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OENERAL LIBRARY 



UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 

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COMMERCIAL RELATIONS 



UNITED STATES 



FOEEIGN C0UNTEIE8 

■Ud5r 

DURXMO 

THE YEj^R 1899. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 

Volume I. 



ISSDID nOH TBI BDRUn OJ fOEBGN DOUOBCI, DEPARTaXNT OP SliTK. 



WASHINGTON: 

aOVEBIfHEHT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1900. 

D.oiiiz.owGoogle 



FUBLICATI0V8 OF THE BUAEAU OF FOBEIQH COMKSKCE.* 

ThepuhllcallonB ol the Bureau ot Foreign Commerec, Department ut Stale, ste: 

1,— CoiUEHcui. KEI.ATIOHB, t^lnE tbc uiniul reporteof ooosular officeie od Ibe commeTcc. Indus- 
Iries. navlgBition, etc.. oI their districts. 

II.— CoNSULiB BEroBis. iiBued moQtb);, and contAlnlng miscelluieoiia reporU Irom dIplomaUv 
and consular olBceiE. 

III.— Advance BulEn, CoHiuLtit Refobtb. iBEiictl dolly, except Suiid&ys and legal hoHdafS. lor 



se ot the newepaper prr^ commercial aud manufacturing orgatllzatloiu, et 

B Declabbd fob the United STiTEB, Iki— ' — "—' •■ — ■-'-■ — •'■ 

>f ejporta from the yarloufl cooHular dletricta U 



E United Stiteb, Imuod quarteriT, and contalninit tl 
,.. ^,..-.-.- .. .... .■nliedT Btate- 



v.— Special Conbclab REPoKTa, containing series of reports from oonsular olScen on particular 
Eu)i]ect8, madelapursuaniTctofnnructloiulTom the Depanment. 

Followlngare the epecial publlcatlone Isned by the Bureau prior to 1800: 

Labor In Europe. 1378, one volume: Idborln I^relKU Countries, l^Si, three volumes: Commeiceol 
the World and the Bhare of the United Etatee TheieUi. 1S7»: Commerce of the World and the Share 
of the United States Therein, 1880-81; Declared Exports lorthe United States, First and Second Quar- 
ten, 1B8S; Declared Exportslorthe Untied States, Thlrdand FourtliQuatten.lSSa: Cholera In Europe 
in 1884, im; Trwle Onllds of Enrope, 1885; The Ucorloe Plant, 188S; Fonetry in Europe. 1887: Emi- 

..... a . . — ..._ — I „, , ,, ,,,,, , pohliBhedaaCONSUUBRBIwifraNo. 76, 

-I: Sugar ot Milk, 188T; Wool Scouring in 
tntrles, 1888 (Issued fliM in one Tolumc, 



Mfterwams In two volumes] ; Teohnlcal 

publications except ' 
cable to aupplv oopli. 
decided to publish reports 



British West Indln 

The edltlotu of all mt 
Department is therefure unable to aupplv copies 



(ISSO).— Cotton Tejitllee in Foreign Countriea, nieelD_, , — , 

gn Countries. Malt and Beer in Epatilsb America, and Fralt Culture In Foreign Ci. 

^law Old IS9J).—Ralilgeratora and Food I'rescryatioD In Foreign Countritg. Buiopean E 

ition. Olive Culture In tlie Alpe* Marltlmce, and Beet-Bugar Industry and Flax C"' "'-- 



gration. 
foreign 



, ,. jd Irrigation In „.. , 

Vol. » ilS»I and 189£) .—Coal and Coal Uonsumptton In Spanish Amerlija, Oas In Foreign Cuuntries. 
and India Rubber. 

Vol. r USSt) .—The Stave Tnide In Foreign Countries and Tariffs ol Foreign Couutriee. 

I'of. S ()««) .— FIro and Building Regulations In Foreign Countries. 

V'oi. » tl«W and ISW) .— Australian ^eop and Wool and Vagrancy and Public Cliarilles In Fcin-lgn 
Coon tries. 

I'ol, 10 (JMi).— Lead and Zinc Mining in Foreign Countries and Exteu^on of Markets tor American 
Flour. (New edition. 1897.1 

I'ol. 11 fISPi),— American Lorober Id Foreign Martets. (New edition, 1897.) 

I'ol. If (UBf)-— Highways of Ccmimerce. (New editloii, ISe9.J 

Vol IS (ism and 1SS7}.— Honey and Prices in Foreign Coonttles. 

I'oL li (I89A .—The Dmg Tlade In Foreign Countries. 

VaL IS (ISM).- Pani. Soap Trade In Foreign Countries: Scrowe, Nuls, and Bolts In Foreign Coun- 
tries: Argols in Europe. Babldls and Rabbit Furs In Europe, and Cultivation ol Ramie In Foreign 
Countries. Part II. Sericulture and Silk Recline and Cultivation of the English Walnut. 

Vol. 16 (18W{.— Tariffs of Foreign Countries. Part I. Europe. Pari II. jLmeri^'A. Part III. Asls. 
Pan IV. Africa. Part V, Australiifda and Folvnesla. (Farts III. IV, and V not yet published.) 

I'ol. IT (1899).- Disposal of Sewage and GaAagc In Foreign Countries; Foreign I'rada in Coal Tar 
and By-Products, 

Vol IS (Jsoo),— MerehanI Marine of Foreign Countries. 

Of these SpECUL CONSULAR Reports. Australian Sheep and Wool, Cott/jn Teitlles In Foreign 
Countries. Dlspoaalof Bewase and Garbage, Foreign Trade in Coal Tar, Files In Spanish America,' 
Fire and Building Rt«Qlations, Gas In Foreign Countries, India Rubber, Lead und Zinc Mining. 
Malt and Beer In Spanish America. Port Regulations, Refrigerators and Food ITeservation, Soap 
Trade, etc.. Sericulture, Vsgrancy. etc., are exhausted, and no Mples cau be supplied by the 

Oftbe monthly C^nsclir Reports, many numherK are exhausted or so reduced that the Depan- 
menl is unable to accede to requests tor coNee. Of the publications of tbe Bureau available for diR- 
trlbutlon, copies are mailed to applicants without charge. In vtpwot the scarcity ot certain nurob*rn. 
the Bureau will lie gralelul tor the return ol any copies of the monthly orspeclal reports which rt'- " 
ents do not care to retain. Upon nodflratlon of willingness to return such copies, the Df — — "— 
rard Eianklng labels to bo used In lieu ol pcetagc In tbc United Btates. Canada, 
-'- andMcBco, 

iH receiving COKBULAR Refobtb rwilarly, who change their addrenes, shonld give tbe old w 



to retain. Upon nodflratlon of wllllngnesatn return such copies, the Department 

king labels to bo used In lleuol pcetagc In tbc United Btates. Canada, the Hawe 

Islands, and Mexico. 

■ ingCOJ 
uddresB In ni .... . ..... .... 

In order to prevent confusion with other Departmeov uunraLja, an i-^iuluiiiuiu 
Hilar reports should l>e carefully addrened, "Clilef. Bureau of Foreign Comi 
State, Washington, U.S.A." 



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CONTENTS. 



Values of foreiftn coins . . 
Foreign weiKbtR and met 

Uceaage from the PreeideDttrftnemitting Commercial BelationB 

Instmctioiia to coDsnlar oBlcera .- — 

BKVIBW or TBB WOBl.D'8 COHHEBCB. 

Introdnotion 

Commerceof the world in 1*S99 _._ 

Share of the United ^tate^iii the world's trade -. 

Commerce oF the UniCt^d States with foreign counties (1898 and 1800) 

United StateH commerce, 18l«-la99 

Details o! United States commerce, 1898 and 1899 

Ntnrth Africa 

Canaiy Islands, 89; Madeira, 90; Morocco, 90; Algeria, 91; Tnnis, 
91; Tripoli. 91; Egypt, »2. 

West Coast of Africa _ 

Cap Verde Islands, 93; British West Africa, 93; French West 
Africa, 93; German West Africa, 90; Liberia, 07; Kongo Free 
State, 97; Angola, 87. 

SonthAfrioa _ _ 

British South Africa, 98; Sonth African Republic, 100; Orange Free 
State, 103; Mozamblqne, 103; Rhodesia, 104; British Central 
Africa Protectorate, 1(M. 

East Coast of Africa 

Madagascar, 105; Qerman East Africa, 105; BritishBast Africa, 105; 
Zanzibar. lOii; Maoritins. 106; RSonion, 100; Somali coast: Brit^ 
ish, 107; Italian, 107; French, 107; Abyssinia, 107. 
America: 

Dominion of Canada 

Mexico. __, 

Central America __ 

British Honduras, 112; Costa Bica, 112; Onatemala.llS; Hondnras, 
113; Nicaragoa, 113; SslTador, 114. 

Westlndies 

British Weet Indies: Bahamas, 115; Barbados. 115; Bermnda, 115; 
Jamaica, 115; Leeward Mands, US; Cnba, 116; Danish West 
Indies, 110; Dutch West Indies, 119; French Weet Indies, 119; 
Haiti, 130; Puerto Rico, 120. 

Sontb America .- - - .. 

Argentine Republic, 123; Bolivia, 123; BrazU, 124; Chile, 123; Colom- 
bia, 125; Ecuador. 125; Falkland Islands, 120; Gaianas: British, 
126; Dntch,120; French, 126; Paragoay, 137; Pern, 127; Umgoay, 
138; Vsneznels, 128. 

Aden _ 

British India _ 

China _ 

Hongkong 

Ihitcfa India _.. 

French Indo-Chlna 

Japaa _ 

Korea 



4 OOMTEHTS. 

Aais— ContltiTiad. 

I%iii|>pine laiands 

Russia in Aala _ __ 

Straits Settlementa 

Tarkej in Asia . . _ 

Anstratafiia 

New Soath Walea, 148; New ZetOand, 148; QnMsiOaiid, 148; South Aae- 
tralia, 149; Tasmania, 149; Victoris, 149. 
Polynesia „ 

HawaU, 160; New Caledonia, ISl; Samoa, 151; SooielT IslMtds, 162; 
Tonga, 152. 
Eofope: 

AaBtria-Hnngary. 

Belgituu 

Denmark _ , 

France 

Germany _._ 

Qreece 

Italy ._ 

Malta 

Netherlands 

Portn^ 

BTissiaia Europe 

Spain . 

Sweden and Korw^ 

Switzerland 

Tnrbey 

United Kingdom 



RKFOBTS OF CONSULAR OFFICKBB. 



Africa: 

Canary Islands 

BritiBli Sonth Africa _ 
Cape Colony 



Loorengo Uarqnes . . . 

Mada^fascar 

Madeira 

Manritins 

Morocco 

Natal 

St. Helena 

Sierra Leona 

Transvaal 

Zanzibar 

North America: 

Dominion of Canada . . 

Mexico 

Central America- 
British Honduras . 

CoetaBioa 

Hondnras 

Nicaragna 

West Indies— 

Britidi 

Danish - 

Dnlch _ 



Santo DomLigo ( Dominican B«piiblic ). . 
Sonth America: 

Argentine Bepablic 

Bcfivia _ 

BrasU 

Chile - 

Oolconbia 



CONTENTB. 
SoDth America— ContiDiied. 


5 






Qnisnaa, Tbe— 








French .- 


678 










v^^S::::":::::"" ::::::::::::;:::::::- 




Aaia: 

Aden 


748 






Hongkong 


878 






iffi ":::"::;:::::;::::::::::::::::;:":::::- 












AnstralasU: 




















Victoria 




Polyne*^: 








Tahiti 


1070 



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EXPLANATORY. 

By coDmrrent resolution of the United SU1«h 8«iiate and House of Itepreaenta- 
tives, adopted April 10, 1900, 14,000 copies of the Revien of the Worid's Commerce, 
introductory to Commercial Relations of the United States with Foreign Countries 
during the year 1899, were ordered to be printed, separately, 1,000 to be tor the 
use of the Senate, 3,000 for the House of Representatives, and 10,000 for distribution 
by the Department of State. The Review is also printed with the regular edition 
of Commerdal Relations (two volumes) , of which 8,000 copies were ordered to tie 
printed, 1,000 for the use of the Senate, 2,000 for the House of RepKeeulatives, aii<l 
5,000 for distribution by the Department of State. 

Commercial Relations is wholly distinct from the daily and monthly publications. 
Consular Reports, the latter dealing with current subjects of importance, while 
Commercial Relations deals only with annual reports and statistics. 

Applications for these publications should be addressed: 

BURBAV OP FoBBtQN COHHKBCB, 

Dbpakthent of State, 

Wa^imgion, D. C. 



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VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES. 



The following Btatemente show the \'aluation of foreipi roina, aa given by the 
Director of the United States Mint and published by the Secretary of the Treaaury, 
in compliance with the first section of the act of March 3, 1873, viz; "That the value 
of foreign coin^, aa ezpreeaed in the money of account of the United St&tes, shall be 
that of the pure metAl of such coin of etandard value," and that "the value of the 
standard coine in circulation of the varioua nations of the world ehall be estimated 
annually by the IHrector of the Mint, and be proclaimed on the Ist day of January 
by the Secretary ot the Treasury." 

In compliance with the foregoing provisionH of law, annuftl statements were issued 
by the Treasury Department, beginning with that iaeued on January 1, 1874, and 
ending with that issued on January 1, 1890. Since that date, in compliance with 
the act of October 1, 1890, these valuation statements have been issued quarterly, 
Ix^nning with the statement issued on January 1^ 1S91. 

The tact that the market exchange value of foreign coins differs in many instancee 
from that given by the United States Treasury has been repeatedly called to the 
attention of the Bureau of Foreign Commerce. An explanation of the basis of the 
quarterly valuations was asked from the United 8tat^ Director of the Mint, and 
under date of February 7, 1898_, Mr. R. E. Preaton made the following statement: 

"\Vhena country has the smglegold standard, the value of its standard coins is 
estimated to be that of the number of grains fine of gold in them, 480 grains being 
reckoned equivalent to ^20.67 in United Stales gold, and a smaller number of grains 
in proportion. When a country has the double standard, but keeps its full legal- 
tender silver coins at par with gold, the coins of both gold and silver are calculated 
on the basis of the gold value. 

"The value of the standard coins of countries with the single silver standard is 
calculated to be that of tf le average market value of the pure metal they contiuned 
during the three months preceding the date of the procbmation of their value in 
Uniteci States sold by the Secretary of the Treasury. The value of the gold coins of 
ell ver-standanf countries is calculated at that of the pure gold they contain, just as 



according to law at the v^ue of the pure metal contiuned tlierein, has a commercial 
value above the value of the eilver bullion; consequently the value for costomH pur- 
poses is determined in each case by the consular certificates attached to the invoice 
of exports from that connby to the [Tnited States." 

The following statements, running from January 1, 1874, to January 1, 1898, have 
been prepared to assist in compulJM the values in American money of the trade, 
prices, values, w^es, ete., of and in mreign countries, as ^ven in consular and other 
reports. The series of years are given so that computations may be made for each 
year in the proper money value oT such year. In hurried compulations, the reduc- 
tions of foreign currencies into American currency, no matter lor how many yefirs, 
aie too often made on the bosee of latest valuations. All computations of raluea, 
trade, wages, prices, etc., of and in the "fluctuating-currency countries" should be 
made in the values of their currencies in each year up to and including 1890, and 
in the quarterly valuations thereafter. 

To meet typographical requirements, the quotatdons for the years 1876, IS77, 1879, 
1881, 1882, and 1891-1894 are omitted, these years being selected as showing the least 
fluctuations when compared with years immediately preceding and followmg. 

To save unnecessary repetition, the estimates of valuations are divided into three 
dassee, viz: (Al countries with fixed currenciee^ (B) countries with floctoating cur- 
rencies, and (0) quarterly valuations of fluctuatmg currencies. 

' Corrected to February 28, 1900. 

i:Qi,.r::::G00'^lc 



8 OOintEBOIAL BELATIOIfS. 

A. — Oounlriet vnlh fixed currendei. 
The lollowlDg offldUl (Unl(e<l Etatea Tieuaiy} valuatlocu ot foreign c 



}t include "rates o( 




mirel. 

DolUr 

Fna 

do 

PanndaVliwpiiU-' 

Druhai* 

Un .?."'.''.'.'."'. 

Yen 

Doltar 

norln 

DolUr 

Hllreli 

Buble 



Qold-^n crowDB (llOfi.^ uid 

lOCIDWIM. 
Gold— 10 and 9) trnna [decea; 



M^-^10,uid9 



Oold-caondo (tLZn . don] 

SLCQ, and toudor (T-Kqi 
Tep-ww> md dlTlHoii*. 

Qold~-2, E, 10, and 20 «oloni; 
sUtct— G, 10, !G, and W centls- 

Gold— doubloon (tS.01,7); dl- 



1— ffiaadSD 



Qold— S, l6, a), eo, and lOO 
Iranca; allrei— 6 tranca. 

Gold— 6, 10, and 20 markL 

Gold— BOTereipi (pound aler- 
Un^ and half torerelgii. 

Qold-C 10, ao, N, and 100 
draehmaa; diver— 6 drach' 



Gold— \UK 20, GO.andlOOllie; 
Oold— l,2,e, 10, and 20 yen. 

Gold— 10 floiin; illTer— 1, 1, and 

Siaorlna. 
Gofd-t2 (tZ.02.7). 
ao]d-1.2,a,and lOmUrela 
Gold— Impeijal (r.nS), i Im- 

peri«rT|S.80] , and i inble; 

nlTei^, I, and 1 nMe. 
Oold-^ poietaai tllvei-6 pe- 



fruux illTer— 6 Itu». 
Oold-^ eO, 100, 200, and : 

Gold_pfBo; tfTBi— p»o a 

dlTldona. 
aold-«, 10,20, ra, and 100 bi 

van; allver— SlmUyare. 



■In UT4-187S tha Hold iUudaid pi«TaU«d. 

■Thegold itandaidwu adopted Oct. 1, I8B2. (Bee Coniular RepoRa. No. 147, p. S28.) Valueaoi 
■ta], bowever, frcqacntly expMaaed In tbe florin or gulden, wblch !■ woitli 2 croima or 10.6 cenla. 
•Oold ttandaid adopUd OcL 1. 18>7. (Bee Oonnilat Report*, No. 301, p. 2Ca.) 
* Bee note U> taUe ol fluctoMlnit cnrrendei. 
*rm an account o( die adoiiQiai of tbe gold itaodaid, aee Sariew ot the Wotld>i Commeici 



byGoo'^lc 



VALUE OF FOaKIGN COINS. 
B,— QmtiWet viUhJhutuating currmeUt, 1S74~1S90. 





Btudaid. 




Value Id Urma of the United Statea gold dollar 






1871. 


1871. 


1878. 


1^, 


1883. 


im. 


Centml Amerlea.... 


.1!T£:::::: 
:::::£:::::: 


18*0; bollTt- 
uio thete- 

Pmo 

.IS^!-..... 

(Yen 


"SiX 

.9«,B 


:ll 
:S;! 


10.46,8 10.41,8 

.».6 .8».e 

.*1,8 .88,6 


10.40,1 


"■Si 


gS":::::::::::: 


Bllver 

Qoldand 
iUver. 

.f.^:::::: 


.1! 

-48.6 

.m;7 


31 

!S:? 


.81,2 
.8i;2 


■Z.i 




388 






Mexico 


»:::!!:::! 




:!!:S 

.M.8 


.W,8 
.3^6 

II 


!S;S 
!S:S 


!88;2 
.78,8 


.80.8 


xripoii:::!::!:!!::!:: 


llabbob of 30 


Coimtria. 


Blaodud. 


HoneUiT unit. 


Value la temuol Ihe United Slateagold dollar 
on Jan. l— 




1886. 


1886. 


18S7. 


im. 


18W. 


IBM. 


Anstrla-Hlmgurl ... 

BoiiTi«...rr?: 


."l'S:::i:: 


SKVnVM 

.frSv::::::::: 


•■;«;■ 


10.87,1 
.76,1 

"¥ 

.SS,7 

1:! 


J! 
:K 

.65,8 


10.84, S 
4.»l,8 


.88 
4.M,8 

.1! 

i: 

Mi 


"ig 






-S 








allTor 

fOold 


■ Veo 

Dollar 






' 








.&i 


I^.!::::::!::!!!! 


.68 

.78.7 


TriPDll 


do 


"SSS.""" 



< See tootnole table of flied ' 



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COMMKBCIAL RELATIONS. 



C. — Qiiurlerly valualiims o/Jtueiuathu/ rurrencU* 



Connlrie.. 


Houetary unit. 


1897. 


1898. 




Jan. 1. 


Apr.l.jjulyl. Oet.1, 


J»n.l.|Apr.,. 


Julyl. !o.'l. 1. 


Bolivia 


Silver boliviano . 

Amoy lael.!!'!!! 
CanUmt*el 


"11 

.7«,5 

:K 

■M 
■h 

.si;6 
■Si 


"1 

;70.8 
.72,8 

11 

■ sols 




M 

.61.8 

!i9;6 


K 42 4 'ft) 40 n 


*0.4!,8 

1 

.63.4 
'68^ 




C>.iiwal America 


!68!6 

:SS 
|:| 
lis 

.63,3 

11 


.83,8 
.64,8 
.612 
.87:3 

!60, 

1 


:K 
■k. 


S^;;;e 


.«.6 








!«,3 


:S:! 

.41.2 


.4fi 

!42;4 


!4o;s 


■11 








Peru 


.43,6 




















Monelar; unit 


im. 


1900. 




Jan. 1. 


April 1 


July 1. 


OcLl. 


Jan. I. 




ffllver boliviano.. 
Amoy tael. !!!!!!! 

Fuchau lael 

KSKf'-::: 

Ningpo lael ... 

SlB^h^S!.!! 

Tskao tael. .!!!!!! 

Tientsin loel 

Sliver peso 

|g^;::::: 


mn. 


•^ni 


B" 1 


1:! 

.Tola 
!68!e 

|;i 
:66;i 

:«8,3 

.43,6 
,43,6 

:oe' 

,«,6 


10.42 7 








i: 

a! 

72.2 

|! 

43, B 

I- 

08,1 




Si! 
ii 

67 

1' 

69,4 

u'l 

48.1 








Mis 

1* 

l;i 


.la.i 

!70,3 




.«,5 

1 









































imerolal value o( the rupee lo 



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FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



fbm'jrn v)eight» and meagait*, with Amxriean eipiivalenb. 



DeDomlTMtloniL 


Where raed. 


American equl»«lentB. 






igffiKi 
















JS-SlApouiida. 
32.3SpoundK. 

3t>.BSn>und& 
2!>.10a4 nunndL 








































aatnSjjpiioni. 

36l.ia^nd«. 








AiBenUne RepQblic and Mexico 






































8w™SdI!: 










300 pounds. 




































JiKSfo',;. 










s^s 












































ssss 














NearlyXacres. 


















ll^rtjndt 


















BS^;;4i^h.iii.iw^«::: 


(See CotHDtBr Reports So. IM.) 





' More treqiieutl)' otted "Kin." Amongmeicbuiu in the treat)' porta It equala 1,33) poun 



13 OOHUEBOIAL BBLATIONS. 

Fareiga toeighU and measure*, tnith Amervxm equiva3ent»~C<miiaaeA. 





Where UMd. 




Ewomratrt 


Oeutral Amerfo 


















euike faneg^. TO IIki 














ii^bCX 










ISmlkMu. 




















Fna^ ::::::::::;:::::::;;::::;:;:: 






K^-^gUia 


UL^Sgraliu. 






^"g^'^: 










26.417 galloni. 












Kllognun (Idlo) 


MeWc 


2.204ap(»indiu 


IUSS"*.'.:::::::::;::::;:::::::::: 


aJt 
































,^b°uSSti*'"""*'- 


























.lOOgralnajUof). 














g::::::;::::::::::::::::;::::: 


gST'.tTr.:::::::;::::::::;::::::: 
























































































































































1.103 poanda. 




















S^ 


^^;;;;;;:;::;::;::::;;:::;;:;:: 


S~3!z:.?!7. ::::::;::::;::::::::: 



.OO'^lc 



FORBiaN WBiaHTS AND KEASUBES. 
fbreiffn vxighU and meatiatt, viiA Amaicaa equimlanU — Continued. 





Where »ed. 


America -lul^^e-t. 


, 


GuOle, Chile. Ueilco, and Per.i 
















































ti'SSgi^iS""* - 




















KU.^C.. 














n^i^Sk my). 










*rf™ht[«t 






















tlfi'T^" 




























O-BlttlTTart. 














































?W^^^^ 























Genbgmm (^dignm) equals 0.1543 grain. 

DecigTftm (A gram) equals 1.5432 gmina. 

Gnun eqoalB 15.432 Krai ne. 

Decagram (10 gmmB) equals 0.3627 onnce. 

Hectogram (100 gt^mx) equals 3.6274 onncee. 

Kilcwmm (1,000 gratiiB) equals 2.2W6 pounds. 

Myiruamm (10,000 grams) eqnals 22.046 pounds. 

Quintal (100,000 grams) equals 220.46 pounds. 

Millier or tonnea— ton (1,000,000 grams) equals 2,204.6 pounds. 
Metric dry measures: 

Millilit«r (Wini liter) equals 0.061 cubic inch. 

Centiliter (,U liter) equals 0.6102 cubic inch. 

Deciliter (A liter) equals 6.1022 cnbic inches. 

Uter equals 0.908 qoArt. 

Decaliter (10 liters) equals 0.08 qnartti. 

Hectoliter {100 liters) equals 2. 838 bushels. 

Kiloliter (1,000 litem) equals 1.308 cubic yanls. 
Metric liquid n 



. . ,„ - , . , . .. 8 fluid ounce. 

Deciliter (X liter) equals 0.846 gill. 
liter equals 1.0967 quarts. 
Decaliter (10 liters) equals 2.6418 gallons. 
Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 26.418 gallons. 
KilnUter (1,000 liters) equals 264.18 gaUons. 



:::G00'^|C 



OOMMEBCIAL RELATIONS. 

Meliic tncflBureH of length: 

Millimeter (xVud meter) equ&le 0.0394 inch. 

Centimeter Qj meter) equals 0.3937 inch. 

Decimeter [^ meter) equAls 3.937 inches. 

Meter equals 39.37 inches. 

Decameter (10 meters) equals 393.7 inchee. 

Hectometer (100 meters) equale 328 feet 1 inch. 

Kilometer (1,000 tnetera) equals 0.62137 mile (3,280 k 

M}-ri!uneter (10,000 metere) equals 6.2137 mitee. . 
Metric Surface measures: 

Cenlare (1 square meter) equals 1,550 square inches. 

Are (100 square meters) equals 119.6 square yards. 

Hectare (10,000 square meteie) equals 2.471 acres. 



byGoo'^lc 



MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. 



To the SetuUe and Home of HejfreeenttUives: 

I traDeniit herewith a commuDicatioD from the Secretary of State, 
accompanying the Commercial Relations of the United States for the 
year 1899, being the annual and other reports of a comprehensive 
character from the consular officers, together with similar reports 
from some of the diplomatic officers, setting forth the industries and 
commerce of foreign countries, with particular reference to the intro- 
duction or increased sale of American products. It is gratifying to 
be able to state that these reports show a marked increase in the 
practical utility to our exporters and manufacturers of the services of 
our official representatives, both diplomatic and consular, in promot- 
ing trade, and present a mass of evidence as to the steady growth in 
popularity in foreign markets of our manufactured goods as well as 
of our food supplies, our raw materials, and the products of oiir 
mines. In view of these facts, 1 approve the recommendation of the 
Secretary of State that Congress authorize the printing of the usual 
edition of 10,000 copies of the general summary entitled "Beview of 
the World's Commerce" and of 5,000 copies of Conunercial Relations 
(including this summary), to enable the Department of State to meet 
the demand for such information. 

William MoKinlev. 

ExBCUTrvE Mahsion, 

Wiuhingion, March 1, 1900. 



letter from the secretary of state. 

Defabthent of State, 
Wcuhinffton, Fimjutry £7, 1900. 
The Phesident: 

In accordance with section 208 of the Revised Statutes, I have the 
honor to transmit the Commercial Relations of the United States with 
Foreign Countries during the year 1899, being the annual and other 
reports of a comprehensive character from the consular officers, 
together with similar raports from some of the diplomatic officers, 
upon the industries and commerce of foreign countries, especially i 



ciaUy m 

15 Ic 



16 OOHKEBOIAL RELATIONB. 

their relation to the iDdustrial developmeDt of the United States and 
the opportunities for or hindrances to the increased sale of those of 
our products which have already commended themselves in the world's 
markets and the introduction of such of them as, thus far, are com- 
paratively unknown abroad. These reports present not only the 
latest statistics for the trade of each country and the share which the 
United States now enjoys or may hope to gain, but a mass of valuable 
' details and suggestions as-to the activities and prospects of all the 
important industrial and trade centers of the world and the latest 
information as to the resources and commercial needs of regions which 
have but recently felt the impulse of modern development. 

Under special instructions from this Department, the consular offi- 
cers are addressing themselves with steadily inci-easing zeal and 
efficiency to the work of collecting information of practical utility to 
manufacturers in the United States who feel -the necessity of enlarg- 
ing the channels of foreign demand for their surplus production, and 
they have undoubtedly been stimulated aud encouraged in their efforts 
by the promptitude with which their reports are printed and distribu- 
ted or are otherwise utilized for the benefit of American trade. He 
annual reports which, in the then imperfect condition of the machinery 
for their proper editing and publication, were formerly subject to 
considerable delay in transmission to Congress, are now sent to that 
body with the least possible loss of time after the receipt of the com- 
pleted series at the end of every calendar year, and pains is taken to 
supplement them with all available sources of current information, so 
that "Commercial Relations" shall accurately represent existing con- 
ditions at the time of the final revision of the work. The value to our 
busiuesB interests of such a cyclopedia brought practically up to date 
of issue is obvious, and in my judgment, it affords gratifying evidence 
of an aptitude and capacity on the part of our consular service in pro- 
moting trade which seem to be excitdng the applause and emulation 
of foreign observers as well as the gi-owing appreciation of United 
States producers and exporters. 

The consular officers, and, to an increasing extent, the dipl(Hnatic 
officers as well, are rendering a variety of important services to 
American trade by answering, through the Bureau of Foreign Com- 
merce of this Department, specific inquiries from individual business 
firms as well as from organized trade bodies, with important results 
in enlai^ng the markets for American manufactures as well as for the 
prodncta of our farms, our forests, and our mines. The answers to 
such inquiries, if of sufficient general importance, are promptly util- 
ized in the form of daily Consular Reports, which are distributed with 
the least possible delay to the newspaper press, to chambers of com- 
merce and other trade oi^anizations, and to the interests more imme- 
diately concerned, so that the country at lai^ may roQeive -the beoefit 



LETTER FBOM THE SEOBBTABT OF STATE. 17 

of such data. No other country in the world, it should be remarked, 
bos so rapid a system of diesemiDating similar informatioD, or one that 
so satisfactorily meets the requirements of its industries and com- 
merce. In the development of this service, the Department of State 
is greatly indebted for many valuable suggestions from our manufac- 
turers, exporters, trade bodies, and producers of raw materials, aa 
well as from a number of trade newspapers, experts, and economists, 
which have been utilized in instructions to our representatives abroad, 
sod in the improvement of methods in the editing and publication of 
their reports. 

Thanks to the industrial genius and energy of our people, the United 
States has been so quick to avail itself of the commercial opportuni- 
ties in other countries and to adapt itself to their special requirements, 
as indicated from time to time in the Consular Reports, that, notwith- 
standing its comparatively recent entrance into the markets of the 
world as a competitor with the older manufacturing nations, it has 
already acquired a standing and reputation in many lines of produc- 
tion which encourage the hope of a brilliant future in export trade for 
many industries which, bnt a few years ago, were accustomed to regard 
their horizon as bounded by the domestic demand. 

I have the honor to recommend that Congress be requested, in con- 
formity with its action for four- years past, to authorize the printing, 
under the direction of the Department of State, of a special edition 
of 10,000 copies of the Review of the World's Commerce, to be dis- 
tributed by this Department as the doily, monthly, and special Con- 
sular Reports are now distributed, and of 5,000 copies of Commercial 
Relations, to enable the Department to meet requests for the entire 
work. 

Respectfully submitted. 

John Hay. 
H. Doc. 451, Pt. 1 2 



byGoO'^lc 



byGoo'^lc 



INSTRUCTIONS TO CONSULAR OFFICERS. 



DEPABTMnrr or Statb, 

WathingUm, J%dy 10, 1899. 
To'Jie OoMiOar Offieerto/lhe UmUdSlaia: 

GKKTi.BiniN: In pnrButuice to instructionfl sent you July 8, 1896, August 10, 1897, 
and August 5, 1898, and to paragraph 3 of section 592 (pp. 2&3 and 254) of Coneulu 
BeguktiouB, you are hereby ingtmcted to prepare and forward to the Bureau of Foi^ 
eign Comoierce of this Department, not later than November 1, aud sooner if prscti- 
cahle, a report, in on unnnmbered dispatch, on the commerce and industries of your 
consular district, covering any facts and flgurea for tbe year ISdS not already trans- 
mitted to the Derartment, and as complete and accurate a statement as may be obtained 
of the trade andindustriesof said district for tbe six months ended June 30, 1899. 

The special object of this instruction is to enable the Department to lay before Con- 
gress, on or about the Ist of January, 1900, a comprehensive statement of the trade, 
not on! J of the United States with the reet of the world, but of the various countriea 
with each other. Tbe Department is aware of the difficulty of obtaining official 
statistics covering BO recent a period as the first half of the yearl^; butthesuccess 
which bas attended previous efiorta of cwumlar officers in obtaining recent informa- 
tion from both official and unoffidal aonrecs, as embodied in the Keviews of the 
Worid'B Commerce for 1894-96, 1895-96, 1896-97, and 1898, published sepatBtelv, and 
aiso as an introduction to tbe annual volumes Commercial Relations of the tinited 
States for those years, encourages the hope that yon will be enabled to make a salJs- 
bctory eibibit The Department is not so much concerned as to obtaining detailed 
fignree with the stamp of official accuiacy as in securing an intelligent survey of the 
industrial activity ana ^neral tendencies of trade. The tnieinees men of the United 
States are particularly mt«rested in learning whether there has been an increase or 
decNMB in the more important Unee of exports and imports, especially such as enter 
into the tnde of the Umted Stfttes; alsOitheapplicationofuewproceeseeof anindns- 
trial character which may either open up-a new chaimelof supply from this country 
or BDggest to onr msnnlacttirets improvements in their own processes or the creation 
of new iDdostriee. 

Consular officers, from time to time, have reported upon deficiencies in Amerian 
methods of packing goods and of the conditaons of transportation, exchange, banking, 
etc, with this coun^, and tbe disadvantage under which we labor from tbe f^ 
that European houses give longer cieditB and more liberal terms, not only ss to pay- 
ments by tiuar costomers, but lu manofactoring certain patten» and (quantities of 
goods and in getting them op in atttadiTe sh^ie to meet local pecoliaritiee and cus- 
toms. AH these sotijecte are matters of practi<M importance in considering the means 
of developing American trade, and yon are requested to make such further suggeetions 
mth regud to t^em as the more recent developatenls ol boaineee in your district 
seem to warrant 

Other sabjects of special importance are; Cbaogee in currency values, especially in 
the United Statee gold value of the monetair nni^ and the rate of exchange; changes 
in tariff rates and customs rules, port regulation^ wharb^ dues; improvements in 
harbor bcilities; extension of tdegn^h and cable service; existing condition of 
transportation fadlitiee (internal, ooastwiee, and ocean) , including new lines of twl- 
- ways, new wagon and caravan routes, new canal or nver OTstems, opened or pro- 
tected, and the actual means and time of communication with Umted States ports, 
noting any material increase or decrease in freight rates; existing ratee of licensee 
for carxying on buidness, especially those relating to commercial travelers; r^iilatjons 
t^tectiiUE oommerdal travelers, indnding requirements as to passports, etc. ; condi- 
ticm of the merehant marine, including data as to vessels built and vessels purcbaaed 
from other countries; tonnage owned and employed in commerce with other coun- 
tries, and m^hods of aiding and protecting the meidunt marine; i^ulations, in , 

18 k 



20 OOIUOIBOIAL BGLATIONB. 

brief, as to qa&rantme; alao, any laws or regulations of a diBcriminatlng character 
which aSect AmericED veeBOs; statement as to any taxes or excises, in addition to 
tariff rates, which affect United States trade; changes in patent, copyright, and trade- 
mark laws; axistju^ postal rates, domestic and foreign. 

Full information is also desired in regard to any taws requiring goods to be marked 
so as to show the conntry of origin or manufacture. 

If it be impracticable lor you to obtain all the information asked for in the time 
prescribed, (rtate the fact in yonr djs^tch and forward the omitted data as a supple- 
mentary report aa soon as possible. You wilt obeerve on page 254 of Consular R^u- 
lations that the report herein called for is required to be transmitted by August 1. 
It is poesible that you have already prepared your report in compliance with this 
regulation; if so, you need only supplement it with the additional data called for in 
this instruction. 

Please acknowledge this instruction by addressing tbe Chief of the Bureau of For- 
eign Commerce and informing him whether he may expect the report called for 
within the time necessary for transmission after November 1, 1899. 

The two volumes Commercial Relations for 1898 have been mailed to you. From 
a careful examination of these you will be able to inform youtself fuUy as to the 
scope and detuls of your report. 

I am, gentlemen, your obedient servant, 

Thos. W. Chidleb, 

3^ird Aendant Secretary. 



byGoo'^lc 



REVIEW OF THE WORLD'S COMMERCE. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Since the date of the last annual review of reports from consular 
and diplomatic o£Gcers upon the industries and commerce of foreign 
conntriea, the commercial expansion of the United States, which was 
then (February, 1899} described as having passed the boundaries of 
speculation and experiment, has proceeded at a pace which has exceeded 
tne expectations of even those who were most coofident of a great 
development of our export trade. The progress noted in previous 
issues of t^e Keview in extending the sales of American mantuacturee 
in the stroi^ly competitive markets of Europe has continued un- 
checked, except in the few instances where the quality of goods has 
been sacrificea to cheapness, as, for example, a falling off in the sales 
of bicycles because or the exportation of inferior wheels,' and the 
word "American" seems to be rapidly attaining a world-wide celebrity 
as indicating excellence and superior utility in many lines of goods, 
especially in machinery of all Kinds, labor-saving implements, furni- 
ture, boots and shoes, railroad, bridge, and other building supplies, 
hardware, and a great varietv of other classes of articles of iron and 
steel. The recent scarcity of coal in Europe and the increased demand 
for American coal seems also to indicate that the United States is 
about to become a great purveyor of industrial as well as human food, 
and that while supplying the world with a constantly growing share 
of the finished products which it has heretofore taken almost exclu- 
sively from European workshops, we shall add to the raw material 
they have long looked to us to furnish, and the food stuffs upon which 
their laboring populations so largely depend, a considerable part of 
the fuel for their industrial firea.' The briMd lesson to be drawn 
from the reports of the consular officers and the data obtained from 
other sources as summarized in the following Review would seem to 
be this: That neither the products of our agriculture, our forests, and 
our mines, nor those of our workshops and factories, have anything to 
fear so long as thev preserve their distingnishing merits, and that the 
only danger they have to face is a falling off in the standard either 
through carelessness or the mistaken desire to obtain larger profits by 
lowenng the quality. The reason American cottons have obtained 

' See lepoTt of Actine Consul Mon^han, of Chemnitz, Advance Sheets United 
SUtes Consular B^wrts No. 632, Jaouary 19, 1900. 

'The United States, according to recent eetimates, is now well in advance of any 
nation in the world in its prtMUction of coal, aa well as of iron and steel. See 
"Mineral Statieti<9 for 1899" in EngineerinK and Mining Journal, New York, Janu- 
ary 6, 1900, and letter from Mr. Charles H. Cramp in the Washington Post, Jannary 
18, 1900; abo Bulletin of the American Iron and 8t»el Association, Philadelphia, 
January 22, 1900. | Q 



22 COSMEBOIAL RELATIONS. 

and held a conceded superiority in the markets of China and East 
Africa is because they have been found by the natives to be more dura- 
ble than competing cloths, and the same reputation maintained in other 
lines of eoods would seem to be the best guaranty for the permanent 
and healuiful growth of our foreign trade. 

This conclusion is the more obvious when we consider that the remark- 
able development of our exports of manufactures has been due to their 
excellence rather than to any marked improvements in our methods of 
pushing sales abroad. It is a matter of frequent remark on the part 
of our consular officers that while the efforts of the various organized 
trade bodies and export agencies which have come into existence in the 
United States during the past few years are doing good work in direct- 
ing and systematizing export methods, the individual exporter too often 
stfll clings to the ti-aae usages which, while effective enough in the home 
market, are of but little use, if not actually a hindrance, in extending 
sales in countries where widely different conditions prevail. It is grati- 
fying to be able to state, however-, that the Bureau of Foreign Com- 
merce notes a marked increase of interest, as shown by letters of inquiry 
addressed to it, among manufacturers, shipping houses, producers of 
agricultural, forest, and fishery products, lumbermen, miners — in short, 
every brancn of industiy in trie Unitea States — in the conditions of 
demand and supply and the special requirements in foreign markets 
in which they mignt hope to compete, and the volume of requests 
addressed either directly to the consuls or to the Department of State 
for detailed and accurate information indicates a constantly grow'ng 
perception of the importance of catering intelligently to the varying 
needs of foreign customers. In these inquiries, as well as in conunu- 
nications from trade bodies, trade newspapers, and individual experts 
in various branches of industry, and from economists engaged in the 
study of trade changes and fluctuations, many valuable suggestions for 
inquiry by consular officers are obtained with results of great practical 
utility which are promptly given to the public in the daily consular 
reports. 

When the fact is taken into consideration that many of these inquir- 
ies are technical in character, entailing careful research and accuracy 
of statement, it will be seen that the consular service is often called 
upon to perfoiTO tasks which only experts could be expected to dis- 
charge sitisfactorily, but as a general rule, the results so fully meet 
the special requirements that a basis for intelligent action is seldom 
lacking. It is but due to the consular officers to sav that they seldom 
complin of the burdens thus imposed, but. on the contrary, often 
exhibit the zeal of the raissionary in promoting American trade, and 
supply from month to month a growing mass of voluntary informa- 
tion and suggestion which is nearly always of a practical character. 
Besides preparing reports and conducting a lai^ individual corre- 
spondence relating to purely trade or industrial questions through the 
Depariment, many of them lend their personal efforts to the introduc- 
tion of American goods, and at some of the consulates, samples are 
exhibited to foreign buyers. Such collections have been opened in 
connection with consulates, or through the influence of consular offi- 
cers, at Constantinople, Beirut, Smyrna, and Nice, and at Tampico, 
Mexico. The consuls at Chefoo, China; at Leipsic, Germany, and at 
Edinburgh have offered to inaugurate similar exhibits. Ambassador 



byGoO'^lc 



IHTBODUOnON TO EEVIEW OP THB WOBLD 8 COMMERCE. 23 

Hitchcock, wbile in St Petersburg, took steps looking to the opening 
of an American exposition there. The arraDgement made by Uonaul 
Dudley, of Vancouver, whereby all trade catalogues fi-om the United 
States are to be exhibited in the rooms of the W)ard of trade of that 
city, and the action of Vice-Consul-General Hanauer, of Frankfort, in 
arranging with a large Rhine transportation company for the intro- 
duction of American coal into Germany, are among the more recent 
instances of extra ofBcial effort to giye practical direction to our export 
trade. Special attention has also been given by consular officers to 
the improvement of transportation facihties between United States 
and foreign ports, and the establishment of direct steamship lines has 
been urged with practical results, as in the Mediterranean and in the 
Baltic' As was remarked in last year's Review,' "there is, of course, 
a limit to the usefulness of Oovemment ^encies of this character," 
because of the official considerations necessarily involved, but until 
private enterprise shall have mastered the intricacies of foreign trade 
conditions and our manufacturers and exporters are I'epresented by 
capable agents of their own in foreign markets, the consular service 
will doubtless continue to be the main reliance for blazing the way into 
new fields of consumption for our products. 

During the calendar year 1899, according to the figures of the 
Treasury Department,' the domestic export of the United States 
amounted to |l,252,903,987, against $1,233,558,140 in 1898. The per- 
centage of manufactured products was 30.39 m 1899, 24.96 in 1898 ; 
of ^ricultural products, 62.42 in 1899, 69.06 in 1898; of mineral 
products, 2.66 in 1899, 2.09 in 1898 ; of forest products, 3.80 in 1899, 
3.16 in 1898 ; of fishery products, 0.45 in 1899, 0.47 in 1898. It will 
be seen that the gain was most marked in manufactured goods, and the 
increase is the more significant from the fact that it syncnronizes with 
a general revival of industrial activity in Europe, showing that we 
were able to hold our own in an intensified competition in the world's 
markets and with a greatly increased consumption at home of iron 
and steel, which were being exported in increasing quantities during 
the period of our commercial depression. Our total imports during 
the calendar year 1699were valued at 1796,845, 571, against 9634,964,448 
in 1898, an increase of nearly $164,000,000. Analyzing the Treasury 
figures, we find that the percentage of imports free of duty was 43.91 
in 1899, 43.26 in 1898; of articles in a crude condition which enter 
into the various processes of domestic industry, 33.45 in 1899, 31.85 
m 1898 ; of articles wholly or partially manufactured for use as mate- 
rials in the manufactures and mechanic arts, 9.45 in 1899, 9.31 in 1898. 
There was a drop in the percentage of "articles manufactured ready 
for consumption^' from 16.50 in 1898 to 14.90 in 1899, although there 
was an increase from 12.76 to 18.45 in "articles of voluntary use, 
luxuriea," etc. In other words, it would appear that we are import- 
ing more foreign materials for use in our industries and less of finished 

* See reports of GonBoI-Geneial Dickinmn, Constantinople, United States Consniar 
Reports (No. 376, Advance Sheets, and No. S24, monthly isiue, May, 1899) ; and reports 
of Ambassador Hitchcock and Consnl -General Holloway, St. Petersbuiv, United 
States Consular R^iorts (So. 281, Advance Sheets, and No. 220, monthly ismie, Jan- 
uary, 1899). 

* Heview of the World'a Commerce, 1898; page 22. 

* Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance, December, 1899, page 1819- 



:::G00'^|C 



24 OOIOCEBOIAL RELATIONS. 

manufactures, with a slight gain in our conaumption of forei^ 
"luxiiriea"— a conditioD of things attesting a steadilv widening iadus- 
tnal activity, with substantial results in a general increase of our 
national prosperity and purchasing power. 

An examinatioD of the Treasury figures of exports and imports by 
articles for the calendar years 1898 and 1899, which precede the sum- 
nrnry of consular reports by countries in this Review, will show large 
increases in the exports of most of the important articles of manufac- 
ture, such as agricultural implements, cotton goods, electrical sup- 
plies, and apparatus for scientific purposes, manufactures of iron and 
steel, including hardware, machinery of various kinds, cash registers, 
metal-working machines, printing presses, pumps and pumping machin- 
ery, sewing machines, locomotive and otber steam engines, typewrit- 
ing machines, nails and spities, pipes and fittings, stoves, etc.; leather 
and leather goods of all kinds, vegetable oils, lumber, furniture, house 
finishings of wood, etc. The total exports of railway cars and other 
vehicles fell off from »10,959,712 in 1898 to 19,856,453 in 1899, but 
this is explained by the heavy decline in cycles (included under this 
headine) from »T,092,197 in 1898 to $4,820,284 in 1899. The sales 
abroftd of railway cars and other vehicles, except cycles, rose from 
*3,867,615in 1898 to $5,036,169 in 1899. 

In addition to the Treasury tables giving the exports and imports of 
the United States during 1899, which are reprinted for purposes of 
comparison, a statement of the trade of the more important commercial 
nations, with the relative share of the United States, has been compiled 
from various sources in order that a comprehensive picture of the 
trade of the world in its most recent phases may be presented. Fol- 
lowing these, the Review treats of each country separately under the 
proper geographical division. 

Frederic Ehobt, 
Ckiefy Bureau of Foreign Commerce. 

Department of State, 

FArmry !S3, 1900. 



byGoO'^lc 



COnSKCE OF THE WOBLD UT 1899. 

The following table shows the imports and exports of all countries 
for which statistics have been received by the Bureau of Foreign 
Commerce. 




Fnnce (ipedal commerce) .... 

Otnaaaf 

BelgiDm (qieclal coDuuecce) .. 



rU-BmiAry ... 
icrluid weciol ' 



COMafilcai. 

WIUiC 

SJffiflndii'*.'.'.'.'': 

JipBiit 

SUiita Bettlemento > . . 

CapeOokmy* 

n£h....: 

Lourenco U»li)Dei ' . . 



•FtacalTeorlMS-M. 



yt Import*; ttx moutba ol IS 



byGoo'^lc 



iilM \\\\ :::: MM: 



li 
ifi 

ill 
111 

ill 

11 



iSiiiPi^Bi 




_LiJ :\ : ■ ■ :\ \ ill ■ 




ilNlHl»M!|!ililliii 

\\\ i: M HH n \ M 



- ■ 



l|S^;si|ii|iH[:P[ 







i 




Jioo'^le 



; OF THK TJWITED STATES ] 



1 world's trade. 29 



Pi 



mni 



1 






'3-8^ 



-m-U 



; ill ie 



m 




i 


iiiiii 


t 


II§I8 : 

a- Si 


i 
1 

1 

s 

s 

3 
1 




i 


iiiSli 

pwas 


s 




i 

a 

r 

1 
1 
1 
1 

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If 






iiiii 
niii 



1 



wGoo'^le 



COUCERCX OV THE mnTES STATES WITH TOBXiaH COtHTKIXB. 

The followioe fibres, compiled br the Bureaa of Statistics of the 
United States l^eaBuiy,' give the trade of the United States for the last 
two calendar years, witii data as to im^rts and exports by eroups and 
articles; also, the trade with the Tarioos countries for the hut ten 
years: 

Impojit tmd txporta of nvrfJtandMt, iSB8 and 1899. 



QroupL 




UB§. 


ISM. 




«7,SZ8,C5t 

UO, 300,088 

ig,ut,si7 

8,861,>7T 


Faced. 

Is 


IBg.!99.618 
20»,87»,808 

27,882,128 


Prremt. 




M.S9 




!;g 


AiadMOI Quinary UM.linriM.ew! 




a8,*M,17B 


100.00 


850,813,964 










100, 608, 1« 
«,0«,6ffl 

8^^187 


27. « 
1S.8B 

11 


188,681,872 
67,614,161 

101,042.048 




the Tuloaa jncctHH of i1om«tlD IndiHtiT. . 


12.86 


ARlelaofTolimCuTiue,]azniles,Ma 


24.08 

22.78 




866,680.275 


100. CO 


448,081,617 










197,829,803 
IW, 256, 887 

SO, 127, 888 


81.86 


2»,»71,886 
W7,«B.»9 

75,878,006 




i3J,S»'S5S£',?SS!LSdt 


88.46 


AiUdea ot volunlarr one, IniuriM, etc 


lis 




884. 984. 4« 


100.00 


788,846.571 












42.28 
















182, 810, ua 




224.077,181 




















Domeadc: 




as 

2.W 
S.16 

:£ 


88,279.187 
47,662,121 
^^7^077 
S:6S2;66» 






























1,288,688.140 


100.00 


1,262.908,987 










1!;^SS 


47,09 


il;^Sf? 














21,988,1M 


100.00 


Z!,G06.6M 










1,266,648.268 




1,«6,4W,671 












11 




SS:S 
S5i);S 





























' See Monthly Snnunuy of S^nancs and Comnwice, December, 1899, 






S3 
li! 



BiSSSIBfilllli- 



I II 



i: 




5^£isS"S3S 'si :sS :iS3F:l 




Coo'^le 




H.I>oc481,Pt 



Goo'^le 



ili i 



jF 



iij 



•i 



III 

ass 



byGoo'^lc 




Coo'^le 




"W 



89 






IS 



m 



i ; ; 
: ; 



1$ 



i 



wGoo'^le 



OOKXEBOIAL RELAHOKS. 



ImpoTit of TMrdiandix, by orttdf* and at 

[AbbieTl&tlan: D.e.K.,iiotfllseirheraapeolfled.] 







Aitlclea ftnd ooonWlei 


1898. 


18». 




Qnantltiot 


VljQ«. 


Quutllln. 


VJn«. 






















"'^^^::::==::&: 


616 
281,211 

i;>14 
868, WS 


84;S28 


J 


«S 


'^::::::/:::: -v:-;\iS:: 


.,«"^g?S 






















4,i»;a» 


























J,682.CW7 














^"'SS.l^.tljS^'l:'"!^^*:'.'!^- 


71 


»i,6ia 


1 


















ma 


276,118 


1.2ffl 








^■"^■i^asr""''""""^ '~"- 


uS 


20,128 
22S:007 
Z,B8» 


1,986 
16 


18 882 
















1,T» 


246,719 


1,986 








AnUmony ore (pounds) free.. 


as 


60,266 

8,813,181 

,,S!;S 


6,982,183 
3;w:607 


47,841 

240,988 


























'"S^iS^SiX""^'™- 




SIS 

U.ISS 
S6,046 












•ir-fS 














82,368 




















3.287 












8W.41B 




879.246 








Alt works (dutiable), Imparted from— 




1 

7,169 




,»fS 






















"Si! 














*S 
















Tow; 




2,014.198 




2,457,687 


jltphsltnm or bltomen, crad« (totu) du(.. 

B«ri.lieniloci(oord«): free.. 


S:S! 


202,452 
77; 176 
209,442 
B84,728 

ie9,EB7 


100,168 
22,803 


11 

2^776 




















Books and other printed matter : 




iSiS 






Map^ enfiavlDgB, eW., n. e. ■ dm.. 










Bwto, ete, ((re^^p<««l from- 




718,417 

B:!S 

147,811 

34,781 
is: 097 






































12,181 












1,610,812 















unihed statsb dcfokis and EZPOBra. 

Itnporit of merduMtdue, &y arttela and eounfriei, 1808 and 1899 — Contiiiaed. 









ArticlM ud comitrltK. 


■"■ 


18». 




QoKotltln. 


Vilnee. 


QoantltlM. 


V»!iH». 


■^g.*E;?r«,"SKSS!?- 




«ea.m 

11 




''"&S1 






















w 














iS'JS 














6,»71 














l,lfiO,»l 




i.«7,a(7 




dot 










W,8U 




1B,<)U 






1 


M.Btt 
1,240 

«T,ns 








;;;;;H;; 




mie»t (bmheli) 

Wheat flour (barrel*) 


:::::3S:: 

....tree.. 

'"-.'."■d'i.t^ 


Si 

M,147 
















a,aBB,7«2 




1,76*. sea 




""^ 






"^^rr-Ud, b».«^, or 


t,a6;si8 


e.sia 

1,M8:781 


20,872 

2,2»,6TB 


,.£S 








1,«60,B67 


I,24&.59I 


2.280, 4« 














2,m4;228 








l») ...dot.. 






AZ 


Cement. Bomui,PtiiUaiid,«te. (jwond 


M6,B2T,ffi3 


848,286,306 


Cement tgamd^lmpoOed (rom- 


M,42I,TW 




71,863,062 

iTHim 
'«66;6oa 


S^S! 






B,im,«o 

■■1:8s 






•■1^^ 






8,368 












8I».»7.«S 


2, SIM. 228 


8«,«i,aM 


2,m,2ai 




•'.«:. 


(poonAi) 


3.613.M* 


3M,t71 


3, MO, 277 


748,69 
2.188.067 

^728 


SSf SSr.ii oWS; «i. 


ac^i 


aSffJTSsa!,*;";;; 




1SS,H& 


113,861 








»,!» 


^gg 


W,617 


ft&SS 




«T!!' 




8,6«,!1W 


268, SM 


g,a6fi,aw 


200,166 










1,272.796 




806, 71» 










KiRWXJgCt^^ported Imm- 




^^S 








S6S 






««-)?S 












TOW 


61, IM 


JM,88(i 


84,617 


446,518 



OOIOCEBOIAL BBLATIONS. 
fmporis qf merdiandiMt, by artUiei and ooimtriet, 1898 and 1899 — Cotitinaed. 





Twelve rnontba ending December- 


AitloleB KDd cxnmliiBB. 


UM. 


1M9. 






TalUH. 


QoanUtlec. 


ValuH. - 


CbemlcRls. drugs, and dyes, n. e. B.-CoDt'd. 


l,I41,sn 


6418 

Sis 


972,871 
964,021 

as 

882,106 


















B,Me,»z 


260,881 


3,066,969 








QlTcerin (pound!) dut.- 


14,211,119 


899,904 


21,738,886 


l,fi2B,5fia 


"T*""- ,».. 

Cwnphor, crude Iree.. 

Co[^! Mwiie; Vid aiii^V.V.V.V.VfrSe: 1 
GUDbler, or lernjaponlw Iree.. 


10,196:882 


104,794 
838,619 

1S6 7Q1 
980;097 
814,089 
1,122,738 
i: sue; 000 


!:K:S 

2,767.677 
19,211.629 

9; 6681 234 


743,837 
















6,361,918 














Baa"S,ii«i):::::::::::;:nS:: 


3.1*6.788 
86,068.087 

lDe.4Gt,S!S 
1.541,718 

416, ht 

11B,75T 


1,821,427 
1,880,703 

1,228,978 
■633:627 

99e,SU 

770,880 


3,660,391 
101,278,912 

120,680,001 
2:006:206 

487,379 

108,379 


''6^:677 
1.038,978 


Lim?. chloride of. or bleacMng powder 

M&iw'at;™'«iiK^):;::;:;:;"::;:dS[:: 

Prepared (or smoking, and oUier, 






'^'unitrtK.itgdSSf"'' '"P"^'™"- 


ii;i 


212,014 

8^ ess 

480,886 


Si 

m;128 










292,023 














416,817 


990,812 


487,879 


1,038,978 




Oplom^ prepared <poundB) , Imported irom- 


"•■S 


787,294 
8:086 


«5;!S! 


•^is 










119,767 


770,880 


108.379 


us,». 




PoUiah (poiindg)— 


■«5 

88,1W7,471 


288,906 

281.604 
913,690 


1,684,067 
117,449,708 

46:446:662 


, ffilS 


Nltmle of, or nllpeler. crude tree.. 

Allotber .?r:.... free.. 


877,871 
1,016,962 




1M, 093,827 


8,104,879 


1*4,391.187 


3,814,870 




Quinia, sulphate ot, etc. (ouncee) free.. 


8. 898, Ml 


818,662 


4,092,540 


1,109.836 


fSir^ ::::::::::::::■■:::?£:■. 

Balsoda ipounda) dm.. 

Bods sail (pouadi) dul. . 

All other '£lt. of (pound"! -lul.. 


28; 686; 790 


""li 


13,368,689 


186,008 
8,486,318 

»80,721 






8,362,886 




4,458,247 








Balphur.orbrtmjtone crude (loii^,.,,Iree.. 

fiumac.gionnd (pound*) dut.. 

V.nlll»lK»n. (poonda) Iree.. 


169.790 

■■■!S;S 


8,081,974 


148. 3B4 

10,887,887 


i,JS:S; 




















26,216, 849 
17,024,483 












19.682,666 










42,241,282 




48,247,047 









CNITED STATEB IMPOBTS AND EXP0BT8. 

hnporl* <rf merdiartdue, by arlida and eounlriet, 1898 and 1899 — Oontinued. 







Twelve moDtlu en 


dlnsDecemb. 


1- 


AiUeiMHidaMuiuia. 


UM. 


18M. 






ValDsa. 


qiualltlo. 


Vmluo. 


Cblcor; root. n«. ancround (pound*) dnt.. 

Chicory root, muted, Kronnd, or preinred 

ChocolaM. pnlput^'eW/inM'lDdDdiiig't^^^ 

cuys or''ljSh» of'Si kindi' (tiiii ::;;::::: idnti: 
^'"c^oc'E^^as'!-^.™''*?^'!:.... 


3X.M« 

ge,T«8 


2,7M 

IBS. 701 
77».4»1 


1, lis, 876 

477,418 
1,174,460 


116,186 

18, OM 

138,317 

807.791 










Anthndte (loiu) 


■ffi:: 


S,14B 
l.S70,66T 


61 


.».a 




"SIS 

sff.tx 


IS 

SISDI 


12S,7M 

Ml 

1,008,813 

ice, 014 




































1,270,867 


).«(»,E72 


l,S»3,S7» 






.free.. 




Cocok or cac40, ciade, etc. (poands) 

Prepared, elo.(ponnd») 


''■SrS! 


'•S:S 


88,876,148 

i;o<8;s46 


'■SS 


'^^'^L'^?::'^.^:^. 


ill 

iC.,w»,aoe 


'iwlogg 

.S.S 


2.626,866 
960. MB 

13,OU,67« 
3,»75;6« 

n.ati.m 

33,322 
2.007,843 
















































28.843,601 


t.Wl.BTS 


38.875. 148 






■"-- 






ew.sa!,e» 


6s,«M.a« 


878.107.931 


66,068,980 


•^^^""^iir'.r.'r-... 


1 
i 

MB 


807,828 

1,814^907 
S, 010, 893 
7«,87S 

'•SS 

S80t 


1.148.238 

90 907 

1.W8M2 

4.392,346 

45.ao8|6S8 
81,flS7,6K! 
10, 916, MO 
874.481.411 

1,026:716 


































1'^'SS 












113.821 

216,287 










8W.S8B.S06 


M,664,ffl0 


878, 197, Wl 


68.063.980 




:SS:: 




S,06S 

M,iae,4W 


6M.3U 

' S9]lS7 
1,183,017 
823:485 

4,«12,88& 

tbIbbi 


81,637 
71,466,406 




llS^^^t.T:. '^''^! ■::::.: 


10,067,680 




ported 
















WaMorflocti(ponad« 


«),6ra,2n 

2,CT.JW 


I'.S;!!! 


••ssn 


^"gSSi-""™"'-^''^*-'" 


'"as 

1,711, i«a 

171, 1S7 
118, «6 


867, 47S 








l,79t 
89 


1 














,!!!« 






"■" 








IWkl 


«,8B8,27S 


4,<1Z,B86 


81.014,8a» 


•.mat 



OOMICBBOIAL KBX.ATION8. 
lo^portt of taenlumdtte, bg artieUt and eotuOriet, 1898 and 1899 — Contiiiaed. 





Twelve mootlBe 






ISM. 


18B9. 






Yaluea 




Valoea. 


Clotbs (Bouare yaidil— 

SfJhSSiS.'S'.bSS.''?::::: 


iiSS 


^%1;S 


^ffiSS 


«ffi 




4s,sie,Bes 


6,8H,B88 


61,816,781 












eO».D87 






















'"P'nSr-':°.^.fi:!?^'.:'!^"?f:. 


2,ise,wt 


3.290,103 


1271814 


















28.684. 864 




86.672,988 








""^s^fflsr*'-'""*^ *"^ 


M,M1.010 

1:!S 


1 




•■fflS 










■*s 


















46,s8s.sae 


6,814. >88 


61.816,781 












8,610,422 

JS:JS 
11 
















































































28,684.964 














Earthen, alone, and chloft ware (dutiable) : 

™aT»''&y""i»'r 




929, sez 


































7,278,471 














luthen, atone, and ohlna ware, imported 




6(^281 




■■ss 
























































Total 










EgfC«(d0Mn) dot.. 


129,811 


6,631 


269, lOS 


24.828 


Featheis, etc., natnnl and artlfleial : 

Feathen and dowiu, erode, not dnoed, 




1,849,685 






Feathers ^ dti^ nat^ikl, di^^i^d, col- 




























4.«49.fi9 














'nS!°^'.!r?; 


S.3M 
6e.l3t 


J:S 


■J;3 




















1W»1 




1,401, 681 

















iriTrTED STATES IKFOBTS AKD BXPOBTS, 45 

Iv^HtrU (^ merdtandim, bjf articUt and eoanbia, ia98 and lS99-~CoD.tiimai. 
Twelre monthB ending DMember— 



Flben, -ngaiable, etc. and mumbetimi o 

Dnnunnfactaied (toni) — 



JoMuidJals batts... 



GTD,2n 

196.0(7 



ToUlDi 
FiBZ (fne and dutiable, Uaa) 



United Kingdom... 

Other Eorope 

BrlUih North Amei 



Ul.Ml 

Bn,ais 

81,011 



ToUl 

Jute (tmii}. Imported tram— 

DDIted Kingdom 

BMt Indies. 

Oihei coannle* 

ToliJ 

MbdIU (lonri, Imported (n 
" — idHnr"— 



iDfdom... 
elalandi. 



a (toni), ImpMttd b 



Sg^sS 



Cftblea, cordkge. thrauli, and liriiie, 

n. e. ■.(pound!) dut., 

Colrjr&m (doqiku) free.. 

Twine, bmdlng (poundi) free., 

Carpela and nn>^ng (tquare ;an1g) 



188,774 

S,4T1,6W 
2.1«,l»8 




S,S7n,aM 



1,12S,8IM 

M,S6S 
1.04S,«0 
1,1!0.M7 



46 OOHHEBGIAL BELATtOIfS. 

ImpoHt nfnurdutndite, by arfUa and oomOria, 18S8 and I.S99— OontinQed. 









ArUcJesiDdconntciM. 


usg. 


isn. 




qiunUUn. 


Vkloca. 


QuaoUtlo. 


Vainer 


Fndtii. iBelDdlnK nut* (pouod^ : 






•t, 888.206 

11 
11 




16,608,024 

■11 

1,296,010 


S~e":;EEee; 


S- 


•?;SSS 


S2, 244, 832 

18,061,728 

460,691 

9,«m;mo 


ES.^- 








PlunHBOd pmnai 


..dot.. 

-Si- 


^^^ 








■"'■■ 
















ii,i»aa,wo 




17, 834.119 










fiaiuuKS, Imported from— 




124,806 












2,08^*061 




































168,073 














1,866,206 




6,606,924 










Lemoiu; Imported Irna— 




'11 


































8.416,128 
















°~?^"^:fi5sSi'^... . 




ii 

42T 




86,6«a 














""'bTO 




















6,827 
74:980 




















888,607 




1.374,647 




■i^- 






Nu(*- 

Almonda 


9,e28,3ST 


1,087,866 
626,768 
881,711 


7.022, 108. 


^•S?:S 






















16,4»7,0B4 




20,663,022 














SJiS 






















'""cM^'Kar-' "^^"^ *" 




ii 

866,466 




2,066,118 














1,875,718 

Si:"' 






























238:286 














4,2&T,7*8 








trom— 








■•^SJ^-^^SSS™ "f"'""""*^ 




■■as 

1,488 886 




























' 6^010 




















48.702 














4.610.6M 




6,23S.W1 




..dill.. 






GlDgiT Hig or ginger beer (doien plnW) . 


1 »i,eo; 


2)2,461 


687,106 


26ll.»«i7 



UNITBD STATES IMPORTS AND EZPOBTS. 
Import* of mtrchaadiK, by artuiti and eottntnet, 1898 







AnlcWindoHintrJa. 


»,. 


WW. 




QwDtitte. 


Valoea. 


(HuntlUeiL 


Tklnet 


GliH and gUamre (duU&ble): 




11, m 

1,TW,{177 




.»S 


Cflmder'and crown 'gLan, poUilieii (Kioue' 




47,482,992 

2.5f».M8 

181. 6» 






Plate glus Inoare (eet; — 






'I'lg 






i,«.;7» 












4, KM, He 




,,«,.T99 








Qlu^ cylinder, etc (poondi), Imported 




~:i 
"« 


13, W8 


,!!!« 






.fS 


















u.wi,m 


l.206,5» 


47,482.992 










4,1W,B38 


44S,01> 
380, 6W 

241^742 


6,210,088 




















-'" .i„™a ,„., 




1,808.688 
190,414 












'■SCm 












1,82»,112 


















e4fi.447 
1,609,741 




>.£!:^ 


















2,158,188 




2,U4,«» 










l.SM 


16,684 


87,408 








Blia KDd ikliu, Other tbaa lur sUiu (poDDdi) : 


OE.EM.filO 


lfl.8M,4«) 

.!;!S!:!!! 


gS;S 

148,454,822 


S:S!S 

18.118, B» 






as*. 188,970 


a9,90«.B7S 


818, 261, sal 


H.127.W 




"'^JS'SMr'-!'-^!'.!^!!. 


SI, 387,873 
!»,1<V>,2H 

ISi 

26,425,771 
8,268.781 


ill 

i;tH.M0 

2;iO!>:4SS 
1,39B,S18 


49.834.780 

lii 
liii 

as 

».;S:S 

3,096,093 
12,975.886 


\9S 










^ii-S 






463.614 








'jsi'S 






2,040,128 








256,188.B70 


89,908.378 


818.281.831 












200,800 

,.ga 




8,807,8:8 


i:ia«-iiiiikTiiii;«v.v-.vS: 


i,«a7,5n 


3,0M,881 








'■K^-«,^„™.,.,.,- 


8£T,an 

«,!W,OTIJ 


2i9S7,l«e 


hSS 


.^Sff. 








«,(Mi,Ba» 


•je,os»,ia8 


84,901,483 


34,897.320 





OOUMBBOIAI. BEXJ^TIONB. 



Importa oj mathandtM, by artieUt and 



I, 1898 and ISSfi— Continoea. 





TrelTemoDtba ending December— 


Artidei and oounUies. 


isas. 


1899. 






Vain™. 




VUuoi 


India rubber, crude (poanda), Imported 


ID,B3S.«H 

i.Tig.im 
■ m,iz2 

B7;«8 


t«,S«2,M0 

-11 


I0.43S,SH 

G.(KS 


'iniSH 






•■aa 

IB. 427. 858 












"t-SS 






so;^ 






«,M«,((M 


»,IW7,]<» 


M,«8.4M 


84.219,019 








%iS 
























«0,BBS 




888,419 








Iron and Eteel. and manufacWueB of: 

Iron ore (tons) dat.. 


187,£«) 


!6»,2« 


er4,o»8 


1.083.045 


iS,'pT„K'diu.i;kii:-,»s-::::::::SS:: 

Bar Iron (poundBj dnt.. 

Ban. raJlway, of iron or Bteel, etc. (torn) 

Wffe rods (ponndi) dnt.. 

Wire, and artldtt made Imm (poaudi) .dut. . 


1;ig 

*l,B27;27e 
SOD 

2S,8«g,B8a 
5,085,SS7 

4, US, 761 


7M,43I 

•■s 

1,00s, H» 
181,021 

s,n],sfig 
TIT, got 
ns,ssB 

M 

eu.sts 


«.»72 
11,876 

4t,3ss.2es 

l,4S\7a] 
28,a26,M7 
15,777,188 

GS6.eu 

420,923 


1,889.20« 
185.745 

TD.TBl 

1.287,726 
484,297 

8,^fiW 
400,983 


^aiS=S:::::::::;;::;:::::aS;; 














ffiS 














2.I8^M8 


Shotgun barreli!. In single tubes, (owed. 
























12,47*, 871 














'^is&'^^s^.-i-r^'TTz... 


■"■^S 


>,3«,617 
' 81 


13],a4S,41S 
'734;02» 


a.™ 














1M,B78,B2S 


8,S11,»8 


181,970,441 


8.7M.6W 




I^^f^pomd.). 


wv,m 
ii,o».im 


6as,m 

U4,Bie 


.0,%!:^ 










preefous iloneB: 




11 

Z,H1,20Z 




i'ffi'S 














58,831 




























11,»7»,S«4 















UNITED STATES IMPOBTS AND EXP0BT8. 

Imporit o/merdumdiM, by arftcJu and countria, ISSSand 1SB9 — Continued. 





T»el 






1896. 


1899. 






Valuer 




Values. 


'';^^^^^^^L^' ""' •"'^'' ^ 




":Ss 

iB.Gie 

,,,s 




?3S 


















s-^ 




























2,460, cr» 














"^B^sS^ "".":■.. 




"•as 
11 




4,816,686 






















S.918,07B 






















"■IS! 
























8,42S.!88 




18.184,860 










17S,«7,2aS 


2,6H,6M 
20,828 
8.SZS 


189,151.401 

481,848 


2.936.Z4S 

12,828 


p^^l^ia"":::::::;:::::::::::::::::: 








2,8»,987 


07,043 


817,321 












17, 871] 876 

170,1g8,S»l 

i; 142:960 






S4,«3,2M 


790,129 

■■1:ffi 


















ITS, 311, 190 


2.686,882 


189, 832, 7« 


2,947,868 








SB 




,»!?; 














?'S« 
















6.288,171 




B,7B0.«84 












'•SS''2 




6.M4.87I 




















a,no.6M 


















..S:Sf 

2.aa6.2M 

772,900 
728 




278.001 












































8.688,187 












H«im«r]er(b<uhel<)..-. dut.. 


1,fi6S 


4,360 


1.086 


8,688 




846.854 
1,795;«» 


S:S! 


2,I16:B72 














2.S42,2B3 


1,368,111 


8,074,218 








Manguieae. ote lEd oxide ol (tons) Iree.. 


1H88S 


881,967 


188.341 


1,684,528 






726,348 
229,90s 






















968.282 















H. Doc. 481, Pt 1- 



OOKiaEBOIAL BELATI0K8. 
Import* of merehandite, by artieUi and eoanlria, 1898 and 1899 — Oontlnned. 





Twel 


m months endtoB Deoember- 


ArUclen and oounlrl» 


use. 


1899. 




qaanlltlea. 


Valuea, 


QuantiUea. 


Values. 












Ualtmg and mats for aoon,eu;, (aquare ;udi) 


26. 668. MB 


11.848, 7M 


42,7«.4a2 


».O06,6« 


"'lir4'i*ii.nf.c..» 




ue.gi4 

8. 479, HI 




4,Si£^ 


















8,888,036 




4,718.969 












»»,«e 




1,121.220 








Olli.(gallOTi8): 

" Wha°eandflsh dut.. 

»,a^v.- ::::::::::::::::::&:. 

Do... dut.. 


tm.va 

-■"Is 


i,6Be,«TO 

,,is 

B4B,244 


731,882 
17,M2 

1,'J82.326 


2,218.848 










7M.eS2 


1,046, 6«9 


l:iS 

862,861 


















M89,«» 




6.827.883 






















1.142,(i70 














"'sf?A»j'air-!^."»'.«.. 


M,Be2,lM 


712,188 
2,07e,«8 


86.185.497 


ew.9» 

1.728,262 












3,818,864 




2,721,240 








"'^ssSkSs^'^.'rr:. 




ii 

78, H2 












262,600 














!!?;^ 
































^?S 
















2,818,854 


















488,600 

29,210 

2.B24,2S1 




817.010 
fl3,6Sa 


S.'SSr.'T-.:::::::::::::::::::::::'!:: 


38T,2» 


9M,418 














3.021, »ei 




3,451.920 








Paper, and manntactnm ol, Imported Irom- 




S»,088 
1, HIS, 374 

88,228 












Is 














2.068.636 






























3,021,t81 




8,461,920 












484,188 

277,072 

i.?S;SS 

7«:sa) 






















fir«;::;;;;::::::;::::::::::::;:av;il2:: 


,i;s: 


8,718 
20:765 


ilmsS 


ucu (dntiablc)" 

»~iSS^„«,. 




175,680 






All other 






U4.60S 



UHITBD STATES IHPOBTS AKD BXF0BT8. 51 

IsipOTtt of merdutttdite, 6y arlicUt and eotadria, 1808 and 7^9d— Continued. 





Twelve moQthi endlDK December- 


ArOcIa and oonntrtec 


■» 


1899. 






Vsluea. 


Qiuatitles. 


VBln«i. 


air "•■ 


I0.8S0.CI7S 


14, OK 

1,467, JW 

»,a)4 


29,887 
18,187,367 


•5,112 
1,710,832 




















'''"^iis^'^^^..'!rr. 


2(0,828 
2T5|092 

B,233 


B2,«S0 
159,988 

4S9 4S8 
101.778 

^265 

'B68 


158.081 
1,419,174 










































10,880,076 


1,4*7,195 


13,187.367 








^'"jifP^'':^'- au... 


IBS, 485, 384 

3,0M,7W 
57,8117,471 


2,922,079 
152,979 


142,666,218 

1,216,200 
89,410,3(13 


2,716,446 




620. 6W 




lBS,242,B«a 


3,9B2,8I» 


183, »1, 781 










374. SID, I» 


SS7,S48 
S«0,94S 


3»6,378,eS8 
















"^^"^'i.^ .^.. 


182,182 


14S,801 


107.0,5 


185.440 






















i,i4B.m 


















871,757 














"WS=5S--.r— 


11, H6 

!;a;g 


3,968 


11 819'W6 

i;7m;6sb 




Baw, oral reeled from the caxHm 


42,778,678 










2T,17a.W9 














ellk^w (pound.), Imported Irom- 


,,S;S 

440, 71& 


iS'm 

4g:S 


329,498 
2,151893 
3,613,491 
5,695,382 
99,687 


17B;i 
























B.«9,«24 


26,679,806 


11,819.946 








''■£SlJS^'-"*"''"""^"'~- 




1,591,709 
s!2E«!704 

i:9M,isa 

885, M5 

..g!S 




















8,259.378 








spun lilk^ In aelnc, oops. wupa. or on 
Vdvea, idnsho. >i.d olhet pile fab- 


810, S» 
SOB, 169 


2.070,469 
549.928 


2,742.718 


















25,287,419 


















2.685.648 




































4,988,613 



OOMItEBCIAL BELATIOHB. 

ImporU of merchandiie, by articUt and coantriat, I8SS and 1899 — Continued. 







Aniclesand ooUDtriea. 


18M. 


1899. 






Vnlaes. 


Qll&Dtltla. 


VslneK. 


»"C.'!,=2^7S,SS1S;S».... 




fi3,279 




•433,786 




















,!!?•!!! 




























26,287.419 




27.880,683 










7B0.071 


307.018 
248,726 


814.157 






275,307 












KB, 773 




607,098 








Bpica: 


1,190.899 
11,970,322 
13,23s, Me 


302,060 
306,739 


1,471,996 
12,022.683 


,WK 


Alf other free- 
Do aut.. 


'•ffi:S 






2.605,040 




2,934,850 








"S.'Si""- •"■'""• ""■*'■'"- 


\ 210, 091 
1U642 66D 
1,006,816 

8,841,702 
221996(1 
10,SS8,OS7 
1,191.739 
1,000.691 


ie8!943 

»,» 

245,169 
138, 32& 
908,970 

■S:S 

2,184 


i;953|248 

11,412,193 
1,338,685 






^'?S{ 








3^,200 














is; 446 




Tolal 


26,894.229 


2,199,801 


31,348,741 


2.li92,466 


'"•"S&S'&SS'."*'.'.'".'"^.'^^ 




227,186 
28,989 

1:!!! 


























m:^ 












3011,739 














SplctU. dliailed (proof g»!loiu) : 

BmEiJj' dut.. 

Another dDt.. 


SIO.OBS 
184,122 
1.0»,5S2 


672,223 

68S.455 

1.357,963 


888.626 

..as 


2,»6;oio 




2,039,7*3 


2.BS3.641 


2,6S6,6M 








KBllone) , Imported [rom— 


li 

141,988 

I24i9ie 

22 SIT 
70,958 

■5:^ 


II 

271901 
74,249 
26.082 

■as 

8,175 


688.841 
24,278 

,li 

32.300 
9.W7 






'« 














































1,229,6M 


1,891,418 


1,688,028 












360,044 
122,071 






















Molanei (gallons) free.. 

HolHseg fi^loDa! dm.. 


8,890:838 


580,460 


21,885 
6.660,848 


796,759 



UHITED STATES IICPOKTS AND BXPOBT8. 



ImjiorU of nurchandwe, by arlicUi and 



1898 and 2^9— Continued. 







Twelve mootha ending December- 


ArliclaianilconDEri™. 


im 


1899. 






Valuaa. 


QoknUtles. 


Values. 


""^J«ro. ,. Duu,h ...a. 


inl in 

1: 

{ft:: 


418,081,880 

441,1R6,384 

'2,489,481,147 

77,7U,28S 


Ill 


692,869,918 
82.044,384 


%'^1^ 


CUie UHl Other 

Above No. 18 Dutch alandaid . . . 




Tolml 


441,836,384 
|2, 1*6,123,782 


16,084,944 
61,849,168 


iM-i^^ 


21,717,480 
86,407,397 




1,427,280, 146 


77,1«4,097 


4,899,748,654 






indsrd 




Not »bove No. IB Dulch aU 


18,746,614 
1, IBS, 600 

"■as 

2,0«a,H2 

268,147,482 
686,128,107 
228. 212,090 

asa 

61.208,000 

4ffi:a 


42.612 
6 Iff 

2;48i:8:m 

^6A8,064 
5.079 
18,080,642 
16,184,944 
1,086. 4m 
92.747 
2,800,418 


18,748,642 
49^192: 188 


"ffiS^ 






10:760:i6S 












6, 678: 186 
4:152:452 

247,651,516 
687.688,620 
276 991832 
84.300,877 
285,490,868 
856,616 

'■SiSiS 

50.077,422 

172,642 

172,474,454 












'ns^r. 






17,746,066 


















iS'!!!'S 






















ported 




ToW 


1,849,648.861 


78,006,098 


4,367,704,270 


107,137,769 


Above No. IS DDtch standard, Im 


16,688 

18:201.778 
14,636:201 


ass 

840 

II 


1,282,573 
1,809,283 
19,184,179 


























628,714 








77,711,285 


1, 928, XI 


82,044.384 






..dm.. 

JS;: 








32.416 

AS 

6. 460. 880 






w^dir"'"™* 


21. 54*: 767 
*7:26i:04S 


310,616 






87,547,389 


10.934,081 


^^.ffi^'S^^.lTT 


2,587,571 
1.187,772 
80,691,606 

30: 92^818 

' 9)924 


606.664 

226,406 

2:614 


2,3S2,0»4 

86:469:891 
179,809 
223,516 




































«8,8M,810 


9,1M6,0»5 


87,547,889 






.free. 




Tin In bore, blooki. piga. eta. (pounda) . 


a2,748.8»» 


8,770,221 


71,248,407 


16,746,117 


""iP.IS^SSfc*'''"''"^'' 


16,362.388 
141^854 

■is 


2,247,848 


18,962,290 

'489:821 


























«2,T48.B99 


8,770.221 


71,248,407 











OOMHEBCIAT. RELATIONS. 

ImporU of merchandUe, by ariida and cOTiniriCT, 1S98 and 1899 — Continued. 







ding Decembi 


r_ 




18W. 


1899. 






Values. 




Valuea. 


Tobacco, and maoDtoctarea ol: 
Leaf (dutiable. poundG) — 


6:242:883 


15,081.350 

8:48b:808 


4,157.620 
12,960,319 














11,307.890 


8, wo, 182 


17, 107,839 








Imported [pom (poondi)— 




1«5,576 
4,«82.a76 
168.447 
316,767 
286,817 
2,882,497 
'128: 388 


'■11 

245:285 

10,859,402 

685,601 


































11.307.830 


8,680,162 


17,107,839 










850.™ 


'■"a:S 


459,277 




















I,71I0,71B 


















2,966.636 














Toys, imported from— 














































2,865,686 
















1S5.9B6 
5T0,«7 

8»S,sao 


S^:f^ 

845,704 


290,164 

710,400 












































2.165,126 














SU11i«^- "pa ■«( ) 


241, «g 

2.227,290 
278. »« 


3,866,406 

1,«0,467 
1.8M.KI2 


277,421 


4,002.608 














0.270.766 




7,160,007 








Wines, imported (pom— 




186,206 

1,016.895 
289,718 
765,120 
88:871 




208 8*2 






















































6,270,765 














UnmanufBclnred (M feet)- 

""sasr- «. 


18.182 


929,811 
9W,017 

i,su:2a3 

18,914 

290,867 
384,068 
1,610:608 


25.475 








Tlmber,hewD,eto. (cobkfeetj'.V.V.dntll 
Lambed (M i^t)- ' 

.M»!'^*.'~;::::::;::::S:- 


272,178 
115,777 

352, 4U 

480, 70« 


118.687 

673,791 
616,484 


?:JSS 

7,006.101 

999.862 


















Manafacturegof {dutiable)- 












61,192 




















13,861,235 















UNITED 8TATTS IMPOBTS AKD EXPORTS. 
Importa nf merdmndiM, by aiitdet and Bountrie*, J89S and 1899 — Continued. 







Artlalnmad cmmtrleL 


1888. 


isw. 




QaantltleL 


Valoet. 


QnanllUe^ 


Value*. 


""o^ag^'-^r..""^. 


2, on 

1 


HM.lie 

281. 210 
28(^588 

31. 8« 
40.478 
11.470 




^■4li 










12,106 












18.132 


029.811 


26.476 








'"a'esr.iss!;:"!^!?.:^^ 


I'.g! 


8.464,718 


673, 622 






■ Hira 






962. 1C8 


8,617,282 


673,791 








Wood pnlp (too4 , Imported from— 


1,3M 
4.UT 

28;ms 


18,171 


2.MB 






289,244 








ToW 


34.479 


eH.o&g 


81,192 


1.243. 2M 


Wool.hkltof Uie<:«inel,ao«t,>lpscm,uid mmuD' 
lutlienMM dot.. 


27.134.041 

sItbi 

' 71.500,286 
7M 


4. 838, MS 

801,323 

B, 646.872 


13.144,264 

64,782 

80,830,397 
2S:325 


7,8M,2S6 
4403 




Total dm.. 


W.g90.«H 


11.886,886 


106,867,674 


ll,«M.644 






















Wools (poDndi) Imported Icom— 


.ill 


2.626.470 
* 280,888 


8,791,646 














702,049 










27,143.82! 


4.6B0.S80 


lg,2W,040 










15;S 


264,288 

2^728 
19:i2fl 


6,163.40s 

766,133 
86H,filO 

' 60 
6,229 


1,078,549 




MUtahMoSXiJ^e. 


147,030 








i'M 


332 










LMCWa 


501.337 


8,798.806 








Cta«»-- ^^ 


l!;S!:iS 

4,810,908 


2.011.026 
1,661.773 

■•il 

30,816 


26.660,607 
17.604,650 






















7,731,610 
21,436,436 
4,701,666 






















71,601,060 


6,646,010 


80,364.722 








Oup«ii uid nMTfeOai (Kiiiue t"*). 


B«i.ioa 



2,036,836 

800, au 


760,3(3 




CloUilug. etc. except ituwb and kolt 


M6.684 



COltHEBCIAL RELATIONS. 



Imporit of m«rcnandite, by axUda and 



1898 and 259*— Continued. 





TwBlve monOM ending December- 


Aitlclea aaa cOQUITlee. 


iBse. 


1899. 




Qoatitltlee. 


ValQM. 


QD»ntltleB. 


Values. 


aoBiB (ponndu) dut.. 

Dieaa good<, womeD'B and cblldien'B 


S3,IT1,*M 


I8,S7B,6T4 

S,901,!S2 
fl]8:6SS 

92, M2 
M,I30 

SIS 


4.B76.B10 
23.881.144 


K 884,394 


Shoddy mungo, Bm^ elo. {poinidB), 


«9,OT 


317,381 






S^:;;;;-"-"-";;;:;;;!:;; 


272, MS 


152,793 


.S'S 














16.207,738 














CM^_(BjLUBrejjsri.l . imfoKxA from- 


IB.Sll 
84,714 
8i:M6 


Sffi 


2M,ea8 

382,416 
119; 723 


























B(»,10ft 


!,««.«« 


760,843 








°°'S.e\TiiSsr°"™°- 


19^885 
6,478 


99,309 

20S^248 

li 


3,308,742 
64, 884 
176,306 
166,707 

4,696 


'■"S'S 






166,331 








^.^EF------ 


IItm 






4.1S7,KI 


8,878,674 


4,576.610 








^^SSdifflSr^'' '"""^ "^ 


It, see, 110 

9;h^700 
B.Z70,I»7 
1,293,877 


2,4B2,SM 

:i:i«;4g! 


12,810,976 
61361:618 
4,908,664 










^'^M'm 














88,171,482 


0,901,282 


=.»,,« 


6,460,164 




""S.".EfttaS5'S!"~°'.!'°°'K: 


2,742,867 


10B,8M 
18,448 


2,986,463 


161,9(16 
14,801 












128,072 




188.760 












S:S;^ 




6,781,684 
? 146:462 


















288,884,173 
3«6,S80,27B 


























884,964,448 


















fi«B,42e,4S3 

i«e,fiae,842 

SiffiS 












82,308.680 
681.181,721 






































PoragnweaniTeweli: 




M, 641, 646 




28,965,802 
























11 

zt,m.-m 


































«9,689.U» 


















27.128,948 















UNITED 8TATE8 IMP0ET8 AND EXPOKTS. 57 

Importg of yni-rcharuUte, hy artitia and munlria, 1898 and 1899 — Continued. 
Twelve montha ending December- 



Total lorettTD nllliig. . . 



Exp<nU of domeaic me 








TwelTB months ending December- 


AracltB anil cimntrleii. 


im 


189». 




QoantlUeK 


Vatua. 




Values. 


Agrtoultoral ImplomanM: 




as 




IH. 789,129 


























»,ins.3M 




13,G94.S24 












G,UT 

"■IS 












M% 




















Centisl American Btaua and BriUih 












s;290 




































^'^^ 




















































































9.07J,8M 


















IB*. 997 




Ml, 615 








Callle (nomber)— 


S«,68B 


Sl.fle8,9W 


803.539 

MM 

S,£3fi 
99. M9 

132 






' fiolooo 




« 

■S 


459, KQ 

4,SI0 
94, 4W 

1,209,458 
7,776 
8,700 


Cenlml American Blales and Brillih 


S15 




138,228 






















m.m 


33,483,267 


4(»,176 










9eo 

4,5U 

■•1 


if 

l»,7fiS 
1.998 


8;io< 

'lE 










SS'fS 














ts 






ie,STS 


U7.548 


52,280 









58 OOHHEBOIAL BELATIONS. 

Export* of domaHie mtrchaadiM, 1S98 and J«9d— Contmued. 







ArUdea and oonnCrieL 


1896. 


1890. 




Q«u>tltl«. 


Valoea. 


QQBQtltlea. 


V^U«L 


AnlnulB — ConCLnued 

"'SiffiSii 


21, 8W 


», 262,116 


lii 

3:o2B 

89 










'•a 

22 


1,018,466 
7^ MS 
11.666 

w.sso 

82.788 
4,2M 


































us 

102 


a^ 














48,817 


B,010,77S 


4B,983 








Mnlea Ko- 


e,B»6 


611,689 


20,228 


1,702.0» 


'"^mi^jisw. 


122.781 

1 

'423 


10, US 
30, ue 


06, BOB 










45,412 


























1TB, «e 


1.070.968 


160,824 












226.647 




349.668 












41.408,768 


















IS 

as 

186, as 












•iS'S 




124, TW 


miif 


Blocking: 










191.474 


Bone, hools, honu, vid honi tipa. strlpai uid 












"°:^iss'*-""°""""" 




777,819 

■Is 

803,889 
6092 

■S:S 

as 

as 

126,874 

si 


































■i:% 


Cential Amarlcan SUM uid Britlih Hon- 




























S« 














2S|73S 
02,600 








































































^Si 




























2,427.!(» 




2,7*4,488 












1,237,027 
7881726 






SsnaJi^*i^'!'?iE;;---3;; 


4,M0,»G 

lG,16Ti6B7 
1,671,668 


16, Ml, MS 

1T.7S2|436 
663,878 


B.22S,601 
1,876,899 

^898 





UNITED STATES MPOETB AND EXP0ET8. 
Exploit of domtx&c Taerchandite, 1898 





Twel 


ve months eDding Decembi 


-- 


Articlea and cooDtrlea. 


1888. 


1899- 




QtUDCItln. 


VbIum. 




ValDM. 


Com (buBhela) — 


42,096, «* 
fiO,8IB.a«3 
!6,27*.«5 

ua.8s* 

U2,G»2 


leiseeless 

18,?72,22S 
9,283,702 

M,2» 
2S8,»37 


85,065,484 
6 624 642 
45,270,842 
53,170,066 
18,328,335 

96,488 
448,867 

440;006 
6;298 


134. 410. im 

a; 199; 792 

21.288,997 










Central Ameriowi SlaUts and Biltiah 


frJM 
















741,418 
2M,483 


326,223 
19,871 

732,005 
i;91« 


























207,309,881 


77,816,688 


206,136,233 








SSr^-:--:-:---iSB:: 


8M,a4S 
4»,»1B,S66 


1,886,646 
18,0(6,888 
1,718, 406 

•■■Slffi 


868,749 
41,085,082 
62,132,394 
4,852.340 


1,973, 4M 


IKsii;:;:;;;:;;:;;:;:;:;;;;;::;;;:!^:: 


■ 14; 401 


Wlmc goahelB)- 


7,35fi,826 
82,287,072 
7.774,»42 

42. BM 

•»:» 

4,8S7,afi2 


67,496,442 

26,386,267 
6,189,663 

IS 


63,12S,16S 

i; 658; 121 
S;i 

tl 

129,609 
28,298 


1'^'JS 
















CentTal AmeriisD EUCcs and Brltlah 






























i4fl,246,«e6 


180. 842, Wt 


109,635,161 










g,S2S,314 

1.4M,141 
827.760 


"■lis 
■■ffiS 

171,413 
1,840,766 

ii 

,,as 
ss 

3,908,128 

si 

1,671,270 
68.740 


10,778,588 

4,0<7 

566,018 

■■as 

242,656 

as 

1,181,242 

3 

H,329 




















Ceotnl American SUtea and Britlah 














2,0^.405 






2,932,350 






















































16,509,904 


72,086,493 


18,717,161 


70,082,417 








2,000,486 












1.666, M3 












517.879,74a 




289,966,771 








SS!""^::::;:::::-: "■■ 


4,708 


fiS 


9,782 


77,783 














178,949 ^ 















COHUXBCIAL ABLATIONS. 



ExpoTtK of dometlic merchandise, 1898 avd 1899 — Continued. 





TwelTe montliB ending December- 


Artfol«aQdcmiiitrt«. 


,« 


1899. 






Valoet 


QuanUHn. 


VslDea. 






Is 














Candlee Wit.. 


8,444,136 


•■•i:.v^m 


2»;740 


CBrriagBB, can. other veWolet Mid parUof: 
Cars, passenger «iiii freight, and parla ol— 




i,a>4,<we 




'■'^Z 






All otber cairlaga and partH of. except 




2,4H,812 


Total - 

Exported to- 








8,867,516 




6.036. 160 






785,187 

IS 

48,861 






























Central American Buites and Biitlah | 




^.•Z 








1 

77:781 
871,078 
661,146 

7*; 044 

as 






Cnl»--"- 




"S-^ 






























sr. 




















Is 

28,976 
149,853 

266,247 


























1 W».8™ 








Total 


1 S,!«J,6I6 


1 5,036,169 


CyclcaandHTtBof— 

United EI Dgdom 


1 ■« 




CB4.686 

ffiS 






1.636 207 












Central American Btstea and Brittah , 


1 

!t47,l4a 




















































































..^?S! 






























7,012,197 




4,820,284 












10.969,712 


















188,626 
73,838 








88,7Sa 










Ctaemlcals. drugi. dyee, and medldnea (ponnda) 




189,907 

Si 

TlTlsfie 








■iSS 


1,288,981 
29, 891, 688 




gjppcr.MJph^^. 






185,115 


190,309 





UNITED STATES IXFOBTS AND EZPOBTS. 
J^eportto/demaHemarehandUe, 1S98 and 1899 — Continued. 





Twelve monthe ending December- 


ATtidMMKlCOUDBrfa. 


1898. 


1899. 




Qnu.t]tle«. 


Values. 


Quantltiee. 


Values. 




«.7«,8W 


•614,630 

2,808,840 


K. 654. 607 












199, 122 






















0,782,734 














SSkViJiSii-: ""■■■ 


*T7.l»fl 


81, ISO 


467,493 


83.271 




976.090 
882,889 








1.147.S4S 
702,798 
























^'^S^'^ngaom 












630. ei 
11.302 




629,737 
2.315 
40;il6 


























1,676 


Ceotnl American BIrteB and Britldi 






























11 




W 


















60.868 
16a! 068 




















m«i5 












-■■g 


























1,868,979 




1.850.641 








^Vn*SS5« 


t,8a),»4S 
8,lBa,4H 


6,712,085 
6:699; 218 


1.707,796 
4.044,854 


7,140,100 










1908, 4W 


12,411,288 


5.762.160 








^^sXiicCfc 


7. Mb 


30,340 


1.5M 

33.708 
4,376,287 

6,548 
560. U69 

3^;67» 

218; ou 
2i;»i 






6,^ 




27 

1S,2K 

8,862,886 


1S8 

68,946 

0,624,042 

1,07a; 174 
40?; 363 

17; 671 

10i;iI6 








12,643,918 


Centnl American eutet Bod Bridsb 




m 


MO 
069 
611 
102 
938 
















gSSi'"" '"'"—'"•""' 


456.^-6 




10, Si 

as 

67.886 
66,687 


























4.609.406 


12,412,233 


6.762,160 








Cc*e Ions. 

Coltee BDd cocoa, gronnd or prepared, and 


lM,6ffii 


600.931 


280,196 


858,856 
204,716 








^iSS&"KNtaom 


•:l 


274,870 

2;«o 


2.329 


158,860 







































OOHMEBOIAL BBLATI0N8. 
Exporu of domaHe merdumdue, 1898 and 1999 — Continued. 





Twelve months etiang December— 


Articles and countries. 


1898. 


1899. 






ValufB. 


QuantlUM. 


Values. 


*^^'5i^'K&toii""^""' ip"^"- 


ISS 

IM, 740, 666 
I,623,E06 
'288:976 


"SSiS 

6,027,682 

11,987,082 

176 263 

31,380 

23,864 


49,286, 139 
87,096,288 

11 




f™™ 


























2M.95B.906 


33,608,869 


247,370,681 






i:s62;499 








^Tcl^'o'^'^'""^'"^'"-'"^ 




' 68:301 




43,102,666 


















16, 9261872 

8.128.694 

4.161, 986,817 


2,844,073. 
229,924.131. 


42,630 

16,660,071 

6776 202 

2,936,318,044 












Toul {Ij^*^; 


8,169.880 
t, 177.012.689 


f2S2,768,2W- 


6,817.732 
2.962,869,016 


191,107,342 


Exported U>— 

UnlWd Kingdom I!g^™- 

FT^mce g5 

OtherEuropo f«^"- 

British North America J'^^"- 

„„,,„ boles" 


4.020,982 

409,004,628 
1,930,924 

077,142.666 
1,003,888 

649,404,804 

"■la 

20,782,663 


115,308,684 
22,229,030 
63,861,674 
30,809,213 
3,088,787 
1,103,836 


'' 11 

S:i 

li 
»,» 

24,036 
266,169 

4,820,060 
4,458 


74,192.613 
25.272,157 
45.022.094 
32.965,746 
8,882,739 




1,780 


■'"I"'' ^^: 

other Aida »nd Oceania {[ji^"' 


160,627 

6,069,607 
1,8» 


5,839,706 
137 


8.840, U7 
201,007 






«-— "^™ (S-.: 


8,169,380 
4,177,012,689 


^232, 768,204 


6,817,732 
i, 962, 869. 016 


,„,„» 


Waate lbs. 


16,008.118 


666,307 


16,822,606 


604. OOB 


Uanafacmies ol— 
Clolhslysrda)- 


96.067,000 

21? 774; 957 


4,62S,031 
10:880:446 


101.980,139 
816,496,018 


6,145,794 
14;6M;681 








320.831,967 


15,606,376 


418,426,167 


10.698,475 




""■^SSlf^K^ 


11,268,978 

39,108 

294,160 

1.388,216 

18)226:760 

' 123: 987 
16.195,660 
2,894,208 

7,869^280 


86:477 
969,207 

484,588 

II 

318,727 
1.402,089 
6.944,620 

868,137 


814,604 
1,276.442 

16.169,405 
9.186.860 

III 

7; 324: 964 

21.963,606 

227.868,196 

6,627,284 


M2,490 














687,40* 


CeDtral American SMtesaud Brillah 
















252:433 

136,612 
467,201 
862,031 
1,080.268 


SilSi""" 


other Booth Amertca, 


Eut Indles—Biitldi 


"'■»:So 



UNITED BTAT^ IMPORTS AND EXPOBTS. 
Export* qf domaiic mtrebandise, 1898 and 1899 — Continued. 





TwelTe months ending Dooember- 


AitiolnudoouneclM. 


i«B. 


18M. 




QuanUtlM. 


Valoea. 


ananUUM. 


ValQO. 


Eipwted to (TKd.)-Conlinued- 


s,m,te6 


46. MS 
154. eO( 


876.197 
S46,»4« 

2,849,742 

183 719 

42,268,218 

11,398,328 

55,886 






••1 






























K2a.8Sl,MT 


16,606,376 


418.428,167 












281,819 
2,717,061 






BSr^:;;;;r----«-" 


e,su,Z4S 


8,447,786 


8,812,362 












4,<W8,1M 




6,1H218 








Ejtpottefllo- 




■as 

1,778,«1 

216,760 
an, 841 

„^:£ 

SS 

49,604 

i7;«>4 

.as 

Tim 




IS:^ 




















881.738 

US 








CenD^ AmericaD BlaUa and Biltlili 




































'S-SJ! 














41.265 








































981,844 














488, ms 














'13:^ 












4,088.104 




6,164,216 












»,»4,480 




24,852,691 








""'SSiinsr^r'™^ 




^S 




4B7,9» 
48,807 


















161,821 
















3,SS6,1T4 


KS 


4,B»,»4 
















PertHlien (Unu); 


GT0.t4S 


-■ss 


■S;:s 














687,862 


6,116,440 


018.872 








Expotted lo— 


U»,4IM 

AS 
IS 


'■■giS 

40 
1,402 

6;b62 


IS 

6.168 






2,6m. 396 
2,171.860 
*m&47 








Cenlnl AioerlcMi Btates and BriUih 
















66,800 














BB7,fl82 


6,115,440 


BIS, 872 











COUKEBOIAL BELATIONa. 

£cport« of domestic merdtandue, 18S8 and 1899 — Continued. 





Twel 




Article, and couiHri« 


im. 


189». 




QiunUUes. 


Values. 


Quantities. 


Values. 


Flbera. veKBtable, and lexclle gnnei. QUDUfac- 
turesol: 




1628. 72B 
'»m;07! 






Cordtige - ihi.. 


7.M6,86e 


9.8S6,4Ba 
























I,«62,B92 














FICTh, other thMnalmon lie.. 

Cod. huldock, hake, and pollack... Its.. 

H«TiD8 .'- : r: jta.. 

Canned Ita.. 


t,D«2,843 

ao,s7i.tio 


811.784 
88,111 

"•as 

26i;888 

iB.a« 


9.874,727 
8,228,544 

976 
M,117 

23,01B,M4 


68,122 

tii,oae 














flS-^iS 


^""o^iSs. 


















w:828 












&, 014, 840 




4,797.850 








iK^jS g^ oVri^:. ;;;. :;::.;:::::.bwS:: 


a).0»8.MT 


1,118,1H 

ga 

S.4M.078 
a},S53 
165,234 


"-413;^ 


1,558, 461 


Pnmeg ihi.. 


B.i«,eM 

4,W7,0B4 


X^'^ 


1.0*8,469 

2tH.0Ol 

2,478,687 

8,016,481 




















142,036 












9,264. m 














Exported lo— 




8.8Wi,e61 
1.2281792 

i.sae 

H 

SlIflBS- 

i,9es 




*•»» 






















I'S'S 








Central Amerioin BUiM and Britigh 






















































20.048 
















































































9.264,191 


















71,070 


















1,91B,671 
18,776 
MS, 721 
18,412 




'S 


















.H) 








>;lc 



UMTTED STATES IMPORTS AND BXPOETB. 
Export* of dometUc mtrthandite, 1S98 and J^d— Continued. 







Artlcl€«.ndcomilii«. 


VM. 


189». 






Valnai. 




Valoes. 






•ass 


























3,»«,M1 














"'^tSl'SlKr^ 




..JJg! 




,*if! 




















i,S»,BlB 














GlDoaeorgnpeiiigu Ite.. 


2,470,662 


2,246;8M 


22B, 094,369 
2,403,789 


3,710,006 




2,746,691 










1,148,088 


142,304 
1,2«,9OT 


1,708, 793 


203,067 
■ 1,4721082 












l.Xa.211 




1,676,039 












ffi2,«a 

l,08»,7fl2 






H»r loin.. 


80,160 


66,668 


872.892 


""S'.sa^ssi'.":".':^.'^"*!: 


180.H7 

'■is 

'■US! 
ASS 


1>,S1» 
^813 

4t4.a» 

lew 

1,206 
'266 


284, MS 

10^168 

3,)^ 000 


S« 










791514 






'•^ 






6,843 






8,700 










ll.W.12» 


1,01S.43S 


7,614,488 


789,927 








71,301 














^■^.ssrsu^™. 


19,S71,7W 

1 

24:SS4 
2,640 


S,»40 

"1 

ai 

160,048 


66o;2as 

9.178 
4,768 

•S;gS 


'W 






Central Amertcwi BtaWo and Brtttoh HoE- 






















































a, 940, 853 


a,S»7,!16 


16,662,738 










34, Oil 


42,564 


16,863 












s.^ 




^'m 




40O.MS 


621,069 




1,476,380 












i.ws,a» 


















296.214 


















101. SM 
96:689 




119,880 





































OOHHEBCIAL BELATIONS. 



Exports of dometlic merchandite, 1898 and 189!> — Continued. 





TwelTB montba ending Bacember- 




1896. 


I8W. 




Quanllteg. 


Value*. 


QuantlUcB. 


Valtiu. 


paws, iDCludlDg Leiegispb, lelephonF, add 














1 

1 


MS 

uo 
8e» 

i 

is 






























Central Amerlcaa Slatea and British Hou- 






























































^SS 




















I4B,42I 
S2,617 


































B,m,«ei) 




6,«6,730 








Iron and Btccl, and manufactures o(: 


31,S7» 


87, 5« 


«,fl«0 








Mglron (loni)- 


TS.HS 
,8.8U 


771, SW 

as 

ll)t,l(» 


Tfl.BSt 
6,412 












Banorrodiolrteei.'otiiVrthan'wlrei'illM!! 
Bare or ralta for rallwaf*- 


1,080:386 






Ste«l (tani)— 


■":S 
11 

Z7.BS0 


642,658 
].ge3.ST0 


92^039 








CeatTBl American Blalea and Brltldi 






21 

i 


1 
































i-e.sn 


B,8S8,<M 


171,772 


6,122,882 






S8,«» 

3,W>,379 
tl,4a2,G9S 

!!;ffi:!g 


s,uo 

as 

■!1:S 

eu,w» 


S8,0B,4S» 

ass 








8he«l«anrfplat«e (pb'iinds)— 




Tin piatea. tcme ■oiaia, and tueen tlji. 


b, 528. 380 






























8W.e» 








Locks, hinges, and otber bnildera- bud- 




z,m:szT 




'•Sf;^ 














8,248,780 












8,»IS,I21 














"■^XJWd™ 




■•las 












c#" 








Ti.) 



UHTTBD STATES IMPOETS AND EXP0BT8. 
Exporta ofdomatic merckandae, 1S9S and 1899 — Continued. 







Artlclw mad couDUle& 


isas. 


ISM. 




QaantitioL 


V«lueB. 


QiUDtiUa. 


ValUOL 


Exported t&^ 








"«■!!! 






■5 

1« 
131 

2a 


«8 

S 

SB8 

469 
482 

IM 
139 

BIO 










IK'S? 


Centnl American BulMuidBrltlidi 


















11 


























260.084 




















































l,137,He 














































8,«6,2a 
















1: 

2,900,811 




















182,832 
































""aas»,s'.''.r".°'T. 




81,117 

a»,40i 

ill 

88 MO 

■!5:S 

ii 




























































































































































































3,082,471 


















989,871 

••ili 

1,U&,KH 






Btc«nieiis)nei,uu)putsof {nmnber)— 


m 


487 
870 




























ii 




































SB:9«2 



oNotveimnlely slated prior loJulf, ISW. 



C^nOO^^Ic 



OOHMEBOIAL RELATIONS. 

ExporU o/doiaetlic merehandite, 189S and 1899 — Continued. 





TwBlva month! ending December— 


Anlcleaanacoutitrtet 


i8e& 


1899. 




QuanUUea. 


Valnea. 


Quaotltlffi. 


Values. 


lion and ateel, and manulOctures ot-Cont'd. 
Type wrl Uiuf macMaen, and pans ol— Cont'd. 
Central American Stain and Britlrti 




B,»79 
80,914 

!« 

is 

55,97* 






























































































































2,077,260 


















15,413,893 
















35,217,260 
30,T18.9ffi 


641.779 


28.842,543 
75. 118, 103 
4,8«,74a 


482.882 












1.6ti 




!»S 
















12,M5.634 








'S.'s".":'..r';*ir.»r:. 




82.7n,5eo 


















M^4OT 


























B»,ia) 


















704, «ft 
















118, 9M 
■ a86,0« 


97^^ 


93.115 
























216.539 














Uather, >ole (pounda)— 


2B,t02,«M 
3M,S11 

1,295. SW 
ISMJB 


as 

ill 

8s;ow 


32,099.878 
809.438 

4B;8ff7 


"■wni 






a^ 






244.130 












(i6:ow 


26,440 
12; 104 


81,9C2 












S».7S».0Si 


6,440,S75 


38,883,814 








"^^^ 




1«^544 

"■as 












SF"^"'"''""'*^'"^' 




12,428,391 
1,419,854 
















12,242.988 




16,815.212 









OKITBD STATES IMPORTS AND EXPOBTS. 
Bxportt ofdamatlie raenAartdite, 1898 tmd 1599— Continued. 







Aitlctea *nd conotrlea. 


lags. 


im. 




QouUtles. 


Valnee. 


QDUtlUes. 


Vilnau 


^S^'^m^ffrt™ 




18. «K 

18,346 

41 




"'•ii 




























CratnJ AmericMi Blal^' and Brtttab 








































g'^ 














S,>H 




























fiZ 
































I2.2«,a8 




15, 818. MI 










M.OW 
S2,M) 

as 




710,184 






















uo,Tn 

•ass 
















se.on 



















141, 882 

1;S 














"tfS 




















1,»M.423 




















,.SiS 












tKto 




taot 










21,816,861 




26,800,833 




...bbls.. 

..bosh.. 






Ltoe- 

Uslt 


M.^ 


^:!S 


a8«;227 


S!g 


-iSr ^;;;;;:r;::::;:. 


801,187 
416,997 


902,560 
100.811 


1,«)2,SW 


1. MS, 886 






1.008,861 




2.14&.4S7 














76. 843 






""SS^S^. 






'■IS-S! 






















1,842,220 




1,900,788 














74, OM 




106,888 












•ta 


Si 


17,820 
1,618 


'ti 


















1,SW,61» 




l.(W0,2W 











COlOraEOIAL RELATIONS. 



Exportt of dometUe menAandUe, 1898 and 1899 — Continoed. 





Twelve montha en 




Articles and MiuDtri«L 


isee. 


18W. 






Valnei. 


CliiaiitlUe& 


Value*. 






18,622.274 
48)841 


m)7S7 


















a,B12,110 


8.825.778 


2.630,024 










Si! 

6.109 

\\Z 

1^968 
486 

,1!!! 

61.036 
2.666 

64,136 


1,049,282 

1,068)833 
126,567 

15,974 

4)247 

5)428 

li 

96.066 

5,370 
14987 
120.489 

IS 


^)| 

65)205 

5.T7I 

''771 
7)646 
S4S 
5,OT2 

ISs)l2t 
6)307 

2)602 

i 


242 617 














Cemrel Amerlo»n etat« uid BrtUsh 


















gl^r-!^::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 


11,806 


otter southAmericB ;;;!;;!!■■■":"!; ; 


87.898 














A'rtca --- 


.,« 








2,312,110 


8,625,778 


2,630,024 








^'!^f<S'kC^'.'f"™' 


8,347,241 

« 

414)379 


2,419,247 

1,622)211 
218.551 

if 

l)636 

i 

"J:g 

7,<M4 
27,629 


8,178.140 

2,494.412 

6,069,218 

700)713 

10,872 
8 669 
1)110 

10) 287 
27,928 
197,904 
129,682 

14)210 

34,860 

'490 
06,190 

103 


3,472,171 






^n^327 




Central American Slates and BritlHh 


6.317 


















Other West Indies and Bennoda 

SS5"»:::;::::::::::::::::::;;:::;::: 


■as 




China 


,w 




























18,081,006 


6,384.962 


17.668.228 












9,010.730 




11.666,461 










6,657.618 


1,869,609 


6,001,877 
















0[1 cake and oll-eake meal (pounds) : 


1, OKI, 392, 458 
434,2X7,866 


8,778.691 


1,175,206,489 
498.769.030 


•SSI 








1,418.630,324 


18,419,871 


1,073.966,519 


16.122,866 




^'^S^'^kC^'- 


496,358,638 
12i0DD|69a 

■!!:!ii 


2,066.234 

8l5928 

4,296.856 

6,312.617 

■1 


4S4.T15.832 
61,672,404 

728,137,009 

11)554)450 
893,092 
276,139 




































Total oil cake and oll-eake meal 


1.468,630,324 


13.419,871 


1,(03.966,619 


16,122,866 



UNITED STATES IliPOHTS AND EXPOBTS. 
Erportt of tiomettie merthandite, 1S98 and 1899 — Contioued. 





Twelve maDllu ending December^ 


Aitlclea md coontrtet 


1818. 


ISB9. 




Qoantltle*. 


ValDOL 




Valu«. 


Ollckitlw: 




■gs 




ssss 














116.730 




143.218 








"'**°'s^'^*°"'- 


MS, 123 


186, »4 


1.046:470 




Wbkle 


^740 






1.M7.480 


828.731 


1.866.198 


682.891 




MiDenl, erode, IncladlDE all natmal olI^ 
wlUroulKsaidtogimvrtr (salons)— 


6,(H8,a8s 


Si 


3i 

s:044 


4.476.200 








m.W8 
















120. 486.000 


6,016,832 


117.690,474 


6,068,2.6 




Ha^thu iDCludlng all itgbter prolucla 


05, 628, 840 


1,070, on 

38:806:281 
7,626,148 


18.200,901 
788.368.187 
71.104,700 














847,607,108 


47,692. 208 


ta, 707. 837 








'^'^^^li^S- 


l4S,aRf,«B« 

'■ii 

6n,430 

10.407,896 

14,466,005 
66,868,586 

3i 

719981940 

8»:ew 


^iloSora 

11:561:782 

123.989 
166,800 
64.074 

884,736 
1,622:984 

ill 

8:768:626 

1,064,691 

3:308 


III 

11:808:247 

1,0.0,40. 
1,27' 120 
SI 00 

81 il9 
4: B4 
4,2( 166 

1,1) igs 

as s 

16,« 98 
I8,3« 116 
















Oeotial Amerlcui States and BitaiOi 


004,961 










';*s 












Colombia 






















-^■SiJ 






1-??^ 












Total mineral. leflned or manulac- 
tnntd. not Including reslduiim. . 


847. 607. 1« 


47.692.299 


822,707,887 


60,425,913 


SSuuS^'" ""* '*" ^"^^ ^"^ b^" 


Ti4,687 


816,118 


514.605 


658.197 






48,407.417 














'-cS't: ^,.. 


2.810,010 


686,000 


8.188.061 


838.336 



CoiiQle 



OOMMBRCIAL RKLATIONa. 
ExpirriM of dome*tie merdiandite, 189S and JSSit — Continued. 





TwelTe montlu ending December— 


ArtJclesandcountrlHi. 


1398. 


im. 




QoanUtlts. 


Valuea. 


Quantitlea. 


Valuef.. 


Ollti— CoDtlDued. 

""^'SSi*?. 


1,402.914 
IS, SIS, 224 

490,409 

n,ra 

871388 
1,212.970 


882,812 
3,888 

1| 

111774 
264,248 
100.684 

23,768 

4U 

803,765 


4,986.120 

481,621 
18,119 

11 

Si 
11 




















Central American Btalea spd Briv 




















OtlietW€«tInaieBB..d Bermuda - 


=S« 




























46,730.114 


11,465,867 


49,989,420 








Unaeed galls. 


88,076 
137,181 


39,411 

ffiS 

1,173.844 


107,002 
116,791 


48.120 






















18.e63,9» 














FalDCB. plgmeDta, and ODlora: 




722|809 






Zinc, oxide Hi Ihii. 


7,849, OM 


10,685,226 


366.598 














1,156,087 


















,,S:8S 

Wi,2OT 
2,655,501 








107.944.979 


94,637,748 


^•^■i^ 








2,870,366 












5,578,615 




5,628,495 








•^""KldiKSSn" ™ '^"*"^ 


2s,e8a.Ti6 

679,284 

■■Si 

(29,336 


1721969 

i:S. 
lis 
"?:!S 

86,889 


109,246,990 

5, 568' 032 
65 498 
272,611 

til 






38; 119 






1,279,731 

2:*5» 




Cratrai American Statea and Brltbh Hoo- 




"l-S? 






J'i 






173,987 






IS 








166.310.732 


6,362.871 


181,860,818 


7.650.449 








SIS 




U7,373 
49S.B28 
















22.822; 278 

86^364 

8,988.071 

fS.S 

213,411 


"■■SI 

132,049 

32,499 

16006 


SS,4!U,«H 

673,577 

2.766.907 

267.120 
181.0ICJ 




'^^czr "'""""'"■ 


2,«0i291 

2SSIS 










26,619 

22,800 


^^S^in^""" ^"" '""""* 





UNITED STATES IMPOBTS AND EXPORTS. 73 

ExpoTln 0/ domttlie merdumdur, ISQSand ]899 — Continoed. 





T^lvemcnllHi ending Deccmbcr- 


Artlcleamndcotmtrle*. 


im 


19»», 






ValDSs. 


Quantltlea. 


Value* 


Bee^^n'SdSSin.^^tliiued. 


MM 
M,S46 

B»T,222 

b,sa 

242.077 
l»,7W 
141,781 

ii 

49.20D 


24.318 

fi leo 

is: 134 

18,049 

i!:S 

4.4M 

ulsao 

418, BW 


4S 

876,321 
16,518 

^^ 

aoo;770 
44:811 

88.912 






■■s 




Othar Weet indie* and B^r^^ 










iS-S! 






."i'S! 
















1,022,412 


Afriai 










37,888. SS2 


8,448,340 


«, 398, 218 










K6,4I4.2M 

67S 


S8;7«8 


'•Sis 














43,576 








Sailed ot pickled, ud otber cured 


2e7.4fig,MB 


22.644,340 


322.B36.eo 


3S,1HW7 


4T,4l«,24a 
1.228,658 


2,eie,4ce 

^ 111; 899 


tS!:SS 


^SS:iS 










48, 724,7*8 


2,787,304 


46. 086, 847 








IffiSiSffl^fl- 


a, 401,678 
&.«88|717 

else?; 046 

B. 438, EST 

IS 

308.307 

10. TOO 

6.182,284 

B4.2DD 

ii 

20,700 


1,249,607 
18.^ 

S6B:434 
1W,820 

«■•» 

3.478 

i«.m 

286,106 

i 


19,324.966 

til 

760.060 

,|:| 

39] 'Ml 
6,640.691 

309: OSO 

11 






?sS 








210, 7W 


















Other W€«t IndlCT and Bermuda ... . 






























48. 724. 70S 


2.737.804 


46.066,647 










III 

'«68:aes 

2.128,623 
800,647 

^^ 

1,473,290 
130,267 


1,75».270 
453. SOO 

93.477 

27,642 

as 

404 
03,972 
2S730 

SISGB 
28,124 

6,544 


39,822.666 

1,861,290 
801. oei 

1!:S 

10.840 

1,329.904 

1,041, on 

606.179 














^•"I'Sg 




Central Americm Btates and BrlUKh 






^'i 










Other WeA Indie* and Bermuda 


Si 


















100,810,190 


4,200,396 


97,218,186 


4,288,761 





COUCSBOIAt RELATIONS. 



Export* of doraalic 



1S98 and 7^9— CoDtiaoed. 





Twelve moatha ending December- 




1S8B. 


,». 






Value*. 


QiianUtlea 


Valaes. 




17,ot;M7 
2G«|82S 


2,«e3.e6a 

!:S;Si 
!!:«! 

gS! 

476,884 
1,8B4 

3,0B3 


lis 

gS.B78:e62 
3.077,852 

,..Si 

1.207. 818 

472,377 

2,964.067 

2ft. 402 

72)032 

„a 

88,606 




















Ceotnl Americui SUta and BriUaU 












Cnb«.. 




Other Wertera Indies md Bermuda . . . 


36.935 






g^^erBouth America 


12,383 










AWca 


1:654 




ei».88S.!3& 


46,7»6,M6 


558,006,388 








UnlCdKiiigdoin 


1S4,3S9.1U 
261,810 

"■Si 

11 

X97.2S0 

M8.TM 

as,8K 


1,297; 710 

H325 
20.630 

355:622 

18,761 
110,557 

is: 798 

US 
i;S 

4B,33B 


6,570,501 

■as 

2ss,aw 

7,87«.8a8 

ss 

127,107 
22, OM 


17,455.779 


































Other Wert Indies and Bemada 










































zaa,(ni,TM) 


20,884,690 


216.646,569 








~'ciES"- 


(a) 


W 


3,570,627 










116!S64|»B 


2,013,817 
8,804,W8 


34,011.248 
137,578,906 




Salted or pickled 


7,91«,794 




in.23i.»H 


B,827,S85 


171,615,148 










12,81S.0IU 
25 317. gSS 
IB.AM.OW 

1,428, SIS 
11% 400 
SU^140 

2,«»:200 

4.1!JgS 


7,978 
1,488: 000 

i:i2b;ow 

72,778 

17'?" 
138;00G 


"Hi 

22: 048) 016 
la; 553:860 

1,427, ii»e 
144.400 

3:9n:Boo 
«2&:sw 

ii 




















































i<T,66t 


■1:S 


















147,231,864 


J,E7.»1 


171,615,1*8 









aXot tqiantair nated pHor to July, 1899, 



UNITED 8TATE8 IMPOETS AND EXPOBT8. 



Expoiia of dometlic nurehandite, J 



« and 1899 — Oontinaed. 





Twelve aumUkB coding December— 


ArtlclM imd ocmntrta. 


im. 


1899. 




QoanllUei 


Vaiun. 




Vilu™. 




2^m,190 

mMxa 

10,801,182 

"iia 

54,(01 

le.m.sas 

B,T48.*M 
S,000 

9IISZB 

2,«0,ilB 

46,2S2 


•is,86e,ng 

fiffi,M7 

is 

416.248 

S.«K 
1.146:SM 

044. B28 
177;063 


217,172,848 

207'7M'2i 

^^'?^'^ 
740.0Ce 

2,938.060 
32.378,420 

14,887,385 

i?;f4i:^ 

2,6^;^ 
^■^■^ 

38,386 




acts— Continued. 
•^Dnfe'^-id™ 




















Centnl Amerlnn StBt« and Biitlill 




















Other Wea Icdi«'i;.d Bimiiu:: ! ! ! ! 
ArgenllEW 


872,478 
































788.636,222 


43.440,170 


600,068.609 








(ODUolene. ludloe, etc.) lbs.. 


23.S2i.»ei 


1,2S1.2S3 

'•US 


24,763,888 


1,820.787 




■28S.5CT 


7I9.S99 










'■S:S:J!! 


••SB 


'-AZ 














n2.OT.B3a 


8,6M,7ai 


144,438,709 








=x^Sisn?!ir 


8,894.144 

"■as 

IS 

1,8B4>S 
101,598 
142,222 


1,695 
ill 

Sim 

18, BIS 


775,988 
41,609 

2,4291980 
13S;M9 

SwisTO 

iM:o5e 


94 077 








5,531,824 

' 56,890 

4,686 






Centml American Sl&tes and Bittlah 








oSf^wT' '"'""""^ Bermuda 


240,227 












•g:S 


"!;S 














142,a71.8SB 


8,«M,721 


144, 438.709 


10,241,347 








Bl.Sia 
\ 5.190,547 




236,322 




















IlBlry products— 
Butter (pounds)— 


1,810,828 
282,302 

Si 

1,885,458 

' m'.KS 
]e;49e 


1,125,801 
820,439 

10, MI 

30O:S84 


17,001,088 
872,921 

as 

1,877,297 


2.869.580 












Centra] Ameiicaii Btales and BritUb 
















J:06O 


Other WeMlndlea and Bermuda 




16.006 




SSSiT?!!T!.rrr.:: : ■.:::::■.:.:::::: ; 



_nOO'^IC 



COMMEBOIAL BEtATIOire. 
ErporOi of domr^ic mtrdum^te, 1898 and 1899 — Continued. 







