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l'|)||||>, Al Ilk Sri-.IMAN \M) WlI.KINs. 

ARlllLK \VI-:sr llAUUAN, V>.\). 

A N I« 


Hi'jiui Pni/ftivr o/ MoiU-rn llulory, 
J-OKMhXl.) /■t.LlOll^ ■''■ "■l\iry COLLtOE, OXFORD. 

\C)L. 1. 


\^All rigbh reserved] 


I. HkITISU ('.lllRCIl DlKINi; TIIK RoMAN PkRIOO : A.D. JOO-450. 

II. British Cm rch dlrino the Pkriod ok Saxon Conquest: 
A.D. 450-681. 

III. Cmlrcm ok Wai.fs: .A.I). 6S1-1 295. 

I\'. c:urRCM OK Cornwall: A.D. 681-107J. 

vl i: !• A ( 

Thk present volume contains the first ptrtion of :i work, based 
U|>)n the Comilia Magnx Britannia et H'lhemijt of Wilkins, and aiming 
at a reproduction of that ^reat work, in accordance with the present 
state of our knowledge and materials. The extent however of the 
undertaking is at present limited to the period antecedent to the 
Reformation. And as the bot)k will thus cover less ground than 
tliat of Wilkins, so it h:is seemed expedient to depart in it also from 
tlie arrangement adopted by him, as well ;is of course (and very con- 
siderably) from the contents themselves of his b(X)k. Acknowledging 
fully our obligations to him, as having alone rendered a work like 
the present [-H)ssible at all, we have not felt bound to retain 
everything which he admitted, any more than we have tied ourselves 
to the limits of the materials which were accessible to him. Wc 
have acted up^in our own judgment, and to an extent that renders 
our work almost a new work, both in omitting and in adding- 
save that in the former, we design to omit nothing, except upon 
the grounds of prt)ved spuriousness, or as substituting a better and 
earlier authority for a later, or as displacing documents wrongly 
attributed to our own Church but really translations of e.g. 
Frankish or other foreign documents. 

In point of arrangement, it has seemed more convenient to 
keep together the documents relating to each period and division 
of the several national or local branches of the Churches of these 
islands, placing them chronologically under each of those several 
periods and divisions. We shall thus have the older British, the 
Welsh, the Cornish, the Scottish (in the modern sense of the term), 
the Irish, the Anglo-Saxon documents, besides those of minor or of 

viii P R K F A C E. 

later divisions, grouped together so as to illustrate one another: 
and this, at the cost of a very trifling amount of rather cross- 
reference than repetition. Wilkins's single and purely chronolo- 
gical arrangement results in the scattering of the few Welsh, Scot- 
tish, or Irish documents within his reach, here and there, among 
contemporary Anglo-Saxon or Norman documents, otherwise for 
the most part wholly unconnected with them. 

In respect to contents the present work varies even far more 
widely from its predecessor and prototype. For the year 1737, 
the Concilia of Wilkins was a monument of gigantic lalx)ur and 
learning, and worthily claimed both to rival and to supplant 
the work, for its date equally wonderful, of Wilkins's own 
forerunner Spelman. But it is no imputation either uj"»on that 
indefatigable scholar's industry, or upon his critical skill, to say, 
that for our present needs, and with our present materials, and 
according to the sounder c:uions of present histtjrical and phil«>- 
logical knowledge, his work is inadequate, exceedingly defective 
and incomplete, and (especially in its earlier portions) uncritical : 
to say nothing of the not few blemishes which disHgure it, of 
incorrect readings and inaccurate Anglo-Saxon translations. The 
complete revolution ejected in Anglo-Saxon scholarship by the 
labours of such men as Rask, Grimm, Bi>sw()rth, Kemble, Thorpe, 
etc., and the labours of the last-named ujx^n the special cKoss of 
Anglo-Saxon documents with which we are concerned, supply ample 
materials for the remedy of the last-named defect. And the aid 
in this department kindly promised to us by the Rev. John Baron, 
M.A., of Queen's College, Oxford, the careful and learned editor of 
Johnson's E?iglish Canons, will enable us we trust, notwitlistanding 
our own very imperfect knowledge of AngUv&ixon, to make ade- 
quate use of them. 

In respect to the collection of additional materials and their criti- 
cal use, it is obvious that abundant helps have become accessible since 
the days of Wilkins, although until now no attempt has been made 
to employ them in one great and complete wf)rk. Not only are addi- 
tional collections of MSS., as every one knows, now open, but lx)th 
their contents and those of other collections have been very largely 
searched, and catalogued, and published in print. Of printed works, 

I' R 1-: F A C K. ix 

the Angl()-&iX()n Charters collected by Kemble, or in Thorpe's Diplo- 
matarium^ — the labcjrious editions ot Penitentials, and of AngIe)-Saxon 
laws, due to Kunstmann*, Wasscrschleben'', Tht)rpe, and Schmid'', — 
the publications of the Record Commission, and especially (as bringing 
together critically and thoroughly the entire series of historical sources 
for the ante-Norman history of Church as well as State) the Monu- 
mertta H'istorica Brifannica^ and Mr. Hardy's Descriptive Catalogue of 
AISS. relating to the History of Great Britain ./;/</ Ireland (SO far as it 
is yet published), — with other scattered sources of information too 
numenjus to specify, — not only supply additional documents, many 
of ihem previously buried in MSS. and unknown, but furnish also 
copious critical help in their selection and arrangement. And the 
specially ecclesiastical volume of the Ancient Laivs and Institutes 
of England fRec. Comm. 1840^ although singularly unfortunate in 
its choice of documents to be published, adds to our store never- 
theless some that are both important and previously not in 
print, in addition to the improved Anglo-Saxon text and English 
veisit)n of Anglo-S.ixon documents already referred to. Liverani <' 
also, and above all Theiner-', have so far disclosed the secrets 
of the Vatican, as to furnish very much of additional material, 
the latter principally for early niediicval Irish and Scottish Church 
history; while they increase our curiosity to learn something more 
still of the untold wealth of like documents, still waiting (we sup- 
pose) for the kingdom of Italy to make them entirely accessible to 
European scholars. Kunstmann, and with a more than German 
thoroughness, Wasserschleben, as above mentioned, prosecuting enqui- 
ries and investigations started by Knust, Mone, Hildenbrand, and 
others, have critically and almost thoroughly exhausted the store 
of Continental MSS. of Irish or Anglo-Saxon Penitentials, and have 
left to us in that particular department the task only of using the 

» F. Kunstmann, Die Lateinischen Piiniten- und vermehrte Auflage : Leipzig 1858. 

tialbiicher der Angel-Sachsen. niit geschicht- '' Franc. Liverani, Spicilegium Liberianum : 

liche cinleitung : Mainz 1S44. Florent. 1864. 

•> F. W. h" Wasseischleben, Die Bussordnun- <^ Vetera Monumenta Hibernorum et Scotomni 

gen der Abendlandischen Kirche, nebst einer Historiam illustrantia, quae ex Vaticani, Neapolis, 

rechts^eschichtlichcn cinleitung : Halle 185 1. ac Fiorentix Tabulariis deprompsit et ordine 

<■ Reinhold Schmid, Die Gesetze der Angel- chronologico disposuit Aug. Theiner, Presb. 

Sachsen: in der Ursprache mit Ubersetzung und Congr. Oratorii etc. Ab Honorio PP III. 

Elautemngen herausgegeben. etc. Krster Theil : "^q"^ ^d Paulum PP. III., 1216-1247: Romae 

Leipzig 1832. Zweite, vollig umgearbeitete 1804. 

X P R F. F A C K. 

additional but important MSS. (unknown to them) in tin- Bodleian 
Library and in that of C C. C. Cambridge. There still remain, 
among the valuable MSS. at S. Gall, some Irish Canons and frag- 
ments of liturgies, etc. yet unpublished, which will enrich our 
collection of early Irish documents. 

All the works, however, above named are either restricted to 
special departments of Wilkins's comprehensive subject, or include 
also foreign documents of the class they treat of, or simply help to 
elucidate the Church history of the period. The task is still left to 
be done, which we now hope to do, of combining and employing 
all these various classes of information, in the- preparation of a 
single and complete series of the documentary evidence (>f the Church 
history of these islands prior to the Reformation. 

To specify a few particulars in a little more detail. — i. The 
" Origines" of the British Churcli were added by \\ ilkins :us an 
appi-ndix at the end of his work, by ;in afterthought. And he 
has merely reprinted there Spelman's long since obsolete specu- 
lations upon the subject. The few documents relating to it at 
the beginning of his first volume, like the mythical council helil 
by Ine A.D. 712, are almost all pure fable. For the period then 
antecedent to the Saxon invasion, which h:Ls left behind no docu- 
mentary evidence whatever of its own, we have thought it best to 
collect and arrange every Patristic or Continental allusion to the 
British Church that can be found. The period which ff)llows, that 
of S. David and the settlement of the Welsh Church, is somewhat 
better provided from its own stores, although (with the exception 
of Gildas) the preservation of such fragmentary remains as it has left, 
is due either to Brittany or to Irish Churchmen. The former source 
supplies some Penitential Canons (published first by Martene and 
Durand); interesting, besides their curious contrast with the legen- 
dary conception of the British Church of that time, as throwing 
back the beginning of the great development of the Penitential 
system in the West, which is usually attributed to Theodore, to the 
Celtic Churches which he found in these islands. The latter have 
preserved fragments of what seems like a second Epistola of Gildas 
(hitherto, in part, unpublished). The non-historical portion of Gildas' 
well-known first Epistola is also here reprinted, as bearing u}-K>n the 



probable hypothesis of a special British Old Latin Version of the 
Bible : a supposition confirmed by the discovery also of a few frag- 
ments of (apparently) such a version, here published for the first 
time. The series, which follows, of the documents of the Welsh 
Church down to the time of its absorption into the English, is one 
now for the first time made, and has been collected (as will be 
seen) from various sources, as e. g. from Peckham's Register, from 
the Vatican Transcripts in the British Museum, etc., etc., but in 
particular from the original MS., now again come to light, of the 
Lil?er L.ajtda-vens'is^ and from the extracts from the Red Book of 
vS, Asaph preserved among the Peniarth (formerly Hengwrt) MSS. : 
for the courteous loan of which two MSS. we desire to record our 
obligations, respectively, to P. Davics Cooke, Esq., of Owston, co. 
York, and W. W. E. Wynne, Esq., of Peniarth. It need hardly be 
added, that we have taken our extracts from Howcl Dda's Laws 
from Mr. Aneurin Owen, not from Dr. Wotton. 

2. The late lamented Mr. Robertson's unwearied research and his- 
torical skill have anticipated a large portion of our labours in respect 
to the Northern Churches of the island. His volumes of Scottish Coun- 
cils (in the modern sense of the word Scottish) have already digested 
and arranged the greater part of the mass of material relating to 
the subject accumulated in various antiquarian publications or else- 
where, and have advanced largely upon Father Innes's brief outline 
prefixed to Wilkins. The task still remains for ourselves of working 
up also the fragmentary information relating to the period before 
King David, where Mr. Robertson begins- a task largely facilitated 
by such publications as Mr. Skene's Early '■^Chronicles'''' of Scotland 
(Edinb. 1867). 

3. The labours of Dr. Reeves, Dr. Todd, Mr. King, and of the 
other and non-ecclesiastical members of that great band of Irish 
scholars who have recently converted Irish early history and archae- 
ology out of an almost proverbial chaos of wild and uncertified 
fable into something approaching to coherent and critically digested 
knowledge, render it now possible, almost for the first time, to pro- 
duce a similarly sifted and critically arranged and edited series of 
Irish Church documents of the ante-Norman period. The S. Gall 
MSS. enable us to add the interesting collection of Irish Canons, 

xii [> R K F A C E. 

which was made apparently for Irish continental monasteries and 
missions in the early part of the Slh century, and of which hitherto 
only a few extracts have appeared in print (viz. in D'Achery, and 
in Martcne and Diirand). The same source, and other Swiss 
libraries, supply also some Irish liturgical fragments, published for 
the first time (with the exception of one, which is also in a printed 
but unpublished rep)rt of the Record Commission) in Bishop Forbcs's 
Preface to the Arl-uth?i0t Missal. A Penitential of Vinniaus (S. Finian), 
and other Irish Penitential Canons, collected byWasserschleben, repre- 
sent in our collection that class of Irish early documents. The work 
of the kind attributed to Cumniian, and which largely coincides with 
the genuine Thecxiorc, contains also so much that comes from later 
sources, as to make it plain, either (if the well-known Cummian, who 
wrote upon the Plaster controversy alx)ut A.D. 634, be the author 
of it) that we have only in our MSS. a work founded upon his, t)r 
(if the work as it stands is to be assigned to some other Cummian) 
that its compiler lived as late as the <Sth century, when there cer- 
tainly was a Bishop Cummian at Bobbio, vi/,. al-K)ur A.D. 711-744 
(see Wasscrschlcben's Einleitung, pp. 64, 6 -). The latter seems the 
more likely guess. And the document, so far as it is not mere 
repetition, will be placed by us according to that date. All these 
departments of our work are in eftect additional to Wilkins, who 
was acquainted very scantily with their subjects. 

But there remains very much to be done in even, 4. the Anglo- 
Saxon period, ufX)n which Wilkins bestowed especial pains, and 
which Mr, Thorpe has handled subsequently. Mr. Kemble's char- 
ters have disclosed a number of additional councils, although none 
of much importance; besides throwing a great deal of light upon 
questions of date or of genuineness. And Mr. Thorpe's ecclesias- 
tical volume of Ancient Laijjs adds as we have said some valuable 
documents, such e. g. as that which he entitles Institutes of Polity^ 
Civil and Ecclesiastical^ and again yElfric's Pastoral Epistle^ and that 
entitled f^ando Diridis Chrisma^ besides some minor additions. In 
the department however both of codes or digests of canons gene- 
rally, and of penitential canons, both Wilkins and Thorpe are 
unfortunate. The Liher Lcgum Ecclesiasticarum^ which is one of the 
two representatives of the former class in Wilkins, and is repro- 

P R E F A C E. xiii 

duced as " Ecclesiastical Institutes" by Thorpe, is (as Wilkins himself 
tells us, from Johnson) a translation of a work of Bishop Theodulf 
of Orleans, who flourished c. A.D. 797. 

Penitentials are in still worse plight. Wilkins, omitting all 
Irish or other Celtic documents of the kind, exhibits only one 
specimen of those of Anglo-Saxon times, viz. the Penitential attri- 
buted by him (as by others) to Egbert, which is in large part a 
mere translation into Anglo-Saxon of three books of Halitgar of 
Cambray, who flourished about A.D. 825. Mr. Thorpe, reprinting 
a better text and translation of this, but still as Egbert's, has 
added, under the pseudonym of Theodore's Penitential, the first 
lialf, arbitrarily severed from the remainder, of what is really a 
Frankish Penitential of the 9th century- of which Spelman, know- 
ing nothing but its table of contents, had guessed that it was 
the lost work of Theodore. And Kunstmann, noticing the diffi- 
culty of the case, has followed Thorpe. The English editor indeed 
has published only a part of the document in question, which 
stands as a single whole in the MS. (C. C. C. C. 190, marked O by 
him) • omitting without notice six chapters at its commencement, 
and twenty-two at its close, and the whole story of Furseus (as found 
in Baeda) at the end of c. 45 ^ while he severs the last two chapters 
of the portion which he does print (putting them in different type 
from the rest) as plainly later than Theodore, and leaves the reader 
to suppose that the MS. ended with them. The very title and 
contents of the first chapter of the portion thus groundlessly cut 
away from the rest for publication, sufficiently prove, that a work 
written when the " Orientales provincix Germania et Saxonia" con- 
tained settled Christian Churches, and by a writer who had " learned 
by experience" the customs of those Churches, could not possibly 
be the work of one, in whose days those parts of Germany were sunk 
in heathenism, and of whose life we know enough from Baeda to 
know certainly that he never could have been in Germany at all. The 
first paragraphs also of c. 20 are from a Roman Council of A.D. 721. 
And other portions are from still later sources, as from. Charle* 
magne's Capitulare Ecclesiasticum of A.D. 789, and from Halitgar in 
829 (see Wasserschleben, Einl. p. 18). And the entire Penitential 
belongs to the Frankish family of such documents. Moreover, there 

XIV I' R E V A C E. 

is literally no ground for assigning it to Theodore beyond the guess 
i)f Spelman, who had never seen it. The genuine Penitential of the 
great Archbishop (so to call it, — for it is in truth a general collec- 
tion of canons not exclusively penitential, and it was not composed 
by Theodore at all, which accounts for Bxda's omitting to mention 
it, but was compiled by a disciple as a record of Theodore's de- 
cisions), lies after all sicie by side with that which has thus figured 
under its name, in the library of Corpus 0>llege at Oimbridge. It is 
in C. C. C. C. 320 (designated N by Mr. Thorpe, and by some unac- 
countable oversight described by him as Cott, Tib. A :}, although 
he gives its locality correctly in his I'reface) ; the MS,, at the end 
of which are the vciscs addressed to Bishop Hxddi, printeii by 
Mr. Thorpe, and which contains also the various readings (if those 
can be so called, which are taken from one work and applied to 
another and totally different one) piinled also l^y Mr. Thorpe as 
from N. Internal evidence led ourselves to pronounce this to l)e 
the genuine Theotiore. And the identical document h;Ls we find been 
printed as Theodore's by W'xsserschleben from ten foreign MSS.^ one 
of them professedly a copy from the Cambridge MS. itself, while 
another contains an express statement that the work was compiled 
from the mouth of ThecK^ore, and *'consiliante venerabili Theodoro 
Archie pi scop)," and by a " discipulus Umbrensium" for the benefit 
of the " Angli," the greater part of it having been communicated 
by Theodore first to one Eoda a presbyter. Obligation also to a 
'' libellus Scotorum," but to no other preceding work, is specially 
acknowledged. The existence in the work of all the quotations 
professing to come from Theodore's Penitential, — a fact for which 
wc must here refer ourselves to Wasscrschleben, — and tiie parenthe- 
tical remark of the scribe (twice, viz. in I. v. 2, and 6), that he 
could hardly believe such and such a canon to have come from 
Theodore, — with other arguments for which we must here refer to 
Wasscrschleben, — confirm the inference from suitability of contents, 
and render it certain that here at length we have the genuine work. 

The genuine Penitential of Barda has also been discovered and 
published from foreign MSS. by the same Wasscrschleben. It had 
previously lain hid in numerous works of the kind, founded upf)n it, 
but (as is usually the case with such compositions) enlarged and 

r R K F A C E. XV 

altered by subsequent Church authorities ad libitum: e.g. in the 
works, one with Bjeda's name and another without it, commonly 
styled De Remediis Peccatorum ^ both of which appear to have been 
all but entirely made up of the shorter and genuine document 
found by Wasserschleben and of a similar document belonging to 

T'he last-named Archbishop has suffered even more in the same 
way, viz. by the assigning to him of later compilations f, founded upon 
his, but with much the same latitude with which our own work is 
" founded " upon that of Wilkins. We have first a short Peniten- 
tial, found by Wasserschleben in a Vienna MS. and elsewhere, and 
especially also in one at S. Gall; which is attributed by its title to 
Egbert, is independent of other documents in its contents, refers 
to nothing subsequent to his date, and generally is suitable to 
him as its compiler. And at the end of this are added in the 
Vienna MS. two chapters, the second professing to be made up 
" de dictis sancti Bonifacii Archiepiscopi" or, as it stands in another 
entirely different compilation which happens to quote the same 
chapter, " edictio sancti Bonifacii " while the MS. at S. Gall (which 
Wasserschleben apparently had not himself seen) adds at the end, 
but without these additional chapters, the words '■^ e ditto Bonifacii 
Episcopi." The constant interchange of MSS. between Egbert and 
Boniface is known from Boniface's own letters ; and those who 
used in Germany the Penitential of the former, might naturally 
add to their copy some further rules made by the latter. Here 
then we believe we have the genuine and original work of the 
York Archbishop. For we have, next, two works, as above said, 
De Remediis Peccatorum^ one with Bseda's name, the other without it, 
sometimes assigned to Basda and sometimes to Egbert, but really 
made up almost wholly of the two shorter and (as here assumed) 
genuine works of both. And then, thirdly, we find in Bodl. MSS. 
718 (a loth century MS., and one of Bishop Leofric's valuable gifts 

f That which Wilkins and Thorpe call Egbert's the smallest possible exception, of extracts from 

Penitential, is, as above said, really a part of the genuine Theodore and Egbert themselves. 

Halitgar's, and does not appear even to profess MS. S. Gall 243, which contains the Irish 

to be Egbert's. His " Confessional," also in Canons, is styled Egbert's Penitential by mistake 

Wilkins and Thorpe, claims only to be, and may in the S. Gall Catalogue, because its scribe's name 

well be, a translation merely by Egbert from happens to have been Eadberct. 
Latin into Sa.xon; and is really made up, with 

xvi r R E F A C E. 

to his cathedral, unkiKnvn to Wasscrschleben) a very long and elabo- 
rate treatise, described (in a title placed after the contents of its 
hrst B(X)k) as Excerpt'to de Caiiovibus etc. peTutent'talis I'tbri ad remed'ium 
an'nriarum Ecgberhti Archiepiscopi Eburace Cii'itatis i but with this title 
limited expressly (by the closing words of that bcx)k) to the first 
book of the treatise, while the other three are ''excerpts" from 
Fathers, Canons, etc., and contain a systematically arranged trea- 
tise, compiled by a member of a religious house at the bidding of his 
rector, but without the slightest reference to Egbert. And the first 
book of this compilation contains the identical genuine work of 
Egbert as already assumed; but i. prefixes to it 21 capitula^ mani- 
festly belonging to time and country of Frank Emper(;rs, the 7th 
of them directing prayers to be made "pro vita et imperio domini 
Imperatoris et filiorum ac filiarum salute;" .md 2. inserts after it, 
but apparently as Egbert's, forms of prayer and litanies etc for con- 
fession, which are certainly (judging by the invocations) Anglc>-Sa\on. 
Lastly, we have, in Cott. MSS. Nero A. 1, and in C. C. C. C K. 2 
(a Worcester MS.), these same 21 capitula^ foUowed by two com- 
paratively short series of excerpts, agreeing largely but by no means 
entirely both with each otlier and with the much longer series in the 
Btxil. MS. Bk. IV., and both attributed to Egbert; the first of them 
printed :is Egbert's Excerpt'tones by Wilkins and Thorpe, the second 
abstracted and in part translated by Johnson, and lx)th (»f rhem con- 
taining extracts from the capitularies of Charles the Great. And 
we have also a further statement of Lcland and Bale, that " Hucarus 
Levita," a Cornishman o{ probably the 1 ith century, prefixed to some 
homilies of his own, now lost, certain '•'■ Exccrptioves Egbert/." The 
inference seems naturally to follow upK)n the case thus stated, that 
the shorter work first named is the only genuine one, — that Bodl. 
MSS. 718 is only Egbert's as regards this portion of its first B(X)k, 
and perhaps the confessional appended to that portion, — and that 
the various compilers of the several sets of Excerpt'tones t(xjk the 
whole o\ the four Bodleian books to be Egbert's, and put together 
accordingly, under Egbert's name, what had really become (wrongly) 
■associated with him through the combining of such Excerptioties with 
Egbert's genuine work by the compiler of the Bodleian MS. 

W^e shall have, then, in our Anglo-Saxon pericxl the three genuine 

P R E F A C E. xvii 

works of respectively Theodore, Baeda, and Egbert, now for the first 
time published in England. Of works founded upon theirs, or of 
translations from foreign documents, only those will claim admis- 
sion at their respective dates, which i. are not mere repetitions, 
and 2. obtained authority in our own Churches as being adopted by 
Saxon Archbishops or in any similar way. 

Passing from Penitentials to the Easter controversy, we shall 
have to add to Wilkins here also, as under the Irish Church the 
letter of Cummian, so under the Anglo-Saxon that of Aldhelm. 
That of Ceolfrid stands at present in Wilkins as the sole docu- 
ment of the kind. The interesting tract among the Holkham 
MSS. upon the Roman law, hitherto unpublished, which Palgrave 
attributed to Aldhelm, is certainly not his, and belongs to a date 
not far from the Conquest. 

What has been said will we hope shew abundantly, both that 
our proposed W(jrk brings together important documents hitherto 
scattered or inaccessible, and that it adds also a fair amount of 
material now for the first time published at all. For further detail 
we must refer to the notes and explanations attached to each docu- 
ment in its place. 

We have found considerable difficulty in defining precisely and 
consistently the classes of documents to be respectively omitted or 
inserted in a collection like that of Wilkins or our own. A rigid 
exclusion of everything except literal canons of formal councils 
would be a wide departure from Wilkins's practice (not to say, 
also, from his title-page), would be very far from producing an 
adequate modern representation of his work, would not furnish 
anything like a complete collection of authoritative Church docu- 
ments or laws, and would indeed leave a very small skeleton of 
Church documents of any kind for any, and none at all for some 
of the earlier, periods or divisions of our insular Churches. On 
the other hand, the inclusion of every document relating to 
ecclesiastical things or persons at all, would issue in a work too 
unwieldy for use, in large part of very narrow interest, needlessly 
repeating the contents of collections already existing, and above 
all, far too heavy for the already over-tasked power of editors. 
A general as opposed to a local or individual interest appears to 

VOL. I. b 

vviii P R F. F A C K. 

be, roughly speaking, the qualihcation that should alone obtain 
admission for a document. And all grants of lands, e.g. to parti- 
ticular ecclesiastical bodies, may stand as a specimen of those which 
certainly fall as such outside the line. Everything partaking of the 
nature of a law or canon, every record of the existence of a synod 
even if its acts are lost, every document relating to the discipline 
of the Church or to its relations to the State or to the method of 
appointment to Bishoprics, or in any way illustrating the rules of 
procedure or the ecclesiastical practice or principles of the times, 
seems to fall within that line. Liturgies are the only large class 
of authoritative Church documents which seem to constitute a 
distinct and extensive department of their own; far t(xj much so 
to allow of their being properly treated as a mere {>)rtion of a 
larger and more general work. And these therefore are omitted 
frt)m our pages, with the small exception of certain ancient frag- 
ments, interesting historically as much :ls liturgically, and which 
also take up very little space. We have thought it best, in 
short, to aim at a collection of what the French call Pikes Just'tfi- 
cathrs, save that there is of course in our work no precedent history 
which the documents are alleged to sustain. And we have rather 
Uxiked to tJie interest attaching to each case, than sought to draw 
a hard line to which it might be often inconvenient and almost 
out of our power to adhere. 

It has been impossible to collate every document with the original 
MS. We have done so wherever we could; and in such cases cite 
the MS. as our auth(uity, and if the document have been already 
printed elsewhere, add the words — " and in" such and such a Ixxjk. If 
we have depended wholly on a printed authority, we have quoted either 
that authority simply, or the MS. as *' in " such and such a bcxA. 

In conclusion, we venture to express a hope, that although the 
arrangement of the subject has limited the contents of the present 
and first volume to Churches so far from our present times, or so 
narrow in extent, as to tx; largely of antiquarian perhaps more than 
historical interest, yet even here we shall have thrown light upfjn many 
questions still practically important. The groundlessness of the so 
often alleged "Orientalism" of the early British Church, — oriental 
in no other sense than that its Christianity originated like all 

P R E F A C K. xix 

Christianity in Asia, and found its way to Britain through (most 
probably) Lyons, and not through the then equally Greek Church 
of Rome, but without imprinting one single trace upon the British 
Church itself of any one thing in a peculiar sense Greek or 
Oriental, — the sweeping away of fictitious personages like King 
Lucius, or of gratuitous assumptions like that of S. Paul's personal 
preaching in these islands, — the placing the British Easter contro- 
versy upon its right footing, once more, of a mere confusion of 
cycles, — these and the like results, whatever ingenious partizans 
on either side may make of them, are certainly interesting to our 
patriotism, and may perhaps be made remotely practical for present 
polemics. Much again among the specially Welsh documents is 
chiefly interesting, except to the inhabitants of the Principality itself, 
in the way of illustrating national character as impressed vividly upon 
a national Church, rather than in any larger sense. But other points 
emerge in the volume of still living interest. The futility, injustice, 
and utter mischief to discipline, of Papal appeals, considered solely 
in their practical aspect, and as exhibited in the cases of Bishop 
Urban and of Giraldus in the beginnings respectively of the 12th 
and 13th centuries, — the contest between Chapter, Crown, and Pope, 
for the right of nomination to Bishoprics, a contest complicated in 
Whales by questions of race, and of English domination,— the well- 
known Archiepiscopal summons to a synod in t i 25, mentioning 
" permission " given to the Papal legate to hold it^ — the repeated 
mention of diocesan synods, — the freedom and self-government 
accorded to the native Welsh Church of almost all dates, and 
diminished gradually as Henry IIL and Edward L brought English 
law to bear upon the subject, pari passu with their gradual and 
attempted Anglicizing of Wales, — the fearful abuse of spiritual 
powers and the exceeding worldliness of the Church, exhibited in 
all the relations of England to Wales during the same period, and 
especially in the monstrous wickedness with which excommunica- 
tions and interdicts were scattered about at random, while the darker 
shades of the picture are relieved by the unselfish charity and 
piety, however oddly expressed, of such as Archbishop Peckham, 
and by the obviously sincere religion of Edward himself, — the 
commencement of that bane of the Welsh Church, the imposing 

b 2 

XX P R F. F A C F. 

ii["H)n it of a clergy that could not speak Welsh, and the treating irs 
sees as mere pieces of preferment, — all these are surely subjects which 
have a living interest, and belong to questions of which the moving 
forces are active in the present day. And our next volume will 
include a subject of certainly very pressing interest, namely, the 
early documents of the Church of Ireland. 

For the present volume, Mr. Haddan is responsible. The second, 
which will contain the early Scottish and Irish documents, besides 
some minor divisions, also falls to Mr. Haddan. And Professor 
Stubbs will complete the Saxon period in vols. 111. and IV^ The 
second and third volumes will it is hop;.-d by the end of iS6y 
or shortly after. 

We have finally the agreeable task of tendering our thanks for 
much and courteous help, to the Librarians and SrafF of the Bodleian 
Library, — thanks none the less heartily due, because their courtesy 
is alike extended to all who need it, — to Professor Westwood, — to 
the Rev. Dr. Reeves,— to the Rev. George Williams of King's, and 
to Mr. Bradshaw the Libr.arian of Cambridge University Library, — to 
the Master and Fellows of Corpus Qjllege, Oimbridge, and espe- 
cially to the Rev. W. i\L Snell, for ready access to their invaluable 
MSS.,— to the Rl. Rev. Bishop Forbes of Brechin, — to the Rt. Hon. 
the Earl of Leicester, for courteously permitting access to his library 
at Holkham, and to the Rev. Cmon 0)llycr, for kind help in making 
that permission available, — to Mr. Hardy for the loan of some of the 
unpublished Reports of the Record Commission, — to the Rl. Rev. 
Bishop Greith of S. Gall, and to Herr F. F. Buchegger, the Librarian 
of the S.Gail Library, — to Mr. C. H. E. Carmichael of Trinity 
College, Oxford, and of the British Museum, — to the Rev.;Lewis Gil- 
bertson, Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford, and to Mr. Alfred Stowe, 
Fellow of Wadham College, for much Welsh information; and to 
many others for special assistance, to whom severally we have 
expressed our thanks at the particular passage to which that assist- 
ance referred. 

Cl:r':stmas, l86S. 

C O N T E xN T S. 


200 — 450. I. British Church during the Roman Period ..... 1 

ioo — 300. Christians in Britain throughout the Century 3 

300 ami onwards. A Christian Church in Britain ....... 4 

.^04. Diocletian Persecution. S. Alban, Aaron, Julius 5 

314. British Bisho|)s at the Council of Aries ...... 7 

3^3- British Church assents to the Council of Nice respecting .\rianism and 

ILaster 7 

347. British Bishops possibly at the Council ofSardica, but certainly join 

that Council in acquitting S. Athanasius 8 

359. British Bishops at the Council of Ariminum ...... 9 

363. British Churches adhere to the Nicene Faith . . .10 

3S6 — 400. A settled Church in Britain with churches, altars. Scriptures, etc. . . 10 
395 (?). S. I'atrick's birth near Alclwyd . . . . . . . .12 

400 — 423. General references during this period to British Church, etc. . . 12 

400 — 461. Intercourse of British and Gallic Churches ...... 13 

400, 423. Pilgrimages of British Christians to the Holy Land and to .Syria . . 14 
After 401. Ninias, Bishop of Candida Casa, converts the Southern Picts . . 14 

413,420,429. Pelagianism in Britain ......... 15 

429. Germanus and Lupus at Verulamium .16 

After 431. Palladius' mission to Ireland : he goes from L'eland to Britain . . 18 

440X460. S. Patrick's mission to Ireland from Britain 18 

447. .Second visit of Germanus (with Severus) to Britain . . . .18 

British Legends about Germanus in Britain . . . . . -19 

Appendix A. Date of Introduction of Christianity into Britain . 22 

B. Ancient Martyrologies and Calendars respecting 

British Saints . . . . . . .27 

Legendary Lives of British Saints A.D. 200-450 . 35 

C. Monumental Remains of the British Church during 

the Roman Period . . . . . -37 

450 — 681. II. British Church during the Period of Saxon Conquest . . 41 

547 or 550. Epistola Gildse 44 

c,6S| X 570. Ex Epistola Gildae altera . 108 

Before 570. Prcefatio Gildce de Penitentia 113 

544 X 565. Mission of British Church to Ireland under S. David, S. Gildas, and 

S. Cadoc . -115 

563. Mission of S. Columba " de Scotia in Britanniam," i. e. from Ireland 

into Scotland . . . . . 116 

Before 569. Synod of Llanddewi-Brefi . . . . . . . . ,116 


A.n. , '*'■«' 

569. Synml of Lucus Victorix' . . . . • . liS 

550x600. E-xcerpta Quailam dc Libro Davidis . . . . . .118 

5H9. Conversio Conslantini . . . • • wo 
500 — 600. British Monastery at Candida Casa frequented by Irish . .wo 
Latter part of 6th or beginning of 7th century. Privileges of the men of Arvon under 

protection of North Welsh monasteries ' - ' 

601. Synod of Caerlcon on Usk . . . . . . iji 

602 or 603. Conferences at S. Augustine's Oak (Dinolh) m 

604x610. I xtter of Laurentius of Canterbury to the British Bishops . . . wi 

613. Slaughter of British Monks of Bangor-ys-coed at Caerleon (Chester) wi 

616 X 627. Asserted Baptism of Edwin of Norlhumbria by a British IViest . ■ n?, 
664. British Bishops join Wini the Saxon Bishop of Wcsscx in consecrating 

Ceadda to \'ork . . • • • ' -M 

670. British Churcii endowments claimed by the Sxxon Church ' ■*4 

671 or 673. Maelruba at Abercrossan ' •'5 

Earlier part of 7th century. Synodical acts of discipline in LlandafT diocese over 

Welsh Princes 125 

I^-iter 1)31 1 of 7lh century. Irish Canons condemn the Britons for their separation 

from the Western Church 1 -^' 

Appendix A. Canones Wallici (?) 1^7 

B. Documents relating to the British Liturgy . .13^ 

C. The British, and in particular the Welsh. Episco- 

pate '4- 

I). between the British and Roman Churches 152 
E. Legendary Lives of British Saints A. 1). 450-700 . 156 
K. Sepulchral Christian Inscriptions in (Celtic) Bri- 
tain A.I). 450-700 162 

(■». 1-atin Version of the Holy Scnptures in use in the 

Scoto-Britannic Churches 170 

Extracts from Old I«atin British Version of Old 

Testament . 19J 
Fragment of Old I^tin (British or Irish) Version 

of S. John's Gospel ..... 197 

6S1 1295. 111. CiiiRCH OF Walks pi-rixo the S.\xon and Norman Periops 199 

C)Si — S09. Period ibe First. To ibe end 0/ (be Schism . iOl 
6S1 (?). Death of the last British (titular) King of Britain .201 
705 — 731. Schism between British, but especially Welsh, ami Saxon Churches, 

still continues ........... 202 

717. Churches in Wales first deilicated to others than their founders 203 

739. Pope Gregory III. denounces Briton missionaries .... 203 

76.S (or 755) — 809. The Welsh adopt the Roman Easter 203 

Son 1100. Period the Second. From (be end of the Scbism to ibe Claim of Jurisdic- 
tion by the See of Canterbury .205 

Early in the 9th century. Gift of MS. Gospels to LlandafT Cathedral 205 

Similar date. Grant of Freedom to a Slave, in presence of I>aity and Clergy of 

LlandatT 206 

854. Cyngen King of Powys dies on pilgrimage at Rome .... 206 



871. A Saxon Bishop at S. David's, etc. ....... 207 

9th and beginning of loth centuries. SjTiodical acts of discipline towards Welsh 

Princes in Llandaff ......... 207 

Similar date [870 — 929?]. South Welsh Bishops said to have been consecrated by 

Archbishops of Canterbury ........ 208 

92S (V). Account of Laws of Howel Dda 209 

92S. Ecclesiastical portions of the Laws of Howel Dda . .211 

958 or 959. Limits of (the diocese of Llandaff and) kingdom of Morganwg settled 

by Eadgar as Suzerain ......... 284 

961. Marriage of Priests still allowed in South Wales . .... 285 

loth and beginning of nth centuries [929 — 1022?]. S}Tiodical Acts of Discipline 

towards Welsh Princes in Llandaff 286 

Similar date. Bishops of Llandaff from 972, and some Bishops of S. David's from 

995, alleged to have been consecrated by Archbishops of Canter- 
bury 287 

1022. Church Schools in Llandaff diocese ....... 288 

1022X10^1. Charter of Khydderch to Joseph Bishop of Llandaff .... 289 

1030. Of Sundays and Hoi ydays . . . . . . .291 

102 J X 1043. Synodical Excommunications of Meurig King of Glamorgan by Joseph 

Bisho]i of Llandaff . . . . . . . . .291 

1043 — 1055. Bishop of S. David's vicar for Saxon Bishop of Hereford . . . 291 

1046. Of Saints' Days 292 

1056. Ilerwald Bishop of Llandaff consecrated by Bishop of S. David's (?) 

and confirmed by Archbishop of York (?)..... 292 
1056 X 1063 or 1064. Privilegium of Gryfiydd King of Wales to the Bishop of 

Llandaff ...... 294 

1056 X 10S7. Synodical Excommunication of Cadwgan of Glamorgan by the Bishop 

of Llandaff 295 

1071 — 1096 or 109S. School at S. David's in connection with Ireland, imder the last 

Welsh Bishops .......... 297 

1085. Extract from Domesday Book (Herefordshire) ..... 299 

1092. Herveus (a Breton) forced into the See of Bangor by the Norman 

King and Church 299 

1093 X 1104. lierwald of Llandaff placed under an interdict by Anselm (Anselm's 

Letters) 299 

1095. Wilfrid (or Gryffydd?) Bishop of S. David's restored after suspension 

by Anselm (Anselm's Letters) 300 

HOC — 1 1 88. Period the Third. From the Claim of Jurisdiction by the See of Canter- 
bury to the Visitations of Archbishop Baldwin as Legate . . .302 
1 107. Urban consecrated at Canterbury to Llandaff professes obedience to 

Canterbury 302 

1107X 1112. Dispute first raised respecting boundaries of Llandaff and S. David's . 303 
1 109. Herveus of Bangor driven from his See and translated to Ely (Letters 

of Paschal IL and Anselm) 303 

1 1 15. Bernard of S. David's the first Norman prelate in Wales . . . 306 

1 1 14 X 1 1 23. Wales (and Ireland) claimed as within the Province of Canterbury . 308 

1115x1148. Canons (but without a Dean) established at S. David's . . . 308 
1 1 19. First Appeal of Urban of Llandaff to the Pope against the Bishops of 

S. David's and Hereford 309 


CON r E N T S. 

A.D. lAOE 

II eo. Wclsli Bishop of Bangor professes obedience to Canterbury . . 314 
1 1 JO. Indulgence of Archbisliop uf Canterbury on behalf of restoration of 

Llandaff Cathedral 31? 

1 123. Pri\-ilegium of Pope Calixtus II. to the See of S. David's . . ■ ii?, 
1125. Proposed transfer of S.Asaph and Bangor (with Chester) from pro- 
vince of Canterbury to that of York 316 

1125X1130 Metropolitanship said to have been claimed (by the Chapter) for 

S.David's 317 

1125. Summons of Archbishop of Canterbury to Urban of Llandaff to a 

Council at London • 3'7 
1 12^. Brief of Ix-gate, John of Crema, on Ixrhalf of Llandaff Cathc<lral . 318 
1 1 26. Agreement between the Ix)rtl of Glamorgan (Robert Harl of Glouces- 
ter) and the Bi>hop of Llandaff 318 

1 128. Second Api)eal of Urban of Llandaff to the Po|h.' . -3-' 

1129. Third Appeal of Bi>hop Urljan to the Pojic 3.*S 

1 130 — 1133. Final Appeal of Bishop Urban to the Pope 336 

1135. Bishop of S. David's applies to the Pope for a Pall .... 344 
1 140. Welsh Bishop forced upon Bangor by the Archbishop cjf Canter- 
bury 345 

1 143. Jurisdiction of Canterbury over Llantkiff (Koliot's Letters) 346 

1 143. Bishop of S. .\saph consecrate<l by the Archbishop of Canterbury . 347 

1143. Cistercians first introduced into Wales ...... 34S 

1144. Lucius II. to Bishop of S. DaN-id's respecting the Metropolitanship 34S 

1 145. Chapter of S. David's to Kugenius III. on the same subject 34S 
1 148. Appeal of Bishop of S. David's to the I'ope on the same subject 352 
1148. Subjection of S. I^\nd's to Canterbury under Bishop Bernard's suc- 
cessor ............ 355 

114SXI161. Juristliction of Canterbury over Llandaff (Foliot's Letters) . 356 

1 14S X 1 161. Kpiscojxal acts of Bishop of Llandaff in the diocese of Bath 357 

1 14S X 1 163. Renewal of disjmles l)Ctwccn Sees of S. David's and Llandaff 358 

1150. Sanctuary restorctl in Llandaff diocese ...... 358 

1152. Consecration of Geoffrey of Monmouth to S. Asaph by the Archbishop 

of Canterbury .......... 360 

115.!;. Detlications of Churches to the Blessed Virgin . . . . . 3'J> 

J 162. I^ist mention of descendants of the last Welsh Bishops of S. Daxid's . 361 

1 164. Foundation of Strata Florida ........ 362 

1164 — 1 167. Bishop of S. .\saph driven from his diocese (Becket's Letters, etc.) 362 
1165 — 1 169. Becket fails to force a Norman Bishop upon liangor (liecket's Let- 
ters) 364 

1169. Ordinance of Henry II against Welsh supporters of Becket . . 375 

1 1 70. Bishops of S. Asaph and Llandaff and Archdeacon of Llandaff sus- 

pended for joining in the Coronation of Prince Henry (Letters 

of Alexander III.) ......... 376 

1171,1172. Henry II. at S David's 377 

1175- Godfrey of S. Asaph resigns his see ....... 377 

1175- Directions of Giraldus Archdeacon of Brecknock to his officials, rural 

deans, etc 378 

1 1 75' Llanbadam adjudged to belong to the (Norman) abbey of Glou- 
cester 381 

ii/SCO- Canon of Richard of Canterbury resjxjcling the Welsh 3S2 

C () N T K N T S. XXV 

A.I). l-AGE 

1 1 76. Renewal of claim of Melropolitanship for S. David's (by the Chapter) 382 

1 1 76. Dispute between S. Asaph and S. David's respecting boundaries, 
especially the parish of Kerry ...... 

1 1 76. Norman Bishop forced upon S. David's ..... 

1177. Norman Bishop consecrated to Bangor ..... 

1177. Bishop of Llandaff suspended by the Archbishop of Canterbury 

1 1 -ij. Claim of S. David's renewed at the third (General) Lateran Council 

1 1 86. Bishop of Llandaff chosen by the Chapter .... 

