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Full text of "Commercial relations of the United States with foreign countries"

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COMMERCIAL RELATIOxNS 



OF THE ^ 



^9^yj 



UNITED STATES 



WITH 



FOEEIGN COUNTEIES 



DURING THS 



YE^RS 1896 ^ISrr) 1897. 



IN TWO VOLUMES, 

Volume IL 



ISSUED FROM THE BUREAU 0? FOREieN OOMHBOI^ DEPARTMENT OF 8TAT& 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 
1898. 



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OOIS^TE^TS. 



VOLUME n. 

Europe: Page. 

Austria-Hnngary 5 

Belgium 89 

Denmark 185 

France _ 194 

Germany 823 j 

Gibraltar 450 I 

Greece 452 ' 

Italy --•. 465 

Malta - 616 

Netherlands 637 

Portugal - 681 

Rnflsia 681 | 

Spain 735 j 

Sweden and Norway.. 805 

Switzerland... 863 

Tnrkey 892 | 

United Kingdom 895 j 

3 ! 



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EUROPE. 



ATJSTRIA-HUNGAJRT. 

TTENNA. 

Replying to the Department's circular of August 10, 1897, I have 
the honor to submit the following general statement as to trade in 
the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1897. 

I beg to add, also, a few statistics; but in these I am somewhat 
limited, as the reports compiled by the Austrian Government, cover- 
ing the period referred to, have not yet been published. 

DECRBASB OF EXPORTS TO UNITED STATES. 

For the fiscal year ended June 30 last, the exports from this dis- 
trict to the United States amounted to $2,115,939.62, a decrease of 
nearly $200,000 from the amount exiwrted during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1896. 

The last quarter of the fiscal year ended June 30, 1897, shows, how- 
ever, an increase of $143,594.40 over the corresponding quarter of the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1896. But this increase is due rather to 
the fact that the new tariff bill was then x)ending than to any other 
reason. The higher rate of duty caused a rush among the exporters 
to land as many goods as possible in the United States before the act 
should become a law. The next quarter, or that ended September 
30, 1897, shows a falling off over the corresponding quarter of the 
previous year of $188,776.31 for this district alone. 

This gmdual decrease in exports during the last two years, is due 
to the fact that the same goods are now being manufactured in the 
United States, and can be sold there at the same prices as the 
imi)orted goods, and, in some cases, even lower. In fact, exporters 
here declare that the trade with the United States can, in certain 
lines, never be restored to its former condition. For example, take 
silk goods; manufacturers here confess that it is rapidly becoming 
useless for the American buyer to come to Europe for his silks, because 
these goods are now being made in the United States, and the manu- 
facturers there are fast l>dcoming experts, and are turning out goods 
of a fine grade which can be sold in easy competition with the for- 
eign-made articles. It is also said, by i)ersons here who claim to be 
informed in this matter, that American silk is being sold in the city 
of Lyons itself, the real silk center of Europe; and that French manu- 
facturers are buying it in large quantities, especially the grade used 
for lining purposes, to take the place of that formerly imported from 
Austria and Germany. I have been given the name and address of 
a large silk manufacturer of the United States, who is rei)orted to be 
doing an extensive export business to France. ^ j 

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b COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

It is thus not surprising that there should be a falling off of $60,000, 
or one third, in the exports of silks from this district to the United 
States during the last fiscal year. 

In the export of pearl buttons from Austria to the United States, 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1897, also shows a decided decrease, 
the amount of exports in this line of goods being $58,000 less than 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1896, and for the quarter ended 
September 30, 1897, the amount being only $11,000, as against $29,000 
for the corresponding quarter of last year. 

This falling off is due, undoubtedly, to the large increase in the 
importation of the raw shells into the United States, and to the build- 
ing there of numerous factories for the manufacture of pearl goods. 

This has, for a long time, been a large and important industry in 
the Austro-IIungarian Monarchy, and the manufacturers, until the 
present time, have depended to a considerable extent upon the United 
States as a market for their goods. Heretofore, Bohemia has supplied 
the United States with a large quantity of pearl goods, especially the 
inferior grades, such as buttons for underwear. These were made 
from the poorer grades of Panama shells, by unskilled workmen, and 
therefore could be sold at a very low figure. But the new tariff now 
makes it impossible for the manufacturers to send this grade of goods 
to the United States. For the higher quality, such as collar buttons, 
shirt studs, buttons for children's and ladies' dresses, the tariff acts as 
no barrier. These are made from Red Sea, Egyptian, and Australian 
shells by skilled labor, and many thousand dollars' worth of these 
have been consumed in the United States, but the demand is now 
decreasing, and what is more, the price of the raw shells has advanced 
in the last two months from 15 to 20 per cent. This is attributed to 
the fact that the United States manufacturers are importing the raw 
shells in large quantities. 

What I have said in reference to silks and pearl goods, is true also 
in the case of glassware. Figures for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1897, show the exports in glassware to be $15,180.77 less than they 
were the preceding year — that is, in the exports from this district 
alone — while for the single quarter just ended, September 30, there 
were exported to the United States from this district but $21,720 
worth of glassware, as against $32,627 for the corresponding quarter 
of 1896. Those interested in and well-informed upon the subject are 
not slow in giving their opinion that this decrease will be even larger 
in the future. They say that American-made goods are becoming too 
popular, and are, in fact, too well made for the foreign goods to com- 
pete. It is frankly admitted here, that the American cut-glass is finer 
and more elegantly cut than any manufactured on the Continent of 
Europe, or even in England. This matter, it is said, is being taken 
seriously by the manufacturers here, who are already beginning to 
look elsewhere for a market for their goods. The same is true of 
plate glass, looking-glass plates, etc. Heretofore manufacturers and 
exporters in central Europe have done a large and lucrative business 
in this line with the United States, that country affording them their 
best market; but many of the factories are now closed or are running 
on half or quarter time, and the plants can be bought for 50 per cent 
of tlie amount they would have brought six or seven years ago. 

These statements are based upon data given me by intelligent resi- 
dent manufacturers and shippers, and are corroborated by the export 
returns from this district. 

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EUROPE: AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



DEMAND FOR UNITED STATES GOODS. 

Everywhere in Europe, there is a constantly increasing demand fbr 
what are termed "American goods"; that is, goods made in the United 
States. In the first place, everything manufactured in the United 
States is so neatly and trimly made that it at once catches the eye of 
the foreigner. In the next place, the American article is honestly 
made, and therefore it can stand the closest scrutiny and the test 
of use. 

It is noticeable that, if Europeans come into possession of an article 
of American manufacture, they are always proud of it and quick to 
exhibit it on all occasions, and are not slow to let the fact be known 
that it was made in America. They acknowledge the superiority of 
the American goods every time. 

The United States bicycle is admired wherever it goes, and the 
European manufacturer is aware of this. A dealer in American bicy- 
cles in this city told me, a few days ago, that he had sold in the last 
year 700 American wheels, and that, too, notwithstanding the fact, that 
be was compelled to charge for them a very much higher price than 
he asked for those of European make. This dealer said that he was 
forced to buy his goods from the middleman instead of from the man- 
ufacturer; to pay cash for them and then give, in many cases, three, 
four, and sometimes six months' credit; that the duty, which is $12, 
and the freight from Bremen or Hamburg had also to be paid by him, 
and that all these things combined made the wheels come rather high 
to his customers. He further said, that if it were possible for him to 
offer the American wheels nearer the price asked for the Austrian 
make, he could do an enormous business. It seems to me that if our 
manufacturers really wish to get their wheels into the foreign 
market, they should be satisfied with a little less profit and try to 
make easier terms for their agents. Two hundred and seventy fiorins 
($109.66) is a good deal of money to ask the foreigners to pay for an 
American wheel, when he can buy one from the home manufacturer 
for at least 33i per cent less. Then, again, a wheel on this side of the 
Atlantic is, as a rule, not considered complete without mud guards, 
brake, lamp, and bell, and these must be furnished with and included 
in the price of the wheel. The wheels sent from the United States are 
generally without any of these necessary extras, and the agent is put 
to the additional trouble and expense of supplying them. In view of 
all these things, when one agent sells 700 American wheels in a year's 
time at the high price named, it is clear that the foreigner believes in 
the superiority of the American-made goods. 

There ought to be a market here for a good many American manu- 
factures and products, if only our people would take the right steps 
to reach it. There is need here of better farming implements, better 
mechanics' tools of all kinds, American lumber, American iron, 
machinery, especially stationary engines, heavy weighing scales, ele- 
vators, etc. 

Austria-Hungary is easy of access by way of Trieste, on the Adri- 
atic, where a new line of steamships to the United States has just been 
put into operation, and goods loaded at any port in the United States 
can be delivered into this Monarchy without being rehandled and at 
reasonably low rates. In fact, American pig iron is already coming 
into this country in large quantities through Trieste. 

There are no restrictions or licenses affecting commercial travelers, 

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8 COMMERCIAL BELATIONS. 

or those selling by samples. Where agencies are established, and a 
stock of goods kept on hand for sale, an income tax is exacted, based 
ou the amount of business done. The rate of this tax, however, does 
not differ from that paid by local or home dealers. 

There appears to be a growing demand here for American canned 
goods, but it would, no doubt, be still greater were it not for the fact 
that local prices are exorbitant. These goods are not bought of the 
manufacturer direct, but pass through the hands of several middle- 
men, and to this fact, of course, the high prices are attributable. If 
our manufacturers of canned goods would establish depots or agencies 
in the larger cities of this Monarchy, so that their goods could go 
direct into the hands of the consumers at a reasonable price, the export 
in this line could be made larger. 

The people here seem to prefer the American canned fruits to those 
manufactured anywhere else, and they are compelled to buy foreign 
goods because the fruit crop here is not infrequently a failure and the 
home supply falls short of meeting the demand. 

There are plenty of markets for many kinds of American goods, but 
thej^ must be sought. English letters and circulars sent to a foreign- 
speaking people will hardly prove of service. 

AUSTRIAN COMMERCE WITH RUSSIA. 

A recent report of the Austrian consul-general at St. Petersburg 
contains interesting matter relating to the commerce of Austria, as 
well as a few valuable hints for those in search of a foreign market. 
According to this report, the commerce between Austria-Hungary and 
Russia has, for some time past, been undergoing a yearly decline, 
which is attributed solely to the energetic and continuous efforts of 
German manufacturers to gain a footing in Russia. The report says 
that travelers from the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy are seldom met 
with, and those who do find their way thither have such an inade- 
quate knowledge of the customs and transportation rates, of the 
weights and measures in use in that country, as to preclude all pos- 
sibility of selling goods. With the exception of scythes, sickles, s^el, 
files, cloths, glassware, mother-of-pearl buttons, fans, and high-grade 
leather goods, very little of Austria's manufactures are sold in Russia. 
Of the total amount of fancy goods imported by Russia, Germany 
supplies GO per cent, France 20 per cent, and Austria and England 
combined only 10 per cent. Even in the pearl-button industiy Aus- 
tria's position is threatened by Germany. 

In the glassware line only high-grade Bohemian wares, such as 
vases, liqueur, wine, and beer services of colored or decorated glass, 
are imported. "It seems to me," says the consul-general, "that with 
a more careful study of local tastes on the part of our manufacturers, 
more Austrian goods would be sold here." The report says, further, 
that the importation of pharmaceutical glassware is the most impor- 
tant, relatively, but the larger part of this trade is enjoyed by Thur- 
ingia, a province of Germany. Lighting articles of glass, froin the 
cheapest to the most expensive kinds, are manufactured in Russia, 
so that the import is confined wholly to glass cylinders for the Auer 
(incandescent) burners, prisms, etc., in the manufacture of which 
Austria excels. The report says that, owing to the high rate of duty 
on porcelain, large importations in that article are impossible. The 
large houses are continually trying to emancipate themselves from 
the Kusnecow wares, which are not particularly tasteful, and endeay- 

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EUROPE: AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 9 

oring to buy white dishes entirely from Germany. The German arti- 
cle is light and beautifully finished, and suits the local taste. The 
German manufacturer even goes so far as to supply his customers with 
the latest designs, so that they themselves may decorate the plain 
china. Importations from Bohemia have almost ceased, as the manu- 
facturers there neither visit Russia nor make offers. High-grade table 
services are bought in Limoges, France. The better grades of stoneware 
are also imported. England, whose white porcelain formerly ruled 
the markets, has been compelled to yield to Dresden, Saargemtind, and 
Bonn, the wares of which are cheaper and afford more variety. VVhile 
the English corresponds only in his own language, the German, on the 
other Imnd, uses the Russian, a fact which adds greatly to his business. 

Carl Bailey Hurst, 

Consul- General, 
Vienna, October 30, 1897. 



BOHEMIA.* 

TARIFF. 

Customs duties and regulations, as well as municipal duties, have 
not changed in the past year, with the exception of the duties on glu- 
cose, on which the tariff has been raised to $7.20 per 100 kilometers (220 
pounds), making it impossible to sell any to this market from the 
United States. 

EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES. 

I find from examination of the records of this consulate, that the 
exports from this district for the quarters ending March 31 and June 
30, 1897, considerably decreased in comparison with the same quar- 
ters of the year 1896. Especially is this the case in gloves, glass, and 
X)6rce]ain ware. The declared value of exports from this consular 
district to the United States, during the quarter ending March 31, 1896, 
was $927,745.80, and for the same quarter in the year 1897, $658,622.48, 
or $269,123.32 less than in the year 1896. The declared value of exports 
from this consular district to the United States, during the quarter end- 
ing June 30, 1896, was $1,334,478. 24, and for the same quarter in the year 
1897, $1,392,355.34, or $57,877.10 more than for the same quarter in the 
year 1896, thus showing that the declared value of exportation during 
the two quarters aforementioned in the year 1896 exceeded the declared 
value of exportation for the same two quarters in the year 1897 by 
$211,246.22. A detailed statement of said exports is hereto attached. 

One of the largest exporters of bed feathers from Bohemia, August 
Rdders, of Prague, and who has had a large trade with the United 
States, has concluded and actually begun to open a branch establish- 
ment in New York City, importing the feathers (principally from China) 
direct to New York, and cleaning and finishing them ready for market 
there. It is obvious that one of the direct results of the new tariff 
law is that capital has been brought to America, invested in machinery, 
tools, etc., and that American labor is employed in the treatment of 
raw bed feathers, where before this Bohemian labor had been employed. 



*In reply to circnlar of August 10, 1898. ^ j 

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10 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



IMPORTS FROM THE UNITED STATES. 

In examining the prospects for introducing American goods into 
Bohemia, I find from conversation with the different heads of business 
houses here that the following goods could find a good market, pro- 
viding the same could be shown by sample to the different business 
houses here by a live and energetic salesman : Green fruit, preserved 
fruit, dried fruit, canned meats, cotton, leather (sole and upper), agri- 
cultural implements, new inventions in hardware, petroleum, heating 
stoves (especially self-feeders), hard wood for cabinetmakers' use, and 
bicycles. Boots and shoes of the kind and quality usually worn here 
could, I am informed, be introduced and sold by American manufac- 
turers, but, as before stated, business men will not buy unless they 
can see and examine the samples first. The cheapest freight route 
for goods to this district from the United States is via Hamburg, up 
the River Elbe as far as the town of Tetschen, Bohemia, and from 
there by rail to Prague. 

LICENSES. 

There is no license exacted from commercial travelers, but they 
must applj^ for a permit from the local authorities, which costs them in 
American money 40 cents, or 1 florin in Austrian money. Traveling 
salesmen who are American citizens should be provided with pass- 
ports, and, if naturalized citizens, should also have certificates of 
naturalization. 

The consular receipts for the quarter ending September 30, 1897, 
show a great decrease, owing to the change in tariff upon sugar. The 
exportation of sugar from the Prague district for the quarter ending 
September 30, 1896, amounted to $803,873.71, and for the same quar- 
ter in this year to only $24,832.83, showing a decrease of $779,040.88 
for the same quarter in this year in sugar alone. 

Hugo Donzelmann, Consul, 

Prague, October U, 1897, 



Value of exports declared for the United States from the consular district of 
Prague during the quarters ending March and June, 1896 and 1897. 



Articles. 



Artificial flowers 

Bed feathers 

n^Q|. 

Beet-root safi^r 

Books 

Buttons 

Calfskins 

Carlsbad sprndel salt. 

Clay 

Collars and cuffs 

Cotton goods 

Cutlery 

Dress goods 

Drugs and chemicals . . 

Dye wood ex tract 

Embroideries 

Fez caps 

Furniture 

Glassware 

Gloves 



Quarter ending- 



Mar. 31, 1896. June 30, 1896. Mar. 31, 1897. June 30, 1897. 



$278.81 
36,3^.24 
23,950.05 
441.132.61 
4,904.18 
23.847.66 



23,236.40 
397.45 



858.02 

684.40 

40,463.46 

8.304.88 



2,927.73 
845.47 



61,487.78 
94,447.07 



$27,618.27 
35,638.08 

038,329.94 
5.261.04 
16,094.16 



889.29 
1,321.87 

796.81 

587.89 
6.829.98 
11,081.47 

448.87 



550.57 

1,669.71 

38,804.10 

51,424.85 



$14,287.96 

33,240.50 

274,088.27 

4,072.07 

1,504.41 

14,275.56 

11,297.79 

1,074.82 

2,854.06 



7,095.88 

20,170.18 

899.23 

421.79 



26,294.15 
107,156.81 



$114,644.49 

31,184.28 

611,566.88 

3,835.86 

6,388.29 



20,439.66 
1.202.70 
9,930.23 



1,107.84 
20,428.96 
8,706.58 



800.00 

979.11 

75.078.42 

243,585.76 



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EUROPE: AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



11 



Value of exports declared for the United 5to<e«— Continued. 



Articles. 


Quarter ending- 


Mar. 81, 1896. 


June 30, 1896. 


Mar. 31. 1897. 


June 80, 1897. 


Olove leather 








$388.91 


Glue . 


$820.70 
5,479.12 

159.78 
8,409.99 
8,604.04 
1,337.33 
7,739.36 
1,213.76 

274.88 

16,785.97 

^ 8,863.80 








Olycerin 








Graphite 


$1,648.67 

832.64 

9,961.60 

1,581.89 

4,678.35 

1,632.29 

289.95 

12,245.90 

2,087.38 




856 55 


Qnm 


$3,068.88 

9,240.74 

6.650.83 

8,857.50 

503.70 

981.14 

8,264.47 

5,080.50 

207.06 

61,527.26 

6,076.96 


2,404.11 


Hftirv human 


14,688.67 


HopB 


1.544.05 


Tijnen soods . , , , 


11,?27.60 


Metal ware 


4,266.24 


Mineral water , 


1,750.13 


Musical instruments 

Paper goods 


15,034.79 
9,2S0.07 


Perfumery - 




Porcelain and pottery 

Potash...! 


00,268.06 
3,198.57 


120.109.74 

8.261.04 

416.67 


144,553.84 
8,015.80 


Skeletons . . 




Bmokers* artlrl w» 




167.82 

600.98 

1.282.96 

252.70 




Substitutes for coffee ....- 


990.18 


1.547.58 


1,682.97 


Bugar-beet seed 




Sundries 


741.10 
480.52 


736.23 


847.63 


Talc 




Tartar emetic 






1,877.16 


Toys 


1,702.22 


4,139.40 
484.27 


660.92 


6,849.68 


Wmes and liquors - 


2.870.50 


Wood Duln ... ... 


2,498.52 
12,395.12 






Wool ^^!::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::::::::: 


80,876.75 
701.14 


47,848.10 


20,074.48 


Wool grease 




Woolen goods 


2,866.51 


5,268.77 










Total 


927,746.80 


1,834,478.24 


658,682.48 


1,892,355.84 







REICHEXBERO. 



EXPORTS. 



The United States has always been an important market for the man- 
ufactures of this consular district; but the demand is steadily decreas- 
ing. The exportation of woolen goods to the United States, which 
formerly necessitated the running of many mills, has to-day almost 
stopped, so that the exports in this line from this district to the 
United States during the year ended June 30, 1897, commanded a 
value of but $13,716.14. The export of these articles has been suc- 
cessfully taken by the establishments of Greiz, Gera, and Glauchau, 
in Germany. A similar state of affairs is noticeable in the exporta- 
tion of cut precious stones, as garnets, cape rubies, opals, amethysts, 
topazes, emeralds, and sapphires. Formerly they were an important 
factor in the United States trade; to-day the annual export is not 
12,000, and consists almost exclusively of garnets. Bohemia is at 
present hardly in a position to compete with Germany so far as ame- 
thysts, topazes, emeralds, and sapphires are concerned. I may men- 
tion here the manufacture of a new cutting medium called "car- 
borundum," which possesses well-nigh the hardness of the diamond 
and is far preferable to emery or lead plates. This medium is made 
in this district and is very extensively used. As regards glass jewelry, 
only the very cheapest goods are now purchased by the United States; 
finger rings, brooches, scarf pins, crosses, charms, medals, etc., 
manufactured of glass, of paste, and of metal, and in many cases des- 
tined to fill prize packages. The exportation of hat ornaments, prin- 
cipally of jet, which was formerly important, has decreased very 
largely. American buyers, who were wont to visit this district twice 
a year, did not come at all during the year 1896, i^g^ile(?S^^i^5:P9°^' 



12 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

paratively small orders by letter. In cut glassware, the competition of 
England, with its clearer and more brilliant glass, is very detrimental 
to Bohemian glassware, notwithstanding the difference in price, fre- 
quently considerable. At the same time, the competition in Bohemia 
is growing; the cost of manufacturing is being lowered, to the detri- 
ment of the goods manufactured; articles that were formerly cut are 
now pressed — in short, Bohemian glassware is to an extent losing its 
very good name. The manufacture of glass buttons, which began in 
the sixties with four patterns, now commands hundreds of thousands 
of designs. It is entirely dependent upon the dictates of fashion. 
Toward the end of the year 1894 a demand for similor buttons arose 
and lasted until the middle of the year 1896. At the same time, small 
jet and colored buttons were bought. But since the middle of the 
year 1896, the state of the business has been so bad and the outlook 
for the future so ominous, that many manufacturers have already 
turned their attention to other branches of the glass industry. 

A similar condition of affairs is noticed in the exportation of glass 
pearls. 

In short, the decrease in exports of glass manufactures to the United 
States is very marked in every instance, and no better condition is to 
be expected in the future. 

The only articles of glass that experience a satisfactory sale to-day 
are imitation precious stones, which are sent to the United States in 
an unmounted state. They are there set and mounted according to 
American designs and patterns, and frequently again take their way 
across the ocean, to be sold in Paris, London, or other European cities. 

The one article that has not undergone a decrease in the amount 
exported, is linen ; on the contrary, there has been a noticeable increase 
in this line. Whether this will be permanent is doubtful, as it appears 
evident that large quantities of linen goods were shipped to the United 
States to be entered under the former tariff rates. 

IMPORTS. 

To show the importance of Austria as a country importing Amer- 
ican goods, I have compiled a list from the Austrian statistical reports 
for the first six months of the year 1897, in which are given various 
imported goods, in the total amount of which the United States takes 
first, second, or third rank. The list will be found at the end of this 
report. 

It will be seen the American product imported in largest quantities 
is raw cotton. Although the amount has heretofore been very large, 
it is now increased by the fact that a demand for East India, cotton 
has arisen in Japan. Of the 2,600,000 bales grown in India during 
the past year, 2,150,000 bales have been taken by Japan. 

In consequence, Austria imported, during the first six months of the 
year 1897, 148,848* bales of American and 79,815 bales of East India 
cottion, against 130,958 bales of American and 146,751 bales of East 
India cotton for the same period of the year 1896. 

Owing to the small crop this year, the United States is called upon 
to provide a great amount of grain. This is especially the case in 
regard to rye and wheat, of which formerly but little reached Bohemia. 
Of wheat, Kansas, red winter No. 2, and Walla Walla have already 
become favorites. Most of this is brought into Bohemia, on account 

* A liale is figured as weighing 468 ponnds. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: AUSTRU-HUNGAKY. 13 

of the cheap freight rates, via the Elbe River. Not very large quan- 
tities of oats are brought, though the grain is well liked. 

While the valley of the Elbe River usually supplies not only Bohe- 
mia but also Germany with apples, the year 1896 saw American 
apples take the place of the Bohemian product, even in cities situated 
in the center of the fruit-growing region. On account of their flavor 
and excellent qualities, American apples continue to hold the place 
they have gained in the markets of this consular district; yet their 
outward appearance might be improved, and greater care bestowed 
in packing would be worth while. The Tyrolean apples, separately 
wrapped in paper, are a feast to the eye; they are, in consequence, 
frequently more readily purchased than their American competitors, 
whose skin too often shows the mark of blows. 

The importation of lard has assumed large dimensions, and being 
cheaper and better than that brought from Servia and Hungary, has 
become a staple article in this district. Bacon has been imported, and 
the prospects for future sales seem to be favorable. By a recent decree 
from the ministry of the interior, all pieces of bacon or meat coming 
from the United States are to be examined microscopically before being 
allowed to enter, notwithstanding the certificate from the Department 
of Agriculture — ^a measure due to a reported finding of trichinae in 
meat imported from Chicago in June, 1896. 

American crude and pig iron are being imported in large quantities, 
although heretofore but seldom seen in this district. Bicycles have 
become quite generally used by people in a position to buy a first- 
class wheel. Notwithstanding the hilly roads of this district, the 
American bicycle, though weighing little, has proved its lasting quali- 
ties. Cyclometers, lamps, etc., are well-nigh exclusively of American 
manufacture. 

Living plants are represented by gladioli and tuberoses. 

In short, many articles of American manufacture are imported by 
Austria, yet more might be brought if they were presented by qual- 
ified agents. There is a good chance to introduce improved cotton 
and woolen machinery, tanning machinery, shoemaking machinery, 
machinery in general, carpenters', masons', and other tools, etc. 

FREIGHT RATES. 

Freight is carried by way of the Elbe River from Hamburg into the 
heart of Bohemia, at such low rates as to make little difference in the 
price of the goods carried. While the average cost for transportation 
by rail from Hamburg to Reichenberg is, for fast freight, $3.01 per 100 
kilograms; common freight, 11.49; carload, fast freight, 95 cents; 
carloads (10,000 kilograms), slow freight, 82 cents — ^the price for 
carr3dng by water is considerably less. 

I append a list of the principal goods brought from the United 
States to Austria, and the freight rates by water for the same from 
Hamburg to Laube, in Bohemia. The first column gives the rate in 
cents per 100 kilograms when the depth of the Elbe River is not more 
than 120 centimeters (47.2 inches) below zero, according to the Dres- 
den " Pegel," while the second column gives the same when the depth 
is more than 120 centimeters below zero. Both of these are quota- 
tions for fast freight, requiring from five to eight days to make the 
trip from Hamburg to Laube. In the third column are the rates for 
slow freight, the latter taking ten to fourteen days. 

Geo. R. Ebnst, Consid, 

Rbichbnbekg, October 15, 1897. ugitzea by vjw^^glc 



14 



COMMEltCIAL RELATIONS. 



Princijxd Oooda Imported frcmi United States, with Freight rates from Hamburg 

to Bohemia, 



Articles. 



Fast freight. 



Slow 
freight. 



Apples, dried 

Asbestas, crade 

Bed feathers (in bales) 

Belting, leather 

Bone black 

Bone tallow 

Beeswax 

Cacao beans 

Caoutchouc and manufactures . 

Copper* crude 

Com . 



Cotton goods 

Cotton: 

Bales 

Not pressed in bales 

Waste 

Cotton-seed oil 

Earth, for coloring purposes . 
Fats. 



Grain 

Oums and resins. . 
Hides 

Iron: 



Pig 

Nails 

Plates 

Manufactures, unpolished 

Man uf actures, polished 

Crude 

Iron and steel ware (in cases) . 



Lead 

Leather goods. 
Leather. 



Linseed oil 

Lubricating oil.., 
Machines: 

Agricultural . 
Parts of... 

Sewing 

Parts of... 

Meat, packed 

Mother-of-pearl .. 
Nuts 




(JenU. 



Oils: 

Aniline 

Castor 

Cotton-seed.. 

Fatty , 

Linseed 

Turpentine.. 
Ore, in c 
Paper — 
Paraffin. 
Prunes.. 
Rice. 



Rubber goods 

Saltpeter 

Seeds 

Spermaceti 

Sirup 

Tallow: 

Animal 

Vegetable 

Tanning material , 

Turpentine 

Veneer 

Wine 

Wood: 

In blocks 

Cut 

Wooden ware 

Dyewoods: 

In blocks 

Extracts 

Roots 

Flour 

Flowers and plants (and seeds thereof). 

Groceries 

Mineral oil 

Steel: 

Crude 

In boxes 

Steel ware 




uigitizeg D' 



28 
42 


9 
11 


;« 


9 


01 




55 


i5 


42 


• 9 


42 


9 


4? 




42 


9 


m 


11 


42 


11 


55 




47 




51 




50 


10 


44 


10 



86 

43 I 

52 

36 

42 

62 

42 

33 
42 



EUROPE: AU8TBIA-HUNGART. 



15 



Eocports from Beichenberg consular district to the United States during the last 

tico fiscal years. 



Articles. 



1886. 



1897. 



Artificial flowers 

Barrel organs 

Beads 

Blankets 

Buttons 

Carpets 

Celmiold goods 

Cloth and woolen goods 

Cotton goods 

Qamets and precious stones. 

Glassware 

Hnman hair 

Imitation precious stones 

Jewelry 

Linen goods 

Metal ware and cutlery 

Paper goods 

Photo frames 

Pictures 

Porcelain 

Smokers' articlea 

Sparterie , 

Toys 

Wfne 

Sundries 



$104.74 

681.65 

31.383.88 



105,012.88 

86.25 

268.13 

12,347.71 

2,418.07 

868.66 

184,881.27 

218.94 

119.871.78 

330.654.58 

362,179.80 

1,072.81 

8,503.04 

162.22 

971.83 

11,429.33 

48.02 



1888.07 

15,533.08 

222.15 

36.476.64 



13,716.14 

743.96 

2,769.22 

88,663.92 



84.767.?^ 

151,206.81 

680,299.01 

2,905.73 



152.40 

681.88 

7,009.57 



2,577.66 



504.00 

1,194.65 

168.47 

220.89 



Total 1,190,188.74 



987,744.06 



Decrease, $202,444.14. 

Imports into Austria for the first six months of 1897, showing the. rank of the 

United States, 

[All figures quoted in metrical hundredweights =220.46 pounds.] 



Fruit, fresh 

Sirup: 

Not eatable 

Eatable 

Fruit, dried 

Oysters 

Sponges: 

Partly manufac- 
tured. 

Crude 

Bed feathers 

Butterlne 

Lard 

Bacon 

Paraffin: 

Uncleansed 

Cleansed 

Fats: 

Animal 

Vegetable 

Bometallow 

Cotton-seed oil 

Rape-seed oil 

■Heat, prepared 

Caviar 

Fruit, canned 

Staves, wooden 

Wooden ware, hard.. 
Wood, for furniture . 
Shells of cocoanuts, 
coquille, etc. 

Mother-of-pearl 

Wagon makers' goods 
Wooden ware: 

Common, not 
painted. 

Painted 

Furniture, wooden. . . 

Veneers, crude 

Sharpening and pol- 
ishing material. 

Retorts 

Iron: 

Raw 

Pi« 



Italy 11,301 

United States.. 463 

Great Bn tain.. 458 

United States-. 1,741 

Belgium 89 

Greece 179 

Greece 317 

Russia 6,150 

United States.. 4 

United States.. 70,836 

United States- 3,347 

United States.. 9,951 

United States.. 12,176 

United States.. 8,790 

United States.. 571 

Germany 6,343 

United States.. 44,805 

Great Britain.. 24 

Germany 512 

Russia 180 

Great Britain.. 148 

Servia 14,?i5 

Germany 6,768 

United States.. 5,«H 

Pan- America.- 19,027 

Great Britain . . 6, 506 

Germany 1,643 

Germany 6,217 

Germany 1,301 

Germany 444 

Germany 1,006 

Germany 504 

Germany 9,775 

Great Britain.. 26,940 

Great Britain.. 436,041 



Germany , 

Great Britain. 
United States. 

Germany 

Germany 

Germany 

Turkey 

Gksrmany 



8,008 

144 

144 

366 

18 

37 

124 

2,828 



Germany . 
Germany , 



Germanjr 

Great Britain. 

Great Britain. 

Prance 

Great Britain. 
Great Britain. 

Germany 

United States. 
United States. 

Prance 

Fiume 

Italy 

Germany 

Germany 



Germany 

United States. 



1,643 
113 

728 
5,055 

4,104 

398 

2,380 

1,717 

10 

114 

150 

100 

4,909 

4,194 

8,501 

3,493 

2,197 
108 



United States.. 2,119 



Great Britain.. 
United States.. 

Prance 

Great Britain.. 

Great Britain.. 

United States. 
United States. 



629 

214 

141 

98 

233 



United States.. 6,346 

Germany 55 

Germany 33 

Switzerland... 86 

United States.. 11 



United States.. 

United States. 
United States.. 



30 



28 
2W 



Servia . 
Italy... 



Belgium .. 
Ghirmany . 



Germany 

Great Britain.. 
United States.. 
Dutch India... 
United States.. 
Montenegro... 

Germany 

United States.. 
United States.. 
United States.. 

Italy 

United States . 

United States.. 
France 



Russia . 



625 

70 



2.207 

2,304 

247 

1,913 

528 

6 

64 

39 

91 

3,263 

3,537 

1,470 

2,002 

444 



733 

United States.. 108 

Great Britain.. 103 

United States.. 20 

United States.. 41 



United States. 



14 



Germany 5,723 

Germany 58,892 



6,343 

88,589 

Digitized by "kjvjvjwvk^ 



16 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

imports into Austria for tlie first six months of 1897 , efc— Continued. 



Articles. 



First. 



Second. 



Third. 



Ferro-manganeee 

Cast-iron pipes 

Ornamental castings . 
Wronght-iron pipes.. 

Black Iron plate 

Boilers (not steam 
boilers). 

Drills 

Hammers 

Axes, chisels, etc 

Hay and dung forks.. 

Locks and keys 

Knives and shears 
(agricultural). 

Skates 

Furniture, iron and 

steeL 
Lead and amalgams, 
crude. 

Copper 

Nickel 

Aluminum 

Graphite 

Porcelain clay 

Asbestus 

Dyeing extracts 

Resin 

Pitch 

Turpentine 

Besmoil 

Mineral oil: 

Light 

Dark 

Light,half refined 

Dark,half refined . 

Grease 

Cotton 

Cotton waste 

Brush makers* goods. 

Emery paper 

Hard rubber 

Hose, rubber 

Belting, rubber 

Leather: 

Black, horse and 
cattle. 

Common, other. . 

Sole leather 

Glove 

Patent 

Pegs (shoe) 

Frames of sewing 
and knitting ma- 
chinery. 
Parts of sewing ma- 
chines. 
Wooden machinery .. 

Electro-dynamos 

Agricultural ma- 
chines. 
Machines: 

Metal-working . . . 

Woodworking 

Stone working.... 

Others, n. s. e 

Parts of 

Wagons (no leather 
upholstery). 

Bicycles 

Slefehs 

Wagons(upholstered) 
Instruments, fine, 

n. s. e. 
Beed organs, num- 
ber. 

Artificial teeth 

Chile saltpeter ....... 

Vitriol or copper 

Soot, coal dust 

Paste, etc 

Ink and ink i)owder.. 
VamJsh 



Great Britain.. 17,333 

Germany -491 

Germany 182 

Germany 5,193 

Germany 1, 493- 

Germany 3,064 

Germany 97 

Germany 367 

Germany 614 

Germany 887 

Germany 2,068 

Germany 700 

Germany 84 

Germany 70 

Germany 17,252 

United States.. 36,760 

Germany 437 

Swltzerhind ... 165 

Germany 440 

Germany 10,589 

United States.. 507 

France.... 4,995 

United States.. 91,2B8 

Germany 4,933 

Russia • 11,608 

Germany 1,641 

United States.. 36,759 

Russia 14,454 

Russia 19,899 

United States.. 16,853 

United States.. 19.039 
United States.. 315.979 

Germany 22, 974 

Germany 59 

Germany 2,946 

Germany 170 

Germany 280 

Germany 96 

Germany 718 

Germaxiy 2,098 

United States.. 1,541 

Germany 1,369 

Germany 993 

United States. - 6, 305 

Germany 1,064 

Germany 1,936 

Germany 637 

Germany 258 

Germany 2,443 

Gtornumy 3,683 

Germany 3,166 

United Btates.. 77 

Germany 23, 079 

Germany 88,860 

United Btates.. 42 

Germany 748 

United States.. 5 

Germany 16 

Germany 874 

Germany 116 

Germany 1} 

Chile 208,970 

Great Britain.. 32,725 

Germany 2,203 

Germany 802 

Germany 48 

GreatBritain.. 1,149 



United States.. 
United States.. 
GreatBritain.. 
GreatBritain.. 
United Stat^.. 

GreatBritain., 
United States. 
GreatBritain. 

France 

GreatBritain. 
United States. 

GreatBritain. 
GreatBritain.. 



United States.. 13,410 



4 
144 
680 
186 
41 

91 
19 
68 

142 
12 

165 



United States. 



Italy 

United States.. 
United States. 
GreatBritain. 

United States. 



286 
"56 



IS 
20 



12 



Germany 

France 

Germany 

United States. 
GreatBritain.. 
GreatBritain. 

Germany 

Germany 

United States. 

Germany 

United States. 



25.877 

147 

89 

15 

2,841 

101 

4,769 

64,638 

J«3 

5,6U5 

609 



United States. 
United States. 
United States.. 
GreatBritain.. 

United States.. 
United States. 

Great Britain. . 

GreatBritain.. 
United Btates. 
United States. 

France 

United States. 

Italy 

United States. 

France 

GreatBritain. 
United States. 
GreatBritain.. 



42 

39 

8 

100 

2 

a 

1,677 

9,704 

3 

27 

6 

586 

100 

1,209 

7,843 

11 

3,655 

57 



United States.. 
United States.. 

Italy 

Russia 

British India.. 
GreatBritain. 
United Btates. 
GreatBritain.. 
GreatBritain. 
United Btates. 
GreatBritain.. 

GreatBritain.. 

GreatBritain. 

Germany 

France 

GreatBritain. 

Germany 

GreatBritain. 



GreatBritain.. 

United States. 
Switzerland... 
United States. 



1,477 

204 

1,010 

16,103 

180.439 

7,207 

9 

100 

9 

35 

05 

142 

424 

443 

5 

26 

1,2R2 



1,021 

84 

79 

637 



Germany 24 

Germany 11 

Germany 711 

Germany 844 

Germany 88, 787 

United States.. 3,635 

France 6 

United States.. 77 

United States.. 6 

GreatBritain.. 12 

United States.. 24 



United States.. 

United States. 
GreatBritain.. 
United States.. 
United States.. 
GreatBritain.. 
United States. 



United States.. 

GreatBritain.. 
United States.. 
GreatBritain.. 



39 

254 

422 

3 

8 
117 
27 



250 

77 

29 

300 



United States.. 114 

Belgium 137 

France 8 

United States.. 1,280 

GreatBritain.. 5,663 

Italy 21 



GreatBritain.. 159 

United States.. 1,398 

Germany 23 

GreatBritain.. 1.977 

United States.. 6,023 

(jl«rmany 42 

United States.. 628 GreatBritain 

Germany 3 

United States . . 5 Italy . . 

France 74 UnitedStates 

United States.. 67 

GreatBritain.. If 

Germany 27.235 

Gtermany 18,009 

Netherlands... 110 

GreatBritain.. 18 

UnitedStates.. 22 

Germany 599 



GreatBritain.. 

UnitedStates.. 
UnitedStates.. 
UnitedStates.. 
UnitedStates.. 
UnitedStates.. 

France 

UnitedStates.. 



4 
72 



»,546 

84 
12 
14 



■ biyitiitn 



-V04^ 



EUROPE: AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 17 



AGRICULTURB IN BOHBMIA. 

Although Bohemia is not the principal agricultural province of the 
Austro-Hungarian Empire, yet the science of tilling the soil is highly 
developed. Of the entire area of Bohemia, 5,175,686 hectares, or 
12,789,120 acres, there were cultivated, during the year 1896, 3,088,879 
hectares, or 7,632,618 acres. 

The acreage in cultivation is about equally divided between large 
and small landowners. Thus, of 1,000 persons paying a tax on culti- 
vated ground, there were in the class paying less than 1 florin (41 cents) 
362 persons; among those paying from 1 to 2 florins (41 to 81 cents), 
132 persons; Among those paying 2 to 5 florins (81 cents to $2.03), 170 
persons; paying 5 to 10 florins ($2.03 to $4.06), 103 persons; paying 
10 to 20 florins ($4.06 to $8.12), 87 persons; paying 20 to 50 florins 
($8.12 to $20.30), 98 persons; paying 50 to 100 florins ($20.30 to $40.60), 
34 persons; paying 100 to 200 florins ($40.60 to $81.20), 10 persons; 
paying 200 to 500 florins ($81.20 to $203), 2 persons; paying over 500 
florins ($203), 2 persons. Yet, owing to the low per cent of gain, many 
of the smaller farmers have been obliged during the past years to sell 
their farms. I am informed by an expert that during the years 1868- 
1892, 73,777 homesteads were publicly sold at auction in Bohemia, at a 
price of 167,108,656 florins ($67,876,114.34), thereby entailing a loss to 
the owners which amounts to about 131,102,441 florins ($63,227,391.06). 

OPENING FOR AMERICAN PRODUCTS. 

The United States has already made some satisfactory sales in 
Bohemia. This is the case with red winter wheat, which takes the 
place of Bohemian. Hungarian wheat finds a good substitute in 
Kansas wheat, but while Walla Walla does not seem to be a favorite, 
I learn that a cargo of 400 carloads of American wheat is to arrive m 
Hamburg on the 15th of this month, destined entirely for Bohemian 
markets. Again, on the Ist of this month 10,000 metric hundred- 
weights* red winter No. 2 and Kansas were bought on the Vienna 
Produce Exchange for Bohemian cities and mills. The reason wh5% 
at present, American wheat is bought only in Bohemia is to be found 
in the high freight rates of the Austrian railway companies. To-day, 
American wheat is sold as far south as Prague. It is carried on the 
Elbe River as far as Tetscheu-Bodenbach, and must then be moved 
by rail. This is a great impediment, buteveiy rise of a few kreutzers 
in the price of wheat opens another station toward the south to 
American wheat. The import from America would perhaps be larger, 
if American quotations would be made out for instant delivery and 
not for delivery in September or October, as at this time. Commis- 
sion merchants are, in consequence, very careful in regard to their 
purchases, deeming it possible that a change in the tendency of the 
home market may occur. 

On the other hand, American wheat meets with some opposition on 
the part of the bakers of this region on account of its being consider- 
ably drier than the Austro-Hungarian product. Yet, since this year, 
by a i)eculiar state of circumstances, they have had to use flour con- 
taining a less amount of moisture than that to which they are accus- 
tomed, their aversion to American grain will probably be lessened, 

♦Metric hundredweight =220. 46 pounds. 

C E— VOL 2 2 C"r^n,n]o 

Digitized by VjOOv IC 



18 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

and, even if future shipments to Austria naturally diminish, this has 
at least paved the way for an American export under favorable 
conditions. 

Geo. R. Ernst, Consul, 
Keichenberg, August 21, 1897. 



TRIESTE. 

I have the honor to submit my annual report on the navigation, 
commerce, and industries of Trieste. That it is brief, is due to the 
fact that I entered upon the duties of this office only six weeks ago. 
If instead of a few weeks, I had had as many months to familiarize 
myself with existing conditions, I should have been in a position to 
present a more creditable report. It is always unsafe to rely upon 
hearsay or the opinions of others in matters of this kind, and personal 
investigation requires time and a fair knowledge of local geography. 

VITAL STATISTICS. 

At the last census, taken on December 31, 1890, this city had a total 
population of 155,471, which has since increased to 162,417, if the 
offiicial estimates are correct. 

During the year 1896 there were 5,046 births, of which' number 628, 
or more than 16 per cent, were illegitimate. The total number of 
deaths was 4,661, which is 28.3 per thousand. The mortality of 
Trieste appears to be quite variable, having some years been as high 
as 40 per thousand. Consumption and other diseases of the respira- 
tory organs cause nearly one-fourth of all the deaths. The sanitary 
condition of tJie city certainly leaves much to be desired. It seems 
almost incredible, and yet it is a fact, that this city of 160,000 people 
is still without a modern system of sewerage. Epidemics, therefore, 
have been quite frequent in the past, and sometimes virulent. 

Another drawback to this port of Austria, from a hygienic point of 
view, is the climate. While the thermometer does not often fall 
below the freezing point near the Adriatic, people probably suffer 
more from the cold here than they do three or four hundred miles 
farther north. The "bora," a cutting north wind, blows in winter 
not unf requently eight or ten days in succession at a velocity of from 
20 to 40 miles an hour. Average daily velocities of 50 and 60 miles 
per hour have been recorded, and within the last few years a maxi- 
mum velocity of 83 miles per hour has been observed. It has been 
well said that Trieste is overventilated in winter and underventilated 
in summer. 

AGRICULTURAL DEPRESSION. 

The low prices of grain, which prevailed during the last few years, 
affected the welfare of the tiller of the soil in Austria-Hungary no less 
than on the other side of the Atlantic. The tax on land is high, and 
mortgages on farms are as frequent here as in the United States. 
Husbandmen have therefore found it difficult to make both ends 
meet. Prices of grain, it is true, have advanced during the last year; 
but as the last cereal crop of Austria-Hungary, like that of the remain- 
der of Europe, has been a failure, and a« the farmer has practically 
nothing to sell, the rise in the prices of farm products affords him no 



EUROPE: AU8TEIA-HUNGARY. 19 

relief. The condition of the small farmer (or peasant) in Europe is 
never an enviable one, but after a failure of crops it is truly pitiable. 
The vintage in this vicinity is of good quality, but not abundant. 

INDUSTRIES. 

There are, as yet, but few manufacturing industries in southern Aus- 
tria. With a surplus of labor and plenty of capital in this city, Trieste 
imports most of her manufactured goods from the north. Some say 
that enterprise is lacking, while others attribute the reluctance of 
capitalists to engage in manufacturing to the absence of skilled labor. 
There are also those who blame the railroad or the Gk)vemment for 
this condition of things. Whatever may be the cause of this indus- 
trial lethargy, a great waste of force is apparent. Thousands of coun- 
try people travel 5 and 10 miles every day to sell 50 cents' worth of 
poultry, butter, eggs, or vegetables in this city. I have asked the 
question, "Why do these people not sell their produce to a dealer at 
home, who could then haul to town what thirty or forty men and 
women now carry in their baskets? " The invariable reply to this 
question is that the average peasant does not own and cultivate more 
than 5 or 6 acres of land, that such a miniature farm does not keep 
his family busy, and that they might therefore as well peddle their 
owti produce as remain idle. 

I believe there is a better day dawning for the working people of 
the city and t-erritory of Trieste. Up to 1892 the city was a free port. 
This had both advantages and disadvantages. The commercial inter- 
ests undoubtedly fared better under the old regime. Trade was unim- 
peded and the cost of living was much lower, but manufacturing was 
out of the question, for in the collection of customs Trieste was treated 
as foreign territory, even in Austria-Hungary, and therefore could not 
compete with the manufacturing centers of the interior. Since the 
abolition of the free port, this drawback no longer exists. While the 
commerce of the port has suffered and the cost of living has materially 
increased, manufacture is slowly finding a foothold here. 

Among the principal manufacturing establishments in this city are: 

1. The shipyards of the Atistrian Lloyd, — The Austrian Lloyd is 
the principal steamship company of Austria, and has its headquarters 
in Trieste. It receives from the Government an annual subsidy of 
about $1,380,000 in consideration of certain mail and transportation 
contracts. Its fleet consists of between 80 and 90 vessels, which make 
regular voyages between this port and Italy, Greece, Turkey, the 
Levant, Egypt, India, and South America. The number of men 
employed in the company's shipyards at Trieste is about 2,000. 

2. The Stabiiimento Tecnico Triestino. — ^This company is also 
engaged in shipbuilding, and operates extensive machine shops as 
well. It employs 2,500 men, and has built most of the Austrian battle 
ships, cruisers, and gunboats. It is said to be well managed, and its 
affairs seem to be in a prosperous condition. 

3. Raffineria Trieshna di Olii Miner clLL — This company reflnes 
mineral oil. It employs 200 men, and has an annual output of 80,000 
barrels and 70,000 cases of kerosene, and of 4,000 barrels of lubricat- 
ing oil. It obtains all its raw material from Russian ports. 

4. The Trieste Cotton MiU Company,— This factory, with 20,000 
spindles and 500 employees, is located at Monfalcone, a small town 15 
iniles northeast of this city. The company confines itself to spinning 
and consumes chiefly American cotton. uigitzea by vjvjwv i\^ 



20 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Another Trieste company operates a cotton mill at Aidussina, 50 
miles north of Trieste. The plant contains 28,000 spindles, and is 
also fitted for weaving, bleaching, and printing. This mill uses 
chiefly Indian and Egyptian cotton, but I am informed by the mana- 
gers that they would prefer the American product, if better transpor- 
tation facilities could be had. They complain of irregular shipments 
and high freights. 

5. The Triestine MetaUurgic Company. — ^The name sufficiently 
indicates the contemplated scope of the company's business. The 
enterprise is still in its infancy, and has been damped by an unsatis- 
f actoiy market. At present the company is only manufacturing wire. 

^. Econom6*s Steam Flour Mills, — This plant employs about 150 
men and has a daily output of 1,000 barrels. Its entire product is 
consumed at home. 

In addition to these establishments, Trieste has an iron foundry, 
oil mills, rice mills, and ice, rope, and linoleum factories. Some of the 
new industrial enterprises have not yet passed the experimental stage, 
but there can be no doubt that the great majority of them will sur- 
vive and prosper. 

THE HARBOR OF TRIESTE. 

The port accommodations of Trieste are good. There is a depth of 
from 30 to 38 feet of water at the quays, which permits the largest 
steamers that enter this port to be berthed alongside. The facilities 
for loading and unloading vessels are adequate, especially in the new 
harbor. Since the abolition of the free-port privileges, the Govern- 
ment has erected extensive bonded warehouses along the quays, but 
storage rates are said to be rather high. As regards port charges, 
there is no discrimination made between the vessels of the United 
States and those of other nations. 

NAVIGATION AND COMMERCE. 

The navigation and commerce of Austria-Hungary have been 
adversely affected during the past year, by the Turco-Greek war and 
the plague in India. Since the establishment of peace in the Balkan 
peninsula, Trieste's commerce with Turkish and Greek ports is grad- 
ually reassuming normal conditions, but there is no immediate pros- 
pect of any great improvement in the East Indian trade. 

The total number of vessels that entered this port in 1896 was 
8,728, with an aggregate tonnage of 1,780,888 tons. Of this number, 
5,905 brought cargoes, while 2,823 arrived in ballast. 

Their nationality was as follows: 



Coantrles. 



Number. 



Anstria-HnnRrary 

Italy 

Great Britain 

Greece. 

Ctermany 

Turkey 



6,391 
1,945 

188 
123 

24 



Ton- 
nage. 



1,170,546 
262,186 
246,607 
49.305 
26,894 
1,W7 



Countries. 



Number. 



Sweden and Norway 

Russia 

Montene&rro 

United states 

Spain 

Belgium 



Ton- 
nage. 



5 I 
2 

1 
1 



9,623 

8.8t7 
181 
1.708 
2,049 
1,735 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



21 



The total number of vessels that cleared during the same period 
was 8,773, with an aggregate tonnage of 1,785,707 tons. Of these, 
5,932 had cargoes and 2,841 left in ballast. Their nationality was: 



Countries. 



Austria-Hungary 

Italy 

. Great Britain 

Oreeoe 

Germany 

Turkey 



Number. 



6,406 

1.971 

1>« 

137 

26 



Ton- 
nage. 



l,178.5iB 

258,011 

247,171 

40,172 

26,894 

1,018 



Countries. 



Sweden and Norway 

Russia 

Montenegro 

United States 

Spain 

Belgium 





Ton- 




nage. 


14 


10.841 


8 


8,847 


7 


24B 


2 


1.708 


1 


2,048 


1 


1.735 



It will be seen from the above table, that only two American vessels 
entered this port during the year mentioned. Only one vessel carry- 
ing our flag entered during the six months ended June 30, 1897. 

Steam navigation between Trieste and the United States, — ^Three dif- 
ferent lines of steamers run at present between Trieste and the United 
Stat/CS, namely: 

The Austro- American Line, with 8 ships; the Mediterranean Line, 
with 7 ships, and the Anchor Line, with 6 ships, having an aggregate 
tonnage of 14,000, 11,000, and 15,700 tons, respectively. These steam-' 
ers usually find full cargoes in the United States, but are less fortunate 
at Trieste. This compels them to call for freight at various Greek and 
Italian ports after clearing here, which causes delay in their journeys 
and is of great detriment to the commercial relations between this 
city and the United States. Their rates vary from 17 to 25 shillings 
per ton, and must be considered reasonable in view of the fact that 
the rates to Dutch and German ports are 15 shillings and to England 
from 14 to 17 shillings per ton. Tables E and F, hereto appended, 
will show the movement of vessels at the port of Trieste in detail. 

EXPORTS. 

Accoi-ding to the returns of the chamber of commerce, the total 
value of goods exported from Trieste during the year 1896 amounted 
to 308,806,351 florins, equal to 1125,375,378. 

The following table gives the values of the principal commodities 
exported: 



Articles. 



Value. 



Articles. 



Value. 



Textile fabrics and yarn 

ColTee 

Cotton 

Tobacco, etc 

Fruit 

Sufcar 

Clothins and millinery . . 

Hides 

Wood and lumber 

Wine 

Metals and metal ware . . 

Indisfo 

Alcohol and liquors 



120,199, 
15,112, 
10,810, 
7,248, 
5,644, 
4,967, 
4,212, 
4,165, 
3,600, 
2,946, 
2,666, 
2,397. 
2,206, 



Paper, pasteboard, etc. . 

Olive oil 

Sugar 

Rice 

Crockery 

Iron and ironware 

Wooden ware 

Tea 

Cotton oil 

Arms 

Drugs 

Knoppem, gallnut, etc . 



|2,195,40& 
2,150,906 
1,940,426 
1,880,380 
1,654,680 
1,487,798 
1.105,889 
1,061,284 
1,085,499 
1.002.659 
849.464 
805,763 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



22 



COMMERCIAL RELATION^. 



IMPORTS. 



The total value of goods imported was 332,858,128 florins, equal to 
$134,858,128. The principal imports were: 



Articles. 



Yalae. 



Artl(?li!UL 



V^ltiot 



Textile fmbrfc8«nd ymrn-^..—...- t@,33+,a(}l 

Ooflfee.. „„„.,, ..,.., „ H.SID,:;,'^ 

Cotton... ..,„ m,6aj,:^ 

Tobacco, oto_.,-„ , 7, 7*€. JtTW 

Prnlt , .. , 6,880/^*1 

Sugar. .„ ._„ 4. «P. i>4 

Hides......... .*.,„- i,ia»,42l 

Wine.. ., ......__..._, S,fln,tt»Eft 

Wood ^„„..„ a,B7S,i:ia 

Iron and ironware.....^....... ^. E. 77*11,8:^ 

Clothing and tnUlJtiory „_..„* S, flSl . litiT 

Bice.......... , *(life'j,M5 

Paper, ]iRstpbo«nl, ©te „.„.„, ir»ia^.{J31 

Metals and metal war« ^Bd^4M 



Htita and caps * 

Indigo ........ .^_.,, 

Alo4}hol Add llquon... 

Flour 

Grain ,.,.,. ., 

(Ik>ttoii and sosome oil 

Cattio -_.. 

Olive oil 

Crockery . . * _ .__* . ____. 

Tea... .— , 

Wooden ware ,. 

SfHidti 

Coal and ooke 



S£i, 101, 7M 
1,974.4(» 
1,6X1, (BO 

i,3«e,n» 

lpl(]£.8H5 
807,006 



From the above tables, it will be seen that Trieste is simply a center 

of distribution. The difference between the imports and exports of the 

' various commodities represents the local consumption or production. 

COMMERCIAL RELATIONS WITH THE UNITED STATES. 

The total value of imports from the United States into Trieste dur- 
ing the year 1896, was $4,230,688, an increase of $53(5,349 over 1895 
and of $1,770,763 over 1894. Official statistics, unfortunately, do not 
give in detail the values of the various classes of merchandise imported 
from each country. The importations from the United States during 
the first six months of the present year, show a marked increase in 
quantity over those of the corresponding semester of former j^ears. 
The importance of this increase would, I believe, be still more appar- 
ent if a detailed statement of the values of the various imports could 
have been obtained. I made several efforts to get such a statement, 
but was finally informed by the statistician of the chamber of com- 
merce that it would be impossible for him to furnish me reliable fig- 
ures at the present time. In fact, he admitted that the values given 
in his annual report were arrived at by an averaging process, only 
weights being reported to him. The commodities which show the 
greatest increase, during the six months ended June 30, 1897, are pre- 
served meats, clover seed, coffee, copper, cotton, flour, canned fruits, 
furniture, grease, lubricating oil, and especially vitriol, stearine, lard, 
tallow, and iron. 

Tables C and D, hereto appended, will exhibit in detail the move- 
ment of commodities between Trieste and the United States during 
1896 and the first semester of 1897. 

AMERICAN GOODS IN AUSTRIAN MARKETS. 

I am firmly convinced that American exports to Trieste could be 
considerably increased if the proper steps were taken by our manu- 
facturers and exporters. 

Bicycles find a good market in this country, although the wheel has 
not yet attained here that popularity which it enjoys in England and 
America. It is estimated that 2,000 American and 1,000 English 
wheels have, since the beginning of the present year, been sold in 



uigitized by VJ\„/v^v i\^ 



'6' 



EUROPE: AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 23 

Austria. The bicycles manufactured in this country have one advan- 
tage over their American and English competitors, that of cheapness. 
Homemade wheels are sold here for from tiS.to 180, while the prices 
of those of Blnglish and American production range from 172 to 1125. 

Fumibwre here is expensive, and is inferior both in style and work- 
manship. Folding beds and good upholstered rocking«chairs are 
practically unknown. Dining-room sets that can be bought for from 
$50 to $75 in America cost at least twice as much here. In parlor fur- 
niture, the difference seems to be still greater. 

Everything is made of pine and is flimsily veneered. In a few years, 
the veneer peels off and the furniture is only good for the garret. 
This is a common occurrence in a changeable climate. Our solid-oak 
furniture would, in my opinion, commend itself to the favor of the 
Austrian people. It should, however, be stylish and light. As all 
customs duties in Austria-Hungary are specific, heavy American fur- 
niture could probably not compete in price with the home product. 

The Austrian duty on furniture is (per 220 pounds) as follows: 

Common, ntained, painted, or polished, with marble, glass, or leather $2. 08 

Upholstered . but not covered 6. 09 

Upholstered and covered 12.18 

IroUy steely and sted tools ought to find a ready market in southern 
Austria. The tools in use here are, as a rule, clumsy and old-fash- 
ioned. If the native mechanic or husbandman is satisfied with them, 
it is simply because he knows of nothing better. The agricultural 
machinery is also very primitive, but it would probably ^ a thank- 
less task to try to induce the conservative peasantry to discard the 
wagons, plows ,and harrows of their fathers, as they are looked upon 
as family heirlooms. 

The duties on iron, steel, and hardware are (per 220 jwunds) as 
follows: 

Scrap iron and steel 10.32 

Ingots. .78 

Wrought iron and steel and iron nails 1. 13 

Wire (according to size) 1.62 to 2. 48 

Castings: 

Ck)nmion 8.24 

Polished or otherwise finished 1. 62 to 3. 45 

Iron or steel ware: 

Common 1.62 

Polished or painted . 8.45 

Boilers _ 8.45 

Bands, heavy hay forks, hoes, and shovels 2.84 

Cab(^ . 8.45 

Saws, not polished; large files and rasps, hammers and axes, light 

hay forks, hoes, ahd shovels 4. 06 

Saws, polished; small files and rasps, planes, chisels, scissors, etc. . . 8. 16 

Knives, firearms, steel pens, pins, etc 20.80 

A reasonable allowance is always made for tare, vaiying for iron, 
steel, and hardware from 1 to 9 per cent, and for furniture from 6 to 
20 per cent of the gross weight, according to the mode of packing. 

Leather^ boots and shoes. — Our leather is already highly appreci- 
ated, and large quantities of it are imported into Austria. A market 
might also be found in Trieste for United States shoes and boots, 
especially of the lighter kind. At present only handmade ware is 
worn here. The homemade article is cheap in price, but it is also of 
poor quality. The average price of calfskin congress shoes is from 
$2.50 to $3.50 per pair. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



24 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

The Austrian duty on boots and shoes is 35 florins ($14.21) per 
quintal (220 pounds). 

If an American shoe store were opened here by an agent familiar 
with the language, or, rather, languages, of the country, I believe it 
would prove a success in the long run. 

As a factory-made shoe would be an innovation in Trieste, the 
disposition of the native dealers to preserve the estoblished condi- 
tion of things would naturally cause them to rebel against it. There 
is, therefore, but little hope that a Triestine could be induced to go 
into the business unless the way is paved for him. 

Food products, — American cheese, oat meal, rolled oats, and canned 
goods, especially canned com, tomatoes, peaches, and apricots, might, 
with a little missionary work, be introduced here. There is also a 
demand for good winter apples, which I believe our apple growers 
would find it to their advantage to supply, if low freights and rapid 
transit could be secured. Such apples sell here at from 3^ to 6 e^nts 
a pound, according to quality and the season. As our apples have 
recently been sold at a good profit in southern Germany, I see no good 
reason why they could not be sold at a still better profit in Trieste. 

But while an increased demand for American goods can undoubt- 
edly be created here, it can not be done by correspondence. Almost 
every mail brings letters from American manufacturers and exporters 
requesting me to furnish them lists of dealers in their respective lines 
of goods. While I invariably comply with these requests, the corre- 
spondence ensuing between the parties hardly ever leads to permanent 
business relations. The Austrian merchant is either loath to buy 
goods the exact merits of which he does not know, and concludes not 
to engage in the business, or if he does give the goods a trial, they 
remain on his hands, because he lacks the energy to advertise them and 
to properly meet home competition. The fact is, the merchants of 
southern Austria are not good commercial missionaries. 

As regards manufactured goods, this market is monopolized by 
England and Germany. This is not due to the superiority of the 
products of these countries, but to the unceasing and systematic 
efforts of the manufacturing and exporting interests of these coun- 
tries through the agency of traveling salesmen. The Englishman 
finds it even possible to sell disguised Austrian products in this mar- 
ket at a profit. Occasionally, Viennese manufactures reach Trieste 
via England and are sold here as English goods, and the very goods 
which the Triestine refuses to buy of his own countryman he buys of 
the English stranger, whose sample case has won his entire confidence. 

If Americans desire to introduce new goods into European markets, 
they must learn a lesson from their English and German competitors 
and exhibit their goods to prospective buyers. It is a more expensive 
way to get customers than correspondence, but it is the only way that 
insures success. Letters and circulars in a foreign language receive 
but little attention, and are usually consigned to the wastebasket, 
for to translate them requires an effort, which the foreign merchant 
as a rule does not care to make. 

A commercial traveler who speaks the language of the native mer- 
chant, carries with him samples of the goods he wishes to sell, and is 
prepared to give prompt and exact information as to prices and terms 
of payment, is always sure of a respectful hearing; and, if he under- 
stands his business and the goods he offers for sale seem meritorious, 
he is likely to book an order. He has, moreover, an opportunity to 
personally survey the ground, and to inform himselg,|^|gi^ t^^g^^^f 



EUROPE: AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 25 

the place and the standing of the various firms that deal in his line 
of goods. 

If it is too expensive an undertaking for single American firms, a 
number of firms might join in sending representatives or, what would 
be better still, in maintaining permanent agencies in foreign ports. 

Commercial travelers require no license in this city or, as far as I 
know, in any other part of Austria; and foreign houses carrying on 
business here pay no taxes other than those to which native merchants 
are subject. Passports are desirable for identification, etc., but they 
are not needed for any other purpose. In fact, travel is as unre- 
stricted here as in the United States. Former subjects of Austria some- 
times come in conflict with the local authorities on returning to their 
places of birth, but I am not aware of a single instance where a native 
American traveling in this country was molested by the jwlice. 

Credits, — ^American shippers of cotton, wheat, pork, etc., usually 
draw sight drafts with bills of lading attached. As these commodi- 
ties are as a rule sold here for cash or on short credit, importers do 
not find it difficult to make prompt payments. But it is entirely dif- 
ferent in the case of manufactured goods. The importer, if he desires 
to make inland sales, must give long credits — six, nine, and even 
twelve months. It would therefore require an immense business 
capital to pay cash and sell on the terms mentioned. As European 
manufacturers offer better terms of payment than their American 
competitors, they have a decided advantage in finding customers in 
this market. I know of an instance where an American bicycle man- 
ufacturer lost the custom of one of the leading and most responsible 
dealers in bicycles in southern Austria because he demanded that 
all orders be accompanied by cash. Many Trieste firms refuse to buy 
American goods for cash, simply because they have always been 
accustomed to a different method of doing business, and regard the 
cash rule as a sort of imposition. 

Marking of goods. — ^There is no law requiring goods to be marked 
so as to show the country of their origin or manufacture. In cases 
where lower custom rates have been granted by treaty to favored 
countries, certificates of origin must accompany the goods. 

Excise or octroi duties. — Meats and liquors consumed in Austria are 
often subject to an excise or octroi tax, in addition to the importation 
duties which may have been paid on them. This tax varies in differ- 
ent communities, being much heavier in the large cities than in the 
smaller ones, but in its imposition no difference is made between the 
products of Austria and those of other countries. 

Prices of commodities, etc. — The condition of the laboring classes is 
not satisfactory. Wages are generally low and living high. The lat- 
ter is especially true of Trieste. Since the abrogation of the free-port 
privilege in 1892, the prices of fuel, dry goods, and groceries have ad- 
vanced 25, and in some instances even 50, per cent in this city. I 
give below the present market prices of some of the principal articles: 

Sheeting per yard.. $0.26 

Woolen blankets (doable width) perpair.. 4.00 to 8.00 

Wheat floor: 

Pine per pound.- .05 

Common .- do .04 

Beef: 

Best do.... .28 

For sonp do .12 

Veal do -.^ ^ .20 

P<^^ Di^n^lfrn^GoOgle-l^ 



26 



COMMERCIAL BELATION8. 



Ham perpotind-. $0.80 

Butter: 

For table use do .85 

Common do .20 

Cheese _ do _.. .32 

Potatoes do OOfto .01 

Rice , do .05 

Milk , perquart.. .05 to .06 

Eggs., per dozen.. .20 to .80 

Coffee perponnd_. .30 to .40 

Tea do eO to 1.00 

Sngar do... .07i 

Kerosene pergallon.. .25 

Wood ...per cord.. 10.50 

Coal perton._ 10.00 

Emigration from southern Austria to the United States is on the 
increase, although it is greatly discouraged by the Government. The 
province which furnishes at present the largest number of emigrants 
IS Dalmatia. These people are, in my opinion, not a desirable acqui- 
sition of our country. Although they are, in a measure, industrious, 
a large per cent of them are illiterate; and their habits, idiosyncra- 
sies, and traditions will, at least for a generation or two, prevent their 
amalgamation with the Anglo-Saxon race. 

Frebk. W. Hossfeu), Consid. 

Trieste, October 30, 1897. 



Imports from tJie United States into Trieste for the year 1896 and the first six 

months of 1897. 



Articles. 



Aloes 

Arms, parts of 

Bacon 

Bark for tanning 

Beef , prei^ared 

Chemical products 

Crockery 

Clover seed 

Coal and coke 

Coffee 

Copper 

Cotton: 

Raw 

Mannfactnred 

Drngs 

Earths and diverse minerals . 

Eatables 

Flour 

Fruits: 

Fresh 

Dried and canned 

Furniture , 

Grease 

Hardware 

Hog bristles 

Iron 

Iron: 

Cast 

Manufactured 

Leaa 

Lard 

Leather and leather goods . . . . 

Lumber 

Maize 

Machines: 

Diverse 

Sewing 

Melting poljp 




Pounds. 
6.730 

125,400 

1,780 

87,780 

24,420 

1,100 

28,820 

407,640 

686,960 

6,188,700 

7,898,220 

220 

802,280 

1,004,080 

2,640 

62,700 



660 
1,820 
71,75JO 
1.540 
2,860 
4,271,740 

184,200 

74,800 

4,891,480 

1,147,740 

209,280 

12,604.020 

223,080 

787,140 



8,860 



First six 

months of 

1897. 



Pounds. 



60,380 
4,620 



17,880 



1,624,160 
8,666,420 

7,616,180 



84,920 

981,260 

4,620 

124,800 



1,760 
27,281) 
201,080 



5,280 
14,440,960 

22,660 

29,700 

8,906,820 

8,898,840 

103,620 

6,610,780 



1,182,780 
7,260 



Digitized by VJ 



oogle 



EUROPE: AUBTRU-HUNGARY. 
Imports from the United States into Trieste — Contmned. 



27 



Artideii. 



1896. 



First six 

months of 

1897. 



Hetol and alloys 

Hotlier-of -pearl 

Mnsical instmments . 
OU: 

Cotton-seed 

Turpentine, etc... 

Ethereal 

Lubricating 

Paper 

Paraffin and ceresin.. 

Plants, dried 

Potatoes 

Roots 

Rosin 

Rum 

Seeds 

Soaps 

Sponges 

Staves 

Stearin 

Siucar, glncose, ere... 



PoundB. 



i,7eo 
aeo 

23,904,80) 
427,680 



144,760 

2,800 

1,709,000 

4,620 



7,040 
22,068,800 



25,740 



220 

16,fi0O 

8.960 

688,820 



Tobacco 

Tamers' and engravers* products. 

Varnishes 

Vitriol 

Wax 

Wood, manufaotured 

Yarns 



166,820 
2,640 
8,080 

560,000 
8,740 

112,860 
660 



Total 

Total pieoes. 



90,723,600 
16,560 



Pounds. 
82,780 



12,830,400 

527,130 

1.640 

1,117,380 

2,200 

440 



15,054,100 
6,820 



5,280 
284,240 

27,6U0 
585,420 

68.640 
421,740 



1,966,580 
" "i6,'7a) 



76,265,080 
27,690 



Exports from Trieste to the United States for the year 1896 and the first six months 

1897. 



Articles. 




Barbary juice 

Bricks, for building . 
Citrons. 



Citrons, pickled. 
Coffee., 



Cuttlefish bones 

]>ruga and chemicals . 

Prult, dried 

Onm 



Out. 

Herbs, roots, etc 

Insect flowers and powder. 

Macaroni 

Macbinerv, parts of 

Mother-of-pearl 

Kutgalls 

oar 



Polishing earth . 



Skins 

Sponges 

Sugar , 

Tartar, raw 

Tobacco 

Turpentine 

White lead 

Wines and liquors 

Wood for dyeing purposes . 

Zinc dust 

MisoaUaaeous 



Total. 



SS28.55 

409.25 

8,649.83 

28,542.36 

20,929.04 

4,967.72 

5,096.90 

19,979.51 

62,226.68 

446.00 

20,215.58 

124,500.15 

5,604.57 

225.88 

382.26 

814.81 

7,205.16 



5,778.42 
4,607.48 
243,335.40 
4,100.80 
2,797 97 
1,712.85 
1,366.46 
970.48 
2.818.12 
4,448.06 
8,001.58 



463.68 



685,424.51 



First six 

months of 

1897. 



1474.21 



10,989.00 
2,257.14 
675.98 
5,774.78 
18,280.54 
268.710 
12,076.80 
46,500.20 
1,004.81 



2,958.81 

4,519.94 

2,891.44 

1,587.58 

172,877.01 

7,430.93 

8,411.04 

6,669.39 

2,806.75 

1,156.22 

6,276.87 

1,802.37 

287.65 

812.50 



301,912.99 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



28 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Movement of vessels between Trieste and the United States in 1896 ^ according to flag 

and tonnage. 





Entered. 


Cleared. 


Flag. 


Steamers. 


Sailing vessels. 


Steamers. 


Sailing: vessels. 




Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tons. 




12 

17 


22,085 
25,272 


4 


2,672 


11 
21 


20,660 
37,700 


3 


2,716 


C4reftt Brltftin . ' ... 




Italy 


9 
2 
2 


5,054 
1,906 
1,708 






Ruflsia. 














United States of America 










2 


1,708 














Total 


20 


47.807 


17 


11.680 


82 


68,878 


6 


4.424 




*«7 1 ., . 





Movement of all vessels in the port of Trieste for the year 1896, 



Year. 


Sailinflr vessels. 


Steamers. 


Number. 


Tonnaffe. 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


1895 T 


3,608 
3,127 


127,073 
126.865 


4.487 
5.601 


1,682,062 


1806.. 


1,654,023 






Tnrr'ViSO - 




• 


1,114 


21,041 


Decrease 


471 


1,108 











Principal imports at Trieste for the year ending December SI, 1896, 







Countries whence imported. 




Articles. 


Austrian 
ports. 


Qreat 
Britain. 

■ 


United 
States. 


France. 


Italy. 


Alcohol 


Pounds. 

863,320 

864,540 

5,040 

1,760 

22,880 

60,600 

2.420 

31,240 

660,140 

6.576,000 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


24,420 

89.000 

480,260 


Pounds. 


Argols 


--•-. 




8,020,840 
660.000 


AonhAltnin 






Bacon 




125,440 

1,760 

87,660 


Bark 


21,660 
24,200 




48,780 

22,440 

7,260 


Beef 




Boots and shoes 




Brass 


27,600 








Bran 




1,020.160 


2,016.060 


Brick and tiles 


1,413.060 
632,040 




62,775,240 


Cacao 


62.260 


226.060 

20,680 

7,480 

51.480 


808,000 


Cement 


944,020 
44,660 


Cheese 






722.260 


r!hem*cftl products . 




24,^ 

407,640 

624,700 

2,640 

5,188,700 


31.460 


cSh.r!^.?.™.: . : :: : 


80.840,460 

368,540 

2,284,100 

80,080 
62.140 

228,740 
88,660 

1.545.280 


364.558.700 
1,102,180 


1,421,200 


Coffee 


5,187,600 
20,700 


3,075,180 


Comestibles 


84,920 


Manufactured 




Scraps 




2 941,840 


Cotton: 

Raw 


273,240 
100,760 

84,540 
575,740 


7,808.220 
220 




2 986,500 


Manufactur*^ . 




' 54,120 


Extracts: 

Tanning 






Dveinir 








Fish: *^ 

Prepared 


78,820 






60,720 


Herring 


668,480 
1.188.600 






55,880 


Cod 








180,840 


Sardines, Halted 


876.020 

666,820 

0.240 

1,140,060 

580.000 

4.820 

780,120 

40,640 






828,000 
713.680 


Fresh 








Dried and smoked 


21,840 






L»,980 

201, ObO 

03,668.620 

210,700 

8.660 060 

110,220 

110.880 

1,320 

14.747.700 


Flour 


62,700 


121,880 

711,041) 

2,420 


Fruit, oranges and lemons 




Capers .". 






St. Johns bread 






Chestnuts 








Citrons 








Dates 


U7,So 


887.420 
18.480 




88,000 
47.740 


Dried figs 





i!iigitizeci by VJV^v^v i\^ 



EUROPE: AUHTRIA-HUNGART. 



29 



Principal imports at Trieste for the year ending December SU 7^96— Continued. 







Countries whence imported. 




Articles. 


Austrian 
ports. 


Great 
Britain. 


United 
States. 


Prance. 


Italy. 


^Imrknclg . -.. - 


PwindM. 

437.680 

260,160 

2,200 


Pound*. 


Pounda. 


Pound: 

1M,220 

18.040 

66,120 

4,180 

1,760 

660 

689,040 


PoufuU, 
10,765.140 


Nuts 


14,300 




1.706. 540 


Olives 




9.020 


Pine kernels 






126,280 


Pistachio 








14,^ 


Pi^n^q 


1.182,500 

1.540 

1,212.200 

450,840 

22,660 

26.400 

89.820 

276,320 

68.740 

22.880 

4,400 

4,620 

220 

21.780 
739.ftiO 

46.760 
107,140 


3,520 






Onrrftntfi ..- 






Fresh fruit . . 






4,888,400 


Prepared fruit 




660 




112,640 


Oram: 

Barley 








MiiiKA 




228,080 




1,140,940 


MiUet 






Oats 








2,007,500 


Wheat 










Hay 








4,606,200 


Ueinp 


38.000 






4.982.780 


Manufactured .... ... 






15.840 


TnHiffn 


12,780 
1,804,880 




5,730 


622.500 


Iron: 

Raw 


4.271,740 


Scraps 




41,360 


TlRm» ..... - - 


6,247,120 

2,782.180 

141,240 

904,400 

1,980 

220 

82,060 

107,800 

81,840 

4,840 






Steel 








Sheet 








Galvanized 


408,960 
880 








Wire. :7/.::::::::.: :.:.:.... 




1,820 




Needles 






Anchors . 


62,680 
168,400 
46,860 






13,200 


Chains - 






Nails . . 








Rones 






660 


pSS?:::::::::::.:::::::::::::::::::: 


440 




1,100 


440 


Rails .... ... 








TMvRrii, manuf acturffd 


81,180 
6,600 


1,628,060 

116,160 

660 

201,080 

"■'837,646" 


209,000 




871,800 


Jute: 

Raw 




18.920 


Manufactured . . .. 






46,640 


Lard 


2,420 

1,434,400 
615,840 


1.147,740 

4,180 
60,880 




S;200 


Leather: 

Leather and hides 


18,420 
486,820 


88.880 


Hides of cows and oxen 


2.824,800 


Calfskins 




Divers skins 


61,380 


1.320 




7,260 


60,280 


Pelts, divers, manufactured 




5.500 


Sole leather 


7.480 
3.960 
16,840 
32,560 
5,500 


206,920 

8,80U 


212,740 
1,980 




445,060 


Divers 


880 


163,020 


Scraps 




MiM^hinm (parts of) 


676.501) 
8,140 
1,760 

25,300 
67,100 

1,368,720 
8,580 


437,140 


20,020 


297.2^ 


Sewingr'^ 


9,240 


Melting pots 


8.860 






MetalH?^ 

MATinfactured . . . 


52,800 
2.200 

19,140 




7,200 


Divers 




660 


4.400 


Oils: 

Cotton seed 


28.904.320 
427. 68U 
144,700 


23,320 


Turpentine 






Lubricating^ 






46.420 


Petroleum 


1,820 

0,460 

183,920 

122,320 

80,580 

9,680 


13,640 
210.980 
164,560 

"STi.MO" 
12.760 




30,580 


Paraflln and ceresin 


1,760,020 




20.680 


Bice 




15,682.480 


Bouin 


22,058,800 
302.280 


1.004,960 
844.800 




Spioes 


836,080 


Buflrar 




Divers . .. 


683,820 

891.440 

600 


1 


Tallow 


538,340 
62,700 


■■"286,"486' 




234,960 


Textiles 




15. 180 


Tin 




89.760 




3,614,220 

10,560 

41,061,900 

a3, 670,588 

141,210 

38,160 

927,300 

19,140 


""""3l8;726* 


166,820 
560,000 






Vitriol 


"""Il6,'886" 

'"l83."646* 
156.980 
150,480 
19,360 


629,420 


wbie..::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::: ::: 


81,656,800 


Wood: 

Divers 


20 
138,100 

9d."886* 


16.600 

12.604.000 

114,180 


480 




1,341,340 


Manufactured 


266,420 


Wool 


309,540 


Manufactured . .. 4 . . 















a Pieces. 



uigitized by VJ^^v.'V iv^ 



30 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Principal imports at Trieste for the year ending December SI, 1596— Continued. 





Countries whence imported. 




Artldea. 


Turkey. 


Greece. 


Russia. 


Germany. 


Other 
countries. 


TotaL 


Alcohol 


Pounds. 
29,700 
669,680 
2S»,660 


Pounds, 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 
60,400 


PoHovd: 

466,840 

4,994,440 

1,366,860 

1,271,160 

93,500 

194,700 


Argols .-..-- 


890,780 







Asphalttim ... 








Bacon 










Bark 


8,580 










Beef - 










Boots and shoes 


6,800 










16,300 

67,540 

20,707,080 

70,765,200 

1.525,040 

970,200 


Brass 


5,280 
2,146,880 






3,525 

5,195,620 


Bran 


9,609,800 


221,100 




Brick and tiles 




Cacao •--• - .-- 








225,060 


146,640 


Cement 


6,500 






Cheese 


53,680 






134,860 

76,120 

1,839.800 

67,215,940 

43,560 

665,600 
63,580 

115,074,620 
43,780 


962 640 


Chemical nrodncts .* 








183,480 
464,560,580 


Coal 








7.402,780 
7; 096, 100 


Coffee 


9,6S»,180 
12,540 

140,360 






97,068,180 
2,472,140 

7,296,060 
3,105.520 

132, 97b, 920 


Comestibles 






Mannfactnred - . 


31.240 
47,960 






Scraps 






Cotton: 

Raw 


6,222,700 
20,020 






Mannfactnred .... 








851,660 

1,579,820 
575,740 

139,040 
624.360 


Extracts: 

Tanning -.- 








Dveins 












Pish: 

Prepared ...,.,. .r 












Herrinar ..-. 












oo^ ::..:: 










. 767,140 
511,500 


2,0e6,4HO 
1,211,320 
1,380,500 

167,200 

1,534,7:» 

97,868,1a) 

218,020 
9,761,840 

156,860 
1,228,020 
1,447,160 


Sardines, salted 










Presh 










Dried and smoked 


2,640 










Flonr 










Capers 


2,196,680 


149,820 






610,940 






St. Johns bread 


887,420 


43,840 








Chestnuts 








Citrons ... 


758,120 


860,920 








Dates 






960,680 


Dried figs 


16,548,800 

63,460 

7,843,000 

46,860 

2,860 

1,100 

1,320 

81,887,260 

11,880 

335,000 

15,840 
662,420 

67,320 
9.880,160 

65,120 

11,000 
223,960 


28,618.680 

4,840 

10,780 

183,480 

22,440 


69,960 




60,198 540 


Almonds 




7,480 
99,880 
2,200 


11. 412; 720 

9.951,700 

808.880 


Nnts 






Olives 






Pine kernels 






155,760 


Pistachio 






220 


17.820 


Prunes 








1,188,000 


Currants 


10,554,730 
118,960 


10,120 




814,000 


43.888.680 


Fresh fruit 




6;^;^ 


Prepared fruit 






6,600 


905,300 

474,540 

5,196,900 

201.620 

14,817,660 

24,868.740 

4,730 140 


Grain: 

Barley 




436,040 




Mai«A 






3,134,120 

94.380 

1,012.000 

1,778,480 


Millet 








Oats . 


83i,820 


1,300,860 
22,466,400 




Wheat 




Hay 






Hemp r 


17,600 


27,060 




6,160 

1,980 

1,270,500 

178,200 

2,784,540 

128:200 

529,320 


6,dOO.a» 
22 440 


Manufactured ... 




Indiffo 


1,320 


220 






1,813,240 

6,276,600 

7,147 580 

6,783,260 

3,368,640 

141,240 

1,408,880 

4,180 

440 


Iron: 

Raw 








812,400 


3,269,640 






Bars 




362,120 


Steel 








Sheet 










Galvanized 












Wire 












Needles 


220 










Anchors 










147,840 

826,480 

146,060 

5.500 


Ch«^in8. 










220 
12.540 


Nails 


660 






4,140 


Ropes 






Bile 












1,980 


Builii 










31,460 
70.620 

816,200 

igitizec 320 


81,460 
2,788,440 

957,880 
47.520 


Divers, manufactured 


22,000 


4,840 


880 




Jute: 

Raw 




Manufactured 








u 


Lard 










i,aS;^ 



EUROPE: AUSTRIA-HUNGABY. 



31 



Principal imports at Trieste for the year ending December SI, i^6— Continned. 





Countries whence imported. 




Articles. 


Turkey. 


Greece. 


Russia. 


Gksrmany. 


other, 
countries. 


TotaL 


Leather: 

Leather and hldee 


Pounds. 

6,732,320 

2,480,600 

82.120 

72,0U0 

68»140 
18, 820 
5,600 
13,800 
14,900 
220 


Pounds. 
2,609,820 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 


Pounds. 

366.020 

0,169.600 

7,480 

18,920 


Pounds. 

10,199,640 

13.466.080 


Hides of cows and oxen. 


62,140 




Calfskins 


6.000 
54,120 

6,880 




44,660 
274,600 

70,840 
890,120 
210,760 
249.700 


Divers skins , 






Pelts, divers, mann- 
ftustnred 






Sole leather 








Divers 




*"*" 




24.820 
88,2i» 
3,740 


Scraps 


181,780 






M»chiT)o<f (pnr^ff of) , 


5,600 




1,487,640 
23,100 


Sewing '. ^ 






Meltinsnots 










10,120 


MeSls:^ 

Mannfactnn^ 


220 
440 










85,680 
80,300 

25,306,600 
468. »2>) 
203,600 

28,058,8(Ni 
2,042,9^1 


Divers — 


1,100 


290 




4,480 


Oils: 

Cotton Feed 




Tnrxientine 




22,600 
















12,326 

14,080 

31.020 

71,708,140 


Petroleum 


46,166 




27,954,086 

i;7eo 




Paraffin and ceresln 




"'8,"9B7,'606 


Rice 







91.671.620 

28,200, 1(«) 

7,583,900 




86,200 
19,140 
0,000 


39,880 




8pioe6 




87.400 


6.602.860 


Sugar 






29,040 


Divers 










683,320 


Tallow 










200.200 


1,864,940 
382,300 


Textiles 


38,280 


6,060 






Tin 






2,423,960 

909,040 

21.780 

268,280 


2.513,720 


TV>^)acco. . . 


9,166,400 


100,320 


09,740 




18, 416, 070 
1,626|480 


Vitriol 




Wine 


4,060,140 


9,206,320 






136,377,120 


Wood: 

Divers 






a8, 087.631 


Foreign 






105,440 


i6,"6fl6' 


1,261,920 
40,220 


15,830.100 


Hannxactnred 


0.800 
1,920,380 
1.028,720 




628,740 


Wool 


273,240 




8,814,800 


Mannfkctnred 


40,860 




22,660 


1, 136, 740 











a Pieces. 
Exports from Trieste for the year ending December SI, 1896, 



Articles.. 



Alcohol 

Amber 

Ai ma, parts of flre . 

Bags 

Beer 

Bran 

Bricks, tiles 

Brimstone 

Cement 

Clothes. 

Coal 

Coffee 

Colors 

Coine<<ttbIes 



Quantity. 



Copper.. 
Scrap 



ftps 

CotUm: 

Raw 

Manufactured... 

Crockery 

Earth, coloring, etc . 

Pish, cod 

Flour 

Fruits and nuts 

Oallnuts 

GlaKSware 

Grain* 

Barley 

Maise. 



Pounds. 

24.742,740 

8,060 

2,686,100 

2,002,290 

19.423,140 
6.607,320 
1,331,440 
3,060,860 
6,871.800 
2,851,420 

30,006,680 

27,846,940 

1,901,44C 

8,024,900 

387,420 

1,018,160 

3,014.000 
10.682,820 
1,184,480 
6,754,440 
1,968,340 
82,001,700 
11,750,860 
5,179,020 
10,560,600 

1,680,600 
1,748,600 



Articles. 



Grain— Continued. 

Oats 

Wheat 

Gum 

Hardware 

Hay 

Iron, raw and manufactured. . . 
Leather and skins 

Manufactured 

Lime, hydraulic 

Machinery, parts of 

Matches 

Metals, divers 

Mineral waters 

Minerals, divers 

Oil: 

Olive 

Lubricating 

Petroleum 

Cake 

Paperpulp 

Paper 

Paraffin 

Pasteboard 

Pitch 

Planta, dried, prepared, divers. 

Porc^elain 

Potatoes 

Pulse, dried and fresh . 



Pounds. 
1,019,260 
1,545,060 
1,229.680 
5,516,940 
1,868.060 

26,924,620 
7,329,180 
1.194,600 
8,687,600 
1,681.460 

11,608,860 
0,082.060 
4,461,820 
4,503,900 

8,679,880 
1,019,400 
0,414,320 
9,855,600 
8,404,900 
42,790,380 
6.227,540 
10.732.200 
1,175,080 
2, 00). 380 
1,476,800 
5,030,240 

, 23,371,040 

Bice I 17,802,100 



Quantity. 



32 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

Exports from Trieste for the year ending December SI, i^56— Continued. 



Article& 



Quantity. 



Articles. 



I Quantity. 



Rosin :.. 

Rum , 

Salt, cooking 

Seeds, divers 

Soap 

Spices 3, 

Stone: 

Crude , 

Manufactured 

Sugar 

Sumac , 



Pounds. 
2,931,720 
1,219,680 
9,416,580 
3,357,200 
3,180,740 



2,783,440 

1,056,660 

in, 189, 980 

1,568,820 



Textiles 

Tobacco 

Vitriol 

Wine 

Wood: 

Divers 

Furniture 

Dyeing purposes. 
Wool 

Manufactured 



Pounds. 
8,004,260 
1,041,920 
1,847,120 

10, 712,020 

a 20,010,343 
6,387,010 
2,177.120 
2,009,100 
6,939,340 



a Pieces. 



. Navigation at the port of Trieste for the year ending Deccihber SI, 1896. 



Flag, and 
from or to- 


Entered. 


Cleared. 


Sailing ves 

sels. 


Steamera 


TotaL 


Sailing ves- 
sel. 


Steamers. 


ToUl. 


Austria-Hun- 

gary:, 
Austrian 

ports 

Algiers 

Argentine 

Republic . 
BelgTum.... 


Na 
1,493 
4 

1 


Tons. 
80,983 
1,673 

683 


No. 

4.053 

2 


Tons. 
423, ai3 
1,694 


No. 

5,646 

6 

1 
3 
16 
2 


Tons. 
464,326 
3,367 

683 

4,011 

23,697 

2,283 


No. 

1,615 

2 


Tons. 
31,839 
376 


No. 
4,088 

1 


Tons. 
414,845 
220 


No. 

5,653 

3 


Tons. 
446,684 
506 


3 
16 


4,011 
23.697 






2 

16 


2,650 
23,665 


2 

16 


2,650 
23,665 


HrfLKil 










Chile 


2 


2.283 








Cyprus 






3 

1 
1 


367 
303 
610 


""to 

105 


■i38,'763 
87,123 


3 
71 
106 


367 


Egypt 

France 


2 


606 


69 
83 

1 
3 

34 


139,214 

64,310 

309 

1.668 

41,960 


71 

83 

1 

10 

36 
4 
12 
12 
357 

1 


139,820 

64,810 

309 

2,493 

42,670 

1,522 

29,826 

27,666 

162,640 

526 


139.066 
87,733 


Germany... 






Greece 

Great Brit- 
ain 


7 

2 
4 


825 

710 
1,622 


21 


3,085 


4 
14 


1,&33 

18,228 


25 

14 
1 

12 

13 

336 

2 

1 

34 

53 

3 

3 


4,918 

18,228 
604 




1 


604 


Japan 


12 

12 

337 


29,626 
27,656 
161,161 


12 

13 

322 

2 
1 

34 
53 
2 


29,442 
28,714 
148,903 

2,606 

261 

36,725 

70,699 

1,649 


29,442 
28,714 
152,255 

2 605 


inaia :: 










Italy 

Nether- 
lands 


O) 

1 


1,379 
626 


14 


8,352 


Portugal . 










'261 


Roumania.. 






19 
25 
2 


20,905 
31,366 
2,136 


19 

25 

2 


20,905 

31,355 

2,135 






36,725 


Russia 










70,509 
2,332 

488 


Spain 






1 
3 


685} 

48f< 


Tripoli 






Tunis 






1 
143 

12 


220 
128,065 

22,085 


1 
107 

16 


220 
131,485 

24,707 








Turkey 

United 
States.... 


24 
4 


3.430 
2,672 


13 
8 


1,961 
2,716 


128 
11 


105,345 
20,669 


141 
14 


107,296 
23,386 


Total... 


1,584 


47.292 


4.827 


1,123,254 


6,391 


1,170,546 


1,578 


46,274 


4,828 


1,132,239 


6,406 


1,178,513 


Belgium: 
Russia 




1 


1,735 


1 


1,736 












France 










1 


i,r^i 


1 


""i,'735 

















Total . . . 






1 


l,r85 


1 

1 

4 

21 


1.735 






1 


1,735 


1 


1 735 










Germany: 

P«L9il 






1 

4 

21 


765 

4,705 
21,424 


765 

4,705 
21,421 














Great Brit- 
ain 


















Hamburg .. 










21 

1 
2 
»> 


21,424 

76;> 

2,a» 

2,3?^ 


21 
1 
2 
2 


21 424 


Italy 










765 


Roumania.. 


















2,333 


Turkey 


















2,372 






















Total... 






26 


26,891 


26 


26,894 






28 


26.8S« 


2d. 894 












Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 33 

Navigation at the port of Trieste for the pear ending December 31 ^ tS96 — Continaed. 



Flag, and 
from or to— 






Entered. 






bail 




CI 

St€ 


eared. 






SaiUuff ves- 


Steamers. 


Total. 


tL'^ 


»mer8. 


Total. 


Greece: 
Austrian 

porta 

Fninoe 


No. 

6 

1 

30 

8 


Tons, 
340 
217 
3,635 

772 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 
6 

1 
33 
3 


Tons. 
640 
217 
4.478 

772 


No. 
1 
2 

41 
1 
1 

26 


Tons. 
63 
404 

280 

353 

1,064 


No. 



Tom. 


No. 

1 
2 

41 
1 
1 

81 


Tons. 
63 






484 


Greece 


3 


838 






4,504 


Italy 

Bnnia 






230 


* 








363 


Turkey 


28 


2,821 


52 


40.873 


80 


43,104 


55 


41,454 


43.488 


Total... 


88 


7,604 


55 


41,711 


123 


40,305 


72 


7,718 


55 


41.454 


127 


40.172 


Great Britain: 
Algiers 






1 
1 


530 
1,258 


1 
1 


530 
1,268 












Anstrian 
nor ts 










7 
1 
1 
3 


8.060 

064 

1,660 

8,155 


7 

1 
1 
3 


8.060 


OrDms 










064 


Sypt-.".. 


















1,660 


France 


















3,165 


Ghermanv 






1 


1,578 


1 


1,578 








Greece 










9 
87 


12.786 
107,628 



87 


12,786 


Great Brit- 
ain 






181 
20 
6 



168,467 
86,722 

6,trr6 

4,451 


131 

2U 

6 




168,467 
86,722 
6.076 
4,451 






107,623 


India 












Italy 










9 
1 
5 
11 
1 

11 
21 

21 


18.072 

248 

6,773 

18, m 
1,840 
5,628 

80,142 

87,700 


9 

1 
5 
11 
1 

11 
21 

21 


18.072 


Mi^it^ 










248 


Ronmania. 










6.778 


Boaafa 






1 


810 


1 


810 






18,121 


Spain 










1.340 


•rtinls 






1 


630 


1 


580 






5,620 


Turkey 










80,142 


Uni ted 






17 


26,272 


17 


25,272 






87.700 














Total... 






188 


246,607 


188 


246,607 






188 


247,171 


188 


247,171 










Italy: 

Algiers 

Austrian 

^Ppj-ts 

Pranoo 


2 
418 


465 

17,015 






2 

577 
41 


465 

24.011 
88.123 


1 

870 

1 

1 

1,102 

1 


174 

18,001 
778 
67 

48.760 
416 






1 

647 

8 

1 

1,876 

1 


174 


150 
41 


6,006 
88,128 


168 
2 


11,662 
1,806 


24,663 
2.666 


Greece 






67 


Italy 

Malta 


1,022 


42,217 


240 
8 


"••SJ 


1,271 
3 
1 
18 


160,161 

857 

102 

18.110 


274 


142.612 


101,872 
416 


Morocco. . 


1 


102 








Rnumania- 


18 


18,110 














Buasia 






1 
1 


748 

647 






1 

i 

2 

88 


748 


Spain 

T^nis 


1 


804 






1 


804 






647 






% 
36 


428 
86.774 


428 


Turkey 

Uni ted 
States 






1,841 
5.064 


18 


13,560 


22 



14.010 
5.064 


2 


66 


86.840 




















Total... 


1.402 


«7,678 


488 


104,008 


1,045 


202.186 


1,480 


64,652 


482 


108,860 


1,971 


258,011 


Montenegro: 
Italy.Tr..... 
Montenegro 
Turkey 


2 

1 
2 

5 


72 
85 

74 






2 

1 
2 


72 
85 

74 


















2 
6 


70 
178 






2 
5 


70 










1T8 












Total 


181 






5 


181 


7 


248 






7 


248 














Russia: 
Austrian 
ports .---. 






2 


626 


2 


826 














Italy 






1 


667 






I 
6 

1 


667 


Russia 






4 


7,016 


4 


7.016 


6 


7,542 


7,542 


Spain 






1 


688 


638 


Uni te d 
States 


2 


1,805 






2 


1,805 


























Total... 


2 


1,805 


6 


7,642 


8 


8,847 


2 


1,305 


6 


7,542 


8 


8,847 


Srain: 
India 






1 


2,040 


I 



2,040 














Russia 










1 


2.049 


1 


2.048 



C R— VOL '1 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



34 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

Navigation at the port of Trieste for the year ending December SI, 1896— Contixmed. 



Flajf, and 
from or to— 


Entered. 


Cleared. 


Sailinflrves- 


Steamers. 


Total. 


Sailing ves- 
sels. 


Steamers. 


Total 


Sweden and 
Norway: 
Austrian 
ports 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 

1 


Tons. 
1,040 


No. 

1 


Tons. 
1,040 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 


Tons. 


France 










3 


2,266 


3 


2,266 


Great Brit- 
ain 






8 
10 


4,606 
3,065 


3 

10 


4,606 








Italy 






8,085 




* 


8 
1 
2 


2,760 
1,780 
3.536 


8 
1 
2 


2,760 


Russia... 












1,780 


Turkey 


















8,680 






















Total. .- 






14 


0,023 


1* 


0,823 






14 


10,341 


14 


10,341 














Turkey: 
Austrian 

ports 

Franoe 


2 

1 

1 

20 


60 
240 

25 
802 






2 

1 

1 

20 


60 
240 

25 
802 






























Italy 

Turkey 























22 


1,018 






22 


1,018 










Total 


Zi 


1,207 






24 


1.207 


22 


1,018 






22 


1,018 














United States: 
Italy 




1 








2 


1,706 






2 


1,708 


Un i t e d 
States. 


2 


1,706 






2 


1,706 



























RECAPITULATION. 



Austrla-Hun- 

^gary 

Belgium 

Germany 

Greece 

GreatBritain 

Italy 

Montenegro.. 

Russia 

Spain 

Sweden and 
Norway — 

Turkey 

UnitedStates 

Total... 



1,664 



68 



1.462 
6 
2 



3,127 



47,2024,827 

26 
65 
188 
483 



7.6 



67,678 

181 

1.805 



1,207 

1.708 



14 



126,805,5,601 



1,128,254:6,3011,170,646 



i,ra5 

26,894 

41,711 

246,607 

194,608 



7,542 
2,040 

0,623 



1 

28! 

123> 

188i 

],»45 

6 

8 

1 

14 
24 
2 



1,735 

26,894 

4»,3()5 

246,607 

262,186 

IHI 

8,847 

2,049 



1,207 
1,708 



1.654,0238,7881,780,888 3,172 128,0235,601 



1,678 
72 



1.4 



2 



7,718 



46, 274 4, 828 1, 132, 280 6, 406 1, 178, 518 

I II 1,735 li 1,786 

26* 26,894l 26; 26,894 

55 41,464 127| 49,172 

188; 247,171 188 247,171 

64,662' 482 103,8601,071 258,011 

248| 1 7 248 

1,806 6 7,642 8 8.847 

1 2,040 1 2,040 



1,018 

1,708 



14 



2,040 
10,341 



1,662,784 



8,773 



10,841 
1,018 
1,708 



1,786,707 



MERCHANT MARINE OF AUSTRIA 

The official Maritime Almanac of Austria for 1898 has just made its 
appearance. It is a publication of great value, replete with nautical 
and hydrographic information. It contains, among other details, 
a register of the naval and merchant vessels, an enumeration of the 
light-houses, beacons, and buoys in Austrian waters, a description of 
the various Austrian harbors, piers, and wharves, and, finally, a 
resum6 of the laws and ministerial orders concerning maritime affairs 
which have come into force during the past year. 

1 cull the following from the statistical tables relating to navigation 
and shipbuilding: 

The merchant fleet of Austria, in the year 1897, comprised 1,705 ves- 
sels, with a tot^l burden of 189,744 tons. Of these, 1,626 were sailing 
vessels and 179 were steamers, with an aggregate burden of 46,868 
and 142,876 tons, respectively. Compared with 1896, there was a loss 
of 20 sailing vessels and a gain of 17 steamers, or a loss of 3 vessels in 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUBOPE: AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



35 



all. There was, however, a gain of 15,151 tons in the aggregate bur- 
den. The total number of seamen was 7,836, a gain of 126 over 1806. 
Here, as everywhere else, the number of sailing vessels has been con- 
stantly decreasing during the past decade, while there has been a 
constant and marked Increase in both the number and tonnage of 
steamers. 

Of the 1,705 vessels comprising the merchant marine of Austria, 
142 (95 steamers and 47 sailing vessels), with a total burden of 159,031 
tons, were employed in the foreign trade, 47 (21 steamers and 26 sail- 
ing vessels), with a total burden of 9,027 tons, were long-range coast- 
ers, and 1,516 (63 steamers and 1,453 sailing vessels), with a total 
burden of 21,686 tons, were short-range coasters. 

The number of fishing boats of all sizes was 10,336, with a total 
crew of 24,247 men, an increase of 224 boats and 363 men since 1896. 

Austria has 17 shipyards and 24 stocks. The total number of ves- 
sels built in 1897 was 17. Twelve of these were sailing vessels, hav- 
ing an aggregate burden of 275 tons and costing 38,125 florins 
($15,250); and 7 were steamers, having an aggregate burden of 10,160 
tons and costing 2,371,200 florins ($962,707). During the year, 138 
sailing vessels and 124 steamers were repaired, at a total expense of 
1,907,640 florins ($774,502). 

The number of men employed in shipbuilding was 3,337, a decrease 
of 1,113 since the year previous. 

Fred. W. Hossfibld, 

Consvl. 

Trieste, January 16, 1898, 



EXPORTS DECLARED IfOR THE UNITED STATES. 

Value of declared exports for the United States at the several consular offices in 
Austria-Hungary during the year ended June 30, 1897. 



Articles. 




Quarter ending- 




Total. 


Sept. 30. 


Dec 31. 


Mar. 31. 


June 30. 


BUDAPEST. 

Books 


$20. ao 


1902.92 


$1,209.78 
60.90 

298.25 


$775.10 


$2,998.10 
60.90 


Cape 


Cfanrch ntensUs and em- 
broideries 


660. M 


603.03 


126.28" 


1,347.22 
126.28 


Colon 


OottOD KOOdS - r.,. 






880.61 
1.171.50 


880.61 


C6w*sliair 




451.60 

173.28 

10.15 


3.602.43 


5.285.62 


Earthenware and majolica... 


7B2.19 


965.47 


|9:iA«^trot3rpes --' -- 






10.15 


Floor 






447.26 
2,875.70 


447.25 


Qlansware 


4,9»2.60 

68.82 

437.40 

2.226.80 

978.98 


1.840.82 


2,112.00 


11,821.02 


Qlovee 


68.82 


Glue 


487.77 
506.86 

4,126.24 

157.95 

601.88 

34,901.62 

628.36 

42.68 

262. ra 

1,860.81 






925.17 


Hf*Tbs and rootfl 


106.66 
657.19 
129.27 


968.76 


3,805.57 


Marmalade of pranets and 
jelly 


6,762.41 
498.39 


MeerscbAum pipes and tobac- 
co - 


211.17 


iiifmt*t 


510.86 
43,990.66 


1,012.08 

124,650.65 

1,044.51 


Mineral water 


2.707.82 
120.92 


43.050.66 
386.24 
30.45 
522.70 


Oilof Jonlper berries 


Paper leaves - 


43.67 


116.80 


Bed pepper 


313.43 
8,530.49 


1,098.86 




1,311.06 


6,202.30 


Bongb wood 


3.710.60 


8,710.69 


Sansason 


18.27 






18.27 


Silverwares - 






157.95 


157.96 


Siphon bottles 


731.41 






731.41 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



36 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Valm of declared exportn for the United States at the several consular offices in 
Austria-Hungary during the year ended June 30^ 1897 — Continued. 



ArticleB. 



Quarter ending- 



Sept, ao. 



Dec. 31. 



Mar. 



June 30. 



Total. 



BUDAPEST— continued. 



Skins and wool 

Shoemakers* paste,. 
Umbrella sticks — 
Wines and brandy . 

Total 



12,156.86 



$4,078.38 
1,162.62 



8,684.40 



4,473.98 



$2,656.61 
718.86 
461.03 

13,006.86 



$17,457.03 
82.66 



6,046.85 



$26,344.28 

1,963.93 

461.03 

27,804.19 



62,522.50 



56,556.47 



30,237.17 



80,512.80 



239,828.94 



Sugar (beetroot) 

Bent- wood furniture 

Belladonna, leaves, roet tred- 
lawmosssagre 

Fusel oil 

Sage leaves (ordinary), sa- 
vory leaves 

Zinc dust 

Gkxatskins 



290,701.36 
2,597.62 



242,181.48 
2,155.02 

661.49 



Total. 



Artificial flowers 

Baskets 

Buttons 

Carpets 

Chemicals 

Colors 

Cutlery.. 

Glassware 

Hairpins 

Hosiery 

Metal ware 

Musical instruments . . . 

Pine pitch 

Porcelain and pottery . 

Sparterie 

Toys 

Velveteen 

Wooden goods 

Miscellaneous 



Total. 



PRAOUK. 



Bed feathers 

Beer 

Beet-root sugar 

Books 

Buttons 

Calfskins 

Carlsbad Sprudel salt. 

Clay 

Collars and cuffs 

Cotton goods 

Cutlery 

Dress goods 

Drugs and chemicals . . 

Dyewood ex tract 

Embroideries 

Fezcapft 

Furniture 

Glassware 

Gloves 

Glove leather 

Graphite 

Gum 

Hair, human 

Hops 

Lentils 

Linen goods 

Metal ware 

Mineral water 

Mushrooms, dried 

Musical instruments... 

Oilpaintiuffs 

Paper goods 



929,708.81 
340.88 

501.54 
612.40 

325.97 
785.71 



420,948.89 



2,661.08 
1,984.70 



1,881,185.34 
5.093.52 



512.40 

825.97 
3,446.79 
1,964.78 



425,694.75 



929,960.11 



244,947.99 



293,298.98 



1,893,801.83 



4,406.91 

263.40 

7,194.06 



2,820.70 

12.53 

8,587.60 



5,258.08 



8,845.77 
268.67 



1,647.12 

22.60 

21,654.61 



13.682.81 
288.4b 

41,281.91 
268.67 



779.15 

7,838.29 

210,065.48 

78.11 



7,623.98 
86,310.84 



7,668.93 
44,843.19 



1,283.66 

19,715.48 

125,472.47 



1,060.18 



131.28 
1,737.72 



160.06 
8,0i2.82 



2,742.36 



2,002.30 

42.846.68 

465,711.96 

78.11 

291.33 

8,582.08 



291.29 

70,078.90 

2,013.35 

1,145.28 

1,646.70 

200.18 

69.90 



84,666.23 
313.67 



a5,276.00 
2,665.65 



66,961.83 
4,705.78 



662.62 
99.64 



1,413.02 



2,411.88 
"■i74."29" 



291.29 

196.976.96 

9,598.35 

1,145.28 

6,132.67 

299.82 

234.19 



307,124.55 



136,466.71 



99,842.18 



246,791.82 



789,728.76 



84,747.62 
26,600.88 
808,873.71 
5,474.73 
6,787.36 



42,489.62 

27,548.81 

800,413.10 

6,311.30 

1,172.80 



6,437.13 
1,421.54 
3,407.68 
322.28 
1,290.47 
22,666.08 
12,997.29 



7,746.46 

884.14 

1,489.67 

1,800.72 



14,287. 
33,240. 
247,068. 

4,072. 

1,604. 
14,275. 
.11,297. 

1.074. 

2,854. 



114,644.40 
31,184.28 

611.566.88 
8.835.86 
6,388.29 



20,439.66 
1,202.70 
9,930.23 



9,968.60 

18.199.8« 

686.10 

848.09 



7,095. 
20, 170. 



18 



1,107.84 

20,428.98 

8,706.68 



421.79 



1,878.44 
61,4M.86 
170,138.97 



2,859.79 

4,657.07 

2,072.95 

852.16 

13,228.18 

761.82 

1,945.92 

1,606.44 

17,247.57 
1,321.12 
4,925.62 



83,984.74 
54,828.81 
1,889.16 
1,253.40 
2,125.04 
5,527.81 
82,812.48 



26,294. 
107,156. 



3,068. 
9,240. 
6,660. 



74 



800.00 

979.11 

75,078.42 

248,585.76 

389.91 

866.66 

2,404.11 

14,688.67 

1,544.05 



5,115.29 
666.42 
1,529.71 
1,560.18 
7.886.04 



8,857. 
603. 
981. 



11,727.69 
4.266.24 
1,760.13 



8,992.14 



8,264. 
"6,930. 



47 



15.024.79 



50 9.220.ar 

Digitized by 



256.119.69 

118,473.97 

1,962,941.96 

19.693.96 

15,852.86 

14,275.66 

45,920.04 

4,583.20 

17.681.54 

1,622.95 

2,397.81 

60.149.54 

65,0r3.30 

1,585.33 

1,602.26 

800.00 

2.857.55 

197,112.17 

676,700.35 

2,279.07 

2,109.95 

10,457.77 

34,114.20 

43,080.31 

852.16 

88,928.66 

6,108.19 

6,206.90 

8,056.62 

48.422.87 

i,a2i.i2 

24*068.23 



^^jv^v.'x^^ 



EUROPE: AU8TEIA-HUNGAEY. 



37 



Value of declared exports for the United States at the several consular offices in 
Austria-Hnngary during the year ended June 30^ 1897 — Continued. 



Articlea 



PRAOUK— continued. 



Perfumery 

Porcelain and pottery . 

Potash 

Skeletons 

Smokers' articles 

Substitutes for coffee. 

Sugar-beet seed 

Sundries 

Tartar emetic 

Toys 

Wines and liquors 

Wood pulp 

Wool 

Woolen floods 



Total. 



REICHENBBRO. 



Beads 

Barrel organs 

Buttons 

Cloth and woolen goods 

Cotton goods 

Oamets and precious stones. 

Glassware 

Imitation precious stones 

Jewelry 

Linen goods 

Metal ware 

Photo frames % 

Pictures 

Porcelain goods 

Sparterie 



Quarter ending- 



Sept. 30. 



$191,485.84 



685.09 



Dec. 31. 



$03,605.87 
6,588.04 



1,351.82 



1,37:3.84 
'6,698.07" 



7,856.75 
802.27 



1,470,940.99 



4,763.89 

97.86 

18,704.10 

1,081.86 



987.16 
33,069.12 



78.909.32 
102,363.86 



162.40 



Sparter 
Toys... 



Toys. 

Blankets 

Bourette goods . 

Wine 

Sundries 



Total. 



TRIESTE. 



Barberry Juice 

Bricks for building 

Cedars 

Coffee 

Cuttle bones 

Drugs and chemicals 

Fruits, dried 

Oum 

Guts 

Herbs, roots, etc 

Insect flowers and powders 

Macaroni 

Machinery, part of 

Mother-of-pearl shells 

Nutgalls 

Oils, etc 

Polishing earth 

Seeds 

Skins, hides, etc 

Sponges 

Sugar 

Tartar, raw 

Tobacco leares 

Turpentine 

White lead 

Wmesand liquors 

Wood, dyeing 

2Sincdnst 

Pepper.- 

MtooeDaneous 



Total- 



2,702.00 



14.20 
222.15 
116.75 



243,153.66 



3,649.83 



1,100.22 

8n.l7 

3,437.40 

2,026.42 



6,299.93 

25,934.78 

1,4(J3.77 



176.04 
700.44 

2,887.48 

279.01 

28,946.05 

1,083.08 



563.24 



310.59 
2,050.62 



2,006.30 

2,220.90 

994.67 



238.54 



32,668.24 
4,427.10 



713,896.63 



1,600.15 

106.74 

5,582.42 

1,380.42 



426.00 

8,756.05 

7,626.78 

,25,968.16 

'86,860.49 

431.33 



827.38 
610.78 



287.67 



168.47 
66.21 



139,071.05 



409.25 



2,640.77 
8,059.22 
1,619. IC 
10,265.48 
14,328.30 



6,726.56 
40,623.99 

2.321.33 
2».88 
882.26 
138.77 

4,311.86 
963.60 

3,048.87 

121,788.78 

948.25 



1,361.66 

600.44 

1,034.77 



344.32 



Mar. ai. 



$207.06 
61,527.26 
6,076.26 



167.38 

600.98 

1,282.96 

252.70 



660.6^ 



47,348.10 
6,288.77 



658,622.48 



4,413.63 

181.48 

7,062.28 

5,871.97 

363.17 

216. 17 

8,316.69 

27,985.93 

38,112.78 

163,380.05 

1,242.31 



1,714.66 
826.76 
646.68 



35.78 



259,760.19 



474.21 



7,125.08 
774.10 
405.61 

5,649.08 

5,871.46 
258.70 

5,057.11 

22,977.86 

785.88 



1,772.06 
963.84 



139,620.25 
2,678.75 
3,411.64 



1,766.13 
916.76 

6,276.87 
881.14 



81,294.03 217,088.24 205,849.97 96,063.02 



June 30. I 

1- 



$144,563.84 
8,015.89 



1,682.97 



847.63 
1,377.16 
6,849.68 
2,370.51 



20,074.49 



1,392,355.34 



4.865.51 



5,137.84 

5.401.89 

380.79 

311.00 

38,562.06 

82,161.46 

26,049.00 

228,704.61 

1,232.00 



854.50 

1,982.18 

267.33 

346.30 



13.20 



845,760.71 



3,864.61 

1,488.06 

270.37 

225.74 

12,900.09 



7,019.69 
23,612.84 



1,186.75 
1,928.10 
1,587.53 
22,766.76 
4,866.18 



6,690.89 
558.62 
239.46 



971.28 

287.65 

812.60 

4,519.94 



Total. 



$207.06 

491.072.81 

19,678.19 

685.09 

167.32 

5,732.02 

3,603.86 

3,467.74 

1,377.16 

L3,846.21 

2,370.61 

1,028.88 

107,446.58 

10,498.14 



4,235,815.84 



15,533.06 

888.07 

86,476.64 

13,716.14 

74:3.96 

1,940.32 

88,693.92 

67,774.17 

160,029.26 

680,299.01 

2,905.73 

152.40 

681.88 

7,009.57 

604.00 

1,194.85 

222.15 , 

115.75 

168.47 

105.14 



987,744.60 



474.21 

409.25 

3,649.83 

13,680.46 

6,476.50 

2,672.25 

19,477.71 

34,636.26 

258.70 

25,103.28 

US, 148. 97 

4,729.91 

225.88 

882.26 

314.81 

7,971.10 

6,742.42 

4,915.41 

813,105.84 

9,471.26 

8,411.64 

6,699.39 

2,8n.99 

1,156.22 

6,638.43 

2,613.40 

8,881.94 

812.59 

4,519.94 

844.32 



600,246.26 



Digitized by VJ^^v.'V i\^ 



38 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Value of dedured exports for the United States at tlie several consular offices in 
Atistria- Hungary during the year ended June SO, 7A?i>7— Continued. 



Articles. 



Quarter ending- 



Sept. 80. 



Dec. 31. 



Mar. 31. 



Jnne 30. 



Total. 



Albomen 

Amber 

Argols 

Art. works of 

Artificial flowers 

Baaket and basket ware. 

Black lead 

Books and i>ai)er 

Brushes 

Buttons 

Carbons 

Carlsbad sprudel salt ... 

Caps 

Carpets 

Cloth and woolen goods. 

Collars 

Corks 

Cotton goods 

Dresses 

Drugs and chemicals 

Pelt , 

Fans 

Pur 

Furniture 

Glassware 

Olores 

Glue 

Graphite 

Hair, animal 

Hats and caps 

Jewelry 

Leather and skins 

Leather goods 

Linen goods 

Machines and parts of 

'Magneslte , 

Malt 

Matches , 

Meerschaum, crude 

Metalware , 

Musical in.stru"^ent8 

Ozocerite and ceresin 

Paper goods. 

Porcelain and pottery 

Pulp 

Scientific instruments .. . 

Shoes and boots 

Shell and bone ware 

Silks and velvets 

Smokers' articles 

Soaps and perfumery 

Stained glass 

Sparterie 

Stationerv 

Sugar, refined 



$6,284.07 



$6,476.20 



18,717.27 
12,850.70 
9,639.66 



2,258.80 

698.91 

29,626.61 

9,262.11 



1,608.92 
23,800.96 



17,426.10 
1,205.66 

21,639.96 
2,614.61 

29,189.68 



23,790.42 

32,627.02 

27,204.07 

487.50 

6,020.68 

874.66 

4,966.17 

666.93 

1.213.17 

16,602.71 

44,060.90 

761.27 

10,690.59 

370.41 

1,825.42 

4.832.13 

46,369.74 

829.66 

12,990.12 

8,623.86 

22,404.39 



6,873.68 



1. 106.61 

37,210.47 

13,193.81 

994.27 



6,919.01 
18,680.02 
8,897.43 



2,834.68 

606.26 

66,798.46 

6,646.89 



23,802.68 
2,207.97 



11,922.04 
1,291.22 
4,877.43 



32,468.46 



16,982.98 

26,646.81 

11,702.14 

263.80 



4,981.22 
611.06 



4,112.68 

13,844.86 

49,367.31 

916.86 

13,424.16 



2,794.30 
6,887.00 
24,860.25 



6,840.90 
3,822.97 
8,076.30 
8,326.72 
3,802.06 
280.67 
1.678.64 
86,460.43 
4,788.78 



1,246.20 



9.97 



Tobacco. 

Toys 

Umbrella fixtures and sticks. 

Wax figures 

Winee and liquors 

Wooden ware 

Miscellaneous 

Wool 



849.77 
7,311.85 
8,770.21 
1,009.95 
8,467.92 
7.969.22 



2,190.82 
14.761.07 
619.27 
6,m.60 
8,768.47 
6,361.63 
7,066.82 



$1,839.78 



10,118.47 

1,645.81 

7,065.19 

16,808.82 

262.93 

2,304.65 

196.65 

61.892.10 

11,118.00 

sn.io 

309.34 

1,460.47 

43,078.68 



4,194.34 
14,622.00 



14,623.61 
1,037.65 
48,159.14 
410.61 
17,504.60 



17,786.99 



1,816.34 



6,734.16 
10,186.13 
47.961.00 



20,616.97 



1.253.30 
6,928.87 
12,021.68 

876.23 
7.256.31 
7,322.32 
3,267.49 

665.73 
1,788.49 



2,179.66 
14,825.09 
5,068.31 
231.74 
2,164.64 



4,284.23 

276.48 

427.83 

31,246.99 

1,536.36 

7,297.40 

1,844.66 

1.687.18 

7,346.92 



$4,608.39 
3,010.62 
9.918.13 
6,082.76 
716.67 
9,883.46 



2,847.48 

243.84 

67,088.84 

12,389.86 



366.77 
"6i,'899."6r' 



13,666.78 

685.81 

1,424.17 

276.38 

14,2U.09 

472.82 

14,084.10 

35,164.23 

30.966.27 

444.82 

1,666.46 

1.351.45 



9,396.84 

66,349.86 

821.29 

30,264.47 



7,417.77 
28,320.83 

1,470.27 
12,323.25 

2,619.66 

6.668.66 



2,106.88 



2,846.02 
48,852.76 
16,204.64 



1,749.40 
261.06 
687.20 



906.42 
7,963.58 
30.882.99 
638.76 
2,698.67 
6,212.80 
2,176.08 
14,776.68 



$19,197.99 

8,010.02 

20,096.60 

82,284.85 

89,161.48 

44,729.37 

282.93 

9,746.41 

1,641.66 

216,806.60 

80,402.46 

871.19 

676.41 

2,964.39 

152,141.78 

2,207.97 

4,194.84 

67,634.98 

3,182.U 

41,966.17 

4,628.64 

1;B4,023.97 

882.96 

72,302.00 

121,026.36 

87,640.47 

1,195.62 

6.606.00 

8,472.67 

5,577 20 

666.93 

11,060.01 

57,927.53 

207.ra8.0fl 

1,988.42 

74,895.19 

870.41 

5,873.08 

25,040.46 

110,562.50 

2,175.06 

37,900.66 

16,888.80 

89,405.84 

3,902.45 

14,070.43 

280.57 

7,708.42 

135,839.84 

38,254.94 

1,226.01 

6,140.80 

261.06 

1,207.17 

4,284.23 

2,031.63 

17,884.08 

86,160.26 

8,760.34 

19,242.89 

18,814.66 

12,844.20 

29,179.32 



Total. 



638,782.60 



466,470.73 



619,480.87 



592,205.43 



2,116.939.62 



RECAPITCJLATION. 



Budapest .... 

Fiume 

Halda 

Prague 

Reichenberg 

Trieste 

Vienna , 

Total.. 



$62,622.60 
425,694.76 
307,124.66 
1,470,940.99 
243,163.66 
81,294.06 
638,782.66 



3,129.413.06 



$56,656.47 
929,900.11 
136,466.71 
713.806.68 
189,071.05 
217,(198.24 

466, 470. ra 



2. 6.%. 468. 84 



$30,237.17 
244,947.99 
99,842.18 
668,622.48 
269,760.19 
206,849.97 
619,480.87 



2,018,240.86 



$80,612.80 
»3,296.98 
246.791.32 
1,302,856.34 
345,769.71 
96.063.02 
692,205.43 



3,040,966.60 



$229,628.04 

1,803,801.83 

789,728.76 

4,235,815.34 

987,744.60 

600.246.26 

2,116,039.02 



10,853,499.35 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 39 

BELGIUM. 

ANTWERP. 
COMMERCE IN 1896. 

According to returns, the general trade between Belgium and other 
countries during the year 1896 exceeded that of the preceding year. 

The total imports and exports combined are 11,111,236,000 (5,757,- 
700,000 francs), a total larger than that of the year preceding by 
$47,844,700 (247,900,000 francs), or 4 per cent. 

Importations for local consumption, for direct transit, and for stor- 
age at the bonded warehouses are not included in this figure of 
$1,121,236,000, giving the total of last year's importations an increase 
of $25,572,600, or 4 per cent. 

The general export business in domestic and foreign merchandise 
amounted to $525,017,900 (2,720,300,000 francs), an inciease of $12,- 
272,200 (115,400,000 francs), or 4 per cent. 

Foreign products that Belgium imported for its own consumption, 
added to ite own produce and manufactures exported during 1890, 
amount to $626,207,800 (3,244,600,000 francs), representing an increase 
of 6 per cenl. 

The total value of foreign merchandise entered for consumption 
here in 1896, amounted to $342,903,100 (1,776,700,000 francs), showing 
an increase of $18,585,900 (96,300,000 francs) over that of 1895, which 
was $334,317,200 (1,680,400,000 francs), or 6 per cent. 

The total of domestic products exported reached the sum of $283,- 
304,700 (1,467,900,000 francs), an increase of 6 per cent, or $15,922,500 
(82,500,000 francs). 

The exports to the United States were, in 1896, $9,437,700; in 1895, 
$8,993,800, showing an increase of 5 per cent. 

The increase in exports was confined to the following articles: Raw 
sugars, $1,715,770 (33,344,000 kilograms) r window glass, $729,733 
(3,257,000 kilograms) ; raw India rubber, $195,416 (169,000 kilograms) ; 
chemical products, $182,192; raw textiles — hemp, tow, and flax, $80,- 
025 (430,000 kilograms) ; coal, $72,761 (21,518 tons); metals and manu- 
factured steel, $41,495 (211,000 kilograms). 

The decrease in export was principally in raw hides, $652,919 (2,502,- 
000 kilograms); metals, lead, $62,339 (12,427,000 kilograms); glass, 
with the exception of broken glass and window glasses, $243,566; 
tanned skins, $132,591; rags, $121,783 (1,802,000 kilograms); cement, 
$105,764 (18,260,000 kilograms) ; with dyes and colors, $73,919 (792,000 
kilograms). 

The import direct from the Unit,ed States was, in 1896, $37,504,800; 
in 1895, $25,649,700; showing an increase of $11,855,100, or 31 per 
cent. 

This increase in the merchandise imported was classified as follows: 
Copper, nickel, $894,169,500 (3,991,000 kilograms); vegetables and 
vegetable substances, oil seeds, etc., $621,653 (13,418,000 kilograms); 
chemical products, $513,959; drugs, $445,830; live animals, horses, 
mares, $243,180 (2,037 head); vegetable oils other than food, $240,285 
(2,650,000 kilograms); tobacco, unmanufactured, $229,477 (1,080,000 
kilograms); oak and hickory, $229,284 (6,519 cubic meters); pewter, 
$208,633(1,249,000 kilograms); resin, bitumen, petroleum, $176,209 
(12,432,000 kilograms) ; timber other than oak and hickory, $146,487 



40 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



(9,422 cubic meters); mineral substances not classified, $131,626; 
resin and bitumens unclassified, $93,798 (1,941,000 kilograms) ; animal 
substances other than wax and grease, $87,043; machinery, etc., 
unclassified, $50,373; dyes and colors, $41,302 (800,000 kilograms). 

A decrease in the importation of the items hereinafter named is 
wortihy of notice: Wheat, $148,610 (1,400,000 kilograms); coffee, 
$96,307 (168,000 kilograms); raw textiles, hemp, tow, and flax, $66,585 
(576,000 kilograms); and honey, $57,128 (293,000 kilograms). 

Belgian imports from the United States during tlie year 1896, 



Articlea 



General commerce. 



Special commerce. 



Starch 

Live animalw: 

Cattle 

Draft and breed horses. . . 

Firearms 

Wood: 

Oak, hickory 

Building timber 

Cabinet, etc ,.... 

Gocoa beans, peel, and butter. 

Ck>£Fee 

India rubber 

Canned edibles 

Drugs 

Fruit 

Grain 

Flour and bran 

Oils 

Olive oils 

Machinery 

Wax 

Qrease 

Other 

Minerals 

Textiles: 

Linen, hemp, oakum 

Cotton 

Wools 

other 

Haberdashery, hardware 

Metals: 

Copper 

Pewter 

Lead 

Zinc .• 

Honey 

Hides: 

Baw 

Tanned 

Chemical products 

fieshi and bitumen: 

Petroleum , 

other 

Molasses 

Tobacco: 

Leaf 

Manufactuired 

Dyes and colors 

Ou seeds 

other 

Vegetable substances 

Meats 

Merchandise in general 

Total 



Francs. 
104,000 

(£91,000 

l,e06,000 

70,000 

S,mKJ.00O 

3,t<nijioo 

;^it'»jOO 

■M.rOO 

1, %<>. iKK) 

Uf.^, <pOO 

:>;:. ijOO 
3, r,:^| . iiOO 

5;.IU!M4J0 

^.:4:jioo 

IP.iiOO 

MmOO 

io.+jji.jioo 

L^tijJJOO 
l,iI^,U0O 

617,000 

17,640,000 

887,000 

2,000,000 

446,000 

8,789,000 
8,763,000 

113,000 
13,000 

840,000 

1,233,000 
8,207,000 
4,742,000 

22,611,000 

6,010,000 

106,000 

lO.WHOOO 

;->i.ooo 

i^.^i'-jjWO 

;J77J)00 

T.^^iTi. 1)00 

l:i. 4(^.1)00 

I. Till. 1)00 



206,620,000 



120,072 

119,853 

300,058 

13,610 

652,660 

787,067 

69,068 

8,402 

286,606 

87,685 

4,246 

488,488 

247,812 

11,184,157 

251,008 

401,671 

27,509 

812,858 

19,300 

2,014,920 

238,356 

272,516 

99,781 

8,406,257 

161,641 

807,580 

88,885 

1,096,277 

726,250 

21,800 

2,6(19 

67,357 

237,960 
636,821 
915, 106 

4,844,624 

1,833,630 

19,879 

2,066,944 

261,286 

140,504 

622,426 

. 72, 761 

1.523,736 

2,405,562 

907,208 



Francs. 
100,000 

621,000 

1,606,000 

68,000 

2 nn noo 

;i.!tVi,{joo 

i7r\ riflo 

41,(100 

iLk iiOO 

f'.^JOO 

.'tJil.iiOO 

;VJ.'.*W^i,<iOO 

iJiC^JJOO 

::..vi7ji00 

liJ.uOO 

665,000 

82,000 

10,224,000 

1,212,000 

1,871,000 

617,000 
7,132,000 

205,000 

1,300,000 

64,000 

8,694,000 
3,761,000 

113,000 
13,000 

282,000 

1,151,000 

355,000 

4.601,000 

22,611,000 

6,908,000 

96,000 

6,882,000 
846,000 
548,000 

8,225,000 
877,000 

7,801,000 
11,906.000 

1,262,000 



80,860,007 



178,660,000 



$19,300 

119,863 

309,958 

13,126 

457,608 

768,315 

33,775 

7,913 

318,432 

12,150 

1,158 

480.184 

96,093 

10,421,614 

116. 186 

480,641 

27,509 

100,045 

15.826 

1,973.232 

233.916 

264,603 

90,781 

1,876.476 

66.935 

259.900 

12,352 

1,677,942 

725,873 

21,800 

2,500 

60,566 

222,148 
68,516 
908,363 

4,844,628 

1,832.279 

18,528 

1,185,226 

66,778 

106,764 

622,425 

72,761 

1,622,963 

2,296,244 

243,566 



83,814,450 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 
Belgian exports to the United States during the year 1896. 



