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Full text of "A comparative grammar of the Anglo-Saxon language; in which its forms are illustrated by those of the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Gothic, Old Saxon, Old Friesic, Old Norse, and Old High German"



A COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR 



OF THE 



ANGLO -SAXON LANGUAGE; 

IN WHICH 

ITS FORMS ABE ILLUSTRATED 



Wt THOSB OP THB 



SANSKRIT, GREEK, LATIN, GOTHIC, OLD SAXON, OLD FRIESIC, 
OLD NORSE, AND OLD HIGH -GERMAN. 



By FRANCIS A. MARCH, LL.D., 

PBOr^SBOE OF TH,. BNOLIBH LAKGUAOE ANB OOMPAn.TIVB PHILOLOGY « J;^'^""= 

OOLLBOB, ATITHO. OK " MKTHOn OK PnlT-COCCAL SX^V OK THB 

BNGLI8H LANGUAGE," "AN ANGLO-SAXON UEAI.EE, ETC. 



A^ 



^S^'^^ 



M 



NEW YORK: 
HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 



PBANKLIN SQOAKE. 
1888. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1869, by 

FRANCIS A. MARCH, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of 
Pennsylvania. 




13/ 



PREFACE. 



The Anglo-Saxon language has been studied at Lafayette 
College for many years in the light of modern philology. It 
seemed necessary to print, for the use of its students, general 
laws of jjlionology and sjaitax, with tables of analogous para- 
digms, prefixes, sufiixes, and idioms. In preparing this outline 
for the press, love of the work has led me to fill it up into a 
Comparative Grammar. Other Comparative Grammars have 
discussed several languages, each for the illustration of all, and 
of language in general ; this book is an Anglo-Saxon Gram- 
mar, and uses forms of other tongues and genei'al laws of lan- 
guage only so far as they illustrate the Anglo-Saxon. 

The hope has, however, been cherished that the methods of 
Comparative Grammar might be exemplified more fully than 
they have yet been for our students, in connection \vith the 
early forms of our mother tongue, and that in this way the 
Anglo-Saxon might be associated with the modern Science of 
Language, and share its honors. 

If this hope should be answered, the book may serve as an 
introduction to the masters in whose light it has grown up — 
to Jacob Geimm, the greatest genius among the grammarians, 
whose imagination and heart are as quick as his reason and 
industry, and make his histories of speech as inspiring as poet- 
ry — to Francis Bopp, impersonation of pure science, who never 
spreads his wings, but who pursues his thread of thought with 
unfailing sagacity till he loses it in the islands of the Pacific 
—to Geokge Curtius, master of the new and the old, surest 
and safest of guides — to Pott — to Kuhn and his collaborators. 
Special students of Anglo-Saxon must spend their days and 
nights with Grein, whose Glossary of Anglo-Saxon Poetry 
first made possible a thorough treatment of its grammar, and 
to whom this work is every where indebted. Maetzner, and 
IvocHj, and Heyne have also been my constant companions. 



jv PREFACE. 

Schleicher, RrTkma.T, and IIoltzman I have used most in 
plu)iu)li)gv and etynioloujy, Bkokkr in syntax. 

There are a good many Anglo-Saxon Grammars. The Lat- 
in Grammai- of ^lfric, written in Anglo-Saxon, is a vahiable 
Ani^K)-8axon Grammar. Otlier grannnars, to the time of Kask, 
areniainly arrangements of the declensions and inflections on 
the ground of external resemblances, with outlines of syntax. 
Some of tliem are learned works. Rask classitied on the basis 
of tlie supposed stems, but with mistaken views. The real re- 
lations of the Anglo-Saxon inflections were Hxed by Bopp in 
fixing those of the Gothic. In German, Anglo-Saxon has a 
place in the Comparative Grammars of Grinnn, lleyne, and 
othei-s, and in the great English Grammars of Maetzner and 
Koch. The English still use Eask ; Iladley, in Webster's Dic- 
tionaiT, goes with Grimm. It is pleasant to remember that 
Jefferson, who started this study in our colleges in his Uni- 
vei-sity of Virginia, made an Anglo-Saxon Grammar. 

Labor has not been spared to fit this book for use. The ex 
ampleshave been translated; the citations made easy to verify; 
leading rules and groups of facts have been brought together; 
indexes have been made ; the resources of the printer freely 
used to make every thing distinct. Paradigms and the histor- 
ical discussion of them are kept on opposite pages, so that tliey 
may lie before the eye together. The t^'pe has sometimes been 
varied for that purpose, and spaces filled with matter not strict- 
ly in the plan, such as the changes from Anglo-Saxon to En- 
glish. 

I wish to thank William G. Medlicott, Esq., of Longmeadow, 
Massachusetts ; he let me take from his precious collection, and 
use at my o^vn home, Anglo-Saxon texts not elsewhere to be 
had for love or money. And, finally, all those who find this 
book of value should join me in thanks to the Trustees and 
Faculty of Lafayette College, w^ho were the first to unite 
in one Professorship the study of the English language and 
Comparative Philology, and who have set apart time for these 
studies, and funds for the necessary apparatus to pursue them, 

Frajsicis a. March. 

Easton, October 25, 18G9. 



CONTENTS. 



Section 

1. Introduction — Historical. 



Pag* 

. 1 



Section 

General View. 
10. Alphabet 

13. P unctuation 

14. Sounds 

15. Accent 

16. Classes of Vowels 

17. Classes of Consonants 

18. Indo-European Vowel System . . 

19. Consonant System 

20. Changes of Sound 

20. Laws of Letter Change 

Special Discussions. 

21. Classic Anglo-Saxon 

22. Voice 

23. Vowels — Anglo-Saxon 

26. Northumbrian 

27. Consonants — Anglo- Saxon 

31. Northumbrian 

Variation. 

32. Euphonic Changes 

32. Umlaut 

33. Breaking 

54. Assibilation 



PART I. 

PHONOLOGY. 

Section 



9 
10 

11 

11 
U 
14 
15 

18 

19 
19 
20 
20 



Page 

35. Assimilation 22 

36. Dissimilation 24 

37. Compensation 25 

Accentual Changes. 

38. Gravitation 26 

38. Progression 26 

38. Precession 26 

39. Ablaut 28 

40. Mimetic Changes 28 

Etymologic Changes. 

41. Shifting 28 

Figuration. 

43. Aphseresis 30 

44. Apocope 31 

45. Elision 31 

46. Syncope 31 

47. Ecthlipsis 31 

48. Prothesis 31 

49. Epithesis 31 

50. Epenthesis 31 

51. Metathesis 32 

Contraction. 

52. Synaeresis 32 



PART n. 

ETYMOLOGY. 



53. Definitions 33 

59. Classification 34 

Nouns. 

*0. Case Endings 34 



64. Declension 36 

67. Gender 37 

Strong Nouns. 
69. Declension 1 38 



vi 



CONTENTS. 



Oi. 



Tft 



Declension 2 44 

Derleusion .i 48 

Nortluinibrian 4i> 

95. Declension 4 ."SO 

Northumbrian .') 1 

100. Irrcgiilar Nouns r)2 

101. Proper Names CA 

102. Decay of Case Endings 55 

Adjectives. 

104. Declension Indefinite .^)G 

105. Declension Definite 58 

IOC). A'urying Forms 58 

119. Participles Gl 

121. Northumbrian Gl 

122 Comparison 02 

130. Proxocns Gfi 

138. numekals 73 

Verb. 

149. Definitions 77 

157. Conjugations: 78 

158. Erom.j\blaat 79 

159. From Contraction 80 

160. From Composition 81 

IGl. Tense Stems 82 

1G2. Mode Suffixes 82 



Soction 

103. 



1G4, 
lt;9. 
172. 
173. 
173. 
170. 
177. 
178. 

183. 

187. 
188. 
189. 
190. 

191. 
192. 
197. 
198. 
199. 
212. 
225. 
22G. 



227 

228. 



Di;RIVATION. 

Definitions 118 1253. 



Suffixes 119 253. 

2.30. Stems by Variation 122 ' 260. 

231. Formation of Substantives .... 123 j 262. 

240. Adjectives 125 1203. 

24G. Verb 126;264. 

251. Adverb 128I2G8. 



Personal Endings 82 

Paradii/iiis. 
Strong V^erb. 

Indicative Tenses 82 

Subjunctive Tenses S(i 

Imperative 88 

Infinitive 88 

Participle 88 

Potential 88 

Other Periphrastic 89 

Passive Voice 90 

Weak Verb. 

Active Voice 92 

Passive Voice 94 

Vaiying Presents 94 

Syncopated Imperfects 95 

Syncopated Participle 95 

Weak and Strong. 

Umlaut in the Present 96 

Assimilation 96 

Varying Imperfects 98 

Summary of Variations 98 

Table of Varying Verbs 99 

Irregular Verbs 112 

Northumbrian 117 

Weathering of Endings 118 

Preposition 130 

Prefixes l.SO 

Particles 132 

Conjunctions 133 

Interjections 133 

Composition 134 

Forms to express Gender 135 



PART III. 



SYNTAX. 



272. Simple Combinations 137 

278. Sentences, Clauses 1 39 

285. Figures of Syntax 141 

Nocxs. 

Uses of Case Endings. 

2S6. Agreement 142 

288. Nominative 144 

289. Vocative 144 



Accusative : 

290. In Objective Combinations... 145 

293. In Quasi-predicative 147 

295. In Adverbial 148 

Dative : 

297. In Objective Combinations. .. . 148 

302. In Adverbial Combinations... 151 

304, In Quasi-predicative 152 



CONTENTS. 



vn 



Section 

306. 

310. 
314. 
315. 
322. 

327. 
330. 

3G1. 

3o2. 

3G6. 
367. 
368. 
374. 
377. 
379. 
386. 
393. 
395. 
399. 



401 



Instrumental 153 

Genitive : 

In Attributive Combinations.. 153 

In Predicative Combinations. . 155 

In Objective Combinations 155 

In Adverbial Combinations... 158 
Uses of Prepositiuns. 

Rules 158 

Table of. 159 

Adjectives. 

Agreement 172 

Strong or Weak 173 

Pronouns. 

Personal 1 74 

Possessive 1 75 

Article 175 

Demonstratives 177 

Interrogative 178 

Reliitive 178 

Indefinite 180 

Numerals 181 

Adverbs 182 

Particles 184 

Verbs. 
Uses of the Verb Forms. 
Agreement 185 



Section Paf?" 

40G. Kinds of Verbs 186 

407. Voice 187 

411. Tense.... 187 

Mode : 

420. Indicative 190 

421. Subjunctive 191 

In Subordinate Clauses, 

422. By Attraction 191 

423. In Substantive Clauses.... 192 

427, In Adjective Clauses 193 

128. In Adverbial Clauses 193 

43.-). Potential 195 

444. Imperative 196 

445. Infinitive 197 

4.-)0. Gerund 198 

455, Participles ' 200 

460. Verbals 201 

461. Interjections 202 

Conjunctions. 

462. Co-ordinate 202 

467. Subordinate: 205 

468. In Substantive Clauses 206 

470. In Adjective Clauses 207 

471. In Adverbial Clauses 207 

478. Conjunctions omitted 208 

482. Principal Rules of Syntax.... 209 



arrangement. 



483. General Laws 214 

484. Predicative Combinations 214 

487. Attributive Combinations 216 

491, Objective Combinations 218 



493. 



495 
495 



Adverbial Combinations 219 

Clauses : 

Co-ordinate 220 

Subordinate 220 



PART IV. 

PROSODY. 
49R. Ehvthm 222 



498. Feet 222 

499. Verse 222 

501. Cffisura 223 

502. Rime 223 

Indexes of Words and Subjects.... 



503. Alliteration 223 

509. Common Narrative Verse 225 

511. Riming Verses 226 

512. Long Narrative Verse 227 

514. Alliterative Prose 228 

229 



ANGLO-SAXON TEXTS 

CITED IN THIS WORK, WITH THE LESS OBVIOUS ABBRE. 

VIATIONS. 



A drianus and Ritheus, Ettmiiller, 39. 

Alktelhirht, jEdelred, JEdelstan, Alfred, LL., 
Laws in Schmid. 

jEdclstdn, Alfred, vtrses about, Grein, i., 
352, 35T. 

uPAfric, Grammar, in Somner's Dictionary. 

^■Elfric, Colloquy, iu Thorpe's Analecta. 

Aimosen, Grein, ii., 350=;Religious Poem, Ex. 
46T. 

Analecta A'lVjh-Saxonica. B. Thorpe. Lon- 
don, 1846. 

Andreas, Grein, ii., 9 ; Verc, i., 1. 

ApolUmius of Tyre. B. Thorpe. London, 
1834. 

Azarias, Grein, i., 115 ; Ex. 185. 

St. B. = St. Basil, Hexameron. Eev. H. W. 
Norman. London, 1S49. 

Bed. = Beda, Historias ecclesiast. Anglorura. 
Smith. Cantab., 1722. 

Bed. = Beda, Historice ecclesiast. Anglorum. 
Whelocus. Cantab., 1644. 

B.— Beowulf, Grein, i., 255. 

i>ot'f.=Boc;/MM.5deConsolatione Philosophise. 
Curdale. London, 1829. J/e(. =MeCra iu 
Grein. 

Botschaft des Gemahls, Grein, i., 246 =^ Frag- 
ments,' Ex. 472-475. 

Byrhtnoth, Grein, i., 343. 

C.=Caednion. One figure denotes the line in 
Grein ; two, the page and line in Thorpe. 
London, 1832. 

Ch.=Chain:er. Wright. Percy Society. Lon- 
don, 1847. 

Christ (Cynewulf's), Grein, 149 = To -Jesus 
Christ, Ex. 1-103. 

Chr. = Chronicle, Anglo-Saxon. B. Thorpe. 
London, 1801. 

Cmit, LL. Laws in Schmid. 

Codex DiplovMticus Ang.-Sax. J. M. Kem- 
ble, for the English Historical Society. 6 
vols. Londiui, 1839-1848. 

Codex Exonieiuis. B. Thorpe, for the Society 
of Antiquaries of London. London, 1842. 

Codex Vercelleiisis. J. M. Kemble, for the iEl- 
fric Society. London, 1843-56. 

Colloquium. ^Ifric, in Thorpe's Analecta. 

Crxflas 7»an«a, Grein, i., 204 = On the En- 
dowments and Pursuits of men, Ex. 293. 

Cvdhcrt, Thorpe's Analecta, 52; Horn., ii., 
132. 

Cyrus, Thorpe's Analecta, 88 ; Oros., ii., 4, 5. 

Daniel, Grein, i., 94. 

Dears Klage, Grein, i., 249=Deor the Scald's 

Complaint, Ex. 377. 
Deuteronomy, Thwaites. 



Ddvies dseg, Grein, i., 195=The Day of Juflg- 

ment, Ex. 445. 
Durham Book. See Northumbrian. 

Eddgdr, Eddmuiid, Eddwine, LL. Laws in 
Schmid. 

Eddgdr, Eddmu7id, Poems, Grein, i., 355. 

Ecgbert, Confessionale et Poenitentiale, in 
Laws of England. B. Thorpe, for the Rec- 
ord Commission, 1840. 

Elene, Grein, ii., 105 ; Verc, ii., 1. 

Ettmiiller, Ang.-Sax. poetse atque scriptores 
prosaici. Quedl. et Lipsise, 1850. 

Ex.^Codex Exoniensis, page and line. 

Exod.=^Exodus, Thwaites. 

Fwder Mrc/)irf«s, Grein, ii., 347=A Father'' 

Instruction, E.x. 300. 
Fata ApostoloruiH, Grein, ii., 7 : Verc, ii., P) 
De Fide Catholica, Thorpe's Analecta, 03 

Hom., i., 274. 
Finnsbm-g Ueberfall in, Grein, L, 341. 

Genesis, Thwaites. 

Gnomici versus, Grein, ii., 339, 346. 

Grein, Bibliolhek der angelsiichsischen poe- 
sie in kritisch bearbeiteten Texten nnd mit 
vollstiindisem Glossar herausgegeben von 
C. W. M. Grein, Dr. Phil. Cassei^and Goet- 
tingen, 1857-1864. 

Graff, E. G., Althochdeutscber Sprachschatz, 
etymol. nnd gramraatisch bearbeitet. Ber- 
lin, 1S34+. 

St. Gregorius, Thorpe's Analecta, 44 ; Hom., 
ii., 116. 

Giid.=Giidldc, Grein, ii., 71=The Legend of 
St. Guthlac, Ex. 104, 107. 

S<. G!.=Life of Guthlac. Goodwin. London, 
1848. 

Heptateuch, Thwaites. 

Hickes, Ling.Vett. Septentrionalium Thesau- 
rus. Oxon., 1703-1705. 

Hloctare, LL. Laws in Schmid. 

Hollenfahrt, Christi, Grein, i., 191=The Har- 
rowing of Hell, Ex. 4.59. 

flom.=Homilies of iElfric. B. Thorpe, for 
the .^Ifric Society. London, 1844. 

Hymns, Grein, ii., 280. 

Ine, LL. Laws in Schmid. 

Job, Thwaites ; Hom., ii., 446. 

John, Thorpe or Northumbrian. 

Jnsuf, Thwaites. 

j!<fW/i, Grein, i., 120; Thwaites; Thorpe's 

Analecta, 141 ; Ertmuller, 140. 
Juliana, Grein, ii., 52 ; Ex. 242. 



KUifif der Fran, Grcin, i., 245=The Exile's 

Coiiiplaint, Ex. 441. 
Klh'.-'tiin, L. F., Aualecta Aug. -Sax. 2 vols. 

Nt>\v York, liSftti. 
Kreiu, Diis heiii^c, GrcLn, li., 143=;Tho lloly 

Kood, Verc, ii., sa. 

Lavanioii, Brut Miiddcn. 3 vols. London, 

LL. — L:\\\s in Schmid, q. v., or Thorjte. An- 
cient Laws and Institutes of Knjrland.eic. 
2 vols. For llie Heeord Commission, 1840. 

Lftrliiliims, etc., Kev. O. Cockayne. 8 vols. 
London, l!S(">4-(k». 

Bi mannA /«'rt.sv, Grein, ii., 142=iA Fragment, 
moral and religions, Verc, ii., 79. 

Let', II., Alt- uniT Augelsiicusische Sprach- 
probeu. Halle, ISas. 

Z,i/*-^if.=Luke. Thorpe or Northumbrian. 

3/rf.=:Marc. Thorpe or Northumbrian. 

Miiltlicir. Thorpe, North., or Kemble. Cam- 
bridge, ISSS. 

3L-uiil(ifjiinii, Grcin, ii., 1, or Hickes. 

J/cf.-— Alfred's Meters of Boethius, Grein, ii., 
'2«.i5. 

M6i1 mannd, Groin, i., 210=Monitory Poem, 
Ex. 313. 

Xeot., S/.,Life of, in the Hist, and Antiq. of 
Eyuesbury and St. Neot's. G. C. Gorham, 
Loudon, 1S20. 

l^'icodemus, Gospel of, Thwaites's Hepta- 
teuch. 

Nortlntmbrian Gospels. C. G. Bouterwek. 
Giitersloh, 1S5T. Surtees, 1S54-1SG3. 

Numbers, Thwaites. 

Orm.=Ormulum, R. M. White. 2 vols. Ox- 
ford, 1S5-2. 
Oros.=Oroitius, Bosworth. London, 1S59. 

Panther. Grein, i., 233 ; Ex. 355. 

Pharao. Greni, ii.,350=A Fragment, Ex. 46S. 

Phoenix, Grein, i., 215; Ex. 197. 

Psalms, Grem, ii., 147. 

Thorpe. Oxonii, 1S35. 

Spelman. Londini, 1640. 

Surtees Society. London, 1843-44. 
P. T. S.=Popular Treatises of Science. T. 
Wright. Loudon, 1S41. 



Ii. ff.^Robert of Gloucester. Th. Hearne. 

Londou, ISJlO. 
liehhulin, Grein, i., 237 = A Fragment, Ex. 

HC..'). 
lii'iiiilied, Grein, ii., 137=:Riming Poem, Ex. 

IWi. 
Richthufen, K. von., Altfriesisches Wiirter- 

btich. CJoetlingen, 1S40. 
liiddlii) = Kaetsel, Grein, ii., 369 ; Ex. 470, 

etc. 
likiier, Alt- uud angelsiichsisches Lesebuch. 

Qiesseu, ISGl. 
Ruim; Grein, i., 248=The Ruin, Ex. 476. 
Runeidied, Grein, ii., 351. 

Salomon und Saturn, Grein, ii, 354 ; J. M. 

Kemble, for the .^Ifric Society. Loudon, 

1S4S. 
Satan (Crist uud Satan), Grein, i., 129. 
Schmid, Die Gesetze der Augelsachseu. Leip- 
zig, 1S6S. 
Sci eadunqa A nq -Sax., K. G. Bouterwek. El- 

berfeldae, 18r;S. 
Seafarer (Seefahrer), Grein, i., 241, Ex. 306. 
Seelen. Reden der, Grein, i., 198-.r;A departed 

Soul's address to the Body, Ex. 3G7. 
Somner, Dictioiiarium Sax.-Lat.-Angl. Ac- 

cesseruut yEl/rir.i abbatis grammaticaLa,t.- 

Sax. Oxouii, 1059. 
St. iB.=St. Basil. See Basil. 
St. O. See Gutlddc. 

Thorpe, B., The Anglo-Saxon version of the 

Holy Gospels. London, 1842. See also 

Analecta and LL. 
Thwaites, Edw., Heptateuchns, Liber Job, et 

evangelium Nicodenii, Historise Judith 

fragmeutum. Oxoniae, KWS. 
Traveler's Song—VUlsid^The Scop's Tale, 

Grein, i., 251, Ex. 318. 

Vcrcellensis Codex. See Codex Verc. 

Manna pyrde, Grein, i., 207=On the various 
Fortunes of Men, Ex. 327. 

Waljii^h, Grein, i., 235=Whale, Ex. 360. 
Wanderer, Grein, i., 238; Ex. 280. 
ir7'rf= VUMd. See Traveler's Song. 
Wunder der schnpfimc/, Grein, i., 213 = The 
Wonders of the Creation, Ex. 346. 



V prefixed, marks a root ; — prefixed, marks a Piiffix ; - snfflsed, marks a prefix or stem ; 
+ suffixed to the number of a pace or section means and the folloim'nfj, elsewhere + means 
tofiether with; <[ or > is placed between two words when one is derived from the other, 
the angle pointing to the derived word : < may be read .from, > whence; = means eijvJr- 
alent to; : means afcm to; over words indicates that they are to be treated in some re- 
spect as one. 



LANGUAGES OFTENEST MENTIONED. 



.4.-S.=Aiiglo-Saxon. 

Celtic. 

Danish. 

Dutch. 

English. 

French. 

Friesic. 

German. 

Gothic. 

Greek. 

^.=High. 

Indo-European. 



Irish. 

Italian. 

/v.=Low. 

Latin. 

Lettic. 

Lithuanic. 

3f.=Middle. 

Norman. 

Norse. 

0.=01d. 

O. Fries.— OM Friesic. 

0. H. G.^Old High German. 



See page 3. 

O. A'.=01d Norse. 

O. .S'.=01d Saxon. 

P. .S'.= Parent Speech. 

Romaic. 

Romanic. 

Sanskrit. 

Saxon. 

Scandinavian. 

Semi-Saxon. 

Slavonic. 

Swedish. 

Welsh. 



GRAMMATICAL HELPS. 



^/ 



JB?fnc.— Grammar, iu Somner's Dictionary. 
Becker, K. F.— Organism. Frankf. a. M., 1S41. 
Berrfi'ii, T/i. — Griechisches Wurzellexikon. 

Berlin, 1839,1842. 
Benfeii, Th. — Sanskrit Grammar. London 

and' Berlin, 1S63. 
Bopp, F. — Vergleichenrle Grammatik. 2 

Ausgabe. Berlin, 1857-61. 
Bopp, jP.— Glossarium Sanscritnm. Ed. ter- 

tia. Berlin, 1807. 
Bosivorth, J'.— The Elements of the Anglo- 
Saxon Grammar. Loudon, 1823. 
Bosworth, J.— A Dictionary of the Ang.-Sax. 
Language, etc., etc., with the Essentials of 
Anglo-Saxon Grammar. London, 1838. 
Bouterwek, K. W. — Die Vier Evar.gelien in 
alt-nordhumbrischer Sprache. Giitersloh, 
1857. The Introduction has a learned dis- 
cussion of the Northumbrian dialect. 
Child, F. (?.— Observations on the Language 
of Chaucer and Gower. Mem. Amer. Acad., 
1S62, 1866, and in Ellis's Early English Pro- 
nunciation. London, 1SG9. 
Corssen, TT.— Kritische Beitriige znr lat. For- 

menlehre. Leipzig, 1S63. 
Corssen, W.— I'eber Aussprache, Vokalismus 
und Betonung der lat. Sprache. Leipzig, 
1859. 
Crosby, .4.— Greek Grammar. 4th edition. 

Boston, 1&48. 
CurtiitSjOeorg. — Grundziige der griechischen 

Etymologic. 2 Auflage. Leipzig, 1866. 
Curtiim, Georg. — De Nomiuum Grsecorum 

formatioue. Berlin, 1842. 
Curtiiis, Georg. — Griechische Schulgramma- 

tik. 7 Auflage. Prague, 1866. 
De Vere, M. Scheie.— Ouilmes of Comp. Phil. 
N.Y.,1853. Studies in English. N.Y.,1866. 
Die/enbach. I/.— Vergleichendes Wiirterbuch 
der gothischen Sprache. Frankfurt a. M., 
1851. 
Dietrich, Prof. Fr., in Haupt's Zeitschrift. 
Diez, F. — Grammatik der Romanischen Spra- 

chen. Bonn, 1856-1860. 
EUstob, Elizabeth.— The Rudiments of Gram- 
mar for the English-Saxon Tongue, first 
given in English,"etc., etc. London, 1715. 
Ettvmller, Z/.— Lexicon Anglosaxonicum cum 
8YNOP8I QEAMMATioA. (^uedliub. et Lips., 
1S51. 
Folder, W.C. — The English Language. N. 

Y., 1864. 
Grein, C. W. M. — Sprachschatz der angel- 
sachsischen Dichter. Cassel and Gottin- 
gen, 1861-1864. 
Grein, C. IF. JIf.— Ablaut, Reduplication, etc. 

Cassel and Guttingen, 1862. 
Grimm, J. — Deutsche Grammatik. Gottin- 

gen, 1819-1840. 
Grimm, J. — Gesch. der dentschen Sprache, 

Leipzig, 1853. 
Gtuuit, £.— English Rhythms. Lond., 1838. 
Hadley, J. — A Greek Grammar for Schools 

and Colleges. New York, 1864. 
Hadley, J. — A brief History of the English 
Language, in Webster's Dictionary, edition 
of 1865. 
Eatdeman, S. S. — Analytic Orthogi'aphy. 
Philadelphia, 1860. 



Harkness, A.—K Latin Grammar for Schools 

and Colleges. New York, 1805. 
Haupt, J/.— Zeitschrift fiir deutsches Alter- 

thum. Leipzig, 1841+. 

Heyne, M.-Kmlze Laut- und Flexionslehre 

der altgermanischeu Sprachstiimme. Pa- 

derborn, 1862. 

Hickes, G. — lustitationes Grammaticae Anglo- 

Saxonicse et Mreso-Gothicaj. OxouiiB, 1088. 

Holtzman, A. — Ueber deu Umlaut. Carls- 

ruhe, 1843. 
Holtznuin, A. — Ueber den Ablaut. Carls- 

ruhe, 1844. 
Klipstein, L. F. — A Grammar of the Anglo- 
Saxon Language. New York, 1853. 
Koch, C. F. — Historische Grammatik der en- 
glischen Sprache. Weimar, 1863 ; Cassel 
and Gotting., 1865 ; and is still unfinished. 
Kuhn, Adalb. — Zeitschrift fiir vergleichende 
Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete des 
Deutschen, Griechischen undLateinischen. 
Berlin, 1852-(-. 
Kuhn, Adalb. — Beitriige znr vergleichenden 
Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der ari- 
schen, celtischen, und slawischen Sprachen, 
herausgegebeu von Kuhn und Schleicher. 
Berlin, 18.58-)-. 
Latham, R. (?.— The English Language. 4th 

edition. London, 1855. 
Liining, U. — Die Edda. Mit altnordischer 

Grammatik, etc. Zurich, 1859. 
Maetzner, Ed. — Englische Grammatik. Ber- 
lin, 1860-1865. 
Marsh, G. P.— The English Language and its 

early Literature. New York, 1802. 
Massmann, H. F. — Ulfilas. Mit sprachlehre, 

etc. Stuttgardt, 1857. 
Meyer, Leo. — Vergleichende Grammatik der 
griechischen und lateinischen Sprache. 
Berlin, 1861-1865. 
Midler, Max. — Lectxires on the Science oi 

Language. Loudon, 1861. 
Midler, Max.— Second Series. London, 1864. 
" " A Sanskrit Grammar for Be- 
ginners. London, 1866. 
Pott, A. i^. — Etymologische Forschungen 
auf dem Gebiete der Indo-Germanischen 
Sprachen. Lemgo, 1833+. 
Bask, Erasmus. — A Grammar of the Anglo- 
Saxon Tongue, etc. Transl. from the Dan- 
ish by B.Thorpe. Copenhag., 1830; Lon- 
don, 1805. 
Rumpelt, H. B. — Deutsche Grammatik. Mit 
Riicksicht auf vergleichende Sprachfor- 
schung. Erster Theil. Berlin, 1860. 
Schleicher, Aug. — Compendium der ver- 
gleichenden Grammatik der Indo-German- 
ischen Sprachen. Weimar, 1862 ; 2d ed., 
1866. 
Schmeller, J. A. — Heliand oder die altsiichs- 
ische Evangelien-Harmonie. Mit Wiirter- 
buch und Gramviatik. Mon., Stuttg., et 
Tubings, 1840. 
Schubert, H.—A.-S. Arte Met. Berlin, 1870. 
Somner. See Anglo-Saxon Texts. 
Whitiuiy, W. 7). —Language and the Study of 

Language. New York, 1867. 
Wilsori, H. a— Sanskrit Grammar for early 
I Students. Loudon, 1841. 



INTRODUCTION. 



1. During the fifth and sixth centuries, England was conquer- 
ed and peopled by pagans (Saxons, Angles, Jutes, etc.) from the 
shores of the North Sea ; the center of emigration was near the 
mouth of the Elbe. The conquerors spoke many dialects, but 
most of them were Low German. Missionaries were sent from 
liome (A.D. 597) to convert them to Christianity. The Roman 
alphabetic writing was thus introduced, and, under the influence 
of learned native ecclesiastics, a single tongue gradually came into 
use as a literary language through the whole nation. The chief 
seat of learning down to the middle of the eighth century was 
among the Angles of Northumberland. The language was long 
called Englisc (English), but is now called Anglo-Saxon. Its Au- 
gustan age was the reign of Alfred the Great, king of the West 
Saxons (A.D. 871-901). It continued to be written till the col- 
loquial dialects, through the influence of the Anglo-Norman, had 
diverged so far from it as to make it unintelligible to the people ; 
then, under the cultivation of the Wycliftite translators of the Bi- 
ble, and of Chaucer and his fellows, tliere grew out of these dia- 
lects a new classic language — the English. 

2. The spelling in the manuscripts is irregular, but the North- 
umbrian is the only well-marked dialect of the Anglo-Saxon, as 
old as its classic period (10th century), which has yet been ex- 
plored. The Gospels and some other works have been printed in 
it. The common Anglo-Saxon is sometimes called West-Saxon. 

3. After the period of pure Anglo-Saxon, there was written an 
irregular dialect called Semi-Saxon. It has few strange Avords, 
but the inflections and syntax are broken up (12th century). 

4. The former inhabitants of Britain were Celts, so unlike the 
invaders in race and speech, and so despised and hated, that they 
did not mix. There are in the Anglo-Saxon a handful of Celtic 
common names, and a good many geographical names : the rela- 
tion of the Celtic language to the Anglo-Saxon is like that of the 
laiii,Miages of the aborigines of America to our present English. 

A 



2 INTRODUCTION. • 

5. The Aufjlo-Saxoii w:is ^h:lIH'll to literary use by men who 
Avrote niul spoke Latin, and lho\i<;ht it an ideal language; and a 
largo part of the literature is translated or imitated from Latin 
authors. It is not to bo doubted, therefore, that the Latin exer- 
cised a threat influence on the Anglo-Saxon : if it did not lead to 
the introduction of wholly new forms, either of etymology or 
syntax, it led to the extended and uniform use of those forms 
■which arc like the Latin, and to the disuse of others, so as to 
draw the grammars near each other. There are a considerable 
Tiiitnber of words from the Latin, mostly counecicd with the 
Cliuivli ; three or four through the Celts from the elder Romans. 
G. There are many words in Anglo-Saxon more like the words 
of the same sense in Scandinavian than like any words which we 
fmd in the Germanic languages ; but the remains of the early dia- 
lects are so scant that it is hard to tell how far such words were 
borrowed from or modified by the Scandinavians. Before A.D. 
900 many Danes had settled in England. Danish kings afterward 
ruled it (A.D. 1013-1042). Their laws, however, are in Anglo- 
Saxon. The Danes were illiterate, and learned the Anglo-Saxon. 
Of course their pronunciation w^as peculiar, and they quickened 
and modified phonetic decay. It is probable that they aifected 
the spoken dialects which have come up as English more than the/ 
written literary language which we call Anglo-Saxon. 

7. The other languages sprung from the dialects of Low Ger- 
man tribes are Friesic, Old Saxon, and, later, Dutch (and Flem- 
ish), and Piatt Deutsch. The talk in the harl)ors of Antwerp, 
, Bremen, and Hamburg is said to be olten mistaken by English 
I sailors for corrupt English. These Low German languages are 
akin to the High German on one side, and to the Scandina- 
vian on the other. These all, with the Moeso-Gothic. constitute 
the Teutonic class of languages. This stands parallel with the 
Lithuanic, the Slavonic, and the Celtic, and with the Italic, the 
Hellenic, the Iranic, and the Indie, all of which belong to the 
Indo-European family of languages. The parent speech of this 
tamily is lost, and has left no literary monuments. Its seat has 
been supposed to have been on the heights of Central Asia. The 
Sanskrit, an ancient language of India, takes its place at the hea^ 
of the fomily. Theoretical roots and forms of inflection are given 
by grammarians as those of the Parent Speech, on the ground 
that they are such as might have produced the surviving roots 
and forms by known laws of change. 



INTRODUCTION. 



3 2 1 



8. The following stem shows the order in which these classes 
branched, and their relative age and remoteness from each other. 
At the right is given the approximate date of the oldest literary 
remains. The languages earlier than these remains are made out 

like the Parent Speech ; that is, 
roots and forms are taken for the 
language at each period, which 
will give the roots and forms of 
all the languages which branch 
from it, but not those peculiar to 
the other languages. 

A. Iiulo-Euiopoan. Parent Speech. 




Indie. B.C. 1500. Sanskrit Vedas. 
Iranic. B.C. 1000. Bactrian Avesta. 
Hellenic. Before B.C. 800. Greek. 
Italic. B.C. 200. Latin. 
Teutonic. 4tii Century. Moeso-Gothic 

Bible. 
<^eltic. 8th Century. 
Slavonic. 9th Century. Bulgarian 

Bible. 
Lithuanic. 16th Centui-v. 



9. The following stem shows the manner in which the lan- 
guages of the Teutonic class branch after separating from the 
Slavonic. The Gothic (Moeso-Gothic) died without issue ; the 
Low German is nearer akin to it than the High German is. The 
branches of the Scandinavian (Swedish, 
I -fc Danish, Norwegian) are not represented. 



A. Teutonic. Theoretic. 

a. Gothic. 4th Century. » 

b. Germanic. Theoretic. 

c. Scandinavian. 13th Century. 

d. High German. 8th Century. 

e. Low German. Theoretic. 
y. Friesic. 14th Century. 

g. Saxon. Theoretic. 

h. Anglo-Saxon. 8th Century. 

i. Old Saxon. 9th Century. 

/t. Piatt Deutsch. 14th Century. 

/. Dutch. 13th Century. 




PART I 



PHONOLOGY. 



10. Alphabet.— Tlie Anglo-Saxon alphabet has twenty-four 

letters. All but three are Roman cliaracters : the variations from 
the common form are cacographic fancies. P l> (thorn), and V p 
(wen), are runes. D d (edh) is a crossed d, used for the older J), 
ofteuest in the middle and at the end of words. 



Old Forms. 


Simple Fonn8. 


Roman. 


NamMb 


X a 


A 


a 


A 


a 


ah 


je 8B 


M 


se 


M 


se 


a 


B b 


B 


b 


B 


b 


bay 


E c 


C 


c 


C 


c 


cay 


D b 


D 


d 


D 


d 


day 


B « 


D 


d . 


DH dh 


edh 


e e 


E 


e 


E 


e 


ay 


F F 


F 


f 


F 


f 


ef 


I^ Z 


G 


g 


G 


g 


gay 


frjh 


H 


h 


H 


h 


hah 


I 1 


I 


i 


I 


i 


ee 


L I 


L 


1 


L 


1 


el 


CO m 


M 


m 


M 


ra 


em 


N n 


N 


n 


N 


n 


en 








o 








o 


P p 


P 


P 


P 


P 


pay 


R n 


Pv 


r 


R 


r 


er 


T c 


s 


s 


S 


s 


es 


T 


t 


T 


t 


tay 


Fpi' 


P 


!> 


TH th 


thorn 


U u 


U 


u 


U 


u 


oo 


F p 


P 


p 


j VV vv ) 
i (W) (w) \ 


wen 


X X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


ex 


Y y 


Y 


y 


Y 


y 


ypsilor 



Some of the German editors use a for ^,« for &, e for e derived from i, 
for oe, <z for &,j for i semi-vowel, and v for p. Sometimes k, q, v, z are 
written, mostly in foreign words, uu or u for p, and th early for p, d. 
Semi-Saxon ^ is used for g-y initial, ^A medial, ^A and z final. 



SOUNDS OF LETTERS 



11. Abbreviations. — The most common arc ^ = ancl,'^ =}>a3t 
(that), \ ■= odde (or), and ~ for an omitted m or n ; as, 2)az=l^)ain. 

12. An Accent (-^) is found in Anglo-Saxon manuscripts, 
but in none so regularly used as to make it an objective part of 
an Anglo-Saxon text. It is found oftenest over a long vowel; 
sometimes over a vowel of peculiar sound, not long ; seldom, ex- 
cept over syllables having sti'ess of voice. Sometimes it seems to 
mark nothing but stress. Most of the English editors represent 
it by an acute accent ; the Germans generally print Anglo-Saxon 
with a circumflex over all single long vowels in the stem of 
words, and an acute over the diphthongs, as broder, freond. In 
this book, to guide the studies of beginners, a circumflex is used 
over all long vowels and diphthongs, and the acute accent (') over 
vowels only to denote stress. For accented consonants, see § 19. 

13. Punctuation. — The Anglo-Saxons used one dot (.) at 
the end of each clause, or each hemistich of a poem, and some- 
times three clots ( :• ) at the end of a sentence. Modern point- 
ing is generally used in printed text. 

14. Sounds of Letters. — Vowels: 



a like a in far. 

a " a " fall. 

se " a " glad. 

ffi " a " dare in New 
England. 

e " e " let. 

6 in the breakings (not diph- 
thongs) ea, eo, ea, eo, very 
light. 

e like e in they. 



like i in dim. 



" ee '*' deem. 
" o " irholly. 
" o " holy. 
" u " full. 
" 00 " fool. 
" i " dim., but with the 
lips thrust out and rounded. 
(French u.) 
y same sound prolonged. 



Unaccented vowels are like accented in kind, but obscure. 
The consonants have their common English sounds ; but note 



c like k^ always. 

ch " kh in work-house. 

cp " qu. 

d " English th in a similar 
word: o</e/',other,Jo^,doth. 

g like g in go. German schol- 
ars may use German ^'s. 

hp like loh in New England. 



i (=j) before a vowel, like y. 

s like s in so. 

t " i! " to. 

J) " th '' thin. 

p " w. 

pi, pr, and final p nearly close 

the lips. (German w.) 
X like ks. 



6 rilOXOLOGV.— CLA>8i:8 OF VOWELS. 

15. Accent. — The ]iriinary accent in jironuiiciation is on tliC 
first syllabic of every word: hi od'-vv, brother ; uii'-cllcl, loicout/t. 

The first syllable is mostly the root, or a prefix defining it : but prefixes 
of verbs and particles are relational. See ^41,4. 

Proof of accent comes from alliteration, rhyme, the mark ("^ 12), jjrogres- 
sion, and other phonetic changes. 

Exception 1. Proper prefixes in verbs and particles take no primary accent; 
such are &, an, and, set, be, hi, ed, for, ful, ge, geond, in, mis, 6(t, of, ofer, on, 
or, to, Jiurh; un, under, pid, pider, ymb, ymbe : an-gin'nan, begin; aet-gad'ere, 
together; on-gean, a5"am. So some parasyntheta ; oiisa^g ednes, sacre^ce. 

(tf.) But parasyntheta from nouns, pronouns, or adjectives, retain their ac- 
cent : and'-sparian< and'sparu, answer; in'-peardlice< in'-peard, adj., t/j- 
xrard; ed'nipian< ed'nipe, renewed. Such arc all verbs in and-, cd-, or-, 
found in Anglo-Saxon poetry ; many adverbs in un-, etc. 

(i.) Many editors print as compounds adverbs -|- verbs, both of which re- 
tain their accent. Such are those with aefter, hi, big, efen, eft, fore, ford, 
from, fram, hider, mid, nider, gegn, ge&n, gen, to, up, Ht, pel. 

Exception 2. The inseparable prefixes k-, be-(bi-), for-, ge-, are unaccent- 
ed : a-lys'-ing, redemption ; be-gang', course. (Parasyntheta from verbs.) 

A secondary accent may fall on the tone syllable of tlie lighter 
part of a coinpound or on a suffix: o'-fer-cum^-an, overcome; heof- 
on-steor'-ra, star of heaven ; A^r'g?i<?'e, hearing ; leas' ting\]Ymg. 

16. Phonology. — Classes of Vowels. 
Primary Vowels: — a (guttural),! (palatal), u (labial). 
Short Vowels : — a, ae, e, i, o, u, y. {Open., a, se, e, o ; close, i, u, y.) 
Long Vowels: — a, aj e, i, 6, ti, y. 

Diphthongs : — ea (ia), eo (io), ie. {Dialectic, ai, ei, eu, oe, 6e, oi.) 
Breakings: — {g-sc-row), ea (ia), eo (io), ie, ea (ia), eo (io), ie. 
{h-l-r-row), ea (ia)< a, eo (io)< i, ie. 



a-umlaut. 


I- umlaut. 




u- umlaut. 


Umlaut: — from i, n, 


a, u, ea, eo, 


a, 


6, ti, ea. 


eo, 


a, i, 


to e, o. 


e, y, y, y, 


ffi, 


e, J, J, 


y- 


(o)ea, eo 


Progression : — Precession — 








Descending. 




1st term. 


Ascending. 


Orseries: — e i, w 




a, ae, o 


iXf c3^ 6 


i-series : — e 




i 


1 


u-seri 


es : — e o 




u 


( 


'O, 1\ 



ea 

Contraction: — from a+a, ea+a, ea-f-u, eo + a, eo-|-e, eo-f-u, 
{Reduplication, to 6, a, ea, eo, e5, eo, 

y^^) from i + a, u + a, u + a, u-f-i, u-f-o, u + 6, 

to eo. o, 6, u, o, 6. 



CLASSES OF CONSONANTS. 



Summary of Phonetic Groups. 



A-Gboup. 




I-Gboup. 




L 


-Geodp. 




Weaker. Stronger. 


Weaker. 


Stronger. 


Weaker. 


Strongv. 


i e 




L i 




A 


e 


e 






J 


ae £e 




ffi, a 


e 




^ y 


e y 




y 


eo ea, S 


ea a a 


eo 









11 o 6 








u ti 


Ablaut: — Present. 


Preterit Sing. 


Plural. 


Participle. 


Root a: — i, e, eo. 


a, «, ea. 


a, SB, e 


e ; U, O. 


" a: — i, e, eo. 


a^ 36, ea. 


u. 


U, O. 


" i :— t. 


a. 


i. 


i. 


" u: — eo, A. 


ea. 


u. 


O. 


" a: — a, ea. 


6. 


6. 


a. 


17. Classes of Coy^sonants. 




Mutes (Explosive). 


CONTINnOHS 


Consonants. 


Smooth. Middle. 


Rough. 


Spirant. 


Nasal. 


Liqui*. 


Surd. Sonant. 


Surd 


. Sonant. 


Surd 


. Sonant. 


Sonant. 


Sonant 


Gutturals . . c g 


kh 


gll 


ll 




n g 




Palatals 








i 






Linguals. . . 












l,r 


Dentals t d 


th 


dh 


s] 


t) 2,d 


n 


(n) 


Labials p 


b 


ph 


bh 


nil 


p v,p 


m 


(m) 



Notable Consonant Combinations. 
Guttural : —el, en, cr, cp, gl, gn, gr, hi, hn, hr, hp. x=:cs, gs, hs ; 

cg=gg; ht>ct, gt. 
Dental :— tr, tp, dr, dp, J)r, J)p, so, scr, si, sm, sn, sp, spr, st, str, sp. 
Labial :— pi, pr, bl, br, ;i, fr, pi, pr, rab, bb. 



Gemination from i :— bb < bi, cc < ci, dd < di, bb < fi, eg <gi, 
ll<li, mra<mi, nn<ni, ss<si. 



pt, ht, ht, mn, ntst, st, st, 
pd, cd, hd, fn, ndst, sd, sd. 



Assimilation: — ^&^ ff, ss, ss, ss, tt, 
from d]p, bf, ds, ds, sr, td, 

Common Changes:— d, f, g, g, li, h, r, r, t, t, p, p, p, x, x, 
from d, b, i, h, g, c, s, 1, d, d, g, h, u, gs, hs, 



8 18. Indo-European Voioel System. 

( a i u ai au 

Parent Speech ^ . ^ ^ .^ ^^ 

^ a i u 6 6 

Sanskrit. • • • j a i A ai au 



Hellenic . 
Italic. . . 



o, e, o X V ail ft, oi av, tu, o« 

a, e, o ) i ) u ) ai, to ) au, 6 | 

i, u j e i" o ) ei, i, f <i f 



1, ai 



"I 


ai, to ) 


ol 


ei, i, \ 


u 


oi, oe, 1i 


u, au 


ei 


A? 


ai 



iu 



a, e, o 1 

a, i, u 

Gothic ■( ai, au 

c', 6 ei A? ai au 

j For short vowels, see Summary of Phonetic Groups, p. 7. 
Anglo-Saxon . -j j,^^ j^^^^ vowels, see next table. 

Teutonic Long Yoicels. {Short vowels unshifted) 

Gothic e 6 ai au ei iu, ti? 

Old Saxon ... a 6 e 6 t iu, ie, A 

Friesic e 6 e, a a t ia, li 

Anglo-Saxon . se> 6 a ea t eo, y, ti 

English ee oo 6, oa ea 1 ee, ou 

Old Norse ... a 6 ei au i io, y, ti 

Old H. German a uo e, ei 6, ou i iu, io, A 

German a u e, ei o, au ei eu, ie, au 

19. Indo-European Consonant System. 

Parent Speech k g gh t d dh p b bh ' 

Sanskrit. k,kh,k',9 g,g' gh, h t, th d dh p, ph b bh 

Hellenic . . . . k y % ^ Z ^ it ft <l> 

Italic c, q g h(g) t d d(f, b) p b f (b) 

Goth. & A.-S. h(g) k(c) g l)(d), d t d f . p b 

O. H. German h(g) k(ch) g(k) d z t f(v,b) f b(p) 

'P. Speech n n m r 1 j s v 

Sanskrit . n, n n, n m r 1 j s, sh=s'(s') v 

Hellenic . y v fi p \ ^^ a f 

Italic . . . n n m r 1 j s, r v 

G.&A.-S. n(g) n m r 1 i, j, g s(z"), r u, v, p 



.0. H. G. . n n m r 1 j, g s(r) w 

Grimni's Lato. 

1. From Parent Speech to Anglo-Saxon, or from Anglo-Saxon to Old H. 
German, or from Old H. German to Parent Speech. — Change each smooth 
mute to its rough, rough to middle, middle to smooth. 

2. From Anglo-Saxon to Parent Speech, or from Parent Speech to Old 
IT. German, or from Old H. German to Anglo - Saxon. — Change each 
smooth mute to its middle, midflle to rnu^h, rough to smooth. 



CHANGES OF SOUND. 9 

20. Changes of Sound. 
I Variation : exchange of one sound with another. 

1. Euphonic: through the influence of other sounds m 
the same word or phrase : . i • i c 

(a) Qualitative : through influence of the kind ot . ggi^iiation. 
sound which follows or precedes. . . • / \Dissimilation. 
(a-) Change of vowel through influence of i, 

n, or a in the following syllable . . • Umlaut. 
(b) Change of vowel through influence of con- 
^^ . . Breaking. 

sonants 

(A Change of consonant through influence 

^ '' ^ . ... Assibilation. 

of «, 3/ 

(d) Change of consonant through influence 
of other consonants, 
(b) Quantitative- through the weight of sound ^^.^^ 

which follows or precedes \^<j^f 

(a) Change of quantity or quality. 

(b) Ciiange of accent. _ 

2 Accent J. through influence of accent. .... Gravitation. 

(a) Strengthening accented syllables in a certain ^^^^^^^^^^ 

(b) Weakening unaccented syllables Precession, 

Here also may be placed as appendix. 
Changes in root vowels which, in the Teutonic 
languages, have come to distinguish tenses of 
^^ ^^ Ablaut. 

3 Mimetic- through influence of other like words: 

00 Conforming to other words, in declension, eon- ^^^^^^^^^^^ 

jugation, etc 

(b^ Simulating etymological relations Simulation. 

(c) Sundering, bifurcation, dimorphism. 
4. Etymologic- uninfluenced by other sounds in the 

same language LautverscMebung. Shifting. 

11. Figuration: change of form without change of sense, by dropping, add. 
inc, or changing the order of sounds. 

. . Apothesis. 

\. Dropping- ••• • _ Aph^resis. 

(a)Beginmngawoid Apocope. 

(b) Ending ^ 

(c) Within : tit • 

(a) Vowel before a vowel Elision. 

(b^ Vowel before a consonant Syncope. 

(c Consonant or syllable Ecthlipsis. 

^ ^ . . Prosthesis. 

2. Adding: . . . • • Prothesis. 

(a.') Beginning a word _ . , 

JhFnding Paragoge. Epithesis. 

(b) Ending .... ^ Epenthesis. 

re) Within . . . . • Metathesis. 

Q, Chrwn,;! the ovfh;- o/ ktters 



10 LAWS OF LETTER CHANGE. 

III. Contraction : drawing together vowel sounds to avoid the hiatus. 

1. Coiiip/tti' : 

(a) Within a word Syiiaeresui. 

(b) Between words Crasis. 

2. Incomplete: a partial rhythmic union, so that the two 

vowels serve as one syllable in poetry: 

(a) Witliin a word Synizesis. 

(b) Between words Syiialcepha. 

Laws of Letter Change. 

1. A vowel may assimilate a vowel by umlaut. § 32. 

2. A vowel may cliange to its breaking before ^, r, A, or p, 

???, /* and after c (sc), </, or p. § 83. 

3. Between two vowels a surd may change to a sonant or a 

mute to a continuous. § 35, 3. 

4. If a surd follows a sonant, gemination of the surd is 

produced. § 3.5, A. 

5. If a surd precedes a sonant, tlie sonant is changed to a 

surd of the same organ. § 35, B. 

6. A mute before another consonant may change to a con- 

tinuous of the same organ. § 35, 4, b. 

7. Before n a SUrd or mute may cliange to its cognate nasal. 

§ 35, 4, c. 

8. A vowel may change to a consonant of the same organ 

to avoid the hiatns. § 36. 

9. Between two vowels a continuous may change to a 

mute. § 36, 2. 

10. One of two contiguous mutes may change to a continu- 

ous, one of two continuous to a mute. § 36, 3, 4. 

11. A consonant may be dropped and the preceding vowel 

lengthened by compensation. § 37. 

12. A vowel may be dropjied and the preceding consonant 

doubled by compensation. § 37, 2. 

13. Gemination, when final or next to a consonant, is simpli- 

fied or dissimilated. § 27, 5. 

14. Apothesis is found of a syllable of inflection, and of an 

unaccented stem vowel final ; before a vowel ; before ?, n, 
r ; f?, d, St; c, g, m, p, and other consonants. § 44-46. 

15. Ecthlipsis is found of d, d, s, st, before st; of n before d, 

/, s ; of d, g, h, i, p, mostly between vowels or before a 
liquid. § 47. 



VOICE.— SHORT VOWELS. H 

16. Epithesis, epenthesis, aud metathesis are used for 

euphony. § 49-61. 

17. Synaeresis may occur after ecthlipsis of g or h, or the 

change ofp to «. § 52. 



21. Every classic speech is an ideal ; the folks at home do not 
speak it. We have no direct description of the pronunciation of 
Anglo-Saxon ; but we have Greek text written phonetically with 
Anglo-Saxon characters (Hickes, Pref., xii. + ), and know that they 
were sounded nearly like the corresponding letters in the Latin 
of the missionaries. These characters represent only the most 
striking varieties of sound, and those vaguely. There must have 
been very great diversity in the folkspeech. The view given in 
§ 14 is general or ideal, as seems suited to a practical manual. 
An examination of the laws of the language, and its relations to 
other languages, will suggest further remarks. , 

22. Voice. — Breath is made sonant by vibrations of the vocal 
chords — ligaments which may be stretched across the wind-pipe. 
The quality of a vowel de2:)ends on the general shape of the cav- 
ity containing the vibrating colunni of air. For a, the tongue lies 
flat ; for i, we breathe or blow into a narrow-necked bottle ; for 
U, into a bottle without a neck. 

23. Short Vowels. — The simple vowels are a, i, u. Pure a 
may be gradually changed to i, if the tongue be slowly raised to- 
ward the palate ; to ti, if the lips be slowly closed. Between a 
and i are a?, ey between a and ti is oy between i and u is y. 
The vowel sounds shade into each other like colors. 

In any word or stem the same short vowel is found in all the 
Teutonic tongues, and any changes are explained by umlaut, 
breaking, or other phonetic laws working within the language. 

a, 8B.— In Anglo-Saxon a is found before a single consonant 
followed by a, o, u, e<«y before m, n, and in some foreign words. 
Before m, n, it also suffers assimilation to o: man'^mon ; before 
a consonant combination beginning with /, r, A., it breaks to ea: 
nealm, psalm ; before a syllable containing i or e < ^, i-umlaut 
changes it to e: hladan hle{de)st^ to load; u-umlaut changes it 
to ea: bealu, bale; in other situations, words having a in other 
languages show a regular shifting of a to a? / thus, in monosyl- 
lables ending in a single consonant : bwc, back ; in polysyllables 
before a single consonant followed by e: bascere, baker; beforo 



12 LONG VOWELS. 

consonant combinations, especially those beginning with /"or s: 
cnrjt, craft. Alfred's time shows a for ea, oftenest before I. In 
folkspecch the sounds of a varied from a in father to a in hat 
on one side, and to o in hot on the other. Accented d often 
changes in English to the sound of a in 7iame, through progres- 
sion, i-umlaut, or shifting: macianymdken^make. 

e. — This is i-umlaut of a." temian, tame; a-umlaut of ^,• help- 
rt;?<root hilp, help ; or a light toneless sound which may be the 
ghost of any sound : gife, Gothic gibds, gibdi, giha, gift. Old MS. 
often use ae for e<a (so Alfred): gen. -se,-3es. The same word 
is sometimes written with w and e, or ea and e: dveg, deg^ day; 
seahi seh, saw. In the folkspeech the sounds varied from nearly 
a drawling dii (as in cicirth, earth), through e in met^ to the light 
sound of German final e, French mute e. 

i. — Tliis simple sound holds its ground well ; but a-umlaut 
sometimes changes it to e : pifed, weaves, pi. pefad ; u-umlaut 
and breaking both' change it to eo : lim,^ limh, ))1. konm • feohte, 
fight. It exchanges in writing with y, and sometimes with ea: 
miht^ myhty meaht, might. Perhaps an a-element was in some 
words creeping in, as in English long i (=a + 2"), cniht^ Northum- 
brian cnniht^ knight. 

O. — This is treated as u-umlaut of a, or a-umlant of ?<, or an 
assimilation of a by m or n: rodor, Old S.ixon radur^ heaven; 
cxiron^ coren<icoran, chose, chosen; comb, comb. In folkspeech 
it varied from o in not to nearly u in full. 

U, y. — Like ^, u holds its ground. It changes in writing with 
o on one side, and y on the other; and probably varied in folk- 
speech from u in nut to nearly the French u. y is i-uralaut of m, 
eo, ea, sometimes u-uralaut of i, exchanging with eo. It was a 
favorite letter with the penmen, and is often found for i, and 
sometimes for e, ve : cyning, king; eald, yldest, old, oldest; 
ceorl > cyrlisc, churlish ; lyden, leden, Latin ; gyst-sele, gsest-sele, 
guest-hall. 

24. Long Vowels. — Two like short vowels uttered as one 
sound make a long vowel : aa =: a, ii = i, uu = ti. 

Long vowels are produced by compensation, progression, and 
contraction. 

A long sound is, however, different in quality as well as quantity from 
its short. The anticipation of the double utterance affects the position of 
the oro-ans. A given long vowel may, in fact, arise from the coming togeth- 
er of unlii\e vowels : TifiCJfiiv from Tijidofxiv ; nor do two like vowels always 



LONG VOWELS. 13 

give their long : Greek « give £t, oo give ov. The Anglo-Saxon long vow., 
els vary in kind (quality) from their short ; a prolonged is not exactly a, nor 
e prolonged exactly e. We give the long mark, therefore, whenever the 
quality of sound is that of the long letter, though the vowel may be unaccent- 
ed, and the sound obscure. 

Proof of length is found in accent (§ 12) and gemination in the 
manuscripts; presumptive evidence is also found in the origin 
and relations of vowels, and the analogy of other languages. 

That a letter is not accented is no proof that it is not long ; but when one 
is abundantly marked in good manuscripts, it must be held long. The pro- 
nouns me, \\e, he are abundantly marked, and therefore we give them as 
long, though analogy is perhaps against it. These words, however alliterate 
in poetry, fall in with a general law as to accented open syllables which has 
a plain physiological basis, and the corresponding w^ords are long in English, 
and were long in Latin. 

Monosyllables ending in a vowel are long, except enclitics and 
proclitics, which are really affixes or prefixes to other words. 

a corresponds in part to Gothic e, in part to Gothic ai, and 
has oftenest passed into English 6 : Gotliic halm-, Anglo-Saxon 
ham, home, Germ, heim; in pa, a, etc., it is progression of a. It 
varied througli a in far, wall, Ger. mahnen, nearly to 6 in home. 

88 corresponds to* the same Gothic letters as d, but comes into • 
English with the sound of ee : Gothic sdi-, Anglo-Saxon s&, sea, 
Gemian see. It is i-unilaut of d, and simple shifting also, which 
may be stopped by a following m, n: hate, h^t{e)st, h&t{ed), call, 
callest, calleth. 

G is i-umlaut of 6: f6t,fet{e), foot, feet; simple shifting of 
ed>ea: heran, hear. It springs also from contraction of old re- 
duplications, from lengthening of open monosyllables : me, me ; 
he, he; pe, thee; and from compensation: pen<pegn, thane: 
perhaps here also ge < ger, ye; pe<pec, thee; and other such 
pronouns. It likes m or n after it, and in such cases may stand 
for an original a or a;. It varied in folkspeech from nearly e in 
there to ey in theg, with the final y-sound {ee) pretty plain. It 
goes over to ee completely in English. (Progression.) 
* i corresponds to the t of other languages. It has risen in 
English under the accent to the sound of a -|- i (§ 38, 1) : bUan, 
bite; drifa?i, drive. It exchanges in the writing with p, and 
must have sounded much like it. 

6 corresponds to Gothic d. It springs from contraction of 
three a -elements, or two a -elements and a w- element: J'u. 



14 DIPHTHONGS. —NOKTIIUMBHIAN VOWELS. 

A«« >^/(?«, catcl) ; f/efeohan^r/efedn, rejoice; from progression: 
Jiidnay Old II. German indno^ moon ; sona, Mid. H. German sd/t, 
soon. It had the sound of o in tone, with a tendency in a labial 
direction, which has brought it to English oo. § 88, 1. 

U corresponds to i1 in other dialects. It is often strengthened 
from i( under the accent: ]nt, thou; mt, now; sometimes springs 
from compensation : tmlr/, Gothic 7mfnps, mouth. It changes in 
English tuider the accent to ok : /«?.s, house. (Progression.) 

y is i-umlaut of ?7, of ed, and ofed: mUs, mps{e), mouse, mice; 
If/f/e < root Jcog, lie ; hf/r{^i)a7i < root hear, hear. § 38, 1. 

2o. Diphthongs, — Two unlike vowels heard in one syllable 
make a diphthong. The forms ea {ia), eo (lo), ie, are generally 
called breakings; ed, m, eo, id, iS, are often true diphthongs, and 
then they differ etymologically from breakings. For Breakings, 
see § "^. 

ea, ia =r Gothic die > a" > 'c? > ed. It is found in many po- 
sitions: final; before r, h, m, n,]?: /red, lord; tedr, tear; hedh^ 
high ; dream, dream ; ledn, loan ; bredp, brow. It is also found 
as a <7-.9c-breakmg of d : gedfon, gave ; scedn, shone. It is an 
unstable combination, tending to d > English 6 or to e > English 
ee, as more or less of the e-sound woiks in. The prevailing set is, 
on the whole, to e: stedp, step-an, steep. 

eo, io = Gothic iit. It is also an assimilation of i, t, by p or 
I: treop, Gothic triva, tree; feol. Old H. German fUa, mud ; ap- 
parently also by h, g ; but in these cases a change of h, g, to p 
may be supposed: ptha/i^Jjeoii, depart; /rig, /red, free. It is 
a peculiar progression from i final (perhaps here also a labial 
sound is to be added) : bed, Old H. German bt, bee. It often 
also springs from contraction, especially of the reduplication, ex- 
changing with e. It exchanges in writing with id. It is found 
often for ed. It changes to 4 : s'0.}:)an, sup ; silcan, suck. It 
must have had a peculiar sound or sounds — an unstable combi- 
nation, tending to w > English ti in st<p on the one side, and to 
^> English ee on the other. The prevailing set is, on the whole, 
to S. A similar sound is produced by (/-sc-breaking from d : seed, 
shoe ; but the e is lighter. 

ie is used in Alfred's speech for edKau, i, ed. 

26. Northumbrian Vowels.— a is often used where An- 
glo-Saxon has ea, sometimes whei-e it has e, i, eo, u. 

ae interchanges with ea: wl, call, all, all ; ie for e is abundant; 
e for £6 frequent ; oe for e frequent. Assimilation of ^co < we. 



CONSONANTS. 15 

tcu < wi^ is found : wosa^ Anglo-Saxon pesan, to be ; icutta, Au- 
glo-Saxou p item, to know; also ul<il: s«7/; Anglo-Saxon silj\ 
self; sul/er, Anglo-Saxon seol/or, Gothic silubr, silver. 

a is often written aa; it exchanges with m; is a progression 
of «, t«, before liquids, ae is found written aae. e is seldonj 
i-umlaut of o, is used sometimes for eo (lautverschiebung), oft- 
ener for ic, Gothic g, oftenest for ed. 6e is i-umlaut of o, or 
represents Anglo-Saxon e not umlaut. 

ea interchanges with eo, a favorite sound which displaces 
sometimes Anglo-Saxon e, i. ea interchanges with eo. io for 
eo is frequent ; ea for se. There are found ai for ^, ei for e or 
t^, eu for eop, and oi. 

27. Consonants. — The stream of breath is stopped in speecli 
in three main ways : by contact between the root of the tongue 
and the palate (a round surface against a hollow one), the tip of 
the tongue and the teeth (a sharp against a flat surface), and the 
upper and lower lips (two flat surfaces). If a sonant breath be 
stopped, the sonant letters, g guttural, d dental, h labial, are pro- 
duced. If we blow instead of breathe, a slight change is made 
throughout the vocal organs : viz., the glottis is thrown open, the 
chords no longer sound, and the shape which the organs take at 
the places where they meet and part is varied : hence the smooth, 
surd letters, c{k) guttural, t dental, p labial. These are mutes. 
If the breath be not wholly stopped, continuous letters, i guttu- 
ral (palatal), d and English Z dental, (English v) and p labial, are 
made; or, if the stream be blown, A guttural, 7), s, dental, /, /;p, 
labial. If, when 'the breath is stopped, the veil be raised which 
separates the nose from the pharynx, the resonance of the nasal 
cavity gives n in ng guttural, n dental, m labial ; I and r are 
trills. Each consonant stands for two sounds: viz., the closing 
of the organs, ap; and the opening of the organs, ^^a. For a 
fourth kind of stop, see Assibilation, § 34. 

1. A stop of the first kind, which will pass for a g, may be made any 
where from the very root of the tongue forward to the middle of the mouth. 
Some nations make their g in one place, some in another. Further for- 
ward it becomes impossible to stop with a humped tongue, and the tip comes 
into play This may be touched, so as to make a d, any where from the 
front gr-stop, or even further back, to the meeting of the teeth. Just where 
g and d run into each other is i consonant (English v/). Some tribes count 
gutturals and dentals as all one. The Sandwich Islanders have to be tauffht 
to tell c from t, and possibly the Roman populace may have had a similar 
habit. See Assibilation, ^ 34. 



;|^g GUTTURALS. 

0. /<./). d.f are pronounced as spirants, but are, historically, reprosenta. 
lives of du tli, li/i, ;>/j, which were once pronounced as separate letters Ce. 
jr., ch as kh in work-house), and hence are called rough or aspirate mutes, 
u name retained in historical grammar by their representatives. See Table, 

^ 17. 

3. r is descril)cd as a trill of the uvula in the Northumberland burr, and 
of the tip of the tongue in English and German ; ^ as a trill of the side 
edges of the tongue No trill is heard in English in America. In r the tip 
of the tongue is raised and moved slightly while the breath is poured over 
it. In I the tip is raised to the dental stop, and the breath issues freely be- 
tween its sides and the cheeks. 

4. Gemmatiun is the doubling of a consonant Physiologically it arises 
from an analysis of a consonant by which the sound made in tiusing the stop 
is united with tiie foregoing vowel, and that made by opening is united with 
^Ae following vowel. Or it arises from combining two complete consonants, 
i. e., shutting and opening the organs twice : bacA--Aitchen. The Jast is sel- 
Qom heard in English. Historically it springs from gravitation (^ 38) or a.s- 
similation (^ 35). It is most common with liquids and s. A real gemination 
can not occur at the beginning or the end of a word, nor before a second 
mute, nor is it easy after a long vowel. For the orthographic rule in Anglo- 
Saxon, see ^ 20, Rule 13. Double g is written eg, double/, bb. 

5. Dissimilated Gemination. — When gemination of a nasal (w?, n) would 
wcur before I or r, the trill calls for so much breath tiiat we drop the nasal 
veil, and that changes the latter half of m into b, of n into d. In some 
other cases a continuous consonant or vowel is dissimilated for force of utter- 
ance : ssyst, mniymp, miynt, i^ig, u or pyup, are found; spindel 
<Cspinl; timber<itimr, Goth, timrjan. ^§ 28, 36, 81. 

28. Gutturals {Palatals) : c, g, A, i, n. C has given place in 
English before e, i, y, to k (a graphic change merely) or to ch 
(Assibilation, § 34). This ch appears in late manuscripts, and the 
assibilation was doubtless begun in tlie folkspeech earlier; but 
the new sound does not show in the alliteration, and should not 
be given for Anglo-Saxon c. The assibilation of *^c> English sh, 
is excluded for similar reasons, ctyht, § 36; ci > ee, § 3V; 
cg = gg,%^1; sc = a;, §51. 

g comes into English as g in go, give; as dg in ecT^e (Assibi- 
lation, § 34) ; as y in youth. It stands in the place of J (= En- 
glish y) of other languages in three places: (1.) Beginning the fol- 
lowing words: ge, ye; gear, gtr, year; gedra, yore; geoc, yoke; 
geogud, youth ; geol, yule ; geond, yond ; geong, young ; gese, 
yes ; gist, yeast ; git, yet. Compare Sanskrit jmrnn, Latin juve- 
nis, Gothic jugg, German jimg, Norse Ungr, Anglo-Saxon geong, 
iung, English young. 



DENTALS. 17 

(2.) "Witliin -words in the place of i {=J) before a vowel in in- 
flection : n€/-ian = )iergaji, to save; inserted: luJie = luJi(/e^lo\e; 
ge inserted : earcUan = eardigean, to till. 

(3.) Final for i: hii = Jdg, they. 

All these changes seem natural if g in these words be pronounced as the 
English y. It is certain that these words were at all times often so pro- 
nounced : we find tung in Anglo-Saxon as well as geong, nerian as well as 
nergan. But words like geong alliterate abundantly in Anglo-Saxon poe- 
try with words beginning with g hard, and not with other kinds of words be- 
ginning with io, ta, or another vowel , while in Norse the words beginning 
with i, J, alliterate only with vowels. It seems certain, therefore, that this 
ge sounded more like a hard g than like e or i before a vowel, which was 
nearly the English g. It is better to accept the fact that a guttural breath- 
ing was inserted between the vowels of hijie by those who wrote lujige, than 
to soften out the g to try to simplify the phonology; g and j run into each 
other. Words in g hard in Anglo-Saxon run into g in Old English, and re- 
turn to g m English : forgitan, foryele?}, forget ; gifan, yeven, give ; geat, 
yate, gate, etc. These are dialectical variations, but real differences of 
sound. In Anglo-Saxon g had such sounds as in modern German. 

h. represents the guttural rough {ch) and the simple breathing. 
They were both in the folkspeech originally ; both are now given 
in the dialects of England. The guttural is not, however, recog- 
nized as separate in alliteration or otherwise in the literature of 
the Anglo-Saxons any more than in the English, and may be omit- 
ted from the literary, though not from the comparative grammar 
of both. It IS sounded in initial Id, hn^ hr. h yg, h ^p^ § 35, 
3 ; A < ^, § 35, 4, b; M<i ct, §36,3; I'l dropped, Apocope, § 44 ; 
Ecthlipsis, § 47. x producing breaking = 7^5. 

i consonant goes into g^ from the most forward utterances of 
which it is distinguished by being not so tight a stop. It is found 
sometimes, especially in foreign ]>roper names, alliterating with g, 
and should then be pronounced like g. 

n in nc, ng (Goth. Greek gg), is the English guttural nasal. 

29. Dentals {Linguak) : t, d^ jf>, rf, s, /, r, n. t<^dd, § 36, 
5 ; < td, § 35, ^/ st<C sd; t < d, Assimilation, § 35. 

d for d between two vowels seems to indicate a disinclination 
to begin a syllable with d: Id Kid; dd<idi, § 37: d and p are 
not uniformly used in any of the manuscripts ; there were cer- 
tainly two sounds, as in English. The uniform use ot'p beginning 
words and d elsewhere is calligraphic, not orthographic. Tiie 
real sounds may yet be made out; compare §§ 194, a; 41, (3). 
English surds indicate A.-Sax. surds, unless they spring from other 

B 



13 LABIALS.— NORTHUMBRIAN CONSONANTS. 

ilialects than iliose which had most influenced the Anglo-Saxon. 
Assiniihuion by ^, § 35 ; breaking by Z, r, § 32. 

r <5, § 41 ; apocope of r, § 44 ; metathesis of r, sc,ps, § 51. 

S and ~ undislinguished, but see § 189, b. n, Ectlilipsis, § 47. 

30. Labials : p, ^, /*, 7>, ?«. p begins only words of foreign 
origin, b changes to /"in the middle and end of words, except 
7nb and bd < bi. The Old Saxon, Friesic, and Norse have the 
same tendency to change the middle mute labial b to the contin- 
uous /'in the middle of words, i. e., not to close the mouth tight- 
ly between two vowels. The Old Saxon and Friesic have both 
surd and sonant continuous forms,/ and English v. This Anglo- 
Saxon /is written ti (v) sometimes (hliuade, B., 1799), and it has 
changed in English to v : heauod, heafod, head ; heo/on, heaven ; 
pi(lf,pulfds, wolf, wolves. The folkspeech had a sonant contin- 
uous labial, and it may be distinguished in the weak verbs. See 
§ 189, b. The runic p is like the English ic^ but must have varied 
in the dialects as it does now in England. In initial jp/,pr (often 
parasitic), and at the end of words, it must have been spoken 
with a nearer approach to closing the mouth. Bede represents it 
in Latin by yw, the Xormans by gu ; the parasitic v, g plainly in- 
dicate a vigorous utterance. It changes to u when final and pre- 
ceded by a consonant : bealu^ genitive bealpes, bale. Latin u and 
V were the same letter; the present separation of them was com- 
pleted only in the 18th century, w is of German origin ; it had 
come into common use in Semi-Saxon. Assimilation ofp and m, 
§ 35, 2 ; nim<77ii, § 37, 2 ; 7n> n, § 41, 3, A; ecthlipsis ofp, § 47^ 

31. Northumbrian Consonants: 

(1.) Gutturals. — c and g interchange: Jinger, f.ucer, finger; 
dringes, he drinks; cc and p: getrei(ad = getryccad ; c y h, 
cych, see h. g assimilates a preceding e or e to ei: deign, 
Anglo-Saxon pegn, thane ; iceig, Anglo-Saxon peg, way ; m such 
cases there may be ecthlipsis of g : maiden, Anglo-Saxon mwg- 
den, maiden ; ov gyh: ffteih, Anglo-Saxon fftig, fifty ; g<p: 
driga, Anglo-Saxon pripa, three; g and i consonant have the 
same relations as in Anglo-Saxon, h. — Prothesis of h is found 
in heald, old, etc. ; often before I and r : hlcidia, to lead ; h-oiie, 
row; apothesis in Za/e, Anglo-Saxon ///(//, loaf, etc. Ecthlipsis 
between vowels is the rule, and occurs elsewhere, c'y h and 
gy h, Avith a change of the h to ch, are common at the end of 
words: Anglo-Saxon mec'ymeh^ mech, me; occasional within 
words: ?nicil, mihil, michil, nmeh. Beda uses ct for ht. 



EUrHONIC CHANGES.— UMLAUT. 19 

(2.) Dentals. — t foi- d is found: heafot^ head; apocope in 
second singular of verbs : slrvpes dit, sleepst thou. Apocope of 
d is common: hwleii <^hn'letul^ savior; assimilation of Id: ma- 
nigfallice, manifold. There is no p / d and d interchange: 
dagds^ dagds, days ; hrodor, hrodor^ brother. Ecthlipsis of d 
occurs when the pronoun d^H^ thou, agglutinates Avith its verb : 
sprecestu for sprecest dii, thou speakest. d final changes to s: 
ct(oedas'Cci(oedad, they say. d^z: Jesere, baptist. Liqtdds. — 
Apocope of n is the rule in the infinitive, and frequent elsewhere; 
ecthlipsis before <f, /*, s, as in Anglo-Saxon. Metathesis of r is 
more common than in Anglo-Saxon ; ecthlipsis occurs in by- 
gen < hyrgen^ tomb ; epenthesis in efern, evening, and its com- 
pounds. Metathesis of 1 and of n occurs. S < f?, see over. 

(3.) Labials. — b suffers apocope: f??w?, dumb, etc.; b<Cf: 
fehei\ Anglo-Saxon fefor, fever, i^ii and ^d) : dioul, dioid)ol, 
Anglo-Saxon deofol^ devil, where ii is perhaps English v. For 
p are written w, nu, w. Initial p before ^<, and sometimes oe, is 
left unwritten : idfz=imlf,yfo\f\ oeg =iaoeg^ way. Pi-othesis is 
found: zcoxo,ox; and epenthesis: stumdei', sunder. Initial /«^, 
su, do not contract Avith a following vowel, as in Anglo-Saxon, 
yet notice parts of ctana, cnman, come. Ecthlipsis of to occurs 
before oe: coed^ quoth; and between two vowels; final it be- 
comes a vowel, or drops, or changes to g. 

The manuscripts are late, and the whole aspect of the dialect 
indicates a revolutionary period of speech. 



EUPHONIC CHANGES. 

VAKIATION. 

32, Umlaut is a change of vowel thi'ough the influence of 
rt, / > e, or n^ in the following syllable. 

The conception of a sound tends to put the vocal organs in a position to 
ntter it. We conceive the later sounds in a word wliile )'et spealvin<T the 
former ; hence the tendency to utter a sound between the two. No umlaut 
shows in Gothic. Old H. German has most a-umlaut ; Norse, u-umlaut. 

(l.) SL-timlaut. — The conception of a coming a aflfects the ut- 
terance of z, so as to produce the intermediate sound e; so it 
changes tt to o : helpan <. root hilp, help; Jo^a< root hug, how. 
It sometimes changes ^ to eo: nid, neodan^ neath ; leqfad, live. 



20 EUPHONIC CHANGES.— BREAKING.— ASSIBILATION. 

(2.) i-iimlaut changes a, u, 6, u, ea, co, tl, c;*:, ro, 
to e, &, o, y, y, y, f, y, y. 

a\ c, arc between a and i ; 6 is from a (^ 38) ; y is between ?< and t ; ea. 
eo have parasitic m (i^ 33) ; ea, eo have radical u {(} 38); and vvlien the um- 
laut was established u was the effective sound in all. For examples, see 
^^ 207, 211, 208, 204, 208 (2), 208 (6), 206, 208 (3), 206. When an old i 
is lost, its timlaut is called concealed: fot, fei(i), foot, feet. ^ 84. Umlaut 
stopped in secondary forms, whose primary have it, is riickumlaut, ^ 189, d. 

(3.) VL-wnlaiU. — A coming ii often changes a to ea (ia) (nearly 
in sound), i to eo {io) for iu: bca,lu, Old II. German balo^ bale; 
beadu, O. H. German Badu-, battle ; meoluc, O. H. German miliic, 
milk ; seoftm, Gothic sjbu?i, seven. 

33. Breaking is the change of one vowel to two by a conso- 
nant. 

The consonants nmst difficult to make, the trills /, r, and the jrutturals r, 
g, h, are often accompanied by an involuntary sympathetic movement ot 
other parts of the organs, which produces what may be called a parasitic 
sound — tlie lip semi-vowel u, j>, or the palatal t. Americans hear the para- 
sitic I in the Southern cear for car, gearden for garden ; the u in hear, leer. 
The ^-5c-breakings are produced by a parasitic r>e, the A-Z-r-breakings by 
a u>o, a. The A-/-r- breaking ea oftenest stands where there should be 
umlaut c<^a, or shifting «<«, and the a of ca represents the parasitic sound. 
Labial assimilation has the effect of m ; sometimes of i by conformation. 
Analoffous effects are traced here and there through all languages. Compare 
^^ 34, 35, 2, i, 50. 

(1.) 1, r, h, oftenest before a consonant, break foregoing a to 
ea {ia), i to eo {io) : sealin, psalm ; earm, arm ; Jdeahtor, laugh- 
ter; (second consonant dropped), e«^< ea//, all ; mear'Cmearh, 
mare; (single h dropped), sltd/i <Cslea/ian, slay; meolc, milk; 
eorl, carl ; leoM, light. For ea, eo, ie occurs in Alfred's time. 

(2.) TQ.,f,p, and i<-umlaut have the same effect, § 35, 2, a " § 32. 

(3.) g-sc-breaking has a slight ^■- sound between c {sc), (/, or 
jr>, and a vowel after it : ceaster < Latin castrum, camp ; sceo, 
'jhoe ; geador, together; {peota<pita, wise man). It may be 
found before a, o, e, a, o, e. 

34. Assibilation is the assimilation of a dental or guttural 
with a following i-sound. It gives rise, among many striking 
facts, to a fourth set of letters, made by turning the inverted tip 
of the tongue np to the hard palate, § 27. Such a stop, when 
blowing, produces tsh {tch in fetch) ; Avhen breathing, dzh {dg 
in edge); if the stop be not complete, it produces, when blowing, 
sh in shall; when breathing, zh {zi in glazier). 



EUPHONIC CHANGES.— ASSIBILATION. 21 

1. Historical. — These sounds are not recognized in the Parent Speech, 
Latin, Greek, Gothic, or other most ancient alphabets ; and hence, though 
they are now found almost all the world over, they are generally represented 
by combinations of the earlier letters, and treated as compound consonants. 
They seem as a matter of fact to have been contrivances to take the place 
of certain difficult combinations of the simpler sounds. Among the Indo- 
European languages, the Slavonic have most assibilation ; the descendants 
of the Latin come next. 

It was common in the folkspeech of Rome ; ci interchanges with ti be- 
fore a, o, w, in the oldest remains of Latin. It is not certain whether this 
springs from a dialectic adoption of the imperfect articulation common every 
where among children, or from some peculiarity of the Roman populace, e.g., 
one like that of the Sandwich Islanders (^ 27, 1). When the Germans were 
sifted over the Romanic regions, the chaos of language favored the assibi- 
lations, and they spread in various modifications over Europe, as far a.- the 
Romanic speech had influence. 

The English has the following : 

Denials. — ti> tsh : Anglo-Saxon fetian'y English fetch ; Latin ques- 

Zjo?zz*> English question. 
Latin naZMra> English nature. (English u=^i-\-u.) 
ti>5/j: Latin na^2oni5> English nation. 
6i'^dzh: Latin solidarius^ EngVish soldier; Latin modula- 

ftonis^ English modulation. 
Bi^sh: Latin ;?ensionf5> English periston; Latin 5ecMrw5]> 

English sure. 
si(=2;y)>2rA; Latin ^Ae.ya«7-t/5> English treasure. 
zi^ zh : Anglo-Saxon grasian ]> English graze '^grazier. 

Gutturals. — ci'^ tsh: Latin ca^/rMm > Anglo-Saxon ceas/e?- > English 
Chester (Win-chcstcr) ; AngloSaxoi'i fectan,/etian^ En- 
glish fetch. 

ci^sA: Latin oceanw.s> English ocean. c^s: Latin ct- 
Dz/?'5> English civil. 

BCe^ sh: Anglo-Saxon scacan^sceacan^ VjWgVi&h shake, 

sci>5.' Latin 5c?en//a> English science. 

gi'^dzh: Anglo-Saxon ecg (stem Cj<^;)>English edge; Latin 
generis'^ English gender. 

gi>y; Gothic ^arc?.y.' Anglo-Saxon ^ea»*<f> English ?/ar</. 

i > dzh : Latin iocus > Italian gioco > English joke. 

The beginnings of the following are in Anglo-Saxon : sc before a and o 
has often changed to see in the oldest manuscripts : sceacan for scacan, shake. 
The sound of sh for sc in O. H. German first appears in the eleventh cen- 
tury, and afterward rules in High German. As for the Low German, s!i is 



22 EUPHONIC CHANGES.— ASSIMILATION. 

nut yet in Dutch, but in Platt-Doutsch it has become common as in English. 
There is no indication in the alliteration that ace is pronounced sh, nor can 
it be received as current literary speech. In the Anglo-Saxon of the elev- 
enth century, ch for c begins to appear: chilcK^cild, child. This is also 
outside of the literary speech, and springs from foreign (French) influence. 
The otlicr changes are still later, and more purely Romanic in their source. 
The only German assibilation is s/i, and that is later than classic Anglo-Saxon. 
2. Physiological. — (a.) Assibilalion of Dentals. — t + i: ^*o" i" ques- 
tion. Trying to sound to as one sylluhlc tends to change i to y. In t the 
tip of the tongue is pressed to the upper gum, and the voice blown ; in y the 
tip of the tongue is dropped to the lower gum, and the middle is humped up 
toward the palate, and the voice breathed. In tsh the tip is inverted and 
turned up to the hard palate, and the voice blown. This is a compromise in 
two points of view,— as to the place of the stop (between the ^stop and the 
y-stop), and as to the kind of stop (inverted tongue against hard palate — a 
roundish against a flatisli surface : see § '27) ; but it is not a mechanical re- 
sult of an attempt to go rapidly through t + y: it is a quite new way to make 
a sound which the ear will accept as a substitute for the two. The explana- 
tion of d+ i {soldier) is the same, except that the voice in d and in dzh is 
breathed instead of blown. The explanation oi s-\-i {pension), and of z-{-i 
{grazier), is the same as that of ^ + ^ and d-\-i, except that in these last 
the stop is not complete either in blowing s and sh, or breathing z and zh. 
In the change of see to sh, the C goes to h, and only gives strength to the 

compromise of 5 + 2/- 

(i.) The English Assibilation of Gutturals, as though dentals, springs 
from defective articulation. The root of the tongue never works as easily 
as the more flexible tip. Children say, and Anglo-Saxon children said, tan 
for can, tin for cin ; and chin (tshin) is a not unnatural compromise between 
tin and cin. When the organs are placed for y, or i, or e, the back of the 
mouth makes the narrow neck of a bottle, ^ 22, and it is hard to raise the 
root to make a c(,l-) stop. Hence eCk) before y, i, e, is always unstable; 
and hence a child will learn to say can before cm, and will be more likely 
to compromise on chin than chan. The most natural result, however, of the 
difficulty of making this stop is to make an imperfect stop, and give tl ^! aspi- 
rate /(, c/i, instead o{ c(k), and this tendency has prevailed in the Germanic 
tongues. From this aspirate a foreign influence easily leads to the assibi- 
late"d palatals sh, zh, etc. Aphaeresis of (/ takes place in geard > yard, 
compare ^ 28 ; a parasitic d (dj) precedes t, j in Latin words : possibly a 
guttural g preceded in Italian the present sound of gi as dzh, in gioco<i 
Latin ioms,]oke; G!ore< Latin love, Jove. Latin proper names of this 
sort alliterate abundantly in Anglo-Saxon poetry with words in g hard. ^ 28. 

35. Assimilation is the act by wliich letters make each other 
alike. It includes breaking and umlaut, as well as assibilation. 
Other changes of this kind are called assimilation in a narrower 
sense. 



EUPHONIC CHANGES.— ASSIMILATION. 23 

(1.) A vowel may assimilate with a vowel, (a.) Umlaut, § 32. 

(b.) The vowels become the same : peorod, pered^ crowd ; pu- 
di/pe, vidtca, widow ; pelerds^ peolords, Gothic vairilo, lips ; oial- 
las, 7i£ella;s<inealles<ine-\-ealles, not at all. 

(2.) A consonant assimilates a vowel. Consonants of each or- 
gan tend to change adjacent vowels to the vowel of that oi'gan. 

(a.) Labials put the mouth in such a position that it turns vow- 
el sound to or toward u. The strongest is p. It produces 

a change of pa, pa, (pe), pi, pi, ap, ip, 
to o ; 6 ; (po, u) ; peo ; pu, u ; eap ; eop : 

cpam, cpdmon > com, comoji, came ; Northumbrian posa, Anglo- 
Saxon pesan, to be ; pita ypeota, wise man ; piht ^puht, whit ; 
dedp, dew ; treopy Gothic triva, tree. Compare § 52. Before m 
(n), sometimes a>o, i^eo ; hefore f (p, i), a^ea, i^eo: eamby 
comb ; hhn^heom ; e«/br>Latin (z/^er, boar; g ifay- g eof a, giver \ 
compare § 32 ; -am>-%im, § 71, b. Note also the diphthongs, § 25. 
The gutturals c (sc), g, place the organs so as to call out a 
parasitic ^■-sonnd (breaking, § 33), while h, and the Unguals 1 
and r, especially when followed by another consonant, had a burr 
(^-sound), which brought a preceding i to eo (§ 23), Northum- 
brian u: silf^sulf, § 26. For iy eo before h, g, see § 25. 

In Latin I brings in u most, — »z, b, J^, f, sometimes: nebula, vetpsXij ; 
spatula, (TTrardXri ; Hecuba, 'EKu^it}. The dentals bring in i: machina, fii]- 
Xov>) ; Masmissa, Maaavaaar]Q. The T likes e before it : camera, Kafxdpa ; 
cineris<^cinis. 

(3.) A vowel assimilates a consonant, (a.) Assibilation, § 34. 

(b.) Between two vowels a surd may change to a sonant, or 
a mute to a continuous ; A><7, s>»*, d—py>d, g^p, hpyp, b'yf: 
sloh, slogon, I slew, they slew ; ceds, curon, chose ; cpsed, cpsedon, 
quoth ; bitgia?i, biipian, to dwell ; habban, hqfad, have, haveth ; 
for seah, ssege, sdpe, saw, § 1 97. 

(4.) A consonant assimilates a consonant. This occurs in An- 
glo-Saxon mainly when, by composition, inflection, or a))othesis, 
two consonants are brought together which can not be easily 
pronounced in the same syllable. The most common case is the 
coming together of a surd and sonant. One can not breathe and 
blow at once. 

(a.) When surd and sonant letters are brought together, the 
surd assimilates the sonant. 



24: EUPHONIC CHANGES.— DISSIMILATION. 

,1. If the surd follows the sonant, a gemination of the surd is 
produced. In this way Jf\ ss, ss, are sometimes produced from 
b/,ds,<ts: oj^'r i an <Chiitn\ ob + fero, of- 
fer ; bliss < blufs, hlkh, bliss. And by simplifying gemination 
(§ 27,5), (fst^st, dst^st: cpuhty^cinst, quothest ; hledsty 
hlest, load est. 

Exception (l). dp is often written dd^ according to the ortho- 
graphic rule that d is always to be used for p within a word : 
dd pe, oppe, ddde, or. (2). 7idst changes to ntst, according to the 
analogy of ease Jj, through the influence of the n, which supports 
the d ; gs > cs=x, a favorite letter ; ms > its, § 130, c. 

J?. If the surd precedes the sonant, the sonant is changed to 
the nearest surd of its own organ. Thus, 

C(?, hd^ 2:)d^ fd? sr, sd, sdf td, 
to ct, ht, 2^f-> P^ '^S «^ *'^-* ^^' s6cdeys6cte>s6hte (% ?6), 
sought; stepde > stcpfe, erecXecl ; drif(e)d> drift, diiveth, § 194; 
pisreypisse, of this; cysde^cyste, kissed; c^sd'yc^st, c-hoo^pih; 
gretde '^ grette, greeted. After this analogy, gs^cs=^x, 7idst ^ 
7itst : agsey-axe, ashes; stendst^stentst, standest. 

And by simplifying gemination (§ 27, 5), final td^t, std^st: 
bletd'^bltt, sacrificeth ; birstd^birst, bursteth; and after a con- 
sonant: eA^f?e>eA^e, persecuted. 

[b.) An explosive consonant before, and rarely after another 
consonant, may change to a continuous of the same organ. 

1. The explosive is a complete stop, and hence it is not easy to make anv 
sound but S after it in the same syllable, S assimilates back and forth. 
8. This rule may indicate Assimilation or Dissimilation, § 36, 3. 

gdyhd; gst^hst : beige, bilhst^bilhd, to be angry; ng stands. 
cs'^hs: dcsie^dhsie, ask; cdy-hd: secd'^sehd, seeks (Rask). 
sty ss : piste^pisse, wist, stysd: ieldesd, e]des.t (Alfred). 

(c.) Before 7i or m a surd or explosive may change to its cognate 
nasal; fn'>m?i, gn'yng,fmymm: nefne^nemne, unless ; stefn'y 
stemn, stem ; gefrignan^gefringan, inquire; pifmanypimman, 
woman. The nasal veil is raised for n, m too soon, §§ 27, 28. 

36. Dissimilation. — (l.) A vowel may change to a conso- 
nant to avoid the hiatus with another vowel; i^g, ?'>p." tie- 
rianynerga7i, to save; lvfia7x^lujigan,lufigea7i,\.o love; bealu, 
genitive bealpes, bealvpes, baleful. Compare § 27, 5. 

(2.) Between two vowels a continuous sometimes changes to a 
mute ; dyd: prdd, pridoTi, I writhed, they writhed, ? § 35, 3, b. 



EUPHONIC CHANGES.— COMPENSATION. 



20 



(3.) The former explosive sometimes changes to a continuous 
of the same organ. § 35, 4, Z>, 2. hd^fd^ ct^ht^ (jty>ht^ tty-d: 
habbaji, hivfde, have, had; socte^ sOhte, sought; dgan^ dhte^ own, 
owned; motde^motte^mostey must; pitte^ piste, wist. 

(4.) One of two continuous may become explosive ; yi?>/? , • 
sd>st,% 194; ld>ld: beald,Go\\\.balps,ho\i\; hsyx? § 28, h; 
mm'^mb^mp ; nn'^nd^nt ; ss>s<, §§ 27,5; 49; 50. 

(5.) The former sonant becomes a surd in dd'^{tdy)t (§ 35, 
B) in the third singular of verbs (Conformation): stenddy stents 
standeth. See rather § 194, a. 

(6.) Successive syllables. — In Latin and English, -al and -ar in- 
terchange to keep I or r from successive syllables : stellar, solar, 
liberal, literal • so c(xrulean<Cccelmn. The former assibilation is 
often smoothed in America: ^jrow?<«c?«^/ow, § 34. The former 
aspirate is not smoothed in Teutonic as it is in Greek. 

37. Compensation. — (l.) A consonant is dropped and the 
preceding vowel lengthened at the same time. 1. Before d,f, s, 
■with etthlipsis of n, a change of a, e, i, u, y, to 6, e, t, H, p : toit. 
Old II. German zand, Latin dent-h, tooth ; soft. Old H. German 
smfii, soft; gos, Old H. German Jeans, goose; oder, other; sod, 
sooth ; hosti, company ; so genedan, sptd, sid,ftf, flser, ci1.de, tide, 
mild, hilsl, pd. 2. With ecthlipsis of ^, mostly before n: psegn^ 
pivn, w.ain ; pegnypen, thane ; regnig^renig, rainy ; pign^pin, 
food ; /xgr >/*^r, fair ; sicgde > stede, said ; ligd > li(t, lieth ; see 
idde'^eode, went. 3. With apocope of c, g, h, r: mec^ine, me; 
pecy>pe, thee; hig^hed {?), they; feoh~^fe6, fee; ge {<Cger), 
ye; me (<;;<er), to me; pe {<^per), io thee; pe (<pe?'), we. 

(2.) A consonant is doubled and a following vowel dropped at 
the same time ; ^ is dropped with gemination of a preceding b, c, 
d,f, g, I, ra, n, s : habian^habban, have ; recian'^reccan, to rule; 
bidiany-biddan, to hid; spefan^spebban, to sleep; ligian^lic- 
gan, to lie ; telian^tellan, to tell ; fremian'yfremman, to frame ; 
clynian.^ clynnan, to clang ; cnysian^ cuyssan, to knock. 

(3.) After a long root syllable neuter -u drops, and i of stem 
-ia weakens to e, or drops: secian^' secea7i, secan, to seek. 

1. Speech naturally runs in pulses ; a certain length of time and a certain 
volume of sound is pleasantest between the pauses or accentual beats. The 
tendency of speech to preserve this rhythm by lengthening the remaining let- 
ters when one is dropped, or shortening all letters when a new letter is added, 
is called Compensation, and the name is extended to all adjustments of quanti- 
ty and accent which restore the rhythm after the adding or dropping of letters. 

2. In the pronunciation of Latin according to the English method, an ac- 



2(3 EUl'llOXIC CHANGES— GRAVITATION. 

ceiitcJ vowel in any syllable before the penult is shortened in sound, no mat- 
ter what UKiy have been its original quantity ; while such a vowel in the pe- 
nult has till.' long sound. The same law prevails in the Romanic portion of 
English: brief, briefer, brco'-ity ; admire, admi-rer, mir'-acle, mirac- 
ulous. The whole body of words conform to what was the fact in the larger 
number of Latin words. It shows that a long accented syllable followed by 
two unaccented is more than the natural length of the rhythm. This force 
of compensation is not so plain in the Anglo-Saxon portion of English, and 
we do not know enough of the pronunciation of Anglo-Saxon to trace its ef- 
fects with accuracy. A word with an affix sometimes has a lighter vowel than 
the kindred word without one: /»cii-7i, servant, //ij-ncn, maid-servant ; bera, 
bear, bircn, bearish ; hut the change may be (almost) always explained from 
assimilation of some kind. Unaccented syllables show compensation. ^ 46. 

3. When more voice than two short syllables follows an accented syllable, 
the old accent often moves forward, or a second accent is given : admire, 
admird'-tion; mir'-acle, mirdc -ulous ; leg'-ible, leg'-ibil'-ity. This law 
is to be seen most clearly in the Romanic portion of English. 

4. Compensation acts in connection with Gravitation. § 38. 

38. Gravitation is the tendency of sounds to accentual cen- 
ters. It is seen in the lengthening of accented syllables, and the 
lightening and final disappearance of unaccented syllables. It 
goes on in all languages. 

A. Vowels. — Rule I, Progression. — ^Under the accent the 
simple vowels a, ^, u, lengthen by prefixing a and a. 

ia.) Accentual effort opens to the a-8hape the neck of the bottle shaped for i or m, 5 22; 
too much a weakens to u or i; aaayaau, 6, etc. 

Rule II. Precession. — In an unaccented syllable the progres- 
sion of simple vowels is reversed ; also a goes to o, tc, or ^, then 
to gy i goes to e ; u to o.and e; e disappears. 

(1.) In the Parent Speech were the following series: 
a, « + « = «, d+a=da. i, ai, di. 11, aic, du. 

In Anglo-Saxon the following series are found : 

Descending. 1st terra. Ascending. 

a-series: e i, u a, cB, o a, a-, e 6 

i-series: e i la 

vrseries: e o u e6, ti ea 

Ascending: -y/ nam yndmon, thej took; Jrorfgr (Sanskrit 

hhrdtd, Latin frdter), brother ; ^/Iseg-y Idgon, Mgon, they lay ; 

scd/i>shone; -^scinyscman, scan, shine, shone ; ^lugyleogan, 

ledg, lie, lied; -y/swc> si<can, sedc, suck, sucked; 6x'Wi>shiue 

(English i=d-^i)\ wit2s> mouse (English ou=d+u). 



EUPHONIC CHANGES.— GRAVITATION. 27 

Descending : -^luf'yluf'ode^ Ivf'dde^ luf'ude, liif'ede^ loved ; 
ptdgcd~^pid(jil, ptdgel, wide spread ; landsceap^ landscipe, land- 
scape; xlp)^'>''li'S'^ A' prelis^ A^vW; (Gothic w^are^■, Old 11. German 
mari) mere, mere (sea); (Sanskrit madhti) meodu^meodo'^Oid 
English wi^f?c'> mead. Here also belong many forms of verbs 
now accented, but formerly unaccented: Mnde, bimden<C ^/band, 
bind, bound; for a fuller explanation of which, see Ablaut, 158 ; 
also nearly all the affixes of declension and conjugation, for which 
see Etymology, as referred to in the Index. 

(2.) The changes in the Anglo-Saxon series may be compared with Rules 
I. and IT. and changes in other languages given on page 8, ^ 18 : « >a?, o, 
lautverschiebung as in Greek and Latin ; d>tB, e, same ; da^dii (Rule I.) 
>o (Greek and Latin); ai>i, Rule L (Latin); di>d, Rule L (Greek); 
aii^d (Rule L, Latin) ; aWyiu (Rule L Greek EvY^ed by a-umlaut in 
stems of verbs and nouns, and by conformation elsewhere (^ 32, 40), San- 
skrit has 6, Friesic id ; an > a" > d> > 'd metathesis to breaking to con- 
form witli ed (Friesic d). The descending series already shows itself in San- 
skrit in changing a to u and /; i and ic to e was not yet in Gothic. See 
(} 23, e. Ill Latin and the Romanic part of English, a in open syllables 
goes to i ; before r, to 6; in close syllables, to e; before /, to u ; e often 
goes to i, but before r or in close syllables it remains ; facto, efficto, efficient; 
pater, Jupiter; pario, aperio, aperient; damno, condemno, condemn; salto, 
exsulto, e\u\t; lego, diltgo, diligent; iri/ero, infer ; co?Tec^wm, correct. (Lat- 
in accent originally on the prefix. ^ 41,4.) 

(3.) The changes from Anglo-Saxon to English take a new start, and are 
wholly analogous to the original series of the Parent Speech. 

(4.) The first lengthening of i and u by progression is called guna (mas- 
culine strength), a term of Sanskrit grammar ; the second is called vriddhi 
feminine increment). 

(5.) The various kinds of assimilation and sound-shifting work together 
with progression; the result of the whole upon the vowel system of the An- 
glo-Saxon is shown in the summary on page 7. 

H. From Gravitation also springs («) the gemination of a con- 
sonant ending an accented syllable : the common cases have been 
mentioned under Compensation (§ 37) ; (b) also the dropping of 
consonants in unaccented syllables, and some weakenings, § 41, b. 

39. Ablaut.— See Etymology. 

40. Mimetic Changes are those occurring through the in- 
fluence of other words. § 158. 

1. Conformation. — The words of all languages show a disposition to con- 
form in inflection to the majority. The Anglo-Saxon nouns have gone over 
to a single declension in English ; and the strong verbs, one after another, 
go over to the inflection of the weak. 



28 EUPHONIC CHANGES.— MIMETIC CHANGES.— SHIFTING. 

2. Sirnuladon. — Tlic feigning ;i connei^tion with words of similar sound is 
an important fact in English and other modern languages : asparagus';> spar- 
row grass. It probably had just as full play in ancient speech, but its effects 
can not be so surely traced. See carc-crn, ^ 229 ; frd}., ^ 254. 

3. Bifurcation is the separation of a word into two: borne, /)orn; truth, 
troth; wa/ce. watch; flour, flower ; balsam, balm. There arc hundreds of 
words in English produced by ihis kind of fissiparous generation. Where it 
is produced by a foreign word coming into English in different ways, it has 
been called Dimorphism : ration, reason. 

4. The law of contrast also operates to sunder different words of similar 
sound, especially if one of the words have odious associations : grocer < 
grosser ; cucumber <i cowcumber ; boiKbile. 

41. Shifting {Lai(tverschiehung) is a cliange of sound not due 
to other souuils in tiie language. Changes in climate or modes 
of life, mixing nations of ditferent stocks, ease of utterance, and 
more obscure causes, .aftect the adjustment of the vocal organs to 
the mind, and so shift the speech of nations. The current corre- 
sponding sounds in several of the Indo-European languages are 
given on page 8. 

(1.) Vowels. — There was a gradual weakening of the vowels in 
the ancient languages. The Sanskrit a shifts to a, £, o, in Greek, 
and to a, e, e, o, u, in Latin ; u shifts to o / i to e. Ease of ut- 
terance and consonant assimilation work together for close vowels. 

This movement is modified by assimilation, compensation, and gravitation, 
but in long periods the shifting is plain ; a weakened vowel can seldom be 
found in Sanskrit where the full form is in Greek or Latin. The short vow- 
els are not found to shift in comparing one Teutonic tongue with another. 
The movement of the long vowels is found on page 8. Within the Anglo- 
Saxon we have referred to this shifting in speaking of a>tT, a>o, a> i*. 

Mixed vowels and breakings shift to their latter element ; diphthongs ed, 
eb, and all whose former vowel is long, shift to their former vowel : e (a-\-i) 
'^i; 6 {a-\-u)^u; y {u-\-i)^i ; £e~^e ; ee^e ; ea'^a; erT^d ; eo'^o u; eo 
'^o^u ; diphth. ea>e, etc. : i«^>teeth (ee=i) ; <or/>tooth (oo=j/) ; hyran 
]>hear (ea=i) ; «/"en>e/en,even-ing ; cea/y^calf; s;;eo7'ne^spurn ; sceolu 
>shool, shoal ; ^eam>beam ; ben^hee ; eo<^i, ea, are in unstable equilibri- 
um, and often shift to e, ^^ 203, 204, 33. 

(2.) Consonants to Vowels. — In the table, J >z, v'^u, are noted in 
Anglo-Saxon; they occur also in Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, etc. ; />wand 
l^ i are common in the Romanic languages: Latin collum'^ French col^ 
co«, neck; Latin planus ^ ItdLllan piano, plane. Compare ^ 35, 2, b. The 
movement is sometimes reversed, as when a nation moves northward, or 
northern peoples mix with a vowel-speaking race : Anglo-Saxon (/<^i. ^ 34. 



EUPHONIC CHANGES— SHIFTING. 29 

(3.) Consonants to Consonants. — Regular sliifting is to weak- 
er consonants : gutturals to palatals, labials, dentals ; smooth to 
middle ; rough to middle. Surd to sonant, mute to continuous, 
§ 35, 3, b. 

A. Shiftwg to a co-ordinate consonant. — (a.) One smooth mute 
to another : XvKog, Latin lupicts, wolf. (5.) One middle to another : 
yXvcvQ (metathesis), Latin dulcis, sweet, (c.) Rough to rough. 
{d.) Spirant to spirant : ge&cah, gesepen, saw, seen (§ 35, 3, h) ; ///^t, 
Latin semi, {e.) Liquid to liquid : Latin asinus, Gothic asilus, 
Anglo-Saxon esol, ass ; German kind., Anglo-Saxon cild, child ; 
Latin j'j);*?/^?^;?*, Anglo-Saxon pluma^ plum, [f.) Nasal to nasal: 
dative -ion to -on. These shiftings are occasional, or dialectic. 

Ji. Shifting to another consonaiit of the same class : 

(a.) Grimm's Law, lautverschiebung by eminence (see § 19). 
With the progress of the Teutonic tribes northwestward they 
came to use for each smooth mute the corresponding rough, for a 
rough the corresponding middle, for a middle the corresponding 
smooth. This first shift is believed to have been completed dur- 
ing the third century; and here the Gothic, the Anglo-Saxon and 
other Low Germanic, and the Scandinavian languages rested. 

The High German went on, and shifted in the same way a sec- 
ond time ; so that since the seventh century it stands in the same 
relation to the other Teutonic languages that they do to the rest 
of the Lido-European family. 

Gutturals : k (c) >ch (h) >g ? (h) : Lat. caputs A.-Sax. heaf- 
od, head, O. H. Ger. lioxipit ; ch(h) > g>k : Lat. homo., A.-Sax. 
guma, man, O. H. Ger. komo ; g > k (c) > ch (h) : Lat. ego., A.- 
Sax. ic, I, O. PL Ger. ih. — Dentals: t>th, dh>d: Lat. tres., 
A.-Sax. prt, three, O. H. Ger. dri ; d > t > th ? (z) : Lat. clentis., 
A.-Sax. tod, tooth, O. IL Ger. zand ; th (Lat. f ) >d>t : 0»/p, Lat. 
/er«, A.-Sax. deor, deer > O. H. Ger. ?^or. — Labials: p>f>b? 
(f) : Lat. pedis, A.-Sax. fot, foot, O. H. Ger. fuoz; b> p > f : 
Lat. cannabis, A.-Sax. henep, lierap, O. H. Ger. hanaf ; f >b>p : 
Lat. f rater, A.-Sax. broder, brother, O. H. Ger. pruodar. 

(a.) The change oi rough mntes to middle is a regular weakening in Bactrian, Slavonic, 
Lithuauic, Celtic, and not infrequent iii Greek and Latin. That of smooth to rough (the 
use of parasitic h) is occasional in Sanskrit, Persian, Greek, Latin, and abundant in Old 
Irish. That oi middle to smooth is a strengthening peculiar to the Teutonic, and an enig- 
ma. Americans seem to hear foreigners use it freely in talking English. Germans and 
Celts use more surd breath and less sonant than we. Their g, b, d are heard as k, p, t, 
their k, p, t as aspirates. "K(h)ill the poys," says Fluellen (Hen. V., iv., 7). This suggests 
the hjTJOthesis that Celts adopted the speech of invading Teutons, that their Celtic pronun- 
ciation of it as heard by the Teutons became current, and that climatic influences and al- 



30 FIGURATION.— APIIiERKSIS. 

literation made the change thorough. The Teutonic instinct for preserving distinctions 
helped, since, when the rough weakened to middle, they would incline to change the old 
middles to preserve the correlation. There are many exceptions to Grimm's Law: 1. A 
letter is ol'leu tixed by combination with another: il in nd, lil ; t in nt, ht,ft. 2. Rough kh, 
ph, often early changed to continuous h, /, and rested, § 27, 2. The whole shifting of the 
High German gutturals and labials is thus disturbed. The correspouding letters, as ofteuest 
found, may be seen iu J 19. 

(b.) Other cases of shifting mny bo i > g, h > g", strengthen- 
ings in Anglo-Saxon and elsewhere ; g > h, (1 > S, S > r, d > 1, 

b>f>V, common weakenings. Most of the cases in Anglo- 
Saxon have been referred to in §§ 35, 36. 

(4.) Accent. — There are three systems of accentuation : ]st, 
the grammatical., in which the accent is given to that syllable 
which last modifies the general notion, i. e., to the affixes and pre- 
fixes of inflection ; 2d, the rhythmical, in which the accented syl- 
lable is determined by the number and quantity of the syllables 
in the word ; 3d, the logical, in which the accented syllable is the 
first of those expressing the main notion, i. e., the root syllable or 
a prefix of composition defining it. The earliest Indo-European 
languages are least straitened by any one system ; but the first is 
in its greatest vigor; the Sanskrit acute may be given to any 
part of a word. The Greek and Latin came under the rhythmical 
influence, and in the classical time used the acute only on one of 
the three last syllables. The Teutonic languages became alto- 
gether logical, § 15. This shifting of accent is a fundamental fact 
in the explanation of Ablaut and many other phonetic facts in 
Anglo-Saxon and all other Indo-European languages. 



FIGURATION. 

42. The dropping of sounds is mostly connected with gravita- 
tion (§ 38). Adding of sounds without change of sense is rare; 
but the shifting of accent (§ 41, 4), or the handing over a word 
to a race with different habits of speech, or even the bringing to- 
gether by syncope or ecthlipsis of difficult combinations of let- 
ters occasionally calls for euphonic additions. Prosthesis is most- 
ly gemination (§ 27, 4), -or j)arasitic (§ 33), or conformation with 
similar words in which the added letter is significant. Metathesis 
is mostly euphonic and dialectic. 

43. Aphaeresis is found of unaccented e, ge ; of c in en ; of 
h in hi, hn, Ar, and elsewhere; ofp \npl,pr,pit: bisceop <C Lat. 
episcopus, bishop ; 2^^^^^^ <^ iLt^i. epistola, epistle ; gelic > like ; 
gsdddod > yclad > clad ; cneO > knee ; hldfy loaf; hnappung 



APOCOPE.— SYNCOPE.— PKOTHESIS.—EPENTHESIS. 31 

> napping; hrn'f/i graven (§ 31); ymiKi'Lat. hymnus, hymn ; 
plisp^'Yu^p ; protan, root; pultoVyxtltor^ vulture. 

44. Apocope is found of all syllables of inflection. The vow- 
els go to e and drop ; c and r in the pronouns, and g^ h, ni^ n, s, 
may drop. See Declension and Conjugation. 