1187. Archbishop Baldwin visits Wales as Legate .... 

1 188. Archbishop Baldwin preaches the Crusade throughout Wales as Le- 






1 1 88 — I 295. Period (be Fourth. From the Visitations 0/ Archbishop Baldwin as Legale, 
to that of Peckham as Archbishop 0/ Canterbury, and to the Final Ab- 
sorption of the Welsh Church i^and State) into the English . . 389 
I i8y. Dispensation granted by the Papal Legate from going to the Cnisade 390 
1190^1203. Dispute and Appeal to the Pope about the See of Bangor . . . 391 
iiy3x 1: 18. Chapter of Llandaff organized ........ 393 

1 1 97. SjTiodical Excommunication (and Absolution) of King of South Wales 

by Bishop of S. David's ........ 393 

1198,1200. Abbeys of Kemmer and Valle Crucis founded ..... 394 

1 19S — 1204. Fruitless efforts of Giraldus to obtain Metropolitanship and freedom 

of election for S. David's ........ 394 

i. 1198. Sept.-ii99. June. Giraldus elected, but rejected by 

King John 394 

ii. 1 199. June -end of 1200. Appeal to the Pope and fust 

journey to Rome ........ 399 

iii. 1201. Jan.-December. Second journey to Rome . . 413 
iv. 1201. Dec.-i:o2. Oct. Cause tried by Commissioners in 

England 419 

v. 1202. Oct.-i203. Aug. Third journey to Rome. Both 

elections quashed 430 

\-i. 1203. Aug.-i 204. Januar)'. Final defeat of Giraldus . 446 
07. Bull of Innocent IIL, ruling (incidentally) that Wales is subject to 

Canterbury' . . -452 

HI. Welsh Bishops to execute the Papal Envoy's sentence of interdict in 

Wales 4.S3 

112. Welsh released from interdict 453 

!I5. English nominee consecrated to Bangor 454 

;i5. Free election to the See of S. David's (King John's Letters) . . 455 
215. Temporalties of S. David's, " sede vacante," in the Crown . . -457 

1216. Council of Bristol . . 457 

>i(). Papal Provision to the See of Llandaff 457 

222. Canon of Stephen of Canterbury respecting Welsh Vicars . . . 458 

223. Sarum Use partially introduced into S. David's . .... 459 

223. Honorius IIL to the Archbishop of York, etc. to excommunicate 

Llywel)Ti 459 

224. No other Writs than the King's to run in S. David's . . . .461 
24. Irish Monastery of Whitland founded from Wales . . . .462 

[229. Council of Westminster . .462 


A.D. fAGE 

1 231. Henry III. to Roger Bishop of London concerning e.xcommunicating 

Llj'welyn ........... 463 

1236. Constitution of Edmund of Canterbury respecting baptizing in the 

Welsh tongue 463 

1236. Resignation, and profession as a monk, of C.idwgan liishop of 

Bangor ........... 464 

1236. Gregory IX. to Bishop etc. of Worcester respecting boundaries of 

Welsh Sees and Hereford 464 

1237 etc. Convents of Llanvaes and Llanllugan founded 465 

1240. Edmund of Canterbury to Convent of Canterbury respecting con- 

secrating the Bishop of S. .\saph elsewht-re than at Canter- 
bur)- ............ 465 

1240. Legate and Bishops etc. guarantee treaty l>ctwccn Henry HI. and 

Prince David 466 

1241, Temporalties of Llandaff, " sede \*acante," in the Cruwn, not in tlie 

Lords of Glamorgan 466 

1241. Excommunication of I'rince David by the Bishop of Bangor . . 468 

1 241. Bishops of Bangor and .S. Asaph guarantees for I'rince David to 

Hcnr)- III 46S 

1244. Intrigue of Daxid of Wales to hold his principality of tiie roj>c 

(letters of Innocent IV. etc.) 469 

1244. Henry III. to Walter Bishop of Worcester to excommunicate I'rince 

David . . . . . . . . . . . .472 

1245. Bull of Innocent IV. excusing various (English and) Welsh Prelates 

from the Council of Lyons 473 

1246. Advowsons in Wales transferrctl by conquest from Welsh Prince to 

English King 473 

1247. Privilege of Innocent IV. to the Bishop of S. David's . . 473 
1247. Poverty of Welsh Bishops — Bishop of S. Asaph a refugct; at 

S. Alban's . 474, 475 

1249. Right of ( luiglish) Crown to license, and to consent to, the election 

of a Bishop, recognised by the Bishop .ind ChajUcr of S. Asaph . 475 

1250. Indulgence grantctl by Bishop of .S. Asajih at Brueme in Oxfordshire 476 
1250. Suits respecting Advowsons daimeil for the King's Court as against 

the Bishop's 476 

ii.=;i. Bishop to signify the facts to the Crown in a case of liastardy . . 478 

1252. Innocent IV. to Henry III. on l)ch.ilf of the Bishops of S.David's 

resjiecting jurisdiction in questions about Advowsons 47<j 

1254. Tenths for Holy Land collected in Wales 4S1 

1254. Vicars in Llandaff diocese to pay ordinary charges of their Churches . 481 

1256. Consecration of Richard Bishop of S. David's by Alexander IV. inde- 

pendently of the Crown (Letters of Alexander IV. etc.) . .481 

1257. Bishop of Llandaff elected by the Chapter in defiance of the Crown . 484 
1257. Tenths etc. collectetl in Wales, how to be transmitted to Rome . 485 
1257XIJ66. King's Bailiffs to protect the Church of S. Dand's .... 486 
1260. Hull of Alexander IV. endowing a Treasurership at S. David's . . 486 

1260. Archbishop of Canierbur)- to the Welsh Bishops to excommunicate 

Lly\velyn 487 

1261. Agreement between Bishop of Bangor and Ll^Tvclyn, settled by Anian 

of S. Asaph and others as arbiters 489 

CONTENTS. xxvii 


[ 265. Richard Bishop of S. David's to Henry III. ..... 493 

1265. Henry III. to Richard Bishop of Bangor ...... 494 

1 266. Tenths granted to the King in England, Wales, etc. .... 494 
[ 266. Agreement between Guardian of Temporaltits of S. Asaph (scde 

vacante) and the Chapter ......... 495 

267. Richard of Bangor to Clement IV. imploring permission to resign his 

.See 496 

I 268. Writ to Bishop of S. David's to collect in his diocese the Tenths 

granted by the Pope to Henry III. . -497 

269. Grant of Lil)erties to the See of S. Asaph by Llywelyn . . . 497 
1272. Suspension of a clerk in S.Asaph diocese for receiving orders " ab 

Kpiscopo ultra montano" ........ 498 

274. Welsh Cistercian Abbats to Gregory X. on behalf of Llywelyn . . 498 

274. Writ to arrest Vagabond Canons of Llantony ..... 499 

274. Gregory X. to Robert of Canterbury on behalf of Llywelyn . 500 

274. Gregory X. to Llywelyn . 501 

274. Diocesan .\sscmbly at S.Asaph respecting the Liberties of the Dio- 
cese . ........... 502 

273. Llywelyn to Robert Archbishop of Canterbury . .... 503 

275. Welsh Bishops absent themselves from Consecration of Bishop of 
Hereford ........... 506 

Llywcl)-n to Gregory X. ........ . 506 

Llywelyn to Robert of Canterbur)', Walter of York, and their Suffra- 
gans in Council in I>ondon ........ 508 

275. Writ to collect a Fifteenth from Honour of Abergavenny, to pay the 

King's debts in the Holy Land ....... 509 

•76. Confirmation by Edward I. of Liberties of S.Asaph Diocese . . 509 

176. English Bishops to Ll)'^velyn ........ 510 

'76. Grievances of Bishop and Chapter of 5. Asaph as against Llywelyn . 511 
Temporary safe-conduct for property of the Bishop of S. Asaph, 

during the war .......... 516 

Like document for the Bishop of Bangor . . . . .517 

Robert of Canterbury to Walter of York, about excommunicating 

Llj-\velyn . . . . . . . . -5^7 

Liberties granted by Llywel}Ti to Bishop and Chapter of S. Asaph . 519 

Letters of Protection for Friars Preachers of Bangor. . . . 521 

Robert of Canterbury to W. de Beauchamp Earl of Warwick, etc. in 

command of Edward's army at Chester . . . . .522 

Robert of Canterbury to Clergy and Laity of Sees of Coventry, etc., 
Hereford, and Wales, in behalf of S. Asaph Clergy itinerating with 

the S. Asaph Gospels 523 

Anian of S. Asaph to the (English) Provincial of Friars Preachers, 

asking prayers for the diocese of S. Asaph ..... 523 

[278. Edward I. to Anian of Bangor ....... 524 

[278. Edward I. to Llywelyn on Church matters, etc. .... 525 

1278. Grant of Liberties by Edward I. to the See of Bangor . . . 526 
[280. Archbishop Peckham to Llywelyn on Church matters . . .526 
[280. Profession of Bishop Beck consecrated to S. David's . . . -528 
1 281. Proposed removal of S.Asaph Cathedral to Rhuddlan (Letters of 

Anian and Edward I.) . . . . . -529 

xxviii C O N r K N T S. 

A.l). lAliK 

>8i. Right of ralruiiaj,'e in S. Asapli diocese to be tried in Cliurch ( ouit 

(^I'eckham's Letters) . . . . . . . -53' 

1282. Mediation of Archbisliop Teckliani between lulward I. and l.lywelyn 

(Peckham's Letters) ......... 5j.? 

1252. Edward L to Arclibislioji I'eckham about ])uiting ilown the U'elsli 
War once for all 546 

1282. Letters of Archbishop I'eckham about Llywelyn's death . . . 547 
282. Archbishop Peckhani to Robert Bishop of Bath and Wells, on behalf 

of Welsh Clerjj)' 54S 

1 253. Privilege to the tinders of the " Crosseneych" ..... 549 

1283. Grant of Edward L to the Bishop of Bangor and the " OfTeyriat 
Teulu " jointly .......... 550 

1283. Dispute about Ixiundaries of S. Asaph and Herefo:tl . . . . 550 

1283. Martin 1\'. to 'I humas Bishop of S. David's (dispensation for a mar- 

riage) 551 

284. Visitation of Welsh dioceses by Archbishop I'eckham as Archbishop 

of Canterbury (l>etters of Pcckham, .Martin IV., Edward I.) . c,z,i 

1284. Protest of Bishop Beck of .S. David's ...... 577 

1284. (jiant of Patroiugc of Khuddlan by Etlward I t<> Bishops of 

S. Asaph 57y 

1254. Privilege of Edward I. to Bishop of Bangor 5S0 
.•84. Receipts for Com|>cusation for Injury, jjaid by I'xlward 1. to various 

Welsh Sees, Abbeys, etc 581,582 

[284. I'xlward I. and (^uccn I'Jeanor at S. David's . 583 

; 2S4 (V). Prohibition of the Urdiiuition of Welshmen ..... 583 

285. Articles of the Bishops against Etlward 1. (with the Answers), a> far 
as they relate to Wales 583 

2S5. IJcence to the Bish<>|) of Bangor to m.ake a Will .... 584 

286. Indulgence of Bishop of Bangor on belialf of the Convent of Ik-dd- 
Kcleit 584 

1287. Quota of soldiers to be supplie<l for Welsh war by the Bishop of 

S. David's ........... 585 

287. Letters of Edward I. and Robert Bishop of Bath and Wells about an 

election to the See of Llanilaff ...... 58:; 

1287. Statute of Bishop of S. David's respecting Diocesan Sj-nods 588 

1288. Commission of Archbishop of Canterbury- respecting Spiritualties of 

LlandaflT, " sctle vacante" 588 

289. Nicholas IV. to Abbat and Convent of Aberconway rc*specting their 

removal to Maynan 588 

1 .189. Writ to enquire into condition of Llywelyn's daughters and nieces. 

Nuns of the Order of Sempringham ...... 5R9 

I ^89. Bull of Nicholas IV., granting Tenths to lulward I., includes Wales . 590 

I ^90. Temjx)ralties of Ll.-indaflf, " sede vacante," in the Crown 590 

1291. Two Bulls of Nicholas IV. similar to that of Oct. 1289 597 

-91- Diocesan S)-nod of Bangor ........ 597 

^91- Ta.vation of Nicholas IV. includes Welsh dioceses .... 597 

-93- Temporalties of S. Asaph, " sede vacante," in the Crown . . 598 

1293. Licence from the Crown to administer to the goods and chattels of a 

deceased Bishop of S. Asaph ....... 600 

J -93 Temporalties of S. David's, " sede vacante," in tiie Crown . 600 

C O N T K X T S. xxix 

A I). lAtiK 

293. Writ to seize the Tcmporalties of S. Asaph, " sede v.icante," into the 

King's hand . . . . . . . .601 

; 293. Confirmation of Bishop-elect of S. Asaph, " sede Archiep. vacante," 

by Prior, etc. of Canterbury . . . . . . . .602 

[293. Commission of the same for consecration of the same Bishop . . 602 

293. Licence to the Priory of Beddgelert to elect a Prior before the Justi- 
ciary of North Wales 603 

294. Edward I. to (among others) the Welsh Bishops, asking prayers for 

the King about to pass over into France ..... 604 

294. Licence from the Crown to Bishop of S. Asaph to make a Will . . 604 

294. Letters of Protection to the Custos of the Spiritualties of LlandafT . 604 

294. Bishops of S. Asaph entitled to goods and chattels of persons dying 

intestate within their demesne ....... 604 

295. Robert of Canterbuiy to Llywelyn of S. Asaph, to excommunicate 

ALidoc 606 

1 29.:;. Commission of Robert of Canterbury to absolve Madoc, etc. upon 

submission ........... 60S 

295. Llywelyn of S.Asaph to Robert of Canterbury, respecting the said 

excommunication .......... 609 

1295. Bishop of Llandaff appointed by Papal Provision — Custody of its 

Tcmporalties, " sede vacante," in the Crown (Letters of Archbishop 
Robert, John of Monmouth, Edward I.) . . . . .610 

295. Robert of Canterbury to Anian of Bangor, directing Masses, etc. for 

the Holy Land, and for the King and kingdom . . . .614 

295. Collation by Archbishop Robert to a Canonry of Llandaff, " sede 

vacante," by Papal authority . . . . . . .616 

; 295. Edward L to Boniface VIIL on behalf of David, elect of S. David's . 617 

295. Tcmporalties of Llandaff, " sede vacante," in the Crown (Letters of 

Edward L, Close Rolls) 617 

1297. Welsh Bishops (among others) enjoined by Pope and Archbishop to 

refuse payment of tax or subsidy to the Crown . . . .620 

1297. Constitutions of Ll>'\vel>'n of S. Asaph 620 

305. Llywelyn of S. Asaph renews the excommunication of Madoc] . . 620 

Appendix A. Ancient Welsh Liturgies 621 

B. Sepulchral Christian Inscriptions in Wales A.D. 

700-1100 . 625 

C. Anomalous Welsh (Ecclesiastical) Laws . . 634 

D. Carmen de Vita et Familia Sulgeni Episc. Menev., 

Auctore Jeuan filio 663 

E. Independent North-Welsh Bishops during the reign 

of Owen Glyndwr, A.D. 1400-1415 . , . 668 

iSi — 1072. IV. Church of Cornwall during the Saxon Period . . . 671 

■05. The Roman Easter, etc. adopted by the Britons subject to Wessex, 

i.e. by the '■ Wealas|" of Somerset and Devon .... 673 

'.^3 X S70. Profession of Kenstec Bishop of Dinnurrin in Cornwall to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury .....•••• 674 

175. Dyvnerth or Donierth, Christian King of Cornw^all .... 675 

IS4. First Organization of a Saxon See out of (now Saxon) Devonshire . 675 



941 X 1043. 

c. 950. 




1026 A 1043. 

1050 X 1072. 

C O N r K N T S. 

Three Irish Fil^jrims laiul in Cornwall ...... 

Saxon See of Crcdilon cun^tilutcd out of Devon and three parishes in 

Cornwall ........ 

British Coniish IJisho]} suffragan to Canterbury 

Manumissions at the Altar of S. I'etroc 

First Saxon Bishop of Cornwall .... 

S. I'etroc's-Stowe or Bodmin ravagetl hy Northmen . 

Charter of /lithelred to Bishop Ealdred, granting liberties to the See 

of Cornwall ........ 

Charter of Cnut to Bishop Burhwold 

Cornish See merged in that of Crcditon 

Manumissions recorded at Exeter Cathedral 

See of Crediton transferred to Kxeler (Leofric, Tope l^o I.\., I_idwar( 

the Confessor) ....... 

Appendix A. Comish Liturgical Fragments 

B. Sepulchral Christian Inscriptions in Cornwall .V.I > 

7oo-icx)o. .... 

C. Of I-egcndary Lives of .Saints in Cornwall .\.I) 

7cx> looo; and of Cornish Monasleri 
I ). riace of original Cuniish Sec or Sees 









p. 8, note ", line 2. Add, before " Selden" — " TJwodorvs Tiedor, ap. MoreUi, BibL MS. Gr(ve. et JmI. 
225 sq. ; Ehedjegii '>uben*u, CoUcct. Canon. Sijnod. Tract. I. I"., ap. Mai, Scrijipt. Vett. Nova 
CoUfct. X. 37 sq." But these additional lists leave the statement of the note itself unaltered. 
It should have been noticed also, that S. Patrick, in the passage of his Con/tstio which recites 
his Creed, does not insert the term 'Ofioovaiov. 

p. 26, line 22. The coins of Lucius (so called) probably belonged to a Gaulish King; see Lelewel, 
Type Gauloie, Plate IX., nos. 37, 38 ; Brux. 1840 : cited by Mr. Beale Poste. 

p. 29, note ^, line i. For " Evreux," read " Avranches." 

p. 39, line 10. Add, " See also The Basilica and the JUitilicnn Church of Ilrijtrorlh, by the Rev. 
C. F. Watkins (Rivingtons, 1867). 

p. 55, lines 21, 22. The words from Si to Domini are from Micah iii. 8, but in a translation 
peculiar to Gildas. See also p. 89, lines 26, 27. 

p. 102, note ". For " a mortuis Domini nostri Jesu Christi," read " Jesu Christi ex mortuis." 

p. 109, line 5. " Mors intiat per fenestram," is from Jerem. ix. 21, in'a translation found also in 
PaulinuB, Ejnst. XLV. 

p. 141, line 6. For " pp. 153, 154," and lines 18, 31, for " p. 153," read " p. 155." 

p. 143, line 14. For " almost exactly," read " pretty generally." S. Asaph, " cui et Powysia subest" 
((I'lV. Camh., Descriji. Camb., c. IV.), w-as itself in Perfeddwiad, which was distinct indeed 
from Gwynedd, but belonged to it and not to Pow)'s. And Llandaff, which stood in Mor- 
ganwg, included (at least, as time went on) several small states within its see, which were at 
one time independent of one another. It is however in the main true, that the States and the 
Bishoprics bore a direct relation to each other. It is a tempting theory indeed, that S. Asaph, 
of which no trustworthy record of a Bishop exists prior to A.D. 928, came into existence as a 
see with the little Denbighshire principality of Strathclwyd, founded by a colony from Kenti- 
geni's northern Strathclwyd A.D. S90. 

p. 144, line 5. For " 1 154," read " 1 145." 

p. 144, line 23. The reason of H. Huntingdon's omitting S.Asaph, was because that see, at the 
time he was writing, was both vacant and nearly destroyed : see p. 316. 

p. 155, note *, line 28. For " I. 347," read " II. 347." 

p. 167, line 10. Dele " near the same place." Den'ac's stone is in Brecknockihire, and is pro- 
bably not Christian. It is figured in Jones's Brecknockshire. 

p. 205, line 28. For " W. Williams," read " ed. Williams." 

p. 372, line 13. For " XIV., XV.," read " XV., X\'I." 

pp. 389, 390. For " Llewellyn," throughout, read " Llywelyn." 

p. 390, line 21. The plan for transferring S Asaph to Rhuddlan should have been dated in 
A.D. 12S1. 

p. 413, line 4 from bottom. For " July 22-26," read " July 23-27 :" and line 3 from bottom, 
for " July 28," read " July 29." 

p. 415, line 15. For " July 22," read " July 23." 

p. 453, line 17, margin. For " legate's," read " Papal envoy's." 

p. 529, line 18, note", 2nd col. For " July 28," read " August 28." 

p. 547, lines 1, 18. For " Pembroke," read " Pembridge" (in Herefordshire). 

p. 603, line 9. For " Prior," read " Priory." 






A. D. JOO-450. 

VOL. I. 

Ilia tamcn proferro conalior in medium qua* tcmporibus Impcratoruni 
Romanorum passa est [Britannia] ;... quantum tamcn jxitucro, .. . non lam 
ex scripturis patrix* scriptorumvc monumcntis, quipjK qux*. vel si qua 
fuerint, aut igTiihus hostium * exusta aut civiimi cxilii classc longius 
deportata non compareant, quam transmarina rL-lationc. ijux crcbris irrupta 
intercajKtlinibus non satis claret, — Um.uas. Hist. II. 



A. D. 200-4.^0. 

c. A 1). :oo. Kurliest record of Christians in Britain. 
British Church follows the course of that of Gaul, — 

1. A.D 304, ill comparative freedom from the Diocletian Persecution. 

2. A.D. 314, in condemning Donatists at the Council of Aries. 

3. A.D. 325-381, in freedom, althoui^h with a temporary hesitation, from Arianism. 
A.D. 401. Kxtension of the Church to northern Britain beyond the Forth, under S. Ninias 

uf Whithcrn, in connection with the (lallic Bishop, S. Martin. 
A. D. 429-447. Pclagiaiiism introduced, but crushed by the aid of Gallic Bishops. 
c. A.D. 440. Mission of S.Patrick to Ireland, in connection also with Gaul. 
After c. A.D. 450. British Church practically cut off for about a century from Churches of 

southern Europe. 

A. D. 200-^00. Cl:rist'ta?is hi Britain throughout the Ce?itury''K 

Tertullian, Adv. Jud.iii. c. A.D. 20(S.] — In quern cnim alium 
universse gentcs crcdiderunt nisi in Christum, Qui jam venit? Cui 
cnim ct alise genres crediderunt ? Parthi [et cet., as in Acts ii. 9, 10], 
. . Gcetulorum varietatcs, et Maurorum multi tines, Hispaniarum omnes 
termini, et Galliarum diversae nationes, et Britannorum inaccessa 
Romanis loca'^, Christo vero subdita,. . in quibus omnibus locis Christi 
nomcn Qui jam venit regnat ;.. .utpote in quibus omnibus locis populus 

nominis Christi inhabitet Christi autem regnum et nomcn ubique 

porrigitur, ubique creditur, ab omnibus gentibus supra enumeratis 
colitur, etc. (P<7^f 189, ^e//, 1744.) 

Origen, Homil. IV. in Ez,ek. Hieron. hiterpr. [A.D. 239.] — Quando 
enim terra Britannise ante adventum Christi in Unius Dei consensit 
religionem ? Quando terra Maurorum ? Quando totus semel orbis ? 
Nunc vero propter Ecclesias, qute mundi limites tenent, universa terra 
cum laetitia clamat ad Dominum Israel, &c. (III. 370, Delarue.) 

Id,, Hornil. VI. hi Luc. i. 34. eodem interpr. [Anno incerto.] — Virtus 

B 3 

4 HRni.SH iHL'KCH [a. I), 

Domini Salvaroris ct cum his est qui ab orlu- nosrro in lirirannia 
dividunrur, ct cum his qui in Mauritania, ct cum univcrsis qui sub 
sole in nomine Ejus crcdidcrunr. \'idc ergo magnirudinem Salvatoris, 
quomodo in toro orbe diffusa sit. 111. 9^9, Delarue.) 

On the other hattd^ — 

Origen, Uomil. XXriII. in x.v/r, sec.l'et. Interpr. A. I). 246.] — 
Non enim ferrur pr;rdicatum esse Evangclium apud omnes /Erhiopas, 

quid autem dicamus dc Britannis aut Germanis qui sunt circa 
Occanum, vel apud Harbaros, Dacos, er Sarmaras, et Scyrhas, quorum 
plurimi nondum audiverunt Evangelii verbum, audiruri sunt autem in 
ipsa sa'culi consummatione? (III. Sj^S, Delarue.) 

» Mello, a Btiton, b said to have been Bi»hop *• Then in revolt against St-verus — Dio Cas. 

of Rouen a. p. 256-314 — Jo. Tinm. and Cap- Ixxvi pp. 865. 866. cd. 1606; Hciodian. III. 
grave, in Vii. S. Slellotj., and >ee Gall. Chr. xi. 6. p. 536, Kianof. 1 590. 

A.l). ]00, and onwards. W Chr'nti.m Church in Britain. 

So7-OMF.N, Hist. Eccl. I. ft. C. A. D. 44^. - AiojKo^itVoji' yap TU)i' 
aril Tiji' a\\y]i' oiKot'/it'rrjr 'EKKAfjnrtujj^'', ^di'o<i Koorordrriov o K.<t)V(TTaiTU'ov 
TTOTj//) a6«a)s dpt](TK(v(U' (rvi(\u>pr](T( toU \pi,fTTiavol<i' iifxtKn roiafOt ti 
OavfiaTTur teal frvyypaf/)?)? ufior (yron' (lpya(T$aL avTia' boKifiuiTai Ot\uii' 
riVts Twr (V Tot? /SaTiAd'oi? '' Xptrmavm' ii-bpfi dal kclXoI kol ayaOol, 
avyKaKtcroi Truirav. T:pOT)y6ptV(T(v, (i ^liv tAoiiro Ovtw Kal OprfcrKtvuv 
o/iotcoj, a^(/)" avroi' tlvai, kolL <Tt n/s avr^ji fXfVdv arias' (I f>( vapaiTi'i- 
iratfTo, f^Lti'ai TU}V ,^a<TiAei(i>r, xapiv (\nrTa<i on fii) Kal Tifiojpiai irporr- 
to(p\i}(7ai'. (Tfl d( <iv tKaTtpop bifKpiOtjaar, 01 fitr Tijv Opr)CTKiiav Trpobovra, 
OL b( TUiV vapui'Tojv ra Ofla Trpon/ij/n-aiTf v, tyru) c^lAoi? koi o-ii/x/^ovAoiv 

\pi](TOai TOLS Tttpl TO KpflTTOf ulCTToi'i blUpidvaiTL' Tol"i fj( (Ls (JiVai'Of)OVi Kol 

Ko/3aAoi'V UndTTpinj)!}, Kill T>/9 77pov avTuv (')/iiAi'rtv uTTtoiiTaTo- KoyLrrdfxd'Oi 
fii] 77orc tafcrOai 7rt/»i fiarriAta (vvovi, Tov'i <Ii6( froi/io»;y irpobuTWi (r)€ov 
yeyeri'Tjfxii'ovi. 'EiT<i(?<r etKorw?, en Kcorfrrarn'ov TTfpio'j'Toj, ovk (boKd 
TTapdi'OfjiOV \pi.(TTiavi^€ii' roi/s 'I'■aA<l)^' (ireKdva. FaAarais tc koI lipfTTavols \ 
Kal 6(701 TO rifpr/raior opoi oiKovai, fi«';(pi tov Ttpoi (rnrtpai' 'Q.Keavov. 
(407, 408, fa/es. The anecdote is also in Euseb. rit. Const. I. xvi. 41 -, 
Fa/es. [Soz. H. E. II. 6. i. docs not allude to Britain.^,) 

In., /^W. /. ^. — FaAdrais kuI BperTarois Koi toU Tjjbe KaroiKOva-i, Trap' 
oif (TVl•u)^Jio\6yr|Tal Tijf Tcur XfiKTTiavCJv OprjcrKiias fifTa(T)(ea' KdiVfTTaiTlvov, 
TTpiv €-1 Mafe'iTioj' (TTpaTivrrai Kal ~ape\0(h> (7:1 Pw^rjr Kal IraXovs' Kal 
iiapTvpi<i "naKiv tovtov o\ xpdroi, Kai 01 i'o'pot oiij vzfp tijs dpr)<TKeias 
iOero. (406, Vales.) 

I roAaros rt koI BperToroi'S. — Huisey 1/1 )i/i<i*, >• fonitet. 


EusEBlUS, Dem. Evang. III. 5. [c. A. D. 315.] — Tivas 8e ijbr] [rwr 
Ixad^jTwi'] KoL «7r' avra tt)? oiKou/ite'rTjs (KOilv to. uKpa,... koI (Tfpovs virip 
Tuv 'ilKiavoi' TiapekOilv (irl ras KaKovp-h^as Bperrarijcas in]aovs, ravra 
ovK (r iyioyi ij-yovfiat Kar avOpuiTiov iXvai. (ii2, Faris 1628.) 

Id., Vit. Constantini II. 28. [A. D. 337 x 340.] — Ti]V (p.i]V vrrr^pe- 
(fiav -pui n/r 'Eavrov ftovKrjaLV (TLTribdav e^/rfjcre re (6 Kpeirrcor) koI 
(Kpivfif U'i OTTO rfj'i TTpui Bperrai'ots" (Kiii-ni'i OaKaacn]^ ap^a^evoi, (cat rajy 
pdpoiv ii'Oa bveaduL tuu ijKLOi> avdyKT} Ttvl TeraKTat, KpiiTTOvi twl hwapn 
a-(j}Ouvp.(vos Ka\ OiarrKeSairvj to. KaT€\oi'Ta Travra biwd' iv dp.a 
di'ttKaKuLTo TO dvOpdiTiLvov yivos ets ti]v Trept toj- aipvoTaTov vupov depa- 
Vfiav, Tji -nap i\xov Tiaibevop.ei'oi' vnovpyia' apia 8' 1) p-aKapiar]] 7:irrTL<i 
av^oLTo VTTu \(ipay(t)y<Z t<Z Kpfirron. (457 ^y yales.) 

Id., ihid. ly. y. — Tovtov jvv 0eoO t?;^ bvvap.iv i)(uiv cTvp.payov, (k 7U)V 
TKpuTujv Tov 'Q.K€avov ttp^dpivo'i, Trdrrav e>/j«^r/s tijv olKOVpin]V jSefiaioLs 
ao)Tr\pioL^- iKiricn bivyftpa. (531 ■A.^Vales.) 

Hilar. Pictav., Tract, in xiv Psahn. § 3. [A. D. 364 x 3'^7-j — Dein- 
ceps Apostoli plurima tabcrnacula condiderunt, ct per omnes orbis 
tcrrarum partes, qujecumque adiri possunt, quinetiam in Oceani 
insulis, habitationes Deo plurimas paraverunt. (I. ;o, Bened.) 

» Diocletian persecution began 303 ; Con- Constantine is said to have joined his father at 

staiitius died 306; Consiantine marched against Boulogne (Excerpt, de Constaniio, Constantino, 

Mxxeiitius 312. &c., ignoto auctore, ad lin. Ammiau Martell. 

b Hardly at York (v. Euseb. V. C. I. xvi. 4r5, 656, 657, Vales.), in 306, shortly before his 

Vales. — Eutrop. .\ 1. Havercamp), where Con- death (see Clinton F.R ). But the anecdote proves 

stantius died in 306. Rather in France, where the existence of Christians in Couslantius's court. 

A. D. :}04. Diocletian PersecutionK — S. Alban, Aaron, Julius. 

CoNSTANTIUS, A7r. Gerrnani I. 1^. [A. D. 473x492.] — Compressa 
itaque perversitate damnabili',. . sacerdotes ad B. Albanum martyrem, 
authori Deo per ipsum grarias acturi, properabant ^ ubi Germanus, 
omnium Aposrolorum diversorumque martyrum reliquias secum habens, 
facta oratione jussit revelli sepulchrum, pretiosa ibidem munera con- 
diturus. . . . Quibus depositis honoritice, atque sociatis, de loco ipso, ubi 
beati martyris cfflisus fuerat sanguis, massam pulveris secum portaturus 
abstulit; in qua apparebat, cruore servato, rubere martyrum csedem, 
persecutore pallente. (Sur. III. Jul. 31. />. 364, Col. Agr'ipp. 16 18.) 

GiLDAS, Hist. Fill. [A. D. 560]. — Supradicto ut cognoscimus [al. 
conjicimus] persecutionis tempore., .clarissimas lampades sanctorum 
martyrum nobis accendit [Deus], quorum nunc corporum sepulturx 
et passionum loca, si non lugubri divortione barbarorum, quamplurima 

- (rooT7)pias. — Vales, iii notis. e oortjed. -^ Sc of the Pelagians in Britain, a.d. 429. 


ob scclera nostra, civibus ad imcrcntur, now minimum intucnrium 
mentibiis ardorcm Divin-.v charitaris incutercnr, sanctum Albanum 
Verolamicnscm, Aaron ct Julium l.cgionum urbis civcs, ct cxtcros 
utriusquc scxiis divcrsis in locis summa magnanimitarc in acic Ciiristi 
perstantcs dico. (Mo». Hist. Brlr. <S.) 

Venant. Fortun ATI'S, Poetr/. I HI. iv. I -•- c. A.I). ,;Ho.]: 
Egregium Albanum fot-cunda Britannia prok-rr. 

( lyO, Brouer.) 
On the other hayni^ — 

EUSEBU'S, Hist. Eccl. IIH. xiii. I 1. C. A. I). i^Z'y — KuiViTTiivTLO'i . Tov 
KaO^ 1HJ.C0V \puTTiavQ>i'"\ TioAe/iov /i>)5a^u)s' t~i»io;i'U)rjy(Tas" uAAu kuI toLv 
vii avTov Oioatjiil'i O/^Aa/Stiy Kut arfTrr/pfuororv (/)i'A(i^(iv. kul fJ.i'iT( tu>i' 
fKKXr)(Tioji' Tovi otKoi'v KaO(\ijjr. fjnjO (T(i)ih' TL naO ij}xG>v Kaivux<nyi'jtras. 
(//. f,74, Bur tov. ) 

Id., De Mart. Palxst. xiii. 10, 1 I. ^ C. A.D. 32j.~ — Va yap toi (TTtKdva 
TUiV bibrjKwfxtvioi', 'IraAi'u 7Ta<ra kox ^ikcAui, FoAAia t( koi Cxra kutu. bvo- 
fxei'ov ijKioi' (tt\ 2~armr WavpiTariar t( kui 'A(/.pi»c;;i', ovO oAois trffxi dvcrl 
rois TTpcoTois TOV bioiynov TOV T,6\(y.ov v-ondvavTa, Tn;(i«TTr;s i)(iJ>Of}(Taif 

(VicTKOT:ii<i TC 0<oP Kol (If.i'inji Eipr/rijv b( HuuKavovdir ul ir OaTtfuo 

/it'pei TO) 7:/>o8«o»/Aaj/itj'u) xaToiKoi'iTff a5(A(/)o(. (//. ^>Jy, ^^4^/^ Burton.) 

SozoMEN, Hist. Eccl. I. 6. 'as quoted alxjvc] 

Lac rANTU's, De Mart. Persecut. A7', XFl. Tc. A.D. ^ I ^. , — Clon- 
srantius, nc disscnrirc a majorum ' ptirceptis vidcrctur, convcnricula, 
id est, paricrc's, qui restitui jx)terant, dirui passus est- verum autem 
Dei tcmplum, qucxl est in hominibus, incolume servavit. X'exabatur 
ergo universa terra, et prxtcr Ciallias ab oriente usque ad occasum 
tres acerbissima: bcstiae sxviebant. H64, Ox. 16S4. 

" (lildiis's general statement respecting this per- although the laner sti'l attributes it to th« persccu- 
secutioii, rests (:is usual with hidi) upon an uiuu- tion. date it in a86. (Sec Allords Ch Hist. 
ihorised traii^fcrciue to the particular case of on tlic side, aiuJ on the other. Smith ad Ha-d. 
Britain, of langu.igc of Kusibiu- (H. E. VIII. ii.) App. IV.) All that scenij certain, is, thai within 
relating to the persecution in gcnrial ; and is con- I 25 years after the last pxrisccution, a belief existed 
cu;iv,.'l> contradic-ted by Kusebius hinisclf, and by at Verftlaniium that a martyr named Albanus lay 
Sozomen and Lactantius. The in<liri<hial case buried near that town. Respecting Julius and 
of Albanus however rests upon a local tradition, Aaron there is no similar local tradition rc-corded 
traceable apparently up to 429, the date of S. (unless in Gildas) earlier than perlups the ninth 
(lemianuss first visit to Britain ; and perhaps the century (rharter, of that date ^V), in Lib. Landav. 
general assertions of Kusebius and the others nuy p. 215); repeated and ampliticd by (lirald. Cam- 
leave room for it, and for one or two oiher n>ar- brcnsis (Itin. Cambr. I. 5) and Geoffrey of Mon- 
tyrdoms. That S. Alban's martyrdom, however, mou:h (V. 5, IX. Ij) in the twell'th. 
h.ippened in the Diocletian persecution, rests only If the persecution was that of Diixlctian, the 
upon the knowledge, or (according to another date nuist have been 304, that persecution begiii- 
reading) the iruess, of Gildas himself. And the ning with the first edict of Diocletian in February 
Anglo-S;ixon Chronicle, and the Lib. Landavensis, 303, but extending to laymen (suih as Albanus 

1 Sc. Aur/tislorum, i.e. Diocletian and Ma.\imiin : who, with Galerius, arc the " trcs bcstia ' men- 
tioned further on. 


is represented to have been) only with his fourth dicju curatio iiiiirnioiuni et frequentium opcratio 

edict ill 304, and ceasing altogether in Britain virtutiini celebrari non desinit :" — although the 

upon his resignation in 305. localities had, it should seein.been forgotten before 

liede (H. E. I. 6, 7), writing in 731, testifies Oll'a built his monastery, c. A. D. 793. (Matt, 

that in the church of S. Alban, "usque ad banc Paris, Vit. Oil"., Wats 9.) 

A. D. 314. British Bishops at the Council of Aries. 

Nomina Episcoporum^ cum clcricis suis, quinani ct ex quibus provinciis 
;id Arelatensem Synodum convencrunta. (Lahh. I. 14^,^ Co J. Corhei- 
ensi : Man si II. 4'^ 6, 467.) 

[Towards the latter part of tlie signatures, and included among those of the Bishops of Gaul,] — 

Eborius Episcopus dc civirate Eboraccnsi provincia Britannia. 
Restirutus Episcopus dc civitate Londincnsi provincia supra- 

Adclhus'* Episcopus dc civitate Colonia Londincnsiumc. 

Exindc Saccrdos presbytery Arminius diaconus'^. 

" These names stand ihus in Isidorus Merca- Briti>h or Irish Bishops in later times, see lolo 

tor, — MSS. 514, 539; and Ann. Cambr. and Ann. 

Ex provincia Britania Eburius Episcopus; ex Tigeniach. in an. 501. 
civitate Culiiia Adelfiiis. <^ Read, probably, Legionensium = Caerleon- 

In Crabbe thus, — on-Usk. 

Ex provincia Britanni.T, civitite Londinensi '' The British Bishops must have consented to 

Restitutus Episcopus. the following canons among others. — Cone. Arel. 

Ex provincia B)'zacena, civitate Tubeniicensi, Can. I. (Mansi II. 471) — -Primo Iiko de obser- 

Eburius Episa)pus. vatione Paschae Dominici, ut uno die et uno tem- 

Ex cadem provincia, dvitate Culucitana, Adel- pore per omnem orbem a nobis observetur, et 

phius. ju.xta coiisuetudinem literas ad omnes tu [Episco- 

The Corbey MS., besides other internal evi- pus Romanus] dirigas. 
dence of superiority, harmonizes with the circular lb. Can. X. (ib. 472) — De his qui conjuges 

of Constantine (Kuseb. H. E. X. v) in adding two suas in adulterio deprehendunt, et iidem sunt 

of the inferior clcrsjy, agrees with the probable adolescentes tideles, et prohibentur nubere, pla- 

adjustmeiit of British bishoprics to the Roman cuit in quantum po.ssit consilium eis detur, ne 

provinces in Britain and their capitals, and with viventibus uxoribus suis, licet adulteris, alias acci- 

the special period of Constantine in placing York plant, 
first. lb. Can. XX. (ib. 473) — De his qui usurpant 

h Adelfius joins in the Synodal Letter to Pope sibi quod soli debeant Episcopos ordinare, placuit 

Sylvester (Mansi II. 469) but without mention ut nullus hoc sibi praesumat nisi assumptis secum 

of his see. Hibernius in the same letter is con- aliis septem Episcopis; si non potuerit septern, 

jecturally identified by Tillemont with Eborius. infra tres non audeat ordinare. 
And for the name of Ebur, Ibarus, or Vwor, as of 

A. D. ^ij. British Church assents^ to the Council of Nice respecting 
Arianism^^ and Easter*^. 

Athanasius, Ad. Jovian. Imp. [Synod. Epist. of Ch. of Alexandria in 
A. D. 363.] — TavTTji; h\ (ttCo-tlv) 01 iv Nuata avveXOovres ojnoXoyrjaai' 
TTarepes" /cat ravTr] (rvij.\lfr](f)Ot Tvy\6.vovcn Tiairai at TTavTa\nv Kara totiov 
^EKK\r](TCaf al re kAto. rJ/^' ^Traviav koI BperavLav Koi FaAAt'os,. . .koI al Kara 
civaToKas 'EkkAv^'ioi, ndpe^ oAi'ywr rwr ra 'Apeiov (j)poi'ovi'T(xn;. Airdi'Ton' 



[a. d. 

yap Tdv ■npoftprjfxd'uiv kul Tinpa. (yi'<j)Kan€v ti]v yv(iipLi)v Kai ypap.p.aTa 
tyj:)p.iv. iOpp. I. 781, Paris. 1698., 

CoNSTANTlNUS, Epist. ad Eccles. ap. Euseb. Vit. Const. III. xvii. 
[A. D. 325.] — 'AAA' 6776107; roCr' ovx^ olov re i]i; olkKivt] kuI fSffiauip tu^lv 
Aa/Sciv, ei ixi] ets tuvtu iravTajv opLOV, t] tioi> yodv -Afio'rwf (ttutku-uii' crvv- 
ekdovTOiv, . . TOVTOv €i'(K€r TrAeirrrcoj' u(T(i)v (TvvadpoKrdiinuiV, k.t.\. (49 1 
D, Fa Us.) 

Id., ib. xix. — KaAois (XfLV aTravres I'lyi'jcravTo,. . .Ip' uirep 6' ar Kara tijv 
rCiv 'V(i)p.aL(jiV iroKiv re, koI 'A(f)pLKi]v, 'IraAtay t€ aTtaaav, AlyviTToi^', ^-a- 
viav, TaAAias, Bperrartas, . . ./i.ia koX av\i(\>(j>v(ji (f)VAaTT(TaL yv(i>p.yj, acrpLivuis 
TovTo Koi 7/ vpL€T€pa T:po(T?ji^r\Tai ('i' . . Iva 8e to Ki(jtaKai(ijbe(TT(pou 
crvvTopLCOs ftTTu), KOiin] TTOiVTUiV ijp(.(J€ Kpiaei Ti]V aynoTaTqv Tov Tluo-^^a topTi\v 
p.Lq Koi rfj avrf] yjpi(pa ovvTiKtladai. (493 -^i 4V4 ^O 

• Existing lists of Bishops present at Nica-a arc 
incomplete and untrustworthy (Sclden ad Euiych., 
Maiisi ton). II., Piira in Sfiicil. Solcsni. II. 516, 
529, H. H. Cowpcr in Anal. Nic;rn.). One 
Bishop from G.iul is mentioned in some of them. 
And that in Cowpcr from the Syriac, containing 
only 3 20 names out of the tradiiionar)' .^lS, 
explains the deticieno' by stating that •' the names 
of the Western Bisho(>s were not written." Con- 
stantine, himself connected with Britain, invited 
IxiravraxiBtv rov% i'KiaKO-wovi yp64ifiaai ti^tj- 
Tiico?s, and paid expenses (Euscb., V. C., III. vi, 
vii), and desired the presence of all the Bishop* of 
the Church. BntUh Bishops alio were at Aries, 
and Ariminum, and possibly at Sardica. On the 
other hand, tiie decrees of the Council are said to 
have been sent to ihe West (including Britain) 
by Hosius through Vito (or Victor) and Vincentius, 
the Roman presbyters (Gelas. CyiK. II. a", 36, 
ap. Mansi II. 881,928): and Kuscbius (loc. cit.), 
speaking of rrjv Evpwjrr}i' Ewaaay Aiffirqv t« (foi 
TTjv 'Affia*', spedlies Spain as the western extrenie, 
and mentions neither (jaul nor Britain It is 
possible therefore that British Bishops were at the 
Council, but there is no evidence surticient cither 
to prove or to negative their presence there. 

»> S. Athanasius, speaking of Britain by name, 
with respect to the years 325, 347, and 36,^. 
S. Hilary with respect to 35S, and S. Chrysostom 
and S. Jerome with respect to the latter part of 
the century (all quoted here under their dates) ; 

Sozomcn, repeatedly asserting the general ortho- 
doxy of the West with specified and tiiriing ex- 
ceptions (in Milan and Pannonia) from 325 to 
381 (H. K. 111. vii. 2, xiii. 2, V. xiii. 7, 8. VI. 
xi. 4, xii. 3, xxii. 4, xxiii. 3, VII. iv. 4); and 
lastly the Synod of A(}uileia in 3K1, — '• Kt quidcni 
per occidcntales partes duobus in angulis tantum, 
hoc est in latere Dacix Ki{>ciuis ac Mu'sir, tldei 
obitrepi vidcbatur ; per onines autem tractiu atquc 
regiones, a Suecorum damtris usque ad Occinum, 
manet intemcrala lidclium atr]ue uiu a>mmunio" 
(Mansi III. 623). — conclusively negative the astcr- 
tion of (iildas, Hist, ix ( M. H. B. 9), founded on 
an unauthorised misapplication of general wfirds 
of Eusebius, respecting the prevalence of Arianisni 
in Britain. 

c 'E8 .{# . . oCt«5 iytiy Koi rovf liSfK^ovs 
Toi't ^v T17 AvaroAr;, u,j iyov(Ti 'P»/xaioi Kol 
'AAtfavRfJ*?? Hol ot Aoiiroi Tritrrts, trphs rh 
wii'Toi if fiii 7|^li(,a bfto t'iit'uii kvanfuwnv "rks 
tv\<n ifj aytarifj-tpa tou na(Tx;a (Dcrret.Nicrn. 
de Pasch ap I'ltra, Spial. Soiesm. IV. 541, sq K 
That Alexandria was to dctemiine the day and 
to signify it to the West through Rome, as well 
as to the East, see the Festal Epistles of S. Atha- 
nasius (Syr. ed Cureton, Latin, ap. Mai PP. Nov. 
Bibl VI, Engl. Oxf. l854t, and especially Epist. 
Will p. 120. Engl. See also Leon. M Epist. 
CIX. Opp. I. pp. 659, 660. (^esncl, dated 
July 38, 454. and tixiiig Easter 455 to April 24, 
for Gaul and Spain. 

A. D. :547. British Bishops possibly preseiit at the Council of Sardica.^ 
but certainly join that Council in acquitting S. yithanasius «. 

Athanasius, Apol. Cont. Arian. c. A. D. ^."jOr — Kal Tpirov U' tt] 
jufydAj; avvobia rff iv SapOiK?/ avi'a\d€L(n^ Kara "npofrTa^iv T(i>v 6iO(Pi\f(TTdT(i)i' 
[iacTiXidii- KcovaTai'Tiov koI Kcorarai-TO'i' er 7'; Ka\ ol Ka6' ijpGjv ytropifroi 


KadjjpeOqaav cos' (TVKO(f)di'Tai, rotv be KpLdilaiv VTrep i]fxoi>v (Tvvi\f/i](f)L(jai'To fxev 

(TTLCTKOTtOL TrAftoDj TpiaKOCTid}!', €^ izapy^iGiv AlyvTTTov, FaAAicji', Rper- 

Tavim'. {0pp. I. 1 23.) 

AtHANASIUS, Hist. Ar'my. ad Monach. [A. D. 358.] — Eira ^K^Ttovres 
Ti]v irpos ^ AdavacTLov rm' (TTLaKuiTiov avp.iP<jiviav tc Kai (Ipiji'T]!', TrAet'ovs be 
ijrrav v, avd re tt/s fxcydArjs Fwpi>j v,. . .rovs re aTro raAAtoii', kol BpexTayias, 
. . Tavra [iKeirovTa e/ccirot (f)d6i'(o koI (f)6liio avvecryedrnTav. [lb. 360.) 

» The list of Bishops at this Council in S. Hi- includes Bishops not present, but who sent in their 

lar. Pictav. ^11. 631), containing 59 names, that adhesion. 

in Mansi from a MS. at Verona, cont.iiniiig 97, A Rcstiiutus mentioned in S. Alhanasius and 

and that in S. Athinasius himself (A pol. 1. 168). by Mansi, but without his see, is conjecturaily 

containiiig 284, s(>ecify none from Britain. And identified by Scldcn (ad Kutych.) with the Resti- 

the larger total, of " over 3CK)," or "400," of tutus of London in3l4. The name howeverwas 

which S. Alhanasius speaks (.is aliove quoted), a nut uncommon one. 

A. D. 3;',(S. British Bishops orthodox -^ although hesitating about the 
terw 'Op.oovaiO'i. 

Hilar. Pictav.'', De Syvodis^ Prolog, et ^ 1. [A.D. 358, while in exile 
111 Phrygia.] — Dilecrissimis et bearissimis fratribus et co-episcopis pro- 

vinciae Germanix Primx, et ex Narbonensi plebibus et clericis 

Tolosanis, et provinciarum Britanniarum Episcopis, Hilarius servus 

Clhristi in Deo et Domino nostro acternam salutem. Beatae fidei 

vestr-cis Uteris sumptis (quarum lentitudinem ac raritatem de exsilii mei 
et longirudine et sccreto intelligo constitisse), gratulatus sum in 
Domino incontaminatos vos et illoesos ab omni contagio detestandx 
hxreseos perstitisse. (77. 457, 45^. Bened.) 

» The 'hesitation' appears from S.Hilary's tions, ^ Se'fi ^ dirarr) 7) d7»'oia (Sozom. H. E. IV. 

tract itielf. — There is no evidence beside the i.x. z"). condtniued the per>-on ot S. Alhanasius. 

number of Bi^hops present there (above 300), '• Venantius Fortuiiatus, Poem. VI. vii. 219, 

that any British Bishops took part in the Western 320, and VIII. i. 15-18 (pp. 151, 183, Brower), 

Council of Milan in 355, which, with five excep- speaking of S.Hilary, — 

Thrax, Italus, Sc}'lha, Persa, Indus, Geta, Daca, Britannus, 
Hujus in eloquio spem bibit, arma capit : 

and, — 

Eloquii currente rota penetravit ad Indos, 
Ingeniumque potens ultima Thyle colit, 
Perfundens cunctas, tice solis, kimine terras : 
Cujus dona Sacse, Persa, Britannus habet. 

See also the legends of Kebius or Cybi (Lives of (Act. SS. March 6, and Coigan i. 481) and 
Cambro-British Saints, p. 183), and of S. Fridolin O'Conor, Rer. Hibern. Scriptt. I. Ixxx. 

A. D. 359. British Bishops [of -Jijhom three accept the Imperial alloivance) 
are at the Council of Arimiyium.^ ijjhich "Vjas deceived and terrified into 
giving up the terms Ovuia and ^Op-ooixnos. 