41 



Artiolea. 



Oeneral commerce. 



Special commerce. 



Firearms 

Garredwood 

India rubber 

Coal 

Canned edibles 

Vefretable iirodnoe 

Rags, etc 

Drugs 

Thread: 

Woolen 

Linen 

Silk 

Wearing apparel 

Alcohols 

Machinery 

Grease 

Animal sabetances 

Cement 

Other 

Linen, hemp, oaknm 

Other textiles 

Crockery, hardware 

Steel: 

In bars, 8heet8,etc 

Worked 

Iron: 

In bars 

Wrought 

Oast 

Lead 

Zinc 

Objects of art 

Paper 

Hides: 

Raw 

Tanned 

Worked 

Pottery, china and porcelains 
Products: 

Chemicals..- 

Manufacturing 

Typoflrraphical. 

Resin and bitumen 

Sugar 

Dyes and colors 

Goods: 

Cotton 

Woolen 

Linen, etc 

Silk 

Straw 

Other 

Vegetable substances 

Glassware: 

Panes 

Other 

Meats 

Wines 

Other articles 

Total 



] . ^t^i. iO) 

750,000 

283.000 
1.868.000 
6,488,000 

688,000 
1,164.000 
1,606,000 

911,000 
3,678,000 

348,000 
1,820.000 
6,806,000 
8,873,000 

240,000 
641,000 

608,000 

640,000 

82.000 

7,000 

68,000 

240.000 

1,022,000 

1,613,000 
515,000 

1,905,000 
760,000 

6,338,000 

03,000 

382,000 

607,000 

11,060,000 

1,081,000 

11,100,000 

12,667,000 

298,000 

36,478,000 

1,826,000 

100,000 

2,448,000 

6,686,000 

3,on,ooo 

220,000 
8,640,000 
6,660,000 



156,811,000,000 



$258,4^ 
424.966 
278,113 
206,448 
780,760 
60,602 
482,114 
460,848 

146,487 

44,060 

383,684 

1,068,210 
113,484 
222,722 
300.968 
176,823 
680,680 
67,264 
362,097 

1,120,365 
747,480 

48,067 
123,713 

116,414 

121,783 

1,861 
11,104 
48.067 
107,246 

202,000 
00,886 
388,086 
148,417 

1,223,284 

17,040 

78,726 

134,521 

2,808,280 

872,683 

2,161.407 
2,444,731 
66.640 
6,847,254 
256,725 
21,C«7 
472,464 

1,271.006 
766,408 
42,460 
684,967 

1,004,117 



Pranct. 

1,337.000 

1,776,000 

1,441,000 

1,521,000 

240,000 

307,000 

2,126,000 

610,000 

147,000 
18,000 



791,000 

10.000 

110,000 

953,000 

652,000 

3,672,000 

317,000 

1,387,000 

16,000 

83,000 

122,000 
267,000 



114.000 
134.000 I) 
6,000 " 
7.000 
37.000 
186.000 
236,000 

728,000 
26,000 

810,000 
83,000 

2,921,000 
31.000 
241,000 
644.000 
11,542,000 
652,000 

638.000 

1.298,000 

264,000 

8.000 

21,000 

11.000 

1,277,000 

6,576.000 

1,968.000 

117,000 

2,000 

1,194,000 



30,264,623 



48,912.000 



$258,041 
342,576 
278,113 
298.553 
46,320 
50,251 
410, 126 
119,467 

28,871 
8,474 



i:>2,(i(i3 
l.JflO 

21.230 
183,tti3 
125,836 
689,306 

61.181 

258.041 

3.0«8 

16,019 

23.546 
49,001 

22,002 

27.030 

1,861 

7,141 

85,808 

46,548 

130,530 

5,018 

60,830 

16,010 

683.753 
5. 983 
46.513 
124,292 
2,227,606 
125,836 

103.834 

250,514 

60,962 

679 

4,063 

2.123 

246,461 

1.260,168 

379.824 

22,581 

386 

230.442 



9,440,016 



AGRICULTURE. 



The crops, excepting wheat and rye, which were abundant, were in 
1896 much inferior to those of 1895. The crop of hay, roots, and all 
cattle food was short, owing to the persistent dryness of the summer 
and tQ a very damp autumn. Potatoes were also inferior in quality 
and quantity; while sugar beets, on the contrary, much surpassed in 
quantity the figures of the preceding year. The winter- wheat crop 
slightly exceeded that of 1895, though the average total obtained was 
less than that of 1895. Straw was short and not very abundant. The 
summer- wheat crop was still less satisfactory than that of 1895. The 

Digitized by kjs^kjwi\^ 



42 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



rye crop was a success, surpassing by 5 hectoliters (14.190 bushels) 
per hectare (2.471 acres) the average of 1891 to 1895, inclusive. 
Winter barley, though of good quality, rendered less by hectare, while 
the straw was of good quality and rated high. Summer barley suf- 
fered much from the drought, being mediocre as to quality and 
unsatisfactory in quantity. 

The crop of oats was in general bad, straw short, less' abundant, 
and inferior in quantity, to that of 1895. 

Buckwheat is being less cultivated, as it has pr<tved unsatisfactory 
in quantity and quality. 

Potatoes on low soil gave bat a half crop, while the others were 
attacked by rot before ripe. 

The sugar-beet crop considerably exceeded that of 1895, while cat- 
tle beets were less productive than in that year. The planting of the 
latter is greatly increasing throughout the province of Antwerp. 

The duties on oats, flour, malt, etc., have somewhat diminished the 
imports of these products. 

FRUIT. 

During a year or two, large imports were made of California prunes, 
for which there exists quite a demand, the prices being lower than for 
French Ente prunes. Dried apricots from Florida were imported in 
cases, but were not largely consumed, though the quality was satisfac- 
tory. Dried apples are more in demand. The apple crop in the United 
States having been plentiful, the prices were lowered from 60 francs 
($11.58) to 47 francs (*9.06) per 100 kilograms (220.46 pounds), freight 
included. Large quantities imported were disposed of with difficulty, 
buyers being attracted by prices apparently profitable, but out of pro- 
portion to the existing supply. The import of apple parings and cut- 
tings found a better market. 

IVORY (CONGO). 

Considerable trade was done in ivo^y, the market having been 
brisk. The total amount of business exceeded that of all other mar- 
kets, and surpassed by 25,000 kilograms (55,515 pounds) that of Lon- 
don for first-hand sales. Below is a schedule of the imports of this 
article since 1888: 



Years. 


ImportA- 
tion& 


Sales. 


1888 


Kilograms. 
6,400 
46,700 
77,500 
50.600 
118,000 
224,000 
264,600 
362,000 
200,000 


KUogranxB. 

6,400 

46,700 


188» 


1800 ^ 


77,300 


1801 •. 


6U,600 


1882 


118,000 


1803 


224,000 


1894 


186,000 


1885 


274,600 


1896 


266,700 







One kilogram equals 2.2046 pounds. 



TOBACCO. 



The importation of foreign tobacco amounted during the year 1896 
to 9,357,930 kilograms (20,630,492 pounds), or an increase of 1,397,322 
kilograms (3,080,536 pounds) over 1895. The approximate quantity 
of native tobacco grown in 1896 amounted to 6,191.235 kilograms 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



43 



(13,649,197 pounds), showing an increase of 1,924,993 kilograms 
(4,243,840 pounds) over 189.5. 

The consumption of tobacco in this country during the year 1896 
amounted to 15,395,404 kilograms (33,940,708 pounds), inclusive of 
both foreign and native tobacco. 

By article 3, section 1, of the law of April 17, 1896, the inland rev- 
enue tax on the growth of tobacco is abolished. Section 2 of the same 
article provides for a tax of 15 francs*i)er 100 kilograms ($2.90 for 220 
pounds) on imported tobacco, unmanufactured, as well as on dried 
native tobacco, exception being made, however, in the case of native 
unmanufactured tobacco consumed by the grower. 

Importation at Antwerp of tobacco in hogsheads in the year 1896, 



Kentucky. 



Virgrlnia. 



Ohio and 
Maryland. 



Total. 



Supply up to January 1 
Importations in 1806 

Total 

Sales during the year . . 
Stock December 81 



Hogaheads. 
8,046 
8,444 



Hogshead*. 

589 

1,000 



Hogthead: 
25 



Hogsheads. 
3,.060 
0,729 



11,489 
8,402 
2.997 



260 

180 

70 



18.388 
9,0»5 
8,898 



The demand for leaf tobacco for cigar manufacture was active, espe- 
cially for Havana and Mexico. Havana tobacco is extensively em- 
ployed in the manufacture of cigars in this country. The supply was 
scanty at the beginning of the year, owing to the Cuban insurrection 
obstructing new importations as well as compelling manufacturers to 
obtain their supplies indirectly. The scarcity of supply caused a rise, 
the price of the tobacco reaching double its usual value. This resulted 
in its use being restricted, manufacturers being compelled to substi- 
tute other of lower price. The Mexican product attracted the atten- 
tion of buyers on account of its quality, and soon increased greatly in 
demand. This tobacco is momentarily given the preference here in 
manufacture, and is looked upon as the leaf of the future. 

Summary of tobacco importations since 1860, 



How packed. 


1860. 


1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


I80a 


1805. 


1896. 


Hogsheads 


6,822 

4,278 


5,623 
6,416 


4,872 
16,668 


12,661 
26,887 


14,628 
44,224 


12,702 


9,789 


Other forms .......... - ... 










Tobacco exported in 1895, Ifi 
grams, value 1,282,000 francs 


0,817 kilofi 
,1243.568). 


rrams, val 
W0( 


ue l,O7&.0( 
)DS. 


X) francs ( 


pm.my. 


in 1886, 15 


3,761 kilo- 



The year 1896 was one of the most prosperous in this branch of trade. 
The firmness of prices at the close of 1895 became more and more 
marked during the course of 1896. Prices reached a height unknown 
in years, being, for certain productions, as great as 20 per cent. 
Freights were on this account considerably £ulvanced, particularly 
during the last five months, there being a great demand for all the 
port6 of the Continent and Great Britain, the rate being particularly 
high for Australia and South Africa. 

Prices in 1897 have not receded. On the contrary, general indica- 
tions are for a maintenance in price and demand, ^eci by vjwv^gi\^ 



44 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

Importations of wood in 1896 exceeded those of 1895 by 92,730 cubic 
meters, having been in 1896 475,550 cubic meters, against 382,820 in 
1895. 

Hard woods, such as oak and teak from America and India, are being 
extensively imported — 10,565 cubic meters (372,944 cubic feet) against 
5,084 cubic meters (179,465 cubic feet) in the previous yea,T. Timber 
of this sort is becoming more and more in demand here. 

INDIA RUBBER. 

The total amount imported in 1896 was as follows: 2,460,058 pounds 
(1,115,875 kilograms) against 1,170,805 pounds (531,074 kilograms) 
in 1895. From the Kongo Free State, 2,439,114 pounds (1,106,375 
kilograms), and 20,943 pounds (9,500 kilograms) from other sources. 

PETROLEUM. 

Attention given to this merchandise is on the decrease, owing to the 
uniformity of price precluding speculation, and, on the other hand, 
the general adoption of the tank system for its transport having con- 
centrated the trade in the hands of the same parties. 

The price at the opening of the year was 18f francs. In February 
it reached its minimum at 15^ francs and closed at 18^ francs. 

American petroleum in this market during the year 1896, was quoted 
in price at the beginning of each month at the following figures per 
100 kilograms (i. e., from $2.98 to $3.42 per 220.46 pounds): 

Francs. 

January 18f tol7i 

Febrnary 17| to 15i 

March _.. 15^ to 16^ 

April 16irtol6i 

May IBitolBi 

June _.. 16itol7i 

July 17itol7i 

August 17itol7f 

September _ 17f tolSi 

October 18^tol3f 

November _ 18f to 18J 

December ISi to ISi 

RBSIN. 

Inferior qualities advanced in price and the use thereof increased. 
Extra qualities, on the contrary, were in little demand, and conse- 
quently were quoted at low figures. 

LEATHER. 

The crisis through which this branch of trade passed, added to the 
ill-timed rise in prices in 1895, prostrated the business during the 
gi-eater part of the year 1896. 

SALT PROVISIONS. 

Salted meats were affected by the continued fall in price of bacon, 
but Belgian importers by judicious purchases, limited to their strict 
needs, suffered little loss. The overraising of native swine tram- 
meled greatly this branch of commerce. The raising of swine at the 

Digitized by VJ^^v.'^lC 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



45 



ruling prices, resulting from competition among native producers, 
was far from remunerative. A peculiar feature of trade in this arti- 
cle was that lean bacon, the most unsought for during the whole year, 
was held in special favor at its close, indicating for the future a favor- 
able state of the market both for importers and consumers as well as 
for producers. 

HARBOR. 

The dockyards specially fitted for the repair of ships found full 
employment, particularly during the second quarter of the year 1896. 
Serious damages to vessels caused many to choose Antwerp for keel 
hauling, while others preferred an English or German port, where dry- 
dock charges are one-half the cost of the same at Antwerp, a fact 
particularly advantageous to vessels of heavy tonnage. Work at 
Antwerp yards is irregular, about 600 men being employed on an 
average. A new building has just been completed for the machinery 
used in draining the dry docks. 

The Belgian Government has abolished its signal-light tax, and 
reduced to less than one-half its navigatiop fee. The use of quays 
has been regulated on an almost gratuitous basis, and the regulations 
intended to prevent delays in going to pier have been revis^. 

The good effects of these measures were immediately felt, as shown 
by the increase in 1896 of 460,000 gross tonnage, being 780,000 tons 
over that of 1894. 

BREWERIES. 

By comparing the statistics of 1896 with those of 1895, an important 
increase in the consumption of beer is noticed for that year. While 
small breweries are diminishing in number, the larger ones are gain- 
ing in importance. The total consumption of beer in Belgium amounts 
to about 194 liters (51 gallons) per capita. 



Provinces. 



Antwerp 

Brabant 

West Flanders. 
East Flanders.. 

Halnaut 

Lieuro 

Lfimbonrg 

Loxembourg... 
Namor 



Total, 1806. 
Total, 1885. 



Nnmber of breweries. 



Working. Inactive. 



908 
450 
518 
680 
617 
124 
132 
61 
188 



2,077 



2,914 



80 



87 



Quota of 
flour de- 
clared (law 
1885, chap- 
ter 11). 



Kitftffrnma. 
ttfc,i]Il,422 

4^^Jiiil.in38 
£-,^ til. 133 

3r*.i'."iiM47 
i' iUv.f iViH 
:l,0[:ijfl4 



160,203,468 



Taxable 
opacity. 



Hectoliters 
19.753 

2,783 
88,208 
28,335 

1,201 

8,716 

14,278 

275 

1,432 



105,070 



161,638,135 



116,903 



Consumption of domestic beer hectoliters.. 12,510.787 

Ck)n8uzz)Dtion of imported beer do 98,121 

Total do.... 12,608,908 

One hectoliter equals 26. 418 gallons. 

DIAMONDS. 



The trade in diamonds was relatively good during the first half of 
the year. During the latter half, a rise in price of rough diamonds 
caused ^fluctuations in the market, aggravated by the approach of the 

Digitized by VJV7\^v i\^ 



46 



COMMERCIAL EELA,TI0N8. 



Presidential election in the United States and the high rates of exchange 
existing in South American countries. 

Notwithstanding these complications, prices remained fairly steady. 
The greater number of the manufacturers, in order to maintain their 
business in activity, made considerable sacrifices. 

The total value of rough diamonds imported into this market may 
be estimated nominally at 60,000,000 francs («6,180,000), and the cost 
of cutting the same may be estimated at 6,000,000 francs ($618,000). 

BICYCLES. 

Factories specially fitted for the making of bicycles were bnsily 
employed, a considerable number of them having enlarged their 
capacity, some manufacturers having added to this branch the con- 
struction of steam self-propelling conveyances. 

FREIGHT. 

By comparing the following tables with those of last year, it will 
be noticed that the rate of outward freights on December 31, 1896, 
was less than those of the same date 1895. This is accounted for by 
important fluctuations during the year, notably in freights paid for 
grain not only from the Black and Azof seas and the Danube, but 
from the United States, which, during the months of October and 
November, obtained figures rarely reached. 

On the contrary, the return freight from India reached lower figures 
than ever before. Steamers were obliged to leave India in ballast, 
as well as California or ports in the Black Sea. This general state of 
the freight market influenced that of Antwerp. The low rate from 
the Pacific coast had the effect of raising the outward freights, and a 
rate of 14 to 18 shillings, instead of 11 to 12, was paid to sailing vessels 
going to California or Chilean ports, while those bound for Brazilian 
or ports of the Argentine Republic were paid 20 shillings instead of 
13 to 15 shillings. 

As to the regular lines of steamers, on account of the existing agree- 
ment between the companies, the rat<^s of freight were maintained, 
though, moderate. 

Traffic with ports of the Argentine Republic, of China, and Japan 
was active; with Brazil, moderate, and with Chile and Peru, quiet. 







Bates of freight 










Port of departure. 


Destination. 


Cargo. 


Scale. 


rate. 


Low- 
est 
rate. 

». d. 

*M 

18 9 

33 

30 
30 
29 


Bate 
Dec. 
31. 


1885. 


San Francisoo 


United Kingdom 
and Continent, 
do 


Wheat... 
.... do. . 


Per40c.f 

do 


». d. 

ao 

31 3 

52 6 

66 
46 
46 
18 

1" 

110 


9. d. 


». d. 


San Francisco. 


16 3 

86 

36 
82 6 
30 


27 6 


sailing TeBsels. 
New Orleans 

Qalyeeton ., 


Liverpool or 

Continent. 
do 


Cotton... 
do-... 


Per ton, net, 
rejplarf.cs. 


32 6 
36 


Charleston 


do 


do—. 


do 




Payannah . ........ 


do 


.... do.... 


d%, 




Nc^w Orleans - . . 


United Kingdom 
or Continent. 

....do 


Grain.... 
do.... 


Per ton wheat, 
net. 

rPer quarter, 
480 wheat 
and com. 

Per standard.. 




New York 

Baltimore 

Philadelphia 

Newport News... 
Norfolk 


2 6 
92 6 


3 3 

flOO 01 

to 
U08 




do 


Boards... 




Pensacola.. 


100 









Digitized by VJV^v.'V iv^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 47 

MERCHANT MARINE. 

The national marine of the port of Antwerp on December 1, 1895, 
numbered 54 ships, \iz: 

Tonnage. 

1 sailing vessel and 53 steamers 87,576 

5 steamers nationalized in 1896 6,222 

Total 93,798 

Steamers lost: 

3 sold outside Belgium 0,071 

3 lost at sea 1,750 

Total 7,821 

Ships arrived in 1896: 

507 sailing vessels 178,540 

4,480 steamei-s 5,607,122 

• 

Total 5,785,662 

EMIGRATION. 

One thousand one hundred and ninpty-four Americans left Ant- 
werp, comprising 750 males and 444 females; of which number, 1,146 
went to the United States. 

One thousand two hundred and eighteen Belgians left Antwerp; 
768 males and 450 females; 984 for the United States. 

There sailed from the port. of Antwerp 22,354 emigrants of all 
nationalities: For New York, 13,953; Philadelphia, 8,397; Galveston, 
3, and Baltimore, 1. 

During the past twenty-five years 42,447 Belgians left for the United 
States. In 1^95 they numbered 1,850. Among 324,330 emigrants, 21 
were not authorized to land, as having come under contract. 

One hundred and twenty-nine ships landed at Antwerp during 1896, 
with 9,664 passengers, as follows: From New York, 8,691; Philadel- 
phia, 671; La Plata and Brazil, 212; China, 49, and Australia, 41. 

American vessels entered from the United States, 245; left for the 
United States, 18 — 1 in ballast. 

Sailing vessels of various nationalities: Left for New York, 3; Phil-, 
adelphia, 2. 

Steamers of various nationalities: Left for New York, 97; Balti- 
more, 18; Philadelphia, 45; Boston, 12; New Orleans, 9. 

MONETARY MATTERS. 

The crisis in the market during the latter part of 1895, caused by 
the crash in gold mines, followed by news of the Jameson raid, pro- 
duced a strong depression in stocks and bonds. Speculation was 
arrested. The rigorous law affecting stock operations lately passed 
in Germany, with its severe measures regulating financial 'transac- 
tions, and especially those on the Exchange of Berlin, was a serious 
drawback to business, bringing about complaint and recrimination 
not only from German bankers, but from all parties here engaged in 
operating in stocks and bonds. 

Notwithstanding all these drawbacks, the movement toward a bet- 
ter condition had scarcely commenced when oriental disturbances, 
such as the Armenian atrocities, the revolt in Crete, and the pending 

Digitized by ^^j^^kjwis^ 



48 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

Greek-Turkish war, diminished confidence and produced a great 
depression in stocks. 

Capitalists here maintained stoically their faith in Turkish securi- 
ties notwithstanding the continual fluctuations, the market price 
showing them at the close of 1896 to have varied little from the quota- 
tions at the end of 1895. 

In Belgium, manufacturing interests did not suffer, transactions in 
manufacturing stocks being heavy, especially in case of those affect- 
ing the coal, metal, and glass trades. Russian industrial enterprises 
undertaken by Belgian investors gave a new spur to business, and 
caused considerable encouragement for the future. Antwerp invested 
largely in many of these. Notwithstanding some fluctuations and 
depressions caused by a feeling of too great confidence in the value 
of such securities, the general market remained good and firm. 

The slow but steady progress in the building of the Kongo Railway 
attracted public attention to the affairs of that country. Besides the 
prospect of tMs country being largely cultivated, and of easy facilities 
for bringing produce from its numerous plantations, there will also be 
a rapid and profitable outlet for everything of Belgian manufacture 
or trade. 

The feature of the financial year was the inauguration of many 
electrical enterprises and a (jonsiderable increase in the number of 
tramway companies formed with Belgian capital. 

Government bonds have remained steady in quotation, warranting 
the confidence placed in them and the nation's credit. City bonds 
have increased in price and remain in favor as an investment. 

As regards the tJnited States, the issue of the Presidential contest 
was looked forward to with some uneasiness and caused decline in 
quotations of American railway securities. 

Financial balance sheet to December SI, 1896, 

m 

National Bank of Belgium (assets): Francs. 

Acceptances 899,683,424.21 

Bills, commercial paper, deposits, etc 1 , 845, 455, 484. 57 

Total 2,245,188,908.78 

Commercial Bank of Credit (assets) : 

Cash. 765,449.66 

Public funds, real estate, etc 80,427,598.68 

Total 81,193,048.34 

Bank of Antwerp (assets) : 

Cash 2,847,576.19 

Acceptances, etc 118,353,951.31 

Total 121,201,527.50 

Central Bank of Antwerp (assets) : 

Cash and deposit, national bank .- 1,512,675.96 

Acceptances, pablic funds, etc 42,558,889.51 

Total 44,071,565.47 

• MONET MARKET. 

The leading banks in Europe were obliged during the last months 
of 1896 to grfi&ually raise the rate of discount. The National Bank of 
Belgium, however, sustained, at its usual low rate, all calls made 

upon It. Digitized by vjvjv>'V i\^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 
Oeneral diacaunt UMe, 1896, 



49 



Months. 


Bmssels. 


London. 


Paris. 


Vienna. 


Jannary...... .......ax^ ^ 


J 

8.08 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 

4 
4 

2.48 
2 


2 
2 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2.20 


6-4 


February _... 


March... 


April 




idiy ...::v..:;.;.:::::;:.::::. 




June > ..— 




July 




August - _ 




September 




October 




November 




December 




ATerage in 18B6 


4.08 


Average in 1806 


4 80 







i2a^e8 o/ exchange at Antwerp during 1896 and 1896. 



1806. 



Bid. 



Asked. 



1806. 



Bid. 



Asked. 



Amsterdam per 100 florins 

Berlin per 100 marks 

Frankfort do... 

EUunborg do... 

Vienna per 100 florins. 

London, on demand -per pound sterling. 

London short do... 

Paris perlOOfraaes 

Italy perlOOlires 

Switzerland per 100 francs 

Belginm do... 



908.66 
128.66 
128.66 
128.66 
210.00 
86.26 
86.28 
100.074 
04.60 
90.60 
90.874 



208.06 


207.66 


128.96 


128.40 


128.96 


128.40 


128.06 


128.40 


211.00 


207.00 


26.20 


26.26 


26.28 


26.28 


100.26 


100.06 


06.00 


91.00 


90.76 


90.70 


100.00 


99.874 



207.96 
123.66 
123.66 
123.66 
208.60 
26.29 
26.28 
100.224 
98.00 
100.00 
100.00 



Belgian aecuritiea. 



Securities. 


Interest 


Dec. 81- 


1896. 


1896. 


Belgian Government loan twa<and-a*halfs 


8 
8 


98.26 
100.00 
100.10 
100.00 


98.00 


Belgian Government loan threes, first series 


101. OU 


Belgian Government loan threes,' second series 


101.40 


Belgian Government loan threes, third series 


101.00 






Securities (interest variable). 


value. 


Dec. 


81- 


1896. 


1896. 


TtAYiir of Antw^frp (sbarMnaid ut)).. 


Francs. 
600.00 
800.00 
600.00 
800.00 

1,000.00 


Franca. 
786.00 
860.00 
666.00 
297.60 

2,866.00 


thrones. 

800.00 


Antw^erp Central Bank (snares) ^ ...... . . 


876 00 


Commercial (jredit Bank (shares paid up) 


606.00 


cvm|Tn4>w*%Y Bank I .1 .V. .. 


800.00 


K»t<nn<^iBfink ... .. ., ' 


2,600.00 







Belgian tariff. 



Merchandise or products. 



Amount of duty. 



Equivalent, United States 
currency. 



Powder 

Batter, maxgarin , 

Beer, fermented drinks, etc 

Wood, building 

Codies 

Oscao: 

Baw 

Prepared. 

OB— VOL 



Free 

16 francs per 100 kilos 

20 francs per 100 kflos 

6 to 7 francs per hectoliter . . 
1 to 6 francs per cubic meter 
10 per cent ad valorem 

Free 

60 franis per 100 kUos ." !!' II 



B.90 per 220 pounds. 

S.86 per 220 ixrands. 

9.97 to $1.86 per 26.4 gallons. 

D.196 to 11.16 per 86.8^cubic feet. 



|9.66 per 220 ponnd& 

Digitized by vjO 



ogle 



50 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Belgian tori/f— Continued. 



MerchAndlse or products. 



Equivalent, United States 
currency. 



CofFee: 

Raw 

Burnt 

India rubber: 

Crude 

Goods 



Type. 
Asbes 



Coal, all kinds 

Canned vegetables 

Preserves: 

Sweets 

Alcoholic 

Cream and milk 

Cream and milk for margrarin . 

Rice, cheese, eggs, etc 

Drugs 

Rags 

Groceries, general 

Safran 

Truffles 

Livestock: 

Oxen 

Cows 

Horses 

Racehorses 

Nets, fishing utensils, etc 

Animals and live game 

Threads: 

Cotton 

Dyed, etc 

woolen 

Spools, etc 

Others 

Silk 

Apples 

Almonds 

Lemons, oranges, figs 

Currants 

Currants, for wine manufac- 
ture. 

Prunes, dried 

Dried fruit 

Grain 

Ready-made clothing 

Linen: 

Plain 

Fancy, etc 

Hosiery 

Oils 

Scientific instruments 

Musical instruments 

Yeast 

Alcohols 

Iron machinery 

Wooden machinery 

Machinery, copper, brass 

Fancy articles, leather 

Animal matter, not tariffed, 
oil, grease, wax. 

Textiles 

Fancy goods 

Minerfus, not tariffed 

Brass and nickel: 

Unwrought 

In bars, etc 

Wrought 

Iron, old 

Steel 

Tin 

Tin, worked 

Zinc, lead 

Gold, silver, platina 

Plate ware, silver 

Jewelry 

Furniture 

Honey 

Gold watches 

Gold watch fixtures 

Ship and materials for ships. 
Objects of art, pictures, etc.. 

Gingerbread 

Paper, cardboard, etc 



10 francs per 100 kilos 

13 francs per 100 kilos 

Free 

10 per cent ad valorem 

Free 

Free 

Free 

15 francs per 100 kilos 

80 francs per 100 kUoe 

80 francs per 100 kilos 

Free 

2 to 10 francs i>er hectoliter. . 

Free 

Free 

Free 

15 per cent ad valorem 

600 francs per 100 kilos 

900 francs per 100 kilos 

0.05 franc per kflo 

0.08 franc per kilo 

2.B0 to 4 francs per head 

Free 

Free 

Free 

5 to 20 francs per 100 kilos 

5 to 25 francs per 100 kilos 

5 to 25 francs per 100 Idlos 

10 franca per 100 kilos 

10 per cent ad valorem 

Free 

Free 

86 francs per 100 kilos 

9 francs per 100 kilos 

20 francs per 100 kilos 

Free 

26 francs per 100 kilos 

10 per cent ad valorem 

1.60 to 4 francs per 100 kilos. . 
10 to 15 per cent ad valorem. . 

10 per cent ad valorem 

15 to 20 per cent ad valorem. . 

10 Iter cent ad valorem 

Free 

Free 

10 per cent ad valorem 

10 francs per 100 kilos 

100 to 200 francs per hectoliter. . 

2 to 4 francs per 100 kilos 

10 per cent ad valorem 

12 francs per 100 kilos 

15 per cent ad valorem 

Free 

Free _,. 

10 to 15 per cent ad valorem 

Free 

Free 

10 francs per 100 kilos 

10 per cent ad valorem 

0.20 to 4 francs per 100 kilos. . 
0.40 to 4 francs per 100 kilos. . 

Free 

10 per cent ad valorem 

Free 

Free 

6per centad valorem 

6per cent ad valorem 

1(1 per cent ad valorem 

18 francs per 100 kilos 

1.60 francs apiece 

Free 

Free conditionally 

Free 

18 francs per 100 kilos 

4 to 8 francs per 100 kilos 



$1.96 per 220 pounds. 
$2.51 per 220 pounds. 



$2.90 per 220 pounds. 

$5.79 per 220pound8. 
$15.44 per 220 pounds. 

$0.30 to $1.03 per 28.4 gallons. 



$96.60 per 220 pounds. 
$57.90 per 220 pounds. 

).01 per 2.2 pounda 
2pound8. 
r per bead. 



|0.01 per 2.2jK)u 
$0.D06per 2.»poi 
$0.48 to $0.77 per 



1.96 to $3.86 per 220 ]>ound& 
1.96 to $4.83 per 220 pounds. 

. 1.96 to $4.83 per 2;:0 pounds. 

$1.93 per 220 pounds. 



96.76 per 220 pounds. 
$1.74 per 220 pounds. 
$3.86 per 220 pounds. 



$4.83 per 220 pounds. 

$0.29 to $a 77 per 220 pounds. 



$1.98 per 220 pounds. 

$19.30 to $38.00 per 26 gallons. 

$0.39 to $0.77 per 220 pounds. 



$1.93 per 220 pounds. 

.04 to $0.77 per 220 pounds. 
1.08 to $0.77 per 220 pounds. 



{^: 



8.47 per 220 pounds. 
).20 apiece. 



147 per 220 pounds. 

).77 to $1.54 per 220 pounda. 

Digitized by VJV^v.'V i\^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



61 



Belgian tony— Continued. 



Merchandise or prodacte. 



Axnonnt of duty. 



PerfozneiT 

SMns 

Skins, prepared 

Stones 

Slate tiles, per 1,000 

Piah: 

Fresh or salted 

Canned 

Pottery: 

Tiles 

Ordinary 

Pines 

Qlazea stoneware: 

Boilding and paving 

Rich 

Chemical products 

Manufacturing producte 

Books and printed matter 

Crops and forages 

Renn and faltumens 

Saccharine 

Cotton velvets 

Pique, damask, etc 

Cotton and silk mixed 

Real lace 

Passementerie, embroidered 
muslins, ribbons, ete. 

Liinens 

Gachemires 

Carpets, tapestry 



SUks 

Hand embroidery 

Oilcloths 

G^eneral tissues 

Vegetable substances 

Glass, broken 

Glassware 

Window glass 

Meats, fresh 

Poultry, game, etc 

Oame patties 

Canned meat, ete 

Extracts of meat, ete 

Vinegars, acetic acid for 
manufacture. 

Acetic acid, pure 

Wines, an excise tax of 

Carriages 

Fine soaps 

Ordinary scans 

Sugars, clarified: 
^ock- 

Pirst class* 

Second class* 

Third class* 

Fourth class* , 

FifthcUws* 

Loaf or broken* 

Powdered* 

Beet-root sugar, raw, above 
No. 18, inclusively, cane or 
beet-root: 
First class, Nos. 15 to IS, 

inclusive. 
Second Glass, Nos. 10 to 15, 

inclusive. 
Third class, Kos. 7 to 10, 

Inclusive. 
Fourth class, below No. 7. 

Tobacco 

Tobacco, manufactured: 

Cigars and cigarettes 

Other 

Tea 

Cotton goods 



15 per cent ad valorem 

15 to W francs per ioo kilos '. 

Free 

4 francs 



Free 

12 to 15 francs per 100 kUoe. 



0.50 franc 

1.25 francs per 100 Idloe. 
Free , 



1 to 1.60 francs per 100 kUos. 

10 per cent ad valorem 

Free 

6 per cent ad valorem 

Free 

Free 

Free 

140 francH per kilo 

60 to 05 francs per 100 kilos.. 
10 to 16 percent ad valorem. 

600 francs per 100 kilos 

Free 

15 per cent ad valorem 



10 per cent ad valorem 

5per cent ad valorem — 

10 to 15 per cent per square me- 
ter. 

700 francs per 100 kilos 

20 per cent ad valorem 

15 i)er cent ad valorem 

10 per cent ad valorem 

Free 

Free 

1 franc per 100 kilos 

10 per cent ad valorem 

15 to 30 francs per 100 kilos 



99 to 00 francs per 100 kilos. 

Free 

15 francs per 100 kilos 

Free, conditionally 



15 to 187.60 francs per 100 kilos. 

23 francs per hectoliter 

12 per cent ad valorem 

12 per cent ad valorem 

6 per cent ad valorem 



6G francs per 100 kilos 

58 francs per 100 kilos 

66.60 francs per 100 kilos . . 
54.70 francs per 100 kilos .. 

46 francs per 100 kilos. 

51. 15 francs per 100 kilos.. 
60.66 francs per 100 kilos.. 



Free. 
Free. 
Free. 



Free 

70 francs per 100 kilos . 



300 francs per 100 kilos 

100 francs per 100 kilos 

00 francs per 100 kilos 

85 to 126 francs for 100 kilos. 



Equivalent, United States 
currency. 



$2.00 to $5.79 per 220 pounds. 
$0.77. 

S2.32 to $2.00 for 220 pounds. 

$0.10. 

$0.24 for 220 pounds. > 

$0.i9B to $0J30 for 220 pounds. 



$27 per 2.2 pounds. 

$0.65 to $18.^4 for 220 pounds. 

$96.60 for 220 pounds. 



$135.10 for 220 pounds. 



$0,108 for 220 pounds. 
$2.00 to $5.70 for 230 pounds 
r.51 to $11.58 for 220 pounds. 
$2.00 for 220 pounds. 



n. 



00 to $36.10 for 220 pounds. 
.44 for 20.4 gallons.* 



111.30 for 220 pounds. 
111.10 for 220 pounds. 
110.00 for 220 pounds. 
110.66 for 220 pounds. 
B.OO for 220 pounds. 
n.87 for 220 pounds. 
19.76 for 220 pounds. 



$ia51 for 220 pounds. 

tt7.00 for 220 pounds. 
$10.30 for 220 pounds. 
$17.37 for 220 pounds. 
$6.76 to $24.13 for 220 pounds. 



» Or 10 per cent ad valorem. 

'Containing more than 18 per cent alcohol pay above this rate as per alcohol, 

* Subject to an extra tax of 10 per cent. 

Prohibited: Foreign coinB and certain class of weapons, viz, daggers, ei 

Digitized by 



%og\e 



52 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



TRADE OF ANTWERP, 1897. 

In order to give an idea of the business of Belgium to-day, attention 
is called to the following table, which gives comparative statistics of 
foreign commerce during the periods of ten years, from the year 1831 
to the close of 1896. A review of the tables above named will show 
the immense strides which Belgium has made in foreign trade, during 
the period of time covered by them. 

From the figures to be found in the annual reports of the chamber 
of commerce, it is ascertained that the shipments for the purposes of 
transit to this port have ceased to increase from the year 1891, and in 
the year 1894 the figures had fallen to a point less than that of 1890 
by 400,000,000 francs ($77,200,000). This retrograde movement was 
due largely to the lack of the necessary facilities at this port, for 
handling properly the amount of freight received here. The deter- 
mination, however, to remedy this state of affairs is seen in the increase 
of the transit business in the year 1896, as contrasted with that of 
1894, amounting to 130,000,000 francs ($25,090,000). This is a matter 
in which the Government has taken a great interest, and has deter- 
mined to increase the present facilities of the river front by extending 
the existing line of quays some 2,000 meters along the south side of 
the city. 

Decennial averages. 







General commerce. , Special commerce. 


Transit, 




Imports. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


EstporttJ. 




Francs 


204.416.840 

1^9,462.452 

836,072,827 

164,862,066 

^,398,642 

1142.814,944 

1,368.249.739 

i2S4, 072.200 

2,418,429.411 

$465,791,876 

2,874,759,063 

$654,828,489 

3.087,371,700 

^586,212,738 


15^,141.304 1 mvmMi 
2sa,7»8.7M , mj^.aaa 

$^,772,7B0 |il.S47.-(«0 
flilfS jiMl, riW frjj:^4.271 

2,itrt,\u7M^ l.4i;i,ni.avi 

$4^»t,7S8/W» i27ir,7^K>.4t)l 
2,H71,,V^y,7fl:J l.Ji()S^*fiMlil 

fcl.'ijil.'ijsee 1 *201.27[>.4«7 
2.730,3)12,116 I.TTft TltLMii 


fcJ4,HiH.';4tt 

U7,m.m 

«3S.l+lS,fl74 
MiM7,4iA 

fjmi.tjn<4i« 

|11;\ 157,58© 

i,fi'.K7,rtfi,ff5a 
rn.ni:2.:r5 

1,4(17, L+4;i, 771 

tas,^i3jis 


Zi,9^ 3m 


1831-1840 


U. S. currency 

Francs -.....-... 


^,tSir;,7S7 

imis;n. no 


1841-1860 


U.S. cnrrency 

Francs 




1861-1800 


U. S. currency 

Francs 


mitta,73i) 

flSU J 47^540 


1861-1870 


U. S. currency 

Francs 


$131,2^7, 47H 


1871-1880 
1881-1800 
1896 


U. S. currency 

Francs 


$]li2,g7r,,;J13 
l,aut,47ll,l«l 


U. 8. currency 

Francs 


*3ttJ.3i;i.4»4 


U. S. currency 


i5i^.tHd.30iS 


t;ki;,9(^,ies 


|341,70G,I1S0 



There are no monthly statistics which will enable me to give the 
increase in transit commerce at this port for the current year. Fol- 
lowing, however, will be found a summary of the special commerce 
for the first eight months of the present year, as well as for the 
corresponding period of 1896, the same comprising only the importa- 
tions for consumption and the exportation of Belgian productions or of 
goods manufactured or improved here from imported raw material. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



53 



Exports from Belgium to the United States during the first eight months of the 

pears 1896 and 1897. 



Articles. 



/francs. 



-*^™» \U.8.cnrrency. 

Coal briquettos tons. 

Coke do... 

Coal do... 

Canned yegetables {^S^ds: 

Chicory,root8 {^°«^; 

/kilos ... 

Drugs, chicory {gJSdi: 

Woolen thread '^undk: 

aothtag. underwear, etc {u'sfSii^i^: 

Machinery, tools, etc., not specified: 

c"**"" - ttdi: 

!""<»•»*'»> CSSdi: 

Copper or other {SSdi: 

o««~ &di: 

i'<"y ttdi: 

o-^nt tedi: 

O*!""" {po^ds! 

Wool . i^'* - 

Flax 



Ipoands. 

fkUos ... 
• ipounds. 

Mercery, hardware {u's.'^uVreniV: 



/francs. 

-\u.r 



Diamonds \U. 8. cnrrency. 

Indiambber {u.^S.'^Vreicy: 

Metals: 
Steel- 



Beams. 



< kilos.... 
1 pounds. 

B«"» ]f^n"Sdi: 

I kilos ... 
(pounds. 



Iron, sheet . 
Iron— 



oidi'^'^ ]pSSds: 

B««^ iSJSd^i: 

Not specified iSJSds" 

Worked, not specified jSj^ds": 

j kilos.... 
' ( pounds . 

Furniture ] U.^^umncy'- 
Paper, not specifled {^JSds" 

Skins: 

< kilos .. 
' ) pounds . 



Lead. 



Raw. 



rw.^a^wi j francs . 

^>reaae>6. "i U. S. currency. 

Building stones I^^ds": 

Chemical products: 

Carbonates jplJ^ds*. 

Not specified jp^^^ds': 

Raw beet sugar {jJJSSds'. 



1897. 



^Vi. 161 
)^K '55 

n.i^T.'jM 

I ^|», 132 
:t.J"J.:«8 

:l.'r.l88 
.[>^.i61 

f^l'KMOO 

ao.i47 

06,4fl2 

34,072 

76,116 

26,817 

68,018 

620,9:^7 

1.868,918 

19,718 

43,470 

68,270,110 

161,712,885 

877,602 

832.461 

8,507,362 

18,755,330 

602,047 

1,525,687 

71,736 

$13,845 

12,700,000 

^,451,1(10 

28,443,300 

$4,524,657 



4,315 

9,513 

68,000 

127,867 



15,000 

33,060 

7,449 

16,422 

808.752 

680.665 

900,002 

1,965,666 

JI3,05() 

$6,186 

3«2,8:>l 

866,013 

867.741 
1,013.022 
300,920 
$58,078 
88,010 
194,027 

321,373 

708,499 

1,919,600 

4,231,950 

59,908,086 

132,062,343 



1896. 



956,015 

$184,680 

88,600 

5,500 

0,065 

42,021 

92,639 

1,627.075 

3.587.050 

4.005,090 

9,028,065 

556,184 

1,226,168 

18.400 

40.565 

426,857 



24.562 

54.127 

42.487 

03,667 

10,007 

24,080 

1,003,563 

2,212,455 

10,904 

24,039 

78,806,127 

173,735.987 

63,H65 

140,797 

1,396,707 

3,079,380 

441,899 

894,671 

a5,452 

$(t,842 

41,830,000 

$8,074,927 

4,841,100 

$984,332 



70,800 
156,086 

77,000 
160,754 
200, aK) 
440,920 

200,000 
440,920 
441,857 
974.118 
1.U250 
205,968 
95,971 
211. 5n 



3.5,085 

$6,771 

220.975 

487,161 

250,006 
571,201 
132,678 
$25,607 
181,469 
400,067 

1.079.502 
2,:fl^.870 
1.349,975 
2,976,156 
33.127,510 
73,032,909 



Digitized by 



Google 



54 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Exports from Belgium to the United States during the first eight m^onths of the 
years 1896 and i^57— ContinuedL 



Articles. 



Woolen texi^les: 

■ cio"' lpl"SdV: 

c<««^ plSdV: 

Kotspeoifled Ifes! 

Flax, hemp, and jute textiles: 

By weight {Jj^Sj^- 

By^ai- ]irr?n™i„^: 



Oilcloths ]u*°** 



Vegetable substances: Grains, not specified. 

Wood pulp , 

Glass; 

Glassware 



8. currency, 
kilos. .. 
pounds, 
klloe-... 
pounds . 



(francs 

•lu. 



S. currency. 



Window glass jSfSds. 

Or^ii^ry {^^ds. 



1897. 



276,567 
009,698 
28,775 
63,436 
68,729 
129,474 

280,716 

618,866 

63,000 

$12,159 

3,533 

7,789 

88,800 

117,188 

876,068 

829,113 

735,634 

1,509,612 

560,192i 

$106,187 

18,220,602 

29,145,918 

822,134 

710,177 



1896. 



46,4J9S 

100.146 
141.996 
813,014 
57,777 
127,375 

231,903 

511,251 

16,400 

$3,165 

15 

33 

118,880 

$22,847 

48,182 

106.222 

2,271,961 

5,008,765 

926.610 
$178,886 
16,267,038 
35,862.312 
289.079 
6JJ7,304 



An inspection of the figures above given shows an increase of a 
considerable amount in the exportations to our country, but that 
this was due in part to the desire to anticipate increase in our 
tariff, is undoubtedly true, and an estimate of the extent of the 
influence exerted by this feeling would be difficult to make for some 
time yet. The figures showing the exportation of glassware indicate 
a decrease. There is a general increase, however, in the case of nearly 
every other article in the list. On the other hand, a large increase 
will be noticed in the exportations of india rubber, crude, the amount 
reaching a total of 23,443,300 kilograms for the first eight months of 
this year as against 4,841,100 kilograms for the like period of the pre- 
ceding year. The importation of this article into Antwerp has become 
a matter of the greatest importance, due to the development of the 
interest in the Independent Congo State. Less than ten years ago, the 
amount of this article brought to this port was hardly worth mention. 
The total importation in 1889 amounted to only 4,700 kilograms, as 
contrasted with the importation of 1,456,517 kilograms during the 
first eight months of this year, the total importation of 1896 being 
only 1,116,000 kilograms. Of this year's importation, the amount of 
1,080,896 kilograms comes direct from the Congo. 

Large increases in the exportation of chicory, wool, and raw beet 
sugar will also be noticed. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



65 



Imports into Belgium from all countries during the first eight months of the years 

1896 and 1897. 



Articles. 



1806. 



Starch and farinaoeons subetanoes not edible . 

Arms , 

Freeh and salt butter 

Margarin 

Beer in casks 

Wood: 

Oak, cleft 

Oak,spUt 

Oak, sawed 

Others, deft 

Others 

Others, sawed 

Others, planed 

Assorted 

Cacao: 

Beans and peels 

Butter 

Cocoa, prepared: 

Chocolate 

Not specified 

Coffee 

Ve^ tables: 

Beans, ];>ease, etc 

Potatoes 

Eggs 

Unshelled rice 

Shelled rice 

Salt: 

Unrefined 

Refined 

Rags 

Drugs, chicory 

Manure, gnano 

Pmit: 

Fresh apples 

Almonds 

Citrons, lemons, and oranges 

Figs 

Prones 

Qrapes, dried, of Corinth 

Qrapes, dried, others 

Not specially tariffed— 

Fresh pineajyples 

Grapes 



I kilos 

Iponnds.. 

(francs 

■ I U. 8. currency . . 

i kilos 

(pounds.. 

(irflos 

f pounds.. 

jkilos 

ll>ounds.. 



iM.cube 
cubic feet .. 
M.cube 
cubic feet.. 
\ M.cube 

■ I cubic feet . . 

iM.cube 
cubic feet . . 
M.cube 
cubic feet.. 

j M.cube 

• I cubic feet . . 
J M.cube 

■ i cubic feet . . 

Ikilos 

— (pounds.. 



(kilos.... 
' ( pounds . 

ikilos.-.. 
' ( pounds . 

jkilos. 



' I pounds . 
jKlc 



rflos. 



* 1 pounds . 
ikilos... 

• ( pounds . 



Jkilos 

■ ( pounds . . 

ikilos 

* ( pounds . 
..number.. 

Jkilos 

I pounds . . 

jkiloe 

' (pounds.. 



kilos.... 
pounds . 
jkilos... 
pounds . 
kilos.... 
pounds . 
kilos.... 
pounds . 
kilos-... 
I>ound8 . 



jkilos.... 

• (pounds. 

J kilos. 



' ( pounds . 
jkilc 



11 OS. 



■ ( pounds . 
jkilt 



j kilos. 

" (pounds. 

J kilos. 



■ / pounds . 
Jkilc 



kilos. 



' ( pounds. 

(kilos.... 

• ( pounds . 



(kilos.... 
' I pounds . 

jkilos... 
' ( iwunds . 



l.iH^i 112 

Nil. 121 

:'.i.:82 

12,522 

442,234 

1,278 

45,125 

66,653 

2,315.100 

82,068 

2,808,363 

8,900 

137, r35 

448,957 

2,815,109 

4.838 

160,862 

240,844 

650, 80a 

l,943,24o 

4,294.074 

185,830 

400,701 

208,965 

449,661 

16,386 

36,125 

17,608,5:J7 

38,500,321 

10,236,888 
22,568,2*3 
87,364,606 
82,351,062 
118.465,461 
43.006,053 
06,093,688 
14.816,003 
32,665,344 

60,280,000 
152.756,732 
22.897,276 
60.470,335 
20,972,404 
46.125.050 
2,816.263 
6,208.733 
3,020,312 
8,642,724 

206,564 

450,900 

237.913 

524.508 

6.107,081 

13,463,6n 

876.728 

1,032,835 

609.493 

1.642,102 

1,515,809 

8,341,753 

512,506 

1,130.009 

58,376 

128,606 

8.131 

17,925 



Digitized by ^ 



8,062,864 

6.752,368 

1,276.328 

1246.138 

4,075,205 

8,064,197 

208.i:«i 

667,271 

65,144 

143,616 

17,005 

608, rar 

012 

31,000 

47,408 

1,674,289 

77,5(W 

2,739,297 

Not stated. 

Not stated. 

437,500 

15,454,201 

iJZ\ 

166, 8(N) 

108,84.S 

438,380 

1,641,714 

3,408,8te2 

143, 3?J 

316,078 

184,793 

407.392 

16.787 

37,009 

16,470,090 

84,107,345 

0,082.282 
10,012,569 
82.886.184 
72..'i00,881 

115,118,2^^2 
57,100,315 

126,101.610 
10,212,068 
22,515,500 

63.412,034 
130,800,132 
23,462.254 
51,735,885 
17,700,738 
30,230.448 
2.612,073 
6,758,576 
18,608,306 
41,222,290 

854.881 

782.371 

108.901 

438.407 

5,284,645 

11,840.752 

707.016 

1,558,687 

880.681 

1,041.320 

1,623,754 

3,579,727 

500.683 

1,322,061 

60. sa^ 

132,062 
5,065 
12.500 

lOogle 



56 



COMMEBCUL BELATION& 



Imports into Bdqivmfrom aU countries during the first eight months of the years 
1896 and i£97— Ckmtumed. 



Articles. 



1807. 



I9»x 



Fmit— Contlnned. 

Not iipeoiAlly tariffed— Contiiiiied. 

ID( 



Others . 

Dried.. 
Q rains: 

Wheat 

Rye 

Barley 

Oats 



kflos.... 
finds . 



Buckwheat ttdsi: 

Floor: 



pon: 

Idlo 

pounds. 

kiloe.... 

pounds. 



j kilos.... 

* f pounds . 

ifdloe.... 

"ipounds. 
/kUos ... 
nds. 



Wheat. 
Rye 



ndlos ... 
(pounds. 

/kUos ... 
ippnnds. 

Other frrains {p^^ 

Not specified, rice, etc {TO^dsI 



ios ... 
Ipounds. 
ficUos . 



Malt. 



• 






lunds.. 

Farinaceous food products {pounds"! 

n-.«i /Itilos .... 

^'*" ipounds. 

Vegetable oils: 

P»^ {poundsl! 

^^^^ Kdi: 

Notedlble {J^Sds: 

Machinery and tools, etc. : 
Not specified^- 

c~*i~- ttdi; 

Ironorrteel CSdi: 

Copper and others /"^* 

Animal matter: 

Oleomargarine 



Jos — 
Xpounds. 



/kilos .... 
(pounds.. 

Natural lard {poSda*.: 

ffellos .... 



Other greases 

Cotton 

Hteelinbars: 

Wire 

Bheetiron 

Hteel, worked, not spedfled 

Copper and nickel, unworked {poun 



■ipounos. 
/kilos ... 
'\pounds. 

/kilos ... 
'Ipounds. 
/idlos 



Ipounds. 
/kilos 



Cast iron, unworked (SJSds 



Skins, raw. 



poi: 

kllc_ 

.pounds. 

kUos... 

pounds. 

kil( 

pot^ 

kilos 



/I 

ipounds. 

/kil 

IpOL 

ridloe 
- ipounds. 

Stones, not specified {SJSdi:. 



*P?^ 

Stones for building purposes {] °* 



ands. 



Paving stones. 



86,388 

80,221 

fi05,001 

1,811,730 

848, U7 

1,860,750 

885,801,600 

1,401,886,619 

87,852,988 

88,460,687 

143,164,626 

815,620,788 

60,807,640 

133,152,437 

266,274,735 

664,9HU,281 

8,911,143 

8,622,506 

8,407,546 

7,512,276 

80,366 

177,151 

587,434 

1,295,067 

225,818 

276, ?25 

9,405,788 

20,736,000 

406,821 

896,878 

13,958,307 

80,772,484 

5,168,851 
11,883,128 
2,234,621 
4,026,445 
11,980,880 
26,411,046 



14,046,652 
82,951,389 
8,297,140 

7,268,876 
1,207,843 
2,661,708 

2,210.871 
4,874,086 
6,084,314 
18,303,248 
14,547,408 
82,071.306 
64,702,635 
120,728,706 

5,742,602 

12,060,140 

1,775,639 

8,914,358 

791,065 

1,743.960 

0,813,186 

21,684,160 

103.922,938 

437,522,600 

82.204.410 

70,997.862 

82,244,792 

71,086,880 

8.475.136 

18,684,284 

108.649.468 

288,605,617 



81,679 
60,840 
482.215 
1,018,000 
738,047 
1,627,006 

804,146,106 

1,772,820,510 

84,138,586 

76.261,814 

106,152,142 

284,023,012 

45,013,433 

101,225,754 

183,610,062 

406,238,070 

8,215,720 

7,080,370 

11,411,080 

26,166,017 

142,085 

313,241 

223,035 

401,708 

871,777 

819.620 

10,928,005 

24,091,880 

281,701 

621,088 

7,601,801 

16,759,068 

5,984,734 
12,063,945 
1,909,001 
4,208,782 
10,637.211 
23,460,795 



13,877,473 
29,602,977 
2.605,897 
5,744.961 
980,351 
2,051,052 

1,804,253 
8.977.666 
7,380,104 
16,270,376 
11,779.406 
26,967,878 
66,410,243 
124,875,248 

8.906.977 

8.617,753 

156,080 

844.114 

668, 6a5 

1,253.613 

11,981,801 

26,304,848 

218,888,0^5 

482.562.524 

28.857,525 

62.618,860 

28,158.812 

62.177,017 

8,207.403 

7,071.141 

62.521,644 

137,835,216 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUKOPE: BELGIUM. 



57 



Imports into Belgium from all countries during the first eight months of the years 

1896 and i^97— Continued. 



Articles. 



1897. 



1890. 



Carbonates S^^" 

Nltrates {po^Snda''. 

Sulphur and saltpeter {S!ISSds!: 

Chemical products, not specified {pounds!! 

Petroleum, refined {pJSds'.; 

Besin and bitumen, not specified (pounds!. 

Sirups and molasses {ppS^s!! 

Tobacco, unmanufactured (TOunds ! 

Meata, not specified C^Sds!! 

Horses No. head.. 



::i 



^48,988 
IB1.Q29 
71,089 
08,683 
35,259 
73,466 
;:86,631 
^<28,286 
>^^' m7(I,462 
u:.iW7,500 
V,. 136,816 

:: i>06,(H8 
4 422.583 
'k f 31, 856 
(l."J6,070 
iJ,SM9,439 
90,752,933 
2,397 



9,071,778 

19,999.630 

106,U8!i.2S5 

235,183,90B 

29,076.337 

64.101,093 

10,738,227 

23.673.495 

90,21)0,4(6 

212,083,406 

141,952.806 

312,949,156 

1,556.358 

3,431,147 

6,178.900 

13.617.594 

11,858.473 

26,14:), 187 

1,070 



The table of importations presents fignres worthy of study by any- 
one interested in the commerce of this country, as undoubtedly the 
going into effect of the increased duties on wheat, flour, oats, malt, 
butter, margarin, meats, and other alimentary products has had an 
influence in restricting them. 

A matter of special interest to our exporters, and one which has 
caused no little discussion here, is the restriction, on hygienic grounds, 
of the import of cattle from both North and South America. The 
interest of our people in this matter is shared by a large class of the 
population here, where meat is sold, generally speaking, at compara- 
tively high prices, particularly as the Government, by its course, has 
prevented the possibility of competition in price arising from importa- 
tions from the countries mentioned. 

Notwithstanding the obstacles thrown in the way of business, which 
the Antwerp Chamber of Commerce and the majority of like bodies 
throughout the Kingdom are doing all in their power to remove, the 
prevailing commercial spirit and activity have resulted in a constant 
increase of importations, which will be likely to become of much 
greater importance in the future. 

Figures given in regard to the following articles will also be found 
of interest to our exporters. The amount of starch ami non-edible 
farinaceous products, exported from our country to Belgium during 
the first eight months of 1895, amounted to 58,980 kilograms (132,237 
pounds); in 1896, the amount was increased to 145,089 kilograms 
(319,863 pounds), and again in 1897 we see a further increase, giving 
a total of 1,662,437 kilograms (3,665,009 pounds). 

The importation of timber has also increased to a large extent, 
amounting to 12,000 cubic meters (423,899 cubic feet). It will also be 
seen that another of our products has attracted attention, in that, in 
1897, 169,482 kilograms (373,640 pounds) of prunes were imported, 
while the amount in 1896 was only 58,005 kilograms (127,878 pounds). 

Grain and flour attract more attention for the moment, both at 
home and abroad, than any other article exported. The figures show 
a falling off of about 260,000,000 kilograms (136,276,000 pounds) in 
the import of wheat, but the importation from the Fiiitod States 
increased in 1895 to 114,327,542 kilograms (252,046,499 pounds) ; in 1896, 

uigitized by xsikjkjwi\^ 



58 COMMERCIAL BELATIONS. 

to 128,794,592 kilograms (283,940,558 pounds); in 1897, to 121,616,049 
kilograms (268,114,742 pounds). These figures are only surpassed by 
those representing the amount imported from Roumania, which coun- 
try furnished this market with 282,694,343 kilograms (623,227,949 
pounds), a decrease of 60,000,000 kilograms (136,276,000 pounds) from 
the amount sent during the preceding year. 

As to rj^e, the amount imported from the United States was 
21,257,991 kilograms (46,865,356 pounds), as contrasted ^ith 11,608,000 
kilograms (25,590,997 pounds) in 1896. These figures represent the 
United States as supplying two-thirds of the whole importation. 

Barley furnished by our country shows an increase in amount from 
16,806,725 kilograms (37,052,106 pounds) in 1896, to 41,107,075 kilo- 
grams (90,624,658 pounds) in 1897, or nearly one-third of the total 
importation. 

Importation of oats shows an increase of about 1,000,000 kilograms 
(2,204,600 pounds) over that of last year. 

The amount of corn brought from our country has nearly doubled 
in the period of time under consideration. This year, the amount of 
the same imported exceeds that of the corresponding period of 1896, 
having increased in the time mentioned from 65,354,582 kilograms 
(144,080,711 pounds) in 1896, to 113,385,618 kilograms (249,969,933 
pounds) for this year, being nearly one-half of the total importation. 

Buckwheat was imported to the amount of 3,067,450 kilograms 
f6,762,500 pounds), last year's figures showing 1,903,540 kilograms 
(4,186,544 pounds), and represented nearly the total importation. 

Wheat flour, 58,000,000 kilograms (127;866,800 pounds) of which 
was imported in 1895, shows a decrease during the present year, the 
total amount imported having been 3,407,540 kilograms (7,512,262 
pounds), of which 494,516 kilograms (1,090,210 pounds) came from 
the United States. 

Bran seems to have become an article of import from our country. 
The amount brought here in 1895 was merely nominal, but it increased 
to 1,000,000 kilograms (2,204,600 pounds) in 1896, and up to the present 
time this year has reached the figure of 7,000,000 kilograms (15,432,200 
pounds). 

Vegetable oil is imported from the United States to the amount of 
5,500,000 kilograms (12,125,300 pounds), being one-half of the total 
importation of this article at this port. 

The importation of oleomargarine amounted to 2,210,871 kilograms 
(4,874,086 pounds), most of which came from the United States. In 
this connection, it is interesting to note that since 1895 eleven factories 
have been started in Belgium, producing about 700,000 kilograms 
(1,543,220 pounds) per month. 

The importation of lard shows a decrease of about 20 per cent, 
amounting during the present year to a total of only 5,000,000 kilo- 
grams (11,023,000 pounds), as contrasted with 7,000,000 kilograms 
(15,432,200 pounds) during 1896. 

An increase in the importation of other greases to the amount of 
about 25 per cent is noted, there being 1,574,822 kilograms (3,481,858 
pounds) entered in 1897, as against 937,442 kilograms (2,066,685 
pounds) in 1896. 

The importation of cotton, while less than that of 1896, shows an 
advance over that of 1895. The amount brought in from the United 
States in 1897 was 16,337,853 kilograms (36,118,430 pounds), as com- 
pared with 13,912,254 kilograms (30,670,955 pounds) in 1890. The 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUBOPE: BELGIUM. 59 

amount brought from British India amounts to about twenty-four and 
a half million kilograms (54,012,700 pounds). 

From the United States there were furnished 1,234,116 kilograms 
(2,720,732 pounds) cast steel (degrossi) out of a total importation of 
2,755,408 kilograms (6,074,572 pounds). 

The quantity of copper and nickel products coming from our coun- 
try has somewhat decreased, being 4,761,705 kilos (10,497,665 pounds) 
and representing about one-half of the total amount imported. The 
amount of pig iron imported has increased from 85,500 kilos (188,593 
pounds) in 1896, to 11,204,540 kilos (24,701,529 pounds) in 1897. 

The importations of petroleum from the United States amounted to 
86,500,000 kilos (190,697,900 pounds), out of a total of 89,700,000 kilos 
(197,752,620 pounds). The amount of resin and bitumen imported 
was a million kilos (2,204,600 pounds) more in 1897 than in 1895, the 
total amount having been 18,522,092 kilos (40,833,804 pounds). 

In tobacco the amount brought in during 1897, though greater than 
that of 1895, was less than that imported in 1896, the amount which 
came from the United States representing about three-fourths of the 
whole. 

There is also a very considerable increase in our pork and conserved 
meat products, salted, smoked, etc. We furnish this country about 
eleven-twelfths of all that is brought in. The amount imported in 
1897 was about 12,000,000 kilos (26,455,200 pounds), against 10,000,000 
kilos (22,046,000 pounds) in 1896. 

Linsfeed-oil cake has become an article of importation of consid- 
erable value^ over 20,000 tons having been brought in already this 
year, and it is estimated on the part of those qualified to form an 
opinion, that probably an equally large quantity will be laid down here 
before the beginning of 1898. So much attention has been directed to 
the large quantity of the article in question imported here, that the 
Government is considering the question of placing a duty upon it. 

Bicycles have also been imported from the United States in large 
numbers, but inasmuch as the importations are included under the 
heading of machinery it has been impossible for me to ascertain any 
particulars. I understand that many of them have been brought to 
this port from the general agencies of the American companies doing 
business at London, Hamburg, and Paris. 

A most noticeable item of importation from our country during 
the last two years has been that of horses, of which during 1896 1,070 
arrived, and up to this time this year 2,397. Many of these are 
8hipi>ed within a short time to different places in France, Italy, and 
Germany. 

The opportunities afforded me for informing myself upon the last- 
mentioned topic have been so limited, due to the short period of my 
residence here, that I regret to be unable to give fuller information 
regarding the same. 

Geo. F. Lincoln, Consul, 

Antwerp, October i, 1897. 



THE PORT OF ANT'WTtRP. 

GENERAL FEATURES. 

The city of Antwerp, the port of which is among the first of the Con- 
tinent, numbered, December 31, 1896, 277,581 inhabitants. Including 
the population of the suburbs, this number is increased to 330,000. 

Digitized by VJ^^v.'V i\^ 



60 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

Its sanitary condition is excellent, the percentage of deaths having 
decreased to 20.6 per 1,000, average rate for the past ten years. It 
covers an area of 1,955 hectares, 430 of which are extra muros. (The 
hectare is equivalent to 2.471 acres.) 

The Escaut, or Schelde, on the right bank of which extends the city, 
forms a harbor 450 meters (1,476 feet) wide at high tide and 400 meters 
(1,312 feet) wide at low water. Antwerp is distant from the sea 54 
miles (88 kilometers). At Doel, situated up the stream above the 
Dutch frontier, 43 miles (70 kilometera) from the sea, the river offers 
the aspect of a bay or branch of the sea. 

The Schelde or Escaut has communication with the sea through four 
navigable channels — the Weilingen, the Spleet, the Deurloo, and the 
Oostgat. 

The pass of Weilingen is the most frequented and the best. It is 
bound on the south by the plateau Het Zand and the banks of the 
Binnen Paardemarks, extending parallel to the coast; on the north 
oy the Ribzand, comprising the banks of Heyst and Knocke and the 
banks of the Hompel. 

The pass of the Spleet, bound on the south by the Ribzand and the 
Hompel; on the north by the large plateau of the Raan and the banks 
of the Ellebog and the Walvischstaart, is navigable only for ships 
with a draft less than 5 meters. 

Between the channel of the Deurloo and the Oostgat, lie the banks 
of the Rassen, the Zoutelande, and Calloo, forming a vast plateau. 
This channel is difficult of passage on account of varying depths at 
its entrance, larger vessels being obliged to wait, before passing, half 
high tide. 

The pass of Oostgat, used generally by ships coming from the north, 
follows the southwest coast of the island of Walcheren, joining the 
Deurloo opposite the lights of Kaapduinen. 

The NoUeplatje, advancing in this channel to the west of Flushing, 
forces it toward the opposite shore. This bank protects the harbor 
of Flushing against nor&east winds. 

On the Escaut, the bank of the Spykerploat is the southern limit of 
the harbor of Flushing. At this point the depth of water is between 
7 and 8 meters (22-26 feet). To the east of the harbor is a high bank, 
called Kaloote, the center of which shows itself at high water. 

The large western entrance to the Escaut is bounded on the south 
by the banks of the Breskens and the Springer. These banks are 
formed by large plateaus above water at low tide, separated by water- 
ways of inconsiderable depths. 

To go through the Weilingen Pass, ships coming from the English 
Channel bound for the mouth of the Escaut are obliged to pass north- 
erly of the banks of Ruytingen and the southern Dyk and southerly 
of the banks Fairy and Westhinder. 

Up to September, 1882, the only guides to navigation on the Flem- 
ish coast were the floating lights of Westhinder and Weilingen. The 
approach to the pass of Weilingen was not free from danger, there 
being to the north of this channel the banks of Wandelaar, which at 
low tide are covered by hardly 7 metiers of water. 

To avoid these difficulties, pilots had no other guide than the large 
buoy Wandelaar, painted black, with horizontal red stripes, and sur- 
mounted by a sphere. 

This buoy being difficult to sight by night or in foggy weather, the 
board of pilots established a floating light of the first order about 
the center of the banks. ^ j 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 61 

The light-ship WeiLingen was also located more advantageously. 
The floating light Windelaar was maintained at its former position. 

These improvements date from September, 1882. 

Along the £scaut, different lights indicate the channel to be taken 
by vessels. West of Flushing safe channels are indicated by numer- 
ous buoys. 

On going upstream, pilots leave to port the black buoys and to star- 
board the red ones. 

MEANS OP COMMUNICATION WITH ANTWERP BY LAND AND WATER. 

As a seaport, Antwerp has (geographically) unequaled advantages, 
situated as it is on a stream through which vessels of the heaviest 
tonnage pass, with the facility of reaching their wharves without 
reducing their ballast. Its harbor is safe and well protected. 

Inland Antwerp is in direct communication with central Europe by 
means of numerous railways, and by a very intricate but extended net- 
work of canals, rendering it the most accessible of European shipping 
ports. To these advantages are added lesser dock rates than those of 
other ports, facilities for coaling and provisioning, important labor- 
saving installations for loading, unloading, storing, etc. 

Belgium being neutral territory exempts Antwerp from all the even- 
tualities of war, and because of the before-mentioned advantages, pos- 
sessed by no- other port of the Continent, the city occupies a position 
insuring a further great development and increase of substantial 
prosperity. This statement may be verified by a glance at the schedule, 
giving the amount of its already enormous maritime traffic. 

A noticeable point in connection with this expansion of business, is 
that it bears a just proportion to the betterment that has taken place 
at Antwerp, in the mode and means of direct communication with the 
interior, and that as these have been increased in number and fre- 
quency, traffic has advanced in like measure. 

NAVIGABLE WATERWAYS. 

The following enumeration of water courses and canals connecting 
Antwerp with its interior industrial and commercial centers, as well 
as with the different countries surrounding it, together with a descrip- 
tion of the va^ous anchorages, will fully account for the amount of 
tonnage of the boats making use of these water communications for 
the purposes of inland traffic. 

On the north, the Hansweert Canal connects the Escaut with the 
southern canals of Holland, the River Meuse, and the Rhine. This 
canal has an anchorage of about 6 meters (19 feet) at low water and a 
depth of 8 meters (26 feet) at high water. The locks have openings 
of about 15 meters (49ieet), allowing the passing of several Rhine 
boats at a time. 

The Hansweert Canal, opened October 11, 1867, takes the place of 
the former ways of communication, which were up to that time through 
the southerly branch of the Escaut, closed by a dam at Woensdrecht. 

A second canal, that of Walcheren, passing through Middelbourg, 
replaces that of the Sloe, barred in 1871. 

Antwerp is connected with the Meuse on the east by the Campine 
Canal and its several branches. 

The canal joining the Meuse to the Escaut comprises three sections, 
the first constructed in 1843-44, the second in 1846, with a branch 

Digitized by VJV^^^v i\^ 



62 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

connecting Turnhout, and the third in the j^ear 1856. The first two 
are of the grand-section order since 1865. 

This Meuse-Escaut junction canal has a branch connecting it with 
the military camp of Beverloo, situated at Bourg Leopold, and the 
town of Hassel. Another branch passes at Turnhout. The Meuse- 
Escaut junction joins at the Belgian frontier, near Bocholt, the canal 
of Bois le Due to Maestricht, built 1823-1826, widened in 1864-1870, 
to which is joined the Maestricht-Li6ge Canal. 

Navigation upon the Meuse-Escaut junction canal is afforded by 
locks having an opening of 7 meters (22 feet) and a length varying 
between 50 and 56 meters (164-183 feet). 

•The anchorage in all these different canals has a depth of 2.10 
meters (6 feet 9 inches), excepting the eastern branch at Turnhout, 
which has only 1.65 meters (5 feet 5 inches). 

The Meuse-Escaut junction canal is also connected with the rivers 
Nethe and Rupel at Grobbendonck by the Little Nethe. 

The port of Antwerp is connected on the south by the river Sambre 
with the manufacturing center of Charleroi and the north of France, 
viz; 

1. The River Rupel, subject to tidal variations, allows an anchorage 
varying from 1.60 to 5.25 meters (5 feet 3 inches to 17 feet 2 inches). 

2. The canal of Willebroeck, opened to navigation October 12, 1561, 
widened and deepened between 1830-1835 to allow an anchorage 
of 3. 10 meters (10 feet). The maritime lock has an opening of 7.50 
meters (24 feet 7 inches) and a length of 32 meters (104 feet 10 inches). 

3. The canal of Charleroi, constructed in 1832, enlarged and im- 
proved between 1854-1857, has an anchorage of 2.40 meters (7 feet 9 
inches), with locks measuring 5.20 by 40.80 meters (17 by 133 feet). 

Canal boats of large dimensions can run between Antwerp and 
Charleroi, with a draft of water of 2.40 meters (7 feet 9 inches). The 
locks are sufficiently large to allow the passage of boats of 300 tons 
burden. 

The canal of Charleroi to Brussels, joined to the Sambre River 
and to the canal of the Sambre and d'Oise, has an anchorage of 2 
meters (6| feet), with locks having openings of 5.20 meters (17 feet) 
by 37.40 to 37.60 meters (122-123 feet) in length. 

This canal is furthermore connected with the Meuse, near Namur, 
by the lower part of the canalized river Sambre, allowing anchorage 
of 2. 10 meters (6 feet 9 inches), passage of 5. 14 meters (d6 feet 9 inches), 
and a length of locks from 45.65 to 47.26 meters (150 to 155 feet). 

The River Meuse, canalized 1870-1880 between Namur and the 
French frontier, has a draft of water of 2.10 meters (6 feet 9 inches) 
and locks with openings of 12 meters (39 feet 4 inches) and 100 meters 
(328 feet) in length. This canal connects the southeast section of the 
canals to that of the French Ardenne section. 

The port of Antwerp is also in communication with Louvain, by the 
Rupel and the Canal Louvain, as far as Sennegat. This canal, opened 
in 1752, was considerably improved from 1760 to 1763, and then again 
between 1836 and 1837. Its depth is 3.60 meters (11 feet 9 inches) and 
it« locks have passageways of 8.20 meters (26 feet 10 inches) in width, 
with lengths of 56 meters (183 feet). 

The Lower Escaut is connected with all the navigable section of the 
north of France in the following manner: First, directly by way of 
the Upper Escaut from Ghent to the French frontier, with a minimum 
draft of water of 2.10 meters (6 feet 9 inches) and locks measuring 
6.50 by 41.60 meters (21 by 134 feet), and in the French section with 

Digitized by xjs^vjwi\^ 



EUROP£: BELGIUM. 63 

anchorages of 2 meters (6^ feet), with locks 34 meters (111 feet) in 
length and openings varying from 5.20 to 6.40 meters (17 to 20f feet). 

West of Andenarde, it communicates with the River Lys through the 
canal of Bossuyt Courtrai, constructed in 1858-1863, with an anchor- 
age of 2.20 dieters (7 feet 3 inches) and locks 5.20 by 37.65 meters 
(17 by 123^ feet), and with the Deule by the Canal d'Espierre and 
that of Roubaix, with a draft of water of 2 meters (6^ feet) and locks 
38.50 and 39.60 meters (126 and 129 feet), with openings of 5.20 
meters (17 feet). 

At Antoing, the Lower Escaut meets the Pommeroeul-Antoing Canal, 
constructed in 1826, forming a junction with the Dendree and the 
Canal Mons-Cond6, having anchorages of 2.20 to 2.30 meters (7 feet 
3 inches to 7 feet 6 inches), with locks of 40.80 meters (133 feet), afford- 
ing a width of passage of 5.20 meters (17 feet). 

The Escaut on French soil receives the Scarpe, navigable as far as 
Arras, with a water draft of 2 meters (6^ feet), while at Cond6 it 
meets the Canal Cond6 to Mons (Belgium). This waterway, up to the 
point of junction with the Antoing Canal, has only a draft of 2 meters 
(6i feet), with locks 5.20 by 37.50 meters (17 by 123 feet). Beyond, 
anchorage varies from 2.20 to 2.40 meters (7 feet 3 inches to 7 feet 8 
inches) and the length of locks 5.20 by 41.06 meters (17 by 134 feet). 

Very important work has been done to make a connection between 
the Mons-Cond6 Canal and the Central Branch near Houdeng, so as 
to link by a uniform anchorage of 2.10 meters (6 feet 9 inches) the 
Escaut via the Antoing-Mons Canal to the canal of Charleroi, which 
offers an anchorasre of that depth. The locks of all these canals have 
a measurement of 5. 20 meters in width by 40. 80 meters in length (17 by 
133 feet). 

Mechanical appliances are in process of construction, viz, four 
hydraulic elevators for boats for the purpose of enabling them to over- 
come the difference of level of 66.30 meters (217 feet). One of these 
elevators is now in use at Houdeng. 

At the present time, the Central Canal is operated by mechanical 
appliances throughout two-thirds of its course. 

This connection of the Mons-Cond6 Canal with the Central branch 
will bring about direct communication, by means of a broad canal 
on Belgian territory between the plain of the upper Escaut and the 
valley of the Sambre. 

The upper Escaut is joined to the St. Quentin Canal, the canal of 
the Somme via Ham, and to the canal of the Oise by a branch com- 
municating with the canal of the Sambre at the TOise. Navigable in 
hll its courses for vessels of 2 meters (6i feet) draft, it has locks of 31 
meters (101 feet) with passageways of from 5.20 to 6.40 meters (17 to 
20f feet). The canal of the Sens6e joins it to the Scarpe and the 
Deule at Douai, France. 

An existing project for a northern canal toward Paris would strike 
the canal of the Sens^e, reaching the canal of the Somme near 
Peronne, following the direction from Ham to Paris, with anchor- 
ages of 2.20 meters (7 feet 3 inches) and locks 5.20 by 38.50 metres 
(17 by 126 feet). 

Another plan would be to effect a direct junction of the upper 
Escaut with the Meuse by a branch connecting the Escaut with the 
Sambre between Denain and Landrecies and the Sambre with the 
Meuse from Landrecies to M6ziferes, with anchorages of 2.20 meters 
(7 feet 3 inches) and locks 5.20 by 38.50 meters (17 by 126 feet). 

Second. The lower Escaut is further connected by the Dendree 

^ Digitized by KJV7V>'Vi\^ 



64 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

(canalized 1863-1867) from Termonde to Ath, with a depth of water 
from 2.10 to 2. 30 meters (6f to T^feet) and locks 5. 20 meters (17 feet) by 
41.77 meters to 42.65 meters (137 to 143 feet) long. The canal Blaton 
to Ath, constructed in 1868, places the Dendree in communication 
with the canal Pommeroeul to Antoing and its several branches. 

Third. By the river Lys, which in its course from Ghent to the 
French frontier, toward Armenti^res has anchorages of 2.10 meters 
(6 feet 9 inches) with locks 5.20 by 42.20 meters (17 by 138 feet). 
The Lys is connected with Roulers by a branch constructed in 1872, 
and to the Escaut by the canal Bossuyt to Courtrai. 

On the French frontier, the Escaut reaches Lille and Douai by the 
canal of the Deule, having anchorages of 2 meters (6^ feet) and locks 
5.20 meters (17 feet) by 38.70 to 40.40 meters (126 to 132 feet). 

In France, this river is connected with the canals of Aire and Neu- 
f osse and their ramifications. Lastly, the Escaut is in communication 
with the western section of Belgian canals in the following manner: 

1. By the Durme and its branches. 

2. By the canal of Ghent to Bruges of the grand section order, with 
a depth of water of 2.50 to 2.90 meters (8 feet 2 inches to 9 feet 6 inches) 
extending between Ghent and the canal from the source of the Lys 
and a depth of 2.20 to 2.50 meters (7 feet 3 inches to 8 feet 2 inches) 
from this point up to Bruges. 

Also by the canal Bruges to Ostende, having a depth of 4.30 to 4.50 
meters (14 feet to 14 feet 8 inches), and which, branched to the canal 
of Plasschendaele, has an anchorage of 2.25 to 2.50 meters (7 feet 4 
inches to 8 feet 2 inches) up to Nieuport and of 2.20 meters (7 feet 3 
inches) from Nieuport to Fumes. This canal is in direct communica- 
tion with the Yser, joining it to the canal of Ypres, which has a depth 
of 1. 70 to 2. 25 meters (5 feet 6 inches to 7 feet 4 inches) and a lock 6. 20 
by 37 meters (20 by 121 feet). 

The canal of Ypres to Commines, in course of construction, will add 
to all these different routes'of communication a way to the Basin of 
the Lys, by the use of locks 5,20 by 45.60 meters (17 by 149 feet) with 
anchorages of 2 meters (6^ feet). 

The canal of Loo, with an anchorage of 1.90 meters (6 feet 3 inches), 
unites the Yser to Furnes. 

The canals of Furnes to Dunkerque, and that of Fumes to Ber- 
gues join the canals of Nieuport to all the navigable sections of the 
Pas de Calais, but they have a draft of water of only 1.25 to 1.30 
meters (4 feet to 4 feet 3 inches), which ultimately will be increased 
to that of 2 meters (6^ feet). 

This vast system of navigable waterways to Antwerp, covering an 
area of over 2,000 kilometers (1,243 miles), is a medium conferring 
great facilities for transportation. 

From statistics g^iven by the Bureau of Hydraulics, the total amount 
of inland transportation, consisting of coal, coke, minerals, metals, 
• plaster, lime, cement, stone, slate, marble, ceramics and glassware, 
wood, agricultural products, and general merchandise was estimated 
for the year 1893 to have been in tons of 1,000 kilograms (2,204 pounds), 
as follows: Through the Upper Escaut and the Dendr6e, east of 
Termonde, 906,700 tons. Through the Rupel and its annex of canals, 
1,462,000 tons. Through the lower Escaut, west of Antwerp, 1,910,- 
000 tons. By way of the Junction Canal from the Mouse to the 
Escaut and by that of Tumhout, 791,000 tons. 

The total movement in transit, by inland boats on the Escaut west 



Digitized by 



Google 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



65 



of Antwerp, amounted to 1,895,497 tons on incoming and 1,627,476 
tons on outgoing boats, giving a total for 1893 of 3,522,973 tons, as 
compared with 3,500,000 in 1881. 

The period embracing the most rapid development of inland navi- 
gation in Belgium occurred between the years 1820 and 1860. 

The following statistics give the increase by periods of ten years: 

Canal dei^elopment in Belgium, 



Tears. 


Area. 


AxDoant 
added. 


jggo-isao 


Metera.^ 
1,518,444 
1,707,120 
1,818,520 
1,919,731 
1,976,011 
2,022,919 
2,090,719 


Meters. 


1880-1840 . ..... . 


88.076 


1840-1860 


111,400 


1860-1800 


101,202 


186&-1870 


56,2H0 


1870-1880 


46,906 


1880-1890 


13,800 







> 1 meter =8 feet 8.87 inchee. 

This progressive movement ceased when, owing to the greater con- 
venience and rapidity of transport by that means, the establishment 
of numerous railways diverted traffic, though in many instances at 
much greater expense. 

Latterly, attention has been given principally to the improvement 
of existing canals, widening or deepening certain ones, so as to obtain 
more direct communication with others and render it possible for 
boats to x)ass through at all points, making them conform to an uni- 
form type and be of a depth adapted to present commercial necessities. 

RAILVTAYS. 

Antwerp is not only favored by reason of its facilities of communi- 
cation by water, but is well served by railways in direct commu- 
nication with all parts of Belgium, Holland, Central Germany, Alsace 
and Lorraine, Switzerland, Italy, and the north and east of France. 

Antwerp, by its system of railways, is connected with North and 
Central Germany by three main arteries, namely, Antwerp-Gladbach, 
Antwerp- Aix-le-Chapelle, via Hasselt and Maestricht, and Antwerp- 
Cologne, via Malines, Li6ge, Verviers, Herbestal, and Bleyberg. The 
imxK>rtant transit line from Brussels to Namur and Luxembourg 
affords Antwerp direct access, via Sterpenich, to Alsace-Lorraine, 
Switzerland, and Italy. 

Connections with the railways of the east and north of France are 
established by numerous lines in the provinces of Luxembourg, 
Namur, Hainaut, and Occidental Flanders, in the several directions 
of Longwy, Montm^dy, Givet, Anor, Maubege, Valenciennes, Douai, 
LillOy Armenti^res, Hazelbrouck, and Dunkerque. 

On the north, connection in the direction of Holland is via Rosen- 
daely Tilbourg, and Eindhoven. 

Antwerp is a nearer port than Havre for northern France, Alsace- 
Lorraine, and Germany. It is also a rival port as regards the eastern 
districts of France and Switzerland. 

For a great part of Germany, it is less distant than either Bremen 
or Hamburg, and can compete advantageously with these two ports, 
as well as with those of Holland. j 

o B — VOL 2 5 "^9'^^®^ ^y vjOOgle 



66 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

The St. Grothard Railway, inaugurated December, 1881, and opened 
to traffic in June, 1882, has contributed greatly toward the develop- 
ment of the shipping trade at Antwerp. By this means, the commu- 
nication so advantageously established between the cities of Genoa 
and Milan, and Basel, Zurich, and northern Switzerland, has had the 
effect of directing transit trade to Belgium through the consequent 
impulse given to trade between western European countries and the 
Orient, as well as to that between northern European ports and 
northern Italy. 

Already, by the time of the opening of the Mont Cenis tunnel in 
1872, the railways of Belgium, Luxembourg, and Alsace had diverted 
to their channels a large part of the oriental transit trade, owing to 
their reduced rates. 

The detour formerly necessary between Basel and Geneva being 
done away with, direct connection between Antwerp, Ostend, and 
Brindisi was opened. For Milan, the nearest northern port is Ant- 
werp. A comparison of the distances from Milan to French ports 
and Milan to Belgian ports is as follows: 

FRANCE. 

KUo- 
Via Mont Cenis: meters. Miles. 

Calais-Milan 1,354 = 841 

Boulogne-Milan 1,311 = 814 

BELGIUM. 

Via the St. Gotfaard: 

Ostend-Milan 1,258=791 

Antwerp-Milan _ 1,178=731 

This gives Antwerp an average of 133 kilometers (83 miles) advantage 
over Boulogne and 176 kilometers (110 miles) over Calais, a large 
percentage when the difference of expense is considered. Even over 
Ostend Antwerp has the advantage. 

Austria, fearing to lose her traffic by the Brenner, the earliest of 
the Alpine passes (dating from 1864), parried the blow by piercing, in 
less than four years, the tunnel of Arlberg, inaugurated November 5, 
1883, uniting Austrian Tyrol to eastern and northern Switzerland, and 
enabling merchandise to be forwarded without transshipment to 
Trieste from western Europe and Venice on the one hand, and 
Vienna and Constantinople on the other. 

France, appreciating the advantages that the St. Gothard offered to 
Grermany and the Belgian ports, is at present negotiating with Italy 
and Switzerland, also interested in the project, for piercing a tunnel 
through the Simplon, in order to compete with the St. Gothard. 

The Simplon route would materially reduce the distance between 
Milan and the French ports of the English Channel, giving: Calais- 
Milan, 1,238 kilometers (768 miles), and Boulogne-Milan, 1,195 kilo- 
meters (742 miles). Notwithstanding the above, Antwei'p would still 
have the advanta^ge of 60 kilometers (37 miles) over Calais and 17 
kilometers (11 miles) over Boulogne. Should this route be estab- 
lished, Antwerp will not fear competition, owing to the high rates of 
tariff demanded on merchandise in transit by the French railways. 

A large proportion of Italian products destined for England, passing 
through the St. Gothard, are shipped at Antwerp for English ports. 
The Indian trade from the north of Europe, en route for Brindisi via 
the St. Gothard, passes through Belgium in transit via Ostend-Basel. 

In order to compare the relative distances of the ports of other couu- 

uigitized by ^.jkjkjwls^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



67 



tries, the following table, taketi from the Monit^ur Industriel of 1882, 
will show the advantage enjoyed by Antwerp: 

KUometen. lilies. 

Antwerp to Brindisi by the St. Gothard 1,»54=1,214 

Oetend to Brindisi by the St Gothard 2,030 = 1,261 

Dunkerqne to Brindisi by the St Gothard 2,090=1,298 

Boulogne to Brindisi by the St Gothard 2,098=1,803 

Calais to Brindisi by the St Gothard 2,111 = 1,311 

Bremen to Brindisi by the Brenner 2,108 = 1,809 

Hamburg to Brindisi by the Brenner 2,162=1,348 

Lubeck to Brindisi by the Brenner 2,188 = 1,359 

Havre to Brindisi by the Mont Cenis 2,187 = 1,327 

The following is a comparative table of the lengths of Belgian rail- 
ways, by periods of five and ten years: 



Periods. 


Belgian railways 
owned by— 


Total 
length. 


Total 


The Stete. 


Corpora- 
tions. 


increase. 


December 31— 

1840 


Meters.^ 

S33.8(B 

824.219 

748,606 

868,682 

2,791,614 

3.209,000 

3,381.000 


Meten. 

32,300 

278,000 

980,770 

2,028.310 

1,820,302 

1,261.000 

1,488,000 


M€tern. 
336.108 
807,219 
1,729,376 
2,896,992 
4,119,906 
4,470.000 
4,808,000 


MeUn. 


I8BO:::::::::.:::::::.::::::.::: 

1800 


681,116 
882! 167 


1870 


1,187,616 


1880 


1,214,914 


1800 


860,084 


1805 


888,000 







» 1 meter -- 39.37 inches. 

Since 1860, railway growth coincides with the impulse given it by 
private corporations. The abolishing of toll rates on the Escaut, and 
the establishing of main transit lines toward central Germany and 
Switzeriand, for which Antwerp is the most available shipping port, 
are improvements dating from that period. Since the Franco-German 
war and the opening of the Mont Cenis tunnel (1871), railway develop- 
ment in Belgium has been still more marked. 

Since that year, the Belgian Government has added to its own lines 
by purchase: In 1871, the railways of the coal region of Hainaut; in 
1872, the Grand Duchy (junction); in 1873, the Grand Luxembourg; 
in 1880, Antwerp to the Dutch frontier; in 1878, a portion of the 
Flanders section; in 1897, the Antwerp-Ghent and the Ghent-Eecloo, 
with the Grand Central and annexes. 

Tariffs of rates are thus simplified, time gained, and economy 
assured. 

Geo. F. Lincoln, Consul. 

Antwerp, October 29, 1897. 



BQT7IPMBNT OF THB PORT OF ANTWERP. 

The port comprises solid stone quays along the river's bank and 
basins or docks. The quays are 3,500 meters (11,480 feet) in length, 
and upon them are built hangars, or iron sheds, each 100 meters (380 
feet) long and covering a total surface of 98,500 square meters. These 
are supplied with numerous railways, over 24,000 meters (78,720 feet) 
in extent. For the manipulation of merchandise, there are 65 movable 
cranes or derricks in operation, of a lifting power varying from 1,600 

Digitized by xsikjkjwi\^ 



68 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

(3,307 pounds) to 2,000 (4,409 pounds) kilograms. Eighteen others 
are in course of construction. Water power, with a pressure of 47.62 
atmospheres, furnished from a special building, conducted through a 
system of canals along the quays, and massed in a main conductor, sup- 
plies the force necessary to work the elevators, as well as the rotary 
platforms and the revolving capstans. The machinery used in this 
water tower consists of two compound engines, each of 250 horsepower. 
The depth of anchorage at the quays is at low tide 8 meters (26 feet). 
The average rise of the tide is 4.29 meters, and the quays are 2.60 
meters above the average of high tides. During the course of this year 
(1897), the Government will commence to construct 2,000 meters (6,560 
feet) of quays in addition to those now in use, on the southern river 
side of the city. This work, to be constructed in thirty-six months, 
according to contract, will be completed by the spring of 1901 and will 
be furnished with the latest modem mechanical improvements. 

The floating docks are maintained at a water level of 30 centimeters 
(11 inches) below high water. There are eight large-sized ones on the 
north, connected with the Escaut by means of two dikes, one having 
an opening of 18 meters (59 feet) in width, and the other of 24.8 meters 
(81 feet). The lock sills being at 2.84 to 3.38 meters below low-water 
mark at usual high tide, the depth of wat«»r covering them varies 
from 6.89 to 7.63 meters (22 to 25 feet). The dikes are open one honr 
before high tide and closed about an hour afterwards, giving three 
hours for the entrance or exit of vessels. 

The mechanical working of the Kattendyk sluice is accomplished 
by means of lour capstans, two on each side, acted upon by hydraulic 
pressure, with a tension on the chains of 2 tons. These capstans are 
also used for towing purposes. In this case, the tension can be 
increased to 5 tons. 

The sluices of the old basins are worked by hand; the ebb open- 
ings are worked by hydraulic pressure, this machinery serving also 
for the purpose of towing vessels. A capstan of 1-ton tension is used 
for the towing of lighters. 

Two other capstans are placed on the intermediate piers between 
the Kattendyk and the old basins, with a tension power of from 2 to 
5 tons each, according to need. 

The water surface of these basins is of 61.3 hectares (151 acres) 
with walls 10,760 meters in extent, 2,600 of which have an accessible 
slope. 

The Campine Canal, connecting the Escaut with the Mouse, has 
its outlet in the basin Asia. Connected with the canal is a basin for 
inland boats, 40 meters wide by 450 in length. The basin America, the 
most distant, is especially reserved for the petroleum trade. It is 
surrounded by vast reservoirs of a receiving capacity of 78,000,000 
liters (20,605,650 gallons). For greater security, electric lights are 
used and the tanks surrounded by a wall 1 meter in height. The 
basin, surrounded by a ditch, is isolated from the tanks, and, in case 
of fire, oil proof. The bridge separating this basin from the basin 
Lefebvre is cased with iron sheaths, allowed to drop every evening, 
preventing the flow of petroleum ever reaching any of the other 
basins. The piers are provided with numerous hangers or sheds, 
spreading over a land surface of not less than 126,500 square meters 
(105,767 square yards) in extent. Besides these, large tracts are left 
for the convenience of trade and open-air storage of merchandise. 
Convenient to all parts of these basins, railways covering 47,000 meters, 
and mechanical contrivances of all descriptions worls^e^ D^^J\£4f$^^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 69 

pressure, offer the fullest facilities for unloading or loading freight. 
This machinery comprises 49 movable elevators, 27 of which are of 2 
tons each and 22 of 1^ tons each ; a derrick of 120 tons, two stationary 
elevators of 40 tons, one of 20 tons, one of 10 tons, and one of 5 tons, all 
worked by hand. On the southern quay of the Campine Basin, an 
Armstrong, Newcastle, machine, called "Kolentip," is used for 
unloading and loading coal and coke. It elevates a weight of 25 tons 
of coal to the height of 12 meters. It is worked hydraulicaUy and 
operated ten times per hour, at the rate of 20 centimes (4 cents) per 
ton, loaded. Water power is furnished by three machines, each of 
150 horsepower, inclosed in a separate building. The power neces- 
sary to drive twelve capstans for the working of the numerous draw- 
bridges, as well as for the large rotary bridge at the Kattendyk, is 
also obtained from the same source. 

There are six dry docks, the largest being 24.80 meters (81.76 feet) 
wide, long enough to accommodate a ship of 159 meters (57.9 feet); 
the opening of the Kattendyk, however, allowing the x>assage of a 
vessel only 155 meters (56 feet) in length. The smaller ones measure 
10 to 12 metera (32 to 39 feet) in width and 48 to 69 meters (158 to 226 
feet) in length, and three others 131 meters (421 feet) long, with 
openings of 15 meters (49 feet). These several basins are drained 
dry by means of eight suction pumps, worked by two-cylinder machines 
of 250 horsepower. 

Close to the southern river frontage of the city, there are three 
basins for the general use of boats, covering a surface of 4 hectares 
(about 10 acres), surrounded by quays 1,800 meters (5,905 feet) in 
extent. The central basin connects with the Escaut by means of a 
lock with hydraulic chamber, 13 meters in width, the lock sill of 
which, being 2 meters below low water, allows even at low tide the 
entrance of boats with a draft of 1.80 meters (5 feet 10 inches). 

The iron gates of this lock are operated by hand. Three capstans 
of 1-ton tension (a fourth soon to be added) are used to tow boats 
through the lock and the air chamber. The revolving bridges are 
also Bet in motion by means of hydraulic power, the water acting 
upon the pistons of two cylinders, one working in each direction, 
exerting in this manner traction on the table. The quays are pro- 
vided with a railway connected with the Antwerp-Southern Station, 
with a total length of 2,000 meters (6,562 feet) of rails. 

DREDGING AND DREDGING MACHINES. 

The Government assumes the ' responsibility of maintaining the 
channels of the Escaut in a navigable condition. In the harbor proper, 
dredging is rarely necessary. Five kilometers (3 miles) easterly of 
Antwerp, important dredgings are being worked, with the intention of 
considerably increasing the depth of the channel there. The old strait 
of Fort Philippe was very narrow, and vessels against the stream 
were obliged to cross it twice, taking the risk of grounding on the 
banks. To avoid this, the Government threw back the dike on the 
left bank, removed the headland, named Krankeloon, and excavated 
in its plaice a channel deep enough for the passage of vessels. The 
Krankeloon has a depth of 6 meters (19.6 feet) below low tide. 

The curves of the Escaut, between Antwerp and Lillo, are a hin- 
drance to navigation. A project has been lately adopted by the Gov- 
ernment, by means of which the greater irregularities in the channel 
of the river will be effectively disposed of. ugitzed by vj^wgii^ 



70 COMMERCIAL BELATIONS. 

The stone embankments on the northerly riverfront will be extended 
and other basins built and connected with the river. 

To maintain the channels and the basins at a serviceable depth, the 
city uses a dredger, removing annually material to the amount of 
117,000 cubic meters (4,132,042 cubic feet). This boat is also pro- 
vided with all necessary apparatus to extinguish fires. The sub- 
stance taken up is transported to the sea by two propellers with trap 
holds. These propellers are filled by the dredging machine in five or 
six hours and hold 250 cubic meters (8,829 cubic feet) of soil, etc. 

LIGHTS AND LIGHTING. 

Qas is generally used for the lighting of the quays and basins, the 
two locks of the maritime channel excepted, where electric light is 
used to allow the passing of vessels at night with greater facility. 
The lamps are eight in number and of 6 amperes. 

For the loading or unloading of vessels at night, the expense is borne 
by the parties interested. 

Latterly, the city authorities have located electric lights at the two 
principal points of night labor — on the quay of the entrepot (Grovern- 
ment warehouse) and on the quay S. Laurent. At the entrepot, four 
lamps are used of 5 amperes each, which, if required, can be affixed 
to the masthead of vessels. At the S. Laurent quay, there are four 
lamps of 5 amperes each, receiving their force from the dynamo light- 
ing the channels. 

As there is a demand for them, other lights will be placed at other 
I)olnts, and when the number demands it, a central station will be 
established and the existing ones employed elsewhere. The rate 
charged is 50 centimes (10 cents) per lamp per hour. 

RAILWAY STATIONS. 

The principal station at Antwerp for passenger travel is the Gare 
de TEst. It is situated in the center of the town. The Gare du Sud, 
situated at the southern extremity of the city, is a passenger station, 
but is used mainly for the local transport of merchandise and for the 
organizing of trains serving the three first sections of the Escaut quays. 
For freight, the Gare Principale, close to the custom-house and basins, 
is of primary importance. The Gare de Stuivenberg is located at the 
northern side of the city, and beyond this is the Gare de Zurenborg, 
at which freight trains are made up. 

THE "EAST station" OF ANTWERP. 

This station is being rebuilt on a magnificent scale. The terminus 
embraces nine sets of rails, with platforms 30 centimeters (11 inches) 
above the tracks, and between 6 to 8 meters (19.6 to 26.2 feet) wide. 
The tracks at their southern limit (reduced in number to six) are des- 
tined two for Brussels, two for Holland, and the two center ones for 
switching purposes. The total length covered by the rails will amount 
to 7 kilometers (4.3 inches). To do away with the numerous grade 
crossings of streets traversed by the railway, the station and tracks 
are elevated 6 meters (19.6 feet) above them. All the other city sta- 
tions will have the same level except the one at the docks and at the 
south, which, owing to their proximity to the maritime installations, 
make it unadvisable. At Berchem, an electrical establishment will 
distribute power for the lighting of the station, its buildings, and for 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 71 

its track service. There will be in use sixteen elevators and two for 
the raising of cars at the Avenue Plantin. These elevators will be all 
hydraulic. The press pumps of the reservoirs will be worked by an 
electrical current. Ventilation in the underground portion of the 
building will be effected in the same manner. Heat will be furnished 
by low-pressure machinery', the boiler being placed underground. 
Light will be furnished by arc and incandescent electric lamps, the 
accumulator being located under the arches of the building. The 
dimensions of the locomotive building are 67 meters (219 feet) wide 
by 88 meters (228 feet) long. It is supported by six solid pillars of 
masonry, on which rest three bowstring crossbeams, with a suspended 
bridge without diagonals supporting the roof, the total weight of 
which is 1,360 tons. By this system of construction, the shed is sup- 
ported without the use of columns. One thousand tons of steel were 
used in the construction of this building. 

THE ROYAL ENTREPOt. 

This Government warehouse covers 31,650 meters (340,681 square 
feet) of ground surface, 10,485 meters (112,861 square feet) of which are 
occupied by the main buildings. There are also numerous sheds, 
occupying in sjmce 5,870 meters (63,235 square feet), several of which 
are two-storied. The larger buildings have four stories and a garret, 
and others have also cellars. 

The entrepot faces the grand basin. The ground and other floors 
are used for storage purposes, the cellars for the storage of liquids. 

The weight of storage allowed on each floor is indicated by an 
inscription on the doors, viz, 1,000 kilograms (2,204 pounds) per square 
meter (1.196 square yards) of floor surface, the rate diminishing for 
each successive story and not exceeding 200 kilograms (440.9 pounds) 
per square meter on the upper ones. 

The charges for warehousing are paid monthly, the rate of which is 
fixed by the custom department. Storage is under the exclusive con- 
trol of custom o£&cials, who specify the place and manner of storage, 
retaining possession of the keys of the compartment allotted. 

The municipal authorities have no control of the entrepdt, except 
in the case of the storage of merchandise entering free of duty; in all 
other cases the customs department fixes the storage rates, which it 
pays every three months to the municipal authorities, retaining 2i 
per cent as commission from the total receipts. 

In the center of the block of buildings, is a large open court used 
for the handling of merchandise, accessible to trucks, carts, and 
freight cars. The entrepdt is connected with the freight station or 
Gare Principale by rail, thereby obviating a transfer of the goods 
at either place. For facilitating the handling of merchandise, hy- 
draulic machinery is used. A horizontal steam motor of 50 horse- 
power, with double noncondensing cylinders, works pressure pumps, 
driving the wat^r at 47.62 atmospheres into the main pipe. An accu- 
mulator for receiving the steam close to the machine is fed by steam 
boilers. The water, under pressure conducted through an arrange- 
ment of pipes, returns to the reservoir after having been used in the 
hoisting machines, and is again reemployed. 

There are ten hydraulic elevators, with a lifting force of 900 kilo- 
grams (1,984 pounds) each. They are located on the fourth floors, 
serving for the raising and lowering of merchandise. ^ j^ 

At the windows, a platform projecting 80 centimeterC^^v€S to 



72 COMMERCIAL BKLATIONS. 

receive the goods, which are then carried to the place they are to 
occupy. 

In the interior of the buildings are seven hydraulic elevators, com- 
petent to raise at an elevation of 22. 50 meters (73 feet) a weight of 1,400 
kilograms (3,086 pounds). Complete and complicated machinery can 
be bixjught for use at any given window or storage room with a carry- 
ing power of 600 kilograms (1,323 pounds). 

The rent of these machines is payable to the municipality, but the 
handling of the machines is done by the employees of the entrepdt. 
The charges for raising goods to any height is 5 centimes (1 cent) per 
100 kilograms (220 pounds); for wheat, 2 centimes (one-fifth cent) 
per hectoliter (about 27 gallons or 2.837 bushels). The same charges 
are made for the lowering of the same. 

WAKEHOUSES FOE THE STORAGE OP WHEAT. 

Close to the Basin Lefebvre is a vast building employed for storing 
wheat, with a capacity of 325,000 hectoliters (922,025 bushels). It is 
owned by a company having the grant for a term of forty years of the 
lease of the ground. Additional ground for the purpose of extending 
these buildings has been granted by the city for a term of ten years, 
dating from 1892. It is lighted by electricity and has all mechanical 
contrivances for moving wheat to and from vessels, by means of under- 
ground passages running along under the quaj^. It is also well 
supplied with elevators. 

GUANO STORES. 

On the west front of the Kattendyk Basin is a large building cover- 
ing a surface of 7,800 square meters (9,329 square yards), used for 
storing guano or sugar. On the eastern front are two wooden struc- 
tures used for the same purpose, covering a surface of 7,000 square 
meters (8,372 square yards). These will be torn down and the open 
space paved and left for the general use of trade. 

TOWING AND TUGBOATS. 

The basins are supplied with eight steam tugboats, two of which 
serve as ice breakers. By a peculiar but very satisfactory system, the 
stern of the tug sinks into the water, raising the bows, which, acting 
as a chopper, make a clear channel. Another of these boats is pro- 
vided with a powerful steam fire engine, used as an extinguisher in 
case of fire or for pumping out purposes in case of leakage of vessels. 
The city does not hold itself responsible for any injury caused by 
these to the shipping or to any of the maritime equipments. 

The services of these tugs can be availed of by vessels from October 
1 to April 1 between the hours of 7 a. m. to 6 p. m., and from April 1 
to October 1 from 6 a. m. to 7 p. m. 

The charges vary according to the points of departure and the points 
of terminus, as well as per the amount of tonnage of the ships. The 
following tables will exemplify the rates in use: 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 
Table I. 



73 





A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


Yeaeeis of— 

86 tons and Ittss. 


Franca. 

2 

6 

8 

11 

14 

. 17 

20 

23 

20 

29 

32 

86 


10.88 
.96 
1.64 
2.12 
2.70 
8.28 
3.86 
4.44 
6.02 
6.60 
6.18 
6.76 


Franc; 

4 |o.n 

7 T35 
10 1.03 
14 2.70 
18 3.47 
22 4.25 
25 4.88 
28 6.40 
81 6.08 
84 6.66 
87 7.14 
40 7.72 


Franca. 
6 
9 
12 
16 
20 
25 
80 
85 
40 
46 
60 
66 


11.16 
1.74 
2.82 
3.00 
8.86 
4.88 
6.79 
6.76 
7.72 
8.60 
0.66 

i0.«2 


Franca. 
8 
11 
15 
20 
25 
80 
85 
40 
46 
60 
66 
60 


$1.64 
2.12 
2.90 
3.86 
4.83 
6.70 
6.76 
7.72 
8.60 
0.66 

ii.M' 


Franca. 

1 

2 

4 

6 



12 

15 

18 

21 

24 

27 

80 


•"•S 


85 to 171 tons 


1?2 to 342 tons 


77 


343 to 614 tons 


1.16 


616 to 685 tons 


1.74 


686to8S6 tons 


2.82 


867 to 1,027 tons... 


2 00 


1,028 to 1,109 tons 

1.200 to 1.370 tons 

1.371 to 1,641 tons 

1,M2 to 1,712 tons 

Vessels above 1,712 tons .... 


a47 
4.06 
4.63 
6.21 
6.79 



Table n. 



Point of destination of the 
vessels. 


Point of departure. 


Old small 
liasin 

E 
A 
B 
C 
D 


Old large 
basin. 


Kattendyk 
basin. 


Timber 
basin. 

C 
B 
A 
E 
A 
A 


Campine 
basin. 


Asia basin. 


Old basin 


A 

E 
A 

B 

C 


B 
A 
E 
A 

B 
fi 


D 
C 
B 
A 
E 
B 


I> 


Old large basin 


c 


Kattendyk basin 


B 


TimbflT fiftftin . . , . 


A 


Canine basin 


B 


Asia basin , 


E 



The rates E (see Table I) are applied in the following cases: 

1. For a change of place in the same basin. 

2. For being towed from the Maritime lock to inside of the old 
basin or vice versa. 

3. From the Maritime lock to inside of the Kattendyk lock or vice 
versa. 

4. From the Kattendyk lock to inside of the Kattendyk basin or 
vice versa. 

Inland boats pay special rates, established by the Government, 
viz: 

From the Campine Canal between iJyke No. 6 and the lock of the 
Kattendyk — 

Francs. 

Boat8 withont cargo 0.50==|0.10 

Boats loaded with less than 10 tons 50= .10 

BoatsloadedfromlOtoSOtons... 1.00= .19 

Boats loaded from 51 to 100 tons _ 1.50= .28 

Boats loaded from 101 to 150 tons 2.00= .38 

Boats loaded from 201 to 250 and over 8.00= .67 

Tugboats required, outside of prescribed hours, are charged the 
usual rates by the harbormaster, with the addition of a tax of 25 francs 
($4.83) to be paid by him to the municipality. 

Towing to and from the sea is paid for at rates decided upon be- 
tween the interested parties themselves, i. e., the captains and the 
towboat companies. Of these there are three: "Society anouyme de 
remorquage k helice," the "Societe d'assurances et d'armateurs pour 
le remorquage et le sauvetage," and the "Anglo-Belgian Screw Steam 
Towing Company." A fourth companv, the "Society anonyme de 
remorquage et de transport sur eaux interieures," does inland towing. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



74 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

The charges from Antwerp to Flushing, at the mouth of the river 
Escaut, or vice versa, are: 

For vesselssof — Pranca. 

200 tons and less 800=S57.90 

201 to SOOtons *. 850= 67.55 

801 to 400 tons 875= 72.38 

401 to 500 tons 425= 82.03 

l,000tons. .._. 650=125.45 

1,500 tons ... 1,000=193.00 

2,000ton8 : 1,250=241.25 

Above 2,000 tons, special arrangements are made. An additional 
tugboat, when required, is furnished at a reduction of one-fourth of 
the above rates. 

Though most of the companies have adopted these rates, a reduc- 
tion is frequently made by agreement. 

Geo. F. Lincoln, Consul. 

Antwerp, November 5, 1897. 



ANTWBRP PORT DUES AND RBGULATIONS. 

The method of measurement employed in Belgium prior to the year 
1881, was an empirical one. It consisted in taking the measurement 
of the three principal dimensions of a vessel; i. e., the length on 
deck from the stem to the stern, and the average width and depth, 
deducted from the dimensions taken at four different points of the 
length. 

These three quantities — length, width, and depth — were multiplied 
together and the product multiplied by the fraction four-ninths. The 
final result obtained by these calculations expressed the tonnage in 
tons of the Belgian custom measurement of 1"®500. 

The greater number of maritime nations have adopted a uniform 
system of measurement. 

The Belgian Government, with the consent of the other signatory 
powers of the treaty of 1863, for the purpose of purchasing the toll 
dues of the Escaut, adopted the Moorsom system of measurement. 
This system has been in operation since January 1, 1884. 

The Moorsom ton of 2*^830 is consequently larger than the one 
obtained by the old system of measurement, and the Government 
was induced to form a commission for the purpose of ascertaining the 
figures necessary for changing the old rates of dues, based on the old 
and discarded system of measurement. The results achieved by this 
commission were approved by the Government and the common 
council of Antwerp. 

The average ratio of difference between the ton, as ascertained by 
the new and old systems of measurements, is 1.198; or, in plain terms, 
840 Moorsom tons are the equivalent of 1,000 tons by the old scale of 
measurement. 

To obtain, then, the amount of dues applicable per ton, as ascer- 
tained by the Moorsom system of measurement, the rates i)er ton fixed 
in accoi'dance with the old system must be multiplied by 1.198. 

Vessels entering the Escaut, on passing Flushing (Holland), are tel- 
egraphed to their owners or agents, in order that no delay may occur 
in the unloading on arrival at Antwerp. The quarantine officers 
board at Doel, but their visit is not made except in case the vessel 
comes from an unhealthf ul port or has had cases of contagious disease 

Digitized d7VJV7\^viv^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 76 

on board during the voyage. For this visit and other quarantine 
requirements no charges are made. 

Captains, on reaching Lillo, surrender their manifest to the custom- 
house officials, who remain on board until the vessel reaches port, and 
who, in their turn, transmit this document to the custom-house offi- 
cials at Antwerp. Unloading is begun as soon as customs formalities 
are complied with and the ship moored to dock. 

BATES OP PILOTAGE, ETC. 

The services of a pilot are obligatory, and Belgian and Dutch pilots 
serve alternately. 

Ships of war, pleasure yachts (owned by clubs), vessels in ballast 
with a draft of water less than 19 decimeters, river boats and coasters, 
tugboats (forbidden to trade), and fishing boats or boats transporting 
fish are not subject to compulsory pilotage. 

Pilot rates are fixed in accordance with the terms of the treaty of 
May 12, 1863, between Belgium and Holland, abolishing the collection 
of toll from ships entering the Escaut. It particularly stipulates that 
rates of pilotage shall never exceed those exacted at the mouth of the 
river Meuse. 

The charges are the same for vessels of all nationalities, and are 
rated in accordance with the draft of the ship and the season it enters 
the harbor; the winter season beginning October 1 and the summer 
season April 1. The rate differs for steamers, sailing vessels, or for 
those employing tags. Reductions of or exemptions from charges are 
granted in cases specified in the regulations. A vessel in charge of a 
pilot on any course, prevented by some unforeseen hindrance from 
proceeding on its course, pays but 50 per cent of the established rates; 
I>er contra, when ice causes obstruction and delay and some danger 
to the pilot the rate is doubled. It is also increased in cases where 
vessels are difficult to control, by reason of insufficient ballast or acci- 
dents to the rudder or rigging, rendering the steering of the vessel a 
matter of difficulty. 

The charge for measuring the draft of water of a ship is 53 centimes 
(about 10 cents) upon entering and the same upon leaving. Pilots 
obliged to remain on board of a ship in the harbor receive an allow- 
ance of 4.23 francs per day. 

PQoting from the harbor to the docks or vice versa, or that neces- 
sary for a change of moorings in the harbor, is subject to the rates 
below given. 

Francs. 

VesselB not square rigged, sloops, etc 1.75=$0.337 

Vessels not square rigged, schooners, etc 2.50=-^ .48 

Bark or a three-mast^ ship 3.00= .58 

Steamship 2.50= .48 

These rates are also applied to vessels going to or coming from their 
anchorage in the river. Vessels going through the Escaut, bound 
from one dock to another, pay double rates. Vessels moored to the 
east or west of the basins conducted to any of the Escaut quays or to 
the entrance of any dock, as well as vessels conducted from the har- 
bor or from an entrance of a dock, to a dry dock are charged three- 
fold rates. 

Night service, in any of the above-enumerated cases, is paid double 
that of the day rate. A beacon and lantern tax, formerly levied and 
divided equally between the Belgian and Dutch (Jovernments, charg- 

uigitized by VJV^v.'V i\^ 



76 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

ing 11 centimes (2 cents) per ton of a vessel's tonnage, is now abol- 
ished. There is no tax levied for care of buoys or light>s. 

POLICE TAX. 

Francs. 

Ship's inspection on entering 6.00=$t.l6 

For the ship's crew, per man 50= .10 

Ship 8 inspection on leaving 2.00= .89 

Vise of the crew list 1.00= .19 

Arrest of one of the ship's crew for desertion or mntiny, inclnding 

transfer on hoard (paid by captain or consul ordering arrest) 12. 00= 2. 32 

Seizure of a vessel (paid by the party interested) 12. 00= 2. 32 

Personal attendence of the maritime commissioner at the licensing 

of a crew, documents included 8.00= 1.54 

Pilot rates and police rates are collected by and for the Government. 
For the privilege of unloading gunpowder and for the temporary 
storage thereof a tax of 8.47 francs ($1.63) is levied. 

NAVIGATION DUES. 

These fees are collected by the city corporation, and are divided 
as follows between seafaring vessels and inland boats: Seagoing 
craft: All vessels entering the docks pay 50 centimes (10 cents) net per 
Moorsom ton, whatever may be the number of yearly trips performed. 
The payment of this tax entitles a vessel to lie in dock two months, 
if necessary. Beyond this period, 6 centimes (1 cent) per ton and per 
month is added to the usual rate, and each month broken into is due 
in full. 

Ships or steamers of lines running regularly are granted a reduc- 
tion, provided ten trips at least are made within a twelvemonth, 
dating from the period of their first arrival in port, viz: For the first 
ten trips, 30 centimes (6 cents) per ton; for each of the following ten 
trips, 20 centimes (4 cents) per ton; for any additional number of 
voyages, 14 cenrimes (nearly 3 cents) per ton. 

Ships lying at anchor in the harbor, or vessels with tenders bound 
upstream, are exempt from dues. 

Inland boats, sailing vessels, steamers, or tugboats entering the 
north dock pay, per ton: For a tonnage less than 50 tons, 8 centimes 
(nearly 2 cents) per ton, whatever the yearly number of trips made. 
Those of 50 tons and over pay for the first trip 25 centimes (5 cents), 
the second 22 centimes (little more than 4 cents), the third 17 cen- 
times (3 cents), the fourth 12 centimes (2 cents), the fifth and beyond 
that number 5 centimes (1 cent) per ton. These dues entitle vessels 
of this class to a stay of two months in the docks, and beyond that 
period they are charged at the rate of 5 centimes (1 cent) per ton per 
month. £ach month broken into is charged in full. 

LOADING AND UNLOADING OF VESSELS. 

The limit of time allowed a vessel for loading or unloading at quay 
in the stream, or in the vicinity of the docks, is in proportion to the 
amount of the vessel's registered tonnage. This period begins the 
day after it reaches its designated moorings. This is not the case if 
the captain proves that the customs officials have refused to give his 
vessel a number, as also in other exceptional cases, left to the deci- 
sion of the common council. The city reserves the right of making 
any subsequent change in the vessel's location, as the necessities of 

Digitized by VJV^v.'V i\^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 77 

the port service may demand. If vessels have not finished loading 
or unloading within the time allotted, the captain is fined 25 francs 
($4.83), with a supplementary charge of 10 centimes (2 cents) per ton, 
and the captain of the port (harbor master) further notifies him to 
quit his moorings and assigns him to another point, where he is bound 
to end the work began. Should this order not be immediately com- 
plied with, the captain of the port has it executed at the vessel's peril. 
Any vessels remaining at quay three days idle, are notified to anchor 
in the river and their places given to other vessels in waiting. 

CRANES, HOISTING MACHINERY, ETC. 

The allotment of places at the quays is made by the city prefer- 
ably to vessels wishing to avail themselves of the cranes, etc., erected 
alongside of them. The use of these is not obligatory. The derricks 
and cranes are allotted by the captain of the port in accordance ydth 
date of written demand, with the provision that the ship is at the time 
at the quay. The city does not hold itself responsible for accidents, 
injury, or damage done to persons or merchandise which may occur 
during time of employment of said machines. 

A guard is furnished by the city when the machines are used; but 
only for general surveillance, without assuming any responsibility. 
In case of accident occuring to the machinery and causing an inter- 
ruption of the loading or unloading already begun, the parties pay 
only for the time it was actually used. It is forbidden to employ the 
cranes, etc., for hoisting any amount of weight beyond the specified 
capacity of each machine, under penalty of a fine of 10 francs per 
100 kilograms thus raised, and a further liability for the payment of 
damages. 

Cranes and other machinery may be employed from 7 a. m. to 7 p. m. 
daily, Sundays and holidays excepted. Parties desiring to use them 
outside of these hours must make the request to the captain of the 
port in writing, and agree to the payment of an extra charge. Each 
hour begun is reckoned as a full hour. The charges for the use of 
the hydraulic cranes average 5 francs ($1) per ton. For using the 
cranes or hand- worked hoisting machines the rate is 30 per cent less 
than those charged for the hydraulic. 

Marble or other stone hoisted by either class of machines pays a rate 
of 50 per cent less. 

If a man is furnished by the city for working the hydraulic machine, 
the charges are 20 francs (*3.86) per day; per one-half day, 10 francs 
($1.93), and per one-fourth day, 6 francs (11.15). If parties use their 
own help, the charges are 15 francs (12.90) per day, 7.50 francs ($1.45) 
per one-half, and 5 francs (97 cents) per one-fourth day. 

CHARGES FOR SPACE OCCUPIED ON THE QUAYS. 

Covered sheds have been constructed for the protection of mer- 
chandise of all kinds, discharged or waiting to be loaded. In the first 
case, five working days are allowed gratuitously for their removal, 
beginning on the day after the unloading. In the second case, five 
working days are granted without charge for loading, and should 
this time prove insufficient, a further extension can be had for one 
day, and even for a second, but beyond this a charge is made as fol- 
lows, viz: Two centimes (one- fifth cent) per square meter and per 
day during the five first days; 10 centimes tggit^iUffiObpjegP/^^are 



78 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

meter and per day during ten following days; 20 centimes (4 cents) 
per square meter and per day beyond this limit. 

On the quays not supplied with protected sheds, the rates are one- 
half less. The same reduction is made in the case of iron, ironware, 
rails, cast-iron moldings, etc. Space allotted as disposable is calcu- 
lated by square meters, no account being taken of fractions. 

Merchandise must be stacked, according to regulations, not to 
exceed the limit of height specified. Rails, 1 meter; sheet iron, 75 
centimeters; wire, 1 meter; buttons, nails, hardware, 75 centimeters; 
window panes in boxes, crystal ware, crockery and porcelain ware, 1 
met^r 25 centimeters; the better qualities of wood for furniture, 1 
meter 50 centimeters; liquids in barrels not containing o^er 230 liters, 
two rows, one above the other; resinsandcement, in three rows, wheat, 
seeds in bags, coffee and rice, 3 meters; sugar in bags, 3 met-ers; wool, 
cotton, hemp, horse hair, and tow and oakum in bales, 1 meter 75 
centimeters. 

In general, all goods caiTied on the backs of the men are allowed 
the height of 3 meters. 

The city reserves the right of ordering a change in the place occu- 
pied by any merchandise, under the sheds or on the quays, should 
necessity call for this measure, without assuming towa^ the x>arties 
concerned any responsibility for losses or damages that may result 
thereby. 

RATES FOR THE SUPPLY AND REMOVAL OF BALLAST. 

Ballasting at the port of Antwerp is done in two ways, either by 
ballast boatmen, licensed by the city and subject to the city's regula- 
tions in the matter, or by outside parties. The price per last (4,000 
pounds) of sand is, in the harbor, 2.10 francs (41 cents); at the docks 
or quays, 2.25 francs (43 cents). Seagoing craft pay a rate 15 per 
cent higher than the foregoing. For unloading ballast in the harbor, 
1.50 francs (29 cents) per last, and at the basins or quays, 1.55 francs 
(30 cents), lliese prices do not include the payment of the workmen 
employed to load or unload the sand. 

When sand is transferred from one vessel to another without the 
use of sand boats, the captain pays for the reduction of ballast 0.28 
francs (.05^ cents) per last, and at the basins or quays, 0.30 francs 
(.06 cents) per last. 

For taking in ballast in this manner, he is charged 55 centimes per 
last in the harbor and 60 centimes (12 cents) at the basins or quays. 
These are city rates. 

When the city sand boats are employed either in ballasting or 
unloading ballast, the first set of rates given on sand is charged. 
When city boats are not employed and ballast or unloading is effected 
by other methods than a transfer from one vessel to another, the city 
rates are: For ships taking in ballast in the harbor, 1.10 francs f21 
cents V, for ships taking in ballast at docks or quay, 1.20 francs (23 
cents); for ships reducing ballast in the harbor, .55 francs (11 cents); 
for ships reducing ballast at docks or quay, .50 francs (10 cents). 

The above-enumerated rates are due to the city, no matter what 
other means, methods, or materials of whatever description may be 
used in ballasting or discharging ballast. 

DRY DOCKS. 

No repairs to shipping are undertaken by employees of the city. 
The city simply rents the docks for such a purpcj^^^g^ssuming j^q^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



79 



responsibility whatever for damages to persons, ship, or merchandise 
occurring froui any (iause. Should a vessel be obliged to extend its 
sojourn in the dry dock for a period beyond fourteen days, the rates 
from that day on are doubled. Every part of a day is reckoned as a 
full day. 

Night labor is forbidden, unless by special permit from the mayor 
and common council. No rental is charged for Sundays or holidays, 
unless work has been going on during that time. 

Bates charged for occupancy of the dry docks of the Anttaerp docks, 
[1 franc -=19.3 cents. United States currency.] 



Ship«' tonnage. 


For ships 
entering 
and leav- 
ing within 
24 hours. 


For two 
daj's' occu- 
pancy (per 
day). 


For the 
three first 
days' occu- 
pancy (per^ 
day). 


For the 
following 


86 tons and under 


Franca. 
70 
105 
140 
175 
180 
210 
240 
270 
300 
360 
420 
480 
540 
600 
660 
720 
780 
840 
900 
940 
980 
1.020 
l.OHO 
1.100 
40 


Francs. 
50 
70 
85 
95 
105 
120 
135 
145 
100 
190 
290 
250 
280 
310 
340 
370 
400 
430 
460 
480 
500 
520 
540 
560 
25 


Franca. 
45 
60 
80 
00 
100 
115 
130 
140 
150 
176 
208 
229 
255 
288 
297 
311 
324 
337 
860 
367 
384 
401 
417 
483 
20 


Franca. 
25 


SOtonsto 128 tons 


30 


129 tons to 171 tons 


83 


172 tons to 214 t<in8 


36 


215tonsto 2^7 tons 

258ton8to 300 tons 


39 
41 


dOl'tonsto 343ton8-. 


44 


3l8tonBto 385ton8.. 


47 


asotonsto 428ton8 


50 


429tonsto 614ton8 


54 


515 tons to 699 tons 


58 


OOOtonsto 685tons 


62 


660 tons to 771 tons 


66 


772ton8to 866tons 


TO 


857 tons to 942 tons 


77 


943 tons to 1,027 tons 


84 


1,088 tons to 1,113 tons 

1,114 tons to 1,199 tons 


91 
98 


1,200 tons to 1,281 tons 


105 


1^286 tons to 1,370 tons -. 


108 


l,8n tons to 1,455 tons 


111 


1,46a tons to 1,541 tons 


114 


l,542tonR to 1,627 tons 


117 


1,628 tons to 1,712 tons . . . 


120 


Pot each 85 tons above these tonnages 


5 







OTHER DRY DOCKS. 

Besides the municipal dry docks, the " Soci6t6 des Gales et Chan tiers 
del'Escaut" have on the left banks of the river, opposite- the city, 
two dry docks, the charges for which are about equal to the rates 
asked by the city. In close proximity to these are the shipbuilding 
yards and repair shops. 

The largest shipbuilding concern, however, and the most important, 
is that of the "Soci6t6 John Cockerill," at Hoboken, to the south of 
the city. There are here dry docks and extensive facilities for the 
construction or the repair of vessels. 

RATB8 PAID FOR STORAGE AT THE EN^REP6t AND OTHER WARE- 
HOUSES. 

The city of Antwerp has owned the Entrepdt since January 1, 1884. 
This locality is placed at the disposal of general commerce for storage 
purposes. Regulations and a special tariff schedule fix the rates of 
charges according to class of merchandise. Merchandise not named 
in the schedule of rates, and not like any of those therein named, pays 
8 centimes (nearly 2 cents) per 100 kilograms (220 pounds) if entered 
at the customs per weight; 8 centimes (2 cents) peji;;g;|,^ kilograms (220 



80 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

jwnnds) if entered at the customs per valuation; 8 centimes (2 cents) 
per 100 liters (nearly 25 gallons) if entered at the customs per measure; 
8 centimes (2 cents) per 100 pieces if entered at the customs by number. 
In general, merchandise placed according to certain paragraphs of 
the regulations, and that remaining unstacked, are charged double 
rates. Reserved sections for storage are allotted to parties, provided 
that the demand for space is limited to 34 square meters for the floors 
and to 25 square meters for the cellars. These allotments can be rented 
by the year, half year, or quarter, viz: 

Per square meter and per month— Centimea 

On ground floor 70=$0.14 

Onfirstfloor 60= .13 

On second floor 60= .10 

On third and fourth floors 40= .08 

On the south' side of the city is also located city property used for 
warehousing purposes: 

First. The old arsenal, transformed into a warehouse and conven- 
iently situated near the St. Michel quay; 

Second. The old festival hall of the ' * Industrial Palace," close to the 
general dock for boats, and transformed into a branch of the sugar 
warehouse. 

The rate of rent in the first building is calculated at: 

Per square meter and per month— Francs. 

On the ground floor 1.00=$0.193 

On the first floor 60= .12 

On the second floor 40= .08 

On the third floor 20= .04 

Every part .of a month is charged as if for a full month. 

Sugar pays an extra t<ax of 6 centimes (1.1 cents) per bag per month. 

The city controls the rental of these buildings, but does not occupy 
itself with the transport or removal of merchandise. Numerous pri- 
vate warehouses exist, among the most important being those of the 
"Compagnie des Magasins Generaux," the "Entrepdt of St. Felix," 
the * ' Rubens Entrepdt, " and the warehouses ' 'Australia " and "Africa. " 
These companies transport and transfer merchandise as desired. 

CHARGES FOR THE TRANSFER AND TRANSPORT OF MERCHANDISE. 

When the draft of vessels is too great to allow entrance to a dock, 
the necessary transshipment of cargo is provided by means of a 
lighter. This and the unloading of the lighter is at the shipper's or 
owner's expense. 

The transshipment or the unloading of large sailing vessels or 
steamers is done by stevedores or stowers. This class of dock 
laborers is employed also in the loading. The rate of charges depends 
on the rapidity with which the merchandise can be handled, and on 
the compactness of the loading. Regular lines of steamers and sail- 
ing vessels, in order to accomplish the loading or unloading of their 
cargo without interruption until full completion of the work, are 
granted favorable terms. On the other hand, ships loading or unload- 
ing at irregular periods, or if the merchandise is of a heavy character, 
difficult or dangerous to handle, are charged higher rates. 

Freight railroad cars are provided, without charges, for receiving 
merchandise direct from the vessel, or vice versa, but each car must 
be loaded up to its full capacity or paid for as if full. A special class 
of merchandise among the general exports is permitted to be trans- 

" *=* x- X- uigitized by VJV7\^viv^ 



EUROPE: HELQIUM. 81 

ferred from car to ship. The cars must have a full load, arrive at 
the quay before 8 a. m. or 2 p. m., and be emptied within four hours' 
time. A fine of 25 francs per hour and per freight car, is incurred on 
failure of compliance with this requirement. 

MERCHANDISE IN TRANSFF. 

Gk)ods in transit, arriving by rail, are generally taken to the entre- 
p6t, where tbey are placed under the watch of the customs officers. 
A few regular lines of steamers and vessels have on their docks 
inclosures for goods in transit. Custom-house officials also permit, 
in certain cases, the temporary deposit of goods in transit on the 
quays. 