Anlcles uid coontHoi. 


1898. 


MM. 




Qnanlltle*. 


Valoet 


Qoantitlo. 


Values. 


Dairy produclB-Conllnned. 


IS0,2M 


•M.06K 


87, »5 
12.47S 

Ji 










ffi8,7es 

as 


B.JTB 


















1S.0M,18» 


2,428,148 


W.!«.8« 








Cheese (pounds)— 


26.«S.1« 


2,IS8.«06 


2..»|.m 

ffiiS 

680. 0» 
85.281 

li 

18.432 










ia.»4.oe9 

S§:!g 

S8,SU 
STG.IOS 

184,888 

ti 


9B0.2Z2 

4,881 

84;8St 

&.VH 

"si 

1:1 




Centnl AmeiJcsn Slstis and Brittah 






























































«.Bas,i»t 


8.876,819 


34,686,888 












W2,9ZS 


















174,078,018 
















707) S4D 
11.888.747 




as 

SS:Sf 




Slf.'~'-*";'r'^::::::;::::;::::;IS:; 


46.936 


Seed*: 


26. 982.182 
».73I,<26 
2,788.880 
18. 807,471 


1,»K.«» 
I«8,211 

11 


ass 


^s??^ 




FlaiseedorlliMeed....: bnah.. 

TlmoUiy Ib«.. 






















8,274,478 


















!:ffi:S 
i:«b:mb 

••■s 

i:%i 

'•a 
II 


















1.418,538 














1,158,401 


Cmtnl American Statei and Brltlab 






































































=^?!S 










































6,274,478 


















^% 




SSffi 















UNITED 8TATBS OIPOBTS AND EXP0BT8. 
Ei^p(^t»<^domaticmertihandue, 1£98 tend 1889 — ConUnued. 







AitlolMuulcoaiitilea. 


im. 


1899. 






V»lue(k 


diunlltiei. 


V&liHL 


^^letorl^ 




l!flO^BW 






Other .^ ibi.. 


ss,n4.o» 


41,086.904 








1,^5.180 




1,772,986 








iEf«5.dia^=ss.:? "•■■■■ 


asi,»4 


W,e82 


287,007 


73,018 






lCa.280 

7IW,3ta 

39,170 

1,044.748 

2M-^ 


719,212 

870, ore 

86,043 
782,338 

265,987 
107,810 
18.288 


410,683 


°r4s.'sK"'..":^:-°:".r'.."'.~ 




i.o»a:767 




""Ks.. 




1S3,8SS 

241838 








8, MB, 018 


2,827,481 


2.800.882 










SB,334,«e 


''Ss 


124.881,942 


2,674,698 
53,722 
885,787 
















B^^.jnd™,l«« ^^ 


B, 010, ME 
7,CeT,«15 
419,791 


890.968 

1,(B4,82S 
1S;903 


831,805 




anip gall*.. 


1,766,609 


"^i^SSSS^z. 


7«,6e7 


34,428 


7.847 
10,688.497 

1,966.643 

Ji 

275. 76S 


'■l! 






i,eso 

187,688 

as 
..as 

■Sis 

'as 


M 
10,4B6 

SJS 

l,m 










^S 






OLhei Wert ludlea uid HeUDuda 


94,701 








90.274 










B, 989,187 


828,121 


17,894.817 












709,80 


















2,468,888 


















281. JW 
















268,20T,eM 
11,7S9.16B 


28.B18.770 
278. 0B9 


386,904.511 
11,019.166 


2B. 649. 643 










aBB,*6e.883 


23,798,889 


846,823,677 








^-•SStii^S^ir... . 


38,173 242 
M,«3,S6» 
78,074.580 
9,118.809 

187, SSS 
l,7«,iB4 


7,gS4,2S 

6,340,001 
892,606 

27,260 

1 

108,617 

901,218 


126,807,589 
80,423,202 
56; 048: 850 

121707,677 

209.319 

2| 970. 522 

1.081,623 

19.318.427 


11,141,719 
































































m, see, 883 


23,796,l«9 


SIS. 823. 677 









78 OOMMEBCIAL RELATIONS. 

Exporia ofdonatic merchandwe, 1898 and JS99— ConUnned. 







Twel 


emonth^en 




ArUclea and countries 


IMS. 


18M. 




diunUtla. 


Value*. 


QuADlltlsa. 


Vain*. 


m:==^ 




*s« 


8.575 
1.150,302 
b: 854: 252 


2,053; Ml 
2,222,882 






5.136,4M 
















■^■oXlKlngdom 




is 

381,257 
59,713 

6«,544 

Ji 

is 

l,4re,B98 

ass 

a, 03* 








































dM- 






S'^ 
































20,^ 






















67,4fl9 






















































































5,185.464 




5.200,828 


















188,8*4 










.nil... 

3" 


4I»,07B 


514,638 


S4S:252 




877,285 
151,847 

bn,*tn 


110.017 


V»B,«4 




?Si:::;:::::::::::;:;;::::::::. 
























2.M6,7M 




2.928,468 










VoKli kHA to forelsnen {ton*}: 


4Sf> 

3,R» 


54.174 
MisoO 


. S 






l'^ 








4,063 


9S,97* 


m 


116,370 








ffi;S 


.IS 


113,127 
163,447 


12, 3« 
426, 68» 




Wine: 

InboHlEB 


..AS 


69, as 

768,620 


i.4Si 


ST,S66 








827,878 




616, .W3 




Uleel.. 
dcleet.. 






''■*g',="'32b«™,<,- 


.as 


:s 


-,SS 


4,577,858 
770,648 


ESTudiaiiv:;;.-.-.;.;.-." 
















7.1160.516 




9,528,887 










Exported to- 




26,817 


































Cenml Ameilmi BtaliH ui<l Britiah 




-tt-> 



USTPED STATES IMPOBT8 ATTO EXPOBTS. 
EipOTU o/domalu: merchandue, 1898 and 1899 — Continued. 





Tvel 


emonthaen 


din; December— 




■» 


im. 




QuantJUM. 


Values. 


QinoUtln. 


ValOeB. 






i 

163, SIO 






"■"^S^. 








































































RS 


























7,960,518 
















843, He 
81,748 


"•SSS 


■■■SiSI 














S7S,B44 


13,422,333 


1,070,878 








■^'^XTxC^r 


185, S&l 

i.mi 

£:4^ 


i;a»i;i6i 

47.660 

Si 

975|22a 

•as 


147.482 

■li 

Sl>;668 
lOIS 

ill 

'li 
li 

siw. 


'■SS 


















*S! 










JIf?! 






















^;SJ 
















43,997 
81, 6W 


SiS 


















ST5,SM 


13.4X2,333 


1,070,878 








iffifc "■■ 


06, OM 


1U,2T6 

■•2I:S 

8,aai,m 

1,010,«8 


86, K2 


1M,435 


|u^.::::::::::::::::::::;::::::no:: 


eos,782 

W,«M.MB 


751.623 
44,6«6,ffl9 


668.068 

4,is3;aw 








3.a»,»s8 
















•^TyiSa^ifi^ 




'Si 

zsslaiv 

473,401 

,S;SS 

li 
as 




'■•S:» 

156.074 

sag 

8B,384 
216,221 


























CenWU Amerloui atata and BrillBh 




































IS'g? 






























Sa 


caiiiu 







COBOIEBCIAL BBLAXIONS. 



Export! of domestic merchandige, 1S98 and 1896 — Continued. 





Twe 


ve months b:i 


ding December— 


ArUcle,.=.d cooDtrles. 


I8S». 


1899. . 






Values. 




Valuea. 


^^7i3i^iS£{!°"."!-. 




212,686 




Is 




















265,084 


































8. 417, em 


















124, m 

3G0,16» 

G0B,G12 

3.071.967 




200, sn 
















^i£EEEEEE^ 


B8,628.!W) 


41. 211, 655 
















SS,B6B,»81 
















M.GSB 


M,40S 


3.511,001 


566,296 




Manuiaelurea ot— 

Diess goods yarda.. 

Flannels and blanketa 


112, «R 


98.fl3« 

as 

886,788 


■ais 


97,368 
28,608 
65,294 






















1.020,810 
















w.m 


MB. 870 


2B,19T 


729.944 


Maniifacliite»of^ 

Pin. ban. plates. andatieeU lb*.. 


ai,«e,«is 


1,083,969 
'iSSllH 


18,509,316 


,«™ 














.1,172,124 


















8,230.980 






Total value ol exports of domeUlc 










1.233,Ei58.I40 




1.252,908.987 


carried In— 




70,076,298 
44,124,908 

1,080.681,419 
18,810,776 

70.414,747 














Forelsn Bletua vesscb: 


tlT,2H,BNI 
16.071 DM 

iQe,«6,soa 


tl7,«S8,6gZ 

sslieslsBB 
iTliwsloa) 

117.709,414 
4,848 146 

ass. 




































PorelgQ Balling veaels: 


11 













































byGoo'^lc 



UNITED STATES IMPORTS AND EXi*0ET8, 

Exports of foreign merehandlie, J89S and 1899. 
[Abbreviation: D.e.a., not elaewbere iq>eclfled.t 





TWBl 




Arllclw. 


iwe. 


ISM. 




Quan title!!. 


values. 


QuBDlltteE. 


Values. 


Animals (number): 

Cuttle dut 

Bbeep dm 


,.j 


«1,576 
B.076 


203 

m 


1124,181 

GS.181 
l.VW 








13.107 












128, 4» 
















W,331 
25,276 


e2,6-'>l 
382,32-2 

b'.OiS. 
1,088 






ADUmonyore,asn«uliuorineUl...dnt...1li*.. 
Artlclca. tbe grontb, produce, and mattufac- 
ture of theTJnllcd *atee. returned, n. e. a. 


16,815 


1,275 

41S,025 
24.486 














A«j.baIlumor^ bitumen, onide dut..tons.. 


i.6U 


I.m 








2,742 
























"■^ 


















1,JS 


*KJ 


20.B3S 










498.^ 














'■"l;??5 


1.17;.™ 

is 


















8,209 












1,389, Sffl 




399,798 








Grade, not »rtod, bonched, or prepwcd 


r^ 


1,218 
19,994 


4?:^- 


1.G30 








41, IM 


21,2i2 


4a.s3i 


24.144 








2i;283 














Cemeot. Roman. Portland, etc dQt....1te.. 


0,574,M8 


11.672, 6M 


47.384 


Chemicals, dram, and dres: 


233 


w.'iij 


1« 


S.38S 
1.463 

3ft. 3(K 








1,035 














ft) cot 
is; 361 


m 


3.S6I 
16:883 




19S,a7J 


188,619 






31, SIC 














Qljcerln dut....lbB.. 


1,627 


It* 


26,J5i 


2,948 




80.863 


6.!31 

14i3(E 
7:4% 


46,890 








14S.^ 

2721348 
72,196 




•Jambler, or terra Japonlca.! .Ireo ..!.! "'. 


66,097 

II 














191. W 




'"■•» 









H. Doc. 481, Pt. I- 



Goo' 



sic 



OOMUEBCIAL RELATIONS. 



Expnrls of/oreiffn mervhandiie, 1898 and 1899 — Continued. 





Tvelve montba endlof- December— 


Article!. 


1S9S. 


1899. 




QuanUtlcs. 


Valaea. 


QuantttLaa 


Valueiu 


"■SC'."f:'.""."'fr?^r."f«...,^,.. 


200,808 

11 


»127.7IB 
381 


'^^ 


186,^ 


Lime, chloride ot, or bleaching powder 




Mineral wttteis dnt.gallB.. 


«;*2 


»';ffi 








S''J^,5!;.v;;;.";:;;.;.;;.r^:::;:::: 


IIS^SOO 


21576 


55,709 
2»),62S 
111,417 


i^i 




m;^' 


866 










188,804 


5.444 


402,230 














12, 2» 












H-e;;e;ee«;; 




22.202 

14,241 

1,400 


1,032,831 
2,460 
14 280 


18,330 
78,877 








62,682 




103,436 










28,1?9 


103,231 


»,!5 

44,420 


•w 




i'S 




















i,m,7M 














ChoTOlale, prepared, etc. (not contaction- 
eryj.„..^. ..„.....„. dnl-Jb!.. 


25, M5 


4S6 
■2,675 

2,633,044 


26,«« 


5,624 


aocks nnd WRtch™, and pirn of (daUablc) ; 


5.883 








Coco*,or«u^cnMU.eW free.. .lbs.. 


i,3w;ii6 

23,2«;5M 


2,677|68S 
2fl,B62;sS2 








3.<03 


547,960 


1,715 


M6.826 




K. 647. 988 


'■•^IS! 


2,560,149 


■as 














l,Mt,10l 


















•?;SS 




»ffl 


















278,230 


^•StS 


'ass 












Uanufaclurpfl (It [dutlBble)— 
aoth (squnroj-nrda) — 


e,W7 
385,907 


81,SCT 


«!S 


1,11. 








394, 8M 


Bl,787 


292,538 


22,2«S 








12,340 
as; 761 

123,677 




















Thread (not on apooU), yotb, warps, 

AHMh^; .■■■■'^■- 


soo 


7,SB6 














198,617 















_k"10'^lc 



UNITBD STATES IMP0BI8 AHD BXPOBTB. 
Exportt offareiffn Tnerehandue, X898 and 1899 — GontiDued. 







Artlelea. 


1B9B. 


1899. 




QnuiUtlcs. 


Valua. 




V.lu«. 


■'«:."pa."p2i:.'Ey3?£s 




11 
































90, MB 




88, 8« 












8 

8,873 
1,878 


M 




Ftethen and dowiu, erode, not dreMed, etc. 




68,716 


T^athen and dovni, naCoisl, drened, cololcd. 






l«e.the™, Howen, etc. , Mtlflctal, tor millinery 
















FerffltaMB (free, ton.): 








g 




10 


18,499 


728 


8.718 














18.806 
















l.OM 
127 


10,0Ifi 

™.™ 

279,897 
18; 796 


10 

2,142 


639 


^tikiisgt.r' ^■' 


211, 4e« 




1,198 


ira,m 












8,920 


i62,6S4 


6.226 


7»,a79 






11,816 

-4 












Bslera 








ObleTeortiie, and t'lrtie. n. e. s.dui. .. . 


4.3S9 


842 
211,406 

18,127 


to MS 


CarpeWuid canieline dntjq.rdi.. 

T^brlcii, plftln, woven ol Ungle ]a(e 


li 












I'OM 

iloii 




10,l«l 


&i 
























88, aa 




168.668 








Fiib^nd.): 


16,812 


18.681 

287, 3S< 

73.886 
8^119 


49,724 


KS 


Cored or praMrred |dutl«ble) — 






Coa,luuldock.etc.,dned, nnoked, 


B,«44,712 
8, Ml, 876 


8.427.T86 
'8021742 

as 


882.1184 

40, DOS 


























«8.926 




481,486 








Fruit8.1ndndhignDti (pounds): 




11 

498 

6.^ 








6«,«1 
178, 6SB 
T&,>19 


8691868 


10,890 
10,606 

s-s 
















!.WS 






Pi««»dorpiaGrved dm 


ii.ui 



OOMMBBOIAL KELATIONB. 



Exporti ojfmmgn -merchandiie, 1898 and i599— Contdnned. 







AmoittL 


isas. 


im. 






Vklon. 




Vainer 


'"i!iS!r!f.™!r°f;::^;?£Sr:.... 




"SlS 




SS 


















466,685 
















18B,1M 


io,Baz 

.IS 


891,2M 


vs 










is 








ToUlfnUtaaDdiiDU 












^ ^_ 


L^l 




SS 








Qliiiw»le or ginger beer flm-.doi.. 


2,a« 


1,961 


1,848 






10,182 




1.415 


»^S;;^;i«S&;iov^; 


20,171 

12 


600 


ilw 


















12.868 




11.179 










B,Tia 


iS 


10,129 
























Hair 




IS 




14 766 






















8.794 




18.487 












as 














H«J dM..toii». 










.^g 


168,222 


^ffiH 




All other, (acept hldea o( ""'"■,„ 














*,eea,v2J 


MO. 010 


4.170,042 








^'^^:^.T:.'^'.°^?!.':!^..,r^ 




296 




1^826 


Hcqa dnt-.-abe.. 


iiM 


18,818 








"S^.^^<J^»,,- 


«8,en 

2,919,374 


.,,g!S 


106,387 
2,801.768 


^ZVi 










2,tW,aM 


1,M3.SD6 


2,908.046 


1.988.886 








.,S! 
























81,110 




68.117 








°"*f.r'.r;."r:r^.*«,..u«.. 

Scnp Iron SDd Keel, etc dut.-buu. 

i£i^.;w^;ir'i>i^'.^uii::::dSt::'t£: 


140 
100,417 

as 


'270 

i:!S 

47 
8,829 

14.T20 


e97 

196 
86,690 


T,90e 
2,871 


ga.'ffli-SS.-iiffiSi.-''"--""- 
w!S:^-^i»i^etoi;::;:aS:;::iS:: 






10,789 

■as 


1,718 

io,8n 



UNITED STATES UtPOETS AND EXP0BT8. 
Export! of foreign merehanditt, 1898 and 1699 — Oontinoed. 





TwelTB monttui ODdIng Decsmbec- 


Artldn. 


isse. 


IBM. 




dUADtltles. 


V4laei. 


Qumtltlei. 


Vtlou. 




..3 


mm 


100 












^lU 


Ma, tlla bl&nka, rupt, uid 




























^^:r-...'^.2... 












124 IM 




121. on 






b„Si2, 




(Haw 








ho^^^h^po™*): 


mi'toJ 


an 

H» 
40B 

S8,«T 

M,2X 

2,SM,0M 


«t.47« 








"^&s,t^»»r.,„. ... 










88,190 














1^8» 
ai,96S 


"s^^^*?g^.°!^:!r..':'.a« 








«8.z8i,iia 


■«^!S 






















-^iSl"""^"-""--^)' 




t,2Ta 








































eo,TM 


















,!« 




^fS. 












Z1.1M 














lWt,tar!ey dnt-bmh.. 






1,810 


BS8 


'"k"ffiS'.'S^-^>' 


■^s 


7, SIB 
90 


.•;S 












11, »B 


1.«DS 


11,888 










Kt 


2*2 


as 












1,7U 
1,696 




^i! 


















5,452 
















81.«S 


7,017 


»a,M7 


12,082 




"s^"-"^"""" 




i!£ 












64, «2 












ta,sio 




G6,«» 












5,«es 




M,IM 









86 COHHEBOIAL BELATIOlfS. 

Expert* off<yreign merchandAae, 189S arid 1899 — Continued. 





Twelve months ending DecemtK 


T- 


ArtlclM. 


1898. 


JBOT. 




QiunCilies. 


Values. 


Quantities. 


Valuea. 


Oils (gallons}: 


"'3 

2.gS» 

S,M2 


"'■'i 

4,OB3 

2»;28o 

45,050 


^ffi 


S11,S5> 














'^'^S^^^'.rt dut 


8,206 






i'S 








"'^^^..'^^...T.Ar^ 














16,584 












mflSfl 


















15,864 




12,104 








"'Ks'!i.s°£S'sE';-.'':^.«)i... 


44,477 


B89 


n,95B 


1,287 














1,455 




2,728 








Pkper, and muotacdircB of (dutiable) : 




SS4 

H,8» 

7,094 
6,571 






WttT,°\»r.?-.::::;:::::;;;::;;:::-.'.'';. 


4.T» 


5,166 


",?5S 






















.,<«, 














6 








'•^ggff"-'""^^-^"^- 




S,S71 
.83:648 

762 














Dal^^j^„=»,po«na.)- 


202] M6 


2161855 


















Total 


93,8ia 




57,616 


Rice (pounds); 


1T.726.8W 


381,705 


14,»98,173 
3.400 


















17,726.8CH 


381.705 


15,001,673 










4,827.288 


■!;S 


6,216.112 
















'-ilffiSSi„»«... «.. .. 


5 


iS 










12.888 
2.414 


















io.ras 




i5.sse 












48,370 




39,878 








Raw.ofM reeled from the cocoon 


66,028 


178.265 


■as 


415,441 












66,028 


178,265 


1Z7,7W 


422,632 




""oftSS-^SS?;i.«. . 




25,220 




20.460 





















UNITED STATES IMPOBTS AND EXPORTS. 87 

Reports lifforeiffn merekandue, 1898 and 1899. — Continued. 







Artlclca. 


■~ 


1899. 






Vitue-, 


qusntiUes. 


values. 


»lk. and DunuCactQres ol— Cimtliiued. 


l,l»8 


»16,880 

B,023 
-76: 842 


9.664 




Velveta, pLiuhea, sod other pile 


155.110 












191,350 




285.617 








^^S^^^iSS^"^'^ 


Ml 


81 


8,914 






6,414 












7,206 














Bpte«: 


'■as 


128,566 


9.36S 
660,600 

' 7S;000 










186,664 










2,441,482 


226,836 


2,908,213 








SfrfrltB. dliUlled (proof salloni): 

,„a¥.':!!^:'rr^™.^«:::::a.'::;'::::. 


39,061 


6,816 
8,188 
63,346 


16,900 
2,7T2 
64, IM 


17,297 




112.372 






49,180 


78,349 


83.860 


135.879 


SDoiuns 













17,067 


Sugar, ■iiiil>ae& and coaCecUcFaerj: 


278, 7«S 


..„ 


26a, 665 


43,642 


="«si"r,?te...i»«,h .«,«.«- 


2.021,278 
5.197,697 


066 








1^,325 
1.090, 9W 

4,769,341 








Beet, cuieuid other.. .dill 


157,367 




7,&(7,565 


172,819 


6,043,662 












1,342 
















2.613,272 
740[32e 


76; 806 






Do dm lbs. 

Tin tn l«H. bloclu, plgi. etc rr« 11». 


i.eis.STO 1 222,i96 
'»«.316l 266:i8ft 




1,431,367 


793,620 
7M,ei2 


740,991 
1.106.616 














2,823.616 


1,580,432 


1,847,637 










11,265 


16,920 


10,620 


22.399 
















16,868 
















7,949 














Vegetablce {datl&ble,biuhel>}: 


20.333 


16.961 
2,338 


20,577 


18,015 














All other— 
























Tot^ 
















-' = 





COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

JiepoTis o//orciyH mirchiindiiv, 1S98 raid /59.9^Contimierf. 





Tve 


-emonth. ending Deoembet- 


ArllGlH, 


1898. 


1899. 




Quantities. 


Vihiea. 


Quantities. 


Values. 


Wines (dnliable): 

Champ«gDe, and other spurkllng doi. . 


3.W3 

21,606 
<,«0 


143,036 
12;308 


3,252 


130,216 

1!:!S 






66, «7 














CsUnft woods— 


2,28S 


' 10 
304,260 


1,767 


170,858 


LogBHud round Umber ...free..U feet.. 


1 
26. «» 


22,039 
35,673 


lumber- 
Boards, nlanke, etc diit . .U r<i:t. . 


«g 






3,«I 






























Wl 






















8.i3,gM 














Woole. hairoC the c?amel, goat, alpaca, el(^., and 
manutaclures of: 

Class 1— Clothing; in thegreBSO....dut.. 

Scoured dul.. 

Clasea-Combing: In thcgr™a.-....dut.. 


19. m 


'653 


»i;738 

5G0[93I 


2.067,274 


Class 3— Carpel: In Iho grmse dm.. 


mosi 


28,156 


61,884 




4,592.033 


672.101 


13,491,820 


2, ITS, 453 






5,«10 


28,643 
2U&35 

"mo 

46,600 


.» 


10 018 


CloftlriK, etc. eieep! Bliowls anS knit 






83,038 
333,562 


389,632 




Dre» goods, iromen's and childrea's 








Shoddy, mango, Boclm, etc lbs. . 


I«,400 


75.0B5 


i;^ 


XifSii:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::?:: 


6U 


21.957 


<S'fS? 














189,616 














In blocks or pigs, and old lbs.. 


3C,S0B 


■■s 


33,887 


1.W 














1,536 


















111,431 
149,439 


























11,524,478 




















Total value of exports of foreign mer- 




21,988.126 




22,596.684 












loi 871^068 


























43^796 
13,834.780 












■■g;i 



























i;,iiz.oB,Google 



AFRICA. 

As noted in previous editions of the Review, the continent of Africa, 
for trade reasons, is considered in four geographical divisions — {1) the 
Northern, covering the Canary Islands, Madeira, Morocco, Tunis, Trip- 
oli, Algeria and Egypt; (2) the West Coast, embracing Cape Verae 
Islands, Senegal, Sierra Leono, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, 
L^os, Niger Protectorate, Togoland, Kanieroons. Kongo Free State, 
German &>uthwest Africa, and Angola; (3J Soutn Africa, including 
Cape Colony, Natal, Orange Free State, South African Republic (Trans- 
vaal). Mozambique, the trade of this country fteing chiefly in transit for 
the Transvaal, and Rhodesia, the commerce of which passes largely 
through British South Africa; (4) the East Coast, embracing Zanzibar. 
Madi^ascar, Mauritius, It^union, German East Africa, British East 
Africa, Abj'ssinia and Somaliland. 

In places not covered by reports from United States consular officers, 
recourse has been had to British and French colonial reports, in order 
to give comprehensive pictures of trade, 

NOIITII AFRICA. 
CANARY ISLANDS. 

Consul Berliner, of Teneriffc, says that a good market could be 
made in the Canary Islands for furniture, shooks, ink, soap, cement, 
hardware, canned meats, and cereals if a direct line of steamers were 
established from New York to Las Palmas, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and 
the Gold Coast. Boats running once or twice a month would carry 
enough freight and passengers to pay. The people are anxious to 
have direct communication with the United States, and will give such 
a line their hearty support. The chief American articles now im- 
ported are petroleum, tobacco, flour, maize, hams, lard, and lumber. 
There is an opening for our coal. Expoils from the islands consist of 
fruits (all to England), potatoes, garlic, onions, almonds, wine, and 
cochineal. Belgium now sends the cement imported, and Norway the 
lumber and shooks. 

Id a British Foreign Office report (annual series No. 2278), the follow- 
ing information is given: 

Total value ofimporte into Lag Palma» during 189S. 



Ceanliy at OTipn. 


V«<uo. 




WS.'STO 
156,605 

isslsfio 




















































10.960,M1 


1,5M,441 






aThe value o( the pewM la laken at 14 n 



90 

The chief imports w 



OOMUEBCIAL BELATIONS. 



ArUclBi. 


V»lne. 




Padai. 

150.880 

IS 










































«:« 





The coal trade ie entirely in British hands. The qnantity imported in 1898 WM 
about 213,000 tons. 

The enormous quantities of bananaa, tomatoee, and potatoes shipped to London 
and Liverpool represent the principal sources of wealth of the islands. The banana 
export of lae Palmas hae increased from 360,000 bunches Jn 1896 to 511,500 bunches 



Vice-Consul Reid, of Funcbal. says that with steamship commuQi- 
catioD the trade of Madeira witn the United States would increase 
immenselT. The imports come mostly from England and GermaDy; 
the only busiaess done with the Unitea States is in wheat, corn, staves, 
and petroleum. Imports in 1898 were 11,550,000, of which the United 
States sent $356,000. Exports were $2,090,000; to the United States, 
$11,031. 

MOROCCO. 

Consul-General Gummere, of Tai^er, says that Great Britain leads 
in imports into Morocco, seodiog Manchester goods, tea, candles, etc. 
France stands next, furnishing about one-third the amount sent by 
Great Britain. Sugar, silk, flour, wines, building materials, coffee, 
tobacco, and matches come from Prance. All goc«a from the Unitea 
States come through firms in England, Germany, or France, and no 
estimate of their value can be made. Some American flour, cereals, 
tinned meats, lard, hams, and bacon find their way to Morocco, and 
about two-thirds of the petroleum impoi-ted (valued at $10,000) comes 
from the United States. The distribution of trade in 1898 was: 



CoDotrli.. 


I.^ 


«,;«. 




ft,.- 


""~» 






" 













The total imports were valued at $1,450,000, aod the exports at 
$1,958,000. 



byGoO'^lc 



HOBIH AFBIOA: ALGERIA, TDBIB, AND TBIFOLI. 



lie value of the imports in 1898 was ^1,873,000, and of tiie sports, 
$56,146,000. France sent *47,000,000 worth of the importa, and took 
$45,000,000 worth of the exports. Imports from the United States 
were valued at $1,284,000, and exporta at $167,000. 

Yine cultivation is the most important industrr. In 1898 (accord- 
ing to Consul Skinner, of Marseilles) tJte area in vmeyards was 309,900 
acres and the production of wine 140,000,000 galloas. 

Tmas. 

The Bevue du Commerce Ext^rieur, of Riris, has an article on the 
commerce of Tunis, which is summarized as follows: 

Before the French occupation, Tunie was excliuively a farming country; the exporto 
were the production of the soil — cereals, live onimota, olive oil, akina, ores, and 
winee — ana Uie importa were chiefly naannfoctured articles — machinery, tools, build- 
ing materials, wood, and colonial commodities, 

it that time the highest figureB reached by the commerce of the country was 
27,000,000 franiv ({5,211,000) . In 1897 the tobil was 90,500,000 francs ((17,466,600) , 
notwithstanding a series of bad harvests and a commerdal crisia. In fifteen yeaia 
the commerce of Tunis had trebled. 

A phenomenon, not less interesting, is the change in the commercial current of 
the country. In the yeara which preceded the trwity, France etroggled pwnfully 
with Italy and England for the Tunisian market. To-oay she has scored a deciave 
victory. Bince 1890 the exports from Tunis into France have increased from 6,000,000 
francs (f965,000) to nearly 30,000,000 franca [{5,790,000) ; while the imports from France 
into Tunis rose from 16,000,000 franta ({3,088 000) to 27,000,000 francs ({5,211,000) . 
This favorable showing is due to the law of July 19, 1S90. 

From the moment wnen France ceased to tr^t as an economic enemy the country 
s an increase of commerce. A study of the ai ' 



under her protection, there w 



Statistics published by the customs of Tunis shows that the greater part of Tunisian 
products benefiting oy a reduced tariff on entering France take the road to the 
metropolis— i. e., 78 per cent of barley, 89 j " . - - 

99.47 per cent of wine — while the products i 
French tariff have remained stationary at about 26 per cent. 

Nothing is more certain than that any encouragement granted to the exportation 
of Tunisian products will increase in the same ratio the iinpori«tion of French goods. 
Agriculture m Tunis is easy and remunerative; manual labor — Arabs and skilled 
Heroes — can be readily obtiwned for 1.50 to 2 francs (29 to 39 cents) per day. 

In October, 1898, a colonial school of agriculture was opened in Tunia under the 
most favonble conditions. The course lasts from October to July and is fixed for 
two years. Students devote a large part of their time to practical (arming; they are 
trained to care of, harness, and manage animals; to use farming implementfr—in snort, 
they do the greater part of the work of the farm and garden, in this way acquiring 
the experience so indispensable to a farmer. Pupils oithis school are exempt from 
the two years of military service, provided they become residents of Tunis before the 
lat of January of the yeAr of tbeir entrance into the army, and that they continue to 
live for ten years in the colonies. Imports in 1898 were {10,331,600, and exports 
«8,6S9,900. 

TRIPOLI. 

The imports in 1897 — no more recent figures heing available — were 
valued at $2,884,856, and the exports at $1,726,944. The trade was 
divided as follows: 



CoooMei. 


Sxport,. 


bnpoita. 


Oouotri* 


EiporU. 


,.„» 


„„, .««,„ 


11 


SW,6» 
181. OM 




(17.088 


19,466 










5S 








■IW.1 






-"imM 


i,7afl,»M 


2,8M,866 








COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Imports of merchandise ia 1898, according to the Almaoach de 
Gotha, 1900, were valued at $51,865,900; exports at $58,875,800. The 
trade with toe principal countries was: 



Conntrlea. 


ImporU. 


EiporW. 










■sfaa 

Jg;!S 


11 



















In his annual report for 1898, Lord Cromer, British agent and con- 
sul-general at Cairo, notes a large increase in tiie imports of wood for 
building purposes. Exports from Egypt decreased, as compared with 
1897, but this was due to the fall in price of cotton. The cigarette 
export trade is flourishing. British capital ia now coming into the 
country in large amounts. There are 1,424 miles of railroad open for 
traffic. It was expected that the road to Khartoum would be open 
by the end of 1899, when it would be extended to Abu Haraz. 

The following extracts, dealing with trade in E^ypt, are from a Bel- 
gian journal, and were sent bv Consul Roosevelt at Brussels: 

Belgium and Germany continue to improve their trade with Ea^t to a remark- 
able (%rBe. The value of the imports from Belgimn rose from f&So.OOO, in 1890, to 
$2,560,000, in 1897, wliile the value of imports from Germany advanced daring the 
same period from f,'!25,000 to $1,600,000. 

The principal Belgian importu are iron and steel manufacturee, machinery, and 
china and porcelain. 

The chief German imports are iron and steel mannfiuAurea, textiles, haberdashery, 
china and porcelain, and machinery. 

There is an opening for cheap sporting gans. Ninety per cent of the sporting guna 
imported intol^yptm 1897 wereof Belgian mannfacture, while only 5 percentwere of 
British, 3 per cent French, and 2 per cent of Italian, American, and German origin. 



3! limited demand for high-priced gunsof really good quality; there iaamucfa 
emand for cheap guns. The ordinary Egyptian and Bedouin, and even many 
oi uie poorer claaa of Europeans require a gun for a certain price. They want the best 
quality obtainable for that price, but they will not give more in order to have a 
superior article. If they can obtain Bntieb-made guns for a sum which ia within 
their means or within the limit which they have fixed for themselves, they will buy 
them in preference to any other. 

The knowledge of this preference for British-made guns has induced some Belgian 
maken at Li^e to send out to Egypt coDa^i;nments of guns with certain words or 
n the barrels calculated to induce the native to Mlieve tl^at he is puichasing 
1-1 Some, for instance, are marked "London," others "Diunas., Lon- 

S;ham, London." Some of these guns, which are sold here at $7.^, 
ouble-barreled breechloading chobe-bore g;uns. 
A large brewery, fitted with the latest machinery, has been establiahed on the out- 
skirtsol Alexandria by a. Belgian company. Light "Pilsener" beer is now being 
-"-'-■'- ^ - "■ ■ ■■ 1 the 



ib.Goo'^lc 



WEST OOAaT: GAPE VEEDE ISLAHDS. 



WEST COAST. 

The Weat Coast of Africa embracea Cape Verde lelands, the British 
colonies of Gambia, Sierra Leone, Gold CoasL Lagfos, and the Niger 
Protectorate; the French colonies and dependencies of Senegal, the 
Ivory Coaat, Guinea, Dahomey, Kongo, the Sudan, etc.; the Kongo 
Free State, under Belgian Government; the Portuguese colony of 
Angola; the Republic of Liberia, and the German colonies of Togoland, 
the Komeroons, and Southwest Africa. The geographical continuity 
is brokeo in order to unite under one head the British, French, and 
Grerman colonies. 

CAPE VEBDB ISIulNDS. 

A British Foreign Office report (annual series, No. 2878) savs that 
the trade between Portugal and the islands in 1898 was as follows: 
Imports into Portural, |l80,000; exports from Portugal, $311,000. 
The chief e^roortsof Cape Verde arc coffee, oleaginous seeds, and hides. 
The colony maports from Portugal yarns and tissues (in which cotton 
good8figurefor8ome$80,000); provisions, valucdatfll6,000; machin- 
eiy, valued at 9>6,800; and manufactured articles, consisting of metals, 
tobacco, shoes, etc., valued at $58,000. 

BBITI8H WE8T AFRICA. 

As already shown,* the trade of the several colonies in 1898 was: 



CoUmloi. 




Expo.». 




«. 673. 476 
3,749,688 
a,113.0H9 


n, 415, 961 
















"* 





Via Lm«. the Ogtatu nlet to 1897. 

CondHiojia in Sierra Z«wi*, ^Consul Williams says that of the total 
unports into Sierra Leone the United States sent $129,490, Great Brit- 
ain $2,492,127, and British colonies $61,963, the remainder coming 
from foreign countries. Of the exports, the United States received 
to the value of $2,077, Great Britain $592,914, British colonies 
$150,408, ete. Trade in American provisions is active. The demand 
for flour is increasing, as well as for petroleum. Many of the lamps 
used are of American make. There is considerable activity in build- 
ingj which is emphasized by the request for white and piteh pine. The 
n^ve rebellion has cut off the sources of supply from the interior, and 
foreign markets must fili the demand for the next few years, Sieri-a 
Leoneisenteringuponaperiodof prosptsrity. Over $1,500,000 has t>een 
appropriated by the Government for the railway, nearly $3,000,000 for 
similar parposes on the Gold Coast, and $4,000,000 in Lagos. Appro- 

Eriations have also been made for wharves. Several new towns are 
eing built along the line of the colonial railway, 

•See 1). 26. 



94 OOMMEECIAL BELATI0N8. 

ISximig and railwaps on the Gold tbosi.— According to a British 
coloDiol report, the mining ioduatry on the Gold Coast is largely on 
the increase, and although the year 1898 waa employed chiefly in the 
development of the mines, some work resulting in immediate profit 
has been done. Several companies have been started with the inten- 
tion of commencing mining operations, and the promoters are not only 
experienced men with scientific knowiedee, but are also possessed of 
the necessary capital to undertake the work with success. The report 
continues: 

Tbe gold indnstiy of thin colony is likely to prove one of its most solid and valu- 
able assete. Experts who have gained experience in the Transvaal gold fields assert 
that the banket reeCa in this colony are not only siinilar to, but of higher grade than, 
those in the Transvaal. In the western province of this colony it ia estimated that 
there are about 20 miles of banket formation, and if this land were treated in the 
same way as similar land in Johannesbure, it is thought it would contain 13,000,000 
tons of banket reef, from which about £40,000,000 (1194,660,000) worth of pld could 
be extracted by ten years' operations with 1,350 stamps and the cyanide process, 
yielding an annual profit of fully £1,250,000 (56,083,125) . This would necessitate an 
initial investment ot £2,000,000 ($9,733,000), and the area of land would allow forty 
companies to work, each returning a profit of £3,000 ($14,800) per month, provided 
the neceeaarj' capital was put ia. 

It will be impossible for any of the mines to be worked at the profit above men- 
tioned until the railway in course of construction is completed, and this ia felt by 
most of the companies, who are simply waiting for the completion of the railway to 
commence operations on a large scale. At present^ the cost of tiansport ranges 
from £18 to £60 (^(87 to $243) per ton, and the impossibility of getting suitable stamps 
and other machinery prevents the proper workins of the mines. This serious 
obstacle would disappear with the opening of the tailway. 

Notwithstanding tne great difficulties which have to be contended with at the 
preeent time in consequence of the inadequacy of the machinery, it will b© of inter- 
est to know that one mine in the Wassaw district had an output in 1897 of 6,880 
ounces 14 pennyweights, which realized £27,757 ($135,078) ; and in 1898 the same 
company bad an output of 4,433 ounces, realizing £17,588 ($85,591) ; Emother com- ' 
pany in the same district had an outpnt in 1898 of 4,363 ounces, realinug £16,480 
{$80,199). 

In i*egard to the railway, the report says: 

The work on the first railway in this colony — viz, the line from the coast to the 
minins district of Tarqnah— was commenced during the year under review. The 
work during the year baa been largely of a preliminan' character, and, apart from 
survey, has been prindpally confined to the neighborhood of Seccondee, which is 
the starting point of the line, and where the woilu are relatively heavier than at 
any other point 

It appears that 10 miles of the railway were permanently staked 
by the first of 1899, and the route was located for a farther distance 
of 20 miles, The line was cleared ready for earthwork for a dis- 
tance of 5 miles, and permanent culverts in masonry have been com- 
pleted for the first mile. 

In addition to this line of railway, the Government has had sur- 
veys made for roads between Akkra and Insuaim, between Akkra and 
Appam, between Appam and Insuaim, between Insuaim and Kumasi, 
between Tarquah and Tumasi, and between Akkra and Kpong. The 
first five will tap the mining districts, and that from Akkra to Kpong 
will open rich oil and cocoa producing districts and gather up the 
trade which comes down the Volta from the interior. 

Trade of the United States with the Odld Ctwa^. ^Minister Smith, of 
Monrovia, gives the value of imports into the Gold Coast colony from 
the United States from the 30th of June, 1897, to February, 1899, aa 
£69,172 (^36,626). During the same period the exports declared for 



WEST coast: FBENCH west AFKICA. 95 

the United States were VBlaed at £27,405 (fl83,336). The exports 
consisted of |)alm oil, mahogany, monkeys, parrots, and leopards. 
Twelve American reasels, with a total tonnage of fi,433 tons, arrived 
and cleared during the seven months under coDsideration. 

FRENCH WEST AFRICA. 

The Board of Trade Journal, London, gives the following statement 
of the trade of French possessions in West Africa in 1897: 



rtrnch ™lrailc». 


ImpDrta. 


ZiportB. 












i;is;iS 













Thetradeof French Kongo in 1896was: Imports, $934,000; exports, 
$924,600. The total commerce of the several colonies in 1898 was: Sen- 
egal, $12,023,000; Guinea, $3,246,000; Dahomey, $3,344,000; Kongo, 
$2,036,000; Soudan, $1,302,000. French trade with these colonies in 
1898 was divided as follows: Imports into France, $5,346,000; exports 
from France, $6,542,000. The imports show an increase of $1,400,000 
as compared witii those of the preceding year. 

The article in the Board of Trade Journal adds: 

The values of both the importa into and the eiportH from French Guinea show a 
notable increaae, doe in the latter case principally to the growing importance of the 
rubber trade. 

French Kongo may be divided as follows : 

1. Libreville, or Gaboon, including the country aa far south as Nyanza. 

2. Loango from Nyanza to Massahe, the southern boundarv between French and 
Portngueee Kongo, ^iiending inland as far aloioet as Brassaville. 

3. 'ms district of Braaaaville, including the country bounded by the north bank of 
the Kongo, aa far as the Lower Ubangbi. 

4. The Sangha River dietrict aa far as lake Tchad. 
6. The Upper Uban^ district 

The chief seaporta ofrrench Kongo are IJbreville on the Gaboon lUver, Sette Cama, 
Magumba, and Loango. 

In another edition the Board of Trade Journal says: 
The eetablishment of French authority in the Soudan, by BBsuring tranqnility and 
aecurity tor busineflB transactjons, has brought about a revival of trade. The require- 
ments of the nstivee have increased- the ways of communication have again become 
frequented; villages have been built or rebuilt; licensed ferrymen, at fixed rates, 
have been provided for the crosBii^ of rivers, and mnce 1893 patents, licenses, and 
market rights have been duly r^ulated. The principal articles ot import in 1896 were: 

TisBuee 1609,494 

Food products 98,237 

Miecellaneons 69, 261 

The conntry produces cottons of medium quality, coBrsely woven, which are sold 
in widths of 8 inches at from 4 to 10 cents a yard, according to color and quality. 
This native cloth to the value of ^2,388 founa a ready market in Timhuctoo. Tne 
Bonthem districts of the Soudau consume (4,032 worth of rock salt, of which three- 
fonrths are of English origin. Besides salt there is another African product the 
kols nut, of which great quantities are imported into the Soudan. The value ot this 
import in 1896 was (260,550. The kola nut is much appreciated for its medicinal 
property aa a tonic; U is also in great request in certain native ceremouiefl, euch tm 



Goo'^lc 



96 OOUHEROUL BELATIONB. 

betrothals, mania^ee, etc. The nate are valued according to size and color, the pink 
nnU beii% more highly eeteemed than the y el lowieh- white ones. 

The government of the Soudan, in order tx) encourage the cultivation of robber, 
receives it in payinent of taxes. Medina is the great center of the gum trade. In 
1896, 2,667,666 pounds were exported. In the Timhuctoo market it is worth from S 
to 4 cents the ktl<wram (2.2046 pounds) . Live stock raising may be considered one 
of the reeourcee of the Soudan, aa well as the ostrich -feather industry. 

In regard to the trade of Senegal, the Recueil Conaulaire, of Brus- 
sels (Vol. XCIX), gives the following details: 

Of the total imports, Kufieque and its dependencies received 12,000,000 trance 
(52,316,000); St. Louis, 10,000,000 francs ($1,830,000); Dakar and Gorfei, 3,000,000 
UTincfl ($579,000). The chief imports are wine, spirits, biscuit, flour, textiles, and 
hardware. During the same year, the exports reached a total of 15,000 t«ns, valued 
at 12,000.000 fiancs ($2,316,000). 

The principal articles of export are arachides (groundnuts) and rubber. The har- 
vest of groundnuts in 1897 amounted to 73,866 tons. The price varied during the 
year from 17.50 francs to 19 francs ($3.38 to $3.67) per 100 kilowams (220.46 pounds) . 

In 1897, a new variety of india rubber was exported from Ruflaque — the product 
of a tree of the fif; family. The juice of this tree coagulates naturally on contact 
with the lur. This rubber is leti.a elastic than that produced by the rubber tree 
proper, but it has the same general properties. Theexporiaof this rubber amounted 
to 32,000 kilograms (70,547 pounds), valued at 100, 000 franoi ($19,300). 

Bentamar^ is the product of a native tree which grows in great (juantities in several 
parte of Senegal. So far, the grains have been used only to mix with coffee and 
chocolate. In 1897, 50,000 kilograms (110,230 pounds) were sent to Marseilles and 
Hamburg. It can never be used to any great extent, ss the gr^n has been found 
to contain principles injurious to health. 

In December, 1897, the general assembly of the colony voted 20,000 franca ($3,860) 
for the creation of an agncultural mission. The following credits were voted for 
Bufisgue: Seventy-five thousand francs ($14,475) for the construction of a second 
wharf; 60,000 francs ($11,580) for canal iaatjon; 25,000 francs ($4,825) tor a powder 
mMzine; also 50,000 francs ($9,650) for the water main at St. Louis. 

The work of improving the port of Dakar is under discussion. Besides 60,000 
francs ($11,580) voted for waterworks, and 6,000 francs ($965) for the purchase of a 
Ct«ne for the port, plans are being made for the construction of whar^'es, a rep^r 
dockg etc There la talk of a railway from Thi^ to Fatick; two companies are con- 
nidermg the establishment of roa! depots, and Dakar seeuis destined to become one 
of the moat important ports of the western coast of Africa. 

GERMAN WKST AFRICA. 

The following table shows the trade of the Germun possessions in 
West Africa in 1897: 



CkintM. 


import 


Bxporis. 




l*«J'fl7 



















3,llM,ieT I 1.3H,aK 



The trade of Germany with those colonies in 18!)$ was: Imports into 
Germany from Togoknd and the Kaineroons, iWs:^.!^O0; from South- 
west Africa. $43,800; exports from Germany to Togoknd and the 
Kameroona, *1,321,600; to SouOiwest Africa, $718,000. 



byGoO'^lc 



w£aT cuast: Liberia and kongo fbbe statb. 



He following shows the trade of the novei-ul countries eompoting 
for lAberian tnule in 1898: 



Oernuiiy 

Belgtom 

Qrrat Brilalu 
United SUUa 



L^rta. 



The value of the imports in the fiMeal year I8y(>-'.I7 is stated at 
»505,236; of the exports, |689,031. 

KONGO FREK HTATE. 

The value of the trade in 1898 was: Imports, N,8B0,OOO; exports, 
$i,901,000. The commerce was divided substantially tm follows: 





Countriej. 


Im porta. 


Eiporti. 


BtttOam 


as 


"CS 



















Consul-General Lincoln, of Antwerp, notes that the trade of Belgium 
with the Koneo Free State has increased 75 percent since 1888. The 
railway is looked upon as one of the most profitable Kongo invest- 
ments, and the stocV is in demand. The establishment of taree new 
railway lines is under consideration — in the valley of the Uelle to the 
Redjsf (Nile); from the Lolali to the Lualaba toward the Manyema, 
and from the Urua in the direction of Lake Tanganyika, these last- 
named points to be shortly connected by teiegrapn via Stanley Falls. 

The receipts and expenditures of the Kongo Free State for 1899 were 
estimated as follows: _ Receipts, $3,85i,5S4; expenditures, S3,796,882. 
The custom-house receipts are estimated at $714,000, and those of the 
domain produced by the sale of land, etc., at $1,984,000. 



A British Foreign Office report on the trade of Angola in the years 
1897 and 1898 (annual series No. 2363) says that the chief countries 
contributing to the imports of Angola are, in their order of importance, 
Portugal, Great Britain, Germany, the United States, France, and 
Belgium. The United States sends principally flour and petroleum, 
with a shipment of coal, in 1898, valued at $5,400. Portugal sends 
food products, wines, clothing, tobacco, etc. ; Great Britain, cotton 
goods (to the ™ue of $447,000 in 1898), powder, provisions, coal, iron- 
ware, etc. 1 Germany sends guns, powder, sugar, provisions, machinery 
for agriculture, ironware, etc. ; France, guns, butter and its imitations, 
H.Doc.481,Ptl_7 ;„„.^|,, 



98 COKHEBaAL RELATIONS. 

wines, and spirite; and Belgian imports consist almoeit solely of guns 
for the use of the natives. Macliinery and ironware, continues the 
report, have already been imported in some measure from America, 
and it is only a question of time when the United States will enter the 
field with tne United Engdom and Germany in other classes of 
imports. There is already a representative in Angola of an American 
engine manufactory, who, in addition to the wares he is actually com- 
missioned to sell, seeks an outlet for other goods of American make. 

The imports in 1898 were $3,059,378; the exports, $4,337,301. The 
London Board of Trade Journal gives the following additional details 
as to trade: 

The Fortugneee manufocturerB are gradually g&inine the trade for gray domestics, 
while Germany runs the British market very close in tne supply ot gunpowder. The 
three principal exports are coffee, rubber, and wax. The u^r part of the coffee 
exported ia brouznt in by the natives. There are two qualities, known as Cozen^ 
Bad Enconge, bom native grown. Rubber is not cultivated by the natives, but is 
brought a long distance from the interior. Beeswax is also brought in by the nativeH. 

There are urge quantities of fiber-giving plants, such as aloe, pita, etc With 
proper machinery for working these, a profitable industry might be opened up. 

SOUTH AFRICA. 
BRITIBII SOUTH AFRICA. 

Consul -General Stowe, of Cape Town, says the imports into South 
Africa in 1898 were divided aa follows: Cape Ckjlony, $80,887,819; 
Natal, $25,905,i30; Delagoa Bay, $8,668,462; Beira, |869,463. The 
exports from Cape Colony to the interior were: Orange Free State, 
$6,004,646; Bechuanaland, $168,235; Basutoland, $101,603; Transvaal, 
$15,232,510; Rhodesia, $2,650,846. 

Of the total imports of Cape Colony, Great Britain and colonies sent 
over $60,000,000. Imports from Germany amounted to $4,762,000. 
This trade has fallen off of late years, due, it is supposed, to the diver- 
sion of business to Delagoa Bay. Imports from France ($299,980) 
are also decreasing. Australia sent goods to the value of $1,452,270. 
Of the total exports, amounting to $117,343,399, over $116,000,000 
went to Great Britain, and about half a million worth to British colo- 
nies. 

Imports into Natal for the fii-st nine months of 1899 amounted to 
$19,534,914, of which the United Kingdom sent some $13,000,000; the 
United States, $2,500,000 (against $1,300,000 in the same period of 
1898); European countries, $1,600,000; Austj-alia, $959,000; India, 
$800,000, et«. 

Mr. Stowe writes: 

Foreign coimtjiea are seekino connections for South African trade, as evidenced by 
the recent establishment in this ci'.y of an Austro-Hungarian consulate-general; 
Turkey and Argentina have also opened similar offices, ancf steps are being taken to 
create a line oT steamships to ply between Buenos Ayres and South African ports, 
carrying frozen beef and mutton and the small mules raised in Argentina. The sail- 
ing time from Buenos Avrea is thirteen days, as against twenty-two from Australia, 
from which place nearly all the fro/«n meat has heretofore been shipped. The 
largest importer o£ frozen meat in Cape Town has offered to purchase to the value of 
$2,433,000 yearly from the Argentine Kepuhlic, under certain conditions. 

In spite of all drawbacks, South Africa has bad a rapid expansion of trade with the 
United Stat«s. There is a noticeable demand for com in meal. Imports of bicydes 
and vehiclcB have increased. 



i.Gooi^le 



SOUTH afkioa: south apbioak kbpublic. 99 

The following extracts are from a report by Mr. Stowe, printed in 
Consular Eeports No. 233, February, 1900: 

The increABe in eoods Hhipped from the United States to British and Portuguese 
Sonth Africa for the yeax ended June 30, 1899, ww tl,7'lS,9ie.80. The British and 
South African Ex^rt. Oaxette givee the following (tjie currency being exprened in 
United States equivalente) : 

" Bbih or tails for lallwayB show the gnateet increase, the imports amounting to 
$786,932.60, ag^nst only 163,996.67 in the previous year. Agricultutat implements 
showed an augnientation of {116 933.57; bnildeis' hardware, (30,232.96; cycles and 
parte, $3,472.31, and sewine machines $1,451.26. In food stuffs, camiod beef was 
imported to the value of $478,643.08, an excess over the previous year of $78,178.11; 
lard, $239,146.22. wainst $146,422.41 of the year before. There was also improve- 
ment in tbe trade In bacon, hams, pork, fnut, nuts, sugar, and molasses. Blinetal 
oil was shipped to the value of $1,303,397.06, compued with $1,118,673.09 for 1898; 
patafOn, ^,682, an increase of $6,082.63, and vegetable oil, $271,249.26, against 
^29,601.02 for 1896. There were also heavier shipments of resin, tar, etc , and spirits 
of turpentine. Timber and unwrought wood were imported in increased amonnt 
1^ $325,103.89; nnmannfactured tobacco, by $69,675.09; mannfactored tobacco, by 
$100,628.84. The importatJon of leather and its manufactures increased horn 
$152,2B0.29to$169,292.83,andtherewasalBoanini;reaseia books, maps, and engrav- 
ings, clocks, watches, and seeds. Among the decreases, that of $.^,002,140.72 in com 
(inclndin)} wheat) was especially noticeable; other food stufis flgunng for diminished 
—ports being salted and pickled beef, batter, and flour. There was a dccliae of 
""" "" "1 sdentific instonmenta (including telegraph and telepone instruments 



$1^7 



cotton manufactures of $19,027.09, and a decreased importation of horses." 

The imports into Cape Colony for the nine months ended September 30, ISBd, 
exclosive of specie, were: 



Dwripaon. 


ia«s. 


ISW. 




tE8,Ggt,SH.8S 

16,841, W2.1! 




"^^V^^ 












■ilStSS 


'iSk&s 








18,618,978.02 


n,M8,Ba.ia 





In Advance Sheets of Consular Reports, No. 611, December 23, 1899, 
Conaul-General Stowe says: 

The exodus of Vitianders from tbe South African Republic and Orange Free State 
has, I believe, been onprecedented in history. Many of the people — the mitiing 
population, the bone and sinew of the country — have scattered over the world! 
Nnmbers of them, too poor to B«t out of the country, are subjects of charity in toe 
dties of Oape Colony and Natal and have to be fed. Some have funds tor a few days 
or weeks, but will in time have to be supported by the public, and this in a country 
that can notor does not produce the food stulEs tor its own people. The English army 
isfed with Buppliesfrom other countries, and, while much of these may haveoriginally 
come from the United Slates, they reach here via Engrland. The customs duties and 
Rulroad and telegraph revenues have fallen oft. As Uie railroads and telegraphs are 
owned by the Government, a very large source of Government support is fost, to say 
nothing of the emplovees thrown out of work. 

Johannesburg, in tne Transvaal, and Bloemfontein, in the Free State, are, to all 
intents and purposes, deserted cities. Johannesburg, the largest commercial center in 
Sonth Africa, has, so tar as trade is concerned, ceased to exist This once busy, bustling 
dty, prodncui^ monthly over 15 tons of gold and yearly $60,000,000 worth, is dlent 
Up to this time goods have reached the Transvaal via DeJagoa Bay, bnt it is not 
tnppoeed that they will long be permitted to enter. The two republics must then 
live on their own resources. Their crops are ready for the nckle, bnt can not be cut, 
as tbe men are off to the war. Prices aie so high that the trade papers retrain from 
publishing the nsnat column of "market prices." i^rge quantities of gold en route 



100 OOHHEROIAL BSLATIOKB. 

to M^iorts in tioB colony for shipment to England have been taken by the Boers. 
Bepreeentatives here of export commission bouses of the United SUtee are constantly 
booking and cabling laige ordere, partdcnlarly of food atufis, btit word comes from 
the canners of meat and fish, makers of flour, com meal, etc , that they have about 
all they can do to supply the home demand and are many weeks or months behind 
orders. 

From United States pt^rs that reach me, I gather that our manufactureiB intend 
to withhold ehipmeule to thia country. The fear is expressed that the war would die- 



le] in cose of hostilities;" and that presents the tjuestion, Why should English 

Iobbere take the agency for the whole of South Africa in any article? I regret to 
earn, and correctly too, that Beverol bills of goods sold by resident agents to mer- 
chants here have been held back, both on accotmt of the war and the uncerttunty of 
payment. I think this is poor policy. The credit of the leading merchants in the 
seaports of this colony can not be materially afiected by the war, and in several cases 
of which I am cMnizant the goods which were sold and held back in the United 
States were sore of payment 

I make the statement in all candor that the war, even with all its horrora, will not 
cause imports from the United States to fall off. The thousands of mules, the millions 
of pounds of flour, wheat, com, com meal, samp, and canned meat^ and fish brought 



ugland for warpurposee, which previously had been shipped 
o England, added to the direct shipments from the United 



into this cotmtry from England fc 

from the United Btates to Englui , 

States to this country, present a total that is extraordinary. 

What the ahipmeota of Untied States products from England amount to we shall 
never know, as they enter duty free and no record is kept of them at the custom- 
houses. 

It mnst^ however, be k^t In mind that in some lines of goods from the United 
States, which have in previous veats found a valuable and ready market, the 
decrease in imports will be deddea. 

I^e total tnde from the United States is maintained by the increase in food stub. 

SOTJTH AFEICAN BBPUBMC. 

He importa into the Tranayaal (South African Republic), s&ya 
Consul-General Stowe, of Cape Town, came through tlie following 
countries: Cape Colony, 120,154,675; Natal, *14,823,359; DeWoa Bay, 
$11,275,680; Orange Free State, $4,477,080. 

No statistics of exports are available, except those furnished by the 
railways, which state that in 1896 the freight transported amounted to 
24j052,189 pounds. 

The Board of Trade Journal, London, September, 1899, has the fol- 
lowing figures concerning the trade of the Transvaal for 1898. It 
appears mat there has been a considerable reduction in the actual 
amount returned during the year under review. 

The total value of imports was as follows: 



v„. 


Vdua. 


1 


•sag 


IG1,;44,SM 



The figures for the customs show the following collections: 



Year. 


Amount. 




£1, on, 221 It,l«l,g47 









80DTH AFRICA: SOUTH APBIOAN RRPUBLIO. 



101 



' Thus, whOe the decrease in cuetotna between 1897 and 1898 was 
£230,816 (;(1,128,261), the decrease in the value of imports was £2,930,- 
932 (tl4,268,381). 

As reno^ the importation from Kurope aod America, ihe figures 
are as f^ows: 



Y«r. 


KDCope. 


A.»ert^ 




a,a>a,m 


tM,SlB,A2G 

«,»8»;»w 


'^^ 


"iSSiSIl 







These figures show a decrease of £2,294,962 ($11,168,433) and £80,749 
($149,640), respectively. The figures for other places show a similar 
decrease. 

(Generally, adds the article, the report seems to show that although 
the reduction of duties may account for soma diminution in the cus- 
toms collection, the decrease in the value of the imports must to a 
great extent be ascribed to the general depression in trade during the 
past twelve months, and to the want of confidence on the part of busi- 
ness houses and commercial and mining compaoies. 

As to the classification of imports, the following statement (sent 
by Consul Macrum, of Pretoria, in 1899) of stores consumed by the 
seventy-four companies for mining gold in the South African Bepablio 
in 1898, will be of interest: — 



Article 


QmtDtltr. 


VtlOB. 


mu> *|H|IM» 




SIS 

&^ 
11 

eo.sTo 
to.^ 

14S.S2S 

i».m 
s,eM 

is 

M,*(« 

II 


•?^?s 




.■■:SS:: 


.as 


Mss;:;::;;:;;;:::;;;;:;;;;;;;;;;;;;:;;;:::;;:: 






'vowOi" 


m.iw 


'»^:;;:::::::;:::;:;:;:::;;::;;;:;;;::;:;::;:: 




112,981 






■»1S3» ™. 






....Oo.... 


S,«M,7tS 






^i^;;;;;;;;!:;;;:;;;-;--; 


:::^:: 




-^■25 








'^!:::;::::::::;;::::::::::::;::::::::::::::::::;::::::: 














..ponuaj.. 


3.na.es4 








g;}***"™-,- 


..bottle*.. 






















m,tnb 

SB'S 


&::::::::::::;:::::::::::;:::::::::;:::::::;: 


■■"■r- 


lias 










1 














4, IK 










gST' ;.•:■:••■;:■■■:•■:••■:::::::::;::: 










1,738,87* 




















*.7!T,(508 











Goo' 



sic 



102 OOMMEBCIAI, RELATIONS. 

In another report, Mr. Maorum said: 

The total quantity of diamonds found in 1698 in tfae Transvaal waB 22,843 carats, 
valued at £43,730 ($212,612.04) . 

At the alluvial diggioK, 12,283 carats, valued at £36,228 ($171,437.06), vere found; 
while from the pipes, I0,&60 caiute, valued at £8,502 (#41,374.98), were obtained. 
The difference between alluvial and pipe diamonds ooneiBte in the loct that river 
stones are of a far better quality, and are genemlly larger. The outpat of diamonds 
in the Pretoria district during 1898 amounted to 11,025 carats, valued at £8,867 
{43,151.26). In December, 1897, the output was 166 carats, valued at £146 ($710. 51V, 
and for the same month in 1808 the output was 3,100 carats, with a value of £2,389 
($11,626.07). The largest stone found in 189Swafl 38} carats. Although the diamond 
indostry is not dereTopin^ with abnormal Tapidity, there is every cause for satis- 
faction, the first stone having been discovered at Beitfontein only in Auffust, 1897. 
The average value of stones found in this district is 16b. ($3.89) per carat, the average 
value of Kimberley diamonds 26e. ($6.33) per carat, and those found at Jaaierafontein, 
in the Orange E^%e State, 34s, ($8. 27) per carat Toe diamonds in the n^toria dis- 
trict are found in pipes, as ou Scbuller's mine and on Montrose. A similar formation 
has been found on Boodeplaats, on the Pieoaars River, and another is also reported 
at Eameelfont^n and Butfelsduft. 

On the De Kroon farm, about 26 miles west of Pretoria, diamonds have been found; 
but, according to the State Keologist, not in a blue-ground formation. At Bymest^ 
iKwrt an alluvial deposit is Deing worked; also one on the adjoining portion of the 
^andsfonteia farm. The area of diamondiferoue ground is very extensive, though 
its thickness is not conmderabie. 

The Deutscbes Handets-Archiv, Berlin, October, 1899, has the fol- 
lowiDg list of industries in the TransTaal: 



D^rtpao.. 


>,..^,. 


Bollen. 


(v™ t l-Mnn, 


1 

i 
s 









































































The establishment of a wool spinning and weaving mill and of a 
candle manufactory is projected. 

In a report describing a trip through the Transvaal, Orange Free 
State, etc., Conaul-General Stowe wrote as follows in r^ard to Amer- 
ican interests : 

Johannesburg has been bnilt up by the gold-mining industry, developed by fordgn 
capital, and American ability has had a nand in the development, for Americans 
occupy the very necet«ary anil responsible poei lions of manager^ consolting engineers, 
and superintendents; and I was glad to team that their ability was recc«nized by 
other countries. Mr. J. 0. Manion, the United States consular agent at Jobanncfl- 
bnre, is one of the prominent citizens. He has been the means of introducing mining 
madiinery and supplies of all kinds of American manufacture to the value of millions 
of dollars. 1 took pleasure in viewing the powerful engines, compreasors, head gears, 
miles of pipiufi^ crushers, etc, that he haa introduced. For 20 miles on each side of 
the city eitenH the head gears and sraokeetacks of minee— over 100 of them— which 



telligible as oitr own stock extdiangee. Over 15 tons of gold per month ia the prod- 
uct of the mines, and the ground is only b^^ning to be worked. New discoveriee 



SOUTH afrioa: obanob free state. 108 

are reported iailj. Tbe main reef crops out at the saiiace and the veins dtp to great 
depths; some of the new efaafte ve going down to 3,Z00-foot levels. Gompuinte are 
made of the prices of dynamite, which costs 70 shillings ((17.03) per case, sod coald 
be bought out of the State for 40 flhillinga ($9.73); the Government granted the con- 
cession to e. company which makes thousands of pounds eterlii^ per annum out of it. 
A conc«8son for the manuEncture of candles has just been granted, so that the miners 
who nse candles for underground work will be obliged to buy of the manufacturer, 
as the duty will be prohibitive. The railways, I was told, charge for freight from 
ibe border to Johanneebnrg, a distance of 47 miles, as much as it costs to luuil from 
the seaports, 1,000 miles away. I was informed that candles made in Belgium were 
mostly used, as they can be bought much cheaper, but the candle concenion will 
stop tul outaide purchanee. While the United Btatee can not now compete for the 
candle trade, 1 am pleased to state that the factory will be equipped with American 
tnachinerv throughout American steel and iron makers should have a share of the 
trade in the tool and drill steel used so largelr in the mines. England and Oennaaj 
DOW famish all of it, and their brands are well known. 

OBANGE FBEB STATE. 

Imports in 189S, sa already stated, were $5,800,000, Mid exports, 
«9,360,000. 

Dtamonda represent over $2,000,000 in the exports, and reexports to 
the Transvaal about $4,200,000. 

Id the report already referred to, Mr. Stowe said: 

Leaving Kimberiey, a ride of 167 miles brings one to the borders of the Orange 
Free State. The land appears more fertile. The villages of the Kaffirs and Hotten- 
tots are seen, the former looking like tops of balloons, the latter square and built of 
Btonee, Poaiing throttch the Omnge Fre« State to the borders of the South African 
Republic, a distance of 334 miles, one sees nothing but the same monotonous land- 
scape, but more and better farming is noticed aJid the crops are more divermded. 
A laive number of American agrioiltural implomenia is sold here through Gape 
Town Dousee. In fact, a great proportion of all merchandise sold thronghont South 
Africa comes by the lar^ mercantile houses in Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East 
London, and Durban, who have travelers all over South Africa. The Orange lYee 
State is prosperous, though much land is idle. 

MOZAUBIQUE. 

Consul HoUis, of Lourenpo Marquez, writes: 

Within the post few rears, a considerable import trade from the Pacific coast of the 
United States to this puce has been developed through the energy of a few Canadi- 
ans, who have estabhsbed a large timber and flooring business here and in the 
Transvaal under the name of the Lingham Timber and Trading Comnany. It 
imports Oregon pine timber and Unislied lumber, and wheat. The only wneat that 
can be convert»i into Hour that will keep for any length of time in this climate is 

' Padfic coast from here ; all the goods 
y come in chartered sailing vessels, which 
, ^ . a from one hundred to one hundred and 

twenty days. 

There is a great market all over Sonth AMca for cormgat«d galvanised iron for 
roofing and buildins purposes. At present, supplies come from England. Oar 
sheet-iron mills ongnt to De able to tnm out an article that can compete with the 
English product 

There is a good demand tor many varietiee of United States food products. Com 
is the principal food of the Kaffir, and durine good years large crops are raised in 
this province. The thousands of natives em^oyed in the Transvaal mines are fed 
idmost entirely with this cereal. 

The demand for canned fruits and vegetablee is incr«aung, and several local 
imparteis who have never previouelv handled American aanned goods have 
imported sample lots during tlie last lew months. These met with such a ready 
sale that further and larger orders are being sent to the United States. The market 
for dried fruits, also, is growing, as well as lor "Boston beans." A leading importer 



104 COMlfERCIAL RELATIONS. 

asked mc only a few days ago how he could beet place an otder tor a trial lot. There 
ban alwayB been a good demand here for dried codfish, which has been supplied h^ 
Portugal, but the taate of the public has been improving and a better article is 
requested. 1 would advise American exporters of dried fish to look into this matter. 

Mr. Hollis ur^s better packing of American tinned goods, as well 
as of other articles, not only on Recount of the rough handbng they 
receive, but because of the disposition of the stevedores to extract the 
contente of the packages, if possible. He says: 

Some months ago a ^ng of Kaffir freight handlers came apon a case containing, I 
believe, some preparation of aconite or of strychnine. They supposed it was a new 
kind of "white man's fire water," and all of them swallowed some of it. A few 
survived, but most of them were buried the next day. 

Imports from the several countries into Lourenyo Marquez are stated 
as follows: 



England $192,874 

Prance 109,996 

Holland 60,222 

Be^nm 21,882 

Other 34,028 



Portugal $825,524 

United States 814,326 

British colonies 592, 880 

Mozambique 397, 784 

Norway 379,673 

Germany 225, 190 

Imports from Portugal in tmnsit to the Transvaal amounted to 
$151,091; from the United States, $1,070,458; from other countries 
{not stated separately), *7,381,0i8. 

RHODESIA. 

Under this title is known the whole of the region lying between the 
South African Republic, the Kongo Fi-ee State, and Portuguese and 
German possessions. The river Zambesi divides it into southern 
and northern Rhodesia. The southern portion includes Matabeleland 
and Mashonaland, and has an area of 174,728 square miles. The British 
South Africa Company has extended the Cape Govei-nment railway 
system fi'omKimberley to Vryburg, a distance of 12(5 miles, and this 
section has been taken over by the Capo Government. 

The line has been continued north by the Bechuanaland Railway 
Company, and is open to traffic to Buluwayo. It is proposed to extend 
it to the Zambesi, and eventually to Tanganyika. The Beira Railway 
Company, foi-med to construct the lino between Beira and Mashona- 
hind, completed it to New Uuitali in 1898. Thence it will be carried 
to Salisbuiy, the capital. There ai'c some 2,635 miles of telegraph 
line. The telegraph line is now completed to Lake Nyassa, and will 
ultimately connect with the sy.'<l<'ni from Cairo to Khartoum. Gold 
fields have been discovered in Rhodesia, with an area of 5,260 square 
mile». 

Northern Rhodesia, known as British Central Africa, has an area of 
about 251,000 square miles, with a population of 650,000. There are 
about 300 Europeans. 

Imports into Rhodesia through Cape Coloiu'. in the \'ear 1HH7~',I8, 
were $569,000. 

ItlltTISlI CENTUAI., AFRICA PIiOTE(nX>ItATK. 

This country lies along the southern and western shores of liake 
Nyassa, and extends toward the Zambesi. It hajs an area of 42,217 



EAST coast; MADAGA80AK. 105 

square miles and a population of some 844,000 natives, 300 Europeans 
(260 British) and 263 ludians. Importa in 1897 were valued at nearly 
*400,000, and exports at $115,000. The chief importe were cotton 
goo<^, machinerr, provisions, hardware, and agricultural implementa; 
exports consisted mainly of ivory and coffee. 

EAST COAST. 

UAJDAOASGAJl. 

Consul Gibbs, of Tamatave, notes that although American grey cot- 
ton goods have always held the mastery, their mark being a household 
word amongtheMalogassy, the discriminatingduties have nearly forced 
them out of the marKet. The authorities have methods of encourag- 
ing the natives to purchase only French goods, thereby enabling 
French manufacturers to nearly capture the market. It is apparently 
an article of faith among the French in the island, he adds, to bOTcott 
foreign goods. In consequence of this, imports from the United States 
have fallen off from $556,452, in the fiscal year 1897-98, to $13,565 in 
1898-99, while French cottons have increased from $138,080 in 1897 
to $1,102,400 in 1898. Of the total importe in 1898 ($4,150,000), some 
$3,500,000 came from France and colonies; England and colonies sent 
$365,000; Germany, $84,180; Norway and Sweden, $f4,2T7, etc. 

GERMAN HAST APRICA. 

A British foreign office report (No. 474, Miscellaneous Series) gives 
the trade of German Eaut Africa in 1897 as follows: Imports, $2,330,328; 
exports, $1,272,750. Nearly half of the goods iniported came from India 
and Great Britain, about two-sevenths from Germany, and the rest 
from France, Belgium, Holland, America, Arabia, and Zanzibar. The 
principal articles of import were cottons, rice, and provisions. The 
exports consisted chiefly of ivory, india rubber, corn, sesame, and copra. 
Most of the exports went to Zanzibar, Germany following in order of 
importance. 

The London Board of Trade Journal states that the following rail- 
way lines have been decided on in German E^t Africa, viz: A line 
already in course of construction from the port of Tanga, on the Indian 
Ocean, to Nai^a, on the shores of Spike Gulf, situated in the south of 
Ltike Victoria Nyanza, passing through Usumbura and the district 
which lies between the southern slope of Mount Kilimanjaro and the 
north of lakes Mandjara and Ejassi; and a line starting from the port 
of Dar el Salaam across Ugami to the southern point of Ijake Tan- 
ganyika. 

BBITI8II EAST AFllICA, 

This consists of an area extending from the Italian sphere of influ- 
ence, Abyssinia and Egypt on the north to the mouth of the river 
Umba on the south, westward across Lake Victoria to the Kongo Free 
State. It includes Uganda and the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, 
still governed through their Arab Sultan. Importe in the fiscal year 
1897-98 were valued at $1,428,700, and exports at $347,900. , -, , 

L,oog\c 



OOmiEBriAL BBLATIONS. 



zajuzlbah. 

According to a British Foreign Office report, imports into Zanzibar 
in 1897 were valced at ?6, 808,613— f601,538 in excess of those of 1896, 
and the highest ever reached in the country. Exports were valued at 
$6,789,519, against 15,629,329 in 1896. Trade with the principal coun- 
tries was: 



Countries. 


Import.. 


BaporW. 


Conntrtt*. 


ImporW. 


EtporU. 






H,ISO0 


^ESrllid."-:::::::::::: 


Sim 


•^sst 

















Great Britain has the largest share of the import trade, but if the 
item of coal were omitted, it would be found tlmt the manufactured 
articles from Germany were slightly in excess of those from the United 
Kingdom. The value of the piece goods brought into Zanzibar in 1897 
was three times as great as that of any other article, and constitutes 
ODe-fouiih of the entire import trade. The countries which ship this 
class of goods are British India, Holland, Great Britain, America, and 
Qermany, in the order named. The British consul says that the most 
imjmrtant class of piece goods is a species of unbleached cloth, which 
is m universal request throughout the interior, atad forms in some parts 
of the country tae only currency. It is known as graycloth, and is 
made in two qualities, the better kind being known as "Americani," 
from the fact that America was the first country to introduce it. It is 
an excellent quality of cloth and is very popular. The cheaper goods 
are sent from India. 

Acting United States Consul Sarle notes that the Mombasa-Uganda 
Railway is now open for 300 miles. The construction of the railway 
has created a good trade in certain lines, such as rice for the coolies 
employed, building materials, timber, and corrugated iron. It is esti- 
mated that two years' tune is still required for Uie road to reach Lake 
Victoria Nyanza. The chief imports from the United States in the last 
year were cotton cloth, $375,000; kerosene, $15^000. Exports to the 
United States were valued at $371,491 ; they consisted chiefly of cloves, 
goatskins, and ivory. 

MATJBimrs. 

Consul Ounpbell, of Port Louis, says that of the total imports into 
Mauri tius in 1898 ($8, 781,062), Englandandcolomessentover$4,000,000 
and the remainder was divided among foreign countries. Of the ex- 
ports, some $8,000,000 of the $9,878,000 went to England and colonies. 
Imports from America consist of petroleum, cocmsh, and herring. 
There exists a desire among local d^ers for closer trade connections 
with the United States. 

KAuvnoN. 

The value of the imports in 1897 — no more recent statistics being 
available—was $4,172,600, of which $2,900,000 was of French origin. 
The exports amounted to $3,591,000, and all but some $82,000 wortb 



HAST coast: SOMALI 0OA6T AND ABYSSINIA. 107 

was 8ent to Prance and French coloniea. A British foreign office report 
on the colonies of France (No. 520, miscellaneous series) notes chat 
the general economic situation of Bgunion presents many points of 
similarity to that existing in the French West Indian Islands. Here 
also sugar is the staple product, and the colony has suffered greatly 
from the crisis in that industry. More attention, however, has been 
devoted by the planters to the growing of "secondary crops" than in 
the West Indies. Vanilla, coffee, tapioca, potatoes, tobacco, and essen- 
tial oils are among the exports. Textiles figure for $554,000 among 
the imports; macTtiQery, tools, etc., for (250,000; spirits, wines, for 
*i57,000; cereals for $1,216,000, etc. 

BOMAL.I COAST. 

British. — ^The trade of the Somali Coast Protectorate^ according to 
a British foreign office report (No. 2384, annual series), is represented 
by the imports and exports at the coast towns of Zaila, Berbera, and 
Bulbar. The value of tite imports on which duty was paid at these three 
towns, in 1898-99, was Jl,812,000; of the exports, $1,829,000. The 
principal feature of the Zaila trade is the export of produce from Harar 
and adjoining Abyssinian districts, and the supply of these countries 
with the commodities they require, for which the demand is increas- 
ing with the development of Abyssinian resources. This trade is now 
threatened by the Djibouti-Harar railway, which is in course of- con- 
struction. American grey shirting -forms the ordinary wearing ap- 
parel of the Somali inland, and it easily holds the field. "The Ameri- 
cans," says the British Consul-General, "have managed to hit off 
exactly the requirements of the people " in this line, llese goods are 
preferred by tne natives to any other. 

Hides ana skins are among the chief exports from the country. 

Italian. — The BoUettino degH Affari Esteri, Borne, gives the importd 
in 1898 as $277,400 and the egwrts at $339,900. There is an increase 
of $77,900 in the imports and $131,400 in the exports, as compared with 
the preceding year. American cottons represent the principal article 
of import. Cereals, animals, skins, butter, ivory, etc., are exported. 

J^rench. — According to La Politique Coloniale, the commerce of 
the French protectorate for the third quarter of 1899 was: Imports, 
$235,700; exports, $93,200. The bulk of the trade is with France and 
Aden, France furnishes flour, wines, beer, silks, and ready-made 
clothing. England and Aden send cotton stuffs, some of which are 
manufactured in the United States. 

ABYSSINIA. 

An article in the Moniteur Officiel du Commerce, Paris, is summa- 
rized as follows: 

Uajw is the great conunercUl center of Abyninia, with a^palation of 40,000, of 
whom 1,000 are foreigners. A Btatement of ita commerce gives a very good idea of 
the trade of Aby»dnia in general, as alt commercial operadoua within the dominion 
of Menelik most take place here. Roads penetrating into the interior convei^ at 
Harar, and Ethiopian merchants bring to this market the products of the AbysBinian 
pl&teang and of the regions of the south — coffee, ivory, and civet. Purch^es and 
Bslea are generally eSected tor cash. The money employed in the coonhy is the 
Msrie-Tbertea thaler, worth from 41 to 40 cents, aocording to exchange. Tne only 



108 OOHJtEBCIAL RELATIONS. 

fractional curteacy h the 2-aiina silver piece of British India. The Ethiopians 11 
bare of salt nearly 10 inches long ae currencrv. 
The latest etatiHtics give the imports for 1897-98 as foHowH: 



Aitlclea. 


Value. 




m.xo 

S,12S,DI» 


•1.1M.2BS 
































12,676,500 











Theee imports come chiefly from Germany, EnKland, and AuBtria via Bombay and 
Aden. Of the commerce coming by way of Aden, American cotton cloths form a 
very important factor. The use 01 theee cottons is becoming more and more general, 
the poorer classes employing them entirely. They are imported in pieces of 30 yatda 
in length, and, according to the rates at exchange, the price varies from 75 to 100 
thalera for 20 pieces. During the year April, 1897, to April, 1898, 260,000 pieces were 
imported, valued at 2,500,(»0 franca (¥182,500). Woolen goods come principally 
from Germany. Black cloth ia used for bumooses and red cloth for saddle blanJceta 
Eu^ are imported from the East; also from England and Auetria. 

Silks come from France, Germany, and Switzeriand: they are used chiefly for 
church ornaments and for the burtiooee of the Arab chiefs. Silk is not need ordi- 
narily for drees, except by the warriors. Arms and munitions find a ready sale. 
The preferred gun is the Giaa. On an average from 100,000 to 150,000 of these ^tms 
are sold each year. The favorite revolver is the Smith & Wesson. The Abyssimans 
aregreat lovers of flne arms, and manufacture a saber bent like a scimiter. 

The total eiportfi for 1897-98 are valued in round numbers at 6,835,000 fiancs 
(n,I26,155), as follows: 



AltiClCB. 


Vkluc. 




1,400, «n 


t^-^ 






270,200 
















S.SM,DO0 


1,126,1(6 





Two qualities of coKee are sold on the market of Harar — first, the Abyssin, hron^ht 
by Abyesinian merchants from Kaffa, Leka, and Djimma. The gtainsare small, like 
the Mocha, with an earthy appearance, due to lack of care in decortication. The 
market price is 4 to 6 thalcrs ($1.84 to J2.76) the frazellft {37i pounds); second, the 
Harari, cultivated in the districts around Harar and in the mountains of the Tchert- 
cher. This cofiee, with a longer berry, is better cultivated than the other and finds 
a ready sale in America and £igland at the price of 6 to 8 thalers ($2.76 to $3.68) the 
fmzella [37^ pounds) , 

Ivory IS brought from the south for the most part as tribute to Menelik, who uses 
it, together with gold, to pay for hie purchases 01 arme. Gold is exported iu rings of 
different dimensions and thicknesses, as well as in small cylindrical ingots. 

The exportation of hides has diminished since 1890, on account of the episooty. 
The AhyssiniaoH employ many skins for making "eelitchas," or sacks, for carrying 
merchandise. 

The resources of this country* are immense and the fertility of the soil extraordi- 
nary. Great tracts of land lie waste, the natives cultivating only enough for their 
wants. With its regular rainv season from June to September, its terraced mountain 
lands, its warm and deep vallej-s, which invite every aind of cultivation from that 
of the Tropics to that of the temperate zone, this country is capable of becoming 
oue of the richest in the world. Seven-tenths of the uncultivatra. land from Uaiar 



EAST coast: ABYSStKIA. 109 

to th» boimduiee of eouthom AbTBunia are admirably adapted fo the cultivation 
of DoSee. Cotton could also be made remunerative; wnat ia grown is of a very fine 
quality and is woven by the natives for their togaa. The conditions of the country 
are moat Eavorable for cattle breeding. Ah soon aa the railway from Harar to Diibouu 
is flniahedj Harar will become the great supply market of mutton, goate, and nattle 
for Somali and the countriee of the Arabian coast. The native horee ia especially 
valaed for his endurance. The mule, amall and atrong, with great powers of reeifft- 
ance to fadzue and privationa, renders inestimable aervioea in tnia mauntainous coun- 
try, where ne carries loads of 100 kilograms (220 pounds). Tobacco grows wild, as 
well ae the olive, sycamore, and fig treea. From the dakouaia plant, wer, a favorite 
drink of the natives, is made. Honey is found in great abundance throughout all 
Abyssinia; it is used to make the national drink, the "tech," as well as an excellent 
quality of brandy. 

The dutiee on exports and imports of all kinds of merchandise are 8 per cent, 
calculated ad valorem. The packing of goods must follow certain conditions, on 
acoonnt of the traoBportation by mnlee and camels. 



byGoO'^lc 



N0;BTH AMERICA. 

DOMINION OP CANADA. 

ConBul-Greneral Bittioger, of Montreal, savs that fully two-thirds 
of Canada's exports go to countries under tne British flag, the divi- 
sion for the last fiscal year being: British Empire, $110,779,358; other 
countries, *53,878,825: total, $164,152,683. Of this amount the 
United States received $46,705,336; France, $1,025,262; Germany, 
$1,887,448; West Indies, $2,749,080, etc. Goods entered for consump- 
tion in Canada came from the following countries: United States, 
$78,705,590; GreatBritain, $32,500,917; Germany, $5,584,014; France, 
$3,975,351; China and Japan, $2,317,971, etc. The total imports 
were $152,021,058. Agricultural products and animals represent 
$77,364,000 of the total export value; products of the mine, 
$14,463,000; products of fisheneB, $10,841,000; products of the forest, 
$26,511,000; manufactures, $10,678,000. Mr. Bittinger notes that 
the Canadian returns show that a large export trade may be done with 
a countiT from which little is imported, and vice versa. There was 
exported to Great Britain more than mree times the value of the 
British goods brought into Canada for consumption. There was 
entered ror consumption from the United States nearly twice the value 
of goods exported thereto. 

(^nadian industries are flourishing. Cotton and woolen mills, fac- 
tories for boots and shoes, for furniture, for clothing, etc., have been 
erected. English capital is being invested in the country to a larger 
extent than ever. 

Consul-Geueral Turner, of Ottawa, notes the increase in imports of 
agricultural implements, flour, and coal from the United States during 
the past year. 

Conditions in the Klondike region are described in a recent report 
from Vice-Consul Morrison, of Dawson City, as follows: 

While Dawson has lost in population during the past summer, it has gtuned in 
wealth, and ia now a thriviiiK, eubsttmtial town. The Yukon counal bos expended 
in building roads and trails during the year about |I70,000 out of the $175,000 ^pn>- 
priated for this purpose by the Dominioti Grovemment. Considerable improvement 
work has been done on the etreete, and (15,000 has been expendedon drains and ditches, 
which has had the effect of improving the sanitary condition of the town. Already 
many physicians have left Dawson for wantof practice, and no less than five private 
noitanums have closed on account of lack of patronage. 



The 10 per cent royalty on the season's ontpnt this last summer amounted to t700,O0O; 
last year the total collected was $400,000. The output this year is generally esti- 
mated at $16,000,0001 last year it was leas than $12,000,000. The introduction of 
steam thawere, steam hoists, and other time and )abot saving machinery on all the 



NORTH AMEBIOA: MEXICO. Ill 

creeks bte practically nehered in a new mb in the working of the mines and should 
produce astonishing reealts. As we are now in tel^raphic communication with the 
reet of the worldj capital la hat following on the heeu oi the prospector, and the out- 
look tor the coming seaaon ia most promisLng. 



The ezdfement caused by the reports of the phenomenal richneas of this new 
camp has not by any meaoB abated. Many will attempt to make the trip tbie winter 
down the river, which aeeme a fooihardy undertaking;, conaidering the aaogere to be 
encountered and the distance to be covered over the ice and snow. 

It is generally admitted, however, that after the river opens the route to Nome bv 
wayof Skagway, theDC«down the lakes and riveia past Dawson and on to St. Michael, 
is the most practical and safest. The spring floods drive the ice out of the Yukon 
River and away from the shore line between Bt. Michael and Cape Nome fully one 
month before tbe moving of the pack ice in the Berine Sea, which has to clear away 
before steamera can venture along the coast to Cape C^me. 

MEXICO.* 

The total imports in 1898-99, according to Consul-Genersl Barlow, 
of Mexico City, were $50,869,000, an increase of over $7,000,000 as 
compared with the previoua year. The exports were $64,946,000, also 
showing a gain. Imports from the United States were valued at 
$24,000,000;from the United Kingdom, at over $9,000,000; from Ger- 
many, at nearly $6,000,000; from Franoe, at about the same; from 
Spam, at oearly $3,000,000. Exports were distributed to the principal 
countries as follows; United States, $48,566,000; Germany, $1,885,000; 
France, $2,982,000; Great Britain, $6,610,000; Cuba, $2,465,000. 

Consul Eindrick, of Ciudad Juarez, says that the trade between the 
United States and Mexico has shown a gratifying increase during the 

?i8t year. The developments in minmg call for machinery, etc 
here were good sales for cattle and mineral ores. Other consular 
officers note the growth.of imports from the United States. Consul 
Canada, of Vers Cruz, says that immediately upon the occupation of 
Cuba by the Americans, Mexican exporters lost no time in shipping 
thousands of dollars worth of farm products, such as corn, beans, 
chickens, and cattle. Even now, he adds, scarcely a vessel leaves with- 
out hundreds of head of cattle for Cubim ports. 

The following extracts are from a British Foreign Office report (No. 
517, miscellaneous aeries): 

As shown by flgnres published in the trade report for 1698, the ii^orta from Great 
Britain in that year were 17{ per cent of Uie total imports into Mexico, which is 
about 1 per cent nnder the average for the past five years. Those from Fiance were 
12 per cent in the same year, ag^nst an average of 14 per cent; while Germany, 
whose commerce is extending considerably, sent 11^ per cent of tjie total merchan- 
dise. This amount was 1} per cent in excess of the average for the past five years. 

Mexico, whose steady progress, both commercial and seneia!, dnrinv the past 
twenty years has more than once been remarked upon, and whose ports nave been 
open to the traffic of all the world, is now a field for new enterprises. 

Industries, agricottnre, and even commerce are open for investment of capital, and 
there is do doubt that companiee properly managed by able men would yield as 
good a return as in any other country. 

All indnstriea, perhaps with the exceptdon of mining, arestill in their infancy, and 
the same, with certain modifications^ may be said of t^cultnre. 

life and proper^ are as secure as m London. 

* Flgnres given are in United States currency. 



byGoo'^lc 



112 COMMERCIAL RELATHmS. 

CKNTRAJ. AMb^RICA. 

IIItlTISII HONimitAM. 

Importe into Britigh Honduras, says Consul Aveiy, qf Belize, 
amounted in 1898 to $1,248,000, one-third of which came from Oreat 
Britain. Some $706,000 worth was imported from the United States, 
$18,000 from Germany, $5,000 from France, et^. The exports were 
valued at $1,283,000, Great Britain receiving $863,000; the United 
States, $214,327; Germany, $24,000; France, $96,000, etc. The pro- 
jected railway (see Advance Sheets of Consular Reports No. 663, Feb- 
ruary 26, 1900) will be an important factor in developing the resources 
of the colony. 

COSTA RICA. 

The imports in the fiacal year ended March 31, 1899, says Minister 
Merry, of San Jose, were valued at $4,258,000, and the exports at 
$5,659,000. Coffee represented over $4,000,000 of the exports. The 
United States supplied 44.80 per cent or the imports; England, 19.61 
per cent; Qermany, 15.61 per cent. In the first four months of 1899, 
the ratio of imports from the United States increased to 67.25 per cent, 
owing mainly to the improved facilities of steam transportation. The 
most importont imports from the United States consist of flour, 
machinery, oils, wire and wire fencing, iron pipe, and furniture. The 
importation of American cotton drilling and prints is also increasing 
rapidly. 

Of the coffee, 56 per cent went to England, 20 per cent to the United 
States, and 16 per cent to Germany. 

Mr. Merry adds: 

It must be remembered that mountainous T^ons in Central America are not har- 
ren, like the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada in the United Slates. The rtunfall 
ifl seneraUy heavy throughout Costa Rica. The mountaiiig are covered to the sum- 
mits with vegetation, and, except at the ttummits, with a eoil generally rich. There 
are running etreams in every direction, from which, owing to heavy grades, abun- 
dant electnc power can bedeveloped. Itisa beautiful country, and in iteelevBted 
reoioii has a healthy climate. The interior is specially adapted to the srowlh of 
coBee, which commands a much higher price in European marlteta than the Brazilian 
product The Atlantic littoTal is equally well adapted to the growth of bananas of 
an excellent gnality. These two articles are the principal products, the latter 
increaaing rapidly, while the present low price of coffee offere little inducement 
to an increase of production, although, if the landowner is free of mortgage, there is 
still a fair margin. 

Costa Rica needs a diversiflcation of her products, a point which is now engaging 
the attention of her government and aKriculturists. Ad excellent quality of cacao, 
India rubber, and all classes of tropical fruits for export can be added to the produc- 
tion, while the north weetern part or the republic is well adapted to the cattle industry, 
the republic not producing at this time the cattle it consumes. Angora goats mignt 
be profitably raised in the mountMns above the elevation suitable for cofiee growing. 
There are also valuable gold and copper mines in the interior of the repufilic, this 
development having but recently commenced with English and American capital. 

One adyanta^ that Costa Rica has over other Spanish- American republics is the 
fact that her soil is largely owned by small landowners, who make their homes tliere 
and, as small producers, are interested in a peaceable life. These people are Uie 
backbone of the countrv—induatrious. good citizens, averse to revolubons and politi- 
cal excitement. Consiaering the small area of the repubhc and the still smaller pop- 
ulation, relatively, Costa Bica has reason to congratulate herself upon her advance- 
ment. Itneeds only the commencement of the interoceanic canal to place her and her 
sister republic, Nicaragua (also a country of great natural resources) , on the hiaihway 
of the world's commerce. When that time arrives, both rppublica will rapidly and 
securely advance in the path of material welfare and prosperity. 



GENTBAL AMERICA: OUATEILALA AND HOITDUSAS. 



The imports in 1898, as already ehowii, were valued at $3,880,000 
and the exports at $i,871,000. In a report printed in Commercial 
Relatione, 1898, Consul-General Beaupre said that the imports came 
from the loUowingcountries: United btates, 33 per cent; Great Britain, 
21 per cent; Germany, 21 per cent; other countries, 25 per cenl. The 
following extracts are from reports submitted by Mr. ^aupre during 



The cream of the trade of Central American' countriee has been and a 
the hands of great exporting houeee — commiasion merchants — in Hamburg, London, 
and other centers, and theee houses have thousands of cuetomers in latin America; 
and because ot their ability to buy in enormous quantities— taking the whole prod- 
uct of certain factories — they can sell cheaper than the tndividiml manufacturer. 
Merchants here tell me that they have been able to buy California canned salmon 
cheaper in London than they could in San Francisco; and not only thie, but that 
they could buy a doKen cana if they desired. The same is true in other linee. A 
merchant told me the other day of buying some galvanized corrugated iron. He 
wanted a certain kind manuhctured in England, and he got it of a Hamburg Bnn 
much cheaper than he could get it of the maker, because the Hamburg firni had 
rec^ved a very large order from Brazil and included the Guatemala order with it 

Speaking of the financial depression caused by the fall in price of 
coffee, depreciation of silver, and political conditions, the consul-gen- 
eral says: 

These hard times will not continue; the causes which led to tbem are being reme- 
died, and the resources of the country are such that prosperity must: come again within 
a reasonable period. The building of the Northern Batlroad, which is in part con- 
structed and which will connect this capital with Puerto Barrios, on the Gulf ot 
Honduras, but four days' sail from New Orleans, is now practically assured, and will 
doubtless be completed by United States capital within tne next two ^^ears. When 
this is done, American merchants can well expect that this Republic will be a profit- 
able field for buonesB. 

HOmiUBAS. 

The total imports in 1898 were valued at $1,166,400, and the exports 
at $1,235,900. The countries chiefly participfttii^ in the trade were: 



Conntdc* 


Imporu. 


Exporta. 




IE 








^ 









Consul Johnston, of Utilla, reports a decrease in exports on account 
of atonuB which destroved many of the products. Shipments through 
that port in the first six months of 1899 were valued at $35,555, and 
consisted of bananas, cocoanuts, plantsdns, etc. Imports from the 
United States are increaaing. In the six months from Jantiarj to 
June, $75,000 worth of merumndise waa imported, and not more than 
10 per cent came from other countries. Fickles, jama, preserves, 
vinegar, white lead, linseed oil, candies, and some of the hardware is 
of European origin. 



Consul Donaldson, of Managua, eays that the total value of imports 

in 1898 was $2,654,200 and of exports, $1,389,575. The United States 

fiindBhed about 37 per cent of the imports; England, 31i per cent; Ger- 

H. Doc. 481, Pt 1 8 *-" 



114 CUHMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

many, 14i per cent; France, Hi- Some 30 per cent of the exports 
went to the United States, 24 per cent to England, 15 per cent to Ger- 
many, and about the same to France. Business is gradually improv- 
ing, says Ml'. Donaldson, though it is still below its normal condition. 
The United States receives 90 per cent of the rubber, hides, deerskins, 
gold, and lumber, and all the bananas and sugar shipped, but a very 
small percentage of the coffee. Our goods are winning their way in a 
manner that is remarkable, in view of the fact that less than 3 percent 
of the merchants of the country are Americans. The largest houses 
are German, and are particular to import everything they can from 
their own country. All kinds of tools, agricultural implements, tele- 
graphic and telephonic outfits, flour, wire, and kerosene are of Ameri- 
can origin. Over 50 per cent of the wines used in the country come 
from California. Drugs and patent medicines are largely from our 
country. Only American bicycles are seen, and the laborers demand, 
even at a higher price, a machete marked "American." 
The following extracts are from a British Foreign Office report: 

The increflse in trade with the tJnited States ib due to laiger quantities of provieionB 
and Buch articles ob petroleum, wire, l&mpB, lanterns, sewii^ machines, beer, rope, 
drugH, and hardware generallv. American barbed wire is preferred to the Englisb, 
being more pliable and leea likely to break, though the English wire coste a fraction 
leas. Of cheap cotton goods, 76 per cent comes from Great Britain; there is no com- 
petition of any consequence. Of heavier goods, such as ducks, drills, sheetings, 
greys, etc. . the United Statea producee as cheap and ae good an article, though not so 
advantageous on account of the awkward widths and set assortment of pieces and 

Kttems, which American firms say they can not alter. The trade with Giennany 
s remained about the same. All china and glass ware is imported from Germany. 
The trade in beer is about equally divided between Germanv and the United States. 
In regard to English and German articles, Germany may he said to have the pref- 
erence simply through cheapness, or, perhaps, more correctly speaking, through 
offering inferior quality of a similar appearance, but at a lower price than uie English 
^oods. In a country like this, the question of price in buyinganartdcle is of supreme 
importance, and if an enameled saucepan of low quality, lasting, we will aav, for sis 
months, can be bought at a fraction lower than a really good one that woula last five 
times as long, in nine cases out of ten the cheaper one sells in preference. 

SAXVAIWB. 

The following table, showing the commerce of the principal coun- 
tries with SalviSor in 1898, has been compUed from the official returns 
of the countries named: 



CouMiies. 


Import* 
Baly»dor. 


Salvwlnr. 


G IBriUl 


7*8,671 


IUg.G8S 









German and French returns do not specify Salvador. The total 
trade of the country in 1896 — the latest year for which figures are 
available— was $5,340,400, of which imports represented C.,660,400 
and exports 13,690,000. 



byGoO'^lc 



auerioa: bbitish west dtdixs. 115 

WEST ITaJIEH. 

BBITISH WSST INDIES. 

Bahaimaa. — There has been a satisfactory increase of trade with the 
United States during the past year, says Consul McLain, of Nassau, 
iniporta in 1898 amounting to $831,000 out of a total of $1,159,000. 
Importations of beer increased 50 per cent; butter, 10 per cent; corn 
meal and hominy, 20 per cent; coal, 200 per cent; flour, 18 per cent; 
lard, 15 per cent; lumber and shingles, 300 per cent; salted meats, 10 
per cent, etc. Exports to the United States were valued at $547,000. 
The totiu exports were $850, 900. The gratifying condition of busi- 
ness is due to the frequency of steam communication, and to the fact 
that certain enterprising American firms have studied the market. 
The trade during the mcaX year 1898-99, the consul estimates, was 
$3,200,000. 

^otwhAm.— Vice -Consul St. Hill reports encouraging trade condi- 
tions. The imports in 1898 were $5,156,771, of which the United 
States sent $1,959,827; expoi"ts amounted to $3,745,134, and over 
$2,000,000 went to the United States. Comparative tables are sub- 
mitted, showing that Great Britain has the larg'est part of the trade in 
cotton, linen, silk, and woolen manufactures, dyestuffs, hats, and lace 
and articles thereof. There is an opportunity to extend our commerce 
in many lines. Excepting a small supply of canned tomatoes and corn 
American canned goods are not on sale, nor are American hats, cloth- 
ing, or haberdashery to be found. 

5e»v«.T«fa.— According to a report by Consul Green, of Hamilton, 
exports from Bermuda in 1898 were valued at $654,308, of which $510,- 
237 went to the United States, $19,665 to Great Britain, $10,404 to 
Canada, and $14,000 to the British West Indies. The imports, totaling 
$1,710,443, came mainly from the following countries; United States, 
$999,131; Great Britain, $511,143; Canada, $148,968; British West 
Indies, $1,250. Imports from the United States consist largely of 
provisions, animals, etc. Thirty -four thousand dollars' worth of bicy- 
cles were imported during the year, $30,000 worth of cotton goo(fc, 
$38,000 of manufactured leather, and $19,000 worth of lumber. 

Jamaica. — The imports of the fiscal year 1898, savs Commercial 
Agent Snyder, of Port Antonio, were $925,000 leas tnan in the pre- 
ceding year, and exports also fell off over $100,000. Of the total 
imports, $8,000,000, the United States furnished 35.26 per cent and 
of the exports — some $7,000,000 — it took 62.34 per cent. Fruits repre- 
sent 44 per cent of the exports of the country, and nearly all of these 
go to the United States. America supplies over 66 per cent of the 
foodstuffs. Mr. Snyder notes that a remunerative trade has been 
established with Cul^ 

Leeioa/rd Idamds.^Cousol Hunt, of Antigua, reports that the im- 
wjrta in 1898 were $415,770, of which $183,029 came from the United 
Kingdom and $181,440 from the United States. The exports to the 
United Slates were valued at $384,544; the total for 1898 is not avail- 
able; in 1897 the figures were $562,000. Although there la a slight 
falling off in imports from the United States, says Mr. Hunt, it will 
be seen, ou comparison with the returns from other countries, that the 
United States more than held its own, and under normal conditions 
the year would have been a banner one in the records of American 
trade. The depression in the si^;ar industry has influenced commerce 
in all branches. 



OOHUEBCIAL BELATIONS. 



Imports from Cuba into the United States in 1899, according to 
Treasury returns, were »29,619,750; exports to Cuba, »24,861,261. 

The following exti-acta from the report to the War Department of 
Major-General Brooke, military governor of Cuba, October, 1899, 
show present economic conditions: 

The civil departmentH are now nearly complete in all tfae provincea, and the af&dn 
of Cuba may be eaid to be conducted through the channels of civil admlniatratioD, 
although under military control," except the department of cuetoma, which ie con- 
ducted according to the ayatem preecribed by the Secretary of War. 

In reaching this ata^ on the highway o[ progress toward the establishment of 
Rovemment tlirough civil channels, many obetaclea have been overcome, the most 
eerioue being the natural dietruet of the people, which was Ixim and nurtured under 
the OTatem of the preceding government, and was particularly the effect of the wars 
whicn these people waged in their etforta to improve their condition. It is believed 
that this distrust haa given way to confidence in the minds of a majority of the peo- 
ple, and ttiat they are generally beginning to eee that the government, as adminis- 
tered by the United States, is for them and for their benefit. 

It is proper at this time to apeak of the condition of the people and the country as 
it eiiated at the time of the relinquishment of sovereignty by Spain. A laive num- 
ber of the people were found tobeactuallyatarving. Efforts were immediately' made 
to supply food, which the War Department sent, all told 5,493,500 Cuban rations, in 
addition to the 1,000,000 rations distributed by Mr. Gould, and theee were sent into 
the country and distributed under the direction of the commanding generals of 
departmenbt, through such agencies as they established, white in the cibea the dis- 
tribution was (tenerally conducted bv an officer of the Army. The result of this 
action was the immediate lowering ofthe death rate, the restoration to health of the 
sick, and a general change for the better was soon apparent. Medicines were also 
supplied tor the sick, with most beneficial results. Employment was given to those 
who could work, and they were paid weekly, so that they might have money to buy 
food. In fact, no effort was spared to relieve the temble condition in which so 
many thousand people were found. • • • 

Turning to the present conditions, we have in view such a change that the pri^reas 
seems incredible. A great part of the improvement dates from the month of May, 
when the muster out of the Cuban army removed a great source of distrust The 
extent to which have tieen carried the cultivation of the fields, the reconstruction of 

'a. the matter of 

Kb regards agricultural progres in Santa Clara, it appears that the ^ht months' 
drought has caused scarcity of food, but not misery. In the tobacco and sugar-cane 
districts the work of reconstruction is proceeding so rapidly as to promise prosperity 
in the near future, but in Uie districts devoted to cattle raising almost nothing has 
been accompliahed. The province of Matanzas is the most backward in the restora- 
tion of agriculture, as the condition of the si:^ar estates and the want of the neces- 
sary capital make progress very slow. The province of Habana has progressed the 
most of all, on account of its proximity to the center of wealth of the island and to 
the Beat of government, which causes a feeling of confidence which attracts capital. 
The province of Finar del Rio has changed nom a Btal« of hopeless desolation to 
one of unexpected proeperity. The tobacco lands of the Vuelta Abajo region are 
being thoroughly exploited, and the rapidity of the crops and high prices for the 
leaf aSect directly the promotion of commerce and the reconstruction of the towns. 

As to the economic condition of the municipalities of the western provinces, on the 
1st of January it was one of complete bankruptey. Every possible means of taxation 
had been used and exhausted, bat, on account of the corrupt and centralized meth- 
ods, little benefit had ever been derived therefrom by the communities. It is still 
impossible for them to fulfill their obligationa without aseietance from the State, but 
if the system be modified so as to allow the municipaUtiee greater liberty of action 
the greater part will be able to meet their expenses with their own resources. In 
the province of Puerto Principe I understand that breeding cattie are being intro- 

'As the War Department has cbaroe of the government of Cuba and Puerto Rico, 
it supniiea all recent statistics of trade. For details of the trade of for^gn countriee 
with tne islands, see p. 29. 



byGoO'^lc 



AHESIOA: CUBA. 



P)ant«rB&ndsm«ltfarmen in the tobacco-growing diBtricte are rapidly recovering 
from their forlorn condiUoni the qnick-growmg crop and the remunerative prices 
have enabled them to restore, in a measure, the loet cattle, mulee, and implements 
necesBary to the farmers. There ie also a dedre to nee labor-saving devicee, vhich 
are now D^g elowlf introdDced, 

In the cane-growing districts the progress is slower. 

The larpe capital neceesary to the economical production of cane sugar precluaes 
the small tarmers from eaterinK thia field, at present at leaat, though it is possible 
that in the future small farmers will grow sujgar cane in those sections where the soil 
is bvorable and sell it to the " Centnus." Tne quick returns from the tobacco and 
food cropa will, it is believed, deter many from entering upon cane growing. As 
soon as tlte favorable sites for fniit growing are occupied there will be found lar^ 
profits in the foreign trade produced from this source. The droi^ht which has pre- 
vailed this summer has been a sad drawback to the people; their small crops have 
lar^y failed; the cane crop has been affected by it, particularly in the new cane, 
which has, it is reported, not been successful. Within a few days past there have 
be«] nuns, but not in all parta. Those parta where the rains feU have been much 
benefited, though they came too late to save the early crops of cam and vc^tablee, 
but it is now thought that the winter crops give promise for an abundance. 

The important subject of schools ia now approaching a solution. The present sya- 
tem will be improved upon, but it will require time to develop fully a good school 
system throughout the island. There are no schoolhouses and under present con- 
(Utions there can be none built for some lime to come. It is hoped that a manual- 
training school wilt be opened as soon as certain repairs and changes can be made in 
the Bpaniah barracks at Santiago de las Vegas, a short distance south of Habana, in 
which about 600 of both sexes can receive instruction at one time. This form of 
instruction is more important under the conditions found to exist than the ordinary 
instructions given in tne other schools. As conditions improve an opportunity can 
be given to increase the number of these schools, and by this means introduce 
modem methods more rapidly than by other systems. 

Id his report to the War Department dated September 19, 1899, 
Geo. Fitzhugh Lee, commanding the provincee of Habana and Pinar 
del Rio, Bays: 

Of tbe Cuban rural population leas than 20 per cent were able to read and write, 
leeemUitig children awaking the Aist time to the realities of life. They were in 
the main obedient, docile, quiet, and inoffensive, and anxious to adapt themselves 
as soon as possible to the new conditions which confronted them. The Cuban sol- 
disra, black and white, who had been in the fields and woods for four years defying 
the Spanish banner, atill kept their ^uns and were raaseitu; around tne cities and 
towns, producing more or less unrest in the public mind with the fear that many of 
them, unaccustomed to work so long, would be transformed into brigands and not 
become peaceful, law-abiding citizens. In eight months wonderful progren has been 
made. The arras of the Cuban soldiers have been stacked and tney have quietly 
mnmed peaceful vocations. Brigandage, which partially flourished for a time, has 
been stomped oul^ tillage everywhere ti as Kreatlv increased, many houses rebuilt, 
many huts constructed, fences are bein^ built, ana more and more [arming lands are 
gnduaUy beiiu taken up, and municipalities reorganized with new officers repre- 
BBnting uie wishes of tbe majori^ of the inhabitants. Municipal police have tx^n 
wpoioted whoare uniformed and under thechargeof, inmost cases, efficient officers. 

The debts of the rounicipatities in some cases have increased, because to the old 
debt which accumulated under Spanish rule have been added new obligations. It is 
proposed, however, to pay all the indebtedness of said municipalities as rapidly as 
poadble from the central insular treasury. The value of property within these 
respective mnnidpalitiee, while there are no figures to show it, has largely increased 
in consequence of^ the universal confidence in the future prosperity of the island. 
In the province of Elabana, one of thetwoprovincesinmydeparijuent, from Decem- 
ber 31, 18S8, to July 31, 1899, a period of seven months, the number of public 
sdioola has increased by lonrteen, a small increase, because the work of rebuilding 
ocboolbonses where destroyed, repairing old ones, and appointing teachers has been 
more pc lesa tedious and difilcalt. There are now in this province 4,771 children 
~"~~''"gBchool, beingan increase of 2,%8 in the period mentioned. Intbeeame 



118 OOUCEBOIAL RELATIONS. 

Seriod 434 new houses have been constructed in the rural dktiicts. On the let of 
utuary there were 7,188 b^s"™ '" tl"H province. On the 31st of July last there 
were only 619, being a decrease of 6,070. Seven months ago there were 16,292 head 
of live stock in this province. On July 31 there were 52,102, bein^au increase of 
35,810. It must be home in mind that these fibres relate to the province of Habana, 
in which the city of Habana and the adjoining Buburbe are not included, tboogh 
properly belonging lo the province of Habana. A new department, designated as 
the department of Haliaiia, embmcing the city and ouburbe, was created, and is not 
under my command. 

The province of Pinar del Rio, just west of the province of Habana and the most 
western province in the island, belonging also to my department, is probably the 
richest and most progressive part of the wnole inland. A remarkable improvement 
has taken place m the pecuniary condition of the people already. The unrivaled 

Suality of the tobacco rsjeed there and the high prices which have been obtained 
)r the same is the principal source of wealth in this province. Between the tBoge 
of mountains running from the eastern section to the western and the ocean on the 
north side there are escellent sugar ss well as tobacco lands. The munici pah ties in 
this province are also largely in debt, because of the universal poverty of the people 
at the time of the American occupation and the difficulty of coUectint the necessary 
taxes to support them; but these municipalities will grow more ana more self-sup- 
porting, and their debts and back obligations will be paid, as in the case of the 
province of Habana, from the central treasury. Pinar del Rio, a prosperous, law- 
abiding community, is eminently a rural province, and, with one exception, has 
never asked for distribution of public rations, with which the other provinces in tiie 
island have been so largely supplied. The demand, however, for these rations in 
my department has greatly deci^aaed. During the month of July, in both provinces, 
I issued 15C,380 rations to the destitute; in the following month of August only 
28,500, which shows there has been a remarkable improvement in the general con- 
dition of the people. 

More mules aregradually being employed for agricultural purposes and lees oxen 
than formerly. The Cubans are naturally very slow in their movements; hence the 
gait of oxen is more to their taste than tiie swifter walk of the mule. These people 
walk and dance in slow time, but the introduction after a while of sulky plowif 
drawn by mules, with a seat upon which they can ride, will greatly increase a^- 
cultnral production; in fact, a pair of large mules to an American plow will easily 
do the work of three or four pairs of oxen, and stand the climate letter. Steam 
plows could be used upon the long expanse of flat lands in Cuba with great effect 

Geo. Leonard Wood, in a report dated September 20, 1899, says, in 
part: 
Industries of all kinds are sprin^ng up. New sugar plantations are being pn>- 

iectcd; hospitals and charitable institutions are being regularly supplied, and all are 
uurly well equipped with necessary articles. The death rate amongthe native popu- 
lation is very much lower than in former years. The people in the towns are quiet 
and orderly, with the exception of a few editorial writers, who manage to keep up a 
certain small amount of excitement, just enough to ^ve the papers in question a fair 
sale. The people arc all anxious to work. Tlie present currency is American cur- 
rency. A condition of good order exists in the rural districts. The small planters 
are all out on their forms, and a condition of security and good order prevails. The 
issue of rations has been practically stopped, and we have few or almost no applica- 
tions for food. In the province of Santiago the issue of rations, except to hospitals 
and charitable institutions^ is pra<!tically at an end. In the province of I^ierto 
Principe the number of rations oeing issued is rapidly diminishing. The greatest of 
our needs now is a thorough reform, of the judiciary and in the procedure. I do not 
mean an entire uprooting of the land, but a radical modification, especially in the 
methods of criminal proMdure. The present judiciary of this province is not doing 
efficient work. Evidences of indifference, if not corruption, are altogether too 
numerous. Prosecuting officers are not energetic, as evidenc^ by prisons full of 
untried cases. The conduct of the judiciary, taken as a whole during the past six 
months, has been of such character as to warrant grave doubts arimuK in the minds 
of the people as to the wisdom of giving testimony gainst criminals and outlaws, 
whom they find soon turned loose upon them again and in a position to take ven- 
^nce on those who have testiQed sgainst them. There is still too much tendency 
in municipal administration toward the pomp and ceremony of other days. 

The immediate establishment of a good school system is unperative. The present 
system is inefficient and almost worthless. The teacheis are not teachers in the sense 
in which we employ the term. There is not a scboolhouse in the department. 3otb 



ahzbioa: daitebh west indies. 119 

children and their parenta &re anzionB to have English tangbt hy oompetoit teach- 

era, and I atrongly recommand the immediate establishment of an efficient school 
BVgtem based on the school Byetem of the States of New York, Haesachusette, or Ohio. 
Any of these systems would be acceptable here and would give splendid result& 

There ia no starvation in the department at present. The people are kindly di»- 
poaed toward the Americans. Many of the people poe^eesing property are annexa- 
tionists; this is also true of the Spanish as a class. Ajuerican officers and soldiers can 
go anywhera without being molested, and always receive uniformly kind and cour- 
teous treatment Manifestations of hostility to our occupation are limited almost 
solely to the press in certain large towns, which find it necesary to serve up exciting 
and incendiary articles in order to maintain a large circulation. Taken as a whole, I 
think the condition of the people is comfortable, and there need be no anxiety about 
their physical wants or welfare. 

The recent payment of the Cuban army has been of great as^Btance to the people, 
and as a resnJt many work cattle are bein^ imported and agricultural implementa 

C chased. In a recent ride across the province I found everyone at work aod much 
d being plowed. The output of tobacco this year is about four times what it was 
laet year, and the chances are that next year the output will nearly equal that of the 
yeare before the war. The people, generally speaking, look happy and contented, 
and although very poor, seem to be well fed. They are most o! them living in 
tfiatched houses built on the sitee of tb^ former homes. Houses are being built in 
many of the destroyed towns, and everythiug points to a slow but steady return to 
normal conditions. 

DANISH WBST INDISS. 

The trade of the Danish Weat Indies amounts to about {1,796,000. 
The imports for the fiscal year 1898 were {1,142,000, and tiie exports 
(estimated from the statements of trade of Great Britain, Gennanj, 
France, Denmark, and the United States with the inlands) amounted to 
some $654,000. Exports consist chiefly of sugar, bay rum, shells, eto. 
Consul Van Home, of St. Thomas, gives the imports into that port in 
the fiscal year 1899 at $748,000, and Consular Agent Blackwood gives 
the imports of Christiansted at $403,000. Exports from the latter 
port are stated at $216,000. 

DUTCH WBSfT INDIES. 

The colony has been suffering unprecedented business depression 
during the past year, savs Consul Cheney, of Curasao. The revolution 
in Venezuela, of which Cura?ao is practically a commercial dependency, 
has seriously crippled trade. Imports are valued at about $1,000,000, 
and exports amount to some $1,600,000. A grocery has been opened 
by an American citizen, making a specialty of canned goods, milk, 
butter, cheese, etc., of United States origm. The enterprise, Mr. 
Cheney says, would be a success if the merchant could get orders from 
home firms filled with less delay, 

A British Foreign Office report (annual series. No. 2244) supplies 
further details, as follows : 

The agricultural resources are very few, consequently the demand for farm imple- 
ments will never be large. Hoes and shovels are imported from Great Britain; axes, 
wind mills, terbed wire, and nmls from the United States. The stagnation of import 
and the depression of export trade is a direct consequence of the high tariff on im- 
ports and excessive ex^se duty on all strong drinks, wines, and beers. 



Consul Ayme, of Guadeloupe, says that the imports in 1898 were 
variously estimated at $2,987,000 and $8,720,000. The exports, he 
thinks, may be stated at$3,500,000. France has the greater partof the 



120 



COMMERCIAL KELATI0N8. 



trade, but imports from England were about $350,000, conapriaing 
chiefly galvanized-iron roofing, textiles, matches, and 90a|). As Eng- 
land has no advantage over the United States as to dutieB, says the 
consul, we ought to have a share of this trade. 

The imports of Martinique in 1889 were $5,400,900, and the exports 
$5,320,600. 

HAITI. 

The financial distress of the island, savs Vice-Consul-General Ter- 
res, continues to augment on account of the depression in the trade in 
coffee, which is the chief product for exportation. Impoi-ts are fully 
one-third less than last year, being $3,942,000, while exports are 
valued at $12,747,000, or $1,500,000 less than in the previous year. 
The United States sent $2,600,000 worth of the imports; France, 
$490,000; England, $325,000; Germany, $272,0<K), etc. 

Consul Livingston, of Cape Haitien, attributes the industrial 
depression also to the disordered condition of the finances, the heavy 
export duty on staple products, and the want of capital to develop the 
natural resources of the country. Capital invested in Haiti, he 
thinks, ought not only to yield a handsome profit, but if coupled with 
the introduction of modern methods and appliances, would create a 
vast market for ^fricultural and mining implements, railway and elec- 
trical supplies, machinery, and general manufactures. 

PUBRTO RICO.> 

The following figures, showing the imports and exports of the princi- 
pal porta of Puerto Rico for the five months ending August, 1899, are 
taken from the report to the War Department of Bri^idier-General 
Davis, October 13, 1899: 



Countrle«. 


impon. 


Expom. 


CO«D«i«. 


imporu. 


Ziporta. 




1,010,924 

■iooo 

12,149 
b.bSL 

HB,e04 


910, m 

TJ9.006 

132; 617 
1,B63 
17.738 

^^ 

u:728 


St ThomM 


*s,m8 














211. 68S 




























































4,4n),«8e 











In the same report, statistics are submitted showing that the quanti- 
ties of the three principal products — sugar, coffee, and towicco— 
exported in 1897, were: Sugar, 126,827,472 pounds; coffee, 23,504,999 
pounds; tobacco, 6,255,953 pounds. 

The real estate property in the island is classified as follows: 

Beeidencea 31,866 

8toT«hou§e8 1,043 

Sngtu' establiBbmenta 362 

Ccfiee eetablishniente 875 

Tobacco eetabliBhmente 14 

Declar<»l valuation 



Total 48,141 



' Soe footnote, p.116. 



o.Goo'^lc 



KOttTH AltXmCA: PVB&ro SIOO AND SANTO DOMlNOO. l2l 

The report of the United Statea Insular Commission, made in June, 
1899, has the following: 

While there in a great amotint of wealth in the island, and in many places evidences 
of great prosperity, rich plantatjons, and promise of a n«at future lOr Puerto Rico, 
there is also great poverty and ignorance. Throughout the interior of the island the 
people ore poor and their homes are of the poorest possible character, consisting 
almost altogether of "shacks" constructed of^the palm and covered with a straw 
thatch or palm leavu. 

The people are very industrious and willing to work, if given an opportnnity, and 
in every instance those employing them apeak in terms of commendation of them as 
workmen. 

There is no reliable record of the public lands to be found in any of the offices in 
Puerto Bico. We made diligent inquiry, and the secretary of finance promised us the 
best information he could procure, which, he says, is made np from answers to bis 
inqniriee of the alcaldes as to what lands are commonly regarded in their districts as 
public and which are not claimed by anyone. But we have not yet received the 
resultof his inquiries, but when it comes it can be seen from the nature of it that it will 
poeseee little value. 

We believe, from the best estimates we could obtain, that there are about 60,000 
acres of public lands in Puerto lUco. We therefore rec^immend that a full and com- 
plete survey be made of all the public or unsold lands on the istand. This may 
mvolve the survey of some lands sold to ascert^n how far they have infringed upon 
the public domain. 

A survey of the whole island ought to be made, sectionixing the lands so that 
boundaries may be deflnitelv ascertained, after the plan of the United States, thus 
miakinc short descriptions ana more certain data as to boundaries. But this is too great 
an undertf^dng to be begun now, and it can well await more pressing reforms. 

We would ftwther recommend thattheproceedsof these lands, when sold or leased, 
be used for the benefit of the public schools of the island. 

V^etables of all kinds known to our climate grow here in abundance — tomatoee, 
lettuce, onions, cabbage, pumpkins, radishes, melons, pease, beans, sweet potatoes, 
and yams. Irish potatoes are not a success here. We found no plums, cherries, or 
grapes. It would-seem, however, that there would be no difficulty in growing grapes 
to great perfection, but so far the^ have not been tried. Our indian com is raised 
there with some success, and while the ears are small, that is made op by the fact 
that two and even three crops can be grown yearly on the sajne ^und. This can be 
grown either in the valleys or on the nillsides; wo found it growmg clear up on the 
ddas of the mountains, 1,500 feet above the sea. 

No wheat ia grown on the island. At present all flour is imported. It is claimed 
that Spain prohibited its growth on the island, butthatit can be profitably cultivated 
here. Neither oats nor barley are cultivated here, but at lebst the latter ought be 
sncccafully grown. 

The native graaaes grow luxuriantly wherever an opportunity offers, from the lowest 
valley te the highest mountain top, and afiord excellent pasture for stock everywhere 
all Uie months of the year. They make no hay, as we understand it here, but cut it 
with sickles or tfae machete and tie it in small bundles, pack it on ponies to the 
dties, and sell it while it is stall green. 

The cattle graung in large numbers on the pastures are found all over the island, 
and are mostly bi very good condition, making excellent beef. Ho^ are raised to a 
limited extmt, but are of poor breeds, being of the old "razor-hack variety. They 
we fed mainly from the nuts grown on the royal palm trees. 

Horses are plentiful, but ore of the size known by us as ponies. They are small, 
and used only to ride and as pack ponies and in carriages. The hard work of hauling 
loada and plowing the land is done with oxen, yoked in the Spanish fashion, by tying 
theyoke to the horns, and they are guided with a whip or "gad." 

The wagons are mostly two-wheeled carts with large, wooden axles. 

There seems to be considerable deposits of iron and copper on the island. In 
some places these are being developed with good prospects ot proving piying invest- 
ments. Traces of gold and silver are also found in the mountains, but up to date 
' ~ has not developed any considerable quantities of these more precious 

SAITTO IKIMTNGO (IWMIinCAK RBPUBIJC). 

Cousul-General Maxwell reporte an improvement in commerce and 
industries during the last year. He estimates the imports in the 



ISS OOHUEBOIAL RELATIONS. 

fiscal rear 1898-99 as $1,029,356, of which $561,983 came from tlie 
Unitea States, $444,321 from Europe, and the rest from other coun- 
tries. The United States, he says, still leads Europe and all other 
countries combined in her exports to Santo Domingo. Nevertheless, 
there is a falling off in our tnide, due probably to the reluctance of 
our merchants to sell on credit The cultivation of sugar is the prin- 
cipal industry, and American capital controls the plantations to a 
large extent The output for the year 1898-99 was in excess of that of 
any previous season. 



byGoO'^lc 



SOUTH AMERICA. 

ABGENTINB BEPUBLIC. 



CoDBuI Mayer, of Bueoos Ayres, divides the trade ii 
the chief countries aa follows : 



























GOODUlM. 


ImportB. 


EiporU. 


OnmtriaL 


Importa. 


Exporta. 


normon* 


n2,&Tl,ll6 
9.M4.m 
6,012.116 
8,BW.O0 


387,998 


United BUUs 


■11,139,066 

Si 


sa-s 








»;s«i,K8 









The imports from the United States in the first nine months of 1899 
were valued at $10,800,826, showing a noteworthy gain up to that period 
of the year. "There is no reason, ' says the consul, " why the United 
States should not supply the Argentine Republic with articles which 
are now imported from France, England, and Germany; our goods 
have made a favorable impression upon the people of the country," 
"Wherever our manufactures are intelligently introduced by a resident 
agent," says Consul Ayers, of Hosario, " there is no qnestdou of our 
commercial success, even handicapped as we are by the absence of 
our own shipping and our own banking houses." 

