, "against," 
and rachi'tis, "rickets."] Corrective of 

Antiscii,* an-tish'e-i, the plural of 
Antiscius, an-tish'e-us. [From dvri, 
"against." and c<id, a "shade" or 
"shadow."] Having their shadow in 
opposite directions at noon, as the peo- 
ple north and south of the equator : 
antis'cious : antis'cian. 

An-tl-scol'ic. [Antiscol'icns; from 
ami, "against." and ac-oXr,?, a "worm."] 
Against worms ; capable of expelling 
worms : vermifuge : anthelmintic. 

An-tl-scor-bu'tic. [Antiscorbu'- 
ticas: from ami, "against." and scnr- 
bu'tus, the disease "scurvy."] Correct- 
ive of Scorbutus, or scurvy. 

Aii-ti-scrof'n-lous. [Antiscrofu- 
lo'sus; from ami, "against," and scrof - 
u/a, the " king's evil."] Curative of 

An-tl-sep'tic. [Antisep'ticns ; 

from ami, "against." and cn-u>, to "pu- 
trefy."" Preventing putrefaction. 

Asi-ti-spas-mod'ic. [Antispas- 
mod'icus; from dvri, "against," and 
(T-ranaoi;, a " spasm."] Allaying spas- 
modic pains. 

An-ta-spas'tic. [Antispas'ticus; 
from dvri, " airainst." and amuo, to 
"draw."] Literally, "drawing against 




or in an opposite direction." Counter- 
acting a state of spasm. Synonymous 
with Antispasmodic. 

An-tl-sypii-I-lit'ic. [Antisypni- 
lit'icus : from san-i, " against," and 
syph'ilis.'] Curative of syphilis. 

An-tith'e-nar.* [From dvA, " a- 
gainst," and Qtvap, the H hollow of the 
hand or foot."] Applied in Anatomy to 
the muscles Adductor ad indicetn of the 
hand, and Adductor of the great toe. 

Antithora. See Axthora. 

An-ti-trag'i-cus.* Belonging to 
the aniitragus: antit'ragic. 

An-tit'ra-gus.* [From dm, "a- 
gainst," and tra'gusJ] The thicker part 
of the antihelix, opposite the tragus. 

An-tit'ro-pous. [Antit'ropus ; 
from avri, " against," and rpoirfi, a " turn- 
ing."] Applied, in Botany, to the em- 
bryo when the radicle is distant from the 
hilum, the cotyledons being next to the 
latter; inverted. 

An-ti-ve-ne're-al. [Antivene're- 
us; from am, '"against," and vcne'reus, 
*' venereal."] Curative of venereal 

Aii-tl-zym'ie. [Antizym'icus ; 

from livri, " against," and %vugoj, to <l fer- 
ment."] Preventive of fermentation. 

Ant'li-a.* [From dvrXia, a " pump."] 
The spiral apparatus by which certain 
insects draw up the juices of plants. 

Ant'lia ILac'te-a,* Ant'lia Mam- 
ma'ri-a. :;: ' An instrument for drawing 
milk from the breast: a milk-pump; a 

Ant-o-don-tal'gic. [AntodontaV- 
gieus ; from dvri, u against," and ooov- 
raXyta, a " toothache."] Curative of the 

Antonii, Ignis Sancti. See Ery- 

Antorgastic. See Antiorgastic. 

An-tri'tis.* [From an'trum, a "cave" 
or " cavity."] Inflammation of any 
cavity of the body. 

Antrum.' [From avrpov, a "cave."] 
A cavity. Applied specially to one in 
the upper maxillary bone, termed An'- 
trum Highmoria'num. 

An'trum Buccinosuns,* buk-sin- 
o'sfiin. [From bud cine, a "trumpet."] 
The trumpet-like cavity, or cochlea of 
the ear. 

Ati'trum ^le'iisp.* According to 
Quiiicv, the name {riven by Casserius to 
the Antrum Highmoricmum before High- 
more discovered it. 

Antrum Migliuioriannin. See 



An'trum Max-il'la?,* An'trum 
3Iax-il-la're,* An trum of High - 
more. The Antrum Highmoriauum. 

An'trum Py-lo'ri.* The small 
extremity of the stomach near the 

Ants. Acid of. See Formic Acid. 

An-u'rs-a.* [From a, priv., and 
ovpov, " urine."] Defective secretion of 
urine : an'ury. 

A'nus.* [From an'nus, a "circle."] 
The extremity of the rectum : the fun- 

Anus, Artificial. See Artificial 

Anus, Imperforate. See Atresia, 

Anx-I'e-ty. [Anxi'etas, n't is; from 
anx'ius, " anxious," (from dy\oy, to 
"choke," to "distress").] A settled 
expression of anxiety in the features 
forming a dangerous symptom in acute 

A-or'ta.* [Gr. doprij, from ddpoy, to 
"raise up," to "support," to "suspend:" 
because it is supported or suspended 
from the heart.] The large arterial 
trunk arising from the left ventricle of 
the heart, and giving origin to every 
artery except the puimonary and ita 

Aorteurysma,* or Aorteurisma,* 
a-ort-u-riz'ma. [From doprr), and dievpvi<u, 
to "dilate."] Aneurism of the aorta. 

A-or'tic. [Aor'ticus.] Belonging 
to the aorta. 

A-or-ti'tis, idis* [From aor'ta.] In- 
flammation of the aorta. 

A-pag'y-nous. [Apag'ynus; from 
anal, " once," and yuwj, a "woman," 
"one who brings forth."] Applied to 
plants which fructify but once and then 
die. See Gynecology. 

Ap'a-thy. [Apathi'a: frotn a, priv., 
and naOoi, "feeling," "passion."] Ab- 
sence or privation of all passion, emo- 
tion, or excitement. 

Ap'a-tlte. A phosphate of lime. 

A-pep'si-a. ;i: [From a, priv., and ^rcd, 
to "cook," to "digest."] Imperfect 
digestion. A term formerly used for 

A-pe'ri-ent. [Ape'riens; from 
ape'rio, to "open."] Opening. Applied 
to a medicine which gently opens the 

A-per'tor, o'r/s.* [From ape'rio, 
aper'tum, to "open."] Literally, "that 
which opens." The Levator jialjjcbrie 
8uperiorie; otherwise, the Apertor oeuli 
("opener of the eye"). 



A-pet'a-lous. [Apeta'Iens; from 
a, priv., and pet' alum, a "petal."] Hav- 
ing no petals. 

A'pex.* The point or extremity of a 
cone: hence applied to parts of the body 
supposed to resemble a cone, as the apex 
of the heart, of the tongue, etc. 

A p hie res is,* a-fer'e-sis. [From utto, 
"from," and dtpeui, to "take."] A term 
formerly applied to that branch of Sur- 
gery whose business it is to cut off or 
remove any portion of the body. 

Aph-a-nop'te-rus,* or Aph-a-nip'- 
te-rus.* [From tipavi'ii, "invisible," and 
irriftoi-, a " wing."] In the neuter plural 
{Aphnnip'tera, or Aphanop'tera) applied 
to a family of insects apparently with- 
out wings : aphanop'terous. 

Aph-e'li-oii.* [From dir6, "from," 
and fjXiag, the "sun."] A term used in 
Astronomy to denote that point of a 
planet's orbit farthest from the sun. 

A-phelx'i-a.* [From d<pc\K0i, to " draw 
away." See Apo.] Aphelxia socors, ab- 
sence of mind; Aphelxia intenta, abstrac- 
tion; Aphelxia otiosa, revery or brown 

Aphides. See Aphis. 

Aph-I-diph'a-g'iis.* [From a'phis, 
and ^aytiv, to " eat."] Applied in the 
plural masculine {Aphidiph'agi) to a 
family of Coleoptera which feed on 
Aphides : aphidiph'agous. 

A-phid'i-us.* [From a'phis.] Be- 
longing to the Aphides. In the plural 
masculine (Aphid'ii) applied to a family 
of hcmipterous insects: aphid'ious. 

Aph-I-di v'o-rous. [ Aphidi v'orus ; 
from a'phis, and vo'ro, to "devour."] 
Eating aphides. 

A'phis. Idis,* plural Aphides, af 'e- 
dez. The plant-louse, the type of a 
family of Hemiptera. 

A'phis Vas-ta'tor.* A species of 
aphia remarkable for its destructive 
powers. See Vastator. 

Aph-lo-gis'tic. [ Aphlog-is't icus ; 
from a, priv., and </>A6£, a " flame."] With- 
out flame. 

A-pho'nl-a.* [From a, priv., and (poivrj, 
the "voice."] Loss of voice: aph'ony. 
A genus of the order Dyscinesiee, class 
Locales, of Cullen's Nosology. See 
Axvrnrv. Vox Abscissa. 

A-pho'ri-a.* [From a, priv., and 
<ptpw. to "bear."] Barrenness; sterility; 
inability to conceive offspring. 

Aph'o-rism. [From atpopiC,oj, to 
"limit," to "define."] A maxim. The 
Aphorisms of Hippocrates, a celebrated 
work, containing various maxims or 

short, pithy sentences relating to medi- 

Aph-ro-dis'i-a. [From 'AfpoSirr), Ve- 
nus; 'Acppodiaios, "pertaining to Venus," 
"venereal."] Morbid or immoderate de- 
sire of vencry. The generative act. Also 
termed Aphrodisiasmus. 

Aphrodisiac, af-ro-dizh'e-ak. [Aph- 
rodisi'acus, Aphrodis'ius; from the 
same.] Applied to medicines or food 
supposed to excite sexual desire or to 
increase the generative power. 

Aphrodisiasmus. Same as Aphro- 

Aph'tha,* plural Aphtha*. [From 
a7TTa>, to "set on fire."] Ulcers of the 
mouth, beginning with numerous mi- 
nute vesicles and terminating in white 
sloughs. Aphthae constitute the charac- 
teristic symptoms of "thrush," and also 
occur in other diseases. 

Aph'thoid. [Aphthoi'des; from 
aph'tha, and a<Soj, a "form."] Resem- 
bling aphthae. 

Aph'thous. [Aphtho'sns; from 
aph'tha.] Of the appearance or full of 

A-phyl'Ious. [Aphyl'lus: from a, 
priv., and <pv\\ov, a "leaf."] Without 

Apiaeeons, a-pe-a/shus. [Apia'- 
ceus.] Having an arrangement as in 

Ap-I-ea'lis.* [From a'pex, ap'icis.] 
Belonging to the apex: ap'ical. 

Ap-I-ca'tus.* Having a conspicuous 
apex: ap'icated. 

A-pic'u-lus.* [The diminutive of 
a'pex.] A term used in Botany to denote 
the projection of the midrib beyond the 
end of the leaf; a small, sharp, short 

A'pis Jlel-lif'i-ca.* [A'pis, a "bee." 
mel, "honey," and fa'cio, to "make."] 
The honey-bee, affording honey and wax. 

A'pi-um.* A genus of the Linnoean 
class Pentandria, natural order Umbelli~ 
ferae, including the garden-plants celery 
and parsley. 

A'pimii Grav'e-o-lens* (or gra- 
ve'o-lens). The common celery. (Fr. 
Ache, ash.) When wild, growing in wet 
places, it is acrid and poisonous; when 
cultivated in dry ground and partially 
blanched, it is used as salad. It is 
slightly aperient and carminative. 

A'pinm l*e-tr©-se-li'mim,* other- 
wise called Petroseli'mim Sa-ti'- 
viim. Common parsley, the root and 
seeds of which are diuretic and aperient. 

Ap-la-nat'ie. [Aplanat'icus; from 




a, priv., and nXavdo, to "wander," to 
" err."] Corrective of the aberrations 
of the rays of light. 

A-plas'tic. [Aplas'ticus; from a, 
priv., and n\doou>, to "form."] That 
cannot be organized. 

Apleuria,* a-plu're-a. [From a, priv., 
and nXevpd, a "rib."] An organic devia- 
tion characterized by the absence of ribs. 

Ap-neii'rl-a."* [From a, priv., and 
irvzifiuyv, the "lung."] An organic devia- 
tion characterized by the absence of lungs. 

Apnoea,* ap-ne'a, or Ap-neus'ti-a.* 
[From a, priv., and nvioi, to "breathe."] 
Partial privation or entire suspension 
of the breath. 

Apo. [Gr. dno.~\ A prefix signify- 
ing "from," "off," "away." Before a 
word beginning with h the o is dropped 
and the p blended with the following 
letter: thus, apo-helko (from dn6 and 
'£\ko)), to "draw away," is contracted 
into aphelko (d^tXvoj). 

Ap-o-ear'pous. [Apocar 'pus ; 

from and, "from," and Kapnog, "fruit."] 
Having capsules distinct from each other. 

Ap-o-^e-no'sis,* plural Ap-o-$e-iio'- 
ses. [From dno, "from," and kevow, to 
" empty out."] Increased discharge, flux, 
or evacuation. 

Apocynaceae,* a-pos-se-na'she-e. 
An order of dicotyledonous plants in 
some respects resembling Asclepiadacese, 
but of rather more suspicious properties. 
See Apocynum. 

Apocynaceous, a-pos-se-na'shus. 
[Apoeyna'ccus.] Applied to plants 
resembling the Apocynum, or dog's bane. 

Ap-o-cyii'e-us.* Same as Apocyxa- 


Apocynin, or Apoeynine, a-pos'- 
se-nin. A bitter principle obtained from 
the Apocl/num cannabinum, or Indian 
hemp, or dog's bane. 

Apocynimv* a-pos'se-num. A plant 
called dog's bane, the root of which is 
sometimes used as an emetic. 

Ap'o-des.* [Formed in the plural from 
a, priv., and nov;, nodog, a "foot."] Lite- 
rally, " without feet." A term applied 
to fishes without ventrals, or fins which 
correspond to legs and feet. 

Ap'o-utis."* [From the same.] With- 
out feet: ap'odous. Applied in the plu- 
ral neuter (Ap'oda) to an order of lia- 
diata Echinodermata. 

Ap'o-s'oo. [Apog'se'nm; from dno, 
"from," and yii, the "earth."] That 
point of the orbit of the sun, or of a 
planet, most distant from the earth. 

Ap-o-ncu-ro'sis.* [From dir<5, " from," 

and nvpov, a "nerve."] (Fr. Aponevrose, 
a'po'naVitoz'.) Expansion of a tendon, 
or tendons, into a fibrous membrane. 

A-popli'y-sis,* plural A-popli'y-ses. 
[From and, " from," and </>i3u), to " produce," 
to "grow."] A process or protuberance 
of bone. Also applied to excrescences 
growing from the receptacle of certain 

Ap-o-plec'tic. [Apoplec'ticus.] 
Pertaining to apoplexy. 

A p-o-plex'i-a P ul-mo-n a ' r is.* 
(" Pulmonary Apoplexy.") Extravasa- 
tion of blood in the lungs from the rup- 
ture of vessels. 

Ap'o-plex-y. [Apoplex'ia: from 
dno, "from," "away," and n\wow, to 
"strike." Hence anonh'ioau) signifies to 
"strike away," — i.e. to "strike into un- 
consciousness or insensibility;" so to 
"faint away" means to faint so com- 
pletely as to become unconscious.] A 
disease produced by congestion or rup- 
ture of the vessels of the brain, and 
causing a sudden arrest of sense and 
motion, the pci-son lying as if asleep, 
respiration and the heart's action con- 

Ap'oplexy, Cii-ta'iio-ous. A French 
term (apoplexie cutanea, a'po'plex'e' kiT- 
ta'na') for sudden determination of blood 
to the skin and adjacent cellular mem- 

Ap-os-te'ma, atis.* [From dcpia-Tim, 
to "depart from."] An abscess: an 
ap'osteme. See Abscess. 

A-potii'e-ca-ry. [Apotheca'ritis ; 
from dnoOf]Kr], a "repository" or "store."] 
One who keeps a store of drugs; one 
who sells drugs and puts up prescrip- 
tions. In Great Britain an apothecary, 
besides selling and compounding drugs, 
is entitled to practise medicine, and is 
in fact a sort of sub-physician. 

Ap-o-tlie'^I-a,* Ap-o-tlie'ci-uiu.* 
[From dnoOriKr).~] A botanical term ap- 
plied to the receptacle enclosing the re- 
productive corpuscles in the lichens. 

A-poth'e-ma, atia.* [From dno, and 
Ocjxa, a "deposit."] A brown powder 
deposited when vegetable extract is sub- 
mitted to prolonged evaporation. 

Ap-pa-ra'tiis. [From ap'paro, ap- 
para'tum, to "prepare," to "arrange."] 
Instruments or mechanical arrange- 
ments for experimenting, operating, etc. 
Sometimes applied to organs in animals 
and plants. 

Ap-pen'dl-^os Ep-i-plo'i-£te.* In 
Anatomy, a term applied to prolonga- 
tions of the peritonaeum, filled with a 



soft, fatty substance, attached along the 
large intestines only. 

Ap-peii-tlic'u-la.* [The diminutive 
of appen'dix.] A little appendage, or 

Append icula "Vermiforniis. See 
Appendix V 1: km i ro km is. 

Ap-pen-dic'u-late. [Appendicn- 
la'tus; from appcndic'ula.] Having 

Ap-pen'dix, lew,* plural Ap-pen'- 
<H-ces. [From ad, ''to," and pen' do, to 
''hang" or "join."] A part of or addi- 
tion to a thing: an appendage. 

Appen'dix \>r-mi-for'niis,'* or 
Appen'dix £ie'ci "Ver-nii-for'mis.'' : ' 
(The ''worm-shaped appendage of the 
caecum.") A small process of the ciecum, 
which hangs into the pelvis. It is 
often called the Appendic' ula vermi- 
form ix. 

Apperfs (ap^paiuz') Proc'ess. A 
method introduced by M. Appert (ap v - 
paiit') for preserving articles of food un- 
changed for several years. The articles 
are enclosed in bottles, which are filled 
to the top with any liquid, and hermeti- 
cally closed. They are then placed in 
kettles filled with cold water, and sub- 
jected to heat till the water boils; the 
boiling temperature is kept up for a con- 
siderable time, after which the bottles are 
suffered to cool gradually. Instead of 
bottles, tin canisters are sometimes used, 
and rendered tight by soldering. 

Ap'pe-tence or Ap'pe-ten-ey. 
[From ap'peto, appeti'tum, to "desire."] 
The disposition of organized beings 
to acquire and appropriate substances 
adapted to their support. Also an ardent 
desire or longing for any object. 

Ap'pe-tlte. [Appeti'tus; from the 
same.] The natural desire for food. 
Also, any natural inclination by which 
we are incited to act; inordinate desire; 

Appetite, Canine. See Bulimia. 

Appetite, I>epraved. See Pica. 

Appetite, Insatiable. See Bu- 

Appetite, "Loss of. See Anepi- 

Appetite, Voracious. See Bu- 
limia. Adephagi v. 

Ap'ples, Ac/id of. See Malic Acid. 

Ap-po-si'tion. [Apposi'tio; from 
ad, "to," or "on," and po'no, pos'itum, 
to "put," or "place."] Literally," placing 
or depositing on" or "in addition to." 
Applied in Surgery to the supplying of 
deficient parts by placing portions of the 

adjacent integuments, etc. in contact. 
Sometimes used synonymously with 
Prosthesis (which see). Also appliei 
to the deposition of matter which takes 
place in the growth of the non-vascular 
tissues, such as horn, the nails, etc. 

Ap-pres'sus.* [From otp'primo, ap- 
pres'smn, to "press close."] A term in 
Botany, signifying "pressed close to." 

Ap'ier-us. ;; - [From a, priv., and tztc- 
pov, a "wing."] A2>plied in the plural 
neuter (Ap'tera) to a family of insects 
which have no wings : ap'terous. 

A-py-ret'ic. [Apyret'icus; from a, 
priv., and -riipcTog, " fever."] Having no 
fever or febrile excitement. 

Ap-y-rex'a-a.* [From a, priv., and 
■xvp^is, a "fever" or "paroxysm."] Ab- 
sence of fever, or intermission of its 
paroxysms: ap'yrexy. 

Ap'y-rous. [From a, priv., and vvp, 
"fire.*'] A term applied to bodies which 
sustain the action of a strong heat for a 
long time without change of figure or 
other properties. It is synonymous with 

Aq.-= A' qua* "Water," or A' (pipe, 
"Of water." 

Aq. Bull. =s A' qua hul'liens* " Boil- 
ing water." 

Aq. Destil. t=a A'quse. desiilla'tse* 
"Distilled water." 

Aq. Ferv. = A' qua fer'vens.% " Hot 

Aq. Font, = A'quse fon'tis or fonta'- 
nscS' " Fountain or spring water." 

Aq. Marin. = A' qua mari'na:* " Sea- 

Aq. Pur. = A'quse frn'ree* "Pure 

Aqua,* a'kwa, plural Aqna?, a'kwe. 
[As if ssfqua, from its equal surface.] 
Water: the Pharmacopoeial name(Lond. 
and Ed ; Ph.) for spring-water. Accord- 
ing to the U.S. Pharmacopoeia, "natural 
water in the purest attainable state." 
The principal varieties of water (not 
medicated) are the following: — 

A'qua Destilla'ta.- [From destil'lo, 
destiUa'tum, to " distil."] Distilled water, 
having a vapid taste from the absence 
of air, and slightly empyreumatic, in 
consequence, probably, of the presence 
of a small quantity of extractive matter 
which has undergone partial decomposi- 

A'qua EX Flu'mixe.-'- [From Jlu' men, 
flu' minis, a "river."] Literally, "water 
from the river." River-water, generally 
of considerable purity, but liable to hold 
in suspension particles of earthy matter, 




wnich impair its transparency and some- 
times its salubrity. 

A'qua ex La'cu.* [From la'cus, a 
"lake."] Lake- water. A collection of 
rain, spring, and river waters, sometimes 
contaminated with various animal and 
Aegetable bodies, which, from its stag- 
nant nature, have undergone putrefac- 
tion in it. 

A'qua ex Ni've.* [From nix, ni'vis, 
"snow."] Snow-water, differing appa- 
rently from rain-water only in being 
destitute of air, to which water is in- 
debted for its briskness and many of its 
good effects upon animals and vegeta- 

A'qua ex Palu'de.* [From pa'lus, 
palu'dis, a "marsh" or "swamp."] 
Marsh-water; the most impure, as being 
the most stagnant, of all water, and 
generally loaded with decomposing 
vegetable matter. 

A'qua ex Pu'teo.* [From pu'tew, 
a "well."] Well-water; essentially the 
same as spring-water, being derived 
from the same source, but more liable to 
impurity from its stagnation or slow in- 

A'qua Fonta'xa.* [From fom,fo7i'tis, 
a "fountain."] Spring-water; contain- 
ing, in addition to carbonic acid and car- 
bonate of lime, a small portion of mu- 
riate of soda, and frequently other salts. 
Spring- water which dissolves soap is 
termed soft; that which decomposes and 
curdles it is called hard. 

A'qua Mari'na.* [From ma're, the 
"sea."] Sea-water; containing sulphate 
of soda, the muriates of soda, mag- 
nesia, and lime, a minute proportion of 
potash, and various animal and Aegetable 

A'qua Pluvia'lis.* [From a'qua, 
" water," and phi' via, "rain."] Rain- 
water; the purest form of natural water, 
yet holding in solution carbonic acid, a 
minute portion of carbonate of lime, and 
traces of muriate of lime. 

Aqua Amuiouia?. See Liquor Am- 


Aqua Amygdalae Amara?. See 

Bitter Almonds, Water of. 

A'qua BI-nel'l». :: An Italian quack 
medicine, supposed to be a solution of 
creasote, and celebrated at Naples for 
arresting haemorrhage. 

Aqua 4/aloiw. See Liquor Caucis. 

Aqua Campliora?. See Camphor. 

A'qua Cha-lyb-c-a'ta.* An artifi- 
cial mineral water, consisting of a solu- 
tion of citrate of iron highly charged 

with carbonic acid gas and flavored by 
a little aromatized syrup. 

A'qua For'tis.* (" Strong Water.") 
A name formerly applied to nitric acid, 
on account of its powerfully corrosive 
properties. It is distinguished by the 
terms double and single, the latter being 
only half the strength of the former. 
Concentrated nitric acid, however, is 
much stronger even than double nitric 

A'qua Re'gl-a.* ("Royal Water.") 
A mixture of nitric and muriatic acids. 

A'qua Vi'tae.* (•' Water of Life.") 
Ardent spirits of the first distillation. 

Aqua?,- ; - a'kwe, gen. A-qua'rum, the 
plural of A'qua. "Water." 

A'qua; ^liii-e-ra'les.* [From mino- 
ra' lis, a modern Latin term for our word 
"mineral."] "Mineral waters;" a term 
conventionally applied to such waters 
as are distinguished from spring, lake, 
river, or other waters by peculiarities 
of color, taste, smell, or real or supposed 
medicinal effects. Mineral waters are 
of four principal kinds: — 

Acid'ulous. Owing their properties 
chiefly to carbonic acid: they are tonic 
and diuretic, and in large doses produce 
a transient exhilaration. 

Chalvb'eate. Containing iron in the 
form of sulphate, carbonate, or muriate: 
they have a styptic, inky taste. 

Sa-lixe'. Mostly purgative, and ad- 
vantageously employed in those hypo- 
chondriacal and visceral diseases which 
require continued and moderate relaxa- 
tion of the bowels. 

Sulphu'reous. Deriving their cha- 
racter from sulphuretted hydrogen. 

Aqua? Stillatitia?,* a'kwe stil-la- 
tish'e-e. also called A'qua? Destilla'- 
tav* Distilled waters; waters impreg- 
nated with the essential oil of vegetables, 
principally designed as grateful vehicles 
for the exhibition of more active reme- 

Aq'ue-<luct. [Aqua?duc'tus; from 
a'qua, "water," and duc'tus, a "canal'' 
or "passage."] Literally, a "passage 
for water," though applied in Anatomy 
to several canals in the body not always 
containing fluid. 

Aq'ueduct of the Ooeh'lc-a. [Aq- 
ua'duc'tus Ooeh'lea?.] A foramen of 
the temporal bone, for the transmission 
of a small vein from the cochlea. 

Aq'ueduet of Fal-lo'pi-us. [Aq- 
uiediio'tns Fallo'pii.] The canal by 
which the portio dura winds through the 
petrous portion of the temporal bone. 



Aq'uednct of Syl'vl-us. [Aquae- 
ductus Syl'vii.] The canal which 
extends backwards under the tubercula 
quadrigemina into the fourth ventricle 
of the brain. 

Aqueduct of the Ves-tib'u-lum 
or of the Ves'tl-biile [Aqua?<Iuc'tus 
Vestib'uli], also called the Aq'ueduct 
of Co-tun'm-us [Aquaeduc'tus Co- 
tun'nia]. The commencement of a 
small canal which opens upon the pos- 
terior surface of the petrous portion of 
the temporal bone of the cranium and 
transmits a small vein. 

Aqueous, a/kwe-us. A term now 
coming into use for designating definite 
combinations with water. The term 
hydrate has long been employed for the 
same purpose. A prefix is used when 
there is more than one atom, as in bin- 
aqueous, ter-hydrate. 

Aqueous Hu'mor. A colorless 
fluid in the anterior and posterior cham- 
bers of the eye. 

Aquila,* ak'wi-la. Literally, an 
"eagle." A term which had formerly 
many epithets joined with it to denote 
particular substances: thus, aquila alba, 
seu mitigata, was one of the fanciful 
names of calomel. 

Aquula. ak'wul-a. [The diminutive 
of a' qua, "water."] Literally, a " small 
particle of water." Applied to any 
small aqueous tumor, and sometimes to 
a fatty tumor under the skin of the 

Aq'uula A-cous'tl-ca.* The fluid 
in the cavity of the vestibule of the in- 
ternal ear. 

Ar'a-bic, Gum. See Gummi Acaci^e. 
[This word is very often pronounced 
a-rd'bic, a fault to be most carefully 
avoided by all those who desire to speak 

Aracea?,* a-ra'she-e, or Aroideae,* 
ar-o-i'dc-e. The Arum tribe of monoco- 
tyledonous plants, containing an acrid 
and in some cases a highly dangerous 

A-rach ' n i-da,* A-raeh ' ni-des. * 
[From dpaxvn, a "spider."] The third 
class of the Diplo-gangliata or Ento- 
moida, comprising articulated animals, 
generally with four pairs of legs, with- 
out winijs or metamorphosis. 

A-rach-ni'tis, idia.* [From dpdxvrj, 
a "spider," also a ''spider's web."] A 
faulty term, denoting inflammation of 
the arachnoid membrane. 

A-rach'noid. [Araehnoi'des; 

from dpdxvn, a " spider's web," and tldos, 

"form" or "resemblance"] Resembling 
a spider's web. Applied to the second 
or middle membrane of the brain. 

Arachnoid Canal. See Bichat, 
Canal of. 

Arach'noid Mem'brane. Meninx 
media. The fine cobweb-like membrane 
situated between the dura and pia mater. 
It is the serous membrane of the cerebro- 
spinal centres. 

A-rachno-I-di'tis,* or A-rach-ni'- 
tis.* Inflammation of the arachnoid 

Arack. See Arrack. 

Ar-a^-om'e-ter, or Ar-e-om'e-ter. 
[From dpatos, "thin," "light," and \xzrpov, 
a "measure."] An instrument for de- 
termining the specific gravity of liquids 
into which it is plunged, by the depth 
to which its weight causes it to sink in 
them. This instrument is also termed a 
hydrom'eter. The art or process of 
measuring the density or gravity of 
liquids is termed areenm'etry. 

A-ra'11-a Can-a-den'sis.* Another 
name for the Panax Qui)tquefolium, or 

Ara'lia His'pi-da,* or Dwarf Elder. 
A plant sometimes used in dropsy in the 
form of decoction. 

Ara'lia Nu-di-cau'lis,* or Wild Sar- 
saparilla, is a stimulant tonic and dia- 
phoretic. It is sometimes used as a sub- 
stitute for the true sarsaparilla. It is 
known also by the names of American 
Spikenard {Nar'dus America'nus) and 
Small Spikenard, etc. 

Ara'lia Rac-e-mo'sa,* or American 
Spikenard, is analogous in its medical 
properties to the preceding. 

Araliacea?,* a-ra-lc-a'she-e. A natu- 
ral order of plants of the Arabia tribe. 

A-ra-H-a'ceous. [Aralia'ceus.] 

Having an arrangement as in the Aralia. 

Ar-a-ne'I-dse. :: [From ara'nea, a 
"spider."] A family of the Araehnides 

A-ra'ne-ous. [Araueo'sus ; from 
ara'nenm, a " spider's web."] Of the 
nature of spider's web. 

Arantii (a-i'an'she-i), Cor'po-ra.* 
Small tubercles, one in each semilunar 
valve of the aorta and pulmonary arte- 
ries ; called also Corpora sesanioidea a.nd 
Nodnli Arantii. 

Arbor, orw.* A "tree." A plant 
having a single trunk, rising high, dura- 
ble, woody, and divided into branches 
which do not perish in winter. In 
Chemistry it is applied to any crystalli- 
zation which ramifies like a tree. 




Ai 'bor Di-a'nje.* A "silver tree." 
[From Dia'na, the " moon," and hence, 
like luna, denoting " silver."] A beau- 
tiful arborescent precipitate of silver 
produced by throwing mercury into a 
dilute solution of lunar caustic (nitrate 
of silver). 

Ar'bor Ma'ris.* [From ma're, gen. 
ma' rin, the " sea."] The " tree of the 
sea." A name given to coral. 

Ar'bor 3Iin-e-ra'lis Phil-o-soph'- 
i-ca,* Ar'bor Phl-los'o-pho'rum.* 
The Arbor Dianas. 

Ar'bor Vi'tse.* [From vi'ta, " life."] 
Literally, the " tree of life." Applied to 
the thick mass of white substance in 
either hemisphere of the cerebellum. 
This mass, when cut parallel to the 
median line, presents an arborescent or 
tree-like appearance, caused by the in- 
termixture of the white substance with 
the cincritious. Also applied to the tree 
called Thu'ya Occidenta'lis. 

Ar-bo'rc-ous. [Arbo'reus ; from 
ar'bor, a "tree."] Belonging to a tree; 

Ar-bo-res'cent. [Arbores'oens ; 
from arboreafco, to "grow like a tree."] 
Growing like a tree; resembling a 

Ar-bus'cu-la.* [The diminutive of 
ar'bor, a "tree."] Applied to the bran- 
chiae of certain Ancllata : an ar'buscule 
or ar'buscle. 

Ar'bu-tus U'va ITr'si.* The trailing 
arbutus, or bear's whortleberry; now 
called Arctostaphylos uva nrsi. 

Arc. [Ar'cus; see Arch.] Any part 
of the circumference of a circle. 

Ar'ca Ar-ca-no'rum.* Literally, a 
"chest of secrets." The alchemical name 
of the philosopher's stone. 

Ar-ca'na,* gen. Ar-ca-no'rum, the 
plural of Arcanum, which see. 

Ar-ca'niini. 5 [From ar'ca, a "chest" 
or " coffer" in which precious things 
were carefully kept.] A secret. A nos- 
trum or medicine the composition of 
which is concealed. 

Arch. [Ar'cus.] Literally, a "bow." 
A bending in the form of a bow. Any 
arc. or part of the circumference of a 

Arch, Fem'o-ral. [Ar'cus Fem- 
ora'las.] The name of a considerable 
arch formed over the concave border of 
the pelvis. It is bounded above by 
Poupart's ligament, below by the border 
of the pubes and ilium. Also termed the 
crural arch. 

Arch of the A-or'ta. The curved 

parts between the ascending and de- 
scending portions. 

Archencephalus,* ark-en-sefa-lus. 
[From dpxos, "chief,"' and iyKecbaXov, the 
"brain."] Applied by Galen to man, 
because of the intellectual development 
of his brain : archenceph'alous. 

Ar-che-ol'o-gy. [Archrcolo'gia ; 
from d(j\aioi, " ancient," and Aoyoj, a 
"discourse."] A discourse or treatise 
on ancient things or antiquities. The 
science or knowledge of antiquities. 

Ar'che-type. [Archet'ypus ; from 
dpX*), "beginning," "origin," and tvzo;, 
a "type."] The original type on which 
others are formed. 

Ar'chil (ch as in child). A violet-red 
paste, prepared from the Lichen Roc- 
cella, or Orseille, and other species of 
lichen, and used in dyeing. 

The plant (Lichen Roccella), reduced 
to a pulp and treated with impure am- 
moniacal liquor, yields a rich purple 
tincture, called litmus, or turnsole, used 
in Chemistry as a test. 

Ar-chop-to'ma,* or Ar-chop-to'- 
sis.* [From d\>\6<;, the " anus," and nrajfta, 
or jrniwif, a "falling."] Prolapsus ani. 
A descent of the rectum. See Prolap- 

Ar-cho-syr'inx.* [From dp\6g, the 
"anus," and <rupiy|, a "pipe," "fistula."] 
Another term for fistula in ann. 

Ar'ci-form. [Arcifor'mis : from 
ar'cus, a " bow" or " arch."] Formed 
like an arch. 

Ar'ciform Fi'bres. A term applied 
by Mr. Solly to a set of fibres which 
proceed from the corpus pyramidale 
and pass outwards beneath the corpus 
olivare to the cerebellum. He distin- 
guishes them into two layers, the super- 
ficial cerebellar and deep cerebellar fibres. 

Arctatio, ;;: ark-ta'she-o. [From arc' to, 
arcta'tum, to "bind closely," to "make 
narrow."] Constipation of the intes- 
tines; also, a preternatural contraction 
of the vagina. 

Arc'lic. [Arc'ticus: Gr. dpKTiKos, 
"belonging to the north," from "Apicros, 
the constellation called " The Bear," 
situated near the North Pole.] North ; 

Arc'tic Oir'cle. A circle extending 
23 J degrees from the North Pole, mark- 
ing that portion of the northern hemi- 
sphere within which the sun at the sum- 
mer solstice does not set. 

Arc'tl-um Iiap'pa.* The herb called 
burdock, belonging to the Linna\in class 
Sjnjcncsia and to the natural order 



Composite. The seeds are cathartic, 
the root diuretic and diaphoretic. A 
decoction of the leaves is sometimes used 
in cutaneous diseases. 

Arc-to-staph'y-Ios.* [From apxros, a 
"bear," and arapvXi), a "grape."] A 
Linna>an genus of the class Decandria, 
natural order Ericacese or Ericineie. 
The term signifies the same as tiva ursi, 
i.e. "bear-grape." 

Arctostaph'ylos U'va Ur'si.* An- 
other name for the Arbutus uva ursi. 
See Uva Ursi. 

Ar-cu-a'lis.* [From a/cuo, to "bend 
like a bow."] Applied to the coronal 
suture, or Sutu'ra arcua'lis, and to the 
temporal bones, or Off 8a arcua'lia. 

Arcuatio,* ar-ku-a'she-o. [From ar'- 
cuo, arcua'tum, to " bend like a bow."] 
A gibbosity, or curvature, of the dorsal 
vertebra?, the sternum, or the tibia. 

Ar'cus.* A bow, arc, or arch. The 
periphery of any part of a circle. 

Ar'cus Se-ni'lis.* A peculiar arched, 
or circular, opaque appearance on the 
eyes of old men, round the margin of 
the cornea. 

Ar-de'i-dre.* [From ar'dea, a 
"heron."] A family having the Ardea 
for their type. 

Ar'dent Spir'its. [From ar 1 dent, 
"burning," a participle of ar'deo, to "be 
hot," to "burn."] A term applied to dis- 
tilled alcoholic liquors. 

Ar'dor, o'r/'*.* [From ar'deo, to 
"burn."] Intense or morbidly increased 
sensation of heat. 

Ar'dor Fe-bri'lis.* Feverish or 
febrile heat. 

Ar'dor U-ri'na?.* A sensation in 
the inflamed urethra as if the passing 
urine were scalding hot. 

Ar'dor Ven-tric'u-li.* Heartburn : 
also called Ar'dor stom'achi. 

A're-a.* An open space. The in- 
ternal capacity of any given boundary 
or limit. 

A'rea Dif'fluens [from dif'fluo, to 
"spread"] and A'rea Ser'pexs [from 
se/po, to "creep"] are terms applied by 
Celsus to different forms of baldness. 
The latter is the same as Ophiasis, 
which see. 

A'rea Ger-mi-na-ti'va.* An opaque 
spot on the blastodermic vesicle in an 
egg, opposite to the insertion of the 
Mesomet 'ium. 

A'rea O-pa'ca.* A dull circle sur- 
-oundin^ the Area pellueida, formed by 
the Area germinativa becoming clear in 
the centre. See preceding article. 

A-re'ca.* The betel-nut, the fruit of 
the Are'ca Cat'echu, belonging to the 
natural order Palmx. It is tonic and 
astringent, and forms one of the princi- 
pal ingredients of the Betel, so exten- 
sively used in the East as a masticatory. 
See Betel. 

Ar-e-fac'tion. [Arefac'tio, o'nis; 
from a' reo, "to be dry," and /o'a'o, to 
"make."] A mode of drying medicinal 
substances, by which they may be re- 
duced to dust or powder. 

Ar-e-na'eeous. [ Arena'ceus ; from 
are'na, "sand."] Of the nature of sand; 

Ar-e-na'ri-ous. [Arena'rius; from 
are'na, "sand."] Growing in sandy 

Ar-e-nic'o-la,* and Ar-e-nic'o- 
lus.* [From are'na, " sand," and co'lo, 
to "inhabit."] Inhabiting sandy places. 

Ar'e-nose. [Areno'sus; from are'na, 
"sand."] Full of sand; sandy. 

A-re'o-la.* [The diminutive of a'rea.'] 
The halo, or small reddish or brownish 
circular space, round the nipple of 
females. Also applied to the circle sur- 
rounding certain pustules, such as the 
vaccine pustule. 

Are'ola Pap-II-la'ris.* [From 
2)apil'la, a "nipple."] The areola round 
the nipple. See Areola. 

A-re'o-la3 :;: " (the plural of are'ola) is 
used by anatomists to denote the in- 
terstices between the fibres of an organ, 
or between vessels interlacing with each 

A-re'o-lar. [Areola'ris: from are'- 
ola, a "small, open space."] Containing 
areolee, or small spaces. Areolar tissue 
is the cellular tissue of some writers, 
named from the interstices which it con- 

A-re'o-liit-ed. [Areola'tus.] Hav- 
ing areolae. 

Areometer and Areometry. See 

Ar'g-and Lamp. A name applied 
to lamps with hollow or circular wicks, 
first invented by Argand about 1782. 
The intention of them is to furnish a 
more rapid supply of air to the flame, 
and to afford this air to the centre as 
well as to the outside of the flame. 

Ar'&e-ma*" or Ar'ge-mon. :s [From 
dpyog, "white."] A small white ulcer of 
the eye, described by Hippocrates. 

Ar-£e-mo'ne. - [From uiycpov, a 
"disease of the eye," — named from the 
supposed virtues of one species in curing 
diseases of the eye.] A genus of plants 




belonging to the poppy tribe, or Papa- 
veracese. The Argemo'ne Mexica'na, or 
Thorn Poppy, contains a juice which, 
when dried, resembles gamboge, and has 
been used as a hydragogue cathartic. 
The seeds are sometimes employed as a 
substitute for ipecacuanha. 

Ar'gen-tate of Aan-mo'ni-a. The 
substance otherwise called Fulminating 
Silver, which see. 

Ar-gen'ti Kl'tras.* "Nitrate of 
Silver," or lunar caustic ; one of the most 
important and one of the most ex- 
tensively used of all caustic substances. 

Ar-gen-tif'er-ous. [Argentif- 

erus; from argen'tum, " silver," and 
fe'ro, to ''bear."] Bearing, or con- 
taining silver. Applied to minerals or ores. 

Ar'gen-tlne. [Argenti'nus; from 
argen'tum, "silver."] Having the ap- 
pearance, brightness, or clear sound of 

Argentine Flow'ers of An'ti- 
mo-ny. The sesquioxide of antimony, 
frequently occurring in the form of 
small, shining needles of silvery white- 
ness. See Antimony. 

Ar-gen'tum.* [From dpyog, "white."] 
Silver; the whitest of metals. It occurs 
native, — that is, in the metallic state, — 
and is also obtained from the ores of 
lead. It is employed in Pharmacy 
chiefly or solely in the preparation of 
the nitrate. 

Argen'tum Fo-li-a'tum.* [From 
fo'liam, a "leaf."] Silver-leaf; used for 
covering pills and other substances. 

Argen'tum Fu-gi-ti'vum,* Ar- 
gen'tum Moo'i-le.* The Argentum 
vimtm, or quicksilver. 

Argentuni Musivum. See Mosaic 

Argen'tum Vi'vnm.* The metal 
Hydrar'gyrum, or mercury; quicksilver. 

Ar-gil'la.* [From dpyog, "white."] 
Alumina, or pure clay: ar'gil. 

Ar-gil-la'ceous. [ Argilla'ceus ; 
from argil'la, "clay."] Of the nature 
of clay. 

Ar-gil-lif 'er-ous. [Argillif 'erus ; 
from argil'la, "clay," and fe'ro, to 
"bear."] Containing clay as an acci- 
dental ingredient. 

Ar'gil-loid. [Argilloi'des; from 
argil'la, "clay," and eUo;, a "form."] 
Resembling arjril. 

Ar'gol, or Ar'gal. [Fr. Tartre brut, 
tautit brli; "raw" or "coarse tartar."] 
Wine-stone, or crude tartar; an acidu- 
lous concrete salt, deposited by wine, and 
used by dyers a3 a mordant. 

Ar-gyr'I-a.* [From apyvpos, "silver."] 
Disease caused by the use, or abuse, of 
salts of silver. 

Arhythnious, a-rith'mus. [A- 

rhytli'mus; from a, priv., and p0/*u f , 
"number."] Without rhythm or regu- 
larity of the pulse. 

Ar-i-ci'na.* An alkaloid found in 
cinchona bark, and very analogous in 
its properties to cinchonia and quinia. 
These three alkaloids may be viewed as 
oxides of the same compound radicle. 

Ar'il,* or A-riTlus.* [From a'reo, to 
"be dried up."] A botanical term, sig- 
nifying a peculiar exterior coat of some 
seeds; thus the mace is the aril of the 

Ar'il-late or Ar'il-Iat-ed. [Aril- 
la'tus.] Having arils; formed like an 

Arillus. See Aril. 

A-ris'ta.* [From a'reo, to "be dry."] 
A term in Botany, denoting the beard 
of the husk of grasses; the awn. 

A-ris'tate. [Arista'tus ; from 

aris'ta.] Having an awn or long rigid 
spine ; awned ; bearded. 

A-ris-to-lo'elil-a,* or A-ris'to-lo- 
■ehi'a.* [From apiaro;, the "best," and 
\o\cla, or \6\Ta, "childbirth;" also, "Lo- 
chia" (which see); because it promotes 
recovery after childbirth.] Birthwort. 
A Linnoean genus of the class Gynandria, 
natural order Aristoloehiacese. 

Aristolo'chia Ner-pen-ta'rl-a.* 
The Serpenta'ria Yirginia'na, or Virgi- 
nia Snake-Root: so named because sup- 
posed to be an antidote to the poison of 
serpents. It is a stimulant and tonic, 
and is given in cases of debility, and 
especially in intermittents. 

A-ris-to-lo'cIiI-a?,* the plural of 
Aristolocliia. The Jussieuan name 
of a natural order of plants. See Aris- 


Aristolochiaceav* a-ris-to-lo-ke- 
a'she-e, or A-ris-to-lo'chl-a?.* A 

natural order of plants resembling the 
Aristolocliia. They are tonic and stimu- 

Arm. [Bra'chium.] The upper ex- 
tremity from the shoulder to the wrist, 
divided by the elbow-joint into the arm 
proper and the fore-arm. 

Ar-ma'rl-um.* [From ar'ma, "arms" 
or " implements."] A store of medicines, 
instruments, &c. 

Ar-me'ni-an Bole. [Bo'lus Ar- 
me'nice.] A pale, red-colored earth, 
used as a remedy against aphihte; also 
in tooth-powders, etc. 



Ar-mil'la, - - plural Ar-niil'la?. [From 
armil'la, a "bracelet."] The name of 
the membranous ligaments confining the 
tendons of the carpus. 

Ar'mil-la-ry. [Armilla'ris: from 
the same.] Applied in Astronomy to 
an artificial sphere formed of circles, 
representing orbs of celestial bodies. 
Also a term applied to plants having 
leaves like bracelets. 

Arniora'cia? (ar-mo-ra'she-e) Ra'- 
dix.* Horseradish-root. See Cocn- 


Ar'iuus.* [From dp/*<5$, a "joint."] 
The shoulder or arm. 

Ar-nal'di-a.* A disease formerly- 
known in England, and attended with 
alopecia, or baldness. 

Ar'ni-ca.* [From ap>-, dpv6$, a "lamb ;"' 
from the softness of its leaf.] A Lin- 
n«an genus of the class Syngenesia, 
natural order Composite. Also, the Phar- 
macopceial name for Arnica montana. 

Ar'uica ^lon-ta'na.* Leopard's 
bane. This plant is celebrated as a 
remedy for bruises, and hence has been 
called panace'a lapso'runi (the ''pana- 
cea of the fallen," — i.e. of those who have 
had a fall occasioning a severe injury). 

Ar'nl-cln. [Arnici'na.] A bitter 
resin, the active principle of Arnica 

A-roi'de-ous. [Aroi'deus; from 
A'rum,"\Yake-robin,"andacu > -,a"form."] 
Resembling the Arum, or "Wake-robin. 
The Latin term in the plural feminine 
(Aroi'dete) forms the name of a natural 
order of plants. See Arace.e. 

A-ro'ma.* gen. A-ro'ma-tLs, plural 
A-ro'ma-ta. [Perhaps from dpi, in- 
tensive, and, "odor."] The fragrant 
principle of plants and substances de- 
rived from them. 

Ar-o-mat'ic. [Aromat'icus; from 
aro'ma.] Odoriferous; having an agree- 
able smell, as spices and such sub- 

Ar-o-mat'I-cns Cor'tex.* ("Aro- 
matic bark.") The bark of Canella alia, 
or wild cinnamon. 

Arquebusade,Eaud' (Fr.),o-dank'- 
bii'zad'. [From ar'quebua, a "hand- 
gun."] A'qua Vulnera'ria. A lotion 
composed of vinegar, sulphuric acid, 
honey, alcohol, and various aromatics; 
originally applied to wounds inflicted 
by the arquebus. 

Arrack, or Ar-rak', written also 

Ar'ack. An intoxicating beverage 

made in India by distilling fermented 

juice of various kinds, but especially 


from toddy, the sweet sap of the palm-tree. 

Ar'ra-go-nite. A species of carbon- 
ate of lime, from Aragon. in Spain. 

Arrectores Piloruin. See Pilorujc 

Ar-rcst'ed. A term used in obstetrics 
when the head of the child is hindered, 
but not impacted, in the pelvic cavity, — 
a distinction of the greatest importance. 

Ar'row-Root. The fecula or starch 
from the root of the JIaranta arundina- 
cea and M. Indica, named from its 
supposed efficacy in poisoned wounds 
(wounds from poisoned arrows). Ar- 
row-root is also obtained from the root 
of the Arum xnaculatum and other plants. 

Arrow -Shaped. See Sagittate and 

A r-se' ni-ate. [Arse'nias, n'tis; 
from arscn'icum ac'idum.] A combina- 
tion of arsenious acid with any base. 

Ar'sen-ic. [Arsenicum ; from 
ufjarjv, "masculine," "vigorous;" in allu- 
sion to its strong and acrimonious pro- 
perties.] A metal plentifully met with 
in nature, generally in union with sul- 
phur, or with other metals, or with oxy- 
gen, etc. Though arsenic in its metallic 
state is not dangerous, it is readily con- 
verted into a poisonous oxide, and all 
of its soluble compounds are more or 
less poisonous. Arsenic is also the com- 
mon name for arsenious acid, sometimes 
called white oxide of arsenic. a> sai'icum 
al'bum ("white arsenic"), ratsbane, and 
other names. This is the most common 
form in which arsenic is found in com- 
merce. The only known antidote for 
this poison is the hydrated sesquioxide 
(or peroxide) of iron, which has been 
found much more efficacious when freshly 
prepared. This substance produces (by 
a transfer of a portion of the oxygen 
from the iron to the acid) an insoluble 
and therefore inert subarseniate of the 
protoxide of iron. That this antidote 
may be perfectly successful, it should be 
preceded by the use of emetics, or the 
stomach-pump. See Poisoxs. 

Ar-sen i-eal. [Arsenica lis.] Be- 
longing to arsenic or arsenious acid. 

Arsenical Paste. Sec Pate Arsex- 

Arsenicalis Liquor. See Liquor 
Arsenic alis. 

Ar-sena-ci Al'bum Ox'yd-um 
"Ve-na'le.* (The "white oxide of ar- 
senic of commerce.") The Pharmaco- 
poeial name (Dub. Ph.) of arsenious acid, 
or sublimed oxide of arsenic. 

Ar-sesi'i-cum Al'bum.* (""Whito 




arsenic") The Pharmacopoeial name 
(Ed. Ph.) of arsenious acid, or sesqui- 
oxide of arsenic. 

Ar-se'nl-ous Ac'id. The Acidum 
arseniosum (IT. S. and British Ph.), Ar- 
senicum album (Ed. Ph.), or sesquioxide 
of arsenic, Arsenici album oxydum venale 
(Dub. Ph.). See Arsenic. 

Ar'se-nite. [Ar'senis, i'tisJ] A com- 
bination of arsenious acid with a base. 

Arseniuret, ar-sen'yu-ret. [Ar- 
seisiure'tum.] A combination of ar- 
senic with a metallic or other base. 

Ar-sen'o-vin'ic Ac'id. An acid pro- 
duced by the action of arsenic on alcohol. 

Ar-ian'thc E-lon-ga'ta.* A name 
of the Matico plant. See Matico. 

Artemisia,* ar-te-mish'e-a. [Gr. 
'Apr£//(crta, perhaps because sacred to Di- 
ana, in Greek 'Aprtpa; .] A Linnajan genus 
of the natural order Comjjositae. 

Artemis'ia A-brot'a-num,* or 
Southernwood, formerly used as a tonic 
and anthelmintic. 

Artemis'ia Ab«sin'tlii-um.* Com- 
mon wormwood, also called Absinthium 
comnnine and Absinthium vulgare. 

Artemis'ia Chl-nen 'sis.* The Chi- 
nese wormwood, or mugwort of China. 

Artemis'ia Dra-cunc'u-Ius.* Tar- 
ragon : a plant which is used to impart 
a peculiar stimulating flavor to vinegar. 

Artemis'ia Iii'di-ca.* Indian worm- 
wood, used similarly to Chinensis. 

Artesnis'ia Ju-da'I-ca.* The same 
as Artemisia Santonica. 

Artemis'ia'li-a.* The same 
as Artemista Chinensis. 

Artemis'ia San-ton'i-ca.* Tar- 
tarian southernwood, wormwood, or 
worm-seed plant. 

Ar-tem'i-sin. [Artemisi'na.] The 
bitter principle of Artemisia absinthium. 

Artfcre, aii'taiR', the French term for 
Artery, which see. 

Arteria. See Artery. 

Ar-te'ri-a As'uer-a.* The "rough 
artery;" the trachea or windpipe: so 
called because of the inequalities or 
roughness of its surface. 

Arle'ria In-nom-i-sia'ta.* The "un- 
named artery;" the first branch given off 
from the aorta, dividing into the right 
carotid and right subclavian arteries. 

Artc'ria Ma^'na.* (The "great ar- 
tery.") The aorta. ' 

Ar-te'ri-ac, or Ar-te-rj'a-eal. [Ar- 
teri'acus.] Pertaining to the Arteria 
aspera, or windpipe. Applied to medi- 
cines for disorders of the voice or diseases 
of tho windpipe. 

Ar-te'rX-ae,* gen. Ar-te-ri-a'rum, 

the plural of Arte'ria, an artery. 

Arteria? "Venosav* ar-te're-e ve- 
no'se, the plural of Arte'ria "Veno'sa. 

Literally, " venous arteries," — a name 
sometimes given to the four pulmonary 
veins, because they contain arterial blood. 

Ar-te'ri-al. [Arteria'lis ; from ar- 
te'ria, an "artery."] Belonging to an 

Arterial Duct. See Ductus Arte- 

Ar-te-rl-og-'ra-wfaj'. [Arterio- 

g-ra'|>hia; from arte'ria, an "artery," 
and ypi(p(o, to "write."] A description 
of the arteries. 

Ar-te-rl-ol'o-gy. [Arieriolo'gia; 
from arte'ria, an "artery," and \6yo<;, a 
" discourse."] A treatise on the arteries ; 
the science of the arteries. 

Ar-te-ri-o'siis.* [From arte'ria, an 
"artery."] Having numerous arteries; of 
the nature of an artery. 

Arteriosus, Ductus. See Ductus 

Ar-te-ri-ot'o-my. [Arterioto'mia; 
from dprrifjia, an "artery," and reppa, to 
"cut."] The cutting into, dividing, or 
opening an artery. 

Ar-te-ri'tis.* [From arte'ria, an " ar- 
tery."] Inflammation of an artery. 

Ar'ter-y. [Arte'ria, plural Arte'- 
ria? ; from drip, " air or spirit," and 
rripcco, to "keep" or "preserve," the arte- 
ries having been supposed by the an- 
cients to contain air.] One of the ves- 
sels by which the blood is conveyed from 
the heart towards the various organs and 
members of the body. 

Artesian, ar-te'zhan. [From Artois, 
Lat. Arte'sia, a province of France, in 
which they were first formed.] A term 
applied to certain wells or fountains 
produced by boring through various 
strata deep enough to reach a subter- 
ranean body of water, the sources of 
which are higher than the mouth of the 

Ar'tlira-gra.* [From lipBpov, a "joint," 
and dypa, a " seizure."] Same as Ar- 
thritis or gout. 

Ar-tliral's'i-a.* [From upBpov, a 
"joint," and aXyog, "pain."] Chronic 
pain of a joint; gout or rheumatism. 

Ar-tl»rit'ie. [Artlirit'icus.] Be- 
longing to Arthritis, or to gout. 

Ar-tliri'tis, Idis.* [From apOpov, a 
"joint."] Litcrall}', "inflammation of a 
joint:" gout. See Podagra. 

Arthritis Pla-net i-ca.« Arthri- 
tis IllBcii-mat'I-ea,* Artliri'tis 



Va'g-a.* Other names for wandering or 
erratic gout. See Podagra. 

Ar-throc'a-cc* [From apOpov, a 
"joint," and kukt], " disease."] An ulcer- 
ated condition or caries of the cavity of 
a bone. Also used as synonymous with 
Spina rento8a. 

Ar-thro'<li-a.* [From apdpov, a 
"joint."] An articulation admitting of 
motion on all sides ; a variety of Diar- 

Ar-tliro-dyn'I-a.* [From apQpov, a 
"joint," and bbx>vr\, "pain."] Pain in a 
joint, or chronic rheumatism. 

Ar-tlirojy'ra-ph$ r . [Arthrogra'- 
pliia; from apdpov, a "joint," and ypa- 
<£a>, to "write."] A description of the 

Ar-throl'o-gy. [Arthrolo'gia ; 

from apdpov, a "joint," and Adyoj, a "dis- 
course."] A treatise on the joints; the 
science of joints. 

Ar-thron'cus.* [From apOpov, a 
"joint," and dy/co,-, a "mass," a "swell- 
ing."] A distinct cartilaginous body 
(one or more) which sometimes forms 
within the knee-joint. Sometimes ap- 
plied to the tumefaction of a joint. 

Ar-thro-pa-tlii'a.* [From apdpov, a 
"joint," and ttuOoj, an "affection."] An 
affection of the shoulder-joint, with vio- 
lent pain and swelling of the brachial 

Ar-thro-phlo-g-o'sis.* [From apdpov, 
a "joint," and </>Aoydw, to "inflame."] 
Inflammation of a joint. See Arthri- 

Ar-thro-pu-o'sis.* [From apdpov, a 
"joint," and -nvov, "pus."] Pus in a joint. 

Ar-thro'si-a.* [From apdpov, a 
"joint."] Generic name for articular 
inflammation, according to Dr. Good. 

Ar-tliro'sis.* [From dpdpdio, to "fasten 
by joints."] Articulation, or connection 
by joints. 

Artichoke. SeeCYNARA Scolymcs. 

Ar-tic-u-la'ris.* [From artic'ulus, 
a "joint."] Relating to joints ; articular. 
Applied to arteries, muscles, etc., con- 
nected with the joints. 

Articula'ris ^Je'nn.* This and the 
term Hnbcrurxus have been applied to a 
few detached muscular fibres frequently 
found under the lower part of the cru- 
ralis and attached to the capsule of the 

Articula'ris Morbus.' The same 
as Arthritis, or gout. 

Articulata. See ABTICULATUS. 

Ar-tie-u-la'tioii. [Articula'tio, 
o'iu's; from artic'ulus, a "joint," ar- 

tic'ulo, articula'tum, to "joint," to 
"make a joint."] The fastening to- 
gether of the various bones of the 
skeleton in their natural situation; a 
joint. Also the distinct utterance of 
syllables or words. 

The articulations of the bones of the 
body are divided into synarthroses, im- 
movable articulations, and diarthroses, 
movable articulations. See Diarthrosis, 

Ar-tic-u-la'tns.* [From the same.] 
Articulated, jointed, or knotted. Applied 
in the plural neuter (Articula'ta) to the 
third great division of the animal king- 
dom, in which articulated rings encircle 
the body, and frequently the limbs. 

Ar-tic'u-li, :|f gen. Ar-tic-u-lo'rum, 
plural of Artic'ulus. 

Ar-tic'u-lus.* [The diminutive of 
ar'tus. a "joint."] A joint, or articulation : 
a member, or limb. Applied in Botany 
to that part of the stalk between two 
knots or joints; also, a knot or joint. 

Ar-ti-f I Vial An us. An opening 
made in the parietes of the abdomen, 
through which the feces are discharged 
during life; also an opening made in the 
natural situation in cases of imperforate 

Artificial Eye. A hollow hemi- 
sphere, usually made of enamel, so as to 
present the appearance of the natural eye. 

Artifi'cial Joint. A fracture united 
by the broken ends of the bone becom- 
ing rounded and smooth and connected 
by a fibrous, ligamentous substance; a 
false joint. 

Artifi'cial Pu'pil. The result of an 
operation for overcoming the effect of 
adhesions or permanent contraction of 
the iris. 

Ar-to-car'pus.* [Fromapro?, "bread," 
and Kaphas, "fruit."] A genus of plants 
growing in Southern India and Polyne- 
sia. The Artocar'pns inci'sa is the 
bread-fruit proper; the Artocar'pns in- 
tegrifo'lia has a very coarse fruit, called 
Jack-fruit, common in the South of 
India. See Bread-Fruit. 

Arundinaccus,- : 'a-run-(le-na'she-us. 
[From arun'do, a " reed."] Belonging to 
a reed; resembling a reed. Applied in 
the feminine plural (Amndinacese, a-run- 
de-na'she-e) to a tribe of plants having 
the Arundo for its type: arundina'ceous. 

A-ryt'se-no-i-daj'us.* [See the two 
following articles.] Belonging to the 
arytenoid cartilages. The arytsenoidmu 
muscle is a muscle extending from one 
of the arytenoid cartilages to the other. 




A-ryt'e-noid. [Arytaenoi'des; 

from dpiraiva, a "pitcher," and £?<fo$, a 
"form."] Resembling the mouth of a 

Arytenoid Car'ti-lag-es. [Carti- 
lag'ines Arytaenoi'des.] Two carti- 
laginous bodies of the larynx, which, in 
their natural situation, resemble the 
mouth of a pitcher. 

As-a-grae'a ©f-fici-na'lis.* The 
name (Lond. Ph. 1851) of the plant from 
which Veratria is obtained. 

A-sapli'a-tum.* [From dacxpiis, "ob- 
scure," "uncertain;" named in allusion 
to their deceptive appearance.] A term 
applied to the collections in the sebace- 
ous follicles of the skin, which, when 
pressed out, appear like little worms. 

A-sa'phi-a.* [Gr. daa^fig • from a, 
priv., and oa<pf)s, "clear," "plain."] De- 
fective utterance; a want of clearness of 
articulation or of speech. 

A-sar-a-bac'ca.* The Asarum Eu- 


Asari Folia. 

See Asarum Euro- 


Asarin. See Asari Folia. 

Asa-rum Can-a-den'se.* Canada 
snake-root, or "Wild Ginger. The root 
is sometimes used as a substitute for 

As'arum Eu-ro-pae'um.* The plant 
Anarabaccci. The leaves (As'ari fo'lia) 
abound in a bitter principle called As'arin, 
and are used as an errhine. 

As-foes'tos.* [From a, priv., and 
cSkwvfii, to "extinguish."] Literally, 
" inextinguishable," "that which cannot 
be extinguished or destroyed." A mine- 
ral substance of a fibrous structure from 
which an incombustible linen is made. 
The ancients are said to have made use 
of cloth of asbestos to wrap the bodies 
of their dead before placing them on the 
funeral pile. 

Ascarides. See Ascaris. 

As'ca-ris,* plural As-c&r'I-des. 
[Supposed to be derived from aa^a/v^w, 
to " leap," to " kick."] A genus of worms 
found in the human intestines. 

As'caris Lum bri-co-i'deS. * [From 
la mbri'cue, an " earth-worm."] One of the 
most common of intestinal worms, re- 
sembling the earth-worm. 

As'caris Ver-mic-u-la'ris.* The 
thread-worm, now called Oxvuris. 

As-^eiid'iiag- Ax'is. Applied to the 

stem of plants, or that part which grows 

in an opposite direction from the root 

(which is the descending axis). See Axis. 

is-cniMh. [From asccn'do, oa- 


cen'sum, to "climb," to "ascend."] Lite- 
rally, an "ascending," or "ascent." Ap- 
plied in Chemistry to the process of 
sublimation, formerly termed Bestillatio 
per asceiisum. 

Ascen'sus Mor'hi.* The "ascent 
or increase of a disease." 

Ascia,* ash'e-a. [The Latin term for 
an "axe" or "hatchet."] A bandage, so 
called from its shape, and described by 

Ascian. See Ascn. 

As-cid I-atc. [Ascidia'tus ; from 
ctscid'ium.] Shaped like a small bottle 
or pitcher. 

As-cjd-i-for'mis.* [From the same.] 
Formed like a small bottle or pitcher: 

As-citl'I-uni.* [From doKiSiov (dimin- 
utive of daKOi), a "small leathern bag or 
bottle."] A hollow leaf resembling a 
small bottle or pitcher, as in the Nepenthe 

As-cig'er-us. :i: [From d<rvd f , a "bag," 
and ge'ro, to "bear."] Bearing or con- 
taining utricles. 

Ascii,* ash'e-i, the plural of Ascitis, 
ash'e-iis. [From a, priv., and oxia, a 
"shade" or "shadow."] Literally, "with- 
out shadow." A term applied to the 
people of the Torrid Zone, who have 
twice in the year the sun perpendicular 
above their heads, and are without 

As-c4'tes.* [Gr. daKiTw, from doxos, a 
" sack of leather," " something swollen or 
puffed up."] Hy'drops utricula'rius, or 
dropsy of the belly. A genus of the 
natural order Intumescentise, class Ca- 
chexiee, of Cullen's Nosology. See Hr- 


As-cit'ic. [Ascit'icus.] Having or 
pertaining to Astiten. 

Asclepiadaceae,* as-kle v pe-a-da'- 
she-e. A natural order of plants re- 
sembling the A sclepios. The milky juice 
formed in plants of this order contains 
caoutchouc. It is emetic, and is some- 
times a dangerous poison. 

As-cle'pl-as, adis* [From 'AoxX^f^, 
the Greek name of ^Esculapius, the god 
of medicine?] The name of a genus 
of plants belonging to the Linnaoan class 
Pentandria, natural order Asclepiada- 

Asclc'pias In-car-na'ta.* The flesh- 
colored Asclepias, a plant whose medical 
properties appear to be similar to tho>o 
of the ASCLEPIAS Ttberosa, which see. 

Asclc'pias Syr-i'a-ca.* The silk- 
weed; called also milk-weed. Of this 



plant the bark of the root is given in 
powder for asthma and other pulmonary 

As-cle'pias Tu-be-ro'sa.* Swal- 
low-wort; called also Pleurisy-root. An 
American plant, the root of which is 
used as an expectorant and a diaphoretic 
in catarrh and rheumatism. It is given 
in powder and decoction or infusion. 

A-sep'ta. :|J [From a, priv., and ar-o- 
pai, to "putrefy.''] Substances free from 
the putrefactive process. 

Asetiger/- a-set'e-jer. [From a, priv., 
se'ta, a "bristle," and ge'ro, to "bear."] 
Without bristles : asetig'erous. Applied 
in the neuter plural (Asetif/era) to a 
family of Articulata abranchiate. 

A-sex'u-al. [Asexna'lis; from a, 
priv., and sex' us, "sex" or "gender."] 
A botanical term applied to plants hav- 
ing no sexual organs. 

Ash. The common name of several 
trees and shrubs. The true ash includes 
the various species of the Linna?an genus 
Frax'inus. Bitter Ash is the popular 
name for a species of Quassia growing 
in the West India islands. 

Ash-Color. See Cixerets. 

Ash'es. [Ci'nis. Cin'eris.] The 
residual substance after burning any 
thing: more usually, the residuum of the 
combustion of vegetables, containing 
alkalies and alkaline salts. The common 
name for the vegetable alkali potash, or 

Asiatic (ii'she-at'ik) Balsam. [A- 
siat'icum Bal'samum.] The Balsa- 
uor GiLEADEXsn. which see. 

Asitia,"* a-si'te-a. [From a, priv., 
and cXro;, ''food."] Abstinence from 
food; also, loss of appetite. See Axo- 


As-par'a-gi,* the plural of Aspar- 
agus, forming the Jussieuan name of 
a natural order of plants now included 
in Lilincese. 

As-par'a-gin. [Asparagi'ua.] A 
peculiar vegetable principle obtained 
from the Asparagus. 

As-par'a-gus (Gr. dtnrdpayoi) Of-fic- 
S-na'lis,* or Common Asparagus. A 
plant belonging to the Linnsean class 
Hexandria, natural order Liliaccsc. The 
root and young shoots are diuretic, and 
are said to exert a sedative influence on 
the heart. 

As-par'tate. [Aspar'tas, a'tis.] A 
combination of aspartic acid with a base. 

Aspera Arteria. See Arteria As- 

As-per-gil'li-fojrm. [Aspcrgilli- 

for mis: from aapergil'lutn, a "brush."] 
Brush-like; divided into minute ramifi- 
cations, as the stigmas of grasses, cer- 
tain hairs of the cuticle, etc. 

As'per-i-fo'li-us.* [From as' per, 
"rough," and fo'lium, a "leaf."] Rough- 
leaved: asperifo'lious. Applied by Lin- 
naeus, in the plural feminine {Asperifo?- 
liae) to an order of plants now called 
Boraginaceous. See Boragixace^e. 

As-per'ma-tous. [Asper'matus, 
or Asper'inus; from a, priv., and a-ip- 
fia, "seed."] Without seed. 

As-per'siou. [Aspcr'sio: from as- 
per 1 go, asper'sum, to "sprinkle."] The 
sprinkling of the body with a medicinal 
licpuid or powder. 

As-phal'tum.-:- [From a, priv., and 
GipaWoj, to "slip," to "fail," because 
when used as a cement it prevented the 
stones from slipping or giving way.] 
Native bitumen; a solid, brittle bitumen, 
found principally on the shores and on 
the surface of the Dead Sea, which was 
named Asphaltitis from this substance. 
A brown coloring matter is formed from 
it, which, when dissolved in oil of tur- 
pentine, is semi-transparent, and is used 
as a glaze. 

Asphodelea?,* as-fo-de'le-e. A sub- 
division of the natural order Lillacese. 

As-phod'e-li,* the plural of As- 
phod'elus, forming the Jussieuan name 
of a natural order the same as Asphode- 
le.e, which see. 

As-pbyx'I-a.* [From a, priv., and 
o-^v-ij. the "pulse."] Literally, the "state 
of being without pulse:" asphyx'y. Sus- 
pended animation ; that state in which 
there is total suspension of the powers 
of body and mind, usually caused by 
interrupted respiration, as by hanging 
or drowning. 

Asphyx'ia Al'gi-da.* [From al'geo, 
to "be cold."] Asphyxy from intense cold. 

Asphyx'ia E-lcc'tri-ca.- Asphyxy 
caused by lightning or electricity. 

Asphyx'ia Id-I-o-path'i-ca.* ("Id- 
iopathic Asphyxia.") Asphyxy, or sud- 
den death, without any manifest cause. 
See Idiopathic. 

Asphyx'ia Me-phit'I-ca.* Asphyxy 
by inhalation of some mephitic gas, car- 
bonic acid, or other non-respirable gas. 

Asphyx'ia Xe-oph-y-to'rum.* 
[From ixo s -, "young," "new," and fvrir, 
a "plant." also a "child."] Called also 
Asphyx'ia Jfe-o-na-to'runi.* [From 
na'tus, "born."] Deficient respiration in 
new-born children. 

Asphyx'ia Suffocatio'nis* (suf-fo- 




ka-she-o'nis). (The "asphyxy of suffo- 
cation.") Asphyxy by hanging or 

As-pn5 r x'i-at-ed. [Asphyxia'tus.] 

Laboring under asphyxy. 

As-pid'i-um.* [From acmis, a "round 
shield."] A Linnanan genus of the class 
Cryptoyamia, order Filices. 

Aspid'ium Ath-a-man'ti-cum.* 
[Etymology uncertain.] A species of 
fern growing in South Africa, much 
used as a remedy against worms, espe- 
cially the tape-worm. 

Aspid'ium Fi'lix Mas.* The male 
fern ; called also Polypod turn filix mas. 
The root of this plant is considered by 
many to be an efficacious remedy against 
the tape-worm. 

As-ple'ni-um.* [From a, priv., and 
cnXrjv, the "spleen."] A genus of fern 
called spleenwort and miltwaste, from a 
belief that it removed disorders or re- 
duced enlargements of the spleen. 

Asple'nium Cet/araeh*(set'a-rak). 
A species of fern much used as a remedy 
in nephritic and calculous diseases, also 
as a pectoral. 

Asple'nium Fi'lix Fcem'i-na.* 
The female fern, a plant possessing 
medical properties similar to those of 
the male fern {Aspidium Jilix mas). The 
Asple'nium ru'ta 7nura'ria, the A. scolo- 
pen'drium, and the A. tricJiomanoi'des, 
have properties similar to those of the 
A. cetarach. 

Assafoetida,* as-sa-fet'e-da, written 
also Assafetida,* and Asafoetida.* The 
Pharmacopoeial name || for the gum resin, 
or concrete juice, obtained from the Nar- 
thex assafoetida, otherwise called Fer'ula 
assafoet'ida. It occurs massive and in 
tears. It was used by the ancients as a 
condiment, and at the present day the 
plant is eaten with relish in some countries 
of the East. Assafoetida is a powerful 
antispasmodic; it is also a stimulant ex- 
pectorant and laxative. From its uniting 
antispasmodic and expectorant virtues, 
it often proves useful in spasmodic pec- 
toral affections. 

As-say'ing;. The operation of ascer- 
taining the proportion of any metal in 
an ore or mixture. See Cupellation. 

As-sim'i-late. [From ad, "to," and 
sim'ilis, "like."] Literally, to "make 
like." In Physiology, to change the 
food into a substance like the living 
body; to convert the food into nutri- 
ment, — in other words, into chyle and 

As-siin-i-la'tion. [Assimila'tio, 

o'nis; from the same.] The act or pro- 
cess of assimilating food. See Alitura. 

As-so'des,* or A-so'd£s.* [From <w^, 
"disgust," "nausea."] A continual fever, 
attended with a loathing of food. Sau- 
vages calls it Trytseopliya assodes, and 
Cullen arranges it under the tertian re- 

As-sur'&ent. [Assur'gens; from 
assur'yo, to "rise up."] A botanical 
term, signifying bent down, then rising 
erect towards the apex. 

A-stat'ie. [Astat'icus: from a, priv., 
andW^j, to "stand."] A term applied 
to a magnetic needle when its directive 
property is destroyed by the proximity 
of another needle, of equal magnetic in- 
tensity, fixed parallel to it and in a re- 
versed position, each needle having its 
north pole adjacent to the south pole of 
the other. In this state, the needles, 
neutralizing each other, are unaffected 
by the earth, while they are still subject 
to the influence of galvanism. 

As'ter.* [Gr. aarnp, a "star."] A 
genus of cryptogamous plants having 
star-like flowers. 

Asteraeea?,* as-ter-a'she-e. A name 
given by Lindley to a natural order of 
plants. See Composite. 

A-ster'nl-a.* [From a, priv., and 
ster'num.] An organic deviation in the 
foetus characterized by absence of the 

As'ter-oid. [Asteroi'des; from 
darnp, a "star" or "planet," and elcog, a 
"form."] Resembling a star. As a noun, 
the term is applied, in Astronomy, to 
several small planets, including Ceres, 
Pallas, Juno, and Vesta. 

As-the'ni-a.* [From a, priv., and 
oOivui, " strength."] As'theny. Want or 
loss of strength: debility. 

As-then 'ie. [Asthen'icus; from 
asthe'via.] AVanting or deficient in 
strength; adynamic. 

As-the-nol'o-gy. [Astlienolo'g-ia; 
from a, priv., cdivog, u strength," and 
Aoyoj, a "discourse."] The considera- 
tion (or science) of diseases arising from 

Asth'ma, atis* [Gr. aaOfia; from 
daOiia^oi, to "gasp for breath."] A dis- 
ease attended with difficulty of breath- 
ing and a sensation of constriction in 
the chest, wheezing, cough, and expec- 
toration. A genus of the order Spa » mi, 
class Neuroses, of Cullen's Nosology. 

Aslh-mat'ie. [Astlimat'icus.] Be- 
longing to, or laboring under, asthma. 

A-stig'ma-tism. [Astigmatis- 



mus; froma,neg.,and ar'typa, a "point."] 
A defect in the eye, in which the rays 
are not brought to one point or focus, 
but converge at different distances, so as 
to form two linear images at right an- 
gles with each other. — (DUNGLISON.) 

As'to-mus.* [From a, priv., and 
orfya, a "mouth."] Having no mouth. 
Applied to an order of mosses, and to a 
family of apterous insects. 

As-trag'a-loid. [Astragaloi'des ; 
from a8trag'alu8, the "ankle-bone," a 
"die," and ddos, a "form."] Resembling 
the astragalus-. 

As'trag--a-Ioi'des Syph-i-lit'i-ca,* 
called also Astragalus Es'ca-pus.* 
The milk-vetch, a plant the root of 
which is said to cure syphilis. 

As-trag'a-lus.* [Gr. dcrrpaya\og.~\ 
The ankle-bone. 

Astragalus Cre'tl-cns.* The Cre- 
tan milk-vetch, one of the several species 
of Astragalus which are said to yield 
the gum tragacanth of commerce. 

Astragalus Escapus. See Astrag- 
aloides Syphilitica. 

Astrag , 'alusTrag , -a-can'tha. :;: ' The 
plant formerly supposed to yield gum 
tragacanth, now known to be chiefly 
obtained from the Astragalus vents and 
the A. gummifer. 

Astrag-'alus Ve'rus.* A plant of 
the Linnoean class Diadelphia, natural 
order Ler/nminosse, from which gum 
tragacanth is principally derived. 

As-tric'tion. [Astric'tio, o'nis; 
from ad, "to," and strin'go, stric'tum, to 
"bind."] The state produced by astrin- 
gent medicines. * 

As-trin'gent. [Astrin'g-ens; from 
the same.] Producing contraction and 
condensation in the soft solids, thereby 
diminishing excessive discharges. 

Astringent Prin'cl-ple. A vege- 
table principle found in the bark of 
many trees and plants. From its use in 
tanning skins it has obtained the name 
of Taxnin, which see. 

Astringents. A name applied to 
medicines (such as alum, tannin, etc.) 
having the power to check discharges, 
whether of blood, of mucus, or any other 
secretion. They act by contracting the 
capillaries and secretin^-orifices. See 
Astriotion and Astringent. 

As-trol'o-£y. [From aarpov, a "star," 
and A6yo>, a "discourse."] A descrip- 
tion of the heavenly bodies, their nature 
and distinctions, and, so, like Astron- 
omy ; more usually, however, applied to 
a pretended science which explained the 

phenomena of nature, and events of 
human life, by the influence of the 
stars. Hippocrates considered astrology 
among the studies necessary for a physi- 

As-tron'o-my. [Astrono mia : 

from a?rpoi>, a " star," and vopos, a " law."] 
Literally, that science which treats of the 
laws which govern the heavenly bodies; 
but, more generally, it includes every 
thing which can be known of those 

A-tax'i-a.* [From a, neg., and rdaaw, 
to " order."] Literally, " want of order." 
Irregularity. A term applied to some 

A-tax'ic. [Atax'icus; from atax'ia.'] 

At'axy. See Ataxia. 

-Ate. A terminal syllable which, 
added to the name of an acid ending 
in -ic, expresses a combination of that 
acid with a base; as, nitrofe of silver, 
or a combination of nitric acid with the 
oxide of silver. 

At-e-lec'ta-sis,* or Atelectasis 
Pul-mo'iium. ; ^ [From areAifc, " im- 
perfect," and eKTaaii, "expansion."] Ap- 
plied to a state of the lungs in new-born 
children, on account of some obstacle to 
the complete establishment of respira- 
tion. See Pulmo. 

A-thal'a-mous. [ Athal'anms : 

from a, priv., and 6d\ap.0i, a "marriage- 
bed."] Applied to plants which have 
no conceptacles. 

Ath-er-I-ce'rus.* [From d9np, the 
"point of a sword," and Knpos, "slender."] 
Applied in the nominative plural neuter 
(Atherice'ra) to a family of dipterous 
insects, in which the lower and side 
pieces of the sucker are linear and 
pointed, or setaceous: atherice'rous. 

A-ther 'ma-nous. [Ather'manns; 
from a, priv., and Qcpp.aivw, to "make 
warm."] Not communicating heat. 

Ath-er-o'ma, mtis.* [From dOdpa, 
"gruel."] An encysted tumor contain- 
ing a soft substance like panada. Beclard 
observes that this kind of cyst, as well 
as the varieties termed meliceria and 
steotoma, are merely sebaceous follicles 
enormously dilated. 

Ath-er-om'a-tous. [Atheroma- 
to'sus.] Of the nature of Atheroma. 

Ath-let'ic. [Athlet'icus; from d9- 
Xir^, an "athlete," "one who strove for 
a prize" (from adXov, a "prize," a "con- 
test").] Having a strong muscular de- 
velopment, like those who exercised in 
the ancient games. 




A t -Ian 'tad. Same as Atlajjtal used 

At-lan'tal. Applied by Dr. Bar- 
clay as meaning towards the atlas. 

At'las, an'/is* [From At'las, an 
ancient giant, fabled to bear the heavens 
upon his shoulders.] The first cervical 
vertebra, so named, it would seem, be- 
cause it immediately sustains the head, 
a burden immensely disproportioned to 
itself in size. 

At-ml-dom'e-ter, At-mom'e-ter. 
[Atniidom'etruiii, and Atmom'e- 
tiruin.] [From ar/ii'j, or drjioq, " vapor," 
and nerpov, a "measure."] An insti'u- 
ment by which the vapor exhaled from 
a humid surface in a given time may be 

At 'mo-sphere. [AtmosplaaVra; 
from dr/xog, " vapor," and a^alpa, a "globe" 
or "sphere."] The thin, elastic fluid 
encompassing the earth to a height 
judged to be about forty-five miles; the 
natural air we breathe. 

At-mo-spher'ic. [Atmospluer'i- 
ciis.] Belonging to the atmosphere. 

Atmosplier'ic Pres'sure, or weight 
of the atmosphere, is measured by the 
length of a column of mercury. A mer- 
curial column thirty inches in length 
presses on a given surface with the same 
force as the atmosphere in its ordinary 
state; and hence the force of a sixty- 
inch column is equal to the pressure of 
two atmospheres, that of fifteen inches 
to half an atmosphere, that of one inch 
to one-thirtieth of the atmospheric pres- 

A-to'ci-a,* or A-to'Itl-a.* [From a, 
priv., and tokos, "offspring."] Sterility. 

At'om. [At'om us; from a, neg., 
and rifjivcx), to "cut," to "divide."] The 
smallest particle of matter, incapable of 
farther division. 

Atom, Com-po'nent. That which 
unites with another of different nature 
to form a third or compound atom. 

At'om, Com'poimd. That formed 
by two atoms of different nature. 

Atom, El-e-mcn'ta-r^. That of a 
substnnce not decomposed. 

At'om. Or-jjan'ic. That of a sub- 
stance found only in organic bodies. 

At'om. Pri'ma-ry. Same as Atom, 

At-om'ic. [Atom'icus.] Belong- 
ing to atoms or particles. 

Atom'ic TJie'o-ry. A theory intro- 
duced by Dalton for explaining the laws 
of definite proportions in chemical com- 
binations. It is founded on the sup- 

position that matter consists of ultimate, 
indivisible particles, called atoms, that 
these are of the same size and shape in 
the same body, but differ in weight in 
different bodies, and that bodies com- 
bine in definite proportions with refer- 
ence to those weights, which are henco 
called atomic weights. The main features 
of this theory are briefly stated in the 
following paragraphs. 

In bodies capable of assuming the 
gaseous form, the weight of the atom is 
obtained from the volume: thus, water 
being composed of one volume of oxy- 
gen united with two volumes (or one 
atom) of hydrogen, the relative weights 
will be — oxygen, 8, hydrogen, 1, and 
water, 9. 

In bodies which do not assume the 
gaseous form in their simple state, the 
weight of the atom is deduced from that 
of the compound: the weight of carbon, 
for instance, is obtained from that of 
carbonic acid gas, one volume of which 
weighs twenty-two times as much as 
our standard of unity; of the twenty- 
two parts, sixteen are hydrogen, leaving 
6 to represent the primary molecule of 

In. the case of bodies which are inca- 
pable of assuming a gaseous form, either 
alone or in combination, the weight must 
be obtained by analysis : thus, marble, or 
the carbonate of lime, is found to be 
composed of twenty-two parts of car- 
bonic acid and twenty-eight of lime; 28, 
therefore, represents the atomic weight 
of lime. 

The atomic weights are generally sup- 
posed to be related to one another by 
multiple: hence this law is often called 
the law of multiples, or of combinations 
in multiple proportion. This will be easily 
seen by referring to the component parts 
of the- following substances: — 

Nitrogen. Oxygen. 

Nitrous oxide 14 8 

Nitric oxide 14 16 

Hyponitrous acid 14 24 

Nitrous acid 14 32 

Nitric acid 14 40 

When only one combination of any 
two elementary bodies exists, Dr. Dalton 
assumes that its elements are united, 
atom to atom singly, by what ho calls 
binary combinations; if several com- 
pounds can be obtained from the same 
elements, they combine, as he supposes, 
in proportions expressed by some simple 
multiple of the number of atoms, as in 
the following table: — 



Atoms — 

1 of A + 1 of B = 1 of C, binary. 

1 of A 4- 2 of B = 1 of D, ternary. 

2 of A + 1 of B = 1 of E, ternary. 

1 of A -r 3 of B = 1 of F, quaternary. 

3 of A — 1 of B = I of G, quaternary. 
Atonia. See Atony. 

A-ton'ic. [Aton'icus; from a, priv., 
and rdi/oj, " tone."] Without, or having 
diminished, tone or power. 

At'o-ny. [Ato'nia; from the same.] 
"Want or diminution of muscular tone. 

Atrabiliary, at-ra-bil'ya-re. [At- 
rabilia'rius; from atrabi'lU, "black 
bile."] Melancholy; atrabilious. Atra- 
biliary capsules, arteries, and veins, are 
names applied to the renal or supra- 
renal glands or capsules, and to the 
arteries and veins by which they are 
supplied, because they were formerly 
supposed to produce black bile. See 

Atrabilious, at-ra-bil'yus. [From 
the same.] Melancholy, hypochondriac. 

At-ra-bi'lis.* [From a'ter, "black," 
and bi'lis, "bile."] Black bile: an im- 
aginary fluid, supposed, when existing in 
excessive quantity, to be the cause of 
Melancholy, which see. 

Atrachelus,* at-ra-ke'lus. [From a, 
priv., and rpaY^Ao?, the "neck."] With- 
out a neck; having a very short neck. 

At-ra-men'tuiei.* [From a'ter, 
"black."] A Latin term denoting the 
coloring matter secreted by the cuttle- 
fish (Se'pia); also, ink. 

A-tre'si-a.* [From a, priv.. and rpfj- 
ais, a "boring," a "perforation."] Impcr- 
foration ; usually applied to the rectum, 
urethra, etc. 

A-tret-o-£ep5i'a-lus,* A-tret-o- 
cor'mus.* [From a, priv., rt-p^i, to 
"perforate," KtjjaXfi, the "head," and Kop- 
1*6;, a "trunk."] A monster-fetus with- 
out the natural openings in the head or 

Atriplex Foetida. See Chexopo- 


A-trip'11-^es."* The Jussieuan name 
of a natural order. Sec Chexopodiace.e. 

At'ro-pa.* [From 'Arpo-og, of the 
three Fates, that one whose special duty 
it was to cut the thread of life: named 
on account of its deadly or poisonous 
qualities.] A Linnrean genus of the class 
Pentandria, natural order Solanaceee. 

At'ropa Beria-don'iia.* Tho 

deadly nightshade, or belladonna, a 
plant belonging to the narcotico-acrid 

A-tro'pbi-a.- [From a, priv., and 

rpo$q, "nourishment."] Atrophy. A 
genus of the order Marcorcs, class Ca- 
chexia, of Cullen's Nosology. 

At'ro-phy. [Atro'pfcia. See Atro- 
phia.] Defect of nutrition; wasting or 
emaciation, with loss of strength, unac- 
companied by fever. 

A-tro'pi-a.- A peculiar alkaline 
principle found in all parts of tho Atropa 
Belladonna. It is highly poisonous, and 
in the most minute proportion has the 
property of dilating the pupil of the eye. 

At'ropin. See Atropia. 

At'ro-pism. [Atropis'mus.] The 
condition of the system produced by the 
persevering use of belladonna. 

Attar Gul, at'tar gool. [From at' tar, 
"essence," and gul, a "rose."] A phrase 
taken from the Persian, and signifying 
Attar of Boses, or Otto of Roses. See 
next article. 

At'tar of Ro'ses [see preceding ety- 
mology], or Oil of Roses. An essence 
prepared from the petals of the damask 
rose (and probably from other species) 
by distillation with water. The oil col- 
lects and floats on the surface of the 
water when it cools. 

At-ten'ii-ant. [Atten'uans,an7t's/ 
from attcn'uo, attcnua'ium, to "make 
thin."] Applied to medicines supposed 
to impart to the blood a thinner or more 
fluid consistence, as water, whey, etc. 

At-teii'u-at-ecl. [Attemia'tns ; 

from the same.] Become slender; thin. 

Atteii-n-sVtioii. [Attenua'tio; 
from the same.] The lessening of weight 
or of consistency; emaciation. The 
term is applied to a process by which a 
fluid becomes of less specific gravity, as 
when it undergoes fermentation and 
parts with carbonic acid. 

At-tol'lens.* [From attol'lo, to 
"raise up."] Raising up. 

Attol'lens Au'rem.* (" Raising the 
ear.") A muscle whose office is indi- 
cated by its name. 

Attollens Oculi. See Rectus Su- 
perior Occli. 

At-tract'. [From ad, "to," or "to- 
wards," and tra'ho, trac'tum, to " draw."] 
To draw to or towards. See next article. 

At-trae'tion. [Attrae'tio, o'nin; 
from the same.] That principle or power 
in the material universe by which one 
particle or mass of matter is drawn to or 
towards another. 

Attrac'tiox of Affin'ity. The ten- 
dency of the atoms of different bodies to 
combine to form chemical compounds. 
See Affinity. 




Attrac'tion, Cap'illary. The power 
by which a liquid rises in a fine tube 
higher than the surface of the liquid 
which surrounds it. See Capillary. 

Attrac'tion of Cohe'sion. The ten- 
dency of the molecules of a body to 
cohere, to form masses. It is antagonist 
of Affinity. 

Attrac'tion, Elec'trical. The prop- 
erty displayed by certain substances of 
attracting certain others on being rubbed. 

Attrac'tion of Gravita'tion. The 
tendencies of masses of bodies towards 
each other. See Gravity. 

Attrac'tion, Magnet'ic. The tend- 
ency of certain bodies, chiefly iron, 
towards the north pole of the earth, and 
towards other bodies possessed of the 
property called magnetism. 

Attraction, Double Elective. See 
Affinity, Double Elective. 

Attraction, Simple Elective. See 
Affinity, Single Elective. 

At'tra-hens. :;: [The present parti- 
ciple of at'traho, to "draw to, or to- 
wards." See Attract.] Applied in the 
neuter plural (Attrahentia, at-tra-hen'- 
she-a) to medicaments which irritate the 
surface, thereby attracting the fluids to 
the part, as blisters, sinapisms, etc. See 

At'trahens Au'ris.* [At'trahens, 
"drawing" or "drawing to," and au'ris, 
" of the ear."] A muscle which draws the 
ear forwards and upwards; also called 
anterior auris, and prior auriculae. 

Attrahentia. See Attrahens. 

Attrition, at-trish'iin. [Attri'tio, 
o'nis; from at'tero, attri'tum, to "rub 
against," to "wear away."] An abra- 
sion or solution of continuity of the 
cuticle ; also, a severe kind of Cardiabjia : 
sometimes applied in surgery to the vio- 
lent crushing of a part. 

Au'di-to-ry. [Audito'rius; from 
au'dio, audi' turn, to "hear."] Belonging 
to the organ or the sense of hearing. 
Same as Acoustic. 

Auditory Nerve. The Portio Mol- 
lis of the seventh pair, which see. 

Angite, aw'jit. [From avyfi, "bright- 
ness," and Xi06;, a "stone."] Pyroxene. 
A silicate of lime and magnesia. 

Au'ra.* [A Latin word signifying a 
"breath," a "gentle breeze;" from uw, 
to "breathe."] A subtle vapor, or exha- 

Au'ra Elec'trica.* Literally, the 
"electrical breeze." The sensation, as 
of cold air, experienced when electricity 
is received from a sharp point. 

Au'ra Epilep'tica.* The peculiar 
sensation felt by epileptic patients, as 
of a cold fluid rising towards the head. 

Au'ra Hysterica.* The sensation as 
of cold air ascending to the head, said 
to occur sometimes in hysteria. 

Au'ra Semina'lis,* Au'ra Sem'inis.* 
The supposed vivifying principle of the 
Semen virile, believed to ascend through 
the Fallopian tubes, thereby impreg- 
nating the ovum in the ovarium. 

Au'ra Vita'lis.* The vital principle. 

Aurantia,* au-ran'she-a, the plural 
of Auran'tium, forming the Jussieuan 
name of a natural order of plants. See 

Aurantiaceav* aw-ran-she-a'she-e. 
[From auran'tium, the "orange."] A 
natural order of exogenous trees and 
shrubs, natives of the East Indies and 
other warm climates. It includes the 
orange, lemon, lime, and citron. The 
leaves and rind of the fruit abound in a 
volatile, fragrant, bitter, and exciting oil. 

Aurant iaeeous, aw-ran -she-a'shus. 
[Aurantia'ceus; from auran'tium, an 
" orange."] Having an arrangement as 
in the orange-plant. 

Aurant iimi, aw-ran'she-iim. [Sup- 
posed to be derived from au'rum, " gold."] 
The orange. The fruit of Citrus bigara- 
dia and C. aurantium (Lond. Ph.), of 
Citrus vulgaris (Ed. Ph.), or ft aurantium 
(U.S. Ph.). 

Au'rate. [Auras, a'fes.] A com- 
bination of auric acid with a base. 

Au'rate of Ani-mo'nl-a. [ Am- 
mo'nia; Au'ras.] Fulminating Gold, 
which see. 

Au-re'll-a.* [From an' nun, "gold."] 
A term for the chrysalis or pupa of in- 
sects, often adorned with golden spots. 

Au'ric Ac'id. [Au'ricum Ac'id- 
um; from au'rum, "gold."" A name 
proposed by Pelletier for the peroxide 
of gold, on account of its property of 
forming salts with alkaline bases. 

Auricle. See Auricula. 

Au-ric'u-la,* plural Aii-ric'u-lse. 
[The diminutive of au'ris, the "car."] 
The auricle or external portion of the ear. 

Auric'ula InTI-ina.* Literally, the 
"lowest ear." The lobe of the ear. 

Au-ric'u-ue Cordis.* [From au- 
ric'ula and cor, cor'dis, the "heart."] 
"Auricles of the heart." A term ap- 
plied to those cavities of the heart which 
lead to the ventricles. 

Au-rie-u-la'ris.* [From auric'ula, 
an "ear."] Belonging to the ear: au- 



Au-ric'n-late. [Auricnla'tus; 

from auric' aid, an " ear."J Applied in 
Botany to a leaf when it has a lobe on 
each side of its base; eared. 

Auricule, o're'kiil'. The French 
term for Auricle, which see. 

Au-ric'u-lo-Ven-tric'u-lar O'pon- 
injr. Tne opening between the auricle 
an I ventricle of each side of the heart. 

Au-rif er-ons. [Aurif'erus; from 
nu' rum, "gold," and fe'ro, to "bear."] 
Bearing or containing gold. 

Au'ri-form. [Aurifor'mis; from 
au'ris, the "ear."] Formed like the ear. 

Au-ri';yo,* or Au-ru'go.* [From 
au' rum, "gold."] Orange-skin. A term 
applied to an orange hue diffused over 
the entire surface of the skin in new- 
born infants: Sauvages terms it ephe'Us 
lu'tea. Also an old name for jaundice. 

Au-rX-pijr-m?ii'tum." :;: " [From an' - 
rum, "gold," and pig men' turn, "paint."] 
Yellow Orpiinent. See Orpiment. 

Au'ris.* The Latin term for the 
"ear." It is distinguished into the ex- 
ternal and the internal. 

Au-ri-scal'pum.* [From scal'po, 
to "scrape."] An instrument for cleans- 
ing the ear. 

Au'rl-scope. [Auris'copus; from 
au'ris, the "ear," and oxon-ao, to "ex- 
plore."] An instrument for ascertaining 
the condition of the Eustachian passage. 

Aurium, Tinnitus. See Tinnitus 

Au'rum.* The Latin for Gold, which 

Anrnm Fulminans. See Fulmi- 
nating Gold. 

Aus-cul-ta'tion. [Ausculta'tio, 
o'uis; from auscul'to, auscu/ta'tum, to 
"listen."] The act of listening to the 
sound given by particular parts of the 
body when struck, or to the sounds pro- 
duced by the functional movements of 
the lungs or heart. 

Ausculta'tion, Im-nie'di-ate. 

That practised directly by the car of 
the practitioner without the aid of an 

Ausculta'tion, Me'ui-ate. That 
performed by employing a stethoscope 
or some similar instrument. 

Aus-ftra'lis.* [From Aus'ter, the 
"south wind."] Belonging to the south: 

Au-to-car'pous. [Autocar 'pens, 
or Autoearpia'nus; from abro;, "it- 
self," and Know;, "fruit."] Applied to 
fruit not adherent to tho calyx; superior. 

Autochthon, 4 au-tok'thon, plural 

An-toch'tho-iics. [From dur<5j, "it- 
self," sometimes "very," and X0u3i/," land," 
or "country."] A name given, by those 
who hold the doctrine that tho various 
races of mankind were originally distinct, 
to the fir.<t inhabitants of a country, sup- 
posed to have been produced in the 
"very country or place itself." 

Autochthonous. See Thrombus. 

Au-to&'c-nous. [Auto&'emis: from 
avTOi, "itself," or "one's self," and ykvw, 
to "be born."] Applied in Comparative 
Anatomy, by Owen, to parts developed 
from distinct and independent centres. 

Au-to-mat'ic. [Autoinat'icus ; 
from avTonari^o, to "act spontaneousl}'."] 
Applied to functions or motions per- 
formed without the will, as digestion, 
the heart's action, etc. 

Au-to-plas'tic. [Autopias'ticus.] 
Belonging to autoplastv. 

Au'to-plas-ty. [Autoplas'tia ; 

from avr6$, " one's self," and rrXaacru), to 
" form."] Operations by which lesions 
are repaired by means of healthy parts 
being taken from the neighborhood of 
the lesion and made to supply the de- 
ficiency caused by wounds or disease. 

Au-top'so-rin. [From ainog, "one's 
s?lf," and ■^■'•pa, the "itch."] That 
which is given under the homoeopathic 
doctrine of administering a patient's 
own virus. 

Au'top-sy. [Autop'sia: from avrog, 
"one's self," and fiipis, the "act of see- 
ing.''] Ocular examination. 

A-ve'na.- The oat. The Pharma- 
copoeial name (Ed. Ph.) for the seeds of 
Avena sativa. See Aven.e Semina. 

Ave'na Sa-ti'va.* The oat-plant. 
See Aven.e Semina. 

A-ve'naiFa-ri'na.*("Mealof Oats.") 
The Pharmacopoeial name (U.S. Ph.) for 
oatmeal, prepared from the seed of Avena 
sativa. Used for gruels, decoctions, etc. 

A-ve'ntc Sem'I-na.* [From se'meu, 
"seed," plural sem'inaJ] Literally, the 
"seeds of the oat." Oats: the fruit of 
the Arena sativa, of the order Gframinese, 
yielding a flour or meal which forms a 
common article of food in some parts of 
Europe. Groats are the oats freed from 
the cuticle, and used in broth and gruels. 

A-ve-na'ceinns. [Avena'cens.] Be- 
longing to the Avena. 

A-ven-i-for'mis.* [From ave'na, 
and for' ma.] Like a grain of oats: 

A-ve'ns-ous. [Avo'nius; from a, 
priv., and ve'na, a " vein."] Applied to the 
leaves of plants without veins, or nerves. 




A'ves.* the plural of Avis, which see. 

A-vic'aa-lar. [Avicaala'ris; from 
avic'tila, a "little bird."] Pertaining to 

A'vis.* A bird. Applied in the plu- 
ral (A'ves) to a class of oviparous Ver- 
tebrata including all birds proper. 

Avoiaae, a'vwan'. The French for 
"oats." See Avena. 

A-vaal'sioaa. [Avail's!©; (vomravel l lo, 
avid' sum, to ''tear asunder."] The forci- 
ble separation from each other of parts 
of the body which were previously more 
or less intimately united. 

Awn. See Arista. 

Ax-ifer-oaas. [Axif 'eraas; from 
ox' is, and fe'ro, to "bear."] Applied to 
plants having only a stem or axis, vari- 
ously modified. 

Ax-il'la.* The armpit ; the cavity 
under the upper part of the arm and 
shoulder. Applied in Botany to the 
angle formed by a branch and the stem, 
or by a leaf with either of these. 

Ax-H-la'ris.* [From axil' la, the 
"armpit;" Fr. Axillaire, ax'e'laiii'.] Be- 
longing to the axilla : axillary. Applied 
also to branches and leaves that form an 

Ax'il-la-i'y. Belonging to the arm- 
pit. See Axillaris. 

Ax'iMary Plex'aas. [Plex'aas Ax- 
ilBa'ris.] The brachial plexus formed 
by the three last cervical and the first 
dorsal nerves. 

Ax'is.* [Perhaps from a'yo, to "act," 
to "drive."] Literally, an "axle" about 
which any revolving body turns. A 
right line, real or imaginary, passing 
through the centre of any body. The 
name of the second vertebra of the neck, 
its tooth-like process serving as an axis 
on which the atlas, and so the head itself, 
turns: also termed Ver'tebra denta'ta. 
In Astronomy, the axis of the earth is 
that diameter about which it performs its 
diurnal revolution. In Geology, applied 
to the centre of a mountain-group. In 
Botany, the stem and root of a plant, 
termed, respectively, the ascending and 
descending axis. 

Axis, Anticlinal. See Anticlinal. 

Axis, Synclinal. See Synclinal 

Ax-©t'«-aaa©jas. [Axot'omns; from 
a\oiv, the "axis," and re/iva, to "cut."] 
Applied to minerals which arc cleavable 
in one direction, perpendicular to the axis. 

Ax-un'gl-a.* [From ax'is, an "axle- 
tree," and un'fjuo, to "anoint," to 

"smear;" Fr. Axongc, ax'ONzh'.] Hog's 
lard. The Pharmacopoeial name (Ed. 
Ph.) of the fat of the Sus scro/a, the 
Adept (U. S. Ph.), or Atlcps suillua 
(Dub. Ph.). SeeADEPS. 

Axaaaa'gia F©a*ei'aaa.* The same as 
Adeps Suillus, which see. 

Az-e-ta'ic A^'id. An acid obtained 
by treating oleic with nitric acid. It 
closely resembles suberic acid. An- 
other acid, the Azoleic, is procured by 
the same process. The terms are derived 
from the words azote and oleic. 

Az-o-foeaa'zide. A new substance 
obtained by heating a mixture of nitro- 
benzide with an alcoholic solution of 

Az-o-lit'aaaaaa. A pure coloring ma- 
terial, of a deep blood-red color, obtained 
from litmus. 

Az'ote. [Azo'taam; from a, priv., 
and (,doi, to "live;" because unfit for sus- 
taining life.] Nitrogen gas. 

A-zot'ic A^'id. Another name for 
Nitric Acid, which see. 

Az-o'toaas A^'id. Another name for 
nitrous acid; the hyponitrous acid of 
Turner. See Nitrous Acm. 

Az-ot-aa'ri-a.* [From azo'tum, and 
ovpov, the "urine."] A class of diseases 
characterized by a great increase of 
urea in the urine. 

Az-aal'snic Ac'id. The name given 
by Boullay to the black matter deposited 
during the decomposition of prussic 
acid. It is very similar to ulmic acid. 
See Ulmix. 

Azaare, a'zhiir. A fine blue pigment, 
commonly called smalt, consisting of 
glass colored with oxide of cobalt and 
ground to an impalpable powder. 

Az'aare Stoaae. [l-a'pss I^az'aala.] 
An azure-bluo mineral from which the 
unchangeable blue color idtramarine is 

Azygos Uvula?. See Azygous Mus- 

Az'y-goais. [Az'ygjos; from a, priv., 
and %vy6g, a "yoke."] Without a fellow, or 
corresponding part. 

Az'yg-oaas Maes'cle. A muscle of the 

Az'ygous Process. [Proces'saas 
Az'ygfos.] A process of the sphenoid 

Az'ysoaasVoiaa. [Ve'aaa Az'yg-os.] 
A vein formed by the union of the lower 
interc >stal veins of the left side, and 
ascending in front of the spine on the 
ri^rht side of tho aorta. 




B. A. = Bal'neiim Are'me.* A sand- 

Bab'lah. The rind or shell which 
surrounds the fruit of the Mimosa rim - 
raria. It is brought from the East 
Indies, under the name of nth neb, and is 
employed as a dye-stuff. 

Bac'ca.* A berry; an inferior, inde- 
hiscent, pulpy fruit, as the gooseberry. 
The term is often otherwise applied by 

Bac'cate. [Bacca'tus: from bac'ca, 
a "berry."] Resembling a berry. 

Baechia,* bak-ki'a. [From Bac'clms, 
the "god of wine."] Gatta Rosacea. 
The pimpled condition of the face con- 
sequent on hard drinking. See Acxe 

Baeciferons, bak-sif'er-us. [Bac'- 
cifer, or Baccif'erus; from bac'ca, 
a "berry," and/e'ro, to "bear."] Bear- 
ing berries. 

Bacciform. bak'se-form. [Baeei- 
for'mis; from bac'ca, a "berry."] Hav- 
ing the form of a berry. 

Baceivorons, bak-siv'o-riis. [Bac- 
civ'orns: from bac'ca, a "berry," anil 
vo'ro, to "devour."] Eating or living 
on berries. 

Bach'e-lor's But 'tons. A name 
sometimes applied to Xux Vomica, which 

Baeh'er's Ton'ic Pills. Extract 
of hellebore and myrrh, of each Sj, with 
oiij of powdered carduus benedictus, to 
be divided into pills of one grain each: 
dose, two to six three times a day. 

Backbone. See Spixe. 

Bac'u-lns.* Literally, a "stick" or 
" staff," and hence the name of a lozenge, 
shaped into a little, short roll. 

Baignoire. See Baptisterium. 

Bain, baxg. The French word for 
Bath, which see. 

Ba'ker's Itch. A species of Psnri'a- 
8ia diffu'm, resulting from the irritating 
qualities of yeast. 

Bilker's Suit. A name given to the 
subearbonate of ammonia, or smelling- 
salts, from its being used by bakers as a 
substitute for yeast in the manufacture 
of some of the finer kinds of bread. 

Ba-laVna 3Iac-ro-eeph'a-Ins. :: ' A 
species of Physeter Macrocephaltjs, 
which see. 

Balanitis?, 1 - ba-len'e-de. [From balm'- 
na, a " whale."] A family of the Cctacea. 

Bal'ance E-lec-trom'e-ter. An in- 

i struinent, constructed on the application 
of the common balance and weights, to 
estimate the mutual attraction of oppo- 
sitely-electrified surfaces. 

Bal-a-nil*'er-ons. [Balanif 'erus ; 
from liaXavoq, an "acorn," and fe'ro, to 
"bear."] Bearing acorn?. 

Bal'a-nism. [Balanis'mns: from 
paXavis, a "pessary."] The application 
of a pessary. 

Bal-a-ni'tis.* [From fiiiXavos, tho 
" (jlans penis."] Inflammation of the 
glans penis and prepuce, commonly 
complicated with phymosis: otherwise 
termed Gonorrhu ' a bal'ani, Bal'ano-pos~ 
thi'tis, and Posthitis. 

Bal'a-noid. [Balanoi'des; from 
(iaXavos, an "acorn."] Resembling an 

Balanophoraeeav* bal v a-no-fo-ra'- 
she-e. [Named from Balanoph'ora, one 
of the genera.] A natural order of 
fungus-like parasitical plants. They 
belong to the class of Rhizor/ens. 

Bal'a-no-Pos-thi'tis. Idt*.* [From 
QaXavoi, the "glans penis," and ■nmOrj, the 
"prepuce."] The same as Balaxitis. 

Bal'a-nns.* [Gr. (3aXaio>, an "acorn," 
a "gland."] The Glans jienis and Glans 

Ba-lans'ti-nm.* [From fiaXios, "va- 
rious."] The flower of the pomegranate- 

Balbuties,* bal-bu'she-ez. [From 
balbn'tio, to "stammer."] Hesitation 
of speech; stammering. See Stammer- 
ix G. 

Ball-and-Socket Joint. See Exar- 


Bal-lis'mns.- [From pa\Xi~a>, to 
"dance."" A name for Chorea, or St. 
Vitus's dance. 

Bal-loon'. [Fr. Ballon. bal'liW.] 
A spherical glass receiver, with one or 
two necks for adaptation to a retort or 
other vessel. 

Bal-lo'ta I^a-na'ta.- A plant indi- 
genous in Siberia, recommended by 
P.rera in rheumatic and gouty affec- 

Baliottenicnt.bariott'mox '. [From 
the French ballotter, bal'lot'ta', to "toss 
as a ball," to "shake about."] The pas- 
sive movements of the foetus in the 
/■'<l>:,,r amnxi, felt by applying the finger 
to the cervix uteri and raising it sud- 




denly upwards, when the foetus will 
strike on the finger in its descent. 

Balin, bain. [From bal'sunuun, "bal- 
sam."] A soothing or healing medicine. 

Sa>m of tiilead. See Balsam op 

Balsn Tea. An infusion of the loaves 
of Melia'sa officinalis, or common balm. 

Bal-ne-og-'ra-pBiy. [Balueogra'- 
pliia; from bal'iieum, a "bath," and 
yp-j^w, to " write."] A description of 

Bal-aso-ol'o-g'y. [Balneolo'gia ; 
from bal'iieum, a "bath," and Aiiyoj, a 
" discourse."] A treatise on baths ; the 
science of baths. 

Bfil'ase-o-tlser-a-pi'a.'- [From bal'- 
iieum, a '"bath," and Ospancia, "attend- 
ance."] The proper employment of baths. 

Bal'ne-uni.* [Gr. (3a\avuov.~\ The 
Latin term for Bath, which see. 

Bal'iieum Au-i-ma'le.* Any part 
of a newly-killed animal, wrapped round 
the body or a limb. 

Bal'iieum Ar-e'nse.* ("Bath of 
sand.") See Bath. 

Bal'iieum Ma-ri'se,* Bal'iieum 
Ma'ris.* A water-bath, a vessel being 
put into another containing water, which 
is placed on the fire; heat is thus gra- 
dually communicated. 

Bal'iieum Med-I-ca'tum.* A medi- 
cated bath ; a bath impregnated with 
medicinal substances. 

Bal'iieum Sic'cum.* ("Dry bath.") 
Immersion in any dry substance, as ashes, 
salt, sand, etc. 

Bal'iieum Sul-pBau're-uBU.* A bath 
containing sulphur. 

Bals. Abbreviation for Balsamum.* 

Balsaisi. See Balsa mum. 

Bal'sam (baul'sam) of the Au'gia 
Sinen'sis, or Chinese' Var'nish: it 
dries into a smooth, shining lac, used for 
lacquering and varnishing. 

Balsam of Copaiba. Sec Copaiba. 

Bal'sam of Liquidam'bar. Balsam 
which Hows from incisions made into 
the trunk of the Liquidambar styraeijlua : 
it dries up readily, and thus occurs in 
the solid form. 

Bal'sam of Mec'ca ("Mecca Bal- 
sam"), or O'pobalsam. Balsam obtained 
by incisions of, and by boiling, the 
branches and leaves of the Amyris Gilca- 
densie (otherwise called Bafoamomendron 
0ih'<ideii8c),;\i\(\ the A. Opobahamum. It 
becomes eventually solid. 

Bal'sam of Peru', (Bal'samum Pe- 
ruvia'num.*) A balsam procured from 

the Myrospermum Peruiferum. There 
are two kinds: the broicn balsam, ex- 
tracted by incision, very rare, imported 
in the husk of the cocoanut, and hence 
called balsam en eoquej and the black 
balsam, obtained by evaporating the 
decoction of the bark and branches of 
the tree. These are semi-fluid balsams. 

Bal'sam of Sto'rax. Balsam said 
to be procured from the Liquidambar 
attina and Orientate. The substance 
sold as strained storax is prepared from 
an impure variety of liquid storax. 

Bal'sam of To'lu. (Bal'samum To- 
luia'num.*) A balsam which flows spon- 
taneously from the trunk of the JJyro- 
spermum tolui/erum and dries into a red- 
dish resinous mass. 

The following artificial balsams may 
be named: — 

Bal'sam of Hore'hound. An aqueous 
infusion of horehound and liquorice-root, 
with double the proportion of proof spirit, 
or brandy, to which are then added 
opium, camphor, benzoin, squills, oil of 
aniseed, and honey. 

Bal'sam of Liq'uorice. This con- 
sists principally of paregoric elixir, very 
strongly impregnated with the oil of 

Bal'sam of Sul'phur. A solution 
of sulphur in volatile oils. 

Balsaaitaeea?,* bal-sa-ma'she-e, or 
Bal-sa-niif lu-av* A natural order 
of balsamifcrous trees, consisting of one 
genus, the Liquidambar. This order is 
termed by Lindley Altingiaccse. 

Balsainatio (bal-sa-ma'she-o), 

o'nis* [From bal'sammn.'] The process 
of embalming dead bodies. See Em- 

Bal-sa'me-us.* Of the nature of a 
balsam. Also the specific name of a tree 
which produces balsam. 

Bal-sam'ic. [Balsam 'lens.] Per- 
taining to balsam; of the nature of bal- 

Bfil-sam'ie-a.* Balsamics. A term 
generally applied to substances of a 
smooth and oily consistence, possessing 
emollient and generally aromatic pro- 

Ba!-sa-mif ' e-ra Bra-zil-I-eu'sis.* 
Another name for the Copaifcra effici- 


Bal-sa-mif 'ev-ous. [Balsamif- 
ea*us; from bal'eamum, a "balsam," and 
fe'ro, to "bear."] Bearing or yielding 

[From Baleami'na, ono of the g'mora.] 



A natural order of herbaceous plants 
including the Impatient noli-tangere. 
They are prized fur their showy 

Bal-sa-mo-den'dron.* [From /juX- 
oa^o:, a •• balsam,'' and 6iv6pov, a "tree."] 
A Linnaean genus of the class Octandria. 
See Amyris. 

Balsamoden'dron Myr'rha.- The 
tree supposed to yield myrrh. 

Bill sa-m mil. * [Gr. 0d\cra^o:' • from 
Ileb. baal samen, the "prince of oils."] 
A balsam. A vegetable juice, liquid, or 
semifluid, or spontaneously becoming 

Bal'samum Can-a-den'se.* Cana- 
dian balsam: obtained from the Pinus 

Bal'samum Co-pai'bae.* Balsam 
of copaiba or copaiva: vulgarly, capivi, 
and capivi oil. See Copaiba. 

Balsamum Gileadense. See Bal- 
sam of Mecca. 

Bal'samum Ju-da'I-cuni.* An- 
other term for the Balsamum Gileadense. 

Balsamum Peruvianuiu. See 
Balaam of Peru. 

Bal'samum Sapona'ceain*, sap-o- 
na'she-um). The camphorated soap lini- 
ment, or opodeldoc. 

Bal'samum Sjr-i'a-cum. : - The 
Balsamum Gileadense. 

Balsamum Tolutanum. See Bal- 
sam OF TOLF. 

Bal'samum Ve'rum.* (''True Bal- 
sam.") The Balsamum Gileadens< e. 