"nations." 

Loading or discharging cargo (including the transx)ort and full 
handling of the goods from dock to warehouse, or from warehouse to 
dock, with weighing, and even, in certain cases, transshipment and 
unloading or loading of the lighter) is generally i)erformed by mem- 
bers of one of the corporations known as "nations," whose occupation 
for several certuries has been that of port work at Antwerp of every 
description. These bodies hold themselves responsible for damages 
due to the negligence of their employees, in the performance of any 
labor assigned them. 

These corporations are a characteristic commercial feature of the 
port of Antwerp. Since the sixteenth century they have shared in the 
rise and success of this x)ort, and are formidably organized into a 
powerful and trustworthy monopoly. There are 50 leading ' ' nations, " 
having from 20 to 30 "bosses" each. The " Wyngaard natie " and the 
"Noord natie" have each 50 to 60 boss members. These bosses 
employ men to do the work and personally superintend it. Members 
of "nations" of a lower grade, such as the "corporation of measures, 
weights, and carriers," do their own work. 

To become a member of one of these "nations," it is necessary to 
purchase a deceased member's share or that of one retiring. A share 
is unalienable during the lifetime of a member, and forms part of 
his family's inheritance. This share is sold then by the family pri- 
vately, or sometimes by auction to the highest bidder. 

When a "nation" wishes to increase ite capital, it can issue addi- 
tional shares, which are disposed of according to the rate of impor- 
tance of the "nation" issuing the stock; shares in some having been 
sold as high as from 20,000 to 25,000 francs ($3,800 to $4,800). 

Each corporation has its special class of work. The largest of them 
load, unload, transport, transship, weigh, and measure; while others 
confine themselves to handling lumber, others again measure grain, 
weigh coal or other merchandise, or are simply carriers. Each ' * nation " 
has its own building and offices, with stables, etc. Some own as many 
as 40 to 50 horses, 100 and more trucks, 500 or 600 oilcloth covers for 
freight cars, and several have a working capital of 500,000 to 1,000,000 
francs ($96,500 to $193,000). Every year, the members by vote elect a 
president and vice-president (deken and under-deken) for a term of 
one year. The pr.esident is present at the meetings of the common 
council, presides at meetings, classifies and allots the work to be done, 
etc. This jwsition is an honorary one and unsalaried. The vice- 

O B — ^VOL 2 6 

^ *"* Tw*<*i V Digitized by VJVJV^viv^ 



82 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

president attends to the business and correspondence, frequents the 
exchange, and by his connections and direct efforts seeks from mer- 
chants continual employment for his men. 

A committee of five, elected yearly by the shareholders, attend to 
the ordinary daily details of the business, submitting monthly accounts. 
Some of the corporations nominate overseers for the purchase of 
horses, for the surveillance of truck and stable material, for quay 
duties, or to direct transporting and transshipAent. 

Each morning, the bosses go to the offices of their respective 
"nations," divide the day's work to be done among their men, and 
show them where it is to be done. The men unemployed for the 
day lose no share of the profit to which they are entitled. Every 
evening, the boss returns to the office and makes a written statement 
of the day's doings. At the end of the month, the profits are divided 
among the members, a certain sum being added to the reserve fund. 
When the profit has been too small, an equitable sum is taken from 
the reserve fund, to make up a sum by which each member receives 
just compensation for his month's work. 

In case of sickness of the members, they still receive their quota of 
the profits, but should sickness extend beyond a period of six mouths, 
they may be given notice to sell their share. 

Strict regulations govern these corporations, and any infringement 
of the rules is punished by heavy fine. Drunkenness, absences, dis- 
orderly conduct, irregularity in or negligence of work while on duty 
are severely punished. Leaving of evenings before dismissal at the 
"nation's" rooms, is fined 5 francs. An impertinent reply to the 
boss entails the payment also of 5 francs by the member at fault. 
Lawsuits between members are forbidden and are heavily fined (at the 
rate of 200 francs ($38.60) per day), until the member withdraws his 
suit. A member compelling another member to appear upon the wit- 
ness stand is fined 200 francs ($38.60). 

The state of the finances of these corporations, and much that per- 
tains to their inner organization are matters kept secret by the mem- 
bers under oath. 

All resolutions adopted at their meetings, and all written or printed 
matter concerning their financial operations are strictly prohibited 
from being communicated to outsiders. Two sets of prices regulate 
their services — the regular rates and the rates accepted by them 
through agreement made with mercantile agencies, commission mer- 
chants, etc. The city, by means of the extensive facilities afforded 
commerce, in the establishment of quays, railways, cranes, and mod- 
ern mechanical improvements of every sort, is alone able to cope 
with this formidable element of competition, and wisely uses it as an 
adjunct in its progress. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUBOPE: BELGIUM. 



S3 



Summary of arrivals of seagoing vessels at the port of Antwerp since 1870, 
[Former Belgian measurements.] 





Sailing vessels. 


Steamers. 


TotaL 


Year. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Tonnage 

by 

veaael. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Tonnage 

by 

vessel. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Tonnage 
veaseL 


1870 


2,377 
3.066 
1.974 
2.182 
1,929 
1.634 
1,634 
1.532 
1,538 
1,356 
1,468 
1,147 
1,149 
989 
935 


611,979 
765.125 
569.102 
660.583 
614.438 
532.682 
546.978 
568.261 
610.682 
620,290 
612.991 
615.387 
607.772 
417.860 
557.696 


257 
249 
283 
298 
818 
326 
356 
364 
397 
450 
417 
448 
442 
422 
566 


1,745 
:iJ«9 
:., .19 

L^. I-.15 
::. ^118 
•t. T17 


774,904 
1,068,990 
1,082,551 
1,411,703 
1,517,729 
l.jyi2.7:ii 


444 

604 
488 
539 
697 
608 
656 
668 
712 
791 
792 
818 
894 
929 
915 


4.122 
5.164 
4,198 
4,797 
4,547 
4.851 
4.660 
4.467 
4.583 
4.248 
4.606 
4,110 
4,441 
4,689 
4,809 


1,386,883 
1,824,115 
1,641,663 
2,062,286 
2,184,162 
2,186,416 
2,627,697 
2,499,482 
2.779,966 
2,908,011 
3.117.754 
2.988.481 
8.453.294 
3,867,984 
4,102,063 


836 


1871 

1872 . 


388 
892 


1878 


480 


1874 


469 


1875 


602 


1876 


:Hil6 Il,980,n9 
r..L>25 1,941,221 
:; if46 2,169,374 
J.S92 2,287,?il 
U58 2,604.763 
.Mi63 2,423.194 
^ L'92 2.946,522 
:; ;00 3,440,074 
:i h74 '3.5U.aa.<i 


566 


1877 


561 


1878 


607 


18T9 


685 


1880 . 


674 


1881 


715 


1882 


778 


1883 


828 


1884. 


868 















[New system of measurement (Moorson) in use since January 1, 1884.] 



1884 


985 
663 
4r3 


477.481 
260,366 
218,968 


511 
399 
463 


3,874 
4.389 
5.008 


3,084,366 
4.340.540 
5,738,779 


788 

9H9 

1,146 


4,800 
5,042 
6,481 


8,512,040 
4.600.914 
5.967,748 


780 


1«00 


918 


1896 


1,087 







Including inland steamers from Holland, etc: 690 of 111,998 tons; 510 of 83.216 tons; 580 of 
102.637 tons. 

The average difference between the old and the new measurement is 1,198 tons. 

Comparative table of the inland boats entered at the port of Antwerp since 1870. 



Year. 



Number. 



Tonnage. 



Average 
tonnage. 



1870. 
1875. 
1880. 
1885. 
1800. 
1896 
1806. 



24.920 
81,889 
34,751 
28,714 
27.665 
28.472 
31.339 



1,080.786 
1.451.490 
1.688.288 
2,886,876 
2.774.586 
8.686.528 
4.102,654 



41 
48 
48 
81 
100 
124 
132 



List of seagoing vessels entered at tJie port of Antwerp during the year 1896, 



Tonnage. 



Sailing 
vessels. 



Steamers. 



Total. 



50 tons and under 
61 to 100 tons... 

101 to 150 tons.... 

151 to 200 tons.... 

201 to 260 tons.... 

251 to 800 tons .<.. 

301 to 860 tons... 

401 to 500 tons... 

501 to 600 tons... 

601 to 700 tons.... 

701 to 800 tons.... 

801 to 900 tons... 

901 to 1,000 tons... 
1,001 to 1.100 tons... 
1,101 to 1,200 tons... 
1,201 to 1,800 tons... 
1,801 to 1,400 tons... 
1,401 to 1,600 tons... 
1,601 to 1,600 tons . . . 
htOi to 1,700 tons . ... 
1,901 to Moo tons .•• 



2 
106 
118 
42 
20 
17 
27 
10 
13 
13 
8 
6 
7 
11 
6 



8 
6 

Uigift9eti by ^ 



1 

4 

16 

18 

60 

235 

800 

447 

325 

496 

529 

112 

92 

65 

156 

170 

81 

96 

87 



2 
106 
122 



67 
262 
870 
460 
838 
601 
685 
U9 
106 

71 
164 
179 

80 
101 



84 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



List of seagoing vessels entered at the port of Antwerp^ etc. — Continaed. 



Tonnaee. 



Sailing 
▼easels 



Steamers. 



Tutal. 



1,801 to 1,900 tons . 
1,901 to 2,000 tons. 
2,001 to 2,100 tons. 
2,101 to 2,200 tons - 
2,201 to 2,800 tons. 
2,301 to 2,400 tons. 
2,401 to 2,600 tons. 
2,601 to 2,000 tons. 
2,601 to 2,700 tons. 
2,701 to 2,800 tons. 
2,801 to 2,900 tons . 
2,901 to 8,000 tons. 
8,001 to 8,100 tons. 
8,101 to 8J»0 tons. 
8^1 to 8,800 tons . 
8,801 to 8,400 tons. 
8,401 to 8,600 tons. 
8,601 to 8,600 tons. 
8,601 to 8,700 tons. 
8,701 to 8,800 tons. 
8,801 to 8,900 tons. 
8,901 to 4,000 tons. 
4,001 to 4,100 tons. 
4,101 to 4,200 tons. 
4,201 to 4,800 tons. 
4,301 to 4,400 tons . 
4,601 to 4,600 tons. 
4,001 to 4,700 tons. 
4,801 to 4,900 tons. 
S,001 to 6,100 tons. 
S,101 to 6.200 tons. 
6,401 to 6,600 tons. 
6,601 to 6,700 tons. 
0^201 to 6,300 tons . 
6.401 to 6,600 tons . 
6,001 to 6,700 tons. 
7,201 to 7,900 tons . 



161 
1(H 
81 
121 
107 
48 
47 
46 
26 
32 
18 
31 
14 
12 
13 
12 
16 
22 
6 
27 
10 
21 
10 
4 
1 

10 
6 
8 
1 

U 
1 
1 
4 
1 
11 
11 
1 



163 
108 
87 
121 
kl08 
48 
48 
47 
26 
82 
19 
81 
14 
12 
13 
12 
15 
2S 
6 
27 
10 
21 
10 
4 
I 

10 
6 
8 
1 
11 
1 
1 
4 
1 

11 
11 
1 



Total. 



478 



4,478 



4.961 



Seagoing vessels entered at the port of Antwerp during the year 1896, aeoording 

to flag. 



Flag. 


Sailing veeeels. 


Steamers. 


Total. 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


Cihfnnan 


20 

2 

818 

2 


18,136 
8,101 

138,977 
i;440 


776 

18 

2,440 

16 

866 

140 
71 

104 
88 

128 
3 
7 

167 
12 
80 

178 


1,168,807 
40,601 
8,147.448 
24,424 
470,876 
126,707 
68,618 
88,461 
67,876 
147,380 
6,210 
28,686 

24.418 
106,870 


796 
80 

866 
67 
71 

111 
88 

138 
16 
7 

208 
12 
87 

187 


1,181.848 
48,700 


AmArican ......................... 


British 


3,287,420 
26,864 
470,376 


Anstrian ...**.. .. .- 


l««lE<#n 


Panlah , ., , 


27 


6,166 


130,868 


flTMLTllRh 


08,518 


F&ich :....: 


7 


1,436 


88.886 


Greek 


67,076 


Dntch 


10 
13 


6,211 
6:903 


162,601 


TtAllAn .... 


18208 


Japanese .......................... 


S,m 


Norwegian. 


62 


27,441 


151,688 


Portngtiese 


6,888 


RoRSiiui - 


7 
14 


8,813 
6,766 


^\m 


8w<Mlfi|h 


112,786 




Total 


473 


218,960 


4,478 


6,886.142 


4,861 


6,865,111 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



85 



Arrivals and departures of merchandise at the freight stations (docks). 



Year. 


Merchukdise. 


Wagona. 


Departure.! ArriyaL 


TotaL 


Departure. 


ArrtvaL 


TotaL 


1870 


Tons. 
616,470 
002,102 
1,888,282 
1,804,744 
1,507,406 
1,566,888 
1.606,140 


Ton*. 
851.604 
746,666 
1,080.096 
1,313,516 
1,578,158 
1,000,548 
2,012,441 


Tons. 

068,074 
1,648,848 
2,400,708 
2,618.200 
3,086,568 
8,546,881 
3.707,660 


No. 

U0,221 

284,061 

808,684 

400,885 

460,566 

400,100 

624,542 


No. 

146,088 

218,700 

308,740 

407.067 

468,678 

400,145 

624,618 


No. 
266,804 


1876 


447.851 


1880 


007,274 


1886 


817,842 


1800 


818,2fi0 


1806 


SS'SrT 


1806 


1,0I8U60 







Arrivals and departures of merchandise at the freight stations (at the south). 



Tear. 


Merchandise. 


Wagons. 


Departure. 


Arrival 


Total. 


Departure. 


Arriyal. 


TotaL 


1800 


Ton*. 
SB2,088 
388,080 
808,881 
888,572 


Tons. 
661.185 
642,812 
662,354 
888,614 


Ton*. 

004,118 

065,802 

on, 285 

1.167.186 

1,238.366 

1.372,064 

1.468,318 


No. 

120.518 

115,027 

114,365 

188,666 

146, U6 

146,726 

154,066 


No. 

119,880 

115,544 

114,568 

138,668 

145,881 

146.288 

154,206 


No. 

240,388 
281,471 


1801 


1882 


288! 018 


1803 


265 '884 


1804 


200.847 


1806 


800,117 
468,160 


072,947 
1,010,149 


SEow 


1806 


808,272 







GRAND CENTRAL BEL.OLA.N RAILWAY. 

Dispatch and receipt of freight and express matter. 



Year. 


wSSk »«»»'«». 


TotaL 


1875 


T&n*. 

810,380 

811,946 

277,077 

836.880 

200,816 


Ton*. 
261,077 
807,846 
' 408,668 
445,606 
565,728 


Tern*. 
571.406 
700,291 
686,686 
781,024 


UHO 


1886 


1800 


1805 


865,639 

000,541 


1896 









This year (1897) the Gtrsnd Central Belgrian Railway has been porchased by the 
State. 

Statistics of emigration at the port of Antwerp from the year 1890 to 1896, 



Destination. 


Number of emigrants shipped. 


180a 


1801. 

36.108 
7.152 

3.624 

1,500 

189 

243 

14 


1802. 


1806. 


1891 


1805. 


180& 


By direct steamers f or— 

New York 


27,600 
4,841 

2,226 
1.804 
100 
66 
20 
16 
21 


30.081 
10,838 

378 
860 
51 
483 
2 
2 


23,509 

8,208 

254 

738 

28 

5,886 

5* 

10 


8,883 
3,129 

144 
533 
42 
1.100 
17 
18 


12,602 
5.128 

301 
400 
9 
400 
61 
87 


8,879 
474 




Bnudl. £eno6 Ayrea, Plata, and Rio 
d« Janeiro . ^ ...... 


Ani^riLliR 


468 


IfewOrleann , 






188 


CbtpeTown, etc --...-- _ 


75 




846 


Oonico 




Havana 


5 


2 

1 
4 








Pttrt Raid 












Vera Cms 














Colombo 












80 


















Total 


36.663 
2,011 


48.788 
2,631 


48.588 
3,118 


88,067 
4; 808 


18.001 
2,611 


18,997 
i;608 


28,407 
977 




_ Total nnm ber of emigrants shipped . 
Snugrants returned to Antwerp 


38.664 
0;728 


51.419 
U,443 


40.650 
11,106 


42,370 
12,065 

uigi 


16,512 
18,302 

ized by ^ 


20,600 
7,005 


24.884 
9,664 





86 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

LIST OP THE RBOULAB STEAMSHIP LINES OCCUPYING THE PIERS OF THE ESCAUT. 

No. of 
pier. 

1. Great Eastern Railway Company, Harwich. 

a. Wilson & Co., HnU. 

8. Bailey & Leetham, Hull. 

4. T3me Steamship Company, Newcastle. 

5. Cork Steamship Company, Manchester. 

6. Great Central Bail way Company, Grimsby. 

7. Qoole Steamship Company, Goole. 

8. Steamship lines running to London. 

9. General Steamship Company, London. 

10. Steamship lines running to London. 

11. Gx>ole Steamship Company, Goole. 

12. George Gibsen & Co. , Leith. 

13. Cork Steamship Company, Liverpool, Greenock, and Glasgow. 

14. Peninsular and Oriental Steamship Company, India and China. 

15. Union Steamship Company, The Cape. 

16. Compagnie Maritime Beige du Congo. Congo. 

17. Royal Mail Packet Company, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentiue Republic. 

18. Norddeutscher Lloyd, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentine Republic. 

19. Norddeutscher Lloyd, China. 

20. Norddeutscher Lloyd, Australia. 

21. Deutsche Dampfschiffahrts Gesellschaft. Kosmos, Chile, Peru. 

22. Hamburg Pacific Dampfschiffs Linie, Chile. Peru. 
28. Telegraaf , Rotterdam. 

24. HansaSt. Lawrence Line, Quebec, Montreal (summer); Boston and Halifax 

(winter). 

25. Hansa Linie de Br§me, Kurrachel, Bombay. 

26. Deutsch Australische Dampfschiffs Gesellschaft, Australia. 

27. Rickmers Linie, India, China, Japan. 

28. Nippon Yusen Kaisha, Japan. 

29. Puritan Line, Boston and Baltimore. 

80. Hansa Linie de Br^me, Madras. Calcutta. 

81. Lamport and Holt Linie, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentine Republic. 

82. Red Star Line, New York. 
88. Red Star Line, Philadelphia. 

84. Phceniz Line, New York. 

DOCKS. 

85. Poonyade Actie Bolag Gotha. Gothembourg. 

86. Bristol Steam Navigation Company, Plymouth, Bristol. 
37. Palgrave Murphy Company, Dublin, Belfast. 

88. Ostlandsche Lloyd, Christiania. 

89. Kirsten Line, Hamburg. 

40. H. J. Perlbach & Co., Hamburg. 

41. Det Forenede Dampskib Selskap, Christian Grubel and J. G. Reinold, Bal- 

tique. 

42. Dampfschiffahrts G^esellschaft Neptuni, Portugal. 
48. Steamship lines running to Bristol and Gloucester. 

44. Ad. Deppe. Bordeaux. 

45. Soci6t6 Th6ti8, Spain (Atlantic). 

46. Soci6t6 Th6ti8, Spain (Mediterranean). 

47. Steamship line running to the Black Sea. 

48. L. Westcotts & Co., Black Sea. 

49. Soci^t^ navale de Touest, Havre. 

50. Det Forenede Dampskib Selskap, Black Sea. 

51. Hansa Linie, Uruguay and Plata. 

52. Deutsche Levant Linie, Levant. 

58. Stockholm Augfartygs Rederei Bolaget Finska Augfartygs Aktie Bol, Swe- 
den and Finland. 

54. River Plata Line, La Plata. 

55. Messageries maritimes de France, Marseilles. 

56. Johnson Line. Danube. 

57. Soci6t6 John Cockerill, Spain. 

58. Soci^t^ John Cockerill, Mediterranean. 

59. Knott's Prince Line. Egypt, West Indies, Plata. 



Antwerp, November 12, 1897, 



Geo. F. Lincoln, 6on^^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



87 



MOVBMENT OF SHIPS AT THB PORT OF ANTWISRP DURINO 1896. 



Character of vessel. 
^ 

Sailing BhipH 

Steamships 

Total 1 



Tonnage. 




5,865,111 



Ayerage entered per day, 13. 

The movement for the last ten years is as follows: 



Tear. 



1887 
lt«8 
1880 
1800 
1801 
1802 
1808 
1804 
1805 
1808 



Sailing ships. 


Steamers. 


Total 
ships. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tonnaga 


Num- 
ber. 


Tonnage. 


814 


400,078 


4,208 


3,400,074 


5,022 


776 


380,080 


4,047 


3,614,381 


4,823 


748 


206.712 


3,608 


3,758,837 


4,866 


653 


261.865 


3,870 


4,057,383 


4,532 


688 


202,641 


3,773 


4,400,607 


4,461 


565 


247,074 


8,756 4,268,017 


4,321 


546 


238. 2H2 


3,872 


4,463,020 


4,418 


660 


281,665 


4,071 


4,727,428 


4,640 


621 


260,034 


4,133 


5,104,586 


4,668 


473 


218,000 


4,478 


5,636,142 


4,051 



Total 
tonni^e. 



3.801,062 
3,074.390 
4,060,540 
4,517,608 
4,603,238 
4,600,001 
4,602,211 
5,008,083 
5.363,560 
5.855,111 



The following is a resume of the total number of ships entering the 
I)ort of Antwerp during the year 1896, with their tonnage, divided 
according to their flags: 



Flag. 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


English 


2,W 

706 

366 

130 

200 

67 

187 

111 

71 

38 

20 

37 

17 

7 

16 

12 


8,287,420 


German , . . .„..,.,... .... ....... . 


1,181,043 


Belgian 


470,376 


Dutch (Holland) 


152.601 


Norwegian _..... 


151,533 


nani«h . 


130,063 


AvAHIffh 


112,726 


French 


80,886 


Spi^nlfih 


60,513 


Gfreek 


67,676 


United States 


43,702 


Rufwian , . ... , - - 


27.726 


ATis^riap ....... . . 


25,864 


Japanese - - 


23,606 


TtiAun 


13,203 


Portngnese ^ . . _ _ 


6,383 








Total 


4,061 


5,855,111 







Antwerp, May 12, 1897, 



Harvey Johnson, Consvl. 



BRUSSEIiS. 

COMMERCE OF BELGIUM, 1896. 

The general results of the commercial movement of Belgium with 
foreign countries during the year 1896 were superior to those of the 
preceding year. The general importations and exportations together 
amounted to 5, 757, 700, (XX) francs ($1,111,23(5,100), an increase of 247,- 
900,000 francs (*47,844,700), or 4 per cent, over those of 1895. 

uigitized by "kjkjkjwvk^ 



88 



COMMERCIAL BELATIONS. 



The total importation amounted to 3,037,400,000 francs ($586,218,- 
200), which is included in the general amount of 5,757,700,000 francs 
(«1, 111,236,100), being an increase of 132,500,000 francs ($25,572,500), 
or 6 per cent, as compared with 1895. 

The total exportation (Belgiafti and foreign goods combined) amounted 
to 2,720,300,000 francs ($525,017,900), an increase of 115,400,000 francs 
($22,272,200), or 4 per cent, as compared with 1895. 

The foreign products received in Belgium for home consumption, 
added to the products of Belgian soil and industries sent to foreign 
countries during the year 1896, amounted to 3,244,600,000 francs 
($626,207,800), an increase of 178,800,000 francs ($34,508,400), or 6 
per cent, as compared with 1895. 

The total value of foreign merchandise consumed in Belgium dur- 
ing the year 1896, amounted to 1,776,700,000 francs ($342,903,100). 
In 1895, the total value was 1,680,400,000 francs ($324,317,200), show- 
ing an increase in 1896 of 96,300,000 francs ($18,585,900). 

The total value of Belgian products exported in 1896 amounted to 
1,467,900,000 francs ($283,304,700), an increase of 82,500,000 francs 
($15,922,500) compared with 1895. 

The following table shows the commercial movement of Belgium for 
1896, compared with 1895: 



DeecriptioD of 
commerce. 


1806. 


1886. 


Increafie. 


IMPORTS. 

Oeneral 


Francs. 
2,904,900,000 
1,680,400,000 

2,604,900.000 
1,886.400,000 


$500,646,71)0 
324,817,200 

602,745,700 
267,882,200 


Francs. 
3,087,400,000 
1,776,700,000 

2,720,300,000 
1,467,900,000 


$666,218,200 
342,903,100 

625,017,900 
283,304,700 


Francs. 
132,500,000 
96,300,000 

116,400,000 
82,600,000 


126,572,600 
18,685,900 

22,272,290 
15,822,600 


Special 


EXPORTS. 

General 


Special 


Total general . . 
Total special... 


6,500,800,000 
3,066,800,0)0 


1,063,301,400 
681,680,400 


5,757,700,000 
3,244,600,000 


1,111,236,100 
626,207,800 


247,900,000 
178,800,000 


47,844,700 
34,608,400 



COMMERCE BETWEEN BELGIUM AND THE UNITED STATES FOE 
THE YEARS 1895 AND 1896 COMPARED. 

GENERAL COMMERCE. 

The importations from the United States in 1895 amounted to 
103,099,000 francs ($31,478,107), and in 1896 to 206,529,000 francs 
($39,860,097), showing an increase of 43,430,000 francs ($8,381,990). 

The exportations from Belgium to the United States amounted to 
184,944,000 francs ($35,694,192) in 1895, and to 156,811,000 francs 
($30,264,523) in 1896, a decrease of 28,133,000 francs ($5,429,669). 

SPECIAL COMMERCE. 

The importations from the United States in 1895 amounted to 
132,852,000 francs ($25,640,436), and in 1896 to 173,650,000 francs 
($33,514,450), showing an increase of 40,790,000 francs ($7,874,014). 

The exportations from Belgium to the United States amounted 
io 46,650,000 francs ($9,003,450) in 1895 and to 48,912,000 francs 
($9,460,016) in 1896, an increase of 2,262,000 francs ($436,566). 



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8X7PPLBMBNTAR7 REPORT FROM BRUSSELS. 
MININa. 

The coal mines of Belgium produced, in 1896, 21,252,370 tons of 
coal, with a total value of 202,010,000 francs ($38,987,930). 

The quantity of coal extracted in 1896 exceeded that of 1895 by 
801,766 tons. 

The average selling price per ton of coal in 1896 was 9.51 francs 
($1.83) and in 1895, 9.45 francs .($1.82), an increase of 1 cent per ton. 
There were 119,246 laborers employed in the mines in 1896, an increase 
of 289, as compared with 1895. 

They were subdivided as follows: 



Deocription. 


InlOie 
mines. 


On the 
surface. 


Men 


80,911 

888 

6,781 


21,377 


Women - 


6,288 


Boy8. nndep 16 Yenrs. -.... 


2,568 


Girls, nnder 16 years — - 


2.4^ 










Total 


87,680 


81,666 







The total amount of wages paid the laborers was 116,899,000 francs 
($22,561,507), or an average annual salary per laborer of 980 francs 
($189.14), an increase of 32 francs ($6.18) as compared with 1895. 

The working expenses of the mines were : 

Franos. 

Wages 116,899,000=$23,561,507 

Other expenses 74,214,000=114,323,802 

Total 191,118,000=$36,884,809 

The total value of coal extracted in 1896 was 202,010,000 francs 
($38,987,930), which leaves a net profit of 10, 897,000 francs ($2,103,121). 

The mines were divided as follows: Eighty-one profitable mines, 
with a profit of 13,844,000 francs ($2,671,892); 39 losing mines, with a 
loss of 2,447,000 francs ($472,271); net profit, 11,397,000 francs 
($2,199,621). 

Table showing the results of the coal mines of Belgium during the years 1894^ 1895 y 

and 1896, 



Tears. 



Produc- 
tion. 



Profitable mines. 



Num- 
ber. 



Profits. 



Losing mines. 



Num- 
ber. 



Loss. 



1804, 
1886 
1896 



Tons. 



20,4fiO,eOi 
21,262,970 



Francs. 
11,686,000 
11,654,000 
18,844,000 



12,245,748 

2,248,222 
2,671,882 



Francs. 
8,538,000 
8,357,000 
2,447,000 



$662,834 
647,901 
472,271 



Year. 



General profit. 



Laborers. 



Num- 
ber. 



Averaere an- 
nual wages. 



Selling price 

per ton of 

coaL 



Extraordinary ex- 
iwnses. 



1804 
1886 
1886 



Francs. 
8,086,000 
8,287,000 
U,887.000 



$1,662,914 

1,601.321 

2.199.621 



117,108 
118,95. 
U9.246 



Francs 
941 
948 
080 



$181.61 
182.06 
189.14 



Francs. 
9.32 
9.45 
9.51 



Francs. 
78,024.000 
72,317,000 
74,214.000 

)i(iiti7A(1 hy VTV 



$1.80 
1.82 
1.88 



$14,086,638 
13,057,181 
14.888. 802 



JL 



W 



EUBOFE: BELaiUIL 



101 



Table showing the number of quarries, number of laborers, and value of produo- 
turn for the years 1894, 1895, and 1896, 



Years. 


Number of 
quarries. 


Number of 
laborers. 


Value of productioiL ' 


1894 •- 


1,6B8 
1,400 
1,560 


28, W7 
81,801 
82,601 


Pranc9. 
88,880,000 
40,973,662 
40,978,662 


$7,407,840.00 


1385 


7,9OT,916.77 


18B6 


7,907,916.77 







Table showing the production and value of the zinc, lead, and iron mines of Bel- 
gium during the years 1894, 1896, and 1896, 



Production of the mines. 


1894. 


1806. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 




811,222 
160 
22,048 
8,060 
7,570 
4.015 


Franca. 

1,562,200 

16,900 

277,700 

20,900 

880,000 

108,500 


$305,364.60 
3,281.70 
53,606.10 
5, 770. 70 
73,340.00 
88,300.60 


312,637 

220 

22,478 

8,610 

8,080 

4,150 


Franca. 
1,480,450 
25,500 
286,270 
86,160 
862,660 
201,700 


$816,726.86 


Lead ore 


4,821.60 


MftTTganflW^ oTft . . 


54,260.11 


Pyrites of iron 


6,976.95 


Zinc blende 


69,972.15 


Zinc ore 


88,928.10 








1896. 


Number of laborers 
employed. 




Tons. 


Value. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


Iron ore ......................... 


807.081 
70 
28.265 
2,560 
7,070 
4,660 


Franca. 

1,417,820 

8,051 

845,020 

26,860 

866,400 

244,850 


$273,661.26 

1,563.84 

66,588.86 

5,182.06 

68,785.20 

47,256.05 








Lead ore 








Mnngtmesfl ore 


1.581 


1,422 


2,017 






T^iTic M^nde 








Zinc ore 





























SMELTING FUENACES, 1896. 

The number of establishments in the Kingdom was as follows: 
Furnaces, working, 34, shut down, 9; foundries, working, 17, shut 
down, 3. The number of laborers employed was 3,305. The average 
daily wages per laborer were 3.02 francs (68.2 cents). The production 
was as follows: 



Description. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Fine cast iron 


Tona. 
862,451 

84,275 
501,297 


Franca. 
18,674,000 

4,029,000 
28.107,000 


777,507 


r!B«t^fnrniol<1er9 . , . 


Cast steel 


5,624,651 




Total 


948,023 


60,810,000 


9,806,380 





STEEL WORKS, 1896. 

The number of steelworks was as follows: Working, 12; shut 
down, 2. The number of furnaces was: Working, 9; shut down, 4. 
The number of converters was: Working, 16; shut down, 16. The 
number of laborers employed was 6,382. The average daily wages 



uigitized by vjvjv^v iv^ 



102 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



per laborer were 3.50 francs (67.5 cents). The production was as 
follows: 



Description. 


Qnantlty. 


Value. 


Ingftt wti^^l (<Mwt) r. a ... .... . 


Tons. 

588,974 

619,311 


Francs. 
50,512,000 
63,129,000 


19,748,816 
11, 997, 897 


FiniflViPfl «tAAl ' , , . ... 


Tngnt (V)AAt/An) hlnomi^ , ^^ ^ .,, 










Total 


1,118.286 


113,611,000 


21,747,713 





IRON WORKS, 1896. 

There were 49 ironworks working and 2 shut down ; 357 casting fur- 
naces working and 75 shut down. The number of laborers employed 
was 14,821. The average daily wages per laborer were 3.38 francs 
(65.2 cents). The production was as foUows: 



Description. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Bonfjrh iron . .... ...-_ 


Tons. 

443.411 

449,082 


Francs, 




Pipw»ed ii'oii- __,,_ -_- _ . _ _ _ __ _. 


64,004,000 


$12,862,772 








Total 


892,448 


64,004,000 


12,852,772 





ZINC WORKS, 1896. 

The number of zinc works working was 12. Three hundred and 
eighty furnaces were working and 71 shut down. The number of 
laborers employed was 4,970. The average daily wages per laborer 
were 3.49 francs (67.3 cents). The production (in ingots) was 113,361 
tons, valued at 45,912,000 francs ($8,861,016). 

LEAD AND SILVER WORKS, 1896. 

The number of lead and silver works working was 3; shut down, 1. 
The number of furnaces for reduction was, working, 18; shut down, 
5. There were 4 furnaces for refining, all working. The number of 
laborers employed was 727. The average daily wages per laborer were 
2.86 francs (55.1 cents). The production of rough lead was 17,222 
tons, valued at 5,149,000 francs ($993,757); and the production of sil- 
ver was 28,509 kilograms (62,720 pounds), valued at 3,189,000 francs 
($615,477). 

GLASS WORKS, 1896. 

The number of glass manufactories was as follows: Working, 47; 
shut down, 3. The number of furnaces for fusion was, working, 93; 
shut down, 37. The number of laborers employed was 22,159. The 
value of the products was 56,838,000 francs ($10,969,736). 

SUGAR MANUFACTORIES AND REFINERIES, 1896. 

The number of sugar manufactories working was 123. The pro- 
duction of sugar was 199,844 tons. The number of refineries working 
was 32; the production was 71,729 tons. The number of manufacto- 



ries of glucose working was 6; the production wag I 



ti?R§v.> 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



103 



BREWERIES AND DISTILLERIES, 1896. 

The number of breweries working was 2,977; the production was 
1,277,762 kiloliters (337,546,387 gallons). The number of distilleries 
working was 209; the production was 54,647 kiloliters (14,436,098 
gallons). 

Table showing the importation and exportation of com into and from Belgium 
during the years 1896, 1896, and 1897, 

IMPORTS. 



Countries. 


1896. 


1896. 


1807. 


Kilograms. 


Pounds. 


Kilograms. 


Pounds. 


Kilograms. 


Pounds. 


Argentine Bepnblio . . . 
Brazil 


68.640,700 

6,911,306 

709.000 


161,000,540 

16,205,071 

1,757,800 


160,060,143 

10,618,680 

100.000 

2,606,421 


362,130,115 

23,361,000 

220,000 

5,518,626 


87.204,788 
1,060,619 


191,860,424 
2,368,162 


Bnlgaris 




2,996,505 


6,502,311 


E!|[^pt ^.. 


1.806,260 

1,U7,954 

401,66S3 

1,466,801 

1,438,860 

-84,678,»4» 

18,815,180 

67,148,162 

2,260,904 

1,207.681 


::. k.^^-199 

:l:^i-»,:62 
■A. t.Vl, 112 
ri;.£ic;i.ii72 

I47,:u.s«4 

-t,iJi«.sie7 

'. -M >98 


Prance 

(iermany (Hamburg) . . 
Holland , r 


5,464,480 

248 

1,954.162 


12,021,766 

546 

4,280,156 


10,161,208 
1,825,890 
2,067,588 


22,354,845 
2,916,968 
4.548,604 


India 


Roumania . ......... 


88,620,496 

6,868,285 

101.923,222 

7,062,191 

1,204,051 


73,745.001 
13,988,227 
224.231.068 
15,514.820 
2,648.912 


110,942,980 
8,182,710 

109,060,608 
8.134,662 
1.810,686 


244,074,465 
18,001,962 


Buaaia 


United States 


371,977,107 


TTruguay 


6,896,234 
3,963,289 


Other countries 


Total 


206.177.981 


468,601,447 


830,763,888 


727.679.343 


397,977,023 


876.549.451 





EXPORTS. 



France ........... 

Qermanj 

Holland 

Luxemburg 

Russia 

Spafai 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Other countries. . 



Total. 



82 ^'.1 " 



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00 
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<00 

or 



66,698,112 



13j(t*.i«6 
71 TV! 770 
4fi 83 

a 32 

;■'.'... .00 

i,:-wjeo 

I'-iipjOO 
4.7U>.S«0 
1 l^^,m 



146.785,846 



4,4;I7,J90 
66, 2r«. 4«0 
4S,::^t,<'16 

2,:4>.:iOl 
:i2;..iO0 

2, lll•^ 140 
*H4.iO0 
U7,>, (378 
331.512 



121, 201. 8U 



9,762,268 

145, 7U, 476 

96,186,235 

5,662,900 

716,000 

4,633,606 

1,416,800 

2,146,481 

600,826 



266.643,984 



6,779,888 
88.184,365 
44,738,179 

3,670.968 



461,810 
780,700 
606,100 
342,411 



140. 473, 4U 



14,915,754 

183,005,008 

96,423,904 

8.076.107 



1.015,962 

1,787,840 

1.113,420 

753.304 



309,041.504 



Table showing the importation and exportation of com and oat meal, barley and 
buckwheat flour, into and from Belgium during the ^tears 1896 ^ 1896 ^ and 1897,^ 



IMPORTS. 



Oountries. 


1896. 


1806. 


1897. 


Kilograma 


Pounds. 


Kilograma 


Pounds. 


Kilograms. 


Pounds. 


Austria 






82,204 
60,378 
20,267 
12,066 

201,066 
18.575 

168,166 
5,448 


70,840 
110,821 

44,587 

26,545 
442,843 

40,865 
368,965 

n,966 


97 

87,777 

18,634 

26,215 

196,869 


213 


Rtl|flAT1^ 


20.832 

84,861 

16,768 

130.916 


45,880 
186,604 

86,879 
288,022 


88,100 
29 995 


Prahr^ , , ,...,.. 


Germany 


57,673 


Holland'. . . . , . , 


483,112 


India 




United States 


128,001 
33,142 


281,602 
72,912 


663,998 
18,230 


1,240,785 


Other countries 


29,106 






Total 


414.518 


911,980 


608,164 


1.106,961 


861.815 


1.873,983 





EXPORTS. 



Q^^rmany 


33.764 
820.947 
21,467 


74.281 
706,068 
47,287 


81,815 

177,090 

7,305 


69,908 

389.466 

16,071 


768 

186,261 

7,468 


1.668 


Holland., 

Other countries 


400,774 
16,430 






Total 


376,178 


827,601 


216,160 


475,680 


104,487 


427.872 







' Ko separate record of com meal is kept at the Brussels custom-house. ^ l%^ 



104 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Table shouring the importation and exportation of bicycles {including detached 
parts) into and from Belgium during the years 1896 and 1897. 



IMPORTS. 



OountrieB. 



1896. 



1897. 



England 

France 

Germany 

Holland 

United States... 
Other countries 

Total 



Franc8. 

1,793,200 

571,013 

489,189 

88.938 

236,379 

7,866 



3.186,535 



$346,067.60 
110,205.60 
94,403.88 
17,166.03 
45,621.15 
1,518.14 



Prancs. 

1,028,209 
667,173 
370,928 
105,486 
862,061 
32,714 



616,001.25 



2,466,571 



$198,444.84 
107,634.39 
71,589.10 
20,a58.80 

69,877.77 
6,313.80 



474,118.20 



EXPORTS. 



Denmark 

England 

France 

Germany 

Holland 

Italy 

Luxemburg 

Switzerland 

Other countries 

Total 



Fra ncs. 
47.898 
14?.r»07 

ll*ijt22 
47^. 449 
(i^»r.,ll63 
:i?^.H0O 
1^.1188 
■!^H.l46 
77,ri90 



1,673,613 



$9,244.81 
1^,508.85 
28,240.15 
91,182.66 
134,321.06 
5,558.40 
8,655.06 
8,827.18 
14,974.87 



823,007.51 



IVanca. 

91,680 

227,187 

360,151 

789,588 

547,005 

82,962 

88,258 

46.154 

292,734 



2,376,819 



$17,604.24 

43,847.09 

69,^.14 

142,740.48 

105,687.76 

6,361.67 

7,383.79 

8,907.72 

56,497.66 



458,629.65 



Table shoiving the importation and exportation of carriages and wagons of all 
hinds {including detached parts) , other than cars and tramuxiys, into and from 
Belgium^ during the years 1896 and 1897, 



IMPORTS. 



Countrie& 


1896. 


1897. 


Ensrland.... 


Francs. 
132,548 
180,408 
104,722 
85,018 
9,400 


$25,581.76 

84,818.74 

20,211.86 

6,768.47 

1,814.20 


Franca. 
66,631 
195,377 
74,732 
36,004 
10,877 


$10,929 78 


France 


37,707.76 


GJermany 


14,423.28 


H^^lYATid . . . .. 


6,948.77 


Other countries..... 


2,099.26 






Total 


462,096 


89,184.52 


373,621 


72,106.85 







EXPORTa 



England 

France 

Qermany 

Holland 

Luxemburg 

Switzerland 

Other countries 

Total 



106,813 
123,230 
23,649 
176,613 
6,448 
5,283 
18,555 



462,691 



21,000.91 
23,783.39 
4,564.26 
84,066.31 
1,244.46 
1,019.62 
3,581.11 



89,280.06 



117,479 
217.376 
53,862 
189,887 
8,765 
8.648 
85,361 



22,678.45 

41,953.57 

10,298.87 

86,638.54 

?26.64 

704.06 

6,824.67 



119,819.80 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPG: BELGIUH. 



105 



Table alwwing the commerce hettoeen Belgium and the United States in the principal 
artidea of merchandise for the years 1896 and 1897, compared, 

IMPORTS. 



Artidea. 



AUxnentary conserves 

Barley 

Bran 

Books 

Buckwheat 

Carriages (cars) for railroads and tram- 
ways (iron) 

Chicory, burnt 

Coffee 

Cordage 

Com 

Cotton 

Drugs 

Dvesand colors 

Fish, preserved 

Flour, wheat, spelt, and maslin 

Forage 

Fruits, fresh 

Glue 

Grains of all kinds 

Grains, oleaginous 

Grease 

Hemp ......... .......... 

Hides and skins, raw 

Hides and skins, tanned and prepared 

Honey 

Iron, manufactures of 

Iron, cast, rough 

Iron, cast, manufactures of 

Iron, old scrap 



Lead, rough 

Macaroni, vermicelli, Italian pastes, etc . 

Machines, implements, and tools 

Malt. 



Margarine 

Meal, com and oat 

Meat (hams, smoked tongues, bacon) . 



Meat, preserved . 
Nickel and o 



1 copx)er, hammered, drawn, etc. 

Nickel and copper, rough 

Oats. 



Oil, vegetable, other than alimentary. 

Oil, cake 

Oleomargarine 

Paper oiall kinds 

Petroleum 

Prunes 

Bags and paper stock 

Rice flour 

Bosin and bitumen 

Bye 



Bilk, raw 

Sirup and molasses 

Starch 

Steel bars 

Steel, billet and largets 

Steel wire 

Tin, rough 

Tobacco, unmanufactured 

Tobacco, manufactured (cigars and ciga- 
rettes) 

Tobacco, manufactured, other 

Wax,raw 

Wheat, spelt, and maslin 

Wood pulp 

Wool, raw 



1806. 



1897. 



KUogramB. 

766,000 

64, goo, 075 

3,078,060 

0,822 

2,778,040 

107,582 

1)<S.760 

1"k 314 

>.V55 

l"J.if;;i,822 

:.iM;JL664 

! .'^^.7.607 

i.4:ir481 

^,1.185 

[ ]i;] S07 

I l.-.^ 180 

40 

13,029 

685,706 

13,437,239 

2,040,067 

861,866 

1,046,752 

74,934 

827,203 

18,712 

027.164 

10,670 

130 

11,210,005 

400,700 



606,183 

821,544 

10 

163,166 

16.354,606 

863.842 

27,848 

7,450,758 

80,226,541 

6.307,814 

40.471.548 



25,860 

182,410,786 

107,872 

6,070,506 

80,132 

27,611,150 

26,775,750 

8,587 

801,384 

285, ft» 

6,770 



10,807 
2,060,101 
6,846,902 

8,360 



28,104 

186,602,626 

084.507 

402,066 



FoundB. 

1,683,086 
1;»,700.965 

6,773,712 
21.506 

6,102,668 



266.850 

1,661,691 

8.421 

224,231,068 

46,604,261 

4,108,785 

8,254,748 

47,267 

2.562.773 

2,547,996 

88 

80,644 

1,606,558 

29,561,926 

4,507,991 

1.805,005 

2,346,854 

164.855 

720,045 

41, 166 

2,149,761 

43,204 

286 

24,681,811 

001,860 



1,620,408 

1,807,806 

22 

868,065 

35,080.138 

778,452 

61,266 

16,411,468 

66,406,300 

11,875,101 

108,837,406 



66.892 

291,823,529 

236,218 

13,855,113 

66,290 

60,744.606 

58,906.660 

18,891 

663,045 

628,384 

12,716 



22.676 
4,506,220 
11,763,184 

18,390 



61,829 

408,623,777 

2,065,915 

1,062,643 



Kilograma. 

962.628 

42.207.773 

8,606,068 

8,666 

4,871,080 

101,869 



608,078 

19,048 

169,080,508 

28,990.362 

6.496,507 

1,600,826 

22,314 

825,568 

9,191.912 

679 

15,808 

1,198,014 

761,450 

8,423,572 

541,138 

101,888 

88,807 

276,261 

18,323 

14,653,441 

15,084 

1,069,110 

7,741,874 

3,521 

106.222 

1,119,087 

629,918 

2,266 

563,993 

20,839,502 

364,784 

86,932 

7,969,101 

83,673,897 

6,871,582 

68,823,468 

1,241,602 

7,740 

139,284,650 

300,790 

6,277,969 

11,601 

29,167,973 

34,779,182 

11,955 

222,076 

2,475,260 

28,231 

1,862,006 

1,015,466 

2,073,610 

4,061,006 

6,854 

6,626 

108,725 

840,297,348 

2,236,129 

85,380 



Pounds, 
2,895,641 
92,867,100 
18,937,728 
18,848 
10,716,876 

224,112 



1,337,772 

41,906 

371,977,107 

68,646.796 

14,292,315 

3,801,817 

49,001 

1,816.250 

20,:£S3,206 

1,274 

83,678 

2,686,631 

1,675,100 

7,631,868 

1,190,504 

834,149 

86,375 

606,674 

40,311 

82.017,670 

40,555 

2,362,042 

17,082,123 

7,746 

233,688 

2,462,091 

1,885,820 

4.966 

1,261.785 

46, 8ft, 904 

802,625 

191.250 

17.576.022 

73,862,573 

16,117,480 

120,411,630 

2,731,524 

17.028 

806,437,230 

661,738 

13,811,576 

25,522 

64,160,541 

76,514,200 

26,301 

488,567 

5,445,582 

62,106 

4,006,413 

2,234,025 

4,561,062 

10,000,380 

11,779 

12.377 

236,905 

768.454,166 

4,010,484 

77,726 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



106 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

Table allowing the commerce between Belgium and the United States, etc—Cont'd. 

EXPOBTa 



Articles. 



1896. 



1897. 



Alimentary oonBerves 

Books 

Cemexit — 

Chicory, burnt 

Chicory, root 

Cordage 

Dmgs 

Dves and colors 

Fiish, preserved 

Flaz,raw^ 

QIass, window 

Glass, other .-. 

Qralns of all kinds 

Grease 

Hides and skins, raw 

Hides and skins, dyed, varnished, or mo- 
rocco 

Iron bars, hammered and rolled 

Iron beams 

Iron, manufactures of 

Iron, coated with copper, nickel, lead, zinc. 

Iron, old scrap 

Ivory 



Kilograms. 



Lead, rough 

Linen goods, plain and twisted . . . 
Machines, implements, and tools . 

Meat, preserved 

Oil, vegetable, alimentary 

Paper of all kinds 

Bioe, cleaned 

Boein and bitumen 

Rubber, crude 

Soda, salts of 

Steel beams 

Bteel plates 

Steel rails 

Stone, rough 

SuffflLr,raw 

Sulphur 

Tow. 



Vegetables 

Vegetables, preserved . 

Wood pulp 

Wool, raw 

Yam, woolen 



7,423 

119,074,966 

662,684 

2,168,186 

42,998 

62,328 

1,804,477 

6,040 

908,806 

23,219,431 

464,860 

84,703 

1,906,141 

657,342 



847,799 

4?i,287 

309,696 

48,668 

200,000 

14,113 

26.400 

164,811 

80,616 

78,602 

25,796 

414,133 

62,380 

2,676,029 

240.122 

1,783,678 

70.800 

200,000 

636,489 

357,169 

44,809,996 

188,114 

230,216 



233.864 

2,460,464 

1,051,991 

88,177 



Pounds. 



16,881 

261,964,901 

1,468,675 

4,748,117 

M.696 

]i:j22 
:. Mil p. rt49 

Ki J88 
l.irtJ«Ay73 

Til. OK.'. 748 

LfXKi.i^igo 

» l^il.MlO 

LU^-.. 162 

1.144 

766.158 

1,030,031 

681,111 

107,070 

440,000 

31,049 

65,880 

361,484 

197,153 

161,902 

66,756 

011,093 

116.236 

6,665,064 

628,268 

3,813,872 

156,760 

440.000 

1,180,276 

785,772 

97,613,991 

413,861 

606,473 



614.479 

5,432,799 

4,294,380 

83,969 



Kilogram*. 

91,421 

29,497 

95,706,636 

1,409.102 

3,687,667 

67,683 

74,206 

2,776,130 



906,612 
17,984,566 
468,802 
481,983 
866,541 
1,533,207 

7,370 
804,507 
46,773 
344,844 



88,174 
900,692 
232,467 
316,288 
207,062 
8,780 
494,928 
246,012 
2,664,3n 
648,297 
611,068 
26,190 



78,000 

206,120 

61,049,074 

435,629 

473,047 

91,421 

208,136 

913,464 

8,788,0e0 

20,568 



Pounds. 

201,126 

64,803 

210.750.309 

8,100,024 

8,112.625 

148,908 

168,258 

6,107,486 



1,994,326 
3.946.602 
098,562 
1,060,255 
1,904,190 
3,878,055 

16,234 
670,113 
102,001 
758,657 



88,981 

1,961,622 

611.427 

096,934 

466,514 

19,316 

1,088,842 

641,226 

6,619,510 

1,536,253 

1,124, aw 

57,618 



160,600 

433,474 

134,309,283 

968,164 

1,010,703 

201.126 

446,899 

2,000.509 

19,833.612 

44,150 



IMPORTS. 



Values. 



1806. 



1897. 



Animal ;matter, raw 

Arms 

Art, objects of 

Bicycles (including detached parts) . 

Chemical products 

Fruits of all kinds 

Furniture 

Hardware and mercery 

Mineral ores 

Perfumery, alcoholic 

Rubber, manufactures of 

Vegetable substances 

Wood, manufactures of 

Woolen goods 



Wood, oak and walnut 

Wood for building, other than oak and 
walnut 



BYancs. 
1.063,423 
{^,280 
UjMO 

f,m,406 
!M,126 
-l.;«3 

^v^ 512 

:',683 

It 612 

:ni ;B3 
BO 

;,i)i9 

CvJbicmeters. 
13,689 

50,609 



Animals, horses . 
Animals, sheep . . 



$206,230.64 

13,178.04 

1,861.10 

46.621.15 

905,441.36 

79,406.22 

4,705.92 

12,157.82 

264,568.26 

1,868.82 

2,820.12 

63,046.69 

12,164.79 

1,428.37 

Cubic feet. 

44,096 

160,293 
Head. 
2,506 
17,250 



Francs. 

805,781 

18,890 

3,996 

862,061 

3,497,042 

471,265 

87,166 

92,179 

1,722.883 

11,865 

12,278 

97,610 

63,415 

4,894 

Cubic meters. 

24,378 

62,660 



$172,885.78 

8,646.77 

771.08 

09,977.77 

674,929.11 

90,554.14 

7,183.04 

17,790.66 

333,516.42 

2,280.04 

2,309.65 

18,860.73 

12,239.00 

045.64 

Cubicfeet 

79,961 

172,721 
Head. 
4,063 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: BELGIXTM. 



107 



Table shomng the commerce between Belgium and the United States, etc, — Cont'd. 

EXPORTS. 



ArddeB. 



Valnes. 



1896. 



1897. 



Animal matter, raw 

Arms 

Art, objects of 

Chemical products 

Clothing 

Cotton goods 

Pnmitnre 

Glass plate 

Gloves 

Hardware and mercery 

Lace goods 

Idnen goods (other than plain and twilled) . 

Mineral ores 

Mineral waters of all kin^ 

Oil cloth of all kinds 

Plants 

Products for indnstrles 

Rnbber, manufactures of 

Wood, manufactures of 

Woolen goods 

AlcoholioliquorB 



JPrancs. 

nsi noo 
l,3*i 1.15 

IK', 1.75 
2,<5:iJ65 

;Ln,:j07 

TS.1^5 
l,2ftL'. 136 

K.'i.:i52 

l«l HlO 

au,i«o 

l'HM80 
65 



178. 533. 00 

257, 946. (» 

36,835.27 

515.534.84 

152, 702. 95 

108,830.52 

15,068.27 

243,513.55 

57,598.92 

16.086.94 

19,456.38 

50,963.58 

71,119.24 

65.625.79 

36,965.64 

107,782.86 

5,966.01 



1,775,314 

1,205,020 

Hectoliterg. 

337 

1,408 



Coal 

Coal (bHcks). 
Coke 



342,636.60 

246.888.88 

OaUon». 

89,086 

871.961 

Ton», 

20,106 

62,490 

9,510 



France. 

702,797 

1,592,536 

35,129 

2,823,375 

801,868 

500.792 

56,560 

835.406 

697,600 

104,979 

81,796 

670.828 

667,720 

310,300 

94,000 

468.200 

8.513 

91,700 

1,580,843 

1,515.962 

Hectoliters. 

246 

1,069 



1135,630.82 

307,360.25 

6,779.90 

644,718.87 

154,760.52 

06,652.80 

10,915.06 

161,233.16 

115.336.80 

20,280.95 

6,137.01 

110,160.80 

107,639.96 

60,887.90 

18,142.00 

88,432.60 

1,643.01 

17,688.10 

806.452.70 

202,580.67 

QaUona. 

66.686 

279,750 

Tons. 

81.866 

74,950 

2,156 



ANNUAL RETURN OP EXPORTS. 

Statement showing the declared value of exports from the consular district of 
Brussels to the United States during the four quarters of the year ended Decem- 
ber 31, 1897. 



Articles. 



Aniline colors 

Arms (guns) 

Braids and button stock 

Braids (hat beads), jet, on wire . 

Bronze ornaments 

Carpets 

Cement 

Chemicals 

Church regalia and ornaments. . 

Clay 

Corsets 

Diamonds 

Earthenware 

Firebricks 

Pur, refuse 

Glass, pU^te 

Glass, window 

Glass, other 

Glassware 

Gloves 

Glue and glue stock 

Hair, animal 

Harness 

Hats 

Hatte rs' fu r 

Horn strips.. 



Household goods and personal effects. 

Instruments, musical 

Lace goods 



Linen goods. 
Machinery... 
MarUe 



Quarter ending- 



Mar. 81, 
1897. 



$8,161.75 
631.81 
621.68 
502.18 
122.26 



95,846.24 

2,843.83 

78.16 

307.17 

47.648.04 

60.22 

812.98 



8.478.68 
38.824.22 
13,636.67 



99,88L48 
406.16 
621.28 



6,601.24 

86,866.46 

576.82 

1,278.80 

609.36 

28,835.86 

1,684.94 

70.620.35 

1,221.26 



June 80, 
1897. 



$309.82 
532.78 
616.83 



118.88 
166,717.96 



160.64 
"64,'286.'26" 



940.98 



1,002.87 
80.268.69 
14,861.57 



150.59 

117,862.89 

1,33L69 



100.86 

26,140.63 

113.87 

177.75 

605.96 

43,919.02 

1.672.85 

167,811.26 

1,523.44 

719.09 



Sept. 80, 
1897. 



$2,479.47 



66.81 
135.87 
411.28 



136,365.95 
i09."24" 



49,810.98 
"i,'6n.'40' 



2,165.42 

81,608.31 

1,208.77 

412.42 



97,089.66 

234.60 

3,360.10 



2,801.96 

12,066.10 

800.96 

8,702.00 

886.60 

48.824.62 

3,071.02 

48,069.20 

8,863.88 

806.60 



Dec. 81, 
1807. 



$1,712.27 
"""764.68" 



158.866.03 



177.56 

245.74 

47,060.13 



288.84 

6,621.47 

2,656.75 

43,539.11 

692.63 

236.81 



63,506.06 

1,956.20 

482.74 

616.83 

2,750.07 

21.738.24 

1.000.94 

772.00 

805.55 

42,980.26 

2,118.08 

76.499.02 

8,389.15 

1,809.88 



Total for the 
year. 



$7,663.31 

1,064.50 

1,138.51 

1,332.07 

268.13 

411.28 

118.38 

660.284.18 

2,843.83 

615.60 

642.01 

206,698.30 

60.22 

8,568.65 

6,621.47 

9,293.67 

154,320.23 

29,783.44 

649.23 

150.50 

367,841.53 

4.020.63 

4,454.13 

616.83 

11,153.62 

85,801.42 

2,582.68 

4,925.55 

2,437.49 

150,600.16 

8.566.83 

368,999.83 

8,997.22 

8,987.56 



Digitized by VJ^^^^v i\^ 



S' 



108 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Statement showing the declared value of exports, etc. — Continued. 



Articles. 



Quarter endlne^— 



Mar. 31, 
1897. 



June 90, 
1807. 



8egt._30, 



Dec. 31, 

4897. 



Total for the 
year. 



Paintings, oil 

Paper and books 

Phosphate 

Plante 

Plants, medicinal , 

Rafs and paper stock 

Rattan 

Scales and weights 

Skins, rabbit, sheep, and other. 

Soda, prnssiate of 

Stones, gronnd, flint 

Tiles (encaustic) 

Yeeetables, preserved 

Veils, cotton 

"Wines 

Woolen goods 

Sundries 



$3,826.35 
8,867.39 
9,491.16 



1,112.64 
4,706.65 



$584.11 

6,502.81 

9,307.76 

652.84 



$554.87 
3,368.14 
9,466.97 



$1,891.53 
2,476.02 
13,650.84 



184.49 
86,643.66 



6,662.64 

607.81 

1,201.86 

43,404.75 



912.79 
6,190.09 

780.68 

1,121.84 

23,747.00 

857.79 



2,768.99 
6,916.19 



812.92 
3,673.73 



2,604.32 
22.121.49 



3,227.15 
1,617.02 
8,503.35 
8,243.16 
32,625.98 



90.47 
11.571.97 
1,308,47 
1,306.84 
1,120.02 . 
2,684.0^ 



742.51 

00,099.24 

6,771.82 

214.82 



1,205.96 

1,044.84 

66.74 



88,986.89 



$5,856.86 

15,302.86 

41,916.22 

652.84 

4,794.42 

23,376.67 

1,477.99 

3,250.70 

162,794.74 

7,620.11 

214.82 

983.00 

16,818.00 

7,830.06 

4.956.93 

12,066.50 

146.418.40 



Total 

Total for corresponding quarters 1806 



535,072.97 
673,172.31 



765,028.75 
605,950.88 



500,644.60 
705,003.50 



652,730.17 
468,860.62 



2,463,374.58 
2.362,005.80 



Decrease. 
Increase. 



137,100.34 



250,067.37 



105,858.00 



183,860.65 



110,878.78 



Statement showing the declared value of exports from the Charlevoi Agency to the 
United States during the four quarters of the year ended December Sly 1897. 





Quarter ending- 


Total for the 
year. 


Articles. 


Mar. 81, 
1807. 


June 30, 
1897. 


segt.ao. 


Dec. 31, 
1807.' 


Cement - 


$6,213.63 
677.09 


$16,667.88 
482.28 


$6,771.84 
2,U5.81 
6,793.74 
6,810.14 
178,633.27 
118.10 
3,125.16 


$2,509.00 
1,896.97 

■"6,"787.'55" 

200,841.79 

2,262.86 


$32,152.30 


Ejarthenware ........... .......... 


6,071.05 


Fire clay blocks 


6,798.74 


Olass, plate 


24,520.94 

185,307.20 

1,528.61 

1,939.07 

56,499.76 


25,047.38 

836,153.22 

1,085.24 

5,917.78 

21,134.88 
1,810.98 


61,666.01 


Olassi window 


805,985.48 


Glass! other 


4,989.80 


"Wfri-hl^ 


10,982.01 


Wool, washed.. .... . 




77,634.64 
1,898.80 


Sundries : 


107.57 


890.26 








Total 


276,587.20 
270,360.94 


407,787.60 
250,647.66 


198,060.68 
116,368.74 


214,687.91 
219,057.40 


1.097,123.3d 


Total for corresponding quarters 1806 


865,884.64 


Increase . .. . ... 


6,226.26 


148,240.03 


81,601.80 




281,788.60 


Decrease 


4.869.49 










* 





Statement showing the maritime movement of Belgium for the years 1896 and 1897 

{compared). 





Entered. 


Cleared. 


Ports. 


Number of 
vessels. 


Tonnage. 


Number of 
vessels. 


Tonnage. 




1806. 


1807. 


1806. 


1807. 


1896. 


1807. 


1806. 


1807. 


Antwerp ........... 


4,820 

101 

144 

033 

4 

44 

1,600 

51 

10 


6,105 

'107 

132 

086 

6 

64 

1,064 

42 

4 


6,750,062 

28,506 

24,060 

664,713 

430 

10,744 

1,088,682 

0,050 

1.201 


23,076 

604,^16 

440 

10,307 

1,208,982 

9,418 

421 


4,962 

102 

144 

824 

4 

43 

1,688 

50 

10 


6, on 

105 
120 
085 
6 
64 
1,957 

4 


6,857,001 

28,845 

24,866 

479,795 

430 

10,670 

1,078,101 

9,272 

1,271 


6,132,427 
20 483 


Bruges 


Brussels 


23,386 


Ghent 


607,043 


Ijouvftiii - - -., 


440 


Nienport 


10,307 


Ostende 


1,208. Ud 

8,438 
421 


Pelzaete 








Total 


7,815 


8,388 


7,483,356 


8.076,462 


7,812 


8,844 


7,480,161 


8,020.162 





uigitized by "^^jvjvj^llk^ 



EUBOPE: BELGIUM. 



109 



Table shovnng the price of the principal articles of food and drink in the chief 
cniea of Belgium for the month of October^ 1897. 



Articles. 



Bread: 

Wheat per kilo. 

Coffee do.. 

Milk per liter. 

Ects per)9S. 

Batter per kilo. 

Margarine do,. 

Greaae do.. 

Meat: 

Beef do.. 

Veal do.. 

Mutton do.. 

Pork do.. 

Lard do.. 

Potatoes do.. 

Salt do.. 

Sugar do.. 

Rice do.. 

Beans per liter (0.9 quart) . 

Fish: 

Salt cod per kilo. 

Dried ood do.. 

Red herrings each. 

Olive oil per liter. 

Chicory per kilo. 

Cheese do.. 

KindUngwood per fagot. 

Coal per 50 kilos. 

Petroleum ];>er liter. 



Ant- 
werp. 



Cents, 

48 
48 
88 
19 

28 

38 

27-32 

30 



19* 



19 

81 



19 
2A 



Bru- 
ges. 



4* 
4* 

67 
21 



34 
34 
32 
27 
28 

It 

17 

25 

19 

«S* 



2A 



Brus- 
sels. 



Char- 
leroi. 



eta. 

J* 

66 



38 
38 
30 



18 
12 

28 
23 

i* 



cu. 

67 
28 
19 



42 
42 

34 
19 

19* 
19 

a* 
^* 

2A 



Ghent. 



Cents, 

8? 

««» 
65 

28 
19 

88 
88 

88 
81 
21 

'*"ii, 

17* 



19 
4I* 



La 
Lou- 
viere. 



Cts. 

67 
80 
28 

30 
88 
84 



.1^ 

25 
28 

2* 



Liege. 



Articles. 



Bread: 

Wheat per kilo. 

Coffee do.. 

Milk per liter. 

Eggs per 25. 

Batter per kilo. 

Margarine do.. 

Grease do.. 

Meat: 

Beef do.. 

Veal do.. 

Mutton do.. 

Pork do.. 

Lard do.. 

Potatoes do.- 

Salt do.. 

Sugar do.- 

Rice do.. 

Beans per liter (0.9 quart). 

Fish: 

Salt cod per kilo. 

Dried cod do.. 

Red herrings each. 

Oliyeoil per liter. 

Chicory per kilo. 

Cheese do.. 

Kindling wood per fagot. 

Coal perSOkflos. 

Petroleum per liter. 



Malines. 



Cents. 

54 
21 
19 

34 

88 
82 
80 
27 



8^? 



.1* 



83 
6 

'^ 

21 
2i 



Mons. 



Cents. 

3ft 

60^54 

60-67 

82 

27 

30 
38 
28 
34 
31 

I 

s 

23 

21 

a* 
f 

23 



Na- 
mur. 



Cts. 

4J* 

61 
25 



80 
84 
82 
30 
21 
lA 

,.* 

25 
34 

3i* 

i3* 

2» 



Boignlee. 



Cenf«. 

81 

40 

64^7 

19-30 

27 

80 

38 
84 
80 
27 



\t 



17 

25 

34 

«^* 



Toumai. 



Cents. 
6*-7 



lA 
4&-52 



26-28 
13-16 



27-34 
27-34 



30^ 
16-24 

13-17 
25 

21-26 



Cents. 

5^7 
88-60 

3MI 
42-62 
67-61 



19-^8 
19-42 
19-38 
30-34 
3(Me 

16-19 

24 
19 

a* 

6A 
6A-13* 

2E 
2A 



Ver- 
vlers. 



CenU. 
88^?* 

67 
28 
27 

27-88 

27-38 

28 

34 

30 

17* 

H-lU 

16A 



lA 
38-57 

m 

27 



One kHo equals 2.204B ixmnds; one liter, 1.05 quarts. 

MINES AND IRON WORKS, 1897. 

During the year 1897, 116 coal mines in active operation in this 
country produced 21,534,629 tons of coal, against 21,252,370 tons in 
1896 (output of 119 mines), an increase of 143,965 tons over the pro- 
duction of 1896. 

During the last six months of 1897, 115 mines produced 10,951,379 

Digitized by "kjvjvjwvk^ 



110 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



tons of coal, againsfc 10,826,550 tons for the same period of 1896 (out- 
put of 117 mines), an increase of 124,829 tons for the last six months 
of 1897. Stock on hand, end of 1897, 445,814 tons of coal; stock on 
hand, end of 1896, 589,779 tons of coal, being an inc/ease of 143,966 
tons over the corresponding period of 1897. 



COAL MINES. 



Number of 
mines. 


Production. 


Stock, end of year. 


1896. 


mn. 


1806. 


1887. 


Increase. 


1806. 


1897. 


Decrease. 


U9 


116 


Tons, 
21,258,370 


Tons. 
21,534,620 


Tons. 
282,259 


Tons 
589,779 


Tons. 
4i5,8U 


Tons. 
148,966 



SMELTING FURNACES. 



Description. 


1896. 


1897. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


Fine CAflt Iron. ............ ....^.^.^...^ r-rr,^.- -,-- - 


Tons. 
862,451 
84,275 
512,688 


Tons. 
4Z7,2SS 
78,410 
629.094 


Tons. 
64,777 


Tons. 


Cast for molders.. - - 


6,866 


C*ast steel 


16,406 






Total 


960,414 


1,034,732 













IRON WORKS. 



Sheet iron 


112,507 
881,436 


102,822 
876,086 




9,775 
6,899 


Other 










Total 


484,082 


478,868 













STEEL WORKS. 



Ingot steel (cast) 

Finished steel (rails, sheet, etc.) . 



Total. 



606,974 
519,811 



616.604 
625,731 



1,118,285 1,142,835 



17,680 
6,420 



Brussels, February 17, 1898. 



Geo. W. Roosevelt, Consul. 



GHENT. 
BELGIAN SPECLAIi COMMERCE IN 1896. 



The trade with European nations amounted to $489,814,700, of 
which $248,912,100 were imports into Belgium and $240,902,600 exports 
from Belgium. The trade with these same nations in 1895 amounted 
to $468,140,800, being $234,938,900 for imports and $233,201,900 for 
exports. There was, therefore, in European trade a total increase of 
$21,673,900, or 4i per cent. The imports from other European nations 
into Belgium increased $13,973,200, or 5i per cent, and the correspond- 
ing exx)ort8 increased $7,700,700, or 3 per cent. 

The trade with the nations of America was to the value of $96, 519, 300, 
being $71,120,500 imports and $25,398,800 exports. The figures for 
1895 were: Total trade, $89,648,500; imports, $69,074,700; exports, 



Digitized by 



Google 



EUBOPE: BELGIUM. 



Ill 



$20,613,800, The increases were : In total trade, $86,870,800, or 7J per 
cent; in imports an increase of $2,045,800, or 2J per cent, and in 
exports an increase of $4,885,000, or 24 per cent. 

The trade with Asia amounted in 1896 to $28,583,300, of which 
$18,470,100 were imports into Belgium and $10,111,200 exports from 
Belgium. This trade in 1895 amounted in the total to $24,318,000, 
being $15,999,700 for imports and $8,318,300 for exports. There was, 
therefore, an increase of $4,265,300 in the total, or 17J per cent, being 
for the imjwrts an increase of $2,470,400, or 15 per cent, and for the 
exports an increase of $1,792,900, or 21^ per cent. 

The trade with the nations of Africa was to the total value of 
$11,290,500 in 1896; that is to say, imports, $4,400,400, and exports, 
$6,890,100. For 1895, the total trade was $9,592,100, of which imports 
amounted to $4,303,900 and exports to $5,288,200. There was, there- 
fore, in the total trade an increase of $1,698,400, or 17^ per cent; in 
the imports an increase of $96,500, or 2^ per cent, and in the exports 
an increase of $1,601,900, or 30 per cent. 

Chief articles of import (general commerce). 



Articles. 


1806. 


1895. 


Articles. 


1896. 


1895. 


(}raln of every kind 

Raw textile materials. . . 


$56,144,279 
82,021,016 
16,817,248 
15,652,686 
12,137,770 
10,717,676 
10,086,180 
9,869,441 
9,600,309 


$51,780,356 
ao, 019, 799 
18,855,286 
16,498,201 
12,817.323 
11,476,166 
10,648,582 
8,068,944 
11,394,141 


Wines 


$7,627,746 
7,996,057 
5,622,090 
5,888,380 
5,070,689 
4,554,028 
4,472,775 
4,180,187 
3,922,146 


$6,328,663 
6,336,769 
5.217,948 
5,594,106 
4,569,238 
4,911,657 


Meats 


Besins and bitumens 

Wood 


Cotton textiles 


Dyes and colors -* 

Coal 


Oily seeds 


Woolen textiles 


Ck)ffee 


Pats 


5,045,985 


Raw mineral materials. . 


Machinery 


Raw skins 


Iiiv« animals 


4,081,770 









Chief articles of export. 



Articles. 



1806. 



ISHL 



Raw textile materials... $15,784,606 



Glassware, 

Coal 

Grain of every kind 

Flax and other vegeta- 
ble threads 

Woolen threads and 
yams 

Cnemical products 

Iron, wrought and in 
plates 

Raw skins 



15,120,392 
13,909,806 
12.642,465 

11,138.223 

8,878,193 
8,787,290 

8,754,866 
8,087,279 



$15,564,099 
9,^122 
13.854,891 
12,124,453 

12,072,343 

8,440,063 
9,187.765 

6,462,991 
8,719,740 



ArticleK 



Unwronght zinc 

Wrought steel 

Machinery , 

Raw sugar 

Horses 

Cotton textiles 

Resins and bitumens. . . , 

Dyes and colors 

Metal, smelted steel or 

in bar sheets 

Raw mineral materials 
Fertilizers 



1806. 



$7,748,564 
7,569,267 
6,532,664 
6,393,125 
6.088,391 
5,194,402 
5,155,416 
4,681,408 

4,268,967 
4,088,512 
4,029,840 



1806. 



$6,136,242 
5,815,220 
4.885.602 
5.743,878 
5,266,584 
5,318,306 
4,718.271 
4,338,990 

8.900,688 
4,302,985 
4,606,831 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



112 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



SPECLAJL COMMERCE. 



The next table indicates, respectively, the sum of imports and 
exports for 1895 and 1896 to all countries where the amount of either 
was more than $200,000. 



Countries. 



Algeria 

Argentine Republic ... 

Australia 

Austria 

Brazil 

Bulgaria 

Canada 

Cape of Good Hope 

Chile 

China 

Cuba and Puerto Rico. 
Denmark , 

Engtajid. 



France 

Germany 

Greece 

Haiti 

Holland 

Indies, British East. 

Indies, Dutch 

Italy 

Japan. 



Congo Free State 

Mexico 

Peru 

Portugal 

Roumania.. 

Russia 

Spain 

Sweden and Norway 

Switzerland 

Turkey 

United States of America. 

Uruguay 

Miscellaneous 



Total. 



Imports into Belgium. 



1890. 



>08,81O 
.U7,846 
^^10,657 
.115,321 
IIL3.553 
.EdO,045 
m 255 
*.»,022 
,.'tl,872 
1-09.609 
138,947 
15,748 



39,684.274 

59,947,923 

41,571,042 

1,504,759 



34,103,679 

10,659,004 

769,105 

3,794,578 

438,308 

2,615,922 

323.854 

1,249,868 

532,101 

24,816.328 

21.239,071 

4,370,099 

6,642.867 

1, 142, 174 

3,129,495 

33.514,400 

2,709,141 

3,171.233 



342,809,276 



1895. 



$675,114 

17,889,749 

4,066,003 

1,586,460 

7,940.986 

2,186,883 

110,975 

251,286 

5,451,882 

782,422 

50,180 

264,217 

686,501 

87,274,090 

57,872,208 

88,444,635 

1,142,367 

241,057 

38,698,186 

10,222,245 

555,068 

8,827,962 

200,384 

2,605,631 

109,817 

7,089,409 

466,774 

19.836,284 

22,563,680 

3,025,620 

8,906.504 

838,802 

2,463,838 

25,640,486 

4,447,878 

1,388,762 



324,315,744 



Percent- 
age of 
total for 
1806. 



0.2 

4.8 

1.6 

.3 

2.8 

.4 

.1 

.2 

2.4 

.8 

.1 

.1 

.1 

11.6 

17.5 

12.2 

.5 



0.0 

8.1 

.2 

1.1 

.1 

.8 

.1 

.4 

.2 

7.2 

6.1 

1.8 



0.8 
.0 



100 



Exi>ort8 from Belgium. 



1806. 



fR7i,483 

lJiir.Mi20 
7,^iL.';i7 

■^'r-MiOO 
1 . ! ] ] , 101 

liiJi. 760 
l,4^:i 

71 1 

5f5,^^il 
65.4!'.^ 



,784 
^01 
.-J15 

^85 

^*86 
.'127 
^01 

m 



33,047.776 
4,051,640 

180 

in'' 

■l-'::\ 

:i] 

171 
1 . :i-n; 



-'»52 
122 

;J13 

:?70 

H7 

..>95 

1 j^r 



,158 
.«4 



;^l:^^■!87 

L'. nM.:»9 

^-.Ji.:l77 



284,818,102 



1895. 



|T74.r>00 

:*.n«i, 129 

UCJ4£i588 
l,fi;3U.rt50 
4.1MH,:87 
Jr.!S35 
l,.ieiJI85 

JBtM40 
1,4!^, 100 
l.Ul^,^27 

3ft.M40 

1. 195, 142 

l,Nti:t.tJ09 

M,4:i.H37 

.■jiJ.,!iLs:,*.!!77 
^Mi.^,:513 

I ::;,.«) 
;:i.s46 

41iO,;i64 

K;t;.n88 
3, lUH, '.«3 
5:ilJ00 
3?«i, 5191 
1,^0/741 
1.7i2.404 
4.1-,]. j80 

u75 

>79 

'Mvi.-, i«44 

0,UUH,450 

297,606 

507,783 



>J 



287,880,727 



Percent- 
age of 
total for 
1896. 



0.8 

1.8 

.6 

.6 

2.6 

.1 

.4 

.2 

.6 

.8 

.8 

.4 

.8 

19.9 

19.6 

22.3 



11.7 
1.4 

.2 
1.6 

.5 
1 

.8 



.5 

.5 

2.1 

1.7 

.1 

1.8 

1.1 

8.8 

.2 

.1 



100 



CHIEF COMMERCIAL CONNECTIONS. 



As the preceding tables indicate, of the total *of imports into Bel- 
gium during 1895, France supplies the largest percentage; then come 
Germany, England, Holland, the United States, and Roumania in the 
order named. The last-named country takes the position formerly 
occupied by Russia. 

When we consider the export trade, we see that Germany is far in 
advance, followed by England, France, Holland, and, far behind, the 
United States. Since the preceding year, England and France have 
changed places. 

Taking the import and export trade together, the respective rank- 
ing is, as usual, France, Germany, England, Holland, and the United 
States. 

A further increase in the trade of Belgium with the other principal 
nations of the world is to be noted. With all the countries where 
Belgian trade is important, there were gains in both the export and 
import trade. 

The chief articles which France sold last year to Belgium were 
generally the same as heretofore — wines, raw wool, objects of art, raw 

° '' ' ' uigiflzed by VJV7V>nviv^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



113 



skins coffee, flax and tow, and woolen goods. The articles pur- 
chased of Belgium by France were chiefly coal, hemp, tow and flax, 
stone, fertilizers, and raw wools. 

Germany supplied Belgium mostly with coal, iron, and steel, and 
chemical products; on the other hand, it bought chiefly grain, horses, 
raw skins, resins, and bituminous products, seeds, woolen yams, 
chemical products, copper, and iron. 

England exported to Belgium chiefly resins and bituminous prod- 
ucts, raw wools, chemical products, cotton textiles, and horses. On 
the other hand, it received from Belgium glassware, woolen yams, 
flax, flax yarns, raw sugars, zinc, refined sugars, and meats. 

The chief articles imported from Holland were cattle, fish, grain, 
and butter. From Belgium were received in return grain, zinc, and 
flax yams. 

TRADE OP THE UNITED STATES. 

The chief exi)ortations of the United States to Belgium during 
1896 were grain, petroleum, meats, fats, copper, nickel, and miscel- 
laneous vegetable substances. 

The United States bought from Belgium mostly raw sugars, glass- 
ware, cement, chemical products, and drugs. 

The following tables give the value of the chief articles of exchange 
in 1896, as compared with 1896: 

United States exportations to Belgium. 



Articles. 


TearlSW. 


Tear 1806. 


Articles. 


Year 1806. 


Year 1806. 


Grain of every kind 

Petrolenm. refined 

Meats 


$10,421,614 
4,844,628 
2.206.244 
1.078,282 
1.677.942 

1,622,068 
1,876,476 

1,832,279 

1,186.226 

906.668 


$6,867,086 
4,168,414 
4,212,418 

788,778 

779,884 
1.406,812 

1,288,481 
906,749 
881,404 


Biiitdiujf woctd . .._. .... 


$768,815 
726.878 
622,426 
480,184 
457.608 
818.482 
800,068 

264,808 
260,000 
222,148 


$848,285 


Till, luiwi-miiftit .^*...... 


824,240 


Vt-ift^tubli^ olfe ...., 


817,485 


Pats 


Di'u^is ^, 




Copper and nickel 

Unclassifled vegetable 
sabstanoes 


Ofitk iind WKlcmt.. 




OfTw 

Horsw 

Un(-lii4^ini>d mfneral 
i^nbflUtiit'^fifi .. ...... 


400,780 
186,488 


Cotton - 




Unclassifled resinous 




substances 


Raw ttii tll8 DiAtarials. . . 
Rnvakins 


280,800 


Tobacco . ... 


242,987 


Chemical products 







United States importations from Belgium^ 



Articles. 



Baw sugars 

Window^ glass 

Cement 

Chemical products 

Rags and paper stock .. . 
Glass other than for win- 
dows 



Year 1806. 



$2,227,606 

1.200,168 

680,806 

568,768 

410,126 

379,824 



Year 1806. 



$611,886 
580,435 
706,160 
381,661 
681,006 

628,800 



Articles. 



Wood, carved 

Coal 

Raw rubber — 

Hemp, flax, and raw tex 

tiles 

Woolen goods 



Year 1806. 



$842,575 
206,568 
278,118 

268,041 
260,514 



Year 1805. 



$817,871 
220,702 



281,780 
433,671 



Of the articles imported into Belgium from the United States, grain 
of every kind shows an increase of $4,563,678, the total for 1896 being 
$20,421,614, almost doable the value for 1895, but still not much more 
than half the figures for 1892, when the United States shipped into 
Belgium grain to the value of $17,061,174. 

Petroleum, while showing a greater value than any previous year, 
increased only slightly over the trade of 1895. The meat trade with 
Belgium suffered a decline from $4,212,418 in 1895 to $2,298,244 in 

R— VOL 2 8 uigitized by s,jkjkjwl\^ 



114 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



1896. In fats, there was an increase of $330,000. The copper and 
nickel importations, as well as those of unclassified vegetable sub- 
stances, became quite important, the figures being in each case 
approximately double those for the preceding year. The value of the 
cotton trade remained practically unchanged. 

Of the articles exported from Belgium to the United States, raw 
sugars once more assumed the first rank. Their total value was 
$2,227,606. Only in the year 1893 was this amount slightly sur- 
passed, the figures for that year being $2,587,744. 

The exports of window glass to the United States also more than 
doubled those of 1895. In none of the other articles was there any 
striking variation. But the general tendency seemed to be toward a 
less valuation in most lines. The exportation from Roumania into 
Belgium showed an increase over the preceding year of $548,000, or 28 
per cent. On the other hand, a decrease of exportations from Bel- 
gium to that country is again to be noted, the falling off during the 
past year being $220,000, or 12 per cent. 

Belgian trade with Peru suffered most, the imports from the latter- 
mentioned country decreasing by $5,840,000, or 82 per cent, while 
the exports showed also an unfavorable difference of $112,000, or 40 
per cent. 

Hernt C. Morris Consul 

Ghent, September IS, 1897. 



BELGIAN FOREIGN TRADE IN 1897. 

The value of merchandise imported for consumption in 1897 
amounted to $319,576,378, as against $317,465,507 in 1896, being an 
increase of 1 per cent. 

The export trade of Belgian products, which was valued in 1896 at 
the sum of $275,453,460, in 1897 reached $290,738,098, or an increase 
of 6 per cent. 

The grand tx)tal of duties collected in 1897 was $8,758,159.40, while 
in 1896 it was $9,006,076.54; the decrease being 2 per cent. The valu- 
ation of the import and export trade in some few articles for the two 
years 1896 and 1897 was, respectively, as follows: 

Imports. 



Articles. 


1897. 


1896. 


Articles. 


1897. 1 1806. 


Grain and its prodncts. 
Raw textile materials. 


$58,573,905 
10,594,928 
7,006,988 
6,990,267 
5,183,401 


$57,813,571 
11,045,197 
6,966.628 
6,012,629 
4,437,263 


Linen yarns 


$8,158,886 
621,601 
818,688 
772,000 
822.889 


$8,270,964 


Beer..' 


648 076 


Metals, Iron and steel . . . 
Coal 


Woolen yarns 


791,107 


Glassware ._ 


726,452 




Pirearms 


801,466 







Exports. 



Articles. 


1897. 


1896. 


Articles. 


1897. 


1896. 


Hetals, iron and steel. . . 
CJoal!?. 


$24,897,198 
18,455,174 
15,564,678 
15,600.866 
14,284,772 


$25,657,420 
18,305,066 
11,866,061 
14,264,437 
16,120.392 


Machinery and tools 

Linen yarns -,.... 


$14,102,510 

12,218,880 

7,490,716 

2,962,514 

24,704 


$12,489,802 
11,138,223 


Baw textile materials.. 


Woolen yams 


8,878,193 


Grain and its prodncts. 
Glaffiware.- - - - 


Firearms .- . 


2,911,791 


Beer 


20,143 











Ghent, March 10, 1898. 



Henry C. Morris, Consul. 

Digitized by VJ\_^\^^lC 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. • 115 

COMBflERCE OF GHENT, 1896. 

The renewed activity in business, anticipated in the preceding 
annual report, was fully commensurate with the expectations formed. 
It is already clearly established, by partial statistics from the greater 
number of countries, that the commercial movement of the world 
increased during 1896, in the quantity as well as in the value of its 
products. 

Those branches of trade which were favored by special circumstances 
naturally showed the most marked improvement. The iron trade, for 
example, profited by the enormous orders given by the English and 
German naval authorities, who, for considerations of haste, distrib- 
uted their orders among the various States of Europe. Another 
favorable condition in this line of industries is the recent rapid devel- 
opment of Russia, whence are coming great demands for machinery 
and tools. The wheat trade also experienced an amelioration during 
1896, with a rise in quotations due to the deficits of the crops of 
Europe, India, and Australia. The building, coal, and glass trades 
likewise manifested distinct signs of improvement. 

On the other hand, the textile and clothing industries were in the 
same condition as, or even worse than during the preceding year. 
Wholesale prices in these lines remained in general very low, with per- 
sistent tendency toward a decline. Wools, silks, cottons, fiax, and jute 
were tending downward. 

Russian flax especially broke the record in 1896, by falUng to the 
lowest prices ever known. 

Notwithstanding these exceptions to the general business revival, 
the expansion of trade during 1896 is well recognized. The activity, 
whose germs were noted in 1895, generally spread in a slow and pro- 
gressive manner, so as to inspire confidence in its continuation during 
the present year. The prospects for a period of renewed prosperity 
are certainly most encouraging and are justified by well-founded 
reasons. 

In general, the business situation of this consular district was much 
more favorable at the close of 1896 than one year previous. The 
city of Ghent was showing many signs of a revival and a disposition 
to seize many long slight^ opportunities for the development of her 
commerce, industries, and trade. The constant reduction in the sale 
price of many articles of manufacture, destined for export trade, and 
in which the freight is an important factor, is tending to remove the 
centers of manufacture from the interior to the seaboard or at least to 
the neighborhood of a seaport. The situation of Ghent with its port, 
its deep-sea canal, and its interior communications with Antwerp are 
such as to give this city a largely increased share in the foreign trade 
of Belgium and of the northwestern portion of the European continent. 

AMERICAN TRADE. 

Notwithstanding the general upward trend in trade, the valuation 
of exports from this consular district to the United States was much 
less during 1896 than the total of 1895. The exports declared 
amounted to only $1,063,269.35 as compared with $1,476,505.87 for 
the previous year. The total for 1896 was lower than that for any 
year since 1886. This result was, in a large measure, due to the low 
prices mostly prevailing. The depression which began about Novem- 
ber 1, 1895, was manifested until about December 1, 1896, a period of 
thirteen months. 

The total for every quarter showed a decrease under the correspond- 
ing period of 1895. Not only the value of goods shipped was less, but 



116 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



the number of invoices was also much under the number of 1895. 
Full details may be seen in the following table : 



Quarters. 


Number 
of in- 
voices. 


Total value, 
1806. 


Number 
of in- 
voices. 


Total value, 
1895. 


Decrease 
in in- 
voices. 


Decrease 
in value. 


"FiTnt fmnrt^i* . , . ,. . 


269 
254 

227 
320 


$277,989.60 
283,196.94 
208,686.75 
298,447.06 


266 
338 
838 
339 


$386,425.78 
364,997.16 
892,168.22 
832,924.71 


7 
T9 
111 
18 


$106,486.18 


Soconn quarter ...... ... 


81.801.22 


Thirdqnarter 


188.471.47 


Fourth quarter ._ 


34,477.65 






Total 


1,086 


1,063,260.36 


1.276 


1,476,505.87 


210 


413.286.52 







The most depressed period, as indicated, was the third quarter, of 
which the months of July and August were decidedly the worst. 
December was the most favorable month of the year. 

The relative importance of the United States trade in various lines 
of exports may be seen by a glance at the next table: 



Articles. 


1896. 


1895. 


1894. 


1898. 


1892. 


Flue and tow 


$806,899.23 
261,017.49 
144,473.63 
113,080.56 
103,793.42 
33,751.80 
32,266.34 
17.355.43 
49,131.87 


$250,190.88 
348,309.46 
181.904.67 
171,022.86 
150,896.80 
206,390.57 
80,080.61 
66,482.85 
114,217.72 


$150,068.24 
326,144.42 
95,673.46 
100,882.26 
164,455.35 
171,094.27 
46,039.01} 
89,938.95 
20,289.83 


$105,887.78 
494.708.72 
90,622.86 
129,676.73 
127,140.85 
170,715.24 
33,628.48 
12,682.66 
28,844.28 


$196,222.12 


Bags and paper stock . 


^696,711.19 


Pluits 


60,957.48 


Chicory root, granulated 

Babbit skins and hatters' furs 
Lace ............. 


190,206.88 
76,656.61 

161,892.04 
46,650.00 


Cement -,.... -r -.,-. ^r, --- 


6,153.06 




81,027.78 






Total , 


1,068,269.36 


1,476,606.87 1 1- 118. 485. 84 


1,196,70L88 


1,465,006.76 











Almost all the leading articles showed a decrease as compared with 
the year 1895. Only flax and tow and plants scored an increase. 
Flax and tow moved up to first place in importance, owing to the 
enormous gains annually made since 1893. Plants, too, advanced 
from sixth to the third rank in importance. It is to be noted that 
this latter article has annually increased in volume over preceding 
years since 1883. On the other hand, rags and paper stock, always 
heretofore the principal article of export from this consulate to the 
United Statos, fell to a bad second in 1896. The percentages were, 
respectively, 24.5 and 23.6. The same tondency toward smaller in- 
voices noted in previous reports for former years was very markedly 
accentuatod. While the average value of invoices certified in 1895 was 
$1,157.14, it was in 1896 $997.44. These figures are the lowest aver- 
age on record at this consulate. 

The number of invoices in 1896 was 210 less than in 1895. The 
number of exporters to the United States also decreased about 25 per 
cent, while the ports to which merchandise was shipped were not as 
numerous as the preceding year. The following table gives an idea 
of the total trade, number of invoices, and their average value during 
several years: 



Tears. 


Number 
of in- 
voices. 


Total value. 


Average 
value. 


1890 


974 
1,049 
1,167 
881 
989 
l,JP76 
1,006 


$1,107,916.19 
1,216,127.42 
1.465,906.76 
1,193,701.88 
1,113,485.84 
1,476,506.87 
1,063,209.35 


tl.137.49 


1891 


1,160.81 


189g 


1,256.13 


1895 


l,a54.94 


1894 


1,125.87 
1,157.14 


1805 


1896 


907.44 







EUROPE: BELGIUM. 117 

COTTON SPINNING. 

TransactionB duriiig the year were rather calm, but the sale of yams 
was regular. The prospect of a small cotton crop — 7,162,000 bales, as 
compared with 9,873,000 for the preceding year — occasioned an impor- 
tant advance in the prices of the raw material at the very opening of 
the season. About the beginning of summer, however, the announce- 
ment of an increase in the acreage and of conditions more favorable 
to the development of the young plants in the United States caused 
prices to weaken. It is certain, however, that the crop of 1896-97 has 
been much overestimated, and that it will not be more than "average." 
The competition of English yarns in this market was felt more than 
usual, by reason of certain modifications in the tariff and regulations 
relative to the introduction of foreign yams into Belgium. This com- 
X)etition was, at certain times, very harmful to Belgian spinners. 

The economic situation, on the other hand, was better than in 1895. 
Not a single important strike occurred in any of the large cotton mills 
of Ghent. One new corporation was organized, and started business 
with 16,000 spindles. 

The direct importation of cotton at this port during 1896 was less 
than during the preceding year* Slightly higher prices were chiefly 
the reason of this decrease. Low prices for raw materiial are always 
more remunerative for the spinner, because prices of yarns do not 
follow the raw material so quickly in the downward movement. The 
year 1896 was therefore probably less profitable for spinners than 1895. 

The cotton mills of this vicinity are employing more and more 
American cotton. The demand for the raw material is annually 
increasing by reason of the larger number of spindles set in motion. 
During 1896, there was certainly an increase at Ghent of at least 25,000 
spindles, while in 1897 there will not be less than 50,000 new spindles 
started. Another patent reason for the increased demand for Amer- 
ican cotton is the ii5erior quality of the Indian cotton for several years 
past, and this year the existence of the plague in India will also 
undoubtedly turn spinners more and more toward the American 
product. 

Two steamers, loaded with cotton and coming directly from the 
United States, entered this port during 1896. The inadequate facil- 
ities of the canal lock at Temeuzen still prevent the development of 
this branch of Ghent's commerce, which is destined to become, pos- 
sibly, the most important as soon as the improvements undertaken 
in this canal shall be completed. 

The following table shows that the cotton-spinning industry of Bel- 
gium employs 831,232 spinning spindles and 151,535 twisting spindles. 
Of these, 540,232 spinning spindles and 77,335 twisting spindles are 
at Ghent. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



118 



COMMERCIAL BELATIONS. 
Spinning mills situated outside of Ghent. 



Firmfl. 



Location. 



Number 
ofspin- 

niDK 
spindlee. 



Namber 
of twist- 

ine 
spindles. 



Parmentier-Van Hoegarden 

Omer Vanham 

Tiberffliion Ss Marlier 

Filature and Filtenes Beunier 

Henri Van Hoegarden 

Vve. Justin Vanham 

Filatures and Teinturreies 

Edmond Vanham 

GhilamFrdres 

Francois Gerard 

8oci6t6 Anonyme ''La Cotonnidre *^ 

Hllaire Gerard 

Bosftiut Roussel & Co 

Brener &Co '. 

Cotonnidre Benaisienne 

Tousseau 



Total. 



Tnbize 

Braine le Chateaa. 
St. Denis (Mons) .. 

Alost 

Court St. Etienne . 

Braine PAlleud 

Alost 

Buysingen 

Obourg 

Wautmer-Braine . . 

Tamise 

Mont St. Point 

Tonmai 

Bonsval 

Benalz 

Lenze 



43,000 
88,600 
32,000 
80,000 
88,000 
21,000 
15,000 
15,000 
13,000 
1^,000 
12,000 
11,000 
10,000 
6,000 
6,000 
6,000 



291,000 



U,800 
8,000 
8,000 
10; 000 
10,400 
7,000 
8,600 
6,000 
5,000 



5,000 



2,600 
2,000 



74,200 



Spinning mills sitttated at Ghent 



Firms. 



Parmentier Van ^oegar- 
den&Co 

8oci6t6 Anonyme Ferd 
Lonsbergs 

Jules Dehemptinne 

Soci6t6 Anonyme ''La 
Louisiane' 

Soci6t6 Anonyme " La Flor- 
ida" 

Soci6t6 Anonyme "Le 
Texas" ..-.. ............ 

Baertaoen & Buysse 

DesmetA Guequier 

J.J. Dierman&Co 

Christophe Van Loo 

Vanacker-Vandenbroeck ... 

Pepyu&Oo 

DeGoster & Rousseau 



Namber 

of spin- 

ninsT 

spindlei 



180,000 

80,000 
47,800 

41,702 

32,000 

22,000 
23,600 
15,260 
15,000 
14,000 
13,700 
10,000 
10,000 



Number 
of twist 

ing 
spindles. 



20,000 

3,000 
21,000 

11,028 

2.000 

7,000 



4,920 
500 



2,000 



Firms. 



Soci6t6Anonyme " La Cory- 
sure" 

Socl6t6 Anonyme "Coton- 
nidre de Gand" 

Motte&Co 

A. Vincent & Auger- V in 
cent 

Vanderhaegan & Cruy- 
plants 

Demoor Frdres 

In construction: 

Soci6t6 Anonyme " Filature 
de Coton de Ledeberg" .. 

Soci6t6 Anonyme " La Nou- 
velle Orleans 

Total 



Number 

of spin- 

nini 



8,200 

10,000 
10,970 

12,000 

11,600 
8,000 



9,000 
16,000 



540,232 



Number 
of twist- 
ing 



2,000 
1,087 



2,600 



77,336 



COTTON GOODS. 

The volume of business increased during 1896 over 1895, but still 
remains less than for the preceding year. Prices in general are very 
much less profitable than formerly, probably 30 per cent less; but the 
cost of raw material having likewise decreased about 15 per cent, a 
net decrease of only about 15 per cent in the profits of the manufac- 
turer remains. 

FLAX YARNS. 

The year 1895 opened discouragingly for the flax industry, and 
especially for its laboring classes. The long-sustained strikes in two 
of the Ghent mills terminated disastrously for the workmen in Febru- 
ary. The losses sustained by both sides were considerable. The 
wages sacrified alone amounted to $34,000. On the other hand, the 
decrease in production, amounting to about 1,200,000 pounds, 
undoubtedly prevented a further reduction in the price of yarns. 

During 1896, as also in 1895, the sale of flax yarns was active for 
the coarse numbers. For the average and fine numbers there seemed 

Digitized by vjvj^^v i\^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 119 

to be a lesser demand. It is true, indeed, that flax spmners in Bel- 
gium do not work and do not seem to be inclined to the spinning of 
fine numbers; for instance, No. 70 and above. The fine yarns for the 
chain as well as those for the warp are principally imported from 
England and Ireland. Tow yarns, the use of which is increasing from 
year to year in the manufacture of cloth, were in strong demand, espe- 
cially the coarse numbers from 10 to 20, at good prices. Spinners, who 
for the most part increased their production in tow yams and limited 
their manufacture of flax yams, were able to turn out great quantities 
without accumulating any. stock. During the last quarter, Belgian 
spinners of t<Tw were, so to speak, entirely taken up by manufacturers 
of Scotland and Ireland with important orders at full prices for imme- 
diate delivery. Raw-tow materials, while cheap, were still sold dur- 
ing the entire year at prices satisfactory to their owners; and the year 
was equally favorable to the tow spinners. For flax spinners, the 
results were less satisfactory. 

The situation, very calm until September, then manifested a slight 
improvement, due to the anticipated revival of trade in the United 
States. The election of Mr. McKinley to the Pjresidency appears to 
have caused in a great measare the incontestable upward movement 
in the coarse numbers of tow yams. Skillfully disseminated rumors 
of the small importance of the cotton crop in America in 1896 likewise 
produced a serious rise in raw cotton and cotton yams. Jute yams 
were very dear during the entire year. The characteristic of the year 
was the cheapness of tow yams, which in a slight degree compensated 
for the inferior condition of flax yams. The quality of the flax crop of 
1896 appearing only moderate, and prices tending downward, spinners 
were very conservative in their purchases and there were no important 
transactions. 

All these facts and representations constituted a situation by reason 
of which the speculators, always on the alert, expected to provoke a 
general rise in all the products of textile industry. Until February, 
1897, however, the calm in the sale of textiles was unaffected by any 
changes in raw material and in the yams, and flax spinners were still 
accepting offers at moderate prices. Prices were weaker on the part 
of tow spinners. Cotton as well as jute yams were then decreasing 
in price, and the business stagnation extended to transactions with aU 
countries, without any prospect of immediate improvement. It is to 
be hoi)ed that the reduQtion in price of raw materials will offset their 
inferior quality, and that on the otiier hand no harmful legislative 
restrictions will be imposed. 

The reduction of the hours of labor, so much desired by the work- 
ing classes, would undoubtedly cause them loss in earning capacity 
and be disastrous to flax industries. Notwithstanding the present 
serious situation in this branch of manufacture, workmen's wages 
have not decreased. Nor would it be possible to obtain a reduction 
by any means whatsoever without provoking immediate strikes. 

The exports of flax thread and yams from this consular district to 
the United States are not important. Last year there was a further 
decrease to be noted, the declared values of such shipment in 1896 
amounting only to $2,368.29, as compared with $3,490.77 for 1895. 

TOW YABNS. 

As noted in the preceding article, the quantity of tow yams manu- 
factured during 1896 was good. Prices were slightly better and the 
profits obtained were somewhat larger than in 1895. 



120 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

For the first time, tow yams began last year to be exported from 
this consulate to the United States. Their total declared value was 
$4,262.19. 

LINEN GOODS. 

The situation in these goods during 1896 is the most difficult to 
describe. Information obtained at some length from a dozen or more 
of the principal spinning and weaving establishments, fails in many 
respects to agree; indeed, there are occasionally such wide divergences 
of opinion as to cause serious hesitation in the expression of any 
judgment. 

With all due consideration given to this conflict of testimony, it 
seems that the preponderance of evidence tends to prove a sHght 
improvement in the condition of this branch of manufacture and 
trade as the net result of the year 1896. There certainly was an 
increase in the volume of sales. The total of manufactures also 
increased a little over 1895, but not in proportion to the sales; conse- 
quently considerable quantities of old stocks on hand must have been 
cleared out. This feature alone is favorable to further improvement. 
The domestic demand, it is true, continues to prefer cotton textiles, 
but the export trade, on the contrary, was better than for two years 
previously. The South American demand was strong, with abundant 
orders. The United States of Brazil and the Argentine Republic were 
the principal buyers. In the Balkans and Tunis, whither considerable 
quantities of Belgian fabrics are ordinarily shipped, there was a sharp 
decline. The United States also purchased less than in 1895. The 
total value of linen goods declared for export at this consulate in 1896 
was only $118,080.55, as compared with $171,022.86 in 1895. The 
country districts of Flanders, especially by reason of their cheaper 
labor, are sharply competing with Ghent factories for the export 
trade. 

Fortunately, the four-loom system, finally accepted by the workmen 
within the past two years, has tended to alleviate the former acute- 
ness of the situation. Several new factories have been established; 
others have increased their productive capacity, and hand work is 
now extremely rare. The fear formerly expressed by workmen that 
many hands would, upon the adoption of the four-loom system, be 
thrown out of employment, proved ill founded; on the contrary, indus- 
trial development followed this change, and the prospects for a fur- 
ther expansion of the weaving interests of this city are decidedly 
favorable. 

Prices have been, in general, weak. During the first few months of 
1896 it was hoped that there would be an improvement, and some 
manufacturers tried to put up quotations, but in this effort they 
failed; and finding purchasers were not disposed to buy on a rising 
market, they were obliged to fall back to the prices of the latter part 
of 1895, and even slightly lower. The commoner articles showed the 
greater decline, while fine goods were fairly firm. This downward 
tendency of the market almost offset the improvement caused by the 
increased volume of sales. 

Raw materials were rising in price throughout the year, so that 
profits were very much reduced, being kept down to the lowest notch. 
Competition continued to increase and wages were constantly tend- 
ing upward, although no serious labor troubles occurred in this 
vicinity during the year 1896. The only saving features were the 
increase in the volume of sales and clearance of old stocks. These two 

Digitized by VJ^^v.'Vix^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 121 

circumstances, while not sufficient to crown the year as "good," were 
enough to make it better than several of its immediate predecessors. 
The prospects for further improvement are decidedly better than 
for some time past. Technical education is attracting increased atten- 
tion in Belgium. Germany, has in recent years, made remarkable 
strides in improving its methods of manufacture, and this develop- 
ment has recently aroused great anxiety in the minds of Belgian com- 
petitors. Technical education has not been pushed here as vigorously 
as beyond the Rhine, but it is certain that as soon as its factory hands 
are educated to the same degree and receive a certain amount of com- 
mercial training, Belgium will be able to wage a fiercer and more sat- 
isfactory competition in the neutral markets of the world. The united 
efforts of the Government and of industrial manufacturers are now 
being bent to the accomplishment of these very necessary preparatory 
labors. Their results will without doubt be evident within a few years. 

JUTE SPINNING. 

The jute crop for the season of 1895-96 was the largest recorded. 
It amounted to about 3,000,000 bales for Europe. 

During the first half of 1896, the quotations of jutes remained quite 
steady, but during the latter portion of the year there was a pro- 
nounced advance, due to bad reports of the new crop. 

The trade in jute yams showed a marked improvement in 1896 over 
1895. Owing to its renewed prosperity there was an increase in the 
production amounting to about 40 per cent. Prices were satisfactory, 
with tendency toward an advance. Workmen's wages were moder- 
ately increased in proportion to the importance of their work. Profits 
remained about the same as the average of last year. In general, there 
is a tendency toward improvement in this business by reason of the 
large and increased orders received from abroad. Finally, the number 
of spindles employed in jute spinning in Belgium increased considera- 
bly during 1896. 

JUTE WEAVING. 

This industry, like the spinning of jute, continued to be prosperous 
during 1896. 

Prices did not vary until the month of April, when an advance 
occurred, due to the fears of a small crop and a limited harvest, caused 
by the dry season. For some time, however, the market was in an 
expectant mood. The publication of the Report of the Indian Gov- 
ernment, estimating the crop at 5,000,000 bales as against 6,500,000 
for 1895, confirmed these fears. The advance, once inaugurated, con- 
tinued, so to speak, without interruption, until, at the end of Decem- 
ber, 1896, prices differed by about 20 per cent from those of the 
preceding January. 

The development of the jute industry in India and the considerable 
increase of spindles in Germany are strongly influencing the market. 
Great activity in the cereal trade throughout the year also occasioned 
an increased sale of bagging cloth. 

In the last annual report, it was noted that Belgian weavers wished 
to procure at home cheap wools, so as to be in a position by the 
employment of cheap yarns to increase their foreign trade. These 
desires have not yet been realized. Cheap wool yarns are essential 
to compete on foreign markets, and for them Belgian weavers, much 
to their regret, are obliged to resort to the Scotch market, which is 

*=* ' '^ Digitized by vjOv.'VIX^ 



122 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

annually increasing its importations of wool yams into this country. 
In this branch of industry the export trade depends entirely upon the 
possibility of reasonable prices. As a rule, the purchaser only makes 
use of a superior quality when he can obtain it at the same price as 
the inferior article. Belgian factories annually work up 12,000 to 
15,000 tons of raw material, and it is certain that the spinning of jute 
would still considerably develop in this country if qualities similar to 
those used by Scottish spinners could be here obtained. 

llie black point on the horizon of the jute industries is, as fully 
explained last year, the competition of the Far East. 

The important weaving and spinning mills of Bengal, located at the 
base of supplies of the raw material, making use of labor at the lowest 
possible wages, are increasing and will continue to increase in num- 
ber. The manufacturers of India are exporting and are daily winning 
new markets. The cost of freight, by reason of its cheapness, is 
scarcely to be considered, and the factories of Bengal will in a short 
time be ready to supply all the needs of Europe, where several strong 
footholds have already been obtained. 

CORDAGE AND ROPE. 

This trade was very active in 1896. A strong demand existed 
throughout the year. From the close of 1895, a tendency toward 
improvement has been manifest. The demand for export was good. 
This increase in demand is in a great measure due to the general 
amelioration of the rate of exchange, especially as regards the coun- 
tries of South America, Brazil, Chili, the Argentine Republic, and 
Uruguay. On the other hand, business with the East decreased. 
The recent troubles in Turkey tended greatly to cause distrust. The 
extremely reduced prices were also not such as to induce manufac- 
turers to accept orders from those countries. 

The sale of Belgian cordage to the United States is very limited. 
The total value of these articles shipped from this district to the 
United States was in 1896 declared to be $1,147.63, as against $1,527.80 
in 1895. On the one hand, American producers are protected by heavy 
duties, and on the other, England obtains almost all orders. 

The cheapness of these manufactures in 1896 was not such as to 
induce the manufacturers to make great efforts to increase their sales. 
The extensive demand already mentioned in South America may per- 
haps be attributed to the low prices which ruled last year. Raw 
material was very cheap and remained very cheap without any fluc- 
tuation in quotations. Manufactured products were therefore offered 
at the lowest possible figures. The percentage of profits was very 
small, but by reason of the large volume of sales the total amount of 
profits during 1896 was about equal to that of preceding years. No 
variation occurred in wages, workmen not making any complaints, 
and there are no strikes to be reported among those employed in 
the cordage industry. 

LACE. 

The general demand of 1896 for laces was approximately the same 
as in 1895, European orders were indeed more numerous, but their 
increase was offset by the decline in the American trade. 

The value of lace exports from this district to the United States 
decreased from $39,080.61 for 1895 to $32,266.34 in 1896. These 
figures, however, are only indicative of the general^^movemen^^jiot 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 123 

representing by any means the total amount of Flemish lace finding 
its way to the United States. Large quantities are undoubtedly sold 
on the Paris and Brussels markets and there declared for export to 
to our country, apart from the light American demand, trade was 
much better than for several years past. 

There was a general advance in prices, varying for the different arti- 
cles and qualities from 10 per cent to 20 per cent with ready sales. 
These quotations, while better than for many years, were still un re- 
munerative to the dealers, chiefly because of the corresponding 
increase in the wages of lace makers. The prospect is for still higher 
prices especially in France and England. 

MACHINERY. 

Ghent machine shops were favored with plentiful orders during 1896 ; 
their reputation for good and careful work contributed to obtain 
numerous commissions, not only in Belgium, but likewise from France, 
Gemany, Russia, Spain, and Egypt. 

The considerable introduction of various electrical apparatus, not 
only for lighting purposes, but especially for the transmission of 
power has occasioned a demand for steam engines, whose force may 
be centralized in powerful motors ; for the manufacture of such engines 
the principal machine shops of this city are splendidly equipped. 
The purchase of several of the privately managed railways by the 
State will give a considerable number of orders for modem locomo- 
tives. The manufacturers of Ghent can well expect to receive their 
share. 

The municipal authorities of Ghent have just annexed to the tech- 
nical school a foundrj', destined to be of valuable service in the 
practical instruction of future machinists. 

HARDWARE. 

The trade, especially in industrial machinery, is increasing. Prices 
for all kinds of hardware are tending upward, but profits remain the 
same by reason of a corresponding increase in general expenses and 
wages. The importation of American hardware on this market shows 
considerable increase. 

BICYCLES. 

An increase in the number of machines of local manufacture is to 
be noted. The introduction of American bicycles on this market was 
also marked during 1896. The volume of sales over the preceding 
year increased 33^ per cent. There was a tendency toward declining 
prices varying from 10 to 20 per cent. Workmen's wages did not 
increase. There are, indeed, few skilled bicycle hands at Ghent. 
While the percentage of profits decreased by reason of the increased 
quantity sold, the total was larger than heretofore. It is to be noted 
that the business in this vicinity is not regularly followed as a spe- 
cialty, but is only taken up temporarily by young men otherwise 
unoccupied and without the necessary knowledge or experience, and 
consequently without the ability to obtain great success. 

COAL AND SIDERURGICAL PRODUCTS. 

While G*nent is not in the heart of the Belgian mining district, the 
condition of the coal and siderurgical industrieg of ^Eurogeerp^tly 



124 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

affects the prosperity and welfare of this city. Situated as it is at 
the end of a deep-sea canal, which affords the cheapest route of trans- 
portation between Belgium and British, Dutch, and northern French 
ports, this city is the natural outlet for the mining products of the 
provinces of southern Belgium. Furthermore, being the seat of great 
machine shops and mechanical works, as well as other large fac- 
tories, Ghent is an important consumer of coal, coke, iron, and steel, 
arid thus is directly interested in the world's trade in these articles. 

The following two articles, translated in 8ubst>ance from the ''Eco- 
nomic Movement" (Le Movement Economique), of Brussels, February 
4, 1897, give a comprehensive statement of the European situation in 
these products during 1896: 

The year 1896 was favorable for the coal trade in the greater nnmber of Enro- 
pean countries. Almost everywhei-e, the prodnction exceeded in a notable degree 
that of 1895. Prices were firmly maintained and transportation, as weU for local 
consumption as for export trade, was extremely active. 

If we examine the situation existing in the principal of these countries, we see 
that in England the trade was the most irregular. During the first nine months . 
of the year, the coal traffic was very dull. In many mines, work was interrupted 
or limited, and it was only in this manner that a certain level between the produc- 
tion and the demand was maintained. In the month of October, local consump- 
tion suddenly increased and the situation began to improve. There was general 
complaint of the export trade. Prices differed little from those obtained in 1895; 
an exception was to be made for London, where the coal syndicate maintained 
prices at a higher level than the preceding year. 

Newcastle quotations were as follows at the end of the year 1896: Coal for 
manufacturing, first quality, $1.75 to $1.95; second quality, $1.36; fine coal for 
factories, 79 to 95 cents; gas coal, $1.56 to $1.70; foundry coal, $1.22 to $1.46; coal 
for domestic use, $2.31 to $2.78; coke, $3.41 to $4.14, f. o. b. At the end of June 
the navy department concluded a bargain for about 200,000 tons of the best Welsh 
coal at prices varying from $2.21 to $2.55 per ton, and at the end of August another 
contract for 100,000 tons at $2.19 and $2.70 per ton. The General Transatlantic 
Company concluded a contract in November for 2,500,000 tons of the same kind 
of coal , to be delivered in 1897, at prices varying from $2.33 to $2.50. At the end of 
December the Northeastern Railway Company made a contract for 650,000 tons 
of coal for its engines at $1.72 and $1.95 per ton, taken at the mines, or 6 to 12 
cents more per ton than in 1895. 

The French coal market was very flourishing in 1896. As average prices there 
can be quoted for very large coal, $2.89^ to $4.25; for mixed with 25 per cent of 
large, $2.12 to $2.82; with 30 per cent, $2.51 to $2.70; for tine for engines. $1.44 to 
$1.50 per ton. The average quotation of coke bought through the intermediary 
of the London syndicate was in June last $4.05 per ton, as against $3.97 at the 
same date in 1895. At the end of the year, some important purchases were con- 
cluded at the rate of $4.44 per ton. In order to meet the competition made on the 
French market bjr German and Belgian coke, the producers of the north of France 
are making at this moment great sacrifices, and many miners are building blast 
furnaces. 

The course of the German coal market was brilliant from the beginning to the 
end of the year. In all the coal districts, the production increased in a considera- 
ble manner. It is true that the needs of the metallurgical industry, to speak only 
of that, have increased in recent years from 25 to 30 per cent. Toward the end of 
the year, the demands were so numerous that it was necessary to replace coal gen- 
erally used for domestic purposes by other more expensive and rarer grades. Last 
December, the entire output of coke during 1897 of the Bhenan Westphalian basin, 
was already under contract. Many establishments were obliged to turn to Belgian 
and English producers to obtain coke. It is scarcely necessary to say that under 
the conditions we have just named prices increased m a remarkable manner. As 
the average quotations of sale the following may be mentioned: 

Anthracite $42. 84 to $47. 60 

Large mixed 20. 28 to 22.61 

Small mixed 17.85to 20.23 

Coke coal 16.66to 19.04 

Coke from blast furnaces _... 29. 75 to 35.70 

All these quotations being for carloads of 10 tons taken at the mine or at the blast 
furnace. The Rhenan Westphalian syndicate decided that the price of mixed ooal 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



125 



should be increased 6 cents and that of nnt 12^ cents per ton, on and after April 1, 
1897. The management of the Prussian State railways has contracted with the 
same syndicate for delivering until July 1, 1898, 1.700,000 tons, at the rate of §2.14 
per ton. So far as regards the Silesian basin, such an important movement in the 
coal trade has not occurred since 1890 as that of 1896, represented by the transpor- 
tation of 1,404,846 carloads of 10 tons each, or 115,000 carloads more than in 1895. 

In Austria-Hungary, the situatioB was good, both for domestic and manufactur- 
ing coal. Frequently the mines have been unable to regularly supply all orders, 
the more so in several districts where there has been a want of 30 to 50 per cent in 
the number of cars required for transportation from the mines. The production 
of the Bohemian mines in 1896 exceeded by 800,000 tons that of 1895, and the 
amount exported from the same basin increased 600,000 tons. Quotations were 
very firm during 1896, and for various kinds of industrial coal exceeded those of 
the preceding year. 

In Belgium, the mining industry was prosperous during the entire year 1896. 
Thanks to the metallurgical industries, consumption has been very large. In the 
country generally trade has also increased. During the months of October and 
November, the mines suffered for want of railway transportation. Prices were as 
follows at the end of the year: 

Very small nut $1.30 to $1.35 

Smallnut :. 1.51 to 1.56 

Nut 1.68to 1.78 

Coal for factories 1.78to 2.03 

Mixed •. 2. 12 to 2.40 

Largecoal 3. 18 to 4.63 

Coke was in good demand for delivery to be made after the Ist of July, 1897. 
The price of $3.39 for ordinary coke was easily obtained, and that of $3.72 for 
washed coke. In less than two years, the price has risen from $2.51 to $3.39. 

The commercial movement of Belgium for the principal coal and siderurgical 
products for 1896, as compared with 1895, was as follows: 

Importation, 





1898. 


1895. 




189& 


1895. 


Cokes 


Tons. 

200,000 

1,601,000 

85.000 

2.057,000 

9,000 

16,000 

4,000 

12,000 

8,000 


Tons. 

263.000 
1,680,000 

28,000 , 
1,868,000 1 


Raw iron. ............. ... 


Tons. 

316,000 

6,000 

56,000 

4,000 

7,000 

11,000 

6.000 


Tons. 


Coftl ... 


Worked castlnsrs 

Old iron (miscellaneous) 
Cast iron 


1,200 


Machin6ry 


23,(100 


Iron ore .' . 




Cast steel 


Plates 


3,000 


Plates and blooms 




Rolled Iron (miscella- 
neous) 

Worked iron (mieoella- 
neous -.._..... 




Billets, etc 




10,000 


Wire 


7.000 
10,000 




Boiled steel 


4,000 









Exportation. 





1806. 


1896. 




1896. 


1895. 


Brianets 


Tons^ 

468,000 

864,000 

4,641,000 

26,000 

84,000 

384.000 

47,000 

98,000 

10,000 

23,000 


Tons. 

460,000 

871,000 

4,661,000 

30,000 

25,000 

826,000 

43,000 

96,000 


Nails 


Tons. 

8,000 
30,000 
11,000 
27,000 

4,0(X) 
66,000 
67,000 

206,000 
6,000 
40,090 


Tons 
6,000 


Colros 


Worked steel . . .. 


21,000 


c2i^::::::::::::::::::::: 


Ci-udecastinm-.. 

Worked castings 

Wire (iron) 






23,000 


MiM*-h^"ei*y ... 


1.000 


Iron ore . . ..... 


Joists 


35,000 


$^t4«Al hAf^nfCf . . 


Plates 

Miscellaneous rolled 
iron -- 


64,000 


BailM--- 




Plates 


171,000 




30,000 


Nails 


5,000 


steel 


Worked iron 


35,000 









In brief, 1896 gives a total in exportation for rolled steel of 186,000 tons against 
175,000 tons in 1895, and for iron of 348,000 against 276,000 tons, or an increase, 
respectively, of 11,000 and 72,000 tons, and for the total of rolled products 534,000 
tons against 451,000, or an increase of 83,000 tons, being 10 per cent. jvjwi\^ 



126 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

For coal, there is to be noticed an increase in the importations of 160,000 tons, or 
10 per cent. It comes chiefly from Germany, which has gained 150,000 tons or 
thereabout. England and Holland, also, made slight gains. France, on the con- 
trary, has-lost several thousand tons. 

For coke, the decrease in importation amounts to 102,790 tons, or more than 28 
per cent. Germany lost the most, about 110,000 tons, while France regained a 
little on this trade. German importation had commenced to decrease beginning 
with the iast quarter of 1895, and this fact is still noticeable for the month of 
December last, which, however, gave only a small decrease of 2,000 tons, the figures 
being 24,000 for 18^6 and 28,000 tons for 1895. or 10 per cent less only, while the 
average for the year showed a decrease of 28 per cent. France which gained 
much ground in Belgium seems to have lost in December also, which fact is 
explained by the sharpness of the demand in thac countiy itself. 

For the export trade in coal, there is no appreciable difference from one year to 
the other, 1896 being 20,000 tons less than 1895, or only one-halt per cent. There 
is to be noted as improvement for 1896; England with 70,000 tons, Holland with 
60,000 tons, and various countries with 20,000 tons. On the other hand, Belgium 
has lost in exports toward Germany 45,000 tons; toward France 140,000 tons, and 
toward Switzerland 15,000 tons. 

For cokes, the exportations remained almost stationary, the decrease being only 
7,000 tons, or a little less than 1 per cent. The cause is to be found especially in 
the understanding reached between the Belgian and German syndicates. Toward 
Gkjrmany, Belgium has lost in exportation 65,000 tons and toward Luxemburg 
67,000 tons, or a total of 182,000 tons, but as the increase toward France is 
125,000 there is only a reduction of 7,000 tons to subtract from the 110,000 tons 
less which Germany has sent into this country. In conclusion, therefore, the 
year 1896 has given for the four countries, whose consumption is regulated by the 
trust agreement, an advantage of 100,000 tons to Belgium in comparison with 
the preceding year. For Holland, the only important market for cokes outside 
orthe agreement, a decrease of the Belgian export trade amounting to 18,000 tons 
is to be noted. 

GHENT COAL AND IRON TRADE. 

Coal. — Locally there was an improvement in the demand for coal 
both for mills and for private use, more particularly as regards qual- 
ities required in mills, on account of the inauguration of several new 
cotton spinning and weaving establishments. The cooperative socie- 
ties, selling foreign coal at ruinous prices, are making serious inroads 
into the sales for private consumption of other firms. This demand, 
however, slightly increased, while for mill purposes the sales were 
about 5 per cent more than in 1895. Prices were satisfactory. Coal 
for mills advanced about 10 per cent and for private consumption 
about 5 per cent. There was a slight advance in miners' wages. 
Profits of coal merchants and agents remained unchanged. Consider- 
ing the mild temperature of the past two winters the coal trade may 
be said to have been very satisfactory. 

Iron. — In the iron trade at Ghent, there was a stronger demand 
than for several years, the increase of sales over 1895 being about 10 
per cent. There was a tendency toward higher prices, with an increase 
during the year of not less than 15 per cent. The profits of iron 
dealers likewise advanced about 5 per cent. 

The local iron trade is somewhat perturbed over the possibility of 
the importation of siderurgical products from the United States. 
This feeling is voiced by an article lately published in the annual 
report of the Chamber of Commerce of Ghent, of which a translation 
follows: 

There is now considerable discussion of the present and future commercial 
struggle between old Europe on the one hand and America and the extreme East 
on the other. In our opinion, too much attention can not be given to this subject, 
and our eyes must be opened to the events which are passing around us, so that we 
may not be obliged to succumb before these new competitors. In this connection 

Digitized by VJV^v.'V i\^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 127 

we think it interesting to note what is at present occnrring in one of the most 
important industries— metallurgy. 

In the United States, in a country where labor costs double that of Europe, iron 
and steel are successfully produced at prices formerly considered impossible and 
very much less than their cost in the Old World. To-day, we see these competitors 
over the sea not only successfully competinp^ in the export trade, but coming into 
our market to sell their products, and that in spite of the considerable expense of 
freight. 

For two years past, there has been talk of this new competition, but it has been 
laughed at; shoulders were shrugged at the two or three trial orders obtained, 
which were considered as American extravagances. To-da^ it is no longer thus. 
The principal producers have established agencies in the prmcipal European cen- 
ters, and we are daily seeine entire cargoes of pig iron, bar iron, rails, rods for 
wire mills, etc., arriving to oe sold at the doors of our mills at prices far under 
their own. 

It may be consoling to say that this situation is only temporary, and that it is 
only possible because of prosperity in Europe and the metallurgical depression 
in -the United States. That circumstance helps, it is certain; but when we see the 
mills at Pittsburg so equipped that they can produce steel billets at a profit of 
$12.90 per ton, we shall have to make great efforts to prevent their products from 
coming to our nuirket, and greater still to prevent them from taking possession of 
our foreign trade. Analogous movements are to be noted in various industries of 
secondary importance. 

Such opinions of American competition are secretly held by many 
Belgian mannf acturers, although openly expressed by few. Will our 
people follow up the advantages already gained? 

POWDER. 

The exports of powder from this district to the United States in 
1896 fell to a nominal sum, being only $123.04 as against $8,148.88 for 
the preceding year. Otherwise, there has not been any modification 
in the trade during 1896 so far as regards the United States. Prices 
and profits are satisfactory, but stationary. It is hoped that more 
extensive relations will in time develop. 

BASKETS. 

In general, there has been no serious modification in the basket- 
making industry. The volume of business, however, increased 30 
per cent. Prices continued unsatisfactory, but without any increase 
or decrease. Workmen's wages and profits likewise were stationary. 
The declared value of baskets exported to the United. States during 
1896 was $2,463.09 as against $258.21 for 1895. 

TANNED LEATHER. 

Business in 1896 was almost as difficult as in 1895, by reason of the 
relative firmness in the quotations of tanned leather, while purchasers 
wrongly imagined that prices were declining. For average and heavy 
grades, 10 per cent decrease in prices is to be noticed ; on the contrary, 
for the light grades prices were steady and quite satisfactory, with a 
tendency to be firmer. 

Workmen's wages continued unchanged; profits were less than 
usual. At the end of the year there was more facility of sale than for 
some time past, but always at the same prices. 

BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY. 

The sugar factories of this region were very busy during the season 
of 1896-97. Work generally began about the endj|f„^|)^ie)^s^?ed 



128 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

continued for the most part until the last days of December, and for 
some even into January. The winter not having been severe, there 
were no losses sustained by weather conditions. 

The eight factories of East Flanders found abundant raw material, 
which, however, was not so rich in saccharine as the crop of the pre- 
ceding year. Notwithstanding this inferiority of the sugar beets, 
refiners were well occupied and the output, owing to the large harvest, 
was enormous. 

The stocks in other countries are likewise exceedingly heavy. At 
this season, in 1895, the stocks were estimated at 2,248,420 tons, in 
1896 at 2,715,458 tons, and this year (1897) at 2,940,506. The prices 
of sugars have consequently declined by 31 cents to 38| cents per 
hundred pounds, and will decline still more if Cuba should be 
pacified. 

The sugar manufacturers of Belgium claim that their industry is 
threatened for want of proper legislative action, and are at the pres- 
ent time discussing various proposed remedies. 

Germany having increased the bounties paid to exported sugar, 
France and Austria have followed with similar action. The conse- 
quence wiU be a still greater overproduction. The competition of 
German and Austrian sugars on the English and the American mar- 
kets is thus aided and is already seriously felt. 

Efforts are being made to secure by an international agreement the 
suppression of all bounties, but it will only be accomplished, if at 
all, with great diflficulty. The various governments wish to encour- 
age their respective sugar industries in order to favor agriculture. 
To this end, they force the production of sugar in spite of the lower 
prices and the excess of supply. Economic laws are thus being vio- 
lated and must later be avenged. 

MILLING. 

The first six months of 1896 formed a very difficult period for mil- 
lers, in the fact that prices were entirely unremunerative. It is 
always the time when the consumption of purchased flours is the least, 
for the country people then make use of their own products. As 
Belgian mills are to-day equipped to supply only the domestic demand, 
when the farmers cease, or at least reduce their purchases, there 
occurs an overproduction which naturally influences prices. The 
considerable and steady advance, which occurred in August and Sep- 
tember last, involved the entire country, even including the baker 
and the consumer. 

During the year, no change was made in industrial milling machin- 
ery. One new mill of a daily capacity of 44,000 pounds, was inaug- 
urated in West Flanders, and another of equal importance was 
reopened in East Flanders. 

The harvest of grain was very good and of exceptional quality. 
During the second half of the year, domestic grain flowed into the 
mills by reason of the higher prices paid. On the other hand, the 
farmers, seeing this opportunity to realize a profit, ceased to feed 
wheat to their cattle, and substituted maize, which was selling much 
cheaper. 

DISTILLING. 

The total number of distilleries in the province of East Flanders 
during 1896 was 131, of which 107 were active %n^,ec^f ^fb vT^® 



EUBOPE: BELGIUIC 129 

amount of liquor distilled, as declared for taxation in 1896, was 6,537,- 
045 gallons, of which the agricultural distilleries furnished 3,937,398 
gallons. In 1895, these quantities had been, respectively, 7,514,971 gal- 
lons and 4,432,225 gallons. The manufacture of domestic brandy at 
Ghent amounted in 1895 to 1,817,073 gallons, paying internal-revenue 
taxes to the sum of $206,242.56. In 1896, the amount declared was 
only $1,621,225 gallons, but under the new law the total tax increased 
by $17,036.58. 

BREWING. 

The number of breweries established in East Flanders in 1896 was 
590, of which number 580 were active and only 10 idle. Under the 
law of 1822 taxing the quantity brewed, 749,816 gallons were declared 
in 1896, as against 800,619 gallons in 1895. In general, there was an 
increase in production. 

At Ghent, the declarations of 1896 covered 6,452^ tons, an increase 
of 215f tons over 1895, with a revenue of $4,164.69 more to the Gov- 
ernment. Under the law of 1822, the quantity, locally declared, 
included 47,285 gallons, as compared with 55,971 gallons in 1895. 

LUMBER. 

The trade in exotic lumber during 1896 may be reckoned a« much 
more prosperous than for many previous years. The advance 
noticed for 1895 became stronger in 1896, and caused even an increase 
of about 20 per cent in the quotations of joists, beams, and lumber 
of large dimensions. For pieces of smaller measurement, such as 
boards, scantlings, etc. , this advance amounted to 25 per cent. Prices 
heretofore unknown were obtained. 

These conditions favored the Ghent market, where the stock of 
lumber was considerable. Lumber which had been piled up and 
regarded as an encumbrance for years was easily sold. 