A correspondent writes to the British Trade Journal, of London, in 
regard to theUnited States trade competition in the Argentine Republic: 

American competition ieverv keen. There areanumber of American houaee here 
which Ao a large bumneee ana are very much in evidence by their enei^etic tad 
enterpriaiti^ methods. Some of these houaee sell on commision on a large scale, in 
the followmg manner: They have a connection with a New York house of good 
standing, through whom they make transactions. The New York house genOTilly 
being influeolaa] can obtain goods on credit, and Hsmplea of theee are sent to the 
Biienue Ayree house; or, if the articles ore not too bulky, a stock is sent on consign- 
ment The Buenos Ayres house has large showrooms, where a regular museum of 
American articles is exhibited, such as safes, a^cultural implementa and machinery 
of every description, bicyciee, and a great vanety of those mgenioua inventions for 
which onr trans-Atlantic cousins are &mou8. The greater part of these articles are 
not for sale, but are merely samples sent on exhibition, and from these local dealers 
place their order?. The advantages of this system are that it brings to the notice of 
fhe dealets a tai^ variety of goods which would never be sold in the ordinary way. 
It has its disadvuitages atso, as prices are much enhanced, owing to the number of 
""' IS that have to be paid before the goods Teach the conimmet. 



The imports in 1897 were stated at $11,000,000 and the exports at 
$10,400,000. No more recent statistacs of the complete trade are 
available. Vice-Consul ZaUee, of La Paz, sends tables of the imports 



124 COXKEBCIAL BBLATI0K8. 

through the custom-houses of Tupiza, Uj^nt, Puerto Suarez, Mol- 
lendo, aud Torija in 189g-99, the totals of which may be estimated at 
»1,796,481. 

United States exports to Bolivia, according to Treasury figures, 
were $86,000 in 1898 and $27^ in 1899. There have been no imports 
into the United States from Bolivia since 1893, when they were valued 
at 96,400. 

Under the caption "Alostmarket" the Consular Journal and Greater 
Britain, of London, discusses commercial conditions in Bolivia and 
the pi-eponderance of German products in the markets of that coun- 
try. Four years a,go, says the article, the German exports to Bolivia 
were unimportant compared with the British; but Germany, by sup- 
plying cheap, showy articles, has now the largest share of tne trade. 
In the seardn for new markets the British have entirely let slip this 
South American country. The following extracts are taken from an 
interview with the Bolivian consul in London: 

Bolivia ie veiy rich in gold, eilver, lead, and copper. A private oompanj, largely 
composed of Scotchmen, with a capital of £30,000, is being completed to develop the 
alluvial gold depoeita of the Pilaya River. There ia an excellent opening for immi- 
grants. In theplunofBeni are over 2,000,000 head of cattle, worth from ISe. to 20b. 
each. India rubber is the chief product of the country. England takes nearly all 
of it and the United States a Uttie. The inland nulwaye are limited; the traffic is 
by mulee and bai;gee. The nine Bteamere naed for river trafSc were all made in 
xWland; two more are now going out The climate, owing to the hills, is healthy 

The population of Bolivia is 2,000^000— one-third whites. The Government is 
stable ana enlightened; lawa and tanffs are liberal. Cotton goode pay 30 per cent 
coetomBduty ad valorem on importation; eilkB and read y-m&de clothing, 35 per cent; 
drusa, 30 per cant; hollow ware. 25 per cenL Machinery is admitted free. Goods 
reach the country through Brazil or via Antofagaata, Chile. 

The same issue of the Board of Trade Journal quotes from a For- 
eign Office report the statement that a new port was opened at the 
beginning of this year by the Bolivian Republic on one of the prin- 
ciral tributaries of the Amazon River. The port is named Puerto 
Alonzo, is situated on the River Acre, or Aquiry, one of the head 
waters of the River Funis, and will have some importance as the out- 
let of a district rich in rubber. Formerly, the only port where 
Bolivian produce could be shipped was Villa Bella, on the Madeira, 
but this nver offers many obstructions to navigation. On the other 
hand, the rivers Purus and Acre are easily navigated at high water. 



Imports into Brazil in 1898 were valued at $105,393,000, and exports 
at $124,770,000. Imports from the United Stat«8 in 1897 (latest offi- 
cial returns available) amounted to $10,101,000; fi'om Great Britain, 
$36,392,000; from Germany, $11 114,000; from France, $11,019,000; 
from Spain, $3,245,000; from Italy, $10,943,000; from Belgium, 
$8,046,000, etc. The exports were: Belgium, $8,934,000; Spain, 
$1,271,000; Germany, $14,047,000; United States, $8,321,000; France, 
$22,999,000; Italy, $3^64,000; United Kingdom, $13,984,000. 

Consul Fumiss, of Bahia, saya that there is a j>roiect for the estab- 
lishment of a United States bank, with branches, in Brazil. This will 
remove the discrimination against our currency. Considerable school 
furniture, he notes, has been sold by the United States to that district 



SOUTH amebioa: chilb and oolombia. 



125 



durine the Tear. A larger number of maps and edncationRl charts 
would be sold if printed in Portuguese or French. There i» a good 
field in the line of school supplies. 

Consul Keoneday, of Para, speaks of the strong hold that American 
manufactures have gained is the States of Para and the Amazonaa 
within the past two years. Business in northern Brazil is in a pros- 
perous condition, and the cities of Para and Manaos are thriving. 
Our flour is popular and our canned goods are finding a market. 
Sales of hams, bacon, and lard are increasing; drugs are gaining a 
foothold, and the demand for typewriters and sewing machines is 
growing. 

CHIXiE. 

Consul Caples, of Valparaiso, gives the value of the imports in 1898 
as $37,325,000 and of the exportet as $61,815,000. The trade with Uie 
chief countries was: 



Countrtet 


Importa. 


Kiport*. 




, 




"!«»! 






J3;g 











- There is a notable decrease in the imports (some $18,000,000) aa 
compared with the former year, and an increase in exports of 
$11,400,000. 

COIiOUBIA. 

Imports and exports of Colombia in 1897 were $16,300,000 and 
$12,800,000, respectively. The Government compiles retumsof gene- 
ral toade, says Vice-Consul Cobbs, of Colon, only once in every two 
years, and those for 1898 are not yet complete. Vice-Consul-General 
Gudger, of Panama, notes the popularity of American goods in that 
market. "For such articles as bats, shoes, machinery, tools, cotton 
goods, etc.," he says, "there is a decided preference in fevor of 
united States makes." 

The following, compiled from the returns of the countries named, 
shows the tra(fe of the United States, Great Britain, Germany, and 
Belgium with Colombia in 1898: 



o,™... 


ImporU. 


Export! 






tz^ 















"Exports in 1898," says Conaul-General De Leon, of Guayaquil, 
"were valued at $7,100,000 and imports at $4,900,000. France took 
nearly one-third of the exports, Germany and England about $1,300,000 
each, and the United Slates some $1,100,000. England sent $1,200,000 



126 OOMHEBCIAL RELATIONS. 

worth of the imports; the United States, 11,300,000; France, ^70,000 ; 
Germany, $490,000, et«. While the total imports in 1898 decreased 
36 per cent," continues Mr. De Leon, " the United States increased its 
trade 12 per cent, and from third place in 1897 advanced to first in 
1898. Despite this, our trade in cotton and woolen textiles is almost 
nil." 

The year was marked, among other events, by the establishment of 
the gold standard and by the ratification of the contract with an Ameri- 
can and English syndicate for the building of the Guayaquil-Quito 
R^lroad. Work is now in progress on this enterprise. 

FAXiKLAND ISLANDS. 

"Imports in 1898," says Consul Rowen, of Port Stanley, *'were 
$325,460 and exports $15,052. The value of United States trade is 
estimated to be from $10,000 to $12,000 annually. None is transacted 
direct. Commercial returns reveal an increase of 20 per cent in the 
year, due to the growth in population and material I'esources. The 
building of the naval works has much increased the purchasing power 
of the people." 



^ri^wA.— Imports in the fiscal year 1898-99 were $6,582,000, of 
which England sent $3,658,000, the United States $1,830,000, British 
North America $277,435, etc. Exports were valued at $8,523,000, the 
chief countries that participated ia the trade i)cing England, $3,924,000, 
United States, $4,073,000, British North America, $34,000, British West 
Indies, $74,000, and Dutch Guiana, $173,000. "The increase in United 
States trade," says Consul Moulton, of Demerara, "continues. The 
market seems assured for our produce, though not susceptible of great 
development. If anything were nefeded to clinch this trade and pave 
the way to closer business relations in other lines, the reciproc^ity 
treaty recently entered into will have that tendency. We are making 
headway in cotton and linen textiles, iK>ots and shoes, and bicycles." 

ZWcA.— Of the total imports in 1898, valued at $2,029,000, the United 
States sent$4O9,0OO worth, Holland $1,170,000, and England $161,000. 
The exports went princimlly to the United States, $1,115,000; Hol- 
land, $621,000; England, «233,000; the total bein^ $2,084,000. "The 
class of goods required here," says Mr. Moulton, ' ' is the same as in Brit- 
ish Guiana and the British West Indies. The people subsist almost 
entirely upon our foodstuffs, but import practically everything else 
from some European country. Traveling i^ents should visit the colony 
frequentljf , ascertain who La financially responsible, and keep in touch 
with the importers and consignees. Trade can not be promoted by 
insisting on cash payments, nor can a Dutchman's business be success- 
fully wooed with literature printed in Spanish." 

M-ench. — Official figures of imports and exports for 1898 are not 
available. Gold mining, the chief industry of the colony, absorbs the 
entire laboring population. The penal settlement of 80,000 convicts, 
together with the troops heretofore stationed at Cayenne, have been 
withdrawn from the city to St. Laurent on the Maroni River. The 
consular agent at Cayenne considers this a misfortune to the business 
community, as these convicts performed all the labor on public works 



SOUTH akeeioa; pabagday and peeu. 127 

and improvements about Cayenne and supplied ttie farming community 
of the colony with labor, which will now be very difficult to obtain. 

Imports in 1897 were valued at 11,816,000 and exports at $1,393,700. 
Official returns of France show that in 1898 the imports from French 
Guiana amounted to $212,300, and the exports to $1,717,700. The 
United States imported $24,800 worth from the colony in 1898 and 
exported thither $144,700. British returns for the same year were: 
Imports from Freucb Guiana, $17,500; exports to Ftbikmi Guiana, 
$12,400. 

PABAGUAT. 

Of the total imports in 1898— $2,822,000— about 48 per cent, says the 
Statesman'^ Year Boofe, 1899, comes from the United Kingdom. The 
principal imports are textiles, wines and rice, and England sends about 
85 per cent of the textiles. United States Treasury figures show that 
over $11,000 worth was exported to Paraguay in 1899. The exports 
were valued at $2,207j000. 
A British Foreign Office report (annual series No. 2275) says: 
Statiatjcs of importationB by oountriea &ra not available. All goods from Europe and 
the United States are ahipped from Montevideo or Buenos Ayree either in tranmt or 
in bond, liiere was but little improvemeat in the trade of Paraguay during the 
year 1898. The tobacco crop wae mmll and of poor quality. Yertia mate, one of 
the most important productions of the country, suffered from competition with the 
Brazilian product in toe Ai;gentine market The lumber trade ie developing. Another 
important businesa of the country is cattle breeding and ^mzii^. The oil of the 
pafm-nnt kernel ia used for the manubcture of Boap. There ib a demand for improved 
machinery for breaking tbeae nuts. A new sugar lactory has been inanguiated which 
turoB out a very fair quality of sugar. 



The imports in 1898 were valued at $8,121,800, of which the United 
States sent to the value of $876,900; Great Britain, $3,640,800; Ger- 
many, $1,434,700; France, $666,400. etc. The exports to the chief 
countries were as follows: United States, $1,212,400; Great Britain, 
$7,234,000; Germany, $1,140,300; France, $346,200; total, $13,961,100. 
Our trade, says Consul Dickey, of Callao, is gradually increasing, but ' 
England and Germany control the general traffic of the country. Our 
business could be largely increased, not only with Peru but with other 
South American countries, by the establishment of a fast line of 
steamers between the west .coast of the United States and the southern 
republics. Quick transportation and more extensive credita, says the 
consul, will ^ve us the lion's share of the trade. 

From the Gec^raphical and Statistical Synopsis of Peru, Lima, 1898, 
the following extracts are taken; 

Much has recentiy been done for the improvement of roads and bridges. Callao 
is to be drained and to have a new system of waterworks. Waterworks have been 
made in Paita, Colan, and Trujillo. Electric-light plants are already eetabli shed in 
Arequipa and Cerro de Pasco. Barranco is well lighted by gas. Lima has excellent 

g'stema of waterworks and sewerage. The sharp descent ol the Eimac is utiliTed. 
rick fllteniiK galleries are built under the bottom of the river, conducting the water 
io iron pipes Djr gravitv to the distributing system, giving a constant stream of &<eeh 
water through ite whole extent 

Fordgnera are received and treated with the greatest cordiality in Pern. They 
enjoy the same liberty for traveling as the natives, and have also the right to invoke 
the protection of the habeas corpus act With the sole coaditjon of submiBslon to 

C 



OOHHEBCIAL BBLATIONB. 



the UwB of tb« conatry, tbe]> can eater upon any bnaiQefle or bade tliey pleaae, eo 
long as they do not onend public moralify, health, ■: "" 

iri£ ]>erfect freedom of thrar peiBonal o: 



lands in the interior, etc 



mtCGUAT. 



Consul Swalm, of Montevideo, reports the total imports in 1898 at 
*24,784,000, of which England sent $6,762,000; France, 12,637,000; 
Germany, «2,311,000; Italy »2,279,000; Spain, «l,944 000, and the 
United States, H, 932,000. England has most of the trade in iron and 
manufactures and all of the coal except a small quantity of American. 
In textile manufactures, she has lost to Germany and to a small extent to 
oar country- Imports from the United States show a slow but steady 
growth. It IB gratifying to know, says the consul, that there is an 
increased demand for American bicycles, hardware, cutlery, sewing 
machines, etc. 

Of the exports, valued at $30,276,000, France takes more than any 
other European country — $5,516,000. Belgium comes next, with 
$5,399,000. England, $2,884,000, and" Germany, $2,810,000, follow: 
To the United States, goods to the value of $984,000 were sent in the 
year under review. 

TIUCEZirBIiA. 

The latest figures for imports relate to the year 1697, and for ex- 
ports to 1896. l^ey were, respectively, $13,241,000 and $21,510,000. 
The Review of the World's Commerce for last year stated that imports 
from the United States rM)re8ented 41 per cent of the trade; from 
England, 31 per cent, and from Germany, 21 per cent. Consul Gold- 
schmidt, of I^ Guayra, says that the United States leads in flour, hams, 
lard, butter, spices, kerosene, marble and lumber, paper, caustic pot- 
ash and rosin, barbed wire, salted meats, crackers and biscuits, and 
machinery. England is first in coal, cement, hardware, agricultural 
and artisans' tools, iron (raw), sewing thread, bleached cotton and 
passementerie, cotton cloui, and tin plate. Germany has control of 
the trade in stationery, rice, cigars, cigarettes, and tobacco, beer, 
drugs and medicines, crockery and glassware, cheese, and candles. 
France leads in fancy goods, bosieir and underwear, cereals, preserves, 
candies and sweets, perfumery, silk, and woolen goods. 

The trade of the principal competing countries is shown in the fol- 
lowing statement, compiled from the officjal returns for 1898 of the 
United States, England, France, Geruiany, and Belgium: 



CavntOm. 


'^^J^ 


sss. 





























byGoo'^lc 



ASIA. 

ADEN. 

"The imports for 1898," says Conaul Cunningham, "were $14,81it, 000 
and the exports ?12,876,000. There Is an increase of over *3, 000,000 in 
the trade as com|«red with that of the previous year, and about 50 
per cent of this is in skins alone. Exports to the United States for the 
fiscal year 1899 were valued at *1,924,000, and imports at *1,183,000." 
"Cotton goods and petroleum cover the bulk of the imports," adds 
Mr. Cunningham, " and perhaps will continue to do so until the wants 
of the native population supplied fivam here become more numeroas 
and diversified. Give the aveiwe native his American sheeting and 
his kerosene oil, and he wants l>ut little else the country does not 
provide." 

BRITISH LFfDIA. 

Consul-Oeneral Patterson reports the imports for the fiscal year 
1898-99 at $276,046,000 and the ejtport^ at *384,414,000, both these 
statements including silver and gold. Trade is suffering from the 
effects of the famine. England sends about 70 pci- cent of the mer- 
chandise inoported, though much of this \» of course merely trans- 
shipped in British porta. Not quite 30 per cent of the exports went 
to England. Belgium has 3.3 per cent of the import trade; Austria, 
3.5; Russia, 3; Germany, 2.9; the United States, 2, and France, 1.5, 
the remainder coming from eastern countries. The steamship line that 
DOW gives regular service between New York and Indian ports will 
have a tendency, says Mr. Patterson, to increase our trade. In iron 
and steel and cotton manufactures, there is room for much expansion. 



The total imports in 1898 are estimated by Mr. Taylor, statistical 
secretary of customs, at $145,448,000, and the exports at $110,371,000. 
The import trade, he says, has advanced 145 per cent in twelve years, 
or, takmg into account the fall in the value of the haikwan tael, 83 
percent. Consul Fowler, of Chefoo, submits the following tables, 
showing the value of trade by countries, and the increase or decrease 
in two years: 

VtUiu of trade, by anmlrUt, in 1S98. 



CouDlria. 


importa. 


Eiporta. 


Toul. 




m.uuu. 
iT,i«3.m 

U,«C2,474 
11,151,880 

«; 214; 017 

1,7M,251 
l»,lX>,bit 
U,T«i,OU 


7,739.106 
8. 148: 886 


Ht.taeU. 

11,888,771 
10,716,«1! 

48,717,321 
16,168,148 
«2, 083, 612 

1,324; 12S 
IB, 106. ABO 


7,436,871 

30,846,7*) 
10,fi26,69£ 
48 085 968 

M.esa 

9,096,048 


Bt.iaea. 
20,45B,871 






38,086,1G3 
2S^19B4T2 
110,652.485 


■^SiSASSE.";. 




14,199,012 
n;24j;0M 


All Oiercrt of tbe world 



H. Doc. 481, Pt 1 9 



GoS 



OOHHEKCIAL BELATIOKS. 

Vnhir of import trnde in ealendar yean ISg7 and IS98. 



Countrt™. 




.». 


w«. 


I*™... 


i.,,^,,. 




do11«» 

h&lkwantaclB.. 


12.440,302 

Its 

s.87s,ice 

1J,664,ZM 
12.8e0,0IW 
80,12£,SS7 

«es(»om 
a),06S,igs 

ia,859,2(» 

n'oM'm 


1\ 571,778 
97,aH,01T 

ass 

I3,l«),0«9 

■as 














I<.W8,1IS 

1.183,697 






CoDtinent of Barope, including all 






halkwantaels.. 


?;S:S 








SSlI^"""'''" 










halkmuiULcls.. 

























«8 tSn In M 



n uel In 1897. u esttmalcd by tt 



10 balk wan tmel 



Mr. Fowler'B remarks are summarized below: 

The above table shows that of non- Asiatic countrieH or diviirionB, the United States 
Btande alone in the oolunm of gains over 1897. It exceeded by over 12,000,000 taela 
the value of ita galea in 1895, while Great Britain has loet quite 10,000,000 taelfl in 
i-alue since 1896. The value of the United States sales exceeded bv $4,171,934 the 
combined sales of all Europe and all the Russlas. In my report in Consular Beporta 
No. 218, page 441, will be found a table in which I show that the value of United 
States exports to China was greater in 1697 than that of all continental Europe and 
the Ruaaias, European and Asiatic, by $320,281. In 1898, the figures rose to $4,171,- 
934, as shown above. 

The customs trade returns are not explicit and do not show the true conditions of 
affairs. A good percentage of the trade credited to Gteat Britetn belonss to the 
United Stat^, aH,ior instance,allBfaipmentsfrom Atlantic ports to China via England. 
Our entire trade (excepting perhaps a little of tbe oil) wiui the porta of China eouth 
of Shanghai ia carried on ttuough Hongkong. The cuatoma retuma state ttiat "the 
imports irom Hongkong ordinarily come from, and the exports to that colony are 



DOEIIpUnn. 


Vul 


„. 




Bk-taOt. 

868,618,483 
1», 287,629 












a»,»is,»M 










■SlSiS 


145, 448.068 










m,aBB.m 






' 



The value of known Asiatic imports was $49,717,000, which leavee $95,730,000 for 
non-Asiatic imports. The value of imports from the United States, as siven in the 
returns, waa $11,911,000. The imports classified as American (dnlla, jeans, sheetr 
Inga, flour, and oil] amounted in value to $12,928,000, or exceed by over $1,000,000 
the totals civen as imports from tbe United States, and as we sell an ever increasing 
quantity of lumber, machinery, hoaeebold stores, lamps, clocks, iron, etc., it is to be 
regretted that we can not know juat what our trade is worth. However, in 1895, 
Great Briton sold five times what we did, and in 1898 only twice aa much. 

The net value of foreign imports in 1898 having increased by 12,172,289 haikwan 
taels over that of 1896, it is gratifying to learn that the customs reports show that 
tbe imports from the United States increaeed from 11,929,863 haikwan taelsin 1896 to 
17,163,312 haikwan taels in 1898, or a gain of 5,233,459 haikwan taels, leaving lees 



ASIA: CHINA. 131 

than 7,000,000 taels of the total increase for all the reetof the world; and, aaour trade 
ia imdereeti mated by one-tiurd, there can be littie doubt that at least 60 per c«nt of 
the increased trade of Chma ia due to the purchases Crooi the United Statue. 

Of the trade in the German and RusBian coDcessioae, Mr. Fowler 

says: 

The advent of the RnsBiaoa is the principal cause of the great actiTity in North 
China, their presence having given an enormous impetua to our trade. I was 
informed that SO per cent of the equipment and material used by them ia purchased 
in the United States. 

Port Arthur ia the most active place in the Eaat. A little of the modem world has 
suddenly been planted in this Empire, audits effecteare far-reaching. Baldwin loco- 
motives are on the tracks across the harborj electric lights, telephones, machinery, 
in fact, all the best and latest appliances are in use, and nearly all are from -the United 
Sutes. 

The new town of Dalny — Talienwan — is sure to be the outlet for a vast territory. 
It is connected with Port Arthur by telephone and telegraph. 

Kyao-cbau was thrown open to trade, and the custom-house (under the auspices 
of the Chinese Government, but controlled bv the Gennan governor) commenced to 
function on July], 1899. It is a very lively place. The Germans are losing no time. 
Large buildings are going up; the finest hotel in the East is open to traffic, and on 
September 26 Prince Henry commenced work on the three railways that sooner or 
later will traverse the province. All over the province Germans are at work; hun- 
dreds are moving into Tsintau with their families. New lines of German steamers 
are connecting with the port, and in a year or two It promises to control the trade of 
this province. Hany cargoes of American lumber have already arrived there. 

OPEH-DOOB POIJCr. 

At the instance of the United States SecretAry of State, the govern- 
ments of France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, and Russia 
have consented to aid in maintaining an " open-door policy " in China. 
Each government agreies — 

First. That itwillin no wayint«rfere with any treaty port or vested 
interest within any so-called "sphere of interest" or leased territory 
it may have in China. 

Second. That the Chinese treaty tariff of the time being shall apply 
to all merchandise landed or shipped to all such ports as are within 
said "sphere of interest" (unless they be free ports), no matter to 
what nationality it may belong, and that duties ho leviable shall be col- 
lected by the Chinese Government 

Third. That it will levy no higher harbor dues on vessels of another 
nationality frequenting anyportin such "aphece" than shall bo levied 
on vessels of its own nationality, and no higher railroad charges over 
lines built, controll«i, or operated within its "sphere" on merchan- 
dise belonging to citizens or subjects of other nationalities transported 
through such "sphere" than shall be levied on similar merchandise 
belonging to its own nationals transported over equal distances. 



The railways of China cover an extent of about 360 miles. . They 
connect the capital, Fekin, with Tientsin, running thence to Shanhaik- 
wan, and also irom Pekin to Paoting. They belong to the Goveniment. 
Among roads proposed or under construction are those from Shan- 
haikwan into Manchuria, ivoai Pekin to Kalgan, from Paotingfu to 
Tai- Yuanf u, the capital of Shansi Province, from Lukouchiao to Han- 
kau, from Kyao-chau to Chinaf u, from Ichowfu to Shanghai, etc. In 
r^ttrd to recent developments in the railway situation, the London and 

/nOO^IC 



COMMEBOIAL BBLATIOHB. 



China Telegraph, London, in its edition of January 2, 1900, saya, in 
part: 



Han, and tie Haiikau-Cajiton road, while the Britifih and Chinese corporatioii has 
conceaeions in hand for the Ghanghii-Soochow-Nanking Railway, with the eitension 
from Soochow to Ningpo via Hanechow. These lines, about 410 miles in lenglii, 
will serve the moat populous and fertile dietricta in the Yangtaze Valley. The 
East Coaat Trunk Line — Tien tain-Chin kiang, connecting with the line just referred 
to — should have eventually an enonnous traffic, and bm^ Shanghai into close touch 
with 'Tientsin and Pekin. The survey for the Canton-Kowlong Bailway, about IK 
miles in length, has been ooirpleted, and this line should serve admirably for the 
commerce 01 Hongkong, while by connection with the Mid-China Trunk Ijne from 
Pekin via Hankau, it will bring Hongkong into close commercial relations with the 
great northern capital. The survey of the An^lo-American line from Hankau to 
Canton has been completed. ABr^rds the payingprospecta of this line, thereseems 
but little question. The fact that it will pass through an enormous coal m ining dis- 
trict, larger than the whole of the European coalfields put together, gives it not only 
a laison d't^tre, but poiots to an uodoabted and immediate source of revenue; while 
the additional fact that the line will tonch Siangtan, a town with a frontace of 6 
miles, in which iron smelting on a laiye scale is carried on, hints at miaeraltraffic 
that may assume large proportions. The only lines calling for notice here are those 
from Suncbow to Nanning, and from Tong King to Yunnan. It will be time to ap^k 
of these when they are in a more advanced st^ of development. 

HONGKONG. 

The following extracts are from the annual report of Consul-General 
Wildman: 

HongkoDK and the entire eoBtem AMatdc coast have greatly profited by the many 
changes ana countermoves in the political situation of the faj east The occupation 
of Kyao-chau by Germany, Fort Arthur and Talienwan by Rttseia, Kwanchau-wan 
by France, Wei-bai-wei and the Kowloon Peninsula by Great Britain, the cradual 
occupation of Manchuria by Koeaia, and the neariuK completion of the Great Siberian 
Bailway have all hod a powerful and stimulating eSect on eastern Asia, The Amer- 
ican-Spanish war and the 8ubee<^'uent occupation of Manila by the United States has 
been a most potent factor in callmB the attention of Americans to the trade possibil- 
ities of this part of the world. The colony of Honekong has probably profited by 
the political changes to a greater decree than any otherone section of Asia. It mnat 
be remembered, however^ that this is simply a vast clearing house, combined with a 
military strongbold, and is not to any great extent a consumer nor a producer. As a 
market within itself, it is practi<»11y nil. 

There are in Hongkong 6,000 Earopeans who wear and eat what S,000 like people 
would in the United States; but th^eeie, in addition, 360,000 Chinese in the colony, 
and 80,000,000 in the adjacent provinces, whose conservatism is as difficult to over- 
come now as it was three hundred years ago. They have learried to use American 
flour, kerosene, and, to some eiten^ cotton piece goods. They consume in smaller 
quantities our tinned milk, also German lamps, and a cheap grade of notions. One 
pf the greatest hindrances to the introduction of American goods into China is the 
[almost utter lack of protection agajnst imitations. 

Exports from Ho^kong to the United States for the six months ended June 30, 
1899, amounted to 12,567,000. There were also invoiced in this consulate goods lor 
Hamla to the value of nearly 1700,000. 

The value of the Hongkong trade is estimated at 1250,000,000 annu- 
ally. In another report, Mr, Wildman says: 

I no custom-house, the only official source of infonnation concern* 
P J jorisis the annual report of the harbormaster. His report for the 

year ending December 31, IS98, shows uiat the total tonnage entering and clearing 
this port; amounted to 17,265,780 tons, an increase compared with 1897 of 1,327,608 
tons. There arrived 39,815 veeseis, aggre^ting 8,648,274 tons. Eleven steamers 
flyii^;the American flag entered during 1898, as against 4 in 1897. Thirty-two sail- 
ii^ vessels came in under the American fla^as against 30 in 1897, America standing 
second to Great Britain, with 36 under the British flag. 
The year 1698 was marked by heavy bade in rice and coal, and the intioduction 



ASIA: DUTCH HfDIA AND FRENCH INDO-OHINA. 188 

of ofl from Langkot, SmnatnL The demand for ric« was largely from Japan, and 
that lor coal was a result of the late war with Bpain and the centermg of bo many for- 
eigin fleets in this harbor. The Ammcan keroeene-oil trade remained practically the 
aome ae in 1897. American flour ehowB a considerable increase, in spite of the fact 
that from April to AugoBt the Manila market was practically closed to it. Hong- 
kong imported from the United States 270,201 tons of cargo, as agsinat 278,711 tons 
from the continent of Europe and 416,377 tons from Great Britain. The imports 
from the Philippine Islands amounted to 169,526 tons. The exports from Hongkong 
to the United States amounted to 148,526 tons and to the Philipme Islands to 152,395 
tons, leaving a balance of trade heavily in our favor. Among the imports in which 
the United States is interested are 103,544 tons of flour, 36,611 tons of cotton and 
cotton yam, 65,160 tons of hemp, 67,362 tons of kerosene in bulk, and 59,115 tons 
of kerosene in case, all of which items, except kerosene, show an increase over 1897. 



There arrived during 1898, on vessels of all classes. 3,290,902 passengers. The total 
revenue of the harbor department, which is made up of light duee, licenses, and 
internal- revenue and court and office fees, amounted to $183,628.01. These figurw 
in some measure show Hongkong's importance in the shipping world. The pecul- 
iarity ol the Hongkong trade is uiat the consumption of imports on the island itself 
is BO small, as compared with the bulk of the trade, that it can be stated that almost 
all imports are again exported. 

jyVTCH. £NI>IA. 

ImportB in 1898, says Consul Everett, of Batavia, were yalued at 
$72,288,000, and exports at $87,537,000. The mainstay of trade in 
Java is sugar, and the exports for the year were good, the United 
States furnishing the principal market. This sudden prosperity is due 
to conditions in Cuba ana the Philippines. Deducting petroleum, 
which representd the bulk of American imports, the value of goods 
entered fromourcountry in theyear under review was 1171,406. The 
showing, says the consul, is not good. Americans do not seem to 
realize that there are 40,000,000 people in Dutch India, all of whom 
consume a certain quantity of civilized goods. Batavia is larger than 
Singapore and has modem appliances, electric lights, electric cars and 
telephones. The stores, says Mr. Everett, are Bner than in any city 
east of Suez, as are also the docks. Flour, cotton goods, bicycles, 
carriages, automobiles, machinery, beer, watches, canned goods, etc., 
should find a good market 

FRENCH rNI>0-CHrN"A, 

Consul Covert, of Lyons, sends the following extracts from a report 
by Mr. Brennier, subdirector of the commerce of Indo-China, on 
business in that colony in 1898: 

The importations into Indo-China for the year 1896, not including specie, were: 

From France and the colonies 44, 415, 786=$8, 572, 247 

From fora^in countries 68,028,660=11,199,512 

Total : 102,444,946=19,771,759 

The exceea of imports from foreign countries conosts of commodities that France 
can not produce, such as petroleum, opium, noix d'arec, tea, Asiatic manufactures 
(such as clothing and shoes of silk) , or products which France could furnish only at 
an immense coat. 

Beferring to articles of extra- Asiatic origin or manufacture, it woald be difflcalt to 
deny that, under the protective tarifl, importation from France tends to as complete 
a development as is possible, and has made enormous progress. Textile fabrics, 
stones and combustible minerals, liquors, manufactures in metal and metals, arms, 
powder, and munitions, and divers manufactured articles represent over 60 per cent 
of the imports. Over 50 per cent of this percentage beloncffl to France. We sell 85 
per cent of the cotton fabrics consumed in Indo-China. We can not compete with 
(Suna in silks any more than we can furnish the petroleom or coal. The demand 



184 COMMEECIAL BEDATIONB. 

for colonial commoditiee ia being more and more aupptied by the coimtry itself. An 

experience of over tax yeara hae proved that in the matter of cotton yam, it ia impoB- 
sible to overcome the comi>etition of British India, even with a protective tarift of 
26 per cent. French products are powerieae to struggle against the Britieh India 

Sroduct, which repreaenta a value of 9,600,000 franca (tl, 852, 800) in the imports. 
ut the establishment of the apinning industry iu Tonkin will permit ua at least to 
renmnerat« French capital, eiiice we can not consume French cotton, 

Conaul Covert adds: 

The value of French imports into Indo-China since 1886 is stated aa follows: 



T„. 


V«loe. 




IBuTooo 




im {otter xi 


eWr 


IT act 11 


tlSW). 




20 

i 


i 


am 

i 










5.671.905 






8.572, (M6 



















This is a prc^teas of 300 per cent id twelve veare and 200 per cent during the last 
four years. Imring the period 1886-1898, the total imports of Indo-Cbma have 
increased only about 17 per cent, as shown below; 

1886 86,800,000=$16,500,000 

1898 102,400,000= 19,700,000 

The 44.415,000 francs' ($8,572,000) worth of exports from France in 1898 was dis- 
tributed as foliowH: 

Cochin China and Cambodia 23, 481, 000=*4, 5S1, 833 

Tonkin 20,413,000= 3,939,708 

Anam 474,000= 91,482 

The 58,028,000 francs (111,199,000) worth of foreign merchandise was distributed 
as follows: 

Cochin China and Cambodia 31,482,000=16,076,026 

Tonkin 23,248,000= 4,486,864 

Anam 3,298,000= 636,614 

The merchandise received from foreign countries was principally from — 

Hongkong 39, 700, 000=J7, 662, 100 

Singapore 7,348,000= 1,418,164 

The report emphasizes the importance of Hongkong in the colonial commerce of 
France. It fixes the value of Chinese merchandise sold in Indo-China at 20,000,000 
francs ($3,860,000). 

JAPAN. 

On July 17, 1899, the new treatiea between Japan and foreign coun- 
tries' became opcratiye and the new taiiff went into effect. The 
regiUations for the new open porta, those relatjng to foreigners, etc., 
have been published in the Consular Reports during the year. In 
regard to tne changed conditions, the London and China Telegraph, 
London, January 2, 1900, says, ia part: 

We are not quite sure how tar the privil*^ that came info force on July 17, by 
which anj'one desirous of starting a newspaper could do so — subject, of course, to the 
Japanese law — has been availed of, nor now far the regulations as to the tenure of 
land have settled themselves in practice. But there is no doubt tliat under the new 
r^mlations foreigners now possess full power to practically own land in Japan on 
which they have full liberty to place machlner}', plant, and buildings — a liberty that 

' The treaties with France and Austria came into effect Auguat 4. 



a81a: japan. 



185 



waa conepicooiu by ita abeence under the old regulationa. Some doubt haviiiK arisen 
aa to the duratjou of the ownership of land, it is authoritatively explained tnst the 
ternifi of holdings corapriBe not only the twenty-year leases (wnich are compai»ble 
to the English lesaeof a house tor seven, fourteen, or. twenty-one years), but also 
miperficiee, which is the right to use another person's land for the purpoeeof erecting 
thereon buildings, in conBideration of an annual rent, without any limit of term. 

Another point of interest ie that relating to commercial partnerehipH between Japan- 
ese and Europeans. Under the old order of things tliese were forbidden; but this 
rertriclion beine now removed there will doubtlesB crop up from time to time copart- 
neiehipe — the iniitof aelf-intereBt, imagined or real — that may prove of service to the 
partnere and to the tiading community. 

Consul Lyons, of Hiogo, gives the foUowiDg additional factu an to 
the rights of foreigners m Japan: 

According to the Japanese law, foreign coi 
but no foreigners are allowed lo hold land, 
from natives. 



According to Consul -Gen era! Gowey, of Yokohama, the total imports 
in 18!*8 were valued at Jl38,196,000, and the exporta at 881,072,000. 
The chief countries which took part in the trade were: 



CounWai 


Export. 


Imporu. 


Co..,rt». 


E-poru. 


Importa. 






ta.M).000 

7,830,000 




S.STIiioOO 

loi^ooo 
so, 000 

23,560,000 


















»,<7«.000 










10, WO, 000 





Mr. Gowey quotes a British Foreign Office report to the effect that 
the proportion of the trade of Japan which falls to the United States has 
risen by leaps and bounds during the past few years. Imports from 
our country increased, in 1896, 84 per cent over the figures for the pre- 
ceding year; in 1897, 57 per cent, and in 1898, 45 per cent The atten- 
tion <« our manufacturers, adds Mr. Gowey, snoufd be especially called 
to the necessity of following directions a.s to size, shape, weight, etc., 
in filling orders for the Japanese market. To obtain the benefit of the 
conventional tariff, goods of over the value of $50 must be accompanied 
by certificates of origin, issued at port of shipment or place of dis- 
patch. These certificates must be attested by Japanese consuls, or in 
their absence, by chambers of commerce, or mayors- or magistrates. 
One of the leading importers in Yokohama, it seems, has built up a 
good trade in American labor-saving inventions. 

Consul Lyon, of Hiogo, saysthatin bicycles, condensed milk, electric- 
light apparatus, fiour, cigarettes, wire nails, iron bridge and building 
mateiiats, sole leather, kerosene, printing paper, rails, timber, tobacco, 
and railway materials (excluding locomotives) the United States leads 
all other countries in exports to Japan. Re calls attention, however, 
to the fact that we supply no part of the large import of cotton textiles. 

Imports in 1899 have of course been affected by the new tariff, large 
stocks ofgoods having been laid in previous to the date of its taking 
effect Twle fell off in the first six months of 1899, says Mr. Lyon, 
40 per cent, but imports from the United States decreased only 15.4 
percent, against a loss of 43.6 per cent from Great Britain. Although 
the new duties have acted as a hindrance to American exportation^ to 
Japan, it is noteworthy that these have not been excluded to the same 



186 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

extent as those from European countries. Raw cotton remains on 
the free list; flour is subjected to a light tariff; pig iron, locomotives, 
rails, and railway materials, now pay 5 per cent duty; iron screws, 
nails, and machinery of all kinds, 10 per cent. 

In the first six months of 1899, the United States assumes fii-st place 
in imports to Japan, with a value of $10,191,000; British India follows, 
having sent goods amounting to $10,027,000; Great Britain comes 
third, with snipmenta of $8,789,000: China comes fourth, Germany 
fifth, and France sixth. 

In the line of locomotives, however, imports from the United States 
show a serioiiM decrease, and Mr. Lyon urges our manufacturers to 
make greater efforts to hold the field. 

cnBRENCY, 

In a recent report on the adoption of the gold standard in Japan, 
Count Matsukata Masayosbi, Japanese minister of state for finance, 
says in regard to the operation of the law of October, 1897: 

Since the adoption of the gold standard, oiir currency has been freed from con- 
stant fluctuations in its exchange rate, to wliich it v/ae subject before. Owing to this 
latter fact, moreover, the relations between the claima of the creditor and the liabil- 
ities of the debtor became less subject to sudden and unexpected changes; business 
transactions were made safe; an improvement in credit took place in the community 
at large ; prices became more constant. In a word, the way was now opened for the 
steady and orderly growth of our commerce and industry. 

Leaving out of account in this section the questions concerning the eflect of tlio 
coinage refonn on the foreign trade of the country, it can be very clearly seen that 
einee October, 1897, the prices of commodities have kept comparatively even; that 
while there have been some chaJiges, yet when compared with the sudden and great 
changes which used to occur formerly, wemuat say that the fluctuations were remarka- 
bly small. Besides, these small changes in the price of commodities can be amply 
explained by referring to the partial failure of rice crops, to the sudden expansion of 
industry and then to ita aa sudden depression, to a stringency in the money market, 
as well as to some other causes. These changes in the pnce ul commodities were due, 
therefore, to the natural working of the economic law of supply and demand in the 
commodities themselves. If we notice the fact, moreover, that the araountof checks 
and bills cleared at the clearing houses in Tokyo and Osaka has remarkably increased 
during these recent months, notwithstanding the fact that during this very time there 
prevailed much business stagnation everywhere, we can not but conclude that business 
transactions on credit have come to prevail more widely and freely than before. 

The beneficial result of the coinage reform is seen in another direction. Now that 
the capitalists of the gold-standard countries have become assured that they will 
no longer be in constantdai^rofsufferingunexpected losses from investments made 
in this country on account of fluctuations in the price of silver, they seem to show a 
growing tendency (o make such investments at low rates of interest. This tendency, 
if encouraged, will doubtless brine about a closer connection between this country 
and the central money markets of the world — a state of things which I believe we 
shall be able to see realized more and more fully as yeaj^ go on. 

So far as our trade with gold-standard countnes is concerned, our adoption of the 
gold standard, which made us use the same standard o£ value as those countries, has 
proved to be a source of great benefit. This may be inferred from the fact that 
changes which have since taken plats in the rate of foreign exchange liave been hut 
very slight, and are all traceable to changes in the condition of tne foreign trade 
of tne cuontry, and not traceable, as formerlv, to sudden changes in the price of 
silver. For this reason there was eliminated from our foreign trade much of that 
speculative element which was caused by constant changee in the value of our cur- 
reni'y ; so that the way was at last opened for the steady aiirl natural development 
of the foreign trade of the country. Again, concerning our commerce with silver- 
standard countries, contrary to the gloomy prospects indulged in by some critics, our 
trade with those countries has not ceased to make a steady growth, and this in the 
face of cert&in events occurring in the interior of China, our greatest customer among 
the nlver countries, events such ss natural calamities and disturbances which have 
greatly hindered the commercial activity of tliat country. 



ASIA: KOREA. 187 

Since our coinage refonn enabled iis to avoiil all the evil efteeta ot fluctuationa in 
the price of silver, we stand now no longer, aa formerly wae the caae, under the nece«- 
Bitv of making plans for financial niatteia with the currency constantly changing in 
value, and Bometimea miffering unexpected loi«eH and evils in times when those Huc- 
tuationa are unusually violent. All thoee fears of miscalculation and loesea have 
now become things of the past. Moat particularly in the last few years, when 
national expenditures for things booKht abroad, such as war ships, etc., have greatly 
increased in amount, we have doubtless been able to avoid, on account ot our coin- 
aK« reform, great loasee on the part of the national treasury. Beeides, since onr 
adoption of the gold standard, our Government bonds have been sold in no small 
amount in the European market, ao that their names appear r^ularly in the price 
list of the London Stock Exchange. This fact at once converted our boads into an 
international couimodity, and will no doubt lead to a closer relationship between our 
home and the foreign money markets. 

The writer quotes a report of the higher commission on agriculture, 
commerce, ano iudustiy, which says that the effect of the coinaffe reform 
upon the foreign trade has beeu beneficial, without a trace of evil. 

KORBA. 

Consul -General Allen, of Seoul, gives the trade ia 1898 as follows : 
lUal hade of Korea in 1898. 





V»lue. 


KS^^p^^.'f 




U,818,37S 


•^IS-JS-g 












17,S27,8»4 


8,TC3.B32.<» 








2,S76,725 


. ).187,8e2.60 





Mr. Allen adds: 

Korean trade for 1898 shows a falling off in comparison with reporte tor the year 
1897. The total trade tor 1897 was 23,511,350 yen ($11,755,625 gold), while tor the 
year 1898 it was 17,527,864 yen ($8,7a3.932go!d). Inepite ot thisgeneral fallingoff, 
importations from the United Stales have increased. The customs returns are not clear 
as to the proportion ot American goods, they bein^ often clawed with English and Euro- 
pean products. I have prepared a list ot Amencan imttorta, however, showing that 
goods which may be safely considered as American were imported in 189S to the value 
of 1,270,075 yen ($636,037.50 gold) , ot which the chief items were : Railroad material, 
9297,861.60: kerosene, $189,380. 

The Seonl-Cbemolpo Railway, 25 miles in length, standard American gauge, con- 
nects Seoul, the capital of Korea, with Chemulpo, the chief port of the country. 
This road was being built by Messrs. CoUbran and Jamee, Americans, for the Amer- 
ican concearion^re, James K. Morse, at a cost of $1,500,000 gold, including an esten- 
dve iron bridge over the Han River, which was to cost $190,000. The material was 
mostly on the ground, and the earthwork was about completed, together with the 
abutments of the bridge and an extensive sea wall and reclaimed foreshore, when, 
on December 31, 1898, the concession and properties were sold by_ Mr. Moree to a 
Japanese syndicate. The work is intended to be completed during 1S09. This 
i.-i the first railroad to be built in Korea, and the material^) and equipment are almost 
entirely from America. The Japanese have a concession to connect Seoul with the 
port oi Fusan, several hundred miles distant at the extreme southern end of the 
peninsula. Engineers are now going over the proposed route. 

A French syndicate holds a conoesion for a railroad to connect Seoul with the 
northwestern border, where at one time it waa suppoeed such a line would connect 
with the Russian lines in Manchuria. There seems to be no present indication that 
this road will be built 

H.ColIbian, theAmerican contractor for the Seoni-Chemnlpo Railway, is ju^ com- 
pletit^ the coiistruction ot an overhead-trolley electric street railroad ot some 8 miles in 
fenstfa, in Seoul, for a Korean company. The materials for this road are from America 
ana J^an, the car bodies having been neatly constniGl«d by the Japaueae. 



188 OOIQCBBCIAL BBLATIONS. 

DnTmgtiiepaat7eBT,Baanoe«onw«Bgnuitedtoaii Boglisbsyndicatefor a mining 
district to bo herBaft«r selected and to be worked tot a period of twenty-flve years 
upon terms eomewhat eimilAr to thoae of the American and German concesaioQs — 
toat is, upon a payment to the Korean Ooveniment of one-fourth of the net proceeds 
of Boch work. 

The American gold mines in the northern province of Peng Yang are becoming 
promising, judging by the activity with which u>e work is prosecuted. This company 
employs nearly 40AmericaiiB atila minea, whichincludetbe whole district of Woon 
San, some 1,000 square miles. The work at preeent is in rock, thougb the placers 
are good and will receive attention later. The company at present works only 20 
stamps, hot 40 stamps more, from the Union Iran Works, are being erected. Some 
1,200 Koreans are employed in and about the mines in various capacitiee. The 
prospects are excellent 

PERSIA.. 

The trade in 1898, aays Cooaul-Greneral Bowen of Teheran, as rep- 
resented in consular statistics, amounted as nearly as can be ascer- 
tained to about $40,000,000, which would be a fair averse for some 
Tears pasL Of this sum, the imports were {26,500,000 andthe exports 
113.400,000, or the former in excess of the latter by 413,000,000. A 
variety of circumstances and conditions contribute to produce in the 
foreign trade of the country this unprofitable ine<^uality, which tends 
to perpetuate the unsatisfactory state of the financial exchange. The 
want of capital and enlightened enterprise in the producers, the 
extremes of heat and cold in the climat«, the poverty of the soil, a 
scarcity of wat«r, a lack of means of transportation, and the primitive 
implements and machinery used in the production of natural and manu- 
factured articles are some of the hindrances to the expansion of the 
national industries. Great Britain and Russia, rivals for supremacy in 
the Persian trade, exercise their enei^y, ingenuity, and foresight to 
supplv the bazaars and markets with a variety of articles which could 
as well be made at home. 

The heavy transit duties levied by the Russian custom-house on all 
foreign goods passing through the Caucasus, continues Mr, Bowen, 
practical^ close that route to all importations from western countries. 
With this means of access barred, and the additional distance taken 
into consideration, United States trade must labor under serious diffi- 
culties, and can not expect to compete with other sources of supplv on 
equal terms. Persians are, however, fond of novelties, and many of our 
ingenious contrivances should find a sympathetic market — for instance, 
photographic and electric lighting apparatus and steam and other 
pumps are becoming appreciated. Clocks, lamps, and locks of Ameri- 
can manufacture, and canned goods, though not imported directly, are 
sold in the foreign stores. If Russia could be induced to reduce the 
transit duties to reasonable terms, we could send agricultural imple- 
ments and machinery, carriages, drugs, and gesem stores with a 
prospect of good profit. 

PHILIPPINE I8LANIW.' 

According to a statement published by the War Department, imports 
at Manila from July to September, 1899, inclusive, were valued at 
(3,802,581, excluding specie, which amounted to {52,520 in gold and 
(256,294 in silver. At this rate, the annual imports at Manila would 

'As the War Department has charge of the government of the Philippines, it 
supplies all recent statistics of trade For the commerce of the chief foreign coun- 
tnes with the Philippines, see pase 30. For conditions in the Philippines, see also 
report of Philippine Commission, Senate Document 138, 66th Goi^fresB, 1st seeeion.- 



ASIA: FHILIPPINE ISLANDB. 189 

be $25,300,000. A comp&riBon with the amonnts for &l\ Philippine 
porta for the fifteen years ending with 1894, during; which time the aver- 
i^e yearly iraporta of the archipelago amountetT to only $17,039,044, 
(or approximately two-thirda of the valuation indicated oy the trade of 
the three montha ending with September, 1898, for Manila alone), shows 
bow the trade is developing. 

The following^tatement shows the relative positions of the countries 
shippingto the I'bilippines, according to the value of the merchandise 
importm from each during the three months named: 

China t2, 464, 103 

United Kingdom 616,601 

8p»un 633,406 

Anstialia 410,262 

Germany 367, S2S 

United States 329,114 

BritiBh Eaat Indies - 298,364 

Netherlandfl 98,621 

Japan 73,622 

Prance 65,146 

RoflBia 36,843 

Be^mn 30,967 

Swiberlaad 27,242 

DntchEoflt Indies 21,998 

Italy 17,117 

Aastria-HangaiT 7,170 

Denmark 793 

Total merchandise 6,802,581 

The total value of cotton and its manufactures imported into Manila 
during the three months was $1,374,210, of which the United States 
furni^ed goods amounting to $1,479. The United Kingdom furnished 
a total value of $563,816; Spain, China, Germany, British East Indies, 
the Netherlands, Switzerland, France, Italy, and Belgium all led our 
country. 

Iron and steel in bars and other unfinished forms were imported to 
tbe value of $57,541, of which amount $760 worth came from the 
United States. Cutlery and side arms valued at $14,470 were furnished 
by other countries and none by this. 

Of electric machinery, $1,400 worth of a total of $1,580 is credited 
to this country, though it shipped none of the six sewing machines 
entered. Other machinery was valued at $34,000, of which oar share 
was only $2,381. 

Of the 260,405 gallons of refined mineral oils imported, all ezcept- 
ing the odd hundreds came from Russia. 

Of the $21j928 of fresh or dried f ruite imported, $616 worth came 
from the United States; of the $63,260 of potatoes and all other vege- 
tables, $738 came from tbe United States; of the $10,704 of other 
breadstuffs, $1,220 came from the United States; of the $97,935 worth 
of preparations for food, $2,098 came from the United States; of the 
$18,698 of lard and tallow, $759 came from the United States and 
$17,415 from China; of the $19,586 of butter and oleoma^rine,$791 
came from the United States; of the $10,444 of cheese, $1,474 came 
from tbe United States, 

The following alimentary items made a more favorable showing: 
There were imported from tbe United States 2,123 barrels of wheat 
flour, valued at $15,708; from China and Japan, 10,004 barrels, val- 
ued at $59,818; from the United States meat valued at $7,646, from 



140 OOHICEBOIAL RELATIONS. 

other countries, at $25,433: and of miscellaneous proviBions, t6,362 
from the United States, and from other countries, ¥18,274. 

Among the larger items appearing in the statement are wines and 
cordials, of which Spain supplied 38,783 eallons, valued at $76,689, 
while the United States came second wiSi 9,282 gallons, valued at 
|18j570. 

The largest single item of importation, aside from cotton goods and 
coal, appears to have been rice, of which 14,760 tons were entered, 
having a value of $487,591. Paper and manufactures of the same also 
make a good showing, the total valuation being $146,945, of which 
two-tbirdJs came from Germanv and Spain, the United States following 
with the value of $15,284. The entries of glass and glassware from 
this country during the three months nam^ amounted to $105,399, 
which was about two-fifths of the total and more than double the 
showing of any other country. 

Id a memorandum concerning conditions in the Philippines (see 
Senate Doc. No. 62, Fifty -fifth (x>ngrefis, third session) Major-General 
Greene gave the following data: 

These ielande, includine the lAdronee, Caralinee, Eind Palace, are variously eeti- 
mated at from 1,200 to 1,800 in number. The greater portion of these ete small and 
are of no more value than the islands oS the ooast of Alaska. The important islands 
are leas than a dozen in number, and 90 per cent of the Christian population live on 
Luzon and the five principal islands of the Visayas group. 

The total population is somewhere between 7,000,000 and 9,000,000, This includes 
the wild tribes of the mountAina of Luxon and of the islands in the extreme south. 
The last census taken by the Spanish Governmeitt was on December 31, 1S87, and 
this stated the ChriBtian population to be 6,000,000 (in round numbers) . This IB 
distributed us follows: 



hOutOa. 


Are*. 


V- 


•S" 






'■S.Z 

ass 
ass 


19 




s 


























M.8t» 


5,422,000 









The density of population in theee mx islands is nearly 60 per cent greater than 
in Illinois and Indiana (census of 1890), greater than in Spain, about one-half as 
great as in France, and one-third as great as in Japan and China, 

Although Bgriculture is the chief occupation of tho Philippines, yet only one-ninth 
of the surtace is under cultivation. The soil is very fertile, and even alter deducting 
the mountainous areas it is probable that the area of cultivation can he very largely 
extended and that the islands can support a population equal to that of Japan 
(42,000,000). 

The chief products are rice, com, hemp, sogar, tobacco, cocoanuts, and cacao. 
Coffee and cotton were formerly pjroduced in large quantities — Ihe former for export 
and the latter for borne consumption; but the coffee plant has been almost extermi- 
nated by insects and the homemade cotton cloths have been driven out by the com- 
petition of those imported from England. The rice and corn are principally produced 
in Luzon and Mindoro, and are consumed in the islands. The rice crop is about 
766,000 tons. It is insufficient for the demand, and 45.000 tons of rice were imported 
in X894, the greater portion from Saigon and the rest from Hongkons and Singapore; 
also 8,669 tons (say 60,000 barrels) of flonr, of which more than two-thirds came Irom 
China and less than one-third from the United States. 

The cacao ia raised in the southern islands, the best quality of it at Mindanao. 
The production amounts only to 150 tons, and it is all mode into chocolate and cr~ 



Bumed in the iaUnds. -'^olr 



.-.OO' 



ABIA: PHILIPPINE ISLANDB. 141 

The sugar cane is raised in the Viaayhe. The crop yielded in 1894 about 236,000 
tone ot raw sugar, of which ooe-tenth wae oonBumeain the islande, and the balance, 
or 210,000 tone, valued at 111,000,000, wae exported, the greater part to China, Great 
Britain, and Australia. 

The uerop is produced in southern Lnzon, Hindoro, the Visayas, and Mindanao. 
It is nearly all exported in bales. In 1804 the araonnt was 96,000 tons, valued at 
(12,000,000. 

Tobacco is raised in all the islands, but the best quality and great^t amount in 



women aa weiraa tbe men, but the best quality is exported. The amount in 1694 
was 7,000 tons of leaf tobacco, valued at $1,750,000. Spain takes SO per cent and 
Egypt 10 per cent of the leaf tobacco. Of the manufactured tobacco, 70 per cent goea 
to Uliina and Singapore, 10 per cent lo England, and 6 per cent to Spain. 

A report on the mineral resources of the Philippinea, issued by the 
United States Geologi<«l Snrvuy, says, in part: 

Coal. — So far as is definitely known, the coal of the islands is all of Tertiary age, 
and might be better characterized as a highly carbonized lignite. It is analogous to 
the Japanese coa! and to that of Wasbin^n, hut not to the Welsh or Pennsylvania 
coals. Such lignites usually contain considerable combined water (8 to 18 per cent) 
and bear transportation ill. They are also apt to contain much sulphur 



\te, rendering them subject to spontaneous combustion and injurious to boiler 

Eee. Nevertheless, when pyritous seams are avoided and the l^ite is properlv 
died it forms a valuable fuel, especially for local consumption. In these islands 



most purpoeefl. Lignite is widely diatributed m the archipelago. Some of the seams 
are of excellent width, and the quality of certain of them is high for fuel in this class. 

Coal exists in various provinces of the island of Luzon (Anra, CamarinoB, Batan. 
Borsogon) . The fineet beds thus far discovered appear to he in the small island oi 
Baton, lying to the east of the southern portion of Luzon. 

Petroleum,- — In the island of Zebu petroleum has been found associated with coal 
at Toledo, on the west coast, wherea concession has been granted. It is also reported 
from Asturiaa, to the northwest of Toledo, on the same coast, and from Algeria to 
the south. Natural ^ is said to exist in the Zebu coal fields. On Panay, too, oil is 
reported at Janiuay, in the province of Iloilo, and gas is reported from the same 
islknd. Petroleum highly charged with paralKn is also Found on Leyt«, at a point 
about 4 miles from Villawi, a town on the west coast. 

Oold. — Gold is found in a vast number of localities in the archipelago from northern 
Luzon to central Mindanao. In most cases the gold is detrital, ana found either in 
existing water courses or in stream dcpoeits now deserted b^ the current. These last 
are called "alluviones" bv the Spaniards. It is said that in Mmdanao some of the 
gravels are in an elevated position and adapted to hydraulic mining. There are 
no data at hand which intimate decisively the value of any of the placers. They 
are washed by natives lai^ly with cocoanut shells for pans, though the bat«a is also 

In the province of Ahra, at the northern end of Luzon, there are piacera, and the 
gravel of the river Abra is auriferous. InLapantothcrearegold-quartz veiosaswell 
08 gravels. Gold is obtained in this province dose to the copper mines. In Benguet 
the gravels of the river Agno carry gold. There is altio gold in the province of Bon- 
toc, in Nueva Ecija. The most important of the auriferous provinces is Camarines 
Norte. Here the townships of Mambuloo, Paracaie, and laho are especially well 
known as gold-producing localities. Mr. Drache, a well-known German geolo^^st, 
says that there were 700 natives at work on the rich quartz veins of this placer at 
the time of his visit about twenty-five years since. At Paracaie there are parallel 
quarts veins in granite, one of which is 20 feet in width and contains a shoot in 
which the ore is said to assay 38 ounces of gold per ton. One may suspect that this 
a»ay hatdlv represented an average sample. Besides the localities mentioned, many 
others of tnis province have been worked by the natives. 

The islands of Mindoro, Cotonduanes, Sibuyan, Simor, Panay, Zebu, and Bohol 
are leportad to contain gold, but no exact data are accessible. 

At the south end of the small island of Panaon, which is just to the south of Lej^e, 
there are gold-quartz veins, one of which has been worked to some extent. It is 6 
feet in thickneai, and has yielded from $6 to (7 per ton. 

In the island of Mindanao there are two known gold-bearing districts. One of 
these is in the province of Surigao, where Placer and other townships show gravels 
and veins. The second district is in the province of Misamis. Near the settlement 
of Imponan and on the gulf of Macajalar there are said to be many square Idlome- 



oo^lc 



142 OOIOCEBCIAL BBLATIONS. 

teiBof gravel canning large qnantitiesof gold with which ie tueociated pUtdnmn. The 
prodact of this district vas estimated some years since at 160 onncee per month, all 
extracted by natives with bateas or cocuonutrshell dishes. 

tbpper.— Copper ores are reported from a great number of localities in the Philip- 
pines. They are sajd to occur in the followii^ islands: Luzon (provinces of Lepanto, 
Bengaet, and Camarinee), Mindoro, Capul, Masbate, Panay (province of Anti<iue}, 
and Mindanao province of Burigao). Many of these occurrences are jirol^bly 
unimportant. The great island of Mindanao, being practically unexplored, is full of 
poesibilitiee, but as yet no important copper deposit is known to exist there. An 
attempt was made to work the deposit in Masbate, but no Buccem seems to have been 
obtained. On the other hand, northern Luzon contains a copper region which is 
unquestionably valuable. The beat known portion of this r^ion lies about Mount 
Data, a peak given as 2,600 meters in height, lying in latitude 16° 53', longitude 
120° 58' east of Greenwich or 124= 38' east of Madrid. The range of which Data 
forms one peak trends due north to Cape I^cay-I^cay and forms a boundary for all 
the provinces infrii^fing upon it. 

Data itself lies in the province of Lepanto. In this range copper ore has been 
smelted by the natives from time immemorial, and before Magellan discovered the 
Philippines. The process is a complicated one, based on the same principles as the 
method of smelling sulphoaalts of this metal in Europe and America. It eonsists in 
alternate partial roasting and reductions to "matte," and eventually to block copper. 
It is generally believed that this process must have been introduced from China or 
Japan. It is practiced only by one peculiar tribe of natives, the Igorrotes, who are 
remarkable in many ways. 

Vague reports and the routes by which copper smelted by natives comes to market 
indicate that there are copper mines in various portions of the Cordillera Central, but 
the only deposits which have been examined with any care are those at Mancanyan 
(about 5 miles west of Mount Data) and two or tiiree other localities wi^in a few 
miles of Mancanyan. The deposits of Mancanyan are described as I'eins of rich ore 
reaching 7 meters in width and arranged in groups. Mean assays are said to show 
over 16 per cent of copper, mainlf as tetrahednte and allied ores. The ^angue is 
quartz. The country rock is deecnbed as a large quartzite lens embedded in a great 
mass of trachyte. An attempt has been made by white men to work these depodte, 
but with no considerable success. The failure does not seem to have been due to the 
quality or quantity of ore found. 

Lead andtUver.^A. lead mine has been partially developed near the town of Zebu, 
on the island of the same name. 

The most important deposit of argentiferous galena is stud to be at Torrijos, on the 
small island of Marinduque (latitude 13° 34'} , A metric ton, or 1,000 kili^^roms, is 
Bwd lo contain 96 grams of silver, 6 grams of gold, and 665.5 kilograms of lead. 

In CamarineSj a province of Luaon, lead ores occur, but are worked only for the 
gold tbey contain. 

Jron. — There is iron ore in abundance in Luzon, Garabello, Zebu, Panay, and 
doubtless in other islands. In Luzon it is found in the provinces of Luguna, Pam- 
panga, and Camarines Norte, but principally in Bulacan. The finest deposits are in 
the last-named province, near a small settlement nametl Camachin, which lies in 
latitude 15° 7' and longitude 124° 47' east of Madrid. A niiiail industry exists here, 
wrought iron being produced in a sort of bloomery^ and manufactured into plow- 
shares. The proces has not been described in detail, so far as I know. It wonld 

.L_. .1. , -■. ■ -gjjj j^ produced to some advantage in this re)'" 

■e probably unsuitable for iron blast furnaces. 

BUIJSIA IX ASIA. 
Commercial Agent Greener, of Vladivostok, sends the following: 



According to a newspaper report, it is proposed to turn the military port of Vladi- 
vostok into a conmieroial port, making it the principal terminus of the Trans- 
Siberian Railroad. Port Arthur will then become the cliief military port of eastern 
Siberia. Talienwan, which has been renamed "Dalny," will be the commercial 
port, and an "open" one, of ihe Pechili Gulf. Every effort will be made to make 
it an important trade center. The plans of streets. Government buildings, etc., are 
already tormulated and will be put in execution, widle the constmctiou of tKo vari- 
ona liiiee of railroad is also being pushed to completion. 



:::G00'^|C 



ABIA; RU88IA IN A8IA. 



Then. 

give rise to some complications, bo far aa Talieawan (Datny) ie concerned. The law 
will take eSect January 1, 1900. If Dalnjr be atrictly a Kusrian port and within the 
scope of the new law, this will prevent it being considered a free port." If it ie 
not subject to the new law, then it must be r^jarded as a Chinese port. Besides, 
there is ^ve doubt whether there ia Rimiaii capitel of sufficient magnitude to build 
ttt^amshipe, which do not pay more than G or 6 per cent profit in the world's market. 



The plan of the Russian Giovemment to form an eastern Asiatic steamship com- 
pany, to open conununication between Port Arthur, the Hanchuhan Railroad, Vla- 
aivoetok, and other ports of the Fu' East, is now armi^ed. The serrice between 
Vladivcxrtok and Port Arthur will soon be begun. 

The new et«an)Bhip company is practically part of the Eastern Chinese Railway 
system, a popular enterprise, in which the Imperial Government holds the majority 
of the stocli:. 

Messrs. Shevelofi & Co., pioneers in the steam coasting trade, have reoently found 
it advisable to leam thdr subsidy from the RussiaD Oovemment for a certain term. 
The shipe of this firm will enter the new service about January 1, 1900. It is pro- 
posed to put tea steamers on the new line. 



MANUHtriUA. 



Siberian p 



tinnally r 
Is of Man< 



._ and rich fields of Manchuria will become a part of the Russian Empire in 

the East Here is a territory with bji area of 15,000 aguore miles and a population of 
7,000^000 only awaiting the transforming process which has made Liandoon formally 
Russian territory — the same process wuich occupied the Amur and the maritime 
provinces. 

Manchuria at the present time is the promised land toward which all qmcnlative 
eves in Siberia are turned. On the west, north, and east, Russian frontier enfol3s it — 
the Amur since 1858 and the maritime province since 1880 — all original parts of Man- 
churia. The Russian Empire now has a firm grip at the south, not at all likely to be 
looeened, and no uprising or tumultuous advance, say 8it>erian writers, is needed to 
hasten the time when the ripe fruit will fall into the hands calmly waitipg to receive it. 
The Coesack guards (4,200 infantry, 1,600 cavalry, and 4,000 "frien<te of China," 
gangs of Chinese officered by Russians) , now patrolling the line of the Eastern Chi- 
nese Railroad, and ^e oostof the railroad itaelt are all big items of national expense, 
but they are wort,h the outlay and show the foresight and reedstles energy of the 
Buesians. 

Much is said about the immense markets of the future lo be formed among these 
Manchurians. There are wild tales of gold and the wonderful productivity of the 
Boil. The natives themselves ore a hardy, stalwart race, differing wideiv from their 
Chcfoo and Hongkone and Shanghai confreres. Even In arranging the dolails of the 
gniiia of land and right of wa^ the Chinese Home Government is obliged to use 
greater caution in de^i^with its northern subjects. 

The Chinese Eastern Railway is sometimes ironically called "the Manchurion 
bisnch of the Siberian RoUway" (twenty-two sections of the main line are now 
completed, making more than 1,590 miles; Monkden to Port Arthur is already fin- 
ished, and Stretinsk to Vladivostok will next be finished). It is no longer ironical; 
it is a sober fact. 

There lately pafised through Vladivostok a representative of th« St. Petersbuiv 
British embassy. This gentleman had visited Habin, the ^reat railroad center oi 



1,000,000 additional had been sent within a week. 

He had inspected the line, noticed the trend of improvement, and the nnddity 

with which all the nulway work through Manchuria was being pushed. He saw 
much waste of material; the helpless !teldwin locomotivee sent with fire boxes for 
wood in a country where there is no wood, and compound engines instead of the ordi- 
nary ones. These were sent last winter from Vladivostok to Niuchwang, and after a 
series of accidents reached the Shanhai-Kuan-Niuchwang line, the most rickety and 
dangerous place perhaps on the whole railway. 



byGoo'^lc 



144 OOIOCEBOIAL RGLATIONB. 

But whether Government proiwrty is properly handled and accounted for or prod- 
igftlly used, the road is prcereenng. It ia thoroughly guarded; the Chinese them- 
Belvee are being tranafonned into workingmen, gmude, el«. 

8tBERIiJ« EAILWAT, 

According to ao estimate sent by Consul-General HoUoway, of St. 
Petersbure, about 800 miles of the Siberian Railway i-emaio to be com- 
pleted, Tne total length is some 3,600 miles. In regard to the con- 
dition of the road, the following newspaper extracts, transmitted by 
Mr. Greener, will be of interest: 

The Sibirski Listok says: 

In the haste of conetruction and the anxiety to get everything cheap on both the 
Siberian and the Trans-Bukal linea, a special kind of light raile, weighing 12 pounds 
to the foot, inetead of the usual 24 pounds to the foot, was usfd. Wooden bridgee were 
huilt wherever it waspomihleana croB§ingB were made far apart. Under Ruch con- 
ditions quick traveling on the road is at most an imposelbility, and more than 20 miles an 
hour can not be made. Only one pasaen^r and two freight trains a day are run. To 
addto the danger they have put on the line one of the heaviestenginesmeitiatence— 
the compound Byatem. The light weight of the mils, the steep inclinee, and the high 
giadings uimbined make traveling risky. On sleep inclines the compound nms at a 
rate of 60 verets (33 miles) an hour, turning the rails out, and there is no way of 
stopping it. At the station of Polovinoy eleven cars were tlius destroyed. 

In such a condition do we find the Siberian Railroad at the present time. Fast 
traveling is impossible, as the rails are too light, while, on the other hand, slow travel- 
ing can not be always controlled, as the heavy engines can not be held back on the 
inclines. The committee of Michalovski have come to the conclusion that everything 
must be reconstructed. But this will cost aereat sum of money— on the Trans-Baikal 
line alone there will have to he spent not less than 15,000,000 rubles ($7,725,000), 
ahnost50 per cent of the entire cost of the line; on the whole Siberian Railroad there 
will have to be spent not lees than 50,000,000 rubles ($25,750,000) . The light-weight 
rails must be put aside and wooden bridges turned mto firewood; everyuiing inast 
be rehuUt and the number of stations increased. 

The Dalny Voatok aays: 

Opinions about the Great Siberian Bailroad vary widely; we think that its general 
plan is excellent, but there ia room for improvement. 

On account of economy the r<»d was built very light, little ballast being used in 
manv places; rails on the western half of the road, especially, weigh not more than 
24 kilograms (52.0poundE) to themeter.thusmakingitdaogerousforBpeedy traveling. 

Further, tiie engineers thought it adviaahleto lay the line on marehy ground instead 
of on the neighboring highlands, where the ground is solid and firm, and in the near 
future it will nave to be relaid. In some districts, again, a m.islske was committed 
in the choice of the direction of the line. Tomsk, the capital of western Siberia, 
was left 80 versts (53 miles) on the side, and connected witn the railroad by a bad 
road. Further, in order to foster home trade, the movable supplies arj .■? a were 
ordered principally from Russian iron works in the Ural districts, and they cost twice 
as much as it they had been obtained in England. A great deal of material was pro- 
vided in advance and rotted t>efare it was used. 

The general cost of the Great Siberian Railroad is estimated to be 350,000,000 rubles 
f$180,250,000), including 11S,000,000 rubles ($60,770,000) for the construction of the 
Amur line from Stretinsk to Khabarofak, which project has iieen changed by the 
buildmg of the Manchurian line. The last will cost 100,000,000 rubles ($51,500,000) . 
It istrue that the JIanchurian Railroad is constructed by a joint stock company, but 
as most of the shares are in Government hands the greater part of the money must 
come from the Government treasury. 

The cost of 1 mile of railroad is calculated at about 35,000 rubles ($18 026) for the 
WestSiberiandivision;50,000 rubles ($25,750) for the Trans-Baikal and Ussurian line. 
The construction of the railroad in North America under similar circumstances cost a 
great deal less than the above-mentioned sums, and yet these are calculated for 1H91. 
The real cost will be probably increased to about 40,000,000 rubles ($20,600,000) 
more, or 67,000 rubles ($34,606) per mile, for the Tians-Saikal line. 



byGoo'^lc 



ASIA: BUraiA IN ASIA. 



TRADE IN BIBBSIA. 



The Moniteur Offiuiel du Commerce, of Paris, eays: 

The importBDcs ol th« Siberisn market hte long been reoognized. The GerauLnfl 
eepecultf are taking poeMnion of the new field in oriental Siberia by the building 
olthe railway of the Ooeouri from Vladivostok to Khabarovka. A German-Siberian 
company has been formed at Hamburg, under the protection of the Government, for 
the porpoee of developing commercial relations between Germany and the district of 
Amur. KhaberoTka nas been made the center of opetadoniL Agents provided with 
aamplee have been eetablished there, ready to eichange them for the raw producta 
of the country. The extension of German commerce in Siberia is shown in the Riuaiau 
official reports, where the statement is made that 30 per cent of the total commerce 
of Siberia is with Germany; Bussia bae 25 per cent; England follows with 16 per 
cent; Jm>«^i 1^ P^ cent; China, 12 per cent; and, Uetly. the United States, 6 per 
cent Tne port of Vladivostok is free, except for the following articles: Alcoholic 
liqnotB, tobacco, matches, petroleum, vamisn, sugar, confectionery, and preserved 
frnite. It is one of the most beantiful roadsteads of the East, and, as a commerdal 
and military center, by far the most important port of oriental Siberia. Besides beiojg 
the naval beae for the formidable fleet which Russia keeps in the Pacific Ocean, it u 
the terminos of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which from day to dav increases its 
commercial importance. The commerce of the United Btatea with Vudivoatok has 
consideiably increased. In 1897, 12,641 tons of American soods entered, agtunst 3,180 
tons in 1890. Exporters of American wood have established a permanent agency at 
Vladivostok. Wood from Oregon is used in the construction of the Manchurian 
Railway. The work on this branch line is divided into three sections, and is carried 
on systematically without intermption. The work is controlled by Rnaians, the 
coohee having Coosacks for overseers. American locomotives will soon be passing 
over the rails, A Beltnan syndicate tias obtained the monopoly of the restaurants 
and hotels to be established alone the whole line of the road. A United States firm 
has the contract for the cartwe oi materials for the road and has established a branch 
office at Ninchwang. In addition to its fleet of steamers, this honse usee seveml Jap- 
anese boats. 

Not onlr is gold found in Siberia, but silver, lead, copper, coal, and iron have been 
discovet«a in ^reat qoantitiea along the Trans-Siberian road. The ooal measuree of 
Kuznesk oontam about 27,000 square miles and include the extraordinarily rich mines 
of Koltecbouginks, besides enormous beds of anthracite. Measures have been taken 
to develop these minee; the Government has furnished the neceHsary funds. This 
will create a large market for machinery, tools, and material of every kind. Oemen^ 
wood, iron and steel, lead, cast-iron and forged pipes are already in great demand. 
From the 8th of September, 1898, to the Ist of January, 1909, the Russian Gov- 
ernment has declared machines and pieces of machinery destined for the working 
of mines to be free from duty on all the frontiers of the Empire. Not only is there a 
great market for mining machines, but hundreds of other artJclee will find an aeeored 
sale. The field for agricultural machines is immense. 

The economic sitnaUon of the Siberian peasant is, all things considered, very fav- 
orable. With 200 or 250 rubles (|103or|129) he can own a farm, carts, tools, honee, 
cows, and other domestic animals. Farm laborers get from 50 to 75 moles (f2S.76 to 
•38.63}ayear. A workman in a monnfactory gels from 15 to 30 rubles (f7.72to|15.45) 
a month. Food is generally cheap. Emi^tion into Siberia increases every year. 
More than 100,000 planters from European Eussiaarrived in 1897. There are twenty- 
eight towns of over 6,000 inhabitants. The commerce of Siberia is concentrated m 
these towns and is geatetally in the hands of a small number of individualfl, but tiie 
peasant is the great consumer. 

The trade of Vladivotitok in 1898 is thus stated by Mr. Greener: 

Imports 282,512.24 

Imports in trannt 6,902.3S 

E^rta 30,944.86 

Exports in trannt 6,523,84 

Total 806,882.99 

Coal represented 31,900 tons of the imports. Europe contributed 
71,506 toDS, and China and Japan 39,470 tons. 

H. Doc 481, Pt 1 10 /^- I 

i:Qi,.r::::CjOO'^IC 



COMMEBCIAL BELATION9. 



sTKAirt} HxrrriiEUziNTs. 



The total imports in 189S, aocordiog to Consul-General Moseley, of 
Singapore, were $104,389,000 and the exports, $90,849,000. For the 
first SIX months of 1899, the figures were $67,937,000 and $51,073,000, 
respectively. Imports from Oie United States in 1898 were $1,293,000 
and exports thereto $10,400,000. There was a net increase in our 
trade, as compared with 1897, of 21.11 per cent. Flour, gaa, electric- 
lighting apparatus, and machinery show the chief increases. Great 
Britain ana British colonies supply atraut 44 per cent of the import 
trade. 

TUKKEY IN ASIA. 

Imports into the province of Sivas, says Consul Jewett, of Sivas. 
are estimated at $2,246,000 for the year ended June 30, 1899, and 
exports at $2,143,000. As usual, he continues, the balance of trade is 
against this portion of the country, and the same thing seems to be 
true of the country taken as a whole, as the statistics of all the reports 
from Turkey, as published in last year's Commercial Relations, give 
an excess of impoila over exports amounting to over $50,000,000, 
Cotton cloth ana sewing machines are the only articles of United 
States manufacture sold there. A railway line, under the manage- 
ment of a German syndicate, connecting Ckinafantinople and Bag&d 
with the Persian Gulf, is in contemplation. 

The consular agent at Samsoun, Mr. Stephopoulo, says that Germany 
is rapidly surpassing all other nations in supplying Turkey with manu- 
factured goods, and occupies the firstplaoe in both imports and exports. 
Soon after the visit of Mnperor William to Constantinople, a fort- 
nightly line of steamships was established between the Black Sea and 
Germany. In commercial rank after Germany come Austria, France, 
Belgium, Italy, and England. Many American products could find 
ready sale — such as hardware, cotton and woolen goods, ^ricultural 
machinery, cutlei^, clocks, watches, tools, nails, lam^, and possibly 
flour. The superiority of our goods is well known. The new steam- 
ship line plying between New York and Constantinople will materially 
aid our trade. 

Vice-Consul Walker, of Alezandretta, estimates the imports into 
that district for the fiscal year 1898-99 at $5,116,800, and the exports 
at $3,972,800. Great Britain sent $1,690,000 of the imports; France, 
$561,000; Italy, $568,000; Austria, $731,000; Russia, $112,000; Bel- 
gium, $364,000; Germany, $245,000; Turkey, $332,000; the United 
States, $2,510. The exports were divided among the principal coun- 
triesasfoUows: England, $22,700; France, $1,081,300; Italy, $262,400; 
Germany, $105,600; Russia, $15,300; Turkey, $1,498,200; United 
States, ^9,400. 

Consul Lane, of Smyrna, reports that there is in process of prepa- . 
ration an exposition of American manufactures, which wiU doubtless 
result in much good to American trade. 

Consul Ravn^, of Beirut, also notes the opening of a sample room 
for American goods in that city. Local intei-est in our manufactures 
is growing. Flour and beer now have a foothold, and canned provis- 
ions, tools, and kitohen utensils are appearing in the stores. Imports 
in the year 1898-99 were $8,971,000 and exporto $4,061,000. The 



Asia: turkey in asia. 147 

United States sent $51,000 worth of the imports, and took $102,800 
worth of the exports. 

Consul Bergholz, of Erzerum, reports that the imports in 1898 were 
valued at $1,154,000 and the exports at $792,000. For the aix months 
ended June 30, 1899, the imports were valued at $485,000 and the 
exports at $386,800. During this period, articles valued at $14,600 
were bought from the United States; $199,800 from England; $32,700 
from Germany; $28,500 from France; $69,900 from Austria, etc. Of 
the exports, Russia took $25,700; France, $45,800; Germany, $10,500, 
the balance going to provinces in the Empire. Mr. Bergholz notes 
that the trade of Trebizonde in 1898 amounted to $10,543,700, of which 
$3,753,700 must be credited to the Persian transit trade. 

A report from Consul Merrill, of Jerusalem, says that the exports 
from Jaffa for the year ended September 30, 1899, were valued at 
$1,712,000 and the importe at $2,211,000. 



byGoO'^lc 



AUSTRALASIA. 

NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Imports in 1898 were valued at (1118,903,000, and exports at 
$138,889,000. Trade in the first six months of 1899, saya Consul 
Bell, of Sydney, was: Total imports, «53,682,000; total exports, 
$49,648,000. Imports from Great Britain in 1898 were $37,700,000; 
from Australasian colonies, $60,700,000; from Germany, $3,755,000; 
from France, $1,043,000; from the United States, $7,800,000. 

The exports were divided as follows : Great Britain, $37,640,000; 
Australasian colonies, $42,217,000; Germany, $5,638,000; France, 
$8,270,000;_ United States, $28,961,000. 

Importations from foreign (non-British) countries, says Mr, Bell, 
have increased about 130 per cent in the last four years, while the 
increase from the United States has been over 184 per cent. Qur 
market for staple merchandise in the colony has increased at a most 
unprecedented rate during the period under consideration, the whole 
of which has been marked by discouraging seasons. We now supply 
47 per cent of the total merchandise lx)Ught by the colony from for- 
eign countries. 

NEW ZEALAND. 

The value of imports in 1898, says Consul Dillingham, of Auckland, 
was $40,080,000, including specie. To this amount the United States 
contributed $3,900,000; Great Britain some $25,000,000; France, 
nearly $100,000; Belgium, $184,000; Germany, $744,000, et«. Of 
the total exports— $51,185,000— the United States took $3,338,000. 
Notwithstanding the increase in imports from the United States — 
amounting to ^38,000 in 1898 as compared with the previous year^ 
Mr. Dillingham calls attention to the fact that it might have been 
much greater had our shippci-s been more careful in tilling orders. 
In the past ten years, imports from the United States have more than 
doubled, and the exports are in almost the same proportion. 

QUEENSLAND. 

Consular Agent Weatherill, of Brisbane, says that imports in 1898 
were $29,234,000, of which the United Kingdom sent $12,454,000, Aus- 
tralia, $13,421,000; the United States, $1,356,000; Germany, $682,000, 
et«. Exportfl amounted to $52,831,000, and were distributed principally 
as follows: United Kingdom, $21,179,000; Australasia, $30,508,000; 
Germany,$61,206; Japan, $159,000; Philippines,$196,000. TheUnited 
States received to the value of $9.73. Business generally, he says, has 
improved of late. Electric roads have been built in the cityunderthe 
direction of an AmericaD engineer, and Mr. Bates, another American, 



AD8TKALA8IA: SOOTH AU8TBALIA AND TASMANIA. 149 

is supervxaing the improvements of the port and harbor. Trade in 
American products is monthly increasing, the line of steamers running 
regularly between New York and Australia having largely contributed 
to this end. 

SOtTTH' AUSTRAXIA. 

The consular agent at Adelaide, Mr. Murphy, reports that the pro- 
longed drought tms seriously affected the exports, and, in consequence, 
tbe quantity of merchandise imported for consumption. The exports 
in 1898 were valued at $33,960,000, and the imports at $30,080,000. 
Great Britain has nearly 32 per cent of the import trade; Australasia, 
54 per cent; and the United States 5 per cent. Of the imports from 
non-British countries, however, the United Stetes has 46 per cent and 
Germany 32 per cent. Great Britain receives 25^ per cent of the 
exports, the Continent S4 per cent, and tbe United States and Canada 
Ij per cent. Imports from the United States, it appears, are rapidly 
erowing, and will probably soon enter into serious competition with 
uiose of England. German goods, also, are making way for those of 
American origin. 

TASMANIA. 

Trade in 1898, says Consul Webster, of Hobart, was divided among 
the chief countries as follows: 



Countrtei. 


ImporU. 


Expoitt. 




t2,W,D0O 

6,eis,ooo 
■■m:m 


t2,OW,»00 














TOW ... .... ..... 


8,121.000 









As trade is largely through Victoria and New South Wales, it is 
impossible, says the consul, to arrive at the value of the considerable 
unports from the United States, or of the exports thereto, these, how- 
ever, being of small account. 

VICTORIA. 

CoQSul-General Bray, of Melbourne, reports that the imports in 1898 
were valued at $81,605,800 and the exports at $77,342,000. Imports 
from Great Britain were $30,148,000; from the United States, 
$4,299,000; from Germany, $2,814,000. Exports to Great Britain 
. were valued at $32,800,000; to Germany at $2,647,000; to the United 
States at $677,000. The bulk of the trade, says Mr. Bray, has been 
with the adjacent colonies and England, and while France and Germany 
are both competitors, their competition is more restricted than that of 
the United States and does not show the same rate of increase. 
Imports from the two countries mentioned have improved some 15 
per cent during the year under review, while United States trade has 
gained fully 70 per cent. Nor is this improvement in American 
imports of a spasmodic ctiaracter or confined to special transactions in 
a line or two; it is distributed over the bulk of the imports, which 
year by year show healthy progress. Of tbe total increase in the 
importe in 1898, the United Stat^ is responsible for one-fourth. i _^ 



OOHHEBOIAL KBLATI0N9. 



POLYNESIA. 

HAWAII. 

According to the special a^ent at Honolulu, Mr. Sewall, imports in 
the first eleven months of 1899 were valued at $15,945, M9, against 
$9,971,595 in the same period of 1898. The total imports in 1898 were 
$11,650,890 and the exports $17,M7,0O0. Of the exports, $17,346,744 
worth went to the United States and some $45,000 worth to China and 
Japan, the remainder being divided among other countries. The value 
of imports in 1898, by countries, is shown below: 



!»..«.. 


y^ 


I«c««. 




■lii 

99,888,83 
































a 114,986.81 





Imports into the United States from I&waii in 1899 amounted to 
$22,188,000 and exports to Hawaii to $11,305,000. According to 
United States Treasury figures, the trade witii Hawaii in 1899 was: 

Imporli mlo the UniUd SlaUt. 



Articles. 


IHM. 


Article*, the grovrth.clc.of Ihe 


United Slstes. returned 


dollani.. 

fgoond*.. 


73, H3 






;;;;.■ ";:";";;lfc:: 


'^^2 


Hldts and skins, olhcr than Ii^r 
Free under reciprocity: 


""'"' 


{SXS" 


I1T.888 






iSdV""" 


*^^'m 




























■>,™..BL. 


Ipoundi-.. 






60 


Sugar end oiolaeseB: 






i2»,rati 




^^■IJS 






::;::;;::::.:::!°„z?::: 


K^SS 






























"".a-"™' 






' 



i;,iiz.oB,Google 



poltnksia: new Caledonia and samoa. 

ExpoTttfnm the JJaUed Sola. 



ArUclee. 


18». 






10,177 










l,43>,ei4 




S«£j-- 




hHTCl... 


^iSf 




:;::::;:;;::: "^i: 


ISS:?S 












































^-- 


61. Ml 










ii?'^---" 


rn'MS 




i""^"- 


^,^SI? 














(S»T!?S" 


wwS 




Wii««.. 






























Pil^lBlMi«(iaeal^dii'ii'^iiti) 


::::::;::::;:::::SS:::: 


301, 4» 




{8S^" 


3,8S4,M9 






















j«ffi«-- 


47,aai 




*^.'^.: 


^:^ 




































do... 






B,M6.^;o 

















NEW CALBDONTA. 

Importa in the first half year of 189!) amounted to $1,074,700, and 
exports to $978,000, according to Commercial Agent Wolff of Noumea. 
France sent over half of the imports, and Australia some $400,000 
worth. The exports were twice as much as those in a like period of 
1898 on account of the development of the mining industry. Imports 
also show an increase. 



Consul-Oeneral Osborn reports that the imports in 1898 were valued 
at $370,000 and the exports at $285,000. Germany sent $63,000 
worth, the United States $52,000, England $8,000, Australasia $212,000. 



152 



COHHEBCIAL BELATIONB. 



Of the exports, $33,000 wortli went to the United Stotes, (57,000 to 
New Zealand, $17,000 to Chile, and $139,000 to Europe. "Copra," 
says the consul-general, "is the only export of importance. There 
are also four or fire consignments oi pineapples, bananas, and limes, 
and a small amount of cured cacao shipped every year. The copra 
crop this year is the largest on record. Cacao is beeinning to give 
some return on investments, and the quality is excellent. For the 
eight months prior to May, 1899, no copra was shipped to the United 
States, 88 a better price was offered in Sydney. A new contract has 
since been made, and up to October 5, 1899, 405,416 tons, valued at 
$26,122, were sent to San Francisco." 

sociirrY isLAmw. 

"Imports in 1898 were valued at $699,429," savs Consul Do(y, of 
Tahiti, '.'and exports at $592,000. The United States sends half of 
the imports, France and colonies sent $142,000 worth, England $38,000, 
Germany $7,700. The bulk of the exports also goes to the United 
St«te8--$204,000 worth. England receives $61,800; France and colo- 
nies $20,500, Germany $19,000, Russia $27,000, Azores $74,000." 

The consul notes a decrease in imports from America of cotton goods 
and provisions. Shipments of barley, lumber, preserved milk, machin- 
ery and tools increased. The chief imports from France consist of 
Government stores. Notwithstanding the decline of trade during the 
year under review, the United States oolds its relative position in the 
commerce of the islands. 



From a British Foreign OflSce report (annual series No. 2267) the 
following table of the value of the commerce of Tonga for the year 
1898 is taken: 



Coimtri««. 


ImporU 


EiporW. 


AioTca 














18.060 










6.4»6 
























171,183 


He, OSS 





The prosperity of Tonga, continues the report, depends chiefly upon 
the cocoanut trees. In 1898, the export of copra was 75 per cent of 
the whole. There is an opening for capital in the institution of a fac- 
tory and farm for the cultivation and extraction of fiber and the dis- 
tillation of oil from flowers. Labor can be had from Savage Island at 
from 30s. to 40s. ($7.30 to $9.73) per month. Kamie, pineapples, and 
aloes grow to perfection. 



byGoO'^lc 



EUROPE. 

AUSTRIA-HXTNGABT. 

Commerce in 1898, according to official statistics, was chiefly divided 
among the following countries: 





Importt and exports by eoun 






CauDlriu 


Imporls. 


BiporM. 


n«Tin>Tis 


tlI4,e«!.5XI 

•i-ZZ 

0,294! BM 

e.wi.xo 
n, lis. EM 


nTOTtaioa 




f!:^;^ 







































Trade in 1899, says Consul-Greneral Huretj of Vienna, improved 
considerably, exports gaining $25,000,000 in the first six monms and 
imports decreasing over $14,000,000. The new crown currency' went 
into effect January 1, 1900. A fact of importance to the United States 
is the adhesion of Bulgaria to the decree prohibiting the importation 
of cotton-seed oil. Tnis oil had been largely used in the principality 
^nd the import was nmidly growing. The recent regulations on the 
subject are severe. Tne import of any oils intended for eating pur- 
poses in which a chemical analysis can reveal the slightest trace of 
cotton-seed oil is prohibited. 

Consul Donzelmann, of Prague, reports that Bohemia offers a good 
field for American com and meal, as well as for clocks, furniture, 
fruits, machinery, etc. 

Consul Mahin, of Reicbenberg, notes a decline in imports of grain 
from the United States in 1899, on account of the good crops m the 
country. Imports of bacon also declined 25 per cent in the first six 
months and of lard nearly 60 per cent. Imports of suet, however, 
increased 400 per cent; of timber, 300 per cent; machine oil, 50 per 
cent, etc. Imports of cotton from the United States have declined, 
while those from British India are growing. 



Imports of merchandise In 1899, says Consul-General Lincoln, of 
Antwerp, were valued at $406,817,000 and exports at $342,072,000, 
representing a gain of 8 and 4 per cent, resp«ctively, as compared 



' Tbe subetitaUon of ci 



IB for florina or gnldena, tee p. 8. 



GlSD'^lc 



154 ' OOHUEROIAL SELATIONS. 

with the figures for the preceding year. Imports from the United 
States in 1898 were valued at $58,498,000, showing an advance of 31 
per cent over those for 1897. The increase was mainly in grain, 
drugs, cotton, animals, etc. Exports to the United States decreased 
over $1,500,000; the total amounted in 1898 to $9,958,800. They 
showed a decrease in the lines of sugar, raw textiles, hemp and flax, 
woolen textiles, glassware, anns, metels, etc. 

Imports from France were valued at $52,754,000; from England, 
$39,976,000; from Germany, $38,836,000; from Holland, $29,388,000. 
Exports to the same countries were: Germany, $74,923,000; France, 
$60,661,000; England, $57,168,000, and Holland, $36,948,000. 

Consul LeBert, of Ghent, notes the enormous increase in imports 
from the United States in the i»st three years. In 1890, it appears, 
our country had the fifth place in importance in importations. It has 
now risen to a commanding place in the trade. Consul Roosevelt, of 
Brussels, however, points out that England and Germany control many 
lines of trade, suco as cutlery, shoes, tools, hardware, machinery, 
railway material, clocks, stoves, etc., in which we should have a good 
share. Most of these articles, he says, are imitations of American 
products. 

Consul Winslow, of Li^e, says that American machinery has been 
placed during the last year to a considerable extent in his district 
and the outlook for 1900 is bright. 



DEIOfARE. 



Vice-Consul Blom, of Copenhagen, gives the exports in 1898 at 
$86,564,000 and the imports at $121,940,000. The chief reasons for 
the difference between imports and exports, he says, were the enforced 
stoppage of export of Danish cattle, the high price of foreign grain 
and coal, and the increased import of lumber and wood^ and especially 
of foreign vessels. The distribution of trade was mainly as follows: 



CoontrkK 


impon. 


Kipom. 


-, 


14.114,120 
10.1M.2W 
UB3186S 
M 048 118 
2.460, SB2 
2,1)33, !>»4 
17,i:.«. 


S{.T14.B4a 






»; 707.144 
15,115,468 

m;57»;096 


German r 




aia , 


KSS^ 

















Thev 



e -consul adds: 



BusineH between the United States and Denmark is increasinff rapidlv. Beliable 
Btatiatica for 1899 ere not ready, bnt even if the^ were^ thev would nve out an inad- 
equate ideaof the comparatively enormous busine« with tfie United States, as many 
goods of American origin reach Denmark indirectly and are not credited to the United 
States. Denmark has in 1890, no donbt, bought over $20,000,000 from the United 
State*, against $16,000,000 in 1888 and $13,000,000 in 1897, mostly grain and feeding 
stuffs; but there is hardly an American manufactured article which has not found 
its way to Denmark, and I am h^py to say that I now hear but few complainta of 
United States gooda. 



byGoO'^lc 



EUBOPB: FKANCB and aKSMAKT. 



The imports of France in 1899 are steted at *813,909,900, and the 
exports at $752,534,400. For 1898, ConsuWJeneral Gowdy, of Paris, 
Sives the imports at $1,077,519,000 in the general and $863,096,000 
m the special commerce. Exports were $901,985,000 and $677,603,000, 
respectively. The special commerce with the chief countries was: 





CkninlrlsL 


Imports. 


EipOTU. 


VnUedBtMi^ 




1 


S?'tS-S! 














Tfl,(W!,(»(l 





The consul-general calls attention to the fact that, both in general 
and special commerce, imports from the United States lead those of 
other countries. The chief imports from the United States into 
France are cereals, cotton, wool, copper, petroleum, cotton oil, tobacco, 
etc. Exports to the United States consist mainly of silk and cotton 
manufactures, leather goods, feathers for millinery, woolens, gloves, 
wines, and artificial flowers. 

The trade of France with the Philippine Islands, Cuba, and Puerto 
Bico is stated as follows: Imports into France from the Philippines, 
general commerce, $1,829,254, against $2,168,741 in 1897. In special 
commerce, the imports in 1898 were $1,439,587, against $1,980,566 in 
the previous year. Exports from France for the two years were: 
General commerce, 1898, $116,560; 1897, $126,801; special commerce, 
1898, $65,560; 1897, $108,400. Imports from Cuba and Puerto Rico 
are classified together. In the general commerce, they amounted to 
$2,918,250 in 1898, and in the special commerce, to $1,577,708. 

Consul Jackson, of La Rochelle, notes an inci'ease in tne importa- 
tions from the United States into his district of agricultural imple- 
ment's, bicycles, cairiages, lard and hams, dried apples, hardware 
and window .sashes, locomotives, steel and iron, and sewing machines. 
Ice-cream freezers and graphopuones are also coming into favor. 

Consul Covert, of Lyons, reports a market for steel billets and coaL 
American glazed kid is sold all over France, he says, for shoes. 
Consul Skinner says that an enormous expansion is taking place in 
the trade between Marseilles and the United States. "It is not too 
much to say," he continues, "that Marseilles business now secures its 
impulse from New York, and the relations of this port with America 
are more important to local industrial interests than those sustained 
with any other power." He notes that thousands of tons of sulphate 
of copper are consumed there annually, and says that as soon as the 
discriminating duty ceases to exist, America will dominate the market. 
In coal there appears to be an excellent opening for United States 
trade in the Mediterranean, 

GERMANT. 

The importa in 1899 were valued at $1,308,013,000 and the exports 
at $983,561,200, according to official returns. 

Consul-G«neral Mason, of Berlin, gives the imports in the entire 

Goo^^lc 



OOMUEBCtAL RELATIONS. 



year of 1898 as $1,303,680,000 and the exports as $952,415,000. Trade 
with the priDcipal countries was as follows; 



Countries 


Impom. 


Export*. 




Is 

140. 6ia 
99, «a 

3S,7» 


m,bT0.136 




















^■'^■'^ 






Ts'^'^ 






10. M9, M 






79.825. M 





The following extracts are from Mr. Mason's report: 

The record of 189S in Germany was that of a year durins which the extraordinary 
induBtrial and commercial prosperity that ha<l mtgun in 1894 and rose to noteble pro- 
portione in 1S97 waa continued in eteadil^ increasinj; volume and impDrtance. Ah 
it was Baid of 1897 that it was a year during which "every chimney in the Father- 

' ' ig,eveiy wheel tumi " ' ' ■ ■ > ■■ 

h activity everywher 
service largely increased. 

It was during thie year that the occupation of Kyao-chau, the notable extenaionB of 
the range and effectiveness of mibeidized steamehip lines, and the efforts of the Uov- 
emment to enlarge its navy, proclaimed definitely the vigorous foreign policy of the 
Empire, its determination to mainliun and extend ile political and commercial rela- 
tioneae a world power, with itA skilful petsiatcnt grasp upon every acceseible foreiKti 
market and its liag upon every sea. Turn where one may in Germany, among the 
statistics of the year, there is found everywhere the uniform record of accelerated 
activity, enlarged production, augmented tiome conaumptjon, and increased foreign 

The HgureB of exports to our country show an increase of over {9,500,000 during the 



with the increased prosperity and consequent purchaeiag power of a vast majority 
of people in the Uniteo Sta'tes. They are also significant from the fact that the 
figures for 1898 cover the first fiscal year during which imports liave been wholly 
under the United .States tariff of July 24, 1897, and free from tne diBturbinginflnences 
that always attend the introduction of a new schedule of import duties. They prove 
again whet so many foreigners — especially Germans — have been unwilling to believe, 
that it is not so mucli the rate of duty that governs many classes of imports as the 
fact whether the American people are or are not prosperous at home and have or 
hu'e not money to spend on luzuriea from abroad which can not be or are not made 
at home. 

Another important factor — especially in many branches of textile products — is the 
growing productive capacity of the United Slates. It is in this department— man u- 
feilures of silk, woolen and cotlon dress goods, hosiery, linilerwear. etc.— that the prin- 
cipal losses in German exports during the past two years will be found, and in most 
of these cases the tliminished import is balanced by a more tlian corresponding 
increased production of similar merchandise by lactones in the United States. 

None of these facts, however, has served to allay the irritation of the German 
press, particularly the trade journals, most of which represent, more or lees aggres- 
sively, some special industry or branch of trade, and which are never weary of point- 
ing to the marked disparity between German exports to the United States and 
imports from our country. This they attribute wholly to the tariff, and what they 
are pleased lo term the "chicanery" of customs officers, by which is meant the efiorts 
of appraising officers to Bscertain and fix uniCom, dutiable values on imports, which 
are not always identical with the market value as declared by European exporters.' 
There is behind all this complaint another sentiment, which has become more 
especially outspoken during the past six months. Economic writers of all croeda 
in Germany are amazed by the unexampled growth of American exports, especially 
of roaDuIautured products, during the past three years, and they argue that a fiacal 



bubope: oebmant. 157 

policy which has entailed ench results in the United States could not fail to be 
eqaafiy advantageous to Germany, and there is now a demand, more general and 
imperative than at any time hitherto, that the new German tariff which has been 
formulated after years of careful scientific study, and will come before the Reichstaii 
during the latter part of this year, shall embody a general tuid marked increase of 
duties, eepecialiy upon articles of import from the United States. 

The value of German exports to the United States during the calendar year 1898 
was $77,700,000, while imporls to the Fatherland from our country during the same 
twelvemonth were, according to the beet attainable statistics. (163,800,000, a differ- 
ence o£$86, 100,000 which lies heavily on the hearts of theagrariane and a large class of 
writers and speakers who do not reflect, or at least neetect to point out, that while 
Clerman exports to the United States ate largely of high-claas manufactured mer- 
chandise, finished and ready for consumption, import* from our country are lately 
food prodncts, which Germany can not produce in sufficient quantities at home; 
cotton and other raw materials without which her industries would be helpless, and 
machinery which day by day increasefl Germany's productive capacity and equips 
her more fully for the competition of the future. Nothing of all this figures in the 
arguments of the complainants, who are constantly (ii^ng tlie German Government 
toward higher duties, reprisals, anything that can serve to restore the balance of 
trade with our country lo where it was during the fiscal year of 1889, when German 
exports to the United States were {68,002,594 and our imports from Germany 
$81 ,742,648, whereas the fiscal year 1899 shows United States exports to Germany to 
have been 1156,772,279, against imports from this country which were valued by the 
Geiman exporters at $83,744,791. 

Significant amonB the figures of imports from the United States is the heavy 
declme in both fresh and dne<] fruits, which may be attributed somewhat to a short 
crop at home, but mainly to t)ie panic among tlie agrarians caused hy fear of the 
San Joe^ scale and the vigorous measures adopted by the Government to avert all 
danger from that source. As a result of these restrictions, the import of fresh apples 
and dried pears from the United States, which had developed with such promise 
from the year 1806, has been practically destroyed. 

Another striking item is the increase of 64,0]0 tons in the Import: of American 
Inmber and timber, a trade which is founded upon sound and permanent conditions 
of demand and supply, and is susceptible of indefinite developments. Year by year, 
all the choicer, more valuable grades of lumber, oak, walnut, maple, etc., become 
more scarce and costly in Europe, and the demand for supplies from America more 
urgent and extensive. If American exporters will come and study this market as 
thoroughly and then work it as skillfully as has been done by our makers of 
machinery, tools, bicycles, etc., they can double their already large export to Ger- 
many within len than five years. 

Especially noteworthy is the success which has followed the efforts of Germany to 
obtam aflrm tooting in the far east and secure her share of what her farsighted states- 
men rectwTiizc as the chief commercial prize of the twentieth century, the trade of 
China. The occupation of Kyao-chau was a definite and scarcely di^^ised step 
toward this result. From the nest information that can be obt^ned, German com- 
merce with China has increased 70 per cent during the past four years. In 1S92, 78 
Gennanfirms were established in that country; in 1897, they numbered 101, and they 
are rapidly increasing in numbers and infiuence. Important mining and other con- 
ceaiona have been secure<l in Shantung, and a German railway is to be built from 
Kyao-chau to Hoangho. In connection with these enterprises, a contract has been, 
or is to he, concluded between the Imperial Government and a syndicate of east 
Araatic German hoases, which has its pnndpal office at Tsintau and a working capital 
of 50,000,000 marka 

The specialised information and commercial samples brought home by the commis- 
rion of 1897 have been digested, classified, and put into the hands of German manufac- 
turers and exporters, who know therefrom exactly what th-i trade of China requires; 
how the goods should he made, packed, and labeled lo meet the wants and tastes of 
the people in that country. 

In the whole chapter of Germany's foreign commercial policy there is no object 
lesson more strikii^ and valnable for the study of Americans than the intelligent 
audaritj' with which German capital is launched and invested in distant fieliu of 
enterprise. It is not merely the German Government, the subsidized steamship 
lines, the export aseodations of manufacturers and merchants, who are working 
b^iether like a trained and disciplined army for the prosperity and expansion of Ger- 
man tisde, but their banks and capitalists; the active money of the Fatherlaii<l is at 
every oul^Mwt, seekii^ investment not only for immediate prospective profit, but to 
get the channels and machinery of trade securely into German hands. 

Goo'^lc 



pal 



15o COIUIEBOIAL RELATIONS. 

The two bundled tniBta and syndicates which were in existence in Gennanj at the 
beginning of 1899 are increasinK io namber dav bv day, until there is scarcelj^ a sin- 
gle important product of manuucture of which tne output, price, and conditions of 
sale are not governed by a combination or understaninng between producers. A 
trust controls the coal niinee and coke ovens; the product of potash salts in the 
Btasefurt district, mineivl watera, seed oils, earthenware, and scores of specialized 
chemical products are syndicated; even the shoe manufacturere, sugar growers, and 
distillers of alcohol have been recently holding meetings for the purpoee of organiz- 
ing, 80 88 lo gain a better control of output and prices. 

It is a common remark among American business men o( the highest class who 
have come here during the past tew years to sell and set up machinery, dispose of 
■aatents, and eatabliflh great branches of American industnea, like the Niles Tool 
IVorks and the Chicago Luzfer prism-glass manufacture, that Berlin is, in its bu^- 
ness alertness, energv, and eager interest in improved methods, more like an Ameri- 
can city than any otner capital in Europe. When, during the early spring of 1899, 
Hon. Robert F. Portervisited this city and was shown through the vast worlcs of the 
Union Electrical Company, the macaine shops of Ludwig Loewe, and other estab- 
lishments, filled with American machinery and employing numerous engineers, 
chemists, electricians, and workmen from the United Stst^, he was prompt to admit 
that nowhere had he seen more intelligently planned, admirably constructed and 
ecjuipped workshops; nowhere had he found the science of manufacture raised to a 
higher, more modem standard of excellence than here. From the Allis engine in 
the power building to the Shaw traveling cranes and the lathes, automatic planere, 
milling and screw-cutting machines from Hartford and Providence, the whole equip- 
ment of these vast workshops are from two sources, either manufactured by them- 
selves lareely after American models or imported from leading makers in the United 
States. When, a few months ago, a new casting or foundry building of the most 
improved type was urgently needed by the same establishment, the steel frame, with 
cranes ana ooisting apparatus complete, was ordered from the United States. 
American tanning and shoemaking machinery have revolutionized the shoe and 
leather industries of this country. American typewriters, desks, cash roisters, and 
office furniture and Aztnres are sold in increasing qiuintities and are universally 
appreciated. American machinery holds the first place in Germany because of its 
high quality, consummate effectiveness, and the promptness with which it has been 
deliveied. It can be said of our great machine and tool makers that they have come 
over here, studied the German market, and worked it more intelligently than any other 
class of American bueinees men, except two or three of our leading bicycle makers. 
Their succeffi has aided in large measure to eauip Germany as the most formidable 
future rival of the United States in foreign flelus. But this is the natural and inevit- 
able path of progress for (ivilized nations, and a country with natural resources and 
advantages liKe those of the United States need grudge no rival a fair start in the 

How far the higher prices and slower dehvery of American machinery which have 
come with the increased demand and higher wages and materials al home will affect 
the export trade to Giermany remains to ne seen, but some effects of this more strin- 
gent situation are already becoming felt. Here as at home, buildeia of electrical and 
other machinery are months behind their orders, makers of automobiles are so pre«<ed 
that their agente complain of not being able to obtain even sample machines under 
six months, and l^uime builders of electrical 'tail way and lighting plants are said to 
have on their books orders that will tax their entire energies for the next two years. 
Seventy-three electric roads were projected during the first six months of 1899, and 
out of 212 new factories founded during the same period, 43 were for making railway 
cars, materials, and supplies. 

Finally, the American 45-ton freight car has caught the watchful eyes of German 
railway managers, and there is now a demand that as a means of reducing the high 
railway freights which now weigh so heavily ufjon certain branches of German indus- 
try and trade, cars capable of carrying 45 metric tons shall be provided for all hauls 
exceeding 100 kilometers. A writer on this topic in Stahl und Eisen, finishes his 
argument by showing that the E^russian State railways in 1S97 required 7,100,223 car- 
loads to transport 106,503,353 tons of freight, whereas the same tonnage could have 
been transported by 2,366,741 carloads in the United States. 

Conaul-Gcneral Mason submits iDteresting iaformHtion in regard to 
tbe iaternal waterways of GermaDy, and the proposed revision of the 
tariff. He concludes: 



bdbope: obkeoe and italy. 



159 



of the Empire with other aaiiama, puticnlarly the United Stftt«e. It ie not to be 
denied or overlooked that, while the attitude of the Imperial Government toward our 
country has been uniformly correct^ there ia in certain baeiaeaH circles here a feeling 
of enmity and resentment wliicli did not exist prior to 1898. The heavy b^ance or 
trade which the United Statee now holds against the Fatherland , the decline in textile 
exports, and the sharpened customs regnlatioos asunst undervalualions, the coDcee- 
sions. recently granted to France, and above all, Uie etiorniauB growth of American 
manufactured exports, the aggreeeive competition of American metal and other pro- 
ducts in South America and eastern markets; all these weigh heavily on the hearts 
of the people here and will be heard from when the new tariff and treaties come to 
open debate in the Reichstag next winter. What most enlightened thinkers expect, 
oratleast hopefor, isthatoutof all thesemutatioaswillcomeahroad, liberal, compre- 
hensively framed treaty, or eeriee of treaties, between the United States and Germany, 
in whii^h all the vexed and irritating questions relatiiur to naturalized citiEenship, 
countervailing duties, and port charges on vesKle ehalt be regulated, and Uberal 
justice to imports of food products secured by reciprocal oonceesioiis and embodied 
in permanent conventions Detween the two countriM. 

Rivals and competitors in forei^ fields — South America, Africa, and Asia — the 
Union and the German Empire will always be, hut this is no reason why_ the two 
nations should not be, in their direct relations with each other, harmonious and 
matnally considerate, and this result can be in no way so effectively promoted as by 
an intelligent revision of obsolete treaties and their adjustment to modem require- 
ments and conditionB. 



The boom in business which Greece enjoyed after the close of the 
■war with Turkey, says Consul McGinleVj of Athens, still continues, 
though during the closing months of 1899 it was not ao brisk as a year 
before, owing in part to uie drought and consequent failure of crops in 
many portions of the Kingdom, and to the fttll in the value of the 
currency. Nevertheless, trade and industry seem to be flourishing. 
The United States still maintains the sixth place in the list of nations 
trading with Greece, but this list refers to the products imported 
directly from the United States; the fact is that probably four or five 
times as many dollars' worth are imported through European countries. 
Products of the United States are often offered for sale in Greece as 
of English, French, German, or Italian origin. American watches are 
gsiaing general favor, and bicycles and other products are becoming 
popular. 

The total imports in 1898 were J30,406,726, and the exports, 
$17,887,620. The trade with the chief countries in 1897 (no more 
recent statistics being available) was: 



CfHutrioL 


ImporU. 


Eipotm. 




tb.m.om 

'•SiS! 


».862<inn 




''67! 
728 







































The value of the imports in 1898 is given in a report from Consul- 
General de Castro of Rome as $271,400,000 and of the exports at 
$236,074,000. Imports from the United States amounted to some 



160 OOICMZBOI&I. RELATIONS. 

$82,000,000 and ejcports thereto $20,700,000. Great Britain sent 
$49,002,700 of the imports and took to the value of $22,503,800 of 
the exports. The figures for other countries are: France, imports, 
$22,465,200; exports, $28,198,000. Austria, imports, $25,090,000; 
exports, $27,772,700. Germany, imports, $30,358,900; exports, 
$37,036,700. Eu.ssia, imports,. $36,322,600; exports, $1,987,900. 
United States, imports, $32,076,600; exports, $20,708,900. Germany 
is acquiring control of Italian trade, largely on account of the meth- 
ods adopted by the eitporters of that country. 

Consul Cramer, of Florence, notes that United States goods in every 
line are to be found in the leading shops of that city. Recently, a 
number of freezers were imported and met with ready sale. Consul 
Smith, of Leghorn, says that the increase in importations from the 
United States in recent years is gratifying. There Is an opening for 
the introduction of coal. Consul Jarvis, of Milan, reporte that our 
^ricultural machinery is bein^ imported to a satisfactory extent. 

Consul Monaghan, of Chemnitz, sends the following data as to Italian 
trade in 1899: 

German papers are publiahise extracts from a report recently made by Italy'e 
minister of finance, covering Italy's eiportn and imports. 

Imports in the flret half of 1899 fell off from 741,000,000 lire (1143,013,000), to 
718,000,000 lire (H 38, 574, 000) ^ a. drop of 23,000,000 lire ($4,439,000). This, how- 
ever, indicates healthy conditions. During this period, Italy imported 111,000,000 
lire ((21 423,000) leee ^n than dnring the game period of 1898. Ber last harvest 
was good, the one previous poor. 

The lists of importa and exports, when examined, tell a tale of prosperity long 
unprecedented in Italian history. The importation of raw materials (or jnanufactur- 
ing purpOBe*— coal, wood, tobacco leaves, cocoons, raw rilk, wool, iron, and steel — 
increased 71,000,000 lire ($13,703,000) . The raw material exports went up 10,000,000 
hre ($1,930,000) ; manufactured articles, 15,000,000 lire ($2,895,000) . Strange to say, 
at a time when the whole world is workdng to enlarge and improve its shipbuilding 
plants, Italy's Cell off 7,500,000 lire ($1,447,500). The total exports in the first ux 
monthH of 1899 were 624,000,000 hre ($120,432,000), against 673,000,000 lire 
($110,586,000) for the firet six monthaof 1898, or again of 51,000,000 lire ($9,843,000). 

Efforts are being made to increase Italian ehipmenta to Germany. An Italian 
chamber of commerce for Berlin is talked of, to do the same kind of work as those 
in Paris and Buenos Ayree, etc. ; also the question of attaching a commercial expert to 
the Italian embas^ in Berlin. A cooperative company in Milan has planned establish- 
ments to sell Italian wines, fruits, etc,, in railroad stations all over this Empire. 
Germany is one of Italy's best cuBtAmera. She buys tropical fruits and plants, 
wines, grapes, fruits, cauuflowere, potatoes, poultry, eggs, etc. Germany's exports 
to Italy are handicapped by high duties. 'The commercial treaty of 1891, writere 
here say, did little to lizhten the burdens on Germany's exports, while the new 
commercial treaty with France allowed a 36 per cent increase in French exports to 
Italy. 

MALTA. 

Consul Grout says that imports from the United Kingdom in 1898 
were valued at $1,039,000 and exports thither at $3,411. Russia sent 
to the value of $17,082,000 and received $1,771. Italy sent $9,864,000 
and took $35,841. Ko statistics as to American trade appear to be 
available, but the consul reports a growing demand for our goods— a 
new condition of affairs. The direct steamship line from New York 
is largely instnunental in promoting trade. During the past year 
American wheat has made its appearance in Malta, and the Russian 
article, which for years has monopolized the market, is disappearing. 
The sale of canned goods, also of bicycles and meats, is increasing. 



byGoO'^lc 



BCBOPE: NETHEELAND8 AND -POKTUGAL. 



NBTHBBI-ANIW. 



The imports in 1898 were valued at $685,880,000 and the exports at 
$609,372,000. The United Statea received $18,082,000 of the exporta 
and sent $94,140,000 worth of the imports. The distiibution of trade 
among the other principal countries waa: 



CoQntrfeB. 


liQporU. 


Exports. 




lii 

10,210,800 


nSS:!!! 






■JS'IS 






■as 







Consul Listoe, of Rotterdam, speaks of the heavy demand for Ameri- 
can steel. Our hardware and machinery have gained a firm foothold in 
the country. One of the principal d^era in these lines has for the 
last four years annually doubled his trade with the United States. He 
expresses the opinion that in a short time only American hardware 
will be used in the \etherlands. Stationery supplies are also in evi- 
dence, and furniture is being introduced. 

POBTUGAl* 

A British Foreign Office report (No. 2378, annual series) gives the 
following details as to trade: 

The total imports of Portiual in 1896 amounted to ^,603,000, and the exports 
$31,515,000. The trade was <fivided amonj the principal competing conntriea sub- 
stanUally as follows: 



Countries. 


Unporta. 


BiporU. 














3,»M,53It 






i,oeo,s» 







The United Kingdom has nearly one-third of the whole trade of Portugal. 

The importance of the Portuguese colonise in Africa has greatly increased during 
the last two years. In 1897, the total value of trade between Portugal and her colo- 
nies was $8,681,836, and nearly two-thirda of this waa in transit trade. In 1898, a 



p and already show an increased production and 



assisting the financial rr 

posiM Angola are being opened up ai , 

excellent prospects; expeaitions have been sent to improve the trade in Mozam- 
bique; the valuable island of St. Thomas exports large quantities of cofiee and 
cocoa, and even the Portuguese coloniee in Guinea have become a source of profit to 
the Giovemmeut. The statistics of trade between Portugal and the colonies in 1898 



Colonlw. 


"SnSiS" 


"SSSS" 




Man 


n n,B ^m 























H. Doc. 481, Pt 1- 



OOmCEBCIAL BELATIUHS. 



RUSSIA IN EUBOPB. 



Consul-Greneral HoUoway, of St. Petersburg, reports the imports in 
1898 as $281,006,000 and the exports as $354,992,000. The trade in 
1897 (no detailed statistics for 1898 being available) was distributed 
among the principal countries as follows: 



■».«« 


Eipom. 


ImporlK 


O...M. 


Eiportii. 


ImporU. 


nomui 


lis 


»,ie7,«» 




IS 

619;™ 
















Aortita-HungMT 




M.EH.IOO 







The following extracts are from a report to the British Foreign 
Office on trade in Russia in 1898: 

Cotton leads the way in imports at Beval, with an augmentation of 680,000 
pounda, which is attributable to the growins development of the cotton mana- 
ucturing indnetry in the interior of Ruaeia. A novel feature, however, amonx the 
many articlefl imported is maize, of which over 300,000 pounds came from the lmit«d 
Stat€H, to be used by country distilleries in lieu of potatoes, the crop of which whs 
y poor. The South Buaian maize, being very damp and altogether of inferior 

tuity, could not compete with American, although the latter was considerably 



very p. 
quouty 



i, oil, and fruit from the south are chiefly import^ by way of Danish and Gei^ 
man ports. 

St^im pumps are largely imported from America, Worthington and Blake b^ng 
U)parently the popular makers, but the rtulway companies purchase copies from 
KuBsian works, even though they are dearer than the originals. 

Machine tools are also largely imported from America. I am told that these orders 
are lost to Great Britain be»uae British prices are too high and delivery too uncer- 

The bicycle trade shows aigns of drifting to America; that is to say, so far as 
cheaper cycles are concerned. Good British wheels still find buyers at £20 (ffl?) , but 
those who can not afford to pay this price (and their number is very large) piiruiase 
American cycles at £13 lOs. («5) . 

Typewriters and weighing machines all come from America, and sewing machinefl 
are chiefly supphed by Germany. 

REVIEW OP RUSSIAN INDU8TEIE8 BT THE MDSlffTEB OF FINANCE. 

Consul-General Holloway transmits from St. Petersburg a copy of 
the report (printed in English) of the minister of finance, S. witte, 
to the Emperor on the budget of Russia for 1900. The report, which 
contains much interesting akta. as to the development of Russian indus- 
tries and present conditions of finance, agriculture, etc., is given here- 
with practically in full. The minister says: 

I have the honor of submitting to your Imperial Majesty the following considera- 
tJons on the budget of the Empire for 1900: 

The estimates are as follows: 

Ordinary 1,593,746,680 

ExtiaordJnary 3, 000, 000 

1,596, 745,680 
From free lialance of trcseury 160, 641, 423 

Total 1,767.367,103 

' }{h1)1« e9ui>lB 51.5 cents. 



EUBOFE: RD98IA IN EUBOPE. 



OrdinaiTr 1,664,441,679 

Extntoidinary 192, 846, 424 

Total 1,757,387,108 

The ordinary revenue exceeds the ordinary expenditure by 29,304,001 rubles. Ab 
compared with the bud^ of 1899, the eetimatecf increaee in the ordinary revenue is 
124,617,477 rublee. and in the ordinary expenditure it is 101,782,446 rubfee. 

The most conaiaerable increase over the estimates for 1899 is expected in the reve- 
nue from the Government Baie of epirita {25.9 million rublee) , and in the exciae on 
drink (22.1 million rubles) . The calculation of the revenue from both these Bourcee 
is baaed on the data of actual receipts and on the estimated consumption ot epirits, 
takine into consideration that from Julv 1, 1900, Grovemment monopoly will be mtro- 
duced in the Don Coeaack territorv ana seven provinces (Voronezh, Courland, Eursk, 
Livonia, Stavropol, Black Sea, and Esthonia) . The increase in customs is estimated 
at 21.2 million rabies, judging from actual receipts up todate. Owing to the increased 
eaniings of the greater i«irt of State railways and to the oi>ening of r^tilar tr^c 
along the Tiflis-Kars, Perm- Kotlas, Zabaikal and Uor^hab railways, the mcrease of 
revenue from State railways is estimated at 19.1 million rublee. As compared with 
1899, the tax on industries is expected to bring in 5,000,000 rubles more; this calcu- 
lation is based on the actual receipts for the Srat half of the current year, and on the 
increased aseeseed tax, as well as the expected increase of the supplementary tax on 
joint-etock companies. Of the remaining sources of revenue the greatest increase is 
expected in reimbursement of loans and other expenses, 6,000,000 rubles, chiefly 
from interest on loans to private railways being included into budget; forests, 4.4 
million rubles; duties on transfer of property, 4,000,000 rubles; sugar excise, 3.3 
million rubles; stamp duties, etc., 2.9 million rubles; tobacco, 2,3 million rubles, etc. 

The extraordinary expenditure is estimated at 192,945,424 rubles, including 26,- 
196,285 rubles for the construction of the Siberian railway; 3,418,524 rubles for aux- 
iliary undertakings in connection with that railway; 30,673,560 rubles for the 
construction of other railways; 43,758,092 rubles for the purchase of rolling stock for 
the Siberian and other railways; 85,000,000 rubles for loans to private railways, on 
security of bonds guaranteed by Government, and 5,000,000 rubles for indemnities to 
private persons and institutions for lose of the exclusive right of selling spirita in 
retail. 

From the fonsoing, it is evident that in the budget for the coming year the ordi- 
nary revenue wiR be fully suffident to meet the ordinary expenditure, while the 
extraordinary expenditure will be covered by the free balance of the treasury, formed 
chiefly by the excess of receipts over the estimated ordinary revenue of preceding 
years. The bad harvest, the expenditure of lai^ sums of money on the construction 
of the Siberian and other railways, as well as other eitraordinarv expenditure, the 
tightness in the money market— in short, all the difficulties Russia has had to contend 
with of late have not ehaken the stability of State economy, in spita of the fact that, 
owing to the rapid growth of requirements forming charges on the budget, Uie 
expenditure of the State has been considerably increased. 

Under these circumstances, the favorable estimates for 1900 and the fulfillment of 
preceding budgets prove that Russia's economy is sound at bottom^ and that the 
unavoidable embarnasments that individual branches of the national economy of a 
State at times endure have not affected the productive powers of this countiy as a 
wtkole. 



The late bad harvests could not but make people anxious, and rive rise to fear 
that the hitherto rich and fertile soil is becoming exhausted. The data of the har- 
vest of 1899 are. however, extremely consoling, as they show us tliat tlie provinces 
which suflered from a bad harvest last year (the central black earth and the eastern) 
have had especially good crops this year (1899), yielding nearlj^ 700,000,000 poods' 
more than in the preceding year. On the contrary, in the provinces that last year 
had a harvest above the average there tiave been more or less serious deficits. It is 
obvious, therefore, that the bad harvests of past years ar« not caused by the exhaus- 
tion of fertile lands, but proceed from circumstances of an accidental cnatact«r. 

IKDO^TRIBB. 

The state of our indoatiriee is a matter of special interest, both because of their 
marked development of late years, owing to the protective policy of the Govern- 
ment, and likewise because of the embarrasment experienced m 1^ in oni "I'l' ng 

' Food equals 36,112 pounds. 



164 



OOMMEBOIAL RELATIONS. 



indiietriee in coneeqoence of the supply of iron and of mineral fuel being unequal 
to the demand. 

The general state of our indturtriea, and the influence protection has had on their 
development, will be seen from the subjoined brief etatement of the pn^^reanve 
growth of the manufacturing induatry in Europdn Ruraia (or the last twenty years 
of tbJB century.' 