Bandage. [Fas'cia, Deliga'tio, 
o'nis, and Des ma.] One or more 
pieces of cotton, linen, or flannel, for 
wrapping round an}' part of the body: 
they are simple, as the circular, spiral, 
uniting, etc., or compound, as the T 
bandage, the suspensory, eighteen-tailed, 
etc. etc. 

Ban-dan 'a. A style of calico-print- 
ing practised in India, in which white 
or brightly-colored spots are produced 
upon a red or dark ground. 

Ban';-ed. [Band)/ is a cor- 
ruption of the French participle bandi, 
"bent," from bander, to "bend."] Hav- 
ing legs the bones of which are curved 
outwards, or otherwise. SeeDEVALGATis. 

Bang-, or Bangue. See Caxxabis 
IxdicAj and Bhang. 

Ban'yer's Oint'ment. An ointment 
consisting of half a pound of litharge, 
two ounces of burnt alum, one ounce and 
a half of calomel, halt' a pound of Venice 
turpentine, and two pounds of lard well 
rubbed together. It is used in Porrigo. 

Baobab. Lao-bib'. The African name 
of the Adanso'nia digita'ta, a tree grow- 
ing native in West Africa and cultivated 
in Egypt and Abyssinia. The trunk is 
said to attain, in some instances, the 
enormous thickness of ten yards. The 
leaves, in the form of powder, are some- 
times used in African cookery. The 
fruit has a subacid juice, which renders 
it valuable in fevers. The bark of the 
Baobab abounds in mucilage. It is said 
to have sometimes been given in fevers 
as a substitute for cinchona. 

Baphicus Coccus, or Baphicum 
C'occum. See Kermks Berry. 

Bap-tis-te'ri-uin.* [From .Qa-rrilu, to 
'•'dip," to "bathe;" Fr. Baignoire, berV- 
wau'.] A bathing-place. 

Baptorrhoea,* bap-to-re'a. [From 
(3oL-ro;, "infected," and fjiu), to "flow."] 
A term intended to designate Gonorrhoea, 
Blcnnorrhcea, Blennorrltcjia, etc. 

Bar-ba'does Leg 1 . A disease of hot 
climates: the Elephantiasis Arabian. 

Barba'does Nuts. [Xu'ces Bar. 
baden'ses.] The fruit of the Jatropha 
curcas. The seeds are called physic 
nuts. See Jatropiia. 

Barba'does Tar. The Bitumen Bar- 
badense, Bitumen petroleum, or Petroleum 

Bar'ba-ry Gum, or Z^Io-roe'co 
Gum. A variety of gum Arabic said 
to be produced by the Acacia gummifera. 

Bar bate. [Barba'tus; frombar'ba, 
a "beard."] Bearded. 

Barbel-late. [Barbella'tus; from 
barbel' la, a "little beard."] Having 

Bar'biers. A disease of India and 
the Malabar coast; a peculiar species of 

Bar-big'er-ous. [Barbig"'erus ; 
from bar'ba, a "beard," and (je'ro, to 
"bear."] Having a beard; hairy. 

Barege, ba'razh', written also Bar- 
rege. A village situated on the French 
side of the Pyrenees, celebrated for its 
thermal waters. A peculiar substance 
has been obtained from these and other 
waters and termed baregin, bar'a-zhin. 

Ba-ril'la. [From the Spanish barilla, 
bar-reTya, a plant called " salt-wort."] 
Impure carbonate of soda imported from 
Spain and the Levant. British barilla, 
obtained by burning sea-weeds, is called 

Ba'ri-um. s [From fiapv;, "heavy."] 
The metallic basis of the earth baryta, 
so named from the great density of it 3 




Bark. [Cor'tex.] In the plural, a 
popular term for Peruvian bark, or that 
ot'any species of cinchona. See Cinchona. 

Bark, Car-i-be'an, or Saint JLuci'a 
Bark, sometimes improperly called Cin- 
eho'na Caribee'a.* The bark of the 
Ejcostem'ma Caribee'um, and perhaps of 
some other trees. It is a useful substi- 
tute for cinchona, and, though contain- 
ing neither quinia nor cinchonia, is one 
of the most valuable of the spurious barks. 

Bark, Es-sen'tial Salt of. This is 
merely an extract, prepared by mace- 
rating the bruised substance of bark in 
cold water, and submitting the infusion 
to a very slow evaporation. 

Bar'Iey. [Hor'deum.] The seeds 
of Hordeum distichon or vulgare. 

Bar'Iey, Caus'tic. The seeds of 
Yeratrum aubadilla. 

Barm. See Fermentum Cerevisle. 

Bar-o-mac-roni'e-ter. [Baroinae- 
rom'etrum; from fiapog, "weight," h&k- 
pog, " length," and piirpov, a "measure."] 
An instrument for ascertaining the 
weight and length of new-born infants. 

Ba-rom'e-ter. [Lat. Barom'etrum; 
Fr. Barometre, b&'ro'nietr' ; from (3apog, 
''weight," and fiirpop, a "measure."] An 
instrument for ascertaining the weight 
or pressure of the atmosphere • a weather- 

Bar'o-seope. [Barosco'pium ; 

from piipo;, "weight," and oKonku, to 
"observe."] A barometer sensible to 
the slightest atmospheric variations. 

Ba-ros'ina.* [From (Japvg, " heavy," 
and dujih, " odor."] A genus of plants 
of the order Rutaceie. The leaves of 
several species constitute buchu. For- 
merly called Diosma. 

Bar'ras (French pron., b&'ua.'). An 
olco-resinous substance. See Galipot. 

Barrenness. See Sterility. 

Barringtoiiiacese,* barVing-to-ne- 
a'she-c. A natural order of trees or 
shrubs, found in the tropics. 

Bar tliol i ib i a i a ae, iilnml u la?,* gl an ' - 
du-le bar'to-le-ne-a'ne. The sublingual 
gland.-;, named after Bartholin. 

Bar' wood. A red dye-wood brought 
from Africa, and used with sulphate of 
iron for producing the dark red upon 
British bandana handkerchiefs. 

Baryeeoia,* bar'e-c-ko'ya. [From 
fiapvg, "heavy," and dicorj, "hearing."] 
Dulnesa of hearing; deafness. 

Ba-ryph'o-ny. [Barypho'nia ; 
from fJapii, "heavy," and (pwvfi, the 
"voice."] Difficulty of speech. 

Ba-ry'ta,* or Ba-ry'tefc.* [From 

Oapvg, "heavy ;" on account of its weight.] 
An alkaline earth, the heaviest of all tho 
earths. It is a virulent poison. The 
native sulphate of baryta is termed 
heavy spar. 

Basalt, ba-sault'. [From the Latin 
basal' tes, described by Pliny as a kind 
of marble very hard and of an iron 
color.] A common species of trap rock, 
essentially composed of feldspar and 
augite. It is of a compact texture and 
of a dark-green, graj 7 , or black color. 
It is often found in regular columns, of 
which the Giants' Causeway and the 
island of Staffa furnish magnificent ex- 

Ba-sal'ti-form. [Basalt i for mis ; 
from basalt'.] Formed like basalt. 

Ba-sal'toid. [Basaltoi des; from 
basalt', and eidog, a "form."] Kesem- 
bling basalt. 

Bas'a-iiite. [From Bavaiog, a Ly- 
dian stone.] A sort of touchstone by 
which the purity of gold was tried, and 
of which medical mortars were made. 
It consists of silica, lime, magnesia, car- 
bon, and iron. 

Bas-eu-la'tion. [From the French 
bascvler, to "see-saw."] A term used in 
examinations of the uterus in retrover- 
sion : the fundus is pressed upwards, the 
cervix downwards. It is half the see- 
saw movement. 

Base. [Ba'sis; Gr. Pacng, a "founda- 
tion."] The earth, alkali, or metallic 
oxide which, combined with an acid, 
forms a salt. In Pharmacy 7 it denotes 
the principal ingredient of any com- 
pound preparation. 

Basellaeea?,* bas-el-la'she-e. A 
natural order of herbaceous plants, found 
in tropical regions. 

Ba-si-a'tor, o'ris.* [From ba'sio, 
basia'tum, to "kiss."] A muscle whose 
office it is to contract the mouth. See 
Orrictlaris Oris. 

Bas-i-foran'elii-al. [Basibranehi- 
a'lis; from ba'sis and branchia'liaJ] 
Applied by Owen to certain parts of the 
branchial arch in fishes. 

Bsi'sie. [Bas'icus.] Belonging to, 
or like, a base. 

Bas-i-hy'al. [Basihya'lis; from 
ba'sis, "base," and hijoi'des, "hyoid."] 
A term in Comparative Anatomy applied 
to the two small subcubical bones on 
each side, forming the body of the in- 
verted hyoid arch. 

Bas'i-lad. The same as Basilar 
used adverbially. 

Bat* "Mar. Applied by Dr. Barclay 



as meaning "towards the base of the 

Ba-sil'ic. [Basilicas; from 0am- 
^rf;, a "king."] Kingly, royal; some- 
times applied by the ancients to parts 
supposed to hold an important place in 
the animal economy. 

Basil'ie Vein. A large vein situated 
at the fold of the elbow, in front of the 
humeral artery. It was important be- 
cause often opened in cases of blood- 

Ba-sil'I-con Oint'nient, sometimes 
written Basil'icum. [From the Greek 
paTtXiKOi, Lat. Ixibil'iciiH, '"royal;" so 
named on account of its great virtues.] 
The Cera' turn resi'nse (U.S. and Lond. 
Ph.), composed of five parts of resin, 
eight of lard, and two of ye^.ow wax. 
It is much used as a stimulating appli- 
cation to blistered surfaces, indolent 
ulcers, burns, etc. 

Basin. [From the French has'sin, a 
" wet dock."] A geological term de- 
noting the sloping of strata in several 
directions towards a centre. 

Ba'si-o-. A prefix denoting connec- 
tion with the basilar process of the 
occipital bone. 

Basio - Chondro - Cerato - Gloss us. 
See Hyoglossts. 

Ba'sio-Glos'sus.* [From bn'sis, and 
y\'lxraa, the " tongue."] A muscle run- 
ning from the base of the os hyoides to 
the tongue. 

Basioccipital, bas'e-ok-sip'e-tal. 
[Basioecipita'lis; from ha' sis, "base," 
and occipita'le os, the "occipital bone."] 
Applied in Comparative Anatomy, by 
Owen, to a bone homologous with the 
basilar process of the occipital bone. 

Ba'sis.* [Gr. (iiaii, from t3aivw, to 
"go," to "step," hence, "that on which 
one steps or stands," a "foundation."] 
The substance with which an acid is com- 
bined in a salt. See Base. A mordant, 
or substance used in dyeing, which has 
an affinity both for the cloth and the 
coloring matter. Also, the principal 
medicine in a prescription. 

Basis Cordis.* [Cor, cor'dis, the 
"heart."] The "base of the heart." 
The broad part of the heart is thus 
called, as distinguished from the apex 
or point. 

Bas-i-sphe noid. [Basisphenoi'- 
des.] Applied in Anatomy and Com- 
parative Anat >my, by Owen, to a bone 
homologous with the base of the sphe- 
noid bone. 

Bastard. [Xo'thus.] Applied to 

a plant or a disease closely resembling 
but not really what it appears to be. 

Bus lard Dit'ta-n5'« The root of the 
Dictamus J rax intlla, now fallen into dis- 

Ba'sjle. [From /?<*n;, a "base," and 
vXrj, "stuff," "substance."] A term pro- 
posed by Mr. Graham to denote the me- 
tallic radical of a salt. Thus, sodium is 
the hasyle of sulphate of soda. 

Bate man's I*ec'to-ral Drops. 
These consist principally of the tincture 
of castor, with portions of camphor and 
opium, flavored with aniseed and colored 
by cochineal. Used in coughs or lung- 

Bates's Al'um Water. The Li'quor 
Alu' minis compos' it us of the London 
Pharmacopoeia; a powerful astringent 
solution employed for stimulating and 
cleansing foul ulcers. 

Bath. [Balneum, plural Bal'nea.] 
A term applied to any yielding medium, 
such as water, sand, etc., in which a 
body is immersed. Baths are commonly 
divided into general and partial: they 
may consist of simple water, or be medi- 
cated. As the physiological and thera- 
peutic effects of baths are modified by 
their temperature, they may be arranged 
under the following heads : — 


Artificial Sea- Wa'ter Bath. (BaV- 
neum ma'ris facti'tium.%) A solution of 
one part of common salt in thirty parts 
of water. 

Cold Bath. {Bal'neum frif'i'idum.*) 
The temperature ranges from 33° to G0° 
Fahr. Below 50° it is considered very cold. 

Cool Bath. (Bal'neum frig'idum.*) 
Temperature from 6U° to 75° Fahr. 

Hot-Air Bath. (Bal'neum sudato'- 
run».*) The "sweating bath." Tempera- 
ture from 100° to 130° Fahr. 

Hot Bath. (Bal'neum eal'idum.*) Tem- 
perature from 9S° to 112° Fahr. 

Tem'perate Bath. (Bal'neum tcm- 
pera'tum.*) Temperature from 75° to 
85° Fahr. 

Tep'id Bath. (Bal'neum tep'idum*) 
Temperature from 85° to 92° Fahr. 

Va'por Bath. (Bal'neum vapo'ris ;'* 
bal'neum lacon'icum.%) Temperature fr< in 
122° to 144-5° Fahr. When a vapor 
bath is applied only to a particular part 
of the body, it is called a fumigation, or 
vapor douche. 

Warm Bath. {Bul'nenm cal'idum.*) 
Temperature from 92° to 9S° Fahr.; that 
is, about that of the body. 




Sanp Batii. (Bal'ncum are'nse*) 
This consists of an iron dish, containing 
fine sand, placed on a fire. A glass 
vessel may be immersed in this and 
gradually heated without danger of 

Batraehia. See Batraciiius. 

Bai'ra-ehite. [Batrachi'tes ; from 
fiuTpaxos, a "frog," and Ai'0oj, a "stone."] 
A stone like a frog; the toad-stone. 

Ba-tra'ehl-us."* [From fiarpaxos, a 
"frog."] Applied in the plural neuter 
(Batra'chia) to an order of Rcptilia: 

Bat'ra-ehoid. [Batrachoi'«les ; 
from PoTpaxo^, a "frog," and tl&os, a 
" form."] llesembling a frog. 

Bat'ra-ehus.* [Gr. j3drpaxog, a 

"frog."] The same as Ranula, which 

Bat'te-ry, E-lec'tric-al. A series 
of coated jars, or of pieces of copper and 
zinc, for producing electrical or electro- 
chemical action. 

Bat'tery, Gal-van'ie. A combina- 
tion of several pairs of zinc and copper 
plates soldered together, and so arranged 
that the same metal shall always be on 
the same side of the compound plate. 

Bauliin (bo'as '), Val'vule of. A 
valve in the caecum, whose office it is to 
prevent the return of the excrementi- 
tious matters from the caecum into the 
small intestine. The extremities of its 
two lips form rugae in the straight part 
of the caecum, called by Morgagni frvma 
of the valvule of Bauhtn. 

Baume, borne. The French for 
Balsam, which see. 

Baume de "Vie, bom deh ve. ("Balm 
of life.") The compound decoction of 

Bay Ber'ries. [Bac'ca? Ean'ri.] 
The berries of the Laurusnobilis, or Sweet 
Bay. A solid substance is extracted 
from them, called laurin, or camphor of 
the bay berry. 

Bay Oher'ry, Bay'rel. The 
Prunue laurocerasus. 

Bay Salt. Chloride of sodium, or com- 
mon salt, as obtained by solar evapora- 
tion on the shores of the Mediterranean. 

Btfella. See IIirudo. 

Bilel'li-um.* A name applied to 
two gum-resinous substances. One of 
these is the Indian bdellium, or false 
myrrh, procured from the Am'yris com- 
miphora. The other is called African 
bdellium, and is obtained from the Ileu- 
delo'tia Africa'na. 

Bdellometcr, dcl-lom'e-ter. [Bdel- 

lom'etrum; from (IfoWa, a "leech," 
and p.zTpov, a "measure."] An instru- 
ment intended as a substitute for the 

Bead'ed. [Granula'tus.] Applied 
to roots knotted, like beads strung closely 

Bead'-Proof. A term denoting the 
strength of spirituous liquors, as shown 
by the continuance of the bubbles or 
beads on the surface. 

Beak. [Ros'trnm.] The tubular 
portion of a retort. In Ornithology, the 
prolongation of the mouth, or substance 
investing the mandibles, almost alwa3 - s 
horny, and of various forms, according 
to the kind of food used by each species; 
the bill. 

Bean of St. Ignatius. See Strych- 
nos Igxatia. 

Beard'ed. [Barba'tns.] Having 
a beard, or some beard-like appendage. 

Bear's Ber'ry, Bear's Bil'ber-ry, 
Bear's Whor'tle-ber-ry. The Arc- 
tostaphylos uva ursi, formerly called 
Arbutus uva ursi. 

Be-bee-rin'. [Bebeeri'na.] A vege- 
table alkali discovered in the Bebeeru, 
or green-heart tree, of British Guiana. 

Bebeeru, or Bibiru, be-be'roo. A 
tree of British Guiana, the timber of 
which is known to wood-merchants by 
the name of Green-heart. It yields a 
substance, called bebeerin, of antipe- 
riodic properties. 

Becea-bun'ga.* [From the Ger- 
man Backbungen, "water-herb."] Spe- 
cific name of Veron'ica Bcceabun'ga. 

BecdeCuiller (Fr.),bek deh kwe'ya'. 
An instrument for extracting balls. 

Bee de Uevre. Sec Hare-Lip. 

Beehic, bek'ik. [Bech'ieus; from 
&n\, PnX^i, "cough."] Belonging to, or 
relieving, a cough. 

Bechiea,* bek'e-ka. [See preceding 
article.] A general term for medicines 
tending to relieve cough of any kind. 

Bedegar, or Bedeguar, bed 'e- gar. 
A remarkable gall, termed sircet-brier 
sponge, found on various species of Basa, 
and produced by the puncture of several 
species of insects, more especially the 
Cynipa Rosa. 

Beer. [Cerevi'sia; Fr. Cervoiae, 
seVvwaz'.] The fermented infusion of 
malted barley, flavored with hops. The 
term " beer" is also applied to beverages 
consisting of a saccharine liquor par- 
tially advanced into the vinous fermen- 
tation and flavored with peculiar sub- 
stances, as spruce-beer, ginger-beer, etc. 



Bees'tings. The first milk taken 
from the cow after calving. 

Bees" Wax. [Ce'ra.] Wax obtained 
from the comb of the Apis mellifica. See 

Bejyoniaceav* be-go-ne-a'she-e. A 
natural order of plants, mostly herba- 
ceous, found in the tropics, including 
the Begonia. They are prized for their 
showy flowers. 

Be-lem'nlte. [Belemni'tes; from 
QeXcjxvov, a "dart."] The arrow-stone, or 
fossil thunder-bolt; the petrified remains 
of certain sea-animals belonging to the 
same class with the Nautilus. They are 
slender, straight, and conical or sharp at 
one end. Often found in chalk. 

Bel-la-don'na. ;;: [It. a "handsome 
lady;" the juice being used as a cos- 
metic] The Pharmacopceial name (Br. 
Ph.) for the leaves of At'ropa belladon'na. 
It is a powerful narcotic. When applied 
to the eye, it has the remarkable property 
of greatly dilating the pupil. 

Bel-la-don '11% Fo'la-nm- ("Leaf 
of Belladonna"), and Belladonna* Ra'- 
dix* (" Root of Belladonna"). See Bel- 

Bell-JIet'al. An alloy of copper, 
zinc, and tin. used for bells, mortars, etc. 

Bellows*-Sonnd. See Bruit de 


Belly. See Abdomen, Alyus, Venter. 

Bel'o-noid. [Belonoi'des; from ! 
(t&ovrj, a "bodkin," and el6o;, a "form."] | 
Resembling a bodkin. Applied to pro- 
cesses of bone: styloid. 

Belvisiaeese,* bel-vis-e-a'she-e. 

[From Belvis'ia, one of the genera.] A 
natural order of exogenous plants, found 
only in Africa. It includes the Napo- 
leona imperial is. 

Belvisieae. See Belvisiaceje. 

Ben, Oil of. The expressed oil of 
Ben-nut, or the Morynga pterygo-sperma, 
remarkable for not becoming rancid for 
many years. 

Ben-e-dic'tns.* [From benedi'co, 
benedic'tum, to "bless."] Literally, 
"blessed." A term prefixed to compo- 
sitions and herbs on account of their 
supposed good qualities: thus, antimo- 
nial wine was termed benediction vinum, 

Ben'ja-min. A corruption of Ben- 
zoin. See Benzoinum. 

Benjamin Flow'ers. Benzoic acid. 

Benne leaves. See Sesamum. 

Benzine. Sec Mineral Turpentine. 

Ben'zo-ate. [Ben'zoas, aft'*.] A 
combination of benzoic acid with a base. 

Ben-zo'ie. [Benzo'icns.] Applied 
to an acid obtained from gum benzuin. 
Ben-zo-if 'e-ra.* [From benzo'inum, 

and fe'ro, to "bear."] A name applied 
to the tree commonly known as the 
Styrax benzoin. 

Benzoin. See Benzoinum. 

Ben'zo-in, Ben'zo-ine. I Itenzoi'- 
na.] A compound obtained from oil 
of bitter almonds. 

Ben-zo i-iiuin.* [Arab. Benzo'ah.] 
The Pharmacopceial name of gum ben- 
zoin ; obtained from the Styrax benzoin. 
It is a stimulant and expectorant. The 
inhalation of the vapor of benzoin has 
been recommended in chronic laryngitis. 

Berberacea?. See Berberidace.e. 

Berberidaeeae,*' ber-ber-e-da'she-e, 
or Ber-ber-id'e-a?.* A natural order 
of plants, named after the Berberis (Bar- 
berry, or Berberry), which is the most 
important genus it contains. 

Ber'ber-in. [Berberi'na.] An 
alkaline substance obtained from the 
Berberis vulgaris. 

Ber'g-a-mot. An essence prepared 
from the rind of the Citrus bergamia, 
otherwise called Citrus mella rosa. 

Bergmehl (Ger.), beRG'mal. Lite- 
rally, "mountain meal;" an earth, found 
in Sweden, resembling fine flour, and 
celebrated for its nutritious qualities. It 
is found to be composed entirely of the 
shells of microscopic animalcules. 

Beriberi, ba-re-ba're. A spasmodic 
rigidity of the lower limbs, etc.; an 
acute disease occurring in India, and 
commonly considered the same as Bar- 
biers, — but the latter is a chronic disease. 
The word beriberi is, in all probability, 
derived from the reduplication of the 
Hindoo word beri, sisrnifvins: irons or 
fetters fastened to the legs of criminals, 
elephants, etc. A person afflicted with 
this disease is literally "fettered." 

Berlin Bine. See Prfssian Blue. 

Ber'rj". A pulpy, indehiscent peri- 
carp, having the seeds scattered loosely 
in the pulp : as the grape, gooseberry, etc. 

Bertin (beR'taH*')* Spongy Bones 
of. Two small, triangular, turbinated 
bones, often found beneath the small 
opening of the sphenoidal sinus. 

Beryl. [Gr. (]>jp»\\o ; .] A variety of 
the emerald, a mineral or gem usually 
of a green color of various shades, pass- 
ing into honey-3'ellow and sky-blue. 
When colored green by oxide of chro- 
mium, it forms the true emerald, and 
when colorless and transparent, aqua- 





B£'tel. A famous masticatory em- 
ployed in the East, consisting chiefly 
of the areca, betel, or pinang nut, the 
produce of the Areca Catechu, or Catechu 
Palm. A portion of tlio nut is rolled up 
with a little lime in the leaf of the Piper 
betel, and the whole chewed. 

Betulacea?,* bet-u-la'she-e, Bet-u- 
lin'e-se.* [From bet'ula, a " birch- 
tree."] A natural order of trees, consist- 
ing of the various kinds of Birch and 
Alder. These trees formed part of the 
Jussieuan order Amentacese. 

Betulaceous, bet-u-la'shus, or 
Bet-u-Iin'e-ous. [Betula'ceus, Bet- 
ulin'eus: from bet'ula, the "birch- 
tree."] Having an arrangement as in 
the Betula. See Betulace^e. 

Be-zo'ar, or Be-zo'ard. [Pers. Pa- 
zahar ; from pa, "against," and zahar, 
a "poison."] A calculous concretion 
sometimes found in the stomach, in- 
testines, and bladder of certain land- 
animals, such as the ox, horse, deer. 
These concretions were formerly con- 
sidered to possess wonderful medicinal 
virtues, and to be completely efficacious 
not only against poisons, but also against 
pestilential and other diseases. 

Bez'o-ar'dics. A class of medicines 
supposed to possess virtues similar to 
those of the bezoar. 

Bhang, b'hang, or bang. The Can- 
nabis In'dica, or Indian Hemp. A plant 
common in India, containing powerful 
narcotic properties. It is used in various 
forms by the people of India for the 
purpose of intoxication. The tops and 
tender parts of the plant, when dried, 
constitute the hashish (ha-sheesh') of the 
Arabs. See Cannabis Indica. 

Bi-. [From bis, "twice."] A prefix 
in certain compound names, signifying 
two. or twice; as biceps, "two-headed." 

BIfo. = 2?t&e.* "Drink" (imperative 
mood of the verb bibo). 

Bi-ba'sio. [Bibas'icus ; from bi-, 
"two," and ba'sis, a" base."] Havingtwo 
basos. as the tartrate of potash and soda. 

Bib-i-to'rI-us.* [From hi' bo, bib'i- 
tum, to "drink."] A former name of 
the rectus iuternus oculi, from its drawing 
the eye inwards towards the nose, and 
thus directing it into the cup in drinking. 

Bib'u-Ious. [Bib'ulus; from bi'bo, 
to "drink."] Attracting moisture; ab- 

Bi-cap'su-lar. [Bieapsula'ris ; 
from bi-, "two," and cap' aula, a "cap- 
sule."] Having two capsules. 

Bi-car'bo-nate. [Bicarbo'nas, 


u'tisj from bi-, "two," and carbo'nas, a 
"carbonate."] Two equivalents of car- 
bonic acid combined with one of base. 

Bi-eau'dal. [Bicauda'lis; from 
bi-, "two," and cau'c/a, a "tail."] Hav- 
ing two tails. Applied to a muscle. 

Bj-£e-plia'li=iim.* [From bis, 

"twice" or "twofold," and Kctj,a\ij, the 
"head."] A large sarcoma on the head, 
as if another were grown upon it. 

Bi-?ep!i 'a-lous. [Biceph 'alii s ; 
from the same.] Having two heads. 

Bi'cops,* gen. Bi-eip'I-tis. [From 
bi-, "two," and ca'jjut, the "head."] 
Having two heads. Applied to a muscle 
of the arm, and to one of the thigh. 

Bichat (beVha/), Ca-ital' of. A 
small round hole above the pineal gland, 
opening into the third ventricle of the 
brain : called also the arachnoid canal. 

Bl-chlo'ride of Mer'cu-ry. Cor- 
rosive sublimate. 

Bi-cip'I-tal. [Bieipita'lis.] Be- 
longing to the biceps muscle. 

Bi-con'ju-g-ate. [Bicoiijug-a'tus ; 
from bi-, "two," and con'jugo, to "yoke 
together."] In pairs. 

Bi-cor'nous. [Bicor'nis; from bi-, 
"two,"andeo>-'m(,a"horn."] Two-horned. 

Bi-cns'pid, or Bl-cus'pi-date. [Bi- 
cus'pis, Bicuspida'tus; from hi-, 
"two," and ens'pis, the "point of a 
spear."] Having two points. See Tooth. 

Bi-den'tal. [Bi'dcits, cn'tis, Bi- 
denta'lis; from bi-, "two," and dens, a 
"tooth."] Having two teeth. 

Bl-den'tate. [Bidenta'tus; from 
the same.] Having two teeth. 

Bi-digl-tale. [Bidigita'tus : from 
bi-, "two," and diy'itus, a "finger."] 
Having two fingers. 

Bfi-dig*-I'li-I*in-na'lus.* [From the 
same, and pinna' tus, "pinnate."] Ap- 
plied to a pinnate leaf with two leaflets 
at the end of the common petiole. 

Bl-en'm-al. [Biennis; from bi- 
en'nium (fct-," two," and on'»»s,a" year"), 
the "space of two years."] Of two 
years' duration. 

BI-ftYri-oiis. [Bifa'rins; from bi-, 
"two," and/a'W, to "speak."] Having a 
double meaning; pointing two ways. 

Bifer-ous. [Bi'fer,Bif erns; from 
bi- for bis, " twice," and/e'/o, to " bear."] 
Bearing twice in the year. 

Bi'lid. [Bifidus: from bi-, "two," 
and Jin' do, to "cleave."] Divided into 
two : cleft. 

Bl-fio'rous, or Bl-flo'rate. [Bi- 
flo'rus; from bi-, "two," and flos, a 
"flower."] Having two flowers. 



Bi-fo'rate, or Bl-fo'rous. [Bifo- 
ra'tus, Biforus; from bi-, " two," and 
fo'res, a " door."] Having two entries 
or apertures. 

Bi-fur'cate. [Bifurca'tus: from&t-, 
"two," and fur'ca, a "fork."] Divided 
into two, like a fork. 

Bi-fur-ca'tion. [Bifurca'tio, o'nis; 
from the same.] A dividing into two, 
as a fork into its prongs. 

Bi-gas'ter.* [From bi-, "two," and 
yajrnp, the "belly."] The same as Bi- 


Bi-gem'I-nate. [Bigemina'tns; 

from bi-, and gem'ini, ft twins.''] Ap- 
plied in Botany to leaves having two 
secondary petioles, each of which has a 
pair of leaflets. 

Bijjfnoniaceav* big-no-ne-a'she-e. A 
natural order of plants, including the 
Bigno'nia (trumpet-flower) and Catalpa. 
Many of them are trees or twining 
plants remarkable for the beauty of 
their flowers. 

Bigriioniaceoiis, big-no-ne-a'shus. 
[Biguonia'ceus; from Bigno'nia, the 
"trumpet-flower."] Having an arrange- 
ment as in the Bignonia. See Bigxo- 

Bignonia?,* big-no'ne-e, the plural 
of Bigno'nia, forming the Jussieuan 
name of a natural order of plants. See 


Bi-ho'ri-us.* [From bi-, "two," and 

ho'ra. an " hour."] Enduring two hours. 

Bi'ju-jrate. [Bijuga'tus, or Bij'u- 

gus; from bi-, "two," and jn'gum, a 
"yoke."] Double-yoked; in two pairs. 

Bl'labe. [Bila'bium ,? probably from 
bis, "twice," or "two," and la'bium, a 
"lip."] An instrument for extracting 
foreign bodies of sufficiently moderate 
size from the bladder through the ure- 

Bi-la'bi-ate. [Bilabia'tus: from bi-, 
and labium, a "lip."] Hivin ; two lips. 

Bl-la-cin i-ate. [Bilacinia'tus ; 
from hi-, and lacinia'tus, "fringed."] 

Bi-lam'eMate. [Bilamella'tns ; 
from bi-, and lamella' tus, " having little 
plates."] Having two layers of little 

Bi-lat'er-al. [Bilaiera'lis; from 
bi-, and lateralis, "pertaining to the 
side."] Applied to leaves proceeding 
from different points as well as different 
sides, and so somewhat distinct from 

Bile. [Bi'lis, or Fel ; Gr. xoM ; Fr. 
Bile, bel, a/id Fid, fe-el'.] The gall, or 

peculiar secretion of the liver. It is a 
viscid fluid, of a greenish-yellow color, 
and exceedingly bitter, whence the pro- 
verb "bitter as gall." The bile or 
gall of the ox (bi'lis bovi'na) has often 
been used medicinally as a tonic and 
anthelmintic, and as a laxative in cases 
of deficient biliary secretion. It has also 
been supposed to possess great healing 
virtues when applied externally to bruises 
and other sores. 

Bil'ia-r5'. [Bilia'ris.] Belonging 
to the bile. 

Bi'lin, or BI line. [Bili'na; from 
bi'lis.] A gummy, pale-yellow mass, 
considered to be the principal constitu- 
ent of the bile. 

Bilious, bil'yus. [Bilio'sus; from 
bi'lis.] Having much bile, full of bile, 
or relating to the bile. 

Bil-I-pne'in. IJilipluri Ha: from 
bi'lis, and (paidi, "of a brown color."] 
The most important coloring matter of 
the bile. 

Bilis. See Bile. 

Bilis Atra. See Melancholia. 

Bi'lis Bo-vi'na.* The Latin term 
for ox's gall. See Bilis. 

Bil-I-ver'<liii. [Biliverdi'na; Fr. 
Bile, and vert, "green-color."] A green 
substance obtained from the yellowish 
coloring matter of bile. 

Bi-lo'bate. [From bi-, "two," and 
\o e j6$, a "lobe."] Having two lobes. 

Bi-loc'u-lar. [Bilocula'ris; from 
bi-, "two," and loc'ulus, a "little cell."] 
Having two cells. 

Bim'a-nous. [Bim'anns; from 
bi-, "two," and ma'nus, a "hand,"] 
Having two hands. Applied in the plu- 
ral neuter to an order of Mammalia, of 
which man constitutes the only genus. 

Bi-mes'iris. i: [From bi-, " two," 
and men' sis, a "month."] Of two 
months: two months old. 

Bin-. The same as Bi-, the n being 
added for the sake of euphony before a 
vowel ; as, biwoxalate. etc. 

Bi'na-ry. [Bina'rius; from b i'nus. 
"by couples."] Consisting of two, as 
two elements, two measures, etc. 

Bi'nate. [Biua'tus; from bi-, "two," 
and na'tus, "born," "produced."] Grow- 
ing in pairs or couples. 

Bi-ner'vate, Bi-ner'vl-ous. [Bi- 
ner'vatus, Biner'vius: from bi-, and 
ncrva'tus, "nerved."] Having two nerves. 

Bi-iioc'u-lar. [Binocula'ris; from 
bin-, "two," and oc'ulns, the "eye."] 
Having the use of both eyes. 

Bi-noc'u-lus.-* [From bin-, and oc'- 




ulus, the "eye."] Applied in Surgery 
to a bandage for maintaining dressings 
on both eyes. Also the name of an ani- 
mal resembling the king-crab. 

Bi-aaox'a-late. [Biaaox'alas, st'tis ; 
from bin-, " two," or ''twice," and ox' alas, 
an " oxalate."] A combination of an ex- 
cess of oxalic acid with a base. 

Bl-o-dyaa-aaaa'acs. [Biodyaaam'aca ; 
from pioi, "life," and dv-sapus, "power."] 
The doctrine or science of the vital 

Ba-ol'o-gy. [Biolo'gia; from fiiog, 
"life," and Aoyoj, a "discourse."] The 
doctrine or science of life. 

Bi-oi y-sis.* [From 0io s , " life," and 
"Xvco, to " dissolve," to "destroy."] The 
destruction of life. 

Bl-o-flyt'ic. [Biolyt'icus ; from the 
same.] Destroying or impairing life. 
Applied to agents of a deleterious 
quality, as the more powerful acids, 
narcotics, etc. 

Bi-o-aaaag-aae-tis'mias.* [From Plog, 
"life," and magnetis'mus, "magnetism."] 
Another name for animal magnetism. 

Hi-par 'tate. [Biparta'tias : from 
hi-, "two," and par'tio, to "divide."] 
Divided deeply into two. 

BI-pel'tate. [Bapel'tataas; from 
hi-, "two," and pcl'ta, a "target" or 
"buckler."] Having two shields. Ap- 
plied to a family of the Crusta'cea Sto- 

Bi'pes,* gen. Bip'ed-is. [From hi-, 
"two," and pes, a "foot."] Having two 
feet : bi'ped. 

Ba-piaa'aaate. [Bipaaaaaa'tMS : from 
hi-, "two," and pin'na, a "leaflet."] 
Having double leaflets. 

Ba-paaa-aaat'a-iid. [Bipiianatif- 
idias; from hi-, "two," and pinnatif'i- 
dus.] Doubly pinnatifid. 

Bird lame. [Vis'eias.] A glutinous 
substance prepared from the bark of the 
holly. It contains resin, which has been 
called viscina. 

Ba-ros'trate. [Birostra'tias, Bi- 
ros'tris; from hi-, and ros'trum, a 
"beak."] Having two beaks. 

Bi-sex'u-al. [Bisexua'lis; from 
hi-, and sexua'lis:'] Of both sexe-^. 

Bis. iml. — Bis in di'es.* "Twice 

Bis'imatla. [Basiaaia'tlaiaiaa. Ger. 
Ilis'iiiut.] A yellowish-white metal, found 
generally native or in the metallic state. 

Bis-ima'tlai Subaai'tras. See next 

Bis-iaau'tlaiaanArbiam.* The Phar- 
macopoeial name (Br. Ph.) of the tris- 

nitrate of bismuth ; flake-white, or pearl- 
white, sometimes called the subnitrate 
of bismuth (L'ismuthi subnitras). 

Bis-tor'ta,* or Bis tort. [From bis, 
"twice," and tor'qneo, to "twist:" so 
named from the form of the root.] See 
next article. 

Bas-tor'tae Ra'dix.* The root of 
the Polygonum bistorta, Great Bistort or 

Bistoury, bis'tur-e. [Fr. Bistouri ; 
from Pistori, a town where it was manu- 
factured.] A small knife, or scalpel, for 
surgical purposes. There are the straight, 
the curved, and the probe-pointed, which 
is also curved. 

Bis'tre. A brown color, made of 
wood-soot boiled and evaporated. Beech- 
soot is said to make the best. 

Ba-sial'plaate. [Bisul'phas, si'tis; 
from hi-, "two," and sul'phasj] A com- 
bination of two equivalents of sulphuric 
acid with one of the base. 

Ba-sial 'pltate. [Bisaal'plais, i'tis; 
from hi-, "two," and sul'phis.~\ A com- 
bination of two equivalents of sulphur- 
ous acid with one of the base. 

Bl-tar'triite. [Bitar tras, n'tis; 
from hi-, and tar'tras.] A supersalt with 
twice as much tartaric acid as the corre- 
sponding neutral salt. 

Ba-ter'nate. [Bitea'aaa'tias ; from 
bin, "twice," and tema'tus.] Twice ter- 
nate, or doubly threefold. 

Bit'ter Almonds. Wafer of, or 
Bit'tea* Alaaa'oaad Wafer. [A'qua 
Amyg-'dala? Ama'ra\ or A'qiaa 
Aaaaygdala'nim Ama'riaiaa.] In this 
preparation there are sixteen minims of 
the oil of bitter almonds to two pints of 
water, or half a minim to a fluidounce. 
It is employed as a vehicle for other 
medicines in nervous coughs and spas- 
modic affections. 

Bit'ter Apple, Bit'ter Caa'ciam- 
bea% Bit'tea* Gotard. The plant and 
ffuit of Cueurrrie eoloeynthis. 

Bit'ter Priaa'ea-ple. A peculiar 
principle, on the presence of which the 
bitter quality of certain vegetables de- 
pends ; as in the wood of quassia, gen- 
tian root, the hop, etc. 

Bitter-Sweet. The Solaxum Dul- 
camara, which see. 

Bit'ter-iaag-. Corruptly called Bit- 
tern. A preparation for adulterating 
beer, composed of Cocculus Indicus, liq- 
uorice, tobacco, quassia, and sulphate of 
iron or copperas. A similar preparation 
is sold under the name of "bitter balls." 

Bit'teraa. The water remaining after 



the crystallization of common salt from 
sea-water or salt springs. 

Bit'ters. [Ania'ra.] A term ap- 
plied to several medicinal substances, 
expressing their quality as particularly 
perceptible to the taste, and which are 
further distinguished into aromatic, pure, 
and styptic bitters. 

Bl-tu'men, minis.* [As if pittn 1 'men ; 
from xirra, "pitch."] A name for cer- 
tain inflammable mineral substances, of 
different consistencies ranging from fluid 
to solid. 

Bitu'men Bar-foa-den'se.* The 
Petroleum of the Pharmacopoeias (Lond. 
and Ed.), or "Barbadoes Tar." 

Bi-tii'miii-I-za'tion. [Bitumini- 
za'tio, o'nis.] The transformation of 
organic matter into bitumen, as wood 
into coal, and the remains of vegetable 
substances into peat. 

Bi-tu'min-ous. [Bitumino'sus; 
from bitu'men.] Of the nature of bitu- 

Bi'valve. [Bival'vis; from bi-, and 
val'ra, a "valve."] Having two valves. 

Bi-ven'ter.* [From bi-, and ven'ter, 
the "belly."] Double-belly. A faulty 
term used for Dijaatricus ; also called 

Bixacese,* bix-a'she-e. A natural 
order of tropical trees and shrubs, in- 
cluding the Bixa, which produces arnotto 
or annotto, used to c dor cheese. 

Black Death. [Lat. Mors Xi'g^ra, 
or Pes'tis Ni'gra; Fr. Peste Noir, pest 
nwk.] The name given in Germany 
and the North of Europe to an Oriental 
plague which occurred in the fourteenth 
century, characterized by inflammatory 
boils and black spots on the skin, indi- 
cating putrid decomposition. In Italy 
it was called la mortalega grande, "the 
great mortality." In many of its cha- 
racters this pestilence resembled the 
present bubo plague, complicated with 
pneumonia and haemorrhages. 

Black Draught. A popular purga- 
tive, consisting of the infusion of senna 
with sulphate of magnesia. 

Black Drop. [Gut'tae Xi'grse. 
Literally, "black drops."] A solution 
of opium in verjuice, corresponding 
nearly in its medicinal properties to the 
Acetwn Opii of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. 
One drop of this solution is equal to 
about three of laudanum. It is less apt 
to disturb or excite the nervous system 
than the latter preparation. See U. S. 
Pharmacopoeia, page 67. 

Black Flux. A mixture of charcoal 

and carbonate of potash, obtained by, 
deflagrating tartar with half its weight 
of nitre. 

Black ILead. Sec Plumbago. 

Black Voin'it. [Vom'itus Xi'ger.] 
The throwing up, in certain fevers, of a 
dark-colored fluid resembling coffee- 
grounds. This fluid consists chiefly of 
blood changed by the morbid secretions 
of the stomach. It is one of the most 
fatal symptoms attending j'ellow fever, 
which in Spanish is often called simply 
El vom'ito ("the vomit"), or El vom'ito. 
ne'gro ("the black vomit"). 

Black Wash. [Lotto Xi'gra, or 
Lio'tio Mydrar'gyri Xi'gra.] A lo- 
tion made with calomel in lime-water, 
much used for syphilitic sores. 

Blatl'iler. [Vesi'ca.] Generally, 
the receptacle of the urine in man and 
other animals. Applied in Botany and 
Natural History to various objects and 
productions of similar appearance, as 
those of sea -wrack, the air-bag of 
fishes, etc. 
Blad'der-Fu'cus.Blad'der- Wrack. 
The Fucus vesieitlnsus. 

Blad'der, Gall. See Gall-Bladder. 

Bladder. Urinary. See Urinary 

Bladdery Fever. [Fe'eris Bul- 
lo'sa.] See Pemphigus. 

Bkes'I-tas, a'tis* [From (3\aio6i, 
"one who has crooked legs;" also "one 
who stammers."] The defect of speech 
termed stuttering or stammering. Some 
writers understand by it the substitution 
of soft consonants for hard, — as d for t, 
b for p, etc. See Psellismus. 

Blain. A pustule, blotch, or sore. 
See Chilblain. 

Blanc de Troyes, blox° deh trwa. 
Spanish "White, prepared chalk, or the 
Cre' ta pr&para' ta of the Pharmacopoeias. 

Blas-te'ma. ar/s.* [From pXauravco. 
to "germinate."] A term applied to the 
rudiinental mass of an organ in the pro- 
cess of formation. 

Blas'to-denn. [Blastoder'nia, 
B.tis ; from pXaaravo, to "germinate," 
and 6ipna, the "skin."] A minute, thin 
membrane on that surface of the yelk 
which, whatever be the position of the 
egg, is. b} r apeculiar arrangement, always 
uppermost ; the germinal membrane, or 

Blas-to-der'miic. [Blastoder'- 

micus.] Belonging to the blastoderm. 

Blastodermic Ves'I-cle. [Vesic'- 
ula Blastoder'mica.] A distinct en- 
velope immediately surrounding the 




yelk, and covered by the vitelline mem- 
brane; afterwards called the umbilical 

Blas-to-gen'e-sis.* [From .tfAaord?, 
a "sprout," and yivtaa;, "generation."] 
The multiplication of plants by means 
of buds. 

Bleach. [From the German blei'chen, 
to "whiten."] To whiten by the re- 
moval of, or by changing the nature of, 
the coloring matter in any substance. 
See next article. 

Bleaching". [Dealba'tio; from de, 
intensive, and id' bus, "white."] The 
chemical process of whitening linen or 
woollen stuffs. Linen is usually bleached 
by means of chlorine or a solution of 
chloride of lime. Woollen stuffs are 
bleached by exposure to the vapor of 
sulphurous acid. 

Bleach'ing Pow'per. Chloride of 
lime, formerly called oxymuriate of lime; 
prepared by exposing hydrate of lime 
gradually to chlorine gas. 

Bleach'ixg Liq'uid. [Fr. Eau de 
Javelle, o deh zha'vell'.] This is the 
preceding compound obtained in solution 
by transmitting a stream of chlorine gas 
through hydrate of lime suspended in 

Blear'-Eye. A chronic catarrhal in- 
flammation of the eyelids. 

Bleb. See Bulla. 

Bleeding. See Blood-Letting, 


Blende, blend. [Perhaps from the 
Saxon lien' dan, to "mix together."] 
The native sulphm-et of zinc in black 
crystals, and called by miners blackjack. 
The term is sometimes applied to other 
ores as manganese blende, etc. 

Blennad-e-ni'tis, ldi«.* [From 
(3\ii>va, "mucus," and adeni'tis.} Inflam- 
mation of mucous glands. 

Bleniie-lyt'ri-a.* [From (i\iwa, 
"mucus," and IXvrpov, a "sheath."] Same 
as Leucorrhcea. 

Blennen-te'rl-a.* [From 0\ivva, 
"mucus," and IvTtpov, an "intestine."] 
Mucous flow from the intestines. 

Blenno-sen'ic. [Blennogen'i- 
cns; from ftXtwa, "mucus," and ytwato, 
to "generate."] Generating mucus; 

Rlen-no&'e-nns.* The same as 
B u:\NOc.t: Nic. whir-h see. 

Blenno-ine-tri'tis, itfia.* [From 
(i\Li>va, "mucus," and metri'th.'] Mucous 
flow accompanying Metritis. 

Blennopli-tlial'mi-a.* [From 

fi\ii>va, "mucus," and ophthal'mia.] In- 

flammation of the mucous membrane of 
the eye. 

Blen-nor-rha'£i-a.* [From (l\kvva, 
"mucus," and pnyvvyn, to "break" or 
"burst."] Literally, a "bursting forth 
of mucus :" hence, an excessive discharge 
of mucus, or muco-purulent matter, 
more especially from the genital organs. 

Blennorrhoea,* blen-no-re'a. [From 
(i\kwa, "mucus," and piuy, to "flow."] A 
flowing, or excessive secretion, from mu- 
cous glands in any situation; sometimes 
applied to the increased secretion in the 
urethra and vagina of an infectious 
purulent or muco-purulent discharge, 
and called Gonorrhoea. See Baptor- 

Blennorrhce'aChron'I-ca.* Gleet ; 
also named Catarrhus urethra lis. 

Blennorrhoe'a Simplex. 5 In- 
creased secretion of mucus from the 

Blen-ny'mcn, en?V* [From (3\hva, 
"mucus," and vpfiv, a "membrane."] A 
mucous membrane. 

Blen-ny'me-ni'tis, idis* [From 
ft\twa, "mucus."] Inflammation of a 
mucous membrane. 

Blephar-ade-ni'tis, idis* [From 
p\cipupoi>, the " eyelid," and dd>jv, a 
"gland."] Inflammation of the Meibo- 
mian glands. 

Bleph'ar-i'tis, idis* [From @\t<pa- 
pov, the "eyelid."] Inflammation of the 

Bleph'ar-on'cns.* [From p\c<papoi>, 
the "eyelid," and dytcos, a "tumor."] A 
tumor on the eyelid. 

Bleph'ar-oph-thaI'mi-a.* [From 
fiXiipapor, the "eyelid," and 6<j>Qa\pia, "in- 
flammation of the eve."] Inflammation 
of the eve and eyelids coexisting. 

Blephar-oph-thal'mic. [Bleph- 
arophthal'inicus.] Belonging to 
Blepharophthalm ia. 

Bleph'ar-o-plas'tic. [Blcph'aro- 
plas'ticus.] Belonging to blepharo- 

Blcph'ar-o-plas-ty. [Blepharo- 
plas'tia; from px^apov, the "eyelid," 
and nXaaacj, to "form."] An operation 
for repairing any lesion of the eyelids, 
by taking a flap from the sound parts 

Blephar-o-ple'£i-a.* [From fi\hpa- 
pov, the "eyelid," and irXnyii, a "stroke."] 
The falling down of the upper eyelid 
from paralysis. 

Blcpha-rop-to'sis.* [From Q\ipa- 
pov, the "eyelid," and nr&atq, a "falling."] 
The same as Blepharoplegia. 



Blessed. See Benedictus. 

Bliglit. bllt. The popular name of a 
slight palsy, caused by sudden cold or 
damp. "Blight in the eye*' is another 
term for catarrhal ophthalmia. 

Blindness, Bay. See Nyctalopia. 

Blindness, Xiglit; Blindness, 
Nocturnal. See Hemeralopia. 

Blister. [Lat. Vesic'ula: Fr. Vcssie, 
ves 'se'.] A collection of serous fluid 
beneath the cuticle. In common lan- 
guage, the plaster itself [Lat. Vesica- 
to'rinni; Fr.Vesicatoire, va'se'ka'tw&R'] 
which produces the blister. See Bulla. 

Blister-Bee' tie, Blister-Fly. See 

Blis'tered. See Bullatus. 

Blis'ters, Flying;. [Fr. Vesicatoires 
volants, va'ze'ka'twaR' voIon '.] A mode 
of treatment employed by the conti- 
nental practitioners for the purpose of 
insuring a more diffusive counter-irrita- 
tion. According to this plan, the blister 
remains only till it produces a rubefa- 
cient effect; a second blister is then ap- 
plied to some other part, and so on in 

Blood. [Lat. San 'gruis. inta ,• Gr. alfia ; 
Fr. Sang, son .] The red fluid which 
circulates through the cavities of the 
heart, the arteries and veins. Every 
organ of the body, and every tissue, is 
nourished by the blood, which is also 
the source of every secretion. It is red 
and usually warm in vertebrated ani- 
mals, but cold and white for the most 
part in the Tnvertebrata. 

Blood contains albumen in three states 
of modification : — viz., albumen prop- 
erly so called, fibrin, and red particle*. 
On coagixlation it separates into — 

Sb'rum.* A yellowish liquid, contain- 
ing albumen and various saline matters 
suspended in water; and 

Crassamex'tlm. - called also Cru'or.- 
A red solid, consisting of fibrin and red 

Blood '-"Let-ting;. [Jlis'sio San'- 
g;ninis, or Betrae'tio Sanguinis.] 
A term embracing every artificial dis- 
charge of blood for the cure or preven- 
tion of disease. It is general, as in vene- 
section and arteriotomy, or topical, as 
in the application of leeches, cupping- 
glasses, or by Beatification. 

Blood'-Shot. A distension or preter- 
natural fulness of the blood-vessels of 
the eye, from inflammation or other 
cause. See Hyperemia. 

Blood'stone. [Hamiati'tes.] A 

6pecies of chalcedony supposed to be 


useful in stopping a bleeding from the 

Blood-Stroke. See Corp de Saxg. 

Bloody Flux. See Dysentery. 

Blossom. See Corolla. 

Blow -Pipe. A simple, tapering, 
tube-like instrument of silver or brass, 
used for the purpose of inflation: also 
for directing a stream of air into the 
flame of a lamp, which thus assumes a 
conical form, at the point of which the 
heat is equal to that of a powerful fur- 

The oxy-hydrogen bbnr-pipe is an ap- 
paratus for producing intense heat, by 
supplying a stream of hydrogen with 
pure oxygen, so that the two gases issue 
together in the form of a jet from the 
nozzle of the blow-pipe. The heat pro- 
duced by this apparatus (which is also 
called the compound bloio-pipe) is so in- 
tense as to quickly fuse substances com- 
pletely infusible by any other means 
except a powerful galvanic battery or a 
very large burning lens. 

Bine Blaek. Another name for 
ivory-black, or the ebur ustumj from its 
bluish hue. 

Blue Disease. [3Ior'bas Caeru'- 
leus.] See Cyanosis. 

Blue John. A name given by miners 
to fluor spar; also called Derbyshire 

Blue Mass. [Mas'sa de Ilydrar- 
g'yro.j A substance formed by rub- 
bing metallic mercury with conserve 
of roses until all the globules disappear. 
Of this mass blue pills are made. This 
is regarded as one of the mildest prepa- 
rations of mercury. See Pilule 11 y- 


Blue Oint'ment. The Unguentum 

Blue Pills. The Pilulie hydrargyri. 
See Blue Mass. 

Blue Pot. Another term for a black- 
lead crucible, made of a mixture of 
coarse plumbago and clay. 

Blue, Prussian. See Prussian 

Blue Stone. Blue Vit'ri-ol. [Ca?- 
ru'leus J,a'pis.] The sulphate of cop- 
per (Sulphas cupri). 

Blunt Hook. [Embryul'cns.] An 
instrument used in Obstetrical Surgery. 

B. 51. — Bui' neum mari'te.* A " water- 

Boat-Shaped. See Navicular and 
Sc lphoib. 

Bod'5 r . [Lat. Cor pus. Corporis; 
Gr. cZua ; Fr. Corp*, kou.] Any mass 



or portion of matter. In a more re- 
stricted sense, the material part of man 
or of any animal, considered separately 
from the soul or life. The term is 
often employed synonymously with 

Bog-Bean'. The common name for 
Jfenyun'thes trifolia'ta. 

Bo-hea'. The The' a ni'gra, or black 

Bo'huii IT 'pas. A bitter gum-resin 
which exudes from incisions in the bark 
of a large tree, in Java and the neigh- 
boring islands, called Antiar, or Antikar, 
by the Javanese; the Antiaria toxicaria, 
or Ipo toxicaria, of botanists. It is a 
deadly poison. 

Boil. See Furuncultjs. 

Boiling; Point of Wa'ter, near the 
level of the sea, is 212° of Fahrenheit; 
in vacuo, 67°; under sufficient pressure, 
water may be raised almost to a red 
heat. According to the Centigrade ther- 
mometer, the boiling point is 100°; ac- 
cording to Reaumur's, 80°. 

Bois, bwa., the French word for 
"wood:" hence Bois Anier, bw&z &'- 
main' ("bitter wood"), another name 
for Quassia, which see. 

Bois de Campechc, bw& deh koM*- 
pesh'. ("Campeachy Wood.") A name 
for Logwood. See H^ematoxylum. 

Bol. — Bolus.* See Bolus. 

Bole. See Bolus. 

Bo-le'tate. [Bole'tas, a'//s.] A 
combination of boletic acid with a base. 

Bo-let'ic Ac'id. An acid discovered 
in the Boletus pseudo-igniarius. 

Bo-le'tus.* [From 0(o\o$, a "mass."] 
A kind of fungus referred to the genus 
I/y coper don. 

Bole'tus Ig--ni-a'rl-us.* [From 
ig'nis, "fire;" because often used as 
tinder.] The agaric of the oak, or 
touchwood. See Agaricus Quercus. 

Bole'tus Pur'gans.* Larch agaric; 
formerly employed as a drastic purga- 

Bolus.* [Gr. #3Aof, a "lump" or 
"mass."] Any roundly-formed medi- 
cine, larger than an ordinary-sized pill, 
yet small enough to be swallowed. A 
kind of argillaceous earth: bole. 

Bolus Armenia?. See Armenian 


Bombaeea?,* bom-ba'she-e. [From 
Bom'bax, the "cotton-tree."] A natural 
order of trees, including the gigantic 
Baobab and cotton-tree of India. They 
grow in tropical countries. The cotton 
of the Bombax is too short for textile 

tissues. This order is called Stercullacese 
by Lindley. 

Bom'bax, a'c/s.* A Linnaean genus 
of the class Monadclphia, natural order 
Bombacete. The cotton-tree. 

Bom'bi-ate. [Bom bias, a'tis.] A 
combination of bombic acid with a base. 

Bom'bic. [Bom'bieus; from 06 u - 
$v\, a "silk-worm."] Pertaining to the 

Bom'bic Ac'id. An acid obtained 
from the silk-worm chrysalis. 

Bom'bus.* [Gr. /fy^o f , the "buzz- 
ing of bees."] A ringing noise in the 
ears; also, the sound of flatus moving 
through the intestines. See Tinnitus 
Aurium, and Borborygmus. 

Bone. [Lat. Os,Os'sis; Gr. oareov; Fr. 
Os, o.] A substance consisting chiefly 
of phosphate of lime and gelatine, form- 
ing the solid frame-work or skeleton in 
vertebrated animals. See Osteology, 
and Skeleton. 

Bene'-Bind-cr. The Osteocolla. 

Bone Earth. Phosphate of lime; 
the earthy basis of the bones of ani- 

Bone Spir'it. A brown, ammoniacal 
liquor, obtained in the process of manu- 
facturing animal charcoal from bones. 

Bon-plan dl-a Tri-fo-II-a'ta.* 

[Named from M. Bonpland, the dis- 
coverer.] The former name of the tree 
affording Augustura bark, now referred 
to the Oah'pea cusparia. 

Bo-rac'ic Ac'id. An acid obtained 
from borax. 

Boraginacea?,* bo-raj -e-na'she-e. A 
natural order of plants, comprising the 
Borage {Bora' go, Bora'ginis), and pos- 
sessing mucilaginous and emollient pro- 

Bo-ra-g-in'e-av* The Jussieuan 
name of an order of plants. See Bo- 


Bo'rate. [Bo'ras, a'ttsy from bo- 
rac'icum ac'idum.] A combination of 
boracic acid with a base. 

Bo'rax, a'cw.* The Pharmacopoeial 
name (Br. Ph.) for the borate of soda 
(So'da Bo'rax), otherwise called bibc rate 
of soda (So'dse Bibo'ras). Borax is a mild 
refrigerant and diuretic; in the form of 
powder mixed with sugar, it is often 
used as a remedy for aphtha; in chil- 

Bor-bo-ryg*'"»us.* [From Bopftofilbt, 
to "produce a rumbling in the bowels."] 
The gurgling noise produced by the 
movements of flatus in the intestines. 

Borne-en. The name given to a 



compound of carbon and hydrogen found 
in valeric acid, and which, on exposure 
to moisture, acquires the properties of 
Borneo camphor : it is supposed to be 
identical with liquid camphor. The 
camphor itself has been named borneol ; 
and it is converted by the action of 
nitric acid into laurel camphor. 

Bor'ne-o Camphor, called also 
Sumatra Camphor. A crystalline solid 
found in crevices of the wood of the 
Dryobal'anops aromat' ica. 

Boron. [Bo'rium.] The base of 
boracic acid. 

B6r'u-ret. [Borure'tum; from 
bo'mn.] A combination of boron with 
a simple body. 

Bos-op'ric Ac/id. A strong, color- 
less acid, procured from fresh cow-dung, 
of great efficacy in purifying mordanted 
cotton. A better term would be bucopric 

Bos-wel'H-a Ser-ra'ta.* The tree 
believed to afford Olibanum. 

Botal's Hole. [Foramen Bota'le.] 
See Foramen' Ovale. 

Bot-an-ol'o-gry. [Botanolo'gia ; 
from (io-avfi, an "herb," and Aoyo;, a 
"discourse."] The science of plants; 
the same as Botany. 

Bot'a-ny. [Botan'ica; from 3oravf\, 
an "herb."] That branch of Natural 
History which treats of plants, or of the 
vegetable kingdom. 

Both-ri-o-ceph'a-lus.* [From /3<>9- 
pio», a "little pit," and KspaXij, the 
"head."] Another name for the T.enia 
Lata, which see. 

Bot'ry-oid. [Botryoi'des ; from 
06rn\>g, a "cluster of grapes."] Resembling 
a cluster of grapes. 

Bot-ry-oid'al. The same as Bot- 
ryoid, which see. 

Bottle-Shaped. See Lagex.efor- 

Botts. Small worms which breed in 
the intestines of horses : they are the 
larvae of the CEstrus, or gadfly, which 
deposits its eggs on the hair of the horse, 
and by the licking of the animal they 
are swallowed. 

Bot-u-lin'ic [from bot'ulus, a "sau- 
sage"] Ac/ id. An acid found in putrid 
sausages, supposed to be the same prin- 
ciple as Allavtotoxicim. 

Bousrie ( Fr.), boo'zhe'. [A "wax can- 
dle," from their having formerly been 
sometimes made of wax.] A slender 
ins r rument for introduction into the 
urethra; also, stronger, for the rectum, 
vagina, and a-onphagu*. 

Bongfie', Armed, or Bougie', Cans'- 
tic. A bougie with a piece of lunar 
caustic fixed in its extremity. 

Bouillon (Fr.), boo'yixo'. A broth 
or soup made by boiling the flesh of 
animals in water. 

Bo-vi'na Fames.* Tho disease 
Bulimia, which see. 

Brac'cate. [Bracea'tns; from 
brac'ca, "breeches."] Having breeches. 

Bra-che'rI-um.* [From bra'chium, 
the " arm."] See Sibligamex. 

Brach-I-aVus.* Same as Br actual. 

Bra'chi-al. [Brachia'lis ; from 
bra'chium, the "arm."] Belonging to 
the arm. 

Brach-I-al'gi-a.* [From bra'chium, 
the "arm," and aXyo;, "pain."] Pain of 
the arm, or of any part of it. 

Bra'chi-ate. [Bracnia'tus; from 
bra' eh ium, the " arm."] Having branches 
in pairs at right angles with those above 
and below. 

Bra'chi-o-. [From the same.] A 
prefix in compound names of vessels, 
ligaments, etc., connected with the arm. 

Brachiopoda. See Brachiopodous. 

Bra-chi-op'o-dous. [Brachiop'- 
odus; from (ipaxiuv, an "arm," and 
n-ouj. a "foot."] Applied in the plural 
neuter ( Brachiop' oda) to a class of Jfol- 
huea with two fleshy arms instead of feet. 

Bra'chl-um.* [Gr. ppaxiw, Fr. 
Bras, bra.] The arm, from shoulder to 
wrist; strictly, from the shoulder to the 
elbow, forming the proper arm. 

Bra-chyp'ter-us.* [From t3pa\v;, 
"short," and irrtpov, a "wing."] Bra- 
chyp'terous. Applied in the neuter plural 
(Brachyp'tera) to a family of birds with 
small wings, 

Brach-y-n'rns.* [From 0pa\vs, and 
ovpl, a "tail."] Having a short tail; 
brachyu'rous. Applied in the plural 
neuter (Brachiu'ra) to a family of Crus~ 
tacea Decapoda. 

Brac'te-a,* plural Brac'te-a*. A 
Latin term, denoting a thin leaf or plate 
of any metal. It is applied in Botany 
to all those modifications of leaves which 
are found upon the inflorescence and 
are situated between the true leaves and 
the calyx of the flower. They compose 
the invohicrum of Compositae, the glumes 
of Gramineoe. the spathea of Arum, etc. 

Brac'te-ate. [Bractea'tus; from 
brae' tea.] Having floral leaves. 

Brac-te'I-form. [Bractcifor mis ; 
from brac'tea.] Resembling: a floral leaf. 

Brac'te-ole. [Braete'ola; diminu- 
tive of brae' tea.'] A little floral loaf. 




Brac-te'o-late. [Bracteola'tus.] 

Having bracteoles. 

Brad-j'-sper-ma-tis'mus.* [From 
Ppaovs, u slow," and a-ipjia, " seed."] Too 
slow emission of the semen : bradysper'- 

Brain. A word generally denoting 
the whole nervous mass within the 
cranium, or skull. See Cerebrum. 

Brain, Little. See Cerebellum. 

Bran. See Furfur Tritici. 

Branch. [Lat.Ra'mus; Fr. Branchc, 
broxsh.] In Anatomy, applied to the 
several portions of blood-vessels, etc., as 
they divide, like the branches of a tree. 

Branched. See Ramos us. 

Branchia. See next article. 

Branchiae,* brank'e-e. [Gr. Ppay- 
X<a.] The gills, or breathing apparatus, 
in fishes, analogous to the lungs of land- 
animals. Also, the organs of respiration 
in Mollusca, Crustacea, and some Reptilia. 

Branchiopoda. See Braxchiopo- 

Braiich-X-op'o-dus.* [From Ppay- 
Xia, " gills," and nov;, a " foot."] Applied 
in Zoology to an order (Branckiopoda, 
brank'e-op'o-da) of Crustacea Entomos- 
tracn, in which the branchiae constitute 
part of their feet. 

Braneh-i-os'te-gal. [Branchios- 
tega'lis; from ppayxta, "gills," and 
cTtycj, to "cover."] Covering the gills. 
Applied in Comparative Anatomy to 
appendages of the hyoid and scapular 

Branch-I-os'te-ons. [Branchi- 
os'teus; from fipayxia, "gills," and 
ootzov, a "bone."] Having gills wiih 
bony rays. 

Bran'dy. [Lat.Vi'nnm Adns'tnm, 
or A'qua "Vi'ta^; Fr. Eau de Vie, 6 deh 
v&; Ger. Branntwein, brant' win, lite- 
rally, "burnt wine."] The spirit dis- 
tilled from wine ; one of the most popu- 
lar forms in which alcoholic spirit is 

Bras. See Brachium. 

Brasquc, brask. A French term 
used by metallurgists to denote the 
lining of a crucible or a furnace with 

Brass. [Lat. yEs, iE'ris; Fr. Airain, 
a'raar*'.] An alloy of copper and zinc. 
Common brass consists of three parts 
of copper and one of zinc. 

Brassicacoav* bras-se-ka'she-e. A 
name given by Lindley to an order of 
plants, including mustard, cabbage, etc. 

Brayera. Sec Kousso. 

Bra-zil'-Xut. A triangular nut 

growing in Brazil; the fruit of the 
Bertholle'tia excel' sa, or cream-nut. 
Brazil-Root. [Radix Brazilian'. 

sis.] A name sometimes given to the 
root of the Ipecacuanha. 

Brazil'-Wood. The wood of the 
Csesalpi'na Brazilien' sis, which yields a 
red coloring matter used by dyers. 

Braz-i-let'to. An inferior species 
of Brazil-wood, brought from Jamaica. 
It is one of the cheapest and least es- 
teemed of the red dye-woods. 

Bread-Frnit Tree. The Artocarpus 
incisa, a tree of the order Urticacese. 
It has broad, lobed leaves and large, 
globular heads of fruit. " This fruit is 
to the inhabitants of Polynesia what corn 
is to the inhabitants of other parts of 
the world." — (Hoblyx.) 

Break-Bone Fever. See Dexgue. 

Breast. The mamma of females ; the 
mammilla of males ; also, popularly, the 
thorax, or chest. See Pectus. 

Breast-Bone. See Sternum. 

Breast-Pump. The same as Axtlia 

Breath. [Hal'itus and Spir'itus.] 
The air received and discharged by ex- 
pansion and contraction of the lungs. 

Breccia, bret'eha. [It. a "frag- 
ment."] Rock with fragmentary struc- 
ture, the agglomerated grains of which 
are angulous fragments with sharp edges. 

Brecciolar, bretch'o-lar. [Brec- 
ciola'ris.] Applied to rocks having 
various bodies in their paste or sub- 

Bredonillement (Fr.), breh-dool'- 
moN '. A defective utterance, in which 
onty a part of the words is pronounced. 
It differs from stammering in being 
produced solely by a too great rapidity 
of speech. 

Breg-'ma, Otis* [From fipixu, to 
"moisten:" so named because it was 
deemed to cover the most humid part 
of the brain.] An anatomical term for 
the sinciput, or top of the head. Seo 

Breph-o-tro'phi-uni.* [From 

fipipo;, an "infant," and rptyw, to "nou- 
rish."] A foundling-hospital. 

Bres'lau Fe'ver. An epidemic 
which broke out in the Prussian army at 
Breslau in the middle of the last century, 
and which has been named by Sauvages 
Tritseoph ia Vratialavienais. 

Brev-I-pen'nate. [Brevipen'nis ; 
from bre'rix, "short," and pen'na, a 
"wing."] Short-winged. A term applied 
to certain birds. 



Bre-vis'sl-mns ©c'n-li.* [From 
bre'cis, "short," and oc'ulua, the '"eye."] 
A synonym of the obliquus inferior, 
from its being the " shortest [muscle] of 
the eye." 

Brexiacea*,* brex-e-a'she-e. A natu- 
ral order of trees, allied to the Saxifrages, 
with coriaceous leaves and green flowers. 
It includes the genus B rex 'ia, which is a 
native of Madagascar. 

Brez'i-lin. The name applied to 
the coloring matter of Brazil-wood ob- 
tained from several species of Csesalpinia. 

Brick lay-er's Itoli. A species of 
local tetter, or impetigo, produced on 
the hands of bricklayers by the contact 
of lime. 

Brighfs Dis-ease'. [Morbus 
Brigh'tii.] A genus or group of dis- 
eases of the kidney, first described by 
Dr. Bright. See Nephritis. 

Brimstone. [Perhaps a corruption 
of Brenstone, or Burnstone, referring to 
its great combustibility.] A name for 
sulphur. The sublimed sulphur of the 
Pharmacopoeia is termed jloicers of brim- 
atone or of sulphur. 

Brise-pierre, bRez' pe-aiii'. [From 
the French briser, to "break," and 
pierre, a "stone."] An instrument for 
creaking stones in the bladder. See 

Brit ish Gam. A term applied to 
starch when reduced to a gum-like state 
by exposure to heat. It then becomes 
of a brown color, and in that state is 
employed by calico-printers. 

Brit ish Oil. An artificial prepara- 
tion, composed as follows : — camphor, 
one ounce ; rectified spirits of wine, four 
ounces ; sweet oil, twelve ounces : oil of 
hartshorn, five ounces: boiled together. 
This name is also given to the O'leum 
Pe'trse Vubja're, or common oil of petre, 
a variety of petroleum. 

Bro'cll-um.* A term synonymous in 
Pharmacy with jusculum, or broth, the 
liquor in which any thing is boiled ; as 
bro'dium sa'lis, a decoction of salt. 

Bro'ma.* [From /?<,3p uoxo), to "eat."] 
Food : any thing that is masticated. 

Bro'mate. [Bro mas, a'f7s.] A 
combination of bromic acid with a base. 

Brom-a-tog'ra-phjf. [Bromato- 
grra'phia; from Pp^a, "food," and 
ypa(poi, to "describe."] A treatise on 
foods ; or a description of different kinds 
of food. 

Brom-a-tol'o-£y^ IJromatolo - 
gia; from Ppuua, "food," and Adyoj, a 
" discourse."] The consideration of food, 

its nature, quality, and uses; the science 
of food. 

Brome, or Bromine. [Bro'mium, 
or Bromin'ium; from rff/^oi, a 
"stench."] An elementary body usually 
obtained from the residue of sea-water, 
called Bittern ; named on account of its 
powerful, suffocating odor. It is a liquid 
of a deep-red color, and is very poison- 

Bromeliacea?,* bro-me-le-a'she-e. 
[From lirome'lia, one of the genera.] 
A natural order of endogenous plants, 
found in tropical regions, and capable 
of growing in air without contact with 
the earth. It includes the Ananas, or 
Pine-Apple, and other plants prized for 
their flowers. 

Bromelise,* bro-me'le-e, the plural 
of Brome'lia, forming the Jussieuan 
name of an order of plants. See Brome- 

Bro'mic. [Brom'icus.] Belonging 
to brome. 

Bro'mic Ac'id. A compound of 
bromine and oxygen. 

Bro'mide. [Bro'mis, i'dis; from 
bro'mium.] A combination of bromine 
with a metallic base. 

Bro-min I-um.* The Pharmaco- 
poeial name (U.S. Ph.) of Brome, or, which see. 

Bromitim. See Brome. 

Bro mo- form. [From bro'mium, 
and for'myle.] A peculiar substance 
compounded of bromine and formic acid, 
somewhat analogous in its effects to 
chloroform and sodoform. 

Bro'mu-ret. [Bromure'tum ; 

from bro'mium.] A combination of 
brome with a base. 

Brooches. The French term for 
Broxchia, which see. 

Bronchi,* bronk'I (the plural of 
Bronchus). The same as Bronchia, 
which see. 

Bronchia,* bronk'e-a, gen. Bron- 
chi-o'rum (found only in the plural). 
Fr. Bronches, br6xsh. [From fipoyxo;, 
the" windpipe."] The first two branches 
of the bronchus, or windpipe; otherwise 
called bronchi. 

Bronch'i-al. [Bronchia lis : from 
bron'chia.] Belonging to the bronchia, 
or bronchi. 

Bronch'ial Tubes. The minute 
ramifications of the bronchi, terminating 
in the bronchial cells, or air-cells of the 

Bronchitis.* bronk-i'tis. [From 
bron'chia.] Inflammation of the bronchia. 




Broneh-lem-mi'tis.* A membrane- 
like inflammation of the bronchia. 

Bronch'o-eele.* [From 0p6y\og, the 
"windpipe," and xrj\ri, a "tumor."] An 
indolent swelling of the thyroid gland; 
goitre; tracheocele. Called also Derby- 
shire neck. 

Bronchohsemorrhagia,* bronk'o- 
hem'o-ra'je-a. [From bron'chus, and 
hsemorrha'gia, "haemorrhage."] A term 
recently proposed by Andral to desig- 
nate the exhalation of blood from the 
lining membrane of the bronchial tubes, 
commonly called bronchial haemorrhage. 

Broneh-oph'o-nism, Bronch- 
opli'o-ny. [Bronehophonis'mus, 
Bronchopho'nia ; from (ipoyx°i, and 
<pu)vn, the "voice."] The sound of the 
voice, heard by means of the stethoscope, 
in the bronchia. 

Bronchorrhoea,* bronk-o-re'a. 

[From bron'chi, and ptco, to "flow."] In- 
creased discharge of mucus from the 

Bron«h-ot'o-m^. [Bronehoto '- 
mia; from (ipoyxps, the "windpipe" or 
"bronchia," and ripwo), to "cut."] The 
operation of cutting into the bronchus, 
or windpipe. 

Bron'-elius.* [Gr. Pp6yx»s, the "wind- 
pipe."] Same as Trachea. In the 
plural, bronchi is used synonymously 
with bronchia. 

Bron'to-lite, or Bron'to-lith. 
[Brontoli'tes; from Ppovrf\, "thunder," 
and Ai'floj, a "stone."] A thunder-stone; 
another name for Aerolite, or meteoric 

Bronze. A compound metal, con- 
sisting of copper with a small propor- 
tion of tin ; similar to bell-metal. 

Brook 'lime. The Veron'ica becca- 

Broom. The Spar'tium scopa' rium. 

Browning. A preparation of sugar, 
port-wine, spices, etc., for coloring and 
flavoring meat, etc. 

Brown 'isin. The theory or doc- 
trines of John Brown. See Brunonian 

Bru'ein, or Brucine, broo'sin. 
[Bru'cia, or Brnci'ita.] A vegetable 
alkali discovered in the false Angustura 
bark and in the Nux vomica. It is of a 
pearly-white color, very bitter and styp- 
tic : it is poisonous, but less active than 

Bruissement (Fr.), bRwess'moxo'. 
Corvisart's term for the purring tremor, 
or fremissement cataire, of Laennec. 

Bruit, bRwe. A French term, signi- 

fying " noise." Applied to the different 
conditions of the sound perceived by 
means of the stethoscope, according as 
the thorax or its organs are affected. 

Bruit de Craquement, bRwe deh 
krak'moNo' ("crackling sound"), or 
Bruit €le Cuir STeuf, bRwe deh kweR 
nuf ("sound of new leather"). A sound 
caused by friction of the pericardium in 
certain diseased conditions. 

Bruit de Soulllet. bRwe deh soo'fla' 
("bellows-sound"). A sound sometimes 
heard during the contraction of the 
auricles and ventricles of the heart. It 
is also termed Bruit de Souffle, bRwe 
deh soofl, or "blowing sound." 

Bruit Tympanique, bnwe tau'piT- 
nek' ("tympanic sound"). See Tympa- 

Bruniaceav* broo-ne-a'she-e. A 
natural order of exogenous shrubs, found 
at the Cape of Good Hope. Their pro- 
perties are unknown. — (LlNBLEY.) 

Brun'ner's Glands. [Glan'dti- 

Ise Brunne'rii.] The Glan' dulse soli- 
ta'rise, or mucous follicles discovered by 
Brunner in the mucous membrane of the 
small intestines. 

Brunoniacese, $ broo-no-ne-a'she-e. 
A natural ordor of herbaceous plants, 
found in New Holland. It consists of 
one genus, — Bruno' nia. 

Bru-no'ni-aii The'o-ry. A theory 
or system founded by John Brown, who 
maintained that all diseases are the 
result either of an excess or deficiency 
of excitability in the animal system. 

Bruns'wick Green. An ammo- 
niaco-muriate of copper, used for oil- 

Brjg'mus.' 5 [Gr. fipvypios; from /?pvYa), 
to "gnash with the teeth."] Gnashing 
or grating with the teeth ; one of the 
symptoms occurring in certain diseases. 

Bry'o-ny. [Bryo'nia; from Ppvw, 
to "abound."] A Linnsean genus of the 
class Monvecia, natural order Cucurbi- 

Bry-o'nI-a Al'foa.* The Bryonia 

Bryo'nia Di-oi'ca.* The wild vine; 
also called Bryonia alba, wild hops, and 

Bu'bo,o'» («,*" Bu'bon, o'nis.*' [From 
(3ov6<'»p, the "groin."] The inflammatory 
swelling of a lymphatic gland, particu- 
larly in the groin or axilla. A genus of 
the order Tumores, class Locales, of Cul- 
len's Nosology. Adeni'tis. In Botany, 
a Linnsean genus of the class Pentandria, 
natural order Umbelli/erse. 



Bu'bon Garba-num.* The former 
name of the plant which yields galba- 
num ; now called Galbanum officinale. 

Bu-bo-nal'gi-a.* [From j3ov6Jji>, the 
"groin," and dXyos, "pain."] Pain in 
the groin : bubonal'gy. 

Bu-bon'o-cele.* [From 0ov6djv, the 
"groin," and K>'i\n, a "tumor."] A species 
of hernia in which part of the bowels 
protrudes at the abdominal ring; sy- 
nonymous with inguinal hernia. 

Bnc'cal. [Bucca'lis; from buc'ca. 
the "cheek."] Belonging to the cheek. 
Buc'cal Glands. The name of nu- 
merous follicles situated beneath the 
mucous layer of the cheek. 

Buc'cal Nerve, called also the Buc'- 
co-ILab-i-a'lis.* A nerve generally 
arising from the inferior maxillary : it 
sends its branches to the buccinator 

Buc-cl-na'tor, o'ris* [From buc'- 
cino, buecina'tum, to "sound a trumpet."] 
The trumpeter's muscle. A flat muscle 
which forms the wall of the cheek : so 
called from its being much used in 
blowing the trumpet. 

Buccinoidse,* buk-se-no'i-de. [From 
bud cinum, a shell-fish like a trumpet or 
horn.] A name in Zoology given to a 
family of the Moll us' ca G aster op' oda Pec- 
tinibranchia'ta, having the Buccinum for 
its type. 

Bitcco-L.abialis Xerve. See Buc- 
cal Xekvk. 

Buc'cu-la.* [The diminutive of buc'- 
ea, ths "cheek."] The fleshy part under 
the chin. 

Buchu,* boo'koo. The Pharmaco- 
pecial name (U.S. Ph.) of the Baros'ma 
crena'ta, and other species of Baros'ma; 
the Ihicco of the British Pharmacopoeia. 
Buck-Bean. A plant of the natural 
order Gentianacese, used by brewers in 
some parts of Germany as a substitute 
for hops. See Mbntanthes Trifo- 

Buck'-Thorn. The common name 
of the Rham'nua cnthar'ticus. The berries 
yield a delicate green, named by painters 

Buck'n.* The Pharmacopneial name 
(Ed. Ph.) for the leaves of several species 
of Barosma. See Buchu. 

Buc-ne'mi-a.* [From 0ov, a par- 
ticle of increase, and Kvfmr\, the "leg."] 
A disease of the leg, distinguished by 
tense, diffuse, inflammatory swelling. 

Bnc©B»ric Acid. See Bosopric 

Bud. [Lat. Gemma; Fr. Bouton, 

boo'tox '.] The rudiments of a plant in 
a latent state, till evolved at the proper 
season and by the influence of other 

Buf fy Coat. [Co'rium Ph Jo-is - 
ticum.] The inflammatory crust or 
buff-colored substance on the surface of 
the crassamentum of blood taken from 
persons laboring under inflammation, 
when coagulation is completed. 

Bu-lani' Fe'ver. A name given by 
the natives on the African coast to tho 
yellow fever. 

Bulb. [Lat.Bul'bus; Gr.f3o\66 ? .] In 
Botany, a globular, coated body, solid, 
or composed of fleshy scales or layers, 
constituting the lower part of some 
plants, and sending off radicles from the 
flattened basis. Also applied in Anatomy 
to portions of the body resembling a 

Bulb of tbe L-re'thra. The bulb- 
like commencement of the corpus spon- 
giosum penis: hence the included ure- 
thra is called the bulbous -portion. 

Bul-bif'er-ous. [Bulbif erws; 

from bul'bus, a "bulb," and fe'ro, to 
"bear."" Bearing bulbs. 

Bulbil. [BulbiTlus, or Bul'bu- 
lus; the diminutive of bul'bus.] A 
small, solid, or scaly bud, which being 
detached from a plant becomes de- 
veloped and perfectly similar to it. 

Bulbo-Caver-no'sus.* [Named 
from its connection with the bulb of the 
urethra and the corpus cavernosum.] A 
muscle of the urethra. The same as 
Accelerator Uri.we, which see. 

Bulbous. [Bulbo'sus; from bul'- 
bus, a "bulb."] Having bulbs, or full 
of bulbs. 

Bulbulus. See Bulbil. 
Bul'bus Ar-te-rl-o'sus.* ("Arterial 
Bulb.") The name of the anterior of the 
three cavities of the heart in all Verte- 
brata, as exhibited in the early period 
of their development. 

Bul'bus OI-fac-to'ri-us.* ("Olfac- 
tory Bulb.") That portion of the olfac- 
tory nerve which expands into a bulb- 
like form and rests upon the cribriform 
plate of the ethmoid bone. 

Bu-lim'I-a,* Bu-ll-mi'a-sis, Bu- 
li'mus.* [From /?o», a particle of in- 
crease, and \i(i6$, "hunger."] A disease 
causing great voracity or insatiable hun- 
ger ; canine hunger. A genus of the order 
Ih/sorexiw, class Locales, of Culleu's Nos- 

Bn'lith-um.* [From 0ov S , an "ox," 
and \idos, a "stone."] A bezoar stone 




found in the kidneys, the gall, or urinary 
bladder of the ox. See Bezoar. 

Bull. == Bul'liat* " Let it boil." 

Bulla.* Literally, a "bubble." A 
transparent vesicle caused by burns, 
scalds, or otherwise ; a bleb ; a blister. 

Bul'late. [ Bulla' t us. Bullo'sus; 
from bul'la, a "blister."] Having bullee, 
or full of bullse, — an appearance pro- 
duced by the surface of a leaf being 
raised above its veins. 

Bunion, or Bunyon, bun'yan. 
[From (lovviov, the "earth-nut."] In- 
flammation (or rather its effects) of the 
bursa mucosa, at the ball of the great 
toe, induration of adjacent parts, en- 
largement of the joint, etc. 

Bu'ni-um.* [From the same.] The 
generic name of the plant producing the 
earth-nut. It has a tuberous root, which 
is eaten roasted or raw. 

Buphthalmia,* buf-thal'rne-a, or 
Bu-oph-tlial'im-iV'- or Buph-thal - 
imis.' |: [From/ft™?, an "ox," and dpOaX- 
1x6$, the "eye."] The first stage of Hy- 
dr ophthalmia , or ox-eye. 

Bur'dock. The common English 
name of the Arc'tium lap'pa, and Lap' pa 
mi' nor. 

Bur'gun-dy Pitch. The Pix Bur- 
gun'dica of the Pharmacopoeias. 

Burmanniaceaey* bur-inan-ne-a'- 
she-e. A natural order of endogenous 
plants related to the Orchids. 

Burn. [Us'tio and Ambus'tio, 
o'»;'s.] A lesion caused by the applica- 
tion of heat. 

Burnt Alum. See Alumen Exsic- 


Burnt Sponge. [Spon'gia Us'ta.] 

This substance is prepared by cutting 
sponge into small pieces, and burning 
it in a covered vessel until it becomes 
black and friable, when it is rubbed 
into a fine powder. It is employed as a 
remedy in goitre and scrofulous swell- 

Bur'sa,* plural Bur'sae. [Gr. fivpoa, 
a "leathern bottle."] A sac, or purse. 

Bur'sa Mu-co'sa,* plural Bur'sae 
jlluco'sae. A membranous sac for 
secreting a substance (syno'via) to lubri- 
cate tendons and joints, rendering their 
motion easy. 

Bur-sa'lis.* [From bur'sa.] Be- 
longing to a purse or bag : bur'sal. 

Bur-sal' o-gy. [Bursalo'gia; from 
fivpaa, a " bag," and Aoyoj, a " discourse."] 
The consideration (or science) of the 
bursse mucosse. 

Bu'te-a Gum. A gum procured 
from natural fissures and wounds made 
in the bark of the Bu'tea f rondo' sa, a 
leguminous plant of India. 

Butomaceae,* bu-to-ma'she-e. A 
natural order of aquatic plants, includ- 
ing the Bu'tomus. 

But'ter. [Lat. Bu'tyrum; Gr. [iov- 
rvpov.] An oil, more or less concrete, 
obtained from the milk of animals. It 
can be separated from milk or cream 
by almost any kind of violent and con- 
tinued agitation. This process of sepa- 
ration is popularly termed "churning." 

But'ter of Cixa'o. An oily, con- 
crete, white matter, of a firmer consist- 
ence than suet, obtained from the Cacao, 
or Cocoanut, of which chocolate is made. 

But 'tcr-fly -Shaped. See Papilio- 


Butua. See Pareira Brava. 
Bu-ty-ra'ceous. [Butyra'ceus ; 

from bu'tyrum, " butter."] Of the ap- 
pearance or consistence of butter. 

Bu'ty-rate. [Bu'tyras, a'tis.] A 
combination of butyric acid with a base. 

Bu-t$r'ic Ac/id. A volatile acid 
obtained from butter. 

Bu'ty-rin. [Butyri'na; from bu- 
ty'rum, "butter."] The essential fatty 
matter of butter: the butyrate of gly- 

Bux in. [Buxi'na.] An 
substance obtained from the 
box-tree {Bux' us sempervi' reus) 

B. V. = Bal'neum Vapo'ris.* 

Bys'sum,* Bys'sus.* [Gr. (3voco$, 
a kind of fine flax.] In Anatomy, the 
Pudendum midiebre. Applied in Botany 
to a genus of lichens. Also, the hairy 
appendage by which the Mollusca attach 
themselves to rocks, etc. 

Byttneriaceae,* bit-ne-re-a'she-e. 
A natural order of exogenous trees or 
shrubs, including the Byttne'ria and 
Theobro'ma Ca'cao, which produces cho- 
colate or cocoa. 


A "va- 





C. An abbreviation for Oongius^ a 

" gallon;" also for " compound," or 
"composite," Carbonium* composite * 
or compositfe.^ 

Cabal-line. [Caballi'nus; from 
cabal' I iii, a "horse."] Applied to a 
coarse kind of aloes fit only for horses. 

Cab'bage-Tree. The Geoffrsea iner- 
mis, or Awlira inermis. 

Cabombaceav* kab-om-ba'she-e, or 
Ca-boni'be-av ;: [From Cabom'ba, the 
name of one of the genera.] A natural 
order, including aquatic plants with 
floating peltate leaves. It is also called 
Hydro peltidex. 

Cacao. See Cocoa. 

Cachectic, ka-kek'tik. [Cachec'ti- 
cns; from cachex'ia.] Pertaining to 

Cach-el-co'ma, wtiia.* [From ko.k6s, 
"bad," and IXko;, an "ulcer."] A malig- 
nant ulcer. 

Ca-ehex'I-a.* [From kolko;, "bad," 
"evil," and ?J<j, a "habit."] A depraved 
habit of body. Applied in the plural 
to a class of Cullen's Nosology. Ca- 

Cac-o-chym'I-a.* [From k<ik6s, 

"bad," and xvp°s, "juice," "humor."] 
A depraved condition of the humors. 

Cac-o-col'pl-a.* [From kclk6<;, " bad," 
and k6\ttos, a "sinus," also, the "womb," 
or "vulva."] A putrid condition of the 
vulva and vaginal entrance. 

Cac'o-dyl. [From Ka^oSng, "fetid."] 
A limpid liquid, of fetid odor, derived 
from acetyl. Cacodi/lic acid is formed 
from cacodyl by oxygenation. 

Cac-o-e'thefc.* [From kcikos, "bad," 
and n%;, "manner" or "disposition."] 
A bad habit or disposition. 

Cac-o-so'mi-um."* [From kolko;, 
"bad," and u-oua, a '"body," also, "state 
of body."] A lazaretto for leprosy and 
other incurable diseases. 

Cactaceav* kak-ta'she-e. A natural 
order of plants of the Cactus tribe, re- 
markable for their large and gay flowers. 
They are succulent shrubs, found wild 
in hot. dry cam tries. 

Cac'ti,* the plural of Cac'tun (a 
"prickly pear"), the Jussieuan name of 
an order of plants. See Cactace.-e. 

Ca-cu'men,* plural Ca-cu'mi-iia. 
The "top" of any thing. In Pharma- 
copoeial language, the tops of plants. 

Ca-dav'er-ie. [Cadaver'icus^ from 

cada'ver, a "corpse."] Belonging to a 
dead body. 

Ca-dav'er-ons. [From the same.] 
Having the appearance of a dead body; 
pertaining to a dead body. 

Cadet', Iiiq'nor of. A liquid ob- 
tained by distilling acetate of potash 
and arsenious acid, and remarkable for 
its insupportable odor and spontaneous 
inflammability in air. 

Cad'mi-a,* or Cad-mi'a. [Gr. *a<5- 
yiia, or Kadpcia, "calamine," or "cad- 
mia."] A name applied to several 
metallic substances, or ores, — calamine, 
cobalt, tutty, etc. 

Cad'mi-um,* or Cad-mi 'um. 
[From cad'mia, "calamine" or "tutty," 
in which it was first observed.] The 
name for a metal, resembling tin, found 
in several of the ores of zinc. A dilute 
solution of the sulphate of cadmium has 
been used as a collyrium for spots on 
the cornea, and for chronic inflamma- 
tion of the conjunctiva. See preceding 

Ca-dn'ca.* [See next article.] A 
name sometimes given to the deciduous 
membrane of the uterus. 

Ca-du'eus.* [From ca'do, to "fall."] 
Falling off: cadu'eous. 

Caduque (Fr.), ka'diik/. The same as 
Caduca, which see. 

Ca^'cal, or Ce'cal. [C»ca'lis: from 
cse'eum, the "blind gut."] Belonging 
to the Caecum. 

Cajcitas (ses'c-tas), uftis.* [From 
cse'cu*, "blind."] Blindness. 

Ca?-ci'tis.* [From em'cum.] Inflam- 
mation of the cecum. 

Cre'cum.* [Xeuter singular of cse'eus, 
"blind."] The blind gut (intea'tinum 
being understood), or first portion of the 
large intestine; tbe Ca'put co'li. 

Cse-ru'le-us Morbus. 5 (The "blue 
disease.") See Cvaxosis. 

Ca?rulina. See Cerulin. 

Cresalpinia,* ses-al-pin'e-a. [Xamed 
from Gaeaalpi'nusJ] A genus of trees of 
the order Leguminossc. See Brazil 

Cse-sa're-an Op-er-a'tion. Caesa'- 
rean Sec'tion. [Opera'tioCa»sa'rea, 
Sec'tioCaesa'rea; from. Julius Caesar, — 
said to have been born thus; more 
probably from or' do, cm' sum, to "cut."] 
In Obstetrics, the operation of cutting 
into the womb through the parictes of 




the abdomen when natural delivery is 
impracticable: hysterotomy. According 
to Pliny, persons thus born were called 

Caf<g Citrin (Fr.), bkfk' se'traNo'. An 
infusion of unroasted coffee; so named on 
account of its yellow or citrine color. 

Caf' fe-a.* The Pharmacopoeial name 
(U.S. Ph.) of the seed of the Ca/'fca 
Arab'ica (the coffee-plant). See Coffee. 
Caf fc-in. [Caffei'na; from the French 
Cafe, " coffee."] A bitter principle ob- 
tained from coffee. The same as Tiiein. 

Ca-in'ca,* or Ca-hin'ca,* called also 
Clii-o-coc'cay* a plant of the order Ru- 
hiaceie, the root of which has recently 
been employed as a tonic and diuretic. 

Cajepnt, kaj'e-poot, written also 
Cai'epnt and Caj'uput. [Cajupu'- 
turn. | See Cajuputi Oleum. 

Caj-u-pu'ti O'le-nm.* ("Oil of 
Cajeput.") The Pharmacopoeial name 
(Ed. Ph.) for Cajuput or Cajeput oil, 
obtained from the Melaleu' ca cajupu'ti. 
It is stimulant and aromatic, and is 
considered very efficacious in some forms 
of rheumatism. 

Cal-a-bar' Bean. A medicinal sub- 
stance having the remarkable property of 
causing contraction of the pupil of the eye, 

Cal-a-mi'na.* [From cad'mia lapi- 
do'sa, an ore of zinc.] The Phar- 
macopoeial name of a native impure 
carbonate of zinc. 

Ca-lam-I-iia'ris.* Belonging to 
calamine, or Lapis calaminaris. 

Cal'a-mi Radix.* (" Root of Cala- 
mus.") See Calamus. 

Cal'a-miis.* [From the Arabic Ka'- 
lam, the ''stalk of a plant," a "reed."] A 
Latin word signifying a ''reed," and hence 
a "pen." The name of a Linna^an genus 
of the class Ilcxandria, natural order 
Aroidecs ; also the Pharmacopoeial name 
(U.S. Ph.) of the rhizoma of Ac'orus 

Cal'amns Ro'tangy* or Cal'amus 
I>ra'co. :-i A plant generally supposed 
to yield the substance known as dragon's 
blood, said likewise to be obtained from 
the Pterocar f pu» dra'co. 

Cal'mim* Scrip-to'ri-ns.* A 
"writing-pen." Applied in Anatomy to 
a narrow fissure on the back and in tho 
median line of the PofU Varolii. 

Ca-lap'plte. [From the Malay Ca- 
lap'pa, the " cocoa-tree."] A stony concre- 
tion sometimes found in the inside of the 
cocoanut: also called a vegetable h<z<>ar. 

Cal-a-thid'I-um.* [From Ka\aO[$, a 
"little basket."] A kind of inflorescence 

composed of sessile flowers thickly placed 
upon a common involucre. 

Cal-ca'nc-um.* [From calx, the 
"heel."] The largest bone of the tarsus; 
the heel-bone, or os calcis. 

Cal'ca-rate. [Calcara'tus ; from 
eal'car, a "spur."] Having spurs; like 
the flower of the larkspur. 

Cal-ca're-ous. [Calca'rius; from 
calx, cal'cis, "lime."] Belonging to 
lime ; containing lime. 

Calca'reous Earth. Lime. 

Calca'reous Spar. Crystallized car- 
bonate of lime. Iceland spar is one of 
its purest varieties. 

Oal'ce-I-form. [Calceifor'mis ; 
from cal'ceus, a "shoe."] Like a shoe. 

Cal-cif'er-ous. [Calcif 'erus; from 
calx, "lime," and fe'ro, to "bear."] 
Containing lime or carbonate of lime. 

Calcification. See Petrifaction. 

Cal-cig-'e-nous. [Calcig'enus: from 
calx, "lime," and yswaby, to "generate."] 
Applied to metals which with oxygen 
form a calx or earthy-looking substance. 

Cal-cl-na'tion. [Calcina'tio, o'nis. 
See Calcine.] The application of heat 
to saline, metallic, or other substances, 
to deprive them of moisture, etc. 

Cal-cl-na'tus.* Reduced to powder 
by heat ; calcined. See Calcination. 

Cal'cine. [Cal'cino, Calcina'tum ; 
from calx, cal'cis, "lime."] To burn as 
lime; to reduce to a powder, or to an 
oxide, by heat. See Calcination. 

Calcium,* kal'she-um. [From calx, 
"lime."] The metallic base of lime. 

Cal'cu-li,* the plural of Calculus, 
which see. 

Cal-cu-lif'ra-jrus.* [From cal'cu- 
Itts, and /ran' go, to "break."] Breaking 
or reducing calculi: calculif 'ragous. See 
Litiiothiptic. As a noun, Calculif 'ra- 
gus forms the name of a surgical instru- 
ment for breaking down calculi in tho 
bladder. See Lithotriptou. 

Cal'cu-lous. [Calculo'sus ; from 
cal'cn/ux.] Of the nature of stone or 
calculus. Having a calculus, or full of 
calculi. Applied to those afflicted with 
stone in the bladder. 

Cal'cu-lus,* plural Cal'cn-li. [Tho 
diminutive of calx, "limestone," or 
"chalk." See Calx.] Fr. Calcul, k&rkuTj 
and Pierre, pe-aiu'. A stone-like con- 
cretion in the urinary bladder, kidney, 
gall-bladder, intestines, or in and about 
the joints. 

Urinary Calculi, commonly called 
"stone," or "gravel," vary in composi- 
tion according: to the diathesis of tho 



patient. Sometimes they are of a red- 
dish or brick color, consisting usually 
of lithate of ammonia, or of crystals of 
lithic and uric acid. At others, they 
are white, or whitish, and are for the 
most part composed of the phosphates 
of magnesia and ammonia, occasionally 
mixed with the phosphate of lime. Urate 
of ammonia and oxalate of lime some- 
times occur in a crystalline form. 

Biliary Calculi (Cal'euli Bilio'si 
or Bilia'rii) are usually found in the 
gall-bladder, and are then termed cystic ; 
sometimes they occur in the substance 
of the liver, in which case they are called 
hepatic calculi. In many instances they 
seem to be little more than bile in a 
concrete state : many of them are com- 
posed chiefly of Cholesterin. 

Calculous Concretions, called ar- 
thritic calculi (Cal'euli arthrit'ici, Cal'- 
euli podag'rici, or Tuber'cula arthrit' ica), 
are found in the ligaments, and within 
the capsules of the joints, in persons 
afflicted with the gout. These are for 
the most part composed of uric acid and 
soda combined with a small portion of 
animal matter; sometimes of urate of 

Calculi found in the intestines of 
animals are called Bezoars, which see. 

Cal-e-fa/cient. [Calefa'ciens; from 
cal'idus, " warm." and fa'cio, to " make."] 
Exciting warmth ; making warm. Ap- 
plied to medicines or external applica- 
tions causing a sense of warmth. 

Cal-e-fac ' tion. [Calefac ' tio, o'n is ; 
from the same.] The act of applying 

Cal'en-ture. [Sp. Calentura, ka- 
len-too'ra.] A violent fever, attended 
with delirium, incident to persons in hot 
countries. Under its influence it is said 
that sailors imagine the sea to be green 
fields, and will throw themselves into it 
if not restrained. 

Ca-Ii'go, is'inis* [Fr. Brouillard, 
broo'yan'.] Dimness of sight sometimes 
coming on without apparent cause ; 
blindness. A genus of the order Bi/sses- 
thesise, class Locales, of Cullen's Nosology. 

Cali'go Cor'ne-ae.* ("Obscurity of 
the Cornea.") Dimness of sight arising 
from opacity of the cornea, or some- 
times a mere speck on the cornea. 

Call's;© Hu-mo'rum.* (" Obscurity 
of the Humors.") Obscurity of vision, 
or blindness, arising from a defect in 
the humors of the eye. See Glaucoma. 

Cali'go L<en'tis.* (" Obscurity of 
the Lens.") The true Cataract, which see. 

Cal-i-sa'ya Bark. The Cinchona 

Cal-is-thcn'ics. [Calisthcn'ica and 

Calisthe'nia; from /coXdj, ''beautiful," 
and adivo;, " strength."] An exercise for 
strengthening the body and giving ease 
and elegance to the movements of the 

Oallitrichaceav ; 'karie-tre-ka'she-e. 
[From kuAAoj, " beauty," and Qpi%, gen. 
rpexfig, "hair."] A natural order or 
family of aquatic plants. By some they 
are considered allies of Urticacese, by 
others, Monocotyledons. 

Cal-los'I-ty. [Callos'itas, a'tis; 
from ca/'lus.] A preternatural hardness 
in the skin or naturally soft parts. 

Cal'lus.* The osseous substance de- 
posited between the divided portions of 
a fractui-ed bone. Also, unnatural hard- 
ness or induration of any soft part, or a 
thickening of the cuticle, caused by 
pressure or friction. 

Calomel. See next article. 

Ca-lom'e-las, anos.* [From /caXd?, 
"beautiful," "good," and p&as, "black;" 
conjectured to have been so named be- 
cause it was good for black bile.] Calo- 
mel. The Pharmacopoeia! name (Br. Ph.) 
for the protochloride or mild chloride of 
mercury. See Hydrargyri Chloridum 

Ca'lor.* The Latin term for heat. 
Calor fervens denotes boiling heat, or 
212° Fahr. ; Calor leuis, gentle heat, be- 
tween 90° and 100° Fahr. 

Ca'lor An-I-ma'lis.* Animal ca- 
loric, or animal heat. The term applied 
to the caloric constantly generated in 
the bodies of living mammalia and birds, 
by means of which the animal is kept at 
nearly a uniform temperature. That of 
the mammalia varies from about 96° to 
106° or 107°,— the Arctic fox, the Arctic 
wolf, and the whale being among those 
that have the highest temperature. The 
animal heat of birds ranges somewhat 
higher than that of the mammalia, the 
temperature of several species being 
above 108°, while that of the Arctic 
finch (Fringilla Arctica), the redbreast 
(Rxibecnla), and some others is said to 
reach 111°. 

The temperature of those animals even 
which are commonly termed cold-blood- 
ed, is often found to be considerably above 
that of the surrounding medium ; among 
fishes, the most highly organized, such 
as the tunny-fish (Thymine) and the 
shark, have usually the warmest blood. 

Ca'lor Mor'cll-cans.* Literally, a 




"biting heat." A term applied to a dan- 
gerous symptom in typhus, in which 
there is a biting and pungent heat upon 
the skin, leaving a smarting sensation 
on the fingers for several minutes alter 
touching it. 

Ca-lor'ic. [Calor'icum; from ca'lor, 
"heat."] The matter or cause of the 
sensation of heat; igneous fluid. 

Sensible or Free Caloric is that 
which produces the sensation of heat or 
affects the thermometer. 

Insensible or Latent Caloric, for- 
merly supposed to be in a state of com- 
bination, is that which passes into bodies 
during a change of form. Thus, it may 
pass into ice at 32°, changing it to water, 
but not increasing the temperature (it has 
hence been termed the caloric of fluidity), 
or into water at 212°, converting it to 
vapor (and termed, in consequence, the 
caloric of evaporation). 

Specific Caloric denotes the unequal 
quantities of caloric required by the 
same quantity of different bodies to heat 
them to a given temperature. Thus, if 
equal weights of water at 40° and mer- 
cury at 160° be mixed together, the re- 
sulting temperature is 45°, showing that, 
computing by weight, water has twenty- 
three times as great a capacity for caloric 
as mercury. 

Cal-o-ric'I-ty. [Caloiric'itas, a'tis ; 
from ca'lor, "heat."] The faculty of 
generating the heat necessary to life, 
and maintaining the proper temperature 
of the body in all situations. 

Cal-o-rif'ic. [Caloriff'iCMs; from 
ca'lor, and fa'cio, to "make."] Heat- 
producing ; heat-creating. 

Cal-©-rim'e-tet\ [Calorim'etriim ; 
from ca'lor, and nhpov, a "measure."] 
An instrument for ascertaining the 
quantity of caloric disengaged from any 

Ca-lor-I-mo'tor, o'r i s. :;: [From ca'lor, 
and mo'tor, a "mover."] An electric 
apparatus which produces by its dis- 
charge highly elevated temperatures. 

Cal-ot'ro-pis CJi-gam-te'a.* An 
asclepiadaceous plant introduced from 
India under the name of mudar, or 
madar, as an alterative and sudorific. 

fa-Iiiuj'ba.* [From Colom'bo, in 
Ceylon, whence the drug was once sup- 
posed to be derived.] The Pharmaco- 
poeial name || for the root of Coc'culus 
palma'tue, or Meniaper' mum palma' turn: 
the Colombm Radix (Dub. Ph.). The 
name is often written Colomba. See 

Cal-va'rI-a.* [From cal'veo, "to be 
bald."] That portion of the cranium 
above the orbits, temples, ears, and oc- 
cipital protuberance. 

Calvities,* kal-vish'e-ez. [From 
cal'vus, "bald."] Want or loss of hair, 
particularly on the sinciput; baldness. 

Calx,* gen. Cal'cis. The heel. 

Calx,* gen. Cal'cis. [From x^l, a 
"small stone," "rubbish."] Literallv, 
"chalk," or "limestone." The Pharma- 
copceial name for lime, or calcined car- 
bonate of lime. 

Calx Clilo-ri-na'ta.* ("Chlorinated 
Lime.") The Pharmacopceial name for 
the preparation popularly known as 
chloride of lime. See Lime, Chloride of. 

Calx Ti'va.* Quicklime. 

Calycaiitliacea?,* kal-e-kan-tha'- 
she-e, or Cal-y-can'tlte-a?.* [From 
Caly can' thus, one of the genera.] A 
natural order of exogenous shrubs, found 
in Japan and North America. The 
flowers have an aromatic odor. 

Calyceracea*,* kal-e-se-ra'she-e. A 
small natural order of exogenous herba- 
ceous plants, including the genus C'a/y- 

Calyces,* kal'e-sez. [The plural of 
ca'lyx, a "cup."] Small, membranous, 
cup-like pouches, which invest the points 
of the papillae of the kidney. Their 
union forms the ivfundibula. 

Cal'y-ci-flo'ra?.* [From ca'lyx, a 
"flower-cup," and flos, a "flower."] 
Plants which have their flowers fur- 
nished with both a calyx and a corolla, 
the latter consisting of distinct petals 
and their stamens perigynous. 

Cary-ci-flo'rate. [Calyciflo'rus ; 
from ca'lyx, and Jlos, a "flower."] Hav- 
ing the stamens inserted into the calyx. 

Cal'y-cl-forni. [Calycifor'mis ; 
from ca'lyx, and for' ma.] Formed like 
a calyx. 

Cal'y-cSiae. [Calyci'nns ; from ca'- 
lyx.] Belonging to a calyx. 

Cal'y-coid. [Calycoi'des ; from ca'- 
lyx, and ados, a "form."] Resembling a 

Ca-lyc'ii-latc. [Calycula'tus; from 
calyc'ulns.] Having calyculi. 

Ca-lyc'u-lus,* plural Ca-lyc'u-li. 
[The diminutive of ca'lyx.] The mem- 
branous margin surrounding the apex 
of a seed ; also, a little cakyx exterior to 
a proper one. 

Ca-lyp'tra,* plural Ca-lyp'tra?. 
[Gr. KaXviTTpa, a "veil;" from KaXvnru, to 
"cover."] A membranous covering over 
the anthcrse in mosses; also, the proper 



covering or coat of the seed, which falls 
off spontaneously. 

Ca-lyp-tra'tus.* [From calyp'tra, 
the "veil of mosses."] Having calyp- 
trse: calyp'trate. 

Calyx,- plural Cal'y-^es. [Gr. 
*i\ J, a "covering," the "cup of a flow- 
er."] A membranous cup or sac sur- 
rounding one or two of the papil/x of 
the kidney. See Calyces. Applied in 
Botany to the flower-cup, or empale- 
ments* which cover the flower, for tho 
most part green and surrounding tho 
corolla. Also the Physiological namo 
of the very vascular capsule enclosing 
the vesicle, or yelk, formed of the three 
layers of the ovarium. 

Cam bi-um.* [Probably from cam'- 
bi<>, to "change."] A glutinous fluid 
between the bark and alburnum of trees, 
supposed by some physiologists to fur- 
nish the material out of which the new 
wood is formed. 

Cam'bo'gi-a.* The Pharmacopceial 
name (British Ph.) of gamboge {gam- 
bor/ia), obtained from an undetermined 

Cam'e-ra,* plural Cam'e-rse. [From 
kii'i j, an "upper gallery."] In tho 
plural, the anterior and posterior cham- 
bers of the eye. 

Cam-pa'na.* [From Campa' nia, in 
Italy, where they were first used in 
churches.] A bell. Applied in Che- 
mistry to a dish or cover shaped like a 
bell, employed in making sulphuric acid. 

Cauipanaceus,* kani-pa-na'she-us. 
[From eampa'na.'\ Like a bell. Applied 
in the plural feminine (Campanaceve, 
kam-pa-na'she-e) to an order in Lin- 
naeu>'s Natural method: campana'ceous. 

Cam-pan' I-form. [Campanifor'- 
mh; t'r tin campa' na, a "bell."] Formed 
like a bell. 

Campanulaceae,* kam-pan'u-la'- 
she-5, or Cam-pan'u-lae.* [From 
C ' imp'in'ula, the name of one of the 
genora.] A natural order of herbaceous 
plants, found in temperate climates, and 
prized for the beauty of the flowers. 

Cani-pan-u-la'ceoxis. [Campaim- 
la'ceas: from campan'ula, a ••little 
bell;" also the "bell-flower."] Having 
an arrangement as in the Campanula. 
See Cam panula.ce.*. 

Cam-pan' u-late. [Campanula'- 
tus; fr >m campan'ula, a "little bell."] 
Like a little bell. 

Campeachy Wood. See ELsiCA- 


Camphene, or Camphine, kam- 

fen'. [From cam'phora.] A substance 
procured from common turpentine; with 
an equivalent of oxygen it forms cain- 
phor; also called Oam'phogen (/^."pro- 
ducing camphor"). 

Cam'pho-ra.* [Gr. Ka/vpovpa, "cam- 
phor."] The Pharmacopceial name |j of 
"a peculiar concrete substance derived 
from Gamphora officinarum and purified 
by sublimation" (U.S. Ph., I860). The 
effect of camphor in moderate doses is 
to allay nervous irritation ; but in over- 
doses it is poisonous and may produco 

Catn'phcra Of-fis-I-na'rum.* Tho 
plant which yields the officinal camphor. 

Casn'pSio-rae Flo' res.* ("Flowers 
of Camphor.") A name sometimes given 
to sublimated camphor. 

Cam'pho-rate. [Cam'plioras,a'ft'*.] 
A combination of camphoric acid with a 

Cain'pho-rat-e<l. [Camphora'tus; 
from cam'phora.] Having camphor, or 
combined with camphor. 

Cam-phor'ic. [Camphor 'iens; 
from cam'phora, "camphor."] Belong- 
ing to camphor. Applied to an acid 
obtained from camphor. 

Camp-Vin'e-jrar is prepared as fol- 
lows. Steep in the best vinegar for a 
month one drachm of cayenne pepper, 
two tablespoonfuls of soy, and four of 
walnut ketchup, six anchovies chopped, 
and a small clove of garlic minced fine. 
Shake it frequently, strain through a 
tamis, and keep it well corked in small 

Cain-p5 r -lof'ro-pons. [From *a/z- 
7ri5,\oj, "curved," and Tphu), to "turn."] 
A term applied to the ovule of plants, 
when its axis, instead of remaining rec- 
tilinear, is curved down upon itself, the 
base of the nucleus still continuing to 
be contiguous to the hilum. 

Cam'wood. A red dye-wood, prin- 
cipally obtained from the vicinity of 
Sierra Leone. 

Ca-nal'. [From cana'lts, a "channel," 
or "pipe."] Applied in Anatomy to any 
passage in the body. 

Canal of Foxta'xa. A minute vas- 
cular canal situated within the ciliary 
ligament, and so name I from its disco- 
verer. It is also termed the ciliary 

Canal of Petit (poh-te'). A trian- 
gular canal situated immediately around 
the circumference of the crystalline lens: 
so named from its discoverer. When 
distended with air or size-injection, it 




presents a plaited appearance, and has 
hence been called by the French canal 

Can-a-lic-u-la'tus.* [From cana- 
lic'ulus.] Having a little canal or 
channel : channelled ; canalic'ulated. 

Can-a-lic'u-li,* the plural of Can- 
a-lic'u-lus. The name given by Mot- 
gagni to some large lacuna; which secrete 
mucus in the canal of the urethra. 

Can-a-lic'u-lus.* [The diminutive 
of cana'lis.] A small channel or vessel. 

Ca-na'lis,* plural Ca-na'les. [From 
can'na, a ''hollow reed."] A canal, or 
channel. Applied to blood-vessels, cavi- 
ties, etc. See Alveus. 

Cana'lis Ar-te-rl-o'sus.* (" Ar- 
terial Canal.") A blood-vessel which 
unites the pulmonary artery and aorta 
in the fcetus. 

Cana'lis Ve-no'sus.* ("Yenous 
Canal.") A canal which conveys the 
blood from the venae portse of the liver 
to the ascending vena cava in the 

Can-cel-la'tus.* [From cancel'li.] 
Having a latticed appearance: cancel- 

Can-cel'li,* gen. Cancello'rum. 
Lattices: minute divisions in the reticu- 
lated structure of bones. 

Can'cer,* gen. Can'cri, ,or Can'- 
cer-is. A crab. A genus of Crustacea 

Can'cer.* [Literally, a "crab," the 
turgid veins around it being supposed 
to resemble a crab's claws.] A painful 
scirrhous tumor, terminating in a fatal 
ulcer. See Carcinoma. 

Can'cer As'ta-cus.* The craw-fish, 
affording the Lapilli cancrorum, or 
crabs' eyes. 

Can'cer Mun-dl-t©'rnm.* (" Chim- 
ney-Sweeper's Cancer.") See Cancer 

Can'cer Pa-gu'rus.* The crab-fish, 
affording the Chelae cancrorum, or crabs' 

Can'cer Scro'tL* (" Cancer of the 
Scrotum"), called also Chimney-Sweep- 
er's Cancer {Can'cer Mundito'rum). A 
form of cancer to which chimney-sweep- 
ers are especially exposed, on account 
of the irritating effects of soot. 

Can'cri,* gen. Can-cro'runi. The 
plural of can'cer, a "crab." 

Can'croid. [Cancroi'des; from 
can'cer, and eUo;, a "form."] Resem- 
bling cancer. 

Caucro'ide, koVkro'ed'. The French 
form of the preceding term. 

Can-cro'rum [see Cancri] Che'lae.* 
("Crabs' Claws.") The claws of the 
Cancer pagurus, the black-clawed, or 
large, edible crab : these, when prepared 
by grinding, constitute the prepared 
crabs' claws of the shops, formerly used 
to correct acidity in the stomach and 

Caiicro'rum La-pil'li* ("Crabs' 
Stones"), and Cancro'rum ©c'u-li* 
(" Crabs' Eyes"), are used for the same 
purposes as the preceding. 

Can'crum.* Low Latin for "can- 
ker." It appears to be used only in the 
following phrase. 

Can'crum O'ris.* (" Canker of the 
Mouth.") A deep, foul, fetid, irregu- 
lar ulcer inside the lips and cheeks : often 
attended with a discharge of blood. 