45. Elision is found of the stem vowel e, «, and of final e when 
two words are drawn together: secean'^ secan, seek; pergian^ 
pergan, damn ; clynian^ dynnan^ clang ; hutan <J)e-\--(ltan^ but ; 
nan < ne + fm, none ; nahban < ne + habhan^ not have ; ^^.ts < 
ne -\-p<vs, was not. 

46. Syncope is found of an unaccented stem vowel before 
I, n, r/ less often before d, d, st / sometimes before c, g, m, p^ 
and other consonants ; oftenest when the consonant is followed 
by a syllable of inflection : engel^ englcis^ angel, angels ; heofon^ 
heofnes^ heaven, heaven's ; jnnter, jnntres, winter, winter's ; 
dem{e)de, deemed ; /ia?/{c).it, hsef{e)d, hast, hath ; munec^ 7nunc, 
monk ; hdlig^ Judges^ holy ; mdd{u)m, gem ; pid{e)pe, widow ; 
epic ';> cue, quick (?). Syncojye often brings on ecthlijysis. 

47. Ecthlipsis is found of c?, </, s, 5^, before st ; of n before 
(f,y, s ; of d, g, A, ^,p, mostly between vowels or before a liquid : 
Me{d)st,\o^(\e%l\ opz(f/)s^, quothest; c?/(s)s^, choosest; bir{st)st, 
burst est ; for w, g,^ 37 ; feoper (Gothic Jidvor), four ; pegn > 
pen, thane ; fre6gan'> freon, to love; tedhan'> teon, tug; ner{i)- 
est, savest ; niUan > ne -\-pillan, to be unwilling. Mostly assim- 
ilation and gemination. 

48. Prothesis is found of /i, i consonant (y), and p by blun- 
der (§ 31). A]iparent prothesis of b, g, ge, n, s, is found in An- 
glo-Saxon or English, but probably springs from conformation 
with the many words beginning with be-, by, ge-, together, an, 
an, ils, out: tneltan, smeltan, melt, smelt; nadder, adder; Ned, 
Edward ; Naimy, Anna. So in the French : espiace < Lat. sp>a- 
tiiim, space; conforming with words beginning with Latin ex-: 
eclore, exclure < Lat. exckmdo, excludo, exclude. Real prothesis 
is pretty common in Greek : 6<ppvQ (Sanskrit bhru), brow ; arrrijp, 
star. 

49. Ilpithesis is found of e; of b after m ; of d, t, after 7i, I, 
r/ of t after s, and n after a vowel. Those of e and n are con- 
formations of declension and inflection, which see: lam{b), lamb; 
tyran(t); len(d); moul(d); affbr(d) ; mids(t) ; betpux{t),heUvTiXt', 
-s{t) second singular of verbs. See § 27, 5. 

50. Epenthesis is found of a vowel between two consonants, 
e.g., e before r; e, o, t(, before ;;/, ??, p; of y, w, p, h-Awceu 



32 METATHESIS.— CONTRACTION. 

vowels; of d after w, I (espocially followed by I or r) ; of « nfti^r 
s ; of n before //, s, d ; of/ between a consonant and following cy 
of ;• before s, th,p, and after t, (7, f/y of b between m and I, r, or 
a short vowel ; of /> between ??t and n, s, or ^.* wie^tT<L:U. ?^/<3- 
?;v^;>?, meter ; bosom < 7>os;>j, bosom ; glisnian > glisten ; bcal{o)- 
pes, bale's ; 7neoluc < meolc^ milk (Latin midgeo, Greek hfiikyta^ 
Sanskrit w?-,/') ; h/fi{(;)a7i,]o\e; /7^/e(?^)(?, gifts' ; bitan y bi1r/an, 
bilpan, inhabit (^§§ 221, 224, e) ; punor >pimder, thunder ; bal{d)- 
scan, balsam ; f/lis7iian > glisten ; nihtegcde, nightingale ; e(n)- 
sample; ^annende <Lat. Sarmatoe ; myrt(l)e; c?:2(/e > could ; 
has, hoarse ; sjn(du> swarth ; co(r)poral < French caporal Kccqy^ 
chief; cart(r)idge; i)art(r)idge ; chal(d)ron; brQdrjinjut > hr'uK'- 
groom; timber {Goih\c tiiHrJan), imihev ; ?^e»io/ > nimble ; sco- 
limbos <Lat. scolymos, a thistle; nemiiey nemjme (Chaucer), 
name; glim(p)se; emetigy en\\)\.Y. § 27, 5, 33. 

51. Metathesis is found of /</^ > ?/?/?, spy }ys, fpiyng, iisy 
S7i, sc'>a;, sgyx; of a vowel with a following / or r M'hen a 
mute precedes ; of a vowel with a preceding I or r when a nmte 
]n-ecedes : hpit, white (graphic only) ; pses^ye, pvepse, wasp ; peg7i, 
peng, thane ; chcnsian, clxsnicm, cleanse ; Jisc >,/?.!', tish ; dscia7i, 
dxian, ask ; axe (Gothic azgo)^ ashes ; beorht, b7-yht, bright ; idel^ 
idle (graphic) ; grses, gaers, grass ; osle, ousel (rare) ; so mian, 
ri7i7ia7i, run. 

CONTRACTION. 

52. In the Teutonic languages the hiatus is not generally avoid- 
ed by contraction, but by elision or epenthesis ; or it stands. 

(1.) Synajresis is found in Anglo-Saxon after ecthlipsis of g or 
/i, and the assimilation of p to w. 

When unlike vowels meet, a mixed sound is produced in which 
the open vowel predominates : a, o, o, with another vowel be- 
come 6; u, e, lengthen the jireceding vowel; i drops; a+a — d; 
u+a = o; t-^a=eo (i breaks): fd/ia7i>fdn, take; ge/eo/iany 
gefe67i, rejoice ; gefeohe > gefe6 ; teohan > teooi, tug ; freogati > 
freon, love; cpdmo7iy- cxidmon":> c6mo7%, come; fwgei'^ f&7\ 
fair ; sdplymul, soul ; epic > cuic > cue, quick ; sleaha7i > sledii, 
slay ; cpain > com > com.^ come ; pihan ypeon^ grow. 

(2.) The reduplication contracts with the root of verbs; &-\-d, 
w-\-ed, w-\-6, give eo, Avhich shifts to ly »-f «, w-\-ea, w-\-^, con- 
form. See Inflection, § 159. 

(3.) For traces of synizesis, synaloepha, and other contractions 
in Anglo-Saxon poetry, see §§ 509, 510. 



PART 11. 

ETYMOLOGY. 



I. DEFINITIONS. 

53. Etymology treats of the structure and history of uorils. 
It inchules classitication, inflection, and derivation. 

54. A Word is an elementary integer of speech. It has a 
mixed nature: it is thought on one side, and sound on the other. 

55. r<lotional and Relational. — An analysis of the words 
of the Indo-European languages gives two kinds of significant 
sounds: (1) those connoting qualities: e. g., of acts, as eat^ sit, 
go, k?iow, love; of substances, as wet, red, quick; (2) those con- 
noting relations: e.g., of space, time, subject, object; as here, 
there, then, me, he. The first are called notional; the second, 
relational. 

56. Radicles s.re elementary relational parts of words. The}' 
are generally single sounds — oftenest a consonant sound. The 
labials connote subjective relations oftenest; the dentals, object- 
ive and demonstrative ; the gutturals, interrogative ; the nasals 
often connote negation; the vowels, oftenest simple limitation. 
Radicles are found (1) as the essential part of words which de- 
note relation (prepositions and adverbs) : ■j/p, up ; hi, by ; o-f, 
of; mid, with; se-t, at; t-o, to; '^-ser, there; '^-senne, then; 
sp-d, so ; hp-ier, where ; \\^-senne, when ; (2) of words which de- 
note persons or things directly as having the relation connoted 
by the radicle (substantive pronouns) : la-e, me ; ]>'rt, thou ; \\-e, 
he ; s-ed, she ; (3) of words which define, as having certain re- 
lations, objects denoted by other words (adjective pronouns) : 
m-wi, mine; ]3m, thine; l)-a2«, that; sp-zYc, such ; hp-it?;, what ; 
(4) united to roots to form stems, see § 58 ; (5) united to stems 
of nouns or pronouns as factors of relation (case-endings or ad- 
verbial aflSxes) : sm^■<fes, smith's ; ?ea/as, leaves; hira,\nm; pair, 
there ; patman, thence ; see § 60 ; (6) united to stems of verbs 
as factors of relation (inflection endings): eom, am; Ivjiasl, 
lovest ; li/Jia-d, loveth. 

51. A. Root is an elementary notional syllable. A few are 

C 



34 CLASSIFICATION.— DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 

formed by onomatope from noises ; hring, ring ; has, hoarse ; a 
few from sounds naturally expressive of feeling: hleah-tor, laugh- 
ter ; p6p, whoop ; or vocal gesture : st, whist ; sta-\\<\ ; some are 
a growth from the radicles, and descriptive primarily of being or 
motion in the direction or mode connoted by the radicle: iwnian, 
to go in ; tt^ian, to put out; yjo-pan, to ojyeyi (=raise iqy) ; /araii, 
to fare (=go/or^/<); most roots are the expression of an adjust- 
ment of the mind and vocal organs to each other, according to 
which the mind in a certain state tends to put the vocal organs in 
a given state. 

The diffusion of the roots and radicles through all the Indo-European lan- 
guages, and their perpetuation from the earliest ages through such complete 
changes of the superficial appearance of these languaaes, show that there 
must be some stable adjustment of mind to organs in this family of naticms, 
A comparison with other races shows that it is an extension and modification 
of a less definite adjustment belonging to the original constitution of man. 

68. A Stem is that part of a noun to which the historical ease- 
endings, or of a verb to which the personal endings and tense 
signs were affixed. Sometimes it is a root, but generally it is 
formed from the root by one or more relational suffixes : ^man 
think>stem man, man; -/s?/, bear > stem su-nu, son; -/^/(Z; stem 
Ivfia > hijian^ to love, liifigende, lover. For case-endings, see 
§ 60. 



II. CLASSIFICATION. 

59. The parts oi speech are the Noun (Adjective), Pronour 
(Article, Numeral), Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, and 
Interjection. 



III. NOUNS. 

DECLENSIOX. 



CO. A noun has different forms (case^^) in different relations in 
the sentence. The variable final letters of a noun are its case- 
endings ; the rest is its theme. 

61. The case-endings in Anglo-Saxon mark the relations of 

(1.) Six cases : nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vo- 
cative, instrumental. 

(2.) Three numbers: singular (one object), plural (more 
than one), dual (two). 



CASE-ENDINGS. 35 

(3.) Three genders : masculine^ feminine^ neuter. 

62. In the Parent Speech there is only one set of case-endings, 
as follows : 

SiNGtn-AE. PujBAL. Dual. English Equivalent. 

Nominative s ) — Nominative (no 

>• sas ) sign)- 

Vocative (Stem)) ( - — Nominative In- 

I dependent. 

Accusative am ams ) — Objective (no 

sign). 

Genitive as sams ) — Possessive 's, or 

of with the ob- 
aus 

jective. 

Locative i svas j — in with the ob- 

jective. 

Dati^ e ai ) — to or for with 

\ bhjams \ the objective. 

Ablative at ) ( _ —from or out of 

> bhjams with objective. 
Instrumental (1) a ) .r^. ) ) by or with with 

Instrumental (2) bhi f ) ^^^Jective. 

63. The endings are formed from the radicles (^ 56), and are plainly con- 
nected with pronouns and prepositions in Sanskrit and other languages. 

(a.) The nominative s is connected with the demonstrative and article: 
Sanskrit sa, sa, tat ; Greek 6, »), to ; Anglo-Saxon sc, seo, pM. It is used 
only with masculine and feminine nouns, and is a quasi article, as if, in An- 
glo-Saxon, se cymng (the king) were written cyning-se^ cymngs. (For 
the use of the article to mark a subject, see Greek Grammars : Crosby, ^ 487, 
4 ; Hadley, § 535.) A neuter t (tat) is early found. 

(b.) The accusative m appears in the Sanskrit mam, md, me ; ama, this, 
etc. ; a vivid conception of any suffering object is expressed by the same 
sound which is used for one's self as suffering object. 

(c.) The genitive S is connected with the demonstrative sa, Anglo-Saxon 
5e, and the common suffix of adjectives from substantives. Prepositions 
and adverbs of this radicle oftenest mean with, together: Sanskrit sahd. 
sam, sa, etc., corresponding in use with Greek avv, Latin con, Anglo-Saxon 
^e. So the genitive s marks a personal adjunct, then any adjunct. The 
original form was perhaps sam,, which shows in the plural., 

id.) The locative i appears as in in the pronoun (Sanskrit tasm-in, in 
that), and is connected with the preposition in; the plural svas is formed 
on another pronoun : Sanskrit sva, Latin se, Greek ?, self 

(e.) The dative ai is connected with abhi, by, as appears from the pro- 
noun, Sanskrit tu-bhjam, Latin ti-bi, to thee, and from the plural bhjams. 

(f.) The ablative t is connected with the demonstrative ta, the, and its 
force in prepositions and adverbs may be seen in Sanskrit, Gothic, Anglo- 



36 PHONETIC DECAY. 

Saxon ut, out of; the Umbrian tu, to, out of; Latin -tus (cirhtus, from 
heaven). Variations of the dental radicle are also found in Latin -de, unde, 
whence ; inde, thence ; Greek -dtv, from, etc. 

{g.) The instrumental d is from the demonstrative radicle a, and bid from 
the labial radicle : Sanskrit bin ; Greek -ipi ; Anglo-Saxon bi, by {^ 63, ej. 

(A.) The plural sign is 6% and is to be connected in sense with the prepo- 
sition sam, together tvith, mentioned in connection with the genitive. This 
is strengthened by insertion of the pronominal am in the genitive sdms, and 
the dative and ablative b/ijdins. The dual is a lengllicning of the plural. 

(i.) This account is provisional ; the plural most doubtful. 

64. Phonetic Decay. — Sounds whose meaning is not vividly fek 
come under tlie influcm-e of gravitation (^ 38) : they weaken, blend, and at 
last slough away. When tribes speaking difierent dialects mix, the case- 
endings are half caught, and decay is quickened. By this process the Indo- 
European languages have been losing their inflections. As it goes on, di- 
versity of declension arises, two causes of which may be mentioned : 

(1.) Different Endings of the Stem. — Some stems end in a vowel, others 
in a consonant. Under the operation of euphonic laws each stem has its 
own effect on the endings. Tiie Comparative Grammars discuss the effect 
of many different stems (Schleicher gives fifteen sets of paradigms). In the 
Teutonic languages the vowel stems have held the original case-endings 
most firmly, and are called strong ; the sterns in n are called weak ; other 
consonant stems conform {^ 40), or are irregular. 

(2.) Gender. — (a.) Names applied io females use long vowels and liquids; 
they melt away the strong consonant endings, and attain vowel or liquid end- 
ings. Again, all words having such endings tend to assume the habits of fem- 
inine names throughout, and become grammatically of the feminine gender. 

(6.) The separation of neuter from masculine is not so thorough-going. 
No special form is needed to distinguish inanhnate things as acting, or as ad- 
dressed ; hence the nominative and vocative a^re not distinguished from the 
accusative. We take inanimate things in the lump; hence neuters tend to 
use no plural sign, or to use an ending like the feminine singular, as an ab- 
stract or collective form : Greek, Latin, -« ; Anglo-Saxon, -u, etc. Latin 
neuters plural frequently become feminine singular in the Romance lan- 
guages ; Greek neuters plural take a singular verb. The neuter is a mascu- 
line with the activity out ; the Sanskrit grammarians call it kl'iva, eunuch. 

(c.) Gender has two aspects : (1) it represents a tendency to use different 
sounds for relations to males from those used for similar relations to females, 
or to inanimate things ; (2) it represents the tendency to couple together 
words (nouns, adjectives, and pronouns) agreeing in their terminations. 
From the first point of view there can be but three genders ; many lan- 
guages have but two ; some have none. From the second point of view 
there may be as many genders as there are sets of terminations ; some lan- 
guages have none; some, e.g., the Congoes and Caffirs, have many. 

{d.) There was originally no sound as a sign of gender in the Indo-Euro- 
pean Parent Speech. It is denoted, however, in the earliest remains by long 



DECLENSIONS —RULES FOR GENDER. 37 

vowels, especially d,jd>i, for feminine nouns; by -t in the nominative for 
some neuters, and indirectly by other case-endings. It has been a constant 
force, showing itself more and more through all the changes of the language, 
and in the Anglo-Saxon affords a natural subdivision of the case-endings. 

65, There are two classes of Declensions of Anglo-Saxon nouns: 

(1.) Strong : those which have sprung from vowel stems. 

(2.) Weak : that which has sprung from stems in an. 

There are four declensions distinguished by the endings of the 
Genitive Singular : 

Declension 1. Declension 2. Declension 3. Declension 4. 

es e a an 

66. SUMMARY OF CASE-ENDINGS. 

Strong. Weak. 



Deol 


ir. 


Ukcl. III. 


Decl. IV. 


Feminine. 


Masc. Fern. 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neut. 


a 


i 


u 


an 


an 


an 


u 


_ 


u 


a 


e 


e 


e 


e 


a 


an 


an 


an 


e 


e 


a 


an 


an 


an 


u, e 


e,- 


u 


an 


an 


e 


6 


e 


a 


an 


an 


an 


a,e 


e, a 


u, 0, a 




an 




a, ena 


a, ena 




ena 




um 


um 




um 





Decl. I. 
Masc. Neut. Masc. Neut. 

Stem a a ia ia 

Singular. — 

N.&V. - - e e 

Gen es es es es 

Dat e e e e 

Ace - - e e 

Inst e e e e 

Plural. — 

N., A., & F. as u as u 

Gen a a a a 

D.&Inst... um um um um 
A few masculines of Decl. 1st have some forms from i-stems or u-stems, 
^^ 86,93. 

67. Gender. General rules. For particulars, see §§ 268- 

270. 

1. Strong nouns. All masculines are of the first or third 
declension ; all feminines of the second or third ; all neuters of 

the first. 

2. Abstract Kotms have their gender governed by the term- 
inations. In derivatives the feminine gender prevails. 

3. Compound Nouns follow the gender of the last part. 

4. Masculine are names of males ; of the moon ; of many weeds, flow- 
ers, winds ; man, guma, man ; veland ; mono, moon ; mear, horse ; porn, 
thorn; bl6stma,h\ossom; pind, wind. 

5. Feminine are names of females ; of the sun ; of many trees, rivers, 
soft and low musical instruments : cpen, queen; cm, cow; JElf-pryde ; sunnu, 
$unne, sun ; dc, oak ; Danubie, Danube ; hpistle, whistle ; hearpe, harp. 



38 DECLENSION FIRST.— A-STEMS. 

6. Neuter are names of wife, child ; diminutives; many general names; 
and words made an object of thought : pif, wife ; beam, cild, child ; mwgden, 
maiden; gncs, grass; o/e/, fruit; cor?i, corn ; gold, go\d. 

7. Epicene Nouns have one grammatical gender, but are used for both 
sexes. Such names of mammalia are masculine, except of a few little timid 
ones : mus, mouse (feminine) ; large and fierce birds are masculine ; others 
feminine, especially singing birds : niktegale, nightingale ; large fishes are 
masculine, small feminine ; insects are feminine. 

68. Cases alike. — (l.) The nominative and vocative are al- 
ways alike. 

(2.) The nominative, accusative, and vocative are alike in all 
plui-als, and in the singular of all neuters and strong masculines. 

(3.) The genitive plural ends always in a or ena. 

(4). The dative aud instrumental plural end always in um 
{on) {an). Instrumentals are etymologically datives, except -e, -^, 

DECLENSION I. 
Stem in a. Genitive singular in es. 

69. Here belong Masculines, — monosyllables, derivatives in 
I, m, n,'r,p>uyo, els, rcl, d, d, t, nd, st, oc, h, ncj, e, ere; NeU" 
ters,— monosyllables, often with he- or ge- prefixed, derivatives 
in I, n, i^pyzcyo, d, t, h, e, incle. 

10. — I. Case-endings from stem a-}- relational suffixes, Nom- 
inative in — . 

Masculine. Neuter. 

Stem pulfa, wolf. scipa, ship. 

Theme pulf. scip. 

Singular. — 

Nominatwe . . pulf, a xoolf. scip. 

Genitive pulfes, of a wolf wolf's. scipes. 

Dative pulfe, to or for a wolf. scipe. 

Accusative .... pulf, a wolf scip. 

Vocative pulf, 0, tcolf scip. 

Instrumental. . pulfe, bi/ or with a wolf. scip^. 
Plural. — 

Nominative . . pulf«5, wolves. scipw. 

Genitive * pulfa, oftcolves. scip(^. 

Dative pulfwwi, to or for wolves. scip^«7^. 

Accusative . . . pulfas, wolves. scipu. 

Vocative pulfas, 0, wolves. scipu. 

Instrumental. . pulfwm, by or tvith loolves. scipwm. 



COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY. 39 

Sanskrit. Greek. Latin. Gotliic. Old Saxon. Old Norse. 

Stem i a(;va, 'iiriro, equo, vulfa, wulfa, ulfa, 

I horse. horse. horse. wolf. wolf. wolf. 

Singular. — 

Nominative.. a9va-s 'iir-Ko-Q equu-s vulf-s wulf ulf-r 

^ . . , (.'iinro-io ) ( wulba-s ) 

^"°>*^^" •- ^9^^-^JM iWov f ^«1^ ^"^^fi-^ iwulbe-s ^ ^^^-^ 

Dative acjva-j-a WTri^ equo vulfa wulba, e ulfi 

Accusative... a9va-m 'iinro-v equu-m vulf wulf ulf 

Vocative a9va 'iirire eque vulf (^Nomin.) (N'wnin.) 

Instrumental a9va Ittito-^i (^Ablat.) (^Dative.) wulbu (^Dative.) 

Plural. — 

Nominative.. a9va-sas 'Itttto-i equ (e-i-s), i vulfo-s wulbo-s, a-s ulfa-r 

..... , . A „ ( equu-m ) ,„^ 1, • « «,i. 

Genitive acva-n-am iit-n-uov ■{ . i vulte wulbo, a ulfa 

(equo-rum J ,,,. 

T\ • '«ii^./rNA ^ '.ilfu-m 

Uative a9ve-bhjas (Local.) equi-s vulfa-m wulbo-n, u-n -S 

Accusative... a9va-n(s) 'Itttto-vq equos vulfa-ns wulfo-s, a-s ulfa 

The Old High German has wulf, wulfes, ivulfa, wulf, wulfu ; wulfd, wulf 6, 
wulfum, wulfa. The Old Friesic \\zs, fisK,fisk-is {-es),fisk-a {-i, -e), 
fisk ; fisk-ar (-a), fska, Jisk-um (-on, -e?n),fisk-ar (-a). 
For Parent speech, add the endings in ^ 62 to the stem. 

71. Changes in Endings, ^^ 38, 64. (a.) The stem-vowel -a in Gothic 
and Anglo-Saxon does not blend with the terminations as in Latin and Greek, 
but drops. This declension is thus become analogous to the Latin and Greek 
consonant declension (Third) ; compare the singular genitive and plural 
nominative, and see iroifitv, home?!, ^ 95, a, and proper names, ^ lOl, b. 

(b.) Case-endings. For original forms, see ^ 63. 

Singular. — Nominative -s is weathered, ^^ 62, 64. Genitive -as'^-es, 
precession, ^ 38. Dative -ai'^-a^-e, precession, ^ 38 ; sometimes -e> — ; 
ham, home ; dseg, day. Accusative -am'^ — , ^^ 62, 64. Instrumental 
-a^e, § 18, or a-bhi^ Lithuanic, Slavonic -a-mi^ O. H. G. -u, Goth, e 
(in hve, sve,pe, hvadre, etc.)>A. S. -e,-y,-t, ^^ 62, 63, 251, \\.,b. 

Plural. — Nominative a-s{a)s^ -as has farther precession to -a5>-e5>-s 
in late A. -Saxon and English. Genitive -{s)dm{s)^ -a, ^ 64. Dative 
-bhja{m)s'^ -mjas^ -mus'^ -mr'^ -m ; bh'^m nasalizing the labial as in 
Lith. and Slav. -mu5, -m!< ; -a77i> -?/m, labial assimilation,^ 35, 2, a; pre- 
cession to -on, -en is found. Accusative -ans^ -as, compensation, ^ 37. 
(c.) This declension has best preserved the original case-endings, and has 

transmitted to English the possessive and plural signs. 

72. Neuters differ from masculines in this declension in having no proper 
plural sign, ^ 64. Their plural ending is -a in Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, and 
Gothic ; -u in O. Sax.,0. Fries., and A. -Sax. ; — in O. H. Ger. and O. Nor. 

(a.) The earlier -a is sometimes found in A. -Sax. (North.) ; -0 is com- 
mon ; sometimes the -u drops, precession, § 38 ; fidera (w), wings ; hrimo (m), 
waters ; gebedu, gebed, prayers. For -ra, -ru, in wgra, eggs, see § 82. 



40 



STRONG NOUNS.— DECLENSION I. 



73. STRONG NOUNS.— DECLENSION I. 



2. Long monosjllables. 
Stem .... porda, n. 

word. 
Theme . . . pord 
Singular. — 
N.,A.,<!fV. pord 

Gen pordes 

Dat porde 

Inst porde 

Plural. — 
N.,A., df V. pord 

Gen pordk 

D. df Inst... pordam 



3. Shifting. 
daga, m. fata, n. 
day. vat. 

da'g fxt 



dxg 
dxges 
du'ge 
duese 



fxt 
fmtes 
fxte 
faith 



dagks fatu 
dagk fatk 
dagxxva fatnm 



4. U-umlaut. 
hlida., n. 
slope. 
hlid 

hlid 
hlides 
hlide 
hlide 

hleodvL {-1-) 
hleod& (-1-) 
hleodam {-i-) 



6. Gemination. 
torra, m. spella, n. 
tower. speech. 
tor spel 

tor Spel 

torres spelles 

torre spelle 

torre spelle 

tori'As spel 
torrk spellk 

torravci spellam 



6. Syncope. 

Stem tungola,m. tungola,a. 

star. star. 

Theme. . . tungol tungol 

Singular. — 
N., A., df V. tung-ol, -ul, -el, -I 

Gen tung-oles, -ules, -eles, -les 

Dat tung-ole, -ule, -ele, -le 

Inst tung-ole, -ule, -ele, -le 

Plural. — 

\ A A-V i™' ^""5'"^^^^' -ul^s, -elks, -Iks 
- •■> •i<Y '\n.tung-ola, -ol, -ul, -el,-l 

Gen tung-olk, -ula, -elk, -Ik 

D. df I. tung-olmn, -ulnm, -elnm, -/um 



7. Stem in 
-ga. 

bedga, m 
ring. 



hed(g), h 
hedges 
ledge 
hedge 

bedgks 

bedgk 
hedgnm 



8, Stem in -ha. 

mearha, m. hoha, m. 
horse. hough. 

mearh hoh 

mear{h),g,- hoh, ho 
meares hos 

meare ho 

meare ho 



meardiS 



meara. 
mearum 



hos 

hok 

honm 



9. Stem in -pa. 

Stem bearpa, m., grove. cneopa, n., knee. 

Theme. . . hearu cneop 
Singular. — 

N.,A., df V. hear-u, -o cneop, cneo 

Gen hear-pes,-upes,-opes,-epes cneo-pes, -s 

Dat hear-pe, -upe, -ope, -epe cneo-pe, - 

Inst hear-pe, -upe, -ope, -epe cneo-pe, - 

Plural. — 

N.,A., df V. bear-pas,-upks,-opks,-epks cneo-pn, -p, - 

Gen bear-pk, -upk. -opk, -epk cneo-pk, cned 

D. df I. hear-pnva, -upnm, -opxim, cneo-pvua, -um, -m 

-e;?um 



10. Sten+er. 
xga, egg. 
xg, plur. xger 



xges 



xg-er-u, -ni 
xg-er-k, -rk 
xg-ei-\im, -rum 



STRONG NOUNS.— DECLENSION I. 41 

V4. (1. Common forms.) Like /JM/Zdecline strong masculines not licre- 
after otherwise described: dd, oath ; ^/cfe/, part ; j/«n, stone ; cyning, king; 
recels, frankincense ; hldford, lord ; snap, snow, etc. Like scip decline 
strong neuters not hereafter otherwise described : cnl, coal ; doi\ door; gen!, 
gate ; gebnd, bebod, bidding ; gebed, prayer ; gebrec, crash ; gemet, measure ; 
gefeoht, fight, etc. 

(a.) Derivatives in -ad, -cd, -els sometimes drop plural -as : vwnad, months ; hxled, 
heroes ; fxteU, bags ; so those in -r and -nd, §§ 87, 100. 
(6.) For datives in -a, genitives in -end, see §§ 93, 94, 88, c. Gen. -and is found, 
(c.) Stem -e- is sometimes inserted conforming with stems in -ia: fisceds<ifiscds, 
fishes, § 85. 

(rf.) Themes in -sc may suffer metathesis, especially in the plural: fisc, /iscds^fixdi, 
fishes ; tiisc, tvxds, tusks, § 51. 

75. (2. Long monosyllables, neuter, ^ 37, 3.) Like pord decline neu- 
ter monosyllables long hy nature or position : ban, bone ; beam, infant ; fijr, 
fire; god, good; hors, horse; leaf, leaf; lead, song; speord, sword; pif, 
wife, etc. 

76. (3. Shifting, \^ 23, 41) Like dspg or fxt decline monosyllables 

with root se<^a before a single consonant : — masculine hprcl, whale ; m^'g, son : 

p^, path ; stipf, staff ; — neuter bs-c, back ; b:vd, bath ; f.vc, space ; fra>d, fringe ; 

blxd, blade ; crwt, cart. So sometimes before sc, st : sesc, ash ; gxst, guest. 

(a.) The shifting of a to « is stopped in the plural by the assimilating force of the 
doxn of the ending, § 35, 1. 

77. (4. U-umlaut, ^ 32, 3). Like hlid decline brim, water; gehlid, 
inclosure; /;>«, limb, etc. This umlaut is only occasional. 

78. (5. Gemination, ^ 27, 5.) Stems having gemination simplify it 
according to llule 13, ^ 20 ; bil, billes, ax, etc. 

79. (6. Syncope, ^ 46, 37.) Syncopated may be words ending in an 
unaccented sliort vowel before a single consonant : — masculine engel, angel ; 
ealdor, elder; dryhten, lord; monad, month; heorot, stag, etc.; — neuter 
setel, throne ; yfel, evil ; bedcen, sign ; tdcen, token ; leder, leather ; pundor, 
wonder, etc. ; — masc. and neut. heafod, head ; segen, sign, etc. 

80. (7-8. Stems in -ga and -ha.) For gyh and h^g, see ^^ 41, 3, i, 
118. For ecthlipsis of h, see ^ 47. For contraction hdds^hos, see ^ 52. 
Like mearh decline /eorA, plur. neut. /eorA, beings, etc. Like hoh decline 
feoh,r\. fee, pi. n. feo ; hreoh, pleoh, eic. ; and with a similar contraction, 
stems in a long vowel : ed, eds, river ; sx, sais, sea, etc. See ^ 100. 

81. (9. Stems in -pa.) Like beam decline ealu, n., ale ; mealu, n., meal , 
etc. Like cneop decline treop, n., tree ; peop, m., servant, etc. 

(a). After a consonant p final shifts to m>o; and before a vowel may have quasi- 
gemination in up; thi.s 7< may then have precession to o>e. Similar are Sanskrit 
8unavcs<^snnu, son; O. H. Ger. j)n?(iu(r.<!<;)aZ?/, bale. 

82. (10.) Stems strengthened by -er, ^ 228.) Like ssg decline cealf, 
calf; cild, child ; lamb, lamb. 

(a.) A similar interchange of stem -a with -era is found in O. H. Ger. -ira, kelb, kelb- 
ir, calf, O. Pris. kiiui-er-a, children, horn-ar, horns. The -er sometimes comes into the 
singular: Jam&er, a lamb. 



42 



STRONG NOUNS.— DECLENSION I. 



83. — II. Case -end 


ngs from 


84, — III. Case -endings from 


stem -ia + relational suffixes. 


stem -i+ 


relational suffixes. 


Stem . liirdia, m,, 


ricia, n., 


byri, ra., 


foti, m., 


raani, m., 


shepherd. 


realm. 


son. 


foot. 


man. 


Theme bird. 


ric. 


byr 


fot 


man 


Singular. — 










Nom. birde 


rice 


byre 


fot 


man 


Gen. . . hirdes 


rices 


byres 


fotcs 


mannes 


Dat... hirde 


rice 


byre 


fet, fote 


men 


Ace... hirde 


rice 


byre 


fot 


man 


Yoc. . hirde 


rice 


byre 


fot 


man 


Inst... hirde 


rice 


byr^ 


fet, fotg 


men. 


Plural. — 










No7n. hird<^s 


TICU 


byre, -ds 


fet, fvids 


men 


Gen. . . Ynvdd 


Acd 


hyrd 


futd 


mannd 


Dat... hirdww 


Ticum 


hynwi 


fotum 


mannwm 


Ace. . . h'lrdds 


TlCU 


byre, -ds 


fet, fotas 


men 


Voc. . . hirdrts 


ricic 


byre, -ds 


fet, fotas 


men 


Inst. . . hirdum 


rlcinn 


hjruni 


fotwm 


mannwm 



d3, a. Latin, O. Lat. Gothic Gothic. Gothic. O. Sax. O.Norse. 

Stem filio, m., harja, m., hairdja, m., kunja, n., hirdja, m., herja, m., 

son. army. shepherd. kind. shepherd. army. 
Sing.— 

A'bm.... ftliu-s, fili(s) * harji-s hairdei-s kuni hirdi her-r 

<7e». ... filii, fill harji-s hairdei-s kunji-s hird-je-s, -eas her-s 

Dat filio harja hairdja kunja hird-je, -ea her-i 

Ace fili-um, fili-m hari hairdi kuni hirdi her 

Voc fill hari hairdi kuni hirdi 

Plural. — 

JV. ^ F. f till harj6-s hairj6-s kunja hird-j6-s(neut.-i)herja-r 

Gen filiorum, filium harje hairdje kunje hird-j6, -eo herja 

D. ^ I., filiis harja-m hairdja-m kunja-m hird-ju-n herju-m 

Ace filios harja-ns hairdja-ns kunja hird-j6-s(neut.-i) herja 

When a single short syllable precedes the stem -ja, Gothic masculines 
follow harja, otherwise hairdja. The O. H. German has hirti,hirtes,hirta, 
hirti, hirtu ; hirtd, hirto, hirtum, hirtd ; neuter kunni, kunnies {kunnes), 
kunnje {kunne), kunni, kunnju {kiinnu) ; kunni, kunnjo {kunneo, kunno), 
kunnjum {kunnum), kunni. The O. Friesic retains of this declension only 
a nominative e<C^ja. For changes in endings, see ^§ 71, 72, 85. 

84, a. The comparative grammar of the i-stems is reserved for the fem- 
inine forms, kj^ 88, 89. The plural -as conforms with the a-stems. 



STEMS IN lA, R, ND. 43 

85. {Stem in ia.) — Like hirde decline masculines in -e and -ere: 
here, barley ; ele^ oil ; ege, awe ; ends, end ; mece, sword ; spenge, 
sponge ; freond-scipe^ friendship ; Jiseere, Usher ; huntere, hunter. 

Like rice decline strong neuters in -e and diminutives in -incle : 
pUe, punishment; yrfe, heritage ; lidincle, a little joint; rdpiiide, 
■A little rope, etc. Most neuters originally in ia conform with 
pord, or are now masculine. 

(a.) The -e of the singular nominative, accusative, and vocative is by 
precession from -ia. In the earlier forms a stem -e<-^ is occasionally 
found elsewhere : hirdeds'^hirdds, hirded'^hirdd, hirdeurn^hirdum ; me- 
ced'^mecd, etc. The i has sometimes a quasi - gemination to ig, ige, the 
g or ge representing an opening of the organs from the t-position (^ 28, 2 ; 
27, 5) : here (Gothic harjis), herigds, herigeds, hergds, etc., hosts. 

{b.) Many words originally in -ia, which have dropped the nominative -«, 
and are declined like pulf, are seen to have i-umlaut or other assimilation 
when compared with other languages : rec<Crece (Old H. German rouch), 
smoke ; so some i-stems : gxst, gest, gyst,gist ; plur. gystds, giestds, etc. ; 
gastd, etc., guest (Gothic gasts; plur. gasteis, § 89). 

86. {Stem in i. §§ 89-91.) — Few remains are found of mascu- 
lines in -i JBgre / bite, hite; dr y re, iaW; hete, hate; se^e, hall, oc- 
cur ; cyme, cuniiiig, has a plural ; some z'a-stems conform : pine, 
friend ; hccle, man ; hyge, mind ; mere, sea. Like hyre decline 
leode, men, and compounds of pare (called by Grein fem. plur. 
oi leod, people, pc«7<, state, but which seem quasi-adjectives like 
Latin liomani) : hurhpare, citizens ; Cant-pare, Kentish folks ; 
names of peoples : Dene, Danes ; Homdne, Romans. 

Umlaut. — Like/o^ decline t6d • from old M-stems, § 91, C. 

87. {Stems in -r and -nd.) 

Singular. — r-stem. nd-stem. 

iVbm,,^., & F". brodor. feond. 

Gen brodor. feondes. 

Dat. & Inst breder. feonde. 

Plural. — 

N'om.,A.,& V. brodru (a), brodor. fynd, feond, -as. 

Gen brodra. feonda. 

Dat. & Inst. . . . brodrum. feondum. 

The changes o to ^, a to e, and ed to ^, are i-umlaut concealed. ^ 32, 2. 
These irregulars conform to the t-stems. ^91,4,5. For others, see § 100. 

The Gothic has br6par,br6pr-s,br6pr,hr6par ; plur. (like w-stems) brop- 
ju-s, bropr-e, bropr-u-m, bropr-u-ns. The other Teutonic tongues show pe- 
culiar forms (often undeclined) in their r- and nc?-stems. See ^ 100,/. 



44 



DECLENSION II. (FEMININES). 



Stem in a or i. Genitive singular in e. 



88. — I. Case - endings from 
stem a+ relational suffixes. 

Stem gx^-d, gift. 

Theme... gif. 

Singular. — 

Kominative . . gifw- 

Genitive gife. 

Dative gife. 

Accusative . . . gifw, gife- 

Vocative gif«<. 

Instrumental.. gife. 
Plural. — 

I^ominative. 

Genitive . . 

Dative. . . . 

Accusative . . 

Vocative g\fd, gife. 

Instrumental.. gifwm. 



g\ic% gife. 

gifd, giiend. 

gif?/???. 
gif<^, gife. 



II. — Case-endings from 
i-|- relational suffixes, 
djedi, deed. 
dffid. 

d»d. 

dffide. 

d^de. 
d^d, dade. 
dffid. 

dffide. 

d»de, dffid<3. 

d«dd. 

d^d^^??^. 
d»de, diskdid. 
dade, d^d<^. 

d^di/m. 



stem 



88.— 1(a). 



Stem. 



Singular. — 
Nominative . 



Sanskrit, 
a^va, 
mare. 

a9va 



Greek. 



■)(tx)pa 



Genitive a^va-j-as X'^P^'S 



Dative I /'^:^\. I 

( a<jva-j-ai ) 



Accusative... 

Vocative 

Instrumental 
Plural. — 

Nominative . . 



a9va-m 

a9ve 
a(;va-j-a 

a9va-sas 
a^va-s 



Xiopq. 

Xi^pa-v 
Xiopa 
(Dat.) 



Latin, 
equa, 
mare. 

equa 
r equa-es "v 
-,' equa-i >- 
(. equae ) 
( equai ) 
i equae ) 
equa-m 
equa 



X<^poii- 



i 



equae 

equa-s 



Genitive -/'^J''"? \ X^P^v equa-rum 

( a9va-n-am ) 



Gothic, 
giba, 

gift- 

giba 
gibo-s 

gibai 

giba 
giba 
(Dat.) 

gibo-s 
gibo 



Old Saxon. 



ffi/t. 



Dative a9va- 



V ( equa-bus ) ., « 
bhjas {Locat.) '^ , \ gibo-m 



equis 
equals 



geba 

( gebo I 
( geba ) 

( gebo ) 
( gebu i 

geba 
(Nornin.') 
(^Dative.) 

geba 

gebo-n-o 

( gebu-n 
( gebo-n 
geba 



Old Norse. 
giafa, 

giof 



gi6f(u) 

giof 
Nomin!) 
(Dative.) 



giafa 

( giofu-m 
i giofo-m 
giafa-r 



Accusative... a9va-s Xf^P^S equa-s gibo-s 

The Old High German has geba, gebp (a), gebo (u), geba, geba ; gebo (a), 
geboimgebdm.gebd (a). The O. Friesic has sing.jeve; Tp\uT.jeva,jevend 
{jevd),jevum {on),jcva. 



STRONG FEMININES. 45 

(b.) To the 1st class belong all femiuines in ic. They are few: 
/utHi, jouiney ; lufu, love ; sceamti, shame ; scolu, school ; pram, 
revenge, compounds in -jmric {burh-paru, state, etc.). 

(c.) For the Parent Speech, add the endings in ^ 62 to the stem. Grav- 
itation has carried away all the consonants from the Anglo-Saxon case-end- 
ings except the m of the dative plural, which is a nasalizing of the original bh 
(^ 71, b) ; 71 in gifena is euphonic epenthesis {(} 50), as in Sanskrit, a con- 
formation with tlie weak form in a7i ; m in gifum (gifdm) assimilates the a 
(^ 35, 2, a). The plural -a suffered precession in late Anglo-Saxon to -a, 
then to -e, which in English drops. The original -d is retained in the para- 
digms as the classic sound. 

{d.) Plural -e is a conformation with the 2-stems, influenced also perhaps 
liy the Latin. In the sixth century, Latin ^=:e ; -m, -s were silent. 

(e.) Root a sometimes suffers shifting to a?, or even i-umlaut to e, before 
-e: .yacM, strife, genitive swce ; j>racu, ie\ei\ge, dettiye prace,prxce,prece, 
etc. ^^41,32. 

(f.) Here also are placed nouns in -0<^-u undeclinable in the singular, 
from adjectives : yld-u, -o, -e (eld, age), plur. yldu, -o, -e, yldd, yldum ; plural 
nom. and ace. in a is found : yldd (Grein), yrmrfa, miseries. So wdelo, woh\\ 
ity ; brstdo, breadth, etc. The plural is rare. Similar words in Gothic an* 
weak : manag-eins (multitude), -em, -ein, -ei, plur. manag-eins, -eino, -eim 
-eins. O. H. German has -in for -ein; O. Saxon has strong forms. The 
A. -Saxon words conform with the a-stems. § 40, 1. 

(g.) For durii, door; le, law; beo, bee; ed, river; see, sea; forms from 
ia-stems, etc., see ^ 100 ; for Northumbrian forms, see page 49. 

89.— (88, 11.) Stem in i. 

Sanskrit. Greek. Latin. Gothic. Old Saxon. Old Norse. 

„ ( avi, ofi, ovi, anstai, ansti, asti, 

( sheep. sheep. sheep. love. love. love. 

Singular. — 

Nom avi-s o^i-g ovi-s anst-s anst ast 

Gen avj-as u^i-og ovi-s anstai-s ansti, ensti ast-ar 

Dat avj-ai Loc.oft-i Loc. ovi anstai ansti, ensti ast-u 

Ace avi-m tipt-v ove-m anst anst ast 

Voc ave opt {Norn) anst (Nom.) (Nom.) 

Inst avj-a (Dative.) Abl. o\e(d) (Dative.) (Dative.) (Dative.) 

Plural. — 

Nom. & Voc. avaj-as opt-fc ove-s anstei-s ansti, ensti asti-r 

Gen avi-n-am opt-oji' ovi-um anste anstjo, enste-6 ast-a 

Dat avi-bhjas Loc. of i-ffi ovi-bus ansti-m anstju-n, enstju-n ast-um 

Ace avi-s opt-a^ ove-s ansti-ns ansti, ensti asti 

The O. High German has anst, ensti anst, ensti anst, anst ; ensti, enstj-o 
ensteo, ensti-m, ensti. The Old Friesic has ned, nede, nede, nede; ncda, 
neda, ned-d, nedi-m<^nedem, -um, -on, neda. Masc. and neut. 7-stems were 
common in the older tongues ; but few masc. survive in A. -Sax. ^^ 64, d ; 86. 



46 



DECLENSION II.— I-STEMS. 



00. — II. Case-endings < stem i -f rel. suffixes. Nominative in — . 
Stem. . 1. djedi, deed. 2. pynni,/im. 3, beadpi, battle. 



Theme 
Singular. — 
Nom. 
Gen. . 
Dat. . 

Ace. . 

Voc. . 
Inst. . 

Plural. — 

JVom. . . 
Gen. . . . 
Dat. . . . 
Ace. . . . 
Voc. . . . 
Inst. . . . 



d-M. 

died. 

dffide. 

daide. 
dffid, 
daide. 
d^d. 

d^de. 

dsede {d). 

d&dd. 

d&dum. 
dffide (a). 
dsede (d). 

d&dum. 



pynn. beadp (u, o), beadup. 

V J 

■ Y 

pyn. beadu (o). 

pynne. beadpe, beadupe. 

pynne. beadpe, beadupg. 

pyn, ( beadu (o), 

pynne. ( beadpe, beadupe. 

pyn. beadu (o). 

pynne. beadpe, beadupe. 

pynne (d). beadpe (d), beadupe (d). 

pynna. beadpd, beadupd. 

pynnwm. beadpwm, beadupwm. 

pynne (d). beadpe (d), beadupe (d). 

pynne (d). beadpe (d), beadupe (a). 

pynnwm. headpum, bead up wm. 



Stem.. 
Theme 

SlNGULAR.- 

Koin. 
Gen. . 
Bat. . 

Ace. . 

Voc. . 
Inst. . 

Plural. 
Nom. 

Gen. . 
Dat. . 

Ace. . 
Voc. . 
Inst. . 



4. boci, hooh. 
boo. 

boo. 
b^c, boce. 
bgc. 

boc 

boc. 
b^c. 

bee. 

bocd. 

bocwm. 
bee. 
bee. 

bocwm. 



5. m<isi, mouse. 
mtis. 




mys. 

mtlsd. 

ratisz<w. 
mys. 
mys. 

mtiswm. 



6. ceasteri, city. 
ceaster, ceastr. 

ceaster. 
ceastre. 
ceastre. 
j ceaster. 

I ceastre. 
ceastei, 
ceastre. 

ceastre (d). 

ceastrd. 

ceastr?<m. 
ceastre (d). 
ceastre (d). 

ceastn^m. 



91. To the 2d class belong all feminines ending in a consonant; 
they are simple monosyllables; derivatives in -el, -en, -er ; -ung , 



STRONG NOUNS (FEMININES). 47 

-nis, -nes y -es / -oc / -od, -tid, d ; p-j nearly all strong feminines 
conform. 

(a.) The feminines of the first Sanskrit declension are a-stems and 
i-stems. 

(6.) The apocope of stem ^ in the singular nominative, accusative, and 
vocative, is the effect of gravitation (^ 38). That short roots retain the stem 
vowel {gifu, etc.), while long roots drop it {dtBd, etc.), shows compensation 
(^ 37). Compare the feminine of the strong adjectives. 

(c.) The singular accusative -e, the plural nominative, accusative, and 
vocative -d, and dative -um<^-i7n, are conformations with the 1st class. 
^ 40, 1. 

A. (1, Common I^orTn.) — Like d^d decline words of this de- 
clension ending in a syllable long by nature or position : dr, honor ; 
bSn, prayer ; Idr, lore ; rdd, cross ; pund, wound ; pyrd, fate ; ge- 
sanmung, assembly ; so also ides, woman, and some other words 
in a short syllable. 

(a.) Except words like boc and mus (4, 5), and like eld, cleo {^ 100). 
(b.) Many have sometimes -d in the dative : some originally -u stems re- 
taining it, others conforming — words in -ung oftenest. ^ 93, i. 

B. (2. Gemination.) — Like pyn decline words of this declen- 
sion ending short in a consonant: ben, wound; Z>//s, bliss ; hen, 
hen ; hyrgen, sepulcher ; g^men, care ; prinis, trinity, etc. 

(3. Semivowel Ge'tnination.) — Like beadu decline feminines in 
p>w (§ 30) : gearu, gear ; sceadu, shadow, but sceade, sceadd are 
found ; rsesu, providence ; seonu, sinew. 

(a.) Except syncopated forms like ceaster, and a few like died, 
(b.) For the simplification of gemination prjnn^pyn, see ^ 20, Rule 13. 
(c.) The u of vp is made in closing the organs io p {^ 27, 5). It may 
suflfer precession to o>e {^ 38). Final J>>i^ is shifting (§ 30 ; 41, 2). 

C. (4, 5. Umlaut.) — Like boc decline brdc, breeches ; gos, goose. 
Like mils decline Ms, louse ; for cd, cow ; burh, borough ; turf, 
tui'f, see § 100. Note also dohtor, speoster, moder. 

{a.) The changes in the roots of boc, mus, etc., are i-umlaut concealed: 
bec<ibdci (Old Saxon boci), ^ 32, 2. 

D. (6. Syncope.) — Like ceaster decline syncopated words of 
this declension : they end in an unaccented vowel before I, n, r, 
or sometimes other single consonants (§ 46) : sapel, soul ; stefen, 
voice ; lifer, liver ; meoluc, milk. Unsyncopated forms occur. 

E. For forms from m-stems ; ha?id, hand ; niht, night ; piht, 
whit, see § 100. For Northumbrian forms, see page 49. 



48 



DECLEK8H)N III. (U-STEMS). 



92. STRONG NOUNS (MASCULINES). 
I. Head-cases in a Vowel. — Genitivo in a. (Declension III.) 

Case-endiugs < stem u + relational suffixes. Nominative in u. 

Feminine hand (hand) is added. 

Stem 1. simu, so?i. 2. bandu, hand. 

Theme sun. band. 

Singular. — ^ v ^ ^ v ^ 

Noininative. . sum<. hand. 

Genitive suwd. bandd 

Dative mnd, sunw. handd, band. 

Accusative . . . sum<. hand. 

Vocative sunw. hand. 

Listrumental. s\xnd. handa, hand. 
Plural. — 

Nominative. . sumi (o), sund. handd. 

^^^^'^^'^^ I IZL. \ ^'^^^' 

Dative smmm. bandwm. 

Accusative... sunw (o), s una. handd 

Vocative sunw (o), sund handa. 

Distrumental. sunum. liandwm. 

93. To the third declension belong sunu; pudu^ wood; magu, 
servant: and bregu, prince; headu-, fight; heoru, sword; lagti, 
lake; meodu, mead; salu, hall; sidu, custom, and a few others, 
found mostly in the singular nominative and accusative, and in 
composition. 

(a.) This declension corresponds to the Latin second in so far as it con- 
tains those masculine nouns which have their head-cases in a vowel, and so 
is a complement of declension second . In its original stem it corr. 5ponds to 
the Latin fourth. ^ 101, b. 

Sanskrit. Greek. Latin. Gothic. Old Saxon. Old Norse. 

< sunu, vtKv, fructu, sunu, sunu, sonu, 

^*^™ ( son. corpse. fruit. son. son. son. 

StNGULAK. — 

Nominative.. sunu-s vekv-q fructu-s simu-s sunu,-o son-r 

(sun(ii)-o) 
Genitive .... s^nv-as vtKV-oQ fructil-s sunau-s j gm^jg.g f . ^°^^'^ 

Dative from I sunau ) ^.^^_^ ^fructu-i) ^^^^ |simu, -o,) ^^ 

Locative... C sunav-i^ (fructu) t sunje ) 

Accusative. . . siinu-m v(icv-v fructu-ra sunu sunu, -o son 

Vocative .... sii'no vikv {Nomin.) sunau, -u (^Nomin.) {Nomin.) 

Instrumental. siinu-n-a (Dat.) (Ablat.) ^Dative.} sunju {Dative.) 



STRONG NOUNS (MASCULINES). 49 

Sanskrit. Greek. Latin. Gothic. Old Saxon. Old Norsa. 

5, f sunu, v(Kv, fractu, sunu, sunu, sonu. 

( son. corpse. fruit. son. son. son. 
Plural. — ^ ^ 

„ . . (sfinav-asf , „ . . 

.Nominative, i ^ . c vtKv-ic, iructu-s suniu-s sum svni-r 

( sunv-as ) j j 

Genitive stinu'-n-am vikv-iov fructu-um suniv-e sunj-6, -eo son-a 

Dative sdnii-bhjas (Locat.) fructi-bus sunu-m sunu-n sonu-m 

Accusative., i . , r vtKv-ag fructu-s sunu-ns suni sonu 

( sunv-as ) 

The Old High German has sunu (o), sunes, sunju (sunu), sunu (0), simju 
{sunu) ; suni, sunjo, sunim (sunum), suni (u). The w-declension is near- 
ly extinct. O. Fries, sun-u (o), -a -a, -u ; -ar (-a), -a, -um, -ar (-a). 

(b.) Gravitation has carried away all the consonants from the Anglo-Saxon 
case-endings, except the -m of the dative plural, which is a nasalizing of the 
original bh. ^ 38. 

(c.) The Gothic du of the genitive and dative singular is a progression 
from u (sunu-as^sundu-as'^sundus), ^ 38, 1. The Anglo-Saxon d nearly 
resembles it, and is retained in the paradigms as the classic sound, though it 
suffered precession in later times. 

(d.) The instrumental su7id, handd are dative forms. 

(e.) The plural -ii^-o is precession : it is found also in the singular. 
^38, 1. 

(y.) The plural -d and -end conform to the second declension. 

{g.) Note the umlaut and shifting in the Old Norse : s>r, ?<>0, U^y. 

(h.) Hand conforms almost wholly to the first declension. 

{{.) Some words originally w-stems retain the forms of this declension in 
single cases, especially in the singular dative -a, and plural nominative, ac- 
cusative, and vocative -m; feldd, field ; fordd, ford ; sumord, summer; pin- 
trd, pintru, winter ; dura, door. Some words of other stems conform in the 
same cases : peoruldd, world ; gebrodru, brothers ; dohiru, daughters ; mo- 
dru, mothers ; gespeostru, sisters ; feminines in -ung. 

(k.) For irregular forms oi pudu, magu, hand, etc., see ^ 100. 

94. Northumbrian. 

Feminines, Declension II, — In words of the First Class -a is found for 
Common Anglo-Saxon -u or -g. Feminines sometimes have -es in the geni- 
tive singular and -as in the plural, and then may pass for masculines. 

Singular. — Nom. ^eia. Plural. — Nom geids. 

Gen., gefes (aes). Gen., gefend. 

Dat.. gefa. Dat.. gefum. 

Masculines, Declen. I. and III. — Here a for u is found : stina for sunu ; 
also the complete descending series of W; suno, sune, sun, sun. ^ 38, 1. 

Nouns strong in Common Anglo-Saxon often have weak forms or mixed 
strong and weak forms in Northumbrian. The genitive -end abounds. 

D 



50 



DECLENSION IV.— AN-STEMS. 



95. WEAK NOUNS. 

Case-endings < stem an + relational suffixes.— Genitive in an. 

(Declension IV.) 

1. Masculines. 2. Fkminines. 3. Neuters. 
lungan, 
tongue. 



Stem. 



Theme 
Singular.— 

Gen. . 
Dat. . 
Ace. . 
Voc. . , 
Inst. . 
Plural. — 
Nom. 
Gen. . 
Dat. . 
Ace. . 
Voc. . 
Jnst. . 




bana. 

hanan. 

haua;i. 
hanaw. 
hail a. 

hixnan. 

hanan. 

hanend. 

hauum. 
hauan. 
hanan. 

hanum. 



tung. 

tunge. 

tuugan. 

tungaw. 
tuiiga/4. 
tunge. 

tungaw. 

tungan. 

tuugend. 

tungwm. 
tnngan. 
tungaw. 

tuncr^^m. 





eagan. 

eage7id. 

e'dgmn. 
eagan. 
eagan. 



tae, ta. 

i'dan, tan. 

taan, tan. 
taa?^, tan. 
tae, ta. 

tnan, tan. 

taa??, tan. 

tae?m, tana. 

timm. 
taan^ tan. 
taan, tan. 

Vdutn. 



To the weak declension belong certain monosyllable themes 
and derivative themes in -ig, -I, -m, -n, -r, -s, -p, all adding -a or 
-e in the nominative. 

(a.) Stems in -an are of the third declension in Latin and Greek. 





Sanskrit. 


Greek. 


Latin. 


Gothic. 


Old S.ax. 


Old Nor.=e. 


Stem - 


1 afman, 


TToifiir, 


homen, -i. 


hanan, 


hanan, 


hanan, 




!. stone. 


shepherd. 


man. 


cock. 


cock. 


cock. 


Singular. — 














Nominative. 


a9ma 


TTOtfD'lV 


homo 


hana 


hano^ 


hani 


Genitive .... 


a(;man-as 


TTOii^ih'-og 


homin-is 


hanin-s 


hanun 


hana , 


Dat. < Loc. 


acman-i 


TTOljliV-l 


homini 


hanin 


hanun 


hana 


Accusative.. 


a9ma.n-am 


iroifih'-a 


homin-em 


hanan 


hanun 


hana 


Vocative.... 


a^man 


(Nomin.) 


{Noiiiin.) 


hana 


{Norn.) 


{Nom.) 


Instrument. 
Plural. — 


a9man-a 


{Dative.) 


{Ablat.) 


{Dat.) 


{Dat.) 


{Dat.) 


Nominative. 


a^man-as 


TTOlfliV-iQ 


homin-es 


hanan-s 


hanun 


hana-r 


Genitive 


a^man-am 


TTOlfliv-UIV 


homin-um 


hanan-e 


hanon-o 


hana 


Dative 


a^ma-bhjas 


{Local. ) 


homini-bus 


hana-m 


hanun 


honu-m 


Accusative. 


a9man-as 


iroifiiv-ag 


homines 


hanan-s 


hanun 


hana 



The Old High German has hanx), hartni, hamn, hanun ; hanun, hanon-o, 
hano-m. O. Fries, sing. Aona ; ^Inx. hon-a,-ana{-07ia),-um,-a. 



WEAK NOUNS. 51 

(b.) The singular case-endings are sloughed off; and, in the nominative, 
n cf the stem. In the genitive plural, a has held its ground, and gravitation 
has modified the stem: a>e> — : arena, drnd, honor. The dative has 
ecthlipsis of 7i (^ 47), and assimilative precession of am to um (§ 35, 2, a). 

(c.) Feminines in Gothic strengthen to d the a of the stem -an through- 
out, and the d of the case-ending of the genitive plural. In Anglo-Saxon 
all genders agree ; but feminines in the nominative, and neuters in the nom- 
inative, accusative, and vocative, for final a take e (Precession, § 38). 

(d) The stem in an was mostly masculine, but has been going over to 
the feminines in the Teutonic tongues (^ 67, 2). 

(e.) The same peculiar gravitation which has brought the short a-stems 
to the form of consonant stems in declension first, has here produced a new 
declension by sloughing away the endings and stem. This new declension 
has been adopted by the Teutonic nations as their favorite for secondary 
formations having the force of an adjective used as a noun, and for definite 
adjectives ; and it has in the Teutonic tongues a historical and logical im- 
portance coordinate with the strong forms. In English the Norman -s join- 
ed with -s of the Anglo-Saxon first to kill it, and oxen, with the irregular 
children, brethren, is almost its only memorial in current speech. 

96. Like hana decline all weak nouns in -a : hana, death ; 
cetti^xf, soldier ; f?ro;9a, drop ; guma,mim; Aimto, hunter; mona^ 
moon; oxa, ox; prsecca, exile; ?ia/e?a, navel ; hodma., covering; 
geongra., disciple ; egesa., awe ; riespa, general ; gemaca, mate. 
Some remains of stems in -ia7i are found : preccea —precca^ ag- 
liBcea, monster, etc. 

97. Like timge decUne all weak nouns in -e: bgrne, mail; 
eorde, earth ; heorte, heart ; sun7ie, sun ; si/rce, sark ; puce, week ; 
hlxfdige, lady ; feemne, woman ; nsedre, snake ; picdvpe, widow. 

(a.) Except the four neuters (§ 98). 

(6.) Now and then forms are found in -ean for -an, either remains of 
stems in -lan, or conforming to such stems : cyrice, cyricean, church. 

98. Like edge decline edre, ear ; limge., lungs ; c%>e, clew. 

99. Like td decline bed,hee,bed7i, etc.; and masculine /rert«> 
/red, freaan yfredn, lord ; tpeoa > tj^ed, tpeoau > tpedn, doubt. 

Northumbrian. — ( Weak Noims.) 

Final -71 and -m drip. The a of -an often suffers precession in the 
masculines to O or e, in the feminines and neuters to ii, o, or e. Nouns 
weak in Common Anglo-Saxon have often strong forms, or mixed strong 
and weak in Northumbrian : noma (nama), name, genitive noma, nomes. 
By comparing pages 49, 61, it will be seen that the Northumbrian forms 
vary irregularly between forms older than the Common Anglo-Saxon and 
others modified by gravitation and conformation almost as much as the En- 
glish. See page 19. 



52 IRREGULAR NOUNS. 

100. IRREGULAR NOUNS. 

Such are without case-endiugs (Indeclinable), or without 
certain cases (Defkctivk) ; or they vary in gender (Heteroge- 
neous), in stem (Metaplasts), in case-endings (Heteroclites) ; 
or they are remains of dead declensions {Heliqidce, Relics) ; or 
are disguised by phonetic changes (Cryptoclites). The same 
noun may belong to several of these classes. 

(a.) ludecliuable are many nouns in -u^o (^ 88,/) : wdelu, f. fo- 
bility ; /iwtu, f. heat ; hcdhdu, t'. highlh, etc. ; and &, f. law ; bed, bi, f. bee, 
pi. declined. 

(b.) Defective. — Without the plural are most proper, abstract, and ma- 
terial names: JElfred ; strerigdu, f. strength; gold, n. gold. Sometimes 
the plural has a change of meaning : w, rites ; gjftd (w), nuptials ; Icude, 
men] -pare, men? Without the singular are fideru, n. wings; firds, n. 
men ; freetpe, f. ornaments ; gearpe, f. trappings ; geatpe, f. equipment ; ge- 
brddor(u), m. brothers ; gcspeostor, f. sisters ; gespeoru, n. hills ; getimbru, 
n. building ; lendenu, n. loins ; niddds, men ; -paran, -pards, -pare, m. citi- 
zens ; pclerds (-a), m. f. lips. 

(c.) Heterogeneous. — Masculine and Neuter are deufol, devil ; dogor, 
day; feorh, life; frid, peace; gepanc, mind; God, m., plur. godds, m., 
godu, n. God, idols ; gym, distress ; heafod, n. head, plur. sometimes heaf- 
dds, m. ; hedp, heap ; hilt, hilt ; holt, holt ; rwced, house ; tungol, star ; pebl, 
weel ; pesten, waste ; pam, spot ; polcen, cloud ; brim, sea ; cealf, calf. 

Feminine and Neuter are sebylgd, offense ; sedelu, sing, f., plur. n. nobil- 
ity ; safest, envy ; gepeaht, counsel ; gift, dowpr ; grin, snare ; liget, light- 
ning ; Peostor, n., peostru, f. darkness; pied, pwde, weeds; piht, whit. 

Masculine and Feminine are &rist, resurrection ; bend, bond ; hearg, 
grove ; list, art ; nedhpest, f. m. vicinage ; s&, sea ; s&l, luck ; str&l, arrow; 
sper, column ; peard, watch ; pelerds {-a), lips ; leod, f. a people, plur. m. 1 
leode, men ; paru, f. state, plur. -pare, m. 1 citizens (^ 86) ; est, love. 

Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter are pred, throe ; pnestm, growth. 

((i.) Metaplasts. — Forms from stems in -la, -tan, mix with others: 
plencu, f. pomp, plur. gen. plenced; cseg, f. key, plur. nom. csegid; fisc, m. 
fish, plur. nom. fisceds ; Isece, m. leech, plur. nom. l&ceds; cirice, f. church, 
plur. nom. ciricean. From w-stems : duru, pudu, niagu, like sunu (^ 92), 
also gen. dure f pudes, plur. nom. pudds, magds ; hand, etc. (^ 93, i). To 
some stems -er is added : ccg, egg; cealf, calf; cild, child (^ 82). Stems 
with and without quasi-gemination (^^ 81, 91) : sceadu, f. shadow, dat. scea- 
dupe, sceade ; fri, freb, m. freeman, plur. nom. frige, freo. Metathesis : 
fisc, m. fish, plur. nova., fixds. Many conforming regulars, and heteroclites, 
are metaplastic 

Ce.) Heteroclites. — Many heterogeneous strong nouns (1) with Mascu- 
line and Neuter endings: God, m. God, pluf. m. Godds, n Godu; heafod, 
n. head, plur. n. heafodu, plur. m. heafdds. {2) With Feminine and Neu- 



IRREGULAR NOUNS. 53 

ter endings : d'fest, envy, gen. n. xfestes, pi. nom. f. s'feste ; gift, f. dower, 
plur. nom. f. gij'lei, n. gifttf, grin, snare, inst. grine, grine, plur. nom. grinds 
grinu. (3) With Masculine and Feminine : bend, bond, plur. nom. bendds, 
-d, -e ; see, sea, gen. sdis, see; pclerds, -a, lips. Many themes have both 
weak and strong forms : heofon, heofon-e, heaven ; sunn-ti, sunn-e, sun ; 
-par-ds, -par-an, men ; but such are given as different words. Some mix : 
Cleg, f. key, gen. csegan, dat. ceege, plur. nom. csegid, dat. ceegum. 

(_/*.) Relics of the r-stem are brodor, brother (^ 87) ; modor, mother, 
dohtor, daughter ; speostor, sister ; gebrodor, gebrodru (dual ?), brothers; 
gespeostor, sisters ; fieder, father, sing, indecl. has also gen. and pi. forms of 
Declension First ; of the n<f-stem are feund, fiend (^ 87) ; freond, friend ; 
and (compound) participial nouns : ymb-sittend, neighbors, plur. nom. ; fold- 
buend, farmers ; plur. nom. sometimes in -ds, gen. -rd, like adjectives ; of 
other consonant stems : neaht, f. night, gen. mhte, nihtes, generally adverb- 
ial, plur. nom. niht ; piht, f. whit, plur. nom. (^piht, Grimm) pihtd, pihtu, 
pihte; burg, f. borough, gen. byrg, byrig; man, man (^ 84). 

(^.) Cryptoclites. — The most common obscure forms spring from 

1. Concealed umlaut. See, for paradigms, ^oc, book ; 7nw5, mouse (§ 90) ; 
fot, foot; man, man (^ 84) ; bruder, brother ; feond, fiend (^ 87) ; like are 
broc, breeches ; gds, goose ; tod, tooth ; lus, louse ; mus, mouse ; cu, f. cow, 
gen. cus (Rask), dat. cy, ace. cu, plur. nom. cy, eye (ciis, Rask), gen. cund^ 
dat. cum; burg, burh, f. borough, gen. byrig, burge, dat. byrig, byrg, plur. 
nom. byrig, gen. burgd, dat. burgum; turf, f. turf, dat. tyrf; modor, dohtor, 
speostor; freond, friend. 

2. Quasi-gemination of semi-vowels : paradigms of beadu, battle {(} 90, 
3); here, host (^ 85, a). Like are frwtupe (a), fr^ptpe (d), f. plur. orna- 
ment; gearpe, f. plur. trappings; geatpe, f. plur. equipment; nearu, f. nar- 
rowness ; r&su, f. providence ; seonu, f. sinew ; melu, n. meal ; ealu, n. ale, 
etc; and frt,freo, m. freeman, plur. n. frige, freo; pine, m. friend, plur. 
nom. pinds, pine, gen. pind, pinid, pinigd, piniged, dat.pinum, ace. pinds,pine. 

3. Apothesis and Contraction — words in ■?«>0 indeclinable (^ 100, a). 
bi, beo, f. bee, sing, indeclinable, plur. nom. beon, gen. beond, dat. beoum, 
eld, f. claw, plur. nom. cldpe, dat. cidm. [beom. 
dry, m. magician, dat. dry, plur. nom. dryds, gen. dryrd. 

ed, f river, gen. ed, m, eds (m.), dat. ed {ie, Rask), plur. nom. ed, eds (m.), 

dat. ed?n. 
feoh, fco, n. fee, gen. fei)s, dat. feo ; plur. nom. feo, gen. feona, fed 

(<^fe6hd): so hreoh, pleoh, peoh, etc. 
hoh, ho, m. hough, gen. hos, dat. ho, plur. nom. hos, gen. hod, etc. 
hrdp, hrA'p, hredp, hrd, hred, n. sing, and plur. nom. ace. voc. body, corpse, 

gen. hrms (<^hrirpes), plur. nom. hrsepds, dat. hrwpum. 
morgen, m. morning, plur. gen. morgend, morgnd, mornd. 
sx, m. f. sea, gen. sies, sxpe, Sdi, dat. see, setpe, plur. nom. s&s, s^, dat. 
seo, f. pupil, gen. seon, sedn. sugu, sii, f. sow, d. sue. [s^m, ssepum. 

treop, treb, n. tree, gen. treopes, plur. nom. ireopu, tripu, treop, treo. 
hred, f. m. n. throe, indeclinable, plur. dat. predum, predm. 



54 PROPER NAMES. 

101. PROPER NAMES. 

(l.) Persons. — Names of womoi in -u or a consonant are 
strong, those in -e or -a are xceak. Declension II., d-stem: Beiru, 
Freapiini ; i-stetn : Beadoliild, Ilyc^d, and most others. Declen- 
sion IV.: Elene, Eve, Ada, Maria, etc., from foreign names ; 
PcalhJ)e6(p), dat. Pealhjieon (§ 99). 

Names of men in -u, -e, or a consonant are strong, those in -a 
are iceak. Declension III, u-stem: Lcofsunu ? Declension I., 
a-stem: Alfred, Beopulf, Eadmund, Sigeniund {gen. also Sige- 
muiide<mund,/*. Bask) ? Pelaud, and most other strong names; 
sgncopated: Ecglu'u(p), gen.'E.cg^cdi^cs,Ecg]}eoes, etc. ; Ongen- 
J)L'o(p) ; Grendel, </€«. Gieiideles, Grendles, etc.; Ilrcdel ; ia- 
stem: Ine, Hedde, Gislhere, Pulfliere, Eadpine, Godpine, and 
other's from -liere and -pine; umlaut not found: Ileretnan, dat. 
Ileremanne. Declension IV.: M\\a., Becca, and many others. 

(a.) Foreign names sometimes retain foreign declension, or are unde- 
chned, but are generally declined as above ; those in -as, -es, -us do not 
often increase in the genitive. Those from Latin -us, Greek -oc, of the 
second declension, sometimes drop their endings and take those of the 
Anglo-Saxon first: Crist (<Christus), Cristes, Criste, etc. In less fa- 
miliar words -us oflenest stands in the nom. and geji., but sometimes the 
Latin and Anglo-Saxon forms mix throughout: Petrus, gen. Petrtis, Petres, 
Petri, dal. Pctro, Petre, ace. Petrus, Petrum ; so -as and -es : Andreas, gen. 
Andreas, dat. Andrea, ace. Andresls, Andream; Herodes, Herodes, Herode, 
Herod-em, -es, or -e. 

(6.) In Gothic these Latin and Greek names of the second declension are 
regularly given in the u-declension : Paitrus, gen. Paitraus, dat. Paitrau, 
ace. Paitru (^ 93, a). The Anglo-Saxon genitive Petrus may be a relic 
of the u-declension. 

(2.) Peoples. — Plurals in -as and -e are strong, in -an %oeak. 
Declension I, a-stem : Brittas, Scottas, etc. ; ia-stem and i-stem : 
Dene, gen. Den-a, -ia, -iga, -gea (§ 85, «) ; Romane, etc. Z>ecfen- 
sion IV. : GoiQ,n,^Qi\xiin, etc. 

Tlie singular is oftenest an adjective in -isc regidarly declined: 
Egyptisc man, Ugyj^tian man; Egyptisc ides, Ugyjytian woman; 
J)a Egyptiscan, the Egyptians, etc. Sometimes an Brit, a Briton. 

Often is found a collective with a genitive, or with an adjective, 
or compounded: Seaxna J)e6d ; Filistea folc; Caldea cyn ; Ebrea 
peras; Sodomisc cyn; Rom-pare (§ 86) ; Nord-men (§84, ^),etc. 
Foreign names are treated as are names of persons. 

(3.) Countries. — A few feminine names are found : Engel, 
England ; Bryten, Britannia. Oftenest is found the people's 



SUMMAKY OF CASE-ENDINGS. 55 

name in the geyiitive with land, rice, edel, etc., or in an oblique 
case with a prej:>ositio9i : Engla land ; Sodoma rice ; on East-En- 
glum ; of Seaxuni ; on Egyptum. Foreign names are treated as 
are names of persons. 

(4.) Cities. — Names found alone are regularly declined accord- 
ing to gender and endings: R6m,y, Rome; Babylon, n. Babylo- 
nes; Sodoiua, m. Sodoman. Oftenest they are prefixed undecUned 
to burg, ceaster, pic, dtin, ham, etc.: Luuden-pic, Roma-burg, etc.; 
or thefoWs name in the genitive followed by burg, ceaster, etc., is 
tcsed: Caldea burg. Foreign names treated as names of persons. 

102. WEATHERING OF C AS E - E N DI N G S. 

(1.) Anglo-Saxon : Strong. Weak. 

, ^ , , A , 

Masculine. | NixiTca 1 Fem. I Maso. I Maso. Fem. Neut. 

Decl. L I Decl. I. I Decl. II. I Decl. III. | Deci,. IV. 

Head-cases in a consonant. | Head-cases in a vowel. | Head-cases in -an. 

Stem a ia i a ia a i u an an an 

SiNGDLAK. — 

N.&V. - e e - e u - u a e e 

Gen es es ee es es e e a an an an 

Dat e e e e e e e a an an an 

Ace _ee - eu,ee, - u anane 

Jnst e e e e e e e a an an an 

Plural. — v^ " 

N., A.,&.V. as as e, as u, - u a, e e, a u, o, a an 

Gei^ a a a a a a, ena a, ena ena 

D. & Inst. . . um um um um um um um nm 

(2.) Layamon: 

^^INGULAR. 

N.,A.,&,V. - e, en - e e, -, en e e, en 

Gen es es es es e, -, en, es e, es en, e, es 

Z>. & Inst. .. e, en e, en e, en e, en e, -, en e en, e 

Plural. — v.— — ^^— v 

N., A., & V. es, en, e e, -, es, en e, en, es e, en, es en, e, es 

Gen e, ene,en,es e, en, es e, en, ene, es en, es en, ene, enen 

D. &Inst.... en, e, es en, e, es en, es en, es en, e 

Here is precession of all the vowels to e (^ 38) (a is found here and there) ; 
(2), shifting of m. to 7i (^41,5): (3), a conflict everywhere between s and 
7?, the weak and strong form. In the earlier manuscript 71 most abounds, 
in the later s. Norman influence, ^ 95, e. 

(3.) Ormulum. — Singular, N., A., v., D., I. alike ; Genitive -ess. Plural, 
all cases alike in -ess. Singular dative -e is found with prepositions in a 
few phrases, and Plural genitive -e (Northern dialect). 

(4.) Chaucer instead of -ess has -es or -s : king, kinges; lover, lovers. 
The last form brings us to Modeni English. Irregular forms having um- 
laut (^ 100, if), or plural -en (^ 95, i). or indeclinable from r-stems or neu- 
ters plural (^ lOOjy), are found in Chaucer, and a few still survive. 



66 



ADJECTIVES.— INDEFINITE DECLENSION. 



lY. ADJECTIVES. 

INDEFINITE AND DEFINITE DECLENSIONS. 

103. An adjective in Anglo-Saxon has one set of strong and 
one of weak endings for each gender. The latter are used when 
the adjective is preceded by the definite article or some word 
like it. Hence there are two declensions, the indefinite and the 
definite. 

104. — I. Tlie Indefinite Declensio7i. 

Case-endings < stem a, a, or i + relational suffixes. 

Masculine. Feminine. Neuter. 

J, j bliuda, blinda, blindi, blinda, 

" ' ( blind. blind. blind. 

Theme . blind. blind. blind. 

JSFom blind blind(w) blind 

Gen blindes blindre blindes 

Dat hYmAum blindre blindwwi 

Ace blindwe blinde blind 

Yoc blind blind (w) blind 

Inst blinds blindrc blinds 

Plural. — 

I^om blinde blinda, o, e blind, e 

Gen blindr^ blindrd blindrc^ 

Dat blindwm blindwm blindwm 

Ace blinde blinda, o, e blind, e 

Voc blinde blinda, o, e blind, e 

Inst. blindMm blindwm blindwm 

(a) In other Indo-European languages the adjective is declined like the 
substantive ; Teutonic strong follows the pronominal declensior This 
has been explained by supposing a composition in the Teutonic between the 
adjective stem and a pronoun (in Sanskrit jas, jd, jad, a relative) which it 
is suggested must have been in the Teutonic Parent Speech jis, ja, jata ; 
jis, jizos, jis ; jamma, jizai, jamma ; jana, ja, jata ; je, jizai, je ; plural, 
jai,jds,ja; jize,jizd,jize; jaim; jans,j6s,ja,^.viA\\2iVe had a demonstra- 
tive sense. Whether there has been a composition with a particular pro- 
noun, or a conformation to the pronominal declension, must, in the absence 
of decisive phonetic demonstration, be decided from the meaning; and the 
fact that this is the indefinite form, and is not used where the sense calls for 
a demonstrative, weighs heavily against composition with a demonstrative. 

{b.) We give the demonstrative pronoun from which comes the definite 
article : 



THE PRONOMINAL DECLEXtilON. 



57 



Stem, 


Sanskrit. 


Greek. 


Latin. 


Gothic. 


A. -Sax. 


O. H. Ger. 


Masculine . . . 


sa, ta 


TO, 6, 


to (is-to) 


sa, })a, Y\ 


sa, fa 


de,di 


Feminine . . . 


sa.ta 


a, Ta 


ta 


sa, fa, fi 


sa,fa 


di,de 


Neuter 


ta 


TO, 


to 


fa, fi 


fa 


da, de 


Singular. — 














Nominative, 














Masculine . . . 


sa 


6, o-c 


te (iste) 


sa 


se 


de-r 


Feminine . . . 


sa 


V 


ta 


s6 


se6 


di-u 


Neuter 


ta-t 


TO, 


tu-d 


fa-t-a 


fae-t 


da-z 


Genitive, 














Masc. & Neut 


. ta'-sja 


TO- 10, TOV 


tins 


fi-s 


fae-s 


de-s 


Feminine . . 


ta'-sj-&s 


Ttj-g 


tius 


fi-zos 


{jffi-re 


de-ra 


Dative, 














Masc. & Neut 


. ta'-smai 


Tqi 


ti 


fa-mma 


fa-m 


de-mu 


% Feminine . . 


ta'-sj-^i 


Ty 


ti 


fi-zai 


fae-re 


de-ru 


Accusative, 














Masculine . . 


ta-m 


t6-v 


tu-m 


fa-n-a 


fo-ne 


de-n 


Feminine . . 


ta-m 


rt)-v 


ta-m 


fo 


fa 


di-a 


Neuter. . . . 


ta-t 


TO, 


tu-d 


fa-t-a 


fae-t 


da-z 


Instrumental, 














Masc. & Neut 


. te'n-a 


{Dat.) 


(Ablat.) 


fe 


fe,fy 


du, di-u 


Feminine . . 


ta'-j-a 


iDat.) 


iAblat.) 


{Dat.) 


{Dat.) 


{Dat.) 


Plural. — 














Nominative, 














Masculine . . 


te 


Toi, 01 


ti 


fai 


fa 


di-e 


Feminine . . 


. t^-s 


Tai, ai 


tae 


fos 


fa 


di-d 


Neuter. . . . 


te 


TO. 


ta 


fd 


fa 


di-u 


Genitive, 














Masc. & Neut 


. te'-s'S,m 


TWV 


t6-rum 


fi-ze 


fa-ra 


de-ro 


Feminine . . 


. t^'-sam 


ra-wv, TWV 


t&-rum 


fi-zo 


fa-ra 


de-r6 


Dative, 














Masc. & Neut 


. te'-bhjas 


(Locat.) 


tis 


fai-ra 


fa-m 


5 di-em, 
< dem 


Feminine . . 


. t^'-bhjas 


(Locat.) 


tis 


fai-m 


fa-m 



(c.) Peculiar Forms. — Nominative singular neuter t, a radicle, hav- 
ing the same relation to ta which masculine s has to sa (^ 63, a). Geni- 
tive feminine singular -re<^sjds: r<s (^ 41,3,6) ; e<ijas (^ 88, a): the 
inserted .<j<^smi<^sma<^sa-ma, this-here. Dative m<^mma<^smai shows 
ecthlipsis of s, gemination, apocope (^ 38, B ; ^ 44) : the inserted sm<^sma, 
as before. Dative -re-^sjdi; T<C.s, etc., as in Genitive. Accusative -ne 
<^na, precession; n ^^m (^ 41,3); a, euphonic epithesis, which prevailed 
as a law in Gothic. Plural nominative pd, Gothic p'1 <^ tai <^ta-i-sas 
(emphatic i inserted) ; compare Greek and Latin nouns in ^ 70. Genitive 
pd-rd has r<s (^ 41, 3, b), and -d (Gothic §, 6) as in nouns. The Old 
Sax. endings are like the O. H. Ger., the Norse like the adjective (^ 107). 

{(l.) As compared with the article, the Anglo-Saxon adjective has apocope 
of neuter -t ; has feminine singular -n, neuter plural -it, plural -e, like strong 
nouns; euphonic epenthesis of u in dative -um. i^^ 44, 40, 50. -an occurs. 



58 ADJECTIVES.— THE DEFINITE DECLENSION. 

105. — II. Tlie Definite Declension. 

Case-eudings < stem an + relational suffixes. 

Masculine. Fkminine. Nedter, 

Stem.. hYmd^iu, blind. bliiidan, blindan, 

Theme blind. blind. blind. 

Singular. — ^-^ ^r-^ ^-^^-^ — ^-— ^^ 

Kom se blind a seo blinde J)a9t blinde 

Gen J)0es blindan. ]3«re blindaw J)a3s blinda/i 

Dat J>am blindaw J^jere blinda^i J)am blindaw 

Ace J^one blindan l)a. blinda?i J^ait blinde 

Voc se blinda seo blinde 2)iet blinde 

Inst ],>5'' blindaw Jia^re blinda?i ])y blinda/i 

Plural. — *^ \' ' 

N'om. ... J)a blindan. 

Gen J)aia blinden^. 

Dat J)am blindwm. 

Ace J)a blindan. 

Voc J)a blindan.. 

Inst 2)am blindz^m. 

106. — Tlieme ending Short {Root Shifting). 

Stem., glada, ^?a(?. glada, gladi. glada. 

Theme glad > glaed. glad > gljed. glad > glaed. 

Nbm.... glaed. gladi^. glsed. 

Ge7i glades. glaedre. glades. 

Dat gladwm. glsedre. gladiim. 

Ace glsedne. glade. glsed. 

Yoc glaed. gladw. glaed. 

list glad^. glaedre. glad^. 

Plural. — 

N^om.... glade glada, e glad?/, e 

Gen gl£Bdr<^ gl8edr(^ glaedr<^ 

Dat gladwm gladwm gladwm 

Aec glade glada, e gladw, e 

Voc. .... glade glada, e gladw, e 

Inst gladwm gladwm gladwm 

In the Definite Declension it has ^/glad throughout, and agrees 
wholly with blind. Dat. -an occurs sing., plur., weak, strong. 



STRONG AND WEAK DECLENSIONS. 



59 



107. — Strong 


: 
















Singular.- Masculine. 






Feminine. 


Neuter. 




Gothic. 


O. Sax. 


0. Norse. 


1 Goth. 


O. Sax. 


O. Noi-se. 


Goth. 


O. Sax. ( 


O.N 01 


Nom... blind-s, 


5 


-r ; 


-a. 


— , 


— ; 


{-ata). 


> 


-t. 


Gen.... blind-is, 


-as, 


-s; 


-aizos, 


-aro. 


-rar ; 


-is. 


-as, 


-s. 


Dat blind-a?«?7ia, 


-umu, 


-um ; 


-ai. 


-aro, 


-ri ; 


-amma, 


-umu, 


-u. 


Ace blind-a«a, 


-an(a), 


-an ; 


-a, 


-a, 


-a ; 


{.ata). 


J 


-t. 


Inst. .. blind-(Z>a^) 


-u. 


{Dal.); 


{Dat.) {Dat.) {Dat); 


{Dat.) 


-u. 


-u. 


Plural. — 


















Nom... blind-aj, 


-a(-e^ 


-ir ; 


-OS, 


-a{-e), 


-ar ; 


-a. 


(-«), 


—■ 


Gen. .. blind-ai're, 


-aro, 


-rd; 


-aizo, 


-ar6. 


-rd; 


-aize. 


-dr6. 


■rd. 


D. & /. blind-aj;«, 


-un, 


-um ; 


-aim. 


-un. 


-um ; 


-aim, 


-un. 


-um. 


Ace blind-a«s, 


-a(-e), 


-a; 


-OS, 


-a{-e), 


-ar ; 


-a, 


(-«), 


— . 


Weak : 


















Singular. — 


















Nom... blind-«, 


-o(-a), 


-i; 


-o, 


-a. 


-a; 


-o, 


-a. 


-a. 


Gen.... hhnd- ins, 


-un, 


-a; 


-6ns, 


-un. 


-u; 


-ins. 


-un, 


-a. 


Dat.... blind-tn, 


-un, 


-a; 


-on, 


-un. 


-u; 


-in. 


-un. 


-a. 


Ace... blind-a«, 


-un, 


-a; 


-6n, 


-un. 


-u; 


-6, 


-a, 


-a. 


Inst.... h\'mii-(Dai.' 


){Dat.) {Dat.); 


{Dat.) {Dat.) {Dat.); 


; {Dat.) {Dat.) 


{Do 


Plural. — 


















Nom... blind-«?is, 


-tin, 


-U; 


-6ns, 


-un. 


-U ; 


-ona. 


-un. 


-u. 


Gen.... blind-ane, 


-6)10, 


-u; 


-6n6, 


-6n6, 


-U; 


-ane, 


-6n6, 


-u. 


D. &I. blind-a?«, 


-un. 


-u; 


-6 m, 


-un. 


-U; 


-am, 


-un. 


-u. 


Ace... blind-ans. 


-un, 


-u ; 


-6ns, 


-un. 


-U ; 


-ona. 


-un. 


-u. 



In Old High German the adjective has the same strong endings as the defi- 
nite article (§ 104, b). The weak form has Masculine plinto, -in, -in, -un ; 
plur. -un, -0710, -dm, -un : Feminine plinta, -un, -un, -un ; plur. -un, -onb, 
-om, -un : Neuter plinta, -in, -in, -a ; pi. -itn, -ono, -6m., -un. O. Fries, has 
strong endings like A.-Sax.,biit dat. -a{-e) ; weak forms like its noun. ^ 95. 
(a.) The Indo-European languages generally have no separate forms for the 
definite adjective ; but the Slavonic and Lithuania have. In them it springs 
from composition between the adjective and demonstrative ^a (^ 104, a): 
Slavonic dobryj (good), dohraja, dobroje, 

from dobras-TJas, dobrd-\-ja, dobrat-\-jat ; 
Ang.-Sax. goda + se, gode + seo, gbde -\-pxt. 

Grimm suggests that the Teutonic adjective is compounded in a similar way 
with the demonstrative jam (that), English yon. Heyse suggests a compo- 
sition with an, one. The Teutonic weak declensions form one whole with 
those of the an-stems in other Indo-European tongues : as to form, all are a 
growth from one stem. This stem is a secondary formation by means of the 
pronominal affix -an. The force of this affix may be illustrated by compar- 
ing it with the pronouns jdin, an ; many nouns with it are rendered in En- 
glish by an adjective + owe : pmdla, poor one ; prwcca, wretched one ; pana, 
defective one, etc. ; but to call the adjective a compound with either is likely 
to mislead. Compare the explanation of affixes in ^^ 56, 63. 



60 ADJIiCTlVES. 

As to the logical and historical value of the weak declension, see ^ 95, e. 
It may give a profound insight into the Teutonic mind to notice here that its 
fundanuMital classification of objects is into those made definite to thought 
and those not so. 

108. The weak form is used when the adjective is preceded by 
the definite article, or by a demonstrative or possessive pronoun, 
or personal pronoun in the i^tMiitive, always with comparatives, 
often with vocatives, instrunientals, and genitives, § 362, 

(a.) For masculine present participles, see § 119. 

109. Like blind decline adjectives ending in a long syllable, 
participles present, weak participles past, superlatives, and adjec- 
tive pronouns : fsest, fast ; god, good ; hat, hot ; heard, hard ; 
hvehbende, having (§ 119) ; gehdlgod, hallowed; hdtost, hotest ; 
mtn, mine. See § 110, a. 

110. "With the endings o^ glsed decline adjectives with a final 
short syllable and strong participles past: eacZ^y, blessed ; hseden^ 
heathen ; fivger, fair ; brocen, broken. 

(a.) The -u of the feminine singular oftenest, and of the neuter plural 
often, suffers precession to -0> -e> — , especially in derivatives. It drops 
pretty regularly after a long syllable (^ 109; M,b). A few once M-stems 
hold it : heard, heardu > hearde (Gothic hardus), hard. 

111. {Shifti7ig, §§ 73, 41). — Like glsed decline short monosyllables 
with root ay IB: bssr, bare ; Usee, black ; hrxd, ready ; hpait, whetted ; Ixt, 
late ; smarl, small ; spxr, spare ; pscr, wary. 

(a.) The shifting is stopped by a following vowel, even by e which is 
from a, and e<a. The nouns (dwges) have shifted further; the ad- 
jective has throughout held stronger than the noun by the old forms. 

112. (Gemmation, § 78).— Rule lo, § 20, for simplification of gemi- 
nation applies : grim, grimmes, gnmre, grimmum, grimne, etc., grim. 

113. (Sgncope, §§ 46, 79).— Polysyllables in -ig, -ol (id, el), en, -or 
(er), and others liable to syncope, may drop the last vowel of the theme 
when the ending begins with a vowel: /r^er, fsiir, fiegru, hut fs-gerne ; 
halig, holy, hdhges^ hdlges, haligany' halgan, etc. 

114. (Stems in -ia, § 83).— Some adjectives once in -ia have e<m 
in the cases usually without endings : Mute, blithe ; gen. hUdes, blktre, blides, 
etc. ; rarely before the endings : ece, eternal, eceum, ecum. So decline ad- 
jectives in -e and present participles (^ 119). 

(a.) Some show z-umlaut when compared with other words: grene 
(0. H. German gruoni), green; sefte (sSft), soft; strenge (strong) 
strong. § 32, 2. ' 

(b.) Some show compensative gemination: midde <,mid (Gothic 
midis, mtdjia), middle. ^ 37, 2. 



PARTICIPLES.— NORTHUMBRIAN ADJECTIVE DECLENSION. Gl 

115. {^Themes in -i). — Such may have dissimilation into ig before the 
case-endings : fri, free, gen. friges, frigre, etc. The g is the parting of tlie 
organs after taking the i-position. ^ 85, a. 

116. {^Themes in -eo). — Such may drop the vowel of case-endings : 
freo, free, gen. freos, fredre,freds,, etc. § 80. 

117. {Themes in -py -u > -O, § 81 ; 91, B). — Such may drop ^ 
final after a vowel : Use., blue, gen. bl&pes. After a consonant p final shifts 
to u^ o ; and before a vowel may suffer qiiasi-gemination to vp : fealu, 
fallow, /ea/w/je, etc. (^ 27, 5). This u may suffer precession to o > e ; fea- 
lope^fealepe, etc. § 38. 

118. Themes in -h, § 80). — Such may drop h final or before a close 
ending, and before a vowel change it to g, or drop it and contract : hedk, hed 
(Gothic hduhs, 0. H. German hoh), high. 

SlNGULAE. — 

NoiH. hca(h) hea(h) hea(h) 

Gen. hca(ge)s heare hea(Ke)s 

Dat. hea(g)uni hcare hea(g)um 

Ace. hcane ht'a(ge) hea(h) 

Voc. hea(h) hea(h) hea(h) 

Inst, •hea(ge) heare hea(ge) 



Plural. — 

Noiti. hea(ge) hea(pe) hea(gu) 

Gen. heara heara heara 

Dat. hea(g)um hca(g)um hea(g)um 

Ace. hca(ge) hea(ge) hea(gu) 

Voc. heag(e) hta(ge) hea(gu) 

Inst. hca(g)um hfa(gjum hca(g)un> 

The spelling of such words is irregular in the manuscripts. Sing, nom^ 
heh, accusative hedhne, hednne, plur. dat. hedhum, are found. 

119. Pabticiples. 
The participles have both declensions. §§ 103, 109, 110. 

(a.) Present participles in the strong forms without endings have -e like 
ia-stems (^ 1 14) : gifende, giving. 

(Z».) Masculine present participles used substantively may take strong 
forms after the definite article : pd lidende or Iktend, those sailing ; pdrd 
ymb-sittendrd, of those dwelling around. (^ 100,/.) 

(c.) The strong singular accusative of the participles is often (wrongly) 
spelt without -n : gecorene^^grcoren-ne, chosen; scridend-{n)e, coming. 

120. The declined infinitive (gerund) is often found in the da- 
tive : to faranne., to fare. 

121. Northumbrian Adjective Declension. 

The strong declension is like Common Anglo-Saxon. The instrumental 
in -e is very rare — the dative takes its place. The plural nommative is 
often in -O, perhaps an older form than -e: compare Old Saxon -a. and pre- 
cession, ^ 38 : perhaps merely an irregular conformation with weak forms. 
The weak declension drops -n, and is otherwise like that of the we.nk sub- 
stantive (p. 51). 



62 ADJECTIVES.— COMPARISON. 

122. Comparison. 

Comparison is a variation to denote degrees of quantity or 
quality. It belongs to adjectives and adverbs. 

(a.) In Anglo-Saxon it is a variation of stem, and is a matter rather of 
derivation than inflection ; but the common mode of treatment is convenient. 

(/;.) The suffixes of comparison were once less definite in meaning than 
now, and were used to form many numerals, pronouns, adverbs > preposi- 
tions, and substantives, in which compared correlative terms are implied : 
cither, other, over, under, first, etc. 

(c.) Anglo-Saxon adverbs are in brackets : (spide). 

123. Adjectives are regularly compared by suffixing to the 
theme of the positive -ir^-er or -or for the theme of the com- 
parative, and -ist^-esi or -ost for the theme of the superlative. 

The Comparative has always weak endings and syncopated 
stem. 

The Siqyerlative has both weak and strong endings. 

Adverbs are compared like adjectives: the positive uses the 
ending -e, the comparative and superlative have none ; -ir drops. 

Strong, spid, strenuous ; spidra; spidost. 
Weak, se spida; se spidra; se spidosta. 

Adverb, (spide) ; (spidor) ; (spidost). 

(a.) These suffixes in the Parent Speech were comparative -jans, superla- 
tive -jans-ta~^ista, comh'm^iions of emphatic dental radicles (^56; 126, a): 

Latin. Gothic. O. Saxon. O. Norse. 

mag>ma, mak >nia, mik>me, mik>mei, 

great. great. great. great. 

ma-jor, -jus ma-iz-a me-r-o mei-r-i 

(see § 126, i) ma-ist-s me-st mei-st-r 

The O. H. German has me-ro, me-ist-er, Anglo-Saxon md-r-a, nice-st. 

(b.) In Anglo-Saxon tr<ijans, the «<J, r<s are shifting (^ 41,2,6); 
dropping of an, apocope from gravitation (^^ 44, 38). 6 in -or and -ost is 
compensative progression from an {^^ 37, 38) ; the same form is in Gothic, 
Old Saxon, Old H. German. Old Norse has a for 6. A further precession 
took place in ir, -or, -ist, -ost, of ?'>e> — , and of d >«>«>«> e> — 
(^ 38). In Gothic, s has not shifted , so pyrsa, worse (^ 129). 

(c.) The superlative -ta is suffixed to the theme of the positive in nu- 
merals: Sanskrit s'as'-thd, sixth; Greek TTjOoi-ro, first; Latin quar-to,io\aih\ 
Gothic ahtu-da-n, eighth ; Anglo-Saxon prid-da, third. § 139. 

124, {Umlaut, § 32, 2). — The affixes -ir y -er and -ist ^ -est 



Sanskrit. 


Greek. 


Theme i '"^*^' 
(great. 


great. 


Compar. mah-i-jas 


ptl-Kov (-jon) 


Superl. mah-is'tha 


jiey-iaro-v 



ADJECTIVES.— RELICS. 63 

nmy work i-uralaut, changing 

a, a, ea, ea, eo>o, 6, u, A, 
to e, ffi, y>e, y, y, e, y, y: 

lang^ long ; lengra ileng) ; lengest. 

Strang, strenge (§ 114, a), strong; strengra ; strengest, 

eald, aid (§ 33), old ; gldra, eldra ; yldest, eldest. 

hedh, hed, heh, high (§§ 118, 25); h^rra, h^kra, herra, hedh- 

ra ; hyhst, hehst, hedhst, hedhest, hedgost, and as nedh. 
nedh, neh, nigh (§§ 118, 25); npra {n^r), nera {nedr)^ nedrra 

[nior) ; nyst {yyt^ ie), nShst, nedhst, and as hedh. 
feor, (feor), (fyr), for; fyrra; fyrrest. 
geong, young ; gxjngra {y > i) ; gyngest {y > i). 
sceort, ■^hort ', scyrtra ; scyrtest. 

(sdfte) sefte, soft (114, a) ; seftra (seft) ; seffest. [125, 129. 

edde (^, g), easy; ydra (ed), {0{ed, e)) ; '^dest, eddost. See §§ 

125. (Shifting, § 110). — Root «>a? of short monosyllables 
shifts to !B unless the next syllable begins with a vowel ; such 
words may also have forms with i-umlaut (§ 124): 

gleed, glad; glsodra, gledra ; gladost. 

A^cPf/, ready ; hrscdra, hredra ; hradost. 

hpoet, whetted, keen ; hptstra ^ hpatost. Hv 

j>»r, wary; pmrra; parost. 

126. Rklics are found of forms from Parent Speech Compar- 
ative -ra, -ta-ra, Supei-lative -ma, -ta-ma. Of the comparative, 
only pronouns, adverbs > prepositions, and the like: 6-der, other; 
hpvR-der, whether ; m-r, eve ; sef-ter, after ; hi-der, hither ; of-er, 
over; un-der, under. Of the superlative: for-ma, first; hin- 
dema, hindmost ; inn-ema, inmost ; Ivet-ema, latest ; med-ema, 
midmost; nid-ema, nethermost; sid-ema, latest; ■dt-ema, utmost; 
vmd others with double compai'ison. §§ 127, 129. 

(a.) Parent Speech -tara. Forms on an, that, and ka, what, English 
other, whether: 

Sanskrit. Greek. Latin. Gothic. O. Saxon. Anglo-Paxon. O. Norse. 

an-tara «-r£|Oo(c) al-teru(.s) an-l^ar(a-) ^-ctar 6-cter ann-ar 

ka-tara Ko-rtpo^o) u-teru(s) hva-]3ar(a-) hue-der hpae-der hva-rr 

The O. H. German has andera, other ; hwedar, whether. This is a com- 
mon form for the adjective in Sanskrit, the most common in Greek ; in 
Latin and Teutonic only as in Anglo-Saxon. Latin, in-ter, between ; 
dex-ter, right ; smis-ter, left. ^ 122, b. 



64 ADJECTIVES.-DOUBLE COMPARISON. -HETEUOCLITES. 

(6.) Parent Speech -ma, -kl-ma. Forms on pro, fore; scp, seven; 
hin, hind : 

Siinskrit. Greek. Latin. Gothic. O. Saxon. Ang. -Sax. O. Nor. 

pni-lha-ma 7rpo-;.o(tO pri-mu(s) fru-ma for-mo ^ j.^^^_j^^^ ^ frum- 

sap-ta-ma f/3-^o-/xo(c) sep-tu-mu(s) hin-du-ma hin-de-ma 

The O. H. German has/rwmi, first. This is a common form in Sanskrit; 
in Latin, suffixed to Comparative jans>is (^ 123, a), it makes the regu- 
lar -issimo<is-timo by assimilation (^ 35). After I and r it is suffixed 
to the theme and assimilated : facil-ltmo, easiest ; pulcher-rimo, hand- 
somest. In the other languages it is found only as in Anglo-Saxon. For 
numerals, see ^ 140. 

127. Double Comparison is found chiefly with relics in -der^ 
-er, and -m (§ 120) : ie-i\ ere, ^-r-er, -or, m-r-est ; sef-ter, se.fter-ra 
yxfte)'a, sef-ter-mest (Rask), sef-tem-est ; Isas, less, liBS-sa, Ixs- 
dst, -est; for-ma, fyr-m-est, and see § 129. 

(a.) Accumulation of signs of comparison is a striking fact through all the 
languages. (1.) Repetition of the suffix for emphasis: -raroe < ro-ra, reg- 
ular Greek superlative ; Irish ma-ma ; 0. H. German bezeroro, more better 
(Shakespeare) ; ererera, more sooner, etc. ; Parent Speech ta-ma (^ 126, b). 
(2.) New suffix after Relics (^ 126): Gothic af-tu-m-is-ta ; Anglo-Saxon 
•Bf-te-m-es-t ; ^hermosi = af+ta^ra+ma+jans-\-ta, a heaping of radicles 
which illustrates their force as signs of comparison (^ 123, a). Emphatic 
double comparison abounds in early English : Shakespeare has more braver, 
more fairer, most best, most boldest, most unktndest, etc. 

(J.) The English superlative ending -most in aftermost, and the like, is 
simulation of a connection with most. § 42, 2. 

128. Hetekoclitic forms abound from themes in -ir and -or, -ist, 
■ost: sel, good; -ra, -la, {sel) -—est, -ost; rice, rich; ricest, ricost; 
glxcl, £?lad ; glisdra, gledra, etc. (§ 125). Some have themes with 
and whhout double comparison: Isot, late; Isetra ; latest, late- 
mest; sid, late; sidra {sid, sidor) ; sid-dst, -est, -7nest. 

129. Defective are the following. Words in capitals are not 

found. 

(1.) Mixed Boots: 

Positive. Comparative. SuPERLATrvE. 

i god ) , (betera,betra,§124 betst,betost,-ast 

^''''^' I BAT \ ^P^ ( bffittra, § 125 (bet) (betst) 

( yfel ) (yfele) ( pyrsa, (pyrs), j pyrst, pyrresta, 

had, )peorf ] § 123, & ] (pyrst),(pyrrest) 

( sam- ) ( s&mra, § 124 samest 



DEFECTIVE ADJECTIVES.— DECAY OF ENDINGS. 



6i> 



Positive. 



COMPAKATIVE. 



Superlative. 



greats 
niicch, 

little, 



micnl \ (inicle) ^ 
fela r (tela) ■< 
MA ; ( raara, (ma) m8est,§ 124; 123,a 

lytel (lyt) j 

LJES (Goth, lasivs) Igessa (lses),§ 35,-B ( laes-ast, -est, -t 



(2.) J<rom Adverbs of time and place (compare §§ 126, 127) : 



ever, 
ere, erst, 

after- 
ward, 

else, 

fore, 
far, 

forth. 



a-, SB- 



j (a;r)>^iTa, 
( {sbv-bv, -ur) 



\ 



ser-est 



sef-tera-est 



] ^ftefpeard [ ^^■'^''> > ^^'''^ \ ^fter-mest, § 127 

(elles) (ellor), elra 

forepeafd, (fore) fyrra 

feor, (fyr) fyrre, (fyr) 

fordpeard, (ford) (fnrd-6r, -ur) 



for-ma > (fyrmest), 



behind, \^;'!'!'^f\^'^'^^ 
( (hindan) 

innepeard, (in) 

middepeard, 

(mid) 

north i "o^^epeard, ) 
'''^^^' I (nord) \ 
nidepeard, 



tnnei 
mid. 



nether. 



(nide) 



upper, tifepeard, (up) 



j for-ma > 
1 fyrst,,f 

fyrrest (eo>y) 
j (furd-uiii), 
( ford-ni-est 
j liinduma, 
( hinde-ma, § 126,5 
inue-ma, (-m-est) 

j med-ema (-uma ?) 

( mid-m-est 

(iiord-6r) nord-m-est 

nid-ra, j nidema, § 126 

(nid-6r,-er(i>eo) ( nide-m-est (i>eo) 

m-est, § 124 



(liinder) 
innera 



( ufera, 
■j (ufor) 



[yf(e)- 



-I /-^ X ^. / x^A A^A N ( Atema, titmest, 
outer, <ltepeard, (lit) Utra, (uttor, iitor) | ^^..^^.^'^.^^^^ g ^ 24 

So sUdemest, edstemest, pestemest, south-, east-, west-most. 



Decay of Endings. — ( 1 ), Declension : Layamon, strong, sing. masc. 
— , -es, -en, -ne ; fern. — , -re, -re, -e ; neut. — , -es, -en, — ; plur. -e, -re, 
-en, -e; but n, s, r may drop. Weak, -e, -en, as in ^ 102. — Ormulum, 
strong, sing. — , plur. -e. Weak, ~e. — Chaucer, monosyllables as in Orm., 
others imdeclined. — Shakespeare, no declension. 

(2), Comparison: Layamon, Ormulum, -re, -est. — Chaucer ( = Modern 
English), -er, -est. 

E 



CG 



PRONOUNS. 



V. PRONOUNS {Relational Names, § 66). 
130. Personal Pronouns {Relational Substantives). 



Sing.— 1.7. 

K. ic 

G. mia 

D. me 

A. mec, mo 

V. 

I. me 
Plural. — 

N. pd 

G. tiser, tire 

i>. tis 

A. iftsic, tls 

f: 

I. tis 
Dual. — 

JSf. pit 
G^. uncer 
7>. uiic 



2. «Aot<. 

J)in 
te 
l)ec, J)e 

txi 

te 

eoper 
eop 
eopic, eop 

ge 
eop 

git 

incer 

inc 



A. lancit, line incit, inc 

F. git 

I. i;nc inc 



3. he, 

he 

his 

him 

hine 

him 



hie, hi, heo hie, hi, heo heo, hie, hi 

heora, hyra heora, hyra heora, hyra 

him him him 

hie, hi, heo hie, hi, he6 heo, hie, hi 



she. 


it. 


heo 


hit 


hire 


his 


hire 


him 


hie, hi, he6 


hit 


hire 


him 



him 



him 



him 



Srao. NoM. 
P. Sp. .. i-s, i-ja, i-t 
Latin ... i-s, ea, i-d 
Gothic, i-s, si, i-ta 
0. Sax., hi, siu, i-t 
0. II. G. i-r, siu, i-z 

O.Norse hann, hon, — 



Gentttte. 
i-sja 
ejus 

is, izos, is 

is, ira, is 

sin, ira, is 

rhans, hen- 

\ nar, — . 



Pl.UR. NoM. 

aj-as 
ii, eaB, ea 

eis, ijos, ija 
sia, si a, siu 
sie, sio, siu 



(a.) Other Forms. — (1 and 2), pyt ; gyt ; tinge; uncer not found; us^ 
scr, ussic. (3), i>y (bad spelling) : hys, hyt, etc. ; i>eo, i>ie (breaking, 
^33): heom, plur. (sing, prose) hierd, hiene; i>y (bad spelling): hy ; hi 
> hig (dissimilated gemination, ^ 85, a ; 27, 5) ; io for eo ; i6, ea, for eo (or- 
thographic) : hiord, hto, hed. Norn. sing. fem. Me, hi, inst. sing. 'nasc. heo 
<^hy in heo-dxg (Latin hodie), to-day; hird (not in Grain) ^Aeora. 

Northumbrian for final c has h, ch, sometimes g: ih, ich; meh, mech, 
mehe ; usih, usig, etc. ; for final e thus : gsb, gee, gie, etc. ; woe=uoe=pe ; 
user^vrcr; for eoper appear iwer, iuere, luerrie, iurra(e') ; for eop appear 
iuh, ioivh, iouh, iwh, iu, ou; for eopic appear iuih, iuigh, iwih. Third Per- 
son : for heo, hie appear hid, his^, hiu; hire^ hir ; for heora appear heard, 
hiord, hiard. 

(b.) The pronouns are clusters of radicles, some of which lure beyond 
the Indo-European family ; the c (k) of ic and of Hebrew dnoM have been 
claimed to be plainly from the same radicle ; so the dental oi pu, thou, and 
Hebrew attdh, the guttural of he and Hebrew hu\ the nasal of me and He- 
brew anoki. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 



67 



(c.) The mode of growth from the radicles in the Indo-European family 
may be studied in the following : 



Sdjg.— 


Sanskrit. 


Greek. 




Latin. 


Gothic 


0. Sax. 


<). H. G. 


O. Norse. 


Nom... 


abam 


ty<li 




ego 


ik 


ic 


ih (ihha) 


ek 


Gen.... 


ma-ma (me) 


ifiov 




(mei) 


(meina) 


(min) 


min 


min 


Dot.... 


ma-hjam(me) i 


IfioULoc) 




mihi 


mi-s 


mi 


mir 


met 


Ace... 

Voc. ... 


ma-m, ma 


ifXE 




me 


mi-k 


mic, mi 


mih 


mik 


















Inst.... 


ma-ja 


iLoc.) 


{ 


(^Ablat.) \_ 
me-d, mei 


{Dat.-) 


{Dot.) 


(^Dat.) 


{Dat.) 


Plural. 


— 














Nom... 


asme', vajam 


■nutiQ 




nos 


veis 


wi, we 


wir 


ver 


Gen.... 


(asma'kam) nas 


rifiiLv 


nostrum (tri) 


(unsara) 


user 


unsar 


var (vor) 


Dot.... 


asma'-bhjam, nas 


. rifiiv 




no-bis 


unsis, uns 


us 


uns 


OSS 


Ace... 


asma'n, nas 


y'lfidc 




nos 


unsis, uns 


us 


unsih 


uss 


Dual.— 


















Nom... 


ava'm 


VIO, VWi 






vi-t 


wi-t 


(wi-z) 


vi-t 






Gen.... 
B.&I. 


A > .^ > 








ugkara 
ugkis 


uncero 


unchar 


okkar 


ava-jos, nau 
ava'-bhia.m,nau 


VWIV 






unc 


(unch) 


okkr 






Ace... 


ava'm, nau 


VlJ), vijil 






ugkis 


unc 


(unch) 


okkr 







In Sanskrit there are seemingly five themes : (1), ma, me ; (2), aha < 
ma-\-ga (-^a>Sansk. -ha, -gha=Gxeek -ys (tyw-yO^Gothic -Kc) is an 
emphatic enclitic). (3), Plural, ra<ma, labial shifting, § 41, b; (4), 
o-5ma<ma+5ma=I+he=we. (5), Dual, a-va<7na+rf?;a=I-[-two = 
we two. Nas, nau, from masm,-\-, mdv-\-, in oblique cases. 