[UUllou niblo.] 



InduMrfea. 


1877. 


JSS7. 


,m. 


1SB7. 




ea.a 

8.6 


J7,» 
7B.B 
28,7 
21 

10.4 


i2.e 

19.6 


Mas 








































Ml 















aEidiuiTe 



f minH. fli 



rmltl^u 



1 m&nulsctuns paying exclso duly. 



Average annual increase of product! venece (in million rubles): 187S-18S7, 26.1; 
1888-1892, 41.6; 1893-1887, 161.2. 

It is Been from the above statement that the growth of manufacturing induatry for 
the last five years was four times more rapid than for the preceding five years' 
period (1888-1892) and six timee more rapid than for the ten yeare' period of 
1878-1887. Moreover, in 1877-1897 our industries did not merely increase in 
quantity, but also improved in quality, as the Nizhni-Novgorod Industrial EshibitJon 
of 1896 showed. Many forms of industry that were in their infancy in the early 
seventies are now flourishing and progressing. Articles that used to be exclusively 
imported are now manufactured at nome. 

Such progress in our manufacturing industry clearly proves that the policy of pro- 
tection adoplfd by the late Emperor Alexander III and continued by Your Imperial 
Majesty has given splendid results. 

In regard to the mining industry, protection, with the general animation it has 

' ' ■ " ubtedly proved highly bei 

n from the following %ure 





[UlllLo 


poods.) 














,877. 


1887. 


1892. 


,8«. 


,m. 




110 
3 


277 


2K 

ai 


DM 




















- 





This table shows that the output of mineral fuel and pi^ iron IsprogreeeinKfavorB- 
bly on the whole. If, in spite of this, the home supply is unable to meet the mor« 
rapidly increasing demand, and therefore the imports of foreign iron and coal are 
iucreasing instead of decreasing, and prices are steadily rising, the cause of this is to 
be sought for, not in protective tariffs, but in circumstances of another kind. 

Buseia is not the only country in which the prices of coal and metal have risen; 
the rise is univereal, and all the western European 6tat«s have experienced it. This 
is to beexpliuned chiefly by the great development of induatry, railways, and naviga- 
tion. Now, as this development has been most rapid in Russia, it naturally follows 
that the rise in price of the raw materials has been most noticeable here. So short 
a time ago as 1^1-1894 our coal mineti could not always depend on disposing of 
their total output, but the late rapid development of manufactures, the extension of 
railwavs, and the rise in the price of wood fuel have led to the more rapid introduc- 
tion of mineral fuel, and since 1897 the demand for it is greatly increaiung. The 



a in the poaseesion of tlio department of trade and man- 

Coo'^lc 



EUKOPE: RUSSIA IN EtTEOPE. 165 

minin g indostry has not had time to ulapt ituelf to the rapidly increa^ng demand, 
and thiB has caused some embarrassment to our manufacturing industries. 

The output of mineral fuel and the increawe in the production of pig iron are mftt> 
Vere for serious attention on the part of the Government. The market can be ade- 
quately supplied with coal and iron only in two ways— either by lowerinjj costom- 
houee duties or by increasing home production. The first method requires great 
caution in ita application. Itn wholet^le adoption might totally destroy our native 
mining industry, which is just b^nniug to take root Now Russia has all the requi- 
sites for the estensive development of this very branch of industry. What is necee- 
aary is only to take the proper measures. In the opinion of the minister of finance 
sucn measures should chieny be directed toward encouraging private enterprise in 
eitracttng the unbounded mineral wealth of our native country. With regard to 
" 'n particular, the minister of finance thinkH that no time should be lost ii ~ ' 



development of the country's productive forces is due, not only to the policy of pro- 
tection, but likewise to the measurea taken by Your Majesty and the late Emperor 
Alexander III for the regulation and extension of the railway system in Russia. It 
is now more than ten years since, by the ordeta of the Emperor Alexander III, Gov- 
ernment undertook the immediate management of railways in the interests of all the 
forms of commerce and industry in this country, and likewise the regulation of the 
financial part of the railway system. The ministry of finance was charged with the 
solution of this problem, by means of a specially established railway department 
Therefore, in presenting his report on the Dudget, the minister of finance considers 
it appropriate to inform Your Imperial Majesty of the results attained in this sphere 
by the measures taken, under imperial direction, botii in the interests of national 
economy and with the object of curtailing the expenses of the State treasury. 

In January, 1839, our railway net was 27,458 versta' long, only 6,470 vereta' of 
which belonged to Government (23.6 per cent] ; all the other railways, to the extent 
of 20,988 verate {76.4 per cent) , were managed by 42 separate private railway com- 
panies. Each company worked its railway almost quite independently, keeping to 
Its own tariff policy, without anv regard to the interests of the countrv in general. 
The State treasury was a heavy loser by the working both of State railways and of 
private lines guaranteed by Government; in 1SS9 this loss amounted to 30.6 million 
rubles, while the debt of guaranteed railways to Grovemment reached the colossal 
sam of 984,000,000 rubles. 

While the intereets of the country required a further and rapid development of its 
railway net, the interests of the treasury, on the other hand, cfemanded the curtail- 
ment of expenses. The fulfillment of these requirements, bo incompatible under the 
former state of affairs, presented grave diflicultiee, and was rendered possible only 
by Government undertaking the unificatjon and immediate management of the 
wnole railway system. Separate railways were bought up, and railway IJnee were 
concentrated in the hands of the Government and of a few large private railway com- 
panies. While leaving these lines in the hands of such companies, i. e., declinii^ 



The results of such a system are the following; Of the 42 private nulway com- 
panies operating in 1880, at the preaenttime there are only 9'. while the 20,9S8ver8ts 
of private lines are now represented by 14,728 versts, or, including unfinished lines 
(6,414 verats), local and narrow-gauge railways (721 versts), a total of 2!,S63 versts. 
Ihiringthe same time the length of State-owned lines has increased from 6,470 versts 
to 28,927 versts, and including lines in the course of construction (4,496 versts) —up 
to 33,423 yerets.* Thus the length of our railway net, which in 1889 was 27,4SS 

■ Veist equals 0.663 mile. 

'Including 1,343 versts in Asiatic Rusua. 



* Not including local and narrow-gauge railways. (^oi^volp 



4 Including 23, 705 veiule In European EuBsia. 



166 OOHMEROIAL RELATIONS. 

veists, or— oonnting the 1,032 vetets in the course of construction— 28,490 vereta has 
fttpresent reached the length of 56,2B6verals, exclusive of the Eastern Chinese Bail- 
way, which ia not in Russian territory. It is now almost twice as long ae it was in 
1889, 60.5 per cent of it being in the hands of the State and 39.5 per cent in private 
hands. For the same period the rolling stock has been increased to a very conmder 
able extent, more eBpecially in Your Imperial Majesty's reim, when 290,000,000 
rubles were assigned for the purchase of engines, passenger and goods cars, while, as 
compared with the end of 1894, the number of enpnea and passenger cars has 
increased 40 per cent and of goods cars 50 per cent 

For the same period the general flnanciEU results of Qovemment participation in 
railway affairs were as follows: The annual loss to the treamry on the working of 
both Government and private railways was gradually diminished (except in 1892, 
when it reached 42.5 million rabies, and in 1894 amounted to 4.1 million rubles; 
since 1886 Government has had some profit from its share of railways, viz, 1.8 million 
rubles in 1895, 11.3 million rubles in 1896, 12.5 milUon mblea m 1897, and 12.1 
milUoo rubles m 1898.' The last two figures do not include the workinc of sections 
of the Siberian Railway; if these sections are included the amount of Government 



profit will be: 1897, 8,000,000 rubles, and 1898 1,000,000 mblea. 

The above data show how favorable have been the results attained bv the new 
railway policy in the interests of the Slate and of railway development. The minis- 
ter of finance is of the opinion that no injustice baa been done to private companies. 
There is no doubt that tboee companies which have undertaken to build new lines 
have to bear some loss tor the first few years; bnt since these companies have chosen 
to build new mtwaya in preference to being bought out on equitable t^rms, it is clear 
that they found this more profitable, calculating that the expenses incurred would 
be reimbursed when the trdEc on the newly constructed lines has developed. There 
is reason to think that, on the whole, such calculations have proved correct. 

The shares of the existing private railways are, even in the present embarrassed 
state of the market, as high, or higher than they were at the end of 1888. The onlj 
exceptions are the shares of tbe Ryazan -Ural and Boutheastem railways, but it is 
hardly possible to speak definitely of them, as their extensive lines have only latelv 
been opened to traffic, and their completion coincided with bad harvests of breaa- 
etuffs in the provinces these railways pass through. In any case, the present profit 
on rulway shares is no criterion of tne gain or toss on the part of those private railway 
companies which preferred building new lines to being bought out by Government 
There is no doubt about one thing, vi*. that the money invested in these railways 
has not, as yet, yielded full returns, and that in the newly constructed lines the share- 
holders have acquired new property of great value, which will raise the price of their 
shares above what would have been given for them had Government exercised its 
right of buying up the railways. With the enormous increase of our industries, rail- 
way traffic and railway earnings will increase every year, and it mav be confidently 
expected that, in the end, private railway companies will hardly be losera, providea, 
of course, thai there are no abuses, the prevention of which is chiefly the business of 
the shareholders themselves. 

The extension of the railway net and the increase of rolling stock have undoubtedly 
acted beneficially on the growth of industry, hut besides these measures, a regular 
and uniform railway tariH was necessary. The almost absolute freedom foniierly 
enjoyed by railway companies in fixing their tariff acted most injuriously on the 
progress of trade and industry. How injurious this independence was, is seen from 
the fact that foreign imports (as return freight) were given every wlvantage in the 
shape of lowered tariff, and thus the railways counteracted the protective policy of 
the Government. For local traffic each company fixed its own special taritf, while 
for through transport the different conipaniea adopted the most varied tariffs, often 
totally out of accordance with the prices of other lines. 

These tariffs, with constant alterations and supplements, used to be published in 
various places and by various institutions, and freouently not in time, so that it was 
almost impoBsihle to follow them and to make any definite commercial calculations of 
the cost 01 transport 

At the present time the tariffs of all the Russian railways (with the exception of 
narrow-gauge subsidiary lines) are uniform, so that goods of the same class, when 
traveling the sameoumber of versts, pay the same freignt in all parte of Russia; excep- 
tions to this fundamental rule are made only in a fow, specially important casefl. 
The uniform (arifi is likewise taken as a basis in calculating the charge for the passage 

' From the Year Book of the department of state control. In calculating the profits 
all working expenses and interest on capital sunk in the construction and improve- 
ment of raSways are taken into account 

i:ni,-r:-,G00'^lc 



BTJitoPE: BnsaiA nr ettbopb. 167 

over th« Rusrian portion of iateniatioQal tnuisport There fe % certain abatement 
only (in exports to foreign countritti and to the Far Eaet, thus completely doing away 
with the poHBibility of counteracting cuetomadutiee by low freights. TariftB are now 
pablished in fall, and in anfficient time to be of use, in the "Collectioii of tari&B," an 
official pabUcatlonot the ministry of finance. Thus uniformity, stability, and cheap- 
IKM have been attained in the goods tariffs uf Russian railways. Of couise there are 
many impTovements to bemadeinthefDture,eepeciallyin the regulating the interests 
of the variooB regions of Yonr Imperial MajeBty s vast Empire. 

At the same time, as it is very important for the eoonomic development of the conn- 
try that every facility should be afforded to passenger traffic, owing to the enormous 
distances to be traversed, tiie ministry of finance turned its attention to lowering the 
paasenser tariff, laying down the rule that the charge per verat should be progrese- 
ivelv decreased, in proportion to the length of the journey. The reenlte of this meaa- 
nre nave been most favorable, passenger traffic having increaaed very considerably, 
while the general receipts of railways from paeeengera, instead of dmiinishing, are 
actoaily mnch greats:. 

It wil) be seen from the above that the following results have been attained in rail- 
way affairs: The railway-net is almost twice as long; the ratling stock is considerably 
augmented; instead of oeing a loss to the treaBury, as formerly, the railways now 
bnng in an annnal profit; there is a uniform, stable, and accessible railway tariff, 
wbicQ is fixed in accordance with the general national interwta of industry and trade; 
panenger traffic is cbeaper. 

riBBBiAH BAiLwar. 

In speaking of the progress in the railway system dnrii^ the last ten years, some 
mention should be made of the Siberian Railway. This great undertaking of build- 
ing anulway across the continent of Asia was b^nn in this decade under the direct 
Boperintendence of Yonr Imperial I^ajeety, and is now approaching successful com- 

C' 'ion. This line, forming an uninterrupted railway' connection between two oceans, 
acquired special and world-wide importance since the friendly Government of 
China opened a parage for this line throngh ite dominions to the unfrozen Yellow 
Sea, and leased the Quang-tung peninsula to Russia. Here, by Your Majesty's orders, 
at the terminus of the railwi^, the construction of the port and town of Dalny was 
begun in 1890. It is to be a free port This privilege, and the favorable situation of 
the town at the starting point of an important One of transport will undoubtedly cause 
it to develop and flourish, attracting the merchant fleets of all nations, and we may 
hope that Dalny will become one of the chief centers of the comtoercial intercoarw 
between the Old World and the New. 

Building a railway acroes the breadth of Asia is a great and arduous undertaking, 
which has demanded great labor and outlay, and contiunes to do so. 

The construction of the permanent way was extremely difflcnlt Obstacles of all 
kinds had to be surmounted, under the most unfavorable climatic and topographical 
conditions. Manchuria presented almost exceptional difficulties; a handful oi Rus- 
sians, far away from their native land, had to make & railway through an almost 
unexplored country, with a strange population, under conditions of the greateet dis- 
comfort But to a Russian no obstacle is unsurmonntable when his l^rcorrmtands; 
the construction of the Chineee Railway is progressing rapidly. At the present time 
about 800 verstfl are already laid down. Traffic has temporarily been opened for 446 
verstafrom Port Arthur to Moukden, and a telegraph line has been put up the whole 
ler^h of the trunk line and of the South Hanchurian branch. 

The pecnniary sacrificee made by the Bussian peojjle for the coiwtrnction of the 
Siberian Railway are likewise very great. In speaking of Russia and her finances, 
one must not foivet that the grater part of the Qreat Siberian Railway is now com- 

K'ete^ and that the monejr required for this stupendous task has been provided by 
usHia. In the comparatively short period of 1S91-1899 (inclnsive) 601.8 million 
rubles have already been expended, in 1900aboat 130,000,000 mbles will be required, 
a sum which is already at the disposal of the Government, while from 150,000,000 to 
180,000,000 rubles will have to be found for the completion of this great work. The 
whole amount to be expended will thus exceeed 750,000,000 rubles. This expendi- 
toreis covered chiefly from the general resources of the treasury, and only 100,000,000 
rubles, i. e., leee than one-sixth of this outlay, is covered by extraordinary resources. 
In any case the period of the greatest expenditure is over, and the time is approach- 
ingwben tJie tnosury will be free from the heavy burden of the Siberian Railway. 

The magnitude of the sacrifice, which is felt most at present, prevents contemjH>- 
raries from seeing the futnre importance of the gr^at rtulway, and from appreciating 
this stui>endous undertaking. But however difficult may be the work undertaken 
by Busna under Tour Majesty's guidance, it will be reoompenaed a huodradfold 



168 OOMMEBCIAL RELATIONS, 

when, on its completiDn, it beam abundant fruit, when the great line of transport, 
joining the extreme ends of Europe and Asia, will perform auch good aervice in the 
culture and development of the Far East, and will call forth the productive powers 
of Siberia. 



The state of our currencv during the past year has already been defined in the 
conclusions of the financial committee, which, bv Your Imperial Majesty's order, 
discussed the condition of tbe money market. In these conclvuione, which Your 
Majesty deigned to approve of, the financial committee found that our money market 
was under the influence of highly unfavorable circiimstanceB, of which the chief 
was theuniverBot tightness of money ; that our money market was somewhat embar- 
rassed tliereby, but that this embarirasBment would have been much Kreater had not 
a well-otf^ized monetary system counteracted it in some degree. In view of this, 
according to the conviction of the financial committee, "our financial policy must be 
directed toward the preservation of the stability of the currency, as being one of the 
most important conditions of the proper development of State and nationaleconomy. " 

The attainment of this most important object was one of the chief problems of the 
financial department in the past year. Notwithstanding the embarrassed condition 
of monetaiT ijfaira, the late bad harvests, and a certain deterioration in tbe balance 
of payineni, our monetary system (which is chiefly embodied in the new coinage law 
of June 7, IS99) has preserved its perfect stability. Even under such unfavorable 
conditions, the diminution of Russia's gold reserve during 1809 is onl^ 24.6 million 
rubles, or 1.5 per cent of the gold at the end of 18S8. The fluctuation in the amount 
of goM in Russia is quit« natural, and may be observed in other countries as well. 
There can be no cause for anxietv, especially if it is borne in mind that since 1802 
the gold resenre of the coimtry has mcreased by 660,000,000 rubles. The state of 
our monetary circulation at present, as compared with the end of 1808, will be seen 
from the following figures: 

[Id mllUona of rublts.] 





Gold. 1 eumdirt silver. 


Bank 


mH«. 




In State 1 ,„ „,„„ 
liank and, ,",,""' 
tr«u™ry.| '""'"■■ 


In Stale 


lalion." 


InBtale 
bonk and 


Inelicu- 

latlan. 




927' 1 639.4 


", 


. "' 


418 






72S 




""lai.E 


eao 




24.8 













These figures show that the amount of the principal denominations of coin in circu- 
lation has mcreased during the current year by 50.7 million rubles. It is necessary 
to remark that this year standard coin has taken the lead of other forms of money, 

ji ,[ Qf g(,]^ ju circulation being 122.1 million rubles in excess of bank notes, 

■' "■ ...... . . . . y]jy(,^^ while bv the 

1 (»vering funa has 



increased from tbe It 



It will be seen from the above that the o 



o the 179.2 per cent of IJ 



, is makii^ considerable progress in 
nee, commerce, and industry. However, progress merely in trade and industry 
does not make national prosperity. In his annual reports to Your Imperial Majesty 
the minister of finance has tailed attention to the undoubted fact that the stability 
of a nation's finances, however well organized these may be, depends, in the end, on 
the material prosperity of the population, the bulk of which in Russia is agricultural. 
Following out the directions of Your Imperial Majesty, the financial department has 
done its beet to alleviate thecondition of the peasantry, and in this respect the prog- 
ress made in 1899 is considerable; arrears of payments in redemption of land nave 
been almost quite done away with, current payments have been mode eosier, and the 
methods of levying the assessed taxes on the land of village commimities have been 
r^ulated. It is necessary to dwell in detail on these measures, ss the opinion is 
Still prevalent that the causes retarding tlie improvement of peasant life are the 



EUROPE: RUSSIA IN EUROPE. 169 

burden of Umd redemption psymente and the considerable umouDt of airearB, which 
ore collected in a manner ruinous to tlie taxpayere. 

There is no denying that when the land was al[ott«d to the peaaante, the terrae of 
land redemption were in some caaes settled without the paving capacity of the peas- 
antry being sufficiently taken into account, and that tne manner of collectins 
redemption arrears, eometimee in considerable sums and with the employment m 
severe coercive meaeuree, has prevented the peasante from placing their domestic 
economy on a firm basis. But attention has already been bimed to this unsatis- 
factory state of afiaim, and Your Imperial Majesty ha^ commanded that the rates of 
payment should be brought within the paying capacity of the peasant population. 

For thia purpose two measures have been taken by the mmistry of finance: (1] 
Postponement of arrears and payment by instaHmenta, and (2) lowering the present 
rate of payments by means of readjusting the installments of the unpaid debt These 
measures would not be difficult to carry out were it poasible to give the whole popu- 
lation the same alleviations in regard (o redemption arrears and redemption pay- 
ments. By simplifyit^ the work of the flnancial department and of local authorities 
tc the utmost, such uniiformity would considerably curtail the time necessary to apply 
the alleviations, allowed by law, to all the pavers of land redemption. 

But, however great theadvantagesof this wnoleeale system may be from apractiGal 
point of view, such a solution o( the question is hardly m accorduice with justice and 
equity. Economic conditions vary, not merely in diDerent provinces and districts, 
but even in the same volost (or commune) ; side by aide with peasants requiring the 
special care of the Government there are others that are quite able to fulfill all their 
obligations in regard to land redemption without any difficulty. The causes oF the 
existence of arrears are likewise various. Even admitting that, as a general rule, 
such arrears accumulate, not in consequence of any avoidance of payment on the 
part of the peasant, but owing to the burden of the redemption payments or to bad 
harvests and other calamitiee, still, for individual villages this burden and these 
calamities are so different as to be almost incommensurable. Under these circum- 
stances the wholesale system of tax alleviation would be contrary to the principles 
of jiutive. The peasants would not only fail to appreciate their obligations as tax- 
payers, but would come to believe in the possibility of avoiding payment in hopes 
of some new exemptions or alleviations. 

There is another objection to this system of wholesale lowering of rates and cancel- 
ing of arrears: the budget would suffer by this. In all whol^ale alleviations the 
Government would have to give up a part of assured revenue, and this consideration 
would lead to a reduction in the amount of exemptions, which, in its turn, would 
prevent these alleviations from being of much use in the case of the most needy 
taipayers. 

These considerations caused the financial department to reject the wholesale system 
of making redemption parent easier, and to give preference to a slower and more 
cautious system — that oi lightening the payments in strict accordance with the payiuE 
f^pacities of the individual taxpayer. This idea forms the basis of the law <n 
February 7, 1894, for the postponement and the payment by instAllments of redemp- 
tion arreare, and the laws of May 13, 1806, and Blay 31, 1899, for measures to lighten 
the pavments in redemption of land. 

By tnese taws, prior to granting any alleviation, the economic condition and pacing 
capacity of each separate village community or peasant proprietor is examined mto, 
and the degree of alleviation is based on the data of such an investigation. It took 
some time to make these investigations, but already by 1898 the application of the 
law of February 7, 1894 (for the postponement and payment by installments of 
arrears), was so far advanced that the minister of finance, in his report on the budget 
of 1899, was able to predict the completion in that year of the task undertaken. His 
prediction has proved correct, and at the present time of the 116,000,000 rubles of 
arrearsdue by January 1, 1899, the payment of 90,000,000 rubles has been distributed in 
installments. Of the remmning 26,000,000 rubles the collection of 18,000,000 rubles 
has been stopped, in view of the proposed examination into the economic condition 
of the peaaantn'. Five million rubles of arrears, forming an insignificant part of the 



_._ _. . I being due to accidental causes, do not come under the law of 

Febniary 7, 1894. Finally, 3,000,000 rubles are to be postponed and the installments 
readjusted very shortly, and the minister of finance is already receiving the applica- 
tions of the provincial courts. Thus the law of February 7, 1894, in regard to arrears 
due before 1809, has already been applied to almost all cases. In future the financial 
department will see that the arrears, which may accumulate owing to bad harveeta 
and such like causes, are postponed and readjusted as soon as they arise, in accord- 
ance with the paying capacities of the defaulters. The minister of'^flnance therefore 
thinks he mayoonfldentfy asBeit that land-redemption arrears, accumulating thronsh 

CH>ooTe 



170 COHMEECIAI. KELATI0N8. 

no fault of the payers, are becomi^ a thing of the past, and that henceforth the 
proBperity of the rural population will rot aimer from the overburdensome collection 
of such arream 

Besides removinf; the cauaee of arrearB, meaeurce have likewise been taken to lower 
the ratee of the redemption payments. The law of May 13, 1896, allowed the remiun- 
ing payments in redemption of land to be readjusted, at the requeet of the peasants 
themselves. But during the three vears dnce its promulgation, this law whs not 
applied very frequently. Up to July 1, 1899, there were twmparatively very few 
applicatiouB for readjuHtment. Thie elownesH waa due partly to the peasants not 
beuig fully aware of the advantaf^ of the readjustment permitted by the law, and 
partly to the fact, that the considerable reduction in the rates of redemption payments 
was attained, according to the law of May 13, 1896, by prolonging the term of redemp- 
tion very conaidetablv, which did not eait the peasants. 

In consequence of tn IS, Your Imperial Majesty was pleased to command the minister 
of finance to lay before the council of state new proposals for measures to lighten the 

Eayments in ledemption of land by peasants. These proposals, after being examined 
y the council, were confirmed by Your Majesty on the 3lst of May, 1899. The most 
important diflerence between the new law and those preceding it is: First, the 
obugatory and immediate investigation (and not, as heretofore, at the request of the 
peasante) into the economic condition of such villages as have never once, in the 
course of five years, paid their land redemption tax in full, or that have not, dnring 
the Baid period, paid in all more than 80 per cent of their redemption taxes, and 
secondly, the alteration in the conditions on which land redemption paymenta are 
readjusted, so as to lower the rate of the instalments couHiderably, without prolong- 
ing tiie term of redemption too much. From information received by the ministry of 
finance, the lawof MaySl, 1899, haa attained its object. The obligatory investigations 
of almost 19,000 villages have been carried on with great vigor, and in many provinces 
were finished by last autumn. The great privileRes grant^ by the new law, together 
with the circumstantial explanations given lo tlie peasants during the obligatory 
examinationa, have rapidly increased the number of applicutions for readjustment of 
redemption payments, and there is every reason to suppose that the number will 
continue increasing. In every locality the peasants at first do not avail themselves 
of the privilege of readjustment of their redTemption payments, but when there have 
been applications from several villages, and especially when such applications have 
been granted, the neighboring villages apply for the same privileges. From July 1 
to December 1, 1899, the number of applications for readiustment of redemption pay- 
ments presented to the ministry of finance was very little below that of applications 
preBented during the preceding three years. There are as many as 5,rao under 
consideration in local institutions, without reckoning the applications of villages liable 
to obligatory investigation. In accordance with this animation, the reduction of land 
redemption payments made during these five months of 1899 (540,000 rubles) is almost 
equal to the reduction made during the preceding three years. 

Such pro^reffi gives hope of a rapid completion of this work. The ministry of 
finance, on its part, is doing its utmost to forward the universal application of the 
laws relating to the readjustment of redemption payments, in the way most speedy 
and advantageous to the peasants, even at considerable sacrilice on the port of the 
State treasury. All this makes the minister of finance confident of the speedy fulfill- 
ment of Your Imperial Majesty's command to bring the rates of aaseaement into 
accordance with the paying capacities of the ^pulation. 

Besides doing away with arrears and reducmg the rate of current redempdon pay- 
ments, the ministry of finance is taking measures to regulate another uranch of 
taxation, which has been and is still the object of much censure, viz, the manner 
of collecting the taxes. The order of levying aawesed taxes on the allotments of 
village communities, confirmed by Your Majarty June 23, 1899, will come into force 
in 1900. Its object is to regulate the methodsof collecting taxes from the peasantry. 
It is true that this law does not radically change the system, there being an obstacle, 
in the form of the close connection between the rules of collection and the laws 
governing the economic and social life of the peasants and the organization of village 
government, laws that are in many respects antiquated and defective. Nevertheless, 
within the limits allowed by the peasant law, the law of June 23, 1899, brings in many 
essential improvements in det^ls. Attention is turned principally to collecting the 
receipts for the current year, the collection of arrears being of secondary importance; 
the law r^ulatee the compulsory measures and commits the superintendence over 
tax collection to authorities that stand in close relation to the peasants, and whose 
duhi it is to look after their well-b^g. 

But of far more importance than the particular improvements introduced by the 
law of June 23, are the meafluies taken to limit mutual responsibility. The very 



EUROPE: SPAIN. 171 

conBcioDsneae of bein^ liable to answer for another man acta oppresavely on the peae- 
aatry mbjected to this, and creat«e uncertainty as to the amount of tax each house- 
hold may have to pay — an uncertainty which derongee the economic calculations of 
the peaeanta and has a bad influence on their economic enterprise. Bearding the 
restrictions already made aa a merely temporary measure, the minister of finance, on 
his part, Ih anziouel^ seeking for some means oc totally abolishing, ae Hoon as possi- 
ble, mutual reeponaibiiity in the payment of tazee. 



In presentine to Your Imperial Majesty his views on several problems of the 
economic life of Bu^a, the minister of finance tahi:« the liberty, at the conclusion of 
his report, of mentioning a subject of essential importance to the whole civilized 
world, namely, the marked and univeraal tightness and embarrasament in the money 
market. This circumstance, which is causing no inconsiderable difficulties in the 
induBtroMSimniercial operations of ail countries, proceeds from various circumstances 
of an economic character, and is also to a great extent complicated by recent events in 
South Africa, ft is not, however, so much theae circumstances, as the vague fears 
of further poll lical complications, that are causing such embarrassment in money 
matters. The calm voice of reason is powerless to allay these fits of distrust in the 
stability of international relations. But the agitation would in a great measure be 
allayed, were the governing classes and the public abroad imbuM with the same 
opinions on questions of world politics that are held by the monarch of a hundred 
and thirty million faithful subjects. 

SPAIN. 

According to official statistics, imports in 1898 were valued at $94,- 
439,000 ancTexporta at *137,559,000. The trade was distributed among 
the chief countries in 1897 (the most recent statistics obtainable) as 
follows: 



Co««H* 


.»„». 


E<p«r«. 


n«™.^. 


23,261.400 
22,02S,.'SiiO 
&,M2,I00 
14,911, 2(n 
17,773.BW 






SH,1«S.0D0 
J. ^.250 








S»,98«,7J» 

4,«»'A3aa 

ll,>12,SfiO 









The following extracts from a recent publication by Professor 
Gutierrez, of the school of commerce at Cadiz (translated by Consul 
Bartlemau, of Malaga), give an idea of present economic conditions: 

According to the last census, there appears a lai^ increase in the population in 
manubictnnng towns, and a decrease in places given over solely loagriculture. This, 
to some extent, may have been the result of the destruction of the vines by the 
phylloxera, forcing the laborer to seek his bread in other localities. 

Home industries and manufactures beine so well protected by the tariff of IS9I, 
foreign (spitalists have established themselves within the kin^om; and Spanish 
workmen nave learned, and can now man^e, industries which were heretofore 
nnluiown to them. The high rate of exchange has likewise greatly contributed to 
developing home manufactures. 

In BillSo, mining and industries connected therewith are on the increaae; in 
Aragon, Cataluna, and CastlUa, flour mills are being constructed; in Zaragoxa and 
Navarra, paper mills; and at Mallorca the manufacture of shoes is increasing. 

In Cataluna, not only has there been an advance in production, but new industries 
have established themselves. 

Spain, with a larger expanse of territory adapted to cultivation than anj other 
Enropean nation, produces so little that even the yield of wheat is not sufficient for 
ite 17,O0i),O(lO inhabitants; it even follows Switzerland as an agricultural oathHi. 



Coo'^lc 



172 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

With 4,250,000 hectares (10,501,750 acres) of wheat under cultivation, Siwin pro- 
duces bat 38,000,000 hectolitera (107,844,000 huaheb), while England, with only 
1,065,000 hectar«e(2,e31,615acre8)produces 33,000,000 hectoliters (93,654,000) bushels. 
The consumption of wheat in Spain amounis to 40,000,000 hectoliters, and the deficit 
of 2,000,000 hectolitera has to be imported. 

Formerly, the hieeding of cattle was a source of lar^ revenue; now it scarcely 

Spain's wool and meat in former times was an extraordinary item of income, hut 
little by little this industry haa been abandoned. One hundred years ago Spain 
stood second in the production of cattle; to-day it occupies the eighth piace. Tnetie 
conditions are due to the abandonment of the cultivation of grazing lands, lu 
twenty years' time the iSpanieh breed will have disappeared entirely, unless the 
necessary steps are taken to prevent it. 

Since the opening of the nret Spanish railway in 1848, from Barcelona to Matan>, 
13,000 kilometers (5,077 miles) have been constnicted. 

During the year iSB6, 204 firms dissolved partnership; 320 suspended payment and 
became bankrupt. 

The year 189B ended with a balance in Bpain's favor of 313,000,000 pesetas 
((43,000,000). In the first month of 1899 there was a defidt of 2,000,000 pesetas, 
which, although expected, caused a painful impreesion. 

Importations in January, 1899, amounted to 6,000,000 pesetas ($840,000) more than 
for the same month of the two years preceding. 

Ex portati on B showed a decrease of^3,000,000 pesetas as compared with January, 
1897, and 1,500,000 pesetas as compared with the same month of 1898. 

In raw materials the decrea^ was 1,500,000 pesetas ($210,000) ; manufaii'tured arti- 
cles, 4,500,000 pesetas (1630,000) ; and in alimentary articles 10,000,000 pesetas 
($1,400,000), which includes cereals, wine, oil, and preserves. 

The importation of coSee from the colonies in January, 1698, was 1,974,815 pesetas, 
and in January, 1899, this was reduced to 128,758 pesetas, the difference being made 
up by importations from other countries. 

ToDacco and cacao likewise show a decrease, Cuban sugar alone holding its own. 
There was no importation of this commodity from Puerto Rico, or from the Philip- 
pine Islands. 

The falling off in the colonial commerce has caused the decrease in the receipts 
from industrial taiee, especially as r^ards cotton textiles, flour, and shoes. 

SWEDEN AND NORWAY. 

Consul General WinBlow, of Stx>ckholiii, says: 

The commerce of the countries that compose the Scandinavian peninsula has greatly 
increased with the world at large during 1898, and particularly with the United 
States. Many articles of American manufacture have been seen for the firat time 
during the past year. American locomotives to the number of twenty are now in 
service on the state railways of Sweden. There is every prospect of Norway placing 
orders with our manufacturer for railway material and a warship or two. vast tracts 
in the north will soon have railway communication. Rails are now bein^ laid that 
will connect Gellivare and the great iron mines of Luossavaaia and Kiirunavaara 
with Ofoton, on the Norwegian coast. In these last named placet) are deposits of iron 
ore, the largest in Scandinavia, and in fact with few if any rivals in the world. 
There has been estjmalad to be more than 233,000,000 tons in sight. Mining machinery 
made in the United States, I have been ioformeid, will be adopted, on account of its 
special merits. 

The trade of Sweden in 1898 was valued at $122,000,000 for imports 
and $92,000,000 for exports. Germany sent the largest value of 
imports, some $42,000,000, and Great Britain followed, with shipments 
amounting to $37,000,000. Denmark, Norway, and Kuasia follow in 
order of importance. In the export ti-ade. Great Britain leceived to 
the value of $39,9<X>,000, Germany and Denmark about one third as 
much. 

Consul Bordewich, of Christiania, gives the imports of Norway in 
1898 as $76,756,000, and the exports as $43,054,000. Of the imports, 



EUROPE: SWITZERLAND. 178 

some $3,836,000 worth came directly from the United States. Official 
statisticsdividethetradearaongthechief competing countries as follows: 



Counlrio. 


ImporM. 


E»pon«. 




m,m,m 

aft*. 920 

a,sa7.6oe 

si 

3.804,628 


























:S?;^ 






361,682 





ConBuI Bordewich says that with the exception of leather, imports of 
American goods are steadily increa.sing. Imports in this line from 
Great Britain, Germany, and Holland, on the other band, have been 
gaining, and the consul Uiinks it probable that jobbers in these coun- 
tries have secured contracts with American manufacturers, and that 
the greater portion of the goods entered from those countries is of 
American origin. Our ^ain is beginning to find a market. American 
products I'ank high. During the year, laundry machinery, brick- 
making machineiy, and flour-mill machinery have arrived from the 
United States. 

Consul Nelson, of Horgen, notes that California canned gooda and 
American oi^ns have been successfully introduced. 



SWITZEBLANB. 

Consul Frankenthal, of Berne, reports that the imports in 1898 were 
valued at $205,603,000 and the exporte at $139,698,000. The share 
taken by the chief countries in Swiss trade is shown in the follow- 
ing table: 



Cmmtrta. 


Imporbi. 


Ex porta. 


Counlrli*. 


..por. 


Eipotta. 




PeretHl. 
H.C3 


Ptrcent. 

II 


Belgium 


Perceal 


PvrtnL 























Conaul-General DuBois, of St. Gall, says that one can now buy 
American watches in Berne, American ham and bacon in Basle, and 
that Swiss horses sleep on American straw. American hardware fills 
the shop windows; American shoes are in popular demand, and every- 
where are striking evidences of the increased export of American 
wares. 

Consul Morgan, of Aarau, calls attention to the fact that the United 
States ranks fourth both in the import and export list, taking 10.19 
per cent of the exports and selling 6.85 per cent of the imports. It is 
intfiresting to note, he continues, that, during 1898, we for the first time 
exceeded Austria, Russia, and England in the amount imported into 
Switzerland. It is probable that the United States, also tor the first 



nOO^^Ic 



174 COMMBBCIAI. BELATIOHB. 

time in the history of our country, actually, sold to Switzerland more 
tbaa she bought from her, for uie official figures must be considered 
as more or less approximate in so far as the actual imports from the 
United States are concerned, the Swiss custom-houses Laving no way 
of obtaining returns of American goods which are entered through tJie 
adjoining countries. 

TCBKBT. 

Imports in 1898 are estimated in the StatesDUtn's Year-Book, 1899, 
at $11,890,000 and exports at $6,691,000. The latest figures for the 
trade by countries are for the fiscal year 1895-96, and are given for 
the principal countries by Consul-General Dickinson, of (>>nstanti- 
nopte, as follows: 



Co-Btrta. 


ImpOMK. 


EzporU. . Conntilec. 


I»p«.. 


Eipom. 




a'.Mt.iM 

SI,«8.»5 




3,«M.I3I 

7,090,614 
147. m 


•1.2S0,17« 


























28.188.603 









The new steamship line from New York direct to Constantinople, 
says the consut-general, has caused a reduction in through freights of 
from 25 to 33 per cent and a surprising increase in the introduction 
of American products. The imports of flour alone since the Barber 
Line was started are more than double the value of all the importa 
from the United States to European and Asiatic Turkey during the 
year 1897-98, and yet it can fairly be assumed that only a beginniDg 
in American business has been made. Arrangements are being made 
to open a permanent exposition ot United States products in Constan- 
tinople, and the outlook for increased American commerce in the 
Levant is extremely promising. Certain articles manufactured in the 
United States, notably cotton goods, pumps, and clocks, have long 
enjoyed a high reputation in the Bast, but this has led unscrupulous 
manufacturers to put upon the markets inferior goods with an imi- 
tation of American trade-marks. It is believed that this exposition, 
under American auspices, says Mr. Dickinson, will attract dealers who 
wish to purchase the genuine article, and will reduce to a minimum 
these disuonorable practices. 



byGoO'^lc 



EUROPE: UNITED KINGDOM. 
UNITED KrSOT*OM. 



Official returns give the imports in 1899 as $2,3eo,600,000 and the 
exports ay $1,289^00,000. The distribution of the trade in 1898 is 
given by Consul-Greneral Osborne, of London, a» follows: 



Cou„H» 


Import*. 


Export., 


CDOnLriM. 


Importt. 


EipOrtL 


"""■"»""»- 


12,)N8.IX» 
26.0S3.68D 

818:745 
630,810,776 

487,«lft 

8.177,440 

4II 

Sg)«4l!6«) 
18. 187, 760 

13i8W:S30 
6:791>;670 

833,220 
2,S10.SS& 


K,2H,B8fi 

2,74B.8!ffi 

i;TO7;200 
lti.sn.3S6 
9.Me,8«0 
S.S48,aM 

1,018, <70 
«.Cr79,826 

1; 708:785 

0:510:880 
20,0e3,WIO 
9:278:b&5 

2S|4«7:485 
2S,310,TM 

8,7S1,«S 

n,oes.«i 


Clmnnel HlKid. 


7.766. 8» 
821.825 
484,145 

108,773,210 

9,105,885 
1224 786 
144:i5i;4aO 
ia7.3H],406 
10,709.545 

!614:T4fi 
25.471,880 
,887,756 
.647,865 
8,882.278 


8.495.556 












North Amertotncol- 








BiillihBondunJ"!: 
















StrallB Bettlemeau . 






6:2021815 






RelJi^catOi;fon.bi« 
















Capeol Good Hope.. 
Niger ProlecIorBio . 








JSS?."".".."!'."'".: 




TheG^lddiirt 

BlBn» Loone nnd 










2!«o'e» 






Werteni Coosl ol Af- 




407. IM. 775 




OLher coDntrltn 


GruidloUI.... 




2,361.892.915 


1.470. 080, »« 




1,8M,723.1W 


1,019,518,380 







The London Statist, in ite edition of January 13, 1900, discusses the 
trade of 1899 as follows: 

Our foreij;(n trade in 1S99 reflects the proaperooa conditioiu preyuling fn this coon- 
try and in the lar^r portion of the world. Bpeaking broadly, we may say that prosper- 
ity in England bnnga proeperity, in some degree, to almost every country of the world, 
not excluding those which coneider themeelvee our competiloro. If trade in this 
country is depressed and our consuming power at a low poin^prices ot produce, of 
raw materials, and of manufactured goods are affected. In 18ti9 our enormous con- 
Humption of both necesBaries and luxuries has been the direct cause of the greatly 
improved conditions of many of the producing countries. For 1393 our imports of 
foreign products were of the value of £405,000,000 ($1,970,000,000); for 1898 they 
were worth £470.000,000 ($2,287,000,000) ; and for 1899 they have been of the value 
of £485,000,000 ($2,360,000,000). although America has retained her raw cotton for 
sale in the present year. But for this circumstance our purchases in 1899 would 
have been of the valae of over £490,000,000 ($2, 384,000,000) . In six years our pur- 
chases of foreign goods have increased in value 20 per cent. How tar the present 
difficulty in South Africa will aSect the trade of this country, and how far it will 
affect our purchases of foreign products, can not be determined. That it will have 
an adverse effect can not be doubted. The recent stringency of money, which was 
brought about largely by the war and the uncertainty as to how long the war is 
likely to last, is already hindering new enterprises and stopping the free flow of 
rapital into promising ventures. If the war continues for a prolonged period, it may 
bnng about severe trade contraction and a great decline in our consumption of for- 
eign products, which has been so enormoua during the past few vears. Further, 
inaemnch as foreign production is largely based upon continuance of the heavy buy- 
ing for this coun^, any reduction in our purchaM« may bring overproduction, seri- 
ously depress prices, and affect the position of foreign producers. 

The prosperity of the Continent, oE the United States, and of Australasia has caused 
a very laige sxponsion in our export trade for the yt^r, which was of the value of 



176 



COMMEBCIAL KELATI0IT8. 



nearly £265,000,000 ($1,289,000,000) , inclading new ahips. Deducting new alupe, 
the VEdue wae £255,465,000 (f 1,243,<»0,000] , an expansion of 9.47 per cent over 1896. 
The ezc«ee of imports over eiports tor the year was thus £!65,000,000 ($802,900,000) , 
ae ag^nst £176,(X)0,000 ($866,000,000) in 1898, £128,000,000 ($622,900,000) in 1893, 
and on)y £93,000,000 ($462,000,000) In 1890, 

The continued large balance of imports over exporta testifies to the abaence of any 
appreciable investment of British capital abroad. A certain amonnt of money has 
during the year been invested in Western Australia and in South African mines, but 
the amount has not been large. There have also been a few colonial loans. On the 
other hand, the Australian banks have repaid depositors a considerable sum of money, 
and we have sold a very large amount of securitiee to the United States. Hence 
there has been little or no outflow of fresh ca.pital on balance, although, perhaps, 
profits accruing from foreign investmeDtahave been allowed to accumulate in foreign 
coimtriea. Under these circumBtancee improvement in our export trade is all the 
more pleasing, as indicating that the countries which have bought more freely have 
paid for their purchaseB out of Iheir increased profits and not with borrowed money. 
The improvement in our exports in 1899 has been shared by almost every trade m 
the country. The prominent exception bas been cyclea. The expansion in iron and 
Bteel exports has been as much as 25 per cent; in coal nearly 28 per cent; in cotton 
goods, 4 per cent; in woolen and worsted manufactures, 7 per cent, and in machinery 
nearly 7 per cent. 

The principal articles of export and import in 1809, together with tl 
''"~~"-^, as compared with the preceding year, are given oelow: 



AltlClH. 


"-^S^'" 


"SZ," 




2S,72B,0M 
121,297,518 
112. 440. 183 

«,0«2,858 

giffilii 

184,6J0,S66 
lU, 747,204 
168,827,961 
H, lie, £40 

SSif, 

111,360,387 

ass 

28.aas.7« 


+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 


17 IM 418 




















^¥z 
















^■r^ 




























































»S 













Consul Boyle, of Liverpool, notes that general conditioos of trade 
and commerce are prosperous. For some time, there has been an 
increasing home demand, which has taxed the productive capacity of 
Great Bntain to meet, special reference being had to shipbuilding and 
to railroad and municipal improvements, these enterprises giving 
employment to numerous branches of manufacture, particularly in 
metals. Having to a meaBurable extent caught up with the home 
demand, British manufacturers have now commenced in earnest to 
endeavor to recover their lost ground abroad. The large importations 
of Amertcaa machine tools, and the adoption, to some extent at least, 
of new ideas in manufacture and in business methods, have given the 
British mills and factories a great increase in productive capacity. 
During the last year, he continues, there have been fewer labor 



EnEOPE; UNITED KINGDOM. 177 

troubles thao usual. A geaeral reriew of the situation leads to the 
conclusioQ that American maaufacturers must expect cbauged condi- 
tions from now on in their competition with Bntish maniSacturers, 
tdtiiough it is freely conceded by the best authorities in England that 
the advantage must finally rest with the American manufacturers. 

Mr. Boyle gives the general advice to all those seeking the British 
market, wnether the articles be food products or manufactures — send 
the beat, and do not let the standard deteriorate. He notes among the 
interesting trade items of the year the fact that a Liverpool dry -goods 
firm imported a quantity of silk from the United States, ana that 
Michigan sent soda ash to that district, the latter item being like 
"sencung coals to Newcastle." 

Shipments of chilled poultry from the United States have met with 
the greatest success, and a rapidly increasing trade is being established 
and IS likely to continue, especially during tue period from January to 
June in each year. Imports of chilled pork are Hkewise on the increase. 
Canned fruits from CaliforDia still command the market, but canned 
meats from Australasia and South America, particularly tne latter, are 
competing keenly. There is an active demand for green fruit fi-om 
California and Or^on, as well as for dried fruits. It will interest 
manufacturers of agricultural implements, continues Mr. Boyle, to 
know that there is a long-felt want in England for an improved light- 
draft self -binding reaper. The Lancashire Royal Agricultural Society 
is sdvertising to give prizes at a trial to be made in the summer of 
1900 for this class of machinery. 

COMMEBCIAL INTELUOENCE DEPAETMENT. 

Consul Boyle writes from Liverpool, January 5, 1900: 

Heretofore, the British Board of Trade Joiunal, a Govemmeat publication similar 
la the American Confiulsj' Reports, has been isBuedmontlily. Complaints have been 
freely_ made by the British preae and by chambers of commerce that the information 
contMned therein was often too late in reaching the pubUc to be of much practical 
value, and comparison was made with the eyetem of the United States Government 
in pnolishing daily Advance Sheets of Consular Reports. On the 4th instant there 
t^peared the first number of the weekly iasue of the Board o! Trade Journal. Its 
pnce is fixed at Id. (2ceotB), while the price of the former monthly inuewas 6d. 
(12 cents). CoosiderinK the admitted conaervatism of the British Government in 
such maUeiH, this new departure is very significant. It is undoubtedly a manifesta- 
tion of the newly awakened spirit in Great Britain in the direction of greater enter- 
Eriee and more modem methods to meet ever- increasing foreign competition both at 
ome and abroad, particularly from the United States and Germany. 

Equally significant is the establishment of the new "commercial intelligence 
bnmchoi the board of trade," the following particulare of which ore taken from 
an offlml announcement dated the Ist instant: 

"The intellieence branch of the commercial department of the board of trade 
has beoi established with a view to meet the constantly increadog demand for 
prompt and accurate information on commercial matters, so far as it can be met by 
Government action. In deciding to establish this new branch, the board of trade 
have l)een largely influenced by the recommendations contoinwi in the report of a 
departmental committee composed not only of repreaentativee of the various Gov- 
ernment departments concerned, but alao of promment representatives of commer- 
cial interests, which was appointed by Mr. Ritchie, the president of the tioard, in 
Jnlv, 1897. The committee referred to was requested (o consider and advise (1) as 
to the best means of collecting and of diaeeminatmg among those interested prompt and 
accurate information upon commercial subjects, and (2J as to the collection of sam- 
ples, especially of goods of foreign manufacture competmg with British productions, 
and the exhibitioa of such samples to manufacturers and traders in th^ country. 
As a result of their deliberations, the conunittee recommended under head (1) the 
H. Doc. 481, Pt 1—12 ;^^^_,.^|^, 



178 OOHUEBOIAL BELAITOIfS. 

eetablishment of a new office, under the beard of trade, on lines which the board 
have fallowed generally in the creation of the intelligence bmnch, and this branch is 
congequently intended to become a center at which infomiation on all sulqecta of 
commercial interest shall be collected and focused in a form convenient for reference. 
In addition, it will bo thedntyofthebranch,aa tarascircumetancesperinit, to afford 
information in reply to ail inquiries on commercial mattera which may be addreeaed 
to it,' whether written or \-erbal. The 'intelligence branch' will endeavor, on appli- 
cation being D:iBde to it,^ to supply iuformatioa in regard to the following subjects, 
viz: Commercial statiatics, matters relatingto foreign and colonial tariffs, excise and 
'consumption' duties; port, harbor, and tonnageduee, and other charges on shipping; 
customs regulations, consular fees, forms of c^tificatee of origin, regulations concern- 
it^ commercial travelers, trading licenses, foreign and colonial contracts open to ten- 
der, foreign and colonial bounties, listsoffirmsensaged in particular lines of business 
in uitferent localities, etc. An inquiry room, at which copies of official publications, 
directories, and olJier works of reference may be consultel, is reserved at the offices 



TBADE IN eoOTLAND. 

The following extracts are from tiie report of Consul Fleming, of 
Edinbui^h: 

The tendency of trade m this part of Scot^d in 1S09 indicates that American 
exporters are giving attention to a market long practically n^lected. Although 
American goods of various kinds have been sold in Scotland lor many years to a 
limited extent, it can hardly be said that there was a serious effort to build up a 
trade in any line until the manufacturers set themselves to the work of placing their 
wares before the people directly, by sending representatives here either from the 
United States or from London agencies. 80 long as the manufacturers were content 
to let a general agent in London or Liverpool simply take orders for Bcotland when 
they happened to get any, the growth of trade was exceedingly slow. When modem 
meuiods of trade extension were adopted and agents from toe United States as well 
as salesmen from London and Liven>ool were sent among Scottish buidnesa men to 
show wares and prices, there was a quick change for the belter in the current of com- 
merce. Manufacturers on the other side took a wrong view of Scotland to begin with. 
They seemed to look upon this division of the United Kingdom as commercially a 
mere appendage of England. The foot is that laws, business methods, and business 
habits in Scotland diSer from those in England, and to obtain trade here a foreign 
manufacturer must present himself to Scottish businew men, and meet their require- 
ments, quite irrespective of any connection, however successful, he may have else- 
where in Great Britain. The Scotsman thinks for himself. He selects goods upon 
what he considers their merits. No one is more alert than he to discover real value Jn 
wares of any kind, and it follows that the best way to sell goods of real value in Scot- 
land is to bring them under the notice of Scottish businees hooses directly. Ameri- 
can manofacturers are adoptii^ this plsji, and they find that ft pavs. This is pretty 
clearly shown by the increasing proportion of American exports which come to Scotr 
tish ports, which proportion will, itisprobable, grow steadily in thehiture, inasmuch 
as the facilities for all-water transportation between North Britain and the United 
8tat«s are improving. 

The importance of this part of the United Kingdom as a market for manufactures 
may not be fully nndeistood in the United States. Scotland is not a manufacturing 
community. The great manufacturing indostries do not number half a dozen, inctud- 
ir^ shipbuilding, distilUng, and tweed, linen, and burlap manufacture. Compara- 
tively few of the articles in common use are produced here. They are imported from 
England and abroad. There is among the people little if any prejudice against for- 
eign-made wares. In proportion to population and wealth, Scotland is, in my opinion, 
a better market for American goods than England. Of course, the latter country is 
a much larger field to cultivate, but the trade of Scotland is decidedly worth striving 
for. United States manufacturers made a good start in 1897, improved their position 
in 1898, and in 1S99 they have been gaining ground in several directions. Evidences 
are found on ever^ hand that our goods aro coming to this market in constantly 
increasing quantities. 

The imports of agricultural machinery, printing presses and folding machines, 
metal-working and wood-working machinery, tools and implements, woodenware, 
clocks, watches, etc,, are growing. 



byGoO'^lc 



REPORTS OF CONSULAR OFFICERS. 

Note. — The aonoal returns of declared exports, which were for- 
merly published in Commercial Relations, will be printed this year in 
H separate Tolmne, similar to the quarterly statements of Exports 
Dechred for the United Stat«s. 



D.gitizecbyG00glc 



byGoo'^lc 



AFRICA. 



CAJJifAItT ISLA^iTDS. 

Trade in the Canary lalands could be made very profitable to Ameri- 
can merchants if a airect line of steamers were established. A line 
from New York to Las Falmas, Santa Cruz de Teneriffe, Sierra Xieona, 
Liberia, and the Gold Coast, running once or twice a month, would 
carry enough freight and passengers to pay. The people here are 
anxious to nave direct communication with the United States, and will 
give such a. line their hearty support. Freight shipped via England 
takes three to four weeks in transit^ and the transfer to steamers makes 
charges very high. It is entirely in the hands of English mercbante, 
who manage their affairs via Liverpool and London, 

The principal American pi'oducts brought here are petroleum, 
tobacco, flour, maize, ham, lard, and lumber. A very good market 
could be made for furniture, shocks, ink, soap, cement, liardware, 
canned goods (meats), and cereals. 

Trade nere at present is in a healthy condition. The exports consist 
of fruits — which all go to England — potatoes, garlic, onions, almonds, 
wine, and cochineal. 

The cement used here is imported from' Belgium, and nearly all the 
lumber and all the shooks come from Norway. 

Solomon Bbbuner, Oon^. 

Tenbbiffe, SeptemAer 16, 1899. 



NAVIGATION AT THE CANABT ISLAMI>S. 

Statistics of the maritime business at this port are given in inclosed 
clipping. The vessels printed as coming from America are all from 
South and Central America; not one steamer entered this port from the 
United States, and only four sailing vessels carrying our d^ have 
cleared from Teneriffe during the year ending December 31, 1899. 
There have arrived more vessels than stated from the United States: 
they did not fly the United States flag, but carried merchandise and 
wares from there. 

I have cleared during my term of office, from September 8 to Decem- 
ber 31, 1899, 22 vesseb, of which 20 were steamers and 2 sailing ves- 
sels; of these, onl^ 1 was under the American flag, a sailing vessel. 
The business of tlus port has nearly doubled in the last ten years, and 
the genertd merchandise business, I am informed, is more than tihree, 
times what it was ten years ago. Any amount of business in everylc 



182 OOXMEBOIAL BELAOIONS. 

line could be done if there were direct communication with the United 
States. 

Solomon B&BLmBB. 
Teneeiffe, Jamtary 5, 1900. 



entered the port of Teneiiffe, clasBified 
Swedish (war) 2 



Spanish f 1 war) 

German (1 war) 81 Perovian 1 

French (1 war) 20 Runan (war) - 1 

Italian 3 

Norwegian 8 Total 172 

Daring the same period 3 foreign sailing veesels (1 war) and 8S veaeela engaged in 
coasting trade entered the port, making a total of 261 vessela, with tonn^e 409,610, 
crew 9,873, paBBengaia 9,6(». 

The numoer of ateamere entering this port during the year 1899 wae 1,68&, dis- 
tributed by months as follows: 

JaDoary 133 July 129 

February 125 August 122 

March 156 September 121 

April 136 October 144 

T&a.j 14] November 162 

June 144 December 172 



During the aame year 1,07S sailii^ vesaels entered, making a total of 2,763 vessels, 
with tonnaire 3,378,906, crew 83,841, and paaeengera 97,653, claseified according to 
origin aa foUows : 

Europe and islands 2,189 

Africa 276 

America 259 

Oceania 59 

Total 2,763 

Of this number, 47 were ships of war. 

Spanish 26 Rusman 2 

Erench 7 German 1 

Argentine 3 Dutch 1 

Swedish 3 English 1 

Portngueee 2 Norwegian 1 

The following is a comparative statement showing the increase during the last ten 



1891. 



1,324 

897 1,375 

1,^7 



BKrriSH SOUTH AFRICA. 

Notwithstanding the falling off in ira^rts of merchandise into South 
Africa for 1898 aa compared with 1897, imports from the United States 
have not decreased, and when it is taKen into consideration that 
imports of some articles were lessened owing to the war with Spain, 
and that crops were destroyed bv locusts, fly, and fli-ought, the snoop- 
ing is a satisfactory one, and in its proportion to total imports ia 
reached by no other country. 



AKRIOA: BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA. 



183 



The total imports for 1898, ezclosive of specie, into all South 
Africa was £33,903,428 ($116,321,165.84), an increase of over £20,000 
(997,330). The following were the value of imports into South Africa, 
exclusive of specie, for uie years 1897 and 1898, by ports: 



Port* 


.W. 


ISBB. 




]2,IB6,2ST.SS 

























127,400,147.11 









The Portuguese territory on the east coast included in the terri- 
tory shown as Soutii Africa is not in this jurisdiction, but as through 
the ports of that territory imports for parts of South Africa enter, it 
was necessary, in order to give the total, to obtain the figures for those 

g>rts, and I am indebted for the courtesy to United States Consul 
ollis, of Lourenfo Marquez. But the above fibres are not a correct 
showing of the imports from the United States, for the reason that 
large values are brought in from Great Britain and other countriea, 
purchased through the foreign agencies of United States manufacturers 
and producers and export commission houses. Those in a position to 
know state that the sum of $1,000,000 may be with safety aaded to the 
above figures for 1898. These imports, it is said, include steel rails, 
iron piping, bridge and other structural work, freight cars, mining 
machinery, furniture, peas, corn, dried fruits, wire fencing, lard, canned 
meats, tel^raph material, etc. I can not believe, however, that such 
heavy goods as those first mentioned would be largely shipped via Great 
Britain, for it would seem a matter of economy to snip direct to South 
Africa. Large quantities of saltedandcannedmeatsandfishare, how- 
ever, sent througn foreign ^encies, the latter also through a California 
agency in Australia. 

I give below figures of imports and exports into all of South Africa, 
with the exception of Portuguese territory, in 1898, the statistics cov- 
ering the leading articles in which the United States is represented. 
I have given quantities, wherever possible, instead of values, as these 
are sometimes underestimated. The table is not as complete as I 
would wish, for the reason that this colony and its dependencies do not 
classify goods under the same headings and do not give details of dif- 
ferent lines; for instance, "hardware and cutlery "cover many kinds of 
goods that I would be pleased to enumerate, but can not. The total 
United States exports to South Africa, by ports, for 1897 and 1898 are 
stated below. Those tirough Portuguese territory for 1898 are esti- 
mated, as correct returns can not be obtained for thirty days. 





,8«. 


,««. 




»,T80,S03.80 
g,a>4,«M.04 


















lS,»66,72£i,M 









Not a very large increase in the total, but the gain in cereals, ctc.i 
WHS astonisblDg. Decreases in other articles cut down the total. '^ 



COHUERCIAL BELATIOBB. 
ChUf imparta fkroagk pnrts of Cape Colony. 



Axtlclea and couDtiies. 




1«>T. 


ine. 


Ale and beer 




16 
«0 

go 
so 

g 

m 

!S 

1,IS2,8S1 
1S,28S 
274. ni 

4.CI7S,S76.6» 

116,078. 05 

b;7«):*s 

9. as 

%■!« 

m 
'iw 

Si 

1«&,TW 

' 1 
!:SJS 

421,660 

2U,»2 
897,436.40 

144,«3T.2S 

10,869. T4 




























'^"■'SSJSKliudcm 








::::::::;::t::: 




^lS'^^.':"f.::;::::;:::::::::;::;::::;:: 












Amtralla..: 

AnentiDe Bepubllc 


:::::::::::|:::: 


,s 


""aaS^"-;:::::::::::::::::::::::::: 


do.... 






Sheep— 






Mi'diS?!:?::::::::;::::::;:::::;;::.;;. 


do.... 










*" Unl"ed"li^S^ 


::::::::rr:: 


^■'^^ 


^'^S'.S'^i.. 


















SSSfe:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::. 




47.W)4.2« 


rsr^;;:;;;;;;;;;;:::;;;;;;;;;:;;;;; 


nnmber.. 


« 


United giatei 

I^itob— 


:::::::■:::£:;: 


321 


Belgluni 


•■::::::::£;:: 




United /tiUi 

'^'^SfiriCi^dom 


::::::::::;t::: 


7,668,447 






























Killed Kln'gdom .!? 


do.... 


■«;S 


^Sfes.;:;;::;;;;::;=::;:;r;;:;:: 


do.... 




VffiS 






























































Butter: 




























SSSSKT;;;;:::::::;;:::;:::::;::;;;:::::;;;:;;. 


:;;:::;;::;&::: 


.» 



afbioa: BBinsB south avbxca.. 

Chief tn^wrtf through portt of Cape Cblon;;— Contitiaed. 



Articles Bnd ooDDtrlsi. 


18«. 


im 






701,649 

1 

Sie,9M 

IB,8W 

103,]&1.47 
16,788.82 
86,1)00.38 

i;8»l 


U0,0B7 




Holland' 

SSiS^:^:::::;;;::;:::::;;:::::::::::;:::::: 


:::::::::;:£:::: 


1'^ 






8,116.677 
04,7a 














4,6« 

'•S;2:l! 

0,916,40 






''"^StSi'SS^ 






■::;::;;:...jo..:: 




United KingdcBn 


:::;::::!r^:: 


857.070 






21,110 












14,845 






18,816.07 






'^em.dEi.^i™ »n. 
























k^ 






s,»a>,WB 

41,180 
188,808 

12,606 

IS 

6,817 
2, 100, 968 

eff7.«io 

41,401,747 

18,690,376 

lH,40a 

1,241,466 






lS:744 
















'Si 












Ct***": 


\^r 












'IsiSi.f'"^^::::::::::::::::::::::::;::::::. 

^ndne Republic 


""""l^:: 


^,■m 










BouuuuIku— 

rmtedYiiwi::;" ::::::::: :"";;: :;::;:;:""" 

**'^ted Kingdom 

SKSMT''!":;:::;;::::;:::::::;;:::::::: 


do.... 

<lo.,.. 


240^10 
1,468,860 

17, 232^200 










do... 


1636' 877 






7«,7M 
1,647,126 

218,000 

!:SS! 

1,267,267 

■as 
















:::::::::::&::: 


■•S'!!? 




































■"SS^i 


do.... 


C76S,02S 


27,748.6*8 



186 OOHUEBCIAL BBLATIONB. 

Chief import* through port* of Cbpe Ooloiniy — CoDtiniied. 



Articla mi coantrlea. 


!««. 


iseB. 


CeresliH-CDiitinDed. 
Other nalna— 


p™ju- 


3;^ 


4^ 






United BlatM 


;;;;:;;;;;;;;;;:!;;;; 


2, 862:744 


*™Unlted KIngd«OT 






OiflteilBtotM 


;;:;'iE;;;;:|;;; 


839,700 

5'^ 


Ftonr— 




731, 7« 
10,000 

„,„,„ 

820.817 

140.708 
I0.5S8:W3 

S,2(H,B«I.4S 

ib;2m;b7 

l,41S,3SD.a8 
Si;S43.S2 

»b; 871168 
102,055,72 

173, B« 

ulseo 


• tSB 






uSSdeiiii ^^- - 


.6.a:iS 












"~BSSU«d™ 




as 

2,106.71 




•"aerjE^"":: 














gSi 






CDl^KYiitdom 


; tv" 












DracBuidchemlcsli: 


729 0B2 6T 






49,aiO.B8 














'^^linlted Kingdom. 






















^,^ 

■•,600 

1,617 

1,970, 782 

4,231 

Ill 

as:g 

61381.86 
1 












SsS=i:i:ii 




t.is 






















^.aii^si^c^."!'.^?^!:!^. 






BeigiujrrTf^r::::::/::::::::::::":::":::::";:;:::;::::":^:::: 






















■■•tSS;? 

10.187.80 






'n^^'Kf.S^'''™'^ 




















"'■^CiaSS'T' 


S4,2».E>8 










''Si 


SSl'EE-EEEEEE. 


do..-. 


Ssfe."'*"- 


pound... 


no,OM 








Uoltediati 


do.... 


i,"4»»,"01B 



AFRICA; 
Cftief import* tkrmtgk 



SOUTH APmOA. 187 

d/ Cape CWony— Continued, 



Anlclea uid coontries. 




,»,. 


1808. 






Boe 

6,97T,8S6.04 

sloeBiis 

ll,6B0.»6 
118,200 

la 

78,606 


120,474 










"ISSS"^; •; 


do... 

dollan- 


881 






6,822.91 


















Hardware and coUery: 


;:;::;:;::-.::;-.::3:::;; 


1:1 






4:g 






att,o2T.«« 

8,(108. W 

"S;g 
■l:i!! 

27J,1B8.S3 
«S,7«.«[ 

iST,051.8S 

B«;i80:80 

BS8, (20.77 
100,720.05 

ii;m«.m 

108,671.06 

883,221 

*30,8I7 
116,162 

^S 

311,946 
7.139 

4,229 

'"■•"■" 

286,ft«e.e2 

6,993.32 

,!;SS 

180,677.00 
6:361.87 






:::::::::::::::::^::. 


all 




116,042 


United Ktogdom 


";;;:;;;;;;;;;:^:- 


Har- 

Unlted Kingdom 


::-"""::":^;- 


16S 

m 


hss^s^}?:— ■■■—■■■■— 




9,2« 




































'"weshTi™ - «.- 








120,416.62 






lADi^!&dtaiV,]we: ^^ 
















■nii»dEi,i^ 


::::::::::::::f:X^-.- 


140, 140 












162,382 


^IMdetaWB 


do... 

::;:::::::::::::*:: 


,„™te^::::::::::::::::::::::: 


::::::::::::::::£:: 


United Kingdom 


do... 


""iZ'^ 












nSlSS^iigdom 






^^EEHEEEE}. 


do... 

do... 


86|216!6> 
^M.08 



;,Goo'^le 



188 COIOCEBOIAL SELATIONS. 

Oiief imporit through porti of Cape Cblm^— Gontimied. 



ArUcla and ooontcia. 


■«. 


». 








•■sss 




do.... 


^■*1:«5:a8 
«S:8!i 

^:i 

'SS:^ 
.i:S 

"•S 
AS 

1,MZ 

2,276 
2,7«,M) 

7,888 

"!:2! 

187.283 
Z2Z.fiG6.« 

1:S! 

1IK,331.T8 
17,371.29 
11,«0.87 

i.oKosi 

2&1,4W 
180,280 

11 

267,897 

.as 




;:::::::::;:::;;:«:;;; 


■,4JftS 


































AOBlmHa 

"TSStefc 




3,260.401 










do.... 


'SS 














United Kingdom 


::::::::::::::'S*:: 


(»,SS1 


























l^rd— 

SaSSr.:::;;:::::::::::;;:::;:::; 


do.... 


^U2 
78,774 

7sg 


Macblne and engine- 
United KlnSa™ 

P«lnta and colors: 

United Klngdimi 

Germany 


;;-v.v;r.v±S:-:: 




'^ir- 


■JSS 


™ffi»s^„ . 












"^"Z^^'i^S^ 


















United Kingdom 


pomds.. 


3,641,KCS 




























'^^Z^ 

United Kingdom 

far:::;;:::;::::::::;::::::::::::::::: 


•ee;;:;;;;Ie 


4,062,482 


1=7::::;::::::::::::::::::::::::;:::: 


;e;;;eese 




'niSS-Sglo. 




"I'S! 




















S^m^"f^:::;:::::::;:::::::::::;:: 


do.... 

::::;:::::::::::&::: 


4S0,83D 

ssloea 



AFRICA: BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA. 
Chief imporU tkrougk ports of Cape Coiony—Coatiaaed. 



Articles and coontriea. 


ign. 


ISSB. 


ISa'.:::;:::::::;::::::::;:::;:::;::::: 
"IJSaS'Bi*.. 


::::;::::::::;f3^.: 

do.... 

do.... 


a.iC7,T27 

■gs 

1 

1,076:981 
TSiSTO 

1,804,213 

1016.228 

™2S0 

i;292 

159,025 
489, SM 

684.608,12 

III 

1,874. SSL IS 

sss 

i; 422. 04 

«,4S& 
11.585.48S 

1»,IM 

841,837 

9)332! 83 

1,193,02 
12,715,67 

33,873.78 
17:731.41 

1,031,949.73 
9,470,23 

41,287.36 

"•a 

1,202 


91,381 

^:JS 


United BlMes 

"°"uElte<l Kingdom 


do.... 

do.... 


■gits 

20,621 


United Siw«« 

Gennany 


:::::::::::::::::&::: 

*).... 


f.m 


9,911 

384,480 










652,342 
SI. 116 

1, 783,071 
1.514,475 


"^MbM?:?::;;:::::::;:::::::::::::: 


:::;:::;:::::;:;:dS:;:: 
■:::::::::::-:::-^::: 










^JS',!lS~K'l«pW, 




>|9.05. 
























VaitedBUttee 

Railw&Tnutcrlat; 


do.... 


63,618.70 












314; 604. 60 
















48.00fl,46 

ii,«4,ieo 


6a1t: 










13, 428,2* 














■as 


fSES?:":::::::::::;;;::::::::::;;:::"::::: 


:::;::::::::;:::;do": 


"^"u'SiSSIc'Slgdom 




2^.^ 














'6n,646.89 
















"■SrlSsr:.;::.::;:.:::::: 










10; 966: 72 








82,702.05 
33:700. « 

11? 






"^^:==:: 


S:-- 




;:::;::::;:::::::«;::: 




















?S 







190 OOKHEBOIAL RELATIONS. 

CtatJ imporU throfigh porta ijf Cape Colony — Continued. 



Articles oudcouDUIeL 


isn. 


1898. 


Sl&teB, build Ids: 




1,U«,297 












66,475 






1,998.493 

,11 

^[364.333 

«,.S:S 

as 

108,102.77 
74S.W 

7S,«I0 

a,4(M.S3& 

SS,47a 
1(6, OOO 

21,663,472 
1,M3,3C0 

ailsoo 

67, 745, 400 

gs 

61,127 
134,181 

61.127 

307,683 

1,736 
'911 

172,418 

1,166,385 
61,118 

3i 
























United States 




389,731 


Tallow; 

United Kingdom 


do 


49,6m 








^^S^Ti^o^ 










United Slatea 

Tobacco: 

^'^^edKIngdo.n 




282. *6 








Belgium 

SSd^::;:::::::::::::::;::::::::::::::::::; 


do.... 

a; 


'1761950 














CiKvettes— 








do... 














'"SIBi:::::::::::::::::::::: 


:::::::-:r."«^:: 


SS 




^•■a 












"t^ 


SSff:;;::;;;:::::;::::::;;:::::::":::::;: 


S:;::: 






misw 


"".JT!"'*"' 












Sleorin— 


io 


.&^ 


























11 

871,: «i 
11 

'41 


























Java 


go-- 






::::::::::::do:::: 
















Wood: 

BU,ve>- 
















"■^S?^;;:;;::;;::::;:::;;:;:;:::::;: 


coble feet.. 


11, KB 




























iSM2 



afbica: bbitjsh bouth apbica. 191 

C3tufimporU throagh porti o/ O^ Oolong — Contiaued. 



Ankle* uid GounlHok 


1^. 


isas. 


Planed or grooved— Conl 


-- 


....cubic fe«t.. 


13, «% 
IIS.GSB 

1*),«)1.77 
»4,3M.7B 




Olher tban fumltuTe^' ' 


M7.IB9 








seg 
















i,m.m.-m 

IB. 189. 10 
OT,1«.TS 
8,578.07 



























Chief imporit through porlt of Natal. 



ArticIeaaadcouDtriei. 



AgilCDttunl ImplemeiilA: 

UDllod Kingdom dollus. 

GenuaDf ; do... 

rniledBlales do... 

Ale and beer: 

United Klusdom galloaa. 

Belgium do... 

Germany do... 

Holland do... 

United Blatea do... 

AigeDtine BepubUc number. 

All other countries do... 

Mule»- 

Anentlne Republic do... 

UiSledBlalea do... 

Argentine BepubUc do... 

Uiflted States do... 

AMwrel and alapa; 

United Kingdom dotUn. 

Germany do... 

Holland do.,. 

UnltedBUtea dn. . 

Apotbecarr drags ani 

United Kingdom. 

BelgHan uu... 

United Btaiai!!III!!!I"I'!!.'!!l'I. ill!!!. !!!!IlII!..."!'IimiiioI^l 

Bags lor grain, etc: 

United Kingdom nnmlier. 

British Possessions do... 

Uanrltlaii do... 

United SUtes do... 

Bacon and hams: 

United Elngdom pounds. 

Oermany do... 

Holland do... 

United States do... 

Book^ printed; 

United Kingdom dollats. 

Hollaiid do... 

United States do... 

Btoah waie. 

United Kingdom do... 

United States do... 

Bicycles: 

\jnlted Kingdom do... 

Fiance do... 

Oenoany do... 

BeiKitnn.'!.".'!!;;!!!!!.'!!!!!!!!!!!!!;.'!!!.'!!!!!!;;!!;;:!!:::!:!!!do!!! 
Dnfied stales. do... 

d Kingdom pounds. 



ie»7. 


1898. 


Si! 


S4,240.aB 
18,294.21 
11,724.(16 


U.2W 


im,06S 

is 

3.m 


«8 


'■'n 


2.SH 


327 


S,28T 


6.202 


H 629.48 
6,G2S.07 


6,350.28 
13,811.74 


427.4M.73 
1*. 171.96 
82,(89.56 

«;0B8.9S 


877,169.54 

!S,S20:40 
44,348.41 


12,172 


'lis 

a, 080 


1:1 


11 




10,194 


lW.77t6! 


129,132.68 
1^139! 68 


M, 677.00 
7,096.69 


f.^S 


1:S:!S 

10,266.22 

3,342.47 

486.8* 

29, 86*. 7* 


288,243.70 

21664:67 
25;640:56 


e9«,s4B 

206) IBT 


803,806 



OOSDOGBOIAL BZLATI0N8. 
Chief imports tiuwigh porti of Natal — Continued. 



Arlicln and couutclfM. 


,»,. 


ia»e. 


Buttet-Continued. 


po™*.. 




60.978 




















iS£^EZEE= 


=.:..^:. 


8,829.11 
6a.lK.4B 

2.188.819 
8, MO 

12,818 

sss 

'•i 

'S;E 
"!;g 

8,802 

7; 188.77 
713,002 

1:1 

»,6» 


403,9«.21 
19,212. « 


















cwdta. , ■ 


'^■^■- 


■'IS 










2,900 












"TsaKi.,d>- 


dollan.- 


m'MM 












25,887 
28,678 


















[iDlled Elngdom 


n^- 


-ga 








Msra 
























""SiSass 






















"""sax^,^ 






























FSr."!'!!'::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::;: 


::::::::;::::::::::£::: 


^;S1S 










^•'^I^:::::::::::::::::::::, 


::::::::::::::::::^z 


870, OW 

Is 


"i 


^°S!S!eMi' 




2S0 


"**DnSSdWSrfti 




1i 
11 


1 au 4m 


^s&lssr^— ■-:-"-. 


■---::::::::&":. 


!S« 


sssaSi.- 


do.... 


'■SS 






"SIS 




EEEE^ 








"Ti.!!:C^z::::z::::::::::: 


'^'"■■ 


%S4e,706 


218, M8 










































FnmcB 


::::::::;::::::::::^:::: 




U'S 











AFRICA: BETTIBH SOUTH AFBICA. 

Chief impoTit Ihrougk porttof Natal — Continaei^. 





IWT. 


1898. 


FWlt* dried: 




017,133 

■1;£ 

iil 


668,848 

■ta 




do.... 










3.865 










^880 




4!S 
••«;!!! 

l,tM.900 
128,821. » 
82.907. H 

IBS 

1 

■"•S 

HO 

7.S81 
1.492 

lO.SfiO 
^4H 

U«,27-i 
882, G22 

8,607 
8,663 
B.M1 
9,008 


U^&dsufea 

^"BriUsh Po«e«lo[ui 


do.... 

;:::;::::::3S:::: 














































^mioi 


""'^L1«1 Kingdom 










United 8t«t«i 

United i^dom 


....do.... 

&■■■ 






Uni«d_K.,«dom 


922 

29,3^ 




:::::::::::£;:: 




Millets 


821 


*^%nlted Kingdom 

Sfesr:':;;;;;:;::;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;:;;;: 

ISSSSSi:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 


do.... 

ee;;Ie 


2,464 


1621688 

s,a8 

2,386 








Wheat— 








81,060 
*•'«!' 757 M 

8j!i07.8S 
12. 964. JO 














88,571.75 




















United Jl«tt» 

Unln.com mcfti: 


do.... 


J, 616. 11 
6,532 


United Kingdom' 


loll""- 


1,080, 269. « 

ISO, 827^07 

824,189.40 

ll881.12 

'■i! 

80 


United State* . 

^°t3^ Kingdom 




125,ie0.71 

128,087.61 












'^toi- 








do.... 


■«s 










1 


^ 


United Btii«;^";!ll;J!;!^'!.'.^'.'^".'i.'.";;^'^;! 


EEEti: 


Si 



CcXT^Ic 



COimERCIAL BELATI0N8. 
Oiief import* tkrongh port* of Naial — Continued. 



ArliclesBudooDntrlcK 


IWT. 


1888. 


IroD— Conllniied. 

"figreBr.-'.T'r'. 


■;;::;::;;::;:::r:- 


».53» 


7,»«> 








R^lway materlal- 




gffig 

20,517.31 


140 64B 3» 
















™eS%;.-^ 






-^kI^Ix.:...;: 




4080 


lelglum 

ollan/. 

niiedSUlCT 

Ilplng— 

B««lu">i 


:::::::::;:::JS:::: 

dollon.. 


2,718 

310 

2,121 




l,lBg.BO 
I. OK 

611.7*). 18 

B,7«.oe 

]S,»t7.SS 
a7,HT3.W 

6gJ,lll 

lis 

,i;g 
"•S 

170, «« 

72, 3M 
4,000 




















UnU^ingdom 


-l^gj"-- 


2S9.775.74 










20,147.31 

997,718 


n"nf."4»?^r^.:^^''!?:'.'.**; 


'-."„'^:- 




38.221 
























I^rd: 
















874, S18 










1(^418 

8,010 


United llatii 

IWDted- 


do.... 


2,000 

ro,«7 

8,048 

1,0W,J11.!6 
7,9«.e7 
S.OOS.M 

22,840.30 
!,71D.« 

42,169. SO 

ass 

16,304.70 

309,066.07 
10, »B 

Am 








:::::::::::::;:&::: 












V^tl,i:uk 


do.... 




iiin 

1,103.882.80 

1, 294.49 


LeMhert 

S&fSSii-::::::::::::::::::::::::: 


H-E::!!^;; 












L'Dlled States 


:::::::::::::::di:::: 


t».m;w 














Muhinere end parU, all klndii: 






















878. 973. R3 
139,568.46 


rS'C^Uwi::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 


do.... 








do... 


, laJsK 



lO'^lc 



AFBICA: BBITI8H SOUTH AIPBICA. 
Qaef iiapoT^ through porU of Natal — Continued. 





!««. 


lege. 




9,ae 








51 






iin.uo 

«,<76,aS2 
87,167 

^:!!! 

28.020 
2. GOO 

I.172.0M 
*.1W,800 


Meutfl. fKHen: 

Australarta 

MeBlBBDd tim. Mlled and tlimed: 


P«md».. 


3,108.686 






'« 
















,fS! 
























Arnatlne Republic 


■;;;;;;:;;£;;; 


1.1SI,M2 


""liSSlSSi™ 














84.080 












HSOO 

i.tsi.tse 








aftlsoo 








do.... 

:;;:::::^rf:: 


31.190 


rtisfflo- 






















gelgj™^^- 








2,300 

1 

IISISM 

m.m.2T 

US.M 

i.Boeiso 

SB8.n 

T.on.01 

10,S«.M 




Ali otheo- 






§K3^::::::::;::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::. 


:..:::::|:::: 


11S.T9S 


United Statei 




411,973 




















United Sr^om 

United States 

PaEnten' vamtih: 


::::::;::::^S:::: 


720.24 

g,e8i.e4 

IJ.»J-10 










2,»1.!S 
M,Bn.OT 




"tiSSfS&™ : 


■-■■■r"±--: 


41.078.18 




1,017.88 

TO,6M.66 

10.899.86 
I.n8.M 

23S, 872.01 
3,879.78 

s;m78 

4,917.92 




"■"».!KSSSS:^'??r?.»*!^'. 


















'""EnTt^^.Ti'rfSl^n 










'wl 




is.-& 




::::::::;::da;::: 


gffiSSS;:::;:;:;;::::;:::::::;::::::::::: 


;;;;;;;;;;;!;;; 


49,190,68 














United 81ale« 

tjoddlerr and bamen- 




i.mM 












2,486.78 



_'.oo'^lc 



OOMKEBdAI. B£LATI0Ki4. 
CSii^ imporU through porta of Nalal — Contiaued. 



Atticlea ud coimtrlM. 




18K. 


1896. 


"^V^SMiSSSin «™ 








40O 

i:i 

S7,S3« 
1.M0 

ISM 87 

878 

338,114.08 

8.710.84 

sieacog 

11,675.99 
]2,S74.34 

e,wo 

I».8Ca68 
18,18*. 88 
1.543.19 
2,S13.2S 

11,123.08 

IS 

1,964 

44,924 

^<74 
18,439 

la 

!« 

6,700 
14,7«5 






















''irn?;SK.,^OD. 


dollWB.. 


77,585.75 










52,544 
















^IsskS-.- 


gsllon... 


695 
144,564 












doltare. 


271.200. 48 












UnlladStMea 

'""Slia'iBffi.n 




4.705.91 




"■lEtasffi 


■■"-"■-■■--■■■'^":: 


],M7 
184. 406. » 












Tlnwue: 










TotNuno: 


do.... 


5,518.74 


°°"SaS^ 


do.... 


li 

542 
24, UO 






HdUnff 

United Slate- 

^iS'nis^fflsr 


do.... 

do.... 


as 
li 

10.000 


fei^;;;:;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;:;:;;;: 


do.... 

;;-::::::;::;;:::5S:;:: 






























600 






wo<S"'^-rrdpWii-: ^-■ 






















III 










""^^.^'SUm 








1(1^860.98 










.::::::::::::::::::d^;::: 



AFRICA: BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA. 
Cla^ impwU throayh porta of Natal — Continued. 



Artlctca and coantila. 


.... 


««. 


""^iSSlS^"- 




■as 

SB:S 


as.2is.a 










54.6il8.W 

]71,OT7 

810 






""Siiaiisfc. 




isy 




"fMSK. 

grais:::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 


iiii: 


Z&S.OTS 


Canridns: 




Called BtM«a 




«:«o 



It will be seen from above tables that there are Hoes of goods in 
which America does not yet compete with other countries. I am con- 
fident that in nearly alt these classes she could enter this market success- 
fully, and the only reason she has not is that she has not attempted it. 
Great Britain is waking up to the fact that other countries, principally 
the United States, are entering into competition in the colonies. The 
governors of the colonies, in i-esponse to inquiries from headquarters 
in London, recently submitted a request to the several chamoers of 
commerce desiring information as to United Stetes trade, the reasons 
why our productions are favored, a comparison of American and 
British productions in quality, and advice as to the necessary steps to 
be taken to counteract tne inroads upon British trade. The chambers 
of commerce, with the statistics of the imports for a foundation, made 
a canvass from door to door and embodied their investigations in a 
report to the governors. The report was a private and confidential 
one, and I am unable to obtain a copy. I am told by an importer that 
his reply to one question submitted was, "We can send an order for 
£5 to the United States and have it filled and receive full attention, 
while it is necessary to send an order for £100 to London to insure 
shipment." Other countries are also seeking connections for South 
African trade, as evidenced by the recent establishment in this city of 
an "Austro-Hungarian consul-general." Turkey and Argentina have 
also established consulates-general, and steps are being taken to create 
a line of ateamships to ply Detween Buenos Ayres and South African 
porta, carrying frozen beef and mutton and live stock, including the 
small mules raised in Ai^entina. The sailing time from Buenos Ayres 
is thirteen days as against twenty-two days from Australia, from which 
place nearly all the frozen meat has heretofore been shipped.' It 
would seem that the growth of United States industries must neces- 
sitate our reaching out for foreign markets in order to dispose of our 
surplus products. This is particularly true not only of such goods as 
are enumerated in the preceding tables (for which we have already 

' The lorgeet importer of frocen meats at Cape Town haa offered to purchaee to the 
value of £WD,000 (12,433,250) yearly of the Aigenline BepubUc, on certun con- 
ditions. 



byGoO'^lc 



198 OOUUEBCIAI. KELAIIONS. 

found a limited market in this country), but also for cottou and woolen 
ffoods, furniture, lamps and chimneys, glue, malt, cotton wicking, armii, 
beads, coal, preseires, blankets, hats and caps; pig, bar, I'od, and hoop 
iron; sheet and corrugated iron, lead, harness, mate and matting, paper 
hangines, photographic materials, printers' materials, shoeniakei's' 
material, paper for printing, silk, telegraph material, smoking pipes, 
vinegar, zinc, and cement. Imports of toe latter amounted to over 
150,000,000 pounds in 1898. 

I do not advise every manufacturer to send representatives here, as 
the volume of sales in some lines would not justify it. The export 
commission houses of the United States, wbicn were the pioneers in 
this field many years ago, are entitled to much credit, and practically 
all, the business hereto^re done has been accomplished through them, 
and they must, for some years, be the bridge between the United 
States seller and the foreign buyer. These conomission houses, particu- 
larly those that have their representatives here constantly, will do the 
largest business, as they attend directly to the wants of their customers, 
and merchants here much prefer to nave their orders cabled b^' the 
representatives than to write or cable themselves. 

These houses have made friends, do a legitimate business, know 
whose credit is good, and are, in fact, the agents of the foreign buyer 
as well as of the home manufacturer. Those who seek the foreign 
market when trade is dull at home should not abandon it when the 
home market again becomes active. Once launched in business, goods 
once introduced and approved abroad, the abandonment of trade, for 
anyreason, causes loss of confidence, and this can not easily be regained. 

There is, as before stated, a vast market for products not yet 
introduced, for which it has been supposed there was no demand, 
particularly in the heavy lines of hardware and railway and machinery 
equipment. 

In these lines, direct factory representatives are perhaps the best. 
South Africa has had, in spite of drawbacks, a rapid expansion of 
trade with the United States, both in imports and exports. The 
rebate trade with the South African RepubUc is also on tne increase. 
A noticeable demand continues for corn in meal and in the form of 
samp, which is becoming a popular food. 

AGBICULTUBAL UAOHITIEBT. 

The following shows imports of ^ricultural implements and 
machinery from the United States: 





■ >». 


ISM. 




1!S:£ 














«6,6I».<2 


a02,S4«.a6 





If I could add the imports into Portuguese territoiy, the difference 
for 1898 would be much less. A considerable decrease in imports of 
agricultural implements from the United States is shown, out the 



byGoO'^lc 



imports from the United Kingdt 
Germany $2,517.79, viz: 



Africa: beitish south afbica. 
decreased $83,9 



199 
3.69 and from 





m,. 


ISM. 




1312, 83*. M 













On the other hand, imports of agricultural machinery from Ger- 
many gained several thousand dollars. 

The year 1899 will probably show an increase of imports in this 
line, owing to copious rains having fallen, and the use of agricultural 
machinery will grow every year. The employment of the steel plow 
and the cultivator will be gradually extended among the small mrm- 
ers, taking the place of primitive implements. The development of 

Ziculture means much to this country, and is more important to the 
inhabitants than all the mines of gold and diamonds. 
The products of the United States are a sui-prise in their cheapness, 
quality, and efficiency; this is evidenced by the attempts at duplication, 
not only of the gooas, but even of circuUra, names, etc. 



Wheat was sent from the United States in 1897 to the amount of 
186,318,861 pounds, and in 1898, 194,672,938 pounds. 

I must again remark, that if I could add to these figures the quantity 
that passed through Portuguese ports the amount would be largely 
increased. It is to be presumed that imports of this cereal from the 
United States will fall off for 1899; Australia has had good crops, and 
three tshi|)s are now on the way loaded with wheat. There is constant 
Station in this country for the reduction or elimination of duties on 
food products, and preparations for an election of members to Parlia- 
ment are now progressing, with the reduction of duties as one of the 
principles of a political party. It is estimated that the wheat crop of 
' Cape Colony for 1898-99 will yield from d to 10 per cent more than 
that of 1896-97. 

It may be Interesting to add, that while imports of wheat into the 
territory stated advanced but slightly in 1898 over 1897, it must be 
remembered that the imports from Australia increased from 156,890 
pounds ia 1897 to 25,336,494 pounds in 1898, and Uruguay there were 
received 1,641,232 pounds in 1898 (none in 1897), while the United 
Kingdom decreased from 1,267,267 pounds in 1897 to 195,238 pounds 
Id 1898. 

The following shows the increase in imports of flour and wheat into 
Cape Colony alone: 



You. 


Flonr. 


Whcet 


tent. 


nour. 


Wht:aC. 




S,BZ3.b43 
S, no, 213 

42^174 






li^!«6,392 

SlffilS 
















ass 











i;,iiz.oB,Google 



200 OOMMEBOIAL BBLATIONS. 

The following prices rule to-day in Cape Town: 

Tasmanian cargo lots by sailing vessele, lis, lOd. (|2.S8); Australian 
ca^o lota by saifing vessels, 12s. 3d. ($2.98); Californian cargo lots by 
saiung vessels, 12a. Id. ($2.93); red winter (United States) parcels by 
steamers, 16s. 9d. ($3.83); hard spring (United States) parcels by 
steamers, 16s. ($3.89). 

These figures are per bf^ of 200 pounds, c. i. f. afloat in Table Bay. 
Duty and charges amount to 4s. 7a., equal to $1.11 per b^, aod tiriis . 
added to abore figures gives landed cost in store. 

Cape Colony wheat sells at 18s. , equal to $4.33 per bag of 200 pounds. 
A cargo of Auetraliau wheat amounts to about 15,000 bags of 200 

Eounds, and at the present time, the freights being paid by sail are 
:x)m 258. ($6.08) to 26a. 6d. ($6.45) per ton of 2,240 pounds. 

A cargo of Calif ornian wheat runs from 25,000 to 35,000 bags of 200 
pounds, and freights at present would be from 20a. 6d. ($4.99) to 22s. 
6d. ($5.47) per ton of 2,240 pounds. Steam freights from Australia 
can hardly oe quoted, there being no fixed rate. 

The great bulk ie brought by s^ing ships, and steamers carry it only 
when they have space to spare, or perhaps on a special hurry order. 
A figure would be from 30s. ($7.30) t« 37s. 6d. ($9.12) per ton of 2,240 
pounds. The new line offers 25s. ($6.08). 

Steam freights from New York to Cape Town are at present 343. 4id. 
($8.36) per ton of 2,240 pounds. Spnngand winter wheats are not, 
however, imported in the same large quantities as either the Australian 
or Californian, and are seldom used ground into a straight winter 
or spring flour. They are employed almost entirely for blending, 
imparting a strength to the flour not possessed by the Australian or 
Californian wheats. 

The contention of the millers here is that Californian wheat gives a 
flour of no strength and needs blending with spring. This applies 
also to some Australian wheats, but others are ground alone. 



Australia is now offering the finest roller flour made at £Q ($29.20) 
per ton f . o. b. Melbourne. Rates of freight by either sail or steamer 
would be the same as on grain. The above f . o. b. price would there- 
foi-e amount to almost £8 ($38.93) c. i. f. Table Bay. To secure a 
grade of flour equal to this from New York £10 lOs. ($51.10) to £11 
($53.53) would be the figure c. i. f. Table Bay. 

From the following, it will be seen that the colony of Natal is offer- 
ing a bounty on flour and meal made in Cape Colony: 

OPFICIAX. NOnCK. • 

Under the following conditions, the Government of the colony of Natal will pa^ a 
bounty of 4b. 6d. per 100 pounda on all flour, wbeaten and wheaten inesl, including 
puUard, manufactured within tae Union solely from South African wheat when 
imported into that colony; 

Condilioni.—The importer ehall produce to the officer duly authorized in the col- 
ony of Natal, the flour, wheaten or wheaten meal, or pollard, alleged to have been 
manufactured from wheat grown within the limits of toe Union, together with cer- 
lificatea under the band of the growers and millera, and of a principal cuatoma officer, 
ma^strate, landdroat, or justice of the peace in the colony. State, or Territory of the 
Umon in which the wheat has been grown and manufactured. The applicant ehall 
further make a declaration on oath to the ^ect that, to the beet of his knowledge and 
belief, the certificates which have been produoed by him are tiue and correct in 



AFEICA: BEITI8H SOOTH AFBIOA. 201 

every particular, and have relation to the particular oomd^ment produced by him 
and on which he claima the bounty; that the eeoda are mtendea for consumption 
within the limits of the colony of Natal, and uiat no portion thereof shall at any 
time be removed beyond the bordera of Nat&l; and shall, if required, dearly and 
oonspicuoosly mark the goods with the worda "South Abicaa growth and union 
mauutacture, solely for consumption in Natal." 

MEAT. 

Exclusive of imports tlirotigh the ports of Portugnese territory, the 
imports from the Uuited States were, in 1897, 3,817,294 pounds, and 
in 1898, 3.464,889 pounds. While I believe the importe in this product 
will not fall off for 1899, yet I must state that Australasia is now send- 
ing here more canned meats, roasted, boiled, corned, and sliced than 
heretofore, and the Australian agents predict an immense business in 
frozen meats in South Africa in the near future. Australia increased 
her exports in canned meats from 395,799 pounds in 1897 to 1,059,764 
pounds in 1898. 

The prices i-ecently asked for Australian corned, roast, or boiled beef 
or mutton in l-pound tins was 3s. 8d. (89 cents) per dozen, and in 2-pound 
tins 6s. 3id. (fl.53) per dozen, both first cost f. o. b, steamer. At the 
same time the price asked for "Libby, McNeal & Libby" (United 
States) lieef was, forl-ponnd tins, $1. 15 per dozen ; 2-pound tins, (2.10 
per dozen, f. o. b. New York. This shows a difference in favor of 
Australian of 26 cents per dozen on the 1 pound and 57 cents per 
dozen on the 2-pound tins. 

This class of goods is ustially carried by the steamers, and the rates 
of freight from Australia are just now X2 68. ($10.94) per ton of 40 
cubic fiict. There is, however, a new line of steamers offering the 
rate of £1 15s. ($8.52). From New York, the rate of freight is ;E1 IBs. 
($8.03) per ton of 40 cubic feet. 

The quality of the Australian meats eeem to give entire satisfaction, 
and the packers are making every effort to push their goods, to keep 
up to date, and, if possible, to miprove them. They ttave obtained 
such a good foothold that on a contract now under consideration, the 
tenders call for 50,000 pounds of American tinned meats and 100,000 
pounds of Australiao. 

HARDWABE AKD CDTLEBT. 

Under the head of hardware and cutlery are included all imports to 
which the words may apply, and I r^^t that the statistics are not 
kept so as to enable me to make a more itemized showing, as many 
^oods in this classification are showing an increase in imports from the 
United States, f^es. edge tools, wrought hinges — both butts and 
tees — are arriving. This is what one trade paper says in reference to 
hinges: 

The Amei-ican hingee are cheaper, much more neatly wrapped, and altogether 
preferable to the ones from Wolverhampton and district The Wolverhampton 
people, in labelii^ their paekatfes, try to advertise their own nemee as much as pos- 
sible, and make it very difficmt for the salesman to ascertain what axe of hinge is 
contuned in a particnlu packet The American makers, on the other hand, state 
distinctly the size and kind of hinge, and content themselves with very small print 
for thdr own names. 

The same may be said of American bolts and nuts. I am surprised 
that something uas not been done in stamped ceilings, for all buildings 



202 OOIOIEBCIAL BELATIONB. 

now being erected use this metal ceiling in squares, and it all comes 
from England.' Corrugated galvanized sheet iron, iron poles and fit- 
tinga for telegraph ana telephone wires, are all of foreign manufac- 
ture. There would be a larger trade in shovels and spades if American 
manufacturers would make them with "crutch" handles {T shape) and 
with hollow backs. Box-nailing machines^ could be sold, particularly 
in the tea-growing districts. Box material (wood) cut to size and 
marked, would find a market. Barrel-making machinery could also 
be sold. Mortising, planing, and other woodworking machinery 
is in demand. Door and sasn trimmings, locks, bolts, knobs, door- 
plates, and all other house furnishing hardware meet with ready 
sale, and American manufacturers are showing many styles that are 
attractive and sell quickly. 

BIOTOLEB. 

An increase is shown in the importation of bicycles from the United 
States in 1898 over 1897 of »6,063.22, viz, 1898, $180,055.21: 1897, 
$173,991.99. With an increase of 171 per cent in imports of United 
States bicycles for 1897 over 1896, the small increase for 1898 is easilj 
accounted for. An advance in prices is not yet noticeable, but it is 
reported that, owing to the increase in the cost of materials that enter 
into the manufacture of bicycles in the United States, prices will soon 
rise. Large quantities of parts of bicycles have been received, prin- 
cipally from Great Britain. 



A decided decrease is noticed in the total imports of vehicles, as 
well as in the number received from the United States in 1898, as 
compared with 1897. The figures for 1897 were $i33,505.92; tor 1898. 
$380,594. 99. The United Kingdom fell off in a much larger proportion, 
as did also Germany, although Germany is not a large exporter of 
vehicles to South Africa. American manufacturers are now produc- 
ing the styles peculiar to this country. The increase m duty expected 
in the spring has not yet been made, and I am of the opinion that 
present tariff will not bo changed. Within the past two months, several 
shipments of vehicles have arrived from the United States, and the 
imports for the first six months of 1899 are far ahead of the corre- 
sponding period of 1898. 

CXJLD STORAGE. 

Cold-atorage plants for the preservation of imported meats, fish, 
butter, etc., are among the necessities of this country and climate. I 
have hoped that manufacturers of refrigerator plants in the United 
States would send a representative here with drafts and prices.' The 
following is from the Natal Mercury, which recently published the 
preceedings of a conference of the various chambei's of commerce: 

conference the time has arrived when, to keep pace with the 
ountriee, to enable the producer to conserve his summer- 

' I am pleased to learn, since the above was written, that a lai^ oublic building in 
,__^__!_ t_ 1..... a^. J .._ L...^ _-^i. _._ J ..!!, — 1. "*- io company. 

ita and one com- 

CnOO^^IC 



Africa: briush south afbioa. 203 

r^Bed produce, and to fumiah the consumer with a confltantmipply of food and cheap 
meat and other fann products, we muat have e. ByHtem of cold storage for our perish- 
able products. In order lo attain this end, it is desirable that the Government should 
introduce into Parliament during the couung session a measure to empower them to 
establish such storage in a poeiUon so central as to insure a supply to the targti cen- 
ters of population at reasonable prices at all times of the vear. The charge for the 
use of uiis storage should bo sufficientiv high to cover workiufr expenses and interest. 
Membere of the le^lature are respectfuUv urged to give such a proposal their sup- 
port, in the interests of the European producing and consuming commutiity. 

CUSTOMS XJNION. 

An event of the past year was the adoption of a ''Souih African 
Customs Union " — a tariff arrangement permitting a free exchange of 
South African produce between Clape Colony, the colony of Nataf, the 
Orange Free State, and Khodeaia. Natal will be benefited by s new 
market for her tea, coffee, aud HUgar, and the other parties by access 
to cheaper supplies of food products. The following details are from 
a newspaper article: 

The bill was promulgated as law on December 13 and came into operation on 
January 3. 

In the late Natf^ customs tariff, there were about thirty lines of specially 
rated articles, o( which half were foods. In the union tariff there are about sixty 
lines of specially rated articles, of which some thirty-three are foods, and in reepect 
to these latter the taxes on twentv-three are increased and on five reduced. The 
only foods untaxed are flour, anS fresh fish, fresh fruit, and freifh v^etables, the 
latter term, however, excluding potatoes and onions. The principal increase in 
the taxes on foods are: Beer, §d. (18 cents) per gallon; cattle for slaughter, .Ws. 
($7.30) each; sheep for slaughter, 68. ($1,22) each; chicory, 11a. Sd. ($2.84) per 100 
pounds; frozen beef. Id. (2 cent*) per pound; frozen mutton, 2d. (4 cents) per pound; 
spiritH, 6b. ($1.46) per gallon; wines, 4s. (97 cents'] and4B.6d. ($1.09) pergallon; and 
food essences, 15 per cent ad valorem. In articles other than foods, the principal 
increases in taxation are; Bicvcles, 7} per cent ad valorem; candles, Id. (2 cents) 
per pound; coals, about 2s. 6a. (61 cents) per ton; matches. Is. (24 cents) per gross 
Doxea; essential oil, 15 per cent ad valorem; fish oil, 6d. (12 cents) pergallon; soap, 
about 3s. 9d. [91 cents) per 100 pounds; methylated spirits, I5s. ($3.65) pergallon 
(equal to l,00Opercent ad valorem); tobaccos, Is.Bd. (SOcenta) and 2s. (49 cents) per 
pound; blankets, Sper cent ad valorem; and carri^cs, carts, and wagons, 15 per 
cent ad valorem. Flour, while tiuted 4s. 6d. ($1.09) per 100 pounds, when imported 
from abroad into other parts of the customs union, is admitted free of duty into 
Katal, and, in order to secure the consent of the other governments of tlic customs 
union to this arrangement, the Natal government has to pay them a bounty of 4s. 
6d. ($1,09) per 100 pounds on any flour made from wheat grown in their parts of the 
miion ana Bent into NataL' This arrangement under the convention isallowed to be 
made for three yesis. 

The customs union tariff is devised with the object of imposing taxes on all 
imported foods and other articles the like of which are producod by agricvilturistaand 
certain manufacturers and others within the union, and of allowing the importation 
free of taxation of articles used by the same classes. As compared with the customs 
union tariff which it supersedes, the ad valorem rat« is reduced from 9 per cent lo 
71 per cent, the duty on beef ia reduced from 2d. (4 cents) per pound to la. (2 cents) , 
and here and there an increase is made partly for the further '' protection " of South 
African industriee, but chiefly to establish sources of revenue for Cape Colonj^ in 
order to cover its loss of revenue from the reduced tariffs and the free importation 
of Hii^r from Natal. Any loss of revenue which might result to the Free State by 
reason of the new tariff will be more than covered oy the increased share of that 
State in import duties on goods via Natal and the reduction in the expenses of its 
coatoms department 

In anticijiation of the promulgation of the customs union tariS as law, large quan- 
tities of epu-its and other goods on which the increase in the duty under that tariff 
was meet considerable (e.g., spirits, soap, tobacco, and cigars) were imported into 
Natal, in some cases with the object of passing them free of further duty into Cape 



' See under " Flour," p. 200. 



000*^ I c 



2U4 COUHXBCIAL BELATIONS. 

Colony and Orange Free State as bOon ae the coetoms union was in force. Thk 

proceeding was epeciatly marked in the case of some spirits the property of Cape 
merchants, tinder the convention, it appeared that the Natal Kovernment wonld 
have to pay the Cape Kovemment 65 per cent of the union duties on those spirits 
when transferred to C»pe Colony— that is, 12b. 9d. ($3.10) ^r gallon, or 3a. 9d. (91 
cents) more than the Natal government had itself collected. By way of averting this 
situation, the Cape government, acting in concert with the Natal government, gsTC 
notice at the ena of December of a regulation tliat no goods would be admitted mtii 
Cape Colony from Natal unlcM the fall union duties had been paid on them. 
This regulation proved to mean that goods imported into Natal before the coming 
into operation of the customs union were treated by the Cape government as goods 
from without the union; and before thev were admitted into Cape Colony these 
Koods had to pay the full union duties without regard to the duties already paid in 
Natal. This regulation caused great dissatisfaction among merchants, and at the 
end of January a conference of representalivea of the three governments concerned 
was held at M*ritzbui^ for the purpose of considering the difficulty. The colonial 
secretary informed the press on January 31 that arrangements had been come to, 
wherebv ad valorem rated ^oods whidi had already paid dutv would be admitted 
into other parts of the union without payment oi further auty; and that spirits, 
dgaiB, cigarettes, and tobacco, which had already paid the preconvention duty, would, 
by paying the difference between the new and old duties, be allowed to cross into 
other parts of the union without further payment of duty. Tha next day thisinfoi^ 
mation was corrected to read as follows: ''All datv-paid goods, other than spirits and 
tobacco in its various forms, will be admitted witnout question into other pwts oi the 
onion, provided that the documents required by the customs union regulations have 
been furnished. As regards epirita and tot&cco, the difference in duty may be paid 
in Natal, and a Natal customs certiflcate will be given to that e&ect, and on produc- 
tion of this certificate these goods will also pass without further trouble." 

It is said, however, that excessive protection is giveo to the farm- 
ers' productions, though the local output falls far short of the con- 
sumption. The further reduction of tae ad valorem duty has made 
many articles cheaper, while on the other hand, foodstuffs, which the 
country does not produce, I'emain highly protected, although this 
duty may be suspended for a term of years. The Government of the 
South African Republic has suspended the duty on flour. Bread and 
meat will continue expensive, and nearly all must be impoited. 

FOREIGN TBADE COHFETITION. 

One of the chief competitors in the trade of South Africa is Germany. 
The imports from Germany into Cape Colony and its dependencies have 
fallen off of lat« years, due, it is supposed, to the diversion of trade to 
DehigoaBay. In 1896, the tradewithGermanyamounted to £1,102,188 
rt5,368,797.90), while in 1898 the total was £978,684 f|4,762 766.60). 
Exports to Germany, however, show an increase, Tne trade of the 
Colony with France is also decreasing, the imports having fallen off 
from £127,837 ($622,116.76) in 1896 to £61,642 ($299,980.79) in 1898, 
and the exports from £23,145 ($112,635.14) in 1896 to £8,720 

r 1,245. 95) m 1898. Australia sent to Cape Colony in 1898 goods to 
value of £298,428 ($1,452,270.66) and took exports to the value of 
only £2,651 ($12,901,09), 1 submit figures showing Germany's trade 
in Cape Colony and its dependencies, compared with that of the United 
States, in certain lines that both produce and export to South Africa, 
during the year 1898. 



byGoO'^lc 



JiTBIOA: 
Importtfrom Germany and tbt 



80DTH AFBIOA. 205 

SUittt through the port* of Cape Oobmy. 



AiUdn. 


Oe™™,. 


United 


Acid: 








Acello 


pOlooi.. 


S,K4 




Sulphmlo 


poonda.. 


80^ H7 








iv.osa 




Ale and beer 


■.■.'.:'."l'."'.'."'.:'.iia]o^". 


iB&ns 




Anlifrictlcm gr«M 


p3uiida.. 




269[386 


AppArel aod alotia 


dollan.. 


M.7W.W 


47,604.26 


A™,p«.,»„api*,i. 


Dumber.. 


S,1SS 


462 


"*0«ln 




8,120 


36, SIS 


other .-.. 




32S,Z77 


S».KS 


Be«d. 


pounda.. 


i,m 




Mcyclai 


aolla™.. 


28,688.71 


■ ■'iM.'iM.M 




cwt.. 


G9Z 










2g,<W.0T 


Bouer .... J/////;;/;//;/////////////./.'.'./.'.'.'/ 


.'.■.■.■.■.■;.v.v;;.v.v;poun4i:: 


130. e™ 




Cuidle. 


do.... 




2% 600 






6.815,« 


14S.143.tn 
486,000 




ponnda.. 


e,678,W7 






fr.do.... 


22,119 








122, B3S 








18,816,07 


e2,'286.'fl2 




lona.. 


1,629 


26,004 




ponnda.. 




9«,U8 


CocoBindebomUi'te*;'."!!""".'.^.""""''.' 


!7?dcr.. 


Ul^ 




gisr 




..^ 


i.'jw 


Cer«b: 






Barlejr 


ponnda.. 




60,4SS 


BesDiaDdpeaM 


do.... 


Molsio 


1,468,800 


Com 






8,706,210 






■ ■■iisii.os;" 


■468,830 


o«t»*'l"^!l"i!I""!""!"!ll"!ll!"""' 


do.... 




202,786 


Wha.t 


do.-.. 




104,601^831 


Rye 






2,468,014 


flinp 






a7, 748. 683 


Other greln 


do- ■■ 


»,'76i' 


1,602.744 














2,ot6' 




Com meal 


do.... 




28.780,176 


Otheime*! 


do.... 




77.600 


CotWn: 








Piece gooda 


dollan.. 


lA 982.64 


ai, 237.41 




do.... 


6,711. ff7 


1,4«.B8 


6I1.WI* 


do.... 


8,061.08 




Wkk 


\\'.\'.\\v.\\\'.'.\\\'".'^::.'. 


E16.K 


ii'sj 


Hodery 




24, 827. 36 


18,180.26 


WMte 


do.... 


1.460.22 






ddlara.. 


W.610.6B 


77,647.28 




ponnda.. 


60,76^78 






dollaia.. 


744'67 


g^::;;:::;.:::;;:::::::;;.::;;.::;:.;; 


■;;;;;:;;;;;;;;;;;SSS:: 


!;g 


80, nz 




.Sollais.. 


110,626.68 


'""i7B,'7M."» 










window 


do.... 


1.644.88 


238.60 


BMtIn 




7.80fcg7 


87.80 


PteU 


::::::i:':::!":"::!do:::: 


14.t2».42 




GlUOOK 


ponnda.. 




1.490.016 


aljceiln 


do.... 


8,096,666 






do.... 


8.092 


8.116 


Gan cotton 


do.... 


282,280 








112,102.63 


6;2ai:28 


Hmrdware and uutlery 

yeoclng 


■.■;.■.■;.'.■.■.■.'.■.■.;.■.■.■.■. °i.o. . : : 


276,814.28 


Ba;7».e6 




,,K 


68,261 


PoiiuTT 


.■.■.■.■.'.'.■."■.■.■.'-■.■-■-■-■-■diilara" 




HaUBDdcapii 


doien.. 


61,886.60 


i«3 


India rabbsr: 


dolla™.. 


184,406.83 








Raw 


poundi.. 







Manafactored 


dpUan- 


4,087.86 


6,440.75 










Hnalesl 




174,784.80 


27,600.82 






1,076.80 


1,640.01 


&^- 


:::::::::::::::::::::dS;::: 


\'SS 


671.68 
a, 886.67 


UcdI"*^ 












Hoci"v;;;".".v.v.:.v. 


do.... 






^ 


&■ 


7.898 


1,263 


^:::::::::::::. ::::::::::::::. 


doltara.. 




■ "iailue'ei 



206 COMMEKCIAL BELAT10N8. 

Impmin from Germanij and llie United SltUa through the ports o/ Cnpe Colony — Cont'd. 



ArUcles. 


Germany. 


Untied 




Dounds 




b'^'m 










20,614.71 








1,689 

1,040 

2,3e5.1! 

ISS 

49.4ia.b1 
60,729.65 

is).m 

84,747 

15,a02 
11,534 




S:2^£^:::::::::::::::r:::::. 


"""■•rS: 


162,382 








2,073.13 


""w" OBnH, 














MlDlng and eieotrioil 


:::::::::::::::::::::;:::£::■ 


1,312,227.39 

95,271.47 

41B,(»0 

45, em 


Jtanure. artlflctal 


poonds.. 




Mats and matUng 

eats: 


dolUlB.. 

^^"_ 


92.« 






J2.m.M 


^"r::::z::::: 






2.456.738 










1,M8.SS 
3,114.56 
M66.12 

80,724 

*| 

81,331 




















^"^r. 




11.027.47 
■32,882 






gpET hangliigB 


'■'S::-:: 


8^« 


SSXt.r'^''!::::::::::::::::::::::. 




i; 608.62 






117.005.26 


Potanh: 








KMa-:::::-::::::::;:::::: 


:;::::;::::::;::::;:::''T^:: 


^:^ 














Vegetable*, tinned 


EEEEE^^ 








4B,2(» 










7.008 












101, «« 
1,980 
















4,e66.»7 
£14,620. 10 

'•S:S 

1,180,1 
4S,47 

(87,81 
6,108 

141,488.35 

€1 












i51:ZSS 




Railway mat^ru. ... 


;^^- 


98,817.26 






































do.... 












^'%^ 










8,306 






i,ww 



















APEIOA: BBITIBH SOUTH AFEICA. 207 

Imports from Germany and Ou VnUed Statrt thrmigh the porta of Cape Colony — Cont'd- 



Artlclea. 


Oenaaay. 


Unltod 
Stateg. 


"^■JII^SSS mixed 


"^ar- 


97.88 
M,SIB.85 








^•"SVrfntea 


doll«™.. 














Paper (or printing 




10,«6e.T2 
83,700.40 










2,011 






151 








B50.3S 








68,476 






BIO.^6 






i«i:» 


'"«S:.ar,e.« 




4,018, 7M 






JJ^K7 

B.i]e» 






^30 

4,U2.64 
8,898 
M,(IM 

8!830 

«,TSS.M 

«, 839.87 

287 

i.WI 

■11 
















J,2K 






















M^na«iif^v;.;.:;.;:.;.:;.;::.;:;.;. 




•■^iS 






.8?;^ 

118.868 






















"^"„ 




8M,41fi 
78,998 












ciiGlofeet.. 


40?; 189 






2;SS5.>Z 

e'.eao.tt 

6,7tt.St 

207 
48. S7 

13,782 
21^421 
S,T9I.I» 












SS5!'kSl£r,X:^;::;:::;;:::::-.::: 


.do.... 

SS" 


Wort«o(«rt, pictures 


do.... 

::;;:::;:;;:;;;;;;;::diiSS:- 


^S 






Aitdenda. 














223,K5.»0 





Jmporlt from Oermany and the VniUd Sales throtxgk the porU of Natal. 



ArtlclH. 


o^„. 


Unlwd 
States. 








18,294.21 

19, 057. M 
491. M 






App«ral and Hop* 




:;;.v;;;v*r- 








2,080 








G,17^.81 
442. » 
968.43 








25,6«l.% 












do.... 


7,408.-81 



208 OOHHEBOLAL BELATIOirfl. 

ImporU from Oermany and tiie Vmttd Stattt ihrvugh the port* of Nabd — Contitiaed. 



AMlCi™. 


Germany. 


Si's 


«„ rt rt 






,K 


Candla T 


'"do 


SSfe;:;::;:::;;:::::;:;;:;:;;;:;;;;: 


■;;:;;;;;:;;::::;;:::iSte;:: 


6,770.42 

n 


49.000 










































73,(08 


Cereals: 














iai,«ss 






M 






.^ra 








1,0m 


»,».™ 








130,177 

iii 










pulni-. 




^S^ ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::. 


:;;;-;;;;;;:;;::;=: 


ffi5 














SSSJSNiEEEEE:; 


;;--;-;;-:«-: 


"•SH 










H,8B 
S.8S6 

"■san 




'^'iWed 


































HKberdBBbery 

Hat* and caps 


;E::EE::ES;;; 


36,«0.K 

I,077.» 
> 


4,618.11 






Hoae (BuctloD) 




5.W6.56 














"^iar 
















».5 




















2,021 


l^^'.'^.i^'^.!'";-— ^^^^^^^^ 


".■■■.■.■.■.■■.■■■.■■.■-■.■■.■.d6.1S™:: 


,:k 


Leather: 


doll n 


MS. 97 
20,750.78 

»,.gS:i 

2.467.31 
SZ,8Ci» 
















































siT";^"'" 


dollar).. 


4S.6(A.!1 




1,S13.69 
1,6H.«1 
1,418, IS 












^:::5::::;:::::^*.:: 


*",»" 








Paper hatialtiiia 


.do.... 





AFBIOA: BRITISH SOUTH AFBIOA. 209 

In^ortt/rma Qermanj/ and the IMiUd Stale* through Iht porU of NaUU — Goutmued. 



Article*. 


QamMnr. 


™»<su» 






1.W 












ia,404.U 


JSt.'ZSS*^.;.;.:::-.:-.;-.-.-.;-.:::::::: 


:-:::::;":-:::rS?:: 






a, 181 




67, *» 

s; 414: 18 

112 
168 

1 

ISO 
7,(104. U 

!.He.71 


?r^:-:^:^v-":-v"-v 


:::::::::"::::::::::Xl^\ 


'■Tii? 






Sl.lDO 


KfSslTSSSSr" 


t" 














































*ii.i::;z:z;z:::;::;:: 






































^^-"v;---v:;-v-;-v;--v:-^^^ 


iBimw 


^^ITdlned 




1S2,8M 

-2 

12,M7.M 
1,W6 

K:iS 

S7.S0 
2.4*8 

M.8Z7 








































UumaDnhctured 




!0,541 


&H^:::;;::::::::::::::::::::;:::: 


::::::::::;:::;::::;;":do;::: 


i,M 


^S^i^:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 


:::::::::::::::::::::':^: 
























s,«i5.si 


48,718.40 






&,21I.t!Q 



























The following clipping is from the South African Gazette: 



of eiportinK fpoda from any inland German town to the Transvaal by means of a 
through bill of lading is advantageous to the importor and convenient to the exporter, 
as not only is the through tAtflflxed, but a considerable redaction in railway carriage 
and freight is made. 

Thin system placee the Geiman mannfacturera in a better position than otheni to 
compete for the TmnsvaaJ trade. 

Ther« is nothing lackii^; in the methods puraued by the British mamufacturera and 
exporters to secure the trade. Thev are, aa a role, well repreeented in Soalh Africa 
by experienced, eneigetic, and pushing travelers; but complaints are made that suf- 
ficient care is not exercised in executing orders, and a grave charse ^[ainst the Brit- 
ish exporter is that the packins of goods doee not come up to the standard of the 
Araencan packing, more particuWly as regards care and toe economizing of space. 
Then, again, the British mant^actnrers do not appear to study the requirements of 
the trade to the same extent as the Americans do, and in some lines British goods 
H.Doc4«l,R.l— U ;^,^_,,^|^, 



310 COUMEROIAL BELATIONS. 

are being displaced by American ; lor example, mich arUclca aa 
pumps, edge toaht (including sawH, etc.) , shovels, picks, lawn n 
are to some extent superseding British goods. 

The following shows how United States exports to Africa compare 
with our exports to other countries for 1898 in— 



A»,.,. 


Bank. 


Articles. 


R.... 




■! 



































































CAPE coLOjrr. 



Considering Cape Colony alone, through whoso ports most of the 
importe into the South African Republic, the Orange Free State, and 
Rhodesia enter, I submit the following figures, for miich I am indebted 
to the editor of the Cape Times: 





1887. 


1098. 




BritlBllCBIv 


iT^'. 


BrillBh cur- 


AroBrtoaii 


Imports 

Export* 


£16,4W,T3B 
l»,n«,061 


tB7,2fi5.4ai 


£1G,2S4,»U 
H 11^488 


"s- 



While the exports ai-e increasing, if gold and diamonds were elimi- 
nated they would not appear to be satisfactory. 

The following will show the reexports from the colony of oversea 
imports. Khodesia is the only State that shows an increase, and this 
promises to continue. 





18»7. 


im 




BrltlHh cur- 




■BTianh cnr- 

IS 

3.130,075 
5*4.718 


American 




4,367;547 
417,102 


106^ 80» 
21,186.902 






"'!!« 















It is noticeable, in the imports into Cape Colony, that "haberdashery 
and millinery" increased (althoug'h trade was bad, amounting to only 
$75,000), while, on the other hand, " apparel and hats " decreased over 
$16,000. Considerable increases are noticed in the necessaries of life; 
wheat increased something like $1,000,000; cheese, $60,000; meats, 
$1,000,000. On the other hand, luxuries, like tobacco and wine, 
decreased largely. The imports show that the colony will continue to 
be dependent upon other countries for her food. The imports into 



byGoO'^lc 



AFRICA: BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA. 211 

th<- i»lony for the ptutt two years iodicato, perhaps, the extent to 
whii'h "trado follows the flag." 





18117. 


1« 


(8. 




Bri«^^o«r. 


Amertraii 


BritWi I'lir 


™™^" 


JB^B*. 


£12.B8>,2n 

.sss,m 

4, 310, MB 

iD.Ou.iei 


tBZ, 482,312 
2D,»J7,223 

92,Ue,TH 
1,824, 394 


l[M8[l2e 
4;j3fl;0M 

-11:1 












Snort*. 

















The value of the imports of the United States into Cape Colony 
amounted to £2,179,646 («10,605,068.26), in 1898, £2,009,597 {$9,780,- 
203.80) in 1897, and £1,739,053 ($6,363,696.56) in 1896. 

The export trade of the colony to the United Statew for the same 
periods was £28,799 ($140,122.33) in 1898, £45,726 (»222,475.71) in 
1897, and £88,160 ($429,030.64) in 1896. 

Increases of imports from the United States are noticed for 1898 
over 1897 in the following articles: Apparel and Hlops, $12,600.08; 
brushware, $3,487.45; candles, 73,870 pounds; cheese, 451,718 pounds; 
coal, 25,004 tons; confectionery, 44,378 pounds; samp, 20,993,635 
pound«; flour, 18,084,534 pounds; corn meal, 13,803,783 pounds; cot- 
ton piece goods, $10,949.65; fruits, dried, 96,806 pounds; glucose, 
644,890 pounds; krd, 599,701 pounds; machineoil, 60,907 gallons; vege- 
tables, preserved, 28,471 pounds; honey, 3,888 pounds; maizcna, 67,275 
Bunds; oatmeal, 468,250 poundij; stationery, $9,788.70; typewriters, 
5,968.99; roofing slates (number), 68,475; iron piping, $16,378.78; 
condensed milk, 17,652pounds; paper for printing, $19,094. 74. Small 
increases in many other articles are noticed; decreases are princi- 
pally obscived in butter, barley, and corn (about 50,000,000 pounds), 
Uruguay sent 1,641,252 pounds for the first time in many years, and 
it mui^t also bo noted tiiat the Ai^ntine Republic sent 27,232,299 
pounds of <'orn, and 1,038,812 pounds of oata. On the other hand, 
corn in meal from the United States was received to the amount of 
over 13,000,000 pounds, and samp increased 2l,000j000 pounds. 
Imporbj of mineral oil (paraffin) from the United States into all South 
Africa is stated at 10,474,918 gallons in 1897, and 12,292,744 gallons 
in 1898. 

Iron fencing increased about 1,746 hundredweight, but as English 
manufacturers are reducing priceti and American manufacturers are 
increasing them, the outlook tor 1899 is not flattering. 

The customs revenue derived in the year 1898 from all goods enter- 
ing Cape Colony for South African consumption was £2,342,707 
($11,398,442.62), as against £2,735,962 ($13,311,775.41) in the pre- 
vious year. Of the formeramount, £1,649,936 ($8,023,259.50) was re- 
ceived from goods imported for consumption in the colony, £134,589 
($654,843.37) was retained by the colonial government on goods for . 
consumption outside its borders, and £126,613 ($616,036.16) was paid 
for go<xls consigned to the Orange Free State, Bechuanaland, and 
Basutotand, the other parties to the tariff convention. ~ ■ 



313 



OOMXEBCIAL BELATIOHB. 



With the year 1899, the trade of the colony improved. The imports 
of merchandise during January increased £175,209 ($852,479.60), as 
compared with the imports for the corresponding month of last year; 
the exports of colonial products (exclusiTe of diamonds) for the same 
period increased £51,212 ($249,172.20) over the returns of a year ago. 
The rebate trade of the colony showed an increase of some i;26,WX) 
($121,637.50); the rebate trade for the Transvaal wa« something like 
£53,000 ($257,871.50) in excess of that for January last year. 

FtxporU ofpTodaeUfriMn Oape Colony during the yean i837-98. 



AltlDlM. 


Wl. 


, ««. 






•IS 

T,*ra 

180.618 
3,lS>,ei2 

i,,^:!S 

2B,M0 
1,791,»M 














........................diiii^:: 


"ffiS 




"•S 


^;::z::z:::::;:;::;:::: ™ 


















"fSS 
































PKb: 




KS 










Fnilu: 










^s? 








M.narB.«rllfld«1 


::::;::::::":::::::::::??Z^:: 


•^SS 










Ijc 










115, OK 










»; 137,060 










18, Ml 






■•%^.~^ 


::::•:::■:■::::■: rS'.:. 


1,811.880 
6,773.000 









Qucaiiitiai oj loool oiuf jfoU exported fntm Cape Ookmy for the Uat Joe yearn. 