The arrivals were important, and considerably in excess over pre- 
ceding years. This increase, however, was only true of certain species 
and dimensions. A decrease, on the other hand, is to be noted, as in 
preceding years, for oak logs and blocks, as well as American pitch 
pine. The causes of the decline in this trade is known. It is entirely 
due to shallow water in the Terneuzen Canal, the want of proper lock 
facilities, and storage yards. These losses are much to be regretted. 
The other species and dimensions have not only supplied the defi- 
ciency, but have arrived in such quantities as to swell the total of 
lumber imported from 9,092,715 cubic feet in 1895 to 10,031,840 cubic 
feet in 1896. This increase is encouraging to Ghent. The lumber 
trade, however, like the cotton industry, is anxiously awaiting the 
promised improvements to the deep-sea canal and improved dock 
facilities. With these accomplished, Ghent will become the most 
important lumber market of Belgium. At the present time, the 
same lumber can be sold at Ghent cheaper than at Antwerp. An 
example is lumber coming from Riga quoted per standard (165 cubic 
feet) $36.67 at Antwerp and $36.19 at Ghent. 

RAGS AND PAPER STOCK. 

The general condition of all articles known under the denomination 
of paper stock, was very bad during 1896. Prices were low, even 
lower than 1895, which had been accounted a very disastrous year. 
The American trade was exceedingly dull for the first nine months 

R— VOL 2 9 ^'^"''' '^ vjwwgL^ 



130 



COMMERCIAL BELATIONB. 



of 1896.. After the Presidential election there was a revival of confi- 
dence promising great improvement, but before the end of the year 
the feeling died out, and the prospect for 1897 was less encouraging 
than ever. 

Prices, as previously stated, were at the lowest ebb during the first 
half of the year. Subsequent to July 1 there was a slight upward 
tendency, especially for rags, but entirely without effect on baggings. 
In December, however, there was another decline. 

The American market was especially unfavorable throughout the 
year; better prices Were obtained almost anywhere in Europe than in 
the United States. Our demand was light for the better qualities, 
many of which, formerly much sought, can not now find a sale. For 
this reason, notwithstanding the great decrease in the value of these 
goods shipped to the United States, there is still an increase in the 
number of bales of rags. The official record here shows that in 1894 
20,621 bales, in 1896 23,828, and in 1896 26,491 bales of rags were 
shipped to the United States. 

The respective values declared for^all kinds of paper stock, includ- 
ing rags, for several years past at this consulate are: 



1889 $689,754.26 

1890 526,414.60 

1891 551,882.79 

1892 690,741.99 



1893 $494,703.72 

1894 826,144.43 

1895 848,869.46 

1896 261,017.49 



Such is the record of the decline of this trade. Last year its suprem- 
acy as the principal line of articles expoi-ted from this consulate 
vanished, the first place being taken by fiax and tow. 

The market for wast« papers presented the same features in 1896 
as other branches of the paper-stjock trade. There was a prolonged 
calm, with only a very slight improvement toward the end of the year. 

As a natural result of existing conditions, profits in all these lines 
were very limited. The price of labor did not vary in the least. 

Of all markets, Germany is now the best for the Belgian rag trade. 

hatters' furs. 

The crisis existing in the trade for almost five j^ears was even more 
accentuated during 1896. The situation was not greatly different from 
the preceding year. Most factories were running, but the demand 
was light. This trade depends chiefly on sales abroad, the only 
domestic demand being from the one single Belgian hat factory situ- 
ated at Brussels. Events in foreign lands have therefore great impor- 
tance. Unfortunately, last year the situation in many countries was 
unfavorable. Prior to the Presidential election and incident to the 
attendant excitement, business in our country was very dull. The 
political conditions in South America were likewise unfortunate. Too 
many manufacturers and a consequent overproduction were, however, 
the most serious obstacles to prosperous times. The bitter competi- 
tion waged for trade drove prices down even lower than previously. 
The decline, which occurred in the early part of 1896, may be esti- 
mated at 10 per cent on prices of furs of good quality, 16 per cent on 
those of average quality, and as much as 26 per cent on the common 
grades. This fall in quotations caused considerable losses on the old 
stock remaining on hand at the beginning of 1896 ; but a proportionate 
decline in the skins purchased having occurred, prices for hair and furs 
later in the year were quite satisfactory, even, indeed, in certain 
instances remunerative. The want of orders was, however, the unsat- 

uigitized by ^^J^^VJWl\^ 



EUBOPE: BELGIUM. 131 

isfactory feature, as general expenses were necessarily about the same 
as in better seasons. Toward the close of the year, there was a slight 
recovery in the volume of the export trade in the direction of North and 
South America. Manufacturers of hats had exhausted their stocks, 
and orders were consequently more numerous after the autumn elec- 
tions. In December, quotations slightly advanced, especially for cer- 
tain kinds of Belgian rabbits' hair; even where there was not any 
advance prices were firmer than for some time past. 

Old stock was almost entirely sold off last year, so that, providing, 
there is even a slight demand the trade will improve. New skins 
now offered for sale are of excellent quality, and by reason of a great 
supply are selling very cheap. Foreign demand at the end of the 
year was slightly better, although not sufficiently important to assure 
its stability. Purchases seem to be for immediate needs. Whenever, 
indeed, the expected improvement does come, the demand will be con- 
siderable. Purchases during the past three years having been very 
limited and the production small, the stock of hair and furs in the 
hands of hat manufacturers must be very low. 

The general belief, however, seems to be that no revival will 
occur until some pronounced transformation in styles, and the intro- 
duction on a larger scale of felt hats for ladies' wear take place. The 
hat trade everywhere has been for several years in a deplorable con- 
dition, and the manufacture of hair and fur suffers the natural conse- 
quences. Only in the revival of the former can the latter find the 
desired relief. 

The Belgian trade in hatters' furs has especially suffered in recent 
times, it is said, from the establishment of so-called finishing shops 
by English houses in this country. Here the skins are prepared in a 
certain manner all ready for cutting, and then shipped via England 
to the United States. Not being classified as hatters' furs, they are 
free of duty, although nearly completed; the cutting only remains to 
be done. The finished furs, on the other hand, must pay the 20 per 
cent duty. By this scheme several hundreds of thousands of skins 
are said to have been shipped into our country in evasion of our laws 
and to the detriment of the legitimate hatters' fur manufactures. 

The value of hatters' funs declared at this consulate for export to 
the United States during 1896 was $27,892.61, as against $59,308.21 in 
1895, a loss of more than half the trade. 

HORTICULTURE. 

The multiplication of horticultural establishments in the two Flan- 
ders in 1896 was more marked than ever. The number of new con- 
cerns approximated 100, while more than 600 separate greenhouses 
were constructed. The constantly increasing horticultural trade, 
especially that with the United States, is alluring many people of 
small means to invest in plants and to undertake their cultivation on 
a commercial basis. 

There was a general increase in the volume of business done by 
horticulturists during 1896 of 10 to 15 per cent over the preceding 
year. This improvement was about equal, both for domestic and for- 
eign sales. The English demand alone was weak, due to the increased 
cultivation of plants in that country. 

Notwitiistanding the larger demand of the year, prices were very 
weak, with a decided downward tendency, attributable to the sharp 
competition of so many new establishments, aU >S^|y^^^v^i)^lJt^^® 



132 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

trade of their older rivals. Prices on the home market were better than 
abroad, as in their desire to obtain foreign trade horticulturists are 
always disposed to make the greatest sacrifices.. Foreign purchasers 
are also the best informed as to where they can buy the cheapest. Of 
all plants sold for export, palms maintained the highest prices during 
1896, a fact due to the scarcity of stock. 

A distinction must be made in last year's trade between foliage and 
floral plants; throughout the year a decided preference was shown for 
the former over the latter. In France and England, the demand for 
foliage plants increased about 30 per cent, while for floral plants 
there was a corresponding decrease. 

Profits were less than in preceding years, as a result of the lower 
prices. Viewing only the steady expansion of horticultural produc- 
tion, great prosperity seems to be reigning in this trade; but notwith- 
standing the increase in the number of establishments, the total of 
business transacted has not correspondingly grown. Owing to this 
excessive production, prices are weaker than ever, the inevitable result 
of sharp competition. Plants have, strictly speaking, no intrinsic 
value, prices depending entirely upon the conditions of supply and 
demand. The most skillful horticulturists are endeavoring to recoup 
their reductions in prices by improved and cheaper methods of culti- 
vation, but all their efforts seem to be fruitless in securing them any 
larger margin of profits. Year by year prices decline and decline, 
while competition, more and more bitter, is daily growing stronger. 
The demand can not keep pace with the supply of the world; hence 
horticulture is indeed seriously threatened. After the investment of 
a large capital and long years of cultivation of certain plants, many 
of the larger horticulturists are now looking forward to the necessity 
of running their establishments practically without profits in the 
effort to save their capital. 

The wages of labor employed continued to increase. American 
trade showed the same characteristics, even more marked than in the 
previous year. The total value of plants declared at this consulate 
for shipment to the United States manifested another decided increase. 
The figures were $144,473. 63. For the past five years the exports have 
been: 



1895 1131,904.67 

1896 144,473.63 



1892 $69,957.48 

1893 ._... 90,522.85 

1894 95,673.46 

Notwithstanding the large amount of plants shipped, trade can not 
be said to have improved. Certain horticulturists of the European 
continent are offering plants so cheap that it is daily becoming more 
difficult to find purchasers in the United States willing to pay any 
reasonable profit. They are led to believe that the production is 
several times greater than the reality. Not only are the lower prices 
a hindrance to the American trad^, but the risk is also much more 
than the majority of Belgian horticulturists are disposed to take. In 
this connection, it must be noticed that considerable money was lost 
last year to Ghent firms by American failures. I know of two cases 
where the losers have subsequently withdrawn from American trade, 
American transactions being generally of considerable importance. 
One such loss represents to these people the gain and profits of several 
years' accumulation. Low prices and the accompanying risk and diffi- 
culty of collection are factors tending to depress American trade. 
There is, therefore, no present reason to anticipate any further or 
immediate increase in sales to the United States. Ljigitzea by vjw^x^^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 133 

Mention should finally be made of the Quinquennial Exposition 
and Ck>ngre88 to be held in Ghent during the year 1898.* 

CEREALS. 

The importation of grain the past year was full of surprises. It 
opened firmly and with an active demand, still more marked at the 
time of the events in the Transvaal. By reason of the strained rela- 
tions between the South African Republic and Englafftd, the latter 
thought it prudent to fill its warehouses and accordingly ma'de impor- 
tant purchases. When these complications were temporarily smoothed 
over, the market, deprived of its necessary support in the demand and 
affected by the large receipts in America, could not fail to weaken. 
This decline reached its crisis about the middle of July. There had 
been meanwhile some temporary revivals, due to mostly local circum- 
stances, such as momentary reduction of stocks, but the generality of 
the market remained calm with a tendency to weakness. 

It would have been difficult at the beginning of the summer to fore- 
see that which was going to happen. The reports on the harvest were 
good; letters appearing in trade publications and written by men 
deemed authorities expressed the opinion that nothing could prevent 
a return to the lowest prices of 1894. Overconfident in the abun- 
dance of stocks and in favorable prospects of good harvests, millers and 
importers purchased only according to their daily needs, while await- 
ing the lowest prices, on which they expected to largely speculate. 
Unfortunately they did not come. From the month of August, the 
situation began to change; certain unfavorable rumors commenced 
to be heard concerning the crops; it was soon discovered that only 
England and France could expect good harvests; then, the news from 
America and Australia became most disquieting; finally, it was 
learned that the Indian crop was lost and that that country had made 
grain purchases in California. At last, the eyes of purchasers were 
opened. It was soon found that the reserves were exhausted and that 
the stocks at the seaports were smaller than ever. Everybody wished 
to purchase. Prices advanced by leaps and bounds. In a short time 
an increase of 35 to 46 cents per hundred pounds was to be recorded. 
Notwithstanding the subsequent slight weakness occasioned by spec- 
ulation in America, the year closed with an advance of about 89 cents 
over the lowest point reached. 

The most characteristic feature of the year was furnished by the 
scarcity in Australia, India, and the Argentine Republic. These 
countries, which had shipi)ed more than 2,000,000 tons of grain to 
Europe in 1894, could not be reckoned even as exporting countries in 
1896. 

The year* was possibly not bad for Belgian millers, for many of 
them, as sdon as the advance was anticipated, operated boldly and 
made a fortunate speculation. 

The local harvest, as officially reported, was generally good. The 
crop, was about the same as in 1895, only that oats turned out worse 
than the average of the two preceding years. 

The most remarkable circumstance of the season for barley was the 
great favor shown to that coming from California and Chile. Brewers 
who have employed these products are unanimous in their praise. 

*See Advance Sheets, No. 148, June 17, 1898. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



134 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



OLEAGINOUS SEEDS. 



Prices of flaxseed were never as low as in 1896. The reasons were 
multiple, the enormous surplus in the United States remaining from 
the preceding year, the important importations from the Plata, the 
abundance of the Russian crops, both in the north and in the south. 
During the first part of the year, prices declined without interruption 
until the beginning of September, when American seeds were sold at 
$1.55 per bukdred pounds. This desire to sell was due to the political 
uncertainty. During this time, other countries refused to follow these 
quotations and held prices too high. In September and October, there 
was great excitement caused by the animation in wheat and the 
advance in freights. Important transactions were then negotiated. 
This revival was, however, of only short duration. In November and 
December, quotations lost a good' proportion of the advance gained 
in the preceding months. 

Colza seed underwent numerous fluctuations throughout the entire 
year. The principal sales were in Bombay yellows and browns. 
Toward the end of the year, fears were felt for the next crop in 
India, menaced by the drought, and the market recovered consider- 
ably. 

In ravison seed, numerous and important sales werc^onade at low 
prices, but the harvest having been less in quantity than had been 
expected speculators provoked an advance in September and October, 
which was well maintained during the latter portion of the year. 

The season for Riga flaxseed for sowing opened in October at the 
low price of $3.57 per sack, and although the quality of the seed is 
inferior to the previous year's crop, the amount imported was far in 
excess. 

FLAX AND TOW. 

The flax crop of 1896 did not much exceed an ordinary half crop as 
to quantity, a fact partially due to small sowings, but mostly owing to 
want of rain at the proper season, i. e., during April and May. As to 
quality, the crop can not be classified as more than an average one. 

The trade during the year was generally dull, although there was a 
slight spurt in the early autumn occasioned by the small crop. The 
unremunerative state of the yam trade at that time, however, 
deterred spinners from operating freely, and business soon became 
dull. Another shorter spurt occurred just after the United States 
Presidential election, but soon again subsided. Generally the export 
trade was much better than the preceding year, the amount shipped 
to the United States being likewise on the increase. 

The total declared value of flax at this consulate for 1896 was 
$242,163.91 as compared with $151,972.60 for 1895; tow declined from 
$98,218.23 in 1895 to $66,235.32. The combined figures for flax and 
tow were, in 1895, $250,190.83; in 1896, $308,399.23, and for the first 
tiiiie these items together form the chief article of export from this 
consular district. 

Courtrai flaxes of 1895, prepared for sale last season, were from the 
beginning the object of a good demand at remunerative prices for 
scutchers; a condition due to their superiority, which wiU probably 
continue to be apparent as long as there are any remaining in the 
market. The export trade for these qualities was comparatively 
very good. On the contrary, flaxes inferior in quality were not in 

uigitized by kjOOQIC 



EUBOPE: BELGIUM. 135 

current demaud, being held at prices beyond the readiness of buyers. 
Russian flax also, owing to its very low cost, is slowly, but surely, 
displacing blue Flemish flaxes abroad, especially in France. So far 
as regards the products of Flanders, the demand is by prefei*ence for 
the ^od qualities rather than for the ordinary and common grades. 

Prices for Courtrai flax, with the exception of a brief rise of about 
10 per cent in the early summer, fluctuated very little, and for yellow 
Couftrai flax remained steady. The tendency, if any, was, however, 
in favor of purchasers, taken altogether with a view to the quality. 
At Courtrai, $25 to $120 per bale was paid, according to quality. The 
last-mentioned price was, of course, exceptional, being given only for 
the very best. At Bruges and in Flanders, the price of flax varied 
from $18 to $40 per bale. Blue Flemish flaxes, in consequence of Rus- 
sian competition and their bad quality, were declining in price through- 
out the year. The market at its close was lower than ever known. 

For flax-growers, the better qualities were alone remunerative; 
generally they did not profit much, if any, in 1896, as not only the 
crop was small, but prices were also unremunerative. Courtrai deal- 
ers and export houses made only moderate profits. The quotations 
at the opening of 1897, being below the cost of production, sowings 
this year will probably be less; and with a smaller crop prices may 
again revive and the trade at last see the reaction for so many years 
past desired. 

CHICORY ROOT. 

The conditions existing in this article during several recent years 
continued to prevail throughout 1896. The same oversupply, less- 
ened demand, low prices, loss of profits, and general depression 
were to be noted. Deterred by past experience, the farmers of Flan- 
ders had made much less than their ordinary sowings for the past year. 
Tlie weather conditions in the spring were also such as to greatly 
injure the crop. Consequently, the yield of chicory was far under 
the quantity of usual years. It may be estimated at 50,000 to 55,000 
tons, while formerly a fair crop was reckoned at 100,000 tons. There 
were, however, such stocks remaining on hand from the preceding 
year as to still keep quotations down to their lowest limits. Sale 
prices were constantly under the cost of production. Not only was 
the stock from 1895 an unfavorable factor, but the greatly decreased 
demand was the most serious feature of the trade of 1896. 

There were slight fiuctuations, and once or twice prices rose some- 
what under the pressure of speculation, but at the close of the year 
they were as low as, if not lower than, at the same time in 1895. For 
the first thi-ee months of 1896, the quotations were, per ton, $19^7 to 
•20.19 for the raw root. Comparatively, they were even a little less 
than for the preceding year. 

In April, May, and June, the dry weather caused a slight rise, the 
advance being to about $25.77 per ton. Rain coming just in time, 
however, to save the crops, prices fell at once to $21.06 or even $20.19, 
where they remained during July, August, and September, 1896. 
Speculators succeeded, about October 15, in pushing up the quota- 
tions for the new crop to $26.32 per ton, but in the presence of the 
old stock everywhere remaining in the warehouses, it was impossible 
to maintain tMs advance. Prices declined in November and Decem- 
ber to $25.44, $24.57, and finally to $23.69 per ton. The year's crop 
being not much more than one-half an ordinary yield, better prices 

Digitized by xsikjkjwi\^ 



136 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

must have inevitably been obtained, had it not been for the large 
stock, estimated at 20,000 tons, left from the year 1895. As it was, 
the average price of the year for the raw root may be fixed at about 
$21.06 per ton, while the lowest coat of cultivation is $24.57 per ton. 
There was therefore a net loss of considerable extent, which fell 
almost entirely' upon the farmers. 

The export trade in Belgian chicory has enormously decreased 
since 1894. The value of chicory, root and granulated, declared at 
this consulate for shipment to the United States during,1896, amounted 
to only $103,793.42, as compared with $159,896.30 for the preceding 
year. France, where formerly the cultivation of chicory was entirely 
without importance, was induced, three or four years ftgo, by the 
high prices then prevailing, to try to increase its crop. The French 
Government imposed a duty of $5.26 per ton on foreign chicory root. 
The French farmers commenced to grow chicory and, favored by this 
protection, succeeded, notwithstanding the high price of labor, in 
competing with the Belgian article on the French market. The 
development of the French crop is steadily becoming more and more 
marked. Not only has Belgium nearly lost this important market, 
but Germany is beginning to compete with her products in other 
foreign countries, especially England and the United States. 

Agricultural labor is so cheap throughout Flanders that it is impos- 
sible for the farmer to further reduce expenses in this direction. 
During recent years, while the flax and chicory crops have been con- 
stantly unremunerative, large numbei-s of the agricultural population 
of these two provinces have crossed the frontier to find work during 
the busy season in France, where labor is much better paid. Hemmed 
in, as this country is, by two great nations, protected by tariffs so 
high as to be almost prohibitive for certain products, a prosperous 
future can not be anticipated for Belgian agriculture. Slow ruin is 
inevitable, if the prices of flax and chicory do not again reach a level 
allowing some profit to the farmers; for these two crops, together with 
cattle raising, are their principal resources. 

The salvation of the chicory trade at the present moment is a con- 
tinuance of prices so low as to deter large sowings for 1897. If this 
crop is again small, there may once more be a serious and maintained 
advance in price. The trade may at last find its equilibrium, and, 
after the misfortunes of so many years, prosperity may be restored to 
the growers and driers of chicory. 

OILS. 

Colza oils experienced, in the course of the year, frequent fluctua- 
tions, which followed almost constantly the quotations of colza seed. 
The second part of 1896 was certainly the most interesting for the oil 
trade. Animated by the strong advance in seed and the prevailing 
scarcity of oil, quotations rose sharply, and at one time reached $11.96 
per 220 pounds. 

The strong decline in flaxseed could not help having an influence 
on flax oil. In January the market was firm and animated with a 
demand stronger than the supply. Soon, however, under the influ- 
ence of the decline in seeds and of abundant offers of oil, the reaction 
began. From $8.20 pei 220 pounds in February the price fell to $6.85 
at the end of December. The period of reaction lasted almost the 
entire year, being broken only by very slight periods of revival, of 

Digitized by xjkjkjwi\^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 137 

which well-informed manufacturers took advantage to make impor- 
tant contracts with purchasers. 

Great complaints having been made of the impurity of flaxseeds of 
certain countries, an Agreement has been made among the principal 
oil manufacturers, not to accept seeds containing more than 8 per 
cent weight of foreign substances. 

ALBUMEN AND BLOOD. 

The situation in this trade remained the same as formerly. Prices 
for albumen were, during 1896, satisfactory; for dried blood they 
were deplorable. In 1897 there will probably be a slight decline in 
albumen. Any increase in the prices of blood is unexpected, on 
account of the low quotations of sulphate of ammonia. Profits dur- 
ing 1896 were sufficient, although small. Workmen's wages were sta- 
tionary. The exportation of albumen from this consular district to 
the United States during 1896 amounted to $1,029.66, as compared 
with $248.99 for 1895. 

CEMENT AND PRODUCTS OF CEMENT. 

The number of cement factories, properly so called, at Ghent is the 
same as formerly. One new establishment has begun the inanufac- 
ture of a specialty known as *'ciment arm6," which might be trans- 
lated as " strong cement." We speak of it later more in detail. 

The production of neither cement nor tiles increased during 1896! 
It rather decreased. The production of one firm fell from 15,107 tons 
in 1895 to only 9,934 tons in 1896. The greatest decline was in the 
American sales. . The exportation from Belgium, especially toward 
the United States, had been excessive for several years iMist, and last 
year the market showed the natural results. From this consular dis- 
trict alone, the declared value of exports of cement toward America 
• fell from $55,432.85 in 1895 to $17,355.43 in 1896. 

Cement tiles. — This branch of the trade has little reason to complain 
of the past year. The demand was good, building being quite active. 
Prices, however strange it may seem, declined. The danger to the 
trade is the loss of its reputation abroad induced by the exportation 
of goods of inferior quality, especially manufactured to sell. The 
endeavor to sell such inferior articles can only be fatal to this once 
flourishing industry. 

Strong cement. — The name given to a product combining cement 
and iron. About twenty years ago, Mr. Meunier, a Frenchman, 
invented the system of mixing cement and iron. His products, how- 
ever, were only sewer pipe and artificial rocks, cascades, etc. For 
more than ten years, there has been one firm at Ghent engaged in this 
manufacture. The industry has lately, however, assumed larger 
expansion by reason of an increased demand for this article from the 
horticultural establishments of the neighborhood. As a matter of 
fact, there are now made of this strong cement sewer and drainage 
pip€» of all sizes, reservoirs, especially for horticultural establish- 
ments, basins for garden ponds and park lakes, cascades, artificial 
rocks, and even the* facades of houses. This industry seems to be 
destined to a far greater development. 

The greatest hindrance to the expansion of the cement trade of Bel- 
gium, is the barricade established by duties on the part of most coun- 
tries. Oreat efforts have been made to secure the reduction of the 

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138 COMM£BCIAL RELATIONS. 

duties imposed by France and Gtormany, but without success. In the 
former country, they run from 60 to 130 per cent, according to 
qualities. Endeavors are also being made to obtain cheaper rates 
of transportation. 

CANNED SPRATS. 

The preparation and canning of sprats and other fish for export, is 
a new industry in this consular district. During the latter part of 
1896, a very large establishment, formerly located in Holland, moved 
to Ostend in order to be nearer to the source of its supplies. It is yet 
too soon to make any predictions for the permanency of this trade. 

The declared value of exports of canned sprats during 1896 reached 
$13,594.93. So far as reported, prices were tending downward, and 
business was generally stationary at the close of the year. 

MATCHES. 

This industry made great progress in 1896, chiefly due to the intro- 
duction and employment of improved machinery. While export trade 
diminished in general, there was an increase toward the United 
States. The figures for matches declared at this consulate in 1896 
were $6,357.07, as compared with $1,118.89 for 1895. 

Prices were strained, and showed a strong tendency toward decline. 
Workmen's wages did not decrease, but, on the contrary, in some 
cases were higher than formerly. Profits decreased. No remark- 
able event occurred in the match trade during 1896, unless it was the 
apparent failure of nonphosphorous matches to answer expectations. 

Good reasons existed at the close of 1896 for anticipating a slight 
improvement during the present year. 

BRAIDS AND SHOE LACES. 

The general trade in these articles increased about 65 per cent 
during 1896; prices, however, were lower than for the preceding year. 
Workmen's wages were stationary. Profits are constantly growing 
less and less. There is no tendency to improvement in this business 
in Belgium, because manufacturers of similar articles are yearly 
becoming more numerous in all these countries, with which there 
was formerly a good export trade; so much so that these new factories 
will, in a little time, be able to supply the entire native demand. 

The exports of braids toward the United States for 1896 showed a 
decrease, the figures for the total value being only $379.81, as against 
$1,697. 12 for 1895. The trade in shoe laces, on the contrary, was much 
larger, the amount declared at this consulate in 1896 being $10,055.77, 
as compared with $4,746.55 in 1895. 

MISCELLANEOnS EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES. 

Very few articles, other than those heretofore specifically mentioned, 
appear in the list of last year's exports from this consular district. 
The most important of these items was rabbit skins, formerly one of 
the principal exports from this vicinity to the United States. During 
the past year, the total declared value of these articles was only 
$5,859.28, as compared with $147,072.36 for 1895. The cause of the 

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BUROPE: BELGIUM. 



139 



loss of this trade, so far as I can learn, is an absolute lack of demand 
on the part of American houses formerly importing these goods. I 
am inclined to think that American factories are now preparing and 
finishing the raw skins for the home market, thus doing the work 
which heretofore has been done in Belgium. I have, however, found 
it impossible to obtain any authoritative information, as Belgian 
houses are not disposed to give the reason for their loss of trade. 

Other articles of export from this district to the United States 
were: Woolen goods, $1,847.63; cotton goods, $682.97; cotton crochet 
yams, $131.34, as against $1,023.85 in 1895; art stained glass, $478.65, 
as comx>ared with $2,587.36 for 1895; jet trimmings, $879.22, as against 
$4,068.81 in 1895; machinery, $247.25; oil paintings, $877.58; sirup, 
$451. 04 ; and wines, $678. 11. Articles exported in 1895, of which none 
were shipped in 1896, were, church regalia, human hair, marble, oils, 
and beet sugar. 

Vdlite of exports declared for the United States from the consvktr district of Ghent 
during the year ended December SI, 1896. 



ArtioleB. 


Quarter ending- 


Total. 


Mar. 81. 


Jnne80. 


Sept. 81. 


Deo. 81. 


AUramen - . 






$1,029.66 
709.88 


$078.72 


$1,028.66 


BfMfk<*t# , 


$416.11 
4,309.12 


1668.88 

184.02 

4,986.38 

1,141.48 

86,407.06 

623.68 

410.46 

74,723.84 

206.84 

4,748.86 

'"i6,'a66.46" 

2,407.47 
21,278.06 


2,468.00 


PnidOiffilk 


279.81 


Cement .*. 


4,216.88 
1,112.24 
8,809.87 


8,993.10 
1,218.08 
18,233.70 


17,856.43 


Chicory, gniinilfttwi , .... 


8 467.71 


Chicory^ root 


■"•^S 


100.326.71 




1,147.78 


Cotton goods .-! 


272.68 
30.611.88 

■8;7i7."47' 
276.43 
6.008.88 
8,788.47 
14,017.61 


"w.'iirif 

86.86 
14,887.40 

"■6,'8».'97' 
2.900.80 
21,668.27 


682.97 




60,610.72 

126.42 

4,680.88 

602.79 

9,797.64 

964.08 

66,131.62 

241.26 


242,168.91 


(^IfliM, Tt t^MnfA ... 


478.61 


Tf #i:tAW ffira 


27.802.61 


Jet trimmingH .. 


879.22 


IjAce .- ... 


88,206.84 


X.f^nt^ gfiV ahruk 


10,065.77 


Linen goods 


113,060.50 


Mf^hlnery 


241.85 


Mfttchen . . 


2,600.07 

199.08 

66,767.48 

46,688.26 




8.846.10 

477.49 

80,008.88 

47,876.14 

123.04 


6,867.07 


pAlnfivf g« 




201.01 
40,620.70 
47,960.67 


877.68 


Paper sibck 


73.780.08 
8,448.66 


261,017.48 


piSte !?!7..... .:...:::..::::::.:.:.. 


144,473.63 


Powder, miokelenn 


123.04 


Simp 






461.44 
627.26 


451.44 


AlrinR, rahWt 


940.68 


4,201.85 


■"i8;604.'98" 

408.41 

10,011.62 


5,860,28 


Sprats, oanned 


13,604.98 


Thread 


822.96 
22,188.10 


485.64 
6,945.63 


706.29 

28,094.98 

678.11 

1.189.66 


2,868.29 


Tow 


66,285.32 


Wines 


678.11 








707.97 


1,847.68 


Tarns: 

Crochet cotton 




181.84 


181.34 


Jute 


69.68 


1,022.42 
220.68 


■"4,"U22.'66* 


1,002.00 


Tow 




4,262.19 










Total 


277,989.60 
886,426.78 


283,196.94 
864,997.16 


208,686.76 
302,168.22 


206,447.06 
822,924.71 


1,063,260.35 




1,476,606.87 


Decrease... 


108,486.18 


81,801.22 


188,471.47 


84,477.66 


418,236.62 







INTRODUCTION OF AMERICAN GOODS. 

While there has certainly been, during the past year, an increase in 
the value and quantity of United States products imported into this 
consular district, the results have not, in my opinion, been commen- 
surate with the efforts made by our exporters. American trade, how- 
ever, has certainly been more active in its endeavors to find markets 
in this vicinity. The record of this consulate for 1896 shows at least 
double the number of inquiries, over 1895, from American firms and 
houses seeking to obtain correspondents in this city. 

" ^ uipized by vj\_^\^viv^ 



140 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

Any great increase in actual sales is not, however, apparent. The 
most conspicuous evidence of American push is the large number of 
our bicycles in use abroad. American manufacturers of bicycles 
deserve credit for the energy displayed by them in making sales. 
During the past year, they certainly have put forth the effort, and 
they have reaped a corresponding reward. Otherwise, the greater 
proportion of inquiries on file at this office have related to various 
kinds of American machinery. As, however, Belgium is a machinery- 
manufacturing country, par excellence, the introduction of such prod- 
ucts is extremely difficult. The other paradoxical reason is that 
where manual labor is to be replaced in Belgium, the machine must 
wait in vain for many, many years. 

As often heretofore mentioned, the working classes of Belgium have 
an innate antipathy to machinery. Some efforts have been made, as 
elsewhere noted, to introduce American siderurgical products, and 
the importation of our horses has increased. 

One of the most unsatisfactory features of consular efforts to 
increase trade is ignorance of the results obtained. If the American 
correspondent would only trouble himself to report whether he made 
sales or not to the firms whose addresses he obtained through our con- 
sulat.es (and if not, why not?), he would be conferring a favor on the 
consular corps and likewise be benefiting himself and his fellow-coun- 
trymen. A consul may recommend year after year, and yet not have 
any positive knowledge of the results of his intervention. . As a mat- 
ter of interest and courtesy, American manufacturers should notify 
their consular representatives of trade obtained through their respec- 
tive efforts. Knowledge makes power. Many a time a consul might, 
if informed in the premises, do something to conclude a bargain or 
prevent a fraud. 

In this consular district there is, I am pleased to once more reiter- 
ate, an opening for many lines of American products. The writer, 
however, regrets again to state that his fellow-citizens are not yet 
making the best of this opportunity. When speaking to friends or 
those who seek advice, it is decidedly better to be frank. Thus only 
may further results be accomplished. In this spirit these lines are 
written. 

ELEMENTARY CONDITIONS NECESSARY TO THE INTRODUCTION OF 

AMERICAN GOODS. 

There are some elementary principles of foreign trade which, 
although enunciated in almost every consular report written upon this 
subject, still permit of constant repetition. First and foremost, the 
language of the country in which sales are solicited should be used 
in all correspondence and printed matter. Great amusement was 
recently caused in this vicinity by an American firm which sent here 
a large number of circulars in the Spanish language, thinking, no 
doubt, that the language had not changed since the period of which 
Motley wrote in his Rise of the Dutch Republic. 

French is the ordinary business language of this consular district. 
If it is desired, however, to reach the lower or working classes, 
Flemish must be used. 

After the language in consideration, but equally important in its 
effects, are the standards of weights, measures, and prices. A busy 
man can not and will not stop to reduce foreign weights and measures 
to his own everyday standard, and frequently he who does makes vital 

uigitized by VJ^^^^v i\^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 141 

errors. Everyone has not the necessary tables at hand nor the required 
experience. How many people in ordinary American life have any 
adequate idea of the price of wine, for example, which sells at 100 
francs the hectoliter? The foreigner is in a similar state of mind, if 
we quote him a price per gallon. Nor is this all; we must not simply 
adopt some unit of the foreign standards employed, but we must use 
the usual units respectively in vogue for the various kinds or classes 
of goods. For instance, such a simple article as flour: It does not sell 
here by the barrel, nor yet by the pound. It is quoted by the metric 
system of weight, not by the kilogram, but at so much and so much 
per 100 kilograms, 

Another illustration in point: An American firm during the past 
year wished to introduce fruit on the market. They quoted prices 
per measure, bushel, peck, etc. , or per count of one hundred, one dozen, 
etc. It seems simple enough, but such a system does not suit the 
foreign prospective purchaser. He must have prices always on fruits 
per weight according to the metric system. 

Without conforming to these standards, the American seller leaves 
the first chances of even a courteous consideration of his wares or 
goods to the amiability of his prospective buyer. There is no easy 
standard of comparison with other products offered by his foreign 
competitors, and in one-half such cases, the American letter or 
circular goes to the wastebasket and his continental rival gets the 
trade. In this one point, all the continental nations of Europe enjoy 
a decided advantage in their mutual relations of trade. They aU 
make use of practically the same standard of weights and measures. 
It is one of the most important lessons we have yet to learn. Before 
addressing a foreign trade, first find out how or according to what 
weights and measures the goods in question are sold; then quote all 
prices in the money of the country on this basis. I am confident 
that results wiU fully justify the original trouble and expense. 

The third point, to which attention should be directed, is the terms 
of sale. In this the custom of the locality of sale is absolute. Unless 
the seller is ready to conform to it he stands at a great disadvantage. 
Take this vicinity; many American articles might be put on this 
market under certain conditions. There is at present no demand for 
them, since they are unknown or untried. In such a case, an absolute 
sale is impossible. These articles could be sold if sent on commission 
or at a long credit with permission to return if unused. 1 know per- 
sonally many reputable Ghent houses, which would accept American 
goods and display them on this basis, but even their strenuous efforts 
to make American connections have in certain instances been una- 
vailing because they were not ready to buy and pay "spot cash." 

Another detail to be noted: An unknown article for which the 
opportunity of inspection has never been given can rarely be sold. 
The Belgians, perhaps above all other nations, are timid, to say the 
least, in business transactions. They prefer to continue to purchase 
the old, long-tried article rather than the new, even to their own finan- 
cial detriment, if the latter can not be thoroughly tested before 
investing any money in it. 

Here we are certainly at a disadvantage. European traveling 
salesmen, especially the representatives of German houses, are con- 
stantly traversing Belgium in every direction, soliciting trade. They 
speak the language of this country; they quote the prices according 
to the usages of the people, and, above all, they show the goods 

Digitized by VJ\_^\^v iv^ 



142 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

offered for sale. The steady growth of German trade is the well- 
earned testimony of their success. 

Not long ago, a circular of an American large and (at home) well- 
known manufacturing house came to this office, quoting the price of 
a certain machine, delivered ^'free on board" at, let us say, Smith- 
yille, about 1,000 miles from the seacoast, no matter what State. I 
wondered whether, with the great expenditure of fine engravings and 
descriptions, this firm would make any sales. It would be surprising, 
indeed, if it did upon the strength of this circular. Who knows 
where Smithville is? Who knows how far it is from New York? 
Who knows what the freight is, or who can find out at this distance? 
All advertisements giving such quotations are practically useless. 
All prices must be made free on board at some well-known American 
seaport — there are only three or four; or, even better still to attract 
trade the price should be quoted at the port on this side, or at least 
some idea of sea freight on each machine, or per quantity given. This 
information enables the purchaser to approximately determine the 
cost of the goods after arrival in his store or factory, and this he must 
know before he buys. In many instances, he is deterred from a con- 
sideration of American goods, because he has a false idea of freight 
rates, which, if he is inexperienced, he will generally think are much 
higher than in reality. Such information, if furnished, might fre- 
quently turn the decision in favor of our country's products. 

And, finally, the goods themselves. They must conform to the 
needs, habits — ^we might frequently say the whims — of the purchaser 
or consumer. Unless the seller studies these details and scientifically 
applies his knowledge, he is continually at a disadvantage and in most 
instances doomed to disappointment. It seems to us a self-evident 
proposition, that a Belgian manufacturing for foreign trade must turn 
out different qualities, patterns, and styles resi)ectively for the United 
States and for the countries of South America, and in neither case 
does he ask his {Purchasers to adopt the Belgian idea. But we seldom 
think of the converse of this proposition when applied to ourselves. 

We must, however, not expect to sell the same articles to Belgium 
and Russia, or to France and Germany, nor must we anticipate that 
any European nation, especially those of the Continent, will accept 
our notions of convenience and practicability. .To a certain extent 
we must, when selling, place ourselves in the foreigner's position. 
We must reflect and examine our proposition from his point of view. 
In all things must the seller be honest. Overpraise of one's own 
goods is bad policy. The purchaser buys; he is disappointed; he 
never buys again. It is far preferable to underestimate, and to give 
the possible buyer an unexpected surprise in the excellence of his 
bargain. American trade has already been greviously injured by 
the misrepresentation of unprincipled rogues, who deserve the public 
execration. 

LARGER EFFORTS FOR TRADE. 

In the annual report made by me two years ago, I suggested that 
the establishment of an American agent in many cities of Europe 
would, by cooperation of several houses, be possible. If several 
firms would contribute toward the annual salary of such a represent- 
ative, the proportionate share of each firm would be comparatively 
small. A syndicate of eight firms might, I said, at an annual expense 
to each of $300, pay an agent a reasonable salary ($2,4:00 per year) 

Digitized by vjvj^^v i\^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 143 

and secure a display room for their goods. With a small additional 
commission on sale^ to stimulate his energy, such a representative 
could effect lasting results. I am pleased to note that this idea is, to 
a certain extent, being tried in the city of Brussels. 

My colleague at Chemnitz subsequently elaborated this thought, so 
as to work out a complete system of a central office for each coun- 
try, with branches in every important city, at really only a nominal 
expense. The plan is certainly worthy of a trial by some of our lead- 
ing export houses. In some small degree, it is my endeavor to annu- 
ally suggest such thoughts as occur to me on this topic. 

The .^onerican Exporter of February, 1897, published two excellent 
articles under the captions "Of interest to American manufacturers 
only" and *'A word to foreign salesmen." The former relates to 
advertising, and the latter, as its title indicates, to foreign salesmen — 
that is, to traveling salesmen to be sent abroad. Indirectly, it also 
discusses the education and training required for foreign trade. The 
latter of these artlbles is so apt and to the point that I can not refrain 
from transmitting a copy of it herewith : 

The snccefls of many American manufacturers in creating a demand for their 
prodnctfl in foreign countries is stimulating a general desire in this country for 
foreiflp trade relations. The recent national convention of manufacturers has 
added increased momentum to the movement for securing foreign trade, the energy 
of which will not soon be expended. These conditions wili create many oppor- 
tunities of high value for buyers in foreign countries to establish trade relations 
with American manufacturers that will be enduring and mutually profitable. 

The problem, how can American manufacturers create a demand for their prod- 
ucts in foreign countries, is now being discussed by the owners of 10,000 manufac- 
turing ^ants, who desire to operate them to their full capacity and to enlarge 
them. The business of manufacturing is but half the work of production, and it 
is the easiest half. C5uld goods be sold as easily as they can be made; could a 
permanent demand be increased as easily as a manufacturing plant can be enlarged, 
trade, the world over, would be increased by multiples instead of percentages. The 
problem of securing trade in foreign countries has not been considered up to this 
time by a majority of American manufacturers, but the successes some have made 
have awakened the ambition of many more. The day is not far distant when none 
of the world's markets will be neglected by American producers. 

Manifestly, to create a demand for a product in any market, it must be favorably 
represented to prospective buyers. The representation must be made in their lan- 
IfXLagef whether by circular, advertisement, or personal solicitation. The article 
Itself must give satisfaction and be adapted to the tastes, habits, customs, or indus- 
trial uses of the people. The person who exhibits it must understand it, so he can 
intelligentiy instruct prospective buyers fuUy regarding all its merits and uses. 
If it is a machine or tool, he must be able to instruct buyers how to use it to its 
fullest capacity or advantage. Success in securing trade depends fully as much 
in proper representation as in making a useful article to be sold. All things can 
not be advertised and handled successfully in the same way, but all things must 
be made known to a consumer in a way to secure his favor, in order that the^ may 
be sold. The fundamental requisites are good descriptive circulars, advertising, 
and salesmen addressing buyers in their native language, and an exhibit of the 
goods where orders are expected. The place to exhibit goods is where they are to 
be sold, is a trade axiom good in every market. 

Itative salesmen in foreign countries— those who import articles to supply the 
wants of their markets— have many advantages over foreigners who come to their 
place to seek customers. The language, tastes, and customs of the people are their 
own. What the people need, what will be a gain for them to use, how to best 
convmoe them of the advantages of the new over the old, is natural knowledge for 
the natiye salesman. Against this great advantage is the disadvantage of not 
knowixig as much about the article to be sold as a man direct from the factory 
may. One of two things must be done. The manufacturer must either train 
salesmen to use the language and understand the tastes, customs, and business 
methods of the people to whom thev are to be sent, or he must take native sales- 
men who know these things naturally and educate them to a proper knowled^ of 
the thing to be sold. Which will be the most successful course depends entirely 
upon the ability and energy of the agents selected. Native importers, merchants, 

■^ .r orf o Digitized by VJV7V>'Vi\^ 



144 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

and salesmen in all foreign markets should lose no time in qnalif ving themselves 
to occupy their own field, and thns hold for their own benefit the business that 
foreign salesmen will be sure to secure if sent among them. The time is ripe for 
foreign salesmen to effect valuable trade alliances with American manufacturers 
and to qualify themselves to properly handle American-made goods. The wisdom 
of doing this has been demonstrated in many cases. Such examples will be foimd 
in increasing numbers as the years pass. Sagacious and enterprising foreign sales- 
men will be quick to improve the opportunities now offering through the disposi- 
tion of American manufacturers to seek foreign markets. 

So far as my experience teaches, properly educated American sales- 
men are preferable for the introduction of out goods. The essential 
point is the education. If we look to Germany, we find that the sys- 
tem there which is reaping the best results consists of three stages: 
First, a term of technical, trade, and commercial education of the 
German youth at home; then a term of one or two years' experience on 
trial abroad, and finally full authorization to represent his principals 
in the country of his temporary residence. Why should we not inau- 
gurate such a profession, if it may be so called ? The first step is the 
foundation of schools destined to give the proper training to those who 
are willing to enter such a career. Some of our numerous universities 
or colleges might develop a special course of study with this object in 
view, to be designated as the * ' Foreign commercial course. " It should 
be much more comprehensive than the facilities offered by the popu- 
lar business colleges. Foreign languages, foreign laws and customs, 
foreign products, commercial geography, foreign systems of weights, 
measures, and values, foreign markets, methods and cost of trans- 
portation, and a thorough knowledge of American products and those 
with which they come in competition, should be included in the cur- 
riculum. 

I commend this idea to our American educators. Such a course of 
study would certainly not only be beneficial to those going abroad to 
represent American houses, but would have decidedly practical advan- 
tages to the manufacturer or dealer expecting to compete in foreign 
markets. For the immediate present, however, cooperation of Amer- 
ican manufacturers is the great motor force in the development of 
a foreign trade. By their united efforts, great results can be obtained. 
In this connection, I invite the especial attention of the associations 
organized in our country to increase export trade, to some few consid- 
erations, ^'iewed especially from a consul's standpoint and frankly 
discussed as such. 

Almost every consul will, I am sure, agree that there is something 
incompatible between the performance of his duties as an official rep- 
resentative of his Government and the proper efforts to introduce 
American goods. In former years, before the great stretching across 
the seas of American manufacturers in their search for trade, the 
duties of a consul were to pass on the values of goods shipped from 
his district to the United States, to give occasional information to the 
Government by reports, to be agreeable to visiting fellow-citizens, and 
to be the social, sometimes semidiplomatic, representative of his 
country in the city of his residence. Recently — ^that is, within ten 
years — a change has come. Not only is the consular officer required 
to perform the duties last mentioned, but he must also be ready to 
answer any and all inquiries of the prospects of introducing American 
goods and manufactures in his neighborhood. The volume of these 
requests is yearly increasing. I believe that any consul located in 
any of the larger cities of Europe will support the assertion that this 
kind of correspondence has doubled within the past four years. The 

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EUROPE: BELGIUM. 145 

question arises, How far can the consul bear the increased burden, 
and how far is it not a check to the increase of American trade? 
Most, I believe all, of those consuls located in the great centers of 
industry are diligent and competent. If any of us fail to respond to 
the expectations of our fellow-citizens in serving them, it is by abso- 
lute force of necessity and inability to comply with their demands. 
A marked instance of this fact occurs to me. Not long ago, an 
organization to promote American trade, and especially exports, sent 
out circulars in the form of question blanks requesting consuls to fill 
them out as fully as possible. Twenty-eight such forms, covering 
almost every leading line of American manufacture, reached me. 
Every one of them involved special knowledge of the article in ques- 
tion, running all the gantlet from merry-go-rounds to raisin seeders. 
Each required a special study of this or that trade in Belgium. My 
reply was that, much to my regret, I could not undertake such a 
formidable task, either with justice to myself or to the organization 
interested. If they would select some six items, I would endeavor to 
make the best reports possible on them, or if they were disposed to 
pay for such information I would hire some person here to collect 
the necessary data. What may have been thought of my answer I 
can not tell. I shall, however, from time to time take up a subject 
and discuss it after due investigation. This is an example of what 
some people expect. The same is true if the inquiries come from 
different individuals instead of from one organization. It is the duty 
of consuls to serve their fellow-citizens, but has the question been 
impartiaDy viewed? Every phase of the subject may have been dis- 
cussed, but it does not seem to me that the consul has ever been heard 
by the people in his own behalf. Certainly a discrimination must be 
made. There are consulates where the prime feature is business; 
others where the position is simply representative of the power and 
dignity of the United States. 

' The British Trade Journal for June, 1897, in the course of an article 
discussing the relations of a consul to the trade public, prints the 
following: 

In a recent and most interesting report the British consul at Cherbonrg deals 
very frankly with the qnestion of commercial traveling. " No consul/' he states, 
" can master the secrets of every trade; he can not fill the place of the commer- 
cial traveler.** It would be physically impossible. Not even an Admirs^ Crich- 
ton of the commercial world could represent trades which ''do not run together," 
and not more than a few of those which are closely associated. But while the 
consul referred to deprecates any such idea, he is most emphatic as to the neces- 
sity for extending the use of travelers, and he is quite willing to assist the ambas- 
sador of commerce. '* Much information," he remarks, ** of special value to the 
inquirer, be he commercial traveler or representative of a trading cooperative 
association, can be given at a consular ofELce in half an hour's conversation which, 
for very obvious reasons, can not be committed to writing." 

Here is the heart of the question: Are consular endeavors being 
aided, or at least supplemented, by proper efforts at home or abroad? 
Should not our manufacturers and producers be more active for for- 
eign trade? 

The first step is the organization of associations of manufacturers 
and sellers. One inquiry and one answer through such an agency 
supplies the same information as correspondence with perhaps a 
hundred individuals. 

Such associations should also make collections of samples, of books 
and statistics. 

Trusted agents should be sent to represent different firms. Results 

O B — VOL 2 10 uigitized by kj^kjwik. 



146 COMMEBCIAL RELATIONS. 

might at first seem disproportionate to the expense, but I am sure 
that in the end they would justify the outlay. With adequate sam- 
ples and authority to sell, such an agent would effect more sales in a 
year than the most diligent consul in ten. A consul is handicapped. 
He is not able to recommend one more than the other, and this very 
impartiality, enjoined most properly upon him as the representative 
of the entire people, is the deathblow to all profitably directed energy. 
To sell goods, you must have a man who is directly and personally 
interested; he must represent somebody and something in particular, 
and not too many different people all striving for the same end. My 
own judgment is that only through such methods will satisfactory 
results be attained. 

Half a dozen agents in each of the more important countries would 
suflBce for a beginning. The system could be enlarged as requirements 
arose. It might even, in a certain measure, be made self-supporting. 
Every manufacturer or applicant for information might pay a small 
fee to the agent, proportionate to the inquiry made. With thorough 
organization and proper control, such an enterprise would reap a rich 
reward for its promoters. 

METEOROLOGY OF THE YEAR. 

After the great drought of September, 1895, the abundant rains 
which fell in the early days of October of that year permitted the 
autumn sowings to be done under favorable conditions. In the latter 
part of the month the weather was clear, with a very low temperature. 
The thermometer went frequentlj"^ as low as to zero (centigrade) dur- 
ing the night. November of 1895 was very variable; cold in the 
beginning, followed by rains between the 5th and 16th, then springlike 
days until the 23d. The remainder of the month was intensely cold. 
The first half of December, 1895, was rainy; the second brought frost, 
which, however, did not injure the sowings. In January, 1896, the , 
weather was calm and comparatively mild for the season. Through- 
out February, also, the temperature was relatively high and rains were 
rare. From the 22d, however, the most severe frosts of the season 
occurred, which were followed by rain in the beginning of March. 
The month of March was very favorable to vegetation by reason of 
the period of fine weather which prevailed from the 11th to the 27th. 
April, on the contrary, was not pleasant. From the 3d to the 10th, 
the temperature was quite high, but there then occurred a strong 
atmospheric depression, which brought rain and hail. On April 14 
snow fell, and the night of the 15th the thermometer went to 2° C. 
until the end of the month. North and northeast winds kept the 
temperature below normal. The month of May brought weather very 
similar to that of the latter part of April. The same low temperature 
and want of rain, circumstances which seriously retarded vegetation, 
especially cereals, flax, and clover. 

Beginning June 1*, the weather became stormy, and quite heavy 
rains brought an end to the drought, which threatened to become 
fatal for forage and other crops. It should be said, however, that, 
notwithstanding the drawbacks of April and May, autumn crops were 
in very good condition at the beginning of June, owing to their vig- 
orous development in March; thanks to the fine weather then pre- 
vailing, they were in a better condition to resist the cold and dry 
weather of the following months. On the contrary, the spring crops 
such .as were sown only in March or in April greatly suffered dur- 

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EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



147 



ing the prolonged dry period from April 15 to June 1. Oats were 
especially badly developed, frequently showing short, ngid, and 
sometimes stunted stubble. Flax was likewise greatly depressed; 
throughout East Flanders its cultivation has been very unsatisfac- 
tory, especially on account of the small crop. 

Potatoes, beets, and chicory all developed slowly, until June brought 
sufficient rainfall to cause a more normal growth. 

The harvest of prairie clover did not correspond to the hopes of the 
farmers which they had justly cherished in March. On good lands 
the crop was sufficient, but in the sandy fields it was greatly deficient. 

The June rains resulted in the assurance of an abundant crop of 
winter cereals. Oats, on the other hand, had suffered too much from 
the drought to recover. Flax continued very bad. Other crops gave 
a good harvest, but less in quantity than in other very favorable years. 

Apart from the storms at its commencement, July was quite dry 
and hot, and only toward the end of the month did the rains permit 
the sowing of turnips in exposed places. The weather of August was 
variable. It was one of the rainiest months of the year. Twenty-one 
days of rainfall, amounting to 3^ inches, were counted. There were 
also many sharp changes in temperature, conditions very unfavorable 
to vegetation. 

Although the first few days of September were very hot, the month 
was in general not less rainy. A covered sky, inundations, sometimes 
accompanied with violent storms, such were the most characteristic 
phenomena of this month. October, likewise, by readon of its rains 
and want of sunshine was unfavorable to the crops. According to 
the observations made at the Provincial meteorological station, the 
number of days and quantity of rainfall in each month of 1895-96 
was as follows: 





1S04-05. 


1895-06. 


October 


Days. 
21 
12 

18 

16 
15 
7 
9 
16 
16 
4 

lail 


- 

Inches. 
6.173 
2.4«8 
3.306 
2.706 
0.468 
2.036 
2.&43 
2.635 
1.858 
7.076 
4.50R 
0.573 


Days. 
19 
18 
14 
11 
3 
9 
17 
19 
13 
10 
21 
22 


Inches. 
3.1243 


Novem^wr 


3.0101 


December 


8.1243 


ilMiQAry ... 


i.5U57 


Febmnry . . , . , ^ . . 


0.3001 
1.8052 


Mf^irh 


April 


1.6232 


May :.:: :.:::::::::::::.: .:...:: 


0.4452 


Jnne 


2.4270 


July 


1. 7570 


Augont 


3.124.) 




2.9786 






Total 


36.760 


176 


26.3iri0 







STATION OF EXPERIMENTAL AGRICULTURE. 

Attention should once more be directed to the experiments in the 
cultivation of various agricultural products conducted at the station 
of the agricultural society of East Flanders, in Ghent. The garden 
employed for this purpose is divided into eighteen beds or compart- 
ments, ill each of which throughout the season the scientific cultiva- 
tion of one or more cereals or vegetables is carried on. Minute and 
accurate observations are taken of the character of the soil, preceding 
crops, manuiage of the soil, method and time of sowing, attention 
given to the crops, and results attained every year. This report, 
when printed, fills very nearly a hundred pages and presents in brief 

•/ .f i o Digitized by VJV^v.'Viv^ 



148 COMMEBCUL RELATIONS. 

a review of the possibilities of scientific agriculture in this district of 
western Belgium. These experiments are also productive of better 
and improved methods among the more advanced farmers of Flanders. 

AGRICULTURE. 

Hemp, formerly a crop of considerable importance in East Flanders, 
at present is almost entirely uncultivated. The low prices of oils and 
the introduction of foreign hemps by the cordage-making industries 
have caused the cultivation of this plant to be abandoned. 

Winter colza has likewise lost importance. 

The dryness of the summer season of 1896 retarded the develop- 
ment of the hop plants, which, however, remained healthy. The 
crop in the Alost district was estimated at about 1,276 pounds per 
acre, which may be considered as two-thirds of a good crop. The 
picking of the early hops took place under favorable weather and they 
were of excellent quality. The harvesting of the late hops, on the 
contrary', was done under disastrous conditions. Rain in torrents, 
accompanied by strong gusts of winds, followed each other, so to 
speak, without interruption. About one-third of the crop, as well as 
much of its value, was lost, for the cones were discolored and browned. 
Hops sold at an average price of $4.20 per 100 pounds, causing an 
incontestable loss to its growers. This crop is, however, being more 
generally grown than formerly. 

15,812,192 tobacco plants were cultivated in 1896, against 10,127,138 
plants in 1895. 

The crop was of very good quality and very satisfactory. It sold 
at from 17 to $10.50 per 100 pounds. It should be noted that tobacco 
is scarcely ever grown on a large scale, but there is ordinarily a small 
portion of each farm set aside for its cultivation, producing sufficient 
for the domestic needs of the household. 

Chicory is cultivated less and less. The plant was poorly developed 
by reason of the dry season, and only yielded about 8 to 9 tons per 
acre. Chicory factories are not increasing by reason of the unVemu- 
nerative condition of this trade. 

KITCHEN GARDEN PRODUCTS. 

Little progress in vegetable growing is to be noted. Except in the 
immediate vicinity of large cities farm gardens are generally neglected. 
Potatoes are most commonly grown. The asparagus of the district of 
Waas was last year excellent and did not suffice for the demand in 
quantity. 

The average crop of asparagus was 2,200 pounds per acre. The 
cultivation of pease and beans was on the increase. It is also intended 
this year to begin on a large scale the raising of celery, leeks, and 
strawberries. Cauliflowers and onions were likewise grown in great 
quantities. The latter gave a crop of 23,000 pounds per acre and 
sold at 35 to 44 cents per 100 pounds. 

FRUIT TREES. 

Cherries, apricots, peaches, and plums were very abundant and sold 
very cheap at the height of the season. Efforts are being continued, 
without much success, to induce fruit growers to dry their surplus 
crops. The agricultural society of East Flanders has purchased one 

Digitized by kjjs^vjwi\^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 149 

of the best drying machines and has placed it at the disposition of its 
members. Although growers continue to complain of low prices and 
want of a market for fresh fruits during the summer, they do not seem 
willing to make any experiments. 

Pears were abundant. 

There was a good crop of apples, selling at $1.32 to $2.19 per 100 
pounds, according to the variety. Winter apples were especially in 
demand. 

Walnuts, in spite of their abundance, sold at very high prices, 
bringing $2.63 to $4.39 per 100 pounds. 

FRUIT-TREE NURSERIES. 

The nurseries of Wetteren remain the most important in this vicin- 
ity. They occupy more than 635 acres. Sales are made not only 
throughout Belgium, but even abroad. A large number of hands is 
employed. The reputation of these nurseries is constantly increas- 
ing. In the vicinity of St. Nicolas and Eccloo are to be found some 
smaller enterprises. 

FOREST TREES. 

Canada poplars and willows sold at extraordinary high prices. 
Canadian lumber brought 14J cents per cubic foot and willow wood 
20 cents per cubic foot. The makers of wooden shoes, match manu- 
facturers, and coopers competed strongly with each other at the public 
auctions. Boxes and barrels were in good demand for shipments of 
fruits, batter, and cement. 

Oak was in little demand and the sale of fir was dif&cult. 

DAIRY SCHOOLS. 

During the course of 1896, several schools for dairy instruction were 
opened at different points in Belgium. Four of them are established 
in East Flanders. They are jointly supported by the State, province, 
and commune. Those in East Flanders are situated at Cruyshautem, 
Lemberge, Okegem, and Sleydinge. For each school there are two 
female instructors, and the number of pupils (young girls only) is lim- 
ited to 16. The course is both practical and theoretical. The work is 
done under the supervision of the teachers. The lessons extend over 
a period of three months, and include instruction in all the usual 
branches of dairying. In each institution, the necessary machinery, 
apparatus, and library are to be found. 

BUTTER. 

The manufacture of butter is yearly becoming more important, 
having made great progress during 1896. Cooperative dairies are 
increasing in all directions. The minister of agriculture of Belgium 
has appointed a board of two lady members to give advice and instruc- 
tion to these various associations, so that the best results may be 
obtained. Its special mission, besides replying to inquiries, is to 
urge the employment in the dairy of persons sufficiently skilled and 
educated in its requirements. It has also to seek situations for 
those who have passed through the dairy schools. The inauguration 
of this board has been welcomed by those intereste4ed by vj^wv n^ 



150 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

First-class butter, recently selling at 21 to 23 cents per pound, would 
have a better price if it did not have to compete with mixed butter 
and margarine offered on all the public markets. This mixture is 
peddled throughout the country districts, at prices with which good 
butter can not naturally compete. The system of inspection in the 
large cities is excellent, but is not so rigorous in the country. 

CHEESE. 

The manufacture of cheese does not make any progress. Markets 
are lacking and Belgian cheese can not compete with the Dutch 
article. *' Dutch cheese" of Belgian make sold for 14 to 15 cents per 
pound. 

BEES' HONEY AND WAX. 

The production of honey in 1896 was not large. Honey extracted 
mechanically sold for 15 to 17^ cents per pound. Wax was quoted at 
26^ cents per pound. 

GENERAL REVIEW^ OF THE HARVEST. 

Cereals, with the exception of oats, which suffered greatly from the 
drought, gave a very satisfactory crop. Rye especially may be cited 
as leaving nothing to be desired either in quality or quantity. Barley, 
owing to the dry season, had a lighter grain than the preceding year. 

Forage plants did not give the yield of the previous year. The 
first crop of clover was good, but the dry weather so affected the other 
that it was very unproductive. The fields, which after the winter of 
1895-96 had a fine appearance, suffered greatly during the spring for 
want of rain and by reason of the cold nights. 

Carrots and turnips, very little cultivated on fallow land, gave a 
satisfactory yield when grown under shelter. 

Beets for forage and sugar beets were a little better than the pre- 
ceding year. Their saccharine richness was, however, more than 1 per 
cent less. 

Very short flax sold with difficulty. 

The yield of hops was good, but prices caused the growers a loss. 

Potatoes were abundant, and if disease was prevalent it must be 
attributed to the negligence of the farmers. 

AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY. 

While there has been some little demand for improved agricultural 
machinery during the year, still in general the Flemish farmer re- 
mains either indifferent, or incredulous. The great majority of them 
prefer to use hand labor and will not be converted to the introduction 
of modem appliances. 

HORSES. 

Horses of 18 months sold for $115 to 1155; horses of three to six 
years from 1154 to $232. Various measures have been proposed to 
render breeding more profitable. 

CATTLE. 

The public exhibitions, instituted last year for cattle in the Province, 
have been greatly appreciated by farmers and cattle dealers. It may 
be said there is a steady improvement in the breeds of Flemish cattle. 

Digitized by vjvj^^v i\^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 151 

Throughout 1896, thin cattle remained very dear. Fat cattle, on the 
contrary, were not remunerative to their owners. The trade has been 
lately more or less troubled by the appearance of the apthous stoma- 
titis, which has been reported in the neighboring districts of Holland. 
This disease, in spite of the rigorous measures which have been taken 
against it, is gradually entering this country. It is by fraud that 
the contaminated cattle are introduced into Belgium, and nothing 
has so far succeeded in preventing it. The marking of cattle, which 
first met with considerable opposition, now seems better appreciated. 
Marking and marking alone, it is believed, will succeed in preventing 
the fraudulent entry of foreign cattle. Fat cattle sold at 5 to 6 cento 
a pound; lean cattle from 4 to 4^ cents a pound. The farmers are 
demanding that restrictions be placed upon the free entrance of for- 
eign meats, which are offered in enormous quantities on the public 
markets and are thought to be injuring the value of domestic products. 

HOGS. 

The raising and fattening of hogs has undergone considerable inter- 
ruption by reason of the great decline in prices. Fat hogs are sold at 
0^ cents a pound. Young pigs sold at |;2 and $3 apiece. The export 
trade in thin hogs has not declined. 

SHEEP. 

Shepherds' flocks are still to be seen throughout the Province, but 
their number is constantly on the decline. Very little attention is 
given to sheep breeding and the race is not improving. Wool is con- 
stantly diminishing in price, because Australian wools are alone used 
for manufacturing purposes. Sheep sell at from 10 to 13 cents a 
pound. 

SHIPPING. 

Freight rates, which had considerably declined in the spring of 1896, 
recovered their normal condition later in the year. Although exports 
to the United States suffered a little from political events, there is 
reason to believe that the prospect at present is better than at the 
same time last year. 

PISHING. 

The following table gives the statistics for 1804 : 

Fishing boaiB : 

Number 873 

Tonnage 9,W8 

Men 1,696 

Boats lost at sea 9 

Cod fishing : 

Boats 82 

Catch pounds.. 409,890 

Herring fishing : 

Boata .. 81 

Valneof catch $10,817.65 

Tide fishing: 

Boata . 338 

Value of catch |63l,l2«.:54 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



152 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



MARITIME MOVEMENT OF BELGIAN PORTS DURING 1894. 

The following table gives the statistics of movement of vessels at 
the various ports in this district during 1894 : 



Port. 



ARRIYALA. 

Bmges 

Ghent 

Nienport 

Ostende 

Selzaete 

Termonde 

DEPARTURES. 

Bruges 

Ghent 

Nieuport 

Ostende 

Selzaete 

Termonde 



Sailing vessels. 



Num- 
ber. 



46 
90 
15 
107 
24 
2 



43 
88 
14 
109 
22 
2 



Ton- 
nage. 



7,647 
29.748 

1,782 
40,789 

4,519 
248 



7,812 
30,602 

1,712 
48.262 

4,133 
248 



Steamers. 



Num- 
ber. 



48 
800 
21 
1,394 
16 



40 

807 

21 

1,801 

17 



13,594 
474,932 

8,497 
982,387 

1,027 



13,793 
480,992 

8,497 
931,143 

1,091 



Total. 



Num- 
ber. 



94 
800 
36 
1,501 
40 
2 



92 

895 

85 

1,600 

39 

2 



Ton- 
nage. 



21,141 

604,680 

10,279 

973,156 

6,616 

248 



21.106 

611,694 

10,209 

974,405 

5,224 

248 



PORT OF GHENT. 

The following tables give the statistics of the maritime movement 
of the port of Ghent: 

Flags of vessels. 





Sailing vessels. 


Steamers. 


Total. 


Flag. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


English 


41 
1 
3 
39 
14 
5 
1 


14,968 
614 
2,630 
11,916 
6,666 
1,274 
443 


673 

63 

88 

23 

12 

12 

5 

2 

3 


407.483 
60,747 
24,928 
12,4^ 
11,686 
5.804 
8,867 
1,122 
1,918 


714 
64 
. 41 
62 
26 
17 
6 
2 
9 


422,457 




61,361 


German .. 


27.456 


Norweflrian 


24.35.3 


RussiiSv. :...::.:.. ::. 


17,35;« 


Swedish 


7.168 


Dutch 


4,310 


Belgian 


1,122 


French 


6 



564 


2,482 


Portumiese .. . . 


















Total 


110 


37,975 


831 


630,080 


941 


668,066 







Merchandise at^ving. 





Sailing 

Num- 
ber. 


' vessels. 


Steamers. 


Total. 


Kind of merchandise. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Rnni1i*i7 TTiAiv^TtAniliflA _ 






581 
95 
21 
14 

2 
22 

5 


350,670 
74,470 

8,916 
15,173 

2,096 
18,558 

4,240 


681 
148 

27 

14 
2 

22 
5 

14 
1 
9 
8 

17 

46 
1 
4 
8 
4 

13 
6 
6 
6 


850,570 
91,584 


Wood loizs and stanchions 


53 
6 


17,114 
1,005 


Ballast 


10,011 


Wood and flax . . .,_..,,.,-. 


15, ira 


Ck>tton 






2,096 


piax .^ 






18,558 


Flax and oats 






4,240 


Nitrate 


14 

1 


13,289 
198 


13.289 


Joe 






198 


Logs and flax .. . 


9 
2 


7,604 
363 


7,604 


Sulphfite 


6 
17 


574 
2,670 


947 


Poroplain earth 


2,670 


Coal 


45 


21,860 


21,869 


Barley . 


1 


63 


63 


Mfttftlft 


4 
2 
4 
13 


1,319 
1.319 
1,376 

8,487 


1,319 


Wine 


6 


564 


1,883 


WoodDUlD 


1,876 


Tr^ .:::....: : 






8,487 


Guano 


6 


2,508 


2,508 


Flax and flax seeds 


6 
6 


5.961 
7,759 


6.961 


Phosphates r - 






7,759 










Total 


110 


37,975 


831 


630,060 

Uiqifized Dv 


941 


568,066 




.^^i!^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



Number of vessels, according to tonnage. 



153 



Tannage (Howlaon). 


Sailing 
vessels. 


Steam- 
ers. 


Total 


Betw46n 60 tons And lofls ..r.. „- 


1 


1 


Betw<)en 51 and lOOtonn ... 


11 

12 

18 

14 

15 

16 

9 

4 

8 

3 

3 

1 

4 


11 


Between lOland IfiOtons 




DS 


Between 151 and }8flOton<» 


1 

8 

8 

108 

156 

170 

106 

88 

101 

17 

25 

17 

18 

10 

4 

1 


14 


Between 201 and SGOtons 


17 


Between 5J51 and 900 tons 


18 


RatwAAn iVn and 4flntn|>H . . . , . . 


124 


Between 401and SOOtons 


165 


Between 501 and 60O t-onff .... 


174 


B4*twAen flfti iind Tnotons 


100 


Between TOland SOOtons 


91 


Between SOland WOtons 


104 


Between 901 and 1,000 tons 


18 


Between 1,001 and lilOOtons 


20 


Between IJOl and 1;900 tons - 


17 


Between 1,^1 and 1,900 tons 




18 


Between 1,301 and 1,400 tons .'" '. 


1 
1 


11 


Between 1,401 and 1,600 tons 


5 


Between 1,501 and 1,600 tons 


1 








Total 


110 


881 


941 







Vessels with wood and logs. 



Tear. 


Vessels with 
wood. 


Vessels with 
logs. 


Total 
ves- 
sels. 


Total 


Nnm- 
bep. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


tonnage. 


1880 •. 


151 
122 
191 
126 

93 
116 

83 
108 
122 
160 
123 
112 
124 
120 
139 
132 
140 


28,246 
28.998 
38,748 
81,146 
26,589 
40,063 
32,399 
42,588 
62,812 
62,051 
60,043 
51.417 
61,926 
59,175 
81.406 
72,809 
86.159 


84 

23 

37 

42 

14 

10 

6 

11 

25 

24 

17 

14 

6 

9 

8 

7 

8 


5,029 
4234 
7,718 
9,896 
4,290 
3,740 
2,000 
4,605 
12,482 
13,093 
7,538 
6,333 
2,505 
6,212 
5,854 
3,702 
5,425 


186 
146 
228 
168 
107 
126 
80 
114 
147 
174 
140 
126 
130 
129 
147 
139 
148 


33,275 


1881 


28,227 


1882...." 


46,461 


1883 


41.041 


1884 


a), 879 


1885 


4^^,808 


1886 


34,408 


1887 


47. m 


1888 


65,244 


1889 


75,144 


1890 


58.182 


1801 

1802 


57,750 
64,521 


1803 


66,387 


1894 


87.350 


1806 

1896 


76,611 
91.584 



Number and tonnage of vessels arriving monthly, 1896. 





Sailing vessels. 


Steamers. 


Total 


Month. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Jannary 


3 

5 
11 
14 

5 
14 

8 
12 
10 
18 
11 

4 


1,118 
1,685 
6,906 
3,201 
1,225 
5,460 
3,627 
3,400 
2,419 
4.262 
2,976 
1.749 


70 
62 
72 
63 
67 
62 
74 
77 
65 
67 
74 
78 


48,856 
87.264 
42,797 
87,987 
41,417 
43,168 
49,436 
60,a54 
43,151 
41,167 
49,235 
49.798 


73 
67 
83 
77 
72 
76 
82 
89 
75 
80 
85 
82 


44,974 


February. . 


£ 899 


Marcrh 


49! 702 


April 


41,138 


May 


42,642 


June........... 


48.627 


July 


63.063 


August 


54,254 


SeiHember 


45,570 


October 


45,429 


November 


62,210 


December 


51,547 






Total 


110 


37,975 


831 


530,080 


941 


568,055 







Digitized by VjOOQIC 



154 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Destination of vessels departing. 





Sailing yeasels. 


Steamers. 


Total. 


Destination. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


England ^. 


53 

1 
1 

11 
1 
2 
4 
2 

20 
4 


10,046 
282 
546 

4,310 
614 
661 
304 
451 

0,470 
784 


788 
16 


500,881 

302 

8,022 

6,888 

10,850 


841 
2 
7 
18 
17 
2 
5 
2 
36 
7 
2 


610,027 
674 


Denmark 


Qflrmany 


8,568 


HnffAif^ ' 


11,106 


Belgium 


10,073 


Pn^«il 


Si 


France 




670 


1,064 


Algeria 


451 


Sweden and Norway 


3 
2 


3,716 
i;624 
2,027 


13,105 


Holland . -. .,„„,. 


2; 408 


Siwin 


2,027 










Total 


108 


36,667 


831 


529.579 


980 


566,146 







Cargo of vessels departing. 





Sailing vessels. 


Steamers. 


Total. 


Kind of merchandise. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 

364,085 

148,436 

2,608 

5,545 

''68i" 

892 

890 

4,824 


Num- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Sundry merchandise 


1 
65 


546 
26,304 


626 

170 

5 

14 

i' 

1 
2 



627 
235 

47 


365,481 


Ballast 


174,830 


Pruit 


2.603 


Phosphate 


33 
2 


4,688 
606 


10,232 


Coal 


606 


Dross 


581 


Flour.. 






302 


Chicory 


1 


216 


1,106 


Sugar 


4,824 


Ofl-nipixie sand 


4 
1 

1 


3,723 
57 
337 


3,723 




3 



1,373 


1.430 


Cement 


337 








Total 


106 


36,567 


831 


620.670 


039 


566.146 







RIVER NAVIGATION. 

Arrivals at the docks and the **Avant Post." 
[Boats which liave paid quay duties to the city.] 



Year. 


Boats. 


Tonnage.* 


Year. 


Boats 


Tonnage* 


1880 


2,312 
2,080 
2.010 
2,422 
2,390 
2,778 
2,808 
3,486 
3,275 


221,441 
104,864 
170,072 
201,341 
231,830 
285,066 
288,109 
370,246 
366 469 


1880 


3,642 
4,426 
4,301 
3,804 
3,028 
3,192 
3.082 
3,460 


413,496 


1881 


1800 


603,182 


1882 


1891 


400,800 


iS::::::::::::::::::::::::. 


1892 


465,070 


1884 


lSfl3 


411,016 


1885 


1894 


434,280 


1886... 


1895 


422,224 


1887 


1896 


452.661 


1888 











* At 1,000 kilos per ton. 
Arrivals and departures by the canal of Temeuzen, 1896, 



Arrivals — 
Depctftures. 




Ton- 
nage. 

170,879 
213,061 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 
City arrivals and departures by iidand water courses, 1806. 



155 



ArriyaU. 



DeiM&rtaros. 



BarEscaot ! 4,965 



Hant EBcaut . 
Brogues canal. 



Lys. 




1,221,625 1 8,342 I 1,014,257 



Vessels and tonnage arriving from 1891 to 1896, 



Year. 


Sailing 
vesBelB. 

104 
188 
180 
96 

89 
110 


Ton 
nage. 


Steam- 
ers. 


Ton- 
nage. 

466,581 
400,005 
462,665 
477,000 
480,880 
530,080 


Vessels, 
total 


Tons, 
total. 


Average 
tonnage. 


1801 


28,217 
89,909 
81,735 
80,802 
28.437 


911 

840 
800 
802 


1,015 
978 
980 
897 
862 
041 


498,796 
409,974 
484,800 
507,862 
509,817 
568,065 


487 


1892 .. - 


512 


1893 


621 


1894 


666 


1895...: 


691 


1896 


37,075 831 


604 











SUMMARY OF MARITIME COMMERCE. 

The maritime movement of the port of Ghent attained in 1896 the 
total of 941 vessels and 508,055 t^ns, or an increase of 79 vessels and 
58,638 tons over the preceding year. This is the heaviest tonnage ever 
recorded at this port and is a remarkable result, in view of the insuf- 
ficiency of the entrance to the Temeuzen canal. 

As usual, the regular and direct shipping lines with England and 
the Baltic formed the greater part of the total tonnage. Transatlantic 
navigation decreased because of the difficulties of approach to this 
port. During 1896, however, 14 sailing vessels of 13,289 tons, as 
against 8 vessels of 9,082 tons in 1895, arrived from Chile with cargoes 
of nitrate. Six steamers, of 7,759 tons, brought phosphate from 
Florida, an entirely new trade for Ghent. Guano from Africa formed 
also an important item of cargoes. 

In the arrivals of American cotton, there was a serious decline; only 
two steamers, of 2,096 tons, arrived. The year 189G was especially 
fruitful for the future of the port of Ghent. The approval of the 
Dutch-Belgian treaty for the improvement of the Terneuzen deep sea 
canal, so long expected, was finally obtained from the States General 
of Holland; so that now nothing prevents the Belgian Government 
from beginning the work, so impatiently desired by all those interested 
in the development of the maritime trade. 

The treaty, in brief, provides for the construction of a new dock at 
Terneuzen, 459J feet in length, 51f feet in width, and 26f feet in depth, 
the lowering of the canal bed in Belgium and a single level throughout 
its length, constructive works giving a passage 69 feet in width, and 
the widening of the bed of the canal to 55^ to 69 feet, with a minimum 
depth of 2^ feet. 

Finally, this treaty guarantees the passage of the largest cargo boats, 
at present existing, to Ghent. The transformation of the canal 
involves as its necessary corollary important modifications in the 
present maritime facilites. 

The project which seems most likely to be adopted provides that 
there shall be constructed in the prairies oppo^ite^the^resent^uter 



156 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



harbor a basin of about 5,250 feet in length by 500 feet in width, and 
with a depth of 26| feet, surrounded by banks which could easily be 
transformed into wharves, as commerce may require. The surround- 
ing public grounds would have an extent of 180 to 240 feet. If this 
plan is finally adopted, this port will be supplied with 9,000 to 10,500 
feet of new shore line, and will possess what has long been required, 
extensive grounds for the cheap storage of bulky merchandise. 

PORT OF GHENT. 
Imports and exports by the cancU of Temeuzen. 



Articles. 



Arms 

Beer 

Candles 

Chemicals: 

Acids and acetics — 

others — 

Bichromate 

Carbonate of soda. .. 

Chlorides 

Nitrates 

Parafltoe 

Phosphates 

Soda caustic 

Sulphates- 
Ammonia 

Baryta 

Soda 

Other 

Clocks and watches 

Clothing 

Coal 

Cocoa: 

Beans 

Butter of cocoa 

Prepared chocolate . 

Coffee 

Cordage -• 

Drugs: 

Glue 

Gums 

Lemonade and other 

mineral waters 

Other 

Dyes and colors: 

Dyewood 

White lead 

Extracts— 

Brown latechu . . 

Gambler 

Other 

Indigo 

Boneblack 

Dye nuts 

Varnish 

Other 

Vegetable fibers: 

Cocoa fibers 

Passaoo 

Fodder: 

Straw 

Other 

Food commodities: 

Butter 

Flour feculaB 

Oats 

House beans and peas 

Broad beans 

Grains- 
Wheat 

Groats 

Malt 

Barley 

Bye 

Vegetables- 
Onions 

Potatoes 

Chicory root 

Other 

Bread, sea biscuits, 
etc 



Imports. Exports. 



Kilograms. 
4,133 
43,737 
»5,162 



94,123 

617,770 

684,400 

20,043,617 

16,161 

13,086,486 

19,100 

7,922,006 



3,776,636 
133,976 



29,472 
137,449,338 

88,862 

9,028 

316 

319,616 

66,866 

249,920 
49,291 

7,459 
364,608 

50,090 



68,336 
87,996 
16,636 
27,047 
140,665 
203,270 
186,021 
238,409 

13,089 
600 



600 

300,625 

3,707,413 

239,350 

13,000 

46,760 

1,213 

22,148 

2,058,286 

233.000 

42,400 
31,260 



128,247 



Kilograms. 
44,716 



46,605 
4,024 



34,436 
8,006 



27,412,335 



2,319,160 

1,167,709 

66,907 

80,438 

60,894 

6,010,000 



84,047 

*24lV826 

34,367 
210 

8,966 
28,656 



1,180,828 



178,960 



626,661 



1,263,895 
2,250,230 

110 
41,985 



2,787 
61,696 



6,324,802 
22.717 

2,710,970 
20.882 

6,670 



Articlea 



Food commodities— Ctd. 

Fish- 
Fresh 

Smoked 

Salted 

Dry 

Salt- 
Raw 

Refined 

Other 

Bran and pea skins. . 
Fruits: 

Green- 
Lemons and or- 



anges, 
pies.. 



Apples 

Other 

Dry- 
Currants 

Other 

Furniture 

Glassware: 

Plate glass 

Window glass 

Other 

Groceries: 

Cinnamon 

Cloves 

Nutmegs 

Pepper and spices . . . 

Other 

Guano 

Honey 

Liquids, alcoholic 

Liquors 

Machinery 

Matches 

Materials, raw: 
Animal— 

Wax 

Horsehair 

Fat- 
Liver oil 

Other 

Skins- 
Babbit 

Other 

Blood 

Bristles 

Other 

Mineral- 
Cement 

Ore 

Plaster 

Plumbago 

Washed sand — 

Dross 

Porcelain clay. . . 
Fertilizing earth 

Other 

Textile materials- 
Hemp, raw 

Cotton- 
Raw 

Waste 

Tow 

Jute, raw 

Wool— 

Artificial.... 

Raw nm 



ImxMrts. 



Kilograms. 

300 

17,732 

426,933 

138.291 

7,335,660 

7W,167 

766 

636,780 



1,076,959 

301,630 

846 

638,060 
402,113 
140,658 



16,232 



15,462 

2,853 

18,054 

61,913 

63 

3,848,275 

18,241 

43,769 

762 

11,982,257 

6,785 



13,649 
1,426 

62,680 
20,304 

3,885 
6,988 

60,600 
8,547 

18,714 

19,186 
13,116,176 



96,905 



3,797,660 

"'"4i,'996' 

2,081,096 

6,482,991 
3,066.675 
3,749,821 
9,610,800 



Exports. 



Kilograms. 



4,118 



6,755 
108,009 



6,988.4*4 
5,396,424 



108,931 

25,220 

8,894,421 

608,669 



173,465 



2,027 



210,848 
1,896,278 



66.326 

54,800 

123,140 

600 

6.370 

6,3S» 

3,189.112 

15,625 

1,486,120 



3,639,000 
16.826,000 



6,116 
171,950 

28,154 

17,140 

76,271 

1,320,430 

26,400 



62,081 
at?7a8,'S8f^l-'^ 81,066 



EUBOPE: BELGIUM. 



157 



Imports and exports by the. canal of remeu««n— Continued. 



Artidefl. 



Minerals, raw— Cont'd. 
Textile materials— 
Continued. 
Wool— Contin'd. 

Combed 

Waste 

Flax- 
Waste 

Raw 

SUk- 

Eaw 

Waste 

Meat 

Metals: 

Copper— 

unworked ' and 

old 

Drawn and man- 
ufactured 

Pewter, unworked. . , 
Iron and steel, beat- 
en and drawn 

Tin- 
Manufactured— 

Nails 

Other 

In sheets 

Manufactured . . . 
Iron, drawn, and old 

pipes 

Iron, cast and un- 
worked 

Lead- 
Raw and old 

Manufactured . . . 
Zinc- 
In ingots 

Drawn and man- 
ufactured 

Mercury 

Oils: 

Vegetable- 
Colza 

Flax 

Other 

Other 

Paper: 

Pasteboard 

Stationery 

Old paper and paper 

waste 

Other 

Perfumeries 

Pottery: 

Bricks, crucibles and 

fireproof earth 

Faience and porce- 
lains .\...... 

Terra cotta— 

Tiles and slate... 

^her 

Printers' products 

PreMerves: 

Cheese 

Licorice juice 

Sugared biscuits 

and bonbons 

Vmegar pickles, etc. 

Other.... 

Pasteboard objects 

Rags and paper stock . .. 
Resins and bitumens: 

Pitch 

Gum 

Kaphtha 

Petroleum 

Turpentine 

Other 

Rubber: 

Raw 

Manufactured 

Skins: 

Unmanufactured ... 



Imports. 



Kilograms. 

18,684 

300,600 

143,400 
28,900,813 

7S6 
30,876 
54.835 



7,147 

33,566 
150,850 



157,250 
13,983 

440,773 

8,207,098 

810 
6,106 



1,348 
7,667 



144,982 
110,297 
101, 21:2 
204,641 

9,966 

14,868 

1,922,323 
45,532 
2,304 



386,461 

151,986 

2,917 
33,273 
14,848 

306,620 
16,872 

516,477 
49,585 



965,486 

817 
27,422 
30,542 
3,090 
16,933 
24,943 

132.435 
33,864 

1,327,313 



Exports 



Kilograms. 
55,301 
73,759 

6,881,924 
13,519,067 



507 
39,817 



20,814 
2,009 



15,078,215 



1,549,338 
280,502 



10,305 



363,676 



3,707,360 
475,707 
819.865 



296,408 



41,530 

1,620,414 

5,433 



3,440 

146,267 
16,587 
8,213 



60,004 



56,272 
13,774,431 



4,200 
10,950 
I 
298,320 I 



Articles. 



Skins— Continued. 

Manufactured 

Tanned and curried. 

Leavings and waste. 

Soaps 

Starch 

Stones: 

Rough 

Lithographic 

Mill 

Paying 

Polished and marble 
Sugar: 

Raw- 
Beet^ 

Cane 

Vergeoise 

Refined sugar 

Sirups and molasses 

Teas 

Tobacco: 

Manufactured— 



Imports. 



Kilograms. 
14,808 
196,127 
280,600 
80,430 
34,260 

11,771 



24,268 

"moo' 



Cigars. 
)ther.. 



Other 
Manufactured, in 

leaf 

Tissues: 

Cotton 

Jute 

Wool 

Flax lines 

Flax, tow, and bag- 



Silk 

Other 

Vegetables and vegeta- 
ble products: 
Tan bark , 

Oleaginous— 

^Iza 

Other 

Other 

Hops , 

Plants, living 

Oilcakes , 

Other 

Vinegars 

Wine 

Woods: 
Oak- 
Logs 

Other 

Pitch pin*- 

Beams 

Joists and planks 
Pine- 
Rollers and logs 

Beams 

Joists and planks 
Other trees, lumber, 

etc 

Rough-hewn for butt 

end of muskets 

Manufactured, other 
Tarns and threads: 

Hemp 

Cotton 

Tow 

Jute 

Wool 

Flax 

Hair 

Silk 



Total . 



Animals, living: 

Horses 

Other 

Pmnos and organs 

Ships, boats, and bargen 



4,960 

665,620 

68,192 

28,763 

367,272 

41,697 



1,722 
6,708 

236,286 

731,721 

42,283 

611,300 

100,617 

291,047 

3,684 

147,166 



24,180 



8.129,490 



Exports. 



16,887 
41,315 
276,100 
2,286,287 
121,837 
726,174 



8,000,218 
640,600 

671,478 
1,626,900 

660,618 

9,461,268 

107,174,982 

60,889,456 



46,282 



8.806,288 

7,430 

1,844,732 

366,714 

1,821,625 

60,047 

1,718 



Kilogrants. 
55,606 

167,879 
63,260 
18,020 

522,500 

30,370,615 
132,812 

■"'666,*666 
936,340 



47,349,700 



532,206,563 



Number. 

4,977 

42 

63,640 

8 

1 



284,666 
33,382 



600 



1,731 

1,352,818 
164,103 
154,773 
816,966 

608,641 

4,'835 

808,480 



242,973 

42,376 

330.412 

006,630 



22,300 
30,730 
138,064 



8,000 



149,600 
77,087 

788,182 
390,099 
4.268,686 
42,755 
99,101 
4,047,777 



252,722,204 



Number. 

60 

181 

3.297,062 

168 



Google 



S* 



One kilo =2.2046 pounds. 



Digitized by 



158 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



TRADE BY THE TERNEUZEN CANAL. 

The total trade by the Teraeuzen Canal iu 1896 was slightly larger 
than in 1895. While the imports showed an increase of 48,275 tons, 
the exports were 9,644 tons less than for 1895. 

Total trade by Temeuzen Canal, 



Year. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


1896 


Tons, 
632,266.563 
483,991.380 


Tons. 
252,722.204 


1885 


262,366.611 






Increase or decrease 


48.275.183 


9,644.407 







PORT OF BRUGES. 
Arrivals and departures. 



Flag. 



Belgian 

Danish 

Oerman... 
English.... 

French 

Norwegian 

Total 



Arrivals. 



With cargo. 



Vessels. 



Number. 
3 
2 

1 



8 



128 



Ton- 
nage. 



1,281 

359 

177 

22,479 

707 

5.361 



30,364 



In ballast. 



Vessels. 



Number. 



Ton- 
nage. 



Departures. 



With cargo. 



Vessels. 



Number. 
3 

1 

1 

46 



Ton- 
nage. 



1,281 

148 

177 

10,327 



491 



12.4^ 



In ballast. 



Vessels. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Number. 




1 


211 


43 

8 

21 


12,152 

707 

4,870 


?3 


17.940 



Imports and exports. 
IMPORTS. 



Articles. 



Coal 

Barley 

Wood pulp 

Chemical fertilizers. 

Herring 

Miscellaneoas 



Qnan- 
tity. 



Tons. 
32,728 
665 
940 

777 

1,122 

41 




EXPORTS. 



Macadam 

Chemical fertilizer. 

Paper stock 

Chicory 

Miscellaneous 

Flax 




Coal, etc 

Oil 

Lime and cement. 

Total 



260 

10 

480 



13,770 



PUBLIC IMPROVEMENTS. 

Belgium has for many centuries been one of the greatest industrial 
centers of Europe. Its mines and factories have supplied the wants 
of many millions living beyond its borders. The two Flanders were 
long ago known as beehives of industry. Manufacturers of this 
region have kept fairly abreast of the times in mechanical and prac- 
tical development; but the other side of modern life has heretofore 
been neglected. ^ j 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 159 

The amelioration of antiquated conditions in the municipalities has 
been overlooked. Especially is this true of the cities of Flanders. 
Bruges is still a city presenting many characteristics of the middle 
ages, while Ghent has 3^et much progress to make to be considered a 
wide-awake municipality. Of the smaller towns, little need be said. 
They may be attractive by reason of their architecture, their quaint- 
ness, and their historical importance. They can not be praised for 
their pavements, their sewerage, their sanitary conditions, or their 
public spirit. 

The turning point, however, seems to have been reached. The 
municipality of Ghent the past year should be famous by reason of 
its activity in public works. While, during 1896, very little was 
actually brought to completion, the year was one of the most fruitful 
in plans for the future, many of which are to be brought to early matu- 
rity. The most notable public works planned within the year were 
the further improvement of the Ghent Terneuzen deep-sea cana>, the 
enlargement of the city docks, wharves, and warehouse facilities, the 
construction of a new post-office, a modern conservatory of music, a 
new Flemish theater, and the completion of the governor's residence. 
The restoration of the old castle of the counts of Flanders, destined 
to be in a few years one of the most renowned sights of Europe, is 
also progressing. The demolition of the buildings, surrounding and 
standing upon the space between the cathedral belfry and the church 
of St. Nicolas, while a gigantic task, will add vastly to the beauty of 
the city. The rectification and enlargement of many of the principal 
thoroughfares, as well as the opening of several new streets, will, 
when completed, entirely change the chara<3teristic features of Ghent. 
The removal of the botanical garden to more spacious grounds, and 
the continued improvement of the park are further embellishments 
to note. While such are the aesthetic plans partially realized, the 
establishment of the new omnibus system and the project for the 
electric street railway must not be overlooked. Easy and rapid trasit 
from one part of the city to the other has long been wanting. 

The bobtail horse-car lines have been the only means of transpor- 
tation and even these penetrated only into some portions of the 
municipality. Late last year, however, an omnibus company, run- 
ning vehicles in almost every direction, with free transfers between 
its various lines, was inaugurated. 

The electric street railway was also voted, and since the beginning 
of the present year (1897) has been brought to the point of contract. 
The probability now is that before the end of 1898 Ghent will be 
thoroughly equipped with a modern urban transit system, and that its 
streets and thoroughfares will have lost their ancient appearance to 
assume the more modem air of this century of progress. 

For this change, the present government of the municipality is to be 
congratulated. The funds necessary for these public works have in 
part been provided by the conversion of the city debt from a higher 
to a lower rate of interest. The profit to the municipal treasury aris- 
ing from this conversion approximates $2,200,000, which sum has 
been appropriated in varying proportions to the respective improve- 
ments heretofore mentioned. Furthermore, the city of Ghent during 
1896 floated a loan of $12,000,000, of which a portion is to be employed 
in the deepening and extension of its maritime facilities, destined, as 
heretofore mentioned, to afford entrance to steamers of the largest 
tonnage. The importance of the port of Ghent is increasing yearly. 
Its industry and its situation close to the sea, in connection with direct 

uigitized by vjvj^^v i\^ 



160 



COMMEBCIAL BELATIONS. 



and regalar communication with the most important ports of England 
and the continent, assure it a brilliant future. 

Outside of the city of Ghent, the most remarkable public undertak- 
ing inaugurated in 1896, whose happy influence upon the industry 
and commerce of the two Flanders is not in the least to be doubted, 
was the beginning of works on the ports of Heyst and Bruges and the 
deep-sea canal connecting them, voted in 1895 and now in execution. 
Powerful machinery and large resources, together with the natural 
flatness of the ground, permit this enterprise to be rapidly pushed 
forward. 

The only other public enterprise of any importa nee which has come 
to my attention, is the projected improvement of the harbor of Ostend. 
This work is und^r the direction of the national government, and 
upon its completion Ostend will have renewed resources to compete 
with other leading seaports for a just share of the commerce of the 
world. 

MATTERS OF COMMERCIAL IMPORTANCE. 

The Chamber of Commerce, during 1896, continued to press the 
necessity of telephonic connection with Terneuzen. It also gave 
attention to the purification of the waters of the Espierre, but with- 
out any decided results. This question, so long discussed, seems to 
be as far from solution as ever. 

The new Ostend-Tilbury (London) freight line, inaugurated by the 
Government in 1896, will undoubtedly largely increase the quantity 
of Belgian farm products offered for sale on the London market. 

The commercial school established in 1895 had a very satisfactory 
year. Nearly all the pupils graduated at the end of the first year 
found employment. The course of instruction includes English, Ger- 
man, Flemish, French, bookkeeping, commercial law, elementary 
mathematics, geography, writing, and stenography. The school is 
destined to render great services to local industry. 

Prices of the principal food necessaries December' SI, 1896, 



Articles. 



Qhent. 



Vooruit. 



Hot VoUb. 



Bragea 



Bread: 

Wheat per pound. 

Rye .-do... 

Meslin do... 

Ck>ffee do... 

Milk per quart. 

Eggs per uosen. 

Butter per pound. 

Margarine do... 

Lard do... 

Meat: 

Beef do... 

Calf do... 

Mutton do... 

Pork do... 

Bacon '. do... 

Potatoes do... 

Salt do... 

Sugar do... 

Rice do... 

Beans do... 

Codfish, dry do... 

Codfish, salted do... 

fierrinar each. 

Olive ou per quart. 

Chicory per pound. 

Cheese do... 

Coal per pound. 

Oil I>er quart. 



10. (» 



$0,016 



0.0167 
0.1579 to 0.9373 
0.06 
0.2772 
0.2368 



$0.0228 to |0.0e363 
0.0167 



0.206 to 0.2082 



0.0878 



0.0062 
0.0684 to 0.0878 
0.0193 to 0.0421 

0.06 



O.00G2 
O.OnO to 0.0886 
0.0219 to 0.0280 



0.01 
0.40 
0.0068 
0.1679 to 0.1786 
0.0021 



0.0246 
0.0780 to 0.1679 
0.094 to 0.1000 



0.2193 



0.2868 
0.006 
0.1816 

0.1679 

0.1579 

0.1481 

0.1228 

0.1053 

0.0061 

0.0044 

0.0780 

O.0BGO 

0.074 

0.1140 

0.0678 

0.0S 

0.47 



0.1766 
0.0678 
0.02^ 



Digitized by 



LjOO^i 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



161 



Prices of meats. 



Ghent. | Bruges. 



Beef: 

Living jKJr pound..' 

Slaagntered do — 1 

Bulls: 

Living do — 

Slaughtered do ; 

Cows and heifers: , 

Living do ' 

Slaughtered do — i 



.or I 

.07 I 
.15 1 



I- 



$0.06 ! 
.Hi 

.06 

■"! 

.(W , 
.12 



Calves: 



Living per pound. 



Slaughtered 
Sheep: 

Living 

Slaughtered 
Hogs: 

Living 

Slangntered 



.do... 



....do... 
...do... 



...do... 
...do- 



Ghent. 



$0.09 
.17 

.06 
.16 

.08 
.15 



Bruges. 



$0.09 
.L5 

.10 
.13 

.07 
.13 



FISHINd. 

The following tables give the various statistics for 1894: 

Fishing boats: 

Number 878 

Tonnage 9,948 

Men - 1,696 

Number of boats lost at soa 9 

Cod fishing: 

Number of boats - 32 

Catch, in pounds 450, 879 

Herring fishing: 

Number or boat s 81 

Value of catch $10,817.65 

Tide fishing: 

Number of boats.- 388 

Value of catch .» $631, 128. 33 

The average prices of the principal products in 1894 were as follows 

per 100 kilos (220 pounds) : 

« 

Cereals : 

Oats $2,777 

Spelt 2.850 

Wheat - 2.626 

Meslin 2.281 

Barley 2.840 

Buckwheat 8.0.)9 

Rye 2.101 

Leguminous plants : 

Beans 3.356 

Pease 3.987 

Industrial plants : 

Colza - 5.100 

Hops 41.109 

Flax- 
seeds _ 5.104 

Raw _._ _ 24.848 

Tobacco 41.915 

Potatoes 1.115 

Fodder: 

. Hay 1.601 

Straw l.OaO 

Butter ( per pound ) 22 19 

VITAL STATISTICS. 

During the year 1894 the births were: 



Province. 



East Flanders .. 
W^Kt Flanders . 



Male. 



1«.170 
13,IIM 



Female. 



15,280 
12,425 



Legitl- 
mate. 



niegiti- 
mate. 



29,206 
21, (Bl 



2,225 

1.612 



Total, 
Btlllbom 
not in- 
cluded. 



81,4aO 
2S.54S 



B— 'Voi, ; 



-n 



y^ Ditizocj by Kj% ^-^c:f^. 



Still- 
bom. 



1,310 
1,013 



162 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



For East Flanders there was a slight increase over the preceding 
year, while for West Flanders there was a decrease. 
During the same period the deaths were: 



Provinc**. [ Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


East Flanders 


9,987 
8,435 


9,208 

7,028 


19,19?' 
16.0f« 


West Flanders 





In East Flanders the total number of deaths was 2,364 less than the 
preceding 3'^ear, and in West Flanders the decrease was 2,341 under 
1893. This showing is remarkable. 

MARRIAGES AND DIVORCES. 

The marriages celebrated in 1894 were: 

East Flanders 1 6,774 

West Flanders 5,157 

The divorces granted were : 

East Flanders 28 

West Flanders 19 

The figures do not materially vary from the previous year. The 
total population of East Flanders on December 31, 1894, was 981,459; 
of West Flanders, 764,879. 

IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION. 

The statistics of immigration show that in 1894 1,486 persons set- 
tled in East Flanders and 2,778 in West Flanders. During the same 
period 1,000 persons emigrated from East Flanders, and 2,939 from 
West Flanders. 

The total number who went from these two provinces to the United 
States was 79 in 1893; 394 have emigrated to our country. 

Schools of apprenticeship subsidized by the State, 
[The statistics following are given for the year 1894.] 



Province. 




1 




5i£ 


h 


1. 


1 


1. 


1^ 


ed since 
estab- 
ment of 
Bchool. 




CD 


0. 


► ^ 


III 


Is 


1 




III! 




» 


< 


< 


-< 


< 


< 


•H 


^ 




West Flanders.... 


81 


006 


|0.1ii 


883 


100 


47 


48 


7.80 


100 


21,887 


East Flanders 


11 


m 


.28 


147 


51 


6 


84 


10.57 


108 


5.583 



PEBIODICALS AND JOURNALS. 

The total number given in 1894 for this district was 119 as against 
214 in 1893. Of the number now existing 228 are published in East 
Flanders and 91 in West Flanders. 



PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 



Statistics for 1894 show 9,201 outside readers as against 9,873 for 
1893 in the province of AVest Flanders. 
In East Flanders the figures for 1894 and 1893 were respectively 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 163 

8,907 and 9,124. The number of books loaned in West Flanders in 
1894 was 43,513 as compared with 43,263 in 1893, while in East Fland- 
ers the number was respectively 106,476 and 140,836. 

The total number of books on the catalogues of these libraries was 
respectively. West Flanders 86,868, East Flanders 326,322. This latter 
fipn^re does not include the volumes in the University library at 
Ghent, which are estimated to number 325,000 volumes. 

FINANCIAL CONDITION OF THE PROVINCES. 

The following statements give the financial condition of the two 
Flanders in 1893: 

EAST FLANDERS. 

Receipts: 

Direct taxation $80,658.78 

Dog tax 15,021.77 

Tobacco and liqnors 69,558.16 

Permiasion to carry weapons .._ 2,005.27 

Other provincial taxes., 20,827.18 

Total 206,071.11 

Subsidies 5,857.36 

Miscellaneons receipts 7,864.40 

Total 210,292.96 

Balance bronght forward from previous statement 68, 672. 63 

Grand total _ 282,965^59 

Disbursement-^ : ===== 

Maintenance of judiciary, prisons, and police _ 25, 299. 40 

Religious worship 17,421.92 

Loans paid 9,429.40 

Public instruction 47,859.12 

Roads 23,658.72 

Slaughterhouses 19,841.68 

Miscellaneous expenses 107,237.16 

Total 249,747.40 

WEST FLANDERS. 

Receipts: 

Direct taxation 188,850.84 

Dqi: tax 25,224.52 

Tobacco and liquors 49,880.47 

Permission to carry weapons 2,107.56 

Other provincial taxes 7,484.74 

Total 217,948.18 

Subsidies 5,412.49 

Miscellaneous receipts 51,687.74 

Total 274,998.86 

Balance brought forth from previous statement.. 58,295.79 

Grand total 828,294.15 

Disbursements: — 

Maintenance of tbe judiciary, prisons, and police 18, 197. 97 

Keligious worship 18,744.88 

Loans paid 18,105.88 

Public instruction 89,626.18 

Roads..-. 80,070.75 

Slaughterhouses 13,878.24 

Miscellaneous expenses 154,139.84 

Grandtotal. ^.. 287,768.19 

Provincial loans outstanding December 31, 1894 : Digitized by V3 : 

WeetFlanders 488,846.28 

Eaatriattdera..,. * * 283»^7.00 



164 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



REAL ESTATE. 

The distribution of property and the number of landowners in the 
two Flanders were only slightly changed during 1894. On December 
31 of that year, there was in East Flanders 891,150 registered parcels 
of land as against 890,286 one year previously. The number of tax 
rolls or number of proprietors in fact decreased from 165,573 to 165,259 
in this province. In West Flanders, the number of registered parcels 
of land increased during 1894 from 722,210 to 722,587, and the number 
of tax rolls or proprietors from 97,569 to 97,745. The number of pro- 
prietors per 100 inhabitants remained as heretofore — 17 in East Flan- 
ders and 13 in West Flanders. 

Balance sheet of the communes — Commercial loans. 



Province. 


Number 
of loans. 


Amount. 


Rate of 
interest. 


Weirt FlAndem ... , , . ... ... 


6 
23 


$4,100.89 
56,288.88 


Per cent, 
8 to 4 


Frfwt FlandAFB 


8^ to 4 







FINANCES OF GHENT AND BRUGES. 

The two following statements indicate the financial condition of 
the two principal centers of this district — Ghent and Bruges — during 
1893: 

Ghent. 
Receipts: 

Ordinary receipts 1988,267.50 

Eztraoi-dinary receipts 411,420.60 

Total 1,899,688.10 

Exx)enseB: 

Ordinary expenses 930,784.78 

Extraordinary expenses 323,020.04 

Total 1,258,754.82 

Balance 145,988.28 

Bruges. 
Receipts: 

Ordinary receipts _ $204,041.92 

Extraordinary receipts 89, 084. 55 

Total.. 298,126.47 

Expenses: 

Ordinary expenses 178,980.28 

Extraordinary exx)en8es 85,287.85 

Total 214,267.63 

Balance _ 78,858.84 

BANK STATEMENTS. 

The National Bank, Ghent Branch. 

Discoont thronghont the year 1896, 2.84 per cent: from January 1 to April 27 it 
was 2i per cent; after April 27 it was 8 per cent throughout the year. Average 
discount 1895, 2.60 per cent. , 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 165 

Daring the same year (1896), the minimum rates of disconnt of the National 

Banks of England, Germany, France, and Holland were as follows: 

Bank of England: Per cent. 

January 1 .._ 2 

September 10 _ 2\ 

September24 3 

October22 _ 4 

Bank of Germany: 

January 1 4 

February 12 3 

September? 4 

October 10 ,.. ; 5 

Bank of France: Throughout the year 2 

Bank of Holland: 

January 1 _ 2^ 

February 26 3 

Octoberl5 _. 3i 

Government account: 

Receipt* ... §328,226.222.00 

Disbursements 417,952,308.00 

Savings account: 

Receipts 8.365,778.00 

Disbursements _ 50,940,806.00 

Private accounts current: 

Receipts 1,006,^58,581.00 

Disbursements 1,004,980,915.00 

Bills: 

Presented 49,564,101.00' 

Issued . 11,115,642.00 

Baiik of Flanders. 
Fxmds: 

Total movement, 1896 $75,864,766.24 

Total movement, 1895 75,294,722.26 



Increase 570,043.98 

City accounts current: 

Total movement, 1896 95,298,063.42 

Total movement, 1895 90,190,852.65 



Increase 5,107,210.77 

On December 81, 1895, the following situation was reported: The bank was 
debtor to— 

Accounts current 13,433,600.71 

Deposits payable upon notice 358,773.81 

Deposits payable upon demand _ 904,261.84 

Total due by the bank on December 31, 1895 4,696,536.36 

Total due to the bank on December 31, 1895 2,477,059.77 

Balance to the debit of the bank 2,219,476.59 

Foreign accounts current: 

Total movement, 1896 58,783,662.03 

Total movement, 1895 56,262,224.21 



Increase 2,521,437.82 

Total due to the bank on December 31, 1895 1,878,326.99 

Total due by the bank on December 31, 1896 664,543.85 



Balanceto the credit of the bank.. 1,213,783.14 



Reserve: 

December 31, 1896 219,331.75 

December 31, 1895 216,414.24 

Increase 2,917.51 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



166 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

The sources of my information for this fourth annual report are 
generally similar to those from which I have previously drawn. I 
must once more emphasize my appreciation of the prompt and ready 
replies of the business people of this community, to the various 
inquiries which I have made. Their uniform courtesy and kindness — 
more marked this year than ever— deserve especial mention. It gives 
me great pleasure to thus thank them, and to express the hope that our 
two nations may reciprocally profit in some small measure from that 
which has been herein set forth. 

Printed publications to which I have had occasion to refer for some 
of the statistics are, as in previous years: General Statement of Com- 
merce with Foreign Countries; Annual Statistician of Belgium; Report 
of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Ghent on Commerce 
and Industry during 1896; Report of the Society of Agriculture of 
East Flanders for 1896. 

Henry P. Morris, Consul. 

Ghent, June 19, 1897. 



AMERICAN OOODS AT GHENT. 

Sometime ago I received from the Philadelphia Commercial Museums 
a number of circulars making inquiry concerning the possibility of 
the introduction of various American goods and manufactures on 
this market. Many of the items thus suggested have already formed 
the subjects of special reports. Concerning the others, it has been 
possible to obtain only more or less fragmentary information. This 
opportunity is taken to include certain details concerning some few 
other articles which have recently formed the object of private 
inquiries.* 

It does not seem necessary to repeat here such suggestions as may 
have already been made at different times, concerning the ways and 
means of introducing American goods into Belgium. The most 
important, economical, and least troublesome method which can be 
adopted by houses seeking export trade, is to print their price lists in 
the language of the country to which they are sent, and to employ in 
all quotations the metric system of weights and measures. Without 
attention to these two details, printed lists and catalogues are, in my 
judgment, almost useless. I need not here insist upon the necessity 
of commercial travelers or the advantage of resident American agents. 
All these matters have been thoroughly discussed in the reports of 
many consuls. 

LOCKS. 

Locks are manufactured in Belgium in the vicinity of Liege and 
Malines. There is not, however, any authoritative statement of the 
value of these manufactures to be obtained, nor do there exist any 
statistics showing the quantity of locks imported. Hardware dealers, 
however, are agreed that the greater portion of locks on this market 
are of foreign make. Some say the proportion is even as large as four- 
fifths. Locks of Belgian origin are generally too high priced. The 
Germans have almost a monopoly of the import trade. The reasons 
are self-evident. The prices of their locks are not any higher, while 

* Proof of report has been sent to the Philadelphia innsenms. 

uigitized by kjOOQIC 



KUROPE: BELGIUM. 167 

their finish and workmanship are much better than those produced 
in Belgium. To secure this trade, Germany made great efforts a few 
years ago, selling locks on much more favorable terms and condi- 
tions than its competitors. When the trade was well established, 
prices were generally advanced to the prevailing level of quotations. 
German locks, however, are still preferred, by reason of their supe- 
riority. Retail prices for door locks vary from 30 cents to $4. Locks 
for boxes, trunks, etc., or to be screwed to door on the interior, range 
from $2.30 to $5.75. Wholesale prices are approximately 30 per cent 
less than the foregoing. The duty on locks imported into Belgium is 
77 cents per 220 pounds. Locks received here are generally packed 
only in pap r. Sometimes the more expensive articles are put up 
in separate cardboard boxes. At Ghent there is considerable build- 
ing, so that a trade in these articles might be established. - 

BOILERS, RESERVOIRS, AND TANKS. 

So far as I am able to learn, there is no importation of these manu- 
factures, nor do these articles seem to be manufactured and kept in 
stock in any quantity. The rule generally is to make them to order. 
For boilers, there is a good demand, owing to the large number of 
manufacturing establishments. Reservoirs, on the contrary, are 
very little used, at least in this locality. 

PUMPS. 

Nearly every house in Ghent has a pump; hence there is a good 
sale for these articles. Almost all pumps in use are manufactured in 
Belgium. Some, however, are imported from England and a few 
from America. Both suction and forcing pumps are used here. A 
very good kitchen pump can be purchased for $2.90 to $3.10. Such 
an article sells wholesale for $2.32 to $2.50. English and Belgian 
pumps sell at about the same price and are of equally good quality. 
Wooden pumps, it may be said, have almost entirely disappeared 
from the trade. 

MEAT CHOPPERS. 

There is a very good demand in this line. They are chiefly 
imported from England and Germany. So far as I can learn, there 
are none made in Belgium. The price of an article for household 
use is about $2 to $2.25. The larger size, used by butchers, costs 
$2.90 to $3.10. For shipment meat choppers are generally packed in 
crates. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

The sale of agricultural machinery throughout Belgium is limited, 
although the western portion of the country is chiefly devoted to 
agriculture. Still the separate farms are so small that the use of ma- 
chinery is impracticable; then, again, the peasants are very poor, as 
a rule, and unable to bear such expense. There has been some effort 
made to form cooperative societies, to own machinery for the use of 
all members in common. Even this method has not had great suc- 
cess. While the better educated farmers and scientific men inter- 
ested in agriculture are well disposed toward the introduction of 
mechanical farm appliances, and believe that their general use would 
ameliorate the condition of the peasantry, the deeply rooted prejudice 

Digitized by \^kjkjwl\^ 



168 COMMKRCIAL RELATIONS. 

of this latter class prevents any great increase in tliis trade. The 
principal organization interested in agriculture is known as the 
*'Societe d' Agriculture," which existe at Ghent, Bruges, and Cour- 
trai. There is a "Ligue Agricole" for each province of East and 
West Flanders, with headquarters at Ghent and Bruges. 

Agricultural newspapers are: DeLandbouw, at Ghent, *'and AVest- 
Vlaamsche Landbouw," at Bruges. 

While there is no great demand for large agricultural machinery, 
there is a very good opportunity for the introduction of smaller imple- 
ments — plows, forks, rakes, hoes, and the like. American manufac- 
tures, I am told, are highly esteemed and well received by farmers. 

COAL SCREENS. 

Coal screens used in Belgian coal mines are made in two different 
styles, either by crossing iron bars, thus leaving openings 1 to 2 inches 
square, or by piercing round holes 1 or 2 inches in diameter in heavy 
sheet iron. The total length varies from 1 to 3 yards, while the width 
is almost uniform — about 35 inches. Such screens are made entirely 
by local smiths; there is no manufacture on a large scale, and prob- 
ably none are imported. It is thus not possible to mention any fixed 
prices. Liege, Mons, and Charleroi are the centers of the mining in- 
dustry. Small-size coal screens made in wire, for domestic use, find 
a small sale. They are mostly of Belgian and German make. 

CORRUGATED IRON. 

Belgium is a great iron-producing country, manufacturing all kinds 
and qualities. There is probably no corrugated iron imported; there 
is, however, a good demand for it for roofing, etc. 

W^IRE NAILS. 

Wire nails are manufactured in Belgium, where there is a strong 
demand for them. One large factory is situated quite close to Ghent, 
and has a considerable trade not only in Belgium, but with England 
and other foreign countries. From the catalogue of one of these wire- 
nail establishments, I learn that steel-wire nails are made in lengths 
of one-half to 6 inches, there being 19 different sizes in correspond- 
ing thicknesses. All these nails may be had with plain head or with 
any one of the styles known as diamond, rose checkered, lost brad 
heads, flat checkered or flat smooth without any difference in price. 
Present prices are from $1.58 for number to 7, up to $6.20 for num- 
bers 21, per hundredweight in bags. A large number of special ^vire 
nails is also manufactured- For those known as square nails, plain 
blunt nails, or blinders there is no extra charge; for others, as here- 
under given, there is charged extra per hundredweight the following 
prices: Lath nails, 12 cents; blunt nails, 49 cents; flat round heads, 
12 cents; high round heads, 12 cents; dowels, 12 cents; square nails 
grooved, 24 cents; wire tacks with sharp points, 49 cents; shoe rivets, 
49 cents; staples with patent points, 37 cents; flat or raised head 
tram nails, 37 cents; rooflng nails, chisel points, 49 cents; plain tri- 
angular, 24 cents; oval with brad heads, 24 cents; cooper hooks, 61 
cents; special hooks, 61 cents. All the foregoing prices are extra for 
plain steel wire; for wire otherwise prepared there must h€ added 
the following amounts per hundredweight: For blued wire, 12 cents; 

Digitized by ^^jyjKJWi\^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 169 

for japanned wire, 40 cents; for galvanized wire, 97 cents; for tinned 
wire, I2.43. All lots of two tons and above are delivered free on board 
at Ghent or Antwerp. For bags of one hundredweight gross, packing 
is not charged. Bags of one-half hundredweight cost 4 cents extra, 
and those of one-quart«r hundredweight 16 cents. Kegs of one hun- 
dredweight, 6 cents extra; kegs of less than one hundredweight, 12 
cents extra; cases of one hundredweight net, 6 cents extra. Parcels 
of 7 pounds gross and above, free; the terms are 2j^ per cent at thirty 
days or 3 per cent cash against bill of lading; G per cent interest is 
charged on overdue accounts. 

MISCELLANEOUS HARDWARE. 

Most articles in galvanized tin find a ready sale in this vicinity; 
they must, however, conform to the ordinary styles and patterns of 
the country. American products thus manufactured might possibly 
compete in this market. All price lists should be in the French lan- 
guage and all statements of dimension and capacity should be 
expressed in the metric system. 

Illustrated catalogues would also be more available and bring bet- 
ter results than in other lines. Some of the articles which might be 
mentioned are water pails, sprinkling pots, water pitchers, painters' 
pails, tin basins, tin foot baths, beer pails, chimney tops, wind gauges, 
dustpans, coal shovels, and coal hods. Skylight frames, roof ventila- 
tors, coal-hole covers, foot scrapers, door knobs, hinges, and the like 
are worthy of attention. A full price list of one of the principal Bel- 
gian houses manufacturing these goods has been forwarded to the 
Philadelphia Museums. It will without doubt serve for useful com- 
parison. 

BRASS AND IRON BEDSTEADS. 

Only the commoner grades of these kinds of bedsteads are manufac- 
tured in Belgium; most of them are made in prisons, and hence sell 
very cheaply. There are only a few manufacturers in the coun try who 
attempt to compete. The pricesof iron bedsteads, without brass finish, 
range from *1.50 to $0 retail, sold by merchants, who calculate to 
make about 30 per cent profit- There are, however, many peddlers 
and merchants of blankets and bed clothing who offer iron beds to 
their clients at cost prices, in order to sell them other articles. The 
better class of brass bedsteads is imported almost entirelj^ from 
England. Their manufacture has been tried in Belgium, but without 
success. Retail prices vary from *19.36 to J|;96.50, and are even 
higher; wholesale quotations are about 30 per cent less. All these 
metallic manufactures pay a duty of 10 per cent as articles of furni- 
ture. The number of brass and iron bedsteads in use is considerable, 
and it would seem that some trade might be obtained in the better 
class of these articles. 

BICYCLES. 

In reply to a recent inquiry, I furnished certain information rela- 
tive to this trade, which, revised to date, is as follows: 

The American wheel began to appear in this country in the early 
part of 1895. It has always been regarded as too lightly built for the 
roads of west,ern Belgium, but of late the wheels shipped to this 
market are stronger. Otherwise the American wheel is received with 
favor. Until the recent reduction in prices it was rather dear for the 

Digitized by xjkjkjwl\^ 



170 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



market, but reliable dealers tell me that with present quotations our 
manufacturers will strongly compete with their foreign rivals. The 
future of American bicycles, although most flattering, is not, how- 
ever, without a cloud on the horizon. Belgian manufacturers have 
lowered their prices for 1898 in order to meet foreign competition, and 
hope indeed to be able to so much undersell tlieir rivals as to exclude 
them from Belgium. A bad tendency of American exporters is their 
occasional desire to get rid of defective machines, by shipping them 
abroad. Such a policy has already endangered the trade in this 
vicinity. Single and double tube tires and metal rims are preferred. 
The number of licensed bicycles in this city of 200,000 inhabitants is 
about 6,000. The wheel for this country should weigh at least 28 to 
30 pounds. The terms to dealers are generally liberal. Most native 
and English manufacturers make contracts with dealers, by which the 
latter agree to pay a certain per cent monthly on the bicycles sold. 
Manufacturers also contract to take back stocks remaining on hand at 
the end of the year. The length of credit for balance remaining due 
after payment of per cent mentioned paid upon sale, varies according 
to the reputation and standing of the local dealer. France is the chief 
competitor in this locality. 

CLOCKS. 

All kinds of clocks are in use in Belgium. In the cities, there is a 
good demand for mantel clocks. Most of these are more or less orna- 
mental in design, the body being frequently in marble or bronzed 
ware. In the country districts, the prevailing style, aside from the 
old-fashioned " grandfather " clocks, is the round clock which hangs 
on the wall and is run by weights. Most of these wall clocks are 
imported from Germany and Switzerland. Clocks with pendulums 
come chiefly from France. There are no statistics as to quantity or 
value of these articles imported into Belgium ; it is known, however, 
in a general way, that very few clocks are manufactured in the coun- 
try. The works, at least, are not made here, even though they may 
be imported in pieces and subsequently put together. The duty on 
clocks is 10 per cent ad valorem. Wall clocks retail from $2 to $10; 
pendulum clocks, for average good grade, from $5 up; alarm clocks 
from 68 cents to $1.25; mantel clocks vary greatly in price, according 
to material and ornamentation. 

WATCHES. 

Most of the watches sold in Belgium are of Swiss and German man- 
ufacture. The import duty is 29 cents each on those in gold cases, 
and 10 cents each on those in cases of other metal. The following 
tables indicate the total import and export of these articles: 





Importation of tcatches and 


f^upplies into Belgium, 






Country. 


1898. 


1894. < 1895. 


1896. 


Oomutny . ... 




$310,188.06 
14,583.27 
.'i«,9tt9..35 

3,078.84 


1382,316.28 

30,143.71 

54.079.41 

1,306.80 


$398,057.68 
42,126.11 
48.972.97 
2,209.66 


1285,651.81 


Svritzerland 


260.033.73 


Prance 


79.881.74 


England 


8,239.17 


UnitedStates - 


4,545.15 














Total iiTiDortfi . 


386,140.89 


335,764.95 


493,254.54 


641,403.85 







Digitized by 



Google 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 
Exportation of watcliea and supplies from Belgium. 



171 



Country. 


1893. 


1894. 


am. 


189(). 


Switzerland 


£31.60 

^7.74 

2,486.42 

1,362.39 


"il'm'Th' 

1,747.42 

S,2U6.76 

3.86 


IP92.63 
1,563.69 
2.5W.97 
1,576.23 
77.20 


$1,061.72 


Holland 

England 

France .. 

Germany 


1,05:178 
76:j 32 
66r).06 
584.79 









Total exports 


4,641.84 


6,460.^ 


7,066.5U 


4 974 68 







Importation and exportation of wafcheSy exclusive of supplies ^ during 1896, 



Country. 



Germany 

Switzerland . . 

France 

England 

United States. 

Total imports 



Importation. 



Quantity. 



Pieces. 

42,388 

29.466 

11,831 

1,42:3 

7B!> 



Value. 



$245,426.52 

170,608.14 

68,501.49 

8,289.17 

4,545.15 



499,862.28 



Coup try. 



Switzerland.. 

Holland 

France 

Germany 

Total exports 



Exportation. 




CHROME KID. 

This method of taniiing kid is a recent industry for Belgium. The 
greater part of kid thus prepared has heretofore come from America. 
Among those, however, who are acquainted with the article, chrome 
kid is preferred because of its fine finish. As I am informed, an effort 
is being made to introduce this process of tanning at Brussels. The 
prices of this article, although coming from different countries, vary 
little. Persons in the trade say that there is a good opening in 
Belgium for the introduction of chrome kid. 

SHOE ELASTICS. 

Shoe elastics are manufactured at Sweveghem, Belgium, especially 
the ordinary article in wool. The superior qualities in wool, as well 
as in silk, are imported from England and France. No statistics 
exist showing the quantity of shoe elastics imported, but the general 
impression of those in the trade is that about one-third of all the 
elastics used come from abroad. This article sells by the meter 
(39.37 inches). The ordinary width is about 3 inches. The qualities 
in wool. sell to shoemakers at 15 to 32 cents per meter; the better 
qualities in silk, from 34 to 58 cents per meter. The demand is chiefly 
for the ordinarj^ and medium qualities. The Belgian tariff does not 
specially mention shoe elastics, but I am inclined to think that they 
would be rated according to the article predominating in their manu- 
factui-e. Manufactured rubber pays a 20 per cent duty; manufac- 
tured wool 10 per cent, and manufactured silk 15 per cent. 

NUTS. 

Walnuts grow in Belgium, the past season's crop being estimated at 
about 3,300 tons, of which more than 2,200 tons were exported to 
England. The average prices this year have been for pickle nuts — 
that is, green walnuts without wood inside — from $1.50 to $2.00 per 110 

Digitized by VJVJV>'Vi\^ 



172 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



pounds; for dried walnuts, 13.75 to $4 per 110 pounds. Quotations 
this year have, however, been lower than usual, walnuts having sold 
in other years as high as *8.50 per 110 pounds. 

EGGS. 

Belgium has a large trade in eggs. Both imports and exports are 
considerable, the import, trade being the more important, but the 
exportation has more than doubled during the past four years. The 
The statistics of the total trade as hereunder given show full details: 

Total importation and ej:portation of eggs. 



Yeiir. 



Importation. 



Exportation. 



Quantity. 



I 



1893 , 151,191,127 

1894 109,801.521 

1895 108,756,408 

1896.. 165,990,116 



Value. 



12,04^,692.15 
1,476,668.65 
1,401,748.96 
2,212,526.44 



Quantity. 



61,042,795 
77,939,099 
110.276,787 
129,293,597 



Value. 



$824,688.23 
1,062,957.24 
1,489,839.38 
1,746,756.54 



For purchases made by Belgium, Russia is by far the most impor- 
tant country, with a trade which has been developed almost entirely 
within the last four years. Germany, Italy, and Austria, on the 
other hand, are losing their importance as sources of supply. The 
United States does not appear for any number whatever. 

Importation of eggs into Belgium, 



Countries. 



1894. 



Quan- 
tity. 



value. I «?-- 



Russia — 

Italy 

Qerxnauy. 
Holland .. 
Austria .. 



Jv 



70, 655, 208 $953, 189. 17 13. 180, 560 1178, 190. 92 



54.7-32,879' 739,441.U9!71,513,856 
14, 481 , 8751 195, 660. 081 17, 674, 613 
4,284,560 57,884.661 3,926,818 
4,786,840 64,670.25 1,269,410 



Value. 



966,152 21 

238,784.04 

63,051.26 

17,149.79 



1896. 



1896. 



Quan- 
tity. 



Value. 



-I- 



Quan- 

tity. 



Value. 



2,269,460 
76,l«8,524 
14,207,526 

3,273,»fi0 

2,705,000 



$30, 660. 37 88, 9m, 099,$1,201,446.65 
1, 027, 2Ki. mm, 276, 780 760, 299. 38 

191,943.71111,173,016 150,917.42 
44, 230. 971 6, 734, 6081 90. 984. 45 
36, 544. 55i 1, 025, 900 13, 849 91 



I 



It is in the exportation of eggs that Belgium has made the greatest 
progress. 
The figures of this trade follow: 

Exportation of eggs from Belgium. 



H?tT' i v*^"^ 




1, 89511416, 268. n 37, 821, 388 $510, 066. 92,47, 851, 09911646. 468. 55 »;, 518, 594|$844, 626. 09 
Germany. .....I 1.015,030 13.712.84 9.413,614 127, 177. 74 ;34, 7315, 528| 409,277.5738,367.7101 5l8.;H7.82 

„ ,^ .. ..... — .^,^ ^^ «.. .». 406,951.3824,878,3341 329,851.2221,:i28,ft% 288,154.09 

7,419.31| 3,162,418 42,589.12 6,443,938| 87,067.67 

' I 



France and Grermany are the principal markets for Belgian eggs. 
The French trade within four years has more than doubled, while the 
demand from Germany has increased enormously. 

Between 1871 and 1880, the average annual production of 3,967,000 

Digitized by VJ\^^^v i\^ 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



173 



hens was oflBcialv stated to have been 301,132,000 eggs, valued at 
*7,000,000. 

As nearly as I can estimate the local consumption, I should judge that 
the Belgians eat about half as many eggs as Americans. The lowest 
quotations prevail in March, April, and May, when the price per 
piece, wholesale, is 1 cent; the dearest season is in the late fall and 
January, when quotations often go up to 3 cents per egg wholesale. 

Large purchasers generally buy when eggs are cheap and hold them 
until the dear season, by packing in meal and chalk. There is no 
import duty payable on fresh eggs. I should advise prospective 
exporters to try to sell to some large firm, like Delhaize Fr^res, of Brus- 
sels, which has branch stores in almost every town of the kingdom. 

SOAP. 

The classification of soap made by the custom-house authorities of 
Belgium is "hard" and "soft." In 1896, perfumery soap was for the 
first time mentioned as a separate article. When we examine statis- 
tics, we see that Belgium is chiefly an importing country. 



Countries. 



France 

Eogland .. . . 
UDited Staten. 

Total importa- 
tiOHH 



Pounds.! Value. Pounds.! Value. 



Importation of hard soap into Belgium, 

1808. I 1894. 1805. 



1806. 



Pounds. 



1, 1()0. 005 $S08. 274. 68 1, 604, 21 1' $520, 100. 85 1, 808, 860 



1,630,088' 340,542.521,255,6721 
2.2M! 604.00 2,286; 



707.76; 



246 



Value. |Pounds.| Value. 



$555, 402. 061, 482, S» 



385,548.3811.401.960 457,016.27! 273,801 



75.86. 



171,581.06 
13,210.85 



ill ' 

3,084,873, 047,706.333,200.364 1,010,201.313,664.060 1, 125, 311. 08 2, 061, 948| 111,068.77 



France supplies the larger quantity of this kind of soap. England 
comes next, but considerably behind France. The figures for the 
United States, as seen by the foregoing table, are insignificant. In 
exports, France and Holland are ordinarily the principal purchasers, 
but the trade is variable. 



Exportation 


of hard soap from Belgium, 






I 1803. 

Countries. ' , — 

iPounds. Value. 


1804. 1805. 


1806. 


Pounds. 


Value. 1 Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Holland ' 81,710 '$26,001.64 

l>enniark , , . I ... 


178,202 


$54,748.87 


126.361 


$38,078.60 


81,128 

22.587 

11,605 

1,280 


$1,501.08 
1,060.87 


England .'....-I 86.280 111,142.47 

UnitedStates 28 1 8.11 

France i 133,005 40.838. HO 


76,311 
1.137 


23,430.07 

840.14 

33,202.18 


58,212 

1.060 

186,006 


17,878.73 

601.77 

57.380.13 


402.73 
61.76 






iu,m 








Total exportations. 2««.8.W 82,560,l.'i 305,082 


121,584.60 


127,130.14 1 121.227 1 5.840.25 
1 



In the local trade, I have obtained a few details. Ordinary brown 
soap, manufactured chiefly in Belgium, sells wholesale in casks at 
from $4.25 to $4.83 per 220 pounds. Ordinary white soap, the ** Mar- 
seilles," so called, manufactured in Belgium and imported both from 
Marseilles and England, sells from $5.80 to IlLOG per 220 pounds 
wholesale. Retail prices are 10 to 15 per cent higher for these articles. 
Both ordinary brown and white soaps entering Belgium pay a duty of 
19.3 cents to $1.93 per 220 pounds. ^ j 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



174 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Perfumery soaps are not manufactured in any quantity in this 
country- According to the statistics of the Ministre des Finances for 
1896, most perfumery soaps come from England; other sources of 
supply are France and Germany. The statistics of these imports and 
exports are shown in the following tables: 

Importation and exportation of perfumery soap. 