SuLPicius Severus, Hist. Sac. 77. 41. [c. A.D. 400.] — Igitur apud 
Ariminum, urbcm Italix, synodum congregari jubet (Constantius) ^ 


idquc Tauro prxfccto impcrat, uc coUectos in unum non ante diniir- 
tcrct quam in unani hdcm consenrirent : promisso cidcm consiilatii, 
si rc-m eftectui tradidisser. Ira missis per Illyricum, Iraliani, Africam, 
Hispanias, Galliasque", niagisrris orticialibus, acciri aut niacri ' qiiad- 
ringenti ct aliquanto aniplius occidcntaics Kpiscopi, Ariniiniini con- 
vcncrc ; quibus omnibus annonas ct ccllaria dare imperator pra'- 
ceperat : scd id nostris (id est, Aquitanisi, Gallis, ac Britannis, inde- 
cens visum; repudiatis hscalibus, propriis sumtibus vivere maluerunr. 
Tres tantum ex Britannia, inopia proprii, publico usi sunt, cum 
oblatam a carteris collationem respuissent ; sanctius putantes hscum 
gravare, quam singulos. Hoc ego Gavidium Episcopum nostrum, quasi 
obtrectantem, referre st)litum audivi : sed longe aliter senserim, laudi- 
que attribuo Episcopis ram pauperes Fuisse, ut nihil proprium lialn-renr, 
nequc ab aliis potius quam risco sumerent, ubi neminem gravabant ; 
ita in utrisque cgregium exemplum. {Gallavd. Vlll. 3HS.) 

■ " Gallia;" here, as in I.actantim above quoted (p 6k indudes Britain. 

Not later than A. I). ^63. British Churches signify hy letter to S.Atha- 
nasius their adhesion to the Niceve Faith. 

A rnANASius, as quoted und;T A. D. ^2 ",. 

A. D. 3S6-400. A settled Church /';/ Brit.iiji^ -jjith churches^ altars^ Scrip- 
tures^ discipline^ holding the Catholic Faith^ and having intercourse both 
"jjith Rome arid Palestine. 

Chrvsostom, Cont. Judxos. C. A. D. :}.S7.^ — Kal yap a\ H/ztrraj-iKai 
^T/fToi, ai TT/v QdKaTTr\<i (KTos Ktifid'ai rauri/v, xal fvavTio ovnm tC) ^ilKfaril), 
TT/s bwafifd)'; Toi Vijimutos rj.iOovTo' kuI yap KOLKil t<KA)/(Tiai, koI dv<na(TTTJ- 
pia TTiTTi'iyamr. Opp. I. 575, Montfauc. 

Id., Serm. de Util. Lect. Script. [A. D. .^^6 x ;}cyH/ — Kar iU ruv 
Q.K€avoi> a~i\6i]i, KCLV zptfi ras BpfTrai'iKCLi in^cruvi (K(ira^. kov eiy Tur 
Kv^eivov TrXfvmj'i ttoitoi', Kav ~pos to. voria aniKOris p-ipi], iravrtav aKovnt] 
T:avTa)(Ov to. airo rj/s rpa(/>?/$ (pi\o(ro(f)Ovi'T(MH', (^coi'rj pifv (Ttpq, -nicTTd oi 
ov\ (Tepa, Kal yXaxTrrri piev Oia^fJpuj, Siaj'oia 6e (Tvp(})d>Vio. ' M. ///. 71.) 

Id., In Epist. II. ad Cor. xii. Homil. xxviii. [A. D. 386 x 39^.] — 
"Otiov i:(p au eicreA^jjs ets (KKKi^rriav. kup iv rfi Mai;pu)i\ kSi' «i' tt; Vlipn-ujv, 
Kav Trpos avTa<i ras Bperraj-t/caj iw/irofs, aKOv(i<i /^ooi/Tos ^Iwdvi'ov, Ovk 
€^(<TTL (Toi cxf ' ^'/'' yt'''fii'«fl '^l\l7:-ov Tov ab(\(f)0v crov. (/^. A'. 6^H.) 

I IX, /;/ Matth. Homil. Ixxx. A. D. 390x398.] — Kal 7/ pn'ipfj tov 

1 I.'ij. oiacli. 


y(VQ\xivov- uvK (fxapdvOr]' aWa Kai Tlfpaai, kuI 'Ivbol, kqI iKvdai, Kal 
0pa>ces, Koi ^avpofjiaTni, hol tu TUiV y\avp(x>v yivof, kqI oi ras Bpcrrai'tKOS 
i'7/croi's otVovrres, to (i> 'lovbaia yevufievov KaOpa (v otVia ~apa yvvaiKOS 

TT€TTOpV(Vlx€l-rii 7T€pL(})4pOVaL. {l^II. "jd"] ^ MoTttfaUC.) 

Chrvsostom, Serni. 1. in Ventecost. |^ A. D. 395 x 407, inter spuria.] — 
'OTTOf 8 av a~eKOT]'i, ft\' 'lr8ovv, ft? Mai^povy, eis BperTavovs, (If r//i' 
oiKovp.tvip', (vpi'iaet^^ 'Er ap\y} ?]V 6 Ao'yo?, kuI jSCov (vaperov. — And i^id. 
[a litrlc furrhcr on, in the old Latin translation:] — Ante hoc autem 
quotics in Britannia humanis vescebantur carnibus, nunc jejuniis 
reticiunt animam siiam. {U. III. Jyi.j 

HiERONYMUS, Ortkod. et Lucif. Dialog. [^A. D. 378.]— Si Ecclcsiam 
won habet Christus, aut si in Sardinia tantum habet, nimium pauper 
factus est. Et si Britannias, Gallias, Orienreni, Indoruni populos, 
l)arbaras nationes, et totuni seniel niunduni, possidet Satanas ; quomodo 
ad ani^uluni universiv terrx Crucis rroph;va coUata sunt? [Opp. IF. 
a. 29S, Be?ied. ; 

Id., Epist. xliv. ad Vaulam. [After A. D. 388.] — Divisus ab orbe 
nostro Britannus, si in religione processerit, occiduo sole dimisso, 
quxrit locum •*, fama sibi tantum et Scripturarum relatione cognitum. 

Id., Epist. xlix. ad Paulinum. [^A. D. 395.] — Cittcrum qui dicunt, 
Templum Domini, Templum Domini, audiant ab apostolo, V^os estis 
Templum Domini, et Spirirus Sanctus habitat in vobis. Et de Jero- 
solymis et de Britannia -jequaliter patet aula celestisj regnum enim 
Dei intra vos est. {IV. it. 'y6.\.) 

Id., Epist. XXXV. ad Heliodorum. [A. D. 396.] — Addc quod ante resur- 

rectioncm Christi notus tantum in Judara erat Deus Ubi tunc 

totius orbis homines ab India usque ad Britanniam? Piscium ritu 

ac IcKustarum, et velut musca: et culices, conterebantur. Nunc 

passionem Christi et resurrectionem Ejus cunctarum gentium et voces 
et litetiT sonant. {IV. ii. 267, 268.) 

Id., Epist. Ixxxiv. ad Oceanum. [A. D. 400.] — Xenodochium in portu 
Romano situm^ totus pariter mundus audivit. Sub una aestate di- 
dicit Britannia, quod ^gyptus et Parthus noverant vere. {IV. ii. 662.) 

Id., Epist. ci. ad Evangel, [anno incerto.] — Nee altera Romanse 
urbis Ecclesia, altera totius orbis existimanda est. Et Gallise et 
Britannia et Africa et Persis et Oriens et India, et omnes barbarse 
nationes, unum Christum adorant, unam observant regulam veritatis. 
{IV. ii. 803.) 

- S. Matt. xxvi. 6-13, and parallel passages. ■' ^c. Jerusalem. 

-1 Founded there bv the Christian chariiv of Pammachius and P\ibiola. 


SoZOMEN, Hist. Eccl. VH. 13. [c. A. D. 443.] — 'Er rovTii^ Se ' Ma^i/ixo? 
[<»c Tj)s Bperrartas'] TrKii(TTi]v aydpas uTpaTiav WpfrravCyv avhpdiK kih T(ji>p 
ofiopuiP raharoiv Kal KeKriav kol t(i>v rrfbi (dvuyr, (7:1 tijv IruAior j/ei' 
Ttpoifjacnv pi€i>, o)<i ova di'f^o'/jieroy v€(x>T€p6v tl ytvicrdaL iifpl rijv inxTpinv 
Tiicrriv, Kol TtjV (KK\rjaLa(TTLKiiv ra^iv to be oAr/^es, Tvpdvvov bo^f^i (avTuv 
KO.dalpo)V. (721, Vales. ) 

A. D. 395 (?)a. S. Patrick's birth near Alci\^yd [Durubarton). 
Patricius, Confessio. [some rime before A.D. 493 (?).] — Ego Patricius 
pcccator, rusticissimus et minimus omnium tidelium, er contc-mpril)i- 
lissimus apud plurimos, parrcm liabui C'al["H)rnium Diaconum, rilium 
quondam Potiri prcsbytcri, qui tuit in vico Bana\ an Tabciniiv ; villulam 
cnim prope liabuir, ubi capruram dedi. Annorum eram rum fere xvi, 
etc. And again, — In Britanniis eram cum parenribus meis. [O'Conor^ 
Rer. Hib. Scriptt. 1. cviij cxi.) 

» That S. Patrick was probably bom about this O'Conor.lI. 78; aii'l I'sshcr, Primord. c. xvii: and, 

year, or a little later, and in the Briti»h principality for the rnt ol' S. Patrick's hl^toIy, below, under the 

of Strathciwyd, and carried cajitivc from Artnorica, Irl^h Churcli. His mission to Ireland was 30 years 

see Todd's Life of S. Patrick, 355 s<]. ; see also after hu boyhood (Confcst. ap. O'Conor, ib. caII.) 

A. D. 400-42 5. General references to the British Church or to 
Christians in Britain. 
PRuntNTius, lltpi i;rf(/)dya;i-, xiii. 103. [c. A. D. 40-,.^ (S. Cyprian, 
by his writings) — Gallos fovet, imbuit Britannos. (Galland. Ill I. 4^)7.) 
Orosius, Hist.vii..\.o. 'c. A.D. 417.^ — Adversus hos Constantinus- 
Constantcm tilium suum, proh dolor I ex monacho Cxsarem f-'actum, 
misit. (577, Lug. Bat. 173H.) 

Socrates, Hist. Eccl. vii. 1 1, c. A. D. 440.] — XpvcravOo^ KadaKKvrrOi] 

€tS 71}V e77l(TK077?/J' ', /ilKtl/UOS TU)V H/if 7Ta/'lK(Iir J'J/TCDi' KaTaoTciv. 

(348, rales.) 

PoRPHYRIUS, ap. HiERONYMUM, Ad Ctesiph. ad\\ Pelag. xliii. c. A.D. 
415.] — Nequ'j enim Britannia fertilis provincia tyrannorum, er Scotticac 
gentes, omnesque usque ad Oceanum per circuirum barbarx nariones, 
Moysen prophetasque cognoverant. [Hieron. 0pp. W. ii. 4H1.) 

AuGUSTINUS, Enarr. in Psalm, xcvi. [c. A.D. 4I",. ' — Est quidem, 
quia verbum Dei non in sola contincnti terra prxdicatum est, scd 
etiam in insulis qux constirurx sunt in medio mari ; ct ipsx plenae 
Christianis, plenx sunr scrvis Dei. [0pp. IV. 104^. A^Bened.) 

Id., Epist. cxcix. Ad Hesychium. [c. A.D. 419.] — Hinc ostendens 
quam nulla relinquitur terrarum, ubi non sit Ecclesia, quando nulla 

1 A. D. 387. - The Briton usurper of the Empire, a.d. 407. 

■t Of the Novatiaiis at ConsUntinoplc. a. d 407. 

200-4.>0-l DURIXC; THE ROMAN PERIOD. 13 

rclinquitur insularum, quarum nonnuUae etiam in Occano sunt con- 
stitute, ct quasdam earum Evan^clium jam susccpissc didicimus. 
Atque ita ct in insulis singulis quibusquc implcfur quod dictum est, 
'*■ Dc^minabitur a mari usqu.- ad marc," quo unaquitquc insula cingitur; 
sicut in univcrso orbc tcrrarum, qux tamquam omnium quodammodo 
maxima est insula, quia ct ipsam cingit Occanus : ad cujus litoia in 
occidcntalibus parribus Kcclcsium pcrxcnissc jam novimus ; ct quo- 
cunquc litorum nondum pL-rvcnit, pLT\cnfura est urique huctiticando 
ct crescendo. (//. -yS. £, F, Beyied.) 

Thf.odorkt., Gr^c. Ajfect. Curat. IX. [c. A. 1). 423.] — 01 6e ///xe'repoi 
('lAteiv /cat (»t Tf Atorai Kot u (TKiiroro'/aov ^ azaaiv ai'Opu)Tr()L\- rnvi (vayyeKi- 
Koiii Trpofrerj/roxarrt /•o'/xorv, Kai uv fjioroi' Vo)^aiov^ Kal Tovi viru tovtoi^ 
TfKuvi'Twi, aWa kol tu '^kvOlku. kqI tu. i^av/jOjuariKa eOvi], . kol BperTavom, 
. Kai inra^aTTKws ttclv tOm^ kul ytrwi avOpia-ncnv, hi^arrOai tov ^ravpcaOfVTO'i 
Tuvi vupovi uriTTiUTai'. i^^pp- !^- V^S, y2y, Schulz,.) 

A. D. 400-461. hitercourse of British and Gallic Churches*. 

N'tNAN rius FoRTUNATUS, Poe?fi. X. X. <S. [c. A. D. ySo, but writing 
(at Poitiers) oKS, Martin of Tours ^'j ob. A. D. 597 x 401]: 
Qu^em Hispanus, Maurus, Persa, Brirannus amat. 

(248, Broiver.) 

Aldhelm, Epist. ad Gerimtium. ^ after A. D. 7o6<^.] — Porro isti 
[Britones] secundum decenncm novennemque Anatolii computatum, 
aut potius juxta Sulpicii Severi rcgulam, qui Ixxxiv annorum cursum 
dcscripsir, dccima quarta luna cum Judseis paschale sacramentum 
celebrant. [0pp. yo, Migne.) 

Patricius, Co?ifessio. [some time before A. D. 493 (?), but writing of 
about the middle of the century.] — Undc autem etsi voluero amittere 
illas ', ct ut pergens in Britannias, et libentissime paratus eram, quasi 
ad patriam et parentes; non id solum, sed eram usque Gallias visitare 
fratres, et ut viderem faciem sanctorum Domini mei. Scit Deus quod 
ego valde optabam, sed alligatus Spiritu, etc. [O' Conor ^ I. cxiv } and 
so also " Gallici fratres ^^ ih. ex ,• and the " Consuetudo Gallorum Christia- 
?iorum" is referred to, Epist. ad Coroticum^ ib.cxvti. 

Anon., I>e Sept em Ordin. Eccl.^ [c. A. D. 450.] — Haec scribo,...ut 
presbyteri hoc in ecclesiis suis faciant, quod Romae, sive quod in 
Oriente, quod in Italia,, quod in Britannia, quod etiam ex parte 
per Gallias... fit. {Hieron. Opp. V. 105, Bened.) 

Arnobius Junior, In Psalm, cxlvii.^ [c. A. D. 461.] — Tam velociter 

4 .L^c. S. Paul. •') Sc. Irish Christian virgins, his converts. 


cunir sc-rnu) Kjus, iit cum p.-r tot nuUia aiiiKjiuin in sola JutlaM norus 
fiicrit Dcus, nunc intra paiicos annos ncc ipsos liidos latcat a parte 
Oricntis, nee ipsos Brirones a parte occidentis. Ubu|iie cucurrit 
velociter sermo Ejus. :F. ///. ]\6. £, Bi^/. PP. i6i(S.. 

■' For Brittany, see below in its place. S. Martin's disciple, which the Britons followed, was 

'' For the connection of S. Martin with Britain, drawn up in Gaul about a d. 410. That of Victo- 

sce Ba'd. H. E. I. 26, 111. 4 ; Nennius xxii ; (jteg. rius Aijuitanus, also Ciallic. with whicli they were 

Tur., De Mirac. S. Martini IV. 46; Sulpic. Severus, unacquainted, dates from about .\.i). 457- Sec, be- 

V. Martin xxiii., and Dialog. II. 7; Ailred. Rieval., sides Bucheriu.'i and I'sshcr.Van der Hagen,Observ. 

Vit. S. Ninian. ; and with Ireland, Colgaii in \'itis in Prosp. Chron. 293, .^36 ( Anistclod. I 733), and 

Patricii ; Ann. L'lton. an. 691 ; Ann Buell. \>. 2 ; De Rossi, Inscr. Christianx. I. Ix.xxv, Ix.xxvi. 
Jonas, Vit. S. Colunibani ; and other references in ■' Addressed to Rusticus, bishop of Narbonne, 

O'Conor, I. 95, 142, 151 ; II. 121. For S (ler- A.n. 449-454(?). 

manus, see below. " Addressed to the same Rusticus, and to 

^ The Paschal Cycle of Sulpicius Severus, Leontius, bishop of Aries. 

A. D. 400, 42 ^. P'tlgr'nriages of British Christiavs to the Holy L.avd 

avd to Syria. 

Palladius, Hist. Lausiac. cxviii. i^ A. D. 420, but writing of the 
years before 410. — Tovto bk ovk ifiut> (cm biriyi'fcrarrOai, a\\a koI rdv 
Tiji' llfpcriba Kill BpfTTari'dv koI Tav vdcrai oIkuvi'tuh' in'f<Tov>i' T(t)V yap 
evT:ouu)V kuI f-ibucrecov Tijs aOavdrov tqi/ttjv ', 01; bvtri.'i, otx dfaTo\i], oik 
dpKTO'i^ uvT( p.nTi]p.,-ipia i\(TTu)(T)(T(. (I ^ "J, Aleurs. 

TiiKoix)RKT., Philoth. xxvi. [c. A. D. 440, l)ut speaking probably 
of .A.l). 42^. — Xf^'iKovTo'^ h\ TToAAoi 7US Ti]<i (cmtpwi oiKovi'T(<i (ox^aTias, 
^~droi T( Kal \ip(TTuvui, Kal TaAurai ot td fifiruL- tuvtojI' Kart^^oi^rev. 
(///. 1272.; 

After A.D. 401 (?)''. Nivias., Bishop of Candida Casa i» l^a/eNtia^\ converts 
the Southern Picts^ diie//i7/^ l>etiveen the Gratnpians and the Forth. 

B.KDA, Hist. Eccl. III. 4. ^A. D. 731."; — Ipsi australes Picti,...mult() 
ante tempore ', ut perhibcnt, relicto errorc idolatriae fidem vcritatis 
acccperant, prardicante cis verbum Nynia Episcopo revercntissimo ct 
sanctissimo viro de natione Brittonum, qui erat Romje regulariter 
fidem et mystcria veritatis cdoctus: cujus sedem episcopalcm sancti 
Martini Episcopi nomine et ecclesia insignem, ubi ipse etiam corpore 
Una cum pluribus Sanctis rcquiescit, jam nunc Anglorum gens obtinet. 
Qui locus ad provinciam Berniciorum pertincns vulgo vocatur Ad 
Candidam Casam, eo quod ibi ecclesia de lapide insolito Brittonibus 
more fecerit. {M.H.B. 175, 176.) 

* The visit of S. Ninias to S. Martin at Tours, Whiihern or Candida Casa to S. Martin upon 
and his subsequent dedication of the church of hearing of the latter's death (Ailred. Ricval., 

1 Sc. Melania the elder, in her hospitality to pilgrims at Jerusalem. 

2 »Sc. to Ttlanissus near Antioch, to visit Symeon Stylites. 
•< Sc. long before a. d. 563. 


Vit. S. Nil), ill Pinkcrton"s Vit;e Saiictor. Scoti.e), blundering list of ilic five metropolitan sees of 

alVord the only indications for the date. S. Martin the five Uritish provinces in Giraidus Canibrensis 

died either in 397 or 400 (Tillemont, Mem. (De Jure et Statu Mcnev. Eccl., A. S II. 542), 

Keel. X.) or 401 (see O'Conor, Rer. Hibern. confounded by Giraldus with S. Andrew's, most 

Scriptt. II. 83). probably refers to Candida Casa (v. Grub's Ch. 

'• Alba in Valeniia. the alleged metropolitan Hist, of Scotland, 1. 21.) 
see of that piovince in the traditionary and 

A. D. 41 :}, 420, 429. Pelagius the Briton first teaches his heresy at Rome. 
— Fastidius.^ a Serni-Pelagia?! British Bishop. — Pe/agiajiisrn introduced 
ivto Britain itself by Agricola. 

Orosil's, De Arbit. Lib. ^c. A.D. 41^. , — Britaniiicus nostcr [PclagiusJ 
etc. (59H, L.ugd. Bat. I 738.) 

AUGUSTINUS, Epist. c/xxxvi. ad Paulin. [A. D. 4 1 7.] — Pelagilim, 
qiicm credimus, ut ab illo distingiicretur qui Pclagius Tarcnti dicitur, 
Brironem fuisse cognominarum. (77. 663. F, Bened.) 

Marius Mercator, Adv. Pelag. [c. A. D. 4i<S.] — Hanc ineptam et 
non minus inimicam rccrx fidci quirstioncm sub sancrx rccordationis 
Anastasio Romanx Ecclesiac summo pontihce ', Ruhnus quondam 
narione Syrus Romam primus invexit; ct...pc'r se proferre non ausus, 
Pelagium gente Britranum monachum tunc dcccpit, eumque ad prae- 
dictam apprimc imbuit atquc instituit impiam vanitatem. (Galland. 

nil. 61-^.) 

Prosper Aquitan., Chron. [after A. D. 455.] — Luciano viro claris- 
simo consule'' ;... hac tcmpestate Pelagius Brito dogma nominis sui 
contra gratiam Christi, Cxlcstio et Juliano adjutoribus, exeruit. {0pp. 
I. 399, Bassani., J 782.) 

Id., ib. — Florcntio et Dionysio Coss. ^; . . . Agricola Pelagianusa, 
Severiani Pelagiani Episcopi hlius, Ecclesias Britanniae dogmatis sui 
insinuatione corrupit. (Ib. 400, 401.) 

Id., In Obtrect. August, [c. A. D. 430]: 

Aut hunc [Pelagium] fruge sua aequorei pavere Britanni. 

Id., De If/gratis IK I, 2. [c. A, D. 430] : 

Dogma quod antiqui satiatum felle draconis 
Pestifero vomuit coluber sermone Britannus, etc. 

{Ib. 69, 70.) 
Id., ibid. vv. 692, 693 : 

I procul, insana impietas, artesque malignas 
Aufer, et auctorem comitate exclusa Britannum. 

{Ib. g6.} 

•1 a. D. 398-402. .'iA.D.413. CA.D.429. 

l6 HRIII.^H CHURCH [a. D. 

Gennadius, De lllustr. f'/rh.^ !^c. A. D. ^-,H. — Pclagiiis Biirro Iv.i-re- 
siarchis etc. {Hiero?j. Opp. J', -y-]^ Bened.) 

Id., ihid. — Fastidius'' Briranniarum Episcopus scripsit ad Faralcm 
qucndam dc Wvx Christiana librum unum, et alium de viduitate ser- 
vanda, Sana ct Deo digna doctrina. iHierof/. Opp. l". ^y, BeneJ.) 

GiLDAS, Hist. IX. [A. D. 56c.] — Ac sic quasi via facta trans Ocea- 
num, omnes omnino bestiac ferae, mortifcrum cujuslibet Ivxrcsios virus 
horrido ore vibrantes, letalia dentium vulnera patria*, novi semper 
aliquid audire volenti er nihil certe srabiliter oluinenti, inhgebanf. 
{M.H.B. y.) 

» Possibly banished from (Jaul. under the l.iw •■ That h.isiuims was jxissibly not a Bishop, — 

of Valcntinian of a.d. 425 (Cod. Theod. Append wrote one book, not two, — and to a widow Fata- 

p 16. Paris 1631,) as a Pelagian, Hntain being lis. — and that he inclined to Scnn'pelapianism, — 

no longer under Roman authority (see Haron. an. see Tillcmniit, M«^ni. Yx<:\. .irt. S. (Jermain, and 

429, § 10) ; but that he was a Briton by birth, the l>ook itself of Fastidius in the Bibi. PP. 

is rendered probable by Prosper, Cunt. CoUat., as <" The context refcn this to Pdagianism. 
quoted below. 

A. D. 429'. Germartus Bishop of Auxerre^ and Lupus Bishop of Troy es., 
confute the Pel avians at I'erulainiurn. 

Prospf.R Aqimtan., Cont. Collat. xxi. ' c. A. 0.4^.2." — Nee vero scg- 
niorc cura [pontifex Caclcstinus^, ab hoc codem morlx) Britannias liber- 
avit, quando quosdam inimicos gratise solum sua: originis occupantes 
ctiam ab illo secreto exclusit Oceani ; et ordinato Scotis Episcopo-', 
dum Romanam insulam studet scrvare Catholicam, fecit etiam bar- 
baram Christianam. [Opp. I. 197.) 

Id., Chron. [after A. I). \'y'y\ — Florentio ct Dionysio Coss.'; ad 
actionem Palladii diaconi Papa Cxlestinus Germanum Antisiodorcn- 
sem^ Episcopum vice sua mittit, ct dcrurbatis harrcticis '■ Britannos ad 
Catholicam tidcm dirigit. [lb. 401.) 

CoNSTANTIUS, De Vita Germani I. 19, 23. [A. D. 47 ^ x 492- ' — Eodcm 
tempore ex Britanniis directa legatio GaUicanis Episcopis nunciavit, 
Pelagianam perversitatem in IcKis suis late populos occupassc, ct 
quamprimum lidei catholicx debere succurri. Ob quam causam 
synodus ^ numerosa collecta est ; omniumque judicio duo prxclara 
religionis lumina universorum prccibus ambiuntur, Germanus et 
Lupus, apostolici saccrdotes, terram corporibus, cerium meritis possi- 

dentes. Britannorum insulam quae inter omnes est vel prima vel 

maxima, sacerdotes apostolici raptim opinione, praedicatione, virtu- 
tibus impleverunt. Et cum quotidie irruentc frequentia stiparentur, 

1 In MS. Corbeiensi. 2 Se. Palladius, sent a.d. 431. •' A. D. 429. 

•1 lyfg. Autesiodorensem. •' .S;. Agricola and hii disciples. 


ciivinus sermo non solum in ecclesiis vcrum etiam per trivia, per rura 
per devia diffundcbatur j ut passim et tide Catholici tirmarcntur, et 
depravati viam correctionis agnoscerenr. Erat in illis apostolorum 
instar gloria, et authoritas per conscientiam, doctrina per literas, vir- 
tutes ex meritisj accedebat praeterea tantis authoribus assertio veri- 
tatis. Itaque regionis universitas in eorum sentcntiam prompta trans- 
ierat. Latebant abditi sinistrse persuasionis authores, et more maligni 
spiritus gemebant perire sibi populos evadentcs. Ad extremum diu- 
turna meditatione concepta prarsumunt inirc contiictum. Proccdunt 
conspicui divitiis, vcstc Fulgentes, circumdati assentatione multorum j 
contcntionisquc subire alcam malucrunt, quam in populo, quem sub- 
vertcrant, pudorem taciturnitatis incurrere : ne viderentur se ipsi 
silentio damnavisse. Illic plane immensae multitudinis numerositas 
etiam cum conjugibus ac liberis excita convenerat. Aderat populus 
spectator futurus et judex. Adstabant partes, dispari conditionc dis- 
similes. Hinc divina authoritas, inde humana pracsumptio; hinchdes, 
inde perfidia ; hinc Christus, inde Pclagius author. Primo in loco 
beatissimi saccrdotes pracbucrunt adversariis copiam disputandi, quse 
sola vcrborum nuditate diu inaniter ct aures occupavit et tempora. 
Deindc antistites venerandi torrentes eloquii sui cum apostolicis ct 
evangelicis tonitruis profuderunt. Miscebatur sermo proprius cum 
divino, et assertiones violentissimas lectionum testimonia sequebantur. 
Convincitur vanitas, perfidia confutatur^ ita ut ad singulas verborum 
objectiones rcos se, dum respondere nequeunt, faterentur. Populus 
arbiter vix manus conrinet; judicium cum clamore testaturf. (Sur. 
III. Jul. 31, />/>. 363, 364, Col. Agripp. 1618.) 

Martyrol. B.ED.E, /A'. Kal. {August.). . .Eodem die depositio S. Lupi 
Episcopi de Trecas : qui cum Germane venit Britanniam. (/»/>. ^^c^, 
400, Srn'ith.) 

(See also the Vita Lupi^ c. Hi. ap. Sur. III. Jul. 29, p. 348 ; and the 
Vtta S. Genovevte '', cc. i. ii. ; ap. Sur. I. Jan. 3, p. 55.) 

» Prosper, a professed chronicler giving a deli- Lyons, and a correspondent of Sidonius Apollinaris, 

nite date, a native of Aquitaine, himself in Rome addressing his Life of Germanus to Censurius (died 

A. D. 431 on a mission to Pope Caelestine, sub- A I). 500 — Le Cointe"), a successor of Germanus 

sequent]}' secretary to Pope Leo the Great, and (who died 448, according to Tillemont) in the see 

writing shortly after 455, is certainly the best of Auxerre (Heiric. in V. Gemiani), who had not 

evidence for the date. 429, of Germanus' first yet written his work in 470 — 473, but was at that 

visit to Britain. That given by Matt. Westm. time " grandis aetate, infirmitate fragilis" (Sid. 

after Sigebert, and adopted by Wilkins, 446, rests Apoll. Ep. IIL 1). and who therefore must have 

upon Constantius and Bede, giving a vague and been a contemporary of Germanus many years, 

general date, and upon an inference groundlessly and have written his life not more than trom 25 

dra\ni from the mention of Saxons as well as Picts to 50 years after his death, is quite as good evidence 

in Constantius' account of the Hallelujah battle for what happened in Gaul on the subject, as 

fought in Britain under the leading of Germanus. Prosper is for what happened in Rome. Each 

On the other band, Constantius, a presbyter of indeed appears to represent the case from his own 

VOL. I. C 


fioiiit ut view exclusively. And Prosper, as he the end of this first visit as jusi after the sub*e- 

evidently in his Cent. Coiiat. exaggerates the quent Easter. 

temporal, so it may fiirly be supposed in his '• Nothing else is known of tliis council: v. 

Chronicle exaggerates the spiritual, power of the Simiond. Cone. Gallic. 

Popes at that time in Britain. <^ Germanus' visit, immediately after this con- 
According to the V. Lupi, the two bishops ference, to the relics of S. Alban, indicates Verola- 
crossed into England in the winter. And the miuni as theplicewhcre itwashcld. Si;c al>ove,p.5. 
legend of the Hallelujah battle (which also repre- '' Professed as a virgin by S. Germanus at 
sents a large portion of the British army as un- Nanterre, near Paris, on his way to Britain, 
baptized until iminediately previous to it) dates 

Shortly after A. D. 4^1. Pallad'ius^ the Roman m'issioJiary to Ireland^ comes 
from Ireland to Britain^ and dies in the country of the PictsK 

ViT.\ Prima S. Patricii ^ (Before 1 1 tli century). — Non fuit [Palladius] 
bene ab illis [Hibernis] cxceptus, scd coactus circuirc oras Hiberniac 
versus aquilonem, donee tandem, tempestate magna pulsus, venerit ad 
extremam partem Modhaidh versus austrum ; ubi fundavit ecclesiam 
Fordun-''- et Plcdi est nomcn ejus ibi. {Colgan^TriasTh.p.r^. So also 
the Irish Nennius^ p.io6.) 

Nennius, Hist. Brit, (yth century), Caj>. LV. — Profecrus est ille Pal- 
ladius de Hibernia, pcrvenitque ad Britanniam, et ibi dcfunctus est in 
terra Pictorum. (M.H.B.-ji.) 

" These, and the other fboth earlier and later) undertook the mission on learning Palladius' death, 

Irish traditional evidence, with the Aberdeen and which mu<.t plainly have occurred more than uoc 

other Scottish traditions, are collected and discussed year after 431. 
in Todd's S. Patrick, pp. 287-304. S. Patrick '' Sdl. Vet. Scbdiastz Scbol. in Hynm. S. Fieci. 

A. D. 440 X 4'^)0. S. Patrick' s mission to Ireland from Britain. 

[v. Todd's S. Patrick, 391 sq.] 

A.D. 447". Second visit of Germanus to Britain^ accompanied hy Severus 

Bishop of Treves^ for the purpose of repressing Pelagianism. 

CoNSTANTius, Dc J'. Germani., II. 1-4. — Intcrea ex Britanniis nun- 

ciatur Pelagianam pervcrsitatem iterato, paucis authoribus, dilatari. 

Rursumquc ad bcatissimum Gcrmanum preccs omnium defcruntur, ut 

causam Dji, quam prius obtinucrat, tutarcrur. Qu<)rum pctitioni 

festinus occurrit; dum ct laboribus delectatur, ct Christo se gratanter 

impcndit. Ccssit tandem inimici invidia, victa virtutibus ^ nee 

tentare ausus est, quem Dei amicum esse jam senserat. Adjuncto 

igitur Sevcro Episcopo,...qui tunc Treviris ordinatus Episcopus gen- 

tibus Primx Gcrmanice verbum vit-x prjedicabat, mare, Christo 

authore, conscendit. Ad itineris tranquillitatem elcmenta consen- 
tiunt ; navigium venti, fluctus aera proscquuntur. Intcrea sinistri 
spiritus, pervolanres per totam insulam, Germanum venire invitis 
vaticinationibus nunciabantj in tantum ut Elaphius quidam regionis 

^ Sc. at Fordun in the Meams, in (modem) Scotland. 


llius primus inoccursum sanctorum sine ulla manifesti nuncii rc-latione 
iropcravcrir, cxhibcns sccum hlium, qucm in ipso fiore adolcsccntix 
icbiliras dolcnda damnaverat ; erat cnim arcscentibus nervis contracto 
■)Oplitc, cui per sicciratcm cruris usus negabatur vesrigii. Hunc Ela- 
">hium provincia tota subsequirur. Vcniunt sacerdotes, occurrit inscia 
nultitudo. Confcstim bcnedictio et scrmonis divini doctrina pro- 
"undirur. Rccognoscit populum in ea quam reliquerat credulitate 
lurantem ; intelligunt culpam esse paucorum ; inquirunt authores, 
nvcntosque condemnant : cum subito Elaphms manibus advolvirur 
acerdotum, offcrens filium, cujus necessitatem ictas ct debilitas etiam 
inc prccibus allegabanr. Fit communis omnium dolor, prcccipue 
acerdotum, qui conceptam misericordiam ad divinam clementiam 
rontulerunt. Starimquc adolescentem beatus Germanus sedere com- 
)ulit, attrectat poplitem debilitate curvatum, et per tota intirmitatis 
;patia medicabilis dcxtra pcrcurrit. Salubrcm tactum sanitas fcstina 
;ubsequitur; ariditas succum, nervi officia receperunt; et in conspectu 
>mnium filio incolumitas, patri filius reformatur. Implentur populi 
itupore miraculi, ct in pcctoribus omnium fides Catholica firmabatur. 
^nrdicatio deinde ad plebem de prxvaricationis emcndatione con- 
(^ertiturj omniumque sententia pravitatis authores expulsi ab insula, 
iacerdotibus adducuntur, ad mcditerranca dcferendi'j; ut et regie 
ibsolutione et illi emcndatione fruerentur. Qiu^d in tantum salubriter 
"actum est, ut in illis locis etiam nunc fides intemerata perduret. 
taquc compositis omnibus beatissimi sacerdotes, ea qua venerunt 
?rosperitate, rcversi sunt. [Sur. III. Jul. 31, />. 366.) 

Martyrol. B.KD.i:. Kal. {Augnst.)...k\\\%'iAoAoxo Germani Episcopi, 
|ui multis virtutibus doctrina et continentia clarus, etiam Britonum 
idem per duas vices a Pelagiana h«:resi defendit. (/». 401, Smith.) 

» The death of Germanus, probably in 448 to Aetius in 446. — Aetio ter consuli gemitus 

'Tillemont), and very shortly after his return from Britonum (Gildas, xvii.) 

Jritain ^Constant. V. Germanic, fixes this date. >> See the (Roman) law quoted above, p. i6, 

See also O'Conor, Rer. Hibern. Scriptt. II. 92.) note ». 
Ikjmpare the celebrated application of the Britons 

British Legevds of the Ninth and later Centuries co?inect Germanus luith 
Vortigern.^ a7id "jjith Wales^ and prolong his stay in 'Britain. They are 
inconsistent .^ ho^ever^ 'with the contemporary statements of Constantius.^ 
and are mixed up "cjith evident fiction. 
Nennius, Hist. Brit. (9th century). — Cap. XXX. In tempore illius'^s 

i/enit S. Germanus, Autisiodorensium urbis Episcopus, ad prEedicandum 

^ Sc. Guortigemi. 

C 2 


in Britannia: er claruir apud illos in multis virtutibus; er multi per 
cum salvi facti sunt^ incrcduli perierunt. Aliquanta miracula, quae 
per ilium Dominus fecit, scribenda decrevi. {M.H.B. p. 6^.) 

Cap. XXXI. Primum miraculum de miraculis ejus. Erat quidam 
rex valde iniquus etc. etc. [M.H.B. p. 63.) 

Cap. XXXIX. Et super hxc omnia mala adjiciens, Guorthigernus 
accepit liliam suam propriam in uxorem sibi, qua; peperit ei hlium. 
Hoc autem cum compertum essct a S. Germano, vcnit corripcre regem 
cum omni clero Britonum. Et dum conventa esset magna synodus 
clericorum ac laicorum in uno consilio, ipse rex praemonuit filiam 
suam, ut exiret ad ccnventum, et ut daret filium suum in sinu Gcr- 
mani, dicerctque quod ipse erat pater ejus. Ac ipsa fecit sicut edocta 
erat. S. Germanus eum beni^ne accepit- et dicere curpit: 'Pater 
tibi ero; nee te permittam, nisi mihi novacula cum forpice pec- 
tineque detur, et ad patrem tuum carnaiem tibi dare liceat.' Mox 
ut audivit puer, obedivit verbo senioris sancti, et ad avum suum pa- 
rremque carnaiem Guorthigernum perrexit, et dixit illi : ' Pater meus 
cs tu, caput meum tonde, et comam capitis mei pectc.' lUe autem 
siluit, et puero rcspondere noluit; sed surrcxit, iratusque est vchc- 
menter, et ut a facie S. Germani fugeret qu;rrebat : et maledictus est, 
et damnatus, a B. Germano et omni consilio Britonum-". (M.H.B. 
p. 66.) 

Cap. XLVl. Iste Guorthemir filius Guorthigirni, in synodo habita 
apud Guartherniaun-"-, postquam nefandus rex, ob incestum quem cum 
hlia commiserat, a facie Ciermani et clericcjrum Britannia: in fugam 
iret, patris nequiti-ar consentire noluit : sed rediens ad S. Germanum, 
ad pedes ejus cecidit veniam postulans, atque pro illata a patre suo et 
sorore S. Germano calumnia, terram ipsam, in qua prxdictus Epi- 
scopus obprobrium tale sustinuit, in artcrnum suam fieri sanxivit. 
Unde et in memoriam S. Germani Guarcnniaun nomen accepit, 
quod Latine sonat, ' calumnia juste rctorta;' quoniam cum Episcopum 
vituperare putaverat, semet ipsum vituperio afficit. {M.H.B. p. 6H.) 

Cap. LK Beatus veto Germanus reversus est post mortem Guor- 
thigirni ad patriam suam. (M.H.B. p. 71.) 

Gildas knows nothing of S. Germanus. 

A Cornish Missa S. Germani ^'^ (probably 9th century) claims S. Ger- 

2" The " pater adoptiviis sive spiritualis," it seems, became so. " acceptis pueri criiiiculis, a genitore 
mox abscindendls :" v. Aiiastas. in Benedicto II. Muratori, III. i. 146. — M.H.B. in loc. 

« Near Builth in Radnorshire.— M.H.B. 

*" Fragment. — Printed from MS. Bodl. 572, in Hardy "s Descript. CaUl. &c. I. 48, 49; and fur- 
ther on, in its place, in this work. 



maniis' preaching and relics for Cornwall, and attributes his mission 
to Pope Gregory. It contains also a reference to the " vesania" etc. 
of Vortigern. 

A Gallican Missa S. German!^ viz. of Auxerre [ap. Mabill. De 
Liturg. Gallic. III. 330), affirms that " Germanus Episcopus. . .per totas 
Gallias, Roma, inectalia ■'", in Brettania, annis triginta corpore ad- 
flictus, Januis ", jugiter in Tuo (Christi) nomine prxdicavit, haereses 
abstulit, adduxit populum ad plenam et integram hdcm, ejecit dae- 
mones, etc." 

Later Welsh tradition (e.g. Lib. La?ida'v..,pp. 66, (Si ; 12th century) 
lengthens the life of Dubricius (ob. 612, Ann. Camb.^ and so also the 
Lib. Landav. itself) in order to make him consecrated by S. Ger- 
manus '. 

" Kor the equally unhistoricaJ legend connect- 
ing S. Germanus with the colleges of Llancarvan 
and Llanilltyd, see Rees, Welsh Saints, pp. 12J- 
1 34. And for the passage foisted into Asscr, 
connecting him with Oxford, see M.H.B. p. 490, 
and notes. 

Respecting liturgies said (but without ground) 
to have been introduced by S. Germanus into 
Britain, see the fragmentary document of the 8th 
century, emanating evidently from a Scoto-Irish 
monk on the continent, printed in Spelman, 1. 1 76 
sq., and Wilkins, IV. App. 741, 742 ; and further 
on in this work, in its place. 

The Hymn of S. Fi.icc (Colgan, Trias Thaum. 
p. l), besides later tradition, both Irish and British 

(e. g. Nennius), connects S. Patrick personally with 
S. Ciernianus. And the Scholiast on that Hymn 
brings him with S. Germanus to Britain The 
Cont'essio of S. Patrick himself is (conclusively) 
silent upon the subject. Dr. Todd (S. Patrick, pp. 
314-317) explains by supposing a confusion be- 
tween S. Patrick and Palladius, the latter of whom 
was certainly connected with S. Germanus. Possibly 
the statement may be merely a way of stating the 
almost certain fact, that S. Patrick drew his teach- 
ing and his ordination from the Gallic Church. 

Churches dedicated to S. Germanus are in Coin- 
wall and Wales ; and two in Glamorganshire to 
S. Bleiddian = S. Lupus (Rees, Welsh Saints, pp. 
126, 131). 

Leg. iVi Italia. 

^' i.e. flemuF. 



I. Staremcncs respecting — (a) British Christians at Rome, (/3) British 
Christians in Britain, (y) Apostles or Apostolic men preaching in 
Britain, in the First Century • — rest upon either guess, mistake, or 

a. I. Claudia, mentioned in the same verse with Pudens, 2 Tim. iv. 21 
(c. A. D. 68), as Christians, is conjectured to be tlic same with Claudia 
(" peregrina," and " cilita Britannis"), the newly married wife of Pudens, 
mentioned by Mar Hal. IV. 1.3. AV. 53 (c. A. I). 90 — 100). And the same 
Pudens has been iilcntified wiili the (imperfect)' name of the giver of a 
site for a heathen Icmjilc in an inscription fouml at Chichester {Gale, ap. 
Horsltv, Brit. Rom. 336.) Martial I\'. 13, however, viay have been written, 
aUhough not published, as early as A. I). 68. 

2. Pomponia Gnrcitia, accused and acquitted, A. D, f,7, before her hus- 
band. Aulus Plautius, '• cjui ovans se de Britanniis rctulit." of an " externa 
supcrstiiio ■■ {'J'aci/. A. XIII. 32), is assumed to have been both a Christian 
and a Briton. 

iS. Bran, the fiilher of Caradog or Caractacus (followed by others down 
to the time assigned to Lucius), is alleged by the Triads and other still later 
Welsh documents, to have been converted to Christianity when captive at 
Rome, A.D. -,1x58. and to have introduced the Gospel into his native 
counlry on his return. The story is inconsistent with Tacit., A. XII. 17, 35, 
36. //. ///. 45 ; and Dio Cass., lib. LX. 20 ; and the earliest witness to it is 
posterior in date bv probablv a thousand years {Stfphcns, Liter, of Cjmry, 
III. 4). 

y. 1. S. Paul is said by ^. Clem. Pom. {Ep. ad Cor. i. 5.) to have preached 

(V Tjj avartfKjj Koi tv rfj fivaei, and tO have taught oKov rov Koaftov koi tm to T€pfia 
T>]s 8v(7fai. Similarly vague statements arc in S. Basil. Seleuc. {Or at. XXXIX. 
p. 218, Paris 1 621), saying of S. Paul, that Ttavraxoxi r^f olKovfih-rji KT]pv$ai, — 
and in S. Jerome {Comm. in Amos V. Opp. III. 1412). that "usque ad His- 
panias tenderet (Paulus), et mari rubro. imo ab Oceano usque ad Oceanum, 
curreret," — and in ^. Chrysostom {Hom. in Rom. I. 2, IX. 432. Mmitfauc.; and 

' mU are all ihe letttrs remaining. 



see also Horn, de Capto Eutrop. 14. ih. III. 399), that from Illyricum S. Paul 
went fli airas ttjs yrjs eaxariAs — and in Euscbius {Demotist.Evang. III. 5, quoted 
above under A. D. 300) — and in Theodoret {Grcec. Affect. Curat. IX., quoted 
above under A. D. 400-423) : the two latter however specifying Britain, but 
only as Christianized before their own time by some disciples unspecified. 
Theodoret in another passage {in Psalm, cxvi. 2 ; 0pp. I. 1425) is more pre- 
cise ; — YoTepov fievToi Koi ttjs 'iraXias (irffir) (6 navXo?) k(i\ (Is ras ^navias a(l>iKfro, 
Kat Tols iv Tw TTfXayfi 8uiK(i^fvais vt)(tois ti]v wcpiKdav Trpoa-qpfyKf. But the islands 

here are simply Crete, the authorities for the statement being expressly Rom. 
XV. 24 and Titus i. 5, and nothing more. See also Theodoret, ad II lYm. IV. 

1 7 • — Kai Tas "S-navlas KartKa^f, Koi fls erepa (dvrj 8pafxwv, ti]v rrjs 8i.8aaKa\ias Xafi- 
TTuba Trpoa-rjVfyKf {0pp. III. 696). — Wihintius Fortimatus in 580 ( F. S. Martini, 
III. 491-494, />. 321, ed. Broiver.) asserts that the teaching of S. Paul (" st} lus 
ille"), passing north and south and everywhere, 

Transit et oceanum vel qua facit insula i)ortum, 
Quasque Britannus habet terras atque ultima Thyle. 
The same Fortunatus limits S. Paul's personal travels in distant regions to 
Illyricum {Epist. ad Martin. Gallic. Episc. Poem. V. /. 7. ih. p. 119). Lastly, 
Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem (A. D. 629-636), Serm. de A\ital. SS. Petri 
et Paiili, is quoted by the I\Tagdeburg Centuriators and others, as bringing 
S. Paul in person to Britain, but there is nothing to that effect in the printed 
fragments of Sophronius himself. And his authority is worthless, if there 
were. There is, in short, no authority earlier than the Welsh Triads, some 
of which are headed with S. Paul's name {Williams, Antiq. of Cymry, p.()6), 
for special respect felt towards S. Paul in Britain, and none whatever for his 
personal preaching in this island. 

2. S. Peter is brought to Britain by the anon. Comment, de SS. Pet. et Paid., 
attributed to Simeon Metaphrastes, c. A. D. 900 {ap. Act. SS. 2e) Jiin. V. 416). 
Innocent I. (A. D. 402-417, Epist. ad Decent.) merely affirms (and that untruly), 
that Italy, Gaul, Spain, Africa, Sicily, '' insulasque interjacentes," were con- 
verted by missionaries from S. Peter, or from the see of Rome ; — a state- 
ment, neither referring to S. Peter personally, nor including Britain. 

3. S. Simon Zelotes is taken to Britain by the (spurious) Synops. Dorothei 
(6th century), and by Niceph. Callist. II. 40, and by the Greek Metiologics 
{p. 280. ed. Pinell. Venet. 1621 ; et ap. Cajiis., Antiq. Lectt. III. 429, Basnage) 
ad Mai. X. The Roman IMartyrology, and Bede's, make him a martyr in 

4. 6". Philip the Apostle, came to Gaul, and thence sent missionaries to 
the barbarous nations, bordering on the ocean, according to Isidorus {Be 
PP. Utriusque Testanienti, A.D. 595 x 636), from whom the statement is 
copied by Freculphus Lexoviensis (9th century), and from him by Will. 
Malm. {Antiq. Glaslon., 12th century), who adds the history of a mission 
to Britain. 