Ymr. 


Wool. 


am (nwi. 




Pmmdt. 

lii 


Owun. 





















byGoo'^lc 



afbioa: 

I oj Gape Oolong far 



Boxrra afbioa. 21S 

by coantrU» {exclaeive of tpeeie) . 



Couiitaria. 


EnjlHh cur- 
rency. 


cnnenc;. 




£23.969,428 

113, oeo 

-J8,TM 

li 

31. STB 


tll6,»U,8(e.T« 








iil 

Z1Z,SlG.3e 
Ufi,1H.2B 






















US,814.SZ 




i»ifJS?^;::;;:::;::::::::::::::::::::::::;:::::::;;:::::::::: 


1,4M.82 
Me, 416.98 




M.42S,m 


11S.9U,]2LM 





Sloob in bond in. Cape Tbun December SI, 1S9S. 



Ate and beer.. 



poonda. . 

dandles do 

Cheese do 

Ctdfee do 

Confectionery and preaervee, 

ponnda 

Dynamite do 

Flour do 

laid do 



600,7! 

143, 3( 

7, 647, If 



Oil; 



PuafiBn gallons. . 

Bice pounds-. 

Soap do 



Spirita: 

Brandy gallons.. 

Gin do 

Liqaetm do 

Rum do 

Whisky do.... 

Beflned pounds.. 

tTnrefined do 

"nmber cubic feet— 



29,739 
16,155 
11,029 
2,675 

53,662 

631,455 
1, 189, 646 
!, 487, 671 



Cigars number. . 

Manufactured .nounds.. 
Unmanufactured .do 



FREIQHT KATES. 



The low rates that prevailed during the past year between New York 
and Sooth African ports, due poesibly to a freight war, was the means 
of increased trade, and although cargoes were carried in English bot- 
toms and the English companies, it la said, were in the fight, English 
houses complain»l that with a greater distAnce of 2,000 to 3,000 miles, 
bouses of the United States could export goods to South Africa at 
cheaper rates, which enabled American producers to lay down goods 
below English prices. Whether the pressure brought to bear on Eng- 
lish companies whose vessels sail from New York to increase rates will 
have effect, or rebates will be granted from Enghind to South African 

Eorts, is at this writing impossible to foretell. Trade associations 
ere and in England are discussing this question. If return cargoes 
to the tJtiited States could be found at Cape ports, the question of 
freight rates could be more satisfactorily arranged, for vessels now 
have to return in ballast, or proceed to eastern porta for return cargo. 
I fear, however, that return cargo from Cape ports is not obtainable. 
The products now exported to the United States, in limited quantities, 
are argoi, buchu, ostrich feathera, and wool. 



byGoO'^lc 



214 OOlOfBBOIAL BBLATIOira. 

KAILWAT8. 

The following information has been furnished this consulate by the 
general manager of railways. Cape Colony: 

The Gi-aff-Reinet line to Rosmead, 98 miles in length, wa^ opened 
for traffic in March, 1898. 

The following lines are under construvtion, or authorized at this date: 

Port Elizabeth to Avontnnr 178 

Sir Lowry Paaa to Caledon 51 

Malmeebtuy to Grey Paee 96J 

QueenBtown toTarkaatad 31 

Oudtohoom to Klipplaat 166 

MoBoel Bay to Oudtahoorn 76 

Somerset Eaat to Kizig Williainstown. 146 

Ashton to Swellendam 41 

Swellendwa to Biveiedole .' 64 

I give below particulars of i-eductions in rates on the Cape Uovem- 
ment railways, mtroduced during the year 1898: 

1. On March 1, the intermediate clas» rate from Cape porta to sta- 
tions in the South African Republic was reduced by Is. (24 cent^ per 
100 pounds; the rate from Port Elizabeth to Johannesbuiy was reduced 
from 78. 2d. to 6s. 9d. {U-U to *1.40), or 14 per cent. The rate from 
E^t London to Johannesbut^ was reduced from 63. 9d. to 5s. 9d. (tl.64 
to $1.40), or 14.8 per cent. 

2. On March 1, the first-claas through rate between Cape porta and 
stations in the South African Republic was abolished, and good^ which 
had hitherto been carried at that rate were classified as normal; e. g., 
the rate from Port Elizabeth to Johannesburg was reduced from 9s. 
4d. to 8s. Id. (*2.27 to tl.KT), or IS.Sper cent, while the rate from East 
London to Johannesburg was reduced from 8s. iOd. to 7s. 8d. ($2.15 to 
$1.87),or 13.2 per cent. 

3. On February 1, the rat© for galvanized iron and timber, declared 
to be for house-building purposes and consigned at owner's risk only, 
was reduced over the Bechuanaland companj''s line from 4id, to 3d. 
(9 to 6 cent«) per ton per mile, or a reduction of 33^ per cent. 

4. On July 1, local trafficon the Cape Government railways hitherto 
classified as first class was charged at the second-class rate plus 10 per 
cent; e. g., the rate from Port Elizabeth to Kimberley wa« reduced 
from lOs. Id. to 8s. 6d. ($2.45 to $2.07) per 100 pounds, or 15.7 per 
cent. 

5. On July 1, the rate for imported wheat and mealies in full truck 
loads, consigned from the ports to stations in the South African Re- 
public, waa i-educed from the intermediate to half nomial rate; e. g., 
the rate from Port Elizabeth wa-s reduced 33.7 per cent, while the rate 
from East London to Johannesburg was reduced 33i per cent. This 
special rate was in operation till March 31, 1899, when the intermediate 
rate was reverted to. 

The railway earnings last year (1898) were, as a i-esult of the depres- 
sion, less than in 1897. There was a considerable falling off in tonnage 
sent to the South African Republic. In 1898, the tonnage entering the 
Transvaal by the three railway systems was 418,700, against 537,927 
in 1897. 



D.gitizecbyG00glc 



afbioa: bbtush south afbioa. 215 

The following, from the South African Trade Journal, will give 
much information in regard to the railways of South Africa: 



It u quite impoamble to overeatimata the importance of the tmlway develoiKoent 
that haa been tahii^ i>lace in Bouth Africa these past ten yean ana that is Htill in 
pr<^reaa with nndiminiahed vigor. The Cape Colony alone controlfl 2,000 miles, 
which it haa acquired at an expenditure of twenty millions and which still returns, 

even under the adverse conditions of to-day, an interest a] 

The Free State posBesBea a lone stretch of fine between t 
and is laying down feeders and developing lines as fast at . 

the labor. The Transvaal ie on a simitar policy bent. It owns the strip between the 
Vaal and Pretoria, thence to Delagoa Bay and northward toward PietersburXi the 
last-named section beint; on the very eve of opening. Natal haa been by no means 
left behind in this titanic competition. It has made gr«ftt sacrifioea, indeed, to keep 
pace with the other players in the railway scramble, and in addition to building the 
trunk line from Durban to Vulksrust, has developed lines along the coast and inWid; 
and is intending te pnrsne a like conrse of action as it recovers its financial balance 
after the exiienditure of the past few years. Rhodesia, too, is doing wonders. Its 
railway from Mafeking to Buluwayo is amongst the wonders of this wonderful country, 
whilst scarcely le« can be said of the line between Beira anil Salisbury, which is 
within a reasonable distance of i(e immediate objective. But if the prtwress of railway 
oonstruction has been great in the past, there is every indication of still further strides 
being taken in the future. Not to speak of the southwestern group of railways in the 
Cape Colony (which, after a stonny and troublous history, ore at length on a fair 
road to being got done, as Cartyle might aay) the present (jovemment has adopted a 
policy of development by means of narrow-gai^ railways which cannot fail to have 
an important eflect upon the future of the country. The heart of the Karoo is to be 

!)ierce<l, and its lifeblood, such as it is, drawn for the beneflt of South Africa. The 
crtile lands which lie to the north of Port Elizabeth are to be tapped with a similar 
object A line is to be built between Aliwal North and Barkly iMit which will open 
np a hitherto n^Iected grain-producing country, and little doubt need beentertained 
that this line will ultimately be pushed on to SL Johns River, which may be regarded 
as another prospective East Coast port. The Free State intends to link on to the 
colony by means of a railway between Bloemfontein and Kimberlcy acroee the vast 
corn-producing country which tics between these two points. Mr. Rhodes is busy 
nesotiating for an extension of the Buinwayo line to the »unbeei and the Tonganyik^ 
and we have no doubt whatever that before many years have passed Salisbury and 
Baluwayo will, ia a fignre, shake hands over the railway metals. All this work has 
been largely in the natnre of an investment, and it has prijved of fluctuating value, 
like moet investments in South Africa. It says something for the foresight of the 
men who have "painted" our railway map, that there has been such an extremely 
sniall percentage of unproductive lines; and if there are cases in which the returns 
are not soeatiSactoryaBCOuld be desired, we are convinced that it is only temporary. 
We pin our faith still to the doctrine that South Africa will well repay every sovereign 
that has been spent or is proposed to be spent upon her railways. 

POSTAL RATES. 

No chftnge has been made except that which follows, but it can be 
stated that a postage of 1 penny (2 centa) per half ounce will soon be in 
force from this colony to Great Britain. The penny postage between 
Cape Colony and Great Britain forms at present the subject of active 
n^otiations between tiie poat-office department here and the Imperial 
Government. 

ICt: — BBDDCnON OP THK RVrKS OF POSTAOI VSOM THB CAP! OOLONV TO TAB 



It is hereby notified for general information that under an arraiujement entered 
into between the Imperial Government and the Government of the Cape Colony the 
rates of poeb^^ from the Cape Colony to the Bechnanaland protectorate wiU, on and 
from April I, 1899, be as foUows: 

Letters, 2a. (4 cents) per one-half ounce LjOOqIc 



OOUICEBOIAL BELATIOnS. 



Book and mmple pockets, one-half penny (I cent) per 2 cnmcee or frsctioD thereof, 
with a. minimum of Id. (2 cents) for sample packed. 

Newspapers, one-half penny (1 cent) per 4 ouncee. 

Parcels : No change in present rates, vii:, 2a. 2d. (52 cents) not exceeding 8 ooncee; 
2e. 4d. (57 cents) not exceeding 12 onncee; 2s. 6d. (61 cente) not exceeding 1 pound, 
and 2a. 6d. (61 cents) for every additional pooud or fraction thereof. 

OFFICIAL NOTICB:— REDCCTION OP POOTAOE TO DBLAflOA BAY AND INTBOOCCTIOK OF 
PARCEL POBT STBTBH. 

It la hereby notified for general information that on and after April 1, 1890, the 
rates of poet^ from the Cape Colony to Lonrengo Marqnez will be reduced as 
foUowe — 

Letters, from 2M. (5 cents) per one-half onnoe to Id. (2 cents) pr one-half ounce. 

Single post cards, from Id. to one-half penny (2 centa to I cent] each. 

Beply-paid post cards, from 2d. to Id. (4 cents to 2 cents) each. 

Newspapere, from Id, (2 cents) for eacn newspAper weighing 4 ouncee, and one- 
half penny (1 cent) for every additional 2 ounces or fraction thereof, to one-halt penny 
(1 cent) for each newspaper not exceeding 4 ounces, and one-half penny (1 cent) tor 
every additional 4 ounces or fraiction thereof. 

Books, from Id. (2 cents) per 2 ounces or fnction thereof to one-half penny {1 cent) 
per 2 ounces or fraction thereof. 

Sample packets, from Ud. (3 cents) not exceeding 2 ounces, 2d. (4 cents) not 
exceeding 4 ounces, and Id. (2 cents) for ei'ery additional 2 ounoea or fraction thereof. 



Commercial papers, from 3d. (S cents) for 2 ounces, 31d. (7 cents) for 4 ounces, 4d. 
(8 cents) for 6 ounces, 4} d. (9 cents) for 8 ounces, and 6d. (10 cents) for 10 ounces, to 
one-halt penny (1 cent) for every 2 ounces or fraction thereof. 

I^rcels, which are at present not admisaible, will be accepted at the colonial rates, 
viz, 4d. (8 cents) not exceeding 8 ouncce, 6d. (12 cents) not exceeding 12 ounces, 8<l. 
(16 cents) not exceeding 1 pound, and 2d. (4 cents) for every additional 4 ounces or 
mtcUon thereof. 

IELEGBAPH8. 

The number of miles of wire and line constructed by Cape Colony 
during 1898, and number of miles projected, were: 





Hll«of 


Miles of 

wire. 




M9 


5. AM 











The project of a mint is being agitated, and it is said that the time 
is at hand for its erection. The export of raw gold and the importa- 
tion of specie have assumed such large proportions that it would save 
the colony a heavy annual expenditure. 



There has been a heavy shrinkage since the end of 1896. The float- 
ing deposits which, on December Si, 1896, were over £18,(KH),000 
($87,597,000), stood on December 31, 1898, at i;i2,000,000 «58, 398,000), 
while coin in hand was reduced during the same period from i;7,659,- 
000 ($37,273,524) to £3.774,000 ($18,366,171), a falling off of nearly 
£3,000,000 ($14,699,600). Most of tne coin was exported to pay home 
creditors. 



AJffilOA: BBinSH SOUTH AFBIOA. 217 

LIFE IN3DRANCE. 

A very lar^ and successful business has been done in South Africa 
by some of the life-insurance associations of the United States, which 
have their agents scattered all over this country, and have written 
policies as follows: 1896, £824,950 ($4,014,669.18); 1897, £1,067,156 
^,144,649.67); 1898, £991,825 ($4,826,716.36). 

TAXATION OF COBIFAIOSS. 

The action of the Goyemment of Cape Colony in passing a law for 
the taxation of all joint stock companies doino^ business in the colony, 
and represented by an agent, of 1 shilling (24 cente) on each £100 
^486.65) of the sutwcribM capital, althou^ but a very enaall part of 
that capital may be used in the colony, has created much dissatisfac- 
tion. I am of the opinion that the act will be amended at the next 
session of Parliament, and the danger to corporations of the United 
States aud of other countries doing business in the colony will have 
passed. 

BEQUESTS FOR INFORMATION. 

The demand for data on many subjects by manufacturers, pro- 
ducers, and mercantile aaaociations of the United States has been very 
large, as evidenced by the 8,000 letters received at this consulate. 
Hwt of the subjects on which information is asked have been already 
dealt ■witli in the consular reporto. The large numbers of catalogues 
and price lists received have been distributed to those interested in the 
goods described, and I trust some good result has been achieved; but, 
88 I hare before stated, it is men and not catAlogues that work up 
trade. I have yet to meet an American commercial traveler who has 
reported poor business. To the proprietors of the many trade papers 
so Kindly sent this consulate, I desire to say that these are laid upon 
the tables of the chambers of ootmuerce and are extensively read by 
those interested. 

QinrEBAL IMFOBBtATlON AHD ADVICE. 

American manufacturers have been educated in the priroer prepara- 
tion and packing of goods, and I have heard of no serious fault. Their 
representatives here are becoming familiar with the trade and its 
wants, and South Africa is now a permanent and satisfied customer. 
United States manufacturers have but to enter the markets to gain suc- 
cess, and when American bottoms ship the goods the large amount 
now expended in this way will remain in the United States. We will 
io time nave to adopt certain German customs in credit giving, and 
must recognize the met that tbeaverage foreign merchant is as prudent 
and cautious as the home buyer. German manufacturers believe in 
personal interviews; they visit the buyer and ascertain the condition 
of trade, as well as bis nuancia! standing. The time will come when 
foreign buyers will refuse to pay for goods by "draft, bill-lading 
attached," and prices for goods will be i^de "c. i. f." 1 would also 
suggest that when an acquaintance is once formed and a personal 
r^ud established, it is act always wise to change representatives. 



OOHHEROIAL RELATIONS. 



TRANSIT TUADE FOB THE TRANSVAAJL. 

The following will show the comparative diBtribution of imports 
into the South African Republic for 1898: 



Cape Colon; . . 
DehKTw Bay . . 



£4. 847,000 
S, 0*8,000 

2,317.000 



The following is the tonn^^ of importa by railway: 

Cape Colony 112,833 

Natal ; 137,244 



These returns show a reduction in imports to the Transvaal in 1898, 
as compared with 1897, of 22 per cent in both values and weights. 
The reduction of values by each route were: Natal, 16 per cent; Cape 
Colony, 23 per cent; Delagoa Bay, 33 per cent; and in weights, Natal, 
14 per cent; Cape Colony, 23 per cent; Delagoa Bay, 21 per cent. It 
would seem that, water rates being equal, the port of Durban (Natal) 
delivers goods to the Transvaal cheaper than porta of Cape Colony. 

The impoi'tation of food stufis increased in volume m the case of 
flour, rice, butter, ham, bacon, and frozen meats. Building materials 
(wood, iron, and cement), household necessities (apparel, furniture, 
and hardware), as well as luxuries (jewelry, bicycles, carriages, and 
cigars), were imported in less quantities than in 1897. The increase 
in exports for 1898 is due to hides, skins, bark, coals, and fruit 



For the Colony of Natal alone (through whose ports, in addition to 
those of Cape Colony, all imports and exports South Africa pass, 
except those going via Portuguese territory on the east coast) the 
following data are submitted: 





1897. 


1898. 




Britlriicur- 


United Btalo 


BrlllBheur- 

rencj. 


UnlWdSt«t«B 




i;«2i;ooo 


t| 88^ me! 50 


£6.323,000 















SUGAR AND TEA. 

The quantity of sugar produced by the mills in 1897 was 15,186 
tons; in 1898, 30,000 tons. Notwithstanding this large increase in pro- 
duction, prices have advanced by the operation of the "customs union." 
Sugar from Mauritius, though handicapped by a duty of 3s. 6d. (85 
cents) per 100 pounds, is landed at a lower price in Cape Colony than 
sugar from Natal; but being again handicapped by double niilway 
rates, it is put out of competition for the inland markets. A larger 
acreage is being prepared for tea culture in Natal, and the present 
season's crop is estimated at 1,100,000 pounds. 



avbioa: bbttish south afbioa. 



The output of coa! for 1897 was &43,960 tons; for 1898, 387,811 
tons. There are 13 miaes. Every taducement in the way of Govern- 
ment aid and reduction of freight rates aud harbor fees ia being made 
to aid this industry. United SUtes bituminous coal has b^un to 
arrive in Cape Colony in competition with Welsh coal. 



The following information is from the general manager of railways, 
Durban: Reductions in freight i-ates are, uormal intermediate rough 
class, 250 to 800 miles, 10 per cent; intermediate through class, 15 
per cent; South African produce class, 160 to 200 miles, 25 to 40 per 
cent; 200 to 300 miles, 40 to 100 per cent 

The number of miles of railways opened for traffic in 1898 was: 

Uitcs. 

Veralnm-Stanger 321 

Bluff IJae 6* 

Staagef-Togelii ITJ 

Total m 

Light lines authorized and in course of construction are: 

Ml lea. 

Greytown Bnmch 66 

CoalfieldB-Buffalo 14 

Park Rynie-PortFthepetonee 36i 

Umzinto Bnnch 6} 

Total 122i 

The following clipping trom a newspaper will give further informa- 
Uon: 



There are now open (orpnblic traffic in this colony 606 miles of railway, all being 
single lines (with ample aiding and loop lines) otia^ugeof 3feet6inches, the whole 
bein^ worked by the colonid government, nnder the geneml loanagement of Mr. 
David Hunter. 

Onr Tulways connect the port with the town of Durban (a distance of 2 miles) , as 



> Durban with Tngela (69i miles), on the north coast; Park Rynie (40) miles), 
on the south coaflt; and the numerous sugar plantations en route to tliiiie coast towns; 
Retermaritzburg (71 miles), the capital of the colony; ladyHmith (IHO miles), the 
junction of the Unes to the borders of the 8oatii Afncan Reputilic and the Orange 
Pr«e Btate; and the Iwitler of the South Afri(»n Republic (307 miles). There are 
branch lines (17 miles) from Thomville Junction to Richmond (76 miies from 
the port) and (8 miles) from Glencoc Junction (231 miles fn>m the port) to Dundee 
and the coalSelda in that nmghborhood, and another branch line to Harrismilh 
(59i miles from ladysmith] , Orange Free 8Ute, 24 miles twing in that Slate. There 
is also a line (6i milee) from Clairmont, South Coast Line, to WcstH on the Bluff (121 
miles from Durban). 

Through passenger trains (first, second, an<t third elactt) nre run every day from 
Durban to Hanismith and Jonanneeburg. 

Pateenger trains leave Johannesburg every morning and evening, Harrismith every 
afternoon, and I«dyemith four times every week day and twice every Sunday, for 
Durban; and the ti^ns that leave Johannesburg on Thursday arrive at Durban on 
Friday evening, the nuul steamer leaving for Cape ports and England on the ^tor- 

Tbe M'Fongo^, New Repnblic, and Znluland gold fields may tie reached in two to 
four days from Durban, by nul and horse conveyances. 

The extensions in course of construction are the lines from Pietermaritzburg to Grey- 
town, and from Dundee to Vryheid, and those in Gont«mplatJon are the continoatioii r 



220 OOIOCEBOIAL REI^TIONB. 

of the Soatb Cotuit li&e from Park Bynle to Port Bhepatone, as weU aa a branch to 
Unuinto; also an exteiurion from lUctunond, which would nldmately give a cotmeo- 
tioB between the Natal and Cape railway systema. 

The through railway rates between Boau African portis and Johanneeboig, per 100 
pounds, are as foUoira: 





N«n»lol«. 


TnEennedUte clus. 


EtoDghgO0d«0lM». 


Port*. 


BrttHh 


Sffi 


BritUh 


Stau» 


BritUh 


S 




11 


Ti 

i.Bj 

l.TO 


(. d. 


« 


b » 

























Telegraph and tdephone line* optmd fur traffic, 1898. 





'S^-'l'SS.'' 




1 


m 




^t 









iKUage qfUnetandw 



I, Deetntber SI, 1898. 





line. 


'^°' 


TMemuA. 


■Ts 






a 









On Jftnnai? 1, 1809, the mtee for telegrams between the 0^>e Colony, the Orange 
Free State, and Natal, and from Natal to the Transvaal, were reduced to a penny per 
word, with the minimiim rate of 1 shilling (24 cents.) The tariff on tel^nuns from 
the Trangraal to Natal and between the Transvaal and the C^ and Orat^ Free 
Htat« remains at the former rate of five words for 6 pence (12 oenta) , with a mudmom 
rate of 1 shilling. 

Arrangements have been made under which, in case of an interruption in the cable 
between Durban and Ddagoa Bay occurring rimultaneously with an interruption in 
the Western cable, cable meesagee can be sent from Durban overland via Borberton 
and Delt^oa Bay. These arrangements for the use of the land lines by the cable com- 
pany are not available in the case of a breakdown in the cable between Durban and 
Delagoa Bay only, and in this event persons in Durban wishing to use the Eaatem 
cable moat employ an agent at Belagoa Bay to send or receive the cable n 



Wharfagt due* uTtda- Uuse IS, IS75, and 7, 1886. 

Upon all wool or Angora hair shipped or landed at the harbor of Port Natal there 
shall be payable and be paid the sum of 1 shilling (24 cents) for and upon every bale 
thereoi 

Upon all goods, articles, matters, or things (except wool or Angora hair, and the 
Roods, artides, and things hereinafter exempted) shipped or landed at the said har~ 
Dor, dues shall be payable and be paid at and after the rate of 10 shillings ($2.43) 



. - ,-- - -. -- --- _ ilitary bsHpge, and personal „ _ 

panengers; all shipr stores outward; all goods snipped upon which wharfage anee 



afeioa: bhitibh south afmoa. 

7^ dua (lout e, 1886) . 

On every bill of entry upon which it 

cento) for every pound and proportion ... ^ 

contained in traneic list an impost of 3 pence in evei? pound o 

OD Koods free of duty as under: Sixpence per ton (12 centa) , or 3 pence per package, 

at tne option of the collector of cuetomfi. 

Under law 47 of 1S98 and proclamation 11 of 1899 there ie granted a reduction of 
one-half of the wtiarf duee and the whole of the tug dutiee upon all goods and things 
imported into the colony by sea and landed at any port thereof. 

Fort ttaliitia. 





m,. 


im. 




'lit 


Ft.itt. 


M>T '"'""' dnft >cRH the bar; 













Total number of vesKla acroea the bar on the following drafts: 





1W7. 


18K. 




Bteun. 


B.... 


atfoa. 


Ball. 


Ifl feet ukdnoder IS feet 


1 


1 


87 
HI 
17 






















" 


« 


m 










isn. 


!««. 


ToUl lontwKe Into th« hwbot in ton*, net ™«i»tor: 


S!;!S 

































M port tntODJ, net r^Mer: 18*7, l,saa,an: 1818,1,121,8(0. 

Samp dvtiaoR oM 



Untied StMea 



Od cadi orlsliul wime eattr 

On each oilgliial mane ooaaamyOaa entry 

On eaeh wwlnal waielMHiae entn 

On each ■liq>'a oon of bill of lading dnlr execnted 

Oncaoh A^adeatanoe 

Foreran bend, tinpoit,oi export, relating to bonded ooodo, whco the 
amoont tot wblebnob bond lamadadon not exceed fiW or (notion 

fWBTerT'»Mlitaiitl'a0OOT'itaetton'ae^ 



byGoo'^lc 



Tariff of diarga for 



OOUMEBOIAL SELATIOHS. 





At pet week. 




British 


Btalm 




w 

n 




















■hall have Ijcen In wsrehoviso torover lw«lve monUa-one-hBH ol Uieabqvc 
rates only Khali be levtable lorlhe full period wBrehoawd. 

















in period 



ne week extra to be tiliarged for 
I the Governmeot bonding ware- 



Kegu, bmrelfcor cwlu, containfnK wines or apIHtl, whelhetoolonlal or Imported, 
not exceeding 20 gHilons cspiiolts' 

Over 20 and not eiieceding 35 golloufl capacity ..^.^ 

OverSSBndnotBxceedlnft 60 gallons capacity 

Over 50 and notexceedlDK lb Kallons capacity 

And tor every addlUonal £& or iractlon ot 25 ^Inns eaparlty 

Cases of evcty descripUon, and whether containing- bottles or flasks, not eiucud- 
Ingagallonicapadly 

Over 2 and not eieeealng 7 gallons eapaelty 

And for every additional Tor ItacUonotlfmlloiu 

Bales cotton blankets, each 

Bales, woolen hlankcts, eHCh 

Coffee, per bog 

Dates, per bfl^.. - 

McallCB. per Sag 

Sugar, per bog not exceeding TO pounds 

Anil for every additional TO pounds otIractloD of 70 pounds 

Teai per halt cliist 

Tea, perboi containing not more than ]4 pounds 

TobaccD, manufactured, per case or packet containing not more than SO pounds ■ 

Tohaeeo, per case containing mora than SO pounds 

Tobaceo. uamanufactumt. for every M pounds or tmctloa ol 60 pounds 

tioodslnpaekuiB, not enumeratedabove, per package: 

UeaamlnBrcnbla foot and under 

lle««ndngahoTe land under 8 cubic feet 

Heamlng B BDd (uidcr & cubic teet 

Heasoring B aiid under 10 cable feet 

lleaniring 10 and under 16 cubic feet 

Measuring IS and under 20 cable feet 

Measuring 20 and under 30 cubic feet 

And for CTCiy additional 10 cubic test or fraction thereof 



e week, and one week extra to be cbarged for 



byGoo'^lc 



apbioa: bbitish south afbioa. 22'A 

shipping of south africa. 

Hap* eniared mlh oirgn xtdoporOi nf Si/ulh A/rim, rxceplporU of Po7iugve»e terrUory. 



CaaaUj. 


Noi^ber. 


Tonnige. 


Co..,.,. 


Number. 


ToniMje. 


A igenOno Republic 


1,108 


12! M7 


French ta 


45 


lOSTTO 












Nonrar and eweden (tj . .. 






















lacluded in above vessels are the following with cargo from the 
United States: 





Number. 


Toiiiu«e. 




Number. 


Ton 


n^ 


- 


IM 


271,221 
6:4S8 


5} - 


8 















Tonnage named is registered and not cargo tonnage. In other 
words, it can be safely stated that over 870,000 tons of cargo of Ameri- 
can production were transported in foreign bottoms to South Africa, 
and if the value of same could be a^tcertained one could easily approx- 
imate the cost of collecting that amount through the banking institu- 
tions of foreign countries. 

To show the increase of shipping of the colony, a glance at the num- 
ber of seamen entering the ports may be of value: 1894, 118,826; ISys, 
1^7,988; 1896, 142,827; 1897, 145,748; 1898, 148,110. 

United States exports to Portuguese territory were carried as fol- 
lows: In British bottoms, 83 percent; foreign bottoms, 8.7 per cent; 
American bottoms, 8.3 per cent. 

J. G. Stowe, CoTimil-Genercd. 

Cape Town, June 30, 1899. 



FIRST SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT. 

I append a table showing the advance in United States products 
imported into South Africa between the years ended June 30, 1893, 
and June 30, 1898. My annual report gives the same information for 
the year ended June 30, 1898, as compared with the year ended June 
30, 1897. This table shows what an increase five years have brought 
in United States imports. 

Exports to the United States are noted in the statistics of the colony 
as only about ^25,000 ($121,600), and objection is made to the lai^ 
amount purchased from the United States, when so small an amount 
is sent in return; but it is not noted that, although return cargoes do 
not go direct to the United States, a very large (quantity of colonial 
pro(Uicta is sent via England. For instance, ostnch feathers to the 
value of £400,000 (*1,946,600), and goatskins to the value of i:iOO,000 
(J486,6<)0), together with a large amount of wool, etc., was sent to 
the United States last year, for which this colony got no benefit as a 
direct exporter. 

J. G. Stowe, Ckmsid-Oenmxl. , 

Cape Town, July «6, 1899. LiOO'^IC 



OOMHEBOIAL BSLATtONS. 



WHAT AMERICA SHIPS TO SOltTH AFBIOA. 

[Fcom The Biitlsh and South African Kiport Gazette.] 

We now lay before onr readera a oomprehensi ve lut of the varioiu itema of American 
exports, with quantitiee and values, shipped to South Africa duriof; the vear 1897-98. 
The utility of this tabulation from the point of view of affording a H>od view of the 
Dature ana extent of trans- Atlantic activities in the South African market hardly needs 
pointing out. To this tabulation we oppose similar figures for five years ago, thus 
affording data for estimating the amount of progress iimide by American trade with 
South Africa in the quinquennium. 

Ah is to be anticipated, the heaviest items of export are those which, being in the 
nature of American specialties, such as mineral oils, lumber, and wheat and other 
foodstuffs, do not cnterinto competition with English manufactures. The list of com- 
petitive articles ta, liowever, by no means limited, and its diversified nature is what 
will readily strike the eye. The following table shows the propprtion of competing 
and noncompeting artidee, with the actim and the percental Increases made in the 
five years : 





Value. IWM3. 


Value, 18W-«. 


,.„--. 


PMoent- 


yueae Africa. 


^S, 


United 
Slaica 


Britlab 


Onlted 


BrlCUb 


cuH 


,S^^ 


'■•Jf.S'iiSSS. 


K30,M1! 
208,669 


ti,Ki,ax 


£i.a»,«o 

l,J8!,a« 


16,172. 960 
8,678.864 


£788.018 
1.&H815 


I8.(W1.564 
7, 871), 874 


m.2 








7W.111 


8,888,874 


B, CM, 744 


14,881,312 


2,282,888 


10,982,488 









The great significance of the competitive it^ns of the table is that a general entry 
lias been made into a hitherto exclusively English market, and the progress which 
has been made, shown by the aggregate percental increase of 139.2 per cent in the 
five yeare, is of a nature to challen^ the most serious attention. 

Of^eiporta of competing urtjciea in relatively iaree proportion — those to the extent 
of five figures and above — specially noticeable are: Machinery, classed unennmerated, 
agricultural, pumps and apphances, and sewing and typewnting machines. Among 
metal goods are structural iron and steel, nnenumeiated ironware, railway materia^ 
pipes and fittings, wire, and tinware; in hardwareare locks and uneneumerated tools, 
out the aggregate of the items under this heading approaches six figures. In the 
class of vehicles are tram and rulway rolling stock and cycles. In the division of 
scientific instruments and materials are telephone, tel^;raph, and other electric 
apparatus and materials. The total of the whole class of leather ware shows the 
imnendins competition which stands before our leather-manufacturing industry. 
Inaia-rubber goods is another item in which five-Sgure exports are reached. Amon^ 
items of food and drink it is somewhat surprising to note tne large exports of Ameri- 
can rum. Finally, furniture and wooden manutectures, as well as dnigs and patent 
medicines, record fonr-figur« shipments. 

Taken in the aggr^ate, the list of articles and the figures appended, here set forth, 
are without doubt full of import for all classes of British manufacturere, showing as 
they do tfaat American competition has to be met in all departments of trade. This 
competition is also not to be ignored because the shipments in many casee are both 
small in quantity and value, as this is a peculiarity? incidental to the opening of all 
new markets. The energy which our trans-Atlantic consins put into all their new 



jnlv b . . 

and energy on the part of English firms in cultivating the South African market 
are stimulated; 
It should be noted that in the appended table the noncompetitive articles are dis- 

tln^ished by a *, and th" '"" " "'"" '--'-'- -•-- '- 

Portuguese West Africa. 



byGoo'^lc 



afeioa: bettish south afbioa. 

American export! to South Africa. 
(Tbe equlTmlenU In Unlled SUtoa currcDcy In tbe lallowlDs table ftre itated thniUKboiiC I 




Pickles and nuoes. and uneaumeiaMd 
*P<Ht, Baited or ^ckled...'.'. '..tone.'. 

H. Doc. 481, Pt. 1 16 



2,702 


■ 


2,m 








U.S16 


6,137 


1^7 


3^:^ 


5,063 


st;^ 


2,707 


(138 














































































OB 


2,<7* 














IK,OGS 


M, 42 


iie,M4 
























10. s» 






l,29S 









OOMHEBOIAL BGLATIONS. 

rican exporli to Sotilh ^/rim— Conlinned. 





JnnB80,19»7;ioJuneW,]BB«. 


IncreaMovcryear 


AMcltt. 


Qn«itlt7. 


Value. 


BriUiJ 


<S 




Britfah 

Gunencr. 


United 
enrrency 


ArUcla of /ood— Conllau«d. 




!,276 
6 

s.ooe 

4:021 

ft 

l:S 
•1 

ao.ios 

SSI 

2. 286 

m 

».| 

1,801 

171 
84,791 

2,578 

23 
18,608 

M,e8(. 

7,1S1 
1,488 

'S 

4.B78 

cs.eoi 

•■^ 

7,818 

£! 

MS 


15,«1 

24 

H6I» 

29,661 

87,621 

-i 

itJ;?!!! 

} 81,871 
1*8,800 

1,900 
110,887 

1.084 

880 

63 

146.280 

437 

8,753 

12.529 
9,409 

iao,94i 

84, 7M 
6; 964 

US 

>.« 

87,988 


■■i 

8. 132 










^^ihk,'^ do.... 

MOIMM* glJlOtUi.. 


400 

208 
2S0 


15,2a 










8,545 
■ 6,085 

6,264 




'seslf^.".-."!!':.;^:: 


as,an 










■^K 






Boots and Bhoes, lodU nibber and guua- 

tSSA-iii^,Mii:::::::::::::&v. 


fiGZ 
M,214 




81,111 














Sponges pound*.. 

Manulactured- 

Cigani number.. 

Cigarettes do.... 


H«S?:r 






12, 0» 


88,800 
2,231 


















'""Ir:'."-: v:v!T!^:: 


178,000 


za 


1,084 




60 






13, SM 


"■S 










































Vamlili gallonj. 

Ashes, pot sad peail pounds.. 


7.8*0 




2,S 






1B.«1 

••s 


*g 






















4;»i 










24.818 






8r5Js"aiawW«b4i::- ^- 


700 


11 


28,^ 








4,001 


























.^^EEm 


IS 


3. IBB 





AFKIOA: BEITI8H SOUTH AFBIOA. 
Ameriean export* to South Afrien — CoBtinned. 



Increue orer year 



FurnilDre and other hoiuehold reqolaltea— Ct'<L 

OUclnth 

FBlmlDg* and stAtaBry 



Elove poliih 

Budwue: 

Agricullaial implemenu, iii 

Capper mtnul&ctures 

Gallery, table 

Cutlery, al' other 



iDdxutrlal nuteriali: 



Cellulold manulactuies . . 



Grcuc, neuescrapa.and allKwpno 

H«lr, and manufaetures o( 

India-rubber goodR. un«nam«nted .. 

Pusffln and paraffin wax 

Prlntl Qg materials- 
Stereotype and eleotintype 

Tallow pa 

Wax 

Leather and manuIactureR: 

Hide* and Bklnaother than Inn 

Saddlery and hamen 

Sole leather ton*.. 

Unenumeiated. mannlacturjd — 
Cnenamerated. autaaDulactiirtd. ■ 
Machinery: 

Electrical nmclilnery 

Metal- noTklng 

HqireTs and reapen and parts 

Plowa and cnlHyaton and parta. . . 
Printing pican and patti... 



Pnmpi and poropinft appliances — 

SewlDB maefaliiea and parts 

Btaam engliia, locomollve nn 

Bteameniinea,«atlonary 

Blaam bollenand parts ol engines.. 

Tipewrlllng macblnea - 

All olbei kinds of machliM 



HeWs and mioends, and m 

BabMtt metal 

ln» aad steel and mannfaetDte*— 

OasUugt. not elsewbereapedfied... 

Iron, no^ band, and actoU I 

IioD'and steel, striictuni '<- 

Iron and steel, all other manntectniaot. . 
Btael, ban or rails, lor railways — tons. . 



Lead and manufacttuea . . 
Oils, tar, etc: 

OUglard gallons.. 

*011, mlneial , reBned.or manulactoied.do. ■ . 
Oil, TGgetable do... 



S.l»2 
e.46S 
ITS, SI I 



8.062 
]<X,31S 



•xchide tlMm; while the Of 



SO, SIT 
IG2.SST 

68, set 



Be are sxclnslTe of saw*. 



OOJOCBBOIAL BBLATIOW8. 



American expartu to South Africn — Continued, 



Untied 
'" cuneacy. 



"%'»„"?: 



Photo^raphle mateTlalH _ . 



Telephone, telegiapb, viA ot^er elemrical 

inatnimeDU and appuatw 

etalioneiy: 

Books, maps, and engiaTlngi 



Paper, printing... 



I^per, i^UDg,aDd enTclopes. 

Stationery. i 

Textile L._ 

Clotb, coloied yarda. 

Cloth, ancoloied do. . . 

Waat« cotton pounda. 



eaof-- 



Twine 

All other mannfacturvsoi flben, 
tnw and palm leaf mannfactnreB.. 

Blankets and Oannels 



Woolen Boodi, 
ilea and vemvula 



ilvular malcrialK: 

Cycleaand parts 

RaiiwB)' carriages and parta ... 
Tramway car* and materials . ■ 

VemclCTSodi — ■ 

Wooden Rooda, el 

Lumber.nDd paniy m 

• Boaidi, deali, and planka . . 
•JolMaandtcuitllngs 

• Logs and other timber 

•Sann and hewn timber 

• Slaves and beadlngw 



•All other lu 

Hanulactorca— 



Wooden ware 

All other wooden m 

nafactured arUclea not elsewhere ei 



2,11ft 
1,MD 
10, tM 



W.tffI 
21,091 . 

B5,2Sa 

l.WT 
IS9,<IM 



2.110 
l.tMb 
S.240 

72. 7W 

24.042 



s.vra 
10, vn 

^31S 



2,707 

ine,s7i 

»4,H36 



S,OTG 



byGoogIc 



AFBIOA: BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA. 



SOUTH AFRICAN TRADE, FIRST SIX MONTHS OF 1899. 

Consul -General Stowe, on August 7, 1899, writes from Cape Town: 
I aubmit herewith the imports and exports of South Africa (except 
Portuguese territory) for the six months ended June 80, 1899. 

PmU of Cape Colaay. 





British 


ODltod BUta 




Imp«U. 


"■^™ 
















8,S40.(B3 






Export.. 






lS,7»e.fl70 




















14,010,290 











Imports for the year ending June 30 show a decrease of i:73,520 
^38,045,08). The trade of June, 1899, shows an increase over June, 
1898, of £150,386 ($74,853.47). Exports for the year ending June 30 
show an increase of about i;4,000,000 {*19,466^000), and this increase 
is principally in raw gold, which shows an increase of i!3,959,230 
($18,780,991), while other products have advanced £62,671 («304,988), 
and diamonds £52,000 ($253,058). Colonial products have declinm 
10 per cent. In Cape Colony it is not possible to obtain data as to 
countries of origin except at the end of each year, but I give the 
imports and expoiis by articles for the six months ended June 30. 

ImporU, GgK Colonj/. 





.■.'.■.'wiiiiii:: 


Ui'.m 


" ■«8,6»" 


bM«S^:::::::::;;::::::::::::::::;;::::::::: 








""iMJB"di" 


■■■■j.«" 


' 'i,'m.'«8' 










....pornida.. 


'm',aj 

s.tmIuo 
lirailra 


4,n)s!e6s 

1,<0B,713 


Coal*, coke, iuidpMQit iiieV. V.'.'. -ioiii 'oi%6oa po'an di ! ! 






^■■■EEEEEE 


:::::::^::: 












....pouna*.. 


i,a«,»o 


1.WK.M0 





206, SSI 

15!i,l30l 
U2,W7 
0,S3» 
l,21B,Ta& 
2,ttS.>lS 
718,178 
248,736 
206. *7B 



COIODCBOIA]:, RELATIONS. 



I'^caU, Cape CWor^z—Oontiaueo. 





Half-year. 




Qnuiatifti. 


I>eclanKI valoe. 


ArllBlM. 


^ 


^ 


1899. 




British 

[rtuiBncy 


ODlted 
States 
currenc;. 


Fu itu d binat n 












■ss 


^8M 


■5:3 

644,820 

11 

165,242 

11 

244,467 
14,982 

170,612 




























Inm: 
















d?;SliSS'™E'e:ii^? 






































Ueala.nltand preaerred poandB. 


SigJS 




463,101 


















gr«is-ii«w,iii;;;;:;;;;;;;;;;;;-^^^^^^^ 


U,4W,MB 


19,737,183 


243|773 




7,a28.E23 
in, 005 


'•S?S 




Bplnls (all BOMS) K^ODS. 


68R,eie 


t;^":^*;;--;::;;-:;;:::::3s::: 


78^007 

11 


89,907,624 
2,814,880 

6ia;Ki2 

H.OBB 

ii 

977;«8 


1361273 

i6,2eg 


Wine gslloiu. 
























Tolal Tilue of principal ftQd other utlclea of 






1,388,887 










2,669.877 








7.891.668 


















768,175 




















42,048,710 








r ' 





BrfUihcur- 


United BCate* 
currenc)'. 




I7M,Z77 

1,340,155 

20;«40 


I3BS4 427 02 




^'wo'wIm 










2.087,072 


10.186,786.39 





The imports from the United States for the six moDtbs ended June 
30, 1898, through the ports of Natal were: £302,709 {$1^473,233. 35). 
Imports from the United Kingdom increased during same tmie £135,005 
(1667,002). 



byGoO'^lc 



AFRICA : BEITISH SOUTH AFRICA. 
ImporU, Nabd, lir monOa eaded June SO, 189&. 



Counldea from which foodi hkve been imported. 


■-^..Ssa:""^ 


BrltMicur 
wncy. 


UDlUdSUUa 


'■"XiWittort,,. 


<i 

ti 

i 
■as 

1,376 

1 

IS 

47.887 
8,K» 


*6.8ffl,187 


Urltlih cokMilei: 














1,888 


Africa— 






^z 








as 








Foreign coudIiIck 


as! 
























■li 




"^.^ 










!!,« 










■ ^S 














''"^^ftStSS. ; 


LMMW 














2.703.073 
3,M8 




Foretell goods ImporWd ovorUnd from South Afticui Kepubllc 






J. 706, Til 


13,17^2M 



Under date of Augttat 8, 1899, Mr. Stowe adda: 

Natal is becoming a f ruit-growlDg country as well as a grower of tea 
and sugar cane. Tbe exporte over sea in the six months ended June 30, 
1899, were valued at £2,987 ($14,291.91), against £2,608 ($12,691.33) in 
the corresponding period of 1898. Tbe large exports to the other col- 
onies and States of South Africa are not given. Despite the depres- 
sion of trade, owing to the political crisis in the Transvaal, the imports 
of Natal show an increase for the half year of £267,327 (*1, 300,946.05), 
while the customs duties collected were about (50,000 less for the half 
year, although about a q^uarter of a million pounds sterling more 
goods under a higher tariff were imported. The explanation is that 
me imports of many classes of goods subject to the lighter duties have 
gained. The transit trade with the Transvaal was vflued at £833,399 
^,055,736), as compared with £334,119 ($1,626,990) for ^ coire- 
spondiog SIX mouths of 1898. CiOOqIc 



232 OOKHKBCIAL BGLATIOKS. 

Increases and decreases are noted for the half year as follows: 



ArtlClOB. 


IBM. 


ISBS. 




»««« 


Ill 

■'ill 

seo.T4e.aG 

IM.IW.OS 

12&,442.7T 


•s-ss 












Meal.fnHen 






„.^ 


IMOTM 








SI:S:« 





Out of the importations noted in my report of August 7, valued at 
£3,706,721 ($13,166,268), £1,029,920 (?6,012,105) was sent out of the 
colony, leaving the balance for home consumption. Of the total 
importations, over £2,000,000 ($9,733,000) comes from the United 
Kingdom. 

SECOND SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT. 
The following are the ioiports and exoorts of Cape Colony for the 



seven months ended July 31- 





tsge. 


ISM. 


, 


KS, 261. 708. Si 


t44,«ai,ii5.a) 









Of the imports. $1,702,963.54 were shipped to other states and terri- 
tories in South Africa. Of the exports in 1899, $66,762,662.54 were 
gold and diamonds. 

The amount of certain products imported into Natal from adjoining 
territories in Africa for the seven months ended July 31, 1899 (pre- 
sumably for export by sea), was as follows: 



Wool 9,843,788 



Muhur . . 
Hides '.'. 



113,934 
18,637 
128,379 



Skins... 
Grain... 
Forage.. 



it and tptriu in Cape Oolony. 





im. 


,m. 


tm. 




4.«K,si» 


m,m 


Im 






^•^Z 





Whoktalt Tnartet prica, J\dy 31, in Cape Colony. 



Wheat 100 pounds.. 

Wheat flour do 

Com ;do 

Com meal do 



.24 
.IS 



Tobacco ponnda.. 

Beef do.... 

Mutton do 

Buttor.freBh do 42 

K^gs doien.. .28 

Cattle, slaughter Mch.. 6B.13 

Sheep .^„,,|fl.Oe. 



AFRICA: BRITISH SOUTH AFBIpA. 
Crop» ratneil in ffalul in JS9S. 



ArtlcieB. 


WMl«L 


NaUvo. 


iDdbuu. 






'4 

i 

1 

Z,IW 

1;i 

],CST.GW 






















































i;g:l 






biiijeta.. 


moM 
























B^:=== 


do.... 

torn.. 




M,1M 




=:r=Si 




§Sr^?:^":r-.-./.;.:/.;.;;;.:/. 


■m:m 


n.oTO 






U7,2» 


254. 1» 






».»K 






°"*~*'"'"" 




14,901.40 







At the close of ISttS the following crops (io acres) were standing: 



ArUclet 


WMK* 


NatltHL 


IndlaDs. 




1.M7 

a,«37 

..OS 

"•a 
*s 

ITG 

97S 

Z1,S8S 

236 




























B,«M 








76 
118,104 
















































11,095 

19, an 






















771 

































Slock in ^nloi Deomt^ SJ, 1898. 





IndtaM. 


N-tire.. 


wmiM. 




2,3Se 

1,124 


20.499 






lS2,t8S 










^'•ss 





























byGoo'^lc 



OOMHEBdAL BBLATIOHfi. 



Average 1 

Hotsea, saddle 586, 00 

Horaee,drftft 103 "" 

Cattle, homed 60 

Moles 76 

Oien, draft 55 

Oien, slauBhler 68 

Ckiws, milch 63 

Sheep, wooled 4. 00 

8heep, other 3 "" 



Wool, wwhed, per pound 

Wool, imdrenea, per pound . . 

Butter, per pound 

Hides, per pound 

Bacon, per pound 

Cheeae, per pound 

Goatak ins, each 

Sheepskins, each 



Anwiai pTodueU, 1898. 

¥aan6t. I Fotuidi, 

1,747.169 Cheese 626 

462,880 1 Bacon 166,315 

Crop* and tUxik produced tn Ziduland tn 189S. 





a™. 


Quantily. 




8,011 

as 

160 
W 






























"■■SKft. 









Sock on hand Dteember 31, 189S. 



Cape Town, Aug^ust 2^ 1S99. 



J. G. Stowe, Con^- General. 



TRADE OF CAPE COLONY IN 1899. 

Figures for tiie nine mootha ended September 30, 
below. The shipping returns were: 





««. 


ISW. 


ToUlibl tared 


1,730 
5,264,890 


1 718 











Of the above, 184 were British and 61 foreign. 

The articles imported in which an increase is shown over the same 
period of 1898 are; 

Agricultural implements dollars. . 97, 356. 17 

Bags (allBortfl) do.-.. 222,378.81 

Books, printed do.... 112,760.24 

Candles pounds.. 171,663 

Coal tons.. 3,729 

Com and grain: 

Flour pounds.. 4,105,848 

Com do.... 24,510,965 

Linen, manufactured dollars.. 26,031.80 

Machinery (all kinds) do 481,496.80 

Oil.mmeHil mllonH.. 536,648 

Pamta and colors .dollars.. 22,241.29 



AFRICA: BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA. 235 

Tipetf, iron and earthen dollars. . 291, 498. 72 

Soap pounda.. 199, 017 

Spirito gallons. , 91, 116 

Sugar, not refined pounda.. 5, 147, 111 

Tobacco: 

CSKara do 42,289 

AllkiudB do 51,052 

Wood: 

TJumanufactnred cubic feet,. 663,166 

Planed or grooved do 375, 827 

The principal increase is noted in flour and corn, mineral oil, and 
wood. These come principally from the United States. 

Of the total imports, *12, 273,476. 27 worth was entered for removal 
to the South African Republic, and $1,980,590.04 to Rhodesia, et«. 

The total imports for the period were: 





1M». 


IS98. 




(15.880, BBS. SB 

IS, ua, Ml. 15 

ET,21B,3B4.1S 


•{f-^S?-!! 






KiSwiSiM 






101,l»4, 889.23 


87. 543, «7. as 






1, 242, SIT. S2 
•B68:»n.08 














i,6ee,288.«o 


S,0S»,»4I.« 






<,M12,01B.*B 


8,794,631.17 





Since writing the above, the returns for the ten months ended 
October 31, 1899, have been issued for Cape Colony, as follows: 





ISM. 


18«. 




Imforti. 


W,1HI»8.17 
I7,«Z!,4«».61 


187, 283, 0*2. 88 






^ 




18.188,880.42 
18,888.861.15 
87,282.878.21 


18.564,196.58 






8i;706;9S3.0fl 








MS. 989, 687. 78 


TI.A^.m.^ 






The trade returns for the month of October give fall evidence of the 
effect of war upon the trade of this country. Rebate trade with the 
Transvaal and Free State has disappeared entirely; it amounted to 
$1,829,510 in October last year. Apart from specie, there was a fall- 
ing off^in imports for consumption in the colony of $1,368,470. The 
total exports show an enormous falling off, due to the fact that not a 
single diamond went out of the country last month, while the gold 
export stoodattheridicuIouBfigure of $63,982.06, as against $6,589,110 
in October last year. The colonial products exported show a satis- 
factory total, $2,361,896.43, as compared with $1,201,516.66 last 
year, a fact which makes it abundantly clear that but for the war the 
colony would be in a condition of prosperity. It shows further that 
when the military operations are a thing of the past, the country will 
progress by leaps and bounds. 

J. G. Stowe, CoTiawl-Oeaend. . 

Cape Town, JVbvember IS, 1899. . n l.") O ^^ I C 



OOUXKBCXAI. RELATIONS. 



TRADE OF NATAL IN 1899. 



For the nine months ended September 30, 189d, the imports were 
valued at $19,534,914.12, against $18,755,027.45 in 189S. Of this 
total, $5,458,057.87 worth was sent to tlie South African Republic, and 
$534,001.70 to the Orange Free State. 

The total imports for the period, bj countries of origin, were: 



Countrl». 


ISM. 


ISM. 




2,527.5M.S6 
803. 186.98 


^ 































The articles imported in the period named, in which au increase is 
noted, were: 
Dnig8 anil chemicals, 



lais.. 



Ba^,litl kinilx dollars.. 

Butter pounda.. 

Candles do 

Carriages dolUra. . 

Cement casks.. 

Clocks and watches .dollars. . 

Cordage cwt.. 

Corks gross. . 

Com and gmin: 

Barley pounds.. 

Beanssnd peas. ..do 

Com do 

Com meal do 

Oata do.-.. 

Wheat bran do 

Cotton blankets pairs.. 

Hosiery dollars.. 

Hops cwt.. 

Bar tons.. 

Sheet do 

Piping dollars.. 

Wire for fencing .do 

I«rd pounds.. 

Lead, sheet cwt. . 

Leather, manufactun.-d, 
dollars 

Machinery, all kirdSidoU'ra. . 

Meats, frozen: 

Beef pounds.. 

Mutton do 

Game and poultry. 



12.113.34 

36,689.96 

149, 371 

451,289 

35,589,96 

16, 471 

6,903.39 

2,271 



• 227,700 
213,888 

48,868,121 
623,730 

974, 016 
255,872 
198,844 
9.486.76 



i, 236. 04 
48,437 
3,160 



Oil; 

Paraffin gallons. . 

Linaeed do 

Painters' colors dollara .. 

Paper for newspaper, .do 

Perfumery do 

Plate, jewelry, and ware, 

dollars 

Proviaions: 

Fish, salt pounds.. 

Jams do 

Hams and bacon. do 

Meats and fish, tinned, 
pounds .. 



36,364 
113, 131 
166,636 



..cwt. 

Seeds, garden dollars. 

Silks do... 

Stationaiy, books, music 

printed, dollarB. 

Steel do... 



24,750 
41,336.66 
1,646.06 



Taiklw 



Tea . 

Tel^raph material. dollars. . 

Toysand fancy ware, .do 

Wine, in bottles. . . .gallons. . 
Wood and timber, unmanu- 

factuied cubic feet.. 

Zinc cwt,. 



«, 63^.64 
54,899 

15,296.67 



Total exports were: 1899, $13,174,655.16; 1898, $6,718,783.49. 

The inci'ease is made up in part by $3,726,080.83, exported to the 
Orange Fi-ee State and South African Republic, and consisting of war 
material, food stuffs, etc. 

J. G. Stowb, Ckm»ul-Qeneral. 

Cape Town, Ifovemher 2, 1899. 



afrioa: egtft. 



EGYPT. 

No report haviog been received from the United States consul- 
general at Cairo, the following extracts are made from the report by 
the British f^ut and consul-general, Lord Cromer, on the finances, 
administration, and condition of Egypt and the Sudan in 1898. 

COHIUBCB. 

The valoe of the imports in 1898 wu £10,493,000 ($51,865,000) , as compared with 
£10,082,000 (140,675,800) in 1897. There was « large increase in the importation of 
wood for building purpoeee, from which it would appear that the building trade 
continues to prosper. 

Ceri^D articles of Egyptian manufacture are now competing with foreign products. 
ThuH in 1896 there was a decrease in the imports of butter, soap, reflned sugar, and 
alcohol. The most noticeable decrease was in coffee, but this docs not appear to be 
due to a dinuQution in the demand, but rather to excesive importation during the 
two precediuK years. I«w-priced Santos coffee is gradually supplanting Anuiian 
coffee in the E^ptian market 

The value of the exports in 1898 was £11,805,000 (158,356,100), as compared with 
£2,321,000 (160,002,700) in 1S97. The decrease was almost wholly due to the fall 
in the price of cotton. The quantity of cotton exported in 1898 was 270,000 cantars 
greater than in the previous year, but this was accompanied by a diminution in the 
value to the extent of £464,000 (^12,293,500). Biwar fell ofi, and there was also a 
decrease in the exports of rice, Deans, wool, molasses and hides. On the other 
hand, onions, wheat, flour, and henna showed a fair increase. The cigarette export 
rade (wntiaues to flourish. Last year, about 200,000,000 cigarettes were exported 
rom Cairo aloae. 

FINAHCBB. 

The revenue for 1898 was£ll,348,000 (156,095,000), and the expenditure £10,122,000 
($50,033,000) . There waspaid to general re«rve fund £742,000 ($3,387,000) , leaving 
a surplus of £484,000 ($2,3^,800) . A programme of expenditures on public work has 
. been made out for the five years from 18W to 1903, inclusive. It is as follows; 





Britl^ 


United SUten 




£1,100,000 

'vsslooo 

1,330,000 


6,G74.200 




iunwa>-s IralUng »ock. renewal of pennane 














3,600,000 


17,300,000 





The accumulated economies resulting from the partial c 
1890 amounted on December 31, 1898, to £3,218,000 ($15,906,600) . 
Since 1890, remiadon of taxation to the folloinng extent has taken place: 





currency. 


Uniled SUUa 
currency. 




«O0,OO0 
a ATI, WO 
180 000 

IE 


Il.«7.a» 
























1,876.000 






' '■ 



a Id addition to thli, ar 



It £1,000,000 have been I 



In addition to this, the salt tax has been reduced by 40 per cent; the postal and 
teksiaph rates have been reduced by 50 per cent; large reductions have been made 
in tne railway rates. The only increase of taxation has been in the tobacco duty. 
The bouse tu has also been imposed on European residents in liigypt r^ 



238 OOIDfKBCIAL BELATiOlfS. 

It would be difficult to esagBerate the roin which would have overtaken, not only 
the population of S^ypt, but all who are interested in Egyptian afiaira, if the regime 
of the prereforming dayB had been allowed to continue in existence but a few years 
longer. It BO happened that the maladministration of the paat reached ite zenith 
shortly^ before a great fall took place in the price of all agricultural produce. Improve- 
mente in the system of irrigation, by which the incr^aed quantity produced has, in 
some decree, mitigated the effects of the fall in prices; the appreciable fiacai relief, 
of which the detailB are given above, and, generally, the Bubstitution of a civilized 
in place of an oppressive and BemibarbarouH adminiHtrative policy, have conjointly 
enabled £^ypt to bear the strain. I have no hesitation in saying tnat but for theee 
changes the f^yptian treasury would before now have been hopelessly insolvent, 
and that the condition of the people would have been in all respects deplorable. It is 
as well to call attention to this point, for it is natural that aa tune pafses by not only 
should the recollection of the old r&ime fade away, but that even weli-informea 
Ife'ptians should tail to recognize fully that but for the reforms of recent years the 
siSeringa of the people in the present would assuredly have been far greater than 
anytiung which tney experienced in the past. A government conductSi on princi- 
ples sum as those which prevailed when I firat became acquainted with Egyptian 
affairs, some twenty-two years ago, would, apart from other defects, have t>een 
wholly incapable of coping with the economic crisis produced by the lall of prices 
during the last few years. 

In spite, however, of the relatively high degree of prosperity which ^B^pt has 
attainml, I am very far from saying that the fiscal system is perfect. Such is by do 
means the case. Much remains to bo done. Mr. Gorst very truly remarks in his 
note on the estimates for the current year that taxation is still heavy, even if the 
burden be less felt now than in the past. I hope and believe that, by prudently and 
gradually developing the reaoorces of the country, and by the maintenance of con- 
stant watchfulaese to prevent waste in State expenditure, it will be eventually possi- 
ble to adopt measures with a view to a further relief of fiscal burdens. 

For some years after the occupation of E^ypt, but little British capital came into 
the conntry. This was in some measure due to want of confidence in the politital 
future. In the meanwhile foreign capitalists sought with some eagerness for Egyjf- 
tdan investmenta, and often with hucccbh. 

A sudden and complete change has now taken place. A very marked disposition 
has recently been shown to direct the tide of British capital toward Egypt. Simul- 
taneously with this influx, a somewhat remarkable chan^ has taken place in native 
public opinion. Heretofore native capitalists Iiave, with some rare exceptions, 
mvested their money almost exclusively in lands. Recently, however, a strong dis- 
position has been shown to seek for investments in industrial and commercial under- 
takii^B. 

During 1898, the length of the lines has increased from 2,157 kilometers (1,3*0 
miles), to 2,292 kilometers (1,424 miles). The line from Mag-Hamadi to Kehen 
(34 miles) was completed and opened to traffic. The Keneh-Aseouan line was also 
finished. The line oetween Sherbine and Kabr-Sheikh was finished, at the end of 
the year, except for 3 kilometers and two small bridges. Although the normal 
receipts in 1398 were no higher than those of 1697, therailway revenue tendasttndily 
upward. In fifteen years there has been an increase of 84 per cent, due mainly to 
the growing prosperity of the conntry, and also In part to the individual efforts of 
those concerned in the management of the railways. 

One hundred and fiftv-three miles of wriculturol railways were opened for frafBc 
in 1898, making a tetfu of 2Q7 miles, nfty additional miles will very shortly be 
opened. 

mix asssBVoiR. 

.. . _^__ ._. , William Gi 

A commencement was made with the n 
out during the summer of 1898. 

"The dam which is to form the reservoir will be bnilt at the first cataract, a few 
miles south of Assouan, It is designed to hold up water to a level of 106 meters 
(347.7feet) above mean sea level, or rather more than 20_ meters (65.6 feet) above 
the low-water level of the Nile at site. Its total length will Ixi 2,156 yards, with a 
width at crest of 26.4 feet. The width at base at the deepest portdon wul be 82.6 feet 
and the he^ht of the work at the deepest spot 92.4 feet The dam will be pierced 
by ISO openmgs, or under sluices (140 of which are 23.1 feet by 6.6 feet and 40 are 
18.2 feet by 6.6 feet), provided with gates. Theee slnioM will pass the flood and 



afbioa: egtpt. 289 

sorplna water throngh the dam. and by theta the reeervoir will be emptied when 
water is required for irrigation in middle aad lower EKypt Three locks will then 
be bnilt and a navigation channel made on the west of the river to enable boats to 
pan np and down. 

"Thedamat Assioutwill be what is called an open barrage, and will be similar in 
construction to the eziHting barrages on the Boaetta and I&mietta branches. The 
new work will condat of 111 bays or openings, each 16.5 feet wide, and each bay will 
be provided with rwulating gates. The total length of the work will be 903 yards. 
A lock 53 feet in width will be oongtructed on the west bonk, lai^ enough to paae the 
largest tourist boat plying on the river. By r^ulating on this barTaf;e, water will 
be sapplied in aprii^ and summer M the Ibiohimieh C&jal, which irngatee middle 

"At the end of December 2,900 men were employed on the work, of whom 271 were 
Eoropeane, chiefly Italian stonecntters. Owing to the large quantity of rock exca- 
vation necemitated in order to reach a good foundatJon, it was not foond possible to 
e the masonry during 1S9S." 



The total number of pupils in attendance on December 31, 1898, at schools of all 
grades under the direction of the deportment of public instruction, was 7,735.' One 
of the surest tests of the popularity of education in this country is to inquire how 
far parents are prepared to pay for the tuition of their children. The statistics on 
this subject are somewhat remarkable. The receipts from school fees have for many 
years post i>een steadily rising. The proportion of paying pupils has risen from 6 
per cent in 1879 to 86 per cent in 1888. 

The steady labors of the officera of the education department are at length beginning 
to yidd solid results. The succe« of the technical schools, the reorganization of the 
school of medicine, and the encouraging commencements which have been made in 
the direction both of female education and of raising the general intellectual stand- 
ard in the country by improving the villa^ schools fU^ oil satisfactory features in the 
Sreeent educational outlook. But the point which perhaps more than any other 
eeerves notice is that evidence is forthcoming of the capability of the Egyptian 
schools and colleges to tarn out a number of young men who will be able to take a 
useful and honorable, albeit sometimes humble, part in the administration of their 
own country. It would be unduly optimistic to suppose that for many years to come 
the educational system can attain any higher ideal than this. 

There are at present 11,870 officials in the Egyptian civil service, namely, 10,600 
Egyptians, 455 British, 286 Italians, and 283 French. 

The number of Europeans is onlv 28 more than sixteen years ago. Their func- 
tions, on the other hand, have undeTgone a considerable change. Though there 
may have been some decrease in the number of Europeans in subordinate places 
under the government, the number of superior European officials has increased. 
Ninety-four Europeans (48 British) are employed in the department of public 
inetrucUon; 37 {18 British) in the department of finance; 102 (62 British) i.- "•- 



interior department: 72 (28 British) in the public works department; 14 Europeans 
(12 British) in native tribunals. With the exception of toe officials beloi^ing to 
the department of public instruction, only 282 Europeans (130 British) receive more 
than X30 ((146) a month. 

Without going into any elaborate analysis of the figures, I m^ say that the 
rehabilitation ol Egypt, in so fu as it has been due to British influence since the 
occuBfttion, has been carried out by a body of officials who cert«nly do not e:xceed 
100 tn number, and might possibly, if the figures were rigorously examined, be 
stated somewhat lower. I should add that those 100 have been selected with the 
greabeat care. 

Almost immediately after the battle of Omdurmon a som of £300,000 ($1,469,960) 
was granted, in order to enable the railway to be continued from the Atbara to 
opposite Khartoum. The distance is 187 miles. On February 13 about 20 miles of 
iHmk had been made and some 15 miles of rails laid. Prt^ress has been delayed by 
the neceadty of making a somewhat extensive cutting and erecting a long stretch of 
stone bank at a spot about 40 miles south of the Attwa. 

The Bubsbncture of the permanent bridge and the manuiactare and placing in 
position of the cylinders is in the hands of an Italian contractor. It is anticipated 
that this work will be completed before the superstructure can reach the Atbara. 



' Exclosive of the pupils at the vernacular schools. ^^ i (.") O ' 



iTc 



OOHMEBCIAL BBLATIONB. 



therefore accepted. These facte may admit of aome explanation, but would appear, 
however, to mcritthe attention of bridge builders in Great Britain. Theofficerwho 
managed this bugines writes: "In my opinion, the American firms gain time in 
keeping to fixed standards, either in locomotives or in brid|i:e«; consequently, having 
all their patterns, drawings, etc., always at hand, they are able to De^n work £ 
once. In England everyone eeems to have special dedgtis, which take time in 
working out, and in most caae« they have to send out for nwling, etc., whereas these 
lai^ American firms are independent of everyone, and the rolling mills, as well as 
other machinery, are in their own hands." 

It can not be doubted that railways constitut«, perhaps, the greatest want ot the 
Sudan. Nevertheless, in this as in other matters, it is desirable to proceed with 
deliberation. 

The first question to decide is what direction the railway should take, and which 
among various projects which may be supported by more or lees valid a '" 



colls most urgently for prompt exertion. 

There is wat«r communication, which is free at all seaaongof the Tear, between 
Khartoum and Fashoda. A railway connecting these two points would necessarily 
compete with river transport. The construction of this line is not, therefore, a mat- 
ter of urgency. 

It is not only probable, but almost certain, that sooner or later railway communi- 
cation will be established between the Nile Valley and the coast of the Bed Sea. At 
first sight the most obvious course to pursue would seem to hu to connect Suakin 
and Berber. The construction of this line has, in tact, often been Bujjtested. So long 
as the dervishes remained in the possession of Berber it was clear that any discussion 
on this subject was premature. This obstacle is now removed. The qneetion may 
therefore be considered on its own merits. 

The line from Suakin to Berber has never yet been properly surveyed; neither 
has any trustworthy estimate been mode of its cost It is certain that throughout 
its course it will pass through nothing but a ,long tract of almost waterleee desert. 
The most coinpetent anthorities on this question are of opinion that connection 
with the Red Sea, via Abu Haras, Gedarif, and KassaltL to some spot on the coast, 
although relatively circuitous, is to be preferred to the direct route from Snakin to 
Berber. The establishment of connection with the Red Sea, although obviously 
desirable, is not of such immediate importance as the execution of an alternative 
project. 

It would appear to be desirable, as soon as the railway reaches Khartoum, to 
make arrangements for its extensioii to Abu Haroz, with a view ultimately' to reach- 
ing Gedarif. The distance is 122 miles, or following the windings of the nver, about 
143 miles. The line has not yet been surveyed, but it is believed that no great engi' 
neering difficulties will have to be encountered. 

It is hoped that the railway to Khartoum will be finished by the end of 1899, and 
that it will be possible to arrange for the extension to Abu llaraz in 1900. 

The Sudan teli^raph system soi " " " ... 

hank of the Blue Nile (o Abu Hi 
Gedarif, which will be connected y 

A second line will run from Abu Harax to 8> 
by means of a cable. From Sennaar the line will n 
Nile, and thence up the river to Fashoda and the SobaL 

Theeeextensions will require about 1,000 miles of wire. The greater portion of the 
wire has been already sent to the Sudan. Work is proceeding on the Kasala- 
Gedarif section. 

An arrangement has been made as to the rates to be charged on through telegrami 
pasfflng over the Sudanese and Egyptian lines in the event of t/"'~™"*'''' ~-"™.. 
nicatjon b^g eetabliijied with South Africa. 



With the reoonquest of the Sudan, a new chapter in the history of antislavery 
operations begins. It has at last been found possible to strike a decisive blow at the 
mwn prop which holds up the institution of slavery. So long as slave raiders were 
free to roam about those provinces in Central Africa from which the slaves have 
heretofore been princi|Mllv drawn, it was hopeless to expect that tiie supply could 
altogether be cat off. Theee ptovincee have now fallen onder the infloenoe of a 



AFRICA: LIBERIA. 



Eoropean power, and, moTeorer, of that ^wer which more tiuui any other hits been 
distiuguiBhed for the zeal and interest which it has displayed in the antislavery (^use. 
It would be difficult to exaggerate the impDrtance of this achievement in eoiinection 
with the efiect which must ultimately be produced on slavery as an institution. 
What has heretofore been the chief recrniting ground for slaves is now closed to the 
stave raider. 

Vice Conaul-General Hunter sends from Cairo, September i>, 1899, 
the following data in regard to Suez Canal traffic in the first six months 
of 1899: 





Nnm- 
berol 


x,,.™.. 


K.. 


Tnfflc receipt*. 




i 

23 


3.<9B.TO 
%»,WI1 

iib;730 
76. or* 

'^;^ 

69; 782 
26,014 


852 
26» 

a 

8«2 

2ie 

B33 
287 

187 
6» 


31,S9«,753 

tSs 

'ew'.wi 

2«S,»I7 
1,IM.M» 

S74,4S6 
l.OW.WS 

1 

2! Ml 
99:735 

4.878 
12,999 


», 069, 573 










82fl,3l-') 










223, 6W 
130,178 








^•^ 










1M,!'78 










'■^ 






19,319 














■■"• 


6.107,»2 


12 


«, 827, ITS 


9,423,61£ 





LIBERIA. 

-I r^ret exceedingly to be forced to admit the fact that the chances 
for obtaiDing accurate, reliable, and trustworthy utstistics of this coun- 
try dimioish annually. The Afiican Steamship and the British and 
African NarigatioD companiea, of Liverpool, have recently so changed 
their schedufes as to send only one steamer in every three weeks, 
instead of fortnightly, as heretofore. Yet this is no proof that African 
trade with European markets is growing less. The Waerman Steam- 
ship Company^ of Hamburg, has put more and better steamers on the 
line, one arrivmgper week. This tendency to divert the coast trade 
from English to German markets can be easily accounted for, when it 
is known that many strong Hamburg firms have large and prosperous 
branch houses in the principal porta of Liberia, buying and shipping 
the raw African products to Germany. 

While the earth has most abundantly responded to the laborers' toil, 
the market value of native products has hardly justified their cultiva- 
tion. Coffee, piassava, palm oil and kernels, the chief export articles 
of the Liberian farmer, nave ceased to be produced at a profit. Of late, 
however, in spite of the fact that the marketB have been dull, money 
scarce, and the necessities of life expensive, there has been a gradual 
tendencjT to improvement in the condition of affairs. Rice, sufjar cane, 
and Indian com, which grow to perfection in this country, and at little 
expense, are but scantily culivatea, for want of the necessary machinery 
and mills. The country is rich in gold, silver, coal, rubber, and medlc- 
H. Doc. 481, Pt 1 16 



242 OOIfHEBOIAL RELATIONS. 

inal herbs; but for the want of capital aod railroad facilities this wealth 
lies dormant. Fine timber of the rarest quality is found in great quan- 
tities, but in the absence of mills and roachinery much is ruthlessly 
destroyed; and all furniture and other articles maae from wood, includ- 
ing staves, must be imported. American oak, ash, and even the cheaper 
woods, stained, painted, and varnished, find a market. Medium-priced 
furniture of all kinds, as well as some of the more elaborate and costly, 
would meet ready sale in this country. Building materials, such as 
dressed weather-boarding, flooring, window and door frames, sashes, 
blinds, and doors, are greatly in demand, and American styles and 
manufactures are preferred to all others. 

As the roads are very imperfect, few in number, with bad bridges, 
there is no demand for bicycles. In the British Gold CoastColony, in 
February last, I noticed among the few bicycles in use the old-style 
American sohd-rubber tire. American manufactures of white goods 
and calicoes, and men's, women's, and children's shoes of good quality 
are in^eat demand. Much skill is manifested by the American man- 
ufacturer in packing, boxing, labeling, and cataloguing his goods. 

Freight rates from New York to South African ports are from 48. to 
5e. (93 cents to $1.21) cheaper than from London orXiverpool. Ameri- 
can merchante have a corresponding advantage in the reduction of 
freight rates from New York to West African ports. 

Owen L. W". Shitu, 

Conavl-Oeneral. 

MoKBOViA, July $$, 1899. 



LOUREIf 90 MAHQUEZ. 

PACKING AND TBAN8P0BTAT10N. 

lately, my attention has been called to a number of instances of 
inefficient packing of American goods. The steamers that bring 
freight from New York to this port generally take cai^o also for 
Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London, and Durban. At Cape 
Town, East London, and Durban these steamers can moor alongside 
of docks, and can discharge into warehouses or into freight cars. At 
all of these ports, any Delagoa Bay cat^o that may be found stowed 
with the other cargo is shoved and tumbled from one side of the hold 
to the other, in order to get it out of the way; and this handling is not 
calciilated to improve the cont€nt8 of boxes. 

It is the custom on this coast to employ Kaffirs as stevedores, and it 
is quite impossible to teach these sav^es to handle freight carefully. 
They seem to take a malicious delight in smashing cases, especially 
those containing provisions, canned goods, and liquors, as it satisfies 
their natural native curiosity to see the contents, and, when a tally- 
man is not looking, gives them a chance to steal. They are very sly 
in their peculations, but are frequently detected, and, in British ports, 
are severely punished by the colonial magistrates, as the Cape and 
Natal daily papers bear witness. 

Some months ago a gang of Kaffir freight handlers at work in the 
customs sheds came upon a case containing, I believe, some prepara- 
ration of aconite or of strychnine. They supposed it was a new mud 



APBIOA: LOUBBNgO MABQUEZ. 243 

of "white man's fire water," and they all swallowed some of it. A 
few survived, but most of them were buried the next day- 

At thisport all cargo is discharged into lighters. After a steamer 
arrives, Kaffir stevedores are seat into the hold to dischai^ the cargo. 
Everything but very fine freight is hoisted out in slings. ' £Hne freight 
is discharged by means of large rope nets or by baskets. The Kamrs 
pile the freight into the slings, and when one is full the ends are 
gathered together and fastenea to the hook of the hoisting rope. The 
man at the steam winch — generally a Kaffir — is signaled to hoist away, 
which he does with a jerk. As the sling full of cases and boxes swings 
up from the hold, one Kaffir stands by with a club and knocks the slack 
out of the sling. Up the load goes, swinging from one side to the 
other, knocking against the hatch combings, until it arrives above the 
deck. It is then swung out and drops toward the lighter. A series 
of frantic yells causes the winch men to grab the falls and stop the 
sling with a jerk, just in time to prevent it from bringing up with a 
smaish in the bottom of the lighter. 

When the lighters are discr^rged at the customs jetties more rough 
handling is met with. 

The hand trucks for freight that are universally employed throughout 
the United States can not be used here, as the docks are neither paved 
nor planked, and are in many places ankle deep in sand. Goods are car- 
ried on the shoulders of men. Sailing vessels are discharged by their 
own crews, and their cargoes are handled with more care and are dis- 
charaed in better condition than those from steamers. But no sailing 
vess^ with cai^foes from Kew York have arrived during the past two 
years, the competition of the steamship lines having driven them off. 
The only sailing vessels that now arrive from the United States are 
those that come here timber laden from Pensacola and other Golf 
' porta and from the Pacific coast. 

A leading merchant here has called mv attention to a lot of furniture 
that he has just received from New Yorfe. The cases were not strong 
enough, and some of the furniture was badly cracked in consequence. 

Another merchant a while ago decided to add American canned 
fruits and vegetables to his other lines, and sent an order to New York 
for a good-siised sample lot The canned fruits and vegetables have 
arrived, packed in cases made of half-inch stock and^ nailed with 
li-inch wire najls, and all of these cases have been more or less dam- 
aged. Further, many have been tampered with and robbed of from 
one to three cans each. An experience of this sort in an initial order 
and trial shipment is not calcuhited to encourage further orders. 

All canned goods should be packed in boxes made of stock not less 
than J of an inch in thickness, and the boxes should be securely strapped 
with iron. 

Furniture should always be shipped ^'knocked down," and large 
cases or packages should be avoided. 

A roll-top desk, for instance, if packed "set up," ready for use, 
would be badly sprung and cracked if lowered too qmckly iqto a lighter. 
Case oil, although often packed in very light cases, is not as liable to be 
damaged as other goods. This is because rough handling will cause 
leaks, and leaks are generally discovered before the goods have been 
delivered, and give nse to chums for damage. 



byGoO'^lc 



244 COMMEBCIAL RKIATIONS. 

STEAMERS VEItSUS SAIUMO VESSELS. 

Since the date of my last report,' the competing line of steamships 
from New Yofk to this coast has been taken off, the manners, Messrs. 
Henry W. Peabody & Co., having come to an agreement with the old 
regular lines, which now have the entire field to themselves. As a 
consequence, freight rates have been advanced to the detriment of 
American trade. These freight steamers generally arrive here in 
about fifty or sixty days from the time that uiey sail from New York. 
Sailing vessels can malce the voyage from New York to this port in 
seventy days, and can carry freight at from one-half to two-thirds of 
the steamer freight rates. It is true that a great many vessels in 
past years have oeen over -ninety days on the voyage, "But," the 
American exporter who may read this will say, " how am I to know 
whether a sailing vessel by which I may ship goods from New York 
to Del^oa Bay will make the voyage in one nundred or in seventy 
days J " 

In the first place, it must be admitted that a vessel traveling under 
full sail goes much faster than a vessel traveling under two-thirds sail 
or half sail. It must also be admitted that when a vessel is sailing 
close-hauled it requires very careful steering to get the bestspeedout 
of her, A great many shipmasters take in all their light sails at sunset 
and turn in themselves early in the evening, leaving t£e deck in charge 
of the mates. The mates have probably been working all day and 
soon get tired of tramping up and down the deck, with occasional 
glances at the compaas, and think that a quiet smoke in a sheltered 
comer would be a good thing. 

The infection seizes the man at the wheel, and he gets drowsy and 
careless, and the result is bad steering. At noon the next day, when 
the run is figured up, the master wonders why he has made so few * 
miles with such a fine wind. 

Now, there is another kind of shipmaster — and in nine cases out of 
ten he is an American — who believes in driving his vessel for all she 
is worth; that is, when he is paid for it. He does not take in his light 
sails at sunset, unless he is obliged to do bo on account of heav^ 
weather. He does not turn in early and sleep all night, leaving his 
vessel in chat^ of the mate. On the contrary, he is on deck the 
entire night, and bis ship in consequence is steered a straight course. 
Such a man makes quick voyages, and expects to be well paid for them. 

I once met an American— a Cape Coa man— who was master of a 
small English bark, and who brought his vessel out from New York to 
Durban, Natal, only 300 miles south of this port, in fifty-four days. 
This same man also made a record passage from Australia to Boston, 
Mass., in some eighty-odd days. 

There are other .^jnerican shipmasters who can make quick voy- 
ages, and their names are known all along South street, in New York. 

I am a firm believer in American sailing ships and in American mas- 
ters. Although they can not bring cargoes from New York to this 
port as quickly as the present steam freight liners, they can land 
their cargoes here in better condition and for less money. 

Masters of sailing vessels who have never been to this port before 
are, I have noticed, always anxious to sight the land after they have 



^Commercial Hetations, 1898, Vol. I. , ^ . 

L-OOt^lC 



AFRICA: lOUEENCO MABQUEZ. 245 

rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and have come as far Dorth as the 
latitude of East London. This is veiy unwise. By the time the land 
has been sighted the vessel has got into the very worst part of the 
Mozambique current and has also passed out of the zone of the 
strong traae winds. In consequence, she drifts rapidly away to the 
southward and may lose all the way from two to ten days by such a 
maneuver. 

The wisest course to pursue is to keep well clear of the land until 
the latitude of this port has been reached, and then to ^tand in, mak- 
ing due allowance, of course, for the current, so that it may not carry 
the vessel south of the port. 

AOCOUNTS, COLLECnONe, DRAETB, AND BANES. 

Judging from letters I have received lately, some American manu- 
facturers, about to venture into the South African market, are not well 
posted upon the above-mentioned subjects, and have found it much 
easier to get orders than to secure payments after the goods have been 
duly delivered. 

Although some Europeans, notably the Germans, give long credits 
to their South African customers, I believe that the best system for 
the American exporters to follow is that of "spot cash." 

If any exporting finn gives long creditii it will charge high prices. 
A firm dealing on a spot-cash )>asis can afford to undersell the long- 
credit house. Again, a firm giving long credits to its South African 
customers runs great risk of incurnng heavy losses through bad debts 
and bankrupteies. 

Under present conditions, the only safe method is that of drawing 
on the biils of lading. Possibly some of my readers will not under- 
stand what I mean by this expression, ana for their benefit 1 will 
explain the process. We will suppose that the American manufacturer 
has sold and shipped his goods and has received his bills of lading and 
insurance certificates. He should then draw a draft, or bill, upon the 
South African consignee for the gross amount of his invoice, plus 
freight charges, eta 

The bills of lading should be made out to "order," and the shipper 
should mark them with one of the three following indorsements: 
"Deliver to the National Bank of the South African Republic, Lim- 
ited, or order." "Deliver to the Standard Bank of South Africa, 
Limited, or order." "Deliver to the Bank of Africa, Limited, or 
order." The bills of lading and the insurance cerijfieates should be 
securely attached to the draft, and alt should be sent by registered 
mail to one of the above-mentioned Imnks (branches of which are located 
in this and in all other important South African ports),wbich will first 
collect payment of the draft, deliver and release the bills of lading and 
the insurance certificates to the consignee, and then remit the amount 
of the draft, less collection charges, to the shipper. If the consignee 
is to pay the collection charges, it should be so stated on the face of 
the draft. 

If the shipper prefers, he can deposit the draft with the shipping 
documents, that is, the bill of ladmg and the insurance certificates 
attached, with his own bankers, who will probably discount the draft 
or will place a certain proportion of the face of the draft to his imme- 
diate credit. ^ 

i:Qi,.r::::G00'^IC 



246 COltmERCIAL SBLATIONS. 

Code words relating to the hereinbefore mentioned banks can be 
found in the "Manufacturers' Export Code," by Charles L, Seeger, 
and published by the United States Indnstrial Publishing Company, 
of New York. 

In sending cable messages to this port, one word only is necessary 
in the address to denot« the name of the port, and either of the fol- 
lowing names, exactly as written, can be used: " Delagoabay," or 
"Lcomarquea," 

W. Stakley Holus, Consid. 

JjOOKENgo Makquez, Jvly SS, 1899. 



SUPPLEMENTARY. 

HABKET FOR PACIFIC COAST PBODUCrS. 

Within the past few years, a considerable import trade from the 
Pacific coast of the United States to this place nas been dev^eloped 
through the energy of a few Canadians, who have established a large 
timber and flouring business here and in the Transraal, under t£e 
name of the Llngham Timber and Trading Company. 

In my last annual report,' I gave a brief account of what this com- 
pany was doing here. This corporation now imports notiiing but Ore- 
gon pine timber and finished lumber, and wheat. The only wheat that 
can be converted into flour that will keep for any length of time in this 
climate is the hard, winter variety. 

There are other Pacific coast products besides lumber and wheat that 
can be sold to advantage here, if only the transportation problem can 
be solved. There are no steam lines between the Pacific coast and this 
part of the world. All the goods imported by the Lingham Company 
come in chartered sailing vessels, which arrive at the rate of about one 
eveiT forty or fifty days, making the voyage, via Cape Horn, in from 
one hundred to one hundred and twenty days. 

Any Pacific coast firm intending to open up business connections on 
this coast must first solve the transportation problem, as freight rates 
via New York are prohibitive. 

Unless a firm, or a combination of firms, can fill a chartered sailing 
vessel with freight of its own, it might try to arrange with the Ling- 
ham Company so that goods can be shipped in the company's char- 
tered vessels. 

I am confident that a good market can be found here for California 
canned and dried fruits, olivea, etc., manufactured wood not already 
handled by the Lingham Company, such as furniture and household 
utensils, canned anadried fish, etc. 

Wines and raisins imported here have to compete with the vine prod- 
ucts of Portugal, which are admitted upon payment of but 10 per cent 
of the regular duties changed upon such goods. This discriminating 
dutv greatly benefits the Portuguese farmer and wine maker. 

The American Exporters' Aswjciation of San Francisco, and the vari- 
ous chambers of commerce on the Pacific coast, are invited to seriously 
consider this subject, with a view to investigating this market and 
making joint efforts toward securing regular and economical means 
of transportation to this coast. 



' Commercial BelationB, 1898, Vol. I. 



"Cookie" 



AFBIOA: LOTJKEN9O HAEQU£Z. 247 

With reliable transportation, I am confident that a large trade can be 
worked up here, provided our merchants and manuiacturers on the 
Pacific coast show the same energy in this new field as they have dis- 
played in working up their home market. 

SOUTH A^^CAN VEB8U8 AU8TKALIAM GOAL AS HOHEWAKD FREIGHT. 

At present, sailing vessels can be chartered for the voyage from the 
Pacific coast to this port at the rate of about $15 per ton of freight 
carried. This high rate is charged because no return cai^oea can be 
obtained at this port, and all Pacific coast sailing vessels must go in 
ballast from here to a South Australian port, and there load c<^ for 
San Francisco. 

It must be apparent to the most casual observer that if & cargo of 
good coal could be obtained here, even if it cost a little more than 
Australian coal, it would be cheaper to load here than at the Austra- 
lian port, aa by 80 doing the following expenses would be saved: 

Ballasting in Lourenpo Marquez. 

Discharging ballast in Australia. 

Customs and port fees in Australia. 

Shore expenses in Australia, such as agency fees, fresh provisions, 
and sundry expenses on account of crew. 

In addition to the above, there would be a considerable saving in 
time. 

In my last annual report, I devoted considerable space to the coal 
trade of this port. This trade has been steadily growing and now, 
owing to improved methods of handling and to reduced rtulway rates, 
the test Transvaal coal is quoted at 20 ahiUinga {$^.87] per ton, deliv- 
ered alongside in lighters, or 21 shillings per ton (?6.11) placed in 
hold or bunkers, but not trimmed. 

1 strongly recommend that the coal importers and shipowners on 
the Pacific coast look into the coal supply for export at this place. 

Any detailed information required that is not contained in this 
report will be cheerfully furnished by me upon application from the 
parties interested. 

W. Staitley Hollib, Oonsid. 

LouBEN^ Mabquez, August 17, 1899. 



TRADE IN 1898 AND 18». 

I am now able to give the customs statistics for the year ending 
December 81, 1898. and for the half year ending June 30, 1899. Both 
of these returns snow a slight falling off when compared with those 
for the year previous. The returns for the past six months, when 
compared with those for 1898, show a decrease in Portuguese trade 
and a gain in the transit and reexport trade. 

In my last annual report I stated that as a result of overtrading, veiy 
htrge stocks of merchandise were on hand here and in the Transvaal. 
Daring the past year these stocks have been reduced, and many lines 
are now running short; but owing to the pessimistic political outlook. 



S48 OOUHERCIAL BELATIONS. 

importers are afraid to place any but the smallest ordei'S. The whole 
countiy is at present Itvmg from haad to mouth. 

American trade with this port during the past year has been fairlv 
good, and I have seen in the manifests of the steamers from New York 
many new lines of American exports to this place, principally manu- 
fiictures of iron and steel, such as rails and plates, articles-of railway 
equipment, pipes, etc. 

The demand for builders' hardware and tools, for stamped metal 
ceilings, and for plumbers' supplies has been good, but this trade can 
be largely increased. There is a great market all over South Africa 
for corrugated galvanized iron for roofing and for building purposes. 
The present supplies of Hilvanized iron come entirely from England. 
It seems to me that our ^eet iron mills ought to be able to turn out 
corragated galvanized iron and steel plates that can compete in this 
market in quality and in price with the Knglish article. 

AMERICAN FOOD PRODUCTS. 

There has been a good demand for many varieties of American food 
products. A few years ago, all our flour came from either India or 
Australia. Now, all flour imported here is American. 

During the Spanish war, a few merchants here lost their heads over 
the alarming prophecies of the South African "yellow press" that all 
of the American ports would be either destroyed or blockaded by the 
navy of Spain, and our export trade ruined, and ordered flour from 
Australia. 

American flour, however, came right along, and the importers of 
Australian flour made little or no money out of these transactions. 

The mill of the Lingham Timber and Trading Company is now 
grinding and turning out a fairquantity of flour from Canadian wheat 
and meal from Mozambique com. 

Corn is the principal food of the South African native, or Kaffir, 
as he is generally called, During good years, large crops of white 
corn are raised by the Kaffirs in this province. Thisis bought by 
the Indian traders, who have shops in all the little towns and native 
vill^e^ in this province, and is shipped by them to the corn merchants 
of this port. 

The ttiousands of Kaffirs that are employed in the mines in the 
Transvaal are fed almost entirely upon corn, and thus a large demand 
is created. 

In consequence of the reciprocity treaty between Portugal and the 
Transvaal, agricultural products from this province are admitted into 
the Transvaal free of duty, and are also carried over the Transvaal 
railways at one-half the rate charged on foreign goods of the same 
class. These two concessions on Hie part of the Transvaal Govern- 
ment and of the railway administration save the dealer in Mozam- 
bique corn about $6 per ton. 

Assuming that the prices of American and of Mozambique corn in 
Delagoa Bay are equal, the Transvaal importer will have to pay, in 
customs duty and higher freight charges, $5 more per ton for Ameri- 
can corn delivered in the Transvaal than for Mozambique corn. 

The consul-general for the Transvaal here has kindly given me a 
memorandum of the exports of Mozambique agricultural products to 



byGoO'^lc 



afbioa: louben^o habquez. 2iv 

the Transvaal duriDCf the months of Judo, July, and August of thiu 
year, which in as follows: 

63,670 bags of com 5,367 

5,001 bags of corn me»1 45S 

1,699 bags of beacB 160 

2,903 bags of peanutfl 2M 

609 b^a of manioc meal 50 

420 baga of salt 42 

36,000 gallons of Delagoa Bay and Zambesi rnm for the Kaffir trade. 

CANKED AND DSIBD FBUITB AND TBOBTABLSg. 

There has beeD an increased demand for canned fruits and vegeta- 
bles, such as apricots, peaches and pears, and pease, beans, succotash, 
sweet com, etc. , and several local importers who have never previously 
handled American canned goods of this description have imported 
sample lots during the past few months. These nave met with such a 
ready sale that further and larger orders are now being sent to the 
United States. 

1 regret that I have to report, however, that the packing, or boxing, 
of some of the American canned goods received here has been very 
bad indeed. 

The demand for American dried fruits is increasing, and dried apples, 
prunes, and apricots now meet with a ready sale here. I hope to see 
this trade largely increased. 

A demand for dried white beans, or " Boston beans," is also arising, 
and one of the leading importers asked me, only a few days ^o, how 
he could best place an order for a trial lot of these beans. 

DBIBD CODFISH. 

There has always been a good market here for Portuguese codfish, 
or bacalhan; but the taste of the public has lately been improving and 
there is now a demand for a better, cleaner, and sweeter articfe. I 
would advise the American exporters of dried fish to look into this 
nutter. I will be glad to distribute any circulars, price lists, or letters 
that may be sent to me. 

W. Stanley Hollis, C(m«ul. 

LiouREN^o Mabquez, SeptenJ>er 7, 1S99. 



ing the year 1898. 




CouDlrtn 


Importt. 


import* in lt.n.dl. 


Export). 


BeeiporO. 


ImpoTlX 


DUtlBU 


V>lu». 


DaUeg. 


Valuai. 


Du.le* 


Values. 


Dutle.. 


Value*. 




»i.n6,BT0.5: 


.mSS 


^-iligSiS 


W2.77 


K1,MS.3Z 


m-i^ 




ToUl.... 










— 


!,«M,S84.U 


iw,im.si 


t.«a.fMM 


421 T7 


si.dtt.ia 


764.27 


1.7W.J30.M 



byGoo'^lc 



360 

Imports, imporU it 



COMMERCIAL KELATIONS. 



Countries 


imports. 


Importa In tiansll. 


Export! 




imported. 


Duties. 


ValiKS. 


DnO«. 


V.laes. 


Dutlea. 


V.lu». 


I>uUe& 


Vslnee. 


^^T:.v:. 


K?:^,S? 




110. 007. IB 


|6.a«,a57. J 1878. 20^71.825. 8& 


1281.8011, 425, «11.U 










Tot»l.... 


178. (Ml. M 


1.1S7.016.82 


10,007.18 


6,m,2&7.« 


•"H "•■"■" 


181.80 


l,12e,lU.S& 



JVnriffo 


'ion oi Ihe port o/ Louren^o Marquafor the year ending 


i>««>R6er jj. 


1898. 




Fli«. 


PromoTlo-a 


SaUatA 




St-mer.. 


SKlUng reneli. 


Total. 




No. 


Toiu.b 


No. 


Tonift 


No. 


ToD&a 












1 








2 




lo 




GO 

1 








































M 
















































































«7 




71 




HK 















a Not stated In Iheofflclal ralunu. 
Tonaol cargo dbchktged from above veneln 



Navigaliiin tu the port of I/mren^ Marquezjor the half year ending June SO, 1899. 









Ete 




Entered. 




FU«. 


From- 


•men. 


Sal 11118 veiaebi. 


Tom. 




Na 


Tods. 


No. 


Trail 


No. 


Ton.. 




UniledB<«t«. 






i 

2 


1" 


24 

■f 

2 


l,ll» 






1 


20 


1 






































IM 




27 




228 















at rtated in the official retumi. 



AMERICAN TRADE WITH LOUBENgO MARQUEZ. 

The detailed ciiBtoins statistics for the jear ending December SI, 
189tJ, have just lieen published here. 

From these statistics, I have compiled a return of American trade 
and transmit it herewitii. In a few instances, where detailed statistics 
in the original returns were lacking, I have estimated the values of 
American goods imported, but these estimates are very conservative, 
and are based upon a full knowledge of the business of the port and 
upon a study of the manifests of vessels arriving from the United 
States. 



aisica: loubenqo mabqubz. 251 

JmpMfi, hy eottnlria, at Louroifo Martpiet, during the year ending Deeember 31, 1898. 



Ccmntrits. 


Local Importa. 


TniiuTul. 


v,„t„ 


897,784.80 
tn.tm. 11 

ass 






























































a,«Hffl*-u 


8. 802, 6(8.84 





tA« TVonMooJ during (A« yean ending L 



ATtlcta*. 


Import. fOTlooatiKlB. 


ImpofKlntnuudt. 


1887. 


1898. 


18K. 


1818, 


Bum andnckl 




(178. 20 
9^123.00 
1,011.80 


.ffiS 




Beans, pew. mod InSia, dried and cumed. .. . 


S:S 












M6.C0 

•■1I:S 


820.20 
S4G.70 
898,00 


1.973.00 








aSHSiii;i,D:o.v:::::::::::::::::::::::;;: 


,,Ss 


17.018.00 






g:S:r:::::::;::::::::::::::::::::::::;: 


7S,624!oo 


44,77l!l0 
88.40 
78.44 






7,6e».6o 












22.00 


210,087: 00 
34,184:00 

2T,no.l]0 






780.80 




17, 111. 00 


S7,570.00 

.3i 


















10,817.00 










'•■as 

7,l» 
1,982.00 


20,011.40 




























kWZ 


4,»7:» 




'tstS?!"";:::::;::: 


?;!S:S 

280,818.00 


„.« 




































I8,4K.0a 
24i:0O 


"•Ss 














moo 

81,870.00 
51,480.00 










se,3n.oo 








6,717.82 




















4,277.00 

1.0».00 






















288,818.00 


814,820.78 


740,214.00 









aSatlmaled, Wperceatot total l^po 



ftEMlmated, 38 per cent of total tmporta. 



il Import!. . — ,— 

[lated, 10 per cent of total Impotla. 

W, Stanley Holus, Conmd. 
L0UREN90 Marqugz, December 6, 1899. ^iOOqIc 



OOMHEBCIAL BBLATI0N8. 



TRADE AT BEIEA. 



The chief imports are articlea of food and drink; tinned fish, meats, 
lard, vegetables, fruit, jama, etc., and the bulk of these are of Ameri- 
can origin. "Whisky, brandy, beer, and gin are imported from England 
and Germany. A "brand of American beer (Schlitz) was introduced 
here, but it was found too li^ht. Probably the fact liiat a good brew- 
ery has been opened in Salisbury, the capital of Mashonaland, may 
account for the difficulty experienced in selling other beers. 

The demand for machinery is increasing rapidly, and many corn 
shellers, com grinders, plows, and pumps, mostly of American 
manufacture, are coming through this port. 

The Maahonaland GrOTeroment has now placed a tax on most imports, 
with a view to establishing local industries. Up to the present time, 
nothing has been manufactured in that country. 

I ma}' here mention that the packing of American tinned goods is 
Tery bad. My attention was called to a consignment of 1^200 cases of 
beef and fruits last month, and it was quite the exception to find s 
sound case. 

The importer told me the cost of these goods was considerably 
increased by the expense of repacking and repairing the cases prior to 
sending tbem up country. 

Another great drawback to our trade is the lack of direct steamship 
service. American goods are discharged at Durban, and remain there 
for weeks before they are reshipped to this port 

The light railway from this pwrt to UmUili (the first 220 mUes), is 
now being widened from the 2-foot to the 3-foot 6-inch gauge. When 
completed, this will be the quickest and cheapest route to Mashona- 
land, and to a large portion of Matabeleland, where the development 
of the gold mines nas been seriously delayed by the lack of means of 
transport. 

The 3-foot 6-iDch gauge already exists between Umtali and Salis- 
bury, and a contract has been given to Messrs. Pauling & Co., of 
London, for the construction of another 137 miles from Salisbury to 
Gwelo — toward Buluwayo — which will connect with the line now under 
construction from t^e latter place, thus embracing the whole of the 
mining districts. 

Owing to the strikes in various parts of England and Wales, there 
has been considerable delay in obtaining the material for these rail- 
ways. 

A. Lewis Kidd, Conxulwr AgerU. 

Beiba, October 9, 1899. 



MADAGASCAR.' 

Trade is in a somewhat depressed state throughout the island, due 
in part to the advent of the bubonic plague, forcea labor, and taxation. 

COTTON GOODS. 

The general trade is necessarily in the hands of the French, although 
French cloths have not entirely ousted American cottons from the 
market, large cargoes of these heing received here from April to Sep- 

' la reply to circular of July 10, 1890. 



afbica: hadaqasoak. 



353 



tember, 1898, the date of the ratification of the tariff bill at Paris and 
its becoming a law here. The duty was formerly an all-around ad 
valorem one of 10 per cent, but the French general minimum tariff is 
exacted on all gooos from £nffland and other European countries and 
the maximum tariff on goo<£ from America and English colonies. 
This is modified in some Bnes, such as coal, petroleum, lumber, hard- 
ware, sulphur, tea, condensed milk, spices, codfish, musical instru- 
mente, furniture, and grain. 

American gray cotton goods have always held the mastery here, their 
mark "Cabot" (35 inches, 10 by 10, 12 pounds, 40 yards) being a 
household word among the Malagasy, but the duty, t25 per bale (1,000 
yards) as sgainst 97 former duty, has nearly forced them out of the 
market, ^e selling price has decreased $14 per bale and transpor^- 
tion has increased $12 per bale. The French also are manufacturing 
very good cloths, some of which bear well-known American trade- 
marks, and the authorities have peculiar methods, as 1 am told, of 
encour^ng the natives to purchase only French-made goods. The 
French manufacturers have thus been enabled to capture the market. 
All foreign houses import only French goods. It is apparently an 
article of faith among the fYench here to Boycott, in an indirect way, 
foreign goods, and they will trade with a foreign house only when a 
Frenchman has not what they want. Foreign houses, even though 
they import nothing but French goods, are not accorded Ihe same 
rights as a French house. French merchants are allowed to register 
their "borijanos" or carriers, who are thereupon exempt from forced 
labor, while the others are not granted this privilege; and as all 
merchandise is transported on the oacks and shouldeiB of these men, 
it is readily seen how such favoritism promotes French commerce. 
The carriers naturally engage themselves with the French houses in 
order to avoid the dreadea forced labor. The appended table will 
show the movement of commerce with the United States during the 
years 1896-1899: 



Year ended Jnno iW— 


Imports. 


^„« 


„ 


IS, see. » 


•U,437.3S 

















Imports from the United States, as well as those from other coun- 
tries, have been almost forced out of the island by the preferential 
duties. The subjoined table shows the increaae in the export of 
French cottons to this island since France has closed the door to other 
countries: 



ArtlolCT. 


1W7. 


1898. 


ijusntlly. 


Vilae. 


Quantity. 


V»Ine. 




16.791 


121,000 
76' 200 
fl,000 


f«8,a4 


1416.200 
112,400 






















138,080 















E^hwd sent in 1897 cotton goods to the value of $559,285; in 1898, . 



OOHHSBCIAL BELATIONB. 
PETBOLBDH. 



There is no change in the demand for this article. A cargo of some 
4,700 cases reachetfthis port during laat Augustj and was sold at once 
by the cousignees. This amount generally furnishes a year's supply. 
Some Kuseian petroleum also finds a market here. , It comes from 
Batum via Zanzibar and Bombay. The Government has erected two 
warehouses for the storage of petroleum on the line of the Ivondro- 
Tamatave Railway. The rates for storage are 6 cents per case per 
month. Merchants are forbidden by law to keep on hand in their 
stores or warehouses more than five cases at any one time. 

ROADS AND RAJCLWATS. 

The rulway from Tamatave to Ivondro, about 7 miles, is operated 
in connectioD with the Pangalanes Canal as far as Tanifotsy, some two 
hours journey from Tamateve. The railway and canal do not figure 
in tiie transportation facilities as yet, owing to the shortness of Uie 
distance. The passenger rates are as follows: Tamatave to Tanifotsy, 
first class, $7.20; second class, $3.60; third class, $1 (flat cars). Work 
on the railway from Antananarivo to the sea has not commenced, 
although the ^French Government granted the company a subsidy of 
500,000 francs ($100,000) last April. The roads are being constantly 
improved and new ones opened up in the interior. A concrete road 
is in course of construction between Antananarivo and Mahatsara, a 
distance of 186 miles, between which points, 1 understand, a French 
company intends starting an automobile carriage service. The auto- 
mobiles are to arrive in me month of May next. The maritime boule- 
vard is under construction at Tamatave, and another road toward the 
interior, which, I think, will create a demand for bicycles in the near 
future. 

HAKBOR tHPBOVZHBNTS. 

New light-houses are about finished on Points Tanio and Hastie at 
Tamatave, and at Points de Sable and Anorambato at Majunga, which 
will be reported to the hydrographic office as soon as they have been 
officially reported by the authorities. A new iron and steel pier is in 
course of construction here, which is to extend out into the harbor 
some 600 feet, so that vessels may anchor alon^ide to receive or dis- 
charge their passengers or cargo. This is a private enterprise, and if 
a success will no doubt replace the Batel^e companies, which now do 
this work by lighters. 

QUARANTINE REOTHATIONB. 

The bubonic pl^ue has stimulated the authorities somewhat on the 
subject of quarantine. On lie aux Prunes, a small island about 8 
miles out in Tamatave Harbor, a quarantine station has been estab- 
lished and buildings erected for the accomodation of travelers who 
may come from infected ports, or those who would leave Tamatave 
during an epidemic. There is also a station at Ivondro, right in the 
center of the village, for persons who may be en loute for Uie capital 
or the inteiior. 



Digitiz 



byGoo'^lc 



afbioa: xadagascab. 255 

t&anspobtation facilities. 

The internal, coaetwise, and ocean facilities are considered sufficient 
to meet a\\ the demands of business here. 

A letter from Tamatave to the United States, via Marseilles, will 
reach New York in thirty-five or forty days. The means of communi- 
cation are the same as last year, except that the English mail (Castle 
Line) steamers have erased Tamatave from their itinerary, as English 
goods do not come in sufficient quantities to pay them. An invoice of 
American goods was shipped to this place via South Africa last Janu- 
ary. AlUiough the consignee has already paid for them, they have not 
been heard from to date. There are no regulations of & discriminate 
ing nature against American vessels since the repeal of the cabotage 
law in January last 

COHHEBCIAL TBAVELER8. 

Those coming from foreign countries must pay duties on their 
samples. There are no passport regulations affectmg commercial or 
other travelers. They register at thenotela the same aa other travelers, 
stating where they are from, their nationality, business, destination, 
and how long they intend to remain. 

LIOENBE8. 

A decree of January 1, 1S99, fizee the tax on banks or banking houses 
at 1,800 francs ($847.40) per annum. Other licenses are divided into 
the following classes: 

First cUaa. Steamehipe and other traneporlation companies, wholesale import aod 
export mercbantfl. 

Second class. Coastisg navigation componiefl, captuna of trading vesBels, wboleeale 
merchants, and captains of schoonera trading about the coast. 

Third class. Commercial, commission, insurance, and other agents. 

Fourth ctasB. Wholesate and retail merchants and shopkeepers. 

fifth claK. Bmall shopkeepers. 

Sixth class. ContractorB and builders, when they have an office or shop and employ 
more than two workmen. 

The rates are, according to the population, as follows: 





PMBnnnni. 




a 


■=■ 


ctall? 


cUai 


JliSS 


c'l'i^ 


aUaoImoTOth«i6 000 


tin 
us 

19B 


•lao 

eo 

40 


180 
40 
20 


HO 


»30 

















Government employees, schoolmasters, instructors, and artists, con- 
tractors who employ not more than two workmen, dav laborers, huck- 
sters in the market, farmers, and miners are exempt from the tax. It 
is reduced one-half for butchers, bakers, and other makers of house- 
hold necessities, except drinks. If a firm has several branches in 
other parts of the island, a separate license is necessary for each, but 
it is rodaced one-half for branches having their offices in the same 
province as tlie principal establishment. 

Licenses are not transferable. 

D.gitizecbyCOOglC 



OOHHEROIAL RELATIONS. 



TELEGRAPH IUTE8. 



The subjoined table will show the rates per word from Tamatave to 
other parta of the world: 





Fnmch 


Unlled 




Frtnch 


S 




Ti 
si 

1 

4. SO 

e.116 


"1 

Lei 

■1 


TodUd: 


10.00 

t& 

I'.ID 
16. « 
G.S5 

9.60 

IS 
















Coehln-Chliu: 








































M»rUnique,ri« Key West... 










Vl« Cape Town: 

Europe .ndAWen 
















8.41 



Domestic rates have been reduced from 25 ceotimes (about 5 cents) 
to 10 centimes (about 2 cents) per word, with a minimum of ten words. 

POSTAL RATES. 

foreign. — Fifteen centimes (about 8 cents) per half ounce on letters 
to France, French colonies, and to countries where there is a French 
post-office. K^stration, 25 centimes (5 cents); letters per half ounce 
to foreign countries, 25 centimes (5 cents); postal parcels, 6 centimes 
{1 cent) per 2 ounces; postal cards, 10 centimes (2 cent^ each. 

Domeatie. — On letters, 16 centimes (3 cents) per half ounce; postal 
cards, 10 centimes (2 cents); registration, 25 centimes (5 cents); parcels, 
5 centimes (1 cent) per 2 ounces. 

BATES OF EXCHANGE — HABK8 OF ORIGIN. 

Rates vary somewhat, ranging between 5 francs to 5.60 for ¥l. 
Marks are not necessary. Goods are not allowed to carry a counter- 
feit French trade-mark. 

CREDITB, PATENT LAWS, ETC. 

There are no complaints as to the terms given by American houses, 
but I am informed toe Cterman houses give longer credits. 

Patent, copyright, and trade-mark &ws are the same as those of 
the French Republic. 



The French Government has granted to the Colonial Company of 
Gold Mines, of Suberbieville, a concession covering an area of 100 
square miles on the west coast for a period of fifty years. The com- 
pany is allowed to raospect and mine and make extensive improve- 
ments. It« head omce is in Paris, and there is a branch office at 

_nOt>^IC 



afbica: madaoasoab. 257 

Majunga, Madagascar. The capital stock is 4,000,000 francs ($800,000). 
It will be exempt from all taxes and other excises in force relative to 
mining until December 31, 1910. The pi-esideot and a majority of the 
directors must he Frenchmen and the head office on French soil. 
Although Mad^ascar is fairly rich in gold and the mining laws are 
reasonable, foreign prospectors and capital do not take kinaly to the 
country. Those who have been here for the last eight or ten years have 
had a sorry time of it. American and English prospectors are not 
looked upon with a great deal of favor by the French, and they prefer 
to work for French companies rather than to push their own claims. 
Prospecting licenses cost $5 per annum. . One can dig out a concession 
of about 4.760 acres. 

BICYCLES. 

The improvement in roads will create a demand for wheels in this 
district, and now is the chance for American wheels to capture the 
market. One can purchase a good French wheel here at $60. and at 
the capital for $70. A well-made roadster is perhaps the best model 
for this country. The American wheels are better liked than any 
otjiers, and if they can be sent hei'e and sold as cheaply as the FrencD 
wheels I believe we may find a market. 

FACKIN6 AND FREIGHT BATES. 

*^American manufacturers do not seem to take the same care and 
pains about the packing of their goods as the Europeans," says one of 
the largest handlers of Amencan goods here. Freight rates are 
unchanged. 

TRADE IN 1899. 

I have been unable to obtain as complete statistics as desired relative 
to the trade during the first half of the current year, but the table 
hereunder may be taken as an accumte summary of the business of the 
whole island for the six months in question: 

ImporU and exportt for iheiilartd of Mtidagcuear for flnl mx monllu of tht yepr 1899. 





f™-«. 


oolonlet 


Bngluid 


English 
colontM. 


■,™„j. 


g^ 


11,380,647.38 


1148. Ml, « 
M.flBB.eO 


IJ:^^ 


K?, 369. 74 
7,290. 2i 


^vs 






ahS. 


..-,. 


way. 


Other 


Total, 


, 


tlS.70e.1T 
64S.OD 


«,«8.67 


IM.6M.60 


(1.620.00 


•■jsj; 






'•si:os:5S 











I inclose information of a statistical character, compiled from divers 
reliable sources, which will indicate the condition of Madagascar ti-ade 
and commerce more plainly than words. 

M. W. GiBBs, Conml. 
Tamatate, October 11, 1899, 
H. Doc. 481, Pt. 1 17 



byGoO'^lc 



OOXHEBCIAL RELATIOK8. 



Kind* of cloth. 


Fr..,™. 1 f^^^ 


Engtanrt. 


India. 




M.HS.73 
1B.7M.W 


.».., 


« 16.419 OB 




"^JS:?? 




68) 


W 




































aZLta 












1,192,671.00 


m.« 


i».m.s7 










KlniKalcIoUi. 


Oerauny. 


am™. 


America 


Olbet 


Total. 




-is 

1,109.80 

11 


1»g '"■nsii 


(14,227.75 
12S3.M 
675.71 
1,«0.11 














11 



































































JteluTn of imporU into Madagtuear /iir Ike eatenAir ymr 189S,ieilh 





France and colonies. 


England and colonic. 




i^«. 


Colonies, 


lUimloD. 


England 


Mauri- 


»....« 


IndU. 




fl)g.00 

43,248.42 

8,767.76 
22,3H.98 

ass 
Isi 

'S;S:S 


•!!:S 






43.40 
4,218,60 
6,230.00 

13: 96 
1,594,02 
18,802.15 
821.05 
444.00 
41,83 
Z64,6( 


K99.15 
63.24 






(790.21 


1715.81 
63, 501: CI 

'■?S:S 










447,71 
fi.US.U 

4.82 

54,927:6: 
2«.4' 


211436: 5 
176.64 








46.91 
230.44 


18,115.30 








Dlven voace pniducta 


38:748:8 


2,475:11 

MiOl 


366.70 


294.80 
23,246.20 














110.00 






BSsSk-"-"- 












Lealbeiuii] flndlngB 


2i'5» 

6,142.4 


3,826.61 


2,663.00 
2.08'J.50 
12,935.10 


609. 7( 

ii.0 

3.844:01 

19:6564; 
IK, 01 

i,i9o:oi 

462,00 






461,46 
















286,41 
9,848.3: 

i:836:ai 

83,615,51 

''i:l 

18. «M,* 








28i:7i 


4S4.7I 
1,915,7: 
















B^^b>a,«,. 


29,33 


11,010,94 


WllJow, dimwuiilorierwork 


57.90, 3M.77 
472.86 811.30 
920.50, 1,289,01 


3) 588: 7! 
80.00 


2,2M.V5 
















191.8.=. 








Tolal 


J, 266, 56*. 84 


81,114,60146,988,22 


J02,229,02 


"■"■" 


10,498.33 


"■•»■" 



byGoo'^lc 



AFRICA: MADAGA8CAB. 



9S, with cmatlrie* of origi 







Olherw 


nintrloL 








Arttele^ 


0«i^ 


Eut 

AfflC 


Normr 
and 

Sweden. 


Egrpi- 


.„„, 


Olher 

tflet' 


TotaL 










1S^ 










2.U2.ei 


«.,B75.U 


180.63 


tI40.8» 


..ij!:| 

822! 1( 










Is 

"ta.01 






», 215.01 


so; 016. 45 




108.84 


T.sa 




117,212.96 










?I;Tjn'£^"?"::::::: 


■•■II 

BiTO 




Z3I.4I 
120. 7-i 




1:S 




120.4: 


363,226.22 




i&.M 






'slmso 

8W.S6 


Flben 








1,US.M 


""iii.^ 


e.'7t 


.80 




**"4J6.'6( 


■&,9a.x 








IS. 10 
1,TW.M> 






78. 60 

M.2a 








Ii.lB 










'"Si! 












i',TfO.T. 
IBl.OO 
4M.M 

2,(00. « 

is 

1,883. W 










7,(U4.DI) 

aS!:S 

10,160. so 

Hi 




11 

2,275:8: 
10,575.71 


is 










18.72 










J6.ro 


866. » 




Its 


VegewUewidolleilrecW.. 




■207.01 




9.66 








i?ssSr^ 


72,451.02 


44.41 


m« 


104.21 
4,214.16 




^Zt 








«.. 












Total 


84.ia).M 


fl.,864.« 


71,877.27 


3,086.M 


flB,BM.56 


"■""' 


l,lM,87O.0e 



n oftnuUvnIh UniUd Slata for the fiteal year ending June 30, 1899. 



Artlclea. 


imporu. 


EJtporta. 




Value. 




Value. 




:::::r^^:: 


24,464 

838 


"■'SS 




































.ass 












$4,607.00 














M2,B8T.01 






















' 



byGoo'^lc 



OOHHERCIAL BELATIOBS. 



BxjKyrU from the port of Tamalavefo 


r Ihejueal year ending June SO, t89S. 


ElpOCtB. 


Qiuintltfea. 


Value, in- 

f™«»od 
charge* 


— - 


Beeaw&i nda 


liO,lM 

•af 

1,272,100 

S32 
5BO:437 


Bl,W.2l 
62, tan 

J;S!S 

62,163.18 

5, 203! 28 
1«;«1.8» 


England and Pmnce. 
(ierroanyand France. 
England and France. 


Ebony wood do 






Oemiany and France. 




ISS"'"""----'^'- 


England, GenaHny, and Francu. 


»^ai:iii;::::::::Si-:: 


Do. 
England. 

Fnmce and England. 






2«),613.I6 











JiefKm of imporUaion* for Tamatave for Ike year enMng June Si 



Candles 

Drinks: 
WtncB... 



.'.v.Vp^™: 



UqaocB do... 

Cordials galloni. 

Whisky do... 

Clothing .,._... ..pounds. 



>1ah (dry and salt) 



Furniture. . . 

Groceries 

QlasHware 

Linens 

If ochlnea (sewing', etc.) . . 



6a,B4S 
T,lbS 
377,666 
2,146,938 
88,221 
. Sl,47« 
63,S92 

181,271 



la*::: 



60,849.66 
422,129.64 

6' 064! 74 
6,474.87 
706.10 
U, 743. 32 
i 301. 19 

b! 448. 66 
3,676.10 
B,B68.20 



Silverware and jewelry 

Sheet Iron JntlvanUed) 

Tobacco: Cigaia, cigBrelles .. 

Sundry goods 



France and Sweden, 
France niid eolonita. 
l~nnee and Belgium. 



Germany (accordions). 



France and Seychelles. 



ATonlhly ejcportattotu and duUa paid at the port of Tamatave for 


the year 1898-99. 


Daring the monlhot- 


Dutleapaid 


Value of 
eiporta. 




K, 474. 66 

763.99 

'"Si 

4,82 

1,390.86 
892.34 
1,548.01 
1,1m. 33 
800.47 
























































12,641.05 









AFRICA: MADEIRA. 261 

ibfunw ofjortign namgaiitm at the port of Tamaiam /(ir the JUciil year ending June 30, 
1899. 

VSSaZlS ENTERED. 



TtmOlusbomiato- 


n««. 


St^unen. 


Stlliiigvenela. 


TOW. 


No- 


Tons. 


No. 


Toni 


No. 


Tong. 




»™w.h 


1 


T.SGS 






j 


,., 










12,017 

••g 








1,020 














































87 


m.-m 


" 


>,«« 


J6 








' 



VEBflELfl CLEABED. 



V. 




1 


laloK 






1 

2 


117 742 










14097 








«0 

s 


















































67 


187,702 


* 


S.S96 


W 


U1,10D 







CaatUng trade. 

VBBBEIB ENTERED. 



n.g. 


Bletmea. 


SitllliWTanl.. 


ToW. 


No. 


Tom. 


No. 1 Tom. 


No. 


Ton*. 








■1 


2.»» 

U,875 


1 


3Bn 




2 


5,060 


"■B 














* 


8,050 


214 


"•*" 


21. 


18,0*4 





VESSELS CLEARED. 





t 


99 


Ill 876 


ee 






2 S,0fiO 
















2 3,afi0 


«. 


14, MM 


216 









MADEIBA. 

I inclose tables of iDiporto and exports of this island for the year 
1897-98. 

It is deeply to be regretted that we have no regular line calling here 
from New York, as thia would certainly immensely increase the trade 
between America and Madeira. Once a year, a German steamer calls 
here from New York with a large number of passengers, who all 
complain of the lack of steamers stopping here on their way to the 
Memterninean. 

The inoport trade with this island is moetlj with England and Ger- 
many. Tne latter sends travelers regularly, and her tra^ has increased 
largely. 



262 OOICUEROIAL RJCLATIONS. 

For many yeare, American houses have completely neglected trade 
here. The only business done is in wheat, corn, staves, ana petroleum. 
Lately, Russian oil has taken the place of American, but since the new 
commercial treaty ha^ come into force the trade will go back to 
America. 

W. J. G. Reid, 
Tioe and Depuiy Connul. 
FcKCHAL, September 4., 1899. 



haporUfrom the VniUd Sola. 



Wheat 












Stavea 




. 28,527 








Com 

Wheat 

Staves 

Petrolenm 

Coal 

tel!^::;:::;:::: 

Kic« 

Sugar 

Tea 

UolaaaeB 


f 131,055 

8,794 

16,468 

192 

439,270 

179,876 

16,188 

26,636 

15,936 

4,543 

51,890 

ExporUtothi 


Codfish 

Cheese 

Furniture 

Tobacco 

Veesele for ba^ee 

Paper 

Candlee 

Other goods 

Total 

UniUdSuat*. 


»25, 779 
4,173 
10,871 
6,008 
26,490 
8,577 
6 490 
215,642 

1,193,877 
f 10, 749 


Wickervork . 












11,021 

112,736 

61,670 
14,670 
4,638 
1,066 
595,142 
36,870 

2,079,016 


Embroidenflfl: 

Cotton 

TJnnn 


Eafportttool 

»138,288 

43,753 


Wickerwork 

Bullion: 

Gold 

Silver 

8ho« 

Hats 

Coal 

OUier goods 

Total 


Wine 

Potatoes 

Beet 


861,513 

7;476 


Fruit 

Onions 

V^etablffl 

Buttar" 


37,988 

22,083 

5,715 

141,288 


' Shipped t 


Lisbon. 


'Shipped to Johaoneeberg. 





byGoo'^lc 



afbioa: mausitids. 



MAURITIUS. 



In pursuance of itistructioDs in Department circular, dated July 10, 
1899, I submit the following report on the commerce, shipping, and 
industries of Mauritius. 

United States merchants and manufacturers are continually writing 
for information on different matters bearing upon trade and other sub- 
jects in Mauritius. Even if it were possible for the consul to answer 
thevarioualetterssenthim, he would require an especial appropriation 
for postage, as seldom is there a stamp sent to pay for the reply. 

From personal experience and observation since I have resiaed here, 
I am led to believe ttiat there is a very favorable opening in Mauritius 
for an exclusively American house. I have been informed by reliable 
men that there ezistM a desire for closer trade connection with the 
United States. 

The two English firms here that do the principal part of the Amer- 
ican business carry no general stock of our goods; in fact, with the 
exception of petroleum, a few drums of cod^h and a few barrels of 
hernug cover about all there is to be found in the colony. There is 
not a yard of American cotton cloth here, nor can one get a pair of 
American boota or shoes. 

The tastes, manners, and habits of the people are French. Hie 
textiles used here and the goods manufactured from leather, as well 
as the wines and spirits, are generally of French production. The 
heavier grades of cotton cloth and other coarse coomiodlties, and some 
hardware, are imported from England. 



From November 1, 1898, up to dat«, five American vessels arrived 
in and departed from this port, bearing an aggregate tonnage of 5,859 
tons. Two of them made double trips here, the Benj. Sewail, of Bos- 
ton, and tiie E. C. MovxUte, of Philadelphia, the former leaving in 
ballast for the Straits Settlements and returning with lumber, the 
ktt«r taking sugar and molasses to Calcutta and returning with rice. 



IBIPOBTB AND EXPOKTS. 



The latter half of the year 1898 and the first quarter of the present 
year witnessed a greater activity than ever before in the exportation 
of Mauritius sugar to the United States. The total shipment during 
the above period amounted in value to $2,229, 451. 42, and in the mean- 
time there were landed here 71,880 cases of refined petroleum, together 
with 769 barrels of herring and 500 drums of codosh. 

The total value of imports into Mauritius during the year 1898 
amounted to 28,326,008.29 rupees ($8,781,062), divided as follows: The 
United Kingdom, 5,443,934.07 rupees ($1,687,620); British posses- 
sions, 8,256,147.27 rupees ($2,569,406); foreign countries, 14,625,927.01 
rupees ($4,534,036). The exports amounted to 31,866,937.07 rupees 

E, 878,750), of which the United Kingdom took 1,171,859.83 rupees 
63,277), British possessions 24,636,789.78 rupees ($7,637,405), and 
eign countries 6,058,287 rupees ($1,878,068). 



:::G00'^|C 



364 OOMMEECIAL RELATIOHB. 

NAVIGATION. 

During the year 1898 there entered this port 166 sailing vessels, 
with a tonnage of TSjSei tons; crews, 2,095 ; and during the same year 
there cleared from Port Louis 158 sailing vessels, with a tonnage of 
72,448; crews, 1,971. During the same period there entered 136 
stumers, tonnage, 248,885; crews, 9,629; and within the same time 
there cleared from Port Louis 135 steamers; tonnage, 248,850; crews, 
9,538. 

MACHINEBT. 