Can'dle-Tree Oil. A solid oil ob- 
tained from the seed of the Croton sebife- 
rum, or Candle-tree, a native of China. 
It is used by the Chinese for making 

Ca-nel'la.* [From can'na, a "reed."] 
A Linnaean genus of the class Dodecan- 
dria, natural order Jfeliacese. The 
Pharmacopceial name for the bark of 
Canella alba; the Canellse albse cortex 
of the Dublin Pharmacopoeia. 

Canel'la Alba.* (« White Canella.") 
The laurel-leaved canella, yielding a 
bark somewhat resembling cinnamon. 

Ca-nic-u-la'ris.* [From canic'ida, 
a "little dog," the "dog-star."] Ap- 
plied to the hottest days of the year, the 
Di'es canicula'res, or dog-days. 

Can'ine. [Cani'nus; from ca'nis, 
a "dog."] Belonging to the dog. 

Canine Appetite. See Bulimia. 

Canine Madness. See Hydropho- 

Can'ine Teeth. [Den'tesCani'ni 
or Cuspida'ti.] Eye-teeth; the four 
teeth which immediately adjoin the in- 

Ca-ni'nus Mus'cu-lus,* or Can'ine 
Mus'eie. The Levator anguli oris. 

Cani'nus Ri'sus.*(" Canine laugh.") 
An involuntary or spasmodic contraction 
of the canine muscle, causing what is 
popularly known as a sardonic laugh. 

Cani'nus Spas'mus.* The Spasmus 

Canities,* ka-nish'e-ez. [From ca'- 
nus, "gray-haired."] Grayness of the 

Can'na, or Can'na Starch. The 
fecula prepared from the rhizoina of an 
undetermined species of canna, and used 
for the same purpose as arrow-rooU 



or Caii-na-biii'e-se.*' [From Can'nabis, 
"hemp. "J A natural order of herbaceous 
plants, including the hemp and hop, 
■which have narcotic and intoxicating 

Can'na-blne. [Cannabi'na: from 
Can'nabitt, "hemp."] A resin extracted 
from the Cannabis Indict. 

Can'na-bis.* [Or. Kawa^ig.'] A Lin- 
nsean genus of the class Dioecia, natural 
order Cannabinacese (formerly assigned 
to Urticacese). Hemp. 

Can'nabis In'<ll-ca.* ("Indian 
Hemp.") A kind of hemp well known 
in South America, Turkey, Asia Minor, 
India, etc., the leaves of which furnish 
an intoxicating drug called Bhang, or 
Bang, or Bangue, among the Hindoos, 
II ashiah by the Arabs, Jfaslach by the 
Turks, and among the Hottentots Dacha. 
It is supposed to be merely a variety of 
the common hemp, or Cannabis sativa. 

Can'nabis Sa-ti'va.* (Fr. Chanrre, 
shoxvr.) The systematic name of com- 
mon hemp. See preceding article. 

Can'na?,* the plural of Can'na, a 
"reed," forming the Jussieuan name of 
an order of plants. See Zixgiberace^e 
or Maraxtace.e. 

Can'nel Coal. A bituminous sub- 
stance which yields on combustion a 
bright flame without smoke. The term 
is probably a corruption of candle coal, 
in allusion to its illuminating properties. 

Can'nu-la.* [The diminutive of 
can'na, a "reed."] A tubular surgical 
instrument, introduced by means of a 
stilette into a cavity or tumor, for draw- 
ing off fluid. 

Can-thari-des.* The plural of 
Caxtharis, which see. 

Can-thar'I-din. [Cantharidi'na; 
from can' than'*, the "Spanish fly."] A 
peculiar substance in Cantharides, on 
which their vesicating quality depends. 

Can'tha-ris,* plural Can-thar'I- 
des. [From K'ivQapo$, a "beetle."] The 
Pharmacopoeial name || of the blistering- 
fly ; the Can'tharis vesicato' ria ; called 
also the Mtu'ca Hispanio'la ("Spanish 
fly"), Lyt'ta vesicato' ria, and Mel' tie vesi- 
cato riu9. 

Cantharis Vesicatoria. See pre- 
ceding article. 

Can-thi'tis.* [From can' thus.'] In- 
flammation of one <>r both canthi. 

Can'tho-plas-t$ r . [Canthoplas- 
tia; from kuvQo;, the "angle of the eye," 
and rrXciovrrj, to "form."] The operation 
of transplanting a portion of the con- 

junctiva of the eyeball to the external 
canthus of the eyelids. 

Can'ihus,* plural Canthi. [Gr. xav- 
0<%.] The angle formed by the junction 
of the eyelids; the internal being tho 
greater, the external the leaser, canthus. 

Can 'ton's IMios'pho-rus. A sub- 
stance made by exposing calcined oyster- 
shells and sulphur to a red heat. On 
exposure to the air it acquires the pro- 
perty of shining in the dark. 

Canula. See Cannula. 

Caoutchouc,* koo'chook, or ka-oo'- 
chook. Elastic gum, or India rubber; 
the concrete juice of the Hievea Caout- 
chouc, Jatropa elastica, Ficus Indica, 
and Art near pus integrifolia. 

Caoutchoucin, koo'choo-sin. 

[Caoutchouci'na.] The principle on 
which the properties of caoutchouc de- 

Cap. = Ca/pe* "take," or Ca'piat, 
"let him take." 

Ca'pers. The pickled buds of the 
Cap'paris spino'sa, a low shrub growing 
out of the joints of old walls and the 
fissures of rocks in Southern Europe and 
in Syria. 

Capillaire, ka'pel'laiR'. [From Ca- 
pil'lus Yen'eris, "Venus's hair."] A 
syrup made with sugar or honey from 
the fern termed Adian'tum capil'lus Veil' - 
eris (popularly known as "Maiden's- 
hair"). The name is also sometimes 
given to other syrups made in imitation 
of the above. Capillaire is employed a3 
a demulcent in coughs. 

Cap'il-la-ry. [Capilla'ris : from 
capil'lus, "hair."] Resembling a hair 
in size. Applied to the minute ramifica- 
tions of arteries terminating on the sur- 
faces of the body, etc., — in other words, 
to the vessels which intervene between 
the minute arteries and veins; often 
called capillaries. 

Cap-il-Iic'u-lus,* plural Cap-il-lic'- 
u-li. [Diminutive of capil'lus, the 
"hair."] Applied in Anatomy to the 
arterial and venous radicles pervading, 
more minutely than the capillaries, the 
ultimate elements of every organ. 

Cap-il-li-fo'li-ous. [Capillifo'- 

lius; from capil'lus, "hair," and fo'lium, 
a "leaf."] Having hair-like leaves. 

Ca-pil'11-form. [Capillifbr'mis ; 
from capil'lus, " hair."] Formed like hair. 

Ca-pis'trum.* [From ca'pio, to 
"take."] Literally, a "bridle." The 
single split-cloth bandage; so called 
from its being used to support the lower 
jaw like a bridle. 




Cap'i-ta,* gen. Cap'I-tum, the plu- 
ral of Cap it, which see. 

Cap'i-tal. [Capita'lis: from ca'put, 
the "head" or "life."] Belonging to 
the head or life, — and, hence, of great or 
vital importance. The upper part of an 
alembic. Applied in the plural neuter 
to medicines for the head, — Capitn'lia 
medicament' ta. Also applied in Surgery 
to the more important operations. 

Cap'I-tale. [Capita' tus; from ca'- 
put, a "head."] Growing in heads; a 
term used in Botany. 

Capilellatus. The same as Capitu- 

Capi-ti-Iu'vi-um.* [From ca'put, 
the "head," and lu'o, to "wash."] A 
hath for the head. 

Cap'5-tis, ;;: " the genitive of Ca'put, the 

Ca-pil'u-late, or Ca-pit'u-lat-ed. 
[Capitula'tus.] Having a capitulum, 
or knob on the top. 

Ca-pit'u-Ium.* [The diminutive of 
ca'put.] A little head, or knob. A pro- 
tuberance of bone received into a hollow 
portion of another bone. A kind of in- 
florescence consisting of a number of 
flowers in a globular form on a common 
peduncle. An alembic. 

Capivi Oil. See Copaiba. 

Cap'uo-mor.* [From k<iti>6s, 

"smoke," and fioTpa, "part;" so called 
from its being one of the ingredients of 
smoke.] A colorless, transparent liquid, 
— the oily ingredient in tar which can 
dissolve caoutchouc. It occurs along 
with creasote in the heavy oil of tar. 

Capparidaceav ;i: kap-par-e-da'she-e. 
A natural order of plants, including the 
Cap'paris (caper). They have all a 
strong pungent, or even acrid, taste, 
and have been used as a substitute for 
mustard. Some of them are poisonous. 

Cap- pa-rid 'e-se,* the Jussieuan 
name of a natural order of plants. See 

Cap'rate. [Ca'pras, a'<w.] A com- 
bination of capric acid with a base. 

Ca-pre'o-late, Ca-pre'o-la-ry^ [Ca- 
preola'tus, Capreola'ris; from ca- 
pre'olus, a "tendril."] Applied to the 
spermatic vessels, or Vasa capreolaria, 
from their twisted appearance. 

Cap'ric A<; i<5. [From cap'ra, a 
"she-goat."] A volatile acid, a con- 
stituent of butter from the milk of the 
goat or cow. 

Cap'ri-da>. * [From ca'per, a "goat."] 
A family of animals of which the goat 
is the type. 

Cap-ri-fo'lX-a,* the plural of Capri- 
fo'lium, the "honeysuckle," forming the 
Jussieuan name of a natural order of 
plants. See Caprifoliace^e. 

Caprifoiiacese,-* kap-re-fo-le-a'- 
she-e. [From Caprifo'lium, the "honey- 
suckle."] A natural order of plants, 
comprising the honeysuckle, elder and 
viburnum. The leaves of the cider are 
emetic and cathartic; and these proper- 
ties are possessed in some degree by 
most of the genera of this order. 

Cap'ro-aie. [Cap'roas, a'ft'a.] A 
combination of caproic acid with a base. 

Ca-pro'ic Ae'id. [Capro'icum 
Ac'idusn; probably from cap'ra, a 
"she-goat," the milk of which is often 
used in making butter.] An oily, limpid 
liquid, obtained from the caproate of 
baryta, and entering into the constitu- 
tion of butter. 

Cap'si-ciu. An acrid, soft resin, 
obtained by digesting the alcoholic ex- 
tract of the Capsicum aunuum in ether 
and evaporating the etherial solution. 

Cap'sl-cum.* [From ki'itttcj, to " de- 
vour," to "bite."] A Linnaian genus of 
the class Pentandria, natural order So- 
lanacetc. Also, the Pharmacopceial name 
|| of the capsules and seeds of Capsicum 
aunuum, and other species of capsicum. 

Capsicum is a powerful stimulant 
without any narcotic effect. Whether 
taken into the stomach or applied ex- 
ternally, it causes a decided sense of 
heat or burning; but its influence upon 
the general system bears no proportion 
to its local action. Capsicum is chiefly 
used in medicine as a stomachic and 

Cap'sicum An'mi-nm.* The Cap- 
sicum, Cayenne, or Guinea-pepper plant. 

Cap'sicum Fru-tes'ceiis.* The 
species which yields the capsules mostly 
Sold as Guinea pepper and bird pepper. 

Cap'su-la.* [Diminutive of cap'm, 
a "box."] A capsule. A membranous 
bag, containing some part, or organ, or 
the extremities of bones forming a joint. 
A membranous pericarp which splits in 
a determinate manner. 

Cap'su-lar Ug-'a-ment. [Iiiga- 
men'tum Capsnla're.] A kind of liga- 
mentous bag surrounding every movable 
articulation, and containing the synoria. 

Capsule of Glissou. See Gussox, 
Capsule <»f. 

Cap'sule, Re'nal. The Renal Cap- 
sules [Vap'eulse rena'les) are two yellow- 
ish, triangular and flattened bodies, lying 
over the kidneys in the foetus, in which 



they are as large as the kidneys them- 
selves. In the adult they are two lobes. 
Called, also, supra-renal capsules. 

Cap-su-lif 'er-ous. [Capsulif 'er- 
ns; from cap'sula, a "capsule," and 
fe'ro, to "bear."] Containing capsules. 

Cap SU-li'tiB, idJ8.* [From cap'xula, 
a " capsule."] Inflammation of the cap- 
sule of the eye. 

Ca'put, ;: gen. Cap'i-tis. The head, 
consisting of the cranium, or skull, and 
the face. Also applied to any prominent 
object like a head. 

Caput Coll.* The "head of the 
colon," — that is. the Gseeum. 

Ca'put Gal-lI-nag'I-nis.* The Ve'- 
ru mnnta'num, or prominent fold of the 
lining membrane in the prostatic portion 
of the urethra. 

Caramel, kaYa'rnel'. The French 
name for sugar partly decomposed by 
the action of heat. 

Car'a-pace. Applied in Zoology to 
the hard covering or shell on the upper 
part of the body of the Chelonia. 

Car'a-way. The Varum carta'. 

Car'bo Anima'lis.* ("Animal Char- 
coal.") The Pharmacopoeial name (U.S. 
Ph.) for animal charcoal prepared from 
bone. See Carbon, Animal. 

Car 'bo Iag^ni.* ("Charcoal of 
Wood.") The Pharmacopoeial name || of 

Carbon. [Carbo'nium: from 
car' bo, a "coal."] The basis of char- 
coal; also, charcoal itself. Carbon is 
found pure in the diamond. 

Car'bon, Anl-mal. Animal char- 
coal, bone charcoal, and ivory -black, are 
names applied to bones calcined or con- 
verted into charcoal in a close vessel. 
Animal charcoal is also prepared by cal- 
cining dried blood, horns, hoofs, clip- 
pings of hides, etc., in contact with 
carbonate of potash, and washing the 
calcined mass afterwards with water. 
Animal charcoal is principally used to 
decolorize vegetable principles, such as 
gallic acid, quinia. veratria, etc. 

Car'bon, 3Iin'e-ral. A term ap- 
plied to charcoal with various propor- 
tions of earth and iron, without bitu- 
men. It has a silky lustre, and the 
fibrous texture of wood. It occurs 
stratified with various kinds of coal. 

Car-bo-na'eeous. [Carbona'eeus ; 
from car' bo, "coal," "carbon."] Of the 
nature of carbon. 

Car'bo-nate. [Carbo'nas, a'tis; 
from the same.] A combination of car- 
bonic acid with a base. 

Car-bon'ic Ac'id. [Carbon icum 
Ac/idum; from car' bo, "coal."] An 
acid formed in the burning of charcoal, 
and very abundant in nature, composing 
0.44 of the weight of limestone, marble, 
etc. In the form of carbonic acid gas 
it constitutes a small proportion of atmo- 
spheric air. It is often found in mines, 
dry wells, etc. "When unmixed or nearly 
so (as it frequently is in mines, and in 
ill-ventilated rooms where charcoal is 
burning), breathing it proves extremely 
deleterious, and often fatal to animal life. 
See Choke-Damp, and Poisons. 

Carbon'ic Ox'ide. A colorless gas, 
formed when carbon is burned with an 
imperfect supply of oxygen. 

Car-bo-nif 'er-ous. [Carbonif 'er- 
ns: from car'bo, "coal." and fe'ro, to 
"bear."] Having or containing coal. 

Car-bon-i-za'tion. [Carbon iza'- 
tio. o'nis; from car'bon.] The process 
of converting organic substances into 

Car'bun-cle. [Carbun 'cuius; the 
diminutive of car'bo, "coal."] The name 
of a gem of a deep bright-red color. 
Applied in Surgery to an inflammation 
of a gangrenous nature attended with a 
severe sense of burning. The same as 

Car'bu-ret. [Carbure'tum: from 
car'bon.] The combination of carbon 
with another substance. 

Car'bu-ret-ted. [From carbure'tum, 
a "carburet."] Of the nature of a car- 

Car'burette<l Hy-'dro-£en. A 
colorless, inflammable gas, abundantly 
formed in nature in stagnant pools, 
wherever vegetables are undergoing the 
process of putrefaction : it also forms the 
greater part of the gas obtained from coal. 
Of this gas there are two kinds : the one 
termed light carburetted hydrogen is 
found abundantly in some coal-mines, 
where, under the name of fire-damp, it 
was the cause of those terrible explosions 
which were so common before the inven- 
tion of the safety-lamp by Davy. The 
other kind, called heavy carburetted hy- 
drogen or olefiant gas. forms the essential 
part of the gas used to light cur streets. 

Car-ci-no'ma. n'fta.* [From K<ipKho<; f 
an "eating ulcer."] A name for cancer. 

Car-cl-nom'a-tous. [Careinoin a- 
tus; from carcino'ma.] Belonging to 

Car-dam 'i-ne Pra-ten'sis.* The 
cuckoo flower, which yields cardamine 
flowers; the Xastur'tium aqnat'icum. 




Car 'da-mom. [Cardamo'mnm.] 

The fruit of several species of Elettaria 
and Amomum, the capsules of which fur- 
nish a warm and pleasant aromatic. 

Car'di-a.* [Gr. Kapdia.] The heart; 
also the superior opening of the stomach. 

Car'di-ac. [Cardi'acus; from car'- 
dia.] Belonging to the heart. Applied 
to the superior opening of the stomach. 
Also applied to invigorating medicines. 

Car'dl-ac Plex'us. [Plex'us Car- 
di'acus.] The principal cardiac plexus 
is situated on the bifurcation of the 
trachea. It is formed by the meeting 
of the middle and inferior cardiac nerves. 
There are two other cardiac plexuses, — 
the one termed anterior, and the other 
posterior, — situated respectively before 
and behind the ascending aorta, near 
its origin. 

Car-di'a-gra.* [From Kapdia, and aypa, 
a " seizure."] Pain or gout of the heart. 

Car-dl-al'gi-a.* [From Kapdia, the 
"heart," and a\yo;, "pain."] An uneasy 
or painful sensation in the stomach; 
heart-burn : car'dialgy. 

Cardianastrophe. See Ectopia 

Car-di-ec'ta-sis.* [From Kapdia, the 
"heart," and txraois, "extension" or 
"dilatation."] Dilatation of the heart. 

Car'di-o-cele.* [From Kapdia, and 
KfiXrj, a " tumor."] The protrusion of the 
heart through a wound of the diaphragm. 

Car'di-o-dyn'I-a.* [From car'dia, 
and divvn, "pain."] Pain in the heart. 
See Cardiagra. 

Car-di-og'mus,* or Kar-di-og-'- 
mos.* Another term for cardialgia. 
Sometimes applied to palpitation of the 
heart and to Angi'na pec'toris. 

Car-dl-o-pal'mus.* [From Kapdia, 
the "heart," and vaXfidg, "palpitation."] 
See Cardiotromts. 

Car'dI-o-pe>-I-car-di'tis, idis* 
[From car'dia, and pericardi' tis.~\ In- 
flammation of the heart and pericardium. 
Cardiorhexis,*kar v de-o-rcx'is. [From 
Kapdia, the "heart." and /fc?£'?, a "break- 
ing" or "laceration."] Rupture of the 

Car-dl-ot'ro-mus.* [From Kapdia, 
the "heart," and rpopos, a "trembling."] 
Fluttering of the heart. 

Car-di'tis.* [From Kapdia, the "heart."] 
Inflammation of the heart. A genus of 
the order Phlegmasia, class Pyrexia, of 
Cullcn's Nosology. 

Car'do,* gen. Car <U-nis. A hinge. 
Applied in Anatomy to the articulation 
called Ginglymus. 

Caribean Bark. See Bark, Cari- 

Car'i-ca Pa-pa'ya.* The Papaw- 
tree : the milky juice of which contains 
an abundance of fibrin resembling animal 

Car'I-ca? Fruc'tus.* The preserved 
fruit of the fig. See Ficcs Carica. 

Ca'ri-es.* (Literally-, "rottenness.") 
A disease of bones, analogous to ulcera- 
tion of the soft parts. 

Ca-ri'na.* (Literally, the "keel of a 
ship.") Applied in Botany to the lower 
petal of the papilionaceous corolla. 

Car I-nate, or Car'I-nat-ed. [Cari- 
na'tus; from cari'na.] Keel-shaped. 
Applied to leaves, petals, etc. 

Ca'rI-ous. [Cario'sus; from ca'rie6.~\ 
Having, or affected with, curies. 

Car-min'a-tive. [Carminati' vus : 
from car' men, a '"song" or "charm."] 
Applied to medicines which assuage 
pain and relieve flatulence. 

Car'niane. A most beautiful color- 
ing matter or pigment, prepared from 
cochineal combined with alumina and 
the oxide of tin ; also called Coccincl- 

Carne» Columnar. See Column J! 

Car'ne-us.* [From ca'ro, car'nis, 
"flesh," "fleshy."] Belonging to flesh: 
car'neous. See Carnosus. 

Car-ni-fl-ca'tion. [Carnifica'tio, 
o'nis; from ca'ro, "flesh," and Ji'o, to 
"become."] The change of any texture 
of the animal body into flesh. The term 
has been applied by Laennec to a diseased 
condition of the lungs when they have 
become converted into a substance re- 
sembling muscular flesh. 

Car-ni-ffor'niis.* [From ca'ro t 
"flesh."] Resembling flesh. 

Car-niv'o-ra.* [From ca'ro, "flesh," 
and vo'ro, to "devour."] A term applied 
to animals which feed upon flesh ; more 
especially to that tribe of the Mammalia, 
such as the wolf, lion, etc., whose teeth 
are peculiarly adapted for seizing and 
destroying living animals. 

Car-niv'o-rous. [Carniv'orus ; 
from the same.] Flesh -devouring, or 
feeding on flesh. 

Car-no'sus.* [From ca'ro, "flesh."] 
Fleshy ; full of flesh : car'nose. Applied 
in the plural to an order of Polypi. 

Ca'ro,* gen. Car'nis. The red fibrous 
part, or belly, of muscles; the flesh. Also 
the soft portion of fruits. 

Car-o-H'na Pink. The Spigelia 



Caroncule, k&'rc-No'kul'. The French 
term for Caruncula, which see. 

Ca-ro'ta.* The Pharmacopoeial name 
(Lond. and U.S. Ph.) for the root of 
the carrot (Dan'cus caro'ta). 

Ca-rot'I-cus.* [From Kapow, to "stu- 
pefy."] Having power to stupefy : ca- 
rot'id. Applied in the plural neuter 
(Carot'ica) to narcotics. 

Ca-rot'id. [Caro'tis, idis; from 
Kapoio, to "stupefy/'" Applied to an 
artery on each side of the neck, carrying 
hlood to the head. They were so named 
from an idea that tying them would pro- 
duce coma. 

Car'o-tin. [Carot'ina; from ca- 
ro'ta.] A peculiar crystalline principle 
of the carrot, or Daucus carota. 

Car'pal. [Carpa'lis.] Belonging 
to the carpus, or wrist. 

Car'pel. [Carpel linm, or Car- 
pel linn : from Kafnrog, "fruit."] Ap- 
plied in Botany to a simple pistil, or to 
one of the elements of a compound pistil. 

Car-phol'o-gy. [Carpholo'gia; 
from Kapcbos, "chaff*," and Xeyw, to "col- 
lect."] The movements of delirious pa- 
tients in searching for or grasping at 
imaginary objects, picking the bed- 
clothes, etc. : floccilation. It is consi- 
dered a very unfavorable symptom in 

Car-pol'o-gy. [Carpolo'gia; from 
Kapj6i, "fruit," and \6yo$, a "discourse."] 
A description of fruits or seeds ; that 
part of Botany which treats of the fruits 
or seeds of plants. 

Car-pot'l-cus.* [From Kapn6$, "fruit," 
"offspring."^ Applied in the plural 
neuter (Carpot'ica) to an order of Dr. 
Good's class Genetica, or diseases affect- 
injr impregnation : carpot'ic. 

C'ar'pns. 1 ' [Gr. xapnos.] The Latin 
term for the Wrist, which see. 

Car'ra-geen Moss, Car'ra-g-heen 
Moss. A species of moss, or sea-weed, 
found on the rocks and shores of North- 
ern Europe, and in Carragheen, near 
Waterford, Ireland. 

Car-ra-jjee'nin. The name given 
by Dr. Pereira to the mucilaginous mat- 
ter called by some writers vegetable jelly, 
by others pectin. 

Carrara (kar-ra'ra) Wa'ter. The 
name of a liquid prepared in imitation 
of the qualities of certain springs of 
Carrara, in Italy, famous for its marble- 

Car'ron Oil. So called because used 
at the Carron Iron-Works, in Scotland. 

The Linimentum Aquae Calcis, or LlNl' 
MENTUir Calcis, which see. 

Car'tha-min, Car'tha-mlne, or 
Car'tham-ic Ae/id. A red coloring 
matter obtained from safflower. 

Car'tha-mus Tine-to'rI-us.* Tho 
safflower, or bastard saffron. A plant 
of the order Comjwsitse ; the flowers are 
used by dyers. The seeds are cathartic 
and diuretic. 

Car'tl-lag-e. [Cartila'go, int». Aa 
if Carnilage, from ca'ro, "flesh," and 
a' go, to "yield."] A pearly white, glis- 
tening, elastic, uniform substance, ad- 
hering to articular surfaces of bones. 

Car-tl-lag'i-nous, or Car-ti-la- 
gin'e-ous. [Cartilagin'eus, or Car- 
tilag-ino'sus.] Of the nature of car- 
tilage. Applied in Botany to leaves 
having a hard margin of different sub- 
stance from the disk. 

Car'u-i.* The Pharmacopoeial name 
(British Ph.) for the fruit of the Ca'rum 

Ca'rum.* [From the Arabic Carvi, 
or Carvia.] A Linna?an genus of the 
class Pentandria, natural order Umbelli- 
ferse. Also the Pharmacopoeial name 
(U.S. Ph.) for the fruit of the Carum 

(arum Car'u-i.* The caraway 

Ca-run'cu-la,* plural Ca-run'cu- 
la^. [Diminutive of ca'ro, "flesh."] A 
little fleshy excrescence : a car'uncle. 

Car ii 11 Vula Ijaeh-ry-ma'Iis.'-- [Fr. 
Caroncule lacrymale, ka'r6N°'kul' la'kre'- 
mal'.] The small, red body situated in 
the inner angle of the eye. 

Ca-run'cu-la? Myr-ti-for'mes.** 
The remnants of the lacerated hymen, 
two, three, or four in number. 

Ca'rus.* [Gr. icapo;.] A deep, heavy 
sleep : lethargy. 

Caryophyllacea?,* kar-e-of-il-la'- 
she-e. A natural order of plants, in- 
cluding the Dianthus, carnation, and 
pink, and many weeds. Named from 
Caryophyllus, the specific name of the 
carnation or clove-pink. 

Caryophyllata.* [From caryo- 
phyl'lus, the "clove-tree."] See Getji 

Car-y-o-phyl'Ie-ae.* The Jussieuan 
name of an order of plants. See Cary- 


Car-y-o-phyl'lic Ac/id. [From the 
same.] Eugenic acid; clove acid, or 
heavy oil of cloves : one of the two oils 
composing oil of cloves : the other is 
light oil, called clove hydro-carbon. 




Car-y-o-phyl'lin. [From the same.] 
Clove sub-resin ; a crystalline substance 
extracted from cloves by alcohol. 

Car-$ r -o-phyrium.* [From the 
same.] The Pharmacopoeial name (Brit. 
Ph.) for the unexpanded flower of Cary- 
ophyllus aromalicus. See Clove. 

Car-y-o-phyl'lus.* [From xapvov, a 
"nut," and </>t5AW, a "leaf," because sup- 
posed to be the leaf of the Indian nut 
plant.] A Linnaean genus of the class 
Polyandria, natural order Myrtacese. 
Also the Pharmacopoeial name (Ed. and 
U.S. Ph.) of the Clove, which see. 

Caryophyl'lus Ar-o-mat'I-cns.* 
The systematic name of the clove-tree. 
Also the Pharmacopoeial name (Dub. Ph.) 
for the clove. See Clove. 

Car-y-op'sis.* [From xapvov, a "nut," 
and oxptg, an "appearance."] In Botany, 
a one-seeded pericarp, adhering closely 
to the integument of the seed, as in oats, 
rice, etc. 

Cas-ca-ril'la.* [Diminutive of cas'- 
cara, the Spanish word for "bark."] 
The Pharmacopoeial name || of the bark 
of the Gro'ton eleuthe'ria. 

Cascarilla? Cortex.* ("Bark of 
Cascarilla.") See Cascarilla. 

Ca'se-in, Ca'se-ine, or Oa'se-um.* 
[From ca'seun, "cheese."] The albumen 
of milk ; the curd separated from milk 
by the addition of an acid or rennet, 
constituting the basis of cheese in a state 
of purity. 

Caseous, ka'she-us, or ka'se-us. 
[Caseo'sus; from ca'seus, "cheese."] 
Having, or full of, cheese : cheesy. 

Ca-shew'-Tree. The Anacar'dium 
Occidenta'le, a tree belonging to the 
natural order Anacardiaceie, found in 
the West Indies. It produces a kidney- 
shaped nut, yielding a caustic oil. which 
is used as a marking-ink, and also as a 
remedy for warts, etc. 

Cassava.* kas-sa'va. A fecula sepa- 
rated from the juice of the root of the 
Janipha Manihot, and exposed to heat; 
a principal article of diet in South 
America. The same substance differently 
prepared and granulated constitutes 


Casscrian (Ganglion). See Gas- 


Cassia,* kash'o-a. [Gr. xaaia, or xavaia.] 
A Linmean genus of the class Decandria, 
natural order Leguminosse. The Phar- 
macopoeial name (Brit. Ph.) of the 
fruit of Cas'sia fii'tula. Several spe- 
cies of the genus Cassia — e.g. C. antti- 
folia, G. elongata, and G. obnvata — 

produce the senna of commerce. Sea 

Cas'sia Fis'tu-la.* The purging cas- 
sia-tree. The Pharmacopoeial name (U.S. 
Ph.) for the fruit of the Cassia fistula. 

Cassia Lignea. See Laitrus Cassia. 

Cas'sia Jlar-I-lan'di-ca. 1 The 

Pharmacopoeial name (U.S. Ph.) for the 
leaves of Cassia Marilandica, or Ameri- 
can Senna. 

Cas'sia Oil. The common oil of cin- 
namon, procured from cassia. 

Cassia? (kash'e-e) Pul'pa.* ("Pulp 
of Cassia.") The Pharmacopoeial name 
(Ed. Ph.) for the fruit of Cas'sia fis' tula. 

Cassius (kash'e-iis), Pur'ple of. A 
purple-colored precipitate, obtained by 
mixing the proto-chloride of tin with a 
dilute solution of gold. 

Cassonade (Fr.), kas'so'nad'. Raw 
sugar; the crystallized and dried por- 
tion of sugar. 

Cassythacea?,* kas-se-tha'she-e. A 
natural order of exogenous parasitical 
plants, consisting of one genus, the Cas- 

Castaneav* kas-ta'ne-e, the plural 
of Cas-ta'ni-a, a "chesnut." A name 
given by some botanists to a natural 
order including the chesnut, oak, etc. 


Cas'tor. Another name for Casto- 
reum, which sec. 
Cas'tor Oil. [O'lenm Ric'ini.] 

An oil extracted from the seeds of the 
Hig f inu8 commit' nis ; one of the most 
valuable of purgatives, being at the same 
time mild and speedy in its operation. 

Cas-to're-um.* [From cas'tor, the 
"beaver."] The Pharmacopoeial name || 
of a peculiar concrete substance obtained 
from the follicles of the prepuce of the 
Cantor jibe r, or beaver. It is a moderate 
stimulant and antispasmodic. 

Cas-tor'I-da?.* [From cas'tor, the 
"beaver."] A family of animals, of 
which the Castor is the type. 

Cas'to-rin, or Cas'to-rlne. [Cas- 
tori'na; from casto' rcum.] The active 
matter of castoreum. 

Cas-tra'tion. [Castra'tio, o'nis ; 
from cax'tro, castra'tum, to "cut off," to 
"emasculate."] The removal of a testi- 
cle, or both ; orchotomy ; emasculation. 
Applied in Botany to the removal of the 
anthers of a flower. 

Cas-tren'sis.* [From cas'tra, a 
"camp."] Applied to diseases which 
soldiers encamped under unhealthy cir- 
cumstances are particularly liable to, as 
Febri8 castrensis, "camp-fever." 



[From Casuari'na, the name of one of 
the genera.] A curious natural order 
of exogenous trees without leaves, found 
in Australia. They are prized for their 
hard and heavy timber. 

Cat. = Cataplas'ma.* A "cataplasm." 

Ca'ta (Kara). A Greek preposition 
signifying, in composition, "against," 
"according to," but most frequently 
"down," as in catarrh (from Karafpico), 
literally, a "flowing down." It is often 
an intensive, as in Catacausis, Cata- 
clysm, and Catalepsy, which see. Be- 
fore a vowel and before h the final a is 
dropped. See Cation, Cathode, etc. 

Cat-a-can'sis.* [From Karaxaiw, to 
"burn completely up."] A term denoting 
the phenomenon called preternatural or 
spontaneous combustion. 

Cat'a-clysm. [Cataclys'mns; from 
KaraKXilw, to "inundate."] A deluge, or 
inundation. An affusion. 

Cat-a-cons'ti-ca :: ' (for pronunciation 
see Acoustic). [From Kara, "against," 
and olko -cj, to "hear."] That branch of 
Acoustics which treats of reflected sounds : 

Cat'a-lep-sy. [Catalep'sia,and Cat- 
alep'sis; from KaTaXapSdvoy, to "seize."] 
A total suspension of sensibility and 
voluntary motion, and, for the most 
part, of mental power, the action of the 
heart and lungs continuing: trance. 

Cat-a-lep'tic. [Catalep'ticus.] 

Belonging to catalepsy. 

Ca-tal'y-sis.* [From KardXvcj, to 
"dissolve."] A force or power which 
decomposes a compound body by mere 
contact: thus, peroxide of hydrogen is 
decomposed by contact with platinum, 
which is termed, in consequence, the 
catalytic a?ent. 

Cat-a-lyt'ic, Cat-a-lyt'I-cal. [Ca- 
talyt'icus.] Belonging to, or causing, 
Catalysis. Sometimes applied to a medi- 
cine supposed to destroy a morbific 
agency in the blood. See preceding 

Cat-a-me'ni-a,* gen. Cat-a-me-ni- 
o'rum, found only in the plural. 
[From Kara, "according to," and fA», a 
''month."] The monthly discharge from 
the uterus; otherwise called the menses, 
menstrual discharge, or courses, etc. See 

Cat-a-pHon'I-ca.* [From Kara, "a- 
gainst," and ipiosij, "sound."] That 
branch of Acoustics which treats of the 
reflection of sound : cataphon'ics. 

Ca«taph'o-ra. * [From Karcxpepopai, 

to "be weighed down," to "fall asleep."] 
The co'ma somnolen'tum of many writers ; 
a variety of lethargy, attended with 
short remissions, or intervals of imper- 
fect waking, sensation, and speech. 

Cat'a-plasm. [< 'ataplas ma, afwy 
from KaranXaaaui, to "overlay with plas- 
ter."] A soft application or poultice of 
bread, linseed-meal, oat-meal, etc., medi- 
cated or not. 

Catapotium,* kat-a-po'she-um. 

[From KaTamvoi, to "drink," to "gulp," 
to "swallow down."] A pill or medicine 
to be swallowed without chewing. 
Written also Catapotion. 

Cat'a-ract. [Catarac'ta; from 
KaTafpdoow, to "confound."] Obstructed 
sight, produced by opacity of the crys- 
talline lens or its capsule. 

Ca-ta'ri-a.* The Pharmacopceial 
name (U.S. Ph.) for the leaves of the 
Nep'eta cata'ria, or catnep. 

Ca-tarrh'. [Catar'rhns; from 
Karaj'picj, to "flow down."] A common 
cold in the head or chest ; also, Influenza; 
likewise the mucous fluid poured out by 
the bladder under disease or catarrh of 
that organ, the discharge in Leucorrhoea, 
or catarrh of the vagina. 

Ca-tarrh 'al. [Catarrha'lis.] Be- 
longing to catarrh. 

Cat-a-stag-'mus.* [From Kara, 
"down," and ordCw, to "drop," to "flow 
by drops."] A term applied by some 
medical writers to a defluxion from the 
fauces, etc. The same as Catarrh. 

Cat-a-stal'tic. [Catastal'ticns ; 
from KfzraoriXXoj, to "restrain."] Having 
power to restrain, check, or astringe. 
Applied to medicines that check evacua- 
tions, as astringent and styptic sub- 
stances ; the same as Anastaltic. Ap- 
plied by M. Hall to the action of the 
Vis nervosa, from above downwards. 

Catechu, kat'e-ku. [Said to be de- 
rived from the Japanese Kate, a "tree," 
and chu, "juice."] The Pharmacopceial 
name for an extract obtained chiefly 
from the wood of Acacia catechu. The 
term is applied to a variety of astringent 
extracts, which are imported under the 
names of terra japonica (Japan earth), 
cutch, and c/ambir. 

Cat-e-ehu'ic Ac'id. An acid (some- 
what resembling gallic acid) obtained 
by Buchner from catechu. 

Cath. = Cathar'ticus* "Cathartic." 

Cath-se-ret'ic, or Cath-e-ret'ic. 
[Cathreret'icus; from xadaipcco, to "re- 
move."] Mildly caustic, as nitrate of silver. 

Ca-thar'sis.* [From xaOaipoj, to 




"purge."] Purgation of the excrements, 
medically or naturally. 

Ca-tuar'tic. [Cathar'ticus; from 
the same.] Applied to a medicine which 
quickens or increases evacuation from 
the intestines, or produces purging. 

Ca*thar'tin. [Catharti'na ; from 
KaQaijiO), to "purge."] A peculiar princi- 
ple obtained from jalap and senna leaves, 
on which their purging quality depends. 

Ca-thar'to-car'pus Fis'tu-la.* 

Another name for the tree producing 
cassia. See Cassia Fistula. 

Cath'e-ter.* [Gr. KaOernp; from 
KaOa'im, to "thrust into."] A surgical 
instrument like a tube, closed, but with 
several small perforations towards the 
extremity, which is introduced into the 
bladder through the urethra for the pur- 
pose of drawing off the urine in cases of 
retention, etc. 

Cath'e-ter-is'mus.* [From cath'- 
eterJ] The operation of introducing the 
catheter : cath'eterism. 

Cath'ode. [From Kara, "down," and 
bS6g, a "way."] In electro-chemical 
action, that part of the decomposing 
body which the electric current leaves. 

Cath-od'ic. [Cathod'icus ; from 
Kara, "downwards," and Mo?, a "way."] 
Proceeding downwards. Applied by M. 
Hall to the course of action of the ner- 
vous influence. See Catastalticus. 

Ca-thol'I-con."* [From xaQohicos, 
"universal," "unchanging."] A pana- 
cea, or universal medicine. 

Ca'ti-ou.* [Gr. koltiov, the present 
participle of K<mip.i, to "go down," to 
"descend."] Literally, "descending," 
or "passing down." A term in electro- 
chemical action for a body that passes 
to the cathode of the decomposing body. 

Cat'ltin. The same as Amentum, 
which see. 

Cat'ling. A double-edged, sharp- 
pointed, straight knife for amputations. 

Catnep. See Cat aria. 

Cat'o-chc,*' or Cat'o-cuus.* [From 
koltexio, to "restrain," to "retain," to 
"keep."] A kind of catalepsy in which 
the body is kept rigidly in an erect pos- 

Cat-op'tric, Cat-op'trl-cal. [Cat* 
op'tricus; from Karonrpo", a "mirror."] 
Belonging to a mirror, or to Catoptrics. 

Cat-op'trics. [Catop'trica; from 
the same.] That branch of Optics which 
treats of the reflection of light. 

Cat's Eye. A mineral brought from 
Ceylon: so called from a peculiar play 
of light arising from white fibres inter- 

spersed. The French call this appear- 
ance chatoyant (sha v twa v yoN°'). 

Cat's Purr. A characteristic sound 
of the chest, heard by means of the 

Cat's Tail. The common name for 
the Typha. 

Cauda E-qui'na.* ("Horse-tail.") 
The termination of the spinal marrow, 
giving off a large number of nerves, 
which, when unravelled, resemble a 
horse's tail. 

Caudal. [Cauda'lis; from cau'da, 
a "tail."] Belonging to the tail. 

Cau'date. [Cauda'tus; from the 
same.] Having a tail. 

Cau'dex.* The trunk of a tree. In 
Botany, the stem, or ascending axis of 
growth, is termed caudcx ascendens ; the 
root, or descending axis, caudex descen- 

Cau-dic'u-la.* [Diminutive of cau'- 
da, a "tail."] A prolongation in cer- 
tain plants in the form of a filament, 
which bears the masses of pollen : a 
cau'dicule, or cau'dicle. 

Caul. The epiploon, or omentum. 
Sometimes applied to a portion of the 
amnion which occasionally envelops the 
child's head at birth. 

Cau-les'cent. [Cauies'ceus ; from 
cau'lis, a "stem," and -esco, a Latin ter- 
mination signifying to "grow."] Grow- 
ing to a stem. 

Cau-lic'u-lus.* [Diminutive of cau'- 
lis, a "stem."] The intermediary part 
of the embryo which has germinated 
between the cotyledons and the root; 
a cau'licule, or cau'licle. 

Cau-11-flo'rous. [Cauliflo'rus ; 

from cau'lis, a "stem," and fins, a "flow- 
er."] Having flowers on the stem. 

Cau'11-flow-er Ex-cres'cence. A 
disease of the os uteri, supposed by 
Gooch to be encephalosis. 

Cau'li-form. [Caulifor'mis; from 
cau'lis, a "stem."] Formed like a stem. 

Cau'Iiue. [Cauli'nus; from cau'lis, 
a "stem."] Belonging to a stalk or 
stem. Applied to leaves which arise 
directly from the stem. 

Cau-lo-car 'pous. [Caulocar 'peus ; 
from cau'lis, a "stem," and Kap-og, 
"fruit."] Having persistent stems, fre- 
quently bearing fruit. 

Cau'uia.a/M.- [From icaiio,to " burn."] 
The burning heat of fever. 

Caus'tic [Caus'ticus; from Ka'ao, 
to "burn."] Possessing causticity. As 
a noun (Lat. Caua'ticum) it denotes a 
substance which, by its chemical proper- 



ties, destroys the texture of organized 
bodies : such are the pure alkalies, the 
concentrated mineral acids, lunar caustic, 

Cans'tic Al'ka-11. An alkali com- 
paratively pure, or one which has not 
lost its caustic properties by combination 
with another substance, as, for example, 
with carbonic acid, or with oil. 

Caustic, Lunar. See Lunar Caustic. 

Caustic Potash. See Potassa. 

Caus-tic'i-ty. [Caustic'itas, a'tis; 
from caus'ticus.] The quality which 
distinguishes caustic substances. See 

Caus'ti-cum A-cer'rI-mum* (the 
superlative degree of a'cer, " sharp"). 
The old name for caustic potash, — the 
strongest common caustic. 

Cau'sus.'* [Gr. icavco;, a "burning 
heat."] A variety of malignant remittent 
fever : so named on account of its ex- 
cessive heat. It has been termed fe'bris 
ar'clens, "ardent" or "burning fever." 

Cau-ter-I-za'tion. [Cauteriza'- 
tio, o'»/«.] The act of applying the 

Cau'ter-y. [Caute'riiim; from kcliio, 
to "burn," or more directly from *ai>r/j- 
ptov,SL " red-hot iron" or " branding-iron."] 
The application of a caustic substance, 
or of a hot iron ; also, the hot iron or 
substance thus applied. 

Cau'tery, Ac'tu-al. [Caute'rium 
Actua'le.] The employment of actual 
burning (i.e. heated iron, fire, etc.) for 
the cure or removal of a diseased part. 
See Actual Cautery. 

Cau'tery, Po-ten'tial. [Caute'ri- 
nm Potentia'lis.] The application 
of caustic substances, as potassa, lunar 
caustic, etc. 

Cav'er-nous. [Caverno'sus ; from 
carer' na, a "cavern."] Having cells or 

Cavernous Si'nus. A sinus on the 
base of the cranium. 

Cawk. A name sometimes given to 
the sulphate of barytes, or heavy spar. 

Cayenne (ka-yen') Pep'per. The 
ground pods and seeds of the Cajjsicum 
annuum; Guinea pepper. 

C. C. = Cucurbit 1 ula Oruen'ta.* A 

C. C. = Cor'nu Cer'vi.* Hartshorn. 

C C. V. = Cor'nu Cer'vi Ua'tum* 
Burnt hartshorn. 

Ceanothus. See Red Root. 

Cebadilla (Sp.), sa-Ba-Deel'y&. The 
seeds of the Anagrea officinalis, a plant 
of the order Melanthacese. See Veratria. 

The name of a genus 

Ce'eal. [Caeca'lis.] Belonging to 
the Osectim. See Cjecal. 

Cecum. See Caecum. 

Cedrelacca?,* sed-re-la'she-e. An 
important natural order of trees (includ- 
ing Cedrela and Mahogany) found in 
the tropics of America and India. In 
general the bark is a powerful astrin- 
gent, and the wood fragrant. The bark 
of the Cedre'la too'na and of Mahogany 
is febrifugal; the former is astringent, 
and a tolerably good substitute for Peru- 
vian bark in intermittent fevers. 

Ce'dron. The common name of the 
Sima'ba Ce'dron, a tree growing in 
South and Central America. The seeds 
are considered to be a remedy for snake- 
bites and other animal poisons. The 
raspings of the wood have been used in 
intermittents as a substitute for quinine. 

Celandine. See Chelidonium. 

Celastraceav* sel-as-tra'she-e. 

[From Celas'trus, one of the genera.] A 
natural order of shrubs, which have 
acrid properties, sometimes stimulant. 
The Euonymus (Spindle-Tree, or Burn- 
ing Bush) is an example. 

of plants of the class Pentandria, natu- 
ral order Celastracar. 

Celas'trus Scan'dens* (the " Climb- 
ing Celastrus"), sometimes called the 
Climbing Staflf-tree and False Bitter- 
sweet. A climbing shrub common in 
the United States: the bark is said to 
possess narcotic as well as emetic and 
diaphoretic properties. 

£e'le.* [Gr. /c»';X^.] A word formerly 
used for hernia ; now, added as a suffix 
to another word, it signifies a tumor 
caused by protrusion of some soft part 
or parts denoted by the first portion of 
the term, as Entcrocele, Epiplocele, etc.; 
also, swelling of a part, as Sarcocele; 
or its enlargement by the presence of 
fluid, as Hydrocele. 

Cel'es-tine. [From cse'lum, the 
" sky."] Sulphate of strontian ; so named 
from its frequently presenting a blue 

Cell. [Cel'la; supposed to be de- 
rived from ce'lo, to "conceal."] Lite- 
rally, a "cellar" or "cavity," hence, 
any hollow space. In Botany the term 
is applied to the cavity or cavities of a 
pericarp in which the seeds are lodged. 
According to the number of these cavi- 
ties, a pericarp is termed one-celled, ttco- 
celled, etc. It also denotes the cavity 
of an anther, ovary, etc. In Physiology, 
a cell or cellule constitutes the origin or 




commencement of every plant and ani- 
mal, and the elementary form of every 
tissue. In fact, the entire organized 
body, whether animal or vegetable, may 
be considered to be made up of a conge- 
ries of cells, each set having its own 
appropriate endowment or function, as 
nutrition, secretion, absorption, etc. 

Cell-Nucleus. See Cytoblast. 

Cell-The'o-ry. The theory or pro- 
position that there exists one general 
principle for the formation of all organic 
productions, — i.e. the formation of cells ; 
also, the conclusions drawn from this 

Cell'u-lar. [Cellula'ris; from eel', 
lula.] Having, or consisting of, cells. 
See Cellular Tissue. 

Cell'ular Plants [termed in Latin 
Cellula'res]. A name sometimes ap- 
plied to cryptogamous plants. 

Cell'ular Tis'sue. [Te'la Cellu- 
la'ris and Te'la Cellulo'sa; Fr. Tissu 
cellulaire, te'sii' seTii'laiR'.] Called also 
Cell'ular 3Iem'brane. The most com- 
mon of all the organic tissues, consti- 
tuting the net-work which connects the 
minute parts of most of the structures 
of the body. It has also been called 
Are'olar Tis'sue, on account of the 
areolae, or interstices, with which it 
abounds. See Areolar. 

Cell'ule. [Cel'lula, the diminutive 
ofcel'/a, a "cell."] A little cell. See Cell. 

Cell'u-lose. [From cel'lula.] The 
substance of which the cellular tissue of 
plants is chiefly composed. 

Ce-lot'o-my. [Celoto'mia; from 
^■^7X77, a "tumor," "hernia," and reiiva, to 
"cut."] The operation for hernia. 

Ce'ment. [Csemen'tum.] Any 
substance used for cementing together 
what may have been broken, as lute, 
solder, etc. Also, a composition by which 
metals are changed. See Tooth. 

Ceni-cn-ta'tion. [Crementa'tio, 
o'nin; from cvemen'tum.] A process by 
which metals are purified or changed in 
their qualities by heat without fusion, 
by means of a composition, called a ce- 
ment, with which they are covered. 

Ce-iiot'i-ca.* [From Kkvuiu;, "evacu- 
ation."] Morbid [fluid] evacuations or 
discharges. The name of an order in 
Dr. Good's class Genetica. 

Cen-tau'ri-i Ca-cu'ml-na.* The 
tops of the Erythriea ccntaurium ; di- 
rected for use by the Colleges of London 
and Edinburgh. See Erythriea. 

Cen-tau'ri-um.* [From Kivravpos, a 
"centaur."] The Pharmacopceial name 

(Ed. Ph.) of Erythriea centaurium, tho 
medicinal properties of which are similar 
to those of Gentian. 

Cen-tI-ft>'lI-ous. [Cent ifo 'litis ; 
from cen'tum, a "hundred," and folium, 
a "leaf."] Having a hundred leaves. 

Cen'tl-g-rade. [Centig'radus; 

from cen'tum, a "hundred," and yra'dus, 
a "grade."] Having a hundred grades 
or degrees. Applied to a French ther- 
mometer thus divided. 

Centigramme, sen'te-gram. French 
pronunciation, soN G te'gramm'. [From 
cen'tum, a "hundred," and gram' ma, a 
" gramme."] The hundredth of a gramme, 
equal to 0.154 of a grain avoirdupois, or 
one-sixth of a grain troy. 

Centilitre, soN'te-letr'. [Fr. cent, a 
"hundred," and li'tre.] The one-hun- 
dredth part of a litre ; equal to 0.6102 
of an English cubic inch. 

Centimetre, sen-te-me'tr, or soN'te- 
metR'. [Fr. cent, a "hundred," and 
mitre."] The one-hundredth part of a 
metre ; equal to 0.394, or two-fifths, of 
an English inch. 

Cen'ti-pede. [Cen'tipes, v'edis; 
from cen'tum, a "hundred," and pes, a 
"foot."] Having a hundred feet, or 
many feet. The name of an animal (or 
insect) having many feet. 

Cen'trad. [From ad, "to" or "to- 
wards," and cen'trum, the "centre."] 
Applied the same as Central used ad- 

Cen'tral. [Centralis; from cen'- 
trum, the "centre."] Applied by Dr. 
Barclay to the body and organs gene- 
rally, as meaning towards the centre. 

Cen'tre of Grav'i-ty. That point 
in a body about which all the parts 
exactly balance one another, so that, if 
that point be supported, every part would 
be in sequilibrio and the whole body be 
at rest. 

Cen'tres, Ner'vons. The brain, 
spinal cord, and sympathetic ganglia. 

Cen-trif'u-gal. [Centrif'ugus; 
from cen'trum, the "centre," and fu'yio, 
to "fly."] Flying from the centre. 

Centrif 'ugal Force. That force by 
which a body moving in a circular orbit, 
and striving (according to the laws of 
forces) to proceed in a straight course, 
tends to fly off from the centre in a 
tangent to the orbit. 

Cen-trip'e-tal. [Centrip'etus ; 

from cen'trum, the "centre," and pe'to, 
to "seek."] Tending towards the 

Centripetal Force. That force by 



•which a body moving round another 
tends or is impelled to the centre. 

Cen-tro-stal'tie. [Centrostal'ti- 
cus; from cen'trum, the "centre," and 
stal' liens, "staltic."] Applied by M. 
Hall to the action of the 17* nervosa in 
the spinal centre. 

Gen'trant* [Gr. xivrpov; from kcv- 
t£w, to "prick" or "pierce."] Literally, 
a "centre." Applied by Owen, in Com- 
parative Anatomy, to the hornologues of 
the body of a vertebra. 

Centrum Com-mn'ne.* Literally, 
the "common centre" [of nerves or of 
ganglia]. The solar plexus. 

Centrum Ovale (of Vicq O'Azyr). 
See Vicq D'Azvr, etc. 

Centrum Ovale- (of Vienssens). 
See Vieussexs, etc. 

Ceph-a-e'lis.* A Linnasan genus of 
the class Petttandria, natural order Cin- 

Cephae'lis Ip-e-eac-n-an'ha.* The 
plant from which ipecacuanha is obtained. 

Ceph-a-lae'a.* [From KtyaXf), the 
" head."] A term for diseases of the head. 

Ceph a-la?-ma-to'ma,* or Ceph'a- 
lo-Ii:e-ina-to ma. [From K£<paXf\, the 
"head," and aJ/xa, "blood."] A san- 
guineous tumor, sometimes occurring in 
new-born children. 

Ceph-a-la?'mi-a. ;;: ' [From x£<paXfi, the 
"head," and aifia, "blood."] Congestion 
of the head or of the brain. 

Cophal'a-g-ra.* [From Kt6a\fi, the 
"head," and aypa, a "seizure."] Chronic 
pain of the head, gouty or rheumatic. 

Ceph-a-lal'gl-a.* [From wpaXrj, the 
"head," and SXyos, "pain."] Headache, 
or pain in the head : ceph'alalgy. 

£e-phal'ie. [Cephal'icus; from 
K£<pa\rj, the "head."] Belonging to the 

Cephal'ic Vein. The anterior vein 
of the arm ; formerly opened in disor- 
ders of the head. 

Cephalitis. See Encephalitis. 

Ceph'a-Io-. [From Kc6a\fi,the "head."] 
This, in compound names of muscles, etc., 
denotes connection with the head. 

Cepha-lo-tlyn's-a.* [From Kt^aXfj, 
the "head," and idvvrj, "pain."] Head- 
ache ; pain in the head. 

£ephal-o-£en'e-sis.* [From wbaXfi, 
the "head," and yhcon;, "generation," 
or "creation."] The doctrine of the 
formation of the brain. 

Ceph-a-log-'ra-phy. [Cephalo- 

g-ra'phia; from ro^aXi}, the "head," and 
ypi'i<P<o, to "write."] A description of 


Cephaloha?matoma. See Ceph- 

Ceph'a-Ioid. [Cephaloi'des; from 
KBtfiakri, the "head."] Resembling the 

Ceph-a-lol'o-g-y. [CephaloSo'gia ; 
from KEcpaXr), the "head," and Aoyoj, a 
"discourse."] A treatise on the head; 
the science of the head considered in its 
anatomical and physiological aspects. 

Ceph-a-lo'ma.* [From KtyaXfi, the 
"head."] A medullary tumor; a mor- 
bid product resembling brain, sometimes 
called encephaloid, or cerebriform tumor, 
medullary sarcoma, etc. 

Ceph-a-lom'e-ter. [Cephalom'e- 
trum ; from «#aA»j, the " head," and 
fttrpov, a "measure."] An instrument 
for ascertaining the size of the foetal 
head during parturition. 

Ceph'a-lo-phar-yn-g , a»'us.* [From 
K£<{>a\}j, the " head," and (papvy%, the 
"pharynx."] A designation of the con- 
strictor superior pharyngis muscle. 

Ceph-a-Ioph'o-ra. ;: [From Ke$a\fj, the 
" head," and ebipw, to " bear;" because sup- 
ported by their heads.] See Cepha- 

Cephalopoda, or Ceph'alopods. 
See Cephalopopus. 

Ceph'a-lop'o-dus.* [From K£<paXfj, 
the "head," and vov^, a "foot."] Ceph- 
alop'odous. Applied in the neuter plural 
[Cephalop'oda, or Ceph'alopods) to a 
class of MoUusea in which the strong 
fleshy members by means of which they 
crawl proceed from the head, — in other 
words, the head is situated between the 
body and the feet. 

£eph'a-lot.* [From Kcc/aXfj, the 
u head."] A peculiar fat i'ound in the brain, 
containing phosphorus and sulphur. 

Ceph'a-lo-tho'rax.* [From Kc<f>a\fi, 
the " head," and d , pa£, the " chest."] The 
first segment of the Araehnida and Crus- 
tacea, including in one what in insects 
is divided into head and thorax. 

Ceph'a-Io-toine. [Cephalot'omns; 
from KtpaXri, the " head," and riinoi, to 
"cut."] An instrument for cutting or 
breaking down the head of the foetus. 
There are various forms and adaptations 
of it. 

Ceph-a-lot'o-my. [Cephaloto'- 
niaa: from ncaAaXif, the "head," and rt/xicj, 
to "cut."] Dissection of the head ; also, 
the cutting or breaking down of the 
fcetal head. 

Ceph'a-lo-tribe.* [From K£6aXfi, 
the " head," and rpiScj, to " break down."] 
An instrument intended to supersede tho 




orotchet and perforator in the operation 
of craniotomy. 

Ce'ra.* [Gr. Kr\p6<;, "wax; Fr. Cire, 
seR.] Wax. The Pharmacopoeial name 
(Brit. Ph.) of bleached yellow wax. A 
membrane covering the base of the beak 
of birds in which the nostrils are pierced. 

Cera Alba.* ("White Wax.") Yel- 
low wax bleached. 

Ce'ra Fla'va.* ("Yellow Wax.") 
Bees'- wax in its natural state; "a pecu- 
liar concrete substance prepared by Apia 
mellifica" (U.S. Ph.). 

Ce-ra'ceous. [Cera'ceus; from 
ce'ra, "wax."] Of the appearance or 
consistence of wax. 

Ceramiacere,* se-ram-e-a'she-e. 

[From Cera'mium, one of the genera.] 
A natural order of cryptogamous plants, 
consisting of sea-weeds (A/gee). It in- 
cludes several species which are gelati- 
nous and valuable for food. Among 
these are the Dulse of the Scots, and 
Carrageen moss. The esculent nests of 
the Chinese swallow are supposed to 
derive their value from a plant of this 
order. — (Lindley.) 

Cerat, sa'ra'. The French term for 
Cerate. See Ceratum. 

Ce-ra'ta,* the plural of Ceratum, 
which see. 

Cerate. See Ceratum. 

Cer-a-ti'tis.* [From Ktpa;, a "horn."] 
The same as Corneitis, which see. 

Ce-ra'to-. [From Kepag, a "horn."] 
A prefix denoting connection with the 
coma or horn of the hyoid bone, or with 
the cornea. 

Ce-rai o-brau'ehl-al. [Cerato- 

brauchia'lis; from cera'to, and lipay- 
Xia, the "gills."] Applied in Comparative 
Anatomy to the longer bent pieces, sup- 
ported by the bones which form the 
lower extremities of the branchial arches 
in fishes. 

Ce-rat'o-cele.* [From Ktpa$ , a " horn," 
and KnM, a "tumor."] A hernia of the 

Ce-rat'o-jjlos'sns.* [From cera'to, 
and y\'2(roa, the "tongue."] A name for 
the Hyo-glossus muscle, from its appear- 
ance and insertion : cerat'oglossal. 

£e-rat o-hy al. [Ceratohya'lis ; 
from Kcpn;, a ''horn," and hyoi'des, "hy- 
oid."] Applied by Owen to the lower 
and larger of the two principal parts of 
the cornu of the hyoid bone. 

Cer'a-toi«l. [Ceratol des: from 
Kcpas, a "horn," and ado;, a "form."] 
Resembling a horn. 

Ceratoma. See Keratoma. 

Ceratonyxis. See Keratonyxis. 
Ceratopliyllacea;,* se-rat'o-fil-la'- 
she-e, or Ce-rat'o-phyl'le-av* A 

natural order of plants, consisting of one 
genus, Ceratojjhyllum, a weed found in 
ditches and constantly submerged. 

Ce-rat o-plas'ti-ca.* [From xepas, a 
"horn," and nXaaaco, to "form."] The 
artificial formation of the cornea: cer'- 

Cer-a-to'sns.* [From Ktpa;, a "horn."] 
Having, or containing, horn ; full of horn. 

Ce-rat'o-tome. [Ceratot'omus ; 
from Ktpat;, a " horn," and 7-c^kj, to "cut."] 
A knife for dividing the cornea. 

Cer-a-tot'o-my. [Ceratoto'mia; 
from Kcpas, a " horn," and riyno}, to "cut."] 
Cutting of the cornea. 

Ce-ra'tum,* plural Ce-ra'ta. [From 
ce'ra, "wax."] Ce'rate. A compound k 
ointment in which wax predominates as 
an ingredient, and which is, therefore, 
of a somewhat firmer consistency than 
common ointments. Also applied to 
compounds of a similar consistency, 
though not containing wax. 

Cera'tum Ad'i-pis.* ("Cerate of 
Lard.") The Pharmacopoeial name 
(U.S. Ph., 1860) for simple cerate. See 
Ceratum Simplex. 

Cera'tum Can-thar'I-dis.* ("Ce- 
rate of Cantharides.") The common 
blistering plaster (or salve) of the shops. 
It is composed of twelve parts of pow- 
dered cantharides, of yellow wax and 
resin each seven parts, and of lard ten 

Cera'tum Plum'bi Sub-ac-e-ta'- 
tis.* (" Cerate of Subacetatc of Lead.") 
The Pharmacopoeial name for what is 
commonly called Goulard's Cerate, 
which see. 

Cera'tum Re-si'un?.* ("Cerate of 
Resin.") The Pharmacopoeial name for 
what is popularly known as Basilicon 
Ointment. See Basilicon'. 

Cera'tum Simplex '■■■ ("Simple Ce- 
rate") is prepared by melting together 
eight parts of lard and four of white 
wax, and stirring the mixture until it is 
cool. Used as a mild and emollient ap- 
plication to inflamed surfaces. 

Cerchnus,* serk'nus. [Gr. Kepxios; 
from Kfpxcj, to "render hoarse."] A noisy 
respiration : wheezing. 

Ce're-al. [Cerea'lss: from Ceres, the 
goddess of Corn.] Pertaining to corn. 

Ce-re-a'li-a.* [From cerea'lis, "be- 
longing to Ceres."] All sorts of corn ; 
of which bread or any nutritious sub* 
stance is made. 



Ce're-a-lin. [Cereali'na; from 
Ceres, the goddess of Corn.] The nu- 
tritious principle of flour. 

Cer-e-bel-li'tis. :i: [From cerebellum.] 
Inflammation of the cerebellum. 

Cer-e-bel'Ium.* [Diminutive of 
cer'ebrum, the "brain."] (Fr. Cervelet, 
seRv'la'.) The little brain, situated at 
the lower and back part of the cranium. 
It was considered by Gall to be the scat 
of venereal desire; but this view is con- 
tradicted by many facts. 

Cer e-bral. [Cerebra'Iis; from 
cer'ebrum, the "brain."] Belonging to 
the brain ; brain-like. 

Cer-e'bric. [Cereb'ricus ; from 
cer'ebrum, the "brain."] Applied to a 
fatty acid existing in the brain in com- 
bination with soda. 

Cer-e'brl-form. [Cerebrifor 'mis ; 
from cer'ebrum, the "brain."] Like the 
form or substance of the brain ; encepha- 

CeVe-brin, or Ce>'e-brlne. [Cer- 
ebri'na; from cer'ebrum, the "brain."] 
A reddish, fatty substance found in the 

Cdr-e-bri'tis.* [From cerebrum, 
the " brain."] Inflammation of the brain. 
See Encephalitis. 

C£r'e-bro-. A prefix in compound 
terms denoting connection with the 

C£r'e-broid. [Cerebroi'des; from 
cer'e6/-M/H,the"brain."] Resembling brain. 

CeVe-brot.* [From cer'ebrum, the 
"brain."] The same as Cephalot. 

Cer'e-brum.* [From <dpa, the " head ;" 
Fr. Cerveau, sSr'vo', and Cervelle, sSr'- 
vcdl'.] The brain proper, occupying 
the entire upper portion of the cranium, 
and separated from the cerebellum by 
the tentorium. It is divided on its upper 
surface, bj' a deep median cleft, into two 
equal portions, called hemispheres, which 
are united at the base by a hard body, 
called the corpus callosum, or commissnra 
magna. The lower surface of the cere- 
brum is divided into three lobes, called 
anterior, middle, and posterior. 

The brain is primarily composed of two 
substances, the one white, medullary, 
and fibrous, constituting the interior 
portion, the other gray, or cineritious, 
situated chiefly on the surface. 

Cerevisia, * ser-e-vish'e-a. [As if Ce- 
teris vis in aqua, the "strength of corn 
in water."] Any liquor brewed from 
corn ; ale ; beer. 

Cerevisia* Fer-men'tum.* ("Lea- 
ver or Yeast of Beer.") Yeast, or barm. 

CeVic Acid. [From ce'ra, " wax."] 
An acid produced by the action of the 
fixed alkalies on wax. 

Ce'rin, or Ce'rlne. [Ceri'na; from 
ce'ra, " wax."] A component of common 
wax which dissolves in sixteen times its 
weight of boiling alcohol, and has pro- 
perties almost exactly the same as those 
of wax. 

Ce'rI-um.* A white metal found in 
a Swedish mineral called cerite, also in 
allanite. See Tellurium. 

Cer'nn-ous. [Cer 'mi us; from cer'~ 
nuo, to "bow downward."] Nodding, 
or stooping. 

Ce-ro'ma.* [From icripSf, "wax."] 
Another name for Cerate. Sometimes 
applied to an adipose tumor of the brain, 
from its waxy appearance; called also 
lardaceous degeneration. 

Cer'u-lin. [Creruli'na; from ctt- 
ru'lus, "blue."] The name given to the 
coloring matter of a peculiar substance 
obtained from indigo by the action of 
sulphuric acid. 

Ce-ru'inen,* gen. Ce-rii'miii-is. 
[From ce'ra, "wax."] Ear-wax. The 
wax-like secretion of the ear given out 
by follicles of the inner surface of the 
Meatus audiforius externus. 

Ce-ru'mi-nous. [C'erumiiio'sns ; 
from ceru'men.] Belonging to the ceru- 
men ; of the nature of cerumen. 

Ce'riise, or Ce'russe. [Cerus'sa ; 
from Kiip, a "plague," "death," or "poi- 
son ;" from its poisonous qualities.] The 
subcarbonate of lead; white lead. 

Cerveau, Cervelle. See Cerebrum. 

Cervelet. See Cerebellum. 

Cer'vl-cal. [Cervica'lis; from cer'- 
vix. the "neck."] Belonging to the neck. 

Cer'vl-dse.* [From cer'vus, a "stag."] 
A family of animals having the Cervus 
for their type. 

Cer'vix, i'c>«.* The neck, more 
particularly the back part. Also applied 
to those parts of organs that are nar- 
rowed like a neck., 

Cervoise, seR'vwaz'. The French 
term for beer. See Cerevisia. 

Cer'vns.* [From xepas, a "horn."] 
A "stag." Also the name of a genus of 
Ma m m a I in R u m in a ntia. 

Cer'vus El'e-plias.* The systematic 
name of the stag, the horns of which 
afford some valuable medicines. See 


Ces'pl-tdse. [Cespito'sus; from 
ces'pes, ces'pitis, a "turf."] Producing 
many stems from one root, forming a 
surface of turf or sod. 




Cetacea,* se-ta'she-a, or Cetaceans, 

se-ta'shuns. [From ce'tus, a "whale."] 
An order of Mammalia living in the sea, 
including the whale,dolphin,porpoise,etc. 
They breathe air, have warm blood, and 
can remain but a limited time under water. 
As they are often compelled to come to 
the surface for air, to facilitate their as- 
cent and descent, they are furnished with 
a horizontal tail-fin, and are thus ob- 
viously distinguished from the true fishes, 
in which the tail-fin is vertical. 

Ce-ta'ceons. [Ceta'ceus ; from 
ce'tus, a " whale."] Belonging to the 
whale; of the nature of the whale. 

Cetaceum,* se-ta'she-iim. [From 
ce'tus, a " whale."] The Pharmacopoeial 
name || of spermaceti, an oily, concrete, 
crystalline, semi-transparent matter ob- 
tained from several species of whale, 
but chiefly the Physe'ter macroceph' alus. 

Ce'tic Ac'id. A supposed peculiar 
acid resulting from the saponification of 
cetin, found to be only a mixture of 
margaric acid and cetin. 

Ce'tin. [Ceti'na; from ce'tus, a 
"whale."] Another name for spermaceti. 

Ce-tra'ri-a.* The Pharmacopoeial 
name || of the Cetraria Islandica, or Ice- 
land moss. 

Cetra'ria Is-lan'dl-ca.* The sys- 
tematic name of Iceland moss, otherwise 
called Lichen Islandicus and Lichen Ce- 

Ce-tra'rin. [Cetrari'na.] The bit- 
ter principle of the Cetraria Islandica. 

Ce-vad'ic Ac'id. An acid produced 
by the saponification of the oil of the 
Veratrum Sabadilla or Cevadilla, some- 
times called Sabadilic acid. 

Ceyloai Moss. See Jafna Moss. 

Chaff. See Palea. 

Chailletiacea?,* kil-le-te-a'she-e. 
[From Chaille'tia, the name of one of the 
genera.] A natural order of exogenous 
trees or shrubs, found in hot climates. 

Cha-la'sis.* The name given by 
Sauvages to the porcine species of scrofula. 

Cha-la'za.* [Gr. xciXa^z, a " hail- 
stone."] A small tumor or tubercle 
found chiefly on the eyelid. See Chala- 
zion. In Botany, applied to an enlarge- 
ment of the raphe, where it joins the 
base of the nucleus. In the plural 
(Chalazse) it denotes two spiral bodies, 
situated one at each end of the egg, the 
apex of each adhering to the yelk. 

Cha-la'zl-on,* Cha-la'zl-nm.* 

[From the same.] A small, transparent 
tubercle on the edge of the eyelid ; called 
also Chalaza. 

Cba-la-zo'sis.* [Gr. xaXd£ow<y.] Tho 
same as Chalaza and Chalazion. 

Cbal-can'thnm.* [From x^«6g, 
"brass," and avdo s , a "flower."] The 
"flowers of brass," or the sulphate of 
zinc ; Pliny's term for copperas, or the 
sulphate of iron. 

Cbal-ced'o-nous, or Chal-ce-do'- 
ni-ous. [Chalced'onns, Chalcedon'- 
iens.] Having the external characters 
or appearance of chalcedony. 

Chal-ced'o-ny (or kal'se-do-ne). 
[From Ckalce'don, a town of Asia Minor 
where it was originally found.] A sili- 
ceous stone, much used in jewelry. 

Chaleur, sha'luR'. The French word 
for "caloric" or "heat." See Caloric. 

Chalk, chawk. [Lat. Cre'ta; Fr. 
Craie, kna.] Carbonate of lime ; whiten- 

Chalk, Black. Drawing-slate ; 
a bluish-black clay, containing about 
twelve per cent, of carbon. 

Chalk, Red. A species of argillaceous 
iron ore. 

Chalk, Spasi'ish. Steatite, or soap- 

Chalk-Stone. [Cal'cnlns Arthrit'- 
iens, or Cal'culus Podag'ricns.] A 
concretion deposited in the hands and 
feet of those afflicted with gout, resem- 
bling chalk, though chemically different; 
gout-stone. They consist chiefly of uric 
acid and soda, sometimes, though rarely, 
of urate of lime. 

Cha-lyb'e-ate. [Chalybea'tus; 
from xatosty, gen. xdAnfoj, "iron" or 
"steel."] Containing iron j impregnated 
with iron. 

Chalybeate Wa'ters. Mineral 
waters whose predominating or active 
principle is iron. There are two kinds : 
the carbonated, containing carbonate of 
the protoxide of iron ; and the sulphu- 
rated, containing sulphate of iron. Some 
of the latter contain sulphate of alumina, 
and are called aluminous sulphated cha- 

Chamaceav* ka-ma'she-e, or Cha- 
maceans, ka-ma'shans. [From cha'ma, 
a "clam."] A family of acephalous 
mollusks, of which the common clam is 
the type. 

Cha-mae'le-on.* A name ghen to 
certain thistles, from the variety and 
uncertainty of their colors, like the 
changing hues of the chameleon. 

Cha-maile-on'I-da?.* [From cha- 
mie'leon.~\ A family of Reptilia Sauric:, 
having the chameleon for its type. 

Chamrelianciaccse,* ka-me-le-an- 



ge-a'she-e. A natural order of plants, 
allied to the Myrtleblooms, fuund in 
Australia. They are bushes with fra- 
grant leaves. 

Cham-ic-me'liim.* [From xaipai, 
"on the ground," and pr\\ov, an "apple;" 
so named, probably, on account of its 
globe-like flowers, or perhaps from its 
fragrance being supposed to resemble 
that of apples.] Literally, "ground- 
apple;" one of the names of the An'the- 
mia nob' His, or chamomile. 

Chamamie'luin Nob'I-le.* The 
Anthemis nobilis. 

Chambers of the Eye. See Ca- 

■€ha-me'le-on Min'e-ral. A com- 
bination of black oxide of manganese 
and potash, which gives a green color to 
water, passes gradually through all the 
shades of the prism, and at last becomes 

Cham'o-mile. [See ChamjEmelttm.] 
The popular name for the An'themis 
nob'ilis. An infusion of the flowers of 
this plant forms an excellent bitter tonic. 

Ciiam-o-niiria Ro-ma'na.* An- 
other name for the Anthemis nobilis. 

Chancre,shank'er; Fr. pronunciation, 
shoxkR. [A French corruption of the Latin 
cancer.] A sore or ulcer arising from the 
direct application of the syphilitic poison. 

Chan'doo'. An extract of opium 
prepared by the Chinese for smoking. 

Change of Life. In popular language, 
the constitutional disturbance often at- 
tending the cessation of the menstrual 
discharge in females. 

Chanvre. See Cannabis Sativa. 

Characeav* ka-ra'she-e. [From 
Cha'rct, one of the genera.] A natural 
order of cryptogamous, aquatic plants, 
remarkable for the distinctness with 
which the rotation of their fluids may be 
seen under a microscope. See Chara 

Char'ac-ters,-€hem'I-cal. Various 
systems of these have been introduced, 
but are now almost entirely discarded 
from use. Abbreviations and contrac- 
tions are employed instead. See Ap- 

Chara His'pi-da.* A submersed, 
"\eafless, aquatic plant, interesting to the 
physiologist as displaying the special 
circulation in plants, and as being analo- 
gous in Botany to the frog in Zoology. 

Char'coal commonly denotes coal 
from burnt wood (or carbo ligni), but is 
often used indefinitely for the residue of 
any animal or vegetable and of many 

mineral substances when heated to red- 
ness in close vessels. There are several 
varieties of charcoal, termed gas-carbon, 
lamp-black, wood-charcoal, coke, and 

Charpie (Fr.), shar-pee'. A sub- 
stance composed of a collection of fila- 
ments separated from morsels of old 
linen rag, used as lint. 

Chartreux, Poudre de, poodR deh 
shaR v truh'. See Kermes Mineral. 

Chay Root, or Cha'ya Root. The 
root of the Oldenlan' dia umbella'ta, used 
for giving the beautiful red of the 
Madras cottons. 

Cheek. See Bucca, Gena, Mala. 

Cheek'-Rone. The Os juya'le, Os 
ma'lse, or Os zygomat' icum. 

Cheese. [Lat. Ca'seus; Fr. Fromage, 
fro'mazh'.] A substance prepared from 
milk, composed chiefly of casein mixed 
with a small but variable proportion of 
oil (butter). See Casein. 

Cheese Ren'net. The popular name 
for Galium Verum, which see. 

Cheiloplastic, ki-lo-plas'tik. [Chei- 
loplas'ticus.] Belonging to the ope- 
ration of cheiloplasfy. 

Cheiloplasty, ki'lo-plas-te. [Chei- 
loplas'tice; from \eT\os, the "lip," and 
nXaacrcj, to " form."] The operation of 
supplying deficiencies of the lips by ap- 
propriating a sufficient portion of the 
neighboring healthy substance to that 

Cheiroptera. See Cheiropterus. 

Cheiropterus,'* ki-rop'ter-us. 

[From \zip, the "hand," and irrepov, a 
"wing."] Literally, "hand-winged," — 
that is, having both wings and hands. 
Applied in the plural neuter {Cheirop- 
tera') to a family of Mammalia that have 
a fold of skin extending from the neck 
between their fore-feet and toes, enabling 
certain of them to fly, as the bat-tribe : 

Che'la.* [Gr. XnM.~\ A Latin word 
signifying "claw," but found in the 
Roman writers only in the plural, Che'- 
la?. It is applied in Natural History 
especially to the claws of the crab, lob- 
ster, and other Crustaceans. 

Chela? Cancrorum. See Cancro- 
rum, Lapilli et Chel.e. 

Che-lic'e-ra.* [From che'la, a 
"claw," and xipas, a "horn."] In the plu- 
ral (Cheli(;'erse) applied to the prehensile 
organs of certain Arachnides, terminated 
by two fingers, or a single one resem- 
bling a hook or claw. 

Chel-I-do'nl-uiii.* [From \t\i6 uv, a 




"swallow," because its flowering coin- 
cides in time with the appearance of the 
swallow.] The Celandine (sel'an-din), 
a genus of plants belonging to the Lin- 
na?an class Polyandria, natural order 

Chelido'nium Ma 'jus.* (The 
"Greater Celandine.") An herb, the 
yellow juice of which has been employed 
as an escharotic to destroy warts. 

Che-lif'er-ous. [Chelif 'erus;from 
die' la, a "claw," and fe'ro, to "bear."] 
Bearing, or having, claws, or pincers. 

Chel'i-form. [Chelifor'inis; from 
che'la, a "claw."] Formed like a claw. 

Che'loid. [Cheloi'des; fromxsAvj, 
a "tortoise," and fZJoj, a "form."] Ap- 
plied to a skin-disease j resembling the 

Che-lo'nl-a.* [From x^'^n, a "tor- 
toise."] An order of Reptilia, including 
the several varieties of the tortoise. See 

Chem'I-cal. [Chem'icus; frome^e'- 
mia.] Of, or belonging to, chemistry. 

Chem'is-try. [Lat. Che'mia, Chi'- 
mia, or Chy'mia; supposed by some 
to be derived from the Greek x™, to 
"pour out," or to "melt;" others derive 
it from the Arabic. Fr. Chimie, she'ine'.] 
"The science which investigates the 
composition of natural substances, and 
the permanent changes of constitution 
which their mutual actions produce." 

Che-mo'sis,* or Chy-mo'sis.* 
[From X"^s, a "humor," or xfyn, an 
"aperture."] Inflammation of tbe con- 
junctiva, with lymph or blood effused in 
the cellular substance connecting it with 
the eyeball, so that it is greatly elevated 
and the cornea seems to form the bottom 
of a cavity. 

Chene (Fr.), shan. See Quercus. 

Chenopodiacea?,* ke-no-po-de-a'- 
she-e. [From Chenopo'dium, one of the 
genera.] The Atrip'lices of Jussieu, a 
natural order of plants, comprising spin- 
age, beet, and many weeds found in 
nearly all parts of the world. 

Che-no-po'di-um.* [From xw, a 
"goose," and novs, -noSdg, a "foot."] A 
plant called Goosefoot, belonging to the 
Linnoean class Pentandn'a, natural order 
Chenopodiacese. Several species of this 
genus possess anthelmintic properties. 

Chenopo'dium An-tnel-min'tX- 
ciim. :; Wormseed ; a plant growing in 
different parts of the United States. The 
seeds are given in powder, as a remedy 
for worms, in the dose of one or two tea- 
epoonfuls to a child three or four years 

old. Of the oil, the dose is from four to 
eight drops. 

Cher'ry-Iiau'rel, or Cherry, Bay. 

The Pru'nus laurocer 1 asus. 

Chevestre, she-ves'tr (Fr. pronun- 
ciation, sheh-vetR'). [Lat. Capis'trum, 
i.e. a " halter."] A double roller applied 
to the head in cases of fracture or luxa- 
tion of the lower jaw. 

Chew'ing Balls. Masticatories used 
in farriery, composed of the wood of the 
bay and juniper trees, assafoetida, liver 
of antimony, and pellitory of Spain. 

Chewing 1 the Cud. See Rumination. 

Chl-as'ina, ntis* [From Xia>w, to 
"make the Tetter X."] Chi'asm. The 
crossing of the fibres of the optic nerve. 
See Intricatura. 

Chiaster,- ke-as'ter. A bandage for 
stopping haemorrhage from the temporal 
artery, and named from its being shaped 
like a cross or the Greek letter X (chi). 
Written also Kiaster. 

Chiclt'en Pox. The popular English 
name for Varicella. 

Chigre, chig'ger, Chigo, chee'go. 
(Fr. Chique, shek.) A small sand-flea 
of the West Indies, which insinuates 
itself into the soft and tender parts of 
the fingers and toes. 

Chilblain. [Per'nio, o'nis.] See 
Blain. A painful inflammatory swell- 
ing on the fingers, toes, or heels, conse- 
quent on exposure to severe cold ; a kibe. 

Child-Bed Fever. See Puerperal 

ChI-maph'i-la.-<- [From x^i^ a , "win- 
ter," and <pi\iu), to" "love."] The Phar- 
macopoeial name for the Chimaph'ila 
corymbo'sa. A Linnasan genus of the 
class Decandria, natural order Pyrola- 
cese. See Pvrola. 

Chimaph'ila Cor-ym-bo'sa,* Chi- 
maph'ila Uin-bel-la'ta.* The Pyr'ola 
umbella'ta, or American winter-green. 

Chimie, she'me'. The French term 
for Chemistry, which see. 

Chim'ney-Sweep'er's Can'cer. 
[Can'cer JIundito'rum.] See Cancer 

Chi'na Glaze. A preparation for 
printing blue frit, made from ten parts 
of glass, two parts of lead, and three or 
more of blue calx. 

China Nova,* Ke'nS, no'va. The 
name given in Germany to the red bark 
known in France as Quinquina nora (or 
Quinquina rouge); it is the produce of 
the Cinchona oblongifolia. It is very 
different from the red bark of English 
commerce, though they have been con- 



founded by the London College. — (Hob- 


Chinehina,* kin-kee'na. Cinchona, 
or Peruvian bark. 

Chinehona. See Cinchona. 

Chin-Cough. See Pertussis. 

Chi-nese' Wormwood. The Arte- 
misia Chinensis. 

Chi-noi din. [Chinoidi'na; from 
chi'na, " Peruvian bark." and n<5oj, "like- 
ness."'] A substance containing a small 
portion of amorphous quinine. 

Cliira-gra, : orCheir'a-gra.* [From 
Xt'-p, the "hand," and aypa, a "seizure."] 
Gout in the joints of the hand. 

Chi-ret'ta.* The Pharmacopceial 
name (U.S. and Ed. Ph.) for the herb 
and root of the Agathotes chirayta, or 
Gentiana Chirayta. which see. 

ChI-ro'ni-a. :!: " [From Chi'ron, the 
"centaur," fabled to have been a skilful 
physician.] A Linna^an genus of the 
class Pentandria, natural order Gentiana- 

Chiro'nia Cen-tan'rl-nm.* An 
herb called the Lesser Centaury. (Fr. 
Centauree petite, soN^to'ra.' p§h-tet'.) The 
tops (Centau'rii cacu'mina) are aromatic 
and tonic. 

Chl-rur'geon. See Surgeon. 

Chl-rur'g'er-y. [Chirur'gia: from 
\tip, the "hand," and tpyov, a "work."] 
Literally, a "manual operation:" hence, 
that part of medicine which heals with 
the hand, without, however, excluding 
other remedies. See Surgery. 

Chl-rur'g'i-cal. [Chirur'gicns: 
from chirur'gia.] Belonging to sur- 
gery : surgical. 

Chi-rur'sus.* [From xtip, the 
"hand," and tpyov, a "work."] A sur- 
geon, or chirurgeon. 

Chi-ti'na.* [From \ir -'w, a "doublet."] 
The hard crust forming the outward in- 
tegument, — especially the elytra of cer- 
tain insects; the chitine. 

Chlaenaeese. * kle-na'she-e. [From 
xXatVu, a " cloak," and, hence, an " involu- 
crum," all plants of this order having 
involucra.] A natural order of exogen- 
ous trees and shrubs, found in Madagas- 
car: many of them have showy flowers. 
Sometimes written Chlenacese. 

Chlo-as'ma, Mia* [From \Xoa^w, to 
"be green."] A cutaneous affection ex- 
hibiting spots and patches of a yellow- 
ish-brown color, sometimes called Mac' - 
ulx hepat'icx ("liver spots"), from a 
supposition that they are caused by 
disease of the liver. The Pityriasis versi- 
color of "Willan. 

Clilor-a-cet'ic Ac id. A remark- 
able acid, in which the three atoms of the 
hydrogen of acetic acid are replaced by 
three atoms of chlorine. 

Chlo'ral. This term, derived from 
the first syllable of the words chlorine 
and alcohol, has been applied by Liebig 
to a new compound of chlorine, carbon, 
and oxygen, prepared by the mutual 
action of alcohol and chlorine. 

Chloranthacea?.- ;: klo-ran-tha'she-e. 
[From Chloran'thus, one of the genera.] 
A natural order of plants, found in the 
hot parts of India and America. They 
have stimulating properties of great im- 
portance. The root of Chloran'thus ojfi~ 
cina'lis is prized in Java as a remedy for 
typhus fever. 

Chlorate. [Chlo'ras, si'tis; from 
chlor'icum ac'idum.] A combination of 
chloric acid with a base. 

Chlo'rie. [Chlo'ricns; from chlo'- 
rium, "chlorine."] Derived from chlo- 
rine; of the nature of chlorine. 

Chloric Ether. Under this name 
two compounds have been confounded. 
One of these results from the action of 
chlorine on defiant gas, and is generally 
known as the oil of the Dutch chemists. 
The other is obtained by passing hydro- 
chloric acid gas into alcohol to satura- 
tion and distilling the product ; this i3 
generally called hydrochloric ether. 

Chlo'ride. [Chlo'ridum; from 
chlo'rium. Fr. Chlorure, klo'ruR'.] A 
combination of chlorine with different 

Chloride of Jlerctiry. See Hy- 


Chlorine. [Chlo'rium; from xAcj- 
pcv. "green."] An elementary body, for- 
merly called oxy-muriatic acid, also de- 
phlogistieafed marine acid. 

Chlo-ri'o-date. [Chlori'odas. a'tis; 
from chloriod' icum acidum.] A combina- 
tion of chloriodic acid with a base. 

Chlo-rl-od'ic. [Chloriod icus; 

from chlo'rium, "chlorine," and iodin'- 
ium, "iodine."] Belonging to chlorine 
and iodine. Applied to an acid ob- 
tained from this compound. 

Chlo'ro-. A prefix in compound 
terms, meaning that chlorine is one of 
the components of the substance de- 
noted, or is employed in its preparation. 

Chlo-ro-ear-bon'ie. [Chlorooar- 
bon'icns; from chloro-, and carbo'- 
nium.] Applied to an acid obtained from 
chlorine and carbon. See Phosgene 

Chlo'ro-form, or Chlo-ro-for'- 




myle. [Chlorofor'mnm : from chlo'- 
rine, and for'myle.] A colorless volatile 
liquid varying in specific gravity from 
1.45 to 1.49, obtained by distilling a 
mixture of chloride of lime and alcohol. 
It is a powerful anaesthetic agent. It is 
usually administered in the form of 
vapor, being inhaled into the lungs. It 
is sometimes taken into the stomach, as 
an anodyne or soporific, in which case a 
fluidrachm is equivalent to about thirty- 
five drops of laudanum. 

< hlo-ro-for nuini Ve-na'le.* 

(" Commercial Chloroform.") The Phar- 
macopoeial name (U.S. Ph.) of the ter- 
chloride of formyle. See preceding 

Chlo-rom'e-ter. [Chlorom'e- 

1 1*11 in: from chlo'rium, and p-irpov, a 
"measure."] An apparatus for esti- 
mating the quantity of chlorine in com- 
bination with water, or a base; but 
especially for ascertaining the bleaching 
power of a solution of chlorine, or chlo- 
ride of lime, etc. See next article. 

Chlo-rom'e-try, or Chlo-rim'e- 
try. [From the same.] The process 
of estimating the bleaching power of 
chloride of lime, by the quantity of a 
solution of sulphate of indigo which a 
known weight of chloride can discolor 
or render yellow. 

Chloro-phyll, written also C Iilo- 
rophylle. [From x^upo;, "green," 
and (pvWov, a " leaf."] The green color- 
ing matter of leaves. 

Chlo-ro'sis.* [From x^upo*;, "green."] 
A disease peculiar to young females 
under retention or suppression of the 
menstrual discharge; green-sickness. A 
genus of the order Adi/namise, class 
Neuroses, of Cullen's Nosology. 

Chlo-rot'ic. [Chlorot'icus.] Be- 
longing to chlorosis. 

Chlorous Av id. The peroxide of 
chlorine, because approaching to an 
acid in its nature. 

Chlor'u-ret. [Chlorure'tum; from 
chlo'rium. Fr. Chlorurc, klo'riiu'.] A 
combination of chlorine with a metal, or 
inflammable body. See Chloride. 

Chlor-y'dric Acid. The name 
given by Thenard to muriatic, now 
called hydrochloric, acid. 

Choke '-Damp. (Ger. Damp/, a "va- 
por.") A name applied by miners to all 
irrespirable gases, but more especially to 
carbonic acid gas. 

Cho-la;'mi-a.* [From \o\fj, "bile," 
and al/xa, "blood."] The presence of 
bile-pigment in the blood: chole'my. 

Chol'a-g-dg-iie. [Cholago'gTis; 

from *oA>7, "bile," and uyu), to "lead 
or carry off."] Applied to a medicine 
which has the property of increasing the 
evacuation of bile. 

Cho'le.* [Gr. x°^n.~\ Bile. See Bilis. 

Cho'le-ate. [Cho'leas, n't is.] A 
combination of choleic acid with a base. 

Cho-le-cys-ti'tis, idia.* [From cho- 
lecys'tis, the "gall-bladder."] Inflam- 
mation of the gall-bladder. 

Chol'edoeh. See Choledochus. 

Cho-led'o-clms.* [From x<>M, and 
6i\ojxai, to "receive."] (Fr. Choledoque, 
ko'la'dok'.) Receiving gall or bile. See 
Ductus Communis Choledochus. 

Cho-le'ic. [Chole'icus; from xoM, 
"bile."] Relating to bile. Applied to 
an acid obtained from bile. 

Cho-le'in. [Cholei'na; from x°^>h 
"bile."] The peculiar principle of bile. 

Chol-e-pyr'rhin. [Cholepyrrki'- 
na; from xoM, "bile," and xro/^s, "yel- 
low."] A term synonymous with Bill- 

Chol'e-ra.* [From x»M, "bile," and 
piio, to "flow;" or ^oAaj, the "intestines," 
and picj, to "flow."] A vomiting and 
purging of bile (this is true at least re- 
specting European Cholera), with painful 
griping, and spasm of the muscles of 
the abdomen and calves of the legs, etc. 
A genus of the order Spasmi, class Neu- 
roses, of Cullen's Nosology. 

Chol'era, Asiat'ic. [Chol'era Asiat'- 
tco.] A remarkable epidemic disease, 
consisting in a malignant form of chol- 
era, in which all the symptoms are much 
more severe and rapid in their progress 
to a too generally fatal issue. 

Chol'era Bilio'sa.* ("Bilious Chol- 
era.") Copious and frequent vomiting, 
at first of the alimentary and fecal mat- 
ters, with redundancy of bile, and spasms 
of the legs and thighs. This is nothing 
more than a form or variety of European 

Chol'era, Europe'an. [Chol'era Eu- 
ropse'a.] A name given to cholera as it 
usually appears in Europe when not 
epidemic, to distinguish it from the epi- 
demic and malignant form of the dis- 
ease known as Asiatic Cholera. 

Chol'era Ivfan'tum.* ("Cholera of 
Infants.") A name applied to a disease 
common among children in the United 
States during the summer months, and 
hence called the " summer-complaint." 
It is attended with vomiting and purging 
of green or yellow matter often mixed 
with slimo or blood. 



Cftol'era Mor'btts.* A common name 
of non-epidemic cholera. See Cholera, 

Chol-e-ra'ic. [Cholora'icns.] The 
same as Cholericus. 

Cho-leVI-cus." :;: " (Fr. Cholerique, ko"- 
la'rek'.) belonging to cholera. Also, 

Chol'er-oid. [Choleroi'des: from 
viol' era, and e76o;, a ''form."] Resem- 
bling cholera. Applied to diseases of 
this character. 

Chol'er-o-pho'bi-a.* [From chol'- 
era, and (p6fio$, "fear."] A dread of 

•Chorer-o-pho'ne.*" [From ehol'era, 
and (pwvi'i, the "voice."] The Vox chol- 
er'ica, or faint whispering voice of chole- 
raic patients. 

Chore-ste-a-to'ma, ttfie.* [From 
Xo\yi. "bile," and steato'tna.] A fatty 
tumor, laminated and pearly, principally 
composed of crystals of cholesterin. 

Chol-es-ter-a?'rai-a.* [From choles'- 
terin, and alpa, "blood."] Applied to a 
morbid excess of cholesterin in the blood, 
resulting from non-excretion. 

Chol-es-ter'icAc'id. An acid formed 
by the action of nitric acid on cholesterin. 

Cho-les'ter-in, or Cho-les'ter-Ine. 
[Cholesteri'na: from \o\n, "bile," and 
cTzpt%, " firm," or " solid."] A pearl-like, 
fatty substance, of which human biliary 
calculi are chiefly composed. 

Chol'ic. [Chorions; from xoM, 
"bile."] Belonging to bile; bilious. 

Chol'ic Acid. [Ac'idnm Choi i- 
cuni.] A peculiar acid obtained from bile. 

Chol'i-nate. [Chol'inas, a'tis.] 
Cholinic acid combined with a base. 

Cho-lin'ic Ac'id. [Ac'idum Cho- 
lin'icnm.] A peculiar substance ob- 
tained from bile. 

Chololic. See Cholic. 

Chol-o-lith'ic. [Chololith'iens ; 
from cholol'ithus.] Belonging to a gall- 

Cho-lol'I-thns.* [From \oX^, "bile," 
and Xc'ftjs, a "stone."] A gall-stone, or 
biliary calculus. 

Cho-losis.* [From \o\f>. "bile."] 
In the plural (Cholo'ses), biliary dis- 

Choii-dral'£I-a.* [From xdi/fyo?, 
"cartilage," and nXyog, "pain."] Pain 
(rheumatic, arthritic, or inflammatory) 
of the cartilages. 

fhon 'd ri n . < i r Chon 'd rine. [Chon- 
dri'na: frnm x°i'tp°s, "cartilage."] Ge- 
latin obtained from the permanent car- 
tilages, cornea, etc. See Chondrogren. 

Chon 'dro-gen. [From \bvh^, "car- 
tilage," and yewau, to "produce."] The 
base of true cartilage and of the cornea. 
By boiling it is resolved into Ciiondrix. 

Chon-dro-gen'e-sis.* [From tho 
same.] The formation of cartilage. 

Choii-dro-glos'siis.* A small mus- 
cle, or rather fasciculus of muscular 
fibres, running from the cartilage of the 
os hy aides to the tongue. It may be 
considered as a part of the hyoglosms. 

Chon-drog 'ra-phy. [Chondro- 
gra'phia: from xorcpog, "cartilage," and 
ypd'pw, to "write."] A history or de- 
scription of the cartilages. 

Chon'droid. [Chondroi'des: from 
Xovvpo;, "cartilage," and ac'oj, a "form."] 
Resembling cartilajre. 

Chon-drol'o-gy. [Chondrolo'gia; 
from x<Wpo>, " cartilage," and Xdyoj, a 
"discourse."] A dissertation on the na- 
ture and structure of cartilages; the 
science of cartilages. 

Chon-dro'nia, aft*.* [From x^p°s, 
"cartilage.''] A cartilaginous growth. 

Chon-drop-te-ryg i-ns.* [From 
Xou6f.o;, "cartilage," and nrepvyiov, a "lit- 
tle wing."] "Cartilage-finned." Applied 
in the plural masculine (Chovdropte- 
ryg'ii) to a tribe or series of fishes. 

Chondros. See Cartilage. 

Chon-dro'sis.* The progress of 
Chondroma. The formation of carti- 

Chon-drot'o-my". [Chondroto'- 
mia; from xo^po;. "cartilage," and 
rifivoi, to "cut."] Dissection or division 
of cartilage. 

Chon'drns Crlsp'ns.* Carrageen, 
or Irish moss. A plant belonging to the 
natural order Al</aeese. 

Chorda.* [Gr. x°ptn, an "intestine," 
a "chord."] A chord; originally the 
string of a harp: hence, any string: a 
sinew, or nerve. Applied in Geometry 
to a right line extending from one ex- 
tremity of an arch to another. 

Chor'da Magna.* (The "Great 
Cord, or Sinew.") The Tendo Achilli*. 

Chor'da Tym'pan-i.* (The " Cord 
of the Tympanum.") A branch of the 
seventh pair of nerves. 

Chor'da Ven-trie'n-li.* ("Nerve 
of the Stomach.") A designation of the 
gastric plexus of the par vagvm. 

Chorda? Ten-din 'e-ae.* ("Ten- 
dinous Cords.") Attachments connect- 
ing the Carncte cohonme of the ventricles 
to the auricular valves of the heart. 

Chorda? Vo-ca'les.* ("Vocal 
Chords.") The thvro-arvtenoid liga- 




mcnts of the larynx, or the inferior 
ligaments of the glottis : so named be- 
cause they were supposed to produce the 

Ciiorclse Willisii. See Willis, 
Chords op. 

Chor-dap'sus.* [From \opifi, "in- 
testine," and uTrw, to "bind," to " seize," 
to "attack."] A kind of violent spas- 
modic cholic, in which the large in- 
testines seem as it were twisted into 

Chor-dee'. [Lat. Chorda' ta; Fr. 
ChordS, koa'da'; literally, "corded," or 
*'' twisted"?] A painful tension and 
downward curvature of the penis, expe- 
rienced in Gonorrhea. 

Cho-re'a,* or St. Vi'tus* Dance. 
[From xopua, a ''dancing."] A convul- 
sive disease, characterized by irregular 
and involuntary movements of the limbs. 

Cho-re'ic. Pertaining to Chorea. 


[Grr. xopiov, "skin," 

"leather."] The second or most exter- 
nal membrane involving the foetus. Also 
the Metnhra'na putam'inie, or membrane 
of the shell of the egg. 

Cho'ra-tam,* or Cho'ri-on.* [From 
the same.] The dermis, or innermost 
layer of the skin ; the true skin. 

Cho'roid. [Choroi'des; from cho'- 
rion, and eldos, a "form."] Resembling 
the chorion. 

Cho'roid Mem'brane. [3ffem- 
bra'aia Choroi'des.] The second 
membrane of the eyeball, immediately 
beneath the sclerotic coat. Also, the 
Ve'lum interpos' it ton, or choroid mem- 
brane of the brain. 

Cho'roid Plex'us. [Plex'us Cho- 
roi'des.] A plexus of vessels, or fold 
of thin vascular membrane, derived from 
the Pia mater, situated in the lateral 
ventricles of the brain. 

Christ/anas I&osc. The Helleborus 

Chro'maie. [Chro'mas, a'tis.] A 
combination of chromic acid with abase. 

Chro-mat'ie. [Chromat'icus; 

from X9'Ji>na, xp'^ aro it "color."] Relating 
to color, or colors ; having color. See 

Chro'aua-tism. [Chromatis'mns; 
from the same.] The prismatic aberra- 
tion of the rays of light, — or, in other 
words, the aberration of refrangibility, — 
caused by the different kinds of rays 
being refracted unequally. 

Chro'ana-to&'e-aioias. [Chroma- 

tojj'eams; from XP ! ~>n<*, "color," and 

ytwa>j), to "generate."] Generating or 


forming color. Applied chiefly to the 
functions of the derma. 

Chro-ana-tol'o-gy. [Chromatolo'- 
gia; from xpupa, "color," and Xdyof, a 
"discourse."] The science of colors. 

Chro'ma-topsy. [Chroinatop'* 
sia; from xpw/*a, "color," and fyis, 
"vision."] Colored vision. 

Chro' ana- trope. [Chronaat'ro- 
pus, or Chromatro'pium ; from XC^^, 
"color," and rpivo}, to "turn."] An in- 
strument for exhibiting, on the principle 
of the magic lantern, a variety of colors 
producing, by a rapid revolving motion, 
beautiful and highly pleasing figures. 

Chrome. A metal. See Chromium. 

Chrome Al'um. A crystallizable, 
double salt, formed of the sulphates of 
chromium and of potash. 

Chrome Yellow. The chromate of 
lead, much used as a pigment. 

Chro'mic. [Chro'miciis.] Belong- 
ing to Chromium. See Chromic Acid. 

Chro'mic Ac'id. [Ac'idum Chro'- 
micum.] A teroxide of chromium 
forming a valuable escharotic for the re- 
moval of morbid growths, especially 
those of syphilitic origin. It has been 
assigned a place on the primary list of 
the Materia Medica in the U.S. Pharma- 
copoeia for I860. 

Chro-mii-dro'sis.* [From xpwpa, a 
"color," and Idpou, to "sweat."] Abnor- 
mal coloration of the perspiration. 

Chro'mi-um,* or Ch rome. [From 
XpZ'i**, a "color."] A metal extracted 
from native chromate of lead or of iron. 
It is whitish, brittle, and very difficult 
to fuse. The specific gravity is 5.5. 

Chro'ano-gen. [Chromog-e'nium ; 
from XP'^/" 1 , a "color," and yEwau, to 
" generate."] Vegetable coloring matter, 
which, acted on by acids and alkalies, 
produces red, yellow, or green tints. 

Chroaaaopsy. See Chromatopsv. 

Chro'imile. or, better, Chro'myle. 
[From xpu/m, " color," and u\q, " material," 
"substance."] Other names for chloro- 
phyll, or the coloring matter of plants. 

Chroaa'ac. [Chron'icus; from xp°vos, 
"time."] Long-continued; opposed to 

Chron'o-ther'mal. [Chroaaother- 
ma'lis; from Xf>""°?, "time," and 0%*>7, 
"heat."] Relating to time and tempe- 
rature. Applied to a theory that all 
diseases have periodic intermissions, 
with alternate chills and heats. 

jphro-op'sa-a,* written also Claraap'- 
sia (by a contraction of tho Creek 
Xpoo.pia into xpowpiV) which in Latin be- 



comes Chrupsia). The same as Chro- 
matopsia. See Chromatopsv. 

Chrot'ic. [ClirotYiCHs; from XP'^s, 
"skin."] Of or belonging to the skin. 

Ciirys'a-lis, idw.* [From xpwts, 
''gold."] The second stage in the meta- 
morphosis of insects. See Aurelia. 

Chrysobalanacese,'* kris-o-bal-a- 
na'she-e. [From GhrysabaV anus, one of 
the genera.] A natural order of shrubs 
and trees, related to Rosacese. Several 
species produce esculent stone-fruits. 

Clirys'o-bal'a-nMS.* [From xpwoj, 
"gold," and (Mkavo;, a "corn."] Lite- 
rally, the "golden acorn" or "nut." 
A name sometimes given to the nutmeg. 

Chrys'o-ber'yl. [From XP^os, 

"gold," and (3fjpvXkos, "beryl."] A beau- 
tiful gem of a pale yellow or green color, 
consisting of glucina and alumina. 

Chryso-col'la. ;: [From x/>woj,"gold," 
and Ko\\a, a "glue."] "Glue for Gold." 
The Greek name for borax. But it does 
not appear that borax was known to the 
ancients : their chrysocolla is said to 
have been a very different substance, 
composed of the rust of copper triturated 
with urine. The name chrysocolla is now 
applied to a mineral composed chiefly of 
silica and oxide of iron. 

•Oarys'o-llie. [From xP'^ts, "gold," 
and \l9os, a "stone."] A mineral com- 
posed chiefly of silicate of magnesia and 
iron. It is often of a golden-yellow 
color, and is used in jewelry. 

Chry-som'e-la.* [From Y.pwo?,"gold," 
and ji£\as, "black."] A genus of cole- 
opterous insects, named from the bril- 
liant metallic hues, mostly of green and 
gold, with which their wing-covers are 

Chrys'o-me'li-a.* [From XP"°°;, 
"gold," and ufj\ov, an "apple."] The, 
Seville orange, or the Aurantii Bacca. 

■Chrys'o-mel'i-dav* A family of 
coleopterous insects, of which the Chry- 
som'rla is the type. 

Chthoaaophag-ia,* tho'no-fa'je-a. 
[From xQ >>v, " earth," and </>ayw, to " eat."] 
A disease not uncommon among the 
negroes of the South, accompanied by 
a strong desire to eat dirt or earthy 
matter. Also called Cachex'ia Africa' na. 

Chur'rns. An extract obtained from 
Indian hemp. See Cannabis Indica. 

Chyle. [Clay '1ms; from X'Ms, 
"juice."] The milk-like liquor from 
which the blood is formed, occupying 
the lacteal ves?cls and thoracic duct. 

C2iy-lif 'er-ous. [Cliylif 'eras ; 

from chy'lus, "chyle," and fe'ro, to 

"bear," to "carry," to "convey."] Bear- 
ing or conveying chjde. 

Chy-li-fi-ea'tioia. [Chylifica'tio, 

o' nis ; from chy'lus, " chyle," and /a' 'do, 
to "make."] The process by which the 
chyle is separated from the chyme. 

Clay-lo-poi-et'ic. [Ciiylopoiet'i- 
cms; from chy'lus, "chyle," and nottui, 
to "make."] Connected with the form- 
ation of chyle. 

Cliy-lo'sis.* [From xvXdj, "juice."] 
The same as Chylification. 

Chy-lM'rI-a.* [From chy'lus," chyle," 
and ovpov, "urine."] A discharge of 
chyle with the urine. 

Clay me. [Lat. Chy'mns; Gr. x^pk, 
"juice."] The pulpy mass formed by 
the food in its first great change in the 
process of digestion. 

Chymia and Oiyiasie. See Che- 

diyaaa-a-fl-ea'tion. [Claynaifica'- 
tio, o' uis ; from chy'mus, and fa'cio, to 
"make."] The conversion of the food 
into chyme. 

Clsymistry. See Chemistry. 

Cibatio,* se-ba'she-o. [From ci'bus, 
"food."] The act of taking food. 

Cic-a-tric'M-la.* [Diminutive of 
cica'trix.] The blastoderm. 

Ci-ca'trfx, i'em* [From cicatri'co, 
to "heal, leaving a scar."] The scar or 
seam of a healed wound, sore, or ulcer. 

Cic-a-tra-za'tion. [Cieatriza'iio, 
o'nis; from the same.] The process by 
which a cicatrix is formed. 

Cic-a-tra-za'tiis.* [From the same.] 
Cicatrized : scarred. In Botany, having 
a scar, or the appearance of a scar. 

Cic'a-trsze. [From the same.] Lite- 
rally, to "form a scar;" hence, to heal, 
or skin over. 

Cichoraeea*,* sik-o-ra'she-e. The 
Jussieuan name of a natural order of 
plants, or of a section of the order Com- 
posite. It includes lettuce, endive, etc. 

CI-Cll'ta.* A Latin name for the 
Coniijm Maculatum. The Cicu'ta ma- 
cula'ta, however, of modern botanists, is 
a different plant. 

CiCMtin. See Conein. 

OiTa-a.* (The plural of CH'I-mhi, 
which see.) The eyelashes, or hairs on 
the eyelids. Sometimes applied to mi- 
nute, slender objects attached to certain 
animals, that have a vibratile motion. 

Cil'i-a-ry. [Cilia 'a*is; from cil'ium, 
the "eyelash."] Belonging to the cilium, 
or e}'elash. Also applied to several 
parts corresponding to the junction of 
the cornea to the sclerotic coat. 




Cil'i-ate. [Cjlia'tus; from cil'ium, 
the "eyelash."] Having hairs, or a 
species of pubescence, on the margin of 
a leaf or petal j having cilia. 

Cil'I-wm.* [From cil'leo, to "stir," 
to "twinkle."] A Latin term denoting 
the eyelid, or rather the edge of the eye- 
lid out of which the hairs grow; also 
the eyelash. Used mostly in the plural. 
See Cilia. 

C'il-lo'sis.* [From the same.] Spas- 
modic trembling or agitation of the e3 - e- 

Ciaaa-a-eir'ta-g'a.* [From ci'mcx, cim'- 
icis, a "bug," or "louse," and fu'go, to 
"put to flight."] The Pharmacopoeial 
name (U.S. Ph.) of the root of the Cim- 
icif'uga raeemo'sa, otherwise called Ac- 
tse'a cimieif'uga and Actae'a raeemo'sa, 
a plant belonging to the natural order 
Ranunculaccsc, and common in the United 
States. It is a tonic and powerful anti- 
spasmodic, and has been employed with 
great success in cases of chorea and 
uterine convulsions. 

Ca-mo'la-a Tea*'ra.* ("Cimolian 
Earth.") The same as Cimolite, which 

Cina'o-late [from Cimo'lus, an island 
where it was found, and \ii)o$, a "stone"], 
or Ca-nao'll-aaa Earth. A celebrated 
variety of fuller's earth, consisting, it 
is said, of silex, alumina, oxide of iron, 
and water. 

Ciaa-clao'aaa.* [Named from the 
Countess del Chinch on or Cinch on, sig- 
nally cured by its use.] A Linna;an 
genus of the class Pentandria, natural 
order Cinchonaceae. Some recent writers 
insist that the proper spelling of the 
word is Chiuchona, Also, a general term 
for the various species of Peruvian bark; 
including the following kinds: — 

Cincho'na Fla'va.* ("Yellow Cin- 
chona.") The bark Cincho'na Calisa'i/a, 
called in commerce " Calisaya Bark," 
and containing not less than two per 
cent, of alkaloids yielding crystallizable 

Cincho'na Pal'lida.* ("Pale Cin- 
chona.") The bark of Cincho'na Conda- 
■min'ea and of C. Micran'tha. 

Cincho'na Ku'BitA* ("Red Cin- 
chona.") The bark of an undetermined 
species of cinchona, called in commerce 
" Red Bark," and containing not less 
than two per cent, of alkaloids yielding 
crystallizable salts. (See U.S. Pharma- 
copoeia for 1860.) 

To which may be added the 

Cincho'na Pubpu'bba,* the produce 

of which is termed in commerce "Brown 
Bark" and "Huamilies Bark." 

The virtues of Peruvian bark, the dis- 
covery of which forms an era in the science 
of medicine, are due to a number of dif- 
ferent principles, among which the alka- 
loids quinia and cinchonia are the most 
important. Both of these are in a high 
degree tonic and febrifuge; but they 
are especially remarkable for their effi- 
cacy against diseases of a periodical 
character, as tertians, quartans, etc. 
Hence those alkaloids, as well as the 
bark in substance, have been termed 

Caaadioaiaceae,* sin -ko -n a' she - e. 
[From Cincho'na, the most important of 
the genera.] A large natural order of 
exogenous plants, mostly trees or shrubs, 
found in hot climates, including, besides 
the Cinchona, the Coffee-tree, the Ceph- 
ae'lis Ipecacuanha, and other important 
plants. Powerful febrifugal properties 
in the bark, or emetic in the roots, are 
the great features of this order, the most 
valuable products of which are cinchona 
and ipecacuanha. The beauty or fra- 
grance of the flowers of some plants of 
this order (for example, the Gardenias 
and Ixoras) is unsurpassed in the vege- 
table kingdom. 

Ciia-«Eao-asa/ceoias. [Cisacliona'- 
ceaas.] Having an arrangement as in 
the Cinchona. See Cinchoxace.e. 

Ciii-cJaoia'ae. [Ciiselaoia'icaas; from 
Cincho'na.} Belonging to Cinchona. Ap- 
plied to an acid obtained from all the 
species. See Kinic Acid. 

Ciia'cSao-aain, or Oiia'-elao-miae. 
[Ciaaclioiii'aaa; from Cincho'na.] A 
peculiar vegetable principle, or alkali, 
discovered in the Cinchona Condaminea. 

Ciaa'er-es,* the plural of Ci'aais, sig- 
nifying "ashes." Usually applied to 
pot- or pearl-ashes. 

Caaa'eres Clav-el-la'ta.* [From 
ci'nis, plural cin'eres, and cla'vns, a 
"nail," a "wedge."] Pearl-ash, or the 
Potassa impnra. The name is derived 
from the little wedges or billets into 
which the wood was cut to make potash. 

t^-aie're-aas.* The same as Cixe- 
ritiocs. which see. 

Cineriiioaas, sin-e-rish'us. [Cinc- 
ri'tiias; from ci'nis. cin'cris, the ashes of 
any burnt substance.] Belonging to or 
resembling ashes in color. Applied to 
the cortical substance of the brain, etc. 

£i-aaet'a-cus.* [From kivccj, to "move."] 
Cinet'ic. Applied in the plural neuter 
(Cinet'ica) to an order of the Neurotica 



of Dr. Good, including diseases which 
affect the muscles. 

Ci'nis,* gen. Cin'er-is. The Latin 
term fur "ash" or "ashes." See Cineres. 

Cin'na-t>ar. [Lat. Cinnab'aris; 
Gr. Kiwatiapt.] The red sulphuret or bi- 
sulphuret of mercury. Al.^o applied to 
a resinous substance of a bright red 
color obtained from the juice of an In- 
dian tree. 

Cin'na-bar-Ine. [Cinnahari'nus.] 
Belonging to cinnabar; containing cin- 

(innabre, sin'naliR'. The French 
for Cinnabar, which see. 

Cin-nam'ic Ac'id. An acid pro- 
cured from the oil of cinnamon. 

Cin-iia-nao'inum,* or Cin'na-mon. 
[From the Arabic Kinamon.] The Phar- 
macopoeial name || for the bark of the 
Cinnamo'tnufft Zeylan'icum ; otherwise 
called the Lau'rus cinnamo'mum. The 
U.S. Pharmacopoeia embraces under the 
name of Cinnamomum, or Cinnamon, the 
bark of the O. aromaticum as well as the 
C. Zeylanicum. Cinnamon is a most 
grateful and efficient aromatic. It is 
warm and cordial to the stomach, car- 
minative and astringent, and is well 
adapted to relieve nausea and flatu- 

Cinnamon. See Cixnamomxm. 

Cin'na-mon Su'et. A production 
of the cinnamon-tree, used in Ceylon for 
making candles. According to Dr. 
Christison, it contains eight per cent, of 
a fluid oil not unlike olive oil: the re- 
mainder is a waxy principle, which 
answers very nearly to cerin. 

Cin'namon-Tree. The Cinnamo'mum 

Cin'namon-Tree, Wild. The Lau- 
ru8 cassia. 

Ci-o-ni'tis, iefca.* [From Kioviq, the 
"uvula."] Inflammation of the uvula. 

Ci-o-nor-rlia'phl-a.* [From Kiovis, 
the "uvula," and pafyri, a "seam."] The 
same as Staphylorrhaphy, which see. 

£i-o-not'o-m^. [Cionoto'mia ; 

from Kioi-is, the "uvula," and r^w, to 
"cut."] Cutting off of a part of the 
uvula when too long. 

Cip'o-lin. [From cipol'la, the Italian 
word for "onion:" named in allusion to 
the zone , supposed to resemble the layers 
of an onion.] A green marble, with 
white zones, brought from Rome. It 
givc3 firo with steel, though with diffi- 

d-prinl-clse.* [From cypri'nus, a 
" carp-fish/'] A family of ifdlacopte- 

rygii ALdominales, having the Cyprinus 
for its type. 