5. S.Janirs ihe Great, is brought to Ikiiaiii by the (forp;etl) Chron. 0/ 
Flavius Dexter^ p. 77. Lugd. 1627. 

6. S.John, asserted (erroneously) by Bishop Colman at Wliitby in 664 {Bcjpd. 
H. E. III. 25) to have originated the British practice respecting Easter, is 
supposed to have converted certain Britons at Rome, by the Rev. Mr. Ro- 
berts, Chron. of Kings of Britain, App. p. 294, Lond. 181 1. And the 
certain "island" {Tertull. Prcescr. Hot. XXXVI. 0pp. 215 B) to which S. 
John himself was banished, is identified by the same antiquary (!'/>//. Ser- 
mon, 1812, as quoted in Chron. of Anc. Brit. Ch. p. 1.5, lond. 18 if,) with 
Britain itself. 

7. Aristohulus in Rom. .\vi. 10, is said to have been ordained by S.Paul 
a Bishop and sent by him into Britain, in the (spurious) Synops. Dorolhti, ami 
the Greek Menologits {March 1.5, /». n,\. td. PindL). The tradition seems 
to have filtered into the Welsh Triads, where one Arwystli Hen ap{)ears in 
connection with Bran. etc. There is no real evidence to shew that S. Paul's 
Aristobulus was a Christian at all, although probably he was of Herod's 
family, and therefore a Jew {Tac. A. XIII. 7 ; Joseph. Antiq. XX. 5). The 
Aristobulus in the Mcnologies is called " brother of the Apostle Barnabas." 

8. Joseph of Arimalhira, as a di.sciple of S. Philip, and with others, fills a 
large space in legends of Glastonbury Abbey, which are of post-Norman 
date [Ussher) and first saw light in W'tll. Malm. {An/i'/. Glaslon., 12th cen- 

The general statement made by Gildas {Hist. VI. M.B.H. 8) is equally 
groundless with the above. He simply transfers to the particular case oj 
Britain, with which (as used by his sole authority) it has no connection what- 
ever, language of Eusebius {Hist. II. 2, 3, interpr. Rujffin., and Chron.) respect- 
ing the general spread of the Gospel in the reign of Tiberius (v. Sch<dl, D< 
Eccl. Brit, et Scot. Hist. Fontihus : and see also Ussher). 

II. Evidence alleged for the existence of a Christian Church in 
Britain during the Second Century is similarly unhisrorical. 

I. There are no other general statements on the subject than that of 
Ncnnius : who. however, knows of no British Christianity at this time or 
earlier, except as connected with Lucius, of whom below. Justin Martyr 
{Dial. c. Tryph. 117) merely speaks in a vague and rhetorical tone of the 
universal spread of the Gospel -. 

On the other hand, — 
S., Adv. Hirr. I. 3. [c. A. D. 176.]. enumerating all Churches, 
and those in the West one by one, knows of none in Britain. — Kal o\nt ai iv 

rtpfiauiaii 'i6pvfj.(vai 'Ex»tXi7<Ttat r'XXooj TrcmrrrfvKaiTiv f) oXXwr napahibonfTiv, nvrt fV 

' Even Amobius, c A. D. 303 (.l./r. (,n\l. II. p. 50. Lug. Bat. 1651). in a like paitage, spealu 
only of" omnes insulac." 


Tali 'l^rjptais, ovrt tv KeXruIr 3, ovTt Kara ras dvaroXas, ovt€ eV AiyvTrrw, ovt€ eV 
M^vTj, ovTf al Kara fi((Ta rov Koafiov ibpv^fvai. (46, Grabe). 

And SuLPicius Severus, Hist. Sac. II. 32. [c. A.D. 400], — Sub Aurelio 
deinde Antonini filio persecutio quinta agitata 4, ac turn primum intra Gallias 
martyria visa, serius trans Alpes Dei religione suscepta {Galland. VIII. 

and the Acta Satlrmni (<//>. Ruinari), quoted by Greg. Turon. {Htsi. 
I. 28), — Raras in aliquibus civitatibus Galliae Pxclesias ante Decii et Grati 
consulatum, — 

postpone the general conversion of Gaul (and therefore a fortiori o[ Britain) 
to the third century ; a few scattered Churches being planted in Gaul, c. A.D. 
150 — 1705, of which Lyons was the chief, while the Christianizing of the 
country as a whole dated only from a great missionar\' effort in the time of 
Decius, c. A.D. 250 (v. Massuet, ad Irenirum. p. 71). 

2. The story of Lucius rests solely upon the later form'^ of the Catalogits 
Pontificttm Romanoriim {ap. Actt. SS. April i, /. xxiii.) which was written c. 
A.D. 530, and which adds to the Vita Elcutheri {K.T>. 171-186 or 179-194)7 
in the earlier Catalogue, among other things, that — 

Hie (Eleutherus) accepit cpistolam a Lucio Britannix Rege ut Christianus 
efficeretur per ejus mandatum. 

But, i. These words are not in the original Catalogtis, wTitten shortly after 
A. D. .353 {ap. Actt. SS. id.), which merely states the name and length of 

ii. They were manifestly wTitten in the time and tone of Prosper, with the 
spirit of whose notices of the missions of Germanus and Palladius in 429 and 
431 they precisely tally. 

Bicda copies the Roman account {N. K, I. 4, V. 24, and Chron. in an. 180), 
"giving however two differing dates, and adding the names of the Emperors, 
whom he calls Marcus Antoninus Verus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus. 
Gildas (A. D. 560), his usual authority for British Church history, knows 
nothing of Lucius. 

The earliest British testimony to the story is that of Nennius (ninth century, 
z. xviii). — Anno Dominicse Incarnationis clxiv.8 Lucius Britanicus Rex cum 
Liniversis regulis totius Britanniae baptismum susceperunt, missa legatione ab 
imperatoribus Romanis et a Papa Romano Euaristo : Lucius agnomine Lleuer 
Maur, id est, Magni-Splendoris, propter fidem quae in ejus tempore venit: 
[M.H.B. 60.) 

The Roman story is copied — with fewer blunders, but equal exaggeration, 

' Sc. Gallia Lugdunensis, Irenaeus' own locality. * 5r. A.D. 166-177. 

' Ckjmpare the details of the persecution of 166-177, for which see Tiliemont, and which speak of 
no Church further north than Langres. 
^ V. Schelstrate, Diss, de Antiq. Pontif. Catalog, prefixed to Anastasius in Muratori III. i. 
" A.D. 171 — 185. Clinton. " clxvii., and cxiiv., in other MSS. 

i6 A P PEN DIX A. 

and fresh details — by the LiUr Landavensis (12th cenliuv, p. 65). — Amu) ah 
Incamatione Domini cUi'" Lucius Britannorum Rex ad Eleutheriuni duo- 
decimum apostolica? sedis Papam legates suos> misit, implorantes juxla ejus 
admonitionem ut Christianus Heret, quod ab eo impetravii, etc. etc. — To 
which Will. Malm. {Antiq. Glaslon.) adds, that " vencrunt ergo, Eleutherio 
Tnittente, prxdicalores Britanniam duo viri sanctissimi, Phaganus scilicet 
atque Deruvianus (prout carta Sancti Patricii gestaque Britonum teslantur) :" 
whom also he brings to Glastonbury. And Geoffny of Motimoulh adds 
many still more circumstantial details. — And, thirdly, the Triads connect the 
story directly with Llandaff, where " Lleirwg made the first church, which was 
the first in the Isle of Britain," and " first gave lands and civil privileges to 
such as first embraced the faith in Christ " {Williams, Atilitj. of Cymry, p. 69). 
There are also churches in the see of Llandafi" dedicated to Lleirwg, Ddyfan. 
Ffagan, and Medwy {Recs, Welsh Sainls). 

Finally, the fictitious letter of Kleutherus (<//>. Spclman, /. 31, and Wilkitts, 
IV. A pp. 703) occurs among other plainly fabulous legends relating to Wales 
in certain spurious additions to the laws of Edward the Confessor, in the Liber 
Custumarum {pp. Gt^i, 633, ed. Riley, i860) belonging to the Guildhall of 
London, a compilation (according to Mr. Riley) of the latter part of the reign 
of Edward IL, from which it was first made public by Harrison and Stow, 
and then by Lambard, \\px^u>vo\i. pp. 142, 143 {Cantab. 1644). And some 
person has thought it worth while also to forge two coins of Lucius, gold 
and silver respectively (see Usshcr), of which the former is still preserved in 
the British Museum. 

It would seem, therefore, that the bare story of the conversion of a British 
prince letup. Eleutheri originated in Rome during the fifth or si.xth centuries, 
almost 300 or more years after the date assigned to the stor}' itself ; — that Bede, 
in the eighth century, introduced it into England, and that by the ninth cen- 
tury it had grown into the conversion of the whole of Britain ; — while the full- 
fledged fiction, connecting it specially with Wales and with (ilastonbury, and 
entering into details, grew up between centuries nine and twelve. 

Another legend, of foreign growth, represents Lucius as baptized by one 
Marcellus, bishop either of Tongres or of Treves, c. A. D. 286 or later (Cz^/a 
Tracer or um, ap. Lappenb. Hist, of Anglo-Saxon A'ings, I. 275, tr. Thorpe, 
and see Ussher, Primord. c. iv.) : and another, that one Timotheus was sent 
by Eleutherus to baptize him (so e. g. Notker., Martyrol., as quoted below, 
p. 32 ; and see Ussher, ib.) 

• iSf. Elvinum et Mcduinuni. 



JEx Maftyrolog. {Pseudo) Hieronymi {ap. D'Achery, Spicil. II. ed. Baluz. etc. 
Pan's. 1723.) 

VII Idus. Febr. — In Britannijs, civitate Augusta, natalis Auguli Episcopi, 
Anatoli], Andreas, Ammonis, Statiani, Nepotiani, Saturnini, Lucij, 
XIV. Kal. Mart. — In Britannijs, natalis sanctorum Faustini, Joventiae. 

XVI. Kal. April. — Depositio Patricii Episcopi et Confessoris^ 
XII. Kal. Jan. — In Britannia, natalis Timothei diaconi. 

; -Y. Kal. Jul. — In Britannia, Albani fflartyris, cum alijs nongentis sep- 
tuaginta et octo. 

XVII. Kal. Decemb. — Depositio sancti Machuti episcopi ». 

a Italicized by D'Achery as certainly later than to Mauritania (Baron. MartyT. Rom. ad XII. 

S.Jerome. Oftheothers,Anatolius, and the names Kal. Jun.). Omitting SS. Patrick and Machutus, 

following his, have no connection with Britain : the edit, of the Martyrol. Ps. Hieron. by F. M. 

Faustinas and Joventia belong to Brixia (v. Baron. Florentinus (Lucae 1668) differs from the above 

Martyr. Rom. ad XIV. Kal. Mart., and App. ad only in assigning to S, Alban 8S9 companions. 
Aden. Martyr, ib. p. 97) : and Timotheus belongs 

JEx Martyfolog. {Pseudo) Hieron. {ap. Martene et Durand. Thesaur. III. 1547 
sq. Paris. 17 17). 

F//. Idus Februarii. Aguli martyris, Ammonis, Luci, Saturnini. 

XIV. Calendas Alar Hi. In Britannia Fausti, Jubentiae. 

XII. Cakndas Junii. Timothei. 

X. Calendas Julii. In Britannia Albini martyris cum aliis DCCCIX. 

Ex Martyrolog. Bceda:, cum. Auctario Fieri, etc, {ap, Bced. 0pp. ed. Smith). ' 
//. Non. {Febr.) Vacat Bceda. 
[A. Fortassis ex Floro, Ipso die passio S. Liphardi* m.artyris Cantorbejae Archiepiscopi.] 

> To avoid repetition, ail names connected with Celtic Britain, insular or continental, are here 
inserted, although all the Brt^ton names (and one or two others) belong to a later date than 450. 


VII. Idiis {Febr.) Britanniis in Augusta natale August! Episcopi et 

[Addunt V. et C, interposito commate, — et martyris Anatolii. A.T. L. — et sanctorum Statiaiii 
et Saturnini.] 

A' VI. Kal. (Apn/.)— In Scotia S. Patricii confessoris. 
X VI. Kal. {Maii.) Vacat Bccda. 

[T. L. — In pago Copstantiensi depositio S. Patenii *> Episcopi et confessoris.] 

IV. Kal. {Maii.) 

' [A. Eodem die depositio S. Winwaloei confessoris. B. Comubiie nat. S. Guingaloei confessoris.] 

Kal. {Maii.) 

[B. Comubise natale S. Conrintini ' confessoris atqiie pontificis. Et Bricii Episcopi.] 

XII. Kal. {Junii.) Vacat Bada. 

[B. In Britannia natale Timothei'' diacoiii.] 

J 'III. Idiis { Junii. ) J Wat Bwda. 

[T. L. — Gandavo depositio S. Guduali Episcopi et confessoris.] 

A'. Kal. {Julii.) In Britannia S. Albani martyris. Additur in J, — cum 
aliis octingentis octoginta octo. Qui tempore Diocletian! Imperatoris 
in Vcrolamio civitate post verbera et tormcnta acerba capite plexus 
est ; sed illo in terram cadente. oculi ejus qui eum percussit, pariter 
ceciderunt. I/actcnus A. Passus est cum illo etiam unus de militibus, 
eo quod eum fc-rire jussus noluerit ; divino utique pcrtcrritus mira- 
culo, quia viderat bcatum martyrcm sibi, dum ad coronam martyr!! 
properaret, alvcum amnis interposit! orando transmeabilem reddi- 

[^AidurU V. et C, — Et cum co alii numero octingenli octoginta novem po*iti in Cathalacum, 
quorum oomina scripta sunt in libro viise. Ast B. pra-miUU.^ 

VIII. Kal. (Augusli) 

[A. Ipso die depositio beati Judod egregii confessoris, cui adstipulatur inter carteras virtntes, qua- 
prz multitudine dinumerari non possum, etiam duos mortuos susdtassc.] 

V. Kal. {Augusti.) Vacat Bccda. 

\T\(mi» in A.,T Britannia monasterio Dolo depositio S. Sampsonis Episcopi et confessoris. — 

y. C. In Britannia S. Sampsonis Episcopi et confessoris.] 

XV. Kal. {Octobris)...\n Britanniis [natalis dies] Socratis et Stephani. 

VIII. Idas {N'ovembr) Vacat Bcrda. 
[A. Depositio S. VVinnoci abbatis. T. In cella Wormholtvoorta obitus Winoci confessoris Christi] 

A' VII. Kal. {Decembr.) Vacat Bcrda. 

[A. Eodem die Sancti Machati.] 

Idibus {Decembr.) 

[T. Eodem die depositio S. Judoci confessoris.] 


* Manifestly Luidhard : v. B«d. H.E. 1. 25. Council of Paris in 556. 
rhe legendary life of " Lietphardus," in the Actt. c i<c. Corentinus, Episc. Coiisopitensis (Quim- 

JS. Feb. 4, and in Capgrave p. 218, makes him per) in Armorica. 

ouniey to Rome " cum Cadtuele filio regis Bri- '' Timothy belonged to Mauritania probably : 

anniae," and be murdered near Cambray on his v. Baron. Martyrol. — The Timothy in Sigebert 

cturn : whence Molaiius(ap. not. Smith, ad loc.) (Chron. ad an. 428) belonged to Bithynia, not 

:onjectures groundlessly a British bishop in Wales (as in the old editions of Sigebert) to Britain. 

)residing over fugitive Kentish Britons. The MSS. used by Smith after Henschenius are 

'' Sc. the bishop of Evreu.x, who was at the marked by the letters A, B, C, D, L, T, V. 

Ex Riman. Martyrolog. Vetere (edd. Rosweyde ei Dom. Georgius, Fan's 1745). 
J7/. I(Ius.{Ftbr.) — Feb. 7. — Sancti Moysetis'S qui, petente Mauvia Sara- 

cenorum res^ina, Episcopus p^enti illius factus est. 
A' 17. Kal. {April.) — Mart. 17. — Sancti Patritii Episcopi, qui primus 

apud Scotos praedicavit. 
A'. Kal. {Julit.) — Jun. 22. — Albani martyris. 

» Moses belonged to Syria or Arabia, c. A. D. with that of Augulus misled Notker (see below, 
^75 : V. Rutin. H. E. II. 6, Socrat. IV. 36, So- P- 32) into assigning him to Britain. 
;om. VI. 38. The ju.xtaposition of his name 

Ex Martyrol. Rhabani [op. Cam's. AiUiq. Lectt. torn. u\ P. ii. ed. Basnage) 
A.D. 855. 

Feb., VII. Idiitim. In Britannis in civitate Augusta, nativitas Auguli 
Episcopi et martyris. 

Mart., XVI. Cal. {April.) In Scotia natalis Patricii Episcopi, qui in 
Hybernia insula Scotis primum pra^dicavit nomen Domini nostri Jesu 

Jun., X. Cal. {Jul.). . In Britannia S. Albani martyris, qui tempore Dio- 
cletiani in Verolamio civitate post verbera et tormenta acerba capite 
plexus est : sed illo in terram cadente, oculi ejus qui eum percussit, 
pariter ceciderunt : passus est cum illo etiam unus de militibus, eo 
quod eum ferire noluerit jussus, divino utique pertcrritus miraculo, 
quia viderat beatum mart)Tem sibi, dum ad coronam martyrii prope- 
raret, alveum amnis interpositi orando transmeabilem reddidisse. 

Sept., XV. Cal. {^Octobr.) In Britannia Socratis et Stephani. 

Ex Martyrolog. Adonis Archiepisc. Vienn. (edd. Rosweyde et Dom. Georgius, 
Paris 1 J 45). A.D. 858. 

VII. Id. Fcbr. In Britanniis civitate Augusta natalis sancti Auguli, 
Episcopi et martyris. Item S. Woysetisa venerabilis Episcopi, qui 
primo quidem in eremo vitam solitariam ducens, meritis ac virtutibus 
et signis quae faciebat per ilium Deus, magnifice innotuerat. Qui 


postremo, dum, petente Mauvia Saracenorum regina Episcopus gentis 
illius factus, fidei catholicae custodivit intemerata consortia, et gentem 
cui datus fuerat Episcopus, ex grandi parte ad fidem Christi con- 
vertit. Sicque perfectus in virtutibus in pace quievit. 

X VI. Kal April In Scotia natale Sancti Patricii, Episcopi et confes- 
soris, qui primus ibidem Christum evangelizavit. 

A'. Kal. Julii. In Britannia natale S. Albini martyris, qui tempore 
Diocletiani in Verelamio civitate post verbera et tormenta acerba 
capite plexus est, sed illo in terram cadente, oculi ejus qui cum 
percussit, pariter in terram ceciderunt. Passus est cum eo etiam 
unus de militibus, eo quod eum ferire jussus noluerit ; divino utique 
perterritus miraculo, quia viderat beatum martyrem sibi. dum ad 
coronam martyrii properaret, alveum amnis interpositi orando trans- 
meabilem reddidisse. Quo in tempore persecutio crudelis, Oceani 
limbum transgressa, ctiam Aaron et Julium Britannia?, cum aliis 
pluribus viris ac feminis, felici cruore damnavit. 

A' V. Kal. Oclobris. In Britanniis, sanctorum Socratis et Stephani. 

XVII. Kal. Dcccmbr. [Ipso die apud Britanniam Alctis url)em, natalis 
beati Machutii, Episcopi et confessoris; qui a primx'vo Ktatis sue 
tyrocinio innumerabilibus miraculis splendide enituit, uno scilicet 
eodcmque die vitreum de lapide calicem. valde coruscum vinum de 
aqua, hominemque vi\-um de morte mirabiliter redintegrans.] 

a See note » on p. 29. 

Ex Marlyrolog. VsuarJi (ed. Molanus, Anh\ i.-,83.) A. D. 875. 

[/(t/. Jan. In Scotia sancti Kentigerni, Episcopi Glascotinsis, ct confes- 
soris (add. Molan.).] 

\^IV. Cal. Fcbr. In Britannia, Gilda: abbatis ct confessoris (add. 

VII. Id. Fcbr. In Britanniis, civitate Augusta, natalis beati Auguli 
Episcopi, qui cursum temporis per martyrium explens, sterna meruit 
suscipere proemia. Item, sancti Moysetis Episcopi': hie primum in 
heremo vitam solitariam ducens, signis ac virtutibus magnifice inno- 
tuerat, post vero gentem Saracenorum, cui Episcopus fuerat factus, 
grandi ex parte ad fidem Christi convertit, sicque gloriosus mentis 
quievit in pace. 

\Cal. Mart. In Britannia, beati David, Menevensis Archiepiscopi et 
confessoris (add. Molan.).] 

A'fY. Cal. April. In Scotia, natalis sancti Patricii, Episcopi et confes- 
soris, qui primus ibidem Christum evangelizavit. 



[XVI. Cal. Mail, Colonise, translalio sancti Albini martyris. Hujus 
Deo digni martyris reliquiae de Britannia per beatum Germanum 
Episcopum Antissiodorensem primo Romam, deinde per augustam 
Theophaniam, Othonis Secundi uxorem, Coloniam translatse, positae 
sunt in monasterio sanctissimi Pantaleonis martyris ; ubi cunctis pie 
quoerentibus opem conferunt salutarem (add. Molan.).] 

[Cal. Alaii. In Britannia, sancti Chorentini, Episcopi civitatis Aquilx\ 
In minori Britannia, sanctissimi Brioci Episcopi et confessoris (add. 

\XIV. Cal. Jim. In Britannia minori, Trecorensi diocesi, sancti Ivonis, 
presbyteri ct confessoris^', qui pro Christi amore causas pupillo- 
rum, viduarum, ac pauperum, defendere non desistebat (add. 

[VIII. Id.Jun. In Blandinio Sancti Gudevali, Archiepiscopi et confes- 
soris (add. Molan,).] 

A'. Cal. Julii. In Britannia sancti Albani martyris, qui tempore Diocli- 
tiani in Verolamio civitate post verbera et tormenta acerba capita 
ple.xus est. Passus est etiam cum illo unus de militibus, eo quod 
eum jussus ferire noluerit. [Quo in tempore persecutio crudelis 
Oceani littus transgressa, etiam Aaron et Julium Brytannioe cum aliis 
plurilms viris ac feminis felici morte damnavit (add. Molan.).] 

///. Id. Julii. In Britannia minori, sancti Turiani, Episcopi et confes- 
soris, mirae simplicitatis et innoccntiae viri. 

V. Cal. August. In Britannia minori, Dolo monasterio, sancti Samsonis, 
Episcopi et confessoris. 

\X VI. Cal. Odobr. In Scotia, Niniani, Episcopi Candidse Casae et con- 
fessoris (add. jNIolan.).] 

AT. Cal. (Jctobr. In Britanniis, sanctorum Socratis et Stephani. 

[/A. Cal. Nov. Ipso die, in Britannia, transitus beati Maglorii, Episcopi 
et confessoris, cujus corpus honoratur et colitur in coenobio divi 
Maglorii civitate Parisiis (add. Molan.).] 

[A" VII. Cal. Dec, Ipso die, Santonas civitate, depositio sancti Macloui, 
Episcopi et confessoris, in Britannia, urbe Alethis; qui a primajvo 
aetatis tirocinio innumerabilibus miraculis splendide emicuit (add. 

\Idus Decembr. In pago Pontino, sancti Judoci confessoris, filii regis 
Britonum, peregrini (add. Molan.).] 

« See note » on p. 29. .526). The chapter of the Historia Ramesiensis 
'' [The Ico of Briiain proper is another per- (c. Ixviii, Gale ii.431), headed " Quomodo sane- 
son, and indeed is a pure fiction. "Anno DC. tus Ivo sit inventus," shews the nth century origin 
Doctor apostolicus et vere csli nuntius Ivo. praesul of iM» Ivo. See also the legendary Viia Ivonis, 
inclitus, migravit ad Dominum. Qui in Perside, in Actt SS. Jun. 10. II. a88, and Capgrave, fcJ. 
ut orientate sidus, ortus, finibus occiduis Britan- 199 sq.] 
nise a Domino est destinatus" (Flor.Wig., M.H.B. 


Ex Martyrolog. Noikeri {ap. Cams. Antiq. Lectt. torn. II. P. iii, ed. Bostiage). 
A. D. 894. 

V/I. Id. Febr. In Britanniis sancti Moyseis vel Moysis venerabilis 
Episcopi^; qui primo quidem in eremo vitam solitariam ducens, 
mentis et virtutibus ac signis quae faciebat per ilium Dominus, mag- 
nifice innotuerat : quique postea, petente Mauvia Saraccnorum rcgina, 
Episcopus illius gentis factus, fidei Catholicce custodivit intemerata 
consortia, et gentem cui datus fuerat Episcopus, ex grandi parte ad 
fidem Christi convertit. Sicque in pace perfectus in virtutibus 

XVI. Cal. April. In Scotia nativitas sancti Patricii P^piscopi natione 
Britanni, qui in Hybernia insula Scotis j)rimum evangclizavit nomen 
Domini nostri Jesu Ciiristi, et cos per miraculorum osicnsionem ad 
fidem veram convertit. 

XII. Cal. Jiniii. In Britannia Timothci diaconi''. 

/'///. Cal. Jtinii. Item Komx' Kleuthcrii papx-. qui ... accepit e|)istolas 
a Lucio Britannorum rege. ut per ejus mandaium fieret Christianus. 
Quod et factum refertur i>er 'rimolheum virum sanctum, ila ut idem 
Lucius, spretis omnibus munilialibus rebus, nudus et expeditus pere- 
grinatione suscepta, partem Bajoariorum et lotam Rhetiam inter Alpes 
sitam miraculis el pra.'dicalionibus ad fidem Christi convertisse cre- 
datur. Cujus sepulchrum, id est. qui in Rheiia requiescit, sivc Rex 
quondam ille, sive quicunque ser\us Dei fuerit, creberrimis virtutibus 

A'. Cal. Julii. In Britannia sancti Albani marlyris : qui tempore Diocle- 
tiani in Verolamio civitate post verbera et tormenta acerba capita 
plexus est. Sed illo in terram cadente, oculi ejus, qui cum ])crcussit, 
pariter ceciderunt. Passus est cum illo etiam unus de militibus, eo 
quod eum ferire jussus noluerit ; divino ulique perterritus miraculo, 
quia viderat beatum martyrem sibi, dum ad coronam martyrii i)rope- 
raret, alveum amnis interpositi orando transmeabilem reddidisse. 
Quo in tempore persecutio crudelissima Oceani limbum in Britannia 
transgressa, etiam Aaron et Julium cum aliis octingentis octoginta 
novem felici cruore damnavit. 

AT. Cal. Octobr. In Britanniis Socratis et Stephani. 

» See note » on p. 2(;. '■ See note » on p 7. 

Ex Martyrolog. Gallic. Antrq. {ap. Marliih. Anipl. Collect. VI. 6jK sq.) c. 
A. D. 1000. 

Fcbr., VII. Idus Febr., in Britannis. natale Aguli episcopi. Anatholi, 



Fdir., XIV. Cal. Wart., in Britanniis, Faustini, Viventiae''^. 
/lift., X. Cal. Julii, in Britanniis, Albini martyris, cum aliis 

* See note a on p. 27. 

Jlx Calendario Angh'cano {ap. Martene, Ampl. Coll. VI. 651 sq}) c. A.D. looc. 

Mart., XVI. Kal. (April.), sancti Patricii Episcopi. 
Jim., II. Nonas, sancti Petroci confessoris. 
Jun., X. Kal. (Julii), sancti Albani martyris. 
Jul.,Wl. Kal. (Aug.), sancti Samsonis Episcopi. 

Dec, Idus, sancti Judoci confessoris. 

Ex Martyrolog. Roman, ed. Baronius (Paris, 1645). 

VII. Id. Feb. Augustae in Britannia natalis beati Auguli Episcopi, qui aeta- 

tis cursum per martyrium explens, aeterna pra^mia suscipere meruit. 
XVI. Kal. April. ... In Hibernia natalis sancti Patricii, Episcopi et 
confessoris, qui primus ibidem Christum evangelizavit, et maximis 
miraculis et virtutibus claruit. 
XVI. Kal. Mail. Eodem die sancti Paterni Episcopi Abricensis. 

XIV. Kal. Jimii. In Britannia minori sancti Ivonis presbyteri et 
confessoris, qui pro Christi amore causas pupillorum, viduarum, ac 
pauperum defendebat*. 

A'. Kal. Julii. Verolamii in Britannia sancti Albani martyris, qui tempore 
Diocletiani pro clerico hospite quem susceperat, seipsum tradens, 
post verbera et acerba tormenta capita plexus est. Passus est etiam 
cum illo unus de militibus, qui eum ducebat ad supplicium, qui in 
via conversus ad Christum sanguine meruit baptizari. 

Kal. Julii. In Britannia sanctoriun mart}Tum Julii et Aaron, qui post 
sanctum Albanum in persecutione Diocletiani passi sunt : quo 
tempore ibidem quam plurimi, diversis cruciatibus torti, et saevissime 
lacerati, ad supernae civitatis gaudia consmnmato agone pervenerunt. 

///. Id. Julii. In Britannia minori sancti Turiani Episcopi et confes- 
soris, mirae simplicitatis et innocentiae viri. 

V. Kal. August. In Britannia minori sancti Sampsonis Episcopi et 

X VI. Kal. Octobr. In Scotia sancti Niniani Episcopi et confessoris. 

XV. Kal. Octobr. In Britannia sanctorum martyrum Socratis et 

IX. Kal. Novembr. In Britannia minori transitus sancti Maglorii Epi- 
scopi, cujus corpus Lutetiae Parisiorum requiescit. 



X I J J. Kill. Dtcemir. In Britannia nalalis sancli Machuli Kpiscopi, 
qui a primaevo aetatis suaj tyrocinio miraculis emicuit. 

///. Non. Decevihr. Curice in Germania sancti Lucii Britannorum regis, 
qui primus ex iis regibus Christi fidem suscepit, tempore Kleutherii 

Idus Deccmhr. In pago Pontine ** sancli Judoci confessoris. 

" See note '' on p. 3 1 . •• Pontivo, tc. Ponthicu. 

Of other and minor Martyrologies, the M. Gellonense {ap. D'Achery, 
Spidl. II. 25. Ealuz.) c. A.D. 804. and the M. WamUhcrti (ib. 39) A.D. 842, 
and of those in the Actt. SS. Jun. tom. VII., the MM. Ruhetmuaise, Augus- 
iatium, Labheanum, and Reg. Suecia, commemorate Augulus (Agulus M. G., 
AuguHus M. Aug., Agabus M. L.) VII. Id. Febr., S. Patrick XVI. Kal. April., 
and S. Alban (Alpina.% M. R.^) X. Kal. Jul. The MM. Gtlhm. and Labh. 
also add Samson on V. Kal. August. And the M. Rich., " Xll. Jun.. in 
Brittania Timothei diaconi." The M. Corbeiensi {Actt. SS. as above), and 
the M. Corbcicnse and M. Morbaceme in Marlene and Durand {T/usaur. 
III. 1563 sq.), commemorate Augulus (Aygulus M. M.) and S. Patrick on 
the usual days; but the first two add also Faustinus XIV. Kal. Mart., and 
Timoiheus diaconus XII. Kal. Jun., both as in Britain; and the M. Morb. 
adds, " V. (Cal. Aug.) Britannia Sansonis." Of the Martyrologies printed 
by Georgius in his edit, of Ado (Paris 1745), the M. Fttldcnsc and the M. 
Ottoboiiiiiniim, — and the KaUtid. Mofuistno-JVccro/ogicum ex MS. I\Iuretist, 
I ith century, in Gerbert {Monum. Vet. Lit. Aletnann. II. 492), — commemo- 
rate Augulus, S. Patrick, and S. Alban, on the usual days ; but M. Otiob. adds, 
" V. Kal. Aug., in Britannia nat. sancti Samson," and, " XV. Kal. Oct., in 
Britannia Socratis et Stephani;" and M. Fuld. has also Moyses VII. Id. 
P'eb.. in addition to Augulus. The M. Autissiodorcnsc (Martcne et Durand. 
Ampl. Coll. VI. 68',), c. 12th century, has Augulus, S. Alban, S. Samson, and 
Socrates and Stephanus, on the usual days, S. Patrick XIV. Cal. April., and 
" III. Id. Julii, in Britannia minori natale S. Thuriavi Episcopi et confessoris." 
The Martyrol. Rhcnaug. " supple t. ex SanGalUrisi sec. X. arc." (Gerbert, as 
above, p. 455), and the Kalendaria (sL\ in fin. Adon. ed. Georg., and K. 
Verdimnse in Martcne et Durand. Ampl. Coll. VI. 679, one from Corbey in 
D'Achery, Spicil. II. 64. c. A.D. 826, and a Kalcjidarium of the 9th century 
in Gerbert as above, p. 469), mention generally SS. Patrick or Alban only, 
but the A". Palatino-Vatic. {in fin. Adon.) has also Augulus; while both of the 
documents in Gerbert, and four of the other six which mention him, assign 
S. Alban to XI. Kal. Jul. instead of X. Kal. Jul, and one of the Kalendars 
also antedates S. Patrick to XVII. Kal. April. The Kalend. Lyrcnse (Mart, 
et Durand. Thcsaur. III. 1605) has S, 'Augulius" on the usual day, and " XI. 


Kal. (Julii) S. Albani ^ martyris, X. Kal. (Julii) S. Albini confessoris." S. Alban 
(Albinus) is commemorated X. Kal. Jul. in the fragment of the Jl/. Turo- 
wwji' (Mart, et Durand. Thcsaur. ib. 1587); and S.Patrick, XVI. Kal. April., 
is in both the entire and the fragmentary Kalendars of the abbey of Corbey 
in the same collection {ib. 1592, 1597) ; the former of which has also S.Winoc, 
VIII. Id. Nov. Lastly, the Lihelhis Annalis Dom. Bedcc Prcshyt. (Mart, et 
Durand. Ampl. Coll. VI. 6 ^y) has, "Feb., VII. Idus, Natale S. Auguli Epi- 
jcopi et martyris," " Mart., XVI. Cal. (April.), Natale S. Patricii Episcopi," 
" Jun., XI. Cal. (Jul.), Natale S. Albini INIartyris," and, " X. Cal. (Jul.) S.Albani 

Of Saxon Calendars, one, c. A.D. 940 {Bodl. Jtin. 27), contains Patrick 
and (last day of January, apparently) Gildas; another, nth cent. {Bodl. Jun. 
99), has Patrick, Petroc, Alban, and Judoc ; two copies of the first of the three 
m Hampsons Med. uEvi A'alaid. (/. 398. Lond. 1841), loth or nth cent., 
have Patrick only, and the third also Gildas, the latter on Jan. 29 ; the second 
Calendar of the three (id. 421) has Patrick, Petroc, and Alban; the third {tl>. 
434), Alban only: all on the usual days. 

a " Cum DCCCCLXXXVIII." M. Aug.— is added in M. I!,fj. Swcio'. 
" Cum octiiigentis octoginta octu." M.Gdl., M. ^ S. Alban of Mentz; see J'asher, V. 179. 

Lahb., and M. Autmiod. But " DCCCLXXIX," Ellington. 
M. ^\'and. And the usual account of his death 

Legendary Lives are extant of the following British saints A. D. 200 — 


A.D. 200 — 300, Vita 6". Mellonis, Episcopi et confessoris [Bishop of 
Rouen] : Capgrave, N'ova Leg. Angl. fol. 229. See Orderic Vital., Hist. 
Eccl. V. 8, 9. //. 334—336. ed. Le Prevost. 

A.D. 300 — 400. Vita S. Albani, martyris, auct. Gulielmo INIonacho Alba- 
nensi (end of 12th century) : Actt. SS. Jun. 22. IV. 149, abbrev. in Capgr., 
A^L.A., fol. 6 : — founded upon Baeda, whose authorities are i. Gildas, ii. cer- 
tain Acta otherwise unknown. The story in Matt. Paris. ( VitcB Abbat. S. 
Alban., in Vita Eadmar., p. 994. Wats) of a British Life of S. Alban, discovered 
at S. Alban's, and decyphered by a monk Unwona, refers itself to the loth 
century, but will not bear examination. Other Lives, later than that by 
William of S. Alban's, are catalogued by Hardy, Descript. Catal. I. 4 — 34. 

Vita S.Amphibali, martyris: Capgr., N.L.A., fol. 13. The Acts of 
S. Amphibalus, who owes his name to Geoffrey of INIonmouth, are usually 
mixed up with those of S. Alban. He has been supposed to have been 
invented out of S. Alban's cloak (amphibalus). 

A.D. 400 — 450. Cumbria. Vita S.Ninice vel Niniani, Episcopi, auct. 

D 2 


Ailred. Rieval. (12th century): ap. Pinkerton, VV. SS. Scoliir, i ; abridged 
in Capgr. N.L.A. fol. 241. 

Vitoe 6". Patricii (ap. Colgan, Trias Thaumat. etc., and see Todd's 6". 
Patrick, Hardy's Descript. Catal. I. 62 — 84, and below under the Irish 
Church) : containing also the legendary accounts of 5". Palladius. 

Damnonia. Vita S. Meliori vel Mdori, martyris (among already Christian 
Cornish, A.D. 411): Capgr. N.L.A. , fol. 229; AcU. SS. Jan. 3. I. 136, — an 
Ambresbury legend of the iith century, " incertum" even to Will. Malm. 
(6^. P. II). 

Acta 6". Fingaris vel Guigtieri, S. Pialu: virginis, et Sociorum, marl)runi 
in Britannia, auct. S. Anselm. Cantuar. (spurious): Irish disciples of S. Patrick, 
martyred in still Pagan Cornwall, A.D. ^50 Bolland., 460 Usshcr : Acti. 
SS. Mart. 23. III. 456 ; Migne, Patrol, clix. 326. 

Wales. Vita S. Carantoci (Carannog or Cernach), confessoris (hermit |in 
Ceredigion, who followed S.Patrick to Ireland): Capgr., A'iZ.yl., fol. 56 ; 
Actt. SS. Mai. 16. III. 585; Cam/jro-Brit. SS. 97. 

Vita 6". Clitauci, regis et martyris (c. A.D. 450) : Capgr., N.L A., fol. 59 ; 
Actt. .SS. Aug. 19. III. 733. See also Lib. Landav. 183-188. 

" The Empress lUlfna (Life by Jocelin of ever existed, to the 7th or 8th century. The 

Fumess, and another la Capgr., K.L..i., fol. fable of Trfu/a and the 1 1,000 Virgins (Capgr., 

173) was not a Briton. .<. AVAy belonirs to the \.L.A., fol. 316) hardly deserves notice. It is 

6th century, his connection with S. Hilary being referred by Si^ebert to A.D. 453. 

a manifest tiction. >'. Hudtcul (AcH. SS. Jun. 6. The MSS. authorities for all the above Icgen- 

I. 72S, and Capgr., A'./,..!., fol. 167), attributed dary Lives are catalogued by Hardy, ] 'ticrijdice 

sometimes to the middle of the 4th (Smitli ad CattiL &c. Lend. 1863. 
Afiirti/roL liifiL), must have l)clonged, if he tud 



I. Churches. — [Gi'/das XYlll. — Renovanl(Britones) ecclesias' ad solum 
usque destructas ; basilicas sanctorum martyrum fundant, construunt, perfi- 
ciunt, ac velut victricia signa passim propalant : — a passage borrowed from 
Eusebius, but testifying at least to the general existence of churches in later 
Roman Britain. On the other hand, these churches were commonly of a 
perishable kind-. — Ecclcsiam, ..more Scottorum, non de lapide sed de robore 
secto totam composuit 3 {Bccd. H. E. III. 25). And, Ecclesiam de lapide, 
insolito Brittonibus more, fecerit Nynia4 {Id, ib. 4 ; and see lb. II. 14, and 
///. 23). And so also the traditional account of the original church at Glas- 
tonbury, — Quandam capellam, inferius per circuitum virgis torquatis muros 
perficientes, consummaverunt ( fF///. J/a//;/., Antiq. Glaslon.).^ 

a. Churches recorded to have existed. 

i. At Cmiterbury. — .S". Martin's — Erat autem prope ipsam civitatem ad 
orientem ecclesia in honorem Sancti Martini antiquitus facta, dum adhuc 
Romani Brittaniam incolerent {Bccd. H. E. I. 26, — writing of A. D. 597). 
The church may have been dedicated to S. Martin if built after A. D. 400. 

ii. Also at Canterbury. — S. Saviour's (now the Cathedral) — Rccuperavit 
(Augustinus) in ea (regia civitate Doruvemi) ecclesiam, quam inibi antique 
Romanorum fidelium opere factam fuisse didicerat, et eam in nomine Sancti 
Salvatoris Dei et Domini nostri Jesu Christi sacravit {Bad. H. E. I. 33). 

iii. Near Verulam, over S. Alban's grave, destroyed before the time of 
Bede. — Postea redeunte temporum Christianorum serenitate ecclesia est 
mirandi operis atque ejus martyris condigna exstructa {Bccd. H. E. L 7). 

iv. At Caerlcon, two, dedicated respectively to Julius and Aaron, and a 
third, the " metropolitana totius Cambriae" {Girald. Cambr., Itin. Cambr. 1. 5). 
The last is identified by Geoffrey of Monmouth (IX. 12) with that dedicated 
to Aaron. Their existence is extremely questionable : but the Lib. Landav. 
p. 215 seems to indicate that there was a " territorium martyrum Julii "et 
Aron " at Caerleon during the ninth century. 

v. At Bangor Fscoed, near Chester. — Sunt certe adhuc ( 1 2th cent.) ibi tot 
semiruti parietes ecclesiarum, tantae turbas ruinarum, quantae vix alibi {Will. 
Malm., G. P. IV. ; and similarly, G. R. I. 3) : confounding however, pos- 

^ Se. after the Diocletian Persecution. - See however Petrie, Bound Towers, I. 138-157. 

The Briton church at Landevennec was " lignea" {Vila I Ida S. Winwaloei, in Actf. SS. Mart. 3. 
I- 355)- ^ ■'^. Aidanus in 652. * c. A.D. 401. 


sibly, the ruins of a Roman town (Bovium — so Smilh, ad loc. Bird.) with 
those of a Britanno-Roman monastery, and certainly Bangor near Chcstei 
with Bangor the Bishop's see. Leland {Iliti. V. 3 2) testifies that the ruins of 
Bangor Yscoed were partially visible in his time. 

vi. At Glastonbury. — The story of the " vetusta ecclesia," at first " vergea ;" 
then covered by Paulinus of Rochester " ligneo tabulatu " and " plumbo a 
summo usque deorsum, " and finally supplanted by the " major ecclesia" of 
King Ina {Will. Malm.. Antiq. Glaston), is suflicient evidence that the 
Saxons found a British church there when refounding the monastery. The 
West Saxons conquered the district A. D. 652x658 {Auiflo-Sax. Chron.), 
being already Christians ; and the monaster)' apparently was never de- 

vii. At Whithcnu in Galhnvay. — See above, under A. D. 401, S. Ninias. 

viii. Near Evesham. — Tradition, in the time of bishop Fxgwin (beginning 
of the Sih century), described the site of his monastery as " ecclesiolam ab 
antiquo habenlem ex opere forsitan Brilannorum" ( Will. Malm., G.P. IV.) 

^. Churches of w hich traces still exist. 

ix. AtDozuT, in the Casde, probably of fourth or fifth century (sec Puckle's 
Church and Fortress of Dm'er Castle, 1864). 

X. At Richborough, in Kgnt, in the Roman camp, a ruin in the form of a 
cross on a platform of Roman work {Gough's Camden, /. 342 ; Roach Smith, 
Antiq. of Richborough, Rf culver, and Lymne, pp.43 sq. 1850), possibly the 
base of a chapel. 

xi. At Reculver, in Kent, an old chapel with Roman bricks {Nichols, 
Bibl. Topogr. Brit., /. 170); a Christian church in very early Saxon times, 
and probably also under the Britons (see Roach Smith, ib. p. 199). 

xii. At Lyviinge in Kent, between Doruvernum (Canterbury) and Portus 
Lemanis (Lymne). — " There is great probability that a Christian church 
existed on the site of the present building (the church) in the Roman period. 
The Roman foundations discoverable at the south-east angle of the chancel, 
and under that part of the wall of the churchyard corresponding with it, and 
which, together with the remarkable half arch that intervenes, mark the site of 
the aquilonalis porticus, — the title o{ Basilica already given to it in the seventh 
ccntur}-, — and the fact that a Roman legion was regularly stationed at 
Lympne, — give weight to this probability." And again, — " The Roman 
wall which was discovered while these sheets were in the press, has since been 
exposed, so far as it can be traced ; disclosing the foundations of an apsidal 
building having an outer and inner wall, the (modem) church resting upon 

a portion of the former: remains of Roman work abound in the present 

church.' ftfikins. Hist, of Ch. of Lyminge. 1859. 

xiii. At Brixxvorth in Northamptonshire. — " There seems little doubt that 
this church was originally a Roman basilica, probably of the fourth or fifth 


century, of which the outer walls have been destroyed, and the arches walled 
up. . . . The aisles are divided by cross walls, as if they had been originally 
divided into small chambers or chapels. The western porch has Roman 
arches or doorsvays on the north, south, and west sides ; the Anglo-Saxon 
belfry has been built upon this Roman porch, probably in the nth century. 
...The original Roman apse at the east end has been destroyed in order to 
carry out a longer church." {Rickman s Architect, in England, ed. Parker, 
p. 74, Oxf. 1862). There was a Saxon church at Brixworth before the end 
of the 7th century {Hugo Candidas, p. 9, ed. Sparkes). And see Arch. Assoc. 
Journal for 1863, pp. 285 sq. 

2. Sepulchral Monuments 5. 

i. An inscription in Latin, obscure but plainly Christian, is carved upon 
the upper part of a Roman pagan monument, now let into the (Norman) 
tower of the church of -S". Mary le Wig/ord, Lincoln {Stukeley, I tin. II. PI. 
Ixiv; N'ichols, Bihlioth. Topogr. Brit. III. 70, PI. iii. fig. 12), which appears 
to have been once headed with the s}Tnbol of the cross {Trollope, in Archaol. 
Journ. March, i860). 

ii. At Caerkon, a sepulchral stone, upon which remains part of a " rough 
scoring" resembling " the rude representation of a palm branch, which 
generally denotes the tomb of a Christian Roman" {Lee, Isca Silurum, p. 3). 
The pagan D. M., which appears to have been also on the stone, was, as is 
well known, retained for several centuries, irrespective of its meaning. 

iii. A Britanno-Roman sarcophagus, supposed to be Christian, found at 
Barming in Kent {Roach Smith, Collectanea Antiqua, I. 184). But see Mr. 
Smith's remark, ib. p. 204. 

iv. A stone found at Bath {Horsley, Brit. Rom., Somerset, no. iv. and p. 327), 
with some figures conjectured to represent Christian s}Tnbols {M^Caul, Brit. 
Rom. Liscriptions, pp. 181, 182, Lond. 1863), but combined with an inscrip- 
tion beginning w-ith the Pagan D. M. 

3. Miscellaneous. 

i. Pieces of pottery stamped with parts of a cross and the monogram, 
found at Padstow in Cornwall {Haslam, Archccol. Journal, vol. iv. p. 307. 1847). 

ii. A fragment of Samian ware marked with Christian symbols, found at 
Catterick in Yorkshire {ArchcEol. Journal, \o\.v\. p. 81. 1849). 

iii. A silver cup found on the right bank of the Tyne, near Corbridge in 
Northumberland, in 1736, with six diflferent compartments, in each of which 
is the monogram {Hodgson's Northumb. III. ii. 246). 

iv. A cross on a Roman pavement found at Harpole, Northamptonshire 
(figured in Archivol. Association Journal Jor 1850, p. 126). 

'" For post-Roman insaiptions in Wales, Cornwall, &c., see below, under the respective churches 
of Wales, Cornwall, &c. It is possible that one or two of these, or of crosses that exist without 
inscriptions, belong to the close of the Britanno-Roman period. 