A few months ago, the proprietors of foundries and the local engi- 
neering establishments of the colony addressed a communication to uie 
governor requesting that customs duties be levied on all manufactured 
machinery imported into the colony. His excellency transmitted the 
petition to the chamber of commerce for the consideration of that 
body, which sent it to the chamber of agriculture. This latter body 
appointed A committee to take cognizance of the petition. This com- 
mittee, in its reply to the governor, stated that it was opposed to any 
further increase of the burdens on the sugar industry of the colony 
and to the imposition of a fresh duty on the machinery it imports for 
its requirements. The committee, however, unanimously recom- 
mended that a rebate be allowed on all customs duties paid on the raw 
material used in the manufacture of machinery in tlie colony. At 
present, all manufactured machinery destined for sugar mills enters the 
colony free of duty, while the local manufacturera pay duty on the raw 
material imported by them for the purpose of making the finished 
article. 

JoHJJ P. Campbell, Conaul. 

Port Louis, N&vetrther 2^, 1899. 



MOROCCO.' 

The £mpire of Morocco is an agricultural land, and as the wants of 
the people are very few and simple, there is but little change in the 
commercial and industrial situation from year to year. 

Three principal factors must be taken into account as affecting the 
business situation in Morocco, viz: 

First. Climatic and other reverses, ruining the harvest. Among 
these must be classed locusts, which come periodically in huge swarms, 
leaving no green thing behind them, devastating whole provinces, end in 
the course of a few horn's leaving grain iields Hkc deserts. From these 
the country has been conipai-atively free during 1898, this in part at 
least being due to the wise action on the part of foreign merchants, 
materially aided by the Moorish Government, in buying up locust eggs 
by the hundred weight. Recent alarming reports from the southern 
provinces state that a swarm of these destructive insects, some 25 miles 
in length, has been seen. Neither drought nor cattle diseases injured 
the crops of 1898, in consequence of which there was an increase in 

' In reply to circular ot July 10, 1899. 

i:Qi,.r::::G00'^lc 



afbica: moboooo. 265 

export of such cereals as are allowed to be shipped from the couiitiy 
and also a material decrease in the import of flour, which could not oe 
brought hero in competition with thelower prices prevailing for the 
home productions. 

Second. Tribal warfare and the Sultan's raids upon rebellious prov- 
inces have also much to do with the lack of prosperity of the country. 
Of the former, there was but little during last year, but the Sultan's 
expeditions have caused much loss to life and property in various parts 
of the country. This unsettled state of affairs makes the collection of 
outstanding accounts in the interior a difficult and tedious undertaking. 

The third powerful agency in advancing or retarding commercial 
interest here is the prevailing rate of exchange. During the year 1898 
the premium on English gold — that is to say, the difference between 
the Spanish peseta and English gold — rose to the abnormal figure of 
109 per cent, sometimes rising 20 per cent in a single day. This state 
of things, due to the Spaoish-Americaa war, led to the practical sus- 
pension of all imports, as it was ruinous for merchants to buy bills of 
exchange for payment of accounts. Annexed is a table showing the 
variation of exchange during 1898 and the first six months of 1899. 
Since the close of tbe war and a return of the exchange to a more 
nearly normal figure, business has revived and local merchants have 
placed large orders in the foreign market. 



The import into Morocco of goods havii^ their origin in the United 
States can not be ascertained, as they all come from firms in Ei^Iand, 
Germany, or Fmnce, there being no line of ships from any United 
Stat£s port to Morocco. About two-thirds of the petroleum imported 
(valued at $10jOOO) conies from the United States, the other third being 
furnished by Russia. .Some Ameritan flour and cei'eals, tinned meats, 
lard, smoked hams, and bacon also find their way to Morocco by the 
way of England or Gibraltar. Great Britain leads in imports, sending 
BO-catled Manchester goods (cottons and prints), tea, candles, etc. France 
stands next, but furnishes only one-third of the amount of Great 
Britain, Sugar, silk, flour, wines, building materials, coffee, tobacco, 
and matches are the principal articles brou^t to Morocco from France. 
There was, during tne year 1898, a markSi decrease of imports from 
France, largely due to the almost entire suspension of imports of flour. 

A much larger quantity of goods was brought from Spain than 
formerly, because on commodities imported from her Spanish neigh- 
Iwr Morocco did not have to pay exchange, both countries having the 
same currency. From Belgium come sugar, iron, steel, cloth, and 
gla.'^B. The principal item in the list of exports is oxen, which are sent 
to Gibraltar, Malta, Spain, and Melilla, by far the larger part, i. e., 
12.3S3 head out of a total of 19,431 head, going to Gibraltar for the 
supply of the British garrison, etc. 

One of the most important articles of export from Morocco is goat- 
skins, neaily all of which go to the United States, though for want of 
a direct line they pass via England, Gibraltar, Germany, etc. On 
account of advance in price, as a\so increase of quantity exported, the 
value of this item is nearly double that shown in 1897. 

Dates, Moorish cai-pets, slippers, and curiosities are sent to the 
United States to the amount of several thousand dollars a year. 



366 OOHUBRCIAL BELATIONS. 

Besides the articles mentioned, eggs and fowls are supplied to neigh- 
boring countries. The ege exports reached the proportion of about 
f 175,000 during 1898, of which more than two-thirda went to Spain, as 
the trade with that country can be carried on throughout the whole 
year. 

There being no statistics kept by the local authorities, I am largely 
indebted for Uie information gained to the tables compiled under the 
direction of the British foreign office. 

There have been no changes in the regulations governing shipping 
and commercial relations with Morocco. Steamship lines touching 
here are also the same as reported last year. 

S. R. GCMHEB^, 

0<mml- Oeneral. 
Tangier, Deceinber 11, 1899. 



Rate of exchange at Thnyixr, Morocco — Fremium on J}ngli»h gold. 



Honth. 


Hlghort. 


Lowert. 


«,„«,. 


Hlgh*^. 


towot 


IMS. 


75 
» 

M 


1 

87 


H.™.!.,.:'^. 


ftreent 
» 

aa 

S2 

I 

2S 


ftromt 










J.»u«y....!*^-. 

















































Proportion of foreign trade tmth Moroeoofor iJu ytar 1898. 



c™.«^ 


Imports 


EiporlL 


CoannlcK Importa. 


Eiporta. 




"^1 


ftroeiil. 
10 




i^™. 


indent. 










1 









SOum of pTindp<d artidei of import to Tangier for 1898. 



Artlolea 


<^^. 


VkluelD 

iff 


Artioln. 


"K"- 


ValoelD 


Bricks and tllea 




i 

45 

i 

12, wo 




2,04« 
12,177 


tsafiin 




S.SBS 




S 












let 

1,440 
261 






51,100 

8>» 

Blew 








Cot.p«.iidbra« do.... 

Coiion goods bslea.. 






Sugar, brovra aod cniehed. 


l.BSB 
17,528 
8,272 




Sugar, loaf do.... 










8,85* 
















































u*u^:::::.::::::.::iii^\: 


4SS 









afrioa: moboooo. 



Retam of principal artteln of export from f^mgirrfor 1898. 



ArUeln. 


»K"- 


w 


Artlolw. 


^ 


Value In 


BIidMied ewl 


'•15 


17S,B76 


UoorWieiulMitlM 




is 


DRte»..'.V.V.V.V.V.'."V..cwt'! 




■!:S 




67, too 














1,10.026 


I****."!^? -10.-. 







Alum o/ vmportt at the port of QuaHaneafor the year 1898. 





.ffi^fSK. 




From 
Oeniuuir. 


.«. 




fe 


V«lue. 


a- 


V-u,. 


«■£■ 


Value. 


SK- 


Value. 




w 

S.7M 


*ZS,OIM 

1,»1 

4> 
»,M1 


81 
17 

i 


t1,M3 

llOW 

1,«U 

l,flM 

1 






toe 


#1,480 










10 


•HO 














HI 


Ml 














2,080 

820 
42 
10 

4J1 


IS 

7,28S 

Jii 






Deab plecea.. 

Dnig«,rtU,p»in«*na<lr»i,pKli- 






287 
«0 

IS 

110 


i'mb 


















Iffi 


»7 

21, ns 


uo 


8W 


248 




140 


2.044 


88 
» 
ZOO 


788 
S,888 








208 






IS 


^5S 

'•SS 










10 


a, 014 

Mi 


80 










188 

a*. 840 






B0,B86 


130,871 

41185 


27 


^^S 










S8 




TinplUM boxes.. 

Winee wid «^W, b-rreta uu) 










115 
24 


Gie 

4,088 


4S0 


?:IS 


10 


















8«t.4Bg 




7sa.bn 




8^l»e 




20,804 




























toe, 4GB 




m,bTL 




65. US 













byGoo'^lc 



COHHEBOIAL BELATJOHS. 

Return of impoti* ai IktpoH of OatabltBun/or Oie yair 1S98 — Continued. 



Aitldea. 


Fn>mSpala 


Fromllal;. 


ftran Sweden. 


, Toul. 


l^ 


Valne. 


ass- 


Valoe. 


ass.- 


Vmlue. 


& 


Value. 
















'1 

4.801 

■1 

S34 

IM 

88.876 






















































^ 


X. 






























1,000 


tl,032 




DruffKolii i;il"nM,ana dyc^ pack- 


«5 


«» 










































i,n7 


fS 


























■^s 




480 


214 




















8.7B7 














" 


•4S6 






fS 






















•^ffl 






























m,8S7 






!,81« 




Gi« 














'll2 


















1,026 


3.«7 


» 


5S« 












il:ra 




















10,040 
4S;fi6& 





1,654 





a,wg 
































68. TO 






2,a« 




1,077,13S 











General raum of thippiB^ at Ihtport of Camlianea for the year 1898. 
ENTERED. 



Nationality. 


With cargo*. 


lDball»U 


TotaL 


No. 


Toiu. 


Crew.. 


No, 


Toot 1 Crews. 


No. 


Tom. 


Cram. 




40 


1!;!S 


1,156 

7&S 

486 


3 


l,ai4 


47 


62 

I 












2» 
26 


8,000 
2,872 

»,276 


096 
726 

432 














3 


234 


22 










25 


12.2S8 


642 










121 


88,117 


2,982 


10! 


"■"" 


2,18» 


224 


180,048 


6,121 







1 


28,172 
20. 940 


■1 

2 


■ 


H7 


28 


1 
1 


39.417 
87,296 

tS 

2.806 

2I,SM 


1202 








13 


14,986 


TO 






















14 


^970 


286 










17! 


lie, 967 


3,984 


49 


33,091 


1,187 


224 


150,048 






' 



afbica; mobocxx). 

Return of export* at (Ae port of Oa»ablanca/or 



ArUcla. 


^aod^VnlS. 


To Fiance kod 


To Spain end 




3S"- 


Vmlue. 


ass.- 


Value. 


•^^ 


Value. 


8SS- 


Value. 




qu^r... 


7,012 


t42,»U 


iS 


S 


1.403 


P. 932 














....do.... 


146 
222 


..S 

"1 

2,483 


266 


302 
















^404 
2,102 


'S 

9,343 

„,» 

'■a 
•■» 

123, asi 

29,773 


9 


487 








J71 




EggB.......^ 


....CMC*.. 






































Hldu 


1.7*8 


17,067 


82 


089 








34 


68 








'''"w'm" 


''i 


^ 






^.iii^i 


10,409 


42,713 


11. Ml 
829 


44,966 
1^807 




cwt.. 








"« 


ts 




414 
















Wool.WMhed 




10 


z 










60 


2,7M 




















128.867 




"iS 




B1B,61S 
133,819 


























126,730 




•"■■" 




458,344 










' 




T. 


taly. 


T.a, 


namnj. 


ro United awtes 


To 


tal. 


ass- 


VBlne. 


35S- 


Value. 


te 


Value. 


SS'l^ 


Value. 


R-n. 


,.^.. 






•■1 


78 






8,638 

1,328 

30 
IS, 375 
S22S 
17; 980 
18,714 

if 

si 

15,771 


181,982 


























-■ni^- 














* 


nza 


B.804 


..IS 

1S,4BS 
6,4?7 












800 


taee 






....casea. 






















200 


a, 920 


1,102 


18,089 














....boles. 


4,880 


R4B4 


I.S4« 


29.211 






































































745 


11, era 

8,S2e 
















88,002 








^s^£e::::. 


....bales. 










"'S 


"2,"6m 


^-.^ 








5SSl:eSKa-.::-.-.;.-. 


.■.■■.■.do".: 

....balea. 


l,fl»S 
29 






•0 










































S8,ue 




149,129 




16, 4M 




.338,889 






























88, 1« 




149.129 




16, 4M 




,177,201 







byGoo'^lc 



OOHICEBOIAI. BBIiATIOHS. 



ST. HELENA. 

I submit the following statistics of the island of St Helena for the 
year 1898, with comparative statement of the most important items, 
showing the increase and decrease, respectively, for 1897 and 1898: 

Importe from Greet Britain and her coloiuee 1314,925 

Eximrte to Great Britain and her coloniesi 

Specie $18,730 

Sundries 3,225 

21,955 

Volume of ti*de in 1898 336,880 

The above imports include estimated valne of American products, vis., kero- 
sene, flour, lumber, stock feed, provisions, and canned goods imported via 
Great Britain and her colonies, say 10,600 

Imports and eiporta between United States and St Helena in 1898 Nil. 

Revenue, St. Helena, for the year 1898 46,760 

Expenditure, St. Helena, for the year 1898 61,746 

Public deht 23,290 

Taxation per capita, $1.83; ratio of public debt per capita, f6. 

Government eavinge bank fondedue to depodtora 85,015 

Total shipping arrivals, 147; r^stered tonnage, 266,130; including American ships, 

7, 9,320 tons. 
Population, ceneas of 1890, 3,877; population, estimated, of 1898 (civilian 3,858, 

military 750) , 4,608. 
Hegistered births 1896, 110; percentage per thousand of population, 28.5; registered 

deatlisie98, 83; percentage per thousand of population, 21.6; reffietered marriages, 13. 
Rtunfall, 1698, 34 incbee; mean temperature in Jamestown, 73°; mean temperature 

in rural dietricts, 60°. 
No changes in tarifi. 









Comparatwe 


tUOement, 1837-98. 










Yew. 


porti. 


portB. 


Bere- 

nue. 


a 


•S 


Bbip- 


^ 


Krtbfl. 


Deatlu. 


ar 


podto^ 




nn.sK 
8141 we 


(24,966 
2i;965 


■ss 


■SiS 


1« 


JJJ 


^^ 


Ill 


g 


'"t 










I^rew 


143, 100 


'».m 


i.74r 


-i-d-i™ 




87,661 


ifi 


n 




8,800 





















It will be observed by the. foregoing that in the item of imports for 
1898, there is a notable increase over the record for 1897. This is 
mainly accounted for by lai^ely increased arrivals of building materials 
and warlike stores, on account of the Imperial Government, for con- 
struction of forts, magazines, and barrack accommodation, and also of 
additional food supplies consequent upon the augmentation of the gar- 
rison; but it in no way affects the colonial revenue, all Glovernment 
stores being admitted auty free. 

The exports from this island are nominal; in fact, consist chiefly of 
specie remittances to England in payment for goods received, the 
Iralance being made up ot small shipments of wool, hides, skins, old 
metal, and potatoes. 

Shipping arrivals, as to mere numbers, are equal for the two years, 
but there was a large increase in tonnage in 1898. Only seven Ameri- 
can ships arrived during 1898. A goodly number of vessels call off 
tiaa port for vegetables and postal communication, but as these neither 
report to the local authorities nor the consul they do not figure as 
airivals. In the palmy days of the island, when steamers were few 
and the Suez Canal yet unopened, the merchant sailing shipping arrivals 



AFBIOA: ST. HELENA. 27X 

averted three per day, or more than one thouBand yessels of all flags 
per year, whereas at the present writing the average is scarcely two 
ID five days. This phenomenal falling off was a serious loss to this 
little -port of call, causing the emigration of the bulk of the people to 
the Cape and Natal, in order to obtain employment. For many years 
the island has consequently suffered greatly, all the more od account 
of the withdrawal of the American whaling fleet from the South 
Atlantic Ocean; but since the reinforcement of the garrison, and the 
large amount of skilled and ordinary labor called into requisition for 
imperial public works, the financial condition of a certain class of the 
inhabitants is vastly improved, and there is also a greater demand for 
^ricultural and horticultural products, so that the population, both 
in town and the rural districts, profits by the altered situation of affairs 
and there has been a marked increase of bank deposits. 

The number of deaths in 1898 exceeds that in 1897 by nearly 90 per 
cent, but this must not be taken to reflwt upon the sanitary condition 
of the island, 60 per cent of the number naving died between the 
advanced ages of 70 and 92. On the contrary, the uniform rainfall 
and average temperature conclusively prove the climate of St. Helena 
to be one of the finest in the world. 

Rob. p. Poolbt, CotisuI. 

St. Helena, June SO, 1899. 



TRADE IN 1899. 

In accordance with Consular Regulations I submit my report on 
commercial relations of this consular district for tlie six months ending 
June 30, 1899, as follows: 

Imporlt. 
OaEATB 



Articles 


■«°- 


Value. 


^■^^i 




ISO 
I«> 

■s 

'% 

SS 

1 

'i 

1.891 


•^?S! 




Beer (duly iMOd) 


{S2s.t;:- 


'S 






'■■f. 










Ogan uid ciguettea 




^in 


Drapery, teitl]w.(»(UHi,Bnd other dry good* 


'•"^- 


f'ti!? 
































LMthei,bootiand>ho«.etc 

Sasr'.'^'':*^*^':*'"'-**:::;:::::::::- 




a, no 
















"'m 










18:750 


8^b™na)',™n,gin,wbtrtr,etc(dutrp«ld) 


gmJIc™.. 




























i'ffi 




jickage... 





OOUMERCIAL BELATIONS. 



n luse qiuuitiUer, nttue not deoland: 



AUSTBALtA. 



ArtlclM. 


"ss"- 


Value. 


lnl™l. .h™, „™K„ 


i 
























OIlinaD's ttova and canned goods ■ . 




paokagw.. 


"• 



CAPE COliONY AND NATAL. 



...packageB. 

gallona. 





EAST INDIES AND MAURITIUS. 








barrel* 


■ so 


tm 








£|SS; 


:;::;:;:::::;::;;::;;;::::::;;:::::::;::;::::::r::,^:; 


^^ 









rotal linportBfrom all ao 



OBEAT BRITAIN, 



Ardolet 


Quantt- 


Value. 










IIB 




Specie, gold and ■! 
"' 
















" 









CAPE COLONY AND ASCENSION. 



Total ezporta, Oicst BrItAin and colonies tit, 436 

Tbe total number of shipping arrivals for tho half year ended June 
30, 1899, was 55, with a tonnage of 106,694; of which only three of 
2,430 tona were American. 

I have again to report, with much r^ret, that no direct mercantile 
transactions between tbe United States and St Helena have taken place 
during tbe period covered in this report; but there are indications of 
renewal of trade from New Bedford, Mass., in the near future. 

No changes have occurred in currency values, exchange, mail service, 
custom!! tariff, quarantine and harbor facilities, nor are there any dis- 
criminating duties or regulations or taxes affecting American marine 
or commerce at this port. It is now currently reported that the long 
talked-of cable will be laid to the island by the end of the present 

{'ear. Tbe penny (2 cents) post^e now obtains at St. Helena on all 
etter mail matter to and from Great Britain and most of her colonies. 
Information has just reached me that by order of the governor all 
vessels arriving from those ports in India and China which are known 
to be infected with bubonic plague are to be placed under quarantine. 
Rob. p. Pooley, ChrmU. 
St. Helena, Sepiemier 30, 1899. 



AFRICA: BIEBBA LEONE. 



SIERRA LEONE,' 



The <!ODditioiis and prospects for trade in this consular district are 
by far more promisinc^ this year than last, and I may add that the 
businesa outlook on tSe entire West Coast presents a moi"© hopeful 
aspect than ever before in its history. The recent disturbance in the 
Hinterlands, while temporarily damaging to trade interests, served to 
advertise its resources. Heretofore, comparatively little has been done 
in the way of development of the resources of British West Africa. 
The resumption of trade in the recently disturbed territory is charac- 
terized by the erection of more and better houses for business and 
residences to occupy the place of those desti-oyed. This activity in 
building is shown by the constant demand for white and pitch pine 
lumber, which is being conveyed from Freetown to the interior as 
for as the railway is completed. Prior to the war, the natives sup- 
plied Freetown with considerable quantities of lumber for building 
purposes, sawn in a very crude way by hand, but the rebellion last 
year practically destroyed this source of local supply; consequently, 
foreign markets, especially the United States, must furnish the defi- 
ciency for the next two or three years. I would suggest that Amer- 
ican defers in lumber for export look well to the West Coast as a 
market. At present, they have practically no competition here. 
Every railmiy Duilt in West Africa for the" next ten years at least 
means an increased market in the same ratio for American lumber. 



Sir Joseph Chamberlain^ secretary of state for the colonies, is 
quoted as having said during the present year: "Sierra Leone is 
entering on a period of great prosperity." The home Government 
si^ified its concurrence m this opinion, not only with reference to 
Sierra Leone but all of British West Africa, by appropriating over a 
iniUion and one-half dollars for the Sierra Leone railway, nearly three 
million for similar purposes on the Gtoli Coast, and nearly four mil- 
lion in L^os. Besides these liberal appropriations for railways, 
1211,692.76 was set aside for building wharves at Old Calabar and 
(428,252 to improve the harbor at Accra. 

DCPBOVKUBNTS IN PBOGBE88. 

Several new towns are being built along the line of the colonial 
railwOT with a view to European settlement. This is especially true 
as to wnffotown, the present terminus of the road, 32 miles from Free- 
town. Ibo colonial government has laid off the proposed city witii 
parks, botanical gardens, etc. Several new houses and stores have 
been built there recently. The railway maintains part of its repair 
shops there, and it is very probable that they will be located perma- 
nently at tnat place. It is thought that this place will not only 
improve rapidly, but will become a center for the trade between the 
oolony and the Hinterland, being situated at the termini of several 
native trade routes from too interior. Mayamba, a town further in 

' In reply to circular of July 10, 1899, 

H. Doc. 481, Ft, 1 la i;q„. r::::G00glc 



374 OOICHEBCIAL BELATIONB. 

the interior and situated on the proposed line of railway, is ubaracter- 
ized by the same activity. Upward of 1,700 laborers, it is said, have 
been employed during tne last seven or eight months in building and 
replacing What was destroyed by the war. Hie ice plant and bottling 
works, recently completed, have been running continuously, wit£ 
inci'easing business. The suops, two in number, for building boats, 
canoes, barges, and lighters, and smaller sailing craft, have been 
rushed with orders on account of prospective increase of river trade. 
The Sierra Leone Coaling Company is increasing its facilities for 
receiving and discharging coal. A new and handsome custem-houso 
is in course of erection by the Government. Notwithstanding several 
hundred thousand dollars have been expended upon the wharf, making 
it quite creditable in appearance, improvements to facilitate the land- 
ing of passengers and the dischai^ of cargo are under consideration. 

FUBIilO HKALTH. 

New efforts are being made to render this coast more healthy and 
habitable, as trade interests require the almost constant residence here 
of a number of Europeans. During the present year, investigations 
have been made under the supen'lsion of Major Itoss and others sent 
out by the Liverpool School of Tropical Diseases, as to the causes of 
malaria. The mission has been so successful that it is thought the 
Government will continue the work under the supervision of ita own 
medical experts. In addition to the thi'ee hospitals already estab- 
lished, the Sierra Leone Nursing Home, with its service of trained 
European nurses, was opened this year. This establishment, with its 
modern arrangements, is an important addition to the service of the 
public health. American dealers in dru^, especially of the class 
ordinarily known ns "germicides" and disinfectants," as well as 
patent medicines in general, would find this a good market for l^eir 
goods after these have been introduced to the local dealers. 

IMPOBT8 AND BXFOBTa 

The total value of imports into Sierra Leone for the year 1898 was 
J2,950,7',)5.74 against *2,221,704.08 in 1897, an increase of $729,091.66. 
Imports from 3io United States were $129,496.86 against $131,395.96 
in 1897, a decrease of ^1,998.14, caused by the Spansih- American war. 
The total value of imports from Great Britain for the same period 
was $2,492,127.40 against $1,837,142.23 in 1897, an increase of 
$664,985.17; from the British colonies, $61,963.51 against $29,203.72 
in 1897, an increase of $32,769.79; all other foreign countries, 
$396,704.81 against $223,964 in 1897, an increase of $172,740.81. 

The total exports for 1898 from Sierra Leone was $1,415,951.93 
against $1,950,238.28 in 1897, a decrease of $534,286.35. The United 
States received to the value of $2,077.80 against $74.12 in 1897: 
Great Britain $592,914.68 against $919,502.30 in 1897, a decrease of 
$846,687.62; British colonies $150,408.19 against $142,216.89 in 1897, 
an increase of $8,241.30; all other countries $692,685.44 ^ain.st 
$888,394.96 in 1897, a decrease of $195,809.52. 

In the first half of the present year to imports from the United 
States direct were $69,337.21; from the United States via England 
(estimated), $6,933.72; total, $76,270.93. In the same period of 1898 
the imports were $49,879.12; increase, $26,391.81. Exports were niL 

.nOt>^IC 



afbica: zanzibab. 275 

genebal tsadb. 

During the preseDt year, trade in Americac proTisions has been 
quite acbve. The demand for flour is increauiag, owing to the adop- 
boD of its use by the natives. There are severalbakeries in the colo- 
nies which sell large quantities of bread to the Creoles and natives. The 
demand for kerosene is also growing rapidly, as the aborigines as 
well as the civilians are learning its advant^es over the palm oil. A 
large percent^e of thelamps used here are of American make. The 
natives collect emptv tin cans and make a small lamp, holding say 
from a gill to one-half pint, which retails for about 5 to 6 cents each. 
They require no chimneys. European manufacturers paint their arti- 
cles of this class, rendering them pleasing to the eye. 

UGHT AKD HABBOK DUES ; QUAKANXINE. 

Upon every ship or vessel entering the harbor of Freetown, the tax 
is So., or 6 cents, per ton. 

Vessels of 400 tons and upward are charged £5 ($34.33). 

For the first visit of inspector of health of shipping to any vessel, 
£1 Is., (^.10) is chained; for each succeeding visit, 10s. (^2.43). 

EXCHANGE. 

Bates vary from 1^ to 2^ per cent on London, l^e amount of cur- 
rency in circulation is estimated at £50,000 ($243,325); about $30 per 
capita. 

John T. Wuxums, Gonaid. 

SiBKBA IjBONB, Ootci^ 31, 1899. 



ZAJfZIBAJl. 

The trade of Zanzibar during the last twelve months has shown little 
change of interest. 

The clove crop of Zanzibar and Pembo, which is practically the 
world's clove crop, amounted to 150,000 bags (140 pounds each) during 
the last season. This is probably the largest crop ever produced. The 
labor conditions here were so unsettled, slavery having been practically 
abolished, that there seemed to be great speculation whether the crop, 
which already early in the season promised to be large, coutd be suc- 
cessfully gathered. The receipts at Zanzibar, 150,000 bags, have 
demonstrated the falsity of the contention that slave labor is abso- 
lutely necessary for clove cultivation. 

Contrary to the usual course of trade, Rotterdam has this year 
been the center, the exports to London direct being unusually small, 
and exports to the United States amounting to but 4,600 bales for the 
twelve months ending June 30, 1899. 

The construction oi the Mombasa-Uganda Railway continues. It is 
DOW open for 300 miles from Mombasa. The employment of several 
thousand imported coolies and many Europeans in the construction of 
the railway, in itself, has mode a good trade for Mombasa in certain 
lines, such as rice, supplies for Europeans, house-buiidlDg material. 



276 OOMMKRCIAL BELATIONB. 

timber, and corrupted iron. It is estiniated that two years' time in 
still required for uie i-ailway to reach Lake Victoria Nyanza. Wheo 
a lake port is reached a large territory will be opeoed to trade, aad 
undoubtedly the cheap transportation by railway, as compared widi 
caravan transportation, will permit much larger quantities of imported 
goods to be used tiian at present. 

The principal imports from the United States for the year ended 
June 30, 1899, are: Cotton cloth, value, $375,000; kerosene, (iS,O0O. 

The exports to the United States for the above period are: 

Chiliea-., f6,338.15 

Clovee 38,106.18 

ClovesteioB 17,683.62 

Goatakins 44,471.14 

Gum snimi 22, 416. 16 

Hidai 28,623.87 



Ivory $208,206.12 

ShellB 1,241.75 

TortoiKBtielU 4,404.12 

Total 371,491.02 

A. L. SABI.E, Acting Con»il. 



Zanzibar, Jvly 8, 1899. 

ZANZIBAR TRADE IN 1899. 

A combination of circumstances operated to materially affect the 
trade of Zanzibar during the latter part of the year 1899 and the same 
causes are still depressing the business of the island. 

A severe drought in 1899 injured many of the trees and greatly dam- 
aged the fruit crop, particularly cloves and cocoanuts, the pnncipal 
products for export. There has also been a famine on the mainland, 
throughout the territory comprising British and (jerman East Africa. 
As a result of the famine the natives in the interior have nothing with 
which to buy cloth and other articles of commerce, much of which is 
supplied through Zanzibar merchants. This cutting off of a large 
source of supply has greatly reduced the volume of trade in Zanzibar, 
which is a general distributmg station for the majority of the business 
in East Africa. 

Another thing which has operated against the trade in Zanzibar is 
the censorship of telegraphic communications to and from this station 
by the British Government, oa account of the war in South Africa. 
Nearly all the business of ^nzibar with Europe and America is done 
by cable. The censorship has quadrupled the expense, which is an 
important item in the commercial transactions oi the island. One 
American firm doing business in Zanzibar paid $800 for cablegrams in 
the month of December. By code mess^e, the expense would have 
been only about one-fourth tnat amount. 

TRADR IN OURIOS. 

The demand for African curios such as native spears, shields, knives, 
etc., has led the Germans, who are striving hard t» control the African 
trade, to establish manufactories in Germany for the production of 
these articles in imitation of the original. As a result curio dealers 
throughout Europe, in America, and even in Africa and the Far East 
are being supplied with these imitation articles, which are sold cheaper 
than the genuine ones. The business has already i-eached a size tiiat 
makes it exceedmgly profitable. 

The Germans have also secured a monopoly of the trade of East 
Afnca in colored cotton goods, which they manufacture in special 
designs for the trade. 



AFBIOA: ZANZIBAR. 



277 



INDUSTRIES. 

The only manufacturing enteiprise in Zanzibar Is a plant for the pro- 
duction of artificial ice. Thia nas been established two years, and is 
now returning a good profit on the iuveatment The ice sells for $3.26 
per 100 pounds. 

A steam laundry in Zanzibar would be a profitable institution. The 
laundi'y work of the island is now all done by natives and Indians, 
and the methods are the moat primitive. The clothes are washed by 
beating them with a stick, or By soaping them and then pounding or 
whippmg them over a wooden block or stone. This method is not 
only unsatisfactory as a means of removing the dirt from the fabric, 
but it is also extremely destructive to the articles so ti-eated. On 
acconnt of the climate, all the people in Zanzibar wear white duck 
suits, and a clean suit is required every day, which necessarily makes 
a great deal of laundry business. The natives and Indians derive a 
profit even with their crude methods. The rate charged is about 4 
cents per garment Ko starch is used in the whtt« garments worn 
here, and with improved facilities the business could be made remu- 
nerative even at the present rate. 

COCOANUT OIL. 

The manufacture of cocoanut oil is another branch of industry for 
which Zanzibar offers a good field. I have not statistics at hand to 
show the cost of manufacture and the price of the product, but cocoa- 
nut oil is manufactured profitably in India. The fruit can be produced 
here as cheaplj' as any place in the world, and labor is quite as inex- 
pensive as in India. Large quantities of cocoanuts of a very fine 
quality are grown on the island of Zanzibar, and are being shipped 
every year to £urope and America, where tiiey are converts into oil. 



Following is a summary of the exporte from Zanzibar to the United 
States for tne quarter ended December 31, 1899: 



Article. 


QiBiQUly. 


Value. 






1 


9:i70 S i 
GS.§8S 19 




STfiSS^.::::::::::::::::::::::: 


do.... 




















K^^:::;:::::::::::::::::: 


tnalu.. 










T0,3M.88 


" 







Zanzibar, Deexmber 31, . 



R. E. Mansfield, Consul. 



byGoO'^lc 



NORTH AMERICA. 



DOMINION OF CANADA. 
BEPOBT FROM CONSULATE- GENERAL AT OTTAWA. 

In reply to circular instructions of July 10, 1899, 1 have to report 
that the past year has been one of the most prosperous Canada has 
ever known, Her business has rapidly increased, the development in 
many instances being very marked. The import*) from the United 
States have gained materially, and altogether the year has been most 
successful. 

I would especially rail attention to the gain in agricultural imple- 
ment*; imported from the United States into Canada, also flour and coal, 
as the following compamtivo statement (unrevised) of the principal 
articles of merchandise (home produce) entered during the eleven 
months ended May 31, 1898-99, showa: 



Artlelai 


IBM. 


]g9B. 




•Ml, 492 

■iae,n» 

GM.M5 

4. BBS. 490 

iS.S 

■■sa 
■i« 
'■|| 


"•S'S 
























"T"".'»,„»a";:: : 






















res o( builders' hardware, and aam and u»li . . 


















Lumber, bouda, pluiks, deals 











1 Btates to Canada, for the eleven 

The following is a comparative statement (unrevised) of the quanti- 
ties and values of the principal articles of merchandise exported to 
the United States from British North America, for the eleven months 
ended May 31, 1898 and 1899: 



Hones (free) 

Horeea fdollable) 

Coal. bllumlDOQg (dutiable) . . 
HldeBand»kIns,otbecth"~ *" 



Total of all goods exported to the United 8\^Aea from BritiBh Nortlt America, for 
the eleven monUie ended May 31, 189S and 1699: 1896, $28,717,639; 1689,928,471,019. 



.nOO^^IC 



NORTH AHEBIOA: DOMINION OF CANADA. 279 

The following ia a general statement of the principal goods imported 
from the Unit^ States at the port of Ottawa, Canada, for six months 
from January 1, 1899, to June SO, 1899: 

DDTUBLK. 

Acids $3,894.00 

Baking powdera 7ft4. 00 

Books, printed 2,614.00 

BraflB, wire cloth 2,967.00 

Bicyclee, tricyclee, and parts of 17,462.00 

Oars, niilway can, and parte of 64,954.00 

Cement, Portland 976. 00 

Bail way pasBenger cars, flrst-ctaB 33, 570. 00 

Cotton duck 1,300.00 

Clothing 2,402.00 

FeltcioUi 3,083.00 

Fabrics, printed, dyed, and colored 8,861.00 

Sremng, hameflB leather and shoes 932.00 

Electric apparatus 2, 697. 00 

Electric motors, dynamoe, generators, etc 17,344.00 

Electric-light carbons over 6 inches circumference 1, 708. 00 

Electric apparatus, insalators of all kinds, electric batteries 2,024.00 

Oysters, Bhelled, in bulk 2,669.00 

Onuiges, lemons, and limes 10, 770. 00 

Datee 849.00 

Furniture, house, office, store, cabinet, of wood. Iron, or other material.. 5,256.00 

Hai^ware 8,147.00 

Hats, beaver. Bilk, or felt 3,216.00 

Hats, straw, glass, chip, or other material 1,688.00 

Harvestera, self-binding and without binders 7, 917. 00 

Horse rakes 1,402.00 

Mowin(( machines 8, 163, 00 

Boiled iron or eteel hoope, bands, scroll, or strip, thinner than No. 18 

gauge 1,019.00 

Tools, hand, ormachineof all kinds 4,132.00 

Saws 610.00 

Stoves of all kinds and parte thereof 1,999.00 

Bussia iron, flat galvanized iron or steel eheete, teme plates and rolled 

sheets of iron or steel, coated with zinc, spelter, or other metal 2,401.00 

I^mp chimneys 664.00 

Booteandshoea 12.478.00 

I^mpside lights, headlights, lanterns, and chandeliers 1,036.00 

Matihinery, composed wholly or in put of iron or steel. (This doee not , 

include portable machines, folders^ cutters, horsepower, portable 

engines, portable sawmills, and planing mills, sewing machines and 

typewritmg machines) 39,690.00 

Coal and kerosene, distilled, purified, or refined, naphtha or petroleum . 6, 0-'iS. 00 

Coal, bttuminoiis '. 42,202.00 

Painte, colors, dry 1.603.00 

Dry, white and red, lead, orange, mineral and zinc lead 2, 2^7.00 

Paper hangings or wall papers 1,076.00 

Pencils, lead in wood or otherwise 442.00 

Pork, barreled in brine -. 40,804.00 

Seeds, garden, field, and other seeds 8,765.00 

Sugar, above No. 16 Dutch standard in color, and all refined sugars of 

whatever kind, grades, or atandards 38,371.00 

Tnrpentine, spirite of , 777.00 

Whips of all kinds, inclnding thongs and lashes 298.00 

Wood pulp 688.00 

Wire, single or several, covered with cotton, linen, dlk, or rubber or 

other material 9,721.00 

Whisky 894.00 



byGoO'^lc 



COJOtEBCIAL BBI.ATI0N8. 



Goal, anthracite and anthracite ooal dost $182,939.00 

Oak lumber 42,440.00 

Cherry, chestnut, greenwood, liickury, and whitewood 8,446.00 

Fur ekine of all kinds, not dressed in anj' manner 1,448.00 

Pitch, pine 7, 606. OO 

Horaenur, not further m&nufacCured th&n simply cieaued aud dyed 

and dipped for use in the manufacturing of hur doth 1,614.00 

Wool, not further prepared than washed 37,787.00 

Indian com 14,808.00 

Bananas 12,490.00 

Binders' twine of jute, hemp, manila, or sisal 4, 300. 59 

Coke 1,080.00 

Cotton waste, not dyed 3, 690. 00 

Alum, in bulk only, ground or uitgronnd 6, 170. 00 

Soda, nitrate of, soda ash, soda caustic, bichromate of soda, sal soda, or 

saldte of soda in crystals or in solution 3,243.00 

Brass in strips, eheets or plalee, not polished, planished, or coated 3, 462. 00 

Steel strifis and flat steel wire, imported by manufacturers of buckthorn 
and plain atrip fencing, for use in their own factories in the manufac- 
ture thereof 8,791.00 

Barbed fencing wire of iron and steel 8, 860. 00 

Potash, chlorate of, not further prepared than ground, and free from ad- 
mixture of any other substance 2,240.00 

Total of all the goods imported from the United States at the port of Ottawa, Canada, 
from January 1, 1889, to June 30, 1899: 

Free N«6,266.00 

Dutiable 666,932.00 

Total 1,132,198.00 

Total of all the goods imported from Great Britain at the port of Ottawa, Canada, 
from January 1, 1899, to June 30, 1899: 

Fr«e $88,450.00 

Ihitiable 212,01D.O0 

Total 298,463.00 

BuUer, cheeie, baeon,aTid hanu, exported to Qreat Britain from the UnUed fSalu and Can- 
dda during the }/eart ended June 30, 1^8 and 1S99. 





189S. 


1<»9. 




DDlUdSt>M. 


Canada. 


United Blato. 


Otnuda. 




Out. 

115, «0 

8.9741717 
i;78»;ffW 


cut. 

118, M7 
l,Wt,2S1 
872, (2W 

iao,8« 


%«1 
B»,277 


'Y^m 






1^47* 







rofveueltandthemimbero/Umaonlhereffolrybootso/tlie Dominion of Canada oi 
December 31, 1897 and 1S9S. 





""• 


1M& 




V«.l. 


TOM. 


VM«1.. 


Tool. 




li424 

is 




121 


































t,m 


m.TH 


e,M3 


me, 782 





NORTH AMERICA: DOMINION OF CANA,DA. 





S 


Net 
tomuge. 


Bmniwlck 


1 






?S 












"■S 









BAILWAT8 AND CANALS. 

During the past year the railways of Canada have increased 183 
miles, the number of miles of completed railway being 16,870, besides 
2,248 miles of sidings. The number of miles laid wifli steel rails was 
16,622j of which 553 miles were double track. The number of miles in 
operation was 16,718. The number of railways in actual operation, 
including the two Government roads, the Intercolonial and the Prince 
Edward Island railways, was li6. 

The proposed Georgian Bay Canal was not carried through Parlia- 
ment this last session, but there has been an English syndicate formed 
to build it. It will connect the Great Lakes with the Atlantic. 

In the lake and rail line between the Great Lakes and Montreal 
there has been a material increase in traffic this year over last 

The Canada Atlantic Bailway, which previous to this year has done 
a strictlv railway business, has within the past few days purchased 
two of tae largest steamers on the Great Lakes, and is negotiating for 
several more. It is proposed to run a direct line from Oiicago, Mil- 
waukee, and Duluth. These steamers will connect with the Canada 
Atlantic and Ottawa, Amprior and Parry Sound systems at Depot 
Harbor. 

In regard to canals for the Dominion, I would say that the total 
expenditure charged to the capital account on the original construction 
and the enlargement of the public canals of the Dominion up to June 
30, 1898, was »72,5{H,401.86. A further sum of «15,067.096.81 was 
expended on the renewals, maintenance, and operation of tnese works, 
making a total of $87,571,498.16. 

The total revenues derived, including tolls and renewals of land and 
water powers, amounted to |1 1,710, 2w. 08. 

The total expenditure for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1898, was as 
follows: On construction and enlargement, $3,207,249.79; for repairs, 
renewals, and operation, $624,755.96; making a total for the year 
of $3,932,005.75. 

The total net revenue for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1898, was 
$107,662.81, an increase compared with the previous year of $22,882.28. 
The net canal tolls amounted to $344,057.13, an increase of $22,429.80, 
and the rents received to $440,503.90, a decrease of $549.25. 

The above is taken from the report of the department of railways 
and canals for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1898. 

I inclose with this report a list oi illustrations issued by the depart- 
ment of public works, which contains the Chief Engineers Report and 
a special Appendix A and B. I also inclose some charts showing the 



282 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

St. Marya Ship Canal and St Marys Falls Canal, Trent Navigation 
and Murray Canal, St. Lawrence, Ottawa, Rideau, and Richelieu canals; 
also Welland Canal, between Lakes Erie and Ontario.* 

TELEGRAPHS. 

According to the last report of the deputy minister of public works 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1898, work has been commenced bv 
the department for the extension of the telegraph system on the nortn 
shore of the St. Lawrence, from Pointe Aux E^uimaux eastward. 
Already, at the end of the fiscal year 1898, nearly 100 miles of the 
extension of the said telegraph line had been built, and during the next 
fiiscal year it is proposed to push the work with great activity. 

As was outlined m the last annual report, it is the intention of the 
department to give to the shipping on the St. Lawrence uninterrupted 
telWraphic communication from the Straits of Belle Isle with the whole 
of Canada. The difficulties in the way of constructing the telegraph 
line are very great The country is for the most part barren and diffi- 
cult of access. For a portion extending far into the interior, the coun- 
try is nothing but a bare rock with no vegetation and no trees of any 
size whence uie supply of poles could be had. It can be seen at a 
glance that the construction of a telegraph line must be attended with 
great difficulties, and will cost per mile a much lai^r amount than any 
of the lines which have yet been constructed in Canada. 

While examining the water route into the Yukon district during 
the course of the last fiscal year, the chief engineer of the department, 
Mr. Coste, was also instructed to inq^uire into the possibility and best 
means of connecting the Yukon district with eastern Canada by means 
of a telegraph line. At the conclusion of the fiscal year his report 
was not yet in the possession of the department, but it appears at pres- 
ent that the first work to be performed, if the Government takes action 
in building the line, would be the connection of Dawson City with the 
nearest coast harbor, that of Skagway. A telegraph line built across 
the water, stretching from Dawson to Lake Bennett, would not only 
give the further telegraph communication required, but would, by the 
establishment of stations along the route, render communication and 
traffic much more easy in that section which such a large number of 
people have been traversing in order to reach the golcT fields. It is 
expected that such a line would yield a revenue that would pay a hand- 
some surplus over the maintenance and operating expenses.* 

There are now 2,95Sjt miles of telegraph lines under the control of 
this department, divided into 2,751i miles of land lines and 207J miles 
of cables, as follows: 





lAnd 
lino. 


C»bl(«. 




MOa. 

"I 


uaa. 








a 






















a,7Mi 









' Filed for reterence in Bureau of Foreign Cunimerce. 

■ Telegraph communication with Dawson is now open. See Advance Sheets of Con- 
sular Reports No. 600, December 11, 1899. 



NOBTH AMEBIC a: DOWNION OF OANADA. 



The lumber trade for the past year has been very brisk, and at the 

Iiresent time is much greater than at the same date last year. The 
umber exported to the United States from Ottawa for toe first six 
months of 1898 was valued at ^80,368.98 and for the first eix months 
of 18d9 it was 1701,993.40, an iucrea^ of $121,624.42. The shipments 
would be much greater, but there seems to be a lack of cars for trans- 
portation. 

There has been no increase in freight rates, with the exception of 
bay, which has been advanced 1 cent per 100. 



There have been few changes during the last year in the customs tariff 
The following is a copy of those assented to on the 13th of June, 1898; 



Her Majesty, hj and with the advice and consent of the senate and house of com- 
mona of Canada, enacta as follows: 

1. Section 6 of the customa tariff, 1897, ie hereby repealed and the following iasnb- 
Btttated therefor: 

"6. The importatjon into Canada of any goods enumerated, deacribed, or referred 
to in Schedule C to tbis act ie prohibited; and any euch goods imported shall thereby 
become forfeited to the Crown and shall be destroyed or otherwise dealt with as the 
minister of customs directs; and any person importing any such prohibited goods, or 
causing or permitting them (o be imported, shall for each offenoe incur a penalty not 
exceeding tno hundred dollars." 

2. On and after the first day of Aognat, one thonaand eight hundred and ninety- 
eight, section 17 of the said act shall oe repealed and the lollowiDgahall beaabsti- 
tnted therefor: 

"17. Articles which are the growth, produce, or manufacture of any of the follow- 
ing connlriea may, when imported direct into Canada from any of such countries, be 
entered for duty or taken out of warehouse for consumption in Cansdaat the reduced 
rate of duty provided in the British preferential tanfi set forth in Schedule D to 
this act: 

"(a) The United Kingdom; 

"(lA The British colony of Bermuda; 

"(e) The British colonies commonly called the Britjsh Weet Indies, including the 
following: 

"The Bahamas; 

"Jamaica; 

"Turks and Caicos Islands; 

"The Leeward Islanda (Antigua, St. Christopher-Nevis, Dominica, Montaerrat, 
and the Virgin islands) ; 

"The Windward Islands (Grenada, St. Vincent, and St Locla) ; 

" Barbados; 

" Trinidad and Tobago; 

"(d) British Goiana; 

" U) Any other British colony or poBseesion the cnstoma tariff of which is. on the 
whole, as favorable to Canada as the British preferential tariff herein referrea to is to 
such colony or possession. 

"Provided, however, That manufactured articles, tobeadmlttedunderanchjirefer- 
ential tariff, shall be bona fide the monubctures of a country or countries entitled to 
the benefits of such tariff, and that such beneltts shall not extend to the importation 
of ariidee into the production of which there has not entered a, sulietantial portion 
of the labor of such countries. Any question arising as to any article i)eing entitled 
to such benefits shall be decided by the minister of cnstoms, whose dedsion shall be 
final. 

" 2. Raw sogar, including all su^ described in item 434 of Schedule A, may, 
when imported direct from any British colony or powession, be entered for duty or 
taken ont of warehouse for consumption in Canada at the reduced rate of duty pro- 
vided in the British preferential tariff. - - i 

^,oogle 



284 OOKHEBCIAL BELATIONS. 

"3. Th« minister of cuatoiuB, with the approval of the ^vemor in council, Bh&lt 
deteimiDe what British coloniwor poaseeBioiis shall be entitled to the benefits of the 
preferential tariff under pamgraph (e) of eubflection 1 of this eection. 

"4. The minister of customs may, with the approval of the governor in council, 
make such r^^olationB as are deemed necessary for carrying out the intention of this 

3. Item 221 in Schedule A to the said act is hereby repealed and the following sub- 
etjtated therefor: 

"221. India-rubber boots and shoes, rubber belting, rubber cement, and all manu- 
factuiee of india rubber and gutla-'percha, n. o. p., twenty-five percent ad valorran, 
26 p. c." 

4. Items 436 and 436 in Schedule A to the said act are hereby repealed and the 
following are eubetituted therefor: 

"4S6. All sugarabovenumbersizteen Dutch standard incolor, and allrefinedsngim 
of whatever kmds, grades, or standards, testing not more than eighty-dght degrees 
by the polsriscope, one dollar and eight cents per one hundred pounds, and for each 
additional degree one and one-half cent per one hundred pounds. Fractions of five- 
tenths of a d«p<ee or lees not to be subject to duty, and uactions of more than five- 
tenths to be dutiable as a degree. 

"436. Sugar n. e. s. not above number sixteen Dutch standard in color, eagar 
druningB or pumpinge dtained in transit, melado or concentrated melado, tank bot- 
toms, and sugar concrete, testing not more than seventy-five degrees by the polari- 
■cope, forty cents per one hundred pounds, and for eacn additional dofree one and 
one-half cent per one hundred pounds. Fractions of five-tenths of a degree or lees 
not to be subject to duty, and fractions of more than five-tenths to be dutiable as a 
degree. The usual packagee in which imported to be free, 

6. On and after the fiixt day of July, one thousand eisht hundred and ninety- 
eight, items 445 and 446 in Schedule A to the said act shall be repealed. 

6, On and after the a^d firet day of July the following item snail be inserted in 
Schedule B to the said act instead of item 616: 

"616. Tobacco,unmanufactnred, for excise purposes under conditions of the inland 
revenae act" 



"On articles entitled to the benefits of this preferential tarifi under section seven- 
teen, the duties mentioned in Schedule A shall be reduced as follows: The redaction 
shall be one-fourth of the duty mentioned in Schedule A, and the dutv to be levied, 
collected, and paid shall be three-fourths of the duty mentioned in Schedule A. 

"Provided, however, That this reduction shall not apply to any of the following 
articles and that such article shall in all cases t>e subject to the duties mentioned in 
Schedule A, vis, wines, malt liquors, spirits, spirituous liquorB, liquid medicines, and 
articles containing alcohol, tobacco, eigars, and cigarettra. 

"Provided further. That the reduction shall only apply to refined sugar when evi- 
dence satiflfBctery to the minister of customs is famished that such refined sugar has 
been manufactured wholly from raw sugar produced in the British colonies or poe- 



8. Except as herein otherwise provided, this act shall be held to have come into 
force on the sixth day of April, in the present year, one thousand eight hundred and 
ninety-^ht. 

BAOOAOE AND SAMPLES. 

llie following is the memoraDdum of the custoiUB department r^ard- 
ing travelers' baggage and commercial samples, which will explain 
itself: 

Ottawa, Janvary 7, 1S98. 

OontoUdaled memorandum re tntvtler^ baggage and commeraal aampUt. 



a Canada may be passed free, without caUry at 



KOBTH AMERICA; DOMHTION OF CANADA. 285 

cnstoDM.asbiiTeleTe'lMggBgevindertheprovuionBOftheciiBtoniB tariff; bat this pro- 
Tiaon eh&ll only include Buch ftrticlee as actually accompany and are in dm of and aa 
are neceeeary and appropriate for the wear and use of sach penKine for the immediate 
pmpoee of the journey and present comfort and convenience, and shall not be held 
to apply to merchandise or articles intended for other jKraone or for sala 

2. Garda, portfolioe, pasteboard boxes, or other coveringB conliuning cnt samples of 
cloth, edging, textile fabrics, buttons of various patterns, and other articlee, being 



repreaentalivee of goods and obviously intended for use only as samples to sell by, 
and having no commercial value, may be admitted free o( duty. 

3. The term "no commercial value" does not apply to portfolio boxes or other 
coverings used in di^laying samplee, which are susceptible of b^g adapted to 
other use. 

4- Samples, such as ore carried by commercial travelera, together with the trunks 
and other "packages" contiuning them, are dutiable, excepting such as are of no 
commercial value, as hereinbefore mentioned. 

John MgDoitoald, 

CommitaioMr of Outlom*. 

The following extracts are from the eziating postal ratea of the 
Dominion of Canada: 

Letters addressed to places in Canada and the United States, 2 cents per ounce or 
fraclioo thereof. 

The United Kingdom, Aden, Ascension, Bahama Islands, Barbados, Bermuda, 
British Central Africa, British East Africa, British Guiana, British Honduras, British 
India, British North Borneo (including Lebuan), Ceylon, Cypms, Falkland Islands, 
Fiji, Gambia, Gibraltar, Gold Cosst colony, Hongkong, Jamaica, Johore, Lagos, Lee- 
ward Islands, Malay States, Mauritius, Malta, Natal, Newfaundl8nd,NKer Coast Pro- 
tectorate, Niger Company's territories, Sarawak, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Straits 
Settlements, BL Helena, Toliago, Trinidad, Turks Island, Uganda, Windward Islands, 
and Zanzibar, 2 cents i>er half ounce or fraction thereof. 

Letters to Ml countries not mentioned above, 5 cents per half onnce or fraction 
thereof. 

Post cards for Canada and the United States, 1 cent each. For Great Britain and 
all PostaJ Union countries, 2 cents each. Beply cards for Canada and the United 
States. 2centseach- but thesecardsmayaleo be posted fortiansmission to the United 
Kingdom if an additional 1-cent stamp is affixed to each of the halves. Nothing 
must be attached to a post card, nor must the card be cut or defaced in any way. 

SBcoNn-CLASB Uattbb. 

d not lees frequi. . .. 

_. . .... . . .... _ .r transmission to r^[ular subscribers in Can- 
ada, the United States, and Newfoundland must be prepaid one-half cent per 
pound, bulk weight. All specimen copies and all copies of^ publications published 
leas frequently than once a month most be prepaid 1 cent for each pound or fraction 
of a pound. 

Third-Cuss Hattbr. 

Matter of this class must be so packed or put up as to be easily opened for exam- 
ination, and there must be no correspondence inclosed. The limit of weight to 
Oanada and the United States is 6 pounds, and no package mi»' exceed 30 incSies in 
length, and the length and girth combined must not exceed 6 feet 

HBWSPAFKBS AND PBBIODICAU. 

All drop newspapers and periodicals (for delivery where posted) and transient 
newspapers and penodicals posted for transmission to places in Canada and the United 
States must be prepaid 1 cent per 4 ounces or fraction of 4 ouncesi weighing not 
more than 1 ounceeoch, they may be posted singly if prepaid one-half cent each. The 
postage to all other Postal Union countries is 1 cent per 2 ounces. 

BOOKS, ETC., AND MISCKLLAMBOnS MATTKB. 

The post^e on books, pamphlets, printed drculara, occasional publications, etc, 
addreoedtoCbnada is 1 cent per4 ounces; to the United States, Great Britain. aJid all 
Postal Union countries, 1 cent per 2 ounces. The postage on printen' proof sheets. 



COUHEBCIAL BELATIONB. 



1 cent per 2 ounces. Printed etatioiiery, school or coll^ie esamination papers, 
■liatiiuTtly marked as su(;h, municipal aaeessment rolls, and statute labor returns may 
raws in Canada at the rate of 1 cent _per 2 ounces. The limit of weight for Great 
Britain is 6 pounds; for other Postal Union countries, 4 pounds, and no package must 
exceed 2 feet in length by 1 foot in width or depth. 

Seeds, cuttina;s, bulbs, roots, and scions or grafts can only be sent to the United 
States as fifth-class matter; when posted for deliver- in Canada, the postage is 1 cent 
per 4 ounces, and the limit of weight, 5 pounds. 

PAtTERNS AND SAMPLES. 

Actual patterns and samples of merchandise, not exceeding 24 ounces in weight, 
except samples of tea which must not exceed 8 otmcee, may be sent to any place in 
Canada for 1 cent per 4 ounces. Goods sent in execution of an order, however small 
the quantity may be, or articles sent by one private individnal to another, not being 
actually trade patterns or samples, are not admissible as such. Poetage, etc., for 
British and foreign countries is 2 cents for the first 4 ounces and I cent for every 
additional 2 ounces. Limits of weight and size: United Kingdom, 5 pounds, and 2 
feet in length by 1 in breadth or depth; Austria- Hungary, Belgium, Egypt, France, 
Hawaii, Italy, Portugal, Roumania, and Switzerland, 12 ounces, and 1 foot in 
length by 8 inches in width and 4 inches in depth; other Postal Union countries, 
8 ounces, and 1 foot in length by 8 inches in width and 4 inches in depth. 

Fourth-Class Maiter 

Comprises such articles oE general merchandise as are not entitled to any lower 
rate of poetage. Postage, 1 cent per ounce or fraclioD of an ounce. Limit of weight, 
6 pounds; of size, 30 inches in length, and the length and ^rth combined must not 
exceed 6 feet. Matter claiming to be fourth-class most be open to inspection, and 
there must be no correspondence inclosed. Packages of fourth-clas matter may be 
sent to the United States for thesame prepayment as is required witliin the Dominion, 
but the contents will be liable to customs inspection and collection of dutv in the 
United States. Sealed tins containing fish, lobster, vegetables, meats, etc., if put op 
in a solid manner and labeled in such a way as to fully indicate the nature ol their 
contents, may be sent as fourth-clas matter within the Dominion, but no sealed mat- 
ter can be forwarded to the United States under this head. Liquids, oils, and btt^ 
snbetancee may be sent (o places in Canada and the United States as fourth-class if 
pot up in accordance with the ruling referring to such articles in the Canada Postal 
Guide for 1899, page xvii. 

Chables E. Tukneb, 

ChfKul- General. 

Ottawa. Octaba- S8, 1899. 

REPORT FROM CONSHIiATE-GENKRAIi AT MONTREAL. 

UENEKAL TRADE CONDITIONa 

Authorities ^nei'ally agree that the volume of tfadc in Montreal 
at present is much larger than a year ago. 

The following ligures, being the combined value of imports and 
exports of the port of Montrealf or the years 1878, 1888, 1898, indicate 
the progress of business : 

1878 146,761,411 

1888 63,905,921 

1898 123,846,883 

Buainess in wholesale as well as retail circles has continued fair 
throughout the sunmier, and although sales are close and profits small, 
merchants declare they are more remunerative than for years past, as 
cutting is not so general as it used to be and payments are more 
prompt Business men here have at last adopted modem methods; 



NORTH AMEBIOA: DOMINION OF CANADA. 287 

indefinite credits are no longer given; thirty days is the general time 
of credit, and a liberal discount for cash is allowed. 

Revenue. — In point of volume of business, no previous year in the 
history of Canada approaohed that of the &ical year whicn ended on 
June 30 last. This la. shown by the customs revenue collected at this 
port. Five years ago, the total amount collected wasS5,d83,340;inthe 
two sucoeedmg years there was a slight betterment. In the liscalyear 
ended June 80. 1898, customs duties amounted to ¥7,207,005, while in 
the year justclosed the sum of SS,662,770 was collected. This repre- 
sents a gain of 20 per cent, or $1,455,700 in a single year, and reflects 
accurately the expansion of trade the Dominion ^s experienced. 

In addition to uie customs revenue received at this port, the harbor 
commission revenue amounted to (250,000; the pilotage dues to another 
$80,000, and mariner and steamboat inspector fees to $10,000. As 
much more as this last figure came from minor sources, so that in all 
the revenue collected at the port of Montreal has exceeded $&,000,000. 
The total customs revenue for the whole Dominion during the last year 
was $25,400,000, so that one-third of this principal source of public 
revenue comes from this port. 

Dairy Products. — The demand for Canadian cheese and butter in 
England just now has caused a buoyancy in the market of these prod- 
ucts here. Cheese is selling for export to the United Kingdom at a 
fractioD over 9 cents. Tub butter for the same destination sells 
readily at ISi to 19 cents. There is no disguising the fact that John 
Bull will buy Canadian produce in increat^ed volume this year, and 
particularly is his demand increased by reason of the fact that his own 
make of cheese, according to report, gives every promise of being 
below expectations. An analysis of the past weeVs shipments from 
Montreal is interesting. The shipment of cheese reached the magnifi- 
cent total of 112,256 traxes, as compared with only 77,192 boxes for the 
corresponding week last year, or an increase or 35,064 boxes. This 
brings the total shipment of the season up to 806,018 boxes, in com- 
parison with 637,344 boxes a year ago. But while this gain in itself 
18 notable, the increase in the butter movement for the year is still more 
more striking. Last week, Montrealshipped no less than 23,741 pack- 

r, compared with 2,449 pack^^s lawt year, making the total for 
year 128.256, against 57,405 last year, or more than double. 

Another thing of equal importance to the dairymen is the continued 
rise in prices, last week having seen a gain of half a cent a pound in 
cheese over the week previous. Butter, too, has been very firm, and 
producers of both have every reason for satisfaction with the outlook. 
This season, as in past yearn, much has depended on the quality of the 
Canadian product, and as far as can be learned it has been sustained. 
Under enlightened systems of producing cheese and butter, Canada 
has made rapid strides, and if this present season can pass without 
speculators t»ing carried away by the activity, it must at its close be 
put down as a record maker. 

The notable thing in the dairy produce trade was the drop of over 
200,000 boxes in the cheese exports for the season of 1898. In 1897, 
after a steady growth from 1,104,000 boxes in 1S87, the two million 
mark waspace^, and the figure of 2,102,985 boxes was reached. In 
1898 the total is 1,888,785 boxes. A variety of causes produced 
the unfavorable showing. There was a light production of fodder 
stuff in the early season, and low prices during the great part of the 



288 OOHVSBOI&L BSXATIONS. 

summer were not calculated to encourage factorymen. The loss was 
partly made up for by the larger output of butter, which many of the 
factories have been adapted to produce as the season warrants. The 
butter exports via Montreal have varied almost as greatlj' as those of 
sheep. In 1880, they were up to 194,000 packages; in 1894 they 
dropped to 32,000. Then the attention given by the officials and 
instructors of the various governmentB began to tell. The adoption 
of the same methods that so improved the cheese product helped the 
butter trade. In 1895, there were sentacross the Atlantic via this port 
69,664 packages. Thev almost quadrupled in the next three seasons, 
and in that of 1898 reached 278,932 in number. The gain was made in 
face of the competition of both European and Austr^asian exporters, 
the one seeking to retain andtheothertocaptureashareof the British 
market. It is a justification of the steps taken to promote the industry, 
and gives reason for expecting that what has t^en won will be hela 
and perhaps added to. This would need to be the case if the decline 
in the cheese exports should continue, as even with the gain shown in 
butter, the drop in the value of products exported from Montreal last 
season is not measured by less than a million dollars. It is the one 
drawback in the generally satisfactory record. 

Cotton and WW#a.— There is a fair demand for cotton and woolen 
goods. A large quantity of last season's wool clip is still on the 
Canadian market, there being probably 400,000 pounds in Toronto 
alone, none of which was bought at less than 16 cents. New fleece 
wool is coming in freely, and though dealers entered the market at 
first at 14 cents a pound they are not anxious to buy, and it is not 
unlikely that growers and country merchants will carry part of the 
clip well into the season. In the country districts local causes have 
slightly advanced prices, and general storekeepers and some manu- 
facturers have paid 16 cents a pound in some cases. The present 
price of Canadian fleece is the lowest on record, and is 2 cents per 
pound lower than the price of wool at the same season in any of the 
past eleven years. 

The success of the cotton manufactories in the Provinces of Quebec 
and Ontario is astounding to most people. The Dominion cotton mills 
may be taken as an example. The annual report recently submitted to 
the directory showed that the profits for the past year had amounted 
to $435,888.98, and out of this the dividend, interest on bonds, etc., 
had to be deducted. The company had sold during the year goods to 
the amount of $2,325,000. It.hadf earned 10 and paid 6 per cent, and 
instead of paying $73,000 in commissions as formerly, the work was 
now done for $28,000. The total assets of the company reached 
$8,000,000, the capital being $3,000,000, and it was reported that they 
had on hand $900,000 wor^ of raw cotton. All of the mills owned 
by the company were being fitted up with the best and most modern 
machinery, and as the demand for the output is good in Canada, the 
outlook was considered good. There was an increase in the profits 
over the preceding year of $129,000, and the sum of $148,000 was 
carried forward, 

The rapid up-building of the cotton industry is attributed to the 
Canadian tariff. Raw cotton is admitted free; the tariff on manufac- 
tured cotton goods is heavy, and labor is cheaper than in the Unil^ 
States, with no fear of strikes. 

D.gitizecbyG00glc 



NOETH AMEEICA: DOJOHION of CANADA. 289 

Lvffnher. — The shipmenta of lumber to Great Britain from this port 
during the summer of 1898 were as follows: 

Measra. DobelL Beckett 4 Co 76, 924, 116 

Meeere-W, AJ.Sharplee 62,488,502 

Meagra. Wfttaon A Todd 44,819,842 

MeeBTB. Robert Coi& Co 39,627,140 

Me«ra. McArthur Bros 35,695,636 

MeflBra.J.BurBt«ll*Co :... 30,802,571 

MesBiB. K H. LeMay 5,122,000 

Iron and sted imports. — A country's annual consumption of manu- 
factures of iroD and steel may, in perhaps every case, be taken as a 
complete indication of its material progress or prosperity. The higher 
tiie standards of civilization, the greater is the diversity in the uees to 
which the metals, especially iron, are put. The more widespread the 
material prosperity, the greater the need of iron and steel m all the 
processes of production, transportation, and organization. The altered 
purchasing power of a conununity is clearly reflected in its use of 
these materials and their products. There is an excellent proof of 
this in the figures showing the variations of Canada's commerce from 
yearto year. Thus, in 1890, the value of imports of iron and steel iu 
all forms amounted to thirteen and a half millions. In 1895, after 
a period of bad times, the imports had fallen to less than nine millions. 
There was a partial, but slow recovery in 1896 and 1897, and in 1898, 
keeping pace with the general prosperity of that year, the importa- 
tions increased to seventeen millions. For the financial year ending 
June 30, the total is a full nineteen millions, or more than twice the 
amount of the importations in 1895. The accompanying table shows 
tite variation from year to year since 1890 : 

1890 113,524,442 1895 $8,881,414 

1891..^ 13,815,080 — ' ~ 

1892 J2,406,683 

1893 12,784,044 

1894 11,040,619 

Ifog products. — In reply to a question as to what is causing the scar- 
city of nog products on this market, the representative of a large pack- 
ing house in Toronto stated that it was owing to the large exports to 
Ij^ngland and the Klondike. During the last month the exports of bacon 
to England have increased wonderftilly, and packers now find that the 
old-country market shows more profit than does the home one. Hogs 
are shippea in half, as the Wiltshire bacon, and in this way everything is 
taken, and the expense of preparation is low. Canadian bacon sells for 
14b (^.40) over the American bacon, and has even been shipped to 
Ireland to be repacked and sent forward as Irish goods. This large 
English demand is owing to the fact that Canadians are carefnl to 
breed pigs which produce the right kind of bacon, viz., plenty of lean 
meat with an even layer of fat from head to tail, whereas Americans 
breed heavy -shouldered, over-fat swine. The feeding has also much 
to do with it, and in this also Canadians have the advantage, for they 
allow the young pigs enough exercise to give them a strong founda- 
tion. They feed pease, milk, and vegetables largely, with a compar- 
atively sn^l amount of corn, whereas American hogs are fattened 
almost exclusively on the erain. 

Live stock eaports. — The live stock and dairy produce exports were 

the unsatisfactory features of the St. Lawrence season of 1898, the 

H. Doc. 481, Pt. 1 19 . .iOOqIc 



. 10,785,576 
. 17,106,207 
. 19,000,000 



290 OOHMEBCIAL BELATIOITB. 

exports of cattle, of sheep and horses, and of cheese all showing a fall- 
ing off, the total of which means a considerable loss to-the shipping of 
this port especially, a loss, however, that was partly compeusat«d for 
bj larger ahipmente in other lines of merchandise. Comparing the 
live-stock exports of the season of 1898 with those of 1897, the follow- 
ing is shown : 





ISM. 


IMI, 




"J 


121, S7G 











In regard to cattle, the decrease is a loss to the port rather than to 
the trade. Of the total decline in numbers of 20,139 head, about a 
third (6,452) was in United States cattle shipped through Canada in 
bond. The difference between this and last year's figures was also 
made up for by the shipment through United States points, chiefly 
via Boston, of considerable quantities of Canadian fattened cattle. 
The Buffalo market has also been a competitor with Montreal, and 
took in 1898 from western Ontario a considerable number of lean ani- 
mals to be fattened by United States feeders. How far this competi- 
tion will be permanent remains to be seen. It is in one sense not a 
profitable diversion, so far as the country is concerned, it being better 
to get the price of tne fattened than of the lean beast. The decline 
in me exports of sheep is possibly part of a permanent movement, 
though the variations of the trade have shown such marked fluctua- 
tions that predictions must be made with caution. Between 1892 and 
1695 the snipments of sheep rose from 15,932 to 217,000, which was 
the record, and the yearly variations have been very wide. There is 
warrant in the past for not bein^ surprised at a recovery in the future. 
In regard to the decline in the shipment of horses, there ia a possibility 
that It will be permanent. Great Britain has been slow in adopting 
electricity for street-car propulsion, and the tramways of the great 
cities have given a market for a class of horses that has almost ceased 
to be used in Noith America. Now thftt the electric ear is being intro- 
duced in some of the largest cities outside of London, there is little 
doubt that the trolley wDl rapidly replace the street-car horse in the 
old, as it has in the new land. If it does, the maintenance of the horse 
trade may depend on Canadian raisers being able to adapt their product 
to the new conditions. Neither trolley nor bicycle lia.'^ killed tbe mar- 
ket for horses that can meet the popumr taste and demand. 

Invoices. — On the Ist of January last^ some new customs regula- 
tions were put in force in regard to invoices under the general tariff. 
The following certificate to invoices is now required: 

This invoice is true and corrert, and where there is a difierence between any of 
the pricee shown therein and the ordinary credit price at which the same articles are 
now Kid bona fide by the exporter, in like quantity and condition, at this place for 
consumption in this country, the latter prices are enown on the margin or elsewhere 
on such invoice. 

Under the old form, the exporters simply had to certify that the 
invoice was correct. 

The new certificate bos been adopted with the object of securing a 
more just and faithful appraisal of goods under die law and in the , 



NOBTH AKEBIOA: DOHIITION of CANADA. 291 

ho^ that it will be a means toward securing unifonnity in values, 
which is very much desired, not only by the department, but by honest 
importors generally. The customs act, by which the department has 
to be governed in its administration, provides that whenever any duty, 
ad valorem, is imposed on goods imported into Canada, the value for 
duty shall be the lair market value thereof when sold for home con- 
sumption in the principal mai;fceta of the country whence the same 
were exported directly to Canada, at the date of shipment. The 
exporter may sell and the importer may purchase at prices lower than 
the home consumption value— that is perfectly legitmiate business — 
but the provision of the law requires that the goods must be entered 
at the home-consumption value in the country of export. In very 
many cases, goods are sold in foreign countries for export to Canada 
at special prices, which are lower than the fair market value in the 
country of export, and consequently do not represent the correct value 
for duty purposes here. In such cases the old certificate, which is 
simply to the effect that the invoice is correct, is useless in determining 
the value for duty. 

The importer is ofton without knowledge as to the home-consump- 
tion value, although he is required by the law to enter the goods at 
such value and to make oath thereto. The new regulation requires 
the exporter to show the home-market value on the naargin or else- 
where of his invoice, where there is a difference between such value 
and the selling price shown on the invoice, and it will therefore be of 
assistance not only to the department but to the importer. It is hoped 
that the certificate will do away, in some degree at least, with the 
necessity for amended entries consequent upon goods being entered 
at invoice prices which do not represent the proper value for duty. 
The demands for such entries have been the cause of much friction 
between the department and importers in past years. It is not, of 
course, considered that the information given in the certificate will be 
absolutely accurate in all cases; allowance has to be made for miscon- 
ception as to what constitutes me fair market price, to say nothing of 
fraud. It is felt, however, that on the whole the certificate will te of 
very material benefit, and it is conceived to be a step in the right 
direction. The objects of the department in prescribing a new certifi- 
cate, namely, to secure as far as possible the proper collection of tiie 
revenue and to insure uniformity in such collection, can not but be 
approved by every honest importer. The necessity of having uni- 
formity in the collection of duties has frequently been urged upon the 
depaiixnent by business houses and boards of trade, and the depart- 
ment fully appreciates it and is endeavoring to effect it. UnifoiTDity is 
desirable, not only in the interest of the business public, but also in the 
interest of the revenue. It should be noted that the certificate applies 
only to merchandise for entry under the general tariff. It need not be 
furnished in the case of goods subject to a specific duty, free goods, 
or goods not being merchandise. 

BemJemg. — In the present trade "sitnation in Canada, there are three 
things that can be considered with profit: the bank statement, the fail 
ure record, and the returns from the various clearing houses. All three 
have en important bearing on different branches of trade, and it is 
certainly significant that mey are all unanimous in indicating general 
activity and business stability. The last bank statement, which covers 
the month of June, is a remarkable one in many respects, for not only 



OOHKEBOIAL BZLATIONS. 



does it fully indicate trade animatjon, but shows an accumulation of 
public money in the banks that is nothing short of phenomenal. The 
deposits on aemand and on notice were as follows: 





lg». 


,m 


On demand.. .. 


H1.SGS.400 
1«6.M».9« 












2S8.8m.3« 


2I7,0«»,3tS 





This is an increase of no less than $31,888,997 over last year, and a 
growth of $2,088,836 within a month. Under ordinary circumstances 
such an expansion in deposits might be construed as showing a tendency 
toward conservatism on the part of the public, or, in other words, 
a disposition to bank money rather than put it into outside invest- 
ments, on the basis of the old-time saw that a bird in the hand is wortii 
two in the bush. Nothing of the kind can be thought at present. 
There is not a person in the country who can deny the fact that money 
is going into legitimate enterprises at an almost unprecedented rate, 
and when we see innumerable gold-mine corporations springing up in 
all directions, and money pourmg into the hands of the promoters, it 
is onlj fair to say that tne growth of the bank deposits m the fac« of 
it alt IS remarkable. Current loans and discounts during June reached 
$250,974,387, against only $222,413,538 a year ago, while call loans 
were $30,659,460, against ^20,066,715. The amount of money in cir- 
culation was also greater by $2,500,000 than last year, while tne trade 
balance with the United Kin^om and the Continent was, as usual, 
vastly in favor of Canada. 

The failure record is equally encouraging, and nothing better than 
the following, which tells the story for the past six months of the 
present year, could be hoped for: 





Flint tix moDths. 




IBM. 


1898. 




tI.S7S,S4S 

t.m.sn 


818 













Here we have a falling off in failures within the six months of no 
less than 16 percent and a shrinkage in Habilities of 20 per cent. The 
improvement was noticed in all classes of trade, from financial concerns 
to small trading houses. The manufacturers made a good showing, 
the iron men particularly coming out well. In dry goods, too, there 
was an appreciable improvement, both the actual number of failures 
and the liabilities decreasing materially. 

The best idea of the state of affairs in financial circles is of course 
furnished by the bank clearings, which for the month of June and the 
first six months of the year were: 



1899 fl24, 449,837 

1898 116,062,608 

Incraese 9,387,229 



HOBTH AMERICA: DOHimON OF CANADA. 



1899 f751,440,fl05 

1898 676,142,796 

IncreRBe 76,397,810 



This ia an increase of 8 per cent for June, which is very satisfactory 
in view of the fact that that month practically saw the beginning of 
the dull period in the stock markets. Montreal hsiS helped materially 
to swell the increases in the clearings, but there was not a city in the 
Dominion that did not show an increase for the six months. 

IMPORTS. 

The value of the principal articles of merchandise entered for con- 
sumption at this port dunng the year ending December 31, 1898, was 
as follows: 

Ale, beer, and porter 124,634 

Animals 2, 734 

Books, pamphlets, etc 283, 383 

Braae, manufactureBof 112,768 

BreadBtnfia: 

Grain of all kinds 827 

Flour 1,676 

Meal, com, and oala 1, 964 

Rice ., 186,616 

Other breadstuHs 62,831 

Bicycles, etc 116, 069 

C^T8, railway and train 2, 046 

Cement, ana manufactures of 406,958 

Coal, bituminous 88,130 

Copper, mannfactoree of 28,289 

Cotton: 

Not dyed, colored, etc 212,663 

Dyed, colored, etc 1,067,458 

Clothing 113,869 

Thread, yarn, warp, etc 233, 133 

Thread on spools 270, 478 

Other mannfa<:tiire8 of 221,884 

Druffsand medidnea 636,812 

Earflienware, stone and china ware 224,676 

Fancy goods and embroideries, viz: 

Bracelets, braids, fringB8,etc 314,676 

I^cea, collars, nettinra, etc 257,970 

All other fancy goods 100,918 

HiBcellaaeons: 

Flax, manufactures of 675,008 

Fish, and products of 146,184 

Fruits and nuts, dried 272, 066 

Green, viz, oisnges and lemons 291,322 

Another 86,224 

Furs, manufactures of 247, 700 

Glass, manuEacturee of, vii: 

Bottlea, tableware, etc 147, 992 

Window...: 193,592 

Plate 99,911 

All other manufactures of 42,043 

Gunpowder and explosive substances 24,572 

GuttO'percha.mannbctnresof 124,596 

Hats, cape, and bonnets, beaver, silk, or ielt 339, 148 

AlloUier 168,912 

Iron and steel, and manufacturee of, vii: 

Band, hoop, sheet, and plate 677,762 

Bar irwi and railway bare 30,063 



294 



COMMERCIAL EELAT10N9. 



Iron and eteel, and mBiitifectures of, viz — ContiitQ«d. 

Cutlery, hardware, toote, and implementa 9606,324 

Machines, machinery, and engines..... .' 716,005 

Pig iron, kentledge, and Bcnip 356,066 

Stoveeand castings 1 41,663 

Iron and steel tubing 169, 729 

Other manufactures l , 686, 663 

Jewelry and watches 326, 443 

Lead, and manufactures of 172, 776 

Leather, all kinds 467,058 

Boota and shoes 91, 294 

All other man utacturea of 48,092 

Marble and stone 52, 003 

Metals, and manufactures of 204, 046 

Musical inatruments 63,774 

Oil: 

Mineral and products 96,166 

Flaxseed or linseed 171,703 

All other 200,003 

lUnts and colore 422, 482 

Riper, envelopes, etc 378, 239 

I^ckles, sauces, capers, alt kinds 37,624 

Provisions: 

Lard, meats, fresh and salt 122, 794 

Butter, cheese 10,374 

Seeds and roots 101, 662 

Silk, manufactures of 1, 138, 211 

Boap,all kinds 116,046 

Spices, ground and unground : 47,814 

Spirits, all kinds 406,686 

Wines: 

Sparkling 88,746 

Other than sparkling 136,231 

Suwr 3,668,490 

MoJasses and sirups 200, 148 

Tobacco and cigars 91, 079 

Leaf 134,365 

Vegetables 72,858 

Wood, manufactures of 99, 486 

Woolens — 

Carpets of all kinds 254,574 

Clothing 330,860 

Cloths, worsteds, coatinRS, etc 1, 051, 917 

Dress goods 1 , 575, 91 7 

Knitted goods 324,756 

Shawls 19,555 

Yams 39,226 

All other manufactures of 178, 088 

All other dutiable goods 3,625,016 

Total dutiable 28,630,143 

Total free 20,666,021 

Coin and bullion 4, 366, 882 

Grand total _ ." .'i3, 643, 046 

The free goods imported during the year were: 

Animals, for improvement of -. f21, 936 

Asphaltum or asphalt 33, 478 

Broom com 2, S7S 

Indian com 7,686,658 

Coal, anthracite 962, 101 

Coffee 136,229 

Cotton waste 87,023 

Cotton, raw 901,144 

Dyes, chemicals, etc 1 , 209, 319 

Fish, and products of 30, 306 

Fisheries, articles for, netH, seines, lines, etc 8,666 



NORTH AMERICA: DOMINION <iV CAHADA. 296 

Fmils, Ikuuuuw, olives, pineapplei, etc :... fl49, 133 

FarBkmB.notdreeaed 277,171 

GieoBe for Boap tn&king 27,S18 

Hidea and skins 633. »S3 

India rubber and gutta-percha, crude 965, 465 

Juta cktth and juta yam 387, 374 

Metals: 

Brass and copper 664, 220 

Steel rails for railways 83, 870 

Iron and ftcel, all other 718.640 

Tia and «inc 466, 609 

Other 46,206 

Oils, vegetable 18,443 

Salt 80,161 

Settlers' eftects 314,455 

Bilk, raw 114,294 

Ksaf, roaiula,and bemp, imdreesed...: 179,406 

Tea 710,180 

Tobacco leaf (for si jc months only) 644, 262 

Wood, cabinetmakers', etc 377,539 

Wool 182,006 

All other free goods 2,646,803 

Total 20,666,021 

Coin and balHon ■ 4, 356, 882 

Total free goods 25,012,903 

la 1897, the dutiable eooda were valued at $33,936,103, the free 
goods at (13,714,103, anil the coin and bullion at (2,351,599, nuking 
a total of (40,001,805. 

EXPORTS. 
Vnlae of nurchandae exported from thuporl during the year ended Decanber SI, 1898. 

The mine: 

Coal $218 

OTMof all kinds 28,425 

Phosphates 8, 000 

Other articles 156,680 

Total 193,223 

The fisheries: 

Fish 104,940 

Rshoil J 68 

Total 104,998 

The forest: 

Ashes, pot and pearl 36,321 

Ix^B, pine 150 

Loea, all other 836 

Lumber 5,674,114 

Timber, square 126,699 

Other articles 26,723 

Total 5,763,743 

Animals and their produce: 

Horsea 170,660 

Homed catUe 6,968,628 

Sheep 217,006 

Other aaimi^ 423 

Butter 3,128,688 

Cheoe 12,657,749 

Eggs 688,077- 



3U6 



COMMERCIAL KELATIONS. 



Animals and their produce — Continued. 

Meat of all kinda Jl, 686,649 

Other artidea 637,726 

Total 26,601,300 

Agricnltutal prodncta: 

FniiUi,green 891,412 

Barley 164,463 

Beans and pease 1,067,602 

Indian com 7, .195, 913 

Rye 661,308 

Gate 2,200,813 

Wheat 7,844,229 

Other grain 167,422 

Flour of wheat and rye 1 , 215, 666 

Indian and other meal 122, BIT 

Malt : 1,015 

Other articles 1,319,823 

Total 23,032,688 

Manufacture: 

Cottons, woolens, etc .- 173,102 

Extract of hemlock bark 143 

Iron — pig and scrap, castings, hardware, etc 312, 642 

Leather 740,178 

Boots and Bhoee 6,202 

All other manufactures of 6,613 

liquors, spirituous and malt, of all kinds 15, 175 

Sewing machines 12,704 

Ships sold to other countries 2,000 

Tobacco, snuff, and cigars 28,778 

Wood, manufactures of, all kinds 252, 120 

Other articles 1,440,686 

Totol 2,690,043 

Miscellaneoua articIeH 162, 058 

Total 57,647,953 

Bullion, K.ld, in bars, blocks, or ingots 629, 168 

Coin,gold 4,612,992 

Coin.eilver 39,607 

Grand total 62,729,720 

IMPORTS IN 1899. 



AiUcltw. 


Im|>orli>. 


For 


OINIBAL TABIFT. 


1 

s 

11 

170. 4I» 
Z6,88S 






to:SS 










ss.Bai 












^S 






,^-lSSl 












til.JU 





H0B7B AMEBICA: DOMINION (IF CANADA. 

ing the value of the principal articUt imporled and nOettd for c 
I (AM poiri for the haif year ending June 30, 1899 — Contmned. 



297 

mmptian 



ArUcIo. 



o EH mil. TABirr— coDtlnDed. 

Electrl« ftpi*mtiu 

Braldi, bncelelo. cords, frlnns. tniwnli. etc 

Lacn. lace eollan, and slmlhtBOodB 

Oy«e™.»lieUed.Itibulli 

Orange); lenuHu 

Olaa Jan and glan balls, and cnt.pn 



ilded a 



ic glan Uble. 



ODtta-percha. all kinds 

GloTM and m< ttiot aJ 1 kinda 

flat^ oapa. and atiav hats 

Bnguiea, rail war 

Baid«aj«, Tli.buIidlDK.CBblnetmakcn'.iaddlen', and carriage budmre, etc.. 

Inmorited lDgot8,coat^ lugola. bloonu, naba, etc 

lion In pin 

loclEBoIall kinds 

SevrlnsmachlneaandpaiUol 

Boiled iron oiiteel angles, ties, beams, girden, and otheriolled shapes or aec- 

Bol led Iron OT'stMl'platMl n'm ieu thati WlDCh'e^^^^ 

Skelp Iron or steel, abeared or rolled In grooTes. Imporied by manulactaren of 
wroDght Iron or Meel pipe, lor use oQlr In the manulactuie of mought Iron 
ortneel pips in their own factOTlei 

Bollertubeaol wrought lion or steel. Including flaesand ooROgated tnbeafor 



ifBteHlilal 



Bteel In bars, bands, boope. sciijl, or stripe, etc 

Toob. hand or machine, tJ all klnda 

If anaraclnrea, articles, oi wares not specially enumerated or proTlded lor. 

Wbollj 0' <n ™tt r^ Imn ™ iliuil 



Oair.kld,oT goat, lamb, and sheep skins, dj 
Leather, upper, dreand, waxed. or glaied. 

Boots and aboea 

lAmpa,ridellirht8.aDd headlights, 

OU,coal,BDdkeroaene.dIsr 

Oil, vegeuble, eotton-*eed, 



is.dr«n!d, waxed, or glued. . . 






hper,all Undt.D.e.a 

FoBl«fflce parcels and packages... 
Printing prenes. printing maGhlne 
Printing pieases, ports or. 



Seedi, garden, field, and otber seeds for agrlcnltural or other porpoaea . . 
BUktaErica .„ T^.^^... 



BOk ribbons 

Bplrils,bnu]dT.BlI kinds 

^ilts. whisky 

BcgaraboTeNo.ie Dutchstandardlncolor,BndBllreHnedsc 

CradeB,ors(andardi 

'^~ ~ -. . . • rd In color 



Ctears 

Tobacco, pi 



!a,all kinds . . 



acco, pipes, ai: 

Turpentine, ^irit 

Watch BclloDB, etc 

Wood,manDfactaresol 

Wool: 

Cloths 

Knitted goods 

Bocks, etc 

Onderflklrtt and drawere 

Fabrics and manutactorei, wholl; or In part ol wool, w 



Coal, anthracite, and dost 

Cherry, cheitnnt, gum wood, and hickory and nhitewaod . . 
PIlGh pine ' .' .' .'-' .' '. '. '. '. '. '. .'.' .* .' .'.' ■ .' ' .' .' .' .' ' ■ .' .','.■ ■ .■.',' .' .' .' .' .'.' ■ ■ .' .'.' ■ .' 





"aim 
















«s,oes 


























W.1S1 


W,2» 


36, SM 


3S.WI 










17.177 





»7,»1S 
41,063 
XCOSS 



COHMEBCIAL RELATIONS. 



Hlda sua BttUu, whether dir.aalted, or pickled 

Bilk. Tav or K3 reeled from the cocoon, not being doubled, twilled, or sdTuiced 
In mAiiDlBctnre In toy war 



H^p.Diidi«<;;^ — ' ' 




















nd China gort plates or ragB, not dyed 















Sulphate ol copper. 

Duck loi belting and hoae. Imported by 
■ «._. ..„..g||^ fv,, — 



. , rsol (uch arflclea for 01 

. re thereof in thelrown factorlea 

jute cloth as taken from the loom 

Helala, Copper, in piga ot injola 

Copper. In bola. ban, and ^5d^ in coils or otberwin, in length! not len than 

feet, nnmannoctured 

Iron or iteel rolled round wire rods, the coll not over tbree'elghtha ln<^ 1 

diameter, imported for factor; tue 

Bteel bowla for cream separatoii, and cream eepaiaton 

Tin, In blocks, pIgB, and ban 

TinplateBandeheeu 

Barbed fencing wire of iron and sleel 

ipapera, and quarterly, monthly 
, of 'vltoD, linen, etc 



Hanoi 

Rubber: 



Seawv^id, and rubber aulntltute 

Ooflea, green, imixnted direct from the country of growth 

Palntlngi, In oil or water colon, by artists of well-known merit . . 



Cocoa sbdls and nibs. < 



id other preparations ol cocoa . . 



« and flix cord.. 



Sewing cotton thread In hanka, th 

ClothSig 

Cotton, uneolored, hbrlcs. bleached 

VelvetSi Tclveleeiu, and plush fabrics.. 

While granite or iro 

Flowers, artiflclal.. 

laaa, lace collars, and similar goods 

Carpeting, rugs, matting, and mats ot hemp or jutu 
Damask of linen, stair linen, diaper, napkins, elc . . . 

Unens. brown or bleached 

Linen duck, canvas, or other menu [actureeot flax.. 

Linen thread 

Other mflnuiactures ot hemp or Jule 

Clothing, and clothing made waterproof with India 

Beaver, slllc, or fell 

6tIBW, grass, chip 

Leather, belting leather of all kinds 

Flaxseed or linseed, raw or boiled 

Oilcloth, enameled, carriage, Boor.etc 

Bilk clothing 

Cmbrellas, parasols, all kinds 

Wool, manufactures ol~ 

cloths 

Bocks and stockings 

" lanuiactuies, composed 



il fabrics and n 



wholly or in part of wooi 



Clothing, ready.made, and wearing apparel, compnsBd whollf or in part I 



__ Si" 



wonted, elc .. 



NOBTB AMERICA: DOHIMION OF CANADA. 





ImpoiU. 


^^ 


Dntj. 




tii,ni,M4 

t.Mll.t» 


IB,7H,<n9 

ui.me 


^ffiiJ.^^ 






K:m.» 






ie,«»,i2s 
6.m:9ca 


14,575. 4T« 


4,188,133.21 










Se,87Z,O0O 


;a,4H.n>o 









BXPOBTS IN 1899. 



AnlQlau 


OoodKhe 


Tol»lei- 
pon«.prm)- 


T.,J-f™ ~,.n^ 


10; 870 

is.cao 

.is 
as 

i 








'^Z!^':::;:::::;::;::::;::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 




















Timber: 










*r 


















'•'g'^ 












""^oon 


iS 










Miiss 










38, U» 




W,S67 










^■^ 








U,88« 
4t,61! 

Is 

11 








4«.7DB 


























'?^ss 






,S'it? 




TST-Tr^r::::;::::":::;;::;:::::::::::::::::::::":::::;::::::::::^ 


80,107 


""•A*, 


181,574 






iai 







COKHERCIAL BELATIOHS. 





BECAPITULATION. 






"IJS""*- 


116, £49 

9,7M 


nS'SS 
































■«s 
















9,182,618 






' 



It seems to be an iodisputable fact that business cODditions ia the 
United States lai^ely affect trade in Canada; When there is stagna- 
tion and depression in the United States, trade is slow here. Industrial 
activity, expanaion of trade, and general prosperity in the Republic 
are followed by activity and prosperity here. 

While the importations from the United States are lai^, they sre 
aomewhat checked by the Canadian tariff, which is in a large measure 
retaliatory on account of the heavy duty imposed by the United States 
on many Canadian products. Everyone here except Canadian manu- 
facturers, who are reaping a rich harvest by reason of the heavy duty 
on importations from the United States, is hoping for a larger reci- 
procity between the two countries. For a time uiere was an almost 
universal feeling of confidence that the Joint High Commission in the 
International Conference would come to such an B^eement as would 
insure a more liberal trade policy between the Unitea States and Canada. 
Merchants here claim that while it would be much more convenient for 
them to make their purchases in the United States the greater benefit 
would be to American manufacturers and producers. 

Canada is now increasing in population far more rapidly than at any 
former period of her history. The people are to a large d^ee like 
those of the United States in their habits, wants, and needs. They are 
growing richer every year, and their desire to live better develops with 
prosperity. The trade of 5,000,000 Canadian people is, therefore, 
worta more than the trade of a much larger number in the Sontii 
American countries. 

HONTBEAL HABBOR. 

A comprehensive scheme of harbor improvement for this port haa 
been projected to be carried out jointly by the Dominion Government 
and the city. About $6,000,000 is to be expended, of which sum the 
city will furnish J2,000,000 and the Dominion Government $4,000,000. 
Parliament has already appropriated $2,500,000. The balance will be 
appropriated at the next session. The scheme contemplates harbor 
enmrgement and deepening, a system of wharves, railway connec- 
tions, freight sheds, grain elevators, etc. 

The traffic that passed through the harbor last year was the largest 
in its history. There were 8,682 vessels with a tonnage of 1,584,072, 
being 72 vessels and a tonnage of 205,070 more than in 1897. Of 
inland vessels there were 6,941, an increase of 657 over the previous 
year. The total net ordinary revenue was $296,593 as ^^tnst $255,416 



NORTH AMEBICA; dominion of CANADA. SOI 

in 1897, an increase of $41,177, or a iitUe over 16 per cent Two- 
thirds of this increase came from exports: the total revenue from 
exports being 50 per cent larger than from miporte. 

The excess of ordinary revenue over ordinary expenditure waa 
$54,588, ^[ainst which there was interest accrued and payable, $49,085. 

The accidents on the river between Montreal and Quebec wiiich, 
from report received, resulted in damage to the vessels, were three in 
number, viz, the Milwaukee, at Barre a Boulard; ChrUaU Oiiy, between 
Barre a Boulard and Richelieu Island, and the Glenmore ffead, at the 
top of Cap a la Roch channel. In none of the cases was the danu^ 
serious, and after examination by divers at Quebec the vessels were 
allowed to continue their passage across the Atlantic. 

The greatest interest has been shown by the Dominion GovemmeDt 
and officials of the several departments, especially the departments of 
public works and marine fisheries, in the improvement, enlai^ement, 
and maintenance of the ship channel at the highest standard. 

The following table shows the number of seagoing vessels which 
have arrived in this port in the years l880 to 1898, their total tonnage, 
the value of the merchandise exported, value of the merchandise im- 
ported, and the customs duties collected in the several years: 



Value ol I VnlueoF 
I merchandise . mercbuidlK 
i eiporWd. I imported. 





868 

734 
8W 

1 

1 
1 







































8,778. Ml 
B,T4&,BW 
8,362,618 
6,«8£,5M 



The steamship service between Canada and the West Indies and 
South America is to be doubled. Heretofore, there has been a monthly 
service. The Imperial authorities desired that it should be doubled, 
offering to pay the extra subsidy. The new contract is for five years 
insteaa of one. The sailings are to be fortnightly, from St. Jonn to 
Halifax, and thence to Port of Spain, making the trip ip eleven days, 
and calling at Hamilton, in Bermuda; Castries, in St. Lucia; and 
Bridgetown, in Barbadoes. 

In the first trip only fourteen days are allowed, but seven extra 
places are touched. From Port of Spain the ship is to proceed to 
Geoi^etown, British Guiana. On the return trip, the ports of call 
will &: Port of Spain, Trinidad; Bridgetown, in Barbadoes; Kings- 
ton, in St. Vincent; Castries, in St. Lucia; Roseau, in Dominica; 
Plymouth, in Montserrat; St. John, in Antigua; Basse Terre, in St. 
Kitts, and Hamilton, in Bermuda. 

The subsidy will be $65,500 from the Dominion and an extra $65,500 
from the Imperial Government. , ~ , 



S02 COMMEBOIAL BBLAHOXTS. 

NEW WHABFAQE E&TES. 

A new tariff of wharfage rates haa just been announced by the harbor ■ 
commiseioEier. Hereafter, importers must attach bills of ladiog to 
wharfage tickets, the bills or lading to be retained for forty-eight 
hours. The following is the text of the new tariff: * 

The following ratee are to be levied as hereinafter set forth on the atter-menldoned 
articles when luided or shipped in the harbor, or moved by rail on the harbor tracks 
or depodted within the harbor. No discount allowed. 

Coat, coke, grain, seeds of all kinds, unhulled rice, wet wood pulp, 6 cents per ton. 

Ballsat, cement, clay, fire bricks, gypsum, phosphates, sands, scoria blocks, earthen 
drainpipes, marble, and all other stone, slate, wniting, iron ore, coarse salt in baae 
and bulk, 8 cents per ton. Apples, bottles in cratee or mate, comstarch and malt, 
crates and their contents, drv wood pulp, fish, fiour and meal, glucose sogar, glflcose 
Btnip, hay, hoiaee, lard, lard oil and oil cake, meat, neat cattle, onions and vegeta- 
bles, oranges, lemons, and other green fruity piteh, potatoes, sheep, straw, swine, 
tallow, tar, tobacco, steel rails for railways and tramways, zinc tuid lead ores, 12 
cents per ton. 

Pig and scrap iron, pot and pearl ashes, raw and refined sugar, 18 cents per ton. 

Bncks, 8 cents per tnonsana. 

Cord wood, 4 cents per cord. 

Lnmber and timber, 8 cents per 1,000 feet board measure. 

On all goods, wares, and merchandisa except bullion and spede, not elsewhere 
spedfled, 20 cents per ton. 

On goods upon which, in the opinion of the harbor commismoners, it is not con- 
venient to ascertain the rates according to the above provisionB, it shall be lawful 
for the said commissioners to levy a rate of one-flfth of 1 per cent on the value thereof. 

On packages measuring under 10 cubic feet and weighing lees than 260 pounds, 6 

No entry shall be leas than 5 cents. 

Only one rate shall be levied on property covered by the foregoing provisions when 
landed on the wharves for reehipment, and not having been removed from the 
wharves. 

Barges landing bricks, cord wood, sand, and hay are allowed ten running days in 
which to discharge their cwgo, on which the above wharfage rates will ne, paid. 
After that delav, they will pay one-half of 1 cent per day on Ineir registered tonnage 
for everv day tnat they remain at the wharf. 

On all goods except bricks, cord wood, eand, and hay remaining on the wharves 



igbt, or 40 cnbic feet measurement, according as the goods to which the same 
applies have been or shall be carried by water by ton weight or ton measurement 

The weight ot the articles hereinafter described may be estimated as follows: 

Asbee, pot or pearl, 3 barrels to 1 ton. 

Apples, flour, meal, potatoes, 9 barrels to 1 ton. 

FuJi, meat, pitch, tar, 7 barrels to 1 ton. 

Hoises, 2 to 1 ton. 

Neat cattie, 3 to 1 ton. 

Sheep, 16 to 1 ton. 

Swine, 10 to 1 ton. 

Winesand liqoora, 2 buttsorpipee,or4hogBhead8, or 3 quarter casks, or 16 octaves, 
or 32 half octaves, or 30 cases to I ton. 

Molasses, (imperial, gallon), 13 pounds; package, puncheons, 124 pounds; hogs- 
hewls and tierces, SO pounds; barrels, 46 pounds; nalfDarrels, 26 pounds. 

fuotb' feeb. 

The year 189S proved a remnneratire one for the pilots on the tour 
de roll, and Mmany so for tiiose employed regularly (>y the steamship 
companies. The tees for pilotage in 1697 amounted to 968,741.60, 



MOBTU AHESIOA; dominion of CANADA. 



803 



while for 1S96. they amounted to 179,347.26. The areraf^ salary made 
by the pilote on the tour de roll was $1,200. FoUowinfj^ is the com- 
plete list of the pilots, the number of tripe, and tiie amount earned by 
them in 1898: 



BoDl]le,ZepIiir1n.... 

Naod, Onailme 

Ch&nawiiet, Joneph . 
fioolllcLcn&A.... 
Besud<%PrndeDt . . . 

FlotD^omdi 

Bnnat, CeleMln 

BellUe, Louis 

Oraleaii, Ulile 

Frenette, Alfred 

&t.Am«iiLAIJTed... 
Beluinr.Iliilippe . . 
PerMuit. Hudne . . . 

Ancei, Cleophu 

Latmuiebe.Tred ... 
Boollls, Louie Z.... 
Oaothler, Laurent. . . 

Ouitblar.Wtlbiod.. 

Hkynnd.Loula 

DuiKBiie. Oeotge . . . 

AnsDd.Morben 

BouiUe,TaDcrede... 

Arcand, NMor 

Naii]t.J«ui 

DiinaiiIt,J<iwph .... 
Oroleau.Oedeon ... 



oflrtpe. 


Salary 
madt. 


PiloU. 


Nnmber 

Oltrtpl 


SS- 




i,sfie.g6 

1,893.01 

,''sl 

l' 27192 

!;|:| 

.840.89 

11 

!siaii 
,«oe.89 

,220,17 
,125,9S 

,»ta.2G 

,«8.B« 
1,772. 29 


Belllde Nere 


i 

26 
IB 

S 

»s 

85 

4e 

24 

ss 

80 
6 














1,629,29 










l,M»:47 




gStfiSS!'.:::::::: 
















1,8MJT 
















gSStt'S^".:::::::: 


l|46l!9fi 






!•£■!? 




























































» 


Total 






78.247.25 









MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS. 

There is a lai^ increase in building this summer over last, partica- 
larly in residences. 

Insurance men claim that Montreal, in comparison with cities of 
its size in the United States, is only fairly injured gainst loss by 
fire. Every year, the various companies file with the city a liat of the 
amount of insurance premiums in Montreal proper. The net premium 
upon which taxes were paid from 1892 to 1898 was as follows: 1892, 
»936,711; 1893, $955,395; 1894. $962,747; 1895, $1,021,822; 1896, 
$1,000,296; 1897, $1,023,930. 

The local insurance, taken on an average of 75 cents on the dollar, 
is nothing compared to the value at risk. Montrealers have a tendency 
to underrate real estate, which leaves the owner in bad shape in 
case of fire. Among the English-speaking class of people the insur- 
ance is fair, but the French do not msure so heavily. Tne pei-centage 
is very small. 

A prominent agent has made the statement that the companies were 
not making 8 per cent. If it were not for the accumulation of past 
years, the companies would not do much or be able to paj dividends. 
A vast majority of the small bouses throughout the city carry no 
insurance. 

An averu^ of the insurance of the city shows that 50 or 60 per cent 
of the residences carry policies. The churches figure about 50 per 
cent Some 80 per cent of the stocks in business houses carry insur- 
ance, while the business blocks average 60 to 70 per cent. The stocks 
in public warehouses and cold storage are insured up to 100 per cent 



3U4 COKUBBCUL OBI^TIOKS. 

and in some instances over. The insurance on railroads, not including 
rolling stock, figures 70 per cent. The Grand Trunk carries over 
(6,000,000 insurance, outside of that on rolling stock. 

Under the new charter, the city was authorized to issue ^,000,000 
forty-year 3i per cent bonds, the proceeds to be used in canceling 
fioating indebtedness and for public improvements. The bonds were 
sold to the Bank of Montreal for $3,000,566, equivalent to about 
tljOOO.18 for every |1,000 worth. 

There is a great deal of criticism of the sale, as Montreal bonds are 
quoted in New York at 107, and in fact it is alleged the Bank of Mon- 
treal immediately sold its $3,000,000 bonds to a Chicago syndicate ht 
a profit of neaily $250,000. 

FINANCIAL CONDITION OP THE CITT. 

The report of the city treasurer, made in January, shows the follow- 
ing to be the financial condition of the city: 

Total outstondine bonds and stockB, December 31, 1897 124.122,347 

Total amoant of floating debt, December 31, 1897 489,937 

Dne Bwik of Montreal for redemptioQ of debt in 1897 395, 993 

Temporary bonds issued ia 1897, under axtietb Victoria, due in 1889 . . . 397, 108 
Temporary bonds isaaed or authorized, 1898, under wxty-flret Victoria, 

due 1899 802,824 

2a, 208, 209 
To which shonld be added: 

Balance yet to be paid on occonnt of harbor works, say 600,000 

Vote of council for military school 26,000 

City's share of expropriation asseaBtnents, say 37,000 

Sundry balances due I)ecember 31, on expropriatioua, etc, aay 29, 791 

Making a total of 26,900,000 

If to this be added the judgments of court paid since the exhaustion 
of the reserve fund — the 1897 claims now being passed by the special 
committee on claims — the repairs to the dike, the fuel for the water- 
pumping engines, and the other imperative disbursements now being 
made, in excess of the current year's appropriations, in order to carry 
on the administration till its close, and a' reasonable amount for the 
extension of the crater and drain^e systems to keep {Mice with the 
growth of the city in 1899, it will oe seen that borrowing power to 
the extent of $27,500,000 will be required, these items amounting to 
$600,000, making a total of $27,500,000. 

The above is exclusive of £340,000 ($1,168,000), temporaiy bonds, 
held in London against an etjual amount of outstanding street improve- 
ment assessments, from which they will be paid unless contestation 
of rolls or acts of the legislature should invalidate the asset. 

The revenue of this city for 1898, as stated in a return made by 
the city comptroller, was $3,078,839. This amount was made up as 
follows: Assessments, $1,710,901; water rates and business tax, 
$1,040,085; market revenues, $76,190; butchers' stalls, innkeepers, 
grocers, auctioneers, and public weighers, $22,037; percentage on 
street-railway earnings, $38,951; sundry licenses, $10,536; rents, 
$4,488; interest, $51,840; miscellaneous, $81,304; court fines, $13,961; 
police policies, $78,546. Yet with this enormous revenue there was 
not enough money for such a necessary service as street cleaning. 

The receipts and expenditures of the city are given in the comp- 
troller's report in detail as follows: 



NOBTH AVBRXOA: DOUNIOH of OAIfADA. 305 

Syruipti* of raxipU and disburtmnents in 18SS. 

on band Jaauuy 1, 1898 $131,424.46 

General revenue: 

Lees refunds folio $15, 206. 46 

Lew credit to Union Abattoir Company 10,000.00 



26,206.45 

Ab per folio 3,078,839.15 

Receipts on loan account as per folio 2,283,096.39 

Eaglish bankers: 

Bankof Montreal 466.36 

Bank of Scotland 04 

465.40 



5,493,814.40 



Adminietratiou on revenue accoont, as per folio 12,866,060.39 

Expenditure on loan account, as per folio 1,695,502.66 

Expenditure not certified by tbe city comptroller, as 

per folio 223,704.29 

English bankets: 

Bank of Montreal..... 

Bonkof Scotland 2,827.97 



Balance on hand here December,31,lS98.. 



Bankof Bcotland.. 



VALUATION AND ASSESSMENT. 

- The following is a synopsis of the raluation of the city property 
and the aesessment thereon for 1899: 

Original valuation 1179,392,170.00 

Less reduction made by the assessors 1,009,825.00 



Net taxable value 142,221,500.00 



Total amount collectible . - 



The real estate revenue, by wards, is as 


follows: 






Wird. 


OrlglrHl T*l- 


Netaoesaed 
value. 


Total 




1 i 
I 1 

2 SO 


wlBsrlifflo 


























































lT9,Sre,I7Q 


142.221,600 









H. Doc. 481, Pt 1- 



OOMMEBOIAL RELATIOIffi. 
EXEHFTIONB FBOH TAXATION. 



Under the provincial laws, a vaat amount of church propertj- is 
exempted from taxation. The total exemptions, by wards, are given 
by the city assessors as follows: 



Ward. 


Amomil. 


WBd. 


X.^U 




tZ,<72,llM 


























TOM 




3t,Sa,<ME 











The value of property exempted on account of private schooU is 
shown as follows: 



Wart. 


Amonnt. 


WMd. 


Amou-t. 




None. 

None. 

68,000 
is; 800 
































Total 






189,800 











CRDflNAL STATISTICS. 

Here, as in nmny of the cities of the United States, there is consid- 
erable complaint as to the inefficiency of the police force. The report 
of the governor of the Montreal jajl for 1898 is interesting as show- 
ing the character of crimes committed, the nationality, etc., of the 
o&nders. The report gives the number of male prisoners confined 
in the jail during the year as 2,393; females, 594; total, 2,987. 

The total number of imprisonments was 3,188, of whom 2,455 were 
men and 733 were women. There were imprisoned: Once, 2,325 males 
and 497 females; twice, 29 males and 23 females; four tiires, no males 
and 8 females; fire times, 1 female; and six times, Imale. Of the men, 
924 were married and 369 unman-ied, and of the frrales 218 were 
married and 376 unmarried. There were 17 males and 4 females 
under 16 years. 

As to education, 1,730 males and 444 females could read and write. 
Six hundred and sixty-three males and 150 females were unable to 
read or write. 

The following was the nationality of the males: Canada, 1,826; Ire- 
land, 171; EngEind, 125: Scotland, 70; United States, 67; China, 29; 
Italyj 17; Norway, 16; France, 16; Newfoundland, 12; Germany, 11; 
Russia, 11; Syria, 10; New South Wales, 3; Austria, Denmark, and 
East Indies furnished 2 each, and Argentina, Greece, and Poland 1 
each. Of the Catholic females, 248 were born in Canada, 184 Ireland, 
58 England, 10 United States, 2 Newfoundland, and 1 eadi in the East 
Indies and Russia. The Protestant females were: 11 Canadians, 80 
English, 26 Irish, and 9 Scotch. , . , 

CnOO^IC 



NOBTH AUESICa: I>0MINI0H Of CANADA. 807 

The following was the religioua denomiDations of the males: 
Roman Catholics, 2,000; AnglicaDs, 211; Presbyterians, 89; Metho- 
dists, 32; Lutherans, 30; Jewish, 12; Baptists, 10; Greek, 3. There 
were 508 Koman Catholic females. The ProtestaDt females were as 
follows: Church of England, 55; Presbyterians, 25, and Baptists and 
Methodists, 3 each. Of the males, 326 were sentenced for less than one 
month and 298 women went down for the same period; 110 males and 

1 female were transferred to the penitentiary. There was 1 life man. 
Three males and 5 females died daring the year. The greatest 

number in jail at one time was 274 mates and 160 females. The 
aggregate number of days served by the males was 81,966, and by the 
females, 47,226. The prison van transferred to and from the court 
4,775. The ccat for each prisoner was 8.87 cents. 

The prisoners were tried in the following courta: Recorder's court, 
1,203 males and 569 females; police court, 550 males and 67 females: 
magistrate's court, 3 males; special sessions, 149 males and 9 females; 
Queen's bench, 42 males and 3 females; superior court, 5 males; 
untried, 485 males and 85 females; circuit court, 12; transferred to 
lunatic asylums: Longue Point, 12 males and 3 females, and to Verdun 

2 males. 

Theehief offenseswere forthemales: Drunkenness, 872; theft, 454; 
vagrancy, 428; assault, 100; for debt, 56; breaking and entering, 51; 
danwing property, 42; inmates of a disorderly house, 27; aggravated 
assault,^. Thecluefoffensesof the females were: Drunkenness, 252; 
inmate of disorderly houses, 34; keeping disorderly, 26; frequenting 
disorderly houses, 16; begging, 11; theft, 67; vagrancy, 251. 

As to the trade and occupation of the males there were laborers, 
1,112; carters, 138; sailors, 68; clerks, 87; carpenters, 67; painters, 
59; shoemakers, 105; firemen, 38; butchers, 34; machinists, 36; cigar- 
makers, 33; barbers, 29; agents, 28; stonecutters, 27; tailoi-s, 
Isuudrymen, 27. 

HONTBEAL STBEET-RAILWAT SYSTEM. 

The Montreal street-railway system is one of the best on the conti- 
nent. It is all owned by one company, is well managed, and the stock 
ia quoted at 329. The company is now putting in service a new fender, 
which it is claimed will prevent accidents ana save lives. This is an 
invention by George Sleemao, of Guelph. The framework is of pip- 
ing, while the fender itself is flat. A cushion of the dashboard protects 
a body from the bumper. The fender is so constructed that it picks 
up any object obstructing the way and carries it along in safety. It is 
claimed that it is impossible for the car to run over a person, as the 
fender drops immediately on coming in contact with any object. 

The officials of the Montreal Sti-eet Railway claim that, in compari- 
son with other cities, Montreal can show very few casualties from the 
street-railway system. Only the best motormen and conductors are 
employed. It is necessary for an applicant to go through a rigid form 
of examination in order to secure a badge. The men in the employ of 
the local road are possessed of unusual intelligence; they must know 
both French and English. 

The following notice to conductors and motormen was issued July 20 : 

On and att«r August 1, motormen and conductors who have beon in the company's 
employ for two yeara or over will receive 16 cents per hom^. , 



wo OOKUEROIAL RBLATI0H8. 

There will also be |100 distribnted at Christmae in prizee to the-motorman and 
conductors holding the best records aa follows: 

Twentj; dollars each (or the motorman and conductor having worked 350 days or 
more during the year, and having the best record. 

Fifteen dollars each for the motorman and conductor having worked 200 days or 
more during the year, and havirig the beat record. 

Ten dollara each tor the motorman and conductor having worked 100 days or more 
during the year, and havi:ig the beat record. 

Five dollars each for the motorman and conductor having worked 60 days or more 
during the year, and having the best record. 

The records will be based upon the canying out of the orders entered in the order 
book, obedience to tberulesoi thecompany, and thecareof the company's property. 

The compaoy is never bothered witb strikes. The employees seem 
content with their hours of labor and remuneration. 
The following table shows the earnings of the system for 1897 and 1S98: 



Uunth. 


ISM. 


18W. 


Month, 


1898. 


ltKI7. 


■ 


11 


.ass 

1 ^ 




43,599 
N.SM 

29,430 


aa.m 














mm 














1,BM.4S7 











iDcraue, 1147,074. 



PULMONABT TUBEECULOSIB, 



Tuberculosis is exceedingly prevalent in the Province of Quebec, and 
contributes largely to the raoilality rate. It is fully recognized that 
pulmonary tuterculosis is a communicable and infectious disease, and 
that a room or house which is or has been occupied by a person suffer- 
ing from it must be considered a source of infection to healthy persons 
thereafter occupying such apartments. The expectoration of tubercu- 
losis sputum in public places and conveyances is another great source 
of infection. The successful treatment and comparative eradication of 
the disease can be carried out only in special institutions. 

These are the startling facts brought out by the Montreal Medico- 
Chirurgical Society, which has sent a resolution embracing the gist of 
its investigation to the board of health of the Province of Quebec, with 
a view of securing legislation to insure the diminution of the disease. 
The government is also urged to enact measures incorporated in the 
following summary: 

The compulHory notification to local boards of health in the cities and towns of this 
province of all cases of pulmonary tuberculosis occurring withing the limits of these 
citiee and towns by the physician attending such cases, in order that specially infected 
areas may be detected and steps taken to arrest the spread o£ the disease. 

The disinfection of domicilee by the municipal authorities following upon the 
occurrence of death from tuberculoeiB in those domiciles or the removal of a tuhei^ 
(rulosis patient from the same. 

The posting of notices in i^lway and street cars, steamboats, public markets, 
mnnicipal buildings, courts of justice, and public waiting rooms forbidding spitting. 

The ready conviction and punishment, by fixed penalty, of offenders found spitting 
in public places contrary to above. 

The eatahlishment of jprovincial sanitoiia for the treatment of tuberculosis patients 
who at« unable to pay for such treatment. 

Dr. E. p. Lachapelle, president of the provincial board of health, 
has written a letter to Dr. Cteorge Adami, president of tiie society, in 



HOBTB AMEBIOA: DOMINION OF CANADA. 



309 



which he assures him of his hearty cooperatioD in promoting sanitary 
measures teuding to limit the ravages of the disease. 

A similar resolution has also been forwarded to Dr. T. G. Roddick, 
M. P., to lay before tlie Dominion gorernment, in order that the same 
measures might be considered in regard to the administration of public 
health laws in those territories of me Dominion which have not as yet 
provincial autonomv. 

The Montreal Medico-Oiirurgical Society has also recommended 
that the ^vernment of the Dominion take such steps as will lead to 
the eradication of bovine tuberculosis by means of systematic inspec- 
tion of the cattle throughout the Dominion, by compensation where 
found necessary, and by prohibition of the movement of such cattle 
as react to the tuberculin test. 

PBOTINCIAL APPA1B8. 

The financial affairs of the Province of Quebec are reported in a 
fairly good condition. A comparison of the receipts and expenditures 
for 1897 and 1898 makes a favorable showing, and indicates an econom- 
ical polic;^ on the part of the present Government. The following is 
the exhibit of receipts: 





,»l 


wr. 




242,448 

M 

S,STS 

;l 
ii 














286,197 
















































'■V^ 






























4,ns.iM 









The increase in 1898 over 1897 was J301,336, of which over $200,000 
was in the returns from Crown lands, ctc„ the result largely of the 
sal*^ of timber limits and water powers. There were also increases, 
it will be noted, in the revenue from liquor licenses, in taxes on com- 
mercial corporations, in manufacturing and trading licenses, and in the 
oollection for the maintenance of lunatics and inmates of reformatory 
schools, but a considerable drop in the amount collected on transfers 
of real estate, an item that will soon cease to appear in the accounts. 
About $100,000 of the improvement represent collections that are, 
directly or indirectly, taxes. The revenue items make a more favor- 
able showing, first, because of the disposal of provincial assets, and, 
second, because of the operation of laws that put on the municipalities 



310 



OOHUEBOIAJ. BELAHONS. 



a greater share of the cost of maiataiDiDg their nafortUD&te insane or 
juvenile offenders. There ia very little, therefore, on which to con- 
gratulate the province in this coDcection, save that any increase in 
income that serves to bnng the ordinary receipts up to the expenditures 
puts it on a better and more businesslike standing. 
The following is a comparison of expenditures for the last two years ■ 





I8SB. 


1897. 


PUBLIC DEBT. 


10,877 

?:S 


"■U;S 












w;5J! 






i,an.m 


1,650, S72 


L«UaUyecomcn ""'"■^'«"'- 


7;eoo 






123,978 






^S! 












i!:S 








310,910 


288,828 




M:fl24 














282,584 


an, 247 




10[31> 

"11 

looiooo 

6,000 
















































Public woriaBniibiiildinitB 


K.m 


»s 








1 






























296.000 
U.STfi 


314,441 








889.878 


888,618 




388.439 


"l:SS 














*, 415. 870 









There are in the above some items that show decreases in 1898, and 
some that show increases. Id neither one case nor the other, however, 
is the difference greater than is to be noted between other years. 

These figures of ordinary revenue and expenditure do not fully rep- 
resent the province's situation. There were, besides the receipts men- 
tioned above, others on account of triut funds, and the i-eimbursement 

C 



NOKTH AHEBIOA: DOICIi'TION OF CAHADA. 811 

of nulway subsidy paTraents, bringing the total up to $1,236,015. 
But there were also additional expenditures. The items were — 

Railway interest guarftntiee (287,471 

Other tmet funds 83,676 

EmIwbv Bubddiea 196,284 

Q.,M.O.&0.confltructioQ 2,360 

The total expenditure of the year was, therefore, $4,885,162, or 
$649,147 more than the receipts. That is the deficit of the year. 

llie premier of the province has just announced that he has wiped 
out the entire deficit and has a surplus of $2S,000 in the treasury. 
This has been accomplished in a great measure by the abandonment of 
the policy of granting subsidies to all sorts of schemes, and by the 
strictest economy in appropriations. 

A CUBB ON LITIGATION. . 

At the last session of the provincial legislature an act was passed 
which is intended to curb people who pester lawyers and judges wiUi 
trifling affaiis. It is called " the conciliatory law," and provides that 
a local tribunal in countiy districts may judge differences of a civil 
nature when the amount involved does not exceed $25. All services 
are gratuitous. 

As the effects of the law will be extensive, and as it is somewhat 
novel, it is here presented in substance: 

Whereas It b desirsble to diminish the nnmber of laTRnits which may arise in 
counti7 placee; whereas, in order to attain that end, it is expedient in certain cases 
to submit lawsuits to conciliation as a condition precedent thereto; therefore. Her 
Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the l^ielatore of Quebec, enacta as 
followB: In matters pnrely personal affecting movables, and when the amount 
claimed does not exceed $25, in a suit between parties respecting matteis which may 
be the subject of transaction, it ehall be received before any court of first Instance. 

In each municipality the local cooncil may, at any time, select by reaolulion one 
or more residents of the locality to ful&ll the functions of conciliators undw this act 
The conciliators so appointed by the council ahall, if they accept the duty, take the 
oath of office, and snail in every respect be deemed muoidpel offlcetB, m virtue of 
and according to the requirements of the municipal code. 

In addition to such official conciliators, the followii^ shall be de jure condliatore 
in each local municipality. 

J a) Priests, Boman Catholic cur&; provided no one can be summoned to appear 
ore one of such conciliators if he be not of bis religious denomination. 
t Justices of the peace. 
The mayor of the municipality, 
e official conciliators who have been sworn, so long as they occupy the position, 
justices of the peace and mayora are obliged to act as conciliators when called upon. 

There are many reserve complaints which do not fall under this act, 
most of which mive no special public interest. Among these are, 
'* Demands baaed on notes, bonds, or written acknowledgments, or com- 
mercial matters generally; demands for the payment of rent, or fann 
rent, or arrears of rent, or life rent; demands in which the domiciles of 
the interested parties are not within the limits of the same municipality; 
demands against more than two parties, even of the same interests, 
and of seizures generally." 

The act also provides a penalty for those who fail to appear; the 
parties may come in person or by proxy, the conciliator may swear in 
witnesses to give evidence, but their testimony is privilege and cao 
not be used in case a suit follows, and this act shall not apply in cities 
and towns incorporated by spetnal charter, nor in any otLer locality 



812 00HK2K0IAI. BELAHONS. 

not governed by the muDicipal code, and, finally, all services rendered 
by tHe conciliators are to be gratuitous. 

Among the legal fraternity the law is well received, the general 
opinion Being that it will he productive of good. 



BIATX8TI08 FOB THE XSTIRE DOMXSimr. 

Up to fifty years ago, the vast area of country now designated as 
"The Dominion of Canada" was, practically speaking, unknown to 
civilization, save in the maritime provinces of Nova Scotia, New 
Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, the portion of the Province of 
Ontario bordering on the Great Jjakes, and the valley of the St. Law- 
rence River in the Province of Qt^ebec. The balance of the country 
was known only to the coureurs du Bois, the trappers of the Hudson s 
Bar Company, and the Indians. 

The provinces each havine a separate and distinct government, and 
having little affinity for each other, stagnation prevailed. With coo- 
federation or union of the provinces in 1867 came a change. Prog- 
ress was slow for a decade, but since then it has been rapid. In this 
country of mighty forests, giant rivers, great inland lakes, mountain 
ranges, broad niga prairies and fertile valleys, there are inexhausti- 
ble riches.' The mines of eold, silver, lead, copper, nickel, iron, and 
coal are only beginning to do developed. It is rapidly becoming one 
of the greatest wheat-producing regions on earth. In stock raising 
and dairy products it is striding rapidly to the front. The lumber 
interest is so vast that none pretend to compute it. 

Considering that the population does not exceed 6,000,000, wonder- 
ful progress has been made in the provision of transportation facilities. 
The development of manufacturing industries has also begun. Canada 
has a number of immense cotton mills, woolen mills, furniture manu- 
factories, boot and shoe manufactories, great clothing manufactories, 
eto., and the raw materials used are all, save cotton, of home j)roduc- 
tion. All these industries are flourishing — in fact, are making for- 
tunes for their owners. 

The Canadian tariff caused the establishment of these industries, and 
insures them a profit on their output. Since the adoption of the pref- 
erential tariff with England, the latter is doing all in its power to aid 
Canadian development. English capital is being invested here to a 
larger extent than ever, and Canadian grain, cattle, horses, sheep, 
butter, cheese, poultry, and apples find a much larger market m 
England than formerly. 

OOHHEBOe. 

Official statistics of the trade of the Dominion, which were submitted 
to parliament on the Slst of July, go to establish the remarkable trade 
development of the last year, showing a total export and import of 
$306,104,108, as against $290,222,959 for 1898, a gain of $16,881,749. 
This gain is attributable entirely to the increase in imports, which 
amouats to $21,328,062. Exports show a falling off of $5,141,308. 



byGoO'^lc 



NOBTH AHBKIOA: DOMINION OF CANADA. 813 

The customs reveDue for the twelve months shows a total of |25,1S7,930, 
which is an improvement over 1898 of $3,000,142. 

The statement for the twelve months of 1896 and 1899 is as follows: 



Dutiablo Koodi 

Ftee soocto 

Coin and bolboD . . 

Total 

Froduoe ot Cuiadk. 
Foreign nnrtoce... 
C(dD and bnlUon . . 



t7i,ea,ea 

Gl. 882. 074 



M,teo,8e) 



For the month of June alone, the imports were: 





im 


18». 


TV.H.K1*-™!. 


t^ 407,788 






'sa 








11, 726.431 


18,752,342 






12,HH,a« 


13.044,010 
'13B;24I) 










i&,ou.s») 


i&,ou,a84 





Duty collections for the twelve-month periods were; 1898, $22,157,- 
788; 1899, $25,157,930. For the mouth of June alone the %ures are: 
1898, $1,637,789; 1899, $2,057,492. 