Anglo-Saxon ic<Cmaga by aphaeresis of m {^ 43), shifting of a>t and 
g'^c (^ 41 ; apocope, ^ 44). mtn<^mina, a possessive adjective -na: me 
<^mer (compensation, ^ 37) <^mir (-r dative sign, as in adjective, ^ 104, c) : 
me<imec, § 37 (-c same as in ic ; e<Cam, precession, ^ 41). Plural : 
pe<Cper (compensation, ^ 37) <Cpis (shifting, § 41); -s<Csma (apocope, 
§ 44) : user <^uns-era, us<Cuns {^ 37) <imuns (^ 43) <Cmans (^ 41) 
<Cmasm (metathesis and dental assimilation, ^^ 51, 35) ; -ra, genitive 
ending, § 104, c. Dual: pil<^pi-\-tpa, we two; uncer is a variation of 
unser; 5=A<A(c): Sanskrit 5TOa=Pr4krit hma; h<^k (shifting, ^ 41). 
In uncit, -t as in pit. 



id.) Ring.— Sanskrit. 


Greek. 


Latin. 


Gothic. 


O. Saxon. 


0. H. G. 


O.N. 


Nom... 


tva-m 


TV, ai) 


tu 


],u 


thu 


du 


fu 


Gen.... 


tdva (te) 


Tfdlo, aov 


(tui) 


(feina) 


(thin) 


(din) 


fin 


Dot.... 


tii-bbjam (tve, te) 


aoi {Loe) 


ti-bi 


J) is 


thi 


dir 


J,er 


Ace... 


tva-m, tva 


Tt, (71 


te 


fik 


thic, thi 


dih 


fik 


Voc. ... 


^Nominative.') 


(Nom.) 


(Nom.) 


(Nom.) 


(Nom.) 


(Nom.) 


(Nom.) 


Inst.... 


tva-ja 


(Loe) 


All. te-d, t6 


(Bat.) 


(Dat.) 


(Dat.) 


(Dat.) 


Plural, 


. — 














Nom,... 


jus'me', jujam 


vfiiic 


vos 


JUS 


g^ge 


ler, u- 


er, Jjer 


Gen.... 


(jus'ma'kam) vas 


VflWV 


v6strum(-tri) 


izvara 


iwar 


iwar 


y?ar 


Dat.... 


jus'mabhjam, vas 


VfllV 


v6-bis 


IZVIS 


m 


lU 


ySr 


Ace... 


jus'ma'n, vas 


VfiaQ 


vos 


1ZV18 


m 


iwih 


y^ 



DCAI..— 


Sanskrit. 


Greek. 


Norn... 
Gen.... 


juv;i in 
juvu-jos, vam 


C<pix>, (T(j>Wl 




D.&I. 


juvi'-bhjani,vain 


atpCoiv 


Ace... 


juva m, vam 


a(p(i), a^Cji 



(58 PRONOUNS.— REFLEXIVES.— rOSSESSlVES. 

itin. Gotliic. O. Saxon. O. U. G. O. V. 

(ju-t) git (jiz, iz) it,] it 

igqara (incero) (inchar) ykkur 

igqis inc (inch) vkkr 

igqis inc (inch) }kkr 

Radicle stem in Parent Speech, tu<Ctva; plural, tu-\-sma = thou and he; 
du^\, tu -\- di-a = thou -\- two — you two. Anglo-Saxon, /»r/<<u (shifting, 
^ 41) ; e6p<."ip<C'u (quasi-gemination, ^ 117) =ju<.tu, irregular soften- 
ing of /. Compare assibilatiun, '^ 21. Other forms like those of ic. 

(e.) Three stems show in the third person, t, hi, sia. The Anglo-Saxon 
alone has hi throughout. In English, she and they, their, them have come 
in from the demonstrative (^ 133) hit^ it; its is a late formation. The 
third personal pronoun is a weak demonstrative. In the cases not given 
above, each language uses the endings of its demonstrative given on page 57. 

131. Reflexives are supplied by tlie personal pronouns with 
self {i^e]f), or without it. Self has strong adjective endings like 
blind (§ 103) ; in the nominative singular also weak self a: ic self 
ic selfa, myself; mtn selfes, of myself; me selfum, me selfne, etc. ; 
pit selfa, thyself, etc. ; he selfa, himself, etc. 

(a.) Sin is the possessive of an old reflexive si, se (^ 132, b). Self, Gothic 
.tilha, is used throughout the Teutonic tongues: <Csi-{-{lib?), life, soul; so 
Sanskrit atman (soul) and Hebrew nephes' are used as reflexives. 

{b.) Silf is found in Anglo-Saxon : y self (a) (a-umlaut, § 32, 1), seolf 
a/o// (breaking, ^ 33), 53/Z/ (graphic variation). Demonstrative self an is 
found : py selfan dxge, the same day {^ 133). 

132. PossESSiYES are mm, pin, sin, liser, Hre, eoper, uncer, in- 
cer. They have strong adjective endings (§ 103). Those in -er 
are usually syncopated (§ 79). t^ser has assimilation of r> s 
(§ 35, B). 

Sing.- Plur.- 

Mascnline. Feminine. Neuter. J^asc. & Fem. Neut. 

jV. user fiser fiser (usere) usse (a) flser 

a. (dseres) fisses (fiserre) iisse (useres) (isses (userra) ussa 

D. (userum) ussum (fiserre) usse (userum) ussum (userum) ussum 

A. userne (usere) usse user (uscre) usse user 

Y (iser user fiser (usere) usse User 

7. (usere) fisse (userre) usse (usere) usse (liserum) ussum 

Northumbrian has iisenne <Cuserne, usrd. Ure is a syncopated form of 
user. 

(a.) They have the same themes as the genitives of the personal pro- 
nouns. Analocrous forms are found throughout the Indo-European family : 



PRONOUNS— DEMONSTRATIVES. 



69 



mine, thine, his, our, your, 

SansL-rit. madi'ja tvadija svadi'ja asmadija jus'madija 



of us two, of you two, 



Greek:... 

iMtin 

Gothic... 
0. Saxon 
0. Norse 



tfioe 
meus 
meins 

min 
minn 



0. H. G. miner 



croQ 
tuus 
beins 

thin 
Jjinn 
diner 



OQ 

suus 
seins 
sin 
sinn 
siner 



yjjliTtp-O^ VHtTtp-OQ 

noster vaster 



vwirip-og ff^wiTtp-ot; 



unsar 

usa 

varr 

unsarer 



izvar 
iwa 

y^arr 
iwarer 



ugkar 
unca 
okkar 



igqar 

inca 

vkkar 



The n {mei{n)s) and r (unsa{7-)) have been thought variations of Sanskrit 
dental d {ma{d)ija), but see § 130, c. Fries, min, thin, sin, use, unser, etc. 

(b.) Sin is from obsolete se (self) found in Gothic, Old Saxon, etc., de- 
fective like Latin se, Greek e. It does not cover the full meaning of the 
possessive of the third person ; hence in Low German dialects the forn.'a- 
tion of new possessives : English, his, her, their, its, etc. 



133. Demonstratives. 
Definite Article. 

1. that and the. \ 2. this. 

JSfom. se seo l)aet l)es ]ieos l)is 

Ge7i. t)JE3 l)«re l^tes J)isses 1/isse losses 

Dat. l^ani, J)aem J)fere l>ara,l3aem }>issnm IVisse l^issum 

Ace. ]Done J)a l)a?t l>isne l)as l^is 

Voc. se* seo tset, § 289 

Inst, l:)}^ t^i-e J)}', t)e l^ys l^isse ^^p 

V / \ y — ^ 

Xom ta l>as 

Gen J)ara, \>mvdi l)issa 

Dat l)ain, J^jein jMssum 

Ace l)a l>as 

Voc t>a 

List Jiam, J)«m l)issura 

(1, se.) — Other Forms : smg. gen. pes, pare, paraf d3.t. pdm, pd-m, pan, 
Pon ; ace. pxne,pane; inst. pii plur. gen. peard, dat. pan, pan. Northum- 
brian : sing. nom. de ; did, dm, dy ; dwt. Compare Old H. German, '^ 104. 
and Old Saxon thie ; thiu ; that. Add nom. sio, sid for sea. 

(a.) The changes of stem a to iC and O are the common shiftings 
(^ 41, 1). The lengthening of the stem in the feminine singular and 
throughout the plural was to be expected (^ 64, 2 ; 88, c). The O. Norse 
has sing. nom. sd, su, pat; gen. pess, peirrar, pess ; dat. peim, peirri, 
Pvi; a.cc. pann, pd, pat ; T^\ur. nom. peir, pwr, pau ; gen. petrra ; dat. 
Peim ; ace. pd, pxr, pau. O. Fries, thi, thiu, Ihet ; thes, there, thes, etc. 



70 PRONOUNS.— RELATIVES.— INTERROGATIVES. 

(J.) For forms in other languages and discussion of case-endings, see 
^ 104. Heyne gives pivra, piiin only as masculine, but pxra bocdi iEl- 
fric,2, 114 ; psbrd pingd, ib. 2, 130 ; see p;vm in Grein. 
('2. Jh'S.) — Other Forms: without gemination of 6' in masculine and neu- 
ter, pises, pisu/n, pisc ; i >y : pys, pi/sses, Jri/ssc, etc. ; sing. nom. f. pws; 
gen. and dat. f. piserey-pisre, pisscre ; dat. pisson, pissan, piosum ; inst. m. 
and n. pis, pise, pisse adjective form, (^eos = 0. Saxon /iw*; Grimm, Ett- 
muller, Heyne — examples given are all false readings); plur. nom. p^s ; 
gen. piscrd, pisserd. Northumbrian: sing. nom. du.'s, dius, dis ; gen. and 
dat. f. du'sscr, disser; dat. m. dassum; ace. diosnc, da, dis. 

(a.) Pes is an emphatic demonstrative from pa-\-sja. In Gothic, the 
same force is obtained by allixing -uh (Latin -ce, -que: hi-c, quis-que). 
In the other Germanic tongius analogous forms to pes are found : O. 
Saxon sing. nom. these, t/te-su {thus), thi-t ; gen. the-sas, the-sara, 
the-sas ; dat. the-sumu, the-saru, the-sumu; ace. the-san, the-sa, thi-t ; 
inst. n. thius; pi. nom. ace. the-sa, thius ; gen. thc-saro ; dat. the-sun ; 
O. H. G. di-se-r, etc. The Anglo-Saxon lias lost all the sja except -s in 
the nominative. In pissc, pissd there has been syncope and assimila- 
tion of r>s, as in usse, ussd (^ 132) ; in pisses and pissum, gemination 
of 5 through gravitation. The genitive and dative masculine are writ- 
ten pretty regularly with gemination of s — not always. 

(3.) Tie, pylc, spylc: ylca^ same, has only weak forms; jbyfc, 
sjyylc^ such, have only strong. {y=i—e.) pys-UcypylUc, strong, 

(a.) 17c<y+/'c; y<?, demonstrative Ae; -Zzc, like; so /»y-Z?"c, analogous 
to Latin td-lis, Greek Trj-XiKog, Sanskrit td-dr'ks'a; spy-lie, Gothic sve- 
leiks, etc., English such. 

(4.) Self., see § 131. (5.) Same., adv. same, Sanskrit pron, sama 
{sa -f ma)., Greek ofxo-q, Latin simi-Us, Gothic, Old Saxon sa7na^ 
Old Norse sam-r, Old H. German samo. 

(6.) Geon^ yon, Gothic pron.jdwis, that, strong (§ 255, «). 

134. Relatives.— (1.) se, seo, pcet, who, which, that, is de- 
clined as when a demonstrative (§ 133). (2.) pe used in all the 
cases, both alone and in combination with se, seo, paet, or a per- 
sonal pronoun, is indeclinable. (3.) spd, so, used like English as 
and Old German so in place of a relative, is indeclinable. 

135. Interrogatives are hpd, who; hpwder, which of two; 
hpylc, halite, of what kind. They have strong adjective endings ; 
hpseder is syncopated (§ 84.) 



PRONOUNS.— INDEFINITES. 



71 



Neut. 


Masc. Fern. 


Neut. 


hpait 


Sanskrit, ka-s ka 


ka-t 


hpoes 


Greek . . . ico-c>7roc>7r6-&i, 


,iroi),etc. 


lipam 


Latin . . . qui-s quag 


quo-d 


hpaet 


Gothic . . hva-s hvo 


hva 




O.Saxon hue 


hua-t 


^FJ 


O.Norse, hva-r 


hva-t 



Sing. — Masc. Fer 

Nbin. hpa — 

Ge7i. hpajs — 

Dat. hpam — 

Ace. hpone — 

Voc. — 

Inst, hpam — 

Other Forms : dat. hpa?m, hpan, hpon, hpam, hpxm ; ace. hpxne ; in&t. 
hpl, hpig, hu. Northumbrian : hud, hux, huwtd, huncd. 

{a.) For shifting of the stem radicle, see ^ 41, B; for case-endings, ^ 105. 
{b.) Hpgeder <ihpd, comparative form, § 126, a. Hpylc <^hpy ^ lie like 
/y/c<^y + /jc, ^ 133,3, a. {y = i=ie.) O. Fries, hwa—hwet. 

136. Indefinites. 
(1.) The Indefinite Article an<^w, one. 



Sing.— 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neut. 


1 Plue.- 


— M.,P.,N. 


JVom. . 


. an 


an 


an 




ang 


Gen. . . 


anes 


aure 


anes 




anr^ 


Dat. . . 


anwm 


aure 


anuni 




anuni 


AcG. . . 


. anwe, anne 


ane 


an 




ane 


Voc. . . 


. an 


an 


an 




ane 


Inst. . . 


an^ 


anre 


an^ 




ammi 



A weak sing. nom. ana, dne(a), due, is also found, and undeclined forms. 
The vocative and plural mean sole, sowe, etc. See the numeral an, 
§ 139, a. 

(a.) So also decline 7idn, none. 

(2.) JEnig., any {chi-\-ig), and ns^nig, none, are strong. (3.) 
surn, some, one (akin to same, § 133, 5), is strong. (4.) The no- 
tional substantives man (man) and piht (whit) have become pro- 
nouns in certain uses; for their declension, see §§ 83; 100,/. 
They simulate pronominal stems. Compare English one, ichit 
(wh), thing (th), § 40, 2. Compounds of piht f and n. are neu- 
ter : dpiht, cipyht, dpuht > duht > dht, opiht, aught ; ndpiht., 
naught. Eal (all), manig (many), strong, fed (few), sing, indec. 
pi. strong (§ \l1),fela (much), lyt, hpon may be added. 

(5.) Compounds of hpd, hpwder^ -lie, decline like the simples : 

(a.) From hpd: ge-hpd, e?Lch, every ; skg-hpd {d-\-ge-\-hpd), every ; elles- 
hpd (Lat. ali-quis), any ; spd-hpd-spd, spd-hpxt-spd, whoso, whatsoever ; hpmt- 
hpugu, -hpigu, -hugu (Lat. cum-que, ^ 133, 2, a), anything. Gchpd has fem. 
gen. da.t. gehp&re, gehpdre (gehporef), a.nd masc. forms as feminines. 



72 DECAY OF PRONOMINAL ENDINGS. 

(i.) From lipa'itcr (^ 135,/)): a-Jipxitcr (any one) '^apder'^ddor, opder, 
inter, other, citlicr ; nd-hpivdcr{\\c\i\\{ir}~^najH{cr, nopdcr, noder ; ge-hp:eder, 
either ; sbg-hpxder (d-\-gc-\-/ipwdc7-)y-iBgder, either; spd-hpxder-spd, which- 
soever. 

(c.) From lie (^ 133, 3, a) : gc-hpdc, -hpelc, -hpylc, any body ; d'g-hpdc 
{a-\-ge-\-hpy-{-Uc, ^ 135, b), whoever ; hpilc-hugu, /ipilce-hugu, any one, any- 
thing ; spd-fipilc-spd, whosoever; pi/s-ltc, pus-lie, pi/lUc,pi/'Uc, of this sort; 
iile (a+^p+//f), each, all : a^le, cle, yle. 

(d.) Analogous compounds are found throughout the Teutonic tongues, 
and to many through most of the Indo-European family. 

137. Decay of Pronominal Endings: — 

(a.) Personal. — Layamon and Ormulum have Anglo-Saxon forms, also 
Lav. ec>?c/i>Orm. i, Chaucer sometimes ich, ik. Pu>thou, late Old En- 
glish (^^ 38, -4, 1) ; i^e>Lay. ■Je^ye ; co/>Lay. :joM>you. Wv., lico, hit : 
sing. fem. nom., Aug. -Sax. chronicle (A.D. 1140-|-) 5raj> Chaucer sche^ 
she, Northern 0. Engl, seho (O. Sax. sid, O. Norse sii). Lay. "^eo, y, Orni. 
'^ho; htf^Oxm. itt, it; dat.^acc. Lay. Aim, Atre> Chaucer hire (monosyl- 
Jable) > her ; phir. nom. ace. Lay. Peo, paie, Orm. nom. ^e^^ > they ; gen. 
Lay. heore, hire, Orm. pey^re {heore), dat.^acc. Orm. pe:^'^m (hemm)'^ 
them (^ 130, e) ; her, hir, here (their), hem (them), are still in Chaucer. 

(6.) Possessives. — Lay. mz?j>m«> my, ^m^7^<> thy, sometimes before 
a consonant; other endings like adjectives, § 129 +. 

(c.) Demonstratives. — The definite article in Layamon retains its declen- 
sion, except dat. iii^n and precession of d'^a^o'^e; but indeclinable pe 
grows more frequent, and in Orm. is established as in Modern English. Pes 
changes like the adjective (^ 129+) : plur. /as >/e65> those (^ 38, .4, 1). 
Ormulum sing, piss (this), plur. pisse (these) ; and sing, patt (that), plur. pu 
(those). Chaucer Mis, plur. /Aese; that, ^ilur. tho. 

(d.) Relatives. — Layamon pe, pat throughout, also fem. and plur. 7'«> 
peo; Ormulum patt (=that) throughout, as in English now. For the change 
of who, which to relatives, see Syntax. 

(e.) Tnterrogatives. — Layamon whd O^'o), whes, wham (^wdm), ichdn 
(^ivdn), neuter loha-t ; Ormulum whd, whds, dat.^acc. ivhamm, whatt; 
O. Engl. d> 6. Hpilc, hp.rder, like adjectives, ^ 129+. 

(/.) Indefinite dn in Layamon is declined throughout, sometimes also 
nom. dn^d, and oblique cases one. Ormulum has only masculine endings; 
d, a, frequent. Chaucer no inflection, dn'^a, as now. 



NUMERALS. 



(6 



Cardinals. 



138. NUMERALS. 

Ormuldm. Ordinals. Symbols. 



1. an 



aa 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13, 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 

21. 

30. 
40. 
50. 
60. 

vo. 

80. 
90. 

100. 



(tpegen,tpa,tul ^^^ 
I <tpa i 

, J)ri, \yved 



( forma (fruma, seresta) | 
I fyrsta, 



129 



P- 



oder 



J)ridda 

feoperda (feorda) 
fifta 
sixta 



J)reo, J)re 

feoper fowwerr 

fif fif 

six sexe 

„ . _ . (■ se(o)fenn, ) ^ ^ , ^ ^ 

seoton (sytone) J ' ' , | seofoda (-eda) 

ealita ehhte 

nigon (-en) ni^henn 

tjn, ten tene, (tenn) 

endleofan (ellefne) 



eahtoda (-eda) 
nigoda (-eda) 
teoda 



11. 

in. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

vn. 
vni. 

IX. 
X. 



endleofta (eo>u, y, e) XL 



tpelf 

J^reotyne 

feopertyne 

fiftyne 

sixty^ne 

seofontyne 

eahtatyne 

nigon tyne 

tpentig 

an and tpentig 

l^ritig, l)rittig 

feopertig 

fiftig 

sixtig 

Imndseofontig 

hnndealitatig 

huiulnigontig 

hundteontig 1 

hund J 



twellf 
J)rittene 



sextene 



twennti^ 



Jjritti^ 

fowwerrti:^ 

fiffti^ 

sexti^ 

seofennti^ 



hunndredd 



101. hund and an 



tpelfta 

])re6te6da 

feoperteoda 

fifteoda 

sixteoda 

seofonteoda 

eahtateoda 

nigonteoda 

tpentigoda 
f an and tpentigoda 
1 tpentigoda and forma 

Jiritigoda 

feopertigoda 

fiftigoda 

sixtigoda 

h un dseofontigoda 

hundeahtatigoda 

hundnifjontigroda 

hundteontigoda 

an and hundteonti- 
goda 

hundteontigoda and 
forma 



XII. 

XIII. 

XIV. 

XV. 

XVI. 

XVII. 

XVIIl. 

XIX. 

XX. 



}^ 



XXI. 

XXX. 

XL. 

L. 

LX. 

LXX 

LXXX. 

XC. 

C. 



CL 



7-J: 



ETYMOLOCiY OF CARDINALS. 



Ciirdiiiiils. Okmulcm. 

110. liiiiRleiuUeotantig 
120. hundtpelftig 
130. luiiul and prittig 
200. tpa hand 



Ordinals. 
hundendleofantigoda 
hundtpelttiguda 
liiiiid and j[)ritig6da 
tpa liuudteoutigoda 



1000. l>iiseud 



J)t\sennde {not found.) 



Svinbols. 

ex. 
cxx. 
cxxx. 
cc. 

M. 



(a.) The order of combined numbers is indicated by the examples. The 
substantive defined is oftenest placed next the largest of the numbers. 

(,b.) Combined numbers are sometimes connected by cdc (added to) or and 
governing a dative : pridda eac tpentigum := 23d ; sometimes by the next 
greater ten and j>ana, Iws, or butan : dues pana prittig, thirty less one ; tpa 
Ises XXX, two less than thirty ; XX hutan an. ^ 393. 

(c.) For hund- from 70 to 120, see ^ 139, e ; indefinites, ^ 136, 2. 

(d.) The unaccented syllables often suffer precession, sometimes syncope, 
often cacography. 



Tarent Sp. 

1. ai-na? 

2. dva 

3. tri 



139. ETYMOLOGY.— CARDINALS. 

Gothic. O. Saxon. O. Norse. 

ai-n-s e-n ei-nn 

tvai tue-na tvei-r 

J)rei-s thri-a J)rl-r 



Sanskrit. Greek. Latin. 

e'ka elgKe-vg oi-nos>iinus 

dva ^vo duo 

tri Tpe'igKrpi tres<tri 



4. katvar k'atva'r \ ^ . 'r [ quatuor fidvor fiwar fior-ir 



5. kankan 

6. ? 

7. ? 

8. akta 

9. navan 
10. dakan 



pank'an tteVt-e 

s as tl, 

saptan txra 

as't'aa 6kt{s> 

, f kwia <C 

navan < ,^ 

(. vt\av 

da9an liKa 



quinque 
sex 

septem 
octo 

\ novem 

decern 



fimf 
saihs 
sibun 
ahtau 

niun 

taihun 



fif 
sehs 
sibun 
ahto 

nigun 

t£-ian 



fimm 
sex 
siau 
atta 

niu 

tiu 



Sanskrit. Greek. Latin. 

11. e ka-da9aii 'iv-htKa nn-decim 

12. dva'-da9an Sw-dcKa duo-dccira 

13. traj6-da(;an rpiaKai-SsKa tre-decim 
20. (d)vim-(da)9ati ((Tp)f(-jco(Tt (d)vi-ginti 
30. trim-9at rpia-Kovra tri-ginta 
70. sapta-(da9a)ti iliSo/irj-KovTa septuorginta 

100. -9ata i-Karov -centum 

120. (5^100+20. The ffreat hundred not used.) 
1000. sahasra x'^'^-t millia 



GotUc. 
ain-lif 
tva-lif 
brija-taihun 
tvai-tig-jus 
]?reis-tig-jus 
sibun-tehund 
taihun-tehund ) 
hund 5 

(tvalif-tehund) 
fiusundi 



Old Saxon, 
ellif 
tue-lif 



tiien-tig 

thri-tig 

ant-sibunta 
f (iint-tehunta) i 
( hund ) 

(ant-tuelifta) 

thusunditr 



Old Norse. 

ellifu 

to-lf 

Jjrettian 

tu-ttug-u 

J5ria-tig-i 

sio-tigi 

( tiu-tiu 

( hund-ra-5 
tolf-ti-u 
]-usund 



ETYMOLOGY OF CARDINALS. 75 

(a.) The numerals are clusters of radicles, some of which lure beyond the 
{ndo- European family. 

1-10. — An (one) < pronominal stem i^ ai-na'^ Sansk. ena, that ; eka 
Xe-(na)ka)1 § 130, ^>,c. Dva (two), dental radicle for addition, § 56. Tri, 
tar, fem. tissar (titar), three < dental radicle ^ + emphatic r; compare its 
force in comparison, ^ 123, c, and in ^^tri, to go further. Katvar, fem. kata- 
sar {ka-tatar), four, z^ka (<C.eka, one) -\-tj)ar (<^tar, titar, three) : the sym- 
bols for four are composed of those for one and three in Sanskrit and kin- 
dred alphabets, also in Egyptian. Kan-kan (five) is a reduplication indi- 
cating the completion of 07ie (ka<ieka) count — one hand. For reduplica- 
tion as a sign of completion, see Greek Grammars : Crosby, ^ 179 ; see fur- 
ther below. Aktan (eight) is ak (one) -f superlative -ta (^ 123, c), the highest 
count of fingers. Navan (nine) is akin to Sansk. nava-s, Greek vt^o-Q, Latin 
novu-s, Gothic ntu-jt-s, Ang.-Sax. 7upe, new, now, <^}iu, pronominal r.tem of 
interrogation, negation, stimulation ; nine begins a new quaternion. Dakan 
(ten) <^ dva-kan =: 2 X 5 . 

(b.) Well-marked identity with the Semitic numerals has been claimed in 
eka, Hebrew ek'ad; s'as', Hebrew s'es', six; saptan, Gothic sibun, He- 
brew s'eha, seven. It has been said that 5'e5=5'e-|-5'e = 3 + 3, and s'eba= 
s'e^(di-)ba^3-\-4 ; the -tan in saptan being a superlative, as in aX-^an, fin- 
ishing the count of possibly a week. Kan in kan-kan is also like Hebrew 
kam-es', five. The original stem for five has been also thought to be pan- 
kan, and to be from Sanskrit pdni, hand. 

(c.) The sliifting and gravitation in coming down from the Parent Speech 
is generally regular, ^^ 41,38, tables in ^^ 18, 19 ; ^•>7>>/, ^ 41, 3, A,B; 
i> Ig, quasi-gemination, ^ 27, 5. 

id.) 1 1-19. — Endleofan < a« + leofan < tihan (Lithuanic, lika), ten ; 
^>e, precession, § 38 ; nl^ndl, dissimilated gemination of n, the last part 
of which changes to d from the dropping of the nasal veil to send breath for- 
ward for I (^ 27, 5 ; 50) ; t(<Cd)^l, unusual shifting : 'Ocvamiig^ Ulysses; 
dingua'y lingua (§ 41, b) ; h{<^k)'yf, shifting as in katvar'yfidvor, four; 
kankan'^ finf, five, etc., ^ 41, 3, A, 5; i'y eo, breaking, ^ 33; 35, 2, a. 
TpELF < tpd -\- leofan = 2 + 10 ; threo-tijne, 3 + 10, etc., are plain. 

(e.) 20-120.— TpENTiG <Jpegen (twain) 4-<jo-<c?aA-an (ten), 2X10: shift- 
ing, ^41,3, A. Similar are the forms in -tig up to {hund)tpelftig^^\2X 10, 
the great hundred. 

60-120. — With the forms in -tig from three-score to the great hundred is 
joined hund. Gothic tchund (Latin -ginti, Greek -kovti, Sanskrit -(^ati) < 
dakanta'Cdakan (ten) + -ta superlative, as in saptan, aktan : shifting, ^41, 
2, A ; nty-nij, instead of 7ut, through influence of n ; a>g, progression to 
d and shifting, ^ 18 ; (/>?<, precession, ^ 38. The Gothic has sibun-tchund 
= 7X 10, taihun-tchu7id=z 10 X 10, etc. The Anglo-Saxon form was once 
hund-seofonta (decade seventh), like Old Saxon (h)ant-sibunta. The -ta 
changed to -tig through conformation with the smaller numbers, and hund-, 
whose meaning had faded, was retained as a sign of the second half of the 



76 DECLENSION OF NUMERALS. 

great hundred ; when counting by the common hundred, it is omitted : an 
hund manna and seofontig, 170 men. 

(/) 100-1000.— Hund, ^un</r('<i< Parent Speech dakan-dakanta, which 
would sliift in Anglo-Saxon to tihun-tihund (^ 41). It has gravitated to 
hundy hundred <^hundarc (Latin centuria) -\- d, as in eorcd, legion ; coped, 
herd, etc. 1000 is expressed by so different words in the different tongues 
that no common origin can be found, and hence it is believed not to have 
been in the Parent Speech. The Lithuanic, Slavonic, and Teutonic, how- 
ever, agree: lAih. tiikstanti ; Slav, tusantj a; Goth. Jmsundi<,tuk-'Cdakan 
(ten) + santi < kanti > hund (hundred) = 10 X 100. 

140, Ordinals are superlative forms, except oder., second. 

(a.) Fruma, /orTTiff, first, see ^ 126+; oder, second, ^ 126, a; -da, -ta, 
-da are all shiftings of superlative -ta, ^ 123, c; -tedda is a repetition of 
te6da<ite6nda (tenth); -tigoda, Friesic -tigosta, O Norse -tugasti, O. H. 
German -zugoslo (no examples in Gothic or Old Saxon), has conformed to 
the smaller and more frequently recurring numbers in -tedda. The substan- 
tives hund and piisend had not developed ordinals in Anglo-Saxon. 

{b.) The formation of ordinals is similar in principle throughout the Indo- 
European family. 

Declension. 

141. Cardinals. — 1, an, is declined, § 136. 

N'.,A.,V. 2, tpegen tpa tu<tpa 3, J^ri (-y, -ie) J)re6 J)re6 (-ia, -io) 

G-en tpegra, tpega ]>reora 

D.,Inst.. tpam>tpa)iu J)rlm (-ym) 

Like tpegen decline begen, bd, bu, both. 

4-19. — Cardinals h-om feoper to tpelf, and from preo-t^ne to 
nigon-t^ne, are used as indeclinable, but are also declined like i- 
stem nouns of the First Declension {bi/re, § 84), oftenest when 
used as substantives: nom. ace. \oc. feopere, gen.feoperd, dat. 
inst. feope^ttm. Such forms oi eahta are not found. Tyne<te6n, 
umlaut, § 32, 2. 

(a.) Those in -tyne have also sometimes a neut. nom. and ace. in -w>-o, 
or -a: fiftyn-u, -o, -a (fifteen) ; preuteno (=thirteen). (^>i>e.) 
{b.) They are quasi-adjectives like DeJie, § 86. 

20-120. — Forms in -tig are declined as singular neuter nouns: 
prUig (thirty), gen. pntiges ; or, as adjectives, have plural gen. 
-rd, dat. -lan : prUigrd, prUigum. 

lOO-lOOO.— Hund, n., is declined ]\kepord,^ 73; hundred and 
pUse)id, like ^?>, § 70 ; i>].pilsend-u, -o, -e, -a (Psa. Ixvii, 17), § 393. 



THE VERB. 77 

142. Ordinals have always the regular weak forms of the ad- 
jective, except Oder (second), always strong. Indefinites, § 136, 2. 

143. MuLTiPLiCATivES are found in -feald (fold): ttw/eaW, simple : tpi- 
feald, two-fold ; pusend-meelum., thousand foldly. 

1 44. Distributives may be expressed by repeating cardinals, or by a 
dative : seofon and seofon, seven by seven ; bi tpam, by twos. 

145. In answer to how often, numeral adverbs are used, or an ordinal or 
cardinal with sid (time) : eene, once ; tpipa (tpiga), twice ; prtpa (Jjriga), 
thrice ; priddan side, the third time ; feoper sidum, four times. 

146. For adverbs of division the cardinals are used, or ordinals with deel : 
on preo, in three (parts) ; seofedan dsel, seventh part. 

147. An ordinal before AeaZ/Chalf) numbers the whole of which the half 
is counted : he pxs pa tpd gear and pndde healf, he was there two years 
and (the) third (year) half=2i years. The whole numbers are usually un- 
derstood : he ricsode nigontebde healf gear, he reigned half the nineteenth 
year=18f years. A similar idiom is used in German and Scandinavian. 

148. Sum, agreeing with a numeral, is indefinite, as in English: sume 
ten gear, some ten years, more or less ; limited by the genitive of a cardinal 
it is a partitive of eminence : eode eahta sum, he went one of eight = wit{ 
seven attendants or companions. 



VERB. 

149. The notion signified by a verb root may be predicated of 
a subject or uttered as an interjection of command, or (2) it may 
be spoken of as a substantive fact or as descriptive of some per- 
son or thing. In the first case proper verb stems are formed, or 
auxiliaries used, to denote time, mode, and voice; and suffixes (per- 
sonal endings) are used to indicate the person and number of the 
subject : thus is made up the verb proper or finite verb. In the 
second case a noun stem is formed, and declined in cases as a sub- 
stantive or adjective. 

150. Tavo Voices. — The active represents the subject as act- 
ing, the jyassive as affected by the action. The active has inflec- 
tion endings for many forms, the passive only for a participle. 
Other passive forms help this participle with the auxiliary verbs 
eom (am), beon, pesan, peordan. 

(n.) The middle voice represents the subject as affected by its own action. 
It is expressed in Anglo-Saxon by adding pronouns, and needs no paradigms. 

151. Six Modes. — The indicative states or asks about a fact, 
the subjunctive a possibility ; the imperative connuands or in- 



VERB.— CONJUGATION.— CLASSES. 



treats ; the i>ijinitives (and gerunds) are substantives, the jyarti- 
ciples adjectives. Certain forms of possibility are expressed by- 
auxiliary modal verbs with tlie infinitive. They need separate 
discussion, and are conveniently called a potential mode. 

152. Five Tenses. — Present^ imj)er'fect^ future, perfect, pluper'- 
feet. The present and imper'fect have tense stems; the future is 
expressed by the present, or by aid of scecd (shall) or jh lie (will) ; 
the perfect by aid of the present of hcthhan (have) or, with some 
intransitives, beon (be), pesan or peordan (be) ; the pluper'fect 
by aid of the imper'fect of habban, beon, pesan, ov peordan. 

153. Two Numbers, smgular and plural. 

154. Three Persons, ^rs^, second, and third. 

155. Stems and Themes. — A tense-stem is that part of a verb 
to wliich the signs of mode, person, and number were added in 
that tense. The \evh-steni is that to which the tense signs were 
added. The theme of any part of a verb is so much of it as is un- 
changed in the inflection. For roots, § 57. 

156. The Principal Parts are the present infinitive, the im- 
perfect indicative first p)er sons, and \\\q passive participle. 

157. Conjugation. — Verbs are classified for conjugation by 
the stems of the imperfect tense. 

Strong Verbs expi-ess tense by varying the root vowel ; iceak 
verbs, by composition. Strong verbs in the imperfect indicative 
singular first person have the root vowel unchanged, or changed 
by progression or by contraction. The vowels are 

Contraction. 
V. 



No change. 
Conjugation I. 

a > (ae, ea) 



Progression. 

II., III., IV, 

a, ea, 6 



eo>e 



Coriiposition. 
VI. 

+ de>te 



158. Further subdivision gives the following classes. The Roinan nu- 
merals give Grimm's numbers. We arrange in alphabetical order of the 

stem vowels of the imperfect. 

Strong. 

Imperfect Sing. 

a(>ae, ea) 
a(>ae, ea) 



eo>e 



Class 




Root 

Vowel. 


Present 


1, 


X.,XI 


a 


i(>e, eo) 


2, 


XII. 


a 


i(>e, eo) 


3, 


VIII. 


i 


i 


4, 


IX. 


u 


eo, u 


5, 


VII, 
I. VI. 


a 


a(>ea) 


6, 


a>e 


a, a, ea, sb, e, 6 



Weak (§§160, 165, rf) 
affix -ia > -ie > -e > — +ede>de>te 

affix -o>-.\; -ia> -igo, -ie +ude 



Plur. 




Passive Participle. 


a(>a. 


e) 


e, u>o 


n 




U>0 


i 




i 


u 




o 


6 




a 


e6>e 
rf). 




a>ea, a,ea,a,i,6 

+ed>d>t 
+6d 



GROWTH OF ABLAUT. 



79 



(a.) The variation of letters in the five first classes is called Ablaut; it 
sprang from gravitation (^ 38) and compensation (^ 37). Its beginnings may 
be seen in the other Indo-European tongues, plainest in Sanskrit. Sanskrit 
grammars have ten conjugation classes; the present stems are, l.-yZ+a; 
2. -y/; 3. Reduplicated -\/; 4. \/-\-ja; 5. ■\/-\-nu; 6. '\/-\-a'; 7. -y/ with ?i 
inserted; 8.-\/-\-u; 9. -yZ+^'j 10. y^-\-aja. Anglo-Saxon strong verbs 
correspond to the first or sixth class, a few to the fourth ; weak verbs to the 
(4th ?) and tenth. Sanskrit reduplicated preterites (perfects) are formed all 
alike from the root by prefixing its first letters. 

Presents. 

Sense. Root. Conj. Sanskrit. Greek, 

throw. kar 6. kir-a'mi; tir-a mi <iV tar, 6, step over, 

sit. sad 6. sid-a'mi eZ-ofiai 

know, go. k'it, i 1, 2. k'e't-ami, e'-mi tl-fii 

show. dip 6. dip-a'mi, Causal base de'9-aja SeiK-vvixi 

know. budh 1. bo'dh-ami irevO-ofxai 

bend. bbiig' 6. bhug'-a'mi, Cans, base bho'g'-aja <ptvy-(o 

wax. vaks' 1. vaks'-ami 



Latin. GotMci 

sed-eoj sit-an 

i-re "> 

dic-o j teih-an 



)j bk 



fug-ioj biug-an 
vahs-jan 



Perfects > Anglo-Saxon Imperfect. 



Sense. Root. Conj. Ping. 
extend, tan 8. ta-t"i'n-a 
6. sa-sii'd-a 



Sit. 


ead 


(to. 


kar 


bind. 


bantlh 


see. 


vid 


show. 


dig 


bend. 


bhug' 


wax. 


vaks' 


break. 


blirag' 


bake. 


bhag' 



Saiiskrit. 

Plur. 
fta-tin-im:i> \ 
(.tenima ) 

Bcd-ima 



Gre£k. 
Sing. Plur. 

Tt'-Ta(i')-Ka, -KafjLCV 



Latin. 
Sing. Plur. 



I Gothic. 
I Sing. Plur. 

te-tin-i, -imus than then-nvj> 

eed-i, 



-imus sat sct-um 



8 (P«'.s.)kar-6'mi kur-mas; tu-tur-ja'm<[-v/tar, sfep over. 

0. bn-bandh-a ba-b;indh-ima 
2. (vi)vij'('.-a (vi)vld-ma 
G. di-d V-a di-dif-ima 
6. bu-bh(Vg'-a bn-bliug'-ima 

1. va-vaks'-a va-vaks'-ima 

Greek Present fpiii-wfii 
Greek Present (ptuj-<a 



er. ■> 
i bf 



fold-a 
di-Sctx-a, 



fia-nev vid-i, 
-afiev filg-i 



^•ppu}y-af 
7r6-0a)')'-a, 



-a/j-ev 



freg-i, 



bixnd bund-um 
-imus vait vit-um 

taih t(a)lli-uni 

-imu3 baug bug-um 

vohs v6hs-um 

-imua 



.4»i(jr.-Saa;. bac-an; boc, boc-oiv 



(b.) The Sanskrit passive past participle in -??a is accented on the aflix, 
and the root in Teutonic has precession like the imperfect plural. ^ 175. 

(c.) Roots in a have conformed to the analogy of the Sanskrit Sixth Con- 
jugation Class, those in i and u to that of the first. Since accent opens the 
organs, the open a must be most varied by its absence (i. e., by precession), 
the close i and u by its presence — progression. 

(d:) Comparison of Ablaut : 



First Conjugation, -/a. 


2nt) Conj., -^/i. 


3d Conj., v'u. 




Sanskrit i ; 5, e ; i & u 


i ; i,, u ; u 


e; e, i; i 


6 ; 6, u ; 


u 


Gothic., i; a, e; i & u 


i ; a, u ; u 


ei;ai,i; i 


iu ; au, u ; 


u 


0. Sax. . i >e ; a, a ; e & u >o 


i>e; a, u; u>o 


1; e, i; i 


iu>io>u; 6, u; 





O.Norse i>e; a, a; e&u>o 


i>e>ia; a,u; u>o 


i; ei,i; i 


iu>i()>u; au, u; 





O.H.G. i>e; a, a; e&o 


i>e; a, u; u>o 


1; ei>e, i; i 


iu>io>u; ou>6,u 






FouRTn Conjugation, -^/a nr a. 
Greek T) \ (0, (o ; Ti. Goth, a; 6, o; a. (?. <?. & 0. //.6r. a; 6>uo, 6>uo; a. <9. iV. a; 6, 6; a>e. 



80 COMPARISON OF ABLAUT.— CONTRACTION. 

{c.) In Sanskrit these vowel cliangcs have no meaning, bnt are mostly 
mechanical results of the accent: yet, as the place of the accent depends on 
the weight of the prefixes and suffixes in which the meaning resides, the 
vowel changes come to be signs of this meaning, and, as the prefixes and 
suffixes decay, the sole signs of it. The vowels are the vehicles of emotion 
and harmony ; to make them signs of relation fuses thought and feeling, and 
o-ives power for oratory and poetry. The Teutonic races, like the Semitic, 
found this fusion congenial, and in the earliest Gothic the ablaut is already a 
fundamental law of the language. Physiology teaches that progression may 
spring from accent, that precession may take place in unaccented syllables 
of course, and in accented syllables from compensation or shifting : compar- 
ison of Anolo-Saxon and English proves these possibilities to be important 
facts in the history of language ; the Sanskrit verb shows that they are the 
facts from which sprang Ablaut. ^^ 37, 38, 4 1. The changes of the /-roots 
and w-roots are established in Sanskrit; those of the a-roots are only occa- 
sional in the present even in the sixth class, and that class is small. It 
seems, then, that a-roots of the Sanskrit sixth class were drawn to ablaut by 
conformation with I'-roots and u-roots, and that a-roots of the first class con- 
formed after ablaut was fully established, except such as attained the Fourth 
Teutonic Conjugation, where the whole perfect conforms in progression to 
the singular C'<C«- 

(/.) In Gothic, the present, the imperfect plural, and past participle have 
the same precession or progression as in Sanskrit (^^^ 18, 38). The imper- 
fect singular has a second progression in the second, third, and fourth conju- 
gations, because it has gravitated to a monosyllable. 

{g.) The S of imperfect plural teiiimd is from aiii, a compensative drop- 
ping of n and lengthening of a, the result of which is modified by i — a 
process in which we may see how umlaut and contraction run into each 
other. 

(/j.) Imperfect plural and past participle i( <ia is in liquid and double con- 
sonant roots. The first consonant is almost always a liquid. The effort for 
the two consonants takes the place of accent in part. For the assimilating 
effect of m, n, I, r, see ^ 35, 2. In Sanskrit, also, a goes to u in connec- 
tion with r, ui, n. 

{[.) In Anglo-Saxon and the other Teutonic tongues the changes from 
Gothic ablaut are explained by umlaut, breaking, and shifting. O. Fries., 38. 

159. Contraction, — Roots incapable of progression kept the redupli- 
cation "till after the accent had shifted to it (^ 41, 4) and it had taken pro- 
gression (Gothic i < at) ; and in Anglo-Saxon they had contracted the re- 
duplication and root to a uniform eo or ^. 

(a.) Such roots are those in «-f two consonants, and in vowels hay- 
ing the second progression (^ 38). Add, also, a few in Gothic 6, ai , 
pe°rf. di-6 : let-an (let), lai-lot ; lai-an (blame), Idi-Jo. Hence Grimm's 
Conjugation Classes from the vowels of the present and (im)perfect : 



CONTRACTION.— COMPOSITION. 81 

Pres. Perf. Pres. Perf. Pres. Peif. Prea. Perf. 

Gothic... (1) a. + , ai-a; (2) ai, ai-ai; (3) au-, ai-au ; (4) e, " ai-e ; 

0. Saxon (\)ii+, ie>e; (2) e, ie>e; (3) 6, io>ie; (4) a, ie>e; 

0. Norse (I) a.+, e; (2) ei, e; (3) au, io; (4) a, e; 

O.H.G. (l)& + , ia; (2) ei, ia; (3) ou>6, io; (4) a, ia; 

Ang.Sax.(l)a+, e6>e; (2) a, e6>e; (3) ea, e6>e; (4) cfe>e, e6<e ; j 

Pres. Perf. Pres. Perf. Pres. Perf. 

Gothic... (5) ai, ^i-6; (6) e, ai-6; (— ) 6, ai-6. 

O.Saxon 6>uo, io>ie. 



0. Norse o, e. 

O.H.G. "0, io. 

Ang.Sax. a+p, eo+p; aj>e, e6>e; 6, e6>e. 

Q).) Traces of the process of contraction are found in 0. H. German 
and in the following Anglo-Saxon words : 
Gothic haldan, hold, perf . kdihald ; O.U.G. kaltan, heiakyhialtyhialt. 
Gothic stautan, strike, perf. stdidaut ; O.H.G. stdzan, steroz (r<st)ysteoz, stioz. 
Gothic hditan, call, iperf. hdihdif ; A.-Sas.. hdtan, heht<.hxhdt. 
Gothic redan, rede, ])erf. rdiroth ; A.-Sax. rcedan, re6rd<rs;r6d. 
Gothic letan, let, perf. Idilot; A.-Sax. Mtan, feort (r</, § 41, 3, A)<1&- 
Gothic Idikan, leap, perf. Idildik; A.-Sax. lacan, leulc<^la;luc. \Jot. 

^ ■ A.-Sax. on-dnidan, on-dreord, dread. 

The repeated consonants weaken, and finally fall out and let the vow- 
els together. In the Anglo-Saxon relics the first root consonant is saved 
by metathesis with the root vowel. These contractions at first gave 
rise to several different vowels and diphthongs found in O. H. German. 
Conformation in analogy with ablaut has brought them to a uniform eo 
or i in Ang.-Saxon. ^ 53. O. Fries, presents a, e,e, d,6,e; perf. i, e. 

160. Composition, — Derivatives form the imperfect by suflBxing to 
the verb stem de<Cdide, imperfect of don, do : Zw/o-de=did love. 

(a.) This formation is common to, and peculiar to, the Teutonic 
tono-ues. Two suflUxes of derivation appear in Anglo-Saxon verb stems: 
-w«>t(?> i>e> — (Latin -i, Conj. IV.), and -o>(4 w)>e (Lat- 
in -a, Conj. I.), both from an original -aja, Sanskrit Class Tenth, Greek 
pure verbs. 
Gothic, nas/an, save ; nasi-da, flni. nasi-dedum : salbon, salve ; sallo-da, 

salbo-dedum. 
O. Sax., nerjan, save; neri-da, neri-dun: scaw6-n, see; scaw6-da, scaito- 

dun. 
A.-Sax. nerian, save ; nere-de, nere-don ; sealfian, salve ; sealfo-de, -don. 
O. Fries, nera, save; ner{e)-de,ner{e)-don; salvja,sa.\\e ; satva-de,-don. 
O.Norse telja, tell ; tal-da, tol-dum : kalla, call ; kalla-da, k'ollu-dum. 
O.H.G. ncT-yan, save ; neri-ta, neri-tumes : salpon, salve; salpo-ta, salpo- 
tumes. 
Gothic and O. H. German have also a stem in -di, -e, corresponding 
to the Latin Second Conjugation. 

F 



82 TENSE STEMS.— PERSONAL ENDINGS. 

(b.) Derivatives in Sanskrit have only a periphrastic perfect, one 
form of whicli ha^ kar (do) as its auxiliary enclitic ; the Greek passive 
first aorist is compounded with fJ«=:de (^ 168); the Latin first, second, 
and fourth conjugations compound with fui (be)> -yi, -wi; ama-vi, 
doc(e)in, audi-vi. 

161. Tense Stems. — The present stem suffixes a or ia to the root. 
The imperfect is from the old perfect, which repeated (reduplicated) the 
root. The Parent Speech had also an aorist stem prefixing to the root a 
demonstrative radicle called the augment, and an imperfect prefixing a sim- 
ilar augment to the present stem. Other tense stems were formed by com- 
position, as Vi future with as (to bo) or bhu (to be). 

162. Mope Suffixes. — The indicative and imperative suffix the per- 
sonal endings to the tense stem ; the subjunctive prolonged the stem to ex- 
press doubt or hesitation by suffixing to it a for present contingency, id or i 
for past contingency or desire (the optative mode). The Teutonic subjunc- 
tives are from the optative. 

163. Peesoxal Exdings are from the same radicles as the personal 
pronouns. ^ 130. 

Plural. 

2d Person. 3d Person, 

ta+ta, an+ta, 

thou + thou. /le + he. 

The Sanskrit, Greek, and Gothic have a dual. ^^ 61,2; 165, c. 

The usual phonetic decay has been modified by two main causes : (1) dif- 
ferent weight of the tense stems, (2) difTerent mode suffixes. It will be dis- 
cussed in connection with the paradigm of a strong verb. 



Singular. 






Plural. 


1st Person. 


2d Person. 


3d Person. 


1st Person 


ma, 


tva >ta. 


ta. 


ma+ta, 


Die. 


thou. 


this, he 


I + thou. 



164. First Conjugation. 

Active Voice. 

niman, to take. 

Pres. Infinitive. Imperfect Sing., Plur. Passive Participle, 

niman ; nam, namon ; numen. 

Indicative Mode. 
Present (and Future) Tense. 



Singular. 
ic nimCfltake. 
J)1i mmest, thou takest. 
he nimerf, he taketh. 



Plural. 
pe rnxnact, we take. 
ge wimad, ye take. 
hi niraac?, the^/ take. 



PERSONAL ENDINGS.— PRESENT TENSE. 



83 



165. Present tense, •\/ nam ; tense stem, noma. Sanskrit not yet iden- 
tified with the others, though put with them by Pott, Benfey, Diefenbach ; 
Latin -emo in ad-imo, etc., also put here by Bopp, Diefenbach. 

Singular. — 

Greek. Latin, 

vs/xo) (-/ii) emo- 

■J ; y emi-s 

( VtUtlC ) 



Parent Speech. 

1. nama-mi 

2. nama-si 



Sanskrit. 
nama-mi 



Gothic. 
nima- 



3. nama-ti 

Plural. — 
\. nama-masi 
2. nama-tasi 



nama-ti 






O. Saxon. O. Norse. 
nimu- nem- 



nimi-s nem-r 



i vkuti ) 



nimi-^ nimi-c/ nem-r 



nama-mas 
nama-tha 



VlflO-fliV 

vkfit-re 



emi-mus 
emi-tis 



nima-wj 
nimi-^ 



nima-d nemn-7/t 
nima-d nemi-(/ 



3. nama-nti nama-nti 



\ viuo-vTi^\\emo-xiii^\ . , . , 

i , n r nima-«d nima-a 

( v(uo-vai Jtemunt ) 



vifio-vai j'emunt 

0. H. Ger. nim-u,-is,-it; plur. nem-ames,-at,-ant. O. Fries, like A.-Sax. 
Anglo-Saxon plural -ad^e before its subject pronoun : nime pe, take we. 

(a.) — 1. -ina>-w2J>-m> — is gravitation, ^38: -m is found only 
in eom, earn, am ; beam, be ; Northumbrian geseom, I see ; gedoam'^ 
gedom, I do; also (m^n) cuecton, I quoth, etc. 2. -tva> -ta]>-/i> 
-si (lingual softening, ^ 41, S) >-j>-5< (lingual strengthening, ^ 49) : 
-s is found especially in Northumbrian before du: spreces dii, speak- 
est thou. 3. -ta >-<«>-< (gravitation, § 38) >-<? (shifting, ^ 41, o). 
Northumbrian -s<^-d, § 31,2; 41, A; same in plural; so in O. Norse 
-rf>-.s>-r. Plural. — 1, -msita.^ -masi (as in 2d sing.)>-TO (grav- 
itation, ^ 38) > -d (conformation with 2d and 3d person, ^ 40, 1). 2. 
-tata> -iasi (as in 2d sing.) > -t (gravitation, ^ 38) > -d (shifting, ^41, 
a). 3. -anta > -n/i > -rf (gravitation, ^ 38, and shifting, ^ 41, a). 

(b.) Stem ending a>e or i, rare o, u, -, § 38. ■\/nam^nim (ablaut, 
^ 158). The common a-umlaut of nirn^nem in the O. Saxon plural is 
stopped by m. Labial assimilation i^eo^y is found, ^ 35, 2, a; 23. 

(c.) The Sanskrit has dual forms, -vas, -thas, -tas ; Greek, — , -tov, 
-Tov; Gothic, -vas'^-os, -ts, — , ^ 130. 

(d.) Weak verbs suffix the same endings to the stem ia or 6, ^ 160: 

Gothic . nas-ja, -Jis, -jip; -jam, -jip, -jand: salb-o, -6s, -op; dm, -op, -bnd. 

^ c. • J ■ J • J • ; (scaw-on, -05, -orf; 1,2, 3. -o<^ or 

U. inax. nei-ju, -IS, -id; -jad, -lad, -jad: { ... 
•^ ' y ' ./ ' y ( -ojad. 

A.-Sax. ner-ie, -est, -ed; -iad, -iad, -iad : isea.\f-ie,(-ige),-dst,-ad; 1,2,3. 

O. Fries, ner-e, -{i)st,-{i)th; -alh,-alh,-ath: \ -iad or -ig(e)ad. 

O. Nor. tel, — , -r, -r ; -jum, -id, -ja: kall-a, -ar, -ar- -vm, -id, -a. 

O.H.G. ner-ju,-is,-it; -James, -jat, -jant : sa]p-6m,-ds,-6t; -dmes,-6t,-dnt. 

Anglo-Saxon has ia'^ie^e^ — in the singular, ?a> a in the plural; 
o has been driven out by ia (conformation, § 40; compare O. Saxon) ex- 
cept in singular second and third o>a>a, ^ 38. The i in ie and ia 
often has dissimilated gemination to ig, ige. ^ 85, a. See ^^ 183-186. 



64: 



STliONG VERBS.— INDICATIVE. 
Imperfect. 



SmODLAB. 

ic nam, J took. 

J)tl name, thou tookest. 

hu nam, he took. 



Plural. 
pe naraow, we took. 
ge naraow, ye took. 
hi namo;i, they took. 



Futm-e. 
/ shall or will take. 



ic sceal (pille) nimaw. 
\yA scealt (pil^) nim«w. 
he sceal (pille) nimaw. 



Transitive Form. 
Sing. ^ have taken. 

ic hoebbe wumen. 

J) A h-xUt {h^Mst) nxxxfxen. 

hd hsef(f {hsXdd) numew. 
Plue. 

pe habbaf^ numew. 

ge habba<# numew. 

hi habbac? numew. 



Sing. ^ ^^^ taken. 

ic hsefde nume^. 
J)1i hg&fdest numen. 
he hssfde nnmen. 

Plxjr. 
pe hsefdon numew. 
ge hsefdon unraen. 
hi hsefdon numen. 



pe sculo?i (pillarf) niman. 
ge sculo?^ (pillarf) nimaw. 
hi sculou {p'lWad) nimaw. 

Perfect. 

Intransitive Form. 
/ have {am) come. 
ic eom curae^i. 
J)ti ear« cnmen. 
he is cumgw. 

pe sind (sindon) cnmene. 
ge ^ind (sindon) cumgwe. 
hi &ind (sindon) cxixnene. 

Pluper'fect. 

/ had {was) come. 
ic pses cumew. 
J)ti pajre cumew. 
he pses cximen. 

pe paerow cnmene. 
g^ pjero/i cume?ie. 
hi pserow cwmene. 



Other Forms : nam, nam ; ndmon, -an (a'^6) ; sceal, seel ; scul-on, -un, 
-an; sceol-on, -un, -an; pille, pile, pilt {i'^y); hasbbe, hebbe, habbe, 
haf-a, -u, -0 ; hafest ; haefed; hsbbad; eom, earn ; is, ys ; sind, sint, 
sindan {i^y, ie, eo), ear-on, -un. For eom may be used peorde or 
beom ; for pms, peard (^ 178}. 



IMPERFECT INFLECTION, STRONG AND WEAK. 



85 



166. Perfect Stem na-nam^ Latin theme em-im^ an. 

SlNGULAH. — 

Parent Speech. Sanskrit. Greek. 

1. na-nam-(m)a na-na'm-a ve-vsfi-rjKa 

ina-nan-tha, "j 
na-nim-i-tha> V vt-vifi-riKaQ 
nem-i-tha j 

ve-vkfi-r]Ke 



Latin, 
em-i 



Gothic 
nam 



O. Saxon. O. Norse. 
nam nam 



em-(is)ti na,m-t nam-i nam-^ 



3. na-nam-(t)a na-na'm-a 
Plukal. — 

1. nar-nam-masi nem-i-ma 

2. na-nam-tasi nem-a 

3. na-nam-anti nem-us 



em-it 



nem-«7« nam-ww nam-uw 
nem-up nam-ura nam-utt 



ve-vefi-7]Kafiev em-miu3 

ve-vefi-'f]KaTi em-(is)tis 

vt-vsii-r}Kdm em-(er)unt nem-w» nam-un nani-w 

O. H. Ger. nam, nam-i, nam ; ndm-umes, -ut, -un. O. Fries, endings are 

like Ang.-Saxon, nam>nom. 
A. -Sax. plur. may be -un,-um,^ 212 ; before a subjt.,-e,and see ^ 170, c. 
(a.) The reduplication sets at work compensation (§ 37, 4), and all 
the singular endings are lost except in the second person a vanishing 
-e <C -I. O. Sax. and O. H. Ger. have -i <^ Sanskrit -i-tha, and a stem 
like the plural. Gothic and O. Norse have -t<^-tha and the singular 
unchanged stem ; -t is found in some Anglo-Saxon preteritive verbs : 
sceah, etc., § 167. Weak verbs in Gothic have -5<-M<-^, like the 
present, and it is found in Anglo-Saxon, oftenest in the new imperfect 
of preteritive verbs: cunnan, imp. cudes; so l&stes, ohservedst; brohtes, 
broughtest; sealdes, g2.\est,eic. (^ 168); and in Northumbrian; weak 
verbs generally strengthen the -5 > -st like the present. 

Plural. — m^n is shifting (41, b) ; the second person conforms with 
the first and third. Sanskrit -i-, Gothic -u-, connecting vowel, inserted 
for euphony ; -u- > -o-, precession, ^ 38, 

167. Future. — Sceal is a preterito-present, § 212; pille is irregular in 
the singular after the same analogy, ^ 40 ; niman is the infinitive. For the 
history and use of these periphrastic forms, see Syntax. 

168. Perfect and Pluperfect. — Hasbbe, imperf. hsefde, is a weak 
verb, ^ 183 ; enm, imperf j)ses, is irregular, ^ 213; numen is the past parii- 
«iple. For history and use, see Syntax. 

Weak Imperfect ha^fde-Cy^haf-ia + de (^ 160). 



Gothic. 


0. H. German. 


0. Saxon. 


Ang.-Sax. 


O. Norse. 


Infinitive. 


nasjan, 


tuon, 


nerjan, 


nerjan. 


don, 


telja, 


did. 


saved. 


did. 


saved. 


saved. 


did. 


told. 


Sing. — dida 


nasi-da 


teta 


neri-ta 


neri-da 


dide 


tal-da 


dides 


nasi-de5 


tati 


neri-tos 


neri-dos 


dide5< 


tal-dir 


dida 


nasi-da 


tete 


neri-ta 


neri-da 


dide 


tal-di 


Plttr. — deduwi 


nasi-deduOT 


tatiimes 


neri-tumes 


neri-du« 


didon 


tol-dU77» 


deduj& 


nasi-dedu/i 


tatu< 


neri-tu< 


neri-dun 


didon 


tul-du!^ 


dedu» 


nasi-dedun. 


tature. 


neri-tu» 


neri-dura 


didon 


tol-du 



STKONG VERB.— SUBJUNCTIVE. 



109. 

Singular. 
ic nime, {if) I take. 
J)ti nime, {if) thou take 
ho uimc, {if) he take. 



SuiwuNCTivE Mode. 
Present Tense. 

Plural 

p6 nimew, (if) tee take. 

go nime?i, {if) ye take. 

hi nimot, {if) they take. 



ic name, {if) I took. 
J)<i name, {if) thou took. 
ho name, {if) he took. 



Imperfect. 

pe narae», {if) we took. 
go name/*, {if) ye took. 
hi namcM, {if) they took. 

Future. 
{If) I shall {will) take. 



ic scyle (pille) nima^i. 
Jjtl scyle (pillt:) n\man. 
he scyle (pille) nimaw. 

Transitive Form. 
Sing. ^U^ ^ ^^""^ taken. 

ic haebbe wxxvaen. 

J)ti hajbbe nwmen. 

ho htebbe numew. 
Plur. 

pe hiebbe/i numew. 

ge hsebbe?i nxxvaen. 

hi hsebbew nuraew. 

Sing. W) I ^^^^ taken. 

ic hsef(?e nurae/i. 

])A hxfde nunien. 

ho hxfde nurae?i. 
Plcr. 

pe hfefc?e?i nume/i. 

go hssfden numen. 

hi haefc?e/i nuraew. 



p6 scyle/i (pillew) niman. 
go scyle^i (pillen) nimaw. 
hi scyle?i (pillew) nimaw. 

Perfect 

Intransitive Form. 
ilf) I have {be) come. 
ic s^ cumeM. 
J)li SI cume^i. 
he SI cumen. 

pe sm cume?ie. • 
go sin cumewe. 
hi S171 cumewe. 

PluperTect. 

{If) I had {were) come. 
ic pffire cume^i. 
\)ti p«re cume?i. 
he pare cumew. 

pe ^sbreyi cume/ie. 
ge pffire?^ cumene. 
hi p&rew cumewe. 



Other Forms : scyle, scyl-en, -on, -an, -e {y^i, u, eo); hsebben, habban, 
habbon ; si, sin {i^y, le, eo, ig) ; pxr-en, -an, -on {si^e). For si may 
be beo, pese, peorde ; for p£re, pa rde. ^ IT'J. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



[§ 168. — Continued from page %b.'\ 
Sanskrit da-dhd-mi<^-\/dhd, Greek ri-Otj-fit, does not occur as an inde- 
pendent verb in Gothic, and the form is supplied by comparison. The 
reduplication has given rise to a secondary stem, Sanskrit dadk, Gothic 
dad, O. H. Ger. iat, from which the plural and second singular are form- 
ed with the ablaut of the first conjugation. For second singular -s, see 
^ 166. In haf-ia-de^ ha-fde, ia drops and -y/a shifts (^ 41). 



SlNG,- 



Parent Sp. 
-1. namai-m 

2. namai-s 

3. namai-t 
Pluk. — 1. namai-raas name-ma 

2. namai-tas name-ta 

3. namai-nt namej-us 



name-s 
name-t 



170. Subjunctive Peesent < Optative Stem nama-i (§ 162). 

Sanskrit. Greek. Latin. Gothic. O. Sax. O. Norse, 

namej-am vifioi-fJiL eme-m nimau nime nemi 

v'ifioi-Q eme-s nimui-s nime-« nemi-r 

VEfioi- eme-t nimai- nime nemi 

vefioi-fitv eme-mus nimai-nia nime-re nemi-77i 

vifioi-Tt eme-tis nimai-^ nime-w nemi-t/ 

vkfiois-v eme-nt nimai-na nime-w nemi 

O. H. Ger. neme, neme-s, neme ; neme-mes, -t, -n. O. Fries, nime throughout. 
The Latin serves as a future; emem is archaic. O. Sax. has d^e: nimdn. 
The PLURAL in Anglo-Saxon ends often in -dn > -an, -on^ -en > -e, 
(}^ 18, 38. Before a subject pronoun -e is used. 

(a.) The long stem ending has worked like the long vowels of femi- 
nine nouns (^ 64, 2) ; the singular is weathered of the personal endings. 
Plural »i>ra is shifting (^ 41, i), and the second person conforms with 
the first and third (^ 40, 1). 

(i.) The accent in the Sanskrit is the same as in the present indica- 
tive ; and hence the root vowel is the same ; but the stem ending works 
a-umlaut whenever there is umlaut in the plural indicative ; m stops it 
in Saxon niman. 

(c.) The plural subjunctive endings (especially -an) are sometimes 
found in the indicative of auxiliaries, of praeteritive presents, and of im- 
perfects, most of which have a subjunctive force. ^^ 151,40. 

1*71. The Subjunctive Imperfect (Optative Perfect) Stem 
na7iam -{■ jd y- 7iimjd (§ 166). 



Sanskrit. 
Sing. — 1. nemja'-m 

2. nemja-3 

3. nemja'-t 



Greek. 

Vt-VEfj(7]K0)iri-V 
Vl-Vlfl(7]K0)n]-Q 
Vi-Vtfi(r}Ko')iT] 



Plcb. — 1. nemja'-ma ve-viix{r)Ko)ir]-fiiv 
2. nemja'-ta vi-vtfi(r}K6)ir}-Tt 



Gothic. 

nemjau 

nemjei-s 

nemi 

nemei-7»a 

nemei-^ 



O. Saxon. O. Norse. 
nami nsemi 



nami-s 

nami 

nami-» 

nami-» 

nami-n 



n<emi-r 

nsemi 

nxvai-m 

n&mi-it 

nsemi 



O. H. Ger. 

nami 

nami-s 

nami 

■nktm-mes 

nami-< 

nami-» 



3. nemjus vt-vtn(jiKoyiri-aav nemei-na 

The Sanskrit is an uncommon form from the Vedas. The accent on the 
ending leaves the root to the same changes as in the plural of the im- 
perfect indicative. Anglo Saxon stem t>e is precession ; the personal 
endings as in the present subjunctive. Conformation with the present 
brings in the ending -an, -on; for -e, ^ 170. O. Fries, nume, througliuut. 



88 IMPERATIVE.— NOUN FORMS. 



Sing. 
2. nim, take. 



\12. Impekative Mode. 
Plck. 
nima^^, take. 



173. iNFiNirrvE. 
mman^ to take. 

Pkesent Participle. 
nvoaende, taking. 



Gerund. 
to nmianne, to take. 

Past Participle. 
numen, taken. 



174. Imperative Stem nama. 

Sanskrit. Greek. Gothic. O.Saxon. O.Norse. O.II. G. 

Sing. — nama veyuf, Latin erne nim nim nem nim 

Plur. — nama-ta vi/zt-rt, Zait'n emi-te nimi-^ nima-d nemi-<^ nema-< 

Plural -tata > ia > / (^ 38) >rf (shifting, § 41, a). O.F.=A. Sax. 

175. Noun Forms. 
1. Infinitive nam-\-anai 2. Gerund. nam-\-ana-\-ja. 

_ . (nam-anaj-ai iv'i}i~HV<i-tvai\ . 

1. Dahve ... I ^g ^^^ ^^ j j ^^ yg^ ^^^ J nim-a« nim-a« nem-a nenwn, 

2. (§120), nam-anija, Zartw em-endo, (?. <Saa;ora nim-annia > -anna. w^xa-enne 

Z.Pr.Part. nama-nt ] " ^. > nima-«(Z(a)-s nima-wti nema-ntZ-z nema->./-i 

( i/(!^ eme-nt-is ) 

A. P. Part, (bhug-na ) ir'tK-vo-v (boni)\ fsra-nom- 

,„. \ \ rj. .\ (1 J .. ?numa-w-s numa-n numi-rew -{^ 

(Strong.) i (bent) \ { do-nu-m (srj/o) (. an4r 

b. P. Part. ( . . , (i'£u-?j-ro-e ■) , ^ 

{Weak.) ;°<™)-t'' I em(p)-tu..s J^^^^'-^C")* (gi-)neri-d tal-d-r ga-neri-t 



(a.) The dative case ending is gone in Teutonic infinitives. ^ 38. 

{b.) Gerund -enne^-ende (^ 445, 2, 7i?i>/u/, ^ 27, 5), so in 0. N. ; M. 
H. Ger. ; Friesic, O. Sax., and O. H. Ger. have a genitive nim-annias, 
-an-rtas {-es) ; nem-ennes ; and M. H. German has gen. nem-endes. 

(c.) To these stems of the participles are added suffixes contaiiicd in 
the case endings. ^^ 104-106. 

(d.) The Greek verbals in -rog are not counted participles (Iiadley, 
261, c). Only weak verbs have -da, -da, in Teutonic. Few verbs have 
the participle in -na in Sanskrit , only relics are found in Greek and Latin, 
but all the strong verbs use it in Teutonic. 

(e.) Weak stems in -ia and -6 have i, e, ig or ige, before -an, -anne, 
-end. ^ 165, d. 

176. Periphrastic Conditional Forms. 
Potential Mode 

Modal verbs magan, cunnan, mbtan, durran, pillan, sculan, pitan^utan, 
may, can, must. dare, will, shall, let us. 



PEEIPHRASTIC CONDITIONAL FORMS. 



Present Tense. 



Sing. Indicative Forms. 
mseg, can, mot, dear 
meaht, canst, most, dearst 
ma>g, can, mot, dear 

Plur. 
mdgon, cunnon, mo ton, dur- 
ron 



Subjunctive Forms. 
meege, cunne, mote, durre 
msege, cunne, mote, durre 
mee^ge, cunne, mote, durre 

msegen, cunnen, moten, dur- 
ren, utan 



• niman. 



gjjj^ Imperfect Tense, Indicative Forms. 

meahte, cude, mbste, dorste, polde, sc(e)olde 
meahtest, ciidest, mostest, dorstest, poldest, sc(e) oldest 
meahte, cude, moste, dorste, polde, sc(e)olde 
Pluk. 
meahton, cudon, moston, dorston, poldon, sc(e)oldon 

Imperfect Tense, Subjunctive Forms. 
Sing, meahte, cude, moste, dorste, polde, sc{e)olde \ niman 

Plur. meahten, cuden, mosten, dorsten, polden, sc(,e^olden ) 

Gerundial Form. 
I am to take =: I must or ought to take or be taken. 
Plur. 



Sing. 
ic eom 

pu eart ]■ to nimanne 
he is 



pe sind 

ge sind \- to nimanne. 

hi sind 



177. Other Periphrastic Forms. 

1. eom (am) + present participle. 

Present eom, eart, is; smd nimende. 

Imperfect pass, peer e, pees ; pseron nimende. 

Future beom, bist, bid; bead nimende. 

sceal pesan nimende. 
Infinitive Future... beon nimende. 

2. d67i (do) + infinitive, § 406, a. 



Other Forms : meaht, meahte, etc. (ea^i) ; mag-on, -um, -un, -an Ca>»); 
meahte s ; meaht-on, -um, -an, -en, -e (^^ 166, 170); can, con; const; 
cunn-on, -un, -an ; cudes ; cud-on, -an, -en ; mot-on, -um, -un, -an, -en ; 
mot-en, -an, -e ; most-es ; most-um, -on, -an ; durre (u^y); durr-on, 
-an; dorst-on, -en; poldes ; pold-on, -um, -un, -an, -e ; sc(e)oldes; 
sc(e)old-on, -un, -an, -en, -e. Forms of eom, peorde, and beom inter- 
change (§ 178). 



90 



CONJUGA riOX OF THE TAbSIVE VOICE. 



17 8, Passive Voice. 

Indicative Mode. 

Singular. Plural. 

Present and Perfect, / am taken or have been taken. 



ic eom* (peorde) iiumew. 
he is (peordet?) nuraew. 



pe sind{o7i) (peordarf) nnmene. 
ge sind{on) (peordarf) nnmefie. 
hi s*>i£?(o7i) (peordac^) numme. 



Past and Pluperfect, / was taken or /lac? been taken. 



ic p.TS (peard) mime??. 
})tl pffiie (purde) iiumew. 
he pffis (peard) nuine^i. 



pe -p&ron {pnrdon) iwimene. 
ge pa?ro7i (purdon) uumene. 
hi pserow (purdow) nnmene. 



ic be6(;n)* numew. 
J)<i hist nume^i. 
he bit^ iiumew. 



Future. 
1. I shall be taken. 

pe beof^ numene. 
ge beorf numene. 
hi beot^ nuinewe. 

2. 7 *Aa// or tt"j7/ be taken. 



ic sceal (pille) beo/i numen. 
J)<i sceal^ (pi^O beon nuraen. 
he sceal (pille) beon nume/i. 



pe scuion (pillar/) beon numene. 
ge sculon {piWad) beon numene. 
hi sculon (pWlad) beon numene. 



Perfect, / have been taken. 



ic eom geporden numen. 
pu eart geporden numen. 
he IS geporden numen. 



pe sind{on) gepordene numene, 
ge sind{on) gepordene numene. 
hi sind{on) gepordene numene. 



Pluperfect, I had been taken. 



to pses geporden numen. 
Pu psere geporden numen. 
he pxs geporden numen. 



pe p&ron gepordene numene. 
ge p&ron gepordene numene. 
hi pseron gepordene numene. 



Sing. 

ic (J)1i, he) beo numen. 



179. Subjunctive Mode. 
Present. 
(//) I be taken. 
Plur. 



pe (ge, hi) beon numene. 



The forms of peorde, eom, and beom interchange. 



PERirHKAbTIC CONDITIONAL FORMS. 



91 



SiHG. 

ic (J)tl, he) -psBre mxmen. 



Past. 
(//") / were taken. 
I Pluk. 
I pe (ge, hi) ipxren numm^. 



180. Imperative Mode. 



Sing. -P^ i^ou taken. 

pes 'j^ti numen. 

181. Infinitive. 
heon numen, to be taken. 



Plur. -Be ye taken. 

pesat^ ge numewe. 

Participle. 
nume^i, taken. 



182. Periphrastic Conditional (§ 176). 

Potential Mode. 

Present Tense. 

Subjunctive Forms. 
m&ge (&c.) '\ 
m&ge (&c.) / 
m&ge (&c.) > beon numen{e). 



Sing. Indicative Forms. 

mseg (&c.) 

meaht (&c.) 

ma'^ (&c.) 
Plur. 

magon (&c.) 



Jeon numen{e). 



mmgen (&c.) 
Imperfect. 



Sing. 
meahte (&c.) 
meahtest (&c.) 
meahte (&c.) 

Plur. 
meahton (&c.) 



Jeora numen(e). 



meahte (&c.) 
meahte (&c.) 
meahte (&c.) ^ ieora nMmcn(e). 

meahten (&c.) 



For icon (infinitive) is found pesan or peordan. The forms interchange of 
ieo, St, /?e5e, peorde ; of />cEre, purde ; of />es, Jeo, peord. Bist, bid {i >y) ; 
ieo, Jeo«^ (eo<^i6). .^Elfric's grammar has indie, pres. com, imperf. /a-cs, 
fut. Jeo, perf. pees fulfremedlice (completely), pluperf. pies gefyrn (for- 
merly) ; subjunctive for a wish, pres. bed gyt (yet), imperf. pxre, pluperf. 
peere fulfremedlice ; for a condition, pres. eom nu (now), imperf. /^^es, fut. 
bed gyt (yet); imperative st; infinitive beon. 



92 



CONJUGATION OF WEAK VERBS. 



18 3. WEAK A^ERBS. — (Conjugation VI.) 

Active Voice. 



Pees. Infinitive. 
nerian, save; 
hfrafi, hear ; 
lufiaw, love; 



Imperf. Indicative. 
x^Qxede ; 
hyvde; 
\\xfdde; 



Passive Paeticiplb. 
neved. 
hyred. 
{ge-)\ufdd. 



Indicative Mode. 

Present (and Future) Tense (§ 165, <?). 

I save, hear, love. 



SiNGULAB. 

ic nene, hjre, lu%e. 
J)ll neres^, hjrest, lufdst. 
be uered, hjred^ lufdd. 



Plural, 
pe neriad, hymd, lufiad. 
ge ueriad, hyrad, luUad. 
hi neriad, hyrad, \\xfiad. 



Imperfect (§§ 160, 166, 168). 
/ saved, heard, loved. 



ic nevede, hyrde, \ufdde. 

J)ti neredest, hyvdest, hifodest. 

he nerecfe, hyrde, lufode. 



pe neredon, hyrdon, \nfddon. 
ge neredon, hyrdon, \nfodon. 
hi neredon, hyrdon, lufodon. 



ic sceal (pille) 
J)ti sceal^ (piU) 
be sceal (pille) 



Future (§167). 
/ shall (ivill) save, hear, love. 

pe scu]on (pilla^) ^ nereaw, 
ge sculo^t (pilla^) > hyran, 
hi sculow (pillac^) ) lufm;^i. 



nerian, hyrayi, 
lufian. 



Perfect (§ 168). 



Transitive. 

/ have saved, heard, loved. 
Sing. 

ic hsebbe ) , , a , 

n^^^st,h^mst[''^'f:^^y''^^ 

he hsef^, hafa^ ) ^"^'^^• 
Pldk. 

pe habba<# ) 

ge hahhad > nered, hyred, \nfdd. 
hi habbac^ ) 



Intransitive. 
/ have {am) returned. 



ic eom 



]3ti ear< >- gecyrre^. 
he is ) 

pe sind (sindon) \ 

ge sind (sindon) V gecyrrec?e. 

hi sind (sindon) ) 



la, iga, igea, ga interchange, and ie, ige, ge : oXa, w)>plur. e. For va- 
riations of auxiliaries and endings, see corresponding tenses of strong verbs. 



CONJUGATION OF WEAK VERBS. 



93 



Pluper'fect (§ 168). 



Transitive. 

/ had saved, heard, loved. 
Sing. 

ic hsefde ) 

J)<i htBfclest > nered, hjred, lufdc?. 

he hsefde j 

Plur. 

pe hseMon j 

ge hsefdon V neredy hjred, lufod. 

ht hs&tdon ) 



Intransitive. 
/ had (^was) returned. 

ic paes "j 

])t p&re y gecjrred. 

he paes ) 

pe fSRTon J 

ge psbron > gecjrrede. 

hi ip&ron ) 



184. Subjunctive Mode. 

Present (§ 170). 

(If) I save, hear, love. 



Singular. 



IC 



J)tl ^ nerte, hyre, \\xiige. 
he 



Plural. 

ge ^ nevien, hyren, luf igen. 
hi 



10 



Imperfect (§ 171). 
(If) I saved, heard, loved. 
pe 



J)ti >• nerec?e, hjrde, \\ifdde. 
he ) 



ge |- nerec?ew, hyrdfew, luf<^c?ew. 
hi 



Future (§ 167). 
(7/) 7 shall (will) save, hear, love. 



ic scyle (pille) 
J)1i scyle (pille) 
he scyle (pille) 



ner ian, hjvan, 



lufian. 



pe scylew (pillew) ) 
gescy]e.i(pille/i)P^^*'«,^'^^' 
hi scykn (pillen) ) ^'^Mian. 



Perfect (§168). 



Transitive. 
(If I) have saved, &c. 
Sing, hsebbe ) nerec?, hjred, 
Plur. hsehhen f Infdd. 



SI 

mi 



Intransitive. 
(If I) have (be) returned, 

gecyrred{e). 



Pluper'fect (§168). 



(If I) had saved, &c. 
Sing, hsefde ) nerec?, hyrec?, 
Plur. hgefdew ) lufoc?. 



(If I) had (were) returned. 
T)<ere ) 



94 CONJUGATION OF WEAK VERBS.— WEAK PRESENTS. 

185. Impekative Mode (§ 174). 
Save, hear, love. 
Sing. I Plur. 

2. nere, hyr, hifd. \ ucriad, hfrad, Infiatt. 

186. Infinitive Mode (§ 175). 

To save, hear, love. 

Present, nevian^ Derigan, i\erigea7i, wcrgan; hjran/ luf^aw> 

hififfan, \uf igeati. 
Gerund, to neria?ine^ hyraiwe, \ufian7ie. 

Participles. 

Saving, hearing, loving. 
Present, neriende, hyvende, \\xUgende. 

saved. heard. loved. 
Past nerec?, hyrec?, {ge-)\\\^dd. 

187. The special periphrastic forms and the whole passive 
voice of weak verbs are conjugated with the same auxiliaries as 
those of strong verbs (§§ 176-182). 



188. PRESENTS {Weak). 

(rt.) Like nerian inflect stems in -ia from short roots: derian, 
hurt ; helia7i., cover ; hegian^ hedge ; sceria7i, apportion ; spyrian^ 
speer ; sylia7i, soil ; punian, thunder, etc. 

(b.) But many stems in -ia from short roats have compensa- 
tive gemination of their last consonant where it preceded i — 
(throughout the present, except in the indicative singular second 
and third, and the imperative singular) ; ciycc, di> dd,Ji> bb, 
gi^cg, li^U, etc.; indicative lecge {<Clegie), lay, legest, leged ; 
lecgad {<legiad) ; subjunctive lecge, lecgeii; imperative lege, 
lecgad ; infinitive lecga7i ,' part. pres. Iecge7ide ,' part, past leged. 
So reccaTi^ reach; hreddan, rescue; habban, have; seUa7i, give; 
tella7i, ieW \ fremrtian, fY2imc ', clg7i7ia7i, clang ; dippan, dip; cnys- 
6(171, knock ; settan, set, etc. 

(c.) Like h^7'a7i inflect stems in -ia > -e > — from long roots : 
dsbUm, deal ; dema7i, deem ; belsepa7i, leave ; 77ise7ian, mean ; 
sjyrertgan, sjiring ; styrman, storm ; ce7i7ian, bring forth ; cyssa7i, 
kiss, etc. Infinitives in -ea7i occur: sec-ean, § 175, e. 



SYNCOPATED IMPERFECTS (WEAK). 05 

(d.) Like lufimi inflect stems showing -6 iu the imperfect : 
drian, honor ; beorhtian, shine ; cleopian, cah ; hopian^ hope. 
Past participles have <?, J, ey gegearp-6d, -dd^ -ed, prepared- 

189. SYNCOPATED IMPERFECTS {Weak). 

(a.) Stem -e<,-ia is syncopated after long roots: cig-an, call, 
ctg-de ; dsel-on^ deal, dsel-de ; deni-an, deem, dem-de ; dref-an, 
trouble, dref-de ; fed-ati., feed; hed-an^ heed; hyr-an^ hear; Isbd- 
an, lead ; be-lxp-an^ leave ; msen-an, mean ; n^d-an, urge ; r^d- 
an, read ; sped-an, speed ; spreng-an, spi'ing, spreng-de ; bsern-an.^ 
burn, biBrn-de ; styrrn-aii^ storm; so sep-de and sep-te, showed. 

(b.) AssiMiLATiox. — After a surdj -c? becomes surd {-t). (Surds 
p, t, c (x), ss, /}, not / or s alone, §§ IV, 30) : rwp-an, bind, r^p- 
te ; bet-a7i^ better, bet-te / gret-cm., greet, gvtt-te ; met-aii, meet, 
mU-te ; drenc-an., drench, drenc-te ; l^x-an., shine, l^x-te ; but l^s- 
an., release, lijs-de ; f^s-an^ haste, y^s-c^e y r^s-ati, rush, nts-de. 

(c.) Dissimilation. — The mute c becomes continuous (A) before 
■t : tsec-an^ teach, Uvh-te ,' ec-mi, eke, eh-te and ec-te, 36, 3. 

{d.) RiJCKUMLAUT. — Themes in ecg ; ecc,ell; enc,e7ig; ec; ycg, 
ync, i-um];iut for acg; ace, all; anc^ ang ; 6c ; ucg, nnc, may 
retain a (>fc/ ea / o); 6; u'^o in syncopated imperfects (§§ 
209-211): lecga)i, lay, la?gde ; reccan, rule, reahte ; cpellan, kill, 
cpealde ; pencan, think, pohte ; brengan, bring, brohte / recan^ 
reck, rohte ; bycgan^hny, bohte ; pyncati, seem, pohte. 

(e.) Gemination is simplified, and mn'^m (Rule 13, page 10); 
cenn-an,heget, cen-de ; clypp-an, clip, clip-te ; c?/ss-rt?^, kiss, cys-te; 
dypp-an, dip, dyp-te ; ^ht-an, pursue, ehte ; fyll-an, ^\\ fyl-de ; 
gyrd-an, gird, gyrde ; hredd-an, rescue, hredde ; hyrd-an, harden, 
hyrde ; hyrt-an, hearten, hyrte ; hveft-an, bind, hsefte ; lecg-an, 
lay, leg-de / merr-an, mar, mer-de ; inynt-an, purpose, onynte ; 
nemn-an, name,' ?iem-de / rest-an, rest, reste/ riht-an, right, rihte ; 
.'^cild-an, guard, scilde ; send-an, send, sende ; spill-an, spill, spil- 
de ; sett-an, set, sette ; still-an, spring, stil-de ; stylt-an, stand as- 
tonished, stylte ; pemm-an, spoil, pem-f?e. 

(/.) EcTHLiPsis occurs {g) : c^gan, call, cegde, ctde. See § 209. 

190. Past Participles are syncopated like imperfects in verbs 
having riickumlaut, often in other verbs having a surd root (§ 189, 
b), less often in other verbs: sellan, give, sealde, seald ; ge-stc-an, 
seek, ge-s6h-te, gesoht ; sett-nn, set, sette, seted and set ; send-an, 
send, setide, sended and send y hedn, raise, /ledd, raised. 



96 



ILLUSTKATIOXS OF UMLAUT AND ASSIMILATION. 



191. Presents. — Ilhcstrations 


q/" Umlaut. 


Conjugation (I.) 


(I) 


(I.) 


(III.) 


(in.) 


drey>an, 


cmnan, 


beorgan, 


sc<lta;i, 


creopan, 


strike. 


come. 


guard. 


sAoue. 


creep. 


Sing. — 1. drepe 


cume 


beorge 


scHfe 


creope 


(clnp(^)s^ 


j cym{e) St 
( cnmest 


( beorge5%)( scdie^^ 


j cryp(e)s« 
( creopes^ 


3 (drip{e)ct 
' Idre^ect 


j cym{e)d 
I cnmed 


j byrlu^ J scyf(e)t/(/) 
( beorge</(y)( scilfa^ 


j cryp(e)^ 
I creopet^ 


Plur. — drepact' 


cumad 


beorgaf^ 


sctifac^ 


creopat^ 


Conjugation... (IV.) 


CIV.) 


(V.) 


(V.) 


(V.) 


fara?i, 


bacaw, 


fealla??., 


lacaw, 


grupaw, 


fare. 


bake. 


/a/;. 


leap. 


groio. 


Sing. — 1. fare 


bace 


fealle 


lace 


grope 


(fser{e)se 
■ \ far est 


j hecst 
\ baces^ 


j Mst 
\ feaWest 


( l&cs^ 
( laces^ 


j g''6p5« 
( gropes^ 


(f?er{e)d 
\faved 


j becc^ 
I haced 


j felf/ 
\ fealle^ 


j ]^c(e)(^ 
( lace<^ 


j g'"ep^ 
( grope^^ 


Pi.UE. — farac^ 


hacad 


fealla^ 


laca^ 


gropat? 


192. 


Illustrations of Asshnilation. 




Conjugation.... (I.) 


(I.) 


(I-) 


(I-) 


(I.) 


etan, 


tredcm, 


bin da;?, 


cpedaw, 


lesa/i, 


. eat. 


tread. 


bind. 


quoth. 


cowec^. 


Sing. — 1. ete 


trede 


binde 


cpede 


lese 


2 Sit(e)«« 
■ letest 


j tvi(de)s^ 
( txQdest 


j bin(t)s« 
( bindes^ 


j cpis< 
( cpedes^ 


jlis« 
( leses^ 


(ited, it 
■ \eted 


trit j bint 
treded{i) \ binde^^ 


j cpid 
( cpede^ 


jlis« 


Plue. — etad 


Vcedad 


binda^ 

(IV.) 


cpedac^ 
(IIL) 


lesad 


Conjugation (I.) 


(in.) 


slean < 


fle6n< 


(T.) 


herstan. 


leoga^i, 


sleaha^i, 


fleoha?i, 


licgaw, 


burst. 


lie. 


slay. 


jlee. 


fee. 


Sing. — 1. berste 


leoge 


slea 


fled 


liege 


fbirst 
(berstes^ 


j \fhst 
\ Xeo^est 


j si eh 5^ {y 
\ slea<7es^ 


^ [ flyhs« 


( lieges^ 


(h\r&t{ed) j lyh^ 
* {hevsted ( leoge^ 


Ulehf^(y] 
( slea^e^ 


'[flyhrf 


( li(c)ge<^ 


Plue. — bersta^^ 


\QOgad 


slea<^ 


fleorf 


licgat^ 



VARIATIONS OF THE PRESENT I^sDICATIVE. 97 

Variations of Present Indicative. 

193. Stem 4 > -e in the singular second and third person works 
on the root vowel differently from -a>-e of the other persons.^ 

(.1.) Root i is here unchanged, while other forms have a-um- 
laut (^>e), § 32, or breaking (^>eo), § 33: drepan ; steorfan^ 
starve, steorfe, stlrf(e)st, stirf{e)d, steorfad; but y, not i, is usu- 
ally found with eo, and often incorrectly with e. 

(2.) Here is i-umlaut of a, ea, eo, u, a, 6, ea, eo, ti, 
to e, e(y), y, y, ^, e, e(y), y, y: 
bacan, feallan, sleahan > sledn^ heorgan^ cuman, Idcan, gropan^ 
hledpan^ creopan^ scdfan. § 32. 

(3.) Here is shifting of a>»; faran; a> e is rare. § 41. 

194. Stem -^>-e of the singular second and third person is 
often syncopated in strong verbs and weak verbs of the first class- 
Then Variation of root vowel remains, 

Assimilation of consonants follows, 
Gemination is simplified : etan^ td^ t (§ 35, B) ; 
tredan, dst > st (§ 35, A), ddy t (§ 36, 5) ; bindan, 7idst > ntst > 
nsC (§ 35, A), ndd>nt (§ 36, 5) ; cpedan, dst > st (§ 35, A), ddy 
d (§ 20, 13) ; lesa7x, sst>st (§ 20, 13), sdyst (§ 35, B) ; berstan, 
stst > st, std> st (§ 35, B) ; leogan, gst > hst, gd>hd (§ 35, B) ; 
drtfan, drive, dnf{e)st, drif{e)d or drift (§ 35, B). 

(a.) The ending of the third person -d (-p) was a surd (p) when these 
changes were established (e. g. ddyt). Gothic grammars give -p, but -d 
is often in the manuscripts ; Old Saxon grammars give -d, but -th is often 
found. English has uniformly -th = -p. In Gothic, any dental + a preced- 
ing dental = st; + a preceding labial =ft ; + a preceding guttural = ht, a 
law which illustrates the frequent appearance of final t in Anglo-Saxon. In 
Anglo-Saxon folkspeech there was doubtless variation in the sound of this 
ending, as in Gothic and Old Saxon ; in syncopated forms it was surd after 
surds : cri/pd (/), creeps ; drmcd (P), drinks ; sonant after sonants (rare) : 
bringd, brings (z) ; but the predominant sound was always surd, as in Gothic 
and English. Compare liget for hged, lieth. 

(b.) Of the three forms given of the singular second and third persons, the 
syncopated (dripd) is the common prose form, the unsyncopated, unvaried, or 
varied by i-umlaut {driped, byrged) is more frequent in poetry, the varied 
by a-umlaut (dteped) is a later conformation with the other persons. 

195. V«Mbs from roots in -h contract (§ 52) : sledn-Cskahan; 
fleon y>fleohan. 

196. Stems in 4a with compensative gemination hold it except 

G 



f»8 SUMMARY OF VARIATIONS IN CONJUGATION. 

in tlie indicative singular second and tliiid — sometimes tlirough- 
out ; but the imperative singular has -e (g§ 188, b; 199 ; 20*7, d) : 
licgan < ligian^ lie, imperative lige. 

197. Variation in Strong Imperfects. 



Sing.- 



cpedan, 


sleahan> 


seahan > 


ceosan, 


quoth. 


slean, slay. 


seon, see. 


choose. 


•cpoed 


sloh {g) 


seah 


ceas 


cpffide 


sloge 


s^ge, sape 


cure 


cpajd 


sloh {g) 


seah 


ceas 


-cp^don 


slogon 


sffigon, sapon 


curon 


-cpeden 


sljBgen 


sepen, segen 


coren : 



Plur. 



dy d (§ 36, 2) ; hyg (§ 36, 2) ; .s > r (§ 35, 3, h) ; h> p in sdpe 
(Gothic saihvan) is really hpyp (§ 35, 3, b). So intiect Ikkni, 
Idd, lido)i, sail, etc. (§ 205); seodan, sedd, sudon, seethe, etc. 
(§ 206) ; tedh, tuge < teohan, tug ; fredsmi, freeze (frore) ; for- 
ledsa?^ lose (forlorn) ; hredsan^ rush ; pesan, be, p. p. pesen, etc. 
(§ 206). 

198. Summary of Variations in Conjugation. 

(a.) The root vowel may take five forms: 

(1.) Throughout the present except the indicative singular sec- 
ond and third persons. 

(2.) In the indicative singular second and third persons. 

(3.) In the imperfect singular first and third persons. 

(4.) In the other forms of the imperfect. 

(5.) In the passive participle. 

(b.) Consonant assimilation works mainly on the indicative sin- 
gular second and third persons, and on the weak imperfects and 
passive participles. 

(c.) We give the present indicative singular first, second, and 
third persons, the imperfect indicative singular first person and 
plural first person, and the passive participle. 

(d.) Only the varied syncopated forms of the present indicative second 
and third persons are often given ; the other regular forms generally occur, 
but may be easily supplied (^ 193, b). Any variation of vowel, or assimila- 
tion of consonants, which has been given in the phonology, and is here re- 
corded as found in any verb, may be looked for with any similar verb. The 
variations of the imperfect plural -on (^^ 166, 170) are not given. The final 
root consonants determine the arrangement, — labials, dentals, gutturals. 
Vowels in parenthesis after a word are variations of its root vowels. 



FIRST CONJUGATION.— VARIATION. 



99 



First Conjugation, -/a. 

199. — I. Roots ending in a single consonant not a liquid: 

Ablaut (i; a, a; i)>(e; !s,ib; e); i>e, a-umlaut; a > a?, a >»> e, shift- 
ing (^^ 158, 32, 41) ; (y, ie) <C ^ bad spelling, is frequent ; variation of con- 
sonants, ^ 194. Layamon and Ormulum hold the Ang.-Sax. ablaut, though 
with varying spelling ; in Old English it is broken up, especially in the im- 
perfect, where both numbers at last are alike. English ablaut (ee, ea ; a, a ; 
ee, ea) = (2; a or e; t): eat, ate (ef), eaten; for stems with ^-breaking 
and in -la (t ; a, a; t): bid, bade, bidden; e>i, progression (§38); a?>e, 
shifting {^ 41). Most of these verbs vary in English from their type in con- 
formation with the forms in § 200, and with weak verbs. 



Part. Past. 

i d^'P''' \ strike, 
Uo),§200. f 

spefen, sleep. 



weave, 
eat. 
eat up. 
mete, 
knead. 



quoth. 

gather. 

recover. 



I.MUCATIVE Peesent. Impeef. Sing. Plbr. 

1st. '2d. Sd. 

drepe, drip{e)st, drip{e)d {p) ; drwp, dreepon; 

spefe, spif(e)st, spif(e)d(p, f) ; spsef, sp&fon ; 

pefe, pif(e)st, pif(e)d (p, t) ; pipf, pisfon (c) ; pefen,. 

ete, it{e)st, it ited (y, le, e) ; let, eeton ; eten, 

frete, frit(e)st, frit frited; frwt, frseton ; freten, 

mete,mit(e)st, mit; mwt, mSton ; meten, 

cnede, cni{de)st, cnit ; cnsed, cns&don; cneden, 

trede, tnst trides, trit tnded}^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^. ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

(y, le, e) ; ) 

cpede, cpist, cpid{y) cpeded; cpisd, cpeedon ; cpeden, 

lese, list, list ; laes, Ixson ; lesen, 

ge-nese, -nist, -nist ; -nxs, -n&son ; -nesen, 

\pese, pesest, pesed) rare ; paes, peeron ; ge-pesen, be 

sp(r)ece (a?), spriest, spricd (p) ; sprsec, sprse-con ; 5;?recer/(o),speak. 

prece, priest, pried {p); praec, pr&con ; precen{o), wredi-k. 

pege, pigst (hst), pigd (hd) ; paeg (h), peegon (a, e) ; pegen, carry. 
breee, 'iee § 200 ; hpete, whet ; pede, bind ; stece, stick, are doubtful ; so also 
(Jitan, ampere; hnipan, collabi; gipan, htare ; screpe, scra,pe; pede, wed). 

^/-breaking : i > {ie^ io^ €0>y); ay eay e, d> edy e. §§ 33, 35. 

gife{ie,Sic.), gifst, gif{e)d ip); geaf(!P,e),geafon(e); gifen, give. 
for-gite (le, &c.), -gitst, -git; -geat (a?, e), -gedton (e) ; -giten, forget. 

A-breaking: i>eo,ayea>e. §§33,35. 
seohe (seo), sihst, si(h)d (y>eo) ; seah, sxgon (e), sdpon ; ge-sepen,-g-, see. 
ge-feohe {-fed), -fihst, -fi{h)d ; -feah{e), -f&gon; -fegen, rejoice. 

Stems in -ia (compensative gemination, § 196), no a-umlaut,or late. 

The imperative has -e : frige, site, but plur. picgead occurs. 
fricge,frigie)st(hst),frig(e)d^ j-^^g^j-^^^^^.. |^;-/"fn inquire. 

hcge, hgst, lig{e)d{t), lid (p) ; Ixg, liegon (a, e) ; Itgen, lie. 



100 



FIRST CON J UGATION.— VARIATION. 



lumOATIVE PRK8KNT. 

Ist. '2il. 3d. Impkuf. Sing. Plub, Part. Pabt. 

picge, J>igst, pig(c)(t {hd) ; pca/i (pah), pvtgon (a, e) ; Pigen, take. 
sitte, sit{e)st, sit ; s:pt, sivton ; ge-seten, ait. 

bidde, bi(de)st, bit ; bwd, bitdon ; beden, - bid. 

A.AA fecge,feah,{eic\\; spritte, sitrout; (A /jcce, blame ; ^mccc, sneak) ? 

200. — n. Roots ending in a single liquid : »-. 

Ablaut (i; a, a; M)>(t {eo, y) ; 0,6; u) {e ; ae,&; d) ; i>{eo, y), a>o, 
a > 0, m-assimilation ; t>e, w>o, a-iRnlaut; a >;c, a >«, shifting ; i>eo, 
a>ea, r-breaking ; crt>y, i-umlaut : (.7?, fia)>e, shifting. §1^ 158,35, 32, 41. 

English ablaut {ca; a or 0; o) : steal, stole, stolen; ca, a, § 199; o 
lengthened in the past part., conformation in the imperfect. 
mme (eo,y), 7iim(e)st, nim(e)d; nam (o), namon {0) ; numen, take. 



>) cim(e)st 
) cym(e)st 



> cim(e)d 
) cym(e)d 



cpime'^] 

cume 

cpele, cpilst, cpild; 

ge-dpele, -dpilst, -dpild ; 

hele, hilst, hild ; 

hpele, hpilst, hptld; 

stele, stilst, stild; 

spele, spilst, spild; 

here, birst (y), bird (y) ; 

scere (eo), scirst (y), scird(y) ; 

tere, tirst, tird (y) ; 



cpam(o)\ cpamon(6)\ cumen\ 
com i comon ) 
cpxl, cp&lon ; 
-dpiel, -dp&lon ; 
hiel, h&lon ; 



come. 



kp3;l, hpMon ; 
stael, steelon ; 
spml, spaslon ; 
bser, beeron ; 
scaer (ea, e), sceeron ; 
ta^r, tsbron ; 

-ppxr, -pp&ron; 



cpolen, kill. 

-dpolq^ err. 

holen, conceal. 

hpolen, sound. 

stolen, steal. 

spolen, 

boren, 

scoren, 

toren, 

-pporen 

-puren 

-pruen, 

brocen, 




ge-ppere, -ppirst, -ppird; 

fele (eo),filst,fild; fisUfablon ; folen, see felge. 

brece, bricst, bricd (P) ; brssc, br&con ; 

201. — III. Roots ending in two consonants, the first a nasal: 

Ablaut (i; a,u; u) ; i^y, bad spelling, is frequent; a^o, nasal assimi- 
lation (^^ 158, 35) ; variation of consonants, ^ 194. 

Final gemination is often preserved. Unsyncopated forms are very com- 
mon (^ 194). English ablaut (i ; a or u; u) : swim, swam or swum, swum', 
but stems in -nd have progression (7; ou; ou)^=di; an; an) : find, founds 

hlimme,hlimst,hlimd; hlam(o) , hlummon ; hlummen, sound. 

grimme, srimst, gnmd; gram (0), grummon ; grummen, rage. 

sptmme, sptmst, spimd; spam (0), spummon ; spummen, swim. 

climbe (^ 36), climst, climd; clamb (omm), clumbon ; clumben, climb. 

ge-hmpe, -limpst, -limpd (P) ; -Idmp, -lumpon ; -lumpen, happen. 

ge-rimpe, -rtmpst, -rimpd(p); -ramp, -rumpon; -rumpen, rumple. 

brinne (beorne, § 204), brmst, | ^^^^^ brunnon ; brunnen, burn. 

brind; > 

m-ginne, -ginst, -gind ; -gan, -gunnon ; -gunnen, begin 



FIRST CONJUGATION.— VARIATION. 



101 



b-linne, Imst, Un{ni)(t; 



Ian, lunnon ; 



rinne (eorne, ^ 203), rinst, rind; ran, rvnnon ; 
sinne, sinst, smd; san, sunnon; 

spinne, spinst, spind; span, spunnon; 

pirine, pinst, pind; pan, punnon ; 

stinte, stin{t)st, stint; slant, stunton; 

printe, prin(t)st, print; 

binde, bin(t)st, bint; 

finde, fin{t)st, fint ; 

grinde, grin(t)st, grint; 

hrinde, hrin(t)st, hrint; 

spinde, spin(_t')st, spint ; 

pinde, pin(t)st, pint ; 
pinde, pin(t)st, pint ; 



crince, crincst, crincd(p); 

d-cpince, -cpincst, -cpincd (p) ; 

drince, drincst, drincd (p) ; 
for-scrince, -scrincst, -scrincd ) 

since, sincst, sincd (p) ; 
stince, stincst, stincd (P) ; 
spince, spincst, spincd (p) ; 
fringe {cge), brings t, bringd; 

clinge, clings t, clingd; 



prant, prunton ; 
band (o), bundon ; 
{funde)fand (o), fundon ; 
grand, grundon ; 
hrand, hrundon ; 

spand, spundon ; 

pand, pundon ; 
pand, pundon ; 

crane, cruncon ; 

-cpanc, -cpuncon; 
dranc, druncon ; 
-scranc, -scruncon; 



lunnen, 
runnen, 
sunnen, 
spunnen, 

punnen, 

stunten, 
Prunten, 
bunden, 
funden, 
grunden, 
hrunden, 



cease. 

run. 

think. 

spin, 
(fight 
(.(win). 

stint. 

swell. 

bind.. 

find. 

grind, 

push. 



spunden, \ , v 

^ ((swoon). 

punden, swell. 

punden, wind. 

(yield 

cruncen, ■<, ■ > 
((cringe). 

(so out 
-cpuncen, \\^^^^^^^^ 

druncen, drink. 

-scruncen, shrink. 



suncen, sink. 
stuncen, stink. 
spuncen, toil. 



sane, suncon ; 

stanc, stuncon ; 

spanc, spuncon ; 

brang (o), brungon ; brungen, bring. 

clang, clungon ; clungon, -j Z^^^J\ 

cringe(cge),cring(e)st,cring(e)d; crang (o), crungon; crungen, j^j.^' g 
ge-fringe,-fring{e)st,-fring{e)d; -frang, -frungon; -frungen, ask. 



geonge ; 



gang. 



?on ; go. 

<fall, 
gringe, gring{e)st, gring{e)d; grang, grungon; grungen, [^^-^^^^^ 

singe, sing{e)st, sing{e)d; sang (o), svngon ; sungen, sing. 

springe, spring{e)st, spring{e)d; sprang {o) , sprungon ; sprungen, spring. 
stinge, sting{e)st, sting{e)d; slang, stungon ; stungen, sting. 

spinge, sping{e)st, sping{e)d ; spang (o), spungon; spungen, swing. 
ge-pinge, -ping{e)st, -ping{e)d; -pang (o), -pungon; -pungen, grow. 
pringe,'pring{e)st, pring{e)d; prang (o), prungon ; prungen, throng. 

. \ {Diet. 

(ppinge, pping{e)st, Pping{e)d; Ppang, Ppungon ; ppungen), | ^^^^^^^j^^ 

pringe, pring{e)st, pring{e)d; prang (o), prungon ; prungen, wring. 
Add scrimme, shrimp ; slincan, slink ; slingan, sling. 



102 



FIRST CONJUGATION.— VARIATION. 



202. — IV. Root in two consonants, the first <7, or three con- 
sonants with metathesis of r; 

Ablaut (/ ; a, ti ; u) > {c ; <r, ti; o) ; t > e, w > o, a-umlaut (^ 32) ; a > 
»>e, shifting (i^ 41). Umlaut and shifting stopped by n. (^^ 200,201. 

INDIOATIVB PEKSENT. ImPEEF. SlNO. Plur. Part. Pabt. 

Ist. 2d. 3d. , . / \ 

7 . ^ 7 7 J J (broaden (c) ~v 

bregde I brcgdest I bregded 1 brwgd \ brugdon ] ^^^^^^ ^^^_ (_ ^^_^.^ 

brede ) bri{t)st ) brit ) brxd ) brudon \ , iS loq i 



stregde] stngdest^ sirigded\ strxgd > strugdon strogden 
strede > 



stri(t)st } strit 

x 



i strxd i 



frigne ■\ 

(c '^) > y- i- \€) >~ ^ }" ~ ^ 

r \ J- ■ ^ \ r ■ J- ^ r i frunon ) frunen 

fnne ) frinst J frma ) jran ) -^ 



y {e) 



frug 



berste, birsty birst{ed) {ie) ; bxrst, 
Persce, pirscest, pirsced; J)iersc, 



burston ; borstcn, 
Purscon; porsccn, 



strow, 
sprinkle. 

ask. 

burst, 
thresh. 



203. — V. Root in two consonants, first a trill {I or r) : 

(a.) Ablaut {i ; a,ii; u)'^{e; ea,u; o) ; t>e, u>o, a-umlaut (^32); 
a'^ea (1-breaking, ^ 33)>eo (irregular spelling), or pea'^peo, p-assimila- 
tion (^ 35) 1 Unsyncopated forms in e are common : helpest, helped. En- 
glish ablaut {e; a,e or 5; o); ea^a or e, shifting, ^ 41, 1 ; o, ^ 200 ; but all 
imperfects have become weak: help; {halp, help, holp), helped; (Jiolpen), 
helped. 

heal, button ; hollen, bellow. 

Sspeal{speoll,R^,-k),X ^^^jj 
( spuUon ; ) 

healp, hulpen ; holpen, help. 

dealf, dulfon ; dolfen, delve. 

mealt, multon ; molten, melt. 

spealt{eof), spulton; spolten, die. 

teald, tuldon ; tolden, cover up. 

mealc, mulcon ; molcen, rnilk. 

bealg{h), bulgon; bolgen, be wroth. 

fealg{h), fulgon; folgen, go into. 



belle, bilst, bild ; 
spelle, spilst, spild; 
helpe-, hilpst (e), hilpd{p) ; 



delfe, dilfst, dilfd; 

melte, miltst, milt ; 

spelte, spiltst, spilt {i^ie,y) ; 

be-telde, -til{t)st, -tilt ; 

melee, milcst, mHcd{p) ; 

beige, bilgst {hst), bilgd (hd) ; 

felge, filgst {hst), filgd {hd) ; 



folgen, 
( spolgen 'J 
spelge,spilgst{hst),spilg{e)d{hd); spealg{h), spulgon; < (5/W^en,> swallow 
Add d-selce (e>eo, ea), sulk. t Koch), 3 

^-breaking, i>ie^y (§ 33) ; «>6 is also found, a-umlaut, 
§§32,194,5. 

gille {e, ie, y), gilst {ie, y), gild {ie, y) ; geal, gullon ; gotten, yell. 
gilpe {ie, y), gilpst {ie, y), gilpd {p) {ie, y) ; gealp, gulpon ; golpen, boast. 
gilde {ie, y), gil{t)st {te, y), gilt {ie, y) ; geald, guidon ; golden, pay. 



SECOND CONJUGATION.— VARIATION. 



103 



204. — (^».) Before r (and A): 

Ablaut {i; a,u; u)'^(eo; ea,u; o); i'^eo, a>ea, breaking (^33); m>o, 
a-umlaut {^ 32). After labials {p, m, p), eo may go to u (^ 35, 2) ; y for i 
abounds. Unsyncopated broken forms prevail : peorpest, peorped. Vowels 
brought before r by metathesis often retain their old umlaut: rnine^irne ; 
hrmne^birnc ; bersce, perste {^ 202). English like (a) ; eo>e, <^ 41, 1. 



gorren, 
rnen, 



georre, gyrst, gyrd; gear, gurron ; 

eorne (i,y), yrn(e)st {i, eo), yrn{e)d\ {earn) arn (o), \ 

(i, eo) ; -) urnon ; ) 

heorne(i,y), beorn(e)st (y), beorn(e)d) beam (barn) (o), ) , 

y . \ / v:"' r 1 f bornen, 

(y) ; ) nurnon ; ) 

meorne (u), myrnst, myrnd; 

speorne (u, o), spyrnst, spyrnd; 

peorpe (m, y), pyrpst, pyrpd {p) ; 

ceorfe, cyrfst, cyrfd; 

deorfe, dyrfst, dyrfd; 

hpeorfe (u, o, y), hpyrfst, hpyrfd; 

steorfe, styrfst, styrfd ; 

speorfe, spyrfst, spyrfdij); 

peorde {u, y), pyrst, pyrd{ed) ; 

heorce, by rest, by rep ; 

speorce, spyrcst, spyrcd{p) (sporced) ; spearc, spurcon ; 

beorge, byrgst (hst), byrg{e)d (hd) ; 

feohte, fyhtst, fyht ; 



mearn, murnon ; 
spearn, spurnon ; 
pearp, purpon ; 
cearf, curfon ; 
dearf, durfon ; 



mornen, 
spornen, 
porpen, 
corf en, 
dorfen. 



whur. 



burn. 



spurn, 
throw, 
carve, 
suffer. 



hpearf, hpurfon ; hporfen, return. 