Importation. 


1 


Exportation. 




Countries. 


Value. 1 Country. 


Value. 


England .. 


|64,e»8.23 
33,819.97 
19,348.44 


Frano6 


$15,931.96 


Prance 


England 


9,842.42 


Gftrmany . . . , - - - - ... 


Holland 


8.490.46 






China 


3,298.&5 




Total exportation s 




Total imtjortationfl 


118,874.10 ' 


39,621.36 









Information obtained from local dealers does not fully agree with 
official statistics, at least for this market. At Ghent, I ^m informed, 
German soap has the preference over French and English makes. 
Ordinary qualities are reported to come from Germany; France fur- 
nishes the superior qualities, while Pears' soap is said to be the only 
English make known here. 

The Germans have recently worked up this trade. Many of their 
soaps are, indeed, imitations of French brands, but, although con- 
trary to law, they manage to find a sale. The Belgium custom duty 
on these styles of soap is 12 per cent ad valorem. 

The annual consumption of all kinds of soaps in this consular dis- 
trict is estimated for me by several well-informed persons in the trade 
to be at least 1,000,000 pounds, of which quantity four-fifths, it may 
be safely said, is imported. The two following tables indicate the 
total amount and value of the importation and exportation of soft 
soap during the past four years, subtraction made in 1896 of per- 
fumery soaps, of which details have been given in a previous table. 

Importation of soft soap into Belgium. 



Countrie*. 


1883. 


1894. 


1896. 


1896. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Germany 


108,426 
41.452 


$2,868.61 
1,091.08 


133.700 
39.215 


13,518.97 


111.835 


$2,943.25 


124,061 


$2,720.72 


England 


1.082.16 1 28! 765 












Total importationB 


1M,826 


4,128.27 


214,515 1 5.645.64 ' 154,699 4,640.69 174,913 

1 1 1 


8,886.07 


Exportation of soft soap from Belgium, 


ConntrieB. 


1893. 


1894. 


1885. 


1896. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Holland 


73,881 
66,7(B 


$1,931.16 
1.492.28 


122,364 


13,219.63 


127,747 


$3,862.06 


121,515 


$2,665.14 


Brazil .. . 














1 


Total exportations. 


163.640 


4.909.15 


205.696 


5,413.46 


210.822 


5,535.24 


156.119 


3,424.01 



From the preceding tables, it will be seen that Germany is the 
principal shipper of these grades of soap to this countrj\ ^ „^oOqIc 

igi i^e y g 



EUKOPE: BELGIUM. 175 



MEDICINES AND DRUGS. 

During my residence here, I have been impressed with the difficulty 
of obtaining many familiar medicinal preparations. There seems to 
be scarcely any better index of the differences which exist among' 
nationalities, than the medicine which people take and how they 
take it. In Belgium, as in all continental countries, the physician 
has a relatively clear field ; he is little hampered by the existence of 
patent medicines. Few people attempt to cure themselves by reme- 
dies already prepared. A doctor's prescription is considered indis- 
pensable. Druggists also are interested in keeping out anything 
which competes with prescription compounding. These two reasons 
may in a measure account for the absence of very many remedies 
which, if once introduced, would find a ready market and regular 
sale. Compounded remedies, it seems to me, might be placed upon 
this market, unless their sale would conflict with local regulations 
through the agency of the so-called "druguists," who are not really 
chemists, but still sell many of the commoner and coarser articles and 
bottled preparations found in American drug stores. I would say 
that they are much better prepared and more willing than the regular 
chemists (French, pharmaciens) to sell all kinds of patent medicines, 
such as remedies for rheumatism and pain, ointments, inhalers, cod- 
liver oils, preparations of beef, wine, and iron, etc. Many American 
specialties of this order would find a good sale in Belgium, if properly 
advertised and pushed. 

Of the other lines of drugs, for which I am disposed to believe a 
market might be had, medicinal wines, fluids, extracts, and pills are 
the principal; all simple drugs which are used in the prescription 
department should be introduced through wholesale drug houses. 
Very little advertising of American drugs has been attempted here, 
and such as is done is ineffective because of failure to employ the lan- 
guage, terms, and weights and measures of this country. All articles 
sold by weight or measure should be quoted in accordance with the 
metric system, and prices should be expressed in francs. American 
circulars, untranslated and unadapted to the needs of the country to 
which they are sent, are practically worthless. 

All medicinal preparations should be accompanied by directions for 
use printed in the Flemish (Dutch) language, otherwise their sale will 
be limited to the comparatively small circle of French-speaking people. 
With proper advertising and reasonable distribution of free samples 
I have no doubt of the possibility of the introduction of many Ameri- 
can drug specialties upon this market. There is a need for many of 
them, and the fact of their absence is almost entirely due to ignorance 
of their existenoe. 

CONCLUSION. 

The scattering remarks made upon the various articles mentioned 
in this rei)ort are fully recognized in many instances" as insufficient 
and defective; in the treatment of so many widely different subjects, 
and without any technical knowledge thereof, it is almost impossible 
not to fall into some error. I can only say that I believe the details 
herein given are reasonably exact. In order, however, not to cause 
disappointment to those seeking trade, my advice to interested per- 
sons is to make a separate and special investigation, and verify the 
preceding statements before venturing upon any extended efforts 
for trade* uigmzed by vj^wgn^ 



176 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



In a general manner, it may be said that this consular district offers 
good opportunities for the introduction of foreign products. Trade 
relations with the other nations of the world are increasing yearly. 
There are in the two Flanders 1,700,000 inhabitants; Ghent, with its 
suburbs, is a city of 200,000 inhabitants, with favorable land and 
water transportation facilities. Numerous towns of from 10,000 to 
50,000 inhabitants exist within a radius of 50 miles.^ The market is 
here; other nationalities — the Germans, the English, and the French — 
are striving to obtain it. It remains for American manufacturers 
and exporters to decide whether they will be excluded, or, as a result 
of a reasonable degree of activity, share an equitable proportion of 
this trade. 

Henry P. Morris, Consul. ' 

Ghent, December 18, 1897, 



L.IEGE. 

The value of the declared exports from this consular district to the 
United States for the year ending December 31, 1896, amounted to 
$1,565,956.94. For the year 1895, such exports represented the value 
of $2,508,852.98; a decrease for the year 1896 of $942,896.04. 

For the first half of the year 1897, the declared exports were valued 
at $1,714,058.03. For the same period of 1896, the value was $765,032. 05, 
showing the large increase for the first two quarters of 1897 over the 
same quarters of 1896 of $949,025.98. The principal exports from this 
consular district to the United States are firearms, glassware, straw 
braids for making or ornamenting hats, superphosphate, lime and 
lime dust, wool, woolen goods, and yarns, salt-ed sheepskins, and 
hones. 

Value of declared exports from the consular district of Liege to the United States 
for thefirnt half of ihe years 1897 and 1896. 



1897 



1896 



Liege: 

Arsenic 

Cigars 

Firearms 

Glassware 

Indigo auxiliary . . . 

Lamp flztnres 

Machinery 

Paper, writing — 

Straw goods 

Sagar 

Snperphoephate . . . 

Zinc and zinc dnst 
Varioos 



Total- 



-|- 



$412, 
68, 



109.34 
897.32 



049.35 
554.41 

uei.78 

409.15 
481.60 
368.82 
168.00 
331.55 



601,460.82 



|9,631.P3 

150.06 

232,694.25 

57,876.27 

2.089.78 

2U0.30 

2,686.67 

1,522.58 

35,248.45 



23,128.63 



13,846.12 
227.54 



379,301.58 



Ver Tiers: 

Card clothing 

Fancy goods 

Flocks 

Hones 

Machinery 

Paper tubes 

Pins 

Religious articles . 
Salted sheepskins. 

Wool 

Woolen goods 

Woolen rasrs 

Woolen yarns 

Various 



Total. 



Ifc97 



44, 

395, 
15. 

7, 



$938.21 
278.68 
,8U3.47 
,227.94 
,872.56 
672.50 
124.30 
173.46 
070.29 
823.13 
154.00 
615.26 
843.33 



1,112,597.21 



61.18 
89.40 



3,583.23 

7,298.01 



7,079.09 
146,900.03 
214,300.97 



2,801.60 
3,310.96 



385,730.47 



* See ConBolar Reports, voL 46, No. 169, p. 224, for a description of the district. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUKOPE: BELGIUM. 



177 



Value of declared exports from the several consulates of the United States and their 
agencies in Belgium to the United States for the calendar years 1896 and 1895, 

1896 18,367,125.26 

1895 : 811,216,117.68 

Decrease, 1896 2,151,007.58 

Imports from the United States into Belgium for the years 1896 and 1895. 

General imports: 

1896 $39,861,255.00 

1895 81,478,107.00 

Increase for 1896 (27 per cent) 8,483,148.00 

Special imports: 

1896.. . $33,504,800.00 

1895 25,649,700.00 

Increase for 1896 (31 per cent) 7,855,100.00 

The term, general imports, signifies all merchandise entering Bel- 
gium without reference to its ultimate destination, whether it be gen- 
eral warehouse, consumption, or transit. For exports it means all 
goods, Belgian and foreign, going to a foreign country without dis- 
tinction of origin. Special commerce or imports means all merchan- 
dise declared for home consumption, either on arrival or when with- 
drawn from the warehouse. 

Kind and value of merchandise imported into BelgiTimfrom the United States for 
consumption during the year ending December Sl^ 1896. 



Article*. 



Starch 

Animals: 

Cattle 

Horses 

Arms 

Woods: 

Oak and walnut 

Building purposes . . 

Furniture work — 

Cacao 

Coffee 

Caoutchouc 

Conserves, alimentary . 

Drugs 

Frufta 

Grains: 

Cereals 

Flour 

Bran ,.. 

Oils: 

Nonalimentary 

Alimentary 

Machines 

Animal matter: 

Beeswax 

Fat 

Others 

Mineral substances 

Textile fibers: 

Flax 



Value. 



$19,900 

119,868 

909,968 

19,124 

457,608 
783,815 
33,775 
7,918 I 
313.432 I 
12,169 i 
1,158 , 
480.184 

m,tm ! 

I 

10,421.614 I 

50.759 1] 

65,427 , 

489,641 , 
27,699 
109,045 ; 

15,826 I 

1,673,282 I 

383,916 , 

204,608 I 

99.781 



Articles. 



Textile fibers— Continued, 

Cotton 

Wool 

Others 

Hardware 

Metala: 

Copper and nickel 

Tin 

Lead, not worked 

Zinc, not worked 

Honey 

Hides: 

Raw 

Tanned 

Cbemicalproducts 

Resin and bitumen: 

Petroleum 

Others 

Sirup and molasses 

Tobacco: 

Leaf 

Bianufactured 

Dyes and colors 

Vegetable substaiit es: 

Oleaginous grain 

Not cUssifieii 

Others 

Meats 

Miscellaneous 



Value. 



H, 



1, 



876,476 
66,985 

250.900 
12,362 

677,942 

725,873 
21,808 
2,608 
60,566 

222,143 
68,515 
905,808 

1.844,628 
,382,279 



1,185.226 
66,778 
105,764 



72,761 
522,963 
286,244 
243,566 



From the preceding official statistics, it appears that the exx)ort8 
from Belgium to the United States for the year 1896 amounted to 
$11,216,117.68, and that Belgium imported from the United States for 
home consumption merchandise to the value of $33,504,800, showing 
a balance of trade in favor of the United States for the year 1896 of 

C K — VOL 2 12 Digitized by "kjkjkjwik^ 



178 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



$22,288,682.32. Our exports of cereals to Belgium during 1896 were 
of the value of 110,537,800. Belgium, like Great Britain, depends in 
a great measure upon foreign countries for her supplies of alimentary 
articles. Her people live for six months of each year upon imported 
cereals and for four months on imported meats. Belgium occupies a 
remarkable place among the industrial nations of the world. Her 
annual production for her own use and for exportation averages about 
$100 per inhabitant, against $65 in Germany and $115 in Great Britain. 
Financially, she is one of the most prosperous countries of Europe, 
which is surprising, considering that she has practically no merchant 
marine. Great Britain transports about 70 per cent of her exports 
by sea. 

The importations into Belgium from 1875 to 1885 remained nearly 
the same. During the last decade they have increased 25 per cent. 

COMMUNICATION. 

Exports from this consular district to the United States are gener- 
ally forwarded by some of the six lines of vessels leaving Antwerp for 
different ports in the Unit^ States, namely: Red Star Line, Antwerp 
to New York and Philadelphia, weekly. Monthly for Boston and 
Baltimore by Puritan Line. Every two weeks by Wilson Line to New 
York. To New York and Boston monthly by White Cross Line. 
Antwerp to New Orleans monthly by New Orleans Line. Sailing 
vessels leave Antwerp monthly for San Francisco, San Diego, Redona, 
Portland, Port Townsend, Seattle, and Tacoma, Merchandise for the 
United States is also shipped from this consular district via Rotter- 
dam, Hamburg, and London. These shipments are classified by the 
Belgian customs authorities as exports to Holland, Germany, and 
England. Ocean freights fluctuate greatly, according to the season 
and the amount of freight offered. 

The merchant marine of Belgium, at the end of the year 1896, con- 
sisted of 5 sailing vessels with an aggregate tonnage of 917 tons and 
50 steamships of a total tonnage of 84,822 tons. Total combined ton- 
nage of steamships and sailing vessels was 85,739 tons. 

Oeneral and special commerce of Belgium for the years 1896 and 1896. 
GENERAL COMMERCE. 





Importa- 
tions. 


Exporta- 
tions. 


Total. 


1896 


$586,266,800 
660,645,700 


$531.2^2,500 
502,745,700 


$1,117,489,900 


laas 


l,U;3,39l,400 






Increa!ie 


25,611.100 


28,486.800 


54,097,900 







SPECIAL COMMERCE. 



1896 


$360,002,900 
324,317,200 


$285,794,400 
287,882,200 


$646,797,300 


1885 


591,609,400 






Increase 


35,685,700 


18,412,200 


54,097,900 







During the year 1895, the customs receipts of Belgium from general 
and special commerce amounted to $7,375,609.83; the same receipts 
for 1896 were $9,006,076.53. The duties collected upon merchandise 
imported from the United States for consumption in Belgium in 1896 
were $1,041,612.50. j 

Digitized by vjOOQIC 



EUROPE: BELGIUM. 



179 



Percentage of increase and decrease of importations into Belgium for the years 

1896 and 1805. 

INCREASE FOR IMS. 



CouDtrief*. 



Percent. 



Roumania 

Australia 

Sweden 

Turkey 

Spain 

Qreeoe 

Enf?llBh India 

Cape of Good Hope 
Switzerland 



Countries. • 



28 
34 
16 
27 
40 
11 
4 
150 
36 



• Percent. 



Japan 

Dutch India 

Norway 

China 

Singapore 

Portugal 

Denmark 

Algiers, Morocco. 



11» 
80 
6 
16 

m 

14 
19 
5 



DECREASE FOR 1896. 



Russia.... 
Bulgaria . 
Austria .. 
Egypt.... 



24 



Gibraltar and Malta . 

I Congo 

I Philippines 

Italy 



68 
3 
65 

1 



Value of all merchandise imported into Belgium for the year 1896 according to 

country. 



Countries. 



Aden 

Algiers, Morocco, Tunis, Zanzibar 

England 

Germany 

Australia and New Guiana 

Austria 

Bahama Islands 

Barbados 

Brazil 

Bulgaria 

Canada 

Cape of Good Hope. Guiana, Mauritius, Senegambia. . 
Chile . 



China 

Cochinchina....r 

Colombia 

Costa Rico 

Cuba and Porto Rico 

Curasao 

Denmark 

i^\::::- ;:::;::::::;:::::::;:::::.::::: 

Congo 

United States 

Falkland 

France 

Gibraltar and Malta 

Greece 

English Guiana 

French Guiaua 

Haiti .. 

English India 

Dutch India 

Italy 

Jamaica 

Japan 

LifaerU 

Madagascar 

Martinique 

Mexico 

Norway 

New Caledonia 

Holland 

Peru 

Philippine Islands 

Portugal. Azores, Madeira, Cape Yerde . 

Argentine Republic 

Roumania 



General com- 
merce. 



128,981.40 

806,677.91 

66,204,862.96 

107.816.287.51 

14.306.146.94 

4,702,674.67 

27,891.68 



*i4,*ii9,*7fl9.'88' 

1.460,069.70 

822,226.06 

1.075,404.49 

8.245,366.84 

1,290,041.62 

7,042.18 

3,786.69 

41,474.15 

208,308.98 

68.89 

881,425.35 

479,262.98 

6,018,172.34 

2,719,610.60 

39.861,266.00 

22.889.22 

108,768,287.42 

4,980.75 

1,700,124.49 

190.68 

1,256.04 

120,277.60 

14,461,123.20 

1,181,706.06 

10,748,514.75 

13,110.68 

471,968.28 

584.21 

7.72 

62.14 

336,416.87 

3,828,496.60 

38.60 

55,280,888.21 

1,283,218.13 

46,657.23 

770,111.10 

22,714.197.21 

24,844.860.81 

28,806,300.90 



Special com- 
merce. 



1^,281.65 

706,897.23 

39.684,338.63 

41.571.168.02 

5. 400, 872. b5 

1,216.291.86 

2,867.33 

64.28 

8,018,613.04 

1.460.136.48 

296,260.98 

628,012.82 

8,241,774.92 

909,651.15 

7,042.18 

16,433.37 

2,089.23 

189.982.67 

63.39 

316.767.10 

422,771.17 

4,369,047.85 

2,6L5,895.84 

88,504,800.00 



60,947,888.65 

4,162.04 

1,698,007.02 



1,266.04 

88,068.04 

9,668,970.80 

668.972.08 

8,774.662.98 

10,626.42 

438,283.54 

584.21 

7.72 

14.28 

823,761.90 

3,309.825.08 

38.60 

84.108,660.27 

1,247,967.55 

21,807.17 

681.167.98 

16,447.876.49 

24, 816. 3110. 93 

21,238,986.94 



uigitized by VJ^^v.'V i\^ 



180 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Value of dU merchandise imparted into Belaium for the year 1896 according to 

coun/rj^— Ckmmined. 



Countries. 



' General com- ( Special com- 
meroa merce. 



flerria 

tiiam , 

Hingapore... 

Sweden 

Switzerland 
Trinidad.... 

Turkey 

Urugruay..., 
Venezuela .. 
Wreckage... 



$1,477.18 

2,497.16 

842,717.40 

6,941,915.07 

31,488,770.07 

994.52 

8,412.624.84 

4,450,730.92 

18,863.39 

8,186.62 



11,468.92 

2,497.16 

167,886.33 

6,642,835.73 

1,142,067.15 

994.52 

3,129,164.54 

2,709,139.64 

10,7»152 

2.135.77 



Imports into Belgium from the United States for the first six months of the 

year 1897. 

SPECIAL COMMERCE. . 

[ 1 kilo = 2. 2046 pounds. 1 cubic meter contains 85 cubic feet. ] 



Articles. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Animals, live horses 


number.. 


2,089 




Animal m^tt^r . ... ... 


$77,767.22 

1,803.07 

623. U8 


Arms 




Artistic objects 




Beans, pease, and lentils 


kilos.. 

do... 


264,162 

286,278 
6,763,0a0 




Bicycles 




Bran. . 


.do 




Books: 

Bound..*... .... 




864 36 


Not bound 


kllOB.. 

do 


316 

344,506 

2,880,601 

60,964 




OolTee -. 




Copper and nickel 


do... 

do... 




Copper and nickel, worked 

Chemical products 


' '476,948.'27 


Drugs: 

Gums 


kilos 


8,793 

4,424,047 

190,113 




Various 


do... 




Dyes and colors 


do. 




Fruits: 

Not classified 




63,960.58 


Prunes 


kilos 


114,283 
85 

2,677 
400,437 
440,637 




Fresh : 


do. . 




Flour: 

Not dasaified 


do... 

do... 

do... 




Wheatandrye 




Barley, oatmeal, corn meal, and buckwheat 




Furniture 


2,445.50 


Fats: 

Oleaginous 


kilos.. 

do... 

do 


425.766 

708,844 

8,433,618 

679 

66,129.534 
11,507,211 
40.062.873 
14,287,966 
98,846,568 
8,067,450 




Not classified 




Tallow 




Fish, preserved 


do... 

... . do 




Grain: 

Wheat 




Bye 


do. 




Barley 


.... do 




Gate?.::::;.;::::::::::::::::::::::::::::;::::::::::: 


do... 




Com 


do 




Buckwheat 


do 




Hardware 


7,0tt0. 12 


Honey 


kilos 


164,984 

39,490 
10.096 

8,816,144 

10,566 

6,407 

1,739 

129,481 

7.418,315 

661,680 




Hides: 

Raw 


do... 




Tanned 


do 




^"^ 


... . do 




Ca«t (worked) 

Wrought 


do... 

do 




Lead 


do... 




Meat: 

Preserved 


do... 




Hams, tongues, and bacon 

Metals, cast steel 

Mineral subatanoes 


do... 

do... 




74,*6ii.*36 


Machinery: 

Railway and tram oars 

CnHt Hteel (not classified) 


kilos.. 

do. . 


66,198 


DDgk:: 


Iron and steel 


do... 



EUROPE: BELOIUM. 



181 



Imports into Belgium from the United States for the first six m^ntlis of the 

year i^^— Oontiiiaed. 



Articles. 


kUoe.. 

do... 


Quantity. 

8.824 886 
83,241,968 

2*. 880 


Value. 


OilB. not alimentary 

Oilcake 






Paper^not classified 

Perfmnes ........ 


do... 


ii!672.36 


Plants and vegetable matter: 

Oleaginous ^ 

Not classified 


kUoe.. 

do... 

dn 


279,460 
260,987 
84i.2l4 






Wood pulp 




Living 


TA) (10 


Not classified 




8,786.06 


Resin and bitumen rubber: 

Petroleum ...^ -- 


kilos.. 

do 


60,079.505 
15,661,654 




Tint o.lAsniflAd ... 




Bubber . 


1.296.38 


8tone: 

Building, lime, and macadam 

Sirup and molasses 

Starch 


kUos.. 

do... 

do... 


8.082,616 

137,843 

1.183,191 

2,413,354 
3,535 
2. SOB 

1,029,042 

818,620 

13, 438, 982 

12.361 

5.529 








Tobacoo: 

I,^eaf 


do 




Cigars and cigarettes 

Not.rlnJUiiflMr 


do.. 

do... 

do... 






Tin 




Textile fibers: 

Hemp .,-.- --- - - 


do... 




Cotton 


do . 




Wool 


do... 




Silk 


do 




Not ciass'ifle'd 


27,374.15 


Vermicelli and macaroni 


kilos.. 

do... 


i66,222 
108,379 

1.484 
8.<Vi2 
1,294 

20,175 




Wax 




Wood: 

Oak and walnut 


..... cubic meters 




Oak and walnut, sawed . n - , 


do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 




Oak and walnut lumber 




Oak beams, sa^u'ed . . r . . . . 




Other sawed beams 




Worked 


4,553.27 


Btayos 




1,137.52 


1 




Liege, September '28, 1898. 


Henry \V. ( 


7ILBEKT, 


Consul 



DECLARED EXPORTS, BBLaiTJM. 

Value of exports declared for the United States at the several consular offices in 
Belgium during the year ended June SO, 1897, 



ArticleR. 



Sept.8() 



Quarter ending- 
Dec. 31. Mar. 31. 



ANTWERP. 

Acids 

Albumen of blood. . . 

Animals 

Animal hair 

Aniline Baits 

Bed feathers 

Beet sugar 

Bleaching powder .. 

Books 

Bricks 

Canvas 

Cement 

Chicory 

Clay 

Coffee 

Cotton goods 

Coke..:. 



j7, 306. 34 I 110.106.07 



4.478.14 
8,568.07 

14.123.25 
124,098.13 

10,855.04 
8.(J67.39 



1,557.93 
68, 79b. 39 



4.378.62 



10,873.62 



2,240.27 

466,889.44 

9,403.04 

6,173.12 



532.34 
30,660.74 



223.83 
20, 97.'. 45 



2,586.90 



$9,088.84 
'63,'753.66 



789.066.89 
3, 972. 78 
3,603.83 



a')7. 82 

62,100.50 

6,521.35 



482.68 



June 3D. 



$3,207.12 



299.45 
18,111.58 
7.985.30 



1.405.020.16 
19,151.14 
5,910.42 
1.415.;il I 
1.251.29 
92,591.90 
48,874.37 



5.260.90 
1,218.88 
1,946.71 



Total. 



$3,207.12 

26,500.25 

299.45 

82,216.99 

11.553.87 

16. da), 52 

2,776.069.12 

4:3, .382. 00 

23.814.76 

1,415.21 

3,689.38 

242. 150. .53 

55,305.72 

223.83 

80,611.97 

1,676.48 

i»488.«l 



uig tized by \^vjyjWL\^ 



182 



COMMEBCIAL RELATIONS. 



Valiie of exportH declared for tlie United States at the several considar offices in 
Belgium during the year ended June SO, i^57— Continued. 



Articlea 



A NTWERp-^continued. 



Diamonds _. 

Fiber 

Flax 

Fumitare 

Gin 

Glass 

Glue 

Glycerin 

Gam 

Hides 

India rubber 

Ivory 

Linoleum 

Manila rope 

Marble 

Matches 

Meat extract 

Nails 

Oil 

Paintings 

Paper 

Paper stock 

Paraffin 

Peabe and preserved vegeta- 
bles :. ...... 

Pheasai)tf> 

Phosphate 

Pitch 

Potash 

Bags 

band 

Sardines 

Seed 

Soda 

Steel plates 

Straw covers 

Sulphur 

Tar 

Tobacco 

Wine 

Wool 

Woolens 

Wool grease 

Zinc 

Sundries 



Total. 



Aniline colors . 
Arms (guns)... 



lids and button stock 

Braids (hat beads), jet on 

wire 

Bronze ornaments 

Carpets 

Cement 

Chemicals 

Church regalia and orna- 
ments 

Clay 

Corsets 

Cucurbites 

Diamonds and precious stones 

Earthenware 

Firebricks 

Fur^refuse 

Furniture 

Glass: 

PUte 

Window 

Other 

Glassware 

Gloves 

Glue and glue stock 

"Hn-^r , a.ti<T«^1 _, 



Quarter ending- 



Sept. 30. 



$283,712.18 
937.75 
848.88 
8,121.49 
384.68 
232.87 



24.678.73 



40,910.87 

866.00 

11,988.46 

689.16 

1,248.80 

689.92 

20.809.46 

8,187.10 

8,836.30 

18,511.66 

18,646.49 



2,802.10 
'8,'249.'26 



1,668.86 
3,886.28 
1,180.80 
6,160.90 
9,500.66 



752.46 



11,661.93 
'6,'43i.'a9 



1,216.83 



685,467.84 



1,366.46 



167.28 
828.10 



189,236.77 



298.71 



61,960.63 
3,683.25 



8,482.85 

4,400.42 

6,686.41 

66.64 

60.712.32 

39,050.18 

580. a5 

166.30 

106,323.80 



Dec. 81. 



$128,821.10 
1,967.88 
8,094.64 
2,600.71 



2,982.68 
16,487.65 



27.858.01 

191,218.19 

10,213.72 

m.si 



1,889.96 
63,538.82 



7,296.38 
8,433.82 
7,351.66 



8,288.85 
194.67 
6,856.44 
1,674.29 
7,884.50 
18,610.71 



409.07 



10,757.61 

1,027.15 

238.45 



960.60 
1,808.51 
157,114.91 
10,432.15 
7,607.28 
302.36 
2,333.08 



1.237,722.80 



2,365.21 



121.30 



272.81 

167.96 

88,883.22 

6,992.52 

108.84 



44,255.60 
3,668.48 



1,294.88 

644.75 

4,462.00 



41,844.89 

43,260.78 

83.78 



39,868.26 
780.67 



Mar. 



$167,436.88 

1,147.58 

1,877.88 

987.00 



2,810.21 



6,450.68 

779.86 

38.146.62 

104.1(18.30 

27,311.04 

3,855.95 



3,313.70 
66,175.17 



226.40 
16.112.43 
23,027.83 



4,034.14 
312.28 

2,806.46 
508.93 

8.701.33 
10,300.15 



2,666.03 



1,478.86 



1,829.77 
921,181.84 



4,495.43 
*2;675.'i2 



2,333,688.55 



3,161.75 
531.81 
621.68 
602.18 

122.26 



95,845.21 
2,843.83 

78.16 

387.17 

47,543.04 



00.22 
812.98 

*3*578.'63 



39,824.22 
13,535.57 



9,881.43 
49H.15 
621.29 



June 80. 



$63,183.07 
1,347.40 



1,186.88 
118.09 



49,671.66 

178,009.06 

43,788.97 

6.389.15 



5,375.58 
249,080.06 



4,348.68 

386.00 

30,180.48 



745.82 
10,047.61 



2,848.92 

965.41 

14.4r3.64 

27,171.22 

306.98 



5,877.70 



3.619.93 



761,874.56 
""3,"679.'64" 



2,006.00 



3,074,010.27 



309.82 
532.78 
616.83 



118.38 
166,717.96 



150.64 



64,285.20 



940.0!) 



Total. 



$580,851.73 

5.380.56 

5,822.15 

10,74O.(« 

452.75 

2,513.08 

2.982.58 

47,615.06 

779.86 

116,676.19 

614,241.42 

82,178.73 

22,231.56 

1,614.67 

1,243.60 

11,149.15 

389,604.19 

8,187.10 

8,411.38 

42,306.34 

80.188.62 

7,a51.66 

745.82 

17,3n.60 

506.05 

14.313.91 

3,149.63 

39.308.73 

61,0?2.08 

1,863.33 

6,871.38 

1,180.60 

21,78(J.ll 

10,527.80 

238.45 

4,582.51 

2,231.32 

900.50 

8,138.28 

1,&51,732.73 

10,432.15 

21,113.14 

302.36 

7,721.08 



7,330.779.46 



14,361.67 



117..%2.:« 

1,381.50 



Digitized by VJV7\^ 



7,192.21 

1,064.50 

1,138.51 

623.48 

279.51 

600.91 

286.31 

538,682.10 

9,836.35 

6.'».a'> 

397.17 

218,031.47 

7,296.73 

60.22 

6,631.61 

4,945.17 

15,519.91 

56.64 

171,140.02 

110,198.08 

661.53 

316.98 

^,135.88 

2.610.41 



.^» 



EUBOPE: BELGIUM. 



183 



Value of exports deelaredfor the United States at the several consular offices in 
Belgium during the year ended June 3o^ 1897 — Continued. 



Articles. 



BRUBBKLiS — oontinued. 



HatB 

L.atter8*fnr 

HomstripB 

Hoasehold Koodn and per- 
sonal effects 

Instnxments, masical 

Lacegoods 

Leather 

Linen goods 

Hachinery 

Marble 

Oil 

Paintings, oil 

Paper and books 

Phosphate 

Planfe 

Plants, medicinal . 

Rags and paper stock 

Scales and weights 

Skins, rabbit, sneep. and other 

Soap and perfumery 

Stones: 

Ground flint 

Paving - 

Tiles, encaustic 

Vegetable fibers 

Vegetables, preserved 

Vefls, cotton 

Wines 

Woolen goods 

Sundries 



Total. 



CHAKLBBOI. 



Cement 

Earthen ware . 
Glass: 

Plate 

Window . . . 

Other 

Machinery 

Marble 

Naphthaline... 

Steel 

Snndrieo 

Wool, washed. 



Total. 



QHBNT. 



Acorns 

Albumen 

Baskets 

Books 

Braids, allk 

Cement 

Church regalia 

Chicory, granulated . 

Chicory root 

Cordage , 

Cotton goods 

Effects, nousehold 

Flax 

Firearms 

Glass, art stained — 

Hatters' furs 

Jet trimmings 

Lace 

Laces, silk shoe 

Linen goods 

Matches 

Paintings 

Paper stock 

Plants 

Powder, smokeless. . 



Quarter ending- 



Sept, df). 



IH.867.Q2 
S, 137. 97 
1,452.07 

96.60 

879.02 

90,783.17 

2,090.37 

73,:»2.22 

7&5.16 

508.99 

202.34 

4,027.90 

8,080.28 

7,580.97 



2,029.78 
2,018.08 



Dec. 31. 



11,932.31 
34,614.22 



311.97 
30,479.06 

1,602.62 
64.950.16 

4,879.27 



1,386.42 
2,451.56 
9,647.28 
281.17 
843.63 
3,622.18 



1,741.82 
2,821.11 



364.77 
283.15 



11,685.40 
281.14 



2,121.10 
2,530.19 



705,003.60 



17.0T0.85 
265.07 

7,210.06 
180,142.66 
2,617.29 
3,155.56 
5,021.07 
367. M) 



630.00 



216,368.74 



1,029.66 
709.38 



4,216.83 



1,112.24 
8,399.87 



272.62 



89,511.88 



3,717.47 
276.48 
5,006.33 
3,783.47 
14,017.61 



20L01 
40,620.70 
47,960.57 



1,680.76 

13,721.76 

467.45 

299.73 



1,669.95 
5,046.77 
784.16 
771.71 
1,446.88 
7,808.10 



468,860.52 



0, 
157, 



>, 885.48 
966.08 

997.08 
461.38 
698.11 



641.73 
663.55 
168.00 
345.19 
380.85 



219,067.40 



673.72 



8,998.20 



1,213.98 
18,233.70 



67,417.47 



86.85 
14,837.46 



6,860.97 

2,900.80 

21,668.37 

8,846.10 

477.49 

80,008.88 

47.376.14 

123.04 



Mar.: 



S; 



.60L24 
866.45 
576.82 



1,278.80 

609.36 

28,835.36 

1,694.94 
70,620.35 

1,221.25 



3,326.86 
3,867.39 
9,401.15 



1.112.64 
4,706.66 



184.49 
36,648.66 



812.92 
8,678.78 



2,694.32 
22,121.49 



536.972.97 



June 30. 



1100.30 

26,140.63 

118.87 

117.75 

605.08 

43,919.02 

l,6?i.85 

167,8U.26 

1,523.44 

719.09 



684.11 
5,502.31 
9,307.76 

662.34 



5,562.64 

607 81 

1,201.86 

43,404.75 



8,227.16 
1,617. OB 
8,508.35 
8,248.16 
82,625.98 



765,026.75 



6.213.68 
677.99 

24,520.94 

185,807.20 

1,6^.61 



1,989.07 



66,499.76 



276,687.20 



16,657.83 
480.28 

25.047.38 

386,158.22 

1,065.24 



5,917.78 



1,310.98 
21,134.88 



407,787.50 



2.284.86 



1,172. 

1.26L 

785. 

6,315. 

113. 

1,186. 

67.843. 

453. 

342. 

302. 

52,327. 

19. 



16,875.97 



3.863. 

1,3&5. 
48,905. 

2,933. 

173. 

60,040. 

2,364. 



66 
88 
82 

66 
70 

78 
83 



978.49 
497.80 



7.570.40 



1.197.12 
72,207.27 



1,681.31 

784,74 

75,466.25 



183.86 
19,085.02 



5.466.67 

1,620.80 

22,583.42 

6.531.51 



70,282.06 
80,519.44 



Total. 



$11,400.93 

108,049.27 

2,676.13 

1,548.05 

2.396.33 

194,010.61 

7,060.78 

376,773.09 

7,859.13 

1,288.08 

20:2.34 

9.293.87 

15,000.49 

35,977.16 

883.51 

3,986.06 

15,804.55 

697. Jtt 

4.767.98 

96.491.28 

467.45 

299.73 

364.77 

1,1^.77 

1,669.96 

20,771.33 

6.356.06 

4.275.06 

14,505.46 

65,085.76 



2,474,863.83 



49.827.79 
2,279.37 

66,775.40 

860,064.35 

5,829.25 

1.355.56 

13,519.65 

i,na).a> 

14,168.00 

2.195.17 

101,965.49 



1,119,800.03 



2,284.86 

2.003.15 

3,(163.(^ 

1,251.46 

785.51 

22,095.93 

113.41 

4,710.29 

156,684.29 

453.4:1 

2,29:5.96 

1.087.01 

234,?22.76 

19.11 

270.30 

55.415.92 

276.43 

21,198.6:1 

9,540.45 

117,164.63 

13,310.27 

852.30 

259.831.93 

128,330.98 



184 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Value of exports declared for the United States at the several cownilar oj 
Belgium during the year ended June SO, 1897 — Continaed. 



Articles. 



OHBNT — continued. 



Sirup 

Skins, rabbit 

Sprats, canned 

"Tapestry 

Thread 

Tow 

Wine 

Woolen goods 

Wool and wool waste . 
Yams: 

Tow 

Jute 



Total. 



Arsenic 

Firearms 

GiasMware 

Lamp tlztures. . 
Machinery. 



Paper, writing 

Straw goods (braids • 

Sugar 

Superphosphate 

Zinc 

Miscellaneous 



Total. 



Card clothing 

Fancy goods 

Flocks 

Hones 

Machinery 

Salted sheepekms . 

Wool 

Woolen goods 

Woolen rags 

Woolen yams 

Various goods 



Total. 



Quarter ending- 



Sept. 90. 



Dec. 81. 



$461.04 
♦K7.26 



706.29 

678. 11 
1,139.66 



229.63 
1,022.42 



208,686.75 



Mar. 31. 



June »». 



Total. 



$13,504.03 $47,882.85 I 



i<l,U55.46 



403.41 I 451.65 i 

20,011.62 25,296.66 , 



482.58 
3,140.67 
64,607.01 



707.97 ' 170.3J . 
25,002.13 



4,022.56 



298,447.06 



1.342.06 
8,601.95 

3,830.57 



368,693.85 I 410,741.57 



4,212.68 

219,429.82 

32,978.39 

758.00 

786.95 

977.40 

11,484.05 



7,504.81 

10,782.04 

60.00 



4,201 
111,082. 
28,015. 

1,477. 

2,146. 

596. 

15,805. 

8,630. 
12,547. 
11,248. 



16 1. 
96 I 
52 ' 
25 I 
45 
63 
86 
00 
54 ! 
50 , 



165,409.54 

31,402.52 

791.15 

4,505.61 

720.78 

18,750.15 

7.048.00 

7,032.32 

14,621.15 

168.00 



246,609.80 
37,494.80 
2,268.20 
1.958.80 
1.362.00 
10,660.00 
13,483.60 
8,-836.00 
28,710.40 



M40.80 I 



208.90 



2,316.35 
1,331.14 
1.405.12 
1,461.86 
73,418 66 



1.485.18 



82,658.61 



2,874.74 

1,006.21 

51,651.93 

79,198.09 

108.342.52 



.518.12 

161.56 

508.67 

2,233.10 

1,259.90 

16,007.19 

196,524.84 

119,919.68 



647.80 
124.30 



238,602.27 I 3:16,905.16 



420.00 

117.12 

1.204.80 

1,994.84 

612.66 

29,063.10 

.543,298.29 

175.2IH.32 

15,615.26 

7,ia5.52 

846.05 



$461.04 

1,682.71 

61,477.78 

482.53 

4,702.02 

127,910.80 

678. 11 

8,360.00 

33,694.08 

8,091.76 
1,022.42 



1,281,569.28 



8,418.84 

742,622.12 

129,891.23 

6,284.60 

9, 48 {.81 

8,665.81 

56,608.56 

24,111.60 

85,510.17 

65,312.09 

228.00 



1.081,224.83 



1,142.11 

1,748.86 

1,808.47 

9,419.03 

4,200.01 

07,127.34 

820,478.08 

471,015.18 

15,615.28 

7,843.32 

2,455.58 



775,602.05 I 1,433,758.00 

^1 



RECAPITULATION. 



Antwerp . 
Brussels .. 
Charleroi . 

Ghent 

Liege 

Verviers.. 

Total 



$685,457.84 
705,443.50 
216,868.74 
203,686.15 
280,012.64 
82,658.61 



$1,237.?22.80 '$2,333,588.55 ;$3, 074, 010. 27 



2,182,087.67 



468,860.62 
210,(«7.40 
298,447.06 
190,751.37 
238,602.27 



635, 9?^ 97 
276,587.20 
868,603.85 
2r)0,.548.22 
3:36,905.16 



765,026.75 
407,787.59 
410.741.57 
350.912.60 
776,602.05 



2,653,444.42 4,108,205.05 5.784.170.83 14,721,095.77 



$7,330,779.46 
2,474,863.83 
1,119, 800. o:? 
1,281,. 56.9.0:3 
1.081,224.8:3 
1,433, 758. (« 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: DENMARK. 



185 



DEIOrARK. 

In reply to Department's circular of August 10, 1897, I inclose my 
report on the trade of this consular district during the year 1896 and 
statistics for the first six months of 1897. 

Statistics dealing with the trade of Denmark in 1896jwith the vari- 
ous countries of the world, are not yet obtainable and must be deferred 
to a future communication. The figures here given are extracted 
from the reports of commercial bodies unless clearly stated to be 
from the bureau of statistics. 

According to the Danish Export Review, '*The foreign trade of 
Denmark has increased from 603,000,000 kroner (8176,884,000) in 1895 
to 667,000,000 kroner ($177,056,000) in 1896; that is to say, 5.37 per 
cent. Imports have risen from 364,000,000 kroner ($97,552,000) to 
384,000,000 kroner ($102,912,000), and exports from 269,000,000 kroner 
($72,092,000) to 283,000,000 kroner ($75,844,000)." 

By the same authority, the trade of the country in 1896 is given as 
follows: 



Articles. 



Imports. 



Animals, live 

Articles of food, animal origriu 

Grain: 

Ungronnd 

Ground for groats or flour ... 

Preparations of 

Garden products . 

Feeding BtufTs and seeds . . . 

Colonial produce, fruits, etc 

Spirits and other liquors 

Woven fabrics 

Yam, thread, rope, cord, etc 

Manufactures of silk 

Cloths of wool, etc 

Fabrics of vegetable stuffs 

Wearing apparel 

Manures 

Tallow, oil, tar, gum, etc 

Wood and manufactures thereof . 

Dyes, colors, and extracts 

Various vegetable matters 

Paper and paper fancy goods 

Minerals, raw and prepared 

Metals, wrought and unwrought . 
All other articles 



L 



Exports. 



Kroner. 
3,ltf9,460 
44, MO, (WO 

35,544,058 

4.484.iae 

l,0t»,514 

1,363,622 

24,209.441 

37,130,564 

5,467,986 

6,142,020 

11,916,435 

3,574,997 

16,783.250 

11,183,436 

2,047,680 

16,588,837 

12,048.204 

22,626.309 

2,516,781 

1,893,520 

2,700,865 

37,664,376 

44,222,664 

35,042,810 



$849,415 
11,965,144 

9,.?2S,808 

1,201,739 

274,302 

365.451 

6.488,130 

9,950,991 

1,466, 43f) 

1,648,061 

3.193,605 

9.5H.099 

4.497,915 

2,997,160 

648,778 

4,445.806 

3,228,919 

6,063,851 

674,497 

507,463 

726,244 

10,094,053 

ll,«il,674 

9,391,473 



Total I 384,000,000 102,912,000 



I 



Kroner. 
21,447,617 
174,832,282 

7,157,349 

1.145,724 

510,877 

630,907 

2,307,684 

13,:^, 196 

2,718,164 

2,676,957 

806,196 

357,461 

2,871,825 

1,612,706 

251.100 

12,209,706 

4,111,89^ 

2,815,867 

456,722 

940,609 

616,077 

8.562,799 

9,041,788 

8,418,982 



288,000,000 



16,551,961 
46,865,062 

1,018,160 

307.064 

136,915 

160,063 

618,446 

3,679,192 

727.128 

717,166 

240,181 

96,797 

760,615 

432,206 

67,205 

8,288,281 

1,101,987 

754.660 

122,401 

252,107 

166,100 

2.294,820 

2,423.109 

2,256,287 



75,844,000 



As usual, the export of bacon and butter amounts to 55 per cent of the total 
export trade of Denmark, and 53 per cent thereof found its way to Enfifland. In 
1896 there was exported butter to the value of 106,956,401 kroner ($28,664,315), as 
against 101,531,000 kroner ($27,210,308) in 1895, and of bacon, 42,816,869 kroner 
($11,318,979), as against 37,276.000 kroner ($9,989,968) in 1895. The export of 
butter in 1896 exceeded the import by 82,800,000 kroner ($24,120,000), in 1895 by 
79,000,000 kroner ($21,172,000), and in the five vears 1891-1895 by an average of 
70,300,000 kroner ($19,564,000). The export of butter in hermetically closed tins 
has risen from 2,700,000 kroner ($723,600) in 1895 to 3,700,000 kroner ($991,600) in 
1896. The butter in tins is exi>orted to China, West Indies, and South America. 
There was a falling off during the year in the export of live animals amounting to 
15,700,000 kroner ($4,207,600), which is accounted for by the prohibition of import 
and other restrictions in Germany. This decrease, however, is made good by a 
corresponding increase in the export of articles of food of animal origin, which is 
a proof of the competent ana energetic manner in which Danish agriculture is 
conducted, and the result of the unceasing efforts that are made to meet all 
eventualities, and also the striving to attain such a degree of excellence that in 
Spite of keen competition Danish products shall indisputably (x^cn^^e^totrank* 



186 



OOMMKRCIAL RELATIONS. 



While official statistics for 1896 are not yet obtainable, the Bureau 
has issued as usual the figures of trade, by articles and in pounds, for 
the first six months of the current year. The two tables following, 
therefore, have the stamp of official accuracy: 

Importa and exports^ by quantities, for the first six months of 1897. 



Articles. 



Brcadstuffs pounds . 

Coal do... 

Coffee do... 

Cotton, wool, and silk raanu f actures do . . . 

Fertilizers do... 

Iron and steel goods do... 

Oilcake do... 

Petroleum do... 

Bacon and hams do... 

Meat and sausage do... 

Lard and oleomargarine do... 

Butter ...do... 

Rice, rough do... 

Seeds do... 

Skins and hides do... 

Sugar do... 

Tea do... 

Wine and spirits gallons. 

Livestock head. 

EXPORTS. 

Breadstuffs pounds. 

Coal do... 

Coffee do. . 

Cotton, wool, and silk manufactures do . . . 

Fertilizers do... 

Iron and steel goods do... 

Oilcake do... 

Petroleum j '. do... 

Bacon and hams do... 

Meat and sausages do... 

Lard and oleomargarine do... 

Butter do... 

Eggs scores. 

Rice, rough 

Seeds 

Skins and hides 

Sugar 

Tea 

Wine and spirits gallons. 

Livestock head. 



First six 
months, 1897. 



1,>11 7U.K31 

]l^7^pLJ..-«7 

(..7>ti,465 
771.-^ 

|i^4::i]01 

L-VJl <41 

l7.>iiH,767 

*71J«2 

l:.^ 139 



^l 



61, 



Compared with same 
period in 1896. 



Increase. Decrease. 



3S9.348,148 

874,403,807 

8,971,814 



21,478,687 



67,287,151 
8,245.911 

693,873 
69,514 

717.900 
3,446,293 

188,450 

208,187 
6,070,569 

849,058 



214,464 



1,661,793 
89.048,012 
2,988,206 



2,374,672 



3.416,518 
3.528,735 



4,282,145 

212,438 

8,508,945 

887,052 



1,689,064 
1,966,178 



25,397 |. 



16,748,922 
"7,'896,468 



3,071,688 
26,875 



5,494 



10.149,406 
iO," 156,679 



9,395,500 



14,641,063 



2,701,879 
31,849 

12,038 



CONSUMPTION OF AMERICAN GOODS. 



Bicycles. — There is probably no country where the use of the cycle 
is more general than in Denmark, and American manufacturers have 
the bulk of the trade. No statistics can be given, but conservative 
estimates place the proportion of American bicycles in Denmark at 
from 50 to 60 per cent of the whole, with the prospect of reaching 75 
per cent in the next year or two. From my own observation, I can 
safely say that at least every other wheel one sees on the streets of 
this city is of American make, and the trade is still growing. 

Electrical supplies. — I am informed that only a few articles have 
so far been imported from the United States. This is quite a new 
industry in Denmark, and the supplies are drawn principally from 
Germany. Importers say that the German article stands high as to 
workmansliip and quality. 

Digitized by ^^jkj\jwi\^ 



EUROPE: DENMARK. 187 

Agricultural inachinery. — Dealers estimate the annual importation 
of agricultural machinery at $450,000 to $500,000 a year, about one- 
third of which comes from America. I quote from a letter of H. C. 
Petersen & Co., the largest importers and dealers in agricultural 
implements in Denmark : 

American agricultural machinery used in Denmark can be divided into three 
classes: 

1. Implements for cultivating the ground. 

2. Implements for harvasting. 

8. Implements for handling the crops. 

We have from time to time imported various kinds of harrows, such as spade 
harrows, knife harrows, and spring prong harrows. Ot these, only the knife nar- 
rows have had any success: the others are too expensive, and besides the Swedes 
have placed an excellent imitation on the market, and of course at lower prices. 
This nas not been the case with the knife harrow, the American machine being 
far superior, both in construction and quality. Lately, some single-furrow plows, 
either of steel or chilled iron, have been extensively sold. The latter are adapted 
to light soil, but fell into discredit when used on stony lands, as in Sweden, and 
quickly went to pieces. The American steel plow (mild center steel) has won a 
great reputation, both on account of the convenient shape of the moldboard and 
curve of the beams and its excellent quality; and we sell in Denmark and Sweden 
over 1,000 per year. They also have been successfully imitated, especially in 
Sweden. So if the price of American plows can not be considerably reduced, it is 
only a question of time when the import will cease altogether. The light Ameri- 
can hand-chopping implements have also had a large sale in this country, espe- 
cially the brands **lron Age" and •* Planet, jr." These also have been imitated; 
but as yet the imitators have not succeeded in making them in lightness and 
strength equal to the American. 

Harvesting wac7iiwe«.— During the last ten years, American self-binders, mowers, 
and reapers have won a great reputation and enjoyed largd sales both in Denmark 
and Sweden, and there are now annually imported from 2,000 to 3,000 of these into 
either country. These machines have been successful on account of their light 
construction, cheapness, and the little labor it requires to operate them. Sielt- 
binders. however, will hardly ever become an important article in the trade of 
Denmark, owing partly to the expense of the binding yarn and partly to the vari- 
able weather we generally have at harvest time. On the contrary, American 
mowers and reapers will probably command large sales for many years to come. 
We must remark here, however, that American manufacturers have of late com 
menced to build their machines too light in order to reduce the cost of construc- 
tion, and if this is carried much further it will work a considerable decrease in 
the import, and the farmer will return to the heavier but better-built English 
machine. 

Horse rakes of different construction have for some years had a large sale, and 
there is still a good market for them, although the domestic competition is very 
great. It is a fact, however, that American norse rakes are far superior to those 
built in Denmark. 

Hay turners have not so far been introduced, but it is not improbable that in 
the course of a few years they will have the same reputation they now enjoy in 
England, Germany, and France. Potato diggers are Jittle known, but there is a 
pressing need of such a machine adapted to the conditions of this country. It 
would undoubtedly find a large sale. 

Machines for handling the crop, — It can not be said that these machines have a 
market here. The American thresher is not suited to our wants. Some of the 
American locomobiles have been sold. We have imported ten of these machines 
in the last two years, owing to their lightness and cheapness, but we do not think 
we can continue to import locomobiles, as a long working life is required of such 
a machine, and this the locomobile can not give. 

Sowing machines for horse power are not adapted to this country, but there is a 
large sale for small hand-sowers, especially of the brand known as the **New 
Model." 

I will add that the Adriance; Champion, Deering, Johnston, Mas- 
sey, McOormick, Osborne, Piano, and Wood are some of our agricul- 
tural machines well and favorably known here. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



188 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

Leads, oUs, and varnishes. — In my report of September 25, 1896, 
published in Commercial Relations for 1895-96, 1 said under the head- 
ing *'How to Increase American Trade:" 

There is an agent here at present representing American dealers in white and 
red leads, paints, varnish ous, and colors. He will, recommend to his firms to 
oi)en a warehouse in the free port and carry a full line of goods, not only for the 
trade of this market, but for other Baltic ports. This is the kind of work which, 
in my opinion, is needed to get a foothold in this market. 

It is pleasant to record that the success of this venture bears out 
the correctness of the views there expressed. Mr. Victor Holmes, of 
41 Stockholmsgade, the agent in the case, represents the following 
firms: National Lead Company, Xew York; O. H. Gillespie & Son, 
Jersey City, N. J.; the New Jersey Zinc and Iron Company; M. C. 
Dizer & Co., Boston, and the Alliance of American Shoe Manufac- 
turers. This is an entirely new business, and Mr. Holmes gives the 
results as follows: 

American white lead can be sold here, but is not as white as the English, nor 
has it the same covering capacity; but it compares favorably with German and 
Norwegian lead, and can be sold at a price slightly lower than these. 

Bed lead of American make can not be offered here owing to its high quality 
and excessive cost of production. 

American white zinc is sold largely abroad, and is now finding a satisfactory 
market in Denmark. 

American varnishes are regarded with favor, but it is exceedingly difficult to 
induce dealers and consumers to try them. 

I have sold the Royal State Railways their annual requirement of white lead in 
competition with English and German manufactures, and have contracted with 
several of the large manufacturers for lead and zinc to be delivered in 1898. 

Boots and Hko€8,'-1he alliance of American shoe manufacturers, whose Euro- 
pean office is in London, has established satisfactory connections in Denmark. 
One prominent shoe and leather wholesale dealer here has just decided to carry 
a stock of American shoes for the supply of dealers in Denmark, Sweden, and Nor- 
way. This is the first effort in that airection. 1 am the corresponding representa- 
tive of the alliance and am pleased to say that our business outlook is first class. 
Statistics of imports and sales are not available. 

Furniture is also being imported from the-United States, such as cane-seated 
chairs, oak tables, roll-top desks, and other goods. 

Harness and vehicles, — There has been some attempt made to intro- 
duce American harness and saddles, but I am informed the effort has 
not proved a success. The prices, it is claimed, are too high to com- 
pete with domestic manufacture. Harness for this market should 
have the breast strap instead of a collar. 

The same firm has also imported a few road carts and low-seated 
buggies, but these likewise have been unsatisfactory. To introduce 
American vehicles in this country, three requirements must always be 
borne in mind. The price must be low enough to compete with home 
manufacturers; the vehicle must be built considerably heavier than 
the same vehicle for use in the States, especially in the wheels; and 
if four wheeled, it must be cut under, so that the front wheels can 
turn under the body. A vehicle not so built is considered unsafe and, 
in my opinion, can not be sold here. 

Cotton goods, — This business is almost altogether in the hands of 
the English. Many of the large dealers here have factories of their 
own and import the cotton yarns to be woven into cloth. As yet I 
know of no imports either of American cloths or yarn. There is 
undoubtedly a good market for American canvas and sailcloth, but 
little attempt has been made to develop this trade. During the last 
two years, there have been established two cotton mills at Vejle, Den- 
mark, which will undoubtedly cause a heavy decrease in the yearly 
imports of cotton cloths and yarns. ugitzea Dy kjvjkjwlk^ 



EUROPE: DEMMARK. 189 

Carpenters* and meclianics* tools, — I have made repesited attempts, 
at the request of American hardware men, to interest dealers in Den- 
mark and induce them to import tools of American make, such as 
augers, braces and bits, saws, files, wrenches, etc. The reply is 
always the same. The dealers admit the superiority of the American 
tool in finish and quality, but can not handle them in competition 
with the English and German. Then, too, they complain that the 
American merchant wants cash against bill of lading in New York, 
whereas the English and Grerman merchants give a credit of sixty to 
ninety days. This last consideration is bound to play an important 
role in all efforts to introduce and increase the sale of American goods 
in this field, and especially when there is such a keen competition to 
meet and overcome. Parties interested can not afford to lose sight 
of it. 

Packing of goods. — I have not during my term of office heard any 
complaints as to the insufficiency of the packing of goods from. Amer- 
ica. Bicycles and vehicles should be shipped with the wheels off and 
furniture "knocked down" to save freight and duty. 

Marking of goods, — There is nothing in the Danish customs act 
which requires goods to be marked so as to show the country of origin 
or manufacture. 

The following information, taken from the report of the Copenhagen 
Merchants' Society, is trustworthy : 

The year 1896 showed on the whole satisfactory results. Denmark's 
most important articles, bacon and butter, sold for good prices; but, 
on the other hand, farmers worked under difficulties in the pig and 
cattle trade, Germany closing its markets against them on account of 
the foot-and-mouth disease. But the loss sustained thereby was more 
than balanced by the cheapness of feeding stuff, owing to the enor- 
mous com crop in the United Statues. 

Shipowners had good freights for the vessels and plenty to do. The 
money market was firm throughout the year. Many joint stock com- 
panies were started and capital was readily invested. 

AGRICULTURAL RETURNS. 

Hogs, — The export ceased entirely, owing to the German prohibition 
of December 15, 1895, with a loss to the Danish farmers of 10,500,000 
kroner ($2,814,000) yearly; but in 1888, a similar prohibition took 
effect, and the farmers, having learned by experience, resolutely 
changed from the production of hogs to the production of bacon, and 
good profits on the latter lessened the loss. 

Cattle J sheepy and horses. — ^The supply exceeded the demand and 
prices were unsatisfactory. 

The German legislators took refuge in quarantine and veterinary 
examinations against Danish cattle, causing thereby a great hindrance 
to our exporters. Great Britain definitely closed its markets against 
our live cattle, and, moreover, prohibited the import of live sheep from 
Iceland. Meat exports, on the other hand, have increased considera- 
bly, and great efforts are being made to make this profitable. Most 
of the meat goes to Berlin. 

BvMer, — ^The exports for the year amount to 121,000,000 pounds, of 
which Great Britain took 117,000,000 pounds. The import of low- 
grade butter was about stationary, and, as usual, furnished by Sweden 
and Finland, but this year also largely by the United States. 

Eggs. — The exports amount to about 196,000,000 eggs and the 
imports to about 28,000,000 eggs. "^'Q'^^^^ ^y vjwi^gi^ 



190 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

Com, — Owing to the extreme cheapness of American com, enor- 
mous quantities, valued at $3,500,000, were imported. The quality 
was satisfactory up to the end of the year 1896, at which time general 
complaints, which proved well founded, were heard. About this time 
reliable exporters in the United States declined to sell on ' ' rye terms," 
and great anxiety prevailed among the importers here, most of whom 
had bought on " tate quale " terms. (See report of R. I. Kirk, consul, 
dated June 1, 1897, on ''American corn out of condition.) 

Wheat — The crop in Denmark was satisfactory, both as to quantity 
and quality. The Unit-ed States did not offer any red winter wheat 
No. 2, but a good deal of American spring wheat was imported. It is 
used for mixing purposes. 

Rye. — The crop was good and imports small. It was not used in 
1896 for feeding stuff, not being able to compete with cheap Ameri- 
can com. 

Flour, — The milling industry also worked under difficulties in 1896, 
and had to reduce the output for want of sufficient demand. As 
usual, a good deal of American flour was imported. 

Bran. — The consumption was smaller during the year, owing to 
large stocks of hay and oats and the general use of American corn. 
American exporters now pack bran so that it occupies much less space 
and reduces freight charges accordingly. Danish importers contracted 
in August for large quantities, which arrived in November and were 
sold at satisfactory prices. 

Cotton-seed cakes, — The United States has secured an important 
market in Denmark^ and very large quantities are imported, espe- 
cially from New Orleans. They compete successfully with the Rus- 
sian sunflower cakes, formerly largely used here. 

Margarine, — Home consumption increased slightly in 1896 from 
18,000,000 to 18,500,000 pounds. Of this quantity Denmark produced 
16,000,000 pounds and imported from Norway and Grermany 2,500,000 
pounds. There are 17 factories and 8,562 dealers handling margarine 
in Denmark. 

Bacon, — Denmark's production increased considerably. The 
slaughterhouses killed 1,200,000 pigs. The exports are officially 
stat^ to be 163,000,000 pounds. Many new slaughterhouses have 
been built and there are about 41 in active operation. 

Sugar, — The production of beet sugar was about 75,000,000 pounds. 
One new refinery started work and another, with a capacity of 
10,000,000 pounds, is being built and expected to be in operation in 
the fall of 1897. 

Dried fruit — California raisins compete with the Spanish. But 
small quantities of the former were imported, owing to short crop and 
high prices. The quality of the fruit received was also unsatisfac- 
tory, owing probably to the long voyage and a too high temperature 
during the growth of the fruit. 

Lniniber, — American pitch pine, oak, walnut, and whitewood were 
imported. 

Seeds, red clover, — Only Russia and Hungary had a surplus for 
export, and the quality of the Russian was unusually good. Only 
small lots came from the United States. 

White clover, — The European crop was small and none was received 
from United States. 

Alsike, — The European crop was smaller than ever and the whole 
consumption in Europe was covered by Canada and the United States. 

Timothy ami festuca pratensis, — Prices were never so low, on 
account of the large crop in the United States. ^j'Q'^^^^ ^v vjwi^gii^ 



EUROPE: DENMARK. 



191 



Petroleum. — The consumption in Denmark in 1896 is estimated as 
follows: 



Year. 



'American water 
! white. 



1806. 
1895. 



Cwt. 
188, 11« 
110.406 



American stand- 
ard white. 



Russian. 



Cwt, 
730,836 
645,441 



Cwt. 



65,186 
74,941 



There is nothing worthy of remark in the petroleum business for 
the year. There were no noteworthy fluctuations in prices as in 1895, 
but there has been a small decline during the whole year. The con- 
sumption of American petroleum steadily increases, while the Russian 
declines. 

SteaTHship lines. — The United Steamship Company have built three 
new steamers with refrigerators for the butter trade. They have also 
built two new ships for the Copenhagen-New Orleans route. 

Danish Government bonds. — On December 31, 1896, the 3 per cent 
bonds were quoted at 97 and the 3^ percents at 99^^. 

Tariff revision. — The commission is still at work, but no report is 
ready, and the chances of an agreement are considered distant. 

Robert J. Kirk, Consul. 

Copenhagen, October U, IS07. 



SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT. 

Referring to dispatch dated October 14, 1897, I send additional 
statistics for 1896, taken from the yearbook just issued by the bureau 
of statistics in Copenhagen. 

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 

The volume of trade between Denmark and the various countries 
of the world during the year 1896, is shown in the following table, taken 
from the completed statistics just issued: 



Countries. 



Danish colonies 

Norway 

Sweden 

Russia 

Germany 

Great Britain 

Holland 

Bel^um 

France 

Spain and Portugal 

Balance of Europe 

United States of America 

South America 

East Indies and China 

All other places 

Total 

Total for 1886 

Increase 



Imports. 


Exports. 


^-:rj,LJ76 


$1,^^4,576 


1 . :vtC "08 


2,300,780 


KS.Vfj,l«) 


5,763.340 


^.^^KJ,^^ 


1.505,802 


:I^E.:m,m36 


15,501,656 


■-'<j.':+;4 752 


45,475,312 


■MKL-.M52 


80.132 


l.:.■J^^.740 


209.040 


:.M:^:.:iOO 


529,032 


rv:l.:'66 


107,200 


^Mi.irflg 


63,784 


l.:^.::, id4 


471,144 


38,860 


4.288 


866,800 


27,336 


10,605,a» 


2,826.000 


102,896,116 


76.079.572 


97,562,480 


72,063,587 



5,332,636 



4,015,975 



The principal articles in imports and exports do not vary much 
from year to year, and they are the same as given in my report printed 
in Commercial Relations of the United States 1895 and 1896, Vol. II, 
page 80. ^ J 

The satisfactory increase in the volume of business b6t^6Sn the 



192 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



United States and Denmark in the year 1896, showing $4,562,164, 
against $2,702,967 in 1895, is principally due to the very large impor- 
tations of corn. 

EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES. 

Exports to the United States duriyig the year 1890 (as per records of tJie Coj)en- 

hagen. connate ) . 





Articles. 


Value. 


Cabbages 




142,051.30 


Cement 


6O,«08.:27 


Hides 


34,171.40 


PArcelain . . 


lj;,i3i>.09 


Ragff 


21.177.46 


Rape oil 


10,332.% 


Rennets 


2:2,2:25.01 


Seeds 


U,9tS2 «1 


Skins 


4,914.25 


Wool 


27. 100. 7B 


Miscellaneous . 


35,841. <0 








Total 


270, 285. .tO 


Totalforl«» -- 


382,610.80 








Decrease 


116,3;25.21 







It will be noticed that again this year there is a considerable dif- 
ference ($194,858) between figures of the consulate and official statis- 
tics, which is, most probably, due to transit goods from Sweden and 
Norway (over which this consulate has no control) having been cred- 
ited to the United States. 

Navigatio7i at the ports of Denmark for the year 1896, 
SAILING VESSELS. 



Flag. 



Entered. 



Cleared. 



Denmark 

Norway 

Sweden 

Russia 

Germany 

HolUnd 

Great Britain . 

France 

Italy 

Austria 

West Indies... 



Total . 



yuniher. 


TotiA. 


y umber. 


7.061 


256.121 


6,467 


808 


TAAiUS 


864 


5,842 


2:iV8i-)8 


5,862 


!(«♦ 


40.6(H 


178 


1,776 


58.si3:^ 


1.7»9 


108 


10,351 


112 


oii 


5,4:iu 


42 


1 


116 


1 


2 


388 


•> 


1 


656 


1 


1 


264 


1 


15,822 


68^,34.5 


15.329 , 



TOTIB. 

7:^,734 

5.657 

25,616 

• h'ZM 

25.<V61 

2,2:*> 

415 

116 



134, (>i5 



STEAMERS. 



Denmark 

Norway 

Sweden 

RuHsia 

Germany 

Holland , 

Belgium 

Great Britain 

France 

Austria 

Mexico 



10,302 


821,511 


10,455 


380.706 


767 


141,543 


781 


• 8,7:*i 


1,376 


161,042 


1,595 


51.554 


i;w 


ii,;»5 


i:j7 


8.5»i2 


2,371 


l.tJ.825 


2,260 


41,10> 


591 


12,873 


60 


614 


3 


1,072 


5 


68 


exi 


311,209 


633 


41,020 


I . 




1 


'<U 


1 1 ::':::::::: 




i!: 




. ...... - 

1 


88 



Total . 



15,737 1,503,470 i 



15.928 



527,487 



No American vetnel entered the ports of Denmark in 1896. 

POPULATION. 

On February 1, 1895, the population of the Kingdom of Denmark, 
exclusive of the colonies, was 2,256,000. In 1800 (no more recent sta- 
tistics are available), the population of the colonies was: Faroe Islands, 



EUROPE: DENMARK: 193 

12,955; Iceland, 70,927; Greenland, 10,516; Danish West Indies, 
32,786; total, 127,184. On February 1, 1895, Copenhagen, the capital 
of Denmark, had 408,330 inhabitants. 

RELIGION. 

About 2,225,000 of the inhabitants are Lutherans. The balance 
consists of about 8,000 Catholics, 4,100 Israelites, 2,300 Methodists, 
and various other sects. 

Marriages f divorces, births , deaths, and suicides in Denmark and death rate of 

Copenhagen in 1806, 

Marriages 16,823 

Divorces 316 

Births 70,271 

Deaths...- a 36,090 

Snicides _ 507 

Death rate of Copenhagen, per thousand 16i 

Emigration from Denmark in 1896, 

Males 1,602 

Females... 1,274 

Total 3,876 

Of this number, 2,479 emigrated to the United States. 

J. C. Ingbrsoll, Consul. 
COPENHAGKN, December 23, 1897, 



Valtte of exports declared for the United States at Copenhagen during the year 

ended June 30, 1897, 


Articles. 


Quai'ter ending— 


Total. 


Sept. 80. 


Dec. 31. 


Mar. 31. 


June 80. 


Anno^to ... 


$139.68 

i,ou.e2 




$405.08 
1,040.48 


■"$866.'ot 
2,113.87 


$544.66 
3,602.17 


Bagiging - 

Bam. eiTiT)tv (returned) ..- ^^. - .. . -. 






2,113 87 


Beer (malt extract) 




$124.37 
675.60 
313.50 

7,290.86 
510.64 

6,705.20 




124.37 


Bicycle parts (returned) 


684.^7 
989.06 


90.63 

708.94 

20,600.86 


403.25 
1,819.95 


1,808.55 
3,831.45 


Books 




36,891.78 
510 54 


OarriRiffvw 






Oement .,-r-r---^^ 




2,790.26 


11,638.06 


21,127.52 
1,613.63 


Chalk 


1,518.63 


Cherry cordial ...., 


461.89 
304.94 
208.47 
415.40 


758.57 


301.50 


1,581.96 




781.88 


1,026.82 


Flint stones 


753.46 


397.68 


1,354.51 


Famitnre ......... .......... 


160.80 
142. (H 


576.20 


Furs - 






142.04 


Gloves 


304.89 
1,917.34 


163.18 

1,026.31 

008.18 

36,180.80 

360.99 




468.07 


Glue 




'"i;i65."48 

3,211.30 

80.98 


3,843.65 


tTaIf /hnnian) 


994.91 


2.7.5:3.52 


Hidei..v!^. :::::::::: :::::::::::::::: 


28,786.37 

183.37 

4,198.49 

304.16 

8,295.66 

5,943.36 


66,187.47 


Machinery 


* 80.40 


714.74 


Marble siatne 


4,196 49 


Musics printed 




455.26 
2,688.02 
1,684.74 


■*"2,'iii.i6' 

6,045.06 


849.42 




4,187.60 
3,346.00 
2,468.66 
1,606.62 
360.02 


12,282.47 


Rags 


17,019.16 


Bapeeeedoil 


2,462.66 


Rennets.- 


2,021.44 
488.24 
936.48 

1,087.27 


19,948.67 


21.394.82 


46.061.46 


Rigging, standing . 


SIS. 26 


Rope, old 1'. 


1,191.75 




2.128.23 


Ruober shoes, old 




1,087.27 


Rubber shoes (returned) 






240.00 


240.00 


Seeds 


689.65 
36.72 


10,966.84 


756.19 


12, 332. .58 


Silkgoods 




36.72 






948.60 

4,338.20 

562.75 

32,111.69 

596.37 


"■7,"282.*i3' 

167.17 

7,988.79 

1,038.57 


948.50 


ftkiiw 






11,504.23 


Terra cotta 






729.92 


wo^.r^-v. .:..::...:.::: 




26,043.54 
271.70 


66,004.08 






1.889.64 








Total 


19,057.40 


101,864.82 


141,566.68 


67,966.68 


330,445.68 






Kr— VOL 2 13 






Uigiti2 


ed by VJ 1^ 


^^1^ 



194 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



FRANCE. * 

In the statistical information touching the commercial and mari- 
time interests of the Republic of France, imports and exports are 
classified as *' general commerce" and " special commerce." General 
commerce includes all merchandise of every description entering 
France from foreign countries, the colonies, or from the sea fisheries, 
whether by land or by water, and whether intended for consumption 
in France, or for temporary entry and reexportation, or in transit 
for other countries. 

Special commerce embraces, as to imports, all merchandise exempt 
from duties as well as that subject to duty withdrawn during the 
year for consumption from the "entrepot "upon the payment of such 
duties. As to exports, special commerce includes merchandise of 
every description, whether of foreign or domestic origin, exported 
from France. The term "special commerce" only embraces mer- 
chandise of international origin and that of foreign origin which has 
been admitted free of duty or has been nationalized by the payment 
of duties. 

GENERAL COMMERCE. 

The general commerce of France with its colonies and foreign 
countries is estimated for 1896 (both importations and exportations 
of merchandise of all kinds) at a total sum of 9,523,000,000 francs 
(*1,837,939,000), being an increase of 12,000,000 francs ($2,316,000) 
over the preceding year and a decrease of 90,000,000 francs ($17, 370,000) 
on the average for the five-year period prior to 1896. 

The imports amounted to 4,929,000,000 francs ($951,297,000), an 
increase of 9,000,000 francs ($1,737,000) over the preceding year, but 
219,000,000 francs ($42,267,000) less than the preceding five-year 
average. 

The exports amounted to 4, 594,000,000 francs ($886,642,000), exceed- 
ing by 5,000,000 francs ($965,000) the total for 1895 and by 130,000,000 
francs ($25,090,000) the preceding five-year average. 

SPECIAL COMMERCE. 

Francs. 

Imports ... 8, 799, 000, 000 or $733,207,000 

Exports 8, 401, 000, 000 or 656,393,000 

Total imports and exports 7, 200, 000, 000 or 1,389,600,000 

Total for year 1895 7, 094, 000, 000 or 1,369,142,000 

Increase for year 1896 106, 000, 000 or 20,458,000 

giving as a result, compared with the year 1895, an increase of 
71),000,000 francs ($15,247,000) for imports and 27,000,000 francs 
($5,211,000) for exports. 

By reason of the reduction of the evaluation tariff for 1896, by the 
permanent commission of custom-house duties, the difference between 
the estimates and the final figures for 1896 shows a decrease of 
38,600,000 francs ($7,449,800) for imports and 3,700,000 francs 

* In response to circular of August 10, 1897. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



195 



(1714,000) for exports, made up as follows under the three general 
classifications: 



Classification. 



Decrease. 



Increase. 



Foodstuffs 

Materials of industry . 
Manufactured goods . 



Foodstuffs ;... 

Materials of industry. 
Manufactured goods . 



Prancs. 
iS2,900,000 



$10,200,700 



4,400,000 



22,fl00,uu0 



849,200 



4,361,800 



Francs. 



18,800.000 



12,flOO,000 
6,000,000 



$3,628,400 



2,431.800 
1,273,800 



The following table gives a comparison of the importation from all 
countries into France (special commerce), as compared with those of 
the United States for the chief exportable products: 

Imports to France for the first nine months of 1897. 



Articles. 



Cotton 

Petroleum and refined naphtha . 

Cereals, meludin flour 

Copper 

Hides and skins worked 

Canned goods 

Meats, fresh and salted 

Feathers 

Tobacco, manufactured 

Lumber 

Machinerv 

Animal oil, other than fiah 

Coffee 

Skins and hides, nunr 



From all countries. 
United States included. 



FYancs. 
366,000,000 

32,800,000 
123,400,000 

63,500.000 

24,200,000 



31,900,000 



22,500,000 
149,600,000 
62,200,000 



175,000,000 
110,800,000 



$70,445,000 
6,223,900 
23,816,200 
12,255,500 
4,670,600 



6,156,700 



4,842,500 
28,872,800 
12,004,600 



83,976,000 
21,384,400 



From the United State 
alone. 



Francs. 

121,160,U00 

27.347,000 

10,684,000 

28,532,000 

1,128,000 

2,742,000 

1,314.000 

2,708.520 

13,866,000 

9,859.446 

6,770,000 

17,511,000 

12.4fi»,084 

9,168,000 



$23,385,617 

5,277,971 

3.606.368 

5,506,676 

217,704 

529,200 

253,002 

522,744 

2,675.945 

1,902,837 

1,300,610 

3,379,623 

2,406,242 

1,769,424 



The powers with which France has had the most important com- 
mercial exchanges in 1896 are: England, Belgium, Germany, United 
States, Switzerland, Spain, Algeria, Italy, the Argentine Republic, 
Russia, Brazil, and Turkey. 

The following table shows the imports and exports to and from the 
principal , countries of Europe in 1896 (special commerce) with the 
increase or decrease as compared with the preceding year: 



Countries. 


Fmnrn. 

30Mjiiki,fa) 

28^.1.1'fci.iOO 
28:?JMuO0 
3l4,i.r>ii.i.flO 

lai.ii^i.ioo 

1^7.<i^hi«) 
21;^«MHL'00 

iflriiHuoo 

lftM-^i.«O0 

9iijKiiijJ0O 
&i.r.N«A'00 
77,t»fN>jOO 
7:M*«i.iOO 

44.IINIJ00 
ftili.riMiOO 

57.4N'H^lOO 

4j,i>:itf.(00 

20.000, rjOO 


ue. 

p^, <;■!:( 

01', Hi 

14, (T-- 

:i|.Lr:;:^ 

IT. it: 
]7,:t:ip 

If "-:■ 
11 '.I'-.i; 
-■. 1 ■■■'■,■' 
]:j. l.v 
ll.'^'l 


lOO 
lOO 
«00 

*w 

iW 
iW 
'00 
'00 
lOO 
lOO 
ilOO 

00 
lOO 
100 

00 
'00 

100 

«0 

<I00 
00 
00 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


Ensrland ..«•■■•....... 


Francs. 
16,000,000 


$2,896,000 


Francs, 




Gtermany 


2,000,000 


$386^000 


Spain...'. 


75,000.000 


14,476,000 




KnIginTp _ _ , 


6,000,000 


1,158,000 


United States 


31,000,000 
8,000,000 


5,963,000 
1.644. GOO 


Bwltjfprland 






Ruwia ....... 


14,000,000 


2,702,000 


Italy 


12,000,010 
33,000,000 


2,316,000 
6.360,000 




Argentine Republic. 






Algeria 


49,000,000 


9,457,000 


English India 


4,000,000 
4,000,000 


772,000 
772,000 




Brazil 







Turkey 


2.665,000 

58,000,000 


388,000 
11,194,000 


Chinii 






Australia 


8,000,000 


1,644,000 


Austria 







Japan... 


4,000,000 


772,000 






Rifiti 


4,000.000 


772,000 


Sweden 


9,000,000 
2,000,000 


1,787,000 
886,000 




Chile 






Holland 


1,000,000 
1,000,000 


193,000 


Houmania 






193,000 











196 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



The following table shows the increase or decrease for the total 

?[uantities of imports and exports for the year 1896, over the year 1895 
special commerce) : 





1895. 


1896. 


Increase. 


Imports 


FYanca. 
21,832,228 
6.994,673 


$4,213,620 
1,349,072 


Francs. 
22,619,721 
7,274,721 


14,366,606 
1,404,021 


Iiyanct. 
787, «3 
280, Ote 


$161,966 


Exports 


64,049 







The following table, under the three classifications, gives the total 
imports and exports of both general commerce and special commerce: 



IMPORTS. 



Classlflcation. 


General commerce. Special commerce. 


Foodstuffs ._................ 


Franca. 
1,398,000,000 
2,337,000,000 
1,199,000,000 


$268,849,000 
461,041,000 


Franca. 
1,007,000.000 
8 i74.non non 


$194,361,000 


Materials of indnstrv .-.- 


419,582,000 
119,274,000 


Mannfacturod g^oods .-.- 


886,807,000 1 'els.'OOOiOOO 






Total 


4,929,000,000 


861,297,000 8.790.000.000 


783,207,000 









As compared with the year 1895, these figures are for foodstuffs 
63,000,000 francs ($12,159,000) less for general commerce and 29,- 
000,000 francs ($5,597,000) for special commerce. The other two 
classifications show an increase for materials of industry, general 
commerce, 64,000,000 francs ($12,352,000), and special commerce 
73,000,000 francs ($14,089,000), and 8,000,000 francs ($1,554,000) 
general commerce, and 35,000,000 francs ($6,755,000) special com- 
merce for manufactured goods. 

The increase in the last category, as i*egards general commerce, 
would have been greater had the manner of shipping certain products 
of Swiss origin to England not been altered in 1896. Merchandise 
which formerly passed through France now goes by another route. 
As regards the item of cotton alone, there was a decrease in the ship- 
ment from France of more than 655 tons, value estimated 69,000,000 
francs ($13,317,000). 

BXPOBTS. 



Classiflcatlon. 


General commerce. 


Si>ecial commerce. 


Foodstuffs ..... ................. 


Franca. 
1.090,(00,000 
1,022,000,000 
2,542,000,000 


$198,790,000 
197,248.000 
480,606,000 


Franca, 
652,000,000 
836,000,000 
1,913,000,000 


1126,836.000 


Materials of industry 


161,348,000 


MannfATit'nred g'oods 


369,208,000 






Total 


4.604,000,000 


886,642,000 


8,401,000,000 


656,383,000 







Compared with the year 1896, general commerce increased by 
63,000,000 francs ($12,159,000) for foodstuffs, and showed a deficit 
of 39,000,000 francs ($7,527,000) for materials of industry, and 19,000,- 
000 francs ($3,667,000) for manufactured goods. As regards special 
commerce, there was an increase of 61,000,000 francs ($11,773,000) 
for the first category, and of 4,000,000 francs ($772,000) on manufac- 
tured goods, whereas there was a decrease of 38,000,000 francs ($7,334,- 
000) as regards materials of industry. ugitzed by x^kjkjwik. 



EUBOPE: FRANCE. 



197 



Imports and exports for the first nine months, 

IMPORTS. 
[Francs expressed In thousands.] 



Classiflcation. 



1806. 



1897. 



Increase. 



Decrease. 



Food supplies 

Raw materials 

Manufactured prod 
nets 

Total 



FVancB. Francs. 

739,7781142,777.000 696,O62^$134,8Sl,O0O 
1,666,809 8^,160,0001,738,672 336,644,000 



460,333 



88,844,000 463,421 



2,868,920 661,771,0002,897,966 



Francs. 



89,440,000 



79, 763 $16, 
3,( 



669,806,000 



39,088 



394,000 
696,000 



Franciy. 
43,81618,466.000 



7,644.000 



EXPORTS. 



Food supplies 

Raw materials 

Manufactured prod- 
ucts 

Total 



Francs, 
465,314 
618,166 

1,3^,262 



2,396,721 



$87,876,000 
118,339,000 

266,100,000 



Francs. 
601,266 
719,839 

1,379,172 



1,376,1002,000,276 



$96,744,000 
138,929,000 

268,180,000 



Francs^* 

46,95! 

106,684 

61,920 



608,868,000 



$8,860,000 
20,600,000 

10,021,000 



204,666 39,480,000 



Francs. 



The several countries took part in the trade as follows: 

[Francs expressed in thousands.] 
IMPORTS. 




United States - 

Brazil 

Argontlnt? Republic 

Raifiaia 

Enffiand .*♦***_-,.-_ 

Oermauy 

Belpinm _, 

Siwi tzerland. ........ 

Italy ., 

Bpam ...-...._ 

Turkey-, 

Other {H>iiiitr]es . 

Total. _._„-... 



Frtinc*. 
184. afw ;ij, 

23IJ,404, 42, 

B4.*£i7 IH, 

flS.floO 13, 
e92,4U81»l, 



llfMl 
IV $i 

(MM) 
mi 

im 



(.w.[ior,' 
58Jlri 



lOU. 087,197 



|5.')ja!5.1DO 

tili;77D,l»00 
4,1.110.(1X1 

;Sl,..r7ii.'XJ0 



2,€^,mim,'m, 



lam, 



807,965 



3.100 
IJUH 
2,444 

2.737 



li.»aa 

44,7llf> 



8,733^ l,fl85,tXX»| 

'm',m\ 

jHipixjo; 

4?^,U(T0i 
53B,(XJtl 



18,040 



8,eSH.(J0Q 



5Gd,aOfi,000 130,£GQ SSvlSS^OKK 91,216 



^,Gm 



$960,608 



^,SSfi,SSO 



ujmjw 



17,604,000 



EXPORTS. 



United atatea 

Brazil 

ArB^ntlne Republic . 

Buasja.. ...,-.... 

Euffland. 

Oermany,., -*„,.-., 

Bel|rium...... 

SwitgerUoMl^,, ....** 

Italy.. 

Stmfii,-,. ,. 

iTirkey 

Otber countrleB — . . 

Total........... 



Frmics 
li)5,34l 
53,8^ 
4S^86» 

761, 763^14; 

241.17) 

:i55.77' 

7H, 
£8, 54a 

5as.4i4 



lm,7^ 



771, 



! 
oool 

000| 

n7, 

flOO, 

4 1 HP 

iim> 

4 HP) 

7.>^ 

im, 

(XU, 



FrancB- 

43,00? g 

ai,Hl7 7 

i7jS57( 3 

mk 17Hlfi7 

1 in. 275 

71/1:2 

33,4a» 
533,507 



3;, 601.(103 l83.^.0ClUj^714,<littfi28,MS,D0U 



ait 

13. 

l€g, 



742,000 
i«5,000 

(191.000 

4t^.(lOO 
078,000 



Frttnc^ 
20.574 



|3,&n,UUC) 



an 

107,413 

30,f^[ 

3T.43lf 

3,5ttl 



Prancn 



4,B4U 
U133 



238,tia0 



a>.T3Lfinr> 






854, onr) 
•zm.im 



44,1^,000 



£,184 



$2 J 17,1100 
,'i8«,0U0 



4^,0()t) 



u,-2m^ 3,is7,ooa 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



198 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



The following table gives the proportions in weight and value of 
the movement for exchanges in the three categories for the year 1896 
(special commerce) : 



Articles. 


Proportion of 
imports in- 


Proportion of 
exi>orts in- 


Total 
quantity. 


Total 
value. 


Total 
quantity. 


Total * 
value. 


Food stnffs 


Percent. 

12.81 

84.32 

2.87 


Percent. 
26.50 
57.22 
16.28 


Per cent. 
14.52 
TO. 80 
14.68 


Per cent. 
19.16 


Mateiials of indnstry . . . 


24. 5U 


Maniifftctnred goods' .. ,. 


66.25 







Thus it will be seen that the total merchandise imported and exported, 
as regards materials of industry, exceeds considerably the other two 
categories, as is als# the case in the total imports; but as to exports, 
the manufactured ^ods stand at the head. It is to be noticed that 
the exports of manufactured goods, which are required from abroad 
for use in France, are given in the total at a figure far less than those 
which France exports. 

The following table gives the value of merchandise, other than sugar 
to be refined, entered temporarily into France for reexportation for 
1896, representing a total of 132,000,000 francs ($25,476,000) value 
upon entry, and 174,000,000 francs ($33,582,000) value on shipment: 



Articles. 



Value when originally Value upon being taken 
entered. out. 



Wheat 

Skein and raw silk 

Raw olive oil 

Barley 

Palm oil 

Raw copper 

Iron for castings 

Wool tissue, plain or mixed 
Silk tissue, plain and raw . . 

Pig iron, coke 

Pig iron, wood . : 

Iron for refining. 

Sheet iron 

Cacao and sugar 

Iron ore 

Other materials 



ff^(sarioo 

l4.!^HM(00 

!.(KN].{00 



l.^KJIJ 



l,liJ.!il 

l.:sii'i 

800,000 
1,500,000 
800,000 
600,000 
700,000 
7,200,000 



$18,064,800 

2,702,000 

501,800 

866,700 

482,500 

808,800 

347,400 

828,100 

250,900 

173,700 

57,900 

280,500 

57,900 

115,800 

135, 100 

1,889,600 



Francs. 

88,400,000 

21,700,000 
3,200,000 
2,700,000 
4.700.000 
2,700,000 
5,J«0,000 
1,900,000 
1,700,000 
8,400,000 
3,600.000 
4,200,000 
1,100,000 
2,500,000 
3,100,000 

24,400,000 



117,061,200 
4,188,100 
617,600 
521,100 
907,100 
521,100 
1,003,600 
866,700 
828.100 
fi56,200 
604,800 
810,600 
212.300 
482,500 
598,800 
4,709,200 



MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT. 

The total foreign merchandise shipped by France amounted in 1896 
to 5,897,644 metric-quintals (about 500,000 tons), being an increase 
of 69,921 metric-quintals (about 7,000 tons) over the year 1895. As 
regards the value of these operations, representing a sum of 
613,000,000 francs ($118,309,000), there is a decrease over the year 
1895 of 43,000,000 francs ($8,299,000). As has already been stated, 
cotton tissues of Swiss origin, and especially embroidery, being 
shipped by another route, have caused a decrease in the foregoing 
figures of 69,000,000 francs ($13,317,000). Notwithstanding this fact, 
however, cotton tissues take first place in the list at 102,000,000 
francs ($19,686,000), followed by silk wares at 100,000,000 francs 
($19,300,000), silverware and jewelry at 35,000,000 francs ($6,755,000), 
watches and clocks at 31,000,000 ($5,983,000), cereals at 21,000,000 
francs ($4,053,000), silk manufactures at 20,000,000 francs ($3,860,000), 
willow ware at 19,000,000 francs ($3,667,000), thread at 13,000,000 francs 
($2,509,000), strawgood8atll,000,000francs ($2,123,000), and cheese at 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



199 



7,000,000 francs ($1,351,000). The total figures for merchandise in 
transit, added to those for goods temporarily admitted in France, make 
a total for 1896 of 11,032,270 metric-quintals (about 1,000,000 tons), 
value 787,000,000 francs ($151,891,000); and for the preceding year, 
1895, a total of 10,037,625 metric-quintals (about 900,000 tons), value 
817,000,000 francs ($157,681,000), showing an increase of 994,645 
metric-quintals (about 98,000 tons), and a decrease of 30,000,000 
francs ($5,790,000) for the year 1896. The total amount received by 
the French customs for the account of the Government for 1896 was 
469,316,350 francs ($90,578,056), being an increase over the year 1895 
of 25,235,853 francs ($4,870,520). As regards the duty on imports, 
the increase was 24,050,741 francs ($4,641,793). Sugar from the 
French colonies and wines are alone responsible for an increase in 
the receipts of 24,300,000 francs ($4,689,900); 6,400,000 francs 
($1,235,200) for sugar, and 17,900,000 francs ($3,454,700) for wine. 
As regards colonial sugar, the increase coincides with the decrease of 
more than 3,000,000 francs ($579,000) on the customs receipts for the 
similar products of foreign origin. As regards wine, France finds 
itself facing a deficit as to the production of its vines for 1895, and 
in order to supply the demands for the interior consumption, it has 
been necessary to have recourse in a large measure to foreign supply, 
and especially to Spain. Among other articles, coffee especially pro- 
duced an increase, but, on the other hand, these increases have been 
offset by a decrease of more than 11,000,000 francs ($2,123,000) on 
cereals. 

MERCHANT MARINE. 

The following figures are of interest as relating to the French mer- 
chant-marine movement. From the figures as given for 1896 it 
api)ears that out of the 34,654,955 tons of merchandise carried 
19,985,719 tons, or nearly 58 per cent, was by water, and 14,669,236 
tons, or a little over 42 per cent, was either by railway or canal. 

In the total of transportation by sea, French ships figure for 
6,663,478 tons, or a little over 33 per cent; ships of the country of 
origin or destination, for 8,586,583 tons, or nearly 43 per cent; and 
the service of foreign ships for 4,735,658 tons, or nearly 24 per cent, 
making a total for ships other than French of 13,322,241 tons, or 
nearly 67 per cent. 

IMPORTS. 



By flea: 

French 

Shipe. ooantry of proveimnce 
Foreign, other countries 

Total 

By land 

Total 



Tons. 



8,890,046 
6,584,512 
4,057,878 



14,582,835 
10,484,879 



26,017,214 



Proportion 
(per cent). 



26.77 
46.31 
27.92 

68.00 
41.91 





EXPORTS. 






By Rea: 

French -. -.,_^,,-, 


* 


2,772,533 

2,002,071 

678,280 


60.85 


Ships, country of destination 


86.7SS 


Foreign, other countrien - 


12.43 








Total 


5,452,884 
4,184.867 


66.58 


By land 


43.42 








Total . 


zea%^fi^J^^ 


^gL^ 





200 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



COD FISHERIES. 

There are about 136 ships equipped for cod fishing, the total of the 
crews being 13,314 men. The fierures for 1895 show that the total 
quantity of exports were 16,116,852 kilograms (about 35,000,000 
pounds), of which 6,346,416 kilograms (about 13,000,000 pounds) went 
direct from the fishing grounds and 9,770,436 kilograms (about 
21,000,000 pounds) from ports of France. 

VINTAGE OP PRANCE. 

Of the 45,000,000 hectolit<irs of wine required for French consump- 
tion, not one-half will be forthcoming from the French vines, and at 
least 300,000,000 gallons will be required to supply the deficiency, 
creating a demand upon Algeria, Italy, and Spain. The growers and 
proprietors are in despair, for after having produced large crops for 
years, which they were obliged to sell at wholly unremunerative 
prices, owing to the depression of trade, not only in the United 
States, but in Great Britain, Russia, and Belgium, they have now to 
face the situation with an insignificant crop of indifferent wine. 
The stocks of clarets at present existing in Boi*deaux still include a 
large portion of the *' Grands Crfis" and ** Bourgeois" crops of 1887, 
1888, 1889, 1891, 1893, and 1896, and although all these, in a greater 
or less degree, promise to develop into high class wines, some of 
which will certainly become famous in the future, none have been 
purchased from the growers at high prices, while the later vintages 
have only averaged a little above former " grand ordinaire " prices. 
The small quantities of 1896 vintage now remaining in the hands of 
the growers, in the ch&teaux of the Medoc, have nearly doubled 
their previous value, in view of the short and indifferent crop of 1897. 
As an instance of the reduced quantities of wine made during the 
present vintage, on some of the estates of the Medoc district, the fol- 
lowing returns have been quoted: 





1897. 


1896. 


Chateau Laflte 


hogsheads.. 


240 

400 
600 


768 


Chateau L^ovilleLascases 

Chateau Langoa... ' 


do.... 

do... 


830 
l.OJJJ 


Chateau Pontet Canet 


do... 


1,400 



As with claret, so with champagne. Shippers have been strongly 
attracted by the moderate prices at which the abundant and well- 
succeeded wines have been sold by the growers, and the cellars of 
Epemay, Ay, Rheims, and Saumur are full to overflowing with the 
vintages produced since 1889, and are, therefore, independent of the 
present, and indeed of the next (1898), vintage. Burgundy is far 
from being as fortunate as regards stock, for while the recent vint- 
ages have not been so plentiful, the expoit trade has been much 
brisker, owing to an increased appreciation of these full-bodied wines, 
and there are no similar accumulations of old Burgundy. The Cognac 
district has suffered a great check by the inclemency of the 1897 sea- 
son, and the return to abundant production of brandy, as in 1875 
previous to the ravages of the phylloxera, which had been fully 
anticipated as now on the eve of accomplishment since the large 
yield of wine of 1893, is now further postponed. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



201 



The department of indirect taxes has issued the annual valuation 
of the wine crops of 1897. In France itself, the crop is 32,351,000 
hectoliters (854,648,718 gallons), or a decrease of 12,305,000 hectoliters 
(325,073,490 gallons) as compared with the crop of 1896, and 126,000 
hectoliters (3,328,668 gallons) below the average of the last ten years. 

Algeria is expected to give 3,987,000 hectoliters (105,318,566 gallons), 
and Corsica 300,000 hectoliters, which brings the total up to 36,000,000 
hectoliters (7,925,400 gallons). 

POPULATION. 

The population of France is divided as follows: French, 36,832,470; 
naturalized, 170,704; foreign, 1,130,211; total, 38,133,385. The popu- 
lation of the city of Paris is 2,511,955. 

EXCHANGE AND BANKING. 

Since January 1, 1897, the exchange of New York has ranged from 
$5.12 to $5.20. 

The Bank of France statement published for the week ending De- 
cember 4, 1897, is as follows: 

EqaiYalent in 

United States 

currency. 



Notes in circnlation « 

Treasnry account current 

Other accounts current 1 

Gold in band 

Silver in hand ... 

Bills discounted > 

Advances to the public 

Advances to the Ooyemment 

— . ^ 

* Paris and branches. 




$730,404,212 
56,232,570 
06,861,657 
878,219,908 
233, 487, 553* 
172,253,647 
72,151,780 
27,0^,000 



NE'W INDUSTRIES. 



ACETYLINE GAS. 

Within the conrse of the past year, the subject of acetyline gas and 
its adoption in comi)etition with gas and electric light has been 
brought very prominently before the public, but, unfortunately for 
the promoters, a series of accidents, and particularly an explosion of 
one of the tubes, although brought about, the promoters maintain, by 
the carelessness of an operator and through no fault of the material, 
attracted the attention of the French authorities, and such restrictions 
were eventually applied to its use that its extensive adoption in France 
has been brought to a standstill; in fact, it is practically prohibited 
within the fortifications of the city of Paris, although under certain 
conditions it may be used in the works of large industries, more or 
less isolated. There are many experiments going on at the present 
time, with a view to lessen the restrictions applied to the manufacture 
and keeping of acetyline gas. Results appear to show that acetyline, 
when under a pressure of something less than two atmospheres, is 
violently explosive, whereas under a pressure of less than one and 
one-half atmospheres it appears to be reasonably free from liability 
to explosion, provided it is mixed with oxygen or atmospheric air. It 
is considered sufScient for commercial and practical purposes to allow 
a pressure of 20 inches of water, above that of the ati|Gyc>^|^^^5Qjtth%t is. 



202 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

one and one-twentieth atmospheres), and although in England it is 
proposed to draw a safety line at this point and to declare acetyline 
an explosive when subject to a higher pressure, by the explosive act 
of 1875, the authorities of France and Germany have fixed the limit 
of danger at one and one-half and one and one-tenth atmospheres, 
respectively, and have passed prohibitions and restrictions on the 
keeping and manufacture of the gas when it is at a higher pressure. 
A recent application of the use of acetyline in a small way has been 
devised in the shape of a bicycle lantern, which gives a brilliant light 
when compared with others, estimated at 1»5 candlepower, weight 
about one-fourth pound, and lasting for about four hours at an esti- 
mated expense of one-half centime (one-tenth cent) per hour, retail 
price being $2. 

RADIOTINT. 

A new industry, which has just been brought out in Paris and which 
is creating a sensation, is a process applicable to photographic prints 
on ordinary albumenized paper and to transparent positives for repro- 
ducing absolutely the colors of nature, both for portraits and land- 
scapes. The process is called the radiotint, and all the effects of the 
countless colors and tints are reproduced almost instantaneously upon 
the photograph or transparency by the application of four solutions, 
namely, colorless, blue, green, and red, repeated one upon another 
according to the effect desired. I understand that the concession has 
already been accorded for the United States, and a contract signed 
for a minimum supply of 500,000 lit,ers (132,000 gallons) per annum 
of the different solutions. The application of the process does not 
Require a person to be an artist, or to have any particular instruction 
heretofore necessary for the coloring of photographs. 

Automobile conveyances, both for personal use and for the delivery 
of goods of large business houses, have been widely used in Paris, 
though the system has not, as yet, been adopted for cabs or omni- 
buses. Out of the many systems being brought before the public, it 
is difficult to decide at present which is the most practical, but trials 
and competitions are continually taking place, and it is fair to say 
that up to the present time the subject is still in its infancy and in 
an experimental state. It is, however, announced in the French 
papers that the Compagnie G'en6rale des Voitures will, within five or 
six months, place lOO electric cabs, similar to those now in use in 
London, at the disposal of the public in Paris. One of the depots will 
be converted into an electric supplj^ station, at which owners of pri- 
vate electric cabs also may have their vehicles charged. The accumu- 
lators which will be used by the company will permit the cab to travel 
a distance of 80 kilometers (50 miles) without recharging. Nothing 
has yet been decided as to the shape of the cab, but a dozen designs 
are under consideration, and it is probable that a kind of landau, 
which can be opened or closed at desire, will be adopted. 

The commerce of France with foreign countries, and especially with 
the United States, has not for many years realized the anticipations 
and hopes of the French administration, but it is only fair to state 
that, though slow, there has been a gradual increase since the Franco- 
Ih'ussian war. As regards the past year, much harm has been done by 
the inclement weather in the beginning of the season and the heavy 
hailstorms and rainfalls during the summer and autumn. As a result, 
the wheat crop has suffered greatly, and it is estimated that 10,000,000 
quarters will have to be obtained from abroad to supply the neoessities 
of France. "^^'^^^^ "^ vjwwgii^ 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 203 

Inquiries bj'^ American firms for marketable articles in France have 
very much increased, and there appears to be a general and growing 
endeavor on the part of American manufacturers to establish business 
relations in this country. One of the absolute necessities for the suc- 
cessful accomplishment of this movement, however, seems to be 
entirely ignored by American houses; that is to say, the direct con- 
tact of the salesman speaking the language of the country, having a 
thorough knowledge of the merchandise in question, and equipped 
with price lists, illustrated catalogues, and printed matter fully and 
properly translated into French. French merchants in general make 
little or no endeavor to speak our language, though in exceptional 
cases they are finding the necessity of having some one connected 
with their house more or less familiar with English. It is a well- 
known fact that other nations, and especially Grermany, have realized 
that it is indispensable to send salesmen into the countries where they 
seek commercial relations, and not to attempt to rely upon an ud cer- 
tain correspondence, with the result that this army of workers has 
placed goods of German manufacture all over the world, and in order 
to offset this successfully, American merchants will have to do the 
same. There are many articles of American manufacture that French 
consumers would be pleased to have, could they be intelligently 
informed as to the utility of the same and the superior quaUty of 
manufacture. For instance, boots and shoes of American manufac- 
ture are making their appearance in the Parisian shops, and being 
generally of a high quality of material and manufacture, are compet- 
ing very satisfactorily with the heretofore esteemed luxury, Parisian 
boots and shoes. 

If a combination of prominent houses dealing in various branches 
of American manufactures, such as household utensils, agricultural 
instruments, and labor-saving machines, could arrange to establish 
and maintain permanent exposition rooms in the chief cities of France, 
there is no doubt that the enterprise would be most successful, and 
would create a hitherto unexisting demand for American products. 
The French Government loses no opportunity to encourage and aid 
the extension of French commerce abroad, principally by the allow- 
ance of bounties and by legislation for the protection of goods. The 
several trades of merchants and manufacturers in France receive 
great assistance and extend their business relations through organiza- 
tions known as " syndical chambers" of their respective occupations. 
These chambers, as a rule, include all the prominent firms in the dif- 
ferent trades, and the list of members is furnished upon demand by 
the secretary of the organization. One meeting a month is held, as a 
rule, in the rooms of the organization, when subjects relative to the 
mutual benefit and interest of the trade are discussed and suggestions 
solicited for the extension and increase of business, and it is to be 
remarked that although these organizations contain long lists of mem- 
bers, they work together, in spite of their personal competition, for 
the benefit of the organization as a whole. This will explain why, in 
foreign countries, a house desirous of establishing commercial rela- 
tions with France is placed in possession of a complete list of the 
prominent houses and manufacturers in the respective lines of trade. 

American merchants and manufacturers will do well to adopt this 
system. 

John K. Gowdy, 

Consul- General, 

Paris, December U, 1897. 

Digitized by VJ\_^V^Vl\^ 



204 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



BORDEAUX. 

I have the honor to submit the accompanying report in compliance 
with Department circular of August 10, 1897. 

It is not to be expected that in the brief period which has elapsed 
since my arrival I can have so mastered the commercial conditions 
between the United States and this portion of France as to form from 
personal observation an opinion worth stating in regard to them actu- 
ally or as compared with previous years. There are certain things 
which have been brought to my attention, however, which seem to 
me may be not wholly without value to the American people at this 
time, and in response to the demand for a report in regard to the same 
I beg leave to give some of these, together with such statistical infor- 
mation as may have come into my possession relating thereto. 

LACK OF AMERICAN SHIPPING. 

The first thing that impresses a consul of the United States newly 
an'ived at this port, is the fact that the nation he represents is no 
longer one of any maritime importance. During the half year end- 
ing June 30, 1897, the value of the exports to the United States, 
embraced by the 2,060 invoices certified at this consulate, amounted 
to $4,940,133.68. Not a pound of this was carried on an American 
ship, and the records of the consulate show that the flag of the United 
States has not been seen in this harbor for two years, and only a few 
times in a dozen years. This means that we have surrendered the 
ocean carrying trade, which is the largest, most profitable, and 
important single element of commerce, except railway carriage, 
wholly to other nations, and are dependent upon them for access to 
this market, whether as buyers or sellers. This exposes us to three 
distinct disadvantages: 

1. We are liable to be discriminated against in freight rates and 
opportunity. 

2. It subjects us to higher rates of duty on our products. 

3. And most important of all, it prevents that mutual familiarity 
between the two peoples on which the extension of commercial rela- 
tions mainly depends. 

The records of this consulate tell the story of a time when things 
were altogether different; when we were the youngest and one of the 
smallest nations of the world-, so far as population was concerned, 
yet carried under our flag nearly all the trade of Bordeaux and more 
of the ocean commerce of the world than any other. We were a small 
but well-known nation then; now we are great, rich, and boastful, 
but almost unknown upon the sea in a commercial sense. 

A hundred years ago, when we were a nation of less than 6,000,000 
inhabitants, 141 American ships belonging to American owners, sailed 
by American captains, and manned by American seamen, entered the 
port of Bordeaux and registered at this consulate between the 1st day 
of January, 1795, and the 30th day of June of that year, almost one 
a day for half a year at a time and for many years in succession. 
The Stars and Stripes were a familar sight in the roadstead of the 
Garonne at that time. Not a day passed when there were not a score 
of ships which flew the "gaudy banner" lading and unlading at her 
quays. 

Now we are a nation of 70,000,000 people. The quay of Bordeaux 

uigitized by "kjkjkjwls^ 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 205 

is one of the finest in the world. Its exports and imports are very 
great. The ships of ali other nations crowd its roadstead; but a gen- 
eration of stevedores and watermen have grown up who have hardly 
seen the Stars and Stripes except when twice a year, on the 4th and 
14th of July, the birthdays of the two greatest republics of the world, 
the flag is displayed over the door of the consulate. 

IS THIS CONIrlTION REMEDIABLE? 

What is the cause of this most remarkable reversion of national 
importance in maritime commerce which the world has ever witnessed? 

There are many theorists ready with conflicting answers to this 
question. We are told that " protection " has paralyzed our com- 
merce; that "English cheap labor" has closed our shipyards by ruin- 
ous competition; that the *' repeal of preferential duties to imports 
in American bottoms" has given our trade to the ships of other lands; 
that iron ships have proved too strong in competition with wooden 
ones as the freight carriers of the world; that Confederate cruisers 
built by English capitalists swept our commerce from the seas; that 
the ** refusal to admit foreign-built ships to American registry" has 
made it impossible to rebuild our merchant marine; that "the com- 
petition of foreign capital and cheap labor " have forever driven our 
flag from the paths of ocean commerce. These and other similar 
theories, perhaps, have been elaborated to account for a condition 
which no American can contemplate with satisfaction, and for which 
most thinking ones have formulated for themselves some sufftcient 
excuse. I have no wish to discuss any of them, but merely to sug- 
gest some ideas which seem to have been generally neglected in this 
connection, to wit: 

1. That a tithe of the enterprise which built up our ocean commerce 
in. the early days of the RepubUc applied to our present resources 
would regain it for us. When England lost all but 2 per cent of the 
carrying trade of the Mediterranean, she regained her predominance 
in it not by theorizing, but by paying the amazing price of supporting 
Gibraltar, Cyprus, and Malta — barren citadels — building an immense 
navy, and in general devoting her i)ower to recovering her prestige. 
No nation gets the world's commerce by holding aloof from world 
interests. # 

2. That whatever may have been the causes of the decay of our 
maritime commerce, the most potent of the influences which have 
prevented its revival is the fact that the thought, the energy, the 
aspiration of the American people have been turned with furious self- 
absorption in the direction of domestic production and domestic trade. 
The amazing extent, wealth, and variety of our domestic resources 
have absorbed our attention, and we have thought of the outside 
world only with a certain impatience when it failed to make demand 
for our surplus products in the forms we chose to put them and at the 
prices we asked. As a consequence, we have paid little attention to 
the needs or fancies of foreign purchasers, but have expected them to 
come to us, take what they can get, carry it away in their own ships, 
and make such use of it as they may. 

3. That the most important thing to be done in order to secure 
access to foreign markets for American goods, is to secure a modifica- 
tion of the intellectual status of the American producer. When he 
becomes really anxious for a foreign market, he will see the necessity 
(1) of manufacturing goods in the sizes and styipedemanded by for- 



206 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



eign consumers, (2) of advertising his wares in terms comprehensible 
to those he wishes to become his purchasers, and (3) of having con- 
trol of transportation unaffected by rival interests and abundant 
enough to overbear competition and bring our goods surely and 
swiftly to the desired purchasers, instead of relying upon foreign 
enterprise to market our wares for us. 

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF BORDEAUX. 

The accompanying table shows the exports from the port of Bor- 
deaux to the United States during the year 1896, the same during the 
first six months of 1897, and compares the latter with the exports for 
a like period in 1896; also the imports therefrom during this period 
as compared with the same during one-half the year 1896. The table 
is compiled from the reports of the customs officers of this port, to 
whom I am happy to acknowledge myself under obligations for many 
courtesies. It has the merit of being made on the basis of quantities 
rather than of values, which does so much to render our own statistics 
unreliable by adding the uncertainty of price to the variations of 
amount. Attention has been so engrossed with the fact of increased 
imx)ortation of goods to the United States during the first two quar- 
ters of this year with intent to forestall the expected increase of cus- 
toms duties that other variations of trade during that period seem to 
have been largely overlooked. In making out these tables almost 
everj'^thing has been reduced to pounds and liters. The other 
measures of quantity are immaterial. For ordinary purposes it is 
sufficient to read liters as quarts. 

The following table of trade between the United States and Bor- 
deaux, France, shows (1) the amount and character of all exports 
from Bordeaux to the United States during the year 1896; (2) the 
amount and character of all exports from Bordeaux to the United 
States during first six months of 1897; (3) the amounts and character 
of all imports from the United States entering the port of Bordeaux 
during the year 1896; (4) the amount and character of all imports 
from the United States entering the port of Bordeaux during the first 
six months of 1897; (5) the gain and loss of exports during the first 
six months of 1897 as compared with like period of 1896, showing 
relative amount of each article; (6) the gain and loss of imports dur- 
ing first six months of 1897 as compared with six months of 1896, 
showing relative amount of each article: 

EXPORTS. 




Leeches thousands.. 

Salt meat: 

Bacon and ham l^unds: 

Beef and other Iponnd^:: . 

Pork and sausages j^^Sda--:, 

Preserved meat in tins '» pounds I 

) kilos. 



Preserved game I founds -' 

jkil^ 



Pftt^defoiegrras. 
Extracts of meat 



(pounds, 
j kilos. 



■ (pounds -- 



188 
401 



10,178 

32,488 
6,288 

13,818 
1,168 
2,574 
8,830 

19,687 
276 
608 



016 
2.019 

647 
1,426 
1,048 
2,310 
1,425 
8.141 
54 

119 
2,604 
5,n8 



Loss. 



825 

1,818 : 

647 
1.4^ I 



LTigipZStTDP' 



29 



4,041 
8,908 
1,811 
8,992 

530 
1,168 
1,871 
4,424 

188 



EUBOPE: FRANCE. 



207 



EXPORTS— Continued. 



Articles. 



jkdloB. 



S*^« "inpunds. 

Woolinbnlk \^unds: 



Hair of animals il^^d^." 



Feather*^ 

Grease and lard . 



Cheese . 
Butter 



jkllos- 
• I pounds. . 

j kilos..-. 
' < pounds.. 

j kilos 

■ (pounds.. 

* kilos.... 
" I pounds.. 

Sundry. products of animals j Jo^'^g;; 

Salt fish: 

coaiuh ig-,-:: 

other kinds {^nii:. 

Pish In oil: 

^^*^ ]gSS"ds:: 

O"""""** l^unH: 

Oysters in shell thousands . . 

Preserved OTstere....: 1 pounds:: 

Lotators ^pS.""d^:: 

J^tohoii IgSa^:: 

Indian com {gS^di!: 

Bnckwheat I^S^di: 

^"'tfl'™'- \^nnik:: 

Other flour \plik:. 

Sailors- biscnlta l^diV. 

iM~. Ikiloe.... 

*'*<» Ippunds. 

Dried vegetables jSJSd^:: 

a>'»"'"f &dk:. 

p<"»t°" igSd^:: 

Dried fruits l^ikV. 

Preserved frtiits ^SSSIdi'.: 

Baisin, for wine l^S^iiV. 

Oleaginous grains {^^aiV. 

8e«*>."«io<» \^^di:. 

Cioyer^eea {^^nikV. 

Simps and sweetmeats InJfMdi:: 

Preserved fruit l^^diV. 

»«="*'» - S,u°Sds:: 

Concentrated mitt {^Sd^- 

J"-" iSJSSds:: 

co«- &6i:: 

Chocolate jg^^;; 

p«pp<"- &n^:. 

o""*""" ^iSSd^-: 



Amounts, 
1886. 



5,200 

11,463 

514,064 

1,133.305 

105,846 

233,358 

1,600 

3,527 

58 

127 

31,304 

69,012 

3.284 

7,230 



616 
1,357 
1,282 

2,782 

673,886 

1,485,649 

24.108 

63.184 

2H 

106 

233 

28 

61 

2.000 

4,409 



600 

1,102 

1,960 

4,321 

750 

1,653 

40 

88 

1,178 

2,897 

310 

683 

3,227 

7,112 

2,017,201 

4,447,121 

447,748 

987,105 

2,468 

5,640 

348 

767 

34 

74 

8,000 

17,636 

2,024 

4,462 

16,742 

36,909 

1,742 

3,844 

76 

167 

112,940 

248,987 



52 
114 



1,130 
2,491 



Amounts I 

first six I 

months, 1897. 



Ghdn. ! Loss. 



TO. 

175, 

1.960. 

4,321, 

14, 

31, 

1, 

4, 

6, 

14, 

19, 

42, 

1, 
16, 



-I- 



110,873 i 
243,328 I 
64U 
1.410 I 

211,445 1 

466,151 

16,405 

36.166 



100 
220 
100 
220 



1,285 



42 
92 

960 
2,094 



700 

1,543 

m,812 

275,380 

293,225 

646,443 

2,468 

6,540 



1,515 

3,339 

256 

564 

1,315 

2,899 

1,034 

2,279 

33,340 

73,601 

940 

2.072 

93 

206 

46 

101 

460 

1,014 



53,531 

118,014 

1,703,009 

3,753.453 



576 
1.270 
6,486 
14,299 
3,613 
7,965 
1,119 
2,466 
16,110 
35.516 

110,060 

242,638 

9 

19 

125,498 

276,072 

4,351 

9,602 



63 

116 

14 

30 

1,000 

2,204 

100 

220 

100 

220 



2f5 

48 
211 
466 



68,351 
150,686 



1,108 



444 
978 



2,195 



040 
2,072 

67 
147 

46 
101 



88.631 
85.166 



18 



250 
651 
397 
875 
876 



156 

841 

613 

l,a51 

888,380 

1,847,519 



174 
883 

17 

37 

4,000 

8,818 



8,116 
17.892 



23.130 
60,992 



105 
£31 



Digitized by 



Google 



208 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



EXPOETS-Continuod. 



Articles. 



Amonnts, 
1876. 



Amounis, 

first six 

months, 1807. 



Qain. 



Loss. 



Vanilla 

Tea 

Leaf tobacco 

Cigarettes 

Olive oU 

Other oils 

Gums 

Resin 

Licorice extract 

Medicinal roots 

Medicinal plants 

Medicinal barks 

Boards under 1 inch thick. 

Cork bark 

SaflCron 

Vegetables 

Truffles 

Rags 

Nursery stock 

Flower bulbs 

Wines. ^ 

Vinegar 

Cider 



Brandy 

Pure alcohol. - 

Liqueurs 

Mineral water. 
Rough marble. 
Sawn marble under 2 inches thick 

Cut stone... 

Grindstones 

Talc stone.. 

Slate 

Sulphur 

Refined petroleum 

Products derived from i)etroleum 

Iron ore 

Ferro manganese 

Iron in bars 

Iron wire 

. Steel 

Zinc sheets 

Manganese ore, 
Stearic acid..., 

Ammonia 

Potash, refined. 



kilos... 

pounds. 

kilos ... 

i)ound8. 

kilos — 

pounds. 

kilos... 

iwunds. 

kUos... 

pounds. 

kilos ... 

pounds. 

kilos ... 

pounds. 

iilos... 

pounds, 
i kilos ... 
I pounds. 

kilos ... 

pounds. 

kilos... 
) pounds, 
i kilos ... 
1 pounds, 
i kilos ... 
1 pounds. 
I kilos ... 
I pounds. 
ikUoe ... 
J pounds, 
t kilos... 
I pounds. 

kilos-. 

ix)und8. 

kilos ... 
. pounds. 
I kilos ... 

! pounds 
kilos ... 
pounds. 
....Uters. 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 



(kilos... 
I pounds. 
— piece, 
jkiloe ... 
) pounds, 
i kilos... 
1 T)ound8. 
ikUoe ... 
I pounds. 
....liters, 
kilos... 

Sounds, 
los... 

pounds. 

kilos... 

pounds. 
^ kilos . . . 
) pounds. 
I kilos... 
1 pounds, 
i kilos ... 
I pounds. 
» kilos ... 
"/ pounds. 

Kilos ... 

pounds. 

kilos ... 
. pounds. 
J kilos... 
i pounds, 
j kilos... 
j pounds. 



670, 

3, 

7, 

855, 

783, 



023, 
65, 
144, 



533 

1,088 
U73 
4 
8 
852 
665 
536 
795 
518 
774 
400 
881 
742 
333 
578 
573 
112 
246 
142 
313 
000 
204 



1.965, 

11, 

25, 

1,100, 

2,425, 



88, 

6. 

106. 

1, 

92, 

245, 



70, 
154, 



3,066 



759 
200 
691 



915,001 
2,014,876 



184 

405 

186,873 

411,979 

23 

50 

166,549 

367,173 



200,976 
475,347 
24,021 
52,956 



13,770 
30,357 



144,861 

318,258 
16,461 
36,289 

504.599 
l,m,438 



188 

390 

1,362,058 

21,583 

603 
67,188 

337 
72,285 
13,972 
41,553 

350 



35,058 
n,288 



546 
1.203 

500 
1,4«7 
8.234 
3,000 
6,613 



2,500 
5,709 



6, 201), 000 

13,668,520 

3,634 

7,791 



913,942 
2,014,876 



182 

401 

57,447 

126,647 



119,605 



13,770 



10,714 
23,620 



187 

412 

417,858 



13,600 



26,258 



41,553 
350 



33,625 
73,909 



546 
1,203 

500 



4,600 



2,590 



6,200,000 
13,668,520 



121 

266 

19,544 

43,086 



1.745 

3,847 

11,210 

24,713 

200 

440 



8,768 

19,829 

66 

123 

71 

156 

500 

1,102 



25 

55 

301,381 

664,424 



45,707 

100,765 

219 

482 



22,660 
2,658 



108,763 



35,050 

77,271 

2 



5,600 
12.345 



2,917 
6,480 

"9V926 
2,600 
5,511 



233 
513 
2,564 
5,652 
1,207 
2,660 



6,467 

14,257 

525 

1,157 

50 

110 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



209 



EXPORTS-Continued. 



Artio1««^ 



Amonfit^ 



Amcraiitii 

arflt eU 

moiittia,li§07. 



Gnin. 



L098. 



Verdigris 

Arsenicate of potash 

Olyoerine 

Nitrate of potash 

Salphatee 

Wine lees 

Crude tartar 

Cream of tartar 

Sundry chemical products. 

Indigo and bluing 

Annatto 

Ultramarine blue 

Carmine 



Ink 



kilos .... 
pounds. . 
kilos... 
pounds. . 
kilos .... 
pounds. 

kilos 

pounds.. 

kilos 

pounds., 
tdlos .... 
pounds., 
.kilos .... 
iwunds. . 
Elos .... 

founds. . 
ilos .... 
pounds., 
kilos .... 
pounds, 
kilos. 



pounds, 
kilc 



ilos. 

E>unds. 
los. 




lunds. 
ilos. 



poi 
kil 

pounds, 
kilos. 



pounds, 
kilc 



dlos. 



pounds, 
kilc 



:ilos. 



pounds, 
kilc 



dlos. 



pounds. 
kUos.-.. 
pounds. 
kUos. 



unds. 



kUos 

pounds. 

kll'^. 



pounds. 
kUos. 



pounds, 
kilos.... 
pounds, 
kilos ... 
pounds, 
kilos.... 
pounds, 
kilos. 



pounds, 
kilos. 



pounds, 
kilos. 



pounds, 
kilos. 



pounds, 
kilos.... 
pounds, 
kilos.... 
pounds, 
kilos..- 
pounds, 
kilos.... 

lounds. 

ilos. 



poi 

kil- 

pounds. 

kUos.... 

pounds. 

kUos.... 

pounds. 



pounds. . 
kilos.... 
pounds., 
kilos .... 
pounds. . 
kilos.... 
pounds. . 



6. 
18, 
482, 
l.OW. 
2, 
5, 



9, 
20, 



86, 

596, 

1,311, 



9. 
SO, 
46, 

loe, 

8, 
18, 



1, 

4, 

11, 

24, 



■I. 

4. 
Ut 
11. 

dtK 

8. Of*;. 
6»e^7. 

ip^e. 

2.W71 



572 
.261 
346 
762 

70 
154 

76 
167 
282 
621 



37,847 
88,431 



78, 

m, 

618, 

1,363, 

2, 

5, 



286 

630 

28.269 

62.299 

105,000 

231,483 

107 



34,860 

76,830 

6.664 

14,691 

12 

26 

S33 

1,176 

1.101 

2,427 

195 

429 

163 

403 

492 

1,084 



1, 



2,828 

5,132 

868,345 

812,063 

70 

154 

599,763 



98 
216 



697 
1,586 



82,867 
71,356 



126 

277 

75,000 

165,345 

872,106 

820,344 



1.200 
2,645 
2,700 
5,962 



8.972 
19,779 



11, «0 
25,380 
2,460 
5.448 



183 
409 



697 



2.45S 

5.412 

52 

114 



61 



37 
71 

Digitized 



107 

235 

4.684 

10.326 



15 



720 
1.587 



192,500 

424,385 

7 

15 

4.586 

10,110 



8 

17 

439 

967 

4.554 

9.089 

204 

449 



633 

1.395 

4,960 

10.934 

4.546 

lO,Q2i5 

1,134,051 

2,504,112 

1,878 

8,087 

51,889 

114,394 

76 

167 

169 

372 

95 

209 

1,075 

2,869 



286 
680 
173 
881 
35 
77 
88 
83 
104 



edby'Gdogle 



210 



COMMERCIAL 'RELATIONS. 



EXPORTS— Continued. 



Articles. 



Amonnts, 
1896. 



Amounts 

first six 

months, 1897. 



Gain. 



Loss. 



Paper 

Printed matter 

Labels 

Playing: cards 

Photographs 

Leather 

Shoes 

Engines and machines 

Tools 

WrouKhtiron 

Wrought copper • 

Tinware 

Gums 

Gum powder 

Furniture and wrought wood . 

Organs 

Musical accessories 

Wickerwork 

Felt 

Wrought cork 

feilliard balls 

Brushes 

Toys 

Objects for collection 

SUMMARY. 

Total 



(kilos.... 
' 1 pounds.. 

t kilos.... 
' I pounds.. 

i kilos.... 
" > pounds.. 

.i kilos.-.. 
" (pounds.. 

i kilos.... 

■ (pounds.. 
] kilos.... 

" I pounds. - 
(kilos.... 

■ 1 pounds. . 
:kilo8.... 

pounds. . 
kilos.... 
pounds., 
kilos.... 
pounds. . 
kilos.... 
pounds.. 

pounds.. 

kilos... 

' (pounds.. 

jklloe.... 

' (pounds.. 

ifilos ... 

■ (pounds., 
iece.. 



...pi 

"I pounds. 
(kUos... 
( pounds. 

kilos ... 

pounds. 

kilos ... 

pounds. 

J kilos... 

" ( pounds. 

i kilos ... 

■ 1 pounds, 
i kilos... 

■ 1 pounds. 
J francs . 

' ( dollcurs . 

(kilos... 

. i pounds. 

(liters... 



10,880 

22,884 

1,014 

2,235 

1,216 

2,680 

22,160 

48,831 

26 

67 

480 

1,068 

8,038 

17,720 

23,442 

51,680 

98 

216 

122,006 

268,974 

2,048 

4,616 

64,908 

121,248 

442 

974 

28 

61 

137,444 

908,009 

1 

8 

17 

29,082 

66,098 

24 

62 

291,904 

613,631 



200 

440 

2,160 

4,783 

600 

96 



63.536,081 

118,023,433 

2,430,006 



99,879 

218,090 

161 

354 

769 

1,673 

1,160 

2,635 



206 
464 



69,941 

164,191 

35 

77 

43,330 

05,626 

316 

604 



12,060 
26,587 



7,152 

15,767 

396 

873 

108,004 

238,105 

16 

85 

76 

167 

801 

663 



13,668,062 

29,881.064 

1,579,526 



47,830 
105,486 



151 



8,938 
19,704 



16,831 

34,901 

98 

206 



6,138 
11,327 



384 
846 



11,064,777 

24,:i03,407 

499,716 



346 

762 



9,025 

21,880 

13 

28 

240 

529 

4,019 

8,860 

11,616 

35,385 

49 

108 



089 
2,180 



14 
30 



1 

4 

8 

7,839 

17,381 



37,948 
83,660 



24 
62 



250 

48 



2,858,663 

6,290,964 

334,739 



IMPORTS. 



Horses: 

Geldings head. 

Marefl , do.. . 

Cattle: Cows do... 

Salt meat: 

Po'k.hams ]g«^: 

Pork, unsalted |g'«^; 

Preserved meat, in cons ] ^^aj" 

Sausage 8Wn« jSl^Sdi: 

«"eB |S,'„°Sdi: 

^~i igSd^: 

p<«*«" ]™Sdi: 

^lo" I'gSds; 



861, 

52, 

114, 

246, 

640. 

1,117, 

2,464, 

63, 

140, 

25, 

66, 



15, 



68,166 
160,273 



183,969 
406,678 
4,952 
10,917 
82,806 
72,321 
10.684 
23,332 



880 
1,940 



61,296 

135,130 

653,991 

1,221,328 

1,022 

2,253 



14 



127,278 

280,602 

26,016 

46,447 



653,991 
1,221,328 



2,258 
4,977 
115 
25:) 
6,749 
14.898 
8,586 
7,798 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



211 



EXPORTS—Oontlnued. 



Articles. 



Amoants, 
1806. 



Amounts, 

first six 

months, 1897. 



Gain. 



Loss. 



Lard 

Other animal products 

Fish, canned 

Oysters 

Lobsters 

Fish roe 

Horns of cattle 

Cereals: 

Wheat 

Oats 

Corn 

Wheat flour 

Edible starch 

Desiccated vegetables 

Green apples 

Dried pears and apples 

Prunes and other dried fruits. 

Nuts 

Brandied fruits 

Sirups and candies 

Preserved fruits 

Sweet biscuits ...." 

Jam 

Coffee 

Vanilla 

Tea 

Leaf tobacco... 

Cigars 

Olive oil 

Cotton-seed oil 

India rubber, crude 

Medicinal roots 



i kilos .... 

{ pounds. . 

» kilos.... 

(pounds.. 

kilos.... 

pounds.. 

kilos .... 

1 pounds.. 

i kilos.... 

- 1 pounds.. 

j kilos .... 

* l pounds.. 

Jkilos.... 

- (pounds.. 

ikllos.... 
' "jponnds.. 

(pounds., 
kilos .... 
pounds.. 
kUos.... 
pounds., 
kilos.... 

Bounds., 
los.... 

pounds.. 

kilos.... 

pounds., 
jkilos-.. 
I pounds. . 
jkilos.... 
I pounds. 

kilc 



llos . 



ids. 



• J pounds, 
jkilc 



' 7 pount 

1 kilos 

" 1 pounds. 

i kilos... 

' 1 pounds. 

Jkilos.... 

>onnc^ 

:ilos 

] pounds.. 

kilos .... 

pounds.. 

kilos .... 

} pounds. . 

i kilos.... 

" (pounds. - 

i kilos 

' (pounds.. 

i kilos.... 

■ (pounds.. 

jkilos.... 

unds.. 



"(POI 

lkil( 
' ( pounds 

jkil 



Lumber: 

3 Inches thick 

2 inches thick 

Less than 2 inches . 

Stave bolts ! 

Cork board 

Firewood 

Furniture wood 

Dyewoods 



._Jl08.... 

■ ( iKJunds.. 
ifaloe.... 

' (pounds.. 

ikUos.... 

' (pounds.. 

Ikilos.... 

' (pounds.. 

jkilos.... 

■ ( pounds. . 
iknos .... 

pounds., 
kilos .... 
pounds.. 
kUos .... 
pounds. . 
kUos .... 
pounds.. 
.Elos.... 
pounds., 
kilos .... 
pounds.. 



1.466,161 

3,232,208 

140 

806 

882 

1,044 

38 

88 

26 

67 

84,341 

185,068 

906 

1,907 



1,237, 

2,727, 

346, 

761, 

8.836, 

10.478, 

6, 

11, 



336, 
741. 



254, 

561, 

1, 

2, 



5,610,1 
12,160,: 



346, 
763, 
106. 



627, 

6,694. 

12,563. 

6, 

14. 

I, 

3, 



166. 
344, 



341,850 
753,042 



00,147 
108,7% 



4,000,200 
11,021,236 

6,570,900 
14,486,206 



580.941 

1,300,584 

5,061 

11,201 

640 

1,410 

32 

70 



728 



990,135 

2,102,005 

2 

4 

178 

392 

100,893 

222,428 



40,828 

44,200 
07,443 
110,300 
22,707 
38,400 
84,656 
2,222,641 
4,000,034 



73,402 



47, on 

105, n4 



4,826,600 
10,640,501 
2,153,300 
4,747,166 



421,652 

920,573 

2,700 

6,062 

295 

660 



206 
650 



2 

4 

175 

385 

84,688 

186,703 



22,602 
40,828 



66,900 



875,617 
728,065 



83.336 
78,492 



391,230 

862,506 

70 

154 



19 
41 
13 

2$ 



453 



6,187 
13,630 



2,500 
6,511 



8,337 

18,370 

34 

74 



127 
12 
26 



308 

667 

7 

16 

127,362 

280,782 

620 

l,»r6 

1 

2 

1,760,820 

3,871,023 



8,283 
18,200 



128,600 
283,201 



70,800 
175,027 



8,300 

7,275 

000 

1,984 



78,200 
172,300 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



212 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

EXPGRTS-Contlnued. 



Articles. 



i kilos... 