Cir-cl-na'lis.* The same as Circi- 


Cir'ci-natc. [Circina'tus; from 
cir'cino, circina'tum, to "compass about," 
to "make into a circle."] Literally, 
"made into a circle." Applied in Bo- 
tany to leaves rolled inwards from the 
point to the base. 

Cir'cle. [From cir' cuius, a "ring."] 
A plane figure bounded by a curved 
line, to which all the right lines that 
can be drawn from a point in the middle 
of it, called the centre, are equal. 

Cir-cu-la'tion. [Circula'tio; from 
cir' cuius, a "circle:" cir'culo, circula'- 
tum, to "move round," to "move in a 
circle," to "circulate."] That vital ac- 
tion by which the blood is sent from the 
heart through the arteries, diminishing 
in calibre till they end in minute rami- 
fications on the entire surface, where 
they are connected to correspondingly 
minute veins, which, increasing in size, 
return the blood to the heart. 

Cir'cu-Ius.* A circle, or ring. Ap- 
plied to any part of the body which is 
round or circular, — e.g. cir' cuius oc'uli, 
the "orb of the eye." It is sometimes 
used to denote a connection of parts 
through which there is a circulation ; 
as the Cir'culus Willis'ii ("Circle of 
"Willis"), an anastomotic circle formed 
by the anterior and posterior cerebral 
arteries connected by the arteries of 

Cir'culus Ar-te-ri-o'sus Ir'i-dis.* 
("Arterial Circle of the Iris.") An ar- 
tery of the eye which encircles the iris. 

Cir'cnm. A Latin preposition sig- 
nifying "round," or "about," and form- 
ing the prefix of a number of compound 

Circum-a-gen'tes.* [The present 
participle of eir'cumcfgo, to "drive" or 
"move round."] A term applied to the 
oblique muscles of the eye. 

Cir-cum-cis'ion. [Circumci'sio, 
o'nis ; from circumci'do, eircumci'sum, to 
"cut about."] The operation of cutting 
off a circular piece of the prepuce. 

Cir-cum-duc'tion. [Cireumduc'- 
tio, o'nis; from cir'cnm, "about," and 
du'co, due' turn, to "lead."] Circular 
movement of a limb. 

Cir'enm-flex. [Circumflex'us ; 
from cir'cuin, "about," and ficc'to, Jtex'~ 
um, to "bend."] Bent about; curved 
like a bow or part of a circle. Applied 
in Anatomv to various arteries, veins, etc. 




It is also used to designate a particular 
acc3nt represented in Latin and French 
by this sign [•*■], as musd, tempete, the 
term denoting that the accent, instead 
of being straight like the other accents, 
is bent over or around the letter. 

Cir-eum-gy-ra'tion. [Circumg-y- 
ra 'tin, o'nis; from cir'cuip, "about," 
and </y' rus, a "circle."] Movement in a 

Cir-eum-scis'slle. [Circumscis'- 
silis; from cir'cum, ''about," "around," 
and sciu'do, scis'sum, to "cleave," to 
"divile."] Applied to dehiscent fruits, 
the upper part of which opens like a lid. 

Cir-cuin«s£is'sus. :i: ' [From the same.] 
" Cleft, or cut around." Applied in Botany 
to parts having a circular cut or fissure. 

Cire, seR. The French term for 
"wax." See Cera. 

C^ir-rhon'o-sus.* [From Kippog, 

"tawny," and voao;, a "disease."] A 
golden-yellow appearance of the pleura, 
peritonaeum, etc., in the foetus. 

Cirrliopoda. See Cirropoda. 

C,ir-rlio'sis.* [From xipp%, "red- 
dish-yellow," or "tawny."] A name 
proposed for granulated or tuberculated 
liver, as designative of the appearance 
of the organ in that diseased state. Also 
applied to a disease of the kidney. 

Cir'ri,* the plural of Cirrus, which 

Clr-rif er-ous, or Clr-rigf'er-ous. 
[Cirrif'erus, or Cirrig'erus; from 
eir'rus, and fe'ro, ge'ro, to "bear."] 
Bearing or producing cirri. 

Cir'rl-grade. [Cirrig'radus; from 
eir'rus, and gra'dior, to "walk."] Pro- 
gressing by means of cirri. 

CIr-rl-pe'fll-a,* or CIr'rI-peds. 
[From cir'ri, and pes, pe'dis, a "foot."] 
The same as Cirropoda, which see. 

CIr'rI-pefc, p'edis,* or CIr'rI-ped. 
[From eir'rus, and pes, a "foot."] The 
same as Cirropodus. 

CIr-rop'o-da,* or CIr'rI-pods. 
[See Cirrop'odus.] A class of the 
Diploneura (or Jlollusca f) consisting of 
aquatic animals, having multivalve 
shells, and furnished with a number of 
long, curled, articulated, setigerous pro- 
cesses (called cirri) analogous to the 
feet of the Crustacea. These animals are 
popularly called barnacles, and acorn- 

CIr-rop'o-dus.* [From eir'rus, and 
novg, a "foot."] Cirrop'odous. Fringe- 
footed. Applied to a class of animals 
having cirri instead of feet. See pre- 
ceding article. 

CIr'rous, or Cir'rose. Sometimes 
improperly written Cirrhous and Cirrhosc. 
[Cirro'sus; from eir'rus.] Having 
cirri, or full of cirri. 

CIr'rus,* plural Cir'ri. [A Latin 
term signifying a "lock of curled hair," 
a "fringe."] In Botany, a clasper or 
tendril, one of the fulcra of plants; also 
termed Clacicula. Applied to a peculiar 
set of organs found in certain aquatic 
animals. (See Cirropoda.) The term 
cirrus is also applied to thin, fleecy 
clouds, floating in the atmosphere at a 
great elevation. 

Cir'so-^ele.* [From Kipaog, a " vari- 
cose vein," and k^Xtj, a "tumor."] A 
varicose enlargement of the spermatic 

£ir'soid. [Cirsoi'des; from tapaog, 
a "varicose vein," and eldog, a "form."] 
Resembling a varix. 

£ir-som'pha-los.* [From xipaos, a 
"varicose vein, "and d/i$aXd{, the" navel."] 
A varicose condition around the navel. 

Cir-soph-tSiarinl-a.* [From Ktpa6$, 
a "varicose vein," and opdaXfios, the 
"ej r e."] A varicose condition of the 
eye : cirsophthal'my. 

£ir'sos- ;: " (Kipcroi). The Greek term for 
a varix, or dilated vein. 

£ir-sot'o-my. [Cirsoto'mia; from 
Kipao;, a "varicose vein," and rcfivco, to 
"cut."] Extirpation of a varix. 

£is-sam'pe-los.* [From kiogos, " ivy," 
and afnrc\o;, the "vine."] The wild vine. 
A Linnaean genus of the class Dioecia, 
natural order Menispermacese. 

Cissam'pelos Ca-pen'sis.* A spe- 
cies found in Cape Colony. The root is 
used by the inhabitants as a cathartic 
and emetic. 

Cissam'pelos Pareira* (pa-rii'ra). 
The Pareira brava, or American wild 
vine. See Pareira. 

CistaceaV'- sis-ta'she-e. A natural 
order of shrubs or herbaceous plants, 
including the rock-rose. The Cistus 
Creticus produces a resinous balsamic 
substance called Lada'num. 

Cis'ti,* the plural of Cis'tus, form- 
ing the Jussieuan name of a natural 
order of plants. See Cistace^g. 

Cis'tus.* A genus of the natural 
order Cistaceae. 

Cis'tus Cre'tl-cus.* The name of 
the plant which produces a sort of gum- 
resin called Lada'num or Labda'num. 
This substance has a warm and bitter 
taste and an agreeable odor. It is" 
sometimes used as an ingredient in 



Cit'rate. [Ci'tras, a'tis.] A com- 
bination of citric acid with a base. 
Cit'ric Ae'ici. [Ac/idum Cit'ri- 

cjinj : from Ci'trus.'] An acid obtained 
from Lemon-juice. 

Cit'rine Oint'ment. [Xained from 
its fine yellow or citrine color.] The 
common name of the Unguentum hydrar- 
gyri nitratis of the Pharmacopoeias. 
Used as a stimulant and alterative ap- 
plication in psoriasis and other cutaneous 

Cit'ron. [Ci'tro, o'nis ; Cetlrom'e- 
la.] The fruit of the Citreum, or citron- 
tree, a variety of the Citrus medica. 

Ci-trul lsis CdI-6-eyn'this.* A 
name of the Cucumis Colocynthis. 

Ci'tras.* [From Kirpia, the "lemon" 
or "citron."] A Linnsean genus of the 
class Polyadctyhia, natural order Auran- 

Ci'tras Auran' tin m* (au-ran'she- 
um). The systematic name of the orange- 

Ci'tras Big--a-ra'cll-a.* Another 
name for the Citrus aurantium, or orange- 

Ci'trus Li-met'ta Ber-gam'I-um.* 
The tree from the rind of whose fruit 
oil of bergamot is obtained. 

Ci'trus lii-mo'mim,*" Ci'tras 31 ed'- 
I-ca.* Names of the plants which bear 
the Limones (lemons, or limes) of the 

Citrus Vulgaris. See Citrus Au- 


Civ'et. [Civet'ta.] An unctuous sub- 
stance collected in a bag under the tail 
of the civet-cat. and used as a perfume. 

Clair- voy 'mice. [See Clairvoy- 
ant.] Literally, "clearsightedness," or 
"clear vision." Applied to a condition 
of the mind or the "mind's eye," usu- 
ally induced by mesmeric influence, in 
which, it is alleged, the mesmerized per- 
son can see not only in the dark, but the 
most intricate internal arrangements of 
his own or of another's body, and even 
the remotest objects, though separated 
from the clairvoyant by interposing walls 
or mountains. 

Clair- voy 'ant. [Fr. clair, "clear." 
and voyant, "seeing," from voir, to 
"see."] Literally, "seeing clearly;" 
hence, having the power of clairvoy- 
ance. As a noun, it signifies one who is 
endowed with clairvoyance. 

Clammy. SeeViscosus. 

Clap. [Old Fr. Clapiscs, public shops 
of infamous character.] A term for 
Conorrhoe'a impu'ra. 

Clar-I-fi-ca'tion. [Clarifica'tio, 

o'nis; from cla'rus, "clear," and/«'<7o, 
to '•make."] The purifying or freeing a 
fluid from heterogeneous matter or im- 

Clasper. See Cirrus, Clavicle. 

Class. [C'las'sis.] A primary divi- 
sion of bodies having some general re- 
semblance to each other, but further di- 
visible into distinctive orders. 

Clas-si-fi-ca'tion. [From clas'sis, 
and fa'cio, to "make."] The system- 
atic arrangement into classes of natural 
productions and phenomena, including 
the diseases of the animal body. 

Clav'ate. [Clava'tus; from cla'va, 
a "club."] Club-shaped; clubbed. 

Cla vatic- kla-va'she-o. [From cla'- 
vus, a "nail."] The same as Gomphosis. 

Clav'el-late. [Clavella'tus and 
Clavello'sus; from cla'va, a "club."] 
Having, or formed like, clubs. 

Clav'i-cle. [Clavic'ula, or Clavic'- 
uius: the diminutive of cla'vis, a "key."] 
The collar-bone. In Botany, a tendril, 
clasper, or cirrus. 

Ciav-I-cor'nate. [Clavicor'nis ; 
from cla'va, a '•club," and cor'nu, a 
"horn."^ Applied to a family of cole- 
opterous insects, in which the anteunx 
are thick at the extremit} r , frecpuently 
forming a solid club. 

Cla-vic'u-iar. [Clavicula'ris; 

from clavic'ula, the "collar-bone."] Be- 
longing to the clavicle, or collar-bone. 

Cla-vie'u-late. [Clavicula'tns ; 
from clavic'ula.] Having clavicles, as 
man and the Simise. 

Clav'i-forna. [Clavifor'mis; from 
cla'va, a "club."] Club-shaped. 

Clavo, kla'vo. The Spanish term for 
Clove, which see. 

Cla'vus.* Literally, a "nail" or 
"spike." Applied to a corn, or horny 
round cutaneous formation, tbe effect of 
continued pressure generally on the pro- 
minent parts of the toes. Also, a very 
acute pain confined to a small part of 
the head, as if a nail Avere being driven 
into it. — called Cla'vus hystericus. Also, 
condyloma of the uterus. Likewise, a 
tubercle on the white of the eye. 

Claw. [Cn'guis.] The nail or talon 
of birds and other animals. The lower, 
narrow part of a petal. 

Clay. Argil' la, or argillaceous earth. 

Clay, Pure. The earth called Alu- 

Cleans'ings. The same as LocniA, 
which sec. 

Cleav'age. Tho propertv of splitting 




or of being split in certain determinate 
directions, as minerals: foliated fracture. 

Clei'do- [from k\sis, k\ei66<;, a "key," 
the "clavicle"], in compound names of 
muscles, etc., denotes attachment to or 
connection with the clavicle. 

Clels'a-gra.* [From x-Xa's, "clavicle," 
and aypa, a "seizure" or "attack."] 
The gout in the articulation of the 

Clep-sy'dra.* [From kXctttcj, to 
"steal," and viup, "water," — named in 
allusion to the water stealing away so 
gradually as to be almost unperceived.] 
An instrument for measuring time, by 
allowing water to drop through a small 
hole from one vessel to another. 

Cli-mac'teiy* plural Cli-mac-te'- 
res. [Gr. KXijiaKrijp; from *A<pi£aj, to 
"proceed by degrees."] Literally, the 
"step of a stair" or a "ladder;" hence, 
applied to the stages of human life, 
reckoned by periods of seven years. 

CH-mac'ter-ic, or klim-ak-tcr'ik. 
[Clisnacter'icus; from the same.] 
Applied to a particular epoch of the 
ordinary term of life, marked by periods 
of seven years, at which the body was 
by the ancients supposed to be peculiarly 
affected and to suffer considerable change. 
The ninth period, or sixty-third year, at 
which the most decided change takes 
place, was regarded as the "grand cli- 

Climac'teric I>is-ease'. That sud- 
den change which occurs in many in- 
stances of advanced life, generally at the 
grand climacteric, that is, about the end 
of the sixty-third year, sixty -three being 
nine times seven. See Climacteric. 

Climac'teric Teetli'isig-. The pro- 
duction of teeth at a very late period of 
life, after the loss of the permanent 
teeth by accident or natural decay, — 
commonly between the sixty-third and 
eighty-first year, or the interval which 
fills up the two grand climacteric years 
of the Greek physiologists. 

Climat, kle'ina'. The French for Cli- 
matic, which see. 

Cli'matc. [Lat. Cli'ma, Clim'a- 
tis; Gr. x\ijx<i, a "region," "clime," or 
"climate."] In a hygienic point of 
view, the term denotes peculiarities in 
temperature, quality of air. etc., with 
respect to which different countries or 
regions differ from each other in their 
effects upon the health of those who in- 
habit them. Among the various influ- 
ences which tend to promote health or 
produce disease, there is perhaps none 
12 1 

more deserving the attention of the 
medical student than the peculiarities 
and varieties of climate. But the limits 
of the present volume will permit only a 
few general remarks; for a thorough 
consideration of the subject in all its 
details, the reader is referred to more 
extensive and elaborate works. 

In recommending a change of resi- 
dence on account of ill health, the judi- 
cious physician will take into considera- 
tion not only the character of the dis- 
ease, but the peculiarities of the patient's 
constitution. In general terms, it may 
be stated that diseases of the lungs or 
pleura require a mild or warm climate ; 
and fevers, especially when complicated 
with visceral derangement, a cool or 
cold one: yet it will often be found that 
persons laboring under lung-complaints 
are more injured than benefited by a 
warm climate; for, though a mild air 
and unchecked perspiration are very 
decided advantages in themselves, the 
debility resulting from a less bracing 
atmosphere will frequently prove more 
than a counterbalance to those ad- 
vantages. Mountain air, which is gene- 
rally pure, light, and exhilarating, will 
be found beneficial in certain cases, 
while sea air, which is less rarefied and 
less dry, will be better adapted to 
others. The air of a small island com- 
pletely surrounded by a wide expanse of 
sea, like Madeira or the Bermudas, pos- 
sesses the great advantage of having a 
more equable and uniform temperature 
than can ever be found on a continent 
or on any extensive tract of land. It is 
scarcely necessary to remark that the 
purity or impurity of the air must, in an 
especial manner, never be overlooked. 
Yet it is said that the impure air of 
certain districts where tertians are com- 
mon, has been found eminently benefi- 
cial in some forms of pulmonary dis- 

C'lB-ixia-tog-'ra-pliy. [C!im«tog-ra'- 
pliia; from cli'ma, "climate," and yp^co, 
to "write," to "describe."] A descrip- 
tion of climates. 

('Bi-BXiSji-tol'o-gy. [Climatolo'gia; 
from cli'ma, and Aiiyoj, a "discourse."] 
A treatise on climate; the science of 

OB-sKsn'aSa-i-'ara.* [From xYivri, a 
"bed," and &vrjp, a "male."] The part 
of the column of fructification of the 
Orchidefe in which the anthor is fixed. 

Clin'i-cal. [Lat. C'lin'icus; from 
k\ivtj. Fr. Clinique, kl6'nek\] Pertain- 



ing to a bed; as clinical lectures, which 
are those delivered by medical attend- 
ants at the bedside. 

Clinique, kle'nek'. The French term 
for Clinical, which see. As a noun, it 
^s used for a clinical school, thus: La 
Clinique dc la C/utrite (la kle'nek' deh 
la sha're'ta') signifies "The Clinical 
School of [the Hospital] La Charite." 

Cli'noid. [Clinoi'des; from kXivt), 
and tlio;, a ''form."] Resembling a bed. 
Applied to four processes of the sphe- 
noid bone. 

CH-noni'e-ter. [Cliiiom'eirum ; 
from kXiixji, to "incline," and n£r(,oi>, a 
"measure."] An apparatus for mea- 
suring the inclination of a line in rela- 
tion to a horizontal plane. Used for 
ascertaining the dip of geological strata. 

Clis-e-om'e-ter. [Cliseom'etrum ; 
from kX'ujis, "inclination," and pzrpov, a 
"measure."] An instrument for mea- 
suring the an^le which the axis of the 
female pelvis makes with that of the 

Clit-Bur. The Arctium lappa; also 
called Clot-bur. 

Clit'o-ris,* gen. CH-t6r'I-dis. [Gr. 
xXciTopis; from kXeicj, to "shut up," to 
"enclose;" because concealed by the 
labia pudendi.] A small, elongated, 
glandiform body at the anterior part of 
the vulva, resembling in its internal 
structure the corpus caveniosum of the 

Clit-o-ris'mus.* Morbid swelling 
of the clitoris. 

Clit-o-ri'tis, idis.% [From clit'oris.] 
Inflammation of the clitoris. 

Clo-a'ea.* [From clu'o, an antique 
form for col'luo, to "wash," to "scour," 
or "make clean."] Literally, a "sink" 
or " sewer." Applied in Zoology to a 
cavity in birds and certain other animals, 
in which the oviducts terminate. In the 
plural (Cloa'ae), the openings through 
the new bony shell (in cases of necrosis 
of a long cylindrical bone) into the se- 
questrum, or enclosed dead bone, by which 
the matter formed in the interior is dis- 

Cloaque, klo'lk'. The French for 
Cloaca, which see. 

Clon'ic. [Clon'icus; from k\6vo$, 
"commotion."] Belonging to an agi- 
tated or irregular movement. Applied to 
spasms in which contractions and relax- 
ations are alternate, as in epilepsy. 

Clot. [From the Belgian Klot, a 
"mass of thickened fluid."] The Cras- 
samcntina of the blood. 

Clot-Bur. See Clit-Bur. 

Clou. See Clove. 

Clove. [From the Latin Cla'cua, a 
"nail" or "spike;" Fr. Clou, kloo, Sp. 
Clavo, kla'vo, both signifying originally 
a nail or spike; so called from its re- 
semblance to a nail.] The calyx, or un- 
cxpanded flower, of the CaryophyL' lus 
aroinat'icus, otherwise called Euye'nia 
caryophytta'ta. The clove is a warm, pun- 
gent, and highly-stimulating aromatic. 
It is sometimes employed to relieve 
nausea or vomiting; but it is chiefly 
used to assist or modify the action of 
other medicines. 

Clove-^ril'li-flow-er, Clove-Pink. 
The Dian' thus caryophyl'lue. 

Clove-Tree. The Caryophyl'lua aro- 
inat'icus (or Euge'nia caryophyjla ta). 

Clo'ven Spine. The same as Schis- 
torrhaciiis, which see. 

Club-Foot. See Talipes. 

Clu-pe'I-dse.* [From Clu'pea, a 
small fish of the herring kind.] A 
family of fishes having the Clitpea for 
their type. 

Clusiaeea?,* klu-ze-a'she-e, or <«ut- 
tif 'er-SBi* A natural order of trees and 
shrubs, found in the tropics, including 
the Clu'sia, the Mangosteen, and other 
excellent fruits. Many species of this 
order secrete an acrid, pui'gative gum- 
resin, as gamboge. 

Cluster. See Racemis, and Thyr- 

Clyp'e-al. [Clypea'lis; from cly'- 
pcus, a "shield."] Belonging to a 

Clyp'e-ate. [Clypea'tus; from the 
same.] Bearing a shield, or formed 
like a shield. 

Clys'sus,* [From k\vZw, to "dash," 
to " wash."] A term formerly used to 
denote the vapor produced by the de- 
tonation of nitre with any inflammable 

Clys'ter.* [Gr. vA'cr^p; from k\vIcj, 
to "wash away."] An injection into the 
rectum; an en'ema; a glystcr. 

C. Jff . — Cras ma'nc* " To-morrow 

C. JT. = Cras noc'te** " To-morrow 

Cni'cns Ben-e-dic'tus,* or Cen- 
tau're-a Ben-e-dic'ta.* ("Bles>ed 
Thistle.") A composite plant, regarded 
as "blessed" on account of its medicinal 
virtues. It contains a brown, bitter 
principle, called cnicin. 

Co. See Cox. 

Co-ad'u-nate. [Coaduna'tus; from 




coadu'no, to "join together."] Clus- 

Co-ag'u-la-ble. [Coagulabi'lis ; 

from coaij'ulo, coagula' turn, to "curdle."] 
Having the property of coagulation. 

Coag'ulable Lymph. A term applied 
to the fibrin of the blood. 

Co-ag-u-la'tion. [Coag-ula'tio, 
o'nis; from the same.] The thickened 
state of the albuminous portion of cer- 
tain animal and vegetable fluids on ap- 
plying acids or heat. 

Co-agf'u-lum.* [From the same.] 
The jelly-like consistence assumed by 
albuminous substances, blood, etc., when 
acted on by heat. 

Coal (Min'e-ral). A combustible 
mineral, consisting of two principal va- 
rieties, — anthracite and bituminous coal. 
The former burns with little or no smoke 
or flame : in the latter, as its name im- 
plies, bitumen is an important ingredient, 
producing vapor and gas when exposed 
to heat. 

Co-a-les'cent. [Coales'ceus; from 
coales'co, to "grow together."] Grow- 
ing together. 

Co-ap-ta'tion. [Coapta'tio, o'nis; 
from co for con, "together," and ap'to, 
apt a' turn, to "fit."] The fitting together 
of the ends of a fractured bone. 

Co-arc'tate. [Coarcia'tus; from 
coarc'to, coarctation, to "straighten."] 
Pressed close together. 

Co-arc-ta'tion. [Coarcta'tio, o'nis; 
from the same.] A straightening, or 
pressing together. Applied to strictures 
of the intestine or urethra. 

Coat. See Tunica. 

Coated. (Fr. Enduit, oN°Vlwe\) Ap- 
plied to the condition of the tongue, 
as indicative of visceral disturbance. 

Cobalt, ko'bault. [Lat. Cobal'tuui; 
from the German Ko'bold, a "goblin" or 
" demon ;" so called because its discovery 
was regarded by miners as an ill omen, 
— i.e. as unfavorable to the presence of 
more valuable metals.] A metal gene- 
rally found in combination with arsenic. 
The salts of cobalt are irritant poisons. 
The oxide is employed to impart a blue 
color to porcelain and glass. 

Co-bal'tic. [Cobal'ticus.] Belong- 
ing to cobalt. 

Co-ba'lus.* The same as Kobold, 
the demon of miners, from which cobalt 
is said to have been named. 

Cobra «le Capello, ko'bra da ka- 

pel'lo. ("Snake with a Hood.") The 

Portuguese name for the hooded snake, 

the Na'ja vuhja'ris (otherwise called the 


Na'ja tripu'dians), a very poisonous ser- 
pent common in India. 

Cob web. [Ara'ueum.] The web 

of the Aranea, or spider. 

Co'ca,* called also Ypada, e-pa'dS,. 
The leaf of the Erythrox'ylon co'cu, a 
plant in extensive use among the Indians 
of the Andes, as a stimulant. See Ery- 


Coc'ci,* the plural of Coc'cns. The 

Pharmacopoeial name (Ed. Ph.) for 
cochineal insects. 

Cocciferous, kok-sif'er-us. [Coc- 
ciferus; from coc'cns, a "berry," and 
fe'ro, to "bear."] Bearing berries, or 
objects like them. 

Coccinella,* kok-se-nel'la. [Diminu- 
tive of coc'cns, a " berry."] The cochi- 
neal insect: cochineal. (See Coccus 
Cacti.) A genus of coleopterous insects; 
the lady-bird, or lady-bug. 

Coecinel'la Sep-tcm-punc-ta'ta* 
(■i.e. " having seven points or spots"), or 
Lady-bug. This insect, if bruised upon 
an aching tooth, is said to cure it. 

Coc-ci-nel'lin. [Cocciiielli'na.] 
The coloring principle of cochineal; 

Coe'cu-Ius.* [Diminutive of coc'- 
cns, a " berry."] A genus of the class 
Dived a, natural order Menispermacese. 
The Pharmacopoeial name (Br. Ph.) for 
the fruit of the Anamirta coeculus, or 
Cocculus Fndicus. 

Coc'culus, An-a-mir'ta.* The plant 
which produces the Cocculus Indicus, 
sometimes termed Levantnut, or Bac'ca 
Orienta'lis ("Oriental Berry"). 

Coc'culus In'di Ar-o-mat'i-cus,* 
or (plural) Coc'cu-li In'di Ar-o-mat'- 
I-ci. Other names for the Jlyrtus pi- 
mento, or Jamaica pepper. 

Coc'culus Iu'dl-cus.* The berries 
of the Anamir'ta coc'culus (the Jlrni- 
spcrmum cocculus of Linngeus). The 
kernels of these berries are whitish and 
oily, and have an intensely bitter taste. 
They contain a peculiar bitter principle 
called picrotoxin, which is very poisonous. 
The Cocculus Indicus belongs to the acro- 
narcotic class of poisons. As a medicine 
it is never administered internally. In 
India it is employed to stupefy fish in 
order that the)' may be more easily 
caught. It is said that the fish thus 
taken are not poisonous. An ointment 
made of the powdered berries is some- 
times used in certain cutaneous dis- 

Coc'culus Pal-ma'tus.* The plant 
which affords Calumba, Colomba, or Co- 



lumbo root; called, also, Menispermum 

Coc'cum.* (See Coccus.) A kind of 
seed-vessel distinguished from a capsule, 
the sides of which, being elastic, project 
the seeds with great force, as in the 

Coc'cura Baph'i-cum.* The ker- 
mes berry. 

Coccus.* [From kokkos, a "grain" or 
"kernel;" also, an " insect."] The Phar- 
macopceial name (Brit, and U.S. Ph.) 
for the Coccus cacti. In Botany, a cell 
or capsule. Also the name of a genus 
of hemipteroua insects. 

Coc'cus Cac'ti.* ("Coccus of the 
Cactus.") The Coccinella, or cochineal 

Coc'cus In-fec-to'ri-us.* The in- 
sect which produces the kermes grains 
or berries. 

Coc'cus Liac'cav* The insect which 
produces Lac. 

Coc-£$'g'e-us,*orkok-se-je'us. [From 
coc'cyx.] Belonging to the coccyx: coc- 

Coc-cJr-o-dy'ii'I-R.* [From coc'cyx, 
and ocvit), "pain."] Pain in the coccyx, 
occurring especially in women. 

Coccyx,* gen. Coc-^y'gis. [From 
kokkv\, the "cuckoo;" because like its 
bill.] The small triangular bone ap- 
pended to the point of the sacrum. 

Coeh'I-neal. [Coccinel'la: from 
coccinel'la, probably derived through 
the Italian cocciniglia, pronounced kot- 
che-nel'ya.] The Coccus cacti. Coccinella, 
or cochineal insect, brought from South 
America as a reddish grain. Cochineal 
is thought by some to possess anodyne 
and antispasmodic properties, and has 
been recommended for the hooping- 
c r, ugh and other nervous affection?. In 
Pharmacy it is used to color tinctures, 
ointments, etc. 

Cochinilin, kotch'e-nil'in. (See 
Cochixeal.) A coloring matter obtained 
from cochineal. It is a constituent of 

Cochl. Ampl., Cochl. Mag. Ab- 
breviations for Cochlea're am' plum* or 
mag'num,* a ••tablespoon." 

Cochl. 3Ied. = Cochlea' re me'diumfi 
A "dessert-spoon." 

Cochl. ?Iin. = Cochlea're min'imum* 
A "teaspoon." 

Coeh'le-a.* Literally, a "shell." a 
"snail-shell;" hence, any thing of a 
spiral form. A conical cavity of the 
internal ear. 

Coch-le-a're.* [From coch'lea, a 

" shell," more especially a " snail-shell."] 
The Latin word for "spoon;" so named 
from its resemblance to a shell. It is 
commonly used in medical prescriptions 
for " spoonful." 

Coeh-le-a'ri-a.* [From cochlea're, 
a "spoon."] A Linna?an genus of the 
class Tetradynamia, natural order Cru- 

Cochlea'ria Armora'cia- (ar-mo- 
ra'she-a). The horse-radish plant ; called, 
also, the Raph'anus rustica'nuQ. The 
root of this plant (Armoracise Radix) is 
pungent and powerfully stimulant. Its 
virtues depend on an essential oil which 
is dissipated by drying. 

Co^h-le-ar'I-form. [Cochleari- 
for mis: from cochlea're, a "spoon."] 
Formed like a spoon. 

Coeh'le-ate. [Cochlea tus: from 
coch'lea, a "snail-shell."" In Botany, 
spiral, or having a spiral form. 

Co-co'a. The fruit of Theobroma 

Co-coou'. [Etymology uncertain.] 
The silken case of certain, 
et?., in which they deposit their eggs, 
change their teguments, or retire for the 

Coc'tion. [Coc'tio: from co'quo, 
coc'tum, to "cook," to "digest."" The 
process of reducing the aliment to 

Codag-a-Pala Bark. See Nertum 


Code-ate. [Co'dcas, n'iis; from 
code'icum ac'idum.] A combination of 
codeic acid with a base. 

Co-de'ic. [Cede ieus.] Applied to 
an acil obtained frrm e<~>dein. 

Code-in, Co'de-ine, or Co-de'ia.* 
[From Kcj6ia, or xojeeia, a "poppy-head."] 
An alkaloid discovered by Robiquet in 
opium. As a soporific it is considered 
to possess about half the strength of 

Cod VLiv'er Oil, or Cod fish Oil. 
[Mor'rhua? O'leum.] Obtained from 
the liver of the Gn'dus mor'rhua, or 
codfish. See Oleum Morrhcj:. 

Ccecum. See C.u.cor. 

Coelia, • se'le-a. [Gr. Kot\<a, the "belly;" 
from *c(H>oj, "hollow."] The belly, espe- 
cially the lower portion; also, the sto- 

Cce'ii-ac. [Cerli'aens; from ecr'lia, 
the "belly."] Belonging to the belly. 

Coe'liac Pas'sion. [Pas'sio Coeli'- 
aca.] A chronic flux, in which the ali- 
ment is discharged half digested; tho 
Diarrhae'a cali'aca of Cullen. 




Cceliac Plex'us. A name for the 
Solar Plexus, which see. 

Coe-li'a-ca.* [Neuter plural of coeli'- 
acns. See Cceliac] The first class of 
Dr. Good's Nosology, embracing dis- 
eases of the digestive organs. Some- 
times applied to medicines which act on 
those organs. 

Cccliacus. S^e Cceliac. 

Cce-ll-al'gfl-a.* [From cce'lia, the 
"belly," and aXyog, "pain."] Pain in 
the belly. 

Coenaesthesis,* sen-es-the'sis. [From 
koivo;, "common," and diadnvis, "percep- 
tion," "feeling," or "sensibility."] A 
term expressive of the general feeling or 
consciousness in the entire body; con- 
sciousness of existence. Some writers 
have termed it a sixth sense, not limited, 
like the other senses, to one particular 
part, but common to the whole system. 

Cce-mi'rus.* [From wiw,-, "com- 
mon," and uvpti, a "tail" or "hinder 
part." 1 A cce'nure, or hydatid, contain- 
ing several animals (Entozoa) grouped 
together and adhering to its sides, which 
thus form a common base or termination 
of many heads and bodies. 

Cceruleus Lapis. See Blue-Stone. 

Coeruleus Morbus. See Cyanosis. 

Cceur, kuR. The French word for 
"heart." See Cor, and Heart. 

Coffe-a. :;: (See Caffea.) A Lin- 
nsean genus of the class Pcntandria, 
natural order Cinch onacex (according to 
Lindley, though formerly ranked with 
the Jinbiacese). 

Cof'fea A-rab'I-ca.* The plant 
which affords coffee. See Caffea Arab- 


Coffee. [Lat. Caffea, or Cof'fea ; 

Fr. Cafe, kaTa'.] The seed of the Caf- 
fea Arab' tea, a tree from fifteen to 
thirty feet in height, growing native in 
Southern Arabia and Abyssinia, and 
cultivated extensively in Java, Ceylon, 
and other parts of the East Indies; also 
in South America and the West India 
islands. The infusion of the roasted 
seeds is exhilarating and tonic, and has 
been used, it is said, with the most bene- 
ficial results in cases of poisoning with 
opium, and chronic asthma. Coffee ( Caf- 
fea) has been assigned a place on the 
Primary List of the Materia Medica in 
the last edition of the U.S. Pharmaco- 
poeia (1860). See Caffbin. 

Co-bab-I-ta'tion. [Cohabita'tio, 

o'm'x ; from co for con, "together," and 

hah', to, habita'tum, to "dwell."] In 

Medical Jurisprudence, the dwelling to- 


gether of two persons of opposite sex, 
including the habit of venereal congress, 
without the sanction of marriage. 

Co-he'sion. [Cofae'sio, o'nis; from 
co for con, "together," and hie'reo, hse'- 
sum, to "stick."] The power by which 
the particles of bodies adhere to each 

Co-ho-ba'tion. [Coboba'tio, o'nis; 
from co'hob, used by Paracelsus to sig- 
nify repetition.] The pouring of a fluid 
again and again on the matter from 
which it was distilled, and as often dis- 
tilling it, to render it more efficacious. 

Coitio,*' ko-ish'e-o, or Co-I'tiois. 
The same as Coitus, which see. 

Co'I-tus.* [From co for con, "to- 
gether," and e'o, i'tum, to "go" or 
"come."] The coming together of male 
and female in the act of procreation. 
In Chemistry, the union of substances 
by incorporation or mixture. 

Coke. The charcoal obtained by 
heating bituminous coal with the imper- 
fect access of air, or by its distillation. 
The former is usually called oven coke, 
the latter gas coke, being abundantly 
produced in gas-works. The weight of 
coke usually amounts to between sixty 
and seventy per cent, of the coal em- 
ployed. Coke is a valuable fuel for 
many purposes in the arts. 

Col. A French word signifying "the 
neck." Sec Collum. 

Col'a-to'rl-um.* [From co'lo, cola' - 
turn, to "strain."] A strainer of any 
kind ; a sieve. 

Col-a-tu'ra.* [From the same.] Any 
filtered or strained liquor. 

Col'clil-ci Cor'mus.* The Pharma- 
copceial name (Brit. Ph.) for the bulbs of 
Colchicum atittnnnale. 

Col'cbiei Radix.* ("Boot of Col- 
chicum.") The cormus of Col'cliicum 
autumna le (U.S. Ph.). 

Col'cbiei Se'men.* ("Seed of Col- 
chicum.") The seed of Col'chicum au- 
tunvia'Je. (U.S. and Brit. Ph.). 

Col'cbiei Sesn'i-na.* ("Seeds of 
Colchicum.") The Pharmacopoeial name 
(Ed. Ph.) for the seeds of the Col'chi- 
cum autumna le. 

Colchicia,* kol-chish'e-a. The same 
as CoLCHicnr. 

Col'cSii-cin, or Col'cbi-cine. [Col- 
chiei'na.] An alkaloid substance ob- 
tained from Gbl'chicum autumna'le, of 
which it is believed to be tho active 

Colchicum,* kol'che-kum. [From 
CoVchxH, a country of Asia.] A Linna?an 



genus of the class Jfexandria, natural 
order Jfelanthaceee. The name is often 
used as synonymous with Col'chicitm 
autumna'lt , including the various pre- 
parations of the root and seeds. 

Col'chl-eum An-ttim-iia'le.-'- The 
meadow saffron. The root and the seeds 
appear to possess similar medicinal pro- 
perties. The former is narcotic, diu- 
retic, and cathartic. From its sedative 
effects, it has often proved very useful in 
gout and rheumatism. In an over-dose, 
however, it sometimes produces exces- 
sive nausea, vomiting and purging, 
sinking of the pulse, attended with ex- 
treme prostration, and may prove fatal. 

Col'co-thar. A mixture of red oxide 
of iron and the persulphate, used as a 
paint, etc. 

Cold. [Fri'gTis,gY>'r/*, Catar'rhus.] 
Properly, the privation of heat. In 
popular language, it denotes a catarrh, 
cough, or other effects from exposure to 

Co-le-op'ter-a.* An order of insects. 
See next article. 

Co-le-op'ter-us.* [From otXco?, a 
"sheath," and -mipov, a "wing."] Applied 
in the neuter plural (Coleop'tera) to an 
order of insects in which the inferior 
wings are covered by others like sheaths 
or cases : coleop'terous. 

Co-le-o-rlii'za.* [From koXcq^, a 
"sheath," and pi^a, a "root."] Applied 
in Botany to a kind of case which en- 
velops certain radicles. 

Co'les.* [Essentially the same word 
as Cau' lis : both are derived from tcavXog, 
a "stalk," or "stem."] Originally, a 
stalk; but used by Celsus as a designa- 
tion of the penis. 

Colic. (Fr. Colique, ko'lek'.) (See 
Col'ica.) Acute pain in the abdomen, 
aggravated at intervals. So named 
from its having been supposed to have 
its seat in the colon. 

Col'I-ca.* [From col'icus, "pertain- 
ing to the colon ," />«s's?'o, "suffering," 
or "pain," being usually understood. 
See Colica Passio.] Literally, pain in 
the colon, or large intestine. The colic, 
or belly-ache. A genus of the order 
Spa8tni, class Adynamia, of Cullen's 

Col'ica Accipenta'lis.* Colic in- 
duced by particular articles of diet. 
This may also be flatulent colic. See 
Colica Flatclkxta. 

Col'ica Bilio'sa.* Bilious colic, oc- 
casioned by an excess of bile in the 


Col'ica Calculo'sa.* [From cal'cu- 
lus.~\ Colic caused by intestinal calculi. 

Col'ica Flatumsn'ta.* [Vromjla'tus, 
"wind."] Flatulent colic, caused by 
wind in the intestines. 

Col'ica Meconia'lis.* Colic result- 
ing from retention of the meconium in 

Col'ica PAs'sio*(pash'e-o). Another 
name for colic. See Colica. 

Col'ica Pic'toncm.* The "colic of 
the Pictones," a name for the people of 
Poitou, where it is said to have been an 
endemic. Otherwise called dry belly- 
ache; Devonshire colic; painter's colic 
(Col'ica picto' rum) ; also Col'ica saturni'- 
na, as being produced by the poison of 

Col'ica Picto'rum.* [From pic'tor, 
a "painter."] "Painter's Colic." See 
Colica Pictonum. 

Col'ica Sterco'rea.* [From ster'- 
cus, ster'coris, "fasces."] Colic arising 
from an excessive accumulation of the 
contents of the bowels. 

Col'I-cns.* Belonging to the colon. 

Col-i-for'mis.* [From co'lum, a 
"colander," or "strainer," a "sieve."] 
Col'iform. Resembling a sieve, or sieve- 
like. Applied to the ethmoid bone (o« 

Colique. See Colic. 

Co-li'tis.* [From co'lon.] Inflam- 
mation of the mucous coat of the colon. 

Col'la Pis'cium ;: (pish'e-um). " Glue 
of Fishes." See Ichthyocolla. 

Col'la-gen. [From koXXo, "glue," and 
ytwdoi, to "produce."] The chief con- 
stituent of bone, cartilage, ligaments, 
tendons, etc. By boiling it forms glue 
or gelatin. 

Col-lapse'. [Collap'sus ; from coV- 
labor, collap'sus, to "fall down."] A 
state of extreme depression or complete 
prostration of the vital powers, as occurs 
in Asiatic cholera, etc. 

Col'lar. [Colla're; from col'lum, 
the "neck."] The prothorax, or ante- 
rior segment of the trunk, in insects. 

Col'lar-Bone. The clavicle. 

Col-le'sis.* [From koW.uo, to " glue."] 
An old term for Agglutination. 

Collet, kol'la'. A French term signi- 
fying " a collar." See Neck. 
" Col-lic'u-liis.* [Diminutive of col'- 
lis. a "hill," or "elevation."] A little 
hill, or eminence. Applied in Anatomy 
to various small elevations or protube- 

Collic'ulus Xer'vi JEth-moi-da'- 
lis.* ("Protuberance of the Ethmoid 




Nerve.") The same as the Corpus 
Striatum, which see. 

Coliic'ulus Xer'vi ©p'ti-ci.* (" Pro- 
tuberance of the Optic Nerve.") The 
optic thalamus. 

Coliic'ulus Sem-I-na'lis.* (" Semi- 
nal Protuberance.") A small elevation 
in the prostate gland. 

€ol-liq-ua-men'tum.* [From col- 
li q' uco, to "melt;" so called, probably, in 
allusion to its exceeding softness, or 
want of firm consistency.] A term ap- 
plied by Harvey to the first rudiments 
of the embryo in generation. 

Col-liq'ua-ilve. [Colliqnaii'vus; 
from colliq'ueo, to "melt."] Applied to 
any excessive discharge or evacuation. 

Col-Io'dl-uin,* or Col-lo'da-on.* 
[From Ko^Xa, "glue."] A peculiar sub- 
stance prepared by dissolving gun-cotton 
in sulphuric ether. For particular direc- 
tions in its preparation, see U.S. Phar- 
macopoeia, 1860, page 125. It is much 
used as an application to abraded surfaces 
and superficial wounds. When applied 
to a part, the ether evaporates, and a 
solid adhesive material is left, which acts 
like adhesive plaster, keeping the parts 
together and excluding the air. 

Collo'dium cum Cau-thar'I-de.* 
(" Collodion with Cantharides," U.S. Ph., 
1860.) A preparation of collodion and 
cantharides, used as a blistering appli- 
cation. It produces a blister in about 
the same time as the ordinary cerate, 
and has the great advantage of being 
easily applied to uneven surfaces. 

Col'Ioid. [Colloi'des; from xtWa, 
"glue," and enJoy, a "form."] Resem- 
bling glue. 

Col-lo-ne'ma, atts.* [From k6\\oi, 
"glue."] A very soft tumor, containing 
a clear, grayish -yellow substance like 
gelatine, or fresh glue. 

Col'lum.* [Diminutive of colum'- 
na, a "pillar"?] (Fr. Col, kol, and Cou, 
koo.) The neck. Applied to any part 
which, from its situation, form, or con- 
nection, resembles a neck. 

Col-lu-to'rl-um.* [From col'luo, 
collu'tum. to "wash."] A gargle; a 
liquid applied to the mouth or throat for 
local purposes. 

Col-lyr'I-um.* [Or. KoWvpw, a 
"little cake;" diminutive of KoWvpa, a 
"small loaf" or "roll of bread."] 
Originally, an eyo-salve made up in 
small cakes ; or, any salve. Now usually 
applied to a wash or lotion for the eyes. 

Co-lo-bo'ma, ntis* [From koXo&cj, 
to "mutilate."] A mutilation, or defect. 

Colobo'ma Ir'I-dis.* ("Mutilation 
of the Iris.") A name applied to fissures 
of the lower portion of the iris with 
a prolongation of the pupil to the edge 
of the cornea. 

Colocynth. See Colocynthis. 

Col-o-cyn'this, idia,* [From ko\6- 
KvvQa, a "gourd."j Col'ocynth. The 
Pharmacopoeial name || of the dried pulp 
of the bitter cucumber; also called Colo- 
quin'tida. The pulp of colocynth is a 
powerful hydragogue cathartic, and, as 
such, is sometimes given in dropsy. In 
large doses, however, it is a dangerous 
poison. It is most frequently administered 
in combination with other medicines. 

Co-lom'foa.* The former Pharma- 
copoeial name (U.S. Ph.) of the root of 
the Ooc'calus pnlma'tus. See CalumbA, 
and Columbo. 

Co'lon.* [Gr. xuiXov.] That portion 
of the large intestine extending from the 
caecum to the rectum. 

Co-loph'o-n5 r . [Colopho'nia; from 
Col'ophon, a city of Ionia, whence it was 
originally obtained] A dark-colored 
resin, prepared from the distillation of 
rough turpentine without water. 

Coloquinte, kolo'kaxt'. The French 
term for colocynth. See Colocynthis. 

Coloquintida. See Colocyxthis. 

Col'ored. [Colora'tus; from coW- 
ro, color a' turn, to "color."] Applied in 
Botany to objects of any other color 
than green. 

Col-o-rif'ic. [Colorif'icus; from 
co'lor, and /Veto, to "make."] Making 
or producing colors. Applied to the lu- 
minous rays. 

Col'or-ing 1 Mat'ter. A coloring 
principle existing in vegetable sub- 
stances. Colors are termed substantive 
when they adhere to the cloth without a 
basis ; adjective, when they require a 
basis or mordant. 

Col-os-tra'tion. [Colostra'tio, 

o'nis.] A term for the diseases of new- 
born infants, caused by the colos- 

Co-los'tric. [Colos'lricus.] Be- 
longing to the colostrum. 

Colos'tric Flu'id. The imperfect 
secretion of milk ere the mother has 
recovered from delivery, on account of 
the presence of colostrum ; popularly, 
"green milk." 

Co-los'trows. [Colostro'sns; from 
colos'trum.] Having colostrum, or full 
of colostrum.. 

Co-los'trum.* [Perhaps from ko\6», 
"food."] A substance in the first milk 



after delivery, giving to it a greenish or 
yellowish color. 

Co-lot'o-my. [Coloto'mia: from 
co'lon, and re^u), to "cut. "J Cutting 
into the colon. 

Col'po-selo.* [From k<5X;to?, the 
"womb," or "vagina," and Kf\\rj, a "tu- 
mor."] Her'nia vagina? lis, or hernia in 
the vagina. 

Col-pop- to 'sis.* [From k6\t:o;, the 
"womb," or "vagina," and tttumhs, a 
"falling."] Falling down, or prolapsus, 
of the vagina. 

Coifs Foot. See Tussilago Far- 


Col'u-ber Be'rus.* The systematic 
name for the viper, a poisonous snake 
common in Europe. 

Co-lum'l>ic A^'id. An acid obtained 
by fusing the ore of Columbium with the 
carbonate or the bisulphate of pota6sa; a 
soluble columbate of potass is obtained, 
and tbe acid is precipitated in the form 
of a white hydrate. 

Co-lum'bl-um.* [From Colum'bia, 
one of the names of America.] A metal 
first found (in 1801) in a mineral dis- 
covered in Massachusetts. It has since 
been found in a Swedish mineral called 
Tantalite ; but its ores are extremely 

Co-Ium'bo.* The common name 
for the root of the Coc'culus palma'tus. 
(See Calumba.) This root is one of the 
most valuable of the mild tonics. Being 
without astringency, it is generally ac- 
ceptable to the stomach, and is an ex- 
cellent remedy in cases of simple debility 
of the digestive organs or of the alimen- 
tary canal, resulting from whatever 

Columella. See Columnella. 

Columelliaceav* kol-u-mel-le-a'- 
she-e. [From Columel'lia, one of the 
genera.] An obscure natural order of 
exogenous shrubs and trees, found in 
Mexico and Peru. Allied to the Jas- 

Co-lum'na,* plural Co-lum'na*. 
[Fr. Culonne, ko'lonn'.] Literally, a 
"column," or "pillar." Often applied in 
Anatomy to parts supposed to resemble 
a column, as those of the ve'lum pala'ti, 
and the eolumnpe carnese, or muscular 
fasciculi of the internal walls of the 

Colum'na Xa'si.* ("Column of the 
Nose.") The fleshy termination of the 
septum of the nose. 

Colum'na Oris. - (" Column of the 
Mouth.") The uvula. 

Colum'na Ver-te-bra'lis.* ("Ver- 
tebral Column.") The spinal column. 

Col-um'nse Car'ne-av* ("Fleshy 
Columns.") (Fr. Colonnes Chamues, 
ko'lonn' shaR'nu'.) The muscular pro- 
jections in the ventricles of the heart. 

Co-lum'nar. [Columna'ris; from 
colum'na, a "pillar."] Belonging to a 
pillar or column ; pillar-like. 

Col-um-nel'la,* or Col-u-mel'la.* 
[Diminutive of colum'na.] Applied in 
Botany to a substance passing through 
the capsule, connecting the several par- 
titions and seeds. 

Col-um-nif'er-ous. [Columnif '- 
erus; from colum'na, a "column," and 
fe'ro, to "bear."] Applied in Botany 
to plants that have the stamens and 
pistil like a column in the middle of the 

Co-lum'nu-la.* [Diminutive of 
colum'na.] The filament which passes 
through the middle of the capsule of 
frondose mosses. 

Coluvrine de Virginie, ko'lu'vren' 
deh vet^zhe'ne'. The French for Vir- 
ginia Snake-root. See Aristolochia. 

Col'za Oil. A liquid extracted from 
the grain of the Bras' sica Arvcn'sis, used 
in making soft soap. 

Coma, a£t»,* plural Co'ma-ta. [Gr. 
Kuua, "deep sleep."] A state of lethargic 
drowsiness, produced by compression of 
the brain and other causes. 

Co'ma. s [Gr. vdp?, the "hair of the 
head."] Literally, a "head of hair." 
Applied in Botany to a bush or head of 
leaves terminating a stem. 

Coma-Vigil.* ("Watchful Coma.") 
The lethargic condition of the patient in 
bad cases of typhus, in which he is 
watchful and muttering in delirium. 

Co'ma-ta,* the plural of Co'ma. Ap- 
plied to soporose diseases. An order of 
the class Neuroses of Cullen's Nosology. 

Co'ina-tose. [Comato'sus ; from 
co'ma.] Having a constant propensity 
to sleep ; full of sleep. 

Com-bl-na'tion. [Combina'tio, 
o'nis; from com'bino, combina'tum, to 
"set in couples together" (from con, 
"together," and bi'nus, "two by two").] 
A true chemical union of two or more 
substances, as opposed to mere mechani- 
cal mixture. 

Coinbretaeea?,* kom-bre-ta'she-e. 
[From Combre'tum, one of the genera.] A 
natural order of exogenous shrubs and 
trees, all natives of the tropics, mostly 
astringents. Some species of it produce 
valuable dyestuffs. 




Com-bus'tion. [Combus'tio,o'nis / 

from combu'ro, combus'tum, to "burn."] 
Burning. The evolution of heat and 
light during chemical action, by absorb- 
ing oxygen from atmospheric air. 

Combustion, Preternatural, 

Combustion, Spontaneous. See 
Spontaneous Combustion. 

€om'et. [Come'ta, or Come'tes; 
from the Greek Ko/inrrn, "long-haired;" 
from the stream of light usually ap- 
pended to them, like a tail.] The name 
of a heavenly body, supposed to be 
planetary, forming a part of our system. 

Commander's Balsam. See Tinc- 


Commelynaceav* or Commeli- 

naceae,* kom-me-le-na'she-e. [From 
Commelu'na, one of the genera.] A 
natural order of endogenous herbaceous 
plants, including the Spider-wort, Tra- 

Com'mi-nut-ed. [Comminu'tus; 
from commin' uo,comminu' turn, to "break" 
or "crush into small pieces."] Applied 
to fractures in which the bone is broken 
into several pieces. 

Com-mis-su'ra.* [From con, "to- 
gether," and mit'to, mis' sum, to "put."] 
A joining together; something which 
joins together : a com'missure. 

Commissu'ra Mag-'na.* ("Great 
Commissure.") The Corpus callosum. 

Commissu'ra Mol'Iis.* ("Soft 
Commissure.") The name of the gray 
mass uniting the thalami of the brain. 

Commissure. See Commissura. 

Common Integuments. See In- 

Com-mu'nI-cans,-- plural Com- 
mu-nl-can'tes. [The present parti- 
ciple of com mil' nico, communica' turn, to 
"communicate."] Communicating; that 
which establishes communication. 

Commu'nicans Tib'I-a?.* ("Com- 
municating [Nerve] of the Tibia.") Ap- 
plied to the external saphenal branch of 
the tibial nerve. 

Commu'nicans Wil-lis'I-i.* 

("Communicating [Artery] of Willis.") 
A branch of tho internal carotid artery, 
passing to the posterior cerebral artery. 

Com«mu-ni-can'tes Ar-te'rl-ae.* 
("Communicating Arteries.") Of these, 
there are two within the cranium, the 
principal of which is the Communicans 

Comparative Anatomy. See Anat- 
omy, Comparative. 





gether," and plec'to, plcx'um, to "plait," 

to "weave."] Literally, "woven to- 
gether." Applied to a muscle situated 
at the back part of the neck. It is so 
named from the intricate mixture of its 
muscular and tendinous parts. It is 
attached to the occipital bone, and to 
the cervical and upper dorsal vertebrae. 

Coin'pli-cat-ed. [Compliea'tus ; 
from con, "together," and pli'co, plica' - 
turn, to "fold," to "knit."] Applied to 
fractures that are combined with other 
circumstances that make their treatment 
difficult; as a wounded artery, disloca- 
tion, injury of the viscera, etc. 

Com-pli-ca'tion. [Complica'tio, 
o'nis; from the same.] The coexistence 
of two or more diseases, which modify 
each other, without being in their nature 

Compositav- kom-poz'e-te. [From 
eon, '.'together," and po'no, pos'itum, to 
"put."] The largest of all known na- 
tural groups of plants, and so called 
because the old botanists who invented 
the name regarded the flower-heads as 
compound flowers. It answers to the 
Syngenesia poh/gamia of Linnaeus. It is 
characterized by having capitate flowers, 
syngenesious anthers, and an inferior 
ovary, with a single erect ovule. This 
order includes about nine hundred 
genera and eight thousand species. 

Com-pos'i-tus.* [From con, "to- 
gether," and 2>o' no, pos'itum, to "put."] 
Compound; opposed to "simple." Ap- 
plied in the plural feminine to a natural 
order of plants. See Composite. 

Compote (Fr.), koM'pot'. (A con- 
traction of Compositus, which see.) 
Fruits preserved with sugar; generally 
stone fruits. 

Coin'pound. [Compos'itus ; a 
corruption of componcd, passive parti- 
ciple, from the obsolete verb compone, to 
"put together," to "arrange." See 
Compositus.] Applied in Mineralogy 
to a form contained under planes not 
homologous, or equal, similar, and 
equally disposed to each other. In 
Pharmacy and Chemistry, applied to 
a mixture or substance composed of two 
or more ingredients or elements. 

Compound Blowpipe. See Blow- 

Com'pound Frac'ture. A term in 
Surgery denoting a case wherein tho 
fracture of tho bone is accompanied with 
laceration of the integuments, causing 
an external wound. Sec Fracture. 

Com'press. [Compres'sus ; from 
con, "together," and pre' mo, prcs'sum, to 



"press."] Literally, " something pressed 
together." A portion of folded linen, 
lint, or other material, made into a kind 
of pad to be placed over parts which 
require particular pressure. 

Corn-pressed'. [Compres'sns; 

from the same.] Flattened in a lateral 

Com-pres-sI-oil'I-ty. [From the 
same.] A property of masses of matter, 
by which their particles are capable of 
being brought nearer together. Bodies 
which recover their former bulk on 
removal of the compressing cause are 
called elastic. 

Coni-pres'sion. [Compi-es'sio, 
o'ltli; from the same.] The act of 
compressing, or pressing together. Ap- 
plied to an abnormal state of a part 
produced by something pressing upon 
it : generally used in reference to the 

Com-pres'sor, o'r/-*.* [From the 
same.] That which compresses. Applied 
to a muscle which presses upon any 
part. In Surgery, it denotes a certain 

Compressor of Dupnytren. See 
Dcpvytrex, Compressor of. 

Compressor Pros'ta-Ue.* ("The 
Compressor of the Prostate [Gland].") 
The anterior fibres of the Levator ani, 
which embrace the prostate gland. 

Con. A Latin particle signifying 
"together," and sometimes '• with." It 
is usually changed to com before b, m, 
and p, and to co before a vowel, or h. 
Hence we have combine, compress, instead 
of eonbine and conpress ; consulate and 
cohabit, instead of conagulate and con- 
habit. Sometimes con is intensive, as 
concu'tio, concus'sum, to " shake vio- 

Co-na'ri-um. : * [From kwo;, a "cone."] 
Another name for the pineal gland; so 
called on account of its conical form. 

Con-cat'e-nate. [From con, "to- 
gether." and cate'na, a "chain."] "Chained 
together." A term applied to the glands 
of the neck, presenting in children a kind 
of knotty cord, extending from behind 
the ear to the collar-bone. 

Con-cau'sa. :: [From con, "together," 
and cau'xa, a "cause."] A cause com- 
bine! with another: a concause. 

Con 'cave. [From con, intensive, and 
ca'vus, "hollow."] Regularly hollowed 
x>ut. like the inside of a hollow sphere. 

Con-ea'vo-con'cave. [Con'cavo- 
con'cavus.] Having two concave 


Con-cii' vo-con ' vex. [Con cayo- 
eonvex'us.] Having one face concave, 
the other convex. 

Con-cen'trate. [From con, "to- 
gether," and cen'trum, a "centre."] 
Literally, to " bring together [as an 
army] towards a common centre :" hence, 
to condense, to strengthen. 

Con-ceii-tra'tioii. [Concentra'- 
tio, o'nis ; from the same.] Applied in 
Chemistry to the operation of rendering 
a fluid stronger by evaporating a por- 
tion of the water it contains. 

Con-cen'tric. [Concen'trictis ; 

from eon, '"together" or "with." and 
cen'trum, a "centre."] Having one 
common centre. 

Con-cep ta-cle. [Conceptac il- 

ium ; from coneip'io, concep'tum, to 
"conceive."] Applied in Botany to the 
case or vessel containing the reproduc- 
tive corpuscles in cryptogamous plants. 
The conceptacles are also termed cap- 
sides, thecie, and sporangise. 

Con-cep'tion. [From the same.] 
The impregnation of the female ovulum 
in the ovarium by the semen of the male, 
whence results a new being. 

Conception. False. An imperfect 
impregnation or blighted ovum. 

Concha,* konk'a. [Gr.Koyxn.n "shell.''] 
Literally, a "shell." Applied in Anato- 
my to the hollow portion of the external 
ear, etc. 

Con'elue Xari-nm. (The "Shells 
of the Nostrils.") The turbinated por- 
tion of the ethmoid bone, and the infe- 
rior spongy bones. 

Con-enif 'er-a.- [From con'cha, a 
" shell," and fe'ro, to " bear," to " carry."] 
The second class of the Ci/elo-gangliata, 
or Jfollitsca, comprising acephalous 
aquatic animals covered with a bivalve 
or multivalve shell. 

Con-ehif 'er-ons. [Conchif 'erns; 
from the same.] Bearing, or having, 

Coneh'oid. [Conchoi'des; from 
*&yxn% a "shell." and dco<;, a "form."] 
Resembling a shell. 

Con-choi'dal. The same as Con- 

Con-ehol'o-gy. [Concholo'gia; 
from ko-^oci, a "shell," and A>,u,-. a "dis- 
course."] The science of shells : that 
branch of Xatural History which treats 
of the form, structure, and peculiarities 
of shells. 

Conch'ns.- : [From Koyxn, a "shell."] 
The cranium. In the plural (Con'chi) 
it is applied to the cavities of the e}'e. 




Con-chyl-e-om'e-ter. [Conchyli- 
om'etruiii; from Koy\i\iov, a ''shell," 
and fiirpou, a "measure."] An instrument 
for measuring shells. 

Con-cliyl-i-o-lo'&i-Jj.* [From Koy- 
Xv^iol; a "shell," and Adyoj, a "dis- 
course."] The same as Conchology. 

Con-coc'tion. [Concoc'tio, o'nis ; 
from con, intensive, and co'quo, coc'tum, 
to "cook," to "digest."] The changing 
process which the food undergoes in the 
stomach and bowels: the same as Diges- 
tion, though the latter is by some medi- 
cal writers limited to the process in the 

Con-crete', or kong'kret. [Con- 
cre'tns; from con, "together," and cres- 
co, ere' turn, to "grow."] Applied to sub- 
stances converted from a fluid to a more 
solid consistence. 

Con-cre'tion. [Concre'tio, o'nis ; 
from the same.] The growing together 
of parts naturally separate, as the fingers 
or toes. Applied in Chemistry to the 
condensation of a fluid, or other sub- 
stance, into a more solid consistence. 

Con-cu'foi-tus.* [From con, "to- 
gether," and cu'bo, cu'bitum, to "lie."] 
The same as Coitus. 

Con-cus'sion. [Concus'sio, o'nis; 
from concu'tio, concus'sum, to "shake," 
to "shake violently."] A diseased state, 
producing alarming symptoms, caused 
by great violence offered to the head, 
though no fissure, fracture, or extravasa- 
tion can be discovered. 

Con-den-sa'tion. [Condensa'tio, 
o'nis; from con, "together," and den' so, 
densa'tum, to "thicken," to "make 
thick."] The process of bringing the 
component parts of vapor or gas nearer 
to each other by pressure or cold. Ap- 
plied to increased density or solidity of 
the blood or tissues. 

Con-den'ser, or Con-den-sa'tor.* 
[From the same.] A vessel or apparatus 
for condensing gas, vapor, or air. Also 
an instrument for rendering sensible 
the weakest quantities of electricity. 

Con-di-men'ta.* [The plural of 
eojidimen'tum, a" sauce" or "seasoning;" 
from con'dio, to "season."] Condi- 
ments: substances taken with the food to 
improve its flavor, to promote its diges- 
tion, or to correct its injurious qualities. 

Con-dnc'tion. [Conduc'tio, o'nis ; 
from condu'eo, conduc'tum, to "lead to- 
gether," to "conduct."] Tho passing 
of caloric or electricity from one particle 
of matter to another, as in an iron rod 
heated at one end, in which case tho 

caloric is conducted gradually along the 
particles of the iron. 

Con-duc'tor, o'ris.* [From the 
same.] Applied to a body which readily 
transmits electricity or caloric. 

Con-dn'pli-cate. [Conduplica'- 
tns: from con, "together," and dupli- 
ca'tus, "doubled."] Folded together. 

Con'dyle. [Con'dylus; from kov- 
6v\og, a "knuckle," a "knob."] The 
round eminence at the end of a bone in 
a joint. 

Con'dy-loid. [Condyloi'des; from 
KQv6v\oi, a "knob," a "condyle," and tl6oi, 
a "form."] Resembling a condyle. 

Con-dj'-lo'ma, mtut.* [From kov6u\o<;, 
a "knob" or "tubercle."] A small, hard 
tumor, or wart-like excrescence, about 
the anus and pudendum of both sexes. 

Cone. [Lat. Co'nus; Gr. ku>vo;.] A 
solid formed by the rotation of a right- 
angled triangle about its perpendicular, 
called the axis of the cone. 

Cone-Shaped. See Coxical. 

Co-ne'in, orCo-ne'Ine. [Coni'a, or 
Coneia, ko-nl'a; from coni'um, "hem- 
lock."] The active principle of Coni'um. 
macula' turn ; also termed Ciditin. 

Conf. = Confec'tio * A "confection." 

Confectio,* kon-fek'she-o, plural 
Confectiones, kon-fek-she-o'nez. (Fr. 
Conjit, k&N G, fe\) A confection. Under 
this title the London College and U.S. 
Pharmacopoeia comprehend the conserves 
and electuaries of its former Pharma- 

Confec'tio Ar-o-mat'I-ca.* ("Aro- 
matic Confection.") Take of aromatic 
powder, four troyounces ; clarified honey, 
four troyounces, or a sufficient quantity. 
Rub the aromatic powder with clarified 
honey until a uniform mass is obtained 
of the proper consistence. (U.S. Ph., 18G0.) 

Confec'tio Anran'tii (au-ran'she-i) 
Cor'ti-cis.* ("Confection of Orange- 
peel.") Take of sweet orange-peel, re- 
cently separated from the fruit by grating, 
twelve troyounces; sugar, thirty-six 
troyounces. Beat the orange-peel with 
the sugar, gradually added, until they 
are thoroughly mixed. (U.S. Ph., I860.) 

Confec'tio O'pi-i.* (" Confection of 
Opium.") Take of opium, in fine pow- 
der, two hundred and seventy grains ; 
aromatic powder, six troyounces ; clari- 
fied honey, fourteen troyounces. Rub 
the opium with the aromatic powder, 
then add the honey, and beat the whole 
together until thoroughly mixed. (U.S. 
Ph., 1S60.) 

Confec'tio Ro'sre.* ("Confection 



of Rose.") Take of red rose, in fine 
powder, four troyounces; sugar, in fine 
powder, thirty troyounces; clarified 
honey, six troyounces ; rose-water, eight 
fluidounces. Rub the rose with the rose- 
water heated to 150°, then gradually add 
the sugar and honey, and beat the whole 
together until thoroughly mixed. (U.S. 
Ph., I860.) 

Confec'tio Sen'nse* ("Confection 
of Senna") is composed of eight parts 
of senna, four of coriander, sixteen of 
purging cassia, ten of tamarind, seven of 
prune, twelve of figs, thirty of sugar, 
and of water a sufficient quantity. (For 
particular directions in the preparation, 
see U.S. Pharmacopoeia, 1860, pp. 129 
and 130.) 

Confectiones. See Coxfectio. 

Con-fer'va. :s [From confer' reo, to 
"boil together," to ''boil up ;" so named, 
perhaps, in allusion to its floating like 
scum on the surface of the water.] The 
Confervse are chiefly fresh-water plants, 
composed of jointed capillary tubes, the 
joints containing granules variously ar- 

Confervacea?,* kon-fer-va'she-e. 
[From Confer' va, a genus of aquatic 
plants.] A natural order of flowerless 
aquatic plants, common in fresh water. 
At one period of their existence they 
have the power of rapid and quasi-vol- 
untary motion. 

Con-fla'tion. [Confla'tio; from 
con' Ho, confa'tum, to "blow together," 
to "forge," to "melt."] The casting or 
melting: of metal. 

Con'fln-ent. [Con flnens; from 
con, '•together." and fn'o, to "flow," to 
"run."] Applied in Botany to leaves 
connected at their base. Applied also 
to the eruption in Variola, and some 
other exanthematous diseases, when the 
pustules are so thick as to run together, 
appearing like one mass of inflamma- 

Con-for-ma'tion. [Conforma'tio, 
o'nis; from con for' mo, to "shape" or 
"form together," to "adapt one thing 
or part to another."] The natural form 
of a part. 

Cong;. = Oon'ffius.* A "gallon." 

Con-gc-la'tion. [Congela'tio, 

o'nis; from eon, intensive, and ge'lo, 
gela'tum, to "freeze."] The process 
whereby the change of a liquid to a solid 
body is produced by the losing of its 

t'on'^c-ner.eris.* [From con, "to- 
gether," and >je'nu>i t a " kind" or " race."] 

(Fr. CongPnere, k6x°'zha'naiR'.) Literally, 
"of the same kind with another." Ap- 
plied to muscles which perform the same 
action. Applied to genera nearly allied, 
or to species of the same genus. 

Con-gen I-tal. [Congen'itus; from 
con, "together," or "with," and gen'i- 
tus, "born."] (Fr. Congenial, k6x G 'zh&'- 
ne-al'.) Born with a person; existing 
from birth: connate. 

Con-ge'ri-es.* [From conge'ro, to 
"carry together," to "heap up."] A 
collection of a number of particles into 
one mass. 

Con-ges'tion. [Conges'tio, o'nis; 
from conge'ro, conges' turn, to "carry or 
heap together."] An excessive accumu- 
lation of the contents of any of the 
blood-vessels or ducts. 

Con-ges'tive. [Congest i vns; from 
the same.] Capable of producing, or 
tending to produce, congestion. 

Con'gi-ns.* A gallon. 

Con'glo-bate. [Congloba'tns; 

from conglo'bo, congloba' turn, to "gather 
into a ball."] Formed into a ball. 

Con 'globate Gland [from con, "to- 
gether," and glo'bus, a "ball"], or Simple. 
A gland subsisting by itself; as those 
of the absorbent system. 

Con-glom'er-ate. [Conglomera'- 
tns: from conglom'ero, conglom era' turn, 
to "wind," as on a ball, to "heap to- 
gether." See Agglomerate.] Irregu- 
larly crowded together. 

Conglomerate Gland [from con, 
"together," and glo'mus, glom'eris, a 
"heap"], or Compound. A gland com- 
posed of various glands; as the salivary, 
parotid, pancreatic, etc. 

Conglntinantia,* kon-glu-te-nan'- 
she-a. [From conglu'tino, to "glue to- 
gether."] The same as Agglutixaxtia. 
See Agglutixaxt. 

Con-gres'sns,*orCon'gress. [From 
congre'dion, congres' sus, to "meet to- 
gether."] The meeting of the male and 
female in the act of procreation. The 
same as Coitus. 

Co'ni,* the plural of Coxus, which see. 

Coni Vas-cn-lo'si.* ("Vascular 
Cones.") The conical convolutions of 
the vasa efferentia of the testis. They 
constitute the epididymis. 

Co-ni'a.* The same as Coxeix, which 

Conic. See Coxical. 

Con'I-cal. [Con'icus.] Belonging 
to a cone : shaped like a cone. 

Con I-cin. [Conici'na.] The same 
as Coxeix, which gee. 




Co-nif'er-se* [from co'nus, a "cone," 
and fe'ro, to "bear"], or Pinaceae,* 

pi-na'she-e. A natural order of exo- 
genous trees and shrubs, found in nearly 
all parts of the world, and usually ever- 
green. It ineludes the pine, cedar, 
spruce, cypress, juniper, a*nd other trees 
of great value for timber. No order can 
be named of more universal importance 
to man, whether we view it with refer- 
ence to its timber or its secretions, 
among which are turpentine, resin, bal- 
sam, and pitch. 

Co-nif 'er-ous. [Conif 'eras; from 
co'nus, a "cone," and fe'ro, to "bear."] 
Bearing cones. See Conifers. 
Coniform. See Conoid. 
Co-ni'i Fo'li-a.* ("Leaves of Co- 
niuin.") See Coxiuji. 

Co-nl-ros'tris.* [From co'nus, a 
"cone," and ros'trum, a "beak."] Ap- 
plied in the plural feminine to a family 
of birds having a strong conical beak : 

Co-ni'uin.* [Or. icciveiov.'] Called in 
English Hemlock. (Fr. Cigue, se'gii'.) A 
Linnaean genus of the class Pentan- 
dria, natural order Umbelliferie. The 
Pharmacopoeial name || of the fresh-dried 
leaves of Conium maculatum. Hemlock 
is narcotic and sedative. In large doses 
it causes vertigo, dimness of vision, 
nausea, numbness in the limbs, convul- 
sions, and death. Sometimes death en- 
sues from paralysis without coma or 
convulsions. It is employed medicinally 
as a palliative in cancerous ulcers, pain- 
ful scrofulous tumors, etc. ; also in 
chronic rheumatism, neuralgia, asthma, 
and phthisis. 

Coni'um 5Iac-n-Ia'tum.* The sys- 
tematic namo of the hemlock, termed 
Gicu'ti by the Latin authors ; but it is 
quite distinct from the Cicuta maculata 
of modern botanists. 

Conjonetive, k6N»'zh6xk , tev'. The 
French for Conjunctiva. See Coxjuxc- 


Con'jn-gate. [Conjuga'tns; from 
con, "together," and ju'go, juga'tnm, to 
"yoke," to "join."] Yoked; joined in 
pairs. Applied to the leaves of plants. 

Conjunctiva. See Coxjuxctivus. 

Con-junc-tl-vi'tis, i'/j's.* Inflam- 
mation of the conjunctiva. 

Con-junc-ti'vus.* [From con, "to- 
gether," and jun'go, junc'tum, to "join."] 
Applied to a delicate mucous membrane 
(Membra' nh Conjunct i'va) which lines 
both eyelids and covers the external 
portion of the eyeball. | 


Connaraeeav* kon-na-ra'she-e. 

[From Con'narus, one of the genera.] 
A natural order of trees and shrubs, 
found in the tropics. One species pro- 
duces the beautiful zebra-wood of the 

Connate. [Conna'tus; from con, 
"together," and nas'cor, na'tus, to "be 
born," to "grow."] Born with one; con- 
genital. In Botany, grown together. 

Con-nec tive [see next article] Tis'- 
sue. The same as Cellular Tissue. 

Con-nec-ti'vum. s [From con, "to- 
gether," and nee' to, to "knit" or "tie."] 
In Botany, the transverse body by which 
the lobes of the anther are united. 

Con-ni'vens,* plural Con-nl-ven'- 
tes. [From con, "together," and ni'veo, 
to "wink."] Converging, as the eyelids 
in winking, etc. See Valvule Coxni- 

Co'noid. [Conoi'des; from kwvoj, 
a "cone," and cldos, a "form."] Resem- 
bling a cone ; coniform. 

Co'noid Lig'a-ment. [Xig-amen'- 
tum Conoi'des.] The ligament which 
passes from the root of the coracoid 
process to the clavicle. 

Conqiie. koNk (Fr.). See Coxcha. 

Con-ser'van-cy. [From conser'vo, 
conserva'tum, to "preserve."] Preserva- 
tion. Applied in medicine to the pre- 
vention of decay in excreta, etc., with a 
view to promoting health. 

Con-ser-va'trix, i'ci«.* [From the 
same.] Preserving. (Used only in the 
feminine.) See Vis Coxservatrix. 

Con 'serve. [Conser'va.] A com- 
position of some vegetable substance and 
sugar, beaten into a uniform mass. 

Consomme (Fr.), koNo'som'ma', i.e. 
"complete," "perfect." [From consom- 
mer; literally, to "sum up;" hence, to 
"finish," to " perfect."] A rich broth or 
soup containing alarge proportion of gela- 
tine. Named, it would seem, on account 
of its summing up, or containing in a 
concentrated form, all the richest and 
best ingredients of the meat. 

Con-stel-la'tion. [Constella'tio, 
o'nis; from con, "together," and stcl'la, 
a "star."] A collection of fixed stars 
representing an animal or other figure, 
according to their arrangement. 

Con-stl-pa'tion. [Constipatio, 
o'nis; from con, "together," and sti'po, 
etipa'ttnn, to "stuff," to "cram close."] 
(Fr. Echauffement, a'shof niox '.) Cos- 
tiveness; tardiness in evacuating the 

Con-stU'u-ens.* [Present participle 



of constit'uo, to "constitute," to "com- 
pose," to "make," or "form."] Lite- 
rally, "that which constitutes" or helps 
to constitute or form any compound. 
The vehicle; a constituent part of a 
medicinal formula, commonly signifying 
that which furnishes a convenient and 
agreeahle form. See Prescription'. 

Con-stl-tu'tion. [Constitu'tio, 
o'nis; from constit'uo, cmistitu'tum, to 
"form," to "constitute" (from con, 
"together," and stat'uo, to "set" or 
"place").] The general habit or tem- 
perament of the body. See Diathesis. 

Constitution of the Air. That 
peculiar condition of the air which causes 
epidemics, or which impresses upon 
epidemic or sporadic diseases their 
peculiar character. 

Con-sti-tu'tion-al. Belonging to, 
or dependent upon, the constitution. 

Con-stric'tor,* plural Con-stric- 
to'res. [From con, "together," and 
etrin'yo, striatum, to "draw," to "bind."] 
Applied to a muscle that draws together 
or contracts any opening of the body, 
such as the pharynx. 

Constrictor Ani. See Sphincter 

Constrictor Oris. See Orbicula- 
ris Oris. 

Con-stric-to'res Pna-ryn'gis.* 
("Constrictors of the Pharynx.") These 
are muscles forming a part of the parie- 
tes of the pharynx, which they con- 

Constringentia,* kon-strin-jen'- 
she-a. [The neuter plural of the present 
participle of constrin'go, to "bind to- 
gether."] Applied to medicines which 
contract the tissues and check the secre- 
tions, etc. The same as Astringents, 
which see. 

Con-sump tion. [Consump'tio, 
o'nis; from consu'mo, consu/njj'tum, to 
"consume" or "waste away."] Any 
wasting away of the body, but usually 
applied to Phthisis puimonalis. See 
Phthisis and Tabes. 

Contabescentia,* kon-tab-es-sen'- 
she-a. [From con, intensive, and tabes'- 
co, to "waste away."] Atrophy, or con- 
sumption ; wasting away of the whole 
body. See Tabes. 

Con-ta'gion. [Conta'gio, o'nis; 
from contin'go, to "touch," to "affect."] 
The communication of a disease by con- 
tact, or by inhaling the effluvia from one 
already affected; often used as syno- 
nymous with Infection, which see. 

Con-ta'gious. [Coutagio'sus; from 

the same.] Applied to diseases which 
are spread by Contagion. 

Con-tin'ued Fe'ver. [Fe'bris 
Contin'ua.] A fever in which the 
symptoms do not intermit till its ter- 

Con-ti-nu'I-t jr. [Continu itas ; 
from contiu'eo, to "hold" or "keep to- 
gether."] A union of parts so complete 
that they cannot be separated without 
laceration or fracture. 

Continuity, So-lu'tion of. The 
separation by fracture or laceration of 
parts previously continuous. 

Contorsio, or Contortio (kon-tor'- 
she-o), o'nis.* [From con, intensive, and 
tor'queo, tor' sum or tor' turn, to "twist."] 
A twisting or contortion. 

Con-tort'. [From the same.] To 
twist, or twist together: thus, the leaves 
or petals of certain plants, and some- 
times arteries and veins, are said to be 

Con'tra. A Latin preposition, sig- 
nifying "against," "over against," or 
"opposite to." 

Con'tra-Apertu'ra.* [From con'tra, 
"opposite," and apertu'ra, an "aper- 
ture."] A counter-opening. An open- 
ing made in an abscess opposite to one 
already existing in it, to facilitate the 
discharge of matter. 

Con'tra-Exten'sio* ( ex-ten'she-o). 
Counter-extension. The holding of the 
upper part of a broken limb or a dislo- 
cated joint towards the trunk, while ex- 
tension is being employed with the lower 

Con'tra-Fissu'ra.* (Fr. Contrccoup, 
kONtYkoo', and Contre/ente, k6.\tYfoNt .) 
A fracture in a part opposite or distant 
from that in which the blow is received. 
See Fissura. 

Con'tra-In'dicate. [From con'tra, 
and indi'co, to "indicate," to "show."] 
To prohibit or prevent the use of a par- 
ticular remedy. See next article. 

Con'tra-Indica'tion. [Con'tra-indi- 
ca'tio, o'nis; from the same.] That 
which forbids the use of a particular 
remedy which otherwise it would be 
proper to exhibit. 

Con-tractile. [Contrac'tilis; from 
con, "together," and tra'ho, trac'tum, to 
"draw."] Possessing Contractility, 
which see. 

Contractility. See Contractility. 

Coii-trac-tiTI-ty. [Contractil'itas, 
a'tis; from the same. Fr. Contractilite, 
kc-No'trak'te'le'ta/.] A property by which 
the particles of bodies resume their 




original position when the power ap- 
plied to separate them is withdrawn. 
Also, that vital property which gives to 
certain parts (muscles, for example) the 
power of contracting, by means of 
which all the various tribes of animals 
perform their motions. 

Contractility is voluntary in what are 
termed the organs of animal life (such 
as the hands, feet, tongue, etc.), and ro- 
voluntary in those of organic life (as the 
heart, the stomach, etc.). Contractility 
is sometimes used as synonymous with 
Irritability, which see. 

Con-tra-c'tion. [Contrac'tio,o'?ii«; 
from the same.] The shortening of liv- 
ing fibre on the application of stimulus. 
Also, the shortening of a muscle from 
gome morbid cause. 

Con-trac-tu'ra.* [From the same.] 
Literally, "contraction." The name of 
a genus of the order Dyscinesise, class 
Locales, of Cullen's Nosology. A disease 
attended with permanent rigidity of the 
flexor muscles. It is sometimes the re- 
sult of rheumatism, colica pictonum, and 
other diseases. 

Con-tra-jer'va,* or Con-tra-yer'- 
va.* A former name for the root of the 
Dorste' nia contrayer'va. See Dorstexia. 

Contre-coup, Contre-fente, Con- 
tre-fracture. (Fr.) The same as Cox- 
tra-Fissura, which see. 

< on-lu sion. [Contu'sio, o'nis; 
from coatun'do, contu'sum, to "bruise."] 
(Fr. Meurtrissure, muR'tre'sUV.) Injury 
by an obtuse weapon, or violent collision 
against a hard body, without breach of 
the integuments: a bruise. 

Co'nus.* [Gr. /caicof.] A cone. Ap- 
plied in Botany to a particular kind of 
fructification, as the fir-top. See Stro- 

Con-va-leVcence. [Convalescen'- 
tia; from convales'co, to "grow strong" 
or "well."] The state or period between 
the removal of actual disease and the 
full recovery of the strength. 

Con«va-l£s'$ent. [Convales'cens; 
the present participle of the same.] Lite- 
rally, "growing strong" or "well." Re- 
turning to full health after a disease is 

Con-val-la'rI-a.* [From conval'lis, 
a "valley;" named from its abounding 
in valleys.] A genus of plants, of which 
several species were formerly used in 
medicine. The flowers and root of the 
Convalla'ria maia'lis (or maja'lis) have 
been employed as an errhhje, and the 
former as a cathartic 

Con' vex. [Convex'ns; from con, 
"together," and ve'ho, vec'tum or vex' urn, 
to "carry."] Literally, "brought to- 
gether;" hence, heaped up, swelling up 
like a heap of grain or like the part of a 

Convexo-Concavas. See Coxcavo- 

Con-vex'o-Con'vex. [Convex'o- 
Convex'us.] Having both surfaces 

Con-vo-lu'ta Os'sa.* (" Convoluted 
Bones.") A term applied to the upper 
and lower turbinated bones of the nose. 
See Coxvolutus. 

Con-vo-lu'tion. [Convolu'tio, 

o'nis; from con, "together," and vol'vo, 
volu'tum, to "roll," to "wrap."] Any 
thing which is rolled together or upon 
itself. Hence the term is applied to tho 
tortuous eminences of the cerebrum; 
also, to the irregular foldings of the in- 

Con-vo-lu'tns.* [From the same.] 
Rolled up; con'voluted. 

Convolvulaceav* kon-vol-vu-la'- 
she-e, or Con-vol'vu-li.* [From Con- 
vol'vulus, one of the genera.] A natu- 
ral order of herbaceous or shrubby twi- 
ning plants, yielding a milky juice when 
wounded. They are abundant in the 
tropics, and possess purgative qualities 
in their roots, depending upon a peculiar 
resin, of which scammony and jalap may 
be taken as examples. 

Con-vol-vu-la'ceous. [Convolvn- 
la'ceus.] Having an arrangement like 
the Convolvulus. 

Con-vol'vu-li,* the plural of Con- 
vol'vulus, forming the Jussieuan name 
of a natural order of plants. See Cox- 


Con-vol'vu-lus.* [From convol'vo, 
to "wrap together," to "entwine."] 
Bindweed. A Linnnean genus of the 
class Pentandria, natural order Convol- 

Convol'vulus Ja-Ia'pa.* The name 
given by Linmcus to the jalap-plant; 
now referred to the genus Ipomcea. See 
Ipomcea Jalapa. 

Convol'vuIusScani-mo'ni-a. ;: The 
systematic name of the scammony-plant. 

Convulsio. See Coxvulsiox. 

Convulsio Canina. See Risus Sar- 


Convul'sio (kon-vul'she-o) Hsi-bit- 
n-a'lis.* ("Habitual Convulsion.") 
One of the names of Chorea, or St. Vitus'a 

Con-vul'sion. [Convnl'sio, o'nis; 



from convel'lo, convul'snm, to "pull to- 
gether."] Violent agitation of the limbs 
or body, generally marked by clonic 
spasms. See Spasmus. 

Copahu, ko'pa'ii'. The French term 
for Copaiba, which see. 

Co-pai'ba^ (Spanish pronunciation 
ko-pi'Ba, almost ko-pl'va.). [From Co'- 
pal, an odoriferous gum, and i'ba or 
i'va, a "tree."] A resinous juice, or 
oleo-resin, obtained from the Copaifera 
multijuga and other species of Copaifera. 
The Pharmacopoeial name |j of balsam of 

Copaiba is gently stimulant, diuretic, 
and laxative, and in large doses some- 
times actively purgative. It is much 
used as a remedy in gonorrhoea and 
other diseases of the mucous mem- 
branes, especially those of a chronic 

Copai'hse ©le-um.- ("Oil of Co- 
paiba.") An oil distilled from the oleo- 
resin of copaiba (Lond. Ph., 1S51). 

Co-pa-if er-a. :;: " [From cnpai'ba, and 
fe'ro, to "bear."] A Linna?an genus of 
the class Decandria, natural order Legxi- 

Copaifera 31nl-tij'u-ga.* The 
systematic name of the tree which pro- 
duces copaiba, growing native in Vene- 
zuela, also found in some of the West 
India islands, particularly Trinidad and 
Martinique. It is a handsome tree, with 
a lofty stem much branched at the top 
and crowned with a thick canopy of 

Copaifera ©f-fic-i-na'lis.* One 
of the plants which afford copaiba. 

Co-pai'va. The same as Copaiba, 
which see. 

Copal. (Sp. Copal, ko-pal'.) A resin- 
ous substance obtained from the Hy- 
menrea Courbaril and other species of 
Hymcncea. Dissolved in alcohol, it has 
been used as a remedy for spongy gums. 
It is at present chiefly or solely em- 
ployed as a varnish. 

Co-pho'sis. : [From Ktrpo^, "deaf."] 

Copper. See Cuprum. 

Cop'per-as. A name for the sulphates 
of copper, iron, and zinc; also respect- 
ively called bine, green, and white vitriol. 

Cop'per-nickel. A native arscniu- 
rct of nickel, a copper-colored mineral 
found in Westphalia. 

Cop-ra-go'g'ias.* [From *orpoj, "ex- 
crement," and ayui, to "carry" or "bring 
away."] Applied in the plural neuter 
( Coprago'ga) to purgatives, — that is, 

medicines which bring away the faces: 

Cop'ro-lite, Cop'ro-lith. [Coprol- 
ithus; from /cd-rpos, "excrement," and 
\ido$, a "stone."] A ball of hardened 
faeces or other mass in the bowels. 

Co-pros 'ta-sis.* [From K&rpos, 

"faeces," and 7orrj//«, to "stand," to "be 
stationary."] Costiveness; undue re* 
tention of the faeces in the intestines. 
Hence the terms t'opragoya or Eccopro- 
tica, denoting purgatives. 

Cop-u-la'tion. [Copula'tio, o'nit; 
from cop'ulo, copula' turn, to "couple to- 
gether."] The same as Coxgressus, 
which see. 

Cor, :i gen. Cor'dis. [Gr. Kapcia; Fr. 
Cceur, ki*R.] The Latin term for the 
heart, the central organ of circulation. 
See Heart. 

Cor'a-co-. A prefix denoting at- 
tachment to the coracoid process of the 

Cor'a-coid. [Coracoi'des; from 
Kopal, Kopaxos, a "raven" or "crow," and 
elco;, a "form."] Resembling a crow's 
beak. Applied to a process of the 
scapula ; also applied by Owen to the 
homologues of the coracoid process of 
the scapula. 

Cor'acoid L.ig--a-ment. [L.isa- 
men'tuui Coracoi'deum.] A small 
ligament extending from the coracoid 
process across the notch of the scapula, 
converting the notch into a foramen. 

Cor'acoid Proc/ess. [Proces'sus 
Coracoi'deus.] A projection or process 
on the anterior and upper margin of the 
scapula, supposed to resemble the beak 
of a crow. 

Cor-a-co-i'de-ns.* [From coracoi'- 
des.] Belonging to the coracoid process 
of the scapula. See Coracoid Liga- 
ment and Coracoid Process. 

Coral. [Lat. Coral'linm or Co- 
ral'lum; Gr. KopdWiov; supposed to be 
derived from xoprj, a "daughter," and 
uXf, the "sea."] A stony or horny sub- 
stance growing in the sea, once supposed 
to be a plant, but now regarded as the 
skeleton or shell of a congeries of small 

Cor-al-lif er-ous. [Corallif eras ; 
from coral' lum, and fe'ro, to "bear."] 
Coral-bearing. Applied in the plural 
masculine (Corallif 'eri) to an order of 

Cor-al'li-form. [Corallifor'mis ; 
from coral'linm or coral' lum.~\ Formed 
like coral. 

Cor-ai-ll&'er-us.* [From coral'- 




lum, and ge'ro, to "bear."] The same as 


Cor'al-loid. [Coralloi'des ; from 
coral' lum, and ttios, a "form."] Resem- 
bling coral. 

Coralloidal. See Coralloid. 

Cor'cu-lum.* [Diminutive of cor, 
tbe "heart."] The heart and essence of 
the seed; the embryo, or germ. 

Cor 'date. [Corda'tus; from cor, 
cor'dis, the "heart."] Heart-shaped. 

Cordiaceav* kor-de-a'she-e. [From 
Cor'dia, one of the genera.] A natural 
order of exogenous trees, natives of the 
tropics. They are the Sebestens of the 
European Materia Medica. 

Cordial, kord'yal. [Cordia'lis; 
from cor, the "heart."] Any stimu- 
lating medicine which raises the spirits. 

Cor'di-form. [Cordifor'mis; from 
cor, the "heart."] Formed like a heart. 

Cordon ©anoilicale, koR'doN ' 6m*- 
be'le'kal'. The French term for Funicu- 
lus, which see. 

Core. [From cor, the "heart."] The 
hard portion of sloughy or purulent 
matter found in boils. 

Cor-ec-to'ml-a.* [From Koprj, the 
"pupil," and ekte/xvo), to "cut out."] The 
operation for artificial pupil by removal 
of a part of the iris: corec'tomy. See 
Coretomia and Iridectomy. 

Cor-e-di-al'y-sis.* [From Kopr\, the 
"pupil," and <3i<LW($.] The operation for 
artificial pupil, separating part of the ex- 
ternal margin of the iris from the Corpus 
ciliare. See Iridodialysis. 

Cor-e-mor-pho'sis.* [From >c6pr), 
the "pupil," and /idp^wjij, "formation."] 
An operation for forming an artificial 
pupil. See Corectomia, Iridectomy. 

Cor-en-clei'sis.* [From K6pr\, the 
"pupil," and eyxXdo}, to "include."] An 
operation for artificial pupil by drawing 
a portion of the iris through an incision 
in the cornea, and cutting it off". 

Co-re-on'ci-on,* Co-re-on'cl-um,* 
or ko-re-on'she-um. [From K6pr\, the 
" pupil," and oyicos, a "hook."] A kind of 
hook for the operation for artificial pupil. 

Cor'e-plas'tl-ca,* Core-plas'tl- 
ce.* [From Kopij, the "pupil," and 7rAa<r- 
Tixfi, the "art of making images."] Ope- 
ration for artificial pupil in general: 

Cor-e-to'mi-a.* [From Kopri, the 
"pupil," and rifiucj, to "cut."] Opera- 
tion for artificial pupil by simply cutting 
through the iris: coret'omy. See Iri- 

Co-rl-a'ceous. [Coria'ceus; from 

co'rium, "leather."] Of the nature of 
leather; leathery. 

Co-rl-an'drum.* [From xopts, a 
"bug 5" from the smell.] A Linnaean 
genus of the class Peniundria, natural 
order Umbelli/erse. Also the Pharmaco- 
poeial name || for the fruit of Coriandrum 

Corian'drum Sa-ti'vum.* The 

Co'ri-um.-* [Gr. X'opioy.] Literally, 
the "skin or hide of animals." The 
Cutis, or true skin. 

Cor'mus.* [Gr. ko/^oj, a "trunk" or 
a "tail."] A corm. The body, or trunk 
of a tree; also the bulb of bulbous 

Corn. [From cor'nu, a "horn. Fr. 
Cor, koR.] A horny hardness of the 
skin, occurring chiefly on the joints of 
the toes, and caused by continued pres- 
sure or friction. 

Cornaceav* kor-na'she-e, or Cor'- 
ne-se.* A natural order of trees and 
shrubs, found in temperate climates, in- 
cluding the Comus, or Dog-Wood, the 
bark of which is said to rank among 
the best tonics in North America. 

Corne. See Cornu. 

Cor'ne-a.* [From cor'nu, a "horn."] 
A transparent, convexo-concave, nearly 
circular substance, forming the anterior 
part of the eyeball. It is often termed 
the Cornea lu'cida, or C. transpa'rens, or 
the "transparent cornea." 

Cor'nea O-pa'ca.* The sclerotic 
coat of the eye. 

Cor-ne-i'tis, idis.* [From cor'nea.] 
Inflammation of the cornea. The same 
as Ceratitis. 

Cor'ne-ous. [Cor'nens; from cor'- 
nu.] Belonging to horn; horny. 

Cornicle. See Corniculum. 

Cor-nic'u-late. [Cornicula'tns; 
from cornic'ulum, a "little horn."] Hav- 
ing horns or parts resembling them. 

Cor-nic'u-lum* [diminutive of cor'- 
nu, a "horn"], or Cornic'ulum I^a- 
ryn'&Ls* ("Cornicle of the Larynx"). 
A small cartilaginous body surmount- 
ing the arytenoid cartilage. 

Cor'nl-form. [Cornifor'mis; from 
cor'nu, a "horn."] Horn-shaped. 

Cor-ni&'er-ous. [Corn ig 1 ' cms; 
from cor'nu, and ge'ro, to " bear."] 
Having horns. 

Cor'nin, or Cor'nlne. A term 
applied to a peculiar bitter principle 
said to have been found in the bark of 
the Comus Florida: its properties re- 
semble those of quinine. 



Cor'nu,* plural Cor'nu-a. (Fr. 
Come, koim.) A Latin word signifying a 
"horn." Applied to a certain kind of 
warts, on account of their horny hard- 
ness. Also the Pharmacopoeial name 
(Lond. and Ed. Ph.) of hartshorn. See 
Cornu Certi. 

Cor'nua U'teri* ("Horns of the 
Uterus.") The angles of the uterus 
where the Fallopian tubes are given off. 

Cor'nu Am-mo'nis,* Cor'nu A-ri'- 
e-tis.* The appearance like a ram's 
horn presented by the cortical substance 
of the cerebrum when the pes hippo- 
campi is cut transversely through. 

Cor'nu Cer'vi.* (''Horn of the 
Stag.") The horn of the Cervus eleplias; 
hartshorn. An impure carbonate of 
ammonia was formerly obtained from 
burning the shavings of hartshorn; 
while the residue, called Cornu ustum 
("burnt horn"), consisting chiefly of 
phosphate of lime with a small pro- 
portion of free lime, was used as an 

Cor'nu Us'tum.* [From u'ro, us'tum, 
to "burn."] A name for the phosphate 
of lime prepared from horn by fire. See 
Cornu Ceryi. 

Cor'nus Cir-cl-na'ta,* and Cor'nus 
Seri^'ea.* Small trees or shrubs found 
in the Northern and Middle United States. 
Their bark possesses medical virtues 
similar to those of Cornus Florida. 

Cor'nus Fldr'i-cla.* A small tree 
of the Linnaean class Tetrandria, natu- 
ral order Corndcese. It grows in all the 
United States east of the Mississippi, 
but most abundantly in the Middle 
States. Also the Pharmacoposial name 
(U.S. Ph.) of the bark of the Cornus 
Florida, which appears to posses?, 
though in an inferior degree, the tonic 
and antiperiodic virtues of cinchona. 

Cornus Sericca (se-rish'e-a). See 
Cornus Circinata. 

Cor'nute. [Cornu'tus; from cor'nu, 
a "horn."] Having horns; horned. 

Co-rol'la.* [Diminutive of coro'na, 
a "crown."] Literally, a "little crown." 
Usually the most beautiful portion of 
the flower (the separate pieces of which 
are called petals), situated between the 
calyx and internal organs. 

Cor'ol-la-ry. [Corolla'rmm; from 
corol'la.] Applied to a tendril formed 
by a petal or segment of a corolla. Also, 
a truth necessarily following from some 
preceding truth or demonstration. 

Cor'ol-late. Having a corolla. 

Cor-ol-lif 'or-ous. [Corollif 'erus ; 

from corol'la, and fe'ro, to "bear."] 
Bearing a corolla. 

Cor-ol'li-l'orm. [Corollifor'mis ; 

from corol'la.] Having the appearance 
of a corolla. 

Co-rol'lu-Ia.* [Diminutive of corol'- 
la.] The partial floret of a compound 

Co-ro'na.* [From Kop-'.wt], the "crest" 
or "summit" of any thing.] A crown. 
Applied in Anatomy and Natural His- 
tory to eminences of bone, or any ob- 
jects or parts bearing resemblance to 
a crown. 

Coro'na Glan'tlis.* ("Crown of 
the Glans.") The ring or rim running 
round the base of the (Jlans 2ienis. 

Coro'na Ven'e-ris.* ("Crown of 
Venus.") (Fr. Couronne de Venus, koo'- 
ronn' deh va'niis'.) Syphilitic blotches 
which often extend around the forehead, 
like a crown. 

Co-ro'nad. Applied the same aa 
Coronal used adverbially. 

Cor-o'nal, orkor / o-nal. [Corona'lis; 
from coro'na, a "crown."] Applied by 
Dr. Barclay in reference to the aspects 
of the head; towards the crown of the 

Coro'nal Su'ture. [Sutu'ra Co- 
rona'lis.] The suture formed by the 
union of the frontal with the two parie- 
tal bones. 

Cor'o-na-ry. [Corona'rins: from 
coro'na, a "crown."] (Fr. Coronaire, 
koWneR'.) Applied to vessels, liga- 
ments, and nerves which encircle parts 
like a crown, as the "coronary arteries 
of the heart," the "coronary artery of 
the stomach," etc. 

Cor-o-na'tus.* [From coro'na, 

corona' turn, to "crown."] Literal!}', 
"crowned." Applied in the plural femi- 
nine (Corona' tse) to a class or division 
of plants having the seed-bud crowned 
by the flower-cup. 

Co-ro'ne.* [Gr. Kop>':vr\, a "crow," 
any thing curved like a crow's beak.] 
The acute process of the lower jaw- 
bone, — so named from its supposed re- 
semblance to a crow's bill. 

Cor'o-ner. [From coro'na, a"crown."] 
Originally an officer who had authority 
from the Crown to make inquest before 
a jury of twelve, as to the true cause of 
death, in every case of sudden deceive. 
The word was formerly written Crorrner. 

Cor'o-noid. [Coronoi'dos; from 
Kop-ovr], a "crow," and elfo$, a "form."] 
Applied to processes of bones in any 
way like a crow's beak. Applied by 




Owen to the subdivision in the mandi- 
ble of reptiles, into which the crotaphite 
muscle is always more or less inserted. 

Co-ron'u-la.* [Diminutive of coro'- 
na, a "crown."] A coronet or downy 
tuft surrounding the seeds of certain 
flowers. A cor'onule. 

Cor'po-ra,* gen. Cor'po-rum, the 
plural of Corpus, which see. 

Cor'pora Albican'tia* (al-be-kan'- 
she-a). (The "Whitish Bodies." See Al- 
bicans.) Two small protuberances on 
the base of the brain. Called also 
Mammillary Tubercles or Mammillary 
Bodies, from their resemblance to anipple. 

Corpora Amylacea. See Neuro- 

Cor'pora Cav-er-no'sa.* ("Cav- 
ernous Bodies;" so called from the cavi- 
ties or cells found in them.) The crura 
of the penis. Also, the same part or 
parts of the Clitoris. As the Corpora 
cavernosa are only partially separated, it 
is more correct to call this portion of 
the organ the Corpus cavernosum (" Cav- 
ernous Body"). 

Cor'pora <^en-ic-u-la'ta.* [From 
genicula'tus, "jointed" or "bent like a 
knee."] Two tubercles, internum and 
externum, on the inferior part of the 
optic thalami. 

Cor'pora IAi'te-a.* ("Yellow Bo- 
dies.") Yellow spots found in the ovaria, 
in place of ova, removed by impregna- 
tion or otherwise. 

Cor'pora Jlam-mil-la'ri-a.* The 
Corpora Albicantia, which see. 

Cor'pora Ol-i-va'rI-a* (" Olive- 
shaped Bodies"), Cor'pora O-va'ta* 
(" Oval Bodies"). The two external 
oval prominences on the Medulla oblon- 

Cor'pora Pyr-ainl-da'li-a.* (" Py- 
ramidal Bodies.") The two anterior 
eminences of the Medulla oblongata. 

Corpora Quadrigemina. See Tu- 


Cor'pora Res-ti-lbr'im-a.*( "Rope- 
like Bodies.") The two posterior oval 
eminences on the Medulla oblongata. 

Corpora Sesamoidea. See Arantii, 

Cor'pora Stri-a'ta.* ("Striated 
Bodies.") Two smooth cineritious con- 
vexities, one on the fore part of each 
lateral ventricle of the brain. When 
cut, a mixture of gray and white matter 
in alternate layers is exhibited, causing 
a striated appearance. 

Corpulency. Sec Polysarcia. 

Cor'pus,* gen. Cor'po-ris. (Fr. 

Corps, koR.) A Latin word signifying 
Body, which see. 

Cor'pus An-nu-la're.* The Pons 


Cor'pus Cal-lo'sum.* ("Callous 
Body" or Substance.) The white me- 
dullary substance joining the hemi- 
spheres of the brain; the Commissura 

Corpus Cavernosum. See Corpora 

Cor'pus Cl-ne're-um* ("Ash-co- 
lored Body"), or Cor'pus I>en-ta'tum* 
("Dentated Body"). A small oval mass 
of gray substance seen on a section of 
either hemisphere of the cerebellum, 
about an inch from the median line. On 
its circumference are a number of in- 

Cor'pus Fim-bri-a'tnm.* ( "Fringed 
Body.") A narrow white band along 
the concave edge of the inferior comu 
of the lateral ventricle of the brain ; the 
Tvenia hipp<>c<tmpi. 

Cor'pus Glan-du-lo'sum.* (" Glan- 
dulous Body.") A spongy eminence 
surrounding the orifice of the female 
urethra; sometimes called the "female 
prostate gland" (Glan'dula pros' tata 

Corpus Mucosum. See Rete Mu- 


Cor'pus Pam-pIn-I-for 'me.* ("Ten- 
dril-like Body.") A plexus formed by 
the spermatic veins, above the testis. 

Corpus Psaloides.* The Fornix. 
See Fornix. 

Corpus Pyramidale. See Corpus 

Corpus Reticulare, or Corpus Re- 
ticulare Malpiglii. See Rete Mu- 

Corpus Rliomboideum. Seo Cor- 
pus Dkntatum. 

Corpus Spongiosum Penis. See 
next article. 

Cor'pus $pon-£I-o'siim U-re'- 
ilirse.* ("Spongy Body [or Substance] 
of the Urethra.") A cellular, A'ascular, 
dark-red, or purple substance, which 
covers the urethra. 

Cor'pus Var-i-co'sum.* ("Vari- 
cose Body.") The spermatic plexus. 

Cor'pus-cle. [Corpus'culum; di- 
minutive of cor'jms.] A small body; an 

Cor-pus'eu-lar. [Corpuseula'ris ; 
from corpus'culum, a "corpuscle" or 
"minute body."] Belonging to a cor- 
puscle, or to the doctrine of atoms. 

Cor'ri-&ens.* [The present parti- 



ciple of cor' rigo, correc'tum, to "correct."] 
A constituent part of a medicinal for- 
mula; "that which corrects its opera- 
tion." See Prescription. 

Cor-rob'o-rant. [Corrob'oraus ; 
from eorrob'oro, to "strengthen."] 
Strengthening, or giving strength. 

Cor-ro'sive. [Corrosi'vus; from cor 
for con, intensive, and ro'do, ro'sum, to 
"gnaw," to "eat away."] Literally, 
"eating away." Destroying the texture 
or substance of a body, more especially 
of a living body. 

Corrosive Sublimate. See Hy- 


Cor'ru-gat-ed. [Corruga'tas; from 
cor for con, "together," or intensive, and 
ru'go, ruga' turn, to "wrinkle."] Wrin- 

Cor-ru-ga'tion. [Corruga'tio ; 

from the same.] The contraction of the 
surface of a body into wrinkles. 

Cor-ru-ga'tor, o'n's.* [From the 
same.] Literally, a "wrinkler." Ap- 
plied to a muscle which contracts the 
skin into wrinkles. 

Cor ruga' tor Su-per-cil'i-i.* 

("Wrinkler of the Brow.") The muscle 
which knits or contracts the brow into 

Corselet, kors'let. In Entomology, 
the Prothorux, collar, or anterior seg- 
ment of the trunk. 

Cort. = Cor'tex* " Bark." 

Cor'tex,* gen. Cor'tl-cis. [As if 
Con'tex ; from con'tego, to "cover over."] 
(Fr. Ecorce, a'koRss'.) The outermost 
covering of the stem and branches of 
all plants, analogous to the skin of 

Cor'tex Cer'e-bri.* (The "Cortex, 
or Cortical Substance, of the Brain.") 
The gray or cineritious substance found 
on the exterior of the cerebrum and cere- 
bellum, covering the whitish medullary 
matter beneath as the bark of a tree 
covers the alburnum. 

Cor'tex Cu-H-la'wau.* The name 
for the bark of the Laurus culilawan, 

Cor'tex E-leu-the'ri-ae. The bark 
of the Croton cascnrilla. 

Cor'tl-cal. [Cortica'lis ; from cor'- 
tex, cor'ticis, "bark."] Belonging to 
bark ; of the nature of bark. Applied 
to that which covers a part, as the cor- 
tical portion of the brain or the kidneys. 

Cor'ti-cate. [Cortica'tus ; from 
cor'tex, "bark."] Having bark; barked. 

Cor-ti-cif 'er-ous. [Corticif 'erus ; 
from cor'tex, "bark," and fe'ro, to 
"bear."] Bearing, or producing, bark. 

Cor-tic'I-form. [Corticifor'mis ; 

from cor'tex, "bark."] Appearing like 

Cor'tl-eose. [Cortico'sus ; from 
cor'tex, " bark."] Having bark, or full of 

Corylaceav* kor-o-la'she-e. [From 
Cor'ylus, the "hazel-tree."] A name 
given by Lindley to a natural order of 
plants. See Cupclifer^e. 

Cor'ymb. [Corym'bus; from Kopvg, 
the "crown of the head."] A kind of 
spike, the partial flower-stalks of which 
are gradually longer, so that all tho 
flowers are nearly on a level at the top. 

Cor yin-bif'er-a?.* [From corym'- 
bus, a "corymb," and fe'ro, to "bear."] 
A name given by Jussieu to a division 
of the order Composite, including the 

Cor-ym-bif 'er-ous. [Corymbif- 
erus; from corym'bua, a "corymb," 
and fe' ro, to "bear."] Bearing corymbs. 

Co-ry'asa.* [Supposed to be derived 
from Kapa, the " head," and s"J, to " boil."] 
A limpid, ropy, mucous defluxion from 
the nostrils. 

Co-se'cant. The secant of the com- 
plement of an arc. See Secant. 

Cos-met'ic. [Cosmet'ieus ; from 
Koapeco, to "adorn."] Applied to medi- 
cines supposed to have the power of re- 
moving freckles and blotches. Many 
substances used as cosmetics — such as 
lead, bismuth, and arsenic — sometimes 
give rise to cutaneous affections, and 
often cause a permanent deterioration 
in the texture of the skin. 

Cos-mog^o-ii y. [Cosmogo'nia ; 
from Koapog, the "universe," and yovfi, 
"birth," "origin."] That science which 
treats of the origin of the universe. 

Cos-mog-'ra-uhy. [Cosmog-ra'- 
pliia; from Koapog, the "universe," and 
yp<i<pw, to "write."] A description of the 

Cos-mol'o-g-y. [Cosmolo'gia; 

from Koapos, the "universe," and Xoyog, a 
"discourse."] The doctrine or science 
of the universe, its formation and ar- 

Cos'ta.* A rib. (Fr. Cote, kot.) The 
ribs are twenty-four in number, — twelve 
on each side. The spaces between them 
are called intercostal spaces. The ribs 
are divided into — 

1. The true, or sterno-vcrtebral. Tho 
first seven pairs ; so called because they 
are united by their cartilages to tho 
sternum : these are called custo'des, or 
preservers of the heart. 




2. The false, or vertebral. The re- 
maining five pairs, which are successively 
united to the lowest true rib and to each 

The vertebral extremity of a rib is 
called the head; the contracted part 
which adjoins it forms the neck; at the 
back of the rib is the tubercle; farther 
outward the bone bends forward, pro- 
ducing the angle, from which proceeds 
the body, which passes forwards and 
downwards to the sternal extremity. 

The term costa, or rib, is applied in 
Botany to the tapering, nerve-like sub- 
stance extending from the base to the 
apex of a leaf. 

Cos'tal. [Costa'lis; from cos'ta, a 
"rib."] Belonging to a rib or ribs. 

Cos'tate. [Costa'tus; from cos'ta, 
a "rib."] Furnished with nerves or 

Costiveness. See Constipation. 

Cos't©-. [From cos'ta, a "rib."] A 
prefix in compound names, denoting 
connection with a rib or ribs. 

Cotangent. See Tangent. 

Cote. See Costa. 

Cotton-Plant. See Gossypium. 

Cotton-Tree. See Bombax. 

Cotula. See Mayweed. 

Cotunnii Aquseductus, or Cotun- 
11 ius. Aqueduct of. See Aqueduct 
op the Vestibuxum. 

Co-tun'nS-us, Nerve ©f. Tho naso- 
palatine nerve. 

Cotun'nius, Wa'ter of. A fluid 
within the membrane lining the vesti- 
bule and semicircular canals of the 
internal ear. 

Cot-y-le'don, o'n/s."* [Gr. KOTii\r)d op ; 
from Korv\ri, a "cavity."] In Botany, 
the seed-lobe, or seminal leaf, of a young 
plant, perishing as the plant grows up. 
In dicotyledonous plants (in the bean, 
for example) the cotyledon consists of 
one-half of the seed, which, on germi- 
nating, divides into two equal parts. 

Cot-y-led'on-o«s. [Cotyledo'neus, 
Cotyle'donus ; from eotyle'don.~] Be- 
longing to cotyledons ; having cotyle- 

Cot'y-loid. [Cotyloi'des; from 
K'irvX'i, a "small drinking-cup."] Re- 
sembling an ancient drinking-cup. 

Cot'yloid Cav'i-ty. The same as 
Acetabulum, which sec. 

Cou, koo. A French word signifying 
"neck." See Collum. 

Couche, koosh. [From coucher, to 
"Ho down," to "go to bed;" also, to 
'• put to bed."] A French term signify - 

ing "child -bed," "confinement," or 
"delivery:" e.g. une couche heurcuse, iin 
koosh rh'rrz', "a happy delivery." 

Coucn'ing-. (Fr. Gaucher, to "put 
to bed," to "cause to lie down;" because 
the lens is pushed down from its upright 
position.) The operation of putting 
down or displacing the opaque lens in 
cataract. ^ 

Couch'ing-Xee'dle. The instru- 
ment used in couching. 

Cough, kof, or kawf. [Lat. Tus'sss; 
Fr. Toitx, too.] A sonorous and violent 
expulsion of air from the lungs. 

Couleur, koo'luit'. The French word 
for Coeor, which see. 

Coumarin, or Couinarine, koo'- 
ma-rin. The odoriferous principle of 
the Tonka bean, the produce of the 
Coumarou'na odora'ta. 

Counter-Extension. See Contra- 

Counter- Fissure. See Contra- 

Counter-Indication. See Contra- 

Coun'ter-Ir-ri-tii'tion. [Con'tra- 
Irrita'tio.] The application of a blister 
or other irritating substance to one part 
for the purpose of relieving pain in an- 
other part, usually beneath or adjacent 
to the irritated surface. 

Counter-Opening-. See Contra- 

Counter - Stroke. See Contre- 

Coup de Sang*, koo deh sox°. Blood- 
stroke. A term used by some French 
physicians to designate an instantaneous 
and universal congestion without any 
escape of blood from the vessels. (See 
Apoplexy.) Some authors have applied 
this name to hemorrhages occurring in 
different parts of the body. 

Coup de Soleil (Fr.), koo deh so'lel 
(or social'). A stroke of the sun; gene- 
rally, any affection produced by a scorch- 
ing sun. 

Coup de Vent (Fr.), koo deh vox . 
A stroke of the wind : an affection caused 
by exposure to a keen wind, extremely 
cold, or with rain or sleet. 

Couperose (Fr.), koop'ro'za'. ("Cop- 
per-colored.") A term applied to the 
Acne rosacea (or carbunclcd face); so 
named from the redness of the spots. 

Courap, koo'rip'. A form of im- 
petigo peculiar to India, described by 
Sauvagcs under the term Scabies In- 

Couronne, koo'ronn'. The French 



word for "crown." See Corona, and 

Cours'es. A popular English term 
for the menses, or catamenia. 

Couvrechef (Fr.), koov'R'shef '. (Lite- 
rally, "head-cover.") A name given to 
certain forms of bandage applied to the 

Cow'hage, Cow'-Itcb. The down 
covering the pods of the Dol'ichos pru'- 
riens, now called Mucu' na pru' riens. See 


Cow'-Pox. [Vacci'nia.] Pustules 
of a peculiar character on the teats of 
the cow, from which the vaccine fluid 
derives its origin. 

Cowper's Olamls. See Antipros- 
tat\e Glandule. 

Cox'a,* plural Cox'a*. (Fr. Hanchc, 
hoNsh.) The hip, haunch, or hip-joint; 
also, the Ischium and Coccyx. Applied 
in Zoology to the first articulation of 
the feet of the Crustacea, Arachnides, 
and Insecta. 

tox-ae-lu'vi-um.* [From cox' a, the 
"hip," and la'vo, or lu'o, to "wash."] A 
bath for the lower portion of the body ; 
a hip-bath. 

Cox-al'gi-a.* [From cox' a, the "hip," 
and aXyoj, "pain."] Pain in the hip- 
joint; hip-joint disease, or Mor'bus cox- 

Cox-a'ri-us.* [From cox' a, the 
"hip."] Belonging to the hip-joint. 

Cox-a'rum,* the genitive plural of 
Coxa, which see. 

Coxa'rum Mor'bus.* ("Disease of 
the Hips.") A caries of the head of the 
os femoris, causing a permanent short- 
ening of the limb, and often accompanied 
with spontaneous luxation of the bone. 

Cox'o-. A prefix denoting connec- 
tion with the Ischium. 