/• (die, 
storjen, \ , 
•^ (starve. 

sporfen, cleanse. 



stearf, sturfon ; 

spearf, spurfon ; 
peard, purdon ; 
bearc, burcon ; 



porden, become. 
borcen, bark. 
sporcen, faint. 



bearg{h),burgon; borgen, guard. 
feaht, fuhton ; fohten, fight. 



205. Second Conjugation, ■^/\. 

Ablaut {i; a; i; t) ; i'^y, i^y, bad spelling; 5c-breaking or A-breaking 
d^ea (i^iof), i'^eo (^ 33) ; a>», shifting. English ablaut {i; 5; i) = 
(di ; 6; i) ; i^di, a > o, progression (^38): drive, drove, driven. 



dpine, dptn{e)st, dpin{e)d; dpdn, dpinon ; 

gine, gin{e)st, gin{e)d; gdn, ginon ; 

hrine, hrm{e)st, hrin{e)d; hrdn, hrinon ; 

hpine, hpin{e)st, hpin{e)d; hpdn, hpinon; 
seine, scin(e)st, scin{e)d; 

gripe, grtp{e)st, grip{e)d {p) ; grdp, gripon ; 

nipe, nip{e)st, nip{e)d {p) ; ndp, nipon ; 

ripe, rip{e)st, rip{e)d (p) ; rap, ripon ; 
fo-slipan,-sUp{e)st,-slip(e)d{p); -sldp, -slipon; 

he-life, -lif{e)st, -lif(e)d; -^af, -lifon; 

clife, clif{e)st, clif{e)d; cldf, clifon; 

drife, drif{e)st, drif{e)d {ft) ; drdf, drifon ; 

xcrife, serif {e)st, serif {e)d ; scrdf serif on ; 

tlife, slif{e)st, slif{e)d; sldf, slifon ; 



dpinen, 
ginen, 
hrinen, 
hpinen, 



scan {ed), scinon {id) ; scinen, 
gripen, 
nipen, 
ripen, 
-slipen, 
-lifen, 
clifen, 
drifen, 
scrifen, 

slifen, 



dwindle. 

yawn. 

touch. 

whiz. 

shine, 

gripe. 

darken. 

reap. 

dissolve. 

remain. 

cleave. 

drive. 

shrive, 
(split, 
(sliver. 



104 



SECOND CONJUGATION.— VAKIATION. 



Indicative I>rk8bnt. 
l8t 2d, Sd. 

sptfe, spif{e)st, spif{e)d; 

spipe, spip{e)st, sp'ip(e)d; 
bite, bit{c)st, bit{ed) ; 

flite, flit{e)st, fiit ; 

hntte, hnit{e)st, hnit ; 
slite, sltt{e)st, slit; 
smite, smit{c)st, smit ; 
Ppitc, Ppit{c)st, ppit{ed) ; 
/>i/c, pit(e')st, p'il(ed') ; subj. jntan, 
yputanyutan, §§ 176, 224, c. 
plitc, plit{r)st, pUt{cd) ; 
pritc, prit{e)st, prit{ed) ; 
bide, bidest {bi{t)st), bided {bit) 
cide, ci{t)st, cit ; 
(?) lide, list, tided lid; 
glide, glist, glit ; 
guide, gnist, gnit ; 
hlide, hlist, hlit ; 
ride, rist, rit ; 
slide, sltst, slit; 
stride, strist, strit; 
pride, prist, prit ; 
lide, li{dc)st, lid{ed) ; 
mide, mist, mid; 
stride, scrist, scrid; 
slide, sli{dc)st, slid; 
snide, snist, snid; 
pride, prist, prid; 
pride, prist, prid; 



iMl'ERrEOT 

SiNO. Plur. 
spaf, spifon ; 

spdp (aw), spipon; 
bat, biton ; 

flat, fliton ; 

hndt, hniton ; 
slat, sliton ; 
smdt, smiton ; 
ppdt, ppiton {eo) ; 

\ pat, piton ; 

plat, pliton ; 
prat, priton ; 
; bad, bidon; 
cad, cidon {cidde) \ 
lad, lidon ; 
glad, glidon ; 
gndd, gnidon ; 
hldd, hlidon ; 
rdd, ridon (io) 1 ; 
sldd, slidon ; 
strdd, stridon; 
prad, pridon ; 
lad, lidon; 
mad, midon ; 
scrdd, scridon ; 
sldd, slidon ; 
sndd, snidon ; 
prdd, pridon {d) ; 
prdd, pridon ; 



a-grtse, -grist, -grist; -gfas, -grison; 

rise, risest {rist), rised {rist) ; rds, rison; 

Mice, blic{e)st, bUc{e)d {p) ; bide, blicon ; 

sice, sic{e)st, sic{e)d {p) ; sac, sicon ; 

snice, snic{c)st, stuc{e)d {p) ; sndc, snicon ; 

strice, stric{e)st, stric{e)d {p) ; strdc, stricon; 

spice, spic{e)st, spic{c)d {p) ; spdc, spicon ; 

pice, ptc{e)st, pic{e)d {p) ; pdc, ptcon ; 

hnige, hnig{e)st {hst), hnig{e)d}^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^ . ^^.^^^^ ^^^ 



Part. Past. 

(sweep, 

"^'>^"' iturn. 

spipen, spew. 

biten, bite. 

-^'^'"' {stdve. 

hniten, butt. 

sliten, slit. 

smiten, smite. 

Ppiten, cut off. 

(see, visit, 

piten, ■^ . 

■' (impute. 

pliten, look. 

priten, write. 

biden, bide. 

ciden, chide. 

liden, grow. 

gliden, glide. 

gniden, rub. 

hliden, cover. 

riden, ride. 

sliden, slide. 

striden, stride. 

priden, bud, grow. 

liden, sail. 

miden, hide. 

scriden{d), go. 

sliden, slit. 

sniden, cut. 

priden, wreathe. 

priden, bud, grow. 

-grisen, dread. 

risen, i is^. 

blicen, shine. 

sicen, sigh. 

snicen, sneak. 

stricen, go, streak. 

spicen, deceive. 

picen, yield. 



(M); 

mige, mihst, mihd; 

sige, sihst, sihd ; 
stige, stihst, stihd; 



mdh, migon ; 

sdh, sigon ; 
stdh, stigon ; 



{ {mingo), 
miffen, < . 
* (water. 

sigen, sink. 

stigen, ascend. 



THIRD CONJUGATION.— VAIUATION. 



105 



plge, pihst, pVut ; pah, pigon ; 

lihe, lih{e)st, lVi{e)d {y) : Idh (ea) {lag), hgon ; 
sihe (5eo), sih{e)st, sih{e)d; sah, sigon {h) ; 
tihe {led), tlhst {y), iVid (y) ; tdh {ed), {Hgon ?) ; 

pah {pdgipxh), ; 



pigen, fight. 

hgen, lend, give. 

sigen (A), strain. 

tigen, accuse. 



pihe, pVist, pihd; 
prihe, prihst, prihd; 



prdh, prtgon ; 



prigen 



( {peo, ^ 206) 



grow. 

{preo, ^ 206) 
cover. 



Add spine, swoon ; snipe, snow ; prife, thrive ? scrte, shriek. 

206, Third Conjugation, ■\/ XL. 

Ablaut (i?< {i<) : ed,u; M)>(eo(i/), ed,u; o) ; tM>iy>eo, m>o, a-um- 
laut (^^ 32 ; 38, 2) ; ea>e, shifting (HO ; e6>y, u>y, i-umlaut (^ 32). 
Ormulutn ablaut (e. («), &.u; 5), Old English {e,{u); e, o or e; o). En- 
glish {ee, ea, ob, u; ee. e, 6, o; b, o, ee, e). The imperfect becoming like 
the present by the shifting of e6>e and ea>e, is distinguished anew by 
conforming with the b of the participle, by shortening its vowel (e, 5), or by 
takinga weak ending: seethe; seeth-ed,sbd; seeth-ed, sodden; cleave; clove, 
clef-t; cloven, clef -t; choose; chose; chosen; awp, weak. ^^25,200. 

Variation of consonants, ^ 194. 

crebpe, cryp{c)st {eo), cryp{e)d ") 



{eb){P), 



creap, crupon; 



dreope, drijpst, drijpd{p)\ dredp, drupon. 

geope, gi/pst, gypd {p) ; gedp, gupon ; 

slupe, slyp{e)sl {u), slyp{e)d{u) {p) ; sledp, slupon ; 



cropen, creep. 

dropen, drop. 
gopen, take up. 



supe, sypst, sypd (/) ; 
cleofe, clyfst, clyfd; 
dufe, dyfst, dyfd; 
scufe, scyfst, scyfd {ft) ; 

hreofe, , ; 

leofe, lyfst, lyfd; 
reofe, ryfst, ryfd; 
hreope, brypst, brypd; 
cebpe, cypst, cypd; 
hreope, hrypst, hrypd; 
prebpe, prypst, prypd; 



seap, supon ; 
'cledf, clufon ; 
deaf, dufon ; 
scedf, scufon ; 



dissolve. 

sup. 

cleave. 

dive. 

shove. 



ledf, lufon; 
redf, rufon; 
bredp, brupon ; 
•cedp, ciipon; 
hredp, hrupon ; 
Predp, prupen ; 
bre6te,bryt{e)st {eo), bryi{ed){e6); bredt, bruton; 

Jledt, fluton ; 
gedt (e), guton ; 
great, gruton ; 
hledt, hluton; 
hredt, hruton ; 
ledt, luton ; 
nedt, nuton; 
redt, ruton; 
scedl (e), srnfoii , 
spredl, spruton ; 



slopen, 
sopen, 
clofen, 
dofen, 
scofen, 
be-hrofen, (?) 
lofen, love. 
rofen, reave. 
bropen, brew. 
copen, chew. 
hropen, rue. 
propen, throe. 
broten, break. 



fleote, flytst, flyt ; 

geote, gytst, gyt; ^ ' . 

greote, gryt{e)st, gryt ; 

hleote, hleotest {hlytst), hlyt; 

hrule, hrytst, hryt ; 

lute, lytst, luted {lyt) ; 

neote {to), nytst, neoled {nyt); 

reote, rytst. reoted {ryt) ; 

sceoie, scyts'. sceoted {scyt); 

sprcote, spry 1st, spryt ; 



fioten, 

goten, 

grulen, 

hloten, 

hroten, 

loten, 

noten, 

roten, 

sciitrn, 



float, 
pour, 
greet, 
cast lots, 
rustle, snore, 
lout, 
enjoy, 
weep, cry. 
shoot. 



sproleii, sprout. 



106 



THIRD CONJUGATION.— VARIATION. 



IhDIOATIVK PBE8KMT. iMrKBFBOT 

Ist. 2d. 3(1. SiNo. Pi.uR. 

peote, Pytst, Pyt ; peat, puton ; 

d-Prcotc, -pri/tst, -Prcoted {-prijt) ; -prcdt, -pruton ; 

be6de {w) bcddcst {by{t)st), bed- ^ ^^. ^^^^ 

ded{byt)\ ) 

encode, cny{t)st, cnyt ; cnedd, cnudon ; 

creode (»!), cry{t)st, cryded cryt ; credd, crudon; 

leode{id), ly{t)st, lyt; lead, ludon; 

reode, ry{t)st, ryt ; redd, rudon ; 

strudc, stri/{t)st, struded (stryt) ; stredd, strudon ; 

d-breodc,-brc6dest i-brysi), -breo-^ . -/ ; * 
,,',,, \ J '■> r .()read, -brudon ; 

did {-bryd) ; > 

d-hude, -hyst, -hyd; -head, -hu don ; -hoden, spoil. 

hreode, hryst, hryd; hredd{d),hrudon; hrodcn, adorn. 

seode, seodest (syst), seoded (syd) ; sedd, sudon ; soden, seethe 

ceose, ceosest (cyst), ceosed {cyst) ; ceds (e), curo7i ; 



Paht. Past. 

Potcn, howl. 

-proten, irks, loathe. 

boden, bid. 

cnoden, knot. 

croden, crowd. 

loden, grow. 

roden, redden. 

stroden, despoil. 

-broden, worsen. 



coren, choose. 



, Cfall(?), 

droren, i 

(mourn. 

froren, freeze. 

-groren, frighten. 

hroren, rush. 

-loren, lose. 

hrocen, brook, use. 

locen, lock. 

rocen, reek. 

smocen, smoke. 

socen, suck. 



dreose, dryst, dreosed (dryst) ; dreds, druron ; 

freose, fryst, fryst ; freds, fruron ; 

be-greose, -gryst, -grijst; -greds, -gruron ; 

hreose, hryst, hryst ; hreds, hruron ; 

for-leose, -lyst, -lyst ; -leas, -luron ; 
bruce,^ brueest {brycst), bruced > ^^^.^^ ^^^^^^^ . 

{brycd ip)) ; i 

luce, lycst, lycd (p) ; ledc, lucon ; 

reoce, rijcst, rycd (P) ; rede, rucon ; 

smeoce, smycst, smycd{p); smedc, smucon; 

suce, sycst, sycd (P) {c<^g) ; sedc, sucon ; 

buge {eo) bugest {byhst {g)), bu-^ ^^.^ ^^^ ^ . ^ 

ged (byhdig)) ; ^ ) 

dreose, drearest (dryhst), dreo-l j /<./ \ j j ,„ „„«•„, 

*'.,?, ^ ^ ' y dreah{,g),drugon; drogen, suner. 

ged {dry hd); > v&/' s ' s 

fleoge,fleogest {yhst),fleoged{yhd);fledh {eg), jlugon ; flogen, fly. 

ledge, lyhst, lyhd; ledh{e){g),lugon; logen, lie. 

smuge, smf/hst, smyhd; smedh, smugon ;■ smogen, creep. 

fle6he{fleo),Mhst,fiyhd; l>^^^- 1 p^f,, Jlugon; flogen, flee. 

fleod; ) 

tedhe^ {teo), tyhst, tyhd {id) ; plur.-| ^^.^ ^^^ ^.^ . ^^^^^^ ^^^ 

teod; ) 

peo, pyhst, Pyhd ; pedh, pugon; 



bow. 



preo, pryst, pryhd; 



pre ah, prugon ; 



({<pihe,205) 
bosen, -; \ f 
^ " thrive. 

((<p7-ihe,205) 
progen, ■{ 

(cover. 



Add seo, strain ; teo, accuse, § 205, Heyne ; fneose, sneeze? pled, expose. 
Alf. Greg.,37,7. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION.— VARIATION. 107 

207. Fourth Conjugation, ^a or a. 

Ablaut (a; 6, 6; a); ay as, shifting; a>e, i-umlaut, infrequent (§ 32). 
English ablaut (a; o ov oo ; d) = {e; 6 or u; e) ; a>e, progression and 
i-umlaut (^^ 38, 3"2) ; (5>m, progression {^ 38): wake, woke, waken; take, 
took, taken. Variation of consonants, ^ 194, 

ale, a}l{e)st (e, a), wl{e)d (e, a) ; 61, olon ; alen, shine. 

gale, gxl{e)st, gsel{e)d; gol,golon; galen, sing. 

fare, f!Br{e)st, fsr{e)d ; for, for on; faren, fare. 

stape, sta}p{e)st, stsep{e)d{p); st6p,stdpon; stapen, step. 

— _ ; ■ ; ge-dafen, behoove. 

grafe, grmf{e)st, grs;f{e)d; grof grofon ; {f^^rauen, je^^^^'^'S" 

rafe, rsef{e)st, rsf{e)d; rofrofon; rafen, rob. 

Made, hladest {hlest), hladed I ^^ ^^.^^^^^^^.^^^ , hladen{m),\o2.A. 

{filled) ; ) 

pade,padest{pa!St),paded{pied)\ pod, podon; paden, wade, go. 

ace, wc{e)st, sic(e)d {p) ; oc, ocon ; acen, ache. 

bace, bmc{e)st{e),bwced{e), ^191; boc, bocon; bacen, bake. 

sace, swc{e)st, swc{e)d (p) ; soc, socon ; sacen, fight. 

tace,tsec{e)st, tmc{e)d{p); toe, tocon ; tacen, take. 

pace, pxc{e)st, pa!c{e)d {p) ; poc, pocon ; pacen, wake. 

pasce, pa'sc(e)st, p:psc{e)d (p) ; pose (x), poscon {x) ; pxscen, wash. 
drage dr^eg{e)st (hst), dr^g{e)d)^ ^^.^ ^^^^ ^^.^^^ . ^^^^^^^ j^^g_ 

^w7, M * [ gnoh, gnogon ; gnagen, gnaw. 

g{e)d {kd) ; ^ o o o 

Add pape, thaw. 

(b.) sc-breaking, § 33; A-breaking, §33; e«>2/, § 32. 

sc{e)ade, sc(e]adest (scvst), sc(e)a-l a ,^(,)^^,„ scie)aden, scathe, 

ttea (^scaed) ; - ) 

5c(e)ace, 5c(e)ace5<(sca'50)Sc(e)a-) ,,^ ,v^ .^ / \ \. ^ 

., \ /' \ / V 5c(e)oc, 5c(e)ocon ; 5c(e)acen (a?), shake. 

ced {scwd) ; ^ \ / \ / 

sceppc (y), scyp{pf:)st, scyp{pe)d; sc{e)op, sc{e)6pon; sc{e)apen{e), create. 

scafe {eaf), sccef{c)st, scxf{e)d; sc6f{eo?),sc6fon; scafen, shave. 

lealie {led), lehst (y), lehd (y) ; loh {g), logon ; leahen {lean), blame, 

sleahe {sled), slehst {y), slehd {y); sl6h{g), slogan; slagen {se,e), slay. 

pped, ppehst {y), ppehd (y) ; ppoh, ppogon ; ppegen, wash. 

peaxe, pcxest, peaxed, pex{e)d; p{e)6x, p{e)oxon; peaxen, wax. 

Add fled, flay. 

(c.) w-assimilation, «>(?,§ 35. 

spane, span{e)st, span{e)d{ag); sp{e)6n, sp{e)6non ; spanen{o), allure. 

stande {o), standest {stentst),') ,.,,., /t -,,^\ . . ^ j 

^ t(t 1 1 \\- )r stod, stodon (<^)l\K>). standen, stand. 



IQQ FIFTH CONJUGATION.— VARIATION. 

((?,) Stems in -m, § 19G. Imperative in -e: spere, stepe, hefe. 

INDIOATIVB PEBBENT. IMPERFEOT 

lat. 2d. 3d. Sinq. Pluii. Pakt. Past. 

sper-ie{'{i)ge), sperest, spered; sp6r,sp6ron; sporen, swear. 

sceppc<^scafie, ^ 207, b ; scyppe<isceafie, ^ 32. 

steppe {<C.itapic), step{e)st, stcp{c)d{J)); stop.stopon; stapen, step. 

heb/>e{:i'){<hafie),hef{e)st,fief{c)d; hof,hofon; ha/en (w), heave. 
hlehhe {<hla/iie) {i, y, ea), hlehst (j, y),) ^^^^^ ^^. . ^^^„/,^,„ ^^)^ i^^gh. 

hlehd (f , y) ; > 

Add sccddc, shed. 

208. Fifth Conjugation. — Contract. Imperfect in eo, e (to). 

(L) Root in a + two consonants; rt>ea, 1-br caking (§ 33). Um- 
laut y<ea or e<a (§ 32). English eo^e, shitting (§ 41); 
eddy old, progression (§ 38): faU, fell, fallen ; hold, held, 
hdlden. 

fealle, feal{le)st ifylst), feal{le)d^ ..^^^^^^ ^^.^^^^, ge-feallen, fall. 

pealle, peallrsl (pylst), peal{l)ed (pyld) ; peol{l),peullon ; pcallen, well. 
pealte,pealtesl {pylst),pealted{pylt); peolt,peolton ; peahen, fall. 
fealde, fealdest {fylst), /elided I .^^^ j.^.^^^^ , j.^^^^^^^ ^^^^ 

{fylt) ; ) 

h{e)aJde healdest (hylst), healded} ^^.^^^ heMon; healden, hold. 

{hylt) ; ) 

stealde, stealdest {stylst), stealdedX ,^,^;^^,^,^^^,„ . ,^,«^^,„, possess. 

(slyld) ; ) 

p{e)alde praldcst (pylst), pealded | ^^.^^^^ . ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

c(e)a {pylcd {]))) ; ) 

(b.) n-assimilation, a>o (§ 35). 

banne, ban(ne)st{benst), \ f,^^^^) ^,S), bennonieo) ; bannen (o), .nder. 

ban{ne)d {bend) ; ) 

spanne span{ne)st {spenst),l ^ ^^^(„j (,^)^ spennon {eS) ; spannen, B^zn. 

span{ne)d {spend) ; ) 

blande {o) blandest {blen{t)d),l ^^.^^ .^^ ^^.^^^^ ^^ .^ . ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ 

blanded {blent) ; ) 

fo {<Cfahe), fe{h)st («), fe{h)d') r>^ , \ r^ r i w 

(a;), plur./orf; ^ ./ o o ./ o o L catch, 

infin. /o« ; imperat. fo{h), fod. ) 

gd {<ga-ga.mi, ^^210) g&st g&d,^ plur. > ^.^ ^.^^ . ^^ ^^^~ 

^a(f; imperat. ^a, ^cra; inrin. ^an; > 

%Xirf(lf pi.^r^^^^^ } ^^^"^ (^■^' ^^' ^^^^' "'"' ^'^"^^^ ^''^' ^^"• 

infin. garigan (o) ; imperat. ^an^- (fi) ; p. pr. gangende {o) (geon- 
gan, (} 'SOI ; gengan, weak). 



FIFTH CONJUGATION.— VARIATION. 109 

ho {<hahe), heih)st (^), heih)di&), | ^. ^. . ^ ^^^ , 

plur. ftorf; > ^ hang, 

infin. Aon (<Aa/ia«); imperat. /tti(A), Ao«f. ) 

(2.) Root in a; i-umlaut a>cB (§ 32). English dp'^ow^ pro- 
gression and labial assimilation (§§ 38, 35) ; eop y ew = iil, shift- 
ing and labial assimilation (§§ 41, 35) : blow, blew, blown. 

spdpe, sp&pje)st {sp&p{e)st), spdp{e)d | ^^ ^ ^^ . ^ ^ ^ 

(sp&p{e)d (J))) ; ^ ... 

ge-ndpe,-ndpest{-nse.pst).,-ndped{-n&pp); -neop, -neopon; -ndpen, whelm. 

for-spdfe, -spabfst, -spsif{e)d; -speof^-speofon; -spdfen, drive. 

Iddpe, bldp{e)st (blMe)st), ^^^Pi'^)^ I Heop, bleopon ; bldpen, blow. 

{bl&p{e)d) ; ) 

cndpe, cndpest{cniepst),cndped{cn&pd); cnedp,cneopon; cndpen, know. 

crdpe, crdpest (creepst), crdped (creepd) ; creup, creopon ; crdpen, crow. 

mdpe, mdpest {miepst), mdped {mxpd) ; meop, meopon ; mdpen, mow. 

sdpe, sdpest (s^psl), sdped {s&pd) ; seop, seopon ; sdpen, sow. 

prdpe,prdpest{prmpst), prdped (prSpd) ; preop, preopon; prdpen, throw. 

pdpe, pdpest {psep{e)st), pdped {p&p{e)d) ; peop, peopon ; "[^^^j^^g)^ j" blow. 

bldte, bldtest {bl&tst), bldted (blast) ; blet{eo),bleton; bldten, pale. 

hate, hdtest (h&tst), hdted (heet) ; ( he{h)t (^ 159,-) ^.^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

Aaiie («), passive, § 219. I b), he{h)ton;) 

hndte,hndtest{hnMst),hndted{hnsbt); -j "!J . ^^'yhndten, knock 

sc{e)dde, sc{e)ddest, sc{e)dded', | ^^l^^^^-^" I *^(^)^'^^"' ^i^if^e. 

(?) 5/ra(^e, strddest {str&{t)st), strdded ) (stred{e6), strc-\ ^^^-^^^^ stride. 
(strict) ; n rfon ; ) 

, shine. 



. (sceon, scionoji) 
(^)scane, , -^ ; | ^^.). | 

Idee, ldc{e)st {l&cst), Idced {l&cd (/)) ; | j^J"^ h)^Ucon; } ^"^^"' ^^^P' 

(3.) Root ea. Syncopated forms not found in poetry. 

hedfe,hedfest (hyfst), hedfed {hyfd)t; heof, heofon ; hedfen, weep. 
hledpe, hledp{e)st (y), hledped {hlypd (p) ; hleop, hleopon; hledpen, leap. 
d-hnedpe, .hnedp{e)st {-hnypst), .hned-\ ,j^^^^ j,^,^ -hnedpen, sever. 

p{e)d {-hmjpd {p)) ; ) 

hedpe, hedpest{hypst),hedped{hijpd); heop,heopon; hedpen, hew. 
bedte,bedtest{bytst),bedted{byt)\ beot, beoton ; beaten, beat. 

bredte, bredtest {brytst), bredted {bryt) ; breot, breoton ; bredten, break. 
ge-scedte, -scedtest {-scytst), -scedted \ _^^^.^^ .sceoton; -scedten, fall to. 

(scyt) ; ) 

dedge, deag{e)st {dyhst), dedg{e)d I ^,^^,^^^,„. ^.^g^n, dye. 

(dygd) {ftp) ; > 



110 SIXTH CONJUGATION.— VAKIATION. 

(4.) Root aB> English ee, shifting (§41). 

Indioativk Pbbsrmt. Impekfkot 

1st. 2d. 3d. Si NO. Purs. Pabt. Past. 

sl&pe {a,e), sli'p{e)st, shep{e)tt; slep, slepon ; slwpen, sleep. 

grmte, grAt{e)st, grii't{ed) ; gfet, grcton ; gr&ten, greet. 

mte, m{€)st, m{ed) {e) ; ^uTlilol^^' ^^' ^^''^' } ^^''^"' '^*- 

on-dr&de, -drse(t)st, -drxded > .^-./j-aj-ij .-. j j 

I A -iA ■ i -d^^ord{-dred),-dredon; -dr&den, dread. 

rivd{c), rd'd{e)st {r&{t)st), rx- ) ^reord (§ 159, h), red rxd) ^^^^^ counsel 
dedirwl); i \(M.G\oss.), reordon {1) -J ' 

(5.) Root e > English ee, shifting (§ 41). 

{hrepe, hrep{e)st, hrep{e)d; hreop, hreopon; hrcpen)f cry. 
pepe, pep{e)st, pep{e)d; peop, peopon; pepcn, weep. 

(6.) Root 6 ; i-umlaut d> e (§ 32). English eop > ei^ (§ 208, 2) ; 
grow, grew, groicn. 

hrdpe,hropest {hrepsi),hroped{hrepd{p)); hreup, hreopon; hropen, cry. 
hp6pe,hpopcst{lipcpst),hpoped{hpepd{p)); hpeop, hpeopnn; hpopen, whoop. 
blope, blopest {blepst), blopcd {blipd) \ bleop, bleopon ; blopen, blow. 

flops, jlopest {jiepst), jiupcd {jlcpd) ; fleop,fle6pon; flopen, flow. 

grope, gropest (grepst), groped (gripd) ; greop, greopon; gropen, grow. 
hlope, hl6pest{hlepst), hloped {hlepd) \ hleop, hleopon; hlopen, low. 

rope, ropest {repst), roped (repd) ; reap, re6{po)n ; ropen, row. 

spope, spopest {spepst), spoped{spepd); speop, speopon ; spopen, speed. 

blote, blotesl (bletst), blotcd {blel) ; bleot, bleoton; bloten, | "<:„„ 

(?) prote, protest (pretst), protcd (pre/) ; preot, preoton ; proten, root. 

spoge, spdgest{spehst), spdged{spehd); \^ \tih P )- spogen, sough. 

209. Sixth Conjugation. — Stem in -ia. "Weak. 

No ablaut. Certain verbs, having their -ia syncopated in the imperfect 
and past participle, drop their umlaut in those forms. The imperative sin- 
gular of these verbs has umlaut without gemination, and the ending -e 
(^ 188, b). The imperfect singular second person is often found in -es 
(^ 166, a). 

-y/a. 

(a.) Theme in cg<^gi, compensative gemination (^ 188, b). Order of 
vowels, (e; «,»; «) ; a>e, i-umlaut (§ 32); a > a?, shifting (^ 41) ; a?^]> 
&, egy-e, ^ 37,2. 

lecge, Jeg{e)st (Jist), leg{e)d{hd), ) Lvgde (e),] la['gdon (e),)ge-LTgd (e),) , 
l>\\iT. lecgad; > lede, i ledon ; S geled, i 



SIXTH CONJUGATION.— VARIATION. HI 

secge (a'), seg{e)st (w) (eg), seg{c)ct \ sxgde (e),) siegdon (e),1 ssegd,\ 
{x){cg),]Am.secg{e)ad{se). \m-\ s&de, ) s&don; ) ssed, ) 
perat. sege (a;), plur. secg{e)ad{x). > 
For sagas t, sagud, saga, see sa- \ 
gtan. J 

(J.) Theme in cc<^ci, IK^lh compensative gemination (^ 188,5). Or- 
der of vowels, (e; ea,ea; ea)\ a>e, i-umlaut (^ 32); a^-ea, A-^breaking 
(^ 33); cdyht, \ 189, c. English vowels, (e; o; d)\ ea > a (Ormulum) > 

6, progression (^ 38) : sell, sold, sold. 

(cpeald |j^.jj_ 
(.cpeled, ) 
dpeald, 
dpeled. 



cpelle, cpel{e)st, cpel{e)d; 
dpelle, dpel(e)st, dpel{e)d ; 



cpeal-de, -don ; 
dpeal-de, -don (dpelede) ; 



j dpeald, \ 
I dpeled, > 



fel{€)d, fyllest, fylled ; \ ■' \jy ^ ifylled, ) 



selle {y-i<ea,^ 3-2), se-\ ,^^i_^^^ .^^„. 

lest (y, i), seled (y, i); ) 
d-stelle, -stelest, -stel{l)ed; -steal-de, -don; 

telle, telest, teled; 



seald, 

-steald, 
iteald. 



(sell) give. 

station. 
K(tell) 



teal-de, -don (telede) ; |^,^,^'(^) j j^ount 
cpecce, cpec{e)st, cpec{e)d {p) ; (?) cpeah-te, -ton {cpehte); (?) cpeaht, | g[^^'j.g 



■ton ; 



drecce, drec(e)st, drec(e)d} , , .,, . 
' , , , \ t C dre{a)h-te, 
(J)); T^lvix. drecc{e)aa ; ) 

lecce, lec{e)st, lec{e)d {p) ; leoh-te, -ton {ea ? e) ; 

recce, rec{c){e)st, rec{c)d (/») ; reah-te, -ton {a, «, e) ; 

strecce, strec(e)st, strec(e)d} ^ / \; . ^ 

' v/ ' ^' > stre{a)h-te, -ton; 

\P) ; -> 

pecce, pec{e)st, pec{e)d {]>) ^ pe{a)h-te, -ion ; 

pecce, pec{e)st, pec{c)[e)d{p)\ pe{a)h-te, -ton; 

precce,prec{e)st,prec{e)d(p); preh-te,-ton (,ea?) 



drc{a)ht, vex. 



Icoht (e), 
reaht. 



leak, wet. 
rule. 



streaht, stretch. 

Peaht, 
pe{a)ht, 
pre{a)ht, 



thatch. 

wake. 

wake. 



(c.) Theme in a nasal (nc,ng). Order of vowels, (e; o,o; o); a>e, 
i-umlaut (^32); a>o, nasal assimilation (^35). English order, (t; ou; ou); 
I comes from bringan (^ 201), pincan (^ 211); oyou^du, progression 
(^ 38) : bring, brought, brought. 

brenge, breng{e)st, breng{e)d (cp) ; broh-te, -ton ; broht, bring. 
I>ence, penc{e)st penc{e)ctip),l ^^_^^^_^^^, ^^^^^ ^^.^^^ 

plur. penc{e)ad; ) 

210.— -v/ 6. 

Theme in c; cd'yht (§ 189, c). Order of vowels, {e; o,o; 6); o>e, 
i-umlaut {^ 32). English order, {ee; ou; ou); ou = au, progression (^38): 
see/i, sought, sought, 
rece, recst, recd{p), recced; rbh-te, -ton; roht, reck. 



112 



IKREGULAU VERBS.— VARIATION. 



IMI.O'.TIVK I'RKSKNT. IMPERFECT 

Ist. 2u. M. SiNo. Flub. Part. Past. 

sece, secest, seced, plur. scc{e)a(t, \ s6h-te, -ton; soht, seek, 
subj. plur. sec{e)an (i&,eo), part. > 
pres. scc{c)cnde. * 

211. — Vu. 

Theme in a guttural (g", c); cgd'^ht, ncd'^ht (^ 194, a). Order of 

vowels, ((u)y(j); o,o; o); u^y, i-umlaut ('^ 32); y>i, shifting or bad 
spelling {^ 41); u>Goth. au'^o, A-r-breaking (^ 33). English order, 
{y; ou; ou) ; y {i)y> y:^di, o'^ou=^du, progression (^38): buy, bought, 
bought. 

hycge (0 {<bugie, § 188, b), bygest, ) ^ _^^^ 

byged; ) 

hycge (i), hygest, hyged, plur. hyc-\ , , , i "j/ \ • j 

( ^ //. •'* ^^ *^ > hog-de, -don; ge-hugod (o), mind. 

{hoh-te is not found. Conformation with the common weak forms led 
to hogde^hog-ede, -ade, -ode, and finally to a present hogie.) 

Pynce {i), Pync{e)st (0, Pync{e)d {i)\ . ^e-buht 

{P),^\m.pync{e)ad; ^ puh te, ton, ge puM, 



i 



pyrce{eo i,e), pyrc{e)st{e), /'y-C'l (,,)^.,,, .,„„ . ^rht, 

{e)d{i),i)\uT. pyrc{e)ad; )^ ^' ' ♦« ^ 



work. 



212. IRREGULAR VERBS. 

I. Pr.eteritive Presents. — The completion of certain acts is the be- 
ginning of states ; perfects of verbs denoting such acts get to be used as 
presents denoting the states: Sansk. veda, Greek poZoa, Ang.-Sax. /-ai, / 
have seen > / know. About a dozen such verbs are common to the Teu- 
tonic tongues. They retain antiquated personal endings and other forms, 
have peculiar syntactical relations, and the original notion of their verb has 
often given place to a varying modal force, in which case they become aux- 
iliary verbs. The old presents are obsolete. New weak imperfects are 
formed. 

^vid, see. Parent Speech, perfect vi-vaid-{m)a, plur. vi-vid-masi (^ 166). 



Sanskrit. 


Greek. 


Latin. 


Gothic. 


0. Saxon. 


Ang. -Sax. 


O. Norse. 


ve'd-a 


\o~i^-a 


Vid-i 


vait 


wet 


pat 


veit 


ve't-tha 


^oia-Qa 


vid-is-ti 


vais-< 


■wes-t 


pds-t 


veiz-< 


ve'd-a 


\oiS-e 


vid-i-t 


vait 


wet 


pat 


veit 


vid-ma 


[ia-fifv 


vid-i-mus 


vit-M-m 


■wit-u-n 


pit-o-n 


xit-u-m 


vid-a 


fi(T-rE 


vid-is-tis 


Ylt-U-p 


wit-ji-7» 


pii-o-n 


vit-u-d 


vid-u8 


fiff-dfft 


vid-er-unt 


vit-j*-» 


wit-M-n 


pit-o-n 


vit-u 



O.H.German has weiz, weiz-t, weiz, plur. wiz-a-mes, tviz-u-t, wiz-u-n. 
The other forms use the vowel of ablaut which appears in the plural of the 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 113 

new present. It may be varied by umlaut, or other assimilation. The per- 
sonal endings have all the variation mentioned in ^^ 165, 166, 170 : mag-um, 
-un, -on, -en, -e, -an ; meahtes. In canst, gemanst, dhst, -t is strengthened 
• to -St {^^ 50; 40, 1). The grammars give unne, cunne, durre,purfe, age, 
duge as regular indie, pres. sing. 2d ; but their examples are subjunctive. 

First Conjugation. — V^i 

megan, beneohan, innan, cinnan, ge-minan, scelan, deorran < deorsan (Goth, dair- 

san), peorfan, not found. 

Indicative Sing. 
1st & 3d. 2d. Plur. Subjunctive. Imperat. Infin. Part. 

(&?199 200) l'"**''"^"^'^^^^' ^"^''"^^H")^ maig-e,-en; ; mag-an{u); ■ ; 

Imperf. meah-te{t),meah-ton{i); -te,-ten; am strong, (may),<have grown. 

Pres. (^199). be-neah, ; be-nugon; benug-e,-en; ; benugan? ; ; 

Imperf. be-noh-te, -ton (^211); -te, -ten; hold anduse<have come to. 

Pres. (^201). an(o), ; unnon ; unne, -en; ; unn-an; (ge)unn-mi 

Imperf. u-de, -don (Goth. piTregulsiT),^ 37; -de, -den ; favor<have given. 

■ Pres. (^201). can {o), canst (o); cunnon; cunne, -en; ; cunn-an; ; 

^Imperf cu-de, -don {Goih. kunpa),^ 31; -de, -den; knovv<have got. cude. 

Pres. (§201). ge-man (o) , -manst ; -munon; -e,-en; gemun,-ad; gemun-an; ; 

Imperf. ge-munde, -don ; -de, -den ; remember<have called to mind. 

C scul-e en ") 
Pres. (§203). sc(e)al(scer), sc(e)qU; scul-on(eo); -j ' V k ' *^"^"'^» ' 

Imperf. sc{e)ol-de (to), -don ; -de, -den ; 8hall<onght<have got in debt. 

Pres. (§204). d{e)ar, d{e)arst ; durr-on; -e,-en{y); ; durran; ; 

Imperf. dors-te, -ton (Goth, daurs-ta) ; -te, -ten; dare<have fought. 

Pres. (§204). p{e)arf,p{e)arf-t; purf-on; ' purf-e,^n(y); ; purf-an; ; 

Imperf porf-te, -ton; -te,-ten; need< have worked (opus est). 

Second Conjugation (§205). — V*! ?g-an, not found, />?7an, § 205. 

Pres.... ah, dhst; agon; dg-e,-en; ; dgan, -ne ; dgende; 

Imperf.. dh-te, -ton; -te, -ten; own<have earned or taken. 

naA=:(ne-f-a^)) &c., not own. 

Pres. ... pdt, pdst {&) ; piton; pit-e,-en; pit-e,-ad; pitan(y)-ne; piten,-de; 

(pis-se,-son,-\ ^^ _^^ 
Imperf. pis-te{y), -ton; ■( §§36,3; 35,> ] ' ' J know<have seen. 

K B, pes tan ; J 

Fves. ... ndt {=ne-\-pdt), nyton{e); nyt-e,-en; ; nitan{y); nyten,-de; 

Imperf. nyste, nysse ; nyston {&c.); not know. 

Third Conjugation (§ 206). — ■\/n; dugan not found. 

Pres.... dedh{g), ; dugon ; dug-e,-en; ; dugan; dugende; 

Imperf.. doh-te, -ton (§211); -te, -ten ; is jat<has grown. 

H 



^^,^ IRREGULAR VERBft. 

Fourth Conjugation (^ 207). — Va; matan not found. 

ludiciitive Siug. , . 

1st & 3d. 2d. riur. Snbj. Imi). Infin. I art. 

Vtcs. ... 7not,m6st; rrnkon ; mot-e,-en; ; molan; ; 

Imperf. . mos-te, -ton (^ 36, 3) ; -te, -ten ; is meet<has met. 

Grimm takes leo, be, for a praeteritive present from a huan, to dwell, of 
the Fifth Conjugation. 

From an imperfect subjunctive of the Second Conjugation (Goth. viljau<:, 
-y/mZ, inflected like nemjau, ^ 171) arise 

Pres.... jnllc,pih; pUladiy); ptll-e,-en; -e,-ad; pill-an; -ende; 
Imperf.. pol-dc, -don (Goth, vilda) ; -de, -den ; will<have wished. 
Pres.. .. nellcnelt; nellad{y,i)\ -c, -en; -e,-ad; -an; -ende; 

Imperf.. nol-de, -don, &c. ne+piUe, will not. 

pi^po, assimilation (^ 35, 2, a) ; i>e, a-umlaut ; pi>y, ^^ 32,23 ; ll>l. 

213. — n. A'erbs without Connecting Vowel (Relics of Sanskrit 2d 

Class, ^ 158) : 

(1.) The common forms of the substantive verb are from three roots: 

\/ as, V ^^"' V ^^^- 

(a.)— Sanskrit. Greek. Latin. Gothic. O.Saxon. Anglo-Saxon. O.Norse. 

Stem, as, 8 e<r es, s is, 8 is, b is.ir.e; ar er 

SiNG.-l.as-mi e;-M.>«a-M< 'B-u-m i-in<i8-ni eo-m ea-m e-m<er-m 

2. &s-(s)i ea-<Ti, it es- is- e^''"* ^^'^ 

3. as-ti ic-ri es-t is-t is-t is- er- 

Plub.-!. 's-mdB ^<r-M^v 's-u-muB *s-ind *s-ina(on) ear-on er-u-m 

2 's-thd ^a-re cs-tis 's-ind •s-ind(on) ear-on er-u-« 

3. 's-anti 6-<i<T<, £-l<r.' 's-unt 's-ind »8-ind(un) «s-ind(on) ear-on er-u 

Asys, compensation, gravitation (.^^ 37, 38) ; as>is, precession (^ 38), 
ys<is, bad spelling ; s>r, shifting (^ 41, 3, b) ; jr7n>(eor777)><?om, arm> 
{eann) earn, breaking (^ 33); second person -s and -t (^ 165); tiO"*^, 
shifting (^ 19), «« is often found. Seond-o7i, -un (le, y), u-umlaut? (^ 32) ; 
-on in °earon (0. Norse er-w-m) (^ 166, a) ; in smd-on, a double plural through 
conformation (^ 40) ; oron, earon, aro rare in West Sax'«n. 

The subjunctive (Sansk. *s-jd-m, Greek i*-\ri-v, Lat. *5-ie-wz>«m, Goth. 
*s-ija-u, O. H. Ger., O. Sax., Ang.-Sax. *s-i, O. Norse *s-e) is inflected 
like the imperfect given in ^ 171. Anglo-Saxon has also stysig (dissim- 
ilated gemination, ^ 27)>5Je, 5eo (a peculiar progression, ^ 25) >5y (bad 
spelling) ; so plur. sin, sien, seon, syn. The subjunctive often has the force 
of an imperative, and is given as the imperative in ^Ifric's grammar. 

{b ) V bhu, be. Sansk. bhav-ami, Greek <pi-u>, Lat. fu-t, correspond m 
form to Goth, bdu-an, Ang.-Sax. bu-an, dwell. From the same root are 
found forms without a connecting vowel in Ang.-Sax., 0. Sax., 0. H. Ger. 
In O Sax. are only biu-m, bi-st; in O. H. Ger. pi-m, pi-s, — , plur. pi-ri,mes, 
pi-rut, pi-run {r<s<Vas). Ang.-Sax. has be6-{m) (to), bt-st (y), bi-d (y), 
plur. beod iio), and a present subjunctive, imperative, and infinitive, with tha 



IRKKGULAK VERBS, 



11/ 



common endings ; eo'^y^y^i, umlaut, precession, and shifting (^^ 32, 38, 
41). Sing. 3d bead occurs (conformation). 

(c.) ^^ vasy'Vis (ablaut) is inflected in the First Conjugation, ^^ 199, 197, 
but the present indicative forms are so rare that they are not given in the 
grammars. 

Paradigms for Practical Use (pp. 84, 90, 91). 
Present : 

Sing. — indicative. Subjunctive. Imperative. Infinitive. Participle. 

ic com, beo{m) ; si, beo, pese ; 

pu eart, bist ; si, beo, pese ; beo, pes ; 

he is, bid; si, bed, pese; beon, 

Plur. — or pesende. 

pe sind{on),be6d; sin, beon, pesen; pesan; 

ge stnd{on), bead; sin, beon, pesen ; be6d,pesad; 

hi sind{on), beod; sin, beon, pesen; 

Imperfect : 
Sing. — 

ic p!BS ; paere ; 

pu psbre ; peere ; 

he piBS ; peere ; ge-pesen. 

Plur. — 

pe, ge, hi psbron ; peeren ; 

The negative ne often unites with forms beginning with a vowel or p : 
neom :=zne -\- eom ; nis ; uses = ne -^ pies, p. p. nierende <^ ne pasrende, etc. 

(2.) y dha, place : Sansk. da-dhd-mi, Greek ri-Orj-ni, Goth. — , O. Sax. 
do-n, O. H. Ger. tuo-n, do. Anglo-Saxon imperfect from reduplicated theme 
^lad ; a>a! (ablaut, ^ 199) ^y'^i, irregular weakening. § 168. 

Indicative Sing. Plur. Subj. Imperat. Infin. Participle. 

Pres. .. do, de-st, de-d; do-d; do, -n ; do, -d ; do-n ; do-nde. 

Imperf. did-e (y), -est, -e ; -on {x) ; -e {le), n ; do-n, de-n. 

(3.) -y/ ga, go : Sansk. g'i-gd-mi, Greek ISl-fSij-iJii, Goth, gaggan, O. Sax. 
gd-n, O.H.Ger. ge-n. Imperfect from -y/i (Sansk. e'-mi, Greek tl-fii, Lat. 
i-re, go, § 158, a)>Goth. i-ddja, weak form strengthened. 

Pres... ga, g&-st, gsb-d ; gad; gd,-n; gd,-d; gd-n; 

Imperf. eo-de,-dest, -de; -don (^31); ge-gd-n. 

From the same root are the nasalized forms gangan, imperf. geong, geng, 
gieng (^ 208, b) ; geongan (^ 201) ; and gengan, imperf. gengde. 

214. Reduplicate Presents (Relics of Sanskrit 3d Class, ^ 158): 
gangan <i\^ga ^ ga-gd-mi, go (^ 213) ; so hangan, standan, § 216). 



215. Stems in -ia of strong verbs (Relics of Sanskrit 4th Class, ^ 158); 
fricge, inquire, etc. (^ 199) ; sperie, swear, etc. {^ 207, d). 



llg IRREGULAR VERBS. 

21G. Stems with n inserted (Relics of Sanskrit 7th Class, § 158): 
fo<fdhe > {fd{n)gan), fcng, etc., catch (^ 208, b). 
ga{n)gan<iga-ga, go (^ 214). 

h6<i/idhe^{hd{n)gan), hcng, etc., hang (§ 208,5). 
s(a{)i)(lan, slod, etc. (^ 207, r). 

bn{n)gan, brohte, bring ; J)e{n)can, pohte, think ; Py(ji)can, puhte, seem 
(^^209, c; 211). 

217. Stem in ■\/-\-na (Relic of Sanskrit 9th Class): frignan, ask 
(^ 202), shows itself of this formation in Gothic, but is consolidated in An- 
glo-Saxon, 

218. Relics of Reduplication (§159,5): hdtan, caW, heht ; Idcan, 
leap, leolc ('^208,2) ; l&tan, let, leurt ; ondr&dan, dread, ondreord ; r&dan, 
rede, reord {^ 208, 4) ; and see § 214. 

219. Relic of Passive : hdlan, call, is called (§ 208, 2) ; passive indio. 
pres. sing. 1, hdt-te (<»), I am called ; 3, hdt-te, he is called. Imperf. sing 
1,3, hdt-te; -plur. hat-ton. Hdtte =^ Gothic haitada: -t.e, Goth. -da {baira- 
da), Greek -rai (^ept-rai), Sansk. -te (5Adra-ie)< ta-ti > Parent Speech -tai 
{bhara-tai). Compare § 163 : ai>a>e, precession, § 38 ; ^>d, shifting, 
§ 19 ; td^tt, assimilation, § 35, B. 

220. Verbs with Mixed Ablaut: drepan, strike, p.p. drepen and 
dropen (§ 199) ; brcgdan, braid (§ 202) ; spelgan, swallow (§ 203) ; sihan, 
seon, strain ; iihan, teon, accuse ; pihan, peon, grow ; prihan, preon, cover 
(§§ 205, 206) ; but these eight last should be treated as separate verbs. 

221. Verbs with Mixed Strong and Weak Forms: finde,fmA, im- 
perf. fand and funde (§ 201) ; buan, inhabit; imperf. bu-de ; p. p. gebu-n ; 
bician, bugian, biipian are other variations ; cidan, chide, cad, cidde. 

222. Verbs with Mixed Weak Forms in -ia and 6 {^\ 160; 165, d; 
183). The same theme often has forms from both stems ; but they .re best 
given under different verbs : 

Theme lif has imperfects lif-de (<stem lifia) and lifo-de (y, eo) «stem 
lifo). Hence two verbs, libban<Clifian by compensative gemination (§ 188, 
b), and lifian like lufian (§ 183). 

With libban are put indie, pres. {libbe, plur. libbad, not in Grein) imperf. 
lifde, lif don. 

With hfian, pres. lif{i)ge, leofast, lifud {eo,y), plur. lif-iad {-igad, -gad, 
-igead) ; imperative leofa; p. p. lifiende ; imperf lif ode (y, eo). The i of 
la has its usual variations in the infinitive and participle {ig, tge, ge, g), 
§ 175 ; iy-eo, a-umlaut, § 32. 

Habban {se), have, <ihafian, has, besides full forms from -ia, indie, sing. 1 
haf-a, -0, -u ; 2,haf-dst; 3,haf-ad; imperative Aa/-a. For other forms, 
see pages 84, 85, 86. 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 117 

Secgan, say (^ 209), has sagast, sagad, saga to put with a sagian ; so 
tellan and talian, tell (^ 209) ; hycgan and hogian, mind (^ 211), etc. 

223. Weak Verbs with Rijckumlaut : bycge, buy, bohte, etc. ('^211). 

224. Forms disguised by ecthlipsis and the like. 

(a.) Ecthlipsis of ^, h, ox p: 

bregdan^ hrede, braid; stregdan^ strede, strow ; frignan'^frine, 
ask, etc., vowel e, i kept short by ablaut (^ 202) ; lecgan, lay, im- 
perf. legde'ylede ; ssegde'^sMe, said, etc. (^ 209); spigian, be si- 
lent, spigad^ spiad, etc. ; bogan > Z>o(f, boasts. 
fd<Cfahe, catch; ho <^hdhe, hang, etc. (^ 208, 5); seo<^sihe, etc. 

(^ 205) ; and many others, strong and weak. 
gerpan {le, y, i, ea, a?), equip ; imperf. gyrede, p. p. gegyrped, gyred, 
serpan {y), contrive ; indie, pres. plur. syrpad, syrepad; imperf. syr- 
p{e)de, syr{e)de (e) ; p. p. gesyrped. 
{b.) DissiMiLATED GEMINATION : p'^' up^ ep (^ 117); {I'yig'yige, 
regular, k 183 ) ; syrepad < syrpan, contrive ; gefrxtepod < gefrxtpian, 
adorn. Compare />oruAZe<^/'orA^e<^/'yrcan, work (i^ 211). 

(c.) Assimilation: po'^u; pi'^u; pperan, weld, p.p. ge'pporen'^ ge- 
Puren (^ 200) ; spigian (y), be silent, imperf sugode, sjngode (^ 224, a). 

(d.) Shifting off,p to u: begrauen<^begrafen<^grafen, grave (<^207); 
bi-paune<Cpapen<ipdpan, blow {^ 208,2). 

(e.) Interchange of g, t, and p : {h and g regular (^^ 197, 118)) ; buian, 
bugmn, bupian, inhabit (^ 221) ; herian, hcrig{e)an, herpan (y), blaspheme ; 
and many more. For seon, see, seah, seegon, {ge)sepen, ^ 197. 

(/.) Metathesis: frignan^frmgan, ask (§<^ 201, 202) ; gcpruen<^ge- 
pperen, weld (^ 200), etc. 

225. Northumbrian. — Inflection. — Indie, pres. sing. : l,-o; 2, 
-est; 3, -ed'^-es ; plur. -arf>-a5. Subjunctive: sing. -e ; plur. -e7i>-e. 
Infinitive : -an (rare) >-a>-^>-e. Imperfect plur. -un, -on drops n be- 
fore a subject woe (pe), we, or gie (ge), ye, and -u, -o may go to e or i. 

Variation. — The vowels of ablaut and other variation may change as in 
^ 26. The first form of ablaut (^^ 199, 200) has present ea, eo ; imperf. 
sing. !B, oe, e ; plur. oe, e. The contracted- imperfects (^ 208) have e, ei, 
ea. Weak verbs with stem -la (^ 160) in the present drop i with compensa- 
tive gemination {^ 188, b). Stem e remains often in the imperfect, and oft- 
enest in the p. p., except in verbs having riickumlaut (^ 189, d). Stem 6 
goes to a. Participle pres. often in -and. 

Irregular Verbs. — (For first person -m, see § 165, a) : 

Wo5a = Ang.-Sax. pesan : Pres. indie. 1, am, eom ; 2, ard ; 3, is; 
plur. aron, stnd, sindon. Subjunctive, sie. Pres. indie. 1, bium 
{pm); 2, bist ; 3, bid; ^Aur. bidon. Imperf. j^cTj ; plur. ■woerwn. 
GAA = Ang.-Sax. gdn, go : Pres. indie. 1, giJb (geongo) ; 2, gses ; 3, 
g&d; plur. gdad (gdd). Imperf. edde. 



118 IRREGULAR VERBS.— DERIVATION. 

D6A=:Ang.-Sax. don, do : Pros, indie. 1, dom {do) ; 2, does; 3, docd ; 

plur. doad {doed). Subj. do. Iinperf. rfy</e. 
Vya//a = Ang.-Sax. p/7/an, will: Pres. indie. 1, i<;i7/o ,• 2, wilt; 3,wil; 

plur. ifa//rt<f. Imperf. toalde. Other forms generally agree with the 

West Saxon. 

226. Weathering of Inflection Endings. — (For variation of root 
vowel, see ^^ 199-211): 



.„..»., — - ,, 


Indicative Present. 






Ang.-Sax. 
S. W. 


Layamon. 
S. W. 


Ormulura. 
S. &W. 


Chaucer. 
S. &W. 


Shakespeare. 
S. & W. 


Sing.— 1. e ie 

2. est ast 

3. ed[p) dd(p) 
Plcb.— ad{p) iad{p) 


e ie 

est est 

ediP) ediP) 

ediP) ied{p) 

I 


e 
esst 

epp 
enn 

mperfect. 


e,— 

est 

eth, es 

eth, en, e 


est 
eth, s 


Sing.— 1. — e 
2. e est 


— e 
e est 


— e 
e est, e 


e, — , est est 


est 


3. — e 


— e 


— e 


— e,— 


— 


Plur. — on on 


en en 


enn enn 


en,e, — en,e,- 


— — 



Subjunctive sing, e, plur. en, e, stands to Chaucer, is gone in Shakespeare. 
Imperative sing, e, d, plur. ed, ad, weathers like the indicative. 
Infinitive an, Layamon en, Ormulum enn, Chaucer en, e, — , Shakesp. — . 
Participle present ende> Layamon ende, tnde, inge, Chaucer end, and, 

yng, Shakespeare mg, conforming with verbal nouns in m^<Ang.-Sax. 

ung, ing. 
Participle past en > n ; 6d>ad> ed. The prefix ge- > Layamon /- is 

rare in Ormulum ; Chaucer often uses i- or y-, but with this participle 

only ; Shakespeare ridicules it. 



VII. DERIVATION. 

227. "Word stems are made from roots and radicles (§§ 56, 57). 
The Parent Speech made stems by suffixing a radicle to a root or 
stem, (2) by change of a root vowel (progression), (3) by redupli- 
cation, (4) by combining stems. 

(a.) The last class are called compound, the others simple. 

{b.) Words having stems formed from verb stems are called verbals; from 
noun stems, denominatives. 

(c.) The radicle makes more definite the indefinite notion of a root by in- 
dicating a particular relation in which it is to be conceived. It often brings 
it under some one of the parts of speech. 

The vowel change has a similar force symbolically. 



DERIVATION. 119 

Composition or coalescence combines two notions. 

{d.) Certain notional stems used as the latter part of compounds lose their 
notional force, and become in effect relational suffixes. It is not easy al- 
ways to separate these from suffixes springing directly from radicles. 

228. Suffixes from Radicles (§ 56). 

The suffixes of the Anglo-Saxon nominative or present are at the left. 
Small letters above the line have dropped. Latin stems in o- are of the 
second declension, and imply a nominative in -us, -um, or -er (^ 70,). 

Suffix. 
1. Vowels. Sanskrit. Greek, Latin. Gothic. Anglo-Saxon. 

— *<a: yM^-«, yoke, ■//u^', join ; Zvy-6-v; jug-o-; juh-^s ; iuW. 

e<a(verb): .... bhdr-d-mi, 1 heax \ (pkp-nj ; fer-o; bair-a; her-e. 

(bhug'-a, bend, V bhug') ^ > n- -r^ j- {gib-a,V gib,\ . 

"<^= { >/«^,flee; ' \<^-Tn.^-^^t, fug-a; \ g.^^. J ^/-«, gift. 

— '<i: aA-i, snake, A/a^A, sin; i'j(j-i-Q\ angu-i^s ; \ ' Icpen?'. 

y ( ag-u, quick, V dk, to \ , , | ac-u-s, i hand-u, V j hand"', 

( be sharp; ) ' (needle; I hanth,c&tch;[ hand. 

e<ja: mddh-ja, middle; fi'iaaov<iyii^-jo-v; med-io-; mid-ji-s; midd^miie, 

a'^<jan: Lat. fe^r-iora-is, legion ; Goth. «iaMrt/ir;;"o'*, murderer ; Ang.-Sax. mMrt/r-a". 

J ^ tvid-ja, wit, V vid, see ; | oaaa<C}6K-ja, ( h\rsid-ia, sit- {band-i, i bend^, 

""" ^'^ \dev4', goddess; I voice, -/roZ;; (. ting in wait; (-/JaMcZ; (bond. 

ie, 6 < aja in verb stems, see § 160. 

{vaiS-io-v, little ) ^ „ ^ . ( m&nd-erfl 

, , , ,r^ 0. H. G. magat-t, \ ^ . . 

child,^a.(cV)-c, V j.^^j^ \ <m^gd, 

child; ; \ maid. 

2. Semi-vowels. 

t:)*(u, o)<va: .. ^'-»a, going, •/ j, go ; ai- paiv, time; ss-vo- ; ai-v'^-s; a-p<^. 

pu< vu, pi (u, o) \ ( far-bu(^]m), color ; 

<vja: S ( 6eac?-w, battle, 

„ . {ghar-md, heat, V ghar, 1 „ , , . -. n a 

m'*<ma: ^ ' . '' '!■ ^tp-^uo-e, hot; /br-Two-; var-mr ; pear-m'^. 

{{g)na-man, name, ] , ', \ n 

ma'* < man: ....< , , i yvu)-uov-oc ; (q)no-men: na-moi-man)-, na-ma"'. 

i V gna, Knovr ; ) ' "^ 

For ma, ra, as suflBxes of comparison, see §§ 123, 126. 

!dg'-ra, field, V ag, go ; dy-pu-g ; ag-ro- ; ah-r^-s ; <jBC-(e)r^. 

sdd^a, seat, V sad, — ; sS-pa; sel-la (d>T); sit-V'-s ; set-(e')l'^o 

Here put er«)*, or«) *", Mr«. *', er-e {<C-ja), al"'^\ el^^\ ol^^ \ ul^ih eU «-jd). 

. fGr. (-j;po + io), Lat. (-«?•» + io), Goth, (-ar+ja), (Bopp gives -ar-ja<itar-Ja'). 

" iLat. libr-dr-io-(ins), book-man ; Goth, bok-ar-ei-s, Ang.-Sax. buc-er-e, O.H.G. 
buoch-er-i (ari). 
_ _ {ud-dn, water, ( rsp-iv-oc, smooth; j pect-en, comb; ( vat-6(4n-s),{ p.Tt-a": 

' I Vvad,-wet. ( tiV-dv-of, likeness ; I ec?-o«-t«, eater ; 1 water. \ pirt-e''^''^. 

For more of -an, see §§ 95, 105, a ; for infinitive -ana, p. p. -na, § 175. 



120 DERIVATION. 

SemUroweL^ Sanskrit. Greek. Latin. Gothic. Ang.-Sax-. 

Continued. , , ^ , , n , ^ ^ ^ ,i 

(srap-iM, sleep, ( „ f S07n-nus<. J bar-n"', j spef-(e)n'% 

n*<na: < / , f dtt-vo-c; i \ , . 1 i 

^ \V sv(ip, sleep ; ) ( sop-no-s ; ( bairn ; I sleep. 

^phali-mi, i KtSpi-vo-g, f fraxi-no, ( silubrei-na^, ) ^.^, _^a, 

^®-^" \frult-bearing ; I cedarn; I ashen; I silvern; ) 

(ag~ni, fire, ] . ^, • • ^ ( Hbui-ni, ( !cof-(e)n^, 

^'<^- { Vag; } M-»"-i-. ^"-^th ; ,^-«.-.,fire; i^j^^^^,^. (^;,y;iive. 

(stt-niL son, ) „ , . , i. i 1 sn-nu-s, \ 

nu: ^ / , i Bon-vv-c, stool; ma-nUnS, hand ; \ } su-nu, son. 

"" Wsa,bear; J ^'/ i" '( son; 3 

enno<^nja:...^^,^- /3aa.W« <n;M-), ■''»';«"«. goddess. 

' ( queen (w< v; ) ; I king; 'goddess; J 

, . ( Lat. (exier-tio), extrdneo-, belonging to ( O. H. Ger. vst-r-mi, \ . 

erne < ar-a-nja : | ^^^^ ^^^^^ . ^^^^ ^^ ^2^, h ; 129, 2) ; 1 eastern ; i ^'" '^' ^' 



3. Dentals, 



f For p. p. -m, Goth, -da, -tha, § 175, 5 ; for -ta-ra, -ta-ma, -ta-ta in compar- 

*^- I ison, § 126. 

Here belong Ang.-Sax. -rf« (irf«, 5£i«, «^c^«), -<?« (orf«, «rf«, e(^«), -^'^ (ot^, ef). 

ipi-tdr, father, ) Tra-np-oc ; i?a-<c>- ; /a-rfer ; fsed-tr. 

Vpa, feed ; ) -/ „„, Gr. v£, Lat. ne >(needle) ne-thla ; n^-dlK 

bhra -tar, hrother; (ppd-rop-og ; frd-ter; bru-ihar; hro-dor. 

estre° < as-ta-ra f Latin surd-astro-, deafish ; ) ^g..Sax. bxcestr-e-c^, female baker. 
(4- an): ( French po«<-a«<re, petty poet ; J 

_..••. (TKa-t/, mind, ) _ ,. , 4j,i , { myrwt\ 

ifi fli t^<:ti: ...^ , ,. , tm-'Ti-c; men-its; mun^th'-s ; \ 

"■'"'^^ l-/ma-«, think ;i'^' t , { .d\ .t\ 

ista-tu-s; (-tu-ti, i ddu-ihu-s, i ded-d^; 
.tu-don,.tu-dm,\ death, \ ge-poUa, 
etc.); {thuh-tu.s;l thought. 

nessi(nissi,nyssi)l {gudji-nassu-s, <^ god^ne^^, 

<na+as+tu: 1 1 priest-hood; ( goodness, 

ende<ant: § 175, 3. 

cqdn-as, genus, ) , . j ag-is^, ( e^-esa", 

es-an<as(+an):f ^^^;^ bear ; f ^^''""-^ ' ^'"■"^' """'■ i awe ; t Va^.fear. 

Here put (e)s\ ^^^^.j^^ ^. q jj q_ .^y^^ ^^.g^ .eruy.m in plurals ce^r-rw, e^rjrs, etc. (§82,a> 

(e)ru: ) 

els^ I . ( al + sa ) 0. H. G. fuot-isal"; fodder ; O. Norse foed-sla ; Ang.-Sax. fed-els'^, -esl^^. 
esP ) 1 as+la ) 0. H. G. rdt-isal^, riddle ; Swedish rwd-else ; Ang.-Sax. r&drds'^. 

4. Gvtturals. 
ih^ i^a/k^. fSindhu-ha, ( Xoy.-,c6-c, of ( helli-co., of ( grid-a-g^s, 1 ^^^^ « 

"^ '^^ ^ • -Ifrom^tW^M; ( logos; I war; i greedy; ) 

Here put h^, oc^i \ uc^i ^. 

( steina-ha, ( st^n-ih-f^, 
ihta; O.H.Ger.stoVoH stony; | ^^^^^.^ \ gj^^.y. 



SUFFIXES.— QUASI-SUFFIXES. 121 

Sanskrit. Greek. Latin. Gothic Ang.-9ax. 

. ( 7rat(i-t(T)co-c, J scutr-isco-, 'ybam-iskfls, f . ^ 

ISC <iC8)ka: i little chUd(7raiO-); I little plate; [ childish; 1 " '^^ ' 

Syr-isco-, I J EngUisc^^, 

[ a Syrian ; / \ English. 

ing*<i(n)g^: O. H.G. eitZ-mc'^, noble-man ; A.-Sax. sdel-ing^ ; Elis-ing^i 

son of Elisha. 
1-ing^ : O. H. G. junki-linc^, a youth ; A.-Sax. geong-ling^ Kgeong, 

young. 
ungSing^: O. H. G. t^arn-un^fl, warning ; A.-Sa.x. pearn-ung^ (-ing^) 

(pearn-ian, to warn). 
incle: Lat. domu-n-cu-lo, little house (domo-); O.H. G. esil-inchilin, 

little ass; A.-Sax. hus-incle, little house. 

For suffixes of pronouns and numerals, see ^§ 130-140 ; for those of com- 
parison, ^^ 122-129. The endings of adverbs are mostly from case-endings. 

229. QUASI-SUFFIXES FROM NoTIONAL StEMS. 

aern, em, house; Goth, razn, O.Norse rann : slxp-ern, sleeping-room; 

hors-ern, stable. Often mixed with Latin radicle suffix -eryi : Lat. lat- 

ern-a, lucerna, A.-vSax. bldc-ern, lant-ern ; Lat. tab-erna, A.-Sax. gxst- 

ern, tav-ern ; Lat. career, A.-Sax. carc-ern, prison ; A.-Sax. cpeart-ern, 

quarters. 
b^re, bearing ; Lat. -ferus, O. H. G. pari, O. Nor. bivr : lust-bsere, lust-y, 

joyous. 
cvind, kind ; Gr. -y£v-{]g, Lat. -gena, Goth, kunds, 0. H. G. chund : deofol- 

cund, devil-ish ; god-cund, god-like. 
crsBft, craft; O. Sax. -kraft, O. H. G. -chraft : stwf-cnrft, (letter -craft) 

grammar. 
cyn, kind ; Lat. gen-us, Goth, kuni, O. Sax. kunni, O. Nor. kynni, O. H. 

G. chunni: treop-cyn, (tree-kind) wood; man-cyn, man-kind, 
daeg, day ; Goth, dags, O. Sax. dag, O. Nor. dagr, O. H. G. tac : gedr-dseg, 

(yore-days) formerly. 
dom, judgment, authority, dominion ; 0. Nor. -domr, O. H. G. -tuom, Ger. 

-thum : cyning-dom, kingdom, 
faest, fast ; O. Nor. -fastr, M. H. G. -teste, Ger. -fest: ar-fxst, honorable ; 

stsbde-fmst, stead-fast. 
feald, fold ; Goth, faiths, O. Nor. -faldr, O. H. G. -fait : mxnig-feald, 

manifold. 
ful, full ; Goth, fulls, O. Sax. -ful, O. Nor. -fullr, O. H. G. -fol : dr-ful, 

honorable. Sansk. pur, Gr. 7rXf-a>e, Lat. ple-nus. 
had, character, state, rank; 0. H. G. -heit: brodor-hdd, brother -hood; 

msbden-hdd, maiden-head. 



122 QUASI-SUFFIXES.— ABLAUT. 

heard, hard ; Goth, hard-u-s, O. Nor. -hardr, O. II. G. -hart, O. French 

-ard : ma'o-e«-/jea;-</, (might-hard) very mighty ; drunk-ard; bragg-art. 
\ko, sport, gift ; Goth. Idiks, O. Nor. leikr, O. H. G. -leih : feoht-ldc, fight ; 

O. Eng. love-laik, love ; know-ledge ; ped-ldc, wed-lock. 
leSs, loose from ; Goth. -Idus, O. Sax. -I6s, O. Nor. -laus, O. H. G. -laos^ 

-los : dr-leds, (honor-less) dishonorable ; god-leds, god-less. 
lie, like ; Goth, -letks, O. Nor. -llkr, -legr, O. H. G. -lih : dr-ltc, (honor-like) 

honorable ; god-ltc, god-ly. Sansk. -drk, Gr. -XtK, Lat. -lie. 
man, man ; Goth, mans, O. Sax. -man, O. Nor. -madr, O. H. G. -man: 

gho-man, glee-man ; pif-man, wo-man. 
m^l, time ; Goth, -mel, O. Sax. -mahal, 0. Nor. -mdl, O. H. G. -mahal, 

mal{i): undcrn-miel, noon-time; stycce-mi&lum, piece-mesLl. 
r^den (Lat. ratio), mode, fashion : freond-rmderi, friend-ship ; maeg-r&den, 

kind-red. 
red, r^d, counsel, condition ; 0. N. -rdd, O. H. G. -rat : hi-red, (hive-con- 
dition) family. 
rice, prince ; Goth. -reiks,0. Nor. r'ekr, O. H. G. -rih, Sansk. rag' an, Lat, 

rex : sige-rice, victorious. (2) =^ddm, cyne-rice, kingdom. 
5 sceaft, shape, manner ; O. Sax. -scaft, O. H. G. (10th century) scaft. 
\ scipe (y), shape, manner ; O. Sax. -scepi, O. Nor. scapr, O. H. G. scaf: 

freond-scipe, friend-ship ; hyge-sceaft, mind-state ; land-sceap (scipe), 

land-scape (-skip), 
smid, smith ; O. Nor. -smidr, O. H. G. -smid : pig-smid, warrior; Goth. -a. 
stsef, staff; O. Nor. -stafr, O. H. G. -stap : fdeen-stsef, wickedness; dr- 

stccf, honor. 
sum, same, like ; O. Nor. -sam^, 0. H. G. -sam : pyn-sum, winsome, joyous. 
teme(^)=sum: luf-tyme, \o\e\y ; hefig-ty me, ixonhlesoiae; ppeorh-teme, 

perverse. 
pare, men ; Goth, vair, O. Sax. wer: Rom-pare, Romans. Sansk. vir-a-s, 

Gr. i]p-(oe, Lat. vir. 
peard, becoming, tending to; Goth, -vairths, O.H. G. -wert, -wart: hdm- 

peard, home-ward. Sansk. vrt, Lat. vert-ere. 
pis, wise ; O. Sax. -wisi ; O. Nor. -vts ; M. H. G. wise : riht-pis, (wise as 

io rights) righteous. V^id, ^ 212. 

230. New Stems from Variation of Root Yowel. 

Ablaut. — The vowel of the present denotes the act or an object suited to 
act ; those of the past denote result, the plural being more abstract. But in 
many derivatives this force is lost. 

First Conjugation, (e (eo) ; se{ea); &{d); e; §199): beran {beoran),heaiT, 
"^ beard, birth ; bere, barley; beam, child ; beer, bier, (t; a, u ; u ; ^ 201) : 
singan, sing, '^sang, song, song ; grindan, grind, '^grund, ground. 



UMLAUT.— FORMATION OF NOUNS. 123 

Second Conjugation, (i; a, i; i; ^ 205) : drifan, drive, "^ draf, drove ; 
hitan, bite, |> bit, bit ; biter, bitter ; bat, bait. 

Third Conjugation, (eo(w) ; ed,u; o; ^ 206) : beogan,hend,'^bedh,nT\g; 
boga, bow ; teohan, tug, > ieam, team ; toga, duke ; iy/t^, course. 

Fourth Conjugation, (a (ea) ; 6, o ; a{ea); ^207): grafan, grave, "^gra;/, 
grave ; grof, ditch ; sceapan, shape, > i'coj?, shaper, poet. 

Umlaut. — The same stem may occur with and without umlaut or break- 
ing, but this variation does not make a new word, though it may be the be- 
ginning of bifurcation (<^ 40,3). Since the ablaut became irregular {^ 199) 
new words have been formed in large numbers by irregular bifurcation. 

Suffixes arranged according to their Use. 
Formation of Substantives. 

231. Indefinite Noun-signs : u<Ca, — ^<^i, — ^<Cjd, u, — ^<^a, e<C 
ja, a.<Can, e<^an. 

These combine with the case-endings (^^ 69-95), and are abundantly used 
as secondary suffixes ; — * is found oftenest with names of actions and qual- 
ities, u with names of qualities, e and a with agents. 

g^f-^ ig^f-c-f^i give), gift. drinc^ (drinc-an, drink), drink. 

dxd^ (don, do), deed. hird-e (Goth, haird-ei-s), bird. 

pyjiUi (o. Sax. wunnia), fun. han-a^ (Vcan, sing), cock. 

mag-u {mag-an, get), son. tung-e, -an, tongue. 

232. Agent. — Masculine a, end, er6, e<Cja, P {el'^, ol'^, ul^), der, 

der, ter. 
Feminine e<Can, en"^,estre, — <^i,td,tsse (Lat. issa). 
Instruments and means: els^, ele, el^, dl*, ox^ (er^), 

{e)nK 
Quasi-suffix, smid. 

dem-a (dem-an, deem), judge. myr-e, -an {mearh, horse), mare. 

dem-end {dem-an, deem), judge. fix-en, enne (fox), vixen. 

dem-ere {dem-an, deem), judge. sang-estre {sing-an, sing), songster. 

sang-ere {sing-an, sing), singer. fed-els {fed-an, feed), victuals. 

pin-e (V pin, love), friend. net-ele (V na, sew) ? nettle. 

fore-rin-el {rinn-an, run), fore-run- set-l"', n. {sittan, sit), settle. 

ner. n;8-£?/^ (-y/na, sew), needle. 

fw,-der (Vp^' feed), father. fod-or^ {fed-an, feed), fodder. 

bro-der (-v/bhar, support), brother, leof-en^ {lif-an; live), victuals. 

speos-ter, f. (sva-su-tar, connected byg-els, bow ; ham-or'^, hammer. 

woman ; \' su, bear). pig-smid (war-smith), warrior. 
abbud-isse, abbess. 



124 



DERIVATION.— SUBSTANTIVES. 



233. Action.— Masculine and Neuter t« (o/«, c^«), tt« {ad, od, nad). 
Feminine iiig', uug', 1', le«« {elc, oh, ulc). 
Quasi-suliix, lac. 

hern-ing (Jeorn-an, burn), burning. 

bxrn-ung {beorn-an, burn), burning. 

sping-el'' ) {sping-an, scourge), scourg- 

sping-ele ) ing. 

beadu-lac^ (fight-sport), fighting. 

pif-ldc, marriage. 



d-ns-t {ns-an, rise), resurrection. 
b.vrn-ct (beorn-a7i, burn), burning. 
hunt-ad {huJit-ian, hunt), hunting. 
hunt-ud {hunt-ian, hunt), hunting. 
hunt-nad {hunt-ian, hunt), hunting 



234. Result.— Masculine m« (em«, wm«), ma", n«, d«<<u, t« < <m. 

Neuter n^. 

Feminine (e)n^. 

cpeal-ma {cpdl-an, kill), death. ded-d^ {V dau, die), death. 

pxs-t-m<^ {pcax-an, wax), fruit. ge-poh-t"' {Jnnc-an, think), counsel. 

J/o-ma" {hl6p-an, blow), bloom. iear-n« (6er-an, bear), child. 

heof-en^ {hebb-an, heave), heaven, sel-en^ {sell-an, give), gift. 

235. Quality and objects named from it. — 

Feminine u {o, eo), nes«»' {nis, nys), {n)d\ d\ tK 
Neuter d«, d«, t", used instead of </*, dS i* when ^e- 01 
other prefix is used with an abstract. 
'- Masculine ing*^- 

Quasi-suffixes, craeft, cyn, dom, had, man, rid, rfed- 
en, rice, sceaft, sceap, scipe, staef. 



h&t-u (hat, hot), heat. 
streng-u, -o, -eo, strength. 
ge-lic-nes^^, like-ness. 
mild-heort-nes^\ mercy. 
streng-d^, strength. 
ge-cyn-d\ nature. 
pit-leds-t\ wit-lessness. 
gyme-lys-t\ heed-lessness. 
geog-ud^ {geong), youth. 
ge-ping-d^, honor. 
ge-cyn-d^, nature. 
ge-pih-f^ {peg-an, weigh), weight. 
ssdel-mg^, noble-man. 



l&ce-crs&ffi, m. leech-craft. 
Mce-cynf', n. (leech-kind), doctors. 
Ise.ce-dom'^, m. leech-craft. 
pis-dom {pis, wise), wisdom. 
cild-hdd^, m. child-hood. 
peop-hdd, serf-dom. 
sud-man, m. Southerner. 

hi-red\ f. (hive-state), family. 
freond-r&dcn^, f. friendship. 

hyge-sceaft\ f (mind -state), thinking. 

land-sceap, n., -scipe, m., land-scape, 

dr-stxf^, m. honor. I-'® 'P' 

bisceop-rice, n., bishopric. 



236. Diminutives: c {uca,oc%l {l'^<{^)la),le<^l^anMns,incle^^ 

enfl <ijd-\-na. 
k (questioning,^ 56) and 1 (trilling) are suited to express diminution. 



DERIVATION.— ADJECTIVES. 125 

The Sanskrit diminutive is k; Greek, lo, ok; Latin, /, c-l ; Goth., O. H.G., 
I most ; Low German, k most. Anglo-Saxon words in uca, el, le are rel- 
ics ; ling is growing into use. The English uses ock, ling, 
bull-uca^, bull-ock. geong-lmga, m. young-ling. 

cyrn-el'^, n. {corn, corn), kernel. rdp-incle, n. {rap, rope), string. 

meop-le, f. (Goth, mavi, virgin ; ma- cyc-en'^, n. {coc, cock), chicken. 
vilo, little girl), girl. msbgd-enP-, n. {msegd, maid), maiden. 

237. Patronymics: ing^. 

JElfred JEdelpulf-ing<^ , Alfred son of ^thelwulf. 

238. Gentiles: e<?fl, an, isc, ing« (^ 101,2). 

Quasi-sufRx, pare. 
Engl-e (^ 83), English. Englisc, adj., English. 

Got-an, Goths. Pyr-ing-ds, Thyringians, descendants 

Rom-pare, Romans. of Thyr. 

239. Place: en«, ene«^. Time: 

Quasi-suffix, ern {wrn), etc. (^ 101). . . daeg, m^l. 
midl-en^, n. midst. dom-ern^, n. (iow, doom), judgment- 

cyc-ene, f. (coc, cook), kitchen. hors-ern, n. horse-stable. [hall. 

gedr-dxg, m. (yore-day), antiquity. undern-msel, n. noon-time. 



ADJECTIVES. 

240. Indefinite Suffixes combining with case-endings: — ^, u<a, 
— ^ a<Cari, e<an. 

Any adjective theme may have stems in all these endings {^^ 103-114). 

241. Characteristic, connoting quality of the object denoted by the 

stem : isc. 

Quasi-sufRxes, cund, lie (with nouns). 

cild-isc {cild, child), child-ish. pif-lic {pif, woman), having the qual- 

deofol-cund, (devil-kind) devil-ish. ities of a woman, womanly. 

■ (a.) Patrial isc also connotes origin from a place or stock : Romdn-isc, 
Roman ; Lunden-isc, Londonish ; Engl-isc, English. 

242. Fitness or disposition for the act or state denoted by the theme : 
ol, or. 

Quasi-suffixes, fus, lie (with verbs), stun, tyme, pis. 
5;jrec-oZ (s/jrec-an, speak), talk-ative. bealo-fus, disposed to ia/c, wicked : 
bit-or, -er {bit-an, bite), bitter. O. Nor. /us, O. II. G. funs, ready. 



126 DERIVATION.— VERBS. 

forgifend-lic, to be forgiven. luf-sum, disposed to love. 

un-gcscpen-lic, (unseen-) invisible. Idf-sum, worthy to be praised. 

un-gelxred-lic, (unlearned-) unlearn- luf-tymc, fitted for love. 

ed. riht-pis, knowing right, righteous. 

243. Fullness, connoting possession of an object denoted by the stem: 
e<Cjfi, ig, iht, ed. 

Quasi-sufTixes, b^re, faest, ful, heard, le^s. 

pyrd-e {peord, worth), worth-y. pxstm-hi&re {pxstm, fruit), fruit-ful. 

stdn-ig {stall, stone), stony, abound- hlys-bxre {hlysa, fame), famous. 

ing in stones (;c)- ar-fwst {dr, honor), honorable. 

pel-ig {pela, wealth), rich. cear-ful {cearu, care), care-ful. 

stan-iht, stony (;6). mxgen-heard, might-y. 

ge-hyrn-ed {horn, horn), horned. cear-leds {cearu, care), careless. 

244. Material, (e)n<^ : slxn-en {stdn, stone), made of stone. 

gyld-en {gold, gold), golden. 

245. Place, erne : sud-erne, southern ; nord-erne, northern. 

peard : sud-peard, southward ; nord-peard, northward. 

For Pronouns, see §^ 130-137 ; comparatives and superl., §^ 122-129 
For Numeral -feald, -ode, -tig, etc., see ^^ 139-148. 



VERBS. 

246. Strong Verb Suffixes: a, ia<ya (^^ 158, a; 215). 

These are suffixed to a root. 
nim-a-n, take ; sper-ia-n, swear ; sittan <C sit-ia-n, sit. 

247. Weak Verb Suffixes: isL<C^aja, b<iaja {^\Q0). 

{a.) aja is a secondary suffix ^ia-\-ja, a belonging to a simpler word. 
In aja > ia, a drops ; aja > aja ^ ad^ o, progression and contraction 
(^^ 38, 52). 

{b.) Variations : ia, iga, igea, ga, ea, a, ie, ige, ge, e, — ; 

6, a, a, u, e, precession and dissimilated gemination 
<§^ 38 ; 27, 5). 

ner-ia-n, ner-e-de, save ; infinitive ner-ia-n, ner-iga-n, ner-igea-n, ner- 
ga-n ; feg-a-n, feg-ea-n, join, feg-{e)-de ; indicative present ner-ie, 
ner-ige, ner-ge, ner-e. 

sealf-ia-n, salve, sealf-6-de, sealf-u-de, sealf-d-de, sealf-e-de. 

247*. Infinitive an is contracted from aa, dgan, ahan ; 6n from dhan, 
bhan: gdn {gaan),go, smeagan'^smedn, consider [ sleahan'^ sledn, s\z.y { 
fan <Jahan, catch ; gefeon<^gefeohan, rejoice ; teon < teohan, tug. 



NOTEWORTHY WEAK VERBS. 127 

Noteworthy Weak Verbs. 

248. — I. Causatives and Transitives, relics of the Sanskrit causative. 
They have the highest progression of the root (like the strong imperfect 
singular), and i-umlaut. 

CoNJ. 1. — V ^ ■ 'V sadi sit; Sansk. sid-d'mi, sit, causative sdd-dja-mi, 
set ; Goth, sit-an, sat-ja-n ; O. Sax. sittian, settian ; 0. Nor. sit-ia, 
set-ia. Highest progression, a ; i-umlaut, e (^^ 199-204, 32). 

sittan<Csit-ia-n, sit; imp. S3iit{a) ; settan<^sat-ia-n, set. 

licgan<i,lig-ia-n,\ie; imp. te^'-(a); lecgan<ilag-ia-n,\a.y. 

beorn-an, burn ; imp. barn ; bern-a-n, cause to burn. 

drinc-an, drink ; imp. dranc ; drenc-a-n, cause to drink. 

CoNJ. 2. — -y/i- 'V dif, s\\ov! \ Sansk. causative c^ep-o/a-^w^'; Goth. feJA-an, 
tdik-ns, token. Highest progression, a; i-umlaut, » (^^ 205, 32). 

iiA-an, point at ; im^.tdh; ^^c-a-n, teach, 

drif-an, drive ; imp. drdf; dreef-a-n, disperse. 

lid-an, go (by sea) ; imp. lad ; Isbd-a-n, lead. 

ris-an, arise ; imp. rds ; rsbr-a-n, raise, rear. 

CoNJ. 3.— -V^ • V^Mm^', bend ; Sansk. causative bhog'-ajd-mi (§ 158). 
Highest progression, ed ; i-umlaut, y {^^ 206, 32) ; e often occurs. 
bug-an, bovir, bend ; imp. bedh ; byg-a-n, cause to bend. 
fleog-an, flee ; imp. Jledh ; flyg-a-n, put to flight. 

CoNJ. 4. — V^) a : -^ far., Sansk. causative pdr-djd-mi, accomplish. High' 
est progression, 6; i-umlaut, e {^^ 207, 32) ; or, progression, a; umlauu 
e : G olh. far-an, far-ja-n, but gal-an, sing, gol-ja-n (compare ^ 158, e). 

far-an, go; imp. /or; fer-a-n, go ; far-ia-n, carry . 

pac-an, wake ; imp. poc ; peccan <C pac-ia-n, awaken. 

pac-ia-n, watch, is also found — a later denominative. 

Here belong many verbs apparently formed from nouns or participles by 
i-umlaut of the root vowel : hyld-an, to make bent (heald) ; hyn-an, to make 
lowly {hcdn) ; hrym-an^ to cry {hream) ; pyrc-an, to work (peorc) ; pyrm- 
an, to warm (pearm) ; yld-an, to delay {eald, old) ; yrm-an, to make wretch- 
ed (earm) ; ypp-an, to lay open (up) ; yt-an, to drive out {ut) ; words in 
-fyld-an : pri-fyld-an, to triple (feald, fold), etc. 

249. — II. Denominatives without Umlaut, from adjectives. 
Such are oftenest neuter, but with ge- oftenest transitive. 

micl-ia-n, to grow great (micel) ; ge-michan, to make great. 
litl-ia-n, to grow little ; ge-lithan, to make little. 

hdt-ia-n, to grow hot (hdl) ; compare h&t-an, to make hot. 
pearm-ia-n, to grow warm ; compare pyrm-an, to make warm. 



12Q ADVERBS —NOTIONAL STEMS. 

250. — III. Denominative Suffixes grown Verbals: -c-, -g-, -n-, 
-8-, ettan <ai/a« (§ 188, b), Isecan : 

hyr-c-n-ian, hark, hearken {hyr-an, hear) ; syn-g-ian, to sin ; mier-s-ian, 
to make more ; pit-n-ian, to punish ; hdl-ettan, -etan, -etian, hail ; 
sumor-li£can, summer is near. 



ADVERBS. 
251. Adrerbial suffixes are mostly from case-endings. 

Notional Stems (Nouns). 

I. Living Case -endings, with and without prepositions: gen. es, a; 
dat. a, e, um ; ace. — , ne ; instrum. e, e ; weak an. 

es : dseg-es, by day ; idxg-es, (now)-a-days ; call-es, wholly ; micl-es, 
much ; to-midd-es, amidst ; neaht-es, by night ; ned-es, needs ; s6n-es, 
(efl-)soons; j>anc-e5, willingly; a'/<er-/?ear(i-e5, afterwards; hdm-peard- 
es, homewards, a : gedr-d, of yore {gear, year). 

Adverbial -es is found with nouns having their genitive in -e : neaht-e, 
ned-e, etc. ; sin-neahtes, eternally. 

a, dative feminine {^ 93, i) : dearn-ung-a, -inga, -enga, O. Sax. darn- 
un(r-6 (^ 88, a), O. H. G. tarnunk-un (rl = Goth. 6, § 95, c), secretly ; 
deorcung-a, in the gloaming ; Scotch darklings, darkling ; eallung-a, 
wholly ; bxcling-a, O. Eng. backlings, on the back ; so O. Eng. nose- 
ling, side-ling'y s\Ae\or\g (^ 40, 3), headlong, on the nose, side, head. 
This is often thought genitive plural ; but feminine abstracts in -ung 
seldom use the plural, aud they retain the old dative in -a (^ 77, i) ; 
while the O. H. G. can not be a genitive plural. 

um, dative plural : lipil-um, -on, whilom ; on-sundr-on, asunder ; pundr- 
um, wondrously ; stycce-mM-u7n, piece-meal ; seld-um, -on, -an, sel- 
dom ; litl-um, little ; micl-um, much. 

e, e, dative and instrumental : cf/V-e, ever; he6dmg{e),io-AaY; td-dxg-e, 
to-day ; to-nihte, to-night ; to-ealdre, always ; micle ma, much more ; 
to-gsedere, together, an : to-edc-an, moreover. 

^, accusative : ham, home ; east, east ; pest, west ; ealne peg, always ; 
on pe"-, away ; on bsec, back ; on-gedn, against ; eal, all ; nedh, nigh ; 
hdmpeard, homeward ; on idel, in vain ; and comparatives and super- 
latives (^ 123). ne : eal-ne peg, always ; sum-ne dxl, O. Eng. soms 
deal, somewhat. 

II. Obscure Endings, a, e. 

[a.) a : Goth, -a, 0. Sax. -a, O. H. G. -a, perhaps from instrumental -a 

(^63,g-). . . 

(b.) The common adverbial ending from adjectives is -e: O. Sax. -o. 



RELATIONAL STEMS. 129 

O. Nor. -a, O. H. G. -o, Goth. -6, some say -ba. Gothic -3a, -6 are prob- 
ably akin to instrumental -bhi and -a (^ 63, g). Bopp thinks -6 an ablative 
ending like Greek -(jji;<C-ojt, Latin -o and -e<C^-ed, but in Teutonic the in- 
strumentals have a history analogous to that ot' the "^ablative in Greek and 
Latin ; the Anglo-Saxon instrumental has been kept alive by the influence 
of this adverb. Grmim thinks -e a weak singular accusative neuter. 

(c.) So many adverbs are formed from adjectives in -Uc, that -lic-e >• 
Eng. -ly is established as an ending ; so Icelandic -liga, M. H. G. liche. 

fel-a, much ; ^en-a, again ; get-a, yet; s6n-a, soon ; tel-a, weW ; fcor'^ 
(Goth, fairra), far ; nedh^ (Goth, nehva), nigh ; oft^ (Goth, vfla), oft ; 
pel^ (Goth, vaila), well; pid-e, widely ; deop-e, deeply ; hedge<ihedh, 
highly ; nearpe <[ nearu, narrowly ; strang-lic-e, strongly ; sceort-lic-e, 
shortly, etc., etc. For A>^, p'^u, see ^^ 117, 118. 

252. Relational Stems (Pronouns and Prepositions). 

I. Correlatives of Place : 

where, whither, whence ; there, thither, thence ; here, hither, hence. 

A.-Sax.. hpxr, hpider, hpanan; p&r^ pider, panan; her, kider, heonan. 

O. SsiX.. huar,huai(od\hiianan; thar, lhar(od'), thanan; her, her(od), kinan. 

O. H. G. hwdr, hwar-a,-ut, hwanana ; ddr, dar-a, -ut, danana; hiar, ker-a, -ut, hinana. 

O. Nor., hvar, hvert, hvadan ; par, padra, padan ; her, hedra, kedan. 

Goth hvar, kva-p, -dre, hvapru ; par, padei, papro; her, hidre, (fiepro). 

Greek... ttov, irdi, -Ko^tv; tvBa,iv^aGi, ivSrtv; La.t. hie, hue, citro, hinc. 

Sansk... ku-tra, ku-tra, ku-tas; td-tru, td-tra, td-tas; d-tra, d-tra, d-tas. 

(a.) For the stem radicles (interrogative hp, demonstrative J), h), ^i^ 135, 
133, 104, 130 : hpxr, pxr {ee, a?, a), Ormulum le. 

{b ) Ang.-Saxon endings, -r, -der, -nan {-an) ; -d {samod, Goth. sama-P) : 

-r < locative -ri< comparative -ra {^^ 126,62): Sansk. wjoa-rt, Greek 
iirt-p, Lat. s-upe-r, Goth, ufa-r., O. H. G. uba-r, O. Sax. obha-r, Ang.- 
Sax. ofe-r, over. 

-der, -der, Goth, -dre, Sansk -tra<C-trd, is the instrumental of a com- 
parative in -ta-ra {^^ 126, 62) : some think this -tra weathers to -r in 
hpser, etc. ; -d, probably comparative,^ 255 (Sansk. samanti). 

-nan, -nanne, an oblique case of the repeated adjective suffix -na, belong- 
ing to (^ 228, 2) : Lat. super-nn-, belonging {super) above ; whence ab- 
lative adverb super-ne, from above ; belonging to and coming from are 
near akin, but the lost case-ending gives the turn to from. Goth, in- 
nana, within; utana, without; hindana, behind, etc., do not have the 
plain sense from. Pott suggests composition with a preposition (Let- 
tisch no, from). Here belong edst-an, from the east ; pest-an, from 
the west, etc.; also seft-an, aft; feorr-an, from far; for-an, before; 
hind-an, from behind ; inn-an, within ; nedn, from nigli ; mod-an, from 
beneath ; vf-an, from above ; ut-an, from out, and their compounds. 

T 



130 



DERIVATION.— PREPOSITIONS AND PREFIXES. 



II. Correlatives of Time: Manner: 

when ; then ; now ; once. how ; thus ; so. 

A.-S. hpannc; panne {x,o,e), pd; nu; iu,ged. hu<^/ijH; pus, pees; spa. 

Goth, hvan ; Jian, {O.H.G. do; nu; ju, giu. huico),hvaiva; svah, sve. 

Lat... qmim; turn; nunc ; jam<^S\i.ns\i. ja. quomodo; tarn, ita; sic, ut. 

Gr — TTore; toti; vv,vvv(Sa.nsk.nu); Si]<id}d. Troie; twq; wf. 

hpannc, accusative masculine; pd, feminine; hu, hpi, instrumental; pus, 
genitive, <^ ppis, or instrumental pu-\-s, O. Sax. thiu-s (^ 133, 2); 
Paes, genitive ; spa, Goth, svc, instrumental ; the endings in the other 
languages are not all analogous. 

III. Prepositions ^ adverbs : wfter, hi, for, in, mid, on, of, to, purh, 
under, up, ofer, put, with many derivatives and compounds. See ^^ 253- 
259. 

IV. Derivatives in e, denoting rest in, probably a dative : Goth, -a, O. 
Sax. -a, O. Nor. -i, O.H.G. -a. 

inn-e, within ; ut-e, without ; ufan-e, over, etc. 

V. Comparatives and Superlatives. ^^ 123-129, 2. 



PREPOSITIONS AND PREFIXES. 

253. — I. Those denoting simple relations generally take their signifi- 
cance from a single consonant (^ 56). Contrasted space relations are pri- 
marily denoted. This contrast is often further brought out by endings of 
comparison (^^ 122-129). The relation is sometimes made more definite 
by case-endings and other suffixes. Most inseparable prefixes have a sim- 
ilar etymology. 

II. Many prepositions and prefixes of later growth are from nouns or 
verbs, and have an etymology like adverbs. 

254, Prepositions and prefixes with a single consonant. A few others 
are added to better illustrate their etymology. 

1. Semi-votceb. Sanskrit. Greek. Latin. Gothic. O. Sax. O. Nor. O. II. G. 

a-(»), privitive : ... avis'^^as? tK? ex? see or ; a-; er- ; d<iar-, 

or-— a: dvis'^us? ; ; us-; ; ur,dr-; ur-. 

ea-C, besides : dva ; av-(Tig) ; ; du-k; 6-h ; au-k ; au-h. 

pi(t, against, with : t>j, seeto; ; vi-,ve~; vi-pra; wi-it ; vi-ct ; ui-dar. 

ne, n-, negative : .. na ; vq- ; ne, ne ; ni ; ni, ne ; ne ; ni, ne. 

an (o«, a-), on : and; dvd; an-; ana; an; d; ana. 

and (omrf, orf), an- : dn-ti; dv-ri ; an-ie; an-d; an-d;-t; an-d ; an^t. 

in, in, on: arm, an-; tvi, tv ; in; in; inna; i7in, i ; in. 

un-(on), un-: an-,a-; dv-,d-; in-; un-; un-; u-; tin-. 



PREPOSITIONS AND PREFIXES. 131 

Sanskrit. Greek. Latin. Gothic. O. Sax. O. Nor. O. H. Ger. 

mi-d, with : ^ mi-thds; fit-rd; ; mi-p ; mi-d; me-d ; mi-t(i). 

mis-, mis- : akin to mid, Goth, misso, mutually ; missa-; mis-; miss-; mis-^ 

a- (Je, dpa, o), ever : eva-s? «'F'' J wvum; div ; eo; ae ; eo. 

2. Labials (p, b, f ). 

up, adv., up : upa; vtto, virip ; s-ub, s-uper ; iup ; up; upp ; uf. 

hi (be, biff), he-, hy: abhi; -^i ; (ti)-bi ; bi; bi, be- ; ; pi. 

ymb(e), ewb(e), about : abhi ; afi^i ; amb- ; ; urribi ; um ; umpi. 

of (a^-), of, off : dpa; arro ; ab ; af; af; af; aba. 

for-, for-(bid) : pd-rd ; irapd, trap ; per- ; fro-; fox-; for-; far-. 

for, for: purds; Trdpog ; pra:? four; fur(i); fyr(i) ; fi^''^- 

fore, fore- : purds; irdpog ; por; faura; for(a); for-; fora, 

feor, adv. adj., far: jwira; Trspa; per-; fair-ra; fer; Jiarri; fer. 

- . .„ ^^ (pdri ; Tre pi ; per-; \ mixed : probablv a simulation of Lat. 

fr^- (fred-), very : T - } J ' ^ ^ ^ " /c <« o^ 

\pra ; TTpo ; pro, pne ; ) prie by compounds of frea (§ 40, Z), 

fram, from : pd-ra-m; irepav; peren- ; fram ; fram; fi-am; fram. 

3. Dentals (t, d, J), d, s). 

set, at : ddhi; (o-')'bi; ad; at; at; at; az. 

6ct, unto : ddhi? : ; and,und; tint; unz ; unt-. 

to, to : ddhi? -^t ; ; du; to, te ; ; zuo, zi. 

t6-, in two : (tf)i'i- (§ 139, 2) ; Sid; dis- ; dis-; te- ; ; 2e(r),za^). 

ut, out : ut ; va-T(pOQ; ; ut ; ut ; ut ; uz. 

ed-, back : i-tara, other ? ; i-tei^m? id-; id-ur; id-; it-. 

J) urh, through : .... tirds ; ; trans; pair-h ; thurh; ; durah. 

sam-, together : ... sa-md' ; ufia; sim-ul; sama; sama ; sam- ; sama. 

sam-, half : sd-mi^; Vfii-; semi-; ; sdm-; ; sdmi-. 

sin-, ever : sa-na; sVo-g ; sem-(j)er) ; sin-{teins) ; sin^ ; si-; sin-. 

4. Gutturals. 

ge-, together : (sd-)kdm? %vv? cum, co-? ga-; gi- ; g-; &»-, etc 

sbs=d-^ge, ever : . O. H. G. eo-ga (§ 136, 5). 

(a.) For shifting of letters, see ^^ 18, 19, 41 ; for precession and weather- 
ing of endings, ^ 38. d<^ar, od-C^and, ^ 37 ; ymhe <^abhi, and<Cddhi, ^ 27, 
5 ; A in purh, c in edc, § 133, 2, a. 

{b.) Most of the Sanskrit forms look like vowel pronominal bases with 
suffixes and case-endings: a-bhi, a-pa^ a-pa-ra^ gen. purds, locative 
pdri, ace. pdram, instrum. pdrd. ^ 62. 



255. Comparative Forms : er, r, ter, der, cter, d, d. ^^ 122-129. 

of-er, over ; xf-ter, after ; un-der, under ; pi-der, wither-(nam) ; to-pi- 

dere, against ; ni-der, neath ; pi-d, with ; mi-d, with ; fo-r, for ; fo-re, 

before , f-rse, very ; geon-d, yond ; hin-d-an, behind ; samo-d, together. 

\b.) The above are formed on of; mf; an >Sansk. an{a)-tara; pi; ni, 

akin to m, Sansk. ant > nt, down, Gr. tva-poi, O. H. G. ni-dar ; mi <^ ma ; 

/ — <Cpa; geon, Goth. jdins<^ja-}ia ; hin^=heon{an) (^252); sam. 



132 PKEPOSITIONS AND PREFIXES.— PARTICLES. 

256. Superlative m (^ lOfi) : fia-m, from ; pdram, Tripav, peren- seem 
to be accusatives, and in so fai not analogous to f ram. 

257. Adverbial -an (^252), mostly compounds: be-, b-, pid-o'ft-an ; 
for-an ; wt-, bi-, on-, to-, pid-for-an ; geond-an ; be-, pid-geond-an ; be- 
heon-an ; be-hind-an ; tnn-an ; b-, on-, pid-inn-an ; neod-an ; be-, under- 
neod-an ; uf-an ; b-, d-b-, on-uf-an ; upp-an ; on-upp-an ; ut-an ; b-, on-b-, 
pid-, ymb-ut-an ; English before ; beyond ; behind ; within ; be-, under- 
neath ; above ; a-b-, with-out. 

258. From Substantives, mostly compounds with prepositions: to- 
edcan, besides; a-, on-gegn, to-gegnes, against; ge-mong, on-gemong, 
among ; on-efn (German n-eben), even with, beside, an-ent ; in-middum, 
to-middes, amidst ; be-tpeon-um, -an, between ; be-tpeo-h-s, be-tpeox, be- 
twixt ; so English be-side<6e sidan; down<a-rfime, from a hill; a-loft 
(ShakespeareX o?i lyfte, in the air; and the like, hand-, ^ 267,11. 

259. From Adjectives = adverbs (see ^^ 254, 229):^ &r, ere; feof, 
far from ; ge-hende, handy to ; Ixs, less ; nedh, near, nehst, nedh-hand, 
nigh to; til (Northumbrian), to; peard, to-peard, toward; pana,\ess; ge- 
long, and-long, along; n-efne, n-emne (compare on-efn, ^ 258), except; 
sU (late), since. Prefixes : eal- («/-, el-), all ; efen-, co- ; ful-, full ; mis-, 
mis- ; sdm-, semi- ; sm-, ever ; pan-, less ; pel-, well. 



Particles of Interrogation, Affirmation, Negation. 

260. Interrogation.— (a.) Adverbial forms of the pronominal Ap, whose 
derivation has been explained : hpxder, hpser, hpider, hpanan, hpy, hu, and 
compounds, /or-A/^awi, etc. 

(b.) Intensives: ne, ^ 254 ; ac (ach, ah), ^ 262 ; hu, ^ 252 ; Id, ^ 263. 
(c.) Conjunctions in indirect questions : gif, if, ^ 262. 

261. Affirmation and Negation.— (a.) From relational stems: 
gea, ik, yea<ia (^ 107, a) ; Goth, ja, jai ; O. Sax., O. Nor., O. H. G. id. 
ge-se, yes ; gea-\--se<Csi, let it he. 

ne (^ 254), n-a, n-6, nay, no ; Goth, ne div, O. H. G. ni-eo, not ever. 
ne-se, like gese : n-dn, Ger. n-em, Lat. n-on, not one ; nealles, nalass, nats 

{ne ealles), not at all ; n-d-piht, noht, not a whit. 

{J).) Regular adverbial forms : sodlice, pitodlice, verily. 



DERIVATION.— CONJUNCTIONS.— INTERJECTIONS. 138 

262. CONJUNCTIONS. 
In their formation they are similar to prepositions. 

I. From relational stems. — (a.) Not before explained: 

Sanskrit. Greek. Latin. Gothic. O. Sax. O. Nor. 0. 11. G. 

and, ond, and ; {dti ; in ; et) ? ; audi ; ; anti (w). 

ano, o«o, an = if; (<iand); dv; an; an; O.Yi.G. em, inu<an-\-nu. 

gif, if ; ja-d(ja-pi); el; s-i; ja-hai; (e/; ef; ihu). 

ac (ck, h), but ; (akin to edc, § 254 ?) ; ak ; ac ; ; oh. 

ge, and; «ya, §252; Si]<Sjd; ja-m); ja-h ; ja, ja-c ; ok7 ioh. 

gyt, ffeta, yet ; <^eo, §252; ; ; jii-pan; ; M.H.G.it^zao. 

ben-den, whilst ; compare Latin tan-dem ; pan-de ; ; ; dan-ta. 

J)eah (^ph), though ; see for -uh § 133, 2, a ; pa-uh ; thoh ; po ; doh. 

odde (ettda, pe), or ; dtha, but ; ; at ; ip, aip-pau ; eilha ; eda ; eddo (o-). 

eac, also; sam, samo-d, as well as; ne — ne, neither — nor; nu — nu, 

now — then, have been given with adverbs or prefixes. 
and may be akin with and<ianti (^ 254). ano is all doubtful ; ja'^ja- 
bai and i> Goth, t-^a = 0. H. G. i-5m, are kindred stems; gif,0. 
Friesic jef, Lithuania jei-b, go with ja-bai (^^ 107, a; 63, g-) ; ge might 
be ge- (^ 254) ; -den in pen-den, -pan in ju-pan, are the demonstrative 
ta ((} 104, b) ; Goth, ip > ed, ap > od is akin to ed- (^^ 254. 3 ; 38). 
(J.) Many other pronominal adverbs, whose etymology has been explained, 
and whose meaning and use belong in syntax : hii, how ; spa, so ; spylce, 
such ; pider, panan, pa, py, pe, pses, ponne, peer ; hpi-der, whither ; hpie-der, 
whether ; elles, else ; O. H. G. alhs, alies, gen., Lat. alias, al-, § 216. 

II. From notional stems, a few oblique cases of nouns. 

hpile, hpil-um — hp'dum, sometimes — sometimes. 



263. INTERJECTIONS. 
(1.) Imitation of cries, or sound-gestures : ea, est, eap, oh ; pa, pea, wo; 
Id, lo; ha, ha; hd, ha; compounds — ed-ld, mixed with French he-las (Lat. 
lassus, weary), alas, corrupt alack ; pd-ld, pd-ld-pd, welaway, corrupt wel- 
aday, etc. ; h'lg, h'lg, Lat. o, o, iElfrc. Coll. 

Somewhat similar quasi-words are wide-spread, but they can be iden- 
tified only when steadied by true words formed from them : Greek od, 
ovai, Lat. v<s, Goth, vdi, O. Sax. we, Swed. ve, O. H. G. we, wo; O. 
H. G. we-la, etc. Such words were doubtless as numerous in the an- 
cient languages as in English, but are not preserved in books. 
(2.) True ivords used as cries or gestures have nothing peculiar in their 
etymology : hpxl, what ; hu, how ; pel, well ; peg Id —pel /a, well done, etc. ; 
efne, Lat. ecce, lo. 



134: COMrOSITION OF WOUDS. 

264. COMPOSITION OF WORDS. 

Composition proper combines word-stems so as to express a new notion. 
Coalescence is the running together of whole words with such change 
of accent as to make a new word. 

(a.) Parasyntheta are derivatives from compounds. 

Nouns. 
265. — I. Form. — Nouns final in compounds retain their stems and end- 
ings; elsewhere only their theme, except substantives in e<ia, e<«, and 
u(o): gum-a, nidin; ^«m-cy«, mankind ; ea/</-/a'rfcr, grandfather ; gryre, 
horror ; gryre-hpU, time of horror ; lagu, lake ; lagu-Jldd, river. Coales- 
cence takes place of prefixes and some genitives with a following noun • 
SiBternes - dieg, Saturday; Monan-dwg, Monday; Oxend-ford, Oxford-, 
dxges-ege, daisy ; and-sparu, answer ; un-treopd, untruth ; un-pis, un- 
wise, etc. Words with quasi-suffixes are compounds in form. ^ 229. 

266. — II. Relation of Stems to each other. — (1.) Attributive 
(substantive 4- substantive) — appositive : dc-treo, oak-tree; ptf-man, wo- 
man ; compare peop-boren, born a slave ; descriptive : gdr-ledc, spear- 
leek, garlick ; Aeo/bJ- man, head-man ; genitive: go'd-spel, God's mes- 
sage; (adjective -f substantive): mid-dxg, m[d-da.y; nedh-hiir, neigh-hour. 
Adjective parasyntheta from the last are called Possessives : clmn-heort, 
possessing a clean heart ; dn-hende, one-handed ; dn-edge and dn-eged, 
one-eyed ; hier-fot, bare-foot, bare-footed. 

(2.) Objective. — (Substantive +noun, between which an accusative end- 
ing or preposition would express the relation) — accusative : man-cpellere 
man-killer ; dd-sparing, oath-swearing ; blod-geole, shedding of blood : gen 
itive : cear-ful, full of care ; dative : god-lie, like to God. 

(3.) Adverbial {noun or particle -\- adjective) : lel-meahtig, aW-raighty ; 
manig-feald, manifold ; blod-redd, blood-red ; sndp-hptt, snow-white ; un- 
clsene, unclean ; (noun or particle -\- substantive) — space relations : land- 
man, man living on the land, farmer ; time : niht-hrwfn, raven flying by 
night ; cause : hand-gepeorc, hand-iwork ; purpose : ort-geard, orchard, 
yard for vegetables ; ealo-fset, vat for ale ; edg-sealf, eye-salve ; with an 
infinitive, A/^ei-sian, stone to whet; /?r<^Joc, writing-book ; material: stdn- 
peal, wall of stone ; is-gicel, icicle ; gold-smid, worker in gold. 

(a.) Attributive compound nouns not possessives and adverbially com- 
pound adjectives are called Determinatives. 

(b.) Collectives have copulate parts : per-polf, man and wolf, were- 
wolf; preo-tynet three and ten. 

267. Verbs. 
I. For the terminations springing from composition, see ^ 160. 



rORMATION OF WORDS TO EXl'RESS GENDER, 135 

II. Verbs with proper compound stems are parasyntheta from compound 
nouns. But note hand-sellan, put in hand; ful-fyllan, etc., below. 

III. Compound verbs are directly formed by coalescence with preposi- 
tions and prefixes : ofer-jieopan, over-flow ; d-pacan, a-wake ; mis-don, 
mis-do ; ful-fyllan, fulfill ; pel-don, do well ; efen-peorcan, co-operate. 

(a.) For prepositions and prefixes, see §^ 15, 254. 

{b.) Composition has the same laws throughout the Indo-European lan- 
guages. Iii some of them so many of the stem-endings conform w^ith the 
most common one that it comes to be regarded as a sign of composition 
(Gr. -0-, Lat. -i-, Goth, -a-) ; traces of this are in Anglo-Saxon : niht-e-gale, 
night-in-gale. 



FORMATION OF WORDS TO EXPRESS GENDER. 
268. — I. Animals. — A. Words with pairs of endings (Mobile) : 
Masculine, — < a ; a.<ian; ere. 