1 pounds.. 

tklloe ... 
' ( pounds. 

] kilos ... 
' I pounds . 

! kilos ... 
pounds. 
kUos ... 
pounds.. 
kUos ... 
pounds. 

Wine in bottles liters. 

Wine in casks do.... 

Cider do.... 

Distilled liquors do.... 

Natural phosphates do... 

Coal do.... 



Ck)tton 

Mushrooms 

Malt 

Woolen rags 

Wood pulp 

Nursery plants . 



Paraffin 

Copper ingots . 



Junk. 
Lead. 



Tin 

Potash. 



Trade salt. 



Crude petroleum ] ^^S^ds. 

Refined i>etroleum liters. 

Heavy oils derived from PO^i'ol©^™/™^^- 

jkSoe ..; 
' pounds, 
kilos ... 
pounds, 
kilos ... 
i>ound8. 
idlos .. 
pounds, 
kilos ... 
pounds, 
kilos... 
pounds. 
kUos ... 
pounds. 
kUos... 
pounds, 
kilos ... 
pounds. 

Perfumery (alcoholic) jpSS^^ds' 

kilos ..'. 
- pounds, 
kilos ... 
" pounds. 
J kilos ... 
' ( pounds, 
kilos ... 
■ 1 pounds. 
Electric lamps number. 

^*^«'»^ ISJSSds: 

Cotton thread ^^^ 



Linen thread . 



Sulphate of copper . 
Talc, in powder 



Common soap... 
Fireproof brick. 

Glass 

Bottles 



' 1 pounds, 
i kilos ... 
" I pounds. 
B«8» (not new) ] glSJ^; 

oi'-^io"" ]»: 

Pmrteboordboxe. CSSd«: 

Books (printed in foreign languages) . . . vols. 

Engravings pieces. 

Photographs Number. 

Labels and show cards do... 

PUying cards (value) ] d^Fare" 

Curried skins jg^^-^ 

Leather strings l^nndk' 

il< 
Jpoi 
Timepieces Number. 



ipot 



Engines and machines jponnds!! 

Agricultural m«;bines \^di" 



Amounts, 
18U6. 



Amounts 

first six 

months, 1897. 



U,782 

a3,588 
10 



0.500 
20.943 
11.068 



60 
32 
30 
78 

4.873,710 



20.40L996 

45,176,664 

7,590,900 

20,048 

44,197 

8,014 

17,667 

601.597 

1.304.234 

1,081 

4.367 



2 

4 

1.778 

3,919 

171 

376 

432 

062 

20,650 

45,524 

54 

119 



3,228 

7,116 

8 

17 



1,800 

3,064 

324 

714 

38 

79 



4 

6 

8 

300 

1,^ 
2,341 



6 

Ti 

22 

54,670 

120.525 

rao,830 

16,111,178 



7,064 
16.617 



496 



80 
176 



456 



386,600 

10,870,290 

43,825,882 

1,623,300 



56.396 

124,335 

728,400 

1,605,830 



52,770 
116,336 



52,770 

116,336 

804 

1,772 



51 
112 



18,805 

2.657 

5,865 

111 

244 

45 

99 

SO 



18 



22,580 

49,779 

1,144.054 

2.522,181 



Qaln. 



498 



80 
176 



441 



386,500 
0,683,302 
21,287,577 



52,391 
117,705 
432,602 
053, n4 



42.445 
08,574 



62,770 
116,386 



51 
112 



14 



8,530 
18,805 
1,963 
4,325 



77.830 
171,603 



Loss. 



308 

670 

5 

11 



4,750 
10,471 

5,529 
12,189 



25 
16 



2,436,866 



2,172,100 
4,754 
10,480 



002 

2,186 

102,603 

424,810 

2 

4 

889 

1,059 

58 

127 

216 

476 



27 



810 

1,786 

4 

8 



1 

a 



51 
112 



2 
3 

4 

150 

S2rt 

631 

1,170 



2 
4,755 

10,482 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 

EXPORTS— Contmued. 



213 



Articles. 



Amoants, 
1800. 



Amonnts 

first six 

months, 1897. 



Oain. 



Loss. 



Tools 1 pounds. 

Metal work jpSSd^] 

F«"^it"« \^un<\k: 

P^nos Number. 

Carri«<» {^™di: 

CycloB ^SS^di: 

Bubber pUdiis ] ^^^- 

\ Kilos 
Manufactured cork Ipounds: 

Games and toyp jSSds: 

€^ario8 for collections (not mer-Jkiloe ... 

chantable) I pounds. 

Money (gold coins) grams. 

SUMMARY. 

(kilos ... 

Total {pounds. 

lliters... 



708 

1,500 

4,772 

10,610 

291,486 

(M2,610 

1 

146 

321 

158 

848 

234 

515 

584 

1,285 

84 

74 



eo» 



36,182,406 
79, 767, 731 
12,464,800 



194 
1,141 
2,515 
25,207 
65,708 



2»i 



124.920,133 

275,418,766 

1,623,756 



205 
451 



266 

586 

1,245 

2,744 

120,476 

265,601 

1 

73 
160 



117 
257 
202 
643 



24,878.084 

54,846,223 

441 



809 



2,065.776 
5.854,928 
4,609,060 



WHAT THE TABLE SHOWS. 

It will be noted that there is a gain of certain articles exported to 
the United States, and a loss in certain other articles, as compared 
with a half year of 1896. The aggregate of such gains amounts to 
22,178,526 x)ounds and the aggregate loss to 6,376,426 pounds, a net 
gain in articles, estimated by weight, of 15,802,100 pounds. 

Of those estimated by fluid measure, the only ones of imi)ortance 
are — 

Liters. 

Wine exported in 1896 1,888,400 

Wine exported first six months of 1897.. : 1,862,058 

Gainoverone-half of 1896 417,858 

Brandy exported during 1896 106,984 

Flratsix monthsof 1897 67,188 

Gtein over one-half of 1896 18,696 

Liqnemti exi)orted in 1896 92,154 

Firstsix monthsof 1897 72,285 

Gain over one half of 1896 26,268 

The value of these exports, so far as they are covered by the consu- 
lar certificates at this office, amounts, for the first half of the present 
year, to — 

Wine $496,888 

Brandy 83,112 

-Liqnenrs 18,600 

These figures represent, however, but a part of the real exports of 
these articles from this region to the United States. Owing to the sys- 
tem of indirect trade which has grown up since the disappearance of 
American commerce from the sea, large quantities of the products of 
this region reach the United States through London, Liverpool, Ham- 



214 GOMMERCUL RELATIONS. 

burg, and AmBterdam, while many American products take the same 
routes because the shippers in the United States are supposedly 
unaware of the extra duty imposed by the French Republic on all 
articles coming from the United States through the ports of any other 
European nation. 

A LESSON WORTH CONNING. 

A most interesting feature of this table, and one which tends very 
strongly to confirm the views hitherto expressed, is the evident fact 
that while there was a very large increase of exports from this region 
during the first six months of the present year, there was a decided 
falling off of imports from the United States during the same period. 
The sum of the gains in importations on all substances measured by 
weight, which embraces almost everything imported, including grains, 
lumber, and petroleum, amounts to 26,105,464 pounds, while the sum 
of the losses during this period, as compared with half the year 1896, 
amounts to 31,506,960; being a net loss of 5,401,496 pounds. This 
striking decrease of imports, contemporaneous with an even more 
striking increase of exports, affords one of the most edifying of many 
modern examples of the fallacy of the free- trade theory that commerce 
is mere international barter, in which the buyer is always or most 
generally the moving impulse. Except in cases of local scarcity of 
some necessity of life, the purchaser is rarely the impelling force in 
modern commerce. Every civilized country to-day is an overpro- 
ducer, and the chief aim of modern economic policy everywhere is to 
find a market for the surplus production of each political community. 
France is anxious to find a market for her wares, and, except as to 
certain products, not overanxious to obtain ours. She prefers bal- 
ances in money rather than barter; hence, her importations decrease 
in amount at the very time her exportations are greatly increased. 

A glance at the table will show another interesting fact: The larger 
part of the French exports to the United States are costly manufac- 
tured products — wine, brandy, liqueurs, prepared vegetables, olive 
oil, and vanilla — while the importations are chiefly raw or gi*oss 
products — pork, grain, petroleum, etc. This leaves the trade balance 
to be liquidated by our importers much larger than a mere comparison 
of quantities would show. 

Some of the items of increased and decreased exportation from the 
United States are very instructive and encouraging to American pro- 
ducers, while others are the reverse. 

There is a very considerable decrease in the amount of cured meats 
and most other animal products, wheat, flour, and dried vegetables 
imported into Bordeaux. On the other hand, there is a decided 
increase in the amount of unsalted pork, fish roe, dried fruits, stave 
bolts, furniture material, crude petroleum, paraffin, powdered talc, 
linen thread, and agricultural implements over a corresponding period 
of last year. There is, however, a decided diminution of the amount 
of meats and other animal products formerly sent us by France, which 
goes to counterbalance the reduction of their imports of like materials. 
Also, a great reduction in their exports of animal hair, dried fruits, 
preserved fruits, jams, vegetables, rags, vinegar, mineral waters, cut 
stone, ground talc, machinery, manufactured cork, wax candles, and 
soaps; and a tremendous falling off in the exporta-tion to the United 
States of porcelain and similar wares. This would seem to indicate 
that our domestic demand for these articles of manufacture is being 
supplied by our domestic producei-s. 

uigitized by VJV^v^v i\^ 



EUROPE: PRANCE. 215 

The reduction in importation from the United States of lead, agri- 
cultural phosphates, lard, wheat, flour, India rubber (unmanufac- 
tured), leaf tobacco, and furniture is very decided. For some of 
these, there is an apparent reason. In furniture, for instance, the 
failure to meet the demand in style and character is an evident one. 
A similar neglect greatly detracts from the sale of some other Amer- 
ican wares in France, notably, stoves, mechanical appliances, and 
agricultural implements. 

Of the gains in French exports to the United States, among the 
most remarkable are codfish, sardines, wool, vanilla, crude tartar, 
^ and manganese iron ore. Of this latter, more than 20,000,000 pounds 
had been shipped up to June 30 of this year, and the shipments still 
continue at the same rate. The mines are being rapidly developed, 
and it is said that an American firm has contracted /or the entire 
output for a series of years. The gains in wine lees and vinaigre 
are supposed to be the result of certain transformations these articles 
undergo after arrival in our country, as a result of which they bear 
another name in the American market. It is notable that the export 
of manufactured cork from this port diminished, while that of unman- 
ufactured cork increased. It is, perhaps, a mere coincidence that the 
export of olive oil to the United States increased enormously during 
a period when there was an even more striking increase in the amount 
of cotton-seed oil imx)orted. The question naturally arises as to the 
cause of such an increased demand for cotton-seed oil in France. Is 
it used here or exported to the country of origin in another form? 

FRENCH DUTIES ON IMPORTS. 

There are certain features of the duties on imi)orts, levied by French 
laws, which seem to be very imperfectly understood in the United 
States. The American producer and exporter ought to be more fully 
informed in regard to them than they are. The features of special 
interest in this respect are: (1) That almost every conceivable article 
is required to pay a tariff duty, usually specific and termed a "droit 
d'entrer." (2) That this import duty is of two classes, termed the 
" tariff minimum" and the " tariff maximum; " that nearly all Ameri- 
can goods are subject to the "tariff maximum," which is from 12 to 60 
per cent higher than the "tariff minimum," which is applied to goods 
shipped from Great Britain. (3) That all products of non-European, 
countries which are imported through another European country or on 
a ship which touches at another European port before reaching France, 
are subject to a further tax, known as a " surtax," ranging from 70 
cents to tl . 75 per each 220 pounds. The American shipper shou Id take 
care, therefore, to send his goods, in all cases, direct to a French port, 
thus avoiding the * * surtax. " This law \n regard to * ' surtaxes, " which 
has been in operation for many years, is an exact parallel in character 
and effect to the discriminating duty imposed by the American tariff 
of 1897 on products of noncontiguous countries coming into the United 
States through the territory of contiguous nations. The question is a 
curious one. Why, if France has a right to impose such a tax in order 
to foster direct trade with her ports, it is inadmissible for the United 
States to do the same? (4) When our imports into France have paid 
the "maximum tariff " rate and, if they come via England or Ham- 
burg, as many of them do, also the "surtaxes," they are still subject 
to "octroi " duties before they can enter any city of France. These 
* ' octroi " are duties levied on almost all articles subject to i^J^^ duties. 



216 COMMERCUL KELATION3. 

They vary in amount with each city and are levied upon no definable 
system. The only thing for the American exporter to do is to learn 
what the "octroi" duties are in the particular city where he wishes 
to offer his goods for sale and then ship in bond direct to that city. 
Even then, if he wishes to sell them in another city, he will have to 
pay the "octroi" duty for that city also, though he may be able to 
obtain a drawback of part of the one first paid. 

EXPORT BOUNTIES. 

The " octroi " duty is imposed on all goods and material coming into 
a French city for the purpose of being sold or consumed therein, 
whether coming from abroad or produced in any part of France. If, 
however, the person bringing the goods into the city exports them to 
a foreign country, or manufactures them into articles for foreign 
export, he is given a drawback to the amount of such duties when 
they are exported. This is also true of goods imported to be reex- 
ported after manufacture or change of form. By this means, the 
French manufacturer is encouraged, not merely to supplj'^ the home 
demand, but to make a surplus for export, which surplus is exempt 
from a burdensome taxation and, consequently, even more profitable 
if sold at tl^e same rate than the portion of his product designed for 
home consumption. In other words, the French Government not only 
protects the home market, but offers a premium to the enterprise 
which seeks and secures a foreign market. 

PLUMS, PRUNES, AND NUTS. 

For a most admirable report upon these important products of this 
consular district, I am indebted to a member of the firm of Bird & Co., 
dealers in these articles at Bordeaux. 

Prunes (prunes d'ent^) were formerly a very important article of 
export to the United States, but of late years, since the cultivation 
of prunes in California, the trade has greatly decreased, and will 
probably die out altogether ere long as far as exports to America are 
concerned. 

The crop this year was a small one, and will probably range between 
35,000,000 and 40,000,000 pounds, instead of 55,000,000, which is the 
average production. The deficiency arose from damage caused by 
frost and fog, in the district known as the *' Valley of the Lot," which 
produces the finest fruit, and where it mostly fell off the trees soon 
after setting. Large short sales were made by speculators who, in 
their eagerness to get covered, caused prices to advance very much, 
and thus paved the way for considerable importations of California 
fruit, not merely into France, but England and many of the conti- 
nental ports. The French crop will doubtless be all worked off, owing 
to its being relatively small. 

Plums (prunes communes) were at first reported as being a very 
abundant crop, but this fruit being dried in the open air, very large 
quantities were lost after being gathered, by incessant rains, so that 
the big crop has been reduced to quite a small one, consisting princi- 
pally of small plums, running about 120 to 130 to the pound. This 
fruit is seldom exported to the United States, though large quantities 
used formerly to be shipped to Canada, where, however, Bosnian 
prunes are now taken in preference. The French article this year 
will be principally consumed at home and shipped to the north of 
Europe. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 217 

Walnuts are a considerable article of export to the United States 
between the end of October and the end of November. The qualities 
known as "Grenobles" are shipped about the end of October or the 
beginning of November. About the same time shipments are made 
of a quality known as " Lots" or " Cahors," which are ready for ship- 
ment sooner than the hard-shelled "Comes de Mouton" (Ram's 
Horns), as they are termed, which are generally shipped during the 
first half of November. There is also a quality known as "Marlots," 
which are fine, soft-shelled nuts which can generally be shipped about 
the first or second week in November. "Grenobles," "Lots," and 
"Marlots" are a good crop this year, but "Cornes" will not yield 
more than half a crop. 

THE VINTAGE OF 1897. 

It needs no great familiarity with the conditions affecting the cul- 
ture of the vine, to enable one to say that the wine crop of 1897 in this 
district is very bad. The universal verdict is that it is the poorest, 
both in quantity and prospective quality, that has been known in a 
long time — many say in thirty years. The season was one of almost 
unexampled dampness during the whole summer. This weather con- 
tinued until the vintage in this region was well advanced, the fair 
weather that succeeded coming too late to be of advantage to the 
larger part of the grapes. In connection with this, probably as a 
result of it in a great degree at least, came diseases of the vine and 
the fruit — ^black rot, mildew, and other pests of the vineyard. On 
account of the cold weather, too, it is probable that the wine of 1897 will 
be of light quality, lacking saccharine, on which its alcoholic strength 
depends. Its other qualities — flavor, f ruitiness, and bouquet — can not 
be foretold for a long time. 

The effect of this shortage of the vintage on the market value of 
the wines of Bordeaux will probably not be very great. It may serve 
to stiffen prices for a time, but the amount of wine of previous and 
superior vintages now on hand will prevent any serious rise, while the 
steady decrease in the consumption of clarets in England and other 
European countries, caused by a marked preference for more strongly 
alcoholic beverages, will have a decided counterbalancing influence. 
The immense increase of exportations to the United States during the 
first half of this year, caused by the frenzied apprehension of an 
increase of duties, will also have an undoubted influence in depress- 
ing prices. Indeed, it is probable that many American importers who 
hoped to make fortunes by such anticipation of the tariff will be com- 
pelled to sell at a sacriflce, since the small increase of duty will have 
little effect on the price, and instead of controlling the market, these 
speculators will be at its mercy. The immense yield of German wines, 
and the reported good quality of this year's vintage in the Rhine 
country and elsewhere, will also have an influence, it is probable, in 
depressing the price of the Bordeaux wines. 

It is possible that this may in part be counterbalanced by increased 
consumption in the United States. The small amount of alcohol in 
the wines of the Medoc, being always less than 14°, render them espe- 
cially desirable as substitutes for stronger beverages. Indeed, the 
tendency toward wines of a higher alcoholic strength in America is a 
thing to be greatly deplored. For a long time, this tendency has been 
growing more and more pronounced, to the great detriment of the 

uigitized by VJ\_^\^v iv^ 



218 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

wine trade of Bordeaux, and certainly not to the advantage of the 
American people. It is i)08sible that the present situation — the con- 
stant depreciation in value of vine-growing property in this region 
and lack of prospective profits — may lead to intelligent effort on the 
part of producers and exporters to increase its consumption in the 
United States. 

RECIPROCITY. 

The general sentiment of the mercantile element of this region 
toward the American tariff of 1897 is curiously hostile, and, in a sense, 
absurdly so. As a matter of fact, nothing could, on the whole, be 
more favorable to French exports to the United States than a high 
protective tariff there. Nearly all our imports from France, as we 
have seen, are luxuries, and nothing so increases the demand for lux- 
uries as the general prosperity which always follows the adoption of 
the protective system. The slight increase of cost of French wines, 
for instance, which may be caused by enhanced duties, cuts no figure 
with the consumer who is making money. He will drink just as much 
as if he got it at a lower rate, simply because he feels able to have what 
he wants. Besides that, the major part of French exports have a cer- 
tain character which is not likely to be equaled by the products of 
other countries. In the preparation of delicacies, such as preserved 
fruits, vegetables, and fish in oils, they greatly excel all other coun- 
tries because they please the eye as well as the taste of the consumer. 

Intrinsically, their fruits and vegetables are no better than ours, 
but they are prepared with a care and uniformity of quality and 
arrangement which it is impossible to secure for ours. This care is 
shown, not merely in packing and canning, but in growing, assorting, 
and arranging. We insist on wholesale growing and mechanical 
assortment. The French have a taste for detail and a tendency to 
harmony and perfection in little things, which is the inheritance of 
ages of painstaking care. We do many things better than they, but 
they do these things better than we can, until the same tendency to 
perfection of minutiae becomes inherent with us. The trouble is, 
that both nations have neglected to study the demands of consumers 
in the other. They have relied upon the foreign buyer to make a 
market for their respective wares. Instead of studying for them- 
selves the conditions of consumption in the country they wish to sup- 
ply, the producers of both have relied upon jobbers to find a market 
for them and bring demand to their doors. 

Apparently there could be no more favorable opportunity for estab- 
lishing reciprocal relations. Both Republics are devoted to the pro- 
tective policy — France much more pronouncedly than the United 
States. There is a poj)ular belief in France, at least, that reciprocal 
relations will be est^iblished at no distant day. * It is generally believed 
here that this will be done mostly through concessions on the part of 
the United States. It does not seem to have occurred to any of the 
French journalists who have discussed this question, that reciprocal 
trade arrangements with the United States are of much greater advan- 
tage and importance to France than they can be to the United States. 
Yet such is undoubtedly the case. Her export trade is being grad- 
ually but surely undermined by her neglect to study and fill the needs 
of foreign markets. A few years ago she set the fashion in men's 

* The reciprocity treaty was concluded May 30, 1898. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 219 

wearing apparel; now no other country asks what men are wearing 
in Paris. The same fashion that has set against her hats and boots 
is now setting against her wines, and for a similar reason Any 
reduction in her foreign trade is a matter of vital moment to France 
because of her limited area. The United States, because of her vast 
extent and varied climate, would hardly feel the loss of her present 
traffic with French ports. We can well afford to give full value for 
all concessions, but we can not be seriously harmed by their denial. 
A study of the French system of import duties, including the 
"octroi," will show anyone that the first step in reciprocal relations 
must be tiiken by our sister Republic. The United States must be 
entitled to the advantages of "the most-favored nation" — must be 
put on equally favorable terms with England; that is, before she can 
be expected to yield any special privileges. In other words, Ameri- 
can products must be admitted to French ports on payment of the 
"minimum tariff" on imports instead of the "maximum tariff," as 
now, before any question of "mutual concessions" can arise. As to 
the "surtaxes," they are good aid wholesome provisions in encour- 
agement of direct trade which we ought to approve and imitate. It 
would seem that the interests of both nations point unmistakably to 
closer commercial relations — to a revival in some measure at least of 
the trade relations which proved so valuable to both in the infancy 
of the two Republics. 

Albion W. TouRGiE, C(msvl, 

Bordeaux, October 10, 1897. 



8HIPPINO OF BORDEAUX. 

I have the honor to transmit herewith a report of the movement of 
shipping in the port of Bordeaux for the year 1897, Table I giving the 
statistics of arrivals and Table II of departures. 

I may be permitted to call attention to the fact that the United 
States, although ranking third in the value of combined exports and 
imports at this port, has no place in this report. Of the 8,342 ships 
which entered, not one carried the American flag; of the 59,906 men 
by whom they were manned, not one is known to have been an Ameri- 
can seaman. Of the 2,819,332 tons burden of freighted ships, not a 
pound yielded profit to any American capitalist. 

One hundred years ago, and for many years afterwards, the tonnage 
of American ships and the number of American seamen engaged in 
commerce of this port was larger than that of any other foreign (tov- 
ernment. 

Albion W. Tourg6e, Consul, 

Bordeaux, February 10, 1897. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



220 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Movement of shipping in the port of Bordeaux^ France, for the year 1897, 

ENTERED. 



Flag. 




Loaded. 




In ballast. 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


Crew. 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


Crew- 


Russian - - - 


U 
19 
49 
18 
663 
14 
65 
8 
68 
83 
15 


8,891 
10,614 
88,907 

7,615 
412,438 

9.387 
80,114 

3,580 
87,640 
17,761 

6,333 


204 
814 
688 
822 
10,566 
215 
884 
127 
1,182 
447 
161 








Swedish 








Norwefirian 


1 
1 
16 

1 


1,006 
490 

17,941 
935 


18 


DaniMh .. . 


17 


British 


809 


G-ennan 


17 


Dutch ... . - 




Belgian 








SpaniAh 








Austrian. ...-- 








TtAHftfi 
















Total foreign 


832 


563,683 


14.944 


19 


80,374 


452 






French: 

International 


569 
6,941 


858,888 
570,866 


16,450 
28.578 


19 
965 


14,020 
61,901 


426 


Coastwise 


8,588 






Total domestic 


7,510 


989,154 


45,088 


974 


75,930 


3,954 






Qrand total 


8,348 


1,498,677 


58,966 


993 


96,304 


4.406 





CLEARED. 



Russian ... .. . .. ....,- 


11 
81 
44 

19 
498 
13 
55 
12 
68 
20 
14 
7 


8.290 
10,064 
86,660 
12,164 
885,686 

8,818 
80,406 

6.171 
25,187 
16,414 

6.218 

7,875 


198 
842 
689 
351 

9,812 
196 
880 
187 

1,076 
387 
150 
144 


k 

10 

2 

129 

8 


1,211 
l,6fi; 
5,988 
506 
180,668 
8,460 


25 


AnrAdinh 


38 




187 


Danish 


18 


British 


2,622 
62 


German _ ... ....... 


Dutch 




Belgian 








RpsmlVh . . _ _ _ 


18 
3 

1 


17,350 

2,347 

468 


813 


Austrian 


48 


Ttallan . 


11 


Greek 












Total foreigrn 


n6 


4n,253 


13,712 


168 


163,484 


8,166 






French: 

1ntAnT|a.tioTlHl . . . 


560 
7,042 


898.484 
461,916 


14,688 
27,750 


64 
878 


12,283 
42,926 


580 


Coastwise 


2.953 




Total d^nneetlc 


7,582 


855,400 


42,448 


937 


66,158 


3,533 




Grand total 


8,368 


1,838,653 


66,160 


1,106 


217,643 


6,689 



CATiAJS, 

In response to Department of State circular of August 10, 1897, I 
beg to inclose herewith a report on the commerce and industries of 
this consular district, covering the calendar year 1896, also giving 
some facts relative to the trade and industries of the same district 
for the six months ended June 30, 1897. 

EXPORTS. 

This new consular district now ranks sixth in importance so far as 
the amount of declared exports from France to the United States is 
concerned, the annual return of exports showing for the year ending 
June 30, 1897, a total of $2,704,971, as compared to $1,735,979 for the 
year preceding. Outside of the three principal exports (lace, valued 
at $2,120,673; beet-root sugar, $399,617; salted hides, $138,422), the 
exports for the last year aggregated but $46,259 for all other articles. 
The large Increase of nearly $1,000,000 over the previous year is cov- 

uigitized by VJV7V7V i\^ 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 221 

ered almost entirely by the increased exportation of the principal man- 
nfactnre of this consnlar district, lace, which alone amounts to over 
$800,000. The exportation of French beet-root sugar from this port 
shows but little difference compared with the preceding year, but the 
item of salted hides, of which none were exported for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1896, develops for this new line of export a total of 
$138,422 for the last year. The increase in the exportation of lace was 
clearly foreshadowed by the report submitted by me to the Depart- 
ment, and published on page 107 of the Ck>mmercial Relations of the 
United States for 1895-96. By that report, it was prophesied that the 
American demand for Calais lace would soon be larger than ever 
before, and to show that the increased duties as levied by the Dingley 
tariff bill have had nothing to do in influencing abnormal shipments 
which would secure the old rates of duty, I would state that the value 
of lace declared at this consulate for the quarter ending September 30, 
1897, all of which was dutiable under the new tariff bill, amounted 
to $665,119, as against $361,299, or an increase x>f 84 per cent over the 
same quarter of last year, and I think that the remaining nine months 
of the fiscal year will show as large an increase over the corresponding 
period of the year before. 

Indications point to a continuation of exi)orts of salted hides to the 
United States ; but as to exx>ort8 of beet-root sugar under the increased 
bounty accorded the exporters from the French Qovemment, and in 
view of section 5 of the Dingley tariff biU, the future will alone deter- 
mine. The first of the new crop is just coming into the bonded ware- 
houses here and, in view of the anticipated increased export from the 
port of Calais of French sugar, by reason of the incentive as given 
through the increased export bounty, and the need of additional stor- 
age facilities, a new bonded warehouse is now in process of construc- 
tion, with a capacity of 100,000 sacks (10,000 tons). The quantity 
exported for the nine months of this year (January to September) 
reaches the grai^d total of 57,062 tons, as against 24,749 tons for the 
year 1895, and 28,982 tons for the year 1896. Much the greater part 
of this State-protected bounty sugar has been shipped by steamers 
to London, Liverpool, Leith, Glasgow, Dover, and Hull, for English 
consumption, to the great distress of the British sugar industry, and 
particularly to the detriment of her West Indian colonies. Referring 
to the exportation of flint pebbles, of which an unlimited supply can 
be secured from this consular district, I would state that the Staf- 
fordshire (English) potteries are heavy consumers, taking many large 
shipments direct from this port to Liverpool; which suggests that 
our manufacturers might use this valuable and cheap raw product 
with great benefit to their manufacture, as it will be doubtless 
greatly increased under the protection of the new tariff bill. The 
export of velvets and velveteens, a large product of this consular 
district, shows a further continued diminution, and the manufacturerfs 
state that they can not compete with the cheap German and English 
product 

IMPORTS. 

Outside of crude petroleum from Philadelphia and hard- pine lum- 
ber from Florida and Georgia, imports from the United States into 
this consular district for the past and many preceding years have 
aggregated but little in amount or value. Imports of the former have 
shown little or no increase during the past year, a seeming prefer- 
ence being shown by the refiners for the inferior and cheaper Russian 
product from Batoum, on the Black Sea, and which comes direct to 



222 COMMEBOIAL RELATIONS. 

Calais by tank steamers. As the merits of and advantages from the 
use of our hard-pine lumber in this part of France are becoming man- 
ifest, the demand is sure to increase, and now that Calais has reached 
the first position of all French ports in the amount of lumber imported 
(mostly soft woods from the north and Baltic seaports) and distributed 
over the unequaled canal and railway systems tributary to this port, 
I can not think of a broader or more remunerative field in France, 
than that presented here for American lumber of every kind and 
grade, and its innumerable manufactured products as well, and I 
would urge our producers and merchants to actively and carefully 
canvass this field. In this line of exports of the United States, as in 
many others, business in this consular district, and, in fact, the whole 
of the North of France, has been reduced to the minimum by reason of 
the lack of any direct steamship service between our ports and Calafcis, 
there being no regular service covering the long distance between 
Havre in the west and Antwerp in the east. It is therefore a great 
pleasure to record that from information and assistance given from 
this consulate, two large steamers were dispatched from New York 
since the close of the fiscal year, with full cargoes of American 
products, consisting of horses, wheat, oats, corn, oil cake, dried fruit, 
mineral water, etc. ; and the arrival here of these first direct ship- 
ments marks a new era in the commercial development of this port, 
and warrants the prediction that under skillful and wise development, 
this much-needed direct channel of communication will open up a 
fertile field for many of our surplus raw and manufactured products. 
The partial failure of the crops in France calls for large importations 
of our cereals, and the present demand for the same is urgent, espe- 
cially for oats. A local paper records the fact that during the past 
week shipments from New York alone to France aggregated 8,000 
tons of wheat, rye, and oats. Up to the 1st of June, 1896, the port 
of Dunkirk had a monopoly of the importations of cattle from Canada 
and the few cattle but many sheep from the Argentine Republic, but 
the last six months of 1896 saw landed at this port 1,300 head of cattle 
(mostly from Montreal) and 19,000 sheep (all from La Plata). The 
question arises. Why should not the superior products of the United 
States in these lines be readily and profitably marketed in France by 
way of this port, having in mind the much shorter ocean transit as 
compared to Canada and the Argentine Republic? 

This section of France presents a fertile field, provided direct and 
regular steamship service is assured, for many of our surplus manu- 
factured as well as agricultural products, and I would mention in 
particular coal-mining machinery and equipments, agricultural 
machinery and implements, boot and shoe machinery, hardware, tools, 
electrical appliances, sewing machines, typewriters, furniture, steam- 
laundry and cold-storage plants or equipments, leather, boots and 
shoes, etc. No systematic effort has yet been made in this section in 
the interests of American bicycles. A few high-priced American 
wheels have been bought through Paris agencies, but what is wanted 
is a good American wheel to sell for about 250 francs ($50), which 
would sell readily, provided the same liberal terras of payment were 
accorded in comi)etition with the French and particularly the English 
machines, which have so far enjoyed a monopoly of the North of 
France. In active cooperation with the consular agency at Boulogne, 
much attention and time has been given at this consulate to the estab- 
lishment at Lille or Amiens, or both (the two principal business centers 
of the North of France), of a depot or warehouse, where every line of 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



223 



raw or manofactured product of the United States could be exposed 
and sold and a practical demonstration could be made of the labor- 
saving qualities of our manufactures and of the general excellence 
of both our raw and manufactured commodities. These efforts are 
gradually taking form, and I hope to report success at no very distant 
day. It would seem hardly necessary to repeat what has been urged 
in our consular reports from every section for so many years, that 
circulars, price lists, etc., however artistically and carefully prepared, 
are practically of no use when printed in a language foreign to that 
of the country where they are sent, with the added dis^vantage 
of weights, measures, prices, etc., expressed in unfamiliar units and 
phrases. It is, however, a fact which all of the United States con- 
sular force in France will attest, that notwithstanding all that has 
been said and written, our manufacturers, producers, and exporters 
still refuse to make this much-needed change in their price lists, cir- 
culars, etc., and every consulate is being filled with useless English 
printed matter of every kind and description, and the interested and 
at many times anxious senders wonder why their superior wares are 
not appreciated by conservative French consumers and purchasers. 
All matter of this kind to be of use should be in the French language, 
with sizes, weights, measurements, prices, etc., stated in units of the 
metric system. Such advertising, if supplemented by the sending of 
samples and personal solicitation by agents familiar with the Ian* 
guage, tastes, and trade customs, in connection with liberal terms of 
payment, would doubtless prove effective, and ultimately result in a 
greatly enlarged and profitable sale of our products in France. 



SHIPPING. 

In pursuance of a broad and comprehensive policy of commercial 
development, in which the national and local authorities have alike 
been interested and engaged, and after the expenditure of over 
50,000,000 francs ($9,650,000) since the year 1877 in completion of the 
enlargement and improvement of harbor and dock facilities, Calais 
can now properly and safely ask for or demand its share of the deep- 
water navigation of the world, being perfectly adapted to the safe 
and easy entrance of vessels of the largest type, and its perfected 
accessories assure the greatest speed and economy in handling cargoes 
of every description. 

That these improvements, in connection with the great advantages 
to be derived from its geographical situation, will not fail of prompt 
recognition, can be easily demonstrated by referring to the official 
figures, as follows: 

Arrivals at the port of Caiais, 



Nationality. 


1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


United States 






' 








English .--.. -- - 


1,«96 
450 


388.785 
127,282 


i,463 
537 


329, lio 
162,504 


1,583 
367 
60 
32 
14 
12 
10 
6 
8 


436,762 
119,548 


French — 


NorweffloQ 


32,4^ 
16,881 
15,102 


SwedlsE 










German ............................... 










Danlnh 










8,581 


Bufwian - , - - . 










5,620 


DAlpfAn ... . 










6.874 


All7i1;li««i , 


126 


63,564 


94 


60,877 


2,506 






Total 


2.0Q2 


529,631 


2,034 


541,991 


2,087 


642,800 




IV 



224 COMMEBCIAL RELATIONS. 

Prom the above figures, it will be seen that while the augmentation 
of arrivals for 1895 over 1894 amounted to only 32 vessels, 12,360 ton- 
nage, for 1896 the gratifying increase is shown of 53 vessels, 100,809 
tonnage, indicating the larger class of vessels already seeking the 
port, although the harbor improvements were not completed until 
the latter part of the year. As for 1897, the arrivals, and especially 
the great increase in registered tonnage, as shown by the returns of 
the first nine months of the year, clearly indicate a phenomenal record, 
and which no other seaport of France can* parallel. These figures 
also develop two other facts. The first is of a melancholy nature, 
inasmuch as it will be seen that in this large aggregate of tonnage 
not a single vessel flying the flag of the United States was included ; 
in fact, not since the year 1884 has a United States vessel entered this 
poi-t. The second and surprising fact is the increase of English ton- 
nage in this French port. The figures show an augmentation from 
1894 to 1896 of 157 English vessels, 97,977 tonnage, against a decrease 
of 83 French vessels, 7,734 tonnage; showing that 68 per cent of the 
tonnage entering this enlarged and improved French port in 1896 was 
under the English flag. It might be of interest to the Department or 
the Bureau of Navigation to see if the same conditions existed at the 
other French ports. The immense expenditure of money in making 
Calais a great seaport, in connection with the ability of those who 
control the future destinies of the port, guarantee a continuance of 
the present favorable port and harbor conditions, and a fine fleet 
of improved dredges, which are in continual service, and a system of 
sluicing basins will easily maintain the present ample depth of water 
and width of channel. 

The great system of canal inland navigation, by which all parts of 
France and Belgium can be directly reached from Calais, is now in 
process of enlargement and improvement in order to better convey the 
larger class of boats of 400 tons required by the increasing business. 

Charles W. Shepard, Consul, 

Calais, October 5, 1897. 



CAI.AI3 EXPORTS IN 1896. 

I submit a statement showing the exports ivom, this consular dis- 
trict for the four quarters of the calendar year 1897, to which is 
appended the total figures for the year 1896. 

The total amount for the year 1897 is $3,394,285.51, compared with 
$1,953,637.86 for the year 1896, being an increase of $1,440,647.65, 
equal to 74 per cent. 

The principal article of export has been lace, amounting to $2,850,- 
208.80, compared with $1,496,476.47, an increase of $1,353,732.33, or 
over 90 per cent. This is followed by beet-root sugar, the value of 
which shows but little difference in the two years, salted hides, rags, 
and chalk, which, by the realization of a long-desired direct steamer 
communication with New York, show a very large increase over the 
previous year. No other article calls for any special notice or com- 
ment. As intimated in my previous reports to the Department, the 
great increase of 90 per cent in the exports of the principal product 
of this consular district — ^lace — is owing to the renewed favor with 
which this article of adornment is regarded by the world of fashion, 
aided by the general increased prosperity in the United States and 
consequently enlarged purchasing ability of our people who, after 
such a long period of depression and enforced dej^r^5r^|iqn,^j5U)ftce 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



226 



more in a condition to indulge their natural taste for the useful and 
beautiful. Thus, in spite of the fact that the Dingley tariff bill 
advanqed the duty on all laces and embroideries from 50 to 60 per 
cent, the value of the exports of this principal product of the consular 
district of Calais has nearly doubled for every month since the now 
bill went into effect on the 24th July last. 

I also submit a further comparative statement showing the exports 
of this consular district for the combined months of January and 
February, 1897, and for the same months of the present year. 

Reference to the above figures shows a continuation of the increase 
as indicated in the statement covering the years 1896-97. The value 
of lace exported for the first two months of 1898 shows an augmenta- 
tion of $236,472, or 51 per cent. Although the great storage capacity 
of this port is engaged to the fullest limit, in order to contain the beet- 
root sugar as received from the manufactories in the interior, where 
also the same condition is said to exist, there has been none exported 
to the United States this year, and the problem is still unsolved 
whether under the higher duties of the new tariff, with the addition 
to equal the export bounty of 3.50 to 4 francs (67 to 77.2 cents) per 
100 kilograms (220 pounds), any of this large surplus of sugar will 
find a market in the United States. As previously intimated, one of 
the principal products of the great manufacturing city of this consu- 
lar district — Amiens — that of velvet and velveteen, has disappeared 
from the list of exports for 1898, principally for the reason that the 
superior quality of the French articles can not successfully compete 
with the cheaper German and English product. The absence of the 
items of salted hides and goatskins can be accounted for by the fact 
that there have been no direct steamship communications, and the 
goods have reached the United States through other channels. 
I beg to remain, very respectfully, yours, 

Charles W. Shepard, C(msul 

Calais, March 17, 1898, 



Value of declared exports from the consular district of Calais to the United States 
during the calendar year ended December Sly 1897; also for the year 1896. 



Articles 


Qnarter ending- 


Total. 


Mar. 31. 


Jnne 30. 


Sept. 30. 


Dec. 31. 


1897. 


1896. 


Cement 












$469.00 


Chalk 


12,^.68 

1,168.38 

442.85 

•4,096.20 

705,449.12 

699.04 


12,862.78 


$668.44 


11,656.46 


|7.4»7.86 
1,168.88 
2,251.64 
4.096.20 
2,860,208.80 
4,762.22 


1,451.94 


Coated cotton 




Flint pebbles 


445.53 


669.03 


694.23 


1,400.60 
744.40 


Goatskins 


Lace 


071,arjU.10 
3,394.39 


685,119.76 


806,439.82 
668.79 


1,496,476.47 


I/mtingn 


2,854.07 


Leather waste 




200.00 


Linen 


847.87 








847.87 




Mit/*irerei 








1,936.00 


Marine cable 






8,403.68 




8,408.68 
220.42 
287.30 

7,027.51 
100,614.79 




Oil 


94.77 




181.66 


60.00 


Pamphlets 




287.30 
1,522.46 




Raee 




5,302.24 


202.81 
10,050.82 


866.74 


Salted hides 


90,563.97 


47,858.85 


Scollops 






438.25 


Shells*^. : 






179.65 




179.65 

399,617.83 

7.657.76 

8.11 


291.00 


Snsar 

Velvets and velveteens. 


128,774.13 

3,413.43 

8.11 


276,843.70 
4,244.32 




880.620.42 






10.500 25 


Wme 








Wool waste 








7,379.27 


Worksof art 












2Q.00 
















Total 


937,313.65 
443,004.67 


958,288.06 
701 2rt8 4A 


676,845.32 
ari orra, Ka 


821,843.56 
438,006.18 


3,894,286.51 
1,953,687.86 


1,963,637.86 


Corresponding qnarter 




.. ...... ...... .... 




T 


Increase for 1897. . 


494,308.88 


257,024.58 .305,568.79 


383,745.40 


1,440,647.65k 


)Qgle...: 



O B — ^VOL ! 



226 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Comparative value of declared exports for the comular district of Calais to the 
United States for the months of January and February, 1897 and 1898, 





Articles. 


January and February. 




vm. 


1897. 


BombAzlDe - 


1487 




SSk^.! ::::::.:..:.:::. 


• . " : :..: . 




Coated cotton - - - -- -- - - -- 


•^•Mf 


Flint pebbles 





460 


Ooatekins 


4,006 
466,604 


Lace 


700,076 


TiAffthurs -. 


881 


oii^ ....:.......: ::: 




05 


Salted hides 




46,919 


Sngar 




U8,774 


Velvet and yelyeteen« ... . -- 




2,448 


Wine 












Total 


704,879 
54,655 


648,724 


Increase . 







HAVRE. 

In obedience to the Department's circular of August 10, 1897, 1 beg 
to submit the following report on the economic condition of the con- 
sular district of Havre. The data has been obtained from the official 
report of director of customs, the Annual Report of the Chamber of 
Commerce for 1896, and other sources. 

NAVIGATION. 

In the following table, it will be seen that from 1891, when the total 
tonnage of vessels entering and clearing from the port was 6,276,604 
tons, there has been a gradual decrease in tonnage. In 1894, the ton- 
nage amounted to 6,129,'740 tons; but in 1896 it fell oflf to 5,602,712 
tons, a difference of 527,028 tons. In 1896, the diminution was not so 
great, amounting to 37,962 tons, the total being 5,564,750 tons. Many 
reasons have been advanced to explain the gradual decrease of the 
volume of shipping at this port, the principal ones being: First, the 
generally depressed condition of the financial and commercial world 
during the past three years, especially in the United States. Second, 
the high customs duties imposed by the French Government as com- 
pared with those of neighboring countries. Third, the heavy i)ort 
charges which vessels entering or calling at Havre have to pay. These 
port charges are divided into two categories, those which are levied 
by the Government, which are uniform throughout France and seldom 
change, and those which the chamber of commerce has, by law, the 
authority to impose for the purpose of maintaining life-saving stations, 
semaphore service, and for the improvement of the harbor and its 
approaches. This body has gradually reduced its portion of the port 
dues, from an average of 13.7 cents per ton in 1878, to 6.2 cents per ton 
in 1896. Fourth, the high rates of freight charged by the railroad 
from Havre to the interior of France and, by its connections, to other 
parts of Europe. As most of the articles exported from Havre are 
manufactured in the interior, this port must suffer by the competition 
it experiences with the ports of the north, such as Hamburg, Antwerp, 
and Rotterdam, which have better interior ways of communication 
and are favored by lower rates of freight by the railroads running 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



227 



to ana from these ports. Much business which should naturally pass 
through Havre is thus diverted to the above-mentioned cities. 

The number of ships entering and clearing at the port of Havre, dur- 
ing the i>ast ten years, is shown in the following table. The table 
al^ shows the total tonnage for each year: 

Statement showing the entrance and clearance of vessels at Havre during the past 

ten years. 



Tear. 


Shlpe. 


Tonnage. 


Year. 


i ShipR. 


Tonnage. 


1887 


12,168 
12,245 
12,442 
18.562 
18,406 


6,288,686 
6,641.32D 
6,686,818 
6,889,612 
6,276,604 


18»2 

1803 

1894 . 

1896 

1896 


1 12,506 

12.984 

1 18,818 

1 12.888 

12,882 


6,678.186 


1989 ., 


6,729,411 


1880 


6,129,740 


iseo 


6.608,712 


1891 


6,664,750 







The movement of navigation during the first eight months of 1897, 
as compared with the same period in 1896, indicates that although the 
number of vessels entering and clearing in 1896 was greater than in 
1897, the total tonnage during 1897 was greater by 119,354 tons, an 
increase of 5.3 per cent. 

Statement showing the entrance and clearance of vessels at Havre during the first 
eight months of 1896 and 1897, 



Year. 


Entered. \ Cleared. 


ToUl. 


Ships. 


Tonnage. 


Ships. 


Tonnage. 


Ships. 


Tonnage. 


1096 


1,472 
1,461 


1.280,470 
1,383,511 


1.020 
975 


956,840 
991.863 


2,498 

2.498 


2,886,810 


1897 


2,866,164 






Increftse or decrease 


11 


83.041 


46 


36,818 


56 


119,864 







In order to show the relative importance of Havre as a seaport, com- 
pared with the other great ports of Europe, the following table, giv- 
ing the total tonnage of vessels entering only, is of interest. It does 
not, however, prove favorable to Havre, which, as well as Bordeaux, 
shows a decrease in the arriving tonnage, while the statistics of the 
other ports show, with the exception of Bremen, an increase: 

Total tonnage of vessels entering the principal ports of Europe, 



Port. 



1890. 


1804. 


- 


7,708.705 


14,808,208 


8.436.676 


5,582,564 


9,266.646 


6,598.841 


6.502.825 


6,228,821 


6,254,480 


4.785,277 


4,811,524 


4,880,133 


4,606,277 


4.999,689 


5.323.202 


8,350.782 


8,740.887 


3.965,686 


2.918,425 


4,143,408 


4.177,478 


2.877.45;i 


3,056,617 


2.801.366 


1.948.884 


1,804.267 


1,646.406 


1,738,809 


2,172,076 


2,183.274 


1,467,196 


1.4?3,041 


1.889.084 


998,186 


1,018.673 


894.660 



1896. 



London — 
Liverpool . 
Hamburg . 
Marseilles. 
Antwerp .. 

Oenoa 

Rotterdam 

Havre 

Bordeaux . 
Bremen ... 
Dunkirk... 
Bouen 



16.819.740 
8.71.5.424 
6,445.167 
6,274,904 
6,830,660 

"4."866,'485 

2.727.9i« 
1.741.953 
2,011,663 
1,502,676 
1.057.U86 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



228 



COMMERCIAX. RELATIONS. 



The comparative tonnage of French and foreign vessels entering 
and clearing at the port of Havre during the past ten years is shown 
in the table which follows. Coasting trade which is limited from one 
French port to another is not included: 

Table showing comparative tonnage of French and foreign vessels entering and 
clearing at tlie port of Havre, 



Year. 



Number. Tonnage. 



French vessels. 



Foreign Teasels. 



Number. Tonnage. 



1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 



1,190 
1,U5 
1,131 
1,113 
1,087 
1,040 
1.049 
1,000 
926 



,389,177 
,389,341 
,400,561 
,334,723 
,224,782 
,263.232 
,167,665 
,069,249 
968,768 
1,081.396 



3,912 
3,995 
3,792 
4,070 
4,291 
3,786 
3,789 
4,255 
8,745 
3,914 



2,84L4tlS 
2,897, 1 -U?- 
2,82:i".:»;]U 
3,081.15:1 
3,5ttiJi3 
3,03ik^^ 
3,06'. 37T* 
3,5C:k443 
3, 12 J. 103 

3,i54,3rra 



From the foregoing figures, it will be seen that the tonnage of ves- 
sels under the French flag which entered and cleared at the port of 
Havre, both loaded and in ballast, was 1,081,396 in 1896, a marked 
increase over 1895, but lower than the average for the last ten years. 
In going back as far as 1887, however, we find that the amount of 
shipping under the French flag was 32.83 per cent of the whole. In 
1896, it represented 25.53 per cent of the whole. The proportion of 
32.83 per cent was maintained up to 1890, the decline beginning with 
the year 1891 and visibly increasing with the year 1893. From this 
it would appear that notwithstanding the large subsidies granted by 
the French Government to the merchant marine, on and since January 
31, 1893, the desired result has not been attained. 

The number and tonnage of French and foreign vessels engaged 
exclusively in deep-water trade is as follows: 

Number and tonnage of French and foreign deep-water vessels entering and clear- 
ing at Havre, 1887-1896. 



Year. 


French vessels. 


Foreign vessels. 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


Number. 


Tonnage. 


1887 


653 
672 
406 
402 
633 
558 


1,003,451 
930,133 
828,062 
771,134 
810,OGil 
839,996 
780.064 
650,995 
607,818 
646,444 


890 
844 
776 
839 
1,064 
870 
884 
978 
767 
839 


960.518 


1888 .. . 


920,562 


1889 


949,964 


1890 


998,522 


1891 


1,365,448 
1,096,537 
1,108,018 
1,318,454 
1,046,376 


1892 


1898 


562 
454 
412 
413 


1894 


1895 


1896 


1,069,125 





Having seen the relative importance of French compared with the 
shipping of all other nations combined at the port of Havre, we now 
pass to the number and tonnage of each nation separately during the 
years 1893, 1894, 1895, and 1896. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 229 

Navigation, by flag, at the port of Havre during the years 189S to 1896, 
VESSELS ENTERING. 



Flafif. 


1803. 


1804. 


1885. 


1886. 


Ships. 


Tonnage 


Ships. 


Tonnaga 


Ships. 


Tonnage. 


Ships. 


Tonnage. 


French 


476 
268 


664,382 


428 

294 

7 

1,881 

35 

14 

83 

13 

154 

13 

23 

87 


601,924 

460,871 

10,831 

1.061,251 

21,583 

41,688 

45,480 

6,874 

78,165 

4.494 

12,952 

15,300 


402 
264 


457,286 
401,878 


880 

200 


401,884 


GMrmaD ^. 


885,572 


AiDdiififtn 


2 ' 4; 813 
1,199 942,121 
29 1 14.138 
22 ' 49.502 
67 1 »r,764 

9 7.108 
166 1 70.724 
11 7,781 
33 1 18,630 
45 1 17.485 




British 


1,282 
15 
6 
74 
7 
122 
13 
18 
16 


058,949 

7,406 

11,335 

35,095 

8,528 

60,334 

6,583 

6,686 

8,661 


1,264 
26 
6 
74 
15 
186 
9 
19 
83 


974,062 


Danish 


14,496 


RpAniAh . ^ 


8.206 


Dnfcch 


38,805 


Norwegian 

Portngnese - 


9.047 
66,CBl 
3,105 


Bnssian 


10,817 


Swedish 


18,854 






1 





VESSELS CLfiABING. 



Prench 


517 
237 
1 
477 
53 
21 
66 


577,662 

»18.406 

2,134 

328.453 

16.729 

49,668 

38,518 


481 
256 


516,195 
428,264 


446 
249 


476,996 
805,028 


486 
.266 


634.808 


German 


413,461 


Axn'^rioan 




British 




681 
70 
13 
74 
2 
86 
10 
16 
44 


890,488 

25,821 

88.799 

41,649 

777 

15.542 

8,468 

9,285 

20,156 


* 82i 
47 
8 
73 


446,961 
12,972 
21,902 
36,878 


684 
62 

4 
75 

2 
48 
11 
10 
62 


458,498 


Danish 

Spanish 


18.426 
9,051 


Dutch 


44,315 


TtAllAtl 


1.311 


Norwegian r 


39 
12 
22 
44 

1 


19,6(0 
6,210 
18, n3 
20,605 


85 
12 
10 
40 


14,408 
4,018 
6.021 

19,948 


20,314 


Portngnese 


4,941 


Rnssian 


5.884 


R«7Mli«Tl 


26,607 







With the exception of one steamer, which arrived in March, 1807, . 
no American merchant vessels have been in the port of Havre since 
1894. 

COASTWISE NAVIGATION. 

The coasting trade of France for 1896 shows a decrease as com- 
pared with that of the years 1894 and 1895, but does not suffer by 
comparison with the average during the past ten years. 

Number and tonnage of coasting vessels entering and clearing at Havre during the 

past ten years. 



Year. 


Ships. 


Tonnage. 


Year. 


Ships. 


Tonnage. 


1887 


6,826 
6,906 
7.368 
7,941 
7 686 


8n,768 
1,057,441 


1892 


7,377 
7,575 
8,063 
7,479 
7,764 


1,000.448 


1888 


1883 


1,088.105 


1888 


1,120,461 ' 


1894 


1, 150. 151 


1880 


1,062,120 
1,021,002 


1895 » 


1,132.266 


1881 


1896 


1,105,408 







THE MERCHANT MARINE. 

As the condition of the American merchant marine is being dis- 
cussed at the present time, by our various commercial bodies, and as 
many facts and figures have been placed before Congress with a view 
of improving the same, it may not be out of place in this report to 
give some account of the laws which have been enacted in France 
since the year 1881 in order to foster the merchant marine of this 
country. 

In 1881, a law was passed allowing bounties to French sailing ves- 
sels and steamships constructed in France and engaged in the carry- 

uigitized by VJ^^v.'V i\^ 



230 



COMMERCIAL BELATI0N8. 



ing trade, by which they received or were accorded during the first 
year of its operation 29 cents per net ton on every 1,000 miles. 
That is to say, a vessel of 2,000 tons making a voyage of 1,000 
miles would be entitled to a bounty of $580. This law was originally 
intended to cover a period of ten years, but at the end of that time 
was extended for two years longer. After the first year, and for 
every succeeding year that the law was in operation, the bounty was 
diminished 1.4 cents for wood and composite vessels and 1 cent for 
steel vessels. To ships constructed in foreign shipyards and fiying 
the French flag the bounty was reduced one-half. In 1893, after the 
foregoing law went out of force, a new law was framed and enacted 
to cover another period of ten years. The bounties formerly allowed 
to vessels of foreign construction flying the French flag were sup- 
pressed, and the bounties paid to vessels of French construction were 
paid on the gross and not on the net tonnage. The present bounties 
are as follows: On steamships, 21.25 cents per ton for every 1,000 
miles during the first year, followed by a reduction of 1.16 cents per 
ton i)er annum thereafter on all wooden vessels, and 0.77 cents on 
those built of iron or steel. On sailing vessels, 32.8 cents per ton for 
every 1,000 miles sailed during the first year, with an annual reduc- 
tion of 1.54 cents per fon thereafter on all vessels built of wood. On 
sailing vessels built of steel or iron the reduction, amount only to 
1.16 cents per ton. These bounties are on deep-water vessels only. 
Coasting vessels receive but two-thirds of the same. All bounties are 
paid from the date of launching. The number of miles covered dur- 
ing each voyage is determined by taking the most direct route between 
the port of departure and the port of arrival. 

I'he bounties provided for by the law of 1893 are increased 25 per 
cent on steam vessels that are built upon plans approved beforehand 
by the navy department. 

In the event of war, all ships may be requisitioned by the State. 

In compensation for the customs duties paid by shipbuilders for 
imported material entering into the construction of the vessel, the 
following allowances are made: 

For ships (either steam or sailing vessels) of st^el or iron, the builder 
is paid a bounty of $12.55 per gross ton, less 4 per cent retained by the 
Government for contribution to public charities. 

For ships built of wood and exceeding 150 tons burden, $7.72 per 
ton. For vessels of the same material of less than 150 tons burden, 
$5.79 per ton. 

The manufacturers of engines for vessels are also allowed a bounty 
of $2.89, for every 220 pounds of imported merchandise entering into 
the construction. 

The number of sailing vessels and steamships exceeding 100 ton& 
burden, constructed in France since the law of 1893 came into effect,, 
is shown in the following table: 



Year. 


Nxunber of 
ships. 


Total ton- 
nage. 


Year. 


Number of 
ships. 


Total ton- 
nage. 


1893 


80 

28 


80.405 
17,257 


1895 


81 
33 


22,767 
38,54(^ 


1894 


1896 







Digitized by VjOOQIC 



feUROPE: FRANCE. 



231 



The amounts paid in bounties for the construction of vessels since 
the law of 1893 was passed are as follows: 



1803. 



Ton- 
nage. 



Bounty. 



1^94. 



Ton- 
nage. 



Bounty. 



1885. 



Ton- 
nage. 



Bounty. 



1885. 



^"e. ^^^y- 



Wooden Teeeels of 
less than 150 tons 

burden 

Bounty, at $5.60 

per ton 

Wooden vesselB of 
more than 150 tons 

burden 

Bounty, at $7.72 

per ton 

Iron and steel ves- 
sels of all ffl ZA'T .... 
Bounty, at$12.65 
per ton 



9,829 



9,100 



u.ooe 



8,195 



$57,008.80 



$53,128.00 



$63,811.60 



$47,681.00 



8,845 



8,225 



8.048 



2,964 



25.823.40 



24,807.00 



18,668 



14,2 



21,238 



234,157.90 



178.496.65 



23,580.56 
^,549,45 



. 23,112.08 



42,164. 



.529.158.20 



Total tonnage. 
Machines con- 
structed and boil- 
ers renewed, 

Iionnds 

Bounty, at 18 cts. 
per pound 



Total bounty 
on construc- 
tion 



81,882 
8.198,620 



25,608 



85,2891. 



l.U7,800 



15.910,246 



106.606.06 



144.681.40 



422,584.56 



401,066.05 



53,323. 



15,646,012} 



206,838.19 208,896.15 



560,724.80 



e, 109. 48 



The foregoing table shows the amount paid by the State for the 
construction of vessels alone. The following shows the sums paid as 
bounties on navigation, or the distance sailed, at the rates mentioned 
in a preceding paragraph: 





Amount paid to- 


Year. 


Long-dis- 
tance 
steamers. 


Coasting 
steamers. 


Long-dis- 
tance sail- 
ing vessels. 


Coasting 
vessels. 


nm^ . . , . . 


$911,288 
1.058,534 
1.1:^246 
l,2ttl,961 


$324,814 

IS, 892 
266.828 
291,881 


2^! 129 
274.488 
8r2.198 


$5,925 


1884 


7,m 


1886 


7,218 


1886 .. 


5,4fti 






Total 


4.868.024 


1,166,410 


971.679 


25.925 







From these tables, it will be seen that since the law of 1893 was passed , 
up to and including December 31, 1896, there was paid in bounties to 
French ships no less than 16,532,038. Of this amount, $5,339,703was 
given to steamers and sailing vessels engaged in foreign trade, and 
$1,192,331 to vessels, steam and sail, in the coasting trade. 

COMMERCE. 

What has been said regarding the decline of navigation at the port 
of Havre applies equally to its commerce. The conditions which 
affect the one naturally influence the other, and the diminution in 
the export and impoii) trade is made evident by the following figures: 

Tonnage of merchandise exported and imported at Havre from 1891 to 1896, 



Year. 


Importa- 
tions. 


Exporta- 
tfons. 


Total. 


Year. 


Importa- 
tions. 


""X^'l ToUl. 


1801 


Tofu. 
2.085,974 
l,7b0,8B 
1.7W,715 


Tons. 
603,888 
551,833 
640,947 


Tans. 
2,680,363 


1894 


Tons. 
1,808.924 


1 

Tons. Tons. 
681.862 2,890.276 


IgffBt 


2,341,155 
2,278,662 


, 1885 


624.783 2,178,452 


U08 


, 1806 


681,876 2.161,007 




1 





232 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

With the exception of the year 1894, which was a year of unusual 
importation of wheat, the diminution has been constant in the total of 
exportsand imports. The commodities which decreased in importation 
during 1896 were chiefly cotton, coffee, hides, cereals, wines, and 
oleaginous seeds. Those which showed a slight increase were dye- 
woods, lard, tallow, fats, and wool. As regaixis export«,tion, articles 
which showed a decrease were sugar, coffee, cotton, hides, fatty sub- 
stances, dyewood, and dye extra<5ts. Very few articles showed an 
increase. 

The following table shows the receipts of the custom-house at Havre 
for the first six months of 1896 and 1897: 

Receipts of the custom-house at Havre for tlie first six months of the years 1896 

and 1897. 





1896. 


1397. 


Duties 


$6,283,276 
67,485 
143,761 
67,782 
17.86U 


16,483.832 


Statistics 


niiM 


Tax on navigation 


143,353 


flAAHng gnndfl in transmit ... . 


41,891 


Tax on nit 


18,4«1 






Total 


6,580,164 


6, 766, 666 







The comparison of the receipts at the custom-house of Havre for 
the first six months of '1896 and 1897, shows some improvement in the 
commercial condition of the port. There was an increase in general 
customs duties, in the tax imposed for the purpose of taking statis- 
tics, and in the tax on the consumption of salt. The receipts derived 
from the tax on navigation, and the placing of seals on merchandise 
in transit to other countries, show a falling off. Among the imported 
commodities which have contributed to increase the customs receipts 
in 1897, may be mentioned live stock, cereals with the exception of 
wheat, com, coffee, pepper, coal, petroleum, oils (of which the con- 
sumption has increased) dry vegetables, dried fruits, cocoa,* and sugar 
from the French colonies. Among the products showing a decrease 
on the imported list, are salt pork, hides, wool in bulk, animal fats, 
fish, fresh fruits, ordinary wines in casks, rum, beer, rice, indigo, 
meat, preserves, foreign sugars, and wood for building purposes. 
The importations of the last-named article have fallen off after a 
period of unusual activity. 

The tax imposed for taking statistics shows an increase on account 
of the increase of importations. On the other hand, by reason of a 
change in the computation of the net tonnage of German vessels com- 
ing into the port, by which the net tonnage was reduced, the naviga- 
tion dues show a slight falling off. 

The articles of exportation which show an increase in 1897, as com- 
pared with the previous year, are fixed oils, oil cake, ordinary wine, silks 
and ribbons, white paper, millinery, and artificial fiowers. Those 
which show a decrease are butter, potatoes, dyewood extracts, ocher, 
glassware, porcelain, wool, cotton cloth, dressed hides, furniture, and 
linen goods. 

COTTON. 

The importations of cotton during the year 1896 amounted to 
612,046 bales, a decrease of 61,234 bales compared with the importa- 
tions during 1895. The number of bales sold, however, was greater 
than the average for the past six years, and the stock ><Mi)J^eiid\(^hich 



EUROPE: FRAKCE. 



233 



oh December 31, 1896, amounted to 195,860 bales) visibly decreased. 
This did not necessarily mean any great activity in the cotton trade 
of this port. The consumers, feeling the general depression of busi- 
ness, and having large stocks of textile goods on hand, only bought 
for their immediate wants. The financial and commercial depression 
existing in the United States, and the abundant crop there, had also 
the effect of lowering prices. 

Importations of cotton, deliveries, and stock on hand at Havre from 1891 to 1896, 



Year. 



1891 
1802 



Importa- 
tfoxkB. 



Bales. 
663,385 
781,610 
688,810 



DeUv- 
eries. 



stock on 

hand 

Dec. 81, 

1896. 



Bales. 
580.960 
624,355 
716,045 



Bales. 
257,306 
414,560 
387,325 



Tear. 



1894. 
1805 
1896 



Importa 
tfons. 



Bales. 
754,795 
673,280 
612,046 



Deliv- 
eries. 



Bales. 
093,700 
807,700 
727,676 



Stoek on 
hand 

1S96. 



Bales. 
448,420 
314,000 
195,860 



Prices of cotton at the port of Havre on December SI, 1893 to 1896, 
Per 60 kilos (110 pounds.) 



Point of origin. 


1803. 


1894. 


1896. 


1806. 


American: 

New Orleans 


18.50 to $11-80 
8.50 11.19 

10.04 11.80 
8.01 9.36 


$6. 76 to 17- 72 
6.76 7.72 
6.76 8.11 
5.21 6.56 


$9. 12 to $12.01 
9.12 12.01 
9.94 11.19 
5.21 6.66 


$8. 69 to $10. 75 


Georgia 


8. 09 10. 95 


Brazilian — Pemambuco 


9.66 11.00 


Ind ian — Oomra w n t te*« 


7.38 8.20 







Movement of the cotton market during the first nine months of 1896 and 1897, 



Country of origin. 


Importations. 


Sales. 


Deliveries. 


Stock on hand. 


1807. 


1806. 


1807. 


1806. 


1807. 


1896. 


1807. 


1806. 


United States 


Bales. 

370,766 

444 

1,333 

15.252 

30,298 


Bales. 

231,130 

484 

1,508 

18,173 

51,381 


Bales. 
184,626 


Bales. 
188.004 


Bales. 

512,105 

444 

318 

17,680 

36,027 


Bales. 

458,230 

484 

1,508 

J5,407 

44,600 


Bales. 
31,607 


Bales. 
63,608 


J^vatM . _ , , 




Central America 


""6;325 
11,463 


"4,416 
9,869 


i,085 
5.146 
9,917 




Various countries ... 


6,189 


India 


20,344 






Total 


418,088 
120,412 


207,676 


202,404 


200,288 


666,574 
46.446 


520,128 


47.606 


90,226 


Increase 




Decrease .. ..... 






116 






42,621 



















The prices of cotton on October 1, 1897, were from 10 to 15 per cent 
lower than they were on the same date in 1896. The increase in the 
consumption of cotton has shown itself distinctly in the United States, 
and to some extent in England. But the wave of improvement has 
not yet reached the continent of Europe. With the exception of cer- 
tain districts in Germany, where the cotton spinners are busy, the 
cotton industry is not in a satisfactory condition. In France, the 
spinners have for some weeks been working on short time in order 
to reduce the production. 

COFFEE. 

The amount of coffee imported in 1896 did not equal the average 
for the past six years. The exportations also showed a considerable 
diminution. This decline was due principally to the great competition 
of the ports of Antwerp, Rotterdam, and Hamburg. The prices of 
coffee in 1896 were considerably lower than in 1895, especially Brazilian 
coffee, owing to a large increase in the production of that country. 



234 eOMMERCiAL ItELATIONg, 

Impartatton and exportation of coffee at Havre from 1887 to 189^, 



Year. 


Importation. 


Exportation. 


Year. 


Importation. 




1887 


Pound%. 

203.545,440 

214,352,122 

210,057.771 

208,007,186 

186,644,200 


Pounds. 
126,224.683 
109,805,920 
105.051,887 
104,404,561 
79,286,000 


1892 .... 


PotMda. 

257,806,291 

252,782.552 

220,072,887 

268,784,004 

221,774,082 


Pound*. 
102,060.782 
133,818,066 
110.051,083 
111,200,008 
02,070,760 


1888 


1893 


1880 


1804. . . 


1800 


1895 


1801 


1806 







Condition of the coffee market at Havre during the first nine months of 1896 and 

1897. 



Year. 


Importations. 


DeUveries, 


1887 


Sacks. 
1,287,488 
751,485 


Barrels. 
0,156 
10,178 


Sacks, 
820,461 
840,368 


Barrels. 
5,064 


1800 


0,016 






Tncmaoe or deorflas© , 


665,008 


4,022 


10,802 


8,058 





Stock on hand. 



Countries. 


Oct. 8, 1887. 


Oct. 8, 1806. 


Brazil 


Sacks. 
516,320 
116.425 
27,608 
186,844 


Barrels. 


Sacks. 
126,835 
55,648 
10,720 
85.616 


Barrels. 


Haiti 






Indies. Java, etc .. .. . . -- - 


1.855 


02 


Central America ...^,^.^,-.,^, --.^-- 


.2,467 






Total 


797,197 
509,978 


,. 2,052 


287,210 


2,640 


Increane .. . 


Decrease 


407 















Prices of coffee at Havre in October, 1896 and 1897. 



Country. 



Per 60 kilos. (110 pounds). 



Brazil (average) 
Haiti (average) . 

Puerto Rico 

Java 

India 

Mocha 




HIDES. 

Importations and deliveries of hides at the port of Havre during the years 1894. to 

1896. 



Country of origin. 



Importations. 



1804. 



1805. 



1806. 



Deliveries. 



1804. 



1895 



1896. 



La Plata and Rio Grande 

La pi^taCfiialted)".'.'..".'"." "."! 

Rio Grande (salted) 

Brazil 

Southern Pacific 

United States 

Other conn tries 

Total 



Pounds. 

90.986 
897.806 

26.580 
231,066 
120,607 
145,484 
419,682 



Povfnds. 

98,797 
500,188 

16,670 
284,686 
146,878 

91.847 
414,514 



Pounds. 

54,775 
203,818 

84,540 
230,182 
181,922 
138,748 
867,467 



Pounds. 
148,408 
427,100 
75,485 
280,278 
128,088 
167,587 
422.062 



Pounds. 
85,808 



27,718 
266,000 
188,168 

01,808 
898,258 



Pounds. 
48,188 
283,186 
24,418 



1,431,906 



1,666,620 



1,249,947 



1.639,848 



1,480,770 



143.862 
188,700 
878,420 



1,285,516 



uigitized by VJV^v.'V i\^ 



EUROPE: PRANCfi. 235 

Stock of hides on hand at Havre December 31, 1894^ to 1896, 



Country of origin. 



1801 



1806. . 1806. 



La Plata and Rio Orande (dry) 

La Plata (aalted) 

Rio Orande (salted) 

BraaU 

Southern Pacific 

United Btates 

Other countrleH 

Total 



Pounds. 
22,634 
37.217 
0,705 
24,877 
7,051 
842 
14,665 



Pounds. 
31,062 
108,796 
6,925 
46,444 
21,706 
821 
80,821 



Pounds. 
86,640 
103,975 
17.047 
87,343 
10,268 
5,860 
14,860 



117,701 



241,574 



226, 0U& 



In 1895, large demands from the United States and from European 
tanneries caused an exceptional rise in the prices of hides, which in 
August were 80 per cent of those quote<^at the commencement of the 
year. The rise was maintained until December. At the commence- 
ment of 1896, the hide market was still active; but shortly afterwards 
the manufacturers, finding it difficult to sell their products, reduced 
their purchases, and the result was that prices fell. Prices remained 
low until May, when the announcement of a great falling off in the 
supply of hides caused an advance. The upward tendency, however, 
did not last long. In October important demands from the United 
States gave some activity to the market; but, on the whole, the year 
1896 was not a favorable one for the commerce in hides. 

The following table shows the movement of the hide market for the 
first nine months of 1896 and 1897: 

Importations^ sales, and stock of hides on hand at Havre for the first nine months 

of 1896 and 18971 



Conntry of origin. 




Sales. 


Stock, Sept. 30. 


1807. 


1806. 


1807. 


1806. 


1807. 


1806. 


La Plata and Rio Orande 
(dry) 


Pounds, 

35,130 

227,284 

88,806 

548,165 


Pounds. 

20,245 
255,706 

10,851 
662,671 


Pounds. 
54,428 

208,207 
66.808 
644.487 


Pounds. 
80,832 

672,078 


Pounds. 

10.606 

34,612 

1,480 

60,076 


Pounds. 
27,475 


La Plata (salted) 


162. a57 


Rio Grande (salted) 

Other oonntries 


tt.716 
03,512 






Total 


838,024 


058,068 


1,064,100 
136,808 


017,307 


116,625 


283,560 


Increane . .. 




Decrease 


110,130 






166.035 















WOOL. 
Importations and deliveries of wool at Havre for the years 1894 to 1896, 



Country of origin. 


1804. 


1805. 


1806. 


Import& 


DeUveries. 


Imports. 


Deliveries. 


Imports. 


Deliveries. 


Bnenofl Ayres - -. 


BaUs. 
10,101 
182 
4,476 


Bales. 

22,605 

201 

4,875 

5,7iW 

757 


Bales. 
18,706 
1082 
4,662 


Bales. 

11,488 

540 

4,407 

40 

1,816 


Bales. 
^8- IS 

768 
6,262 


Bales. 
27,115 


Monterideo and Entre Rios 
l^m and Chile ..... r 


1,110 
6,880 


BuBBia 




Other coantries 


611 


1,478 


552 


830 






Total 


24,670 


84,287 


20,000 


17,000 


26,857 


85,062 







Digitized by VjOOQIC 



236 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Stock of wool on hand at Havre on December SI, 18H to 1896, 

Bales. 

1894 28,818 

1896 26.883 

1896 16,856 

The repeal of the McKinley bill in February, 1895, caused a decided 
increase in the export of woolen fabrics to the United States, the 
effect of which was to cause great activity in the transactions in wool 
and a rise in prices. This condition was maintained until the end of 
March, 1896; but the increase of stocks in the different wool centers 
of Europe caused a depression in the prices until November, amount- 
ing to from 10 to 15 per cent. The prospect, however, of the tariff on 
wool being increased by the United States, left the market in the 
beginning of 1897 in a state not very encouraging for the exi)ortation 
of woolen goods to America. 

Movement of the wool market at Havre during the first nine months of th^ past 

eight years. 





Stock 
Jan.l. 


Jan. 1 to Sept. 30. 


Stock 
Sept. 80. 


Year. 


Importa- 
tions. 


'^^*'- 


Sales. 


1890 


Bales. 
012 
8,613 
6,443 
14,475 
26,530 
21.173 
23,903 
14,822 


Bales. 
14,260 
10,040 
23.481 
27,717 
18.788 
13,565 
17,561 
13,055 


Bales. 
10.108 
11,206 
14,150 
10,656 
6,430 
6,466 
7,621 
4,001 


BaUs. 
2,006 
3,108 
1,013 
1,771 
6,909 
8,696 
10,965 
11,342 


Bales. 

i.orr 


1801 


9.163 


1892 

1893 


13,861 
29,865 


1894... ... 


32,829 


1805 


24,585 


1806 


22.888 


1807 


11,634 







INDIGO. 



The indigo market during the year 1896 was not a satisfactory one. 
Although the prices advanced in May, they afterwards gradually 
declined, closing lower at the end of the year than they did in 1895. 

Imports^ deliveries^ and stock of indigo on hand^ 189S to 1896, at Havre, 



Year. 


Importa- 
tiona. 


Delivepies. 


Stock 
Dec. 81. 


1898 . 


Packages. 
6,390 
4,011 
6,317 
9,021 


6,823 
6,849 
6.080 
7,116 


Packages. 
2,601 


1894 


763 


1896 


1,000 


1896 


2.905 







COCOA. 
Tmports of cocoa at Havre from 1892 to 1896. 



Year. 


Pounds. 


1892 


31,485,800 


1888 


44,271,040 


1894 


43,246.400 


1895 


51.506.314 


1896 


46,662,704 







Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: PRANCE. 



237 



The market at Havre for cocoa still preserves its iinx)ortance, being 
the principal depot in France. Although the importations in 1896 
were 4,845,610 pounds less than in 1895, they were not less than the 
average importations for the past few years. Abundant crops and 
an increase in the production tended to lower the prices of cocoa, 
excepting Guayaquil cocoa, which, on account of its superior quality, 
held its own. 

Prices per 60 kilograms (110 pounds) of cocoa at Havre from 1894 to 1896, 



Year. 


TrlnldAd cocoa. 


Qoayaqnil cocoa. 


Jan.l. 


Dec. 31. 


Jan. 1. 


Dec 31. 


18M . ... 


$15. 68 to $16. 80 
14.48 16.05 
12.16 12.66 


$14. 48 to 114. 06 
12.36 12.74 
11.10 11.66 


$16. 44 to 117. 37 
11.66 12.66 
18.51 14.06 


$11.58 to $12.65 


1806 


12.66 14.48 


1806 


12.66 14.48 







PEPPER. 

Imports of pepper at Havre from 1889 to 1896, 





Year. 


1 1 
1 Pounds. 




Year. 


Pounds. 


1880 


■• — -- 


3.000,800 

1 4,382.100 

6,860,756 

OftlAKl 


1803 




5,635,096 


1800 


1804 


4,005,124 


1801 


1806 


7,162,308 


1802 


1806 


6,100,221 


1 ' "1 





The diminution in the importation of pepper for the year 1896 of 
1,043,082 pounds, as compared with the previous year, was due to the 
insignificant amount imported from British India, where there was a 
small yield, and the large stocks on hand in the different warehouses 
of Europe. 

Prices of pepper at Havre per 50 kilograms (110 pounds) in 1896. 



Country of origin. 


Jan.l. 


June 
30. 


Dec. 31. 


Alepy . . 


15. 02 to 15. 21 
5.02 5.21 
13.32 13.60 


15.21 
5.21 
14.28 


$5.08 


Tellichery 


Indo-China (Saigon) 


14. 66 to $16. 06 








WOODS. 









Imports, sales, and stock of tooods for cabinetmaking at Havre during the years 

1894 to 1896. 

( In tons of 2,200 pounds. ) 





Mahogany. 


Ebony. 


Year. 


Imports. 


Sales. 


Stock 
Dec. 31. 


Imports. 


°**®^ 1 Dec. 31. 


1804 


Tans, 
7,100 
1,026 

5, on 


Tons. 
5,485 
4,2(6 
4,680 


Tons. 

327 

774 


Tons. 
1,560 
1,680 
2,388 


Tons. 
1,212 
1,449 
1,888 


Tons. 
348 


1896 


81 


1806 


445 







Digitized by 



Google 



238 



COMMERCIAL BELATI0N8. 



Importations of other woods at Havre during the years 1894, 1895, and 1896. 
[In tons of 2,200 ponnds.] 



Variety. 



Mexican cedar and other, 

Esp^nille 

Lignum-yitflB 

Cedar for lead pencils .... 

Maple 

Wainnt 

Boxwood 

Rosewood 

Ebony 

Varioos woods 4 

Total 



1894. 



10,276 



1805. 



Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


1,819 


688 


878 


03 


142 


79 


863 


83 


261 


485 


414 


815 


Z74 


79 


633 


1,060 


446 


1,610 


1,612 


167 


1.20» 


66 


5 
1,627 




1,229 


1,608 


2,775 


3,020 


2,717 



6,521 



1896. 



9,495 



The cabinetmaking industry requires woods of almost every 
description. The wocnds from the north and from America, however, 
have been largely used for several years past, causing a depreciation 
in the price of oxotic woods, which were formerly much in demand. 
The years 1895 and 1896 were poor ones for the wood market, the prices 
ruling very low. An upward movement, however, took place in 1896, 
which would have been maintained had the market been supplied 
with choice woods. 

DYEWOODS. 

Importations of dyewoods at Havre in 189S, 1894, 1^96, and 1896. 

[In tons of 2,200 pounds.] 



Variety. 


1898. 


1804. 


1895. 


1896. 


Loffwood - . . . - - - - --.. 


Tons. 
64,026 
21,120 
1,006 
6,620 


Tons. 

68,690 

18,666 

2,466 

6,260 


Tons. 
63,106 
13,365 
3,690 
19,885 


Tons. 
80,515 




16,830 


Redwood 


2,320 


Quebracho 


11,710 






Total 


92,770 


90,980 


99,935 


110,875 







The making of extracts from dyewoods is a very important indus- 
try in Havre, and, as will be seen from the foregoing table, the impor- 
tations of these woods in 1896 reached a total of 110,375 tons, being the 
highest figure ever attained. On account of this large importation, 
the prices of extracts remained low, although the sales were large. 
Since the United States customs law of 1897 went into effect, the trs^e 
with America in these products has decreased at least 50 per cent. 

WOOD FOR BUILDING PURPOSES. 

The imports of wood for building purposes at Havre in 1896 differ 
very little from those of the years 1894 and 1895, though since the 
duties placed upon wood by the customs act of 1892 have been in 
effect, much mor^ wop^ th^n formerly has been taken from the French 
forests, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



239 



Importations of wood for building purposes at Havre, France^ during the years 

1894, 1895, and 1806. 



Variety. 



1894. 



1895. 



1806. 



Oak« rough and finished 

Oak 8tavee 

Walnat, r3agh and finished 

Other woods 

Staves, other than oak 

Total 



Pounds. 

3,056,600 

15,204,546 

1,187.400 

120,276,200 

410,100 



Pounds. 

3,018,400 

16,676,136 

631,400 

117,7^,007 



141,062.845 



138,166,600 



Pounds. 

4,444,000 

260,079 

340,800 

138,166,600 

28,600 



148,249,079 



WINES AND ALCOHOL. 
Importations of wines and alcohol at Havre from 1898 to 1896, 





1803. 


1804. 1 1805. 


1890. 


Wines: 

Ordinary 


QaUons. 
9,080,170 
084,451 

28,390 

730 

41,278 

4,003 


QalloM. 
0,37U,288 
1,387,604 

41,042 

554 

80,271 

5,546 


Oallons. 
7,420,153 
1,756,397 

6,282 


GaUons. 
4,463,988 


Deaseirt:.:. :..:::...:: ::.:.:.:..:::::: 


1,672,886 


Brandy: 

Distilled from wine 


23.118 


Distilled from cherries 

Spirits of every description 


'713 
184 


Cordials 


5,498 






Total 


10,119,121 


10,845,275 


9.249,863 


6,166,812 







The increased duty upon wines and the recovery of the French 
vineyards, which for many years were sadly ravaged by the phyl- 
loxera, added to the • abundance of the crop during the past four or 
five vintages, have tended to decrease the importation of wines, 
spirits, etc. The importation of alcohol has almost entirely been 
prohibited by the present customs duty of $13.51 per hectoliter (26.42 
gallons) of pure alcohol. 

BUM. 

Importation of rum at Havre for the years 1894, 1896, and 1896, 



Cknxntry of origin. 


1804. 


1805. 


1806. 


Marthiiqne 


Barrels. 

28,145 

459 

2,075 

i;063 


Barrets. 

20,829 

686 

6.055 

860 


Barrels. 
32,1(18 


R^anion' 


2,365 


Guadeloupe 


1,200 


Other countries 


Ss 






Total. 


31,742 


36,990 


35,583 







The exemption from customs duties of rum coming from the French 
colonies, has created in this country a very large consumption of that 
article. Nearly all of the rum imported comes from th^ ooloriie^ 
mexitioped in the foregoing tabl^, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



240 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



CEREALS. 
Importation of cereals at Havre from 1891 to 1896, 



Year. 


Wheat. 


Oats. 


Corn. 


Barley. 


Total. 


1891 


Tons. 
556,887 
335,7fi7 
a»,993 
190,874 
62,417 
34,763 


Tons. 
2JQir 

8,330 
5,837 
5,345 
17,350 


Tons. 
2,097 
13,412 
16,929 
23,988 
:»,894 
39,894 


Tons. 
1,764 
21 

16,497 
8,291 
4,253 
1927 


Tons. 
503.445 


1892 


349.201 


1803 


268.749 


1804 


228,990 


1895 


10l).iK)9 


1806 


94,114 







The total importation of wheat alone at the port of Havre during 
the first nine months of 1897 amounted to 65,856 tons. 

The ruling prices of various kinds of wheat on the 1st of January 
and 31st of December, 1896, were as follows: 



Country of origin. 



Pric5e per 100 kilos. 




Algeria and Spain . . 
California and Chile 

United States 

La Plata 

Hungary 

Poland 

Rnasia 



100 kilos =220 pounds. 

The satisfactory grain crops in France during the past three years 
lessened the importation of cereals. The provision of the French 
customs law, by which foreign wheat can be introduced temporarily 
free of duty into the milling districts of the northeast and west of 
France, be made into flour, and reexported, has not had the effect 
of increasing the movement of grain, from the fact that the millers 
have to reexport the flour from the customs district in which the 
wheat was imported, thus limiting their field of operation. The 
prices of wheat changed but little during the year 1896. From the 
reports of the wheat crop of 1897, as given by the Journal Officiel, 
the harvest in France has been very poor, both as regards the quan- 
tity and the quality of the grain. It is estimated that it will be nec- 
essary to import about 113,520,000 bushels of wheat this year in order 
to meet the wants of the country, which amount, in round numbers, 
to about 351,912,000 bushels per annum. 

The following table shows the comparison between the crop of 1896 
and the oflacial estimate of the wheat crop for 1897: 



Tear. 


Crop. 


Acreage. ' Bushels. 


Remarks. 


1806 


Bushels. 
SR), 828, 976 
251.324,453 


1 Per acre. 
16,976.640 1 20 
16,172.:H9 1 15i 


Actual. 


1897 


Official estimate. 






Decrease 


88,604,623 


804,201 4^ 

1 









From the foregoing, it will be seen that the wheat crop for this year 
will fall off 88,504,523 bushels, or 26 per cent; the acreage planted, 

uigitized by kjs^vjwi\^ 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



241 



804,291 acres, or 4.7 per cent, and the number of bushels per acre, 4i 
bushels, or 22^ per cent. 

OILS AND OLEAGINOUS SEEDS. 

The making of oil from the various imported and native oleaginous 
seeds and nuts forms a very important industry in the city of Havre. 
One establishment alone imported over 23,000 tons of seed during the 
first nine months of 1897, and expects to reach a total of 28,000 tons by 
the end of the year. At present, large quantities of cotton-seed oil 
are imported annually from the United States. The French manu- 
facturers, however, believing in the doctrine of protection to home 
industries, are striving to have a prohibitive duty placed upon cotton- 
seed oil, so that the imx)ortations would be confined to the seed alone. 
The principal products derived from oleaginous seeds are colza or 
cabbage-seed oil, rape-seed oil, salad oil, oleomargarine, and certain 
thick oils which are saponified and used in making a species of laun- 
dry soap (savon de Marseille). 



Importations of oleagirume grains at Havre, 1894, 1896, and 1896. 


Variety. 


1804. 


1806. 


isea 


Flazneed 


Pounds. 

28,791,101 

3,000,960 

1,566,482 

126,146,365 

486,000 

17,082,283 


Pounds. 
25,830,063 
8,001,140 
33,814,280 

""38;577;o66* 

3,843,566 

5,332.800 

1,912,222 

87,680,117 


Pounds. 
37,738.648 


Se<Hime ffoed ., 


6,030,324 


(Tftbhosf) fiefyl (tv^Ita) , KnrniMKm „ 


5,225,000 


CAbbnge «peed, Indian, Afii^^n, 9-n*\ jRpAiiCKie 


46i346iOBO 


BapeMed..-. .' 


222 


Peanats 


7.887,314 


Ra viflon ..-^..... 


4,400,000 


Cotton seed 


4.821,046 
14,166,286 


13,020,660 


Oth«r olfttifirlnonMgTftlnfl , . 


3,523,088 






Total 


102,060,024 


166,000,128 


122,516,807 







TALLOW. 

The small stock of tallow on hand at the commencement of 1896 
caused a considerable increase in the importations during the year. 
The consumption was not large, and the prices, although low, were 
still further decreased by the depressed condition and prices of the 
Paris and English markets. There was a slight advance during the 
last few months of the year, but the lost ground was not entirely 
recovered. 

ImxHtrtations of tallow at Havre in 1894, 1896, and 1896. 



Year. 


Pounds. 


1894 


10,301,777 


1885 . . 


7,066,903 


iffi:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::":::;:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 


18,684,446 







Prices of tallow on December 31, 1894, 1895, and 1896. 
(Per 220 pounds.) 



Variety. 



La Plata beef taUow ... . 
La Plata mutton tallow. 



C B— VOL 2- 



-16 




242 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



LARD. 
Importations of lard at Havre during the past ten years. 



Year. 


Pounds. 


Tear. 


Pounds. 


1887 


36.187,566 
22,292,881 
28.366,904 
43,248,968 
37,822,175 


1892 


24,786,075 
6,687,122 
16,671,901 
15,990,010 


1888 


1808 


1889 


1804 


1890 


1895 


1891 


1896 


17,069,283 









In 1892, France increased her customs duties on lard, and since that 
time the importations have greatly diminished. The prices were, in 
a great measure, controlled or influenced by those of the American 
market; and in 1896, the decrease was considerable. 

SALT PROVISIONS. 

The increased tariff of 1892 on salt provisions has also materially 
affected the importation, as will be seen by the following table: 

Importation of salt provisions at Havre during the past ten years. 



Year. 


Pounds. 


Year. 


Pounds. 


1887 


2,668,634 
2,766,360 
2.683,978 
2,702,651 
5,970,627 


1882 


l,8ld,667 
1.728,519 
3,421,767 


1888 


1893 


1889 


1894 


1890 


1895 


5,082,229 
2,661,274 


1891 


1896 







COAL. 
Importations of coal at Havre during the past ten years. 



Year. 


Tons. 


Year. 


Tons. 


1887 


472,443 
507,841 
496,081 
608,548 
601.982 


1892 


695 872 


1888 


1893 


682,110 


1880 


1894 


629,006 


1890 


1805 


f^l,0B8 


1891 


1896 


696,070 









PETROLEUM. 
Importations of petroleum at Havre during thepoM ten years. 



Year. 


Pounds. 


Year. 


Pounds. 


1887 


89,702.892 
81,793,239 
105.690,895 
103,093,553 
76,914,461 


1892 


88,216,867 


1888 


1898 


106,254,678 


1889 


1804 


80,015,049 


1890 


1895 


65,824,510 


1891 


1896 


70,864,851 









The above table represents the importation of crude petroleum des- 
tined to be refined in France. The greater part of it comes from the 
United States. A portion is employed in the manufacture of certain 
products, including heavy oils, paraffin, and vaseline. The use Of 



Digitized by VJ^^v^v iv^ 



'6'^ 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



243 



barrels in transport has been entirely discarded, the oil being shipped 
in tank steamers capable of carrying from four to five thousand tons. 

HEAVY OILS. 

Importation cf heavy oils at Havre, 1894, 1895, and 1896. 





Year. 


Pounds. 


1804 , . . 


11,311,428 


1895 


17,631,207 


1896 . ... 


20,805,419 







The importation of heavy oils shows a gradual increase, owing to 
the growing consumption in the different industrial trades. 

Exports and imports of merchandise at the port of Havre for the years 1895 and 

1896. 

EXPORTS. 



ArttclAK. 



itta-percha . 
andfloar).. 



Arms, powder, and ammonition. 

Various articles 

Batter 

Jewelry and silverware 

Exotic woods 

Coffee 

Cocoa 

Copper 

RntJber and{ 
Cereals (fl 
straw hail 

Cotton 

Paints and colors 

Carriage supplies 

Dyewood extracts 

Brandy and spirits 

Small boats 

Thread 

Cheese 

Cast iron and steel 

Seeds for sowing 

Animal grease 

Clocks 

Coal 

Fixed pure oils 

Musical instruments 

Optical instruments 

Imitation whalebone 

Indigo 

Wool, in bulk 

Vegetables (preserved) 

Condensed milk 

Millinery 

Drugs 

Furniture 

Millstones 

Minerals 

Machines and machinery 

Nickel 

Metal goods 

Antiques 

Rubber goods (manufactured) . 

Gold and platinum leaf 

Oold and silver bars 

Gk>ld and silver ware 

Dressed skins and furs 

Feathers 

Undressed skins and furs 

Paper, books, and engravings . 

Pottery and glassware 

Perfumery 

Chemicals 



Qiuuitlty. 



Tons. 
806 
73,619 

4,478 



8,721 

38,572 

10, 179 

1,982 

1,139 

28,741 

205 

8,320 

2,521 



16,078 
4,678 
6,874 
1,624 
1,136 



4,138 

8,530 

116 

ia2,039 

4,410 

219 



154 
2,613 
1.607 
1,363 
1.570 
2.855 
2.890 
2,977 
1,621 
4,004 



9,438 
971 



108 

1 

2,899 

540 

15,046 

7,794 

14,212 

1.3H1 

7,717 



Tttlue. 



1588,875 
7,817,008 
1,488,474 



18,240,372 
2,890,008 

750,551 
1,161,165 
1,381,687 

531,329 
1,360,238 

416,787 



3,418,487 
597,472 
297,418 
645,858 
269,100 



990.300 
874,731 
1,525,530 
759,767 
482.988 
766,422 



278,518 
886,150 
263,500 
208,506 
2,928 775 
1,636,852 
685.180 
210,544 
346,943 
976,889 



2,297,880 
749,438 



200,918 
10,932,157 

308,184 
10,272,464 
4,566,824 
7,148.790 
2.287,5n 
l,33:i,Ht{2 
1.067,418 

699,306 



QnHitltr 



Tons. 
208 

64,006 

4,022 

64 

4,682 

20,177 

10,380 
2,854 
1,416 

28,826 

870 

4.478 

8,506 

874 

12,103 
5,089 



1,644 
1,148 
6,460 
4,451 



808 

249,164 

4,068 

150 

216 

167 

219 

1,994 

1.809 



1,404 

8,057 

3,000 

3,086 

1,308 

4,841 

486 

12.809 

1,072 

193 

6 

20 



2,321 

580 

11.394 

7,421 
15,948 

1.321 

8,496 



Value. 



1377,647 

6,566,779 

1,800,068 

606,814 

197,671 

18,121.684 

2,804,906 

1,765,608 

1,442,946 

1,424,166 

1,040,688 

742,104 

468,280 

282,886 

2,882,701 

000,648 



651.366 

2n,486 

211,480 

1,184,647 



2.066,600 
793,462 
862,570 
779,460 
814,648 
106,063 
806,074 
605,553 
206.429 



2,720,354 

1,768.172 
607,203 
276,801 
237,718 

1,218.158 
327.193 

2,587,879 
827,255 
414,024 
303,874 

7.064,379 



Digitized by 



Goo^i 



7,761.382 
6,457,015 
4,158.050 
2.352,728 
1,523. .122 
1.021.974 
673.933 



244 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Exports and imports of merchandise at the port of Havre, etc — ^Continned. 

EXPORTS— Ck)ntinned. 



Articles. 



1806. 
Qnantity. Value. 



1806. 



Quantity. Valne. 



Fish (preserved) 

Hair 

Silk 

Tobacco (leaf ) 

Tobacco (mannfactared) . . . 
Tovs, brashes, and buttons. 
Cotton braid and tissnes — 

Silk braid and tissnee 

Woolen braid and tissnes . . . 

Flax braid and tissues 

Alpaca tissues 

Oil cakes and seeds , 

Basketing 

Clothing and linen 

Wine 



TonM. 
1,006 
840 
866 

2,661 
2S8 
6,006 
16,280 
8,620 
7.373 
2,722 
88 
0,643 



1.8T«,10ft 

iijatjjis 

7, hU. -fTft 

30, rrijiT^? 
28.^»tt,(t:)0 
13jCt)Ji83 
l,aR.278 

;hih. ii>4 



080 
0.813 



6,007,487 
2,841,006 



Tons. 

2,086 

461 

84 

2,830 

188 

6,078 

16,263 

2,742 

6,350 

1,068 

47 

0,060 

* 242 

010 

0,234 



641,436 

367,877 

602,100 

734,384 

801,601 

7,306,866 

23,406,970 

10,481,246 

12,473,127 

677,836 

863,426 

826,768 

272,063 

4,624,402 

3.108,602 



Total. 



624,782 



100,627,680 



681,870 



168,120,414 



IMPORTS. 



Articles. 



1806. 



Quantity. Value. 



1806. 



Quantity. Value. 



Arms and ammunition 

Various articles - 

Wood (ordinary) 

Beasts of burden and cattle 

Jewelry 

Exotic wood 

Coflfee 

Cotton 

Copper 

Cocoa 

Rubber and gutta-percha 

Cereals 

Canned meats 

Camphor 

Embarcations 

Elephants* tusks, tortoise shell. 

Drugs 

Fans 

Tin 

Spirits and liqueurs 

Whalebone 

Cheese 

Cast iron and steel 

Table fruits 

Oleaginous grain and fruit 

Animal grease and other 

Fish grease 

Coal 

Clocks 

Petroleum and mineral oil 

Pure fixed oils 

Lobsters, fresh and canned 

Heavy oils.. 

Volatile oils and essence 

Indigo 

Wool in bulk 

Dry vegetables and flour 

Condensed milk 

Minerals 

Machines and machinery 

Gall nuts 

Pearl shells 

Baskets and basketing 

Bones, horns, and clogs 

Metal goods 

Rubber foods 

Qold ana silver 

Raw skins and furs 

Dressed skins and furs 

feathers , 



Tons. 

76 

44,166 

63,731 

4,171 



8238,666 
6,603,824 
1,221,381 
1,017,824 



110,471 
108,670 
140,402 
16,086 
28,413 
2.604 
101,610 



3,805,070 
61,384,474 
26,710.648 
3,776.620 
6,642,401 
2,648,017 
2,714,400 



642 

7,317 

43 



842,706 
262,760 
176,576 



4,163 

11,350 

102 

875 



1,862,174 
861,284 
788,468 
230,685 



70,406 

12,114 

2,233 

681,063 

80 

20,663 

11,646 

1,362 

8,021 



3,180,866 

l,rd3,107 

284.063 

1,704,321 

1,606.062 

046,804 

066,737 

678,325 

224,060 



816 

7,824 

30,717 

1,254 

21,707 

3.420 

3,202 

750 

832 

5,460 

1,624 



1,730.785 
2,120.253 
312,080 
254,200 
2,174,830 
800,664 
826,478 
801,057 
666,052 
408,014 



50 
32,007 



113 



21,885,605 

10,571,061 

883,681 

400,277 



Tons, 



43,044 

68,742 
8,206 

120,511 

86,770 

122,247 

81,026 

21,210 

8,871 

04,862 

1,487 

654 

14,874 



1,216 

66 

4,781 

8,011 

130 

880 

8,563 

8,804 

66,206 

16,807 



508.071 

104 

82,211 

6,560 

1,123 

0,467 

14 

1,072 

11,000 

13,060 



23,116 

6,006 

1,472 

868 

1,256 

11,271 

2,084 

06 

210 

20,862 

600 

160 



4. 13l.!£3 
34, ITI+.fiy 



480,228 
206,634 

1,624,062 
678,705 

1,206,087 
246,400 
216,642 
212,870 

2,480,746 

1,754.460 



1,888,640 

1,664,164 

668,000 

620,687 

476,348 

264,130 

214,037 

2,068,888 

3,078,^0 

850,806 



8,006,766 

1,160,808 

826,780 

485,665 

1,217,618 

602,028 

845,644 

202,120 

12,010,053 

8,676,060 

1,161,877 

765,341 



Digitized by ^^jkjkjwik^ 



EUBOPE: FBANCB. 



245 



Exports and imports of merchandise at the port of Havre y etc. — Gontinned. 

IMPORTS— Continued. 



Articles. 


1806. 


1896. 


Quantity. 


Valne. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Chein1cftlfl.-,x- - - 


Tons 
8,448 
7 288 
8,261 
3; 160 


808,777 
687,818 
562,158 
172,616 


Tons. 

12,150 

4,900 

2,777 

4; 668 

821 

766 

1,060 

11,026 

3,390 

100 

8,090 

7,493 
157 

8,361 
719 
424 
486 

9,064 

8,746 

26,670 

438 

6,791 


697,223 


Vegetable flUunentH , „ , 


605,074 


PcDuer 


466, Sm" 


lSS? ::..::::...... 


287,705 


(Trade hair ... 


234,501 


PlRp©i», bookfi, and ^ngfavings 


604 

626 

8,000 


200,604 
228,048 
682:886 
480,027 
1,280.820 


218,660 


RoMln Anil iHaalnona DTOdnctB - ^ ..... .. 


464,261 




830,166 


Fbtfo, saleiN etc , ', 


444,866 


Blllt «nd flllk ffood«. 


864,715 


Bran. . "I . ,-. r- -. 


77,007 


Tohacco: 

Loaf 


10,834 
201 

486 
616 


2,760,266 
847,200 
19,684,089 
9,444,488 
1,047.777 
266,666 


1,987,816 


Mannfactnred ,, r. - , - - 


278,792 


Cotton croods sTtd tissues 


14,875,784 


Silk briSd and ribbons 


7486 888 


Woolen braid and ribbons .,. 


881,605 


Plaz ffoods 


286,788 


Oil cfSren 


262,118 


Frmfii f^fu^ flalt meat ,. 


6.062 

84,746 

888 


■"2,'636.'66i" 
825,738 


1,104,718 


Wines - 




Tea..... - 


304,636 


ziiM? .. ,. 


40i;687 










Total 


1.668,867 


206.226,581 


1,660,144 


178,307,413 







During the first eight months of 1897, the importations of merchan- 
dise at the port of Havre amounted to 1,171,143 tons and the exporta- 
tions to 425,440 tons. 

EMIGRATION. 

During the year 1896, 29,039 emigrants embarked at the port of 
Havre. Of this number 27,241 went to the United States; 1,163 to the 
Argentine Republic; the others to Brazil, the South American repub- 
lics, the West Indies, and elsewhere. The following table shows the 
nationality of the emigrants: 



Nationality. 


Number. 


NatlonaUty. 


Number. 


Tf^^fianff 


11,054 
3,600 
8,471 
2,627 
2.486 


Swiss 


1,600 


Turks 


French - ------ ...—-- 


16M 


l^nffflianA 


Arrn^nJHnff . . _. _ .. 


1104 


Anfltriana . . 


Ronmanlans , 


162 


Germans 


others 


1,124 









Table showing number of emigrants embarked and passing through Havre during 

the years 1896 and 1896, 



Emigrants embarking at Harre 

Emigrants passing through Havre on foreign steamship lines 

Total 



1806. 



20,887 
0,713 



80,610 



1806. 



23,256 

6,784 



30,000 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



246 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



POST-OFFICE STATISTICS. 

The following tables, taken from the report of the director of the 
post and telegraph office of the department of La Seine Inf6rieure, 
show the operations of the offices in the department daring the years 
1895 and 1896: 

Receipts from letter postage. 



Year. 


Receipta 


1886 . . 


$868,865 


1896 


868,811 







An increase in 1886 of $15,644. 

Receipts from post-office orders payable to order. 



Year. 


Poet-offloe orders issued. 


Post-office orders 
paid. 


Number. 




Commis- 
sion. 


Number. 


Amount. 


1885 


738,927 
769,972 


$3,906,605 
8,940,990 


$87,622 
87,767 


671,078 
629, U» 


$8,221,886 


1896 


8,268,516 






Increase 


81,046 


14,895 


285 


68,068 


87,180 







Receipts from post-office orders payable to bearer. 



Year 


Post-office orders issued. 


Post-office orders 
paid. 




Number. 


Amount. 


Commis- 
sion. 


Number. 


Amount. 


1895 


101.976 
U9,022 


$120,629 
144,748 


$1,480 
11714 


70,888 
81,067 


98,787 


1886 


108,719 






Increase 


17,046 


24,119 


234 


10,684 


9,962 







Intemationcd post-office orders. 



Year. 


Post-office orders issued. 


Poet-office orders 
paid. 


Number. 


Amount. 


Commis- 
sion. 


Number. 


Anoount. 


1895 


18,960 
19,234 


$180,945.68 
m, 188. 45 


$1,612.90 
1,617.15 


8,572 
9,812 


196,141.79 
100,909.81 


1806 


Incn^ase .-^ -. 


265 


287.77 


4.25 


1.240 


4,768.02 







COLLECTIONS MADE THROUGH POST-OFFICE. 

The post-office in France collects bills intrusted to it, charging for 
the service a commission of one-half of 1 per cent, and a commission 
if bills are returned as uncollectible. The following table shows the 
importance of these transactions in 1895 and 1896: 



Year. 


RillH received for 
collection. 


Actually collected. 


Not collected. 


Number. 


Amount. 


Number. 


Amount. 


Number. 


Amount. 


Commifi- 
sion. 


1895 


299,282 
809,909 


$1,880,840 
^;41i;984 


225,894 
287,671 


$1,084,074 
1,066,154 


73,888 
72,838 


$346,766 
845,831 


8,281 


1896 






Incrwase 


10, en 


81,144 


12.177 


32,060 






145 


DfK^rease 


1,500 

-ttrnrtTzet — 


986 






' "1 





EUBOPE: FRANCE. 



247 



Operations of the National Savings Bank, 



Character of operation. 



New aoconnts opened 

Amount of new deposits 

Number of deposits on standing accounts 

Amount of same 

Number of payments 

Amount of payments 

Number of transfers 

Amount of transfers 



1895. 



4.016 

$148,676 

27,085 

|S06,334 

14,141 

1606,600 

83 

$3,662 



1896. 



4,099 

$L35,776 

27,486 

$446,689 

14, a» 

$563,850 

69 

$2,2S43 



Increase. 



401 



De- 
crease. 



r.ooo 



$60,645 



$41,750 

14 

$1,419 



Telegraph receipts. 



Description. 


1896. 


1896. 


GMn. 


Loss. 


Inland telegraphs 

IntQ]*nationa1 teleigfraphs 


$133,239 

168,792 

3,088 

310 


$181,172 

158,186 

3,269 

317 




$2,067 


$4,308 

. 181 

17 




Priyate lines 




Various receipts 








Total 


290,419 


292,943 


4,501 


2,067 







Tekph^one receipts. 



Description. 


1895. 


1896. 


Gain. 


Loss. 


Five- minute oouTersations 


$21,190 

63,134 

408 

6,663 


$20,989 

66,436 

619 

6,909 


346 


$201 


Subscriptions 




Various receipts 




Subscriptions and installing transmitters 








Total 


81,886 


94,968 


13,789 


201 







Net increase for 1896, $18,568. 



PARCEL POST. 



The admirable system in operation in France, by which packages 
weighing not over 6.6 pounds and measuring not over 23.62 inches in 
length or breadth can be sent through the mails to any point in B'rance 
or her colonies, and to many foreign countries, has been extended by 
a recent decree, so as to include packages weighing not over 22 pounds 
. and measuring in length, breadth, and thickness not more than 59 
inches. The old system applied to continental France and from 
France to Belgium, Switzerland, and Luxembourg. The new arrange- 
ment goes into effect on the 15th of September, 1897, applying at first 
to France only, but being gradually extended to Corsica, Algeria, 
Tunis, and in all probability to the foreign countries which at present 
enjoy the benefits of the old system. The price of transportation will 
be 24 cents, if delivered at the station or held there at the disposal of 
the consignee, and 29 cents if delivered at the consignee's residence 
or office. Packages can be sent C. O. D., at an additional charge of 
16 cents if delivered at residence and 11^ cents if held at the station, 
with a declaration as to value. In the event of loss or breakage from 
any cause other than that of unavoidable accident, damages will be 
paid to the extent of $7.72 on packages without any declared value, 
and the full amount will be paid when the value is previously declared. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



248 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Operations of the branch of the Bank of France. 



Year. 


Notes dis 
counted. 


Loans on 
bonds, 
stocks, 
bills to 
order, 
bullion, 
etc 


Total 


Gross 

pro 

ceeds 


Net 
profit. 


1886 


142,615.094 $11,746,906 I$54.dn2.000 
53,126,799 16,212.022 60.338,821 
40««»«^71 11,547,738 52.409,600 
44 78 14.787,333 58.99(1.111 
52 «3 18,176,986 70,214,629 

56 06 21.305,999 78,349.005 
54 65 30.075.049 74,232.914 
73 92 18.584,324 92.174,316 

57 , . . »79 16. 298, 271 74, ftW, 660 
42 ir^i .31 20.866,002 63,329.533 
45:.-V]77 21,140,812 66,665,489 


$130,210 
171,207 
05,250 
122,826 
133.062 
150.561 
129,099 
231.548 
157,279 
69,846 
87.862 


1103.458 


1887 


138,233 


1888 


68,613 


1880 


89,978 


1890 


100,138 


1891 


186,637 


1802 


99,819 


1893 


198,135 


1804 


123,311 


1896 


85,382 


1896 


63,411 







WAGES OF LABORERS. 

Bricklayers...! per hour.. 

Masons do 

Plasterers do 

Roofers and slaters do . . . 

Ship carpenters ^ per day. . 

House carpenters do 

Bakers do ... 

Blacksmiths do 

Bookbinders do 

Brewers (cider) per month. . 

Brewers (beer) do — 

Butchers do . . . 

Cabinetmakers per day . . 

Confectioners per month . . 

Coopers per day.. 

Dyers do. . . 

Engravers do ... 

Gardeners do 

Laborers do... . 

Lithographers do 

Saddle makers do 

Printers do 

Sailors (A. B.) per month.. 

Firemen do 

Coal passers do 

Factory hands in cotton mills per square meter. . 

Laborers in dye factories per hour . . 

Coachmen per month.. 

Employees of electric surface cars: 

Conductors and wattmen per day. 

Inspectors per year. 





$0.12 




.12 




.13 




.14 




1.54 




1.54 


$0.50 to 


.75 




.97 


.77 to 


.97 


a9.65to 


11.48 


a23.16to 


28.95 


a7.72to 


15.44 


.97 to 


1.16 


c 


tl9.80 




1.16 


.97 to 


1.16 




1.54 




.77 


1.06 to 


1.25 


1.54 to 


1.98 




.97 


.97 to 


1.16 


11.58 to 


13.51 


15.44 to 


17.37 


14. 80 to 


15.44 




.04 


.13 to 


.14 


a 19. 30 to 


23.16 



866.70 



HYGIENE. 

The oflScial report of the bureau of hygiene of the city of Havre 
gives the number of deaths during the year 1896 as 3,230; a decrease 
of 105 compared with the year previous; the births 3,671, of which 536 
were illegitimate, an increase of 63 over 1895, and the death rate per 
1,000 inhabitants 27.1, a decrease of 1.5. The population according 
to the last census was 119,470. 

According to the census completed December 31, 1896, the number 
of inhabitants in the department of La Seine Inf^rieure was 837,824, 



a Including board and lodging. 



Digitized by 



Google 



BUBOPE: FKANeE. 249 

a decrease of 2,052 as compared with the census taken in 1891. Of 
this amount, the arrondissement of Havre, which includes the city 
proper and adjacent towns, contributes 252,322, an increase of 5,045 
over the census of 1891. The city proper shows an increase of 3,101. 

WATER SUPPLY. 

The work done by the city authorities to protect the springs of St. 
Laurent, the source from which the city derives its water supply, from 
contamination by surface drainage, sewage, etc., no doubt has had 
much to do with the decrease of the death rate. The number of 
deaths from typhoid fever in 1894 was 270, and in 1896, 47. There 
were no epidemics of a serious nature during the year. 

IMPROVEMENTS IN THE OUTER PORT OF HAVRE. 

In order to improve the harbor facilities of Havre, a new break- 
water and jetty are being constructed under the provisions of a law 
passed on March 19, 1895. The law provides for — 

First. The creation of a new outer port, by which vessels merely 
calling at Havre need not enter the basins (which can be done only at 
high tide), but may receive sufficient and proper shelter while dis- 
charging or taking on passengers and merchandise. The outer port 
will also offer shelter to vessels waiting for flood tide, which are at 
present obliged to anchor in the roadstead. 

Second. The dredging of the channels leading to the new port. 

Third. The construction of a new lock by which the entrance into 
the principal bassins (the Bassin de I'Eure and the Bassin Bellot) will 
be improved and the channel deepened. 

Fourth. The military def eiise of the Point de la Heve, an elevated 
promontory about 2^ miles northwest of Havre, and overlooking the 
city. 

The work of constructing the new breakwater is progressing favor- 
ably. Four hundred men are employed. Those engaged in the 
quarries and in transporting stone and building materials work ten 
hours a day, while those employed in constructing the breakwater 
itself work, four hours during each low tide, or eight hours in the 
twenty-four. The work is carried on day and night, and it is esti- 
mated by the engineer in charge that the whole w£[l be completed in 
about seven years. 

ELECTRIC SURFACE CARS IN HAVRE. 

The city of Havre has at present one of the largest systems of tram- 
ways in France. It is managed by '*La Compagnie G^n6rale Fran- 
§aise de Tramways," a corporation with a capital of $1,968,600, and 
having under its control the systems of several other cities in France. 
In 1893, this company obtained a concession from the city of Havre, 
taking over all lines then in operation and agreeingto construct others. 
The company rendered itself liable for all damages to property, etc., 
which might arise during the construction of the new lines, and the 
improvement and alteration of those already in existence. The fran- 
chise was granted, upon the condition that the company pay to the 
city annufiJIy a sum amounting to 2^ per cent on its gross receipts, 
with a guaranty that the sum paid should be at least $3,474 per year, 
even though 2i per cent of the gross receipts did not reach that amount. 

Digitized by xsikjkjwl\^ 



250 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

In the event of the gross receipts of the company falling under $11,680, 
for every kilometer (.621 mile) in operation, however, the city agreed 
to reduce the $3,474 minimum to be paid it to $1,930 per year. When 
the gross receipts reach the sum of $11,580, per kilometer (.621 mile), 
then 2i per cent of the gross earnings, with a minimum of $3,474, 
becomes the fixed rental per year, and is what the company now 
pays. The system of traction in operation is that of the Thomson- 
Houston Company, or overhead trolley. The change of the motive 
power, from horses to electricity, was made in 1894, and since that time 
the increase in traffic and receipts has been very marked. ITie num- 
ber of passengers carried in 1893 was 5,099,166, while in 1896 there 
were 9,659,704, being an increase of nearly 90 per cent in three years. 
The receipts of the surface cars in 1893 amounted to $142,753.91, while 
in 1896 they reached the sum of $223,187.35, an increase of 56^ per 
cent, so that the city received, on the basis of 2^ per cent, the sum of 
$5,579.83. There are at the present time 18.9 miles of road in oper- 
ation, including double tracks and switches. The cars are divided 
into first and second class compartments. A single fare is 3 cents 
first class and 2 cents second class. There is little difference in the 
accommodations of first and second class, except that the cushions of 
the first-class compartments are upholstered with plush, and those of 
the second class with leather. The longest distance a passenger can 
ride for a single fare is 2.7 miles. By paying an extra cent, however, 
he can ride .69 of a mile farther. 

The company is obliged to keep in good condition and repair the 
space between the tracks, aud 20 inches at either side of the same. 

The cost of construction per kilometer (.621 mile), including track, 
paving, overhead w^res, poles, etc., amounted to $14,475. 

The franchise runs for a period of fifty years, terminating in 1943. 
At the end of this period the rights and privileges granted the com- 
pany are to fall to the Government, which, in accordance with the 
agreement, comes into possession of the tracks and dependencies 
thereof, together with waiting rooms, cranes, water tanks, stationary 
engines, etc. If, during the last five years of its franchise, the com- 
pany, previous to turning over its tracks to the State, does not keep 
them in perfect repair, the latter can seize or appropriate enough 
of its earnings to properly care for the same. The State can a5o 
purchase, at a price decided upon by experts, all property, such as 
machines, tools, supplies, etc., belonging to the company. And even 
before the expiration of the franchise, it can for good and proper 
reasons purchase the same at a figure determined by experts. It is 
not probable that such a thing will occur, though this and many other 
conditions are duly provided for in case the company does not fulfill 
the many obligations imposed upon it. 

INTRODUCTION OF AMERICAN GOODS. 

The steadily increasing number of letters, price lists, and circulars 
of American manufacturers received at this consulate, indicates the 
growing disposition on the part of business houses in the United 
States to find a market for their products abroad. Strange as it may 
seem, very little activity has been displayed in this direction until 
within the last few years, and even now the American manufacturer 
has much to learn in regard to the method of best introducing his 
products in the countries of the Old World. In almost every branch 
of industry, from the simplest article of household utility to the most 
intricate piece of machinery, American products are equal, if not supe- 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 251 

rior, to any on the globe. That they can successfully compete with 
those of other nations, is a fact beyond a doubt, and the indefatigable 
efforts of American ingenuity to achieve perfection in every line 
should be followed up by no less strenuous endeavors to market the 
product of our mills and manufactories. 

Unfortunately, however, a great many of our American manufac- 
turers are under the impression that a quick and ready sale can be 
found for the articles which they offer without properly pushing the 
same. They depend, in a great measure, upon United States consuls 
to distribute their catalogues in the cities where these officials are 
located, and then trust to the dealers on this side to send their orders 
by mail. 

That consular officers are always ready to serve Americans, will not, 
I am certain, be disputed. But the fact that it takes a man many 
years to become conversant with a single trade, proves how badly fitted 
a consul must be to properly describe and introduce the hundred and 
one things for which he is called upon to find customers. It matters 
little how enthusiastic he may be in endeavoring to push a certain 
object or article of merchandise, he can not explain or demonstrate 
either its superiority or the advantages of its use as weU as can an 
expert salesman, thoroughly acquainted with the line of goods. This 
fact is recognized by most of the great commercial nations of Europe, 
who know that their products must be pushed in this way if they 
wish to keep abreast of modem enterprise and competition. 

If our American manufacturers would send to France well-equipped, 
intelligent commercial travelers, speaking the French language and 
provided with samples of the goods they wish to sell, it is certain that 
great quantities of American products could be marketed in this 
country. These travelers or salesmen must not come to Europe 
with the idea of spending the least amount of money, in order to make 
a good showing at the home office by keeping their expense account 
low. Footholds are frequently obtained at a high price, which in 
the end fully repay the original outlay. It is also highly important 
that American manufacturers have their catalogues printed in French, 
with the prices in francs and measurements, weights, etc, in the metric 
system. German, English, and other European business houses 
adopt this system, and find that a great obstacle to their foreign trade 
is removed thereby. Our American manufacturers display not only 
a great deal of taste in printing elaborately illustrated catalogues, but 
also go to expense in circulating them. Many of these find their way 
to this consulate and are afterwards given to the trade. But while 
they interest the dealer from an artistic point of view, they have little 
or no practical effect, for the reason that they can neither be read 
nor understood. 

The time for introducing American goods into France was never 
more favorable than at present, and our manufacturers can not afford 
to lose the opportunity offered them through apathy or economy. 

Through the medium of personal letters, as well as the United 
States Consular Reports, the proper line of action has again and 
again been indicated to American manufacturers. But as yet the 
seed does not appear to have fallen on fruitful ground. 

CJBCEBBOURG. 

The economic situation of the district of Cherbourg has not materi- 
ally changed as compared with that of preceding years. 
During the last five years, the population of theL#ftl»i^khi0e^(&gt@ised 



252 



COMMEBCIAL RELATIONS. 



only 4,758, the total population being 93,603, to which the city of Cher- 
bourg proper contributes 40,783 inhabitants. A surface road of 7^ 
miles in length, of recent construction, brings Cherbourg into close 
touch with the suburban towns of Equeurdreville and Tourlaville. 

The following table shows the number of vessels, together with their 
nationality and tonnage, which entered the port of Cherbourg during 
the years 1895 and 1896: 



Nationality. 


Sailing yeflsels. 


Steamers. 


Vessels of both 
classes. 


1895. 

FlTdllCll ......._....^.. ......... 


No. 
643 


Tons. 
9,008 


No. 
179 
405 
10 


Tons. 
88,750 
72,880 
6,386 


No. 
772 
601 
80 


Tons. 
60.182 


ICnffllfflf 


98.466 


Otfipr flagrff , 


14.429 




Total 


750 


66,6a3 


504 


111,475 


1,863 


168,027 




1896w 
Frencli - 


668 

161 
16 


25.011 
16,999 
6,841 


227 
400 
12 


86.990 
82,011 
7,618 


785 

661 
28 


61.001 
99.010 


English 


Otherfli^p 


12.860 




Total 


785 


4T,351 


689 


125,519 


1,874 


172,870 







There exists a regular line of passenger steamers running between 
Cherbourg and Southampton, and another between Cherbourg and 
Guernsey. Both fly the British flag. The number of voyages made, 
the number of passengers carried, and the total tonnage for the years 
1896 and 1896 were as foUows: 



Tear. 


Lines. 


Steamers. 




Passen- 
gers. 


1895 


Soathampton to Cherbonrg 

do 


266 

268 

63 

62 


64,758 
60.488 
2.292 
2,247 


910 


1896 


1.060 
1,768 


1885 


Gnemsey to Cherbourg . . 


1806 


do 


i:«88 







Steamships running at regular intervals between Havre and the 
west coast of Africa, between Southampton and the West Indies and 
Buenos Ayres, and between Hamburg and New York also stop at 
Cherbourg, both on their outward and homeward voyages. Their 
number, tonnage, etc., are shown in the accompanying table. 



Nationality. 


Lines. 


Steamers. 


Tonnage. 


Passen- 
gers. 


1806. 
French 


Hayre to Africa 


2 

6 

16 

83 


2,8SS1 
14,184 
64,569 
116,658 




English 


Sonthampton to West Indies 

Sonthampton to Bnenoe Ayres... 
Hambarg to New York - ....,,,. 


112 


Do 


277 


Qerman . 


2,47D 








l\ytal 


67 


188,167 


2,869 




Havre to Africa 




1896. 
French 


6 

6 

51 

81 


8,818 

12,416 

168.882 

280,284 




English 


Soathampton to West Indies 

Southampton to Bnenos Ayres. .. 
Hamburg to New York 


84 


D6 .1.::::..:::: ": 


686 


German ^ 


6,404 








Total 


148 


419,885 


6,174 









From the foregoing table, it will be observed that almost all of the 
foreign steamers entering Cherbourg are English. This is owing to 



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EUROPE: FRANCE. 



253 



the fact that, in addition to the English lines running to Guernsey and 
Southampton, the coal and wood trades are carried on in English ves- 
sels. The total tonnage of vessels entering the port, during 1896, 
shows a slight increase over that of 1895. The number of vessels call- 
ing merely for the purpose of disembarking and receiving passengers, 
shows for the year 1896 a very decided increase over 1895, amounting, 
in fact, to no less than 81 per cent. This is, in a great measure, due 
to the fact that the ships of the Royal Mail Company, which formerly 
called irregularly at Cherbourg en route from Southampton to Buenos 
Ayres and vice versa, now stop twice a month. The Hamburg- Amer- 
ican and North Grerman Lloyd also call regularly at Cherbourg. 

The exports and imports of the port of Cherbourg for the years 
1895 and 1896 were as follows: 

IHPOBT& 



Articles. 


1896. 


1895. 


Wood for bnfldiiiflrDXirpooeii . r-,. ..r.~ ,- , 


2,405 

4,233 

864 

19 

84 


Ttmt. 
8 311 


CJoal 


800 


F4»rtni^un^ I 


Coffee 


19 


Wheftt .-rw .T,,,,, --- - - . - - _- 


468 








Total 


7,106 


8,510 





EXPORTS. 



Preoh meat and fowls. 

i^^eV '.'.V.'.'.'. — -'...!. 

Potatoes 

Fresh vegetables , 

Hay and straw 

Coal 

Stockholm tar 

Broken stones 

Wheat flonr 

Horses 

Total tons 



TOTIS. 


Tons. 


29 


10 


106 


69 


1.864 


1,818 


245 


261 


186 


62 


12 


2 


196 


229 


43 


88 


4,412 


6.172 


140 


15 


No. 


No. 


9 


U 


7,183 


6,676 



Almost all of the merchandise shipped from Cherbourg goes to Great 
Britain and to Jersey and Guernsey. The manufacture and expoiiia- 
tion of butter are among the chief industries of the city, as is shown 
by the following table, giving the quantity exported during the past 
ten years: 



Tear. 


Average 

price j»r 

I)oand. 

.23 
.23 
.24 
.23 
.28 
.26 
.22 
.23 


Quantity. 


Value, 


1887 


Pounds. 

20,942,908 

22,646.140 

27,983,818 

81,318,570 

82,823,840 

88,614,060 

84,495,760 

23,857,584 

44). 000, 884 

41,026,900 


$5,026,296.72 
5.273,226.20 


1888 : 


uS :::::..: 


6, 486,' 276. 90 


1890 


7,208,271.10 


1891 


7,869,601.60 


1892 


8,961,238.67 


IBBB . ^ . 


7,934,025.87 


1894 


5,072,971.84 


1895 


8,800,084.48 


1886 


9,486,187.00 









Digitized by 



Google 



254 



OOMMEBOIAL RELATIONS. 



The principal industrial establishments of Cherbourg are those of 
La Soci6t6 du Temple, Le Blond & Caville, M. Noyon, and La Soci6t6 
Anonyme des Carri^res de TOuest. The first-named establishment 
makes the celebrated Temple boilers. Those of the French torpedo 
boat Mangini, which made during her trial trip nearly 28 knots an 
hour, are of this type. The French cruiser Jeanne 6!ArCy now build- 
ing at Lorient, a battle ship of 28,000 horsepower, will have a bat- 
tery of thirty-six Temple boilers. The great success enjoyed by this 
boiler has been the means of securing so many orders from France, 
Austria, Norway, and Russia that the proprietors have found it neces- 
sary to enlarge the plant. Messrs. Le Blond & Caville, who are also 
constructors of boilers, have an establishment covering about 15,000 
square yards. They also manufacture, on an extensive scale, steel 
beams, girders, and bridge work. At the establishment of M. Noyon 
are made the furniture and joiner work for a number of the French 
men-of-war. La Society Anonyme des Carri^res is the largest of the 
quarrying companies in or about Cherbourg, and employs about 
370 men. Last year, the company produced for export 54,717 tons of 
stone for building purposes, of which 35,000 tons were shipped to 
England. The balance went to various French ports. 

The three principal flour mills of Cherbourg received together about 
514,407 bushels of wheat during the year 1896. The grain was prin- 
cipally of French origin. The production of flour was about the 
average. 

BENNISS. 

The city of Rennes, capital of the department of Ille-et-Vilaine 
and 218 miles west of Paris, is one of the most important cities in the 
consular district of Havre. It is a place of 67,000 inhabitants, situ- 
ated at the confluence of the rivers lUe and Vilaine and close to the 
canal of Ule-et-Rance. It enjoys an extensive trade in cotton goods, 
chestnuts, honey, leather, starch, garden products, and poultry. 

The total quantity of merchandise exported in 1896 amounted to 
19,852 tons, carried in 447 boats. The imports reached 145,297 tons, 
transported in 3,089 boats. During the first six months of 1897 the 
exports amounted to 8,705 tons, and the imports to 97,474. 

A. M. Thackara, C(ynsuL. 
Havre, October 26, 1897. 



IMPORTS FROM THE UNITED STATES INTO HAVRE. 

Consul Chancellor sends the following statistics covering the imports 
into Havre from the United States during the quarter ended March 
31, 1897: 



Articles. 



Apples barrels.. 

AabestoB sacks.. 

Agrrictdtnral implementR,pac&age8. 

Bark saciES.. 

BoDos do 

Bulbs barrels.. 

Batter cases.. 

Bran sacks.. 

Brushes cases.. 

Cotton bales. . 

Cotton waste ,. sacks.. 



Quantity. 



16,908 

1,240 

2,886 

6,522 

2,002 

4 

50 

16,290 

13 

252,624 

140 



Articles. 



Coffee sacks.. 

Do barrels.. 

Cotton-seed meal sacks. . 

Cotton-seedcakes do 

Cocoa do 

Calcium drums. . 

Copper bars.. 

Do plates. 

Do ingots. 

V>o cylinders. 

Do barrels. 



33,030 
776 
89,886 
26,885 
1^787 
2US 
66,440 
14,613 
23,766 
121 
2.042 
Digitized by VJV^v.'V i\^ 



Quantity. 



EUROPE: PRANCE. 



255 



Arti6l6& 


Quantity. 


Articles. 


Quantity. 


Carbon (black) . 


barrels.. 


1,750 


Oil- Continued. 






Dog grass 


bales.. 


100 


Paraffin 


casks.... 


200 


Extract of bark. 


barrels.. 


110 


White 


do.... 


12 


Purs 


cases.. 


70 


Pulp 


...packages.. 


465 


Fruit, dried 


do.... 


2,742 


Preserves 


cases.. 


2,165 


Flour 


sacks.. 


11,276 


Plumes 


do-... 


69 


Fiber 


cases.. 


2 


Do 


bales.. 


17 


Guts 


..barrels.. 


70 


Pitchforks 


...packages.. 


7 


Grease 


do.... 


134 


Potash 


barrels.. 


290 


Gum 


cases.. 


5 


Palm trees 


bales.. 


65 


Hides 


bales.. 


1,867 


Rubber 


sacks.. 


304 


Horns 


...sacks.. 


2,041 


Bice 


barrels.. 


67 


Handles , 


packages.. 


9,079 


Boots 


cases.. 


16 


Hams - 


pounds.. 


47 


Seeds 


sacks.. 


1,203 


Hardware 


cases.. 


94 


Staves (2 loads) 


pieces.. 


280,782 


Hair 


bales.. 


250 


Salted meats: 






Hoofs 


sacks.. 


625 


Beef 


cases.. 


132 


Hemp 


bales.. 


188 


Horse 


do.... 


5 


Ivory 


, sacks 


12 


Pork 


do... 


136 


Lrtle. 


bales-. 


100 


Silk thread 


bales.- 


95 


Iron 


cases.. 


140 


Sausages 


cases.. 


1,178 


Do 


imcKets.. 


1,862 


Sugar 


barrels. - 


35 


Lard 


7,976 


Shells 


do.... 


201 


Do 


barrels.. 


1616 


Salmon 


cases.. 


760 


Do 


tubs,. 


1,632 


Silver 


bars.. 


614 


Do 


tierces.. 


6,063 


Sponges 


bales.. 


466 


Do 


.one-half barrels.. 


150 


Spermaceti 

Ibbacco 


cases.. 


150 


, Do 


..other packages.. 


2,806 


.hogsheads. . 


563 


Leather 


oases.. 


128 


Do 


cases.. 


49 


Lobsters 


do.... 


500 


Talc 


...I>ackages.. 


136 


Lead 


pigs.. 


28, on 


Tallow 


.hogsheads.. 


839 


Metal 


cases.. 


40,800 


Viiri]i>ili, 


cases — 


198 


Machinery 


do.... 


248 


WhiHkv 


do ... 


106 


Marble... 


blocks.. 


28 


WjiHl-^i-fHue 


...packages.. 


880 


MaiKe 


loads-. 

sacks.. 


72 
145 


Wiin- 


cases.. 


502 


Do 


Wax 


barrels.. 


97 


Nickel 


barrels.. 


166 


Whojit 


sacks.. 


1B4,106 


Nutmegs 


barrels.. 