Crab's Claws and Crab's Stones. 
See Cancrorum Lapilli et Chel.e. 

Crab-Louse. See Pediculus Pubis. 

Crack Wil'low. See Salix Fragi- 

Cra'dle. [Ar'culus.] A kind of 
frame for keeping the bedclothes off a 
wounded or fractured limb. 

Cramp. [Low Latin Cram'pus; Ger. 
Kramp/J] Spasmodic and involuntary 
contraction of muscles. See Spasmus. 

Cra'iii-al. [Crania'lis.] Belong- 
ing to the cranium. 

Cra-ni-og'ra-ptay. [Craniogra'- 
pbia; from cra'nium, and yp<i</)«, to 
"write."] A description of the skull. 

Cra-nl-ol 'o-gy . [Cran iolo 'gia ; 
from cra'nium, and A<5yoj, a " discourse."] 

The science which treats of skulls in 
regard to their variety of shape, size, 
proportions, etc. 

Cra-nl-om'e-ter. [Craniom'e* 

triun; from cra'nium, and ^irpuv, a 
"measure."] An instrument for mea- 
suring the cranium. 

Cra-nl-ot'o-my. [Cranioto'mia ; 
from cra'nium, and Ti/xfio, to "cut."] The 
opening of the foetal head, where neces- 
sary, to effect delivery. 

Cra'nl-um.* [Gr. xpaviov ; from xapa, 
or Kaprivov, the "head."] The skull, or 
upper part of the head, containing the 
brain and its connections, and consisting 
of eight bones. 

Craqucinent Pislmonaire (Fr.), 
krak x moN G ' puTnio'neR'. A crackling 
sound often heard at the top of the 
lungs in the early stage of phthisis. 

Cras. = Cras'tinum,* or Cras'tinus.* 
"For to-morrow." 

Cras-sa-men'lum.* [From eras' sus, 
"thick."] The soft, almost solid, mass, 
of a deep brownish red. formed by ve- 
nous blood soon after it has been ex- 

Crassulaccae,* kras-su-la'shc-e [from 
Cras'sula, one of the genera], or Sent- 
per-vi'va?.* A natural order of plants, 
growing in hot and dry situations, re- 
markable for the succulent nature of 
their stems and leaves. The St dura ma- 
jus, or Semper vivum ("Live-forever"), 
is a good example of this order. 

Cra'ter, e'r *'«.* [Gr. Kparnp, a " bowl."] 
Literally, a "cup" or "bowl:" usually 
applied to the mouth of a volcano. 

Cra-t£r'I-form. [Craterifor'mis ; 
from the same.] Formed like a bowl. 

Craw. The crop of a bird. See Crop. 

Craw-Fish, or Cray'-Fisli. The 
Cancer astacus, or C. Jluviutilis. 

Cream of Lime. A mixture of 
lime and water used for purifying coal 
gas, by its property of absorbing or 
combining with the contaminating gases. 

Cream of Tar 'tar. [Cre'morTar'- 
tari.] Bitartrate, or supertartrate, of 
potash. See Potass.e Bitartras. 

Cre'a-sote, or Kre'a-sote. [Crea- 
so'tnm; from Kpeag, "flesh," and aui^co, 
to "preserve."] A colorless, brilliantly 
transparent liquid, obtained from crude 
pyroligncous acid, and from wood tar. 
It is irritant, narcotic, styptic, power- 
fully antiseptic, and somewhat escharo- 
tic. Its use internally has been recom- 
mended in cholera, sea-sickness, and 
other affections of the stomach and 
bowels. In large doses, it is a danger- 




ous poison. It has been employed ex- 
ternally with great advantage in some 
cutaneous affections, and especially in 
malignant ulcers. The editor of this 
■work has used it with the happiest effects 
in indolent and malignant ulcers result- 
ing from chilblain, after all the other 
remedies usually recommended in such 
cases had failed. 

Creasote Wa'ter. [A'qua Crea- 
so'ti.] Take of creasote a fluidrachm ; 
distilled water a pint. Mix them, and 
agitate the mixture till the creasote is 
dissolved. (U.S. Ph., 1860.) 

Cre'a-tin, or Cre'a-tme. [Creati'- 
na; from xpia;, Kpsaro;, " flesh."] A nitro- 
genized crystallizable substance. A neu- 
tral body obtained from a fluid produced 
by mixing chopped animal muscle with 
an equal bulk of water, and subjecting 
this, in a bag, to strong pressure. It 
does not combine with either acids or 
alkalies. Also spelled Kreatin. 

Cre-at's-nin, or Cre-at'i-nine. 
[Creatini'na.] An alkaline base into 
which Greatin is changed by heating 
with hydrochloric or other acids. Also 
spelled Kreatlnin. 

Creep'ing- Siclk'ness. (Ger. Krie- 
belkrankheit, kre'bel-krank'hit.) The 
name by which the gangrenous form of 
Ergotism is known in Germany. See 

Cre-mas'ter.* [From Kpzjtaw, to " sus- 
pend."] A muscle which supports and 
compresses the testicle and spermatic 
vessels. See Spermatic Cord. 

Cre'mor,, o'rts.* [From xpipwov, the 
"thick juice of barley."] Cream; any 
substance skimmed from the surface of 
a fluid ; also, a thick decoction of barley. 

Cre'nate. [Crena'tus; from cre'na, 
a "notch."] Notched; scolloped. 

Cren'u-lat-ed. [Crenwla'tns ; from 
rren'ithi, a "little notch."] Having 
small notches. 

Crcp'I-tant. [Crep'itans. See next 
article.] Crackling, or rattling. 

Crep-i-ta'tion. [Crepita'tio, o'nis; 
from crep'ito, crepita'tum, to "crackle."] 
The sound caused by pressing any por- 
tion of cellular tissue, in which air is 
collected, between the fingers. Also, the 
noise produced by the act of grating the 
ends of a fractured bono together. See 

Crcp'I-tnS.* [From cre'po, crep'itum, 
to "make a noise."] The discharge of 
gas or flatus from the bowels. The 
crackling j-ioise occasioned by pressing a 
part when air is collected in the cellular 

tissue. The grating sensation produced 
by the ends of a fractured bone being 
rubbed against each other. 

Crescentiaceav - kres-sen-she-a'- 
she-e or kres-sen-te-a'she-e, or Cres- 
cen-tin'e-a?-.* A natural order of ex- 
ogenous trees, natives of the tropical 
regions of Asia, Africa, and America. 
The chief plant of this order is the Cala- 
bash-tree, Crescen'tia (kres-sen'she-a) 
cvje'te, producing an esculent fruit in a 
shell which is used as a bottle. 

Crest. [Cris'ta.] Applied to several 
objects which surmount others. 

Crest'ed. [Crista'tus.] Having a 

Cre'ta.* [From Cre'ta, the island of 
Crete.] (Fr. Craie, kR&.) Chalk. Tbe 
Pharmacopceial name (Ed. and U.S. Ph.) 
for native friable carbonate of lime. 

Cre'ta Praep-a-va'ta.* (" Prepared 
Chalk.") The Pharmacopceial name 
(Br. Ph.) for chalk finely pulverized by 

Cre-ta'ceons. [Creta'ceus; from 
cre'ta, "chalk."] Of the nature of 
chalk ; chalky. 

Cre'ti-nisni. [Cretinis'mns; ety- 
mology uncertain.] An endemic disease 
common in Switzerland and other moun- 
tainous countries, characterized by goitre, 
stinted growth, swelled abdomen, wrin- 
kled skin, wan complexion, vacant and 
stupid countenance, misshapen cranium, 
idiocy, and comparative insensibility. 

CrI-bra'tion. [Cribra'tio, o'nis; 
from cri'bro, cribra'tum, to "sift" (from 
crib' rum, a "sieve").] The act or pro- 
cess of sifting, or passing through a 

Crib'ri-form. [Cribrifor'mis; 

from crib' rum, a "sieve."] Perforated 
like a sieve. 

Cri'eo-. A prefix denoting attach- 
ment to the cricoid cartilage. 

Crl'eoid. [Cricoi'des and Crieoi'- 
dens; from Kpixo;, a "ring," and cl6o; f a 
"form."] Resembling a ring. 

Cri'coid Car'ti-lage. [Cartila'g'O 
Cricoi'des.] The name given to one 
of the cartilages of the larynx. 

Criminal Abortion. See Foeticide. 

CrI'nate. [Crina'tns; from cri'nis.] 
Having hair. 

Cri'nis.** [From kpiva, to "distin- 
guish"?] The hair of the head, espe- 
cially of the back part. See Capillus. 

Crl'noid. [Crinoi'des: from Kpi- 
vov, a "lily," and cllog, a "form."] Re- 
sembling a lily. 

Crinones. See Malis Gordii. 



Cri'sis.* [Gr. icpiats; from Kpivu, to 
"distinguish," to "judge," to "decide."] 
Literally, a "judgment," "decision," or 
"determination." In the course of a 
disease, that point or period which de- 
termines its favorable or unfavorable 
termination, or, in common language, its 

Cris-pa'tus,* Cris'pus.* [From 
cris'po, critspa'tum, to "curl."] Curled; 

Cris'ta.* A crest. Applied in Anato- 
my to parts or processes of bones re- 
sembling a crest. In Botany it denotes 
a peculiar organ of the Graminese. Ap- 
plied in Surgery to an excrescence about 
the anna and pudenda. 

Crista Gal'li.* ("Cock's Crest.") 
The peculiar process on the ethmoid 
bone to which the falx cerebri is at- 

Cris'tate. [Crisia'tus ; from cris'ta.] 
Having a crest; crested. 

Crit'i-cal. [Crit'icus; from cri'sis, 
"decision" or "determination."] De- 
termining the issue of a disease. Also 
applied to periods of life as decisive of 
certain changes of constitution, habits, 
etc. See Crisis. 

Critical Age. [iE'tas Crit'ica.] 
That period of female life when the 
catamenia become irregular, and ulti- 
mately cease. It is often attended with 
serious constitutional disturbance, and 
is sometimes the commencement of fatal 
diseases. See Change of Life. 

Croc-o-dil'i-dse.* [From KpoxoSeiXos, 
the "crocodile."] A family of Saurian 
reptiles, having the crocodile for their 

Cro'cus.* [Gr. kp6ko;, "saffron."] A 
Linn;can genus of the class Triandria, 
natural order Iridaccm or Iridese. The 
Pharmacopceial name || for the prepared 
stigmas of the Crocus eativus. 

Cro'cus Sa-ti'vus.* The systematic 
name of the saffron-plant; also called 
Crocus officinalis. 

Crop. [Inj^lji'vies.] An enlarge- 
ment of the crxopliagus in birds ; the craw. 

Cross Birth. [Parodyn'ia Per- 
fer'sa.] In popular language, preter- 
natural labor of any kind. 

Crot'a-lus.* [From KpornKov, a "rat- 
tle."] The rattlesnake; a genus of poi- 
sonous snakes found in North America. 

Crot'a-phe,* or Cro-ia'plil-um.* 
[From KpSratpos, the " temple of the head."] 
A painful pulsation or throbbing in the 
temple, accompanied with drumming in 
the ears. 

Crot'chet. (Fr. Crochet, kro'shi', a 
"hook.") A curved instrument for ex- 
tracting the foetus. 

Cro'ion, o'ni's.* [Gr. Kp6ro)i>, the "dog* 
tick," which the seeds of some plants of 
this genus are fancied to resemble.] A 
Linmtan genus of the class Jloncecia, 
natural order Euphorbiacese. 

Cro'ton Cascaril'la,* or Cro'tox 
Eleuthe'ria* (or Eleute'ria*). The 
plant believed to afford Cascarilla bark. 
Cro'ton Tig'lium.* The plant from 
the seeds of which croton oil is obtained. 
It is a small tree or shrub, growing 
native in Hindostan and the East India 
islands. See Oleum Tiglii. 

Cro'ton-ate. [Croto'nas, a'tis.] 
A combination of crotonic acid with a 

Cro-to'nev* [Gr. ncporoJvijj from Kporuv, 
a "kind of tick."] Original!}', a fungous 
excrescence on trees, caused by an insect 
(*7>orwi/). Now usually applied to small 
fungous excrescences on the periosteum. 
Cro-ton'ic Ac/id. An acid obtained 
from the acrid matter of croton oil. 
Croton Oil. See Oleum Tiglii. 
Crotophus. See Crotaphe. 
Croup, kroop. [Cynan'ehe Tra- 
clsca'lis.] A disease marked by labori- 
ous and suffocative breathing, with a 
stridulous noise, short, dry cough, and 
expectoration of a concrete membranous 

Cru'cial. [Crncia'lis; from crux, 
a "cross."] Belonging to a cross. 

Cru'cial In-cis'ion. Two incisions 
made to cross each other. 

Cru'cl-ble. [Crucib'ulum ; from 
cru'cio, to "torture."] A vessel made 
of baked earth, or metal, used as a re- 
ceptacle for substances to be fused or 
exposed to a great heat. 

Cru-cif 'er-a?.* [From emx, cru'eis, 
a "cross," and fe'ro, to "bear." See 
next article.] A natural order of Ex- 
ogens : they are said to possess univer- 
sally antiscorbutic and stimulant proper- 
ties, and their seeds abound in a fixed oil. 
Mustard may be taken as a representa- 
tive of this order. 

Cru-cif 'er-us.* [From crux, cru'eis, 
a "cross," and fe'ro, to "bear."] Cru- 
ciferous. Literally, "bearing a cross." 
Applied to plants whose flowers are in 
the form of a cross. See Cricifeim:. 

Cru'ci-form. [Crucifor'mis; from 
cru.r, cru'eis, a "cross." Like a cross. 
Cru'di-ty. [Cru'ditas, a'tis; from'dus, "raw."] Bad digestion; raw- 




Cru'els. (Fk Eerouellcs, a'kroo'ell', 
"scrofula.") Popularly, scrofulous swell- 
ings of the glands of the neck. 

C'ru'or, o'rt*.* The red or purplish 
colored portion of the blood. 

Cru'ra,* gen. Cru'rum, the plural 
of Crus, which see. 

Cru'ra Cer-e-foel'li.* (The "Legs 
or Limbs of the Cerebellum.") Two 
white cords, extending one along the 
circumference of each hemisphere of the 

Cru'ra Cer'e-fori.* (The "Legs or 
Limbs of the Cerebrum.") Two thick 
white fasciculi, one from the inferior 
surface of each hemisphere of the cere- 

Cru'ra I>i«a-phrag / ma-tis.* ("Legs 
of the Diaphragm.") Two appendices 
situated behind and below the central 
tendon of the diaphragm. 

Cru-rse'us.* [From crus, cru'ris, a 
"leg."] Belonging to the leg. The 
name of a muscle of the leg. 

Cru'ral. [Crura'lis; from crus, 
cru'ris, a "leg."] Belonging to the 
leg; applied also to the crurseus muscle. 

Cru'ral Arch. Otherwise called 
Fallopius' or Poupart's ligament. See 
Poupart's Ligament. 

Crural Hernia. See Hernia Cru- 

Crus,* gen. Cru'ris, plural Cru'ra. 
[From xpovto, to "kick."] (Fr. Jambe, 
zho\ib, and Cuisse, kwess.) The leg. Ap- 
plied to symmetrical projections or ap- 
pendages, as the Crus of either hemi- 
sphere; in other words, the Crura of the 

Criis'ta.* (Literally, a "crust.") The 
external cover or shell in the Mollusca, 
Crustacea, and in certain insects. Also, 
a scab. 

Crustacea, krus-ta'she-a, or Crusta- 
ceans, krus-ta'shiinz. See next article. 

Crustaceus,* krus-ta'she-us. [From 
criis'ta, a "crust."] Crusta'ceous. Having 
a hard shell. Applied in the plural neuter 
( Crusta'cea) to a class of Articulata in 
which the envelop, or crust, is usually 
solid and more or less calcareous. 

Cry-oph'o-rus.* [From*pwj, "cold," 
and (/jtpw, to "bear," to "produce."] Lite- 
rally, "cold-producing." An instrument 
in which water is made to freeze by the 
cold produced by its own evaporation. 

Cryp'ta.* plural Cryp'tae. [From 
Kpvxrat, to "hide."] Small round points 
at the end of the minute arteries of the 
cortical substance of the kidneys : also, 
a follicle, or follicular gland. 

Cryp-to-ceph'a-lus.* [From xprn- 
t6$, "concealed," " obscure," and Kt(pa\n, 
a "head."] A monster-foetus, in which 
the head is very small and does not 
project from the trunk. 

Cryp-to-g-a'mi-a.* [See next article.] 
The twenty-fourth class of plants in the 
system of Linnaeus. It comprises all 
flowerless plants. (See Cryptogamtus.) 
All other plants arc included under a 
second grand division, called Phanero- 

Cryp-to-ga'mi-us.* [From Kpvirro;, 
"hidden," or "obscure" (from Kpirrrco, 
to "hide"), and yap.o$, "nuptials."] 
Literally, denoting plants "whose mar- 
riage is obscure or doubtful." Applied 
by Linnreus to a class whose parts of 
fructification have not been sufficiently 
ascertained to refer them to any class 
according to the sexual system. 

Cryp-tor'chis.* [From Kpvirr6g, 
"concealed," and opx i s, a "testicle."] 
One whose testicles have not descended 
into the scrotum. 

Cryp'tous. [Cryp'tus ; from kpvttw, 
to " hide."] Hidden, or concealed. 

Crys'tal. [Lat. Crystal'lum, or 
Crystal'lus: Gr. KpioraWos, "ice;" pro- 
perly, "clear ice."] A hard, bright, 
transparent substance, like ice or the 
clearest glass. The geometrical figures 
assumed by crystallizable bodies when 
they pass from a fluid to a solid state. 

Crys'tal-lin, or Crys'tal- line. 
[Crystalli'na; from crystal'lum, "crys- 
tal."] A peculiar substance forming the 
basis of the crystalline lens of the eye. 
Also, one of the products of the distil- 
lation of indigo. 

Crys'tal-line. [Crystalli'nus ; from 
the same.] Belonging to crystal; liko 

Crys'talline Liens. A transparent, 
double convex lens situated in the fore 
part of the vitreous humor of the eye. 
It was formerly often called the crystal- 
line humor of the eye. 

Crys-tal-Ii-za'tion. [Crystalli- 
za'tio, o'nis ; from crystal'lum, "crys- 
tal."] A property by which crystalliza- 
ble substances pass from a fluid to a 
solid state, assuming certain determinate 
geometrical figures. 

Crystallization, Water of. That 
portion of water which combines with 
salts in the act of crystallizing, and 
which cannot be removed without de- 
stroying their crystalline structure. 

Crys-tal-los'ra-pliy. [Crj^stal- 
logra'phia; from crystal'lum, a "crys- 



tal," and ypatiu, to " write."] A descrip- 
tion of crystals. 

Crys'tal-loid. [Crystalloi'des ; 

from crystal' lum, a "crystal," and a&j, 
a "form."] Resembling crystal. 

Ctenoid, te'noid. [Cteuoi'des: from 
KTcii, KTcvog, a " comb," and eUo^, a " form."] 
Resembling a comb. Applied to au order 
of lisbes with dentated scales. 

Cu (Fr.). kii. See Alula. 

Cube. [Lat. Cu'bus; Gr. Kv6og.] A 
solid bounded by six equal squares at 
right angles with each other. 

Cu-be'ba.* [From the Arabic Cuba'- 
huh.] Cubeb, or Cubebs. The Pharma- 
copoeial name for the berries of the Piper 

Cu-be'bse* (« Cubebs"), the plural of 
Cubeba, which see. 

Cu-be'bin. [Cubebi'na; from Gu- 
be'ba.~\ A crystalline substance obtained 
from cubebs. 

Cu'bebs. In the plural, the English 
term for the berries of the Piper cubeba. 
See Cubeba. 

Cu-bi-for'mis.* [From cu'bus."\ 
Having the form of a cube : cu'biform. 

Cu-bl-tae'us.* Pertaining to the 
Cubit, or fore-arm. 

Cu'bi-tal. [Cubita'lis ; from cu'- 
bitus.] Belonging to the fore-arm. 

Cu'bl-tus.* [From cu'bo, to "lie 
down.''] (Fr. Ooude, kood.) The fore- 
arm, extending between the elbow and 
wrist: also, the ulna y or Os cubiti. 

Cu'boid. [Cuboi'des: from kvSo;, a 
"cube," and ddo*;, a "form."] Like a 

Cne'koo-Flow'er. The Cardamiae 
pra tens is. 

Cu-cul-la'ris.* [From cucul'lus, a 
"hood."] Like a hood. 

Cu'eul-late. [Cuculla'tus; from 
cucul'lus, a "hood."] Hooded. 

Cu'cum-ber. The fruit of different 
species of Cucumis. 

Cu'eumber, Bit'ter. The fruit of 
the Citrullus colocynthis. See COLO- 

Cu'eumber, Squirting-, Cn'cnm- 
ber. Wild. The Sfomordica elaterium. 

Cu'cu-mer,* Cu'eu-mis.* A Lin- 
mean genus of the class JJonoecia, natu- 
ral order Cttcurbitacex. 

Cu'cumis A-g-res'tis,* Cu'cumis 
As-i-ni'nus.* The Momordica elate- 

Cu'eumis Col-o-cyn'this.* The 
former name of the plant which yields 
colocynth : now called Citrullus colo- 

Cuenrb. eruent. = Cucurbitula 
Ckuenta, which see. 

Cu-eur'bi-ta.* [From cur'vo, to 
"curve," or "bend."] Literally, a "gourd." 
A distilling vessel shaped like a gourd : 
a cu'eurbit. Also, a cupping-glass. See 


Cueurbitaeeav* ku-kur-be-ta'she-e. 
[From cucur'bita, a "gourd."] A natu- 
ral order, comprising the melon, cucum- 
ber, gourd, and other valuable plants. 
They are most abundant in hot and 
tropical climates. The fruits of many 
species of cucumis are powerfully ca- 
thartic. The colocynth is one of the 
most valuable medicines derived from 
this order. 

Cu-cur-bl-ta'eeous. [Cucurbita'- 
ceus ; from cucur'bita, a "gourd."] 
Having an arrangement as in the Cucur- 
bita. See Cucurbitace.e. 

Cu-cur-bit'u-la.* [Diminutive of 
cucur'bita, a "gourd."] A cupping- 
glass. (Fr. Ventouse, vox c 'tooz'.) 

Cucurbit'ula Cru-en'ta* (a "Bloody 
Cupping-Glass." or one intended to 
draw blood), Cucurbit'ula cum Fer'- 
fo* (" Cupping-Glass [armed] with 
Iron"). A cupping-glass, with scarifica- 
tion. Names applied to the common 
cupping-glasses used for drawing blood, 
as distinguished from those employed 
in dry cupping. 

Cucurbit'ula Sic'ca.* (A "Dry 
Cupping-Glass.") One used for dry 
cupping without scarification. 

Cuisse (Fr.), kwess. See Femur. 

Cuivre (Fr.), kwevR. See Cuprum. 

Cuj. == Cu'jus* " Of which." 

Cujusl. = Cujus'libet* " Of any," or 
"of which you please." 

Cul-de-Sac (Fr.), kiil deh sak. A tube 
or cavity closed at one end. 

Culm. [Cul'mus: from xaXanos, a 
"reed."] A reed, or straw: the proper 
stem or trunk of grasses, rushes, etc. 

Cul-mif er-ous. [Culniif 'erus ; 
from cul'mus, "straw," a "culm," and 
fe'ro, to "bear."] Bearing or having 

Cul'mi-nat-ing-. [Cul'minans ; 
from cul'mino, to "arrive at the top, or 
highest point."] Applied particularly to 
stars when at their highest point in the 

Cul-tri-for'mis.* [From rul'ter, a 
"knife."] Formed like a knife: cul'- 

Cu-mi'mim.* [Gr. kv/hvov.] A Lin- 
na?an genus of the class Pentandria, na- 
tural order Umbelliferte. 




i iimi num Cy-mi'num.* The 

plant Cumin, or Foenic'ulum Orienta'le. 

Cu'ne-al. [Cunea'lis; from cu'neus, 
a "wedge."] Belonging to a wedge. 

Cu'ne-ate. [Cunea'tus; from cu'- 
neus, a "wedge."] Wedge-shaped. 

Cu'nc-I-form. [Cuneifor'mis ; 

from the same, and for' ma, "likeness."] 
Formed like a wedge. 

Cunoniaceav*' ku-no-ne-a'she-e. 
[From Cuno'nia, one of the genera.] A 
natural order of exogenous trees and 
shrubs, found in India, South America, etc. 

Cu'pel. [From cupel' la, a "cup."] A 
small vessel in which gold and silver are 
refined by melting them with lead. 

Cu-pel-la'tion. [Cupella'tio, o'nis; 
from the same.] The process of refining 
gold and silver by melting them in a 
cupel with lead. 

Cu'po-la. The dome-like extremity 
of the canal of the cochlea. See Cochlea. 

Cupped. Applied to the hollowed 
surface of the Crassamentum of blood 
caused by inflammation. 

Cup'ping - . Application of Cucur- 
bitulse, or cupping-glasses. 

Cupping- Glass. See Cucurbitula. 

€u-prif 'er-ous. [Cuprif erus ; 

from cu'prum, "copper," and fe'ro, to 
"bear."] Bearing or containing copper. 

Cu'prum,* gen. Cu'pri. [From 
Kvrrpos, the island of Cyprus, where the 
ancients procured the best copper.] 
(Fr. Cuivre, k wevR. ) Copper, a red metal, 
malleable and ductile. Specific gravity 8.6. 

Cu'pri Ace'tas.* Acetate of copper, 
improperly called distilled or crystal- 
lized verdigris. 

Cu'pri Sub ace'tas.* ("Subacetate 
of Copper.") Verdigris. The aerugo of 
the London Pharmacopoeia. It is some- 
times used as an application to malig- 
nant ulcers, and as an escharotic for 
venereal warts. 

Cu'pri Sul'phas.* The Pharmaco- 
poeial name || of sulphate of copper, or 
blue vitriol. Its use in small doses has 
been recommended in diarrhoea: but it 
is chiefly employed as an external ap- 
plication for ill-conditioned ulcers, and 
as a styptic for bleeding surfaces. 

Cu'pu-la.* (Literally, a "cup.") Ap- 
plied in Botany to the cup or husk of 
certain plants, — e.g. the cup of an acorn, 
or husk of the hazel-nut. Also called a 

Cu-pu-lif 'er-a?.* [See next article.] 

A natural order of arborescent or shrubby 

Exogons. producing fruit enclosed in a 

cup or husk. It comprises tho oak, 


beech, chestnut, hazel, etc. They abound 
in all, or nearly all, temperate climates. 
An astringent principle pervades all the 
order. This order is called Corylacex 
by Lindley. 

Cu-pu-lif'er-us.* [From cu'pula, 
and fe'ro, to "bear."] Bearing cupulae: 

Cu-ra're Poi'son. A most deadly 
poison, obtained, it is said, from a plant 
belonging to the family Strychnise. The 
South American Indians use it to poison 
their arrows. 

Curatio,* ku-ra'she-o. [From cu'ro, 
curu'tum, to "take care" of, to "cure."] 
The treatment of a disease, or wound. 

Cur-cu'ma.* A Linnaean genus of 
the class Monandria, natural order Zin- 
giberacese. The root is a stimulant aro- 
matic, somewhat resembling ginger. It 
is much used in India as a condiment, 
and is one of the ingredients in curry. 
Also the Pharmacopoeial name for the 
rhizoma of the Curcu'ma lon'ga. 

Cur-cu'ma JLon'ga.* The turmeric- 

Curcu'ma Pa'per. Paper stained 
with a decoction of Turmeric, which see. 

Cur-cu'min. [From Curcu'ma lon'ga, 
the " turmeric-plant."] The coloring 
matter of turmeric obtained in a state of 
purity by separating it from its combi- 
nation with oxide of lead. 

Curd. The coagulum which sepa- 
rates from milk upon the addition of 
acid, rennet, or wine. 

Cur'sor,* plural Cur-so'res. [From 
cur'ro, cur' sum, to "run."] Applied to a 
family of birds which run along the 

Cur-so'ri-us.* [From the same.] 
Applied in the plural neuter (Curso'ria) 
to a family of orthopterous insects with 
legs solely adapted for running. 

Cuscutaceav* kus-ku-ta'she-e. A 
natural order of exogenous parasitical 
plants, consisting of one genus, Cuscu'ta. 
It includes the common Dodder. 

Cus-pa'ri-a.* A Linnaoan genus of 
the class Pentandria, natural order Dios- 
mese. Also the Pharmacopoeial name 
(Brit. Ph.) of the bark of Galipea cus- 
paria, or G. officinalis. See Galipea. 

Cuspa'ria Fe-brif u-jya.* The tree 
supposed by some to yield Angustura 
bark, now called Bonplandia trifoliata ; 
some refer it to the Galijiea cusjiaria, or 
G. officinalis. 

Cus-pl-da'tus.* [From cus'j)is, cus'- 
pidis, a "point."] Cus'pidate. Having 
a pointed extremity. Applied in the 



plural masculine (Cuspida'ti) to certain 
teeth (see Dentes Cuspidati). 

Cu-ta'ne-ous. [Cuta'neus; from 
cu'tis, the " skin.'"] Belonging to the skin. 

Cuta'neous Ab-sorp'tion. A func- 
tion of the skin by which certain prepa- 
rations rubbed into the skin have the 
same action as when given internally, 
only in a less degree. Thus, mercury, 
applied in this manner, cures syphilis 
and excites salivation, tartrate of anti- 
mony is said to occasion vomiting, and 
arsenic produces poisonous effects. 

Cu-ta no-us JIus'cu-lus.* The Pla- 
tysma-myodes, a muscle of the neck hav- 
ing the appearance of a very thin fleshy 

Cu'tl-cle. [Cutic'ula: diminutive 
of cu'tis, the "skin."] The Epidermis, 
or scarf-skin. 

Cu'tis.* [From okvti<; or gkvtos, a 
"skin" or "hide."] The skin consisting 
of the Cutis vera, Jiete mucosum, and Cu- 

Cu'tis An-ser-i'na.* ("Goose-skin.") 
That condition of the skin, produced by 
cold and other causes, in which the 
jmpillse become rigid and erect, resem- 
bling the skin of a plucked goose. 

Cy'a-nate. [Cy'anas, a'tis.] A com- 
bination of cyanic acid with a base. 

Cy-an'ic. [Cyan'icus.] Applied 
to an acid composed of cyanogen and 

Cy-an'o-gen. [From xvai/o;, "blue," 
and ycvvdo}, to "generate."] A peculiar 
principle composed of nitrogen and car- 
bon, obtained by decomposing the cyanu- 
ret of mercury by heat. It is sometimes 
called Prussin, or Prussine. 

Cy'a-no-pa-thi'a.* [From xvavo$, 
"blue," and naQo;, "affection," "dis- 
ease."] "Blue disease;" another term 
for Cyanosis. 

Cy-a-no'sis.* [From Kvavo;, "blue."] 
(Fr. Cyanosr, se'a'noz'.) A blue color 
of the skin, resulting from congenital 
malformation of the heart, by which 
venous and arterial blood are mixed so 
as to be not wholly oxygenated: the 
Morbus eaendcus. 

Cy-an'u-ret. [Cyanure'tum; from 
cyanoge'nium.] A combination of cyan- 
ogen with a base. 

Cy-a-nn'ric. [Cyanu'ricus.] Be- 
longing to cyanogen and urine; applied 
to an acid. 

Cy-aii'u-rin. [Cyannri'na ; from 
tcvavo;, "blue," and ovpo-j, the "urine."] 
A very rare substance deposited as a 
blue powder by the urine. 

Cy-ath-i-for'mis.* [From cy'atkvs, 
a " cup."] Shaped like a cup : cy'athi- 

Cy'a-thus.* [From KvaBog, a " drink- 
ing -cup."] In prescriptions, it signi- 
fies a wine-glass. 

Cycadacese,* sik-a-da'she-e, or Cy- 
ca'dere.* [From Cy'cas, Cyc'adis, ono 
of the genera.] A small natural order 
of exogenous trees and shrubs, found in 
the tropics. Several plants of this order 
furnish starch and sago which are used 
for food. The Cycads were formerly 
classed with the Palms. 

Cy'cas Cir-ci-na'lis.* An East In- 
dian palm-tree, the central portion of 
which yields a kind of sago. 

Cy'cle. [Cy'clus; from kvk\os, a 
"circle."] Applied to a revolution of 
the sun of twenty-eight years, and of 
the moon of nineteen years. A continual 
revolution of numbers which go on 
without interruption to the last, and then 
return to the first. 

£yc'll-cus.* [From Kvx'Xog, a "circle."] 
Belonging to a cycle or circle: eye'lic. 
Applied in the plural neuter ( Cyc'lica) 
to a family of coleopterous insects in 
which the body is generally orbicular or 

Cyc-lo-bran-eh-I-a'tus,* Cyc-lo- 
branch'i-us.* [From cy'clus, and 
bronchia' tus, " having branchiae."] Ap- 
plied in the plural neuter (Cyclobranchi- 
a'ta) to an order of Jfollusca Gasteropoda, 
in which the branehise form a circle: cyc- 
lobranch'iate, cyclobranch'ious. 

Cyc-lo-gan-gli-a'ta.* [From kvk\os, 
a "circle," and ganglia' tus, "furnished 
with ganglia," or "having ganglia."] A 
term applied by some naturalists to the 
fourth sub-kingdom of animals, or Mol- 
lusca, comprising animals mostly aquatic, 
slow-moving or fixed, without internal 
skeleton, covered with a permanent cal- 
careous or cartilaginous shell, and dis- 
tinguished by the high development of 
the cerebral ganglia and their circular 
distribution around the oesophagus. The 
classes are the Tunicata, Conchifera, 
Gasteropoda, Pteropoda, and Cephalo- 
poda. See Moixisca. 

Cy'cloid. [Cycloi'des; from kvk\o<;, 
a "circle." and clh;, a "form."] Resem- 
bling a circle. 

£yc-Io-neu'ra. s [From kvk\os, a "cir- 
cle," and vevpov, a "nerve."] A term 
applied by some writers to the first sub- 
kingdom of animals, or Hadiata, on ac- 
count of the circular form of the nervous 
axis in this division. 




£yc-lo-neu'rus.* [From the same.] 
Having a circular nervous arrangement. 
See preceding article. 

0c-los'to-mus.* [From kvkXos, and 
oro^a, a "mouth."'] ("Round-mouthed.") 
Applied in the plural masculine (Cyclos'- 
totni) to a family of fishes. Also named 

£y-do'ni-a.* [From Cy'don, in Crete, 
where it is said to be native.] A Lin- 
naean genus of the class Icosandria, 
natural order Roaacese. 

Cydo'nia Vul-ga'ris.* The Pyrus 
Cydonia, or quince-tree. 

£y-d©'nl-um.* The Pharmacopoeial 
name for quince-seeds, which are some- 
times used in medicine for their muci- 

£ydo'nium Malum.* (" Cydonian 
Apple.") The quince: the fruit of the 
Pyrus Cijdonia. 

€y-lin'drl-cal. [Cylin'dricus.] 
Shaped like a cylinder. 

Cy-lin-dri-for'mis.* [From cylin'- 
drus, a "cylinder."] Shaped like a cyl- 

OyTin-droid. [Cylindroi'des; 

from cylin'drus, a "cylinder," and el&oq, 
a "form."] Resembling a cylinder. 

Cym'bl-form. [Cymbiffor 'mis ; 
from cym'ba, a "boat."] Shaped like a 
boat. See Nayicularis, Scaphoid. 

£yme, or £y'ma.* [Gr. kv/jci, a 
"stem of colewort."] A kind of inflo- 
rescence, like that of the elder, resem- 
bling a corymb, and consisting of several 
flower-stalks springing from one centre, 
each irregularly subdivided. 

^y-mi'nnm.* The Pharmacopoeial 
name (Lond. Ph.) for the fruit of Cttmi- 
num cyminum. 

£y-nan'ehe.* [From kvm, a "dog," 
and ayxte, to "strangle."] (Fr. Angine, 
ON G, zhcn'.) Inflammation of the throat; 
sore throat. A genus of the order Phh-g- 
masise, class Pyrexia, of Cullen's Nosol- 

Cynanclie liaryngca. See Croup. 

Cynan'clie Ma-Iig-'na.* Putrid 
pore throat, often an attendant on scar- 

£ynan'cne Par-o-tid'e-a.* The 
game as Parotitis. 

(jnanche Pharyngea. See Pha- 

<fynan'che Strep-I-to'ri-a,* Cy- 
nan'che Strid'u-la,* Cynan'clie 
8uf-fo-ca-ti'va.* Names for Croup. 

£ynan'che Ton-sil-la'ris.* Ton- 
eilli'tis phleymono'des, or quinsy. 

Cynan'che Trach-e-a'lis.* The 

croup; otherwise called Cynanche laryn- 
gea. See Croup. 

Cynanche Ulcerosa. See Tonsil- 
litis Maligna. 

Cyrn-an-thro'pi-av* [From kwov, a 
"dog," and at/fyw-oj, a "man."] A kind 
of Melancholia, in which the patient 
fancies himself changed into a dog, and 
imitates its bark and actions. 

Cyn'a-ra Scol'y-nms.* The botani- 
cal name of the garden artichoke, a 
thistle-like plant growing in the south 
of Europe and cultivated for the fleshy 
sweet receptacle of its flowers. It belongs 
to the Linnaaan class Synyenesia, natural 
order Compositse. The juice of the leaves 
mixed with wine is sometimes given in 
dropsies. (For fuller information see 
Brande's "Dictionary of Science.") 

£yn'I-cus.* [From kvu>v.~[ Like a 
dog: cyn'ic. See Canine. 

Cy'nips Qiier-ci-fo'11-i.* A hymen- 
opterous insect found in the gall of the 
oak. The gall itself is called Cyni'phis 
nidus, or the "nest of the cynips." 

Cyn-o-lis'sa.* [From Kvutv, a " dog," 
and \voaa, "madness."] Canine mad- 
ness. See Hydrophobia. 

£yn-o-rex'i-a.* [From kvoiv, a "dog," 
and opc^ig, " appetite."] Canine appetite. 

Cyperaceav* sip-er-a'she-e, Cyp'er- 
o-i'de-a?.* [From Cype'rus, one of the 
genera.] Sedges. A natural order of 
endogenous grass-like plants, found in 
marshes, ditches, meadows, heaths, etc., 
from the Arctic to the Antarctic Circle. 
Some species of it are used as food. 
The Egyptian Paptyrus belongs to this 

Cyperoi'dcav* The Jussieunn name 
of a natural order of plants. See Cyp- 

£y-pri-pe'di-um. :;: [From Kvrrpis, a 
name of Yenus, and ttuiov, a "slipper."] 
"Yenus's Slipper." The Pharmaco- 
poeial name (U.S. Ph.) of the root of 
the Cypripe' dium pnbes'ccns. 

Cyprus Powder. See Abelmos- 

Cy'prus Tur'pen-tinc. A limpid, 
fragrant substance obtained from the 
Pistacia terebinth inns. 

Cyrillaceav* sir-il-la'she-e. A natu- 
ral order of evergreen shrubs, natives of 
North America, including the Cyrilla 
and two other genera. 

Cyr-to'sis.* [From xvpros, "curved."] 
A term denoting among the ancients a 
recurvation of the spine, or posterior 
crookedness. It has more recently been 
termed Cyrton'osus or mor'bue incur'vus. 



Cys-tal'gi-a.* [From wans, the 
"bladder," and oA yog, "pain.'*] Painful 
spasmodic affection of the bladder. 

Cystectasy. See Lithectasy. 

Cystic. [Cys'ticus; from kvotis, 
the " bladder."] Belonging to the uri- 
nary or gall bladder. 

Cys tic Duct. [Duc'tusCys'ticns.] 
The duct which proceeds from the gall- 
bladder and. uniting with the hepatic 
duct, forms the ductus communis choledo- 

Cystic Oxide. See Cystix. 

Cys-ti-cer'cus. :|: " [From KV7ns, a 
'•bladder," and Kspcog, a "tail."] The 
tailed bladder-worm. Applied to a 
genus of Entozoa Parenchymata, other- 
wise termed Hydatids. 

Cys-tl-fel-le-ot'o-my. [Cystifelle- 
oto'mia; from Kvans, a "bladder," /el, 
the "gall," and reyaxa, to "cut."] Opera- 
tion by which a gall-stone is extracted 
from the gall-bladder. 

Cys'tin. [Cysti'na; from mans, the 
"bladder."] A peculiar substance, very 
rare, in a urinary calculus; also termed 
Cystic Oxide. 

Cys-tir-rha'gi-a.* [From mans, the 
"bladder," and pnyvvfu, to "burst forth."] 
A discharge from the bladder, whether 
of b'.ood or mucus. 

Cjrs-tir-rhce'a.* [From maris, the 
"bladder," and pea, to "flow."] A mu- 
cous discharge from the bladder; vesical 
catarrh. See Cystorrhcea. 

Cys'tis.* [Gr. mans, the "bladder."] 
A bladder, or sac; specially, the Vesica 
urinaria. The membranous bag in which 
any morbid substance is contained : a 

Cys-ti'tis, idis* [From mans, the 
" bladder."] Inflammation of the blad- 
der. A genus of the order Phlegmasia, 
class Pyrexiae, of Cullen's Nosology. 

Cys'tl-tome. [Cystit'omns ; from 
mans, a " bladder," or " sac," and rtfivw, 
to "cut."] An instrument for opening 
the capsule or sac of the crystalline lens. 

Cys't©-hu-boii'o-cele." : * [From ma- 
ns, the "bladder," 0o->Sov, the "groin," 
and f?X»7, a "tumor."] A rare kind of 
Hernia, in which the urinary bladder 
protrudes through the inguinal opening. 

Cys'to-cele. * [From mans, the 
"bladder." and KnXri, a "tumor."] Her- 
nia in which the urinary bladder is pro- 
truded ; Hernia vesicalis. 

Cys-to-dyn'i-a.* [From mans, the 
'< bladder." and dcvvrj, "pain."] Pain in 
the bladder. 

Cys'toid. [Cystoi'des; from mans, 

the " bladder," and ei&x, a " form."] Re- 
sembling a cyst or bladder. 

Cys-to-li-tlii'a-sis.* [From mans, 
the "bladder," and Xidos, a "stone."] 
Urinary calculous disease. 

Cys-tol'I-thus.* [From the same.] 
A urinary calculus : a cys'tolith. 

Cys-to-plas'tic. [Cystoplas'ticus.] 
Belonging to eystoplasty. 

Cys'to-plas-ty. [Cystoplas'tia ; 
from mans, the "bladder," and irXi'iaaw, 
to "fabricate."] Operation for vesico- 
vaginal fistula, consisting in uniting 
a flap takeu from the external labium, 
by suture, to the newly-pared edges of 
the sore. 

Cys-to-ple'gl-a,* Cys-to-plex I-a.* 
[From mans, the " bladder," and jrArjo-o-w, 
to "strike."] Paralysis of the bladder. 

Cys-top-to'sis.* [From mans, the 
"bladder," and niw, to "fall."] Re- 
laxation of the internal coat of the 
bladder, which protrudes into the ure- 

Cys-tor-rnoe'a.* The same as Cys- 


Cys-to-spas'tic. [Cystospas'ti- 

cus: from maris, the "bladder," and 
oxdw, to "draw."] Belonging to spasm 
of the bladder. 

Cys'to-tome. [Cystot'omus ; from 
mans , the " bladder," and te/zvoj, to " cut."] 
A knife or instrument employed in Cys- 

Cys-tot'o-my. [Cystoto'mia ; from 
mans, the " bladder," and rcuyco, to " cut."] 
Operation of cutting into the bladder. 
See Lithotomy. 

Cytinaceav* sit-e-na'she-e. [From 
Cyt'inus, one of the genera.] A natural 
order of parasitical plants (Rhizogens), 
found in Southern Europe and at the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

£yt'I-sin. [Cytisi'na.] A bitter 
principle found in the seeds of the Cytivus 

Cyt'I-sns.* [Gr. mnaos.l A Lin- 
naean genus of the class Diadelphia, 
natural order Papih'rm<tee&. 

Cyt'isus Sco-pa'ri-us.* One of the 
names of the broom-plant. 

Cyt'o-blast. [Cytohlas'ta ; from 
idros, a "cavity," and SXaardvco, to "bud" 
or "burst forth," to "produce."] The 
nucleus of cellular or elementary cor- 
puscles in all vegetable and animal tis- 
sues; the Areola, or cell-nucleus. Also, 
the nucleus of those cells, growing within 
cells by a generative power of their own, 
which constitute the parenchyma or sub- 
stance of morbid growths. 




£yt-o-blas-te'ma, a'«ia.* The fluid 
or mother liquid in which the cells con- 
taining the nucleus, or cytoblast, origi- 

£yt-o-gen'e-sis.* [From kvto 5 , a 
"cavity," or "cell," and yivopai, to "be 
produced."] The generation of cavities 
or cells ; cell-development. 


D. r= Do' sis* A " dose." 

Dac'ry-o-. [From 6axpvov, a "tear."] 
A prefix denoting connection with the 
lachrymal apparatus. 

Dacry-o-aden-i'tis, idis.* [From 
dac'ryo, and adcni'tis, " inflammation of 
a gland."] Inflammation of the lachry- 
mal gland. 

Dac'ry-o-cyst. [Dacryocys'tis ; 
from daxpvov, a "tear," and eys'tis, a 
"bag" or "sac."] The lachrymal sac. 

Dac-ry-o-cys-ti'tis, idt*.* [From 
the same.] Inflammation of the lachry- 
mal sac. 

[From duucpvov, a " tear," and blennorrhoe'a, 
a "flow of mucus."] A discharge of mu- 
cus from the lachrymal sac. 

Dac-ry-o-hfem-or-rhce'a.* [From 
6aKpviv, a "tear," and heemorrhoe'a, a 
" flow of blood."] Sanguineous lachryma- 
tion, or a flow of tears mingled with blood. 

Dac'ry-o-llte. [Dacryoli'tes; from 
dacryo-, and Ai#oj, a "stone."] A calcu- 
lous concretion in the lachrymal passage. 

Dac-ry-o'ma, Mia.* [From hatpin, 
to "weep."] An obstruction in one or 
both of the puncta lachrymalia, causing 
an overflow of tears. 

Dac-ty-lif er-us.* Bearing dates. 
See next article. 

Dac'ty-lus.* [From daicrvkos, a "fin- 
ger;" a "date," from its resemblance to 
a small finger.] The same as Digitus. 
Also, the date, or fruit of Phoenix dacty- 

Dte'mo-no-ma'nl-a.* [From daipaov, 
the "devil," and pavia, "madness."] A 
variety of Melancholia in which the pa- 
tient fancies himself possessed by devils. 

I>as , ti*'«*«*ootyi>o,da-ger'ro-tTp. [From 
M. Daguerre, daVgaiR', the discoverer, 
and ty'pns, a "likeness," or "figure" of 
any thing.] The system or process of 
producing pictures by the action of light 
on certain prepared metallic plates, in- 
troduced into France by M. Daguerre. 
See Photography. 

Dah'line. A vegetable principle dis- 
covered in the dahlia, similar to starch. 

Dalby's (dawl'bez) Oar-min'a-tive. 
A popular empirical carminative for 

children, composed of the carbonate of 
magnesia, with a small quantity of the 
tincture of assafoetida, tincture of opium, 
oil of peppermint, aniseed, and other 
aromatic oils. 

!>al ton-ism. [Daltonis'mns.] In- 
ability to distinguish colors, which Dal- 
ton, the celebrated chemist, labored 

Dam'ask-Rose. The Rosa cent i folia. 

I>amp. (Ger. Dampf, "vapor.") A 
term applied to noxious gases found in 
mines. See Choke-Damp and Fire- 

Dam'son. [A corruption of Damas- 
ce'num, "belonging to Damascus."] The 
fruit of a variety of the Prunns dontestica. 

Dan-de-H'on. (Fr. Dent 
doNG'dehMe'oxG', like leontodon, signify- 
ing "Lion's-Tooth.") The Lcon'todon 
tarax'acum. See Taraxacum. 

Daii'driflT. [Furfur, nr?«.] The 
disease Pityriasis capitis. 

Danse de Saint Guy, doxs deh 
sax c ge. The French name for Chorea. 

Daph'ne.* [Gr. &ti<pi>ri.~\ A Linnaean 
genus of the class Octandria, natural 
order Thymelacese. 

Daph'ne Al-pi'na.* A dwarf spe- 
cies of Daphne, from which has been ob- 
tained an acrid alkaline principle called 
Daphnin, which see. 

Daph'ne Gnid'ium* (nid'e-iim). 
The bark of this tree is employed in 
France as a vesicatory under the name 
of Daphne Gar oh (daf'na' gaVroo'). 

Daphne Mezereon. See next ar- 

Daph'ne Me-ze're-um (or Me-ze- 
re'um).* Spurge-olive. The plant 
which affords mezereon bark. See Me- 

Daph'nin, orDaph'nine. [Daph- 
ni'na.] An acrid, volatile, alkaline 
principle, obtained from the bark of the 
Daph'ne Alpi'na. It is this principle 
(as is supposed) to which the different 
species of Daphne owe their vesicating 

Dar'tos.* [Gr. 6apr6s, "skinned." or, 
perhaps, "made like skin," "resembling 
skin;" from 6epa S , a "skin."] The 



cellular tissue subjacent to the skin of 
the scrotum, by the contractility of 
which, during life, the latter is corru- 

Dartre (Fr.), daiitr. Often indefinitely 
applied by French authors to different 
cutaneous diseases : it seems, however, 
to agree pretty nearly with Herpes. 

Date. [Lat. Dac'tylus; Fr. Datte, 
datt.] The fruit of the date palm, or 
Phoe'nix dactylif'era. 

Datiscaceav*' dat-is-ka'she-e. A 
small natural order of exogenous plants, 
found in Europe, India, and North 
America. It includes the Datis'ca, which 
is used as a purgative in fevers. 

Datte. See Date. 

Da-tu'ra.* A Linnaean genus of the 
class Pentandria, natural order Sola- 

Datu'ra Stra-mo'iil-um.* The 
thorn-apple, or Jamestown weed. See 

Dat-u'rin. [Datu'ria.] An alka- 
line principle discovered in Datura stra- 

Dau'ci Radix.* ("Root of the 
Carrot.") See Daucus Carota. 

Dan'cus.*' [Gr. daiJKog.] A Linnaean 
genus of the class Pentandria, natural 
order Umbelliferse. 

Daucus Ca-ro'ta.* The systematic 
name of the common garden-carrot 
(variety sati'vus). 

Day-Blindness. See Nyctalopia. 

Day'-Mare. [Incubus Vigilan'- 
tiiim.] A species of incubus occurring 
during wakefulness, and attended with 
that distressing pressure on the chest 
which characterizes nightmare. 

Day-Sight. See Hemeralopia. 

D. D. — Dc'turad.* "Let it be given to." 

De. A Latin particle usually signi- 
fying "down," or "from;" frequently it 
is intensive, and occasionally privative, 
or negative, having sometimes nearly the 
force of the English particle un : e.g. 
decoquo, to "boil down," to "boil tho- 
roughly;" deform [from for' ma, "form," 
"grace," "beauty"], to "deprive of 
grace or beauty;" decompose, to "un- 

Deadly Night'shade. The At'ropa 

Deaf. Sec Surdus. 

Dcaf-Dunib'ness. Dumbness arising 
from congenital or early deafness. 

Dealbatio, or Dealbation. See 

Deaur. pil. = Deaur'etur pil'ula.% 
" Let the pill be gilded." 

De-bil'I-ty. [Debil'itas ; from 
deb' His, "weak."] (Fr. Faiblesse, fa'- 
blcss'.) Weakness, or feebleness; decay 
of strength either of mind or body. 

Deb. Spiss. = Deb' ita Spissitu'do* 
"a due thickness or consistency," or 
Deb'itx Sjjissitu'diuis, "of a due consis- 

Dec. = Decan'ta* " Pour off." 

Dec'a-gon. [Decago'num ; from 
dzica, "ten," and ywvia, an "angle."] A 
figure having ten equal angles and sides. 

Dec-ag'o-nal. [Decago'nus.] Be- 
longing to a decagon ; having the form 
of a decagon. 

Decagramme, dek'a-gram. [Deca- 
gram'ma, tit is ; from 6Ua, "ten," and 
(Fr.) gramme.] Ten grammes, equal to 
154.34- grains Troy. 

Decagynia. See Decagynius. 

Dec-a-gyn'I-us.* [From &Ua, "ten," 
and ywf), a " woman" or "female."] Hav- 
ing ten pistils. Applied to a Linnaean 
order comprising plants with ten pistils. 

Decalitre, dek'a-letr'. [From dina, 
"ten," and (Fr.) litre.'] Ten litres, equal 
to 610.28 English cubic inches. 

Decametre, dek'a-me't'r (French 
pronunciation, da'ka'metr'). [From d£Ka, 
"ten,"and(Fr.)»ie^-e.] Ten metres, equal 
to 393.71 English inches, or about thirty- 
two and three-quarters English feet. 

De-can 'drl-a.* [From Sexa, "ten," 
and dvrjp, "man" or "male."] A class 
of plants in the Linnaean system, char- 
acterized by having ten stamens. 

De-can'dri-ous. [Decan'drius.] 
Having ten stamens. See Decandria. 

De-can-ta'tion. [Decanta'tio.] 
The pouring off of clear fluid from sedi- 

Dec-a-phyTlous. [Decaphyl'lus; 
from detect, "ten," and <pv\\oi>, a "leaf."] 
Having ten leaves. 

Decapitation. See Decollation. 

De-cap'o-da,* or Dec'a-pods. 
[From 6tKa, "ten," and rrovg, nooos, a 
"foot."] A name given by Cuvier to 
an order of Crustaceans having ten 
thoracic feet. Also applied to a tribe 
of Cephalopods having ten locomotive 
and prehensile appendages proceeding 
from the head, two of which, called ten- 
tacles, are always longer than the rest. 

De-cap'o-dous. [Decap'odits; 

from iota, "ten," and Ttovq, noSo^, a "foot."] 
Literally, "having ten feet." See De- 

De-cem'fl-dus.* [From de'eem, 
"ten," and./jVrfo, to "cleave."] Cleft 
into ten parts : decem'fidous. 




De-cem-loe'u-lar. [Decemlocu- 
la'ris; from de'ccm, "ten/' and loc'ulus, 
a "little pocket."] Having ten little 

De-cid'u-a.* [See Decidues.] A 
spongy membrane, or chorion, produced 
at the period of conception, and thrown 
off from the uterus after parturition. 

Deeid'ua 3Ieui-bra'na (or Tu'ni- 
ca) Re-flex'a.* The same as Decidua 
Reflexa, which see. 

Deeid'ua Jlembra'na (orTn'nioa) 
U'te-ri.* (" Deciduous Membrane of the 
Uterus.") The same as Decidua Vera. 

I>ecicl'ua Re-flex 'a.* That portion 
of the decidua which is reflected over, 
and surrounds, the ovum. 

Deeid'ua Ve'ra.* That portion of 
the decidua which lines the interior of 
the uterus. 

De-cid'u-us.* [From dec'ido, to 
"fall down," to "fall off."] Falling off: 

Decigramme, des'se-gram. (Fr. 
Decigramme, d&'se'gr&mm'. [From dec'- 
imus, "tenth," and (Fr.) gramme.'] The 
tenth part of a gramme, equal to 1.544 
grains avoirdupois, or one and a half 
grains troy. 

Decilitre, dess'e-letr'. [From dec' - 
imus, "tenth," and (Fr.) litre.] The tenth 
part of a litre, equal to 6.1028 English 
cubic inches. 

Decimetre, dess'e-me't'r (French 
pronunciation. di v se'metft'). [From dec'- 
imus, "tenth," and (Fr.) metre.] The 
tenth part of a metre, equal to 3.937, or 
nearly foui*, English inches. 

De-cll'nal. [From decli'no, to "bend 
downwards."] Applied to the slope of 
strata from an axis. 

Dee'li-nate. [Deelina'tus ; from 
the same.] Bending down. 

De-cli'vis.* [From de, "down," and 
cli'vue, the "descent of a hill."] De- 

Decoct. = Decoc'tum/* " A decoction." 

De-coc'ta,* the plural of Decoctum. 

Decocte/da^kok'ta/. The French for 
Decoctttm, which see. 

De-coc'tion. [Decoc'tum, or De- 
coc'tio, o'nie; from de, "down," and 
co'quo, coc'tum, to "boil."] A continued 
ebullition with water, to separate such 
parts of bodies as are soluble only at 
that degree of heat. A medicine made 
by boiling some medicinal substance in 
a watery fluid. In this latter significa- 
tion it corresponds to Decoctum, which 

De-coc'tum,* plural De-coc'ta. 

[From the same.] A decoction. The 
Pharmacopoeial term for a medicinal 
preparation made by boiling some vege- 
table substance in water for the purpose 
of extracting the soluble ingredients. 

Decoc'tum t'e-tra'ri-av* (" Decoo- 
tion of Iceland Moss.") Take of Iceland 
Moss half a troyounce: water, a suffi- 
cient quantity. Boil the Iceland Moss 
in a pint of water for fifteen minutes, 
strain with compression, and add suffi- 
cient water through the strainer to make 
the decoction measure a pint. 

Decoc'tumChs-manhl-la?.* (" De- 
coction of Pipsissewa.") Take of pipsis- 
sewa, bruised, a troyounce ; water, a suffi- 
cient quantity. Boil the pipsissewa in a 
pint of water fifteen minutes, strain, and 
add sufficient water through the strainer 
to make the decoction measure a pint. 

Decoc'tum Cin-cho'mc Fla'vav* 
(" Decoction of Yellow Cinchona.") Take 
of yellow cinchona, bruised, a troyounce; 
water, a sufficient quantity. Boil the 
yellow cinchona in a pint of water for 
fifteen minutes, strain, and add sufficient 
water through the strainer to make the 
decoction measui-e a pint. 

Decoc'tum Cin-eho'uae Rubra?.* 
("Decoction of Bed Cinchona.") Take 
of red cinchona, bruised, a troyounce; 
water, a sufficient quantity. Boil the 
red cinchona in a pint of water for 
fifteen minutes, strain, and add sufficient 
water through the strainer to make the 
decoction measure a pint. 

Decoc'tum Cor'nus Flor'i-dav* 
("Decoction of Dogwood.") Take of 
dogwood, bruised, a troyounce; water, a 
sufficient quantity. Boil the dogwood 
in a pint of water for fifteen minutes, 
strain, and add sufficient water through 
the strainer to make the decoction mea- 
sure a pint. 

Decoc'tum Dul-ca-ma'ra?.* (" De- 
coction of Bittersweet.") Take of bitter- 
sweet, bruised, a troyounce; water, a 
sufficient quantity. Boil the bittersweet 
in a pint of water for fifteen minutes, 
strain, and add sufficient water through 
the strainer to make the decoction mea- 
sure a pint. 

Decoc'tum Hami-a-tox'y-li.* 

(" Decoction of Logwood.") Take of log- 
wood, rasped, a troyounce ; water, a suffi- 
cient quantity. Boil the logwood in a pint 
of water for fifteen minutes, strain, and 
add sufficient water through the strainer 
to make the decoction measure a pint. 

Decoc'tum If or'de-i.* (" Decoction 
of Barley.") Take of barley two troy- 




ounces; water, a sufficient quantity. 
Having washed away the extraneous 
matters which adhere to the barley, boil 
it with half a pint of water for a short 
time, and throw away the resulting 
liquid. Then, having poured on it four 
pints of boiling water, boil down to two 
pints, and strain. 

Decoc'tum Quer'cus Allia?.* 
("Decoction of White-Oak Bark.") Take 
of white-oak bark, bruised, a troy ounce; 
water, a sufficient quantity. Boil the 
white-oak bark in a pint of water for 
fifteen minutes, strain, and add sufficient 
water through the strainer to make the 
decoction measure a pint. 

Decoc'tum Sar-sa-pa-vil'lse Com- 
pos'i-tum.* ("Compound Decoction 
of Sarsaparilla.") Take of Sarsaparilla, 
sliced and bruised, six troyounces; bark 
of sassafras-root, sliced, guaiacum-wood, 
rasped, liquorice-root, bruised, each a 
troyounce; mezereon, sliced, one hun- 
dred and eighty grains; water, a suffi- 
cient quantity. Macerate with four pints 
of water for twelve hours; then boil for 
a quarter of an hour, strain, and add 
sufficient water through the strainer to 
make the decoction measure four pints. 

Decoc'tum Sen'e-gav* ("Decoc- 
tion of Seneka. - ') Take of seneka, bruised, 
a troyounce; water, a sufficient quantity. 
Boil the seneka in a pint of water for 
fifteen minutes, strain, and add sufficient 
water through the strainer to make the 
decoction measure a pint. 

Decoc'tum V 'xse Ur'si.* (" Decoc- 
tion of Uva Ursi.") Take of uva ursi 
a troyounce; water, a sufficient quantity. 
Boil the uva ursi in a pint of water for 
fifteen minutes, strain, and add sufficient 
water through the strainer to make the 
decoction measure a pint. 

De-col-la'tiou. [From de, privative, 
and col'lum, the " neck."] Applied to 
the removal of the head of the child in 
cases of difficult parturition. 

De-eom-po-si'tiou. [Decomposi'- 
tio, o'nis; from de, negative, or "from," 
and eompo'tiOf compos' 'itum, to "put to- 
gether."] The separation of compound 
holies into their constituent parts or 
principles ; analysis. 

De-com-pos'I-tus.*- [From the 
same.] Applied in the feminine plural 
(Decompos'itse) to a class or division of 
plants having a common foot-stalk sup- 
porting a number of lesser leaves, each 
of which is compounded. 

De-cor-ti-cii'tiou. [Decortica'tio, 
o'nis; from de, priv., or "from," and 

cor'tex, "bark."] The removal of bark, 
husk, or shell. 

Dec're-ment. [Decremen'tum; 

from decres'co, to "grow less."] The 
decrease or Tjroportion in which any thing 
is lessened. 

De-erep-I-ta'tiOH. [Decrepita'tio, 

o'nis; from decrep'ito, deer epita' turn, to 

"crackle" or "explode."] The crackling 
noise produced by certain bodies when 
heated, as common salt, etc. 

Decub. = Decubitus^ or Decu'bitu.* 
"Lying down," or "On lying down" (i.e. 
going to bed). 

De-cu'bl-tus.*" [From decum'bo, de- 
cu'biium, to "lie down."] A lying down, 
or reclining in the horizontal position. 
An important symptom in certain dis- 
eases is to be observed from the manner 
of lying in bed. 

De-cum'bens.* [From the same.] 
Lying down: decum'bent. 

De-cur 'reus.* [From decur'ro, de- 
cur' sum, to "run down."] Applied to 
leaves which run down the stem in a 
leafy border or wing: decur'rent. 

De-cur 'sive. [Decursi'vus; from 
the same.] Applied to leaves that run 
down the stem, attached by their middle 
nerve only. 

De-cus'sate. [From decus'so, decus- 
sa'tum, to "cross" (from decus'sis, the 
number " ten," represented by a cross, 
X).] To cross each other. See next 

Dec-us-sa'tion. [Decussa'tio, 

o'nis; from the same.] The crossing 
or running of one portion athwart an- 
other, as in the case of the optic nerves, 
which cross each other within the 

De-cus-so'ri-um.* An instrument 
for depressing the dura mater after tre- 

De D. in D. = Be Bi'e in Di'em* 
"From day to day." 

Defaillaiice, da'fa'yoxss'. The 

French term for "fainting." Like the 
Latin defectio, its primary signification 
is a "failing" of the strength. 

Def-e-ca'tion. [Defa?ca'tio. o'nis ; 
from de/se'eo, de/rcca'tum, to "deprive of 
the dregs" (fasces), to "strain through 
a sieve."] The removal of fasces, lees, 
or sediment from any thing. The act of 
discharging the fa?ces. 

Defectio,* de-fek'she-o. [From defi'- 
cio, to "lack" or "fail."] A failing; 
a failing of heart, strength, or cou- 

Defec'tio Au'i-iui.* Literally, tho 



" failing of the mind;" hence, fainting. I 
The same as Deliquium Ani.ui. 

Def'er-ens,* plural neuter Defer- 
onlia. def-er-en'she-a. [From dcf'ero, 
to "carry down," to "convey."] Con- 
veying: deferent. See Vas Deferens. 

Defla-gra'tion. [Deflagra'tio, 
o'nis; from defla'gro, deflagra'tum, to 
be "set on fire." to "be utterly con- 
sumed."] The burning of an inflamma- 
ble substance or metal with nitre, chlo- 
rate of potash, etc. 

De'flex. [DeSIex'us: from deflee'to, 
to "bend down."] Bending a little 

I>e-flo'rate. [Deflora'tus; from 
defio'ro, deflora'tum, to "deflower."] Ap- 
plied to anthers that have shed their 
pollen, and plants, their flowers. 

Def-lo-ra'tion. [Defloratio, o'nis ; 
from the same.] In Medical Jurispru- 
dence, connection without violence, in 
contradistinction from rape. Loss of 
the marks of virginity by connection 
with a male. 

Defluxion, de-fluk'shiin. [I>e- 

flux'io, o'nu; from de, "down," and 
flu'o, fiux'um ox flue' turn, to "flow."] A 
flowing of humors downwards. 

De-fo-li-a'tion. [Defolia'tio, o'nis; 
from de, priv., and fo'lium, a "leaf."] 
The fall of leaves, as contradistinguished 
from frondescence, or their renovation. 

De-for-ma/tion. [Deforma'tio, 
o'nis ; from defor'mo, deform a' turn, to 
"mar" or "disfigure."] Distortion of 
any part, or general deformity of the body. 

De-g'en-er-a'tion. [Lat. Deg-enera'- 
tio, o'nis; from degen'ero, degenera'tum, 
to be "worse than one's ancestors;" Fr. 
Degenerescence, da'zha^n&'res'soNss'.] De- 
terioration. Applied in Pathology to a 
morbid change in the structure of parts: 
such as Lardaceous Degeneration. 

Deg-lu-ti'tion. [Deg-luti'tio,o'm's; 
from deglu'tio, degluti'lum, to "swallow 
down."] The act of swallowing. 

»e-gree'. [Lat. Ora'dus, a "step," 
or "rank."] The 360th part of a circle. 
Also, the rank or title of Bachelor, Mas- 
ter, or Doctor, conferred by the Faculty 
of a university or college. See Doctor. 

De-liis'cence. [Dehiscen'tia; from 
dehis'eo, to "gape" or "burst open."] A 
bursting open. Applied to capsules. 

De-his'ceut. [From the same.] Open- 
ing or splitting, as the capsules of certain 

DeJ. Alv. = Dejectio'nes Alvi'nse.'* 
"Alvine dejections." 

De-jce'tion. [I>ejec'iio,o'?m; from 


deji'cio, dejec'tum, to "throw down."] 
The discharge of any excrementitious 
matter; also, the matter discharged; a 
stool, or evacuation of the bowels. Also, 
depression, exhaustion, or prostration. 

Belayant, d414'yon< The French 
term for Diluent, which see. 

Del-e-te'ri-ous. [Delete'rius ; from 
de'leo, dele' turn, to "destroy."] Lite- 
rally, "destroying." Injurious; poi- 

Del-I-ga'tioii. [Deliga'tio, o'nis ; 
from del'igo, deliga'tum, to "bind up."] 
The act of applying a bandage. 

Del-I-ques'ceuee. [From deliques'- 
co, to "grow moist" or "liquid."] The 
liquescent state assumed by certain saline 
bodies in consequence of their attracting 
water from the air. 

Deliquium,* de-lik'we-um. [From 
delin'quo, to "fail."] A failing; a faint- 
ing or swooning. 

Deliq'uium An'I-mi.* ("Failing 
of the Mind.") Swooning or fainting; 
syn'cope; also called Defectio animi. 

De-Hr'i-um.* [From deli'ro, to 
"rave."] A symptom consisting in be- 
ing fitful and wandering in talk. 

Delir'ium Tre'meus.* ("Trem- 
bling Delirium.") (Fr. Delire Tremblant, 
da'l&R' tron'bloN '.) An affection re- 
sulting from an excessive indulgence in 
strong liquors, or opium. See Mania a 

Del-i-tes'cenee. [From delites'eo, 
to "lie hid."] A term used principally 
by the French physiologists to express a 
more sudden disappearance of the symp- 
toms of inflammation than occurs in 

De-liv'er-y. (Fr. Delivrer, d&'le'vRa/, 
to "free.") The expulsion of a child by 
the mother, or its extraction by the ob- 
stetrical practitioner. The expulsion of 
the placenta and membranes, however, 
is necessary to complete the delivery. 

Del-pliin'ic Ac'id. An acid pro- 
cured from the oil of the Delphi' nus del' - 
phis, or dolphin. 

I>el-phin'I-um.* [From 6t\$iv, the 
"dolphin."] A Linnaean genus of tho 
class Polynndria, natural order Jianun- 
eulaeefc. Also \he Pharmacopceial name 
(U.S. Ph.. 1860) for the seed of the Del- 
phinium eonsolida. As a diuretic, it is 
sometimes given in dropsy. 

Delphinium Staph.I-sa'grl-a.* 
The plant stavesacre. 

Deltoid. [Deltoi'des; from A, the 
Greek triangular letter, and cttog, a 
"form."] Shaped like the Greek letter 



A (delta). The name of a large triangu- 
lar muscle covering the shoulder-joint. 

Del-to-i'de-us. - : [From deltoi'des.] 
Belonging to the deltoid muscle. 

Dementia,-^ de-men'she-a. [From 
de. priv., and mens, the "mind."] (Fr. 
Demence, da'moN'ss'.) Want of intellect; 
a species of insanity. 

De-mer'su§. s [From demer'go, de- 
mer'sum, to "dip in water."] Growing 
beneath the surface of water. Applied to 
leaves naturally so situated. 

Demi-Bain, dme bS*«. ("Half- 
Bath.") The French term for a hip-bath. 

De-inul cents. [Demulcentia, 

de-mul-sen'she-a; from demxd'een, to 
'•'soothe."] (Fr. Adoueissants, a'doo'se 1 - 
son g '.) "Soothing [medicines]." Ap- 
plied to medicines of a mucilaginous or 
oily consistence. 

Den'dri-form. [Dendrifor'mis ; 
from bzvbpov, a '•' tree."] Formed like a 

Den'drlte. [Dendri'tes; from 6ev- 
6pov, a "tree," and \ldos, a "stone."] Any 
figure of a tree or shrub observed in 
fossils and minerals. 

Den-drit'ic. [Dendrii'icus; from 
bzvepov.~\ Belonging to a tree or shrub. 

Den-drog'ra-pny. [Dendrogra'- 
phia; from bkvbpov, a "tree," and ypfyo*, 
to "write."] A history of trees and 

Den'droid. [Dendroi'des ; from 
dkvipov, a "tree," and eibog, a "form."] 
Resembling a tree or shrub. 

Den'dro-lite. [Dendroli'tes: from 
bzvbpov, a "tree," and \idog, a "stone."] A 
petrified tree or shrub. 

Den-drol'o-g-y. [Dendrolo'gia: 
from civbpov, a " tree," and \6yo;, a " dis- 
course."] A treatise on trees; the sci- 
ence of trees. 

Den-drom'e-ter. [Dendrom'e- 
triim: from iivipov, a "tree," and ^irpov, 
a "measure."] An instrument for mea- 
suring trees. 

Dengue (Sp.), den'gi. A fever of 
America, characterized by sharp pains 
down the thighs and legs, and general 
soreness of the flesh and bones. 

Den-i-gra'tion. [Denig-ra'tio ; 

from deni'gm, denigra' turn, to "blacken."] 
Another term for Melanosis, derived from 
its black appearance. See Melanosis. 

Dens,* gen. Den 'tis. [Sanscrit 
Danta; Gr. 66ov;, diteirof.] A tooth. See 

Dens I,e-o'nis.* ("Lion's Tooth.") 
The same as dandelion, or Leon'todon 

Dent, doN°'. The French for "tooth." 
See Dens. 

Den'ta-gra.* [From dens, and aypa, 
a "seizure."] The ?ame as Odontalgia. 
Also, a kind of forceps, or tooth-key, 
for extracting teeth. 

Dentaire. See Dental. 

Den'tal. [Denta'lis; from dens, 
den'tis, a "tooth."] (Fr. Dentaire, doN aV - 
teR'.) Pertaining to teeth. 

Den-ta'ta.* The name of the second 
vertebra, so called from its projecting 
tooth-like process. 

Den'tate. [Denta'tns; from rfe/i*.] 

Den'tes,* gen. Dentinm, den'she- 
um, the plural of Dens, a "tooth." See 

Den'tes Cns-pi-da'ti,* or simply 
Cuspida'ti.* Four pointed teeth, two 
in each jaw, situated adjoining and pos- 
terior to the lateral incisors. The two 
cuspidati of the upper jaw are in popu- 
lar language called ej^e-teeth. 

Den'tes Sapien'tia?*(sap-e-en'she-e). 
The "Teeth of Wisdom," or wisdom- 
teeth. A name given to the last grinder 
teeth, because they come in mature years. 

Den-tic' u-late, or Den-tic'n-lat- 
ed. [Denticula'tns; from dentic'ulus, 
diminutive of dens.'] Having little teeth. 

Den'tl-frice. [Dentif ri'cinm ; 

from dens, a "tooth," and fri'co, to 
"rub."] A medicinal powder for the 
teeth; tooth-powder. 

Den'tine, or Den'tin. [Denti'na; 
from dens, a "tooth."] The bone-like 
substance forming the inner part of the 
body, neck, and roots of the teeth. 

Den-ti-ros'tris,* plural Den-tl- 
ros'tres. [From dens, a "tooth," and 
ros'trwn, a "beak."] Applied in the 
plural to a family of birds having a 
tooth-like beak: dentiros'trate. 

Deii-ti-scal'pl-um.* [From dens, a 
"tooth," and scal'po, to "scrape."] An 
instrument for scaling teeth. 

Dentist. See Surgeon Dentist. 

Den-ti'tion. [Denti'tio,o';u'a; from 
den'tio, denti'tum, to "breed or produce 
teeth."] The first appearing of the teeth 
in infancy; teething. 

Dentinm. See Dentes. 

Den'tinm Cor'tex.* ("Bark or 
Rind of the Teeth.") A name applied 
to the enamel which forms the most im- 
portant part of the covering of the 
teeth. See Enamel. 

Deii'tium Do'lor.* ("Pain of the 
Teeth.") See Odontalgia. 

Den'toid. [Dentoi'des; from dens, 




a "tooth," and £?<5o?, a "form."] Resem- 
bling a tooth. 

»e-nu'date. [Deimda'tus; from 
deuu'do, denuda' turn, to "make bare."] 
Made bare. 

Den-u-da'tion. [Demuia'tio, o'n is; 
from the same.] The laying bare of any 

De-ob'stru-ent. [Deob'straens; 
from de, "from," and ob'struo, to "ob- 
struct."] Applied to medicines for re- 
moving obstructions. 

De-o-do-rl-za'tion. [Deodoriza'- 
tio, o'nis ; from de, priv., and u'dor, a 
"smell."] The correcting of any foul 
or unwholesome effluvia, through the 
operation of chemical substances. 

De-ox-i->da'tion. [Deoxyda'tio, 
o'nis ; from de, priv., and ox'ygen.] The 
driving off of oxj'gen from any substance. 

l>ep. = Depura'tus.* " Purified." 

De-pau'per-at-ed. [From de, in- 
tensive, and pau'per, "poor."] In Bo- 
tany, imperfectly developed; shrivelled 
as from scanty nutriment. 

I>e-phleg-ma'tion. [Dephleg-ma'- 
tio, o'nis; from de, priv., and phleg'mu, 
"phlegm" or "humor."] The separating 
of the water from chemical liquors. 

Depli-lo-gis'ti-eat-ed. [From de, 
priv., and jjhlogis'ton.] Deprived of 
phlogiston ; in other words, oxidized. 
See Phlogiston. 

Deplilog-istieated Air. Oxygen gas. 

Dephlog-is'tieated Ma-rine' Ae'id. 
The name given by Scheele to chlorine. 

I>e-pil'a-to-ry. [I>epilato'rius ; 
from de, priv., and ^ji'^/s, the "hair."] 
Removing hair from any part. 

I>epl£tif. See Depletory. 

De-ple'tion. [Deple'tio, o'nis ; 

from dep'leo, deple'tum, to "empty."] 
The act of emptying or lightening the 
blood-vessels by means of venesection, 
cathartics, etc. 

I>ep'le-to-ry. [From the same. Fr. 
Dejiletif, da'pl&'tef'.] Causing or pro- 
moting depletion. 

Dcp-Iu-ma'tioii. [From deplu'mis, 
"without feathers," "callow;" from de, 
priv., and plu'ma, a "feather."] Lite- 
rally, "plucking of the feathers." Ap- 
plied to a disease of the eyelids in which 
the hair falls off. 

I>e-pos'it. [Depos'ittim ; from de, 
"down," and po'no, pos'itnm, to "put," 
"place." or "throw."] What is thrown 
down from a liquid in which it has been 

Dep-ra-va'tioii. [Deprava'tio, 
o'nis; from depra'vo, deprava'ttim, to 

"vitiate" or "deprave."] Deterioration 
or change for the worse. 

I>e-pressed'. [Depres'sus. See 
Depression - .] A botanical term signi- 
fying "pressed down." 

I>e-pres'sion. [Depres'sio, o'nis; 
from deji'rimo, depves'snm, to "press 
down."] Lowness of spirits. The state 
of a part which is pressed down. Also, 
a term for one of the operations for 

I>e-pres'sor,o'r;'s. ;;: [From the same.] 
Applied to a muscle which draws or 
presses down. 

De-pres'sor An'g-u-li O'ris.* (" De- 
pressor of the Corner of the Mouth.") A 
muscle whose office is indicated by its 

Dep'ri-mens.* [See Depression.] 
Pressing down. 

Dep'rimens Oc'u-li.* (The "De- 
pressing [Muscle] of the Eye.") A name 
given to the rectus inferior, from the 
action of this muscle in drawing down 
the eyeball. 

Be-pu'rans.* [From depu'ro, depu- 
ra'tttm, to "purify."] Purifying. 

Depurantia,* de-pu-ran'she-a (the 
neuter plural of Deplrans, which see). 
Applied to medicines supposed to have 
the power of purifying the blood. 

Dep-u-ra'tion. [I>epura'tio,o'?i<s; 
from the same.] The clarifying of a 
liquid: defecation. The removal of im- 
purities from the fluids of the body. 

Der-ad-en-i'tis.* [From hpfi, or fcipn, 
the "neck," and defy, a "gland."] In- 
flammation of a gland of the neck. 

Der'by-sliire Neck. Another name 
for Bronchocele. 

Derbyshire Spar. See Flior Spar. 

De-riv'a-tive. [Berivati'vus 5 

from de, " from," and ri'vus, a " stream ;" 
deri'vo, deriva'tum, to "draw off water," 
as from a large stream or river.] Divert- 
ing from one part to another: applied to 
blisters, rubefacients, epispastics, etc. 

Derma, atis* [Gr. <%/a.] The skin, 
or Cu'tis ve'ra. 

Der'mad. Applied the same as Der- 
mal used adverbially. 

Dermal. [From der'ma.'] Applied 
by Dr. Barclay as meaning " towards the 

Der-ma-tal'&i-a.* [From deppa, Zkp- 
liaTos, the "skin," "and a\yos, "pain."] 
Neuralqiit of the skin ; pain of the skin. 

Rer-ma-tog'ra-phy. [Dermato- 
gra'phia; from 'tippa, the "skin," and 
ypa^u), to " write."] A description of the 



Der-ma-tol'o-&y. [Dermatolo'- 
gia: from tepfia, the ''skin," and Aoyoj, a 
" discourse."] The consideration (or sci- 
ence; of the skin, its nature and qualities. 

Der-ma-tot 'o-m$*. [Dermatoto'- 
mia; Iroui eepfia, the "skin," and ri/tvoi, 
to "cut."] Dissection or cutting of the 

Dermography. See Dermatogra- 


Dermoid, or Der'ma-toid. [Der- 
inoi des, or Dermatoi'des; from tippa, 
the "skin," and aco>, a "form."] Re- 
sembling the skin. 

Dermolos'y. See Dermatology. 

Der-mo-skel'e-ton. [Dermoscel'- 
eton: from oeppa, the "skin," and <xkc\£- 
t6v, a "skeleton."] The outward cover- 
ing of many invertebrate animals, such 
as the lobster, the beetle, etc. ; also in 
certain vertebrated animals, as. the tor- 
toise, the armadillo, etc. 

Derosne's Salt. See Narcotixe. 

De-scen-so'ri-um.* [From descen'- 
do, descen'aum, to "move downwards."] 
The apparatus in which distillation by 
descent is performed. 

De-scen'sus,* accusative De-s^en'- 
sum. [From the same.] Distillation 
],cr descensum is performed by placing 
the Are upon and around the vessel or 
apparatus (descensorium), the orifice of 
which is at the bottom. 

Descriptive Aaatomy. See Axat- 
omv, Descriptive. 

Des-ic-ea'tion. [Desicca'tio, o'nis; 
from de, intensive, and sie'eo, sicca'tum, 
to "dry."] The act of drying. 

De-sic'ca-tlve. [Desiccati'vus ; 
from the same.] Applied to substances 
that dry or lessen the moisture of a 
wound or sore. 

Dcs-uii'tis, id?*.* [From itapog, a 
"ligament."] Inflammation of a liga- 

Des-mo-dyn'I-a.* [From hzcptx;, a 
"ligament," and oovvrj, "pain."] Pain 
in a ligament, or in the ligaments : des- 

Des-inog'ra-phy. [Desmojra'- 
phia; from iea^, a "ligament," and 
ypaQbi, to "write."] A history or de- 
scription of the ligaments. 

Des'moid. [Desmoi'des; from (Jar/jrj, 
a "bundle," and ataj, a "form."] Ap- 
plied to certain fibrous tumors which on 
section present numerous white fibres 
arranged in bundles. Also, resembling 
a ligament. (From fapfe, a "ligament.") 

Des-mol'o-£y. [Desmolo'gia; from 
6eop.6s, a "ligament," and Xdyo,-, a "dis- 

course."] A treatise on the ligaments j 
the science of the ligaments. 

Des-pu-ma'tion. [Despuma tio. 
o'tttf; from deGpu'mo, despuma'titm, to 
"clarify."] The process of clarifying 
any fluid; defecation; depuration. 

Des-pu-ma'tus. • Freed from im- 

Des-qua-ma'tion. [Desquama'- 
tio, o'nis; from desqua'mo, to "scale 
fishes."] The separation of laminse or 
scales from the skin or bones ; exfoliation. 

Desquamative Nephritis. See 

Dest.= Bestir la* "Distil." 

Destillatio. See Distillation. 

Desudatio (de-su-da'she-o), o'nis* 
[From de, intensive, and su'do, suda'tum, 
to "sweat."] Excessive sweating; also, 
an eruption in children. See Sudamex. 

Desvauxiaceav* da-vo-ze-a'she-e. A 
natural order of endogenous herbaceous 
plants, found in Australia and the South 
Sea islands. 

Det. = De'tur* " Let it be given." 

De-ter'gent. [Deter 'gens; from de, 
intensive, and ter'geo, ter'sum, to "wipe," 
to "cleanse."] Applied to medicines 
which cleanse wounds and ulcers. 

De-ter'ml-nate. [Determina'- 
tus; from deter' mino, determina'tum, to 
"terminate," to "limit."] Applied to 
branches and stems that commence or 
end abruptly. 

De-ter-ml-na'tion. [Determiua'- 
tio. o')iis ; from the same.] A flowing 
or rushing to a particular part, as blood 
to the head. 

Det-o-na'tion. [Detona'tio, o'm's / 
from det'ono, detona'tum, to "thunder."] 
Instantaneous combustion with loud ex- 
plosion. See Fllmixatiox. 

Det'ra-heus.* [From det'raho, to 
"draw away," to "draw from."] Draw- 
ing away. 

De-tri'tal. [Detri'tus: from dct'ero, 
detri'tum, to " wear away."] Relating 
to Detritus. 

De-tri'tus.* [From the same.] The 
waste substance formed by the action of 
frost or rains on the fides of ruts, the 
action of rivers on their banks, etc. 

De-tru'sor, o'ris* TFrom detm'do, 
detru'sum, to "thrust down" or "force 
out."] Applied to the muscular coat of 
the bladder, by the contractile power of 
which the urine is expelled. 

Detrn'sor IT-ri'nse.* (" Expeller 
of the Urine.") The aggregate of the 
muscular fibres of the bladder which 
expel the urine. 




Deii-ter-o-path'ic. [Dentero- 

patb'icns.] Belonging to deuteropathy. 

Den-ter-op'a-thy. [Deuteropa'- 

tliia: from devrcpos, "second/' and nados, 
"disease."] A sympathetic affection, or 
one consequent upon another. 

Deu-tox'lde. [Deutox'ydam; 

from ("evrepos, '"second/' and ox'ydum, an 
''oxide."] A term applied to a substance 
which is in the second degree of oxida- 
tion. This term is often used to denote 
a compound of three atoms of oxygen 
with two of metal, as in deutoxide of 
manganese, of lead, etc. 

De-val'gate. [Devalga'tus; from 
de, intensive, and val'gus, "bow-legged."] 
Having bowed legs; bandy-legged. 

De-vel'op-rnent. (Fr. Developper, 
to "unfold.") The organic change from 
the embryo state to maturity: growth. 

De-vel-op-inen'tal. [Metamor'pbi- 
cus.] Belonging to, or connected with, 
development. Applied to certain diseases. 

Devonshire Colic. See Colica "^iC- 


Dew. [Lat. Ros, Ro'ris: Fr. Rosee, 
ro v za\] Moisture precipitated at night 
from the atmosphere upon the surface 
of bodies whose temperature has been 
diminished by the absence of the sun. 
Clouds prevent the fall of dew, because 
the radiation of heat, by which bodies 
become colder than the surrounding air, 
does not take place to any great extent 
unless the sky is clear. Though dew 
may fall on a windy night, it is soon 
absorbed by the fresh dry air continuall} r 
coming in contact with the moist surface 
of bodies. 

Dew'ber-ry. The common name 
of the JRubus trivialis. 

Dew'berry Plant. The common 
name of the Rubus csesius, or heath- 

Dewlap. See Palear Laxum. 

Dew 'point. The temperature of 
the atmosphere at which the moisture 
begins to condense and deposit itself as 

Dex'trin. [Dextri'na.] Mucilagi- 
nous starch, prepared by boiling a solu- 
tion of stai-ch with a few drops of sul- 
phuric acid. Its name is derived from 
its property of turning the plane of the 
polarization of light to the right hand. 

Di. The same as Dis, which see. 

Di'a ((Jid). A Greek particle signify- 
ing "through," "by means of," and 
BOmet-imefl "apart," "between." "Words- 
compounded with iid often imply sepa- 


Dl-a-be'tes.* [From Ao, "through," 
and Saivu, to "go."] An immoderate 
and morbid flow of urine. It is termed 
insip'idxis ("tasteless") where the urine 
retains its usual taste, and melli'tus 
("honeyed") where the saccharine state 
is the characteristic symptom. A genus 
of the order Spasmi, class Neuroses, of 
Cullen's Nosology. 

Di-a-bet'ic. [Diabet'icus.] Be- 
longing to Diabetes. 

Diabetic Sng-ar. See Glucose. 

Dl-a-eaus'tic. [Diacans'ticus ; 
from iiaxaiot, to "burn."] Applied to a 
double convex lens used to cauterize 
parts of the body. 

Di-ac'e-tate of Cop 'per. JErugo, 
or verdigris. 

Di-a-eby 'Ion.* [From bid, " by means 
of," and XuAoy, "juice."] A name for- 
merly given to plasters prepared from 
expressed j uices, now applied to the Em- 
plastrum plumbi (Lond. Ph.), or Emplas- 
tnun Uthargyri (Ed. and Dub. Ph.). 

Di-a-co'dl-um.* [From KtjSia, a 
"poppy-head."] The old name of the 
Syrupus Papavcris, or syrup of poppies. 

Di-ac'rI-sis.* [From iiaxpivu, to 
"distinguish."] The distinguishing of 
diseases by a consideration of their 
symptoms. See Diagnosis. 

Di-a-del'phl-a.* [From &s, "twice," 
and dic\<pos, a " brother."] The seven- 
teenth class of plants in Linnams's sys- 
tem, in which the filaments of the 
stamens are united into two parcels or 

Diaeresis,* di-er'e-sis. [Gr. dta(peoi$; 
from iiaipccj, to " take apart," to " divide."] 
A division of parts resulting from a 
wound, ulcer, or burn, or the like : a 
solution of continuity. 

Diaeretic, di-e-ret'ik. [Diaeret'i- 
cus; from the same.] Having power to 
divide, dissolve, or corrode; escharoticj 

Diaeta. See Diet. 

Di-as-no'sis.* [From iiayivi'axw, to 
"discern."] The science of signs or 
symptoms, by which one disease is dis- 
tinguished from another. 

Diagnosis, Dif-fer-en'tial. The 
determining of the distinguishing fea- 
tures of a malady when nearly the same 
symptoms belong to two different classes 
of disease, as rheumatism and gout, etc. 

Di-ag-'o-nal. [Diag-ona lis : from 
iia, "through," and yiovia, an "angle."] 
Applied to a right line drawn between 
any two opposite angles of a four-sided 



Diagrydium. See Scammony. 
I>i-a-gryd'I-um,' : * or Diagryd'ium 

Cy-do-iil-a'tnm.* One part of quince 
juice and two parts of scammony; for- 
merly used as a purgative. 

I>i-al'y-ses, ; the plural of Dialysis. 
Solutions of continuity. An order of 
the class Locales of Cullen's Nosology. 

Ri-al'y-sis.* [From 6ia\vu>, to u dis- 
solve."] Weakness of the limbs, as if 
from a dissolving of their firmer parts. 
Applied to analysis by liquid diffusion, 
advantage being taken of the different 
degrees of diffusibility of different sub- 
stances in solution to produce separation. 

Di-ii-inau net-ism. [Diamagne- 
tis'mus.] A term employed by Fara- 
day for a force or influence discovered 
by him in magnetic bodies. 

IH-am'e-ter. [Diam'eter, or Di- 
am'etrus: from 6ia, "through," and 
pi-pov, a "measure."] A right line drawn 
through the centre of a circle and termi- 
nate! on both sides by the circumference. 
The central and shortest dimension of a 
sphere or cylinder. 

Di'a-mond. (Fr. Diamant, a cor- 
ruption of Adamaxt, which see.) A 
precious stone ; the crystallized and 
pure state of carbon; the hardest and 
most brilliant of all substances. 

I>i-an'dri-a.* [From <5i?, "twice" or 
"two," and dvnp, dvSp6$, a ''man" or 
"male."] The name of a Linnaean class 
having flowers with two stamens. 

Di-an'thus.* [From 6i$, "twice," 
and a;doi, a "flower."] A Linna?an 
genus of the class Decandria, natural 
order Caryophyllacese. 

D.;in inns Car-y-o-pnyrius.* The 
clove-pink, or clove-gilliflower. The 
flowers of this plant are used for flavor- 
ing syrup employed as a vehicle for 
other medicines. 

Diapeiisiaceae,* di-a-pen-she-a'- 
she-e. [From Diapen'sia, one of the 
genera.] A small natural order of ex- 
ogenous under-shrubs, found in Europe 
and North America. 

Di-aph'a-nons. [Gr. diafavfis; from 
o. i, "through," and (paivu, to "shine."] 
Transparent; shining through. 

I>I-a-pho-re'sis.* [From diapopko, to 
"carry through." to "carry off."] Lite- 
rally, a "carrying off through [the 
pores]" or by perspiration. A state of 

Di-a-plao-ret'ic. [Diaphoret'i- 
cns.] Applied to medicines having 
power to produce diaphoresis. When 
they are so powerful as to occasion 

sweating, they have been called Sudo- 

Diaphragm, dl'a-fram. [Dia- 

phrag'ma, litis; from 6ia<ppaaa<i), to 
"divide in the middle by a partition."] 
A large muscle separating the thorax 
and abdomen : the midriff. 

Di-a-phrag-mal'gy. [Diaphrag- 
mal'gia; from diaphrag'ma, the "dia- 
phragm," and akyos, "pain."] Pain in 
the diaphragm. 

Di-a-phrag-mat'ic. [Diaphrag- 
mat'ieus.] Belonging to the dia- 

Diaphragmatic Gout. A term 
applied to Angina Pectoris. 

I>i-a-phrag-ma-ti'tis, left*.* [From 
diaphray' ma.] Inflammation of the 
diaphragm. A term sometimes applied 
to that variety of partial pleurisy in 
which the effused fluid exists between 
the base of the lung and the diaphragm. 

I>i-a-pnrag-mat'©-cele.* [From 
diaphrag'ma, and xfiArj, a "tumor."] 
Hernia, or tumor, from some portion of 
the viscera escaping through the dia- 

Di-aph'y-sis,* plural Di-aph'y-ses. 
[From 6ia jvoj, to " be produced between."" 
The cylindrical or prismatic shaft of the 
long bones between the epiphyses. Also, 
a fissure. 

I>i-a-poph/y-sis.* [From ha, "be- 
tween," and d-o$vci), to "arise from."] 
Applied by Owen to the homologue of 
the upper transverse process of a ver- 

Di-a'ri-us.* [From di'es, a "day."] 
Lasting one day ; ephemeral. 

Bi-ar-rhoe'a.* [From cia, "through," 
and pew, to "flow."] A purging, loose- 
ness, or too frequent passing of the 
faeces. A genus of the order Spasmi, 
class Neuroses, of Cullen's Xosology. 

Diarrhce'a Car-no's?.* Dysentery 
in which flesh-like portions are voided. 

IMarrhce'a Cny-lo'sa.* The Heac 

I>i-ar-thro'dI-al. [Diarthrodia- 
lis.] Belonging to Diarthrosis. 

»i-ar-thro'sis,* plural »i-ar-tnro'- 
ses. [From Sta, "through," as implying 
no impediment, and lipQpov, a "joint."] 
An articulation, permitting the bones to 
move freely on each other in every direc- 
tion, like the shoulder and hip joints. 

Diary Fever. [Fe'bris Dia'ria.] 
See Ephemera. 

IM-as-eordi-um.* [From Sta, "by 
means of," and o/cophov, the "water ger- 
mandor."] An electuary so named be- 




cause this plant forms one of the ingre- 

I>i-a-slal'tic. [IMastal'tieus ; from 
Sid, and oreAXw, to ''contract" or " dis- 
pose."] Applied by M. Hall to the reflex 
action of the excito-motory system of 
nerves, because performed through the 
spinal marrow. 

IHastal'tic Arc. Applied by M. 
Hall to the course of the Vis nervosa, in 
complete or uninterrupted reflex or dia- 
staltic action. Also called JRcj/ex arc. 

JDiastal'tic Ner'rous Sys'tem. 
A term substituted by M. Hall for his 
former one of the Spinal System. 

I>i'a-stase. [From Sitarnfu, to "set 
apart," to " cause division or separation."] 
Literally, that which produces separation 
or decomposition. A substance produced 
during the germinating of seeds and 
buds, having the property of converting 
starch into sugar. 

IM-as'ta-sis.* [From the same.] A 
forcible separation of bones without frac- 

Di-a-ste'ma, arts.* [From the same.] 
A space or cleft. Applied in many terms 
like the following. 

I>i-as-tem-a-te-lyt'ri-a,* [From 
diaste'ma, and tXvrpov, the "vagina."] 
A malformation consisting in a longi- 
tudinal fissure of the vagina. 

Di-as'to-le.* [From SiaareWcj, to 
"dilate."] The dilatation of the heart, 
by which, with its alternate contraction 
(Systole), the circulation of the blood is 
carried on. 

I>i-a-tSier'ma-noiis. [From SiaOep- 
fiaiva), to "warm through."] A term 
denoting free permeability to heat. 

Di-a-tiaer-man'sis.* [From the 
same.] The transit of the rays of heat. 

IM-ath'e-sis.* [From SiariOrjp.1, to 
"arrange," to "dispose."] A particular 
habit or disposition of the body; thus, 
we say, " an inflammatory diathesis," i.e. 
a habit or disposition of body peculiarly 
susceptible to inflammatory diseases. 

I>i-a-thet'ic. Belonging to diathesis. 

IMatomaceav* di-a-to-ma'she-e. 
[From Diat'oma, one of the genera.] A 
natural order of cryptogamous plants, 
found in still waters and oozy places. 
The green raucous slime seen on stones 
and walls which are always damp con- 
sists of these plants. 

Di-at'o>mou8. [E*iat'omus; from 
did, "through," and Tcpyu, to "cut."] 
Cleavablo throughout. Applied to 

Di-elilam-yd'e-us.* [From Sis, 

"twice" or "two," and x^am, a "short 
cloak."] Applied to plants in the flowers 
of which there are two whorls. 

I>i-<hot o-mous. [Dicliot'omns ; 
from 6i\a, "double," and repucs, to "cut."] 
Twice divided. A term applied to stems 
or branches which bifurcate, or are con- 
tinually divided into pairs. 

Di'«hro-i§in. [Dichrois'mus ; 

from Sis, "twice" or "two," and xp°a, 
"color."] The property by which some 
minerals, when examined by transmitted 
light, exhibit different colors, according 
to the direction in which the rajs of 
light pass through them. 

I>i-coc'cons. [Dicoc'cns ; from Sis, 
"twice" or " two," and kokkos, a "berry."] 
Having two capsules united, one cell in 

»i-c©t-y-le'd©n,* plural Di-cot-y- 
le'do-nes. [From Sis, "twice" or "two," 
and kotvMSov, a "cotyledon."] One of a 
class of plants having two cotyledons, 
or seed-lobes. Applied to a Jussieuan 
division of plants. 

I>I-cot-yl-ed o-nous. [IMcotyle'- 
donus, Ricotyledo'iicus: from the 
same.] Belonging to the division of 
plants termed Dicotyledones. 

Di-crae'us.* [From Sis, "twice," or 
"two," and Kpa&s, a "head."] Having 
two heads; also, bifid; cloven. 

Dl-crot'ic. [Dicrot'icns; from Sis, 
"twice," and Kporico, to "strike."] Ap- 
plied to the pulse when there is a re- 
bounding like a double pulsation. 

Dic'ro-tous. [Dic'rotus.] The 
same as Dicrotic, which see. 

I>ic-tam'mis.* [From Dic'te, a 
mountain of Crete.] A genus of the class 
Decandria, natural order Rutaccse. 

Did'y-mi,* the plural of Didymus. 
Applied to the testicles. 

Di-dyin'I-um.* [From SiSr/io;, 

"twin."] The name of a metal recently 
discovered united with oxide of cerium, 
and so called from its being as it were 
the twin brother of lantanium, which was 
previously found in the same substance. 

Did'y-mus.* [From SiSvpos, "dou- 
ble," "twin."] By two and two: did'- 
ymous. As a noun it denotes the testis. 

Did-y-na'ml-a.- 1 ' [From Sis, "twice," 
or "twofold," probably meaning "of 
two kinds," and Svvapis, "power."] The 
fourteenth class of Linnams's system of 
plants, characterized by the presenco of 
four stamens, of which two are long and 
two short. 

Diet). t»\t. = Die'bus alter' nis.* "On 
alternate days." 



Dieb. tort. = Die'bus ter'tiis* " Eve- 
ry third day." 

Dies.* A Latin word signifying 
"day." It is often used in giving di- 
rections for taking medicines. The cases 
most used are the accusative singular, 
Di'em, ablative singular, Di'e, nomina- 
tive plural, Di'es, ablative plural, Die'- 
bus. See Appendix. 

Diet. [DiaVta; from diana, "regi- 
men."] The food proper for invalids. La 
Diete, la de'et', as used by French phy- 
sicians, signifies extreme abstinence. 

Di'et Drink. The Decoct. Sarsa- 
pariUx Comp. of the Pharmacopoeias. 

Di-e-tet'ic. [Disetet'icus : from 
diarraoj, to " feed."] Belonging to the 
taking of proper food, or to diet. 

Di-e-tet'ics. [Diaetet'ica; from the 
same.] The consideration (or science) of 
regulating the food or diet. 

Differential Diagnosis. See Diag- 
nosis, Differential. 

Differential Thermometer. See 
Thermometer, Differential. 

Difficulty of Breathing'. See 


Dif-for'mis.* [From di for dis, 
implying "difference," and for' ma, 
"shape."] Of different shapes; irregu- 
larly formed. 

bif-frac'tion. [Diffrac'tio, o'uis; 
from dis, "apart" or "aside," and f ran' - 
go, frac'tum, to "break."] The breaking 
of rays of light from their right course. 
See Refraction. 

Dif-fu'sl-ble. [Diffusib'ilis ; from 
dijfiui'do, diffn'sum, to "pour about," to 
"spread."] That which may be spread 
in all directions. 

Dif'-fu'sion Tube. An instrument 
for determining the rate of diffusion for 
different gases. It is simply a graduated 
tube closed at one end by plaster of 
Paris, a substance, when moderately 
dry, possessed of the requisite porosity. 

Diffu'sion Volume. A term used 
to express the different dispositions or 
tendencies of gases to interchange par- 
ticles ; the diffusion volume of air being 
1, that of hydrogen is 3.33. 

Dif-fu'sus. * [From diffun'de, dif- 
fu'sum, to "spread."] Widely spread : 

Dig-. = Digcra'tur* "Let it be di- 

Di-gas'tric. [Digas'tricus ; from 
&is, and yaarnp, a "belly."] Having two 
bellies : the name of a muscle attached 
to the 09 hyo'ides ; it is sometimes called 
biven'ter maxil'lx inferio'ris. The term 

is also applied to one of the interior 
profundi of Meckel, given off by the 
facial nerve ; the other is called the 

Digastric Groove. [See Digas- 
tric] A longitudinal depression of the 
mastoid process, so called from its giving 
attachment to the muscle of that name. 

Dig'er-ens.* [From dig'ero, diges' - 
turn, to " digest."] Digesting : digestive. 
Applied in the neuter plural (Digerentia, 
dij-e-ren'she-a) to medicines which pro- 
mote the secretion of healthy pus. 

Dl-ges'ter. [From the same.] A 
strong iron or copper kettle, with a 
safety-valve, for subjecting bodies to 
vapor at a high temperature and under 
great pressure. 

Dl-ges'tion. [Diges'tio, o'nis; 
from the same.] The slow action of 
matters on each other, by subjection to 
heat. The conversion of food into chylo 
in the stomach. 

Dl-ges'tlve. [Digesti'vus ; from 
the same.] Belonging to digestion. Also 
applied to substances which promote 
suppuration ; as cerates, poultices, etc. 

Digestive Salt of Syl'vl-us. A 
salt discovered by Sylvius, since named 
muriate of potash, and now chloride of 

Digit. [From dig'itus, a "finger."] 
The twelfth part of the sun's or moon's 
diameter, employed to denote the extent 
of an eclipse. 

Digital. See Digitalis. 

Dig'it-a-lin, or Dig'it-a-lme. [Dig- 
itali'na; from Digita'lis, the "fox- 
glove."] A substance erroneously sup- 
posed to be the active principle of the 
D ig it a! is pu rp u rea. 

Dig-I-ta'lis.* [From dig'itus, a "fin- 
ger."] Belonging to a finger : dig'ital. 

Digita'lis.* [From digita'le, the 
"finger of a glove."] Foxglove. A 
Linnsean genus of the class Didynamia, 
natural order Scrofulanacese. Also, the 
Pharmacopoeia! name j| of the recent and 
dried leaves and stem of the Digitalis 
purpurea. According to the U.S. Phar- 
macopoeia, "The leaves of the D. purpu- 
rea from plants of the second year's 

Digitalis is narcotic, sedative, and 
diuretic. It has a remarkable sedative 
effect on the heart, reducing the force, 
and especially the frequency, of the 
pulse : hence it is frequently given to 
moderate the action of the heart and 
arteries in phthisis, and especially in 
cases of haemorrhage. As a diuretic, it 




is sometimes found very useful in dropsy. 
In large doses, it is poisonous, producing 
vertigo, nausea, and vomiting, syncope, 
convulsions, and death. For dose, see 

Dig-ita'lisPur-pu're-a.* The syste- 
matic name of the plant called foxglove. 

Dig-I-tate. [Digita'tus; from 

dig'itns, a "finger."] Having fingers. 
Applied to the leaves of plants so di- 
vided as to have the appearance of 

Dig-I-ta'to-Pin-na'tus.* Applied 
to a digitated leaf having pinnated leaf- 

Dig-'i-ti,* gen. Dig-i-to'rum. The 
plural of Digitus, which see. 

Di^'iti Pe'dis,* gen. Digito'rum 
Pe'dis. The plural of Digitus Pedis, 
which see. 

Dig'It-i-form. [Digitifor'mis; 

from dig'itns, a "finger, and fo/ma, 
"likeness."] Formed like a finger. 

Dig it-I-gxade. [Digitig'radus ; 
from dig'itns, a "toe," and gra'dus, a 
" step."] Applied to carnivorous Mam- 
mals, which when standing or walking 
have the heel elevated. 

Digi-tus,* plural Di£'I-ti. (Fr. 
Doigt, dwa.) A finger (or a toe). The 
fingers of the hand are the in'dex, or 
fore-finger; the me'dius, or middle 
finger; the annula'ris, or ring-finger; 
and the auricula'ris, or little finger. 
The hones of the fingers are called pha- 
langes. See Phalanx, and Finger. 

Dig-'itus Ma'n«s.* (" Finger of the 
Hand.") A finger. 

Dig'itns Pe'dis.* (Literally, "Fin- 
ger of the Foot.") A toe. 

Di-glos'sum.* [From dig, "double," 
and y\uvjaa, a "tongue;" because a small 
leaf grows above the ordinary one, look- 
ing like two tongues.] A Botanical 
name of the Pnmns lauro-cerasus. 

DI-gyn'1-a.* [See next article.] A 
Linna^an order of plants having two 

Da-gyn'I-ous, or Dig'y-nons. [Di- 
pyn'ius; from dig, "two," and ywrj, a 
"woman" or "female."] Having two 
styles. Applied to a Linnasan order. 
See Digynia. 

Dal. = DU'ue* " dilute," or Dilu'tus* 

Dil-a-ta'tion. [Dilata'tio, o'nis; 
from dila'to, dilata'tum, to "enlarge."] 
An enlargement or expansion, as of the 
heart, etc. 

Di-la-ta'tor, o'rw.* [From the 
same.] The same as Dilator, which see. 

Di*Iat'ed. [Dilata'tus: from the 
same.] Enlarged. 

Di-la'tor.*'[Frorn di, " apart," and/V- 
ro, la'tum, to " carry."] Literally, " that 
which carries or draws apart." A term 
applied to muscles whose office is to 
dilate certain parts, such as the inspira- 
tory muscles, which dilate or expand 
the chest; also, to instruments used for 
dilating wounds, canals, etc. 

Dill. The English name of the Ane'- 
thum grav'eolens. 

Dilleniacea?,* dil-le-ne-a'she-e. 

[From bille'nia, one of the genera.] A 
natural order of exogenous plants, 
mostly trees, found in hot climates. 
Some species of this order are remarkable 
for the beauty of their flowers. Their 
properties are generally astringent. 

Diluc.= Dilu'culo* "At daybreak." 

Dil'u-ent. [Dil'uens, en 'lis; from 
dil'uo, dilu'tum, to " dilute."] (Fr. Be- 
luynnt, da'la'yoN '.) Applied to sub- 
stances that increase the fluidity of the 

Di-lut'ed. [Dilu'tiis: from the 
same.] Mixed. 

Di-lu'vi-al. [Diluvia'Iis: from di- 
lu'vium, a "flood."] Belonging to a 
flood, or to the Deluge. 

Dim. = Dim-id' 

" One-half.' 

Dim'e-rons. [From dig, "two," and 
fizpo;, a "part."] Having two parts in 
each whorl. See Trtmerous. 

Di-mid'i-ate. [Dimidia'tus; from 
dim id' ins, the " half."] Divided into two. 

Dimness of Sight. See Caligo. 

Dwiior'phism. [Dimorpliis'- 

nnis: from dig, "twice," or "two," and 
l-iopffi, a "form."] The property of many 
solid bodies to assume two distinct crys- 
talline forms; as sulphur, carbon, etc. 

Di-mor'pliotis. [From the same.] 
Having two forms. See Dimorphism. 

Dim-y-a'ri-a.* [From dig, " twice" 
or "two," and jxvg, pvog, a "muscle."] 
An order of bivalve Mollusks having 
shells marked by two impressions or 
indentations for the attachment of mus- 

Din'I-cal. [Din'icus; from dTfog, 
"giddiness."] Belonging to giddiness. 
Applied to medicines that remove giddi- 

Di'mis.* [Gr. dXvog ; from divcvM, to 
"whirl round."] Vertigo; dizziness; 

Di-o-don-ceph 'a-lous. [Diodon- 
cepn'alns; from dig, "twice," "double," 
oiovg, a "tooth," and KetpaXfi, a " head."] 
A monster with double rows of teeth. 



IMcecia,* di-e'she-a. The name of a 
Linntean class of plants having dioecious 
flowers. See Dioecious. 

Dioecious, di-e'shiis. [JDice'eins; 

from &s, "twice" or "two," and diKta, a 
" house" or " habitation."] Literally, 
"having two houses," because the male 
and female, instead of forming one 
family, occupy separate habitations. A 
term applied by Linnaeus to plants 
having male flowers on one and female 
flowers on another plant of the same 

I>I-o£'eii-es' Cup. A name applied 
to the cup-like cavity of the hand formed 
or occasioned by bending the metacar- 
pal bone of the little finger ; so called 
because Diogenes is said to have thrown 
away his drinking-cup and used only his 
hand, for the sake of greater simplicity. 

Di-op'tra.'* [From ^tos-ro^a:, to " see 
through."] An instrument for measuring 
the height and distance of objects. 

Di-op'trie, Di-op'tric-al. [Diop'- 
tricus; from the same.] Belonging to 

Di-op'trics. [Diop'trica; from 
the same.] The branch of Optics which 
treats of refracted light, as contradis- 
tinguished from Catoptrics, which treats 
of reflected light. 

Di-or-tho'sis.* [From SiopBotj, to 
" regulate."] The restoration of parts 
to their proper situation ; one of the 
ancient divisions of surgery. 

Dioscorea. See Yam. 

Dioscoreaceae,"* de-os-ko-re-a'she-e, 
or Di-os-co're-a^.* A natural order 
of endogenous plants, found in the 
tropics. It includes the Dioscorea 
(Yam), the farinaceous tuber of which 
forms an important article of food. 

I>i-os'm».* [From A(d s -, "of Jove," 
and ojjin, an " odor," the compound signi- 
fying "divine odor or fragrance."] A 
Linnaean genus of the class Pentandria, 
natural order litttacese. The former 
Pharniacopceial name (Lond. Ph., 1S36) 
of Buchu leaves ; but (Lond. Ph., ISol) 
said to be from the Barosma erenata, B. 
erenulata, and B. scrratifolia. 

Dio.Vma Cre-na'ta.* The plant 
the leaves of which were called buchu. 

I>i-os'me-ae.* The former name of 
a tribe of dicotyledonous plants. See 


BM-os'py-ros.* [From Ai6$, "of 
Jove," a,n& py'rtu, a "pear-tree."] The 
persimmon ; the Pharmacopoeial name 
(U.S. Ph.) of the unripe fruit of the 
JJios'pyros Virginia' na. 

Di-ox'ule. [From cVj, "twice" or 
"two," and ox'idc] According to the 
electro-chemical theory, the elements of 
a compound may in relation to each 
other be considered oppositely electric; 
the equivalents of the negative element 
may then be distinguished by Latin 
numerals, those of the positive by Greek : 
thus, a bin-oxide denotes a compound 
which contains two equivalents of the 
negative element oxygen, whereas a di- 
oxide indicates that one equivalent of 
oxygen is combined with two of some 
positive body. And so of the &i'-chlo- 
ride, crV-chloride, etc. 

Di-pet'a-lous. [IHpet'alus ; from 
Us, " twice" or " two," and -niraKov, a 
"petal."] Having two petals. 

Diph-the'ri-a.* [From Supdepa, 
" skin," " leather," or " membrane."] 
Inflammatory disease of the throat and 
glands, in which false membranes are 

Diph-tne-ri'tis, left*.* [From the 
same.] A variety of Pharyngitis, in 
which a false membrane is formed, and 
for which the word Diphtheria has of 
late been very generally substituted. 

IH-pliyl'lous. [Kiphyl'lus; from 
Us, " twice" or " two," and ^>uAXoj/, a 
"leaf."] Having two leaves. 

I>ip'lo-Car'dI-ao. [From JittAoo;, 
"double," and Kapdia, a "heart."] Hav- 
ing a double heart, pulmonic and sys- 
temic, like mammals and birds. 

I>ip'lo-e. ;: " [From <5<7rXdo>, to "dou- 
ble."] The cellular osseous tissue be- 
tween the two tables of the skull. 

IMp'lo-Gang-li-a'ta.* [From 6nr- 
\6o;, " double," and yayyXiov, a " nerve- 
knot."] A term applied by Dr. Grant 
to the third sub-kingdom of animals, or 
Entomo'ida, consisting chiefly of articu- 
lated animals with articulated members, 
the Insects of Linnaeus, having their ner- 
vous columns arranged in the same 
relative position as the diplo-neura, with 
the ganglia increased in size, correspond- 
ing to their higher development. See 

Dl-plo'ma, aft*.* [From JtrrXdw, to 
"fold," to "double."] Literally, a "fold- 
ing" or "doubling," "something dou- 
bled." A double vessel ; a water-bath. 
The charter (originally a folded letter) 
by which the physician or surgeon is 
declared qualified to practise his profes- 
sion. Also, a certificate of graduation 
given to every one who has successfully 
passed through a university or collegiate 




Dip-lo-my-e'H-a.* [From dinXdog, 
"double," and //ufA-i?, "marrow."] Con- 
genital division of the spinal marrow 

Dip'lo-Xeik'ra.* A term applied by 
Dr. Grant to the second sub-kingdom 
of animals, or Helmintho'ida, comprising 
the various forms of worms in which 
the nervous columns have their gang- 
lionic enlargements very slightly de- 
veloped, and are marked by a greater 
lateral separation from each other along 
the median line than is observed in the 

Dip-lo'pl-a.* [From Sm\6os, "dou- 
ble," and oirrofiai, to " see."] An affection 
consisting in double vision : dip'lopy. 

Dip-lop'ter-ons. [Diplop'terus ; 
from din\6os, " double," and Trrepov, a 
"wing."] Applied to insects having 
doubled or folded wings. 

Dip'pel's Oil. An animal oil pro- 
cured by the destructive distillation of 
animal matter, especially of albuminous 
and gelatinous substances. 

Dipsacaceae,* dip-sa-ka'she-e, or 
Dipsaceav* dip-sa'she-e. A natural 
order of herbaceous plants, including 
Dip'sacus (Teasel), used by fullers. 

Dip'sa-cns.* [From Si^a, "thirst."] 
A name formerly given to diabetes, from 
the thirst accompanying that affection. 

Dip-so'sis.* [From S'upa, "thirst."] 
Morbid thirst; excessive or impaired 
desire to drink. 

Dip'ter-a.* An order of insects. 
See Dipterus. 

Dipteracea?,* dip-ter-a'she-e. [From 
Dipterocar' pus, one of the genera.] A 
natural order consisting mostly of gi- 
gantic trees, found in India, and abound- 
ing in resinous juice. It includes the 
Dryobalanops camphora, which yields 
the hard camphor of Sumatra. A spe- 
cies of this order produces the Saul, or 
Sal, the best and most extensively used 
timber of India. 

Dipterocarpese. See Dipterace^;. 