V. A pavemeni in a Roman villa ai Frampion in Dorsetshire, with the 
monogram, intermixed however with pagan figures and symbols (figured in 
Lysons Reliq. Britannico-Rom., No. III. Plate 5, Lond. 1801). 

vi, A pavement in a Roman villa at Horkstow in Lincolnshire, with Greek 
crosses at each angle, but similarly intermixed with pagan symbols (figured 
in Lysons, ib. No. I, Plate 6). 

vii. Two tiles with the monogram, found in 1864 in a Roman villa at 
Chedvvorth in Gloucestershire {Rev. S. Lysons, jun., Archaol. Jour n. for 1864). 

viii. A brass coin of Decentius, brother of ISIagnentius, A.D. 350-353, on 
the reverse of which is the monogram between the letters a and w'' {Buchuan 
and Newmarch, Illustr. of Roman Art in Cirmcester, 1850, p. 153). So also 
some of Magnentius' own coins. See Banduri, IL 400, 411; and EckluL 
VIII. 121. 

ix. A stami)ed brick, supposed to rej)resent Samson and llie foxes, found 
in Mark Lane, London, about A.D. 1675 (figured in Ldand, Colhci. I. Prcf. 

x. Pins in bronze used in fastening the dress, some of them with orna- 
mented heads, two of which are cruciform ; and on a third is a medal with a 
figure looking at a cross {Roach Smith, Catalogue of Mus. of London Anti- 
quities, p. 63. 1854). 

xi. At Ilkley in Yorkshire, a human figure with a glory round the head 
{Riehardson, in Hearne's Leland's Itinerary, I. 144). 

xii. Two metal stamps with the monogram, and the name " Syagrius," and 
on the one the word " Spes," on the other the a and w, found in the Thames 
(^Proceed, of Antiq. Soc, vol. ii. pp. 235, 236. 2nd Series, March 26, 18O3). 

[An altar found at Rutchester on Hadrian's wall {Hodgson's Nor thumb., as 
above, 178) has been alleged to bear Christian marks; but the supposed 
monogram is merely an obliterated letter {Briue, Roman Wall, p. 405, ed. 
1858). There is no Christian monument among the hundreds of heathen 
ones found along the wall {Bruce, ib. p. 404). Neither did Horsley at his 
earlier date know of any in any part of England : see a striking passage 
from a sermon of his, ap. Bruce, ib. There are, however, monuments along 
the wall with no distinctive pagan s}Tnbols. On the other hand, the cross, 
and still less a garland, are not necessarily Christian symbols : see Roach 
Smith, Antiq. of Richhorough, etc. And such monuments, therefore, as e. g. 
the two in Horslty, nos. xiv. xv. of Scotland, supposed by Whitaker (Anc. 
Cathedr. of Cornwall, /. 87, 88) to be Christian, have no claim to be such 7,] 

'' This is given here as showing that the brother of Magnentius, hs (k trarphs ixiv ytyfyriTo 
ttpfTTavov (Zoiuir.. Ann., XIII. 6 : torn II. p. lo, in Cory. lUjzant.), was a Christian. 

" A gold BasiliJian talisman, with an inscription, partly in (ircck letters, partly in astral or magical 
characters, the fornier portion containing the words AA.1NAI, E.\.OAI, EAAinN, TA.O, found shortly 
before A.D. 182S, at Llanbeblic, in Caeman'onshire, about twenty yards from the old Roman wall of 
Segontiuni {Palgrare. in Quart, lieruic for l82S,p. 48S; \\\atci>otl, in Arch. Cambr. III. 362), 
proves that semi-Christian heresies had found their way into Roman Britain, poisibly as early as the 
second century, at which date they apparently e.xisled in Gaul {fren. Aih. II ir.). 






A. D. 450-681. 

Insulani, quasi extra orhem positi. cmcrgenlibus paganorum infcstatio- 
nibus, canonum erant ignari. — J't/. S. Kittli\;erni. atut. Joscdino. \P inker - 
Ion's Vita: Aniiqiuc SS. Scflli(r,p. 22;^^ 



A. D. 450-681. 

\The following improbable) dates mark the gradual breaking up of the 
'British Church by Saxon conquest. 

. A.D. 450-516. District eonth of the Thauies and of the forest of Anderida, and iced- 
trardfram lunt to tite Avon on the borders of Wilts and Dorset, becomes gradually 
Saxon: scil. Jfeij<, 450-473 ; /^usgex, 477-490 ; TlVesex, 495-516 or 520 (ylni;;. 
Sax. Chron., Ann. Camh., Gtldas ; and Guest's Early Engl. Settlements, in Arch. Inst, 
1849, ^^59)' ^"* ^^ British victory at the Mons Badonicus (A.D. 516 or 520) 
stops Saxon progress in this quarter for some fifty years. — Invasions only, of eastern 
coast, north of the Humber or Wash before 450 {Lappenb. from Nennius), as far as 
Stamford {Hen. Hunt. IT.); and A.D. 500 X 516, on river GIen(?) in Lincolnshire 
or Leven(?) in Cumberland (Nennius). Also about the latter date, on the Dous:las(?) 
in Lancashire, and at Caerleon or Chester, and other north-western localities (Nennius). 

. A.D. 516-577. Eastern side of Britain Sa.\onized: scil. East Anglia, before 519 
(ir»7/. Malm. G. R., and see Palgrave), or about 527 (Hen. Hunt.), including 
S. Albans before 560 (Gildas, Hist.), but not as far west as Bedford in 571 (Angl. 
Sax. Chron.) ; and Northumbria, 547 and onwards, from Humber to Forth ; but 
Elniet, Loidis, and Cumbrian Britons from Lancashire to the Clyde, west of " the 
Desert," still independent {Nennius, Ann. Camb. a. 616, IJieda H. E. IF. 23; and 
see Uohertson, Scotl. under Early Kings, I. 4). 

[. A.D. 577-635. Wessex pished on to the Severn (577, 584, Angl. Sa.r. Chron., and 
Guest), so as to separate Welsh principalities from Pyfnaint and Cemau (Damnonia), 
i.e. Somerset, Devon, Cornwall. — Mercia, founded from Northumbria in 584 (Hen. 
Hunt.), but not extending over the centre of Britain until 626 (Flor. Wig. — Britons 
at Wanborough near Swindon 592 and at Bampton 614, Angl. Sax. Chron. and 
Gu^st), and rc.iching as far as Wessex (at Cirencester) only in 62S {Angl. Sax. Chron.) ; 
and the final boundary between Angles and Welsh, Offa's Dyke, dating so late as 784 
(Asser, Brut y Tywysog.) or '^'jy(Palgrace). — Northuuihria, conquering at Caerleon or 
Chester in 613 (Ann. Camb., Ann. Tigern. a. 607, Angl. Sax. Chron.), and Barwick 
in Elmet in 616 (Nennius, Ann. Camh.), and thus separating Wales from Cumbria 
(Westmere, Cumberland, Strathclwj'd). 

[. A.D. 635-681. Death of Ceadwalla at the battle of Hefenfelth (A.D. 635) closes the 
contest for Northumbria, and the battle on the Winwaed (A.D. 656) for Mercia 
(Bixda, H. E. HI. i, 2, 6, 24; Nennius, p. 76, M.H.B. ; Angl. Sax. Chron. a. 
655 ; Flor. Wig. a. 634; Ann. Tigern. a. 650; Ann. Tlton. a. 649; Ann. Camh. 
rt. 631, 656). But the Welsh claim to the sovereignty of Britain lingers on to the 
(supposed) death of Cadwalader in 681 (Bi-ul y Tyicysog.).] 




A. D. 450-547. (No records*.) 

Not later than A. D. 547 or 550. ' Epistola Gild^' f. 

-'In hac Epistola', quicquid deflendo potius quam dcclamando, vili 
licet stylo, tamen benigno, fuero prosecutus, nc quis me, afl-ectu 
cunctos spernentis, omnibusve melioris, quippe qui commune bono- 

'' (kmnl li. - In hoc libro Gale. 

• It is impossible to distinguish truth from tic- 
tion in the lists of councils and of bishops con- 
secrated to various sees, with which this period 
(450-600) is filled by GeotTrey of Monmouth. 
The general tenor of his narrative (obvious fable 
apart) is in accordance with probability, so far as 
regards the fortunes and acts of the British Church. 
Its details are wholly untrustwortJiy. Silchcstcr, 
Winchester, Cirencester, York, Aldwyd, Caerleon, 
and Llandatf, are the localities to which these 
alleged councils and bishops belong. And the 
coronation of British kings and consecration of 
British bishops fonn the business of the councils. 

A list also of British saints has been constructed 
by Mr. Kees (£.«ai/ on llV/o/i SttinU, Lond. i S36), 
by combining the ^fairly certain') evidence of the 
dedications of Welsh churches to the real exist- 
ence of those saints, and the (ver)- uncertain) evi- 
dence of tlie Welsh genealogies to their approxi- 
mate dates. The period of native Webh hagi- 
olog}' thus obtained is limited to A.D. 400-700 ; 
and tlie large m.ijority of the list of names to 
A.D. 450 -600. Some of them, belonging to the 
sixth century, e.g. Paulinus, Cadfan, Sadwrn, Afan, 
and others, occur also in inicriptions still remain- 
ing; for which see below in Append. F. Others, 
of a similar date, e. g. Dyfrig, David, Padarn, were 
founders of bishoprics. No biography of any of 
them exists of certainly earlier date than the 
eleventh ccntur)' (see below in Append. E). 
And notliing reliable respcaing them remains, 
save the documents in the text and tlic scanty 
notices given in the annalists, beyond the ge- 
neral inlcrence of the gradual establishment of 
churches by their means throughout the whole of 
Wales, mainly in tlie sixth century. 

Notices of British Christians also, as dwelling 
in Ireland. Armorica, or Cornw.ill. and of Irish 
Christians as dwelling in Wales, during the pe- 
riod A.D. 450-550, may be found in i. Irish, 
3. Welsh, 3. Breton, and 4. Cornish hagiolog_v. 
E. g. I . the father, mollier, brother, and sisters 
of S. Patrick (."vrAo/. in Ilymn. S. Fiec. ap. ( 'ol- 
f/an, Tiiat Thnum., and sec Colgant Append. V. 
c. 4, ib. p. 224), connected likewise with Christian 
Britons both of Straihclwyd and of " Letha on the 
sea of Icht," i. e. Brittany {id. ib.), — S. Lomman 
of Trim, S. Patrick's nephew, with his brothers, 
Manis and others (" Lummanus Britto," Bh. of 
Armagh^ fol. 1 6, a, b, and see ' 'olijan, Adt. S>'. ad 
Feb. 6), — S.Doccus ("Quies Docci Episcopi sancti, 
abbatis Britonum," Ann. llton. A.D. 472^. — S. 
Mochta of Louth {Adamuan., V. ^. Columh. Pr.Tf. 

II. p. 6. Ueeres, V. S. Modittei, ap. Adt. SS. Aug. 
19, " Dormitatio S. Mocta" or " Modai," A.D. 
534, Ann. I'lton.ct Tigem.), — S.Odhran or Oran 
(the first monk who died at Hi, " monachus 
IBrito," Adamnan., ib. III. 6. p. 202), — S. Mel, 
S. P.itrick's nephew, died A.D. 487 {Ann. llUm.), 
and S. Melchu, "duo sancti Episcopi ex Britiinnia 
venicntes" (>'. I'lUins ]'. S. lirigid. ap. Ctihjan, 
Triit^ Tliaum., p. 527; and see /(/. Artt. »'. ;id 
Feb. 6), — Rioch and others, brothers of S. Mel 
{('ulijan, AcU. >'S. ad Feb. 6.), — and Colgan 
{Adl. SS.) will supply other instances. — And so 
the CuUtl. SS. Ilibern. attributed to Tirechanus 
(ap. l'»«her, VI. 478, F-lrington) describes the 
Bishops who coiutiiute its first order of Saints, 
sdl. from S. Patrick to A.D. 544, as "de Ro- 
manis et F'rancis et I'triUmU/xu et Scotis exorti." 
— 2. Carantoc or Cernacli {I.iJ'f in ('aml'ru-Ilrit. 
S>. 97-99) ; and as Irish Christians in Wales, 
S. Brynach {('amlro-lirit. NS. 5-12, d-jnatio 
llrachan &c. ib. 272, and sec Ilfef, HV/ii/i •'^>'. 
156), S. Tatheus (('antl)ro-Ilrit. SS. 255-264). 
Both Brynach and Tatheus, however, rest upon 
very questionable authority. — 3. Gildas in Brit- 
tany (V. (iihli auct. Mouach) h'ut/fniii, ap. 
^fabill. Adt. HeUidid. Sicc I. p. 138) before 
A.D. 560 (see dug. Tur. IV. 20), S. Samson 
and S. Teilo {Lib. iMndar. 21, 107), and earlier 
still, S. Brioc {Adt. >'.S". Mai. i ), S. Winwaloc(.If«. 
S."^'. Mart. 3). — 4. S. Petroc (" natioiie Cumber," 
I'. .'^'. I'etroc, I'apgr. Sot. Jj-g. Ai\gl. 276), &c. 
&c Coroticus also, to whom S. Patrick addressed 
his Epistle, supposed to be Ceredig of Cardigan, son 
of Cunc-dda SVlcdig, w;is nonn'nally a Christian. 

t This Work has been divided since the time 
of Gale into two, the llistoria and the Kjnstola ; 
the former occurring alone in one of the two still 
existing MSS. (FL I. 27. Publ. Libr. Camb.). 
They form howe\er only one work in the other 
of these two MSS., mutilated however at the be- 
ginning (Dd. I. 1 7. ib.) ; nor was the case other- 
wise, apparently, in the (lost) Cottonian MS. 
which Polydore Vergil, Josselin, and Gale used. 
And internal evidence shews them to have been 
parts of the same work ; although it is tnie, that 
in what is called the Histona, Gildas speaks of 
himself as writing it forty-four years after the 
British victor)- at the Mons Badonicus, and there- 
fore A.D. 560 (564, Guest), while in tliat which 
is called the Epistola, he inveighs against Mael- 
E^wn, king of GwjTiedd, who died, according to 
the Ann. CanA., A.D. 547, according to the 
Ann. Tiijern., A.D. 550. But these dates, 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

rum dispcndium malorumque cumulum lachrymosis quserelis defleam, 
sed condolentis patrise incommoditatibus miseriisque ejus,'"ac remediis 
condelectantis, edicturum putet : quia^non tarn fortissimorum mili- 
tum enunciare trucis belli pcricula * mihi statutum est, quam desidio- 
sorum : silui, fatcor, cum immense) "'cordis dolore ["^et animi com- 
punctionc cordisque contritione, et attonito sensu saepius hasc omnia 
in animo revolvere, et',] ut mihi=^ ^renum scrutator testis est Dominus, 
spatio bilustri [temporis] vel eo amplius prietereuntis, imperitia, sicut 
et nunc, "una cum vilibus me meritis inhibentibus, ne qualemcunque 
admonitiunculam scriberem. Legebam nihilominusb, admirandum 
legislatorem ob unius vcrbi dubitationem terram desiderabilem non 
introiisse : hliosc sacerdotis alienum admovendo altari ignem cito 
exitu periisse : populum verborum Dei prxvaricatorem '*sexcento- 
rum'i milium', duobus^ cxceptis veracibus, et quidem Deo charissi- 
mum, quippe "cui iterf levissime' stratum profundi glarea Maris 
Rubri, cibus g coelestis panis, potus ^ novus ex rupe '" viator, 
acies" invicta manuum sola intensa '' erectio fuerit, bestiis'', ferro', 
igni"", per Arabiae deserta sparsim" cecidisse : post ingressum ignotae 
'■•'acsi Jordanis" "portae, ''urbisqueP adversa' msenia solisq tubarum 
clangoribus jussu Dei subruta, palliolum'" aurique parum de anathemate 

' vero add. dale. * velut A. '-^ dolore mentis Gale, and adds et animi'&c. to revolvere et, 

which are wanting in Joss, and V. •* renium .4. ' una cum charissimis mei amicis iniperan- 
tibus ut qualemcunque gentis Britannicx hisloriolam sive admonitiunculam scriberem Gale, from A : 
reliq. om. u.<que ad demonstravit, p. 48. "' omnem ad unum V. '■'' cum iter levissima V. 

"^ viatorius V. " erectione I'. '^ tcnae ac fluminis 1'. " portas V. "' urbis adversaque V. 

ahiiough all we have to depend upon, are not used by Gildas, see the notes to the text, and 

trustworthy in an argument of this kind. below in Appendix G. to this period. 

The prologue, and what is called the Epistola, Ilit^t. Gild. xxvi. (M.H.B. 15.) — Ad annum 

are here printed as contemporary e\'idence to the obsessionis Badonici montis,...qui jam et mea; 

condition and complete organisation of the then nativitatis est. — i.e. A.D. 516 (520, Guest). 
British Church, and especially of its peculiar ver- Ann. Camh. {M.H.B. 831.) cxxi. annus. — Na- 

sion of Holy Scripture. vigatio Gildse in Hyberaia. — i.e. A.D. 565. 

The edition of Josselin (1568) has been taken Tb. cxxW. annus. — Gildas [Britonum sapientis- 

asthe text, collated however throughout, and occa- simus, add. MS. B. apud M.H.B.'] obiit. — i. e. 

sionally corrected, by that of Gale, and sometimes A.D. 570. So also Ann. Tigernach. (O'Conor, 

by that of Polydore Vergil, as the orJy available ii. 151); but A.D. 569, according to Ann. I'lton. 

way of appro-ximating to the te.xt of the Cottonian (ib. iv. 25.) 

MS., which all three profess to follow. P. Vergil » Psalm, vii. 9 (10) ; Rev. ii. 23. 

however takes so great liberties with his text as '' Num. xx. 10-12 ; Psalm, cvi. 32, ^^. 

to make his readings worth notice only here and " Lev. x. I, 2, <* Num. xxvi. 51. 

there. The various readings are taken from Ff. « Num. xxvi. 64, 65. 

I. ■27. (A) as lespects the prologue, from Dd. I. f Exod. xiv. 22. 

17. (B. 13th century), and from the fragment in g Exod. xvi. 14. *> Exod. xvii. 6. 

the Life of Gildas in the Jlibliotheca Floriacensis ' Exod. xvii. II-13. "^ Num. xxi. 6. 

(I'losc.), as regards the E/yi'sto/a, omitting however 1 Num. xiv. 4:-45. m Ib. xi. i. 

the numerous corrections in Dd. I. 17, which are " Num. xxvi. 64. " Jos. iii. 16. 

in Josselin 's handwriting. p Jos. vi. i. 'i Jos. vi. 20. 

For the peculiarities of the version of Scripture "■ Jos. vii. 21-24. 

* Passages marked [ ] are omitted by Pol. Vergil. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

praesumptum, multos stravisse: Gabaonitarums irritum foedus, calli- 
ditate licet extortum, nonnullis "intulisse exitium : ob pcccata homi- 
num queiulas sanctorum Prophctarum voces, et maximc Jercmix, 
ruinam civitatis suae quadruplici' plangentis alphabeto. '^ Videbam- 
que etiam nostro tempore, ut ille defleverat, ' Solam" sedissc urbem 
viduam,' antea ' populis plenam, gentium dominam, principem pro- 
vinciarum, sub tributo fuisse factam,' id est, Ecclesiam : 'obscuratum^ 
aurum, coloremque optimum mutatum,' quod est, Verbi Dei splendo- 
rem : ' filiosy Sion,' id est, sanctx matris Ecclesise, ' inclytos, et 
amictos auro primo,' ' amplexatos-^ fuisse stercora.' Et quod illi 
intollerabiliter utpote priecipuo, mihi quoque licet abjecto, utcunquc 
ad cumulum doloris crescebat, dum ita eosdcm statu prospero viventes 
egregios luxerat, ut diceret : 'Candidiores^ Nazarsei ejus nive,' ' rubi- 
cundiores ebore antique, sapphiro pulchriores/ Ista '"ego et multa alia 
velut speculum quoddam vitse nostras in Scripturis Veteribus intuens, 
convertebar etiam ad Novaks, et ibi legebam clarius, qux mihi forsitan 
antea obscura fuerant, cessante umbra, ac vcritate Hrmius illucescente. 
Legebam, inquam, Dominum dixissc: ' Non** veni nisi ad oves per- 
ditas domus Israel.' Et e contrario: ' Filii'" autem regni' liujus 
•• ejicientur in tenebras exteriores^ ibi erit fletus et stridor dentium.' 
Et iterum : ' Non'i est bonum tollerc panem filiorum, et mitterc cani- 
bus.' '"Itemque : ' Vae^ vobis scribx et Pharisaei, hypocritae.' Audie- 
bam: ' Multif ab orientc et occidente venient, et recumbent cum 
Abraham, Isaac, et Jacob, in regno carlorum.' Et c diverso : * Ef; 
tunc dicam cis, Discedite a Me operarii iniquitatis.' Legebam : 
* Beatar^i stcriles,' ' et ubera qux non lactaverunt.' Et e contrario: 
' Qikt:' paratae erant, intraverunt cum Eo ad nuptias j' postea ' vene- 
runt et reliqux virgines, dicentes, Domine, Domine, apcri nobis.' 
Quibus responsum fuerat : ' Non'^ novi vos.' Audicbam sane : * Qui ' 
credident et baptizatus fuerit, salvus erit^ qui autem non crediderit, 
condemnabitur.' Legebam Apostoli voce, 'Oleastrim ramum' bonae 
olivae ' insertum fuisse j' sed a * societate radicis pinguedinis' ejusdem, 
si non ' timuisset, '^ sed alta saperet, excidendum.' Sciebam miseri- 

'• inUJisset 1'. •'' videbani V. [^'' enim V. '" Item 1'. '" ct 1'. 

' Jos. ix. ; 2 Sam. x\\. 1. Op., ib. VI. 182 c. 

' sci7.Jer.Thren.i-iv. " Thren. i. I. Vulgate. '^ Matt, xxiii. 13, &c. I. V. 

" Thren. iv. 1. V. > lb. 2. V. f Mart. viii. Ii. I. V. i^ lb. vii. 23. 

' Thren. iv. 5. V. » Ib. 7. V. •' Luc. xxiii. 29. V. ' Matt. xxv. 10, 1 1. V. 

•> Matt. x. 6, XV. 24. I. = Vers. Antiq. Lat. >- Matt. xxv. 12. G. (peculiar to Gildas.) 

<= Matt. viii. 12. V. ' Marc. xvi. 16. V. " qui vero non." 

"i Matt. XV. 26; Marc. vii. 27. I. = S.Aug. Qu. '" Rom. xi. 17, 20, 22. I. om. radicis: 

37. in Jud., Opp. III. i. 606 c, and De Fid. et V. •• mdicis et pinguedinis." 

4.-,o-68i.l PERIOD OF SAXON CON^lUEST. 47 

[GiLU. Epist. a. A. D. 547.] 

cordiam Domini, sed et judicium timebam. Laudabam gratiam, scd 
' redditionem'' unicuiquc secundum opera sua' verebar. Oves unius 
ovilis dissimiles cernens, merito beatissimum dicebam Petrum" ob 
Christi intcgram confessionem, at JudamP infoelicissimum propter 
cupiditatis amorcm : Stephanum^i gloriosum ob martyrii palmam, scd 
Nicolaum'" miserum propter immundae '^haeresios notam. Legebam 
certe : ' Erant^ illis omnia communia :' scd et quod dictum est: 
^ Qiuirc' convenit vobis tentarc Spiritum Dei?' Videbam e regione 
quantum securitatis hominibus nostri temporis, acsi non esset quod 
timeretur, increverat. Hxe igitur et multo plura, quje brevitatis 
causa omittenda decrevimus, cum qualicunque cordis compunctione, 
attonita mente sspius volvens: si, inquam, ' peculiari^ ex omnibus 
nationibus populo, semini regali, gentique sanctae,' ad quam dixerat : 
' Primogenitus^ Mcus Israel,' ejusque sacerdotibus, prophetis, rcgibus, 
per tot secula, ApostoloY ministro, -'"membrisquez illius primitivae 
Ecclesiae, Dominus non ■' pepercit cum a recto tramitc deviarintj 
quid tali hujus atramento aetatis facturus est ? cui praeter ilia -' nefanda 
immaniaque peccata, quae communiter cum omnibus mundi sceleratis 
agit, accidit etiam illud veluti ingenitum quid et indelebile insipien- 
tise pondus et levitatis ineluctabile. Quid ? mihimet ^'- aione miser, 
tibi veluti' conspicuo' ac summo doctori talis cura committitur ut 
obstes ictibus tam violenti torrentis, et contra hunc "'inolidorum scc- 
lerum funem, per tot annorum spatia intcrruptc lateque protractum, 
serves 'depositum^' tibi creditum? Et : Taceas, alioquin hoc est 
dixissc pedi, Speculare ; et -* manui, Fatere. Habet Britannia recto- 
res, habet specultitores. Quid tu nugando mutire disponis ? Habet, 
inquam, habet, si non ultra, non citra numerum. Sed quia inclinati 
tanto pondere sunt pressi, idcirco spatium respirandi non habent. 
Pra'occupabant igitur se mutuo talibus objectionibus, vel multo his 
mordatioribus, veluti condebitores, sensus mei. Hi non parvo, ut dixi, 
tempore, cum legerim ' tempus"^' esse ' loquendi et tacendi,' ^^ et in 
quadam acsi angusta rimoris porticu luctabantur. Obtinuit, vicitquc 
tandem aliquando Creditor : Si non es, inquiens, talis audacise, ut 

'^ haereseos V. "^ membris etiam ejus T'. ^' so Y.G. pepersit Joss., and nephanda V. Joss. 

"' aio tibi iie miser veluti 1'. ^ inolitorum G. -' so V.G. manu Joss. "' om. V. 

n Matt. xvi. 27 ; Rom. ii. 6. I. V. t.-' * Act. v. 9. I. V. " Quid utique . . Domini." 

» Matt. xvi. 16-19. " Exod. xix. 5, 6 ; Deut. vii. 6, xiv. 2 ; i Pet. 

P Matt. xxvi. 14, 15, &c. ii. 9. '^ Exod. iv. 22. 

1 Act. vii. 57-60. y Matt, xxvii. 5 ; Act. i. 18. 

"■ Act. vi. 5 ; Apoc. ii. 6. * Act. v. i-io. " i Tim. vi. 20. 

s Act. iv. 32. V. ^ Eccl. iii. 7. I. V. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

[inter veridicas rationalis secundae a nuntiis derivationis crcaturas] 
non pertimescas libertatis aureae decent! nota inuri, affectum saltern 
intelligibilis asinaec eatenus elinguis non refugito Spiritu Dei afflatx*, 
nolentis se vehiculum fore tiarati magi devoturi populum Dei, qux in 
angusto maceriae vinearum resolutum ejus attrivit pedem, ob id licet 
verbcra hostiliter senserit, cuique Angelum ccelcstem ensem vacuum 
vagina habentem, atque contrarium, quern ille cruda stoliditate cocca- 
tus non viderat, digito quodammodo, quanquam ingrato ac furibundo, 
et innoxia ejus latera contra jus fasque ^'ciEdenti demonstravit. '-*^In 
zelo*i igitur domus Domini, sacrae legis, seu cogitatuum rationibus, vel 
fratrum religiosis precibus **coactus, nunc persolvo debitum, multo 
tempore antea exactum, vile quidem, ^sed fidele, ut puto, et '"ami- 
cale quibusque egregiis Christi tyronibus; grave vero et impvjrtabile 
apostatis insipicntibus : quorum priores, ni tailor, cum lachrymis forte 
quae ex Dei charitate proHuunt, alii ^' cum tristitia, sed quae de indig- 
nationc et pusillanimitate deprchensae conscientiae extorquctur, illud 
excipient *. 

^t -x- -x- -it -x- -K- -x- 

increpatioin '' Reges habet Britannia', sed tyrannos- judices habet, 
Reges Britan- sed impios : sxpc pracdantcs et concutientes, sed inno- 

nicos. ' I ' I 1 

centes ; vmdicantes et patrocinantes, sed rcos et latro- 
nes; quam plurimas conjuges habentes, sed "scortas et adulterantes; 
crebro jurantes, *^'sed perjurantes ; voventes, et *''^continuo propcmoduni 
mentientes j belligerantes, sed civilia et injusta bella agentesj per 
^patriam quidem fures ''magnopere insectantes, '"et eos qui secum' ad 
mensam sedent '"latrones, non solum amantes, sed *"et munerantes'; 
eleemosynas largiter dantes, *' sed e regione immensum montem 
scelerum exaggerantes : in sede *- arbitraturi sedcntes, sed raro recti 
judicii regulam quaerentes ; innoxios humilesque despicientes • san- 
guinarios, supcrbos, parricidas, " commanipulares et' adulteros Dei 
inimicos, si sors, ut dicitur, tulerit, "qui cum ipso nomine *^''certatim 

* cedenti V. ^ Hue usqw ojn. A. ^ go V.G. conatus Jot*. ® stylo add. G. 
*• amicum V. ^* enim atque add. A. enim add. V. ^ Habet etenim Britannia reges 7?o«<r. 
reges habent, &c. B. ^ scortantes 1". Qmt am. et adult.) G. scoria />'., Init tcilh a final IfUer 
erased, scorta et adulleras Bosc. *• et Boac. V. *^ continue B. ^ regionem liosc. 
•" niagno ope /{. ^ eos autem qui Bosc. * Add. G. Bote, deest B. JoM. V. *** etiani 
reniunerantes BiOf. " se B. *'^ arbitri T'. arbitrum Bote. ^ desunt Bosc. ** hos 
Bosc. add. " deesi Bosc. 

<^ Num. xxii. 22-34. '' Psalm, ixix. 9 (lx\'iii. 10) ; John ii. 17. 

• Except the first and last few lines, which are in MS. A., the sole authorities now existing for this 
prologue are the printed editions of Vergil, Josselin, and Gale ; the last placing it, except the few lines 
in MS. A., at the foot of the page as spurious. Wc ha\e here omitted the (so called) Hisloria. 


[Gild. lipisT. a. a. d. 547.] 

delendi erant, ad sydcra prout possunt cfferentesj vinctos plures in 
carceribus habences, qiios *"dolo sui' potius quam merito proterunt, 
catenis onerantes j inter *"altaria "^^jurando demorantcs, ct haec eadem 
^"acsi lutulenca paulo post' saxa despicientes. 
inacpatio in Cujus tam ncfandi piaculi non ignarus est immundae 
Constantinuiii. i^genac '"' Dannonix tyrannicus catulus Constantinus. Hoc 
inno, post horribile ^' juramcnti sacramentum', quo se devinxit ne- 
juaquam dolos civibus, Deo primum jurcquc jurando, sanctorum 
iemum choris et genitrice comitantibus frctis, facturum, in duarum 
^enerandis matrum "''sinibus, Ecclcsi-x ^carnalisque, sub '^'sancti ab- 
aatis amphibalo', latera regiorum tenerrima pucrorum vel praecordia 
:rudcliter ^''duum, totidemquc nutritorum, quorum brachia nequa- 
quam armis, qux nullus pene hominum fortius hoc eis tempore 
rractabat, scd Deo altariquc protenta, in die judicii, ad Tuse civi- 
tatis portas, Christe, vcncranda patientiae ac fidei suae vexilla suspen- 
dent, inter ipsa, ut dixi, sacrosancta altaria nefando ense hastaque, 
■^pro dcntibus', laceravit, ita ut sacrihcii ca'lcstis sedem purpurea 
acsi coagulati cruoris pallia ^"attingercnt. Et hoc ne post lau- 
danda quidem merita egit. Nam multis ante annis, crebris alterna- 
tisque fcetoribus adulteriorum victus, legitima uxore, contra Christi 
Magistrique gentium interdictum, '^''depulsa, dicentium : ' ^Quod Deus 
conjunxit, homo non separet:' ct, ' b Viri, diligite uxores vestras/ 
''Amarissimum enim quoddam de ""Wite Sodomorum in cordis sui 
infructuosa bono semini gleba, surcuiamen incredulitatis ct insi- 
picntix plantaverat, "' quod vulgatis domcsticisque impietatibus velut 
:juibusdam venenatis imbribus irrigatum, et ad Dei offensam avidius 
>e erigens, parricidii sacrilegiique crimen produxit in medium. Sed 
nee adhuc "-priorum retibus malorum expeditus, priscis recentia 
auget malis. Age jam, quasi praesentem arguo, quem adhuc superesse 
non nescio. Quid stupes animae carnifex proprise ? Quid tibi flam- 
mas inferni voluntarie '^ accendis nequaquam defecturas ? Quid, 
inimicorum vice, propriis te confodis sponte ensibus, hastis ? Anne 
"ipsa quidem virulenta scelerum acsi pocula pectus tuum *^satiare 
quiverunt? Respice, quaeso, et cyeni ad Christum, siquidem laboras, 
et immenso pondere curvaris : et Ipse te, ut dixit, ' requiescere faciet/ 

*^ dolose B08C. *^ alteraria B. ^ intrando Bosc. ^ paulo post acsi lutulenta Boec. 

^ Damnone B. Damnoniae V.G. *^' sacr. jur. B. '* finibus B. ^ camalis B. 

que camalis T^. '*' sancto abbate Amphibalo T'. '^ dum B. ^' prudentibus B. 

*^ attigerent B. texenint V. ^ repulsa G. ^ amarissima -B.T'. * so B. vitae T". Joss. G. 

" quos B. ® prior B. ^ accendetis B, " ipsam B. ^ satiaret B. 

a Matt. xix. 6; Marc. x. 9. V. <= Matt. xi. 28. G. = S. Cjpr., Testim. I. 13, 

b Ephes. V. 25; Col. iii. 19. I.V. III. 119: 24,91. Fell. 

\ OL. I. E 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

Veni ad Eum Qui ' ^ non vult "" peccatoris mortem, sed ut con- 
vcrtatur et vivat.' *e Dissolve,' secundum Prophctam, ' vincula colli 
tui fili Syon.' f Redi, rogo, e longinquis licet peccatorum recessibus 
ad piissimum Pattern, Qui "^^despicienti porcorum **sordidos cibos' 
ac pertimescenti dirae famis mortem, et revertenti Sibi laetus occi- 
dere consuevit ''^'vitulum filio saginatum, et proferre primam erranti 
stolam et rcgium annulum : "" et turn' spci ccx'lestis acsi saporem prae- 
gustans, '' senties quam ' ^suavis est Dominus.' Nam si haec con- 
tempseris, scias te inextricabilibus tenebrosisque ignium torrentibus 
jamjamquc '- rotandum urendumque. 
Increpatio in Qujd tu quoquc, Ut Ptophcta ait, '1 catule '•' leonine 
Aurehum. Aureli '' Caninc agis? Nonne eodem quo supradictus, 
si non exiciabiliore, parricidiorum, fornicationum, adulteriorumque 
coeno, velut quibusdam marinis irrucntibus tibi ''^voraris feraliter 
undis ? Nonne pacem patriae, mortiferum '"ceu serpcntcm odiens, 
civiliaquc bella et crebras injuste prxdas sitiens, animae tux 
calcstis portas pacis ac refrigerii prxcludis? Relictus, quasso, jam 
solus, acsi arbor in medio camjxj arescens, recordare patrum fra- 
trumque tuorum supervacuam "phantasiam, juvenilem immaturam- 
que mortem. "-Num "^ccntenis tu ob religiosa merita, vel c(xcvus 
Mathusalc exceptus '" pene omni prole servabcris ? Nequaquam. 
Sed, nisi citius, ut Psalmista ait, iconversus fueris ad Dominum, 
cnsem *" in te vibrabit in brevi Suum Rex ille, '*^Qui per Prophetam, 
' ^ Ego,' inquit, ' occidam, et *■ Ego viverc faciam : percutiam, et Ego 
sanabo, et non est qui de manu^Mea fx)ssit eruere.' Quamobrem 
' 1 excutere dc' fcctido ' pulvere' tuo, et convertere ad Eum toto corde. 
Qui creavit te, '''ut *nicum exarserit in brevi ira Ejus, beatus' sis 
*sperans in Eum:' sin alias, xternx te mancbunt poenx contcrendum 
saeva continue et nequaquam absumendum Tartari '^''fauce. 
Increpatio in Quid tu quoque, pardo similis moribus, et nequitiis 
Vortiponum. ^jiscolor, cancsccntc jam capite, in throno dolls pleno, 
ct ab imis vertice tcnus diversis parricidiis et adulteriis constu- 
prato, boni regis ncquam lili, ut Ezechiae Manasses, Demetarum 

* mortem peccatorum Ji. "^ dispicienti /.'. ®' cib. sord. I!. "" vitulo ]{. 

""' et tunc 7i. ut tunc T. "' sentiens 7J. sentiret T'. ^ infemi J? 1'. «iW. '' leolinc 6'. 

''* Conane V.U. " vorariis T>. ""seu IS. ~ fantasiam VJS. Ami so V. rommoiily. 

^ Unde 7;. ^ centennis G.B. '" ex I". «' vite 15. *« deesl B. "' dee»t li. 
«* et B. "^ &lce ]'. 

«' Ezek. xxxiii. 11. V. " impii . . impius a via '" Gen. xlix. 9. 

sua et." ' Psalm, vii. 12, 13. I. V. 

« Esai. lii. 2. V. " Solve . .captiva fllia." "< Deut. xxxii. 39. V. ' Esai. Hi. 2. V, 

f Luc. XV. 32, 23. I. V. ni Psalm, ii. 12.(13 ) I. r--V. But " spcrans in 

s Psalm, xxxiv. S. (x.\xiii. 9.) I. V. Eum," G. 


[GiLU. Epist. a. A. D. 547.] 

yranne '^VortifKjri stupide *^riges? Quid te *^tam violent! peccarorum 
^urgites, quos ut vinum optimum sorbes, imo tu ab eis voraris, 
" appropinquante sensim vitae limite, non satiant ? Quid quasi cul- 
ninis malorum omnium stupro, propria tua amota conjugc, cjus- 
iemque honesta morrc '"'impudentis filice, "' quodam incluctabili "-pon- 
Icrc miseram animam '**oneras? ^Ne consumas, quaeso, dierum quod 
eliquum est in Dei oftensam : quia ' " nunc tempus acceptabile et 
lies salutis' vultibus poenitentium ^ lucet, in quo bene operari potes, 

"ne fiat fuga tua hyeme vel sabbato:' 'pdiverte,' secundum Psal- 
nistam, ' a malo, ct fac bonum : inquire pacem ""bonam et sequere 
■am, quia oculi Domini super' tc bona agentem, *ct aurcs Ejus erunt 
n preces' tuas, ct non ' pcrdct de terra viventium memoriam' tuam. 

q Clamabis et exaudiet te, ct ex omnibus tribulationibus tuis cruet 
e.' 'rCor' siquidem 'contritum et humiliatum' timore Ejus nusquam 
Ilhristus 'spernit.' Alioquin « vermis tortionis tuae ' non morietur/ et 
gnis ustionis tuae * non extinguetur.' 

increpatio in Ut quid in ncquitiae tuae volveris vetusta faece, et tu, 

Cuneg sum. ^^ adolcsccntiae annis, urse multorum sessor, aurigaque 
:urrus receptaculi ursi, Dei contemptor, "^sortisque Ejus depressor, 
Duneglase, Romana lingua Lanio-fulve ? Quare tantum certamen 
am "**hominibus quam Deo' prxstas; hominibus, civibus scilicet, armis 
'specialibus • Deo inftnitis sceleribus ? Quid pra'ter innumerabiles 
:asus, propria uxorc pulsa, furciferam germanam ejus, perpetuam 
)eo viduitatis castimoniam promittentem, ut poeta ait, summam 
seu tencritudinem ccelicolarum, tota animi vcneratione vel potius 
lebetudine, nympharum, contra interdictum Apostoli, ^denegantis 
»osse - adulteros regni coelestis esse municipes, suspicis ? Quid 
;emitus atque suspiria sanctorum, propter te corporaliter "versan- 
ium, vice immanis * lejense dcntium ossa tua quandoque ^fracturae? 
rebris instigas injuriis? ' ^ Desine,' quaeso, ut Propheta ait, 'ab 
ra, et derelinque' '' exitialem, ac temetipsum maceraturum, quem 
oelo ac terrae, hoc est, Deo gregique Ejus spiras, ' furorem •.' fac eos 

eyerie pon,tcilh an erased finalletter, B. ^ reges B. ■* causa If. "^ appropiante 7f. 

' impudeates B. ^ quedam B. '^ ponderi B. ^ ponderas B. ^ Non B. "^ licet B. 
' deed B. ^ fotisque 7.'. '*' Deo q. honi. B. ^ so B. Joss. V. exitialibus G. * ceu V. 
adulteres B. '•' moerentium T.6'. ' lene B. ^ so G. fractura T'. Joss. B. * e.xiliabilem V. 
xtitiabilem B. 

" 2. V. "• Psalm, li. 17. (1. 19.) V. but "spernit," from 

" Matt. xxiv. 20. I. and V. Cod. Amiat. I. = S.Aug. In Psal.Ti. 1. 19. Opp. IV. 473 f. 

P Psalra. xxxiv. 14-16. (xxxiii. 15-17.) I. = gjai. Ixvi. 24; V. om. "tortionis tuae," and 

ut omitting " bonam," and " viventium." And " ustionis tuae." — Marc. ix. 44 (43), 46 (45). I. 

sequere" is from I. "Gal. v. 21. 

'1 Psalm, xxxiv. 17. (.xxxiii, iS.) I. V. "libe- =" Psalm, xxxvii. S. (xxxvi. 8.) V. 

»vit" for " eruet." 

E 3 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

"potius mutatis pro te orare moribus', quibus suppetit ^ supra mundum 
alligandi cum in mundo reos alligaverint, et solvendi cum pcenitentes 
'' potcstas solverint'. Noli, ut ait Apostolus, ' > superbe sapere, vcl 
sperare in incerto divitiarum, scd in Deo Qui praestat tibi multa 
abunde,' ut per cmendationem morum *"thesaurizes tibi fundamentum 
bonum in futurum,' et "habeas '"veram vitam',' '-perennem profecto, 
non deciduam. ^ Alioquin ' scies, et vidcbis' etiam in hoc saeculo, 
quam 'malum et amarum est reliquisse te Dominum "Deum tuum, 
et non esse timorem Ejus apud tej' ct in futuro, tetro ignium globo 
aeternorum te exuri, nee tamen ullo modo mori. Siquidem tarn scele- 
ratorum sint "perpctim immortales igni animae, quam sanctorum 
Increpatio in Quid tu etiam, '^ insularis draco, multorum tyrannorum 
Magiocunum. ^](,p,jisor tam regno quam etiam vita j supradictorum 
novissime '" stylo, prime in malo, major multis potentia simulque 
malitia, largior in dando, profusior in peccato, robuste armis, scd 
anima: fortior excidiis, Maglocune, in tam vetusto scclcrum atra- 
mento, veluti ' a madidus vino' dc Sodomitana '" vite expresso stolide 
volutaris ? Quare tantas peccaminum regix ccrvici spontc, ut 
ita dicam, ineluctabiles, celsorum ''^scu montium, innectis moles? 
Quid te non Ei regum omnium Regi, quem cunctis pene Bri- 
tanniac ducibus tam regno fecit quam status lineamento editiorem, 
exhibcs cacteris moribus meliorem, sed versa vice deteriorem ? 
quorum indubitatam a-quanimitcr convitiorum auscultato parumper 
adstipulationem, omissis domesticis levioribusquc, si tamen aliqua 
sunt levia, '"palata solum' longe latcque per auras admissa -"testa- 
turam. Nonne in primis adolescentise tuae annis avunculum regem 
cum fortissimis propemodum militibus, quorum vultus non catulorum 
leonis in acie magnopere dispares -' visebantur, acerrime ense, hasta, 
igni oppressisti ? parum cogitans propheticum dictum : ' c Viri,' 
inquiens, ' sanguinum et "doli non dimidiabunt dies suos.' Quid pro 
hoc solo retributionis a justo Judice sperares, etsi non talia seque- 
rentur qua: secuta sunt, itidem diccnte per Prophetam : ' d Vac tibi 

''' mutatis potius moribus B. ' ultra /'. "' solverint potestas C " thesauri tu es B. 

'" over an erasure, by sorne very late hand, in 7>. "' vitam veram veram B. *' 10 perren- 
nem Joss. ^^ deest B. '* so G. perpeti T. Jois. B. In V. aho sunt. '^ insulare B. 

^^ \n add. G. in nostra add. T'. "'soT'.G. v'\u Joss, deest B. ** ceu T'. i'*' propalata F. 
^ testaturum G. ^' videbantur B. ^ dolosi I'. 

> 17. V. " Sublime sapere :" I. has <^ Psalm. Iv. 23. (liv. 24.) V. "dolosi." 

" abundanter." 'i Esai. .-«xiii. i . " Vx . , . . prxdaberis," V. " et 

' ler. ii, 19. V. « Jer. xxiii. 9. V. qui .. .. cades," G. 


[(jiLD. Epist. a. A. D. 547.] 

qui praedaris, ^nonnc et ipse praedaberis? et qui occidis', nonnc et ipse 
3ccideris? et cum desiveris pr^dari, tunc cades.' Nonne postquam 
tibi ex voto violenti regni phantasia cessit, cupiditate -'injectus ad viam 
revertendi rectam, diebusque ac noctibus, id temporis, -■'conscientia 
Forte peccaminum rcmordentc, de dcihco tenore monachorumque 
decretis, sub dcnte primum multa ruminans, deinde popularis aurae 
'^cognitioni -'proferens, monachum sine ullo 'Mnfidclitatis, ut aicbas', 
respectu, coram -'^ omnipotcnte Deo, angelicis vultibus humanisque, 
ruptis, ut putabatur, capacissimis illis, quibus prxcipitanter involvi 
;olent pingues tauri -"^moduli tui retibus; omnis regni, auri', -^argenti- 
que, et quod "majus est, proprioe voluntatis distentionibus ruptis, per- 
pctuo vovisti, et tete, acsi stridulo *'cavum lapsu aerem valide secan- 
tem, saevosque rapidi harpagones " accipitris sinuosis flexibus vitantem, 
id sanctorum tibi magnopere fidas spcluncas rcfrigeriaquc ^■- salubritcr 
rapuisti ex corvo columbam ? O quanta Ecclesis matri Ixtitia, si non 
te cunctorum mortalium hostis de sinu quodammodo ejus lugubriter 
abstraxisset, foret ? O quam profusus spei ccelestis fomcs desperatorum 
cordibus, te in bonis pcrmanentc, inardesceret ? O qualia quantaque 
animam tuam regni Christi praemia in die judicii manerent, si non 
lupus callidus ille agnum ex lupo factum te ^ab ovili Dominico, non 
vehementer invitum, factunis lupum ex agno, sibi similem rapuisset ? 
O quantam exultationem pio omnium Patri Deo sanctorum tua salus 
servanda praestaret, si non te cunctorum pcrditorum infaustus pater, 
"veluti magnarum aquila alarum unguiumque dsemon, infcelici filiorum 
suorum agmini contra jus Fasque rapuisset? Ne multa, tantum gaudii 
ac suavitatis tum coelo terraeque tua ad bonam frugem conversio, 
quantum nunc moeroris ac luctus ministravit ad horribilem, more 
^■''molossi aegri, ^vomitum nefanda reversio. Qua peracta, ' f exhibentur 
'^membra arma' iniquitatis peccato' ac diabolo, quae oportuerat salvo 
sensu avide ' cxhiberi arma justitiae Deo.' Arrecto aurium auscultantur 
captu, non Dei laudes, canora Christi tyronum voce suaviter modu- 
lante, pneumaque ecclesiasticae melodia;, sed proprias, quae nihil sunt, 
'" furciferorum referto mendaciis simulque spumanti ^ flegmate, proxi- 
mos quosque '^trucidaturo, ^''praeconum ore, ritu ^^bachancium, *-con- 
crepate ; ita ut vas, Dei quondam *^ in ministerio praeparatum, vertatur 

**' desunt B. ^ inlectus G. invecta F. ^ conscientie B. ^ cognitione G. cognitionem B. 
^* praeferens B. ^ ut aieb. infid. B. ^ omninopotente B. ^' desunt B. ^ argenti V.B. 
"^ hiis V.B. add. "" canum G. ^^ accipitricis 7.*. 22 ^ggg< 5. 33 ^^g^ ^^ m y^ ^ 

^ molosi B. *' arma membra B. ^ 1^0 V.G.B. fiiciferorum Joss. ^ fleumate B. ^ so G. rusci 
daturo Jos«. ruscidaturum i>. foedaturo ]'. *'praeconiB. ^ bacchantium (7.B.F. " COH' 

crepante V.G. *^ deest B.V. 