16 


Wood: 






OcherTr. 


do.... 


140 


P-'Plar 

CfAiiv 


pieces.. 


425 


Oats 


loads.. 


84 


..do.... 


1,046 


Oxide of zinc... 


barrels.. 


1,100 


Hftnl 


do.... 


771 


Oil: 






Maple 


do.... 


878 


Petroleum.. 


cargoes.. 


28 


Pitch pine 


do.... 


4,838 


Cotton-seed. 


CMkS-. 


2,648 


Walnut 


do.... 


360 


Divers 


do.... 


7,660 


Oak 


do.... 


4,475 


Essential .... 


do.... 


826 


Quaiac 

All other 


do.... 


794 


Lard 


do.... 


899 


do.... 


3,823 


Mineral 


do.... 


6,676 


Zinc 


plates . 


6,514 


Oxheel 


do.... 


27 









lilMOGES. 
COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES. 

Limoges, the capital of the department of the Haute Vienne, is 
situated in nearly the geographical center of France; it is surrounded 
by a large agricultural district, in which there are comparatively few 
indu8tries,^and whose products resemble very much those of the New 
England States — much more than those in other portions of Europe. 
The country is undulating, well watered, and only moderately fertile. 
In the departments of the Haute Vienne, Creuse, Correze, Cher, and 
sections of Lot and Dordogne, the chief industry is cattle and sheep 
raising; the former consist of the well-known "race Limousine," 
remarkable for its beef-producing qualities. Paris butchers prefer the 
Limousine to the Durham or other stock bred especially for beef. The 
sheep are a small breed, with highly flavored flesh and good wool. 
Every farmer calculates that he should have at least five sheep for 
every acre of land. They not only furnish wool, but form the most 
important part of the meat supply. The price of unwashed raw wool 
was 1 franc (19.3 cents) a kilogram (2.2 pounds) at the last St. Loup 
Fair (this market is held during the latter part of May every year), and 
wool often forms one of the chief sources of the farmer's revenue. 

■ ■' ' Digitized by KJVJV>'Vi\^ 



256 COMMEBOlilL RELATIONS. 

The domestic uses of the native wool are varied; the coarser grade 
is made into mattresses; the second best is woven into heavy home- 
spun goods; the finest (on account of its high price) is sold to com- 
mission merchants for the large cloth and dress-goods factories estab- 
lished in Rubaix, Sedan, ElboBuf , and other cities in the north. A 
small portion is consumed in Paris. The skins are made into gloves, 
shoes, slippers, and are used for bookbinding and shoe linings. The 
meat forms a very important article of diet for the home market, and 
large quantities are exported to Belgium and England. Some French 
farmers consider sheep raising one of the most profitable forms of 
agriculture in this district. 

HOGS. 

The only meat that finds a place on the workingman's table is 
pork. The very poor buy small pieces of salt pork to flavor their 
soup; the next higher paid labor has other meat on the f^tes as well 
as pork in the soup; the well-to-do patronize the " chacuteries," stores 
where pork is made into sausages, pies, galantines, ham, etc. ; this 
meat being already cooked, the exx>ense of fire at home is saved. The 
choice parts of the hog are smoked, and find a ready sale among the 
upper and well-to-do classes. The supply of domestic pork is not equal 
to the demand; there are large importations of lard, sides, hams, 
and shoulders into France. Considerable quantities have come from 
America, although the merchandise bears an English mark. Tlie 
production of pork has been exceptional during 1896 and 1897, and 
the meat has never been sold at so low a price. Grains were very low 
in 1894 and 1896, and hogs were raised in large quantities; now, how- 
ever, that the price of wheat, corn, and rye has risen, the farmers are 
killing off their hogs as rapidly as ppssible. 

GOATS. 

In the departments of Cher, Correze, and Creuse, goats are raised 
in large quantities. Hundreds of thousands of kids are sent to mar- 
ket, during the months of April, May, and June; their flesh is con- 
sidered very dainty and fine; their skins are in great demand for 
glove making. Flocks of goats and sheep follow each other, because 
the farmer states that the former animals will thrive on what the 
latter refuse to eat; in this way, the land becomes more profitable. 

HORSES. 

Although Pompadour, one of the principal horse-breeding stations 
in France, is situated in the Corr4ze, the departments of this consular 
district do not produce more than one-third of the horses employed in 
this section. The French army makes a heavy draft on horses. Every 
horse used is registered at the mairie and is liable to be drafted into 
the military service as readily as a man in case of need. The Gov- 
ernment fiurther exercises a careful supervision over the production; 
no stallion is allowed to be employed as a reproducer, unless he 
has been inspected and his soundness and fitness certified to by a 
Government veterinary surgeon. 

POULTRY AND EGGS. 

These central departments furnish the greater part of the poultry 
and eggs consumed in the large French cities. Five hundred thou- 
sand dollars' worth of eggs was exported to Great Britain last year, 

*^° * uigitized by vjV7V>';iiv^ 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 257 

Poultry of all kinds is cheap and good, and forms another item of 
pecuniary gain to the farmers and small proprietors. While butter 
and cheese are made in considerable quantities, they do not form a 
very important factor of agricultural industry, as they are poor in 
quality and wretchedly made. 

CEREALS AND VEGETABLES. 

The amount of wheat and rye grown is not enough for home con- 
sumption. It is exceedingly doubtful if the land in this district can 
ever be made to produce wheat satisfactorily, as the soil and climate 
are unfavorable. 

Potatoes form the principal crop in this section. They are of a 
rather coarse variety, and are used not only as a staple article of food 
for man, but for fattening hogs, cattle, and poultry. Thousands of 
tons are exported annually to Belgium, England, Algiers, and Spain. 
When prices are low, as they have been for the past two years, the 
starch factories consume large quantities. The price paid for pota- 
toes per ton (2,240 pounds) has been down to 155.75. The rate 
usually given by English importers is about $10 per ton. The crop 
pays well when this price is giyen. 

Hay is not exported from this district, but is imported. Straw is 
brought in from the neighboring departments, and used in paper mak- 
ing. Factories are established along the banks of the Vienne that 
flows through the Haute Vienne, Correze, and Charente. Coarse brown 
or yellow wrapping paper is principally manufactured. 

FRUITS. 

Grape cultivation and wine making, are not of much importance in 
this consular district; but apples, plums, pears, cherries, and quinces 
are extensively grown, and largely exported to other European cities. 
England imports large quantities every year. The price of transpor- 
tation of these commodities from the center of France often exceeds 
the cost of freighting from New York to London, the average rate for 
perishable fruits, eggs, poultry, vegetables, and butter being $10 per 
ton (2,240 pounds). The railroad has a legal right to from five to 
seven days' delay between the centt*r and the seacoast, but it seldom 
takes more than three. As there are no refrigerator cars, the goods 
require considerable handling. They are shifted from the train to 
the boat and transshipped to the cars on the English side of the 
channel. This is the reason for the high price of freight. 

MANUFACTORIES. 

Limoges has a world-wide reputation for her china. This industry 
has been carried on in this city for over a century. The excellence of 
this ware, its hardness, fineness of texture, perfect vitrification, and 
transparency make it unsurpassed in the estimation of connoisseurs. 
In a report published in the Consular Reports, July, 1897, a full and 
complete description of making, firing, and decorating French china 
was given. The machinery employed in the manufacture of china, 
was also described. Referring to the commercial aspect of this 
industry, it is surprising to note that the most important factories 
are carried on with American capital; in fact, about seven-tenths of 
the money invested comes from the United Staje^^^^nd^^^out^the 
B VOL 2 17 ^ 



258 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

same proportion of the production is exported to America. One of 
the principal reasons for building china factories in France, is the 
proximity of the kaolin quarries, and another is that there are three 
generations of workingmen who have been trained to this particular 
labor. 

The kaolin quarries are situated at Coussac-Bonneval, and have prob- 
ably the purest clay in the world; the most important of these 
kaolin deposits extend over 2,500 acres. They are found in irregular 
strata, at variable distances from the surface. The methods employed 
in mining are most primitive and crude; the quarries are open, and 
the extracted clay is taken from the pits in small wooden baskets, 
which are carried by women and girls on their heads to the cleansing 
shed, where the kaolin is sorted and cleaned. The national factory 
at Sevres, as well as manufactories in other European countries, uses 
this clay to a certain extent. Owing to the crude and imperfect 
methods employed in extracting the kaolin, and the subdivisions of 
the land among many proprietors, the development of the quarries is 
hindered. Engineers have estimated that within this small area, 
there is enough clay to supply the world's china factories for five 
hundred years. 

SHOES. 

The next important industry of Limoges, after china, is shoemak- 
ing. There are three factories in the city, and the annual output 
amounts to over $1,000,000. These factories are of recent date; for 
years shoes have been made in great quantities in the Limousin, but 
the trade was divided among a large number of boss shoemakers who 
employed a few hands; only a limited amount of capital was required, 
and all the work was done by hand. To-day great changes have been 
wrought; the small manufacturer has almost disappeared, hand work 
is performed only by shoemakers at home, and the bulk is done by 
machines in the large factories. Nearly every machine used in shoe- 
making is of American make and design. Girls, women, and boys 
replace men; consequently the labor is much cheaper; men are 
employed at one or two of the large machines. The uppers are all 
made by women, the cutting out is done by machinery, the lining, 
stitching, buttonholes, etc., is all performed by girls. It is estimated 
that this machinery has reduced the cost of production of shoes one- 
third . The price of labor in these factories is very low. The following 
are given as examples of the wages: 

Jonme}*nieii shoemakers $1.00 

Machine men 75 

Women (fine work) 60 

Women (ordinary work) .40 

Girls . .25 

Packers 15 

Imitations of leather enter very largely into the make-up of shoes 
in French factories; heels, fillings, counters, and linings are fre- 
quently made of composition. The French army buyers refuse all 
kinds of compositions and will accept only solid leather. It is not 
uncommon to find shoes with a good appearance sold by peddlers, in 
country places, for 50 and 75 cents a pair; a close examination shows 
that the leather is either very poor or else is only composition. 
Almost the entire output of the French factories is consumed in 
France. The manufacturers state that an extremely small percentage 

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EUROPE: FRANCE. 259 

of their goods is exported; this is principally due to the fact that the 
raw material costs more in France than elsewhere. American man- 
ufacturers have but little opportunity of introducing their merchan- 
dise into France; the present high duty is prohibitive, and French 
tastes and fashions are quite different from American; therefore this 
market would have to be carefully studied before trying to introduce 
shoes made in the United States. Several French houses use Ameri- 
can goods, but their customers are generally Americans or English 
visiting France. 

GLOVES. 

One of the important glove-making centers of France is the little 
city of St. Junien, Haute Vienne. This industry employed about 500 
hands last year. The trade is carried on more as a house industry 
than as factory work, only a small number of workers laboring in the 
factories proper. The gloves are cut by machinery and given to the 
sewers, who do the work at home. Sewing machines of American 
make are usually used. The skins, which are mostly lamb, come 
from all parts of France; for the last two years the wool has been sold 
in the United States. After the skins are tanned and dressed, they are 
ready for the dyer. Nearly every color can be dyed at St. Junien, 
some however being sent away to be colored. Most of these gloves 
are sold in Paris, forming the cheaper grades; they are bought by 
Parisian commission houses and resold to American buyers. The 
average sales for the last four years, according to the best informa- 
tion obtainable, have been about $600,000, of which only $25,000 were 
directly to the United States. 

The wages are very low, and the gloves are paid for by the dozen. 
The trade has been stationary for several years. Exportations are 
made to several European countries and South America. The quality 
of these gloves is considered inferior to that of Grenoble, which is the 
real seat of the kid-glove manufacture. 

WAGES. 

Selectors of skins $1.00 to $2.00 

Cutters .75 

Sewers 10 to .60 

HUMAN HAIR. 

The central departments of France, the Corr6ze, Creuse, Cher, 
Allier, Haute Vienne, and Dordogne are frequently visited by hair 
merchants having orders for human hair from the United States. The 
dealers in this article say that the inhabitants must be very poor, to 
permit the girls to sell their hair; then there must be a sufBicient 
variety in quality and shade to meet the requirements of the market; 
and thirdly, there must be a recognized place where those desiring to 
sell their hair can find buyers. All these conditions are met in the 
above-mentioned departments. The soil is poor, stony, and hard to 
cultivate; these low mountains might almost be called the foothills 
of the Alps. They are for the most part bare, or covered with heather 
and brake, affording pasture for goats and sheep. Almost all the men 
are masons, stonecutters, and builders. They leave their homes in the 
spring for different parts of France to work at their trades, returning 
when employment is no longer obtainable. The women and girls look 

Digitized by xjkjkjwls^ 



260 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

after the farm and tend the cattle, goats, and sheep. Their income is 
very small, and in order to buy a new dress or proidde some luxury (?) 
the girls consent to sell all but the front part of their hair. Ashamed 
and humiliated by this act, however, they always wear a coijffie or 
handkerchief to cover their shorn heads. During the fair of St. Loup 
and the fair that is held on the last Thursday of August every year, there 
are regular meeting places where the seller and buyer make their bar- 
gains. The average price for a full, long head of hair is $2, but an 
exceptionally fine growth, if of an exi)ensive color, will bring $6. This 
pittance is counted upon in the annual income of a peasant family. 
The hair shipped to New York, passes through the hands of commis- 
sion houses in Paris. -Their agents makethe purchases in the provinces, 
the payments being often made part in money and part in dry goods 
of poor, sleazy materials, hardly worth picking up, but which make a 
good show. There is a difference of 1 to 10 between the buying and 
selling price of hair. To make up lots of hair, the darker shades of 
the French are mixed with blond and light hair from Germany and 
Switzerland. A few ounces of white is often put in a bunch of cheap 
stuff, to make it sell. In many instances the French and German 
buyers exchange, so as to supply the markets of the two countries. 
This industry is increasing annually, and the probabilities are that it 
will be more extensive in the future than at present. 

RABBIT HAIR. 

Rabbit skins are brought from all parts of France to the Depart- 
ment of the Haute Vienne, to be cleaned. The hair is carefully 
removed and sorted, and after being chemically treated it is sold as 
hatters' fur in France and the United States. During the last two or 
three years, there has been a notable increase in this business. Hat- 
ters find this hair cheaper and better than certain grades bought in 
other parts of Europe, for which higher prices are paid. It is doubt- 
ful if hatters can be supplied more advantageously than from the 
factories of this district. The manufacturers sold last year $600,000 
worth of hair, of which about $100,000 was exported to the United 
States. 

LIQUEURS. 

The distilleries of Limoges are among the most famous in France. 
The value of their output for 1896 was over $2,000,000, and the busi- 
ness is increasing annually. Distillations are made of all sorts of 
liqueurs, cordials, sirups, etc. The sales are principally confined to 
France and the French colonies ; a few hundred gallons are exported 
to Spain and South America. Various attempts have been made to 
send this class of goods to the United States, but until now every 
endeavor has failed. 

TAPESTRY AND CARPETS. 

Aubusson tapestries, so highly prized, are still made in this old city 
on hand looms, similar to those introduced by the Saracens hundreds 
of years ago. The Jacquard loom is generally used for weaving car- 
pets and rugs in the large manufactories; they are worked by steam 
or hydraulic power. The dyeing, carding, and preparation of the wool 
takes place in Aubusson or the neighboring villages. Over 2,000 hands 

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EUROPE: FRANCE. 261 

are employed in Anbosson and 1,000 in Felletin, a little city about 5 
miles from the former place. Pew of these goods are exxwrted directly 
from the factories to the United States. Most of them are sold by com- 
mission merchants at Paris. The people are poor and very provincial 
in their habits, and the manners and methods of ages past can be seen 
in this district. 

BXPORTS FROM TBB UfilTUD STATES. 

Owing to the situation of this consular district, it is only possible to 
approximate estimates of American merchandise and produce that 
enter these departments. American manufacturers and producers 
may be interested in knowing what can be sold in the center of France. 

MACHINERY. 

AgricutturdL implements, — ^Mowing machines, reapers and binders, 
harrows, cultivators, horserakes, hayforks, hand rakes (wooden and 
steel), shovels, spades, scythes, and lawn mowers, have been sold here. 
The American mower is steadily and surely replacing other makes. 
Greater attention should be given to the following points in manu- 
facturing mowers and reapers for this market: The French soil is 
watered by very frequent rains; drought is rarely experienced, con- 
sequently farmers cut the grass very close to the ground, and many 
reap wheat and rye so as to leave as short a stubble as is ordinarily 
left on an American hayfield. Another point to be remembered is 
that cows replace horses in drawing these machines. This calls for a 
gearing, that will meet the requirements of a slow pace. The lightness 
of American machines has been an obstacle to their sale, being 
regarded with suspicion by the French cultivators, this fear being 
justified when certain kinds of grass is cut, for when a light-weighted 
mower is driven slowly and close to the ground it is more apt to clog. 

Concerning other farm implements and tools, but few changes are 
needed. French customs and methods should be more carefully stud- 
ied by American manufacturers desiring to introduce their goods. 

Sewing machines, — All kinds of sewing machines are extensively 
sold ; many American patterns are being offered which are manufac- 
tured in England and -Germany. The machines used in the glove, 
shoe, and harness factories are generally brought from the United 
States. 

Bicycles, — ^The American wheels are deservedly popular in France; 
but it is useless for American manufacturers to try to compete with 
the cheap bicycles of the country. The transportation and custom 
dues are just as high on a poor wheel as on a superior. It is esti- 
mated that 500 American bicycles were sold in this district last year. 

Tools, — There is probably no tool employed by American artisans, 
carpenters, masons, plumbers, locksmiths, carvers, etc., that would 
not find a ready sale in France. As these goods are less bulky than 
and different in shape from the French ones, they must be shown, 
and their excellency proven to the workmen before their superiority 
is realized by the artisans. 

Locks, TiingeSy and fastenings, — ^These are in good demand, and 
wherever new houses are being built American models are sought for. 
Lately, cert>ain German factories have manufactured tools, locks, 
hinges, and fastenings after American designs, and have offered them 

uigitized by VJ^^v.'V i\^ 



262 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

to French hardware dealers, who thought that they were buying gen- 
uine American goods. The imitations were not very good, but the 
prices were extremely low. 

RANGES AND STOVES. 

In the country districts and in many villages, heating and cooking 
is done by wood fuel, but in large towns and cities bituminous coal is 
employed. The wood and coal stoves are very old-fashioned, poorly 
constructed, and expensive articles. There is an undoubted demand 
for good cooking stoves and ranges. Since cooking schools have been 
established in some of the French cities, there is a greater tendency 
on the part of housekeepers of moderate means to do their own baking; 
provincial hotel keepers are also doing more baking than formerly. 
The American system of hot- water attachments to stoves and ranges, 
for supplying baths and washtubs, is almost unknown in France; 
a limited number of ranges with boilers has been imported for pri- 
vate houses. This system should be judiciously introduced, so as to 
demonstrate its economy of fuel and time. Another line of stoves 
should be adapted to heat living rooms. Many out-of-date cylinder 
stoves, such as were in vogue in the United States half a century 
ago, are sold as "American patterns" and findgreat favor. Several 
German firms are trying to supply this market with this system 
of stoves. The goods should not be expensive or too large. Let 
it be remembered that the winters are not as long nor as severe as 
they are in America. A third type of stove (hot-air furnaces, either 
portable or incased in brick work) would find a sale for heating apart- 
ment houses, public halls, churches, and hotels. Steam and hot- water 
apparatus are not popular, as their heat is too intense for this country. 
It would be advantageous for stove manufacturers to visit France, and 
study personally the peculiarities and conditions of the French trade, 
if they desire to command the market. 

WAGONS, CARTS, CARRIAGES. 

The French styles for all kinds of vehicles are different, in many 
respects, from those used in the United States. The roads, as a rule, are 
hard and excellent, and wagons are loaded much more heavily than at 
home. Carts and wagons should be built after patterns that already 
exist in France; the wheels are heavier and the tires very broad, so 
as not to cut the roads and ground. It is customary to drive horses 
tandem in many towns and rural districts, and it is no uncommon 
sight to see six horses attached to one load. 

Another very important matter is the system of brakes; French 
drivers use them much more frequently than American, consequently 
a well-designed brake is an all important feature in all kinds of 
vehicles. Carriages, open and covered, should be solidly built; the 
lightness required in America would be a drawback to sales here. It 
will be absolutely necessary for manufacturers who would establish 
an export trade with France, to ascertain the requirements of the 
country. No doubt a good business could be done in unfinished car- 
riages, leaving the upholstery, varnishing, and putting together to 
French workmen. This would permit the goods to enter the country 
knocked down, high transportation charges would be avoided, the 
custom dues would be much lower, and French taste would have a 
chance to display itself. 

*^ " Digitized by VJ\_/\^^ 



.gle 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 263 

TYPEWRITERS. 

America controls the market for these machines, which are slowly 
but surely finding their way into the offices of the country. The 
make has but little to do with the sale of the machine; the agents 
who push the hardest and advertise the most sell the greatest number 
of typewriters. 

WOOD AND WOODEN WARE. 

The demand for nearly every kind of wood is on the increase; 
staves (which are used in large quantities in the wine-making dis- 
tricts), felloes, spokes, hubs, handles of all descriptions, thills, etc. 
There is an especial market for dining-room, bedroom, library, and 
parlor furniture, as well as oak, black walnut, satinwood, maple, elm, 
spruce, pitch pine, and divers woods suitable for finishing or inlaid 
work. It would be advantageous, and larger quantities would be sold, 
if the furniture were shipped in an unfinished or knocked -down state. 
The popularity of American desks and office furniture is on the 
increase; the price at which they have hitherto been offered has 
been almost prohibitive. Much of the cost of transportation and 
duty would be avoided if the goods were shipped as above stated. 

FARM PRODUCTS. 

WTieai and flour. — ^The French custom dues have shut out many 
American farm products. France produces nearly all the wheat re- 
quired for the home market. Taking ten years as an average, she has 
grown about seven-eighths of the quantity necessary to meet her 
demands, but for the fiscal year ending June, 1898, there will be a 
shortage of more than one-fourth of the annual consumption. More 
or less foreign grain must always be imported. France makes heavy 
shipments of macaroni, vermicelli, noodles, plain and fancy crackers, 
and other edible pastes. American wheat flour is highly prized by 
the bread and pastry bakers; and the sales would be heavier were it 
not for the present high duties on grains. 

Indian com, — There is a growing demand for maize in this coun- 
try, the present supplies from Spain, Hungary, Roumania, and Argen- 
tina being too uncertain and insufficient to satisfy buyers. This corn 
is used for two purposes, fodder and fattening animals. Fodder corn, 
which is sown broadcast in May, is of a soft variety, preference being 
given to that with round, yellow kernels, such as is usually grown in 
the New England and Middle States; hard, flinty maize is used for 
fattening. Exportations from the United States could be advantage- 
ously made if care were taken in selecting the kinds of maize required 
in France. 

Seeds. — Clover and different kinds of grass seeds will find ready 
sales in France, though much depends upon the season. A dry sum- 
mer in this country contributes favorably toward harvesting these 
seeds. 

GROCERIES. 

In a report on "American groceries in France,"* attention was 
called to the different kinds of groceries that could find a sale. 

•Consular Reports No. 158 (November,^1893)^.^^QQQg|^ 



264 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

Especial emphasis is laid upon nearly every variety of canned fruits 
and meats, and evaporated fruits, such as apples, pears, peaches, 
apricots, plums, and cherries. Dried apple cores and peelings can be 
sold for vinegar. 

Oreen Fruits. — Apples and pears, according to the season, can be 
profitably exported. Owing to the failure of these crops this year, the 
demand for these fruits will be heavy. The reason American fruits 
have not met with greater success, is because of the defective and 
(in many cases) slovenly manner in which the goods were packed; a 
bad impression was given the buyer before the fruit was tested. 
Bananas, pineapples, and oranges should find a very ready market 
here, if properly handled. California dates could pay transportation 
and duty, and still undersell, at a good profit, African fruit. 

DRUGS. 

Supplementary to a report made on this subject last spring,* it 
should be stated that different kinds of animal preparations for 
pharmaceutical purposes are much in demand. Great care should be 
taken in preparing these articles, and the formulas should be written 
in French weights and measures (the metric system). 

HORSES. 

The popularity of American horses is increasing. Attempts have 
been made to import horses from South America, Iceland, and Rus- 
sia, but the business has not resulted satisfactorily, while horses 
imported from the United States have found a fair market and given 
satisfaction to their purchasers. The style of animal that will seU 
well on the French market, is much the same as that used in America 
for carriage and riding. The former class is in good demand. The 
horses should not be too heavy, of a good medium height, and not 
over 8 years old. There is also a large demand for cavalry horses; 
they are worth from $200 to $300; those that can be bought cheaper 
lack style. The farm supply is generally composed of animals dis- 
carded by the Government. In shipping horses to France, it must 
be borne in mind that the cost of transporting a poor animal is as 
great as a good one; further, it is far easier to dispose of a fine horse 
than an inferior. All diseased or imperfect animals should be scru- 
pulously left in America, for there are no better judges of horseflesh 
than the French, and nowhere is a fine animal better appreciated. 
As long as France maintains a standing army, good ]^orses will be in 
demand in this country. There is no danger that electricity will 
replace horses, as has been experienced in the United States, because, 
except in Paris, Lyons, and Bordeaux, street cars have been used but 
little, and where electricity is employed as a motor it has been intro- 
duced with the first street railroad in that city, as, for example, in 
Limoges, Angers, and Nantes. As a further impetus to the sale of 
horses, they are displacing cattle as beasts of burden. The agricul- 
tural machinery that is being introduced into France is better woi^ed 
by horses than cows or oxen. Horses are eaten very extensively in 
France, so after their services on the farm are finished, they are fat- 
tened for the butcher as well as the cows and oxen. 

^Consular Reports No. 201 (June, 1897). 

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BUHOPC: PRANCfi. 265 



IRON AND STEEL. 

Iron and steel pig are comparatively dear in France. Much of the 
iron ore comes from Spain and is smelted here. The expense of trans- 
I>ortation of the raw material and the fuel, adds materially to the 
cost of manufacturing. Bessemer steel and iron can be exported 
from the United States at a lower figure, and there is a rare oppor- 
tunity now to get control of the market. While France does not 
manufacture very extensively, still the amount of raw material con- 
sumed is quite impcTrtant. The kinds thai would probably sell the 
best are gray forging iron and Bessemer pig. Iron wheels for railway 
trucks are already in great demand, certain American makes having 
an excellent reputation on French roads. 

Car trucks for electric and horse railroads can be imported from 
America cheaper than the French can manufacture them. Iron tub- 
ing, water and gas pipes, should also be imported from America, 
instead of being maniSfactured in other countries for the French 
trade. 

Walter T. Griffin, 

Commercial AgetiL 

LmoGES, October 1, 1897, 



liYONS. 

In answer to the instruction from the Department of State dated 
August 10, 1897, 1 beg to submit the following report: 

(5)mparati vely few goods of American manufacture have been intro- 
duced into Lyons within the past few years. This fact is due to a 
number of causes, but very largely to the conservatism of the people. 

We produce many articles at lower prices than they can be fur- 
nished by France, or by any of our competitors for the French market. 
The retail grocers all sell American roast beef, ox and pork tongue, 
corned beef, canned fish, gelatine pork, vegetables, sauerkraut with 
ham, ham, trii)e, potted rabbit, compressed beef, and a few other arti- 
cles, many of which comes through England. 

As will be seen from the tabulated statement given below,, we also 
export to this city feathers used as ornaments, cotton, copper, cereals, 
animal fats, worked leathers, cotton-seed oil, machinery, petroleum, 
residue of petroleum, whalebone, etc. ; as well as a few cider mills used 
in making wine. A good ox)ening exists for the best American mills. 
In the dry goods stores, nearly every article is of French manufacture, 
the exception being heavy woolen underwear from England. Cotton 
goods of French make are displayed labeled "American flannel." 

The American methods of doing business, packing and delivering 
goods, credits, payment for purchases, etc., are entirely satisfactory 
to the French business men. No insuperable obstacles are in thja 
way of a more extended trade between the two countries. The two 
tariffs offset each other. The French tariff of 1892 is the only element 
that has tended to diminish importations from the United States since 
that date. 

No passport is required of commercial travelers. 

No trade-mark is required to indicate the place of manufacture of 
goods. 



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Google 



266 COMliERCIAL fiELATIONBb 

In regard to bootis, shoes, rubbers, agricultural implements, sewing 
machines, locomotives, typewriters, electrical apparatus, and other 
articles referred to in the circular, but very few are sold here. The 
Thompson & Houston electrical appliances and method of welding 
street-railway tracks, are both employed here. Rubber goods, though 
as dear or dearer than in the United States, are all manufactured 
here, except a very few which are imported from Germany and Eng- 
land. The rubber shoes are heavy and of clumsy make. The less 
costly American typewriters are coming into use slowly. Several 
ineffectual attempts have been made to introduce brass and steel wire 
cord and hooks for the hanging of pictures. 

The merchants of Lyons tell me that they look to the United States 
for "original" articles; that is to say, for striking novelties that are 
useful or ornamental. They complain also of not being able to deal 
directly with the American manufacturer. They have shown me 
knives and forks, lamps and oil stoves, purchased in England but 
bearing an American trade- mark. One of these is marked "the 
Christy knife, London, by royal letter patent, made in the United 
States." Another saw- toothed instrument is marked "The Massa- 
chusetts knife." The merchants dealing in these articles would like 
to obtain the address of the American manufacturer, in order to dis- 
pense with the English middleman. 

The spirit of conservatism in France, outside of Paris, renders it 
exceedingly difficult to introduce new articles from abroad. Many 
that have been rejected in Lyons, are in daily use in Paris. Kitchen 
utensils and other articles which in the United States are considered 
indispensable for daily comfort, are unknown here. So are the con- 
trivances used in large retail stores for sending money and a bill of 
goods sold to the cash drawer. The clerk, often a middle-aged man, 
carries the goods to the package counter and tells the purchaser to 
pay at the desk, where he (the clerk) states the amount of the pur- 
chase. Granite kitchen ware, which is in such common use in the 
United States for cooking purposes, is not to be found here; enameled 
ware, which is not nearly so durable and is equally if not more 
expensive, is universally used ; but little tinware is seen, while wooden 
and papier-mach6 pails are unheard-of. A tin dinner pail with com- 
partments, about two-thirds as large as the average American article, 
costs 26 cents here. 

Bicycle dealers aU say they can buy or make cheaper here than in 
the United States. 

The only way to introduce these and scores of other articles, is to 
have an agent come here who knows how to speak the language, and 
remain for some months, confining his energies perhaps to the three, 
cities of Lyons, Bordeaux, and Marseilles. Most of the goods arriv- 
ing in Lyons from the United States come through Bordeaux, and 
perhaps that city would be a good place to begin. The goods should 
be liberally advertised. 

There are no means of obtaining trustworthy data, for even an 
approximate estimate of the exports and imports passing between 
Lyons and the United States for the first half of 1897. The silk busi- 
ness improved during the second three months. Metallurgy is in a 
prosperous condition. Industries connected with chemical products 
have improved. 



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EUROPE: FRANCE. 



267 



The principal importations from the United States to Lyons for 1896 
were: 



Articles. 


Value. 


Articles. 


Value. 


OottoDB Aod woolens 


$23,885,810 
6,2n,971 
6.506,676 
8,696,362 
8,379,623 
2,676,945 
2,408,236 
1.919,300 
1,769,424 
1.902,787 
1,806,610 


Preeeryed beef 


1629,206 


Petroleum 


Plumes 


622,837 


CoDDer - .- 


Besidaum of petroleum 


4551094 


GrSn..::: : : 


WhalAbone 


386,772 


lSS::::::::::":::::::::::::::::::: 


Calfskins 


217.704 




India rubber 


805,905 


Coffee '. 


Preserved lobsters 


299,150 


Cottonseed oil 


Sponges 


256,304 


Rawhides 


Sundry other articles 


4,426,465 


Wood 


Total 




Mtt^>)fnAry 


60,658,171 









Many importations from America do not figure in the above state- 
ment, because they are forwarded here from England and are recorded 
as of British origin. 

A full and correct statement would show a much larger total than 
the above. 

John C. Covert, Consul. 

Lyons, October P, 1897. 



MABSEIIXES.* 

The imports and exports of this consular district have been for all 
countries: 



Consular district. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


1896. 1 1896. 


1895. 


1806. 


M»r«*ni«H 


1217,656.000 

19,366,000 

2n,000 


1201,424,000 

26,183,000 

494,000 


$161,000,000 

6,488,000 

466,000 


$167,220,000 


Cette 


6,470,000 


Corsica - 


671,000 






Total 


237,296,000 


228,101,000 


166,914,000 


178,861,000 







Decrease in total importations 

Decrease in importations at Marseilles. 

Increase in total ezportations 

Excess of imports over exports: 

1806 I''""I"1"'II1!III"'"""'"1'"! 



g, 197, 000 
,232,000 
6.417,000 

70,854,000 
54,740,000 



EzportB from Marseilles to the United States: 
Year ending December 31— 

1895 

1896 



Decrease 



Six months ending Jnne 80— 

1896 

1897 



Increase 

This increase was largely due to immense shipments of wool. 



$3,495,000 
2,691,000 

804,000 



1,180,000 
2,445,000 

1,265,000 



*In response to circular of Angost 10, 1897. 



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268 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



The statistics of imports at Marseilles from the United States are 
not obtainable, though I hope by another year to arrange so as to secure 
the figures approximately. The imports and exports for France for 
the three months ending June 30, 1897, were furnished by the Amer- 
ican chamber of commerce at Paris, as follows: 

Exports from France to the United States, 



Articles. 



AprlL 



1896. 



1897. 



May. 



1896. 



1897. 



Jane. 



1896. 



1897. 



Works of art 

Books 

Oement 

Dyewoods, extracts of 

Coffee 

Cotton cloths 

Cotton, other manufactures of. 

Earthenware, china, etc 

Fur skins.., 

Furs, manufactures of 

Glass, cylinder, etc 

Hides and skins 

Jewelry and precious stones... 

OloYes 

Paper stock, rags, etc 

Paper, manufactures of 

Cheese 

Silk,raw 

Silk and manufactures of 

Spirits 

Toys 

Wines 

Wool: 

Nal 

No. 8 

Cloth 

Dress goods 

All other articles , 



$154,824 
20,680 
6,986 
10,242 



$174,051 

28,381 

1,081 



$66,686 

20,561 

1,197 

10,466 



$88,006 
18,406 
7,854 
7,666 



Total. 



85,115 

826,908 

123,758 

17,116 

46,297 

2,924 

60.382 

67,284 

137,461 

84,642 

16,138 

8,911 

62.646 

664:518 

76,284 

6,062 

871,708 

16,404 
18,616 
20,281 
77,667 
1,662,224 



861,788 

141,448 

28,086 

42,496 

6,830 

161,466 

70,748 

216,574 

28,791 

14,888 

9,151 

86,082 

1,197,680 

204,615 

6,665 

405,680 

806,899 

896,622 

64,149 

1,128,466 

2,879,785 



41,677 

194,374 

110,662 

44,163 

88.826 

849 

30,943 

67,075 

70,787 

12,984 

19,117 

7,181 

58,841 

422,469 

65,964 

8,885 

804,964 

5,909 

17,664 

14,060 

89,669 

1,547,781 



85,273 
22b, 708 
206,568 
67,892 
88,169 
1,469 
184,026 
39,016 
194,443 
20,386 
14,249 
10,325 
71,719 
802.839 
128,785 
26,876 
321,101 

1,180,472 

189,115 

20,228 

1,667.413 

1,849,884 



$86,001 

17,756 

1,620 

7,411 

U7,644 

88,188 

179,615 

116,603 

34,973 

58,655 

489 

76,103 

205,386 

58,704 

17,175 

12,678 

9,748 

28,620 

• 610,568 

62,775 

200,960 

396, 8U 

1,004 

25,763 

14,756 

184,184 

1,448,201 



$206,686 

18,864 

2,838 

1,(K7 

704 

88,608 

278,301 

156,473 

84,091 

72,860 

1,502 

272,916 

61,311 

340,873 

20,436 

26,700 

13,009 

89,908 

1,480,641 

67,656 

27,063 

380.351 

500,897 
123,363 
62,461 

1,084,846 
2,088,766 



4,026,986 



8,079,068 



3,247,072 



7,260,884 



8,887,880 



7,435,206 



Imports into France from the United States, 





April. 


May. 


Juna 


Articles. 


1896. 


1897. 


1896. 


1897. 


1896. 


1897. 


Agrricultural Implements 

IVirika. mans, etc n. ^- - 


$116,420 

760 

151,145 


$181,801 

4 383 

256,817 


$68,004 
18,083 

146, n5 
6,400 


$66,106 

6; 650 

226,004 


$30,866 

4,864 

148,639 


$76,806 
3 062 


Com - 


214,972 


Wheat 


43,484 


WhoAt floor - ... 












GKrriage.s, cars, etc - -■,- 


1,47» 

486,587 

720,042 

200 

414 

13,749 

9,549 


975 


2,763 


. 9m 


962 


8,936 


Coal and coke ' ...,- 




Co'D'ner insots. bars, etc ^ 


808,564 
1,889,761 


449,616 
607,275 


421,572 

632,206 

20,900 

2,211 

U9.926 

9,829 
13,711 
76,488 
17,655 
81,022 

285,676 

48,140 

428,421 

9,692 

3.366 
600 


464,408 
148,206 


614,781 


Cotton: 

TTnmannfactured ........ 


623,783 


^^nnfApttired 


i;^ 


Other manufactures of 

Ordes and Tfarts of same . ---,-- - 


096 
43,665 
17,128 


726 

47,120 

1,676 

7,106 

16,730 
18,470 
64,864 
12,067 
7,611 

465,487 

51,488 

188,262 

860 

4,868 
4,826 


14 
28,044 
4,826 
65,815 

12,848 
708 
68,065 
10,668 
8,790 

168,675 
131.945 
166,240 


732 
30,502 


Bruits and nuts.. .......—. 


6,877 


FnpH And flkinfi . . 




Iron: 

Machinery, se wing machines. . 
Other machinery r 


9,304 
12,276 
43,872 
15,779 

6.988 

271,318 
65,996 


18,545 
1,968 
42.627 
27,863 
15,785 

340,659 
46,484 

278,061 
10,186 

2.848 
960 


11,771 

7,908 

141,536 


Leather... 


27,211 


Oil Rftkeand meal — ..n-.- 


12,960 


Oils: 

Mineral- 
Crude 


77,118 


Beaned 


29,991 


Cottonseed 


100.560 


Paraffin n.nA w.-r 


9,895 
776 


Provisions: 

Beef, canned 


6,814 
258 


Beef, salted and pickled 



Digitized by "^^jvjvjwlk^ 



EUKOPE: FRANCE. 



269 



Imports into France from the United States— ConUnxied, 



ArtideB. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


1806. 


1897. 


1896. 


1897. 


1896. 


1807. 


Proviflicms— Continued. 

Tallow 


46,438 

17,228 

8,628 

912 

184,713 

1,822 

56,474 
1,580 

10,771 
20.088 
18,007 
25,640 
502,110 


1,750 
5,096 
1,788 
1.050 
67,194 
1,310 

19,182 
729 

42.642 
16.883 
24.906 
52.230 
628.960 


63.179 

21,200 

4,180 

1,190 

132,968 

160 

437 

16,068 
64,196 
80,418 
36.864 
570,888 


67,407 
360 


128,467 
32,000 
8,686 


46,326 


Bacon - 




Hams - -- 


408 


Pork 


214 

40,851 

789 

8,016 
i;063 

68,018 
48,910 
77,561 
61,360 
406,213 




Lard 


110,644 
2,070 

280,724 
i;406 

25,314 
24,218 
10,643 
32,625 
878,601 


61,161 


Seeds 


3,835 


Tobacco: 

^TnmAnafactnred 


84,066 


Mannfactnred - - - - - 


i;962 


Wood: 

Timljer - 


14,960 


Lnmber .. 


9,780 


BhinffleA. 8tftve«, «tc, 


71.064 


Manufactured 

All othei* article* - - -- 


13,751 
874,641 






Total 


8,076,300 


4,176,546 


3,068,972 


3,196,868 


2,936,034 


3,010,243 







TotcU exports from France to United States during AprU, May, and June, 

1896 $11,160,898 

1897 22,774,603 



Total increaae.. 11,618,706 

T\)tcd imports into France from United States during April, May, and June. 

1896 $9,080,806 

1897 10,894,657 

Total incroaae 1,814,351 

Total increase of escports over imports during April, May, and June. 

1896 $2,080,592 

1897 12,379,946 

SBWERAGE SYSTEM. 

The most important indastrial event of the past year for Marseilles, 
was the completion of a general sewerage system for the city. Pre- 
viously the sanitary conditions were deplorable; surface drainage, 
sinks, cesspools, etc., were the principal features. In 1886, of the 
32,600 houses in Marseilles, 13,600 were without any sanitary arrange- 
ments whatever, proi)erly sx)eaking. Work was begun on the present 
system the 8th of October, 1891, and finished May 28, 1896, in a few 
months less than the contract period of five years. 

Mr. Louis G^nis, who is well known as a sanitary engineer in the 
United States, was the promoter of the enterprise and manager of 
the company. The price to be paid was $6,465,000, the company 
obligating itself to keep the sewers and drains in order for a period 
of fifty years. The principal emissary is about 8 miles (11,860 meters) 
long, and the secondary sewers aggregate about 124 miles (182,800 
meters). The entire sewage is carried a distance of 5 miles from 
the city and discharged into the sea beyond a range of mountains. 
Two years have been allowed, from September, 1896, to September, 
1898, for connecting the house drains with the street sewers. This 
work thus far has progressed very slowly; only one-thirtieth of the 
connections having been made. 

uigitized by VJ\_^\^v iv^ 



270 COMMEKCIAL RELATIONE 

An article in the contract between the city and the sanitary com- 
pany was as follows: "All materials used in the construction shall be 
of French origin." 

When the present sewerage system is completed, Marseilles will 
become one of the clean, healthy cities of Europe. 

NEW WATER SUPPLY. 

The city has recently made a contract for the increase and improve- 
ment of its water supply. At present the water, by means of an open 
canal, or aqueduct, is brought a distance of 70 miles from a mountain 
stream, and supplies about 2,500 quarts per second, or 660 quarts per 
day for each inhabitant. This is the largest water supply per capita 
of any continental city, except Grenoble, France; Munich, Germany; 
and Lausanne, Switzerland. And yet, with this bountiful provision, 
the water has been shut off one month every year, for several years 
past, two weeks in spring and same period in the fall, for the purpose 
of replenishing the reservoirs and cleaning the canal. The projected 
improvement will add 1,100 quarts per second to the present supply; 
the cost will be about $2,000,000. 

CANAL TO THE RHONE. 

Marseilles is to nave a ship canal to the Rhone. The city is about 
25 miles from the mouth of the river. The projected canal will leave 
the river some 30 miles from its mouth, near the town of Aries, and 
shorten the distance by water between Marseilles and Lyons about 
25 miles, thus placing the principal port in direct connection with the 
principal river of France. 

The estimated cost is $7,720,000, which sum the city will borrow 
from the Credit Foncier at 4 per cent, payable in seventy years. 

NEW DOCKS AND WHARVES. 

Work is now progressing upon new docks and wharves, to be owned 
and operated by the city and national government. An expenditure of 
11,930,000 has been authorized for this purpose; one-third to be paid 
by the municipality and the remainder by the State. The national 
and municipal governments now own more than one-half the docks 
and quays of this port. The State and private docks already embrace 
over 340 acres of water surface, and are lined by 49,400 feet of wharves. 
The new works now in process of construction will add greatly to the 
present extensive terminal facilities of Marseilles. Genoa and Barce- 
lona are rapidly developing as formidable competitors of this port for 
the Mediterranean trade. 

PORT DUES. 

There has been no change in the port dues during the past year. 
All charges are fixed upon the registered tonnage of the vessel, with- 
out reference to amount of cargo, unless, of course, it is in ballast. 

General port dues are as follows: On vessels from American ports, 
19.3 cents (1 franc) per ton; from European ports, 9.6 cents (one half 
franc). 

Local port dues are 3 cents per ton, payable, however, for three trips 
only during the same year. 

Digitized by VJ\_^\^v iv^ 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



271 



Health dues are also 3 cents per ton. 

Piloting fees are, for sailing vessels, 3 cents per ton for clearing the 
port, from 1 to 4 cents for entry by day, according to distance, and 
from 1 to 5 cents at night. 

A French captain enjoys extra privileges, if he has passed certain 
examinations. He may act as his own pilot and thus save the 
expense of pilotage for his vessel. Steamers pay one-half the above 
pilotage dues. 

There is a movement on foot, with good prospects of success, to 
have the general port dues reduced to one-half the present figures 
on all vessels entering with less than a half cargo. This seems 
entirely practicable and nothing more than just. 

FREIGHT RATES AND STEAMSHIP LINES. 

There is only one regular line (French) from this port to New 
York. The Cyprien Fabre Company maintains a biweekly service. 
The Prince Line (English) runs irregularly to New Orleans and the 
Anchor Line (English) to New York. The latter company is consid- 
ering a regular service from Marseilles to American ports. The 
usual voyage by the Fabre Line is twenty-one days via Naples; it is 
seventeen days direct by the Anchor. Considerable merchandise 
from this port goes to Gtenoa or Liverpool, and is there transshipped 
to the United States. 

The rates of freight have been greatly reduced dunng the past 
year, as the following figures will indicate: 



Artldee. 


1896. 


1897. 


Oocouint oil. ot<7 -- 




ner 100 tonii 


18.75 
9.60 
11.25 
15.00 


$6.00 
^.50 


Skins, etc 




do 


Nuts, etc 




do.... 


7.60 


Wool : 




do 


10.00 







During the month of July the Anchor Line steamer Sdndia brought 
14 first-class and about 50 second and third class passengers direct 
from New York to this port, touching at Gibraltar. 



COTTON-SEED OIL. 

The importation at this port of American cotton-seed oil has greatly 
increased during the past two years. The receipts were, in 1895, 
69,528 barrels; in 1896, 112,627 barrels. 

The oil manufacturers here have made strenuous protests to the 
government at Paris against the low duties on American cotton-seed 
oil and have demanded an increase from 6 francs per 100 kilograms, 
about 3^ cents per gallon, to 15 francs per 100 kilograms. Nothing has 
resulted thus far from the agitation, and our cotton-seed oil is enjoying 
a splendid trade. I submitted a short report on this subject in April, 
1896, which was published in the Consular Reports for July last. 

It seems that the duty in France on cotton-seed oil is less than in any 
other continental country. It is about 7J cents per gallon in Austria 
and Germany, 9i cents in Italy, about 12^ cents in Spain, and about 
29 cents in Russia, against 3^ cents a gallon in France. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



272 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

PRICE OF BREAD. 

The price of bread is one of the live political and domestic ques- 
tions which now command the attention of the world. Nearly every 
continental nation is extending its hands toward America for food. 
The wheat crop in France this year will be very short, and she must 
look, and is looking, elsewhere for her supply. 

The price of bread is fixed every fifteen days by the niunicipal or 
commune authorities. During the past two months, the price in Mar- 
seilles has been increased from 7^ to 8^ cents per kilogram (five- 
eighths of a pound) for the common quality. In France, the people 
in the towns buy all their bread from the baker, and farmers purchase 
in the cities and carry it miles into the country. Hence it is "the 
price of bread," rather than the price of flour or wheat, which directly 
concerns the public mind, and the words "prix du pain" have been 
familiar and striking headlines in all the important newspapers for 
weeks past. 

Large toeetings have been held, and noisy popular demonstrations 
made throughout the country, demanding the suppression of the 
duty on wheat, $1.35 per 100 kilograms, or 62| pounds. Under the 
law of France, the minister of commerce has authority to remove 
temporarily the customs tax on wheat. Thus far, he has not exercised 
his prerogative, and the agitation goes on. This year's harvest has 
been a golden one for the American farmer. Steamers are leaving 
here weekly in ballast, to return laden with American wheat. 

ROCKING-CHAIRS. 

I doubt if there are a hundred rocking-chairs in France outside of 
Paris. I have not seen one so far in Marseilles; and their use and 
comfort are quite unknown here. There seems to be a public preju- 
dice against this article of furniture, indispensable in the American 
home. I believe, however, that this prejudice might be overcome, and 
some of our furniture manufacturers might do well by introducing 
the rocking-chair to the French public. 

r 
BICYCLES. 

The French Grovemment realized the handsome sum in 1896 of 
$551,000 from the tax on bicycles. The tax is 11.93 per wheel, annu- 
ally. There were 203,000 bicycles in France in 1894, 256,000 in 1895, 
and 329,000 in 1896. Last year, there were only 98 in the entire island 
of Corsica. 

The American bicycle made its appearance in Marseilles about four 
years ago, and is growing in popularity, but needs more advertising. 
A favorite form of "booming" the wheel, employed by some of the 
French companies, is tx) secure a rider with a record, and pay him a sal-' 
ary of $100 a month to run in the important races, using the company's 
wheel alone. Whenever the champion wins a race, it is proclaimed 
far and wide that he rode such a wheel; and the fact is posted in 
large letters over the shops where the bicycle is sold. But we are no 
doubt carrying coals to Newcastle, in suggesting this "advertising 
dodge " to American manufacturera. 

Bicycle dealers say that the American wheels best known here are 
too expensive for the general trade; that what is needed is a nice 

Digitized by ^^jyjKJWi\^ 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 273 

machine, which looks well and runs well, without being so durable as 
the best makes. I think that some American house would do well to 
establish a general agency here for the sale of bicycles. As matters 
stand now, the dealers here must buy from the general agents in 
Paris, and hence keep a very limited stock on hand. Marseilles would 
be a convenient point from which to extend the trade into Corsica. 
The rates of freight should be quite as favorable as those enjoyed by 
Paris. The roads in Southern France are most excellent — the cyclist's 
dream. 

TELEPHONES. 

All telephone, as well as telegraph, lines in France are owned and 
operated by the Government. There are one hundred and twelve towns 
outside of Paris supplied with telephones, with an aggregate population 
of 6,000,000, and yet only 18,000 subscribers, one for each 300 inhabit- 
ants. More than one-half the subscribers in the entire country are 
in Paris, or 9,()00 — one telephone for each 253 citizens. Switsserland, 
with one-tenth the population of France, has two hundred and twenty- 
five suburban stations, with 20,500 subscribers. 

In France tiie subscriber must bear the expense of putting in the 
line, about 3 cents a yard, and then buy the entire outfit, at a cost 
of about $25. He pays in Marseilles an annual rental of $40. At 
present, it is proposed to put in a double line and require the sub- 
scriber to meet this expense. 

In 1895, the Government expenditures on account of telephones 
amounted to $1,930,000, and the receipts were only $579,000. In 
Switzerland, during the same year, the outlay was only $579,000, and 
the profits reached the splendid total of $636,000. There is much 
complaint in France both of the expense and the unsatisfactory opera- 
tion of the system. 

MANUFACTURE OF MATCHES. 

Since 1872, the manufacture of matches has been a Government 
monopoly. Before that time, under the '' regime of liberty," ten thou- 
sand workmen were employed in the private match factories of Mar- 
seilles. Now the total number is about five hundred. This difference, 
however, is largely accounted for by the use of labor-saving machinery. 
In 1871, the match industry in France represented an annual business 
of nearly $10,000,000, with profits of $3,000,000. In 1891, twenty 
years afterwards, under Government ownership, the receipts from this 
source were less than $2,600,000. Only one-twentieth of the matches 
manufactured are of wax; the remaining nineteen-twentleths are of 
wood and cheaper material. 

There is a strong popular tendency toward the restoration of private 
ownei-ship in this industry. 

CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL. 

During the eight months from January 1 to September 1, 1897, the 
consumption of alcohol in France amounted to the enormous quantity 
of 28,767,000 gallons, an increase over the corresponding period last 
year of 760,000. It is estimated that three-fourths of this alcohol 
was made from molasses and farinaceous substances, such as Irish 
potatoes. 

C E VOL 2 18 ^'^'^"'' '^ v3^.w^L^ 



274 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



COMMERCIAL TRAVELERS. 

American commercial travelers in France are liable to the " foreign- 
ers' registry tax" of 50 cents a year — not onerous. If they take an 
ofl&ce, however, they are required to pay the usual business or license 
tax, which amounts to about 10 per cent of the rent and the value of 
fche furniture, etc. 

I am persuaded that American commercial men, acquainted with 
the language and people, make the best salesmen in France for Ameri- 
can goods, and are very successful when patient, polite, and persist- 
ent. The French people are very slow to adopt any novelty, especially 
a foreign one, and patience in dealing is absolutely essential. I know 
one American who went to Vichy as the representative of the 
National Cash Register Company, and made such a favorable impres- 
sion on the proprietor of a large bazar in describing the wonderful 
accuracy and convenience of the cash register that the Frenchman 
not only bought a machine, but offered our fellow-countryman a 
salary of 10,000 francs to help him run his shop. This American 
spoke French fluently, understood the people, and was familiar with 
and knew how to describe the article he was selling. American mer- 
chants must display the same enterprise, and practice the same busi- 
ness principles, abroad as at home. In other words, they must place 
in the foreign market, in direct personal contact with the dealer, an 
American salesman, acquainted with the foreign language and people, 
and familiar with the article he has to sell. If the salesman has a 
stock of goods and an important business, it is advisable for him to 
incorporate his business under the French laws. I know an Ameri- 
can commercial man at Bordeaux, who had incorporated the Oxley 
Stave Company, at a cost of $68. He paid about $965 rent for an 
office and store yard. His annual taxes were about $193, doing a 
business of $100,000 a year and carrying a stock of $200,000. 

I think there is a good market in southern France for American 
pitch pine, cooking stoves, office desks, and chairs. Oak staves are 
being largely imported. Five years ago France received from the 
United States only 500,000 staves. In 1896 the importation amounted 
to 6,000,000. 

PASSpORTS. 

Passports are not absolutely necessary, but are always advisable 
and convenient. They are often needed at the post-office, bank, or 
telegraph office for purposes of identification. In case of sudden 
sickness, a traveler finds no difficulty in securing admission to hos- 
pital if he has a passport, and the nearest American consul is* notified. 
Sometimes verified translations of passports are required by the police. 

Chas. p. Pressly, 
Vice and Deputy Acting Consul, 

Marseilles, September 21^ 1897. '' 



SHTPFING OF MARSEILLES. 

The marine statistics of Marseilles for the year 1897, which have 
just been compiled, show a decrease in the quantity of merchandise 
received and exported amounting to 48,956 tons. This loss is attrib- 
uted to a decrease in the amount of transshinments, as the total net 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



275 



tonnage of vessels arrived and cleared shows an increase of 163,940 
tons. These figures do not include the tonnage of tugs, yachts, fish- 
ing boats, and insignificant coasting craft. The whole amount of 
business done by sailing vessels amounted to only thirteen one-hun- 
dredths of the total, and the importance of boats of this description 
continues to dimish. The port, as it stands to-day, includes within its 
several basins a total available water surface of 1,500,801 square 
meters, equal to a trifie over 370 acres. 

Although the tonnage of 1897 shows a slight increase, the number 
of arrivals and departures is less than during the year previous, the 
figures standing as follows: 





Entered. 


Cleared. 


Tear. 


Steamers. 


Sailing Tesaels. 


Steamers. 


Sailing vessels. 




Num- 
ber. 


Tomiage. 


Nnm- 
ber. 


Ton- 
nage. 


Num- 
ber. 


Tonnage. 


Num- 
ber. 

2,3T2 
2,509 


Ton- 
nage. 


1897 


6,492 
6,617 


4,996,210 
4,890,768 


2.353 
2,638 


866,217 
384,141 


5,514 
6,631 


4,988,084 
4.891,366 


862.740 


1806 


382,001 







The following table shows the number of vessels of each nationality 
which arrived and cleared from the port of Marseilles during 1897: 





Entered. 


Cleared 


Flag. 


Long course. 


Coasters. 


Long course. 


Coasters. 




Steam. 


SaU. 


Steam. 


Sail. 


Steam. 


Sail. 


Steam. 


Sail 


United States 


















France - --.. 


247 

26 

173 

1 


30 
7 
8 

19 
1 


8,.^ 

449 

164 
17 

330 
71 
48 

157 

6 

18 

88 

7 


84' 

6 

116 
104 

"""246 
18 


262 

1 
88 

4' 

I 
27 
12 


26 
6 
6 

28 
8 
2 
8 

68' 


8.091 
64 

532 

158 
15 

329 
67 
47 

158 
5 
16 
34 
19 


1,707 
2 


Germany 


Rnfirland ^ .... ^.. .. 


1 


Austria ..... 


29 


Denmark 


5 


Spain 


8 


118 


Greece . ..-. 


111 


Holland 


30 
14 


68" 




Italy 


220 


Turlcey. 


13 


Russia - 


2 
1 
9 


4 

26 

2 






4 


Sweden 


4 
3 


8 


9 
3 


13 


Miscellaneous 


2 







Marine construction during the year included 1 pleasure yacht, 3 
steamboats, 2 tugs, and 1 sailing boat. 

The total number of immigrants leaving Marseilles by sea and land 
in 1897 was 34,638. Of this number 21,298 came from Genoa and 
Naples; of the remaining 13,340, 12,658 were aliens and only 682 
natives of France. 

Robert P. Skinneb, Consul. 

Marseilles, AprU 9, 1898, 



NANTES. 

In compliance with instructions contained in Department circular, 
dated August 10, 1897, I have the honor to render the following 
report on the trade, etc., of the district of Nantes: 

The principal articles of export are sardines, canned vegetables, 
plants, and seeds, the value of which amounted in 1896 to $620,048.20, 



276 



COMBIEBCIAL RELATIONS. 



and for the first six months of 1897 to the sum of $244,867.02, an 
increase over the first six months of 1896 of $47,114.81. 

Sardines form 75 per cent of the exports from this district, the 
bulk being shipped from July to December. Upon the catch of this 
fish depends, to a great extent, the prosperity of the coast cities and 
villages. The fishing of 1897 has been unusually successful, and, 
consequently, satisfaction reigns among the good Breton folk. 

The following are the imports from the United States for the year 
1896 and the first six months of 1897: 





im. 


First six months 
of 1807. 


• 


Value. 


Equiva- 
lent, 
United 
States 
currency. 


Value. 


Equiva- 
lent, 
United 
States 
currency. 


Animal grease ...: 


Francs. 

10,270 

66,622 

238,266 

426,960 

515,286 


SI. 982 
12,838 
45,985 
82,403 
99,446 


Francs. 




Pireserved lobster...... ... . 


200 
179,009 
174,998 
86,019 


34,^ 


Dried fruits 


Tjumber ,, 


33,774 


PhoHphatfts 


16,408 






Total 


1,257,284 


242,055 


430,286 


84,782 







Decrease, 180,336 francs (136,645). 

The value of the total exports from Nantes to all countries was, 
in 1896, 142,308,763 francs (127,465,591); in 1897 (first six months), 
64,943,876 francs (112,534,168). 

The value of total imports was, in 189.6, 119,719,177 francs ($23,- 
105,801); in 1897 (first-six months), 52,484,530 francs ($10,129,514). 

AMERICAN PRODUCTS. 

Various articles of American manufacture find their way to this 
part of France, mainly through Paris. Their excellence is admitted 
by all, and there is no reason why this should not be a good market 
for bicycles, farming machinery and tools, hardware, canned goods, 
and shoes. 

Frequent inquiries are received at this consulate, for information 
concerning the wholesale prices, etc. , of these goods, and there is no 
doubt that if home merchants made the proper efforts, by sending 
samples, and price lists and catalogues printed in the French lan- 
guage, with metric weights and measures, they could obtain a share 
of the large trade now monopolized by the English and Germans. 

There would also be a market here for preserved tomatoes. The 
few that are put up in the country find a ready sale at good prices, 
but according to law they must be put up in glass, as the action of 
tomatoes on tin is claimed to be Injurious to healh. 

I would suggest that our packers make a few trial shipments to 
France, of tomatoes in glass packages. It might be the means of 
improving a trade that has languished in the last few years. 

The crops have been generally a failure in this part of France. 
Continuous rains brought on mildew in the grapes, and almost com- 
pleted the destruction of the fruit spared by the early frosts. Wheat, 
oats, and rye have been partial failures, and the price of bread has 
advanced in Nantes as well as in other cities of France. 

Clement J. Dietrich, Consyfi^ 

Nantes, October 2S, 1897. ^'^' ""^' by v^^wglL 



EUROPE : FRANCE. 



277 



VcUue of imports for the year 1896 into the ports of the Loire, Nantes, and St. 
Nazaire for tlie year 1896. 

[Kilogram = 2} pounds.] 



Articles. 



Value. 



Bawsnffar 

Do 

Salt beef and pork 

Preserved meat in tins 

Skins and peltries 

Animal hair 

Lard and tallow 

Animal fat, grease 

Cheese 

Guano 

Animal black, calcined bones, etc 

Codfish 

Sea fish 

LobHter, preserved 

Cod-liver oil 

Rogues 

Bones 

Seeds 

Flour 

Malt 

Bice straw 

Dry vegetables 

Beans 

Fresh fruit 

Raisins 

Dried fruit 

Preserved fruits 

Oleaginous seeds and fruits 

Seeds for sowing , 

Sweet biscuits 

Condensed milk 

Cofifee 

Cacao 

Pepper 

VanllU 

Tea 

Tobacco: 

Leaf 

Manufactured 

Olive oil 

Oils, nonvolatile 

Rubber and gutta-t)ercha 

Lumber: 

Oak and walnut 

Other kinds 

Resinous wood in billets 

Dyewoods 

Cotton 

Flax 

Hemp 

Cocao fiber ^ 

Jute 

Bran 

Celluloid 

Wine. 

Cordials 

Beer 

Brandy 

Rum 

Kaolin 

Phosphates, natural and others . . . 

Sulphur 

Coal 

Coke 

Tar 

Iron ore 

Iron, cast, wrought^ steel, etc 

Copper 

Lead ore .' 

Tin 

Zinc 

Caustic soda 

Ammonia salts , 



Kilot. 

31,805.296 

56.076 

7.230 

210,083 

77,168 



|u.-, 



\vv: 



8, ] h,* 

n[, 
5,:i: 

2,m7 

6, it I 
15;, 

22.749 

12.124 

2,4m,tt}7 

67,583,350 
504,901 
295,923 
25,062 

408,809 
180,549 

1,079,191 

1.334.117 

7,767 

1.602,550 
64,672,233 

29,880,536 

812,578 

125.404 

5.209 

1,199,626 

990,900 

2,281,623 

2S2.567 

12,642,511 

14,382,821 

855.076 

289,574 

11,484 

441,806 

6,277,169 

24,883,339 

8,221,760 

1,380.481 

883,880,030 

7,994,550 

14,284.081 

105.133,800 

21,051,333 

1,160.923 

8,134,416 

234,247 

753.994 

15.700 

l,7n,868 



Whence imported. 



Antilles, Reunion, Mayotte. 

Mexico. 

England, Belgium, and Germany. 

England, Belgium, Spain. 

England, Germany, New Grenada, Vene- 
zuela. 

Spain, England, Belgium, New Granada. 

E!iu'!aiid,GprinBnr. 

E 111. l'iiii:*'!l 8Utect, aennany^ 

H 1, Swif7.f?rlrtiid. 

C F. : inniiy, EtiLilntid. 

E I' I tiiK';i) fWli^um. EltrFpt' 

Si ! r ■ J r [J d 'Si Hi u ' "1 \m , JcelantiH 

E ir!,Partiig.tl. hpaio. 

E 3<i Vtntwi .Sti*tp«i. Kt. Piurt-a, Africa. 

N :^y, Li«ljuid.H.^Uttnd. 

N (.Vh Eiiffland. Icelnnd. Ht. Pi.^i-re. 

A . ikte K«|iiiblU% t^pain, Uruguay, Mo 
rocco. 

Roumania, Algeria. 

Austria. Mexico. 

Germany. 

China. India, Japan, Dutch Islands. 

Austria, Germanv, England, Belgium. 

England, Egypt, Morocco. 

Spain, Algeria, Portugal, Turkey. 

Turkey, Spain, Greece. 

Gtormany. United States, Turkey, England. 

Guadeloupe, Reunion, India. 

India, Germany, New Grenada. 

Germany, England, Morocco. 

England. 

Switzerland, Holland. 

Mexico, India, Martinique, Venezuela, Hol- 
land. 

Brazil, Martinique, New Grenada. 

India, Cochin China. England. 

India, Guadeloupe, Reunion, Mayotte. 

England, China. 

Algeria, Spanish ipossessions in America. 
Mexico, Spanish possession, Algeria, Bel- 

giUUL 

Italv, Algeria. Spain. 
Holland, England, Spain. 
Brazil, New Grenada. 

Germany, United States. 

Sweden, Norway, Russia, Germany, United 

States. 
Russia. Norway, Sweden. 
Guadeloupe, Martinique. 
England. New Grenada, Belgium. 
Germany. 
England, Algeria, Mexico, India, Spanish 

possessions. 
England, Algeria, Mexico, India. West 

Indies. 
El i;^'" and. 

B< I. ium, AIj^pHa. Argon title* Republic 
N< r vny. Tk^rKitim^ Gt^rumoy. Hwtjdifii. 
AJ .-■■LJ a, Turkey, Austria. 

8i ► ! Hi Turkt y. Portugal 

a I nian y . Ejigland, Belginio. 

Al -'lutmi, ^nnln. 

A] ivattti, Me^xk'o, 

El 
B< ' :: n E ^ . I riiited states, Alge<rii^ Car« nne. 

POlL^ig^tUn 

Italy. 

England. 

Belgium, England. 

England. 

Spain, Greece, Algeria. 

England, Sweden, Belgium. Spain. 

England, Belgium, Denmark. 

Spain, England. 

Holland, England, India. Belgium. 

Belgium, England. ^T/> 

England. Digitized by vj^^v.'V l^ 

England. O 



278 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Value of imports for the year 1896 into the ports of the Loire, Nantes, and St 
Nazaire for the year 1896 — Continaed. 



Articles. 




Whence imported. 



Sulphate of copper 

8ui)erphosphate of lime 

Starch 

Candles ^ 

Potteries, glara and crystal.. 

Jutecloth 

Cotton cloth 

Woolen cloth 

Paper 

Skms and peltries, nntanned 

Machinery and engines 

Metal work 

Furniture , 

YeHsels and small boats 

Gold and silver 

Total 



En ^l Find, Sweden. 
Enulund, Belgium. 
Er ^^H " d, Belfldum, Germany. 
Ei i.HoOand. 

Ei 1, Germansr. Belgium. 

Ei 3 . Holland, Belgium. 
Gc ly , En gland, Holland , Switzerland. 

Ei i, Belgium. 

Gl. -.any, England, Belgium. 
Germany, England, Belgium. 
England, Germany, Belgium. 
England, GerimulY, Switzerland. 
Germany, Engiana, Austria, Portugal. 
England. 

New Grenada, Cayenne, Brazil, Antilles, 
United States. 



Value of exports from the ports of the Loire for the year 1896, 
[Kilogram =z 2\ pounds. ] 



Articles. 



Destination. 



Mules 

Salt pork 

Preserved meats 

Hides, fresh and salted 

Greasev animal 

Eggs 

Cheese 

Butter 

Honey 

Manure 

Animal black 

Fish, dry and salted 

Preserved fish 

• 

Grain and flour 

Sea biscuit 

Bice 

Dried vegetables 

Potatoes 

Fresh fruit 

Dried fruit 

dcoqs .... ......................... 

Raw sugar 

Sugar candy 

Refined sugar 

Sweet biscuits 

Condensed milk 

Coffee 

Manufactured tobacco 

Olive oU 

Oils 

Rubber and gutta-percha 

Lumber 

Clapboards 

Hoop poles 

Vegetables, fresh and preserved 

Fodder 

Bran 

Oilcake 

Rags 

Wine 

Vinegar 

Beer 

Brandy 

Liqueurs 

Mineral waters 



KiUM. 

600 
456,788 
4.58,901 
113,668 
151, 42» 

6,008, i;» 
145,270 
716,742 
174,008 
677,809 
601,087 
235,862 

8,577,970 

28,244,460 

74,810 

800.127 

439.858 

2,688,505 

1,691,270 
1,248,390 

478.662 
3,647,182 

146,806 
1,328,538 

112,715 

70,626 

1,107,149 

112,291 

216.518 

284.047 

8,199 

538.377 

1H0.270 

8,807,786 

1,170,758 

584,180 

533.365 

579.340 

1,506,257 

5,a57,790 

210.062 

138,383 

2.1H2.130 
55.047 

148.212 



Cayenne. 

French Antilles, New Grenada, Mexico. 

Guiana, New Grenada. Mexico. 

Belgium. England, Mexico, Guiana. 

French Antilles, Guiana, Reunion. 

England. 

England, Antilles, West Indies. 

Belgium, Algeria, Guiana. 

England, Belgium. 

England, Guadaloupe, Algeria, BeMum. 

Reunion, Guiana, Guadaloupe, Madagascar. 

England, Antilles, New Grenada, Brazil. 

Mexico. 
England.Belgium^olland.Norway.Algeria. 
Guiana, England, Peru, St. Pierre, Miquelon. 
Guiana, Antilles, St. Thomas, West Indies. 
French Antilles. Guiana, Algeria. 
England. Antilles, Algeria, Guiana New 

Grenada. 
England. 

England, Mexico, New Grenada, Algeria. 
England. New Grenada, Belgium, Mexico. 
Portugal, England, Belgium. 
Germany, Russia. Belgium. 
England, Guiana, Algeria, Belgium. 
Belgium, New Grenada, St. Thomas, Swit- 
zerland. 
Mexico, Guiana, New Grenada. 
England, Guiana, Algeria. 
England. Guiana, French Antilles. 
Guiana. Martinique, Belgium, Mexico. 
French Antilles. Hol&nd, England, St. 

Thomas, Madagascar. 
England. 

England, Madagascar, Martinique. 
England. 

England. West Indies, Martinique, Si>ain. 
England, Guiana, Belgium, Mexico, New 

Grenada. 
Guiana. England, Brazil. 
England, Germany, Martinique. 
Germany, Denmark. 
England, Martinique, Guiana. 
England. Mexico, French Antilles, Guiana, 

New Grenada. 
French Antilles, Guiana, Mexico, New 

Grenada. 
Guiana, Brazil, Venezuela, French Antilles. 
England, Mexico, New Grenada, Guiana. 
French Antilles. Enghind, Mexico, New 

Grenada. i zed by ^^:: 

Mexico. New Grenada. Guiajia. Martinique. 



EUROPE: PRANCE. 279 

Value of exports from the porta of the Loire for the year 1896 — Continned. 



Articles. 


Value. 


Destination. 


Btone 


825,262 
28,025.144 

60,207,469 

70,895 

8,195,132 

105,904 
6.705,904 
8,610,176 
9,067,571 
1,068,070 
1,139,129 

206,682 

739,664 
4.2»,051 

292,977 

188,820 

1,046,953 
766,137 
210.376 
993,392 

469,386 
814,751 

6,846,578 

1,926,327 

1,122,717 

16,187,683 


French AntHIes. New Grenada. Guiana. 


:W*^t«T^aK >»niMiTig ,, . . 


England, Germany, French Antilles, New 
Grennna. 


Oo«l and cok4» 


Tar and bitumen 


Reunion, French Antilles, Guiana. 


Irrm, ^Ant ft"d «»beet . 


French Antilles, Guiana, Algeria, Brazil, 

Belgium. 
England, Algeria, Belgium, R6union. 
England, French Antilles, Algeria, Belgium. 
England, Belgium, Mexico. 
England. 

England, Mexico, Belgium. 

England, French (>>lonies, Mexico, St 

Thomas. 
French Colonies, Brazil, Morocco. 


CoDDer..... - 


Leaa^;:::::::.::::::::::::::::::::::: 


Zinc 


Extract of chestnut 


CTh^^fp^calB ,,,,. ,,.^ 


Extracts from wood for dyeing 

Colors and yarnlshos 


Soap 


Potwry, glass and crystal 


Guiina. 

Antilles, Algeria, New Grenada, Belgium, 
Norway. 

Guiana, Mexico, New Grenada, Brazil, Bel- 
gium. 

Mexico. New Grenada. Antilles. 


Thread 


Liinen fabrics, hemp, and ramie 

Cotton fabrics 


Woolen fabrics 




Clothing 


New Grenada, Antilles, Mexico. 


Paper 


New Grenada, Mexico, Antilles, England, 




Cuba. 
New Grenada, Antilles, Mexico. 
Mexico, Guiana, Belgium, Brazil, Portugal, 


Metal work 


Russia. 
French Colonies, Belgiuni, Spain, Mexico. 


Furniture 


Algeria, England, Mexico, Spain. 


VesRels and small boats 




Sundries .• 


Algeria, Brazil, 'Martinique, England. 




Total 


212,137,876 









NICE.* 



The principal industries in this consular district are the manufac- 
tures of perfumery, olive and almond oils, earthenware (pottery, 
artistic and common), and confectionery. The declared value of 
these articles exported to the United States, as taken from the certifi- 
cation of invoices, was: 



Articles. 

• 


1896. 


1805. 


Confectionery .•. 


$1,029.84 
1.258.82 

6,596.96 
58,206.61 
441,880.68 


1968.98 


BSarthenware (artistic iK>ttery) . .^ . ....... ..^ .^. . . .a. 


1,273.42 


Oil: 

Almo«d,... , ,. 


5,077.89 


OUve 


65,114.68 


Perfumery 


546,221.88 






Total 


606,481.26 


618,651.86 







Decrease in 1896, 1110,170.60. 

Declared exports for six months ending June 30, 1897 and 1896, 



Articles. 



1897. 



1896. 



Confectionery 

Earthenware (artistic pottery). 
Oil: 

Almond 

OliTe 

Perfumery. — 



1425.56 I 
1,101.71 



1850.53 



4,650.18 2,039.60 
36,054.35 I 31,160.17 
443,705.18 ' 186,262.52 



Total. 



486,035.02 I 220,711.72 



Increase in 1807, |266, 224. 20. 



* In response to circular of August 10, 1897 



■^jig^l^'cy Google 



280 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



It will be noted from the above figures, that the declared exports to 
the United States from this consular district for the first six months 
of the present year, 1897, were only $21,545.34 less than for the whole 
year of 1896, and that the great difference in the totals between the 
first six months of 1896 and 1897 is practically confined to one article, 
viz, perfumery. Most of the perfumery comes from the town of 
Grasse, a small place about 12 or 13 miles north of Cannes. 

Of course, large quantities of different articles are exported to other 
countries, but it is impossible for me to give any accurate figures, as 
exports for the district arc not registered at the customs-house here, 
and it is only at the ports of shipment, or at the frontier towns, 
where they leave France, that they are registered, and then without 
mention of the particular locality from whence they come. As to a 
general statement of the various countries with each other, it can 
only be obtained at the " direction " of customs at Paris. Here, I can 
give only the principal exports and imports registered at the customs- 
house at Nice, for the whole district of the Alpes Maritimes. 

EXPORTS. 



Articles. 


1806. 


First six 

months of 

1897. 


Countries whither exported. 


Bricks and tiles 


I4.S0O 
S,720 
3,200 

i:ao 

4,700 
8,000 
142,800 
152,800 
3,130 
8,660 
1,120 
2.230 


$330 

8,020 

3,650 

83U 

180 

2,230 

2,000 

75,550 

282,600 

1,530 

1,080 

80 

1,060 


Italy. 

Italy, ST»ain, Turkey. 


Casks 1 


CoaT. 


Floor 


Pmlt, fresh 


Do. 


Glassware 


Italy, United States. 

Italy. 

Italy, United States. 


Hides 


Oil, olive 


Perfumery 


Plaster 


n-a 


Pottery 


Wines 


Do. 


Wood, sawed 


Do. 






Total 


354,fi00 


880.950 









IMPORTS. 



Articles. 


1896. 

$20,880 

41.300 

41,460 

8,iH)0 

506,000 

9,840 

600 

20,600 

20,180 

400 

1.452,200 

2,640 

600 

4,680 

16,600 

620 

783,700 

488,320 

20.000 


First six 

months of 

1897. 


• Countries whence imported 


Bran 


$41,500 

20,700 

21,300 

1,500 

253.000 

360 

100 

15,240 

1,600 

200 

710,400 


Russia, Italy. 


Carobe 


Turkey, Greece, Italy. 


Charcoal 


""•&o. 


Cheese 


Coal 


England. 

Da 
Austria, Russia, Sweden, and 


Pruit,fresh 


Hemp 

Lumber 


MMka , , , 


Norway. 
Italy, Turkey. 


Meat, salted 


Italy, England. 


Oil, olive A 

Oats -. . .... 


Italy, Spain, Greece, and Tunis. 


Rice 


eoo 

2,250 
5,600 

'""836.'606' 

160,000 

1,200 


Staves 


Do. 


Stockfish 




Vegetables, dry 


Wines 


Italy. Spain, Greece, Turkey. 
Russia, Koumania, 


Wheat 


Wood, sawed 


Russia, Austria. 






Total 


8,411,600 


1,600,710 









Customs duties collected in 1896, $364,600. 

Customs duties collected in first six months of 1897, $192,960. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: PRANCE. 281 



TRADE WITH THE UNITED STATES. 

As will be noticed in the table of exports, the totals, not only for 
the year 1896, but also for the first six months of 1897, fall far below 
the amount of declared exports to the United States alone, as taken 
from our invoices, and are therefore of no value statistically. This 
discrepancy can be accounted for, by the fact that there is very little 
shipping here, except coastwise, and no direct line to the United 
States. A great part of the perfumery is sent to Marseilles by ship 
and rail, and is thus not considered as exported from here. It will 
probabl}^ be tabulated as exported from Marseilles. There is no way 
for me to find out what the exports really are, except in so far as they 
are shipped directly to a foreign country, and the principal country 
to which ^things are sent direct from here is Italy. What becomes of 
them after they reach Genoa, is more or less a matter of conjecture. 
As for imports, the table above given is fairly correct. It will be seen 
from the above table that there were no direct importations into this 
district from the United States. Some few American goods are sold 
here, but the retail prices are very high, as they are bought by dealers 
from commission agents or representatives of American firms in Paris 
and elsewhere, and the expenses are much greater than if they were 
imported direct. There are no objections to American goods here, 
but they must be properly presented to buyers. Circulars and price 
lists must be in the French language, with prices, weights, sizes, etc., 
in familiar units. Hundreds of circulars and price lists are sent here 
by American firms, but they might as well be so much waste paper. 
The merchants will not take the trouble and expense of having them 
translated, and the weights and measures reduced to the metric sys- 
tem. Business must be created here as elsewhere. It will not grow 
of itself. Personal visits should be made by agents familiar with the 
language, conditions of sale, and customs of the trade, and able to 
exhibit samples. People in this district are very conservative, but 
they would appreciate, by personal examination, the advantages of 
goods presented to them. Advertising is good in some respects, but 
most of our wholesale dealers and manufacturers at home do not 
depend upon that alone. A firm which simply advertises and takes 
no steps in drumming up trade, has very little chance of doing much 
business, either in the United States or any other country. I have 
been told that the Germans imitate American manufactures. How 
true this may be I can not say, but they certainlj^ take active measures 
in trying to introduce goods. Able commercial men are sent here, 
who exhibit samples and give prices as to the cost of goods laid down 
here, with freight and duty paid. 

What people here expect is simply this: First, to see samples; sec- 
ond, to know the exact price a thing will cost here, freight and duty 
paid; third, privilege of examination before taking delivery, and 
fourth, credit for from two to three months. Now, whether these con- 
ditions are an absolute bar to trade, I leave others to judge. People 
here do not understand our system of discounts. They do not wish 
to be bothered about attending to details of freight and duty. Let 
manufacturers figure on their lowest prices, allowing for freight and 
duty, interest and loss by exchange, and leave all discounts out of 
their calculations, and trade may be done. I am aware that I am 
saying practically the same thing that other consuls have said, but it 
is really the only thing to say. The principle adopted here is simply 

Digitized by VJV^v.'V i\^ 



282 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

this: "If the 'American manufacturer can not trust us we can not 
trust him. If we pay for goods without privilege of examination we 
may not receive the goods we ordered, or they may be received in a 
damaged condition, and we have no redress." 

I should think there would be a market here for American lamps, 
oil stoves, and heaters; also for Yale locks. Every one here has to 
carry about a pound or so of metal in the shape of keys, when double 
the number could be carried on one's watch chain. There should be 
a big sale of the patent mosquito-net frame, which folds up. They 
use here the same style of net that was in use forty years ago. I do 
not think there is much discrimination against American goods, except 
that the name " American " seems to be a guarantee that you will 
have to pay much more for an article than if made in England or 
Germany. This is especially so, in regard to di-ugs and patent medi- 
cines. I should think Americans could more than compete with 
other countries in soap, both washing and toilet, talcum powder, toilet 
waters, etc. 

COMMERCIAL CONDITIONS. 

The one great disadvantage for business in this part of France, is 
that the season is so short. Every one thinks he must make profits 
enough in a few months, to last for the year. In the summer season 
almost all the hotels and fully one-half of the stores are closed, and 
do not open until October. The population is probably double in 
winter, and most of the business is done during the winter months. 
Prices therefore can not be compared to those at other places. Rents 
iare very high, especially in certain sections, and have doubled and 
even trebled in the past ten years. As to the attractive finish of 
American wares, that is sometimes to their disadvantage. As an 
example, take cooking stoves. The duty on a plain article is not very 
heavy, but the same thing with some small parts nickeled or polished 
will be taxed out of all proportion. It would be better to start on 
plain things, until some reduction could be obtained on nickel. 

Banking facilities are good, and the rate for the United States is 
based on the rate at Paris, less a few centimes (from 2^ to 5 cents) 
per $100 for collection. Until the past few months, there were no 
direct shipments from here to the United States, exporters sending 
their goods to Marseilles or Genoa, but lately an Austrian Company, 
the "Adria," is giving through bills of lading to America, although 
the goods are transhipped at Genoa. This has probably helped 
exports already. 

No obstructions are placed in the way of commercial travelers. No 
licenses are required for business, but a man is subject to a tax based 
upon the amount of rent he pays and also upon the income derived 
from his business. 

There have been no changes in tariff rates, customs rates, port 
regulations, or wharfage dues. 

Some work is being done to enlarge the port, but it will give very 
little more room. No large ship could enter at present. The trade 
is mostly coastwise, although some ships come from England with 
coal, from Russia and Roumania with wheat, and from Norway, 
Sweden, and Roumania with lumber. There is talk of enlarging the 
port or harbor, but there is no likelihood of it being done for some 
years, as the Government and local authorities can not agree upon the 
subject of appropriations. 

There is also talk of prolonging a local railroad^ whi^chj.Jjjr^(^t 



EUROPlB: PRANCE. 



283 



terminates at the farther end (northwest) of this district, Puget 
Theniers, but as long as it does not reach Grenoble, so as to be in 
direct comrannication with Lyons and Paris, it will not be of much 
use to general commerce. 

There is a report that the North German Lloyd Company intends 
to have some of the steamei*s stop at Villefranche, but that would 
pi*obably be for accommodation of passengers only. There have been 
no changes in i)ostal rates. 

Harold S. Van Buren, Consul. 

Nice, October 16, 1897 



RHEIMS. 

In response to circular of August 10, 1897, I forward report on the 
commerce and industries o{ ray consular district. 

The absence of statistics concerning the local commerce and indus- 
tries of the different '* departments" of France, and the systematic 
refusal on the part of chambers of commerce, merchants, and manu- 
facturers in provincial centers, to furnish information relating to the 
development of trade and business generally, in their respective 
regions, render very difficult the collection of sufficient data by which 
to form a correct idea of the local commerce and industries of any 
particular French district; and in order to make an intelligent sur- 
vey of the industrial activity and general tendencies of trade in a 
special section of country, it becomes necessary to first consider the 
statistics of the whole nation, and to abstract therefrom, as care- 
fully as possible, whatever part may pertain to the territory under 
investigation. 

A most comprehensive, clear, and instructive synopsis of facts, based 
on statistics scattered through numerous French documents, and col- 
lected by Mr. Yves Guyot, an eminent economist, statistician, and 
an ex-Government cabinet officer, furnishes a large amount of infor- 
mation on the industries and commerce of France, which he examines 
in their several most important features. 

Referring to the industrial and commercial population of France, 
he says: 

It is ffenerally believed that the farming element represents in France the largest 
I)art of the population. It is a mistake. The active population, including 
employers, employees, and laborers that live by agriculture, numbers, according to 
the census of 18U1 (the last one giving full details), 6,585,000 persons. 

There are employed in industrial pursuits 4,548,000. in transportation by land 
and water 447,000, in commerce 1,788,000; total, 6,78:^,000. 

These figures show that the above professions support 98,000 more than agricul- 
ture. In reality it can be said that there is an equal number in both. 

If we take the total number of employers, employees, and laborers, we find as 
follows: 





Employers. 


Employees. 


Laborers. 


Industry 

TntxiflXK>i*t&tioii 


1,(BI,000 
02.000 
880.000 


207,000 
180,000 
878,000 


8,310.000 
246,000 


Commerce 


480.000 






Total 


l,M3,fJ00 


724,000 


4,045,000 







The above number of laborers is about 82,000 more than twice the number of 
employers. There is therefore one employer for every two laborers. In com- 
merce the number of laborers is less than mat of employers. 



284 



OOMMBRCIAL RELATIONS. 



If on one side we take in consideration tbe wage payers, and on the other all the 
wage receivers, i. e., employees and laborers, we find that the population is divided 
as follows: Wage payers, 1,963,000; wage receivers, 4,769,000. 

Of 100 persons, there are 29 wage payers and 71 wage receivers, or 2 wage 
receivers for one 1 wage payer. But a great manj wage receivers belong to the 
family of the payer and fit themselves to become in turn managers of industries. 
The characteristic of industries in France is therefore one of extreme partition. 
Large industries are the exception. 

The occupation ta^es, to which all industrial and commercial establishments, 
as well as lawyers and physicians, are submitted, aggregate 1,834,000. 

PRINCIPAL INDUSTRIES. 



For half a century, the characteristic sign of the industrial devel- 
opment of a country has been the increase of its motive power. 

In 1859, France had 13,700 steam engines, representing 169,000 
horsepower, those used on the railways not included; in 1879, includ- 
ing the locomotives, 49,900, representing 3,181,000 horsepower; in 
1895, 85,400, representing 6,121,000. 

To these must be added 979,500 horsepower, representing the 
motive power used in the hydraulic factories. Statistics showing 
amount of electric power are not at hand. 

The amount of horsepower is distributed among the divers indus- 
tries as follows: 

Railroads, 4,134,000, i. e., more than two thirds; navy (military navy 
excluded), 666,000; river boats, 58,400. 

The industry of textiles and wearing apparel employs 254,800 horse- 
power; that of metallurgy, 214,400; that of food supplies, 128,800; 
that of mines and quarries, 174,000; that of builders and contractors, 
134,400. 

In 1876 123,000 tons of raw wool (121,060 American tons) were im- 
ported. Factories at present use about 220,000 tons (216,500 American 
t/ons) of wool. It is the leading export industry. Its centers are 
located at Rheims, Roubaix, Fourmies, and Sedan. 

Lyons is the great silk market. The exact quantity of silk sold 
there is known through an establishment created by decree of the 23d 
of Germinal, year XIII, under the name "La condition publique des 
soies,'.' which reduces to a uniform weight of humidity the silks 
which are brought to it, and determines the mercantile weight, by 
which seller and buyer must abide. The annual average of silks 
which have passed through that establishment has been : 



Period. 



1809-1818 
1819-1828 
1829-1838 
1839-1848 
1W9-1858. 
185»-1868 



Quantity. 



Kilos. 

892,100 

516,900 

649,200 

1,887,200 

2,498,500 

5,041.900 



Equiva- I 
lent. 



Pounds. 
862,620 
1.137,180 
1.428,240 
8,007,840 
6,496,700 
11.062,100 



Period. 



Quantity. 



1869-1878 
1879-1888 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 



Kilos. 
8.760,700 
4,861,500 
5,911.200 
6,839,600 
6,82.5,500 
6,086,000 



Eqniva- 
lent. 



Pounds. 
8,251.640 
10,6(^,300 
13,004,64U 
12,957,120 
15,016,100 
13,389,200 



The "condition" of silk has amounted in 1895 for France to 
9,426,000 kilograms (20,737,200 p<)unds), and for the whole of Europe, 
France included, to 21,545,000 kilograms (47,399,000 pounds). 

The total production of the silk manufactured at Lyons, has been 
valued by its Chamber of Commerce at 399,000,000 francs ($79,800,- 
000), of which 116,000,000 francs (823,200,000) were for silk goods 
mixed with cotton and wool, and 155,500,000 francs ($31,100,000) for 

plain silk goods. uigitizea by VJ\^i^>^i\^ 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 285 

Exportations of textiles, ribbons, pure silk or mixed braid, reached, 
in 1895, the total of 270, 8(X),000 francs (854,160,000), of which 120,0(X),000 
francs ($24,000,000) went to England and 75,000,000 francs ($15,000,000) 
to the United States. 

Importations in France of foreign silks amounted to 50,152,000 
francs ($10,304,000). The clothing and dressmaking industries, which 
give occupation to the largest number of people, employ 964,000 per- 
sons, 225,000 of whom are employers. 

The tariffs of 1892 have caused capital to be invested in the cotton 
industry. Numerous spinning and weaving mills have been started: 
Englishmen have built large mills with 100,000 spindles. 

Raw cotton was imports in 1876 to the amount of 158,000 tons 
(155,500 American tons); in 1892 (which was the first year of the dis- 
continuance of commercial treaties), 202,000 tons (198,700 American 
tons); in 1896 the importation was reduced to 162,000 tons (159,400 
American tons), that is, 4,000 tons more than in 1876. 

The building industry employs 624,000 persons, of whom 173,500 
are employers. 

Judging by the appeals to Parliament, one would think that coal 
miners are very numerous in France, but there are only 87,000 work- 
ing inside the mines and 28,500 outside. The number increases 
yearly. 

In 1895, the total of wages was 159,500,000 francs ($30,783,500), the 
daily wages amounting to 4. 10 francs (78 cents), and the annual wages 
to 1,161 francs ($224.07). 

In the mining regions of Nord and Pas de Calais, manual labor comes 
to 5.06 francs ($1); in the Loire to 6.09 francs ($1.20); in the Gaixito 
7.50 francs ($1.45) per ton. 

The council general of Gard, a short time ago, expressed the wish 
that the duty on coal should be raised, but an increase would not 
prevent ships from loading English coal at Marseilles. 

The mining grants amount to 1,403, of which 636 are for mineral 
combustibles, 321 for iron ores, and 305 for rock salt. Of these, 502 
only, or 36 per cent, are worked. 

In 1876, the production of mineral combustibles amounted to 
17,000,000 tons (16,700,000 American tons), while 8,000,000 were im- 
ported; the production is now 28,000,000 tons and the importation 
10,000,000. 

The Pas de Calais mines, which have been operated for less than 
fifty years, furnish above 11,000,000 tons (10,800,000 American tons). 
Next in importance as to output, come the mines of the Nord, pro- 
ducing 5,000,000 tons (4,900,000 American tons), and those of the 
Loire 3,500,000 (3,400,000 American tons). One hundred and forty- 
six of the mines of mineral combustibles have cleared a profit, and 
152 have sustained a loss. The taxed income of the former has been 
36,434,000 francs ($7,286,800), while the latter's deficit has reached 
the sum of 7,000,000 francs ($1,400,000). Thirty iron mines have 
given a profit of 1,051,000 francs ($210,200); 42 have caused a loss of 
1,535,000 francs ($307,000). The largest profit has been realized dur- 
ing the year 1890. The mines of mineral combustibles have yielded 
a profit of 65,000,000 francs ($13,000,000). 

Coal mines burned for their own use 2,363,000 tons (2,325,000 Amer- 
ican tons). Railroads used 4,510,000 tons (4,448,000 American tons) 
of mineral combustibles of all kinds. 

The total production of cast iron amounted, in 1876, to 1,435,000 
tons (1,412,000 American tons); it has now reached 2,004,000 tons 
(1,234,000 American tons), the Department of Meurthe et Moselle, 



286 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

which twenty years ago manufactured scarcely any, contributing 
1,254,000 tons, or 60 per cent of the amount. 

The total production of iron has fallen off, from 1876 to 1895, from 
837,000 to 757,000 tons (from 823,800 to 745,000 American tons); that 
of steel has increased from 242,000 (238,000 American tons) to 715,000 
tons (703,000 American tons). 

The exportation of iron, cast iron, steel, machinery, amounts to 
385,000 tons (379,000 American tons) ; that is, an excess of 145,000 tons 
(142,000 American tons) over tKe importation. 

One hundred and nine thousand persons are employed in the met- 
allurgic industry, including 6,200 managers. 

There are 2,960 alcohol distillers. Their number has a tendency 
to diminish rather than to increase, but it is not a proof that the 
production of alcohol decreases, as 40 distilleries turn out 1,400,000 
hectoliters (37,000,000 gallons] out of an annual average of 1,560,000 
hectoliters (41,600,000 gallons) on which t^axes are paid. The known 
distillationof alcohol was 2,022,000 hectoliters (539,200,000 gallons); 
13:^,000 hectoliters (3,546,600 gallons) were imported and 284,000 hec- 
toliters (75,733,333 gallons) were exported. 

The average rate of consumption per head for the whole of France 
was, in 1896, 4.19 liters (1. 11 gallons) of pure alcohol. 

In the foregoing amount is not included the consumption of alcohol 
made by "bouilleurs de cru " (distillers of their own produce for their 
own use), which may be estimated at about 200,000 hectoliters (53,- 
333,333 gallons). 

The tax of 37.50 francs ($7.50) which is placed on debased alcohol 
is much too high, and is levied on only 138,000 hectoliters (36,800,000 
gallons). 

The manufacture of sugar, which is in the hands of 23 refiners and 
356 manufacturers, is given in Parliament a prominence out of pro- 
portion to the number of persons employed therein and its economic 
importance. 

The production of refined sugar varies between 500,000 tons and 
700,000 tons (492,000 and 690,000 American tons), being worth 30 
francs ($5.79) per 100 kilograms (220 pounds). It represents a value 
of from 150,000,000 francs ($30,000,000) to 210,000,000 francs ($42,- 
000,000). France consumes 11 kilograms (24.2 pounds) per head, 
while in England its consumption reaches 40 kilograms (88 pounds) 
per head. 

TRANSPORTATION. 

French railways were organized under the law of June 11, 1842, 
which was amended by the agreements of 1859 and 1883. They are 
submitted to the regime of the guarantee of interest. Only one com- 
pany, the Nord, did not have recourse to It. The guarantee of inter- 
est decreases. The Paris-Lyon-Mediterrann6e is paying more than 
5,000,000 francs ($1,000,000) on its business for 1896. 

In 1845, France had but 883 kilometers (550 miles) of road of gen- 
eral interest; in 1852, 3,870 kilometers (2,418 miles); in 1860, 9,439 
kilometers (590 miles); in 1869, 16,225 kilometers (10,140 miles); in 
1870, on account of the war, 835 kilometers (522 miles) were lost; in 
1883, there were 28,047 kilometers (17,530 miles). On December 31, 
1896, France had 36,890 kilometers (23,057 miles) of road of general 
interest, and 4,060 kilometers (2,538 miles) of local interest. 

Railroad accidents are rare. During the years 1885, 1887, 1892, 
and 1893 not a single passenger was killed through J^g^^ji^yyrfi0ie 
companies. ^ 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



287 



The number of passengers per kilometer has increased as follows: 
1884, 6,882,000,000; 1891, 8,285,000,000. 

The suppression of taxation on fast freight took place in 1892. 
There were 10,007,000 passengers in 1893, of whom 6,369,000 traveled 
in third class, 2,459,000 in second class, and 1,178,000 in first-class 
carriages. In 1894 there were 10,330,000 passengers. 

The number of tons carried per kilometer, during the same period, 
has increased as follows: 



Year. 


TODB. 


American 
tons. 


1884 


10,478,000 
12,284,000 
12,482,000 


10,313,000 


1891 


12,100,000 


18M 


12,285,000 







In 1894, railroad tickets (tax thereon deducted) were sold to the 
amount of 400,923,000 francs ($80,184,600), representing an average 
of 3 francs 85 centimes (77 cents) per passenger, and freight brought 
649,297,992 francs ($129,859,598), i. e., an average of 5 francs 20 cen- 
times ($1.04) a ton, per kilometer. 

The total receipts were, therefore, 1,050,000,000 francs ($210,000,000), 
not including divers secondary receipts. 

In 1895, the total I'eceipts for the seven great railroad lines reached 
the sum of 1,242,000,000 francs ($248,400,000); in 1896, 1,273,000,000 
francs ($254,600,000), or 31,000,000 francs ($6,200,000) more. 

In adding to the above secondary Ihies of general interest, a total 
is found of 1,292,000,000 francs ($258,400,000), as follows: 







Equivalent, 
United 

States cur- 
rency. 


PnM^enfTArs , 


Francs 
426,900,000 
126,600,000 
715,900,000 

24,100,000 


$86,380,000 


Ftetfreight 


25.100.000 


Slow freight _ 


143,180,000 


Other receipts - 


4,820,000 






Total 


1,292,400,000 
677,000,000 


258.480.000 


RxpflnditTifwi . , --. -. ,. T . , . T 


135,400,000 




Net amonnt 


615,400,000 


123,080,000 





A comparison between the receipts per kilometer and the coeflBcient 
of running the roads, or the proportion of running expenses tc the 
gross receipts, for 1896, shows: 



Receipts 

per 
kilometer. 



Eqnlvalent, 

United 

States 

currency. 



Percent- 
age. 



State 

Nord 

Est 

Oueet 

Orleans 

Pari8-Lyon-Medlterrann6e 

Midi...:. 

Secondary lines 



Franca. 
16.000 
66,000 
84,000 
80,000 
29,000 
46,000 
81,000 
19,000 



$3,200 
U,000 
6,800 
6,000 
6.800 
9,000 
6,200 
3,800 



Per cent 
74 
60 
67 

eo 

48 
45 
60 

71 



Digitized by ^^jkj\jwi\^ 



288 



COMMEBCIAL RELATIONS. 



INLAND AND SEA NAVIGATION. 

The total length of the water courses forming the principal lines of 
the inland navigation was, in 1896, 6,009 kilometers (3,756 miles); of 
those belonging to the secondary lines, 6,355 kilometers (3,971 miles); 
total, 12,364 kilometers (7,727 miles). 

The tonnage per kilometer, i. e., 0.625 mile, was, justafterthe Franco- 
German war, 1,567,000 (1,542,000 American tons); in 1876, 1,953,000 
(1,922,000 American tons). 

The tax on navigation was suppressed in 1880, whence dates the 
development of inland navigation. In 1884 the tonnage exceeded 
2,450,000 (2,410,000 American tons), and in 1896 it reached 4,191,000 
(4,184,000 American tons). 

The above freight is carried by: 





Number 


Qunge. 


Ordinary boats 


15,708 
08 


Metric 
tons. 
3.442,000 
23,196 


American 
Urns. 
3,397,880 


Steamers 


31,866 






Total 


16,891 


8,404,196 


8.409,706 





The total weight of merchandise shipped in 1896 was 29,534,321 
tons (29,069,212 American tons), as follows: 



Merchandise. 



Mineral combustibles 

Building materials 

Manures of all kinds 

Lumber and wood 

Metals 

Manuf a<'tured goods 

Agricnltural and food supplies. 
Divers : 



Weight. 



Tons. 
8,444,438 
9,377.417 
1,563,435 
2,462,137 
2,256,943 

834.323 
4,189,539 

406, 0S9 



Equiva- 
lent 



American 

ttms. 
8,311,268 
9.289,869 
1,538.809 
2,423,379 
2,221,415 

821,197 
4,123,560 

39J),706 



Total 29,584,321 i 29,089,212 



Percent. 



28.6 
81.7 
5.3 
8.3 
7.7 
2.8 
14.2 
1.4 



100 



This tonnage exceeds by 8.7 per cent that of the year 1895. The 
port having the largest tonnage is that of Paris, which includes the 
Seine within the limits of the fortifications, and the St. Martin and 
St. Denis canals and the dock of La Villette. 

Port of Paris during the year 1896. 



Boats 
loaded. 



Tonnage 
at maxi- 
mum of 
sinking 
(gauge). 



Weight of 
merchan- 
dise. 



Equiva- 
lent. 



Shipments . 

Arrivals 

Transit 

Local traffic 

Total. 



8,943 

24.230 

4,7110 

2,070 



2,080,291 

5,612,109 

1,545.073 

705,375 



40,002 



9,892,848 



Tons. 

059.055 
4,510,288 
1,167,388 

612,710 



American 
tons. 

043,051 
4.448.119 
1,149,006 



7,258,441 I 7,144,138 



Digitized by 



Google 



EUROPE: FBANCB. 



289 



In 1896, France built (men-of-war not included) 94G sailing boats, 
gauging 32,559 tons (32,046 American tons), and 58 steamers, gaug- 
ing 6,599 tons (6,495 American tons). Great Britain has built, in 
1895, 579 merchant ships, aggregating 950,967 tons (936,004 American 
tons), of which 526 were steamers, aggregating 904,000 tons (890,000 
American tons.) 

On the 31st day of December, 1896, the French merchant navy was 
composed of 15,536 ships, aggregating 894,000 tons, (879,920 American 
tons) with 81,253 sailors, and 7,400 engineers and firemen. 

The sailing fleet numbered 14,301 ships and 390,394 tons (384,241 
American tons), the steam fleet 1,235 boats and 503,677 tons (495,740 
American tons). 

Ten thousand five hundred and twenty-two boats, aggregating 
93,000 tons (91,500 American tons), to wit, 9 tons each, manned by 
47,570 sailors, were engaged in small fishing; 498 boats, aggregating 
43,000 tons (42,200 .^jnerican tons), manned by 9,773 men, were 
employed in big fishing; only 440 ships, aggregating 405,000 tons 
(398,600 American tons), with 9,000 sailors and 3,400 engineers and 
firemen, were employed on long-distance voyages. 

From 1891 to 1896, an annual average of from 12,000 to 13,000 men, 
including the crews of the St. Pierre and Miquelon schooners, were 
engaged in fishing cod. They exported from French ports and their 
fishing-grounds an annual average of 15,216 tons (14,975 American 
tons) of codfish, for which they received 2,614,000 francs ($522,800J. 

Bordeaux remains the great emporium for codfish. It supplied 
14,195 tons 1[14,178 American tons) out of the 17,800 tons (17,519 Amer- 
ican tons) exported in 1896. 

For the fishing of herring, 629 boats, gauging 24,200 tons (23,818 
American tons), manned by 8,261 men, were used in 1896, and 2,276 
tons (2,240 American tons) of fresh and salted herring were brought 
back to port. 

The total weight of cargoes, which have supplied the general com- 
merce in 1896, amounted to 34,634,000 tons (34,098,000 American tons), 
and the latter were carried by 45,916 steam and sailing ships, gauging 
in the aggregate 24,341,000 tons (24,056,000 American tons). 

Although the law of 1889 has secured to the French navy the monop- 
oly of the navigation with Algeria, 15,907,000 tons (15,656,000 Amer- 
ican totis) were carried under foreign flags and 8,433,000 tons (8,300,000 
American tons) under the French flag. 

A comparison between the statistics of 1877 and those of 1896, shows 
that during that period of twenty years the increase of ships flying 
the French flag has been only 57.5 per cent, while that of ships under 
foreign flags has been 75.7 per cent, notwithstanding the navigation 
bounties and the subsidies granted by France to the large steamship 
companies. 

FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

The general commerce of France, transit included, represents in 
merehandise (coin not included): 



Importattons 

BzportatioDs 

Total 

B VOL 2 19 



Valae. 

'I 



4,0S9,aX),000 
4,508,000,000 



9,522,000,000 



1966.800,000 
918,000.000 



1,904, 40q>,p^,,c?*^^%m 



Weight. 



Tons. 
25,017,000 
9,637,000 



American 

tons, 
84,823,000 
9,485,000 



/g.^. 



1,000 



290 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

Transported as follows: By sea, 19,987,000 tons (19,671,000 Ameri- 
can tons); by land, 14,670,000 tons (14,437,000 American tons). 
In 1896 the total special commerce represented: 

France 

Importations 8, 7d9, 000, 000= $759,800,000 

Exportations 8,401,000,000= 680,200,000 

Total 7,200,000,000=1,440,000,000 

This sum divided by 38,517,000 inhabitants, shows a commerce 
of 187 francs (i37) per head, which is nearly the same as that of 
Germany. 

In France, the importations during 1896 (special commerce) were: 

Francs. 

Foodstuffs 1,007,000,000=1201,400,000 

Materials of industry 2,174,000,000= 434,800,000 

Manufactured articles 618,000,000= 123,600,000 

The exportations have amounted to: 

Francs. 

Foodstuffs 652,000,000=11,304,000 

Materialsof industry 836,000,000= 1,672,000 

Manufactured articles by parcels post 1,913,000,000=8,826,000 

The following statistics of the special commerce (by this is meant 
the importations of goods used in France and the exportations of arti- 
cles made or produced in France) show what belongs to France: 

Special commerce according to countries of production and destination. 



Country. 



Importa- 
tions. 



Equivalent 
United 

States cur- 
rency. 



Equivalent 
Exportation^.! s^^cL 
rency. 



United Kingdom 

Belgium 

Germany 

United States... 

Spain 

Italy 

Switzerland 

Russia 



Franca. 
610,600,000 
28a, UK), 000 
a[)7,900,t!00 
313,800,000 
287,900,000 
128,900,000 

76,400,000- 
167,800,000 



$98,120,000 
64,42(5,000 
69,370,000 
60,563,000 
65,664.000 
24,501,000 
14,542,000 
32,385,000 



r^ij.niLiOO 

Jffti.iJiii.rOO 

l'-_'-L[niii.(,00 
ltjii.:UiiK'K)0 

J/r'.Mi.-oo 



$198,000,000 
96,69;i,000 
65,427,000 
43.232,000 
19,^57,000 
22.2;«,000 
34,720.000 
4,802,000 



Exportations from France to the United Kingdom, Germany, Bel- 
gium, and the United States represent 2,094,000,000 francs (*418,- 
800,000). Four nations, therefore, absorb 61 per cent of the total, 
and Great Britain alone takes 30 per cent of it. 

Importations from the same four countries amount to 1,413,000,000 
francs ($282,600,000), or 36 per cent. 

The following are the 11 most important articles as to value which 
France bought in 1896: 



Articles. 




Raw wool 

Wine 

Silk and silk floss 

Coffee 

Coal 

Cotton 

Common wood 

Grain and oleaginous fruit 
Cereals (including malt).. 

Hides and peltry 

Copper 



Franc8. 
364,900,000 
293,K>i»,0(J() 
179,9(I(),(MN) 
175,200,000 
166,900.000 
149, 600, (KX) 
147,600,000 
123,400,000 
110,800,000 
63,500,000 
62,200,000 



Equivalent 
United 

States cur 
rency. 



$72. 
68. 
35, 
35, 
33, 
27, 
25, 
24, 
22. 
12. 
12, 



960,000 
760,000 
990,000 
040. GO) 
280, (KX» 
920,01k) 
620,000 
690.000 
160.pi)f) 

700, aw 

440,000 



EUROPE: FRANCE, 



291 



The following are by rank of inii)ortance the 11 principal articles 
which France exported in 1896: 



Articles. 



Woolen textiles 

Silk textiles , 

Wines 

Fancy goods 

Wool, raw, combed, and dyed 

Cotton textiles 

Garments and lingerie 

Silks 

Tools and metallic goods 

Prepared skins 

Leather and skin goods , 




iVp.i^Hi.r^K) 
131,4<K.>,r«lO 



Equivalent 
United 

States cur- 
rency. 



$58,820,000 
48,400,000 
48,460,000 
32,180,000 
29,000,000 
20,280,000 
19,700,000 
18,640,000 
17, 000,0a) 
10,080,000 
10,420,000 



The above figures show that France imports principally raw mate- 
rials and food supplies. A portion of the raw materials is found in 
the exportations under the head of woolen textiles, silks, cotton, pre- 
pared hides, wines, leather, and skin goods. 

A comparison of the value of the merchandise imported with that 
of the merchandise exported, shows an import of 3,799,000,000 francs 
($759,800,000), which, divided by 22,619,000 tons (22,263,000 Ameri- 
can tons), results in 167 francs (133.40) per French ton and $34: per 
American ton; and an export of 3,401,000,000 francs ($680,200,000), 
which, divided by 7,274,000 tons (7,159,000 American tons), gives 
487 francs ($93.04) per French ton and $95 per American ton. That 
is a difference of 300 francs ($60) per French ton, and $59.40 per 
American ton. 

The ton exported is worth 179 per cent more than the ton imported. 
Here are, in weight and value, the proportions for the three great 
categories of merchandise: 



Propor- 
tion total 
quantities. 



IMPORTATIONS. 

Food staffs 

Materials of indnstry 

Manutactared articles 

EXPORTATIONS. 

Foodstuffs 

Materials of industrv .• , 

Manufactured articles 



Per cent. 

12.81 

84.32 

2.87 



U.52 
70.80 
14.68 



Propor- 
tion total 
values. 



Per cent. 
26.60 
67.22 
16.28 



19.16 
24.60 
66.25 



Average 

value 
per ton. 



Frayica. 
347.60 
113.95 
963.04 



616.91 

162.86 

1,791.67 



Equiva- 
lent. Unit- 
ed States 
currency. 



160.60 
^.79 
190.60 



123.38 
32.47 
868.33 



It can be seen that the importation of materials of industry repre- 
sent 84.32 per cent in the quantities, and 57.22 per cent in the xalues, 
while in the exportation the manufactured articles represent only 
14.68 per cent in quantities and 56.25 per cent in values. 

The food articles exported have twice the value of those imported. 
It is the same case with the manufactured articles. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



292 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



The following statement shows the relative importance of commerce 
at the several French custom-houses, in values and quantities: 

Special commerce — Importations and exportations. 



Value. 



Eqaivalent, 
United 

States car- 
rency. 



Quantity. 



Equivalent. 



Marseilles 

Havre 

Paris 

Dunkirk- 
Bordeaux 
Bouloerne . 

Calais 

Rouen — 
Jeumont . 



Franca. 
1,066.000.000 

i.oie.ouo.ooo 

7«7,flnO,000 
590,000.000 
476,000,000 
906,000,000 
177.000,000 
210,000,000 
108,000,000 



$917,000,000 
009,800,000 
193,400,000 
106,000.000 
95,000,000 
61,200,000 
95,400,000 
42,000,(100 
21,800,000 



2,889,000 

1,406,000 

341,000 

1,767,000 

1,684,000 

392,000 

871,000 

1,404,000 

2,980,000 



Anter. tons. 

2,837,000 

1.988.000 

935,000 

1.788.000 

1,667,000 

826,000 

867,000 

1.981,000 

2,942,000 



iTon=:2»2041bs. 

The above figures show that the value does not correspond to the 
quantity. Paris is the third port for values and the sixteenth for 
quantities. Jeumont is the second port for quantities and the four- 
teenth for values. Two ports, Marseilles and Havre, represent 27 
per cent of the total value of the special commerce of Prance; ten 
ports represent 59 per cent. 

Temporary importations represent 132,000,000 francs ($26,400,000) ; 
manufactured articles reexported, 174,000,000 francs ($34,800,000); a 
trifle, it will be noticed, in the whole of French commerce. 

The following table gives further details of trade; 



Articles. 



IMPORTATIONS. 

Wheat, com 

Raw silk, thread 

BXPORTATIOir& 

Plonr 

Dyed Bilk, thread 

Machinery, ships, railroad oars 




FrcMca. 

98,000,000 
14,000,000 



88,400,000 
14,000.000 
10,000,000 



118,730,000 
2,800,000 



17,680,000 
2,800,000 
2,000,000 



Wheat represents more than one-half of the traffic of temporary 
importations; next come raw and dyed silks. Other articles repre- 
sent only insignificant sums in relation to the total of French com- 
merce. 

In 1895, there was an increase of 295,000,000 francs ($59,000,000) 
over 1894, 103,000,000 francs ($20,600,000) of which was with the 
United States after the adoption of the McKinley bill and 33,000,000 
francs ($6,600,000) with Switzerland after the Franco-Swiss agreement. 

French exportations to the United States immediately increased for 
silk textiles and floss silks from 52,000,000 francs ($10,400,000) to 
75,000,000 francs ($15,000,000); for woolen textiles, from 12,000,000 
francs ($2,400,000) to 39,000,000 francs ($7,800,000); for leather and 
skin goods, from 10,500,000 francs ($2,100,000) to 18,000,000 francs 
($3,600,000) ; for garments and lingerie, from 5,500,000 francs ($1,100,- 
000) to 10,000,000 francs ($2,000,000), etc. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



293 



The following statement of the special commerce of France shows 
the imports and exports of the principal articles (coin excepted) for 
the year 1896 : 





Imporu. 


Exports. 




Value. 


Eaaivalent, 

^Jnited 

States ctir- 

renqy. 


Value. 


Equivalent, 
TTnited 

States cur- 
rency. 


Orfrtdff 


FrancB. 
181,278,000 
288.SSa,00() 
801,988,000 
18A,a66,000 
3,404,805,000 


188,264,800 
58,784,300 

100,308.800 
37,078,000 

484,921.000 


Franca. 
18,087,000 
245.983,000 
280,308,000 
782,776,000 
2,182,541,000 


12.617,000 


Wines 


48.188,600 


Textile materiaUi 


82,001,200 


TbroadR imd clothn 


148,555,200 


Other articles .-. 


480,509.200 






Total 


3.837,147,000 786,420,400 


3,404.648,000 


880,928,800 



The general commerce of France with her colonies and foreign coun- 
tries, including imports and exports, is estimated for the year 1896 at 
9,522,000,000 francs ($1,904,400,000), i. e., an increase of 12,000,000 
francs ($2,400,000) over the preceding year, and a decrease of 90,000,000 
francs ($18,000,000) from the average of the five years prior to 1896. 

Imports have amounted to 4,929,000,000 francs ($985,800,000), to 
wit: An increase of 9,000,000 francs ($1,800,000) over the preceding 
year, and a decrease of 219,000,000 francs ($43,800,000) from the aver- 
age for the quinquennial period. 

Exports have reached 4,593,000,000 francs ($918,600,000), to wit: An 
increase of 5,000,000 francs ($1,000,000) over 1895, and of 130,000,000 
francs ($26,000,000) over the quinquennial period. 

The decrease bears on imported food stuffs, and particularly on 
live stock. 

The total value of articles transported by sea has been 6,618,000,000 
francs ($1,329,000,000), 3,210,000,000 francs ($645,000,000) worth of 
which has been carried by French ships. 

Among the imports were 1,393,000,000 francs' ($278,600,000) worth 
of food stuffs, 2,337,000,000 francs ($465,400,000) of materials of indus- 
try, and 1,199,000,000 francs ($239,800,000) of manufactured articles. 

The above figures, compared with those of 1895, show a decrease of 
63,000,000 francs ($12,600,000) in food stuffs and an increase on other 
articles. 

The general commerce of exportation shows an excess of 63,000,000 
francs ($12,600,000) in food stuffs. France has exported 1,030,000,000 
francs ($206,000,000) of food stuffs, 1,022,000,000 francs ($204,000,000) 
of raw materials, 2,542,000,000 francs ($508,400,000) of manufactured 
articles. 

The weight of all goods shipped represented 34,500,000,000 French 
tons. 

The French customs have collected 469,316,950 francs ($93,863,390), 
an increase of 25,000,000 francs ($5,000,000) being produced by sugar 
and wine. 

The United States buys from France goods to the amount of 
338,000,000 francs ($67,600,000) and sells to France goods to the 
amount of 330,000,000 francs ($66,000,000) while Great Britain imports 
from France 1,301,000,000 francs ($260,200,000) and exports to France 
only 675,000,000 francs ($135,000,000), and Belgium purchases in this 
coujitry merchandise for 576,000,000 francs ($115,200,000), and sells 

Digitized by ^^jyjvjwi\^ 



294 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

348,000,000 francs' (169,600,000) worth of goods, the three above coun- 
tries having the largest commeroe with France, and vice versa. 

For the last fifteen yeara, foreign countries have come in for 93 per 
cent of the total trade of France. The balance has been transacted 
with her colonies. 

The most important trade of France has been with Great Britain, 
Belgium, Germany, United States, Switzerland, Spain, Algeria, Italy, 
Argentine Republic, Russia, Brazil, British India, Turkey, China, 
and Japan. 

Food stuffs have been more brisk in 1896 than in the past years, but 
manufactured goods have been less in demand, while materials of 
industry show a large decrease in values, 

Germany, which in 1876 exported 800,000,000 francs ($160,000,000) 
less than France, now export* 800,000,000 francs ($160,000,000) more 
than France, and the wonderful development of the former's export 
trade is keen ly felt by the general commerce of France, exports of which 
have been steadily decreasing during the last decade, and which is 
burdened so greatly by its pro rata share of the national public debt, 
the largest of any country in the world, to wit, 31,250,000,000 francs 
($6,250,000,000) ; while that of Germany, which is yet larger than that 
of the United States, the lowest of any, amounts only to 14,092,500,000 
francs (82,818,500,000), or less than one-half the public debt of France. 

However, according to the opinion expressed in several instances by 
Mr. Henry Boucher, a member of the actual cabinet as minister of 
commerce and industry, "the year 1896 has not been bad, the com- 
mercial balance has been in favor of France, and everything seems to 
indicate that last year was the first of a good series. France suffers 
more from its commercial than from its industrial inferiority, the lat- 
ter being due to the slowness with which the manufacturing plants in 
this country are transformed and improved, but while money can, in 
a few months, remedy this evil, education alone can change the com- 
mercial man. The Frenchman, as a rule, does not know foreign 
languages, he does not like to leave his country to learn what his 
neighbors are doing, and does not try to meet their peculiarities and 
customs in supplying them with the exact kind of articles they desire. 
Competent and trained commercial travelers, 50,000 of whom have 
within a short time been scattered from Homburg throughout the world, 
to solicit in every center trade for Germany, are few in France. 
French commerce, however, is waking up from the long sleep in 
which, confident in its superiority, it had fallen, and the fact that 
90 per cent of the graduates of industrial schools have lately emigrated 
to all points of the world encourages the hope that the young men of 
to-day, by expatriating themselves and mastering foreign languages, 
are preparing the commercial and industrial supremacy of France 
w^hicli can be looked for within the next ten years." 

During the first six months of 1897, France has imported goods to 
the amount of 1,975,000,000 francs ($395,000,000), and exported for 
1,833,000,000 francs ($366,600,000). 

Compared to the first six months of 1896, French imports have de- 
creased during the first six months of 1897 40,000,000 francs ($8,000,000) 
and French exports have increased 125,500,000 francs ($25,100,000). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: PRANCE. 



295 



The decrease on French imports is represented principally by 
73,000,000 francs ($14,600,000) on different food stuffs, in about the 
following proportions: 



Wines 

Cereals 

Live stock 

Meats (fresh, salted, and preserved) 

Sugar 

Manufactured articles 



Decrease. 



Equiva- 
lent, United 
States cur- 
rency. 



Francs. 

46,000,000 
7,000,000 
7.000.000 
6.000,000 
5,000,000 
3,000,000 



$9,000,000 
1,400.000 
1,400,000 
1,200,000 
1,000,000 

eoo,ooo 



There is an increase in the imports of materials of industry. 

In the first six months of 1896, the balance of trade had been in favor 
of importations to the amount of 308,000,000 francs ($61,600,000). In 
the fii*st six months of 1897, imports exceeded exports to the amount 
of only 142,000,000 francs ($28,400,000). 

The following statement shows the amounts of France's exports to 
foreign countries: 



Country. 


Value. 


Equiva- 
lent, United 
States cur- 
rency. 


Ore%t Britain - 


Francs. 
590,000,000 

2a9,a)o.ooo 

1H4.000.000 
141, (XX), 000 
88,000,000 
70,0(X),000 
61,000,000 
27,000,000 
27, (XX), 000 
23,000,000 
10.000.000 
a52,(XX),000 


$118,000,000 


Belgium 


53,8(X),0U0 


Germany ,.x .. 


3(i,8(X).(XX) 


tjnited States 


28,a00,0(X) 


Switzerland 


17.H00,0(X) 


Italy 


14.000.000 


Spam 


10,200,000 


Brazil 


5,400,000 


Argentine Republic 


5,400,000 


Turkey 


4,dOO,(K» 


Russia 


2, 000. (XX) 


Other countries 


70,400.000 








Total 


1,833,000,000 


366,000,000 







The following tabular stat-ements summarize the exports from the 
United States to France during the first six calendar months of 1896 
and 1897; also the imports into the United States from France during 
the same periods: 

Exports from the United States to France, 



Articles. 



Agricultural implements 

Books, maps, etc 

Com 

Wbeat 

Wheat flour 

- Carriages, cars, and parts of same . 

Goal and coke 

Copper ingots, bars, etc 

Cotton: 

Unmanufactured 

Manufactured 

Other manufactures of 

Cycles, parts of 

FruitH and nuts 

Furs and skins 

Iron: 

Hardware, locks, tools, etc 

Machinery, sewing machines, 
and parts of Kame 

Other machinery 



January. 



1896. 



1897. 



$26,490 

18,063 

156,604 

5,660 

3,000 

1,800 

960 

407,770 

2.842,456 

173 

7,0- '8 

7,079 

25,617 

4,300 

16,099 

8.046 
35.094 



$14,944 

1,076 

196,921 

900 



3,185 
501,681 

2,851,142 

875 

22 

11,370 

30,364 



9,732 

8,408 
75,897 



1896. 



February. 

1897. 



$36,827 

567 

228,310 



977 
"326,"7i4 
l,883,4n 



1,611 

10,600 

9,811 

1,100 

9,146 

9,545 



$93,020 
8,187 

400.170 

11,390 

1,350 

3,377 



850,046 

2,338,282 

109 

1.661 

17,462 

37,401 



16,122 

45,730 

46,857 



March. 



1896. 


1807. 


$143,272 

615 

132,769 


$209,984 

9,152 

271,044 






1,909 
1,020 


1,553 


629.162 


636,609 



1,092,218 
2,100 I 
1,53» 



12.3»i 
7.743 j 

12.327 i 



1,850.185 

175 

751 

61,275 

38,981 
850 

19,623 

^ 3,762 

70, sr2 



296 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Exports from the United States to i^Vancc— Contintied. 



I 



Articles. 



January. 



Leather 

Oil cake and meal 

OIIb: 

Mineral, crude 

Mineral, refined 

Cotton-seed oil , 

Paratfln and paraffin wax... 
Provisions: 

Beef, canned , 

Beef, salted and pickled 

Tallow 

Hogprodncts— 

iSscou. 

Hams 

Pork 

Lard 

Beeds 

Tobacco: 

Unmanufactured 

Manufactured 

Wood: 

Timber 

Lumber 

8hing:les, staves, etc 

Manufactured 

All other articles 

Total 



1896. 



1897. 



$13,400 
88,144 

201,084 
89,685 
59,965 
13,390 

168,600 
1,250 



68,968 ! 

6,370 I 

888 

299,119 

8,645 

45,011 
2,791 

15,057 
10,360 
17,944 
83,125 
816,560 



120,483 
14,675 

849,666 

99,636 

189,800 

2,965 

5,920 

38 

12,468 

22,580 
4,810 
1,722 

88,290 
5,999 

94.407 
1,210 

14,068 

80,624 

8,540 

17,931 

544.513 



1896. 



February. 

1897. 



March. 



5,635.412 I 5,231,762 



$13,696 
14,830 

325,741 
89.391 

125,120 
12,132 

62,449 
13,703 
6,307 

80,008 

11,302 

1,895 

120,687 

709 

73,858 



18,606 
24,433 
22,363 
14,915 
356,815 



3,884,054 



1896. 



22,020 ' 

828,360 I 
63,301 I 
328,218 
1,480 ; 

2,068 I 

45 
6,231 

8,608 



1,100 
77,586 
5,860 

17,360 
2,603 

11,438 
14,831 
83,894 
82,126 

709,188 



5,602,434 



$5,622 



818,967 

62.824 

184,880 

6,156 

74,908 
1,250 
20,107 

10,240 
5,140 



1897. 



117,689 
1,000 

71,676 
1,053 

22,326 
8.806 
52.671 
17,268 
578,750 



8.666,419 



$14,418 
11,236 

375,648 
86,300 

528,250 
10,600 

6,621 

880 

6,583 

10,667 

1,798 

1,105 

133,278 

1,766 

88.067 
1,566 

14,666 
88,989 
0,246 
17,850 
669,051 



5,201,»I8 



Articles. 



April. 



1806. 



1897. 



May. 



June. 



1896. 



1897. 



1896. 



1807. 



Afnicultural implements 

Books, maps, etc 

Corn 

Wheat 

Wheat flour 

Carriages, oars, and jMur ts of same . 

Coal and coke 

Copper li^gots, bars, etc 

Cotton: 

Unmanufactured 

Manufactured 

Other manufactures of 

Cycles, parts of 

Fruits and nuts 

Bhirsand skins 

Iron: 

Hardware, locks, tools, etc 

Machinery, sewing machines, 
and parts of same 

Other machinery 

Leather 

Oil cake and meal 

Oils: 

Mineral, crude 

Mineral, refined 

Cotton-seed oil 

Paraffin and paraffin wax 

Provisions: 

Beef, canned 

Beef, salted and pickled 

Tallow 

H(wproducts~ 

£iacon 

Hams .--._ 

Pork 

Lard 

Tobacco: 

Unmanufactured 

Manufactured , 

Wood: 

Timber 

Lumber , 

Shingles, staves, etc 

Manufactured 

All other articles 



$116,420 

760 

161,145 



$181,801 

4,363 

255,817 



$68,004 

13,063 

146,715 

5,400 



$65,106 

6,560 

226.004 



$30,356 

4,864 

149,639 



r6,366 

8,062 

214.972 

43,404 



1,470 

8 

486,587 

720,942 

200 

414 

13,749 

9,649 



975 
'"306,"664' 
1,860,761 



2,753 
"449,"6i6' 
507,275 



898 



696 
43,665 
17,128 



9,804 

12,276 

43,872 

16,779 

6,933 

271,318 

65,996 

254,661 

6,465 

1,618 

1.623 

45,488 

17,228 

8,628 

912 

184,718 

1,822 

65,474 
1,580 

10,771 
20,088 
13,007 
25,640 
602,110 



13,546 

1,068 
42,627 
.27,353 
16,785 

840.669 
46,484 

273,051 
10,186 

2,348 

950 

1,750 

5,996 
1,788 
1,060 
67,104 
1,810 

19,182 
729 

42,542 
16,883 
24,906 
62,230 
623. {)50 



726 

4T,120 

1,676 

7,106 

16,780 

18,470 
54,864 
12,087 
7,611 

465,437 
61,488 
182.262 



4,868 

4,825 

63,179 

21.200 

4,180 

1,190 

132,958 

160 

18,801 
437 

16.038 
54,198 
80,418 
86.864 
670,888 



Total 



3,076.800 



4,176,!546 



3.0ij8,972 



421.572 

682,205 

20,900 

2,211 

119.926 

8,881 

25 

9,829 

13,711 
76.438 
17,&i5 
31,022 

285,575 

49,140 

423,421 

9,002 

8,366 

500 

67,407 

850 



464,408 
143,208 



214 

48,851 

788 

8.016 
1,068 

63,018 
48,910 
77,651 
01,368 
406,213 



14 

28,044 

4.825 

65,315 

12,848 

708 
68,085 
10,558 

8,790 

153,676 
131,946 
156,240 



8,936 

'5i4,"7a 

623,733 

1,800 

732 

30,502 

6,377 



6,814 

258 

128,467 

82,000 
8,086 



11,771 

7,903 

141,536 

27,211 

12,960 

77,118 

29,991 

100,550 

9,895 

2,878 

776 

46,826 



3.196,868 



-OT!J 



110.644 
2,070 

289,724 
1.406 

26,814 
24,218 
10.643 



408 



878.691 



84,086 
1,962 

14.900 

0,780 

71,064 

13,761 

874,641 



2,935,084 

175! 



8,019,248 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



297 



Imports into the United States from France. 



Articles. 



Works of art 

Books 

Cement 

Dyewoods, extracts of 

Ck)ffee 

Cotton: 

Cloths 

Other manufactures of cotton. 

Earthenware, china, etc 

Fur skins 

Purs, manufactures of 

Glass, cylinder, etc 

Bides and skins 

Jewelry and precious stones 

Oloves. 



Pai)er stock, crude, rass, etc.. 

Paper, manufactures or 

Cheese , 

Bilk, raw 

Silk and manufactures of silk . 

Spirits 

Toys 

Wines 

Wool: 

No.1 

No.8 

Clothes 

Dress goods 

All oth«r articles 



January. 



February. 



1896. 



1180,210 
18,404 

6)851 

10 

65,482 

262,258 

97.886 

51,678 

37,757 

1,871 

64,565 

163,864 

174,738 

89,192 

19,780 

15,985 

97,476 

1,122.563 

59,746 

7,615 

218,285 

812,444 
50,888 
94.28D 

808,737 
2,078,018 



Total I 6,088,588 4.779,768 

, 1 



1897. 



1806. 



194,258 I 
12,532 



4,104 
78 

72,905 

281.846 

78,682 

18,296 

89,491 

62 

217,288 

98,465 

78.009 

25,920 

12,460 

12,601 

24,578 

1,101,928 

68,131 

8,175 

190,808 

126,718 
107,880 
51.409 
634,018 
1,505,902 



189.947 

21,678 

605 

10,860 



1897. 



1265,582 

20,382 

540 

6,570 



89,049 

348,192 

80,496 

17,991 

20.716 

715 

181,086 

103,990 

249,338 

17,928 

20,832 

10,976 

113,867 

1,008,644 

58,885 

4,647 



386,288 
26,281 
68,788 

772,678 
2,065,996 



6,064,864 



59,091 

288.970 

62.482 

14,095 

60.471 

177 

215,380 

108.728 

187,166 

29.617 

12 619 

12,406 

69.469 

1,221,467 

45,586 

6,129 

286.046 

188,814 
60,157 
48,467 

588.161 
1,794,016 



March. 