Feminine, — <i,- e<an; e, ige<(e<ia?i ; eu<f«nj; estre. 
1. ( — <a and — <0, umlaut, § 32 : gat, -es, g&t, -e, he-goat, she-goat; 
m&g, -es, -e, kins-man, -woman ; pulf,pylf, he-, she-wolf. — 2. (a and e) : 
ass-a, -e, he-, she-ass ; mdg-a, -e, kins-man, -woman ; nef-a, -c, nephew, 
niece ; rabg-a, -e, hart, roe ; peop-a, -e, man-, maid-servant ; pebb-a, -e, 
weaver; picc-a, -e, witch; pudup-af -e, widow-er. — 3. ( — <Ca and e, 
ige) : mearh, merige, mere, myre, horse, mare ; hlaford, hldf{or)d-ige, 
lord, lady. — 4. (a and — <C0 : han-a, hen, cock, hen. — 5. ( — <^a and 
eu) : self, -en, elf; fox,fixen, fox, vixen ; god, gyd-en, god-dess ; munec, 
-en, monk, nun ; peop, -en, pegen, pign-en, pealh, pyl-en, servant ; add 
manna, mennen, servant; casere, caser-n, emperor, empress. — 6. (ere 
and estre) : basc-ere, biec-estre, baker, bakster ; hearp-ere, -estre, harper ; 
hopp-ere, -estre, dancer ; red-ere, -estre, reader ; sang-ere, -estre, singer ; 
sedm-ere, -estre, seam-ster ; pebb-ere, -estre, weaver, webster ; fidel-ere, 
-estre, fiddler. — 7. (Relics): gus<Cgans, gandra {^^ 37; 41, Z>,- 50), 
goose, gander; cyning, cpen {^^ cpan'^ cun^ cyn, ^^ 35, 32, 38, 24), 
king, queen ; abbud, -isse (Lat. abbatissa, Gr. -laaa), abbot, abbess ; speor, 
speger (Goth, svaihr-a, -6, Lat. socer, socrus, Gr. tKvp-oQ, -a, Sansk. 
pva^ura, fvafru), father-, mother-in-law. 

B. Compounds whose first part marks sex, last part gender : 

Masculine, paepned, patp-, peepen-, weaponed ; carl, hyse, man, guma. 
Feminine, pif, wife ; mwgden, maid ; open, woman. 
patpned-man, m., -beam, n., cild, n., -pifestre, f., man, boy, hermaphrodite 
hyse-cild, n., boy ; man-cild, n., man-child ; man-esne, m., man-servant 
gum-man, man ; gum-pegn, man ; carl-cat, m., -fugol, m., tom-cat, -bird 
pif-rnan'^ pimman, m., woman ; ptf-pegn, m., servant; pif-freond, m,, 
friend ; m&den-cild, n., -fibmne, f., -man, m., female child, maid ; cpeu' 



136 FOKMATIOX OF WORDS TO EXl'KESS GENDEK. 

fugol, m., bird; add sperc-healf, f., spindl-healf, f., spear-lialf = male 

side, spiiidle-lialf= female side. 

C Male and female have names from different roots. Such names 
abound for man and the domestic animals. They are old and widespread. 
Man : guma, per, fiusbonda, hod, secg, hxle{d), rinc, beorn, carl ; phir. 

Jirds; [em\mne,fil'miie, ides, bryd,f6stre, meuple, mxged, m&g, cpen ; 

neuter, beam, cild, child ; ptf, wife. Pairs of kindred : fxder, modor ; 

sunu,d6htar; brudor, speostor; earn, modrige, uncle, a,\int; god-faeder, 

god-modor. 
Horse: hengest, stcda,fola; feminine, wien'Ae. Ox: oxa, steorc, fearh, 

bulluca; t'em. cu,heafre. Sheep: ra7n,pedcr; icm. eop{u). Swine: 

bar, eofor, bearh; fern. sugu. Goat: bucca, hiefer; fern, rah, rd. 

Deer: heart, m., hind, f. Dog: hund, m., bicce, f. Hen: coc, m., 

hen, f. Bee : drdn, m., beo, f. Neuter : hors, picg, horse ; swtn, 

swine; ?nul, mule; dear, wild beast, deer; cealf, calf; lamb; scedp 

sheep. 

Names of other animals are epicene {^ 67). Neuter names of young ani- 
mals often add -ir-, -er- in the plurul : cild, cild-er-u, child, children 
(^ 82). Nothing else peculiar in the formation. 

269. — II. Things without Sex, and abstracts. For general rules, 
§ 67 (gender of the endings, ^\^ 231-239). It is often not easy to tell how 
far personification, and how far phonetic laws, determine the gender (^ 64, 
2). The same object often has names of different genders: see, f., lago, 
m., bnm, n., egor, n., sea. The Teutonic tongues generally agree. But 
note Neuters (German masculine) mod, mood, muth; tplg, twig, zweig ; 
pin, wine, wein ; (German feminine) clif, clifi', klippe ; ear, ear, dhre ; 
fxsten, fastness, /e^/e ; lie, corps, leiche ; s&d, seed, saat ; sceorp, scarf, 
schdrpe ; peepen, weapon, waffe ; pesten, n.,m., waste, wiiste ; Masculines 
(German feminine), crieft, craft, kraft ; lust, lust; tear, tear, zdhre ; (Ger- 
man neuter) ende, end ; feld, field ; here, army, heer ; sal, cord, seil : Fem- 
ININES (German masculine), turf, turf, torf; piht, wight, ivicht ; (German 
neuter) blxd, blade, blatt ; boc, book, buch ; hdblu, health, heil ; heorte, 
heart, herz ; gesihd, sight, gesicht. 

2Y0. — III. Derivatives from foreign names retain their gender, except 
Feminines^ masculines : a?zcor, anchor ; ^oa:, box-wood ; /)er5MC, peach ; 
yisfo^, epistle ; regol, rnle; ^neuters: non, noon; NEUTERS>masculines : 
balsam ; err da. creed ; ^feminines : ceaster, city ; lilie, lily ; palant, palace : 
timpane, drum ? 



PART III. 

SYNTAX. 

271. Syntax is the doctrine of graramatical combinations of 
loords. It treats of the use of the etymological forms in dis- 
course — their agreement, government, and arrangement. 

SIMPLE COMBINATIONS. 

272. There are four simple combinations: the predic'ative^ at- 
trib'utive, objective, and adverbial. 

273. — I. Predicative 

zzz nominative substantive -{-agreeing verb j 
=nominative substantive-^- agreeing jyredicate nouuy 
=inominative substa7itive-\- predicate adverb. 

gold glisnad, gold glistens ; gold is beorht, gold is bright ; 
JElfred pxs cijnini^, Alfred was king; ic eom her^ I am here. 

(a.) This is a combination between a 
subject, of which something is said (=zgold, JElfred, ic), and a 
predicate, which is said of the subject {=glisndd, heorht, cyning, her). 

{b.) Copula. — The sign of predication is the stem-ending of a notional 
verb {—a in glisndct), or is a relational verb {is,pms, eom). The substan- 
tive verb, when so used, is called the copula — a good name for any sign of 
predication. Copulative verbs take a predicate noun. 

(c.) Quasi-predicalive is the relation between the implied subject and 
predicate in a quasi-clause. ^ 278, d. 

274. — II. A,\XribVi\,ive = agreeing noun-{- substantive ; 

■=genitive sxd)stantive-\- substantive. 

god cyning, good king ; Alfred xdeling, Alfred the prince ; 
Engld land, land of the Angles. 

(a.) This combination expresses the relation of subject + attribute as 
taken for granted. The leading substantive is called the 

subject, that to which the attribute belongs {cyning, JElfred, land) ; 
an attributive is the agreeing adjective {god), or genit. substantive {Engld) ; 
an appositive is the agreeing substantive {iedeling). 

{b.) The sign of this relation is the agreeing case-endings, or the attribu- 
tive genitive ending, or a preposition {^ 271,2). 



138 SYNTAX.— SlilPLE COMBINATIONS. 

275. — in. Objective = verb -\- governed noun. 

= adjective + governed noun. 

ic hunttge heortds, I hunt harts ; he si/ld him hors, he sells him a 
horse ; gilpes pu gyrnest, thou wishest fame ; psere f&hde he ge- 
feah, he rejoiced at the vengeance ; hi macad hme (^to) ci/nmge, 
they make him king ; hpi scgst pu me gvdiie, why callest thou me 
good "? beud gcmindige Lodes plfes, remember Lot's wife. 

(a.) This combination expresses the relation of an act or quality to its 
completing notional object. 

Objective verbs or adjectives are those which need such object {huntige, etc.). 
Subjective need no such object {ic slivpe, I sleep). 
Transitive verbs have a suffering object {huntige, syld, macad, etc.). 
Intransitive have no suffering object {gyrnest, gefeah). 

The completing object may be 
suffering {— direct), ^n accusative merely affected (Jieortds,hors,hine,me); 
dative {^.indirect ^personal), a receiver to or for whom is the act {him) ; 
genitive, suggesting or exciting the act {gilpcs, fxhde, pifes) ; 
factitive, a product or result in fact or thought {cyninge, godne). 

(b.) The sign of relation is the ease-ending or a preposition. 

(c.) Many Anglo-Saxon verbs require an object, when the English by 
which we translate them do not. Many objects conceived as exciting in 
Anglo-Saxon are conceived as suffering in English ; many as merely ad- 
verbial. 

(d.) The factitive object often has a quasi-predicative relation to the suf- 
fering object, agreeing with it like a predicate noun {7ne-\- godne). Such 
clauses are nearly equivalent to two (why sayest thou that I am good ■?). 

276. — IV. A.dverhial = verb+ adverb or adverbial phrase. 

= adjective -\- adverb or adverbial phrase. 
\ = adverb -\- adverb or adverbial phrase. 

' ic gd ut, I go out ; ic singe aslce dxg, I sing each day ; pe sprecad 

gepemmodltce, we speak corruptly ; he com mid pa f&mnan, he 
came with the woman ; m.id sorgum libban, to live having cares ; 
hpi fandige ge mm, why tempt ye me ? micle md man is scedpe 
betera, man is much (more) better than a sheep. 

(a.) This combination is between an act or quality and its unessential 
relations. The most common relations are place {ut), time {xlce dxg)^ 
manner {gepemmodltce), co-e2dstence {mid f&mnan, mid sorgum), cause 
{hpi), intensity {micle, md, scedpe). 

{b.) The sign is an adverbial ending, case-ending, or preposition. 

(c.) The adverbial combination is given by Becker as a subdivision of 
the objective, h\it the linguistic sense of the Indo-European races uniformly 
recognizes the adverb as a separate part of speech. 



EQUIVALENTS.— SENTENCES. 189 

277. Equivalents of the Noun and Adverb iu the com 

binations : 

(1.) For a Substantive may be used a substantive norm or 
pronoun, an adjective or any of its equivalents, an infinitive, a 
clause, any icord or phrase viewed merely as a thing. 

(2.) For an Adjective may be used an adjective noun or pro- 
noun, an article (attributively), a participle, a genitive substan- 
tive, an adverb, a preposition with its case, a relative clause. 

(3.) For an Adverb may be used an oblique case of a noun 
with or without a preposition, a. phrase, a clause. 

SENTENCES. 

278. A Sentence is a thought in words. It may be 
declarative, an assertion, indicative, subjunctive, or potential; 
interrogative, a question, indicative, subjunctive, or potential; 
Imperative, a command, exhortation, entreaty ; a species of 
exolamatory, an expanded interjection. ^^ 149-151. 

(a.) A clause is one finite verb with its subject, objects, and all their at- 
tributives and adjuncts. Its essential part is its predicative combination. 
The {grammatical) subject of the predicative combination, its attributives 
and adjuncts, make up the logical subject of the clause ; the grammatical 
predicate and its objects with their attributives and adjuncts make up the 
logical predicate. 

(J.) A subordinate clause enters into grammatical combination with 
some word in another (principal) clause ; co-ordinate clauses are coupled 
as wholes. 

(c.) The sign of relation between clauses is a relative or conjunction. 

{d.) Quasi-clauses. — (1) Infinitives, participles, Tind factitive objects 
mark quasi-predicative combinations, and each has its quasi-clause. (2) In- 
terjections and vocatives are exclamatory quasi-clauses. 

279. A Sentence is simple, complex, or compound. 

280. A simple sentence is one independent clause. 

I. A predicative combination. 
Verb for predicate: fisceras fisciad, Ushers fish. 
Adjective : God is god, God is good. 
Genitive : tol Csesares is, tribute is Cxsar''s. 
Substantive : Cxdmon pses leodpyrhta, Caedmon was a poet. 
Adverb : pe sind her, we are here. 
Adverbial : God is in heofenum, God is in heaven. 
Subject indefinite : (Jiit) snipd, it snows ; me pyrst, me it thirsteth. 



140 ^ENTKNCES. 

II. Clause with attributive combination. 
Adjective attribute : god gold glisndd, good gold glistens. 
Genitive: folces stemn is Godcs stcinn, folk's voice is God's voice. 
Appositive : pe cildra sind ungclxrcdc, we children are untaught. 

III. Clause with objective combination. 
Direct object : Cxdmon porhtc leodsangds, Caedmon made poems. 
Dative : l&n me pri fildfds, give me three loaves. 

Genitive : P^vt pif dhloh drthtnes, the woman laughed at the lord. 
Factitive : Simonem he nemde Petrum, Simon he named Peter. 

IV. Clause with adverbial combination. 

Place : ic gd ut, I go out. 
Time : ic gd ut on dxgrcd, I go out at dawn. 
Manner : se cyning scryt me pel, the king clothes me well. 
Co-existence : mid sorgum ic libbe, 1 live tvith cares. 
Cause : he has is for cylde, he is hoarse from cold ; se cnapa pypdd 
oxan mid gadisene, the boy drives oxen with an iron goad. 

281. — V. Abridged complex sentence. Clause containing a 
quasi-clause. § 278, d. 

Infinitive : tsec us sprecan, teach us to speak. 

Factitive : hp2 segst Pu me godne, why callest thou me (to be) good? 

Participle (adjectival) : ic hicbbe sumne cnapan, pypcndne oxan, I have a 
boy, {driving) who drives oxen; (adverbial, gerund), Boetius gebmd 
sino-ende, Boethius prayed singing ; (absolute), pinre dura belocenre, 
bide pinne f aider, thy door having been locked, pray thy father. 

282. — YI. Abridged compound sentence (§ 284). Verbs>verb. 

Compound subject : he and seo singad, he and she sing. 
Compound predicate : he is god and pis, he is good and wise ; seo lu- 
fdd hme and me, she loves him and me. 

283. A complex sentence is one principal clause with its 

subordinate clause or clauses. § 278, b. The subordinate may 

be a 

Substantive : (subject), is swgd pxt he com, that he came is said ; (ob- 
ject), ic pat pxt he com, I wot that he came ; (appositive), ic com to 
ham. hxt he p&re gefulpod, I came for this, that he might be baptized. 

.^djective : stsef-crmft is seo c&g, pe pxra hoed andgit unlycd, grammar 
is the key, that unlocks the sense of the books. 

Adverb : (place), hpider pu g&st, ic gd, I go whither thou goest ; (time), 
tc gd hpxnne pu gskst, I go when thou goest; (manner), /u spnece spa 
spa an stunt pif, thou spakest as a stupid woman speaks ; (intensity), 



riGUEES OF SYNTAX. 141 

beud glcdpe spa n.vdraii, be wise as serpents ; leofre is hlehhan ponne 
grsbtan, it is better to laugh than cry; (cause = efficient, motive, means, 
argument, condition [protasis to an apodosis], concession, purpose) : 
hit punrdd forpam God pilt, it thunders because God wills; paciad,for- 
Pam pe ge nyton pone dxg, watch, because ye know not the day ; On- 
send Higeldce, gif mec hild nime, (protasis) if me battle take, (apodosis) 
send to Higelac, etc. Co-existence is usually in an abridged participial 
clause (^ 281). 

284. A compound sentence is a number of co-ordinate 

clauses. § 2*78, b. 

Copulative : ic gd ut and ic geocie oxan, I go out and I yoke oxen. 
Adversative : fyr is god pegn, ac is frecne fred, fire is a good servmt, 

but is a bad master; ne 7iom he md,pedh he monige geseah, he took no 

more, though he saw many. 
Disjunctive : ic singe odde ic rxde, I sing or I read. 
Causal : forprj ge ne gehyrad, forpam pe ge ne synd of Gode, therefore 

ye do not hear, (for this that) because ye are not of God, 



FIGURES OF SYNTAX. 

285. A complete sentence has every part of all its combina- 
tions expressed. 

A normal sentence is complete, and has its parts expressed 
and arranged according to the general laws of the language. 

Figures of Syntax are deviations from the normal sen- 
tence. 

I. Ellipsis, omission. This may be of a conjunction (asyn'deton), of 
a word to have been repeated (brachyl'ogy), of a verb somewhat like one 
in a corresponding clause (zeugma), of the latter part of a clause not to be 
supplied from the corresponding part of other clauses (aposiope'sis). See 
also anacoluthon (below. III.). 

II. Pleonasm, too many words. There may be too many conjunctions 
(polysyndeton), two nouns and a conjunction for a noun and attributive 
(hendi'adis). 

III. Enallage, substitution. Of one part of speech for another (anti- 
meri'a), of one case for another (hypal'lage), of a different scheme of con- 
struction for the one in which a sentence begins (anacolu'thon). Syn'- 
esis is a construction according to sense and not grammatical form. 

IV. Hyper'baton, transposition. Of words (anas' trophe), of clauses 
(hys'teron-prof eron) . 



142 USES OF THE Cx\SE-ENDINGS. 

USES OF THE CASE-ENDINGS. 

Substantives. 

Agreement of Endings. 

286. — I. Predicative Combination. — A predicate noun 

denoting the same person or thing as its subject, agrees with it 

in case. 

(a.) Also in gender, if it varies for gender, and oftenest in number; but 
copulate singulars and a plural agree : ic eom peg, I am the way (John, 
xiv, 6) ; he is mm sunn, he is my son (Luke, ix, 38); he and seo sind 
freondds, he*and she are friends. Nouns of multitude take Synesis. 

{b.) The rule applies to quasi-predicatives (^ 278, d) : God het pd fxst- 
nisse heofenan, God called the firmament heaven (Gen., i, 8). But pred- 
icate-accusative substantives are rare in Anglo-Saxon. The Latin and 
Greek accusative + infinitive is generally represented by a clause with 
pset (that), and the factitive depends on to (to) or for, as does often the 
common predicate : pu pyrcst pe to Gode, thou makest thyself (to) God 
(John, X, 33) ; me p&ron mine tedrds for hldfds, to me my tears were 
(for) bread (Psa., xlii, 3). 

(c.) The rule is called for oftenest in clauses having the verb be {eom, 
pesan, beon), become (peordan), stand, lie, etc. {standan, licgan, etc.), go, 
remain {gdn, punian), seem, prove {pyncan, profian) ; and passives of 
naming, calling (hdtan, nemnan), seeing, thinking, telling {seon, tellan), 
making, appointing, choosing (macian, gesceapan, gesettan, geberan, ge- 
ceosan, etc.). The predicate noun is oftenest an adjective: pd hedmdi a 
grene stondad, the trees stand ever green (C. Ex., 200, 4) ; mm cnapa lid 
lama, my hoy lies lame (Matt., viii, 6); peos poruld pwiad gehdl, this world 
remaineth whole (St. B., 14) ; me piet riht ne pynced, to me that seems not 
right (C, 289) ; leoht pass dseg genemned, light teas called day (C, 129) ; 
lytel he pxs gesepen, he ivas seen (as) little (Hom., i, 138) ; he pass blind 
acenned, he was born blind (John, ix, 20) ; Saxulf piBS gecoren to hiscop, 
Saxulf was chosen (to) bishop (Chr., 656). See b. 

287. — II. Attributive Combination. — An appositive 

agrees in case with its subject. 

Often also in gender and number. It is an undeveloped adjective clause, 
generally marked as such by tone and punctuation ; but in titles it some- 
times makes with its subject a kind of compound noun in English (see be- 
low, e) : pe, cildra, we, (who are) children (^If.) ; seo drpyrde feemne 
Ecgburh abbodisse, Aldpulfes dohtor pws cyninges, sende pam drpyrdan 
pere Gudldce leddene pruh, the venerable maid Ecgburh abbess, Aldwulf's 
daughter the king('s), sent to the venerable man Guthlac a leaden coffin 
(St. G., 18) ; Dryhten sylf, heofend hedhcyning, the Lord himself, heaven's 



APPOSITIVES. 143 

high king (And., 6) ; pass sum his sctpes-man, Pses foresprecenan Adel- 
baldes, there was one, his boatman, the aforesaid Athelbald's (St. G., 22) : 
freondscipe si betpux unc, me and pe, friendship be betwixt us, me and 
thee (G., 31, 44) ; pid Blsedlan and Attilan, Hund cyningum, against Bled- 
la and Attila, kings of the Huns (Bed., 1, 13) ; spa her men dod, geonge 
and ealde, so here men do, young and old (C, 1206) ; hi pegniad, aslt 
odrum, they serve, each the others (Met., 25, 12). The appositive is some- 
times 
descriptive, giving kind, condition, etc., of its subject {cildra, abbodisse, 

dohtor, cyninges, hedhcyning, scipes-man, etc., in examples above) ; 
defiioitive, a specific name after a general description, very common in 
Anglo-Saxon {Ecgburh, Gudldc, Adelbaldes), emphatic {sylf). {Repeat- 
ed Subject. — A pronoun + a name, and a name + a pronoun, where the 
seeming attributive is really a repetition of the subject for clearer syntax, 
are very common : se Hselend, he fseste, the Saviour, he fasted, St. G., 9) ; 
partitive, giving parts of its subject, or its whole (me and pe, cyningum, 
geonge and ealde). Examples are introduced by spa spa (Latin ut, Ger- 
man als) : sume beod langspeorede, spa spa, spands, some (birds) are 
long-necked, as swans (St. B., 14) ; 
distributive {eelc). 

(a.) Adjectives are often appositives {geonge and ealde), so pronouns. 

{b.) Sentences are often appositives, oftenest definitives beginning with 
p3Rt, after hit, pset, ping, or the like indefinite subject : picet gelamp, paet 
peer com sum man, it happened, that there came a man (St. G., 9) ; hit 
{20); ping {19). 

(c.) Appositive for partitive genitive is found after sum : pa cpiedon 
sume pa bocerds, then quoth some (of) {the) scribes (Matt., ix, 3) ; sume, 
hi comon, some (of them) they came (Mc, viii, 3). Rask gives tpegen 
marc gold, two marks (of) gold. I have not found such forms in Anglo- 
Saxon ; but they are common in Old English, after the inflections had de- 
cayed (Lang., 1. 174; Ch.,7328), So German masse geld, pfund jleisch, 
etc. The reverse, gold, two marhs, is in Sanskrit, and down to English. 

{d.) Genitive for appositive of material or place : ceastra Natzaredes 
for ceastre Nazareth, i. e. City of Nazareth = City Nazareth. ^ 313. 

(e.) Genitives in apposition all have their endings, where in Old English 
all but one drop it : cyninges Aldpulfes dohtor, king('s) Aldwulf's daugh- 
ter. See above. 

{f) An appositive often fails to agree with its subject from anacoluthon : 
minum hlaforde * * * Alfpold cyning (nominative), to my lord — King Alf- 
wold (St. G., Prol.) ; se rica and se hedna * * * ealle hi gelice se stranga 
dead forgriped, the rich and the poor (nominative) — all these alike strong 
death gripeth (St. G., 19). 

{g.) Number. Note cyningum, aslc, above. After a dual the name of 
the second person is used alone partitively : pit Scilling song dhofan, we, 
(I and) Scilling, raised a song (C. Ex., 324, 31) ; unc Adame, to us, (me 



^4^ ^• M I >: ATI \- E. -VOCATIVE. 

and) AJam (C, 387) ; git lohanms, ye, (thou an.]) John (C. Ex., 467, 7). 
This idiom is found in O.-II. German, is common in O. Norse. 

(A.) Gender. Synesis. Substantives agree in natural rather than m 
grammatical gender : JElJlxd,pxt mieden, Alfled.the maiden (Hom.,ii, 150). 

Nominative. 
288. The subject of a finite verb is put in the nomina- 
tive. . , ^ J 1 

Ml/red cpxd, Alfred said ; God is god, God is good. 

(a.) Nominative independent. The subject of quasi-clauses of enun- 
ciation is put in the nominative. Such are names and titles containing no 
predicative combination : Invt godspd a'ftcr lohannes gerecednysse, the 
Gospel according to John. Anacoluthon, ^ 387,/. Absolute, ^ 295. 

(i.) Repeated subject. See ^ 287, definitive. 

(c.) Predicate nominative. See ^ 286. 

((/.) Attributive nominative. See ^ 287. 

(e.) Factitive object. A nominative of enunciation is often used in- 
stead of a factitive object after verbs of naming, calling, and the like : cly- 
pode God his gefylsta, he called God his " helper'' (Horn., 2, 82) ; hdtad 
hine xfenstwrra, they call it " evening star'- (Met., 29, 30) ; ge clypiad me 
Ldreop and Dryhten, ye call me " Master" and " Lord" (John, xui, 13). 
This use of the oratio directa is the common form in Sanskrit, and has 
doubtless been common in all folkspeech. It is in the Greek of the New 
Testament ; the Latin Vulgate in such cases uses the vocative, as does the 
Greek sometimes. It is in the Gothic (0. H. German ]) and M. H. Ger- 
man. Compare ^^ 289, d ; 294. 

Vocative. 
289. A compellative is put in the vocative. 

Ldreop, sege panne. Lord, speak then (Luke, vii, 40) ; ed Id geonga, O 
young man (Luke, vii, 14) ; Id Pu licetere, thou hypocrite (Matt., vii, 
5) ; hldford cyning, lord king (Ap., 7) ; Fxder ure, pii pe eart on heo- 
fenum, our Father, thou that art in the heavens (Matt., vi, 9) ; 7mn, 
se spetesla sunnan scima, lulidna, my (the) sweetest sunshine, Juli- 
ana (Ju., 166) ; Herra, se goda, Lord, the good (C. (G.), 678). 
(a.) A compellative is the subject of a quasi-clause of address. The ad- 
dress may be formal, a simple call, or an emphatic judgment {pii licetere). 
The vocative may have an interjection with it, or not ; it may enter into at- 
tributive combination with adjectives, appositives, clauses, etc. ^Note the 
use of an appositive with the definite article : Herra, se goda; min, se spe- 
testa ; ^nAcom^^xe¥renc\i Monseigneur Varchevesque, eic. 

lb.) The weak form of the adjective is often used in the vocative without 
a definitive : leofa Beopulf, dear Beowulf (B., 1854). 



ACCUSATIVE.— IMPERSONALS. 145 

(c.) Latin vocatives are sometimes used : Thaliarche, Apolloni (Ap., 5, 
7,9). 

(rf.) Quasi-clause. The vocative (with or without attributives) may en- 
ter into combinations as a clause. It may be a direct object: manige 
cpedad, Dryhten, Dryhten, many shall say, Lord, Lord (Matt., vii, 22) ; 
factitive object : hpt clypige ge me Dryhten, Dryhten, why call ye me 
Lord, Lord 1 (Luke, vi, 46). Compare ^ 288, e. 

(e.) The native grammarians in Sanskrit do not separate the vocative 
from the nominative, but think it a slightly modified form for address. Its 
syntax is nearly the same in all our languages. 

Accusative. 

290. Objective Combinations. — 1. The direct object 

of a verb is put iu the accusative. It may be 

L A material object moved, hit, or changed, or produced as an effect, 
by a transitive verb : pone maddum hyred, he hears the treasure (B., 
2055) ; stormas stdnclifu beotan, storms beat cliffs (Seaf., 23) ; ic 
dhyrde heortan, I will harden his heart (Exod., iv, 21) ; scip pyrcan, 
to build a ship (C, 1302). {Mddm^ maddum, Orm. maddmess.) 

(a.) Persons and abstractions may also be conceived as material objects 
of act or thought : se Past picg byrd, he whom that horse bears (El., 1196) ; 
ic here dryhtnes domds, I bear the lord's commands (D., 744). 

{b.) Transitive verbs express an exercise of the appetites (eat, drink, 
etc.), the senses (see, hear, etc.), the sensibilities (love, hate, etc.), the in- 
tellect (know, think, etc.) ; movements — moving an object, or keeping it 
from moving (set, lay, raise, carry, heave, have, hold, marry, catch, take, 
give, lead, throw, drive, call forth, send forth, speak, etc.), hitting or moving 
towards it (strike, follow, etc.), changing its form or condition (break, tear, 
harden, cover, sprinkle, etc.), making an object (do, make, work, build, etc.), 
causative acts. Verbs expressing these notions as affecting the whole of a 
material object govern the accusative throughout the Indo-European tongues. 

(c.) Persons may be conceived as suffering objects of their appetites. 

Impersonals of appetite or passion govern an accusative 

of the person suffering. 

Me pyrste, it thirsted me = I suffered thirst (Matt., xxv, 35) ; mc hm- 
grede, I suffered hunger (Matt., xxv, 35) ; hine lyste, it listed him = 
he suffered list (B., 1793) ; mec longade, I longed (Kl., 14) ; me dprijt, 
it irks me, dpreotan pegn (Sch.,21) ; us pldtad,\\e loathe (Num. ,21, 5). 
So hreopan, rue (C, 1276) ; gema-tan, dream (D., 122) ; eglian, ail (?) 
(Bosworth, Ett. their example a mistake) ; tinclan, tickle (?), it tikeleth 
me (Chaucer, C. T., 6053). Koch says passives of these impersonals 
take an accusative ; so Grein, his mandryhtcn (ace.) getn&ted pcard 

K 



146 REFLEXIVES.— COGNATES.— TWO OBJECTS. 

(D., 157) ; but druhten is nom., " his lord (was) had dreamed ;" so pses 
inonig gelysted (Met., 1, 9) ; ic j>ws ofpi/rsted (Seel., 40) ; ic com of- 
longdd (Kl., 29) ; no accusatives found. 

{d.) Reflexives. — Many verbs may take an accusative of the reflexive pro- 
noun : hme sijlfne dheng, he hung himself (Matt., xxvii, 5) ; dpende hine 
sylfne to Godc, he turned himself to God (Chr., 1067). Sylf, self, is not fre- 
quent in early Anglo-Saxon. Some verbs get to have a reflexive sense 
without the pronoun : he gebealh hme, he swelled himself =: he was wrathful 
(Luc, XV, 28) ; ge belgad, ye are wrathful (John, vii, 23) ; he bepohte hine, 
he bethought him (Luc, xv, 17) ; gebst hme fysed, the spirit hastens (it- 
self) (Ex., 178, 7) ; ic me resle, I rest me (Ex., 494, 8) ; restc Pxt folc hit, 
the people rested (itself) (Exod., xvi, 30) ; gegadorode micel folc hit, 
much people gathered itself (Chr., 921) ; parniad eop, beware (yourself) 
(Matt., vii, 15); pene pec, wont thee (Fath., 62); se IMlend bepende 
{hme), the Saviour went (him) (Matt., ix, 22; Mc, v, 30). In Sanskrit 
the reflexive is incorporated with the verb, and makes a middle voice (^ 150, 
a). So in Greek, but not in Latin. Traces of the middle are found in 
Gothic, but in the main it and the other Teutonic tongues work like the An- 
glo-Saxon. Intransitives take a dative reflexive, as do some of the above 
sometimes. See § 298, c. 

291. — n. A definitive object repeating more specifically the notion 
of the verb : (cognate accusative), demad rihtne dom, judge righteous 
judgment (John, vii., 24) ; (more specific), sang hildeleod, it sang a 
war-song (Jud., 211). 

(a.) The verb may be transitive or intransitive. 

{b.) The simple cognate alone is tautological. An adjective -}-definitir" 
:= adverb. The transition from the effect to the cognate is easy, and is al- 
ready made in Sanskrit. The. definitive has a widely extended use in Greek, 
and in German and English is co-ordinate in importance with the material 
object. 

292. Double Object.— Some verbs of asking and teach- 
ing may have tico accusatives, one of a person and the other 
of a thing. 

(a.) So in Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Gothic, O. H. German, etc. 

{b.) Asking. A^erbs of asking may have the second object cognate (ask 
him questions), exciting (ask him s, favor) or (ask him about Vishnu). The 
third form is the common one in Sanskrit; the first and second in Greek, 
Latin, O. H. German : hig hine ne dorston senig ping dcsian, they durst not 
ask him any question (Luke, xx, 40) ; hig hine pxt bigspel dcsodon, thev 
asked him about the parable (Mc, iv, 10) ; hi hine bissen gefru<rnum 
(same, vii, 17, Northumbrian) ; spa hpset spa heo hme bsede, whatever favor 
she might ask him (Matt., xiv, 7). This construction is rare in Anglo- 



SUBJECT ACCUSATIVE.— FACTITIVES. 147 

Saxon; generally we have accusative of person + genitive of thing (+ da- 
tive of person for whom) ; or (2d) ace. of pers. -\- infinitive (or clause) ; or 
(3d) ace. of pers. -\-ymbe, be, mfter (concerning), and an ace. of thing ; or 
(4th) the person follows to or mt, the thing is an ace. or gen. 

(c.) Teach is a causative oi learn in Sanskrit ^iks'aja. Causatives gov- 
ern an accusative + the case of the included verb : ne meahton pe geleeran 
leofne peoden reed senigne, we might not teach the dear lord any counsel 
(B.,3079). Taecan, teach, takes the accusative of thing + dative of person. 

(d.) The passives seem not to take an accusative in Anglo-Saxon, as they 
do in Greek, Latin, English, etc. 

, 293. Quasi-predicative Combinations. — I. The sub- 

'ject of an infinitive is put in tlie accusative. 

Secgad hine libban, they say that he lives (Luke, xxiv, 23) ; 
geseah stream ut brecan, he saw a stream break out (B., 2546). 

(a.) This accusative is grammatically the object of the preceding verb; 
but after verbs o? perceiving and declaring, ivishmg and expressing a wish, 
and some others, the logical object is the infinitive clause, and grammarians 
use this rule. Cases to which it applies are not found in Sanskrit, have a 
wide range in Greek and Latin, are rare in Anglo-Saxon. See ^ 286, b. 

294. — II. A predicate noun denoting the same person or thing as its 
subject agrees with it in case (^ 286) : pe pitun pe bilepitne pesan, we 
know thee to be gentle (iElfc). Under this rule come some 

Factitives. — {a.) Some verbs of making, naming, re- 
garding may have two accusatives of the same person or thing. 

He his englas did mdele gdstds, he makes noble souls his angels (Psa., 
ciiij 5) ; seo ed, pa perds Eufrdten nemnad, the river, which men 
name Euphrates (C, 234) ; tocneopon Crist sodne man, they recog- 
nized Christ as a true man (Hom., i, 106) ; hi hine purdodon sodne God, 
they worshipped him as true God (Hom.,i, 108). 

{b.) Verbs of making, naming, regarding, perceiving, finding, having, leav- 
ing, and the like, may take an accusative adjective as a factitive object. 
For Anglo-Saxon verbs, see passives in ^ 286, c. 

(c ) Verbs of making (choosing, etc.) in Sanskrit may have two accu- 
satives, but usually the factitive is a locative. So in Anglo-Saxon it is usu- 
ally construed with to or for. See ^ 286, b. 

(rf.) Verbs of naming. See ^ 288, e. 

(e.) Verbs of regarding have two accusatives in Sanskrit and after. 

(/') When the factitive is in the accusative, it is drawn into agreement 
with its quasi-subject, the direct object of the verb. 



1-iS DATIVE.— UliJECTiVE COMBINATIONS. 

295. Adverbial Combinations. — The extent of time 
and space is put in tlie accusative after verbs. 

(a.) So in Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Gothic, etc. 

Hxfdon sumne ditl peges gefaren, they had gone some part of the way 
(Gen., xliv, 4) ; ealle niht s/nnccnde, all night toiling (Luc, v, 5). 

(b.) Excess of measure (dative) : annc stxpc furdor, one step further (Jos., 
X, 12) ; — instrument: grxs ungrene, not green with grass (C, 117, 812) ; — 
absolute : dxg scridende, day dawning (Gu., 1011 ; C, 183, nom. abs. ?), ^ 
304, d. Milton's me overthrown (Sam. Ag., 463) is classic affectation. 

(c.) The accusative is used with prepositions to denote an 
object towards which, or to, on, or over which an action 
extends. For examples, see Prepositions. 

Dative. 

296. The dative in Anglo-Saxon denotes relations of four old 
cases : 

1. Dative, the person to whom something is given, or for whom some- 
thing is or is done. 

2. Instrumental, that with which an act is done or associated. 

3. Ablative, that from which something is separated or distinguished. 

4. Locative, the time or place in which. 

Objective Combinations. 

297. An object of influence or interest is put in the da- 
tive. 

I. Object of Influence, the person to whom something is given. The 
giving may be figurative ; material objects or abstractions may be con- 
ceived as persons. The object given may be expressed as an accusa- 
tive, or implied in the governing word. 

(a.) This dative is oftenest found after verbs of 

giving (paying, offering, loaning, etc.) : ealle pis ic sylle pe, all these I 
give thee (Matt., iv, 9); so gifan, forgifan, Iwnan, lednian, dgyldan, 
geunnan, tidian, onlihan, pyrnan, forpyrnan, etc. ; 

address = giving words (say,'bid, forbid, answer, thank, chide, judge, prom- 
ise, advise, etc.) : ic secge pe, I say to thee (Matt., xvi, 18) ; so cydan, 
hebeudan, com\nd.nA, forbeodan, ansparian, pnncian, cidan, deman, r&dan ; 

gesture : bedcman, beckon, biigan, bow, hnigan, lutan, stupian, odypan, etc. ; 

obeying = giving thought (listen to, obey, follow, etc.) : hig hlyston him, 
let them listen to them (Luc, xvi, 29) ; that which is obeyed is often 
conceived as personal : miniim Idrum hyre, hear to my precepts (C, 105, 
8) ; so gehyrsumian, fylgian, heorcnian. So exciting thought (seeming, 



DOUBLE OBJECT. 149 

etc.) : manegum men Pyncd^ it seems to many a man (Boet., 29, 1) ; me 
pyncd, niethinks (Boat., 33, 1), etc. 
giving feeling (pity, mourn, honor, trust, etc.) : gemiltsu minum sund, 
(give) pity (to) my son (Matt., xvii, 14) ; drd pinum fxder, (give) honor 
(to) thy father (^If. L., 1, 4) ; so besdrgian, treopian, treopsian, gely- 
fan. Here also giving =^ exciting (please, soothe, still, etc.) : pam fulce 
gecpeman, to please the people (Mc, xv, 15); so stillan, oleccan, and 
impersonals : him ne sceamode, it did not shame him (Gen., ii., 25) ; 
ofpuhte (Sat., 247); /aw^arf (B., 1879), etc. 
giving aid (help, serve, defend, injure, etc.) : pu monegum helpsf, thou 
helpest many (Hy., vii, 44) ; heo him penode, she ministered to them (Mc, 
i, 31) ; so fremian, peopian, deria?i, fylstan, styran, chastise, etc. : hi 
me pa dydan, they did me woe (Psa., cxviii, 138) ; do pel p)dm, do well 
to those (Psa., cxxiv, 4). 

(5.) Adjectives of the above senses, especially of thought and feeling: 
anum gehyrsum^ obedient to one (Matt., vi, 24) ; getrype hldforde minum, 
true to my lord (^Elfrc) ; pam bisceope cud, known to the bishop (John, xviii, 
15) ; leofGode, dear to God (C, xvi, 17) ; fremde, strange (B., 1691). 

(c.) Some of these words may take a genitive of the non-personal ob- 
ject : hlyst his pordd, listen to his words (Nic, 3) ; or even of a personal 
object ; so helpan, gelyfan, pidsacan, pancian, treopian, miltsian, gefeon, 
sceamian, etc. See under Genitive. The notion of the verb may be con- 
ceived as given to the object, or as had as belonging to, or excited by 
him, e. g. gelyfan =:give confidence to him (dative) or have confidence in 
him (genitive) ; helpan^=give help to him or be his help. In Sanskrit the 
genitive may be used for most datives of this kind. The early Greek has 
much of the same freedom. The Latin is more fixed than the Gothic, O. 
H. German, or Anglo-Saxon. 

{d.) Double Object.— Verbs of granting, refusing, and 
thanking may take a dative ami genitive. 

Ic /cores pe unnan pille, I will grant (to) thee (of) life (Ex., 254, 4) ; so 
onlihan, pyrnan, tidian ; me pcvs forpyrnde paldend, the lord refused 
me that (C, 2219); pancian his dryhtne pxs lednes, to thank his lord 
for the gift (C.,257). So of-teon, deprive (B.,5). See under Genitive. 

298. — II. Object of Interest, the person for whom something is or is 
done. 

{n.) Dative of advantage or disadvantage (verbs) : bwd him hldfds 
/??/rcan, .bade make loaves /or- him (Sat., 673) ; polde hire bur dtimbran, 
wished to build a bower /or herself (R., 30, 5) ; him hedhcyning p\f dpeahte, 
for him (Adam) the high king a wife raised up (C., 172) ; (adjectives) : 
pe is betcre pivt an pmrd lima forpeorde, it is better /or thee that one of 
thy limbs perish (Matt., v, 29) ; nyttre him pxre, it would be better for 
him (Luc, xvii, 2). 



150 ASSOCIATION.— MASTERY. 

(/>.) Dative of Possessor: him pws gepeald, to him was (^he had) 
power (Cri., 228) ; pw/n ne byd nCines godcs pana, to them is lack of no 
good (Psa., xxxiii, 9) ; Gode si puldor, to God be glory (Luc, ii, 11) ; pd 
bi/if pain, woe is to him (Ex., 444, 25); so after interjections: j>d pain 
men, woe to the man (Matt., xviii, 7) ; pel pivre heordc, well for the herd 
(Leg. Cnut., ii, 84, 2). A favorite in Greek and Latin ; not so in Teutonic. 
The Sanskrit thus uses a genitive. A second dative takes a preposition. 

(c.) Reflexive, after verbs meaning take : nim Pe pis ofset on hand, 
take/y/- thee this fruit in hand (C.,518) ; be, remain, etc. : p&ron him on 
Cent, they were for themselves in Kent (Chr., 1009) ; bead eop stille, be 
still for yourselves (Exod., xiv, 14) ; so stod, stood (Gen., xviii, 8) ; saet, 
sat (Gen., xxi, 16), etc. ; move, go, etc. : gepdt him, he departed /or him- 
self =\ie was off with himself (C, 2884) ; so cyrde (Chr., lOlG) ; ferde 
(1009) ; trwd (B., 1881) ; gd (An., 1350) ; hpearf (C, 447) ; sometimes 
pende (Chr., 1016 ; § 290, d) ; fear, etc. : ondred he him, he feared for 
himself (John, xix, 8) ; so with pile, wish (Ex., 450, 18) ; piste, knew (C, 
445) ; hleodrede (Ex., 185, 3) ; hmfde, had ; gelyfed, believeth ; peaxan, 
grow, etc. (Grein, s.v.). These are substitutes for the middle voice. See 
^ 290, d. Many of them resemble the ethical dative. Most would be ex- 
pletive in English. 

299. Association. — Words of nearness and likeness 
govern the dative. 

He pam huse genedhl&hte, he came near to the house (Luc, xv, 25) ; 
gelic pdm leohtum steorrum, like the bright stars (C, 17, 7). 

(a.) Here belong some words of meeting, association, contention, and the 
like ; of brinpring near, receiving, touch ; of imitation, agreement, etc. : 
geefenl&can, pidstandan, forstandan, pidpinnan, tidan, hrlnan, onfon ; 
impersonals : hit licode He'rode, it was suited to Herod (Matt., xiv, 6) ; 

so becyme, becometh (Mc (D.), xiv, 31) ; gedafenad (Luc, iv, 43); 

gerised (Ex., 1, 5) ; gebyrdd (John, x, 13). 

(5.) This relation takes the instrumental (or genitive, nearness sometimes 
the locative) in Sanskrit ; the dative in Greek, Latin, Gothic, etc. Some 
of the words may govern in other relations an accusative, genitive, or in- 
strumental : hrtnan, onfon. 

300. Mastery (use). — The instrumental or dative may 
denote an object of mastery: 

pdm p^pnum pealdan, to have power over the weapons (B., 2038) ; 

Py ponge pealdan, to have the mastery of the field (Giith., 674) ; 

peold Hunum., ruled the Huns (Wid., 18) ; py rice rsedan, to rule the 
realm (Dan., 8, 688). Ruling may be conceived as transitive, or as 
giving law or direction to a dative, or as being master of a genitive, 
or as being strong by m.eans of an instrumental: /jeaZ«^aH> English 



ADVEKBIAL COMBINATIONS.— INSTRUMENTALS. 151 

wield governs the dative in Gothic and 0. Norse, the genitive in O. H. 
German, in Anglo-Saxon, like Latin potior, the ace, gen. (dat.), instr. ; 
rsbdan governs the gen. in O. Saxon and M. H. German, in Anglo-Saxon 
often the instrumental or dative, the dative elsewhere ; brucan (Lat. 
fruor), use (Bed., 4, 19) ; neotan, use (An., 811), take the ace, gen., 
instr., dat. 

301. Separation. — Some verbs of separation may tate 
an object from which in the dative or instrumental. 

(a.) Transitive verbs of this kind take an accusative + a dative: mec 
bescyrede eallum, he deprived me of all (Rid., 41, 101) ; passive : scyU 
dum bescyrcdne, deprived of shields (Mod., 8) ; + instrumental : hi rihle 
hrnaiman, to rob them of their right (C, 129, 32) ; hine heafde becearf, he 
cut him off from his head (B.,1590); ^lef/^eZan, deprive (B.,72I). 

(6.) Intransitives : hi feondum bdfaren hsefdon, they had escaped the 
fiends (Exod.,64). So adjectives : drihtne fremde, far from God (C, 105). 

(c.) The old case here is the ablative, which is retained in Latin. The 
Greek uses the genitive. The Anglo-Saxon has oftenest the genitive, then 
the instrumental, sometimes a dative. 

Adverbial Combinations. 

302, — I. Instrumentals.— (a.) The instrumental or da- 
tive may denote instrument, means, manner, or cause : 

spebban speorde, to kill with sword (B., 679) ; edgum geseah, saw with 
eyes (C., 51, 2) ; pordum herian, to praise with words (C, 1, 4) ; 
cognate of manner : gefullode pam fulluhte, baptized in the baptism 
(that I am) (Mc, x, 39) ; lustfullian pws biscopes pordum, to rejoice 
because of the bishop's words (Bed., 2, 9) ; adjectives : fedrum snell, 
swift with wings (Ex., 206, 7) ; ancrum fsaste, fast by means of an- 
chors (El., 252) ; fedrum strong, strong in respect of wings (Ex., 
203,18); mundum fre6rig,{Teezing in my hands (An., 491). Greek 
dative, Latin ablative represent these old instrumentals. 

(b.) Dative of the Agent. Passive verbs take the agent with a prep- 
osition {fram, Jnirh, etc.) : gesealde from minum f seder, given by my fa- 
ther (Matt., xi, 27) ; gecpeden purh pone pitegan (ace), spoken by the 
prophet (Matt., iii., 3). The dative after some verbals might be put here: 
Gode sind mihtelice pa ping, to God the things are possible (Luc, xviii, 27). 
Sanskrit here uses the instrumental regularly ; Greek often, Latin some- 
times, a dative without a preposition. 

(c.) Tlie instrumental or dative may denote price : 

dnum penninge geboht, bought with one penny (Matt. (D.), x, 29) ; usu. 
ally after pid or to, or a genitive. 



152 DATIVE.— ADVERBIAL. 

((/.) T1h> instrumental or dative may denote measure of 
difference : 

sponnc Icngra pAre J>ri/h, longer than the coffin by a span (Bed., 4, 11) ; 
rniclc md scedpe bclera, better than ;, sheep />i/ much more (Matt., xii, 
12) ; so micelum (Greg.) ; micelre (Bed., iv, 13). 

{e.) The instrumental or dative may denote an object 
sworn by : 

mec pine life hedlsode, he swore me by thy life (B., 2131) ; oftenest after 
purh or for. 

308. — 11. Ablatives. — The comparative degree may gov- 
ern a dative. 

Mdra lohanne fulluhtere, greater than John the Baptist (Matt., xi, 11) ; 
betera manegum spearpum, better than many sparrows (Luc, xii, 7). 
The nominative, with ponne, than, is more common. The instrumental 
is found. The Sanskrit uses the ablative, sometimes the instrumental ; 
the Greek the genitive ; the Latin the ablative ; other Teutonic tongues 
are like Anglo-Saxon. 

304. — III. Locatives. — (a.) The dative may denote time 
when or place where. 

Odrum dcege hine hyngrude, the second day he hungered (Mc, xi, 12) •- 
pam priddan dcvge he drist, the third day he arises (Matt., xx, 19) - 
so instrumental: py syxtan monde, on the sixth month (Bed.,i, 3). 

(i.) It may denote a repetition of times : on dxg seofen sidum syngad 
sinneth seven times a day (Luc, xvii, 4). 
(c.) The dative of place takes a preposition. 

Quasi-2)redicative Comhination. 

{(l) Dative absolute. — A substantive and participle in 
the dative may make an adverbial clause of time, cause, 

or coexistence (§ 278, d, § 295, b, time with be, bi, § 334). 
Him sprecendum, hig comon, they came, while he tvas speaking (Mc, v, 
35) ; ptnre dvra belocenre, bide, thy door having been locked, pray 
(Matt., vi, G), so still a dative in Wycliffe. Sanskrit uses thus 
different cases to denote different relations ; the locative is the most 
common. The Greek has the genitive oftenest; the Latin the abla- 
tive. The Teutonic languages use this construction seldom. Time 
when, not absolute, is put in the dative in Greek. 

305. With Prepositions. — The dative with a preposi- 
tion may denote an object of influence or interest, assO' 



in; TIIUMENTAL.— GENITIVE. lo3 

elation, mastery, or separation ; or an instrumentcl, 

ablative, or locative adverbiul relation. For examples, see 
Prepositions. 

Instrumental. 
306.— I. The Proper Instrumental. See §§ 299, 300, 302. 

The plural instrumental endings are lost wholly, the singular nearly. 
The dative generally takes their place. The surviving endings are found 
sometimes in ablative and locative uses. They are lost also in Greek and 
Latin m 302, 70, a). O. H. German and O. Saxon have a few singular 
examples, Gothic only pronouns. 

307.— II. Ablative uses. See §§ 301, 303. 
308. — in. Locative uses. See § 304. 

Genitive. 

309. The Anglo-Saxon genitive denotes relations of four old 
cases : 

1. The genitive, the possessor and personal adjunct. 

2. The ablative, that from which any thing is separated. 

3. The instrumental, by which any thing is or is done. 

4. The locative, the time or place in which. The genitive is already 
in the Sanskrit loosely used for all the other oblique cases. 

Attributive Combinations. 

310. — I. Possessive. — An attributive genitive may de- 
dote the possessor or author of its subject. 

The subject may be 

material vrealth : his speorde, his sword (Mc, xiv, 47) ; 

quality: enables hip, angel's beauty (Jul., 244) ; 

persons had or related : Godes peopas, God's servants (LL. In., 1) ; Of- 
fan dohtor, Offa's daughter (Chr., 787) ; Ines brodor, Ine's brother (Chr., 
718) ; officers : Cantpard cr/ning, Kentish men's king (Chr., 827). 

Any thinsT conceived as belonging to another : ApoUonies hand, Apollonius' 
hand (Ap., 21) ; para apostold Inre, the apostles' lore (Bed., 4, 25) ; JElf- 
redes domds, Alfred's laws; huses duru, house's door (St. G., I). 

311. — II. An attributive genitive may denote the sub- 
ject or object of a verbal. 

Subjective genitive : Godes ffife, God's gift (LL. In., Pream.) ; tpegrd 
manna gepitncs, two men's testimony (John, viii, 17) ; cyninges hees, 
king's command (C, 8, 14). 



154: GENITIVK.— rAllTITIVE, CHARACTERISTIC. 

Objective genitive: Godcs egsa, fear of God (Ex., 244, 30) ; synnd 
t'orgifcnucs, foririveness of sins (Matt., xxvi, 28) ; huntunge heortd, 
hunting of harts (Bed., 1, 1). 

312. — TIL Partitive. — An attributive genitive may de- 
note the whole of which its subject is part. 

Se norddibl middangeardes, the north part of the earth (Bed., 1, 1) ; 
reste dsBges safene, the evening of the Sabbath (Matt., xxviii, 1). 

(a.) The subject a pronoun: hpxt godes do ic, what of good do I? 
(Matt., xix, 16) ; /ij>wt pcorces, what sort of work (/Elf.) ; so hpxder, hpylc, 
eal, sum, wlc, gchpd, gclipylc, ivnig,pihl, ndht, etc. ; — pAr, adv. (C, 284, 24). 

{b.) The subject a numeral : an his cnthtd, one of his disciples (Luc, 
xi, 1) ; !&rest ealrd, first of all (C, 4, 32). Compare d, below. 

(c.) The subject a superlative ; sxdd liest, least of seeds (Matt., xiii, 
32) ; husd selest, best of houses (B., 146). Very common is ealra-\-a. su- 
perlative ; ealrd ricost, richest of all, etc., whence old English aWerfirst, 
alderhefest, etc. (Ch. Sh.). 

(</.) The subject an aggregation or measure of objects or material : 
myccle manegeojixd, a great crowd of fishes (Luc, v, 6) ; heord spynd, herd 
of swine (viii, 32) ; hund mittend hpsetes, a hundred of measures of wheat 
(xvi, 7) ; pusend pundd goldes, a thousand of pounds of gold (LL. ^thd., 
IL 7, 2). This should be distinguished from the characteristic genitive of 
material (^ 313, b). This is very common, that rare ; this is Sanskrit gen. 

(e.) A cognate genitive may denote the eminence of its subject: cy- 
ningd cyning, king of kings (Ex., 9, 17) ; dredmd dredm, joy of joys (36, 
22) ; heofond heofonds, heaven of heavens (Psa., cxlviii, 4) ; and so abun- 
dantly in Anglo-Saxon, O. Norse. 

313.— IV. Characteristic— An attributive genitive 
may denote a characteristic of its subject. 

In Sanskrit a characteristic takes the instrumental, in Greek (rare) the 
genitive, in Latin (frequent) the ablative or genitive. 

{a.) Quality : fpgeres hipes men, men of fair aspect (Horn., ii, 120). 

{b.) Material: sccnnum sciran goldes, patens of pure gold (B., 1694); 
rare : material as characteristic is almost always expressed by an adjective 
{gylden, golden), or a compound {gold-feet, gold vessel), or a preposition 
{redf of heerum, garment of hair (Matt., iii, 4)). Compare § 312, d. 

(c.) Age : lamb dnes gedres, lamb of one year (Horn., ii, 262). 

{d.) Size : fen unm&lre mycelnesse, fen of immense size (St. G., 3); 
so -weight, value, and the like: penegd peorde,^ex[x\\es-vioxi\\ (John,vi, 7). 

(e.) Name : hit ofetes noman dgan sceolde, it the name (of) apple must 
have (C, 719) ; he forleort ceaslra Natzaredes,\\e left the city (of) Naza- 
reth (Northumbrian Matt., iv, 13). The West Saxon uses the appositive 
yazared. Britene Igland, island (of) Britain (Chr., 1 ; Bed., 1), is doubt- 



PREDICATIVE— EXCITING OBJECT. 155 

ful. The Greek and Latin used this genitive sometimes, the French often, 
and it became common in Semi-Saxon. 

Ftedicative Combinations. 

314. A predicate substantive may be put in the genitive 
to denote a possessor or characteristic of the subject, or 
a whole of whicli it is })art. 

Possessor: Dryhtnes sind pa ricu, the kingdoms are the Lord's (Psa., 
xxi, 26) ; ge Cristes smd, ye are Christ's (Mc, ix, 41). Character- 
istic : pa pxron ongrisVices andplUan, they were of grisly counte- 
nance (Bed., 5, 13) ; he pses scearpre gleapnesse, he was of sharp 
wit (5, 19) ; SCO pxs micelre bratdo, it was of great breadth (5, 12) ; 
he lifes peere, (if) he were. (of life) alive (LL. -iEthd., II, 9, 3) ; he X 
pintrd sie, he may be of ten years (LL. H. & Ed., 6). Partitive: j- 
abbot pxs goderd manna, the abbot was of good men (Chr., 106G). 
(a.) The predicate genitive may be used perhaps in all the relations O' 
the attributive genitive. Compare the Latin and Greek Grammars (Had 
ley, 572). 

(b.) Quasi-predicative. The genitive may be used for a predicate- 
accusative adjective (^ 294) : Htg gesdpon pone sittan gescrydne and hales 
modes, they saw him sit clothed and of sound mind (Mc, v, 15). 

Objective Combinations. 

These are mostly secondary, ieither abridged or acquired. In most of 
them one of the common relations of the attributive genitive may be con- 
ceived between the genitive and the notion of the verb or adjective with 
which it combines: he fears i<=:he has yVar of it ; he remembers it^he 
has remembrance of it. 

315. Exciting Object.— The genitive may denote an ex- 
citing object. 

That which suggests or excites a mental state or an act is its exciting 
object. The most common states or acts taking this object are 

I. Peelings — ^joy, sorrow, pride, shame, longing, love, hope, fear, care, won- 
der, etc. Verbs : peodnes gefegon, they joyed in the lord (B., 1627) ; 
mordres gylped, he exults at murder (B., 2055) ; p&re fcohgifte scami- 
gan, to be ashamed of the gift (B., 1026) ; gilpes pu girnest, thou yearn- 
est for fame (Boeth., 32) ; ondred he piPS, he feared that (John, xix, 8) ; 
psepnd ne reced, he recks not of weapons (B.,434) ; pundrige fulles mo- 
nan, wonder at the full moon (Met., 28, 40) ; so begym (Luc, x, 35) ; 
pilnian (An., 1130) ; pyscad (Guth., 194), and see ^ 297, c. Adjec- 
tives : fxgen sides, glad of the journey (An., 1043) ; sides perig, weary 
of the journey (B., 579) ; godes gr&dig, greedy of good (Sol., 344). 



150 GENITi ^ E — rARTI mE.— SEPAKATION. 

11. Intellectual states — remember, forget, think of, listen, etc. Verbs-. 
gcmun pines ponies, remember thy word (Psa., cxviii, 49); Godes In 
forgedton, they forgot God (Psa., cv, 18); pence pe ndiies yfeles, we 
think no evil (Gen., xlii, 31) ; hlyst his pordd, listen to his words (Nic, 
3). Adjectives: gemyndige Lodes pifes, mindful of Lot's wife (Luc, 
xvii, 31) ; unpts pxs naman, ignorant of the name (Bed., 4, 13). 

in. Acts related with such states of mind — laugh, pray, help, try, watch, 
remind, etc. : pxt ptf dhloh drihtnes, the woman laughed at the lord (C, 
2380); jliiisces hi b&don, they prayed for flesh (Psa., civ, 35); bidan 
pines cftcymes, watch for thy return (Ex., 466, 33) ; help min, help me 
(Psa., Ix, 1) ; Hpi fandige ge min, why tempt ye me? (Matt., xxii, 19) ; 
min costbde, tried after me (B.,2084). Adjectives: graro (Jul., 49). 
(a.) Vevhs of asking, accusing, reminding may take an 

accusative and genitive (§§ 2d2,2d1,a): 

pe biddan dure bene, to ask thee of one thing (B., 427) ; dcsian (B6d.,4, 
3) ; tyhd me untreopdd, accuseth me of untruths (C, 36, 33) ; usic 
pdrd lednd gemoman, to remind us of the loans (Ex., 333, 19). 

{h.) Verbs of granting, refusing, and thanking may take 
a dative and genitive. See § 297, d. 

(c.) Impersonals may take a genitive and an accusative or dative 
of the person excited : hme xtes lysted, he longs for food, ^ 290, c (Wal., 
52) ; him pxs ne sceamode, it did not shame him of that, <^ 297, a (Gen., 
ii, 25). 

{d.) Reflexives may take the reflexive pronoun and a genitive : on- 
dred he him pxs, he dreaded (him) of that (John, xix, 8). 

(e.) In Sanskrit the exciting object is regularly an ablative, but many of 
the verb notions here specified already take a genitive ; in Greek the geni- 
tive is established, in Latin frequent ; in Teutonic, genitives, datives (instru- 
mentals), and accusatives combine often with the same verb. 

316. Partitive. — The genitive may denote an objjct af- 
fected in part. 

After verbs of sharing and touch : genam ]avs ofxtes, he took of the 
fruit (C, 493) ; xt pisses ofxtes, he ate of this fruit (C, 500, 564) ; pses 
pxstmes onbdt, bit of the fruit (C, 470) ; ic hmbbe his her, I have (some) 
of it (the fruit) here (C, 678) ; his hrinan, to take hold of it (C, 616); 
pa'pnd nnfon, to take hold of weapons (C, 2040). So in other languages. 
In the Romanic tongues, and sometimes in Anglo-Saxon, a preposition is 
used. See of. 

317. Separation (ablative). — The genitive may denote an 
object of separation. (Compare § 301.) 

(rt.) Many transitive verbs of separation take an accusative of the 



RULE.— MATERIAL.— MEASURE.— ADJUNCT. 157 

person and a genitive : benxman Crist rices, to deprive Christ of the 
kingdom (C.,286, 3) ; fald hine beredfian, rob him of his goods (Matt., xii, 
i29) ; hine gauges getpxman, to hinder him from flight (B., 967) ; getp&- 
fed (B., 1763) ; geclmnsa (Ps. C, 112) ; ber&dde (An., 1328). 

(b.) Intransitives — cease, need, miss, etc. : God gespdc his peorces, 
God ceased from his work (Gen., ii, 3) ; ealdres linnayi, to be deprived of 
life (B., 2443) ; pingd bepurfon, liave need of things (Matt., vi, 32) ; beho- 
fad (Bed., 4, 25) ; miste mercelses, missed tire mark (B., 2439) ; pws sodes 
ansaced, deviate from the truth (Sol., 182). Adjectives: buendrd leas, 
empty of inhabitants (C.,6, 16) ; fdcnes cZiene, clean of crime (Ex., 276, 13); 
a?ie5 7Jana/?/ifi^, fifty less one (An., 1042) ; bed&led,^. ■p. (C, 276,9). 

318. Supremacy. — The genitive may denote an object, of 
supremacy or use. 

God pp aided manna cynnes, God rules the race of men (Psa., Iviii, 13). 
See ^ 300. 

319. Material.— The genitive or instrumental may de- 
note the material of which any thing is made or full. Com- 
pare § 302, a. 

Peel fmt leddes gefylde, filled the vessel with lead (Ex., 277, 10) ; ofai- 
tes gehlssdene, laden with fruit (C, 461) ; peos eorde is berende fuge- 
Id, the land is full (bearing) of birds (Bed., 1, 1) ; adjectives : fwl ful 
ecedes, vessel full of vinegar (John, xix, 29) ; gdste (Luc, iv, 1). 

(a.) The material after a verb of making takes a preposition. ^ 294, c. 

{b.) The material is put in the genitive in some otlier relations. § 324. 

320. Measure. — Tlie genitive in combination with adjec- 
tives may denote measure. Compare §§ 295, 302. 

(a.) Space, dimension : fifliges fot-gemearces lang, fifty paces long 
(B., 3043) ; ftftend monnes elnd deop, fifteen man's ells deep (C, 1397). 

{b.) Time : he pws hundnigonliges pinlrd eald, he was (of) ninety (of) 
winters old (Bed., 3, 27) ; oftenest English (twelve) years old is in Anglo- 
Saxon a compound adjective {tpelf) pintre (Luc, ii, 42 ; viii, 42 ; Gen., v, 6). 

(c.) Price, value : six peningd pyrde, sixpence worth (Rask) ; is pyrde 
his metes, is worthy of his meat (Matt., x, 10). Compare ^^ 302, 313, d. 

(d.) Crime : mordres scyldig, guilty of murder (B., 1683) ; deddes scyl- 
dig, deserving of death (Matt., xxvi, 66). Also dative and instrumental. 

321. Adjunct. — The genitive in combination with adjec- 
tives may denote the 2^'^f^'>'^ or relation in which the quality is 
conceived. 

Modes blide, blithe of mind (B., 436) ; mcTgenes streng, strong of might 
(B., 1844). For instrumentals, see ^ 302. 



158 GENITIVE— ADVERBIAL.— PREPOSITIONS. 

Adverbial Combinations. 
Most examples are relics of the time when the genitive was more freely 
used in the adverbial relations than we find it in the literary remains. See 
further ^251. 

322. Space. — The genitive may denote by what way : 

pendon him pa odrcs pegcs humpeard, they return homeward by another 

way (Chr., 1006), Gr. r/yc o^ov, Ger. deines weges. 
How far from (?) : IV mild from pam mudan, four miles from the 

mouth (Chr., 893 ; so Maetzner), but four of miles is better (^ 295). 

323. Time. — The genitive may denote the time when : 

pintres and sumeres pudu bid geltce gehongen, winter and summer the 
wood is alike hung (with fruits) (Ph., 37); pws pintres, that winter 
(Chr., 878) ; dues dcVges, one day (Job, 165) ; dasges and nihtes, by 
day and night (B., 2269) ; pis pxs feordes gedres, this was on the 
fourth year (Chr., 47). Note also ps^s, thereafter. 

324. Means.— The genitive may denote means or cause: 

pmteres peorpan, to sprinkle with water (Dom., 78) ; glxd pines, jolly 
with wine (B., 2791). 

325. Manner. — The genitive may denote manner : 

bugan spikes gcongordomes, bow in such vassalage (C, 283) ; gepeal- 
des monnan ofsled, intentionally slay a man (LL. Alf., Intr., 13) ; so- 
des ic pe secge, of a truth I say to you (Matt., v, 26) ; peaxad self- 
pilles, grow of their own accord (Lev., xxv, 5). 

326. With Prepositions— The genitive with a prep- 
osition is sometimes used to denote instrumental, abla- 
tive, or locative adverbial relations. See Prepositions. 



USES OF PREPOSITIONS. 

327. A preposition governs a substantive, and shows its 
relation to some other word in the clause. 

(a.) This relation is oftenest adverbial, but may be attributive, pred- 
icative, or objective : sMon be pam strande, sat by the strand (Matt., 
xiii, 48) ; — attributive : redf of hgcrum, garment of hair (Matt., iii, 4) ; — 
predicative : he pass fram Bcdsd'ida, he was from Bethsaida (John, i, 44) ; 
— objective : on his dgenum fxder are gescedpian, render honor to his fa- 
ther (C, 1580). 

(b.) A preposition mav merely define a verb. It is then said to be in 
complete composition, if phonetically united with it, otherwise in incomplete. 



GENERAL RULES.— AND, ANDLONG, iEFTER. 159 

328. Prepositions expressing extent take the accusative, 
others the dative and instrumental. 

Ace. Signs : geond, od, purh, ymb (e) = emb (e). 

Ace. sometimes : and, wfler, xt, for, fore., foran, in, innan, mid, on, to, 
ofer, uppan, under, pid. 

(a.) Prepositions expressing position, or a place of rest before or after 
motion, take a dative. Tlie same preposition may express extension with 
one verb and rest after another. (Study the examples.) The dative also 
has taken up the instrumental and ablative relations, and all others ex- 
cept plain accusatives. Occasional instrumentals and genitives occur, and 
are given under their prepositions. 

(6.) Prepositions compounded with adverbs generally retain their case. 
Ace. ymb-utan, and sometimes on-butan, on-foran, on-uppan, ongegn, on- 
gemong, pid-geondan, pid-xflan, pid-innan ? Grein. 

sy 329. The genitive is sometimes used with ptcrh, pid, of, to^ 
innan, Utan, pa7ia, — mostly iu old phrases. (Compare § 322.) 

(a.) Prepositions compounded with nouns may take a genitive originally 
an attributive with the noun : and-lang, to-middes, be-tpeonum. 

Table of Peepositions. 

330. and (§ 254); + dative or + accusative : Gothic ace. 

I. Dative — number: eahta niht and feoperum, eight nights and four 

(Men., 211). 
IL Accusative — place: and e or dan, on the earth (Met., 20, 123) ; ana 

ordfruman, in presence of their creator (C, 13). 

and-long, -lang (^^ 259, 329, a) -\- gen. : ridende andlang pges pestenes, 
pursuing along the wilderness (Jos., viii, 16) ; up andlong (Chr.,882) ; ny- 
der andlang, down along (Lev., i, 15). 

331. aefter (§ 255), more aft; + dative or (rare) accusative. 
Goth. afar-\- dat., ace. ; O. Sax., O. H. Ger. aftar; O. N. eptir. 

\. Dative. 
Place — position : cumad sefter me, come further back than I = follow me 

(Matt., iv, 19) ; — extent : sabton xfter beorgum, they sat dispersed through 

the hills (C, 191, 9). Latin secundum. 
Time — point: mfter prym dagum ic arise, after three days I arise (Matt., 

xxvii, 63) ; — extent: wfter poruldstundum, during this life (El., 363) ; — 

repetition : pundor sefter pundre, wonder after wonder (B.,931). 
Cause : panian sefter headospdte, melt because of the hot blood (B., 1606) ; 

— end : dcsode sefter him, asked after him (Psa., xxxvi, 35) ; grof xfter 

golde, grub after gold (Met., 8, 57). Compare /or. 



Ii30 riiEi'O >rnoNs.-iEiT, An, jet, iETFOiiAN, bi. 

Likeness: gcporhtne o'ftcr his onlicncssc, made after his likeness (C, 25, 
18) ; a-fter Engld lage, according to English law (^-Eitr., 1). See b'l. 

II. Accusative. 
Place : he coritan xfler pxter sette, he set the earth upon the waters (Psa., 

cxxxv, 6). 

^fl — a-fier (rare) : wft mec, (come) after me (Matt., iv, 19, Northumbr.) ; 
xft sunnan setlgange, after sunset (Gen., xxviii, 11). 0. Eng. eft, eft-soons. 

332. ffir (§ 259) + dative. Northum. ace. and gen., Goth. gen. 
Time: &r sumeres cyme, before summer's coming (El., 1228) ; hdtede me 

ser eop, hated me before (it hated) you (John, xv, 18) ; air pam, pon, pi/, 
Lat. priusquam, before that. 

333. aet (§ 254, 3) 4- dative or (rare) ace. Gothic dat., ace., gen. 

I. Dative. 
Place— position : pieron at Exanceastre, were at Exeter (^ds. VI) ; ^t 
ham, at home (B., 1248) ;— direction : comon wt me, came to me (Matt., 
XXV, 43); — departure: dnimad pxt pund ail him, take the pound from 
beside him (Matt., xxv, 28) ; onfeng pallium xt papan, he- received the 
paUmm at the hands of the pope (Chr., 1026) ; so with learn, hear, take, 
etc. xt = of, from. So m Gothic, O. Norse. Compare Gr. vapa and 
the dative of separation (^ 301). Often strengthened by gelang (B., 1377). 
Time— point : wt middan sumere, at midsummer (Bed., 5,23) ; wt aireslan, 

for the first time (Ex., 51, 30). 
Specification (Lat. quoad) : xt Me speop, got along as to eating (B.,3026). 
Opposition: set me gepyrcean, work against me (Psa., cxxviii, 1). 
State — circumstance : stande set gebede, stand praying (Psa., v, 3) ; sxt 
set pine, sat at the wine (Rid., 47, 1). 

II. Accusative — space: xt ssbstredmds gebr&ddest, extendest even to 
the sea-streams (Psa., Ixxix, 11). 

Eet-foran (+ dative or (rare) ace.) :— place : wtforan pam folce, (go) in 
front of the people (Jos., iii, 6) ;— person : gepemmed aetforan Gode, cor- 
rupt before God (Gen., vi, 11) ;— time: wtforan miessan, before (St. An- 
drew's) mass-day (Chr., 1010). II. Ace. : setforan edgan pine, before thine 
eyes (Psa., v. 5; Ettm.). 

334. bi, he (§ 254, 2) ; + dative (instr.) : Gothic aec. and dat. 
Place— immediate juxtaposition : hi seeton be pam strande, they sat by the 
strand (Matt., xiii, 48) ; dledon be mseste, laid him by the mast (B., 36) ; 
for he pam lande, sailed along by the land (Oros., 1, 1) ; be pege, by the 
way (Mc., viii, 3) ; — part handled : genam he feaxe, took him by the l.air 
(Jud., 99). 



BJiFTxVN, BE-EASTAN, , BE-TPIIIS. 161 

Time: be dieges leohte, by daylight (Rid., 28, 17); — dative absolute: pu 
ne dlsbte be pe lifigendum, permit thou not, while thou livest (B.,2665). 

Cause — means : hangad be prsbde, hangs by a thread (Boeth., 29) ; — source : 
sunu dgan be bryde phire, have a son by thy wife (C, 2326) ; — theme : 
sungon be Godes bearne, sung of God's son (EL, 562) ; dcsiad be pam 
zilde, ask about the child (Matt., ii, 8) ; be pam daage nan man ndt, of 
that day no man knoweth (Mc, xiii, 32) ; — command : ferde be his hld- 
fordes hsese, went by his lord's command (Gen., xxiv, 10) ; — agent (rare, 
if ever) : forlx^d be pam, lygenum, seduced by him, by lies (C, 598) ; so 
Maetzner, 1, 404, and Grein under lygen, but better by the lies (means). 
Goth, bi is not so used. In Middle English (Wycliffe) first conuuoii. 

Manner : be Julian, fully (Psa., xxx, 27) ; be sumum d&le, partly (Met., 
20, 96) ; — succession, likeness : pord be porde, word for word (Boetli., 
Pref.) ; — proportion : be gepyrhtum, according to their works (An., 1613) ; 
— accompaniment : be hearpan singan, sing to the harp (Bed., 4, 24). 

Weasure of difference (^ 302, d) : mdre be dnum stxfe, more by one let- 
ter (Nic, 33). 

b-agftan (+dat.) : gang basftan me, get behind (by) me (Matt., xvi, 23) ; 

bxftan pam hldforde, except with the owner (Exod., xxii, 14). 
be-eastan, -pestan, etc. (4-dat.) : be-edstan Rine, east of the Rhine 

(Oros, 1, 1 ; where also -pestan, etc.). 
be-foran (+dat. or ace.) :— place : him beforan, before him (C, 183, 17) ; 

— time (Psa., civ, 15). Ace, place : beforan pone cyning, in sight of 

the king (Boeth., 16, 2). 
be-geondan (+dat. or ace.) : he pees begeondan lorddne, he was over 

by Jordan (John, iii, 26). Ace. : com begeondan lorddnen, came by 

past Jordan (Matt., 19, 1). 
be-healfe (+dat.) : hehealfe hldforde, beside of my lord (By., 318). 
be-heonan (+dat.) : beheonan sib, this side the sea (Chr.,878). 
be-hindan (+dat.) : him behindan, behind him (Met., 29, 52). 
b-innan (+dat.) : — place: binnan pam dice, within the dike (Bed., 1, 

1 1) ; — time : binnan prym dagum, within three days (John, ii, 19). 
be-neodan (+dat.) : beneodan cneope, below the knee (.^If. LL.,63). 
b-ufan (4-dat.) : bUfan pxm elnbogan, above the elbow (54) ; a-b-ove 

<Orm. d-b-ufenn has not been found in Anglo-Saxon. 
b(e)-utan {a, o) (+dat.) : buton bur gum, oat of towns (Edg., IV,2, 3) ; 

biiton enie, without end (Sat., 315); bUton dnum, except one (B.,705). 

Conj.-f ace: biiton pone hafelan,{he took no more) but the head (B.,1614). 
be-tpeonum, -tpdm, -tpynan (-fdat. or ace.) : be ssem tpeonum, by two 

seas (B.,858) ; him betpyndn, ^.mong them (Job,166). Ace. : be-tpeonum 

peallds, (ledest) between walls (Psa., cv, 9). Genitive : Rid., 30, 2. 
be-tpih-Cs), -tpeox, Layamon betwixte (+dat. or ace.) : betpeox pe and 

pam /n/e, betwixt thee and the woman (Gen., iii, 15). Ace. : betpeox 

his mdgds, (sought him) among his kindred (Luc., ii, 44). 



i(j2 EAC, FEOR, FOK, FOllE, l-liAiL 

335. eac (§ 254, 1) + dative. Gotb. adv. couj. 

Number : p^ priddan gedre edc tpentigum, the third year in addition to 
twenty (Bed., 1, 13) ; freond ebnigne edc pissum idesum, any friend be- 
sides tliese women (C, 2500) ; edc pam {pan, pon), thereupon, more- 
over (Met., 1, 44). 

336. feor (§ 259) -f dative. 

Place : feor urum mi/nstre, far from our monastery (Bed., 5, 4) ; feor his 
fxder, far from his father (Luc., xv, 20) ; unfeor (vii, 6). 

337. for (§ 254, 2) + dat., or instr., or ace. Goth. ace. 

fore (§ 254, 2) + dat. or ace. Goth. dat. {for- =frce-.) 
1. Dative and instrumental : {for-: for-manig, very many, By., 239). 

Place : for his edgum, before his eyes (C.,2429) ; fore edgum (Cri., 1321) ; 
for Abrahame, before Abraham (C.,2778) ; fore (Cri., 1233). 

Time : for pintrd fela, many winters before (C, 2199) ; fore (Cri., 1031). 

Cause— motive : propode for mannd lufan, suffered for love of men (Men., 
86) ; fore (Hell., 1 10) ;— occasion : for guman synnan, suffered for man's 
sin (Kr., 146) ; fore (Cri., 1095) ;— exciting object : for his life lyt sor~ 
gedon, they cared little for his life (Ex., 116, 18) ; fore (B., 1442) ;— da- 
tive of advantage : for us gepropode, suffered for us (Sat., 665); fore 
(Cri., 1202) ; — theme : s&donfor manegum yfelum d&dum, spoke of maiiv 
evil deeds (Nic, 2) ; fore (Pa., 34); — oath : for drihtne, for God's sake 
(Met., 1, 64) ; fore (Jul., 540) ;— reason : for pam {an, on),forpy, there- 
fore ; for hparn {an, on), for hpi, wherefore ; — exchange : feounge for 
lufan, hate for love (Psa. cviii, 4) ; for eallvm pissum, in spite of all tha> 
(Chr., 1006) ; for intingan, for the sake of (Bed.. 3, 8). 

Manner : for his peldakdum, according to his good works (Psa., Ixxvi, 7) -, 
— order: gyfe for gyfe, gift after gift (John, i, 16). 

11. Accusative. 

Place — after motion : gdn for pi andpeardne, go before thee (C, 871) ; 
fore (An., 1030). 

Time : for ealle men, (acted) before all men (Kr., 93) ; fore preo niht, be- 
fore three nights (An., 185). 

Cause — motive: for plenco, for pride (B., 1206) ; —advantage = dative : 
for ehterds and tailendum, pray for persecutors and calumniators (Matt., 
V, 44) ; — exchange : tod for tod, tooth for tooth (Matt., v, 38). 

Factitive Object (^ 286, b) : hine h^fde for fulne cyning, held him for 
(as) full king (Chr., 1013). 

338. frain,/row (§ 254, 2) + ablative > dat. (instr.). Goth. dat. 
Place whence motion : comon fram edst-datle, came from the east (Matt., 
ii, 1). 



GEHENDE, GEOND, IN, ON. 163 

Time : from dxges orde, from daybreak (EL, 140). 

Conditions and relations whence separation : drds hefram slstpe, he arose 
from sleep (Bed., 4, 24); fram synnum, from sins (El., 1309) ; feor 
fram me, (their heart) far from me (Mc, vii, 6). Instrumental : fram 
pys jng-plegan, (turn) from this war-play (By., 316). 

Cause — source : fram pdm hit naman onfeng, from whom it took name 
(Bed., 1, 1) ; — agent with the passive : costnod fram deofle, tempted by 
the devil (Matt., iv, 1) ; — theme : fram ellendsbdum secgan hyrde, heard 
tell of hero-deeds (B., 875). 

339. gehende (§ 259) -f dative. O. Sax. at handum. 
Place : gehende pam scype, handy (near) to the ship (John, vi, 19). 

340. geond {io) (§ 255), tluther+acc. of that intervening. 

Place : gd geond pegas, go through the highways (Luc, xiv, 23) ; geond 
piidu, through the wood (In., 20) ; geond pa peode, among the people (An., 
25) ; geond stopd, through the places, all about (Luc, xxi, 11). 

Time: geond feoper tig dagd, after forty (of) days (Num., xiii, 22). 

341. in {§ 254, l)4-<3at., instr,, ace. Goth, dat., ace., genitive. 
on (§ 254, 1)4- dat., ace. Goth, dat., ace. 

In Old Saxon in is not found, nor in the Anglo-Saxon of Alfred's Meters, 
the Runes, or Byrhtnod ; it is twice in the Psalms, three times in Caedmon's 
Genesis ; elsewhere in the Anglo-Saxon poetry in and on freely inter- 
change : but in prevails in the North, on in the South. The distinctive 
on has a vertical element {up or down), which easily runs to against or 
near. (See Grein, 2, 140.) 

I. Dative, Instrumental. 

Place where: in tune ofsleah, slay (a man) in town (^Edb., 5); on py 
cynerice, in the kingdom (Chr.,871); in heafde hpite loccds, on the head 
white locks (Rid., 41, 98); on has also: on picge, on horse-back (B., 
286) ; on Temesan, winter quarters on (along) the Thames (Chr., lOO'J) ; 
— person : on hym sy gefylled, in them is fulfilled (the prophecy) (Matt., 
xiii, 14) ; on pifum, (blessed) among women (Luc, i, 28) ; — after verbs 
of taking away : blAdd name on telgum, took fruit from the branches 
(C, 892). Compare xt. 

Time when : in gedr-dagum, in old days (B., 1) ; — on : on pam eahtodan 
dxgc, on the eighth day (Job, 164) ; — how long : on six dagum, in six 
days (he made the earth) (C, 266, 1) ; on py ylcan gedre, in the same 
year (Chr., 896). 

Cause — theme : think on (Psa. cxvii, 8) ; — end : on forgifenntsse, for for- 
giveness of sins (Hom., ii, 268) ; — exciting object : pundredon on his Idre, 
wondered at his lore (Mc, vi, 2) ; trust in (Psa. li, 6 ; ace, cxxiv, 1). 

Means or instrument : se pxs beorht on blsedum, that was bright with 



164 INNAN, ON-BUTAN, ON-EFN, ON-FORAN, ON-GEGN. 

flowers (Dan., 500) ; ic on minum inuitc andetle, I confess with my 
mouth (Psa., cviii, 29) ; sungon on tympanis, they sang to the accompa- 
nuncnt of drums (Psa., Ixvii, 24) ; psalterio, hearpe (cxliii, 10). 

Material : on pdm tclgum timbran, to work upon the branches (Ph., 188)'. 

Maimer: comon on prim jloccmn, came in three companies (Job, 165) ; — 
condition: in gebede he st6d.,he stood in prayer (Bed., 5, 12); on (B., 
1739) ; on onlicnesse purde,giew into likeness (C.,2564). 
II. Accusative. 

Place whither : heo hine in pwt mynstre onfeng, she took him into the 
monastery (Bed., 4, 24) ; — on: fcollon on pornds, fell (down) on thorns 
(Matt., xiii, 7) ; hidde hine on munt, led him (up) on a mount (Matt., iv, 
8) ; datives are found in this sense : on heofenxim cuman, to come into 
heaven (Job, 166); — persons: com hungur on Bryttds, hunger came 
among the Britons (Bed., 1, 14) ; he on hi fcaht, he fought against them 
(2, 9). 

Time how long: in ealle lid, for all time (Pa., 17) ; on pa sefentid, di 
eventide (Kr.,68) ; preopa on dxg, thrice a day (^-Elf. C). 

Cause — purpose : gdn on fixod, go a fishing (John, xxi, 3) ; — price ; be- 
bohte on seolfres sine, sold for a treasure of silver (C, 301, 7). 

Manner: on Scyttisc, in Scottish (tongue) (Bed., 3, 27) ; — condition: on- 
pxcned in lif, awakeneth into life (Ph., 649). 

Factitive : he up drd'rde redde stredmds in rand-gebeorh, he reared the 
red streams into (as) side defences (C, 196, 24). 

innan (^ 257, Goth. adv.) + dat., ace, gen. Dat. : he ssst innan huse, 
he sat in the house (Matt., ix, 10) ; — ace. : feal innan pd see, fall into 
the sea (xxi, 22) ; — gen.: gdst innan hr edr e s, son\ within the body 
(Psa. cxlii, 4). So time ; Dat. (Chr., 806) ; Ace; (Chr., 693). 

on-butan (rare), dbutan (^ 257) -{-dat. or ace: wteoped dbutan p&re 
sunnan, (ring) visible around the sun (Chr., 806) ; onbutan pwre sun- 
nan (Chr., 1104) ; — ace. (Exod., xix, 12). Nmnber : dbutan feoper 
hund mannd, about four hundred men (Chr., 1055). 

on-efn (O. Sax., O. H. Ger., ^ 258) + dat. : him on-efn liged, anent (= 
beside) him lies (B., 2903). Ace. (Grein) ; gen. (Gen., xvi, 12). 

on-foran (^ 257) -|- dat. (rare, see be-foran): onforan pinter, before win- 
ter (Chr., 894). 

on-gegn, d-gen, -gedn (^ 258)-}-dat., ace. Place : pdm d&lum ongegen, 
(Britain lies) opposite the regions (of Europe) (Bed., 1, 1) ; ongen eop, 
opposite you (Matt., xxi, 2) ; — hostility: ongedn gramum, (go) against 
the fiends (B., 1034) ; ongedn his lustum, fight against his lusts (Job, 
167)=/jj</. Ace. — place: dgen hine am, ran to him (Luc, xv, 20) ; 
— hostility: cuman ongedn hine, come against him (Boet., 35, 6). 
Time: ongedn pinter hdm tugon, against winter went home (Chr., 
1096). 

on-(ge)mong(e) (^ 258 ; O. Sax. angimang) -\-da.t. Place : Godum on- 



IN IXX^VN, , IN-TO.— L^S, MID, NEAH. 165 

gemonge, stood among the Gods (Psa., Ixxxi, l)=^bet]mh, on middum. 

Time : ontnang pam gepinnan, during the fight (Chr., 1106). 
in inuaii (mne), on innan (inne) {^ 257)-|-dat., ace. : ofne on innan, in 

the oven (Dan., 259). Ace. : in pone ofn innan, into the oven (Dan., 

238). 
on-middan, -middum (^ 258) + dat. : on-middan pam hp&te, amidst the 

wheat (Matt., xiii, 25) ; omiddan scedfum, amid your sheafs (Gen., 

xxxvii, 7). See to-middes. 
on ufan (^ 257) + ace. Place : locad ufan on helle, looketh from above 

on hell (A. R., 25). Time: on-w/aw Aar/^es^, after harvest (Chr., 923). 
on-uppan (^ 257)+dat. : on-uppan pam, assan, rode upon the ass (John, 

xii, 14). 
in-to (^ 254, 1, 3) + dat. : com into healle, came into the hall (Matt., ix, 

23) ; into him, went unto him (Bed., 3, 12) ; into heom, locked the 

doors onto them (Chr., 1083). 

342. laes (§ 259) + dat. (instr.) : 

Number: tpd lais XXX (prittigum) gedrd, two less (than) thirty (of) 
years (Chr., 642). 

343. mid (§ 254, 1) + dat. (instr.), ace. Goth. dat. 

I. Dative (instr.). 

Place — among whom : ic pxs mid Hunum, I was among the Huns (Trav., 
57) ; — near whom : mid Eormanrice, I was with Ermanric (Trav., 88). 

Time : mid serdipge, with the dawn (B., 126). 

Manner : mid gefedn, joyfully (An., 868) ; mid rihte, rightfully (Jud., 97). 

Co-existence: se mid Idciim com, he came with gifts (C, 2103) ; perds 
mid pifum, men with their wives (C, 1738) ; (instrumental) gepdt him 
ham mid py here-tedme, got himself home with the booty (C, 2162). 

Cause — means : mid his handum gesceop, with his hands made (C, 251) ; 
(instrumental) py hungre, with hunger (Soul, 31) ; — instr. : mid py bille, 
with the sword (C, 2931). 

II. Accusative. 

Place : puna mid usic, dwell among us (C, 2722) ; mid aldor, lived with 

their lord (C, 20). 
Co-existence: gepdt mid cyning, he departed with the king (C, 1210). 
Cause : sloh mid hdlige hand, smote with holy hand (C, 208, 18). 
Object of address or discrimination : spr3pc mid hine, spoke with him 

(Bed., 2, 13) ; demd mid unc tpih, judge between us two (C, 2253). 

344. neah., neh, nseh ; near; nehst (§ 259) + dat. Goth. dat. 
Place : seo ed flopect neah p&re ceastre pealle, the river flows nigh the 

town's wall (Bed., 1,7); pille ic p>am lige near, I will go nearer to the 
fire (C, 760) ; nehst psere eaxe, (the nave) turns nearest the axle (Boet., 
39, 7). 



166 NEFNE, NEOBAN, OB, OF, OFER. 

345. nefne, nemne (ne gif ne, Lat. non nisi? but see § 259) 
nemdc^ wyw^rffe-f dative. 

Separation: ealle fornam nemne fedum anum, took off all except a few 
(B., 1081) ; nymde heolstersceado, except darkness (C, 103). 

346. neodan (§ 257) +acc. ? See be-neodan,, under-neodan. 

He peard J)urhscoten neodan pxt oder hrebst, he was shot through be- 
neath the other breast (Oros, 3, 9) ; so Koch, but the texts have under- 
neodan. The O. H.Ger. nida is used as a prep., as is 0. Norse nedan 
yt\\\\ fyr, but I have not found neodan so used. 

347. od (§ 254, 3) + ace, (rare) dat. Gotb. ace, dat. 

Space — extent to : ealne od pone peal genoman, they took all as far as to 

the wall (Bed., 1, 12). 
Time: od pone da'g, until that day (B., 2399). Dative: od pisum dwge, 

unto this day (Horn., ii, 132). 
Effect: unrbt od dead, sorrowful unto death (Mc, xiv, 34). 
Degree : ealrd od nytenu, (slew the first-born of the Egyptians) of all even 

to the cattle (Psa., cxxxiv, 8). 

348. of (§ 254, 2)-fdat. Gotbic a/ translates airo, fram oft- 
ener vtto ; in space and time relations they intercbange ; in causal, 
of is material cause, frarti is efficient ; botb take a dative. 

Place whence : he dstdh of pam postere, he came out of the water (Matt., 
iii, 16). 

Time : of pam dsege, from that day (John, xi, 53). 

State or circumstances: of slwpe onpoc, awoke from sleep (C, 249, 2) ; 
dlys us of yfle, deliver us from evil (Matt., vi, 13) ; — any object of sepa- 
ration {^ 301) : hdl of Pysum, whole of this (Mc, v, 34 ; Luc, vii, 21). 

Partitive : an of pysum, one of these (Matt., vi, 29). 

Cause — material: of eordan geporht, made of earth (C, 365); dfedde 
of fixum, fed with fishes (An., 589) ; redf of hedrum, garment of hair 
(Matt., iii, 4) ; — source: of Geatd fruman syndon Cantpare, from the 
Geats are the people of Kent (Bed., 483, 21) ; — author: gehyrde ofGode, 
heard from God (John, viii, 40) ; I do nothing of myself, of me sylfum 
(viii, 28); — agent: pizs of Myrcum gecoren, was chosen by the Mer- 
cians (Chr., 925). 

349. ofer (§ 252, b) + dat., ace. Gothic dat., ace. 

I. Dative. 
Place — point higher than : ofer since salo hlifian, over the treasure a hall 
stand (C, 2403); — surface on which: pind ofer ydum, wind upon the 
waves (B., 1907). 



ON, TIL, TO. 167 

Time : ofer pam dnum gedre, (live) over (= longer than) the one year 

(Horn., ii, 146). 
Degree: ofer sndpe scinende, shining above (= brighter than) snow (Psa. 

C.,75). 
Rule : ofer deoflum pealded, rules over devils (Dan., 765). 

Accusative senses are frequently found with datives. 

II. Accusatives, often used where geond or eefter might be. 

Place — motion or presence from side to side of an object: ofer sse gepi- 
ton, over sea they went (Chr., 885) ; pieron Pystru ofer ealle eordan, 
there was darkness over all the earth (Matt., xxvii, 45) ; — above it : hlypp 
ofer heafod, (my sin) is gone over my head (Psa., xxxvii, 4) ; ofer peal, 
got over a wall (Psa., xvii, 28) ; standende ofer hig, standing over her 
(Luc, iv, 39). Dative senses : ofer hrof hand scedpedon, showed the 
hand alx ve the roof (B., 983). 

Time — extent: ofer ealne dsg, through the whole day (Jud., 28). Dative 
sense: ofer midne dxg, after mid-day (C, 853), common. 

Degree : ofer ynce, over an inch (^ctb., 67) ; — eminence : an steorra ofer 
odre bcorht, a star bright above others (Met., 29, 19). 

Rule : pealded ofer eal manna cyn, ruleth over all mankind (Psa., Ixv, 6). 

Conflict : ofer drihtnes pord, against the lord's command (C, 593) ; ofer 
pillan, against the will (B., 2409). 

Separation: ofer pxpen, without a weapon (B., 685). 

Exciting Object {^ 315) : ic bhssige ofer phire spreece,! rejoice over thy 
speech (Psa., cxviii, 162). 

Theme : he ofer benne sprwc, he talked about the wounds (B., 2724). 

On and compounds, see in. 

350. Samod (^ 255)+dat. : samod wrdage, wiih. dawn (B., 1311). 

351. til, Northumbrian sometimes for to (§ 259)-fdat. Goth., 
Ang.-Sax. adjective; O.Norse preposition + gen. 

Cped til him, said to them (Matt., xxvi, 31) ; infinitive: til eotanne, to 
eat (Matt., xxvi, 17) ; so in Orm. — common in Chaucer, Wycliffe ; often 
with to or into ; used in time, place, and dative relations as late as 
Spenser. 

352. to (§ 254, 3) + dat. (rare ace, gen., instr.). Goth. dat. 
(rare ace). 

Place — end of motion or extent: he to healle geong, he to the hall went 
(B., 925) ; hu hedh to hefone, how high to heaven (Boet., 35, 4) ; beseoh 
to me, look at me (Psa., xii, 3)^on+a'Cc. ; — after verbs of seeking, ask- 
ing : sascce secean to Heorote, seek a fight at Heorot (B., 1990) ; ahsode 
to Fry sum, asked among the Frisians (B., 1207) =/rom. Compare nrt, on. 

Time — end of duration : 30000 pintrd to pinum dedddxge, 30000 years to 



1(38 TO, TO-EACAN, TU-PEARD. 

lliy death-day (Soul, 37); — when: to dxge pissum, to-day (C, 1031); 
to nun-tide, at noon-tide (Mc, xv, 34) ; — how long; to langre hpile, for 
a long time (C, 489). 

Degree : ge etad to fylle, ye shall eat to fullness (Lev., xxvi, 5). 

Price : geseald to prim hand penegum, sold for three hundred pence (Mc, 
xiv, 5)^. 

Order : hchstne to hifn, highest next to him (C, 254). 

Likeness : God gesceop man to his anlicnesse, God made man in his like- 
ness (Gen., i, 27). 

End of action — object added to : to his anlicnesse, (add an ell) to his stat- 
ure (Luc, xii, 25) ; gecleofod to minum gomum, cleaved to my gums 
(Psa., xxi, 13) ; — of address or gesture : cpxd to htm, said to him (Matt., 
viii, 7) ; gebuge to, bow to a worse God (Jul., 361) ; — condition : ageaf 
pif to gepealde, gave a wife into his power (C, 1867) ; — act prepared 
for : to gefeohte gearu, ready for fight (Num., xxi, 33) ; — purpose : lig to 
prxce sende, sent fire for vengeance (C, 2584). Factitives : ceorfon 
to sticcon, cut to pieces (Lev., i, 6) ; pe habbad Abraham to faeder, we 
have Abraham as father (Matt., iii, 9) ; hine to sylfcpale nemnad, name 
him a suicide (Ex., 330, 24). 
n. Accusatives (rare). 

Place : gongan to Galileam, go to Galilee (Sat., 527). Time : to mor- 
gen, this morning (C, 2438) ; to dssg, to-day (Psa., ii, 7). Condition: 
to dead deman, doom to death (Gu., 521). To ham faran, go home (B., 
124) ; to honda, at hand (Gu., 102) ; to gepeald? (Jul., 86) ; to sod, in 
truth ; and some other adverbial phrases are possibly accusatives. 
in. Genitives — mostly with pees, hpses, middes: to pxs, to such a de- 
gree (B., 1616), thither (B., 2410) ; to hpsis, whither (C. Exod., 192) ; to 
middes dseges, at mid-day (Psa., xxxvi, 6). 

IV. Instrumental : to hpt, wherefore (Hom., ii, 134). 

V. Infinitive — purpose or end : m&l is me to feran, it is time for me 
to go (B., 316). Gerund: he com, eordan to demanne, he came to judge 
the earth (Psa., xcvii, 8). 

to-eacan (^ 258)+dat. : to-eacan pdm, in addition to these (Boet., 26, 2). 

to-foran (^ 257) + dat. Place : toforan him gegaderode, gathered be- 
fore him (Matt., xxv, 32). Time: toforan pam dacge, before the day 
(Chr.,1106). 

to-gegnes, -genes, -geanes (^ 258) + dat., ace : him togeanes rad, rode 
against him (B., 1893). Time : togeanes Edstron, against Easter 
(Chr., 1095). Ace (Gen., xiv, 17). See further ongegn. 

to-middes (^ 258) + gen., dat. : to-middes heard, in the midst of them 
(John, viii, 3). Dative: to-middes p&m pseterum, amidst the waters 
(Gen., i, 6). 

to-peard, -peardes (^^ 259; 251, 1): topard Huntendune, lie toward 
Huntingdon (Chr., 656) ; ferdon topardes Ou, went towards Ou (Chr., 
1094). 



PURH, UFAN, UNDER. 169 

t6-pidere (^^ 255, 359) +dat., ace: prddum topidere, answer to ( = 
against) enemies (Cri., 185) ; pig topidere, to hold against a fight (Ex., 
341,20). 

353. l^urh (§ 253, 3) +acc. (rare dat., gen.), Goth. ace. 

Place — motion into and out at the opposite side : gdn purh dure n&dle 
edge, go through a needle's eye (Luc.,xviii,25) ; purh heard midlen,\\ent 
through their midst (Luc, iv, 30) ; — simple extent {—geond): l&rende 
purh ealle /«<ica7n, teaching throughout all Judea (Luc, xxiii, 5). 

Time : purh ealne dxg, through the whole day (Psa., Ixxiii, 21) ; purh 
sleep, (spoke to him) during sleep (C, 2641). 

Cause — agent : pscs geporht purh hine, was made by him (John, i, 10) ; 
— means : purh dryhtnes pord, (light was named day) by God's word (C, 
130); — motive: purh feondscipe, WxroVigh. hatred (C, 610) ; lust (Ex., 
23, 15); — reason: purh ps't, Lat. propter hoc, for that reason (Gen., 
xxxvii, 5) ; oath (Lat. per) : ic sperige purh me silfne, I swear by my- 
self (Gen., xxii, 16). See on. 

Manner: purh endebyrdnesse smgan, sing in order (Bed., 4, 24) ; demon 
purh his rfct'f/a, judge according to his deeds (Sat., 623). Co-existence : 
cennan purh sdr micel sunu, to bring forth with pain many a son (C, 924). 
IL Dative — place : perh hiord middum, went through their midst (North. 

Luc. iv, 30) ; means : purh costnungum gepeman, seduce by temptations 

(Job, 165). 

in. Genitive — means : gecleensode purh pies huselganges, purified by the 

sacrament (Horn., ii, 266). 

ut J)urh>Semi-Sax. purh iii!>Eng. throughout is common. 

354. ufan, adv. See bufan, onufan. 

355. under (§ 255) +dat., ace. Goth. imf?ar, + aee; undaro, 
+ dat. O. Sax. undar, -er ; O. H. Ger. untar ; O. Norse undr. 

Place — where its object would fall, or overshadow: pu pxre under pam fic- 
treope, thou wast under the fig-tree (John, i, 48) ; under beorge, at the foot 
of the mountain (B., 2559) ; — or cover, or enclose : under hearmlocon, un- 
der lock=in prison (El., 695 ; C, 6, 19) ; — dress : under helme, helmeted 
(B.. 342, 2539) ; U7ider gyldnum hedge, wearing a golden diadem (B., 
1163). 

Time : under /am, Lat. inter hsec, in the midst of these things (Chr., 876) ; 
so in O. Sax. 

Personal — rank, rule : pegnas under me, servants under me (Matt., viii, 9) ; 
under Northmannum, under the rule of the Northmen (Chr., 942) ; under 
onpealde, \xr\6er authority (901). 
n. Accusative. 

Place — after motion : under hrof gefor, went under a roof (C, 1360) ; — di- 



170 UNDEK-NEODAN, UPl'AN, UTAN, PANA, PID. 

rection : under hxc, backwards (C, 2562) ; — extent like a dative : under 
roderd ;-«w, under the expanse of the heavens (C, 1166). 
Feisoual : under helle cm, anioii^' liie race of lioll (Ex., 99,5), so O. Sax- 
on ; under hand speordcs, (give) to the sword (=under the hand of; ^Psa.. 
Ixii, 8). 

under-neodan (+dat). Not in Layamon, Orm. ; rare O. 
English. 
pxs undernxden his fate, (support which) was underneath his foot (Chr., 
1070). 

356. uppan (§ 25V) -(-dat., ace. Goth, iupa^ adv.; O. Saxon 
uppan^-en ; 0.1^o\%q upd ; O.l^.Gi.Hfan. I*erha])s two words, 
derivative uppan<iups and compound xq)-\-on^ have mixed. 

Place — on a high object : ge-offra hine uppon anre dime, offer him upon a 

hill (Gen., xxii, 2) ; uppan a55ene,ride upon an ass (Matt.,xxi, 5) ; — over: 

him uppaji, above him the cross was raised (EL, 886). 
Time : uppon Edstron, after Easter (Chr., 1095). 
Separation : uppon him genumen hxfde, had taken from them (Chr., 1106). 

II. Accusative. 
Place — after motion : me ahof uppon hedhne stdn, raised me upon a high 

stone (Psa., xxvi, 6) ; but dat. and ace. mix (Exod., xxxiv, 2). 
Time : uppon Pentecosten, at Pentecost (Chr., 1095) ; — succession : &gder 

uppon oderne, one upon another (Chr., 1094). 
Opposition : uppon pone eorl pan, fought against the earl (Chr., 1095) ; 

tealde, charged against the king (Chr., 1094). 

357. utan (§ 257) +genitive. Goth. w^awa+ gen. 

Place : innon landes oJde iiton landes, within or out of the land {JEds, vi, 
8, 2). See b-utan, on-b-utan, pid-utan, ymb-utan. 

358. pana (§ 259) +genitive. Goih. vans ; O. N. va???-, adj. 
dues pana prittigum, thirty less one (Bed., 1, 1). Same idiom in Gothic, 

etc. See ^3 17, J. 

359. pid (§ 254, 1) 4-acc., dat., gen. Goth, vipra -face; O. 
Norse ace, dat. In senses analogous to Latin contra, opposite ; 
but gradually absorbing 7nid, § 343. The accusative and dative 
are not wholly separable in sense ; they often interchange in the 
same passage. 

I. Accusative. 
Space — beside, along : sum feol pid pone peg, some (seed) fell along the 
way (Luc, viii, 5) ; eode pid pa sse., went along the sea-side (Matt., iv, 18) ; 



PIBER, PIB-^FTAX, PIB-EASTAN. 171 

pid peal, (set their shields) against the wall (B., 326) ; p id pais H&lendes 
fit, (sat) by the Savior's feet (Luc, x, 39) 
Other Relations — association: he put pulf, he with the wolf (stripped the 
dead) (B.,3027); hagol pid fi/r gemengcd, h3.i\ with fire mixed (Exod., 
ix, 24) ; — conversation : pid Abraham sprecan, to talk with Abraham (C, 
2405) ; — comparison : pid sunnan leoht, (the brightness of the stars is not 
to be set) beside sunlight (Met., 6, 7) ; — hostility : pan pid paldend, fought 
against the lord (C, 303) ; yrre pid me, angry against me (Gen., xli, 10) ; 
— defence : unc pid hronfixds perian, to guard us against whales (B., 540) ; 
pid hearm, against harm (C, 245, 6) ; — friendship, agreement: beo pid 
Gedtds glxd,be with the Geats friendly (B.,1173); acordedan pid hme, 
they agreed with him (Chr., 1120). 

II. Dative. 

Place — position opposite : sxpeal uplang gestod pid Israhelum, the sea- 
wall stood upright next to the Israelites (C, 197, 8) ; — from far to near 
(^ 299) : tedh hine put hyre peard, drew him toward her (Jud., 99) ; so 
after go near (Sat., 249); grasp after (B., 439); strike against (B., 
1566) ; — from union to near : gesundrode leoht pid peostrum, separated 
light from darkness (C, 127). 

Other Relations — association : teofanade seghpylc pid odrum, associated 
each with the others (Sch., 44) ; mengan lige pid sode, mingle falsehood 
with truth (El., 307) ; — conversation : pid Abrahame sprwc, talked with 
Abraham (C.,2303); — exchange: he sealde aelcon senne pemg pid hys 
dwges peorce, he paid to each a penny for his day's work (Matt., xx, 2) ; 
— opposition: pid Gode punnon, fight against God (B., 113); pid pinde 
roped, rows against the wind (Ex., 345, 12) ; pid rihte, against right (B., 
144) ; — defence : helpan pid lige, help against fire (B., 2341) ; pid cpealme 
gebearh cnihtum, s\v\e\A the youths from death (C.,246, 7); — separation: 
mod pid dredmum gedeelde, mind from enjoyments sundered (Ex., 146, 18). 

III. Genitive. 

Place — towards an object exciting desire or dread (see ^ 315) : beseah un- 
derbxc jnd psBS pifes, (Orpheus) looked hack after the woman (Eurydice) 
(Boet., 35, 6) ; let fleogan hafoc pid pses holtes, let the hawk fly to the 
wood (By., 8) ; put psps fxstengeates folc onette, toward the city gate 
folks hastened (Jud., 162) ; hndh dledt pid pxs ewo-Zes, louted low before 
the angel (Num., xxii, 31). 

Abstract — defence : hied pid hungres, protection against hunger (El., 616) ; 
pid yfeld gefreo us, deliver us from evils (Hy., 6, 31). 

pider (^ 255)+acc. : pider me patron, they were against me (Psa., Iv., 

5). See to-pidere. 
pid-aeftan (^ 257)+acc. : pid-asftan his fet, hehxnA at his feet (Luc, vii, 

38; Mrc.,v,27). Better pid wf tan. 
pid-eastan, -nordan, -sudan, 4-acc., dat. : next eastward of, etc. (Ores., 

1,1). 



172 PIB-F0RAN.—YME(E).- ADJECTIVE. 

l)id-foran (^ 257)+acc. : pidforan pd sunnan, before the sun (Boct., 

39, 13). 
pid-geondan (^ 257)+acc. : pidgcondan lorddncn, beyond Jordan (Matt., 

iii, 5). 
put-innan (^ 257)4- ace. '■ pidinnan pmtan-ceastra, within Winchester 

(Chr.,963). 
pid-utan {^ 257)+acc., dat. Place : pididan pd picstope, without the 

camp (Lev., xxiv, 14). Dat. (Oros., 2, 4, 6) ;— manner : iilcon p&pnon, 

without any weapons (Chr., 1087). 
pid peard (separate) : pid heofonds peard, towards heaven (Horn., i, 

46) ; pid hire peard, towards her (Jud., 99). 

360. ymb(e), emb{e) (§ 254, 2) +acc. (rare dat.). O. Sax. ace. ; 
O.Xorse ace, dat. 
Place : gyrdel ymbe lendenu, girdle around his loins (Matt., iii, 4) ; ymb 

/line Scvt, (a multitude) sat around him (Me., iii, 32). 
Time : (1) ymb dntid, about the first hour (B., 219) ; (2) ymb pucan, after 

a week (C, 2769) ; (3) ymb dne niht, within one night (Chr., 878) ; 

(4) ymb pre niht, three nights before (Sat., 426). 
Theme : ford sprecan ymb Grendel, to speak about Grendel (B., 2070) ; 

ymh p)d fyrde pencean,to think about the expedition (C.,408). So after 

to wonder (EL, 959) ; care (B., 1536) ; strive (Gn. C, 55) ; and the like ; 

hig dydon ymbe hyne, they acted about him^they did to him (Matt., xvii, 

12). 
Dative (generally after its case) : him ymbe gestodon, around him stood (B., 

2597); sprxc ymb his meege, spoke of his kinsman (Hell., 25). 

ymb-utan (^ 257)-l-acc. ; — place : licgad me ymbiitan, lieth round about 
me (C, 382) ; ymbiitan eop, (why seek) without you (what is within) 
CBoet., 11,2) 



ADJECTIVE. 

361. An Adjective agrees with its Substantive in gender, 
munher^ and case. 

(a) This rule applies to the articles, adjective pronouns, and participles. 

(Z».) An infinitive or clausfe may take an adjective in the neuter singular : 
leofre is us gefonfisc, to catch fish is pleasanter to us (^If.) ; god is pwt ic 
on God hyht sette, it is good that I hope in God (Psa.,lxxii, 23). 

(c.) Indefinite. An adjective is often used indefinitely in the masculine 
for a person, or neuter for a thing : se bUnda,gif he blindne l&t, the blind, 
if he lead the blind (Matt., xv, 14) ; me pyrse gclamp,a. worse thing hap- 
pened to me (Sat., 175). 

(d.) Noun understood: Englisc ne cude, did not know English (speech) 
(Bed., 3, 3) ; pin spydre, thy right (hand) (Matt., vi, 3). 



ADJECTIVE, STRONG OR WEAK. 173 

(e.) Collectives singular may take a plural by synesis : seo heard 
purdon dd?-unce7ie,the herd were drowned (Mc.,5, 13). 

(/.) Copulative singulars may take a plural, or have a repeated singu- 
lar understood : p&ron gehdlgode Eadhwd, and Bosa and Eata, Edhed, and 
Bosa, and Eata were consecrated (Bed., 4, 12); eddig is se innod, and pa 
breost, blessed is the womb, and the breast (Lc, 11, 27). 

{g.) Partitives. Neuter partitives may be used for agreeing adjectives 
(§ 312, a) : nan ping grenes, nothing green (Exod., 10, 15). 

Strong oe Weak, §§ 103+. 