^ Prov. xxvi, 11:2 Pet. ii. 22. f Rom, vi. 13. I. V. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

in zabuli organum, " quodque honore coelesti putabatur dignum, mcrito 
projiciatur in Tartan baratrum. Nee tamen tantis malorum offen- 
diculis tuus hebctatus insipicntia: cumulo sensus, vclut quodam obice 
rardatur, sed fervidus, acsi pullus, amana '-quxquae imperagrata putans, 
per extensos scelerum campos " irrevocabili furore raptatur, augcndo 
priscis nova piaculis. Spcrnuncur namque primx, post monachi votum 
irritum, illicitae licet, tamen propria: conjugis prxsumptivx nuptix, 
alia viri viventis, non cxterni, sed fratris ftlii adamata. Ob quod dura 
cervix ilia multis jam peccaminum fascibus **onerata, bino parricidiali 
'^ausu, occidendo supradictum, uxoremque tuam, aliquamdiu '"a te 
habitam, vclut summo sacrilegii tui culmine, de imis ad inferiora 
curvatur. Dehinc illam, cujus dudum colludio ac suggestione tantae 
sunt pcccatorum subitic moles, publico et, ut fallaces *" parasitorum 
lingus tuorum conclamanr, summis tamen labiis, non ex intimo 
cordis, legitimo, utpotc viduatam, *'' thoro ; nostr-je vero' sceleratis- 
simo adscivisti connubio. Cujus igitur sancti viscera tali stimulata 
historia non statim in Actus singultusque prorumpant ? Quis sacerdos, 
cujus cor rectum Deo patet, non statim hxc audiens magno cum 
ululatu illud propheticum dicat : 'fQuis dabit capiti meo aquam, et 
oculis meis fontem *" lachrymarum, et plorabo in die et nocte inter- 
fectos populi mei ?' Heu ! siquidem parum auribus captasti pro- 
pheticam objurgationem ita diccntem : ' K Vac vobis, viri impii, ** qui 
dereliquistis legem Dei akissimi. Et si nati fueritis, in " male- 
dictione nasccmini, et si mortui fueritis in' malcdictionem erit pars 
vestra. Omnia qux de terra sunt, in terram ibunt: sic impii a male- 
dictione in perditionem ;' subauditur, si non revcrtantur ad ''■ Domi- 
num, exaudita saltem tali admonitione, ' h Pili, peccasti ? ne " adjicias 
ultra, sed et de pristinis tuis deprecare :' et iterum : ' > Non tardes 
converti ad Dominum, neque difF'cras de die in diem. Subito enim 
venit ira Ejus.' Quia, ut Scriptura ait: 'JRege audientc verbum 
iniquum, omnes qui sub illo sunt, scelesti sunt.' Nimirum ' ^ rex,* 
ut Propheta dixit, 'Justus suscitat regionem.' Sed monita tibi pro- 
fecto non desunt, cum habucris ''^ praeceptorem pene totius Britanniae 
magistrum elegantem. Caveto igitur ne tibi, quod a Salomone 

*' quoqui B. " quaeque G.B. *^ inrevoc. B. *' honorata B. *' ausi B. ^ apud B. 

*" parasidorum B. ^ thoro I', thoro ut nostrae vero (i. nostrse vero 7>. *■' lacrimanim /?. 

■^' di'esl G. '''' demnt 0. Jogg. add. V.Ii. ; but in I'., maJedictionem .... malcdictionem. 

'- Deum 7>. '^ adicias B. adijcias T. *' praeccptorum 0. 

' Jer. L\. I. V. "plorabo die ac filiae populi." '' Ecdus. xxi. I. LXX. fere = V. 

K Ecclus. xli. 11-13. v., but " maledictionem ' Ecclus. v. 8,9. V., 7. LXX. " veniet." 

..ibunt.. a nialediaione," from the Greek: J Prov. xxix. 12. LXX. G. 

8-10. LXX. k Prov. xxix. 4. LXX. G. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547] 

lotatur, accidat : ' ' Quasi '^qui excitat dormientem dc gravi somno,' 
ic 'qui enarrat stulto ''' sapicntiam : in fine enim "narrationis dicet : 
;^id primum dixeras?' ' '"Lava a malitia^cor tuum,' sicut dictum 
'St, '■ Hicrusalcm, ut salvus sis/ Ne contcmnas, quaeso, ineffabilem 
nisericordiam Dei, hoc modo per Prophetam a peccatis impios "pro- 
'^ocantis : * " Repcntc loquar ad gentem ct ad regnum, ut cvellam, ct 
'dissipem, ct dcstruam', ct dispcrdam.' Pcccatorcm iioc ''* vchcmcntcr 
d poenitcntiam' iiortatur : Et 'osi poenitcntiam cgerit gens ilia a 
»eccato suo,' ' poenitcntiam et Ego agam super malo quod locutus sum 
It faccrem ci/ Et iterum : ' v Qu^is dabit ^ eis tale cor ut audiant Mc, 
t custodiant praccepta Mea, ct bene sit eis omnibus diebus vitac 
use?' "' Itemque in cantico Dcuteronomii : ' q Populus,' inquit, 
absque consilio ct prudcntia, utinam sapercnt ct intelligerent, ac 
lovissima providcrent : quomodo ''- perscquatur unus millc, et duo ''•''fu- 
;cnt decern millia.' Et iterum in Evangelio Dominus: "" Vcnite ad 
Ac omnes qui laboratis et onerati estis et Ego vos requiescerc faciam. 
follite jugum Meum super vos, ct ''^'discite a Me quia mitis sum ct 
lumilis cordc, ct invenictis requiem animabus vestris.' Nam si hsec 
urdis auribus audias, Prophetas contcmnas, Christum despicias, nos- 
ue, licet vilissima: qualitatis simus, nullius momenti ducas, "■"' prophe- 
icum illud sincera animi ""pietate servantes, utcunque si non^^ego 
mplcvero ''^fortitudinem in spiritu ct virtute Domini ut "'enuntiem 
sdomui ■'"Jacob peccata eorum, ct domui Israel scclera eorum,' ne 
imus 't canes "' muti non valentcs latrare.' Et illud Salomonis ita 
iccntis : ' " Qui dicit impium justum esse, maledictus erit populis ct 
dibilis gentibus, nam qui arguunt meliora sperabunt.' Et iterum : 
^ Non reverearis proximum in casum suum : nee retineas verbum 
n tempore salutis.' Itcmque : ' y Erue cos qui "- ducuntur ad mortem, 

•'■^ decst B. *' sapientia />. ^^ enarrationes B. ^ tuum cor B.V. " provocantus B. 

vocantis F. ^ destruam et dissipem 7>. ^' ad poenitcntiam vehementur B. ^ ei B. 

Item B. ^ penequebatur B. '^ ftigerent B. '^ dicite B. ^ et add. B. 

puritate J7. '^ decst B. ^ deest B. ™ enunciem G'.B.F. ^^ Jacoui JR. ''* mitti 7^. 
dicuntur B. 

' Ecclus. xxii. 7, 8. LXX., 8, 9. V. But " et •■ Matt. xi. 28, 29. G. See p. 49, note c. 

1 f. n. dicit," and for " quid .... dixeras?" rl » Esai. Iviii. I. V. but, " populo Meo, .. do- 

m; and " Quis est hie ? " mui Jacob." * Esai. Ivi. 10. V. 

™ Jer. iv. 14. V. but, " salva fias." " Prov. xxiv. 24, 25. fere = LXX. G. = Lucif. 

° Jer. xviii. 7. V. but, " adversus, .. adversus Cal., Pro S. Athan. I. ; Bibi. PP. IV. 132 f. ed. 

. ut eradicem et destruam" &c. 1618. 

° Jer. xviii. 8. V. but, "a malo suo," and, " Ecclus. iv. 27, 28. V.; except "non," and 

quod cogitavi." " casum," which are in MSS. Corb. i . et S. Germ, 

p Deuter. v. 29. LXX. G, 15. of I. ap. Sabatier: — rrrwaiv, LXX. 

'1 Deuter. xxxii. 28 — 30. V. but, "gens abs- >' Prov. x-xiv. 11. LXX. G. = Cassian., Collat. 

le consilio est et sine." II. 13. p. 342 b. ed. Gaz. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

ct^redimcre eos qui interficiuntur, ne parcas:' quia ' ^ non "-prode- 
runt,' ut idem Propheta ait, ' divitiae in die irae, "'justicia a morte 
liberat.' '^Si Justus quidem vix salvus sit, impius et peccator ubi 
parebit?' Ille profecto te tenebrosus Tartari torrens fcrali rotatu 
undisque acsi acerrimis involvet semper cruciaturus et nunquam con- 
sumpturus, cui tunc "*erit sera inutilisque poenac oculata cognitio ac 
mali poenitudo, a quo, in hoc '» tempore acccpto et die salutis,' ad 
rectum vitae iter diftertur conversio. 

Hie sane vel antea concludenda erat, uti ne amplius loqueretur 
OS nostrum opera hominum, ram flebilis hare '''' quacrulaque malo- 
rum aevi hujus historia. Sed ne formidolosos nos aut lassos putent, 
quominus illud ""Isaianum infatigabiliter caveamus, ' '' Vx,' inquiens, 
' qui dicit bonum malum, et malum bonum ; ponentcs tenebras in 
luccm, ct luccm in tenebras; amarum in dulcc, et dulcc in ama- 
rum;' qui 'fvidcntes non vident, et audientes non audiunt;' quo- 
rum cor crassa obtcgitur quadam ^vitiorum nube', libct quid quan- 
tumque [his supradictis lascivientibus insanisque satellitum Pharaonis, 
quibus ''* ejus periturus Mari provocatur exercitus strenue Rubro, eorum- 
que similibus quinque equis,] minarum prophetica inclamitent strictim 
edicere oracula; quibus veluti pulchro tcgminc opusculi nostri " moli- 
men, ita ut ne ccrtatim "" irruituris invidorum' "' ymbribus extct pene- 
trabile, "- fidissime contegatur. Respondeant itaquc pro nobis sancti 
vates nunc ut ante, qui os quodammodo Dei organiimque Spiritus 
Sancti, mortalibus '''' prohibentcs mala, bonis faventes extitere, con- 
tumacibus superbisque hujus aetatis principibus, ne dicant nos pro- 
pria adinventione et loquaci tantum temeritate tales minas eis tan- 
rosquc terrores incutere. Nulli namque sapientium '**dubium est', 
in quanris graviora sunt peccata hujus temporis '^"'quam primi, Apo- 
stolo dicente : ' ^ Legem quis transgrediens duobus mcdiis vel tribus 
testibus ""morictur; quanto putatis dcteriora mereri supplicia, qui 
Filium Dei ^' conculcaverit ?' En primus occurrit nobis Samuel jussu 
Dei legitimi regni stabiliror, Deo antequam nasccrctur dedicatus, a 
Dan usque ^* Barsabese omni populo Israel veridicus propheta signis 

'' redime B. '' prodiderunt B. " justitia G.V. "' era B. '' querulaque V.O.B. 

^ ijsaie B. Esaianum V., and caiianiiis/or caveamus. ~' nube vitiorum B. '" est B. 

"' uolumen /?.!'. *'' irructuris in vindarum i?. ^ imbribus T'.(r.5. ■■' fidisse 5. "^ pro- 
hibente B. **' est dubium B. ^ deed B. * moritur V.B. ^ conculcaverunt B. 

** Bersabee B. Bethsabeae V. 

>• Prov. xi. 4. LXX. G. but the v. is wanting '> Esai. v. 20. V. '* dicitis .... tenebras lucem 

in the Vatic. MS. of LXX. et I. t." <= Matt. xiii. 13. V. 

' Prov. xi. 31 ; i Pet. iv. 18. G. =S. Aug. In '' Heb. x. 28, 29. V. " Irritam quis fadens le- 

Rom. i. 10. 0pp. III. ii. 930 f, g. gem . . duobus vel tribus . . moritur . . quanto 

" 2 Cor. \n. a. V. magis." 


[GaD. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 
indubitantcr admirandis "" notus, ex cujus ore Spiritus Sanctus cunctis 
mundi potcstatibus intonuit, denuntiando primo regi apud Hebraeos, 
duntaxat Sauli, pro eo quod quaedam *'de '"mandatis Domini' non 
compleverat, dicens : ' ^ Stuke egisti, nee custodisti mandata Do- 
mini Dei tui, qux prsecepic tibi. Quod si non fecisses, jam nunc 
pararet Deus regnum tuum super Israel in sempiternum j sed ne- 
quaquam regnum tuum ultra consurget.' Quid ergo simile hujus 
temporis sceleribus adulteriumne vel parricidium fecit ? Nullo 
modo; ^' sed jussionis' ex parte mutationem : quia, ut bene quidam 
*' nostrum ait : ' Non agitur de qualitate peccati, sed de transgressione 
mandati.' '"Itemque ilium' objecta, velut putabat, purgantem, ct apo- 
logias, uc generi humano moris est, sagacitcr hoc modo "adncctcntem : 
* Hmo audivi vocem Domini, ct ambulavi in via per quam misit 
me,' tali animadversione multavit : ' g Kunquid vult,' -'Mnquit, 'Do- 
minus ^'holocausta aut victimas, et non potius ut obediatur voci ""Do- 
mini ? Melior est enim obedientia quam victimse, et audire ^^ magis 
quam oflPerre adipem arietum j ^^ quoniam sicut peccatum ariolandi est 
repugnare, ^ et quasi scelus idolatriae nolle acquiescere. Pro eo ergo 
quod abjecisti sermonem Domini, abjecit et te ne sis rex/ Et post 
pauca : 'hsScidit,' inquit, 'Deus regnum Israel a te hodie, et dedit 
illud proximo tuo meliori te. Porro triumphator in Israel non parcet, 
et poenitudine non flcctctur; neque enim homo est ut agat pceniten- 
tiam ;' subauditur, super duris malorum prsecordiis. Notandum ergo 
est, quod dixit scelus idolatrise esse nolle Deo acquiescere. Non sibi 
scelerati isti, dum non gentium diis perspicue litant, * subplaudant, 
siquidem conculcantcs, porcorum more, pretiosissimas Christi marga- 
ritas, *idolatriae. Sed licet ^hoc unum exemplum, acsi invictus adstipu- 
lator, ad corrigendos iniquos abunde sufficeret : tamen, ''' ut in ore 
multorum tcstium omne comprobetur Britanniae malum, transeamus 
ad caetera. Quid David numerando populum evenit ? dicente ad eum 
Propheta "Gad : ' » Hxc dicit Dominus^ : Trium tibi optio datur : elige 
unum, quod volueris ex his, ut faciam tibi.' ' Aut septem annis veniet 
tibi fames ;' ' aut tribus mensibus fugies adversarios tuos et illi te per- 
sequentur ; aut certe tribus diebus erit pestilentia in terra tua.' Nam 

*' notatus I>. ^ deeit B. ^' mandata Dei B. ^'' secussi oms B. ^ nostrorum B. **' Itemque 

illam B. Itaque ilium T^ ^ adnectantem V.B. ^ nuquid B. ^ holocasta B. ^ Dei B. 

* magna B. ^ quo B. quia T'. ^ ita F. ^ scindit B. ' subplaudunt G. * idolatrae G. 
idolatrie B. idolatriae sunt 1'. ^ honim B. ® deest B. ' Deus add. B. 

" I Sam. xiii. 13, 14. V. " praeparasset Domi- "Dominus" om. after "te," in G. with Cod. 

nus." f I Sam. xv. 30. V. Amiat. of V. 

p I Sam. XV. 32, 23. V. but " auscultare ma- ^ i Sam. xv. 28, 29. V. but "tiadidit" for 

gis .. quasi peccatum." And, " aut victimas," and "dedit." ' 2 Sam. xxiv. 12, 13. V. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

'' arctatus tali conditione, et volens magis ' incidere in manus miscri- 
cordis Dei quam hominum,' lxx. millium populi sui strage humiliatur, 
ct, "^ni 'pro contribulibus, apostolicac charitatis aftcctu, ut illos plaga non 
tangeret mori optasset, diccndo : ' ^ Ego sum qui pcccavi, ego pastor 
inique egi : isti qui oves '•' sunt, quid '" peccarunt ? Vertatur obsccro 
manus Tua contra me, et contra domum patris mci,' inconsidcratam 
cordis " elacioncm propria morte piarct. Nam quid Scriptura in con- 
sequentibus de filio ejus narrat : ' • Fecit,' '- inquicns, ' Salomon quod 
non placuerat coram Domino, et non adimplevit ut sequeretur Do- 
minum sicut pater ejus.' ' "^ Dixit Dominus ad eum : Quia habuisti 
hoc apud te, et non custodisti pactum Mcum ct pnvccpta Mca qux 
mandavi tibi, disrumpens scindam regnum tuum et dabo illud servo 
tuo.' Quid duobus "sacrilegis, xquc ut isti sunt, Israel regibus Hicro- 
boae et " Baasae accidit, audite, quibus sentcntia Domini dirigitur per 
Prophetam ita '''dicentis : ' " Propter quod'" magnificavi te principem 
super Israel,' ' quia cxacerbaverunt Me in vanis eorum : ccce Ego 
" suscito post '■' Baasam et post domum ejus, et tradam domum ejus 
sicut domum Jerobox Nabath. Qui morruus fucrit de suis in ''ci- 
vitate comedent eum canes, ^et mortuum' corpus illius -'in campo 
comedent' volatilia coeli.' Qiiid illi qufKjuc scelerato regi Israel 
istorum commanipulari, - cujus coUudio et uxoris dolo Naboth in- 
nocens propter ^paternam vineam' oppressus est, sancto ore illius 
Heliae atque ignifero Domini alloquio instructo minatur, ita di- 
cente : ' " Occidisti insuper et possedisti ? et post hxc addes, Hxc 
dicit Dominus : In loco hoc in quo -' linxerunt canes sanguinem 
Naboth, lambent quoque tuum sanguinem.' Quod ita factum fuissc 
^certissima ratione cognitum est. Sed ne forte secundum supra- 
dictum Achab Pspiritus meudax loqucns ^vana in ore prophetarum 
vestrorum seducat vos, ne sermones Micheae Prophetae audiatis, 
' n Ecce pcrmisit Deus spiritum ^ mendacii in ore omnium pro- 
phetarum tuomm qui hie sunt, et Dominus locutus est contra te 
malum.' Nam et nunc certum est aliquos esse doctores contrario 
spiritu repletos, et magis pravam voluptatem quam veritatem asse- 

' artatus B. " deest V. vi i?. ■' deent B. ■" fecenint 1'. " elationem G.B.V. 

" inquirens B. '^ sacrilegiis B. *' Basse B. " dicens B. *" irritavi add. B. 

" suscitabo 1'. '" Basan 75. '" civitatem B. '^^ et mortuum lie B. ^'' corned, in canipo B. 
^ quasi B. '^' vin. pat. B. *' fluxerant B. ^'' certissime B. ^' vani B. " medacii B. 

^ 2 Sam. .xxiv. 17. V. but G. adds " pastor," " i Reg. xxi. 19. V. In Cod. Amiat., "tuum 

and has '' peccarunt"' for " fecenint." quoque sanguinem ;" V. pres. text, q. s. t. 

' I Reg. xi.6. Y. ButG. om.'' David" before p i Reg. xxii. 23. V. 

" pater," with Cod. Amiat. of V. 1 i Reg. xxii. 23. V. but " dedit" for " per- 

™ I Reg. \i. II. V. misit." 

" 1 Reg. xvi. 3, 3, 4. LXX. G. (I. caret.) 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

rentes : ■■ quorum verba ' super '-' oleum molliuntur, er ipsa sunt jacula ;' 
^ qui dicunt pax, pax, et non crit in peccatis -' permanentibus pax, uu 
alibi Propheta dicit : ' t Non esc gaudere impiis, dicit Dominus.' 
Azarias quoque filius *'Obed Asce' revertenti de caede decies ccntenum 
millium exercitus i^thiopum locutus ^' est, dicens : ' " Dominus vo- 
biscum est dum estis cum Ipso, et si exquisieriris Eum, invenietur a 
/obis: et si ^-'dereliquistis Eum, derelinquet vos.' Nam **si Josaphat 
^erens presidium iniquo regi, ita ab *'Jehu Propheta ^''Ananiae filio in- 
:repatur, dicente : ' -^ Si pcccatorem tu adjuvas, aut qucm Dominus 
:>dit, tu diligis ? propterea ira Dei est super tc;' quid illis, qui propriis 
;celerum suorum •'**criniculis compediuntur, fiet ? Qucirum "' nos neccsse 
:st, si in acic dominica volumus dimicare, peccata '^'odisse non animas, 
iicente Psalmista: ' > Qui diligitis Dominum, odite malum.' Quid ad 
mpradicti Josaphat filium, currus et auriga Israel Propheta Helias, 
foram '"'scilicet parricidam, qui cgregios fratres suos, ut pro ipsis reg- 
riaret, spurius trucidavit, eflFatus est? ' ^Sic dicit,' inquit, 'Dominus 
Deus patris tui David. Eo quod non ambulaveris in via*" Josaphat 
"patris tui', et in "viis Asae regis Juda, et ambulasti in viis regum Israel, 
:t "stuprose,' 'ut gessit domus "Achab, et fratres tuos filios Josaphat 
tneliores te interfecisti, ecce Dominus percutiet plaga magna tc, et 
ilios tuos.' [Et post pauca: '^Et tu eris in magna valetudine in 
languore ventris tui, donee exeat venter tuus cum ipsa infirmitate 
ie die ex die.'] Et ad Joam regem Israel, ut vos, derelinquentem 
Dominum, quid Zacharias filius ** Joiadse vatis minatus sit, attendite ; 
^ui ' b surgens " populo dixit: Hacc dicit Dominus: Quarc praeteritis 
prxcepta Domini et non ^' prosperamini ? Quia "dereliquistis Do- 
Prophetarum "linum, et derelinquet vos.' Quid de authore Prophe- 
Testimonia. tarum ^' EsaijE dicam ? '"qui prooemium "^ prophetia2 suae vel 
visionem ita exorsus est, dicens : ' ^ Audite cceli ^- et 
luribus' ■■* percipite terra, quoniam Dominus locutus est. Filios enu- 

*" olivi B. ^ remanentibus B. *' so V. Obed ad se Joss. G. Obez ad se B. ^' deesl G. 

* dereliqueritis V.B. ^ sic B. ■* Jeu B. ^' Annaniae B. * criniculus B. 
' vos B. ^ odire B. ^ deest B. *" patris add. B. ^>' desunt B. "=" via B. 
^ so V. stupore se Joss. G.B. ** Acab B. *' Joiada B. *^ a add. V. *'' speramini B. 

* dereliquisti B. '■'' Esaia V.G.B. '" quod B. '' prophetae B. ^'' auribus et G. 
^ percipe T'. 

' Psalm. Iv. 21. (liv. 22.) I. V. but, " molli- -^ 2 Chr. xix. 2. LXX. G. = S. Aug. Cont. Par- 

;runt," or " molliti sunt sennones ejus .. et ipsi" men. II. 0pp. IX. 51a. 

Sec. > Psalm, xmi. 10. (xcvi. 10.) V. but = Lucif. 

« Jer. vi. 14 ; viii. 1 1. V. Cal., Pro S. Athan. I. p. 133 c. 

' Esai. xlviii. 22 ; Ivii. 21. I. = Lucif. Cal., ^ 2 Chr. xxi. 12-14. LXX. G. but " et filios 

Pro S. Athan. I. p. 137 h., and S. Aug. Civ. Dei, tuos," from Hebr. 

XIV. 8. Opp. VII. 356 f, 357 b, &c. » a Chron. xxi. 15. LXX. G. 

" 3 Chr. XV. 2. LXX. G. fere = S. Aug. De ^ 2 Chron. xxiv. 20. LXX, G. 

Grat. Opp. X. 723 f. •• Esai. i. 2, 3. V. "percipe." 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

trivi et exaltavi, ipsi autcm spreverunt Me. Cognovit bos pos- 
sessorem suum, et asinus praesepe domini sui, Israel autem Me non 
cognovit, et populus Meus non intellexit.' [Et post pauca minas 
meritas tantx insipientix aptans ; ' '^ Derelinquetur,' inquit, ' filia 
Syon ut tabemaculum in vinea, ct sicut tugurium in cucumerario, 
sicut civitas quae ^' vastatur/ Et principcs specialiter conveniens 
ait : ' e Audite verbum Domini, principcs Sodomorum ; percipite 
legem Domini, populus Gomorrhae.' Notandum sane, quod iniqui 
reges principes Sodomorum vocentur. Prohibens namque Domi- 
nus sacrificia et dona '^'-Sibi a talibus' ofFerri, — et nos inhiantes susci- 
pimus quae Deo ab omni nationc sunt non placita, eadcmquc cgcnis 
et pene nihil habentibus distribui in pcrnicicm nostram non sininius, 
— cum latis ''^divitiis oneratis, sordibus pcccatorum intentis ait : 'f Ne 
afferatis ultra sacrihcium frustra ; inccnsum abominacio est Mihi.' 
Itemque denunciat : ' k Et cum cxtenderitis manus vestras, avertam 
oculos Meos a vobis, ct cum multiplicavcritis orationcm, non cx- 
audiam.' Et hoc quare facit ostcndit : ^ Manus,' inquicns, ' vestrae 
'"sanguine plenae' sunt.' Simulque ostcndcns quomodo placaretur ait: 
' h Lavamini, mundi estote, auferte malum cogitationum vestrarum ab 
oculis Meis, quicscite agerc perverse, discite bencfacere, quxrirc 
judicium, subvenite oppresso, judicate pupillo.' Quasi •'placoris vicissi- 
tudinem adjungens ait: ^ 'Si fuerint pcccata vestra ut coccinum, quasi 
nix dealbabuntur ^ ct si fuerint rubra quasi vcrmiculus, vclut lana alba 
erunt. Si volueritis et audieritis Me, bona terra; manducabitis. Quod 
si ^nolueritis et Me provocaveritis ad iracundiam, gladius devorabit 
vos.' Accipitc veraccm publicumque adstipulatorcm, boni malique 
vestri '' retributionem absque ullo adulationis fuco, non ut parasitorum 
venerata vestrorum vcnena in aures sibilant ora, testantem. Itemque 
ad rapaces judices sententiam dirigens ita affatur : 'kprjncipcs tui 
infideles, socii furum, omnes diligunt munera, scctantur retributiones, 
pupillo non judicant, causa viduae non ingreditur ad cos. Propter ''' hoc 
ait Dominus exercituum fortis Israel : Heu consolabor super host i bus 
Meis, et vindicabor de inimicis Meis:' ' Et ''^ conterentur scclerati et 
peccatores simul, et omnes qui dereliquerunt Dominum consumentur.' 

'^ vocatur B. ^' a talibus sibi B. ^ diccis B. ^' plen. sang. B. " prelatoris B. 

^ volueritis B. " retributione B. ^ hec B. * convertentur B. 

>' Esai. i.8. V. but " umbraculum" for " ta- h Esai. i. 16, 17. V. 

beniaculum," and, " et sicut civitas." ' Esai. i. 18-20. V. but " manducabitis" from I. 

" Esai. i. 10. V. " auribus legem Dei nostri." ^ Esai. i. 23, 24, 28. V. but " sequuntur . . et 

f Esai. i. 13. V. but " afferatis" = I. causa .. Dominus Deus .. conteret scelestos 

p Esai. i. 15. V. mul, et qui." 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

£c infra: ' ' Oculi ""sublimis hominis humiliabuntur, et *" incurvavit 
iltitudo virorum.' Et iterum : ' "^ Vse impio in malum, rctributio 
mim manuum ejus fiet ei.' Et post pauca : ' " Vse qui consurgitis 
Tiane ad ebrietatem "- scctandam, et ad potandum usque ad vesperam ut 
/ino sestuetis. Cithara, et lyra, et tympanum, et tibia, et vinum in 
:onviviis vestris- et opus Domini non respicitis, et opera manuum 
Ejus non consideratis. Propterea captivus ""ductus est populus Meus, 
|uia non habuit scientiam, et nobilcs ejus interierunt fame, et multi- 
:udo ejus *'siti exaruit. Propterea dilatavit infernus animam suam, et 
iperuit OS suum absque ullo termino, et '"descendent fortes ejus, et ""po- 
pulus ejus, et sublimes gloriosiquc ejus ad eum.' Et infra: ' "Yx qui 
potcntcs estis ad bibendum vinum, et viri fortes ad miscendam ebrieta- 
tem, qui justificatis impium pro muneribus, et justitiam justi aufertis ab 
eo. Propter hoc sicut devorat stipulam lingua ignis, et calor flammae 
exurit; "^^sic radix eorum quasi favilla crit, et germen eorum ^"ut pulvis 
asccndet. Abjecerunt enim legem Domini excrcituum, et eloquium 
Sancti Israel despexerunt/ ' In omnibus his non est '^^ aversus furor 
Domini, sed adhuc manus Ejus extenta.' Et pwst aliquanta, de die 
judicii et peccatorum incfFabili metu disceptans ait : ' v Ululate quia 
prope est dies Domini :' si tunc propc erat, quid nunc putabitur ? 
' quia '^" vastitas a Deo veniet'. Propter hoc omnes manus dissolventur, 
et omne cor hominis tabescet et conteretur, tortiones et dolores 
tenebunt, quasi parturiens dolebunt. Unusquisquc ad proximum 
suum stupebit j facies combustae vultus "' illorum. Ecce dies Domini 
veniet crudelis et indignationis plenus, et iras furorisque, ad ponen- 
dam '-terram in solitudinem, et peccatores ejus "^ conterendos de ea; 
"'quoniam stellae cceli et splendor earum non expandent lumen 
suum, obtencbrabitur '''sol in ortu suo, et luna non splendebit in 
tempore suo- et visitabo super orbis mala, et contra impios ini- 
quitatem ipsorum, et quiescere faciam superbiam infidelium, et arro- 
gantiam fortium humiliabo/ Et ^iterum : ' q Ecce Dominus dissi- 
pabit terram, et nudabit eam, et affliget faciem ejus, et disperget 
habitatores ejus, et erit sicut populus sic sacerdos, et sicut scrvus 
sic dominus ejus, sicut ancilla sic domina ejus, sicut emens sic ille 

^ deest B. '^ so in Joss. G.B. •» sectandum B. ^ deest B. "» deest B. •« de- 

scendemnt B. ** populi B. ^'^ si B. ^ quasi B. * adversus B._ '"'' vastita a Deo 

veniatur B. ^ eonim B. " deeit B. ^ convertendos B. ''* quo B. " deest B. 

' Esai. ii. II. V. "sublimes . . humiliati sunt p Esai.xiii. 6-II. V. but " quasi vastitas a Do- 

.. incurvabitur." "> Esai. iii, II. V. mino .. contabescet . . vultus eorum . . obtenebra- 

" Esai. V. 11-14. V. " et potandum .. nee tus est .. splendebit in lumine suo . . iniqnitatem 

opera m. E. consideratis." eorum." 

" Esai. V. 22-25. V. '• Israel blasphemaverunt." 'i Esai. xxiv. 1-6. V. "is qui mutuuni." 


[Gild. Epist. a. a.d. 547.J 

qui vendit, sicut foenerator sic ille qui ''^mutuum accipit', sicut qui 
repetit sic qui debet. Dissipatione dissipabitur terra, et direp- 
tione praedabitur. Dominus enim locutus est verbum hoc : Luxit 
et defluxit terra/ 'defluxit orbis, infirmata est' 'ab habitatoribus 
suis, quia transgressi sunt leges, mutaverunt jus, dissipaverunt foedus 
sempiternum. Propter hoc malcdictio vorabit terram.' Et infra : 
' r '"Ingemiscent omnes qui Ifetantur cordc, ''' cessavit gaudium tym- 
panorum, quiescet sonitus laecantium, "'^ conticescet dulcedo citharse, 
cum cantico non bibent vinum, amara erit potio bibcntibus illam. 
Attrita est civitas vanitatis, clausa est omnis domus nullo intro- 
euntc. Clamor erit super vino in plateis, deserta est omnis loeti- 
tia, translatum est gaudium terrae, relicta est in urbe solitudo, ct 
calamitas opprimet portas j quia haec erunt in medio tcrrx et in 
medio populorum.' Et post pauca : ' s Prarvaricantes pracvaricati 
'''■* sunt, et pra^varicationc transgressorum pracvaricati' sunt. Formido, 
et foveac, et laqucus super tc qui habitator es terrae. Et erit, qui 
fugerit a voce formidinis, cadet in foveam, et qui se explicuerit de 
fovea, tenebitur laquco: quia cataractae dc ""excclsis apertac crunt, et 
"' concuticntur fundamcnta terrae. Confractionc confringctur terra,' 
'commotione commovebitur,' ' agitationc agitabitur* * sicut cbrius, et 
auferetur quasi tabernaculum unius noctis, et gravabit eam iniquitas 
''-sua, et corruct, et non "'adjiciet ut resurgat. Et erit, in die ilia 
visitabit Dominus super militiam cceli in excelso, ct super reges terrae 
qui sunt super terram, et '* congregabuntur in' congrcgationem unius 
fascis in laaim, et claudenrur ibi in carccrem, et post multos dies visi- 
tabuntur. Et crubcscct luna, et confundctur sol, cum regnaverit Domi- 
nus exercituum in monte ^''Syon ct in Jerusalem, et ""^ in conspectu' 
senum Suorum fuerit glorificatiis.' Et post aliquanta, rationem reddens 
quamobrem talia'" minaretur, ita ait : ' ' Ecce non est abbreviata manus 
Domini ut salvare nequeat, neque aggravata est auris Ejus ut non 
exaudiat. Sed iniquitates vestrae diviserunt inter vos et Deum 
vestrum, et peccata vestra absconderunt faciem Ejus a vobis ne 
cxaudiret. Manus enim vestra? poUutac sunt sanguine, et digiti vestri 
iniquitate : labia vestra locuta sunt mendacium, et lingua vestra 

7"'' acxipit mutuiim B. '* i^o G. ingemissent Joss. B. ^ so Joes. G.B. " conticessent G. 

"' desunt B. '^ excelsus B. ^ confiindentur B. ^ deest J!. *^ adiciet B, 

**' congreg. in bis B. ''* Sion G.B. '^'' conspectum B. " miri ad<l. E. 

' Esai. xxiv. 1-1^. V. but, " ingemuerant . . plicaverit, .. apertae sunt« . in carcere." 
l^tabantur . . quievit . . conticuit . . terrae in." ' Esai. lix. I-4. ^^ but, " invocet .. nihilo . . 

' Esai. x.\iv. 16-23. ^ • ''"'• "' '^^ fovea, .. ex- conceperunt laborem." 


[Gild. Epist. a. a.d, 547 ] 

niquitatem fatur. Non est qui vocet justitiam, ncque est qui judicet 
'ere, sed confidunt in nihil, et loquuntur vanitates, et concepcrunt 
lolorem, et *"* pepererunt iniquitatem.' "' Et infra': '"Opera eorum 
nutilia, et opus iniquitatis in manibus eorum. ""Pedes eorum in ma- 
um currunt, et festinant ut cffundant sanguinem innocentcm. Co- 
jitationes eorum cogitationes inutiles, vastitas et contritio in viis 
'orum,' et ' viam pacis non cognoverunt, et non est judicium in gres- 
ibus eorum. Semitx '' eorum incurvatas sunt eis ; omnis qui calcat in 
;is, ignorat pacem. Propter hoc elongatum est judicium a vobis, et 
ion apprehendit vos justitia.' Et post pauca : '^cEt conversum est 
etrorsum judicium, et justitia longe stetit, quia corruit in platea vcri- 
as, et xquitas non potuit ingredi. Et facta est Veritas in oblivione, 
rt qui recessit a malo, praedx patuit. Et vidit Dominus et non placuit 
n oculis Ejus, quia non est judicium.' Hucusquc Esaice Prophetar 
)auca de multis dixissc sufficiat.] Nunc vero ilium, qui priusquam 
-formaretur in utero praescitus, et priusquam exiret de vulva sancti- 
jeremias. ficatus ct in cunctis gcntibus Propheta positus est, Jere- 
niam scilicet, quid de populo insipiente rigidisque regibus pronuncia- 
/crit, parumper attendentes audite, hoc modo leniter verba initiantem : 
yEt factum est ''^ verbum Domini ad me dicens- Vade et clania in 
uiribus Jerusalem,' et dices : ' Audite vcrbum Domini domus Jacob, et 
)mncs cognationes domus Israel. Hxc dicit Dominus : Quid invene- 
unc "in Me patres vestri '"'iniquitatis, qui elongati sunt a Me, et am- 
)ulaverunt post vanitatem, et vani facti sunt, et non dixerunt, Ubi 
-St Qui ascendere nos fecit de terra y^gypti?' [Et post pauca: ^^A 
eculo confregisti jugum Meum, rupisti vincula Mea, dixisti non 
lerviam.' ' Ego plantavi te vineam electam, omne semen verum. 
" Quomodo ergo conversa es in pravum vinea aliena ? Si laveris te 
litro et multiplicaveris tibi herbam borith, maculata es iniquitate tua 
:oram Me, dicit Dominus.' Et infra: 'aQujd "vultis Mecum' judicio 
:ontendere ? Om.nes Me dereliquistis, dicit Dominus. Frustra per- 
:ussi lilios vestros, disciplinam non receperunt.' 'Audite verbum 
Domini: Nunquid solitudo factus sum Israel, aut terra serotina? 
;!^uare ergo dixit populus Meus, Recessimus, non veniemus ultra ad 

^ peperunt B. ^ demnt B. * et add. B. ^^ igitur B. ^ conciperetur B. 

^ deest B. ^ deed B. ^' iniquitates G. '■^' Quo B. '"' Mecum vultis B. 

" Esai. lix. 6-9. V. but, " ad malum .. pacis runt . . ubi est Dominus." 
lescierunt .. a nobis .. apprehendet nos." ^ Jer. ii. 20-22. V. but, " et dixisti .. con- 

* Esai, li.x. 14, 15. V. but, " in oblivionem.. versa es Mihi . . in iniquitate." 
;t malum apparuit in oculis." ■'' Jer. ii. 29-32. V. but, " Videte verbum , . 

> Jer. ii. I, 2. 4-6. V. but, '• quia elongave- Israeli .. obliviscetur . . oblitus est Mei." 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547] 
Te ? Nunquid obliviscitur virgo ornamenti sui, aut sponsa '■" fasciar 
pectoralis suae ? Populus vero Meus oblitus est Me diebus innumeris/ 
'l>Quia stultus est populus Meus, Me non cognovit: '■'filii insipientes 
sunt, et vecordes : sapientes sunt ut faciant mala, bene autem facerc 
nescierunt.' Turn Propheta ex sua persona loquitur dicens: 'cDomine 
oculi Tui respiciunt fidem; percussisti eos et non doluerunt, attrivisti 
eos et renuerunt accipere disciplinam; induraverunt facies suas super 
petram, et noluerunt reverti.' Itemque Dominus: ' ^^ Annunciate hoc 
domui Jacob, et auditum facite in Juda dicentes : Audi popule stulte 
qui non habes cor, qui habentes oculos non videtis, et aures et non 
auditis. Me ^ ergo non timebitis, ait Dominus, et a facie Mea non 
dolebitis. Qui posui - arenam terminum mari, prseceptum *sempiternum 
quod non prarteribitj et commovebuntur et non ^j>)tcrunt, intu- 
mescent Huctus ejus, et non transibunt illud. Populo autem huic factum 
est cor incredulum et exaspcrans, recesserunt et abierunr, et non dix- 
erunt in corde suo, Metuamus Dominum Deum nostrum.' Et iterum : 
'«>Q£ia inventi sunt in populo Meo impii insidiantes quasi aucupcs, 
laqueos ponentes et pedicas ad capiendos viros. Sicut decipula plena 
avibus, sic domus eorum plenze dolo: ideo magnihcati sunt et ditati, 
'^'incrassati sunt et impinguati", et prcctericrunt scrmoncs Meos pessime,' 
' causam pupilli non dixerunt, et judicium paujx^rum non judicaverunt. 
Nunquid super his non ' visitabo? dicit Dominus: aut super gcntem 
hujusmodi non ulciscctur anima Mea?' Scd absit ut vobis ^'eveniat 
quod '•' sequitur : ' 'Loquere ad eos omnia verba hsec et non audient te, 
et vocabis eos et non respondebunt tibi, et dices ad eos : Haec est 
gens, quae non audivit vocem Domini Dei sui, nee recipit discipli- 
namj periit fides, et '"ablata est de ore eorum.' Et post aliquanta: 
'gNunquid qui cadit non resurgit, et qui " aversus est non revertetur? 
Quare ergo aversus est populus iste in Jerusalem aversione conten- 
tiosa? Apprehenderunt ^'-mendatium, et noluerunt reverti. Attendi 
et ^'auscultavi : nemo quod bonum est kxjuitur; '*nullus est qui agat 
pcenitentiam ^'' super peccato suo, dicens. Quid feci ? '* Omnes conversi 
sunt ad cursum suum, quasi equus impetu vadens in praelium. Milvus 

'" fascia G. * fili B. » autem B. 2 arenum B. ^ deest B. * so B. potu- 

erunt .lost. G. * et crassati B. * sunt add. B. ' iudicabo B. « eveniet /{. 

^ subsequitur B. '" oblado B. " adversus B. >2 mendacium G.B. " ascultavi B. 
^* nemo B. ^'' suani add. B. "^ peccavi add. B. 

" Jer. iv. 22. V. " stultus populus." f Jer. vii. 27, 28. V. " Loqueris . . recepit." 

Jer. V. 3. V. " supra." *t jgr. viii. 4-7. V. " resurget . . ad prselium 

d Jer. V. 20-24. V. " et intumescent." . . autem Meus . . Domini." 
* Jer. V, 26-29. \. " pnpilli non direxenint." 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

1 coelo cognovit tempus suum, turcur ct hirundo et ciconia custo- 
ierunt "'tempus advcntus sui', populus Meus non cognovit '^judicium 
)ei.' Et "* tarn vehementi sacrilegiorum cascitate et ineff-abili ebrietate 
ropheta '•' conterritus, et deflens eos qui seipsos non deflebant, ut et 
unc infcelices tyranni agunt, optat sibi auctionem fletuum a Domino 
;ncedi, hoc modo dicens : ' '^ Super contritione hliae populi mei con- 
itus sum:' 'stupor obtinuit me. -"Nunquid resina non est in Galaad, 
Jt medicus non est ibi ? Quare ergo non obducta est cicatrix hli-£ 
;)puli mei? 'Quis dabit -' capiti meo aquam, et oculis meis fontem 
chrymarum, et plorabo die et nocte interfectos populi mei? Quis 
ibit' mihi in solitudine "diversorium viatorum, et derclinquam popu- 
im meum, et rccedam ab eis, -^quia omnes adulteri sunt, coetus prae- 
iricatorum ? Et extenderunt '* linguam suam quasi arcum' mendacii 
: non veritatis : confortati sunt in terra, quia de malo ad malum 
^ressi 'sunt, et Me non cognovcrunt dicit Dominus.' Et iterum : 
i^Et dixit Dominus : Quia dereliquerunt legem Meam quam dedi 
is, et non audierunt vocem Meam, et non ambulaverunt in ea; et 
jicrunt post pravitatem cordis sui :' ' idcirco hcec dicit Dominus exer- 
tuum Deus Israel : ■ ' Ecce Ego cibabo populum istum absynthio, et 
Dtum dabo eis aquam fellis.' Et post pauca, quod etiam crebrius 
ylo Propheta adjunxit, dicens ex persona Dei : ' 'Tu '-'' ergo noli' orare 
ro populo hoc, et ne assu^as pro eis laudem et orationem, quia non 
caudiam in tempore clamoris eorum ad Me, et afflictionis eorum.' 
[uid ergo nunc infausri duces facient? lUi pauci -^ invenientes viam 
igustam, amota spaciosa, prohibiti a Deo ne preces pro vobis fundant 
^rseverantibus in malis, et tantoperc incitantibus j -"queis e contrario 
c corde ad Deum repedantibus, Deo nolente animam hominis inter- 
e, sed retractante, ne penitus pereat qui abjectus est, vindictam non 
)tuissent inducere, quia nee Jonas, et quidem cum multum concupi- 
;rit, '^ Ninivitis Propheta. Sed omissis interim nostris, audiamus 
xius quid prophetica tuba persultet : ' "i Quod si dixeris,' inquiens, 
in corde tuo, Quare venerunt mala hsec ? Propter multitudinem 
liquitatis tuae.' ' Si mutare potest v^thiops pellem suam, aut pardus 
irietates suas, et vos poteritis benefacere, cum •^'' didiceritis malum j' 

'*^' adv. sui tempus B. ^^ deest B. ^ '* cum B. ^ contritus B. -" nun erased in B. 

dt^sunt B. " diverse B. -^ qn B. -*' arcum suum B. ^' Ego B. 2°' noli 

10 B. ^ \avente B. '■'^ quis B. ^ Ninevetis B. " sic G.B. didisceritis Joss. 

h Jar. viii. 21,22. V. " quare igitur." ^ Jer. ix. 13-15. V. 

' Jer. ix. 1-3. V. ■■ ac nocte . . filije populi ' Jer. xi. 14. V. " Me in tempore afflict." 

ei .. dabit Me." m Jer. xiii. 22, 23. V. " veneruiu mihi hsec," 

VOL. I. F 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

subauditur, quia non vultis. Et infra: '"Hicc dicit Dominus populo 
huic : qui dilexit movere pedes suos et non quievit, et Domino ^''non 
placuit : nunc recordabitur iniquitatum eorum, et visitabit peccata 
eorum. Et dixit Dominus '^ ad me : Noli orare pro populo isto in 
bonum. Cum jejunaverint, non cxaudiam preces eorum : et si obtu- 
lerint holocausta et victimas, non suscipiam ea.' Et iterum : ' °Et 
dixit Dominus' ad me : Si steterit Moyses et Samuel coram Me, non 
est anima Mea ad populum istum : "''-ejice illos a facie Mea et egrc- 
diantur.' Et post pauca : ' pQuis "miserebitur tui Jerusalem, aut quis 
contristabitur pro tc, aut quis ibit ad rogandum pro pace tua? Tu 
reliquisti Me, dicit Dominus, et rctrorsum '^abiisti; et extcndam 
manum Meam super ic, ct intcrhciam tc' Et post aliquanta: 'hHccc 
dicit Dominus : Ecce Ego fingo contra vos' * cogitationcm : rcvcrtatur 
unusquisque a via sua mala, ct dirigite vias vestras et studia vestra. 
Quj dixerunt : Despcramus; post cogitationcs nostras ibimus, cl unus- 
quisque pravitatem cordis sui mali facicmus. Ideo hxc dicit Domi- 
nus: Interrogate gcntcs, quis audivit talia horribilia quae fecit nimis 
virgo Israel ? Nunquid dehciet dc petra agri nix ''' Libani, aut velli 
possunt aqua- erumpentes frigidx deflucntes? quia oblitus est Me 
populus Mcus.' Et post aliquanta, optionc proposita loquitur dicens: 
*■ ""Hire dicit Dominus: F;icitc judicium et justitiam, ct ^liberate vi *'op- 
pressum de manu' "'' calumniatoris, et adven^m ct pupillum ct viduam 
nolite contristarc, ncque opprimatis inique, et sanguincm innoccntcm 
ne effundatis.' 'Si cnim facientcs feceritis vcrbum istud, ingredicntur 
per portas domus hujus reges sedentes de gcnerc David super •" thro- 
num ejus/ ' Quod si non audieritis verba base, *'in Mcmetipso juravi, 
dicit Dominus, quia in solitudinem erit domus hare' Et iterum, de rcge 
enim scelesto loquebatur: '^Vivo Ego dicit Dominus, quia si fuerit 
Jechonias' 'annulus in manu dextra Mea, inde evellam cum et dabo in 
Abacuc. manu quarrcntium animam ejus/] Sanctus quoquc " Abacuc 
proclamat dicens: ' 'Vae qui xdihcant civitatem in sanguine, et prae- 
parant civitatem *'- in iniquitatibus, dicentes : Nonne hsec sunt a 
Domino omnipotcnte? Et dcfccerunt popuii multi in igne, et gentes 

*> suo add. B. ^' desunt B. « ejece B. » miseretur B. ^ abisti B. " la- 

bani B. ^ liberati B. ^' desunt B. *^ calumniatores B. ^ tronum B. *" inveniel 
ipso B. *' Abakuc B. *^ deest B. 