1886. 

1141,610 
80,898 
2,117 
6,802 



73,115 

886,139 

121.280 

32,498 

31,709 

1,357 

39,382 

127.167 

287,611 

24,879 

20,867 

12.680 

116.066 

1.183,786 

74,849 

10,144 

837,717 

100,110 
42,072 
86,407 

847. ns 

1,945,109 



1897. 



$70,972 

24.392 

1,482 

17,784 



95,166 

462,367 

142,411 

47,165 

50.819 

1,527 

215,875 

74,478 

228,151 

9,557 

20,307 

10,160 

118.297 

1,442,125 

147,051 

8,385 

895,862 

812,704 
140,658 
64,078 
862,010 
2,262,016 



6,511,8n 



6,482,976 



7,206,160 



Articles. 



Works of art 

Books 

Cement ^, 

Dyewoods, extracts of 

Coffee 

Cotton: 

Cloths 

Other manufactures of cotton . 

Earthenware, china, etc 

Fur skins 

Furs, manufactures of 

Glass, cylinder, etc 

Hides and skins 

Jewelry and precious stones 

Gloves. 



Paper stocks, crude, rafgs, etc. . 

Paper, nuumfactures of 

Cheese 

Silk, raw 

Silk and manufactures of silk . 

^irits 

Toys 

Wmee 

Wool: 

No. 1 

No.8 

Cloths 

Dress goods 

All other articles 

Total 



AprU. 



May. 



1896. 



8164,824 
80,680 
6,066 
10,242 



86,116 

325,808 

128,768 

17,116 

46,297 

2,924 

60,382 

67,284 

127,461 

84,642 

16,138 

8,911 

82,646 

664,618 

76,284 

8.082 

371,708 

16,404 
18,616 
20,281 
77.6H7 
1,682,204 



4,025,936 



June. 



1897. 



1896. 



8174,051 



1,081 
25.824 



63,385 
861,788 
141,448 

28,066 

42,486 

6.839 

161,456 

70.748 

215,674 

28,791 

14,888 

9,151 

86,062 

1,197,580 

264,515 

6,606 

406,630 

806.899 

806,522 

64,149 

1,123,466 

2,879,736 



8,079,068 



$65,685 

20,561 

1,197 

10,466 



41,677 
194,874 
110.668 

44.163 



849 

80,048 

57,075 

70,787 

12,964 

19,117 

7,181 

58,841 

422.450 

65,964 

8,885 

804,984 

6,989 

17,664 

14,069 

39,689 

1,647,781 



3,247,072 



1897. 



1896. 



$88,006 
18.408 
7,354 
7,656 



85,278 

SSB6,708 

206,568 

67,302 

88,169 

1,459 

134,026 
39.016 

194,443 
20,868 
14,249 
10.325 
71,719 

802,839 

128,785 
26,876 

321,101 

1,139,472 

189,115 

20,228 

1,557,413 

1.849,884 



$85,001 
17,756 
1,620 
7,411 

117,644 



179,615 

116,698 

34,073 

Ki,666 

489 

76,103 

205,386 

53.704 

17,175 

12,678 

9,743 

28.620 

510,558 

52,775 

200,050 

898,311 

1.004 

25,758 

14,755 

184,184 

1,448.201 



7,260,334 



3,887,890 



1897. 

$203,625 

18.364 

2.838 

1,057 

704 

88,606 

273,391 

156,478 

84,091 

72,350 

1,502 

272,916 

61,311 

340, 8r3 

80.436 

26.709 

13.009 

80,906 

1,490.641 

67.656 

27,063 

880,351 

600,897 

123,363 

52.461 

1.084.846 

2.088,765 



7,435,206 



It will be seen that the exports to France during the first six 
months of 1897, exoeeded those of the corresiwnding period for 1896 
by $4,314,605. 

The imports- into the United States from France show a large 
increase, amounting to an excess during the first half of 1897 ovei 
the first half of 1896 of $11,495,642, which is most particularly notice- 
able in the months of March, April, May, and June, and undoubtedly 



298 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



due to the consideration at that time by Congress of the Dingley bill 
and the efforts on the part of importers to enter their goods before it 
became a law. 

The importations into the United States from France during the 
first six months of 1896, exceeded the exportations from the United 
States to France by $6,670,574, while for the corresponding period in 
1897 the importations into the United States from France exceeded 
the exportations from the United States by $13,851,611. 

The following statements show the value of the exports declared for 
the United States at the consulate at Rheims and the consular agency 
at Troyes during the year ended June 30, 1897: 



Artlclea 



Value. 



Articles. 



Value. 



BHEIMB. 

Buckles 

Beet- root seeds , 

Caoutchouc 

Chlnaware 

Corsets 

Cotton goods 

Dried vegetables and farinaceous 

substances 

Drugs and chemical stuffs 

Fancy goods 

Glassware 

Plate glass 

Watch crystals 

Iron carriage attachments 

Steel printing designs 

Tubes and hardware 

Llthofrraphic cards and maps 

Machmery 

Mineral water 

Musical instruments 

Silic, shoddy, wool waste 

Statuary « , 

Straw caps 

Straw hats 

Tinfoil , 



$2,871.58 
4,246.00 
12,517.01 
35,777.05 
360.01 
54,282.03 

028.06 

111,478.67 

1,266.24 

7,017.61 

12, 555. n 

1.456.76 

890.45 

5,045.81 

4,863.92 

790.97 

136.54 

360. a 

1,111.60 

92,170.09 

8,039.24 

219.83 

23,541.98 

982.32 



BHBIMB— continued, 

Wallpaper 

Wash blue 

Willow ware 

Brandy 

Champagne 

Ordinary table wine 

Wool 

Woolen textiles 

Sundries 

Total 

Declared exports for 1896. 

Decrease 

TROTE8. 

Hosiery 

Kid gloves 

Tissue paper 

Total 

Declared exports for 1896. 

Increase 



$1,999.80 

5,855.85 

88,483.22 

23.10 

8,114,172.67 

69.48 

5,213.39 

806,534.33 

94.92 



8,888,920.09 
4,1^^,174.98 



288,254.84 



801,787.67 

885,258.20 

821.78 



677,817.65 
660,033.92 



47,288.63 



The two preceding statements show, for the whole consular district 
of Rheims, a decrease in the exports for 1897, compared with those for 
the fiscal year 1896, of $240,971.21. 

Statistics showing the articles exported from the United States to 
this consular district and their value, do not exist, and therefore it is 
impossible to ascertain what proportion of the importations from the 
United States to France reaches this consular district. No seaport is 
attached thereto, and whatever United States goods are imported in 
this region, with the exception.of those coming through the Belgian 
and German frontiers (the origin of which is not officially I'ecorded), 
pass through other consular districts and are principally shipped here 
from Paris, the great distributive center in France for all goods and 
merchandise. From Parisian importers and commission merchants 
alone could be secured the data necessary to form an estimate of the 
value of United States articles destined to this part of the French terri- 
tory. A fair proportion of the $4,314,606 increase of the United States 
exportations to France during the first six months of this calendar 
year, has doubtless been distributed through this consular district, 
which, with its 3,000,000 inhabitants, represents one-twelfth of the 
total population of France. The excellence and labor-saving qualities 
of our machines and apparatus of all kinds have made a favorable 
impression in this district; and our foodstuffs, so generally appre- 
ciated, form a part of its supplies and even from time to time become 
a necessity. '^^' "^*^ ^^ vji^wgii^ 



EUROPE: PRANCE. 299 

Rheims, Kke most all the French wool-manufacturing centers, has 
suffered greatly during the last few years from several causes affecting 
its woolen industries, foremost among which are speculation, decline in 
wages paid to combers, spinners, dyers and finishers, etc. Combing, 
which used to he done at the rate of 1.20 francs (24 cents) per kilogram 
(2.2046 pounds), is now down to 0.50 franc (10 cents) and 0.46 franc (9 
cents) , or to 50 per cent less. A decline of 62 per cent has taken place in 
spinning. Finishers used to earn on fine cloths from 1 franc (19. 3 cents) 
to 1.50 francs (29 cents) per meter (39.3708 inches); to-day they must 
content themselves with 0.25 franc (5 cents) to 0.50 franc (10 cents). 
Factories which had cost to establish from 1,000,000 francs ($193,000) 
to 1,500,000 francs ($289,500) have been sold for one-tenth of those 
amounts, and sometimes have found no purchasers. Instances of 
this kind have been witnessed in Bheims, Rethel, Sedan, and many 
other places. 

In reducing the price of freight to meet foreign competition, trans- 
portation companies have had to use foreign ships, thus impeding the 
development of French navigation. It is generally claimed that 
technical ability is decreasing, that professional instruction is insuf- 
ficient, that the resources and efforts of foreign countries are ignored, 
and, finally, that young men too often abandon industrial pursuits 
for liberal professions. 

Fears are entertained that the French woolen industry will be more 
than any other affected by the new customs tariff of the United States; 
and Mr. Lourdelet, general secretary of the Paris Chamber of Com- 
merce and delegate pf that body to the Chicago Exposition, says that 
it will give the death blow to that industry, which will have from now 
on to confine its American exports to high-priced articles (articles de 
haute fantaisie), representing a smaU portion of the 100,000,000 francs 
($19,300,000) that Bheims, Roubaix, Tourcoing, and Fourmies have 
heretofore shipped annually to the States, and in the manufacture of 
which from 30,000 to 40,000 hands were employed. 

RAILROADS. 

France has the third largest railroad mileage in the world. She 
owns 39,357 kilometers (24,455 miles), representing 7,800 kilometers 
(4,846 miles) per 100 square kilometers f 62, 137 square miles); the 
United States, with its 286,183 kilometers (176,815 miles), being first, 
and Grermany, with its 44,842 kilometers (27,863 miles), second on the 
list. 

According to Mr. Germain Delebec'que, honorary general inspector 
of the traffic on the French northern line, the total length of all rail- 
roads in France is, in round numbers, 40,000 kilometers (24,654 miles), 
on which run 9,695 locomotives, 25,297 passenger cars, and 252,989 
freight cars. The companies carry annually 317,652,121 passengers 
and sell 402,258,046 francs' worth of tickets. Of eveiy 1,000 passen- 
gers 45 travel in first-class carriages, 123 in second-class, and 832 in 
third-class. Of every 1,000 francs of fares, 193 are paid by rich peo- 
ple, 260 by middle-class people, and 547 by folks of the lower class. 
Finally, the employees of the seven companies numbered at the end of 
1894, 249, 705 persons— 224,804 men and 24, 901 women. The Northern 
(Nord) Company runs the fastest train, 95 kilometers (59.03 miles) an 
hour, between Busigny and St. Quentin ; the Southern (Midi) Company 
obtains a speed of 81 kilometers (50.33 miles) per hour, fi*om BoMeaux 
to Langon; the Eastern (Est) Company 79 kilometers (49.08 miles) per 
hour, between Rheims and Paris; the Orleans Company 76 kilometers 



300 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

(46.22 miles) per hour, between Aubrais and Paris, and the Western 
(Guest) Company 70 kilometers (42. 49 miles) "pev hour, between Chartres 
and Le Mans. 

Owing to greater advantages offered to shipx)ers, in time and freight 
rates, most goods from this consular district to United States ports 
have been forwarded to Antwerp. However, since the 22d of last 
March textiles for the Unified States can be shipped from Rheims to 
Havre in forty hours. Furthermore, in compliance with a request 
sent by the minister of public works to railroad companies, the latter 
have recently reduced their rates for the transportation of cereals, and 
the Eastern Railroad Company, which owns nearly all the lines run- 
ning through this district, has made the following changes in its rates: 

For a distance of 300 kilometere (186.41 miles), old tariff, 11.75 francs 
($2.35); new tariff, 11.25 francs ($2.25), a reduction of 4.2 per cent. 

For a distance of 500 kilometers (310.68 miles), old tariff, 15.75 francs 
($3.15); new tariff, 14.25 francs ($2.85), a reduction of 7.5 per cent. 

The last official statistics on French railroads, published March last, 
cover only the year 1895. Reliable information concerning the year 
1896 and the first six months of 1897 can not be obtained. 

MERCHANT MARINE. 

The French Legislature makes a yearly grant (subvention) to the 
merchant marine of 11,000,000 francs ($2,200,000), over and above the 
premiums given to steamship companies carrying the international 
mails. Of this grant of 11,000,000 francs, 3,000,000 francs ($600,000) 
are set aside for premiums to shipbuilders, and 8,000,000 francs 
($1,600,000), to which various and intermittent extra appropriations 
are added, are destined to pay premiums to owners of Ships making 
long journeys and to coast traders. Yet it is admitted by all, that 
during the last ten years French shipping has constantly declined, 
and, from being second on the list after Great Britain, France has 
now fallen far behind. She ranks but third in respect of tonnage, as 
shown by the following statement of her condition in 1895: 

Tons. 

Great Britain 9,964,280 

Germany 1,306,771 

France 864,590 

Norway 455,817 

The French merchant steam marine has increased its tonnage since 
last year by 68,646 tons, while Great Britain added to hers 260,997 
tons; Germany, 53,701; Norway, 39,295; Spain, 30,360, and Italy, 
25,773; but had it not been for the many ships sold by Germany to 
Japan her tonnage would be far greater. 

Although fourth in the number of her sailing vessels, her sailing 
tonnage is extraordinarily low, being superior only to that of Greece 
and Turkey. 

French registered ships have transported during the last three 
years only 4,082,082 tons out of the 16,100,670 tons, which during the 
said period have constituted the annual maritime traffic of France, 
and, calculating the average freight at the very reasonable price of 
25 francs ($5), have represented 300,000 francs ($60,000) paid by 
French commerce to foreign shipowners. In the course of the three 
years 1893-1895 4 steamers only of more than 1,000 tons each, with a 
total tonnage of 13,313 tons, were built in France, while Germany 
built 7 steamers of more than 1,000 tons, with a total tonnage of 269,246 

tOUg, Digitized by VJVJWgli^' 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 301 

The minister of commerce, it is reported, has negotiated lately for 
the estAblishment of a regular line of steamers between France and 
the American ports of the Pacific Ocean, where the national flag is 
no longer seen. 

• TRADE-MARKS. 

On the 1st day of December next a meeting will be held at Brussels 
for the purpose of determining what changes can be made to the 
international treaty of March 20, 1893, for the protection of industrial 
property, and also to the two agreements signed at Madrid on April 
14, 1891, by Belgium, Brazil, Spain, Italy, Holland, Portugal, Switzer- 
land, Tunis, France, and the United States. One of these agree- 
ments had for object to prevent false declarations as to the country 
of origin, and the other created an international record of trade-marks; 
it was sufficient to deposit a trade-mark at Beme with a fee of 125 
francs ($25) to insure its legal record in all the countries which 
were parties to the agreement. The minister of commerce and indus- 
try, in a circular letter addressed to the chambers of commerce, has 
informed them that the international bureau of the union for the 
protection of industrial property has prepared a certain number of 
propositions to be submitted to the said meeting, bearing principally 
on applications for patents and trade-marks, defining the conditions 
and formalities to be observed to secure legal protection in all the 
countries of the union for collective marks of origin adopted by 
public authorities, associations, or syndicates of producers of one of 
the countries enjoying legal protection therein; determining the for- 
feiture of patents, drawings, or industrial models in case of nonuse. 
Wishes are expressed to the effect that countries of the union not 
having not made laws concerning all branches of industrial property 
(patents, drawings or industrial models, trade-marks, factory marks, 
commercial name, and declarations of origin) may, as soon as possible, 
complete them; that in their respective legislatures the States may 
adopt a minimum delay (ten years at least) for the legal protection 
of drawings or industrial models; that there may be created for draw- 
ings or industrial models an international record similar to that contem- 
plated ])y the agreement of April 14, 1891, for trade and factory marks; 
that an understanding may be reached by theStates in the union 
concerning the mode of making the drawings to accompany applica- 
tions for patents, in order that one drawing, manifolded by a technical 
process, may be used for tlie applications for patents filed in all of 
the said States. Several propositions are to be submitted by the Span- 
ish administration, in reference to declarations of origin and the 
recording of marks. 

POSTAL RATES. 

France comes fourth in regard to the importance of its postal 
receipts, Germany being first, the United States second. Great Britain 
third. During the last year her postal receipts amounted to 224,- 
882,076 francs ($44,976,415) and her expenditures to 174,063,872 francs 
(*34,812,774), thus realizing a profit of 50,818,204 francs ($10,163,640), 
just about the same amount which the United States lost during the 
same period on her cheaper and far more convenient mail service. 

The existing postal rates in France, domestic and foreign, are as 
follows: 

Tariff No. 1. — Ordinary letters for France, for every 15 grams (.52 
ounce) or fraction thereof, prepaid, .15 franc (3 cents); not prepaid. 
.30 franc (6 cents). Insufficiently prepaid letters are taxed double, 



302 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

Letters to and from soldiers and sailors in actual service in France or 
foreign parts, .15 franc (3 cents) per 16 grams (.52 ounce), without 
limit of weight, plus .25 franc (5 cents) when registered, other matter 
being submitted to common rates. Ordinary letters to or from soldiers 
and sailors on duty in Tonkin, Cambodia, French Soudlin, Benin, 
Upper Oubanghi, Madagascar, and Diego-Suarez have free x>ostage. 

Tariff No, 2, — ^Registered letters, with maximum declared value, of 
10,000 francs ($1,930), pay, first, .15 franc (3 cents) per 15 grams .52 
ounce; second, .25 franc (5 cents), fixed rate; and third, .10 franc (2 
cents) per 500 francs ($96.50) or fraction of 500 francs ($96.50) declared. 

Registered boxes, with declared values, maximum of declaration 
10,000 francs ($1,930), pay, first, a fixed rate of .25 franc (5 cents); 
second, a proportional rate of .10 franc (2 cents) per 500 francs 
($96.50) declared; third, .05 franc (1 cent) i)er each 50 grams (1.76 
ounce), without limit of weight. 

Registered letters pay, first, .15 franc (3 cents) per 15 grams (.52 
ounce); second, a fixed rate of .25 franc (5 cents). 

Other matters registered pay, first, a special tax for each object; 
second, .25 franc (5 cents) fixed rate. 

Matters sent c. o. d. pay, first, a fixed rate of .25 franc (5 cents); 
second, .05 franc (1 cent) per 50 grams (1.76 ounces); third, .10 franc 
(2 cents) per each 500 francs ($96.50) of the total sum of the declared 
value and of the reimbursement. 

Advices of reexpedition of matters registered, with or without 
declared values, by mail, .10 franc (2 cents); by telegram to the inte- 
rior of France, .50 franc (10 cents); from France to Algeria and vice 
versa, 1 franc (19.3 cents). Tunis is not included. 

Precious objects, maximum of reimbursement 2,000 francs ($38G); 
maximum of declaration (value and reimbursement together), 10,000 
francs ($1,930). Weight not limited for boxes made in conformity 
with paragraph 3 hereafter; that is, 500 grams (17.637 ounces) for 
those which do not exceed 30 centimeters (18.656 inches) on each side. 

Other objects sent in boxes, sacks, cases, envelopes sealed with wax, 
maximum of declaration (value and reimbursement together), 2,000 
francs ($386). Maximum weight, 500 grams (17.63 ounces) for each 
object measuring no more than 30 centimeters (18.656 inches) on each 
side. 

1. Registration with declared value is applied, first, to letters con- 
taining declared values (bank notes, checks, money orders without 
name of addressee, bonds, dividend or interest coupons payable to 
bearer) ; second, to boxes containing jewelry or precious objects of 
small size. 

2. Registered letters with declared value must be placed under 
envelopes closed with wax seals, the wax to be of fine quality and 
the seals to be of the same color, all bearing the same impress of the 
sender. The declared value must be written over the subscription in 
letters, stating francs and centimes, without erasure or interlineation. 
In case of loss (unavoidable loss excepted) the post-office department 
reimburses the amount declared. 

3. Boxes registered with declared value must be presented closed, 
the sides to be at least 8 millimeters (.31 inch) thick and the dimen- 
sion 30 centimeters (11.811 inches) in length and 10 centimeters (3.937 
inches) in height and width. 

4. Registration applies to letters sent without declaration of value 
as well as to all objects included in the monopoly of the iK>st-office or 
which the law allows it to take charge of. 

uigitized by "KJXJKJWvy^ 



EUROPE: PRANCE. 303 

Letters and other registered objects are not subjected to any special 
mode of closing or form. Their loss (unavoidable loss excepted) 
entitles the addressee to an indemnity of 25 francs ($4.83). 

5. Withdrawal of correspondence is intrusted to the post-oface. 
The sender has the right to claim its withdrawal as long as the object 
has not been delivered to the addressee. 

Tariff No, 3. — Correspondence to be delivered by special delivery 
pays over and above the postal tax to which it is subjected a special- 
delivery tax of .50 franc (10 cents) if it is destined to a locality where 
a x>ost-of&ce is located, and of 2 francs (39 cents) if it is addressed to a 
rural locality. 

Tariff No. 4- — Newspai)ers and i)eriodicals published at least once 
every three months, maximum weight 3 kilograms (6.613 pounds): 
Price per copy mailed outside of the department (county^ in which it 
is printed and of the contiguous departments (counties) 2 centimes 
(two-fifths cent) up to 50 grams (1.703 ounces) and 1 centime (one- 
fifth cent) extra per each 25 grams (.88 ounce) or fraction of 25 grams 
(.88 ounce). Price i)er copy mailed to a place inside the department 
where it is printed and the contiguous departments, 1 centime fone- 
fifth cent) up to 50 grams (1.763 ounces) and one-half centime (one- 
tenth cent) extra for every additional 25 grams (.88 ounce) or fraction 
of 25 grams (.88 ounce). 

Tariff No. 5. — Printed matters of all kinds: First. Under movable 
bands covering not more than one-third of the surface of the pack- 
age: Price per package, 1 centime (one-fifth cent) per 5 grams (.17 
ounce) up to 20 grams (.70 ounce); o centimes (1 cent) over 20 grams 
(.70 ounce) and up to 50 grams (1.76 ounces); above 50 grams (1.76 
ounces), 5 centimes (1 cent) per 50 grams (1.76 ounces) or fraction of 
50 grams (1.76 ounces). Second. In shape of an open letter or under 
open envelope and circular cards under bands: Price per package 
addressed to one party, 5 centimes (1 cent) per 50 grams (1.76 ounces) 
or fraction of 50 grams (1.76 ounces). Maximum of weight, 3 kilo- 
grams (6.613 i)Ounds); of dimensions, 45 centimeters (17.716 inches). 

Tariff No. 6. — Samples with or without printed matter, corrected 
printed proofs, commercial or business papers, price per package 
addressed to one party, 5 centimes (1 cent) per 50 grams (1.763 
ounces) or fraction of 50 grams (1.763 ounces). Maximum of weight 
of samples, 350 grams (12.34 ounces); of business papers, 3 kilograms 
(6.613 pounds). Maximum of dimensions of ordinary samples, 30 
centimeters (18.65 inches); of samples on cards and of business 
papers, 45 centimeters (17.51 inches). 

To have the benefit of the reduced tax all matters mentioned in 
tariffs 4, 5, and 6 must always be prepaid. If they are not, they are sub- 
jected to a penalty which is twice the amount primarily due for post- 
age. If they are not suf&ciently prepaid, they are taxed an amount 
twice that of the insufficient postage prepaid. In no case can this 
penalty be less than 5 centimes (1 cent). 

FRENCH MONEY ORDBB8. 

Ordinary money orders. — ^The charge is 1 per cent of the sum paid. 
There is no limit to the amount which can be paid. Orders of 300 
francs ($58) and under are payable at sight. The administration 
reserves to itself a delay of eight days to cash ordinary money 
orders or money-order cai'ds over 300 francs ($58). 

Money-order cards or open money orders, used only for remittance 

Digitized by ^^jyjKJWi\^ 



304 COMMERCIAL BSLATIONS. 

of money in France and Algeria, are prepared beforehand by the 
sender and forwarded through the mail without prepayment. Money- 
order cards, French and foreign, are paid at the residence of addressee. 
Tax for delivery, 10 centimes (2 cents). 

Money orders for fixed amounts are delivered at all post-offices for 
the sums of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 francs (20 cents, 40 cents, 60 cents, 80 cents, 
and il)'y charge, 5 centimes (1 cent) per order. A charge of 10 cen- 
times (2 cents) and 20 centimes (4 cents) is collected on bonds of 10 
and 20 francs (12 and 14 ), respectively'. 

Telegraphic money orders. — Maximum amount, 5,000 francs ($965). 
Charges therefor : First, 1 per cent ; second, rate of ordinary telegram ; 
third, .50 franc (10 cents) for the notice to be delivered to addressee; 
fourth, extra charge of the telegraphic service for the delivery at the 
residence if necessary. 

Notice of payment, — The sender of oi*dinary, telegraphic, card, or 
fixed amount money orders can request, when depositing sums to be 
sent, to be notified of the date of payment thereof. This privilege is 
not granted for money orders sent to the colonies and French post- 
offices in foreign lands. 

Charges, 10 centimes (2 cents) for each ordinarj'', card, or fixed 
amount money order. For each telegraphic money order for conti- 
nental France, by mail, .25 franc (5 cents); by telegram, .60 franc (12 
cents). For each telegraphic money order for Algeria, by maH, .40 
franc (8 cents); by telegram, 1.20 francs (24 cents). 

NATIONAL SAVINGS BANK. 

All post-offices in France and Algeria are branches of the National 
Savings Bank. Minimum of each deposit, 1 franc (19.3 cents). The 
account of any one person can not exceed 1,500 francs ($290). The 
sums on deposit bear an annual interest of 2.50 francs (50 cents) per 
100. The interest is calculated from the 1st or 16th day of each month 
following the day of deposit. 

OOLJJBOTION OF GOMMEBCIAL NOTES AND MATTEBS BENT C. O. D. 

The post-office department collects commercial notes subject or not 
to protest, the value whereof does not exceed 2,000 francs ($386). 
Twenty-five hundredths of a franc (5 cents) is collected for forwarding 
same (whatever may be the number of notes to collect at the post- 
office of the residence of the addressees). On the amount of each note 
collected which is sent by money order a charge is made of: First, 10 
centimes (2 cents) per 20 francs ($3.86) or fraction thereof, .50 franc 
(10 cents) being the maximum that can be collected on this score; 
second, 1 per cent on the first 50 francs ($10) and one-half per cent on 
every fraction exceeding 50 francs ($9. 65). These rates apply to sums 
collected c. o. d. Any note which has been presented for collection 
and which for some cause has not been collected \& taxed 10 centimes 
(2 cents). 

PARCEL POST. 

Charges to be paid by senders of ordinary parcel post, from France 
for foreign lands, vary according to the country of destination and the 
route to be taken. 

For the interior of France charges are: Weight up to 3 kilograms 
(6.613 pounds), to be taken at railroad depot, .60 franc (12 cents) ; to be 



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EUROPE: FRANCE. 305 

delivered at residence, .85 franc (17 cents). Weight from 3 to 5 kilo- 
grams (6.613 to 11.02 pounds), to be taken at railroad depot, .80 franc 
(16 cents) ; to be delivered at residence, 1.05 francs (21 cents). Weight 
from 5 to 10 kilograms (11.02 to 22.04 pounds), to be taken at railroad 
depot, 1.25 francs (24 cents); to be deUvered at residence, 1.50 francs 
(29 cents). 

Notice of receipt (optional), .25 franc (5 cents). An additional 
charge of .25 franc (5 cents) is made on every parcel post deposited 
at a post-of&ce. 

Henry P. du Bellet, Consul 

Rhbims, October i^ 1897. 



BOUBAIX. 

I transmit a report on the commerce and industries of the consular 
district of Roubaix, as called for by Department circular dated 
August 10, 1897. 

This consular district, comprising the department of the North, is 
situated in the industrial center of France, and has a population of 
nearly 2,000,000. 

Lille, the chief city, has a population of over 200,000, and Roubaix 
takes second place with a population of 130,000. The distance between 
the two cities is 6 miles. 

The industries of Lille are of a varied nature, the chief of which 
appears to be work in linen. Other important industries are cotton 
spinning and weaving, foundries, manufacture of tapestry goods, brew- 
eries, tanneries, dye works, jute spinning and weaving, etc. LiUe is 
also a university city and an important seat of learning. 

The chief industry of Roubaix is the manufacture of tissues and 
upholstery goods, her dress fabrics being known throughout the civ- 
ilized world. 

The city of Tourcoing is adjacent to Roubaix, and they form prac- 
tically one city. It is the principal wool market of France. 

Lannoy, 3 miles distant, has important manufactures of carpets 
and upholstery goods. 

The exports from Lille to the United States for the year 1896 
amounted to $920,000, and for the half year ending June 30, 1897, to 
$1,138,820. This increase, however, is accounted for by the unusually 
large exports of wool waste, which amounted to $567,478 for the period 
mentioned. 

The principal exports of Lille to other countries for the year 1896 
were as follows: 



Articles. 



Machinery 

Linen yams . . 

Tapestry 

Cotton goods. 



Value. 



$1,500,000 

l,00r),000 

050,000 

250,000 



B VOL 2 ^20 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



306 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

The principal imports for the same period were: 



Articles. 



Value. 



Thread and yams of all sorts. 

Paper and books 

Machinery 

Iron and steel 

Tools and accessories 

Petroleum and oils 

Chemical products 

Table fruits 

Copper 

Hops 



11,600,000 

800,000 

860,000 

900,000 

300.000 

150,000 

100.000 

80,000 

75,000 

60,000 



The exports from Roubaix to the United States for the year 1896 
were $2,200,000, and the exports for the half year ending June 30, 
1897, were $2,500,000. 

The principal exports from Roubaix to other countries for the year 
1896 were: 



Articles. 



Value. 



Dress goods 

Wool^ combed wool, and wool waste 

Machmery 

Upholstery goods 



$4,000,000 

8,000,000 

900,000 

860,000 



The principal imports for the same period were: 



Articles. 



Value. 



Wool and wool wastes 

Dyes 

Machinery 

Chemical products — 
Tools and accessories . 



1900,000 
160,000 
120,000 
80,000 
25,01)0 



The principal exporiis from Tourcoing to other countries for the 
year 1896 were: 



Articles. 



Value. 



Wool, combed wool, and wool waste 

Wool yarns 

Dress goods and upholstery goods . . 

Copper 

Potash and carbonate of potash 

Skins 

Oilcake 

Starch 



$12,000,000 

2,000,000 

1,000.000 

600,000 

600,000 

460,000 

75,000 

30,000 



Imports for the same period were: 



Articles. 



Value. 



Wool and wool waste . 

Flax 

Hemp 

Paper and books 

Fertilizers 



$17,000,000 

2,000,000 

1.000,000 

100. 000 

100.000 



Digitized by 



Goo^ 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 307 

Other important towns in this consular district are: Valenciennes, 
center of coal-mining district; Amenti^res, with large flax spinning 
and weaving industries; Caudry, with manufacture of laces; Cam- 
brai, with manufacture of laces and dress fabrics; Douai, ^vith coal 
mining; llazebrouck, with jute spinning and weaving; C'roix, with 
wool combing; Dunkirk has extensive jut€ industries, and is a seaport 
of considerable importance, the fifth of France. 

The principal industrial process which has lately been introduced 
at Lille, is the manufacture of acetylene gas, which, although not as 
yet generally adopted as an illuminan t, prom ises to develop. Recently 
a company was formed, with a capital of $100,000, to manufacture the 
carbide of calcium, from which the acetylene gas is produced. The 
process employed in the manufacture of the carbide of calcium was 
invented by a Lille citizen. 

In this department, the cultivation of beet root for the manufacture 
of sugar is a very important industry, and sugar refineries are estab- 
lished all over the department. 

There is great difficulty in getting accurate figures, with regard to 
the exports of sugar from this consular district to the United States, 
as the exports are very frequently irregularly authenticated, shippers 
going to Paris, Antwerp, and other points. 

The amount of sugar declared as exported to the United States 
from this consular district, for the half year ending June 30, 1897, 
was $1,000,000. It is, however, probable that much more was exiwrted, 
legalized at other consulates, whilst for the year 1896 invoices were 
legalized in this consular district for sugar to the amount of $158,882 
only. 

The total exports of sugar from the port of Dunkirk to all countries 
for the year 1896, were $4,000,000, and it is probable that quite one-half 
of this amount came from this consular district and was legalized 
elsewhere. 

The same remarks apply to the lace industry of Caudry. The 
exports of lace goods declared at the United States consular agency 
at Caudry for the year 1896 were $52,756, whereas fully five times this 
amount is made at Caudry annually and at least twice the above 
amount is exported yearly to the United States. 

The exi>orts to the United States from Caudry for the half year 
ending June 30, 1897, were $92,000. 

A market exists in this consular district for oak and lumber, but 
the unwillingness of our exporters to saw the timber to required 
dimensions and cut off the sapwood, which dealers here refuse to pay 
for, prevents the extension of this trade. There are, however, a few 
firms who have sent agents here and have secured orders for consid- 
erable quantities of oak. 

There exists also a large market for California dried fruits, such as 
prunes, raisins, apricots, and peaches, and if California exporters 
would send French-speaking travelers to dealers here, I have no doubt 
that business would follow. 

The prices paid for household furniture here seem to suggest an 
opportimity for American manufacturers ; it would, however, be neces- 
sary for an intelligent agent to visit this country to study the styles 
of furniture in demand. 

The import of American bicycles has gone up by leaps and bounds, 
and now nearly every American bicycle manufacturer of any note 
has an agent here and in Lille. ^^ 

I have of ten heard dealers speak of our tools; l?tlrteliltnorig1>'l>ll^y 



308 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

admit that they are of the best possible quality, they add that prices 
are too high to admit of general use. 

A market exists here for fertilizers of all kinds. 

High prices are paid for household and kitchen utensils, both in 
enameled wares and metals; and if a representative collection of our 
household utensils were exhibited here, the latter would soon command 
a large sale; as it is, there are already some German imitations on the 
market, which have been introduced by German travelers, who come 
among the people here and speak the French language. 

The port of Dunkirk has recently completed improvements which 
will admit the largest vessels sailing to enter the docks, and all 
arrangements for wharfage, etc., are complete. 

One great obstacle in the way of American wares becoming more 
generally known, is the reluctance shown by our exporters to visit the 
buyers here. They forward catalogues, written in English, which the 
greater part of the people here do not understand. 

What is required is a capable selling agent, able to speak the lan- 
guage of the country and compensated by a salary and commission 
on his sales. This would make him eager to sell, and better results 
would be obtained by this system than by any other. 

•W. P. Atwbll, Commercial Agent, 

ROUBAIX, August 28, 1897, 



BOUEN. 

In my annual report of last year, I alluded to the difference in the 
tariff for goods made in England and for those made in the United States. 
The tabular statement showed how largely such a tariff discriminated 
in favor of English industries. It would be quite in order for the 
United States to observe the same distinction against France, until 
an equal scale of charges should be made for both countries — England 
and America. America can not comi)ete successfully if she is handi- 
capped by a larger tariff than is demanded from her rivals. Given 
equal privilege with England, she will have no difficulty in opening up 
markets all over France for many of her industries. 

The effect of this excessive protection in France is to retard manufac- 
turing progress, to exalt conservatism, and to foster a blind adherence 
to antiquated methods. The nation that can avail itself of the invent- 
ive ideas of all other countries, in addition to those of its own, vill 
far outstrip any competitor in the industrial race. The excessive duty 
in France makes it almost impossible for her to adopt the improve- 
ments that are being made everywhere in machinery of aU kinds. 
Many of her best mills are far behind the times. Even in her cotton 
and spinning mills one fails to see the devices for economizing labor and 
beautifying products that obtain in the United States and in England. 
The cheviots and oxford shirtings, so popular with us, are not made at 
all in France, except jwssibly at one factory. With a fairly arranged 
tariff — I mean with one which would bear equally upon all countries — 
a market could be found here for these American goods. 

Labor-saving machinery of all kinds — ^heavy and light — is sadly 
needed, and would be in demand if properly introduced. The habit 
of American manufacturers of sending circulars to consuls asking 
them to distribute them intelligently, does not serve the required pur- 
pose. In fact, it is not within the legitimate pryvi|i^^ Qf^^^j^Qc^ 



EUROPE: FBANCE. 309 

Samples of the articles to be sold should be displayed in a distributing 
center, and men should be on hand to desire them. The field is a large 
one and will yield ample returns if properly cultivated. Those who are 
to use a machine — ^the men that you wish to reach — ^must be instructed 
in the merits of the device that you wish them to buy. They should 
see it in running order. 

That the United States is a dangerous comx>etitor in the commercial 
race of nations, is recognized by thinkers everjrwhere. A prominent 
writer in one of the largest daily newspapers of Paris recently wrote 
a long article bemoaning the fact, and regretting that means were not 
long ago taken to repress the spirit of progress. But France has 
awakened to the necessity of enlarging its sphere of activity. Com- 
mercial schools are to be opened, and those graduates who will go out 
to the recently acquired colonies of France and devote themselves to 
the extension of French industries, and who learn the language of the 
country to which they are going, are to receive a handsome sum of 
money. 

It is a grave error to suppose that France is not extending her 
domains. The acquisition of foreign territory is going on very qui- 
etly, but very surely, and he who has not followed the trend of recent 
events in this direction will be surprised to see how largely France 
has added to her colonial possessions. The restriction of trade limit 
was becoming a grave danger. The very basis of the French fabric 
was threatened by comi)etition. The great difficulty is that the French 
are not a colonizing people, and that until recently they were not 
prone to acquire any foreign language. This, of course, militated 
against commercial extension. 

It seems to me, that for the next fifty years France will be fully 
occupied in meeting the demands of her own colonies, and in holding 
her own against foreign importation. She will have enough to do in 
establishing banks and trading marts for Tier own X)6ople. 

I would suggest to our manufacturers the propriety of opening 
a bureau in London or Paris, which could furnish information to trade 
associations. For instance, it might be desirable for certain merchants 
in Philadelphia or New York to know what South American dealers 
were actually paying for goods bought in Paris. It is not the appar- 
ent price that is demand^, but the real price. Such information is 
difficult to get, but the right man could obtain it. 

Anticipated movement of trade in any given direction, the opening 
of new industries, are questions of the greatest importance. What 
necessities exist for heavy machinery? What lines of cotton goods 
are produced? Unless one is a genuine buyer it is impossible to obtain 
samples; at least, I have found it to be so. It is equally difficult to 
gain admittance to the mills for purposes of study, comparison, or 
investigation. 

The competition in beet sugar, between the French and German 
manufacturers, is interesting. I am told by a gentleman in a position 
to guarantee his assertion, 4;hat Grerman sugar of a minimum per cent 
is sold in France and in South Africa as French sugar, which has a 
relativelv higher percentage, and that one manufacturer alone made 
£ 10,000 ($48, 600) on the difference in the purity. The same gentleman 
also said that in Mauritius, the owners of cane-sugar mills could not 
pay any dividends, and that in the near future they might be forced 
to "shutdown." 

Grerman sugar is easily distinguished from French, even by a casual 
observer, from the fact of its refusing to dissolve in tea or oofl!^ 



310 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

Freights are against United States shippers, for the reason that 
the Compagnie Transatlantique has the monopoly. It is sometimes 
cheaper to ship Ada England, and in any event, if goods are intended 
for distribution in France, it would be advisable to ship directly to 
Rouen, where both the river and railway facilities for handling busi- 
ness are of superior kind. The water-transportation rates are exceed- 
ingly low. 

In his annual report for 1897, the British con sul at Rouen -writes: 

It may interest British cotton spinners and weavers, to learn that an international 
congress for the discussion of questions relating to the hygiene and production in 
textile manufactories is to be held in Rouen this year. The exact date is not yet 
fixed» but it will probably be in July. The questions to be discussed, and upon 
which papers are invited, are the best methods of constructing spinning and 
weaving mils; their heating; their ventilation; their cooling in summer heats 
and hot climates; and the maintenance of a proper hygrometric condition in them. 
The constructors of machinery for cooling by evaporation or by refrigerators, or 
for preserving the necessary degree of dampness of atmosphere by steam, by 
evaporation of water, or by porous bricks, are invited to exhibit their respective 
systems. Models of the different plans for heating by steam, hot air, or hot water, 
and of the various ventilating apparatus are also requested. 

This ought to be quite as interesting to our manufacturers and 
others as to the British. 

Horatio R. Bigelow. 
Rouen, May 22, 1897. 



ST. BTIENTNE, 

I beg leave to inclose a report on the commerce and industries of 
this consiilar district, as called for by circular dated August 10, 1897. 

METALLURGY. 

The metallurgic industry in this consular district, and especially in 
the department of the Loire, is exceedingly important, not only as to 
the number of men employed, but also as to the kind of work done. 
All the most modem discoveries of science are brought into requi- 
sition, in order to turn out the highest class of material, and each 
establishment vies with the others to merit the confidence of customers. 

Nearly all local plants receive orders from the French Government 
for cannons, armor plates,- projectiles, etc., while foreign governments . 
frequently send military delegates and experienced artillery engineers 
to visit the district and make reports or place orders. 

At present, as for the past year, the metallurgic industry has been 
in a very prosperous condition; the men have worked at full time and 
the wages have risen, but at the same time they are not equal to 
those obtained for similar labor in the United States. Although 
pretty much the same class of business is done in all the seven im- 
portant foundries in this locality, yet each has its specialty both in 
method of manufacture and in the material turned out. These points 
require a brief enumeration. 

aci£bibs of couzon. 

In this foundry, the most improved methods are employed. A 
Siemens regenerator is used, so that the centers of the wheels manu- 
factured are much superior in point of solidity to those manufactured 
by the ordinary process. No other foundries in this region possess 

Digitized by ^^jvjkjwis^ 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 311 

this method. Wheels of every description are manufactured in this 
establishment, from those for bicycles to driving wheels for locomo- 
tives. All the six great railway companies of France have most of 
their Crampton wheels made here. In this foundry also are manu- 
factured driving shafts^ axles of all kinds, buffers, chains, pistons, 
and sheaths for projectiles, besides cannon, steel armor plates, etc. 

ACltRIES OF FIRMINY. 

As their name implies, these works turn out all kinds of manufac- 
tured steel, chisels, files, telegraph wires, cables, piano strings, springs, 
anvils, axles, hoops for cannons, projectiles. Two thousand workmen 
are constantly employed, and the business is in a very prosi)erous 
condition. 

FORGES OF THE CHAlilASSlilRF. 

This plant gives employment to 700 men, and manufactures cranes, 
hydraulic presses, steam hammers, ventilators, boilers, steam engines, 
swivel bridges, and works in general for all the mining companies of 
the region. 

aoi£ribs of bt. btiennb. 

TThese works employ 1,700 men, and comprise 20 puddling furnaces, 
5 Martin furnaces, 6 rolling mills, etc. Besides the manufacture of 
cannon, projectiles, armor plates, and torpedoes, the Aci6ries of St. 
Etienne have earned a world-wide reputation for their sheet iron and 
steel, of which 17,000 tons are annually produced. 

L.ES HAUTB FURNEAUX DB LA MARINE, ST. CHAMOND. 

This foundry is undoubtedly the most important of the region. It 
manufactures everything that can be made in a foundry, but is chiefly 
occupied in the manufacture of all that appertains to the artillery and 
marine service both for home and foreign governments. A field piece 
(70 millimeters = 28 inches) has been invented here, to which has been 
given the names of the inventors, Darmancier and Dalzon. The chief 
I)oints in this cannon are its rapidity of firing (twenty shots in the 
minute)^ and an arrangement by which the recoil is reduced to almost 
nothing. This latter is effected by means of a "spade" operated by 
a hydraulic brake and a recuperator. At the first shot the recoil 
acts on the brake and the "spade" sinks into the ground, while the 
recuperator brings the piece back into x)osition. With the following 
shots, the spade sinks deeper into the soil, allowing the cannon and its 
carriage only a very slight backward and forward movement. Experi- 
ments have beea made with this contrivance on all kinds of ground, 
and the trials were entirely satisfactory. 

A whole battery of these field pieces has lately been ordered by 
Spain. 

RIBBONS. 

The ribbon industiy, for which the town of St. Etienne has gained 
a world-wide reputation, dates as far back as 1605. It rapidly devel- 
oped until the wars of the revolution ruined most of the manufac- 
turers. However, in a few years it revived, and the census of 1800 
showed that there were 25,000 silk weavers in the town. To-day, the 
number of i)erson8 earning their living in the industry attains fully 
75,000, of which more than half live in the town,u^fette the remainder 



312 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

are scattered through this and the neighboring department. The 
number of looms is reckoned at 30,559, of which 5,067 belong to large 
fdfotories and the remainder to the weavers, who work them in their 
own homes. Unfortunately, by reason of the caprice of fashion, the 
industry has of late years suffered considerably. In fact, since 1890, 
when high-water mark ($20,000,000) was reached, the market, home 
and foreign, has been on the decline. Prices became so low that 
many private looms were worked only to keep them from deteriorating 
from disuse, the owners earning but 25 cents a day, while in the large 
manufactories the employees were put on short hours. At prei^nt, 
matters are brightening up a little and hope is reviving, and I may add 
that the advent of the present Administration in the United States, 
by strengthening the confidence of commercial firms in that country, 
has had a stimulating effect on the industry here. Within the last 
two months, American importers have placed several important orders 
in St. Etienne and the '* season" opens well. 

A new factor which will in no small measure contribute to the 
prosperity of the ribbon industry in St. Etienne, is the application of 
electricity to the looms. Heretofore, all the private looms have been 
worked by hand, but within the last two years an enterprising elec- 
tric company has furnished that motive power and it has given gen- 
eral satisfaction. In another year or two, hand- worked looms wiU be 
almost a curiosity, for not only is the work done more regularly than 
by hand, but also a larger quantity of ribbon is turned out in a given 
time. Further, the cost of production will be lessened, as one person 
in most instances can now attend to two looms. The cost of electricity, 
after deducting the expenses of putting up the plant ($90), averages 
7 cents per day per loom. 

The weavers in general may be considered as forming the most 
respectable portion of the working population of this city. They are 
sober and economical, patient and hopeful. 

As is well known, the St. Etienne manufacture excels in its fancy 
and velvet ribbons. Its products have no rival in the world, and the 
variety of designs and the combination of hues attest the intelligence 
and ingenuity of the artisans. 

COAL MINES. 

The region around St. Etienne is studded with bituminous coal 
mines, resembling certain parts of Pennsylvania, notably the soft- 
coal region in the vicinity of Pittsburg. The mines belong to differ- 
ent companies, which are all in a prosperous condition, giving employ- 
ment to about 40,000 men. The output is considerable, but is almost 
entirely absorbed by the local and regional industries and by domestic 
requirements. The wages range from 80 cents to $1.50 per day of ten 
hours. The miners are required to load a fixed number of wagons, 
SLggrQgskting 7 tons, as a day's work, and are paid an additional pro rata 
sum for all wagons loaded in excess of the minimum requirement. 

FIRBABMS. 

At St. Etienne is located a very important state manufactory of fire- 
arms, employing, according to needs, from 2,000 to 4,000 men. Besides 
this manufactory of military rifles, there exists a very extensive indus- 
try of manufacturing sporting guns and revolvers, engaging about 
10,000 workmen. The workmanship is of a very ^^ ^l^^g^^e 



EUROPE: FBANCB. 313 

weapons are much appreciated by French sportsmen. None of the 
guns ai'e exported to the United States through this consulate. 

A new kind of gun barrel is much talked of in the city; it is styled 
the *'monobloc;" that is to say, it is a double barrel made out of one 
piece without soldering or brazing. It is said to be superior to the 
usual construction in solidity and precision. 

GLASS-BOTTLE WORKS. 

In this region, there are five or six large glass-bottle works, furnish- 
ing employment to about 3,000 men. The bottles supply the numer- 
ous mineral- water springs of the country, and a large number of chem- 
ists. At the present time the trade is prosperous. No empty bottles 
are exported from this district to the United States. 

MINERAL WATERS. 

It is well known that France possesses the most numerous sources 
of mineral water in the world. In almost every department, mineral 
springs abound. The Loire is well favored in this respect, but the 
waters are exclusively for table use as there is no therapeutic nor 
hydropathic establishment within its limits. The waters are for the 
most part alkaline and aerated. 

The exportation of these natural waters has assumed noteworthy 
importance, about 30,000,000 bottles being sent out annually. The 
springs of St. Galmier, so well known throughout the world, are the 
most important in this district. They produce from 15,000,000 to 
18,000,000 bottles yearly; those of Sail-sous-Couzan come next in 
order, with an output of 7,000,000, while the springs of St. Remain, 
which furnish a very superior table water, produce 5,000,000 bottles. 
A small quantity of these table waters is exported through this con- 
sulate to the United States. 

ELASTIC TISSUE. 

The only manufactories of elastic tissue in France are to be found at 
St. Chamond and at St. Etienne. The articles made are belts, gaiters, 
suspenders, and elastic cloth for shoes. The number of looms varies 
between 500 and 600, and nearly all are worked by machinery. 
The total amount annually produced is valued at about $1,000,000, 
but twenty years ago it was much more important. The development 
of this industry is hindered by the duty imposed on the raw material 
on its entry into France. The vulcanized india-rubber thread, for 
instance, is assessed for a duty of $8 on the 200 pounds, while Ger- 
many, Italy, and Switzerland have put it on the free list. 

BRAIDS AND LACES. 

The manufacture of braids and laces is confined almost entirely to 
the nei^boring town of St. Chamond, where there are about 40 
important manufactories, employing 8,()00 operatives of both sexes. 
The business varies between four and five million dollars annually. 
The articles manufactured are silk braids, alpaca braids made from 
English woolen thread imported from Bradford, and mohair braid. 
This last article is in £:reat demand. 

MW7V W4. vAv»xv *o **x c.xvy««v vt^y «*« Digitized by VJ\„/\^VI\^ 



314 COMMERCIAL BELATIONS. 

DYE WORKS. 

There exist at St. Etienne about 20 dye works for the ribbon 
industry, and they enjoy a considerable reputation not only in France 
but abroad, especially for the fast-black dyes, which are considered 
superior. The number of workmen engaged in this industry is 2,000, 
including men and women. 

BICYCLES. 

The manufacture of bicycles has made rapid strides in St. Etienne 
within the last few years. About 3,000 men are employed in the 
industry. The bicycle has t.aken such a firm hold on the youth of 
this country, that the time is not far distant when one of those 
machines will be considered indispensable to every progressive young 
man. I must say, however, that this mode of locomotion has not 
seized so firmly on the fancy of the fair sex in France as in England 
and America, but the taste is growing. 

No bicycles of American manufacture are sold in this district, the 
price being considered too high. A good machine can be had here 
for from $50 to $60, which is much less than the American exporter 
could sell for. While on this subject, I should say that the great 
superiority of the American machine will certainly impress itself on 
the French public in time, but it will be necessary for our home man- 
ufacturers to adopt other means to obtain a market than the sending 
out of illustrated catalogues, no matter how enticing their advertise- 
ments may be. Stores should be opened in all the large towns of the 
country, and intrusted to energetic agents, with a stock on view, 

MECHANICAL CONSTRUCTION. 

The department of the Loire being essentially a coal region, the con- 
struction of mining machinery is on a large scale. Hoisting apparatus, 
ventilators, for which this department holds the first rank, exhaust 
pumps, air compressors, and machines for making the fuel briquettes, 
much used in locomotives and engines generally, boilers, steam wind- 
lasses or winches, washing machines for coal, etc., are all constructed 
in this city by important firms. Besides these may be mentioned 
steam hammers of from 3 to 80 tons, swivii bridges, powerful cranes 
and hoisting apparatus worked by electricity. 

HARDWARE. 

A considerable quantity of small articles, coming under the nomen- 
clature of ''hardware," is manufactured in this district, such as locks, 
screws, knives, chains, nails, iron wire, bolts, files, scythes, sprong 
forks, etc. The number of men employed in this industry is about 
4,000. 

COTTON FABRICS. 

Boanne, a town of 60,000 inhabitants, in the northern part of this 
department, is the seat of an important cotton industry. The number 
of mechanical looms at work is 11,000, divided among thirty manufac- 
tories, while 2,650 hand looms are found in the homes of the weavers. 
The business done exceeds $8,000,000 annually, and although the 

Digitized by xjkjkjwi\^ 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



315 



greater part of the articles is for home consumption, yet a certain 
amount is exported, but none through this consulate. 

PENCILS. 

In a small village a few miles from St. Etienne, exists an interesting 
pencil industry, employing a number of hands of both sexes. About 
22,000 lead and colored pencils are manufactured daily, and 1,000 pen- 
holders of varied shapes and materials. Some miles farther is another 
manufactory, turning out daily 50,000 pencils of all shapes and quali- 
ties. This factory is the most important in all France. The machin- 
ery is operated by two hydraulic turbines of 50 horsepower and a 
steam engine of 100 horsepower. 

Exportations from this consular district to the United States for the year 1896, 



Articles. 



BofnbODB 

Braids 

Batton stock 

Cheese 

Cotton waste 

Fruit, preeerred. 

Gloves 

Ooatskin 

Harness (loom) . 

Hats 

Kniyes 

Lace 

Linings 

Locks 



Valne. 



246.07 

064. as 

641.68 
49L83 
867.87 
2S4.19 
800 24 
814.19 
617.26 
182. 4;$ 
660.83 
448.06 
200.16 
424 80 



Articles. 



Machinery 

Perfumery 

Bat traps 

Bibbons: 

Silk 

Velvet 

Elastic 

Scythes 

Springs (looms) 

Stone (cat) 

Wine 

Miscellaneoos.. 

Total 



Value. 



$118.66 

104.75 

18,908.30 

206,768.72 

136,760.44 

6,934.10 

182.47 

08.81 

1,961.86 

760.21 

21.24 



680,567.92 



Exportations from this consular district to tits United States during the six months 

ending June SO, 1897. 



Articles. 


Value. 


Articles. 


Value. 


Books ;. 


tl28.72 
2,76L90 
16,108.19 
U, 816. 15 
11,647.61 

627.47 
11,666.48 

721.80 
1,470.04 

983.10 
67,260.14 

88L81 


Mineral water 


$283.71 

108.72 






Braids 


Preserved fruit 


132.16 


Button stock _ 


Projectiles 


662.03 


Cheese 


Bat traps 


11,046.17 


Chpiplcals 


Bibbons: 

Silk 




Oloves 


131,766.62 


Haircloth 


Velvet 


89,656.66 


Harness (loom) ..- 


RllWtlC^ 


2,273.97 


Knives. J .'. 


Stone (cut) 


632.84 


Lace 


Total 




Locks 


360,806.50 









General exportation from the department of the Loire for the year 1896, 



Articles. 


Value. 


Bibbons 


$0,000,000 

T200;000 

520, (XX) 


RrRldff ...... . ... , .._..... ... .. . 




Hardware 


500,000 


Coal 


1,000,000 


OIass manufacture .... 


100.000 


Mineral waters 


aSOO.OOO 


Flour \..^.lll.[l.^l..l.l..l~ l^.llV.[m^^.^l^ll..l 


61,000,000 







aBottles. 



d Kilograms. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



316 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 
Imports according to country. 



Articles. 


Country. 


Raw Bilk 


Uu^ia. 


Preparedsilk 


Wheat 


Cattle 


Africa, Italy. 
Spain, Portugal, Italy. 
Africa, Spain. 
Sweden. 


Wines 


[ron ore .. - ... ..-.. - .. . . . .- 


Steel and cast iron 


Machinery 


Switzerland, Qermany, United States. 
England, Switzerland. 


Cotton thread 


Coffee 


Aden, BrSsil, French colonies. 







Among the articles imported directly from the United States, I 
may mention a weaving machine eiriployed at the professional school 
here, and highly esteemed; a machine for boring out gun barrels, 
adopted by one of the largest gun manufactories of the tovm, and a 
machine for stamping the guns after testing with the oflBcial guar- 
anty stamp. 

Hilary S. Brunot, Consul. 

St. Etibnne, October IS, 1897. 



DECLARBD EXPORTS. 

Value of exports declared for the United States from the several consular offices in 
France during the year ended June SO, 1897. 



Articles. 


Quarter ending — 


TotaL 


sept.aa 


Dec.8L 


Mar. 81. 


June 30. 


CAIiAIB. 

Cement 


9408.00 
1,45LM 








$438.00 
6,660.40 
1,168.88 
1,434.21 
4,840.60 
2,120,678.44 
6,825.86 
200.00 


Chalk 




12,266.68 

1,168.88 

442.86 

4,086.20 

704,74L20 

698.04 


$2,862.78 


Coated cotton 




Flint pebbles 


645.88 




445.63 

"'6n,*a66."i6* 

8,884.88 


<7foAtflkins . , .. 


1744.40 

883,482.46 

1,648.14 


Lace 


861.298.09 
189.28 
200.00 


Laines 


Leather waste 


Linen .• 




847.87 




847 87 


Plaster statuette 


20.00 






20.00 


Poppy oil 




84.77 




94.77 


Rags 




401.64 
41,172.60 


6,302.24 


6,793.78 


Salted hides 


6,686.25 
175.00 


00,568.97 


138,422.82 
176.00 


Scollops 




Sugar.. 




128,774.13 

707.92 

8,418.43 

8.11 


270,843.70 


889,617.83 
707.92 


Veilings 






Vel vefe and velveteens 

Wine 


239.54 


3,834.78 


4,244.82 


11,282,07 
8.11 


Wool waste 




7.3T9.27 




7,379.27 










Total 


871,276.63 


138,088.18 


987,813.66 


868,283.06 


2,704,971.32 




OANIOCS. 

Confectionery 


780.61 


288.83 
136.10 




425.66 


1,464.90 
186.10 


Furniture (house) 




Linen 




230.83 
130.97 

2,787.77 
11,466.11 


1,66L71 
378.96 

1,921.41 

10,601.96 

168.06 

200,848.24 

673.62 


1,792.64 
881 84 


Meal (almond) 


148.08 

1,629.18 
9,208.86 


288.86 

2,062.72 
8,188.90 


Oil: ' ''■■ 

Almond ....^ 


8,241.06 

88,866.88 

168.06 


Olive 




Perfumery 


66,086.86 


190,082.25 
668.86 
127.17 


182,846.94 
428.19 


696,923.29 

1.770.67 

127 17 


Pottery 


Wood (flftndal) 














Total 


78,771.88 


201,093.68 


197,828.81 


276,674.46 


752,889.86 





Digitized by ^^jvjvjwik^ 



EUBOPE: FRANCE. 



317 



Value of exports declared for the United States from the several consular offi^ies in 
France during the year ended June 30^ 1897 — Continued. 



Articles. 



Quarter ending- 



Sept. 80. 



Dec. 81. 



Mar. 31. 



Jnne 80. 



TotaL 



Caper 

Confl tores 

Drugs 

essences 

Ltlthographlc stones — 

Mushrooms 

Olives 

Regulus of antimony. . . 

Seed of celery 

Seed, ditferent sorts of. 

Stuffs 

Tartar 

Tissues 

Verdigris 

Wine 



Sa06.68 

18,806.25 

1,221.04 

420.82 

1,410.100 

1,760.08 

721.18 

708.18 

7,128.64 

814.06 

185.71 

82,883.46 



1206.62 

12,402.64 

2,800.19 

642.86 

006.88 

1,771.87 



$860.62 

870.42 

202.86 

756.62 

4,187.02 



11,686.20 
1,676.20 
2,361.04 



8,026.20 
1,026.81 



882.48 



1,721.00 



0,483.28 
"fl72.26' 



16, no. 62 



607.00 
2,208.76 



86,410.00 
630.71 



1,865 11 



Total- 



07,600.67 



83,485.00 



27,010.28 



48,680.76 



Brandy 

Brass ware . 

Paner 

Wme (red) . 

Total.. 



00,282.48 



168.12 



168,802.88 
185.85 



817,401.15 



188,775.82 



025.51 



910.88 



00,440.60 



100,048.78 



818,561.80 



180,686.20 



DIJON. 

Brass muBketoons 

Buckets 

Ck>tton wastes 

Hardware, machinery, and 

tools 

Jugs 

Linen lace goods 

Macaroni 

Music instruments 

Optical goods, spectacles 

Osier baskets 

Pipes and smokers' articles. . . . 

Socksand wood shoes.: 

Watches 

Wines and liquors 

Wood sticks 



8,797.87 



20,460.89 
8,752.87 
1,180.20 
1,373.40 



1,068.17 

287.20 

16,015.83 

2,683.48 

443.20 



2,142.00 
5,301.23 



842.78 
1,062.04 



5,658.15 



17,543.72 
2,320.04 



13,007.84 
1,402.17 



20,444.10 

203.40 

2,213.62 

14,106.61 



457.88 
5,606.04 



1,247.20 

754.80 

8,844.30 



1,565.70 



1,868.60 
41,665.07 



2,055.58 
27,871.81 



5,057.97 
250.10 

4,723.80 

44,570.20 

263.20 



Total. 



67,633.45 



60,217.77 



63,571.12 



70,612.54 



GRENOBLE. 



Cheese 

Fasteners, glove 

Pur, rabblt^s 

Gloves 

Liqueurs 

Pastes, alimentary 

Paper 

Skins, dressed 

Walnuts, kernels and in shell 
Wool, raw and dressed 



10,571.06 
182.25 



21,808.78 



5,620.06 



4,182.50 
1,163.00 



163.000.82 

8,600.18 

1,806.57 

630.20 



142.60 

221,121.66 

30,498.46 

1,775.10 



14,446.74 
540.96 



320,842.87 

8,548.09 

436.66 



1,846.10 



56,064.68 
2,817.30 



150.05 
10,014.85 



400.24 
11,870.05 
2,061.99 



8,400.56 
,647.21 
5,460.18 
3,505.50 
8,954.84 
8,540.40 

721.18 

706.18 
11,382.31 
1,840.76 

135.71 
94,487.96 

630.71 
1,880.26 
5,789.95 



m, 544. 71 



774,822.38 

185.85 

883.35 

1,835.89 



776,727.47 



342.78 
1,062.04 
2,142.00 

16,715.42 

237.20 

66,935.ra 

10.060.41 

1,623.40 

4,186.30 

1,212.72 

35,840.40 

462.50 

11,246.54 

128,205.19 

263.20 



280,084.88 



52,866.47 

732.20 

142.50 

994,096.14 

46.738.22 

4,680.25 

630.20 

500.19 

88,80^.08 

4,899.38 



Total. 



306,178.20 



255,065.97 



278,241.95 



854,185.51 



1,193,641.68 



HAVRE. 



Arsenic 

Antique glassware 

Antiquities 

Antimony 

Books 

Brandy 

Bristies 

Bric-a-brac 

Calfskins, leather and hides . 

Camphor 

Carriages (horseless) 

Cheese 

Chemicals 

Church ornaments 

Cuttings (hybrid vine ) 

Coffee 



500.50 



261.27 



3,287.37 



1,807.24 
579.00 



680.52 

1,158.00 



387.77 

80,004.88 

8.618.43 



135.10 

4,504.30 

80,237.65 

17,002.08 



280.62 
388.73 



302.14 
78L65 



3,326.95 



711.17 



1,506.79 

'm'.'m 

"9,"728.'79 



8.628.88 
"34/4ii.'3i 



17,866.06 

6,278.90 

540.40 

10,310.91 



24,482.47 



601.. '>7 
2:29.23 



5.664.71 
131 05 

784. ;» 



703. W 

Digitized tiy^KJKJKJ' 



2,780.62 

2,058.52 

8,287.87 

682.78 

1.070.38 

ia5. 10 

8.W2.61 

30.575.42 

140,044.38 

14,897.33 

540.40 

26. H)S. 29 

131 (« 

2.771.r>0 

44.H41.r4 



318 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



VcUue of exports declared for the United States from the several consular ojjlces in 
France during the year ended June SO, 1897 — Continaed. 



Articles. 



Quarter ending— 



86pt.ao. 



Dec. 81. 



Mar. 



JunedQL 



Total. 



HAYRB— contiiined. 



Cocoa 

Cycles (American goods) . 



Copper. 

Chlorate of soda 

Elephant teeth 

Dyestnffs 

Empty bags (American goods) 
Feathers (ostrich and ymture) 
Fnmitnre and cabinet woods, 

antique 

Flint 

Fustic 

Hair, cow 

Horns 

Machinery _ 

Hoosehola effects 

Indigo 

India mbber 

Lobsters 

Labels 

Lime juice 

Liqueur 

Mustard 

Nickel 

Mineral water 

Oils 

Ocher , 

Nuts 

Naker (mother pearl) 

Paintings and frames 

Pneumatic pieces 

Preserves 

Pepper 

Rubber belt (American goods) 

Bags and old rope 

Baffron 

Seeds and plants 

Saddlery and harness 

Sausages 

Snails 

Sugar 

Tablecloth 

Tonka bean 

Vinegar 

Vegetables 

Vanilla 

Wines and liquors 

Wool :. 

Zinc 



$386.00 



Total. 



China 

Ctoese skins., 
Machinery.. 
Rabbit hf^. 

Straw 

Truffles , 



Total. 



LYONS. 



Argols 

Brandy 

Bronzes 

Candle wicks 

CSelluloid, manufactures of ... . 

Charcoal for censers 

Church ornaments and metal- 
lic trimmings 

Cinematograph 

Cotton goods 

Dveetuffs 

Qlue and gelatin 

Hardware, machinery, and 

tools , 



$3,660.51 
"47,'728.'23" 



138.15 

16,110.66 

268.95 

696.48 

365.12 

125. IB 

1,008.57 



$881.78 
778. flO 



22,632.06 

131.68 

17,294.89 



$29,545.98 

895.72 

7,341.22 



82,120.73 
■i3,'728.'88" 



122.56 

■i,i7i."36' 



396.62 



690.41 
69.48 



8,454.70 



8,547.69 



12,158.60 
82,171.01 



116.80 

957.86 

8,029.20 



458.63 

8,004.01 

16,014.66 

960.58 



1,880.06 
196.76 



96,728.16 



96.56 

{,884.88 

989.28 



945.70 

18,613.47 

29.72 

464. 7D 



26,962.13 



11,663.81 



6,966.18 

845.09 

22,766.19 



4JB.88 
8,129.02 



4,583.75 
2,651.44 



2,716.81 
■"i87.'99 



4,620.15 
128.62 
801.12 



1,672.88 
23,974.96 



452.00 



410.00 



2,045.93 
648.40 



66.46 
181.15 



405.80 
8,482.81 
8,226.80 
468.20 
780.82 
204.68 
829.74 
829.66 



65.97 
38,815.08 



2,849.84 
2,515.14 



2,017.58 
8,702.04 



106.14 
68.16 



180.94 
21.45 
91.66 



6.76 
287.78 



988.16 



782.96 



1,288.67 
""i6i.88' 



1,258.43 
1,384.79 



896.24 



12,966.26 



7,966.02 



467.45 
84.847.33 



158,441.95 



814,142.47 



174,546.87 



284,010.78 



$8,660.51 

386.00 

48,557.96 

778.90 

182.15 

100,409.88 

1,296.30 

89,055.97 

865.12 
646.86 



5,115.46 

69.48 

1,880.08 

650.39 

12,710.30 

143,948.73 

960.53 

115.80 

1,908.56 

65,288.66 

29.12 

464.70 

139.44 

16,013.28 

4,806.83 

22,765.19 

1.672.83 

81,682.41 

123.62 

905.18 

88,815.06 

405.30 

10,845.66 

10,092.88 

463.20 

780.82 

885.62 

457.38 

639.84 

181.15 

983.16 

6.75 

8,171.12 

1.334.79 

i; 412. 24 

42,815.35 

12,966.26 



926,141.57 



886,906.28 



812,986.91 



5,190.59 



701.44 
6,069.38 

112.71 
2,177.47 



263,776.96 
124.79 



881,864.06 
1,841.63 



2,176.87 

119.27 

8,602.47 



6,660.00 



1,845,682.28 

1,466.42 

701.44 

19,986.84 

231.06 

5.679.94 



892,095.87 



822,046.91 



209,700.88 



889,755.69 



1,873,566.86 



2,414.82 
277.92 
805.75 

2,207.24 
876.35 

07,930.53 



1,840.94 

193.00 

1,778.87 

8,816.80 

604.81 

58,791.98 



9,485.71 

4,928.95 

24a 18 

1,066.47 

885.65 

178.70 

60,884.20 



21,684.98 
4,992.77 



906.87 
1,689.83 



2,767.20 
10,141.98 
8,515.95 

8,003.16 



4,765.82 
29,098.06 
16,541.18 

2,544.00 



11,087.95 
19,026.85 
14,611.28 

2,299.66 



78,676.10 
786.49 
11,438.14 
11.680.82 
10,270.49 



31,U0.69 
13,6n.98 
714.10 
4,049.96 
7,999.02 
1,054.86 

280,732.76 

736.49 

80,068.11 

09.941.68 

44,988.90 



8,089.67 11,536.38 

Digitized by vjvjv^v i\^ 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



319 



Value of exports declared for the United States from the several consvlar offices in 
France during the year ended June SO, 1^97— Continued. 



ArticleB. 


Quarter ending- 


Total 


Sept. 80. 


DeaSl. 


Mar.3L 


June 8a 


LYONS— ooDtinned. 
Linen laoe goods 


I4B2.86 

8,285.82 
1,340.07 






$818.02 

, 8,048.44 
1,094.20 


«1.296.n 
41.258 15 


Macaroni .T 


$11,502.22 

2,028.68 

846.85 

13,216.45 

8,014.60 


$18,428.67 

nf,427.70 


Marbles for mosaics 


5; 890. 66 
846 36 


Medicines, patent 


Mineral waters 


6,502.30 

2,380.85 

104.70 


1,876.50 

2,043.70 

854.96 


88,984.84 
2,414.08 

100.88 
8.178.08 

284.10 

""■49;08i.26' 
248.28 


60.170.09 

9,863.27 

660.49 


Music instruments and strings 
Paiier, manufactures of 


Perfumery ^ 




8,178.08 
234.10 










Plantflj Hying , 




913.86 

780.64 

4,920.21 


824.48 
88,521.96 
2,280.40 


1,238.29 
88.833.79 


Potassium, cnlorate of 




Preserved fruits 


925.42 

148.42 

113,686.09 

7,746.14 

23,581.42 

2,017.15 

761.990.50 

49,470.40 

16,758.86 

299,199.68 

173,492.97 


8,819.40 
148.42 


Rausaflree.. 


Raw 


207,825.84 
30.209.77 
48,702.62 

491.17 

642,074.00 

186,620.58 

17,220.20 

862,476.33 

36,610.30 

65L80 

16,174.10 

1,208.14 

100.36 

28.641.93 

624.55 


287,786.07 
28,144.96 
56,tf0.22 

■i,'i46.'i47.'76" 

.244,700.78 

17,188.02 

646,726.72 

49.826.88 


212,468.86 
38.627.67 
68.248.52 

8,600.98 

1,062,907.65 

177,224.71 

19,960.06 

594,023.73 

110,620.56 


471,644.86 




104,727 54 


waste 


192,026.78 


'H^^«^Vft^^^^*»fa^ mufflers, 
and ties.., .7. 


6,118.80 
8.601.659.85 


Piece goods 


Pongees 


608.025.42 


Bibbons 


71.123.13 
1,902.426.46 


Velvets and plushes 


860,550.30 
651.80 


Skins, hides, and leather 

Tapestries - 


8,652.i5 
10.8n.l6 


8,848.72 
4,412.46 

"■'60,"766."d6' 
8n.58 


15,707.96 
767.08 
100.86 

15,948.73 


48,882.93 
17,348.84 


Whetstones - 


200.72 


Wool (raw) 




106,856.75 


Woolen goods _................. 




996.08 


Wines . 




126.45 


125 46 












Total 


1,571,106.29 


1,680,314.31 


2,678,235.49 


2,560,081.86 


8,496,787.44 






MARSKIIiLES. 

Almonds 






« 




161,208.20 
6,546.60 

195,026.25 

8,99L25 

525 20 


Asphalt 










A i*g<>iR and tartar 










Absinthe 










Beaux1t« 










Bulbs 










1,088.30 

110,960.95 

725.90 


Candied fruit 










Capers 










Cotton goods - 










2,244.85 


Chloride; 

Soda 










2,966.60 

20,666.35 

22,620.05 

1,964.50 

63,900.29 

1,314.90 

4,822.30 

6.704.65 

51,364.90 


Lime 










Cement ... . 










Cork 










Drugs 










Ebony 


.jk.. ......... 








Fruit pulp .- ............... 










miiai>^c^}f^\^n^ 










Glue ,.. 










Glycerin 










l«,778.flO 

647,860.65 

10,292 35 












Gum - 










WiMr 










61,096.40 


Hat<i . . , r . „ . . 










2,706 55 


Hides 










4,587.00 


Jewelry ... 










530 80 


Leather 










2,915.25 
418 30 


Licorice 










Liquor 










1,486.35 












60,143.70 
10,619.76 
5,380.60 
1 289 90 


MArblA 










Mineral water, natural 










Mosaics 










Ocher 










61,862.85 
8 647 60 


Oil: 

Castor 










Cocoanut . 










74,060.85 


Essential 










5,607.65 


MA/»h1n^ry 










20.145.80 


Olive '. 










105,351.25 


Peanut 










635.30 


Seaame.. 








^v< 


^15,883.76 



Digitized by ^ 



320 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Valine of exports declared for the United States from the severed consular offices in 
France during the year ended June 30, i^97.— Continued. 



Articles. 


Quarter ending- 


TotaL 


Sept. 80. 


Dea 3L 


Mar. 31. 


June 80. 


Pftper • •• •.•>>•■•■■■> 










$80,728.76 

L844.00 

25,641.80 

140,238.60 
87,173.60 
66,619.80 


Pease -— 




"■** 






Babbit skins \ 




















SeMS 










Soap 










Silk 










7,880.80 
29,600.70 
4,670.75 
1,014.90 
8,767.66 


Bnndrles 










Tar and Ditch ............ 










Tassels 










Terra alba 










Vermnth -r.. 










49,689.06 


Walnnts 










174,088.46 


Wine:....:.. 










8,24D.66 


Woods 










8,142.66 


Wood for pipee 










84,062.06 


Wool 


















■* 






Total 








3.966,667.67 










MONAOA. 
Spirits 








$679.86 
232.06 


679.36 


Wines 








232.06 












Total 








911.44 


911.44 












NANTES. 

Anchovies r-»-r. 


$718.18 


$1,028.25 

705.89 

1,305.44 

146.71 






1,746.88 
705.80 


Beans 







Books 


■ 466.79 


$1,206.34 


2,011.94 


6,080.61 
146.71 


Crackers 


Curios, Japanese 




193.00 
468.99 




193 00 


Chasnbles 1 .. .. 








468.99 


Calicoes 






160.46 


150.46 


Foie g^ras ... - 


11,467.05 


808.00 
621.68 


3,805.71 
664.67 


15 155 89 


Gtoms, Imitation 


1,051.06 


2,127.21 


Glue 


136.67 


136.67 


Locks 




861.12 
845.99 
2,927.85 
4,550.11 
4,947.44 
6,218.24 




361.12 


Mftcai'oni _,-,^.,-,^-, __,, 


848.40 
1,999.44 
1,522.74 
8,312.20 


230.66 

402.68 

3,124.06 

4,662.42 

22,068.46 

749.84 

176.44 


887.20 


i,m.i5 

5.269.82 


Mnnhrooms .». 


Mine orange 


4,5U.60 

20,816.74 

132.08 


18,708.58 
38 638 80 


Pease ....T...... 


Plants 


27,408.78 


Pig iiair. . 




748.34 


Porcelain, artistic , 








175.44 


Rosaries 






385.43 




885.43 


Bags - - 




3,951.15 

132,258.67 

4,971.68 

11,118.67 

"■■■2,"e88.'76 


2,680.80 

68,553.04 

10,340.44 

661.66 

787.06 

144.75 


6,481.96 


Sardines 


142,238.66 

46,590.50 

7,625.64 

184.07 

8,267.06 


44,583.13 
41.887.11 
16,954.60 

"""■2*"229."e8' 


387,628.40 


Sprats 


103, 789. 73 


Seeds 


36,280.36 


Silk 


921.13 


Wines. 


8,260.20 






Total : 


224,646.16 


190,438.72 


180,119.16 


111,928.22 


657,120.85 






NICB. 

Earthenware 


112.16 


118.28 






280.48 


Linen 


464.17 




464.17 


Oil: 

Almond 




75.61 
4»88L47 




76.61 


OUve 


6,816.61 


4,786.00 


10,212.19 
666.91 


24,644.88 


Paintings 


656.91 


Porcelain ware 






186.16 


136.10 




*'"■"**" 








Total 


6,427.76 


4,526.86 


6,384.36 


10,869.10 


26,206.58 






PARIS. 

Albumen 


61.23 
190.90 

8,704.64 

1.6.3 

256.06 

626.18 


94.88 
219.04 

10,062.14 




32.62 
267.07 

8,830.88 


188.73 


Argols 


889.87 
6,002.84 


1,066.88 

82,190.40 
1.63 


Art, works of (paintings, 
bronzes, statuary, and an- 
tiquities) 


Birds . ; 


Blacking 


214.71 
54».60 

9.39 


420.85 

659.88 

81.01 


884.04 
479.79 

Jigitized U.W^ 


1,«75. 16 


Books, prints, engravings, etc. 
Bootu, shoes, and manufac- 
tures of leather 


2,309.45 



EUROPE: FRANCE. 



321 



Value of exports declared for the United States from the several consular offices in 
France during the year ended June SO, i^97— Contiimed, 



Articles. 



Quarter ending- 



Sept. 80. 



Deo. 81. 



Mar. 81. 



June 80. 



Total. 



PABiCk- ocmtinned. 



Brandy and Uqnors 

Bristles 

Brnshee 

Battonsand trimmings 

Carriages 

Chemicals ^ 

Church ornaments and metal- 
lic trimmings 

ClodcB, watches, and material 
for 

Confectionery and chocolate.. 

Corsets 

Costumes and dresses 

Cotton goods 

Dogs 

Drugs and medicines 

Dyestuffs 

Fancy goods 

Featfiers and flowers (artifi- 
cial) and millinery 

Foiegras 

Furniture and household ef- 
fects 

Olaasware, china, earthen- 
ware, and tiles 

Gloves 

Olneand gelatin 

Glycerin 

Groceries 

Greece, tallow, and stearin 

Hair: 

Animal 

TT ntnAn ,... ._.. 

Hardware, macUnery, and 
manufactures of metal 

Hatters* goods, rabbit skins, 
and furs 

Horn fitrips 

Horses 

Hosiery and underwear 

Jewelry and precious stones. . . 

Laoes. crapes, embroidery , and 
veiling 

Liinen goods 

Macaroni 

Merinos, cashmere, and mis- 
cellaneous dress goods 

Musical instruments 

Optioal and scientific instru- 
ments f 

Paints, colors, and art supplies . 

Paper and stationery 

Perfumery and toilet articles . 

Pipes and smokers' articles 

Platinnm 

Preserved fruit, vegetables, 
and ©Uve oil 

Rags 

Seeds, plants, and clover 

Shawls 

Silk goods 

Sardmes 

Skins, hides, and leather 

Stones (nmlstones, marble, 
etc.) 

Upholstery goods and wall 

VanUhftandvaDiiiine 

Wine 

Wood and woodenware 

Wool and wool waste 

Woolen cloth — 

Yams --- 

All oUier articles 



fl82.70 
241.99 
946. M 
2,874.63 
57.94 
66S.61 

849.78 

497.47 

149.22 

887.68 

1,296.21 

809.86 

5.42 

486.88 

68.06 

4,518.73 

9,896.08 
2.48 

1,717.68 

1,254.61 

2,422.88 

269.74 

2,428.48 



$172.60 
268.84 
696.58 
810.87 
46.87 
410.24 

804.78 

1,299.69 
181.86 
471.09 
491.28 
491.67 
2. 70 
412.81 
120.56 

1,509.28 

6,192.96 
18.25 

1,058.47 

1,025.51 

1,829.05 

428.89 

2,409.15 



1285.56 

284.48 
929.86 

2,069.27 
15.21 

1,082.84 

849.88 

816.40 

125.46 

889.07 

1,232.48 

229.64 

2.89 

816.38 

49.47 

1,154.65 

13,685.81 



1152.90 
807.60 
990.88 

1,785.91 
217.60 

1,14a 98 

286.81 

608.79 
180.88 
864.86 
407.28 
209.05 
1.54 
421.82 
166.59 
8,068.17 

6,268.28 



889.84 

658.44 
1,996.62 

482.82 
1,878.29 



1,657.88 

1,022.56 

2,919.86 

242.72 

877.58 



7.44 

16.61 
107.86 

564.87 

2,875.60 

200.80 

26.05 

265.53 

2,560.45 

4,127.04 
472.41 



11.27 

18.90 
79.91 

540.68 

2,799.79 
160.17 



12.28 

102.01 
65.96 

588.91 

2,164.87 
186.54 



175.61 
1,865.10 

2,474.91 
220.96 



664.21 
2,111.51 

6,801.94 
168.45 



11.60 

12.35 
186.06 

751.48 

2,278.80 
268.54 
23.16 
608.48 

1,217.09 

5,208.02 
196.87 



9,045.82 
2n. 62 

1,811.57 
188.95 
190.35 

1,621.39 

66.16 

868.28 

571.82 

84.79 
118.84 
80.85 
1,458.60 
157.90 
1,684.75 

60.68 

2,496.00 
41.11 
58.88 
41.37 
57.18 
97.86 



6,189.01 
159.06 

1,010.44 
244.06 
267.45 

2,495.84 
21.71 
989.28 

656.12 

327.75 

1,660.59 

9.47 

978.96 

26.66 

3,848.11 

68.68 

1,364.67 
484.16 
96.26 
44.76 
101.48 



14,260.67 
180.28 

682.64 
285.58 
176.67 
2,834.18 
40.86 
720.85 

402.88 
769.41 
246.85 
53.92 
549.08 



4,677.62 

76.66 

1,354.89 

1,885.10 

47.96 

217.46 

708.88 



15,094.14 
462.84 

1,014.95 
272.86 
887.69 

2,933.19 
10.60 
657.20 

846.82 
1,023.20 
65.06 
108.52 
636.62 
87.86 
4,404.45 

89.83 

1,178.71 
186.78 
79.76 
125.69 
818.29 
807.68 



$068.75 
1,108.81 
8,568.91 
7,010.18 
887.68 
8,146.62 

1,240.66 

2,722.25 

586.90 

1,662.20 

8,426.25 

1,240.22 

12.55 

1,585.79 

404.68 

10,245.78 

86,064.60 
20. m 

5,822.77 

8,966.02 
8,667.91 
1,414.17 
7,068.60 



42.68 

149.87 
889.81 

2,440.89 

10,113.55 

805.55 

49.21 

1,608.88 

7,784.15 

18,106.91 
1,068.69 



44,688.14 
1,078.20 

4,029.60 
941.47 
904.16 

9,884.10 
189.83 

2,580.01 

2,477.69 
2,205.15 
1,966.84 

197.76 
8,623.08 

271.42 
14,614.99 

296.15 

6,896.87 

2,007.00 

282.88 

429.28 

1,680.88 

405.89 



1,978.20 



848.81 



266.95 



289.79 



Total. 



78,310.34 



61,212.94 



76,172.60 



78,991.15 



8,818.26 



284,687.02 



o B— yoL 2 ^21 



Digitized by %^yj\jwi\^ 



'6' 



322 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Value of exports declared for the United States from the several consular offices in 
France during the year ended June 30, i^P7— Continued. 



Articles. 



RHKIMS. 



Bnckles 

Beet-root seeds 

GaontchoQc , 

China ware , 

Corsets 

Cotton goods 

Dried vegetables and f arina- 

ceons snbBtances 

Drugs, chemical stuffs 

Fancy goods 

Glass: 

Glassware 

Plate glass 

Watch crystals 

Iron: 

Carriage attachments 

Steel printing designs 

Steel tubes and hardware. 
Lithographic,cardsand maps. 

Machinery 

Mineral water 

Musical instmments 

Silk, shoddy, and wool waste. 

Statuary 

Stra w caps (for bottles) 

Straw hats 

Tinfoil 

Wallpaper 

Wash blue 

Willowware 

Wine: 

Brandy 

Champagne 

Ordinary table wine 

Wool 

Woolen textiles 

Sundries 



Total. 



Card clothing 

Combs 

Dress goods 

Grease 

Leather goods 

Machinery 

Pins 

Plants 

Potash 

Thread waste 

Upholstery goods . 

Vestings 

Wool tops 

Wool wastes 

Wool yarns 

Wool 

Worked stone 



Total. 



ST. ETIENNE. 



Books , 

Bonbons 

Braids 

Button stock 

Cheese 

Chemicals 

Gloves 

Haircloth 

Harness (loom). 

Knives 

Lace 

Linings 

Locks 

Mineral water. . . 

Peppermint 

Perfumery 

Preserved fruit.. 



Quarter ending- 



Sept. 80. 



$m.8S 



1,828.07 

4,884.19 

ld4.64 

9,660.84 



17,613.84 
610.94 

1,682.67 

4,679.09 

686.24 

186.80 
1,188.67 
1,868.92 

283.66 



621.20 

228.80 

1,790.10 



766.02 



868.27 
6,486.00 

28.10 
668,862.26 



26,078.77 



643,827.62 



606.81 

619.40 

600,864.69 



1,263.67 
889.66 

9,062.42 

608.76 

62,191.42 



21,098.16 
12,688.74 
2,100.62 



001,789.02 



2.186.46 
2,840.00 
8,220.66 
7,086.66 



4,668.88 
■'"8i6."88' 



21,466.44 
299.16 



104.76 
488.68 



Dec. 31. 



1501.60 



8,813.58 
2,834.00 



17,467.00 

628.06 

27,910.86 

606.27 

1,709.78 
2,682.16 



1,282.04 
"■23i.'66" 



860.00 



1,286.66 
1,600.04 

219.88 

6,712.77 

61.14 

666.84 
2,138.68 
7,079.16 



1,262,679.92 
69. 4B 



20,002.20 
82.99 



1,862,699.88 



82.78 
"263 '886. 02 
ii7.'24 



6,968.96 
"66,"666."82 



12,818.88 
87,804.18 



870,709.88 



2,866.89 
4,846.84 
8,289.06 
16,804.74 



8,770.86 

■"i,d80.'8r 



18,018.07 
""166.21' 



7.785.66 



Mar. 



11,228.80 

4,246.00 

4,660.n 

6,189.11 

216.87 

18,961.40 



80,486.77 
48.06 

868.76 
2,018.91 



1,684.80 
"■i28.'84" 



600.40 
27,114.72 
8,616.12 



12,978.09 

981.18 

896.08 

2,210.40 

11,667.76 



679,266.97 



8,742.16 
71,860.80 



888,298.77 



670,314.16 



803.65 
8,488.02 



8,668.88 



66,287.77 
190.00 

20.674.90 

79,866.95 
686.88 

65,411.17 



790,020.83 



2,761.90 
6,267.22 
6,968.70 
5.129.77 

627.47 
2,977.41 

721.89 
1,470.04 

771.16 
80,992.09 



110.01 



June 80. 



$274.96 



2,214.05 
12,929.75 



7,824.19 



1.70 



2,871.60 

3,225.66 

770.62 

214.16 
1,040.90 



187.48 
135.64 



68,601.62 
1,128.98 



8,069.45 



291.96 
1,129.66 
8,410.82 



613,868.62 



1,471.28 

189,108.06 

1.68 



949,198.82 



1,875,660.88 

8,664.09 

286.60 

8,623.90 



.1,300.97 



69,022.67 

410.35 

32,863.09 

42,078.16 

336.10 

166,660.97 

671.44 



1.685,179.62 



123.73 



8,840.97 
6,821.46 
6,417.74 



"8,"678."07" 



191.94 
26,274.06 



178.70 
108.72 

•l-H^t+2@€l-feVALs3M« 



TotaL 



$2,871.68 
4,246.00 
12,617.01 
26,777.05 
860.01 
54,282.98 

028.06 

111,478.67 

1,266.24 

7,017.61 
12.665.71 
1,466.76 

899.45 

5,046.81 

4,863.92 

790.97 

136.54 

860.00 

1.111.60 

192,176.09 

8,009.24 

219.83 

28,641.68 

982.82 

1,689.80 

6,856.86 

83,488.22 

28.10 

8,114,172.67 

69.48 

5,213.39 

806,684.83 

84.92 



8,888,920.00 



619.40 

2,710,605.15 

3,664.09 

1,207.79 

7,011.92 

1,268.67 

839.65 

19,896.18 

603.75 

227,088.68 

600.35 

86,850.62 

172,438.08 

8,082.00 

220,972.14 

671.44 



8,467,699.85 



123.73 

7,808.25 

22,794.03 

18,274.76 

o4, 888. 81 

627.47 

24,994.67 

721.89 

8,817.24 

963.10 

96,789.65 

299.16 

570.62 

288.71 

106.72 

104.75 

8*866. 86 



EUROPE: GEBMANT. 



323 



VcUue of exports declared for the United States from the several consular offices in 
Franoe during the year ended June SO, i^P7— Continned. 



Articles. 



Quarter ending— 



Sept 30. 



Dec. 81. 



Mar. 81. 



Jane 80. 



TotaL 



ST. snBNNB— oontlnned. 



Projectiles. 

Bat traps.. 

Ribbons: 
Silk.... 
Velvet - 
Elastic. 

Stone (cnt) . 

Wine 



Total. 



Hosiery 

KldKloves.... 
Tlssne paiwr. 

Total.... 



IS, 801. 88 

40,145.18 

21,981.11 

1,288.74 



407.80 



17,882.88 

48,410.26 

40,628.01 

2,0H174 

1,961.86 



IS62.98 
2,666.18 

96,196.66 

26,006.80 

1,467.69 



$8,880.04 

86,669.97 

64,667.26 

806.88 

682.84 



1662.93 
24,179.88 

220,822.01 

162,164.68 

5,606.45 

2,604.70 

407.80 



114,600.88 



160,826.84 



182,818.26 



167,990.88 



625,820.76 



10,647.98 
107,910.87 



64,906.06 
74,906.88 



106,106.78 
148,110.78 



119,986.80 

64,801.17 

321.78 



801,737.57 

805,258.20 

321.78 



118,668.85 



180,068.44 



254,216.61 



184,608.75 



607,817.55 



RECAPITULATION. 



Calais.. 
Cannes. 
Cette. 



Cognac. 
Bljon.. 



Ijon . 
Orenoble . 

Havre 

Limoges 

Lyons 

Marseilles .. 

Monaco 

Nantes 

Nice 

Paris 

Bheims 

Bonbaiz.... 
St Etienne. 
Troyes 



$371,276.58 

76,771.80 

67,509.67 

99,440.60 

67,633.46 

806,178.20 

153,44L95 

892,005.87 

1,571,106.29 

478,701.24 



224.646.15 
5,427.76 
7,331,084.00 
643,827.62 
601,789.02 
114,690.83 
118,668.85 



$438,098.18 

201.606.60 

88,435.00 

160,048.78 

60,217.77 

255,035.97 

314,142.47 

322.046.91 

1,680,814.31 

1,032,461.46 



190,426.72 

4,625.86 

6.121.294.00 

1,362,609.88 

370,709.88 

160,326.34 

130,083.44 



Total 12,624,129.92 12,865,310.15 16,267,972.41 16,660,248.48 58,407,660.91 



$037,818.55 

197,820.81 

27,019.28 

318,651.89 

68,571.12 

278,241.95 

174,546.87 

268,700.38 

2,678,235.49 

1,449,860.68 



130,119.16 
5,384.86 
7,617,259.00 
883,296.77 
790,080.83 
182,813.26 
254,216.51 



$068,283.06 

276,674.46 

48,680.76 

189,686.20 

79,612.54 

854,185.51 

284,010.78 

380,755.60 

2,660,061.35 

095,654.80 

'011.44 

111,928.72 

10,896.10 

7,399,115.00 

949,198.82 

1,695,179.62 

167,900.33 

184,608.75 



$2,704,971.82 

762,869.85 

171,544.71 

776,727.47 

280,084.88 

1,193,641.63 

926.141.57 

1,373,606.85 

8.406,737.44 

8,966,667.07 

911.44 

657,120.75 

26,206.58 

28,468,702.00 

3.888,820.00 

3,457,609.35 

6S5,820.76 

607,317.66 



GERMAirr. 



OBNERAL RZ2PORT.* 



Owing to the short time allowed for the collection of material and 
preparation for the report required, I shall this time give tables of 
statistics, only where important changes exist compared with the pre- 
vious year; and, after a careful study of all material at my command, 
confine myself to giving, as far as possible, a short yet comprehensive 
survey of industrial activity and general tendencies of trade rather 
than repeat itemized tables. This description of the commercial con- 
dition of the German Empire shall be made, also, with a special view 
to its relation to the commerce and industry of the United States of 
America. 

Since a decided change has been made of late in our tariff law, I 
shall consider it of special importance to give, as far as obtainable, 
the views expressed by some of the leading manufacturing firms in 
the different branches as to the effect of the tariff change on (Jer- 
man industries and exports. 



^In response to circular of Angnst 10, 1897. 



vjvjv.'x^^ 



324 



COMMEBCIAL RELATIONS. 



GENERAL ECONOMIC CONDITIONS. 



The year 1896, and the first half of 1897, have proved a period of 
stability and prosperity to the German Empire, as shown in part by 
the decrease of emigration, which was as follows: 





1897. 


1896. 


1895. 


First half of year 


11,371 


17,101 
32,1S2 


16,474 


Total 


87,498 









Also by the steadiness of the average interest rate at the Berlin 
Exchange, which was, in 1896, 3.04 per cent, and in 1895, 3.139 per 
cent. 

The average price of 3 per cent Government bonds has been 99.22 
per cent in 1896, and 98.91 per cent in 1895. 

The following table gives a few articles, which can safely be con- 
sidered indicators of the industrial prosperity of a country, and which 
show an increase in 1896 over 1895 (with the one exception of gold, 
of which comparatively little is mined in Germany) : 

Production of certain articles^ 1895 and 1896. 
[In metric tons of 2,204.6 iMxmds.] 



Articles. 



189S. 



1896. 



Increase 
(+> or de- 
crease (— ). 



Coal 

Iron ore 

Pig iron 

Castings, wronght and cast steel 

Salt, from salines 

Snlphnricacid 

Silver* 

Gtoldi 



108,957,669 

12,349,600 

5,417,548 

6,083,814 

625,396 

637,928 

864,116 

7,830 



112,437,741 

14,162,815 

6,296,272 

7,260,727 

547,486 

590,888 

944,514 

5,483 



+ 8.1 
+14.7 
+16.2 
+19.3 
+ 4.2 
+ 9.8 
+ 9.8 
-29.9 



1 Silver and gold in American ponnds. 

The only decided decrease noticeable in any direction, is in the 
merchant marine, which showed January 1, 1895, 3,665 vessels of 
1,553,902 tonnage, but was reduced on January 1, 1896, to 3,592 ves- 
sels of 1,502,044 tonnage. 

It appears that the years 1893 and 1894 show the greatest activity 
in the German merchant marine, and that during 1895 a decided 
decrease took place, especially in small steamers There are no finished 
reports for 1896. 

The following tables of seven articles, in the export of which the 
United States is interested, show that the bulk of raw cotton, petro- 
leum, and maize come from America; also, that the quantity of 
the last-named article is largely on the increase, owing to its cheap- 
ness compared with other cereals, much of it, in one shape or another, 
finding its way into the bakers' shops: 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE : OEBMAKT. 



325 



Seven leading articles of import in 1896, 
[In metric tons of ZJXiL^ poonda] 



Articles 



Qtumtity. Value. 



"Where from. 



Wheat 

Rye 

Oats 

Maize 

Barley 

Petroleum.. 
Raw cotton 



TOfKB. 

1,662,705 

1,080,670 
485,064 
821.351 

1,028.136 

853,642 
281,489 



147,100,200 

20,349,000 
10,733,800 
18,876,400 
25,018,200 

14,232,400 
54,002,200 



16 per cent United States, bal- 
ance RasBia and Roumanla. 

Mostly Russia and Ronmania. 

Mostly Russia. 

68 per cent United States. 

Mostly Russia, Austria^and Ron- 
mania. 

Almost entirely United States. 

70 ^T cent United States, bal- 
ance mostly India. 



Imports of tlie same seven articles during the first seven montJis of 1897 ^ compared 
with the corresponding periods in 1896 and 1896; also showing part furnished by 
' United States. 

[In metric tons of 2,204.6 pounds.] 



Articles. 



1897. 



1896. 



1885. 



From 

United 

States, 

1897. 



Wheat 

Rye 

Oats 

Maize 

Barlev 

Petroleum, crude and refined 
Raw cotton 



687,978 
479,477 
808,164 
785,046 
527,922 
487,845 
188,400 



950.262 
662,129 
184,771 
448,694 
417,179 
450,200 
168,926 



779,280 
631,808 
148,260 
146,810 
600,864 
420,808 
200,609 



96,009 
80,138 
28,198 
607,798 
81,301 
417,051 
132,252 



The latest complete statistical report of the grain, potato, and hay 
crops of Germany is that of 1896, which is herewith submitted. The 
table gives the reader a general idea of the food crops of Germany. 
The figures from year to year do not vary materially, except in the 
hay and oat crops of 1893, which were remarkably small as compared 
with the average. The crop of 1897 would have been equal to, if not 
larger than, that of 1896, had not a very large amount of grain been 
seriously damaged in the harvest, by continued and very heavy rains. 
More especially will the rye crop of 1897, as also to a lessev extent the 
wheat crop, show a serious deficiency when all the reports are in, and 
since the adjacent Eastern countries, from which Germany usually 
draws supplies to cover her deficiencies, have also suffered, a very 
large demand will be made on the American surplus of wheat and rye, 
and above aU, on maize, as the cheapest food substitute, since 
America has now been blessed with three successive phenomenally 
large crops of that grain. 

Table of food crops of Oerm^ny. 
[In metric tons of 2,204.6 pounds.] 



Year. 


Wheat. 


Rye. 


Barley. 


Oats. 


Potatoes. 


Hay. 


1806 


3,006,385 
2,807,557 
3,012,271 
2,994,823 


7,232,320 
6,506,758 
7,076,020 
7,460,388 


2,317,884 
2,411,781 
2.432,918 
1,946,944 


4,968,272 
5,262,590 
6,260,152 
8,242,313 


29,278,132 
81,786,621 
29,049.238 
32,2n,851 


19,943,995 


1896 


21,001,621 


1894 

1808 


18,970.259 
11,400,787 






Averafi^ in last 10 years. . . 


2,754,270 


6,196,460 


2,275,484 


4,668,298 


26,191,282 


17,875,069 



Digitized by ^^JKJKJWiy^ 



326 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Consumption of the same articles, in Germany: 





Wheat. 


Bye. 


Barley. 


Oats. 


Potatoes. 


Crop year. 


Total. 


Per 
head. 


Total. 


Per 
head. 


Total. 


Per 
head. 


Total. 


Per 
head. 


Total. 


Per 
head. 


1894^86 

1805-96 


Tons. 
3,844,763 
8,884,094 


Lb8. 
164 
164 


Tons. 
6,687.830 
6,468,821 


Lbs. 
283 
272 


Tons, 
3,835,444 
3.063,409 


Lbs. 
142 
128 


Tons. 
4,907,696 
4,804,945 


Lbs. 
200 
202 


Tons. 
22,965,066 
25,7^,662 


Lbs. 
978 
1,084 



It appears that as the consumption of rye and barley decreased per 
head, the consumption of potatoes increased, while the wheat con- 
sumption showed no change. By reference to the table of compara- 
tive grain imports, it will be seen that during the corresponding 
period the maize imports from the United States began to increase, 
so that the cheapness of maize helped to effect a diminution of the 
consumption of rye in (Jermany, since rye is the bread of the German 
people in general, and particularly of the poorer classes, while wheat 
is consumed more by the wealthier part of the population. With the 
very deficient rye crop this year (much being in a damaged condition 
and only fit for cattle and hogs), the demand for maize must increase. 

Second only in importance to the general food crops of Germany, is 
that of sugar beets, which in 1896 reached the amount of 12,616,282 
tons. The manufacture of sugar during the twelve months ending 
July 31, 1897, not counting the sugar which was reworked, has been 
1,821,020 tons (in round numbers, 4,013,000,000 pounds), which varies 
but little from the production of the previous year. Sugar, as far as 
exports are concerned, takes the foremost rank of any article of manu- 
facture in Germany, representing 6.3 per cent of the total exports; 
woolen goods take the second place with 5.8 per cent, and cotton goods 
the third with 4.4 per cent, as the following tables will show. The 
export of raw sugar from Germany to the United States of America, 
during the first half of 1897, was, in anticipation of the tariff change, 
simply phenomenal, exceeding the total export of that article to the 
United States of America for the year 1896, the figures being: Janu- 
uary till June, inclusive, 1897, 308,462 tons; for the whole year 1896, 
304,154 tons; then followed the month of July without any sugar 
exports to the United States, and from special inquiries it appears 
that August and September will show little, if any. 

A comparison of other goods exported to the United States of 
America, shows that the main excess of shipments, in anticipation of 
the Dingley bill, has been in sugar, for, on comparing the shipments 
to America in July, 1897, with those in July, 1896, I find that the 
discrepancies are on the whole remarkably light, and almost evenly 
divided as between increase and decrease, on 9 articles there being 
a decrease, on 11 articles an increase over the previous year; the 
cause of this may be in the fact that the shipping of many goods 
went on as long as the tariff bill was under discussion. The greatest 
decrease appears in fine leather goods, wool and worsted goods, ani- 
line and other tar colors; the greatest increase in cotton socks and 
stockings, wool cloths, leather gloves, roman cement, and furrier 
skins. Later months will show the effect of the Dingley bill on the 
exports of German manufactures, as some shipments were made in 
July, in the hope of a slow passage of the bilL 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUBOPB: PRANCE. 



32t 



Imports and exports of Oermany during the year 1896, 
IMPOBT8. 



ArtldeB. 



Wool, raw 

Ck>ttoxi,raw 

Wheat 

Coffee, raw 

Qold, cmde 

Woolen yam 

Barley 

Leaf iobaocx) 

Gold, coined 

Rye 

Raw Bilk 

EpgB 

Horaee 

Woods and timber, not hewed 

Chile saltpeter 

Beef hides 

Coal, hard 

Petroleum 

Maize 

Lumber and sawed timber 

Cotton yam 

Copper, crude 

Linseed 

Building timber, hewed 

Lard 

Brown coal 

Oats 

Bran, malt, sprouts, etc 

Machines of all kinds 

Fur, hides, skins, also of birds 

Iron ore 

Caoutchouc, gutta-percha 

Wtne in casks 

Flax (not New Zealand) 

Oilcake 

Combed wool 

Palm kernels, Koprah 

Silk goods 

Hemp (not Aloe or Manila) 

Saltnenings 

Fresh flBh 

Jute 

Cows 

Clover seed 

Fruit, fresh 

Meats, fresh 

Floret silk, natural 

Malt 

Indigo 

Books, maps, printed music . . . 

Rice 

Sheep and ffoat skins 

Cotton goods 

Live beeves 

Other goods 

'Total imports-1896 

1806 

1804 

1806 

1808 



Value. 


Equivalent 

United States 

currency. 


Percent. 


MarkB. 






trr.inn,ono 


tlirt,430,fiOtJ 


5.2 


■r'i.LJlK.IIJO 


54.00*3(1) 


5.0 


vr. ,'Mti^Miiai 


iT.ltlTMJOO 


4.3 


lv.^ :!3NMiiii 


4,lfl6:l,+tnj 


4.2 


L'^i, HNk.iniJ 


3ti,(Jr^i:l.l3 


ti,8 


IHJiifju^i 


in.Wt.mi 


a 5 


H>^l«.,jo> 


li'i, Hi*t. aiu 


ZA 


Hti.*fitKiiint 


;j^.4i^,yotr 


£.3 


W tMijily 


2S.»*J<,1HU 


3.1 


KV,Vk»JNift 


is\imjm 


L9 


bllT'H^uKi 


Itl.ttfli^fiOO 


L8 


7n>l'H»Jii'R' 


l)i,ffl*KK1ft 


1.7 


7;>,«Mif.(.iii» 


17, iMt^, t«> 


L6 


rti.isji>jjii> 


l«.7it:,iXK) 


L.5 


f^r^iiMi.iHi 


ifi,im/jm 


L6 


(ll.;.l!l>JMi 


ujxnjm 


L8 


tU.llKMnKl 


UMhm> 


1.8 


r^.t wiKfitto 


u.£«i.4oa 


1.8 


rui :u*n'm 


i:i,!i7:..4«K) 


1.8 


r,7jM>.rioo 


Llf^WJOT) 


L3 


ri'i,iPiMjnio 


iaj.i-.aift 


L2 


Uiuyim 


j;i,iii8.ttf(> 


L2 


*':/^*um 


IKSSR^OfJO 


1.0 


4/1. r^iJino 


lO.8Orj.2O0 


1.0 


4rj,ai>j)(ij 


mjhijm 


1.0 


is,n»>jJOti 


ll^.l;ci.l^l^^ 


1.0 


i.'ijiii.ijili 


n>.7;i;i,KXf 


1.0 


flfi. liKViifMi 


RTdiiKK) 


1.0 


:ui siP» 14(1 


n.76a.«» 


.8 


;r».'Mi.iKii 


8, 544. £00 


.8 


:>i N^j,i*|] 


n,\si>sjw 


.8 


'U.i4Ulj4ti 


8,aH;.*.4ao 


,8 


:c;,'jn».Lii} 


7.ti*Lt)no 


,7 


:\\. (in.iMi 


"lATA.m} 


.7 


u^- :i*i.i!<:ft 


7.im/{tM) 


.6 


L.IMVNI ilKf 


7.iHA,im 


.6 


^^J^ V'^i.llW 


ti'^mjm 


,6 


LN'..Ti«i.iCIO 


a/mAW 


.6 


::,\ Trill ^i%i 


«, 11(1,1(1} 


.6 


^rMVUKO 


njistijiQu 


,6 


l^."».:^ii iW 


CJ^Jl.iOO 


-« 


:.n.'"*i,,w> 


r»,im,:^D 


.6 


^4. iiNJ.k«l 


f»,7:L\Hl» 


.6 


l£tJ><ii>,UUl> 


fijm.im 


.6 


ysj. w"i», im 


&.4:^i.lOO 


.6 


Kl.^XMKW 


fiAm.mi 


.5 


!f],H!IJ.itt» 


n.ic?LT<JO 


.6 


a<J. HIJIJ. 1*30 


i:x-in,iw 


.6 


LSll.TfXIJfS) 


4,v»tin,it)o 


.4 


l;V (INKilf.W 


i,ni7.;ii.D 


.4 


ID. UiMa/ 


i,Mr>.jiM) 


.4 


iii,i«Bi.<af 


4, rM5, HJJO 


.4 


l!'.il(.<l UK) 


Aj^jnX} 


.4 


iM.tKHi.UX) 


4. l:^), s*« 


,4 


l.J-.l Ir.. MO 


^"?\wr^w^ 


J?^'6 


4,668,000,000 


1.084,804,000 


100.0 


4,284,100,000 
4. 285, GOO, 000 
4,184,100.000 
4,227,000,000 


1,014,865,800 




1,019,949,000 




983.915,^)0 




1.006,006,000 





Digitized by VjOOQIC 



328 



COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 



Imports and exports of Oermany during the year 189G — Continuedi 

EXPORTS. 



Articles. 



Value. 



EquiYalent 

United States 

currency. 



Percent. 



Sugar 

Woolen goods 

Cotton goods 

SilkgoiSs 

Coal, hard 

Machines, all kinds 

Gk>ld, coined 

Gold, crude 

Coarse ironware, no polish 

Clothes, millinery, collars, and woolen underwear . 

Aniline and other tar paints or colors 

Books, maps, printed music 

Chromoe and engrayings 

Fine leather goods 

Woolen yam 

Glove leather, Cordova and Morocco 

Toy goods of all kinds 

Finelronware 

Coke- 



Poroelain 

Cotton, raw - 

Wrought iron 

Gold, silver, and colored paper 

Silver, crude 

Ironware 

Fur, hides, and skins, also birds' skins . 

Arms for war purposes 

Goods made of precious metals 

Wooden ware, fine 

Combed wool 

Pianos, etc 

Beef hides 

Wool, raw 

Fine ware of copper, etc 

Hops 

Sheet iron 

Zinc, crude , 

Gloves made of leather 

Artificial flowers 

Iron squares and special goods 

Grain and flour 

Paper and pasteboard goods 

Cement , 

Cotton yam 

"QlQQf 

Brushei "aU kindsl//. J- I"I " Illl 11"/..' "' ! 

Raw silk, colored 

Amber and celluloid goods 

Clothes, underwear, Slk and half silk . . 

Butter .• 

Furniture, common 

Flour, not New Zealand 

Cellulose, straw and fiber 

Stone, crude or hewn , 

Other goods 



Total exports— 1896. 
1806.. 
189i.. 
1886.. 
1892. 



Markt. 
286,400,000 
215.600,000 
106,300,000 

U2,ioo,ono 

121,900,000 
115,000,000 
100,600,000 
96,900,000 
94,600,000 
91,600,000 
64,900,000 
62,200,000 
60,200,000 
60,000,000 
44,900,000 
42.400.000 
40,000,000 
96,900,000 
86,000,000 
82,900,000 
82,100,000 
"^ "f^ 'W 
:^.4(Ji>j)00 
2;.fMkJ)00 

3K.X.II 1.1)00 
arN4(K>.<X)0 

;5LfNKf.()00 
^J.:5ii.fi00 
liLi^Ni.'OO 
L^J, liciJlOO 
2J.r^rKi.[i00 
au,8fKi,riOO 

IkfWKI.OOO 
t^i.<iiifi.JiOO 

lit. ]JNM)0O 
I'.HH^l 4)00 

I^.hnjjOO 

lN..^NKllOO 

iS.TcHi.iOO 

i7,;»^ii.iJ00 

I0,40f.tj)00 

]0.3«}.roo 
I5,nixjjj00 
ia.7iio,^wo 

l5,iajo. (oo 
isjauioo 

U.S. 10 J 00 
14J(?f>.Ji0O 
I4.(niji00 

12,WXrjiOO 

UU^jimOO 

i,av^,oJjihjioo 



8,763,800,000 
8,424,190,000 
8,051,600,000 
8,244,600,000 
8,160,100,000 



ITAStKiaOO 
51,11:i.H00 

3a,5:ti.400 
a0,fm«oo 

^,012.300 

i>7jmtjioo 

:5J,yi:i,hO0 
iy,U^.:»0 
22,4mj00 

;li,w*i.«oo 

I5.44fl,*0 

ll,047.t5OO 
ll.l*llrij)00 
lOjV'^i.lJOO 
lU.i't)].:X)0 
P.52U,fX)0 

J?,5«.S,U0O 

7JK»,K)0 
fl.l5Jf(,rO0 

ti. mi). :300 

e,37>t,4O0 
0,(145,200 
6.688. J^ 

6.5:n,tjoo 
a Jin, 600 
6,::^e>.koo 

rv.i-SiOO 
•t.1 *•■.'>.! 00 
4,7 Li, .too 
4,664.800 
4,545,800 
4,622,000 
4,498,200 
4,474,400 
4.460.600 
4,117,400 
8,927,000 
8,908,200 
8,855,600 
8,784.200 
8,738,600 
8,617,600 
8.593,800 
3,87»,600 
8,355,800 
8,382,000 
8.016.400 
2,975,000 
2,951,200 
299.523,000 



893,404,400 
814,985,800 
726,257,200 
772,214,800 
748,723,800 



6.8 

5.8 

4.4 

8.3 

8.3 

8.1 

2.7 

2.6 

2.6 

2.4 

1.7 

1.7 

1.3 

1.8 

1.2 

1.1 

1.1 

1.0 

1.0 

.9 

.9 

.8 

.8 

.7 

.7 

.7 

.7 

.6 

.6 

.6 

.6 

.6 

.6 

.6 

.5 

.6 

.5 

.5 

.5 

.6 

.6 

.4 

.4 

.4 

.4 

.4 

.4 

.4 

.4 

.4 

.4 

.8 

.8 

.8 



100.0 



As shown by above comparative table, the imports and exports of 
1896 exceed those of either of the preceding four years. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



EUROPE: GERMANY. 



329 



The following table shows the percentage of each country in the 
total amount of imports and exports for 1896, compared with the three 
previous years. 

Table showing per cent relation of the different countries to the total commerce of 

1896-1893. 

IMPORT PERCENTAGE. 





vm. 


1886. 


1884. 


1893. 


fl-T^^t Britftln 


14.2 
18.9 
12.7 
12.8 
5.1 
8.9 
8.6 
8.8 
8.0 
8.2 
2.4 
2.2 
2.2 
17.0 


13.6 
18.4 
12.4 
12.1 
6.4 
4.2 
8.9 
8.8 
8.4 
8.4 
2.8 
2.7 
2.7 
16.2 


14.2 
12.7 
13.6 
12.4 
6.0 
4.0 
4.7 
8.8 
8.8 
8.2 
2.4 
2.1 
2.8 
16.8 


15 9 


Rtuwia 


8.6 


AnstrlarHanKary 


14.0 


United Statee.... 


11.1 


Frftncft , 


6.8 


Belffiam 


4.6 


NettierlRTids . 


6.2 


PHti*^>l Fftfft Tn4liftj At^ 


4.3 


Itidy J 


8.6 


Switzerland 


8.6 


Argentine Republic 


£.8 


BrA7jl , 


«.0 


British AuBtralia 


2.8 


Other countries not over 2 per cent 


16.9 






Total 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 







EXPORT PERCENTAGE. 



Grp«t Britain 


19.0 
1^.7 
10.2 
7.0 
9.7 
6.6 
6.4 
4.6 
2.6 
2.3 
2.1 


19.8 
12.7 
10.8 
7.2 
6.4 
6.4 
6.9 
4.6 
2.9 
2.4 
2.2 
2.2 
16.6 


20.8 
13.2 
8.9 
8.0 
6.4 
6.2 
6.2 
4.9 
2.7 
2.7 
2.4 
1.9 
16.7 


20.7 


Anstria-Hnnsary 


18.0 


United States 


10.9 


NpthArlandff 


7.4 


Rossia 


6.7 


Switzerland , , , ....... 


5.8 


France- , .... 


6.8 


BelgiTim., ,. ,. , 


4.6 


Denmark , , , 


2.6 


Italy 


2.6 


Sweden 


2.2 


Brazil , 


1.9 


Other conntries not oyer 2i)er cent 


18.0 


16.6 






Total 


100. 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 







Thus, for instance, the imports in 1896 from the United States of 
America into Germany are equal to the total German imports as given 
in the preceding table; i. e., $1,084,804,000, divided by 100, then multi- 
plied by the United States import percentage given in the last table 
(12.8), gives $138,854,912. Likewise, the exports to the United States 
from Germany during 1896 are equal to the total German exports given 
in the preceding table; i. e., $893,404,400, divided by 100, then multi- 
plied by the United States export percentage (10.2), gives $91,127,248. 

Germany's exports to nearly all the above-named countries are used 
or consumed in the respective lands. From this rule, however, there 
are two exceptions. The Netherlands reships a moderate, and Eng- 
land a large share to the respective colonies and dependencies of the 
two countries. 

Comparatively young men remember the time, when the three years' 
military service taken out of the life of the young German, prevented 
him from attaining the highest degree of industrial handicraft, and 
made Mm frequently forget what in his most impressible age he had 
learned and attained in that direction. 

In those days, German goods were called in England "cheap and 
shabby." Nevertheless they were bought, owing to the first of these 
qualities, by English dealers, who shipped them to the colonies, and 



Digitized by "kjkjkj^llk^ 



330 COMMEBCIAL RELATIONS. 

insisted upon their being marked **Made in Germany, '* so as not to 
spoil the reputation of English-made goods by being mistaken for 
English fabrics. 

The diminution, of late years, in the time of service in the German 
army, and the necessity of Germany seeking in the several industries 
a recompense for her inability to compete in agricultural pursuits, 
have spurred and assisted her to become a great industrial and manu- 
facturing country. The labor of the Empire is better trained, and the 
goods produced of a superior quality, so that now the **Made in Ger- 
many" mark on the goods insures ready sale; so that the English 
competitors, fearing in consequence more direct competition in what 
they consider their commercial fields, now object to that mark. 

It is not possible to obtain correct data, but by considering the vast 
population of the widely spread dependencies of the British Empire, 
" on which the sun never sets," as compared with that of "the United 
Kingdom" proper, it is reasonable to suppose that a very large pro- 
portion of German exports to England is scattered all over the globe. 

Though there is a strong desire in Germany to foster agriculture, 
horticulture, and forestry to as great an extent as is consistent with 
success in manufacture, it is difficult to hold the balance between the 
producer and consumer of food (or, more correctly, between the large 
landed nobility and the workers in the factory) ; but it seems that the 
balance is steadily and surely turning in favor of the latter, and that 
the land is becoming a manufacturing country, whose working classes 
are comparatively well educated and trained to habits of industry, 
frugality, and close economy. Even in remote rural districts and 
little country hamlets, during the spare time in summer and through- 
out the long winter, the peasant population is employed in some 
handicraft on goods for export requiring considerable skill, like the 
hand manufacture of toys of all kinds. 

A glance at the table of imports and exports shows that the former, 
apart from materials for food and light for a somewhat overpopulated 
country, consist chiefly in raw material of all kinds, while the exports 
are almost entirely goods in a high degree of finish, in the production 
of which complete machinery is used and millions of workmen have 
taken part. 

One of the latest tables published gives the imports of Germany in 
weight of tons of 2,204.6 pounds (without valuation of the goods), and 
compares the imports and exports for the first seven months of 1897 
with those of the same period in 1896 and 1895. The totals are as 
follows: 





Imports. 


Exports. 


Jajmm to July— 


Tons. 
81,907,088 
19,741.998 
17,258,961 


Tons. 
16,068,807 


1896 


14,840,443 


1886 


18, 008,418 







It will be seen that there has been a continued increase in the amount 
of business done. The same set of tables gives some of the articles 
according to the countries of origin, but with the exception of bicycles 
and sewing . machines, mostly in a general way. Of locomotives, 
specially as such, there are none mentioned from America. Electrical 
supplies and scientific apparatus are likewise not specially mentioned 
as such, nor are boots and shoes, these items being included with other 

goods. Digitized by VJ^^^^v i\^ 



EUROPE: GERMANY. 331 

Some of the imports from the United States from January to Jvly^ 1897, 
[In tons of 2;K)4.6 ponndfi.] 



Articles. 



Quantity. 



Leather and leather groods 

Leather fflove, Cordova and morocco 

8ole leather 

Bicycles and parts of them (America furnished one- third of the total imports) 

Musical Instruments (America furnished one-third of the total imports) 

Sewing machines: 



Wi^ tobh?^^* f ^ P®' ^^^ ^^ *****^ imports American j 



Machines chiefly of wrought iron.. 

Machines chiefly of wood 

Machines chiefly of cast iron 

Meats of all kinds , 

Lard (nearly all from America). 



09.6 

44.7 
48.8 
139.9 
33.5 

616.6 

147.8 

618.7 

662.76 

6,419.6 

U,967.3 

45,45L1 



GERMANY AND THE TARIFF LAW OF JULY 24. 1897. 

When a great agricultural, industrial, and commercial nation like 
the United States undertakes and accomplishes a full review and 
entire change of its import tariffs, it is quite natural that such a 
change temporarily unsettles, to a certain degree, some of the indus- 
tries of other countries, especially those which exx>ort chiefly manu- 
factured articles. 

This effect is and will for a while yet be felt in Germany, but with 
her thorough knowledge of the industries of the world at large, and 
with her judicious and experienced representatives in all the import- 
ing countries, Germany will be quick in readjusting her industries to 
the new state of affairs, seeking additional outlets, diminishing her 
manufactures in some and increasing them in other branches. It is 
therefore not likely that the great changes in the American import 
tariff will be more than temporarily felt in Germany, except in a few 
branches which had been extraordinarily stimulated by the desire to 
heavily stock the American market with goods, previous to the 
expect-ed passage of the new tariff bill. This was especially true of 
the sugar industry, which had been stimulated by export bounties, 
and which will doubtless feel the change in the tariff more seriously, 
since 65 per cent of the raw sugar exported last year went to the 
United States. 

The German press, in the first heat of the excitement caused by 
the changes in the American import tariff (for a while the chief sub- 
ject of conversation in commercial and manufacturing circles), made 
all kinds of suggestions of retaliatory measures. Second sober 
thought, however, and more careful investigation exerted a pacify- 
ing influence, and reports received from manufacturers in reply to 
special inquiries show that the tariff will not seriously damage Ger- 
man manufacturers, except in a few special branches. The main 
idea now prevalent is to meet some of the changes in the tariff by self- 
protective readjustment here, rather than by retaliatory measures. 

This feeling has doubtless also been aided by the unfortunate crops 
of breadstuffs and fruit in Germany and the countries east, as well as 
by the light imports of meat from Russia, all of which make Germany 
for the next twelve months more dependent on America than in ordi- 
nary years, apart from her necessary supplies from that country, such 
as cotton and petroleum. 

It may be in place to add that the increased price of bread and 
meat has, in some cases, led to strikes for increased wages, and may do 



332 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

SO to a greater extent. The German workman has been accustomed 
to practicing the closest economy, and an advance in the real nec- 
essaries of Ufe is to him a very serious misfortune. 

The year ending June 30, 1897, has been for German industry and 
commerce decidedly favorable, largely because the anticipated change 
in the American import duties stimulated many branches of manu- 
facture to so high a degree, that the reaction from this forced activity 
is making itself felt in several directions. 

The following communication to the Deutsche Zeitung, from one 
understood to be well acquainted with the views held in leading 
circles, will be of interest: 

The desire expressed by the representatives of all the great industrial interests 
and the national press, for energetic action against treaty-breaking (vertrags- 
brtichige) North America is also shared by the Government. But the latter feels 
somewhat embarrassed when considering the general conmierce between North 
America and Germany. 

According to the views of those who can jndge best, we are dependent chiefly 
on America for onr imports of cotton and petroleum. Russian oil is considered 
too*heavy, and even if we could effect corresponding changes in the construction 
of our lamps, it is yet questioned in government circles whether the Russian oil 
would give the good light to which wo are accustomed. The alcohol light with 
the glow-light (Wels&ch) attachment has proved to be a jwrfect success, as 
introduced and fully tested in the imperial castles. But as long as the alcohol 
light can not be used without that expensive attachment, American petroleum 
remains indispensable for general home use. 

Though any effective retaliation in the main American exx>ort articles can 
thus hardly be considered, there remains a disposition, as far as can be safely 
done, to reciprocate the irritating commercial policy of the«Americans. 

To meet the arbitrary change in the sugar tariff, which seriously touches our 
exx>ort8; to meet also the attempts made by interested Americans to obstruct our 
sugar exports, on the ground of pretended sanitary considerations, on account of 
the Berlin blue or ultramarine used in the manufacture, our Government will 
with much better cause, and therefore more effectively, oppose the importation of 
American meats by extending the closest scrutiny to canned goods, owing to the 
insufficient American inspection. 

There is a disposition among the South American States, with the 
exception of Argentina (which has renewed its '*most favored nation 
treaty" with Germany), to enter into arrangements with other Ameri- 
can countries which would prove inimical to Germany^s commercial 
policy. There is also a strong tendency in the United Kingdom 
toward a "Greater England," a closer commercial relation with her 
colonies which would secure to her the preference of their trade. All 
this and the new American tariff have caused a desire in Germany for 
the formation of a central bureau, to gather information and under- 
take preparatory work for new commercial treaties. This bureau 
has not yet been fully organized, but will doubtless be before the 
next session of the German Reichstag. Some leading newspapers 
have made inquiries of manufacturers and commercial men concern- 
ing the effect of our tariff on German industry and commerce, and 
the replies have been printed as good beginnings for the information 
of the bureau when created. Here are some of them: 

Bemscheid and Solingen : Hardware and cutlery factories will be seriously affected. 
Of the latter, only shears and scissors may hold their place in the American market, 
and that only by continued improvements in machinery, to which Solingen so far 
owes its successful competition with the factories of England and France. 

Barmen: Trimming articles will not be much affected, but will be bought in 
America at higher prices, the consumer paying the difference. 

Crefeld: Cravat goods will hardly feel the 5 per cent advance in the tariff, but 
cheap silk goods will not be able to bear the 10 to 15 per cent increase. The same 
applies to the low-grade woolen goods of the Greiz and Gera districts, while the 
finer goods are expected to maintain their place in the American market even at 

uigitized by vjvj^^v i\^ 



EUROPE: GERMANY. 333 

the increased rate. If not, the loss will be made good by increased exports to 
East Asiatic countries. 

Lennep and Htickeswagen: The doth factories had already suffered much by the 
McEinley tariff and will not improve nnder the Dingley Act. 

Gladbach: Prints, closely woven, bleached, and printed, shared the fate of the 
cloth factories. Velours had fairly started, but the American print works have 
imitated the goods so successfully in many-colored Alsatian patterns that, with 
the high tariff, German goods have not competed for some time. 

Leather-glove manufacturing has seriously diminished, and Silesia reports a 
much reduced output, while in Chemnitz it is claimed that the woven and knitted 
gloves, made there, will continue to hold their place in the American markets. 

Manufacturers in Chemnitz and in Saxony in general state that the cotton indus- 
try, chiefly stockings and woven and knitted goods, was so reduced by the McKin- 
ley tariff, that the change made by the Dingley Act will have but little effect. 
One of the largest Chemnitz firms writes that establishments there would ox)en 
factories in America, if they could feel sure of some degree of x>ermanency of the 
present tariff law. 

Linen goods, especially the finer fabrics, after the surplus output has been 
consumed in America, will again be readily exported, though meanwhile some of 
the smaller factories will suffer. Lacework and curtains willbe exx>orted as before, 
also weaving and knitting machinery, of which the export will increase. 

All in all, the different writers report a conviction that the diminu- 
tion of exports to America will be made good by an increase in other 
directions, and that the American import duty on raw materials may 
assist Germany in finding elsewhere larger export fields. The major- 
ity take a hopeful view, especially as long experience gathered 
through generations of skillful workers counts for something, particu- 
larly in the production of goods of the finest quality. 

The enterprise of the manufacturer in Germany, which showed to 
such excellent advantage at the Columbian Exposition of 1893, is also 
shown in the manner in which he seeks and finds new fields for exports. 
He has highly intelligent representatives in all parts of the world, who 
invariably speak the language of the country where they attempt to 
establish trade, and who are successful in their competition with the 
traders from other countries. 

It may as well be stated here that Germany, even at this early date, 
is at work on elaborate preparations for the grand Paris exposition to 
take place in 1900, and will doubtless make a very favorable showing 
there. The United States should fully appreciate the importance of 
that exposition and be well represented, especially in machinery. 

The heavy exports from the manufacturing countries of Europe to 
the United States of America, in anticipation of the passage of the 
Dingley bill, especially during the second quarter of the present year, 
show everywhere an excess over the corresponding time of 1896. From 
Germany alone, during that term in 1897, the exports to the United 
States of America exceeded those of the corresponding time in 1896 by 
$13,000,000. This had a tendency to cause foreign exchange to be 
in favor of gold shipments to Europe. Since then, however, every- 
thing has assisted in turning the tide the other way. The comparative 
lull iij exports, the unusually poor harvest in Europe and the corre- 
spondingly bountiful crops in North America, which latter have found 
t'leir way by export even as far East as into Austria at veiy remunera- 
tive prices, also investments in American securities during their rising 
tendency — all these causes contribute to gold shipments to America. 

Germany, not being able to obtain grain supplies as readily from 
her Eastern neighbors as in ordinary years, will have to buy American 
grain, and unless the improved purchasing power of America, based 
on the good harvest and its very remunerative prices, makes her 
desirous of investing the proceeds of her grain shipments in German 

Digitized by ^^jkjkjwls^ 



334 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS. 

merchandise, the increased debtor balance will have to be accounted 
for in gold. That would cause the central banks to increase the rate 
of interest. Such tightening of the money market invariably pro- 
duces a dullness in business, which will be more deeply felt imme- 
diately in the wake of the period of overproduction for shipment to 
America, during the earlier part of the year, and may give rise to 
some strikes. But this lull in business is not likely to be of long 
duration, for the financial basis of Germany .is firm and her recuper- 
ative power strong and healthy. There is also no likelihood of care- 
less or hasty tariff legislation, since her conservative spirit is sure to 
rule in the shaping of her commercial policy. 

GERMAN CONSULAR REFORM. 

The need of consular reform has been urged frequently of late, with 
the particular point that while some legal and diplomatic schooling is 
of value, a good degree of mercantile schooling, and more than that, of 
thorough commercial training and experience, are indispensable requi- 
sites in consular candidates, in order to secure prompt and judicious 
industrial reports. 

A political economist of some renown writes on this subject: 

We do not know whether the consular reports are submitted to careful scmtiny 
in ofKcial q^narters; at all events such criticism wonld prove nsefnl. It would 
assist in satisfying a deeply felt need, in compeUing frequent information on sub- 
jects on which it is necessary to keep posted. Such as, for instance, any decided 
changes in foreign imports into countries to which Germany idso exports, so that 
Q^rman merchants and manufacturers may be well informed of any new or 
increasing competition and of changes in the demand for goods. 

If we carefully peruse and compare our consular reports, we find them of 
extremely uneven value, and also that the most voluminous are not always the 
most valuable. 

From other portions of the article of this writer, in which he gives 
extracts from the German consular reports, it would appear that the 
German exporters are more fortunate in securing bright, active, and 
intelligent men to represent them in foreign parts (at least in some 
cases), than the Government is in securing that class of men for the 
consular service. It would appear, also, that men of legal and dipl