Dip'ter-ns.* [From Sis, "twice" or 
"two," and -nripov, a "wing."] Having 
two wings : dip'terous. Applied in the 
plural neuter ( Dip'tera) to an order of 
two-winged insects, such as the common 
fly, mosquito, etc. 

Di-rec'tor, ©'*£«.* [From dir'ir/o, 
dircc'tum, to "guide."] A grooved in- 
strument for guiding a bistoury, etc., in 
certain surgical operations. 

Dir'I-g-ens.* [From the same.] An 
ancient constituent in a prescription, 
meaning that which directs the opera- 

tion of the associated substances- thus, 
nitre in conjunction with squill is diu- 
retic; with guaiaeum it is diaphoretic. 

IMr. Prop. = Directiu'ne Pro'pria.* 
"With a proper direction." 

Dirt-Eating. See Chthonophagia. 

Dis, or l>i. A Latin particle usually 
signifying "apart," implying separation 
or division, as in diveltent. It is some- 
times negative or privative, as in dis- 
please (hat. displi'ceo). 

I>is'£i-f'oriu. [Disci lor mis: from 
dis'cus, a "disk."] Resembling a disk; 

Dis'eoid. [Discoi'rics; from Stews, 
a "quoit," and zlSos, a "form."] Resem- 
bling a quoit, or disk; quoit-shaped: 

Discus. See Disk. 

Dis-cuss'. [From discu'tio, discus'- 
sum, literally, to "strike apart;" hence, 
to "scatter," to "dissipate."] To pro- 
mote or effect the resolution of tumors, 

I>iscntient, dis-ku'shent. [Discn'- 
tiens; from the same.] Applied to 
substances having the property of pro- 
moting the resolution of tumors. 

Dis-ease'. [From the French dt's, 
negative, and aise, "ease." Lat. Mor'- 
bus; Fr. Maladie, maMa'de'.] Any de- 
parture from the state of health. 

Dis-in-fect'ants. [From dis, nega- 
tive, and infi'cio, infec'tum, to "corrupt," 
to "infect."] Applied to agents which 
destroy the causes of infection. Among 
these agents, chlorine is one of the most 

Dis-in-fect'ing. [IHsinfi'ciens; 
from the same.] Purifying the atmo- 
sphere from contagious influences. 

Dis-in-fec'tion. [Disinfcc'tio, 

©'nt's/ from the same.] The act of puri- 
fying the atmosphere from contagious 
influences by renewing the air, or by 
chemical action. 

Disk. [Dis'cns; from Stews, a 
"quoit."] The round, central part of a 
compound flower; also, the whole sur- 
face within the margin of a leaf. 

Dis-lo-ca'tion. [Disloca'tio, o'?i Is; 
from dis, " division," and lo'eo, to 
"place."] Displacement of a bone of a 
movable articulation from its natural 
situation ; luxation. 

Dispcnsaire. See Dispensary, and 

Dis-pen'sa-ry. [Lat. Dispensa'- 
riimi: Fr. Dispensairc, de'spoNo'sain' ; 
from dispen'so, dispensa'tum, to "dis- 
pense," to "distribute."] A place where 



modicines aro prepared and dispensed. 
Generally applied to a charitable insti- 
tution for the sick poor of large com- 

I>is-peii'sa«to-ry. [Lat. IMspeiisa- 
to'rinm; Fr. Dispeusaire, de'spoN G 'saiu' ; 
from the same.] A book which describos 
the various articles of the Materia Me- 
dica and gives directions for preparing 
and compounding medicines. 

I>is-place'meiit. A process applied 
to pharmaceutical preparations, and 
founded on the long-known fact that 
any quantity of liquid with which a 
powder may be saturated, when put into 
a proper apparatus, may be displaced 
by an additional quantity of that or of 
Another liquid. 

Bis-sect'ed. [Dissec'tus. See Dis- 
section.] Incised; cut. 

Di»-see'tion. [Dissec'tio, o'nis; 
from die, " apart," and se'co, sec' turn, to 
"cut."] The cutting up of an animal or 
vegetable in order to ascertain its struc- 

I>i-sper'ma-tous, or I>i-sper'- 
mous. [Disper'matns; from <5t?, 
"twice" or "two," and cxepua, a ''seed."] 
Having two seeds. 

Dis-sep'I-ment. [Dissepimen/- 
tutsi: from disse'pio, to "separate."] A 
separation, or partition, that divides the 
cells of a capsule. 

I)is-teu'tioii. [Disten'tio; from 
dis, "apart," and ten' do, ten' turn or 
ten' sum, to "stretch."] The dilatation 
of a hollow viscus by too great accumu- 
lation of its contents. 

Dis-ti-eh'I-a,* I>is-tl-ehi'a-sis.* 
[From dig, "twice" or "two," and orixog, 
a "row."] An affection in which the 
tarsus has a double row of eyelashes, 
one inwards against the eye, the other 

E6i«% ti-elious. [IMs'ticlms; from 
the same.] Double ranked; ranged in 
two rows, like the leaves of certain 

DLslillatio per Desccnsum. See 

Dis-Ul-la'tion. [Distilla'tio, or, 
more correctly, Destilla'tio; from dis~ 
til'lOf distilla'tum, to "drop by little and 
little," or destil'lo, destilla'tum, to "drop 
down" or "fall in drops."] The process 
of separating the volatile from the more 
fixed parts by heat. 

Distillation, I>e-siruc'tlve. The 
decomposition of bodies by strong heat 
in one vessel, and collection of the pro- 
ducts in another. 


Dis'to-ma He-pat 'I-cnm.* [From 
dis, "twice" or "two," aro^a, a "mouth," 
and iizartKo;, "belonging to the liver."] 
The fluke (Fr. Douce, doov), a worm 
sometimes found in the liver and gall- 
bladder of man, but more commonly in 
those of sheep, goats, etc. It is an ob- 
ovate flat worm, nearly an inch in length 
and about the third of an inch broad. 
From the gall-bladder it occasionally 
passes into the intestinal canal. 

I>is-tor'tioii. [IMstor'tio, o'nis; 
from dis, "apart" or "awry," and tor'- 
queo, tor' turn, to "twist."] Unnatural 
direction or disposition of parts, as cur- 
vature of the spine, etc. 

I>is-tor'toa\* [From the same.] That 
which distorts. See next article. 

Distor'tor O'ris.* ("Distorter of 
the Mouth.") A name given to one of 
the zygomatic muscles, from its action in 
distorting the mouth in rage, grinning, 

Dis-trieh/i-a. The same as Dis- 


Bis'trix.* [From cfo, "twice." or 
"double," and 0ptf, the "hair."] Forky 
hair; a disease of the hair in which it 
splits at the end. 

DI-u-re'sis.* [From Sid, "through," 
and ovfiioj, to "pass water."] Increased 
discharge of urine, from whatever cause. 

I>i-u-ret'ic. [I>iuret'icus ; from 
the same.] Belonging to diuresis ; caus- 
ing diuresis. 

I>i-nr'iial. [Diur'mis; from di'es, 
a "day."] Belonging to the daytime. 
Applied to a family of rapacious birds 
which fly chiefly by day, to distinguish 
them from others, such as owls, that fly 
by night. Also applied to a family of 

IH-ur-iia'tion. [From diur'nus, 

" daily."] A term introduced by M. Hall 
to express the state of some animals, 
the bat, for example, during the day, 
contrasted with their activity at night. 

IMv. == Div'idc* "Divide." 

I>I-var'I-cate. [Divarica'tus; from 
dirar'ico, diva rica' turn, to "stride" or 
"straddle."] Straddling; diverging at 
an obtuse angle. 

DI-var-I-ca'tion. [From the same.] 
The bifurcation, or separating into two, 
of an artery, a nerve, etc. 

Di-vel'lent. [Divel'lcns; from dis, 
"apart," and vel'lo, virf'sum, to "pluck," 
to "pull."] Pulling asunder, or sepa- 

Bivellent Affinity. See Affinity-, 





Di-ver-sY-flo'rns.* [From diver'ma, 

"different," and/o*, a "flower."] Hav- 
ing different flowers: diversiflo'rate. 

Di-ver-tic'u-luiii."* [From diver'to, 
to "turn aside."] A variation or de- 
parture from the natural conditions ; a 

Ri-vul'sion, or Rivulsio,* di-vul'- 
she-o. [See Divellext.] Applied in 
Surgery to the forcible separation or 
laceration of a part. 

Dizziness. See Dixus, and Vertigo. 

Robereiner's (do'be-ri'nerz) I^amp. 
A method of producing an instantaneous 
light by throwing a jet of hydrogen gas 
upon recently prepared spongy platinum; 
the metal instantly becomes red-hot, and 
then sets fire to the gas. This discovery 
was made by Professor Dobereiner, of 
Jena, in 1824. 

Roc-i-ma'si-a.* [From <Wi/ia£&>, to 
"test," to "examine," to "prove."] 
Doc'imacy. The art of examining fos- 
sils or metals to ascertain their compo- 

Rocima'sia Pul-mo'nnm, $ or 
Rocima'sia Pul-mo-iia'lis.* ("Test- 
ing of the Lungs.") In Medical Juris- 
prudence, the testing of the lungs of a 
dead new-born child, in order to ascer- 
tain whether it has ever respired; in 
other words, whether it was born alive 
or dead. 

Ro£-i-mas'tic. [Rocimas'ticus.] 
Belonging to Docimasia. 

Rocimas'tic Art. The art of assay- 

Rock, Sour. The Eu'mex aceto'sa. 

Rock., Wa'ter. The common name 
for the Rutnex lujdrolapatlium. 

Roc'tor, o'jtw.* [From do'ceo, doc'- 
tum, to "teach."] Literally, a "teacher" 
or "instructor." A degree or title con- 
ferred by the Medical Faculty of a uni- 
versity, or college, on "those who have 
successfully undergone previous examina- 
tion and trial," constituting them physi- 
cians; also, a title conferred on those 
who have received the highest degree in 
law or divinity. The appellation origi- 
nally implied that he who bore it was so 
thoroughly conversant with his art or 
profession as to be qualified to teach it. 

Ro-dec'a-g-on. [Rodecago'num ; 
from S'iSckcC, "twelve," and ywvia, an 
"angle."] A figure having twelve sides 
and angles. 

Ro-dec-ag'o-nal. [Rodecago'niis.] 
Belonging to a dodecagon. 

Rodec-a-he'dral. [Rodecahe'- 
drus.l Belonging to a dodecahedron. 

Ro'doc-a-he'dron. [From da&ica, 
and Mpa, a "base."] A solid figure of 
twelve equal bases or sides. 

Ro-de-can'drl-a.* [From faSexa, 
"twelve," and dvvp, a "man" or "male."] 
The eleventh class of plants in the 
Linnaean system, characterized by the 
presence of from twelve to nineteen 

Ro-de-can'drl-ous. [Rodecan'- 
<lrius: from <3c6<fc/ca, and dvfip, dvdpds, a 
"man" or "male."] Having twelve 
stamens. See Dodecaxdria. 

Rog-Rose. The Ilosa canina, or hip- 

Ro-lab'ri-form. [Rolabrifor'- 

mis; from dolab'ra, a "hatchet" or 
"axe."] Having the form of a hatchet. 

Ro'li Ca'pax.* ("Capable of De- 
ceit.") Applied in Medical Jurispru- 
dence to a criminal for whom insanity is 
pleaded in excuse, when inquiry is made 
as to his mental capacity when the crime 
was committed. 

Rol'I-chos.* [Gr. coXiyA, "long."] 
A Linnajan genus of the class Diadel- 
phia, natural order Legiiminosse. 

Rol'ichos Pru'ri-ens.* ("Itching 
Dolichos.") The cowhage, or cow-itch, 
now called Jfucu'na pru'riens. 

Rol'o-mltc A species of magnesian 

Ro'lor,* plural Ro-lo'res. [From 
do'leo, to "be in pain," to "ache;" Fr. 
Douleur, dooTuR'.] Pain. 

Ro'lor Cap'I-tfe.* ("Pain of the 
Head.") Sec Cephalalgia. 

Ro'lor Ren'tium.* ("Pain of the 
Teeth.") See Odoxtalgia. 

Ro'lor Fa-cie'i.* ("Pain of the 
Face.") See Neuralgia. 

Roin-bey'a Ex-cel'sa.* A tree grow- 
ing in South America, and yielding the 
glutinous, milk-like fluid known as Dom- 
beya Turpentine. 

Ro-re'ma, wtiis.* [Gr. dwprijia, a 
"gift."] A Linnaoan genus of the class 
Pentandria, natural order Umbclliferse. 

Rore'ma Am-mo-iii'a-cmn.* The 
systematic name of the plant which pro- 
duces Ammoniaonn : gum-ammoniac. 

Ro-ron'i-cum Mon-ta'niim.* An- 
other name for Arxica Montaxa. 

Ror'sad. Dorsal (used adverbially). 

Ror'sal. [Rorsa'lis; from dor' sum, 
the "back."] Belonging to the back. 
Applied by Dr. Barclay as meaning "to- 
wards the back." 

Ror'si,* the genitive of Dorsum, 
which see. 

Ror sl-brancta-I-a tus. [From 



dor' sum, the "back," and bran'chire, 
"lungs."] Dorsibran'chiate. Applied in 
the plural neuter (Dorsibranchia'ta) to 
an order of Articulata having branchiae 
equally distributed along the body. 

Dor'so-. A prefix denoting connec- 
tion with the back; as, Dor'so-Cos'tal, 
having connection with the back and 

Dor-ste'ni-a.* A genus of urtica- 
ceous plants, in which the flowers are 
arranged upon a fleshy receptacle, usu- 
ally flat and of a very variable form. 

Dor'sum,- gen. Dor'si. [Gr. vdrog; 
Fr. Bos, do.] The back of man or beast. 
The superior surface of other parts, as of 
the foot, hand, etc. 

Ddse. [Do'sis; from <5t<5oj/*t, to "give."] 
Literally, "any thing given" or "admin- 
istered." The determinate quantity of a 
medicine prescribed or given to patients 
at one time. It is obvious that the same 
quantity of any medicine should not be 
given to an infant as to an adult. The 
difference of sex, peculiarities of consti- 
tution, and the previous habits of the 
patient must also be taken into consider- 
ation by the judicious physician. It 
may be stated, in a general way, that 
the dose for an infant one year old 
should not be more than about one- 
twelfth part of a dose for a grown per- 
son; for a child three years of age, one- 
sixth; for one seven years old, one- 
third; and for one of twelve years, one- 
half as much as for an adult. Women 
usually require smaller doses of medicine 
than men. For a table of doses, see 

Dos'sil. A small roll or pledget of 
lint for introduction into wounds, etc. 

Doth-in-en-ter-i'tis,* or, more pro- 
perly, Do-thi-en-en-ter-i'tis.* [From 
6o9ir)i/, a "boil," and evrcpov, an "intes- 
tine."] Enlargement and inflammation 
of the glandular follicles of the intestinal 

Doub'ler. An instrument used in 
electrical experiments, and so contrived 
that, by executing certain movements, 
very small quantities of electricity com- 
municated to part of the apparatus, may 
be continually doubled until it becomes 
perceptible by means of an electroscope. 

Douce-Am&re, dooss 1'meR'. [From 
doux, "sweet," and omer, "bitter."] The 
French for Dulcamara, which see. 

Douche (Fr.), doosh. Literally, a 
"pumping, as at the bath." The sudden 
descent of a stream or column of water, 
vsually cold, on the head, or other part. 

The douche is often found to be an ex- 
cellent means of taming a furious ma- 

Douleur. See Dolor. 

Douve, doov. The French name 
for the Fluke, an intestinal worm. See 


Do'ver's Pow'der. The Pulvia Ipe- 
cacuanhse compositus. 

Dove'tail Joint. The suture or 
serrated articulation, as of the bones of 
the head. 

Drach. — Drach' ma* A " drachm." 

Drachm, dram. [I>rach'ma; from 
6pa\fi>i, a Greek weight of about sixty- 
six grains avoirdupois.] In Pharmacy, 
a weight of sixty grains, or three scru- 
ples, or the eighth part of an ounce. 

Drac/ine. [Fromrfra'co, a "dragon."] 
A precipitate formed by mixing cold 
water with a concentrated alcoholic 
solution of dragon's blood. 

Dracontium,*' dra-kon'she-um. A 
genus of plants of the Linna;an class 
Tetrandria, natural order Araeeee. Also, 
the Pharmacopoeial name (U.S. Ph.) of 
the root of the Dracontium foetid uin. It 
is stimulant, antispasmodic, and nar- 
cotic : and it has been highly recom- 
mended in asthma. 

Dracon'tium Fcet'idnm* (fet'e- 
diim). The systematic name of the 
skunk-cabbage, a plant growing abun- 
dantly in many parts of the Northern 
and Middle United States. See preced- 
ing article. 

Dra-cunc'u-lus.* [Diminutive of 
dra'co, a "dragon;" Gr. ipaxwvj] The 
Guinea-Worm, which breeds under the 
skin, and is common among the natives 
of Guinea. It is also termed the Dra- 
eunculus gordius. See Guinea-Worm. 

Dra-gan'tin, or Dra-gan'tine. A 
mucilage obtained from gum traga- 

Drag'on's Blood. [San'gnis Dra- 
co'nis.] The dark, concrete, resinous 
substance obtained from the Calamus 
Rotanrj, or, according to some writers, 
the Dracaena draco, Pterocarpus draco, 
and the Pterocarpus santalinus, etc. 

Dras'tic. [Dras'ticus: from Sipatrrc- 
k6s, "working," "active," "efficacious."] 
A term applied to purgative medicines 
which are powerful or violent in their 

Draught, draft. [Hans'tns.] A 
potion, or what a person drinks at once. 

Drench. A form of medicine used 
in farriery, analogous to a draught. 

Dri'mys.* [Frorn <5/n/^j, "pungent."] 




A Linnrean genus of the class Dodccan- 
dria, natural order Maqnotiaeefv. 

Dri'mys Win-te'ri,* called also 
Dri'mys Ar-o-niat'I-ea.* The sys- 
tematic name of the tree which produces 
the Winter's bark. See Wintera. 

Driv'el-ling-. Involuntary flow of 
the saliva, as in old age, infancy, and 
idiocy; slavering. 

Droit, dmva. (''right," or " straight"). 
The French term for Rectus, applied to 
A r arious muscles of the body. 

I>rop. [Gut'ta.] The smallest quan- 
tity of a liquid. See Minim. 

Drop, Serene. See Gutta Serena. 

Drop'sy. [Lat. Hy 'drops; Gr. 
vSpcoip, from vSbip, "water."] The disease 
Hydrops, variously distinguished accord- 
ing to the part affected. 

Dropsy of the Belly. See As- 

Dropsy of the Brain. See Hy- 

Dropsy of the Chest. See Hydro- 

Dropsy of the Flesh. See Ana- 

Dropsy of the Joint. See Hydrops 

Dropsy of the Spine. See Hydro- 

Dropsy of the Testicle. See Hy- 

Dropsy of the "Uterus. See Hy- 


Droseraeete,* dros-er-a'she-e. [From 
Dros'era, one of the genera.] Sun- 
dews. A natural order of exogenous 
herbaceous plants, found in nearly all 
parts of the world where there are 
marshes. It includes the Dionea (Fly- 
Catcher), remarkable for the irritability 
of the hairs with which its leaves are 

Drowning 1 . See Submersio. 

Drowsiness. See Lethargy, Som- 

Drug-. (Fr. Drogue, drog.) [Pro- 
bably from the Anglo-Saxon Drugan, to 
"dry," or from essential^ the same root 
in some cognate language, as a large 
majority of drugs are vegetable sub- 
stances that have been dried in order to 
preserve them.] A term originally, and 
still most frequently, applied to medi- 
cines in their simple form, but also used 
to include all substances which are em- 
ployed as medicines. 

Drum of the Ear. See Tympanum. 

Drunkenness. See Temulentia. 

DrupaceaV i: 'dru-pa'3he-e. [Seo next 


article.] A natural order of exogenous 
trees and shrubs, found in cold and 
temperate climates, including the peach, 
plum, almond, and cherry. Prussic or 
hydrocyanic acid abounds in the leaves 
and kernels of the fruit. 

Dru-pa'ceous. [Brupa'ceus: from 
dru'pa, a "drupe."] Having drupes. See 

Drupe. [Dru'pa; from fyi-rnra, a 
" ripe olive."] A fleshy fruit containing 
a stone or nut, as the cherry, etc. 

Dru'sy. Applied in Mineralogy to 
a surface coated with a number of minute 

Dry Bel'ly-Ache. The Culica Pic- 

Dry Cup'ping'. The application of 
the cupping-glass without scarification, 
in order to produce revulsion of blood 
from any part of the body. 

Dry Pile. The name of a galvanic 
apparatus, formed without any acid or 
liquid, usually constructed with pairs of 
metallic plates separated by layers of 
farinaceous paste mixed with common 

Dry Rot. A species of decay to 
which wood is subject. The wood loses 
all its cohesion, and becomes friable, and 
fungi generally appear on it. The first 
destructive change is probably of a 
chemical kind. 

Dry-o-bal'a-nops Ar-o-mat'i-ca.* 
A tree of the order Dipteraccse, yielding 
a liquid called camphor oil and a crys- 
talline solid termed Sumatra or Borneo 

Dryobal'anops Cam'pho-ra.* The 
tree which affords camphor in greatest 

Du-al'i-ty. [Dual'itas, a'tis; from 
dua'lis, "pertaining to two."] A term 
used in reference to a theory that the 
two hemispheres of the brain are capa- 
ble of acting independently of each other. 

Duct of Ste'no. The excretory duct 
of the parotid gland. 

Duct of Wharton. [Ductus 
Whartonia'nus ; Duc'tus Saliva'ris 
Infe'rior.] The excretory duet of the 
submaxillary gland. These two last, 
with the sublingual, constitute the sail' 
vary ducts. 

Duc-til'i-ty. [Ductil'itas, a'tis ; 
from du'co, due' turn, to "draw."] A 
property by which bodies can be drawn 
out as into wire. 

Ducts of Bellini (bel-lee'ne). [Duc'- 
tus Bellinia'ni.] The orifices of the 
uriniferous canals of the kidneys. 



Duc'tus,* plural Duc'tus. [From 
du'co, due' turn, to "lead."] A canal, or 

Ductus ml Xa'sum* ("Duct [lead- 
ing] to the Nose"), otherwise called 
r.ach'ry-mal Duct. A duct extending 
from the lachrymal sac and opening into 
the interior meatus of the nose. 

Ductus A-quo'si.* ("Watery 

Ducts.") Lymphatic vessels; the aque- 
ous ducts. 

Ductus Ar-tc-rl-o'sus.* ("Arte- 
rial Duct.") A blood-vessel peculiar to 
the foetus, communicating directly be- 
tween the pulmonary artery and the 

Duc'tus Oom-mu'nis Chol-ed'o- 
clins.* ("Common Bile-receiving 

Duct.") The bile-duct formed by the 
junction of the cystic and hepatic ducts. 
It conveys the bile from the liver into 
the duodenum. 

Duc'tus £ys'ti-cus.* ("Cystic 

Duct.") The excretory duct which leads 
from the neck of the gall-bladder to 
join the hepatic, forming with it the 
Ductus communis choledochus. 

Duc'tus Def'er-ens.* Another name 
for the Yas Deferens, which see. 

Duc'tus E-jac-u-la-to'ri-us* 

("Ejaculatory Duct"), plural Duc'tus 
E-jac-u-la-to'ri-i. A duct within the 
prostate gland, opening into the urethra, 
into which it conveys the semen : it is 
about three-fourths of an inch long. 

Duc'tus Gal-ac-tof'er-i or Eac- 
tif'er-i. s ("Milk-bearing or Milk- 
conveying Ducts.") Milk-ducts arising 
from the glandular grains of the mamma 
and terminating in sinuses near the base 
of the nipple. 

Duc'tus Ile-pat'I-cus.* ("Hepatic 
Duct.") The duct which is formed by 
the union of the proper ducts of the liver. 
See Ductus Communis Choledochus. 

Duc'tus In-ci-so'ri-us.* A con- 
tinuation of the fora'men incisi'vum be- 
tween the palatine processes into the nose. 

Ductus Eacnrymalis. See Duc- 
tus AD NASUM. 

Ductus Eym-pliat i-cus Dex'- 
ter.* (" Right Lymphatic Duct.") A 
duct formed by the lymphatics of the 
right side of the thorax, etc., and open- 
ing into the junction of the right jugu- 
lar and subclavian veins. 

Duc'tus Pan-cre-at'i-cns. :;: (" Pan- 
creatic Duct.") The pancreatic duct, 
which joins the gall-duct at its entrance 
into the duodenum. Near the duode- 
num this duct is joined by a smaller one, 

called Ductus Pancreaticus Minor ("Lesser 
Pancreatic Duct"). 

Duc'tus Pro-stat'I-ci.* (" Prostatic 
Ducts.") The ducts of the prostate gland, 
from twenty to twenty-five in number, 
opening into the prostatic urethra on 
each side of the veru montanum. 

Duc'tus Sal-I-va'ris Iii-fe'ri-or.* 
("Inferior Salivary Duct.") See DtTCT 
op Wharton. 

Ductus Thoracicus. See Thoracic 

Duc'tus Tho-rac'X-cus Dex'ter.* 
("Right Thoracic Duct.") A designa- 
tion of the right great lymphatic vein, 
formed of lymphatic vessels arising from 
the axillary ganglia of the right side. 

Duc'tus Ve-uo'sus.* ("Yenous 
Duct.") A blood-vessel peculiar to the 
foetus, communicating from the Vena cava 
ascendent to the Vena portse. 

Duelech, dii'leK. A term employed 
by Van Helmont to denote the state in 
which the spirit of urine is precipitated 
when it forms calculous concretions. 

Dul-ca-ma'ra.* [From duVeis, 

"sweet," and ama'rus, "bitter.''] (Fr. 
Douce-Amere, dooss i'meR'.) Bitter- 
sweet. The Pharmacopoeial name || of 
the stalks of the Solarium dulcamara. 
Dulcamara possesses narcotic, diuretic, 
and diaphoretic properties. It is chiefly 
employed as a remedy in diseases of the 
skin, such as psoriasis, lepra, etc. 

Dul-ce'do.* [From dul'cis, "sweet."] 
Sweetness. See next article. 

Dulce'tlo Spu-to'rum.* [See 

Sputa.] Literally, "sweetness of the 
sputa, or spittle." The name given by 
Frank to that form of ptyalism in which 
the saliva has a sweet or mawkish taste. 

Dumb. See Mute. 

Dumbness. See Aphonia. 

Du-mdse'. [From du'mus, a "bush."] 
Bushy or shrubby. 

Du-©-<le'*" [From duode'ni, 
"twelve."] The first portion of the 
small intestine, its length being about 
twelve fingers' breadth. 

Du'pll-cate. [Duplica'tus ; from 
du'plico, duplica'tum, to " double."] 

Du'plum.* [From du'o, "two," and 
pli'ca, a "fold."] The double of any 
thing. As a prefix, duplo signifies "two- 
fold :" as, cZ«<p?o-carburet, twofold car- 

Dupuytren (diTpwe'troN '), Coni- 
pres'sor of. An instrument invented 
by Dupuytren, for compressing the 
femoral artery. 




Dnra Ma'ter.* (The "Hard Mo- 
ther." Fr. Dure Mire, dun men.) The 
tough external membrane of the brain, 
once supposed to give origin to all the 
other membranes of the body. 

Du-ra'men.* [From du'ro, dura' turn, 
to "harden," or du'rus, "hard."] The 
interior, more deeply-colored, and harder 
portion of the trunk and branches of 
trees, commonly called heart-wood, as 
distinguished from the exterior portion, 
alburnum or sap-wood. 

Dutch Gold. An alloy of copper 
and zinc, in which the zinc is in greater 
proportion than it exists in brass. It is 
allied to tombac and ^mcMcc&. 

Dutch Iaq'uid. The chloride of 
defiant gas; also called Dutch oil. 

Dutch Miu'e-ral. Metallic copper 
beaten out in very thin leaves. 

Dutch Oil. See Dutch Liquid. 

Dutch Piuk. Chalk, or whiting, 
dyed yellow with a decoction of birch- 
leaves, French berries, and alum. 

©ye. See Dyes. 

Dyers' Alkanet. See Anchusa 

Dyers' Brooms, or Dyers' Weed. 
See Genista Tinctoria. 

Dyers' Oak. See Quercus Tinc- 


Dyes. Coloring matters, whether 
vegetable, animal, or mineral, used to 
impart to cloth, yarn, etc., a color dif- 
ferent from that which they already 

Dy-na'ml-a.* [From Ivvapus, "pow- 
er."] Vital power, or strength. 

Dy-uam'ic. [Dynam'icus ; from 
the same.] Belonging to the vital 
power, or strength. 

Dy-nam'ics. [Dynam'ica ; from 
the same.] The science of the forces of 
bodies in relation to each other. Vital 
Dynamics is the science which treats of 
vital forces. 

Dy-nam-om'e-ter. [Dynamom'- 
etruna; from Svuajxis, "power," and 
fiirpov, a "measure."] An instrument by 
which to measure strength and power. 

Dys. [Gr. o£j.] A Greek particle sig- 
nifying " difficult," or " with difficulty," 
"bad," or "badly," "painfully," etc. 

Dys-stfs-tB»c'si-a.* [From 66$, "dif- 
ficult," and aiaOdvouai , to "perceive."] 
Dulness of any of the senses, particu- 
larly touch. Applied to an order of the 
class Locales of Cullen's Nosology. 

Dys-eat^a-po'sl-a.* [From w5f, "dif- 
ficult," and Kau'mocjK;, the "act of swal- 
lowing."] Difficulty of swallowing 

liquids. A term applied by Dr. Mead 
to hydrophobia. 

Dys-el-ue'sl-a.* [From cvg, "diffi- 
cult," and Kiveu),' to " move."] Diminu- 
tion of the power of motion. Applied 
in the plural (Dy seine' sis) to an order 
of the class Locales of Cullen's Nosol- 

Dys-cra'sl-a.* [From 6v$, "bad," 
and Kjjaaii, a "tempering" or "tempera- 
ment."] A faulty state of the constitu- 
tion : dys'crasy. 

Dys-e-co'I-a.* [From Jt'?, "difficult," 
and (xko)), " hearing."] Diminished or 
impaired hearing: deafness. A genus 
of the order Dysesthesia?, class Locales, 
of Cullen's Nosology. 

Dys'en-t£r-y. [Dysente'ria; from 
Svs, " difficult," or " painful," and Ivripov, 
a " bowel."] A disease marked by much 
griping, tenesmus, and stools consisting 
chiefly of mucus, often mixed with blood. 

Dys'lys-iu. [From ivg, " difficult," 
and Xvais, "solution."] Literally, "dif- 
ficult of solution." Applied to an in- 
gredient of bilin which remains undis- 
solved as a resinous mass during the 
solution and digestion of bilin in dilute 
hydrochloric acid. 

Djs-inen-or-rhee'a.* [From cvg, 
"difficult," fjo'iv, a "month," and ptu, to 
"flow."] (Fr. Dysmcnorrhce, des'ina'- 
no v ra'.) Difficult menstruation. 

Dys-o'des.* [From Ivs, "bad," and 
6'so), to "smell."] Having a bad smell. 
A term applied by Hippocrates to a fetid 
disorder of the small intestines. 

Dys-op'si-a.* [From dog, " difficult," 
or "painful," and oi//i$, "vision."] Pain- 
ful or defective vision. A genus of the 
order Dysesthesia, class Locales, of Cul- 
len's Nosology. 

Dys-o-rex'i-a.* [From ivs, "bad," 
or " difficult," and opc*is, "appetite."] De- 
praved appetite. Applied in the plural 
to an order of the class Locales of Cul- 
len's Nosology. 

Dys-©s-phre's2-a.* [From Svg, "dif- 
ficult," and ootpprice;, " smell."] Impaired 
condition of the sense of smell. 

Dys-pep'si-a.* [From tig, "diffi- 
cult," and ttctttu), to "concoct."] Indi- 
gestion : dyspep'sy. A genus of the 
order Adynamia', class Neuroses, of Cul- 
len's Nosology. 

Dys-pha'gi-a.* [From cv$, "diffi- 
cult," and <pdyco, to "eat."] Dys'phagy ; 
difficulty in swallowing. A genus of the 
order Dyscinesiae, class Locales, of Cul- 
len's Nosology. See Acataposis. 

Dys-pho'ui-a.* [From lis, "diffi- 



cult." and tyoivf), "voice."] Difficulty of 

Bys-pho'rl-a.* [From Sis, "diffi- 
cult." and (pepoi, to "bear."] Inquietude : 
a difficulty of enduring one's self. It 
embraces the affections of anxiety and 

Dyspnoea,* dlsp-ne'a. [From 6vg, 
"difficult." and uvea, to "breathe."] (Fr. 
Dyspnee, des'pna'.) Difficult or labored 
breathing. A genus of the order Spasmi, 
class Neuroses, of Cullen's Nosology. 

I>ys-sper-ma'sl-a,* I>ys-sper-ma- 
tis'mus.* [From &>j, "difficult." and 
crKtpiia, " seed."] Difficult or imperfect 

discharge of semen : dyssper'matism. 
A genus of the order L'pischeses, class 
Locales, of Cullen's Nosology. 

I>ys-thet I-ca. = [From a'?, "bad," 
and TiQrtpi, to " place," to " make/' to 
" constitute."] The name of an order 
in Dr. Good's Nosology, denoting dis- 
eases dependent upon a bad habit or 
constitution of the body. 

By s -u'ri-a. i: [From Hs, " difficult," 
and ovpov, the "urine."] Difficult or 
painful and incomplete discharge of 
urine. A genus of the order Epischeses, 
class Locales, of Cullen's Nosology. 

Dys'u-r$% The same as Dysuria. 


E, or Ex. A Latin particle signify- 
ing " out," " out of." It is sometimes 
privative. See Ex. 

Ear. [Lat. Au'ris; Fr. Oreille, o'rel.] 
The organ of hearing, comprehending 
the external, middle, and internal ear. 

Ear, Inflammation of. See Otitis. 

Ear-Ache. See Otalgia. 

Ear- Wax. See Cerumen. 

Eare<l. See Auriculate. 

Earth [Ter'ra], in popular language 
denotes the friable matter or soil on the 
surface of the globe which we inhabit. 
In Chemistry, the earths are solid, in- 
combustible substances, entering largely 
into the composition of the mineral 
strata, and not convertible into metals 
by any of the ordinary methods of re- 
duction. Many of them, such as lime, 
magnesia, baryta, and strontia, like 
alkalies combine with acids to form what 
in Chemistry are termed salts. The 
four here named are called alkaline 
earths, as they have both an alkaline 
taste and change vegetable blues to 

Earth-Bath. [Arena'tio.] A rem- 
edy consisting literally of a bath of 
earth or sand (usually hot) with which 
the patient is covered. 

Earth, Japan. See Acacia Cate- 

Earth of Alnm. A preparation used 
in making paints, and procured by pre- 
cipitating the alumina from alum dis- 
solved in water, by adding ammonia or 

Earth of Bone, or Bone-Earth. 
A phosphate of lime, sometimes called 
bone phnsjihate, existing in bones after 

Ean, o. The French term for "water;" 
the name of a distilled water. 

Eau <le Bababe, o deh ba'bab'. A 
liquor manufactured in Barbadoes from 

Eau <le Cologne, o deh ko-lon' (or 
ko'lofi'). [A 'qua Colonien'sis.] Co- 
logne-water; a perfume, and an evapora- 
ting lotion often used in headache, fever, 

Eau de Javelle, o deh zhaVel'. 
Bleaching liquid, or the A' qua Alkali' na 
Oxymuriat'ica of the Dublin Pharmaco- 

Eau de Euce, o deh liiss'. The 
Tinctura Ammonive Composita of the 
Pharmacopoeias. The French name is 
derived from that of an apothecary of 

Eau de Xaphre, o deh nafR'. 
A bitter aromatic water, prepared by 
distilling the leaves of the Seville orange 
with water. 

Eau de Rabel, o deh ra'beT. [A'qua 
Rabellia'na.] So named from its in- 
ventor, the empiric Rabel. It consists 
of one part of sulphuric acid and three 
of rectified spirit of wine, constituting a 
sort of sulphuric ether. 

Eau de Vie. [A'qua Vi'ta?.] See 

Eau M&Heinale d* Ilnsson. 5 ma'- 
de'se'nal' diis < s6x G '. A celebrated remedy 
for gout, prepared as follows. Mace- 
rate two ounces of the root of colchieum, 
cut in slices, in four fluidounces of 
Spanish white wine, and filter. 

Ebenaceae,* eb-e-na'she-e. [From 
Eb'enum, "ebony."] A natural order of 
exogenous trees and shrubs, mostly In- 
dian and tropical. Some species are 




remarkable for the hardness and black- 
ness of the wood, as ebony and ironwood. 
The Jussieuan name of this order is 

VAt la-iiin. or Eb'la-nlne. Pyrox- 
anthin, a substance obtained from raw 
pyroxj'lic spirit. 

E-brac'toate. [Ebraetea'tus; 

from e, priv., and brae' tea, a " floral leaf."] 
Without a floral leaf. 

Eb-ul-li'tion. [Ebulli'tio, o'nis ; 
from cbul'lio, to "bubble up" or "boil 
up."] The act or state of boiling. 

Eb-ur-na'tioii. [From e'bor," ivory."] 
A state of the osseous system in which 
thero is an increased and morbid deposit 
of phosphate of lime, especially on the 
cartilages of the joints. 

Eburnifieation. See Eburnation. 

E'bur Us'tum Xi'grum* ("Ivory 
Burnt Black"), called Cologne-black, or 
Ivory-black. Charcoal prepared from 
charred ivory shavings. 

Ec (Ik), and Ex (r£) before a vowel. 
A Greek preposition signifying "out," 
"out of." "from," etc. 

Ecaille, a v kal'. The French term 
for Scale, which see. 

E-cal-ca-ra'tus.* [From e, priv., 
and cal'ear, a "spur."] Without a spur, 
or horn. 

E-cau'date. [Ecauda'tus ; from e, 
priv., and cau'da, a "tail."] Without a 

Ec-ba'li-um Of-fi^-I-na'le.* An- 
other name for Momor' dica Elate'rium, or 
wild cucumber. 

Ec-bol'ie. [Ecbol'icns; from ck6o\- 
Aco, to "cast out."] Applied to medicines 
which induce abortion. 

Ec-cen'trie. [Eccen'tricus; from 
Ik, "out of," "from," and cen'trum, the 
"centre."] Away from the centre. 

Ec-cen-tris'i-ty. [Eccentric 'itas, 
st'tis; from the same.] In Astronomy, 
the distance between the centre of a 
planet's orbit and the centre of the 

Ec-chy-mo'ma, sitis.* [From eiocv- 
jjidco, to "pour out."] A soft blue swell- 
ing from a bruise ; extravasation of 
blood into the cellular tissue. A genus 
of the order Tumores, class Locales, of 
Culleu's Nosology. 

Ec-chy-mo'sis.* The same as Ec- 
chymoma, which see. 

Ec-co-prot'ic. [Eccoprot'icus ; 
from ck, "out," and Kdnpos, "dung."] 
Evacuating the contents of the bowels. 

Ec-crl-nol'o-gy. [Eccrinolo'gia ; 
from iKKpivo), to "secrete," and \6yo;, a 

"discourse."] The doctrine or science 
of the secretions. 

Ec-crit'I-ca.* [From eKKpivw, to 
" strain off."] Diseases of the excernent 
function. The name of a class in Dr. 
Good's Nosology. 

Ec-^y-e'sis.* [From « 5 "out" or 
"without," and Kvrjaii, "gestation."] 
Extra-uterine fcetation. 

Echancrure, a\shoN G, kRuR\ A 
French term denoting a depression or 
notch in the bones. See Notch. 

Echarpe, a'shaRp'. The French for 
the surgical apparatus called a Sling, 
which see. 

Eeh'I-nate, or E-chi'nat«. [Echi- 
na'tus; from £\£iVo$, the "hedge-hog."] 
Beset with prickles. 

Echine, a'shen'. See Spine. 

E-chiii-o-coc'cus.* [From cxuoj, 
the "hedge-hog," and kokkos, a "berry."] 
A species of hydatid. 

E-cbin'o-dor'ma-ta.* [See Echino- 
dehmatus.] The fourth class of the 
Cycloneura, or Radiata, consisting of 
simple aquatic animals covered with a 
spiny shell or a coriaceous skin. 

E-ehin v o-der'ma-tiis.* [From ixivo$, 
the "hedge-hog," and 6epp.a, the "skin."] 
Echinoder'matous. Having a skin like 
the Echinus. Applied to a class of Ra- 
diata. See Eciiinopermata. 

E-^tain-o-rhyn'-elius.* [From ftiVof, 
the "hedge-hog," and pvyxos, a "beak."] 
The name for a genus of Entozoa, order 
Acanthocrjjhalitc of Rudolphi. 

E~etai'nus.* [From £,\i»' ?> the "sea- 
urchin."] A term applied to a calcareous 
petrifaction of the sea-urchin. 

Ec-lamp'sy. [Eclamp'sia, Ec- 
lamp'sis; from £*Xci/iTu, to "shine."] 
Literally, "flashing of light;" "efful- 
gence." A convulsive disease of in- 
fancy; also, epilepsy, and the appear- 
ance of flashes of light, forming one of 
its symptoms. Sometimes applied to a 
form of puerperal convulsions resembling 
epilepsy in severity. 

Ec-lec'tic. [Eclec'ticus; from ck, 
" out," and Xiyo),to " gather" or " choose."] 
Selected, or chosen from among others. 
Applied to an ancient sect of physicians 
(as well as to a school of philosophy), 
who held that we ought not to confine 
ourselves to one single system or school, 
but to select what is best from all the 
different systems. It was at its acme 
about the beginning of the second cen- 
tury. The name is also applied to a 
modern school of recent origin. 

Ec-leg'ma,* or Ec-leig'ma.* [Gr. 



tKXziypa ; from cK\eix<>>, to "lick up."] (Fr. 
Lonch, lok.) A pharmaceutical prepa- 
ration of a certain consistence and of a 
sweet flavor. See LlNCTUS. 

E-clipse'. [Lat. Eclip'sis; Gr. ck- 
~Xei\pig, from t/cXaVw, to " fail."] In As- 
tronomy, the obscuration of the light of 
one heavenly body by the intervention 
of another. 

E-clip'tio. [Eclip'ticus.] Belong- 
ing to an eclipse. Applied to an imagi- 
nary circle in the heavens, which the 
sun appears to describe in the course of 
the year; so named because eclipses 
only happen when the moon is in the 
same plane or very near it. 

Eclisse, a'kless'. The French for 
Splint, which see. 

E-con'o-my. [CEcono'mia ; from 
oIko;, a " house," and i/^w, to " distribute," 
to "arrange."] Literally, "household 
order or arrangement." Applied to 
order or proper management in doing 
any thing. 

Animal Economy denotes collectively 
all the laws or arrangements which are 
necessary to the animal system. 

Ecorce, a'koRss'. The French terrn 
for "bark." See Cortex. 

Ec-phly'sis.* [From £K(p\v*,a), to 
"bubble up."] Vesicular eruption con- 
fined in its action to the surface. This 
term comprehends the several species of 
pompholyx, herpes, rhypia, and eczema. 
Compare Emphlysis. 

Ec-phro'ni-a.* [From excppuiv, " out 
of one's mind.''] Insanity ; craziness ; a 
term comprising melancholy and mad- 

Ec-pliy'ma.* [From £K'/>ua), to "spring 
out."] A cutaneous excrescence, in- 
cluding the several species verruca, ca- 
runcula, clavus, callus. 

Ec-py-e'sis.* [From ckkvem, to "sup- 
purate."] Humid scall, including the 
species impetigo, porrigo, ecthyma, and 
scabies. Compare Empyesis. 

Ecraseur, a'kRa'zuR'. [Fr. ficraser, 
to "crush."] Literally, a "crusher." 
A kind of steel chain tightened by a 
screw, used for removing piles, polypi, 
or malignant growths. 

Ecrouelles, a'kroo'ell'. The French 
term for Scrofula, which see. 

Ecstasis. See Ecstasy. 

Ec'sta-sy. [Ec'stasis; from tfforqpn, 
to " be out of one's senses."] A total 
suspension of sensibility, voluntary mo- 
tion, and for the most part of mental 
power,— the body erect and inflexible, 
the pulsation and breathing not affected. 

Ec'ta-sis.* [From Ik, " out," and reim, 
to "stretch."] Extension or expansion. 

Ec-tliy'ma, etiis.* [From IkOvm, to 
"break out."] An eruption of phlyza- 
cious pustules, without fever. 

Ec-to'pi-a.* [From ektoto,-. "out of 
place."] Protrusion, or displacement. 
Applied in the plural to an order of the 
class Locales of Cullen's Nosology. 

Ecto'pia Cor'dis.* ("Displacement 
of the Heart.") Applied to any case 
where the heart is out of its proper 
place or in an unnatural position. 

Ec-top-ter'y-goid. [Ectoptery- 
goi'des; from ckto;, "without," and 
TTTcpvyoudiis, "pterygoid."] A term pro- 
posed by Owen for the transverse bono 
of Cuvier in reptiles. 

Ec-to-zo'on,* plural Ec-to-zo'a. 
[From iKTOi, "without," and £aov, an 
"animal."] Those parasitic insects 
(such as lice) that infest the surface of 
the body, in contradistinction from the 
Entozoa, which are found within the 

Ec-tro'pl-um.* [From ck, "out," 
and rpiTTb), to "turn."] Eversion of the 
eyelid or eyelids. 

Ec-trot'io. [Ectrot'icus ; from Ik- 
Tirp-caKw, to "cause a miscarriage."] Ap- 
plied to the treatment by which the de- 
velopment of disease is hindered. 

Ec'ze-ma, sitis.* [From ck^o), to 
"boil up."] A smarting eruption of 
small pustules, generally crowded to- 
gether, without fever, and not conta- 

Ec-zem'a-tons. [Eczem'atus.] Be- 
longing to Eczema. 

E-den-ta'ta.* [See next article.] 
Toothless animals; quadrupeds without 
front teeth, as the armadillo. 

E-den-ta'tus.* [From e, priv., and 
dens, a "tooth."] Without teeth: eden'- 
tate. Applied to an order of Mammalia. 
See Edentata. 

E-dul-co-ra'tion. [From dul'cis, 
"sweet."] The sweetening of any me- 
dicinal preparation. Also, the process 
of freeing an easily soluble substance 
from one that is soluble with difficulty, 
by means of distilled water. 

E-dnl-co-ra'tor. [From the same.] 

A dropping-bottle. An instrument for 

supplying small quantities of sweetened 

j liquid, water, etc., to any mixture, or to 

: test-tubes, watch-glasses, etc. 

Eel Oil. An oil procured from eels 
by roasting; employed as an ointment 
for stiff joints, and by ironmongers for 
preserving steel from rust. 




Ef'fer-ens, en'fia.* [From cf'fero, 
to "carry out."] Efferent. Carrying 
or conveying out. Applied in the plural 
to certain vessels of the testis. See Vasa 

Ef-f er-ves'cence. [Effervescen '- 
tia ; from efferves'co, to " boil over."] 
The agitation produced on mixing cer- 
tain substances, caused by the sudden 
escape of a gas. 

Ef-icr-ves'cing Draught. Dissolve 
a scruple of carbonate of soda or potas- 
sa in an ounce of water ; mix two drachms 
of cinnamon water with a drachm and 
a half of syrup of orange-peel ; add to 
these a tablespoonful of fresh lemon- 
juice, and drink the mixture immediately. 

Ef-flo-res'cence. [Efflorescen't ia ; 
from rfflorcs'co, to "flower," to "flou- 
rish."] The blooming of flowers ; the 
time of flowering. In Chemistry, the 
spontaneous conversion of crystals to 
powder in consequence of the loss of 
their water of crystallization. Also, a 
morbid redness of the skin. 

Ef-flu'vl-a,* the plural of Efflu- 
vium, which see. 

Ef-flu'vl-um,* plural Ef-fln'vi-a. 
[From ef'Jhio, to "flow out."] A term 
applied to exhalations or vapors (espe- 
cially those of a morbific character) pro- 
ceeding from any body. It is also fre- 
quently applied to animal or vegetable 

Ef-ffu'sion. [Effu'sio, o'nia; from 
effun'do, effn'sum, to "pour out."] The 
escape of any fluid out of its natural 
vessel, or viscus, into another cavity, 
or into the cellular texture or substance 
of parts. 

Egesta. See Egestus. 

E-ges'tus.* [From ef/'ero, eges'tum, 
to "carry out," or "cast out."] Applied 
in the plural neuter (Eges'ta) to the 
natural excretions or evacuations of the 
body, such as the urine, fasces, etc. 

Egg. See Ovum. 

Egg-Shaped. See Oval, Ovate, and 

- E-gland'u-lous. [Eglandulo'sus; 
from e, priv., and glans, a " gland."] 
Deprived of glands. 

Egophony. See iEcopnoNY. 

Ehretiaceav* a-re-te-a'she-e. [From 
Ehre'tia, one of the genera.] A natural 
order of exogenous plants, mostly tropi- 
cal trees or shrubs. It includes the Pe- 
ruvian Heliotrope. 

Eighth Pair of Nerves. See 

E-jac'u-lans.* "From e, "out," and 

jnc' xdor,jacula' tus, to " throw" or "cast."] 
Throwing forth, or casting out. See 

E-jae-u-la'tor, o'r?s* [From the 
same.] Applied to a muscle of the penis. 
See Accelerator. 

E-jac'u-la-to-r$% [Ejaeulato'rius ; 
from the same.] Ejecting, or having 
power to eject. 

Ejaculatory Ducts. See Ductus 

E-jec'tion. [Ejec'tio, o'ins; from 
eji'cio, ejec'tum, to "throw or thrust 
out."] The act or process of discharging 
anv thing from the body. 

Eh. See Ec. 

Ehraguaceav* el-e-ag-na'she-e, or 
El-a?-ag'ni.*' A natural order of ex- 
ogenous trees and shrubs, dispersed 
through the whole Northern hemisphere. 
It includes the E/pcagnus, or Oleaster. 

El-a>ag'ni,* the plural of EI-a>ag'- 
mis (" Oleaster"), forming the Jussieuan 
name of a natural order of plants. See 


El-ae-op'ten. [From s\atov, "oil," 
and rrrrivog, "flying" or "fleeting," hence 
" volatile."] The liquid portion of a 
volatile oil. The concrete portion is 
called stearopten. The Aolatile ol\>: when 
exposed to cold generally separate into 
a solid and liquid portion, showing that 
they are mixtures of two oils differing in 

El-a*-o-sac'cha-ra.* [From e)<atoi>, 
"oil," and sae'ehantm, "sugar."] The 
mixtures or compounds of volatile oils 
and sugar. 

El'a-in. [Elai'na : from e\aiov, "oil."] 
The oily principle of solid fats. 

El-ai-om'e-ter. [Elaiom'etrum.] 
An instrument for detecting the adul- 
teration of olive oil. 

El'a-is Gu in ecu 'sis* (gin-e-en'sis). 
The Guinea palm-tree, which yields the 
palm-oil, and, it is said, the best kind 
of palm-wine. 

Elaopten. See El^eopten. 

E-las tic. [Elas'tieus. See Elas- 
ticity.] Having the property of elas- 
ticity, or springiness. 

Elastic Gum, or Indian Rubber. 
See Caoutchouc. 

E-las'ti-cin. [Elastici'na: from 
elas'tieus, "elastic."] The peculiar solid 
material of the elastic tissue. It is re- 
markable for its insolubility in all ordi- 
nary menstrua. 

El-as-tic'i-ty. [From e\avi'cj, to 
"drive," to "strike" or "impel," as the 
string of a bow impels the arrow.] A 



property by which bodies return forcibly 
and of themselves to the same form or 
dimensions they possessed before their 
displacement ur compression by external 

E-lat'er-in. [Elateri'na.] A crys- 
tallizable matter, distinct from Elatin, 
found in the juice of Elaterium. 

El-a-te'rl-um. : [From eXawoj. to 
"drive,"' to "drive through." referring 
to its violent action on the alimentary 
canal.] The Pharmacopoeial name A of 
the fecula of the Momor'dica elate'rium, 
otherwise called the Echa'lium oj/icina'- 
rum (or officinale). 

Elaterium is a powerful hydragogue 
cathartic. In over-doses, it operates 
with extreme violence both on the sto- 
mach and bowels, and sometimes causes 

Ela-tin. [Elati'na.] The active 
principle of Elaterium. 

Elatinacea?. :: el-a-tin-a'she-e. A 
natural order of annual plants, found in 
marshes in the four quarters of the globe. 
It includes Elati'ne (Water-Pepper). 

Elatio,* e-la'she-o. [From ef'fero, 
elu'tum, to " carry out,'' to " carry be- 
yond bounds," to "transport."] Quix- 
otism ; a species of mental extrava- 

El'a-yl. [From i\aiov, "oil," and v\ri, 
"material."] The name given by Ber- 
zelius to hydruret of acetyl, otherwise 
called defiant gas and etherine. 

El'fodw. [Lat Cubitus; Fr. Coude, 
kood.] Originally, the angle formed by 
the arm when bent on the fore-arm. 
Commonly applied to the articulation 
of the arm with the fore-arm. More 
particularly it denotes the projection of 
the olecranon. See Axcox, and Ole- 

Elder-Tree. The Sambucug nigra. 

El-e-cam-pane'. The Inula Hele- 

Elect. = Electua'rium.* An "electu- 

E-lec-tric'i-ty. [ Electric 'itas, n'tis; 
from rikacrpov, ••amber," in which it was 
first observed.] A subtile fluid or prin- 
ciple produced by the friction of certain 
substances, such as glass, amber, sealing- 
wax, etc. Electricity has been highly 
recommended as a stimulant in cases of 
paralysis, rheumatism, amaurosis, etc., 
and has sometimes proved very useful 
in such affection--. 

Electricity. Galvanic, or Voltaic. 
See Galvanism. 

E-lec'tro-Chem'I-cal Action. 

Chemical action induced by electrical 

Elec'tro-Dy-nam'ics. The science 
which treats of the effects or phenomena 
of electricity in motion. 

Elee'tro-Jfag-'net-isni. Magnetism 
excited or produced by electricity, — usu- 
ally by galvanic electricity. 

E-lec'troue. [From >}\cjcrpov, "am- 
ber."' and 6o6s, a ••way."] In electro- 
chemical action the electrodes are the 
surfaces by which the electricity passes 
into or out from other media, they being 
regarded as the roads or ways along 
which the electric fluid travels. 

E-lec-tro-gen'e-sis.* [From faacrpov, 
"amber," and yaw, to "be born."] The 
production of electricity. 

E-lec-tro-gen'ic. [Electrogen'i- 
cus.] Belonging to electrogenesis. 

E-lec-tro-ge'iiI-nm.* [From n\tK- 
rpov, "amber," and yaniw, to "beget."] 
The unknown cause of the phenomena 
of electricity : elec'trogen. 

E-lec-trol'o-gy. [Eleetrolo'gia; 
from liXeicrfjov, "amber," and Xoyo;, a 
"discourse."] A treatise on electricity; 
the science of electricity. 

E-lec-trol'y-sis.* [From riXacrpov, 
"amber," and XiJcj, to "loosen," to "dis- 
solve."] Decomposition by electricity. 

E-lec'tro-lytes. [From the same.] 
Applied to bodies which can be decom- 
posed directly by electricity. 

E-lec-trom'e-ter. [Elect roni'e- 
trum: from ijXcK-pov, "amber," and pi- 
rpov, a "measure."] An instrument for 
ascertaining the quality and quantity of 
electricity in an electrified body. 

E-lec-tropli'o-rus. ;; - [From rjAorrpw, 
"amber," and <popiw, to "bear."] (An 
"electricity-bearer.") An apparatus em- 
ployed in electric experiments. 

E-lec'tro-seope. [Electros'co- 

pns, or Eleetrosco'pium : from ijXsk- 
rpov, " amber," and gkq-cu, to "spy."] An 
instrument for ascertaining the presence 
of electricity. 

E-lec'tro-type. [From ii\tKrpov, 

"amber," or "electricity," and rv-os, a 
"model" or "mould."] The process by 
which facsimile medals are executed in 
copper by means of electricity. It con- 
sists in preparing for a negative plate 
models or moulds of objects to be copied, 
and in so arranging a battery or appa- 
ratus which generates the voltaic cur- 
rent as to deposit the metals in a com- 
pact form on the surface of the mould. 
Electrotype is also used as a verb. 

E-lec'tro-Vi'tal (or Xeu'ro E-lec'- 




trie) Cur'rents. The name of two elec- 
tric currents supposed to exist in ani- 
mals, — the one external and cutaneous, 
moving from the extremities to the 
cerebro-spinal axis; the other internal, 
going from the cerebro-spinal axis to 
the internal organs. 

E-lec'trum.* [Gr. riktKrpov.'] A term 
used by the ancients for amber; also, 
for a mixture of four parts of gold and 
one of silver. 

Electuarium Aroinaticum. See 


Electuarium Opii. See Confectio 

Electuarium Senna?. See Con- 


E-lec'tu-a-ry. [Eleetua'rium ; 

from el'igo, dec' turn, to "choose" or 
"pick out," because some agreeable sub- 
stance is chosen^ as a vehicle for the 
medicine.] (Fr. Electuaire, aTek'tii'eR'.) 
A confection, or conserve. See Lixc- 


El'e-ments. [Elemen'ta.] Ru- 
diments, or first principles; substances 
which cannot be further decomposed. 

El-e-men'tum,* plural El-e-nien'- 

ta. See Elements. 

El'e-mi.- ;: " The Pharmacopoeial name 
(Br. Ph.) of a concrete resinous exuda- 
tion, probably from the Canarium com- 
mune: chiefly imported from Manilla. 

El-e-pnan-ti'a-sis.* [From Ai^aj, 
iXiipavTo;, an "elephant."] Applied to 
two distinct diseases of quite different 
character, now designated as Elephan- 
tiasis Arabum and Elep>hantiasis Grscco- 

Elephanti'asis Ar'abum* (the "Ele- 
phantiasis of the Arabians"), otherwise 
called Buche'mia, Barba'does Leg, and 
El/ephaxt-Leg. A disease characterized 
by the leg being much swollen and mis- 
shapen, and thus supposed to resemble 
that of an elephant. 

Elephanti'asis Grjeco'rpm.* ("Ele- 
phantiasis of the Greeks.") An affection 
nearly allied to leprosj', if not the same 
disease. It is said to be characterized 
by shining tubercles on the face, ears, 
and extremities, with a thickened, rugous 
state of the skin, whence it has been 
termed Elephant-skin ; also, Le'pra Ar'- 

El-et-ta'ri-a.* [From the Malay El- 
ettariy the "lesser cardamom."] The 
name of a new genus of plants, of the 
class Monandria, natural order Zinyibe- 

Eletta'ria (ar-tia-nio niuni. The 

lesser cardamom-plant, formerly referred 
to the genus Alpinia. 

Elcvateur, a'la'va'tUR'. ("Eleva- 
tor.") The French for Levator, which see. 

El-e-vator. [Elevato'riuin; from 
el'evo, eleia'tum, to "lift or raise up."] 
(Fr. Elevatoire, a'laVa'twaR'.) An in- 
strument for raising depressed portions 
of bone. 

E-lim'i-nate. [From e. "out of," or 
"out from," and li'men, a "threshold."] 
Literally, to "put out" or "expel:" 
hence, to "send forth," to "throw off," 
to "set free." 

El-i-qua ' t ion. [Eliqua'tio, o'n is ; 
from el' iquo, eliqua'tum, to "melt 
down" or "melt out."] The process by 
which one substance more fusible than 
another is separated from it by applying 
heat in a sufficient degree. 

E-lix'ir. [Said to be derived from 
the Arabic El-ekscr, or Al-eksir, "quint- 
essence."] A preparation similar to a 
compound tincture. Also, an extract, 
or quintessence. 

Elix'ir, Par-e-gor'ic. The Tinctu'ra 
earn' phorie compos' ita. See Paregoric. 

E-lu-tri-a'tion. [Elutria'tio,o'/n'«/ 
from elu'trio, elutria' turn, to "washout," 
to "pour off."] The process of pulver- 
izing metallic ores or other substances, 
and mixing them with water, so that the 
lighter parts are separated from the 

Elytra. See Elytron. 

El-y-tri'tis, lefts.* [From e\vrpov, a 
"sheath," the "vagina."] Inflammation 
of the vagina. 

Ely-tron,* plural El'y-tra. [Gr. 
ekvrpov ; from tXvoi, to ''wrap up," to 
"cover" or "conceal."] A sheath; the 
hard case or shell which covers the 
wings of coleopterous insects. Also, the 

Ely-tro-plas'tic. [Elytroplas'ti- 
cns.] Belonging to elytroplasty. 

El'y-tro-plas-ty. [Ely troplas'tia ; 
from eXvTpof, and ir\aaa(i>, to "form."] The 
operation of closing a vesico-vaginal 
fistulous opening by borrowing a flap 
from the labia, or nates. 

El-y-trop-to'sis.* [From ekvTpov, 
and nrwcis, a "falling down."] Inversion 
of the vagina. 

El'y-trnm,* plural El'y-tra. The 
same as Elytron, which see. 

Emaciation, e-ma-she-a'shun. 

[Ennacia'tio, o'nis; from ema'do,ema- 
cia'tum, to "make lean."] The state of 
being or becoming lean. See Atropia, 
and Marasmus. 



Email, a'mal'. The French term for 
Examel, which see. 

Em-a-na'tion. [Emana'tio, o'nis; 
from e, "out" or "from," and ma' no, 
nana' turn, to ••flow."] That which flows 
or proceeds from any substance. 

Emansio, e-man'she-o. [From ema'- 
neo, eman' 'sum, to "remain out" or "ab- 
sent."] Literally, "absence" or "stay- 
ing away." See next article. 

Eman'sio Men'sium-- (men'she- 
um). Retention of the catamenia. See 

E-mar «rin-ate. [Emargina'tus; 
from emar'gino, to "take away the 
edge."] Having a notch at the margin. 

E-mas'cu-late. [Emascnla'tus ; 
from emas'culo, emascuki 'turn, to "make 
impotent." See Mas.] Deprived of vi- 
rility; incapable of generating. 

E-mas-cu-la'tion. [Emascnla'tio, 
o'nis; from the same.] The act of ren- 
dering impotent by injury or removal 
of the generative organs. 

Em-balm'in<r. [From en, "in," and 
balm, a word used somewhat vaguely for 
any "fragrant ointment" or "aromatic 
substance."] A process by which a dead 
body is preserved against putrefaction. 
This process originally consisted in im- 
pregnating the body with balsams or 

Emboitement (Fr.), oic'bw&t'moH*'. 
[From boite, a "box."] The situation 
of one box within another. A term 
used by Bonnet to designate that theory 
of generation by which thousands of 
individuals are supposed to lie one within 
the other, each possessing a complete 
series of organized parts. 

Em-bo'H-a. :J [From iv, "in" or 
"into," and ' tfciXXw, to "throw." to 
"thrust."] A term employed by Virchow 
to denote the obstruction of an artery or 
vein in consequence of apiece or clot of 
coagulated blood being lodged in it. 
See Embolus, and Thrombosis. 

Em-bol'ic. [Embol'icus.] Pertain- 
ing to Embolia. 

Yaw bo-lism. [Embolis mus.] The 
same as Entbolia, which see. 

Em'bo-lus.-* [See Embolia.] Lite- 
rally, "any thing thrown or thrust in," 
as a wedge or stopper. Applied to a piece 
of coagulum, which has been formed in 
the large vessels in certain morbid con- 
ditions, and has afterwards been forced 
into one of the smaller arteries so as to 
obstruct the circulation. See Thrombus. 

Embonpoint (Fr.), oM'b6N 'pwuN '. 
Plumpness or fulness of flesh. 

Em-bro-ea'tion. [Embrooa'tio, 

o'nis; from ip.%pex<>). to "soak."] A fluid 
application for rubbing on any part. 

Em'bry-o, o'»i«.* [Gr. iy£pvov\ from 
cr, •• within," and 6pvcj, to " swell as buds," 
to "grow."] Literally, "that which 
grows within." The f tutus in utero, be- 
fore the fifth month of pregnancy. Also, 
the germ of a plant: the corculum. 

Em-bry-oc'to-ny. [From zp.Hptov, a 
"foetus." and ktcIicj, to "kill."] The 
same as Embryotomy. 

Em-bry-og'e-ny. [From em'bryo, 
and ykvoi, to " be born or produced."] Tho 
formation or production of an embryo. 

Eni-bry-og-'ra-phj'* [Embryo- 

gra phia: from kp. ! jpvov, a "foetus," and 
ypdcJKx), to " write.''] A description of tho 

Eni-bry-olo-sry. [Embryolo'gia; 
from Zptipvov, a "foetus," and ^oyo^, a 
"discourse."] A treatise on the foetus. 

Em'bry-o-nate. [Embryona'tiis; 
from em'bryo.'] Having an embryo, germ, 
or corculum. 

Em-bry-ot'o-my. [Embryot©'- 
mia: from zp.Sp\o^. a "foetus," and r<^j>a>, 
to "cut."] The destruction or separa- 
tion of any part or parts of the foetus in 
utero, where circumstances exist to pre- 
vent delivery in the natural way. 

Em-bry-ul'oi-a.- ;: ' [From 't^Spvov, a 
"foetus," and 1\kw, to "draw.'*] Tho 
drawing or extracting of the foetus, 
generally by destructive instruments, in 
order to effect delivery : embryul'cy. 

E-nier'sus.* [From emer'rjo, emer'- 
sum, to "rise out," as from water.] 
Applied to leaves and flowers that aro 
above the surface of the water. 

Em'er-y. A variety of Corundum. 
The powder, attached to brown paper, 
called emery-paper, is used for polishing, 
for preparing razor-strops, etc. 

Em'e-sis, :;: " or E-me'si-a.* [From 
i(iid>, to "vomit."] The act of vomiting. 

E-met'ic. „ [Emet'icus; from the 
same.] (Fr. Emetique, a'nia'tek'.) Hav- 
ing power to excite vomiting. Also, a 
medicine which causes vomiting. 

E-mct-I-co-lo'gi-a.*' [From emet'i- 
cus. "emetic," and \6yo$, a "discourse."] 
A treatise on emetics. 

Em'e-tin, or Em'e-tme. [Emeti'- 
na; from emet'icus, "emetic."] Tho 
principle on which the emetic virtues of 
ipecacuan depend. 

Em£tique. See Emetic. 

Em-ei-ol'o-gy* i ne doctrine or sci- 
ence of emetics. 

E-mis'sion. [Emis'sio, o'liis; from 




e, "out" or "forth," and mit'to, mis' sum, to 
"send" or "throw."] A sending forth. 

Em-meu'a-gogue. [Einmenago'- 
gus; from inp.r)via, the " menses," and 
(iycj, to "lead or carry away."] Hav- 
ing power to excite the discharge of the 

Em-me'm-a.* [Gr. i/i/^ta; from iv, 
"in," "at," "by/' and finv, a "month."] 
The menses, or catamenial discharge. 

Em-me-nol'o-gy. [Emmenolo'- 
g-ia; from innnvia, the "menses," and 
Xdyo,-, a " discourse."] That branch of 
Physiology which treats of menstruation. 

E-mol'H-ent. [Emol'lieus, plu- 
ral Emollien'tia; from emol'lio, to 
"soften."] Softening or soothing an 
irritated surface, or one harsh from 
dryness. Emollient applications consist 
chiefly of oils, fomentations, poultices,etc. 

Em-pa-the'nia, a^'s.* [From f/izrafljfc, 
" in a passion or violent emotion."] Un- 
governable passion; including excite- 
ment, depression, and hair-brained pas- 
sion, or the mcmie sans delire of Pinel. 

Empetracea?,*' em-pe-tra'she-e. A 
small natural order of exogenous shrubs, 
found in Europe and America. 

Em'phly-sis.* [From iv, "in" or 
"on," and ipXvais, an "eruption."] A 
vesicular tumor or eruption on the skin. 

Em-phy'ma, aft'*.* [From iv, " in" 
or "within," and (pvu, to "produce," to 
"grow."] A tumor originating below 
the integuments. 

Em-phy-se'ma, aft*.* [From ip.<pv- 
cdoj, to "inflate."] A collection of air in 
the cellular texture under the skin, or 
beneath the pleural and interlobicular 
cellular tissue of the lungs. 

Em-ph$-sem'a-tous. [Emptiy- 
seruato'sus; from cmphyse'ma.~\ Of 
the nature of emphysema. 

Em-pir'ic. [Empir'icus; from fyi- 
TccipiKOi, "experienced," "experimental."] 
A practitioner whose skill is the result 
of mere experience. Generally used 
synonymously for a "quack." 

Em-pir'I-cal. [Empir'icus.] Be- 
longing to an empiric, or to a quack. 

Em-pir 'I-c4sm. [Empiricis'mus ; 
from tymtipia, "experience."] (Fr. Empi- 
rieme, oM'pe'rezm'.) The knowledge of 
physic acquired by experience alone, as 
contradistinguished from that in which 
a thorough acquaintance with general 
principles (such as the great laws of 
physiology, chemistry, etc.) is combined 
with the knowledge derived from expe- 
rience; commonly applied, however, to 

Em-plas'trum,* plural Ein-plas'- 
tra. [Gr. epirXaarpov ; from iv, "on," and 
TrXdffo-cj, to "form," to "mould," to 
"spread."] (Fr. Empl&tre, o>fplatR'.) A 
plaster of any kind : usually formed of 
a solid tenacious compound, adhesive at 
the ordinary temperature of the human 

^££t* The limits of the present work 
forbid the insertion of all the Etnplastra 
of the U.S. Pharmacopoeia. Only a few, 
the directions for the preparation of 
which are comparatively simple and 
brief, are here given. For the others 
the inquirer is referred to pp. 135-142 
of the Pharmacopoeia. 

Emplas'trum Ad-ha>si'vuin.* 
The Emplastrum Resix.e. which see. 

Emplas'trum Ar'iii-c».* ("Plas- 
ter of Arnica.") Take of alcoholic extract 
of arnica, a troy ounce and a half, resin 
plaster, three troyounces. Add the ex- 
tract to the plaster, previously melted by 
means of a water-bath, and mix them. 

Emplas'trum Pi'cis Bur-gun dl- 
£»e.* ("Plaster of Burgundy Pitch.") 
Take of Burgundy Pitch, seventy-two 
troyounces ; yellow wax, six troyounces. 
Melt them together, strain, and stir con- 
stantly until they thicken on cooling. 

Emplas'trum Pi'cis Can-a-dcn'- 
sis.* ("Plaster of Canada Pitch, or 
Hemlock Pitch.") The directions for 
preparing this plaster, and the propor- 
tion of the ingredients, are the same as 
the preceding, with the single exception 
that Canada Pitch is substituted for 
Burgundy Pitch. 

Emplas'trum Re-si'na?* ("Plaster 
of Resin"), commonly called Adhesive 
Plaster, or Besin Plaster. Take of resin 
in fine powder, six troyounces; plaster 
of lead, thirty-six troyounces. To the 
plaster, melted over a gentle fire, add 
the resin, and mix them. 

Emplatre, om'plfitR'. The French 
word for "plaster." See Emrlastrim. 

Em-pres'ma,afis.* [From iv, " with- 
in," and rpfjdoj, to "burn."] Internal in- 
flammation ; a term employed in its sim- 
ple sense by Hippocrates, and revived by 
Dr. Good as a generic term for all those 
visceral inflammations generally distin- 
guished by the suffix -itis. 

Em-pros-thot'o-iios.* [From £//- 
npoaOev, "forwards," and rcivoi, to 
"stretch."] Literally, "a stretching or 
bending forwards." A variety of Tetanus. 

Em-py-e'ma, aft**.* [From iv, "with- 
in," and ttvov, "pus."] A collection of 
pus in the cavity of the chest. 



Em-py-e'sis.* [From ipnviu, to "sup- 
purate.''] A genus of diseases charac- 
terized by phlegmonous pimples, which 
gradually till with purulent fluid : as 
Variola, Varicella, etc. 

Em'py-o-cele.* [From iv, "in/' ttvov, 
"pus," and irijiAi;, a "tumor."] A collec- 
tion of pus within the scrotum. 

Eni-py-o»n'pha-lus.* [From iv, 
"in," miov, "pus," and oppaXos, the 
"navel."] A collection of pus about 
the navel. 

Em-py-reu'ma, a^'s.* [From tp-v- 
peioj,to "kindle."] A peculiar disagree- 
able smell of animal and vegetable mat- 
ter when burned in close vessels. 

Em-py-reu-mat'ic. [Empyreu- 
mat'icus.] Belonging to empi/reuma. 
E-imil'geni. [Emnl'gens, en'tis; 
from emul'gco, emul'sum, to "milk out."] 
Straining through. Applied to the ves- 
sels of the kidneys, supposed to strain 
the serum through the kidneys. 

E-mul'sin, or E-niul'sine. The 
same as Amygdalix, which see. 

E-innl'sion. [Einnl'sio, o'nis; 
from the same.] The expressed oil of 
seeds, or kernels, diffused through water 
by the medium of the sugar, mucilage, 
and fecula which they contain. 

E-munc'to-ry. [Emnncto'rins ; 
from cmun'go, emunc'tum, to "carry off."] 
Applied to the excretory ducts of the 

En (iv). A Greek preposition signi- 
fying "in," or "within." Before b, m, 
and p, it is changed to m; as, Embolus, 
something which is "thrown into" the 
arteries, veins, etc. 

En-a?-o-re'ma, atis:% [From ivauopeo- 
fiai, to "float."] The nubecula which 
floats, or is suspended, in the middle of 
the urine. 

En-ain'el. (Fr. Email, a'mal'.) Avery 
hard, compact, white substance, investing 
the crown of the teeth. See Tooth. 

En-an-the'sis.* [From iv, and dvQio, 
to "blossom."] Rash exanthem, in- 
cluding scarlet fever, measles, and nettle- 

En-ar-thro'sis.* [From iv, "in," 
and apQpov, a "joint."] The ball-and- 
socket joint. A variety of the class 

En-can'thas.* [From iv, "in," and 
KuvOo;, the " angle of the eye."] A small 
red excrescence on the Caruncula lach- 
rymalis and semilunar fold of the Con- 
junct ir a. 

Encanthus. See Excaxthis. 
En-^eph-a-la'ta.- [From encejrfi'- 

alon, the "brain."] A name sometimes 
applied to the Vertebrata, or highest of 
the grand divisions of animals, com- 
prising such as have a brain enclosed in 
a case of bone. 

En-ceph-a-li'tis, idis* [From iy- 
KctpaXos, the "brain."] Inflammation of 
the brain and its membranes. 

En-ceph'a-lo-cele.* [From iyKtipa- 
Aof, the "brain," and KrjXr), a "tumor."] 
Protrusion of a portion of the brain 
through a preternatural opening in the 
skull : Hernia cerebri. 

En-ceph'a-loid. [Encephaloi'- 
des; from iyxtyaXog, the "brain."] Re- 
sembling the substance of the brain. 

En-cepn-a-lo-lo'gi-a.* [From iy- 
KctpaXo;, the "brain," and Xoyog, a "dis- 
course."] A description of the brain ; 
also, the science of the brain : encepha- 

En-ceph-a-lo'ma, Mis.* [From iy- 
Kc^aXoi, the "brain."] The Hernia cerebri. 

En-ceph'a-lon.* [Gr. iyKetpaXov; from 
iyK&^aXog, the "brain."] The brain ; the 
contents of the skull, consisting of the 
cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, 
and membranes. 

En-eepn-a-lo'sis.* The progress of 

En-chon-dro'ina, aiia* [From iv, 
"in" or "within," and xo^p°s, a "carti- 
lage."] A cartilaginous tumor or growth 
proceeding from the bones, and, there- 
fore, deep "within." 

En-chon'drus.* [From iv, "in," 
and xovSpoi,a, " cartilage ;" also, a " grain."] 
Cartilaginous : enchon'drous. Also, 
having grains; granular. 

En-cyst'ed. [From iv, "in," and wa- 
ns, a "bag."] Enclosed in a cyst, or sac. 

En-dem'ic, En-de'mi-al. [En- 
dem'icus, or Ende'mius; from iv, 
"in," and 6npos, a "people," a "district."] 
Belonging to a particular district. 

En-der'mic, En-der-mat'ic. [En- 
der'micas, or Endermat'icus ; from 
iv, "in" or "on," and Seppa, the "skin."] 
Applied to the method of rubbing medi- 
cines into the skin, or sprinkling them 
on the denuded surface where a blister 
has previously been formed. 

Eii-do-bran-ehX-a'tus.* [From ev- 
6ov, "within," and fipayxia, "gills."] En- 
dobran'chiate. Applied in the plural 
neuter (Endobranchia'ta) to a family of 
Anellata which have no external bran- 

En-do-car 'di-al. [Endocardia'lis ; 
from tvbov, "within," and Kapbia, the 
"heart."] Within the heart. 




Fn-do-ear-di'tis, idis* [From the 
same.] Inflammation of the lining 
membrane of the heart. 

En-do-car'di-um.* [From the same.] 
The lining membrane of the heart. 

En 'do-carp. [Endocar'pus ; from 
tvbov, "within," and Kapn6$, "fruit."] 
Applied in Botany to the inner mem- 
brane of a pericarp; the putamen. 

En-do-g-as-tri'tis, tdia.* [From tv- 
bov, " within," and yaorfip, the " stomach."] 
Inflammation of the lining membrane 
of the stomach. 

En'do-&en. An endogenous plant. 

En-dog'e-nous. [Endog'enus : 

from tvbov, "within," and y'zvio, to "be 
born," to "grow."] Applied to stems in 
which the new matter by which they 
increase in diameter is added at the 
centre. The palm-tree is an example 
of an endogenous plant. 

En-do-lym'pha.* [From tvbov," with- 
in," and lym'pha, "water."] The small 
portion of fluid in the labyrinth of the 
ear: en'dolymph. 

En'do-plast. [Endoplas'ta, ; from 
tvbov, "within," and n\aoaa>, to "form/'] 
The contents of animal and vegetable 
cells, consisting of vesicular bodies, into 
which much nitrogen enters. 

En-do-pleu'ra.* [From tvbov, " with- 
in," and irXtopd, the "side."] Collectively, 
the three coats of the seed, which in the 
ovule were the Tercine, Quartine, and 

En-do-rhi'zous. [Endorhi'zns ; 
from tvbov, "within," and pt^6u>, to "take 
root."] Having the radicle enclosed in 
a sheath. 

En'do-Skel'e-ton. [From tvbov, 
" within," and oKtXtrov, a " skeleton."] 
The ordinary skeleton of Vertebrata. 

En-dos'mic. [Endos miens.] Be- 
longing to cndosmose. 

En-dos-mom'e-ter. [Endosmom'- 
etrum; from endosmo'sis, and phpov, a 
"measure."] An instrument for show- 
ing the gradual progress of cndosmose. 

En-dos-mose'. [Endosmo'sis; 

from tvbov, "in" or "within," and wo/i6f, 
"impulsion."] A peculiar movement in 
liquids separated by a membrane, by 
which the rarer fluid passes through the 
membranous partition into the cavity 
containing the denser fluid. This term 
is given to the action of the liquid ab- 
sorbed internally. 

En 'do-sperm. [Endosper'ma.a//*,- 
from tvbov, " within," and aneppa, a " seed."] 
The albumen between tho integuments 
and the embryo. 

En'dos-tome. [Fndos'toma. atli ■; 

from tvbov, "within," and oropa, a 
"mouth."] The inner opening of the 

En'dos-tome. [Endosto'ma. at is ; 
from tvbov, "within," and osteo'ma.] A 
chronic tumor within a bone. 

Enduit. See Coated. 

Enecia,* e-ne'she-a. [From -nvtKfj?, 
"continuous."] A generic term employed 
by Dr. Good to denote continued fever. 

En'e-ma, ato"*.* [From ivir,pi, to "in- 
ject."] A medicine thrown into the 
rectum; a ctyster, or glyster; an injec- 

En-ep-I-der'mic. [From tv, "on," 
and cpider'mis, the "cuticle."] A term 
denoting the application of medicines, 
such as plasters, blisters, etc., to tho 
skin. See Endermic. 

En'er-g-y. [Ener'g-ia; from ivtpytco, 
to "be active."] The force exercised by 
any power: as, nervous energy, vital 
energy, etc. 

E-ner'vat-ing- (or en'er-vat-ing). 
[Ener'vans; from ener'vo, enerva'tum, 
to "weaken."] Destroying the energy 
of the nervous system. 

E-ner'vis,* E-ner'vi-ns.*' [From 
e, negative, and ner'vus, a " nerve."] 
Having no rib, or nerve : ener'vious. 

Enfant, Enfance. Sec Infant, and 

Eng-elure, 0Nzh v lUn\ The French 
term for Chilblain, which see. 

En-gorge' ment. [From the French 
engorger, to "choke up."] A state of 
vascular congestion. 

En-ne-a-gyn'i-ons, or En-ne-ag*'- 
yn-ons. [Enneagyn'ius; from ivvia, 
"nine," and ywrj, a "woman" or "fe- 
male."] Applied to an order of plants 
having nine pistils. 

En-ne-an'drl-a.* [From ewta, "nine," 
and dviip, "man" or "male."] The ninth 
class of plants in Linnaeus's system, com- 
prising those which have nine stamens. 

En-ne-a-pct'a-lous. [Enneapef- 
alns; from ivvia, "nine," and niraXov, a 
"petal."] Having nine petals. 

Ennui (Fr.), an\ve'. Weariness; irk- 
someness ; languor of mind from the 
lack of occupation. 

E-nodc'. [Eno'dis; from e, nega- 
tive, and no'dns, a "knot."] Having no 
knots, or joints. 

En-os-to'sss.* [From tv, "in," and 
bariov, a "bone."] A tumor occurring in 
the medullary canal of a bone. 

Ens. [The present participle of es'se, 
to "be."] A term in Chemistry do- 



noting a substance supposed to contain 
in a small compass all the virtues of the 
ingredients from which it is extracted. 

En 'sate. [Ensa'tus; from en' sin, a 
"sword. "J Having the form of a sword. 
Applied to an order or division of plants. 

En 'si-form. [Ensifor'mis ; from 
en' sis, a "sword."] Like a sword. See 

En'siform Car'tl-la£e. The carti- 
laginous extremity of the sternum, or 

Ens Mar'tis,* Fer'rum Am-mo- 
ni-;i I si:n. Ammoniated iron, or mar- 
tial flowers of the muriate of ammonia 
and iron. 

Ens-pri'mum.* A name given by 
the alchemists to a tincture which they 
supposed to have the power of transmu- 
ting the metals. 

Ens Ven'e-ris.* [From Ve'nus, an 
alchemical name for "copper."] The 
ancient designation of the muriate of 
ammonia and copper. 

En-ta'si-a.* [From evratrts, a "vio- 
lent straining."] Applied by Good as a 
generic name for trismus, tetanus, etc. 

En'ta-sis.* [From hrreiva, to "stretch."] 
A term denoting tension, and applied by 
Good to constrictive spasm, cramp, 
locked-jaw, etc. 

En'4er-a.* [From tvrtpa, the plural 
of ivtspov, an "intestine."] The bowels, 
or intestines. 

En-ter-al'gi-a.* [From Zvrcpov, an 
"intestine," and iiXyog, "pain."] En'- 
teralg} r . Nervous pain in the bowels. 

En-ter'ic. [Enter'icus : from Ivre- 
pov, an "intestine."] (Fr. Enterique, Sn '- 
ta'rek'.) Belonging to the intestines. 

En-ter'i-ca.* [From the same.] An 
order in Good's Nosology, comprising 
diseases of the alimentary canal. 

En-ter-i'tis, tdie.* [From the same.] 
Inflammation of the bowels. A genus 
of the order Phlegmasia, class Pyrexiae, 
of Cullen's Nosology. 

En'ter-o-£eIe.* [From tvrtpov, an 
" intestine," and K>j\n, a " tumor."] Hernia 
in which a portion of intestine is pro- 

En-ter-og'ra-phy. [Enterogra'- 
pliia; from eurepov, an "intestine," and 
ypti'poj, to "describe."] A description of 
the intestines. 

En-ter-o-li-thi'a-sis.* [From Ivrt- 
pov, an "intestine," and XiOiaaig, "forma- 
tion of stone."] The formation of intes- 
tinal concretions. 

En-ter-ol'I-thus.* [From hrtpov, an 
" intestine," and \iOog, a "stone."] Any 

kind of concretion generated in the 
stomach and bowels. 

En-ter-ol'o-gy. [Enterolo'gia ; 

from IvTipov, an "intestine," and Adyoj, a 
" discourse."] That branch of science 
(anatomical or physiological) which 
treats of the intestines. 

En-ter-or'a-phy. [Entorora'phia; 
from Ivnpov, an "intestine," and pafyr\, a 
"suture."] The stitching or sewing to- 
gether of the divided edges of the intes- 

En'ter-or-rha'gi-a.* [From tvrepov, 
an "intestine," and pnywpi, to "burst 
forth."] Intestinal haemorrhage. 

En'ter-or-rhce'a.* [From Ivrcpov, 
an "intestine," and pioj, to "flow."] 
Undue increase of the mucous secretion 
of the intestines. 

En-ter-os'-ehe-o-sele.* [From evrt- 
pov, an "intestine," oaxeov, the "scrotum/* 
and KfiXri, a " tumor."] Scrotal hernia. 

Eii-ter-ot'o-my. [Enteroto'mia; 
from Ivrzpov, an "intestine," and refivo, 
to "cut."] Any cutting operation on 
the intestines. 

En-ler-o-zo'on.* [From hrcpov, an 
"intestine," and <^wov, an "animal."] 
An animal living in the intestines. 

En-thet'ic. [Entnet'icus; from 
iv, "in," and TiOripa, to "place."] Applied 
to diseases arising from a morbific virus 
being placed or implanted in the system, 
as syphilis, leprosy, etc. 

En-to-mog-'ra-phy. [Entomogra'- 
phi a: from evtojiov, an "insect," and 
ypd0cj, to "write."] A description of in- 

En'to-moid. [Entomoi'des; from 
Evrofiov, an "insect," and eidos, a "form."] 
Resembling an insect. 

Entonioline. See Chitixa. 

En-to-mol'o-gy. [Entomolo'gia; 
from cfTOfxoy, an "insect," and Xoyoj, a 
"discourse."] The science of insects. 

En-to-mom'e-ter. [Entomom'- 
otrum : from ivrop.ov, an "insect," and 
fitrpov, a "measure."] An instrument 
for measuring the parts of insects. 

En-to-mopn'a-gous. [Entomoph'- 
agus; from tvropov, an "insect," and 
0,iyw, to " eat."] Eating, or feeding on, 

En-to-mos'tra-cous. [Entomos'- 
tracus; from ivTop.ov, an "insect," and 
oarpaKov, a " shell."] Insects with shells. 
Applied toa class or division of Crustacea. 

Eii-to-moi'o-my. [Entomoto'mia; 
from 'ivTOjiov, an "insect," and tc/ii/co, to 
"cut."] The dissection of insects. 

En-toph'y-tous. [Entoph'ytus ; 




from evros, u within," and <pvr6v, a u plant."] 
Growing within a plant. Applied to 
parasitical fungi. 

En-top-ter'y-goid. [Entoptery- 
goi'des; from evr6i, " within," and ptery- 
goi'des.] Applied by Owen to the internal 
pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone. 

En-to-zo'a,* the plural of Entozoon. 

Eii-to-zo'oii. :;; " [From ordj, "with- 
in," and Z,Cmv, an "animal."] An animal 
that lives within another. Applied in 
the plural {Entozo'a) to a class or di- 
vision of radiated animals. Among the 
most important and common Entozoa 
are the Tse'nia so' Hum (the ordinary 
tape-worm), the As'caris lumbricoi'des, 
the As'caris vermicula'ris (or thread- 
worm), and the Dis'toma hepat'icum. 

En-tro'pi-uni." [From iv, "in," and 
Tprn-w, to "turn."] A disease in which 
the eyelash and eyelid are turned in to- 
wards the eyeball. 

E-nu'cle-ate. [Ennclea'tus; from 
e, "out of," and nu'cleus, a "kernel."] 
Applied to tumors taken from the sub- 
stance in which they were imbedded, 
like a kernel from its shell. 

En-u-re'sis.* [From tvovpiu, to "be 
incontinent of urine."] Incontinency 
of urine. A genus of the order Apoce- 
noses, class Locales, of Cullen's Nosology. 

E'o-cene. [From iwq, the "dawn," 
and Kaivos, "recent."] The lower tertiary 
strata, regarded as the beginning or 
dawn of the existing (or recent) condition 
of creation, on account of the small pro- 
portion of living species of animals found 
in them. 

Epacridacese,* e-pak-re-da'she-e. 
A natural order of Exogens. mostly 
shrubs, found in Australia and Polynesia. 
They are remarkable for the beauty of 
the flowers. 

Ep-an'e-tus.* [From hravi-npa, to 
" relax," to "remit."] A term denoting 
"remittent," and applied by Dr. Good to 
remittent fever, including the mild form, 
the malignant form, and hectic fever. 

Ep-en-$e-phal'ic. [Epencephal'- 
ious; from &*, "upon," and iyxe$a\os, 
the "brain."] Situated on or over the. 
contents of the head or the brain. Ap- 
plied the same as Neukoccipital. 

Ep-en'dy-ma,a/?s.* [Fromina'Sva), to 
"clothe upon," to "cover."] Literally, 
an "upper garment." The lining mem- 
brane of the ventricles of the brain; also, 
that of the cerebro-spinal axis. 

Epli'e-lis,* plural E-pbel'I-des. 
[From kri, "upon," and >';A<oy, tho "sun."] 
Freckles. Sco JEstates. 

E-ptaem'e-ra.* [From hi, "for," 
and tjfjicpa, a "day."] A fever which runs 
its course of the cold, hot, and sweating 
stages in twelve hours. 

Ephemera is also the name of a genu3 
of insects (popularly called the "day- 
fly"), the entire period of whose exist- 
ence, in their perfect state, is only about 
twenty-four hours. 

E-phem'c-ral. [Ephem'erus;from 
the same.] Enduring one day. See 

Epb-I-al'tes.* [From i^dWo/jiai, to 
"leap upon."] Nightmare, or incubus: 
a distressing state of feeling during 
sleep, as of fright, and inability to call 
for help: Oneirodyn'ia gra'vans. 

Eph-i-dro'sis.* [From hi, inten- 
sive, and Wpow, to "sweat."] Violent, 
morbid perspiration. A genus of the 
order Apocenoses, class Locales, of Cul- 
len's Nosology. 

Ephippium. See Sella Turcica. 

Ep'i. A Greek preposition signifying 
"on" or "upon," "over," "at," "by," 
"for," "after." It is sometimes inten- 
sive. The final i is generally dropped 
before a word beginning with a vowel 
or with h, as Epencephalic for Epience- 
phalic ; Ephidrosis for Ephihidrosis, etc. 

Ep'I-an. The same as Frambcesia, 
which see. 

Ep-I-bran'<>hI-al. [Epibrancbia'- 
lis; from hi, "upon," and branchia'lis, 
"branchial."] Applied by Owen to the 
upper portion of the branchial arch. 

Ep-I-can'tbus.* [From ori, " upon," 
and kclvQos, the "corner of the eye."] A 
fold of skin covering the inner canthus. 

Ep'i-carp. [Epicar'pus ; from ori, 
"upon," and Kapn6$, "fruit."] The ex- 
ternal covering of the pericarp, commonly 
called the skin of fruits. 

Ep-i-car'pl-um.* The same as E pi- 
carp, which see. 

Ep-i~ehro'sis.* [From hi, "upon," 
and Xp'><o>, to "paint."] A macular or 
spotted state of the skin, or a simple 
discoloration of its surface. 

Ep-I-col'ic. [Epicol'icns; from 
hi, "upon," and khXov, the "colon."] 
Over the course of the colon on each side. 

Ep-i-con'dyle. [Epicon'dylns; 
from hi, "upon," and icovovkos, a "con- 
dyle."] The external protuberance of 
the inferior end of the Os humeri. 

Ep-i-co-rol'le-ns.* [From hi, 

"upon," and corol'la, a"corol."] Ap- 
plied to monopetalous, dicotyledonous 
plants, in Avhich the stamens are epigyn- 
ous, or inserted above the ovary. 



Ep-I-cra'nI-al. [Epiera'nins.] 

Situated on the cranium; belonging to 
the epicranium. 

Ep-i-cra'ni-um.* [Fromi-i, "upon," 
and Kpaviov, the "cranium."] The in- 
teguments, aponeurosis, and muscular 
expansion upon the cranium; the scalp. 

Ep-I-cra'ni-us.* A name sometimes 
given to the oceipito -frontalis muscle, 
from its covering the cranium. 

Ep-I-dem'ic. [Epidem'icus; from 
on, "upon," and <%<>,-, a "people."] Ap- 
plied to any disease which seems to be 
upon the entire population of a country 
at one time, as distinguished, on the one 
hand, from sporadic disease (or that which 
occurs in insulated cases), and, on tho 
other, from endemic disease, or that which 
is limited to a particular district. 

Ep-i-dem-I-oj?'ra-pIiy. [Epitlem- 
iogra'pliia; from epide'mia. " epidemic 
diseases," and ypfyoj, to "write."] A 
description of epidemic diseases. 

Ep-I-d<»m-i-ol'o-gy. [Epidemio- 
n> i;i;i: from epide'mia, "epidemic dis- 
eases," and \6yoi, a "discourse."] A 
dissertation on epidemic diseases; the 
nee of epidemic diseases. 

Ep i-dem-y. [Epide'mia; fronii-rt', 
a," and o/j/jo,-, a "people."] An 
epidemic disease. 

Ep-I-der'mic. [Epider micus.] 
Belonging to the epidermis. 

Epidormidoid. See Epidermoid. 

Ep-i-der'mLs, \dis.* [From en, 
"upon," and deppa, the "skin."] The 
external covering of the body; the cuti- 
cle, or scarf-skin. Applied in Botany 
to a thin membrane covering every part 
of the plant; also, the outer covering of 

Ep-I-der'moid. [Epidermoi'des ; 
from epidermis, and £u3o>-, a "form."] 
Resembling the epidermis. 

Ep-i-did'y-mis, Idi*.* [From art, 
"upon," and 6i6t<fiot, the "testicles."] An 
obb>ng substance formed by numerous 
convolutions of the Vas deferens, at- 
tached to the upper part of the testicle 
by vessels, and the reflected layer of 
the tunica vaginalis. 

Ep-i-gas-tral'gl-a.* [From epigas'- 
trium, and aAyoj, "pain."] Pain in the 

Ep-i-j^as'trio. [Epigas'tricus.] 
Belonging to the epigastrium. 

Ep-i-gas'trl-nm. 1 - [From on, 

"upon," and yaarfip. the "stomach."] 
That part of the abdomen immediately 
over the stomach. 

Ep-I-ge'an, or Ep-I-ge'al. [Epi- 

ge'ns; from orf, "upon" or "above," 
and yi), the "earth."] Applied to cotyle- 
dons that make their way above ground, 
and appear like leaves. 

Ep-I-gen'e-sis.* [From cm, "at," 
"on," or "after," and yivo^ai, to "be 
born," implying that the existence of 
the new being commences at or after the 
act of conception; while the pre-exist- 
ence of the germ is implied in the other 
theories stated below.] The theory that 
the embryo is the joint production of 
both sexes, as distinguished either from 
the doctrine that the male parent fur- 
nishes the germ and the female simply 
the nidus, or resting-place, in which it is 
nourished; or from the theory that the 
female furnishes the germ, which is 
merely quickened by the influence of the 
male. See Generation. 

Ep-i-glot'tic. [Epiglot'ticus.] 

Belonging to the epiglottis. 

Ep-i-glot-tld'e-us.* [From cpifjlot'- 
tis.] The same as Epiglottic, which see. 

Ep-i-glot'tis, idis* [From arij 
"upon," and yXcjrrig, the "glottis," or 
"entrance to the windpipe."] The car- 
tilage at the root of the tongue which 
forms a lid or cover for the aperture of 
the windpipe. 

Ep-ig'j'-nous. [Epigymis; from 
hri, "above," and ywf], a "female;" re- 
ferring to the female portion of the 
flower.] Applied to stamens when in- 
serted above the ovary. 

Ep-I-hy'al. [From hi, "upon" or 
"above," and hyoi'des, "hyoid."] Ap- 
plied by Owen to a triangular piece of 
bone, pretty constant in fishes, which 
articulates above to the Stylohyal. 

Epilampsis, or Epilampsia. See 

Ep-I-Iep'sy. [Epilepsia: from em- 
\ap\Savu), to "seize upon."] A disease 
which attacks persons suddenly, con- 
sisting of convulsions, with coma, and 
generally frothing at the mouth; the 
falling sickness. A genus of the order 
Spasmi, class Neuroses, of Cullen's Xo- 

Ep-I-Iep'tic. [Epilep'ticus.] Be- 
longing to epilepsy. 

Epilepticse Aura. See Aura Epi- 
leptic a. 

Ep-I-lep-ti-for'mis.* [From epi- 
lepsia.] Like epilepsy : epileptiform. 

Ep-i-lep'toid. [Epileptoi'des ; 

from epilep'sia, and el6og t a "form."] 
Resembling epilepsy. 

Ep-I-me'rus.* [From on, "upon," 
and unpos, the "thigh."] One of the 




lateral pieces of the thorax in insects. 

Epine (Fr.), a-'pen'. See Spine. 

Ep-I-nyc'tis,* plural Ep-I-nyc'ti- 
des. [From art, "on," "at," or "by."] 
Eruptions which appear on the skin by 
night and disappear during the day. 

Ep-I-pet'a-lous. [Epipeta'leus, 
Epipet'alus; from cm, "upon," and nc- 
raXov, a "petal."] Situated on the petals. 

Ep-i-plilce'tim.* [From nrt, "upon," 
and d>\oi6s, "bark."] The layer of bark 
next the epidermis. 

E-pfph'o-ra.* [From cnupcpouai, to 
"be borne upon," to "rush upon as a 
flood."] A superabundant secretion of 
tears. A genus of the order Apocenoses, 
class Locales, of Cullen's Nosology. Also, 
an overflowing of tears in consequence 
of an obstruction of the lachrymal duct. 

Ep-I-plirag^'ma, sttis* [From art, 
u upon," and (ppdyfia, a " partition."] 
The slender membrane which sometimes 
shuts the peristoma of mosses. 

Ep-I-phyl-lo-sper'moiis. [Epi- 
phyllosper'mus; from art, "upon," 
<pv\\ov, a "leaf," and cnrcpua, a "seed."] 
Having seeds on the leaves. 

Ep-1-phyl'lous. [Epiphyl'lns; 
from art, "upon," and 4>v\\ov, a "leaf."] 
Applied to flowers which grow on the 
surface of a leaf, and also to parasitical 
fungi on the leaves of other plants. 

E-piph'y-sis,* plural E-pipb-y-ses. 
[From cm, "upon," and 0t>o), to "pro- 
duce," to "grow."] A piece of bone 
growing upon another, as the bulky ex- 
tremities of long bones, which exist, for 
a time, separate from the shaft. 

Ep'i-phyte. [Epiph'yton; from 
hi, "upon," and <Pvt6v, a "plant" or 
"germen."] A parasitic plant or fun- 
gus, which grows on the leaves of other 

Ep-ip'lo-^ele.* [From cm-riXoov, the 
"omentum," and K17X77, a "tumor."] Her- 
nia in which a portion of the omentum 
is protruded. 

Ep-I-plo'ic. [Epiplo'icns.] Be- 
longing to the epiploon, or omentum. 

E-pBp-lo-is'«hI-o-£ele." :i: " [From im- 
irXoov, the "omentum," foxtov, the "ischi- 
um," and Kfikq, "hernia."] Hernia in 
which the omentum protrudes through 
the ischiadic foramen. 

Ep-i-plo-i'tis, idis.% [From cm-nKoov, 
the "omentum."] Inflammation of the 
epiploon : also termed Omentitis. 

Ep-i-plo-m£r'o-£ele.*" [From art- 
ifhoov, the " omentum," n-np%, the "thigh," 
and Kfi\ri, "hernia."] Femoral hernia, 
with protrusion of the omentum. 

Ep-ip-lom'pha>lo-?ele.* [From 
ht'n:\oov, the "omentum," fy0aX<%, the 
"navel," and icfiXri, "hernia."] Hernia, 
with protrusion of the omentum, at the 

Ep-ip'lo-on.* [Gr. cmn\oov, "that 
which is folded upon the intestines:" 
allied to an\oog, "without fold," and 
6nr\6og, "twofold."] The omentum, or 
epiploon. See Omentum. 

Ep-I-plos'che-o-sele.* [From feri- 
t:\oov, the "omentum," 6a\cov. the "scro- 
tum," and KfiXn, "hernia."] Hernia, with 
a portion of omentum, in the scrotum. 

E-pis'-elie-sis,* plural E-pis'-ehe- 
ses. [Gr. ciriax^ii ; from ctckw, to "hold 
up," to "check," to "restrain."] A sup- 
pression of excretions. An order of the 
class Locales of Cullen's Nosology. 

Ep-I-spa'di-as.* [From cm, "upon," 
and <nrdsw, to "pierce through."] An un- 
natural perforation of the penis, the ure- 
thra terminating on the upper part of it. 

Ep-i-spas'tic. [Epispas'ticus; 

from imoTtdw, to " draw upon," or simply 
to "draw."] (Fr. Ejnspastique, a'pe'- 
spas'tek'.) Literally, "drawing." Pro- 
ducing a serous or puriform discharge, 
by exciting previous inflammation; on 
the principle of derivation or revulsion. 

Epispastique. See Epispastic. 

Ep'i-sperm. [Episper'ma, sitis; 
from art, "upon," and eneppta, a "seed."] 
The whole integuments of a seed taken 

Ep-I-staph-y-linns.* [From art, 
"upon," and crcupvM, the "uvula."] Be- 
longing to the uvula: epistaph'yline. 

Ep-l-stax'is.* [From cmaroxu, to 
"distil."] Bleeding at the nose. A genus 
of the order Hsemorrhagiie, class Pyrexia;, 
of Cullen's Nosology. 

Ep-I-ster'nal. [Episterna'lis; 

from cm, "upon," and ster'num, the 
"breast-bone."] Upon or above the 

Ep-I-1hc'lf-al. [Epithe'lins.] Be- 
longing to the epithelium. 

Ep-I-the'li-nm.* [From ore, "upon," 
and Orikn, the "nipple."] The cuticle 
covering the nipple, or any mucous mem- 

Ep'I-them. [Epith'ema, litis; from 
cm, "upon," and ridriut, to "place."] A 
term applied to any kind of external 
application not comprised under the 
head of ointments or blisters, such as 
poultices, fomentations, etc. 

Ep-I-tym'pa-nic. [Epitympan'- 
icus; from fort, "upon," and ti/m'pan- 
um.~\ Applied by Owen to the upper- 



most subdivision of the tympanic pedicle 
■which supports the mandible in fishes. 

Ep-i-zo On. plural Ep-I-zo'a. The 
same as Ectozoon, which see. 

Ep-I-zo-ot'ic. [Epizoot'icus; from 
ciri, "upon" or "against," and ^tiov, an 
" animal."] Applied to contagious dis- 
ease attacking numbers of cattle at the 
same time and place. 

Ep-I-zo'o-ty. [Epizoo'tia.] Epi- 
zootic diseaso. 

Sponge, a. v p6xzh'. The French term 
for Sponge, which see. 

Ep'som Salts. The sulphate of mag- 
nesia. See Magnesia Sulphas. 

Ep-u'iis, if/i'*.* [From bri, "upon," 
and ov\a, the "gums."] A small swell- 
ing on the gums. 

Ep-u-lot'ic. [Epnlot'icus; from 
cttojAocj, to "cicatrize."] Having power 
to cicatrize. 

Epnrge, a'puRzh'. The French term 
for Euphorbia Lathyris, which see. 

E-qua'tor. [JEqua'tor, o'ris; from 
se'quo, seqnn'tum, to "make equal.''] A 
great circle of the earth, equidistant 
from the two poles, and separating the 
globe into northern and southern hemi- 

Eq'ui-dae.* [From e'quus, a "horse."] 
Applied to a family of Mammals having 
the horse for its type. 

E-qui-lib'ri-um. [.Equilibrium ; 
from se'que, "equally," and li'bro, to 
"balance."] Equipoise. Often applie I 
to the equality of temperature which all 
bodies on the earth are constantly tend- 
ing to attain (see Caloric), and to the 
equal distribution of the electric fluid in 
its natural undisturbed state. 

E-qui'ui-a.* [From e'quus, a "horse."] 
(Fr. Morve, moRV.) A disease of horses 
called Farcy, or Glanders. See Farcy. 
E-qui-uoc'tial. [iEquinoctia'lis.] 
Belonging to the equinox. 

E'qui-nox. [JEquiiioc'tinm; from 
sequ'ua, "equal," and nox, "night."] The 
time when the days and nights are of 
equal length all over the earth. 

Equisotaceav* ek-we-se-ta'she-e. A 
natural order of cryptogamous plants 
(or Gymnosperms), found in ditches and 
moist places. It includes the Equise'tum 
(Horse-tail), which is rendered useful 
for polishing furniture, by a large quan- 
tity of silez in the cuticle. 

Eq-m=se-ta'ccous. [Equiseta'- 

cens.] Resembling the Equisetum. See 

Eq'ui-tant. [Eq'uitans; from 

eq'uito, equitct'tum, to "ride."] Lami- 

nated; riding, or folded one upon an- 

Eq-ui-tii/tion. [Equita'tio, o'nis; 
from the same.] Exercise on horseback; 

E-quiv'a-lents. [JEquivalen'tia; 
from sequiva'leo, to "be of like value."] 
The system of definite ratios in which 
elements always combine, referred to a 
common standard reckoned unity. Thus, 
1 is the equivalent number of hydrogen, 
S of oxygen, 28 of lime, 20 of magnesia, 
43 of potash, 54 of nitric acid, and 40 
of sulphuric acid: hence, if hydrogen 
combines with oxygen, it is always in 
the proportion of 1 to 8; so if nitric 
acid is saturated with lime, the com- 
pound (nitrate of lime) will be in the 
proportion of 54 of the acid to 28 of 
lime; the nitrate of magnesia, in tho 
proportion of 54 of the acid to 20 of mag- 
nesia, etc. ; so likewise when sulphuric 
acid combines with magnesia, it is always 
in the proportion of 40 to 20; if with 
potash, of 40 to 48, etc. 

Er'bl-um.* A newly - discovered 
metal, occurring along with yttria. 

E-rec'tile Tissue. [Te'la Erec'- 
tilis. See next article.] A peculiar tis- 
sue, susceptible of erection, or rapid tur- 
gescence, by an increased flow of blood 
to the part. It is chiefly composed of 
arteries and veins, the latter greatly 
predominating, with cells or minute cavi- 
ties communicating with each other. 

E-rec'tor. o'r/s.* [From er'iyo, cree'- 
tum, to "erect."] Applied to certain 

Er-e-ma-cau'sis.* [From vpifia, by 
"degrees," and Kavaig, a "burning."] 
The slow combustion, or oxidation, to 
which organic bodies are liable. 

Er'e-tliism. [Erethis'mus ; from 
epedifa, to "irritate."] The state of 
increased sensibility and irritability 
attending the early stage of acute dis- 
eases, or the excessive use of mercury. 

Er-e-thismus Trop'I-cus.* 

("Tropical Erethism.") A name ap- 
plied by recent writers to that morbid 
condition of the system which results 
from a sunstroke. 

Erjyot. See Ergota. 

Er-go'ta.* [From the French Errjot, 
ep/go', "spurred rye."] Er'got. The 
Phannacopceial name ]i of the seed, dis- 
eased by a parasitic fungus, of Scca'le 
cerea'le, or rye. Ergot has the remark- 
able property of exciting powerfully the 
contractile force of the uterus, and it is 
chiefly employed for this purpose. Its 




long-continued use, however, is highly 
dangerous. Bread made of flour con- 
taining ergot, has not unfrequently occa- 
sioned, in Europe, fatal epidemics, usu- 
ally attended with dry gangrene. 

Er'g-o-tism. [Ergotis'mus.] The 
poisonous effects of ergot of rye. 

Ericaeea?,* cr-e-ka'ske-e, or Er'I- 
cre.* A natural order of exogenous 
shrubs or under-shrubs, found in Europe, 
Asia, America, and South Africa. It in- 
cludes the Arbutus, Azalea, Erica(Hcnth), 
Kalmia, Rhododendron, and other genera 
prized for the beauty of their flowers. 
The plants of this order are generally 
astringent and diuretic. 

E-rig'er-on.* [From r,p," spring," and 
ykpuv, an "old man;" because it is hoai'y 
in spring.] Fleabane. The Pharma- 
copoeial name (U.S. Ph.) for the herb of 
Erig'eron heterophyVhan, and of Erig'- 
eron Ph iladel'ph icum. 

Erig'eron Can-a-den'se.* Canada 
Fleabane. The Pharmacopoeial name 
(U.S. Ph.) for the herb of Erigeron Cana- 

Eriocaulaeesp,* e-re-o-kau-la'she-e, 
or E-ri-o-cau-lo'ne-av ;: " [From Erio- 
cau'lon, one of the genera.] A natural 
order of endogenous plants, found in 
marshes in Australia and tropical Ame- 

E-ro'ded. [Ero'sus; from e, " out," 
and ro' do, ro'sum, to "gnaw."] A botani- 
cal term signifying "notched." 

E-ro'dent. [Ero'dens; from the 
same.] Eating out, or eating away. 

E-ro'sion. [Ero'sio, o'nis; from 
the same.] An eating or gnawing away. 
Similar to Ulceration. 

E-rot'ic. [Erott'aeus; from tpo>s, 
IpuiToq, "love."] Pertaining to love; 
arising from love. 

E-ro-to-ma'stl-a.* [From cpwj/love," 
and pavia, "madness."] Melancholy, or 
madness, caused by love. 

Er-rat'ic. [Errat'icus: from er' ro, 
erra'tum, to "wander."] Wandering; 
moving from one place to another. 

Erreur de lAeu. See Error Loci. 

Er'rhlne. [Errhi'ims; from iv, 
"in," and piv, the "nose."] A medicine 
which increases the natural secretion of 
the membrane lining the nose : sternu- 

Er'ror Eo'ci.* ("Mistake of Place or 
Position.") (Fr. Erreur de Lieu, er'riit' 
d('h le-uh'.) A term formerly applied to 
certain derangements in the capillary 
circulation. Boerhaave conceived that 
the voxels for the circulation of blood, 

lymph, and serum, were of different 
sizes ; and that when the larger-sized 
globules passed into the smaller vessels 
the obstruction caused inflammation. 

E-rue-ta'tion. [Eructa'tio, o'nis; 
from eruc'to, erncta'tum, to "belch."] 
Any sudden burst of wind, or liquid, 
from the stomach, by the mouth. 

E-rupt'. [See next article.] To burst 
through; as a tooth through the gum. 

E-rnp'tioii. [ErMp'tio, o'nis; from 
e, "out," and rum'pd, rup'tum, to " burst" 
or " break."] A discoloration, or break- 
ing out of pimples on the skin. 

E-rup'tive Fe'vers. A designation 
applied by Dr. Good to diseases belong- 
ing to his order Exanthentatica. 

Er-va-Ien'ta.* A powder of farina 
obtained from Ervum lens, or common 
lentil. The dietetical use of it is said to 
prevent constipation. 

Ervauii Eens. See Ervalenta. 

E-ryn'go. The candied root of the 
Eryn'gium Campes'tre, regarded by Boer- 
haave as the first of aperient diuretic 
roots. It is now but little used. 

Er-y-sip'e-las, a&"«.* [From ipvQpog, 
"red," and xcXog, or z-cXXa, a "skin."] 
(Fr. Erysifjele, a/re'ze'pel' or a're'ze'pal'.) 
Redness or inflammation of some part 
of the skin, with fever, inflammatory 
or typhoid, and, generally, vesications 
on the affected part, and symptomatic 
fever. It is also called St. Anthony's 
Fire, Ig'nis Sa'cer ("Sacred Fire"), the 
Rose, and other names. 

Er-y-sip-e-la-t©-i'de£.* [From cry- 
sip'elas, and eifos, a " form."] Resembling 
erysipelas : erysip'elatoid. 

Erysipele. See Erysipelas. 

Er-y-tlse'ma, af «*,"*" [From ipvBaivcj, 
to " redden."] (Fr. Erythhne, a're'tcm'.) 
Redness of a part; a mere rash or efflo- 
rescence not accompanied by swelling, 
vesication, or fever. 

Eryitsfcme. See Erythema. 

Er-y-thrse'a.* [From ipvOpalog, "red."] 
A genus of plants of the class Peiitan- 
dria, natural order Gentianaeese. 

Erythrse'a Cen-tau'rl-um.* The 
common centuary, or Chironia centau- 

E-ryth'ric Ac'id. [From cpvOpog, 
"red."] An acid obtained by the action 
of nitric acid on lithic acid, yellow at 
first, but becoming red b}- being exposed 
to the sun's rays. 

Er'yth-riia, or Er'yth-rino. [Ery- 
iiiri'na; from ipvQpog, "red."] The 
coloring matter of the Lichen roccella. 
See Archil. 



Er-yth'ro-&en. [Erythrojre'- 

nium; from ipvdpog, "red," and y&wata, 
to "generate."] Literally, "that which 
produces red." Applied to a peculiar 
animal principle, considered as the base 
of the coloring matter of the blood. 
Also, a variety of Chromogen (the color- 
ing matter of vegetables); because it 
produces a red color with acids. 

Er'y-throid. [Erythroi'des; from 
cpSfjo;, "red," and d6og, a "form," "re- 
semblance."] Of a red color: reddish. 

Er'ytnroid Coat. The vaginal coat 
of the testis. 

Er'ytnroid Ves'I-cle. An enlarge- 
ment of the (future) umbilical cord in 
the embryo of most of the Huminantia, 
and of the pig. 

E-ryth'ro-phyll, or Er'y-thro- 
phylle, called also Ery-tSiro-phyl'- 
liu. [From ipvdpo;, "red," and <pi\\ov, a 
"leaf."] A term applied by Berzelius to 
the red coloring matter of fruits and 
leaves in autumn. 

Er-y-thro'sis.* [From cpvOpog," red."' 
Pletho'ra artcrio'sa. A form of plethora 
in which the blood is rich in fibrin and 
in bright red pigment; a state corre- 
sponding in some measure with what has 
been termed the "arterial constitution." 

Erythroxylacese,* er-e-throx-e- 
la'she-e. [From Erythrox'ylon, one of 
the genera.] A natural order of exo- 
genous trees and shrubs, found in South 
America and the West Indies. 

Er-y-throx'y-lon Coca.* A shrub 
growing in South America, the leaves 
of which (known by the name of coca) 
are a powerful nervous stimulant; so that 
those who chew them can work or travel 
a whole day without food. 

Escalloniaceav 1 - cs-kal-lo-ne-a'- 
she-e. [From EncaUo'nia, one of the 
genera.] A natural order of exogenous 
sbrubs, found in temperate climates. 

Es'-ehar. [Es'chara; from iaxapoco, 
to "scab over."] The hard, black, or 
gray slough caused by caustic or cautery. 

Es-char-ot'ic. [Eseharoi'icus.] 
Applied to a substance which forms an 

Es'cn-lent. [Esculentus; from 
es'co, to "feed upon a thing."] Fit for 

Esculin. See iEscuLix. 

Eso-e«-ter-i'tis.* [Frottuc-w, "with- 
in," and e>vteri'tt8.] Inflammation of the 
mucous membrane of the intestines. 

Es'o-jras-tri'tis.* [From eVoj. "with- 
in," and gastri'tis.] Inflammation of 
the mucous membrane of the stomach. 