" Jer. xiv. lo-i 2. V. " holocautomata." nostras . . evelli . . et defluentes . . oblitus est Mei." 
" Jer. XV. I. V. r Jer. xxii. 3-5, V. 

r Jer. x^-. 5, 6. ^^ " Quis enim .. Dom. re- ■ Jer. xxii. 24, 25. A'. 

trorsum." t Abacuc ii. 12 LXX. (= neither Vatic, nor 

'' Jer. xviii. II-15. \. " Desperavimiis .. enim Alex. MS.) G. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

lult^e minoratse sunt.' Et ita prophetiam quarrulus incipit : * "Usque- 
uo clamabo et non exaudies? vociferabor ad Tc' ' Ut quid mihi dedisti 
ibores et dolores inspicere, miseriam et impietatem ? [* Contra 
t factum est judicium, et judex accepit. Propter hoc dissipata est 
:x, ct non perducitur ad finem judicium : quia impius per potentiam 
cprimit justum. Propter hoc exiit judicium pervcrsum.'J Scd et bcatus 

Osee. Osee Propheta, attendite quid loquatur de principibus, 
icens : ' yPro eo quod ^transgressi sunt' pactum Meum, et adversus 
.'gem Meam tulcrunt, ct exclamabant: Cognovimus Te, quia adversum 
is Israel. Bonum ut iniquum persecuti sunt. ^Sibi regnaverurrt, et 
on per Me: tcnuerunt principatum, *^nec Me agnoverunt'.' Sed et 

Amos. sanctum ^'Amos Prophetam hoc modo minantcm ^'^audite: 
■'In tribus impictatibus hliorum Juda, et in quatuor non avertam eos, 
iropter quod rcpulcrunt legem Domini, ct prarccpta non custodierunt, 
ed scduxcrunt ''eos vana corum.' ' Et emittam igncm super Judam, et 
omcdet fundamenta Jerusalem. l>Ha:c dicit Dominus : In tribus 
mpietatibus Israel, ct in quatuor non avertam eos, propter quod 
radiderunt ^-pecunia ^"justum, et pauperem pro calciamentis, qux cal- 
iant super pulverem terrae, et colaphis caedebant capita pauperum, 
t viam humilium declinaverunt.' [Et post pauca : ' cQugerite Domi- 
lum et 'Vivetis, ut non reluceat sicut ignis domus Joseph, et comedat 
am, nee erit qui extinguat domus Israel.' 'dQdio habuerunt in portis 
L-dargucntcm, et verbum justum abominati sunt.' Qui Amos pro- 
libitus ne prophetaret in Israel, absque adulationis ^^ tepore respon- 
ens: '^Non cram,' inquit, 'ego Propheta nee filius Prophetae, sed 
ram pastor caprarius vellicans sycomoros, et suscepit me Dominus 
b ovibus, et dixit Dominus ad me : Vade et prophetiza in plebem 
/leam Israel, et nunc audi verbum Domini,' regem namque alloque- 
atur : ' Tu dicis, noli prophetare in Israel, et non congreges turbas 
n domum Jacob. Propter quod haec dicit Dominus : Uxor tua in 
ivitate meretricabitur, et filii tui et filiae tuse gladio cadent, et terra 
Lia funiculo metietur, et tu in terra immunda morieris : Israel autem 

*^ transgressunt B. **' nee Me cognovenint Y. nee agnoverunt B. *' Annos B. 

attendite B. *'' deest B. ^ pecuniam B. ^ in add. B. ™ invenietis B. 

tempore B. 

" Abaeue i. 2, 3. LXX. G. " Amos ii. 4, 5. LXX. G. MS. Vatie. but 

"^ Abacuc i. 3, 4. LXX. G. partim = Lueif. " avertam eos," MS. Alex, 
al., Pro S. Athan. I. p. 135 e. ^ Amos ii. 6, 7. LXX. G. 

> Ose. viii. 1-3. G. eorresponding with neither '^ Amos v. 6. LXX. G. MS. Vatic, 

[ebr., LXX., nor Vuls;. "i Amos v. 10. LXX. G. 

^ Ose. viii. 4. LXX. G. <^ Amos vii. 14-17. LXX. G. 

F % 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

captivus ducetur a terra sua.' £t infra: ' fAudite itaque hsec, qui 
contribulatis "immane pauperem, et dominationem exercetis in inopes 
super terram • qui dicitis, Quando transibit mensis ut acquiramus, et 
sabbata ut ^ aperiamus thesauros.' Et post pauca : ' ?Jurat Dominus 
^'* contra superbiam Jacob, si •'■' obliviscetur in contemptione opera vcs- 
tra, et in his non conturbabitur terra, et lugebit omnis qui commorabi- 
tur in ea, et ascendet sicut flumcn consummatio :' ' •' et convertam dies 
festos vestros in luctum,''et '"injiciam in omnem lumbum ciliciuni, et 
in omne caput decalvationem, et ponam eum sicut luctum dilccti, et 
"eos, qui cum eo sunt, sicut diem ma*roris.' Et iterum : ' iGladio mori- 
entur omnes peccatores populi Mei, qui dicunt : Non appropinquabunt 
Micheas. neque venient super -"^ nos mala/] Sed et sanctus Micheas 
vates, attendite quid sit eftatus: 'JAudi,' inquiens, ' tribus. Et quid 
exornabit civitatem ? nunquid ignis, et domus iniquorum thesaurizans 
in thesauros iniquos, et cum injuria injustitiam ? Si justihcabitur in 
statera iniquus, et in '"'sacello pondera dolosa, ex quibus divitias suas 
Sophonias. in impic'tatc rcplevcrunt.' Sed et Sophonias Prophcta 
clarus, '^' quas min:is cxaggerat, audite; '•'Prope est,' inquit, 'dies 
Domini magnus, propc et velox valde. Vox '' diei Domini amara con- 
stituta est ct potcns, dies irse dies ille, dies tribulationis et necessi- 
tatis, dies nubis ct nebulae, dies tubse et clamoris, dies miscriae et 
exterminationis, dies tenebrarum ct caliginis, super civitatcs firmas 
[et super angulos excelsos. Et contribulabo homines, et ibunt sicut 
cjeci, quia Domino peccaverunt, et cftundam sanguinem sicut pulve- 
rem, et carnes eorum sicut fimum '- bourn, ct argentum eorum ct aurum 
non poterit eximcre eos in die irx Domini. Et in igne zcli Ejus 
consumctur omnis terra, quando consummationcm ct '"^solitudinem 
faciet Dominus super omnes commorantes 'Mn terram. 'Convcnite 
et conjungimini gens indisciplinata, priusquam efficiamini sicut 
flos prasteriens, priusquam veniat super vos ira Domini.'] Et quid 
Aggxus. Aggasus sanctus Prophcta dicat, attendite: ""Hacc dicit 
Dominus : Semel Ego movebo ccelum, et terram, et '^mare, et' '"''■aridum,' 

•'» in mane B. ^ recipiamus B. '^ super B. " obliscetur B. ^ inimiciciam B. 

*' in add. B. ^ vos B. » saccello G. *> qua B. «' Dei V.B. "=' bo^•um B. 

® desolationem B. ^* super B. '^' desunf B. * aridam 77. 

f Amos viii. 4, 5. LXX. MS. Alex. G. " im- =S. Hieron. in loc. 

mane" = «Is rd irpQit. k Zeph. i. I4-18. LXX. G. but the clauses dif- 

R Amos \\\\. 7, 8, 10. LXX. G. " in contemp- ferently arranged ; and in ver. 18, for " quando," 

bont" — (Is viKOi. and •• solitudinem." LXX. has " 5i(5ti . . awou- 

h = S. Cypr., Testim. IL 23 p. 46; and Hen. D^v" and Vulg. " quia . . cum festinatione." 

Hunt. M. H. B. 753. i Zeph. ii. i, 2. LXX. G. 

' Amos ix. 10. LXX. G. m Agg. ii. 6 (7). LXX. G. 

) Mich. vi. 9-12. LXX. G. : MS. Alex, fere 


[Gild. Epist. a. a.d. 547.] 

"et avcrtam "regnum, ct cxtcrminabo virtutem regum gentium, et 
Zacharias. avertam quadrigas ct ascensores.' Nunc quoque quid Zacha- 
ias filius Addo " Prophcta electus dixerit, intuemini, hoc modo pro- 
>hetiam suam exordiens : ' "Rcvertimini ad Me, et revertar ad vos, 
licit Dominus : ct nolite talcs esse sicut patres vestri, quibus impu- 
avcrunt Prophetae priores dicentes : Haec dicit Dominus omnipo- 
cns : Avertitc vos a viis vcstris :' ' ct non intenderunt ut'^'obaudi- 
cnt Mc' [Et infra: ' I'Et dixit ad me' Angelus : 'Quid tu vides? Et 
lixi : Falccm '"'"ego video volantcm longitudinis cubitorum viginti.' 
Maledictio quae procedit super faciem totius terrae : quoniam omnis 
ur ex ca usque ad mortem punictur,' ' et projiciam cum '"dicit Domi- 
lus omnipotens, et intrabit in domum ^''ifuroris, et in domum' ""juratio 
MaJachias. nis in nominc Meo mendacium/] Sanctus quoque Mala- 
hias Prophcta dicit: 'sEcce dies Domini veniet succensa quasi cami- 
lus, et crunt omncs supcrbi, ct omncs facientes iniquitatcm '-'ut sti- 
•ula, ct inHammabit cos dies adveniens, " ' Dominus cxcrcituum, qu^e non 
Job. rclinquct ex eis radicem et germcn.' Sed ct sanctus Job, 
ttcndite quid de '' principio impiorum' et fine disccptaverit, dicens : 
'Propter "'quid impii vivunt, et senucrunt '" "inhoneste : et semen eo- 
um secundum desiderium eorum, et filii eorum ante conspectum eorum, 
t domus eorum fructuosae ''^ sunt, et timor nunquam, nee plaga Domini 
St super COS. Vacca eorum non abortivit, et praegnans eorum per- 
ulit partum, ct non erravit, sed " permanct sicut oves aeternse. Et 
lueri eorum gaudent, et psalterium sumentes et ''' cytharam,' ' finierunt 
n bonis vitam suam, in requiem infcrorum dormierunt.' '^'Nunquid 
)eus facta impiorum non respicit ? Non ergo : sed lucerna im- 
iorum extinguetur, et superveniet eis eversio, ct dolores tanquam 
arturientis eos ab ira tenebunt. Et erunt sicut palex a vento, et 
icut pulvis, quem abstulit turbo. [Deficiant filiis ejus bona.' ' Videant 
culi ejus *"' occisionem suam, nee a Domino resalvetur.' Et post ali- 
uanta de ^' eisdem : ' «" Qui gregem,' inquit, ' cum pastore rapuerunt, et 

** sedes regum V. '^ Zacharia B. *" obaudiret B. '^ deest B. "" ait B. 

' demnt B. " et B. " dicit add. V. '*' principiorum B. impiorum deest V. 

quod G.B. "'"■ in honeste B. '^ deest B. '" non permanent B. ™ citharam B. 

IJona, Videant oculi ejus add. G. ^ iisdem G. 

" Agg. ii. 22 (23). LXX. G. but " avertam" * Job. xxi. 7-13. LXX. (part. MS. Vatic, part. 

3is\ and " regnum," correspond neither to Hebr., MS. Alex.) G. but " permanet" = //€'j'oi;o-|. 

XX., nor Vulg. " in honestate ? iv ir\ovrcp LXX. 

" Zachar. i. 3, 4. LXX. G. ^- Job. xxi. 16-20. LXX. G. 

p Zachar. v. 2. LXX. G. MS. Vatic. " job. xxiv. 2-4, 6, 7. LXX. MS. Vatic. G. 

'1 kg. furis. "" kg. jurantis. fere = MS. Maj. Mon. of L but " via necessitatis" 

~ Malach. iv. i. V. but, "dies veniet .. im- = 65o0 8jKa/oj, and " potentium" = dfff /3w«'. 
ietatem stipuia . . veniens . . derelinquet eis." 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

jumcntum orphanorum abduxerunt, et bovem viduae ■- pignoraverunt, 
^' et dcclinaverunt "imponentes a via' necessitatis.' 'Agrum ante tem- 
pus non suum demessi sunt, paupercs potentium vineas sine mercede 
et sine cibo operati sunt, nudos multos dormire fecerunt sine vesti- 
mentis, tegmen animx eorum abstulerunt.' Et post pauca, ' v^um ergo 
sciret eorum opera, tradidit eos in tenebras :' ' maledicatur ergo pars 
ejus a terra, *** pariant plantationes ejus aridx.' ' '^Rctribuatur ergo illi 
sicut egit, contribulctur omnis iniquus sicut lignum sine sanitate/ 
'yin iracundia enim surgens impotentem evertit. Proptcrea enim non 
credet de vita sua; cum infirmari coepcrit, non spcrct sanitatem, sed 
cadet in languorem. Multos enim Ixsit superbia ejus, ct marcidus 
factus est sicut malva in aestu, velut spica cum de "'stipula sua ''"de- 
cidit.' Et infra: '^Quod si multi "fuerint filii ejus, in occisionem 
erunt,' 'Quod et si ""* collexcrit ut terram argentum, et similiter 
ut lutum "" pratrparaverit aurum : hxc omnia justi consequuntur/] 
a Esdras. Quid prxtcrea bcatus Esdras Propheta ille bibliotheca 
legis minatus sit attcnditc, hex; modo disccptans : '^Hacc dicit Do- 
minus mcus : Non '" parcct dextcra Mca super pcccantcs, nee ces- 
sabit romphxa super cfhindentes sanguincm innocuum super ter- 
ram. Exibit ignis ab ira Mca, ct dcvorabit fundamcnta terrx et 
peccatores quasi stramen incensum. Vx cis qui peccant, et non 
observant mandata Mea, dicit Dominus, non parcam illis. Disce- 
dite filii ''apostatx, et nolite contaminare sanctificationem Meam. 
Novit Deus qui ^' peccant in Eum, propterea tradct eos in mortem, 
et in occisionem. Jam enim venerunt super orbcm terrarum mala' 
multa. ' c Immissus est gladius vobis ignis, et quis est qui recutiet 
ea ? [Nunquid recutiet aliquis leonem esurientem in silva ? aut 
nunquid extinguet ignem cum stramen incensum fuerit?' * Do- 
minus Dcus mittet mala, et quis est qui recutiet ea ? ct ■'- exibit 
ignis ex iracundia Ejus, et quis " extinguet eum ? Coruscabit, et 
quis non timebit ? tonabit, et quis non horrebit ? Deus cuncta mina- 
bitur, et quis non terrebitur ? A facie Ejus tremet terra, et fundamcnta 

^ pigneraverunt B. ^' desunl B. " pareant B. *•'' spicula B. "" cecidit B, 

^ fuerunt B. ** coUegerit V.O. ^ so G. raraverit Joss. B. * pareet B. **' p«cavit B. 

^ exiet B. »' qui add. B. 

" hg. impofentes. aBwdrovs LXX. (Ttv ;" and I., " consequfiitur." 

^ Job. xxiv. 14, iS, 19. LXX. G. but " pa- ■'' 2 Efdr. xv. 21-27. Vet. Lat. ap. Vulg., 

riant" = " ava(pave'fq.'' with trifling variations. 
^ Job. xxiv. 20. LXX. G. "' Iff/, a potestate. 

> Job. xxiv. 22-24. LXX. G. <■ 2 Esdr. xvi. 3-6,8-12. Vet. Lat. ap. Vulg, 

'■ Job. xx-vii. 14, 16, 17. LXX. MS. Alex. G. with considerable variations. 

But for '• consequuntur," LXX. have " Kadf^ov- 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 
Ezechiel. maris fluctuantur de '•'* profundo/] Ezcchicl qiioque Pro- 
heta egregius, tJquatuorquc evangelicorum '■' 'animalium mirandus '"in- 
pector, quid de sceleratis edixerit, attendite, cui primum Dominus 
liserabiliter plagam Israel deflenti ait: 'ejniquitas domus Israel et 
lida invaluit nimis, quia impleta est terra iniquitate et immunditia. 
xce Ego sum. f Non parcet oculus Meus neque miserebor/ Et 
ifra : 'gQuoniam terra plena populis, et civitas plena iniquitate 
St : et avcrtam impctum virtutis eorum, et polluentur sancta eorum. 
Ixoratio veniet, et quxret pacem, et non erit.' Et post aliquanta : 
^Factus est,' inquit, ' sermo Domini ad me diccns : Fili hominis, 
srra quae peccaverit Mihi ut delinquat delictum, cxtendam manum 
in eam', et conteram ejus ^* firmamentum panis, et emittam in earn 
imem, et tollam de ea hominem, et pecora. Et si sint tres viri isti 
ti medio ejus '•''' Noe, Daniel, et Job, non liberabunt eam, sed ipsi in 
ua justitia salvi erunt, dicit Dominus. Quf)d si etiam bestias malas 
nducam super terram et puniam illam, et erit in exterminium, et 
lon erit qui iter faciat a facie bestiarum ^ et tres viri isti in medio 
jus ' sint, vivo Ego dicit Dominus, si - filii et tiliae ejus liberabuntur, 
ed ipsi soli salvi erunt, terra autem erit ^ in interitum'.' Et iterum : 
•Filius non accipiet injustitiam patris, neque pater ^accipiet injusti- 
iam filii. Justitia justi super Mpsum erit.' 'Et iniquus si avertat 
e ab ''omnibus iniquitatibus quas fecit, et custodiat omnia mandata 
k'lea, et faciat justitiam et misericordiam multam, vita vivet et non 
norietur. Omnia delicta ejus, quaecunque fecit, non erunt : in sua 
Listitia, quam fecit, vita vivet. Nunquid voluntatc volo mortem 
njusti, dicit Dominus, quam ut avertat se a via ^ sua mala et vivat ? 
Dum se autem converterit Justus a justitia sua, et fecerit iniquitatem 
ecundum omnes iniquitates quas fecit iniquus, omnes justitise, quas 
ecit, non erunt in memoria. In delicto suo, quo excidit, et in 
>eccatis suis, quibus peccavit, morietur.' [Et post aliquanta: 'JEt 
cient omnes gentes, quia propter peccata sua captivi ducti sunt domus 
srael ; eo quod reliquerunt Me. Et averti faciem Meam ab eis, et 

*' superbo B. ^' malium B. ^"^ inspecto B. ^'' Meam FJ5. '* firmantum J>. 

' Noee B. * sunt B. ^ gije ^ 3' j„ territum B. ^ deest B. * ipsum bis B. 

hominibus B. '' deest B. 

<• Ezek. i. 5. part. MS. Alex.) G., but G. adds, "non libera- 

Ezek. ix. 9, 10. LXX. G. and in v. lo, bunt eam sed." 
' Ecce Ego sum," corrected from Hebr. or from » Ezek. xviii. 20-24. LXX. ( = fere MS. Vatic.) 

Mex. LXX. G., fere = Julian., ap. Aug., Op. Imperf. IIL 38, 

f Also in Ezek. v. 11. LXX. and V. 0pp. X. 1068. C, D. : but G. adds "multam," 

g Ezek. vii. 23-25. LXX. MS. Vatic. G. and omits " in memoria" in v. 22 after " erunt." 
h Ezek. xiv. 12-16. LXX. (part. MS. Vatic, J Ezek. xxxix. 23, 24. LXX. G, 


[GiLi>. Epist. a. A. D. 54/.] 

" tradidi eos in manus inimicorum ejus, et omnes gladio ceciderunt. Se- 
cundum immundicias suas, et secundum iniquitates suas feci illis, et 
averti faciem Meam ab eis.'] Haec de sanctorum Prophctarum minis 
Sapientia dixissc sufficiat : pauca tantum de Sapientia Salomonis, quje 
Salomonis. 9 ^ hortationem' vel denuntiationem '" exprimant regibus, 
non minus quam minas huic opusculo inserere necessarium duxi, ne 
dicant me ' ' gravia et importabilia in humeros hominum' verborum 
' onera velle imponere, digito autem meo " ea,* id '^ est consolatorio 
affatu, ' nolle movere.' Audiamus itaque quid Propheta dixit. ' JDili- 
gite,' inquit, ' justitiam, qui judicatis terram.' Hoc unum testimonium, 
si toto corde servaretur, abunde ad '^corrigendos patrix duces' sufficeret. 
Nam si dilexissent justitiam, diligerent utique fontem quodammodo 
et originem totius justitix, Dcum. ' •'Servite Domino in b(3nitate, et 
in simplicitate cordis quxrite Eum.' Heu quis victurus est, ut qui- 
dam ante nos ait, quando ista a civibus perficiantur, si tamcn usquam 
perfici pissunt ; ' 'Quoniam invenitur ab his qui non tentant Ilium, 
apparet autem '*eis qui fidem habent in Eum.' Nam isti sine respectu 
' tentant' Deum, Cujus prxcepta contumaci despectionc contemnunt, 
nee 'fidem servant Illi,' Cujus oraculis blandis vel aliquantulum severis 
dorsum versant et non faciem. ' "i Perversx enim cogitationes sepa- 
rant a Deo.' Et hoc in tyrannis nostri temporis perspicue deprehen- 
ditur. Scd quid nostra mediocritcis huic tam aperto scnsui miscetur ? 
Loquatur namque pro nobis, ut diximus, Qui solus verax est, Spiritus 
scilicet Sanctus, de Qiui nunc dicitur : ' "Spiritus autem Sanctus disci- 
plinx eflhigiet hctum.' Et '*iterum: '"Quoniam spiritus Dei rcplevit 
orbem terrarum.' Et infra, finem malorum bonorumque oculato judi- 
cio prxtendcns, ait : ' p Quomodo spes impii tanquam lanugo est qux 
a vento tollitur, et tanquam fumus qui a vento diftusus est, et tan- 
quam ^'spuma gracilis, qux a procella dispergitur, et tanquam '"memo- 
ria hospitis unius diei prxtereuntis. Justi autem in perpetuum vivent. 
Et apud Dcum est " mcrces illorum', et cogitatio eorum apud Altissi- 
mum, Ideo accipient regnum decoris, et diadema speciei de manu 
Domini. Quoniam dextera Sua proteget eos, et brachio sancto Suo 

* tradi B. *' cum hortationem T'. adhortationem G. ad exhortationem B. *" cxprimit />. 
" eo B. '- deest B. '^' corrigendum duces patriae B. '* illis £. '* item B. 
'* deeat B. '" memora B. ^*' merses eorum B. 

• Matt, xxiii. 4. I. V. 1 Sapi. i. 2. Vet. Lat. &c. 
J Sapi. i. I. Vet. Lat. ap. ^'ulg. "' Sapi. i. 3. Vet. Lat. &c. 
•^ Sapi. i. 1. Vet. Lat. ap. ^'ulg. but, " sentite " Sapi. i. 5. Vet. Lat. &c. 

de Domino;" and in the Greek, " <ppovr\<raTi " Sapi. i. 7. Vet. Lat. &c. 

■Kipi." I' Sapi. V. 15-17. Vet. Lat. &c. " tegef eos." 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

?fcndet 'Mllos.' Dissimiles etenim -"qualitate sunt valdc justi et 
npii, nimirum, ut dixit Dominus: ' n Eos, qui honorant,' inquiens. 
Me, honorabo: ct, qui Me spernunt, erunt ignobiles.' [Sed trans- 
imus ad caetera : ' "■ Audite,' inquit, ' omnes reges et intelligite, 
dicite judices finium tcrrge, praebete aures vos qui continetis multi- 
idincs, et placetis vobis in turbis nationum. Quoniam data est a 
•co potestas vobis, et virtus ab Altissimo, Qui " interrogabit opera 
?stra, et cogitationcs scrutabitur. Quoniam cum essetis ministri 
'gni Illius, non rectc judicastis, nequc custodistis legem justitise, 
sque secundum voluntatem Ejus ambulastis : horrende et celeriter 
iparebit vobis, quoniam judicium dnrissimum his qui pracsunt fiet. 
xiguis cnim '-^conceditur miscricordia, potcntes -'autcm potenter tor- 
lenta patientur. Non enim personas subtrahct, Qui est omnium 
jminator : nee reverebitur -'' magnitudinem cujusquam', quoniam 
jsillum et magnum Ipse fecit, et aequalitcr cura est Illi pro omni- 
-is. Fortioribus ""autcm fortior instat cruciatio.] Ad vos ergo, reges, 
i sunt sermones mei, ut discatis sapientiam, et non dccidatis. Qui 
lim custodierint justa, justificabuntur, et qui -^didicerint sancta,' 

Hactenus cum regibus patriae non minus Prophetarum oraculis 
uam nostris sermonibus disceptavimus, volentes eos scire quae 
ropheta dixerat : ' s Quasi,' inquiens, ' a fecie colubri fuge peccata : 

accesseris ad ilia, suscipient te dentes leonis, dentes eorum in- 
;rficientes animas hominum.' Et itcrum : 'tQuam magna miseri- 
^rdia Domini, et propitiatio Ejus convertcntibus ad Se.' Et si 
on habemus in nobis illud apostolicum, ut dicamus j ' u Optabam 
aim anathema esse a Christo pro fratribus meis,' tamen illud pro- 
hetitum toto corde possimus dicere : ' ^Heu quia anima perit!' Et 
erum : ' ^ Scrutemur vias nostras, et quseramus, et revertamur ad 
)ominum : levemus corda nostra cum manibus ad Deum in coelo/ 
ed et illud ^Apostoli : ' yCupimus unumquemque vestrum in visceri- 
us Christi esse.' Quam enim libenter hoc in loco, acsi marinis 

"" eos P. '^ sunt add. B. 21 ^^^^ q 22 interro.2;abat B. ^ deest B. 

enim B. ^^' magnitudine cujusque B. ^ enim B. ^ diceriat B. ^ Apo- 

jlicum B. 

•1 1 Sam. ii. 30. LXX. G. but " erunt ignobi- *■ Ecclus. xvii. 28. Vet. Lat. &c. (29. LXX.) 

s" = Hebr. and V. " Rom. ix. 3. I. V. 

■■ Sapi. vi. 2-1 1. X'et. Lat. &c. but " discite" ' Mich. vii. I, 2. LXX. G. 

T "dicite," and corrected from the Greek in ■= Thre. iii.40, 41. V. " Dominum in coelos." 

tr. 8, " Qui est omnium Dominator." > Phil. i. 8. V. " quomodo cupiam omnes vos 

s Ecclus. xxi. 2, 5. Vet. Lat. ap. Vulg. (2. .. Jesa Christi ." 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

Buctibus jactatus, et in'-^optato cvectus portu remis, si non tantos 
talesque malitise Episcoporum vcl caeterorum sacerdotum aut clcri- 
corum in nostro quoque ordine erigi adversus Deum vidissem montes; 
quos me, secundum legem, ceu testes, primum duris verborum *'cauti- 
bus, dein populum, si tamen sanctionibus inhaeret, non ut corporaliter 
interficiantur, sed mortui '^ viciis, vivant Deo, ne personarum arguar 
exccptionis, totis neccsse est viribus lapidare, vcrccundia interveniente 
quiescerem. Sed mihi quxso, ut jam in superioribus dixi, ab his 
veniam impertiri, quorum vitam non solum laudo, verumetiam cunctis 
mundi opibus prxFcn^, cujusque me, si fieri possit, ante mortis esse 
aliquamdiu participem opto ct sitio, ^- nostris jam nunc '"obvallatis 
sanctorum duobus clipeis [lateribus, invictis, dorso advcrsitatis mce- 
nia stabilito, capite pro galea adjutorio Domini fidissime contecto, 
crebro veracium volatu, vel alitent conviviorum "cautes.] 
Increpatio in Sacerdotes habct Britannia, sed insipicntes; quam plu- 
Sacerdotes. rimos ministros, sed impudentes j clericos, sed raptores sub- 
dolos; pastores, ut dicuntur, sed occisioni animarum lupos paratos, 
quippe non commoda plebi providentes, sed proprii plenitudinem vcn- 
tris quicrentes ; Ecclesia: domus habentes, sed turpis lucri gratia cas 
adcuntes ; populos d(x:entcs, sed prxbendo pessima exempla, vitia, ma- 
losque mores :, raro sacrihcantcs, et nunquam puro corde inter altaria 
stantes; plebem ob pcccata non corripientes, nimirum eadem agentes j 
prxccpta Christi spernentes, ct suas libidines votis omnibus implere 
curantes; scdem Petri Apostoli immundis pedibus usurpantcs, sed 
mcrito ''cupiditatis in Judac traditoris pestilentem cathedram deci- 
dentes; *'veritatem pro inimico odicntes, et mendaciis acsi charissimis 
fratribus taventcs; justos inopes "immanes quasi ^"angucs torvis vulti- 
bus conspicantes, ct sccleratos divitcs absque ullo verecundiac respectu 
sicut ccelestes angelos venerantes ; egenis eleemosynam esse dandam 
summis e labiis praedicantes, ^^sed ipsi *"vel obolum non dantes; ne- 
fanda populi scelera tacentes, et suas injurias quasi Christo irrogatas 
amplihcantes j religiosam forte matrem, seu sorores, domo pelientes, 
et externas veluti secretiori ministerio familiares indecenter ^' levigan- 
tes, vel potius, ut vera dicam licet inepta non tam mihi quam talia 
agentibus, humiliantes- ecclesiasticos post hxc gradus propensius 
quam regna ca^lorum ambientes, et tyrannico ritu *'■ acceptos defen- 

^ opfat r>. optatum . . portuni V. *• cutibus B. ^' vitiis V.G.H. ^^ vestris /f. 

** go V.O.B. ob vallatis .Toss. ^* cutes H. The whole passage is corrupt. ^ cupidatis B. 

* saepius detrahentes et raro vera dicentes «</</. 1'. '' inanes V.Ii. *' agues IJ. * nee B. 

** nee />. *' accipientes V. levantes G. *■ accepto /.'. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

;ntes, nee tamen legitimis moribus illustrantes ; ad prcecepta sancto- 
im, si aliquando duntaxat "audicrint quse ab illis saepissime audienda 
ant, oscitantes ac stupidos, et ad ludicra ct ineptas secularium ho- 
linum fabulas, ac si ** iter *' viae, ** qux mortis', pandunt, strcnuos et 
itcntos; pinguedinis gratia taurorum *^more raucos', ct ad illicita 
ifoL'liciter promptos; vultus arroganter in altum habcntes, et sensus, 
)nscientia rcmordente, ad ima vel **Tartaruni demersos'; uno sane 
irdito denario moestos, ct ad unum inquisitum lactos; in apostolicis 
nctionibus, ob *'-' inscitiam vcl pcccatorum pondus, ora ctiam scien- 
Lim obturantes, hebetcs ac mutos, ct in flcxibus mundialium nego- 
orum mcndacibus doctissimos; quorum de scelerata conversatione 
ultos saccrdotio irruentcs, potius vel illud '"pcnc omni pccunia redi- 
cntcs, quam tractos, ct in codcm vcteri infaust(xjuc intolcrabilium 
aculorum coeno, post sacerdotalem episcopatus vel presbyterii sedem, 
li ncc ibidem '' usquam sederunt, utpote indignc, porcorum more 
jlutantes, rapto tantum sacerdotali nomine ncc tamen •- tenorc vel 
XDstolica dignitate accepta ; sed qui nondum ad integram tidem sunt 
;1 malorum pocnitentia idonei : quomodo ad quemlibet ecclesiasticum, 
; non dicam summum, convenientes et adepti gradum, quem noii 
isi sancti atque perfecti, et Apostolorum imitatores, et, ut Magistri 
mtium z verbis loquar, ' ^^ irreprehensibiles,' legitime et absque magno 
.crilegii crimine suscipiunt ? Quid cnim tam impium ■'* tamque sceles- 
im est, quam ad similitudincm ^Simonis Magi, non intcrvcnientibus 
:et interca promiscuis criminibus, Episcopatus officium vel '^^presby- 
rii terreno pretio, quod sanctitate rectisque moribus decentius ''^ ac- 
liritur, quempiam velle mercari ? Sed in eo isti propcnsius vel despe- 
.tius errant, "quo non ab Apostolis vel Apostolorum successoribus, 
d a tyrannis et a patre eorum diabolo, fucata et nunquam profu- 
ira emunt sacerdotia : ''*' quin potius velut culmcn tectumquc malo- 
im omnium quoddam, "'"quo non facile eis improperentur a quoquam 
admissa prisca vel nova, ct cupiditatis gulaeque desideria, [utpote 
■jepositi multorum facilius rapiant,] ''' scelcstae vitae structurae super 
Dnunt. Nam si talis profecto coemptionis conditio ab impuden- 
bus istis, non dicam Apostolo ^^ Petro, sed cuilibet sancto sacerdoti 

^^ audierunt B. " inter B. *^ vitae V.B. **' mortisque V. ^^' mere paucos B. 

Tartararum diversos B. *' inscientiam B. '^* deed B. ** unquam B. saepe V. '^ tenere B. 
reprehensibiles B. " tam B. '* presb>'teri B. ^ adquiritur B. ^^ quod V.G. 

quill bis B. ^ deeU B. ^ amissa B. *^ so V.G. ccBlestse vitae Joss, celeste viae B. 

retro B. 

' I Tim. iii, 1. * Act. viii. 18, 19. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a.d. 547.] 

pioque regi *" ingesta fuisset', eadem responsa accepisscnt, qux ah Apo- 
stolo author eorundem "* Magus Simon', dicente Petro: ' ''Pecunia tua 
tecum sit in perditionem.' Sed forte heu, "'qui ambitores istos ordi- 
nant, imo potius humiliant, atque pro benedictione maledicunt, dum 
ex peccatoribus non poenitentcs, quod rectius fuerat, sed sacrilcgos et 
desperatos faciunt, et Judam quodammodo in Petri cathedra Domini 
traditorem, ac Nicolaum in loco Stephani martyris '"statuunt '-'im- 
mujidx '" hceresios adinventorem, eodcm modo saccrdotio adsciti sunt: 
** et ideo non magnopere detestantur' in liliis, quinimo vcncrantur, 
quod similiter ut patribus subindc venissc ccrtissimum est. Etcnim 
eos, "'*si in parochiam, rcsistcntibus sibi et tam pretiosum qua:stum 
denegantibus severe commessoribus, '"hujusmodi margaritam invenire 
^' non possint, prsemissis ante solicitc nuntiis, transnavigare maria, 
terrasque spatiosas '- transmeare non "' tam piget quam delectat, ut 
omnino talis species inxquiparabilisquc pulchriludo, et, ut "^verius 
dicam, "'zabolica illusio, vel venditis omnibus copiis, comparetur. 
Dcin cum magno apparatu magnaque phantasia, vel jx)tius rnsania, 
repcdantcs ad patriam, ex erecto crcctiorem inccssum pingunt, et 
dudum summitates montium conspicantcs, nunc rcctc ad acthera vel 
ad summa nubium vellera, luminum "' scmidormitantes acies " librant, 
ac sesc, nova quxdam plasmata, imo dialx)!ica organa, ut quondam 
''Novatus Romac, Dominica; ^mulctator margaritie porcus niger, patriae 
ingerunt, violenter manus non tam venerabilibus aris quam "'*flammis 
inferni ultricibus dignas, in tali "schema positi, sacrosanctis Christi 
sacrihciis extensuri. Quid tu, infcelix populc, a talibus, ut dixit Apo- 
stolus, ^bestiis vcntris praestolaris ? His nc corrigeris, qui seipsos 
non modo ad bona non ''"invitant, sed secundum Prophcta: cxprobra- 
tionem, 'slaborant ut inique agantr' Talibus ne oculis illustrabcris, 
qui haec tantum avide speculantur, quae proclive vitiis, id est, Tartari 
portis, ducant ? Vel certe secundum Salvatoris dictum, si non istos 
^ rapacissimos ut Arabix lupos, ' acsi Loth ad montem, igneum 
Sodomorum ymbrem prsepropere fugeritis, Jcaeci educti a cascis pariter 
in inferni ' foveam' cadetis. Sed forsitan aliquis dicat, non ita omncs 

^ ingestae fuissent B. ^' Simon Magus />'. *' quia P. " fadunt II. ^ haereseos h. 

^ desunl B. ® deesl B. "" hujuscemodi V.B. ^ deest B. '* transmare B. "^ defst B. 

'* veruni B. '* diaboiica G. "* semidormientes /{. ~ liberant G. ^ fluviis B. 
^ sceoa B. * imitantur B. 

^ Act. viii. 20. v.: but = S. Cj-pr., S. Aug.. ' Tit. i. i 2. f Jer. i.\. 5. V. 

and S. Ambrose : v. Sabatier. *^ Matt. vii. 15. 

•■ Euseb., H. E., III. 29. ' Gen. xix. 17-20. 

•1 Ibid., VI. 43. ' Matt. vii. 6. J Matt. xv. 14. I. V. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

Mscopi *'vel presbyteri ut supcrius comprchensi, quia non *'^scismatis, 
)n supcrbise, non immunditiae infamia maculantur, mali sunt j quod 
re vehementcr et nos diffitemur. Sed licet sciamus eos castos 
Exempia ex ^ssc et bonos, brcvitcr tamen respondebimus. ^ Quid 
Scripturu. profuit Heli sacerdoti, quod solus non '^violaverit prae- 
pta Domini, rapiendo in fuscinulis antequam adeps Domino 
Ferretur ex ollis carnes, ' dum "^eadem mortis ira, qua hlii sunt, 
ulctatur? n> Quis rogo corum, ^'^ob invidiam melioris hostiic ""coe- 
3tiquc igni' in coclis evectae, ut Abel, occisus ? qui etiam medio- 
is verbi aspernantur convitium. n Qujs ' pcrosus' est consilium 
nalignantium, et cum impiis non sedit,' '*"ita ut de eo veridice 
lasi de Enoch diceretur : ' " Ambulavit Enoch cum Deo et non 
veniebatur,' in mundi scilicet vanitate omnis post idola pro- 
ive id temporis claudicare, relicto Deo, insipientis? Quis eorum, 
lutari in area, hoe est, nunc Ecelesia, nullum Deo advcrsantem, v ut 
oe diluvii tempore, non admisit, ut pcrspicue monstraretur non nisi 
noxios vel poenitentes "^^ egregios in Dominica domo esse debere ? 
;;^s victoribus solum, et in tricentenario numero, hoc est Trinitatis 
cramento, liberato justo, regum quinque, victrieiumque turmarum 
:ercitus ferales vincentibus, et nequaquam aliena cupientibus sacri- 
;ium offerens, ut Melchisedeeh, benedixit ? *■ Quis sponte proprium 
altari capitc exdcndum, ut "" Abraham Deo jubente, obtulit filium, 
simile quoddam huic implerct Christi mandatum, dicentis soeulum 
;xtrum scandalizantem evelli debere, et Prophetae praecaveret, t®°se 
aledietum esse gladium '" et sanguinem' prohibentem ? " Quis memo- 
im malefacti de corde radieitus, ut Joseph, evulsit ? ^ Qujs in monte 
im Domino locutus, et nequaquam conerepantibus tubis exinde 
'rterritus, yduas tabulas 'cornutamque faciem' aspectu ^Mncredulis 
habilem et horrendam tropico sensu, ut ^^ Moyses, advexit ? Qujs 
>rum, pro peeeatis populi exorans, imo de pectore clamavit, ut ipse. 

''^ seu 7?. ^ schismatis G. *' violaverat B. ** eidem B. ^ de quorum moribus salis 

ilta superius dixinius add. V. ^ ccelestisque regni B. ^ deest B. ^ deed B. '^ Ha- 
iham B. *" deed B. ^'' a sanguine 1'. "'- incredu B. ^ Moysen B. 

^ 1 Sam. ii. 12, 23; hi. 12, 13. ' Gen. -xxii. i-io. 

' I Sam. iv. 11. 18. '^ Matt. v. 29. 

m Gen. iv. 4-8. ' ' Jer. xlviii. 10. V. but out. " se," and read 

" Psalm, xxvi. 5. (xxv. 5.) I. " odivi eccle- " a sanguine." 

m," in V. " Gen. 1. 15-21. 

>< Gen. V. 24. part. V. part. LXX. " Exod. xix. 16-25. 

1' Gen. vii. 7. y Exod. xxxiv. 29, 30, 35. V. (I. caret.) 

1 Gen. xiv. 14-24. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.J 

' z Dominc,' inquiens, ' peccavit populus iste pcccatum grande, quod 
si dimittis eis, dimitte : alioquin dele me de libro Tuo ? ' [^ Quj^ 
zelo Dei accensus mirabili, ad ultionem fornicationis sine dilatione, 
sanando pcenitentiae '"medicamine stupri afl-ectum, ne ira populo inar- 
desceret, sicut Phinees sacerdos, ut per hoc ^ in sevo reputarctur illi 
"^justitia, strenue consurrexit? Quis "^vero eorum, vel in extirpa- 
tionem usque ad internecionem de terra '"^ repromissionis septem gen- 
tium morali intelligentia, vel ad constabilitionem spiritualis Israel, 
pro eis Jesum Naue imitatus est ? ^ Quis eorum, populo Dei finales 
terminos trans Jordanem, ut scirelur quid "cuiquc tribui conveniat, 
sicut supradicti Phinees scilicet et Jesus sagaciter diviscre, (jstcndit ? 
J Quis, ut adversariorum plebi Dei innumera "^'prostcrncret gentium 
millia, '^unicam' filiam, qux propria voluptas intelligitur, imitans et 
in hoc Apostolum dicentem : *^Non quxrens quod mihi utile est, 
sed quod multis, ut salvi fiant,' obviantem victoribus ' K cum tympanis 
et choris,' id est, carnalibus •'" desideriis, in sacrificium votivse placa- 
tionis, ut ^Jepthe, mactavit ? Quis eorum, ad conturbanda, -fuganda, 
•' sternendaque •' superlxij-um gentium castra, ^mysterii Trinitatis, ut 
supradiximus, 'cum lagen;is viris tenentibus egregias in manibus 
sonantesque tubas, id est propheticos et apostolicos sensus, — ut dixit 
Dominus Prophetx : ' ^^ Exalta quasi tuba vocem tuam :' et Psalmista 
de Apostolis: ' ' In omncm tcrram exivit sonus eorum,' — et '"lagenas 
•''splendidissimo ignis lumine noctu coruscantes, quae accipiuntur in 
sanctorum corporibus bonis operibus annexis, et Sancti Spiritus igni 
ardentibus, ut Apostolus, " Habentes, inquit, ' thesaurum "istum in 
vasis fictilibus,' post "idolatriac luci, quod moraliter interpretatum ', 
^condensae et fuscx cupiditatis, succisionem silvae, et I'evidentia signa 
Judaici velleris, ymbris coelestis expertis, et gentilis, rore Sancti 
Spiritus madefacti, fide non dubia, ut q Gedeon, '■' processit ? Quis 
eorum, '' mori exoptans mundo et vivere Christo, ^ luxuriosos gen- 

» medicum et B. ^ iniustia B. » ^^^ jj_ w promissionis B. ^ cui B. '"^ (le>-a B. 
* desiderii 7*. ' Jepte B. * fugandaque B. ^ deest B. * mysterium B. ^ splen- 

dissinio B. * istis B. ' est add. B. " densae B. * cessit B. 

' Exod. xxxii. 31, 32. LXX. G. : but fere— " Jud. xi. 34. V. '' Jud. vii. 9. 

S. Cypr. Testim. I. I, and De Lapsis; 20, 130. ' Jud. vii. 16, 20. 

Fell. » Num. xxv. 7. ^ Esai. Iviii. i. I. V. 

*> P>alm. cv\. 30, 31. (tv. 31, 32.) ' Psalm, xix. 4. (xviii. 5.) I. V. 

*^^ Jos. xiv. I ; xix. 51. Eleazar, not Phinehas. " Jud. \ii. 16, 20. " 2 Cor. iv. 7. V. 

'i Jud. xi. 29-33. >^' Jud. vi. 25-27. 

^ Jud. xi. 34-40. " Unica," alwa« in S.Aug. p Jud. vi. 37, 39. 

(v. Sabatier) ; but LXX. = \'ulg., " unigenita." 'i Jud. vii. i. "■ Phil. i. 23. 

' I Cor. x.^^. I. V. > Jud. xvi. 23. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

jm convivas, laudantcs t Deos suos, id est, sensus, extollentes divi- 
is, ut Apostolus, ' " Et avaritia,' inquit, ' quge est simulachrorum ser- 
tus,' ^concussis duabus virtute brachiorum columnis, qu£e intelli- 
intur in voluptatibus nequam animjE carnisque, quibus domus 
imanse omnis nequitiae quodammodo pangitur ac ''^' fulcimentatur, 
m innumerabilcs, ut Sampson, prostravit ? Quis orationibus, ' yholo- 
ustoque lactantis agni' Philistinorum metum depellens, ^ insperatas 
nitruorum voces nubiumque ymbres concitans, a absque adulatione 
regem constituens, ^eundcm Deo non placentem '-'abjiciens, c uncto 
o illo meliore in '* regno, ut Samuel, valedicturus populo astabit hoc 
3do dicens : ' "^ Ecce prxsto sum, loquimini coram Domino et 
"iristo Ejus, utrum bovem cujusquam tulerim, an asinum, si quem- 
:im calumniatus sum, si oppressi aliquem, si de manu cujusquam 
unus accepi ?' Cui ^* a populo responsum est dicente : ' »-' Non es 
lumniatus nos, ''^neque oppressisti, neque '"tulisti de manu '" alicujus 
.]uippiam.' Quis eorum, figne ca'lesti centum superbos exurens, 
[uinquaginta humiles servans, h et ^'•' absque adulationis fuco, non 
eum per Prophetas sed ' idolum Accaron con'sulenti, mortem immi- 
;ntem iniquo regi annuncians, i^ omnes -prophetas simulachri -'Baal, 
li interpretati accipiuntur sensus humani, invidiae, avaritiae, ut jam 
ximus, semper intenti, mucrone corusco, hoc est verbo Dei, ut He- 
is egregius vates, prostravit ? et zelo Dei commotus, iniquorum 
rrse 1 ymbres adimens -- jetherales, ac si fortissimo penurii clustello 
tribus annis sexque mensibus obseratos, fame, siti moribundus in 
serto conquestus est : ' " Domine,' inquiens, ' Prophetas Tuos occi- 
runt, et altaria '-'Tua suflPoderunt, et ego relictus sum solus, et quae- 
nt animam meam ? ' Quis eorum, '• charissimum discipulum terrenis 
tra solitum ponderibus oneratum, P quse ante ea a se magnopere 
:et rogato ut acciperet despecta fuissent, etsi non q perpetua lepra, 
Helisaeus, saltim expulsione mulctavit ? Et quis ex illis, ^ puero in 

'" fulmentatiir B. ^^ deeet B. '* so G. abijciens Joes, abiciens B. i' regnum B. 

leest B. »' que B. *" cepisti B. '" deest B. ^^ cujuspiam B. *^' desunt B. 

leest B. -"■ Bahal B. ^ et herales B. ^ deest B. 

' Jud. xvi. 24. " Col. iii. 5. V. f 2 Reg. i. p-r?. 

^ Jud. xvi. 30. ^ 2 Reg. i. 13-15. 

> I Sam. vii. 9. V. " lactentem." *> 2 Reg. i. 16. ' 2 Reg. i. 2. 