362, The weak forms are used after the definite article, demon- 
stratives, and possessives ; and often in attributive vocatives, in- 
strumeutals, and genitives. The comparative forms are all weak : 

1. Article: se ofermoda cyning, the proud king (C.,338). Exceptions 
are rare: sio hdlig rod, the holy rood (EL, 720); ^e oder, the other 
(B., 2061). For present participles, see ^ 119, b. 

The article is sometimes omitted before the weak form of a current epi- 
thet, especially in epic forms: hrefn blaca, black raven (B., 1801),- 
mihtigan dryhtne, mighty lord (B., 1398). 

Demonstrative: of pis sum leenan life, in this long life (C, 1211). 
Exceptions occur : on pis sum l&num life (Kr., 109). 

2. Possessive : minne strongUcan stol, my strong throne (C, 366). 
The article is often inserted : min se heofenlica feeder, my heavenly 
father (Matt., xviii, 35). Strong forms are frequent: minne spetne 
hldf my sweet bread (Psa., ci, 4). His, and other possessives of the 
the third person, are regularly followed by a strong form or inserted 
article : mid his dgenum redfe, with his own rol)e (Matt, xxvii., 31) ; 
his se deora sunu, his dear son (Sat., 243); smic drwrigne (B., 2789). 

3. Vocative : blindan latteopds, blind guides (Matt., xxiii, 16); ge 
blindan, ye blind ; ge dysigan, ye foolish (Matt., xxiii, 17). For 
other examples, and inserted article, see ^ 289. 

4. Instrumental : leohtan speorde,w\i\\ a bright sword (B., 2492). 

5. Genitive : Ixnan lifes, (end) of a long life (B., 2845); so C, 1, 13; 
231,13; Ex., 4, 25; 11,4. 

6. Comparatives : Iddran landscipe, (I never saw a) loathlier landscape 
(C, 376) ; pws betera ponne ic, he was better than I (B., 469). 

363. In other cases strong forms are used. 

1. No definitive : /m eart heard man, thou are a hard man (Matt, xxv, 
24); — vocative: pii riht cyning, thou true king (Ex., 2, 13); — instru- 
mental: redde lege, with red flame (C, 44); — genitive: mihtiges 
Godes mod, mighty God's wrath (C, 403) ; — predicate : Eddige synd 
/a, blessed are they (Matt., v, 3); — superlative : se pses Ie6f6st,\ie was 
dearest (B., 1296). For exceptions, see over, § 362. 



174 PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

2. "With the indefinite article : of slogan lenne Bryttiscne cyning, slew 

a British king (Chr.,508) ; ainne Icofestne sunu, (he had) a ilcarest son 

(Mrc.,12,6). 

364. These uses are established in Gothic, except that with the possess- 

ivcs, and perhaps the demonstratives, of some of which examples do not 

occur. The weak form has spread in High German. See ^ 107. 



PRONOUNS. 
365. A Substantive Pronoun agrees with its antecedent 

in gender, nuniber, and person. 

366. — 1. Personal Pronouns, §§ 130+. 

1. Omitted subject : — imperative (regular): am, arise (thou) (Matt., ii, 
20) ; — repeated in a concessive clause : punige pser he punige, dwell 
(he) where he may dwell (^ctr., 5, 6) ; — reflexives: pende hine, (he) 
turned him (C.,34,33); — other cases (rare): ndt pufare, (I) know not 
whether thou come (C, 34, 2) ; bist ful hdlgan hyhtes, (thou) art full 
of holy joy (Ex., 4, 24). 

2. Repeated subject : ^ 287, definitive. 

3. First person plural for singular by authors and preachers : nu pille 
pe reccan, now will we (I) recount (Oros., 1, 1, 11) ; — so (Horn., 2, 446). 
Kings say ic, or pe for themselves and council : ic JEdelstdn cyning 
(LL., 1) ; pe (LL. Ina. 1, 1), but Beowulf used the plural majestatis 
(B., 958, 1652) ; in Norman French nous (LL. William, 1, 41). Ye 
and you as pronomen reverentiae appear first in Old English. 

4. Dual : — interchange with plural: gelyfe gyt, — parniad pxt ge ne 
.seco-ora, believe ye * * take heed that ye tell not (Matt., ix, 28-30) ; — 
strengthened by bu, bu tu, bd, bd tpd (^ 141) : pit bu druncon, we two 
both drank (Bed., 5, 3) ; — with single appositive : unc, Adarne, to us, 
(me and) Adam (C, 387, see § 287, g). 

6. Hit may represent a definite object of any gender or person : etad 
pisne hldf, hit is min lichama, eat this bread, it is my body (Hom., 2, 
266) ; hit {seo sunne) p&re birnende stdn, it (the sun) is burning stone 
(A. R. Ett., 39) ; ic hit eom, I am it = he (Matt., xiv, 27) ; ic sylf hit 
eom (Luc, xxiv, 39) ; pu hit eart (Matt., xiv, 28) ; — or a clause : hit is 
dpriten, ne costna pu, it is written, Do not thou tempt (Matt, iv, 7) ; — 
an indefinite subject — an operation of nature or chance : hit snipd, it 
snows {JE\f. Gr., 24) ; hit gelimped, it happens (B., 1753) ; — a date : hit 
pses pinter, it was winter (John x, 22) ; hit a^fenleecp, it is evening (Luc, 
xxiv, 29) ; — appetites, notions, and the like : (rare) hit licode Herode, 
it pleased Herod (Matt., xiv, 6). 

6. Indefinite persons are denoted by hi: panne hig pyriad eop, when 
men shall revile you (Matt.,v, 11). 



POSSESSIVES.— DEMONSTRATIVES. 175 

7. Cases mix, dative me with accusative mec, pe with pec, us with usir. 
eup with eopic. The dative finally displaced the accusative ; so also 
have him and them, in English. Nominatives also give place to the 
oblique cases : he is strongra pon mec, he is stronger than me ^ I 
(Matt., iii, 11, Northuin.) ; himself, etc., see ^ 366, 10. 

8. Personal pronouns are often reflexives : ic me reste,\ rest myself 
(Ex., 494, 8) ; restad eop, rest yourselves (.^Ifd., 3) ; gegadorode micel 
folc hit, a great crowd gathered itself (Chr., 921). See 10. 

9. Personals reciprocals : hig betpeox him cp&don, they said among 
themselves (Mrc, 1,27). 

10. Strengthened by dgcii, an, self (i'or declensions, see ^^ 131-|-) : pm 
agen beam, thy own child (C, 144, 27) ; hire dgen beam, her own 
child (158, 6); Jtinuin dgnum fotum (173, 2); ic ana attbxrst,! alone 
escaped (Job, 165); ic selfa,\ myself (C, 35, 11); pu 5e//a, thyself 
(36, 12) ; Pu sylfa, feminme (Ex. 262, 32) ; ge sylfe (John, iii, 28) ; he 
5^// (C, 35, 18). Accusative for nominative: pe sy If cyjne, thyself 
come (Ex., 8, 8) ; Pildtus hym sylf dprdt, Pilate himself wrote all this 
(Nic., 34) ; — reflexive : lufd pinne nehstan spd pe sylfne, love thy 
neighbor as thyself (Matt., xix, 19) ; — possessive : pin sylfes beam, thy 
own child (C, 176, 34); hire selfre iwna, her own sons (B.,1115); — 
pronoun omitted ; seolfcs bl&dum, its own shoots (C.,248, 17). 

11. Personals with pe as relatives, see relatives. 

Possessive s, § 13 2. 

367. — 1. The possessives couple with a demonstrative without weak 
flexion : ptes min sunu pses dead, this my son was dead (Luc. xv, 24) ; 
min se gecorena sunu, my chosen son (Matt., iii, 17). 

2. Sin and his : his hearran, drihten sinne, his lord (C, 19,20). Sin=^ 
Lat. suus ; his (=:Lat. ejus) displaces sin in late prose, ^ 132, b. 

3. For genitive ending : Enac his cynryn, Anak's children (Num., xiii, 
29) ; Gode his naman cigdan, call on God his name (Psa. xcviii, 6), 
doubtful ; common in Layamon and Old English, where also her: Pallas 
her glass=zPallas^s glass (Bacon). 

4. Omitted : mid handum, (I can work) with my hands (C, 18, 27). 

5. Without its substantive : ealle mine synd pine, all mine are thine 
(John, xvii, 10) ; heard is heofenan rice, theirs is heaven's kingdom 
(Matt., V, 10). In Layamon, Aeoren> Old Engl. Aerun>Engl. hers; 
ourun^ours, etc. /' 

Demonstratives, § 13 3. 

1. Se, seo, J)aet, as an article. 

368. The definite article marks its object, 

(a.) As before mentioned or well known : porhte fen, and smyrede 
mid pam fenne, he made clay, and anointed with the clay (John, ix, 6) ; se 



170 'i^lll^ AliTICLE USED, OMITTED. 

Hielend, the Savior (Luc, x, 38) ; pxre eordan, tlie earth (.Toiin, viii, fi) ; — 
proper naiues : UUnlpiges sunn. Sc Hlodpig pivs Carles brudor (Clir.,885; ; 
pivne Hcrddcm, i\\G (famous) Herod (Matt., ii, 22). 

(/>.) As further described, by a clause : pam Inire par heo inne Lrg, the 
bower vvherom she lay (Aj)., 1) ; sc Bcopulf, se pe pid Brecon punne, the 
Beowulf, who fought with Breca (B., 506); — by an appositive : p:vs muntes 
Syon, the mount Sion (Psa., xlvii, 2) ; — by an adjective : pset hctste hors, 
the best horse (Bed., 3, 14) ; se hdlga Gudlac, the holy Guthlac (St. G., 4) ; 
seo Magdaleniscc Maria, the Mary called Magdalene (Matt., xxvii, 56) ; — 
by a possessive : pain hldfurde pxs huses, the lord of the house (Bed., 3, 
10) ; — by relation to other objects mentioned (often possessive) : gefyldon 
pd od pone brerd, they filled it to the (=its) brim (John, ii, 7) ; pam gealc, 
(into the sheepfoid) at the (=its) gate (John, x, 1). 

(c.) As a definite whole : pd ludeds, the Jews (John, vii, 1) ; pd cl&n- 
Aeor/a?j, blessed are the pure in heart (Matt., v, 8); — a personified abstract: 
se pisdom, Wisdom (Boet., 3, 3). 

369. The article is often omitted where it might be used. It is used less in Anglo- 
Saxon than in Gothic or Old High German, and very rarely in the oldest poetry, e. g., 
twice in the Traveler's Song, 19 times in the first 537 lines of Beowulf, 12 times in 268 lines 
of Csedmon (Grimm D. G., 4, 429). The steadiest uses are those in 308, 6. Proper names 
of places and times, which are compounded with or described by appellatives, often take 
the article without further reason. Folk names under c vary. 

(a.) Marked cases of the omission of articles are (1) after a genitive, (2) with an object 
compared, (3) with a negative, (4) superlatives, (5) copulative or disjunctive singulars mean- 
ing many, (6) a repeated word in correlation, (7) predicate nominative, (8) factitive object, 
(9)° after prepositions with names of places, parts of a house, parts of the body, (10), before 
an attributive adjective, genitive, or appositive. 

(1) Mid Godes gife, by God's gift (Tn. LL. 1) ; pws folces priterds, the 
scribes of the people (Matt., ii, 4, so oftenest) ; pxre Godes litfan, the love 
of God (St. G., 2) ; § 367, 1 ; (2) strengre ponne rose, more fragrant than 
(the) rose (Rid., 41, 24) ; {3) peof ne cywirf, thief comes not (John x, 10); 
(4) idesd scenost, fairest of women (C, 626) ; (5) herad bord and ord, 
(chosen men) bear shield and spear (EL, 1187); {6) pies dd&led paster of 
pxtrum, then was parted (the) water from (the) waters (C, 152) ; (7) he 
pxs man-slaga, he was (a) murderer (John, viii, 44) ; (8) hine heold for 
fulne ajning, took him for full king (Chr., 1013) ; to hldforde (921) ; (9) 
on 5c-B, on (the) sea (Ap., 19) ; on sande (C, 242) ; ipt hUse, at home (Psa., 
cxi, 3) ; ut ofhealle, out of (the) hall (B., 663) ; beforan dura, before (the) 
door (Mc, 11, 4) ; on bed gdn, go to bed (C, 2234) ; cpMan on heortan, 
said in heart (Psa., Ixxiii, 8) ; a^t fotum (B., 500) ; on cneSpum (C, 227, 2), 
etc., abundantly ; (10) hafdon langne speoran, they had (a) long neck (St. 
G., 5) ; ch/piendes stefn, the voice of one crying (Matt., iii, 3) ; JElfred 
cyning, AUred king (Chr., 894). 

370. The article with an adjective is frequent, to point out persons : 
se dumba sprxc,i\\e dumb spake (Matt., ix, 33) ;— or things (rare): pd 
topeardan, the future things (St. G., 13) ;— in apposition with a proper 
name: Sidroc se geonga, Sidroc the younger (Chr., 871) ;— so also: helle 



DEMONSTRAHTES. 177 

psere hdtan^heW the hot (C, 362). Just so participles: pa timhriendan, 
those building (Matt., xxi, 42) ; for pam gecorenum, for the chosen (xxiv, 
•J2) ; pd geladodan, those invited (xxii, 3). 

371. "With a numeral : pd tpelfe, the twelve (Mc, 4, 10) ; piBl dn (Matt., 
V, 47) ; se eahtoda dwg,i\\e eighth day (St. G.,3). 

372. With pronouns : pd odre, the others (Matt., xxvii, 49) ; se pe,i\\e 
which (Bed., 2, 5) ; eal pact land^ all the land (Matt., ix, 26) ; hiilu pd sci/pii, 
both the ships (Luc, v, 7) ; so : healfne pone speoran, half the neck (Jud., 
105) ; — possessives, see ^ 367. 

37o. The article is repeated with copulative words oftener than in En- 
glish : pBet gold and Psct seolfor, the gold and the silver (Apol., 14) ; — some- 
times a plural is used with two singulars : hyre pd lebfstan hldford and sunu, 
lier (the) dearest lord and son (Chr., 1093). 

Se, seo, ])get; J)es, J)e6s, 2)is, § 133. 

374. Se is less emphatic than ]3es. Both denote the near ob- 
ject, or an antecedent to a relative. 

1. Se is often nearly the third pronoun : spungon hlg pone, and forleton 
hme, they beat that one (him), and sent him away (Mc, xii, 3). Note seo 
'^Eng. she, pd'^F.ng. they ; Lat. Ai'c. 

2. p^t and pis are often used without agreement in gender or number : 
pset pms god cynmg, that was a good king (B., 11) ; pxt pxron pd sbrestan 
scipu, that (those) were the first ships (Chr., 787) ; pis ts seo eorde, this is 
the earth (C, 1787) ; pis smt pd bebodu, this (these) are the statutes (Lev., 
xxvi, 46). Compare hit,^ 366, 5. German es sind. 

3. Antecedent : se pe bryde hiefd, se is brydguma, he is bridegroom, 
(the which), who has the bride (John, iii, 29) ; pxt pe dcenned is of fleesce, 
/!:t't 2S flxsc, that is flesh, the which is born of the flesh (iii, 6) ; rare with 
J'"s (John, i, 15, North.). 

4. od pis, till now (Bas. Hex., 6) ; but generally these two years^nii tpd 
gear (Gen., xlv, 6). 

6. This and that^ithe former, the latter, are not expressed by pns, pxt ; 
but se &rra, se ssflera (Bed., 4, 23). A discriminated remoter object is 
rare. 

6. py md, Lat. eo magis, more by that (so much the more) (C, 54, 33) ; 
py heardra, the harder=harder by that (80, 8) ; ^ 302, d. 

31o.ylc,pylc, spylc (^ 133, 3). Ylc couples with the article or demon- 
strative ; pylc and spylc may be used as adjectives or substantives ; pset ylce 
leoht, the same light (C, 301, 34) ; such (Luc, ix, 9) ; pyllic, such (Boet., 
39, 3 ; Matt., xviii, 5) ; spijlc, such (Mc, iv, 33 ; Boet., 38, 2). 

376. Selfi^ 131), with personal pronouns (§ 366, 10), with substantives: 
pabre sylfan stope, the same place (John, xi, 6); se cynmg sylfa, the king 
himself (Ex., 2, 1) ; se peoden self, the Lord himself (C, 9, 10) ; on pxt 
dxgred sylf, at the dawn exactly (Jud., 204). 

M 



178 SYNTAX.— INTERROGATIVES. 

Intekkogatives. 
311. Hpa, hpaet (§ 135). 

Hpd asks mostly for persons : hj>d prat bocstafas &rest, who wrote letters 
first? (A. R.,40). 

Hpxt asks (1) for neuters, (2) for an answer without regard to gender or 
number, (3) for a special character or part of an object : 

(1) Hpxt nxddcrcynnd si on eordan, what of snake kind are on the 
earth 1 (A. R., 41) ; (2) hpwt syndon ^e, what (who) are you"? (B.,237) ; 
hpxt is se cyniJig, who is the king (of glory)"? (Psa., xxiii, 10) : com- 
pare pxt,pis (^ 374, 2); (3) hpxt godes do zc, what (of) good thing 
must I do ? (Malt., xix, 16) ; hpait nipes, what of new"? (Ex., 441, 22) ; 
hpwt peorces, wha.t kind of work? (iElf)>01d English adjective use: 
whatt weorrc (Orm., 1833). 
(a.) Hpxt is se pe me mthrdn, what is he who touched me (=emphatic 
who), Lat. quis est qui (Luc, viii, 45). 

(6.) Interjection, opening poems, etc., Hpwt! pe Gdr-Dend (B.). 
(c.) Hpsene sccgad men pxt sy mannes sunu, whom say men tliat the Son 
of Man may be? Hpxne (Thorpe), North, huelcne is used for hpiet of other 
A. Sax. versions in imitation of the Latin Quern dicunt homines esse Filium 
hominis (Matt., xvi, 13), making anacoluthon, ^ 293. 

378. Hpa^der (which of two), and hpilc (what kind of, which among 
like), may agree as adjectives, or govern a genitive : hpcecter uncer tpegd, 
which of us two (B., 2530 ; Matt., xxi, 31 ; A. R., 39) ; hpylc man (A. R., 
40) ; hpilc manna (^Ifc). 

For interrogatives as indefinites and relatives, see ^^ 383, 390. 

Relatives, § 13 4. 

379. Relative clauses in the Teutonic tongues are oftenest con- 
structed like leading clauses with a demonstrative, personal, or 
interrogative pronoun. They are made relative, i. e., subordinate 
adjective, by tone alone, or by a relative particle ^e added. The 
Sanskrit and Greek have peculiar forms for the relative; the 
Latin qui is from the interrogative >5'wes. 

380. — A. Demonstrative Forms. 

1. <Se, seo, pxt alone : pd feng Nero to rice , se forlet Britene, then came 
Nero to the kingdom, who (that one) lost Britain (Chr., 47) ; se purhpunad, 
se hyd hdl, who endureth, he shall be saved (Matt., x, 22) ; — antecedent 
omitted : pxt ge gehyrad, bodiad, that ye hear, preach (it) (Matt., x, 27). 

2. pmt pwt, whatever : pset pxt lator bid, pxt hwfd angin, whatever later 
is, that has beginning (Hom., i, 284). 

3. <Se, se6,pmt with indeclinable sign pe : Augustinum, pone pe hi gecoren 
hsefdon, Augustine, whom (the one that) they had chosen (Bed., 1, 23) ; pd 
ungeledfsuman, pdrd pe hi J)d gereorde ne cudan, the unbelievers, of whom 



RELATIVES. 179 

they the speech did not know (Bed., 1, 23) ; pxt pe'^pmtte may refer to a 
sentence (Bed., 2, 7). 

4. pe alone : se stdn, pe, the stone, that (the builders rejected) (Mc, xii, 
10) ; pa madmds, Pe, the treasures, that (thou gavest me) (B., 1482) ; — an 
antecedent omitted : nu synd fordfarene pe sohton, now are gone (those) who 
sought (Matt., ii, 20). 

From pe a preposition is usually separated : pst bed, pe se lama on Ixg, 
the bed that the lame one on lay (Mc, ii, 4). 

5. Spylc — spylc : he sece spylcne hldford, spylcne he pille, he may seek 
such a lord, as he may choose (^Eds., v, 1, 1) ; spylce burh, spylce seb pxs, 
such a city, as it was (Oros., ii, 4, 5). 

6. Spa : spylcrd yrmdd. spd pu unc ser serif e, of such miseries, as ihnn 
to us before assigned (Ex., 373, 2). Compare German so, Engl, as, an 1 
^ 382, 2. 

381 — B. Personal Pronouns. 

1. Alone : pxs pegenes his gebyrd . . . sind cude, the thane whose birth 
(and goodness) are known (Horn., 1,2). So O. H. G. : Fater unser du pist 
m Aiwii/Mm, our Father, who (thou) art in heaven (Schade, 8; Grimm, iii, 17). 

2. Personals -with indeclinable pe or se : hpaet ic hdtte, pe ic lond 
redfige, what am I called, who (i. e. I) the land ravage? (Rid., 13, 14) ; se 
mec, whom (i. e. me) (Ex., 144, 9) ; pe pe, (we) who (Cri., 25) ; Fmder 
ure,Jm pe eart on heofenum, our Father, who (thou) art in heaven (Matt., 
vi, 9); pe pu (Hy., 8, 13); pe he (Psa., Ixvii, 4); pe his, whose (Psa., 
xxxix, 4); pe him, to whom (Psa., cxlv, 4)=5e him (C, 201, 31); — pe sep- 
arated : hpst se god pxre, pe pis his bedcen pies, of what sort the god was, 
that this was his sign^whose sign this was (El., 162). The German re- 
tains this idiom, du, der du bist, etc. The Gothic uses ikei {ik-\-ei),puci, 
izei. 

3. Personals -with se pe : se but leofust, se pe him God syled,he is 
dearest, (he) to whom God giveth (Vid., 132). Compare ^ 384, a. 

382. — C. Interrogatives. 

1. Hpiet ; — indirect interrogative>relative : ne reedde ge pxt hpiet Dauid 
dyde, have ye not read (that) Avhat David did (Luc, vi, 3) ; mcfdon hpxt 
hig xton, they had not what they might eat (Mc, viii, 1). 

Hpd (who) appears as a proper relative first in its dative icam, ivan in 
Layamon (2, 632 ; 3, 50), in its genitive whas and dative wham in Or- 
mulum (3425, 10370). The nominative who is found sometimes with 
a pronominal antecedent in Wycliffe, A.D. 1382-3 (Isa., 1, 10). and be- 
comes common as a full relative in Berners' Froissart, A.D. 1523. 

2. Spd hpd spA, spd hpset spd, spd hpylc {spa), whosoever, whatsoever, 
whichsoever : l&te ic htne, spd hpd spd cymed, I will let him, whosoever 
cometh (sit by me) (C, 28, 20) ; spd hpset spd (Matt., xvi, 19) ; spd hpylc 
spd (Matt., X, 42 ; Bed., 2, 2) ; spa hpylc (Psa., cxxxvii, 4). 

Hpylc (which) appears by itself as a relative in Layamon. 

383. Attraction, (a.) The relative is sometimes attracted to the case 



130 RELATIVKS.— INDEFINITES. 

of its antecedent : hdligu trcop, sco Jm hcaldcst, holy troth, which thou holti- 
est (C, 0119). But see ^ 381. a. 

{b.) The relative is sometimes attracted to the gender of a noun in its own 
clause : fidpiht-tid, pxne (hi) Tpelfta-da-g hcitad, baptism-time, which they 
Twelfth-day call (Men., 13). 

(c.) For relative adverbs, see (^^ 396-398. 

38-1. Incorporation. The same word may represent both antecedent 
and relative. It may have the case (a.) of the antecedent : gehyrgde ps-s 
gepeox, tasted of what grew (C, 483) ; such cases are frequent, pxs— pas 
Pe. Those iu ^ 383, a, may be similar, seu=seo pe, sei) appositive with 
treop. Compare ^ 381, 3. (b.) Of the relative : hi naif don hpwt hlg mlon, 
they had not what they might eat (Mc, 8, 1). Here the clause hpa;t hlg 
&ton is the object of nwfdoti. (c.) The case of ^e is not discriminated. 
For examples, see ^ 380, 4. 

385. Omission. Plirases of naming often lack their subject : an munac, 
Brihtnod pees gehdlen, a. monk (who) was called Brihtnoth (Chr.,963); 
sealde dne peopene, Bala hdtte, gave her a maid, (who) was called Bilhah 
=01d Eng. Bilhah hight (Gen. xxix, 29). M. H. German used the same 
idiom. Similar phrases sometimes have a relative expressed, sometimes a 
personal pronoun: se pies hdten Penpald, who waS' called Penwald (St. G., 
1); Agado he pa^s gehdten (Chr., 675). CompRre gef or jElf red, paes geref a, 
Alfred died (who) was sheriff (Chr., 906). But the Anglo-Saxon does not 
omit the relative freely, like the English. 

Indefinites, § 13 6. 

386. An : — indefinite article : an man haffde tpegen sund, a man had 
two sons (Matt.,xxi,28) ; dstdh on hine spd dn culfre, (the Spirit) descended 
on him, like a dove (Luc, iii, 22) ; seldom, if ever, in poetry ; but a pretty 
indefinite dn after its noun occurs ; he eordsele dnne pisse, he knew a cav- 
ern (B., 2410) ; — with numeral or measure: dn fiftig sealmds, a fifty 
psalms (iEds., 5, 3) ; dne healfe tide, a half time (W. P. T., 12) ; dn gedr 
an man, they ruled a year a man=each man one year (Oro ., 2, 2, 3); 
dne fedpa pordd, a few words (Nic, 11), dne is plural and means only. 

(a.) The English aiC>a has several shades of meaniug. A nurse said, " a spoovful a?, 
Iiour is a dose for a child till a doctor comes"=A certain uurse said, "one spoonful each 
hour Is what is called dose for any child till some doctor comes." The first, second, aud 
third of these uses are sometimes found in Anglo-Saxon, as in Latin (unus). Our sec- 
ond example is nearly the fourth use, which is the most characteristic use of the proper 
article, i. e., simple sign of a singular use of a generic term : but compare it w a dove 
with it is like a dove. Nan means not any: is nan cam, is there not any care ? (Mc, 10, 
40). The Goth, aim translates Gr. tif ; sums, t<c. O. Norse einns is sometimes pro- 
clitic, 80 Germ, einer. See sum. 

(b.) An (indefinite pronoun) is adjective or substantive. Peculiar uses : 
(1) his dnes era' ft, his own power (C, 272) : — (2) puhte pe dnum, it seemed to 
thy 5e//(Sat.,55); — (3) dn a^fter dnum (Sal., 385)=an«e and dnne (Oros., 
2, d)=dn sefter eallum (B., 2268) =a?i aifter odrum (Sat., 26)=aHe* and 



NUMERALS. 181 

udres (Met., 25, 52), one after another; — (4) butan pdm dnum, except the 
ones (Sat., 147) ; for unc dnum tpdm, for us two alone (Rid., 61, 15) ; — 
(5) dn sunu, only son (Rid., 81, 10) ;— (6) p^t pses dn cyning, that was a 
(true) king (B., 1885); — (7) dnrd with indefinite pronouns: dnrd gehpylc, 
each one «of ones) (Matt., xxvi, 22) ; so seghpylc (Gu., 4) ; hpd, gehpd, 
etc., compare gehpylc pegnd, each of thanes=each thane (B., 1673) ; — (8) 
dnes hpxt, somewhat, in any degree (Boet., 18, 3) ; — (9) on dn, m one, to- 
gether, once for all (Psa., cxxxii, 1 ; Ixxxii, 9 ; lii, 4). 

387. Nan, sbmg, nsenig have both substantive and adjective syntax. 

388. Sum; (1) indefinite article=a?i.- sum man hxfde tpegen sund, a 
man had two sons (Luc, xv, 11), see § 386 ; — (2) pronoun : dnum he sealde 
fif pund, sumum tpd, to one he gave five pounds, to another two (Matt., 
XXV, 15) ; — (3) eode eahta sum, he went one of eight (B., 3123) ; — (4) sum 
feol, some (seed) fell by the way (Mc, 4, 4) ; — (5) sume pa bocerds, some 
(of) the scribes (Matt, ix, 3) ; sume ge, some of you (John, vi, 64), see ^ 
287, c ;— (6) sume ten gedr, some ten years (Boet., 38, 1), see ^ 148. 

389. Man, piht, dpiht, ndpiht : gif mon pif ofsled, if one a woman 
slay (^If. B., 9) . l&de mon hider, some one led hither (Bed., 2, 2) ; hides 
piht, anything of pain (painful) (Ex., 144, 1) ; opiht elles, anything else, 
something (Bed.. 3, 22) ; nopiht yfeles, nothing evil (Bed., 2, 12) : so ndn 
pmg grenes, nothing green (Exod., x, 15). 

390. Hpd and compounds : hpd—man, any one (Matt., xxi, 3 ; Mrc, 12, 
19) ; spylces hpxl, some what (B., 880), summ whatl appears in Orm, 958 ; 
gehpd, each (Mc, 15, 24); xghpd, each (Rid., 66, 2); hpxt-hugu, some 
what (Bed., 1, 27). 

391. Gehpxdcr, each of two, dhpmter, any, are substantive, &ghj>aedert 
either of two (Bed., 2, 3; 1,7), of many (B., 1636), subst. and adj. 

392. Compounds oi -Ik are used substantively and adjectively : selc, 
each, every (Matt., vii, 17; xx, 2), a>uer o'lc'^everychey-every appears in 
Layamon, 2814 ; mlc with oder, are both inflected : hi cp&don wlc to odrum, 
they said, each to the others (Mc.,4, 41); ,rlc odres fet, each wash the 
other's feet (John, xiii, 14) ; spilce pri, some three (Luc, 1, 56). 

Numerals, §§ 13 8-14 8. 

393. Cardinals: oflenest substantive with gen.: feopertig dagd, fnrtv 
(of) days (C, 1351) ; with of: dn of pisum, one of these (Matt., v, 19) ; 
— apposition: dn f if tig sealmds, a fifty psalms (^Eds., 5, 3); — with 
pronoun : hi pry, they three (Ex., 190, 11) ; — alone : pd forman tpd, the 
first two (=:pair), Adam and Eve (C, 194) ; — adjective : m\d L scipum, 
with fifty ships (Chr., 1052) ; tyn pusend, ten thousand (Matt., xviii, 
24). Compounds with and: six and f if tig, 56 (Bed., 2, 5) ; — with Iws, 
pana, butan: tpd Lrs XXX, 28 (Chr., 641); dnes pana priftigum, 
thirty less one (Bed., 1,1); tpentig hutan dn, 19 (Bed., 5, 19) ; numerals 
with sum. see ^ 388, and compare French quelque, Gr. rt^. 



182 NUMERALS.— ADVERBS. 

For ordinal dates: sixtigum pihtra,60 years (=60th year) B.C. (B6d., 
1, 2) ; — multiplicative : six spa micel, six times as much (LL., p. 398) ; 
— distributive: tpdm,hy twos (Lc, 10, 1); dnne and dnne, one by one 
(Oros., 2, 3, 4) ; — how often: sixtyne sidum, 16 times (An., 490) ; — 
division : on tpd, in two (Ap. 11). 

394, Ordinals. Adjective, with or without an article : se eahtoda dxg, 
the eighth day (JSt. G., 3) ; priddan dipge, the third day (Lc, 9, 22) ; — 
with of (rare) : oder of his leorning-cnihtum, a second of his disciples 
(Matt., viii, 21), dn operr appears in Orm., 5778 ; — compounds : (1) or- 
dinal-\- ordinal: pi) tpentigdan and py feordan, the 24th (day of Sep- 
tember) (Bed., 4, 5) ; (2) cardinal+ordinal : dn and tpentigodan, 21st 

(Exod., xii, 18) ; (3) ordinal+cardinal : sixia edc feopertigum, 46th 
(Bed., 1, 15). 
Division : seofedan diM, seventh part (Oros., 2, 4, 6) ; before healf (^ 
147) : nigontedde healf gear, 18^ years (Chr.,855) ; feorde healf hund 
scipe, 350 ships (Chr., 851). 

395. Indefiuites (1.) eal : eal here, the whole mob (C, 150, 12) ; perod 
eal, the host all (C, 184, 1) ; eal seo at, all the law (Matt., xxii, 40) ; 
uninflected (B., 2042, and often when parted from its noun) ; — with 
pronouns : pe ealle, we all (C, 268, 27) ; ealles pxs, all that (186, 25) ; 
hig ealle, they all (Matt., xiv, 20) ; — substantive : ealhim gumend 
cynnes, all of mankind (B., 1057) ; georndst ealles, eagerest of all (Psa., 
83, 12) ; hpxt ealles, what on the whole (cxix, 3) ; ealrd ricost, richest 
of all (Vid. 15, ^ 312, c) ; tpelfd ealrd, twelve in all (B., 3171). 

(2.) Manig ; — adjective : manige men, many men (B., 337) ; rinc manig, 
many (a) man. Germ, mancher rnann, Lat. multus vir (An., 1118); 
mony enne king, many a king, appears in Layamon (6591), Note the 
noun msenigeo, a crowd (Matt., viii, 18; iv, 25) ; and often (>Shake- 
speare's the rank-scented many, a great many ; — substantive : moniges 
pintrd, many (of) winters (C, 1230), 

(3.) Micel, much ; md, mdrd, more. 

(4.) Feapa, few ; fed{p)um dnum, few only, a few (B., 1081) ; fed(pe)Td 
sumne, one of few=with few companions (B., 3061), 

(5.) "Lyt: lyt fre6ndd,fev/ (of) friends (C, 2626); cynnes lyt-hpon, few 
of the race (Jud.,311). For hpon, see Grein, 



ADVERBS. 
395*. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. 

Adverbs could for the most part be parsed as cases of nouns, as they were, 
^251, They make 
Adverbial combinations : he peop btterlice,he wept bitterly (Matt., 
xxvi, 75) ; spa geongiim, so young (B,, 1843) ; spd miceles gepdh, he 
throve so greatly (C, 186, 24). 



INTERROGATIVE.— DEMONSTRATIVE. 183 

Predicative, mostly adverbs of place : hp&r is se ludeu cyntng, where 
is the Jews' king? (Matt., ii, 2) ; pe her bedn,v>e are here (Mc, 9, 5) ; 
Mr tc eom, there I am (Matt., xviii, 20) ;— expletives, so called, /a-r 
peard geporden mycel eordbifung, there was a great earthquake 
(Matt., xxviii, 2). 

Attributive, rare : niin lu magister, my of-yore master (Bed., 5, 10). 

396. Interrogative and demonstrative adverbs may be used like 
their pronouns, §§ 252, 260. 

A. To govern a case : hpabr eordan Abel psere, where (=in what part) 
of the earth Abel was (C, 1003) ; hpider (Jul., 700) : — governed : sell p&r 
pu on sitest, seat where on thou sittest (Hy., 7, 41), so other prep, often. 

B. To introduce clauses. 

3 9 7. — I. Leading Clauses. 
Declarative : pxr may introduce a clause like an indefinite hit (^ 365, 
5) : Inir peard geporden ini/cel eordbifung. there was a great earthquake, 
Germ, es geschah ein gross erdbeben, Gr. attufibg iyevtro, Lat. terrcB motus 
factus est (Matt., xxviii, 2) ; hence English so-called expletive there. 

Interrogative. — Interrogation may relate to the general affirmation of 
a sentence, or to some particular point connected with it, the subject, ob- 
ject, time, place, manner. 

(1.) General questions are expressed by inversion or tone : hs^fst pu 
hafoc. hast thou a hawk'? (^Ifc.) ; — by hpsedcr with the subjunctive: 
hpxder ge nu pillen pxdan, will ye now hunt? (Met., 19, 15). 
(2.) Particular questions are expressed by interrogative pronouns or 
adverbs : hp^r is heora God, where is their God ? (Psa., cxiii, 10) ; 
hpider,vi\\\i\\eT'\ (C, 2269); A;>araon, whence ? (B., 333). For pro- 
nouns, see ^ 377-8. 
(a.) Negative questions add ne : ne drmcst pu pin, dost thou not drink 
wine? (^Ifc). 

(h.) The particles ac^ ah., hCb., Id, are used to strengthen ques- 
tions. 

Ac for hpam, wherefore then? (Sal., 342) ; ah ne pe fordrifon, did we 
not cast out (devils) ? Matt., vii, 22 ; North.) ; hu ne synd ge selran, 
are not ye better? (Matt., vi, 26) ; hpxt is pis la manna, who is this 
{Id) man? (El., 903) ; so are used forms of secgan and cpedan, say : 
segst pu ms>g se blinda pone bUndan Isedan, (sayst thou) can the blind 
lead the blind? (Luc, vi, 39) ; cpede ge hxbbe ge sufol, (say ye) have 
ye any meat? (John, xxi, 5) ; cpede pe ys pes Dauides sunu, (say we) 
is this David's son? (Matt., xii, 24). 
(3.) Disjunctive questions may have inverted clauses, or the sign 
hpxder : ys hit riht pxt man pam Casere gafol sylle, pe nd, is it right 
to give tribute to Caesar, or no? (Luc. xx, 21) ; hpxder first: hpxder 
IS mdre,pe pxt gold,pe tempi, which is greater, the gold or the temple ? 



18-i ADVERBS.— PARTICLES. 

(Matt., xxiii, 17); — before second clause: pxs Johannes fulluht of 
heofone, hpxdcr pe oj inannum, was John's baptism of heaven, or of 
men ? (Luc, xx, 4). 

3 9 8. — IT. SUBOKDINATE CLAUSES. 

1. Indirect questions : fr.nrn, hpsbr Abel p&re, asked where Abel was 
(C, 1003). See further, ^^" A2\, 425. 

2. Relative clauses : hits, J/anon ic ut eode, house whence (=:from 
which) I went out (Matt., xii, 44) ; /a dagds, ponne se brydguma byd 
afyrred, the days when the bridegroom shall be taken away (Lc, 5, 35) ; 
on st&nihte, pxr hyt n.rfde mycle eordan, on stony ground, where it had not 
much earth (Matt., xiii, 5). 

(a.) The relative adverb is often made a conjunction by incorporation 
(^ 384) : ne mage ge cuman pider ic fare, ye may not come whither I go 
(John, vin, 21). 

Particles of Affirmation and Neg ati on, § 2 61. 

399. Answers. The particles gea, gese, ne, nese, na, in 

answer to general quesiions, have tlie syntax of declarative 
clauses. (Other tongues have particles of like syntax.) 

(a.) They are quasi-clauses. ^ 278, c?.- lufctst pu me? gea, lovest thou me. 
Yea (=1 love thee) (John, xxi, 16) ; gise, la gese, yes, O yes (Boet., 16, 
4) ; — object of a verb : ne, secge ic eop, I say to you, no (Luc, xii, 51) ; no. 
(xiii, 3) ; nese (i, 60) ; cpyst pu, eart pu ofpyses leorning-cnihtum ? nic, ne 
earn ic, art thou of his disciples'? Not I, I am not (John, xviii, 17). 

400. Negative Adverbs. Repeated negatives strengtheo 
the negation. (So in old Teutonic and Greek, not in Latin.) 

1. General negation is expressed by ne. It may be repeated before the 
verb, subject, object, adverb : ne on mode ne mum, do not mourn in mind 
(An., 99) ; nan spile ne cpom, none such comes (Cri.,290); ne nan ne 
dorste nan ping dcsian, no one durst ask him anything (Matt., xxii, 46) ; ne 
pep pu nd, weep not at all (Lc, 7, 13). 

(a.) A positive word of emphasis may be added : ic ne forhtige piht, 
I shall not fear a whit (Psa., Ixi, 2) ; often ndpiht (Matt., xxvii, 24) ; so 
French point, pas. 

2. Particular negation is expressed by un-, -leds, nd, naLvs, noht : nalses 
ridende on horse, ac on his folum gangende, not riding on horseback, but 
going on his feet (Bed., 3, 28) ; nalies micelre tide, no long time (4, 6) ; heo 
tiliad to cpemanne Gnde mid pordum, n^s mid peorcnm, they try to please 
God with words, not with works (Psa.,xlviii, 12) ; noht fe or, not far (4, 3). 



SYNTAX.— VEKB. 185 



USES OF THE VERB-FORMS. 

Personal Endings. 

Agreement. 

401. A finite verb agrees with its subject in number and 
person. 

(a.) Participles in compound tenses agree ; — passives : pes pu gehletsod. 
be thou blest (An., 540) ; pesad ii;i gebletsdde,he ye blest (Psa., cxiii, 23) ; 
— perfect : her syndon geferede, here have come (B., 361). After habban, 
transitive participles agree with the object, intransitives have no ending : 
he hmfd mon geporhtne, he has man made (C, 25, 18) ; hie gegdn hxfdon, 
they had gone (Jud., 140). But the endings early fell away. See furilier 
examples, ^^ 412-419. 

402. Simple Subject. — 1. Its forms. 1. A substantive. 2. An adjec- 
tive used as a substantive. 3. A pronoun. 4. A numeral. 5. An infin- 
itive. 6. Any word or phrase as such. 7. A clause, or clauses. So in all 
tontrues. Im-personals generally have their subject hit. For examples, 
see ^ 366, 5. See pxr, ^ 397. Indefinite personals {man, etc)., see ^^ 
389, 390- 

2. Collectives singular may take a plural verb by synesis : se here 
gebrohton, the army brought (their ships) (Chr., 1016) ; — a singular and 
plural : pxt folc smt * *, and drison, the people sat, and they arose (Exod., 
xxxii, 6) ; se here spor pxt hie poldon, the army swore that they would 
(Chr., 921) ; phi ofsprtng sceal agan heord feondd gata, thy offspring shall 
possess the gates of their foes (Gen., xxii, 17). 

3. Numerals plural may take a singular verb, generally before them : 
pd pxs dgdn V ptntrd, then was gone 5000 years (Chr., 616, 655). Com- 
pare him gelichde hire pcdpds, him pleased her manners (?) (Chr., 1067). 

403. Compound subject, § 282. 

Copulate singulars take a plural (1) after them regularly : Maria and 
Martha pwron tpd gcspystru, Mary and Martha were two sisters (Horn., 1. 
130); — before them sometimes: pd cpxdon Annamas, Azarias, Misahtl, 
then said Hananiah, Azariah, Mishael (Hom., 2, 18); — oftener : pd pcard 
he o-edrefed, and eal Hierosohm-paru, then was he troubled, and all Jeru- 
salem folks (Matt, iii, 2). 

{a ). Copulate words may be really a simple subject, 1, a repetition o 
the same notion, often a climax : min sdpl and min mind is spyde gedrefed 
my soul and my mind is greatly troubled (Psa., vi, 2 ; Milton, P. L., 1, 139) 
— 2, complements of one notion : fisesc and Mod ne mtedpde pe, flesh ant 
blood hath not showed to thee (Matt., xvi, 17, North. ; so Lat.. Greek, etc.) ; 
tor and hnrh stod, tower and burg stood (C, 102, 17 ; Milton, P. L., 2, 495 , 
6, flU etc.). 

i,b.) Logical copulates connected by a preposition may take a plural by 



13(3 VERB.— AGREEMENT.— KINDS. 

svnesis : se feond mid his gcfcnim fcollon. the fiend with (=and) his 
mates fell (C , 306). So in Latin, Greek, and elsewhere. 

404. Agreement Tvith a predicate may take place 

1. When the subject is pis or pxt : pis sxjnt pa bebodu, these are the 
statutes (Lev., xxvi, 46) ; pa;t pxroii pa mrestan sapu, those were the first 
ships (Chr., 787). 

'2. When the subject is remote : gyf pxt led/it pe on pe ys, synt pijstru, 
if the light that is in thee is darkness, Lat. tenebra: sunt (Matt., vi, 23), and 
in other cases when the predicate is the more important to the thought. 

405. Omission of the subject occurs (1) with imperatives, (2) where 
it would be repeated, (3) with reflexives, (4) in other rare cases, mostly of 
the first and second persons (for examples, see ^ 366) ; — of the verb : 
(1) the verb to be in exclamatory clauses: pa eop,v/oe (be) to you (Matt., 
xxiii, 13, Cambridge) ; pel gesund, Apnlloni, (may you he) very well, Apol- 
lonius (Ap., 7) ;— elsewhere (rare) : pxr leoht and lif, in heaven, where (is) 
light and life (C, 212, 26) ; (2) to give in certain phrases : edge for edge, 
and tod for tod, an eye (must be given) for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth 
(Matt., V, 38). For Jipxt, what, ^ 377, b. For omission of the infinitive 
with auxiliaries, i^*^ 435-443. Answers, ^ 399. 

406. The Kinds of Verbs. 
Notional, § 55. 

Intransitive, ^ 275, a. 
Transitive, ^^ 275, a ; 290, b. 
Copulative, ^^ 273, b ; 286, c. 

Impersonal, '^t^ 290, c ; 299, a ; 366, 5. 
Reflexive, §^ 150, a; 290, d ; 298, c. 
Factitive, ^§ 275, a ; 294, a. 
Causative, ^ 292, c. 
Relational, §§ 150-152; 1V6; 212; 435-443. 
(a.) The emphatic form in do (^ 177, 2) : spa dod nu pa peostro pidstan- 
dan, (as a great rock withstands), so does now the darkness withstand 
(Boet., 6). This perhaps never occurs in Anglo-Saxon except as a repeti- 
tion of a verb just used. See a possible example (Psa., cxviii, 25) Grein. 
But rfo-fan object clause occurs as an emphatic form : ne do pu &fre, pxt 
Pu onct/rre=ne avertas, do not (thou ever, that thou) turn away (Psa., 
cxxxi, 10) ; so cxviii, 97, 174, 170, etc. 

(6.) The same verb may be in the same author notional in one connection, relational in 
another ; so also transitive and intransitive, reflexive and not, causative and not, and the 
like. 

(<•.) Historically verbs change from one kind to another; especially from notional to 
relational, from intransitive to transitive (causal), from transitive to intransitive. They 
acquire factitive, reflexive, or passive senses, or drop them. Such changes may be noted 
in comparing Anglo-Saxon verbs with their English descendants. See impersonal and 
reflexive examples at the §§ referred to above. 



VOiCES.— TENSES. 



187 



Voices, § 15 0. 

407. A transitive verb may take two forms as the agent or the object ia 
made more prominent. 

408. Active. The active voice is used to make the agent 
the subject of iDredicatiou. 

(a.) It is the common form of all verbs. 

409. Passive. The passive voice is used to make the direct 
object of the action the subject of predication. 

For its forms, see ^^ 178-182, and tenses, ^^ 413-416. 

la.) The agent is expressed with passive verbs by an oblique case after 
fram, purh, or the like : fram Siluestre Isbrde psbron, they were taught by 
Silvester (El., 190). 

ib.) A factitive object becomes a predicate nominative : Crist pxs 
Hxlend gehdten, Christ was called HMend (Saviour) (Men., 4) ; but if 
expressed with a preposition, it is unchanged : pxs to papan geset, was 
made (to a) pope (Chr., 1058). 

(c.) Other objects are unchanged with passives : (dative) pxs xrende 
ivdelum cempum dbodeiu the message was given to the noble knights (An., 
230); — impersonals: is me gepuht=me Pyncd, it seems to me (Ex., 163, 
6) ; — genitive : bedmds pekron ofwtes gehliedene, trees were laden with fruit 
(C, 30, 4) ; — instrumental : lohannes pxs heafde becorfen, John was cut 
off from his head (Bed., 1, 27). 

410. Middle. For middle forms, see ^§ 150, a ; 290, d; 298, c. 



Tense, § 15 2. 
411. In relation to time action is represented by A. -Sax. verbs 
as in its own nature indefinite, continued, or completed ^ and in 
regard to the time of speaking as present, past, or future. 

Indefinite. 



Present 



Future 



Past 



ic nime, 

I take. 

ic nime, 

ic sceal (pille) niman, 

shall (will) take. 
ic nam,, 

took. 



c ic 
< ic 
(l 
( ic 
\l 



Continued. 
tc com nimende, 
I am taking. 
ic bed nimende, 
I shall be taking. 



Completed. 
ic hxbbe numen, 
I have taken. 



I shall have taken. 



ic pxs nimende, ic hxfde numen, 

I was taking. I had taken. 

For subordinate clauses, see ^ 418. 

412. The endings of the Anglo-Saxon verb discriminate only 
past time from other time. 

1. The so-called present tense is used for present and/u/wre acts. 

2. The so-called imperfect is used for all past acts. 



188 INDICATIVE TEXt^ES. 

3. Compound forms in wliich the auxiliary has tlie present form discrim- 
inate varieties of present a.nd future action. 

4. Compound forms in which the auxiliary has the imperfect form dis- 
criminate varieties of past action. 

(a.) The present, future, and perfect are called principal tenses; the 
imperfect and pluperfect, historical tenses. 



Indicative Tenses. 
413, The Present expresses 
(1.) What exists or is taking place now : pone maddum byred, he bears 

the treasure (B., 2055) ; — progressive : peos corde is berende, the land 

is bearing (^produces) (diverse birds) (Bed., 1, I) ;— passive : ic eom 

gelufud, I am loved {M\f. Gr., 26) ; eorde is gecpeden Godes fof- 

sceamel, earth is called God's foot-stool (Hom., 2, 448) ; pyrd beredfad 

(Met., 28,42) ; bead fangene (Bed., I, 1). 
(2.) Customs and truths : pier pin goldheord is,p&r is ptn heorte, where 

thy treasure is, there is thy heart (Matt., vi, 21). 
(3.) Author's language : .ye pitega us manad, the prophet exhorts us 

(Hom., 2, 124, rare). 
(4.) Future : a'flcr prim dagon ic arise, after three days I shall arise 

(Matt., xxvii, 63) ; ne g&st pu panone, xr pu dgilde, thou shalt not go 

thence, till thou shalt have paid (Matt., v, 26). 
(5.) Imperative : six dagds pu pircst, § 420, c. 
(6.) Narrative clause dependent on a past tense : hpi noldest pu secgan 

psst heo pin pif is, why didst thou not say that she is thy wife? (Gen., 

xii, 18, frequent). ^ 419, III. 

414. The Imperfect (preterit) expresses 

(1.) What took place or was occurring in time fully past: he ssegde, 
he said (they were magicians) (Jul., 301); — progressive: spd ic xr 
secgende pxs, as I was saying before (An., 951); — passive: ic pies 
gelufod, I was loved (^^illf. Gr., 26) ; pd pms pridpord sprecen, then a 
mighty word was spoken (B., 642) ; purdon heofends ontijuede, the 
heavens were opened (Matt., iii, 16). 

(2.) Perfect ; nu pu l&tst pinne pebp, forpnm mine edgan gesdpon pine 
h&le, now lettest thou thy servant depart, for mine eyes have seen thy 
salvation (Luc, 2. 30). 

(3.) Pluperfect : pd hi pxt gebod gehijrdon, pd ferdon %,when they had 
heard the command, they went (Matt., ii, 9). 

415. The Future is expressed (1.) by the present, ^ 412 (future perfect, 
§ 413, 4) ; — progressive : bead feohtende, will be fighting (Jos., x, 25) ; 
— passive: ic beo gelufod, I shall be loved {M\f. Gr., 26); mlc treop 
hydforcnrfen, each tree shall be hewn down (Matt, iii, 10 ; Luc, 6, 38) ; 
pyrd him pile gegearpod, punishment shall be prepared for them (C, 
28, 6). 



INDICATIVE TENc-ES. 1S9 

(2 ) By sceal : ic p!: sceal mine geloistan freode, I shall keep my regard 
for thee (B., 1706) ; Pu scealt peordan, thou shalt be (=wilt be) a 
comfort to the people (B., 1707) ; sceal gar pesan hxfen on handd, 
spear shall be raised in hand (B., 3021) , he sceal pesan Ismahel hdten, 
he shall be called Ishmael (C.,2-i86); sceal pesan pridende (C, 1762), 

(3.) By pille : pene ic piet he gyldan pille, I think that he will pay (B., 
1184); Pu pilt secgan, i\\o\x wilt say (Met., 24, 48); Northumb. has 
often uuillo in the first person (Matt., xii, 44 ; x, 33). 

(4.) By ga : he gsed reedan, Lat. pergit ledum, he is going to read {JElf. 
Gr., 25), Fr. Je vais lire. See ^ 445, 6, and uton, ^ 443. 

(5.) By hsebbe : pone calic pe ic to drincenne hxbbe, North, done ic drinca 
uuillo, the cup that I have to (= shall) drink of, Lat. bibiturus sum 
(Matt., XX, 22) ; rare. See ^ 453, a. So in Goth., Romanic. 

(6.) By eom: Mannes Sunu is to si/llenne, Islorth. sunu monnes gesald 
bid, the Son of Man is to (= shall) be betrayed, Lat. tradendus est 
(Matt., xvii, 22). See § 451. The three last forms perhaps give no 
pure futures in the Anglo-Saxon literature. 

(7.) The future perfect is not discriminated. In its place may be a fu- 
ture : &r pit dgilde, thou shalt not go thence, before (=till) thou shalt 
have paid (Matt., v, 26); a perfect: pit eft cumad siddan pit dgifen 
habbad, we will come again, after we (shall) have completed (C, 174, 
25). 

(a.) The future forms are sometimes imperative, ^ 420, c. 

(b.) Pure futures in sceal and pille are not sure in large numbers, and the 
English distinction between the persons is not made out. 

416. The Perfect represents an action as now come to completion. It 
is denoted 

(1.) By hipbbe : he hxfd mon gepnrhtne, he has made man (C, 25, 18) ; 
pe habbad lydre gefered, we have got along badly (Sat., 62). 

(2.) By eom, with a few intransitives mostly of being and going: ic eom 
hider gefered, I am (have) hither journeyed (C, 498; ; so synd ford- 
farene, have departed (died) (Matt., ii, 20) ; dgan, gone (El., 1227) ; 
geporden, geseten, urnen; so in German. 

Passive : eom -\- pp. of transitives : ealle ping me synd gesealde, all 
things have been given me (Matt., xi, 27) ; — eom geporden-\-p. p. : nti 
syndon hi gepordene tolijsde (Psa., Ixxii, 15; ic pses fulfremedlke 
gelufod—amatus sum (JEU. Gr., 26). 

417. The Pluperfect represents an action as completed at some definite 
past time. It is denoted 

(1.) By h.Tfde : Lvfde hine geporhtne, he had made him (C, 17, 4) ; 
gefaren hiefdon, they had gone (Bed., 1, 23). 

(2.) By p.vs with such as have a perfect in eom: pies pd lencten dgdn, 
spring had gone (El., 1227). Passive -.—pms-^-T^. p. of transitives : pa 
se Hxlend gefullod pvps, he dstdh, when the Saviour had been baptized, 
he came up (Matt., iii, 16) ; — pxs geporden-\-\^. p. : cearu pses gempod 



190 TENSES.— MODES. 

geporden, care had been renewed (B., 1304) ; ic pxs gefyrn gelufod— 
Lat. amatus eram {JEAt Gr., 20). 

Subjunctive Tenses. 

418. The tenses follow in general those of the indicative, but 
time is indefinitely expressed in relation to the speaker. Futurity 
runs with doubtful possibility. In indirect sentences the time is 
to be taken in relation to that of the principal verb. 

The Imperfect often expresses time as future from a past of the prin- 
cipal verb : ic spor pxt ic hinc hdin brohte, I swore that I ivould bring him 
home (Gen., xliv, 32) ; — with auxiliary : politan pxt hit ofergdn sceolde, 
they thoudht that it would po by (Chr.,1053); pold pxt sceoldon bodian, 
wished that they should preach (Hom., 2, 20) ; — Future perfect: pxt polde 
Pyncan pundorlic, gif xnig xr pam s<&de pxt hit spa gepurdan sceolde, that 
icould have seemed wonderful if any before that had said that it should so 
happen (Chr., 1052). 

Sequence of Tenses. 

419. Principal tenses depend on principal tenses; historical on 
liistorical. 

Exceptions. — I. Present + Past, (a.) A present narration or question of 
a past fact : eart pu se mon pe px.re dfed, art thou the man who was fed ? 
(Boet., 3, 1) ; — comparison of present and past : he is gen spa he pxs, he is 
still as he was (Ex., 334, 5). II. Perfect -|- Past : pu hxj'st forgiten para 
pxpnd pe ic pe sealde, thou hast forgotten the weapons that I gave thee 
(Boet., 3, 1). III. Past + Present ; — a truth in narrative: pa Sciddeds, pe 
on odre healfe bugiad, ne geheordon, the Scythians, who live on the other 
side, had not heard (the Roman name) (Boet., 18, 2); — quasi oratio directa 
in past narration : § 413, 6. Compare ^ 288, e. 



MODES. 
The Indicative, §151. 

420. The indicative is used in assertions, questions, and 
assumptions to express simple predication. 

(a.) Primary. It is the primary form, to be used every where unless 
there is reason for some other. 

(b.) Real. — Since there is a special mode for what may be and might be, 
the indicative is used in contrast to speak of things as real or fact. So in 
a protasis, ^431. 

(c.) Imperative. — The indicative future may be used for the imperative : 
SIX dagds Pu pircst, six days shalt thou labor (Exod., xxxi, 15) ; ne pylt Pu 



THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 191 

me gescyndan, Lat. noli me confundere, please not confound me (Psa., 
cxviii, 31). So in Greek (Hadley, 710) and Latin (Harkness, 470). 

The Subjunctive, § 15 1. 

421. The subjunctive is used to express mere possibil- 
ity, doubt, or wish. 

Tiie Teutonic subjunctive has the general range of the Latin subjunctive, 
together with the infinitive having a subject accusative. Compare ^ 293, a. 

1. In declarative sentences (hypothetical) : naare min brodor dead, my 
brother would not have died (Joh., xi, 21) ; punige p&r he punige, he may 
dwell where he may dwell=wherever he may dwell (J^^ctr., vi, 3, 1). So 
in Greek (Hadley, 722) and Latin (Harkness, 486). 

2. Interrogative sentences (doubt) : fipd ne msege pdfian, who can fail 
to wonder? (Met.. 28. 43) ; hpl pu xfre poldc, how couldst thou ever wish ? 
(Met., 4, 33). So in Greek (Hadley, 720, c) and Latin (Harkness, 486). 

3. Imperative sentences , 1st person (exhortation or request) : fare pe 
on tunas, go we to the towns (Mc, i, 38) ; up-dhebben pe his naman, exalt 
we his name (Psa., xxxiii, 3) ; uton gdn,\et us go (Mc, 14, 42) ; — 2d 
person (command) : ne sperigen ge, swear not (j^Elf. LL. 48) ; nellon ge 
pesan, do not be (Matt., vi, 16); — 3d person (wish, demand) : si Gode lof, 
praise be to God (Chr., 1009) , sib si mid eopic, peace be with you (Ex., 
282, 25) ; beon gegaderode pa pieteru, let the waters be gathered (Gen., i, 
9). So in Greek (Hadley, 720, a) and Latin (Harkness, 487). 

4. Exclamatory (wish, abridged subordinates) : Ed Id ! pset hit purde. 
Oh ! that it might be (Met., 8, 39) ; Ed Id ! gif ic moste geefenlsecan, Oh ! 
if I might imitate (the blessed Lawrence) (Horn., 1, 432) ; Ed Id! gif pu 
p&re hand. Ah ! if (=:would) thou wert a dog (Horn., 2, 308). So in Greek 
(Hadley, 721) and Latin (Harkness, 488, 1). 

5. In Co-ordinate and Subordinate clauses the subjunctive may every 
where be used as in the above examples to express a separate possibility, 
Joubt, or wish. Disjunctives (doubt) : sam, pe pillan, sam pe nyllan, 
whether we will, or nill (Boet., 34, 12) ; si hit 'man, si hit nyten, be it man, 
be it beast (Exod., xix, 13). For adversatives, ^ 432 ; for causals, 
§ 433. 

(a.) Subordinates share in the general possibility, doubt, or desire of their sentence, 
and take the subjunctive in many cases where it is not obviously the expression of either. 
Hence the following discussion, §5 422-434. 

The SuBJUTfCTivE in Subordinate Clauses. 

422. The subjunctive may be used by attraction in clauses 
subordinate to a suV)junctive. 

(a.) Cases of so-called attraction are mostly better explained as illogical 
conformation with some of the other rules : ponne pu senig ping begite pms 
Pe Pu pene pset me licige, when thou any thing mayst take of that thou 



192 SUBJUN-TIVi: IN' SUaSTANTIVi: CLAUSES. 

mai/st /iHOw {=z/iiwwL'sl) that »tai/ jJcasr vie (=/ like) (Gen., xxvii, 3). 
Compare Latin (Ilarkness, 527), Greek (llatUey, 738). 

A. Substantive Clauses, § 28 3. 

423. Tlic subjunctive may be used in a substantive clause 
expressing sonielhing sald^ as/ced, thought, wished, or do)ie. 

(a.) The indicative is used in the same clauses to emphasize reality or fact, § 420, b. 

(6.) These clauses oftenest represent an infinitive with a subject accusative in Latin and 
Greek, but sometimes iu them also the subjunctive is used (Harkness, 549-558 ; Hadley, 
763+). 

424 I. The clause may be a subject, oftenest of a copula, impersonal 

or passive. 

(a.) An indirect assertion or question : hit is s&d pwt he dhofe, it is said 
that lie raised (up his hands) (Bed., 3, 16); ne pa>s me cud, hpxder egesa 
p&re, it was not known to me, whether there was fear (of God) (C, 2710). 

(b.) Something cognized : puhte him pset fiegre stode pudubeam, it seem- 
ed to him that a forest tree stood fair (C, 247, 17). 

(c.) Something to be desired, as fil, necessary, enough, pleasant, etc. : 
pe ys betere, pxt an phird forpeorde, it is better for thee that one of thy 
members perish (Matt., v, 30) ; gedafenad pxt hi heord Idre gymon, it be- 
seems (priests) that they their lore heed (Horn., 2, 342). 

425. — II. The clause may be an object. 

(a.) An indirect assertion or question: cpedad pxf pu sie hlsefdige, they 
say that thou art a lady (Ex., 18, 15) ; ss-ged pset hit come, he says that it 
came (from God) (C, 683) ; he sxgde pxt Sarra his speostor p&re, he said 
that Sarah was his sister (C, 158, 27) \—hpsi}t secge ge pxt ic slg, what say 
ye that I am? (Matt., xvi, 15); Gregorius befran hpmder folc Cristen 
psere, pe hMen, Gregory asked whether the people Christian were or 
heathen (Horn., 2, 120); frtegn gif him p&re, asked if to him were (a 
pleasant night) (B., 1319). 

{b.) Object of cognition : pende pret se mxsta d&l p&re, weened that the 
most was (aboard) "(Chr., 911) ; gclyfe pxt hit come,l believe ti.at it came 
(from God) (C, 679). 

(c.) Object of desire or fear {hope, heed, doubt, pray, etc.), see ^ 315: 
ic pylle pmt he punige, I will that he wait (John, xxi, 22) ,• hopode pxt he 
gesdpe, hoped that he might see (Luc, 23, 8) ; so onegan, fear (C, 110, 1) ; 
^begymad, heed (Matt., vi, 1) ; biddad, pray (Exod., ix, 28), etc. 

{d.) Object done : do symble pxt ic x pine metige, I do continually that I 
meditate thy law=English emphatic form / <^o meditate (Psa., cxviii, 174); 
see further ^ 406, a. 

426.— III. The clause may limit a noun or adjective : sylle ponne dd pxt 
h'e nelle peof bedn,tvike the "oath that he will not a thief be (LL. Cnut.,ii, 
21) ; heo georndst bid pxt heo dfxre fleogan, she is earnest to (that she) 
frighten flies (Ps., 89, 10). 



IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES.— ADVERBIAL. I93 

(a.) The clause is au appositive or genitive ; in most cases might be conceived as ad- 
verbial of purpose or lesult. The same modal idea is here in a noun or adjective which Lu. 
I. and II. is m the verb. 

B. Adjectiye Clauses, § 28 3. 

427. The subjunctive may be used iu indefinite adjective 
clauses. 

Hypothetical relative sentence (Harkness, 501 ; Hadley, 757) : syle 
pam pe pe hidde, give to him that asketh thee:=if any one ask (Matt., v, 42) ; 
gehyre se pe edran hsebbe, let him hear who has ears (Mc, 4, 9) ; pyrce 
hpd p3st pmt he pyrce, odde do p-xt pxt he do, one may work that, that (v.hat- 
ever) he may work, or do that, that he may do (Boat., 37, 2). 

C. Adverbial Clauses, § 28 3. 

428.— I. Clauses of Place. The subjunctive may be 

used in indefinite adverbial clauses of place. Compare § 427. 
Far, pser pu freondd pene, go where thou hopest for friends (Gu., 262); 
hafd bletsunge pser pu fere, take a blessing wherever thou goest (An., 224) ; 
pic geceos p&r pe leofost sie, choose a residence where to thee pleasantest 
may be (C, 2723). Oftenest indicative : puna p&r pe leofost ys, dwell 
where to thee pleasantest is (Gen., xx, 15) ; so with spa hpdr spa, wher- 
ever (Chr., 1130) ; spa hpider spa, whithersoever (Mc, 14, 14). 

429.— II. Clauses of Time. 

The subjunctive may be used in adverbial clauses of future 
6v indefinite time. (Compare Hark., 518-523 ; Iladley, 769.) 

(a) Future: ne g-Ast pii panone mr pu dgylde, i\wn goest not thence 
before thou shalt pay (Matt., v, 26) ; ic pws xr pain p)e Abraham pAre, 
1 was before Abraham was (John, viii, 58) ; gesprxc Beopulf, ttr he stige, 
Beowulf said before he mounted (B., 676) ; puniad par od pxt ge utgdn, 
stay there till ye depart (Mc, 6, 10) ; he sohte od he funde, he sought till 
he found (the cup) (Gen., xliv, 12). In Greek, irpiv with an infinitive, 
Hadley, 769. 

{b.) Indefinite : ponne pu fieste, smyrd pin heafod, when thou fastest, 
anoint thy head (Matt., vi, 17) ; bad, hponne peard resle ugedfe, waited, 
(■for the time) when the Lord should give rest (C, 1428) ; so with pcnden, 
until (B., 1224) ; spa lange spa (Deut., xxii, 29) ; pa hpile pe (LL. .^dr., 
vi, 12). 

430.— III. Clauses of Manner (intensity). 

The subjunctive may be used in clauses of comparison 
expressing that which is imagined or indefinite, or descrip- 
tive of a force (Hark., 501, 4). 

(a.) pnps se mona, spilcc he p&re mid Mode begol.en, thn mnon was as it 
it were with blood washed (Chr., 734) ; bele spa hit rihi sir, let bun pay as 

N 



194 SUBJUNCTIVE.— CONDITIONAL.— CONCESSIVE.— FINAL. 

it may be right (LL. ^If., 38) ; strengre J)onnc rose sy, (I am) more fra- 
grant than any rose may be (Ex., 423, 19) ; pCi gesrjhst mare J)onne pis sy, 
thou shalt see more than tliis is (John, i, 50), an extreme case. 

(i.) Consecutive clauses, descriptive of a force : spa stearc pinter pxt u 
durre lutian, winter so severe that I dare to stay at home (iElfc. Col.). 
Compare ^ 434. 

431.— IV. Conditional Clauses, ^ 283, p. 141. 

The subjunctive is used in a protasis when proposed as 
possible, tlie imperfect when assumed as unreal. (So iu Latin 
and Greek, Hark., 502+ ; Had., 744 + .) 

(The indicative proposes as real : gif ge Abrahams beam synd, since ye Abraham's chil- 
dren are (do his works) (John, viii, 39).) 

(a.) Present : gif mec htld nime, onsend Higeldce, if me battle take, 
send to Higelfic (B., 452). For inverted clauses, ^ 485, 6, c. 

(b.) Imperfect: gif pn p&re her, nsere min brodor dead, if thou hadst 
been here, my brother had not died (John, xi, 32). 

(c.) So with on pxt gerdd Jja!t,()n condition that (Chr., 945) ; pid pam pe, 
same (Gen., xxix, 27). 

{d.) Negative condition : buton hpd beo ednipan gecenned, unless one be 
born again (he shall not see God's kingdom) (John, iii, 3) ; so nefne (B., 
1056) ; nemiie (Ex., 124, 13) ; nymde (C, 305, 19) ; butan pssnne, {pa) ex- 
cept when (Men., 33 ; Sat., 391). 

432. — Y. Concessive Clauses. 

The subjunctive may be used in a concessive clause. 

Hpxt fremad, peak he gestnjne, what profiteth it, though he gain (the 
whole world) (Matt., xvi, 20)-, pit scealt dreogan, pedh pin pit diige, ih«r 
shalt suffer, though thy wit is good (B., 589) ; pedh pu to banan purde, 
though thou wast a murderer (B., 587). For inverted clauses, ^ 485, 6, c. 

(a.) The indicative is used in similar clauses. The English discrimination between the 
first and second examples was growing. 

(6.) So in Latin (Hark., 514+) ; for Greek, see Hadley, 874. 

433._VI. Final Clauses. The subjunctive is used in 
clauses expressing purpose. (So in Latin and Greek, Hark., 
500+ ; Had., 739 + .) 

(a.) Present: sete pine hand ofer hlg, pwt heo hdl sy and libbe,\^y thy 
hand upon her, that she may be whole and live (Mc, 5, 23). 

(b.) Imperfect: genam pxt pif pa?t he bespice, (the devil) took the woman 
(as aid) that he might deceive (the man) (Job, 166) 

(c.) Negative clauses with py Iws, Lat. quo-minus, or py Iss /e>Eng. 
lest : s&lde scip, py la's ydd prym forprecan meahte, fastened the ship, 
lest the waves' force might wreck it (B., 1918) ; beron, py Ixs pe pin jot 
xtsporne, they bear (thee), lest (so that less by that) thy foot may dash 
against (a stone) (Matt., iv, 6). 



POTENTIAL. 195 

434. — VII. Consecutive Clauses. 

The subjunctive may be used to express a result. 

Gif mon sie dumb odde deaf geboren, pset he ne msege his synna onsec- 
gan, if one be born dumb or deaf, so that he can not deny his crimes (JElf. 
LL.. 14). Consecutive modal clauses in spa pait, see ^ 430, b. So in Lat., 
Hark., 501 ; in Greek, ioan with an infinitive (Hadley, 770). 

The Potential, §§ 151,176. 

435. The potential expresses power, liberty, permission, 
necessity, or duty. 

(a.) In some cases it is only a periphrastic form of the subjunctive or im- 
perative ; in most cases it adds a distinct notion of po-wer in some form. 

(fi.) The indicative form of the auxiliary sometimes takes the place of the 
subjunctive ending of the principal verb, but generally a subjunctive clause 
retains the subjunctive form of the auxiliary, making a doubly-expressed 
possibility, or doubt, or wish : ic nu syllan polde, I now would wish to give 
(B.,2729). 

(c.) The principal verb takes the infinitive, except after eom and habban, 
where the gerund is used. 

{d.) The principal verb is often omitted, especially a verb of motion before 
an adverb of place. Examples under each. 

436. — 1. Maeg (^^ 176, 212), physical power; — declarative: ic ms>g 
pesan God, I can be God (C, 18, 35) ;— (hypothetical), edde mihte Crist 
punian, easily might Christ have dwelt (Horn., 1, 164) ; — subordinate clauses, 
e. g. conditional ; gif he 6 meahte, if she might, (she chose) (Bed,, 4, 23) ; — 
final : heo polde hire edel forl&ten, pset heo meahte geearnian, she would 
give up her estate, that she might earn (one in heaven) (same) ; — principal 
verb omitted : helle gatu ne mdgon ongedn pd, hell's gates can not (prevail) 
against it (Matt, xvi, 18). 

437. — 2. Can (^^ 176, 212) : ne can ic eop, I know you not (Matt., xxv, 
12; frequent). Intellectual poA'er; — declarative: ic can eop lsbran,\ can 
teach you (Sat., 250) ; — subordinate clauses; — conditional : ponne he ne can 
ongitan, if he can not understand (Boet., 39, 2) ;— principal verb omitted . 
saga, gif pu cunne, say, if thou can (say) (El., 857) ; dydon spa hie cmton, 
did as they could (do) (C, 232, 11). 

438. — 3. Mot {^^ 176, 212), possibility through permission : p&r ic sittan 
mot sumorlangne dcvg, there I may sit the summer-long day (Ex., 443, 28) ; 
— duty: mot ic him forgifan, should I forgive him (seven times)? (Matt., 
xviii, 21) ;— necessity (rare) : ealle pe moton speltan, all we must die (Exod., 
xii, 33) ; — subordinate clauses; — object: bied pset he moste niman, besought 
that he might take (away the body) (John, xix, 38) ;— omission of principal 
verb: gif(pe) pider moton, \{ we thither might (go) (Sat., 302). 

439. — 4. Dear, dorste (^^ 176, 212), power of will in danger: ne dear 



196 POTENTIAL.— IMPERATIVE. 

font g an, \ dare not go fortli (C.,54, 1); subordinate clauses; — result: he 
pxs to-gefultutniende, p;rt hun mon noht hefiges gedon dorstc, Lat. ipse 
■iuvans, ne qui (lis) quicquam molestue infcrrel, he was helping, so that 
no one might (dare) do anything grievous to them (Bed., 5, II), rare. 

440. — 5. pille (^^ 176, 212). Present ;— declarative future indicative, 
see ^ 415 ;— nnperative : ne pille pu pepan, Lat. noli plorare (Hark., 538), 
please not weep (Bed., 4, 29) ; ne pylt pu, same (Psa., cii, 2). Imperfect : 
—declarative : ic sund mmiim syllan polde,l to my son would give (ifl had 
one) (B., 2729). Subordinate clauses ;— purpose, result : pa's gepunod pxl 
he polde gdn to svk, was wont to go to the sea (Hom., 2, 138) :— principal 
verb omitted : hpxnne pu me pylle to, when thou wilt (come) to me (Psa., 
c, 1, and often). 

441.— 6, Sceal, sceoldc {^^ 176, 212) : hu micel scealt Pu, how much 
owest thou ] (Luc, 16, 5 . Matt.,xviii,24) ;— necessity under law or external 
force : be ure & he sccal spcltan, by our law he ought to die (John, xix, 7) ; 
—necessity for a purpose: ic hie sccal wrest gepinnian, pivt tc siddan m&ge, 
I must first dispel them, that I afterward may (bring light (Boet., 5, 3) ;— a 
future sign, see ^ 415 ;— imperative : ge sculon herigcan,l.:il. laudale, -praise 
ye (the name of the Lord) (Psa., cxii, 3). Imperfect : spylc sceolde secg 
pesan pegn. such a warrior should a thane be (B., 2708) ;-subordmate 
clauses : he cpxd past helle healdan sceolde, he said that he should mhabit 
hell (C.,530) ;— passive : forhtian paH he geleeded beon sceolde, io fear that 
he should be led (to hell) (Bed., 3, 13) ;— result : nyd pa't he hrxdlicor feran 
sceolde, need that he should travel more rapidly (Bed., 3, 14) ;— prmcipal 
narrative: jm sceolde cuman hvnd,i\\en came the hound (Boet., 35, 6), Germ. 
Dan.;— verb omitted: tc him a>fter sceal, I shall (go) after him (B.,2816). 

442. — 7. ]3earf, need (^^ 176, 212), common as a notional verb, rare as 
an auxiliary : syle me pxl pxter,pait me ne Pyrste, ne ic ne purfe her feccan, 
Lat. ut non sitiam neque veniam hue haurire, give me the water, that I may 
not thirst, nor need income) here to draw (John, iv, 15). 

443.-8. XSton,pulun, O. Saxon wita (^^ 176, 224, c), pres. subj. plur. 
1st ofpitan, to go. Compare Lat. eamus, age. It. andiamo, Fr. ^llons ;— 
imperative clauses : putun gangan to, let us advance (B., 2648) ; utan to- 
brecan, let us break (their bonds) (Psa., li, 3) ; uten is in Layamon, but the 
common form is the subjunctive with we : lete we pcos ferde bila^ue, and 
spehe we of Ardure, let we this host remain, and speak we of Arthur (35407). 
The English pure auxiliary let is later yet. 

For potential eom, ^^ 451 ; 415, 6. For hsebbe, ^^ 453, a ; 415, 5. 

The Imperative, §§ 14 9,151. 
444. The imperative is used in commands. 
Gd, go (Mc, 5, 8) ; gang pu, go thou (Matt., iv, 10) ; gad, go ye (Exod., 
V, 18); ne beod ge,he not ye (C, 194, 11). 



INFINITIVE AND GERUND.— INFINITIVE. 197 

{a.) In hypothetical sentences : secad and ge hitjindad, seek and {—\f 
ye seek) ye shall find (Matt., vii, 7). 

(e.) Subjunctive for imperative, ^ 421, 3. 
Indicative for imperative, ^ 420, c. 
Potential, /^tZ/e, ^ 440; sculon, ^ 441. 
(c.) So tlirough the Indo-European tongues. 

The Infinitive and Gerund. 

445. Their forms, §§ 173-175, 177, 181, 352, V. 

1. The infinitive in an rarely uses to : micel is to secgan, there is much 
to say (Gu., 502) ; dfysed bid to secan, it is prepared to seek (Ph., 275) ; so 
B., 316 ; C, 220, 25 ; Ex. 187, 27, etc. Grein. 

2. The gerund in -ende appears in the later manuscripts of the Chronicle, 
and spreads: Nero dgan to rixiende,l!iexo began to rule (Chr., 49) he 
sende to bodiende, he sent to preach (604) ; coman Crist to purdiende, they 
came to honor Christ (2). See § 460. So in .^Ifric's Grammar. 

3. The inffnitive and gerund sometimes interchange in most of their uses, 
if not all. 

4. The progressive future is rare : ongedte hine habbende beon, he knew 
himself to be about having, Lat. se fuisse habiturum (Bed., 5, 8). 

5. Future passive : ne tpeoge ic me gelxded beon, I did not doubt myself 
about to be led, Lat. me rapiendum esse (Bed., 3, 13). 

6. iElfric gives as the Latin future active amatum ire vel amaturum esse, 
Anglo-Saxon yaran lufian, to be going to love ; vis doctum ire, pilt pu gdn 
leornian, will you go to learning (.^If. Gram., p. 25). The English is a 
true future=:to be about to love. Sure examples of faran or gdn, without 
notional force, are needed from Anglo-Saxon literature. See ^^ 443 ; 415, 4. 

Infinitive, §§ 149,151. 

446. The infinitive is constvueil as a neuter noun. (So in 
other tongues : Latin, Hark., 548 ; Greek, Had., 762 + .) 

447. — 1. A subject: hine ridan lyste, to ride pleases him (Boet., 34, 
7) ; dlyfd on Reste-dagum pel don, is to do well lawful on Sabbath days ? 
(Luc, 6, 9) ; sometimes with to : ts dlyfed on Reste-dagum pel to dunne. it 
is lawful on Sabbath days to do well (Matt., xii, 12). 

448. — 2. Direct object. — (1) Of beginning and ending (acts exerted 
on other acts) : ongunnon rxran riht, began to establish right (C, 2, IT) ; 
Romdne blunnun ricsian, Romans ceased to rule (Bed., 1, H) ; — (2) of 
motive (acts moving to other acts — desire, seek, intend, expect, dare, dread, 
etc.) : pille faran, I wish to go (Horn,, 2, 372) ; secad to (John, viii, 40) ; 
Pencad (C.,2436); myntan (B., 712) : ne dear ic faran, I dare not go 
(Gen., xliv, 34) ; ceara (C, 2279) ;— (3) definitive object of ability, duty, 
habit (acts and states defined by acts) : ic mseg secgan, I am able to say 



198 INFINITIVE. -GERUND. 

(Cri., 317) ; cmton don, were able to do (C, 189) ; he sceal speltan, he 
ought to die (John, xix, 7); gcpuncdon modcr cygcan, they were wont to 
call (her) mother (Bed., 4, 28); — (4) general motion defined by specific 
motion : fleon gepdt, he went to fly = he flew away (C, 136, 23) ; com 
fleogan, came flying (89, 10) ; com gongan (B., 710) ; com drifan, came 
driving=ifell (on a rock) (Bed., 5, 6) ; so with fara7i, fcran, glidan, ridan, 
scridan, sktian, tredan, etc. See further under Participles, ^ 458, 2. 
(o.) These forms run to periphrastic forms of the future and potential, see §5 415, 435+. 

449. — 3. The infinitive is used as a final object to express 
an act of the tirst object. 

This occurs oftenest after verbs of 

(a.) Cognition : geseah rincd manige spefan, saw many heroes sleef 
(B., 729) ; leodc secgan hyrde, heard people say (B., 1346) ; ongeate June 
habbende beon, he knew (himself to be having) that he should have (this 
number of years) (Bed., 5, 8) ; so after seon, gchyran, gefrignan, findan, 
{d)fandian, gemetan, etc. The direct object is sometimes omitted : secgan 
kyrde, I heard say (B., 582). Teaching : l&r us gebiddan, teach us to 
pray (Luc, 11, 1). 

(5.) Bidding: bwd hine faran,hade him go (Chr., 1050); hdtan men 
gepyrcean, ordered men to build (B., 69) ; so with {be)be6dan, forbeodan, 
etc. Direct object omitted : hset fealdan past segl, orders to furl the sail 
(Boet., 41, 3). 

(c.) Let: leton holm beran,]et the sea bear him (B.,48); Isetad pa 
lytlingds to me cuman, suffer the little ones to come to me (Luc, 18, 16). 
So forlaktan, alyfan, 

(d.) Make : ded hi ealle beofian, makes it all tremble (Psa., ciii, 30). 

(a, b, c.) "With passives : pws gesepen blod peallan, blood was seen to 
spring from the ground (Chr., 1100); hard and spyn synt f orb o dene to 
ait-hrinenne, hares and swine are forbidden to touch (Lev., xi, 6-8) ; — wish- 
ing : polde hyne genemnedne beon, he wished him to be named (Luc, 1, 
62). 

Note.— This constniction gives rise to the accusative before the infinitive, fo. which see 
5 293. 

Gerund, §§17 3, 175. 

450. The so-called gerund usually answers to the Latin gerund, supine, 
or ut with the subjunctive. But see ^ 445, 3. 

451. — T. The gerund after the copula expresses what must, 
may, or should be done. 

Mannes sunu is to syllanne, the Son of Man must be delivered up (Matt., 
xvii, 22) ; his apostolus to farenne pseron, his apostles were to go (LL. 
-^If., 49, 1) ; seo lufu is da on mode to healdanne, love should always 
be kept in mind (Bed., 1, 27). 



GERUND.— ATTRIBUTIVE.— OBJECTIVE.— ADVERBIAL. 199 

(«.) The act may be done to or by the subject 

(6.) Latm periphrastic coujugations in -run and -dus (Hark., §5 227-233). 

452. — 11. Attributive. The gerund is sometimes used to 
describe or define a noun. 

Neud is to donne, there is need of acting (LL. M^t., vi, 42) ; gepeald 
to s;yrpanne, power of working (C, 280) ; msal to fir an, time to go 
(B., 316) ; mihte to forl&tenne, power to forgive (John, xix, 10; Mc, 
2, 10). 

(a.) Latin genitive of the gerund (Hark., 563). 

453, — HI. Objective. The gerund may be used as a final 
object to express an act on the first object. 

After verbs of having and giving : ic hsebbe mete to eianne,! have meat 
to eat (John, iv, 32) ; S7/Id me hlaf to etenne, gives me bread to eat 
(Gen.,xxviii,20) ; ic sende flsbsc to etanne, I send flesh to eat (Exod., 
xvi, 12). 

Note nim pa>t ic pe to sillenne habbe, take that I to thee to give have, 
(Ap., 12) ; ic hiebbe pe to secgenne sum ping, I have something to say 
to thee (Luc, 7, 40), Lat. hac diccre habeo (Cic. N. D., 3, 39), Ov^iv 
dvTuirilv ix(» (^Esch. Prom., 51); — direct object omitted: hire syllan 
etan, to give to her to eat, Lat. bibere dan (Liv., 40, 47), SoQtjvai <payfiv 
(Luc, 8, 55). 

(a.) Hence a periphrastic future I have to drink = I shall drink, § 415, 5. 

(6.) The gerund as genitive object is pretty common : ondrhl to faranne, dreaded to go 
(Matt., ii, 22) ; wished to see (xiii, IT.) Other objects occur, § 448, 2). 

454. — IV. Adverbial, l. The gerund is used to denote 
the purpose of motion. 

ilt eode se s&dere to sapenne, the sower went out to sow (Mc, 4, 3) ; so 
often without to: gretan eode, 'went to greet (C, 146, 31); gepdt 
neosean, went to see (B., 115) ; sende bodian, sent to preach (Bed., 3, 
22). 

(a.) The Latin supine in -uvi (Hark., 569). 

2. The gerund with an adjective may express an act for 
which any thing is ready. 

Hrade blbd to dgeotanne, ready to shed blood (Psa., xiii, 6) ; fuse to 
farenne, ready to go (B., 1805); so gearu, reope, spid, etc. Compare 
Aw peere pu dyrstig ofstician bar, how could you be daring (=how 
dared you) stab a boar? (iElfrc), § 448, 2 ; gearpe gehyran, iea.dy to 
hear (^Ifrc). 
(a.) Latin supine in -u, and infinitive (Hark., §5 5T0, 552, 3). 

3. The gerund with an adjective may express an act in 
respect to which any thing is pleasant, unpleasant, easy, worthy, 

§§ 321,302. 



200 PAKTirirLES. 

Gladu on to /tfc?enne, pleasant to look on (Boet.,6); grimlic to geseonns, 
grisly to see (FiX., 57, 15) ; ate on to findanne, easy to find (I'sa., Ixxvi, 
16) ; pyrdc to dlxlcnne, worthy to receive pardon (C, 622 ; Matt., iii, 
11). 
(o.) The Latiu supine iu -u, for which often an infinitive (Hark., 670). 



PARTICIPLES. 

455, The Jielation of the Forms. 

1. The -nd of the present denotes continuance; the -en, -d of the past 
denote completion. The completed acts are naturally used to describe the 
things completed, i. e., are passive. 

(a.) A few past participles are active, druncen, forsporen, gesprecen, 
etc. : beore druncen, drunken with beer (B., 531, and often) ; forsporen, 
forsworn, perjured (Gen., xxiv, 8, and elsewhere) ; heom pus gesprecenum, 
they thus having spoken (Nic, 27, and elsewhere) ; gelyfed folc, people 
having believed (Horn., 1, 144) ; so Gothic (Mc, xv, 28), Lat. potus,jura- 
tus, etc. 

(2.) The participles have (1) adjective endings, and agree with nouns ; but the dif- 
ference is so slight between an act asserted as done by the agent, and as descriptive of the 
agent, that the participles are used (2) like infinitives, and (3) as abridged clauses. 
The two last uses are less common in Anglo-Saxon than in Latin or Greek (Harkness, 571- 
5S1 ; Hadley, 785-806). 

(3.) Weak and strong forms, see §5 362, 119, b. 

The Combinations. 

456. A participle agrees with its substantive in gender^ 
number^ and case, § 361. 
A participle may govern the case of its verb. 

I. Attributive : man rihtpis and ondrsedende God, a man rig! teous and 
fearing God (Horn., 2, 446) ; seo fore&Ade hoc, the aforesaid book (Horn., 
2,118). 

(a.) Abridged. — Here belong many abridged clauses, ^ 281 : onlyht 
selcne man cumendne to pysmn middanearde, lighteth every man coming 
(who comes) to this world (W. P. T., 4). 

{b.) Subject omitted : — persons : ealrd lihbendrd modor, mother of all 
living (Gen., iii, 20) ; Godes gecorcnan, God's chosen (Hom., 2, 454) ; — 
things : frumripan gongendes and peaxendes, first fruits of that going and 
growing (LL. ^If., 38). 

(c.) Compounds with un- abound in the Teutonic tongues. 

457. — II. Predicative : ic secgende pxs,l was saying (An., 951) ; pass 
Jirst dgdn, the time was gone (An., 147) ; fet smt gebundenc, feet are 



VERBALS. 201 

Dnimd (C, 24, 18) ; paldend licgad dredme bedrorene, the powerful lie be- 
reft of joy (Ex., 291, 8). 

(a.) Hence the progressive forms, §§ 177, 411 ; the perfect of intransitives, §§ 168, 416 ; the 
passives, §§ ITS, 409. 

458. — III. Objective: (1.) direct object after verbs o( beginning and 
ending : geendude bebeodende, ne stopped giving commands (Matt., xi, 1). 

(2.) Definitive after verbs of motion : com ridende, came riding (Hom., 
2, 134); com gangcnde (Matt., xiv, 25, and often); cpom gefered (Sal., 
178 ; perhaps never exactly the Germ, kam gegangen) ; pind pedende fxrcd, 
(El., 1274) ; purhpunedon dcsiende, they continued asking (John, viii, 7). 

(3 ) Genitive object after verbs of emotion : ondredon hine dcsigende, 
dreaded askmg him, i(pof3ovvro iTnpujTi'iaai (.Mc.,ix, 32) ; pundredon gescondc 
dumbe specende, they wondered to see the dumb speaking (Matt., xv, 31). 

(4.) Final object after verbs of cognition : hme geseah sittendnc, saw 
him sitting (Luc.,xxii, 56) ; geseah his hus dfylled, saw his house filled (St. 
G., 6) ; gehyrdon hine specende, heard him speaking (John, i, 37). 

(5.) Final after having : he hspfde hine geporhtne, he had him wrought 
(C, 17,4). Hence tlie perfect in Teutonic, Romanic, Romaic, rare Gr., Lat. 

(a.) These correspond with infinitives, §§ 448, 449, 453. 

459. -^iV. Adverbial. (1.) Time: he pwccende geseah, he, when he 
walked, saw (St G., 4) ; nolde, gcladod, sidian, he would not, when invited, 
go (Horn., 1, 128). 

(2.) Cause: di/de &gder to anum, topurpende feondscipds, made both at 
one by abolishing enmities (Hom., 1, 106). 

(3.) Concession : syllad, nan ping gehyhtende, lend, though hoping 
nothing (Luc, vi, 35). 

(4.) Co-existence : gecyrdon pa hyrdds puldrigende and herigende God, 
the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God (Horn., 1,32). 

(a.) Snch constructions are often abridged clauses, § 281. 
{b.) For the absolute construction, see §§ 304, d; 295, 6. 

Verbals. 

460. 1. The Anglo-Saxon verbal in -ung, -ing (^ 233), is a true noun, 
e. g., governed by a preposition : ic pxs on huntunge'^YiUgX. I was a hunt- 
ing (^Ifc). 

2. The gerund in -ende (^ 445,2) changed to -ing (Layamnn, 2647), 
and hence the old English use of the form in -ing as a verb : / am to ac- 
cusinge you (John, v, 45, Wycliffe, Oxford edition). 

3. The present participle in -ende changed to -ing; and, in English, 
noun, participle, adjective, and infinitive (gerund) mix. 



202 INTERJECTIONS. —CONJUNCTIONS. — COPULATIVES. 



INTERJECTIONS, § 263. 
461. The interjection Ims ilie syntax of a clause, § 278, dL 
(a.) Compare vocative, ^ 289, d; answers, ^ 399. 
(i.) For the dative after so-called interjections, see ^ 298, b. 



CONJUNCTIONS,^ 262. 
Co-ordinate Conjunctions. 
462. Co-ordinate conjunctions connect sentences and 

like parts of a sentence. 

46 3. Copulatives. 

1. And connects like clauses ; cum and geseoh, come and see (John, 
i, 46) ; words, often an emphatic repetition : litlan and litlan, by littles 
and littles (Chr., IliO) ; spktor and spktor, worse and worse (Chr., 1086); — 
correlatives : feor and nedh, far and nigh (C, 177, 27). 

It is a general sign of connected discourse ; — introductory to a sentence : 
And ne forseoh pu cyrliscne man, (Hail to thee, Apollonius). And do not 
neglect a plain man (Ap., 7) ; so Shakespeare, ''Yet ask.'' ''And shall 1 
have V (Rich. II., iv, 1) ; and often beginning a lyric, Southey, Moore ; so 
in German, Goethe. 

Strengthened : sumi and fader eegcter, son ajid father both (Hy.,7,42) ; 
and biUu, and both (Ex., 125, 8) : and edc, and also (Chr., 894) ; and edc 
spa (896) ; and edc spa ilce {same), and also (Psa., xxx, 10; El., 1278); 
and ealspa, and likewise (Luc, v, 33) ; and samod, and together (C, 456) ; 
and sodlice,d.nA verily (Matt, ii, 9); and to, (nine hundred), and (seventy) 
too (C, 1224) ; and hum (Sat., 523) ; and mid, also (B., 1649). 

Correlative: and ... . and,hoi\\ .... and (John, xii, 28) ; so WyclifFe, 
Mc, ix, 21,and often). 

skgder ige) .... and (edc) both and (By., 224) ; bu {bdtpd) .... 

and,hoih .... and (Ex., 64, 12). 

ge . . . . and, both .... and (C, 46, 31) ; samod .... and, both .... 
and (C. 239, 27). 

(a.) As a general connective, and may connect clauses having various 
logical relations, and with or without other specific conjunctions. ^ 

Adversative : God geseah pone deofol, and se deofol spd-pedh pass 
bed&led Godes gesihde, God saw the devil, and the devil though was 
deprived of the sight of God (Hom., 2, 448) ; and nd pi laes, and never- 
theless (Chr., 1011); ic pylle mild-heortnysse, and nd onsaegdnysse, 
I wish mercy, and not sacrifice (Matt., xii, 7) ; so beginning a sentence 



COPULATIVES. 203 

to enforce a contrast : And do you now put on your best attire ? (Shake- 
speare, J. C, i, 1). 
Causal : gelyf, and heo bid hal, believe, and she shall be whole (Luc, 

viii, 50) ; and for pon ne, and not for that (Deut., i, 32). 
Distributive : tpdm and tjxhn, by two and two (Mc, vi, 7). See ^ 392. 
{b.) And is often an emphatic particle (Gr. Kai) : sc pe na?fd, and pxt 
Pe he hxfdjum bid cetbroden,whosm\er hath not, even that which he hath, 
from him shall be taken away (Matt., xiii, 12) ; And pu pxre mid pam Gali- 
leiscean, thou also wast with the Galilean (Matt., xxvi, 69) ; so in Wycliffe : 
Go and yee, go ye also (Matt., xx, 4, and often) ; not in use now. 

2. Bu, correlative with and; which see. 

3. Eac, ec, eke ; — with like clauses : eordan porhte, lifedc gesceop^GoA. 
earth wrought, life also created (B., 97). It is also used as an emphatic 
particle alone, and with and, ge, hpxdre, ne, odde, spa, spilce,pedh. 

Eal spa, see spa. 

Eornostlice, see sodlice, § 463, 8. 

4. Ge ; — with like clauses : sx brmc ge steorran forleton,the sea broke, 
and the stars ceased their light (Ex., 70, 33, rare) ;— words : ealde ge 
geonge, o](i and young (Jud., 166). 

Strengthened : seghpicder ge, both (^ds. LL., 1) ; butu ge, both (C.,46, 
30) ; ge edc, and also (Cri., 1170); ge edc spa same, and also likewise 
(Met., II, 10) ; somod ge, at once both (Bed., 2, 9) ; ge spylce, and so also 
(B.,2258). 

Correlative: ge . . . ge, both ... and (B., 1864) ; &gder ge . . . ge, 
injth . . . and (Job., XV, 24); ge . . . and,hQih . . . and (C, 752), see and. 

5. Gelice, likewise ; — he pundrode, and ealle ; gelice lacobum, i. e. laco- 
hus, he wondered, and all (that were with him) ; likewise James (Luc, v, 9). 

6. Ne, ne, with like clauses : beorgus pair ne muntds stedpe ne stondad, 
there hills nor mountains steep stand (Ex., 199, 6) ; — general comiective : 
Ne ne eton ge, neither do you eat (Exod., xii, 8). 

Correlative : ne . . . ne, not . . . nor (Gu., 670). 
ndder ne . . . ne (ne), neither ... nor (Levit., ill, 17; Psa.,xxxiv, 12). 
nddor . . . ne, neither . . . nor (Matt., vi, 20) . . . nor (repeated). 
ne . . . ne edc ne, not . . . nor (also not) (Boet., 16, 1). 
nd (naLvs) pxt an . . . ac edc spylce (spd) ; and nalws pxt an pxl him 
P'l fugelds, ac edc spa pd fixds, and not only that the birds (were sub- 
ject) to him, but also the fishes (St. G., 9) ; so Goth., ni pat ain . . . ac 
jah (I Tim., V, 13). 

Strengthenings, see ^ 400. Note piston and ne pendon, knew (not) and 
hoped not (that they should see) (B., 1604). 

7. Sam : bid oferfroren, sam hit sy sumor sam pinter, is frozen over 
both when it is summer and winter (Oros., 1, 1, 23), compare ^ 464, 5 ; spd 
same spd, see after, spd. 

Samod, see and. 

8. Sodlice ; — general sign of connected discourse : Sodlice Philippus 



204 DISJUNC Tn'E>.— ADVKRSA ri VES. 

;»«!«, Now Philip was (from Bethsaida) (Jolin, i, 11), see under and; simi- 
lar are eornostUce (Matt., ii, 1) ; pilodlice (iii, 11). 

9. Spa, correlative : sprecan spa yfel spa god, to speak as well evil as 
good (Nic.,6) ; for other uses oi spa, see ^ 473 ; spa same spa, beasts have 
these natures the same as men (Boet., 33, 1) ; eal spa, also (Matt., xxi, 
30). 

10. To, see under and ; pitodlice, see sodlice. 

46 4. Disjunctives, § 26 2. 

1. Apder, ader, strengthens odde, which see. 

2. Elles : begymad; elles nmbbe ge mc</c, take heed; else ye have no 
reward (Matt.,vi, 1). ^ 262,6. 

3. Hpastter : correlative with pe and odde, which see. See also ^ 397. 

4. Octde ; — alternative clauses : hi ne mihton, odde hi noldun, they 
could not, or they would not (Chr., 1052) ; — ■words: feor odde nedh, 
far or nigh (C, 1029 ; B., 2870). 

Strengthened : dder oitite on boclaiide odde on folclandc, either on book- 
land or on folkland (LL. Edw., 1, 2) ; odde cdc, or also (Psa., cxvii, 12) ; 
odde hpseder (Gen., xliii, 27). 
Correlatives : odde . . . odde, either ... or ; odde gemetan, odde getellan, 
odde dpegan, either measure, or count, or weigh (LL. iEcts., 1) ; 
dder . . . odde, either ... or (Hy., 10,42) ; 
hpseder . . . or/f/^e, whether ... or (Num., xiii, 20) ; 
hpxder . . . odde hpxder, whether ... or whether (Gen., xliii, 27) ; 
oder tpcgd . . . odde, other of two (=eithei) ... or (By., 208). 

5. Sam : sa77i pe pillan, sam pe nyllan, whether we will or nil! (Boet., 
34, 12). 

6. \)e, or ; — alternative clauses : is hit dlyfcd pe nd, is it lawful or no ? 
(Matt, xxii, 17) ; — •words : pi f hades pe peres, of female or male (Ph., 
357). 

Strengthened : geh&lan hpseder pe forspillan, to heal (whether) or to de- 
stroy (Mc, iii, 4). 

Correlatives : pe . . . /e, whether ... or (Mc, xiii, 35) : hpseder . . . pe 
(Ex., 95, 8); hpxder pe . . . pe (Matt, xxiii, 17) ; hpseder . . . hpseder 
pe, whether ... or whether (Joh.,vii, 17). 

46 5, Adversatives, § 26 2. 

1. Ac, ach, ah, but; — contrasted clauses : nis pis mseden dead, ac heo 
shepd ip) (Mc, v, 39). 

Strengthened: ac spidor. hut rather (Ap.,20); ac nat/ema, but none the 
more (Chr., 1127) ; ac pedh hpsedere, but however (Hom., 1, 276). 

2. Butan, see ^ 431, d. 

3. Git, yet, correlative with concessive pedh is not yet found in Anglo- 
Saxon. 



CAUSAL.— ILLATIVE.— SUliOKDIXATE CONJUNCTIONS. 205 

4. Ono hpa>t, but yet (Bed., 3, 24, Smith's ed.). 

5. };)eali, yet ; — contrasted clauses : &r ne ciidon ; peak hie fela piston, 
they did not know before ; yet they knew many things (C, 179, 16). 

Strengthened: and ne eode pedh m, and (=but) he did not go in though 
(John, XX, 5) ; and spa pedh, Goth, sve pauh, and yet even so (Horn., 2, 
448) ; emn spa pedh (Met., 9, 38) ; spa pedh hpsedere, yet however (Psa., 
cxviii, 157) ; spd'^se (Gu., 934, and often) ; ac pedh hpsedere, see ac. 
Correlative oftenest with a concessive although. 

pedh (pe) . . . pedh, although . . , yet (Boet., 16, 3). 
spd . . . spd pedh, although . . . yet (El., 498). 

6. And na ])e laes (Chr., 1011); ac nd pe md (Chr., 1127), nevertheless* 
for pan, notwithstanding (Deut., i, 33). 

4 6 6. Causal. — Illative. 

1. Nu, now that, since ; — causal : Pu me ne forpyrne, nu ic pus feorran 
com, (I pray) that thou wilt not deny me, since I thus far have come 
(B., 430) ; nu pe, since that (An., 485). 

2. J)a, since (causal) ; pd hie ofgifen hxfde, (now he could replenish the 
earth) since they had given it up (C.,96), see ^ 252,11. 

3. Be ]3ani J)e, by this that ; because : ongist pu hi be pam pe heo on 
nihte seined, thou mayst know it because it shineth in the night 
(Mandr.). 

4. For J)am J)e {pam'^pan, pon), causal: for pam pe Drihten behet 
god, we will do thee good, /or this that (=because) the Lord has 
promised good (Num., x, 29). 

For J)am (causal) : because (Boet., 19); — illative: therefore (C.,97). 

5. bonne, since (causal) : hpd sceal to his rice fon, panne he bruder 
nafd, who shall to his throne succeed, since he has no brother (or chil- 
dren) (Hom.,2, 146). 

6. J)y, therefore (illative) (C, 34, 24) ; py pe, because (Chr., 836). 
Correlative : Py . . . Py pe, on this account . . . because (Chr., 836). 

7. For Ji^ {pi, pe) ; — causal (John, vii, 22). 

Correlative : for pi . . . for pan pe, for this reason . . . because 
(Horn., 1,288). 

Subordinate Conjunctions. 

467. A subordinate conjunction connects a subordinate 
clause and the word with which it combines, § 278, b. 

(a.) Most are really relative adverbs, or adverbial phrases modifying a word in the prin- 
cipal and another in the subordinate clause. 

(,b.) The same word or phrase may denote different logical relations between different 
pairs of phrases, but we will follow our usual analysis of the subordinate clauses, § 283. 



206 SUBSTANTIVE CLAU.->ES.— DECXAIIATIVE CONJUNCTIONS. 

A. Substantive Clauses. 
46 8. Declakative Conjunctions. 

1. J)cet, substantive sign (the article of a clause). 

1. With a subject clause: pivr gccyded peard pxt God helpe gefre- 
medc, there was made known that God liolp gave (An , 91); — cor- 
relative Pxt or hit : nis pwt Jeor heonon pmt se mere stonded, it is 
not far hence that the mere stands (B , 1362) ; hit gelamp pxt {hie) 
cpomon, it happened that they came (El., 272) ; — quasi-appositive : 

pedtdcen p:i't hie gcsohton, the fatal sign (was spread) that they 
should seek (iiis death) (An., 1123). 

2. With an object clause (a) accusative : ic pdl pxt pit earl, I know 
that thou art (El., 815) ; — correlative pivl or hit: pxt gecyded 
mwnig pxt pxt gepeoided, that the multitude shall show that it shall 
happen (An., 1439) ;— apposition : pa pedd&d to pr&ce ne sette, 
pxt hie ber&ddon, he would not avenge the wicked deed, that they 
deprived (of life the guiltless) (EL, 496). 

(i.) Dative : to pam arod, pxt he nedde, ready for this, that he ventured 
(Jud.,275). 

■ (c.) Genitive: gemyndig pxt hio gesohte, mindful that she sought (El., 
268) ; — correlative pxs : pi pxs sculon hijcgan, pxt pe, we should strive for 
this, that we, etc. (C, 398) ;— appositive : crxftcs, pxt Jju me getxhte, I 
would ask knowledge, that thou teach me (An., 485). 

{d.) ]3set is also used in final clauses, § 433 ; modal, § 473 ; consecutive, 
§ 434 ; to introduce a wish or lamentation, § 421, 4. 

The uses of pxt correspond with those of Goth, patei, O. H. Ger. daz, 
and generally with Lat. iit, quod, Gr. on, ug, 'iva, and ottoj^, S?insk.jat,jdthd. 

2. ])sette<Cp't!i pc has the same uses us pxt ; for examples, see Grein. 

3. ])aet is, introduces an explanatory clause : ongunnon hi pxt apostoUce 
lif onhyrigean, pxt is, on singalum gebedum Drihtne peopdon, they began 
to imitate the apostolic life, that is, they served the Lord in continual pray- 
ers (Bed., 1, 26) ; mid fedpum brodrum, pxt is, seofenum odde eahtum, (he 
lived) with few brothers, that is, seven or eight (Bed., 4, 3). 

Nemlice is given by Koch and Thorpe for Lat. videlicet, like English 
namely ; but it does not occur in the passages cited by them. ^Ifric 
translates videlicet by pitodlice. Gram., p. 40. 

4. Hu, how, object of cognition : pe gehyrdon hu ge ofslogon„we heard 
how (that) ye slew (two kings) (Jos., ii, 10) ; gesdpon hu he pxs astigende, 
we saw how (that) he ascended into heaven (Nic, 18), frequent ; — of decla- 
ration : secgan hu him speop, said (how) it was well with him (B.,3026). 

Prepositions sometimes govern clauses: stod oferpserpxt cild pies, stood 
over where the child was (Matt.,ii, 9). 



ADJECTIVE CLAUSES.— ADVERBIAL CLAUSES. 207 

46 9. Interrogative Conjunctions. 

1. Hpaecter: befran hpxder folc Cristen peere, asked whether the people 
were Christian (Horn., 2, 120). 

2. Gif : Jrxgn gif h'nn pwre, asked if to him were (B., 1319). 

3. Similar is the use of hpanon, whence, hpeer^ where; hpxnne, when; 
hpider, whither ; hu, how, and the like, see ^ 397-8. 

4. For ne, ac, ah, hu, Id, as strengthening particles, see ^ 397. 

4V0. — B. Adjective Clauses. 

These are connected to their substantive, 

1. By relative pronouns, §^ 379-385, 427. 

2. By relative adverbs, ^ 398, 2. 

(a.) Adverbs of place connect to names of places ; of time, to names of 
time, etc. ; on sumum dmge, pa pa. Godes englds comon, on a day when 
God's angels came (Hom., 2, 446). 

C. Adverbial Clauses. 

471. — I. Place. — The connectives are relative adverbs: peer, where 
(^ 428); peer pier, North, sua huer, wherever (John, xii, 26) ; ne mwge ge 
cuman pyder ic fare, ye can not come whither I go (John, viii, 21) ; huer, 
where (North., Matt., vi, 21) ; spa hpdr s/^a, wherever {^ 428); spd hpider 
spd, whithersoever (^ 428). 

Correlative /ier . . . pitr (Matt., vi, 21). 

472. — II. Time. 1. Adverbial conjunctives mentioned under the sub- 
junctive, ^ 429: ^r pon past (John, iv, 49, North.), &r pon pe (Jud., 252), 
eer pon (C 2, 20), ser, before (B., 676) ; aer . . . xr (B., 1370) ;— od pait, 
6d, till (^ 429, a) ; — panne, hponne, penden, spd lange spd, pd hp'de pd 
(^ 429, b). 

2. Others with prepositions : aefter pam pe ic arise, ic cume, after I arise 
I will come (Mc, xiv, 28) ; mid pam pe (Hom., 2, 136), mid py pe (Matt., 
xxvii, 12), mid py, whilst (Bed., 1, 1) ; — of pon, since (Mc, ix. 20, North.) ; 
— on-mang {amang) pam pe he peer /?«5, while he was there (Chr., 1091), 
on pam pe, while (Chr., 1050) ; — sict pan, since (B., 656), as soon as (604), 
after that (106) : sktdon pent (Chr., 1128) ;— to pon pxt, until (B., 2591). 

3. Without prepositions, — pronominal: J^a, when (B.,632); pd . . . pd 
(Matt., ii, 3). pd pd . . . pd (Matt., iv, 2), pd pe . . . pd (Chr., 1013), 
when . . . then ; — mid pam pe . , . pd (Horn., 2, 450), mid py pe . . . f)d 
(Ap., 5). on pam pe . . . pd (Chr., 1049), dmang pam pe . . . pd (Nic, 15), 
whilst . . then ; on sumum dsege . . . pd, on a day . . . then (Horn., 2, 
446); sona /uts pe . . . pd, as soon after as . . . then (Bed., 1, 12) : — J)aes 
pe, after that (Bed., 1, 11); — nu (with causal shade), now that (Sat., 387) ; 
nu . . . nw, now . . . since (C.,403). 



208 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES.— CONJUNCTIONS OMITTED. 

4. From nouns: hpilum (-o/j, -an) . . . hpilum (Ex., 15G, 30), hplle 
. . . hpile (Hy., 3, 44, 45), sometimes . . . sometimes; pa hplle pe . . . pd 
hpile, uliile . . . then (Oros., 2, 4, 5) ; — soua spa . . . spa, as soon as . . . 
so soon (Bed., 1, 1); sona pxs Pe . . . J)d,a.s soon (after) as . . . then (Bed., 
1, 12). 

473. — III. Manner : aefter pam pe, after the manner that (Luc., ii, 24) ; 
— eal spa, see spa ; — on efa, efen spa, likewise (Ps., 138, 6) ; — gelice : 
elpendes hyd pxjle drincan pxlan gelice and spinge ded, elephant's hide 
will soak up water like (as) a sponge doth (Oros., 5, 7, 2) ; spylce gelice and 
seo pxre, such as if she were (Oros., 2, 4, 6) ; — hu, see ^ 468, 4 ; — spa: 
bead gledpe spa ns'ddran, he wise as serpents (Matt., x, 16) ; spa spa, so as 
(Honi., 2, 452) , gelicost spa, most as if (Ex., 53, 15) ; eal spa, wholly as 
(xElfrc.); spa . . .pa, as soon as . . . then (Ex., 200, 16) ; spa spa . . . 
spa, as . . . so (Horn., 2, 450). Before and after an adjective or adverb: 
spa fcla spa, so many as (^Elfrc.) ; spa lange spa, so long as (Mc, ii, 19) ; 
spa same 5/>a, just as (Oros., 2, 4, 8) ; etc. Literrogatives : spa hpeer spa, 
(to such place as) =: wheresoever (Matt., xxiv, 28) ; — with comparatives : spa 
he hyd yldrd, spa he fxgerra byd, as it becomes older, so it becomes fairer 
(Bed., 1, 1) ;— spilce, as if (^ 430). 