E«»-o-t€r'ic. [Esotor'ieus; from 
caioTcpoi, "within."] Applied to a series 
of phenomena or changes, resulting from 
cau.-es internal and proper to the organ- 

Esprit, es'pre'. The French term 
for "spirit" or "essence." Any subtile 
and volatile product of distillation. 

Es'sence. [Essen'tia; from es'se, 
to "be."] The chief properties or vir- 
tues extracted from any substance. 

Es'senee of Su'gar. Oxalic acid. 

Essen'tia (es-sen'she-a) Ab-i'e-tis.* 
Essence of Spruce; prepared by boiling 
in water the young tops of some conifer- 
ous plant, as the Abies nigra, or Black 
Spruce, and concentrating the decoction 
by evaporation. 

Essen'tia ISi'na.* A substance used 
to color brandy, porter, etc.; prepared 
by boiling coarse sugar till it is black 
and bitter; it is then made into a syrup 
with lime-water. 

Es-sen'tial Oils. Oils obtained by 
distillation from odoriferous vegetable 
substances. They are also called vola- 
tile oils. 

Essen'tia! Salt of Eena'ons. A 
mixture of cream of tartar and binoxal- 
ate of potash. 

Es'se-ra.* [From the Arabic] An- 
other name for Nettle-llash, or the Urti- 
caria of Will an. 

Estivation. See *E?tiyatio. 

Estomac, es'to'nni' or es'to'inak'. The 
French term for Stomach, which sec. 

Etag-e. a'tizh'. The French term for 
Stage, which see. 

Etain, a v ta>-<5'. The French term for 
Tin (or pewter), which see. 

E'tlial. A peculiar oily substance 
obtained from spermaceti; also termed 
hydrate of oxide of a tyl. The term is 
formed of the first syllables of ether and 

E'tner. LE'ther, en's/ from aidfip, 
"air."] A volatile liquor obtained from 
alcohol and a concentrated acid. 

E'tner, Xi'trous. [iE'tiier Xitro'- 
sus.l The ether obtained by distilling 
equal weights of alcohol and concen- 
trated nitric acid. 

Ether, Rec'ti-fied. [JE'ther Jleeti- 
fica'tus.] Sulphuric ether freed from 
the small portion of alcohol and sulphu- 
rous acid which it contains, by the pro- 
cess of rectification. 

E'tfcer, Sul-pim'ric.or.E'thcrSnl- 
plm'ri-eus.* The Pharmacopoeia] name 
(Ed. and Dub. Ph.) of ether obtained from 
a mixture of rectified spirit and sulphurie 




acid; also called JEtlier vitriolicus. See 
Spiritcs JEtheris Sulphurici. 

Elliere. See Ethereal. 

E-the're-al. [yEthe'rens, or iE- 

the'rins; from a'tlurj] (Fr. Ethere, 
a'ta'ra'.) Applied to any highly rectified 
essential oil or spirit. 

Etlie' real Oil. The Oleum vini found 
in the residuum of sulphuric ether, and 
forming the hasis of Hoffman's celebrated 

Ein'er-in, or Eth'er-ine. A term 
synonymous with olefiant gas, elayl, or 
hydruret of acetyl. 

E-tner-I-za'tion. [^Etlieriza'tio, 
©' nis.] The inhaling the funics of ether, 
to produce insensibility to pain. 

Eth'er-ole. A carbo-hydrogen, com- 
monly known as light oil of nine. 

E-tlsi-on'ic Ac'id. An acid formed 
by the action of sulphuric acid on ether 
and alcohol. 

Elliiojps Mineral. See xEtiiiops 

EOi'moid. [Etnmoi'des ; from 
i)0ji6s, a "sieve," and eldqs, a "form."] 
Resembling a sieve; cribriform. 

Etn'moid Bone. [Lat. Os Eth- 
moi'denm; Fr, Os Cribleux, o kRe'- 
bluh'.] One of the bones composing the 
cranium ; so named because its upper 
plate is pierced with a number of small 
holes, through which pass the filaments 
of the olfactory nerves. In Comparative 
Anatomj', the term is restricted by Owen 
to the part of the bone directly concerned 
in supporting the membrane and cells 
of the olfactory organ. 

Eth-snoi'dal. [E'tSunoida'lis.] Be- 
longing to the ethmoid hone. 

Etli-nog , 'ra-pn5 r . [Etlanogra'phia; 
from tOvoi, a "nation," and ypu</>w, to 
"write."] The history of the manners, 
customs, origin, etc., of nations. 

Etli-nol'o-ft'y. [Etlinolo'gia; from 
zQvOi, a " nation," and My°i> a "discourse."] 
The science which treats of the different 
nations and races of men, their correla- 
tion, their anatomical, physiological, and 
mental peculiarities, etc. 

Eili'yle. [From aiQnp, "ether," and 
tiA.7, "material."] A hypothetical sub- 
stance composed of hydrogen and etherin, 
and considered to be the radical of ethers 
and their compounds. 

E-tl-o-lii'tion. [Etiola'tio, o'nis.~] 
(Fr. Etiolement, a'te'ormoN '; from etiolc, 
"blanched.") The state of being 
blanched. Applied to certain plants from 
which the light is excluded as much as 

Etiolement. See Etiolation. 

Etiology. See ^Etiology. 

Etmiffement, a'toof'moN '. The 
French term for Suffocation, which see. 

Etourdissement, a'tooR'dess'nioN '. 
The French term for Vertigo, which see. 

Etranglement, a'trox^gTnioN '. The 
French term for Strangulation, which 

Et'y-mou.* [From irvpov, the neuter 
of £TVfxog } " true."] The true origin o*' a 
word ; the radical word or root : hence, 
Etymology, the science which explains 
or treats of the derivation of words. 

Eu'ehlo-rlne. [From ev, "fine," and 
xAwpd s -, "green."] The name given by 
Davy to the protoxide of chlorine, on ac- 
count of its deep yellow-green color. 

Eu-ehron'ic Ac/id. [From tv, " fine," 
and xpoa, "color."] An acid procured by 
the decomposition of the neutral facili- 
tate of ammonia by heat. It forms a 
blue compound with zinc, called Euckroiie. 

Eii-dl-om'e-ter. [Eudiom'etrnm ; 
from tvtia, "fine weather," also "good- 
ness of the air," and /wrpau, to " measure."] 
An instrument to measure the purity of 
the air or of any gaseous compound, or 
the quantity of oxygen contained in it. 

Efa-dl-om'e-try. [Eudiome'tria ; 
from the same.] The method by which 
the purity of atmospheric air is ascer- 

En-ge'ni-a.* [From Prince Eugene 
of Savoy.] A Linnaean genus of the class 
Icosaudiia, natural order 31yrtacese. The 
name of the tree affording pimento. 

Enge'nia <'ar-y-o-phyl-Ia'ta. ::: The 
tree which produces the clove; other- 
wise called the Caryf^ihyl'lus aromat'icus. 

Eug-e'nia I*i-men'ta.* The name 
of the tree which yields pimento. 

En-£en'ic Acid. [Ac'idnm En- 
gen'icum; from Euge'nia caryophyl- 
la'tu, one of the names of the clove-tree.] 
Called also Caryophyllic Acid, and 
Heavy Oil of Cloves. An acid found 
in cloves, along with a neutral salt. 
Eii'f/cnin is a crystallizable compound, 
found also in cloves, and said to be 
isomeric with eugenic acid. Caryophyl'lin 
is another of these compounds. 

Eu'nueh. [Eunn'chus ; from evi>fj, 
a "couch," and t'xw, to "keep," to 
"guard."] (Fr. Eunvque, uh'niik'.) A 
man in whom the spermato-poietic, or 
entire genital organs have been re- 
moved. So named because commonly 
employed in the East, from a remote an- 
tiquity, to guard the harem of princes. 

Eunuque. See Eunuch. 



Eu-on'y-miis.* "Wahoo. The Phar- 
macopoeial name (U.S. Ph., 1860) for the 
bark of Euon'ymua atropurpu'reus. It is 
recommended as a remedy in dropsy, and 
is said to combine the virtues of a tonic 
with those of a hydragogue cathartic and 

Enpatoire. See Eupatoru'm. 

Eu-pa-to'ri-una."* (Fr. Eupatoire, 
vh'pa'twdii'.) Thoroughwort. The Phar- 
macopoeial name (U.S. Ph.) for the tops 
and leaves of the Eupato'rium perfoli- 

Etiphorbe. See Euphorbia. 

Eu-plior'bi-a.* [From Euphor'bus, 
the name of a noted physician.] (Fr. 
Spurge, a'puRzh', or Euphorbe, rh'foRb'.) 
A Linnaean genus of the class Dodecnu.- 
drin, natural order Euphorbiacese. 

Euphorbia Cor-ol-la'ta.* Large- 
flowering Spurge. The Pharmacopceial 
name ( U.S. Ph.) for the root of Euphorbia 

Euplior'bia Ip-e-cac-u-aii'ba.* 
Ipecacuanha Spurge. The Pharmaco- 
poeial name (U.S. Ph.) for the root of 
Euphorbia Ipecacuanha. 

Eupbor'bia ©f-fic-i-na'lis,* Eu- 
plior'bia Of-fic-I-iia'rum.* ("Eu- 
phorbia of the Shops.") The plant which 
produces Euphorbium. 

Eupborbiaceae,* u-for-be-a'she-e. 
[From Euphor'bia, one of the genera.] 
A very large natural order of exogenous 
plants, found in nearly all parts of the 
globe. It includes the Ricinus (castor- 
oil plant), Siphonia (the Caoutchouc, or 
India-Rubber tree), and Croton, which 
yields croton oil. A large proportion of 
the plants of this order are poisonous. 
The stem of Jatropha Manihot, or Cas- 
sava, which when raw is a violent poison, 
becomes a wholesome nutritious food 
when roasted. This order is nearly allied 
to the Malvaceae and Rhamnacex. 

Eu-phor-bl-a'ceous. [Euphor- 
bia'ceus.] Resembling Etqjhorbia. See 


Efs-pbor'bi-um.* A resinous sub- 
stance obtained from the Euphorbia otji- 
finarum, and of undetermined species of 
Euphorbia ; called, also, the Euphorbias 

Eis'pi-oii. ; - [From ev, ''well." or 
"fine," and nitav, ''fat.''] A colorless 
liquid, obtained by distillation from the 
tar of animal matters, and so named from 
its great limpidity. 

Eu-plas'tic. [From zv, "well," and 
r\ fats, '• formation."] A term applied by 
Lobstein to the elaborated organizablo 

matter by which the tissues of the body 
are renewed. The same writer speaks 
of another animal matter, the tendency 
of which is softening and disorganiza- 
tion : this he terms cacoplaatic. 

Eu-pyr'I-oii.* [From tv, " easily," 
and imp, "lire."] Any contrivance for 
obtaining an instantaneous light, as the 
phosphorus-bottle, etc. 

Efi-sta'-ehl-aii Tube. (Fr. Trompe 
[or Conduit, k&jp'dwe'] d'EuntacItc, tro.Mp 
dusta-sh'.) A tube or canal extending 
from behind the soft palate to the tym- 
panum of the ear, first described by 

Eustachian Valve. The semilunar 
fold of the lining membrane of the heart, 
anterior to the opening of the inferior 
vena cava. 

E-vae'u-aitt. [Evac'uans; from 
evac'uo, evacua'tum, to "empty."] Hav- 
ing the property of increasing evacua- 
tions from the bowels, etc. 

E-vac-u-a'tion. [Evaena'tio, o'nis ; 
from the same.] The act of discharging 
the contents of the bowels, or defecation ; 
also, the discharge itself; a dejection or 

Evanonisseniont, sVv&'nwess'moN '. 
The French term for Syxcope, which 

E-vap-o-ra'tion. [Evapora'tio, 
0'nisj from c, "out," and rapo'ro, rapo- 
r a' tiun, to "steam," to " send out vapor."] 
The conversion of a liquid into vapor. 
In Medicine, the transformation of a 
liquid into vapor in order to obtain tbe 
fixed matters contained in it in a dry 
and separate state. 

E-vcn-tra/tion. [Eventra'tio, 

o'nit; from e, "out of," and ven'ter, the 
" belly."] The condition of a monster- 
foetus, in which the abdominal viscera are 
extruded from the natural cavity, and 
enclosed in a projecting membranous sac. 

E-voii-tu-al'I-ty. The phrenological 
term for the faculty of observing and 
recollecting events, occurrences, etc. 

Eversioii cf Eyelid. See Ectro- 


Ev-o-lK'tion. [Evolu'tio. o'ni*; 

from c, "out," and vol'vo, volu'tum, to 
"roll:" whence, evol'vo, to "roll out," or 
"unfold."] Synonymous, generally, with 
Development, which see. 

Evolu'tion, ftpon-ta'ne-ous. A 
term applied to Obstetrical cases where, 
in the presentation or protrusion of the 
arm and shoulder, spontaneous turning 
takes place, and the case thus becomes 
one of breech-presentation. 




E-vul'sion. [Evul'sio, o'nis; from 
e, "out," and vel'lo, nil'sum, to "pluck," 
to "pull."] The act or process of draw- 
ing out forcibly. 

Ex, or E. A Latin preposition signi- 
fying "out," or "forth," "out of," 
"from," "beyond." It often has the 
force of "up;" as Exsiccation, a "drying 
up." Sometimes it is privative. Ex is 
usually changed toy* before a word be- 
ginning with// as ejferens for ex ferens. 
Before the liquids, I, m, n, r, and also be- 
fore b and v, e is used instead of ex. 

Ex (cl). A Greek preposition, signi- 
fying "out." See Ec. 

Ex-a^-er-bii/tioia. [Exacerba'tio, 
O'ntsy from exacer'bo, exacerba' turn, to 
" become severe or sharp."] An increased 
force or severity of the symptoms of a 

Exreresis,* ex-er'e-sis. [From 
i^atptio, to "take away," to "remove."] 
One of the old divisions of Surgery, im- 
plying the removal of parts. 

Ex-al-bu'mi-iious. [Exalbn'mi- 
mis; fromer, "without," and alb a' men.] 
Without albumen or perisperm. 

Ex-an-S'ei'a,* or Ex-an-gi'a.* 
[From il, "out," and ayyelov, a "vessel."] 
A term sometimes applied to diseases in 
which the large vessels are ruptured, or 
unnaturally distended. 

Ex-a'nl-a.* [From ex, "out," and 
a'nuaj] A prolapsus, or falling down, of 
the anus. See Archoptosis. 

Ex-aii-the'ma,* plural Ex-an- 
them'a-ta. [From etavdeoj, to "burst 
forth as flowers," to "bloom," to "break 
out in pustules."] (Fr. Exantheme, ex'- 
aNG'tem', or Elecure, a/la/viiR'.) A rash, 
or eruption on the skin ; also called Ex- 
anthisma. Applied in the plural to an 
order of the class Pyrexiae of Cullen's 

Ex-aa-the-mat'ic. [Exanthe- 

mat'icus.] Belonging to exanthema; 

Ex-an-tlie-mat'I-ca.* [The neuter 
plural of Exantliemat'icais. See Ex- 
anthem atic] A name given by Dr. 
Good to an order comprising all eruptive 

Ex-aii-llioiJi-a-tol'o-gy. [Exantlic- 
matolo'g'ia; from exanthe'ma, "erup- 
tion," and X«yoj, a "discourse."] The 
consideration of the exanthemata. 

Ex-aii-tSiem'a-tous. [Exantliema- 
to'sus: from exanthe'ma, "eruption."] 
Pertaining to exanthemata; having ex- 

Exaittlicuie. See Exanthema. 

Ex-an-the'sis,* and Ex-an-this'- 

ma.* Nearly the same as Exanthema, 
which see. 

Ex-ar-thro'sis,* or Ex-ar-thro'- 

ma.* [From t£, "out," and apQpov, a 
''joint."] The same as Luxation. 

Ex-cip'i-ent. [Excip'iens; from 
excip'io, to "receive."] Applied to the 
substance used for receiving medicines, 
or hiding their nauseous qualities in its 
more pleasant taste, as the confections, 
conserves, etc. 

Ex-ci&'ion. [Exci'sio, o 'nis; from 
ex, "out" or "off," and scin'do, scis'sum, 
to "cut."] The cutting out, or cutting 
off, of any part. 

Ex-oi-ta-bil'i-ty. [Excitabil'itas, 
H,'tis; from ex'cito, excita'tum, to "call 
forth," to "raise up."] The capacity of 
organized beings to be affected by cer- 
tain agents termed stimuli, excitants, or 
exciting powers. 

Ex-ci'taiit. [Ex'citans; from the 
same.] Exciting; stimulating. 

Ex-cl-ta'tion. [Excita'tio, o'hi's/ 
from the same.] The act of rousing, or 
quickening into active exercise, some 
power or susceptibility. 

Ex-cite'meiit. [From the same.] The 
state of being excited. 

Ex-cl'ting Cause. That which ex- 
cites, or is the immediate cause of, a dis- 

Ex-ci'to-Mo'tor-y (or Ex-ci'to- 
Mo'tor) Pow'er. A peculiar power or 
property seated in the spinal system of 
nerves, by which, if their extremities be 
excited, the impression is conveyed to 
the spinal marrow, and reflected from 
it to the part or limb excited. 

Ex-co-rl-a'tioji. [Excoria'tio, 

o'nis; from ex, "from," and co'rium, 
the "skin."] Abrasion or removal, par- 
tial or complete, of the skin. 

Ex'cre-ment. [Excremen'tum ; 
from excer'no, excre'tum, to "excrete," 
to "void by stool."] The alvine fasces, 
or waste matter discharged from the 
bowels; dung; ordure. 

us. [Exorcmeiiti'tius.] Belonging to 

Ex-eres-cence. [Exeroscen'tia; 
from cxcres'co, to "grow out of."] (Fr. 
Excroissancc, eVkRwa'soNss'.) Any pre- 
ternatural formation on any part of the 

Ex-cre'tion. [Excre'tio, o'nia ,• 
from excer'no, excre'tum, to "sift out," to 
"separate."] The separation of those 
fluids from the blood which are sup- 



posed to be useless, as urine, perspiration, 
etc.: also, any such fluid itself. 

Excretoire. See Excretory. 

Ex'cre-to-rj'. [Excrcto'rius: from 
the same.] (Yr.E.nretoirc, ex'kna'twaR'.) 
Having the power of separating and 
throwing off", what is superfluous; be- 
longing to excretion. 

Excretory Ducts. [Ductus Ex. 
creto'rii.J Small vessels that conduct 
the secretion out of a gland. 

Ex-cre'tus.* [See Excretion.] 
Thrown off as superfluous or useless. 

Excroissance. See Excrescence. 

Ex'e-dens.* [From ex'edu, to ''eat 
out," to "eat as a worm or sore."] Eat- 
ing : consuming. 

Ex-em-brj'-o-na'tus.* [From ex, 
priv.. and em' bryo, the " germ of a plant."] 
Having no embrj-o. Applied in the 
plural feminine (Eximbryona'tie) to the 

Ex-fo?-ta'tion. [From ex, "out" or 
" without," and fce'tusJ] Extra-uterine 
foetation, or imperfect fcetation in some 
organ exterior to the uterus. See EcCY- 


Ex-fo-li-a'tion. [Exfolia'tio, 

O'ntvy from ex, "from," or "off," and 
fo'lium, a "leaf;" whence ex/o'h'o, exfo- 
lia'tum, to "shed the leaf."] The sepa- 
ration or scaling off of a dead piece of 
bone from the living; also, the separa- 
tion of scales or lamina? from any sub- 

Exhalaison. See Exhalation. 

Ex-ha'lant. [Exha'lans; from ex- 
hcc'lo, exhuht'tum, to "send forth a 
breath."] Giving off fumes ; exhaling. 

Ex-ha-la'tion. [Exhala'tio, 

o'nis ; from the same.] (Fr. Exhalaison, 
ex'a-'hVzox 6 '.) A vapor, fume, or steam. 
A subtile spirit or vapor, from the sur- 
face of the body. Evaporation of moist- 
ure or water by the sun's heat, etc. 

Ex-hib'it. [From exhib'en, exhib- 
ition, to "show" or "exhibit," to "give."] 
To administer or give to a patient some 
medicine, or medicinal substance. 

Exo (ffw). A Greek particle, signify- 
ing "without." 

Ex-o-car'dl-al. [Exoeardia'lis; 
from ££(j, "without." and Kaftia, the 
"heart."] External to the heart. 

Ex-oc-cip'I-tal. [Exoecipita'lis ; 
from tfcj. '"without," and occipitalis, 
"occipital."] Applied by Owen to the 
lateral part of the occipital bone. 

Exoccip'ital Bone. In Anthro- 
potomy, the condyloid process of the 
occipital bone : its homologue in the 

archetypal skeleton is called the "neura- 
popbysis." See Vertebra. 

Ex-od'ie. [Exod'ieus: from tfw, 
"without," and 066$, a "way."] Pro- 
ceeding out of the spinal marrow. A 
term proposed by Dr. M. Hall as prefer- 
able to Reflex motor. 

Ex'o-gen. An exogenous plant. 

Ex-og'en-ous. [Exog'eniu; from 
f£w, "without," and ycvoi, to "be born," 
to "grow."] Applied to stems of plants 
in which the new matter, whereby they 
increase in diameter, is added at the 
external surface. Applied by Owen to 
those parts, properly called processes, 
of bone, which shoot out as continuations 
of preceding elements. See Autoge- 

Ex-og'o-nuni Pur'gra.* One of the 
names of the jalap-plant. See Jalap. 

Ex-om'plia-los, Ex-om'iJha-lus.- 
[From f£, "out," and 6fiCa\6g, the "na- 
vel."] (Fr. Herttie oftibilicale, eR'ne' 6m'- 
be'le'kal'.) Umbilical hernia. See Om- 

lOx-opli-thal nil-a. [From tf, " out," 
and d<pt)aX/io?, the "eye."] A swelling 
and protrusion of the eyeball; the same 
as Opiithalmoptoma. 

Ex-or'ml-a.* [From if, "out." and 
fytyi>7, "rushing."] Literally, a "rushing 
or breaking out." A term used by the 
Greeks as synonymous with ecthyma, or 
papulous skin, comprising gum-rus-h. etc. 

Ex-or-rhi'zous. [Exorrhi'zus : 
from £(w. " without," and pi$a, a "root."] 
Applied to plants having the radicle 
free and naked, that is, not enclosed in 
any sheath. 

Ex'o-Skel'e-ton. [Exoscel'etou ; 
from f£oj. "without." and ckzXztov, a 
"skeleton."] The skeleton in such ani- 
mals as have a hard or bony case, or 
external skeleton. See Dermoskeletox. 

Ex-os'mic. [Exos'micus.] Be- 
longing to exosmose. 

Ex-os-usose'. [Exosmo'sis: from 
£fw, "without." and ac^cj, "impulsion."] 
A movement in liquids separated by a 
membranous partition, by which their 
principles are interchanged. This term 
is given to the licpuid passing outwards. 
See Exposmose. 

Exostemma Caribeum. See Bark, 

Ex-os'to-ma.- [From tfw. "with- 
out," and oTOiia, a "mouth."] See Micro - 


Exosto'ma.* Nearly the same as Ex- 
ostosis, which see. 

Ex-os-to'sis.* [From ?{a>, "with- 




out," and 6arc6v, a "bone."] An exube- 
rant growth of bony matter on the sur- 
face of a bone ; the enlargement of a 
part or the whole of a bone. 

Ex-o-ter'ic. [Exoter'icns; from 
il'iTtyOi, the comparative degree of e£o>.] 
Applied to a series of periodic, vital 
phenomena, being such as result from 
causes external to the organism. 

Exothecium,-- ex-o-the'she-um. 

[From f£a), " without," and 0/7*77, a " case."] 
The name given by Purkinje to the coat 
of the anther. 

Ex-ot'ic. [Exot'icus; from e£w, 
" without."] Foreign ; belonging to what 
is without, or beyond the limits of, our 
own country. 

Ex-paii-sl-oil'i-ty. [Expansibil'- 
itas, n'tis; from e.r, "out," and />a»'c/o, 
pan' sum, to "spread."] The capability 
of being expanded or dilated. 

Ex-pan 'sion. [Expan'sio, o'nis j 
from the same.] The increase of bulk, 
or of surface, of which natural bodies 
are susceptible. 

Ex-pec'to-rant. [Expec'torans : 
from expec'toro, expectora'tum, to "dis- 
charge from the breast" (from ex, "out," 
"from," and pec' tun, the "breast").] 
Facilitating or promoting the ejection 
of mucus, or other fluids, from the lungs 
and trachea. 

Ex-pec-to-ra'tion. [Expect ora'- 
tio, o'nis ; from the same.] The net of 
ejecting from the lungs, or trachea, by 
spitting; also, the substance ejected. 

Ex-pel'lent. [Expel'Iens; from 
expel'lo, to "'drive out.' - ] Driving out. 

Ex-pi-ra'tion. [Expira'tio, o'nis ; 
from expi'ro, expira'tnm, to "breathe 
forth."] The act of breathing out, or 
expelling air from the lungs. 

Ex-plo-ra'tion. [Explora'tio, 

o'nis; from explo'ro, explora'tum, to 
"search diligently."] The investigation 
of the physical signs attending disease, 
as distinguished from what are commonly 
termed the si/mptoins ; consisting of aus- 
cultation, inspection, mensuration, palpa- 
tion, and percussion. 

Ex-pressed' Oils. Oils obtained from 
bodies by pressure. See Expression. 

Ex-pres'sion. [Expres'sio, o'nis ; 
from ex, "out," and pre' mo, p res' sum, to 
"press."] The process of forcing out 
the juice3 and oils of plants by means 
of a press. Also, the manifestation of 
the feelings, by the countenance, attitude, 
or gesture. 

Ex-pnl'sion. [Expul'sio, o'nis; 
from ex, "out," and pel'lo, pul'sum, to 

"drive," to "force."] The act of void- 
ing the bowels or bladder. The delivery 
of the placenta; also, the extrusion of 
an immature foetus. 

Ex-pul'slve. [Expel'Iens; from 
the same.] (Fr. ExpuUif, e'x'puTsef'.) 
Applied to the pains in the second stage 
of childbirth, by which the child is ex- 
pelled. Applied in Surgery to a bandage 
so adjusted as to expel pus or other fluid. 

Ex-san'gmne, Ex-san-g-nin'c-otas. 
[Exsang-iiin'ens; from ex, priv., and 
san'guis, "blood."] Deprived of blood: 
anaemia] : ana?mic. 

Ex-san-gnin'I-ty. [Exsansrnin'i- 
tas, u'tis ; from the same.] The state 
of being without blood: ana?mia. 

Ex-sert'ed. [Exser'tus; from ex'~ 
sero, exser'tum, to "thrust out."] Pro- 
truding bej-ond, as the stamens out of 
the corolla. 

Ex-sic-ca'tion. [Exsicca'tio,o'/n".v 
from exsie'eo, exsicca'tum, to "dry up."] 
The process of drying moist bodies by 
applying heat, or atmospheric air, or 
absorbing the moisture by soft spongy 

Ex-stip'n-late. [Exstipula'tus; 
from ex, priv., and stip'ula, a "stipule."] 
Without stipules. 

Ex'stro-phj'- [Exstro'phia, or 
Ec'strophe; from ac, " out," and crpi^io, 
to "turn" or "twist."] Applied to a 
congenital malformation, in which, from 
deficiency in the abdominal wall, the 
bladder appears to be turned inside out, 
having the internal surface of the pos- 
terior paries situated outwardly on the 
lower part of the body. 

Exsudation. See Exudation. 

Extensenr. See Extexsor. 

Ex-ten 'sion. [Exten'sio, o'nis; 
from ex, "out," and ten' do, toisum, to 
"stretch."] The pulling of a fractured 
limb in a direction from the trunk, to ob- 
viate retraction of the lower fragments; 
also, similar treatment in dislocations. 

Ex-ten'sor, o'r/.«.-- : " [From the same.] 
(Fr. Extenseur, ex'toxo'suR'.) An ex- 
tender. Applied to several muscles. 

Exten'sor Bre'vss Dig-i-to'riim 
Pe'dis.* ("Short Extensor of the 
Toes.") A muscle situated on the back 
of the foot, having for its office to extend 
the first four toes. 

Exten'sor Coni-nm'nis Dig-ito'- 
rnin Pe'dis.* ("Common Extensor 
of the Toes.") A muscle situated on 
the anterior part of the leg, and attached 
to the phalanges of the last four toes, 
which it extends. 



Exten'sor Digito'rum €ommn'> 
nis. i: ' ("Common Extensor of the Fin- 
gers.") A muscle of the forearm, the 
tendons of which are inserted into the 
phalanges of all the fingers, which it 

Exten'sor Pro'pri-us Pol'H-cis 
Pe'dis.* ("Extensor Proper of the 
Thumb of the Foot, or Great Toe.") A 
muscle on the anterior part of the leg : 
its office is to extend the toe. 

Ex-tir-pa'tion. [Extirpa'tio, o'nis; 
from extir.'po,extirpa' turn, to "root out."] 
The complete removal or eradication of 
a part, by the knife or caustic. 

Ex'tra.* A Latin preposition signi- 
fying "without," "on the outside," "be- 
yond," "over and above." 

Ex'traet. [Extrac'tiim; from ex, 
"out." and tra'ho, trac'tum, to "draw."] 
(Fr. Extrait, ex'tna'.) Literally, "that 
which is drawn out or extracted" from 
any thing. The soluble parts of vegetable 
substances, dissolved in spirit, or water, 
and reduced to the consistence of a 
syrup or paste by evaporation. Also, 
the product of an aqueous decoction. 

Ex-trae'ta,* the plural of Extrac- 
tum, which see. 

Ex-trae'tion. [Extrac'tio, o'nis; 
from the same.] The drawing of a tooth, 
or taking foreign substances out of the 
body, or a tumor out of its cavity, etc. 

Ex-trac'tive. [Extraeti'vus: from 
the same.] (Fr. Extractif, ex'tRak'tef '.) 
Applied to a peculiar modification of 
vegetable matter forming one constitu- 
ent part of common extracts. 

Extractive Principles. The de- 
signation of a variety of compounds, most 
of which crystallize, and have a bitter 
taste, but cannot be referred to any par- 
ticular series. 

70?* For the names and preparation 
of the officinal extracts, see the U.S. 
Pharmacopoeia, pp. 142-180. 

Ex-trac'tum,* plural Ex-trac'ta. 
[From the same.] (Fr. Extrait, ex'tRa/.) 
An extract; a preparation obtained by 
the evaporation of a vegetable solution, 
or a native vegetable juice. Its basis is 
termed extractive, or extractive principle. 

Extrae'tum Can'na-fois.* (" Extract 
of Hemp.") The Pharmacopoeial name 
(U.S. Ph.) for the alcoholic extract of 
the dried tops of the Cannabis sativa 
(variety Indica). 

Extrae'tum Glyc-yr-rlii'za?.* 

("Extract of Liquorice.") The Phar- 
macopoeial name (U.S. Ph.) for the ex- 
tract of the root of Glyeyrrhiza glabra. 

This extract is the "liquorice" of the 

Ex-tra-fo-li-a'eeous. [Extrafo- 
lia'eeus; from ex'tra, "without," and 
fo'lium, a "leaf."] External to the leaf. 
Applied to stipulx below the footstalk. 

Extrait, ex'tRa.'. A French term 
for Extract, which see. 

Ex'tra-E'ter-ine. [From ex'tra, 
"on the outside," and u'terusJ] Applied 
to those cases of pregnancy in which 
the foetus is contained in some organ 
outside of the uterus. 

Ex-trav-a-sa'tion. [Extravasa'- 
tio, o'nis; from ex'tra, "without," and 
vas, a "vessel."] The effusion of a fluid 
(or its state when effused) out of its 
proper vessel or receptacle. 

Ex-trei»'I-t$ r . [Extrem'itas, a'tis; 
from cxtre'mnm, the "outermost part" 
or "end" of any thing.] Any of the 
four limbs of animals. 

Ex-tro-ver'sion. [From cxtror'svm, 
"outwards," and ver'to, ver'sum, to 
"turn."] That kind of malformation in 
which a part is turned inside outwards. 
The same as Exstrophv. 

Ex-u'her-es.* [From ex, priv,, and 
u'ber, "pap" or "udder."] Applied to 
weaned infants, as opposed to Sububeres, 
or those being suckled. 

Ex-u-da'tion. [Exuda'tio, o'nis; 
from exu'do, exuda'tum, to "sweat out" 
(contracted from ex, "out," and su'do, to 
"sweat").] A sweating; the passing 
out of any liquid through the walls (or 
membranes) of the vessel containing it. 
Also applied to the oozing of the Liquor 
sanguinis through the vascular walls. 

Ex'u-da-tive. [Exudati'vus; from 
the same.] Belonging to exudation; 
promoting exudation. 

Ex-ul-eer-a'tion. [Exuleera'tio, 
O'nis; from exul'cero, exidcera'tum, to 
"make sore."] A soreness; the early 
state, or commencement, of ulceration. 

Ex-u'vl-ae,* gen. Ex-u-vi-a rum, 
found only in the plural. [From ex'uo, 
to "strip," "spoil," or "put off."] The 
shells, etc., found in particular strata. 
In Zoology, applied to the slough, or 
cast skins of animals whose nature it is 
to throw them off at certain seasons. 

Ex-u'vi-al. [Exuvia'lis.] Be- 
longing to exuvite. 

Eye. [Lat. ©e'ulus; Gr. 6<p9a\fji6s • 
Fr. (Eii, uy'or ul; Ger. Auge, ow'Gek.] 
The organ of vision. The eyes occupy 
two cavities, called orbits, situated in 
the lower anterior part of the cranium ; 
they communicate with the brain by 




means of the optic nerves. The organ 
consists of a ball or globe containing 
within itself the iris, lens, the aqueous 
and vitreous humors, the retina, etc. 
This ball moves freely in a socket, and is 
readily turned at will in every direc- 
tion by six muscles especially appro- 
priated to this purpose. It is covered 
anteriorly by a delicate mucous mem- 
brane, termed the conjunct? va, and is 
protected from external injury by the 
eyelashes and eyelids. At the very front 
part of the ball, is situated a transparent, 

horny membrane, termed the cornea. 
The various parts of the eye will be 
more particularly noticed, each in its 
alphabetical place. 

Eye of Ty'phon. The mystic name 
given by the Egyptians to the Squill, or 

Eyebrow. See Supercilium. 

Eyelash. See Cilium. 

Eyelid. See Palpebra. 

Eye'-Teeth. The upper Cuspidati, 
or canine teeth, the fangs of which reach 
almost to the orbits of the eye. 


F., or Ft.= Fi'at* or Fi'ant* "Let 
there be made." 

Fa'ba Por-ci'na.* The fruit of 
Hyoscy'amus ni'yer. 

Fa'ba Pur-ga'trix.* The bean of 
Ricinus communis. 

Fa'ba Sanc'ti Ig-na'ti-i.* ("Bean 
of St. Ignatius.") See Ignatia. 

Fa'ba Su-il'la.* The fruit of Eyo- 
scyamus niger. 

Fabacese. See Leguminos^e. 

Fa-ba'ceous. [Faba'ceus ; from 
fa'ba, a "bean."] Having beans; of 
the nature of beans. 

Face. [Fa'cies.] The anterior and 
lower part of the head. The various 
surfaces, or planes, by which a crystal 
is bounded. 

Face A'gue. A form of neuralgia, 
which occurs in the nerves of the face. 

Face €Jrip'p£e, fass grep'pa'. The 
"pinched or contracted face :" a peculiar 
expression of features forming one of 
the symptoms in peritonitis. 

Fac'ets, or Fa'cets. [From the 
French Facette, a "small surface."] The 
small circumscribed surfaces of a bone. 
Applied in Zoology to the different bases 
into which the surface of the compound 
eyes of the Araclinidse, Crustacea, and 
Jnsecta is divided. Also applied in 
Mineralogy to the planes or faces of a 

Facial. [Facia'lis; from fa'cies.'] 
Belonging to the face. 

Facial Angle. See Angle, Facial. 

Fa'cial Xerve. [Ker'vus Facia'- 
lis.] The Portio dura of the seventh 

Fa'cial Vein. A vein which com- 
mences at the summit of the forehead; 
it crosses the face obliquely, and joins 
the internal jugular. See Angular. 

Facies. See Face. 

Fa'cies (fa'she-ez) Hip-po-crat'I- 
ca.* The peculiar expression of the 
features immediately before death, so 
called because first described by Hippo- 

Fa'cies Rubra.* The red face ; 
another name for the Gutta rosacea. See 

Fac-ti'tions. [Facti'tius ; from 
fa'cio, fac'tum, to "make."] Made by 
art ; artificial. 

Fac'ul-ty. [Facnl'tas; from fa- 
ce're, to "do," to "make."] The power 
or ability by which an action is per- 
formed. Also employed to denote col- 
lectively the medical professors, or those 
of any other department, in a university. 
The phrase "medical faculty" is also 
used in a more general sense, to signify 
those skilled in the science of medicine. 

Fae'ces.* [The plural of fsex, fse'cis, 
"sediment."] Dregs, or sediment. The 
alvine excretions or excrements. 

Freeula. See Fecula. 

Fajculent. See Feculent. 

Fa'gin. [Fagi'na.] A narcotic 
substance obtained from the nuts of the 
Fagus sylvatica. 

Fahrenheit's Thermometer. See 

Faiblesse. See Debility. 

Faim. See Fames. 

Fainting. See Deliquium Animi, 
and Syncope. 

Faisceau, fa'so'. The French term 
for Fasciculus, which see. 

Faix, fa. The French term for Fcetus, 
which see. 

Fal'ci-form. [Falcifor'mis; from 
falx, a "scythe" or "sickle."] Re- 
sembling a scythe in shape. 

Fal'ciform Proc'ess. [Proces'sus 



Faleifor'mis.] A process of the dura 
mater, separating the hemispheres of 
the brain, and ending in the tentorium. 

Falling. See Procidentia, and Pro- 

Falling Sickness. See Epilepsy. 

Fal-lo'pi-an. [Fallopia'nus.] Ap- 
plied to certain tubes or canals, and a 
ligament, first pointed out by the cele- 
brated anatomist Fallopius. 

Fallopian Lig'a-nient. The round 
ligament of the uterus. 

Fallo'pian Tubes. Two canals en- 
closed in the peritonaeum, and extending 
from the sides of the Fundus uteri to 
the ovaries. See Uterus. 

Fallopius, Aqueduct of. See Aque- 
duct of Fallopius. 

False. [Fal'sns; from fal'lo, faV- 
8U7)i, to " deceive."] (Fr. Faux, fo, or 
Fmtsse, foss.) A term often applied in 
medicine to an unnatural or diseased 
condition of certain parts, as False 
Joint, False Membrane. 

False Aneurism. See Aneurism. 

False Conception. See Concep- 
tion, False. 

False Joint. See Artificial Joint. 

False Mem'brane. This is always 
the result of inflammation, as that pro- 
duced in pleurisy, in peritonitis, in 
croup, etc. 

False Pas'sage. A passage formed 
by the laceration or ulceration of the 
mucous membrane of the urethra, from 
forcible introduction of instruments in 
a wrong direction. 

False Ribs. [Cos'tae Spuria?.] The 
five inferior ribs, which (except the last 
two, or floating ribs) are joined ante- 
riorly to each other and to the cartilage 
of the last true rib. 

False Vision. See Pseudoblep- 

False Wa'ters. (Fr. Fausscs Eaux, 
foss o.) A term applied by the French 
to a serous fluid which accumulates be- 
tween the chorion and the amnion, and 
is discharged at certain periods of preg- 
nancy. This must not be confounded 
with the liquor amnii, which they term 
simplv the ''waters" (enux). 

Falx Cer-e-bel'li.* ("Scythe of 
the Cerebellum." Fr. Faux du Cervelet, 
fo du seRv'la.'.) A triangular portion 
of the dura mater, separating the two 
lobes of the cerebellum, 

Falx Cer'e-fori.* ("Scythe of the 
Cerebrum." Fr. Faux du Cerrcou, fo 
du seVvo'.) The same as Falciform 
Process, which see- 

Falx Major. See Falciform Pro- 

Falx Minor. See Falx Cerebelli. 

Fa'mes.* (Fr. Faim, fax*.) A Latin 
term signifying "hunger." Hence the 
terms cura /amis, abstinence from food; 
and fames canina, voracious or canine 
appetite. See Bulimia. 

Fam'I-ly. [Fami'lia.] A number 
of genera having some organic resem- 

Fang. [Ger. Fan' gen, to "take" or 
"seize" as prey, to "bite."] Applied to 
the sharp-pointed, perforated tooth in 
the superior maxillary bone of venomous 
serpents, through which a poisonous fluid 
flows into the wound made by it. Also, 
the root of a tooth. 

Farcimen. See Farcy. 

Far-cim-i-na'lis.* [From farci'men, 
" sausage-meat."] The same as Allan- 
toid, which see. 

Farc'tus.* [From far'cio, farc'tum, 
to "stuff."] Stuffed, filled, crammed. 

Far'cy, or Far-ci'nien*(called, also, 
Equi'nia* and Glan'ders). [From 
far'cio, to "stuff."] A disease in which 
numerous small tumors suppurate and 
form ulcers. It occurs in the horse, ass, 
and mule; and is often communicated 
by contagion to men attending on those 
animals. In its aggravated form it is 
generally fatal. 

Fa-ri'na.* [From far, all kinds of 
corn.] Wheat flour. The Pharmaco- 
pceial name for the flour from the seeds 
of Triticum vulgare. 

Far-I-na'ceous. [Farina 'ecus.] 
Belonging to or containing farina: of the 
nature of farina. 

Far-Sightedness. See Presbyopia. 

Fascia,* fash'e-a. [From fas'cis, a 
"bundle."] Originally, a "swathe," 
"bandage," or "roller." The tendinous 
expansion of muscles; an aponeurosis. 

Fas'cia Crib-rl-for'mis.* ("Sieve- 
like Fascia.") A web of cellular sub- 
stance stretched from the lower edge of 
Poupart's ligament over the inguinal 
glands; so called because it is pierced 
with numerous openings for the trans- 
mission of the lymphatic vessels. 

Fas'cia Il-i'a-ca. ;: (" Iliac Fascia.") 
A strong fascia which covers the inner 
surface of the iliac and psoas muscles. 

Fas'cia In-fun-dib'u-11-for'mis.* 
("Funnel-shaped Fascia.") A portion 
of cellular membrane which passes 
down on the spermatic cord, where it 
penetrates the Fascia transversalia. 

Fas'cia I,a'ia.* ("Broad Fascia.") 




A broad tendinous expansion continued 
from the tendons of the Glutei and 
neighboring muscles, and maintaining in 
their proper position the various muscles 
of the thigh. 

Fascia Lata is also the name of a mus- 
cle at the upper and exterior part of the 
thigh. See Tensor Vagtnje Femoris. 

Fas'eia Pro'pri-a.* The proper 
cellular envelope of a hernial sac. 

Fas'eia Spi-ra'lis.* ("Spiral 

Roller.") A name for the common roller 
which is wound spirally round a limb. 

Fas'eia Su-per-fic-i-a'lis.* (" Su- 
perficial Fascia.") A very thin layer 
of cellular membrane, which covers the 
abdominal muscles immediately under 
the skin. 

Fas'eia Tor'ti-lis.* A name for the 

Fas'eia Trans-ver-sa'lis.* The 
cellular membrane lining the inner sur- 
face of the Transversalis abdominis 

Fascial, fash'al. [Faseia'lis.] Be- 
longing to a fascia. 

Fasciate, fash'e-at, or Fasciated, 
fash'e-at-ed. [Faseia'tus; from fas'- 
eia.] Flattened like a little band. 

Fasciatioii, fash-e-a'shiin, or Fas- 
ciati©,* fash-e-a'she-o. [From fas'eia, 
a "bandage."] The binding up of a dis- 
eased or wounded part; also, a bandage. 

Fascicle. See Fasciculus. 

Fas-cic'u-lar. [Fascicula'ris ; from 
fascic'ulu8, a " little bundle."] Bundled 
together; clustered. Applied to roots. 

Fas-cjc'u-late. [Fascicula'tus ; 
from fascic'ulus, a " little bundle."] Bun- 
dled together; clustered. 

Fas-cic'u-lus,* plural Fas-cic'u-li. 
[Diminutive of fas'cis, a" bundle."] (Fr. 
Faisceau, f&'so'.) Applied to a little bun- 
dle of muscular or nervous fibres, etc. 
A fascicle or compact cyme, as in the 
Sweet William. Also, a handful of 
leaves, roots, etc. 

Fas-ci'o-la He-pat 'i-ca.* [From 
fasci'ola, a "little strip of cloth."] An- 
other name for the Distoma, which see. 

Fas-ti'cll-iim Ci'bi.* ("Loathing 
of Food.") See Axorexia. 

Fas-tig-'I-ate. [Fastift-ia'tus; from 
fasti' gium, the "top."] Applied to um- 
belliferous flowers which rise together to 
the same height, forming a flat top. 

Fat. (Fr. Graisse, gRess or gR&ss.) 
See Adeps, Axuxgia, and Sevum. 

Fa-tu'I-ty. [Fato'itas,a'f is y from 
fat'uus, "silly."] Weakness of under- 
standing, or idiocy. See Amextia. 

Fau'ces,* gen. Faucitim, fau'she< 
um. [The plural of Faux.'] The cavity 
at the back of the mouth from which the 
pharynx and larynx proceed. 

Fault. [From the French Faute, an 
"error" or "defect."] A complete frac- 
ture of the mass of strata along a verti- 
cal or inclined plane, parallel to which 
the beds on one side are uplifted, and on 
the other depressed ; a slip. 

Fau'ua.* [From Fau'nus, a sylvan 
deity of the ancient Romans.] The en- 
tire assemblage of animals, especially 
Mammalia, which nature has assigned to 
a particular country. 

Faux,* gen. Fau'cis. The gorge or 
mouth. (See Fauces.) Applied, by 
analogy, to the opening of the tube of a 
monopetalous corol. 

Faux, fo, feminine Fausse, foss. 
The French for False, which see. Faux 
is also the French term for Falx. See 
next article. 

Faux da Cerveau, fo dii seR v v<3'. 
The French term for Falx Cerebri. See 
Falciform Process. 

Faux (lu Cervelet, fo dii seRv'la'. 
The French term for Falx Cerebelli, 
which see. 

Fa-vose'. [Favo'sns: from fa'vus, 
a "honeycomb."] Belonging to, or like, 
a honeycomb. 

Fa'vus."* A honeycomb. Applied to 
a kind of pustule. See Porrigo. 

Fay'nard's Pow'der. A celebrated 
powder for stopping haemorrhage, said 
to have been nothing more than the 
charcoal of beech-wood, finely-powdered. 

Feather-Veined. See Pixnately- 

Fe'bres,* the plural of Fe'bris. 
Fevers. An order of the class Fi/rexix 
of Cullen's Nosology. 

Fe-brie'u-la. ;: " [Diminutive of fe'- 
bris, a "fever."] A slight fever. 

Feb'ri-fug-e. [Febrif ugus; from 
fe'bris, a "fever," and fu'go, to "drive 
away."] Having the property of mode- 
rating or abating the violence of fevers. 

Fob'rile. [Febri'lis; from fe'bris, 
a "fever."] Belonging to fever : feverish. 

Fe'bris.* [From fcr'veo, to "be hot."] 
A fever. See Fever. 

Feb'ure's I^o'tion. A once cele- 
brated remedy for cancer, consisting of 
ten grains of the white oxide of arsenic 
dissolved in a pint of distilled water, 
to which are added one ounce of the 
Extractum eonii, three ounces of the 
Liquor plumbi subacetatis, and a drachm 
of laudanum. 



Feces. See F.eces. 

Fecond, iik^N^'. The French term 
for Fecukd, which see. 

Fee'n-la. [Fapc'ula, the diminutive 
of fteae, fafcis, "dregs."] Originally, 
the grounds or sediment of any liquor; 
any substance derived by spontaneous 
subsidence from a liquid. The term was 
afterwards applied to starch, which was 
thus deposited by agitating the flour of 
wheat in water; and, lastly, it denoted 
a peculiar vegetable principle, which, 
like starch, is insoluble in cold, but com- 
pletely soluble in boiling water, with 
which it forms a gelatinous solution. 

Fee'n-lent. [Fa?culen'tus; from 
fpe'cei, " dregs."] Having dregs or fasces; 
of the nature of dregs or faeces. 

Fe'cund. [Lat. Fceeuii'dns; Fr. 
Fecond, fa'koN '.] Fruitful ; prolific. 

Fe-cnn-da'tion. [Foecuncla'tio, 
o'nis; from faecun'do, fcectinda'tjim, to 
'"make fruitful.''] In Botany, the action 
of the pollen on the ovule, which thereby 
becomes impregnated. In Physiology, 
the act of impregnating, or the state of 
being impregnated. 

Fe-eun'dl-t$". [Fcecnn'ditas, a'tis; 
from fceetin'dng, "fruitful."] The power 
of reproducing : fruitfulness. 

Feeling - . See Touch. 

Feet, Distortion of. See Talipes. 

Fel,* gen. Fel'lis. (Fr. Ficl, fe-el'.) 
Gall, or bile; a secretion found in the 
cyztis fellea, or gall-bladder. See Bile. 

Fel Bo-vi'n«m,* or Fel Tan'ri.* 
Gall, or bile, of the ox. See Bile. 

Fel-lifln-a Pas'sio* (pash'e-o). 
Gall-flux disease; an ancient name for 

Fel-lif'lu-us.* [From fel, "bile," 
xndjlu'o, to "flow."] Flowing with, or 
discharging, bile. See preceding article. 

Fel'iin-ate. [Fel'linas. a'/('>-.] A 
combination of fellinic acid with a base. 

Fel-lin'ie. [Fellin'iens: from fel, 
u gall," or " bile."] Belonging to bile, or 

Fellin'ic Ac 'id. A peculiar sub- 
stance obtained by digesting bilin with 
dilute hydrochloric acid. 

Fe'lo de se.* [Low Latin fe'Io, a 
"felon." dc, "with respect to," and «<?, 
"himself."] Literally, '"one guilty of 
felony with respect to himself." A term 
in Medical Jurisprudence for one who 
commits suicide. 

Fel on. The name of malignant 
whitlow, in which the effusion is beneath 
the periosteum. 

Feminine. See Fcemixevs. 

Fem-o-ra»'ns. :; - Another name for the 
crurseua muscle, an extensor of the leg. 

Fem'o-ral. [Femora'lis ; from 
fe'mur, the " thigh."] Belonging to the 
thi^h : crural. 

Fem'o-ro-celc. [From fe'mur, the 
"thigh," and iriiAij, a "tumor."] The 
disorder termed Hernia cruralis. 

Fe'mur, 5 gen. Fcm'o-ris. The 
thigh. Also, the long cylindrical bone 
of the thigh, or Os femoria. (Fr. Oh 
de la Cuisse, o deh la kwess.) The 
second articulation of the feet of the 
Arachnid ex. Crustacea, and Insecta. 

Fe-nes'tra.* [FrompacVoj, to "make 
to appear."] A window. Applied to two 
foramina of the tympanum of the ear. 

Fe-nes'tral. [Fcnestra'lis; from 
fenes'tra.] Belonging to windows ; like 

Fe-nes'trate. [ Fenestra tns; 

fp>m fenes'traJ] Pierced with holes, 
or with openings like windows. 

Fen'nel, Sweet. The Anethumfcenic- 

Fen'n-Greelt, or Fen'u-g'rec. The 
Trigonel'la Fce'num, a plant forming, it 
is said, an article of food in Egypt. It 
grows also in the south of France. Used 
chiefly in veterinary medicine. 

Fer (Fr.), feR. See Irox. 

Fer-men-ta'tion. [Fermenta'tio, 
o'nis; from fcrmen'to, fernn nta'tum, to 
"leaven."] The spontaneous changes 
which aqueous combinations of animal or 
vegetable matter undergo when exposed 
to the air at an ordinary temperature. 

Fer-meii'tum.* Ferment. The sub- 
stance which excites fermentation. The 
Pharmacopceial name (U.S. Ph.) for 
"yeast." See preceding article. 

Fermen'tnni Cerevi'sia- (ser-e- 
vish'e-a). The scum or froth of beer 
during fermentation; barm: yeast. This 
substance has been placed on the pri- 
marv list of the U.S. Pharmacopoeia for 

Fern, Male. See Aspidium Filix 

Fe-ro'ni-a El-e-phan'tnm.* [From 
Fero'nia, the goddess of groves.] An 
Indian tree of the order Aurantiacex : 
it yields a gum resembling gum Arabic. 
Fer'ri, -genitive of Fer r or. which see. 
Fer'riFer-ro-cy-an'I-dum.* (" Fer- 
rocyanide of Iron.") The Pharmacopceial 
name (U.S. Ph., 1.860) for Prussian blue. 

Fer'ri Fi'lmii.'* The Pharmacopceial 
name (Ed. Ph.) for iron wire: the Fer- 
ritin infila tractum of the London Phar- 




Fer'ri, Ra-men'ta.* ("Raspings of 
Iron.") A name for iron tilings. 

Fer'ri Sul-pBm-re'tnm.* (" Sul- 
phuret of Iron.") The Pharmacopoeial 
name (U.S. Ph.) for the protosulphuret 
of iron, prepared by melting together 
sublimed sulphur and iron in small pieces. 

Fer-rif er-ous. [Ferrirerus ; 

from for' rum, "iron," and fe'ro, to 
"bear."] Containing iron in some form, 
usually in the state of oxide or car- 

Fer'ro-. (From/e/-'rum, "iron.") A 
prefix in compound names, denoting con- 
nection with iron. 

Fer'ro-cy-an'ic Ac'id. A com- 
pound of cyanogen, metallic iron, and 
hydrogen; also called fcrruretted chyazic 
acid. It contains the elements of hydro- 
cyanic acid, but differs from it totally in 
its properties. Its salts, once termed triple 
prussiates, are now called ferro-cyanates. 

Fer-rn'gin-ous, or Fer-ru-gin'e« 
©us. [Ferrngin'eus, or Ferrwgi- 
no'sns; from ferra'go, the "rust of 
iron."] Full of iron-rust; containing 
iron-rust; of a yellowish-brown color. 

Ferrum. See Irox. 

Fer'tlle. [Fer' tills; from fe'ro, to 
"bring forth."] Fruitful. Applied to 
flowers having a pistil, or producing seeds 
capable of vegetation. 

Fertilization. See Fecuxdatiox. 

Fer'u-la. :;: ' [From/e'rio, to "strike."] 
A Linnaean genus of the class Pcntandria, 
natural order Apiacese (or Umbellifcric). 

Fer'nla As-sa-foet'I-da.* The plant 
which yields assafoetida. 

Fer'vor. [From fer'veo, to " boil."] 
A violent and scorching heat. Ardor 
denotes an excessive heat; Calor, a 
moderate or natural heat. 

Fcssier, fes'se'a'. The French term 
for Gluteal or Gluteus, which see. 

Fes'ter-ing 1 . A word applied to a 
sore, signifying the discharge either of 
pus or of a morbid watery fluid. 

Fes-tooned' Rings. A popular de- 
signation of the fibrous zones or tendin- 
ous circles which surround the orifices 
of the heart. 

Fe'tal. [Foeta'lis.] Belonging to 
the foetus. 

Feticide. See Foeticide. 

Fetid. [Foe'tsdus; from foe'teo, 
to "become putrid."] Having a bad 

Fe'tor. [Foe'tor,o'r(>; from foe'teo, 
to "stink."] A bad smell, or stink. 

Fe'ver. [Lat. Fe'bris; Fr. Fitvre, 
fe-e\ r R'or fe-avii'.] A condition eharac- 

terized by accelerated pulse, increased 
heat of surface, loss of appetite, thirst, 
languor, debility, unwillingness to move, 
and general disturbance of all the func- 
tions. See Febris, and Pyrexia. 

Fever, Slight. See Febricula. 

Fe'ver-ish. [Lat. Feb'riens; Fr. 
Fitvreiuc, fe-aYRL'h'.] A term applied 
to the state of one laboring under fever; 
also to that which causes fever. 

Fi'ber.* The Latin term for the 

Fi'bre. [Fi'bra; from fiber, "ex- 
treme;" because originally applied to 
the thread-like radicles at the extremity 
of a root.] The minute threads or fila- 
ments which occur in the structure of 
parts in animals and vegetables. 

Fi'bre, An'i-mal. [Fi'bra Ani- 
ina'lis.] The filaments which compose 
the muscular fasciculi, the cellular mem- 
brane, etc. 

Fibre, Woody. [Fi'bra lag-'nea.] 
The filaments of which any woody sub- 
stance is composed. 

Fibreux, fe'buuh'. The French term 
for Fibrous, which see. 

Fl'bril. [Fibril'la; the diminutivo 
of fi'bra, a "fibre."] Applied in the 
plural to the extremely slender filaments 
seen by the microscope, and by the col- 
lection of a number of which in a sheath, 
or sarcolcmma, a muscular fibre (of ani- 
mal life) is formed. 

Fib-ril-la'tns.* [From fibril'la, a 
"little fibre."] Disposed in very delicato 

Fi'brin, or Fi'brme. [Fibri'na; 
from fi'bra, a "fibre."] A peculiar whit- 
ish, solid, insipid, and inodorous com- 
pound substance found in animal and 
vegetable matter; coagulable lymph. 

Fib-rin-og'e-nous. [From fibri'na, 
"fibrin," and yevvaM, to "produce."] 
Producing fibrin. Applied by Yirchow 
to a substance which exists in lymph and 
is converted into fibrin by exposure to 

Fi'bro-. [From fi'bra, a "fibre."] A 
prefix denoting a fibrous condition. 

Fl'bro-Car'tl-lage. Membraniform 
cartilage. The substance, intermediate 
between proper cartilage and ligament, 
constituting the base of the ear, de- 
termining the form of that part; and 
composing the rings of the trachea, the 
epiglottis, etc. By the older anatomists 
it was termed ligamentous cartilage, or 
cartilaginiform ligament. Fibro-cartilagca 
are sometimes formed as the result of a 
morbid process in different organs. 



Fi'bro-Plas'tie. [Fi'bro-Plas'ti- 

cus ; from Ji'bro-, and 7rXac7<7co, to " form.''] 
Forming fibres. Applied to an organized 
tissue, from the corpuscles exuded on 

Fi'brous. [Fibro'sus; from jl'hra, 
a "fibre."] (i'r. Fibreax, fe'buch'.j 
Having fibres, or composed of fibres. 

Fib'u-la. :> Literally, a " clasp." The 
long bone extending from the knee to the 
ankle, on the outer side of the leg. 

Fib'u-lar. [F r om jib' u la.] Belong- 
ing to the fibula. 

Ficatio,* fi-ka'she-o, or Fi'eus.- 
[From fi'eus, a •' lig."] A fig-like tubercle 
about the anus or pudenda. 

Fi'eoid. [Ficoi'des; from fi'eus, a 
"fig," and elco;, a "form."] Resembling 
a fig. 

Ficoidese,* fi-ko-i'de-e. A natural 
order of plants. See Mesembryace.e. 

Fi'eus.* A Linna?an genus of the 
class Polygamic! , natural order Urticacese. 
Also, the Pharmacopceial name ] for the 
dried fruit of Ficus eariea, or fig. 

Ficus* is also the name of a fleshy 
substance, or condyloma, resembling a 
fig. See Ficatio. 

Fi'eus Car'I-ca.* The fig-tree ; also 
called F. commit' nis, F. sati'va, and F. vul- 

Fi'eus E-las'ti-ea.* The tree which 
affords caoutchouc, or Indian rubber. 

Fid'g-ets. [Tituba'tio.] A term de- 
noting general restlessness, with a desire 
of changing one's position. 

Fi-dic-I-na'les.* [From fid'icen, a 
''harper.'"] A designation of the luin- 
bricales (muscles) of the hand, from their 
usefulness in playing upon musical in- 

Fievre, fe-avn' or fe-evR'. The 
French term for Fever, which see. 

Fievre Algide. See Algida Febris. 

Fievre Hectique. See Hectic 

Fievre Jamie. See Yellow Fever. 

Fievrenx. See Feverish. 

Fifth Pair of Serves. See Tri- 


Fig-. See Ficus. 

Fil'a-ment. [Filamen'tum; from 
fi'lum, a "thread."] A small, delicate, 
thread-like substance; a fibre. The 
thread-like part of a stamen. 

Fi-la'rI-a. ; - [Fromji'lum, a "thread."] 
A thread-like parasitic worm, which in- 
fests the cornea of the eye of the horse. 

Fila'ria Jled-i-nen'sis.* The sys- 
tematic name of the Guinea-worm. 

Filicales. See Filices. 

Filiees.* fil'e-sez, the plural of Fi'- 
lix. Ferns. A natural order of cryp- 
togamous plants, which abound in tempe- 
rate and tropical regions, remarkable for 
their beautiful plumy foliage. 

Fil'i-coid. [Filieoi'des; from Fi'- 
lix, and eh'o;, a " form."] Fern-like. 

Fil-I-col''o-s , $-. [From Fi'lix, a " fern," 
anl \6yo;, a "discourse."] That branch 
of Botany which treats of ferns. 

Fil'I-forni. [Filifor'niis; from/z'- 
liim, a "thread."] Having the appear- 
ance of thread. 

Fi'lix,- gen. Fil'i-eis. The Latin 
word for "fern." Applied in the plural 
to a Linna;an order of Cryptogamia. (See 
Filices.) Also, the Pharmacopoeial 
name (Br. Ph.) of the rhizoma of Aspi- 
dium fi/ix mas. 

Fi'lix 3Ias. :f - Male Fern. The Phar- 
macopoeial name (U.S. Ph.) for the rhi- 
zoma of Aspidium Filix Mas, which see. 

Film. The popular name for opacity 
of the cornea. 

Fii'ter. [Fil'trum.] An apparatus 
of various construction, for the purposes 
of filtration. 

Fil'trate. [From fil'trum, a " filter."] 
Any liquid strained or filtered. 

Fil-tra'tion. [Filtra'tio, o'nis; 
from fil'trum, a "filter."] The process by 
which a fluid is gradually separated from 
the particles or impurities that may be 
floating or suspended in it; straining. 

Fil'trum.- Literally, a "filter." 
Sometimes applied to the superficial 
groove across the upper lip from the par- 
tition of the nose to the tip of the lip. 

Fim'brl-a.* [From fi'brum, an " ex- 
tremitj'."] A border, or fringe. Applied 
in the plural (Jim'brise) to the extremities 
of the Fallopian tubes. 

Fim'brl-ate, or Fim'bri-at-ed. 
[Fimbria'tus; from fim'bria, a 
"fringe."] Having a fringe, or border. 

Fiii'grer [Digitus 3Ia'nus], in ana- 
tomical language denotes one of the five 
extremities of the hand ; in popular par- 
lance, one of the four besides the thumb. 

Fingered. See Digitate. 

Fins. [Pin'na?.] Membranous or- 
gans in fishes, somewhat analogous to 
hands and feet. 

Fire Damp. A name given by miners 
to the explosive gas. consisting chiefly of 
light carburetted hydrogen, found in 

First In-ten'tion. Union by the 
first intention means adhesive inflam- 
mation without suppuration, as when 
the lips of a wound made by a sharp 




knife are brought into immediate con- 
tact, and quickly healed without much 

Fish-Glue. See Ichthyocolla. 

Fish-Skin. See Ichthyosis. 

Fis'sile. [Fis'silis; from Jin' do, fis' - 
sum, to "cleave."] Cleavable; easily cleft 
or cloven. 

Fis-sip'ar-ous. [Fissip'arus ; 

from Jin' do, fis' sum, to "cleave," and 
pa'rio, to "produce."] Producing off- 
spring by portions being separated from 
the parent individual. See next article. 

Fissip'arous i en-e-ra'tion. That 
generation which occurs either by spon- 
taneous division of the body of the pa- 
rent into two or more parts, each part, 
when separated, becoming a distinct indi- 
vidual, as in the monad, vorticella, etc., 
or by artificial division, as in the hydra, 
planaria, etc. The propagation of plants 
by slips furnishes another example of 
this kind of reproduction. 

Fis-sl-pa'tion. [Fissipa'tio,o'»?*s.] 
A faulty term for Fissiparous Gene- 
ration, which see. 

Fis-si-ros'tris.* [From Jin' do, fis'- 
suiti, to "cleave," and ros'trum, a "beak."] 
Applied in the plural (Fissiros'tres) to 
a family of birds having a broad beak 
with an extended commissure: fissiros'- 

Fis-su'ra Gla-se'ri-i.* (" Glaser's 
Fissure.") A fissure situated in the deep- 
est part of the glenoid fossa. 

Fissu'ra L«on-£i-tu-di-na'lis.* 

("Longitudinal Fissure.") A deep fis- 
sure observed in the median line on the 
upper surface of the brain, occupied by 
the falx cerebri of the dura mater. 

Fissu'ra Syl'vl-i* ("Fissure of 
Sylvius"), called also Fissu'ra Mag'- 
iia Syl'vii* ("Great Fissure of Syl- 
vius"). A fissure which separates the 
anterior and middle lobes of the cere- 
brum. It lodges the middle cerebral 

Fissu'ra Uin-bil-i-ca'lis.* ("Um- 
bilical Fissure.") The groove of the um- 
bilical vein, situated between the large 
and small lobes, at the upper and fore 
part of the liver. This groove in the 
foetus contains the umbilical vein. 

Fis'sure. [Fissu'ra; from Jin' do, 
fis' sum, to "cleave."] Any deep ex- 
tended depression. 

Fis'sure of the Spleen. The groove 
which divides the inner surface of the 
spleen. It is filled by vessels and fat. 

Fis'sus.* [From Jin'do, fis'sum, to 
"cleave."] Divided; cleft; cloven. 

Fist. Armat. = Fis'tula arma'ta* 
"A clyster pipe and bag fit for use." 

Fis'tu-la.* [Originally, a "pipe."] A 
sinuous ulcer, having an external open- 
ing often leading to a larger cavity, and 
slow to heal. A fistula is termed blind 
when it has but one opening, and com- 
plete if it has two, communicating with an 
internal cavity, and with the surface. 

Fis'tula in A'no.* (" Fistula in the 
Anus.") A fistula in the cellular sub- 
stance about the anus or rectum. 

Fis in -Eons. [Fistulo'sus; fromy?s'- 
tulu.] Of the nature of fistula. Also ap- 
plied to plants having many tubes. 

Fixed Air. See Carbonic Acid. 

Fixed Bodies. [Cor'pora Fix'a.] 
Substances which do not evaporate by 
heat, especially those which cannot be 
fused or volatilized : as carbon, silicon, etc. 

Fix'I-ty. [Fix'itas, a'tis.] A pro- 
perty by which bodies withstand the 
action of heat. See preceding article. 

Fl. = Flu'idus* " Fluid." 

Fla-bel'11-form. [Flabellifor'mis ; 
from fiabel'lum, a "fan."] Fanlike. 

Flacourtiaceav* fla-koor-te-a'she-e. 
[From Flacour'tia, one of tho genera.] 
A natural order of exogenous trees and 
shrubs, natives of the hottest parts of the 
East and West Indies. 

Flag, Sweet-Scented. See Acorus 

Fla-g-el'11-form. [Flag-ellifor 'mis ; 
from flagel'lum, a "little whip."] Re- 
sembling a little whip. A botanical 
term denoting " whiplike." 

Fla-g'el'lum.* [Diminutive offiag'- 
rum, a " whip."] Applied in Botany to a 
runner which is long and slender, like a 

Flake-White. The subnitrate of 

Flame. [Flam'ma.] The com- 
bustion of any substance yielding an in- 
flammable gas. 

Flank. (Fr. Flanc, floN«, the " side.") 
That part of the body between the false 
ribs and the Ossa innominata. 

Flash. A preparation used for color- 
ing brandy and rum, and giving them a 
fictitious strength ; it consists of an ex- 
tract of cayenne pepper, or capsicum with 
burnt sugar. 

Flat'n-lence, or Flat'u-len-cy. 
[Flatulen'tia; from fia'tus, "wind."] 
A collection of gas or wind in the sto- 
mach and bowels, from fermentation or 
chemical decomposition of the articles 
of food taken into the stomach. 

Flat'u-leut. [Flatulen'tus; from 



the same.] Having flatulence, or causing 

Fla'tus.* [From flo, fla'tum, to 
"blow."] Wind, or gas, in the stomach 
and bowels : flatulency. 

Flax. The Li'num usitatis'simum. 

Flax, Purging. The Linum cath- 

Fleam. [Flam'ma, or Flam'mnla.] 
An instrument for lancing the gums and 
for bleeding horses. 

Fleehisseur. See Flexor. 

Flesh. [Lat. Ca'ro, Car'nis; Fr. 
Chair, sheR.] The muscles, and generally 
the soft parts, of an animal. Sometimes 
applied to the fruit, leaves, etc. of plants, 
when of a thick consistence, somewhat 
like flesh. 

Flesh, Proud. See Proud Flesh. 

Fleshy. See Carxeus, and Car- 

Flex 'lie. [Flex'ilis: from flee' to, 
flex' um, to ''bend."] Flexible; easily 

Flex'ion. [Flex'io, o'nis ; from the 
same.] The state of being bent. 

Flex'or, o'r/->.* [From the same.] 
(Fr. Fleehisseur, fla'she^sUR'.) Literally, 
a "bender:" applied to muscles. 

Flex'or Carpi Ra-dl-a'lis.* (" Ra- 
dial Flexor of the Wrist.") See Pal- 
maris Magnus. 

Flex'or L.on'gus IMg-I-to'rum 
Pe'dis.* ("Long Flexor of the Fingers 
of the Foot.") It arises from the posterior 
surface of the tibia, and is inserted into 
the phalanges of the last four toes. It 
bends the toes, and extends the foot upon 
the leg. 

Flex'or Lon'gns Pol'11-cis.* 
(" Lung Flexor of the Thumb."') A muscle 
which arises from the anterior part of 
the radius and interosseous ligament, 
and is inserted into the second phalanx 
of the thumb. It bends the thumb and 

Flex'or Lon'gns Pol'licis Pe'dis.* 
("Long Flexor of the Thumb of the 
Foot, or Great Toe.") It arises from the 
posterior part of the fibula, and is in- 
serted into the second phalanx of the 
great toe. It bends the toe. 

Flex'u-ous, or Flex'u-ose. [Flex- 
uo mis: from the same.] Having many 
bendings, or turnings ; zigzag. 

Flint. [Si'lex.] A mineral consist- 
ing of silicious earth, nearly pure. 

Flint, Liquor of, or Liquor Sil- 
Vcnni. : " A name formerly given to the 
solution of silicated alkali. 

Floating-. See Xataxs. 

Floating Ribs. [Cos'Ue Fluc- 
tuan'tes.] The last two false rib.-', 

whose anterior extremities are not con- 
nected with the rest, or with each other. 

Floe'ci,*" the plural of floe' ens, a '• lock 
or little particle of wool, cotton," etc. 

Floc'ei Yol-i-tan'tes. The ima- 
ginary objects floating before the eyes, 
in cases of depraved sight. See BfvBCJB 

Floeeilatio,* flok-se-la'she-o. See 

Floe-eil-la'tion. [Floceilla'tio, 
o'nis; from floe'eus, a "luck of wool," 
the " nap of clothes."] The picking of 
the bedclothes, — a symptom betokening 
extreme danger. See Carphology. 

Floe'cu-lus, :; - otherwise called Lo'- 
bns 3»er'vi Fneu-mo-gas'tri-ei.* 
("Lobe of the Pneumogastric Nerve.") 
A term applied to the pneumogastric 
lobule of the cerebellum ; its form is that 
of a small foliated or lamellated tuft. 

Flooding-. [Hreinorrha'gia I'te- 
ri'na.] The popular term for uterine 
haemorrhage ; more particularly in con- 
nection with parturition. 

Flo'ra.- [From flos, flo'ris, a 

"flower."] Originally, the Goddess of 
Flowers. The Flora of any country (or 
district) is the entire assemblage of 
plants which nature has allotted to it. 
Also, a systematic description of those 

Flo'ral. [Flora'lis: from flos, a 
"flower."] Belonging to flowers. 

Floral Leaf. See Bractea. 

Flor'en-tine Or'ris. The Iris Flor- 

Flo'res.* (The plural of Flos, which 
see.) "Flowers." A term formerly used 
to denote such bodies as assume a pul- 
verulent form by sublimation or crystalli- 

Flo'res Axtimo'xii.* ("Flowers of 
Antimony.") They consist of small, 
elongated, and very brilliant crystals of 
the sesquioxide of antimony. 

Flo'res Bismu'thl* ("Flowers of 
Bismuth.") A yellowish oxide of bis- 

Flo'res Sul'phuris.* ("Flowers of 
Sulphur.") Sublimed sulphur. 

Flo'res Zix'cl- (" Flowers of Zinc") 
Oxide of zinc, or philosophical wool. 

Flo-res 'eence. [Florescen'tia; 
from flares' co, to "flower," to "flourish."] 
The act of flowering, in plants; also, the 
season of flowering. 

Floret. See Flosculus. 

Floridea?. See Ceramiace.e. 




Flo-rif er-ous. [Florif ems ; from 
fios, a "flower," and J'e'ro, to "bear."] 
Bearing flowers. 

Flos,* gen. Flo'ris. A "flower." 
That part of a plant which comprises 
the organs of reproduction, the essential 
parts of which are stamens and pistils. 
These in a complete flower are sur- 
rounded by two envelopes, of which the 
inferior or exterior is called the calyx, 
or cup ; the superior or interior is termed 
the corolla. See Corolla, and Calyx. 

Flos iE-ru'&i-nis.* ("Flower of 
Verdigris.") Cupri acetas, or acetate of 
copper, sometimes called distilled or 
crystallized verdigris. 

Flos'cu-lous. [FIosculo'sus; from 
fios'culus.] Having many florets : flos'- 

Flos'cu-lus.* [Diminutive of Jlos, a 
"flower."] A little flower; a floret. 

Flour. See Farina, and Pollen. 

Flower. See Flos. 

Flowers. See Flores. 

Flowers of Antimony, Sulphur, 
etc. See Flores. 

Flu'ate. [Flu'as, a'*;'*.] A combi- 
nation of fluoric acid with a base. 

Fluc-tu-a'tioii. [Fluctua'tio, 

o'nis; from, fiuc'tuo, fiuctua' turn, to " rise 
in waves."] Applied to the undulation 
of a fluid within the body, ascertained 
by the proper application of the fingers, 
or the hand, or by suceussion. 

Flu'icl. [Flu'iilus; from fiu'o, to 
" flow."] Having particles easily sepa- 
rable, yielding to the least pressure, and 
moving over each other in every direction. 

Flu'icl of Co-tun'iil-iis. It has been 
also called A'qna Labyrin'thi (" Water 
of the Labyrinth"), and by Brcschet, 
the perilymph. A thin gelatinous fluid, 
found in the bony cavities of the laby- 
rinth of the ear : so called from the name 
of the anatomist who first distinctly de- 
scribed it. 

Flu-id'I-ty. [Fluicl'itas, a'tis.] The 
quality of being fluid. 

Flu'i-dracliin. [Fluiclrach'ma ; 
from flu'iilus, "fluid," and drach'ma, a 
"drachm."] Sixty minims: a fluid 

Flu-id-un'cia* (-un'she-a). [From 
fiu'idus, and itn'cia, an " ounce."] Eight 
fluidrachms: a fluid ounce. 

Fluke. An intestinal worm. See 

Flu-o-bo'raic. [Fluobo'ras, ix'tis.] 
A combination of fluoboric acid with a 

Flu-o-bo'ric. [Fluobo'ricus; from 

fiuo'rium, "fluorin," and bo'rium, 
" boron."] Composed of fluorin and bo- 
ron. Applied to an acid. 

Flu'or, o'ris* [From fiu'o, to 
"flow # "] A flowing, or flux. Also, 
fluorin, a simple body, the existence of 
which is predicated on mere analogy. 
The term is sometimes applied to a dis- 
eased condition of the mucous secretion 
of the vagina. See Leucorrhcea. 

Flu'or Al'bus.* ("White Flux.") 
See Leucorrhcea. 

Flu'or Spar. (So called from its as- 
sisting the fusion of earthy minerals 
in metallurgic operations.) Derbyshire 
spar; properly, fluoride of calcium. 

Flu-or-a'tus.* Having or contain- 
ing fluorine: flu'orated. Hydrofluoric 
acid has been called jluorated hydrogen. 

Flu-or'ic. [Fluor'icus.] Belong- 
ing to fluorin. 

Fluor'ic Ac'id. An acid obtained 
by treating fluor spar with sulphuric 
acid. Owing to its destructive proper- 
ties, it has been termed phthore (from 
Qdoptos. "destructive"). 

Flu'o-ricle. A combination of fluorin 
with a base. 

Flu'or-in, or Flu'or-ine. [Fluo'- 
rium.] The supposed primary princi- 
ple of hydrofluoric acid, found chiefly in 
fluor spar. See Fluor. 

Flu-or'u-ret. [Fluorure'tum ; 

from fiuo'rium.~\ A combination of flu- 
orin with a simple body. 

Flu'vi-al, Flu'vi-a-tile. [Fluviaf- 
ilis; from fiu'vius, a "river."] Belong- 
ing to a river. 

Flux. [Flux'us; from fiu'o, flux' urn, 
to " flow."] Any excessive discharge 
from the bowels or other organs. Ap- 
plied in Chemistry to any substance 
used to promote the fusion of metals. 
See Flux. Chemical. 

Flux, Black. See Black Flux. 

Flux, Chem'i'Cal. A substance or 
mixture much employed to assist the 
fusion of minerals. Alkaline fluxes are 
generally used, which render the earthy 
mixtures fusible by converting them into 

Flux'ion. [Flux'io, o'nis; from 
fiu'o, flux' urn, to "flow."] The change 
of metals or other bodies from solid to 
fluid by the agency of heat; fusion. 

Flux'us Cap-il-lo'rum.* ("Flow- 
ing or Passing Away of the Hair.") A 
term applied by Celsus to alopecia, or 
the falling off of the hair. 

Fly Pow'cler. (Fr. Poudre a Moriches, 
poodn a inoosh'.) A black powder formed 



by the exposure of metallic arsenic to 
a moist atmosphere till it becomes partly 

Flying- Blisters. See Blisters, 

Fo'ciis,* plural Fo'ci. Literally, a 
"hearth" or "fireplace." Applied in 
Astronomy to the two points (Fo'ci) 
within the elliptical orbit of a planet 
round the sun. In Optics, the point of 
convergence of the rays of light after 
passing through a convex lens, or being 
reflected from a concave mirror. 

Fo?cimditas. See Fecundity. 

Fo?m-in'e-us." :;: " [From fcem'ina, a 
"woman."] Belonging to a female; 

Fcp-iiic'u-lum.* Fennel. The 
Pharmacopoeial name || for the fruit of 
Fceniculum rulyare, clulce, or officinale; 
the Anet hum fceniculum. Fennel-seed is 
a grateful aromatic, and is much used as 
a carminative, and especially to correct 
the action of other medicines, as senna, 
rhubarb, etc. 

Fcenic'ulum Dnl'ce,* Foenic'u- 
lum Ger-man'I-cuni.* The Anethum 
fceniculum, or sweet fennel. 

Foeticide, fe'ti-sid. [Fceiici'dium ; 
from foe'tus, and csc'do, to "kill."] The 
murder of the foetus in utero; criminal 

Fee'tus,* or Fe'tus. (Fr. Faix, fa.) 
The child in utero from the fifth month 
of pregnancy till birth. 

Foie (Fr.), fwa. See Liver. 

Folia. See FoLiuif. 

Folia Cer-e-bel'li.* [Yrom/o'lium, 
any sort of leaf.] An assemblage of 
gray lamina) observed on the surface of 
the cerebellum. 

Fo-li-ii'ceous. [Folia'cens: from 
fo'lium, a "leaf."] Full of leaves ; leafy. 

Foli-ate. [Folia'tus: from the 
same.] Clothed with leaves; leafy. 

Fo-il-a'tion. [Folia'tio,o'ju'«/ from 
the same.] The putting forth of leaves; 
arrangement of leaves in the bud. Also, 
the act of beating a metal into thin 

Folic, fo'le'. The French term for 
Insanity, which see. 

Fo-lif'er-OHs. [Foliif erus, or 
Folaf'erus; from. fo'lium, a "leaf," and 
fc'ro, to "bear."] Bearing or producing 

Fo'11-ole. [Foli'oluni.] Diminutive 
of Fo'lium. A little leaf, or leaflet. 

Fo'lI-um, :: plural Fo'la-a. [From 
(f,v\Xov, a "leaf."] The leaf of a plant. 
A thin plate of metal. 

Fol'H-cle. [Follic'nlns; diminu- 
tive of foi'lis, a "bag."'] A little bag. 
Applied in Anatomy to a very small 
secretory cavity. In Botany it denotes 
a simple pod opening by the inner 
suture, differing from the legume, which 
opens by both sutures. 

Fol-lic'u-late. [Follicula'tus ; 

from follic'ulus, a "follicle."] Having 

Fol-lic'w-Iose, or Fol-lic'u-lous. 
[Folliculo'sns; from follic'ulus, a 
"follicle."] Having numerous follicles. 

Folliculus. See Follicle. 

Fol-lic'u-lusA'er-is.* ("Little Bag 
of Air.") The space at the broad end of 
an egg. 

Fo-meii-ta'tion. [Fomcnta'tio, 
o'nis; from fo'veo, to "keep warm."] 
The application of any warm, soft, me- 
dicinal substance to some part of the 
body, by which the vessels are relaxed, 
and their morbid action sometimes re- 

Fo'mes,* gen. Fom'I-tis. [From 
the same.] Any porous substance capa- 
ble of absorbing contagious effluvia, as 
woollen clothing, etc. See Fomites. 

Fom'I-tes, ;i: " the plural of Fo'inos. 
Applied to goods, clothing, or other 
materials imbued with contagion. 

Fonction, f6N G, se-0N G \ The French 
term for Function, which see. 

Fong-osit^, fc-N^go'ze'ta'. The French 
term for Fungosity, which see. 

Foiig-ueux, fOH^gub/. The French 
term for Fungous, which see. 

Fong-us, f6x G, guss'. The French 
term for Fungus, which see. 

Fons Pul-sa'tll-is. ;;: " ("Pulsating 
Fountain.") The anterior fontanel, be- 
cause for years after birth arterial pul- 
sation maj' be there perceived. See 

Fon'ta-nel. [Fontanel 'la; diminu- 
tive of fons, a "fountain:" so named 
because the pulsating of the artery was 
imagined to resemble the bubbling of a 
fountain.] (Fr. Fontanelle, foN G, ta'neH'.) 
The quadrangular space between the 
frontal and two parietal bones in very 
young children. A smaller one, trian- 
gular, sometimes exists between the 
occipital and parietal bones. 

Fon-tic'n-liis.* [Diminutive of 

fona, a "fountain."] An issue, or arti- 
ficial ulcer. See Issue. 

Food. See Aliment, Alitura, and 

Foot. See Pes. 

Foot-Bath. See Pediluyium. 




Foot' -Jaws. The extremities of the 
last three pairs of feet in most Crus- 

Foot-Stalk. See Pedicel, Pedun- 
cle, Petiole. 

Fo-ra'anen,* gen. Fo-ram'I-aiis, 
nominative plural Fo-ram'I-na. [From 
fo'ro, to "bore a hole."] A hole, or 

Fora'men $ae'eum»* (" Blind 
Hole.") The hole at the root of the 
spine of the frontal bone ; so called from 
its not perforating the bone or leading 
to any cavity. Also the designation of 
a little sulcus of the brain, situated be- 
tween the Corpora pyramidalia and the 
Pons Varolii. 

Fora'men CaVcum (of Morg-ag-'- 
iii. mor-gan'ye). A deep mucous folli- 
cle, situated at the meeting of the papil- 
la circumvallatse upon the middle of the 
root of the tongue. 

Fora'men In-ci-si'vnm.* The 
opening immediately behind the incisor 

Fora'men Mag'num ©c-cip'i-tis.* 
("Great Opening of the Occiput.") The 
great opening at the under and fore part 
of the occipital bone, through which the 
spinal marrow passes, with its vessels 
and membranes. 

Fora'men of Mon-ro', Fora'men 
Com-mn'ne An-te'ri-us.* An open- 
ing under the arch of the fornix of the 
cerebrum, by which the lateral ventri- 
cles communicate with each other, with 
the third ventricle, and with the infun- 

Fora'men of Wins'low. An aper- 
ture situated behind the capsule of Glis- 
eon, first described by AVinslow, and 
forming a communication between the 
large sac of the omentum and the cavity 
of the abdomen. 

Fora'men O-va'le.* (" Oval Open- 
ing.") An Opening situated in the par- 
tition which separates the right and left 
auricles in the foetus. It is also called 
the Foramen op Botal. The same term 
is applied to an oval aperture communi- 
cating between the tympanum and the 
vestibule of the ear. 

Fora'men Paieumat'icum* (nu- 
in it'i-kiim). ("Pneumatic Foramen.") 
A large aperture near one end of the long 
air-bones of birds, communicating with 
the interior. 

Fora'men Ro-tiin'dnm.* ("Round 
Opening.") The round, or, more cor- 
rectly, triangular aperture of the inter- 
nal ear. This, and the Foramen ovale, 

are respectively synonymous with Fenes- 
tra oralis and Fenestra rotunda. 

Fora'men Sii'pra-Or-bit-a'ri- 

um.* ("Supra-Orbital Opening.") The 
supra-orbital hole or notch, situated on 
the ridge over which the eyebrow is 
placed. It gives passage to the super- 
ciliary artery. 

Fora'men Ve-sa'li-i.* ("Foramen 
of Vesalius.") An indistinct hole, situ- 
ated between the/orawe>i rotundum and 
foramen ovale of the sphenoid bone: it 
was particularly pointed out by Vesa- 

Fo-ram'I-na.* The plural of Fora- 
men, which see. 

Fo-rain'i-nat-ecl. [Foramina'tns ; 
from fora'men, a "hole."] Pierced with 
small holes. 

Fo-ram-in-if'er-ons. [Foramin- 
if'erus; from fora'men, a "hole," and 
fe'ro, to "bear."] Bearing or having 

For'ceps,* gen. For'cl-pis. [As if 
Fer'riceps; from fer'rum, "iron," and 
ca'pio, to "take."] Originally, a "pair 
of tongs or pincers." Applied in Ob- 
stetrics to an instrument consisting of 
a j)air of curved blades, for the purpose 
of grasping the head of the foetus and 
bringing it through the passages ? in cer- 
tain cases of difficult labor. Also, to 
various surgical instruments, of diverse 
construction, for seizing hold of objects, 
etc. Applied in Zoology to the claws of 
certain Crustacere. 

Forces of Medicines. See Dyn- 

Fore'-Arm. [Antibra'chiuni.] 

The cubitus, that portion of the arm 
between the elbow and wrist. In Orni- 
thology, the second part of the anterior 
extremity which supports the wing. 

Forehead. See Frons, and Sinciput. 

For'eigaa Bod'y. Any substance 
which is left in a wound and keeps up 
irritation, preventing its cure, as a bullet, 
a piece of broken glass, a splinter, nail, 

Fo-ren'sic Med'i-clne. Such parts 
of medicine as are connected with judi- 
cial inquiries. See Medical Jurispru- 

Fore-Skin. See Prepuce. 

Forgetfnlness. Sec Amnesia. 

Forked. See Furcate. 

Formate, For'ml-fite. fFor'mas, 
or For'mias, n'tis.] A combination of 
formic acid with a base. 

For'mic. [Formi'cus; from for- 
mi'ca, the "ant."] Applied to an acid 



obtained by distillation of ants and 

For-mi'ea.* Literally, an "ant." A 
term applied by the Arabians to Herpes, 
from its creeping progress. 

Formica Ru'fa. :;: " The ant, emmet, 
or pismire, which contains an acid juice 
and oil supposed to possess aphrodisiac 

For-ml-oa'tion. [Formiea'tio, 
o'nis, a tingling like the stinging of ants; 
from. fornix' ca, an "ant."] (Fr. Fourmille- 
vient, foon'niM'mox '.) A sense of prick- 
ing or tingling on the surface of the 

For-mic'ic. The same as Formic. 

For'mu-la. |: " [Diminutive of /or' ma, 
a " form."] A short form of prescription 
in practice, in place of the more full in- 
struction in the Pharmacopoeias. 

For'myle, Pcr-chlo'ricle of. The 
fluid substance Chloroform. 

For'nl-cate. [Forniea'tus ; from 
/or'nix, a " vault," /or'nicor, to " be 
arched."] Arched ; vaulted. 

For-nic'I-form. [Fornicifor'mis; 
from /or'nix, a "vault."] Resembling 
an arch, or vault ; vaulted. 

For'nix,* gen. For'ni-cis. An arch 
or vault. A white, fibrous, triangular 
substance of the brain beneath the 
Corpus eallosum and Septum lueidumj 
so called because it has a somewhat 
arched appearance: also termed Corjms 

Fos'sa.* [From /o'dio, /os'sum, to 
" dig."] Originally, a " ditch" or " fosse." 
A depression, or sinus. Also, the Puden- 
dum muliebrc. 

Fos'sa Hy-a-lo-i'tle-a.* [See Hy- 
aloid.] The cup-like excavation of the 
vitreous humor, in which the crystalline 
lens is imbedded. 

Fos'sa Iii-nom-i-iia'ta.* (" Un- 
named Fossa.") The space between the 
helix and the anthelix of the ear. 

Fos'sa Liaeh-ry-ma'lis.* ("Lach- 
rymal Fossa.") A depression in the 
frontal bone for the reception of the 
lachrymal gland. 

Fos'sa Jfa-vic-u-la'ris."* ("Navic- 
ular or Boat-Shaped Fossa.") The 
superficial depression which separates 
the two roots of the anthelix; also called 
Sca'pha, or "little boat." Applied also 
to the dilatation towards the extremity 
of the spongy portion of the urethra. 
Also, the name of a small cavity imme- 
diately within the fourchette. 

Fos'sa O-valis.* (" Oval Fossa.") 
The oval depression presented by tho 

septum of the right auricle of the 

Fos'sa Pi-tu-I-ta'rl-a.* (" Pitui- 
tary Fossa.") The sella turcica, or cavity 
in the sphenoid bone, for receiving the 
pituitary body. 

Fos'sa Sea-pho-i ties. • A term 
synonymous with Fossa Navicularis. 

Fos'sa Syl'vl-i.* ("Fossa of Syl- 
vius.") A designation of the fifth ven- 
tricle of the brain. 

Fos'sil. [Fos'silis; from /o'dio, /os'- 
sum, to "dig."] That which is dug out 
of the earth. Applied to organic re- 
mains, animal and vegetable, found in 
the strata of the earth. 

Fos-sil-if 'er-ous. [Fossiliferns ; 
from /os'sifis, and /e'ro, to " bear."] 
Bearing, or containing, fossil specimens. 

Fos-sil-I-za'tion. [Fossiliza'tio, 
o'nis; from /os'silis, "fossil."] The 
process of converting into a fossil. 

Fotus. See Fomentation. 

Fou, foo. The French term for In- 
sane, which see. 

Fourchette (Fr.), fooR'shett'. [Lat. 
Fur'cula.] Literally, a " fork." The 
posterior commissure of the Labia ma- 
jorapudendi. In Comparative Anatomy, 
the prominent portion in the centre of 
the plantar surface of the horse's foot, 
shaped like the letter V, called in com- 
mon language the " frog of the foot." 
Applied also to the breast-bone (merry- 
thought) of birds. 

Fourmi Moment, fooR'mel'moN 8 '. 
The French term for Formication, 
which see. 

Fousel Oil. See Fusel Oil. 

Fo've-ate. [Fovea'tus; from fo'vea, 
a "pit," a " depression."] Having a de- 
pression or depressions; pitted. 

Fo-ve'o-late, Fo-ve-o-la'rI-ous. 
[Foveola'tus, Foveola'rius: from 
fove'ola, diminutive of fo'vea, a "pit."] 
Having little unequal pits or depres- 

Fo-vil'la.* [Perhaps from /o'veo, to 
"foster;" because it fosters or keeps 
alive the vital principle in the plant.] 
The fecundating liquor contained in the 
grains of pollen. 

Fowler's Solution. See Liquor 

Fox'-Glove. The Digitalis pur- 

Frac-tu'ra.* [From /ran' go, /rac'- 
tum, to " break."] Fracture. A genus 
of the order Dialyses, class Locales, of 
Gallon's Xosology. In Surgery, the so- 
lution of continuity of a bone, generally 




by external force, but occasionally by 
the powerful action of muscles. 

Fracture. See Fractura. 

Fracture, Com'min-ut-ed. A frac- 
ture in which the bone is broken or 
crushed into several pieces. 

Fracture, Compound. See Com- 
pound Fracture. 

Frac'ture, Sim 'pie. A fracture in 
which the bone only is divided, without 
any external wound. 

Frse'na,*the plural of Fr^enum, which 

Frae'na Fp-I-glot'ti-dis.* ("Curbs 
of the Epiglottis.'') Three folds of mu- 
cous membrane which unite the epiglottis 
to the os hyoides and the tongue. 

FraVna of the Valvule of 
Bauhin. The name given by Mor- 
gagni to the ruga? or lines observed at 
the extremities of the lips of the valvule 
of Bauhin, or ileo-colic valve. 

Frsen'u-lum.' [Diminutive of frse'- 
num, a "bridle."] A "little bridle." 
Sometimes used for Fraenum. 

FraVnum,* plural Fra^'na. (Fr. 
Frein, fRaN<>.) Literally, a " bridle," or 
"curb." A part which performs the 
office of a check or curb. 

Frie'nnm Liab-i-o'rum.* The 
fourchette, or lower commissure of the 
labia majora pudendi. 

Frsc'nmn Un'giise.-* ("Bridle of 
the Tongue.") A fold formed at the under 
surface of the tongue by the mucous 
membrane lining the mouth. Infants 
are said to be tongue-tied when the 
fraenum is very short, or continued too 
far forward towards the tip of the 

Frse'num of the Un'der Up. 
[Frse'nam ILa'bii Inferio'ris.] A 
fold of the mucous membrane of the 
mouth, formed opposite to the symphysis 
of the chin. 

A triangular fold, connecting the prepuce 
with the under part of the glans penis. 

Fra-g-il'i-tas Os'si-mn.* A morbid 
"brittleness of the bones." See Molli- 
ties Ossiiw. 

Frag' men t. [Fragmen'tum ;from 
/ran' 'go, to " break."] A piece of a thing 
broken. A splinter or detached portion 
of a fractured bone. 

Frambcesia,* fram-be'she-a. (Fr. 
Framboise, a "raspberry.") The yaws. 
A genus of the order Fmpetigenes, class 
Cachexia, of Cullen's Nosology. 

Francoaceav* fran-ko-a'she-e. 

[From Fran'coa, one of the genera.] A 

natural order of exogenous herbaceous 
plants, found in Chili. 

Fran-gi-pan'. An extract of milk, 
for preparing artificial milk, made by 
evaporating skimmed milk to dryness, 
mixed with almonds and sugar. 

Frankeniaceav* fran-ke-ne-a'she-e. 
[From Franke'nia, one of the genera.] 
A small natural order of exogenous 
plants, found in Europe, Africa, and Aus- 

Frankincense. See Olibanum, 
and Thus. 

Frank. 'in-cense, Com'mon. The 
Abietis resina. 

Fra-se'ra.* American Columbo. The 
Pharmacopoeial name (U.S. Ph.) for the 
root of Frasera Walteri. 

Frax'I-nine. [Fraxini'na.] A 
crystallizable bitter principle obtained 
from the Fraximis excelsior, a species of 

Frax'i-nus.* (Fr. Frene, fRen or 
fRan.) A Linnsean genus of the class 
Po/i/gamia, natural order Oleaceie. The 

Fraxinus Ornus. See Orxus. 

Fraxinus Ro-tun-di-fo'li-a.* A 
tree from which manna is said to be ob- 

Freckle. See ^Estates, Ephelis, 
and Lentigo. 

Freez'ing Mix'ture. A mixture 
by which artificial cold is produced. 

Freez'ing Point. The point at which 
water freezes, being 32° above zero in 
Fahrenheit's thermometer; in Reaumur's 
and the Centigrade, it is taken as zero. 

Frein, fRaN°. The French term for 
FrjExum, which see. 

Frem'i-tus.* [From /re' mo, frcm'i- 
tum, to "roar," to "fret," to "murmur."] 
An irregular, rapid, oscillating commo- 
tion of the muscular system. 

French Ber'ries. The fruit of 
several species of lihamnus (or Buck- 
thorn), called by the French Graines 
d' Avignon (gRen or gnan dS,Ven , y6N 8 ') : 
they yield a yellow color. 

French Pol'ish. Gum lac dissolved 
in spirits of wine. 

French Red, or Rouge (roozh). 
Genuine carmine, mixed with fine sifted 
starch powder, according to the shade 

French White. The common de- 
signation of finely pulverized talc. 

Frene. Sec Fraxinus. 

Fri-a-bil'i-ty. [Friabil'itas, a'fi's/ 
from /ri'o, to "crumble."] The quality 
of being easily reducible into small pieces. 



Fri'ar's Bal-sam. Another name for 
the Tinctu'rn Iieazo'ini Gompos'ita, for- 
merly called Dal' Kfimum Traumat'icum. 

Fric'tion. [From fri'co, frir'tum, 
to "rub."] A therapeutical agent of 
great power, by means of which the circu- 
lation is stimulated, and medicinal appli- 
cations enter the pores of the skin. 

Fries'land Green. Otherwise called 
Brnns'ivick Green. An ammoniaco- 
muriate <>f copper. 

Frig-I-da'rl-um.* [From frig/idus, 
"cold."] Another name fur the cold 
hath. See Bath. 

Frigid Zone. The space between 
each Pular circle and the Pole. 

Frig'-o-rifie. [Frigorif icus; from 
fri'gus, "cold," and fa' do, to "make" 
or "cause."] Having power to make 

Fri'gus,* gen. Frig'o-ris. [From 
fri'geOf to "be cold.*'] Cold: trembling 
with cold. This term differs from Abjor, 
which implies suffering or starving with 

Fringe. See Fimbria. 

Fringed. See Fimbriate, Lacixi- 


Frit, or Fritt. The mass produced 
by the materials of glass, on calcination. 

Froissement, Bruit de, brwe deh 
fRwass'niux '. ("Sound of Rubbing.") ] 
A French term applied to certain sounds 
of the lungs or heart. 

Frond. [From f>'ons, frou'dis, a 
"leaf." or "green branch."] A term ap- 
plied to the leaves of ferns and other 
ervptogamic plants, from their partaking 
at once of the nature of a leaf and a 

Fron-des'eenee. [Frondeseen 'tia ; 
from from, / ron' dis, a "leaf."] The de- 
velopment of the leaves, or fronds of 

Fron-dif 'er-ons. [Fronds!" erus ; 
from frou8,frou'di8, a "leaf." and fe'ro, 
"to bear."] Bearing fronds. 

Fron:*.* gen. From! is. See Froxd. 

Frons, : - gen. Fron'tis. [Perhaps 
from i,'f3.Tiv(j, to "study."] The fore- 
head ; that part of the head between the 
eyebrows and commencement of the hairy 

Fron'tal. [Frontalis! from frons, 
the " forehead."] Belonging to the fore- 

Frost '-Bite. A state of numbness or 
torpefaction of a part of the body, caused 
by intense cold, which, unless relieved 
by proper remedies, is followed by the 
death of the part. In such eases it is 

very important that heat should not be 
applied suddenly. If a finger be frozen, 
the best remedy is to place it in water 
reduced almost to the freezing-point, by 
which means the frost is extracted very 

Frottement (Fr.), fnott'mon*'. A 
term signifying " rubbing." See Froisse- 

Frozen Sulphurie Aeid. Sec Gla- 
cial Sulphuric Acid. 

Frne-tif'er-ons. [Frue'tifer; 

from fme'tus, "fruit," and fe'ro, to 
"bear."] Bearing fruit. 

Frue-ti-fi-ca'tion. [Fruetiiiea'- 
tio, o'liit; from fructif'icv. fructifica'- 
tum, to ''make fruitful," to "bear fruit."] 
That part of a plant, embracing the or- 
gans appropriated to generation, and 
comprehending both flowers and fruit, 
terminating the old plant and beginning 
the new. 

Fru-giv'or-ous. [Frugiv'orus ; 
from frux, fru'rjis, "fruit," or "corn," 
and ro'ro, to " devour."] Eating or 
living on grains or seeds. 

Fruit. [From fru'or, fruc'tus, to 
"enjoy."] In Botany, the matured ovary, 
with all its contents and appendages. 

Fruit-Stalk. See Peduncle. 

Fs'u-ineii-ta'eeous. [Frumenta- 
eeus; from frumen'titm, "wheat."] Ap- 
plied to all plants that resemble wheat 
or corn. 

Fru-inen'tum.* AW kinds of corn 
or grain for making bread, especially 

Vrastm = i f ru8tiUa f fim.* "In small 

Frus'tiumu* That part of a pyramid 
or cone which remains when any part 
next the vertex is cut off by a plane 
parallel to the base. 

Fru-tes'eenee. [From fme'tus, 

"fruit."] The ripe or mature state of a 

Fru'tex,* gen. Fru'ti-eis. A shrub ; 
a plant whose branches are perennial 
and proceed directly from the surface of 
the earth, without any supporting trunk. 

Fru-ti-eose'. [Frutico'sus: from 
fru'tex, a "shrub."] Full of shrubs; 
like a shrub : shrubby. 

Ft. = Fi'at,* or Fi'ant* "Let there 
be made." 

Fueaeere,* fu-ka'she-e. [From Fu'ctu, 
a kind of sea-weed.] Sea-weeds. A natu- 
ral order of cryptogamous plants. 

Fu-eiv'cr-ous. [Fuciv'oras ; 

from fu'cits, a "sea-weed," and ro'vo, to 
"devour."] Living on sca-wecd. 




Fu'cns.* [From (pv>cos, " sea-wrack."] 
A Linnrean genus of the class Cryptu- 
gamia, natural order Fucacese. 

Fu'cns "Ve-sic-u-lo'sus.* The sys- 
tematic name of bladder-fucus, sea-oak, 
or sea-wrack. 

Fulcrum,* plural Fulcra. A 
"stay," or "prop." In the plural, the 
various appendages of a plant, as ten- 
drils, prickles, stipules. In Natural 
Philosophy, applied to a fixed point on 
which a lever rests. 

Ful-gu-ra'tion. [Fulgnra'tio, 

o'nis ; from ful'gur, "brightness," "light- 
ning."] The electrical phenomenon of 
flashes of light in the atmosphere un- 
accompanied by thunder. 

Fu-lig'Iii-ous. [Fuligino'sns ; 

from fuli'go, "soot."] Full of soot; 
sooty; smoky. 

Fu-li'go,* gen. Fu-lig'i-nis. The 
Latin term for " soot." 

Fuli'go Ug'ni.* (" Soot of Wood.") 
Wood-soot is the condensed smoke of 
burning wood. Made into an ointment, 
it has been found an efficacious remedy 
in some cutaneous affections, such as 
tetter, jysora, porrigo favosa, etc. 

Ful'ler's Earth. A variety of clay, 
containing about twenty-five per cent, 
of alumina, and so named from its being 
used by fullers to remove the grease 
from cloth before the soap is applied. 

Ful'mi-nate. [Ful'minas, n'tis.} 
A combination of fulminic acid with a 

Ful'mi-nat-ing Gold. [Au'nim 
Ful'minans.] The aurate of ammo- 
nia, or ammoniuret of the peroxide of 
gold. It is produced by precipitating a 
solution of gold by ammonia. 

Fulminating Mer'cu-r5 r . A pow- 
der obtained by treating the nitrate of 
mercury with alcohol. It is employed 
in the manufacture of percussion-caps. 

Fulminating Sil'ver. [Argen'- 
tuni Ful'minans.] An argentate of 
ammonia, prepared by leaving oxide of 
silver for ten or twelve hours in contact 
with a strong solution of ammonia. It 
is in the form of a black powder which 
is extremely explosive. 

Ful-mi-iia'tion. [Fulmina'tio, 
o'nis; from ful' men, "thunder," ful'- 
mino, fulmina'tum, to "thunder."] A 
quick explosion, with noise ; as of ful- 
minating powder, or the combustion of in- 
flammable gas with oxygen : detonation. 

I ul-miii ic. [Fiilmin'icus.] Ap- 
plied to an acid obtained from the fulmi- 
nate of silver. 

Fn-ma'rI-a Or-lic-I-na'lis.* Fumi- 
tory. (Fr. Fumetcrre, fiinVteV.) A plant 
common in Europe, and cultivated in 
the United States. An infusion of the 
dried leaves has been recommended in 
leprous affections. 

Fumariaceae,* fu-ma-re-a'she-e. 
[From Fuma'ria, one of the genera.] A 
natural order of exogenous herbaceous 
plants, found in many or all temperate 
climates. It includes the Coryd'alis and 
some others wbich are cultivated for 
their beauty. 

Fu-mi-ga'tion. [Fuiniga'tio, 

o'nisj from fit' in ign, fum iga' tu m, to "per- 
fume a place."] The employment of 
certain fumes for the purpose of counter- 
acting contagious effluvia. 

Function. [Func'tio, o'nis; from 
fun'gor, func'tus, to "fulfil an office."] 
(Fr. Fonction, f6xk , se-6x°'.) A power, 
or faculty, by the exercise of which the 
vital phenomena are produced. 

Func'tion-al »ss-ease'. A disease 
in which the function or secretion of an 
organ is vitiated, but its structure is but 
little if at all changed. 

Func'tions, Vi'tal. Functionsimme- 
diately necessary to life ; viz., those of 
the brain, the heart, the lungs, etc. ; 
whence these have been called the tripod 
of life. 

Fund'a-mcnt. [Fundamcn'tum ; 
from fun' d us, the "bottom of a thing."] 
The anus. 

Fun'gate. [Fun 'gas, a' tis.] A com- 
bination of fungic acid with a base. 

Fun'gi,* the plural of Fun'gus, a 
"mushroom." A large natural order of 
cryptogamous plants, of a very low or- 
ganization. They grow on dead and 
decaying organic bodies, and infest living 
plants. They are of great importance 
to man, either for their useful or mis- 
chievous qualities. 

Blight, mildew, and rust are caused 
by the ravages of microscopic fungi. 
The common mushroom and truffle are 
used as food. Many other fungi are 
dangerous poisons. The fungus called 
ergot is a valuable medicine for its spe- 
cific action on the uterus. See Pktmalia. 

Fun-gic'o-lns.* [From fun'gus, 

a "mushroom," and co'lo, to "inhabit."] 
Living on or in mushrooms. Applied in 
the plural neuter (Fungic'ola) to a family 
of coleopterous insects. 

Fun'gB-form. [Fungifor'mis ; 

from fun'gus, a "mushroom."] Resem- 
bling a mushroom. 

Fun 'gin. [Fnngi'na; from fun'gus, 



a "mushroom."] The residual fleshy 
substance of fungi, alter being subjected 
to the action of alcohol and water. 

Fun 'go id. [Fungoi'des; from fun' - 
gus, a "mushroom," and clcos, a "form."] 
Resembling a mushroom, or the disease 
termed fungus. 

Fungous. [Fungo'sus; from fun' - 
gus, a "mushroom.''] (Fr. Fongueux.) 
Having fungi, or the disease termed fun- 
gus/ resembling fungus. 

Fun'gus.* [Gr. <rroyyoj, or <r0oyyoj; 
Fr. Fongus, fOM^gttss'.] One of a natu- 
ral order of plants. (See Fungi.) Also, a 
redundant growth of flesh on an ulcer; 
proud flesh ; any large, soft, spongy ex- 
crescence arising from diseased structure. 

Fungus Cerebri. See Hernia Cere- 
bri, and ExcKrii.YLOCELE. 

Fun'gus Ha?m-a-to'des. ;: " [From 
aiiianli&K, "bloody."] "Bleeding Fun- 
gus,-" otherwise called Soft Cancer, !Me- 
dullary Sarcoma, Spongoid Inflamma- 
tion, etc. It is a cancerous affection of 
a very malignant character, spreading 
rapidly, and almost invariably fatal. 

Fu-nic'u-lus.* [Diminutive of fu'- 
nis, a "rope."] A botanical term ap- 
plied to the small filament, or podo- 
sperm, connecting the imperfect seed to 
the receptacle. Also, the navel-string. 

Fu'nis.* [From oxoTvos, a ''rope 
plaited from the bulrush" ?] Literally, 
a "rope." Generally applied to the Funis 
umbilicalis, or navel-string. 

Fu'nis Fni-bil-I-ea'lis.* (Fr. Cor- 
don ombilicale, koR'dix ' OM'be'le'kal'.) 
The umbilical cord; the means of com- 
munication between the foetus and the 
placenta. Its length is almost two feet. 
It consists of the umbilical arteries and 
vein, with the enveloping membranes, 

Funnel-Shaped. See Ixfuxdibuli- 


Fur'cate. [Furca'tus; from fur'ca, 
a "fork."] Divided into two parts; 
forked : dichotomous. 

Furoula. See Foerchette. 

Furfur, ur<'.s.-- : " [From far, " corn."] 
Bran, the husk or skin of wheat. The 
diseased condition of the head called 
dan dr iff, or scurf, a species of Pityriasis. 

Furfur Trit i-ci.- ("Bran of 
Wheat.") A material employed to 
make bread for dyspeptics. 

Fur-fur-a'ceous. [Furfura'eeus : 
from fur'fur, "bran," or "dandriff."] 
Resembling bran or dandriff. 

Fur-fur-a'tio* (fur-fur-a'ske-o), 

o'nis. [From fur'fur, "dandriff."] The 

state of having Pityriasis, or a scaliness 
of the skin. 

Fur'nace. [Fur'nus.] A fireplace 
employed for pharmaceutical operations. 
Furnaces are termed evaporatory when 
employed to reduce substances into vapor 
by heat; reverberatory, when so con- 
structed as to prevent the flame from 
rising; forge furnaces, when the current 
of air is determined by bellows. 

Furonele, or Froncle. See Fuiux- 

Fu'ror F-te-ri'nus.* Another term 
for Nymphomania, or Hysteromania. 

Furrowed. See Sulcated. 

Fu-run'cu-lus.* (Fr. Furonele, fu'- 
r6>'kl'.) A boil, or inflammatory tumor; 
a Main. 

Fusel Oil. [Al'eohol Ainj l'i- 

euin.] An oily, poisonous liquid, of a 
highly disagreeable smell and nauseous 
taste, produced in the manufacture of 
potato spirit, and of ardent spirit ob- 
tained from the various kinds of grain. 
It is valuable in Pharmacy as the artifi- 
cial source of valerianic acid. 

Fu'si.* The plural of Fuses, which 

Fu-si-bil'i-ty. [Fusibil'itas, mis.'] 
The capability of being fused. 

Fu'si-ble. [Fu'silis; from fun'do, 
fu'sum, to "pour," to "melt."] Capable 
of being made fluid by the application 
of heat. 

Fu'si-form. [Fusifor'mis : from 
fu'sus, a "spindle."] Resembling a 
spindle ; tapering. 

Fusion. [Fu'sio, o'n is ; from fun'do, 
fu'sum, to " pour," to " melt."] The act of 
melting, or state of being melted, by heat. 

Fu'sion, A'que-ous. The liquefac- 
tion of salts which contain water of crys- 
tallization, on exposure to increased tem- 

Fu'sion, Dry. The liquefaction pro- 
duced by heat after the water has been 

Fu'sion, Ig'ne-ous. The melting of 
anhydrous salts by heat without under- 
going any decomposition. 

Fus'tie. A yellow dye-wood, consist- 
ing of two kinds : Old fustic, the product 
of the Moras Tinctoria, or Dyer's Mul- 
berry, an American tree; and Young fus- 
tic, the Rhus Cot inns, or Venice Sumach, a 
shrub growing in Italy and the south of 

Fu'sus,* plural Fn'si. Literally, a 
" spindle." Applied in the plural to the 
papillae, through which, in the Arachnides, 
the delicate thread- pass. 

• 213 




G, or r, denoted, among Greek phy- 
sicians, Uncia, or an ounce. 

Gad'o-lin-ite. The name of a mine- 
ral, so called from the Swedish chemist 
Gadolin, who discovered it in the earth 
called yttria. 

Gad'n-in. [Oadui'na; from Ga'- 
dits mor'rhua, the ''cod-fish."] A peculiar 
substance found in cod-liver oil. 

Ga'dus.* A genus of fishes of the 
order Jugulares. 

Ga'tlus Mor'rtiu-a.*' The cod-fish, 
abounding in the northern seas, from 
the liver of which cod-fish oil is obtained. 

Ga-lac'ta-gogue. [Galactago'- 

gus; from yaXa, ydXaKrog, ''milk," and 
ayo), to ''lead or bring away."] Causing 
the flow of milk. 

Ga-lac'tl-a.* [From ya\a, yuXa/croj, 
"milk."] A genus in Good's Nosology, 
embracing defective, excessive, or morbid 
secretions of the milk : mislactation. 

Ga-lac'tic. The same as Lactic, 
which see. 

Ga-lac'tin. [Galacti'na ; fromydXa, 
yaXaicro;, "milk."] The coagulating prin- 
ciple of milk. 

Ga-lac-tir-rfice'a.* [From yaXa, 
"milk," and peu), to "flow."] An ex- 
cessive flow of milk. 

Ga-lac'to-^ele.* [From yd\a, " milk," 
and KrjXri, a " tumor."] A tumor or swell- 
ing containing a milky fluid. 

Gal-ac-tom'e-ter. [Galactom'e- 
trum; from ya\a, "milk," and /lerpov, a 
"measure."] An instrument for mea- 
suring or ascertaining the quality of 

Gal-ac-topli'a-gous. [Galactopli'- 
agus; from ya\a, "milk," and </><iyo>, to 
"eat."] Living on milk. See Lacti- 

Gal-ac-top5i o-rous. [Galactopli'- 
orus; from y.iXa, "milk," and tpipco, to 
"bear."] Milk-bearing; lactiferous. 

Ga-lac-to-poi-et'ic. [Galactopoi- 
et'icus; from yaka, "milk," and Troiku, 
to "make."] Milk-making, or milk-pro- 

Ga-lac-to-po'sl-a.* [From yaka, 
"milk," and mvw, to "drink."] Milk 

Gal'ba-nuin.* The Pharinacopoeial 
name || for a resinous substance obtained 
from an undetermined plant. It is ex- 
pectorant and antispasmodic, somewhat 
resembling ammoniac in its action. 

Gal'fou-lns.* A kind of cone, differ- 
ing from the strobile only in being 
round and having the heads of the car- 
pels much enlarged. The fruit of the 
juniper is a galbulus. 

Gale, gal. The French term for 
"itch." See Psora. 

Ga'le-a.* Literally, a "helmet." 
In Botany, the superior arched lip of 
ringent and personate corollas. A form 
of headache extending all over the head. 
In Surgery, a bandage for the head, 
somewhat like a helmet. Also, a larse 
vaulted membrane, movable, and cover- 
ing the jaws of orthopterous and some 
other insects. 

Ga'le-ate. [Galea'tus; from ga' ha, 
a "helmet."] Formed like a helmet; 

Ga-le'ga "Vir-gin-I-a'na.* A plant 
growing native in the United States, 
said to be diaphoretic and powerfully 

Ga-Ie'na.* [From yakziv, to "shine" 
or "glister."] Lead-glance, the native 
sulphuret of lead. See Molybdenum. 

Ga-len'ic. [Galen'icus.] After the 
manner of Galen, whose practice of 
medicine was remarkable for multiply- 
ing herbs and roots in the same compo- 

Galen's Bandage. A term some- 
times applied to the four-tailed bandage, 
or single split cloth. 

Galenx, gaTrh'. The French term 
for Psoric, which see. 