In these returns, export and import, it should be remembered that 
the transactions are only those which have passed through the books 
of the department at Ottawa up to the time of the compilation of the fig- 
ures, and that before the accounts are closed the affairs of the twelve 
months will all have to be wound up, and this will add, in all probability, 
$250,000 to the customs revenue. It is also pointed out by the depart- 
ment that the exports do not include man^ consignments of greater or 
less consequence, of which no statement is given the customs authori- 
ties. No account is taken in either the export or import figures of the 
transactions in the Yukon district for the financial year under review. 

Although the comparison with 1898 in imports seems so favorable, 
it should be remembered that the returns for last year were of an 
exceptional character, standing far above all previous records in his- 
tory. This import total of $152,021,058 shows an increase over the 
aven^ of the last ten years of $30,000,000. The export trade, 
although showing very small in comparison with that of 1898, is in 
reality, with the single exception of the year named, larger by 
$37,000,000 than the average of the last ten years, which is, perhaps, 
as fair a basis as conld be had for comparison. 



byGoO'^lc 



314 OOHUEBOIAL BELAHONS. 

The exports included $18,558,298 of goods not the produce of Canada. 
Goods produced in Canada going to make up the total are clasaified 
thus: 

Produce of the mine 114,463,266 

Produce of the fisheriefl 10,841,661 

Produce of the forest 26,611,539 

Anim&lg and their produce 44,301,470 

Agricultuial products 33,063,285 

Manufactures 10, 678, 316 

Miscellaneous 61,405 



1,0 



Estimated short returns at inland ports 4,627,730 

Total.. 145,694,385 

The surplus of the farm, it will be noted, constitutes the greatest 
bulk of Canadian merchandise sent abroad, the two items of agricul- 
tural products and animals and their products totaling $77,364,755, 
the only nonagricultural product In the second class being $1,529,897 
of furs. 

Fully two-thirds of Canada's exports go to countries under the British 
flag. The division stands thus: 



Total 164,152,683 



The distribution among the countries was as follows: 



Great Britain $104,998,818 

United States 46,705,836 

Fnmce 1,025,262 

Germany 1,837,448 



iCwi 



'ortngal . 

- ly-..-. 

Iland .. 



Holl 



73,765 



Belgium 

Newfoundland 

Weat Indies 

South America 

China and Japan . . 

Australia , 

Other countries 



$973,944 
2,167,860 
2,749,080 
1,060,420 

611,919 
1,630,714 

864,168 



Great Britain, it will be seen, is the largest consumer oi Canadian 
exported goods. She is, moreover, an inci"easing consumer. Her 
imports last year were $27,771,316 more than in 1897, and rather more 
than double those of 1891. Next to but far behind Great Biitain 
comes the United States, to which was sent last year $45,705,836 of 
merchandise. This represents a decline from the figures of 1897 of 
$3,668,136, largely the effect, no doubt, of the United States tariflf , which 
in some of its provisions almost excludes Canadian merchandise. The 
exports to France last year exceeded those of 1897 by a third of a mil- 
lion dollars and reached the highest total in the record. Other notable 
increases were $792,000 in the exports to Germany. $272,000 to Hol- 
land, $619,000 to Belgium, $475,000 to Newfoundland, $220,000 to 
Australia, and $95,000 to the West Indies. There was a decrease in 
the value of goods sent to South America of $345,000, and to China 
and Japan of $392,000. 

A comparison of the statistics relating to the imports fails to bear 
out some theories that were advanced a few years ago. The tables are 
full of evidences that a lai^e export trade may be done with a country 
from which little is imported, and vice versa. The goods "entered 
for consumption " in Canada in 1898 came from the following countries 
in the following proportion: 

D.gitizecbyG00glc 



NORTH AMJSEIOA: DOMIinOH OF OAMADA. 



815 



Great Britain $32,500,617 

United States 78,7(K,690 

F»nce 3,976,361 

German}' 5, 684, 014 

" " 488,787 

47,319 

421,268 

374,047 



Spam 

Portugal., 

'-ftly ... 

oliand 



Belpum 51,230,110 

Newfoundland 464, 324 

WeBtlndiM 1,080,286 

South America 1, 425, 653 

China and Japan 2, 317, 671 

Switzerland 34B, 678 

Other countries 1, 732, 721 



There waa exported to Great Britia.D more tban three times tne value 
of British gooOB brought into Canada for consumption. There was 
entered for consumption from the United States nearly twice the value 
of goods exported thereto. The imports from France and Gennany, 
China and Japan, exceeded the exports thither by from 200 to 360 per 
cent. To Newfoundland was sent nearly five times the value of goods 
entered from that colony. The fact is that imports and exports are 
governed by the wants of and conditions in consuming countries, and 
affect each other so little that any theorj' based on tne interdepend- 
ence of any two countries falls to pieces when set ^^inat the records. 

Another political theory bu.sed on recent tariff legislation in Canada 
is upset by a comparison of the value of the merchandise entered from 
Great Britain and the United States during the past five years. The 
figures are: 



Years. 


.Great Brilaln. 1 United SUita. 




tBK,m.W?\ K3,0S4,1D0 
Si,379.m' 58,671,024 










Si,6w.9n 7H,7(»,fi9a 





It is peculiar that in a period covered in whole or part by a tariff 

gilicy presumably favorable to Great Britain, the Canadian imports of 
ritish goods should decline, as compared with a period during which 
a tariff attacked as hostile to Great Britain was in force. It adds 
to the awkwardness of the situation that the imports from the West 
Indies, also presumed to be favored by the Canadian tariff, should 
drop by »600,000. 



COLD STORAOE. 

Parliament has just made an appropriation of {70,000 for cold stor- 
age on steamships and railways, in warehouses and creameries, and for 
expenses in connection with trial shipments of products, and for secur- 
ing recognition of the qualities of Canadian fai'm products. 

BONDED OFFICUL8. 

The Canadian customs department put in force a new rule, on the 
5th of January last, with respect to all officers who receive public 
moneys in any way, and who are required to give bonds. Before that, 
the practice of accepting private bondsmen as security prevailed, and 
a great deal of supervision was necessary to insure the continued reli- 
ability of the bondsmen from year to year. Now, private bontlsmen 
are not accepted under any circumstances, but all collectors, subcol- 
lectors, and other officers wno receive money are required to file bonds 
of one of the four guaranty companies doing business in Canada. The 
system has also been adopted by the post-office department ^(-.nnlo 



COHJCEBCIAL BELAHOHB. 



AGKICOLTDRB AND SIOOK. 



Recent reporta go to show that, taking everything into consideratioD, 
the crops of Can^a will thia year be only fairly good. Conditions in 
different districts have varied considerably, in some places the weather 
being favorable to one crop and in others favorable to another. The 
grain crops generally will oe good. So far as hay is concerned, the 
crop will be very poor in some districts, in fact almost a failure, while 
in others it is above the average. Root crops are looking well generally, 
and there is a good yield in sight. Small fruits have done well, but 
the larger fruit, sucn as apples, peaches, and pears, will be far below 
the average. The poorness of the hay crop in places is attributed to 
the scarcity of rain during the months of May and June. The rainfall 
of July, however, was nilly 8 inches throughout the Province of 
Quebec. 

Last week, a Montreal man made an application to the department 
of agriculture for leave to establish an oleomargarioe factory in Can- 
ada. The government has refused the petition absolutely. The policy 
is to allow no such manufactory or anything calculated to depreciate 
the quality of Canada's food products. 

A scheme is afoot, and is said to be nearmg completion, for the forma- 
tion of a syndicate, with a capital of from 1500,000 to $1,000,000, for 
supplying the Canadian and British markets with dressed meats. The 
capital is principally American, but two or three Montrealers are inter- 
ested in the project. 

The syndicate, which expects to have things running before the 
fall, will slaughter cattle, hogs, and sheep in C^ada, west of Toronto, 
where fine animals can, it is said , be obtained cheaper tha n in the eastern 
market, and ship the dressed meats in refrigerator cars to Kingston, 
Ottawa, Montreal, and Quebec, where there will be refrigerating 
warehouses from which the meat will be distributed to the tra<&. The 
railway rate on dressed meats from the west to Montreal is so much 
lower than that on live animals, that it is calculated it will make a 
difference of a cent and a half per pound to the consumer. 

The syndicate also proposes to enter the British market, and applica- 
tion will be made during the present session of Parliament for permis- 
sion to kill American cattle in bond for trans-Atlantic shipment. For 
this privilege, the syndicate is willing to pay to the Government 95 
cents on eaco animal. Negotiations are now {>ending with large refrig- 
erator warehouses in Britain to receive and dispose of the dressed 
meat, should the killing privilege be obtained, 

ALUMINUM. 

The company controlling the Shawinegan Falls, it is reported, has 
induced the Pittsburg Reauction Company to invest $3,000,000 in the 
manufacture of aluminum at that place. The Pittsburg company already 
operates at Niagara and in England. 

Eatablishments for the manufacture of aluminum are not numerous. 
The most important ones are situated at Milton, Staffordshire, near 
Newcastle, England; Niagara, United States; Froges, France; Neu- 
hausen, Switzerland; Calypso, Savoy, and Schaffausen, Germany. 

Aluminum, as is known, is extracted from a particular clay. Chrome 
is to be found in quantity in Canada, and this with a misture of 91 



WOBTH akebioa: DOimnoN of canada. 317 

per cent of aliuDinum will produce a metal as strong as steel. In volume, 
6 pounds of aluminum are equivalent to 18 of steel. Aluminum is now 
being used for all hinds of purposes, and its employment is bound to 
become universal. It can be used, it is claimed, for sbips, carriages, 
kitchen utensils, telegraph wires, musical instruments, including pianos, 
bicycles, army purposes, jewelry, coin^e, lithograph atones, etc. 
Only two States in the American Union, Alabama and Georgia, pro- 
duce bauxite, which sells at from $3 to $4 per ton. This mineral, it is 
thought, can be found in Canada, though the geological reports say 
nothing about it Under this name, or as alumme, its forma the basis 
of aluminum. 

POLP iNDnaTKr. 

It is reported, on pretty good authority, that Mr. J. Lawrence 
Whitcomb, a London promoter, is taking steps to form a combine of 
ten Canadian pulp mills having a production of 400 tons a day. The 
proposition is to increase the capacity within a year to 600 tons a day, 
A company is to be organized to purchase the properties of the vari- 
ous concerns to be included in the combination, and this company 
will, in all probability, be known as the Canadian Pulp Oompftny. It 
is to be capitalized at ¥10,000,000, and will operate under a special 
charter granted by the Canadian Parliament. The capital stock is to 
be divided into 85,000,000 preferred, bearing 7 per cent, cumulative 
dividends, and J5,000,000 common stock, which, it is thought, will pay 
all the way from 6 to 10 per cent. 

The new company will send the majority of its pulp abroad to be 
manufactured into paper, but it is <|uite likely that contracts will be 
made with a number of United States paper mills, outside of the new 
trust, to supply them with pulp. 

The capital stock has been all subscribed for in London and Berlin, 
and the company expects to be in operation within a few months. 

The following is a list of the mills which Mr. Whitcomb would like 
to include in hiB combination: 



CompMia. 


ss? 


PTDpOMd 




IbM. 

30 

250 
20 
11 


Hn«. 


Cuuda Paper Co. (two mlllg) : 












AcadlaPulpandl^perMmiCo. (two milts) : 
























10 












*m 






eo»i 







The growth of the wood-pulp industry in this country is simply 
marvelous. American capitalists, associated with a few Canadians, 
have recently purchased the Baptiste Mills at Calumet, and with them 
they have secured spruce lands that cover an area of 640 square miles. 
New mills of great capacity are to be erected at once. 

The development of t^e great pulp resources is looked upon as 



818 COMMEBOUL BELATIOBS. 

the coming industry for Canada, and already some ^0,000,000 are 
interested. Veterans in the lumber business, who know where" Uie 
spruce lands abound, say that the Ottawa Valley is bound to be bene- 
fited aa much as any part of Canada. 

IRON AND STEEL PRODDCTION. 

The iron and steel industry, aided by American capital, is being 
largely developed in Canada. It is in Nova Scotia that the greatest 
enterprise in tnis direction is manifested, although something is being 
done in the provinces of Quebec, Ontario, i&nitoba, and British 
Columbia. In Nova Scotia there is abundance of hematite iron ore, 
as well as limestone necessary for its smelting. There are also exten- 
sive mines of coal. The province, as is well known, was famed in 
years past for its wooden shipbuilding. One steel company now in 
operation there has buildings covering an area of 25 acres. The capi- 
tal is $1,500,000; the raw material last year was valued at $350,000; 
the wages paid amounted to $300,000. 

The bounties allowed bv the Federal Government on steel and iron 

?roduct8 were announced when first granted to be only temporary, 
he iron bounties were first given in 1883, when only three furnaces 
were working in Canada. They were allowed $1.50 per ton for three 
years, then a second term at $1 per ton. In 188fi the bounties were 
extended to 1892. In 1890 the bounty was raised to $2 per ton for 
five years after 1892. This was to apply to pig iron, puddled bars, 
and steel billets. In 1894 an act was passed giving $2 per ton to all 
existing furnaces, and in tJie case of new furnaces e^itabUshed before 
March, 1897, from the date of their commencing to work. In 1897 
there was a revision of the tariff. The iron duties were reduced, and 
the bounties on iron and steel were increased. The bounties were 
extended to 1902, being also raised to $3 per ton on pig iron from 
native ore, $2 per ton on pig from foreign ores, and $3 per ton on pud- 
dled iron bars made from ^nadian iron. It is now, therefore, about 
sixteen years since these bounties were first granted, during which 
period it was threatened that they would be abolished, but they were 
doubled. The total production since bounties have been paid has been 
615,153 tons, on which were paid $1,107,530, an average of $1.80 per 
ton. The ax that was to have fallen on the bounty system in 1902 
has been so fixed that it will not drop until 1907, The finance min- 
ister has announced that the iron bounties hereafter will be as follows: 
For the flnt ye&r, the bounty on steel billed, Hteel ingots, and on jiuddled iron 
bare and pig iron, eJI made in Canada, in which the present bounty is (3 per ton, 
wilt be $2.70, and for the fourancceedini^yesra, (2.25, fl.65, $!.(», and 60 cents, after 
which the bounties shall ceaee. On pie iron made from foreign iron ore, the bounty, 
which IB now (2 per ton, will be »1.80, fl.50, fl.lO, 70 cen''s and 40 cents tor five 
years, after which the bounty shall cease. 



It is announced officially thaton June 30, last, the public debt of the 
Dominion was $260,045,077.49, as compared with $260,946,973.73 on 
May 31; a reduction during the month of $901,896.24, as compared 
witn a reduction of $682,427.61 during the corresponding month last 
year. Notwithstanding the heavy outlay on permanent works during 
the year, the total net debt was only increased by $2,431,170.03, from 
$257,618,907.47 in 1898 to $260,046,077.49 iu 1899. 



Goo'^lc 



NOETH AMEKICA: DOMIKIOM of CANADA. 



319 



The total revenue on account of the consolidated fund during the 
yearvaa $44,698,155.39,88 compared with 138,849,474.18 for the pre- 
vious year. The expenditure for the year was $33,698,592.33, as com- 
pared with $30,996,898.39 for the previous year. The expenditure on 
capital account was $8,318,181.86, as compared with $4,692,640.50 for 
the previous year. 

The appropriations by Parliament at its present session will aggre- 
gate about $52,500,000, besides over $6,000,000 in subsidies to new 
railway projects, bridges, etc 

The revenue for the year is estimated at about $51,000,000. 

Briefly summarized, the subsidies are as follows: 

ReToteB, 4991 milee, at $3,200 11,597,120 

New votes, 878} milee, at J3,2O0 2,812,000 

Ontario and Rainy Biver B^lway, 140 milee, at $8,400 896,000 

Qa«bec bridge 1,000,000 

Other bridges; 

Quebec 201,426 

Nova Scotia 83, 760 

Bevote oa bridges . , 60,000 

Total 0,690,295 

CUSTOMS RECEIPTS. 

Canada's customs revenue for the fiscal year, which ended on June 
80, shows an increase of $3,453,758 over the year 1897-98. There was 
an increase in every month, excepting February and March, when the 
decreases were very small. The monmly returns for the two years were 
as follows: 



Month. 


1S86. 


um. 


Hon lb. 


iwe. 


»». 




'11 

1,731,BB0 






2,010,877 
2,453,*8S 
l,sa,981 

l!74fl!e47 






Is 
IS 






i9S 










■i,ie2,^7 








TolBl 






21,879,875 




\MTJ 








' ' 



iDCreaw, tS,45S,75S. 

DOMINION BANK-NOTE CIRCULATION. 

The statement of the comptroller of Dominion currency shows the 
amount now in issue at $24,433,124, which is $166,885 less than the 
amount given in the public debt statement, while a year ^o it was 
stated at $23,197,824, which is $1,372,495 less than that shown in the 
public debt. Comparing the periods of seven months ending Janu- 
ary 81 of the two years, there are increases in fractionals, $1 and $2, 
$4, $5, $10, and $20, and $5,000; the largest increase, $1,120,000. being 
tha last-named denomination. The increase in fractionals is $17,534; 
that in $1 and $2, $531,717; that in $4, $113,872, and that in $5, $10 
and $20, $576. At the same time there are contractions in $50 and 
$100 and $500 and $1,000, that in the former being $25,900, and that 
in the latter, $522,500. The large expansion in the issues of the 
smaller denominations indicates an increased holding of these notes by 
the public, while that in the larger shows a simibr increase in the 
holdings by the banks. The following are the official statements of 



OOMICEBOLAL RELATIONS. 



the amonutBof these notes in issue on January 31, 1898, December 31, 
1898, and January 31, 1899: 





""iK"' 


December 81, 
IBBS. 


IBM. ' 


B*.«l 1 


801,074.00 

ligffiS 


7,210,000.00 


,^gs 








B, 116.64 






8,440,606.00 










2S,lW,8M.ai 


M,«0,00».S9 


24,431,124.89 





The reserve held for the redemption of these notes in issue is 
$32,274,128, showing an excess of $7,841, 004, the same as a month ago. 
There is, however, a reduction of $166,885 in the total amount of 
specie held, owing to the reduction in the amount of notes in issue, 
llie following is the official statement of specie, guaranteed deben- 
tures, and unguaranteed debentures held for the redemption of these 



Specie held by the several MBiBtant receivei»general on January 31, 

1899 «3, 077, 461.85 

Guaranteed Bterling debeutares, £400,000 1,946,066.67 

Total 15,024,128.52 

Specie and goaianteed debentnrea to be held under 
Revised Statutes of Canada, cap. 31, as amended by 

58,69Vic,cap.l6-26,p.c.,onf20,000,000 $5,000,000.00 

Specie held in exceee of $20,000,000 4,433,124.39 

9,433,124.39 

Eiceee of specie and guanmteed debentoren 5,691,004.13 

Unguaranteed debentures 17,250,000.00 

Unguaranteed debentuiee to be held ouder the Bevised Sifttutes of 
Canada, cap. 31, as amended by 58-69 Vic, cap. 16-75, p. c, on $20,- 
000,000 15,000,000.00 

Excess of unguaranteed debentnree 2,250,000.00 

aUHKAKT. 

Excess of specie and goaranteed sterling debentures 5,591,004. 13 

Excess of ungoaranteed debentures 2,250,000.00 

Total excess 7,841,004.13 

Canada's postal stbtem. 

The Dominion is steadily improving its postal service. 

The report of the postmaster-general for the year 1897-98 has just 
been printed. The workings of the department during the^ear have 
been marked by several changes, inclumng a further reduction in the 
deficit. The deficit, which for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1896, 
amounted to $781,152, was reduced in 1896-97 to $586j539, and to 
$47,602 at the close of the fiscal year 1897-98, a result which, the min- 
ister claims, rendered possible the reduction of the domestic letter 
rate from 3 to 2 cents per ounce, and the rate between Canada, the 
mother country, and a large number of Great Britain's colonial pos- 
sessions from 5 to 2 cents per half ounce. 

During the past year, 1,064 mail services have been let by public 



HOBTH AICEBICA: DOUINION OF OANADA. 321 

tender for Bums aggremtiag $139,926. The prerioufi yearly cost of 
these servicea was 9167,647. The result of these changes was an 
annual saving of $27,721, or. for the four years that the contracts run, 
$110,886. 

In sevei^l cases, mail services have been transferred from st^e to 
railway, resulting in a reduced stage, but increased railway service, 
the net result being that the mileage of the combined railway and 
stage mail services for the fiscal year 1897-96 exceeds that for 1895-96 
by 938,283 miles. 

In the report last year, it was stated that there had been a largo 
reduction in the cost of the mail service, but that, owing to the length 
of time which had to elapse before the contracts entered into that year 
would go into operation, the results could not be included in the 
financial statement of that year. The department is now in a position 
to report the extent of suen reductions, which is as follows: The rail- 
way and stage service for the year ended June 30, 1896, aggregated 
29,538,600 miles and cost $2,192,948. At the same rate, that is, 7.424 
cents per mile, the cost of the service as it stood on June 30, 1898, with an 
increase of 938,283 miles, would have been $2,262,003. The accounts 
show that the cost of this service was only $2,117,918, which indicates 
a saving of $144,686 per annum, or, for the four years' contract term, 
$678,742.16. 

During the financial year 1897-98, increased frequency in the mail 
service was given to 176 post-oflSces. 

At tlie close of the fiscal year 1897-98, there had been a net increase 
of 179 in the number of post-offices, as compared with the number in 
operation on June 30, 1896. 

The estimated number of letters sent through the post-office during 
the year exceeds that of the previous year by 11,145,000. Ten years 
ago, tlie number of letters sent through the niails in Canada was 
80,200,000. 

In addition to letters handled last year, there were 28,153,000 post- 
cards, 3,534,500 registered letters, 5,673,000 free letters, 26,696,000 
newspapers and periodicals, 3,372,000 pack^es of printers' copy, pho- 
tographs, etc., 1,813,000 packets of fifth-class matter, 316,000 parcels 
by parcel post, and 33,000 for the United Kingdom and other countries. 

The gross revenue of the department was $4,688,649, and the net 
revenue, after allowing for deductions, was $3,527,829, an increase 
over the revenue of the previous year of $324,871, equal to about 10.14 
per cent. 

The f^regate balance to the credit of depositors in the post-office 
savings banks at the close of the fiscal year was $34,480,000, an increase 
of $2,100,000 over the previous year. The average amount to t^e 
credit of each individual was $242.47, as gainst $238.56 in 1897. 

The revenue from sales of stamps during 1898 exceeded that of the 
previous year by $337,000. 

POBr-OFFICB STATISnCS AS AN INDICATION OF BUSINESS COWDmOHS. 

The postmaster-general's report for 1898, compared with those of 
previous years, indicates the business conditions of the country, and 
the development of those relations which are manifested by the inter- 
change of correspondence, by the transmission of money orders, and by 
the use of the post-office as a receptacle of public deposits. Although 
H. Doc. 481, Pt 1 21 



883 



OOHICEBOIAL BELATIONB. 



it is difficttlt to prove by strict analysis, it is believed by those who 
have made a stuov of postal affairs that correspondence of a jjurely 
social nature, suco as passes between relatives or friends, relating to 
personal matters, or the interchange of views and experience of mutual 
interest, is not seriously decreased by adverse trade conditiona nor 
materially enlarged by prosperous times. The stream of this class of 
correspondence flows on steadily, its volume varying little year by 
year, whereas business correspondence has its tides, with their ebb and 
flow, which advance or decline as the conditions of trade are prosperous 
or depressed. The following table gives a comparison of the postal 
business in 1893, when a period of depression had set iu, and in 1898, 
when the depre^ion of four years had given way to great activity: 



™,.=. 


Te«r. 


PCBI 

open. 


LetWriL 


Poitcanla. 


RefilRered 


Free 




1 

z 
s 


:S 
S 

'a 
1 




]:ZZ 

020,000 
1,215,000 

\s.z 

625)000 








23.200 

la 
11 


too 

i 


GSO 
820 
180 
221 

151 
30 
33 
110 
165 


000 

i 

soo 


386 
520 

21! 

I 

110 
ISC 

s 


























































IS 


106,290 
1M.9V5 


000 


22,790,000 
28. 168.000 


3.25- 


^ 


4,73! 














»,5 


=•■•»« 


••■"« 


™'K 










s 






S.IOS 
2.0 


iie,ow,ooo 


lag 


8,605,600 


4,800,800 
















Year. 


papere, 
minplai, 
pWtenu, 


Priatera' 

pa 

policies, 


GOOdB 


Parcels 

bypucel 

port. 


Pweols 
forOrwt 
Britain. 

elc 




a 
a 

1«» 

i 

i 

ISM 


15,100,000 

•lS.m 

'■SS 

ass 

290,000 

tiss 


1,060.000 
1,765,000 
410,000 

•&Z 

170,000 
7S,O00 

■K 

es,ooo 


■fi 

621000 
115.000 
44,000 

80,000 


205,000 

SOifiOO 
49,000 

10.600 

as 

22,000 


5,487 








































f^ 






2,600 






24,320,000 
28,695,000 


i;SS 


1.813;7S0 


343,700 
818,060 


as 








2,876,000 


,.mg. 


1« 


"".in 


•SiF? 






s 






M,OIM,000 
2.671,000 


2,852, £W) 


1,8!0.700 


821,700 
a6,7» 


W 



























NOBTH AMERICA: DOHUflON OP OANADA. 823 

Between 1893 and 1898, the increase of population is estimated to 
have been about 5 per cent for the whole Dominion, but, as a gross 
increase of population does not necessarily imply the same increasd in 
the number of those who send or receive letters, the increase of popu- 
lation is not regarded as accounting for the increase in post-office 
business. Between 1893 and 1898 the total number of letters, post- 
cards, newspapers, samples, miscellaneous papers, and parcels which 
passed througa the post-office of Canada increased from 164,259,892 
to 204,465,6^, an increase of 40,205,772, which is an enlanfement of 
postal communications of 24.47 per cent in five years. The largest 
proporUonate increase was in goods open to examination, a classioca- 
tion which covers foreign articles imported into Canada through the 
post-office, the gain in which has been enormous in the last few years, 
and will continue to increase lupidly under a favorable tariff. The 
importation of dress goods, i, e., clothing made up in England, through 
the post-office, is assuming proportions which those engaged in such 
industries in Canada may well regard with anxiety. The increase in 
such articles as newspapers, samples, deeds, photos, and others on 
which the postage is very low, has already caused a change to be made 
for the purpose of increasing the revenue from this service. Between 
1893 and 1898, such articles increased from 26,019,000 to 29,967,000, 
or 15 per cent. 

It is interesting to note that, in proportion to population, the people 
of IVfanitoba and the Northwest Territories receive and dispatch more 
letters than those in any other section of Canada. As compared with 
the old country, Canada stands high in the average of letters and post- 
cards per head. It may, however, be taken as a iiile that as popula- 
lation becomes congested in large cities where a telephone service 
exists, the fewer will be the communications sent through the post- 
office. Having shown how the postal business of the country expanded 
from 1893 to 1898, owing to improved mercantile conditions which 
inyariably increase the correspondence of the community, I will now 
quote figures relative to the money-order department, which has 
become so intimately associated with post-offices: 



Ymm. 


Toj^^e™ 


■SSi." 


Payable oat- 
Ude Canada. 


Canada. 




«2, 902.976 

13^ IS?; 321 
13 081 MO 
is; 967; 230 
14,618,480 


tio.vH.ssj 
iD;73eiM; 

1D,7»,66I 
10,«80,835 
12,082,668 


2,450,674 
2,435,821 


tss 








2,182:971 










1,816,60s 


1,977,801 








82,207 













It will be noted that during the years of depression the issuance of 
money orders varied slightly, but last yes-, «rnen trade revived, there 
was an expansionof tl,531,250overtheprjcediDgyear, andof tl,616,- 
505 over 1893, This increase would have been much greater had not 
the express companies in recent years made considerable inroads in 
the post-office money-order business. The increase was, however, so 
marsed in 1898 as to show the activity of the class of business which 
calls for these orders. It will be also noted that the increase was 



COXUEBCIAL BEI.ATI0IT8. 



wholly in orders required for remittances within the Dominion. The 
following is an exhiciit of the money order businesa by provinces: 





Ordera iaraed. 


Orfem 


paid. 




issa. 


ISftS. 


1MB. 


I8B8. 


Ontario 




18 SOT ™ 


4G2.SCB 






i]6ai 

1,7* 
1,»9S 


m 








IKfcO&T 






TIB,«8 






12.902. 97& 




12,586.280 


H2M.583 









Out of the total increase in orders issued, over 50 per cent is credited 
to Manitoba, the Territories, and British Columbia, which is a sig- 
nificant indication of their improved financial condition since 1893. 
The deposits in the post-office savings banks in 1893 were $Sl,153,i93, 
and in 1898, $34,480,937, an increase of 10,327,744. 

IN8UIUHCE AND LOSSES BY FIBB. 

The insurance companies throughout Canada have suff^ed severely 
from loss by fire, so far this year. During June, the total loss was 
$355,900, and the insurance loss $242,600. 

Below is a summary of fire losses in Canada for the first five months 
of this year, in comparison with the same length of time in 1898, as 
compiled by the Insurance and Financial Chronicle: 





im. 


isge. 




Total Ion. 


l™j™ce 


l^Ulltn. 


"ToS."™ 




W7.0W 
418,39) 
990! 24U 


m 


5^:55o 

M0;«0 


^^ 




















<, 097. TOO 


2.4D6.00D 


!. 704.920 






' 



The Canadian tobacco production for the year ending June 30, 1899, 
reached a total of 2,418,890 pounds, -representing an increase in the 
consumption of this class of tobacco of 530,931 pounds over the pre- 
vious j'ear, when the duty paid product amountea to 1,887,959 pounds. 
In the fiscal year of 1897 the consumption was only 736,081 pounds, 
so that the present sale is over three times as great as it was two years 
E^o. Whether this trade has as yet reached its limit is a matter of 
some speculation, but certainly it has made i-emarkable strides under 
the impetus of its increased protection. 

SHIFHENIS OF CAnLB. 

The total movement to all markets from Manitoba and the Territo- 
ries for the season of 1898 waa about 59,000 head, which shows a sub- 



NORTH AHESIOA: DOHIiaON 07 CANADA. 335 

stantiat increase over all previous years excepting 1897, when about 
60,000 head were moved. Of this total of 59,000 head, some 16,000 
or 18,000 head were stocker cattle, which were shipped to the United 
States. The remaining 40,000 were fat cattle, dressed for the market 
of eastern Canada and the British Isles. These latter were about 
evenly, divided between domestic and range animals. 

The following table shows the export movement of live stock from 
Manitoba and uie Territories since 1894: 



Ye.r. 


Cattle. 


Sheep. 


H„ 


Hon^ 


»< 






10,000 
15, (W) 
S.300 

Sooo 





























John L, Bittinoer, 

Consul- General. 
MoNTBEAL, Augwit 1, 1899. 



BKITIBII COLOMBIA. 

VICTORIA. 



The trade of the past year has not been noted for any phenomenal 
rush or boom, but has been steady and generally satisfactory in the 
Province of British Ck)lumbia, and especially on Vancouver Island. The 
vast coal fields have yielded more than ever before in their history, 
and new developments and extensions have been made which ^ve 
indications of stiil greater results in the coming year. As Victoria is 
the commercial center of the island, the result nas been an increa^ of 
traffic, as shown by returns from the banks, business houses, and ship- 
ping interests. 

While there has been no great increase of population, signs of pros- 

emty are evident on eveiy hand. During the current year, up to 
ovember 1, 1899, miles or Toads have been greatly improved, and 
new sidewalks have been constructed, the sum of $50,000 having been 
expended therefor by the city corporation of Victoria. These improve- 
ments by the authorities have been emulated by private citizens, and 
during the same time several blocks have been erected on business 
street, as well as a number of private bouses, the total cost reaching 
nearly $300,000, a much larger sum than that expended in any pre- 
vious year in the history of Victoria, except during the fictitioua boom 
of 1890-91. Several of the buildings erected are solid and substantial, 
and add much to the business appearance of the city, which has always 
been more noted as a residential than a commercial renter. 

This advance seems to be steady, and the prospect's are that several 
other important building will he erected next year, as contracts have 
■already been let. This is due almost solely to the development of 
. coal and other mines on Vancouver Island. Lately clay, from which 
Portland cement can be manufactured, is reported to exist in large 
quantities on the west coast. This, when developed, will oiake another 
imporbmt addition to the products of Vancouver Island. , -, , 

Cooglc 



020 OOMHBBCIAL BELATIONB. 

The manufactures of Victoria include the following: Producte of 
lumber inill-i and ii-on works; giant powder and other explosives, card- 
board boxes, blacking, soap, shoes, vinegar and sauces, preserves, 
painta, cigars, underwear, furniture, lime, brick, etc. The chemical 
works manufacture nitric acid, used to make dynamite, and muriatic 
acid, largely employed in salmon canneries, the demand exceeding the 
supplv. 

In Victoria there are over 3,000 permanent Chinese residents. The 
number sometimes increases to 5,000, forming from one-seventh to 
one-fourth of the population. Laundering, domestic service, and 
market gardening are almost monopolized by them. During the 
salmon-canning season they go in large numbers to the canneries on 
labor contracts made with the head men here. 

In all employments in which Chinamen engage, except domestic 
service, they underbid the white laborer. They are diligent; persist- 
ent, and persevering. In consequence of this there is a strong pop- 
ular objection to Chinese immigration, which found expression in a 
demand that the impost be raised to ^00. This tlie Dominion Grov- 
ernment has not seen fit to concede. 

The Japanese are not laundrymen or gardeners, but act as domestic 
servants, and are especially useful in hotels as messengers and paiges, 
where promptness and politeness are required. They are also fisher- 
men in Iftt-ge numbers, competing in this respect with white men and 
Indians. They strongly object to being classed with the Chinese as 
undesirable immigrants, insisting that their purpose is to assimilate 
with the white population and' become permanent residents. 

Exclusion of Chinese and Japanese is beyond the power of the Prov- 
ince, but under color of police regulations some hindrances to their 
employment are imposed. For instance, a provincial act prohibiting 
the employment of Asiatics underground was passed. This being con- 
sidered "ultra vires" by Great Britain, a rule forbidding the employ- 
ment underground of men unable to read the mining regulations in 
English was issued by the provincial government, which rule the 
authorities are endeavoring to enforce. 

A woolen mill started atNewWestminsterdid not succeed on account 
of the high price of white labor, popular feeling forbidding the employ- 
ment of Chinese. It is probable that the objection to Chinese tabor 
will grow rather than decline, and so long as it continues this province 
will nave to be fed, clothed, and generally furnished from without; 
and notwithstanding the tariff protecting Canadian-made goods, and 
the discrimination ^voring goods made in Great Britain, the American 
preponderance of tradj will continue and increase. 

The rainfall in Victoria is 80 inches per year, against 60 inches in the 
neighboring city of Vancouver; but it is very persistent during the 
winter months. 

TRADE WITH THE TTNTTED STATES, 

The trade of the United States with the Province of British Co- 
lumbia exceeds that of all other countries combined, except of Canada 
itself. The manufacturers of eastern Canada, by which la meant the 
provinces of Ontario and Quebec, have learned to copy American 
methods: indeed, many of them are American citizens, so that Uiey 
are quick to adapt their products to the demand, and the Canadian 



NORTH AJCEBIOA: DOHINIOK of CANADA. 827 

tariff 8o uliieldfi them that they compete successfully wiUi foreign 
producers. 

As compared with Europe, United States trade with this province 
is not destmed to suffer any diminution, but will s^ow with the increase 
of population. It is not impossible, however, that Japan may prove 
a competitor io some braacbes of manufactnre. Straw hats, for in- 
stance, have come hitherto almost exclusively from the United States. 
The Japanese hats have been so inferior in make that there has been 
no sale for them; but the Japanese are improving in this respect. 
Japanese crockery and matches are coming in. The trade in Califor- 
nia wines has much increased during the past year. American and 
Canadian flour sell here in about equal quantities, the duty and rail- 
road freights about offsetting each other. 

There are few factories of any kind, as stated, the high prices for 
labor retarding their establishment. If, however, Asiatic labor should 
be brought in, there seems to be no reason why woolen and other fac- 
tories should not succeed. There are many Chinese and Japanese in 
the province, and every ship from the Orient adds to their number. 

MINERAL RESODBCES. 

The whole of British Columbia is heavily mineralized. Iron occurs 
in abundance, but there are no iron emeltmg furnaces; copper, lead, 
silver, and gold are also mined. In the southeastern part of the 
province are smelters, and recently one has been built at Texada, an 
island in the Gulf of Georgia, east of Vancouver Island. The deposits 
of copper ore on Vancouver Island and adjacent islands are numerous; 
the grade generally is low, though occasional rich veins are found. 
Gold in small quantity occurs in the copper. In the eastern part of the 
-rovince, besides the gold-copper ore, there is also silver lead. A 
irge part of the province is still unexplored; even on Vancouver 
Island there are considerable areas where the foot of white man has 
never trod. It is evident that the undeveloped resources of this vast 
province offer a field for American enterprise and American capital. 

BANE OLEAKINQS. 

Hiast November, a clearing house was established at Victoria. The 
retnms of the eleven months during which it has been in operation 
are as follows, the figures being for the four weeks ending on Uie 
dates named: 



C 



November 22, 1898 $2,723,653 

Deoember 20, 1898 2,692,606 

jMinaryl7,1899 2,427,277 

FebnUHT 14, 1899 2,618,763 

Marohl4,1899 2,474,323 

Aprilll,1899 2,487,704 

May9,1899 2,712,6(» 



June 6, 1899 $2,613,028 

July 4, 1899 2,299,907 

Augu8tl.l899 2,794,479 

Anguat 29, 1899 2,741,89* 

Beptember26, 1899 2,806,736 



Total tor UuionthB... 31,192,889 



The number of failures in the province of. British Columbia during 
the year ended October 1, 1899, was 61, with'assets of $352,536 and 
liabilities of $357,276. Last year, the failuresvrere 69; assets, 9660,247, 
aad liabilities $643,996. 



OOICHEBOIAL BBlATIOlira. 



The past year has been fairly prosperous in this consular district, 
yet the volume waa not so large as in 18S7-98, owing to the subaidence 
of the rush to the Klondike gold fields. There has been a marked 
decrease in the number of American veBsels calling at Victoria, due 
in part to the same reason, but largely to the demand made by the 
local tranBDortation company that American steamers should not call, 
but leave the business here to be supplied by home vessels. So insist- 
ent has been this demand, backed by a threat to cut rates if it was not 
heeded, and the imposition of a tariff of 8 centa per ton for annual 
inspection, that now — save the daily ferry to the sound, a mail steamer 
once a month, and the ^n Francisco steamers every five days — ^very 
few American vessels call at this port. The result is that residents of 
Victoria coming froraSka^ay are often carried by thisport to Seat- 
tle, and return to Victoria on the daily ferryboat. The following 
table shows the arrivals and departures of American vessels at Victoria 
during the last two years, ending September 30: 



Y„ 


Ve«el«. 


To™^, 




7«» 
















78 









The total number of vessels clearing at this port during the year 
ending'June 3U, 1899, was: 



Where reglBlera]. 


™"' 


I^no,^. 


UniW Slatw 


»4G 


BB6TM 


BriOsh: 


















^m 


i,«a,M2 





Victoria still reinains the leading port of Canada, save Montreal, 
which exceeds thin in the number and tonni^e of vessels clearing 
during the past twelve months. 

season's salmon pack. 

Returns indicate the salmon pack of British Columbia to be the largest 
on record, except that of 1897, being nearly 200,000 cases larger man 
in 1898. Fraser, Skeena, Namu, and Alert Bay are responsible for 
the increase, there having been a falling off on the other rivers. Rivers 
Inlet, for instance, is 30,000 cases short of last year. The Kaas is also 
5,000 cases short tnis year. ' The Skeena canners were delayed a week 
through a strike of the fishermen, but even then filled all their cans. 
The Fraser River profits will not be in proportion to the pack, as the 
canners had to pay an exceptionally hi^ price for fish. The Alaska 
pack is estimated at 1,000,000 cases, the Fuget Sound pack at two-thirds 
of that, and the Columbia River pack at 800,000. The sound canneiies 



KOKTH AHERIOA: DOMICnON OF CANADA. 



329 



are a comparatively new factor in the businesB, but their pack does not 
materially interfere with the market for British Columbia salmon, as 
a new outlet has been found in the United States for the sound prod- 
uct. To handle the product of the British Columbia canneries eight 
vessels have already tfeen chartered, as f^ainst a fleet of fire last year. 
The statement of production follows: 





IWT. 


isw. 


lam. 




851! 

10. we 
*;4M 


Catt*. 
268,203 
SO.OOO 

■as 

i!:S 


Ctun. 
iea.«BO 






TOioOO 




















],ii6,*n 


«,.m 


«T9,«» 





The average price this year in Victoria is $4. 50 to $5 per case. This 
industry alone realized over $3,000,000 the past season. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

Last year $290,255. 26 was expended on public schools in the province 
of British Columbia, as follows: Teachers' salaries, $180,437.58; per 
capitagrantfi to city districts, $52,922.64; new schoolhouses and repairs, 
$42,498.89; education office, $14,396.15. The whole number of pupils 
enrolled was 17,648, with an average daily attendance of 11,055.65. 
Teachers employed, 422. The number of schools in operation was 
261, of which 4 were high, 25 graded, and 232 common schools. In 
addition, there are 72 "assisted" schools, located at small settlements. 
Tlie appropriation for education in the province for the year ending 
June 30, 1900, including $20,000 for construction and repairs, is 
$324,560. The school system is free and nonsectarian. The provin- 
cial government builds a schoolhouse, makes a grant for incidental 
expenses, and pays a teacher in every district where twenty children 
between the ages of 6 and 16 can be brought together. Smaller 
schools are '^assisted" by cash allowances. The cities have charge 
of their own schools and receive from the provincial government, a 
per capita grant of $10 annually for all scholars in attendance. The 
salary paid to teachers is $50 per month in rural districts and runs up 
to $110 in cityand high schools. Attendance on public schools is 
compulsory. The education department is presided over by a minister 
of the province. There is also a superintendent, who resides at Vic- 
toria, and five inspectors in the province; also a board of trustees in 
each district. 



byGoO'^lc 



OOHMEBOIAL BELATIONB. 



IMPOBTB AND EXPOBT8. 
U into oontidar dittria of Victoria during JitocA year tndingJvn 

DUTIABLE AKTICLE8. 



Artlclee. 


pTomUnllefl 

BUMa. 


From other 


Total. 




IS 

12,712 

i 

Sis 

11 

Is 

is 




"SZ 




82,797 




iri 








fffi 














11,710 










•1 

M,0T4 


as 


























11 
1 
















«B 






10.047 
144,107 
















M,2U 
S;77S 

■a.«o 

?s 

U.OHi 

B.90G 

is 

10,768 

„.a 

472 

2e>'.oei 


ly^ 


















'» 












AS 

».g 
IS 

8^801 

!S 

101^408 

178.236 


*s; 






fS 




















*i 












!»« 










1,380,188 


1,1K,0» 









FREE ARTICLES 










12,801 


nss 


1235,249 








ii;eJ7- 




9,888 




i,asi 






i 








4; 114 
















11 








11,800 








IS! 




i'SiS 


Timber; 


18, m 














9,890 
4GS8 
34,412 








82,964 






2(0, 89« 


S38,09S 


788. 922 





HOBTH AMEMOA: DOMimON OF OAKADA. 



Export* from oonsuiar ditlrict of Vidoria during year ending June SO, 1899. 



ArtlcU*. 


ToUDlted 
Bute*. 


Toother 


ToUL 




2g;68e 

imImo 
ia,iM 

1,600 


tl,36S 

:i7,«» 






S 

176 
124 

201 
12 










200,400 

146,448 

86 
















































46,076 










I.4H,W1 


1,275,002 






' 





RECAPITULATION. 



Piodneti ol mine* 

Products of fiiherles 

Productaof toren 

Aclmalauid tbeir produce .. 

^riiciiltuTal productt - . 

Hanufoctutes 

Hlacelluieoai articles 



Tola! 4,700,018 

EXPOBT8 TO THE UNITED STATES. 

Theesports from this consular district to the United States during tlie 
year ended June 30, 1899, were $2,792j898.89, against $2,331,731.55. 
the year previous. Following is a detailed list of the declared exports 
for year ended June 30, 1899: 

$2,312.33 
10,238.98 
6,142.34 

6,002.50 

3,660.42 

943.63 



Acid and soda (608. IS 

Coal 2,177,944.37 

Coaltw 689.70 

Collections of gtomps 
Driving outfit 



Earthenware 

Gold bullion 

Groceries 

Hides and tun . . . 
Household goods . 
Iron dmniB 



752.50 

990.00 

1,265.00 

2, 885. 00 

384,582.00 

3,248.73 

133,279.65 

4,165.00 

2,214.60 



Liquors 

Miscellaneous goods 

Mining-8U>ck certiGi^teH a. 

!Nitrat« soda 

Oat hulls 

Ore — gold, silver, and cop- 
per 



Total 2,792,898.88 



byGoo'^lc 



332 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

PBOVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FINANCES. 

The following is the official statement of the receipts and expendi- 
tures of the province of British Colnmbia for the nscal year ended 
June 30, 1899: 



Dominion subeidy 1242, 689. 4f 

Landaales 73,807.51 

Land revenue : 11,264.65 

Survey fees 1, 024. 16 

Rents, exclusive of land 239. 00 

Rents, ferries 25. 00 

Timber leases 24, 143. 31 

Timber royalty and licenses 64, 323. 48 

Free minera' certificatea 155,104.25 

Mining receipts, general 186, 702. 90 

Licensee 93, 496. 32 

Fines and fees of court 15, 652. 54 

Probate teee 3,807.98 

Succession duty 1,909.03 

I^WBtampe 11,005.05 

Ri^Btryfees 101,669.67 

Sale of government property 861. 18 

Marriage licensee 4, 415. 00 

Revenue tax 104, 266. 00 

Real-property tax 119,877.68 

PerBonal-property tax 114, 901. 08 

Wild-land tax 47,309.06 

Income tax 9, 872. 27 

Mineral tax 34, 121. 73- 

Revenae service refunds 462. 81 

Tax-sale deeds 220.00 

Commission and fees on sales tor taxes 524. 16 

Printing office 17,385.28 

Registered taxes (all denominations) 26. 00 

Bureau of mines 606.66 

Asjlum for the insane 4, 034. 83 

Provincial home 161. 28 

Beimbursements in lud 3,509.08 

Chinese restriction (act 1884, Dominion statutes) 26,400.00 

Interest on investment of sinking funds 22,057.00 

Interest : 812. 17 

MiscellaneouB receipts 33,072.22 

Total receipts 1,531,638.60 



Pnblicdebt (see note below) $287,033.31 

Civil government (salaries) 131,678.40 

Administration of justice (salaries) 184,781.75 

Legislation 43,603.37 

Public inaUtutdons (maintenance) 113,771.90 

Hospitals and charities 57, 553. 27 

Administiation of justice (other than salaries) 86, 630. 28 

EdncaUon 268, 653. 46 

Transport 16,756.05 

Rent 48.50 

Revenue services 12,621.70 

Public works: 

Works and building 252,369.36 

New Parliament buildings, Victoria 9,207.51 

Government hooae, Victoria 3,582.20 

Roads, streets, bridges, and wharvee 600, 910. 28 

Surveys 15, 037. 64 

Hiacellaueous 148,830.65 

Total 2,232,879.60 



NORTH AMKEIOA: DOMINION OF CANADA. 888 

Nore. — Leas pmyiuent on einkinfr fvmd iitveetment account, (166,405, 74, 
which amount ia included in the above expenditureti, under " Public 
debt" $66,4(».74 

Net expenditure 2,166,473.86 

The receipts and expenditures of the province of British Columbia 
during the ten years ended June 30, 1899, were aa follows: 



Y^r^nd^June | ^,p^. 


■;ss"- 


Y»r 


ended June 

30- 


BccelpU. 


Eipendl- 






wn,we.i6 

i:«i;««.si 

l,ftl4,«6.10 


1«B. 

law. 




MS, 7^.22 
1,383,048.24 
1,«»,6I8.*) 

i,rai,63s.ea 






; ,S'SS 




1,614. 7^ «2 








! •■K'SSK 










2,l«8,478,Se 


*** 1 





RAILROADS. 



The present mileage of railroadw in British Columbia is: 

Canadian Pacific — main line and branclies 605. 30 

ColumbiSi and Kootenay 28. M 

Eequimalt and Nanaimo 78.01 

Kaslo and Slocan 31.80 

Nakusp and Slfxaui 36.90 

Shuswap and Obonagan 51. 00 

Victoria and Sidney 16.26 

Red Mountain 1 6.00 

Columbia and Weetem 21.00 

NeWWeatminiBter Southern 22.00 

Bolwon to Greenwood 89. 50 

New Weetminister, Vancouver (electric) 12. 00 

Total 957.67 

The bonded debt of the railroads, outeido of the main line of the 
Canadian Pacific, is, in round numbers, $5,500,000; and the total cost 
of raUways in the province about $^,OCH),0(X), inclusive of rolling 
stock and other plant. 

Only the Esquimalt and Nanaimo (78.01 miles) and the Victoria and 
Sidney (16.26 miles) are. on Vancouver Island, which ia about 800 
miles long, with an average breadth of 50 miles, The other railroads 
are on the mainland. The Esquimalt and Nanaimo Kailway received 
?760,000in cash as a bonus from the Dominion, and 1,900,000 acres on 
the island from the province, the lands to be free of taxation forever 
and the road exempt for ten years. The Victoria and Sidney, a line 
built in connection with a project for a ferry running from Sidney to 
Point Roberts— which ferry ha.'} not yet materialized — received a bonus 
of ^,200 per mile from the Dominion government, and one-half the 
4 per cent interest on the bonds was assumed by the city of Victoria, 
which is now annually paying 49,000 on same. 

In the past year there have been several projects to bring Victoria 
in closer touch with the mainland, it being felt that this city was 
becoming more and more isolated. A proposition was first made to 
put on a 20-knot steamer from Vancouver to Cbemainus, there to con- 
nect with the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Eailway, and thus shorten the 
time between Vancouver and Victoria to three hours. Another proj- 



884 OOHHEBOIAL BSXATIONB. 

ect was to run a faster steamer direct from Vancouyer to Victoria, 
Another was to eatabliah a fast ferry between Sidney and Point 
Roberts, and thus utilize the short line between Sidney and Victoria, 
now comparatively useless, and then to build other short lines of rail- 
road on the mainland, connecting with New Westminister, Chilliwack, 
and other points on the Fraser Kiver. Still another proposal was to 
equip a daily car ferry to connect with the projected Port Angeles 
and Eastern Bailroad, which is to run 110 miles south to Olympia and 
connect with the American railroad systems. All these asked a sub- 
sidy from the citv, and so far none haye been accepted. Discussion 
is still going on, nowerer, and a project is on foot, on the suppositioD 
that the Port Angelea ferry will materialize, to extend the Esquimalt 
and Nanaimo KSlway from Wellington, ita present terminus, 200 
miles to Cape Scott, the extreme north end of Vancouver Island, and 
thus make this island the highway to Alaska. An application has been 
filed for a charter for this purpose. The natural cODservatism of the 
people and the fact that all the railroads now in existence on the island 
are pecuniary failures render the realization of any of these projects 
problematics. 

Application will be made at the nesi; session of the Canadian Parlia- 
ment for an act to incorporate a company with power to build either 
ft standard or narrow-gauge railway from a point in Comox district, 
Vancouver Island, near the east coast of the island, to run northerly 
by the most feasible route through Sayward and Rupert districts to a 
point near Cape Scott, or near the north end of Vancouver Island, 
with power to construct, operate, and maintain brancif lines to the 
coast on either side of Vancouver Island, and all necessary roads, 
bridges, ways, and ferries, and to build, own, and maintain wharves, 
docks, sawmills, and coal bunkers. This road, as stated, would con- 
nect with thepresent Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railroad, running from 
Victoria to Wellington, and thus make a continuous railway line from 
" the extreme south to the northernmost port on Vancouver Island. 

The Canadian Pacific Railroad is about to construct a double track 
from Montreal to Vancouver. It is announced that this gigantic work 
will be commenced next spring and be steadily pushed to ita com- 
pletion. It will involve the expenditure of many millions of dollars 
and the employment of large numbers of men. 

Abbahah E. Smith, Oon^. 

Victoria, December S, 1889. 



KEW BRUNSWICK. 

MONCTON. 



This consular district embraces the consular agencies of Newcastle 
and Richibucto. 

Moncton is situated on the Fetitcodiac River, immediately above 
the point known as "The Bend," The river is shown to be, from 
bank to bank, 3,700 feet wide. The mean depth at high wat«r is 25 
feet. This varies with the phases of the moon from 21 minimum to 32 
maximum rise and fall of the tide. It is therefore impossible for any 
vessel to enter or depart except with the tide. 

This place is a railway center and is the headquarters of the Inter- 



ITOBTH AKEBIOA: DOHIinOH OF OAMADA. 



886 



colonial Railway, as all the head offices and repair shops are located 
here, giving employmeDt to about 1,500 people. 

The Canadian Pacific Railway and the Moncton and Boutoucbc Bail- 
way run through this district. The Moncton and Boutouche Railway 
operates 85 milea only, and hardly pays running expenses. 

EXPEEB8 AKD FKEIGHT RATES. 

Express rates are the same as in the United States. Express money 
orders to anyplace in the United States or Canada cost; tS and under, 
3 cente; from $3 to $5, 4 cents; $5 to$10,6cents; $10 to 120, 10 cents; 
«20 to (30, 12 cents; $30 to $^, 15 cents; $40 to $50, 18 cents; $50 to 
$60, 20 cents; $60 to $75, 25 cents; $75 to $100, 30 cents. Larger 
amounts in proportion. 

Freight rates from Moncton to Boston, about 500 miles distant, per 
100 pounds, are: First class, 54 cents; second class, 48 cents; ^ird 
class, 37 cents; fourth class, 29 cents. 

Steamship freight rates, Moncton, St. John, Boston, per 100 pounds, 
are: First class, 49 cents; second class, 41 cents; third class, 33 cents; 
fourth class, 27 cents; fiftli class, 22 cents; sixth class, 20 cents. 

CBEDITB AND LICENSES. 

The usual time for credit is thirty, sixty, and ninety days, and busi- 
ness methods are much the same as in the United States. Sample 
goods are sold by commercial travelers at wholesale prices. No licenses 
are required and commercial travelers are at liberty to compete with 
the local trade. No retail peddlers are allowed to sell on the streets, 
and no buteher shops are permitted outside of the city market. 



The total exports to the United States, Great Britain, and other 
countries from the port of Moncton for the years ended June 30, 
1898, and June 30, 1699, amounted to: 



CmmtrlM, 


me. 


ISM. 




'm'X 


«:S 




















ew.016 


496,906 





This shows a falling otf from the previousyear of $147,869. The 
decrease in exports to Great Britain was $141,420; to the United 
States, $6,449. 

The following shows exports to the United States and Great Britain 
for the year ended June 30, 1899, from the porte of: 



v^ 


ro United 


To Great 


N»«wt1« 


^i 




















818. M* 


l,Mfl,013 





836 OOMHEBOUL BELATIONS. 

The total value of exports from this consular district for the year 
ended June 30, 1899, was: 

To the United Slates $456,787 

To Great Briton 1,697,631 

To South America 5,842 

To the Britieh West Indies 917 

Total 2,061,177 

The exports through this consular district consist chiefly of gypsum, 
of which 65,915 tons (crude), 15,723 barrels calcined, and 366 barrels 
terra alba were exported during the year named. Forest products — 
principally lathtt, boards, deals, and scantling — were also sent, although 
a decided decrease in the exports of lumber to the United States is 
noted. The bulk of sawed lumber goes to Great Britain, which the 
shippers consider a much better market than the United States. 

Canned lobsters, fresh frozen smelts, hay, potatoes and grindstones, 
boards and wood are sent to South America; r^etables and hay to 
the British West Indies. 

The shipping of canned lobsters has not only decreased but has 
stopped altogether, so far as Moncton is concerned. In fact, the 
export business of Moncton proper lias entirely disappeared. The 
exports in 1896 were valued at |21,941; in 1897, at |5,317; and in 
1898, at $750. 

IMPOBT8. 

The imports from the United States, Great Britain, and other coun- 
tries to Moncton Port for the two years ended June 30. 1898, and 
June 30, 1899, were as follows: 



Coontrioi. 


uae. 


im. 






MS 


























2,467 










843.183 









Decreaoe of ImporU Itom Qreat Bi 



The imports from the United States and Great Britain for the year 
ended June 30, 1899, to the following porta were: 



PorU. 


Z& 


"■EC" 

Onst 
Britain. 


NbwomUb 


11 






^S 










141, lU 


ei.s2» 





byGoo'^lc 



NOBTH AUEBICA: DOMINION OF CANADA. 837 

The total imports from the United States, Great Britain, and other 
countries into this consular district for the year ended June 30, 
189!», were: 

United Statea $354,418 

Great Britiun 140,942 

Other countries 6,738 

Total 501,098 

The following Htatement gives the kinds of gooda imported into this 
district: 

From United States. — Baking powder, shoe dressing, printed booke, 
brasH, and manufactures of, biscuita, bicycles, cement, cottons, fancy 
artictefj, glassware, gutta-percha, hats andcaps, iron, and manufactures 
of, leather, marble, musical instruments, oil, paint, seed, starch, trunks 
and valises, wood, and manufactures of, antJiracite coal, com (IntUan), 
boots and shoes. 

From Oreat Britain. — Liquor, fancy articles, flax, gloves and mit- 
tens, gutta-percha, sugar, hats and ca^s, silks, pickles, umbrellas, 
woolens, spices, starch, paints, paper, oilcloth, cottons, earthenware, 
tiB, and zinc. 

BOOTS AND SHOES. 

Boots and shoes are widely manufactured in Canada, the tariff favor- 
ing the industry. The superiority of those made in the United States 
is welt known, although the duty of 3S per cent shuts them out. 

BICTCLEB. 

Bicycles are in use to a very la^e extent, notwithstanding the fact 
that streets here are in a bad conmtion. The trade is equal^ divided 
between American and Canadian manufacturers, although 30 per cent 
protection is given the latter by this government 

JBWELRT, WATCHES, CLOCKS, AND BILVBRWABE. 

These articles are mostly of United States manufacture, and branch 
houses in Montreal and Toronto provide for the needs of the jewelers 
here. There are watch-case factories in Canada, but 50 per cent of 
the cases and SOper cent of the movements sold here are of American 
manufacture. The remaining 30 per cent of movements are of Swiss 
make. There are also a few English watch movements in the market. 

INDUSTBEBH. 

Qoarrying gypsum and manganese ore, sawing Inmber, preparing 
wood pulpj and agricultural pursuits are the chief industries of this 
consular district. 

The Gypsum Company at Hillsborough, 14 miles distant from Monc- 
ton, employs an average of 200 men and boys annually. It also 
employed 116 vessels, with 900 sailors, during the last season, in ship- 
ping dieir product to the United States. 



producers of manganese are employing about 90 men, but they 

have not as yet shipped to the United Stat^, although I have been 
informed that shipprng will soon be started from Bridgeville, Nova 
H. Doc. 481, Pt. 1 22 Ch)i,>^Ic 



888 OOMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

Scotia, where their blast furnace is located. Both the gypsum and 
manganese eompaniee are carried on by American capital. 

The MonctOD Woolen Mill and Manufacturing Estabuahment employs 
about 75 men and women, with an annual output of $125,000, for home 
trade only. 

The sugar refinery at Moncton, which was destroyed by fii-e about 
three years ago, has not been rebuilt and the work is confined to manu- 
facturmg cooperage stock for the two refineries at Halifax, which are 
owned by one company. It manufactures annually about 2,500 cords 
of hardwood into staves, for which it pays $5 a cord; and 1,500 cords 
of spruce wood at $2.50 a cord, for heading. It employs about 60 
men and boys, at an average wage of $1 per day. The annual output 
amounts to 500,000 staves and 250,000 pair of heads; value, about 
$40,000. 

The Dominion Cotton Mills Company employs some 266 men and 
girls, at an average wage of $4.07 per week, and its annual output 
amounts to 1,304,1^ pounds, 6,202,056 yards, for home trade only. 

There is one shoe factory in Shediac and also one in Sackville; they 
use United States machinery and their weekly output amounts to 3,000 
pairs. 

This province is known as a great hay producer^ and the manufac- 
ture of the Nixon Hay Press, a United States patent sold to a local 
company, was considered an excellent undertaking. Nevertheless, 
after two years' operation the factory including ml machiner? and 
stock, was sold for a trifle through the sheriff, and the building will be 
occupied as a branch shop bv the woolen mill. One of the stock- 
holders told me they did not nave the capital to run the concern on a 
large scale, and owing to extended credits, calamity was certain. 

WAQBS. 

The following table shows the average wages paid: 

Bookkeepers, per month f40. 00 to $100. 00 

Clerks in stores, per month 20. 00 to 60. 00 

Conductore, passenger, per month 75.00 to 100.00 

Gonductois, freight, per month 60. 00 to 75. 00 

Bailroad clerks, per month 30. 00 to 60. 00 

Engineers, railway, per month 90.001O 125. 00 

Domeetic Bervantfl, per month 5.00 to 11.00 

Mechanics, per day 1.00 to 2.60 

Factory opwativea, per day 1.00 to 2.00 

Laborers, per day 90 to 1.25 

CDBRBHOY AND BATE OF EXCHANGE. 

There has been no appreciable variation in currency and the rate of 
exchange. The money values of gold and silver on both sides of the 
line are identical as affecting the interests of trade in the consular 
district of Moncton. 



The average prices paid for products in the market of Moncton, 
Julv 29, 1899, were: 

Sutter, egffs, andpotiUry, — Butter, tub, 16 to 18 cents; butter, rolls, 
18 to 20 cents; eggs, per aozen, 12 to 16 cents; chickens (old), per pair, 
60 to 70 cents; spring chickens, per pair. 60 cents; geese, each, 70 to 
80 cents. 



N»»TH AMEEIOA: DOMIKION of CANADA. 889 

Meai and lard. — Fresh porterhouse steak, per pound, 16 to 18 cents; 
round steak, per pound, 14 cents; hamburg steak, per pound, 16 cents; 
rib roast, per pound, 14 to 16 cents; boiling meats, per pound, 10 to 12 
cents; ham, per pound, 12 to 14 cents; nam, sliced, per potmd, 18 
cents: shoulder, per pound, 11 cents; bacon, per pound, 15 cents; mut- 
ton chofM, per pound, 12 to 14 cents; spring liunb, per pound, 12 to 
14 cents; lard, per pound, 15 cents. 

FrwUs and veget<mee. — Apples, eachj 1 cent; tomatoes, per pound, 
12 cents; peaches, each, 3 cents; chernes, per pound, 20 cents; pease, 
per peck, 40 cents; carrots, per bunch, 5 cents; new potatoes, per peck, 
40 cents; lettuce, per head, 4 to 5 cents; rhubard, per pound, 2 cente; 
onions, per hunch, 5 cents; lemons, per dozen, 20 to 25 cents; oranges, 
' per dozen, 40 to 50 cents; bananas, per dozen, 25 to 30 cents; radishes, 
per bunch, Scents; red raspberries, per quart, lOcents; blueberries, per 
quart, 6 cents; beans, per peck, 40 cents; cucumbers, each, 4 to 6 cents; 
cabbages, each, 15 to 20 cents; watermelons, each, 40 to 50 cents. 

^Fwh, — Trout, per pound, 15 cents; codfish, per pound, 6 cents; 
fresh mackerel, each, 10 to 15 cents; fresh halibut, steaked, per pound, 
25 cents. 

Baled hay and straio. — Hay, pressed, per ton, $7; straw, pressed, 
each bale, 50 cents. 

Fl&wr. — Hungarian, per barrel, $6.35; Five Hoses, per barrel, $5. 

OH and coal. — ^Kerosene oil, per gallon, 25 to 28 cents; soft coal, 
per ton, $4.25; antiiracit« coal, per ton, $5.75, 

The high price of kerosene oil as compared with the price in the 
United Stetes is due to the Canadian tariff, which is the chief obstacle 
to the importation of large quantities of American products into this 
market 

GUSTAVE B&UTBI^PACHEB, 

Commercial Agent. 
MoN(7roN, Avg^ut 1, 1899. 



SUPPLEMENTAR Y. 

In obedience to Department circular issued July 10, 1899, I submit 
further details in connection with business and mineral developments 
in this consular district. 

It would appear from information I have gleaned that the mineral 
resources here give great promise of wealth. The Provincial Govern- 
ment is successiully carrying out schemes of development A large 
amount of American capital has been introduced. In regard to my 
report on coal in New Brunswick (sec Consular Reports, No. 225, June, 
1899, page 337'). I would say that my statements are being verified. 
Thoufh some delays have occurred, rapid progress is being made, and 
the New York capitalists have every confidence in a large output. 

OIL BOBINO. 

Another industry is about to be introduced. For some time, it has 
been thought that vast deposits of oil existed in this province. Boring 
was commenced last September, about 6 miles from Moncton, in the 

* Also Advance Sheets of Ooneular Reports, No. 404, April 19, l^ooalr' 



840 COMMEBCIAL KELATI0M8. 

county of Westmoreland, and is being prosecuted vigorously. Boston 
capit^ has been interested, and a company has been formed with 
$1,000,000 stock, fully paid up. 

After the Zlst of this month, four more wells will be started. The 
work is being carried on under the direction of Prof. N. S. Shaler, of 
Harvard, Cambridge, Mass. He has had three geological experts in 
the province since May last. The company is incorporated under the 
name of The New Brunswick Petroleum Company, Limited. It has 
the exclusive right to bore for oil and gas in the province. 

DOBCHESTER COPPEB MINES. 

The copper mines at Dorchester, New Brunswick, about 25 miles 
from Moncton, arc being reopened. It is believed that bad man^e- 
ment and poor markets account for their past failure. For fifteen 
years the works have been idle. 

A new company composed of American capitalists and incorporated 
under the laws of Arizona, with headquarters at Providence, R. I., 
and Boston, Mass., has been formed under the name of The Inter- 
colonial Copper Company. Its capital is, $2,500,000. The territory 
comprises 1,280 acres under lease from the New Brunswick Govern- 
ment, and 10 square miles under license to search for mineralti. 

The company has erected an engine house, tank house, blacksmith 
shop, barns, carpenter shop, car shed, air shaft, main shaft houses, 
powder magazine, superintendent's house, and general boarding house 
on its property, and at the present time is mining ore from severai 
shafts and drifts. It is said to beveiy high grade, the best running 
as high as 50 per cent and the lowest having probably 8 per cent cop- 
per. It is also understood to contain a high percent!^ of silver. 

The principal work going on at this mme, however, is the driving 
of a 900-foot tunnel from the base of the mountain into the main wori^ 
in order to drain the mine and efficiently carry ore by tram cars to 
dump; also, the connecting of two shafte by tunnel in order to gain an 
air current. 

A verv compact and neat compressed air pUnt made by the James 
Cooper Manufacturing Company, together with rock drills and other 
machinery, is on the place and will operate the several rock drills in 
the tunnels and shafts of this property. 

Telephone lines are being erected from the town of Dorchester to 
the mine, and it is proposed to light the whole property by electric 
light. Altogether, everything is being put up in the most modern 
and substantial manner. Excavations and openings have been made 
for li miles in length by one-half mile in widtn, or over a territory of 
a half mile in length and one-half mile in width from the base of the 
hill to the height of 500 feet; all show a very highgrade of ore. 

It is proposed next spring to erect the smelter near the Interco- 
lonial Bailway, a distance of Xi miles from the mines. Connection 
will be made with the main works by means of a tramway run by 
gravitation. Here, the ore can be treated without expense of freight. 

It is also intended to erect a wharf on the Dorchester River, where 
coal can be landed from the Joggins mines or Pictou. All copper and 
other products can be exporteaat a very cheap rate and the company 
will have the advantage of freighting by cars or vessels. 



Digitiz 



byGoo'^lc 



NORTH AMERICA: DOKINION OP CAKADA. 



MBBCHANT MABINE. 

The merchant mariiie employed in commerce with other countries 
re^stered at the port of Moncton consists of 14 vessels, with a total of 
2,561 tons. 

The onl; vessel which has been built in this consular district for the 
past five years was successfully launched at Palmer's shipyard at Dor- 
chester, New Brunswick, on the 18th instant. It is a uiree-masted 
schooner, 103 feet long, and 28.42 beam, 147 tons register, and is sup- 
posed to carry 220,000 feet lumber. It has been on the stocks for one 
and a half years, is thoroughly built and seasoned, and expressly 
designed for the coasting trade. The vessel was named Greta, and 
will oe in command of a captain from Rockport, Me. It is stated the 
Greta will be loaded with piling for New York, and will be ready for 
use in about two weeks. 

CABLE 8EBTICE. 

An extension of the New Brunswick telephone system has recently 
been established, connecting Moncton with Buctouche, a distance of 
29 miles. 

IMPOBTS AND EXFOKTS. 

The following is a statement of imports and exports at the port of 
Moncton for the three months ended September 30, 1899, as compared 
with the same period of 1898: 

Imporltfrom Great BrUmn. 





!». 


,«.. 




"lis 














"•" 









This shows an increased importation from Great Britain in 1899 of 
108.78 per cent in dutiable goods, and 117.66 per cent in free goods. 

Importtfrom the VniUd Slalei. 





1898. 


16». 




tsi.ssi 


_ 












S9,96T 









This shows a decreased importation from the United States of 30.9 
per cent in dutiable goods, and an increase of 70.4 per cent in free 
goods. 

The imports from other countries for the same period of 1899 were: 
free goods, fSOO. 

The exports from the port of Moncton for the three months mentioned 
were: To Great Britain, in 1898, $208,450; in 1899, 1206,848. To the 



843 



COHHEBOIAL RELATIONS. 



United States, in 1898, $40,837; in 1899, $63,905. To other countriee, 
in 1898j $5,98i; in 1899, $6,350. 

As will be seen, exports to Great Britaia declined 0.76 per cent, those 
to the United States increased 54.03 per cent, and to all other countries 
the increase waa 8.69 per cent. 

GUBTAVE BeUTEUPACHER, 

Oommercial Agetii, 
MoNCTON, October £7, 1899. 



ST. JOHN. 



I submit ray annual report of business transacted at this consulate 
during the year ended June 30, 1899, viz: 



Export* to United Stale*. 



Asphalt 

Berries 

Cattle 

Cement 

Coal 

Copper 

General effects 

Fertilizer 

Fish 

Fish hook. .8 

Fish oil 

Furs 

Glue 

Hides 

Houses 

Kiln wood 

Lambs and sheep. . 

Lumber 



3, 195. 50 
531.00 

0, 480. 00 
300.00 



B, 612. S3 

110.50 

3,27I.9e 

227.50 

170.83 

2,452.12 

5,769.00 

e, 757. 35 

B, 951. 90 

5, 517. 25 

503.00 

3,463.86 

B, 716. 67 



Machinery 

Miacellaneoufl 

Oats 

Kling 

Potatoes 

Phosphate 

Poultry 

Returned American eooda. 
Salt 



740.10 

12,039.66 

3,463.50 

660.72 

482.92 

78,650.58 

797.60 

727.10 

2S2.60 

777,823.68 
54,006.03 
66,464.11 

Total 1,341,420.66 



Lumber, 79,718,227 feet 
Shingles, 270,000,000.. 
Laths, 664,000,000.... 



Imptrrts from United Staia in Aimrican vtttdt. 



Coal $22,833.25 

FertiUwr 2,000.00 

Fish waste 155.00 

Lumber 7,818.00 

Machinery 35, 000. 00 

Plaster 1,600.00 

Number of American vessels arrived during yew . . . 
Number of American vessels departed during year. . 

Tonnage arrived 

Tonn^ departed 

Number of seamen arrived 

Number of Beamen dischaised 

Number of seamen shipped 

Value of imports in American vessels 

Valneof exports in American vessels 



Kpe f2,600.00 

Salt 360.00 

Sctapiron 1,943.00 

Wire 10,000.00 



Total 84,209.26 



There haye been the following shipments of lumber to Europe from 
this port during the past year: 



:::G00'^|C 



NORTH AHEBICA: DOUIMOJf 0» CANADA. 84S 

LiTcrpool t27, 698, 202 

Manchester _ 16, T09, 425 

Cftannel - 11,249,149 

GImkow 5,738,889 

London 1,062,535 

Ireland 7, 923, 209 



Total 67,762,644 

Ika B. Mybbs, Cojisul. 
St. John, July 10, 1899. 



SVPFLEXEffTAS Y. 

lu compliaoce with circular letter, dated July 10, 1899, I report as 
follows: 

There haa beea a decrease of about 20 per cent in exports to, and 
an increase of about 6 per cent in importa from the United SUtes, 
daring the laat year, 

COTTON AND LBATHBB HANOFACTURE3. 

There are three cotton mills located in this district, the raw material 
for which ia imported from the United States and is manufactured into 

?rinta and muslins, 90 per cent of which are consumed at home, 
here has been a falling off of about.lO per cent in imports of cotton 
and cotton manufactures from the United States during the last year. 
There was an increase of about 7 per cent in imports of leather 
manufactures from the United States last year. The higher class of 
boots and shoes fiud a better market here than the cheaper ones, as 
they are of better style and finer finish. 



The rate is generally about one-quarter of 1 per cent. 

HABBOB AND ANOHORAOE DUBS. 

There has been no change in the harbor and anchorage dues of this 
port since my last report on that subject, which may be found in 
Vol, I, p^e 411, of Commercial Relations of the United Stateti for 
1896-97. 

TRANSPOBTATION FACILITIES. 

There are three lines of railways entering this port, viz: The Cana- 
dian Pacific, extending to the Pacific coast; the Intercolonial, extend- 
ing from Montreal, via Quebec, to Halifax; the Shore Line, the termi- 
nus of which is St. Stephen, 85 miles distant. The first two railroads 
are well equipped with passenger and freight cars. 

No new lines of railroad have been constructed or projected during 
the last year. 

During the last winter about twenty-five vessels of the Beaver, 
Fumess, Dominion, AUen, and Belfast lines plied between St John 



nOO^^Ic 



844 COICMEBCIAL RET^ATIONS. 

and European ports. During the summer most of these lines run 
between Europwin ports and Montreal instead of St. John, as the St. 
Lawrence River is then open to navigation. The International Steam- 
ship Company has a regijlar line of steamers between this port and 
Boston, running three times a week the year round. Thei'e is a daily 
line running up St. John Kiver to Fredericton, a distance of 85 miles; 
also to Digbv, Nova Scotia, distant 45 miles, connecting with the 
Dominion Atlantic Aailroad to Halifax, 150 miles farther. These last 
lines compete with the railroads. 

COBIMUNICATION WITH NOVA 8COTIAN POET8. 

Via Central Pacific Railway to Vanceboro, Me., distant 90 miles; 
time, three hours. Via International Steamship Company's boatd to 
Kastport, distant 48 miles; time, three and one-half hours. Via Shore 
Line Railway to Calais, Me., distant 70 miles; time, four hours. 
There has been no change in freight.rateu. 

LICENSES. 

St. John requires a license fee of $20 per year from transient mer- 
chants; and from transient artisans $7.50 for first year, after which 
thev are subject to regular taxation. 

Commercial travelers pay no license fees in St. John or Fredericton. 

RATE OF TAXATION. 

Both real and personal property are assessed at about actual cash 
valuation for taxation. Tbe rate is $1.56 on $100 valuation. The 
poll tax is $2 on each male over 21 years of E^e. AH incomes are taxed 
at $1.56 for each $100. 

HEBCHANT MABTNE. 

There has been no change in the merchant marine since my lost 
report (heretofore mentions) excepting the addition of 24 new vessels 
of 667 tons. 

OENEEAL BUSINESS. 

Trade has materially increased during the last year, especially in the 
amount and value of lumber shipped to the United States, on account 
of the high prices received for tiiat product in New York for the last 
seven years. 

Iba B. Mybbs, Consul. 

St. John, October I, 1899. 



ST. STEPHEN.i 
IMPOBT8 ANO EXPOBTS. 

The total importations of this port for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1899, were $494,196, divided as follows: 

From the United 8tote8 t395,359 

From Great Britain 76, 734 

From all other countries 22, 103 



reply to drcakr of July 10, llttW. C-tV>0>"*Ic 



NOBTH AMEBICA: dominion ok CANADA. 345 

The total exportatioDs from thio port for the same period were 
{206,1M, divided &a follows: 



The importations from the United Statetj for the six months ended 
June 30, 1899, were $211,069; from Great Britain for the same period, 
$63,058; from all other countries, $9,236. The increased importations 
from Great Britain during these six months consist almost entirely of 
cotton yarn, drugs, and (fyes. 

The exports to the United States for the .six months named were 
$92,730; to all other countries, $4,17-1:. 

It will be noticed that the entire exportation for the year, other 
than to the United States, was made within the six months ended June 
30, 1899, and consisted entirely of soap. 

While the total importations of this port show a slight falling off 
from that of the preceding year, the customs receipts show a gam of 
$6,000. due to the larger importation of dutiable goods. 

MANUFACTURES. 

The manufacture of lumber is the principal industry of the St. 
Croix River, but a number of other large manufactorie.^ are located 
here, prominent among them being a cotton mill, a soap factory, 
and a candy factory. The cotton mill was erected some years ^o by 
American capital, and its several departments are presided over by 
Americans. It employs 800 operatives, and has an annual output of 
$6(5,000. It is known as a colored mill, making the finest goods pro- 
duced in Canada. Business in this mill has been booming the past 
year, necessitating the erection this fall of a large storehouse, of brick 
and stone, 60 by 100 feet, with three stories. 

Many Americans living in Calais, Me. , find employment in this mill, 
and should the labor laws of the United States be rigidly enforced and 
the Canadian authorities retaliate it would, in my opinion, work dis- 
astrously to both American capital and labor on this river. 

The proprietors of the soap factory claim to have the largest straight 
soap factor}' in Canada, It gives employment to 30 people, and has 
an annual production of 3,635,462 pounds. Canada is the cnief market 
for the product of this factory, although a little over$4,000 worth has 
been exported during the past six months. The raw material for this 
factory comes very wrgely from the United States. 

The candy factory, owned and operated by Ganong Brothers, is 
another large industry located in St Stephen. It employs 125 opera- 
tives, many of them coming from Calais, Me. It has an annual produc- 
tion of 1,600,000 pounds, valued at $200,000. The goods produced by 
this factory are of the finest, rivaling the output of the leadmg factories 
of the United States. They have several times been awarded first 
prizes in competition. These goods are found in almost every city 
and toWD in the Dominion of Canada. 

Among the new industries to bo introduced on the St. Croix River is 
the manufacture of pulp and paper. The mill is to have a capacity of 
100 tons of paper per tiay, and to cost $1,600,000. 

tra n sport at ion. 

This community is well provided with means of transportation. 
Aside from having the advantages of water communication by several 



346 OOHMEBOIAL BBLATIOHS. 

steamboats and many sailing vessels, it )aa three lines of railroad. 
The new Washin^n County Bailrc«d, built last rear from Calais, 
Me., and connecting here with the Canadian Pacific Baiiroad, has 
proved of immense ^vantage to the traveling public, as well as giving 
greatlv increased facilities for freight. For the first time in its his- 
tory uiis communitv has enjoyed the comforts of Pullman service, 
due entirely to the Washington County Bulrood. 



For several years, this community has been from time to time excited 
over reports of valuable mineral deposits within the limits of the city. 
Licenses have been secured covering the larger portion of the terri- 
tory now recognized as the center of the ore deposit. Numerous 
leases have been made, but from various causes the development of 
the mine has been delayed. Parties from Boston and New York have 
been prominent in securing these leases, but until an English syndicate 
became interested but littie was known of the value m the deposit. 
The past season, however, has seen a wonderful change. A large 
number of men are at work sinking a shaft, which, report saySj is to be 
300 feet in depth. large quantities of the ore have been shipped to 
England for assay. Though nothing is known of the English assays, 
some ore that was sent to American assayists has shown gold to the 
value of $3 per ton, with traces of copper and strong traces of silver- 
Inquiry was not made about other metals, but it is known that cobalt, 
iron, and nickel exist. Should this mine meet the expectation of the 

SEtrtiea who are working it, it will start a boom both here and in Calaii«, 
(e., where there is the same formation, no doubt equally rich as ihi». 



The improvement in road making has stimulated the use of bicycles. 
Some years ago it was possible to tell exactly the number of bicycles 
owned on the river, there were so few; now, they are found in almost 
every household. Though some bicycles are of Dominion manufacture, 
the overwhelming majority are of American make. A recent decision 
of the customs authorities compels tourists having bicycles among 
their effects to deposit money to cover the duty on the wheel, which 
is returned to them upon leaving the Dominion. Many of the leading 
wheel makers have agents for their goods here. 

BONDED WAHBHODSB. 

The only warehouse used for bonding purposes here is a part of the 
Government building. It is in charge m a special officer, aaa is largely 
employed for the storage of tobacco. 

CUKRENOT AMD COMHEBCIAL CREDITS. 

There has been no change in currency in this district. Rates of 
exchange remain the same as for several years ^st. There is no 
variation in the time of paying for goods or in discounts for cash. 
This community has good banking facilities. The St. Stephen Bank 
and the Bank of Nova Scotia are well established, and have abundant 
capital to meet the wants of those doing business here. In addition to 
these, there are the added facilities offered by banks in Calais, Me., 
^ust across the border. 



SOKTH AMBBIOA: -DOJasiOV OF CANADA. 847 

The system of doiDg business in this district ia in every way similar 
to that in the United States. 

BATES OP WAQE8. 

While there has been no material change in wages paid in most 
industries, the tendency is to increase the rateper day and month. 
Especially is this true in lumber operations. The ?reat advance in 
the price of manufactured lumber h^ bad the effect of largely inci'eae- 
ing the cut of logs this winter. 

Operators from other sections are caavassincf this river for men 
"for the woods," offering 25 to 50 per cent Rovance in w^es over 
former years, 

Crables a. McCuux>dgh, 

Consul. 

St. Stephen, Octob^ SI, 189$. 



■wooi>arrocK. 

The close relationship between thia district and eastern Maine, with 
the travel back and forth, has a tendency to make American goods of 
all kinds plentiful in our markets. It is practically impossible to give 
figures that show with any accuracy the ajuount of goods imported 
from the United States, as a large per cent brought into this district 
are not direct importationB. The amount, however, I am told, gradu- 
ally increases. The following figures show the importations as entered 
at the custom-house here for the fiscal year endine June 30, 1899: 
Imports from the United States, $88,514; imports rrom other coun- 
tries, $23,911. The declared exports through this consulate for the 
same period were $112,716; for the previous year, $140,046. The 
amount declared through the Edmundston consuur agency for the year 
ending June 30, 1899, was $138,566. 

There are many imitations of agricultural implements, such - as 
horsepowers and plows. Some persons even go so far as to say, 
" Oh, yes, we use such or such an American article for a pattern." 
While in a neighboring city, I had occasion to call at a stove manu- 
factory for a piece of casting to fit an American-made range, but was 
told, "Wo make and sell only the Blank £ Magee improved range, 
which is just the same, except that the castings will not fit your stove. 

English and local capital is about to improve the water power on 
the Tobique Eiver. Work has been begun on pulp and paper mills, 
as weU as on an extensive wood-working mill. 

It is probable that at Grand Falls, also, American and Canadian 
capital will in tlie near future be laively invested in pulp and various 
wood-working mills. The falls on the St. John River at that place 
are called the Niagara of New Brunswick, and have greater power 
than any other in eastern Canada. 

It is reported and seems probable that the Bestigouche and Western 
Railway will cross the Canadian Pacific at this pbu» instead of at St. 
Leonards, as first intended. If all the work planned is carried out, it 
will make Grand Falls one of the important places in western New 
Brunswick. 

Frank C. Denibon, Xhrt»td^ 

Woodstock, October 7, 1899. nOOglC 



318 COIDOBCIAL BELATIOHB. 

NEWFOUNDI-AND. 

8T. JOHNS. 

The volume of trade for the year 1S99 has been extremely large, and, 
as a whole, the people of Newfoundland are better circumstanced at 
present than for many years. 

COD FISHING. 

The I^brador lod fishery was short, especially os the lower part 
of the coast, but there was an advance in price. The %are3 are put 
at 230,000 quintals,' against 400,000 last year. The shore cod fishery 
looked very poor in the beginninjr of the season, but it improved 
toward the end. The conditions were exactly opposite to those of the 
preceding year. In 1898, the cod fishery was good until September, 
when a series of storms swept the grounds and practically mined the 
fishery for the season. At the present time, the stock of codfish held in 
the stores here is about 380,000 quintals, nearly all shore fish and of a 
good quality. This is about the same quantity held here last vear 
at this time. At present the markets do not appear brisk, especially 
in the Mediterranean and the West Indies. Brazil is fair, but slow. 
Hitherto, Nova Scotia fish has found its way into Cuba and Puerto 
Kico, and obtaining good prices, did not travel as far south as Brazil. 
Now, however, the West Indian markets are down, especiallv at Puerto 
Rico, and codfish is quoted as low as ¥2.75 a ouintal in Hatifax. The 
Lunenburg fleet managers are stiU holding tneir fall catch, owing to 
low prices. The slump in Cuban and Puerto Rican prices is largely due 
(indirectly) to the hurricanes which swept over that part of the world 
during the fall, rendering many persons homeless and foodless. The 
people who consume codfish were supplied with food for nothing from 
theUnitcd States; therefore they dia not want the codtish usually sent 
hy the Nova Scotians. 

The amount of codfii^h shipped from this port from the Ist of 
August to the end of the year 1899 was 404,220 quintals. The Labra- 
dor shipments for the same period, or thereabout, reached 223,003 
quintals. When to these figures are added the 380,000 quintals in the 
stores here, the result is 1,000,205 quintals. In 1898, uie shipments 
from St. Johns reached 445,736 quintals, or 39,534 more than this 
year. The Labrador shipments for the same period were 245,063 
quintals, which, with 380,000 quintals in stock at tne end of the season, 
gives a total for 1898 of 1,070,798 tjuintals. The market figures for 
Uie year just closed show that the miport of Portugal has fallen off 
80 per cent, that of Spain has inereaspd five times, that of Italy has 
increased 60 per cent, the West Indies have decreased about 40 per 
cent, Bi-azil has dropped 20 per cent. Canada, the smallest customer, 
takes about the same as last season. England has trebled her quota 
this year, and Ireland, who showed a blank sheet last year, took 4,000 
quintals. Scotland has taken none for two years, out the United 
States took two and a half times as much as the season before. 

'Quintal — 112 poimdB. 

D.gitizecbyG00glc 



NORTH AMERICA: DOICINION OP CANADA. 34i) 

UOBSmSR FISHING. 

The lobster fishery in mut^h smaller than last jear, owing to the 
enforcement of the fall-cloHing; law which was passed by the legisla- 
ture for the purpose of protecting the lobsters, which were l3eeomiug 
scarce. The extra price has kept conditions about normal. The 
aggregate amount last year waa some 50,000 cases, at (10 a case; this 
year, 35,000 cases, at an average of $12 per case, or a value last year 
of $500,000 against $420,000 this year. 

WHALE FISHIKG. 

The Cabot Steam Whaling Company has closed the second year of 
ita operations. The success of this company for 1899 has been remark- 
able. Ninety-eight whales were taken by the steamer Caiot at the 
northern factory, Smooks Arm, in about two and a half months. The 
sale of the oil, bone, etc., realized $22,000, the profits being $9,600. 
In addition to this, at the southern factory, in Balena Bay, on, etc., to 
the value of $6,000 was exported, so that the whole earnings of the 
Bteamer for the year reached $28,000. Two fine factories have been 
built, at a cost of $39,000. The steamer Caioi cost $21,000. The 
paid-up capital of the company is $68,000. As there will be no fur- 
ther outlay for the establishment of premises and machinery', the pros- 
pects of the company for the coming year are excellent. Nearly half 
the shares of this enterprise are held by Norwegians, and most of the 
remainder by Newfoundlanders. The steamer Cabot was built in 
Norway and aas all the latest improvements. The captain and crew 
are Norwegians and are all experienced men. Only such would have 
any chance of success in chafing these whales, which are exceedingly 
swift and strong. They are the sulphur-bottom, humpback, and finback 
varieties. A good specimen of the sulphur-bottom measures 95 feet. 
Ordinary whafing steamers could do but little with these. 



Coming to the imports for the year just closed, fiour figures are 
slightly Below those of last year, the exact difference being 10,385 
barrels. ITie figures for the last three years were: 1897, 295,527 bar- 
rels; 1898, 375,025 barrels; 1«99, 364,190 barrel.s. At one time during 
the fall, the figures of 1899 surpassed those of 1898, but thoj' dropped 
toward the close of the year. The price is pretty much the same as 
at this time last year. 

The imports of corn meal show a decrease for the year of 2,385 bar- 
rels. Last year, there was a drop in this article from the previous 
years of 1,813 barrels. When flour is comparatively cheap the impor- 
tation of corn meal falls off, and when flour is dear corn meal 



The Newfoundlander must have his pork, no matter how the com- 
mercial wind blows, and consequently the figures cbanee but little 
from year to year. The figures for 1899 are 704 barrels less, but beef 
has gained enough to account for this. 

Butter, which formerly came nearly all from Canada, is being 
slowly forced into the background year by year by the increase in the 
local output. This not only applies to the article turned out in tiie 



850 OOMMEBOIAL SMiATIOire. 

creameries in St. Johns, but on the weet coast, and domestic butt«r 
coming in by train and otherwise. 

The sugar figures for the years 1898 and 1899 were: 1898, 30,384 
hundredweight; 1899, 82,521 hundredweight. 

Molasses for 1899 shows 1,991 puncheons more than in 1898. 

Tobacco imports are ahead of last year by 35,484 pounds. This is 
due to a great extent to the advertising of new bitindB. 

The imports of tra, were less in 1899 than in 1898, the figures for 
these years being, 1898, 732,744 pounds; 1899, 721,952 pounds. These 
figures give over Zi pouDOs for each man, woman, and child on the 
islADd. It is noticeable that, while the amount of t«a imported in 
recent years is lara«r, some of the brands are very inferior to what 
they iised to be. Some of the tea sold in tiiis country, when used 
without milk, is practically poisonous. 

Newfoundlanders are very poor coffee drinkers. The figures for 
1899 are only 88 hundredweight, or 9,756 pounds. For purposes of 
calculation 1 will put this at 10,000 pounds, which will mean that only 
one person out of every twenty in the colony consumes a pound of 
coffee in a year. As 16 ounces make a pound, this means ..hat the 
average person uses four-fifths of an ounce of coffee during the year. 

There was more coal used in 1899 than during the previous year, for 
the excess of imports is 11,464 tons. The exact figures are: 1898, 
57,010 tons; 1899, 68,474 tons. These do not include coals brought 
into exterior ports 

The soap account for the year shows an increase of 58 boxes. 



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209,229 
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11 






















8,88B 


















8,102 










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8,188.888 


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1.12»,14S 









The principal articles imported from the United States were flour, 
pork, salted beef, kerosene oil, olein oil, cordage, leather, and leather 
goods. 



byGoO'^lc 



»OBTH asierica: DosainoN of canada. 

EXFOBTS. 



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1 


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8.938.816 


1.318, na 


857,817 





The exports from Newfoundland consist of dried codfish, herring, 
cod oil, hair aealskin^, sahnon, lobster, minerals, lumber, etc. 

HEBCHAKT HARINK AND SHIPPING 8BBVI0E. 

The merchant marine of Newfoundland comprises a fleet of 20 steam 
sailing vessels, 10 steam freighters and coasters (the lai^^est being 
2,000 tons and the smallest 250 tons register), 60 foreign-going sailing 
vessels, and a number of fishing schooners used for lo^ purposes, all 
less than 100 tons. The GrOTemment pays a bounty of $i per ton for 
vessels buOt in the colony. The minister of marine and fisheries 
supervises the merchant marine. There are no war ships built in New- 
foundland, and no reports are made as to increasing the efficiency of 
mail carrii^e by st^imers. Materials for shipbuilding plates and 
structural ^rms for steel vessels all come from Enj^and. Lumber, 
spars, etc., are imported from the United States and Canada. 

Seagoing ships registered in this colony, their owners, masters, and 
crews, are subject in respect of shipping and discharge, agreements, 
wages and effects, rights, remedies, and penalties to uie law of Great 
Britain concerning colonial vessels when in the United Kingdom or 
out of the jurisdiction of their respective governments. The master 
or owner of every vessel registered in the colony and sailing on for- 
eign voyages is required, before the entry of such vessel at the cus- 
toms at the port of St. Johns, to pay to the receiver-peneral the sum of 
12 cents per month for every seaman on board such vessel, to be 
applied tomrd the support of the St. Johns Hospital, and the master 
or owner may retain such amount from the wages due to the seaman. 

Quaraniifw.— For the purpose of checking or preventing contagious 
diseases, whenever a board of health or pubfic health ofBcer may deem 
it necessary to establish quarantine, he may use all necessary force to . 



:::G00'^|C 



352 



COMMEECIAL EBLATIONS., 



prevent anyone entering or leaving anv dwelling house, building, 
place, boat, or vessel woere quarantine oas been established, except 
members of the medical or clerical profession, or under the direction 
of the board of health or public health officer. 



With the exception of ships of war, coasters, and Newfoundland fish- 
ing craft, all vessels entering the port of St. Johns pay to the cus- 
toms departmeDt harbor dues at the following rates, viz: 

Vessels under 60 tons Free. 

Ve^eels from 60 tons upward and not more than 100 tons (2. OD 

Vessels from 100 tone upward and not more than 200 tons 3.80 

Vessels from 200 tons upward and not more than 300 tons 4. 00 

Vessels from 300 tone upward and not more than 400 tons 5.00 

Vessels of more than 400 tons 6. 00 

These are payable once every half year, between the Ist of January 
and the 30th of June, and between the 1st of July and the Slat of 
December. 



Light dues are payable once in evei-y calendar year (but not oft«ner 
than once in every three months), viz, 24 cents per ton up to and includ- 
ing 600 tons; 12 cents per ton additional on every ton over 500 tons 
up to and including 1,000 tons; 6 cents per ton additional on every ton 
over 1,000 tons up to and including 2,000 tons. Not more than $240 
is to be paid in any one calendar year. 

Vessels arriving for repairs, coal, or supplies pay one-half of above 
rates. 

The foregoing applies to merchant vessels, 

Labrador, bank, and coast fishing vessels and coasters pay no dues 
while engM^ed in those fisheries or trade. Should a vessel proceed on 
any other Man a fishing voyage to a place outside the colony, such ves- 
sef shall be liable to pay once in each calendar year at the same rate as 
foreign-going vessels. 

Water dues are 5 cents per register ton, not to exceed $30. Payable 
once a year. 

Tnble o/ TiUet of jnkAage of reixeU in <md out of S. Johm. 



Vessels under 80 tons $6. 35 

Vessels from 80 to 100 tons «. 70 

Vessels from 100 to 120 tons 7.35 

Vessels from 120 to 160 tons 8.00 

Vessels from 160 to 200 tons 8. 70 

VeMela from 200 to 240 tone 9. 35 

Vessels from 240 to 280 tons 10.00 

Vessels from 280 to 300 tons 10.70 

Vessels from 300 to 360 tons 13. 36 



Vessels from 350 to 400 tons $16. 00 

Vessels from 400 to 500 tons 18.70 

Vessels from 500 to 600 tons 21.3ft 

Vessels from 600 to 700 tons 24.00 

Vessels from 700to860 tous 26.70 

Over that size, for every 100 tons 

additional 1.36 

And on no sailing vessel is the 

pilotage to exceed 32. 00 



Steamers pay pilotage on their net tonnage, as in the case of sailing 



Steamers employed in the fisheries of the colony are exempt, except 
when on foreign voyages. Coastwise steamers are also exempt. 

Subsidized mail steamei's in connection with the colony pay at the 
rate of 8 cents for each horsepower. 

No steamer must pay more than $48 at one time. ^-. , 

i;Qi,.r::::GOOglC 



HOBTH AMXHIOA: IMMINIOK of CANADA. 



S68 



All coMtiQg vessels which take pilots pay one-half of the &boT« 
rates of pilot^e in proportioD to their touoage. 

The above scale of pilotage shall be payable od the rc^ster tonnage 
of all auch vessels, as sflcertained before going out of the harbor. 



Toaage rata, S. Jokru. 



VesBela 60 toni and nnder f4. 00 

V«»el8 from 60 to 100 tons, 10 
cents per ton additional. 

Vesela from 101 to 126 tons 10. 00 

VeeBela from 126 to 150 tone 12.00 

Vceaela from 151 to 176 tons 14. 00 

Vemela from 176 to 200 tons 16.00 

Vmels from 201 to 226 tons 18.00 

VesBele from 226 to 250 lomi 20.00 

VewelH from 251 to 300 tone 22.00 



Veaaelfl from 301 to SSO tooB. . . 
VuMlfl from 351 to 400 tons. . . 
Veaaela from 401 to 450 tons. . . 
Vemela from 461 to 500 tons. . . 
Vewela from 601 to 650 tona. . . 
VeaMis from 661 to 600 tone... 
Veflsela from 601 to 700 tons. . . 
Veaeela from 701 to 800 tona. . . 
Veeeela from 801 to 900 tons... 
Veaeela from 900 to 1,000 tons. 



124.00 
26.00 
28.00 
30.00 
32.00 
3i.0O 
38.00 
42.00 
46.00 
50.00 



Vessels requirii^ the steamer to go beyond the harbor limits are 
charged by special agreement. Vessels in distress or otherwise dis- 
abled will have to make special contracts for assistance. Vessels 
using the steamers' hawser pay 10 per cent on towage rates for same. 
One-third additional is charged during winter months, commencing 
on December 10. and ending April 10, each year. Special nit«8 are 
charged during tne ice season. 



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671 


680.aM 


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H. Doc. 481, Pt. 1- 



byGoO'^lc 



COMMERCIAL RKLATI0N8. 

Rolen uf monOibj iiiigm jiaii! nl St. Johns to iifficti 



Cl«». 


W.^ 


ci™. 


Wage.. 


Sramen 


•20 
M1O60 


Firemen 









































Letters. — For Newfoundland and lahrador, 3 cents per ounce; rcp- 
istratioD, 5 cents. Foreign mails: United States, 5 ccnbj per half 
ounce; registration, 5 cents. Dominion of Canada, 2 cents per half 
ounce; registration, 5 cents. United Kingdom, 2 cents per half ounce; 
registration, 4 cents. British PosHcssions, excepting Australia and 
Kew Zealand, 5 cents per half ounce; registration, 5 cents, Australia, 
New Zealand, and all other countries in the Postal Union, 5 cents per 
half ounce; registration, 5 cents. 

JPtirceh. — For United Kingdom: Under 3 pounds, 24 cents; 3 to 7 
pounds, 48 cents; 7 to 11 pounds, 72 cents. United States, 12 cents 
per pound or fraction of a pound. Dominion of Canada, 15 cents per 
pound or fraction uf a pound. Maximum weight to Canada, 7 pounds; 
to the United Kingdom and United States, 11 pounds. 

CLOSE TIME FOR FISH ANI> OAME. 

M'^illow grouse (partridge) and other grouse, January 12 to Septem- 
ber 15. 

Curlew, plover, snipe, or other wild or migratory birds (excepting 
wild geese), January 12 to September 16. 

Caribou,' February 1 to July 15, and from October 1 to October 20. 

Moose or elk, for ten years from January 1, 1896. 

Otter or beaver, April 1 to October 1. 

Rabbits and hares, March 1 to September 15. 

Herring: Seining from March 15 to April 25 following, except as 
regards vessels in the bank fishery, which are allowed to take 60 
liarrels per voyage for bait. Inbarring is prohibited between April 
25 and October 1 following. 

CURRENCY, 

The banking business of the colony is conducted hv branches of 
three of the lading banks of Canada, which were established in New- 
foundland shortly after the great financial crash of 1894, at which time 
both the local banks collapsed. 

There has been no change in the currency value. The rates of 
exchange are one-fourth of 1 per cent premium on drafts on the 
United States and Canada, and one-fourth of 1 per cent discount on 

' Note. — Licenne to kill caribou: Two atag and one doe, $40; three stag and one 
doc, Xm; five ulag and two doe, $80. 

Subjecta of the rolonv, officers of British war ships Htationed on fishery protection 
service, and consular officers of other countriefl residing in the colony are permitted 
to kill Uipee stag and two doe each year free of charge. 



:::G00'^|C 



NORTH AHEBIOA: DOMINION OF OANA'DA. 355 

checkfl OD poiDts in the same countries. English exchange rates are 
governed by the New York rates, the banfe here receiving cable 
advice from New York of every change. 

The discount on United States bank notes is one-half of 1 per cent, 
and on United States silver, 4 per cenL American gold passes current 
on its face, and British gold at $1.86} to the £1. United States 
bonk notes and silver pass current on their face in trade. 

COHHUNICATIOM. 

The transportation facilities in Newfoundland are: 

IrUemdl. — By railroad to the noilhem and eastern coasts to Ejcploite; 
thence through the interior of the country to Bay of Islands, and 
finally to the terminus of the line on the west coast (in the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence) to Port au Basques, connecting with steamer for Sydney, 
Nova Scotia (seven hours' sea voyage). At Sydney, connection is made 
with the Intercolonial Railway to St. John, New Brunswick; Canadian 
Pacific Railroad to Vanceboro, Me. ; Maine Central Railroad to Ban- 
gor, Portland, and Boston. The time from St. Johns, Newfoundland 
to Boston is seventy-two hours; trains connect with steamer at Port 
au Basques for St. Johns three times each week, and run daily between 
St. Johns, Placentia, and Harbor Grace. 

Goagtwiae. — By steamer to eastern and northeastern coasts; also by 
steamer from St. Johns southern and western coasts, and Gulf of St 
I^wrence, both steamers returning to St. Johns foitnightly. They 
do not ply after the Christmas season on account of the heavy ice on 
the coast. A steamer runs between St. Johns and L&brador, stopping 
at all principal places on the I^brador coast, making seven round trips 
each season, commencing about August 1 and ending October 20. 

Ooean {yoreigtij.—AWaa Line steamers ply between Glasgow, Liver- 
pool, and Philadelphia, calling on their westward trips fortnightly at 
St. Johns and Halifax, and on their east-bound trips fortnightly, 
at St. Johns only. Canadian and Newfoundland Steamship Company 
boats also sail between Liverpool and Halifax, calling at St. Johns. 
A steamer of this line leaves Liverpool and Halifax every ten days, 
touching at St. Johns on both the outward and homeward trips. Red 
Cross Line steamers ply between New York and St. Johns, (^ling at 
Halifax each trip. The usual passage from New York to St. Johns 
takes five to five and a half days, with a "stop over" of aday or half a 
day at Halifax. They sail every fortnight. From Montreal, St. Johns 
is reached in four davs (1,070 miles) by steamers of the Black Diamond 
Line, sailing fortnigntly. Also by steamers of the Ross Line, sailing 
weekly from Montreal and St. Johns during the season, from April tiQ 
the close of navigation. 

New w^on roads opened in 1899 are: Road connecting Bay Bulls 
Arm with Bne of railway, 4 miles; three roads in Bay St. George, lead- 
ing from settlements to the railvray, about 50 miles in length. Two 
roads were completed in Placentia Bay, of about 6 miles ea<m. 

Freight charges via railway are governed by rates adopted by the 
Canadian Freight Association. Ek steamers between St. Johns and 
Philadelphia they average about vS per ton; between St. Johns and 
New York, $5 per ton; oetween St. Johns and Montreal, $4 per ton; 
between St. Johns and Liverpool, ^.80 per ton. 



Digitiz 



byGoo'^lc 



356 OOlOfEBCIAX SELATI0H8. 

FBICES, WAGES, ETC. 

The customs duties of 18d9 are 10 per cent higher than 1898. Prices 
of commodities have advanced accordingly. 

Wages rule as followB: For laborers, 60 cents to (1 per day, accord- 
ing to the work performed; female servants, from ^1.50 to $3 per 
month, besides maintenance and lodging (there are no male servants 
employed); factory operatives, from 26 cents to $1.50 per day. Clerks 
in stores: males, from $300 to $600 per annum; females, from $80 to 
$300; dressmakers, from $50 to $400; milliners, from $200 to $400; 
bookkeepers, from $400 and upward. Railway employees as follows: 
surveying engineers, $75 per month; office clerss, from $25 to $75 per 
month: mborers, $1 per tmy; firemen, $1.20; brakemen, $1.20; engi- 
neers, $2; machinists, $1.50 to $2. All laborers, etc., have to work 
ten hoars a day. Police and firemen receive, if single, $23.25 to $29.42 
per month; married, $28,66; captains and sergeants, $35. 

DISCOVBET AND DEVELOPMENT. 

The exploration for and exploitadon of mineral deposits last year, 
not only in Newfoundland but on Labrador, according to report, met 
with considerable success. Of course, it ia difficult to obtain any relia- 
ble information, and all reports must be received with a considerable 
amount of caution. Where, however, actoal mining development has 
taken place, even though no shipments of ore have yet resulted, it is 
possible to obtain some interesting facts. 

Brick. — 1 am informed that some forty years ago, a builder of St 
Johns made the first attempt to manufacture brick in Newfoundland. 
After some five years' experience he sold out to another man, who has 
been prosecuting the business on a small scale ever since, depending 
on the local markets for the disposal of the product of the industry. 
The output averages about 60,000 brick per annum, which is sold at 
the yard for $7 or $9 per 1,000, delivered in St. Johns. Two other 
plants have been making brick since 1888, and turn out about the 
same average quantity, the product being disposed of in St. Johns. 

Eight or ten years ago, a company was formed to work on a more 
extensive scale at a pla^ called Elliotts Cove, in Random Sound, and 
a considerable outlay in procuring the necessary plant was incurred. 
For the first few years their operations were not very successful as 
regards quality, though a large quantity of brick was made. Accord- 
ing to the census returns for 1891, the figures for that year were 
70,000, valued at $7,000, Of late years, much improvement has 
taken place in the character of the product, and a better demand has 
resulted. I am informed that the annual output of this company 
averages about 750,000 brick, and that the selling price, delivered in 
St. Johns, is about $9 per thousand. The coming season this company 
expects, if circumstances prove favorable, to prepuce at least 1,000,000 
bnck. 

The manufacture of brick is the only industry as yet established 
dependent upon the clay deposits of the country for the raw material. 
As, however, there is a vast natural supply of days, suitable for a 
variety of purposes, there is room for an immense development of 
kindred employments. 



byGoO'^lc 



NOBTH AKEBIOA: DOHUnON OF OANADA. 867 

SviUdmg stone. — The only returna I could obtain under this head 
were thoee furnished me with the figures of building and paving stone 
quarried a short distance from St. Johns last year. As both products 
were from the same quarr; and are of the same material, I snail, for 
convenience, class them together. Some 400 tons of building stone, 
valued at (400, and 1,700 tons of paving stone, worth $13,600, were 
estracted and rough dressed during the season. A considerable indus- 
try in quarrying rock of a similar character from the hills and ridges 
in the vtcinity of St. Johns has been prosecuted for a number of years, 
and an enormous amount of the material has been utilized in the con- 
struction of churches and other public buildings. It is used exten- 
sively, also, in house foundations, retaining walls, ete., and the debris 
is employed in macadamizing the streets of St. Johns. Work, how- 
ever, IS active only when some large structure is in course of erection. 

Sand and gravel for mortar and roof covering are items of consid- 
erable value, but no figures can be quoted with any degree of accuracy. 

<?ran2^.— During the construction of the cross-country railroad, 
completed two years ago, three granite quarries were opened. The 
material was almost exclusively used in the construction of bridge 
abutments, and was found to be admirably adapted for the purp<»e. 
In fact, the rock is not only durable but pretty, and when polished can 
be used for structural or monumental purposes. Wiiat the value per 
annum of the material so quarried and utilized may have been, 1 do 
not know. The estimated output of last year was 4,000 tons, valued 
at $20,000, and this would probably be a fair average of the amoont 
and value for each year since the quarries were opened. Many beau- 
tiful gmoites occur alon^ the course of or in proximity to the railway. 

Granites and granitoid rocks of infinite varietv of color occur in 
many parts of the island. On the southern coast tnere was opened up 
last year a quarry of close-grained reddish syenite of a unique charac- 
ter. This rock presents a set of remarkable cleavage planes, which 
admit of its being quarried in slabs of almost any dimensions, from a 
few inches up to several feet in thickness, and of various lengths up 
to 36 or more feet Its natural cleavage and the perfect parallelism 
of the bedding planes render it suitable just as it comes from Uie 
quarry, with scarcely any dressing, for many useful purposes, such as 
door and window siUs, stair treads, hearthstones, pavmg and curb 
stones, eto. During the past few years, there have been brought to St. 
Johns in schooners about 300 tons of this rock, which was disposed 
of in the local market at the rate of about $8 per ton, but the demand 
for such material in this country is limited. 

iSZfflfe.— The slate industry is not in a flourishing condition. Although 
an unlimited supply of first-class material is* available, only a local 
demand is found for 800 squares per annum, valued at about $4.50 per 
square at the quarry. 

Chroma ore. — Chromic iron mining does not appear to have been 
actively prosecuted during the year 1899, but the crushing and con- 
centrating of the lower-grade ore previously mined resuGed in the 
shipment of 724 tons of £6 per cent chromic oxide. The only other 
mining operations for this cuiss of minerals carried on last year con- 
sisted of an attempt to open up s deposit on tiie northeast coast of the 
island. I have no particulars of the result. 

Ooal. — Lost year witnessed the first bona fide attempt at coal mining 
in Newfoundland. Early in the season, a branch railway was coihC 



358 OOUHEBCIAL BELATI0N8. 

structed from Scotts Pond to Coal Brook, head of Grand Lake, a 
distance of 2i miles, where a line house and other structures have 
been erected. They commenced mining in July with some 25 men, 
the number being afterwards increased to 50. Most of the work was 
of a preliminary nature. I am informed that up to the end of the 
year some 2,900 tons of coal were taken out, all of which was con- 
sumed in the locomotives of the Newfoundland Bailway. It is said to 
have given satisfaction as a steam coal. 

Ck^per ore. — The greatly increased value of metallic copper in late 
years, owing chiefly to the demand for this substance for electrical 
purposes, has given an impetus to the search for copper-bearing ores 
all over the world. Mining properties hitherto considered not worth 
developing are now eagerly sought, and several abandoned mines are 
being reopened under new auspices. Among those latter, the Little 
Bay Tlopper Mine, in Notre Dwne Bay, was operated last year by the 
Newfoundland Copper Company, a new company recently formed, which 
holds options on several other properties in tne same neighborhood. 
I learn from the manager at Little Bay that during the season it 
sent to market from Little Bay and I^dy Fond Mines 443 tons of ore 
and 20 tons of regulus, while it had in stock at the end of the sea- 
son 150 tons of ore at Lady Pond and ISO tons at Little Bay. Pre- 
vious to this company's taking over the property in June last, the 
former owners had shipped 220 tons of ore and 30 tons of regulus of 
24 per cent. During the same season, another company took options 
on several properties in the same locality and did considerable devel- 
oping work. None has yet been marketed. 

A very rich copper vein was discovered on the west coast, and, 
although not much ore was actually taken out, the indications during 
the work of last summer give promise of its developing into a good 
mine. Several smaller attempts to open up copper deposits took 
place in various sections of the ir«land and on Labrador, but I have not 
been able to procure particulars of the results. Operations at Tilt 
Cove were active during the year, about 66,000 tons of ore being sent 
to market 

Iron. ore. — The only iron mine in Newfoundland which can be said 
to have been systematically worked so far, is the Hematite mine, on 
Bell Island, Conception Bay, situated 16 miles north of St. Johns, the 
output of which Degan four years ago with only 750 tons, but last 
year developed to atout 250,000 tons. 

The bed, or quarry, contains 28,000,000 tons of ore, underlying a 
surface deposit of 2 feet of soil. When this has been removed a 
vast terrace of mineral, 500 feet wide and 3 miles long, will be exposed. 
The percentage of iron is 54 to 56. It is the natural formation of the 
ore, nowever, in the form of cubes a few inches in diameter, which is 
most remarkable. These cubes lie in perfectly regular, horizontal 
order, like a tiled floor. The appearance suggests the work of a 
skilled mechanic. The lateral view shows the same regular order of 
tier upon tier, extending deep into the earth. 

Two miles from the mine is a sheltered cove, where a pier has been 
constructed. At the end of this pier the water is 234 feet deep. The 

flier is a structure of southern pme, 60 feet square and 90 feet li|gh. 
t contains ten pockets, each with a capacity of 200 tons of ore. The 
outlet is a movable chute, which leads directly to the ship's bold. 
The ore is conveyed to the cove by a tramway worked oy an endless 



NORTH AHESICA: DOMINION OF CANADA. 359 

cable. The ten pockets can be emptied in two hours. On the shore 
behind ia a reeervoir with a capacity of 10,000 tons. This is connected 
with the pier by a series of autoniatic hoppers, which dump directly 
into the ship's hold. 

This extraordinary mine attracted the attention of Mr. H. M. Whit- 
ney, of Boston, Mass., who is largely interested in coal properties in 
Nova Scotia, and induced him to organize a company to erect smelt- 
ing works at Sydney, Nova Scotia, which will give Canada a pro- 
gressive corporation of $20,000,000, This companj' has taken over the 
Bell Island mine for $1,000,000, and will in future continue operations 
on an extensive scale in Newfoundland. 

Machinery and mechanical devices have so minimized labor that the 
cost of mining and loading the ore is only 25 cents per ton. The 
expense of transporting it te Sydney, Nova Scotia, tne site of the 
smelting works, is 25 cents more. This, at the market prices, secures 
at least $1 a ton. Next year, the Whitney Company proposes to 
increase the present working force of 550 men to 2,000, and the output 
to 1,200,000 tons. 

In the district of Bay-de- Verde, prospecting for iron was prosecuted 
with vigor last year, and resulted in the application for licenses of 
search covering almost the entire area of the peninsula between Con- 
ception and Trinity bays. The Newfoundland Iron Ore Company, 
Lunited, secured tnc leasehold of some 14 square miles of this terri- 
tory, throughout the entire length of which the continuity of the 
main hematite lode is said to have been proven by means of shafts 
and trial pits, and commenced last year to prepare for active oper- 
ations. A main shaft was sunk vertically to a depth of 120 feet. 
Seven holes were sunk at intervals along toe lode, ranging from 40 to 
120 feet in depth, and it is reported that some 400 tons of ore have 
been raised to the surface, and about 500,000 tons are said to l>e in 
sight. 

The ore is a red hematite, of a higher grade than that of Bell Island, 
and fi-eer from injurious ingredients, such as sulphur and phosphorus. 
The company has built a railroad 7 miles in length, and constructed a 
substantial loading wharf, so that everything will be in readiness to 
ship ore the coming season. Another company has just leased an area 
of Id square miles in the same district, said to cover the continuation 
westward of the same deposit of ore. 

Several other discovenes of iron ore and a few attempts to open them 
up were made during 1899. Work was commenced upon a deposit of 
hematite on the Exploits River, and about 100 tons of ore of a superior 
quality, averaging over 60 per cent in metallic ore, were taken out. 
Quite an excitement has been created during the past autumn by the 
discovery of iron ores at sevei-al points on the south side of Bonavista 
Bav, and a rush for licenses of search to cover the ground has resulted. 
Otner finds of iron ores, both on this island and in Labrador, were 
rumored last year, but nothing reliable could be obtained regarding 
these latter. 

Fyrites. — Pilleys Island mine has, as usual, shipped a large quantity 
of ore, amounting to 32,355 tons, all of which went to the United 
States market. A new pyrite mine was opened at Bay of Islands last 
year, which gives promise of becoming a large producer ere long- 
About 200 tons of ore, high in sulphur, were mined, but none has 
been shipped as yet. Another deposit was discovered in the same 
district, m regard to M'hich I have no figures. 



360 OOUILEBCIAL EELATIONS. 

Matwaneee, — Some work was done during the ^t summer at For- 
tune Harbor on the manganiferous iron deposit in that locality, bat 
no shipmeut of ore was made. So far as I can learn, only one cargo 
of 1,500 tons has yet been sent to market (1897), and I am unable to 
find what disposal was made of it 

Petroleum. — There was considerable prospecting and boring for 
petroleum during the summer months. Four bore holes were put aown 
to varying depths, each of which gave indications of oil It has been 
stated that experiments show a probable yield of 20 barrels per day. 

The following table shows the mineral production of Newfoundland 
for the year 1899: 



Name ol product. 


QuandO-. 


Value. 




4, CM 

103,000 


"ffi 






ui,aoa 


c*i ■■■■-■ 




do - 


SE^^r";::;::.;::- 


























''"™" 
















908,087 





lUFBOVBHBMTS tN ST. JOHNa 

Water street, the principal thoroughfare of St. Johns, has been 
paved fl mile) with dressed granite blocks laid over S inches of sand 
and 6 inches of concrete on prepared foundation. Joints between 
blocks are filled with bituminons paving cement. The sidewalks are 
10 feet wide, of concrete, 6 inches deep; curbing 18 inches deep. The 
whole is finished in a neat and substantial manner. 

Seven miles of electric railway now encircle the city, and in a short 
time cars will be iimnin^. Work on the electric power plant, 8 miles 
from St. Johns, is neanng completion. The capacity of the plant 
will be 3,600 horsepower. It will only be necessary to generate 1,350 
horsepower to run the street railway, light the streets, and drive all 
the machinery of the city. 

OEKERAL REHABKS. 

Commercial travelers are not required to pay license. 

Passports are not needed for Mewfoundhtnd or Labrador. 

There is no law requiring goods to be marked so as to show the 
country of origin or manuf^ture. 

There are no complaints of deficiencies in American methods of 
packing goods for this market. 

As alreadv stated, the total imports from all countries, consisting of 
clothing, fisnery supplies, and all commodities for home consumption, 
into the colony of Newfoundland, for the tiacal vear ended June 80, 
1899,were ^,311,224. Of this amount, the Unitea Kingdom furnished 
«1,935,024; Canada, $2,088,093, and the United States, $1,928,834, 
making a total of $5,951,951, leaving but $369,273 for all other coun- 
tries. While the United States has almost an equal share of the trade 



MOBTH AMEBICA: DOMINIOK OF CANADA. 361 

with England and Canada, our imports should be greater. There is 
DO preferential duty extended to any country, the tariff being designed 
for revenue purposes only, not for protection. 

I receive many inquiries from manufacturers and business bouses 
at home in regard to the sale of certain articles and the chance for 
introducing them into the country. The best information available is 
furnished, but it proves of little use to the inquirer. Letters to the 
trade are generally unanswered and circulars are seldom noticed. Eng- 
lish and Canadian houses do not depend on circulars to hold their ti-ade 



in Newfoundland. Thev send agents with samples. Few United 
States commercial travelers visit uiese shores. It our business con- 
cerns would send competent men to study methods and familiarize 
themselves with the wants of the market, I am satisfied our imports 
into Newfoundland could easily be doubled. This might be some- 
what enwusive in the beginning, but the results could not fail to 
be gratifying. 

Mabtin J. Cakter, Conaid. 
St. Johns, January 18, 1900, 



TXOVA. SCOTIA. 

RALTPAX. 

Pursuant lo instructions contained in Department of State circular 
dated July 10, 1899, 1 submit the following report of the commerce 
and industries of Nova Scotia and of this consular district: 

The past year has been one of more than usual prosperity in the 
maritime Provinces of Canada, and especially in Nova Scotia. 

Conditions in the lumbering and farming industries and in general 
trade have improved, but in iSe Province of Nova Scotia perhaps the 
most infiuentiat factor making for prosperity is the recent location of 
a great iron andsteelplantat Sydney, wherein the near future a force 
ot 4,000 or 5,000 men will probably bo employed, and the foundation 
laid for other industries mdch are dependent upon cheap iron and 
cheap coal. 

I allude to the enterprise undertaken by the Dominion Iron and 
Steel Company, Limited, a corporation composed largely of American 
and Canadian capitalists who were instrumental in establishing the 
Dominion Coal Company in Cape Breton a few years ago. 

This iron and steel company is reported to have secured very lai^ 
deposits of red hematiteon Bell Island, Newfoundland, and of Bessemer 
ore in Cuba, near Santiago. Abundant limestone is said to be found 
near Sydney, and an arrangement has been affected with the Dominion 
Coal Company for a supply of coal during the next ninety years. 
The present plans of the new company contemplate the immediate 
expenditure of about 82,500,000 for blast furnaces; tljSOO.OOO for a 
steel mill; $1,250,000 for coke ovens, and something like *1,000,000 
more for wharves, discharging plants, foundations, freight, and inci- 
dentals. 

The town of Sydney has provided the site for the works, about 640 
acres, with more than a mile of water frontage on the harbor, and has 
granted tax exemption for a period of thirty years. ~ . ^ 



362 COHHERCIAL RELATIOIfB. 

The provincial government of Nova Scotia grants aid to the company 
to the extent of paying it & sum equal to "onu-half the royalty on all 
coal entering into the manufacture of coke for smelting purposea," 
amounting to 6i cents on all coal bo used. 

The Dominion government, until June 30, 1902, pvea (1) "a bounty 
of $3 per ton on steel ingots manufactured from ingredients not less 
than 50 per cent of the weight of which consists of pig iron made in 
Canada; (2) a bounty of $3 per ton on puddled iron oars made from 
Canadian-made pig iron; (3) a oountyonpia iron manufactured from ore 
of $3 per ton on Uie proportion producea from Canadian ore, and $2 
on the proportion produced from foreign ore." An act of 1899 pro- 
vides tnat bounties shall be continued until June 30, 1907, but Mter 
June 30, 1902, at a yearly diminishing rate, namely, 90 per cent from 
June 80, 1902-1903; 75 per cent in 1903-1904; 55 per cent m 190^1905; 
35 r«r cent in 1905-1906, and 20 per cent in 1906-1907. 

Work is being pushed forward energetically at present, and it is 
expected that the plant will be in operation oefore the end of the 
year 1900. 



The province of Nova Scotia reserves all its minerals and ores 
(excepting limestone, plaster, and building stone), and leases the land 
onder rent and roj'alty for revenue purposes. The gold and silver 
leases are for terms of forty years. Other minerals are leased for 
eighty years, in four renewable terms of twenty years each. 

The royalty on gold and silver is 2 per cent, the gold being valued 
at 919 an ounce, smelted, and the silver at $1 per ounce. On coal, the 
usual royalty is 10 cents per ton of 2,240 pounds; on copper, 4 cents 
upon every unit^— i. e., upon every 1 per cent of copper contained in 
each and every ton of 2,352 pounds of copper ore sold or smelted; on 
lead, 2 cents upon every unit; on iron, 5 cents upon every ton of 2,240 
pounds; on tin and precious stones and any other minerals that may 
be reserved, 5 per cent on the values. 

In the case or the Dominion Coal Company, it was desired by the 
promoters of the company that the royalty should be fixed for a longer 
period than twenty years, and the Government in consequence agreed 
with them npon a royalty of 12i cents per ton as a fixed royalty for 
the term of ninety-nine years. 

The provincial revenue from these several royalties was ofiicially 
estimated for the year ended September 30, 1899, at $320,000, mainly 
derived from coal and gold, the production of coal having been approx- 
imately 2,600,000 tons and of gold a little more than $500,000 in value. 

Very considerable copper deposits are found in Cape Breton and in 
Cumberland County. A smelter is now in process of erection at Pic- 
toQ, and the province will in the near future become a producer of 
copper ore, 



The apple crop of the province has been unusually good this year, 
and there will be for export to England alone probably over 400,000 bar- 
rels, which at pi-eaent prices should net the province nearly $1,000,000. 
A good deal of this fruit is shipped to England via Boston, on account 
of cheaper freight rates by that route than by the direct line. About 



NORTH AMERICA: DOMINION OF CANADA. 



S63 



50,000 barrels of Gravcnstein apples are shipped to the United States 
for consumption there. 

The principal apple dietrict is in the Annapolis Valley; in the last 
few yeara many lai^e orchards have been set out there, and in the near 
future the apple production should be very materially increaued. The 
principal varieties of apples are Kings, GravensteinB, Ribstons, Bald- 
wins, and Golden Russets. Small fruits are also grown successfully 
in this valley, and cranberries are produced to a considerable extent 
upon the bog lands of Kings County. 

In this connection it should perhaps be noticed that the apple export 
from Canada to Great Britain in the year 1898 exceeded the apple 
exports from the United States to the same countrv^ the value of tiiis 
export from tlie Dominion being {2,179,782, while that from the 
United States amounted to only 91,954,298. 

WOOD PULP, ETC. 