(a.) Intensity : {to) pws pxt, to such a degree that (Bed., 4, 28) ; {lb) Pses 
pe, so far as (B., 2410, 1350) \ py . . . py : bid py heardra, pe sp'utor bedlad, 
it becomes the harder, the stronger they beat against it (C, 80, 8). 

{b.) Comparison : J)onne : seo sdpul is via ponne se lichama, the soul is 
more than the body (Luc, xii, 23). 

(c.) Consecutive : spa, ^ 430, b ; pxt ; spa pxt, ^ 434. 

474.— IV. Causal, ^ 466. 

475. — V. Conditional : gif, on pxt gerad, pid pam pe, and the nega- 
tive buton, nefne, nemne, nymde, butan pxnne, butan pa, are illustrated in 
§ 431 ; — pxr, if (C, 797) ; se pe pille, whoever will, spa hpd spa, who- 
ever, see hypothetical relatives, (} 427) ; — nxre pxt, if it were not that (Chr., 
943) ; ono nu, if now (Bed., 1, 27) ; ono gif, same ; compare gelice and, 
^ 473, III; an and and for ?/ occur in Layamon, and are comnon in old 
English. 

476. — VI. Concessive : pedh, though, see ^ 432 ; spa : for gif us gyltds, 
spa pe put Pe oft dhylgead, forgive us our debts, though we against thee often 
sm(Hy.,6,22). 

477. — VII. Final: pxt, and the negative py Ixs pe, see ^ 433; to Pam 
pxt, to the end that (John, i, 31). 

Conjunctions Omitted. 

478. Copulatives are often omitted. 

1. Where clauses are numbered by adverbs : first . . . secondly, etc. 

2. Where recurring words mark the related clauses : edld, pxt jc earn 
ealles leas . . ., pxt ic ne mxg gerxcan, Alas, that Jam of all bereft 



PlliNCIFAL RULES OF SYNTAX. 209 

that I may not reach (heaven) (C, 275, 7) ; singad, singeut, sing, sing 
(Psa., xlvi, 6) ; not so common as in English. 

3. Between circumstances closely related, especially a climax : he is 
mxgnd sped, heafod ealrd hedhgesceaftdifred wlmihtig, he is of power 
the essence, head of all high creatures. Lord Almighty (C.,3). 

4. Between antithetic clauses or words : pudu bwr sunu,fmderj'i/r, wood 
the son bore, the father fire (C, 2887). 

(a.) Sometimes they are omitted from part only of a row of copulates : 
fyr,forst, hsegel, and sndp, fire, frost, hail, and snow (Ps., cxlviii, 8); — 
especially between sets of pairs : frige and peope, wdele and unsedele, free 
and serf, noble and unnoble (Ap., 12). 

479. Disjunctives are seldom omitted. 

Sometimes between sets of pairs : gif pind cymd pestan odde edsian, 
Sudan odde nordan, if wind come from west or east, (or) from south or 
north (C.,50, 10). 

480. Adversatives are often omitted. 

Between antithetic clauses or words, especially between a positive and 
negative : ne gelyfe pe . . . pe sylfe gehyrdon, we do not believe (on 
your report), we ourselves heard (John, iv,42). 

481. Causals and illutives are very often omitted, John, ii, 
25 ; Gen., xi, 30. 



482. PRINCIPAL RULES OF SYNTAX. 

Substantives. 

Agreement. 

I. A predicate noun denoting the same person or thing as its subject, 
agrees with it in case, § 286. 

II. An appositive agrees in case with its subject, § 287. 

Nominative Case. 

III. The subject of a. finite verb is put in the nominative, § 388. 

Vocative Case. 
lY. A compellative is put in the vocative, § 289. 

Accusative Case. 
Objeetive Combi?iations, 

V. The direct object of a verb is put in the accusative, § 290. 

VI. Impersonals of apjMite or passion govern an accusative of the 
person suffering, § 290, c. 

O 



210 PRINCirAL KULES OF SYNTAX. 

yil. Some verbs of asking ami teaching may have fwo accusatives, 
one o{ a person, and the other ol"a thing, § 292. 

Quasi-predicative Combinations. 
Vin. The subject of an infinitive is put in the accusative, § 293. 

IX. Some verljs of making, naming, and regarding may have two 
accusatives of the same person or thmg, § 294. 

Adverbial Combinations. 

X. The accusative is used to express extent of time and space after 
verbs, § 295. 

XI. The accusative is used witli prepositions, § 295, c. 

Dative and Instiiujiental Cases. 
Objective Combinations. 
Xn. An object of influence or interest is jjut in the dative, § 297. 

XIII. Verbs of granting, refusing, and thanking may take a dative 
and genitive, § 297, d. 

XIV. Words of nearness and likeness govern the dative, § 299. 

XV. The instrvmiental or dative may denote an object of mastery, 
§300. 

X\T^. Some words of separation may take an object from •which in 
the dative or instrumental, § 301. 

Adverbial Combinations. 
XTVT^I. The instrumental or dative may denote instrument, means, 
manner, or cause, § 302. 

XVII. The instrumental or dative may denote price, § 302, c. 

XVIII. The instrumental or dative may denote measure of differ- 
ence, § 302, d. 

XIX. The instrumental or dative may denote an object sworn by, 
§ 302, e. 

XX. The comparative degree may govern a dative, § 303. 

XXI. The dative may denote time w^hen or place where, § 304. 

XXII. A substantive and participle in the dative may make an ad- 
verbial clause of time, cause, or co-existence, § 304, d. 

XXIII. The dative with a preposition may denote an object of influ- 
ence or interest, association, masterj', or separation ; or an instrumental, 
ablative, or locative adverbial relation, § 305. Instrumental, §§ 306-308. 



PKINCirAL EULE.5 OF SYNTAX. 211 



Genitive. 
Attributive Combinations. 

XXI V. An attributive genitive may denote the possessor or author 
of its subject, § ^10. 

XXV. An attributive genitive may denote the subject or object of 
a verbal, § 311. 

XXVI. An attributive genitive may denote the whole of whicli its 
subject is part, § 312. 

XXVII. An attributive genitive may denote a characteristic of its 
iubject, § 313. 

Predicative Combinations. 
XXVin. A predicate substantive may be put in the genitive to de- 
note a possessor or characteristic of the subject, or the whole of 
wk^ch it is part, § 314. 

Objective Combinations. 
XXIX. The genitive may denote an exciting object, § 315. 
XXX Verbs of asking, accusing, reminding, may take an accusative 
and genitive, § 315, «. 

XXXI. Verl>s of granting, refusing, and thanking may take a dative 
and genitive, § 315, h. 

XXXII. The genitive may denote an object alfected in part, § 316. 

XXXIII. The genitive may denote an object of separation, § 317. 

XXXIV. The genitive may denote an object of supremacy or use, 
§318. 

XXXV. The genitive or instrumental may denote the material of 
which any thing is made or full, § 319. 

XXXVI. The genitive in combination with adjectives may denote 
measure, § 320. 

XXXVII. The genitive in combination with adjectives may denote the 
part or relation in which the quality is conceived, § 321. 

Adverbial Combinations. 

XXXVIII. The genitive may denote by what way, § 322. 

XXXIX. The genitive may denote time when, § 323. 

XL. Tlie genitive may denote means, cause, or manner, §§ 324, 
325. 

XLI. The genitive with a preposition is sometimes used to denote in- 
strumental, ablative, or locative adverbial relations, § 326. 



212 PRINCIPAL RULES OF SYNTAX 

Prepositions. 

XLII. A preposition governs a substantive, and shows its relation 
to some other word in the clause, § 827. 

Adjectives. 

XT JTT . An adjective agrees with its substantive in gender, number, 
and cme^ § 361. 

XLIV. The weak forms are used after the definite article, demon- 
stratives, and possessives; and often ia attributive vocatives, indru- 
■mentah, and genitiocs. Comparative forms are all weak, § 363. 

Pronouns. 
XLV. A substantive pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gender, 
number, and person, § 365. 

Adverbs. 
XL VI. Adverbs modify mris, adjectives, and other adverts, § 395. 

Verbs. 

Agreement. 

XLVn. A finite verb agrees with its subject in number and persm, 
§401. 

Voices. 

XLVin. The active voice is used to make the agent the mlject of 
predication, § 408. 

XLIX. The passive voice is used to make the direct direct of the action 
the SM&/6ci of predication, § 409, 

Tenses. 

L. Principal tenses depend on principal tenses, historical on histor- 
ical, § 419. 

3fodes. 

LI. The indicative is used in assertions, qmstiom, and assumptions to 
«xpress simple predication, § 420. 

Ln. Tlie subjunctive is used to express mere possibility, doubt, or 
wish, § 431. 

LIII. The subjunctive may be used by attraction in clauses subor- 
dinate to a subjimctive, § 43Q. 



PRINCIPAL RULES OF SYNTAX. 213 

LIV. The subjunctive may be used in a substantive clause express- 
ing something said, (talced, tTwugfd, wished, or done, § 423. 

LV. The subjunctive may be used in indefinite adjective clauses, 
§ 427. 

LVI. The subjunctive may be used in indefinite adverbial clauses 
of place, § 428. 

LVII. The subjunctive may be used in adverbial clauses of future or 
indefinite time, § 429. 

LVIII. The subjunctive may be used in clauses of comparison ex- 
pressing that which is imagined or indefinite, or descriptive of ^ force. 

LIX. The subjunctive is used in a protasis when proj)osed as pos- 
sible, the imyerfect when assumed as unreal, § 431. 

LX. The subjunctive may be used in a concessive clause, § 433. 

LXI. The subjunctive is used in clauses ex^jressing purpose, § 433. 

LXII. The subjunctive may express a result, § 434. 

LXIII. The potential exjjresses power, liberty, permission, necessity, 
or duty, § 435. 

LXIV. The imperative is used in commands, § 444. 

XLV. The infinitive is construed as a neuter noun, § 446. 

XL VI. The gerund after the copula expresses what must, may, or 
shmdd be done, § 451. 

LXVII. The gerund is sometimes used to describe or define a noun, 
§453. 

LXVni. The gerund may be used as a final object to express an act 
on the first object, § 453. 

LXIX. The gerund is used to denote the purpose of motion, § 454. 

LXX. The gerund with an adjective may exjjress an act for which 
any thing is ready, or in respect to which any thing is j^l^sant, unpleas- 
ont, easy, worthy, § 454. 

LXXI. A participle agrees with its substantive in gender, number, and 
case, § 456. 

LXXII. A participle may govern the case of its verb, § 456. 

Interjections. 
LXXrH. The interjection has the syntax of a clause, § 461. 

Conjunctions. 

Lxxiy. Co-ordinate conjunctions connect sentences or like parts 
of a sentence, § 462. 

LXXV. A subordinate conjunction connects a subordinate clause 
and the word with which it combines, § 467. 



214 AKKAXGEMEXT OF WORDS AND CLAUSES. 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS AND CLAUSES. 

483. General rules for the arrangement of words and clauses are found 
in every language. 

The Latin order is, 1. subject; 2. attributives; 3. adverbial factors; 4. 
objective factors ; 5. verb. 

The German is, 1. attributives; 2. subject; 3. adverbial factors; 4. ob. 
jective factors ; 5. verb. 

The Anglo-Saxon is, 1. attributives; 2. subject; 3. verb; 4. objective fac- 
tors ; 5. adverbial. 

Deviation from the general rules is frequent in all languages. This is 
t'ltiier rhetorical or poetical, for perspicuity, emphasis, or euphony, or 
historical, preserving relics of old habits of the language. When any word 
is removed from its normal place, its attraction may take other words from 
their places. 

(a.) These deviations are generally freest in the early literature of early nations. Objects 
are there presented concretely with raany attributes picturesquely grouped, and inverted 
constructions and unusual combinations are sought as part of the art of the poet and ora- 
tor. There is hardly a conceivable collocation of which examples may not be found in the 
Anglo-Saxon poetry, and the artilicial meters and ornate periods of the Greeks and Romans. 
Very much of this freedom is still retained by the English poets and ornate prose writers. 
But the tendency of advancing speech is to an analysis of objects of thought, and to the use 
of simple clauses, orderly arranged. 

The inflected languages allow more freedom in the placing of adjectives. In other com- 
binations, the separable signs of inversion and of specific relatione, possessed by the later 
analytic languages, would seem to leave them freer. 

(6.) The additions of Alfred to Orosius, and his prefaces, have been epecially studied as 
models of natural arrangement in Anglo-Saxon. 

Predicative Combinations. 
484. — 1. The subject precedes the predicate. 

(a.) So throughout the Indo-European tongues; in the Semitic the verb leads. 
(6.) The rule holds for quasi-clauses, § 281. 

2. The copulative verb or auxiliary precedes the predicative noun or verb. 

485. Exceptions. 

1. Declarative clauses. 

(a.) Emphasis. The verb or predicative noun may begin a clause for 
emphasis : (verb very common in poetry, rare in prose) stod se _prdda boda, 
stood the fell envoy (C, 686) ; pars se feond ful nedh, was the fiend full nigh 
(C.,688); — (noun, not very common even in poetry) mycel is se fxder, 
great is the father (St. Bas. 6) ; para p&ron six stcel-hrdnds, of these were 
six decoy deers (Oros., 1, 1, 15). 

{h.) Attraction. When an object or adverbial factor begins a clause, the 
predicate is nflcn drawn before the subject; (direct object) /e/a spelld him 
sxdon pd Beonnds, msiny tales to hitn told the Beorms (Oros., 1, 1, 14); — 



PREDICATIVE COMBINATIONS.— EXCEPTIONS. 215 

(dative) and htm j>xs a pld see, to him was always a wide sea (1, 1, 13) ; — 
(adverb) ne mette he ebr nan gebun land, not met he before any inhabited 
land (1, 1, 13) ; pa for he nordnhte, then went he northward (1, 1, 13) ; Jmr 
sceal heon gedrmc^ihexe shall be drinking (I, 1, 21); pssr is mid Eslum 
pedp, there is among the Esthonians a custom (1,1,21); on pam morum 
eardtad Finnds, in the moors dwell Finns (1, 1, 16). 

(c.) Inserted clauses are often inverted : ic put, cpscd Orosius, I know, 
quoth Orosius (5, 1, 1, and often ; but in Alfred's own narration, he cpxd, 1, 
1, 16). See also correlatives, ^ 485, 5, a. 

2. Interrogative clauses. 

In interrogative clauses the verb regularly precedes the subject, unless the 
subject contains the interrogative pronoun (so in other tongues) : lufdst 
pu me, lovest thou me? (John, xxi, 15) ; but with an interrogative par- 
ticle there is often no inversion. See, for examples, ^^^^ 397-399. 
Questions of suggestion with no interrogative particle occur : odde pe 
odres sceolon abidan, or we for another shall look ? (Matt., xi, 3). 

3. Exclamatory clauses. 

Exclamations with interrogative words often have the verb before the 
subject : ea Id ! hu unprest is pela, alas ! how unstable is wealth (Chr., 
1087) ; often : ed Id, hu egeslic peos stop is, how awful this place is 
(Gen., xxviii, 17) ; so in other tongues, ^ 421, 4. 

4. Imperative clauses. 

In imperative clauses the verb precedes the subject (so in other tongues) : 
hdl pxs pu, be thou whole (Matt., xxvii, 29) ; purde god se ende, may 
the end be good (Chr., 1066). The subject sometimes precedes a sub- 
junctive form : sib si mid eopic, peace be with you (Ex., 282, 25) ; for 
other examples, see ^ 421,3. 

5. Co-ordinate clauses. 

The verb often follows next to the conjunction : and licgad pilde mords 
pid edstan, and lie wild moors eastward (Oros., 1, 1, 16) ; and berad 
pd Cpends hyrd scypu ofer land, and the Cwens bear their ships over 
land (1, 1, 17) ; ac him pics peste land,\i\x\. to him was waste land (1, 1, 
13). Compare § 485, h. 

(a.) Correlatives often have the second clause inverted : ponne his ges- 
treon bead pus eal dspended, ponne byrd man hme ut, when his wealth 
is thus all spent, then beareth one him out (1, 1,22). Parallelism is 
a marked feature of poetry ; the second clause is often inverted : gdr- 
secg hlynede, beolon bnmstredmds, ocean roared, beat the sea waves 
(An., 239). 

6. Subordinate clauses. 

{a.) Substantive clauses generally have the subject first, even though 
an interrogative (in oratw nbhqua) : he dxodc hu j^sere pcode nama pxre,he 
asked what the people's name might be (Horn., 2, 120). 



2 l(j ARRANGEMENT.— ATTKIBUTIVE COMBINATIONS. 

(b.) Adjective clauses are inverted when the relative is governed by a 
prepositUMi : cul jhvsc, on Jxi/n pc is lifts gust, all flesli in which is the 
breath of lile (Gen., vi, 17) ; — sometimes with no preposition: ibnne, pam 
pxs hulas naina, one, to whom was Judas a name (El., 584). 

(c.) Adverbial clauses of place and time are rarely inverted : ponne 
pxr bill man dead, he /i</, when there is one dead, he lieth (Oros., 1, 1,21) ; 
— modal sometimes : spa stod se deofol spa spa ded se bhnde, so stood the 
devil as doth the blind man (Hom., 2, 446) ; — conditional and conces- 
sive, if without sign: bid se tor Pyrel, be the door opened (Jul., 402) ; 
natfde he nwfre spa mycel yfel gedon, had he never so much evil done 
(=:though he had) (Chr., 1087); — sometimes with: nafde he pedh,he had 
not though (Oros., 1, 1, 15). 

7. Qnasi-clauses. 

(a.) Participles sometimes precede their subjects : ealle niht spincende 
pe, all night toiling, we (took nothing) (Luc, v, 5) ; — absolute : rixiendum 
Eddbaldum, Eadbald ruling, (Meliitus departed) (Chr., 616). 

(b.) Factitives sometimes precede for emphasis : bearnledsne ge habbad 
me gedonne, childless ye have made me (Gen., xlii, 36). 

486. E.xceptious to the second rule are frequent, § 484, 2. 
Gefaren hssfdon, they had gone (Bed., 1, 23) ; he gyldan pille, he will 

pay (B., 1184); oferseon mxge, may look over (Oros., 1, 1, 18); eal 
PiBt his man erian mxg, all that his man may till (1, 1, 16) ; p&r hit 
smalost pxre, wherever it smallest were (1, 1, 16) ; odde hyt eal died 
but, till it all laid is (1, 1, 22) ; polde hyne genemnedne beon, wished 
him to be named (Luc, i, 62). So in the old French and other early 
Romanic tongues (Diez, 3, 439). 

Attributive Combinations. 

487. Attributive adjectives or genitives stand next before their 
substantive, appositives or prepositions with their cases next 
after. 

So in the Teutonic tongnes. In Latin, attributives generally follow their substantive. 
The Greek is freer. The old Romanic were free, the new have different habits for 
different words (Diez, 3, 433). 

1. Before. Descriptives : pilde moras, wild moors (Oros., 1, 1, 16); 
hpwles bane, whale's bone (1, 1, 15) ; — definitives, pronominal: on 
sumum stopum, in some places (1, 1, 16) ; keord spedd, their wealth 
(1, 1, 15) ; — numerals : tpdm pucum, in two weeks (1, 1, 16). 

2. After. Appositive : his hldforde JElfrede, (said to) his lord, Alfred 
(1, 1, 13) ; Sidroc, se geonga, Sidroc. the young (Chr., 871), so in 
Romanic (Diez. 3, 431); — with preposition: redf of hsbrum, garment 
of hair (Matt.,iii,4). 

488. A definitive precedes a descriptive. 



ATTRIBUTIVE COMBINATIONS.— EXCEPTIONS. 217 

<Se hetsta hpxl-huntad, the best whale hunting (Oros., 1, 1, 14) ; pa pildan 
hrdnds,i\ie wild rein-deer (1, 1, 15) ; an mycel ed, a great river (1, 1, 
13) ; pone ylcan s&s earm, (they have) the same sea's arm (1, 1, 12) ; 
fram his dgnum hdme, from his own home (1, 1, 13). So in other 
tongues. 
489. Of definitives, quantitatives precede demonstratives, which 
precede possessives, which precede articles, which precede nu- 
merals. 

Quantitatives: eal peos poruld, all this world (C, 604); ealle his 
spedd, all his goods (Oros., 1, 1, 22) ; ealle pa men, all the men (1, 1, 
22) ; butu pa scypu, both the ships (Luc, v, 7) ; healfne pone speoran, 
half the neck (Jud., 105; Mc, vi, 23) ; sume pd bocerds, some of the 
scribes (Matt., ix, 3); mid fedpum pdm getrypeslum mannum, with 
a few of the truest men (Ap., 6) ; a^nig oder ping, any other thing 
(John, X, 29). So in Romanic (Diez, 3, 438). 
Demonstratives: pas mine pord, these my words (Matt., vii, 24). 
Possessives : min se gecorena sunii, my (the) chosen son (Matt., iii, 

17). 
Articles : on peere dnre mile, in the one mile (Oros., 1,1, 22) ; on pdim 
odrum prim dagum, in the second three days (Oros., 1, 1, 13; Chr., 
897). So in Romanic (Diez, 3, 436). 
(a.) Forma (first) and oder (second, other) are sometimes used in the 
plural describing a class, and are then arranged as descriptives, § 488 • P)d 
preo forman gebedu, the three first prayers (Hom., 1, 270) ; tpegen odre 
mdnfulle, two other malefactors (Luc, xxiii, 32), so in other languages : 
iirrd rdg eaxarag, Lat. septem novissimas, the seven last (plagues) (English 
Bible, Rev., xv, 1 ; xxi, 9) ; I read to Albert the three first cantos of the 
Lay of the Last Minstrel (Queen Victoria, Life in the Highlands, p. 46) ; 
our two eldest children (Same, 76, 234) ; two other keepers (Same, 70) ; 
in den sechs ersten conjugationen (J. Grimm, D. G., 1, 1038) ; les onze pre- 
miers chapitres, the eleven first chapters (Renan, Hist. Sem. Lang., 1, 27) ; 
las dos primeras partes (Don Carlos, quoted in Motley, R. D. R., iii, 193) ; 
las cuatro primeras (Don Quijote, 352) ; i disci primi libri (Diez, 3, 436). 

(6.) The English a, an, after many, such, half, too (great), so (great), hoio (great), as (great), 
etc., is in the Old English, but not in Anglo-Saxon : Tnanig burh, many (a) town (Oros., 1, 
1. 20), etc. 

490. Exceptions. 

1. Descriptive adjectives sometimes follow. 

{a.) Two descriptives the substantive often stands between (so in the 
Romanic tongues [Diez, 3, 435]) : sjnde micle merds fersce, very large seas 
fresh (Oros., 1, 1, 17) ; tamrd deord unbebohtrd, tame deer unbought (1, 1, 
15) ; — often with a conjunction : god man and cleene, good man and pure 
(Chr., 1056) ; — sometimes both precede : pam feegerestan reddan hipe, of 



218 AKlIANGE.MENr.— OBJECTIVE COMBINATIONS. 

the fairest red hue (Gt. G., 1) ; for p&m mistlicum and manigfealdum 
pcoruld-bisgum, for the various and manifold secular occupations (Boet., 
Prof.) ; — sometimes both follow : ealrd pingd, gescpenlicrd and ungesepen- 
licrd, of all things seen and unseen (Horn., 1,274). 

(i.) In poetry: glid-egesa ^'■/vm, fire-fear grim (B., 2650); magojjegn 
modig, liero spirited (B., 2757) ; mihtig (1519), etc. Poetic inversion is 
used in all languages (Uioz,3, 130). 

2. Definitives otlen follow. 

(<7.) Quantitatives : pAr hid mcdo genoh, there is mead enough (Oros., 1, 
1, 20) ; pas land eal hyrad, those lands all belong (to Denmark) (1,1, 20) ; 
land eal, all lands (Sal., 185) ; iire ealrd modcr, mother of us all (Bas. Hex., 
11) ; magodriht micel, great youth-throng (B.,67) ; manig (B.,838) ; heard 
begrd edgan, eyes of them both (Gen., iii, 7) ; — (b.) possessives, in poetry 
often : peoden mm, master mine (B., 365) ; hldford plane, lord thine (B., 
267) ; sinne, his (B., 2789) ; userne, our (B., 3107) ; eoperne, your (B., 
2889) ; — (c.) numerals, rare {pdm sodelestum ceastrutn dues pana prittigum, 
with the noblest towns, thirty less one (Bed., 1, 1). So sometimes Romanic 
derivatives of lotus, tantus, talis, and possessives (Diez, 3, 436, 437). 

3. Genitives partitive aud characteristic freely follow. 
Numerals (regularly) : tpentig sceapa, twenty of sheep (Oros., 1, 1,15) ; — 

other words (occasionally) : on odre healfe pass mores, on the other side of 
the moor (1, 1, 17) ; nan ping grenes, nothing green (Exod., x, 15) ; feoper 
circulds hp'ites Mpes, four circles of white hue (Chr., 1104) ; — possessive and 
other genitives may sometimes follow, ^"^ 310-313. 

4. Appositives in the genitive are often separated by a governing word : 
Aldpulfes dohlor pxs cyninges, A^iughier of Aldwulf the king (St. G., 18): 
this was common as late as the Morte d'Arthure. 

5. Any attributive may be separated by words which modify it, from its subject. Poetry 
allows the interposition of parenthetic clauses even, between the adjective and noun. 

6. For participles and adjectives in quasi-predicative combinations, see 4S4, h. 

491. Objective Combinations. 

1. Objects follow the verb or predicate adjective. 

2. A genitive follows a dative whic?i follows an accusative. 
For the factitive object, see §§ 484, b ; 485, 7, b. 

Hi Irohton sume p^m cyninge, they brought some to the king (Oros.,1, 
1, 14) ; beneeman nergendne Crist roderd rices, to deprive the Savior 
Christ of heaven's kingdom (C, 286, 3) : ondred he him pies, he took 
dread to himself at that (John, xix, 8). A dative and genitive are seldom 
found after the same verb, § 492, 3. See after adjectives, ^^ 315-319. 

492, Exceptions. 

1. Emphasis. An object often begins a clause for emphasis : pd dear hi 
hdlad hrdnds, those deer they call rein-deer (Oros., 1, 1, 15) ; sometimes 



ADVERBIAL COMBIXA llOXS. 219 

a repeating pronoun follows : pa tcct hi brohton sutne piem cyninge, 
these teeth they brought some (of) to the king (1, 1, 15). 
(a.) So the interrogative regularly : hpxt godes do ic, what good must I 
do? (Matt.,xix, 16). 

2. Relics. In German objects precede their verb, and their order is (1) 
datire, (2) accusative, (3) genitive. 

(a.) A genitive object very often immediately precedes the verb or adjec- 
tive. For examples, see ^^ 315-319. 

(b.) The dative of the personal pronoun generally precedes impersonals 
and copulatives : him puhte., it seemed to him (Oros., 1, 1, 14) ; htm pxs, to 
him was (=he had) (1, 1, 13). 

(c.) A direct object often stands between the subject and verb : pi hit 
piton,v/e it knew (Oros., 1, 1, 11) ; pe spyfteste hors habbad, who swiftest 
horses have (1, 1,'22). 

(d.) An object often stands between the auxiliary and verb : Hi mdgon 
cyle gepyrcan, they can cold produce (Oros., 1, 1, 23). 

3. Attraction. Inversion of one part of the predicate draws others. 
Two objects very often precede the verb : fela spelld him seedon, many 
tales to him told (they) (Oros., 1, 1, 14). See more examples, ^^ 297, «, 
315, a, A. 

(a.) The relative is regularly attracted to the beginning of its clause : 
gdrsecg, pe man Cpen-sce hxt, the sea, which one calls Cwen-sea (Oros., 1, 
1, 11) ; gnfole, pe pa Finnds him gyldad, tribute, which the Finns to them 
pay (1, 1, 15). 

493. Adverbial Combinations. 

1. An adverb follows its verb, but precedes its adjective or 
adverb. 

2. A preposition with its following (attributives +) noun 
follows uext the word to which it shows the relation. 

494. Exceptions. 

1. Emphasis. Any adverbial factor may begin its clause for emphasis. 
On Piem landum eardodon Engle, in those lands dwelt Angles (Oros., 
1, 1, 19) ; Edsteperd hit mn'g bion syxtig mild brad, eastward it may 
be sixty miles broad (1, 1, IG) ; Ne mette he, he met not (1, 1, 13). 

(a.) Adverbs of time, place, order, very often begin a clause : pd for he, 
then went he (1, 1, 13); pyder,he cp!sd,i\\\it\er, he said (1, 1, 18); ponne 
xrnad hi ealle, next run they all (1, 1, 22). 

(b.) Interrogatives regularly begin their clause : hp&r is heord God, 
where is their (Jod? (Psa.,cxiii, 10). 

2. Perspicuity. When two or more adverbial factors modify the same 
word, their order is free. They are usually some before and some after 
the word : pd he piderpeard scglode fram Sctringes heale, when he 



220 ARRAXGE:\rENT.— ADVERBIAL COMBINATIONS. 

thither sailed from Sciringsheal (Oros., 1, 1, 19) ; calle pa hjule hi' sceal 
scgltan be land£,a,\l the while he must sail along the land (1, 1, 18). 

(a.) lu Qermnn the order is (1) time, (2) place, (3) cause, (4) co-exintciice, (6) modality or ne- 
gation, (0) vMiituT, all before the verb. There is more or less approach to the same order 
in Anglo-Saxon. 

3. Old habits, (a.) Adverbial factors are very often found bet'ween 
the subject and verb: pel hp;vl-huutan fyrrest farad, W\g whale hunters 
furthest go (Oros., 1, 1, 13) ; he fratn his dgnum hame for, he from his 
own home went (1, 1, 13) ; so regularly the negative: hy ne dorslon, 
they durst not (1, 1, 13). 

{b.) Adverbial factors are very often found between an auxiliary and its 
verb, or the copula and predicate : he mihte on feoper dagum geseglian, he 
might in four days sail (1, 1, 13, and everywhere) ; pxt land is cdstepeard 
brddost, the land is eastward broadest (1, 1, 16). 

(c.) The adverb before its adjective or adverb is regular: hyrd hyd bid 
sp'ide god, their hide is very good (1,1,14). 

{d.) The preposition is sometimes separated from its case to take the 
place of an adverb; Se here him fie ah beforan, the army him flee before 
(Chr., 1016) ; pe he on bude, which he dwelt on (Oros., 1, 1, 18) ; pe heard 
spedd on bedd, which their riches are in (1, 1, 15; 1, 1, 22). Sometimes 
it follows its case : hi pyrcad pone cyle hine on, they produce cold on 
him (1, 1,23); ne dors ton peer on cuman,ihey durst not there on come (1, 
1, 13). 

4. Attraction. Relative adverbs begin their clause : hus,panon tc eode, 
house whence I went (Matt., xii, 44). For other cases, see ^ 485, b, 
and examples in § 494, 2. 

495. Arrangement of Claijses. 

I. Co-ordinate clauses are free to follow the order of thought. 

(a.) Courtesy. — Copulate subjects of different persons should have the 
first person follow the third, and the third follow the second. 

A royal speaker may perhaps be an exception : " I and the girls," " I 
and Alice" (Queen Vict, Life in Highlands, 173). 

Subordinate Clauses. 

1. Substantive clauses regularly follow their leading clause. For ex- 
amples, see ^ 468. 

2. Adjective clauses regularly follow the word they describe. For ex- 

amples, see ^ 470, and sections there referred to. 

3. Adverbial clauses freely take any place in the sentence according to 
the demands of emphasis, perspicuity, or euphony. They incline to the 
order of adverbial factors of a clause, ^^ 493, 494. 

(a.) Conditional and concessive clauses oftenest precede. Examples, 
^^3 1.433. 



CLAUSES. 221 

{b.) Insertion. — Leading clauses are sometimes inserted in subordinates : 
a7id nontcpeard, he cpssd^p&r hit smalost p&re, past hit mihte beon, etc., and 
northward, he said, where it was narrowest, that it might be (three mi)e»i 
broad) (Ores., 1, 1, 16). 

(c.) Variations are found with substantive and adjective clauses after tne 
analogy of substantives and adjectives, §^ 485-490. 



PAKT IV. 

PROSODY. 



496. Prosody treats of the rhythm of Poetry. 

497. Rhythm is an orderly succession of beats of sound. 

This beat is called an ictus or arsis, and the syllable on which it falls is 
also called the arsis. The alternate remission of voice, and the sylla- 
bles so uttered, are called the thesis. 

498. Feet are the elementary combinations of syllables in verse. 

(a.) Feet are named from the order and make of their arsis and thesis. A monosyllabic 
arsis-\-a. monosyllabic thesis is a trochee; -|-a dissyllabic thesis is a dactyle, etc. 
Stress. In Anglo-Saxon these depend on the accented syllables, which are deter- 
mined by the stress they would, if the passage were prose, receive to distinguish 
them from other syllables of the same word, or from other words in the sentence. 
Accent is therefore verbal, syntactical, or rhetorical. An uuemphatic dissyllable may 
count as two unaccented syllables, like the second part of a compound. Secondary 
accents may take the arsis. 

1. A tonic is a single accented syllable+a pause. 

2. A trochee is an accented-|-an unaccented syllable. 

3. A dactyle is an accented-|-two unaccented syllables. 

4. A paeon is an accented+three unaccented syllables. 

5. A pyrrhic is two unaccented syllables ; a spondee is two accented ; 
an iambus is an unaccented-j-an accented ; an anapaest is two unac- 
cented-f-an accented ; a tribrach is three unaccented ; a single unac- 
cented syllable is called an atonic ; and unaccented syllables prelim- 
inary to the normal feet of a line are called an anacrusis (striking up) 
or base. 

(b.) Time. The time from each ictus to the next is the same in any section. It is 
not always filled up with sotmd. More time is given to an accented than an unac- 
cented syllable. 

(p.) Pitch. The English and most other Indo-Europeans raise the pitch with the 
verbal accent ; the Scots lower it. With the rhetorical accent the pitch varies every 
way. 

{d.) Expression. Feet of two syllables are most conversational; those of three are 
more ornate; those of one syllable are emphatic, like a tMid or the blows of a ham- 
mer. The trochee, dactyle, and pseon, in which the accented syllable precedes, have 
more ease, grace, and vivacity. Those feet in which the accented syllable comes last 
have more decision, emphasis, and strength (Crosby, 5 695). The Anglo-Sa:ion me- 
ters are trochaic and dactylic ; the English oftener iambic and anapjestic. 

499. A verse is an elementary division of a poem. 



VERSE.— C^SURA.— RIME. 223 

It has a twofold uature ; it is a series of feet, and also a seri(-s 

of words. 

(a.) As a series of feet, it is a sing-song of regular nps and downs, sncli as children 
sometimes give in repeating rhymes. 

As a series of words, each word and pause would be the same as if it were prose, as 
persons who do not catch the meter often read poetry. 

The cantilatiou never is the same as the prose utterance ; lines in which it should be 
would be prosaic. 

The art of versification consists in so arranging the prose speech in the ideal frame- 
work of the line that the reader may adjust oue to the other without obscurmg ei- 
ther, and with contiuual happy variety. 

(6.) The manner of adapting the arsis and thesis to the prose pronunciation is different 
in different languages. In Sanskrit, and classical Greek and Latiu, the arsi.f was 
laid on syllables having a long souml, and variety was foimd in the play of the prose 
accent. In other languages, including modern Greek and Latin, the arsis is made to 
fall on accented syllables, and free play is given to long and short vowel sounds, aad 
combiuatious of consonants. The Sanskrit and Greek varied farther from prose 
speech in the recitation of poetry than modern habits and ears allow. The Hindoos 
still repeat Sanskrit poetry in recitative. 

500. Verses are named from the prevailing foot trochaic, dactylic, lam- 
£ic, and anapcesttc, etc. 

A'erses are named from the number of feet. A monometer is a verse 
of one foot ; a dimeter of two . a trimeter of three ; a tetrameter 
of four ; a pentameter of five ; a hexameter of six ; a heptameter 
of seven ; an octometer of eight 
(a.) A verse is catalectic when it wauts a syllable, acatalectic when complete, hijpercata- 
lectin when redundant. 

501. Caesura. — Anglo-Saxon verses are made in two sections or hemi- 
stichs. The pause between these sections is called the caesura. A foot 
ccEsura is made by the cutting of a/ooi by the end of a tvord. 

(a.) Expression. The character of versification depends much on the managemeut 
of the cffisuras. When the weight of a verse precedes the caesura, the movement has 
more vivacity ; when it follows, more gravity. 

502. Rime. — Rime is the rhythmical repetition of letters. 

Nations who unite arsis and prose accent need to mark off their verses 
plainly. They do it by rime. Other nations shun rime. 

1. When the riming letters begin their words, it is called alliteration. 

2. When the accented vowels and following letters are alike, it is calle-'. 
perfect rime (= rhyme). 

3. When only the consonants are alike, it is called half rime. 

t. When the accented syllable is final, the rime is single ; when one un- 
accented syllable follows, the rime is double ; when two, it is triple. 

(a.) Line-rime is between two words in the same section. Final-rime 
between the last words of two sections or verses. 

503. Alliteration is the recurrence of the same initial sound 
in the first accented syllahles of words. 

1. Consonants. — The first initial consonant of alliterating svllnhles must 
be the same, the other consonants of a combination need not be ; 



224 ALLITERATION, 

Beopulf: breme'.'.blaed (B., 18) ; Caines : ajnne'.'.cpealm (107) ; Crls- 
tenruwCyriacus (El., 1069); cudeWcniht {li., 372) ; fu7idc7i::frdfre 
{1)\ frxtpum-.flet (2054); gcong : geardumWGod (13); geogodei: 
gledpost (C, 221, 1); grimma : gxst (B., 102); heofenum : hlwste 
(52); hxledd-.hryrewhpate (2052); hnUanWhrmgum (Rid., 87, 4) : 
sodliceWspeotolan (B., 141); scearp : scyldwscdd (288); scridendei: 
sceapum (Trav., 135) ; Scottd'.'.scip (Chr., 938) ; peodwprym (B., 2) ; 
pen : plenco '. '.prsbc (338) . 
2. Vowels. — A perfect vowel alliteration demands different vowels : 
isig : utfus'.'.iedehnges (B., 33) ; — sometimes the same vowels repeat: 
eorld : eordan : : eopcr (B., 248). 
(a.) sc, sp, or st seldom alliterate without repeating the whole combina- 
tion ; but: scyppend:'. serif en (B., 106); spere : sprengdeW sprang (By., 
137); str&ld: storm,:: strengum (B.,3il7). 

(6.) Words in ia-, 16-, iu-, Hie-, alliterate with those in g-. They are 
mostly foreign proper names. See % 28, 34. Silent h (Gn., Ex., 118). 
Iacobes::g6de (Psa.,]xxxvi, 1, and often) ; lafed : gtimrincum (C.,1552); 
Iordarie::grene (C, 1921) ; lohesV.God (Met., 26, 47) ; goda : gedsne 
::Iudas (El., 924); Iuded::God (El., 209); gledp : Gode::lultana 
(Jul., 131, and often) ; gomen : geardum::iu (B., 2459), so frequently 
iu^^ged, gio (formerly) and its compounds; Hierusolme :: God (Ps. C, 
50, 134) ; gongad: gegnunga : : Hierusalem (Guth , 785) ; written gold : 
Gerusalem::Iuded (0, 260, 11). (e". o-,;?::^, B., 1960, 461) ? 
(c.) It is said that p may alliterate with s by Dietrich (Haupt Zeit., x, 
323, 362). No sure examples found. C, 287, 23, is a defective line. 

504. A perfect Anglo-Saxon verse has three alliterating sylla- 
bles, two in the first section, the other in the second. 

Tricm'\seeaft^ \ Yir'\(t \ Feorr'ja;^^ | recc'\an) (B., 91). 
the origin of men from far relate. 

(a.) The repeated letter is called the rime-letter ; the one in the second 
couplet the chief-letter, the others the sub-letters. The F of feorran 
m the line above is the chief-letter; the F in frumsceaft and /ra the 
sub-letters. 

(J.) One of the sub-letters is often wanting. 

(c.) Four or more rime-letters are sometimes found. 

"Liednes . . lieohte . . || . . "Lete . . liange (C, 258). 

In pairs : p^st' he \ God'e [ pold'W || geong'\ra' \ peord'\an\ 

that he to God would a vassal be (C, 277), where ^ 
and p both rime, and so often. 

505. The Anglo-Saxons used line-rime and final-rime as an oc- 
casional grace of verse. See § 511. 

506. Verse in which alliteration is essential, and other rime ornamental, is the pre- 
▼ailiDS form in Anglo-Saxon, Icelandic, Old Saxon. Specimens are foimd in Old High 



COMMON NAKRATIVE VERSE. 225 

German. Alliteration in these languages even ran into prose, and is one of the causes 
of the thoroughness with which the shifting of the initial consonants has aflected the 
whole speech, i 41, B. 

507. Verse with final rime, and with alliteration as an occasional grace, is the common 
form in English and the modern Germanic and Romanic languages. It is common in the 
Low-Latin verses of the Anglo-Saxon poets, and it is by many supposed to have spread 
from the Celtic. 

Common Narrative Verse. 

508. Beda says of rhythm: "It is a modulated composition of words, not according 
to the laws of meter, but adapted in the number of its syllables to the judgment of the ear, 
as are the verses of our vulgar poets. * * * Yet, for the most part, you may find, by a sort 
of chance, some rule in rhythm ; but this is not from an artificial government of the syl- 
lables. It arises because the sound and the modulation lead to it. The vulgar poets effect 
this rustically, the skillful attain it by their skul."— Bed., 1, 5T. These remarks on ihe 
native poets are doubtless applicable to thefr Anglo-Saxon verses as well as their Latin ; 
and whatever general rules we may find running through these poems, we may expect to 
hud many exceptional lines, which belong in their places only because they can be recited 
with a cadence somewhat like the verses around them. 

509. The coininon narrative verse h:is four feet in each section. 
A. 1. An axsis falls on every prose accent, ^ 15, and tlie last syllable of 

every section. But note contractions below, 7. 

2. At least one arsis on a primary accent, or two on otlier syllables follow 
the chief alliterating letter, ^ 504. 

3. An arsis should fall on the former of two unaccented syllables after an 
accented long (the vowel long or followed by two consonants), and on the 
latter after an accented short. 

scyld'\uin bi\acer' e\de\ || scynd'\an' ge\ner'e\de^ (Rime Song, 84). 

4. An arsis should not fall on an unaccented proper prefix (a-, be-, ge-, 
etc.,^ 15), or proclitic monosyllables (be, se,pe, etc.), or short endings of 
dissyllabic particles (nefne, odite, ponne, etc.), or short tense-endings between 
two accented shorts in the same section. 

5. An arsis mmj fall on a long, on a short between two accents (after a 
long frequent, after a short, less so), on the former of two unaccented shorts. 

grorn' \ torn' \ ^rs'f'\ed\ || ^rseft' | rseft' h%f'\ed^ (Rime Song, 66). 

spylc'e [ gj' I ganC | as'' || pa put \ Gtod'e | punn \ on" (B., 1 13). 

n7y/|e' j niht'-\peard^ || ni/d \e' \ sceol'\de (C, 185, 1). 

pord' p}ird'\i' \ an. || Veol' \ him on \ mn' | an^ (C,353). 

burh' I tim'\hre \ de' (C, 2840). Rare with short penult of trisyllable. 

B 6. The thesis is mute or monosyllabic ; but syncope, elision, synizesis, 
or synaloepha is often needed to reduce two syllables. 

7. An anacrusis may introduce any section. It is of one syllable, rarely 
two, sometimes apparently three, with the same contractions as the thesis. 

Lei' on I />(«) of'er \ iif'el \ pseg' || idm'\Vge \ scrut\an (El., 237). 

fiuld'or\-cijn'ing\es^ \ pord' \\ ge)peot'an \ pa pa | pit (>)g(in j pry (A.n,S02). 

Bpic'6d\{e) ymb' pd \ Bdp'\le' \\pe) hire \ iir' pa \ aien'{e) on\ldh' ((.'.. 007) 

P 



226 COMMON NARKATIVE VERSE. 

Synizesis of -annc,-lic,-scipe,peiiden,iind the like. Synalcepha of ge-, 
pe, and the like. 

Borh' IS I mc to \ sccg'\annc'' 1| on' \ sef'an | 'niin'\urn' (B., 473). 

ptwtUc'ne \ pund' or\-mad(t'\}tin || (B.,2174). 

iyrd'\-sear'o \ fits' | lieu' \\ (B., 23-2). 

ea.ht'\odon \ eorl'\-scipe' || (B.,3174). 

pes'an \pend'en ic \peald'\e' || (B., 1859). 

pegn'ds I synd'on gc\-Pp&r'\e' \\ (B., 1230). 

pdr'd pe \ pitf spa \ mic'lliim' || (C, 2095). 

Pxt n&fre )Qrrend'\cr spa \fei\a'' || gry'|m' ge\frem'e \ de^ (B., 591). 
So we find hpxdcrc (B., 573), dissylhibic ; hine (B., 688), ofer (B., 1273), 
monosyllabic ; and many anumahius slurs in the thesis or anacrusis. 

8. The order of the feet is free, varying with the sense. In later poetry, 
as more particles are used, the fuller thesis grows more common. 

9. The Anglo-Saxons like to end a sentence at the caesura. So Chaucer and his French 
masters stop at the end of the first line of a rhyming couplet. So Milton says that "true 
musical delight" is to be found iu having the sense " variously drawn out from one verse 
into another." 

10. The two alliterating feet in the first section, and the corresponding pair in the sec- 
ond section, are chief feet. Some read all the rest as thesis. 

510. Irregular sections are found with three feet, or two. 

1. Sections with contracted words where the full form would complete the 
four feet. 

hedn hiises=zheu\han'' \ hu'\ses'' (B.,116). 
deddpie seon=^dcdd'\pic' \ seo'\han' (B., 1275). 

2. Sections with three feet and a thesis : 

prxjrn \ {ge)\-frun'\orC (B.,2). 
lif I ede' I {ge)\scebp' (B., 97). 
Heyne finds in Beowulf feet of this kind with d-, sat-, be-,for-,ge-, of-, 
on-, to-,purh-. Similar sections with proclitic particles are found : men' \ 
{ne)\cunn'\on' (B., 50); {be)\yd'\ldfW (B., 566); Lef \ {se)\heard'W (B., 
2977) ; {pe)\him' | paet' \ pif (C.,707). 

3. Sections with Proper Names. Foreign Names are irregular : 

Sem' 1 and' | Cham' \ (C, 1551), and so often. 

4. Sections with two feet and a thesis : 

7nan' | {ge)\pe6n' (B., 25). Loth' \ {on)\f6n' (C, 1938). 

511. Rhyme is found occasionally in most Anglo-Saxon poems. A few 
contain rhyming passages of some length. One has been found which is 
plainly a Task Poem to display riming skill. All sorts of rimes are crowded 
together in it. It has eighty-seven verses. 

LINE-RIME. 

Half-rime : sar' | and' \ sor'\ge' ; || susl' \})rop'\ed'\on'', 

pain and sorrow; sulphur suffered they (C, 75). 



LONG NAKKATIVE VERSE. 227 

Perfect-rime : 

Single : Jldh' j mdh' \jlit'\cd\ ^fldn \ man' \ hpit'\ed\ [62)- 

foul fiend fighteth, darts the devil vvlietteth (Rime-song, 
gdst'\d'' \pcard'\iim\ || Hxfd'\oin) \ gleam and \ dre'Ain', 
They had light and joy (C, 
Double : /r6d'|ne* and \ ^6d'|ne* \\fxd'er \ Un'\pen^\es\ [12). 

wise and good father of Unwen (Trav., 114). 
Triple : /er'|ed|e' and \ 7ier'e|de'. || Fif'\ten\a'' \ slod' — , 
(God) led and saved (C, 1397). 

FINAL-RIME. 

Half-rime : spa \ Itf \ spa \ dekd' , || spa him \ lcof'\re' \ iict'. 

either life or death, as to him liefer be (Ex., 
37, 20 ; Crist., 596, and a riming passage). 
Perfect-rime : 

Single : ne \forst'\es'' | //ttest', || ne \fyr'\es'' Waest', 

no frost's rage, nor fire's blast, 
Double: ne) hxgl'\es' \ Aryr'|e\ || ne) hrim'\es' \ dryx'W, 

nor hail's fall, nor rime's descent (Phcenix, 15, 

16 ; Ex., 198, 25, where see more). 
Triple: hlud'\e' \ hlyn'e\de^; || hledd'\or' \ dyn'e\de\ 
(The harp) loud sounded ; the sound dinned (Rime-song, 28). 

Long Narrative Verse. 

512. The common narrative verse is varied by occasional passages in 
longer verses. The alliteration and general structure of the long verse is 
the same as of the common ; but the length of the section is six feet. Feet 
are oftenest added between the two alliterating syllables of the first section, 
and before the alliterating syllable of the second section. 

Qpa I cpsd" I snott'\or on | mod'\e\ || 

ge) sail' I him' \ sund'\(jr' set \ run'\e\ || 
'Sil bid I se'pe his \ treop'\e^ ge\heald'\ed\- [| 

ne) sceaV \ n&f're his \ torn' to \ ryc^e\ne^ 
heorn' | of his \ hreost'\um' d\cyd'\an\ 

nemd e he \ eer' pa \ \)dt'\e'' \ cunn'\e\ 
earl' I mid' \ eln'\e' ge\fremm' \an\- 

pel bid I pam' pe him \ ar'|e' | sec'\ed\ 
frdf']re^ to | T,v.d'\er'' on \ heof'on\um\ 

peer | us' \ eat seo \ tvst'nung \ stond'\ed\Wanderer,lll-\-). 

(«.) Sometimes a section of four feet is coupled with one of six : 
ge) pinn'\es'' \ pid' \ heor'd \ pald'\end' || pit'\e' \ pol'\iad' (C.,323). 

(b.) Four or more alliterative letters are found oftener than in common 
verse. Three seldom fail. A secondary weak alliteration is some- 
times found in one of the sections. 



228 ENGLISH rUOSE RHYTHM. 

(c.) This verse is rather a variety of the Common Narrative than another 
kind. 

513. The Common Narrative is tlie regular Old Gerniuuic verse. 
Rules 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, of § 509, are rules of that verse. In the 5lh 
the Anglo-Saxon uses greater freedom. It also corresponds with 
the Old 'Norse /ornyrdalaff. In it Old English alliterating poems 
are written. 

In a I Bom'cr | scs'\on^ || ivhan) soft' \ ivas the \ sonn'|e* 
I) shop'e I me in \ shroud'\es^ \\ as) T a \ shep'e \ wer'\e^ 
In) hab'ite | as' an \ her'e\mite^ || un)'h.ol' \i/^ of\ work'\es^ 
Went' I wyd'e \ in' pis \ loorld' || wond\res'' to \ her'\e^. 
Ac) on a \ May' \ morn'yng\e^ {| on) Mal'\uerne \ hull'\es'' 
Me' by\fel' a \ fer\b/ || <"/) fair'\y^ me \ thou^t'\e\ 

Piers the Plowman, 1-6. 
(a.) The anacrusis lias a tendency to unite with the following accented 
syllable, and start an iambic or anapaestic movement. The change of 
inflection endings for prepositions and auxiliaries has also favored the 
same movement. In Old English it often runs through the verses. 
See Final perfect-rime,^ 511. 



Alliterative Peose. 

514. Some of the Anglo-Saxon prose has a striking rhythm, and frequent 
alliteration, though not divided by it into verses. Some of the Homilies of 
-^fric are so written (St. Cudbert). Parts of the Ciironicle have mixed 
line-rime and alliteration. 

515. Verses with the same general form as the Anglo-Saxon continued 
to be written in English to the middle of the fifteenth century. Alliteration 
is still found as an ornament of our poetry, and the old dactylic cadence runs 
through all racy Anglo-Saxon English style. 

So they went | up to the | Mountains I! to be|hold the | gardens and | orchards. 

The I vineyards and j fountains of ] water; I! where ] also they [ drank and | washed themselves, 

And did | freely | eat of the | vineyards. |l Now there | were on the | tops of those | Mountains, 

Shepherds feeding their flocks ; and they stood by the highway side. 

The pilgrims therefore went to th' m, and leaning upon their staffs, 

As is common with weary pilgrims, wlien they stand to talk with any by the way, 

They asked, Whose Delectable Mountains are these? 

And whose be the sheep, that feed upon them? — Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



For coMPOtTNDS, look at the simples. 
[The flgures refer to sections. V prefixed, marks a root ; — prefixed, marks a suffix ; — 
suffixed, marks a prefix ; <; or > is placed between two words when one is derived 
from the other, the angle pointing to the derived word ; = means equivalent to.} 



ANGLO-SAXON. 

a, 14, 16, 23. 

— <a, 228, 240, 263. 

—a<_an, 228, 240, 268. 

— a<ja'rt, 228. 

—a, 246. 

—a, 251. 

d, 24. 

—a, 251. 

a— 15, 254. 

d, 129, 254. 

ub'umlisse, 232, 268. 

ahvfan, 25T, 334. 

dbiitan, 341. 

(tc, 260, 262, 39T, 465. 

acan, 207. 

ach, see ac. 

dsian, 292. 

Ui-.tred, 266. 

dliim, 258. 

—ad, 228. 

Mer, 464. 

&<t»parmg, 266. 

«/, 129. 

dgan, 212. 

df/egn, 258. 

dgen, 366. 

d:ten, 341. 

dfiyldan, 29T. 

(iji, see oc. 

<i;i, 212. 

dksie, 35. 

d/if, 136. 

dlite, 36, 212. 

dhpwder, 136, 391. 

— «J, 228. 

((ian, 20T. 

dmang, 341. 

—an, 251, 257. 

an—, 15. 

((«, 254. 

(DK^umian, 212. 

— (i»,, 247. 

fi/j, 136, 138, 366, 386. 

— ana, 175. 

anew, 270. 

ft»if/-,15, 254, 328, 330. 

a7!d, 138, 139, 262, 394, 463. 

andlovf), 2.')9, 329, 330. 

and vd p& hen, 465. 

aruhpaf-ian, 15, 297 ; — m, 265. 

dneaiji', 'JOe. 

dnfjjal, 26(). 

dnhende, 266. 

2»w, 262. 



Aprelis, 38. 
<ir/asf, 229, 243. 
<ir/Mi, 229. 
drian, 29T. 
<ir*s«, 233. 
drleas, 229. 
ar?i<Ciirnan. 
aron, 213. 
<5rste/, 229, 235. 
a«s-<i, — e, 268. 
dstellan, 189. 
(i;>, 228. 
(iZ-a, 254. 
dpax-an, 267. 
(i;'rf«»-, 136, 464. 
dpjfti, 136, 389. 
axe, 35. 

a;, 14, 16, 23. 

a^, 24. 

^, 100. 

^, 129, 263. 

*— , 254. 

X(vr, 228. 

sedelimj, 228, 235. 

.^Edelpulfing, 237. 

«/— , 129, 254. 

*/re, 251. 

«.«, 331. 

xftan, 252. 

xftemest, 127. 

«/<er, 15, 126, 129, 255, 328, 331. 

472, 47.3. 
xftera, 127. 
asfterpeardea, 251. 
^f/, «5rrM, 82, 2'28. 
^(/— , 254 ; —hpd, — hpxder. 

etc., 136, 390, 391, 463. 
^gder, 136, 463. 
A—, 259. 
^ic, 136, 392. 
xlf, —en, 268. 
sslmeahtig, 206. 
^ne, 145. 

igmflr, 130, 387, 489. 
&r, 126, 259, 332, 472. 
tbrest, 127, 129. 
a'rn, 229. 

a;f, 15, 2.')4, 328, 333. 
/rj— , 257. 
set-^etan. 
xtforan, 333. 

6, 27, 30. 
hd, 141. 
fcocan, 158, 191, 207. 



bdd<Chidan. 

hal{d)mm, 50, 270. 

bammn, 208. 

^<ie, 230. 

hxc-ere, —estre, 268, 228. 

bxclinga, 251. 

ba;d<^biadan. 

baiftan, 257, 334. 

ba^r, 230. 

—bsbre, 229, 243. 

fea-r/of, 266. 

bwrn-et, — MWfl', 233. 

be<bi. 

bedcnian, 297. 

6e((rf!<, 32, 90, 228. 

beadiddc, 233. 

bcdh<Cbitgan. 

bedh 230. 

feeaZd, 36. 

bealu, 30, 32, 36 ; —Ms, 242. 

ficQ-rn, 230, 234, 268. 

bed tan, 208. 

hcicftan, 257. 

bebcodan, 297. 

becijnie, 299. 

be-edatan, —foran, — geondan^ 

—henlfe, etc., 334. 
bfif/CTi, 141, 490. 
be-heonan, — hindan, — neodan. 

257, 334. 
belgan, 203, 290. 
6^?)n-,'), 203. 
/'('??(/, 228. 
b.'o, 100. 
brb'lan, 206. 
?)f 617a H <[6 ligan. 
bedn, 177-182, 213, 286, 298, 

415. 
beoran<^beran. 
beord, 230. 
beorgan, 191, 204. 
beornan, 204. 
bep^cte, 1S9. 

ber-an, 200, 319 ; — €, 228. 
?;cre, 230. 
bcrgan=.beorgan. 
bcrnan, 248. 
hcrning, 233. 
bcrKtai), 192. 202. 
U'xdrgian, 297. 
bea'ulan, 258. 
6c?ra, &pfe<, 129. 
6^?te, 189. 
betpedhs (x), — tpebnum, 258, 

329, .334. 
hetpxtxt, 49. 



230 



INDEX OF WOKDS. 



be f>ain f>e, 466. 

bl, bi, bt; 15, 48, 254, 257 ; com- 

pouiuis at 334 
bUlaii. •20.'), 315. 
buithtii, iys> 
b''(7<bl 



b-'a<_bi. 

bilha, 35. 

bintian, li)2, 201. 

biniHin, 257, 334. 

birhti — bergan. 

birst, 35. 

6(.str.);>, 43 ; —rtce, 235. 

bit, -.'30. 

bttaii, 205. 

fciYcr, 280. 

bitor, •.'42. 

bh'tci'ni, 229. 

bldiidun, 208. 

bU'ittni, 208. 

bUipaii, '208. 

b/a'rf, 2tJl». 

fc/cf, 35, 208. 

fc/i;'rt7(, 205. 

«//irfc, 321. 

Wi/i'/, 104,105. 

t/(/iHrt«, 201. 

6//.s«, 36. 

blodreild, 266. 

6/<)i»u, 234. 

blotan, 208. 

blopan, •208. 

Wk, 90, 100, 269. 

fcocere, 228. 

boga, 32, 230. 

bogan, bad, 224. 

bogen<Cbugan. 

bohte, 189. 

bonnan <^bannan. 

bdti<J)6gan. 

bosom, 50. 

boa;, 270. 

brxgdan, brxdan, 202. 

bredtan, 208. 
brecan, 199, 200. 
bredan, 202, 224. 
bregdan, 202, 220, 224. 
brengan, 209, 216. 
brebkan, 206. 
breomu, 77. 
bredtan, 206. 
breopan, 206. 
b}'imo, 77. 
bringan, 201. 
brinnan, 201, 204. 
6/w, 91, 100. 
brocc»!<6r«can. 

bjodi'r, 41, 87, 100, 228, 232 • 

— A«rf, 229. 
brohte<^bringan, 
brohtes, 166. 
hrfiicm, 206, 300. 
bw, 366, 403. 
ti/./'a)i, 257, 334. 
biigan, 206. 
bdgkvn, bfiijan, bfiian, bl/j>ian, 

biin, bf/en, 221, 224. 
bullMa, 236. 
6Mr<7, 100, 101. 

Wl?a7i, 45, 257, 334, 393, 481, 465. 
6m<«<, 366 ; /)d, 489. 
bycgan, 211. 
fcf/rww, 248. 
byaeln. 2?.2. 
biird<Cheran. 



byre, 84, 86. 
byniankibcornan. 



c, 27, 28. 

J. 250 

<•«»!, 176, 'il2, 437. 

rarccr/i, 229. 

(•a>-i— , — ca(, —fugol, etc., 2G8 

cdsern, 268. 

raf, 268. 

cffl//, 82. 

cmr-ful, —leds, 24.3, 266. 

i-('<J.f, 35. 

remtcr, 33, 90, 101, 270. 

( ei/c, ISO. 

reniiun, cende, 188, 189. 

reiir/un, 204. 

ccosaii, 197, 206, 286. 

cebpaii, 206. 

c?.t/((/), 205, 297. 

«7(/, c/i?M, 34, 41, 82, 268 ; 

—hud, 235 ; —isc, 228, 241. 
(•/<J, 100. 
hi'iiheort, 260. 
■Icofdii, 200. 
7'>; --'6'.). 
■'*/■((», 205. 
chill ban, 201. 
clinaan, 201. 
'■/)7i><;, 189. 
I'li/inuin, 188. 
'•////"-■, 98. 
nuipan, 208. 
cjieila7i, 109. 
cncudan, 206. 
cnyssan, 188. 
foiH, 35. 
core?! <j:e6san. 
gecnren{n)e, 119, 197. 
corfen<^ceorfan. 
crdpan, 208. 
<-ra!/<, 229, 269. 
creda, 270. 
crebdan, 206. 
crebpan, 191, 20C. 
Crimean, 201. 
cringan, {eg), 201. 
cr'ppp, 194. 
c;7, 91, 100. 
C2>^, 297. 

CTfcfe, 37, 176, 212. 
c«rfe«, 1 66. 
cuman, 101, 200. 
—cnnd, 220, 241. 
rviiium, 212. 
<■?/)■.)», 35, 197. 
rp^don, 197. 
cpcalde, 189. 
cpealm, 234. 
cpeartcrn, 229. 
cpeccan, 209. 
cpeden<j:pedan. 
cpedari, 192, 199, 397. 
<7>c A te<j-peccan. 
cpelan, 200. 
rpellan, 209. 
ge-cpeman, 297. 
c/'eJ!, 228, 268. 
cpiman, 200. 
•pinran, 201. 
<7>7s<, 35. 

c/>om gefered, 458. 
(■!/ce»i, 236. 
cyceve, 239. 
(-ydde-^nidan,, 297. 

q/n, 101, -229. 



I gecynd, 235. 
cynerice, 229, 236. 
c(/JM7i(7 268 ; — ddm, 229. 
i c^rrfe, 298. 
cyrnel, 236. 
cysnan, 188. 
f^jf^ 35. 
f(/«te, 35, 189. 

(/, 27, 29. 
— f/, noun, 228. 
— f/, com p., 255. 
— rf, verb, 455. 
da/an, 207. 
ge-dafenad, 299. 

rf^grf, 90, 231. 

ge-diSbde<Cdbn. 

dseg, 71, 229 ; — cs, 251. 

dxgesege, 265. 

rfe<irf, 2'iS. 234. 

deAf<Cih'ifaH. 

deda, {h)<jliigan. 

dear, 176, '212', 439. 

dearnunaa, 251. 

tif'/aw, 203. 

deman, 297. 

d^rn. — a. — e«rf, — ere, 232. 

ge-denra^dbn. 

deofolcund, 229, 241. 

debg<jiedgaii. 

debpe, 251. 

deor, 41. 

deorcunga, 251. 

deorfan, 204. 

— der, 228, 252, 255. 

derian, 188, 297. 

<'''f'«, {y)<dbn. 

dijqjan, 188. 

— (//, 228. 

dohte<jiugan. 

dbhtor, 100; — rw, 93. 

—dbm, 229. 

dbmern, 239. 

f/6«, 160, 168, 177, 213, 225 297, 
406. 

dorste<:^dnrran. 

dragan, 207. 

f ?7T' /( < <j:Iri7ican. 

draf, 230. 

drsriJun, 20S, 218. 

drd-fan, 248. 

dreahtc, J89. 

dreccan, 209. 
drcncaii, 248. 
drcncte, 189. 
dreogan, 206. 
drebpav, 206. 
dr(brd-<j:lrkdan. 
dri bsan, 206. 
drepan, 191, 199, 220. 
drif-an, —t, 193, 205. 
drj/jc, 231. 

drirw-an, —p, 194, 201. 
dropet}<^drepan. 
chnmcen, 455. 
driiron<ij:lredsan. 
dr^, 100. 
d 11 fan, 206. 
dvmtn, 212. 
f/«7i, 101. 
f/Mr<i, 93. 

dvrran, 176,212,489. 
dpealdc<^dpcllan. 
dpein?), 200. 
dpcllan, 209. 
dptnan, 205. 



INDEX OF V.'ORDS. 



231 



dyde<j}dn. 
dypte, 189. 
dyrstig, 454. 

(!, 14, 16, 23. 

— «<a, 228. 

— «<rt, verb, 164. 

^e<;u, 223, 243, 265. 

— «</, 205. 

—«<)«, verb, 160. 

— ('<rt/i, 228, 240, 268. 

ed. IJO. 

ed, oh, 26.S. 

tvi •, 254, 262, 335, 394, 463. 

edlc—code. edde, 124. 

edg^!, 95. 

ed ;iiml/, 266. 

<; i)//!«, 138, 139. 

Ml, 3.r!, 136, 251, 259, 395, 490. 

cd Id, 203. 

ecUd, 124; — /a;(ter,265. 

e.dle^, 251. 

eallunga, 251. 

<:vtJ;i« ;>e(/, 251. 

ealofeit, 265. 

ealspd, 463, 473. 

m« />(i, 489. 

ear, 209. 

eardif/ean, 28. 

Ctfre, 98. 

eariH, 33. 

earn<;(rra««. 

«J«rf<;(;om. 

edst, 251; —an, 252; — emest. 

129; — ern«, 228. 
ea/', 263. 
i::te, 139. 

t'd— , 15, 254 ; —nipian, 15. 
— «(?, 228, 243. 
edda, 262. 
ei/ei, 101. 
efen, 15, 259; —peorcan, 267; 

—l^can, 299. 
«.fn«, 263. 
e/(, 15. 
cr/<«a, 228. 
e/ite, 35, 189. 
ei-, 259. 
—el, 223. 
— e^e, 228. 
Mising, 228. 

ei^es, 129, 262, 464; —hpd, 136. 
— eZs, 228. 
embe, 328, 360. 
— «n, 228, 268, 455. 
— e7ia, 244. 
eitde, 269. 

— ende, 228, 445, 460. 
(mdleofan, 133. 
Eiujl-e, 86, 238 ;' — wc, 228, 238, 

241. 
edde, 37, 213, 225. 
eom, KJS, 177, 213, 225, 966, 298, 

314,416,451. 
eorna(t<^lrnan. 
eornostlice, 463. 
eop, 130, 366. 
eoper, 132, 490. 
eo/^fc, 130, 366. 
— er, compar., 122-129, 255. 
— «r, 228. 
—ere, 228, 268. 
—erne, 228, 246. 
— erw, 223. 
— «s, gen., 62, 251. 



—es, verb, 166, 225. 
— es, 22S. 
— esa, 228. 
— e«J, 228. 
esoi, 41. 

—estre, 228, 268. 
— et, 2-^8. 
eta7i, 192, 189. 
— ettan, 250. 

/, 27, 30, 41. 
fdceiistsef, 229. 
fdltan^/dn. 
fand<^fiiidan. 
fangan, 210. 
/ara?i, 191, 207, 445. 
farhu, 228. 
/«fZer, 228, 232. 
fiegon<^fedn. 
f&r, 37. 
fSsK^fon. 
—fsest, 229, 243. 
fxsten, 209. 
/a;<, 73. 
fedh<Zf<'on. 
feald, 209. 
— /eaid, 143, 229, 245. 
feuldan, 208. 
/c^Zde, 189, 209. 
fealh-i^felgati. 
feallan, 191. 
fealupe, 117. 
fed{pa), 136, 395, 489. 
/eaa;, 36. 

feccatK^fpcian, 34. 
fecgan, 199. 
fed{ed), 190. 
/eie?s, 228, 232. 
feg-an, — ean, 247. 
/rfrt, 129, 136, 251. 
/eifZ, 269. 
/e?fM, 93. 
feld, 30. 
felqan, 203. 
fellan, 2U9. 
.feng<^fdn. 
feo, 37. 
/to/i, 100. 
feohan, 199. 
feohtan, 204. 
feohtld:'., 229. 

/w/, 25. 

/edld<^ fealdan. 

feda<,feohan;V)^, Ul, 297. 

./con ■^feogan, weak. 

/eoxd, 87, 100. 

/cor, 124, 129, 251, 254, 259, 336. 

feorran, 252. 

feoper, 47, 133+. 

/eran, 243, 297. 

/esi, fet<^fdn. 

fidel-ere, — estre, 268. 

fideru, 100. 

.f^f, 37, 13S-I-. 

//Ida?!, 201. 221. 

/r<Js, 100, 268. 

fitan, I!»9. 

/»(;«, 232, 268. 

Jledh<:_11ron. 

Ilt't'it<^ Ih'otnn. 

'jl,o'ia,',yihdn, 206. 

.//™/,((/f>//™;», 192, 206. 

Jli'otaii, -'he. 

./''''/'<.'''''/'«». 

jlUnri, 'W!>. 

jl'ionz^jleon. 



flopan, 208. 
llagoii, 200. 
'li^i/an, 248. 
/(>(ior, 232. 

/yic, 101. 

/ott, 208, 216, 224, 24T. 

foM<^findan. 

fur, 15, 254, 255, 328, 337. 

for—, 15, 254, 2.^5; —beodan, 
297 ; —gifan, 21)7 ; —gifend- 
llu, 242 ; — gitan, 28 ; — leo- 
san, 197 ; —standan, 299 ; 
— sporen, 455 ; —pyrnan, 297. 

/omn, 252, 257, 328. 

/orf/«, 93. 

/or(f, 15, 129. 

fore, 15, 129, 2.'54, 265, 323, 337. 

fore-riml, 232. 

fore-peard, 129. 

/or Iipam, 200. 

/or riitiiir/an, 337. 

form-a, 126 ; — es<, 127. 

./■o/- /)«/)( /)(!, 466. 

/or /;^, 400. 

fot, 41, 84, 100. 

fox, 268. 

/ra?w, 15, 254, 338, 409. 

/r^, 254, 255. 

frwtpe, 100. 

frsetpian, 224. 

fremian, 297. 

fremman, ISS. 

frebgaii^frcon, 47. 

fredgan—freon, weak</rt. 

freond, 87, 100 ; — r^dew, 229, 
235; — «c?;pe, 229. 

freosan, 197. 

fretan, 199. 

/rt, 115. 

fricgan, 199, 215. 

frUlan (Greiu) ? 

frigiian, 202, 217. 

frinati, 202, 224, 

fringan, 35, 201. 

from=fr(un, 15. 

ge-frugen (i), 199. 

frtima, 129, 140. 

fugol, 79 ; carl-fuqol, 268. 

/Mi, 15, 259 ; —fyllan, 267. 

— /?f?, 229, 243. 

fundon<^jlndan. 

furdor, 129. 

— f^rs, 242. 

.^(/We, 189. 

f!/lf)ian, 297. 

fijlstcm, 297. 

/(/rra, 129. 

fi/x-an, -de, 189. 

(jf, 28, 34, 503. 

— f/— , 250. 

(7<i, 298, 415. 

O'O'/Kj/'/an. 

.O-CTYa^, 207. 

f;<l«, 208, 213, 225, 247, 286, 445. 

gandra, 268. 

ganqan, 208, 213, 214, 216. 

gdrledc, 266. 

<7<i<, 268. 

.(7*rf, 208. 

(/aj-s^, 85 ; — erji, 229. 

jr^i, 268. 

f/e— , 15, 254, 262, 403; — 6r3- 
drw, 77, 100 ; —aind, 2^*) 
—heiulc, 25'l, 3,39 ; — A»<i, 136 
— hpkder, 3111 ; — /i/)?(r;, l;i6 
— il', 299; —«;;(>, 403, 478 



232 



INDEX OF AYORDS. 



—licneg, 235 ; —litUan, 249 ; 

— loiici, 259 ; — Ip/ed, 298 ; 

— mn-lian, 249 ; — vwng, 25S; 

— ne<tan, 3T ; — silut, 269 ; 

— suht, 190 ; — sprfcen, AK) ; 

— speoni, mO; — Kpeostru,9'i. 

100; — r(»i(/n(, 100; —piiiqd, 

236; — ^)/if,228,234; — /nf/iY, 

409; — /'(7i(, 2;'.5; —pit, 298. 

For other words lu gc—, 

drop j/c— , aud look for the 

rest. 
ge, 24, 28, 37, 130, 366. 
gfd, •-'01,399. 
'gea/<C<'i/ai>- 
'gcalp<inifpan. 
gedn, Ifi. 
(j-(}p<^gcopan. 
hair. 2s ; —da-ri, 229, 239. 
j7c<'t;<},'J8, 251." 
cMi-pc, 100, 454. 
ircaf, 28. 

reatpan<^geatpe, 100. 
(7e<rw, 15. 

ren, 15. 

f end, 251. 

<;e. j; 213. 

f,e;<(>'),490. 

geo, 252. 

(/coi;, 2S. 

geornut, 28, 235. 

woi, 28. 

'giond, 15, 28, 133, 255, 328, 340. 

qeondan, 25T. 

geong, 28, l-.>4, 228. 

ge6n(j<^gangan. 

aeongan, 201. 

giongling, 228, 236. 

gcopan, 206. 

gcorrati, 2ii4. 

gcotan, 206. 

ce/-, 28. 

j/ese, 28, 261, 399. 

jreta, 251. 

r/iV, 225. 

(7?«ian, 203. 

gieng, 213. 

m/, 260, 262, 469, 4T5. 

gifan (ie, eo, to, y), 28, 199, 29T. 

'^g-ifid, 100. 

gifu, 88, '228, 231. 

r;n7do7i (re, y), 203, 29T. 

r7?7;a7i, 203. 

gilpan (ie, y), 203. 

gilian, weak. 

(jtnan, 205. 

ginnan. 201. 

gi()ng<:^gangan, 

gipan, 199. 

f;i r ra >}:=georran. 

girpan, 224. 

o?«(, 28. 

J;??, 28, 465. 

.(7»Y, pron., 130, 2ST, 366. 

gitan {ie, y), 199. 

gldd<Cglidan. 

glxd, 106, 125. 

glinman, 229. 

glidan, 205. 

gnagan, 207. 

gvtdan, 205. 

wd, 129; — we«, 228. 

god-eund, 229 ; —leds, 229 : 

— ?ic, 229, 266; — Si^ei, 266. 
noldfxt, 313. 
goldamid, 266. 



V>.i,'37, 91, 100, 268. 

'Gntiui, 238. 

gni/an, 207, 

gramn, 224. 

gritdan, to cry, should be per- 
haps in 20S. 

f^r.'?(/((T, 228, 315. 

f/r.r/, 230. 

f/ra-N, 51. 

grd'tan, 208. 

gredmn, 206. 

grcdtan, 206. 

grfop<^gr6pan. 

grette, 35, 189. 

grvmman, 201. 

grindaii, 201. 

gringan, 201. 

grip'an, 205. 

(;V isn;(, 205. 

Jfro/, '.HO. 

grbpan, 191, 208. 

grund, 230. 

grj/udan, weak. 

griirchpV, 265. 

ijulpaii<^gilpan. 

giiina, 41," 268. 

gum-cyn, 265 ; — «ia?l, 208 ; 
—pegn, 268. 

gurron<^girran. 

gy+, see (7r+. 

i/i/dc/), 228, 268. 

r/'/irfoi, 244, 313. 

gpmelpst, 235. 

f/i/rdc, 189. 

jryt, 262. 

/(, 14, 27, 28, 31, 33, 35+. 

— /i, 228. 

7ia, /id, 263. 

/ia;)&a«, 37,168, 222. 

—/<(?(/, 229. 

haUan, 208. 

halettan, 250. 

Mm, 71,101,251. 

hdm-peard, 229,251 ; ^peardes. 

251. 
//«««, 95, 231, 268. 
/tavirf, 92, 22S, 267; —gepeorc 

2C6; —seUan,26'!. 
hangan, 203, 216, 224. 
hds, 50, 57. 
Tidton, 208, 286. 
hdtian, 249. 
M«te, 219. 

hsebhe, 168, 169, 415, 416, 453. 
hsefde, 108, 417. 
AajfCf, 189. 
hsele, 86. 
A^h(, 269. 
h&st<Ji6n. 
hMan, 249. 
/!^«M, 23S. 
he, 24, 130. 
hedfan, 208. 

heafod, 41, 79 ; —man, 266. 
hedge, 251. 
Acd'/i, 118, 124. 
healdan, 208. 
/lea?/, 147, 394. 
healfne pnne, 489. 
healp<J'.elpan. 

hedii'^head ,^-p. toexalt (weak), 
—heard, 229, 243. 
hearp-ere, — esfre, 268. 
heauod, 30. 
hedpan, 208. 



Aetftan, 207. 

/le/c'rf, 207. 

hejiqtprne, 229. 

heifian, 188. 

/ie/t^ 159, 218. 

/R'/a/i, 200. 

hclian, ISS. 

A.O-f/?i, 32, 203, 297. 

/«'», 20S. 

henep, 41. 

he)ir)<^hangan, hdn. 

heo, 37, 130. 

/(ew (/^(/e, 251. • 

hedf<C.hedfmu 

henfcn, 234. 

hc('>Jd<^hcaldan. 

hcunan, 2,52. 

hciircnian, 297. 

/tcoi-fe, 269. 

ha'>p<Jiedpan. 

her, 252. 

/(^/•e, 269. 

herian, 224. 

herpan, 224. 

hefit<Ch6n. 

hi, 366. 

/)/cffa»i (?/), 211. 

/wVt'r, 15, 252— hider, 126. 

//it'—, 503. 

h:ij=Mi, 28. 

/H'gr, 263. 

/a'ftdan, 252, 255. 

hindema, 126. 

hinder, 129. 

/M'rrfe, 83, 231. 

/jir^d, 229, 235. 

/:!.s, 367. 

//!?, 130, 287, 366. 

Idadan, 207. 

hidf-dige, —ord, 268. 

hleuhtor, 33, 57. 

hlcdpan, 208. 

h.lcdt<CJdc6tan. 

hlehfuin {i, y) (6, a), 207. 

hleodrcde, £98. 

lil(on<^hlc6pan, warm. 

hlcotan, 206. 

/(ifesi, 35. 

hliccan, 199. 

/;tJ(/«n, 205. 

hltgan, weak. 

hlimman, 201. 

hlopan, 208. 

/i?«to«, 206. 

hlpsbxre, 243. 

hlystan, 297. 

hndtan, 208. 

hnidpan, 208. 

/ijii^am, 205, 297. 

hnipan, 199. 

hiritan, 205. 

/!on6(?e, 211, 222. 

/i6/!, 100. 

Aort, 208, 216, 224. 

hoppestre, 268. 

horsern, 229, 239. 

/(O.'*?^, 37. 

hratte, 4^. 

hrdn<^hrinan. 

hr&p, 100. 

/ira'rf, 125. 

/! reds<^hre6san. 

hreddan, 188, 189. 

hrcMan, hreoden, 206. 

hrcdfan, 206. 

hredsan, 197, 206. 

hredpan, 206. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



233 



hrSpan, 208. 

hrinan, 205, 299. 

hrimlan, 201. 

Iirdpan, 208. 

hruren-i^hredsaii. 

h rurun<Jiredsan. 

hrutan, 'JOe. 

hrpman, 248. 

ku, 252, 260, 26'2, 397, 468, 469. 

liH, interj., 263. 

hi'idan, Imdon, 206. 

— hugu, 136. 

hiilt:, 135. 

hiilpon<^lieliJan. 

hund, 13S+. 

hunt-ad, — orf, — nad, 233. 

htmncle, 228. 

/t/(.si, ST. 

^;'<i, 135, 3TT, 382, 390. 

—hpA, 136, 390. 

hpaiian, 252, 260, 469. 

hpanne, 252, 469. 

hpxder, 126, 135, 260, 3T8, 464. 

469. 
///'^gr, 252, 260, 469. 
kpset, 125. 

/)/>««, 135, 263, 3T7, 382. 
hpxt godes, 312. 
hpxthugu, 136, 390. 
hpelan, 200. 
hpeorfan, 204. 
hpetan, 199. 
hpetstdn, 266. 
/»;>«, 135, 252, 260. 
hpider, 252, 260, 262, 469. 
ft/'j?e, 262. 

hptlum, 251, 262, 4T2. 
hpinan, 205. 
Z'/'ow, 135, 395. 
hpopan, 208. 
hpurfon<lhpeor fan. 
hpi/lc, 135, BTS, 382. 
hjcgan, 211, 222. 
'«//0'e, 86 ; —sceaft, 229, 235. 
hyldan, 248. 
hpnan, 248. 
A^raw, 183, 189, 29T. 
hijrcnian, 250. 
ye-hyrned, 243. 
ge-hyirsum-ian, 29T. 
/!»/r<e, 189. 
hyse-cild, 268. 

r, 23. 

?, 24. 

— <?, 228, 240, 268. 

~<ja, 228. 

ia^ea, 33. 

—fa, 246, 24T. 

»a— , 503 

m, 261. 

ia, 25. 

?fi, 41, 130, 366. 

idieges, 251. 

wZes, 101. 

— !rf, 164. 

ii=ed, t>6, 25. 

—ie>aja, 228. 

— i.Or, 228, 243. 

— tV/e, 268. 

— fft, 228. 

— '«/i<, 228, 243. 

in, 15, 254, 328, 341. 

inc, incer, inn't, 130, 132. 

—ina (verbal), 228, 460. 

—irig, 228, 23T. 

in middum, 258. 



innan, 252, 257, 328, 329, 341. 

inne, 252. 

iniiema, 126. 

innera, 129. 

innian, 57. 

tnW, 341. 

inpeardlice, 15. 

io^eo, 33. 

io— , 503. 

w, 25. 

irnan, 204. 

—MP, 228, 241. 
Isgicel, 266. 
iM— , 503. 
«/, 252, 396. 
?«i-, 228. 
iijiij/, 28. 

2, 27, 29, 33, 35. 
—l<ra, 228. 
Id, 260, 263, 39r. 
—Ide, 229. 
?«(•««, 191, 208. 
ldd<Clidan. 
IdgoiKj-icffan. 
lagiiflbd, 265. 

lamb, 82j 268. 

Ianip<ji7npan. 

land, 101 ; -^man, 266; —sceap 

229, 235 ; — scipe, 38, 235. 
tonjr, 124. 
langad, 297. 
i^caw, 250. 

litce-crmft, — c7/?i, — dom, 235. 
i^rfaw, 248. 
ls:g<^licgan. 
l^hte<iScan. 
l&nan, 29T. 
?igmw, 292. 
Ixs, 259, 342, 393. 
Ixssa, 127,129. 
Is^stea, 166. 
Za;«, 128. 
lietan (e), 208. 
Ixtewa, 126. 
ledrj<Cledgan, 38. 
leahan, 207. 
?«lra, 207. 
lednian, 297. 
— ie(is, 229, 243, 400. 
ledt<iiutan. 
leccan, 209. 
fecgraji, 188, 209, 248. 
«e(?«, l!L,9, 209, 224. 
iejfde, 189. 
letulenu, 100. 
leddan, 206. 
?e5d«, 86. 
ie5/, 297. 
leo/nn, 206. 
ieo/arf, 222. 
teo/era, 228, 232. 
leogan, 192, 194, 206. 
leo'hte, 189, 209. 
teoZo, 159, 208, 218. 
leomd, 77. 
Zwrf, 159, 208, 218. 
for-ledsan, 197, 206. 
leot, 208. 
Zftvnm, 192. 
let, 208. 
/etow, 208. 
libban, 222. 
i*c, 269. 
— <ic, 133, 136, 229, 241, 242, 392, 



— lice, 251. 

ge-ltce and, 473. 

Iwbde, 299. 

iicrcari (licgean), 192, 199, 248, 

286. 
Udan, 205. 
lidon, 197. 
h'cf, 37. 
lictan, 205. 
Z^/(i?i, 205. 
?;>«»(, 222. 
h'get<^l-icgan, 193. 
+;t/iaji., 205,297. 
liiie, 270. 
limpan, 201. 
— Z»).(7, 228. 
b-linnan, 201. 
litlian, 249. 
litluni, 251. 
Ib/.sviii, 242. 
loyiip<^liynpa7i. 
lucan, 206. 
^if/i'de, 38. 

Ivf-ian, 183 ; —igean, 36. 
luf-sum, 242 ; —t^me, 229, 244 
LiMidenisc, 241. 
lunge, 97. 

^MS, 91, 100. 

ZtMi, 269 ; —bSre, 229. 

i?'>ta«, 206. 

lyccan (Grein) ? 

gelfifan, 297. 

i2/.ste, 290. 

Zi/?, 129, 136, 395. 

?;/te?, 129. 

^l/srfc, 189. 

?^2;<e, 189. 

m, 27, 30, 33, 35, 44. 

— 7i(<^ma, 228. 

— ma<Cman, 228. 

wi^i, 129, 251. 

macian, 286. 

mddni, maddum, 290. 

mdg-a, —e, 268. 

magan, 212. 

mdgon, 212. 

rnagu, 231. 

rnan, 84, 100, 101, 136, 389 ; 

— CT7rf, 268 ; — cjrw, 229 ; 

— cpelere, 266 ; — es»i«, 268. 
ge-man, 212. 
—man, 229. 
manig, 136, 395, 489, 490 • 

—feald, 229, 266. 
mdra, 129. 
mdpan, 208. 
m&den-cild, —fxmme, — 9nan, 

269; — /i(id, 229. 
«ia;.(7, 170, 212, 436. 
«i%, 268. 
m&gden, 228, 236. 
m.^fl'rf, 228. 

msegenheard, 229, 243. 
m^gr&den, 229. 
—niM, 229. 
m^rsian, 250. 
m^s^, 12!». 
ge-rtiMan, 290. 
w^, 24, 37, 130, 366. 
meahte, 176, 212. 
mearh, 33, 80, 268. 
■m€c, 130, 366. 
medema, 126. 
melcan, 203. 
1 meltan, 203. 



23i 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



niennen, 26S. 

titeodo, as. 

incoliu; 32, SO. 

rneurnan, 204. 

iiti-dple, 236. 

ii«' /■(/(!, 189. 

mere, 3S. 

vier-e, —iae, —ihe, 268. 

vten'(je, 268. 

vietaii, 199. 

meter, SO. 

viette, 189. 

JHe pincp, 297. 

»«Vc/, 129, 394, 490. 

■»««7(? jiiti, 251. 

ViiclUtn, 249. 

mid Hill, 251. 

wiirf, 15, 264, 255, 328, 343, 472. 

7»«y(/, 228. 

mitiile, 114. 

inid-dxci, 2GG. 

midlcii, 239. 

viUan, 205. 

vii'Kiii, 205. 

7(u7i^', 212. 

viildlicortiies, 235. 

ge-miltaian, 297. 

wijii, 130, 132, 367, 490. 

■Hi tn .s(?, 489. 

»i?s, 15, 254, 259. 

inisdoii, 267. 

wiorf, 269. 

modor, 100. 

Md)iatidxg, 265. 
inoroen, 100. 
vwste, 86, 176, 212. 
mOtan, 176, 212, 438. 
mtW, 24, 37. 
mugan (a), 212. 
vmnec, — en, 268. 
niurdra, 228. 
miis, 90, 100. 
mynd, 228. 
mynte, 189. 
mj/re, 232. 

w, 27, 28, 29, 35, 42-51. 

n— , 254. 

— w— , 250. 

«<*M, 228. 

»i<«i, 228. 

— ?i«, 175, 228. 

««, 261, 399, 400. 

nabban, 45. 

— Jiftrf, 22S. 

tid'jan, 212. 

ndhte, 212. 

7iai«s, 261, 400. 

iiani, 166. 

nama, 228. 

name, 171. 

ndmon, 166. 

— ttan, 252. 

»i««, 45, 261, 387. 

ge-ndpan, 208. 

ndpiht, 261, 389, 400. 

n^dZ, 228, 232. 

n^A, 344. 

«^/i7(/, 136, 387. 

nserende, 213. 

»**»•« j6a;<, 475. 

n«s, 45, 213, 261. 

—nd, 455. 

we, 261, 262, 397, 399, 400. 

—tie, 251. 

ne— , 2M. 



«fl, 463. 

«<'<}/!, 124, 251, 259, 344. 

bf-ti,;ili, 212. 

Dtdlihiir, 266. 

iht'diliand, 259. 

iH't/hl.-i-lit'', 299. 

ii,;il,lrs, 251. 

iH'tillci, 261. 

?J('(J;i,, 252. 

JKvIr, 344. 

nearpe, 251. 

/i(i'/<'.s', 251. 

ge-nedan, 37. 

vK/-n, — e, 268. 

«('./";ii', 259, 345. 

«t'/i, 7(e/ts<, 344. 

ncllaa=znillan. 

lie Hide, 189, 286. 

ncmlice, 468. 

iiftnne, 35, 259, 431. 

tirndaa, 252, 257, 346. 

iirotan, 206, 300. 

ner-e, — erfe, — r/an, — zan, — ?'e, 
—igan, —igean, 28, 30, 160, 
165, 1S3, 247. 

— »)««, 228. 
ge-neaan, 199. 

«c.vc, 261, 399. 

netele, 232. 

«)Vfe, 129. 

Hi'denia, 126. 
vi?'rft'r, 15, 255. 

iiliaii (Greiu)? 

niaoii, 13S-f-. 

nilitcgalc, 207. 

niht-hra\fen, 266. 

nUlan, 212. 

/i?»t, 172, 298. 

niinan, 173, 200, 246. 

m'inaiinr, 173. 

?»'/*«', 104, 170. 

niinende, 173. 

niotan, 206. 

iiijxm, 205. 

?r(Yn« (e, ?/), 212. 

wo, 201. 

wo/i?, 261, 400. 

nohte<^tieah, 212. 

nolde<^mllan. 

nom=znani. 

noil, 270. 

morrf, 129; — erri«,245: —peard, 

245. 
— WM, 228. 

nw, »i2(., 24, 252, 202, 466, 472. 
numen, 173. 
nynide, 431. 
nytan, 212. 

0,23. 

— o<?<, 265. 

— o<ya, 228. 

— o<iy'«, 228. 

6,24. 

-~6<nja, 228, 247. 

6—, 254. 

^c, 228. 

6c<[aran. 

— od, 228. 

od, 15, 254, 328, 347, 472. 

— orf, 228. 

orfrfe, 35, 262, 464. 

— orfe, 245. 

o*r, 37, 126, 136, 140, 142. 

odt/pan, 21*7. 

of, 15, 254, 329, 348, 472. 

o/cr, 15, 120, 252, 2S5, 328, 349. 



nfcrfleopan, 26T. 
oifr'ian, 35. 
(//, 251. 
of-piilUe, 297. 
— <-/, 2l'8. 
ol<C(U(tn. 
o/crraii, 297. 

o/i, 15, 254, 257, 328, 341, aW; 
—bxc, 251 ; 6//taH, 257, 328, 
341 ; —dred, 298 ; —ef{e)n, 
258, 341, 473 ; —foran, 328, 
341 ; —foil, 299 ; —gedii, 251 ; 
—gegn, 258, 328, 341 ; — jre- 
moJif/, 2i58, 328, 341 ; —in- 
nan, 257, 341; —lihan, 297; 
—lyfte, 258 ; —Viang, 341, 
472 ; — middan, 341 ; — .s?/7i- 
dron, 251 ; —vfan, 257, 341 ; 
— ?yjija»i,257,328,341; —pasg, 
251. 

— 6/1, 247. 

otid, 2(i2. 

OMo, 262, 465. 

ono nu ; ono gif, 475. 

or—, 15, 254. 

—or, 228, 242. 

ortgeard, 266. 

6.s</-e, 270. 

—ot, 228. 

oxa, 97. 

Oxendfm-d, 265. 

?>, 27, 30. 
palant, 270. 
J'crsur, 270. 
;'?.vCo;, 43, 270. 
7)ZH)7ia, 41. 
profian, 286. 

J-, 27, 29. 

—r<ra, 228. 

—r<ri, 252. 

— ra, compar., 126, 255i. 

rafan, 207. 

rdjiiiirle, 236. 
7V/x<^;'i.'<n/(.. 
riedan. 2(iS, 297, 300. 
rMel.% 22S. 

rieden, 229. 
7%-a, — e, 268. 
T-^g^jfe, 189. 
r&ran, 248. 
r^srfe, 189. 
rca/iie<7-eccaJi. 
rec, 85. 

reca?*, 189, 210. 
reccan, 209. 
-rerf (a;), 229. 
rei? (,v)<Credrd. 
redrstre, 268. 
7-f '/o?, '270. 
reor.an, 206. 
rcodan, 206. 
reofan, 206. 
reoiK^reopon, 208. 
7-f(Vrf, 159, 208. 
reotan, 206. 
7'C.s^e, 189. 

7- tee, 229. 
7-tffi. 83, 101, adj., 128. 
rid an, 205. 
r77(/e. 1S9. 
rihtpis, 229, 242. 
+n'»>y7a?i, 201. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



235 



rfnnan, 61, 201. 
rlpaii, 2((5. 
riaan, 'JU5. 
ge-rUed, 299. 
rdhte<^recan. 
Jiomdne, 86. 
Jiumdnisc, 241. 
lidrnpare, 229, 23S. 
ropan, 208. 

«, 27, 29. 

— s— , 250. 

ii<wa>i, 207. 

saiji'an, 222. 

sdlK^sifian. 

sdl, 209. 

,sawi, 254, 262, 463, 464. 

sum, 129. 

.stiiM— , 254, 259. 

same, 133. 

xa»»(0(/, 255, 262, 350, 463. 

!<awi<jiingan. 

Hatiij, 230. 

namj-ere, — estre, 232, 268. 

sdpan, 208. 

adpon, 197. 

.s*, 24, 100. 

s^can, 210. 

s«(.'e, 8S. 

Ksecgean, 209. 

s^(/, 209. 

s*de, 37, 209, 224. 

sa;^rf«, 209, 224. 

s^r/o)), 197. 

S^eirf, 36. 

Halt, 199, 248, 298. 

Sseternesdseg, 265. 

acacaii^sceacan. 

scddan, 208. 

scafan, 207. 

8i?<l«, 38, 205. 

SCM;i«ji, 208. 

scapan^Hceapan. 

scsscen, 207. 

sc^nan, weak. 

Kcser<Csceran. 

sceacan, 207. 

Hceddan, 208. 

sceadan, 207. 

—sceaft, 229. 

«cea^ 212, 415, 441. 

«ceai?, 166, 167. 

«cean<^.S(,'J«aJi. 

scnanwde, 297. 

ge-Kceapan, 286. 

scedtan, 208. 

soe6d<^8ceadan. 

Kcevde<jicedn. 

hceolde, 176, 441. 

Hceon, weak. 

Hceoran, 200. 

Kreorjj, 209. 

sceort, 124. 

Scc'irlllcc, 251. 

Kccotuti, 2(10. 

Hcepj/aii, 207. 

sceran, 200. 

ncerian, 188. 

«c?;Wc, 189. 

«<;tJiarj, 205. 

Hciolde, 212. 

8C20/iO»7,<;.5C?naK. 

«cy>, 70. 
—scipe, 229. 
Kroc<;.sca«an. 
8( 6/), 230. 
ncoren, 200. 



scndo7i<^xcrtdan. 

scridan, 205. 

scrideud{n)e, 119. 

scrifan, 205. 

ficrincan, 201. 

scufan, 191, 206. 

sciilan, 212. 

sc(/de<Cscedn. 

scyle, 169. 

acyppan, 207. 

sc, 133, 134, 368+. 

se jbe /Jiiic, 475. 

— se, 261. 

se, 132. 

se<ic, 38. 

sedd<ise6dan. 

seah, 199. 

scaZd, 190. 

sealdes, 166. 

sealfie, 105. 

nealfode, 160, 247. 

sealm, 33. 

ne&mestre, 268. 

.sec(c)an, 37, 45, 210. 

necean, 188. 

.sec.i7an,, 209, 297, 397. 

.se/Ze, 114. 

.sei, 128. 

sddwm, 251. 

.seZc, 86. 

.seif J», 234. 

se?/, 131, 133, 366. 376. 

.scZZan, ISS, 189, 209. 

sencan, cans, of niiican. 

sende, 189. 

send{ed), 190. 

sro, pupil, 100. 

s(o>she, 133, 368+. 

xfo, see, 199. 

.SCO, verb, 205, 206. 

STO, be, 169. 

Kcocan-^mcan. 

x:odan, 206. 

Kcofiin, 32, 13S+. 

.s-o/je, 199. 

seon, 197, 199, 286. 

.scon, 220, 205, 206. 

fierede<^Kerpan. 

ticrpan, 224. 

.s."*:, 190. 

.sc'tcd, 190. 

.s?«, 228, 232. 

.sf'«a»!., 188, 189, 248. 

pc-settan, 286. 

nepe.ti, 197. 

.s'P-te, -de, 189. 

.s?, 169, 213. 

.i7d=se6, 133. 

.sZ-an, 205. 

Ktr^, 37, 128, 259,472. 

stddan, 472. 

stdenut, 126. 

,s23, 213. 

sigan, 205. 

tiigcrUe, 229. 

Kilian, 205. 

nilfrcn, 228. 

«?•«.—, 254, 259. 

.stra, 131, 132, 367, 490. 

xincan, 201 . 

sind{on), 213. 

singan, 201. 

liinnan, 201. 

sin7ieahtes, 251. 

8in«, 213. 

«77p, 109. 

siYtoJi, 199, 248. 



«■«, 138+. 

slagen {x, e), 207. 

sld^pan (d, e), 208. 

sl^pern, 229. 

sic^, 192. 

.sim/te, 207. 

,s;*'(i/i, 33, 192, 197, 207, 247. 

6';i(/«», 205. 

,s/i</a«, 205. 

«;*/■<[;«, 205. 

sHpaii, 205. 

«;ito/i., 205. 

Mgion), 35, 197, 207. 

•sW/i, 35. 

■■iliipan, 206. 

smeddon<^smeagdon<^smedti, 

fsmeagan, 241. 

mnedn, 247. 

smeocan, 206. 

+sntjrf, 229. 

smitan, 205. 

smiigan, 206. 

snadan, snod, ? B., 1944. 

.s;uJ/' /i/Jif, 266. 

sntrait, 205. 

.findaii, 205. 

tiiiipd, weak, 366. 

.sopen^diican. 

.wrf, 37. 

xodlice, 261, 463. 

•vfV^c, 37, 124. 

'tr-soht, 190. 

.v<>/i?t', 35, 36, 189, 210. 

sowt, 24, 251, 472. 

sonen, 251. 

wj;i(/, 230. 

■spanan, 207. 

apannayi, 208. 

.N7:;'Vrtn<;.s7)recaw. 

■sjieoiK^sjxtiinan. 

ilienrnan, 204. 

■sjx'rrhralf, 269. 

.■.7-.7i/.', is'9. 

.;/ ///<///;r,((f, 268. 

■^I'inimn, 201. 

Kptpath, 205. 

n];uptin, 208. 

■'prxcan, 199. 

xp7\'can, 199. 

aprccol, 242. 

springan, 201. 

■sp'inan, 188. 

•si, 57. 

.sMA (g)'^!if.igan. 

Ktmulan, 207, '-10, 28ft. 

stdn-ig, — /AC, 243. 

stdnpeal, 200. 

stapan, 207. 

stddefxHt, 229. 

+ste/, 229. 

stx/cnr/t, 229. 

st^nen, 243. 

Ht&niht, 228. 

stealdan, 208. 

stcaldc<j<tellan. 

stelan, 200. 

Htcllan, 209. 

Memti, 35. 

.s'f^ni, 30. 

s^^Jitef, .35. 

steorfa7i, 204 

stejrpan, 207. 

staple, 35. 

sttgan, 205. 

.s'iArf, 20.5. 

s'?7t;c, 189. 

stillan, 297. 



236 



INDEX OF WOKDS. 



stinfan, 201. 
stiiitmn, 201. 
sti/itan, 201. 
»•/<■'(/, 207, 298. 
utoiule, 207. 
litoj), 207. 
stnhlan, 208. 
ntniiiii, 124. 
Ktraiiiiilir, 251. 
istrvri-aii, 200. 
Mieduii, 202. 
iitre(jdan, 202. 
strelite, 200. 
f!tn-n;i(t, 235. 
titrc)i(je, 114, 124. 
Mtreiijju, 235. 
. '*i<'nH, 205. 
xtri'!((», 205. 
xtn'ukm, 200. 
KHipiiiii, '."J7. 
>'t:i(reiiiaihtm, 229, 251. 
«/,'//?c, ISO. 

xlf/rnn, 297. 

m'icttii, 206. 

s)iiii)ii, 11)7. 

tiihtriHcst, 129. 

sf/deriie, 245. 

sf/rtnian, 235. 

m'lilpmrd, 245. 

si'imtn. 2(16. 

sii[iode<^splqian. 

sum, 13(i, US, 388. 

—sum, 229, 242. 

S!<wie /)«, 489. 

sunme dM, 251. 

SUinoru, 93. 

sumorlxcan, 250. 

SM?»t, 92, 22S. 

sfipan, 206. 

«/>£{, 134, 252, 262, 380, 430, 434 

403, 473, 476. 
spd-hpd-spd, 136, 382, 475. 
s;><i /*/)«/• .s/)(J, 471. 
.v/v/ hpider xp&, 471. 
.s; <:- A/);7c .«i/>d, 136, 382. 
.«;'<? .v/i«, 287. 
xpdpan, 208. 
spd/an, 208. 
tipaifan, weak. 
spefan, 199. 
syc.^?;, 228. 
ipeger, 268. 
xpelan, 200. 
spelgan, 203, 220. 
spi'llan, 203. 
speltan, 203. 
s/'eor, 268. 
speorcan, 204. 
epeorfan, 204. 
speostor, 100, 232. 
sperian, 207. 
splan<j<pigian, 224. 
spiran, 2(1,5. 
s/Jirf, 37, 12.S. 
spifan, 205. 
xpiqian, 224. 
s/>?7c (^), 133, 375. 
«/■?>(?, 262, 380, 392, 473, 463. 
npimmafi, 201. 
spincnn, 201. 
spindan, 201. 
spinrjan, 201. 
npinrfel, — e, 233. 
apofjan, 208. 
«/> ygian^=Kp tgiatl. 
spylc::=spik:. 



»l/=ste=8ed. 
Ki/lf, 290. 
Ki/lian, 188. 
tii/Uan, 209, 297. 
si/nffian, 260. 
»//»(/=.<,'(■«<;. 
iiyrpa:i, 224. 

^ 27, .S4, 41, 56. 
— ^ 228. 
—t<,tpa, 130. 
— ^n, 120, 228. 
^<f, 9.5. 
?<;<•««, 207. 
tdh<C_tlhan. 
talian, 222. 
—tama, 126, 228. 
—tara, V.'O, 228. 
— ^(^(, 12(>, 228. 
hvctiii, 24,s, 292. 
^f /(^', 189. 

tedh<Ctcon. 

tciilde, 209. 

^'5/», 230. 

/iwr, 269. 

^(7a, 251. 

be-teldan, 203. 

/■i'Z/an, 188, 189, 209, 222, 286. 

—feme, 229. 

?Brt, 1384-. 

—tedcta, 140. 

?('o«, 206, 247. 

<c'6/i, weak. 

— <«r, 255. 

^cran, 200. 

?jf/a«, 299. 

tidian, 297. 

— ii'Sr, 245. 

^/(/en, 205. 

—tigoda, 140. 

^JAa«, 205, 220. 

t/M<yiJian. 

til, 259, 351. 

iiuiber, 50. 

tt'mpav, 270. 

«, 15, 254, 328, 329, 352, 463, 472 

473. 
/o— , 254. 
to-dxge, 251. 
tb-edcan, 251, 258, 352. 
to-ealdre, 251. 
tb-foran, 257, 352. 
to-geedere, 251. 
tn-gegnes, 258, 352. 
td--mulde.% 251, 25S, 329, 352. 
tb-nihte, 251. 
tb-pcard, 259, 352. 
tb-pidere, 255, 352. 

/orf, 37, 41, 86,100. 
fof/(i, 230. 
toge.n<^tebn, 206. 
?r«rf, 199, 298. 
tredan, 199. 
^'•eo/', 100. 
trcbpcjin, 229. 
trebpian, 297. 
trebpsian, 297. 
?ci(i<^s (;>, )/), 199. 
ge-lri/pe, 297. 
— ?«, 228. 
^"JfP, 197, 206. 
f ?'«'/(', 95, 231. 
?"?/, 100, 269. 
fpa, 13S-I-. 



tpcnen, 13S-f . 
^/'<')/, 138+. 
t pen tig, 138+. 
?/'i;/, 209. 
tpipa, 145. 
////«/, 20(). 
^//(^ 230. 
— ^<^»i(', 229, 242. 
<i/», 13S+. 
— ^^»i«, 138-f-. 

/), rf, 10, 14, 27. 29, 194. 

— /), rf, 194, 228. 

A', 252, 202, 406, 472, 

/)(? /»-cbf<iniiaii, 4>i9. 

/i<ili<C/iii'ga)i. 

pah ^ (/)</) i/i««. 

paiiaii, 2,52, 262. 

paiiceK, 251. 

pann'an. 297. 

paiid<^f)hidan, 201. 

panne, 252. 

/)«'/, 212, 442. 

/)</.s «/ </);', 489. 

pd'h-Clnlum. 

p.i'ni bdriim prim, 4S9. 

/)jer, 252, 262, 397, 471, 475. 

pxrscK^perscan. 

pxs, 252, 202, 323. 

/)«?, 133, 134, 287, 368-380, 434, 
468, 473, 477. 

Z)*? ?.s, 468. 

/ia'^Cc, 468. 

/)(', rel., 134, 380. 

/>c, couj., 262, 464. 

/)«, 24, 37, 366. 

/>e, 262. 

peah<^picgan. 

pcd/i, 262, 476. 

pcd/i<^pebn. 

peah te<^ peccan, 

pearf, 212, 442. 

/)e«, 37, 130, 366. 

peccan, 209. 

pegon<^picgan. 

phi,,S~i. 

penc{e)an, 209, 216. 

penden, 262. 

penian, 297. 

ge-peoht, 228. 

^c'o*i, 206, 220. 

pebrK^peopan. 

pebs, 374. 

pcbtan, 206. 

/)p6;>, —a, — «, — e,-, 268. 

pebpan ({/, e, I), weak. 

pebp-bore7i,266; —li/id, 235, 

pebpian, 297. 

— rft'r, 228. 

perscan, 202. 

/)«, 133, 374. 

picg{e)an, 199. 

/jj'rfer, 252, 262, 471. 

pigen, 199. 

piqnen, 268. 

/ii/ia?), 205, 220. 

y!)j/i, 37, 132. 

pincan, 211. 

pindan, 201. 

/liftf)', 287. 

pingan, 201. 

pibh=zpe6n, 206. 

/)?.s, 133, 374. 

/iJ.ssp, .85. 

pohte<^pencmu 

ponne, 262, 466, 473. 

por/te, 212. 



prdpan, 208. 

prea, 100. 

/))•('</ (tes< pre&gan. 

pred'jan > predn, predpie, 35 
weak. 

pred<^prt. 

preotaii, -^06. 

preo-tpiie, 13S, 141, 266. 

pre6p<^ prdpan. 

preopan, 206. 

/(rt, 41, 138, 139, 141. 

prlfiildan, 248. 

prindan=printan. 

prinfian, 201. 

printan, 201. 

P'lpa, 14.5. 

pmetK^pperan. 

p>'i, 24, 130. 

pithte<^pl/ncan. 

pundei; .50. 

pwiian, 188. 

pure.n<Cpperaiu 

pur/an, 212. 

/>Mr/i, 15, 254, 328, 329, 353, 409, 

/>?<«, 262. 
piUend, 13S+. 

ppeahanyppidn, 207. 

ppiV<'>i<pi'<:dn. 

ppeh(t<^ /ipeahan. 

ppeorhteme, 229. 

ppei>t<m<^ppitan. 

pperan, 2iM», 224. 

ppintre, 201. 

ppi/iui, 205. 

pl'i'>li(;l)<^ppedti. 

ppi'ii'iK^pperan. 

py, 133, 26i, 3T4, 466, 473. 

i6^ /a;.s /)e, 477. 

pi/der,41l. 

Pl/lc, 133, 375. 

/i.'/^BM, 268. 

yf)^/?'', 136. 

/)7«fc, 13.3,375. 

pijncan, 211, 216, 286. 

pyrinrjd.% 238. 

/)i;.s-?tr;, 136. 

pypaii—pcvpan. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 

As, 130, 366. 

&«er, 37, 130, 132. 

iiserne, 490. 

;/*■?■«, 130, 366. 

(if, 15, 254 ; —an, 252, 257, 329, 

357; — e, 252; -ewta, 126. 
utan, 205, 224, 443. 
I'Uepeard, 129. 
utian, 57. 
uton=^utan. 



237 



M, 14, 22, 23, 32, 35, 50. 

—u (o), 228, 265. 

— M, 228. 

— <te, 22S. 

— M<(i, 228, 240. 

—u<_vjd, 228. 

A, 24, 32. 

— -!tc, 228. 

—lid, 228. 

tide, 37, 212. 

M/a»i, 2.52, 257, 354. 

ufane, 252. 

-til, 22S. 

— ttiH, 251. 

un, 15, 242, 254, 400, 456. 
unc, 130, 287, 366. 
iincor, 132. 
uncliine, 266. 

?(/(,i/c/-, 15, 126, 255, 328, 355. 
undernevdan, 257, 355. 
undernmM, 229, 239. 
—ting, 2'28, 460. 

i/e-uiiiian, 212, 297. 

nrifri'oprt, 265. 

unpin, 265. 

»«JJ, 15, 254. 

tqtpan, 257, 328, 356. 

—Mr, 228. 

fire, 130, 132. 



/>, 10, 14, 27, 30, 31, 35, 2, a. 

-/><««, 228. 

—P<vjd, 228. 

— /'a<o, 228. 

/»«, 263, 298. 

}jaca?i, 207. 

paman, 248. 

padan, 207. 

pdgoiK^pegan. 

iralla, 225. 

pan<^piniian. 

pan—, 259. 

P«;kt, 107, 259, 32S, 358, 393. 

—pare, 86, 101, 229. 

paxcnn=paxan, 207. 

p<'U<^pUan. 

pdmie<^pdpan, 208, 224, d. 

paidla, 107. 

p!Bf<^pefan. 

pin, 37. 

pipned (pSpen—, pip—) 
—man, —cild, etc., 268, 269. 

/'.■Br, 125. 

/".igrf?, 169</>ftsan. 

px8<ipemn, 168, 417. 

pxstm, 234 ; —b^re, 243. 

past-a, — e, 228. 

/>e, 37, 130, 366. 

/>c«, 263. 

pe{a)htc<^peccan. 

pealcan, 20S. 

pealdan, 208, 300. 

peallun, 208. 

—peard, 229, 245, 259, 359. 

pmrd<^pcor(tan. 

pearin, -l-l-^. 

pearmidii, 240. 

pi'arnung, 228. 

peaxan, 207, 298. 

pebb-a, —e, —ere, —estre, 268. 

pccmn, 189, 209. 

pedldc, 229. 