Galiaeea?,* ga-le-a'she-e, or Stel- 
latav* stel-la'te (because the leaves are 
placed round the stem in the form of a 
star). A natural order of exogenous 
herbaceous plants, found in cold and 
temperate climates. It includes Galium 
and Itubia tinctoria, which produces 

Gal-I-pe'a Cus-pa'rI-a.* The tree 
which, according to the London Phar- 
macopoeia, produces the Angustura bark. 

Galipe'a Of-fic-I-na'Iis.* The tree 
which, according to the United States 
and Edinburgh Pharmacopoeias, pro- 
duces Angustura or Cusparia bark. 

Gal'i-pot. An earthen pot, painted 
and glazed, wherein ointments, etc., are 
kept. Also, a resin obtained from tho 
several species of Pinus. 

Gall. The bile, or secretion of the 
liver. See Bile. 



Gall-Bladder. [Lat. Vesica Fel'- 

lis; Fr. Vealcule da I'iel, va'ze'kiil' dil 
fe-el'.] A membranous reservoir con- 
taining the bile, situated on the lower 
surface of the right lube of the liver. 

Gall-Duets. See Cystic Ducts. 

Gail-Xut. See Galla. 

Gall-Sick 'ucss. The remittent fever 
(otherwise called Wal'cheren Fe'ver) 
produced by marsh miasmata in the 
Netherlands; so named because accom- 
panied with a vomiting of bile. 

Gall'-Stone. A calculus formed in 
the gall-bladder. 

Galla,* plural Gal'lae. The Phar- 
macopceial name || for the nutgall, or 
galls, found on the branches of the 
Querctis infectoria. They are excres- 
cences caused by the sting of an insect 
belonging for the most part to the genus 
Cynipsj though the Chinese gall is said 
to be produced by an Aphis. 

Galls are powerfully astringent. Al- 
though sometimes prescribed in chronic 
diarrhoea and similar complaints, they 
are chiefly used in external applications, 
such as lotions, gargles, ointments, etc. 

Gal 'la?,* the plural of Galla, which 

GAl'Iate. [Gal'las, a'tts.] A com- 
bination of gallic acid with a base. 

Gal'lic. [Gal'licus; from Gal'lia, 
"Gaul."] Belonging to the French. 
See Gallicus Morbus. 

Gal'lic. [Gal'licus; from gal' la, a 
"gall-nut."] Belonging to galls. Ap- 
plied to an acid found in astringent vege- 
table substances, but very abundantly 
in the gall-nut. 

Gal-lic'o-lse.* [From y« J' fa, a "gall," 
and co'lo, to "inhabit."] Literally, "in- 
habiters of the gall-nut." A tribe of 
hymenopterous insects, or Diploleparise, 
which produce those excrescences on 
plants called galls. Latreille compre- 
hends all the insects of this tribe in one 
genus, viz. : Cynips. See Galla. 

Gal'11-cus Morbus.* ("French 
Disease.") Another name for Syphilis, 
which see. 

Gal-li-na'ceons. [Gallina'ceus ; 
from gal'lus, a " cock," or galli'na, a 
" hen."] Resembling the domestic hen. 
See Gallix.e. 

Gallitiaria?. See Galling. 

Gal-li'nar*itho plural of galli'na, a 
"hen"), or Gallina'ceous Birds. A 
family of birds so named from their 
affinity to the domestic hen. 

Gailinagiuis Caput. See Caput 

GaMI-na'g-o, inis.* [Probably from 
gal'lus, a "cock."] The Latin name for 
the wood-cock. 

Gal-vau'ic. [Galvan'icus.] Per- 
taining to galvanism. 

Galvau'ic Bat'te-ry or Trough. 
An apparatus for accumulating galvan- 
ism, consisting of plates of zinc and 
copper alternately fastened together, 
and cemented into a wooden or earthen- 
ware trough, so as to form a number of 
cells; the trough is then filled with di- 
luted acid. 

Galvan'ic Mox'a. A term applied 
by Fabre Palaprat to the employment 
of voltaic electricity as a therapeutical 
agent for producing the cauterizing ef- 
fects of the moxa. 

Gal'van-ism. [Galvanis'mns; 

from Professor Galvani, of Bologna, who 
first observed the manifestations of this 
fluid or principle.] A form of electricity 
usually developed or produced by the 
mutual action of various metals and 
chemical agents upon each other. The 
additional discoveries of Volta led to the 
term Vultaism, or Voltaic Electricity, 
and its effect on the muscles of animals 
newly killed, suggested the term Animal 

Gal-van-om'e-ter. [Galvanom'- 
etrum; from galvanism, and fiirpov, a 
"measure."] An instrument for ascer- 
taining the nature and degree of excite- 
ment produced by galvanic action. 

Gal-vau'o-seope. [Galvanos'co- 
pus; from galvanism, and ckottco}, to 
" observe."] An instrument capable of 
exhibiting electric phenomena. The 
term has been applied by M. Hall to a 
frog properly prepared and placed under 
certain conditions for experiment. 

Ganibir, or Gambier, gam-beer'. 
The Malay name of an astringent ex- 
tract procured from the Nau'clea Gam- 
bir (or Vhca'ria Gambir). The sub- 
stance called square catechu, and terra 
japonica, is the produce of this plant. 
See Catechu. 

Gamboge. See Gambogia. 

Gam-boge', A-mer'I-cau. A secre- 
tion similar to gamboge, yielded by seve- 
ral species of Vismia. 

Gam-bo'gi-a.* The Pharmacopceial 
name (U.S. and Dub. Ph.) for gamboge, 
or camboge ; the concrete juice of an 
undetermined tree. Gamboge is a power- 
ful hydragogue cathartic, and as such is 
often given in dropsy. It is also recom- 
mended as a remedy for the tape-worm. 
In large doses its action is extremely 




violent, and has sometimes proved fatal. 
See Cambogia. 

Gam-o-pet'al-ons. [Gamopet'a- 

lns ; from y«/wj, " marriage," or " union," 
and Tro-aXoi, a '"petal."] Having petals 
joined together by the borders. 

Gam-o-sep'al-ous. [Gamosep'a- 
lus; from ya^o;,-, "marriage," or "union," 
and sep'ahun, a " sepal."] Having sepals 
joined together by their borders. 

Gang'li-form. [Ganglifor'mis ; 
from gang' lion.'] Of the nature, like- 
ness, or appearance of a ganglion. 

Gan'gll-on. [Lat. Gan'glion; Gr. 
yayyXiov, a " knot."] An enlargement 
in the course of a nerve, resembling a 
knot. Also, a collection of vesicular 
neurine which serves as a centre of ner- 
vous power to certain fibres connected 
with it. Applied in Surgery to an en- 
cysted tumor occurring on a tendon or 
aponeurosis, sometimes on the knee, or 
on the back of the hand or foot. Also, a 
genus of the order Tumores, class Lo- 
cales, of Cullen's Nosology. 

Gan'glion Isn'par.* A small gan- 
glion on the coccyx. 

Ganglion of Gasser. See Gasse- 
rian Ganglion. 

Ganglion of Meckel. See Meckel, 
Ganglion of. 

Gan-gli-on'ic. [Ganglion 'iens ; 
from gan'glion.] Pertaining to a ganglion, 
or to ganglions ; consisting of ganglions. 

Ganglionic Sys'tem, or Ganglionic 
Nerv'ous Sys'tem. A name applied to 
the Trisplanchnic (or Great Sympathetic) 
nerve, with its system of ganglia, consti- 
tuting, according to Bichat, the nervous 
system of organic life. See Organic. 

Gan-gli-on'I-ca.* [From yayy\iov, a 
"nerve-knot."] A class of medicinal 
agents which affect the sensibility or 
muscular motion of parts supplied by 
the ganglionic or sympathetic system of 

Gangrrcna. See Gangrene. 

Gan-graVnaO'ris.* ("Gangrene of 
the Mouth.") A name for Stomacace, 
Oancrum Oris, or canker of the mouth. 

Gan'grene. [Lat. Gangra^'na; 
Gr. y'lyypawa, from ypaivu), or ypaoi, to 
"gnaw," to "consume."] (Fr. Gangrene, 
go.\a'gRen' or goN Q, gRan'.) The state of 
incipient mortification. It is sometimes 
termed hot mortification. See next article. 

Gan'grene, Hot. [GangraVna 
Cal'ida.] A name applied by some 
writers to that form of mortification 
which is preceded or accompanied by 
inflammation, in other words, to gan- 

grene proper : while they term that which 
is unattended by inflammation cold gan- 

Gan'grene, Humid. [Gangra?'- 
na Hu'inida.] A term applied to that 
form of the disease in which the affected 
part contains more or less of decomposed 
or other fluids. In dry gangrene (G'an- 
grrc'na Sic'ca), these fluids are not pre- 
sent, or only in very small quantity. 
The latter form, being frequently found 
to affect old people, has been sometimes 
called Gangrecna Senilis. 

Gaping. See Pandiculatio. 

Gar'an-clne. [From Garance, ga'- 
roxss', the French name of "madder."] 
The coloring matter of madder, mixed 
with the carbonized residue resulting 
from the action of the oil of vitriol on 
the woody fibre and other constituents 
of madder. It is a brownish or puce- 
colored powder used in dyeing. 

Gar-ein'I-a.* [Named after Dr. 
Garcin.] A Linnasan genus of the class 
Dodeeandria, natural order Gutti/env. 

Garcin'ia Cain-bo'gi-a,* or Gar- 
cin'ia Cam-DO-gi-oI'des.* A plant 
considered to afford the best gamboge. 
See Cambogia, and Gambogia. 

Gar 'diner's Al-i-men'ta-ry Prep- 
a-ra'tion. A nutritious article, con- 
sisting of very finely-ground rice meal. 

Garg. = Gargaris'ma* A "gargle." 

Gar-ga-ris'ina, Otis,* Gar-ga-ris'- 
mum,* Gar-ga-ris'mus. ;;: [From yap- 
yapuw, to "wash the throat."] A wash 
for the throat: a gar'gle. 

Gargle. See Gargarisma. 

Gar'lic. The common English name 
of the plant Al'lium sati'vum. Its bulb- 
ous root or roots constitute what are 
termed the cloves of garlic. 

Gar'rot. (Fr. a "stick," a "kind of 
lever.") A cylindrical piece of wood, or 
ivory, for tightening circular bandages. 

Garryacea?,* gar-re-a'she-e. [From 
Garrya, one of the genera.] A small 
natural order of exogenous shrubs, found 
in North America. 

Ga'rum.* A sauce or pickle made 
by the Romans, from the yapos, a small 
fish. It resembled the modern anchovy 
sauce in nature and use. 

Gas. gass. [From the Anglo-Saxon 
gast, "breath," "wind," "spirit."] An 
aeriform, elastic fluid. 

Gaseous, gaz'e-us. [Gaseo'sns.] 
Belonging to gas; of the nature of gas. 

Gaseous Pulse. See Pulse. 

Gas'i-form. [Gasifor'mis.] Hav- 
ing the form or nature of gas. 



Gas-om'e-ter. [Gasom'ctrnm ; 

from gas, and nirjtov, a "measure."] A 
measurer of gas. Usually applied, how- 
ever, to a reservoir for containing gas. 

Gas-se'ri-anGan'gli-oii. The semi- 
lunar ganglion. A ganglion of the fifth 
pair of nerves, first discovered by Gasscr. 

Gas'ter (Gr. yaarrjp). The Greek 
name for the stomach. 

Gas-ter-an-gem-phrax'is.* [From 
yaoriip, the "stomach," ayyog, a "vessel," 
and eppipatis, an "obstruction."] Conges- 
tion of the blood-vessels of the stomach. 

Gas-ter'ic. The same as Gastric, 
which see. 

Gasteropoda, or Gasteropods. See 
next article. 

Gas-ter-op'o-dus.* [From yaarrjp, 
the "belly," or "stomach," and nov>, a 
"foot."] Gasterop'odous. Applied in 
the plural neuter (Gasterop'oda) to a 
class of Mollusks which crawl by means 
of a fleshy disk on their belly. The 
common snail belongs to this class. 

Gas-ter-os'to-inus.* [From yaarrjp, 
the "stomach," and aroiia, a "mouth."] 
Gasteros'tomous. Having a mouth in 
the belly, or stomach. Applied to a 
species of Tivnia, or tape-worm. 

Gas-traVmi-a.* [From yaoriip, the 
"stomach," and al^a, "blood."] Con- 
gestion of the veins of the stomach, and, 
so, nearly synonymous with Gastcran- 

Gas-tral'&i-a.* [From yaoriip, the 
"stomach," and aXyo;, "pain."] Pain in 
the stomach : gastral'gy. 

Gas-trel-co'sis.* [From yaarrjp, the 
"stomach," and cXkocd, to "ulcerate."] 
Ulceration of the stomach. 

Gas-tren-cepb-a-lo'ima, aft*«.* 

[From yaarrjp, the '•stomach," and en- 
cephalo'ma, a "tumor of brain-like sub- 
stance."] A brain-like fungus of the 

Gas-tren-ceph-a-lo'sas.* The for- 
mation and progress of gastrenccplia- 

Gas-tren'cliy-ta.* [From yaarrjp, 
the "stomach," and iyxtw, to "pour 
in."] A stomach-syringe, or stomach- 

Gas'irio. [Gas'tricns; from yaorfjn, 
the "stomach."] Belonging to the sto- 

Gas'trie Fe'ver. A name given by 
some to bilious fever, which was thought 
to depend on gastric derangement. It 
is the Meningo-gastric of Pincl. 

Gas'trie Juice. [Siic'cusGas'tri- 
cus.] The juice secreted in the stomach, 

by the action of which on the food, 
digestion is carried on. 

Gas'trl-cism. [Gastricis'mus; 

from yaarrjp, the "stomach."] A term 
for gastric affections in general; but 
usually applied to the theory that all 
diseases are caused by the accumulation 
of impurities in the stomach and bowels, 
suggesting their removal by vomiting 
and purging. 

Gas-tric'o-la.* [From yaarrjp, tho 
"stomach," and co'lo, to "inhabit."] 
Literally, an "inhabitant of the sto- 
mach." Applied to those CEstridie (the 
common bott, for example) the larva) 
of which are found in the intestines of 
various animals. 

Gas-tril'o-quns.* [From yaarrjp, 
the "stomach," and lo'quor, to "speak."] 
The same as Ventiuloquous, which 

Gas-tri'tis, idis* [From yaarrjp, the 
"stomach."] Inflammation of the sto- 
mach. A genus of the order Phlegma- 
sia, class Pyrexise, of Cullen's Nosology. 

Gas'tro-cele."*" [From yaarrjp, the 
"stomach," and KijXrr, a "tumor."] Her- 
nia in which a portion of the stomach is 
protruded: Hernia ventriculi. 

Gas-tro-eho'li-a.* [From yaarrjp, 
the "stomach," and xoXrj, "bile."] Bil- 
ious disease of the stomach. 

Gas-tro-clso-lo'sis.* [From the 
same.] Gastric bilious fever. 

Gas-troc-iie'niwis.* [From yaarrjp, 
the " stomach," or '• belly," and Kvrjprj, the 
"leg."] (Fr. Gastrocuemien, gas'trok'- 
na'me-aNG'.) Literally, "belonging to 
the belly (or calf) of the leg." The name 
of a muscle constituting the chief part of 
the calf of the leg. 

Gas-tro-col'I-ca.* [From yaarrjp, 
the "stomach," and col'ica, the "belly- 
ache."] Severe colic-like pain in the 
stomach. Sometimes applied to neuralgia 
of the stomach. 

Gas-tro'des.* [From yaarrjp, the 
"stomach."] A term used in Compara- 
tive Anatomy and Botany, and applied to 
that which has many swellings like the 
belly, or conjoined with a belly. 

Gas-tro-dyai'i-a.* [From yaarrjp, the 
"stomach," and devvrj, "pain."] Spas- 
modic pain in the stomach. 

Gas-tro-en-ter-i'tis.* [From yaoriip, 
the "stomach," and zvrcpnv, an "intes- 
tine."] Inflammation of the gastroin- 
testinal mucous membrane. 

Gas-tro-ep-I-plo'ic. [From yaarrjp, 
the "stomach," and i-i-Xoov, the "omen- 
tum."] Belonging to the stomach and 




omentum, as applied to a branch of the 
hepatic artery, lymphatic glands of the 
abdomen, etc. 

Gas'troid. [Gastroi'des; from yaa- 
Ti'ip, the "stomach," and eiSog, a "form."] 
Resembling the belly, or stomach. 

Gas-trol'I-thus.* [From yaarop, the 
"stomach," and 'XiOog, a "stone."] A 
calculus in the stomach: a gas'trolith. 

Gas-ia*or©-£5 r - [Gastrolo'gia; from 
yaa-fip, the "stomach," and Aoyo>, a "dis- 
course."] A dissertation on the stomach, 
its structure, function, etc. Also, the 
science of the stomach. 

Gastromalacia,* gas-tro-ma-la'- 
she-a. [From yaarijp, the "stomach," 
and naXaxos, "soft."] Softening of the 
stomach; a disease occurring in infants, 
and usually preceded by hydrocephalus, 
acute exanthematous disease, or some dis- 
ease of the respiratory organs. 

Gas-tron'o-sos,* or Gas-tron'o- 
stis.* [From yaarijp, the "stomach," and 
vdaoi, a " disease."] Disorder of the 

Gas-ts'O-paih'ic. [Gasiropatn'i- 
eus.] Belonging to gastropathy. 

Gas-trop'a-thy. [Gastropathi'a ; 
from yaarijp, the "stomach," and irados, 
"affection," or "disease."] Disease of 
the stomach. 

Gas'tro-pe'ri-o-dyn'I-a..* [From 
yajT>ip, the "stomach," nepioSog, a "pe- 
riod," and dbvvz), "pain."] A disease said 
to be peculiar to India, attended with 
severe neuralgic pains, returning at in- 
tervals. So distressing are the paroxysms, 
that they are supposed to be produced 
by the terrible weapon of Siva, the deity 
of destruction. 

Gastropodus. See Gasteropodus. 

Gas-tror'rlia-gy. [Gastrorrlia'- 
gia; from yaarijp, the "stomach," and 
ftfiyvvfii, to "break" or "burst," to "break 
through."] Escape of the contents of 
the stomach through a lesion of its seve- 
ral coats; also, the oozing of blood from 
its internal surface. 

Gas-tror'rlia-phy. [Gastror'rha- 
phe, or Gastrorrha'phia; from yaarop, 
the "stomach," or "belly," and pacpfi, a 
"suture."] The sowing of wounds which 
penetrate through the belly. 

Gas-tror-rbee'a.* [From yaarfip, the 
"stomach," or "belly," and peio, to 
"flow."] Undue increase of the secre- 
tion of the mucous glands of the sto- 
mach; also, a flux from the belly. 

Gas-tros'co-py. [Gastrosco'pia ; 
from ycurrrip, the "belly," and OKOnzoi, to "ex- 
amine."] Examination of the abdomen. 

Gas-tro'sis.* [From yaarfip, the 
"stomach."] A name given by Alibert 
to a family including all diseases of the 

Gas-tro-splen'ic O-nieii'ta. A 
term applied to the lamina? of the peri- 
tonaeum which are comprised between 
the spleen and the stomach. 

Gas-tros'to-my. [Gastrosto'mia ; 
from yaarijp, the "stomach," and ardpa, 
an "orifice."] The operation of form- 
ing an artificial opening into the sto- 

Gas-tro-tom'ic. [Gastrotom'i- 
cus.] Belonging to gastrotomy. 

Gas-trot'o-my. [Gastroto'mia; 
from yaarijp, the "stomach," or "belly," 
and rk\ivui, to "cut."] The operation of 
cutting open the abdomen, as in the 
Cassarean section; also, cutting through 
the stomach itself. 

Gas-try-pal'gl-a.* [From yaarijp, 
the " stomach," two, " under," " in a slight 
degree," and aKyog, "pain."] Slight or 
gentle pains in the stomach. 

Gas-try'per-pa-thi'a.* [From yaa- 
rfip, the "stomach," vnkp, "above," "ex- 
cessive," and rrados, "disease."] Severe 
affection of the stomach. 

Gas-try-po-pa-thi'a.* [From yaa- 
rfjp, the "stomach," wo, "under," and 
-dOog, "disease."] Slight affection of the 

Gateau Febrile, ga'to' f&'brel'. The 
French term for Ague Cake, which see. 

Gath'er-ing. The same as Abscess, 
and Suppuration. 

Ganl-the'ri-a.* The Pharmacopoeial 
name (U.S. Ph.) for the leaves of Gaul- 
the'ria procum! bens. 

Gaul-tlier'ic Ac'id. The heavy oil 
of partridge-berry, or Gaultheria pro- 
cumbens, formerly a constituent of the 
commercial oil of wintergreen. It com- 
bines with bases, and forms salts called 
gaultherates. The light oil of partridge- 
berry is called gaultherylene. 

Gayacine. See Guaiacin. 

Gaz. See Gas. 

Gazifoa'Bii. See Gasiform. 

Gazomcter. See Gasometer. 

Ge'ine (or Ge'ic) Ae'ad. [From yea, 
"earth," yinvog, "earthy."] A namo 
given by Berzelius to humus, or vegetable 
mould, the result of the decomposition 
of vegetable substances. 

Gel-a-ti^'en-ous. [From gclat'iua, 
"gelatine," and yewau), to "produce."] 
Yielding gelatine, or forming the gelatin- 
ous structures of the body. 

Gel'a-tlne. [Gelat'ina; from ge'lo, 



gela'tum, to "congeal," to "harden."] 
Jelly. A substance obtained from bone, 
curtilage, sinew, ligament, skin, cellular 
tissue, and serous membrane, by long- 
continued boiling in water. The glue 
and isinglass of commerce are forms of 

Gel'atine Cap'sules. Capsules pre- 
pared from a concentrated solution of 
gelatine, and filled with medicines. 
When swallowed, the capsules dissolve 
in the gastro-intestinal juices, and the 
nauseous taste of the medicine is 

Gelatine, Sugar of. See Glyci- 

Gel-a-tin'i-form. [Gelatinifor'- 
niis.] llesembling gelatine. 

Ge-lat-i-no'sus." ;;: " [From gelat'ina, 
"gelatine."] Gelatinous. Like gela- 
tine, or full of gelatine. Applied in the 
plural masculine (Gclatino'si) to an order 
of Polypi. 

Ge-iat'I-nous. [Gelatino'sus.] 

Like gelatine ; composed of gelatine. 

Gelat'inous Tis'sues. Tissues 
which yield to boiling water a substance 
which, on cooling, forms a jelly, or may 
be called gelatine. They are chiefly 
found in the cellular membrane, the 
membranes in general, the tendons, 
ligaments, bones, cartilages, etc. 

Gelaiio ( je-la'she-o), o'ms.* [From 
gc'lo, gela'tum, to "freeze."] Literally, 
a " freezing." Sometimes applied to the 
rigid state of the body in catalepsy. 

Gel. Quav.= Grelat'ind quu'vis* " In 
any kind of jelly." 

Gel-se'inl-um.* Yellow jasmine. 
The Pharmaeopoeial name for the root 
of Gelse'tnitim sempervi'rens. This plant 
has been placed in the secondary list of 
the U.S. Pharmacopoeia for 1S60. 

Gemelli. See Gemellus. 

Ge-mel-H-flo'rus.* [From gemel- 
lus, " double," or " twin," and jlos, a 
"flower."] Having flowers disposed 
two and two: gemelliflo'rate. 

Ge-mel'lus.*" plural Ge-mel'li. [Di- 
minutive of gem'inus, "double."] Ap- 
plied to the Gastrocnemius exiemua mus- 
cle, because it has a double origin. 

Gemini. Sec Gemixus. 

Gein'iniflo'rus.* See Gemelli- 


Gem'I-nus. :: plural Gem'i-ni. " Dou- 
ble," or " twin." Applied to certain parts 
of plants when in pairs. Applied also to 
the gemelli muscles, and to leaves, etc. 

Gem'ma.* A bud which contains 
the rudiments of a plant in a latent state 

till the season favors its evolution. Also, 
a precious stone ; a gem. 

Gem-ma'ceous. [Gemma'ceus; 

from gem' ma, a "bud."] Belonging to 
buds; having buds. 

Gem-ma' tion. [Geinma'Uo.o'im; 
from gem' ma, a "bud."] The state or 
process of budding; the arrangement 
of leaves or petals in a bud. 

Gem-mif 'er-ous. [Gemmif 'erus ; 
from gem' ma, a "bud," or "gem," and 
fe'ro, to " bear."] Bearing buds, or con- 
taining gems. 

Gem-mi-fi-ea'tion. [Gemmifica'- 
tio, o'nis; from gem' ma, a "bud," and 
fa'cio, to "make."] The manner in 
which the bud or gem is developed. 
Also, synonymous with Ramification. 

Gem-ml-flo'rus.* [From gem' ma, a 
"bud," and Jlos, a "flower."] Having 
flowers like buds: gemmifio'rate. 

Gem-mi-for'mis.* [From gem' ma, 
a "bud."] Bud- or gem-like: gem'mi- 

Geni-mip'a-i'ons. [Gemmip'arns; 
from gem' ma, a "bud," and pa'rio, to 
"bring forth."] Applied to the multi- 
plication of the species by buds, or gem- 
mulea, arising from germs, as exemplified 
in the vegetable kingdom and in many 
of the Infusoria. 

Gem-mu-la'f ion. [Gemmula'tio, 
o' iiis ; from gem'mula, a "little bud."] 
A kind of reproduction consisting in 
simple growth and development with- 
out the agency of sexes. See Gemmip- 

Gem'mule. [Gem'mula : diminu- 
tive of gem' ma, a "bud."] The rudiment 
of the stem, afterwards becoming stem 
and branches : a plumule. 

Ge'na.* plural Ge'na?. [From yews, 
the "cheek-bone."] (Fr. Joue, zhoo.) 
The cheek, or cheeks, forming the late- 
ral walls of the mouth. They are com- 
posed chiefly of muscular tissue, lined 
internally with a mucous membrane. 

Genoives, zhox<» v seV. The French 
term for the "gums." See Gingiva. 

Gen-e-an'thro-py. [From ytvt'x, 
"birth," and auApumog, a "man."] The 
same as Axthropoo ex v. 

Gen'e-ra,* plural of Gexts, which see. 

Gen'er-al I*raoti'tion-ei\ A term 
applied to those practitioners in England 
and Wales who do not profess to advise 
as pure physicians, or to act as pure sur- 
geons, but perform in their daily voca- 
tion the duties of both, with those of the 
obstetrician in addition. 

Gen-er-a'tion. [Genera'tio, o'nis ; 




from gen' ero, genera' tarn, to "beget."] 
The act of reproducing ; reproduction. 

Generation, Fissiparous. See 
Fissiparous Generation. 

Generation, Organs of. In 
woman, the external are the Mom veneris, 
labia, perinseum, clitoris, and nympkse; 
the internal, the vagina, uterus, ovaria, 
and Fallopian tubes; in man, the penis, 
testes, vesiculse semiuales, vasa deferentia, 
and prostate gland. 

Ge-nerlc. [Gener'icus.] Belong- 
ing to the same genus. 

Ge-ne'si-al. [Genesialis ; from 
ykveaii;, "origin," "generation."] Be- 
longing to generation. 

Gen-es'ic-us.* Belonging to genesis. 

^len'e-sis.* [From yevo), to " be 
born."] Birth, origin, or generation. 

Genet des Teinturiers. See Ge- 
nista TlNCTORIA. 

Ge-net'i-ca. ;;: [See Geneticus.] The 
name of a class in Dr. Good's Nosology, 
comprising diseases connected with the 
sexual function. 

Gen-et'I-cus.* [From yeicaig, "gene- 
ration," or yivi>aw, to "beget."] Belong- 
ing to the procreative function : genet'ic. 

^Je-ne'va.* [From Gene'va, where 
first made.] (Fr. Genievre, zheh-ne-evR' 
or zh'ne-avR'.) Gin, distilled from malt 
or rye, and afterwards subjected to the 
same process with juniper-berries. A 
spurious kind, from turpentine and car- 
damom-seeds, with very few, if any, 
juniper-berries, is largely consumed in 
the English metropolis, etc., as British 

Gen-ie'u-late. [Gcnicula'tus; 

from genie' ulum.] Bent like a little 
joint, or like the knee. 

Ge-nie'u-lum.* [Diminutive of ge'- 
nu, the "knee."] A small knot or joint; 
a little knee. 

Ge'nl-o-. [From yhttov, the "chin."] 
A prefix denoting attachment to, or con- 
nection with, the chin. 

Ge-nis'ta Tinc-to'ri-a.* ("Dyers' 
Broom.") (Fr. Genet des Teinturiers, 
zh'na da taN^tu're-a'.) A shrub culti- 
vated in Europe and the United States, 
and sometimes used in medicine. 

Geni-tal. [Genitalis: from gig' - 
no, gen'itum, to "beget."] Belonging to 

Gen'i-tals. [Genitalia, plural 
neuter of Genitalis; from the same.] 
The organs or parts contributing to 
generation in the male or female. See 
Generation, Organs op v 

Genl-to-. [From aenita'lia.] A pre- 

fix denoting connection with the genital 

Gen'i-to-Cru'ral. The name of a 
nerve proceeding from the first lumbar, 
and dividing into an internal branch, 
which accompanies the spermatic cord ; 
and an external, which is distributed 
into filaments at the crural arch. 

Gemieticns. See Geneticus. 

Genou. See Genu. 

Gentian. See Gentiana Lutea. 

Gentiana,* jen-she-a'na. [From 
Gen'tius, a king of Ulyria.] The Phar- 
macopceial name || of the root of Gentiana 
lutea. Gentian is an excellent bitter 
tonic, and is particularly adapted to 
cases of simple debility of the digestive 

Gentia'na Cat-es-ba^'i.- Blue gen- 
tian. The Pharmacopoeial name (U.S. 
Ph.) for the root of Gentiana Cateebsei. 

Gentia'na L.u'te-a,* Gentia'na 
Ru'bra.* The gentian-plant; felwort. 

Gentia'na Ra'dix.* ("Gentian 
Root.") See Gentiana Lutea. 

Gentianacete,* jen-she-an-a'she-e. 
[From Gentia'na, one of the genera.] A 
natural order of exogenous herbaceous 
plants, found in nearly all parts of the 
world. Their characteristic property is 
intense bitterness, which resides in the 
root, stem, leaf, etc., and renders them 
tonic, stomachic, and febrifugal. The 
gentian-root is an example. Some spe- 
cies are prized for their beauty. 

Gen-ti-an-a'ceous. [Gentiana'- 
ceus.] Resembling the Gentian plant. 
See GentianacEjE. 

Gen-tl-a'nre Liii'te-se Ra'dix.* 
(" Root of Gentiana Lutea.") See Gen- 

Gentianin, jen'she-a-nin. [Genti- 
ani'na.] The bitter principle of the 
plant Gentiana lutea. 

Gentianius, or Gentianus. See 

Ge'nn,*" plural Gen'u-a. (Fr. Ge- 
nou, zheh-noo'.) The knee; the articu- 
lation of the leg with the thigh. 

Gen'u-a,* the plural of ^Je'nu, tho 

Gen'ua Vfil'gg** [From val'gus, 
"crooked," or "bowed."] ("Bowed or 
Crooked Knees.") The deformity vul- 
garly callcl knock-Jcnees. 

Ge'nus,* gen. Gen'e-ris.* [From 
yho;, a "family."] A group or assem- 
blage of species subordinate to a class 
or order. 

Ge-o-een'trie. [Geoeen'tricus ; 
from yn, or yea, the "earth," and Ktvrpiris, 



"centric."] Ilaving the earth for the 
centre. Applied to the place in which 
any heat inly body, as seen from the 
earth, appears. 

Go'odo. [Geo'dos; from yfj, or yea, the 
"earth."] Belonging to earth; earthy. 
Applied in Mineralogy to a stone contain- 
ing a cavity usually lined within with 
crystals, but sometimes containing loose 
earth or a nodule of stone. The term 
Qeode is also applied to the cavity itself. 

Ge-od'o-sy. [Geodae'sia ; from yfj, 
or yea, the "earth," and cai'w, to "divide."] 
That science by which the extent and 
figure of the earth (or of a portion of its 
surface) are ascertained. 

Go-of-tra?'a.* [Named after Dr. 
Geojfroy.] A Linna?an genus of the 
class Diadelphia, natural order Legu- 
minosae, or Fabacese. 

Gooiirae'a In-or'mis.* The syste- 
matic name of the cabbage-tree. 

Go-o-g-en'i-ons.- Belonging to ge- 
ogony : geogen'ic. 

Geogeny. See Geogoxy. 

Go-og-nos'tio. [Goog-nos'ticns.] 
Belonging to geognosy. 

Go-og'no-sy. [Googno'sia; from 
yfj, or yea, the " earth," and yvucn$, 
"knowledge."] The knowledge or 
science of the structure of the globe. It 
may be regarded as essentially the same 
as Geology, which see. 

Ge-og'o-iiy, or Ge-og'o-ny. [Ge- 
ogo'nia; from yrj, or yea, the "earth," 
and yei/ci), to "be born."] The doctrine 
of the formation of the earth. 

Ge-og'ra-phy. [Googra'phia ; 

from yii, or yea, the " earth," and ypfya), 
to "write."] A description of the known 
world, its mountains, seas, rivers, parts, 
limits, situation, and all other remark- 
able things belonging to it. 

Go-ol'o-gy. [Goolo'gia; from yv, 
or yea, the "earth," and Aoyoj, a "dis- 
course."] That branch of science which 
treats of the structure or formation of 
the earth, including the rocks, strata, 
etc., of which it is composed. It is dis- 
tinguished from Mineralogy by treating 
of mineral substances in the aggregate, 
while Mineralogy is chiefly confined to 
the consideration of particular species. 

Go-o-mot 'rie, Go-o-mol'ri-oal. 
[Goomet'ricus.] Belonging to ge- 

Ge-om'o-try". [Goomo'tria ; from 
yrj, or yea, the "earth." and uerpeio, to 
"measure."] Originally, the art of 
measuring the earth, or any distance or 
dimensions on it. Xow applied to the 

science of quantity and extension, irre^ 
spective of matter. 

Go-on 'o-m$'. [Goono'mia: from 
yii, or yea, the "earth," and t'o/jo?. a 
"law."] That branch of general Physics 
which treats of the laws regulating the 
changes that have taken place, or are 
now taking place, in the structure of the 
earth, or in the atmosphere. 

Go-oph'I-lus. :;: [From yrj, or yea, 
the "earth," and cfctAoj, to "love."] 
Earth-loving. Applied as a specific name 
to plants that grow on the earth, to dis- 
tinguish them from others of the same 
genus or order growing on trees, etc. 
Also applied in the plural neuter (Ge- 
oph'ila) to a division of Gasteropoda that 
live upon the land. 

Goor'gi-a Bark. The bark of the 
Pinckneya pubens, an American plant, 
used as a substitute for Cinchona. 

Ge-ra'ni-a, :;: plural of Go-ra'ni-uni, 
forming the Jussieuan name of a natural 
order of plants. See Gekaniack.e. 

Goran iaeoa?,* je-ra-ne-a'she-e, or 
Ge-ra'nI-a.* A natural order of exoge- 
nous plants, including the Geranium. An 
astringent principle and an aromatic or 
resinous flavor characterize this order. 

Ge-ra'iil-um.* Cranesbill. ThePhar- 
macopoeial name (U.S. Ph.) for the rhi- 
zoma of Gera'nium macula' turn. 

Go-rat'i-cus.* [From y>7pa?,"old age."] 
Belonging to old age. Applied (in the 
plural, Gerat'ici) to an order of diseases. 

Germ. [Ger'mon, Ger'minis.] 
The first principle of any thing that has 
life, whether animal or vegetable. Ap- 
plied in Botany to the corculuta or embryo 
of a germinating seed, lying between 
the cotyledons, and constituting the exact 
point from which the life and organization 
of the future plant are to spring. 

Gor'nian Sil'vor (called by the Chi- 
nese Paekfong;). The white alloy of 
nickel, formed by fusing together one 
hundi-ed parts of copper, sixty of zinc, 
and forty of nickel. 

Gor'nian Tin'dor. (Fr. Amadou, 
a'ma'doo'.) A substance prepared from 
the Polyp'orus f omenta' r ins and ignia'- 
rius, by cutting the fungi into slices, 
beating, and soaking them in a solution 
of nitre. 

Ger'mon.* gen. Ger'im-iiis. The 
rudiment of the young fruit and seed of 
vegetables at the base of the pistil; also 
the same as Germ, which see. ' 

Gorminal ^lombrano. See Blas- 

Ger-ini- nation. [Gormina'tio, 




o'nis; from ger'mino, germina' turn, to 
u bud."] The act of sprouting. 

< i t* v- in i n 'a-tlve. i i «>r m i na i i \ us : 
from the same.] Having power to bud, 
or develop. 

Ger-o-co'mi-a.* [From yepas, " old 
age," and /co/^a), to "care for."] That 
department of hygiene which treats of 
the regimen and medical attention pro- 
per for old age. 

Gerofle. The same as Girofle. 

Ger-on-tox'on.*' [From yepoyu, yipov- 
ros, an " old man," and rd£oi>, a " bow."] 
The same as Arcus Senilis, which see. 

Gesiieraceav ;: 'jes-ner-a'she-e. [From 
Gesne'ra, one of the genera.] A natural 
order of exogenous plants (shrubs or 
herbs), found in India, Europe, etc. 

Ges-ta'tion. [Gesta'tio, o'nis; from 
get' to, gesta'tum, to " carry often," to 
" carry about" (from ge'ro, ges'tum, to 
" carry").] The condition of a pregnant 
female ; pregnancy ; gravidity, or uterine 
gestation. Also, applied to a species of 
exercise without bodily exertion ; as 
swinging, riding in a carriage, or sailing. 

Ge'um.* A Linna3an genus of the 
class Icosandria, natural order Rosacese. 
Also, the Pharmacopceial name (U.S. Ph.) 
for the root of Ge'ian riva'le (Water Avens). 

Ge'um Ur-ba'num.* The herb 
avens, or bennet. 

G. G. G. = Gum'mi Gut'tae Gam'biee.* 
" Gamboge." 

Gib-bi-for'mis.* [From gib' bus, a 
" hump on the back."] Resembling a 
hump : gib'biform. 

Gib-bos'I-ty. [Gibbos'itas, a'tis; 
from gib' bus, " crooked," or " bossed."] 
The state of being irregularly swelled 
or bunched : crookedness. 

Gib'bous. [Gib 'bus; from vSog, the 
"hump on a camel's back."] Convex; 
bunched out. 

Giddiness. See Vertigo. 

Gil-le'nI-a.* The Pharmacopceial 
name (U.S. Ph.) for the root of Gille'nia 
trifolia'ta, and of Gille'nia stipula'cea. 

Gilliesiaceae,* jil-le-se-a'she-e. 

[From Gillie'sia, one of the genera.] A 
small natural order of endogenous and 
bulbous plants, found in Chili. 

Gil-li-flow'er, or Gil'ly-Flow'er. 
The Dian'thus caryopliyl'lus. 

Gills. [From gu'la, the "throat." 
L:it. Bran'chia?.] The organs of res- 
piration in fishes. See Branchiae. 

Gimberuat's (jim-ber-nats'; Sp. 
pron. Hem-beR-nat') liig'a-ment. The 
broad, thin, triangular insertion of Pou- 
part's ligament. 

Gin. See Geneva. 

Gin'ger. The root of Zingiber offici- 

Gin-gl'va.* [Derived, according to 
some, from gig' no, to "beget," because 
they seem to produce the teeth.] (Fr. 
Gencive, zhox G> sev'.) The gum; the 
highly vascular, fleshy substance cover- 
ing the alveoli, and necks of the teeth. 

Gin-gi-vi'tis, idis* [From gingi'ca, 
the "gum."] Inflammation of the gum. 

Gin'gly-moid. [Guiglymoi'des; 
from ytyyXi'ftdi, a "hinge," and ticos, a 
"form."] Resembling a hinge; hinge- 

Gin'gly-mus.* [Gr. yiyyXr/id?.] A 
species of diarthrosis. A hinge-like ar- 
ticulation, in which the bones move upon 
each other in two directions only, viz. : 
forwards and backwards. Examples 
occur in the elbow, the wrist, the knee, 
the ankle, the lower jaw, etc. 

Gin'seng. [A Chinese word, signi- 
fying, it is said, the " power of man ;" so 
called because it is supposed to increase 
virility.] The Chinese name of the root 
of the Pa'nax quinquefo'lium. See Panax. 

Girofle, zhe'rofl'. A French term for 
the " clove." See Eugenia. 

Gizzard. [Ventriculitis Callo'- 
sus.] The proper stomach of birds. 

Gla-bel'la.* [Diminutive of gl a' bra, 
the feminine of gla'ber, " smooth."] The 
small space between the eyebrows, and 
immediately above a line from one to 
the other; also called Intercilium. 

Gla-bel'lar. [Glabella'ris.] Be- 
longing to the glabella. The same as 

Glabrous. [Gla'ber; from y\a<pv- 
pog, " fair."] Without hairs or pubes- 
cence ; smooth. 

Glace, glass. The French term for 
"ice." See Glacies. 

Glacial, gla'she-a.1. [Glacia'lis; 
from gla'cics, "ice."] Pertaining to ice; 
like ice; icy. The term is often applied 
to acids existing in a crystalline form like 

Gla'cial A-cet'ic Ac'id. The strong- 
est acetic acid which can be procured. 
It exists in a crystallized state under 50° 
of Fahrenheit, and contains 79 per cent. 
of real acid. See Acetvm. 

Gla'cial Phos-pbor'ic Acid. [Ac'- 
idum Phospbor'icuin Glacia'le.] 
A colorless, glass-like substance, some- 
times used as a tonic and refrigerant. It 
has been placed on the primary list of 
the Materia Mcdica in the U.S. Pharma- 
copoeia for 1860. 



Glaeies.* gla'she-ez. [From gelas'co, 
to '"freeze."] The Latin term for "ice," 
or congealed water. 

Glad'i-ate. [Gladia'tus ; from 
fjhi'dius, a "sword."] Sword-like ; ensi- 

Gla'di-us Pis-to-rl-en'sis.* (A 
'• Pistorian Sword-Knife.") A bistoury : 
so called because the town of Piatori was 
once famous for their manufacture. See 

Glaire, or Glair. The white of egg. 

Glair in, or Glair'ine. [Glairi'na.] 
A peculiar vegetable or animal sub- 
stance, somewhat resembling dried albu- 
men (or glaire), produced at the sulphu- 
reous spring of Aix, in Savoy. 

Glance. A name given to certain 
minerals which have a metallic or pseudo- 
metallic lustre, as glance coal, etc. 

Gland. [Glans, Glan'dis: from 
glans, an "acorn."] An organ consist- 
ing of blood-vessels, absorbents, and 
nerves, for secreting or separating some 
particular fluid from the blood. Also, 
the bulbous extremity of the penis and 
clitoris. In Botany, applied to a secre- 
tory vessel. 

Gland, Pain of. See Adexalgia. 

Glanders. See Farcy. 

Glau di-form. [Glandifor'mis.] 
Formed or shaped like a gland. The 
same as Adfniform. and Adenoid. 

Glan'du-la. ;|: " [Diminutive of glans.] 
A little gland: a glan'dule. 

Glaiulula Prostata Muliebris. 
See Corpus Glaxdelosem. 

Glan'du-la? Ag-gre-jjfa'ta?.* or 
Glan'duhe Con-gre-ga'tav* ("Ag- 
gregated or Clustered Glandules.") See 
Peyer's Glands. 

Glan'dula? An-ti-pros-tat'I-cav :: 
The antiprostatic glandules or glands. 

Glandular Brnnneri. See Brun- 
ker's Glands. 

Glandular Cowperi. See Glandu- 
l.e Antiprostaticje. 

Glaudula? 3Ieibomii. See Meibo- 
mian GXANDS. 

Glandular Myrtiformes. See Ca- 

Glandula? Xabothi, Glandular 

Xabotliiana*. See Xabotii's Glands. 

Glandular Odorifera?. See Tysoxi 

Gland elk. 

Glandnla* Pacehionia?. See Pac- 
chioni.e, Glandel.e. 

Glandnlip Solitaria?. See Brex- 
xer's Glands. 

Glandular Tysoni. See Tysoxi 

Glan'dn-lar. [Glandularis ; 

from r/lan'dtrfa.] Pertaining to, or like, 
a gland, in appearance, function, or 

Glan du-lous, [Glandulo'sus; 

from fjlan'dula.] Having little eleva- 
tions like glands. 

Glans. See Gland. 

Glans Oi-tor'I-dis.* A term ap- 
plied to the extremity of the clitoris. 

Glans Pe'nis.* The nut-like head 
of the Mem' brum viri'le. 

Glaserian Fissnre, or Fissnre of 
Glaserins. See Fissura Glaserii. 

Glass. See Cyathes. 

Glass, Sol'u-ble, is formed by com- 
bining potash or soda with silicic acid 
or silica, without any third ingredient. 
It presents the usual vitreous aspect, but 
is easily dissolved in water. It is em- 
ployed as a kind of paint for paper, 
cloth, wood, etc., to prevent or retard 
their inflammation on the contact of an 
ignited body. 

Glauber's Salts. [Sal Glau beris.] 
The sulphate of soda. 

Glau-eo'ma, atts.* [From yXavKoq, 
"blue green," also "light gray."'] Dim- 
ness or defect of vision from opacity of 
the vitreous humor. 

Glau-eo-mat'I-cus.*' Pertaining to 

Glau-eom'a-tons, or Glau-eom'a- 
tose. [Glaucomato'des, Glaueom- 
ato'sns; frmn glauco'ma.J Having 
glaucoma, or like glaucoma: green. 

Glau-eo'sis.* Another name for 
Glaucoma, which see. 

Glau 'eons. [Glau 'ens: from 

yXavKOs, a " blue green," or " light gray."] 
Light gray. Applied to leaves or fruits 
covered With a whitish bloom which is 
easily rubbed off, as the cabbage-leaf or 
the plum. 

Gleet. [Anglo-Saxon Glidan, to 
"glide," to "flow down gently."] A 
thin matter issuing out of ulcers, but 
generally applied to a result of gonor- 
rhceal disease. 

Gle'noid. [Glenoi'des: from ykijpri, 
a "cavity," and eldos, a "form."] Re- 
sembling a pit or cavity. 

Gleueose. See Glucose. 

Gli'a-din. [Gliadi'na; from yXia, 
"glue."] One of the constituents of 
vegetable gluten. 

Glis'son. Cap'sule of. [Cap'sula 

Glisso'nii.] A thin, strong sheath of 

peritonaeum surrounding the vessels of 

the liver, and entering the transverse 

I fissure, throughout the entire organ. 




Glo'bate. [Globa'tus; from glo'bus, 
a "ball."] Shaped like a ball. 

Glo'bose. [Globo'sus; from glo'bus, 
a " ball."] Round like a ball; globular. 

Glob'u-lar. [Globula'ris ; from 
glo'bus, a "globe."] Like a globe. 

Glob'ule. [Glob'ulus; diminutive 
of glo'bus, a "globe."] Applied to such 
particles of matter as are of a globular 
or spherical figure, like the globules of 
the blood, or of milk. 

Glob'u-liu, or Glob'u-lme. [Glob- 
uli'na; from glob'ulus, a "globule."] 
The colorless substance which remains 
after the red coloring matter has been 
removed from the globules of the 

Giob'u-lism. [From glob'ulus, a 
"little globe," or "pill."] A name for 

Glo'bus Hys-ter'I-cus.* (" Hyster- 
ical Ball.") A sensation as if a ball 
were ascending in the throat, caused by a 
portion of air arising in the oesophagus, 
and prevented from escaping by spasm. 

Glo'bus Major.* The head of the 

Glo'bus Mi'nor.* The lower en- 
largement of the epididymis. 

Glo-chitl'i-ate, Glo'«hin-ate. 

[Glocliidia'tus, Glochina'tus; from 
yXw^'f, the "point of a dart."] A botani- 
cal term signifying "barbed," bent back 
at the point, like the barb of a fish- 

Gloiu'er-ate. [Glomera'tus; from 
glom'ero, glomera'tum, to "wind on a 
ball" (from glo'mus, a "clue," or 
"ball").] Crowded together; congre- 
gated. Applied to glands formed of a 
clue, as it were, of sanguineous vessels 
having an excretory duct but no cavity. 

Glom'e-rule. [Glomerulus; di- 
minutive of glo' mus, a "clue of thread."] 
A botanical term signifying a small tuft 
or capitulum, mostly in the axilla of the 

Glos'sa.* [Gr. yAwo-a.] The tongue; 
the chief organ of taste. See Toxgte. 

Glos'sa-gra.* [From yAdxrcra, the 
"tongue," and aypa, a "seizure."] Vio- 
lent pain in the tongue; nearly the same 
as glo8salyi'i. 

Glos-sal'gi-a.* [From yAwcro-a, the 
"tongue," and H\yoq, "pain."] Pain in 
the tongue. See Glossagra. 

Glos-sal'g-i-cus.* Belonging to 
glossalgia : glossal'gic. 

Glos-sau'thrax, stcis* [From y\'2j- 
aa, the "tongue," and 0*6(10%, a "burning 
coal."] Carbuncle of the tongue, of 

rare occurrence in human beings, but 
not unfrequent in some domestic ani- 

Glos-sep-I-glot'ti-cus.* [From 

y\coaaa, the "tongue," and epiglot'tis.] 
Belonging to the tongue and epiglottis. 
Applied to a ligament : glossepiglot'tic. 

Glos-sit'i-cus. ;: Belonging to glos- 
sitis : glossit'ic. 

Glos-si'tis, ieJts.* [From yk&ooa, the 
"tongue."] Inflammation of the tongue. 

G!os-so-cat'o-ehus.* [From ykSkma, 
the "tongue," and xarixto, to "hold 
down."] An instrument for depressing 
the tongue. 

Glos'so-cele.* [From yAwo-cra, the 
"tongue," and K>j\rj, a "tumor."] Ex- 
trusion, or a hypertrophied condition of 
the tongue, causing it to be partially 

Glos-soc'o-mum.* [From yAwa-o-a, 
the "tongue," and ko/uo>, to "guard."] 
Formerly, a case for the tongue of a 
hautboy; but, metaphorically, a kind 
of long box or case for containing a 
fractured leg. 

Glos-sog-'ra-pby. [Glossogra'- 
pbia; from yAcoo-aa, the "tongue," and 
ypwpio, to "write."] A description of tho 

Glos-so-hy'al. [Glossobya'lis ; 
from yAwfftra, the "tongue," and hyoi'des, 
"hyoid."] Applied by Geoffroy St. 
Hilaire to the posterior eomua of the 
hyoid bone, and by Owen to the Os lin- 
guale in birds and fishes. 

Glos-so-i'des.* [From y\waaa, the 
"tongue," and c26os, a "form."] Re- 
sembling the tongue: glos'soid. 

Glos-sol'o-gy. [Glossolo'gia; from 
yXcmra, the "tongue," and Ady^, a "dis- 
course."] A treatise on the powers and 
functions of the tongue; the science of 
the tongue. Also used nearly sj-nonj'- 
mously with Terminology. 

Glos-sol'y-sis.* [From yAwo-c-a, the 
"tongue," and Awn?, a "solution."] Pa- 
ralysis of the tongue. See Glossoplegia. 

Glossoniautia,* glos-so-man'she-a. 
[From yAuo-o-a, the "tongue," and fiavreia, 
a "divination."] Prognosis from the 
state of the tongue. See Glossoscopia. 

Glosso-Pliaryng-eal. See Glosso- 

Glos'so-Pliar-jn-ge'al Xerves. 
Another name for the eighth pair. 

Glos'so-Pbar-y^u-g-e'ns.*" [From 
yhocraa, the "tongue," and (papvyl, the 
"pharynx.'*] Belonging to tho tongue 
and pharynx. A synonym of the con- 
strictor superior of the pharynx, from 



its origin in the root of the tongue, and 
its insertion into the pharynx. 

Glos-so-pJe'£i-a. i; [From y\S>coa, 
the ''tongue," and --•Xrjyjj, a "stroke."] 
Paralysis of the tongue: glos'soplegy. 

Glos-sop-to'sis.* [From yXowra, the 
"tongue,"' and irraatg, a ''falling."] A 
falling or lengthening of the tongue. 

Glos-sor-rIia'£i-a."* [From y\waaa, 
the "tongue," and pijyvv/xi, to "burst 
forth."] An incomplete term, intended 
to mean haemorrhage from the tongue. 

Glos-sor-rlia'ptal-a.* [From yXoxraa, 
the "tongue," and pa<bf), a "suture."] 
The suture, or sewing up of a wound, of 
the tongue. 

Glos-sos-co'pi-a.* [From ykuxma, the 
"tongue," and amnio), to "examine."] 
Examination of the tongue, as a princi- 
pal means of diagnosis: glossos'copy. 

Glos-so-stapn-y-li'nus.* [From 
yXwao-a, the "tongue," and ora<hv\fi, the 
"uvula."] A designation of the constric- 
tor isthmi faucium, from its origin in the 
tongue and its insertion into the uvula. 

Glos-sos-te-re'sis.* [From yXwoaa, 
the "tongue," and arepiw, to "deprive."] 
Excision or extirpation of the tongue. 

Glos-sot'o-my. [Glossoto'mia; 
from y\'2aoa, the "tongue." and TCfifw, to 
"cut."] Dissection of the tongue. 

Glos-sy'per-tro'phi-a.* [From 

yXwaaa, the "tongue." and hi/pertro'jjhia, 
"hypertrophy."] Hypertrophy of the 
tongue: glossyper'trophy. 

Glot-tl-do-spas'mns.* [From glot'- 
ti*. and spas' mus, a "spasm."] Spasm 
of the glottis. 

Glot'tis, idia.* [Gr. yXwrn?, the 
small chink or aperture of a pipe.] The 
aperture of the larynx. 

Glot-ti'tis. :;: ' Inflammation of the 

Glu-ei'na,* or Glu'clne. [From 
yXwcvj, " sweet."] One of the primitive 

Glu-ean'i-um,* or Gln-ci'num.* 
The metallic base of glueina. 

Gln'cose. [Fi-om yX»«-uj, "sweet."] 
A kind of sugar obtained from grapes; 
also from starch and sulphuric acid. 

Glne. [Lat. Gluten, or Glu'ti- 
nuni: Gr. y\ia, "paste," or "glue."] 
A jelly obtained by boiling the parings 
of hides and other offal. 

Gln-co-su'rl-a.* [From glucose, and 
evpo:>, " urine. "] Applied to the urine in 
diabetes mellitus. 

Gln-ma'ceous. [Gluma'ceus; 

from din' ma, a "glume."] Having 
glumes; like a glume. 

Glnme. [Glu'ma; from glu'ho, to 
"pull off bark."] The husk of corn; 
chaff; a species of calyx peculiar to 
corn and grasses. 

Glumous. See Glumaceotts. 

Glu-tae'us.* [From yXo«r*5j, the "but- 
tock."] (Fr. Fessier, fes'se-a'.) The name 
of three muscles forming the greater part 
of the fleshy mass beneath the ischia. 
The}' are termed the Glutseiie maximtis, 
the Glutseua medius, and the Glut sens mini- 
mus. Belonging to the buttock : glute'al. 

Glu'ten,* gen. Glu'ti-nis. Glue. 
Usually applied to vegetable gluten, or 
the residue after the farina of wheat haa 
been deprived of its starch ; paste. 

Glu'ten, An'i-mal. The same as 
Gelatine, which see. 

Gluten, Vegetable. See Gluten. 

Glu'tin, or Glu'tlne. [Gluti'na; 
from glu'ten, "glue."] A distinct form 
of gelatine obtained from common glue, 
of which it forms the chief ingredient. 

Glutineux. See Glutinoes. 

Glu'tin-ons. [Lat. Glutino'sus; 
Fr. Glntineux, glu'te'nrh'.] Having the 
properties of gluten; gluey; adhesive. 

Glutinum. See Glee. 

Glu-ti'tis, id is.* [From ykovro^, the 
"buttock."] Inflammation of the but- 
tocks, or of the glui&i muscles. 

Glye/er-id, or G15 r e/er-Ide. A com- 
pound of glycerin with a fatty acid. 

Glye/er-in, or Glye/ei*-ine. [Gly«s- 
eri'na ; from yXwri5 s -, " sweet."] A yel- 
lowish, transparent, sj-rup-like fluid, 
without smell, and of a sweet taste, 
obtained from the residue in making 
litharge plaster, and from the refuse in 
the manufacture of soap, etc. It is 
alterative and demulcent. 

Glye-er-i'na.* The Pharmacopceial 
name (U.S. Ph.) for Glycerin, which see. 

Glye'i-eoll. [Glycieol'la: from 
ykwevs, "sweet," and KoXXa, "glue."] Su- 
gar of gelatine, obtained by boiling gluten 
in an excess of caustic alkali. 

Glycocholic. See Taurocholic. 

Glj'c'o-g'en. [From glu'cose, and 
yevvaw, to "produce."] Literally, "pro- 
ducing glucose." A peculiar substance 
in the tissue of the liver, which may be 
changed into glucose. 

Glys'yr-rni'za.* [From yXwciV, 

"sweet." and faa, a "root."] The Phar- 
macopceial name || for the root of Gh/c- 
yrrhiza glabra; the Gtyeyrrkizse Radix 
of the Edinburgh and Dublin Pharma- 

Glyeyrrhi'za Glabra.* The 





Oly^cyr 'rlii-zin. [ Glycyrrhizi'na.] 

The saccharine juice of the Glycyrrhiza, 
or liquorice-plant. 

GJy-pliog'ra-ptay. [Glypliog-ra'- 
plaia ; from y\v<pfi, a "carving" or " grav- 
ing," and ypaipio, to "paint."] A new 
kind of engraved drawing, by which 
prints are produced in colors from the 

Clyster. See Clyster, and Enema. 

Gna-tiial'gi-a* (na-thal'je-a). [From 
yvaOoi, the "jaw," or "cheek," and aXyog, 
"pain."] Pain of the jaw or cheek. 

Gna-t2ii£'X-cus.* Belonging to 


Giia-thi'tis, idis.$ [From yvdOog, the 
"jaw," or "cheek."] Internal inflam- 
mation of the check or maxilla. 

Giiath-o-neu-ral'g-i-a.* [From yva- 
Oo;, the "jaw," or "cheek," vzvpov, a 
"nerve," and uAyoj, "pain."] Pain of a 
nerve of the cheek, or maxilla ; maxil- 
lary neuralgia. 

Gnatli-o-plas'tic. [Gnatlioplas'- 
ticus.] Belonging to gnathoplasty. 

Gnath'o-plas-ty. [Gnathoplas'- 
tia; from yvdOog, the "jaw," or "cheek," 
and nXdacru), to " form."] Operation for 
repairing any deficiency of the cheek by 
appropriating a sufficient portion of the 
sound parts contiguous. 

Gnetacese,* ne-ta'she-e. A natural 
order of plants (Gymnogens), found in 
the temperate parts of Europe, Asia, and 
South America. It includes Gne'tum, 
and one other genus. 

Goad'by'sSo-Ui'tion. A preparation 
for preserving animal substances, made 
with bay-salt, corrosive sublimate or 
arsenious acid, and water. 

God'iYey*s €or'di-aS. A quack me- 
dicine, composed of an infusion of sas- 
safras, coriander, caraway, and anise- 
seeds, treacle, and laudanum. 

Goitre. (French, probably derived 
from cjuttur, the "throat.") A Swiss term 
for Bronchocels, which see. 

Gold. [Lat. Au'rain; Fr. Or, or.] A 
yellow metal, of great malleability and 
ductilit3 r . It is found generally native, 
either massive, or disseminated in threads 
through a rock, or in grains among the 
sands of rivers. Gold is remarkable for 
resisting, under all circumstances, the 
action of the air and of the ordinary 
acids. It is, however, dissolved by chlo- 
rine and by nitro-muriatic acid, forming a 
chloride of gold. The specific gravity of 
gold is 19.3, it being, next to platinum, 
the heaviest of all metals. 

Gold-Leaf E-lcc-troia'e-ter. An 

instrument for detecting the presence of 
electricity by the divergence of two slips 
of gold-leaf. 

Gomme, gomm. The French term 
for Gum, which see. 

Goin-plio'sis.* [From yopfyou, to 
" drive in a nail."] A variety of Synar- 
throsis, in which one bone is fixed in 
another like a nail in wood, as the teeth 
in their sockets. 

Goii-a-ca'a'il-a.* [From yovfi, "se- 
men," and oKparfis, "impotent," or "in- 
continent."] Gonorrhoea, in its proper 
signification, being the same as Sperma- 
torrhoea, arising from debility induced 
by excess. 

Goii'a-gra.* [From yow, the "knee," 
and aypa, a " seizure."] Gout in the 
knee, or knee-joint. 

Gon-ar-thri'fcis, idis.% [From yow, 
the "knee/' and lipOpov, a "joint."] Inflam- 
mation of the knee-joint; also, of the 

Gon-ar-ft!ir©c'a-ce.* [From yow, 
the "knee," apOpov, a "joint," and 
kolkt), "evil," or " disease."] A cancer- 
ous or ulcerated condition of the knee- 

Gon-e-cys'tis.* [From yovi'i, "se- 
men," and marts, a "bladder."] Applied 
in the plural (Gonecys' tides) to the semi- 
nal vesicles. 

Gon-e-poi-e'sis.* [From yovi'i, " se- 
men," and ttouo), to "make."] The se- 
cretion of the semen. 

Gon-e-poi-et'ic. [Gonepoiet'i- 
cus.] Belonging to goncpoiesis. 

Goiiflement, g6xfl mox G '. The French 
term for "swelling." See Tumefaction. 

Gong Met'al. An alloy of eighty 
parts of* copper and twenty of tin. 

Gon'g-yle. [Lat. Gon'gylus; Gr. 
yoyyvXog, "round."] A round, hard body 
prolonged from the wood into the bark 
of the plant, and detached by the pro- 
gi'ess of age. » 

Gon'gy-lKS.* [Gr. yoyyvXog, "round."] 
Round ; globular : gon'gylous. 

Go-Eii-om'e-ter. [Goaasosn'etrsim ; 
from yw:'('a, an "angle," and pcrpov, a 
"measure."] An instrument for meas- 
uring the angles of crystals. 

Go-noc'a-ce.* [From y6w, tho 

"knee," and k&kh, an "evil."] White 
swelling of the knee. 

Goii'o-<;ele.* [From yovf\, "semen," 
and K>)\ri, a " tumor."] Effusion of se- 
men out of the ruptured seminal vesicles, 
into the cellular texture; also, a swelling 
of the testicle and spermatic cord, from 
supposed retention of the semen. 



Go'noid. [Gonoi'dos; from yovfi, 
u semen," and eiSos, a " form."] Resem- 
bling the semen. 

Gon'o-phore. [Gonoph'orus ; 

from yovoq, " seed," "offspring," and ipkpw, 
to " bear."] In Botany, a prolongation 
of the receptacle which proceeds from 
the bottom of the calyx, and sustains 
the stamens and pistil. 

Gon-o-p!ay-§e'nia, atis.* [From 
yow, the '' knee." and imrn^a, an "infla- 
tion."] The same as Goxocace, Goxyo- 
cele, Goxvoxcrs, which see. 

Gonopoesis. See Gonepoiesis. 

Gon'or - rho - bleph ' ar - rhoe ' a.- 
[From yovdfpoia, a "flow of semen," i3\&p- 
af>0!>, the " eyelid," and pho, to "flow."] 
Gonorrheal inflammation, and discharge 
of purulent matter from the eye and eye- 
lids. See Ophthalmia. 

Gonorrhoea,* gon-or-re'a. [From 
yovrj, "semen." and peu>, to "flow."] In- 
voluntary discharge of semen without 
copulation. The same as Spermator- 
rhoea. Applied, however (erroneously, 
if we regard the etymology), to a dis- 
charge of purulent infectious matter from 
the urethra of males, the vagina, labia, 
nympha?, clitoris, frequently the mouth 
and neck of the uterus, and sometimes 
the urethra, of females. A genus of the 
order Apoeenoses, class Locales, of Cul- 
len's Nosology. 

Gonorrhee'a Bal'a-ni.* [From 
bal'anus, the " glans penis."] A puru- 
lent discharge from the surface of the 
entire glans penis, which is then in a 
highly inflamed and raw state. 

Gonorrhoea Kormientium. See 
Spermatorrhoea Dormiextium. 

Gon-or-rhoe'al. [Gonorrho'icus.] 
Belonging to gonorrhoea. 

Gon'or-rho-pros'ta-ti'tis, id is* 
Inflammation of the prostate gland pro- 
duced by gonorrhoea. 

Go-nos'^he-o-cele.* [From yovfi, 
"semen," Soxtov, the "scrotum," and Kf\\r), 
a "tumor."] Swelling of the testicle, or 
epididymis, from accumulation of the 
semen : spermatocele. 

Gon-os-per'mous. [Gonosper'- 
nius: from yuvia, an "angle," and 
cnrzpua, a " seed."] Having angular seeds. 

Gon-os-tro'ma, atts.* [From ySnos, 
"offspring," and cr^pa, a "stratum," or 
"bed.*" A gon'ostrome. The srerminal 
layer or bed in the ovule of Mammalia; 
the Stratum proligerum of Baer. 

Go'ny-al'i/I-a.* [From yow, the 
"knee," and a\yv Sf "pain."] Pain in 
the knee. 

Gony-o-cam'psis.* [From yow, tho 
"knee," and Ka^tg, a "curvature."] 
Curvature of the knees. 

Go'ny-o-^ele.* [From y6w, the 
"knee," and Kfi\r), a "tumor."] White 
swelling, or what has been called hernia 
of the knee. 

Go'ny-on'cus.* [From y6w, the 
"knee." and dyicos, a "tumor."] Swelling, 
or tumor, of the knee. See Go.nyocele. 

Gon-y-ty'le.* [From yow, the 
"knee," and rv\r), a "callus."] Callus, 
or a hard thick skin, of the knee. 

Goodoniaeea?,* goo-de-ne-a'she-e. 
A natural order of exogenous plants, 
mostly herbaceous, found in Australia. 

Goose-Shin. See Cms Axserixa. 

Gor'di-us,' called also Se'la E-qui'- 
iia.-' : " or "horse-hair." The horse-hair 
worm of the old writers. It is supposed 
to occasion Intestinal disease, occurring 
among the peasantry of Lapland from 
drinking water containing this worm; 
and Cuticular disease when it is lodged 
under the skin, constituting the morbus 
pilaris of Horst, and the malts a crinoni- 
bus of Sauvages. 

Gordius Jfiedinensis. See Guixea- 


Gor'get. An instrument for the 
operation of lithotomy, formed like a 
knife, with a beak which fits the groove 
in the staff. 

Gos-syp'I-i Radix.* ("Root of 
Gossypium.") The Pharmacopceial name 
(U.S. Ph.) for the root of the Gossypium 
herbacenm and other species of Gossypium. 

Gos-syp'I-uni.* [Gossip'ion.] A 
Linna^an genus of cotton-producing 
plants, class Jfonadelphia. natural order 
Malvaceae. Also, the Pharmacopoeial 
name (U.S. Ph.) for cotton, a filamentous 
substance separated from the seed of 
Gossypium hcrbaceum, and of other species 
of Gossypium. 

Gossyp'ium Herba'ceiim* (her- 
ba'she-uni). The systematic name of 
the cotton-plant. 

Goulard's (goo v lardz') Ce'rate. The 
Ceratum plumbi subacetatis. It received its 
name from Goulard (Fr. pron. goo'laR'), 
a Frenchman, by whom it was intro- 
duced to the notice of the public. Its 
refrigerant properties often render it a 
most useful and grateful application to 
blistered surfaces indisposed to heal ; 
also, to burns, excoriations, and cutaneous 
eruptions, especially if attended with 
much heat or irritation of the surface. 

Goulard's' Ex'tract. The Liquor 
plumbi subacetatis. 




Gourd. [Cucur'bita.] The fruit of 
the Cucurbit a pepo j also, the plant itself. 

Gourd, Bit'ter. The Cucumis colo- 
cynthis, plant and fruit. 

Gout. [From the Latin gut'ta; Fr. 
Gouttc, goott, a "drop;" so named from 
the idea that the disease was produced 
by a morbid fluid gradually distilling 
into the part.] Arthri'tis, characterized 
by pain in the joints, chiefly of the great 
toe, or of the feet and hands ; also termed 
Podagra, which see. 

Gout'-Stone. The Cal' cuius arthr it' - 
reus, or poday'ricus. A stony concretion 
deposited in the affected part in gout. 

Goutte. See Gout. 

Gr. = Gra'nwn* or Gra'na.* A 
"grain." or "grains." 

Graa'f i-an Fol'Ii-eles [Follic'uli 
Graafia'ni], or Graafian Ves'I-cles 
[Vesic'ulre Graafia'na?]. Applied to 
small spherical bodies found in the stroma 
of the ovary. They consist of two coats 
or layers. The interior, immediately en- 
closing the ovum, is termed the ovisac. 

Grac'I-lis.* ("Slender.") Applied to 
a slender muscle of the thigh, and to apro- 
cess of the malleus, an ossicle of the ear. 

Grad'u-at-ed Com 'press. A com- 
press formed of a number of circular 
pieces of cotton cloth, progressively de- 
creasing in size, the whole forming a 
sort of pyramid, the apex of which can 
be applied on the precise point wished, 
in cases of wounded arteries, etc. 

Grain. [Lat. Gra'num ; Fr. Grainc, 
gRen or gFtan.] Literally, " a grain or 
seed of wheat, barley," etc. In Phar- 
macy, the twentieth part of a scruple, 
or sixtieth of a drachm. 

Graines d' Avignon. See French 

Grains of Paradise. See Amomum 
Grana Paradisi. 

Graisse, guess or gR&ss. The French 
term for "fat." See Adeps. 

Gral'Iav- gen. Gral-la'rum, used 
only in the plural. (Literally, "stilts.") 
Another term for Grallatores. 

Gral-la-to'res.* [The plural of 
gralla'tor, "one who goes on stilts."] 
The name of an order of waders, or 
wading birds, having long legs and bills, 
by which they wade and catch their 
prey in the water. Also termed Grallse, 
Qra lla to r ise, Gr alii dee. 

Gral-la-to'ri-us.* [From gral'lse, 
" stilts."] Belonging to stilts or crutches. 
Sometimes applied in the plural feminine 
(Grail ato'riic) to an order of birds. See 

Gra'men Ca-ni'num.* The Triti- 
cum repens, couch-grass, or dog's-grass. 

Gram'I-na, ;;: the plural of gra'men, 
"grass," forming the Jussieuan name 
of a natural order of plants. See Guam- 

Graininaeea?,* gram-i-na'she-e. 

[From gra'men, "grass."] An important 
natural order of endogenous plants, 
very widely distributed. It includes the 
grasses, wheat, maize, and various other 
kinds of cultivated cereals, the sugar- 
cane, and the bamboo. Their habits are 
gregarious or social. Some tropical spe- 
cies assume the form of trees, and attain 
the height of fifty feet. Sugar is a gene- 
ral product of this order, and silex is 
found in the cuticle of many species. 

Gram-i-na'ceous, Gra-niin'e-ons. 
[Gramina'ceus, Gramin'eus; from 
gra'men, "grass."] Belonging to grass; 

Gram-I-nic'o-lus.* [From gra'men, 
" grass," and co'lo, to " inhabit."] Grow- 
ing among grass; as, Agaricus grumi- 
nicola, etc. 

Gram-i-ni-fo'li-ous. [Grainini- 
ib'iius: from gra'men, "grass," and fo'- 
lium, a "leaf."] Having leaves like 
those of grass. 

Gram'I-nl-form. [Graminifor'- 
inis; from gra'men, "grass."] Resem- 
bling grass. 

Gram-i-niv'o-rous. [Grauiiniv'- 
orus; from gra'men, "grass," and vo'ro, 
to "devour."] Feeding upon grass. 

Gram-S-nol'o-g-y. [Graminolo- 
gia: from gra'men, "grass," and Aoyoj, a 
"discourse."] A treatise on the grasses; 
the science of grasses. 

Gramma, at is.* [From ypa^/xa, a 
"letter," a "note" or "point" in music; 
and, hence, a scruple, the smallest of Ro- 
man weights.] A scruple ; the twenty- 
fourth part of an ounce. See Scrupulus. 

Gramme.' [From ypaufii), a "letter," 
or " line."] Another name for the iris, 
because it has the appearance of minute 
lines drawn upon it. See Iris. 

Gramme, gram. A French weight, 
equal to 15.431 grains troy. 

Gra'na, the plural of Granum, which 

Grana Paradisi. See Amomum 
Grana Paradisi. 

Gra'na Se-ea'lis De-gen-er-a'ti.* 
(" Seeds of Degenerate [or Diseased] 
Rye.") See Ergot. 

Gra'na Tig'li-i.* The seeds of the 
Croton tiglium. 

Granadia. See next article. 



Gran'a-din, or Gran'a-dine. 

[Grana'dia.] A white, crystalline, vola- 
tile, and exceedingly sweet substance, 
neither alkaline nor acid, obtained from 
the root of the pomegranate, Pu'nica 
grana' turn ; and now decided to be man- 

Gra-na'ti Fruc'tus Cor'tex.* 
('•Rind of the Pomegranate Fruit.") 
The Pharmacopceial name (U.S. Ph.) for 
the rind of the fruit of the Pu'nica gra- 

Grana'ti Ra-di'cis Cor'tex.* 
("Bark of Pomegranate Root") The 
Pharmacopceial name (U.S. Ph.) for the 
bark of the root of the Pu'nica gr ana' turn, 

Gran-di-den-ta'tus.* [From gran'- 
dis, " large." and dens, a " tooth."] 
Having large teeth, or indentations : 

Gran-di-iio'rus.* [From gran'dis, 
"large," and Jlus, a "flower."] Having 
large flowers : grandiflo'rate. 

Gran-di-fo'li-us.* [From gran'dis, 
"large," and fo' Hum, a "leaf."] Having 
large leaves : grandifo'liate. 

Gran'di-nes,* the plural of gran'do, 
a " hailstone." A term applied by Wesser 
to tubercles as they become enlarged. 

Gran-di-no'sus.* [From gran'do, 
gran'dinus, "hail."] Literally, "full of 
hail;" also, "resembling a hailstone." 
Applied to the 0$ cuboides, from its 
irregular form. 

Gran'do,* gen. Gran'di-nis. (" Hail, 
or Hailstone.") A small, hard tumor on 
the eyelid, supposed to resemble a hail- 
stone. See Citalaza. 

Gra-nif'er-ous. [Gran'ifor: from 
gra'num, a " 'grain," and/e'ro, to "bear."] 
Bearing or producing grain. 

Granite. [Grani'tes; from gra'- 
num, a "grain."] A kind of primitive 
rock, consisting essentially of quartz, 
felspar, and mica. 

Gran-it'ie. [Granit'ieus.] Be- 
longing to granite. 

Gra-niv'o-rous. [Graniv'orns ; 
from gra'num, a "grain," and vo'ro, to 
"devour."] Eating grain. 

Gran'u-lar. [Granula'ris ; from 
gran'ulum, a "little grain."] (Fr. Granu- 
leux, gRa'nii'lrh'.) In the form of grains; 
of the nature or appearance of granu- 

Gran'u-lat-ed. [Granula'tus; from 
the same.] Having grains, or granular. 

Gran-u-la'tion. [Granula'tio, 

o' ;u's; from the same.] The division of 

metallic substances into small particles, 

or grains, to facilitate their combination 


with other substances. Also, the process 
by which little grain-like, fleshy bodies 
form on ulcers and suppurating wounds, 
filling up the cavities, and bringing nearer 
together and uniting their sides. 

Gran'ule. [Gran'ulum; the dimi- 
nutive of gra'num, a "grain."] A little 

Granuleux. See Granular. 

Granu-H-eau'lis.* [From gran'u- 
lum, a "little grain," and cau'lis, a 
"stem."] Having stem and branches 
covered with little tubercles. 

Gran-u-lif'er-ous. [Granu'lifer; 
from gran'ulum, a "little grain," and 
fe'ro, to "bear."] Bearing granules; as 
the shell of the Mitra granuli/era. 

Gran'u-li-forin. [Granulifor'- 
mis; from gran'ulum, a "little grain."] 
Resembling little grains. 

Gran-u-los'I-ty. [Granulos'itas, 
Si'tis; from the same.] A mass of small 
tubercles, like granules. 

Gran'u-lous. [Granulosus; from 
the same.] Having granules; full of 

Gra'num,* plural Gra'na. A grain ; 
a small seed of any kind. The sixtieth 
part of a drachm, or twentieth of a 

Grape-Sugar. See Glucose. 

Graph-I-o-i'des.* [From ypafrs, a 
"style," or "writing-instrument," and 
elSos, a " form."] Resembling a style ; 
styloid. Applied to the styloid process 
of the temporal bone. 

Graphite. [From yp&pa), td "write," 
and \i8og, a " stone ;" from its use in mak- 
ing pencils.] Plumbago, or black lead. 

Grass Oil of Na'mur. A volatile 
oil, procured, according to Boyle, from 
the Andropogon Calamus aromaticus. It 
is sometimes incorrectly called oil of 

Gratiola (grash'e-o-la) ©f-fic-i- 
na'lis.* The systematic name of the 

Gra-ve'do, dint's.* [From gra'vis, 
"heavy."] Literally, "heaviness." A 
term for coryza ; so called, probably, 
from the sense of weight or oppression 
experienced in a severe catarrh. 

Grav'el. [Lat. Otlti'asis; Fr. 
Gravelh, gra'vell' ; from the French gra- 
vier, graVe'a/," gravel" or " coarse sand."] 
A popular term applied either to calcu- 
lous matter formed in the kidneys, pass- 
ing off in the urine, or to small distinct 
calculi or concretions. It is distinguished 
from stone in the bladder by being of 
smaller size. See CALCULUS. 




Gravelle. See Gravel. 

Grave'-Wax. Adipocere. 

Grav'id U'ter-us. [U'terus Grav'« 
idus.J The womb in the impregnated 
state, or during gestation. 

Gra-vid'i-ty. [Graviditas, n'tis; 
from grav'idus, " pregnant."] The con- 
dition of a woman who is pregnant; ges- 
tation; pregnancy. 

Grav-i-sra'dl-us.* [From gra'vis, 
"heavy," and gra'dior, to "march."] 
Walking with a heavy tread. Applied 
in the plural neuter (Gracigra'dia) to 
an order of Mammals, as the elephant, 

Grav-im'e-ter. [Gravini'etrnin; 
from gra'vis, " heavy," and \kkrpov, a 
" measure."] An instrument for ascer- 
taining the specific gravity of bodies. 

Grav-I-ta'tion. [Gravita'tio, o'nis; 
from grav'itas, "weight."] That power 
or tendency by which all material bodies 
are drawn towards each other, or by 
which a stone or other body on the sur- 
face of the earth is drawn towards the 

Grav'i-ty. [Grav'itas, a'tis; from 
gra'vis, ''heavy."] The cause or power 
by which bodies naturally tend towards 
the centre of the earth ; weight. 

Gravity, Centre of. See Centre 
op Gravity - . 

Grav'ity, Spe-cif" ic. The compara- 
tive density (or gravity) of one body 
considered in relation to another as- 
sumed as the standard. In measuring 
the specific gravity of liquids or solids, 
water is usually taken as the standard 
of comparison, being reckoned as a 
unit; in measuring gases, common air 
or hydrogen is assumed as the standard. 

Great Sympathetic Nerve. See 
Trisplanchnic Nerve. 

Gre'ci-an Wa'ter. A solution of 
nitrate of silver disguised, for dyeing 
the hair black; the hair thus dyed soon 
becomes purple on exposure to the light. 

Green Milk. See Colostrum. 

Green Sicltness. See Chlorosis. 

Green "Vit'rI-ol. The sulphate of 

Green Wa'ters. Popularly, the 
Lochia, when of a dark, dirty, greenish 

Grenadia. See Graxadix. 

Grey Lo'tion. The Lotio nigra. 

Grif'fith's Mix'ture, otherwise 
called ]»Iis-tu'ra Fer'ri Com-pos'I- 
ta* (" Compound Mixture of Iron"). 
It is composed chiefly of myrrh, carbon- 
ate of potash, sulphate* of iron, and spirit 

of lavender. It is used as a tonic in dys- 
pepsia, chlorosis, and similar affections. 

Grippe, gRip or gRep. The French 
name for Ixfluexza, which see. 

Groats, grawts. The decorticated 
grains of the common oat. 

Grocer's Itch. The ecze'ma impe- 
tigino'des of some writers. See Acarus 

Groin. See Ixguex. 

Grooved. See Sulcated. 

Grossesse, gRo'sess'. The French 
term for Pregnancy, which see. 

Grossulaceav* gros-u-la'shc-e, or 
Gros-su-la-rl-a'ce-re.* [From gros'- 
sula, a "gooseberry," grossula'ria, a 
" gooseberry-bush."] A natural order 
of exogenous shrubs, found in the tem- 
perate parts of Europe, Asia, and 
America. It includes the currant and 

Gros'su-line. [From gros'sula, a 
"gooseberry."] The name given by 
Guibourt to a peculiar principle procured 
from gooseberries and other acid fruits, 
forming the basis of jelly. 

Grot'to del Ca'ne (ka'na). (" Dog's 
Grotto.") A grotto near Naples, in 
which carbonic acid gas rises about 
eighteen inches above the surface of the 
ground, so that it affects dogs and other 
small animals. 

Growth. [Lat. Incremen'tuin ; Fr. 
Croissance, kRwa v soNss'.] Increase or 
augmentation of the body in all its parts, 
without reference to the peculiar struc- 
ture, or function, and, so, distinct from, 
though nearly connected with, Develop- 

Grub. The larva of insects ; also, a 
sort of maggot, hatched from the egg of 
the beetle (Scarabse'us). 

Gru'mous. [Grumo'sns; from 
gru'mus, a "clot."] Thickened; clotted; 

Grn'mus.* A clot of milk, or of 
blood ; a curd. 

Gru'tum,* or Gru'tum Mil'i-um.* 
A small white tubercle of the skin, re- 
sembling a millet-seed. 

Gryl'lus Ver-ru-civ'o-rns.* [From 
verru'ea, a " wart," and vo'ro, to " eat."] 
The wart-eating grasshopper of Sweden, 
which is caught for the purpose, as it is 
said, of biting off the excrescence, when 
it also discharges a corrosive liquor on 
the wound. 

Gtt. = Gut'ta* a "drop," or Gut'tse* 

Goatee, gwi'ak or gwa'ak. The 
same as GuAlACl Hesina, which see. 



Gnaiacante,* gwl-a-ka'ne. The 
Jussieuan name of a natural order of 
plants. See Ebenack.e. 

Guai'aci (gwi'a-si) Lig'nnm.' :i: ' 

(" Wood of Guaiacum.") The Pharuia- 
copoeial name || for the wood of the 
Guai'acum officina'le, popularly called 
Lig'nnm Ft'te("Wood of Life" I. in allu- 
sion to its great medicinal virtues. It 
is a stimulant diaphoretic, and is princi- 
pally used in cases of secondary syphilis 
and other diseases dependent on a viti- 
ated condition of the system. 

Guai'aci Re-si'na.* ("Resin of 
Guaiacum.") Guaiac. The Pharma- 
copceial name '■' for the concrete juice of 
the Guai'acum officina'le. It is alterative 
and stimulant, and is much used as a 
remedy in rheumatism. 

Guaiacin, or Guaiacine, gwi'a-sin. 
A resinoid principle found in guaiac. 
It differs from most other resins, by 
being converted by nitric acid into ox- 
alic acid, instead of artificial tannin. 

Guaiacum,* gwi'a-kum or gwii'a- 
kum. (Sp. Guaiaco, gwa-ya'ko.) The 
guaiae-tree : a Linna?an genus of the 
class Decandria, natural order Rutacese. 
Also, the Pharmacopoeial name (Lond. 
and Ed. Ph.) for the resin obtained from 
the Guai'acuiu officina'le. 

Gnai'aoain Lig'nnm. $ The Phar- 
macopceial name (Lond. and Ed. Ph.) 
for the wood of Guaiacum officinale. 

Guaiacum ©f-fic-I-na'le.* The 
tree which yields Guaiacum. 

Guano, gwa'no. (Said to be de- 
rived from the Peruvian Huanu, hwa'- 
noo, "dung.") A species of manure re- 
cently discovered and much employed, 
on account of its great strength as a 
fertilizer. It is the excrement of sea- 
fowl, usually deposited on small islands 
and cliffs near the coast. In some places 
it is found in such enormous beds as could 
only be produced by the accumulation 
of thousands of years. 

Gu-ber-nac'u-lum.* [From guber'- 
no, yuberna' turn, to " guide," to "govern."] 
Something which guides or directs. See 
next article. 

Gubcrnac'uluniTes'tis.* Afibro- 
vascular cord between the testicle and 
scrotum in the foetus. So named because 
it is supposed to guide the testicle in its 
descent from the abdomen. 

Guinea (gin'e) Grains. Another 
name for Malaguetta pepper. See Amo- 
MtM Graxa Paradisi. 

Guinea Pepper. See Capsicum 
An scum. 

Gnin'ea Worm, otherwise called 
yin lis Fi-Ia'rI-a*' (which is equivalent 
to "skein worm," so called because it is 
wound off like a skein of thread). A 
worm found chiefly in the Ei:tt and Wc.«t 
Indies. It is said to be frequently twelve 
feet long, and about the thickness of a 
horse-hair; it burrows under the cuticle, 
and " may be felt under the skin, and 
traced by the fingers like the string of a 
violin. ... It should be drawn out with 
great caution, by means of a piece of silk 
tied round its head: for if, by being too 
much strained, tbe animal break, the 
part remaining under the skin will grow 
with double vigor, and often occasion a 
fatal inflammation." — (Good.) 

Guin ea-ben Weed. The vulgar 
name of the Peteve'ria Allia'cca, an ex- 
tremely acrid plant, used in Jamaica as 
a sialagogue. 

Gul, g66l. A Persian word signify- 
ing a " rose." 

Gul Attar. See Attar of Roses. 

Gu'la. :; The oesophagus, or gullet; 
popularly, the throat. 

Gum. = Gin 


Gum. [Lat. Gum'mi; Fr. Gomme, 
gomm.] The mucilage of vegetables. 

Gum Arabic. See Gummi Acacia. 

Gum Boil. [Paru'lis.] Inflam- 
mation, abscess, or boil of the gums. 

Gum E-las'tic. A term for Caout- 

Gum Jn'ni-pcr. A concrete resin 
which exudes in white tears from the 
Junip'erus commu'nis. It has been called 
sandarach, and, hence, confounded with 
the cavcapaxn of Aristotle, which was a 
sulphuret of arsenic. Reduced to pow- 
der it is called pounce, which prevents 
ink from sinking into paper from which 
the exterior coating of size has been 
scraped away. 

Gum of the Teeth. See Gin- 

Gum, Rank Red. The common 
name for the Stroph'ulus covfer'tus. 

Gum Rash. Red gum. A genus of 
cutaneous diseases. See Strophulus. 

Gum, Red. The common name for 
Stroph 'ulus in tertinc't us. 

Gum Res'in. [Gum'mi-Resi'na.] 
The concrete juice of certain plants, con- 
sisting of resin, essential oil, gum, and 
extractive vegetable matter : as aloes, am- 
moniac, assafcetida, euphorbium, scam- 
mony, &c. 

Gum, White. The common name for 
Stroph'ulus al'bidus. See Strophulus. 

Gumma.' A soft tumor, so named 




from the resemblance of its contents to 

G um'mi Aca'eia3*(a-ka'she-e). The 
Pharmacopoeial name (Ed. Ph.) of gum 
Arabic, obtained from the Acacia vera, 
and other species of Acacia. 

Gnmini Rubrum Oambiense. 
See Kino. 

Gnm'mi Scor-pi-o'nis,* Gum'mi 
Sen'e-ga,* <>uui mi Sen-e-g-al-en'- 
se,* Gnm'mi Tlie-ba'I-cuni.* Names 
for gum Arabic. 

Gun-Cot'ton. An explosive sub- 
stance, prepared by steeping cotton freed 
from all impurities in a mixture of sul- 
phuric and nitric acids, and then washing 
it carefully and drying it. It is princi- 
pally used for the manufacture of Col- 
lodion, which see. 

Gun'jah. The dried plant Cannabis 
Indie t. 

Gun'pow-cler. A mixture of five 
parts of nitre, one of sulphur, and one 
of charcoal, finely powdered and very 
accurately blended. The grains are 
smoothed by friction, and are then said 
to be glazed. 

Gus'ta-to-ry, Gus'ta-tlve. [Gus- 
tato'rius, Gustati'vus; from gus'to, 
gust a' turn, to "taste."] Belonging to 
the sense of taste. 

Gus'tatory Xerve. The lingual 
branch of the deep portion of the inferior 
maxillary, or third branch of the fifth 
pair of nerves. 

Gus'tus.* [From yevojiai, to "taste."] 
The sense of taste. 

Gutt.= Gut'tx* "Drops." 

Gutt. quibusd. = Gut'tis quibus'- 
dam.% "With a few drops." 

Gut'ta.* [Fr. Goutte, goot, a "drop."] 
A minim, or the sixtieth part of a flui- 

Gut'ta A-nod'y-na.* ("Anodyne 
Drop.") A solution of acetate of mor- 

Gutta Xigra. See Black Drop. 

Gut'ta O-pa'ca.* (« Opake Drop.") 
The disease called cataract, as distin- 
guished from Gutta Serena, which see. 

Gut'ta Per'cha.*" A name applied 
to the concrete juice of the Isonaudra 
gutta. This substance has been placed 
on the primary list of the Materia 
Medica of the U.S. Pharmacopoeia for 

Gutta Rosacea, or Gutta Rosea. 
Sec Acne Bos ace a. 

Gut'ta Se-rc'na.* ("Drop Serene.") 
A name for amaurosis, in which the dis- 
ease being in the retina, and not in tho 

lens or humors of the eye, this organ ap- 
pears clear and natural. 

Guttat. = Gutta' tim* "By drops." 

Gut-ta'tim. * [From gut'ta, a "drop."] 
In prescriptions, " drop by drop." 

Gut'tl-ier.* Besin-producing. See 

Gut-tii'er-se.* [See Guttiferous.] 
The Jussieuan name of a natural order 
of plants. See Clusiace^e. 

Guttiferal. See next article. 

Gutti-fer-a'les,* or Gut-tif er-als. 
Applied by Lindley to an alliance or 
division of plants (or trees) comprising 
those which produce resin. (See Gutti- 
ferous.) The Guttiferal alliance com- 
prises, among others, the important natu- 
ral orders Clusiacese and Dipteracesc. 

Gut-tif er-ous. [Gut'tifer, or 
Guttif'erus; from gut'ta, a "drop," 
and/e'ro, to " bear."] Literally " drop- 
bearing," that is, "resin-producing." 
Applied to a natural division of plants. 

Gut'tur, art's.* The throat; also, 
the larynx or trachea. See Gula. 

Gyui-naii'thus.* [From yvfiuog, 
"naked," and a^Oog, a "flower."] Hav- 
ing naked flowers : gymnan'thous. 

Gymnasium,* jirn-na/zhc-iim. [G r. 
yvpvaow!/ ; from yvpv6s t "naked."] The 
place where the ancient Athletve and 
others exercised themselves; so named 
because, previously to the exercises, they 
stripped themselves naked. 

Gyin-nas'tic. [Lat.Gymnas'ticus ; 
Gr. yvjxvaoTiKo*; ; see preceding article.] 
Belonging to gymnastics. See next 

Gym-nns'tics. [Gymnas'tiea, or 
Gymnas'ticc.] The science or system 
by which the health is promoted and 
the strength of the body developed by the 
regular practice of active exercises. 

Gym-no-blas'tus.* [From yvfipug, 
" naked," and j3Xaa-6i, a " germ."] Hav- 
ing a naked germ. Applied to flowers. 

Gym-no-car'pous. [Gymnoear / - 
pus; from yvfjivog, "naked," and tcapitfe, 
"fruit," or "seed."] Having naked 

Gyiii'no-g'eiis. [Gymno&'ense ; 
from yvpvos, " naked," and ye^w, to " be 
born," to "grow."] A division or class 
of exogenous plants, which have no 
ovary, style, or stigma, but are so con- 
structed that the pollen falls immedi- 
ately upon tho naked ovules, without the 
introduction of any intermediate appa- 
ratus. The Conifcrse may be cited as an 
example of this class of plants. 

Gyumospcrmes, jim'no-sperms. 



.[See Gvmxospermius.] Applied in the 
same manner as Gymsogens, which see. 

Gym-no-sper'inl-a.- The name of 
a Linna?an order. See GYMNOSPERMins. 

Gym-iio-sper'mi-us. i: [From yvfi- 
vo,\ '• naked,*' and nepfia, a " seed.'"] 
Gymnosper'mious, or gymnosper'mous. 
Having naked seeds. Applied to a Lin- 
naean order of the cdass Didgnamia. 

Gym-nos'td-mus.* [From yvpwo;, 
"naked." and cro^a, a ''month."] Gyni- 
nos'tomons. Applied in the plural mas- 
culine {(Jymnos'tomt) to a division of 
Mosses, in which the orifice of the urn is 

^yii-an'<lri-a. s The name of a Lin- 
DSBan class. See Gynandriots. 

Gyii-an'clrl-ous, orGyn-an'drous. 
[Gynan'drins ; from ywfj, a "woman," 
or "female," and dvfip, dfcpog, a "man," 
or "male."] Having the male and fe- 
male portions of the flower united. Ap- 
plied to a Limuvan class, the stamens of 
which grow upon the pistil. 

Gyn a-pliore. [Gynapli'ora; from 
ywf], a " woman," or " female," and 
(popew, to "bear."] Literally, "that 
which bears the female" portion of the 
plant ; a prolongation of the receptacle, 
to which the pistil is often attached: a 

Gyii-a-tre'si-a. ; - [From ywij, a " wo- 
man," or "female." a, negative, and 
rirpript, to "perforate.'] A term for the 
obliteration or imperforation of the va- 

Gyn-e-co-lo£'I-cal. [Gyiaa?co- 

log'icus.] Belonging to gynecology. 

Gyn-e-col'o-gy. [Gynsecolo'g-ia ; 

from ywr\, yvvaiKos, a "woman," and Xdyof, 
a " discourse."] A treati.-e on woman, 
and the peculiarities of her constitution 
as compared with man ; the science 
which treats of the female constitution. 
Gy-ni'a-cus. ; [From ywfi, a"vvoman."] 
Pertaining to women. Applied in the 
plural ( Gyui'aci) to an order of diseases. 

Gy-ii©b'a-sis. ;: " [From ywij, a "wo- 
man," or "female." and ffatris, a "base."] 
The base of a style or pistil. 

Gynophoriim. See Gyxaphore. 

^yp'suni.* [Gr. ymio f .] The sul- 
phate of lime, or planter of Pa/is. 

Gy'rans.* [From gy'ro, gyra'tum, to 
"turn about."] Turning about; rotat- 
ing itself: gy'rant. Applied to certain 

Gy'rate. [Gyra'tus; from gy'ro, to 
"turn about."] Literally, "turned 

about." The same as Circinate. 

Gy-ra'tion. [Gyra'tio, o'nis; from 
gy'ro, gyra'tum, to " turn about."] The 
| sensation of dizziness. 

Gyr-en-^eph'a-lus.* [From yvptScj, 
to "wind," and eyicitpakov, the "brain."] 
Applied by Owen to a sub-class of Mam- 
mals, having the brain convoluted, but 
in less degree than in man: gyrenceph'- 

Gy'ri.* [The plural of cjy'rm, a " cir- 
cuit."] The spiral cavities of the inter- 
nal ear. Also, the convolutions of the 

Gy-rose', or Gy' rous. [Gyro'sus ; 
from yi'pdj, a " circle."] Having circles, 
or full of circles. 


H. = Ilo'ra* "Hour." Hence H. 
IS. = Ho' ra som'nif* "at the hour of 
sleep." in other words, "at bedtime." 

Hab it. [Habitus; from ha'bco, 
Jiab'itum, to "have," to "have oneself," 
or to "be."] Temperament, or diath- 
esis. Also, a power of doing any thing 
acquired by frequent repetition of the 
same action. See Diathesis, and 

Mab'I-tat.* [From hab'ito, to "in- 
habit," or "dwell."] Literally, "it 
dwells." Applied to a place where a 
plant best grows, or an animal is gene- 
rally found. 

Hab-ro-ma'ni-a.* [From a0p6$, 
"light," or " gay," and p.avia, "mad- 
ness."] Insanity or delirium in which 

the patient is cheerful or merry. Com- 
pare Amexomania. 

Hs'ma,* gen. lla-n» a-tos. [Gr. 
alfia.] Another term for "blood." 

Haem-a-^el-i-no sis. [From alpa, 
" blood," Ktjhs, a " spot," and loo-dj, a 
"disease."] Blood-spot disease, the 
name given by lloyer to purpura. 

Haunacyaniiia. See H-ematocya- 


Haem-a-dyn-a-mom'e-ter. [Hse« 

madynamom'etrum ; from afy*a, 
"blood," cifanig, "power," and ufcpov, a 
"measure."] An instrument for ascer- 
taining the force of the circulation of the 

Ha?m'a-g , og'ue. [Hremag'o'g'ns; 
from aljia, " blood," and ayw, to "carry 




away," to "expel."] Applied to medi- 
cines favoring the access of the cata- 
inenia, or the hemorrhoidal discharge. 

11%'mal, orHe'mal. [Ilsema lis; 
from alpa, " blood."] Relating to blood, 
or the blood-vessels. 

Hse'mal Arcfe. A name applied to 
the arch formed by the sternum and ribs 
with the vertebra?, because it protects or 
encloses the most important portion of 
the vascular system. 

HaVmal Ax'is. A name applied by 
Owen to the central organ and large 
trunks of the vascular system. 

IlaVmal Spine. Another name for 
the sternum. Used by Owen for the 
homologue of the sternum and ensiform 
cartilage, or (in the abdomen) for the 
linen alba. 

Hrem-a-leu-ci'na.* [From aim, 
"blood," *and Xeukoj, ''white."] The 
buffy coat, or fibrin, of the blood : hcem- 

Haem-a-lo'pl-a.* [From alua, 

"blood," and ui^ djrfc, the "eye."] A 
disease of the eye, in which every object 
appears of a blood color: hasm'alopy. 

Use- man 'thus.-* [From aim, 

"blood." and arias, a "flower."] The 
Blood Flower, a plant of the natural 
order Atnaryllidacese. The Hottentots 
are said to dip their arrow-heads in the 
juice of its bulbs, on account of its poi- 
sonous properties. 

Hae-maph'e-in, or hem-a-fe'in. 
[Ha^mapha^i'na ; from alfia, " blood," 
and cpaiog, " of a fawn color."] The sub- 
stance which gives the pale amber color 
to urine. 

Ha^m-a-popn'y-sis.* [From alfia, 
"blood," and apoph'ysis.] Applied by 
Owen, in Comparative Anatomy, to the 
laminae of a vertebra, which form an ir- 
regular canal, lodging the hsemal axis ; 
also, the homologue of the cartilage of a 
rib, or its sternal portion, named in ref- 
erence to the hsemal arch. 

Ha?-mas-the-iio sis. [From alfia, 
"blood," and daOkvaa, "debility."] Po- 
verty, or deterioration, of the blood. 

Mrem-a-tan-a-g-o'ge.* [From alfia, 
" blood," and d/'aycjyjj, a "raising" or 
"bringing up."] A raising, or vomiting, 
of blood. See H.ematemesis. 

Hrein-a-tan-g-i-on'o-sos,* or Haem- 
a-tan-£i-on'o-sus.* [From ailfxa, 
"blood," dyyeXov, a "vessel." and voco^, a 
"disease."] Disease of the blood-vessels. 

Ifrem-a-tan-jjri-o'sis.* The same 


Hsem'a-ta-po'rl-a.-* [From alfia, 

"blood," and dmopia, "defect."] The same 
as Akjbmta. 

llsem-a-ta-por'i-cus.* Belonging 
to hxmataporia : haematapor'ic. 

IIa?m-a-tap-or-rho'sis. :; [From 
aifia, "blood," drrd, "from," and 6f('/6s, 
" serum."] The separation of serum 
from the blood, as in the profuse dis- 
charges of Cholera. 

Ha?m'a-ta-pos'ta-sis.' :; - [From alfia, 
"blood," and dx6oTaoi<;, a "departure."] 
Metastasis, or transposition of the blood 
to another part. 

Mamia-ta-pos-tat'i-eus.* Belong- 
ing to hsemat apostasis ; haematapostat'ic. 

Hsem'a-te>lse'uin." [From aliia, 
"blood." and cXaiov, "oil."] A concrete 
oil existing in the blood. 

Ha?m-a-tom'e-sis.* [From aim, 
"blood," and ifiiu>, to "vomit."] Vomit- 
ing of blood. See Hjemataxagoge. 

Hsein-a-te-met'i-cus. 5 Belonging 
to hiematemesis : hasmatemet'ic. 

Ha^m-a-tep-a-go'ge.* [From ai/ia, 
"blood," and inayuyrj, an "attack," or 
"invasion."] Congestion of blood in a 

Ha?m-a-ther'imis.*' [From alua, 
"blood." and depfin. "heat."] Having 
warm blood : hrcmather'mous. 

Ha?m v at-lii-<Iro'sis.*' [From alfia, 
" blood," and «<5pw<r<>, a " sweating."] An 
oozing of blood-colored perspiration. 

Msemathorax. See Hjematotho- 

Hsem-a-ti'a-sis.* [From alfia, 
"blood."] The same as ILematoxosus. 

Ha?-mat'i-ca.* [From hiemat'icus, 
"relating to the blood, or system of 
blood-vessels."] A name applied by Dr. 
Good to a class of his Nosology, com- 
prising diseases of the sanguineous func- 
tion. Hsematica is also used to denote 
medicines which are supposed to modify 
in some way the condition of the blood. 
See H^ematixica. 

Hae-mat'I-cus.'*" [From alfia," blood."] 
Hfiemat'ic. Relating to the blood. 

Ha?m'a-tin, or Haun'a-tine. 
[Ma^niati'na; from alpa, "blood."] 
The coloring matter of the blood: some- 
times, though improperly, termed alobu- 
lin. Also applied to the coloring matter 
of logwood, from its resemblance to 

Hsem-a-tin'i-ea.* [The plural neu- 
ter of JuemaiinHeits, "belonging to hsenu 
atine."] A class of the Hsematica which 
augment the amount of hum, -Jin in the 
blood. They consist chiefly, if not ex- 
clusively, of iron and its compounds. 



Hsem-a-tis'-che-sis.* [From alfia, 
"blood," and t<7,\;u), another form of exco, 
to ''hold," to "restrain."] Stoppage of 
discharges of blood. 

IIUrm-ji-tisth'Bmis. [From alfia, 
"blood, " and iaOfio;, the " fauces."] Haem- 
orrhage from the fauces. 

Hsem'a-tite, or Hem'a-tite. 
[HjBniati'tes; from alfia, "blood."] 
The blood-stone; a species of iron 

IIa?m-a-ti'tis, IdtV.* [From alua, 
*' blood."] Inflammation of the blood. 

lla^m'a-to-car'pus.* [From alua, 
"blood," and Kap-6^, "fruit.*'] Having 
fruit spotted with red: ha?matocar'pous. 

Slaem'a-to-yele.* [From alfia, 

"blood," and k>j\t), a "tumor."] En- 
largement of the scrotum, from blood 
being within one or other of it? tunics. 

Ha?m'a-to-^ej>Si'a-lus. :: [From 

aim, "blood," and KcpaXij, the "head."] 
A monster-foetus, in which effusion of 
blood into the cerebral hemispheres has 
produced a marked deformity. 

Ha?m , a-to--eIie'zi-a." :;: " [From ai/ia, 
"blood," and x&to, to "evacuate the 
bowels."] A bloody stool. 
' Ilrem'a-to-^te'II-a.* [From alfia, 
"blood," and xoiMa, the "belly."] Effu- 
eion or escape of blood into the perito- 
neal cavity. 

Hjem'a-to-corpus.* [From auia, 
"blood." and k6\-o$, a "sinus," some- 
times the "vagina."] Effusion of blood 
into the vagina. Also, a collection of 
blood, or of menstrual secretion, there. 

IIa»iBi'a-t©-Crys'tal-lIne. [From 
aijxa, "blood," and KpvaraWov, "crystal."] 
A crystalline body found in the remains 
of extravasations of blood. In man the 
crystals are very small and rectangular. 
They are remarkable from their becoming 
larger and smaller under the influence of 
external agencies, without change of 
form. They become bright red under 
the influence of oxygen, dark red under 
that of carbonic acid. 

Ha?m'?.i-to-^.v'a-ii j'na.'' [From 

alfia, '•blood," and nvavo;, "blue."] The 
blue coloring matter of the blood: 
ha matocy'anin. 

Ifa^m'a-to-cys'tis.-"'- [From alfia, 
"blood," 'and wens, a "bladder."] A 
cyst containing blood. Also, effusion 
of blood into the urinary bladder. Also, 
encysted hsematoma: a heem'atocyst. 

I??em-a-to'<Ios. ::: " [From alfia, "blood."] 
Full of blood: haam'atose. 

I5a>mat<Ml.yiiamometcr. See II.i:«- 


MaMn-a-to-jrlob-u-Ii na. Tho 

same as GxQBULor. 

IIa?Bii-a-to;; ra-phy. [Haemato- 
gra'phia; from alfia, "blood," and 
yp&4>io, to " write."] A description of the 
blood, its nature and quality. 

Ha?m'a-toitl. [Ilrcmatoi'des; 

from alua, " blood," and elcos, a " form."] 
Kesembling blood. 

Ha>m-a-toi'din. [IFa?matoi<li na; 
from hsemati'na, " hamiatin."] A crystal- 
line body produced spontaneously from 
lnmnatin during the drying of blood. 

Hrcm-a-tol o-gry. ISamalolo- 
gia; from alfia, "blood," and Xoyog, a 
"discourse."] The history of the na- 
ture and constitution of the blood; the 
science of the blood. 

Ha^Bn'a-to-lyt'I-ca.* [From alfia, 
"blood," and At"o>, to "dissolve," to 
"weaken."] A term applied by some 
writers to a class of remedies which im- 
poverish the blood. See Spax^emia, and 


H a-iii-a-to'ina. Mil* [From alfiarca), 
to "turn into blood."] A bloody tumor: 
a ham'atome. 

Ha^m-a-to-ma-to'siis.* Having 

hsematoma : ha'matom'atous. 

Ha^m'a-to-met-a-eli'y-sis.* [From 

alfia, "blood," p£Ta, "beyond," and Xvc-jj, 
an "effusion."] Transfusion of blood. 

Ha^m-a-tom'e-lor. [Ha^matoni'e- 
triim ; from alpa, "blood." and \ntT{.ov, a 
"measure."] An instrument for mea- 
suring the force of blood. 

Hrem'a-to-me'tra.* [From alfia, 
"blood," and ampa, the "womb."] A 
filling of the womb with blood. 

Ila^m'a-to-me'tri-a."" - '" [From alfia, 
"blood," and "measure."] The 
measuring of the force of the blood in 
its course: hamatom'etry. 

Hscm-a-toni plia-Io-?eIe. ; ' : [From 
alfia, "blood," ofi<pa\6(;, the "navel," and 
K-nXrt, a "tumor."] Tumor at the navel, 
turg-id with blood. 

Hfem-a-tom'j-f^s, e'f /«."''• [From 
alfia, "blood," and fivKrjs, a "fungus."] 
Fungus hsematodeSf or bloody fungus. 
See Fuxges H.cmatopes. 

IIa^m-a-tOB? 'o-sos,* or IfaiBi-a- 
tOEi'o-sns.* [From alf.a, "blood,' - ' and 
v6co$. "disease."] Disease of the blood. 

TTaMn , a-f©-per'i-car'<t"MiiBB. ;;: [From 
alfia, "blood," and pericar'diiim.] Effu- 
sion of blood into the pericardium. 

Ma^m'a-to-phyl'lus.'''' [From alua, 
"blood." and <bv\\o.', a "leaf."] Having 
leaves tinged with a blood color: haoma- 




Haema-to-plas'ma, atis* [From 
alpa, " blood," and nXaapa, a "forma- 
tion."] The plastic principle of the 

Hsem'a-to-poi-e'sis.* [From alpa, 
"blood," and ttoiV?, a ''making."] 
Assimilation of the chyle to blood. The" 
same as H.ematosis. 

Haem'a-to-poi-et'I-cus.* Belong- 
ing to hxmatopoicsis : haeinatopoiet'ic. 

Haem-a-top-ty'sl-ai,* Haem-a- 

top'ty-sis.* The same as Haemoptysis. 

Haem-a-tor'rlia-chis.'*' [From alpa, 
"blood," and p&xis, the "spine."] Effu- 
sion of blood into the spine, or into the 
theci of the spinal marrow. 

Hrem'a-tor-rlioe'a.* [From alpa, 
"blood," and /5fo>, to "flow."] A passive 
flowing of blood ; hemorrhage. 

Haematosine. See ILematin. 

Maem-a-to'sis.* [From alparub), to 
"mo,ke bloody."] A flow, or flux, of 
blood; a haemorrhage. 

Macm'a-to-spil/I-a.* [From alpa, 
"blood," and 0x1X0$, a "spot."] A name 
for Purpura hemorrhagica. 

Ilaem'a-to-spon-g-o'sis.* The for- 
mation or growth of hsematospongus. 

Haem'a-to-spon'g'iis.* [From alpa, 
"blood," and a/rdyyoj, a "sponge."] Fun- 
gus htematodes, or bloody fungus. See 


Hiema-to-sympho-re'sis,* or 
Hrem'a-to-syn v a-g , o'ge.* [From alpa, 
"blood," and avppoprjtyn;, or cvvaywyf), an 
"assembling together," a "collection."] 
Congestion of blood. See H.ematepa- 

Hsematothorax. See Hjemotho- 


Hfem-a-to-tox'ic, Haem-a-tox'ic. 
[Haematotox'icus, Haematox'icais; 

from alpa, "blood," and to^ikqs, "poison."] 
Belonging to a vitiated state of the 

Haem-a-tox-i'na,* or Haem-a-tox- 
y-li'na.*" The coloring matter of log- 

Hapm-a-tox'y-lon.* [From alpa, 
"blood," and £v\ov, "wood."] Logwood. 
A Linnaean genus of the class Decandria, 
natural order Leguminosse. Also, the Phar- 
macopoeia! name (Ed. and U.S. Ph.) of 
the wood of Haematoxylon Camperhianum, 
otherwise called the Haematoxyli lignum 
("Wood of Haeinatoxylon"). See H.em- 

Msematox'ylon €am-pe-clil-a'- 
num.* The logwood-tree. 

Mami-a-tox'y-lusn.* The Pharma- 
copoeial name (Lond. Ph.) of logwood. 

Hsem-a-to-zo'on.* [From alpa, 
"blood," and lu>ov, an "animal."] An 
animalcule discovered in the blood. 

Haem-a-tu-re'sis,* or Ha?m-a-tn'- 

rl-a.* [From alpa, "blood." and ovpov, 
the "urine."] A disease in which blood 
is discharged with urine. 

ISapm-a-tu'ra-cus.* Belon<rinjr to 
hematuria : haematu'ric. 

IIa*ini(iroKis. See H.emathtdrosis. 

Ha?'min, or Ha? '1111110. [H semi'iia; 
from alpa, "blood."] A cn'stalline sub- 
stance obtained from dried blood by the 
action of dry salt and glacial acetic acid 
at a boiling temperature. It occurs in flat 
rhombic plates, which arc remarkable for 
their insensibility to reagents, not being 
affected by strong mineral acids. 

[From Hemodo'rum, one of the genera.] 
A natural order of endogenous herba- 
ceous plants, found in New Holland, and 
some other parts of the world. 

Hxniomcter. See H.ematometer. 

Ma^mopattiia. See H^ematonosus. 

Ha^m-opti-thal'mus.* [From alpa, 
"blood," and d-pBaX^, the "eye."] Effu- 
sion of blood into the chambers of the 

Haem-o-proc'tos,* or Haem-o- 
proc'tus.* [From alpa, "blood," and 
irpwKTOi, the "anus."] Discharge of blood 
from the bowels. 

Haem-op'tl-cus.* Belonging to 
hsemoptde or haemoptysis : haemop'tic. 

Haemoptoicns. Sec H^emoptictts. 

Hae-mop'ty-sis,* or Hae-mop'- 
to-e.* [From alpa, "blood," and nrvcj, to 
"spit."] (Fr. Hcmoptysie, a'rnop'te'ze'.) 
A spitting of blood; haemorrhage from 
the lungs. A genus of the order Hemor- 
rhagic, class Pyrexiae, of Cullen's Nosol- 

Haemorrtiag-e. See H^emorrhagia. 

Haem-or-rlia'gi-a.* [From alpa, 
"blood," and p^yvopt, to "burst."] (Fr. 
Hemorrhagic, a'rno'raV.he'.) Haem'or- 
rhage, or haem'orrhagy. A bursting 
forth of blood, from whatever cause. In 
the plural, an order of the class Pyrexiae 
of Cullen's Nosology. 

to haemorrhage: haemorrhag'ic. 

Mapm-or-rtiin'I-a.* [From alpa, 
"blood," and piv, the "nose."] The same 
as Epistaxis. 

flaem-©r-rli«ie'a.* The same as HvEM- 
atorriicea, which see. 

Mapmorrlioe'a Pe-te-eM-a'lis.* 
(Sec Petechia.) A term which has 
been applied toaohronic form of purpura. 




Hsem-or-rho'I-cus.* Belonging to 

hsemorrhosa: haemorrho'ic. 

Ha?m'or-rhoid. [Hremor'rhois, 

idea; from alpa, ''blood," and pioi, to 
"flow."'] Literally, a "haemorrhage," 
and originally used in this sense in 
general, but now restricted to the piles. 
These are termed open, when they dis- 
charge blood; and blind, when there is 
no discharge. A genus of the order 
ILimorrhagiae, class Pyrexiae, of Cullen's 

Ha?m-or-rhoi'dal. [Ha?morrhoi- 
da lis: from hcemorrhoi'des, "piles."] 
Belonging to haemorrhoides, or piles. 

Haem-or-rho-i'de-us. 5 The same 


Hsem-o-spa'sl-a.* [From alpa, 

"blood," and craw, to "draw to."] The 
forming of a vacuum over a consider- 
able surface of the body, being an ex- 
tension of the principle of dry cup- 
ping. See ILemospastic System. 

Hsem-o-spas'tic. [From the same.] 
Drawing or attracting the blood. 

Hsemospas'tic Sys'tem. A new 
system of medicine, introduced by Dr. 
Junod, of Paris. He employs a pneu- 
matic apparatus of peculiar construction, 
in which the arm or leg is so placed as to 
attract the blood to the extremities, with- 
out diminishing the mass of this liquid. 

Ha?m-os-ta'si-a, ;: "Ha?-irios'ta-sis.* 
[From alpa, " blood," and oraais, a " stand- 
ing."] A stoppage, or stagnation, of the 
blood; also applied to any operation for 
stopping blood. 

Ha?m-os-tat'ic. [Ha?mostat'i- 

cns.] Belonging to haemostasia, or haem- 
ostasia. Also applied to means employed 
for staunching or arresting haemorrhage; 

Hspm-os-tat'i-ca.* [From alp.a, 
"blood," and o-rarec/j, the "science of 
weights."] The powers or motions of 
the blood, and the laws by which these 
are regulated in the vessels of the body : 

Ha?m-o-tex'i-a,* Ha?m-o-tex'is.* 
[From alpa, "blood," and rUtis, a "lique- 
faction."] Dissolution or liquefaction 
of the blood. 

Hiem-o-tho'rax, a'n's* or Hsema- 
to-tho'rax.* [From aJpa, "blood," and 
6-'<paj:, the " chest."] The escape of blood 
into the tho