The industry of making wood pulp appears to be highly prosperous, 
and is likely to become much more prominent. At present, only about 
20,000 tons of dry pulp are produced by the four mills in operation in 
the province. 

The grain elevator (500,000 bushels capacity) mentioned in my report 
of one year ago ' has just been opened for the receipt of grain. 

Many American tourists visit Nova Scotia each year. This last 
summer the number was much larger than ever before and the province 
seems to be increasing in popularity as a summer resort 

COMMERCE. 

During the past ten months, from January 1, 1899, to October 31, 
1899, 947 American vessels entered at 16 porte of Nova Scotia. Many 
of these, of course, were lishing vessels. 

During the fiscal year end^ June 30, 1899, the diflferent vessels 
arriving at the port of Halifax were classified as follows: 





S>c.d>. 


fi^l. 




Nomber. 


Tonnase. 


Kaiuber. 


Tonntfc. 




1 


is 


1 


"^^J 






8S,04a 






448 


MS, 881 


«4e 


M,4T1 





During the calendar year 1898, the total bank clearings for the city 
of Haliftx were *61,632,831.24; in 1897, they were *63,518,838.06. 
For the ten months of 1899 ended October 81, 1899, the clearings of the 
city were (57,110,515, while for the same period of 1898 they amounted 
to only $46,230,888.34. 

' Comniercisl Relatiane, lS98,Vol. I. 



byGoo'^lc 



OOMMEROIAL BELATIONS. 



The failures in the province, as reported by the Bradetreet Company, 
for the corresponding ten months of 1898 and 1899, are, respectively: 



1 Niunber 
1 oltail- 


^. 


LlabiUd«k 




^S 


•S;S 







The total imports of Halifax port for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1899, amounted to $5,332,506, of which $3,313,289 were dutiable goods 
and $2,019,217 were free goods. 

Compared with the imports of 1898, when the dutiable goods amounted 
to $2,944,067 and the free goods to $1,863,670, there was an increased 
importation during the year amounting to over 12i per cent in duti- 
able goods, over 8 per cent in free goods, and over 10 per cent in total 
amount imported. 

The imports from Great Britain for the two years mentioned were 
Bfi follows: 





laoe. 


im. 




we,^ 














1,718,881 


1,901,960 





This shows an increase in imports from Great Britain amounting to 
$185,129, or about 10 per cent, nearly all of which is in free goods. It 
is more than accounted for by the increased importation of hemp 
^212,439) and of tea ($73,732). 

The imports from the United States for the same two years were : - 





1898. 


laaa. 


nuUable 


*^M 


wm,«a 










i,m,m 









The decrease was $32,555, or about 2i per cent; this is solely in free 
goods, there having been a slight increase in the importation of duti- 
able goods. 

The imports from all other countries for the same two years were : 





I8M. 


im. 




"•SS 














i.7«i,9ia 









The increase in imports from other countries was $373,195, or over 
20 per cent. This was lai^ly in dutiable goods, and is more than 
accounted for by an increased sugar importation from Germany, 
amounting to $444,678. ~ i 



NOETH AMEEICA: DOMIHION of CANADA. 



365 



The total exports from the port of Halifax for the fiscal year 1898 
amounted to $6,219,513; for the fiscal year 1899, to ?6,284,027, of which 
*6,076,762 were the produce of Canada and $207,266 not the produce 
of Canada. 

The exports from the port of Halifax to the United States, as iodi- 
oated bj the invoicea certified at this consulate for the fiscal year of 
1898, were $503,381.47 ; for the fiscal year of 1899, $801,867.19. 

This apparent increase of $298,485.72 in exports ia due to the fact 
that until exports from Cuba and Puertx> Rico were certified at thiy 
consulate to the extent of $223,052.76 for Cuba and $98,624.90 for 
Puerto Kico, and were included with the invoices of goods certified 
for the United States. The shipments represented by these InToioea 
were chiefly of dry fish and potatoes. 

I give below a partial itemization of the imports at this port from 
Great Britain and the United States for the fiscal years ended June 30, 
1898, and Jime 30. 1899: 





Orut Britain. 


United ElatoL 




I8M. 


m». 


1898. 


'•»■ 


DOTUBLE. 


12! cat 

1S,S02 

•;™ 
f.;S 

so. 003 
15,201 


■a 

•,1M 

i 

^■^ 

»,010 


'J:3 

i 

1,0M 

B,4B7 

ISS^SSl 
9;71l 
89, H4 

ion 

57:980 
8.601 


'^S 






1! 

It 

i 

J 












































































8,1M 
IM.SM 

8»i;m 


4,186 


■iS 

2,285 

287,810 






















»85.H8 


VB.K1 


886, 4S2 








""■ 






"1 






lT,t92 

IIB 

1,639 


21,4«l 
TO 






»,2M 










IS, 721 

m 


12,097 
8*7 


'■Z 




ss 




18,021 




i«,6!a 


578,077 




8,888 








8,468 
lfl,«7 




.?;^ 

!<»,&» 


12,138 

lOSiofil 


24, 8U 






lS'870 










162:307 




^■i 


is^eso 








44, BM 










TO, 683 


B0..M8 


811, Ml 











byGoo'^lc 



COHMEBCIAL RELATIONS. 



The e^wrta to the United States, as iDdi^ated by the invoices certi- 
fied at this consular office, for the fiscal year ended June 80, 1899, show 
increases and decreases, compared with 1898, as follows: 



Artlclca. 


V»loe. 


d™«.. 


Articles. 


Value. 


D.™^ 






!:iS 
1 




tzi,m 






CTOO 

11 


















200 






R^ed Amerton good. 
































































Artloi™. 


V»liie. 


Incnue. 


Articlo. 


Value. 


I.™,. 


. 


...a 

11 

'■? 

i'mI 

1^161 

an 


'i 

'1 

i;788 




T,24t 

i 


Ilffi 




















'« 














Ore: 






'^R! 




















"SI 














w 










ss 











The exports from the rest of this consular district, not including 
this port, shows: 



Articles. 


Vaine. 


Decrease. 


AMIeles. 


Value. 


Decrease. 




K.1W 


M.^ 




».s; 


«8>8 
















ArticJee. 


Vame. 


increase. 


ArUcIea. 


Value. 


i.™^ 


Ffdi.dtj and pickled 


ss.no 


19.482 




•ii 

3,850 






'•>« 










2,«J 







Vaiue of certified export*. 



Agoncj. 


1888. 


18W. 


Incrwse. 


Decrease. 




IS,3«).0O 

4T,W7.U 

ffi,29e.«e 


ni,lB7.6» 
U,0S8.H 
*78.0M.« 


16,788.68 






«,*»». 07 




484. Me. M 







D.oiiiz.owGoogle 



MOBTH AliERIOA: DOUIMIOH OF CANADA. 367 



The imports at tlie port of Halifax for the quarter ended September 
30, 1899, were: 





GrJ^mn. 


United Btatec 


-"S- 


TotaL 




(280.822 

iaa.m 


1236.(1% 


«:S 














M0,0T2 


SM.8K1 


Ml. 614 


l.SSl,S«7 





llie exports from this port to the United States for the three 
months ended September 30, 1899, as indicated by invoices certified at 
this office, amounted to (183,657.98, or (52,967.04 more than for the 
corresponding three months one year ago. The invoices certified at 
the three consular agencies of this district during the same period 
amounted to $55,121.71, or $18j216. 35 less than for the corresponding 
three months one year ago. The falling off in exports certified by 
i^ncies as well as the very large increase of exporte reported from 
Lunenburg for the fiscal^ear are due to the fact that last year, exports 
for Cuba and Puerto Rico were certified by United States consular 
authorities. 



UNITED ^ATES HABDWAAE. 



Especially favorable mention is made by merchants here of Ameri- 
can snelf and builders' hardware, both as to quality, style, and finish. 
The catalogues sent out by leading American hardware houses are 
thought to be particularly satisfactorv for purposes of ordering the 
different styles of goods. 

John G. Foster, 

Cbnatd- Genial. 
Halifax, A'ovember 16, 1899. 



The exports to the United States have been somewhat increased over 
the preceding year, the gain consisting largely of fresh fish, canned 
lobsters, and lambs. The exports in this respect will probably increase 
during the coming year, as refrigerating plants are being erected at 
various points to procure fish for table use as well as for the storage 
of bait for fishing vessels. More attention will be given to the storage 
of ice, so that vessels may be able to supply themselves at all times 
in order to preserve their catch in a fresh condition for the United 
States market There will also be a targe increase in bituminous coal 
sent to the United States. 

The imports from the United States have increased about one-fourth 
in amount during the year, and consist mainly of mining machinery, 
manufactured articles of iron and steel, rubber goods, hides, and corn 
in bulk. 

1 have been unable to obtain from many of the agents and collectors 
of customs a detailed list of American goods imported at their agencies 
or customs ports. The following table will give the value and class of 



' In atiHwer to circular of July 10, I899L 



o.Goo'^lc 



OOHUEBCIAL BELATION8. 



(foods imported, as obtained by items, and also the gross amount of 
importations: 



Article* 


VtJae. 


Articl«. 


VHQe. 




M 

Ml 

' 12.00 

11 

Is 

1,080.80 

K>,W6.00 

S:!8 




SI 

205.00 

Is 






































































ili 
















Tl 
































2SS,ffW.M 







a Articles not ipeolBed. Acendeaat Paevaabai 



NEW ENTERPBISBS. 



10 report of Import*. 



The past year haa witnessed the starting of several large enterprises 
in this conaidate, the most notable of which is the commencement of 
the erection of a plant for the Dominion Iron and Steel Company, 
Limited, of which Mr. Henry M. Whitney, of Boston, Mass., is the 
president. This company was incorporated by act of March 80, 1899, 
of the Provincial Parliament of Nova Scotia. Under the terms of tiie 
actj the company has general powers to carry on all of the business 
incidental to the manufacture of iron and steel of any character, and 
any other producttt therefrom: also to own, by purchase or lease, ves- 
sels, railroads, etc., as shown by section 2 of the act quoted herein: 



(a) To purchase, hold, lease, acquire, and sell miaefl, minerale, and miaing aiu! 



Iron, and other ores, and all or any other minerale or metallic products, and to dl 

ufacture therefrom any by-producte, and to smelt the iron oieesjid other metaJ lie eub- 
Btanc^ and to nianuiacture iron, Bt««l and any other prodacta therefrom, and to 
trade in the prodncte of BUch mines or manufactores. 

(e) To purchase, acquire anv interest in, hold, use, occupy, sell, and convey real 
eetate, rairia. machinery, vessele, vehicles propelled by steam, electricity, or othet^ 
wise, and other property, and to mine coal, emeltj dreea, and in every or any manner 
and by every or any process to manufacture the iron ores, minerals, and metallic or 
other producte, and for euch purposes to make and execute all nectesary and proper 
works, and to do all neceesary and proper acts, and erect and niainttun all suitable 
furnaces, forges, mills, engines, houses, and buildings, and if necessary to acquire any 
[latent privileges, or by assignment, license, or otherwise, the right to use any patent 
mventions connected with the purposes aforesaid, and to take or lease or otherwise 
acquire any lands or other property, and the company may eell and convey the same 
or any port thereof by deed or deeds with the usual covenants. 



NOBTH AXBBIOA: DOHINIOK of CANADA. 369 

(d) To coiwtrQct and rnnke, parchaK, hold, or lease, alter and maintain and oper- 
ate anT railroads, tramways, or other roads, bargee, veeaelB, ahipe, and eteamei^ for 
the public conveyance of paaeengere and goods and for the transportation of coal, iron 
ores, limestone, and any other minerals and metallic eubelancee or products, moau- 
lactnred or unmannfactured, from and to the mines of the company or from any 
other mines to any place of transehipment or elsewhere, and to do all other bofdnees 
neceflsary and usually performed on the same. 

(«) To constmct harbore, breakwaters, and bridg^, and to purchase or hire, boild, 
construct, or erect wharvee, dot*a, piera, and macninery, and acquire such land and 
lands covered by water as may from time to time appear expedient. 

(/) To construct, purchase, operate, and maintain, or lease telephone and telegraph 
lines for the use of tLe company only, io manufacture and sell gas of every kind and 
description, and electricity tor the use of the company only. 

is) To construct, maintain, or contribute toward the construction and maintenance 
of nooses, churches, schools, hospitals, and other buildings, for the use and benefit 
of the workmen and otheni irom time to time employed by the company or dwelling 
npon its property. 

(*) To manufacture Bteel and iron in every branch, and any articles consisting of 
iron or steel, in whole or in part 

(i) To let or sublet for building, minii^, or any other purpose any property, and 
*" ~"e and gtant any rights, licenseH, eaflements, or privile^ 



._...,.. .... gpoee of the whole or any branch or part of the 

bnsincea, property, or franchisee of the company to any other iron, ateei, or coal 
company, or any other comjwiy or companies carrying on or formed for the j>urpo«e 
of carrying out any object similar to any of those of the company hereby mcorpo- 
rated, and this company is hereby authorized and empowered to make such sue, 
lease, or disposal of the whole or any branch or part of its businees or property only 
upon the vote of two-thirds of the snaree of this company. 

(Q To acquire by oriKinal subscription or otherwise, and to hold, sell, mortgi^, 
or otherwise dispose of shares, stocks, whether common or preferred, debentures, 
debenture stocfce, bonds, and other obligations of any company carrying on or formed 
for carrving on any trade or business within the objects oi this company. 

(m) To apply from time to time any part of the funds, stock, whether common or 
preferred, bonds, debentures, and other obligations of the company for any purpose 
of the company. 

(n) Whwi authorieed by a three-fourths vote of the shores of this company, this 
company is hereby empowered to ^purchase, lease, or otherwise acquire, hold and 
enjoy all the property, franchises, nghts, and privileges held or enjoyed by any iron, 
steel Or coat company, or any company or companiee carrying on or formed for car- 
rying on any busmess simil^ to that which this company is authorized to carry on 
imdeT the proviaions of its charter or otherwise; and such other iron, steel, or coal 
company so selling to this company is hereby outhorized and empowered, by vote of 
thres-fonrths of its shores, to sell, mortgage, lease, or otherwise dispose of such prop- 
erty, fiancbisee, rights, or privileges unto tnis company as fully and effectually as if 
the said iron, steel, or coal company or other companies were empowered so to do by 
a special act of the l%islatuie of the province of Nova Scotia. Said property, riehte, 
fttmchisee, and privilegeB, when purchased, leased, or otherwise acquired as above 
stated, shall be owned and enjoyed by this company as fully and eflectually as the 
same were theretofore held and enjoyed by the company from which the same were 
so purchased, leased, or otherwise acquired, subject to all existing valid liens and 
chaiveB. 

(o) To purchase, hire, constmct, or manafactore for use in connection with any 
bnsiness A the company, and to use and operate any ships, barges, rolling stock, 
machinery, or plant: Provided, howener. That nothing in this act or in the charter or 
franchises of any company that may be acquired by this company shall authorize 
or empower the company to carry on a general business in dry goods, groceries, and 
other general merchandise. 

The capital stock of the compaoy ia tl 0,000,000, diyided into 100,000 
shares of (100 each, with power to increase the same to an amount not 
exceeding $20,000,000. 

The town of Sydney, as inducements to the company to locate its 
plant here, gave to them a free site consisting of alwut 450 acres of 
H. Doc. 481, Pt 1 24 



870 COHHEROIAL BEXATIOHS. 

land, at a cost of $83,650, with a water frontage of at least H miles, 
accessible to the largest class of steam or sail vessels, and directly con- 
tiguous to the Intercolonial and Sydney and Lonisburg railroads; and 
also exempted all the property, income, and earnings of the company 
from municipal taxation for a period of thirty years, except so rar as 
relates to dwelling houses and the land connected therewitn owned by 
the company. Active operations have begun on the erection of this 
lai^e plant, which at first will consist of four large and modem blast 
furnaces, and from 300 to 400 coke ovens. The coal is to be furnished 
by the Dominion Coal Company, Limited; will have to be transported 
only from 8 to 16 miles, and can be delivered inside the' grounds of 
the new plant without delay or trouble on the cars loaded at liie coal 
pits. 

Large deposits of iron ore have been bought from the Nova Scotia 
Steel Comf«ny, located at Bell Isle, Newfoundland. It is stated this 
ore can be mined and placed on steamers of the largest tonn^e at a 
cost of about 25 cents per ton there. Twelve to sixteen hours will 
then land it at the company's piers at Sydney, on the water front of 
its plant 

The necessary limestone is available in easy reaching distance, either 
by water or rafl. 

Sydney Harbor is open to navigation about nine months of the year, 
but, with steamers of large tonnage arriving and departing daily, will 
practically become an open port for the entire year, the only draw- 
back being the passing of drift ice from the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
outside the harbor during the months of March and April. During 
that period, the harbor or Louisburg, 39 miles distant, with connection 
by the Sydney and Louisburg Railroad, is available. 

The site selected for this great plant is most advantageous for 
none of the crude material has to be transported any considerable 
distance, and the finished product can be distributed by steamer to all 
of the maritime provinces and Upper Canada as far west as Montreal. 
In the winter season, there ig direct rail route via the Intercolonial 
Bailway to the whole of Canada, this railway connecting with the 
company's plant. That the plant will be modem in every respect 
there is no reason to doubt, as some of the most skillful conatmctors 
from the United States are superintending its erection. It is now 
stated, and I see no reason to doubt the statement, judging from the 
present outlook, that the furnaces will bo in operation in aiwut eighteen 
or twenty months. The coming of this plant to Sydney has brought 
about a change in the attitude of the Canadian Government toward 
the bounty question on iron. Instead of the bounty coming to an end 
in June, 1902, it is now to be continued until 1907. At the present 
time and until June 30, 1902, the bounty on pig iron made from Cana- 
dian ore is $3 per ton, on pig iron made from foreign ore J2 per ton. 
Then a new and diminishing scale goes into effect, and the bounties on 
steel ingots, steel billets, and on pig iron and puddled iron will be as 
follows: 





CuudUn 


Fordgn 


71nty»rotnc 


'«- • :••■•:••::::::::::::::::::::::: 




tl.80 



















KOKTH AMERICA: DOMINION OF CANADA. 371 

The product of the company at Sydney will all come under the 
second scale of bounties, aa it is the intention to use ore from New- 
foundland. 

There is & royalty on all coal used in the construction of iron and 
steel within the province of Nova Scotia, but any company now carry- 
ing on the business of making iron or Bteel or any company that may 
be organized and have begnn operations within twelve months from 
the Ist day of Augustj 1899. and also shall have within two years from 
said date erected within the province of Nova Scotia plant, buildings, 
furnaces, machinery, and appliances, at a cost of not less than ^,000,000, 
for the manufacture of iron or steel, or both, may be by the governor 
in council refunded one-half the present royalty for a period of eight 
years, which, being 12^ centa per ton, will make the refund 6i cents 
per ton, which on the large amount of coal to be used wiU amount to 
no inconsiderable sum. 

With labor cheap and intelligent, the cost of living not in excess of 
that in the United States, if not slightly less, with the ability, as said, 
to receive all of the oi-e, limestone, and other material direct at the 
plant by water transportation and to ship the finished product the 
same way, it is fair to assume that the Dominion Iron and Steel Com- 
pany, Jjimited, will be a formidable and aggressive competitor with 
the manufacturers of like products in the United States, when oper- 
ations have been commenced. The exact dimensions and capacity of 
the furnaces I have been unable to obtain. 

It is also intended at an early date to erect large foundry and machine 
tthops in connection with this plant. 

It is also stated, on what I consider reliable authority, that the Mon- 
treal Rolling Mills ia to erect a plant at Sydney, occupying a portion 
of the ground given to the Iron and Steel Company, and enter lareely 
into the construction of steel rails, structural iron, etc., although at 
the present time no active operations have been commenced, the com- 
pany being in consultation with the town authorities of Sydney in 
regard to exemption from taxes and other matters connected with their 
projposed erection of a plant at Sydney. 

The town of Sydney nas already felt in a great degree the benefit 
of the location of this great manufacturing industry in its midst. 
Large numbers of new residences and business blocks are in course of 
erection at the present time. Town tote suitable for business houses 
have more than doubled in value in six months, rents have increased 
60 per cent owing to the demand for houses and business stands. The 
demand for all elaases of labor is greatly in excess of the aupnly. 
There is more prosperity here at the present time than for the last 
twenty years, I am credibly informed by citizens conversant with fat'ts. 

The large ore deposits in Cape Breton, under the impetus given by 
the erection and working of this great plant, are being more carefully 
c}camined and tested. Already at Georges River, mis island, large 
deposits have been located which are accessible by water communica- 
tion, and if reports made in a pamphlet issued by Rev. Martin A. Mac- 
Pherson, who controls the deposit, are verified by actual test, there is 
an almost inexhaustible supply of ore in close proximity to Sydney. 

The Richmond and Inverness RaUroad, starting at Port Hawkesbury 
on the Strait of Canso, is another enterprise which will soon be in 
operation. Thb road will run along the north shore of Cape Breton 
Island, opening up a new country, with lai^ coal deposits and immense 
tracts of spruce lumber. It will also bnng within easy reach a new 



8?2 OOHMEBOIAL BELATIOITB. 

and picturesque country for touriets, where they can obtain the finest 
of rod fishing, either for trout or salmon, with good hunting grounds. 
Near Louishurg, an American company has recently purcha^d a talc 
mine, which is to be actively worked at once, the product to be sent to 
the United States. 

The bituminous coal industry of this island is largely on the increase. 
The past year has witnessed the largest shipments from the Sydnevs 
ever KQOwn in their history. This has been made possible by the 
JDominion Coal Company, Limited, working during me past winter 
and banking it« output. 

I take pleasure in quoting from a statement showing its business 
for the year, kindly furnished me by the resident manager of that 
company: 

The gross tons (long) mined duriag the year ending June 30, 1899, 
were 1,511,459. 

Steam coal shipped to the United Statee 24,792 

Onlm or alack Bhipped to the United Statee 71,828 

Total shipped to the United States 96,720 

Shipped to mantime and upper provinces, including Newfoundland 1, 066, 944 

Banker coal fuiTiisbed steamers in tranA-Atlantic trade 28,651 

Other bunker coal supplied 52,508 

Making a grand total of 1,244,820 tons shipped. 

The difference between the output and shipments is in bank and will 
all be shipped before the close of navigatioD, with a large addition 
mined since June 30, 1899. 

The company works four pits or shafts, and the average number of 
miners employed is 2,594. 

A new pit or shaft is now being sunk, which will largely increase 
the number of miners employed and add about 4,000 tons per day to 
the production. 

The output of the mines can readily be increased to meet any demand, 
and as the coal company is to supply the coal for the use of the iron 
and steel company, and as it also has the contract to furnish the 
coal for the Everett Coke Company, of Everett, Mass. — operating at 

E resent, I understand, about 400 ovens — the coming year will see a 
irge increase in the production. 

The company owns and operates the Sydney and Louiaburg Railway, 
comprising 61 miles of rail. It is splendidly equipped, with 22 loco- 
motives, 22 first-class passenger cars, 5 second-class cars, 1 box car, 22 
flat cars, 610 coal cars, and 4 conductors' vans. Since June 30, the 
company has increased its rolling stock by the addition of two power- 
ful locomotives of 125 tons each, new passenger coaches, mail and bag- 
gage cars combined, and fifty steel coal cars of 50 tons capacity each, 
The locomotives and steel cars are of American manufacture. 

The company further owns and operates five ocean-going steamers 
canning coal and passengers, five large ocean barges, one ocean-going 
towing vessel, ana one harbor tug. In addition to the men employed 
at the collieries, there are 655 engaged at the shipping piers at Sycmey 
and Iiouisburg and on the railroMl, making a tol^ of over 3,100 men 
in the employ of the company on land. 

This section of Nova Scotui has without doubt entered upon an era 
of prosperity, and the importations from the United States will be 
j largely increased during the coming year. Better results, however, 
would be obtained if manufacturers and merchants would send their 



NOETH AMEMCA: DOMINION OF CANADA. 373 

representatives here to meet the Sydney merchants in peraon, with 
samples of their goods, and also to arrange about credits and discounts 
on accounts, which are now given liberally by Canadian and English 
merchants to their patrons here. 

(iEOBGB N. West, Consul. 
Stdset, OtOober 13, 1899. 



WrNI>80B. 

The consular district of Windsor, with its four agencies, is com- 
posed of the counties of Hants, Kings, and Cumberland, including the 
several ports on the rivers and bays opening into the Bay of Fundy. 
The chief port, Windsor, the county seat of Hants County, has about 
8,00U inhabitants, and is situated at the junction of the rivers Avon and 
St. Croix, about 9 miles from the Minaa Basin. 

On the 17th of October, 1897, Windsor was almost entirely destroyed 
by fire. The custom-house, post-office, court-house, consul's omce, 
t^ether with all the business nouses in the center of the town, were 
burned. Of the 3,000 inhabitants, 2,500 were rendered homeless. 
Over $1,000,000 in property was destroyed, but of this some $700,000 
worth was insured. The recovery of Windsor from this great fire has 
been phenomenal and is worthy of note. A comparisoD of the valua- 
tion of property just before tne fire and now, taken from the town 
clerk's records, is shown in the following figures: 





October. 


October, 
18TO. 






"•SSi 






W,S2S 






1,1U,3S2 






' ' 



The rate of taxation on this assessment is only 1 per cent. There is 
no other tax levied by the town, county, province, or Dominion. It 
is a '* single tax" of its own kind, and furnishes an obiect lesson. 

SBiPPmo. 

Vessels remaining on the Windsor registry June 80, 1899, were: 





Komber. 


ronnagB. 




■il 


„ 














ISl 








Vessels clearing during same period were: 




Number. 


ronmnet 


C«ij[o, 




103 

as 


se,HT 














us 


ib,m 









COMMERCIAL EEI.ATI0H8. 



WHECKS, ETC. 

During the year ten vessels were wrecked, two broken up, and three 
sold to foreignera, as follows: One vessel, 293 tons, sold to citizens of 
the United States, J1,000; one, 971 tons, sold to citizens of Norway, 
$4,850; one, 1,590 tona, sold to citizens of Italy, tl7,000. 

Only two small vessels were built during the year. Windsor was 
formerly one of the most extensive shipbuilding ports of the mari- 
time provinces, but the day of building wooden vessels has passed, 
and the shipyards here are closed. 

Imporft and exporU of Windgor, jigcal year 1899. 



Articles. 


l».por«. 


Value. 


lU cotton 




l.CQG.OOS 

■i.m 

TO 






!'5!! 


























m.SS3.Q0 






Articles. 




Export*. 


Value. 






™-S 


*W,gB.0O 












6;892:0I> 
fiS,S10.00 


cotton good« 10 China 


y«nte.. 


l.flOS,0(» 


















GOODS DUTIABLE AND FREE. 



Of the above imports, $58,661 were dutiable and $116,872 were free. 
The great bulk of the free goods consisted of raw cotton for the 
Dominion Cotton Mill located here, and was all produced in the 
United States. In addition to cotton and all other raw materials, 
lumber and wire fencing are also on the Canadian free list. 

On account of the Canadian tariff, many manufacturers of the 
United States have established branches of their factories in Canada, 
and are making the same articles they produce in the States. Agri- 
cultural implements, as well as most other machinery used in this 
consular district, are obtained from Ontario, and most of them are 
made there in branch factories of American plants, the capital running 
them being mainly from the United States, There is, however, a 
general expressed preference for American manufactures, especially 
mechanical tools, and notwithstanding the Canadian tariff they out- 
sell the local make. 

EINQSPOBT AOENCT. 

This ^ency is situated at Kingsport, Nova Scotia, but it includes in 
its jurisdiction the whole of Kings County, with the following addi- 
tional ports: Port Williams, Harborville, French Cross, and Kentville. 
This agency was known as "Cornwallis agency" until the 26th of July 



HOBTH AHEBIOA: DOHUnON 07 CANADA. 875 

last, when the name was changed to Kingsport. Eines Coonty is 
chiefly devoted to agriculture and fruit growing, prtraucing some 
lumber and manufactures. Formerly, considerable sawed lumber was 
shipped from this county to the States, but since the tariff of 1897 
tooK effect the export has ceased. 

Comwallis Yaliey produces large quantities of apples of a quality 
superior to our own. Most of these are marketea in England, but 
many, on account of their superior quality, are etill shipped to the 
United States. Potatoes, also of a very hne quality, are raised in 
Kings County, and prior to the Spanish war were mostly marketed 
in Cuba. Large quantities are still shipped to that island. 

Tbe'exportB to the United States of the Eingsport (Comwallis) 
f^Qcy for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1899, were $43,068. 

FABB8BOBO AQENCT. 

The exports to the United States from the Parrsboro district for the 
year ended June 30, 1899, were valued at J173,362. 

Theexportsconsiatedmostly of coal and lumber: coal (soft), $38,650; 
lumber, $39,950. The amount of imports into Parrsboro is small, as 
nearly all foreign merchandise is brought through the wholesale houses 
of St. John and Halifax. Parrsboro is located m Cumberland County, 
on the basin of Minas, and the agency includes the following additional 

g)rt8: Diligent River, Port Qreville, Five Islands, Economy, Bass 
iver, and spencers Island. 

Parrsboro is a town of about 2,500 inhabitants, with modem 
improvements, electric lights, and waterworks. The Cumberland Rail- 
way and Coal Company is a ]aree corporation with headquarters at 
Montreal and a branch office at Parrsboro. This company owns and 
controls 35 miles of railroad with good rolling stock, and also a fleet 
of vessels— five barges and a tug— -for transportation. The company 
owns and operates the Spring Hill Mines, about 30 miles from Parrs- 
boro, employing about 900 men and 100 boys. A large per cent of the 
coal mined is shipped to the New England States. The Newville Lum- 
ber Company at Parrsboro has a capital of $50,000 and employs 50 
men. Its capacity is 450,000 feet of lumber per day. Thirty per cent 
of this company's lumber goes to the United States. At Bass River, 
in Cumberland County, two other large industries are in operation: 
The IJnion Furniture and Merchandise Company, with a capital of 
$40,000, and the Fossil Flour Company, with a capital of $200,000, 
with headquarters at New York and a branch office at Portland, Me. 
There are several other industries supplemented by American capital 
in this district. Parrsboro is about 30 miles from Windsor by wat«r 
line across the basin. 

OHBVEBIE AOENCT. 

This agency, formerly called "Kempt," includes the ports of Che- 
verie, Walton, and Maitland, all in the county of Hants. The quar- 
rying of gypsum, sawing of lumber, and the preparation of timber 
for piling, for enwrt to the United States, have neretofore been its 
principal industries, but during the last two years these exports have 
utgely fallen off. 

The exports from the Cheverie (Kempt) Agency to the United States 
for the year ending June 30, 1899, were $23,334. 



37b OOUHBBOIAL BELATIOZTB. 

The port of Cbeverie is a small scattered village on the Minas Basin, 
about 30 miles from Windsor. 

RIVEB HBBBBT (fORT JOQGINfi) AOENOT. 

By an order of the State Department, made last July, the name 
" Port Jcg^ins" was changed to ^' River Hebert," but the business of 
the agency is still carried on under the old name and seal. This agency 
includes the port River Hebert, where the a^ent resides, and also the 
following ports in Cumberland County: ^nd River, Shulee, Two 
Rivers, Joggins Mines, and Macan. 

River Hebert is a small town on the Bay of Fundy. It is in a great 
lumber- producing country, and large quantities hiave been shipped 
from Port Joggins to both the United States and Great Britain. For 
a time after the passage of the 1897 tariff, the lumber export to the 
United States fell off, out during the last year it has ^ain increased. 

The exports from River HeMrt for the year 1899 were Nl,401. 
Of this sum, over two-thirds consisted of lumber and timber for the 
United States. This agency has several successful manufacturing 
establishments. The Rhodes & Curry Company, at Amherst, employ- 
ing a large number of hands, is makmg cars, car wheels, castings and 
forgings, etc. The Robb Engineering Company is also here, imking . 
rotary sawmills, boilers, and mill gears. lArge quantities of coal arc 
raised from the Joggins mines and shipped to me New England States, 
Joseph T. Hose, Consul. 

WiHDSOB, October^, 1899. 



AMHEBSTBURG. 

In conformity with iostructionB from the Department of State of July 
10, 1899, 1 submit the following report: As a whole, business of all 
classes is in a much better condition in this consular district than at 
any time for several years. It is almost entirely an agricultural dis- 
trict, and tiie better demands for the products of the farm and factory, 
as well as a general advance in prices^ have stimulated the people to 
greater effort in all branches. The soil and climate are well adapted 
to the cultivation of a high grade of tobacco, and in 1897 there were 
grown in this district about 800,000 pounds, which sold readily at 
an average of lOi cents per pound. In 1898 the crop was estimated 
at 8,000,000 pounds. Owing to the large amount grown the price fell 
to about an average of 6 c^nts, and about 75 per cent of the ci-op has 
been sold at that Sgure. The crop this year will not amount to more 
than 3,000,000 or 4,000,000 poundB. All the factories in the Dominion 
{28 in number) but one are turning their attention to the manufacture 
of the Canadian leaf, mixed with leaf imported either from the States 
or tie West Indies. One factory has been established in this district 
for the manu&cture of plug tobacco for home consumption. 

Small canning and evaporating factories are being built at several 
places. The only woolen mill in the district is now making blankets 
exclusively for the Northwest trade. 

The Andenlon stone (lime) quarry, 2i miles from this port, lately 
purchased by Nova S«>tia capitalists, is now in full operation. 



NOBTH AHEBIOA: DOMINION OF OANADA. 877 

The official records at the Canadian custom-bouse at thia port give 
thfl imports and exports as follows: 

Importt of Aiaherttburff diitriel Jrom (Ac IMiUd SaUi in 1898. 

fitet anarter 114,108 

tJecond quarter 33,975 

Third qnarter 20,041 

Sonrth quarter 113,621 

Total for yew 1898 181,645 

Total for 1897 68,782 

Increue 112,863 

Ivgx/rUfivm the Uniltd Sl<Uafir»t half of 1899. 

n«t qnarter 121,630 

Second quarter 39,973 

Total 61,603 

Total mme period 1898 i 48,083 

Increaee 13.620 

Imports from olhrr eountr'iei for thejacal year ending June SO, 1899. 

Great Britain Jl,496 

Franco 81 

Bdpum 829 

Total ' 1,906 

Importa from United BtAtea same period 105,166 

ExporU to the VraledStalaiaiaas. 

First quarter 120,481 

Second quarter 62,619 

Third quarter 67,036 

Fourth quarter 74,109 

Total (or 1898 214,244 

Total for 1897 170,049 

locrease 44,196 

ExpmUtoOu VitOed SUOei firH half of 1899. 

Hist quarter $30,067 

Second quarter 05,053 

Tot»l 96,020 

Total same period 1898 73,100 

Increase 22,920 

EKparit to other eomitrietfor thefUcal year ended June SO, 1899. 

Great Britain $44,649 

Germanj i 20,616 

Prance 600 

Total 65,766 

Exports to United States same period 237,164 

The priDcipal articles of import are the manufactured products of 
iron and ateeL Kerosene oil, oysters, tropical fruits, nigb-grade 



378 OOHUBBCIAL BELATIONB. 

canned goods, hats, caps, millinery goods, cottons, and cord^^e. The 

firincipal exports to the United S&t«s from this district are stavea, 
umber, and fresh fish. 

There have been no new means of communication opened in this 
district during the past year, and there is nothing new regarding 
f reieht rates. 

Mo laws or regulations of a discriminating nature exist, other than 
the tariff. 

Chester W. Martin, Gmsvl. 
Ahherstbubo, August 1^, 1899. 



BELIiBVILLE. ' 

The general trade of Canada is in a very prosperous condition and 
reports from the monetary and wholesale centers show that it is 
increasing and that the general tone is confident. This is owing, 
among other reasons, to the development of the Yukon, British 
Columbia, and other mineral districts, including those in this (Hast- 
ings) county, which has led to increased demand for specially prepared 
food products, also. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS. 

The phenomenally good harvests during the past season, not only in 
Manitoba and the jforthwest, but also to some extent in Ontario and 
Quebec, enabled farmers to pay off mortgages and entertain a more 
buoyant feeling, resulting in more liberal pui-chaaes. The shipments 
of butter from the Dominion to Great Britain increased from 280.000 
packages in 1898 to 451,000 in 1899; those of cheese from 1,896,496 
packages in 1898 to 1,900,000 packages for 1899. The prices of dairy 
products, however, have been high and the exports for 1899 will show 
an increase of $2,500,000 in butter and $2,000,000 in cheese over 1898. 
It is impossible to give figures for this consular district separately, but 
it is estimated by the Eastern Ontario Butter and Cheese Association 
that there are $175,000,000 invested in dairy interests in Ontario, and 
that the annual product approximates $50,000,000. Of the 1,187 cheese 
factories in Ontario, about 10 per cent are located in this district; 
hence it is fair to assume that this consular district produces annually 
$5,000,000 worth of cheese and butter and the receipts of the dairymen 
of this district have increased by $450,000 during the past year, as 
compared with 1898. The influence of this very large production and 
the extremely high prices prevailing will readily be seen. There are 
96 cheese factories in this (Hastings) county — more than in any other 
county in Canada. 

Fears of tariff tinkering were entertained when the Liberal party 
came into power in 1896, but the Fielding tariff as adopted somewhat 
reduced the rates on both raw materials and finished products, the 
relative position of the manufactui'ers not being altered, as was gener- 
ally anticipated; therefore development has been general. 



While the 25 per cent pro-British or preferential tariff in favor of 
impoi'ts from Great Britain has not prevented a marked increase in 

' In Kply to circular of July 10, 1899. 



NOBTH AHEBIOA: DOICIHIOK of CANADA. 379 

importations from the United States, I believe it has mat«riallj influ- 
enced trade between (rreat Britain and (^nada, and tliat had it not 
been adopted the importations from the United States would have 
been larger in proportion. There is no doubt that the British are 
pushing matters and opening up new lines of trade which they have 
not heretofore attempted — for instance, ready-made clothing for both 
men and women, type, prepared infants' food, household linens, fash- 
ion papers and magazines, patent medicines, books, skin lotions, 
sauces, pens, harness compositions, polishing pastes, cocoa, and many 
other lines. Importation of specuu brands of tea seems also to t>e 
increasing. 

There is a marked increase in the use of American corn, but as it is 
purchased at Toronto and other centers it is impossible to give figures 
lor this consular district. Farmers are using barlej' and other coarse 
grains, which at one time were largely exported to the United States, 
and producing pork, which, after curing, finds sale in British markets. 
This seems to be a growing business, and packing establishments are 
becoming more plentiful, with good results to the farmers of Canada. 

Cold storage of perishable products is making great headway, and 
storage plan& are oeing constantly constructed throughout OntBrio. 
The government of Canada has been providing cold storage on the 
steamship lines, and this, with the facilities for preserving perishable 
products throughout this country, added to those furnished across the 
ocean, has developed a large market in England for this class of goods, 
which heretofore had to find sale at home or in the United States. 

Exports of cattle were not as large as last year, but prices were bet- 
ter, and it has been a prosperous year in this line a.'^ a whole. The 
apple crop was small and generally of inferior quality and did not keep 
well, making prices for local consumption very high. The fisheries 
in this district have never been so unproductive as this year. 

Canning vegetables and fruits for export has assumed large pro- 

E)rtions as a business, and the canning of chickens and turkeys has 
tely been added to this industry with decidedly good results. 
There are six customs districts in the consular mstrict of Belleville. 
Itwas impossible formeto get figures from Shannonville and Kapanee. 
The following are the figures for the other four, viz; 

Port of BelkmlU, Canada, for the fxal year ended June SO, 1899. 



Produce of the United States $271,399 

Foreign goods in bond viB United States 30,966 

Total 302,364 

BSPoicra. 

ProdnctHof mines 1,700 

Prodncteof flaheries 2,017 

Prodnctfl of foreet 966 

Animals and tlieir produce 43,491 

Agricultural products 6,924 

Agricultural products, in bond, en route to Europe 43,174 

Manufactures 8,194 

Total 106,466 

The total exports from port of Belleville were $1,094,571, of which 
$779,808 went almost entirely to Great Britain, via the St. Lawrence 
River. 



OOMMEBOIAL BELATIONS. 

Port of De»erotUo, Canada, for the year ended June SO, 1899. 

IMPORTS. 





nnltedBUUA 


OnetBrlUln. 


Total. 




^;g 




^:l£ 




I84J 





















ArUclw 


Btalet 


Alrtc 


B& 


Total. 




tii.seo 

1 


t3,SlD 


•2B8.098 












^fS? 








































4n,wi 











Port, of Trenton, Ontario, for the year ended June SO, 1S99. 





UDlt«d States. 


OtHercoim- 


Total. 


. 


!aa 


»10,«S1 


SiS 







Part of Pictoa, Ontario, for ike year ended June SO, 1S99. 





UDlted Blatea. 


Other coim- 


Total. 




t«S,S60 
G1,1TI> 


130.790 


IM,«&0 
10^ MS 







A review of the above figures (not taking into consideration goods 
shipped to foreign countries via the Unitea States) shows that goods 
were sent to and received from the United States at the four custonis 
districts above referred to as follows: Imports from the United States, 
fiscal year 1898, *294,666; fiacal year 1899, $490,161; increase, $195,495, 
or over 66 per cent. Exporte to the United States, fiscal year 1898, 
$337,752; for fiscal year 1899, $534,271; increase, $196,499, or over 58 
per cent. 

The consular agent at Deseronto reports a marked increase in the 
export of forest products, caused by the improved demand in the 
United States, checked, however, by the dutv imposed on most of 
this material. There is a large gain in the sale of these products for 
export direct from Canada to G-reat Britain and countries other than 
the United States. 

The consular agent at Trenton reports: 

The principal ch&nge in the complexion of the exports to the United States is the 
almost complete extinction of lamDer and the commencement of the export of gold 
bullion, which latter amoimted to (68,050 for this fiscal year. The Gilmour Com- 
pany IB b^nnine the msnufacture of the new patent lumber, by which a thin facing 
of flne-graae lum oer is combined with inferior grades, making a grade claimed to be 
first clees and equal to the best grades heretofore made. 



WORTH AMERICA; DOMINION OF CANADA. 381 

The consular ^ent at Picton reports; 

Exports of fancy peaa for seed pnrpoees to the Unlt«d Statee have fallen oft at 
least 50 per cent, as the iDcreaee m the duties has compelled firms doing buatneae 
here to remove their plants to the United States and grow peas there for the market 

MIKING IN BELLEVILLE CON8ULAB DI8TBICT.' 

Interest in mining in the Hastings mineral district continues to 
increase and much activity is manifested, especially in gold mining. 

Gold and arisenic. — The two principal mines in this district are owned 
and operated by English companies, and their practice is to give 
no inlormatioD to the public, but the fact that they are continually 
adding to and increasing their plants seems to prove that their opera 
tions must be profitable. Mining investors are evidently taking this 
view of it, OB one hears continuMly of new companies being started 
in different parts of this county. 

The Deloro mine, in Marmora Township (formerly owned by Mr. 
Gatling, brother of the inventor of the gun bearing that name), is 
being steadily worked, and 150 men are employed in the various 
depf^tments of mining and milling and the arsenic works. This mine 
is now being worked to a aepth of 425 feet, where levels are driven 
in a large ore body showing much mispickel. As it is generally under- 
stood mat where mispickel is there is also gold, this would indicate 
that the veins of this district are permanent. Although 425 feet is no 
great depth in mining, this is by far the deepest working in these 
parts, and I am informed that the veins are holding out and showing 
increased strength and size and more mispickel than nearer the surface. 
Although it is impossible to find out what gold is actually produced, 
it is well known that the mine is being profitably worked. 

This company is now producing white arsenic, which all goes to the 
United States and finds a ready market. The manufacture and ship- 
ment of white arsenic by this companv has only lately been begun. 
For the past few years the mispickel, after the extraction of the gold, 
has been accumulating in a huge pile awaiting reduction. Itis proving 
a valuable by-product. A number of carloads have been shipped 
within the past three months and the amount of material on hand will 
take at least a year or more to treat, and as the gold mills are continu- 
ally at work producing more, it would appear that the world's supply 
of arsenic must come largely from this district in the future. The 
output from England seems to be diminishing, and this is said to be 
the largest deposit of arsenic known. 

I have given prominence to this mine, it being the pioneer among 
properly conducted and profit-producing gold mines in this miner^ 
and consular district. A vast amount or money has been expended on 
this property under different owners and companies, but until the past 
two years there has been no success, owing to the refractory character 
of the ore. I am reliably informed that 90 per cent of the gold value 
of these ores is being extracted, and practically all the arsenic. It 
will be gratifying to Americans to note that the present manager of 
this mine is an American and the first to solve the problem of the 
profitable reduction of these refractory ores, f^in showing the superi- 
ority of American mining methods. 

Aoout 14 miles northwest of the Deloro is the Belmont gold mine, 

•See also Commercial Belations, 1898, vol, 1, pp. 327-334.- i 



383 COMMEBOIUi RELATIONS. 

the orps of which cany only a small percentaee of iron pyrites and no 
mispickel. Thia mine was taken under option oy an English company, 
which has lately made the final payment on the property, thereby be- 
Gominf the owner. It began operations about two years ^o, and, like 
the Deloro Company, gives out no information; but here ^ain can be 
seen all the aigns of a prosperous enterprise under efficient management. 
A stamp mill was built some two years ago to test the ore. This baa 
been operated steadily; an air-compressing plant has lately been added, 
a residence for the manager and nouses for the workmen are being 
built, making a village around the mine, and it is now contemplated to 
add a 50-atamp mill. A number of shafts are being sunk, the deepest 
being 300 feet, and nearly all are in pay ore. 

Adjoining the Deloro mine is the "Gatling Five Acres," a property 
Mr, Gatling reserved after he dispwsed of his other mining interests 
because of his faith in this property. This is owned by the Atlas 
Arsenic Company, of Cleveland, Ohio (Messrs. Coe, Britton & Hun- 
gerfoi-d), which company has just completed a fine modem mill and is 
now sinking shafts on two of the veins, supposed to be the same as 
those on the Deloro. This commny lately purchased the Gawley 
mine, a recent discovery, located 7 miles north, which is said to be 
very promising. 

Tlie Malone mines, 4 miles north of Deloro, have been worked in a 
desultory way during the past summer, I understand with good results. 
1 am told that more systematic work will be done next year. 

The Boerth Mining Company, of Detroit, is operating a mine in the 
township of Ealadar, where it has erected a 10-stamp mill, to be 
increased to a 20-8tamp mill in the near future. The vein is some 8 
feet wide and extends clear across their property, about a mile. 
Experts pronounce this one of the most valuable properties in this 
county. This company lately acquired a property 7 miles northwest 
of Marmora, which gives great promise. There have been a number 
of parallel veins found, gold bearing, one of which shows a width of 72 
feet of free milling ore assaying from $5 to $50 per ton. 

Near Madoc is the Diamond, a very promising property. Two 
shafts have been sunk on two distinct lodes, and both are showing up 
well in free gold assaying to a high average. A mill will soon be 
built. 

I have alluded to the large area of mispickel ores in this district. 
In many, and I think in the majority, of cases this mispickel contains 
gold enough to pay all working expenses, hence this should be an ideal 
held for the arsenic supply of the future. 

There are many promising prospects throughout Hastings County. 
The Deloro Company keeps a strong force of men out continually pros- 
pecting. All that is needed to make this a prosperous mining section 
IS the presence of competent mining engineers, backed by necessary 
capital, to develop the mineral resources. This district has made 
decidea progress in mining during the past season. 

Iron, — ^The production of iron ore in this section is booming, owing 
to the recent advance in prices. Five or six properties in the township 
of Madoc are being worked, and daily shipments are made, mostly to 
Hamilton, Ontario; some to Deseronto. A company at Steelton, Pa., 
has purchased properties (with a view to shipping the product to its 
mills) on which several thousand tons are already on the dumps. In 



byGoO'^lc 



NOBTH AMEBICA: DOMINION OF CANADA. 383 

00 part of Ontario are there better prospectu for iron than in this sec- 
tion, several million tons now being in Bight 

Z*a»i.— Lead and zinc have received some attention of late, aeveral 
valuable depositfi having been found in Tudor Township. Shipments 
of ore have been made to Belgium, where it found ready sale, and it 
ill underatood that an effort is being made to capitalize these properties 
with a view to working them on an extensive scale. 

Taic. — A very valuable deposit of talc has lately been discovered near 
Madoc. This has been purchased by an American company, for the 
purpose of working it on an extensive scale. This talc deposit is 

rensselaerite" of & very pure variety. 

Peai. — Peat, in which this section abounds, is destined to become of 
much importance as a cheap fuel. Several companies are maldng 
attempts to put it in marketable shape by compresaioD. The Deloro 
Company made a test and found it very satisfactory for generating 
steam, and it is said that the manf^rs intend to install a plant for 
making up peat for their own use. 

Joseph James, of Actinolite, in this county, is manufacturing actino- 
lite for roofing purposes. The demand for this product is inci-easing 
both in Canada and the United States. It is highly prized for roofing, 
as it is proof gainst both fire and frost Mr, James's property includes 
300 acres, on which there are several valuable mispickel deposits, in 
which considerable development work has been done. His property, 
being easy of access and possessin? one of the finest water powers in 
this county, seems to promise welL 

Michael J. Hekdbick, Consul. 

Belleville, December S3, 1899. 



BROCKVILIjB. 

The year ending June 30, 1899, has been one of development and 
expansion in industrial interests in Canada, with consequent prosperity 
to its people. 

The business of this consulate shows a large increase in exports to 
the United States during this period as indicated below: 



Artlclca. 


1898. 


«.. 


SSSl: 




IIS, 716 

K.771 

17,868 
1S.S2I 


129,187 

9S[<MD 
4 440 
M,8I1 

is 






























H,7« 

z.4Sa 












2i«hi^irtidii;:::;.v::.\":;;:::;:;;;;;;.\":;;:::;: :;;;::;:::;;;::" 


2>M01 


+ 27,650 




170, »a 


M»,81B 









byGoo'^lc 



884 OOMMEBOIAL RELATIONS. 

The number of emigrants to the United States from thia district 
during the present calendar year is much greater than during the cal- 
endar year 1898. 

There is a large and rapidly increasing amount of mica mined in 
this district, but nearly all of it has been exported by way of Ottawa. 

The growing export of poultry to the English nuu-ket has reduced 
the amount sent to the United States. 

Under the former tariff, $50,000 of wool was annually exported to 
the United States. Thia has ceased under the tariff of 1897. 

During the last four months there has been a large increase in 
expoi*ts of hides and lumber and a marked decrease in export of 
cattle. Much of the cattle of this district is now sold in the Montreal 
market for export to England. 

GENERAL BXPOBTS. 

The Canadian customs officials have kindly furnished a report of the 
exports and impoi-tu of this port for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1899. The expoi-ts are: 



Product ol — 

Mines fl,820 

Fiaheriee 904 

Forests 46,022 

Animals 277,226 



Product of — 

.^nicul'ure 

Maoufacturiug . . 



Total 461,052 



The principal articles of export during 1899, compared with 1 
are as follows: 



ArUcles. 


18)8. 


1889. 


'^^^t': 




»M,1» 

II 

4^000 


'li 

2i,vn 


+168.778 




Hs 


























176.^ 

m!«i 








iw 










8<S.4«e 


tsi.m 


+ 88,666 





The increase of exports to the United States is 41.9 per cent; to 
Great Britain, 16.5 per cent; to all other countries, 7.5 per cent. Total 
increase of exports, 27.2 per cent. Hides, lumber, lambs, and cattle 
are exported to the United States; cheese to Great Britain, and drugs, 
hardware, and agricultural implements to other countries. The report 
does not fairly represent the exports of cheese and cattle, as nearly 
all the cheese and all the cattle exported to the English market are 
shipped from Montreal and appear in the reports as exported from 
that point. 

The value of the cheese exported from the Brbckville district in 
1898was$l,625,000; in 1899, $2,125,000. The exports of butter, e^s, 
and poultry, although very lai^, do not appear at all, as these are sent 
by way of Montreal. 

i:QI,.^r:::,GOO'^IC 



NORTH akksioa: dokinion of oanada. 



The importe reported by the CaoadiaD customs for the Brockvillo 
district are; 



CountrtM. 


ISW. 


ISM. 


r^*- 




23,019 


2»,lStt 


;i'S 






+>i;S 






1.086,608 


1,1H,B2Z 


+48,21* 





The principal ai-tictes imported from the United States are: 



AMclo. 


ISH. 


IBM. 


decrtata-. 




KM, est 

81,099 

116,117 

6,0C 


iaift.ns 

119,913 
114.742 
29.175 

2,448 






t *?'IS 





































a Not reported In 198S. 

The funount of bituminous coal imported will be still further reduced 
when the manufacture of peat fuel, already commenced in thiij district, 
JB more fully developed. 

The present hi^h prices of iron and steel and the delay in filling 
orders has materiuly reduced the amount Imported. The rapid devel- 
opment of Canadian iron mines, furnaces, rolling mills, and steel 
plants will, in the near future, result in active competition with the 
American products. 

DAISY PHODCOrS 

The daily interests of Canada are a rapidly increasing source of 
wealth to toe Dominion. Canadiui cheese, butter, eggs, and poultry 
are now holding first place in the English market, and increasing 
quantities of these articles are exported. The uniformly superior 
quality of Canadian cheese has gained so high a reputation that thou- 
sands of the best Kew York articles are now tx>ught By Canadian buyers 
and shipped by way of Montreal as Canadian cheese. The following 
shows tne export of Canadian cheese for the six months from May 1 
to November 1 : 



Y«r. 


Number 
oIcheeK. 


Vilue. 




1,876,110 






18,368,800 














6,936 









H. Doc. 481, Pt 1- 



itGoo'^le 



COHUERCIAL RELATIONS. 
Es:poH of Oonadian butUr. 



Ymi. 


"A"fi'i' 


V^M. 




241,2ff7 


t, 612, an 








190, *W 


2,(118,966 


. 



The Brockville Cheese Board is the largest and most important in 
Canada. Its 200 factories weekly board from 8,000 to 10,000 cheeses, 
and the price paid on the Brockville board fixes that price for the 
Dominion. 

In 1898, the sales in the Brockville district for export to England 
were about 250,000 cheeses, valued at $1,625,000. In 1899 the same 
number of cheeses have been sold, but the value, due to the higher price 
paid, is stated at $2,125,000. 

The quantities of eggs and poultry exported can not be obtained at 
this time, but they have been large and are constantly increasing. 

INDUSTRIES. 

The manufacturing industries of Brockville are extensive and pros- 
perous. From careful inquiry the following facts are obtained : 

An iron-working establishment employing 350 hands reports: Arti- 
cles manufactured, stoves and heating apparatus, builders^ and house- 
hold hardware, labor-saving tools, hammers, and edged tools, clothes 
wringers, and iron pumps. The iixin used is American and Canadian, in 
egualquantities ; steel used, American and English, in equal quantities. 
Since July 1, 1899, purchase of American iron and steel has nearly 
ceased because of the veiy high price and the time required to fill 
orders. Sales largely domestic. 

Ad establishment manufacturing agricultural implements reports: 
Number of hands, 100 to 150; manufacture mowers, reapers, rakes, 
spring harrows, disk harrows, and cultivators. Until July 1, 1899, 
most of the iron and steel used came from the United States; now, 
Canadian iron and Canadian andEnglish steel are used; cultivator points, 
disk harrow blades, and spring-harrow teeth are imported from the 
United States; all bolts and screws, Canadian; paints, oils, and var- 
nish, Canadian; all lumber, Canadian, except Georgia pine, used for 
mower poles; sales mostly domestic. 

Another agricultural firm manufactures spring-tooth cultivators, 
disk harrows, spring-tooth harrows, smoothing narrows, sectional 
seeders, and grain drills; iron and steel used, formerly largely Ameri- 
can, now iron and iron pipe, Canadian and English steel: pressed cul- 
tivator seats and chains, American; manufactures spring-harrow teeth, 
bolts and screws, Canadian; paints, oils, and varnish, Canadian; lum- 
ber, all Canadian, except some white oak and ash, American; expoiiis 
§ood9 lai^ely to all countries of Europe, to Australia, South Africa, 
outh America, and West Indies. 

The Canada Carriage Company manufactures high grade only of 
carriages, buggies, and cutters; steel, American and English in equal 
Quantities; carriage hardware, all Canadian; cloths for trimming, all 
European; leather, all Canadian; moss, American; paints and oils, 
Canadian; varnish, American; employs 200 to 250 men; output, 5,000 



NORTH AHEBIOA: DOMimON OF CANADA. 887 

carriages and buggies and 3,000 cutters; sales largely domestic, but 
rapidly increasing export trade to England, Aoatrtuia, South Africa, 
and the West Inmes. 

The Ontario Glove Works manufacture gloves and glove leather, 
Blippers, moccasins, snowsboes, and suspenders; import and wholesale 
ladies' French, Italian, Austrian, and Genuan kid gloves; also gents' 
English, French, and Austrian leather gloves; also cycle ana golf 
hosiery from England and Saxony; also lisle, suede, silk, cashmere, 
and cotton gloves from Saxony. All the cotton elastic and the sus- 
pender materials used in their own manufacturing are imported from 
the United States. All machinery is American except plain sewing 
machines, which are Canadian; employ 150 hands; sales entirely 
domestic. 

An exporter of hides and wool reports yearly sales of hides, (300,000; 
wool, $50,000; manufactures belting leather to the value of $60,000; 
7S per cent of the hides are exported to the United States, affainst 95 
per cent in foimer years. Ail the wool is sold to Canadian mills; under 
the last tariff all was exported to the United States; belting leather is 
all sold to Canadian firms; during past year he imported one carload of 
bides from Chic^o and one from Liverpool. 

UNITED STATES OOODS, 

Inquiry at the retail stores shows that the following goods are 
largely imported from the United States: In dry goods, colored cotton 
and wnite good.t, flannelettes, cheneille and tapestry curtains, notions, 
rubber gowis, and bi-ass curtain trimmings; in hardware, planes, lev- 
els, fine locks, bicycles, general hardware, whetetones, and grind- 
stones; in jewelry, neariyall thewatehes and clocks, gotd-filled goods, 
silver novelties, fountain and gold pens; in drugs, proprietary arti- 
cles, fancy and toilet articles, rubber goods, and perfumery; in boots 
and shoes, men's fine shoes, ladies' fine shoes and tine slippers, infants' 
fine shoes, velvet ^oods, and shoe findings. 

The merchants m all lines now advertise the fact that they carry 
American goods, and report that their sale is increasing. 

C. W. Mekriman, Cmimd. 

Beockville, October 30, 18$9. 



CHATHAM. 

I submit the following annual i-cport on the commerce and indus- 
tries of this consular district, as called for in Department circular of 
July 10, 1899: 

Imports and exports between the United States and Canada remain 
about the same from year to year, varying when the supply falls short 
of the demand in either country, when the price of the commodity 
reaches a figure which will admit of paying tne duty. For example, 
when edible beans are in demand in tne United States, and the price 
is high on account of a short crop or for some other reason, this dis- 
trict — being the best bean section in the Dominion— is ever ready to 
take advantage of the opening, and shipments follow. Upon these a 
fair margin is realized after the duty is paid. 

While I can not give figures, I can say that as a whole there is an 
increase in imports into this district over last year, but in groceries 



S88 OOMMEBOIAL BZLATI0N8. 



there is a falling off, particularly in the line of bottled and < 

Sods. Following tiie enactment of the preferential clauBe in the 
nadian tariff law last year, English dealers came into this district 
and replaced many articles of American manufacture with like products 
from their own plants, supplyio? the Canadian retAiler at prices 
ranging from 10 to 20 per cent below figures previously paid for 
American goods. The said preferential clause has had another effect 
in this connection. It has induced English capital to enter this field, 
and efforts are made to buy up the canning and preserving industries 
with a view to increasing the output so as to control this market and 
shut out American products, and in all probability this will be effected. 

American cotton goods, lujicultural and otner machinery, cool, 
hardware, table glassware and lamps, iron and steel, are the leading 
imports into this district. Our agricultural machinery is gaining rep- 
utation rapidly, and each year snows an increase in imports of this 
line into this district. Style, finish, and in fact everything that is 
requisite to make up a durable and salable article is to be K>und in 
American manufactures, and it is so acknowledged. Recently, a Pitts- 
burg firm furnished iron girders and other castings for two brick 
buiBings in this city and delivered the same at the depot here at a 
cost of something over 10 per cent less than the lowest (^nadian bid. 
There is no importation of cereals into this district, which embraces 
nearly the entire county of Kent. In the matter of corn, Kent County 
and tne adjoining county, Essex, produce far in excess of home con- 
sumption, and supply, in part, other sections of the Dominion where 
this cereal can not do successfiilly cultivated. 

In my report for 1898. 1 stated that the cultivation of tobacco in this 
district would be largely increased this year, but there has been a 
decrease, occasioned by a combination on the part of Canadian dealers 
to bear down the price. This forced the producers to unite, and as a 
result they sent an agent to England to seek a market. In this, they 
were successful to the extent of finding purchasers at prices consider- 
ably below those anticipated earlier in the season. In consequence of 
the low prices which prevailed for the various grades, the crop this 
year will not equal that of ISdS. 

With regard to exports from this consular district, and by way of 
comparison, I have compiled and submit the following itemized state- 
ment for the years ended June 30, 1898 and 1899, showing an increase 
for 1899 over the preceding year of *18,607.77: 



ArUclcB. 


1888. 


18R9. 


Artlclet. 


im. 


ie». 


ti.n1ui>n.1 u>r.1a iruM 




4,S64.(» 

vt.m.n 










8,312.07 

'•■SS 

7, GOG. 00 














CBtUe, calves tbeep, and 






1.S80.00 






RMutiik'Aiii^'t^ k^i: 












z:i28.« 

g.m.ffl 










SO, Tie. « 


"•^^ 




■•ffiS 






'•^^ 












1,864:80 








'•SS 








IGl, 170.31 













NOBTH ameeica; domihion op oakada. 8o» 

It will be seen that over one-haif of the total amount of export is 
covered by staves and bolt«. 

The Bupply of material for staves is fast disappearine from this sec- 
tion of Canada, and it is safe to say that at the end of five or six yeara 
the supply will be practically exhausted. Already owners of plants in 
this district are looking for suitable locatioQa in Ohio, Michigan, and 
adjjoining States. 

There is a great desire throoghout Canada for a more liberal reci- 
procity between the two countries. With existing differences satis- 
lactonly adjusted and a give-and-take policy adopted on the part of 
both countries, there is no doubt but that there would be a rapid 
increase in im^wrts into Canada from the United States. 

There has been no material change in industrial pursuits in this 
consular district during the past year. 

Chas. E. MoNTBrrH, Consul. 

CHATHAM,October ei, 1899. 



Though the returns of the United States consulate at Guelph, Canada, 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1899, show a slight decrease from 
those of 1S9S, it is directly traceable to an increase of prosperity 
throughout Canada, as home consumption has enabled the manufac- 
turers to dispose of their products in the Dominion at a good profit, 
where formerly they were willing to export them at a very Tow roargin, 
thereby keeping their factories working full time. The manufacturers 
of this district report that trade was never better, and the farmers are 
looking forward to good crops. Though the consumption of many 
articles produced in uie United States is lar^ throughout this district, 
it is dimcult to ascertain the exact amount, as in the majority of cases 
importe do not come direct, but are received by the merchants from 
jobbers and agents of American wholesale houses in the larger cities, 
such as Toronto, Montreal, and Hamilton. Pianos, organs, sewing 
machines, agricultural implements, and carrii^e hardware are the prin- 
cipiJ articles manufactured in this district, all being consumed in the 
Dominion or Great Britain. American productions entering into the 
manufacture of these articles are chiefly hard-wood veneers and fine 
steel. The major portion of the machinery used in the factories here 
is of American manufacture, and the only complaint 1 have heard 
regarding the same is that at the present time United States producers 
are so fw* behind in their home orders that it is difficult to obtain 
machinery or have repairs made, in the event of accidenj;, without 
indefinite delay. 

NEW mDUBTRIES. 

Owing to the general improvement in all lines of business during 
the past year, there have been two new industries started, i. e., a fac- 
toiT for cream separators (I understand the company is already behind 
in filling orders) and a rolling mill for the conversion of scrap iron 
into bar metal. The latter was started here about four years ago, but 
failed after a few months, and its present revival has been effected by 



' In reply to drcnlar of July 10, 1869. 



000*^ I C 



390 OOMHEBOUli KELATI0H8. 

the purchase of the plant, at about 12 cents on the dollar, by an iodi- 
vidual who ia also the proprietor of the aewing-machine factory and 
the cream-separator factory, and a large jobber in carriage hardware. 

The late spring, it waa feared, would be detrimental to agricultural 
interests in this locality, but exceptionally good weather during the 
summer has produced crops in all branches which have been unequaled 
for years; and with the exception of a few apple growers who suffered 
from caterpillar scourge (which, I belieye, was purely local) the farmer 
has nothing to complain of. 

The modes of packing, marking, and marketing produce and manu- 
factured goods are identical with those employed in the United States, 
and our commercial agents travel through the province as freely as 
they do at home. Membership in the Commercial Travelers' Associa- 
tion of Canada, costing $10 per annum, entitles them to a reductioD of 
railway fare and b^gage rates. 

It is impossible to separate the customs returns of trade with the 
United States from that with other countries, but the gross receipta 
of the Guelph Canadian customs office, computed from the monthly 
statement for the year ending June 30, 1899, compared with the pre- 
ceding year, are as followa: Customs returns for the year ended June 
30, 1899, amounted to 188,500.45; for the year ended June 30, 1898, 
¥66,819.62, an increase of $21,680.83. The number of manifesto 
receipted at the port of Guelph for the year ended June 30, 1899, waa 
$5,753; for the previous year, $i,956, an increase of $797. Number 
of entries made for the year ended June 30, 1899, $6,135, gainst 
$4,805 for the year ended June 30, 1898, showing an increase of 1^30. 
CuABLES M. Dai.t, Omavl. 

Gdblph, Au</-ust H, 1899. 



HAMILTON.' 

Owing to the number of custom-houses and the fact that their 
respective or collective districts do not correspond with the lines of 
consular districts, it would be very difficult to obtain exact figures as 
to trade with the United States, but that it is undergoing a very 
marked increase ia evident. Its extent may be inferred oy me show- 
ing at the port of Hamilton, the most important in this section of 
Ontario: 

ToUl value of exporte to the United States during the year 1S98 {350,762 

Total value of eKporta to the United Statee during six monthe ended June 

80,1899 242,013 

ToUl value of imports from the United States during the year 1898 2, 693, 6BS 

Total value of imports from the United Statee during ais months ended 

June 30, 1899 1,669,597 

HELPS AND HINDRANCES TO TBADE. 

Hamilton is a city of 52,000 people. Its 236 manufactories exhibit 
annual pay rolls aggregating $3,500,000, and an output valued at 
$15,000,000, Brantford, Gault, and Paris are prosperous manufactur- 
ing cities. The soil throughout the district is fertile, and the climate 
favorable to agriculture. The purchasing capacity of the people i£ 
large. The excellence of American goods is generally recognized, and 

'In reply to circular nt July 10, 1898. 



NOBTH AMEBICA: DOMnaON OF CANADA. 891 

no prajodice is shown against their nse. Kotwithstanding these things, 
the market is largely filled with English and European products, 
because it does not receive the constant, thorough, and inteiligent 
attention of our manufactorers and dealers, and the proportion of 
increase of exports to and imports from the United States is as 38 to 
16 during the first half of the present year. 

Commercial travelers from the States are not required to take out 
licenses to do business, and are accorded the same privileges by rail- 
roads, hotels, etc., as Canadian salesmen. There are no taxes or excise 
other than those covered by the tariff. 

Costom-houses are maintained at every considerable inland town or 
dty, and goods nuy be sent through to destination on approval, exam- 
ined by the consignee in the warehouse, and, if unsatisfactory, returned 
without payment of duty. Merchandise is not required to be labeled 
as to the country of origin and manufacture unless entitled to claim 
differential reduction of tariff. 

Duty must be paid on samples on entering, and no rebate is allowed 
on their being taken out of the country. 

Frequent complaint is made by commercial travelers that they are 
required to make the prescriljed showing for the free ent^ of 
" Returned American goods" on their samples at the United States 
custom-houses in transit to their homes. If a complete inventory 
could be certified to by the collector at the port of export and com- 
pared with the goods presented at the port of reentry, tney claim that 
the revenue comd be properly protected and time and expense saved 
them. 

The regulations found necessary to safeguard the revenue in admit- 
ting "Keturned American goods'' across the border unquestionably 
operate in restraint of American trade and in vexatious deutya and em- 
Ixirrassments, caused chiefly by lack of proper information as to the 
customs requirements. Manunicturers seeking to obtain and hold this 
market should take care that purchasers and users of their machinery 
and merchandise are informed as to all requirement* at the time of 
purchase. The excellence of American machinery is fully recognized 
here, and much of it is used which requires to be sent back to the 
manufacturer at times for repairs. As these repairs provide labor for 
American workmen, and further sales depend upon the constant avail- 
ability of the machines, it would seem wise to embarrass the purchaser 
as little as possible ; but irritating and costly delays at the border have 
begotten a prejudice against "buying on the other side of the custom- 
house" that is injurious. During the present summer. United States 
machines have been replaced by Canadian, of admitted inferiority, 
because of troublesome and expensive delays in obtaining repairs. 

mON AND STEEL. 

There is in the ci^ of Hamilton a blast furnace for the manufacture 
of iron. It is a new industry, about three years old. The Dominion 
government pavs a bounty of $3 a ton for iron if manufactured 
entirely from Canadian ore, but if the native ore is mixed with ore 
imported from the United States only J2 per ton is paid. The Ontario 
government appropriates 825,000 a year to be paid as a subsidy to 
Canadian miners, to encourage the development of Canadian ore. The 
output of the Hamilton furnace is about 1,000 tons a week, and tm 
average of 150 men are steadily employed seven days in the week. 



892 OOUMEROIAL BELA.TIONB. 

Very littJe American iron has been used in the foondries or rolling 
mills of HamiltOD since the hl&at furnace was established. 

A steel mill is to be connected with the blast furnace as soon as the 
buildings now being erected are completed. The company will then 
manufacture steel pmtes for the building of steamboats and Teasels for 
the lake-carrying trade. In order to further develop the iron and 
steel industry, the government has made an appropriation for deepen- 
ing the canal, so that vessels of deeper draft can enter the Hamilton 
Bay from Lake Ontario. 

The rolling milla in this city have become a part of the blast furnace 
company. 

bdildbbb' habdwabb. 

Builders' hardware from the United States is extensively sold in this 
city, although several laz^e firms manufacture that class of goods. 
One of the most important firms reports that notwithstanding the duty 
required on imports under the Canadian tariff, it can make a better 
profit on American goods and sell them lower than Canadian manufac- 
tures. The dealers have a better chance with our goods in competing 
for contracts with builders, and the quality and finish stand favorable 
comparison with those of Canadian or other foreign manufacture. 
There is a profitable field for further introduction of builders' hardware 
into this district. 

American saws control the market in this city, although there are 
two large factories within a short distance, one being located at Gait, 
in this consular district. The saw factories are owned by American 
capital and are doing a profitable business, the Canadian tariff afford- 
ing fair protection against foreign competition. 

The edge tools and cutlery sola here are principally of English and 
German make; but there is no reason why American manufacturers 
should not compete for the cutlery trade with the Germans, as the 
Canadian tariflf is the same on imports from both countries. 

United States rifies and sportsmen's goods have the preference with 
both dealers and customers and control the principal trade in those 
lines. 

BOOTS AND SHOES. 

United States boots and shoes, especially those for women and chil- 
dren, seem to bepreferred in this city by those who want to wear up- 
to-date styles. The principal dealers sav they are the bestsellers. The 
class of goods in demand here is not the highest priced sold in American 
cities, for the added duty increases the cost, let they must be well 
finished and of the newest cut This field is not cultivated as closely 
as it might be by our manufacturers, for I find that the annual sale of 
American boots and shoes in this city is only about (30,000, and this 
is mainly done by the two principal retail dealers. 

For the year ended June 30, 1898, the Dominion of Canada imported 
boots and shoes to the value of 1378,453, of which ^57,842 came from 
the United States. 

DBT SOOD8 Aia> HILLmEBT. 

This part of Canada Is evidently a market that might be cultivated 
with profit for certain lines of American goods. The dress-print 
trade is not pushed with the vigor that it ou^t to be, and as a result 



NOBTH AHERIOA; DOmmoH Olf CANADA. 898 

is largely lost to our manofactureni. The FreBch seem to have this 
traffic and their a^nte work ,it diligently. An old dry gooda man 
informs me th&t with well-directed effort on the part of American 
manufacturers, a fair share of the print trade could be secured. He 
gives as reasons for his belief: First, the French prints are higlier 
priced, and the marfrin of profit is smaller for the retail dealer. 
Second, except in fineness of cotton cloth the American printa are in 
general make-up, colore, diversity of patterns, etc. , equal to the 
French goods. The fineness of the thread, the dry goods man thinks, 
is more uian offset by the difference in price. The main point in favor 
of the'American prints is the increased profit to the retail dealer. 
As the duty is the same from the two counmes, the advantage in trans- 
portation ought to be on the side of the United States manufacturer. 



Only about 10 per cent of the drv goods sold in Hamilton are 
mported from t^e United States. Tne large retail dealers visit the 
European markets once or twice a year, whue the smaller ones buy 



from the wholesale houses or from agents of European exporters. 
The new preferential tariff allows a rebate of one-fourth in favor of 
English manufacturers, and this has given advantage to their trade. 
Added to this is the loniger system of credits. 

In the line of underwear for men, women, and children, too, cus- 
tomers have a preference for the AJnerican make, because, for the 
price, the goods are best adapted to their wants. 

The leamng dry goods bouses in this city do the principal millinery 
business. They send their head saleswomen and tnmmers to the New 
York openings to study the latest fashions and then come home and 
buy their stock from t^e Canadian wholesale dealers. One cause for 
this is that importers and jobbers in the New York market will not sell 
to Canadian retailers in quantities to suit their trade, preferring to sell 
in job lots to the Canadian wholesaler. As a result, most of uie mil- 
linery goods come from foreign markets. A profitable trade in millin- 
ery goods and novelties, and especially in the line of felt goods, awaits 
the enterprising American dealer. 

Jas. M. Shepabd, Ccmsul. 

TlAMiuroSyOctober 18, 1899. 



KINGSTON. 

The imports at the port of Kingston for the year ended June 30, 
1899, were $1,234,310, of which ^2,150 was from the United States. 
For the samej)eriod ttie total exports were $228,337, of which $165,245 
went to the United States. 

Hie excess of imports for the year 1899 over the year 1898 was 
$26,162, the United States furnishing only $7,908 of this amount. This 
small excess of imports from the United States furnishes the first 
evidence that I have seen that the preferential tariff has given any satis- 
iactorj result to Canadians. 

June 30, 1898, found the industries of Kingston depressed, w^es 
reduced, hands discharged, and business generally contracted, with a 
gloomy outlook for the future. June 30, 1899, finds all changed for 
the better. Some industries have increased the number of their 
employees, all have raised wages, and the prospects are bright. 

The FrontenoA Milling Company is the ooly new industry com- 



894 COHKSBOIAI. BBLATI0K8. 

menced during the past year in Kingston. The machinery was 'all 
imported from the United States. To all appearances the company is 
prosperous, grinding a daily average of 150 oarrels of com meal and 
130 barrels of flour. 

I have never seen agricultural conditions in the district better. The 
crops are above the aver^^, and the prices of farm products are 
unusually high. 

Mining and prospecting for mines in this district are attracting gen- 
eml attention, and have a fair prospect of being profiteble. 

The Boerth Mining Company has spent a good deal of money in 
opening up a gold mine near Plevna, 20 miles trom the Kingston and 
Pembroke RaUroad. It now has a 10-stamp mill at work, and claims 
to be getting out $17 worth of gold per hour. Two iron mines are 
beii^ worked. There is no question that the mica mines are profit- 
able. Seven are being worked in this district. The entire output is 
controlled by Webster & Co., an American firm, which concentrates 
the products of all the mines at Ottawa for shipment. 

For fifty years, the transshipment of grain has been one of the 
important industries at this port, its exbitence being dependent upon 
the cheap water rates. 

This season, the great demand for vessels to supply the furnaces 
of the United States with iron ore has almost destroyed the grain 
transshipment at Kingston. 

The cost of lake transpoi-tation is nearly three times what it was 
last year, and the gi-ain from the Northwest is now going to the 
seaboard by rail. 

For some time, tonnage dues have been collected from American ves- 
sels at Kingston. I have learned that vessel owners or their repre- 
sentatives have at times complained to the collector, but it was not 
until August 7 that the captain of the I^time reported at the con- 
sulate and a»ked if the imposition was correct, upon which the matter 
was promptly reported to the Department of State, and 1 understand 
has now been corrected. I sincerely regret that the owners and cap- 
tains of vessels failed to report at the consulate earlier, so that the 
correction might have been made. 

M. H. TwiTcaiELL, Consvl. 

Kdjgstok, SepienAer £5, 1899. 



LONDON. 

One can not but note the great industrial activity of Canada at the 
present time. The factories are running full blast; labor is wholly 
employed at a general increase of wages over the previous year; the 
foreign demand for Canadian products is rapidly increasing, while the 
railroads complain that they are unable to handle the largely augmented 
freight traffic. 

I nave made careful inquiry among all classes of business men, the 
manufacturer, the wholesale dealer and the retail dealer, and in many 
instances have been furnished the figures of their output for the year 
ended June 30, 1899, as compared with the year preceding; and the 
average rate of increase runs from 25 to 50 per cent. Canada is look- 



NOBTE AHBSIOA: DOKimON OK CANADA. S95 

ing more and more to the English market, and its requirements are 
studied. The English buyer is on the ground superintending not onlv 
the output of the farms and factories, but providing increased facili- 
ties for transportation in the way of more rapid transit and cold storage. 

NEED OF RECIPBOCITY WITH THE UNITED STATES, 

As I become better acquainted with the situation here, I am con- 
vinced that freer trade relations with Canada should exist. She is one 
of our best customers, even with the present restrictions to trade. 
But wiU she continue to be our best customer^ When her trade with 
Great Britain is once thoroughly established, will it not be too late for 
the United States to regain what she has lost? 

The Dominion naturally prefers to trade with us; our markets are 
nearer to her than the martets of Great Britain. What have we to 
fear as a result of freer relations! Since her competition pertains 
only to natural products, should we not be willing to take her natural 

f>roduets and supply her in turn with the products of our factories! 
f we look to the expansion of our fore^ trade, these are questions 
of vital importance. 

Canada's fuei, supply. 

The great drawback to the development of manufacturing in this 
country is the lack of fuel. When it is considered that there are no 
coal measures from New Brunswick to the Province of Manitoba, and 
that nearly ail the vast country between is dependent upon the United 
States for coal, it will be reamly seen under what a disadvant^^ the 
manufacturers of this country labor. In fact, the scarcity of coal 
measnres extends farther than to Manitoba; it extends to British 
Columbia, for the mines in Manitoba and the Northwest Territories 
are limited in their production. The coal fields of Canada which are 
developed are, first, those of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, with 
an output in 1897 of 2,500,000 tons; second, those of British Columbia, 
with an output in 1897 of about 1,000,000 tons; third, those of the 
Kocky Mountain district and the Northwest Territories, with an output 
of about 21^5,868 tons in 1896. Canada imported for home consump- 
tion in 1897 about 1,500,000 tons of anthracite and the same quantitv 
of bituminous coal, besides 83,S30 tons of coke, nearly all of whicn 
came from the LTnited States. 

The present high price of coal, anthracite or bituminous— -$6 per ton — 
is forcing the people to look for a cheaper fuel, especially for domestic 
purposes; and they are considering the development and use of peat. 
In uiis connection, I quote from a local paper a description of the 
article and of its value as a fuel. 

Peat is eaaily prepared for domeatjc purposes. Lying at the surface, no expensive 
prospecUiiR, deep shaftjng, or other underBTound work is necewar)'. Cut by hand 
with a pest spade, called a "elane," into blockitlike la:^ bricks, it ie air dned and 

' ' " n be eaaily excavated by a "■ ' 

ipreesing machinerjr has b< 

It bums readil)^ but slowly, like coal, giving oK but little flame, and when well 
kindled no appreciable smoke, but h faint and rather ajcreeable odor. Its value as a 
fuel is quite nigh, ranking midway between dry hard wihxI and good soft coal. Peat 
^vea off about 30 percent more heat than dry wood. Fortunately for Ontario she has 

_nOt>^IC 



8»(> 0010CEBOI&L BBLATI0N8. 

vast atoree of peat A peat deposit is now being worked near Btmtford, and at Hyde 
Park, a Buburb of the city of London, a peat bed exjsia which is said to be the most 
ezteueive known. Ua depoBts vary from 7 to 60 feet, and the quality is very good. 
Pud can be Ifud down in tne city from this bed at a minimnm of cost, and it is hoped 
tliat the indostry will speedily be developed. 

CANADIAN MONBT. 

The people of the United States, aa a ^neral thing, hesitate in 
accepting Canadiaa money, not knowing its security or upon what 
basis it is issued; while the fact is, Canadian money is as good and as 
safe as any money in the world. 

The silver money is issued in denominations of 6, 10, 25, and 50 
cents, and intrinsically the coins are of more value than similar ones in 
the United States, since they contain more silver. The paper money 
issued by the Domiaioa Government in denominations of fl, |2, and 
$4 is secured by actual gold and silver deposited in the treasury, 
while the Canadian bank bills or notes are safe by reason of the enor- 
mous capital represented by each institution, ao bank in Canada can 
be chartered which has not a capital of at least ^OO.OUO. Forinstance, 
the Bank of Montreal has a paid-up capital in gold of 912,000,000 and 
a gold surplus of ^,000,000, and uie Merchants' Bank of Canada has 
a paid-up capital of about $6,000,000 and a surplus of $3,000,000. 

The banking system of Canada is one which can easily adapt iteelf 
to tiie demands of business. There are about forty banking institutioos 
io the Dominion, and these forty institutions have at least five hundred 
branches. The parent institution is of course larj^e, and represents 
an immense capital. It can always come to the support of one of its 
branches; the branch is therefore not dependent upon the uncertain 
fortunes of its locality. 

AQBICDLTUKAI. AND INDU8TBIAL EXHIBITIONS. 

I was astonished, while at the Industrial Exhibition at Toronto, and 
the Great Western Fair here at London, to note the lack of United 
States exhibits. They were comparatively few at Toronto and were 
represented by but a bare half dozen at the Western Fair. It should 
be understood that the people of Canada delight in their annual 
fall exhibitions, from the township, county, and district fairs to the 
Western Fair and Toronto Exhibition. They take especial interest in 
the two latter, and they are great exhibitions, usually held for a 

?eriod of ten days and attracting people from all over tne Dominion, 
hey equal in every way our largest State fairs, the daily attendance 
running as high as 75,000 at Toronto and 60,000 at tne Western. 
The question may well be asked, Why do not the merchants and manu- 
facturers of the United States, interested in Canadian trade, take 
advantege of tiiese two exhibitions to display their wares? Many 
lines of American goods could be successfully introduced inte Canada, 
provided the people here were made acquainted with their excellent 
qualities through inspection and observation. Dealers here do not 
care to risk putting on the market an uninspected or untried article, 
and although Can^a is but next door to me United States, here, as 
well as in other foreign countries, we should exhibit our products 
more widely, and no better opportunity could be afforded for the 
Province of Ontario than the two fairs mentioned. 



HOETH AMEBIC a; DOMUnOlf OF CANADA. 897 

SUHHABT OF IHFOKTS AND EXFOBT8. 

. The following table shows the total imports into the Dominion of 
Canada for the year 1897: 

Foods and dmke f20,870,965 Manufaeturee *48,827,377 

Met&ls 2,280,105 AnimalB 398,189 

Chemicak, dye Btofis, etc. .. 3, 389, 318 Hiscellaceoua 11, 271, 761 

OilB 1,483,656 

Bawmateriab 22,772,661 Total U1,2M,02I 

Of the above amount the United States eent; Dutiable gfoods, 
139,534,792; free, $31,231,624; total, 170,766,316. 

The British Empire sent: Dutiable goods, 121,276,514; free, 
$10,286,341; total, $31,662,855. 

There was exported from the Dominion of Canada in 1897 to the 
United States goods to the amount of $43,991,485; to Great Britain, 
$69,533,852. 

LOCAL TEADE. 

The following, as furnished me by the collector of customs at this 
port, shows the exports and imports for the year ended June 30, 1899, 
and a comparison with the exports and imports for the year ended 
June 30, 1898: 

Tbtdl inyaortt for the year ended June 30, 1898. 
Quarter ended — 

September 30. 1897 $817,079 

December 31, 1897 642,627 

March 31, 1898 966,091 

Jtme30,1898 ■- 710,043 



Total 3,136,840 

This shows an increase over the preceding year of 30i per cent. 

TOUd impoTtt for the year ended June SO, 1899. 
Qnarter ended — 

September 30, 1898 11,021,209 

December 31, 1898 779,239 

March 31, 1899 1,091,625 

Jnne30,188e 991,782 



Total 3,883,806 

His shows an increase over the preceding year of about 35 per cent 

7\)kU import* from the Vmkd StStee for the year ended June SO, 1898. 

Quarts ended^ 

September 30, 1897 ?S76,307 

December 31, 1897 866,762 

March 31, 1898 629,219 

June 30,1898 632,646 

Total 1,804,923 

These figures indicate an increase over the preceding year of $415,607, 
or 30 per cent 



byGoO'^lc 



OOHMEBCIAL BBLATIONS. 

lital inqxtrtt from the UnUed StaUt for the year ended JwuSO, 1S99. 

ended— 

September 30, 1898 (488, 210 

December 31, 1898 464,685 

March 31, 1899 639,954 

June 30, 1899 702,714 

Total 2,286,463 

The above shows an iocrease over the preceding year of ^480,540, or 
about 30 per cent. 

Zbtoi expoTla to the VmUd State*, aa *hown by contular reccrdt of Ae disfrid, ^ the year 
ended June SO, 1898. 

Quarter ended — 

September 30, 1897 $68,189.49 

December 31, 1897 71,524.00 

March 31, 1898 ' 46,464.05 

June30, 1898 97,582.75 

Total 283,751.29 

The above represents a decrease from preceding year of 9162,328.32, 
or 86 per cent. 

Total aporle from lAit consular dielrui, as thovm by canmlar rtcorde, for Ihe year ended 
June SO, 1S99. 

Quarter ended— 

September 30, 1898 $96,072.09 

December 31, 1898 : 64,078.02 

March 31, 1899 65,956.75 

June 30, 1899 84,144.52 

Total 309,251.38 

This shows an increase over the preceding year of 125,500.09, or 
about 10 per cent. 

Henry S. Culveb, Conavl. 
London, Octc^er 23, 1899. 



HOBRISBtTBG. 

In reply to circular of the State Department of July 10, 1899, 1 
would state that this distiict has always been regarded as embracing 
the towns of Morrisburg, containiDg about 2,400 inbabitante; Maria- 
town, population about 500; Iroquois, population 1,200; Aultaville, 
population 1,500; Wales, population 1,200; Friars Point, population 
about 500; Milleroches, population about 800 (where a large stone 
quarry is located); Cornwall, with its two adjoining towns, 12,000: 
Summertown, 300 or 400; Lancaster, about 600; also Bainsville and 
the counties of Dundas, Stormont, and Glengarry, which embraces 
South Mountain, Chesterville, and Winchester, and other small ham- 
lets. All towns over 6,000 are called cities; between 3,000 and 6,000, 
towns; between 1,000 and 3,000, villages, and under 1,000, hamlets. 

JVlorrisburg is well laid out, and the residences are handsome. Rents 
and living are cheap. There are two newspapers, a public library, a 
reeve, and four councilmen. The stores are filled with the best the 
market affords. At one time there was shipped from this point 
$190,000 worth of eggs alone. Now, not an egg is exported from this 



NORTH AMEBIC a: DOMINION OF CANADA. 399 

district. Hie chief exports are raw hides, muttoa, lambs, beef, and 
poultry. 

The only new railroad that has come into operation in this district 
is the line from Ottawa to New York. This is in running condition 
to Cornwall. Had it not been for the accident on the New York 
side (the pier giving way and causing the death of 30 workmen) it 
would have been open to New York ov the Ist of June, 1898. It is 
now believed that the road will be in full operation between the two 
points in the next four months. The cause of the sinking of the pier 
was that the engineers did not dig sufficiently deep. They imagined 
a very hard crust to be the bottom, whereas it was only 5 or 6 feet in 
thickness and beneath it was a deep layer of soft earth before the solid 
rock was reached. To prevent such accidents they have now built a 
cofferdam on the bottom after test, and, the weather being propitious, 
have handled the work with great rapidity. 

The time by this road will oe from one to one and one-half hours 
shorter than the Montreal route. The road will form an important 
&ctor in the lumber trade been the United States and Ottawa district, 
the headquarters of the lumber trade of Canada. 

Another important achievement has been the deepening and widen- 
ing of the canals within the tiiree counties of this aistrict (Stormont. 
Dundas, and Glengarry). The work has been pushed rapidly and will 
in all probability be completed this summer, so that with the opening 
of navigation next spring, there will be a channel of from 14 to 18 feet 
from the sea to the Great Lakct^ by the St. Lawrence route. This 
must have an important influence on the grain trade with the States. 
The principal industry of thi» district is that of dairying, which has 
been more fl.ourishing than ever before, though the prices are much 
higher. Nearly all of these exports — ^90 per cent — go to England. 

Exports in all lines to the United States have greatly fallen off. The 
principal imports from the United States consist of raw cotton, fruits 
from the South, tobacco, ci^rs, carpets, and material for manufactur- 
ing cotton goods, and especially of agricultural implements. A lai^ 
quantity ol the latter is imported from Chicago. The official reports 
of trade for the first six months of this year are not yet published, but 
I have obtained the statistics of trade at Morrisburg for the year ended 
the 30th of June last from the collector of customs here: 

Imports (dutiable) from the United States 126,907 

FreegooOB 20,0^ 

Tot*l : 45,968 

From Cornwall the statement is anything but full. Exports to United 
Stat«s were $9,943. Imports from Great Britain were |2,523; exports 
to Great Britain, $5,663. 

Cornwall is steadily growing; there are good streets, a fine car serv- 
ice, three lai^ woolen mills, one huge paper mill, one pottery, two 
or three rolling mills, all kinds of lights, two nospitals, and good hotels; 
in short, it is a thriving city. It has daily connection by boat with 
Montreal and by train with Ottawa, Masbina Springs, and Stanly 
Islands. However, there is less wealth than in Morrisburg. Morns- 
burg has the advantage that the river is open all the year, the current 
being so swift that ice can not form. 

The preference of 25 per cent in the tariff in favor of Great Britain 
was expected to increase the imports from that country, but it does 
not seem to have had much efl'ect as yet. The raw materials for mauu- 



400 COHKSBOIAL BBLATIOHS. 

tactanug must come from the United States, and in certain lines of 
manufacture, such as agricultural implements, carriages, boots and 
shoes, matches, clocks, improved brass machinery, etc., the United 
States will be sure to retain the preeminence, as the British articles are 
not so well made or adapted to this country. 

The country around Morrisbui^ produces more than the people can 
sell, and produces what the people in St. Lawrence Counts want, viz, 
horses, milch cows, hc^, poultry, eggs, etc. They ship all this prod- 
uce to England. 

The county of Dundas is one of the best producing counties in this 
Dominion, and the farmer has been more than successful this year, 
exceptingin the fruitcrop, which has fallen behind more thanone-tnird. 
The towns, cities, villages, and even hamlets are adopting the American 
idea and olfering inducements to all kinds of manufacturers to estab- 
lish within their limits. Thev generally make an offer of ground and 
from $20,000 to $50,000 casn. Morrisburg is now negotiating with 
plow and agricultural works. The council of Morrisburg has, within 
the last thirty days, purchased the gravel road exteodiog to Win- 
chester, 18 miles, for $4,000. 

John E. Hamilton, 

GoTnTiiercial Agent. 

MoBSiBBCBQ, November 1, 1899. 



SUPPLEMENTARY. 

From ten to twelve commercial travelers visit this place daily. All 
the hotels have large sample rooms, and they are seldom empty. They 
unload their trun^ and display goods to merchants of this and smaller 
towns. These commercial travelers have often said to me: "Why 
don't Americans come in and compete? Your cotton goods, brass 
fixtures, carpets, etc., bicycles, line of drugs, boots and shoes, and 
a great many other articles far surpass ours, and any of us would be 
glad to handle your goods.'* I feel confident that a good live man 
would obtain a large number of orders for agricultural and mechanical 
articles. I was recently requested by an iron firm to get a piece 
of machinery which they said could not be bought in Canf^ and if in 
stock would cost about $8.40 per dozen. I purchased what these par- 
ties wanted at $4.80. A bid on some brass finishing was made by a 
firm here, and a Toledo firm wanted so much, delivered at their store in 
Toronto. I happened to bo present with a Boston catalogue, and the 
firm got the brass finishing from the Boston house, delivered at their 
store in Morrisburg, at less than 25 per cent of the Toledo bid. T!ha 
article was in every respect better and more highly finished. 

John E. Hakilton, 

GomTTiarcial Agent. 

MoBiusBUBO, Nhvember S, 1899. 



POBT HOPE. 

The changes in this consular district during the year ended June 80, 
1899, have neen very slight The wave of prosperity existing in the 
United States, less than oO miles to the south, is cot m evidence here. 



NOBTH AMERICA: DOUNION OF CANADA. 401 

Minor improTements in dwellings and places of business have been 
general, wnicb may be the advance movement for more extensive work 
next year. Numerous projects have collapsed. The electric street 
railway in the city of Peterboro has been forced to suspend opei-ations 
for lack of patron^e. In fact, all through this district the lai^r 
towns are at most "holding their own." 

The farming lands are generally fine, and the farmers seem to be a 
prosperous people. Neat dwelling houses and numerous large barns 
are seen in all directions, but the tendency seems to be for the old folks, 
after accumulating a competency, to buy a comfortable home in the 
larger towns and locate there as '* retired farmers," the sons or daugh- 
ters remaining on the farm. This class of people make additions to a 
town in numbers only. The frugality learned and practiced on ihe 
farm still exists, the hard-earned dollars are deposited in the banks, 
drawing but 3 per cent interest, and it is only in very rare instances 
that this money goes to bolster up an existing industry or to assist a new 
one in locating. In this town, consisting of about 5,000 inhabitants, Uie 
three banking institutions have on deposit more than $2,000,000, con- 
siderably more than one-half being credited to these tillers of the soil, 

STEAHEB L1NE8. 

In former reports, allusion has been made to Canadian steamer lines, 
and there is here a strong ai^ument for the establishment of American 
shipping. The two regular lines touching here are the Richelieu and 
Ontario and the Bay of Quinte navigation companies. This season the 
former company has clianged from a daily line, along the north shore 
of Lake Ontario, to a tn-weekly, placing its steamer 77(,; Oiti/ of 
Toronto on a new line, touching at Charlotte, N. Y., the port of Bfocfl- 
ester, each way on her trips between Toronto and the Bt. Lawrence 
River. By doing this it has captured an immense American travel. 

The other line, between Charlotte and the Canadian towns, Port 
Hope and Cobourg, is daily, and a round- trip excursion ticket is sold 
from the American side for $1. This induces thousands to make the 
trip, most of them stopping at Cobourg, where they have two hours 
between ^x^&ts, and naturally pay out more or less cash. To get to the 
American side costs $2, and to remain over till the next boat $1.50 
more, the result being that while American money is liberally paid out 
in Canada, no Canadian money replaces it. Canadian boats, having a 
monopoly of the business, are run in the interest of Canadian and 
against American towns. This would not be the case if American 
boats were placed on these lines. There are thousands of dollars in 
this vicinity that would be transferred to Rochester and other places, 
if an opportunity were given the people to get there. For two years, 
not an American vrasel has touched at this port. 

SnUHEB VISITORS. 

Summer visitors from the United States to this section are increas- 
ing each year. Many are buying house lots, on which they will build, 
Hiese are about the only parties putting up houses in the district. 
H. Doc 481, Pt 1 26 



Digitiz 



byGoo'^lc 



OOHHBBOIAX BEXAHONB. 



A compaTiaon of total imports ior the fiscal years of 1898 and 1899, 
furnisbea by the collector ot customs at this port, shows a large falling 
off in the latter Tear, chiefly in cordage, coal, and coal oil. Wliy the 
two latter shoula show a loss the collector is unable to explain, though 
he says the importation of coal oil be«in to diminish immediately 
after the Stand^d Oil Company of the United States purchased the 
Canadian oil fields. The loss on cordage is owing to removal of the 
factory. 

The goods imported free of duty are in most cases from the United 
States, while two-thirds of the dutiable articles are from Great Britun, 
consisting mostly of dry goods. 

The following shows tne imports, by quarters, for the years men- 
tioned above: 



Qu«rter«idli«- 


Duttoble. 


Dutj-. 


r^. 




1)1.081 
8,781 
11,901 


1 






















«.«a 


l^2l4 


111,3S4 








II 
















88,65* 


10,020 










6.W> 


(,194 


M,m 





Poet Hope, Octob^ SO, 1899. 



Habet p. Dill, 

Commereial Agerd. 



ST. THOMAS.' 

As stated in my last report on commerce and industries^ this district, 
with a population of about 180,000, is practically an agricultural one, 
there being vei^ little manufacturing of any character. 

The exports from the district to the United States comprise princi- 

gilly animals, staves, bran, cattle, and household goods. To Great 
ritain, animals and animal products, fiour, and wheat are sent. 

BZPOBTS. 

The exports to the United Stotes, as per records of this consulate, 
for the calendar year 1898 and the first six months of 1899 were: 

Year ended December 31, 1898 $286,971.66 

For the six months of 1899 ended June 30 lOS, 922. 32 

From Courtright ^ency, same periods: 

Year ended December 31, 1898 $29,402.32 

For ttie ax monthe of 1899 ended June SO 4,680.14 

> In repljr to ciraolar of July 10, 1899, (^noolr 



NOBTB auebioa: dohihion of oanada. 408 

The value of exports to Great Britain and other countries for the 
same periods, according to unclasailied information furnished by tiie 
collector of customs for the diataict, was: 



Period. 


Great Briuln. 


other coun- 
Sl&t«e. 




■sss 






K.3t» 





The value of imports, unclassified, into this district for the jear 1898 
and the first six months of 1899, as furnished by the collector of cus- 
toms for this district, were: 



™. 


DnJted SUlM. 


a«.t 

Britain. 


other 


Dattoble. 


Free. 




Qmner ended— 


IS 


•44,584 


tl4.«6 














l:Si 






290,803 


19S,8S4 


SS.4M 


18,777 




For >ii month*- 


uo,<nt 


108; M2 


8,27B 


e,SM 










171,131 


l«4,e66 


a,m 






' 



As evident from the above fignres, while the exports from this dis- 
trict to Great Britain were considerably more than double the value 
of those to the United States, the dutiable imports from the United 
States were nearly ten times as lai^e as those from Great Britain, in 
spite of the preferential tariff on imports from the latter — a note- 
worthy showing for our exports. 

UNITED ffTATEfi TRADE. 

American goods are holding their own in this district, and in some 
lines are steadily gaining in favor. For instance, shoes, Jine cutlery, 
bicycles, cotton goods, ginghams and prints, millinery, laces, cloal^, 
capes and JEickets, hate and caps, ready-made men aqd boys' clothing, 
glassware, chinaware and crockery, graaito ware, kitehen notions, 
soaps, toilet articles, perfumes, extracts of beef and canned goods in 
general, fine bric-a-brac, wall paper, moldings, carpets, matting, fine 
furniture, iron bedst^ids, sewing machines, oils, pamts, varnish, agri- 
cultural implements, and machinery. 

A modification of the present Canadian tariff would give a great 
impetus to exports from the United StAtes to this country. On the 
other hand, it is asserted by many producers that our tariff, particu- 
larly on animals, poultry, and other ^ricuitural products, bars them, 
to a largo extent, from our markets. There is consequently a strong 
sentiment for a revision of the tariff on a basis of reciproci^. 



D.gitizecbyG00glc 



404 OOHHBBOIAI. RICLATIONB. 

■ ECONOMIC CONDITIONS. 

Aside from agricultural pursuits, there is little inducement for immi- 
gration to this district other ttian that offered by the railroad serrice. 
Iq fact, the great majority of young men after graduating from college 
find it necessary to emigrate to tbeUnited States in order to get a start 
in life for themselves. The professions here are already glutted with 
practitioners, and in the absence of other vocations, such as are to be 
found m the diversified industries in the United States, not only do 
graduates in law, medicine, surgery, dentistry, and engineering quickly 
migrate to that country, but it is a noteworthy fact that the great 
majority of skilled mechanics who immigrate from European countries 
into Ginada^ as well as native-born artisans, soon seek the wider and 
more lucrative fields to be found across the border. It is true that 
there are millions of acres of rich agricultural land in Ontario and 
other provinces waiting preemption and settlement, but the effort 
involved in reducing the primeval forest to cultivable land does not 
appeal strongly to the average young Canadian, freshly graduated 
from the really excellent schools and colleges. Canaoa nas been 
steadily losing to the United States the very flower of her young men 
and women, and she is placed in the somewhat anomalous position 
of drumminz up colonizmg recruits, such as the Uoukhobors, who, 
although a fliritty pastoral people, neither speak nor write the Eng- 
lish langu^e. 

DEVELOPHGNT OP ONTARIO. 

In this connection, I deem it proper to mention that the Ontario Gov- 
ernment has just been reorganized and has announced a decidedly pro- 
gressive policy for the development of the latent resources of the 
province. Of the 140,000,000 acres of land in Ontario, but 12,000,000 
are under cultivation. Premier George W. Ross states that there are 
1,000,000 Canadians in the United States. Of these, the greater num- 
ber came from Ontario. The people of Ontario, he says, owe it to 
themselves to make reasonable provision for the settlement of their 
sons within their own province. There is lying north of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway, up toward Hudson Bay, 100,000,000 acres of land 
that have not been surveyed or explored. A survey is to be made 
with a view to opening up this country, which beyond question pos- 
sesses great* timoer wealth, and it is believed minerals also will be 
found tiiere. It is proposed to build colonization roads into this coun- 
try, and extensive land grants to railways are advocated. Three mil- 
lion acres of swamp lan^ are to be reclaimed by drainage, converting 
them into the best meadow lands in the province. 

Maintaining that the broad foundation of the wealth of this country 
resides in its loamy farms and its skilled agriculturists, the premier 
proposes increased expenditures by the department of agriculture for 
the educational work carried on through farmers' institutes, county 
fairs, dairy schools, and agricultural colleges. The efficacy of sucn 
methods employed in Belgium, Denmark, and other countries of 
Europe is cited in support of the wisdom of this policy which has, to 
a limited extent, prevailed in Onlario during the past few years, and 
the results of which have been gratifying. For example, in the two 
items of butter and cheese alone, the exports have greatly increased 
daring the past decade. 

i:Qi,.r::::G00'^lc 



NOBTH AVBBIOA: DOHIHIOK of CANADA. 



11.2G8.TS7 
196.TtB.72S 

It is clBimed that the exports of cheese from Canads to Great Britain 
last year were four times greater than were those from the Uoited 
States, and that the gain is attributable to the greater skill of the 
Canadian in producing a Huperior article, free from adulteration. 

Cold-storage stations, such as are in use in Australia for the collec- 
tion and storage of agricultural produce, are also projected by tie 
Government At cerUin seasons poultry, butter, fruit, etc., are a 
glut on the market, and as a consequence are sold at half their value. 
By the cold-storage process, these product* could be held for an indefi- 
nite period and marketed at a profit. Id like manner, the chilled- 
meat trade is to receive the thoughtful consideration of the govem- 
meat To illustrate the growth and magnitude of this traae from 
other colonies, in 1880 the exports of chilled mutton from Australia to 
Great Britain were 400 carcasses; in 1897, 1,394,500 carcasses were 
shipped from Australia,. 2,696,000 carcasses from New Zealand, and 
2,680,000 carcasses from the Argentine Republic. An aggregate of 
6,770,500 carcasses of mutton by cold storage were shipped via the 
Suez Canal and the heated Mediterranean and landed in Liverpool and 
London in perfect preservation. There were also 77,000,000 pounds 
of fresh beef sent in the same way. Canada has enormous resources 
capable of development in this trade, and the Ontario government 
purposes taking the initiative in the matter. The government will 
also undertake to bring about a reduction of freight rates on agricul- 
tural produce, as well as the establishment of fast express trains to the 
seaboard, to connect with efficient cold-storage service to the English 
Biarkets. 

Lost year, England bought in Canada but $62,126,066, or 7^ per 
cent, of the $855,987,300 of imports from all countries. The other 92i 
per cent she bought in the United States and elsewhere. 

Native industnes are to be encouraged. The policy of the gov- 
ernment is to require all logs cut on government lands to be manu- 
factured into lumber in the province; an order in council has been 
passed, imposing an export duty on nickel ore and nickel matte. The 
establishment of more woolen mills, flour mills, and the manufacture 
of nickel, copper, and iron ore into the finished article are means sug- 
gested foi the employment of a leige portion of the people of the 
province. Of those who have emigrated to the United States, Mr. 
Ross, said recently: 

They left Ontario, not bectuise the; disliked the government or the country, bat 
becaose tbey conld get better employment or better wages in the United Statea. 
We want to remedv thb. We want to take all our lumter, copper, nickel, all oar 
mineral wealth, ana all our raw material and see if we can not in some nay or other 
encourage Uie manufacturing induetriee in the Province of Ontario. What has built 
, Hancheeter, Leeds? Was it not the merchant mariDe of England 



Continuing, Mr. Boas said Canada surely had intelligence enough to 
convert her own raw material into the fioished article. 



406 OOHHEBOIIL BELATI0N8. 

To sum it up briefly, the government is determined to inaugurate a 
vigorous internal development, and to concentrate its efforts on enlarg- 
ing the export trade with the mother country. However, a liberal 
give-and-taKe policy between the United States and CWada would 
satisfy a larger proportion of the people, so far as I can judge from 
individual esLpresaioo on the subject 

WAQE8. 

As above stated, the chief employment in this district, aside from 
f^iculture, is in the railroad service. The population of this city, 
approximating 12jOOO, has fully 5,600 directly dependent upon the 
rauroads (or maintenance. The avenge compensation paid in the 
various departments ia as follows: 
Conductors: 

Fasaenger per month,, 1110.00 

Freight do,.-. 76.00 

Accommodation trainfl do 83.80 



do 60.00 

On branch tiaina do 66.00 

Brakemen: 

Freight .r....do.... 56.00 

Branches do 45.00 

Yard conductors do 60. OO 

Yard brakemen do 51.00 

^ard Bwitchmen do 46.00 

Yard master: 

Day do 86.00 

Night do.... 75.00 

Train dispfttfihera do 110.00 

Telegraph operators do ^.OOto 60.00 

Freight agents do 40.00to 60.00 

Engmeers do 76.00tol00.00 

Firemen do 60.00 

Freight handlere do 35.00 

Trainmen per day.. 1,10 

Machinisls per boor.. .19 

IN CAB SHOPS. 

Carpenters per hour.. $0.16 

Coach builders do .18 

Truckmen do.... JO. 17 to. 18 

Freight-car carpenters do .16 

IdiborerB do .12J 

Upholsterers do.... $0.17 to .21 

Tinsmiths do 17 to .18 

E^nters, according to ability do .12 to ,18 

HelperH perday.. .80 tol.26 

Blacksmiths perhour.. . 17J to .ISJ 

Bolt makers do .17 

Car repairers do . 16J to . 18i 

Inspectors do UJ to .16 

Oilers do.... -14 

IM OTBEK TRADBB. 

Carpenters perday.. 2.00 

Bricklayers do 2.75 

Plasterers do 3.00 

Btonemaeons do 2.75 

laborers do 1.25 to 1.60 

Farm laborers, with board per month. . 20. 00 

Clerks in retail stotw pet week.. 2.60to».00 



NOBTH AKBBIOA: DOHUnOM OF CANADA. 407 

COST OF LIVTNO. 

The cost of living here is slightly greater than in American towns 
of the same size. Houses without gas or water, bathroom or closet, 
range from |10 for four or five rooms to $2S for seven or eight rooms. 
Houses with modern improvements, such as furnace, gas, and water, 
bathroom and closet, range from $16 for four or five rooms up to $40 
for ten-rooms. Compared with American towns of the same size there 
is a great dearth of modem houses. 

Subsistence costs more here than in the city of Chicago. The retail 
prices range as follows: 

Applee per barrel.. (1. 2Stotl.60 

EggB per dozen.. .22 

Butter per pound.. .20 to. 22 

Cheese do..., .15 

Potatoes per bag.. .65 to. 75 

Flour perhundredweiKht.. 1.90 to 2.00 

Turnips per buanel.. .40 to. 60 

Parsnips per peck.. .25 

Cabbage per dozen.. .60 to. 70 ■ 

Beans, canned .10 

Com, canned .10 

Tomatoes, conned .10 

Pease, canned .10 

Carroto per peck.. .15 to. 20 

Beef, roast per pound.. .10 

Beebteaki 

Bound do .10 

Sirloin do ,11 

Tenderloin and porterhouse do .12} 

Pork: 

Tenderloin do ,16 

Incarcan do.... .07 

Hams do 121 to. 16 

Breakfast bacon do -14 to .16 

Veal do.... ,12* 

C^iickena per pair.. .60 to. 60 

Geew each.. .60 to, 76 

Dncks do.... .40 

Turkeys I)er pound.. .10 

Tea do 35 to 1.00 

Cofiee do.... .26 to. 40 

Wood: 

Boft, short stove per cord.. 1.75 

Hard, short stove do 2.00 

Cord wood, long do.... 4. 00 to 4.60 

Coal: 

Soft per ton,. 5.00 

Anthwdte do.... 6.60 

Cannel do 6.60 

Coke do.... 6.00 

Gas per thousand.. 2.00 

Frequent individual inqoirv has su^ested the compilation of the 
data in re^rd to wages and the cost of living. 

M. J, BnBKE, (hnsuL 
St. Thomas, Deomber £8, 1899. 



byGoO'^lc 



OOHMSBOIAL BM.ATI0N8. 



it United Statu daring year ended 



Actlclm. 


Quarter andHw- 


™.,. 


Uu. M. 


Jnneao. 


Sept. 80. 


Dec SI. 








G. 442! 00 
10,164.00 


tsn.oa 

8,928. 2& 


11,170. 00 




. -iSS 


sss 
















000.00 








•«:!? 






















366.00 






8.786:00 




1,290.00 
4,350.00 






180.69 










1,41G.00 


ilaziioft 


89,791.88 










!S!S 


■'"ii'mii" 


10, 99). 10 
















-i 




SEe.00 


Sl^t^iriic]™::::::;::;::::: 






iii'M 


S:!! 










21,821.00 


63.576.81 


66,888.79 


9e,oe7,«s 









FROU COURTRIGHT 



BAME PERIOD. 







1112.00 






_ 




ti,«6:c» 










360. CO 

728.00 

2,706.70 




2,800.88 






878.00 


8.673.89 






8,681.46 


















2,278,00 


8,908.70 


16.W7.se 


7,811.78 











QoaHerendlne- 








UUDhSl. 


Jane 80. 






♦CI.50 








■Si 

rise. £3 






6, OK 

e,»8i 

36 798 
6,fl« 














186.60 






mm 

s.2cn.n> 






2,882.26 










5,9^.60 


















8.868: Bl 






"'Si 
















886.39 












22,992.86 


8S,9».47 











AGENCY, SAME PERIOD. 







186.60 

8,478. 74 

114.60 


tl8a.D0 














KS4.S0 


'■nsis 












S84.G0 


4,396.M 


4,680.14 





NOBTH AKSRIOA: DOlONIOir or CANADA. 



BAT7I/r BTE. MABXE.^ 

The following fibres show the value of the exports from this dis- 
trict to the United States for the fiscal years ended Tone 30, as indi- 
cated: 



ATtiolas. 


IW. 


iwe. 


18». 




179,364,75 
84,814.88 
81.865.60 


tl,KI5.116.M 

10^43T!ie 
63,080.67 






























2,B4!!,«».80 


1.078,701.08 


1,801,088. «6 





The falling oS in 18^8 wa? chiefly in lumber, caused by the addi- 
tional duty unposed; and that of 1899 is chiefly in logs, during the 
last half of the year, after the embat^ was placed on tineir export by 
the Provincial government. 

It was expected that stopping the shipment of l<^s to the States 
would stimulate the cutting of lumber by the mills of the Province, 
and that there would be a large cut of logs by the owners of mills 
there, but during the last winter this did not prove to be the case in 
this part of the Province. Logs must be cut and got out during the 
winter and spring for the summer's cut of lumber, and the log cut of 
lost winter along the Sault Ste. Marie River and along Greorgian Bay 
by mill owners was, I think, not over 10 per cent of that of former 
years. It is not easy to account for this, but probably the withdrawal 
of the logging outfits by mill owners in the United States has caused 
distrust of future conditions. There is now a strong demand for 
lumber, but mills here having cut few logs last winter, there is little 
lumber to sell. It is thought that this WUl cause a large cut the com- 
ingwinter. 

Through the courtesy of the Dominion collector of customs here, I 
tun enabled to give the following as the imports into this district from 
the United States for the fiscal years indicated: 



Yew. 


Dutiable. 


Free. 


Tol»l. 




«;S 


tl«2.34B 
128,786 













This shows an increase of dutiable goods imported of $1,984, and a 
decrease of free goods of ¥38,5$4. 

Iron and the manufactures of iron form the largest item of import; 
next oome coal, salted meat^, and kerosene, in the order named. 

1 In reply to drculBT of July 10, 1899. 



byGoO'^lc 



410 OOMMBROIAL RELATIONS. 

The following figures, taken from the £ighth Report of the Bureaa 
of Mines, ahow 1^ prodiii^ of the minee in the Province for the years 
indicated: 



AiOcita. 


lese. 


ia»:. 


18W. 




121,818 

sglOT 


190, S44 

l,777;7» 






2^078 

ilSffi 















The products of the forest and mines will continue to be, aa the; are 
now, the principal source of industries for a number of years to come. 
Only a portion of the pine for saw logs and the spruce for pulp wood 
has Deen cut, along streams where it can be easily floated down to the 
mills. A very large area that is not convenient to the streams is still 
primeval for^. 

The country generally is hilly and rocky, and is settled only along 
the waters of the htkes and lines of railways; the balance of me ter- 
ritory of the district is a vast wilderness, with large possibilities for 
the niture, 

Farming interests of the region are comparatively small, and are 
confined to settlementa along the water fronts and some parts of the 
railways. 

The mining industries of the district are quite active. Nickel is the 
principal ore mined at present, but since the rise in price of copper 
and iron more attention has been paid to them, with the result that a 
number of copper mines and prospects that have kin dormant for 
years, as well as new finds, are being developed and promise large 
returns. Iron mines are also being exploited, and some show a prob- 
ability of large yields in the near future. 

The ore-beanng district extends from Sudbury on the east to 
Michipicoton on uie we^t, a distance of over 175 miles. Outcroppings 
of minerals are found Eilotig this entire distance, which show nickel, 
iron, copper, and some sola and silver*, and it is thought that the 

E resent activity will devdop a number of valuable mines. A firm here 
as advertisements out calling for bids for the erection of Urge smelt- 
ing works for the treatment of these various ores. 

Over 50 per cent of this development is, I think, being done by 
citizens of tue United States. 

Geo. W. Shotts, 
Oommercial Agmt. 
Sadlt Ste. Mabix, September £9, 1899. 



AaBZOULTDBAL INSXTSIBIBS OF OHTABIO. 

The Annual Report of the Bureau of Industries for the Province of 
Ontario, parts 1, 2, and 8, "Agricultural statistics," and part 4, " Chattel 
mortgages," for the year 1898, recently published, shows tJtie crops of 



nOO^^Ic 



KOKTH AHEKIOA: DOlCDnON Of OAKADA. 



the year, and the average as compared with the last aeventeen years, 
as follows: 



AKIdta. 


Total. 


Avenge per 


Avenge lor 
yews. 




Ml.hl.1. 


Z, STB, 284 


16.8 

|s 

SCO 
























as 


tee 

s 

Ml 

322 






*)-■- 


17. < 




do.... 








wwn 




















"SffiS! 

























aVa1<ie,ll.«Sl,3S4. 

bValtie,tB,*n.S«Ct 

eValne per fleece IG.DO; avenge k 



' seventeeD yeus tSSO. 



It appears that it took 23.99 pounds of milk to make 1 poand of 
butter, and 10.73 pounds to make 1 pound of cheese, and uiat only 
2,707,570 pounds of butter and 86,166,924 pounds of cheese were 
made in 1893. 

The number of live stock in the J:*royince in 1898 was: Horses, 
611,241; hogs, 1,640,787; sheep. 1,677,014. 

llie value of farm property of all kinds in 1898, as compared with 
1888, is shown as folfows; 



Ye»r. 


F^ormluida. 


ImplemenU. 


BulldlDSI. 


UveMMk. 


TOUI. 




16<e,2i6,sfle 


tU, 077,282 


%'«^ 


tlOa,741.228 
ItO.839.2S5 






















B8,8«,674 













The market price of farm products, taken from twenty-eight differ- 
ent markets during the selling season of each product, is given as 
follows: 

Wheat, 69.4; barley,38; oat«,35.8;rye,48.5;pease,52.2;buckwheat, 
88.2; beans, 70; potatoes, 44.1 cents each, per bushel; hay, per ton, 
$6.22; wool, per pound, 16.6 cents. 

The average price of farm wages for 1898 is stated attl48 per year 
with board, and at $246 without board; or, during the working season 
only, at $15.30 per month with board and $25.44 without board. 

Chattel mortg^^ of the Province in 1898 are given at $12,282,217, 
as gainst $13,382,195 in 1897 and $7,491,908 in 1889. Of these, 
$3,680,497 are given by farmers in 1898, as again8t$3,933,600inlS97. 
Geo. W. Shotts, 
Otrnimermd Ageni. 

Sault Stb. Mabib, Jtmvmy 3, 1900. 



byGoO'^lc 



OOMMZBOIAL BXLATI0N8. 



STRATPOBD. 

In obedience to circular of July 10, 1899, I snbmit the following 
report: 

The city of Stratford, where this inland consulate is located, is the 
county seat of Perth County. The jurisdiction of the consulate also 
includes part of the counties of Oxford and Waterloo. These three 
counties are undoubtedly in the best agricultural district in Ontario. 
They contain an almost inexhaustibly rich soil, from which splendid 
crops are raised. The farms are well tilled, hare good buildings, 
and 90 per cent of them are owned by the farmer who resides thereon. 
The surplus farm products — wheat, barley, oate, cheese, flax, apples, 
and live animals — are exported to Engird and the United States. 
Prior to the tariff law of 1897 most of these products went to the 
United States, but the change in the duty has now shut out practically 
all but flax and live anim&u. For example, when eggs were on the 
free list, at certain seasons of the year a train load of ten cars filled 
with egf^ was shipped to New York weekly from this consulate. Now, 
not an egg crosses the border. 

Stratford contains many handsome up-to-date places of business. 
The merchants are enterprising and display remar^blv fine goods for 
a town of 12,000 population. The principal articles sold by mem that 
come from the United States are cotton goods, hardware, glass, paper, 
books, hata, rubber goods, drugs, jewelry, wooden ware, sugar, fruit, 
brushes, plated ware, leather, tobacco, carpeta, granite, coal, and rice. 
Goods imported from Oreat Britain include carpet*, woolen goods, 
oilcloth, wallpaper, velvet and velveteens, gloves, hardware, cutlery, 
iron, spices, dress goods, ribbons, silks, paints, and t«a. 

liie Canadian customs-bouse or port of entry for Stratford also 
covers tJie subdistricts of Mitehell, St. Marys, Listowell, and Milver- 
ton. Through the courtesy of the collector of the port I learn that 
during the year 1898 the importations were: 





DDltedn>W)L 


oouDtriw. 




■i«,3eT 














M2,751 








For the first half year of 1899, the importa were: 




vX^^U 


■ssar 




tUG.Ul 
386,112 














m,m 









The statistics of the oflice also show that goods were exported from 
this port during the year 1898 to the United States to the ^ue of 
$865,836, and to other countries, $1,639,152. 

During the six months from January to July of the present year, 
exports to the United States were valued at $145,634; to other coun- 



NOBTH A11BBI0&: DOUIHION OF CANADA. 413 

tries, ?781,058. The exports to the United States from this consular 
district for the year 1898 were: 

Appka $3,634.10 FIm fS0,897.81 

Bones 274.00 limbe 3,890.50 

Bran 5,461.25 All others 2,618.17 

Breeding ftninwls 2, 236. 00 

Cattle 16,386.60 Total 92,334.83 

Emigrant eflecto 7,282.60 

For the six months ended June 30, 1899: 

Barley $4,726.60 Lambs $1,166.60 

Bones 277.47 Betnmed American pxxls... 1,267.63 

Breeding animatB 66.00 Staves 2,480.06 

CatUe 7,8»1.60 All others 380.46 



_migrant efiecta 4, 873. 96 

Flax 39,339.68 Tkrtal 62,646.63 

This is an increase of $11,981.32 over the export for the first half of 
1898. Comparing^ the first six months of 1898 and first six months 
of 1899, the importations from the United States show an increase 
of »61,011. 

A. Q. Sbtfebt, Conxul. 

Stbatpobd, September £7, 1899. 



PBINCE EDWARD ISLAND. 

CHARLOTTETOWK. 

The imports and exports for the Province of Prince Eklward Island 
for the nscsl year ending June 80, 1898, were: Imports $486,681; 
exports, $1,389,674. Imports from the United States, $108,443; 
exports to the United States, $449,838. 

It is impossible to give the correct values of merchandise coming 
from the united States into this Province, as large importations are 
made at Montreal and other Canadian ports and sold here. 

There are no particular changes since the date of my last report, 
with the exception of licenses for commercial travelers. At the last 
session of the provincial legislature the tax was raised from $15 to 
$20, This beeps many commercial men from the Province. 

I would agtun urge our manufacturers and wholesale dealers to work 
the Province of Prince Edward Island more thoroughly, either by 
commercial travelers or by resident agents, as is done by some Lon- 
don firms. 

The following goods will find sale: Hardware, farm implements, 
phosphates, bicycles, carriages, photographic supplies, glassware, hats 
and caps, millinerv goods, and many lines of dry goods, with the excep- 
tion of dress goods, which are imported from London. United States 
articles are considered the best in most branches of trade. 

Delhar J. Vail, Consul. 

Charlottetowk, Jvly 20, 1899. 



byGoO'^lc 



414 OOUtUEBGIAL BELATIONB. 

QUEBEC. 

QXTEBBC 

Slaiemenl of imporU vnio Uas port from the United SUUet m 1S9S, a» ixmvpiUd by W. E. 
Edge, of Her Maiatfft eiMomt. 

Animals, hoises, homed cattle, aheep, &nd awine (811 

Books, printed, etc, printed music, paper of all kinds 14,035 

Buttons, brushes, braces, combe, and coUan 4,752 

BniHB, maJiufactures ot; copper, manufacturee of 21,009 

Coal, anthracite, bituminous, and coke 141,568 

Candles and all other, including eperm 1,208 

CoHee,green and roasted; chicory, green and roasted 53 

Cordage of all kinds 44,419 

Carriages, railway cars, bicycles 16,345 

Carpets, brussels, and tapestry of wool or cotton 86S 

Cottons, and manufactures of, bleached, denims, and printed, etc 48, 643 

Cheese 143 

DruES, dyee, chemicals, patent medicines, etc 19,658 

Eartnenware, brown, white, etc., and china , 1,440 

Fancy goods, alabaster, beads, tovs, lacee, and embroidery 28,851 

Fish,tre8h,mlted, dry, preserved in oil, oysters, etc ' 3,051 

Flax, manufactures oi, Imen, brown, duck, and thread, ete 1, 062 

Fruits, green and dried 7, 767 

Furs, manufactures of, cape, hats, dressed and undressed 11,99S 

Fire brick, bath, building brick, etc 1,491 

Glass, manufactures of, carboys, lamps, window glaas, etc 9,716 

Qlovee and mittens, of leather, kid, cotton, silk, and woolens 201 

Gutta-percha, manufacturesof, boots, clothing, etc, india rubber 8,995 

Grain of all kinds, Indian com, pease, beans, wheat, etc 65,668 

Hata, caps, and bonoeta, beaver, etc., felt, and straw 2,651 

Hope 6,788 

Hides, raw, salted, dry. eta 107,129 

Parasols.umbrellas, of silk,etc ■ 725 

Icon^manotacturesof) steel, manuhctuT«e of 81,197 

Sewing machines 7,190 

Pin iron, all other 6,364 

Bailway bars or rails, flsh plates 261 

OuUery 1