/»('./■((», 199. 

/"efir M, 263. 

pegan, 199. 

pehte<^peccan. 

pel, 251, 259, 263, 298. 

peldbn, 267. 

pelerdn, 100. 

;'e^?f/, 243. 

pemde, 1S9. 

pende, 208. 

peolc<^ pealcan. 

p('op<^ pepan. 

peor, 129. 

peorc(e)an, 211. 

peordan, 204, 286, 415. 

peorpan, 204. 

peoruldd, 93. 

pepan, 208. 

percan<^ pyrcan. 

pergan, 45. 

per-polf, 266. 

/JesaJi, 197, 199, 213, 225, 286. 

/'esf, 251 : — an, 252 ; —emest, 

129 ; .p&fen, 269. 



pexp<^peaxan. 

pic, 101. 

pican, 205. 

picc-a, —e, 268. 

/"We, 251. 

ptdgil, 38. 

pjrf, 15, 254, 255, 32S, 329, 359, 
compouuds, —x/tan, —fo- 
ran, etc., 257, 32S, 329, 369- 
— .saca/i, 297; —standan, 299 ;' 
— pinnan, 299. 

/>?'rfer, 15, 255. 

/'if, 268 ; —freond, 268; — i<ic, 
233 ; — iic, 241 ; -^lan, 229, 
266; —peg7i,2G8. 

pif estre, 268. 

pigan, 205. 

pigsmid, 229, 232. 

(ge)piht, 136, 235, 269, 389,400. 

/Jlie, 298. 

pillan, 167, 212, 415, 440. 

pimman, 268. 

/>"», 269. 

pindan, 201. 

/>i«€, 86, 100, 232. 

pinnan, 201. 

pintrd, 93. 

pircan, 211. 

— /'lA', 229, 242. 

piadom, 235. 

/'isse, 35, 212. 

/'JSfe, 35, 212, 29& 

/'if, 2S7. 

pitan, 212. 

/'jtoH, 205, 212. 

pitlrdst, 235. 
pUnian, 250. 
/'!Yo(//tce, 261, 463. 

plitan, pldt, 20S. 

poldi'S, 176. 

Z'O/), 57. 

/'wrf, 73. 

porden-i^peordaii. 

por{u)hte<^pyrcan. 

prxc<^prccan. 

prsBcea, 107. 

praic.e, 88. 

predh<Cpre6n. 

precan, 199. 

preccan, 209. 

/'r«7i ?«< preccan. 

prebn, 20 6, 220. 

prtdan, 205. 

priilnn, 36. 

prhtun, 205. 

prihan, 205, 220. 

prutgnn, 201. 

pritan, 205. 

prltboc, 265. 

prolan, 208. 

— /"M, 228. 

pudup-e, 35 ; —a, 268. 

/>?<//, 70, 268. 

pimdnnn, 251. 

punian, 286. 

pinpe<^ peorpan. 

put-an, —on, — wn, 176, 224, 

/'///f, 208. 

P!dlan=pillan. 

P!in, 91, 231. 

pijnxum, 229. 

pi/rcan, 211, 224, 248. 

/'///•rfc, 243. 

pijrvtan, 24.8, 249. 

pgrnan, 297. 

/"i/rs, 129. 



238 



IiNDEX OF WUKDS. 



y, U, 23, 32. 
^, 24, :fi. 

yean, 1S9. 

iz/V/, 129. 

Phte<^(/can. 

lllr, 183, 136, 376. 

i/ldan, IMS. 

I/H(!i^.•), 15, 254, 292, 328, 

—I'ltan, 257, 3G0. 
J/7H«, 43. 
Vppan, 57, 24S. 
ynitan, 248. 
t/;-(WH<c'or/ian. 
^?«H, 24S. 

GOTHIC. 

o, IS. 

—a, 71, 72, 228. 

— a<— (i or —ba, 251. 

— a>A.-Sa.x. — c, 252. 

— a—. 207. 

«/("./'), -'H 348. 

a/ar {(i/tfr), 331. 

fli,/Y)f()i/x?a, 127. 

ffi/M, 2'-'S. 

a'>it.,i(, 139. 

ahtndan, 123. 

fli, IS, 33. 

— </?, 160. 

iii, 18, 24, 158, 159. 

Ainlif, 139. 

//nis, 1-59. 

UM- (£r), 382. 

aip-pau, 262. 

</iD, 254, 261. 

«?r.s', 228. 

o*, 262. 

akrs, 228. 

««, •-'62. 

ana (on), 254, 341. 

onrf, 254, 330, 347. 

a?!.s'<i,(leclined, 89. 

anpnra — , 126. 

—arja, 22S. 

at {set), 254, 333. 

aw, IS, 33. 

—aw-, 211. 

"M, IS, 25, 93, 158, 159. 

uuk (c&c), 254, 335. 

azgo, 51. 

6,19. 
—6a, 251. 
baira(da), 219, 228. 
6a//)s, 36. 
band, 15S. 
6a)ui?, 228. 
6n?-/?, 228. 
ban, ;.<iks, 228. 
b'liian, 213. 
6.hf(7, 158. 
6?', 254, 3.B4. 
biiuian, 1.58. 
blinds, declined, 107. 
bdknri'is, 228. 
brotliar, 228. 
biujiim, 158. 
bundum, 158. 

rf,19. 
—da, 219. 
rfad, 168. 
rfa.as, 229. 
dnirxan, 212. 
daursta, 212. 



dduthiis, 228. 

</»■(/«, iuflected, 168. 

rfw— , 2.'i4. 

— rfr^ 262. 

dw (to), 204, 352. 

.^,18,24,26,71,168,160. 
t'J, IS, 168. 
360; f/.s 130. 



./; 19. 

fadfi; 228. 

/a//-m (/(sor), 129, 251, 254, 336 

falpa, •_'2".i. 

faran, •J4S. 

fiirjair, 24S. 

/•«/o- (/(<r), 254, 337. 

./>('oa (,/o;r), 129, 254, 337. 

rt'/co;-, 47, 139. 

ll)n/, 139. 

./^m— , 254. 

/ram, 254. 

fruma, 126. 

— /f, 194. 

/tti^s, 229. 

S'.ia. 

r/g-nifj), 19, 28. 
fl-a- , 254. 
gariifan, 213. 
jra^an, 248. 
<7«r(/6', 34. 

gib-a, —di, —6s, 23, 228 ; de- 
clined, S8. 
guljan, 248. 
gredags, 228. 
gudjinasstts, 228. 

/(, 19, 33. 

huihait, 1.59. 

/!«//)«/(/, 159. 

lid I'm, 24. 

hairdeiii, declined, 83, 231. 

hiiitada, 219. 

Ii/iitan, 159. 

luildan, 159. 

/(rt»a, declined, 95. 

/(«(((/!/, 228. 

hardvs, 110, 229. 

harjix, declined, 83. 

hduhs, 118. 

/(«>-, 252. 

/i(5/<)o, 2.52. 

/r/t;*e, 252. 

himlana, 252. 

hinduma, 126. 

/i.t)a, 135. 

hvadre, 71, 252. 

hvdiva, 252. 

Avan, 252. 

A«ar, 252. 

/i«a.s, 135. 

Awrtjl), — ro, 252. 

hvajjara, 126. 

/(I'e, 71. 

/u'(), 135. 

?', IS, 33, 158. 
i>a?', 159. 
i6a, 262. 
id—, 254. 
rWja, 213. 
igqar, 132. 
igq-ara, —is, 130. 
?;a, 130. 

lA;, declined, 130. 
«Aei, 381. 



im, inflected, 213, 
in, 254, 341. 
innanuj 252. 
M, declined, 130, 
in, verb, 213. 
vVrt, declined, 130. 
ip, 2(i2. 
•m, IS, 158. 
iiiji, 254 ; —a, 356. " 
—iza, 228 ; izei, 381. 
?^«ar, 132. 
izv-ara, —is, 130. 

7, 19. 
>, 261. 
jabdi, 262. 
}«/(, 202. 
jdi, 261. 
>«■»!.'*, 133, 256. 
jugg, 28. 
j/!(A-s, 228. 
^wx, 130. 
jut, 130. 
j«/<aw, 262. 

i, 19. 
— ^, 130. 
kunds, 229. 
ten?', declined, 83. 
^-^«n/<a, 212. 
kvens, 228. 

?,19. 
— ?, 236. 
Idian, 159. 
Idikan, 159. 
^hX-s, 229. 
Idildik, 159. 
^i?'W, 159. 
?«!76?, 1.59. 
lasivs, 129. 
— ?tiMS, 229. 
— iczfcs, 229. 
?e?an, 159. 
libaini, 228. 

m, 19. 

md-ists, —iza, 123. 

mans, 229. 

marei, 38. 

meina, 130. 

meins, 132. 

— miei, 229. 

midjia, 114. 

midji% 114, 228. 

■miA;, 130. 

w-is, 130. 

missa — , misso, 254. 

TO?7> (mi(7), 254, 343. 

munps, 24, 228. 

w, 19. 

warn, inflected, 166. 

nam 6, 228. 

nasida, inflected, 168. 

nasip{a)s, 175. 

wasja, inflected, 165. 

nas-jan, —ida, —idedum, 16ft 

Jle ^r/w, 261. 

n^/iu (jiedh), 344. 

nehva, 251. 

nemjdu. Inflected, 171. 

w«^to, 228. 

Mi, 254. 

Wto, inflected, 174. 

nima, inflected, 165. 

niman, 175. 



INDEX OF \Y01iDS. 



239 



nima7id{a).i, 175. 


jba?!, verb, 158. 


at, 2154 ; handum, 82 


iiincau, lUllecLea, 170. 


pan, 252. 




niujis, ia9. 


/)rt/irfe, 262. 


6>/, 30. 


niun, 139. 


par, 252. 


6c, 254. 


numans, 175. 


/)ato, declined, 108. 


bi, 254. 




patei, 46S. 


6i««, 213. 


d, 18, 24, 95, 158, 159. 


/)aj&rd, 252. 


6iMm, 218. 


—6, 2.'il. 


patch, 262. 


blind, declined, 107. 


—or, 123. 


pe, 71. 


boci, 91. 


—ost, 123. 


/)ei;«i, 130. 


- 




peim, 132. 


— d=— <ft,194. 


p, 19, 80. 


penum, 158. 


daflf, 229. 


j'aitms, declined, 101. 


jijX-, 130. 


darnu7ig6, 251. 




/)!.s, 130. 


cfo/i, 213. 


g=to. 


^re(S, 139 ; —tigjus, 189. 






prijataihun, 139. 


6=^, ITO. 


r, 19, 33. 


/»«, declined, 130. 


ef, 262. 


r .nop, 159. 


/)?(e!, 381. 


eii?/, 139. 


razn, 229. 


puhtun, 228. 


en, 139. 


7 edan, 159. 


pi'iswuli, 139. 


eo, 254. 


—reiku, 229. 


M, IS, 23, 158. 


e«/ta, 262. 


S, 19, 123. 


— M— , 166. 


f<b, 30. 


— s<-<A<— «, 160. 


u, IS. 


/ar, 254. 


sa, decliued, 1U4. 


«/ar (o/cr), 252, 349. 


fer, 254. 


8ui— , 24. 


v/ta, 251. 


/i/, 139. 


saihx, lb9. 


ugkar, 132. 


/war, 139. 


saihvan, 197. 


ugk-ara, —is, 130. 


fora, 254. 


salbo-n, —aa, —dedum, 160. 


— Jt/t, 133. 


/ormo, 126. 


«aifc6, inflected, 165. 


MM— 254. 


fram, 2.54. 


wwta, 133, 254. 


undar., 355. 


— /M«, 229. 


8ama>, 252, 350. 


M7(*', — «ra, — is, 130. 


/M>-i, 254." 


sat, 158. 


nn«ar, 132. 




satjan, 248. 


unpa, not found, 212. 


gdn, 213. 


se, 132. 


?<.s — , 254. 


i/e, 130. 


seMis, 132. 


{it, 63, 254. 


geba, declined, 88. 


seluin, 15S. 


i<to«a, 252, 357. 


gi, 130. 


si, declined, 130. 




gi— 254. 


sibun, b5, 139. 


f,19. 


ginerid, 175. 


nibuntehimd, 139. 


valmjan, 158. 


j/ii, 180. 


gij'ait, 213. 


«(ii, 263. 




siifta, 181. 


vaila, 251. 


(a?)/((i?)(7w-m,339. 


silubr, 26. 


i)a«r, 229. 


/jano, declined, 95. 


silubreins, 228. 


vairps, 229 


her, 252. 


sind, 213. 


mrf, 158. 


/jerorf, 252. 


ainteins, 254. 


valdan, 300. 


/lirrfi, declined, 83. 


stton, 158, 248. 


•yans, 358. 


hinmi, 252. 


8i«s, 228. 


carm, 228. 


hvanan, 252. 


s6, decliued, 103. 


—vas'^—os, 165. 


/iwar, 252. 


—St., 194. 


mJo, 228. 


huarod, 252. 


Staintdut, 159. 


wis, 130. 


/Mwf, 135. 


stuutan, 159. 


vilda, 212. 


/m**-, 135. 


steinaha, 228. 


viljdu, 212. 


hiteder, 126. 


8Mrnt«, declined, 98, 228, 


vi«, 130. 


/titnd, 139. 


8i>a/i, 252. 


vitum, 158. 




svaihra, 268. 


?;i/)ra, 254, 359. 


-i<:-'itha, 166. 


81)6, 71, 252. 


vfVis, — ?«m, 158. 


ia, 261. 


sveleihs, 138. 


vulfs, declined, 70. 


ic, declined, 180. 
idur, 254. 


f,19. 
—t<i—tha, 166. 


OLD SAXON. 


i»ic, 130. 
i}u-«, 132. 


taz7(, — ?«»i, 158. 


-a, 251, 252. 


in7ia, 254. 


tailiun, 139. 


a—, 254. 


ira, 130. 


r(/?^»i.s, 248. 


d=i, 170. 


i,s, inflected, 213. 


«/m«W, 139. 


oc, 262. 


iti, 130. 


teihaii, 158, 248. 


dOar, 126. 


iwa, 132. 


«ii, 351. 


a/, 254. 


iioar, 130. 


tinirjan, 50. 


aftor, 331. 




(rioa, 25, 35. 


dhto, 139. 


ja, 262. 


— te, 105. 


rt«, 254. 


jac, 262. 


(yci;/, 139 ; —tigjus, 139. 


and, 254. 




twai?/, 139 ; —telmnd, 139. 


a7irfi, 202. 


—kraft, 229. 




angimang, 341. 


fcMJmi, 229. 


/), 19. 


ajik, declined, 89. 




— /;, 1!;4. 


«««, 2.'i4. 


—16s. 229. 


/)(lrf^?,2-''2. 


ant-xibvntn, —tehunta, —tue- 




pairh {puih), 204, 358. 


lifta, 139. 


— uta/ic,;, 229. 



240 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



— man, 229. 
7(i^ro, 123. 
ixtist, V23. 
ml, UiO. 
mill, -.'64. 

VI ik \-;((c), 123, 130. 
mill, lyo, 132. 
mis—, •.'54. 

nam, inflected, 106. 

ndmi. iuflected, 171. 

»«■, 254. 

neriilu, inflected, 168. 

ner-jmi, —ida, —idun, 160. 

m'rjii, inflected, 105. 

ni, 264. 

niijiui, ir>9. 

nim, inflected, 174. 

nimau, 175. 

nimatul, 175. 

iihiKt till ins, 175. 

nime, inflected, 170. 

nimu, iuflected, 105. 

iiumaii, 175. 

—0, 251. 
obftar, 252. 
6i-, -254. 
—or, 123. 
— o.*;, 123. 

radur, 23. 

«, 213. 

xdm—, 254. 

««»)(«, 133, 254. 

—scaft, 229. 

seau-o-da, — (?tm, 160. 

sca«'6/i, 100; inflected, 165. 

— scepi, 229. 

se, 132. 

se/w, 139. 

settian, 248. 

.S)(),, 137. 

sj"6h«, 1.S9. 

{aiit).<iibunta, 139. 

s»t— , 25i. 

*ft«, 132. 

siiid, 213. 

sindum, 213. 

sitticin, 248. 

s?mM, declined, 93. 

<<', 2.54. 
fe-, 254. 
?<'/!«», 139. 
to, 254. 
fHcZ»y; 139. 
{ant)tuHifta, 139. 
tuetm, 139. 
tuentig, 139. 

/)=?/!. 

-<;«=— <f, 194. 
thanan, 252. 
<^«c, — (j(/, 252. 
t/fss-c, — M, declined, 133. 

Wt, 130. 

?/)/(-, 130. 

thi:i, 1.30. 

?/!?>, declined, 133. 

thoh. 262. 

^/(/7V(, 139. 

rhrifid, 139. 

?/"', declined, 130. 

t/»!o/i, 254. 



tkiisundiff, 139. 

— M, nenter, 72. 
M«(^/, 2.'>4, 360. 
WW—, 254. 

MIC, 130. 
t(»ic«, 132. 
uiiciT, — n, 130. 
inidtir, 355. 
('«?, 25i. 
"/), 254. 
/■/.v, 130. 
fixa, 132. 
w.scr, 130. 
Mf, 254. 

ive, 263. 

«'^, pronoun, 130. 

wer, 229. 

"V?, inflected, 212. 

ii'i, 130. 

u'/rf, 254. 

—vUi, 229. 

iri?, 130. 

M'«//, declined, TO. 

wunnia, 231. 

OLD FRIESIC. 

i>/, 30. 

i»Z»i(/, declension, 107. 

— e<— ja, S3. 

/«A;, declined, 70. 

hona, declined, 95. 
hxtrnar, 82. 
hxva, Invet, 135. 

ji>/, 202. 

jeve, declined, 88. 

kindera, 82. 

nSd, declined, 89. 

sunu, declined, 93. 

—tigosta, 140. 

— w, neuter, 72. 

OLD NOESE. 

—a, adv., 251. 
a, 254. 
a*-, 254. 
of, 254. 
a?«f, 254. 
annar, 126. 
— ar, 123. 
— osf, 123. 
dst, declined, 89. 
at, 254. 
dtta, l.?9. 
ajti, 254. 

hyf, 30. 
6^r, 229. 
6hJid, declined, 107. 

dagr, 229. 
rf<>/»9-, 229 

eda, 260. 



cjJiJi, 139. 

ek, declined, 130. 

eUifu, 139. 

—limey— ende, 17& 

(7''"". 331. 

e>-, 130. 

er—, 254. 

—faldr. 229. 
—fiisti; 229. 
Jiani, 254. 
flinm, 139. 
/orir, 139. 
/or—, 2.54. 
fram, 254. 
./>•»«/(, 126. 
—fiillr, 229. 
/(i«, 242. 
/^ri, 254. 

jr— , 254. 

f/i'/t declined, 88. 

/wo?, declined, 95. 
//((/■(/;•, 229. 
Iiedav, 252. 
/icrfra, 252. 
/!•?/-, 252. 

kcrr, declined, 83. 
Immlrad, 139. 
hvadan, 2.52. 
/iiiar, 135, 252. 
hvdrr, 126. 
/tm^ 135. 
hvert, 252. 

— ?, adv., 252. 
i, 254. 
ia, 201. 
?rf— , 254. 
inn, 254. 
rt, 130. 

to??a, 160 ; inflected, 165. 
kallada, 100. 
ki'illudutn, 100. 
kynni, 229. 

— ?atts, 229. 
^ef/r, 229. 
/e2A;r, 229. 
Ukr, 229. 

—madr, 229. 
— wd/, 229. 
rne<^, 254. 
vieiri, 123. 
meistr. 123. 
7ncr, 130. 
mik^inei, 123. 
«i?'i, 130. 
Diirt, 130. 
ininn, 132. 
miss—, 254. 

naw, inflected, 166. 
nSnii, inflected, 171. 
ne, 254. 
nedan, 346. 
wwi, inflected, 165. 
n(;7», imperative, 174. 
nevia, 175. 
nevinndi, 175. 
jiewM, inflected, 170. 
ri^M, 139. 
riMwiiwi, 175. 



ok, 262. 

okkar, 130, 132. 
okkr, 130. 
or, 254. 
6s8, 130. 

—rdd, 229. 
ranri, 229. 
—rikr, 229. 

sd, declined, 133. 
.lam—, 254. 
sawir, 133, 229. 
scapr, 229. 
seiia, 248. 
se^', 139. 
st, 254. 
s'/uu, 139. 
ainn, 132. 
Si '^y?, 139. 
situi, 248. 
smidr, 229. 
«onr, declined, 93. 
—stafr, 229. 
«-«, decliued, 153. 

taWa, 160; Inflected, 168 

toW/-, 175. 

tel, inflected, 165. 

telja, 160. 

til, 351. 

iJM, 139; — (Im, 139. 

t'ddiirn, 160. 

<6V, 139; — <2m,139. 

tugasti, 140. 

tuttugu, 139. 

twir, 139. 

pcutan, 252. 

/)«(//■«, 252. 

/»«?-, 252. 

M«, declined, 133. 

/>er, 130. 

pik, 130. 

/>^?J, 130. 

pinn, 132. 

/)»■«, 130. 

/>6, 260. 

prettian, 139. 

priatigi, 139. 

^rir, 139. 

M, declined, 13a 

piisund, 139. 

w— , 254. 

&?/>•, declined, TO. 

urn {ymbe), 254, 360. 

undr, 355. 

fiwi/r, 28. 
■unz, 254. 
Mp<i, 356. 
Wj5p, 254 
ur—, 254. 
M<, 254. 

vanr, 358. 
i><i»-, 130. 
f<irr, 132. 
ve, Swed., 263. 
ver, 130. 
vid, 254, 359. 
— «is, 229. 
vit, 130. 

.'/rfar, 130, 132. 
ydr, 130. 
t/ttar, 130, 132. 
!/<;A;r, 130. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 
HIGH GERMAN, 

MOSTLY 

OLD HIGH GERMAN. 
—a, 251, 252. 
&<cir—, 254. 
aba, 254. 
aftar, 331. 
ciAre, 269. 
an, 262. 
a«a, 254. 
andera. 126. 
«««, 254. 
anW, 262. 
auh, 254. 
a^, 254. 

I bi, 25. 
&dM — , 32. 
balo, 32. 
bezerroro, 127. 
6Zffl«, 269. 
fcMcA, 269. 
buocheri, 228. 



241 



I cA, see k. 

danana, 252. 

rfanta, 262. 

ddr, 252. 

rfar-a; —of, 252. 

daz, decliued, 104. 

daz, 468. 

der, declined, 104. 

diner, 132. 

diser, 133. 

rf?M, declined, 104. 

do, 252. 

1^0^, 262. 

rf»», 41. 

dv, declined, 130. 

durah, 254. 

eddo, 262. 
edilinc, 228. 
«no, 262. 
eo, 254. 
ec-rirar, 254. 
esiluichilin, 228. 

/aAs, 36. 
—/alt, 229. 
/ar, 253. 
/afer unser, 381, 
/er, 254. 
/este, 26i*. 
fila, 25. 
— /oi, 229. 
/ora, 254. 
/ram, 254. 
/rumi, 126. 
/?<9j.s, 242. 
/uotisal, 228. 

/M02, 41. 
/Mj-i", 253. 

ganerit, 175. 
gatvmianer, 17& 
£^(Sm, 213. 
geaicht, 269. 
<;»M, 252. 
gruoni, 114. 
i/M«m, 228. 

kaltan, 159. 

hatia/, 41. 

Aa?io, declined, 95. 

Q 



—hart, 229. 

/lefr, 269. 

Aemif, 159. 

/i^-rt, 269. 

Iieim, 24. 

—heit, 229. 

Acra, 252. 

/i«»-o<, 252. 

/(«>•»•, 269. 

'Jt'aZf, 159. 

/iiar, 252. 

hinana, 252. 

/»Mt?, declined, 83, a. 

/io/!, 118. 

houpit, 41. 

/wtieo, 262. 

hwanana, 252. 

/m'<ir, 252. 

hwar-a ; —ot, 252. 

Ai«az, 135. 

hwedar, 126. 

Awcr, 135. 

—i<—itha, 166. 
ia, 261. 
?'6m, 262. 
«eei«o, 262. 
I J'A, 41. 
in, 254. 
mw, 262. 
JoA, 262. 
—ira, 82, 228. 
'<— , 264. 
iwarer, 132. 

JM, 252. 
Jung, 28. 
junkilinc, 228. 

A;a— , 253. 

te/!«, 37. 

*ei6, — jV, 82. 

kind, 41. 

A^'jope, 269. 

konio, 41. 

^«/« (chraft), 229, 269. 

ckund, 229. 

chunni, 229. 

/fewnm, declined, 83, a. 

!— ?, 236. 
—lam, 229. 
ZetcA^, 269. 
— ie?7j, 229, 
— hTt, 229. 
—liclie, 251. 

magati, 228. 
— niahal, 229. 
—man, 229. 
mdno, 24. 
wiari, 38. 
miluc, 32. 
rninSr, 132. 
wis—, 254. 
»«■<?', 254. 
mwi/i, 269. 

paw, inflected, 166. 
HiiiTO?, inflected, 171. 
n<>, 254. 
I nc6e»i, 258. 
Iri€in, 261. 
\ neman, 175. 
I nemanti, 1 75. 
«<;»!«, inflected, 170. 
I «««■<«, inflected, 168. 



242 

neri-ta, —tumls, 160. 

jurjan, 160. 

nerju, inflected, 166. 

nt, "264. 

vidar, '255. 

iiiVn, "261. 

/li'm. iurtected, 174. 

niimi, inttecled, 166. 

«u, '252, '26'2. 

o, 261. 
od— , 262. 
oh, 26'2. 
— <)r, 123. 
—vst, 123. 
ostroni, 228. 

«oZ-j(, — a«)e«, 81. 

;a(in", 229. 

;>J, 254. 

jjim, inflected, 213. 

plint, declined, 107. 

—rat, 229. 
rdtisal, 2'2& 
—rlh, 229. 

saaf, 209. 

salpo-", eta, —tumis, 160. 

—sarii, 229. 

satna, 254. 

sawt, 254. 

samo, 133. 

«<in, 24. 

sc=:s/i, 34. 

«;a/<, 2'29. 

sc?ulrpe, 269. 

«ei7, 269. 

«w/h', 37. 

««, 213. 

«i«-, 254. 

«in«r, 132. 

—mriid, 229. 

80, 134. 

— stoi), 229. 

steinoM, 228. 

steoz, 159. 

steroz, 159. 

«fioz, 159. 

stozan, 159. 

sunu, declined, 93. 

tac, 229. 

tarnunkim, 251. 
tat, 168. 

teta, inflected, 168. 
tior, 41 . 
tor/, 269. 
— tttom, 229. 
tMon, 213. 

fi, 71. 
«6ar, 252. 
«/, 254. 
tfan, 356. 
umpi, 254. 
«n— , 254. 
MJisarer, 132. 
un(— , 254. 
untar, 355. 
Mr—, 254 
«Z, 254. 

— ce«te(M.H.G.),229. 

w, 30. 
waffe, 269. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



iramunfia, 228. 

—wart, 2'29. 

tc^, 203. 

tct'iH, 269. 

u<eiz, inflected, 212, 

leela, 2t)3. 

—wiTt, 229. 

wicht, 269. 

tdj'dor, 254. 

«'fe«(M.H.G.),229.. 

johV/, declined, 70. 

i««sf«, 269. 

z</ftfe,269. 
zoJirf, 37, 41. 
zar, 254. 
zer, 264. 
zi, 254. 
ziigosto, 140. 
z«o, 254. 
ZMieiV/, 269. 

LATIN. 

a, 18, 38, 2. 
—a, neuter, 64, 72. 
—a<.a, 228. 
<J, IS. 

—a—, 160. 
a(>, 254. 
abbatissa, 268. 
,u-«.s, 228. 
arf, 254. 

admir-e, — er, — ation, 37. 
rt;,lS. 

(VVO-, 228, 254. 
a(7e, 443. 
agro-, 228. 
at, 18. 

I —al=ar, 36. 
aliquis, 136. 
a(io»is(Fr.),443. 
alterus, 126. 
amatwm ire, 445. 
amaturum esse, 445. 
rtwdwi, 160. 
or?ib— , 254. 
on, 264. 
an — , 254. 

ancora (ancor), 270. 
andtamo (Ital.), 443. 
^ndreiis, declined, 101. 
— <in«o— , 228. 
angui.1, 228. 
ante, 254. 
aper, 35. 
aperio, 38. 
Aprilis, 38. 
— ar=; — a^ 36. 
— ord (O. Fr.), 229. 
—dri+io, 228. 
-(is, 101. 
asintm, 41. 
— a.stro— , 228. 
aw, 18. 
aiidlvi, 160. 

&, 19, 35. 

balsamum (balsam), 270. 

bellico—, 228. 

— bi, 63, 254. 

bibere dari, 453. 

bibiturwi sum, 416. 

brevity, 37. 

brief, — er, 37. 

huxus, 270. 

c,19. 



c=(, 2T. 
caw€ra, 35. 
cannabis, 41. 
caput, 41. 

career, 229. 

castrHm (c(;ast«r),33, 34,270. 
— ce, 133. 
(r«nttM/i, 139. 
centuria, 139. 
Christus, declined, 101. 
ciiieris, 36. 
citro, 252. 
civilis, 34. 

— c-J, 236. 

CO—, 264. 

—CO, 228. 

coelitus, 63. 

(;cBfMm>cerulean, 36. 
I coHitT)t>cyM, 41. 
I con, 63. 

conde.mTW, 38. 

contra, 359. 

correctum, 38. 

credo (creda), 270. 

cwm, 254. 

— cunque, 136. 

d,19. 

daw»M), 38. 
-de, 63. 
decern, 139. 
dentis, 37, 41. 
dexter, 126. 
dico, 158. 
djitf/o, 38. 

dingvM, 139. 

dis, 254. 

docui, 160. 

doctum ire, 445. 

dowo — , 228. 

dovnmculo—, 228. 

donum, 175. 

dttJcis, 41. 

— dwm e.sse, 445. 

dMO, 139. 
I diwdecim, 139. 
■d«s, 451. 



e,18. 

e, IS. 

— e, ablative, 251. 

edmus, 443. 

ed6n?s, 228. 

cffic?o, 38. 

(;(7o,41; declined 180. 

ei, 18. 

ewi«, inflected, 174. 

emem, inflected, 170. 

emendo, 175. 

eme)itis, 175. 

enii, inflected, 166. 

cwo, 165. 

emptus, 175. 

— en<— an, 228. 

CO magis, 374. 

episcopus, 43. 

epistola {pistol), ^S. 

equns, declined, 70. 

-€r, 122, 129, 228. 

—er<Cas, 2'28. 

— crn, 229. 

—es, 101. 

espace (Fr.), 48. 

est, 213. 

ef, 262. 

ex, 254. 

ea;— ,43. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



243 



exehtdo, 48. 
exfinlto, 38. 
externo—, 228. 
extra, 228. 
extrdrieo—, 228. 

/, 19, 35. 

facio, 38. 

facilliifno — , 126. 

fera, 41. 

fero, 228. 

—ferns, 229. 

_^i?t««, declined, S3. 

forviu—, 228. 

/r<i^er, 38, 41, 228. 

fraxiiio — , 228. 

fregt, — ivn(s, 158. 

frxictus, declined, 98. 

frtwr, 300. 

fuga, 228. 

fiKji, —inms, 158. 

fugio, 158. 

/«?:, 160, 213. 

fuisse habiturum, 445. 

9,19. 

— gena, 229. 

—gen-US, —eris, 34, 228, 229. 

—ginti, 13i). 

{g))umien, 228. 

fc, 19. 

/ifibw, perfect, 458. 

/leec dicere habeo, 453. 

Hecuba, 35. 

Herudes, declined, 101. 

/(ic, 133, 252, 374. 

hitic, 252. 

Aodie, 130. 

/iomo, 41, 71 ; declined, 95. 

hue, 252. 

hgmnus, 43. 

?•, 18, 228. 

?•< j<2, 228. 

i, 18. 

— i— ,160; — t— ,267. 

ignis, 228. 

i», 254. 

in — , 254. 

-ina^Anja, 228. 

inde, 03. 

infero, 38. 

insidia, 228. 

inter, 120 ; ArFC, 355. 

—io<ja, 228. 

—ion<^jan, 228. 

—for, 1-23. 

ir«, 158. 

— wco— , 228. 

— !ssa, 232. 

— issivto — , 126. 

iste, declined, 103. 

ita, 252. 

iterum, 254. 

j, 19. 

jaw, 252, 262. 
jocufi^gioco, ^^ 
Jove"^ Grove, 34. 
jugo—, 228. 
juratuji, 455. 
juvenis, 2S. 

J, 19, .'iS. 
—J, 236. 
— ia, 228. 



laterna, 229. 
legionis, 228. 
%o, 38. 
legionis, 228. 
liberal, 36. 
librdriu—, 228. 
—he, 229. 
liliiim (lilie), 270. 
-liyno—, 126. 
lingua, 139. 
literal, 36. 
lucerna, 229. 
lupus, 41. 

TO, 19, 35. 
machina, 35. 
maj-or, — ?/s, 123. 
manus, 228. 
Massinissa, 35. 
TO(?, 130. 
med^rne, 130. 
medio — , 228. 
TO«i, 130. 

— r»en< — 97ian, 228. 
mentis, 228. 
TO«trMm, 50. 
•metts, 132. 
wiftj, 130. 
millia, 139. 
mirac-le, — ulons, 37. 
— r/(o, 228. 
m,odulationis, 34. 
mulgeo, 50. 
m,tdtus vir, 394. 

w, 19. 

nationis, 34. 
natura, 34. 
—neulo—, 228. 
?)«, 254. 
«e— , 228. 
7ie, 254. 
nebula, 35. 

»M, 228. 
—no, 228. 
nobis, 130. 
no??, auxil.,420. 
{g)nmnen, 228. 
7ion, 261 ; >Msr, 345. 
n6«« (won), 270. 
nos, 130. 
noster, 132. 
nostr-i, — ttm, 130. 
norts (Fr.), 366. 
nowem, 139. 
novMS, 139. 
—nu, 228. 
— WM<— n«, 228. 
7Mtnc, 252. 

0,18. 

— 0, nonu, 228. 
— o, verb, 228. 
o, 18. 

6, ablative, 251. 
ob-\-fero, 35. 
oceamis, 34. 
octo, 139. 
oe, 18. 
oi, 18. 

oinos^imus, 139. 
on<— an, 228. 
opiw e»<, 212. 

p, 19, 35. 

palatium (palant), 270. 

pario, 38. 



pa«er, 38, 223. 
pecten, 228. 
pedis, 41. 
pensionis, 34. 
per, 254. 
y«r — , 254. 
peren — , 254. 
pergit lectum, 415. 
persiciis (per sue), 270. 
Petrvs, declined, 101. 
planvs^piano, 41. 
plemis, 229. 
poetastre (Fr.), 228. 
porro, 254. 
potior, 300. 
potus, 465. 
prcB, 40, 254. 
primtcs, 126. 
priusquam, 332. 
pro, 254. 
prunum, 41. 
pulcherrimo—, 126. 

9,19. 
(/WfT, 135. 

qnalisqur^qralqtie, 143. 
quarto— , 123. 
qriatuor, 139. 
— gi;^, 133. 
questionis, 34. 
QMJ, 379. 
quinque, 139. 
5M?8, 135, 379. 
quisqrie, 133. 
(7««arf, 333. 
(jMod, 135, 468. 
qum)iodo, 252. 
quuni, 252. 

r,19. 

rapiendtim esse, 445. 

reghia, 228. 

regula {regol), 270. 

rea;, 228. 

—TO, 228. 

— rrts, 451. 

s 19. 
.sa»o, 38. 
Sarmatce, 50. 
scientia, 34. 
scolymos, 50. 
scutriscn — , 228. 
«^, 63, 132. 
secundum, 331. 
securus, 34. 
sedeo, 158. 
sed-i, — m«^, 158. 
seito, 228. 
sew(per), 2.'54. 
semi, 41 , 2.'i4. 
septem, 1S9, 489. 
sept««jinto, 139. 
aeptMmtts, 126. 
seer, 139. 
82, 254. 
«?<;, 252. 
siTO, 213. 
similis, 133. 
simtd, 254. 
sinister, 126. 
soccr, 268. 
socrus, 268. 
solar, 36. 
solidariu^, 34. 
somnus, 228. 
spatiMWi, 48. 



2U 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



spatula, 35. 
gtatti.'t, 22S. 
stellar, 3(5. 
xuh, '.'W. 

man, inflected, 213. 
mpei; 'iSi, 254. 
super-iw, —no — , 252. 
swdaMro — , 228. 
suus, 132. 
Syrisco—, 228. 

t,19. 

tabenm, 229. 

talis, 133, 490. 

tam, 252. 

tandem, 262. 

/(iJiriw, 490. 

f«s, 130. 

f<i.f><<^. 130. 

— /t!;-, 22S. 

ti'tini, — mn^, 158. 

thi'Maurus, 34. 

— <(, 228. 

Jit!, 63, 130. 

tottts, 490. 

traiu, 254. 

tredccim, 139. 

(res, 41, 139. 

triginta, 139. 

— (I* (Umbrian), 63. 

— fM, —don, — di7i, 228. 

til, declined, 130. 

tin'—, 130. 

(m7)!, 252. 

— turn ire, 445. 

— turum esse, —fuisse, 445. 

— turns sum, 415. 

— «MS, 63. 

—tuti, 228. 

tMws, 132. 

tympanum (jtimpane), 270. 

. M, 18, 35. 
u=v, 30. 
— M, 454. 
M, IS. 

—ui<ifui, 160. 
Ulysses, 139. 
«mde, 63. 
undecim, 139. 
unus, 386. 
— tt.s, 101, 228. 
ui, 252, 468. 
Mterw-s, 126. 

t), 19, 30. 
te, '254. ■ 
vertere, 229. 
Tester, 132. 
»i, 254. 
vi-Cfui, 160. 
videlicet, 468. 
j)Wi, iDflected, 212. 
fidiJ/MW, 158. 
{d)viginti, 139. 
I'lV, 229. 
_i,o<— va, 223. 
i-afeis, 130. 
rfe, 130. 

•B.;s«r-i, — wm, 130. 
»M=/>, 30. 



GREEK. 



a, 18 

u— , 254 

— a, neuter, 64. 



;, 18, 38. 
u7f>uv, 228. 

,18. 
V,18. 
uiFe<, 254. 

Fiii, 228. 

-a.va, 228. 
u/xa, 254. 
ajtit\*y(i>, 50. 
u/u0i', 254. 
av, 2G2. 
(ii/— , 254. 
dvd, 254. 
ai<T<', 254. 
uTTii, 254, 348. 
atrx/jp, 48. 
FatTTU, 228. 
au, 18, 38. 
aiHT.s), 254. 

/3, 19. 

^aaiXtvva, 228. 
jdi/JriMi, 213. 

r, 19- 

76, 130. 

— 761/^9, 229. 

761.09,228. 

fXvKiK;, 41. 

^Kjiijuoyor, 228. 

5,19. 

—56,254. 

&ehitxa., — Mf ) '^8. 

detKvv^t, 158. 

6tKa, 139. 

5v, 252, 262. 

5,a, 254. 

5i'o, 139. 

(dF)e'iKOtr(, 139. 

du)d6Ka, 139. 

6,18. 

— 6<— ar, 228. 

6,63,132. 

t/35ofj.o9, 126. 

€f3dotJ.ijKOvra, 139. 

6761-6x0, 397. 

6701, declined, 130. 
t5pa, 228. 
6e>6i, 24. 
6CoMa<, 157. 
61, 18,24. 
6i, 262. 
6l'ni', 213. 
61x61-09, 228. 
(6F)eiKo<Ti, 139. 
eijui, inflected, 213. 
6i>i 158,213. 
e;s<ti'9, 139,386. 
txa/ji), 35. 
eKaTOl' 139. 
^Kvpot, 268. 
i^p.6f, 132. 

6/UOU, 130. 

ev, 254. 
— 6v, 228. 
61/56X0, 139. 
6i/epoi, 255. 
6i.ya, 2.52. 
ti'«u56, 252. 
evOev, 252. 
61/1, 254. 

61-1-60, 139. 

61-09, 254. 
6f , 254. 



?f, 139. 
tVxn, 139. 
6>Jfi<o7a, — /!*"> 158. 
^axi,213. 
'irepot, 126. 
?xi, 262. 
^X'f, 228. 
cv, 18,38. 

?, 19. 

^^761-, 228. 

n, 18, 38. 

— ti,228. 

n, declined, 103, 6J. 

ri, declined, 103. 

n; 01,0); n, 158. 

p, 18. 

ij/xei9, 130. 

Il/U6X6p09, 132. 

n/ui— ,41,254. 
— iipo+10, 228. 
ripu)9, 229. 
.11-, 18. 

0, 19. 

«6>XlO>IM(, 100. 

«6aiya, 228. 
—Oev, 63. 
«6pMo9, 228. 
«;/p,41. 
Ophvvi, 228. 
(;;)«t,254. 

1,18. 
—1, 228. 

1, 18. 
IVa, 468. 
— il-ia, 228. 
—•o<CJa, 228. 
V7r7ro9, decUned, 70. 
FicTfiei-, 158. 

— <o-Ko, 228. 
— locra, 268. 

K, 19. 

Ku/lapa, 35. 
K66pii-o9, 228. 
— Ko, 228. 
K69, 135. 
— Koi-xi, 139. 
K6x6p09, 126. 

\, 19. 

— XiK, 229. 

\071K69, 228. 

XuK09, 41. 

M, 19. 
Ma(Tai'a<ra'r]9, 35. 

IJLtJKTTOV, 123. 

^eit.ov, 123. 

p.f:<JtJOV, 228. 

M6xa,254. 
p.nvi^, 228. 
/ufixi9, 228. 
Mrixal'i'), 35. 
—MO, 228. 
— MOK, 228. 

1-6,228. 
i-6Fai-, 139. 
vtKv^, declined, 93. 
v6yu6, inflected, 174. 
i'6M6ii', 175. 

l-6jU'iT69, 175. 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



245 



veMoiM<, inflected, 170. 
v^fxoi'Tov, 17-'i. 
i/t'M<o, — 111, inflected, 165. 
nvtfjLt]iia, inflected, 160. 
tti'tAi('iKo)t>)i', inflected, 171. 

yeFor, 139. 
i-c^tXr], 35. 
in—, 254. 
— w, '228. 
i/»<ij, 228. 
— Ko, 228. 
—IK, 228. 
vvv, 252. 
I'M, 130. 
vwi, 130. 
KWfTcpor, 132. 

f w, 254. 

o, 18,38. 

—o— ,228,267. 

6, ri, TO, declined, 63, 103. 

o, declined, 103. 

bd, 263. 

65oS, 322. 

'Odvtrarem, 139. 

oi, 18. 

FoJaa, 158; inflected, 212. 

oFir, declined, 89. 

FoK-ja, 228. 

OKTttI, 139. 

o/uor, 133. 
— ov, 228. 

OTTO)?, 468. 

—or, 101. 

or, ^, o, declined, 103. 

09, 132. 

oVffa, 228. 

OTi,468. 

ov, 18. 

oi;<^oo, 24. 

ovai, 262. 

<>0pw, 48. 

9r, 19. 

vu.tfiiov, 228. 
Traid.CTKof, 228. 
iraH&h, 228. 
Trap, 254. 
wapa, 254, 333. 
TTcipo?', 254. 
Trei/TC, 139. 
we<pevya, — /lev, 158. 
ne<p(a-)a, — fjnv, 158. 
TTfpa, 254. 
TTfpav, 254. 
wept', 254. 
'TrevOofiat, 158. 
TrXtuc, 229. 
woWei/, 252. 
irdOi, 135. 
TToF, 252. 
,ro,pe.,71. 

TToipj/y, declined, 95. 
wtif, 135. 
TToTe, 252. 
ffof., 135,252. 
TTpo, 254. 
7rp6/.ioc, 129. 
TrpuiTo, 123. 
wulr, 252. 

p, 19. 
—pa, 228. 
fprjfvvut, 158, 
— po, 228. 



0-, 19. 
aof, 132. 

tTTTaTtiXn. 35, 

<Ta<iKJ, 228. 

— CTCTo, 228. 

o-ii, declined, 130. 

attv, 63. 

— o-uKM, 228. 

(T<pia, a<pwi, inflected, 130. 

a^djiTepoi', 132. 

T, 19. 

— Ta,,219. 
— TaTor, 127. 
TiKVOV, 175. 
— rep, 228. 
rfpei/or, 228. 
TfTa(i')Ka, — lav, 158. 
Tt-TTape?, 139. 

T»]\tK09, 133. 

T^f 66or., 322. 

— Ti, 228. 

Ti«riMi,213. 

Ti'/i-ao/ief, — u)fj.evj 24. 

TIC, 148,386. 

TO, 63,103. 

—Top, 228. 

— Tor, 175. 

T^Te, 252. 

Tpei?, 139. 

TplaKO^Ta, 139. 

-lyitTKaideKa, 139, 

Ti'i, declined, 130. 

— ru, 228. 

Ttt.9, 252. 

u, 18. 

— u, 228. 

i5, 18. 

F,18. 

Fa, Foi5a, etc. See u, oi6a, etc. 

upeir, declined, 130. 

i'fjL^Tepo^, 132. 

i)7re'p,252,254. 

vTTi'o^, 228. 

U7r6, 254,348. 

i/o-Tepof, 254. 

0,19. 

(peperai, 219. 
0tpa), 228. 
<pii~ia>, 158. 
0p«Topor, 228, 
^1/71;, 228. 
0i)a>, 213. 
^tityto, 158, 

X, 19. 

X.\<oi, 139. 
X«'pa, declined, 88. 

o), 18,38. 

CO, ablaut, 1-58. 

y, 18. 

uiKrif, 228. 

— a)?<^ — toT, 251. 

cue, 252,468. 

SANSKKIT 

AND 

INDO-EUROPEAN PA- 
RENT SPEECH, 

[Parent Speech in Roman.] 

a, a, 18, 41, 
— a, neuter, 72, 



—a, —a, 228. 

a—, 254, 

— ai>e, 18, C2. 

Vak, 228, 

Vag, 228, 

agnt, 228, 

v/agh, 228. 

d(7'ra, 228. 

—at, 62, 

dtas, 252, 

(ifi, 262. 

<itra, 252. 

«?;(a, 262. 

<WW, 254. 

an — , 254. 

-an, 228. 

cm,'i, 254, 262. 

arii>»»', 255. 

au+ta, 163. 

antard, 120. 

a»f((j-<ana-tara, 255. 

upa, 2,54. 

ahh't, 254, 

—am, 62. 

ama, 68. 

— ams, 62. 

—aja, 228. 

— ardnja, 228. 

<i»a, 254. 

ard'm, declined, 130. 

avis, declined, 89. 

dijvtd, declined, 95. 

di'vas, declined, 70. 

di'vd, declined, 83. 

ashtiin, 139. 

— «s, 228; —as, 62. 

asviadi'ja, 132. 

amnd'kam, 130. 

a»nid'n, 130. 

I'lsmi, inflected, 213. 

a.s77(e', 130. 

aha, 130. 

ah(';m, declined, 130. 

dhi, 228. 

d, i-|, 18. 

—&, 228. 

—a, 62. 

dtmdn, 131. 

— (iMl<— auja, 228. 

dvis, 2.^4. 

diu, 228. 

?, i, IS. 
i>aiua, 1.S9. 
-i/i, 158, 213, 228. 
—i, 228. 
\tara, 254. 
IndrdnV, 228. 
«, i, 18. 
— «<— i<4> 228. 

«, u, 18. 
-?<, 228. 
nt, 63, 254. 
7td«n, 228. 
iqm, 254. 
updri, 262. 
r^ ft, 18. 

r<r, 19. 

e<ai, 18. 

e'ka, 139; —dacan, 139. 

^n«, 139. 

e'«/i, 1.5S, 213. 

e'ra, 2?8. 

^i!a.<*, 254. 



246 



INDEX OF WORDS. 



ai, Ai, 18. 
<''<au, 18. 
dti, 11 u, IS. 

A-, k, 19. 
—k, -'id. 
hi, 135. 
—Art, 2-13. 
kat, 135. 
kaUini, 126. 
kiitatar, 139. 
Vkar, 158, 160. 
karo'mi, 158. 
kcui, 135. 
kirtVmi, 158. 
kiita.-i, kiftra, 252. 
kiiimi'di, 15S. 
A/ii'o, 04. 

M<k, 19. 

.", S, 19, 
— ga, 130. 

V9'i>9'''!J(imi, 213. 
v/S'««, 22S. 
i7(mn, 38. 
Vgiia, 2-28. 
gnd'man, 223. 

pA<gh, 19. 
—gha, 130. 
\/ghar, 228. 
gharrnd, 228. 

iV, n, 19. 

t'(=ch)<k, 19. 
k'atvar, 139. 
■v/A'!?, 158.' 
k'e'tdini, 158. 

A-'A<A-'<k, 19. 

{/'(English j)<g, 19. 
gdnas, 228. 
g'igdmi, 213. 

P'^<g,91. 

«<n. 

?. <^<t. 

d, dA<d. 

«<n. 

<<t, 19, 

—to, 139, 163, 228. 

tat, 63 ; declined, 104. 

tata, 163. 

tata'na, 158. 

ta'-tas, ~tra, 252. 

tatinimd, 158. 

Vton, 158. 

— to,r/wi, 126 

tor, 139. 

—tor, 228. 

—tarn, 126. 

— tos, 165. 

tasmdi, 104. 

tasmin, 63. 

to«;rt, 104. 

fddr'ks'a, 133. 

<«Ba, 130. 

— «i, 228. 

tird'mi, 158. 

'?'»•(/«, 254. 

(ifisar. 139. 



— ??f, 228. 
tuttnjd'm, 158. 
tuhlijum, 63, 130. 

— /<', ■-•ly. 
/''<ta, 104. 
C<^<tva, 130. 
ff''i(i, 104. 
tenimd, 158. 
tt'l)/ij(t.s, 104. 
tc'fi'diii, 104. 
— ''■rt<— tra, 252. 
triijodaiun, 139. 
<r?, 139. 
V'-i', 139. 
tnnn-at, 139. 
— ^rrt>— ta, 103. 
tvadtja, 132. 
fi'rtni, 130. 
<i'ai<J, 130. 
fye, 130. 

<A<t, 10. 
— <Aa,s, 165. 

d, d, 19. 
dakan, 139. 
dakauta, 139. 
dadhdmi, 213. 
ddran, 139. 
didi'.ima, 158. 
dide\a, 158. 
\/dic, 158, 248. 
rfi,<i'TOi, 158. 
(?r^, 229. 
(ilot', 228. 
de'(,-aja, 158. 
de'jajdmi, 248. 
ftoa, 130, 139. 
ivd'daran, 139. 
(d)!)?:, 254. 
{d)vivi{da)cdti, 139. 

*<dh, 19. 

», n, 19. 

'ta— , 254. 

— «-«; 175, 228. 

nanania, inflected, 166. 

nanamma, inflected, 166. 

ndma, inflected, 174. 

rulmandja, 175. 

nctmanlja, 175. 

ndmant, 175. 

ndmdmi, inflected, 165. 

namami, inflected, 165. 

namaim, inflected, 170. 

ndmejam, inflected, 170. 

na(m)td, 175. 

ndvan, 139. 

iMvas, 139. 

nas, 130. 

ndu, 130. 

— wi, 228, 255. 

—mi, 228. 

WM, 252. 

nemimd, inflected, 166. 

nemjd'm, inflected, 171. 

p, p, 19. 
Vpa, 228. 
pank'on, 139. 
?"'»•«, 254. 
pdram, 254. 
jatira, 254. 
pari, 254. 
Vpa'', 248. 
Jidrdjdmi, 248. 
piWr, 228. 



purds, 254. 
JLiiir, 229. 
jwra, 254. 
prathanid, 126. 
jB/i<P, 19. 
phalind, 228. 

6, b, 19. 
^batulk, 15S. 
babdndha, 158. 
babamlhimd, 158. 
y/budh, 158. 
bvblmij'imd, 158. 
buhhOya, 15S. 
bo'dhdmi, 158. 

6A, bh, 19. 
y/bhag', 15S. 
bhavdmi, 213. 
bhdrate, 219. 
bhdrdmi, 228. 
— 6/ji", 63. 
&K9, 62. 
bhugnd, 175. 
Vbhug', 158, 228, 248. 
hhug'd', 228. 
bhug'd'mi, 158. 
hho'g'aja, 158. 
bhog'djdmi, 248. 
bhjams, 63. 
bhjdms, 63. 
^'bhrag', 15S. 
bhrd'tar, 228. 

»!, m, m, 19. 
»ia, 130. 
— 7na, 163. 
— r>ta, 126, 22S. 
— mata, 163. 
w«<?:, 228. 
madi'ja, 132. 
madhu, 38. 
madhjd', 228. 
— »waw, 228. 
■\/man, 228. 
mania, 130. 
mdhis't'ha, 123. 
mdhijams, 128. 
nidhjam, ISO. 
m(i, 63, 130. 
mawi,, 03, 130. 
mithds, 254. 
mrig', 50. 
TO^, ISO. 

AJ,19. 
io, 252. 
ia, 262. 
— ja, 228. 
Jai, 468. 
j[ar/itf , 468. 
,;(w/, 104. 

jrttf, 202. 

— ?are, 228. 

iai)i, 262. 

ias, 104. 

ia, 104. 

—jdy-i, 228. 

JMfl'a, 228. 

jujdm, 130. 

juvan, 28. 

^Mt'ii'm, declined, 130. 

jim'madl'ja, 132. 

jus'me', declined, 130. 

»■. rO, 19. 
— ra, 120, 228. 



ENGLISH INDEX. 



247 



f, 1?, 19. 

V, V, 19. 

va, 130. 

•^/vaks', 198. 

vdks'dvii, 158. 

^vad, '228. 

vdm, 130. 

vajum, 130. 

l'ai?<ii«'a, 153. 

t•a»a^•s'^7Ha, 158. 

pa^, 130. 

—vas, 105. 

ri— , 25i. 

Vi'ii/, 153. 

vidvKi, inflected, 212. 

vMjd\ 223. 

(d)vim[';a)cati,n9. 

vividmd, 153. 

vividmasi, 212. 

vivaidvtd, 212. 

vice' da, 158. 

fJcrt.s, 229. 

r«V/((, inflected, 212. 

)';77, 229. 

viiddhi, 38. 



— Djd, 228. 

f<k, 19. 
— safri, 139. 
—i-ati, 139. 
iijafwra, 268. 
pyaiTi^, 208. 

s'=s^<s, 19. 
»•««', 139. 
s'as'tha, 123. 

s, s, 19. 
— s, 62. 

sa, 63 ; declined, 104. 
8a—, 63. 
Vsad, 153, 24S. 
sddajdini, 2i8. 
.S(Wm, 223. 
sand', 254. 
sapta(dara)t'i, 139. 
saptdn, 139. 
saptamd, 120. 
sa»i, 63. 
sama, 133. 
5awi<i', 254. 



— sas, 62. 

sasdda, 153. 

»a/itf, 63. 

salultru, 139. 

«(/, 63, 104. 

sdlcdiii, 254. 

A(ir»i — , 254. 

— s<iwi.s, 62. 

—lids, 62. 

Sindhu, —ka, 228. 

sidd'vii, 153, 248. 

sedimd, 158. 

^/••«'', '-^28. 

si'nnis, declined. 93, 228. 

Vs</i<i, 228 ; —turn, 228. 

svia, 130. 

sr»««, inflected, 213. 

sjdm, 213. 

sua, 63. 

svadija, 132. 

^/svdp, 228. 

svdpiut, 228. 

— sya*-, 02. 

;»<gh, 19. 



ENGLISH INDEX. 



a, how made ; rule for use of, 
history of, 11, 12, aud see in- 
dex of words. 

ti-group of letters, 7, 26. 

of-stems, see stem. 

7-umlaut, see umlaut. 

(7, history of, 12. See index of 
words. 

«-stems, see stem. 

iibbreviations, 5. 

ability, -|-inflnitive, 197. 

ablative, 35, 129, 148, 151, 152, 
153, 154, 157. 

ablaut, table, 7, 9, 28; hist, and 
con)p.etym. 79-80; coujuea- 
tions, 83, 99, 100, 102, 103, 105, 
107; mixed,116; stems from, 
122. 

above, 161. 

abrid<;ed sentences, 140; clau- 
ses, 200. 

absolute case, comp. syntax, 
1.V2. 201. 

abstracts, gender of, 37; de- 
clension of, 45, 53. 

acatalectic, 22.S. 

accent, rules for ; proof of, 6 ; 
variation from, 9 ; hist, of, 
in Sanskrit, Greek, etc., 30 ; 
kinds of, 30 ; in prosody, 222. 

accents written, 5 ; with con- 
sonants, 19. 

accompaniment, see associa- 
tion. 

accusative, 34 ; syntax of, 145 
-143 ; ending, 35; predicate, 
142, 147; -finflnitive, 142, 
147, 198 ; two accusatives, 
146, 147 ; -l-genitive, 150 ; 
-f-dative, 151 ; in adverbial 
combinations, 14S ; after 
nearness, l.'iO ; compounds, 
134; with prepositions, 148, 
1.59; >(lative, 175; arrange- 
ment of, 213. 



[The figures refer to pages.] 

accuse, syntax of, 156. 

action, s'utlixes of, 124; with 
subjunctive, 192. 

active voice. 77, S3+, 137. 

address, with dative, 148. 

adjective, 34; declension: def- 
inite, iudciinite, 50 ; weak, 
strong, 56, 53, 59, 60, 173; 
paradigms, 56, 53, 59 ; hist, 
of, 57, "59; Northumbrian, 
61 ; comparison, 62, 65 ; suf- 
fixes, 125, 126 ; prepositions 
and prefixes from, 132 ; 
equivalents of, 139 ; predi- 
cate, 142 ; appositive, 143 ; 
with dative, 149, 151 ; with 
genitive, 155, 156, 157 ; use of 
forms, 173 ; agreement of, 
and other syntax, 172-174 ; 
article with, 176; with ger- 
und, 19'.i : arrangement, 218, 
219. 

adjective clause, 140; subjunc- 
tive in, 193 ; conjunction in, 
207 ; arrangement, 216, 220. 

adjunct, 157. 

advantage, with dative, 149. 

adverbs," 34 ; comparison of, 
62 ; numeral, 77, 132 ; from 
radicles, 33 ; derivation, 123, 
129 ; correlative, comp. ety- 
mol., 129, 130; equivalents 
of, 139 ; syntax of, 132 -f ; 
pred., attrib., interrog., de- 
mons., expletive, emphat- 
ic, 183 ; adverbial conjunc- 
tions, 134 ; negatives, 134 ; 
arrangement, 219, 220. 

adverbial combination, de- 
fined, 137, 133, 140 ; accusa- 
tive in, 148; dative in, 151 
152 : genitive in, 158 ; ar- 
rangement of, 219, 220. 

adverbial clauses, 140; mode 
in, l'J3-|-; conjunction in, 



207, 208 ; arrangement, 216, 
220. 

adverbial compounds, 134, 

adversative sentence, 141 ; 
— conjunctions, 202, 204, 205, 
209. 

a;, 11, and see other index. 

S, 13, and see other index. 

^Ifric's futures, 197. 

atfirraation, particles of, 132, 
184. 

age, syntax of, 154, 157. 

agent, forms to express the, 
123 ; dative of, 151, 

aggregation, syntax of, 154. 

agreement, of case -endings, 
142-)- ; adjectives, 172 ; pro- 
noun, 174; verb, 185, 186; 
participles, 200. 

ai=i, 15. 

aid, syntax of, 149. 

a?a.s, 133. 

alder-, 154 

Alfred, 1. 

alliteration, 223 -f- ; conso- 
nants, 223 ; Towels, 224 ; 
comp. hist, of, 224 ; in prose, 
22.5, 223 ; of g<i, 17 ; aff'ect- 
ed shifting, 225; secondary, 
227 ; in English, 223. 

alphabet, 4, 

am, 114, 115; as future sisrn, 
139; as perf. and pluperf., 
139 ; passive, 137, 139 ; peri- 
phrastic, 89. 

an, history of, 180. 

a«-stems, see steivs. 

anacoluthon, 141, 143. 

anacrusis, 222, 225. 

anapffist, 222, 223. 

anastropbe, 141. 

Angles, 1. 

Anglo-Norman, I. 

Anglo-Saxon, history of, 1-f ; 
classic, 11. 



24^ 



ENGLISH INDEX. 



animals, sroiidcr, 135. 

iiiiti'cc'dont. IT'.i, ISO. 

unliiiK'ria, 141. 

aoiist, S2. 

iiplmeiesis, 9, 30, 67. 

ap<)c»i)0, a, IS, 19, 31, 47, 57, 

til. 
apodosis, 141. 
aposiopesits, 141. 
apothcsis, '.I, 10,53. 
np]]ftiif, syntax of, 145. 
appositive, i;i7, 14'.'; rnles, ex- 
amples, and comp. syntax, 
14;!, 144 ; compounds, 134 ; 
with vocative, 144; names, 
lf>4 ; article with, 17G ; ar- 
ran<,'einent, 21G. 
«r»r, 114, 115. 
an-nnsement of words, 214- 

2-.'0; —of clauses, 220, 221. 
arsis, 222, 223, 225. 
articles, 34 ; paradigms, 67, 69, 
71 ; comp. etym., 69; syntax 
with adjective, 173 ; comp. 
syntax, 174; general svntnx 
of the def. article, 176", 177 ; 
omission of, 176; indefinite, 
discussion of, 180 ; arrange- 
ment, 217. 
a-s, rehi'ive, 179. 
ask, syntax of, 146, 147, 156. 
aspirates, 16; =iou2h, 7, 17. 
assibilation,deflued79, 20; his- 
tory of, 21,22. 
assimilation, examples, 7, .30, 
117; defined, 9, 22, 23, 24; 
labial, 20, S3, 109 ; guttural, 
20; by ;>, 14, 18, 114, 102; I, 
14, IS, 19, 80 ; m, 11, 12, 13, 
18,51, 80, 83, 87, 100; n, 11, 
12, 13, 107, lOS; r, 20, 80; s, 
24, 67, 70; with progression, 
27 ; ecthlipsis, 31 ; in imper- 
fects, 95; inpreseuts, 96, 97; 
shifting stopped by, 41. 
association, with dative, 150. 
asyndeton, 141. 
atonic, 222. 

attraction, 179, 191 ; in ar- 
rangement, 214, 219, 220. 
attributive combination, de- 
fined, 137, 140, 142 ; nomina- 
tive, 144; genitive, 153; ar- 
ticle with, 176; participles, 
200 ; arrantremeut of, 216, 
218, 219; compounds, 134. 
augment, 82. 
author, genitive of, 153; pres 

ent tense, 188. 
auxiliaries, 84, 86, 87, 89, 196 : 
arrancrement of, 214, 216, 219, 
220 ; relation to verse, 225 



bifurcation, 28, 123. 

brachylogy, 141. 

bntivmrt, I'.''J. 

breakiiii:. defined, 9, 14; enu- 
merated, 2(1 : cases of, 11, 18, 
66, 7f), 95, 97, 99, ItM), 102, 103, 
1117, 108,111, 112, 114; stems 
from, 123. 

brotherhood, 121. 

Bulgarian, 3. 



h, how made, 15; hist, of, IS, 
.30, and see index of words. 

hacklings, 128. 

Bactrian, 3. 

base=an«crtm8. 

bb=ff, 16. 

he, dative after, 150 ; omitted, 
186. 

hee, 136. 

begin+iufinitive, 197 ; +par- 
ticiple, 201. 

hetuixte, IGl. 

bh:^m, 39, 45, 49. 

bjd+inflnitive, 198. 



c, described, 15, 16, IS ; theme 
in. 111, and see other index, 
caesura, 223. 
Cafflrs, 36. 
can, 195. 

cardinals, 7.3, 74, 75, 76; syn- 
tax, 181,217. 
case, .34 ; hist, of endings, 35, 
39, 55 ; summary, 55 ; ad- 
verbs from, 128+ ; agree- 
ment of, 142+ ; cases mix- 
ed, 17,5. 
catalectic, 223. 

causal bases, 79 ; compounds, 
134 ; sentences, 141 ; parti- 
ciples, 201 ; conjunctions, 
205, 207, 209. 
causative verbs, 127, 186. 
cause, dative of, 151. 
cease, syntax of, 157. 
Celtic, 1. 3 ; rime in, 225. 
eg, 16, lio. 
ch, 16, 18. 

changes of sound, table of, 
9; laws of, 10, and see the 
names of the several chan- 
ges, 
characteristic, 125, 154. 
Chaucer, 1, 55, 65, 72, 118, 167, 

22.5. 
chief letter, 224. 
chords, vocal, 11. 
circumflex, use of, in this 

book, 13. 
cities, names of, declined, 55. 
classic speech ideal, 11. 
clause, detiued,139; principal, 
CO - ordinate, subordinate, 
quasi -clauses, 139, 140, 145, 
172, 184, 210; arrangement 
of, 220, 221. 
clean, syntax of, 157. 
close vowels, 6. 
coalescence, 119, 134. 
coexistence, 141, 201. 
cognate letters, 29 ; accusa- 
tive, 146 ; dative, 151 ; geni-, 
tive, 154. 
cognition, with subjunctive, 
192; with inflnitive, 198 ; 
with participle, 201. 
collectives, 134, 173, 185. 
combinations of letters, 7, 16, 
17; of words, 137, and seej 
adverbial, atMbutive, ohjec-\ 
tive, predicative. 
command, 190. 
comparative, 62+, 173. 
comparison, 62+ ; double, 64 ; 
defective, 64, 65; endings of, 
in prepositions, 131, 132 ; 
syntax in, 1.52. 
compensation (compensative 
gemination), 9, 10, 13, 14, 25, 
47, 00, 67, SO, 85, 94, 97, 99, 
110, 111, 114. 



complete sentence, 141 ; com- 
position, 1,5S. 
complex sentence, 1.39, 140. 
conii)(isition,78, lis, 119; — de- 
tiiu'(l,134: nooue, 134; verbs, 
134, 130, IfjS; ill tensc,Sl,82; 
with vn-, 200. 
comi)ouii(ls, gender of, 37; de- 
fined, 118. 
cotnpound sentence, 139, 140, 

141 ; subject, 185. 
concessive clauses, 174, 194 

201, 208, 216, 220. 
conditional clauses, 194, 216, 
220; mode, 89; conjunction, 
208. 
conformation, 9, 28, 47, 75, S3, 

85, 87. 
Congoes, 36. 

conjiigati(m, 78; first, 82 +, 
99+, 113, 122, 127; second 
103,113,123,127; third, 105, 
11.3,127; fourth, 107, 114, 123, 
T^7; fifth, 108; sixth, 110; 
Grimtn's, 78 ; Sanskrit, 79. 
conjunctions, 34; etym., 133 ; 
syntax, 1S4; co-ordin!ite,202 
-205 ; subordinate, 20.5-208 • 
omitted, 208, 209. 
connecting vowel, 86, 114. 115. 
consecutive clauses, 194, 195. 
consonants, tables of, 7, 8; de- 
scription of, 15+, and see 
names of classes of conso- 
nants, changes, and stems, 
contention, 150. 
continuous consonants, 7, 10, 

15, 24, 95. 
contraction, 6, 10, 13, 14, 32,50, 
.53, 78, 97 ; related to ablaut, 
80,81. 
co-ordinate letters, 29 ; clau- 
ses, 139, 191, 215 ; conjunc- 
tions, 202-205. 
copula, 137, 198, 214, 220. 
copulate, nouns, 142, 173, 17C 

185, -220. 
copulative verbs, 137, 142, 18L 
sentences, 141 ; conjunct 
tions, 202-204, 208. 
correlatives, adverbs, 129, 130; 
repeated, 176; arrangement! 

countries, names of, declined. 

54. 
crasis, 10, 32. 
crime, syntax of, 157. 
cryptoclites, 52, 53. 
customs, syntax of, 188. 



d, 15, 17, 19, 30, 75, 95, and see 
other index. 

dactyle, 222, 225; in English. 
228. ' 

Danes, 2. 

darkling, 128. 

dative, 34, 35; in —d, 41 ; com- 
pounds, 134 ; object, 138 • 
syntax of, 148-153; of influ- 
ence, 148 ; +genitive, 149, 
156 ; of interest, 149 ; pos- 
sessor, 150; reflexive, 150; 
ethical, 1.50 ; expletive, 150 ; 
nearness, 150; use.masterv, 
150 : separation, 1.51 • ad- 
verbial, 1.51, 1.53 ; with prep- 
osition, 152, 159 ; absolute. 



ENGLISH INDEX. 



249 



IS? ; for acciisfitive, 175; 
Jitter iuterjectiou, 2u2 ; ar- 
iiuigemeut of, 21S, 21!), aud 
■ ee 'iiider each declension. 

Cucay, phonetic, 3G, 55, (15, 72. 

declarative sentence, iS'J, 191 ; 
arrauiienient of, 'Zli; cou- 
junction, 206. 

declension, table of substan- 
tive, 37: first, 38+, 49; sec- 
ond, 44+, 49; third, 4S+, 49; 
f.inrth, 50+; proper names, 
54+ : adjectives, 56+ ; de- 
monstrative and article, 57; 
participles, 61; infinitive, 61, 
8.S; pronouns, 66+; North- 
umbrian, 49, 51, 61 ; English, 
55,65,72. 

(1,-er, 136. 

defective nouns, 52 ; verbs, 
112+. 

definite declension, 56 ; see 
Q/Tticle^ 

definitive, 143; object, 146, 216, 
217, 218. 

demonstrative pronouns, 57, 
69, TO, 72, 173, 1T6, 217; ad- 
verb, 1S3. 

denominatives, 118, 127, 128. 

dental, 7, 15, 17, 19, 29 ; =lin- 
gual of many grammars. 

derivation, nouns, 11S+, 135- 
adjectives, 1/5+ ; verbs, 
126+; adverbs, 12S+; prep- 
ositions and prefi.xes, 130+; 
particles, 132 ; conjuctions, 
133; interjections, 13.3. 

descriptives,143: arrangement 
of, 216, 217 ; comi)onuds, 134. 

determiiiiitives, 134. 

dh^rf, 17 . >d. 111, 29 ; >s, 19. 

dialects, 1, 17+. 

dimeter, 223. 

diminutives, 124, 125. 

dimorphism, 2s. 

diphthong, 6, 14. 

direct object, 138, 197, 201 ; ar- 
rangement of, 214, 218. 

disjunctive, 141, 183, 204, 209. 

disposition, suffix of, 125. 

dissimilated gemination, 16, 
66, 7.5, 83, 117. 

dissimilation, 9, 24, 95. 

distributives, 77, 143. 

do, 89. 

dog, 136. 

—ddm, 121. 

double obiect, 146. 

drunkard, ^'i2. 

dual, 34+, 66+, 82, 83 ; appos- 
itive with, 143, 144; other 
syntax, 174. 

duty, syntax of, 197. 

Dutch, 3. 

6,11,12; =«, ea, 12; >y, 12. 

e, 13, 15. 

ea, >i, 12 ; >e, 12 ; >y, 12, 20 ; 

=eo, 15. 
ea, 14. 

easy, syntax with, 199. 
ecthlipsis, 9, 10, IS, 19, 31, 51, 

57, 1 17. 
eftsoon.% 128, 160. 
ei, 1.5. 

Egyptian numerals, 75. 
elision, 9, 31. 



ellipsis, 141. 

eUi:, 128. 

emotiou+genitive, 155; +in- 
fiuitive,197; +participle, 201. 

emphasis, arrangement for, 
214, 218, 219. 

emphatic verb, 1S6. 

emptv+Lceiiitive, 157. 

eualliige.Ml. 

enclitic, 13. 

end, +infinitive, 197; +parti- 
ciple, 201. 

endings, see case, inflection, 
stem, tense. 

Euglisc, 1. 

English, 1; relation to Anglo- 
Saxon, 1, 17 ; assibilation, 
21 ; precession in, 27 ; com- 
pensation, 26; case-endings 
in, 55; comparison, 64; de- 
clension of adjective, 65; 
pronouns, 72 ; ablaut, 99, 
100, 102, 103, 105, 107 ; con- 
tracted reduplication, 108, 
109,110; weak verb,lll, 112; 
dmiiniUive, 125: future,189 ; 
verbals, 201 ; verse 225, 228. 

ec>y, 12. 

ei"., 14, 15. 

epenthesis, 9, 11, 19, 31, 45, 57. 

epicene, 38, 136. 

epithesis, 9, 11,.31,57 

equivalents, grammatical, 139. 

—em, 121. 

ethical dative, 150. 

etymology, 33+. 

Etymology, comparative. (At 
each reference are discuss- 
ed the forms in Saiiskrit, 
Greek, Latin, Gothic, Old 
Saxon, Old Norse, Old High 
(ienn:in.) The letters, 8; 
Nouns, a-stems, 39; ia- 
steiiis, 4.': a-stems, 44; i- 
stems, 45+; u- stems, 48; 
an-stems, 50, 51 ; Adjec- 
tives, 57, .59 ■ comparison, 
62-64; Pronoun, person-, 
al,66, 61; possessive, 69; de- 
monstrative, 70, 57 ; article,} 
57; interrogative, 71 . Nu-1 
merals, 74+ ; Verb, ab- 
laut, 79 ; contracted imper- 
fect, 81 ; compound imper- 
fect, 81 ; active ind. present, 
83 ; (im)perfect, 85 : sub- 
junctive present, 87; (im)- 
perfect, 87 ; imperative, in- 
finitive, gerund, (jarticiples, 
88: prpeteritive verbs, 112; 
substantive verb, 114; pas- 
sive, 116; Sufiixes, 110- 
122: diminutives, 125; Ad-: 
verSjs, 129, 130 ; Prepo- 
isiitions and prefixes, LBii- 
132; Conjunctions, 
133: Interjections, 133; 
Composition, 135. 

CU, 15. 

euphonic variation, 9. 
ev,i-y, 181. 

e.xciting object, 15.5,156, 201. 
exclamatory sentence, 189,191, 

215. 
expletive //.rr, 183 ; dative, 150. 
explosives consonants, 7. 
expres:<ion in verse, 222, 223. 



f, 8, 15, 18, 19, 20, 23. 
factitive object, 138, 139, 140, 

142, 144, 147, 168, 176; ar- 
rangement of, 216; verb, 186. 

—fast, 121. 

fear, with dative, 150; with 
subjunctive, 192. 

feeling, with genitive, 149,155; 
dative, 149. 

feet in verse, 222 ; order of, 
226. 

feminine, see ge-nder. 

figuration, 9, 30. 

final clause, 194, 208; object, 
198, 199, 201. 

fitness, syntax with, 125, 192. 

Flemish, 2. 

— fold, }2l. 

foreign proper names, 54-| . 

forget, syntax with, 1.56. 

French, iippositive, 144 . verse, 
225 ; see \orman. 

friendship, 122. 

(Old) Friesic, 3, 8, 18; comp. 
etym., 39,41, 42, 44, 45, 49, f.O, 
59 ; pron., 69, 71 : num., 76- 
verb, 80, 81, 83, 85, 87, 88; 
conj., 133. 

Froissart, 179. 

— //, origin of, 97. 

—fall, 121. 

fullness, syntax with, 157. 

future, 78, 84, 85, 86 ; auxilia- 
ries, 188 ; for imperative, 
189; syntax, 188, 189; pas- 
sive, 197. 

future perfect, 189. 

g, 15,16. <i, 17; <h,p,1S,19, 
breaking, 20 ; shifting, 29+. 

gg=Dg, 17; eg, 16. 

gemination, 77l6 . rule for. 10; 
examples,25, 30, 31, 41 , 46, 57, 
60, 95, 97, 100 ; quasi -gem., 
43, 53, 75, S3 ; see dissimil(i>' 
ted. 

gender, 35; history of, 36; fem- 
ines<neuters, 36 ; rules for, 
37; comparative, 136; forms 
to express, 135 ; derivatives, 
136: of appositives, 144. 

genitive,34,35,37, compounds, 
134; object,13S; syntax, gen- 
eral discussion, 153-1.58; at- 
tributive, 153, 154; predica- 
tive, 1.55; objective, 1.55, 156, 
15V: adverbial, 158; for da- 
tive, 149 ; dative+gen., 149, 
1.56; nearness, 150 ; sei)ara- 
tion,151, absolute, 152; sub- 
jective, 153; obiective, 1-54 ; 
partitive, 143, 1.54, 156; with 
prepositions, 159 ; adjective 
with, 173; possessive for, 
175; article omitted, 176; ar- 
rangement, 218, 219, and see 
under each declension. 

gentile derivatives, 125. 

German, 3; printing of Anglo- 
Saxon, 4; Old High, letters, 
8, u; 18; umlaut, 19; as- 
sibilation, 21; shifting, 29; 
u>aw, 41 ; neuter -era. 41 : 
abstracts in -in, 45; rime in, 
224, 225, 227, and see etimuiln- 
gv, comparative, and syntax, 
comparative. 



250 



ENGLISH INDEX. 



(Low^ Ger.,3, 29, 12r>. 

neiuiid, 78, S8, S9 ; syntax, 197, 
1".I8, lil9. 

jresliire, with dative, 14S. 

nive-fdative, 14S ; +gerund, 
199.- omilled, ISO. 

Qleeiiian, 1'22. 

}»u, with dative, 160; as future 
isigii, 189. 

[joai, IHG. 

Hodlcss, {lodl;/, 122. 

'Gothic \>Ioeso-), 3; letter?, S: 
brealviug, 20; shifting, 29 
r-s.tenis, ;i(/-stenis, 4H ; ab- 
stracts iu -eiii,-15: au<u,49 
proper names, 64 ; rettex- 
ives, OS : dual, (!<■-', S3 ; law 
of Jiiial consonants, 97, and 
see etymology, comparative, 
and .syntax, comj^anitive. 

•jrant, with dat. and gen., 149, 
150. 

gravitation, 9, 26, 30, 36, 46, 47, 
49,51,83,114. 

Greek, 3; letteis,8; accent, 30; 
neuters, 36; proper names, 
54 ; versilication, 223, and 
tee etymology, romparatin; 
and nyntaa;, comparative. 

Grimm's law, 8, 29; weak ad- 
jectives, 59; conjugation, 78. 

gu</>, IS. 

guna, 9, 27. 

gutturals, 6, 7, 15, 16, 23, 112. 

h, 1"; >g, ;>, IS, 117; break- 
ing, 20, 103 ; shifting, 29, 
3f!. 

habit+iniinitive, 197. 

have, sign for future, perfect, 
pluperf., 1S9. 201 ; -f gerund, 
199; 4-participle, 201. 

—head, 121. 

headlong, 128. 

healf, with numerals, 77, 182. 

Hebrew. 66, 68, 75. 

Hellenic, 3, 8. 

help-f genitive, 156. 

hemistich, 223. 

hen, 136. 

hendiadis, 141. 

liejitameter, 223. 

lur, 69, 175; hern, heorun, 175. 

heteroclites, 52, 64. 

heterogeneous, 52. 

hexameter, 223. 

Ilevse, 59. 

hidht, ISO. 

/ is, 69, 175. 

'/lit, it, syntax, 174, 143. 

home, 128 ; -ward, 122. 

-hood, 121. 

nor.se, 136. 

how often, 77. 

—ht, origin of, 97, 112. 

hundred, the great, 76. 

hypallage, 141. 

hyperbaton, 141. 

hypercatalectic, 223. 

hypothetic relative, 193; 
clause, 197. 

hysteron proteron, 141. 

i, how made, 11 ; >?«, v, 12 ; 
umlaut, 19; breaking, 20,75; 
consonant, 1.5, 17, shifting, 
30 ; change with g, p, 117. 



j'-stems, ?{j-.«tems, see stem. 

j'-umlaut, see umlaut. 

i, 13. 

ia=ea. 

ill, 14. 

iambus, 222, 223. 

Icelandic verse, 224. 

ictus, 222. 

ic, 14. 

i-group of let ters, 7, 26. 

illative conjunction, 205, 209. 

imitatiou-f dative, 150. 

imperative, 77, 78 ; ia-stem,99, 
108,110; sentence, 13!»; syn- 
tax, 174, ISS, 197 ; indicative 
for, 189,190; subjunctive for, 
191 ! arrangement of, 215. 

imperfect, 78; ablaut, 80; con- 
tract, 81 ; compound, 81 ; in- 
flection indie, 84, 85, 90, 92, 
95, 98; subjunctive, 86, 87, 
91, 93 ; potential, 89, 91 ; 
syncopated, 95 ; irregulars, 
li2-f ; 2d sing, in -cs, 110; 
syntax, 187, ISS, 190, 194. 

impcrsonals-faccusative, 145; 
4 dative, l.'iO : -f-genitive-|- 
dative, 150; subject of, 185, 
1^7. 

iuci.rporation of relative, 180. 

iudeciinable nouns, 52. 

indefiuite declension, 56+ , 
pronoun, 71, 72, 174, 180 ; 
suffixes, 123, 125; adjective, 
172; article, 174, 180; numer- 
al, 182 ; verb, 185, 193. 

independent nominative, 144; 
particles, 1S4. 

Indie, 3, 8. 

indicative, 77 ; strong active, 
82-85 ; passive, 90 ; weak 
active, S3 ; form of poten- 
tial, 89, 91 ; syntax, tenses 
of, 188+ ; mode, 190. 

indirect object, 138; asser- 
tion, 102 ; question, 192 , 
command, 197. 

Indo-European, 3 ; vowel sys- 
tem, consonant system, 8. 

infinitive, 78, 88; in -ean, 94; 
syntax, 139, 140 ; accusa- 
tive+, 142, 147; general dis- 
cussion, 197+ \ adjective 
with, 172. 

inflection, by vowel changes, 
79-82; mode suffixes, 82; 
personal endings, 82+ ; in- 
die, present, 8.3, 84 ; imperf., 
84, 85 ; strong verb, 82-91 ; 
weak verb, 92-95; variation 
iu present, 96, 97; in imper- 
fect, 98 ; tables of variation, 
97-118; irregular, 112-118; 
Northumbrian, 117; decay 
of endings, English, 118; re- 
lation to versilication, 228. 

influence, object of, 148, 149. 

inseparable prefixes, 6. 

inserted clatises, arrangement 
in, 215. 

instrument, suffix of, 123. 

instrumental case, 35, 38, 39, 
129; syntax of, 148, 150-154, 
173. 

intellectual states, syntax 
with, 1.5fi. See coqnition. 

iute-e.-t. rl-.iect of, 149. 



interjection, 34, 133 ; syntax, 

139, 178, 202. 
interrogative pronoun, 70, 71, 

72, 132 J adverbs, 183, 184 ; 

syntax, 178, 179 ■ sentence, 

139, 191 ; conjunction, 207; 

object iu,219; arrangement, 

215, 219. 
intransitive verb, 138; perf., 

pluperf., 86, 201; syutax,157, 

186, 189. 
io=eo. 
io, 14. 
Irauic, 3. 
Irish, 29, 64. 
irregular nouns, 52 ; verbs, 

112+. 
it, its, 68, 69; syntax, 174. 
Italic, 3, 8. 
iteratives, see how often. 

j, peculiar character for, 4 ; 

and see i-consouaut. 
Jutes, 1. 

—kind, 121. 
kiiidred, 122. 
knoxoledge, 122. 

1, 7, 15, 16, 18; iil<Hl, 15; met- 
athesis, 19 ; <(A 30, 75. 

labial, 6, 7, 15, IS, 23, 29, 39, 103. 

landscape, 122. 

lantern, 121. 

Latin, 2; du=/', IS; assibila- 
tion, 21 ; accent, 30 ; neu- 
ters>feniinines, 36 ; proper 
names, 54; perfects, 82 ; ab- 
latives, 129 ; arsis and the- 
sis, 223; rime iu Low Latin, 
225 : verses of Anglo-Saxon 
preis, 225 ; and see etymol- 
ogy, comparative, and syn- 
tax, coni})arative. 

lauirh, syntax with, 156. 

latifver.scliiehv.ng:^shi{ling. 

Layamon, declension in, 55 ; 
adjective, 65; comparison, 
65; prononus, 72; verbs, 99, 
118; prepositions, 101, 170; 
jf'/io, 179 : hpylc,\10; everuch, 
181 ; verbals, 201. 

less, svntax with, 165. 

let, 190, 198. 

letters, 4; sounds of.H. 

like (— ??.c), TO, 122, ISi. 

likeness, syntax with, 159. 

lingual, 7, 23. 

liqiiid, 7. 

listen, .syntax with, 1.56. 

Lithuanic, 3 ; iii.'-trumental, 
39 ; weak adjective, 59 ; 
thousand, 70. 

local, see place. 

locative case, 35, 39, 46, 49, 50, 
57, 67, 14S, 150, 152, 163. 

logical subject; predicate,1.^9. 

long vowels, 6; nature, origin, 
12; proof of, 13; monosylla- 
bles, 13, 41 . See }irogression, 
coTtipensation, and the vow- 
els. 

—ly, 129. 

m, 7, 8, 11, 15, 83 ; <bh, 46, 49. 
make, s^iitax with, 147, 198. 
man, 136. 



ENGLISH INDEX. 



251 



man, 34, 4?, 53, 71, 181. 

manner, aaverbs of, 130; syn- 
tax (if, 151, 15.S; siibjiiiicMve 
in clauses of, 193 ; connect- 
ives, ii(i8 ; arrangement, 210. 

masculine, 37. See gemier. 

mastery, syntax with, 150, 151. 

material, suffix of, 12G ; com- 
pounds of, 134; syntax of, 
l.'vl, 157. 

mail ('"*;'), 1S5. 

means, suffix of, 123 , syntax, 
151, 158. 

mea8ure,syntax of,152,154,157. 

meet, syntax with, 150. 

mental action, syntax with, 
155. See cognition, feeling. 

inetaplast, 52. 

metathesis, 0, 11, 18, 19, 30, 32, 
41,07, 103, 117. 

meter, 223. 

middle mutes, 7, 8, 29 ; voice, 
146, 150, 187. 

Milton, verse, 14S, 226. 

minieiic variation, 9, 28. 

miss, syntax with, 157. 

mode, 77, 82; syntax, 190-202. 

Mceso-Gothic, see Oothic. 

monometer, 223. 

monosvUables, long, 13, 41. 

7ii6t, 195. 

move, syntax with, 150, 201. 

niultiplicatives, 77. 

multitude, noun of, 142. 

nuiies, 7, 24, 29, 95. 

n,7, 8, 15; >(f, 16; >?, TO, 29 ; 
stops umlaitt and shifting, 
102. 

name, appositive of, 154; syii 
tax with, 147. 

narrative, syntax with, 188. 
See verse. 

nasals, 7, 15, 24; nasalizing, 
4.^49, ICO, HI. 

vc, 17. 

-iid<-nt, 75. 

jK.'-steins, see stem. 

nearness, syntax with, 150. 

need, .syntax with, 157. 

■needs, 128. 

negation, particles of, 132 ; 
geu'r'l, particular, strength- 
ened, 183, ls4; repeated, 184: 
condition, 194; article with, 
176. 

neuter, 30, 39 ; strengthened 
by -er, 41 ; wealc, .50 ; -t, 57 ; 
>feminiue, 36. 

nominative, .35 ; syntax of, 
144; yields, 175. 

normal sentence, 141. 

Norman '?«</', 18 : — s, 61. 

(Old) Norse, b>f, 18; umlaut, 
li), and see etymology, com- 
pnmtive, and syntax, com- 
jMrative. 

Northumbrian, 1 ; vowel 
sounds, 14 ; gutturals, 18 ; 
dentals, 99; ecthlipsis, met- 
athesis, epenthesis, prostiie- 
sis, 19 ; labials, 19 ; declen- 
sion, stronir, 49 ; weak, 51 ; 
irregularities, 51 ; pronoun, 
6<;; 'jjossessive, 68; article, 
69; demonstrative, 70 ; in- 
terrogative, 71 ; verb, 117 ; 



indie, present, 83; imperf., 

85. 
noselinn, 128. 
notionjil, 3,3, 119, 186. 
noun, 34, 134; of multitude, 

142 ; understood, 172. See 

strong nouns, iveak nomis, 

substantive, adjective. 
number, 34, 78, 143. 
numerals, 73-77 ; syntax, 154, 

177, 181, 185; arrangement, 

216, 218. 

o, 11, 12. 

("i, 13. 

obey, syntax with, 148. 

object, direct, 145,l!»7,201 ; de- 
finitive, 140, 201 ; double, 
146 ; of influence, 148, 149 ; 
interest, 149 ; genitive (ex- 
citing), 150, 201 ; partitive, 
156 ; separation, 156, 157 i 
witli passives, 187; of cog- 
nition, 192; desire, 192; final, 
198 ; arrangement, 218, 219! 
See. factitive. 

objective combin.Ttions, 137, 
138, 140, 145, 148, 155, 218! 
compounds, 134 ; vei'b, 1.^8 : 
genitive,l,54; participle,201, 

ofiicers, syntax of, 153. 

oi, 15. 

omission of substantive, 172, 
186; article, 170; relative, 
180 ; verb, ISO, 195 ; conjunc- 
tion, 208, 209. 

one, 59, 71. 

onomatope, 34. 

open vowels, 6. 

opposition (contention), 1.50. 

optative, 82, 87. 

ordinals, 73, 76, 77 ; syntax, 
182. 

Ormulum, declension in, 55 ; 
adjective, 65: comparison, 
65; pronouns, 72; numerals, 
73 ; conjugation, strong, 90, 
105 ; weak. 111 ; endings, 
118; prepositions, 161, 167, 
170 : lohatt, 178; who, 179. 

orthography, 4. 

ox, 136; oxen, 51. 

p, 15, IS, 29. 

l)!Eon, 222, 22.5. 

jialatal, 0, 7. See guttural. 

paragoge, 9. 

parallelism, 215. 

parasitic sounds, 20, 30 ; g, p, 
18 ; i, u. 20 ; h, 29. 

parasyutheta, 6, 1.34. 

Parent Sj)eech, 3, 8 ; case-end- 
ing.s, .S5; gender, 36; Teu- 
tonic, 56 ; declension of jis, 
ja, jata, .56 ; comparison in, 
62, 03, 64; primouns in, 66, 
67, 68 ; numerals, 7.5, 70 ; 
tense stems in, 8? ; para- 
digm of indie, pvefent, S3; 
of imperfect, 85 ; subjunc- 
tive pres., 87; passive, 116; 
derivation in, 118-)-. 

parts of speech, .34. 

participles, 78, 88, 95; syntax, 
1.39, 140, 18,5, 200, 2:il. 216. 

particles of interroiration, ne- 
gation, etc., 132. 



particular interrog., 183 ; n©. 
gation, 184. 

partitive appositive, 143 ; gen- 
itive, 154, 156; =adjeciive, 
173. 

passive voice, 90, 91, 110, 187, 
188-1- ; origin of form, 201. 

patrial adjective, 125. 

patronymics, 125. 

pentameter, 223. 

people's names declined, 54. 

perfect, 78, 82 ; transitive, 84, 
85,86; intrans., 84, 80; syn- 
tax, 189; origin ofform,2'01. 

periphrastic perf., 82 ; condi- 
tional, 89 ; future, 198. 

person, 78; endings of, 82* 
proper names, 54. 

personal pronouns, see prfr 
nouns; object, 138. 

perspicuity affecting arrange- 
nient, 219. 

phonetic decav, 36, 82. 

phonology, 6-32. 

pitch, 222. 

place, nouns of, 125; adjec- 
tives of, 12G ; adverbs, cor- 
relative, 129; in compounds, 
1.34; svntax, accusative of, 
148 ; dat. of, 152 ; gen., 157, 
158; mode, 193; connectives 
of, 207 ; arrangement, 216, 
219, and see locative. 

Piatt Dentsch, 3. 

pleasant, syntax of, 199. 

pleonasm, 141. 

pluperfect, 78, 84, 85, 86 ; syn- 
tax, 188, 189 , origin of form, 
201. 

plural endings, 36, 82 ; for sin- 
gular, 174. 

polysyndeton, 141. 

possessive, 68, 69 ; compounds, 
1.34; arrangement, 218. 

possessor, dative of, 160 ; gen- 
itive of, 153. 

potential mode, 78, SS, 89; syn- 
tax, 195, 197. 

Prakrit, 67. 

pray, syntax of, 1.56. 

precession, 6, 9, 26, 27 ; exam- 
ples, 45, 57, 67, 75, 83, 85, 114, 
131, etc. 

predicate, 137; grammatical, 
logical, 139; agreement of, 
142; nominative, 1-14, 170; 
accusative, 147 ; genitive, 
155; adverb, 183. 

predicative combination, de- 
fined, 137, 130 ; agreement 
in, 142 ; participles, 200 ; ar- 
rangement, 214 ; quasi — , 
137,142, 152,155. 

prefixes, 6, ISO-f. 

preposition, 33, 34, 130-|- ; svn- 
tax, 158-172 ; article after, 
176 ; arrangement of, 216, 
219, 220 ; relation to verse, 
225. 

present, 78; active indie, 83; 
subjunctive, 80, 87 ; weak, 
94, 96, 97; redHi)licale, 115; 
forms of, 187-)-. 

preteritive verb, 8.5, 112-114. 

price, syntax of, 151, 1,57. 

principal parts of verb, 78. 

proclitics, 13. 



'loz 



K-wLlSH INDEX 



piocrressidii, 6, 9, 26, 7S, 103, 
107, liiS, lui>, 111, ll-J, lU. 

proirressive forms, 18S-)-, 19" ; 
i)iij;iu 1)1", -MX. 

proiiimieii reveientiie, 174. 

pronouns, :!:!. :!4, lU; person- 
al, 66, 72, 174, 17&, 179; pos- 
sessive, tiS 1'9t ~% 1^3, 175, 
and see demontitrative, rela- 
tive, interroiialive, indefinite. 

proper names, 54. 

jirosoilv, l!'2'2-'22S. 

prosthesis, <), 30. 

l>rotasis, 194. 

prothesis,'.!, IS, 19, 31. 

punctuation, 5. 

purpose, 134; syntax with,199. 

Ijyrrhic, 222. 

qu=r;>, 5. 

liuality, 12, 13; sufilx of, 124; 

snu'ax, ISA, 154. 

quantity, 12, 13, 222, 223. 

([uantilalives, 217, 21S. 

quasi-clauses, quasi feet, qua- 
s'- predicative, quasi -suffix- 
es, see clause, feet, etc. 

questions, 183, 184; strength- 
ened by cpedan, secgan, etc., 
183; indirect, 192. See in- 
terrogatives. 

r, T, 8, 15, 16, IS. See hreaking, 
stem. 

radicle, 33 ; in pronouns, 66 ; 
numerals, 75 ; derivation, 
IIS; suffixes, 119. 

ready, syntax, I'J'J. 

reality, 190. 

receive, sjnitax, 150. 

reciprocals, 175. 

reduplication, 6 ; contracted, 
13. 14, 32 ; in numerals, 75 ; 
verbs, 82, 85, 108, 109 ; pres- 
ents, 115, 116; in derivation, 

lis. 

reSexive, 68 ; syntax, 146, 150, 
156, 174, 175, ISrt. 

refuse, syntax, 149, 156. 

reijard, syntax, 147. 

re.aiional, 33, 129 ; genitive, 
153; verb, 1S6. 

relative pnmoun, 70, 72 ; sjm- 
tax, —personal as, 175, Ud, 
178-180 ; demonstrative as, 
173 : interrog., 179 . incor- 
poration, ISO; omission, ISO; 
order, 219, 220. 

relative clauses, adverbs in, 
184; subjunctive in, 193. 

re!.cs,49, 53, 63, 116. 

remain, syntax, 150. 

remember, 156. 

repeated subject, 144, 174. 

repetition, 152. 

respect of. 151, 199. 

result, suffix, 124; mode, 193, 
19.5. See cuiisecutive. 

Rhyming Poem, 226. 

rnythm, 222, 225. 

rhythmical accent, 30. 

■n<jhUrms,Vi'l. 

rime (rhyme), 223 ; letters, 224 

Ri)mau populace, 15. 

Komanic. 156, 216, 218, 225. 

roots, 33, 34, mixed, 64; in —h, 
97; — «-, 100; liquid, 100 



nasal, 100 ; two cousonanta, 
102,103,108; — t— ,103; — u— , 
105, —a— — il— , 107, 108, 
109; —&—, — ea— , —&-, 
—i—, —6—, —a-, 109, 110; 
—6— 111 ; — u— , 112 ; in de- 
rivation, lis. 

rou<»h mutes, 7. 

riiclcuniUiitt, see umlaut. 

runes, 4, IS. 

s, 5, 8,15 ; <(/, 19, 30, 83 ; >r, 80 ; 
>st, S3 ; —7., IS. 

— s, Norman, 51. 

fiaine, 70. 

Sandwich Islanders, 15. 

Sanskra, 3; letters, 8; accent 
in, 30; i(~>aCj 41 ; reflexive, 
68; conjugation classes, 79, 
114-116; beginnings of ab- 
laut, 79-}-; assimilation by 
m, n, I, r, 80; periphrastic 
perfect in kar, 82 ; dual, 82, 
83; causative, 79, 127; versi- 
fication, 223 ; and seeetgimil- 
ogy,comparative, and sijntax, 
caniparative. 

Saxon, 1, 3 ; Old Saxon, 2, 3 , 
vowels, 8 ; labials, 18 ; ab- 
stracts (z^Goth. -eins), 45 ; 
verse, 224, 227. See etijmolu- 
gg, comparative, and sgntax, 
comparative. See also Semi- 
Saxon, West Saxon, Anglo 
Saxon. 

sc, 16, 21+ ; breaking, 20. 

Scandinavian, 3, 29. See Ice- 
landic, \orse. 

section, in verse, 223. 

seldom, 128. 

.sr//, 70, 177. 

Semi-Saxon, 1, 4 ; j, 4, and see 
Layainon, Orniiiliurt. 

Semitic, 75, vowel change m 
iuflecciou, SO , syntax, 214 ; 
and see Hebrew. 

semi-vowel (?, g; u, p), genii- 
nation, 47, 61. 

sensation, syntax of, 145. 

sentence, kinds of, 139 , 
abridged, 140. audseec^awjsc. 

separation, syntax of, 151, 156, 
157. 

sex, 136. 

Shakespeare, double compari- 
son, 61, adjective endings, 
65; verb endings, 118; pre- 
fix ge-, 118. 

shall, 189, 196. 

sharing, syntax of, 156. 

she, 6S,'i77. 

sheep, 136. 

shifting {lautver,'<ehiebung), de- 
fined, 9, 28, 29 ; vowels > 
vowels, 28 , a>jr, 11, 27, 41, 
45, 58, 60, 63, 97, 99, 1J7 ; a> 
ir>e, 100, 102, a^o, 27; a>/, 
67 . d>w>e, 27, 60, 103, 110 : 
«a>e, 13, 14, 105 ; e6>e, 14, 
15, 105, 108, 109; y>i, 112; 
vowels>consouauts, 29 ; i> 
g, 30 ; u>v, 41 ; consonants 
>yowels, 28, 29 ; consonants 
>co- ordinate consonants, 
29; consonants to cogiia:c 
consonants (Gr'mm's law), 
29, 67, 75. 83, S6, S7, SS ; 0>/ 



>!', .30, 117', d>l, 30, 75; (;> 
A, 30; fc>/,75; W>«,67; Wl 
>»(i., 4.5, 49; rf>s, z, 19, 30, 
83 ; ,v>r, 30. 

short vowels, 6, 8, 11, 

sideling, 128. 

simple words, 113; eentences, 
139; subject, 18.5. 

simulation, 9, 28, 131. 

singular, 78, 142,185. 

size, syntax of, 154. 

Slavonic, 3 ; assibilation, 21 ; 
instrumental, 39; weak ad- 
jective, .59 ; thousand, 76. 

smooth mutes, 7. 

some (sum), with numerals,77 : 
syntax, 143, 181 ; some deal, 
12S. 

sonants, 7, 15, 23 ; rules for 
change of, 10. 

source, syntax of, 163, 166. 

space, syntax of, 148, 157, 159. 
See place. 

specification (adjunct), 151,157. 

spirant, 7. 

spondee, 222. 

- St, law for, 97. 

steadfast, 121. 

Stem (nouns), defined, 34; end- 
ings, 36 ; in -a, 39-|-, 57 ; -ia, 
41,42,43,47,60; -w, 41 ; -ha, 
41, 61; -/>«, 41, CI; -d, 44, 
45 ; -i, 42-17, 57 ; -u, 48, 49, 
60, 54, 47 ; -an, 50, 51, .59 ; -r, 
43, 53 : -nd, 43, .53 ; relics of 
other consonant stems, 53. 
VERu-stems, 78 , with gem- 
ination, 97; in -ia, 99, lOS, 
115: tense stems, 82 ; n in- 
8erted,116; reduplicated,115, 
1 16 ; relati(mal adverbial, 
129. Seiith£me. 

s*reugthen'ngstos(,S3; stems 
by -er, 41 , pronouns, 175 ; 
negatives, interrogatives, 

183: 

stress; 222. 

strong nouns, 36, 49 ; adjec- 
tives, 56 ; syntax, 173 ; verbs, 
78, 83+, 93, 126. 

subject, 137; grammatical, log- 
ical, 139; repeated, 143; nom- 
inative, 144; accusative, 147: 
simple, 1S5 ; compound, cop- 
ulate, 185; omitt (1,186; ar- 
rangement of, 214, 220. 

subjective verb, 138 ; genitive, 
153. 

subjunctive. 77 ; present, im- 
perfect, 86, 87, endings in 
auxiliaries, 87; potential, 89, 
syntax, 190 -^; in leading 
clauses, 191; insubordinate 
substantive, 192 ; adjective, 
193 ; adverb, 193-195 ; for im- 
perative, 197. 

sub-letters, 224. 

subordinate clause, 139 ; ques- 
tions in, 184 ; subjunctive 
in. 192-195 ; arrangement of, 
215, 220; conjunctions, 205- 
208. 

subsrantives, equivalents of, 
139; clauses, 140, 192, 206; 
arrangement of, 215, 220. See 
noun. 

suck, 70. 



E^;GLISII INDEX. 



STiffering object, 133. 

suffixes, relational, 33 ; of com- 
parison, 62-\- ; mode, 82 ; de- 
rivatiou, 121, 122, 123-128. 

superlative, 62-t>i ; in numer- 
als, 75, 76 ; prepositions and 
prefixes, 132 ; sjTitax, 154 , 
176. 

supremacy, syntax of, 157. 

surd, 7,15, 23; rules for change, 
10; roots, 95. 

sweariug, syntax of, 152. 

swine, 136. 

synaeresis, 10, 11, 32. 

ijynalepha, 10, 32. 

syncope, 9, 30, 31, 41, 47, 60, 70 : 
in imperfects and p.-part.,95. 

synesis, 141, 142, 144, 173, 185-|-. 

synizesis, 10, 32. 

t<yniax,137-221 ; figures of,141. 

syn'ax, comparative, appo!s- 
Itive (Sansk., Lat., Ger., 
U. II. a., (). ^^ir., Fr.>, 143, 
144; Nominative, facti- 
tive (."^ansk., Gr.. Golh., M 
H. G.), 144 ; Vocative, 
(Sausk., Lat., Fr.), 144, 145^ 
Accusative reflexive 
(Sansk.,Gr.,Gotti.),146; cog- 
nate(San8k.,Gr.,Gcr.,EnL!:.) ; 
double object (Sansk., Gr., 
Lat, Goth., O. H. ti.),146, 147; 
with infinitive (Sausk., Gr., 
Lat.), 147 ; factitive (Sansk.), 
147 ; in adverbial combina- 
tions (Sansk., Greek. Lat., 
Goth.), 148; Dative, of iu- 
fluence (Sansk., Greek, Lat. 
Goth.,0. H.G.), 149; ofpos 
sessor (Sansk., Greek, Lat.) 
150; nearness (Sansk., Gr. 
Lat., Goth.), 150 ; mastery, 
use (Lat., Goth., O. Sax., O 
Norse.O. H.G.,M. H.G.),I51 
separation (Lat., Gr.), 151 , 
adverbial (Sansk., Gr., Lat- 
in), 151 ; agent (Sausk., Gr. 
Lat.), 151 ; after compara 
lives (Sansk., Gr., Lat., Teu 
tonic), 1.52 ; absolute (Sau- 
sk-rit, Gr., Lat., Teut)., 152 . 
Instrumental (Sansk., 
Gr., Lat., Goth., O. Sax., O 
H. Ger.), 153 ; Genitive, 
general (Sanski.), 153; cog- 
nate (O. Norse), 154 ; aggre- 
gation (Sansk.), 154, char- 
acteristic (Sausk., Gr., Lat.), 
1.54 . of uame (Gr., Lat., Fr., 
Semi-Sax.), 155; pred cative 
(Gr., Lat.), 155; excitintr ob- 
ject (Sansk., Gr., Lat ..Teut.) 
156; partitive (Komanir) 
156; Prepositions 
(Gotli.,0.n.G.,0. Norse. O. 
Sax., Lat., Greek, Layanion, 
Orm., Chaucer, Wyclifl'e, 
Spenser), 159-172; Adjec- 
tive (Goth., H. Ger.), 174; 
Pronoun (Norman, O.H. 
G., O. Norse), 174, 144; pos- 
sessive (Layamou, Eugbsh) 
175 ; deraoustr. and article 
(Goth., O. IL G.,Lat.,Ger.). 
176, 177 ; interrog. (Orm 



Lat.), 178 ; relative (Sansk., 
Gr., Lat., Goth.,0. H.G.,Ger., 
Seni:-Sax., Engl.), 178, 179; 
article (Gr., Lat., Got !i.. Ger., 
O. Norse), 180 ; Adverbs 
(Gr., Lat, Teut.), 183, 184 ; 
Verb, subject of (Lat, Gr., 
Engl., etc.), 185, 186; voice 
(Sansli., Greek, Lat., Goth., 
Teut), 77, 146, 150,187 ; tense 
(Lat, Engl.), 189, 190 ; mode 
(Gr., Latin), 190-201 ; Ar- 
rangement of word 
(Lat., Ger.), 214; predicative 
comb. (Indo-Europ., Semi- 
tic), 214, (French, Romanic) 
216; attrib. comb. (Gr., Lat., 
Teut., Romanic), 216, (Gr., 
Lat., Engl., Ger., Fr., Span., 
It.), 217, (Romanic) 218 ; ob 
jective comb. (Germanic) 
219; adverbial comb. (Ger 
manic), 220. 

t,7, 8, 15, 29; <d, 19; Gothic, 
97. 

— t, neuter ending, 37, 57. 

take, syntax, 150. 

tavern, 121. 

teach, syntax, 146, 147, 198. 

tenses, 78 ; stems in Parent 
Speech, 82; syntax, 187; pro- 
gressive, 188 ; sequence, 190. 

tetrameter, 223. 

Teutonic, 3, 29, 30, 76, 129, 152. 

th=/), 17 ; d, 97. 

thank, syntax, 149, 156. 

the more, 177. 

theme, 34 ; of nouns in -ad, 
-ed, -e;.s', -sc, 41 ; ))lurals in 
-er, 41 , -wifi. 47 ; t, ed, pyu 
>o, h, 61 verb, 78 ; in -cc, 
-II, -e. 111; nasal, 111: gut- 
tural, 112. 

thesis, 222, 223, 225. 

theu, their, them, 68, 69, 177. 

tli-oiisand, 7G. 

till, 167. 

time, suffix of, 125 ; adverbs, 
130; compounds, 134; syn- 
tax, 152, 157, 158, 201, 207; 
subjunctive in clauses cf, 
193 ; arrangement, 216 ; in 
verse, 222 ; and see teme. 

to, 167-1- ; with the iutiuitive, 
197; -rfflV, 128. 

tonic, 222, 225. 

touch, syntax, 156. 

transitive verbs, 138, 145, 156, 
186; perfect, pluperfect, 86, 
201. See direct object. 

tribrach, 222. 

trills, 16. 

trimeter, 223. 

trochee, 222, 223, 225. 

truth, 188. 

U, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11,12; >?/, 12; e< 

14; =t), 18; >aB, «/', 41, 47 
M-declensiou for Latin, Greek 

a-decl.,54. 
M-group, 7, 26. 
umlaut, 6, 19, 23; rule, 10. 

verbs, 96-1-; stems from, 12:!; 

concealed, riickumlaul, 95 ; 



stopped by n, 102 ; a^um- 
Inut, examples, 12, 19, 8b, 97, 
yy, 100, 102, 103, 105, 114 ; u 
umlaut, 11, 12, 13, 14, 19, 4.-., 
45, 47, 60, 62, 97, 100, 105, 107, 
108, 109, 110, 111, 112; it-um- 
laut, 11, 12, 20, 41. 

underneath, 170. 

use, syntax, 150, 151, 157. 

v=u, 18. 

value, syntax, 154. 

variation, 9, 97, 98 ; table of, in 
verbs, 99-103, 117. 

verb, 34, 77 ; conjugation, see ; 
preteritive, see ; irregular, 
114-118; the substantive, 114; 
derivation, 118 ; compound, 
134; syntax, 1S5-201 ; kinds 
of, 1-86 ; agreement, 185, 186 ; 
omission, 186; arrangement, 
214, 218. 

verbal, in -una, -ing, -endc, 201 ; 
syntax, 153,' 201 ; accent, 222. 

verse, 222, 223; common nar- 
rative, 225 ; long, 227. 

vocal chords, 11; utterance, 11. 

vocative, 34, 35 ; syntax, 139, 
144, 145, 173. 

voice,77 ; middle, 146, 150, 187; 
syntax, 187. 

vowels, 6 ; Indo-European ta- 
ble, 8; groups, 6, 7; Anglf)- 
Saxon, 11-15 ; changes, 19- 
32 See each vowel. 

vriddhi, 27. 

w</', IS, 19. 

want=7i<;c(/, 157. 

watch, syntax, 156. 

way, syntax, 158. 

weak nouns, 36, 50 adjectives, 

56, 59, 60, 173 : verbs, 78, 83, 

85, 92-1-, 94 ; mixed, irreg., 

116,117,126,127. 
wealth, svntax, 1.53. 
weathcr.iig of endings, 36, 55, 

65,72,118,131. 
wedlock, 122. 
weight, syntax, 154. 
weladny, 133. 
West Saxons, 1. 
lohat, 178. 
whilom, 128. 
who, 179. 

wliole, see partitive, 
tOiH, 189, 196. 
•winsome, 122. 
wish, syntax, 150, 
woman, 122. 
word, 33. 

worthy, syntax, 199. 
Wyclifflte, 1, 179. 

X, 5, 7, 17. 

V, 11 : <u, ea, eo, i, e, se, 12. 

i/, 14. 

!/lc, 70. 
lion, 59. 
of ^orc, 128. 

X, 7, 18, 19. 
zeugma, 141. 



THE END. 



PE I-larch, Francis Andrew 
131 A comparative graramar 

M37 of the Anglo-Saxon 
1888 



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