^ I Sam. xii. 17. ■■'I Sim. x. 1-25. "^ i Reg. xviii. 40. ' i Reg. xvii. i. 

'' I Sam. xiii. 14 ; xv. 28. ™ Jac. v. i 7. 

•^ 1 Sam. xvi. 13. " t Reg. xix. 10. LXX. G. = S.Aug. Civ. Dei, 

ti I Sam. xii. 2, 3. V. " de me coram . . aut X^^II. 2 2. 0pp. VII. 486 c. 

num." But "an" in Cod. Amiat. " 2 Reg. v. 20-24. •* ^ Reg. v. 16. 

^ 1 Sam. xii. 4. V. 1 1 Reg. v. 27. '2 Reg. vi. 15. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a.d. 547.] 

vitae desperatione sestuanti, -*atque improviso super bellico hostium 
apparatu civitatem, in qua erant, obsidentium -' tremefacto, inter nos, 
('-'■ ut illae') sanimce visus, ferventi exoratione ad Deum facta, ita ut in- 
tueri -^poterit auxiliarium ccelestis exercitus, armatorum curruum, ceu 
equitum ignito vultu fulgentium, montem plenum, patefecit, ct t cre- 
dere quin fortior esset ad salvandum quam inimici ad pugnandum ? 
u Et quis eorum, corporis tactu, mortui scilicet mundo, viventis autem 
Deo, ^ alii diverso funere -^occubanti, proculdubio -"mortuo '^Deo, vitiis 
vero viventi, quasi supradictus, proficiet, ita ut statim prosiliens 
Christo grates pro sanitate agat cunctorum pene mortalium ore des- 
perata? Cujus eorum, ycarbone ignito dc altari forcipe cherubin 
advecto, ut peccata sua delercntur humilitatc confessionis, =^ labia, ut 
Esaix, mundata sunt; et aetficaci oratione ''sibi adjuncta pii regis 
Ezechix, supplantationc 'centum octoginta quinquc millia exercitus 
Assyriorum, nullo apparentc vulneris vestigio, ^ angeli manu, ut 
supradicti, " prostrata sunt r Quis eorum, '^^ob prvucepta Dei, et minas 
calitus datas, veritatemque '-' vel non audientibus prot'erendam, 'squa- 
lores paedoresque carcerum, Kut ^ momentaneas mortcs, ut beatus Jere- 
mias excepit ? E^ ne multa : Quis eorum, ut Magister gentium dixit, 
' errare in montibus, et in speluncis, et in cavernis terrae, J lapidari, 
secari, totius mortis generc pro nomine Domini attentari, sicut sancti 
Prophetae, '^perpessus est ?' Sed quid immoramur in exemplis veteribus, 
acsi non essent in "novo ulla? Audiant itaque nos, qui absque ullo 
labore angustum hoc iter Christiana; religionis, prxtento ■''tantum 
sacerdotali nomine, intrare se putant, carpentes paucos florcs, veluti 
summos de ^extento sanctorum Novi' Testamenti tyronum amccnoque 
prato.] Quis vestrum, qui ^" torpetis potius quam sedetis legitime in 
sacerdotali sede, ejectus de consilio impiorum, ^ post diversarum 
plagas virgarum, ut sancti Apostoli, ' quod dignus habitus est pro 
Christo vero Deo 'contumeliam pati,' [toto corde Trinitati gratias 
egit ? Quis, ob testimonium verum Deo ferendum, "i fullonis vecte 

=" ac B. *^ turmefacto B. ^ ut ille V.B. '^ poterint B. ^ occumbenli B. 

■•* mortui B. *• deesl B. ^ prostrati 7?. ^ deeM U. ^' perpessi sunt B. ** nova B. 
** tanto B. *' Novi ext. sanct. B. ^ terpens B. 

• 2 Reg. vi. 17. '2 Reg. vi. 16. • Jer. i. 8-19. 

" 2 Reg. iv. 34. » 2 Reg. iv. 20. ' Jer. xx. 2 ; xxxii. 2 ; xxxvii. 15 ; xxxviii. 6. 

y Esai. vi. 6. : but, " Seraphim." cet? '' Jer. xxvi. 8-15, 24. 

' Esai. vi. 7. V. . Hebr. xi. 38. 

=» 2 Reg. xix. 14-20; Esai. xxwii. 14-20. J Hebr. .\i. 37. 

*■ 2 Reg. xix. 20-34; E<ai. xxxvii. 21-35. '' Act- v. 40: and see xvi. 23. 

' 2 Reg. xix. 35; Esai. x.\xvii. 36. ' Act. v. 41. V. 

•' 2 Reg. xix. 35; Esai. xxxvii. 36. "> Euseb., H. E., II. 23. 


[Gild. Papist, a. a. d. 547.] 

ebro percussus, ut Jacobus primus in Novo duntaxat Episcopus 
stamento, corporaliter interiit ? Quis ' gladio' vestrum, ab iniquo 
ncipe, ut "Jacobus *'*Joannis frater, capite cassus est? "Quis, ut 
)thominister martyrque evangelicus, hoc solum criminis habens, 
id P vidcrit Dcum Qucm perfidi vidcrc nequiverant, nefandis mani- 
; lapidatus est ? Quis, inversis pedibus crucis affixus pro reverentia 
risti patibulo, Quem non minus morte quam vita Iwnoraturus, ut 
vicularius ille calorum '"regni idoneus, extremum "'halitum fudit ?] 
is ex vobis, gladii ictu *^ veridicantis, pro confessione Christi, H post 
icula carceris, naufragia, ^-amarum virgarum casdem, post fluminum, 
ronum, gentium, Judjcorum, pseudoapostolorum continua pericula ; 
;t famis, jejunii, vigiliarum labores; post pcrpetem ' solicitudinem 
inium Ecclcsiarum •' post xstum pro scandalizantibus • post infir- 
tatem pro inhrmis ; post admirabilem pracdicando Christi Evangc- 
m ^'orbis pene circuitum, ut vas electionis Magisterque gentium 
;. Ignatius, electus, capite plexus est ? Quis vestrum, ut sanctus martyr 
latius Antiochiae urbis Episcopus, post admirabiles in Christo actus, 

testimonium Ejus leonum molis Romae confractus est? '"cujus 
■ba cum ad passionem duceretur audientes, si aliquando vultus vestri 
)ore ^"'suffusi sunt, non solum in comparatione ^ejus vos non ^"puta- 
is sacerdotes, sed ne mediocres quidem Christianos esse. Ait enim 

Epistola quam ad Romanam Ecclesiam misit : ' ■■ ^ A Syria usque 
imam cum bestiis terra marique depugno, die ac nocte connexus et 
3lligatus decern '^'^leopardis, militibus dico, ad custodiam datis, qui ex 
leficiis nostris saeviores fiunt. Sed ego eorum nequitiis magis eru- 
>r : nee tamen in hoc justificatus sum. O salutares bestias, quae 
eparantur mihi, quando venient ? quando emittentur ? quando eis 
i licebit carnibus meis? quas ^'ego exopto acriores parari, ct invitabo 

devorationem mei, et deprecabor ne forte, ut in nonnullis fece- 
it, timeant attingere corpus meum : quinimo, et si cunctabuntur, 
) vim faciam, ego me ingeram. Date, quaeso, veniam ; ego novi 
uid expediat mihi : -'^ nunc incipio esse Christi discipulus : facessat 
idia vel humani aftectus, vel nequitias spiritualis, ut in Jesum 
ristum adipisci merear ignes, cruces, bestias, dispersiones ossium, 

Johannis B. '■ ^ regem B. '"' alitum B. *^ veridicantes B. deest V. *^ maris V. 

iinis B. ■" qux B. " conflisi B. *" ei B. " peccabitis B. ^ deed B. 

jatus B. '■'' leopardus B. ^^ deest B. ^- quod B. ^' tunc B. 

Act. xii. ?. " Act. vii.57. ^ Euseb., H. E., III. 36 ; from Rufinus' Latin, 

Act. vii. 55. inexactly quoted. The original is in Jacobson's 

2 Cor. xi. ^.^-ag. PP. Apostol. p. 357. 

VOL. I. G 


[Gild. Ei'Ist. a. a. d. 547.] 

discerpsionesque membrorurrij ac totius corporis poena; et omnia in 
me unum supplicia diaboli arte quxsita complentur, dummodo Jesum 
Christum merear adipisci.' Qujd ad hxc dormitantibus aniniic oculis 
aspicitis ? Quid talia surdis sensuum auribus '' auscultatis ? Discutite, 
qu-^so, tenebrosam atramque cordis vestri caliginem ^•'' teporis, ut veri- 
tatis et humilitatis prgefulgidum lumen videre possitis. Christianus 
non mediocris sed perfectus, sacerdos non vilis sed summus, martyr 
non segnis sed pra^cipuus dicit : ' Nunc incipio esse Christi disci- 
pulus.' Et vos, ^"acsi ^ Lucitcr illc de ctelo projectus', verbis non po- 
testate erigimini, et quodammodo sub dente ruminatis et gestibus pnc- 
tenditis, quie antea '"actor vester depinxerat : "In coclum,' inquiens, 
' conscendam,' et 'ero similis Altissimo.' Et iterum : ' " Ego fodi, et 
bibi aquam, et '^exiccavi ■'•' vestigio pedum meorum omncs rivos agge- 
rum.' Multo rcctius oportebat vos imitari Ilium et audire, Qui totius 
bonitatis et humilitatis vere invictum exemplar est, dicentem per 
Prophetam : * ^ Ego autem sum vermis et non homo, opprobrium 
hominum et abjectio plebis.' O mirabile quoddam, dixisse Euni 
'opprobrium hominum,' cum omnis mundi opprobria deleverit ; [et 
iterum in Evangelio : ' > Kon possum Ego a Me ipso facere quicquam,' 
cum Ipse coivvus Patri ac Spiritui Sancto, communis ejusdemque sub- 
stantia!, ccelum et terram cum omni eorum ina:stimabili ornamento 
fecerit, non alterius sed propria pxjtestate': et vos arrogantcr verba 
exaltasse, Propheta dicente : ' z "Quid supcrbit terra et cinis ? '] Sed ad 
S. Poiycarp. propositum "' revertar. Quis inquam ex vobis, ut Smyrnen- 
sis Ecclesix pastor egregius Polycarpus Christi testis, » mensam humane 
hospitibus ad ignem cum avide tralientibus apposuit, et objectus flam- 
mis pro Christi charitate, dixit : ' Qui dedit mihi ignis ferre supplicium, 
dabit, ut sine clavorum conhxione flammas immobiiiter perferam.' 
Unum adhuc, praeter magnam verbis volans sanctorum silvam, ex- 
empli gratia ponam Basilium, scilicet Cesariensem Episcopum, qui 
cum '-ab iniquo principe mina; hujuscemodi intentarentur, quod, nisi 
in crastinum Arriano cceno, ut ca:teri, macularetur, esset omnino 
moriturus, dixisse fertur : ' ^ Egy sm-)e cro eras qui hodie sum, tu te 

^ ascultatis B. " temporis G.£. '"' si ille de c. p. Luc. l'>. ''' autor V. ^ exsiccavi B. 
* vestigia B. "" quo B. '' revertatiir 7.'. '^ ditel B. 

' Esai. xiv. 12. • Euseb., H. E., IV. 15. § 10. 23. Rufin. iii- 

• Esai. xiv. 13, 14. V. terpr. And see also the Eccl. Smyrn. Epist. de 

" Esai. xx.vvii. 25. V. S. Polycarpi Martyr., § 7, 13. Jacobs. PP. Apost. 

=" Psalm. .\xii. 6. (xxi. 7.) 1. V. !;ei6, 576. 

> Joan. V. .^o. I. and Cixl. Amiat. of \ . ^ Rufin.. H. E.. XI. 9. 

' Ecclus. X. 9. Vet. Lat. ap. Vulg. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

inam non mutares.' Et iterum : ' Utinam habcrcm aliquid digni 
uneris, quod offcrrem huic, qui maturius Basilium de nodo follis 
ijus absolveret." Quis ex vobis apostolici sermonis regulam, quae 
> omnibus semper Sanctis sacerdotibus quibusque temporibus extan- 
3us, humanam suggestionem praecipitanter ad ""'^ nequitiam festinan- 
m recutientibus servata est, in concussione tyrannorum indirupte 
' custodiunt, hoc modo dicens : ' '• Obedire '''■' oportet magis' Deo quam 
t'rophetarum hominibus r' Igitur confugicntcs solito more ad Do- 
testinionia. mjni miscricordiam sanctorumque Prophetarum Ejus 
)ces, ut illi pro nobis oraculorum suorum jacula imperfectis pas- 
ribus, ut antca tyrannis, queis compuncti sanentur, '•'• librent, vi- 
•amus quid Dominus '" per Prophctas' ad desidcs et inhonestos 
cerdotcs, ct non bene populum tarn cxempla quam verba docen- 
s, minarum loquatur. Nam et Heli ille "^sacerdos in *''Silo pro eo 
lod non digno Deo zelo ""severe in filios "' contemnentes Deum ultus' 
erat, sed molliter et clementer, "-utpote paterno affectu, admo- 
ierat, tali "* animadversione damnatur, dicente ad eum Propheta : 
■ H;iec dicit Dominus : Manifeste '^ostendi "'Me ad domum patris tui, 
im essent in i^gypto servientes Pharaonis, et ""^ elegi domum patris 
li ex omnibus "tribubus Israel Mihi in sacerdotio/ Et post pauca: 
' Quare respexisti in incensum Meum, et in sacrificium Meum, im- 
■obo oculo ? et honorificasti hlios tuos plusquam Me, ut benediceres 
)S a primordio in omnibus sacrificiis coram Me? K Et '^'*nunc ^"sic 
cit Dominus: quoniam qui honorificant ""Me, honorabo eos : et qui 
•o nihilo habent Me, ad nihilum redigentur. ^ Ecce dies venient, 
: disperdam nomen tuum, et semen domus patris tui. ' Et hoc tibi 
gnum sit, quod veniet super duos filios tuos " Ophni et Phinees ; in 
110 die morientur ambo in gladio virorum.' "- Si hsec itaque patiuntur, 
ii verbis ^' tantum subjectos et non condigna ultione emendant, quid 
)sis "^'tiet, qui ad mala hortantur peccando et trahunt ? [Quid illi 
Lioque, perspicuum est, vero vati, post expletionem signi ab eodem 
rzedicti, et restitutionem aridae manus impio regi, misso a Judea 

^' nequitia B. "^ custodivit T*. '^' magis oportet B. ** liberent B. '^' desunl /?. 

sacerdotes B. "^ Sylo B. ™ servare B. '"' conteptos Domini vultus B. '^ ut puta B. 
adversione B. ''* ostendisti B. ''^ deest B. '® eligi B. " so G. tribus T'. 

•fst Joss. B. ™ iUtst v. '^ deest B. ^ (e) add. B. ^ Ofni B. "^ sed B. 

tamen B. ** fecit B. 

<= leg. custodivit. ^ Act. v. 29. V. s i Sam. ii. 30. LXX. G. = Lucif. ib. 

" I Sam. ii. 27, 28. LXX. G. = Hieron. ad '' i Sam. ii. 31. LXX. G. = Lucif. ib. 

[arcell. 0pp. IL 612 b. ' i Sam. ii. 34. LXX. G. but = Lucif. ib. 

f I Sam. ii. 29. G. = Lucif. Cal. Pro S. Athan. p. 126 a. 
Bibl. PP. lY. p. 125 h. 

G 3 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. r. 547.] 
prophetare in Bethel, '*' prohibitoque ne "quid ibidem cibi gustaret, ac 
decepto ab alio, ut *^ dicebatur, propheta, ut parum quid panis et aquae 
sumeret, obtigit, dicente ad eum suo hospite: 'JHjec dicit Dominus 
Deus : Quia inobediens fuisti *''*ori Domini', et non custodisti manda- 
tum quod prarcepit Dominus Deus tuus, et reversus es, et comedisti 
panem ct bibisti aquam in hoc loco, in quo mandaveram tibi, ne 
manducares panem nee biberes aquam- non ponetur corpus tuum in 
sepulchro patrum tuorum. Et factum est,' inquit, ' postquam mandu- 
cavit panem et bibit aquam, stravit sibi asinam suam et abiit; et 
Esaias. *® invenit eum leo in via, et occidit eum ?'] Esaiam quoque 
^'sanctum Prophetam de sacerdotibus hoc modo loquentem audite: "^ Vie 
impio in malum, retributio enim "'manuum ejus riet ei. Populum Meum 
exactores sui spoliaverunt, et mulieres dominate sunt ejus. Populc 
Meus, qui bcatum te dicunt, ipsi te decipiunt, ''-'et viam gressuum tuo- 
rum dissipant. Stat ad judicandum Dominus, et stat ad judicandos 
populos. Dominus ad judicium veniet cum senibus populi Sui et 
principibus ejus. \ os depasti estis \ ineam Meam, rapina pauperis in 
domo vestra. Quare atteritis populum Meum, et facies pauperum 
commolitis, '*' dicit Dominus exercituum ?' Et item: ' ' Va: qui con- 
dunt leges iniquas, et scribcntes injustitiam scripserunt, ut opprime- 
rent in judicio pauperes, et vim facerent "*causx humilium populi ''Mei, 
ut essent vidux prxda corum, et pupillos diriperent. Quid facietis 
in die visitationis et calamitatis de longe venientis?' Et infra; 
< m Verum hi quoque pra: vino nescierunt, "'et pr^e ebrietate errave- 
runt, sacerdotes nescierunt prx ebrietate, '-""absorpti sunt a vino, erra- 
verunt in ebrietate, nescierunt videntem, ignoraveruitt judicium. 
Omnes enim mensx repletx sunt vomitu sordium, ita ut non esset 
ultra locus.' ' » Propterea audite verbum Domini viri ""illusores, qui 
dominamini super populum Meum, qui est in Jerusalem. ^" Dixistis 
enim : Percussimus fccdus cum morte, et -"'cum inferno fecimus pactum. 
Flagellum inundans cum transierit non veniet super ' nos, quia posui- 
mus mendacium spem nostram, et mendacio protecti sumus.' Et post 

"■ prohibito quia B. " quis B. »^ dicifur 7?. •"' Deo B. * in B. ^ decil B. 

s' manum B. ^ ut B. ^ so G.B.V. dicet .lof». ^ dettt B. ^ dee»i G. *' absorti B. 
^ illusiores B. * Dixisti B. * non B. ' vos B. 

i I Reg. xiii. 21, 22. V. but, " non obediens vos enim . . et nipina .. Dominus Deus." 
.. in loco . . praecepit tibi .. comederes . . non ' Esai. x. 1-3. V. 

inferetur . . cadaver." And vv. 23, 24. = Lucif., •" Esai. xxviii. 7, 8. V. '• sacerdos et propheta 

De Non Conven. cum Haret. p. 159 b. nescierunt prae ebrietate." 

'' Esai. iii. 1 1-15. ^'. " dnminatse junt eis .. . " Esai. x.wiii. 14, 15. ^'. '• Propter hoc." 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

liquanta : ' " Et subvertet grando spem mendacii, et protectionem 
quiE inundabunt, et delebitur foedus vestrum cum morte, et pactum 
estrum -cum inferno non stabit: flagellum inundans cum transient, 
ritis ^ et in conculcationem : quandocunque pertransierit, toilet vos/ 
,t iterum : ' P Et dixit Dominus: Eo quod appropinquat populus iste 
re suo, et labiis glorihcant Mc, cor autem eorum longe est a Me:* 
1 ideo ecce * Ego addam' ut '' admirationem faciam populo huic mira- 
ilo grandi et stupendo. Peribit cnim sapientia a sapientibus ejus, 
: intellectus prudentium ejus abscondetur. [Vse qui profundi estis 
)rde, ut a Domino abscondatis consilium, quorum sunt in tenebris 
pera, et dicunt : Quis videt nos ? et quis novit nos ? Perversa enim 
EC vestra cogitatio.' Et post aliquanta : ' "■ Haec dicit Dominus : 
!oclum sedes Mca, et terra scabcllum pedum Meorum est. Qux ista 
;t domus quam xdificabitis Mihi, et quis erit locus quietis "Mese? 
»mnia hcEC manus Mea fecit, et facta sunt univcrsa ista, dicit 
>ominus. Ad quem autem aspiciam, nisi ad pauperculum et con- 
■itum spiritu et trementem sermones Meos ? Qui immolat bovem, 
nasi qui interficiat virum : qui mactat pecus, quasi qui '^ excerebret 
inem : qui offert oblationem, quasi qui sanguinem suillum offerat : 
ji recordatur thuris, quasi qui benedicat Mdolo. Haec omnia 'elege- 
mt in viis suis, et in abominationibus suis anima eorum delectata 
jeremias. " est.'] Jeremias quoquc virgo Prophctaque quid insipienti- 
Lis loquatur pastoribus, attendite : ' s Haec dicit Dominus : Quid in- 
snerunt patres vestri in Me iniquitatis, quia " elongaverunt a Me, et 
Tibulaverunt post vanitatem, et vani facti sunt?' Et paulo post: 
' Et ingressi contaminastis terram Meam, et hsereditatem Meam 
Dsuistis in abominationem. Sacerdotes non dixerunt, Ubi est Do- 
linus? Et tenentes legem nescierunt Me, et pastores praevaricati 
mt in Me/ ' " Propterea adhuc judicio contendam vobiscum, ait 
>ominus, et cum filiis vestris disceptabo.' Item post aliquanta : 
* Stupor et mirabilia facta sunt in terra: Prophetse praedicabant 
lendacium, et sacerdotes applaudebant manibus suis, et populus 

^ in ^. •' ei T'. *' virgo adam B. ^ admirationi B. ^ Mae B. ' exterebat B. 

idola B. s so G. eligerunt Jo%i. B. '" deesi B. " se aM. Y. 

" Esai. xxviii. 17-19. V. " eritis ei in." * Jer. ii. 5. V. 

p Esai. xxix. 13. V. " suis gloriticat." ' Jer. ii. 7, 8. V. 

4 Esai. xxix. 14-16. V. "Perversa est hzc." " Jer. ii. 9. V. 

Esai. Ixvi. 1-3. V. " terra autem . . quis est '^ Jer. v. 30, 31. V. •■ prophetabant .. novis- 

;e locus . . ad quem autem respiciam." simo.' 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

Meus dilexit talia. Quid igitur fiet in novissimis ejus?' 'yCui 
loquar ct contestabor, ut audiat ? Eccc incircumcisic aures eorum, 
ct audire non possunt. Ecce verbum Domini factum est illis in 
opprobrium, et non suscipiunt illud:' '^quia extendam manum Meam 
super habitantes terram, dicit Dominus. A minore quippe usque ad 
majorem omnes avaritiae student, et a Propheta usque ad sacerdotem 
cuncti faciunt dolum. [Et curabant contritioncm filise populi Mei 
cum ignominia, diccntes, pax, pax, et non erit pax. Confusi sunt, qui 
abominationem fecerunt. Qijin potius confusionc non sunt confusi, 
et erubescere nescierunt. Quamobrem cadent inter rucntes, in tem- 
pore visitationis eorum corruent, dicit Dominus.' Et iterum : *aOmnes 
isti principes declinantium, ambulantes fraudulenter, aes et ferrum, 
universi corrupti sunt, defecit sufflatorium in igne, frustra " conflavit 
conflator, malitise autem eorum non sunt consumptsc, argentum repro- 
bum ''vocate eos, quia Dominus projecit illos.' Et pf)st pauca: ' ^ Ego 
sum. Ego sum : Ego vidi, dicit Dominus. " Ite ad locum Meum in 
'^Silo, ubi habitavit nomen Meum a principio: et videte quae feccrim 
ei propter malitiam populi Mei Israel. Et nunc quia fecistis omnia 
opera hax, dicit Dominus : el locutu.s sum ad vos mane '''consurgcns et 
loquens et "non audistis, et vocavi vos et non respondistis ; faciam 
domui huic in qua invocatum est nomen Meum, et in qua vos habetis 
fiduciam, et '"loco quem dedi vobis et patribus vestris, sicut feci Silo: 
et projiciam vos a facie Mea.' Et iterum : '^ piiii Mei exierunt a Me, 
et non subsistunt : et non est qui extendat ultra tentorium Meum, et 
" erigat pclles Meas : quia stulte egerunt pastores, et Dominum non 
quaesierunt. Propterea non intellcxerunt, et grex eorum dispersus est.* 
Et post aliquanta: ' f^ Quid est '^qucxi dilectus Meus in domo Mea 
facit scelera multa? Nunquid carnes -"sanctx auferent a te malitias 
tuas, in quibus gloriata es ? '^^ Olivam - uberem, pulchram, fructiferam, 
speciosam vocabit Dominus nomen tuum. Ad vocem loquelae, gran- 
dis exarsit ignis in ca, et combusta sunt fruteta ejus.' Et iterum : 
' e Venite, congregamini, omnes bestiae terrae, -' properate ad devoran- 

" conflant B. " vocat B. '^ iste B. " losaphat add. B. '' surgens B. 

" deest B. '■ in add. B. '* errigat B. "> vobU B. * xo B. ^' Obiuain B. 

** so G.B. huberem Joss. -' preparate B. 

y Jer. vi. 10. \'. '• et quem contestabor.. consuniptuni est plumbum, frustra .... malitise 

est eis . . siiscipient."' enim." '• Jer. vii. 11-15. V. 

' Jer. vi. 12-15. V. " non erat pax . . sunt <= Jer. x. 20. 21. V. " omnis grex." 

quia . . visitationis suse." '' Jer. xi. 15, ifi. V. " fecit . . vocavit." 

" Jer. vi. 28-30. ^'. '• declinantes . . . in igne ' Jer. xii. o, 10. V. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a.d. 547.] 

dum. Pastores multi demoliti sunt vineam -* Meam, -' conculcaverunt 
partem Mcam', dcdcrunt portidnem Mcam dcsidcrabilem in dcscrtum 
;olitudinis.' Itemque loquitur: 'fHcec dicit Dominus populo huic, 
]ui dilcxit moverc pedes suos, et non quievir, ec Domino non placuir. 
Nunc recordabitur iniquitatum eorum, et visitabit peccata '-" illorum/ 
gProphetae dicunt eis : Non videbitis gladium, et fames non erit in 
wbis, sed pacem veram dabit' Dominus '-' vobis in loco isto. Et dixit 
Dominus ad me : Falso prophetae vaticinantur in nomine Meo, non 
nisi eos-'et non praecepi -'" eis,' ' visionem mendacem et divinationem 
?t ^" fraudulentiam et seductionem cordis sui prophetant vobis. Ideo 
laec dicit Dominus :' ' In gladio et fame consumentur prophetae illi : 
?t populi, quibus '^ pn^phctaverunt, projecti erunt in viis Jerusalem prae 
'ame et gladio, et non crit qui sepeliat.' Et itcrum : ' ^ Vas pasto- 
ibus, qui dispcrdunt et dilacerant gregem pascux Meae, dicit Dominus. 
deo haec dicit Dominus Dcus Israel ad pastores qui pascunt populum 
Vleum : Vos dispersistis gregem Meum, et ejecistis eos, et non visi- 
astis illos. Ecce, Ego visitabo super vos malitiam studiorum vestro- 
um, dicit Dominus.' ' ' Propheta namque et sacerdos polluti sunt, et 
n ^"domo Mea inveni malum eorum, dicit Dominus:' et ' idcirco via 
H)rum erit quasi lubricum in tenebris, impellentur cnim et corruent 
n ea- afteram cnim super eos mala, annum visitationis eorum, dicit 
Dominus. Et in prophetis Samariae vidi fatuitatem,' et ' prophetabant 
n Baal, et decipiebant populum Meum Israel. Et in prophetis Jeru- 
alcm vidi similitudinem, adulterium, et iter mendacii : et conforta- 
^erunt manus pessimorum, ut non ^-'converteretur unusquisque a malitia 
* sua : facti sunt Mihi omnes Sodoma, et habitatores ejus quasi Gomor- 
ha. Propterea hicc dicit Dominus ad prophetas : Ecce Ego cibabo 
'OS absinthio, et potabo eos felle. A prophetis enim Jerusalem est 
:gressa pollutio super omnem terram. Haze dicit Dominus exerci- 
uum : Nolite audire verba prophetarum, qui prophetant vobis, et 
lecipiunt vos : visionem enim cordis sui loquuntur, non de ore 
Domini. Dicunt enim his, qui Me blasphemant, Locutus est Domi- 
lus. Pax erit vobis: et '^omnibus, qui ambulant in pravitate cordis 
ui, dixerunt ; Non vcniet super ■"' eos malum. Quis enim affiiit in 

^' deest B. ^ desunt G. ^ eorum B. ^ in add. B. ^s j^^gf ^ 29 ^qJ^ jj^ 

' fraudulentia B. ■ * prsedicaverunt B. ^* domu B. ^' converterentur B. ■* deest B. 

' so G. omni Joss. B. ^ co B. 

f Jer. xiv. 10. V. ' Jer. xxiii. 11-20. V. "similitudinem adul- 

e Jer. xiv. 13-16. V. "idcirco . . quibus pro- terantium et.. ut Sodoma. . Dominus exercituum 

hetant." . . omni qui ambulat . . super vos . . egredietur," 

'' Jer. xxiii. i, 2. V. " ait Dominus." and om. " enim" bis. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

consilio Domini, et vidit et audivit sermonem Ejus ? Quis conside- 
ravit verbum Illius et audivit ? Eccc, turbo Dominicae indignationis 
egreditur, et tempcstas erumpens super caput impiorum vcnict : non 
revertetur furor Domini usque dum faciat, et usque dum compleat 
cogitationem cordis Sui. In novissimis diebus intelligetis consilium 
Ejus/ Parum namque cogitatis vel facitis, quod] sanctus quoque 

Joel. Joel, ^"monens inertes sacerdotes ac deflens detrimentum 
populi pro iniquitatibus eorum, edixit : ' ^ Expergiscimini qui '^ cstis 
ebrii a vino vestro, et plorate et lamentamini omnes qui '^bibitis 
vinum in ebrietatem, quia ablata est ab ore vestro jucunditas et 
gaudium.' ' • Lugcte sacerdotes, qui descrvitis ^' altari, quia miseri 
facti sunt campi.' ' "' Lugeat terra, quia miscrum factum *" est 
frumcntum, et siccatum' est vinum, diminutum est oleum, *' arue- 
runt agricolie. [Lugete possessiones pro tritico et hordeo, quia 
^^periit vindemia ex agro, vitis arefacra est, hcus diminutae sunt: 
granata, et palma, et malum, et omnia ligna agri arefacta sunt, 
^'quoniam ccMifuderunt "gaudium filii hominum.' Quae omnia *'spi- 
ritualiter intelligenda *"erunt vobis, ne tam pestilenti fame verbi 
Dei anima2 vestrx arescerent.] Et iterum : ' " Flete sacerdotes, qui 
deservitis *^ Domino, dicentes : Parce Dominc populo Tuo, et ne des 
hxreditatem Tuam in opprobrium, *'et ne dominentur' eorum gentes, 
uti ne dicant gentes, Ubi est Deus ec^rum.' Scd hare vos nequa- 
quam ^"auditis, scd omnia, quibus propensius divini furoris indig- 

Osee. natio inardescat, '"'admittitis. Quid etiam sanctus Osee 
Propheta sacerdotibus vestri moduli dixerit, signanter attendite : 
' c Audite h^ec sacerdotes, et intendat domus Israel et domus regis, 
'■' infigite auribus vestris, quoniam ad vos est judicium, quia la- 
queus facti estis speculationi, et velut "retiaculum extensum [super 
P '^ retaberium quod 'Mndicatores venationis •'' conhnxerunt].' Vobis 
^* etiam a Domino alienatio hujuscemodi intendatur per Prophetam 

Amos. Amos dicentem : ' <i Odio habui et repuli dies festos ve- 
stros, et *' non accipiam odorcm in solennibus conventionibus vestris, 

■* mouens B. ■' est B. « bibistis J'. » altario B. **' detunt B. " et add. B. 

araere I'. •- peril B. *^ qm B. not qm. " giadium B. " spiritaliter B. ^ sunt B. 

" Deo B. *^' et dominetur B. et dominentur T'. *^ audietis B. ** admittetis B. 

^ inftigite B. ^ reciaculum B. rete V. leticulum G. " Itaburium G. '^ indagatores G. 

" confixenint G. ^ et B. *" deest B. 

^ Joel. i. 5. LXX. G. = MS. Vatic. » Osee. v. i, 2. LXX. G. 

' Joel. i. 9, 10. LXX. G. = MS. Alex. p sc. Tabor. 

™ Joel. i. 10-12. LXX. G. 1 Amos. v. 21-23 LXX. G. = MS. Alex. 

" Joel. ii. 17. LXX. G.^MS. Vatic. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

Liia etsi obtuleritis ^^ holocaustoniaca et hostias vestras, non acci- 
iam ea. [Et salutare declarationis vestrse non ^' aspiciam. Trans- 
■r a Me sonum cantionum tuarum,. et psalmum '''" organCim tuorum 
on "'audiam.' Famis ''^etenim evangelic! cibi, culina ipsa vestrae 
limse viscera cxcomedcns, grassatur in vobis, sicut supradictus 
ropheta prxdixit. ' ■" Eccc,' 'Mnquicns, 'dies veniunt, dicit Domi- 
Lis, et ''emittam famcm in tcrram, non fomem panis, neque sitim 
|ux, sed famem in audiendo verbuni Dei j et '*' movebuntur "*' aquas 
mari usque ad mare, et ab Aquilone usque ad Orientem percurrent 

Micheas. quasrentes verbum Domini, et non invenient.'] Auribus 
joque percipite sanctum Micheam, acsi coelestem quandam rubam ad- 
;rsus subdolos populi principes concisius personantem: 'sAudite nunc,' 
iquiens, ' principes domus Jacob,' ' nonne vobis est ut cognoscatis 
dicium odientibus bona, et quaerentibus maligna, rapientibus pelles 
)rum ab eis, et carnes eorum ab ossibus eorum ? Qucmadmodum 
)mederunt carnes plebis Meas, et pelles eorum "^ab eis excoriaverunr, 
>sa eorum confregerunt, et laniaverunt quasi carnes in olla j' ' succla- 
labunt ad Deum et non exaudiet eos, et avertet faciem Suam ab eis 
I illo tempore, propter quod malitiose gesserunt in '^'^ adinventionibus 
lis super ipsos. [Haec dicit Dominus super prophetas qui seducunt 
)pulum meum, qui mordent dentibus suis, et praedicant in eum 
icem, et non est data in os eorum : excitavi in eum bellum. Prop- 
rca nox erit vobis ex visione, et tenebrce vobis erunt ex divinatione, 

occidet *" sol super prophetas, et contenebrescet super eos dies, et 
)nfuudentur vidcntes somnia, et '" deridebuntur divini, et obtrectabunt 
Iversus omnes '^ ipsi : quoniam non erit qui exaudiat eos, si non ego 
nplevero fortitudinem in ''- spiritu Domini' et judicio et potestate, ut 
muntiem domui Jacob impietates suas, et '^^ Israel peccata sua. Audite 
EC itaque ''^ duces domus Jacob, et residui domus Israel, qui abomi- 
imini judicium, et omnia recta pervertitis, qui aedificatis Sion in 
mguine, et Jerusalem '■' in iniquitatibus : duces ejus cum muneribus 
dicant, et sacerdotes ejus cum mercede respondebant, et prophetje 
us cum pecunia divinabant j et in Domino requiescebant, dicentes : 

■8 holocausta B. '^ accipiam add. B. ^ organomm G. ^ accipiam B. ^^ est ibi B. 

inquid B. ""' so G.B. immittam Joss. "' moventur 7?. ^'^ deeit B. " ex B. 

adventionibus B. ^^ deest B. "* deridebunt B. "' isti B. ''''^' Domini nomine, 

iritu B. ^' in add. B. ^' principes B. " dee%l B. 

r Amos \nii. II, 12. LXX. G. " pania," with Hebr., LXX., nor Vulg.), and "adversus omnes 

S.Alex.; " a mari," with MS. Vatic. ipsi" for " Kar' avrwy navres avroi." For 

s Mich. iii. 1-12. LXX. G. MS. Vatic, but " succlamabunt," read "sic clamabunt." 
excitavi" for " ijyeipav" (agreeing with neither 


[Gn-D. Epist. a. ad. 647.] 

Nonne Dominus "''in nobis est? Non venient super nos mala. Ideo 
propter vos Sion sicut ager arabitur, et Jerusalem sicut specula pomarii 
erit, et mons domus sicut locus sylvae/ Et post aliquanta : ' t Heu 
me, quia factus sum sicut qui colligit stipulam in " messe, et sicut 
"* racemus in vindemia, cum non sit botrus ad manducandum primitiva. 
Heu me, anima quia '-'periit terrenis operibus, semper peccatorum reve- 
rentia exoritur reverens a terra, et qui corrigat inter homines, non 
est. Omnes in sanguinem judicio contendunt, ct unusquisque proxi- 
mum suum tribulatione ""tribulat, in malum manus '' suas praeparat'.'] 

Sophouias. Qujd Sophonias etiam Propheta egregius de vcstris olim 
"^ commessoribus disceptaverit, attcnditc; de Jerusalem namque kx^uc- 
batur, qux ^^ spiritualiter Ecclesia vcl anima intelligitur : ' " O,' 
inquiens, ' qux "* erat splendida et ' ' liberata civitas, conhdens co- 
lumba, non obaudivit voccm, nee percepit disciplinam, in Domino 
non confisa est, et ad Deum suum non accessit.' Et id quare, 
""ostendit: ' ^ Principes ejus ''^ sicut leo' rugientes, judiccs sicut 
lupi Arabix, non rclinquebant in mane; prophctx ejus spiritum 
^•K)rtantes viri "" contemptoris, sacerdotes ejus prophanabant sancta, 
ct impic agcbant in lege : Dominus autem Justus in medit) ejus, 
et non faciet -•' injustum : mane, mane dabit judicium Suum.' Scd 

Zacharias. ct beatum Zachariam Prophctam moncntem vos in 
verbo Dei audite : ' ^ Haec enim dicit '"Dominus omnipotens' : Ju- 
dicium justum judicate, et misericordiam et miscrationem facite 
unusquisque ad '" fratrem suum, et viduam et orphanum et adve- 
nam et pauperem per potentiam nolite "'■ ncKere, et malitiam '"unus- 
quisque fratris sui' non reminiscatur in corde suo: et contumaces 
fuerunt ne observarent, et dederunt dorsum stultitix, et aures suas 
degravaverunt ut non audirent, et cor suum statuerunt insuadibile 
nc audirent legem Mcam, et verba, qua: misit Dominus omnipo- 
tens [in spiritu "^Suo in manibus Prophetarum priorum : et facta est 
ira magna a Domino omnipotente.' Et iterum : ' > Quoniam qui 

"' deesl B. "' mense B. '* lamus /»'. ^' peril />. '" tribulavit B. "'' suant 

praeparant B. ^ comessoribus ( *■ spiiitaliter ]'. * era ]!. "' libera V. 

"^ ostenditur B. "' quasi leo B. in ea sicut leones V. **" contemptores B. * iniquita- 

tem Y. ^' omn. Dom. B. °' proximum B. "■ calumniari 1'. ■°' frat. s. un. B. 

'** sancto 7?. 

' Mich. vii. 1-3. LXX. G. but, ■' terrenis ope- ' Zeph. iii. 3-5. LXX. G. but read " con- 

ribus, semper peccatorum reverentia exoriiur" temptores," = " /caTa<^/)o>'T7Ta2,"' LXX. 

corresponds to nothing in either Hebr., LXX., . " Zach. vii. 9-12. LXX. G. = MS. Vatic, 

or Vulg. y Zach. x. 2, 3. LXX. G. but read, " exacer- 

" Zeph. iii. I, 2. LXX. G. but G. adds "con- bata." 

30-681. ] PERIOD OF SAXON CON^lUEST. 91 

[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

quebantur, locuti sunt molestias, et divini visa falsa et somnia 
.Isa loquebantur, et vana ^■' consolabantur : propter "" hoc aridi facti 
int sicut oves, et afflicti sunt quoniam mm erat sanitas.] Super 
istores exacervata est iracundia Mea, et super agnos visitabo.' [Et 
:)st pauca : * ^ Vox lamentantium pastorum, quia misera facta est 
lagnitudo eorum. Vox rugientium leonum, quoniam miser factus 
;t decursus Jordanis. Haec dicit Dominus omnipotens : Qui posside- 
int interficiebant, et non poenituit eos: et qui vendebant eas dice- 
int : Benedictus Dominus, et ditati sumus : et pastores earum nihil 
issi sunt in eis. Propter quod non parcam jam super inhabitantes "ter- 
Maiachias. ram, dicit Dominus/] Quid praeterea sanctus Malachias 
ropheta vobis **■* denunciaverit, audite : ' a Vos,' inquiens, ' sacerdotes 
ui spernitis nomen Meum, "'et dixistis : In quo spernimus nomen' 
'uum? Off^erendo ad altare Meum panes pollutes: et dixistis. In quo 
olluimus eos? In eo quod dixistis: Mensa Domini pro nihilo est, et 
uae superposita sunt sprevistis. Quoniam si adducatis caecum ad victi- 
lam, ^ nonne - malum ? si admoveatis claudum aut languidum, nonne' 
lalum? OflFer itaque illud prseposito tuo si ^suscipiet illud, si accipiet 
ersonam tuam, dicit Dominus omnipotens. Et nunc exorate faciem 
)ei vcstri, et dcprecamini Eum : in manibus vestris facta sunt hiEc, 
[ accipiam ex vobis * personas vestras'.' Et iterum : ' b Et intulistis 
c rapina claudum et languidum, et intulistis munus. Nunquid susci- 
iam illud de manu vestra, dicit Dominus ? Maledictus dolosus, qui 
abet in grege suo masculum, et votum faciens immolat debile 
)ominoj quia rex magnus Ego sum, dicit Dominus exercituum, et 
omen Meum horribile in gentibus.' [' ^ Et nunc ad vos mandatum 
oc, ^ O sacerdotes. Si nolueritis audire et ponere super cor ut detis 
loriam nomini Meo, ait Dominus exercituum, mittam in vos eges- 
:item, et maledicam " benedictionibus vestris, quoniam non posuistis 
uper cor. Ecce Ego projiciam vobis brachium, et dispergam super 
Tiltum vestrum stercus solennitatum vestrarum.' Sed interea ut 
vidius organa nequitiae praeparetis ad bona, quid de sancto sacerdote 
iicat, si quantulumcunque adliuc interni auditus in vobis remanet, 

"' consulabantur B. ^ quod B. *" deest B. *^ denunciaverunt B. ^'' desunt B. 

non me B. ^ desunl B. ^ suscipiens B. susceperit T'. (and aho acceperit). *' personam 

estram B. ' deest B. " benedicentibus B. 

^ Zach. xi. 3-6. LXX. G. but LXX. (with »> Malach. i. 13, 14. V. but " rapinis ..Ego, 

''ulg.) add, after the Hebr., before "Qui possi- dicit." 

ebant," "not/xaivfTe to, irpo^ara rrjs a<pa- "^ Malach. ii. 1-3. V. but adds, " et maledicam 

n)s. a." illis" before " quoniam." And V. partly == 

^> Malach. i. 6-9. LXX. G. LXX. 


[Giix). ErisT. a. a. d. 547.] 

auscultate : ' ^ 'Pactum Meum/ inquiens, * fuit cum eo,' — de Levi nam- 
que vel Moyse secundum historiam loquebatur, — ' vitae et pacis, dedi 
ei timorem, et timuit Me, a facie nominis Mei ' pavebat, lex veritatis 
fuit in ore ejus, et iniquitas non est inventa in labiis ejus, in pace et 
in aequitate ambulavit Mecum, et multos avertit ab iniquitate. Labia 
enim sacerdotis custodient scientiam, et legem requirent ex '' ore ejus, 
quia angelus Domini exercituum est/ Nunc item mutavit sensum, 
et malos increpare non desinit : ' ^ Vos,' inquiens, ' recessistis de via, 
et ^"descandalizastis plurimos "in lege', et irritum fecistis pactum cum 
Levi, dicit Dominus exercituum. Propter quod et Ego dedi vos con- 
temptibiles et humiles in omnibus populis, '-sicut non servastis vias 
Meas, et accepistis facicm in lege. Nunquid non Pater unus om- 
nium '^nostrum: nunquid non Deus unus creavit "nos? Quare 
ergo despicit unusquisque fnitrem suum r^ Et iterum : ' ' Ecce veniet 
Dominus exercituum, et quis poterit cogitare diem adventus Ejus? 
et quis stabit ad videndum Eum ? Ipse enim egredietur quasi ignis 
ardens, et quasi '''poa lavantium', et sedebit conflans et emundans 
argentum, et purgabit Hlios Levi, et colabit eos quasi aurum et 
'"quasi argentum.' Et post pauca: ' g Invaluerunt super Me verba 
vestra, dicit Dominus, et dixistis :' * V^'lnus est qui servit Deo, et 
quod '"emolumentum, quia custcxiivimus prxcepta Ejus, et quia am- 
bulavimus coram Domino exercituum tristes? Ergo nunc beatos 
dicemus arrogantes, siquidem i'dihcati sunt facientcs iniquitatem, 
Ezechiel. " tcmptaverunt Dcum, et salvi facti sunt.'J Quid vero 
Ezechiel Propheta dixerit, attendite : ' ^ Vac,' inquiens, ' '"super vse 
veniet', et nuntius super nuntium -"erit, et '-' quaeretur visio a pro- 
pheta, et lex peribit a sacerdote et consilium de senioribus.' Et 
iterum : ' ' Haec dicit Dominus : Eo qucxi sermones vestri sunt 
mendaces, et divinationes vestras vanse, propter hoc ecce Ego ad 
vos, dicit Dominus: extendam manum Meam super prophetas qui 
vident mendacia, et eos qui loquuntur vana: in disciplina populi 

'' peccatum B. * timehat />'. " labiis 7f. '" descandilasris /?. "' de legem 7?. 

'-' sic B. ** vestnim B. '^ vos /.'. ' ' herba fullonum H. '* ilfegl li. ^' emoli- 

mentutn B. '" tentaverunt ^'./.'. ''^' superveniet T'. '** deeat B. -' qiueritur B. 

■I Malach. ii. 5-7. V.: but nearly = LXX. And V. has, " dicimus . . impietatem tt tentave- 

« Malach. ii. 8-10. V. but " scandaJizastis . . runt." 

pactum Le\'i . . humiles omnibus." V. nearly = •> Ezek. vii. 26. LXX. G. 

LXX. MS. Alex. ' Ezek. xiii. 8-10. LXX. MS. Vatic. G. but 

' Malach. iii. I-3. V. except, "Ipse enim .. for "scietis" (which =both Hebr. and Vulg.), 

lavantium," which is peculiar to G. And " ecce LXX. have " yvdjaovTat," and L (ap. Hieron. 

veni«<," which is from L (ap. Hieron. in loc.) ad loc.) •' scient" 

« Malach. lii. 13-15. V. but neirly = LXX. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

4ei non eriint, -et in scriptura domus Israel ^non scribentur, et in 
^rram Israel non intrabunt, ct scietisjquia Ego Dominus. Propterea 
opulum Meum seduxerunt dicentes, pax Domini, et non est pax 
)omini. Hie '-^struit parietem, et ipsi ungunt eum, et cadet/ Et 
ost aliquanta : ' ^ Vze his qui concinnant cervicalia subtus omnem 
ubitum manus, et faciunt velamina super omne caput universce jetatis, 
d subvertendas animas. [Animaeque subversjE sunt populi Mei, et 
nimas possidebant, et contaminabant -^Me ad' populum Meum propter 
lanum plenam hordei, et propter fragmentum panis, ad occidendas 
nimas quas non oportebat mori, et ad liberandas animas quas non 
portebat vivere, dum loquimini "^populo exaudienti vana eloquia.' 
,t infra: 'l'-"Fili hominis die, Tu es terra quae non compluitur, neque 
luvia facta est super te in die irae, in qua principes in medio ejus, 
cut leones rugientes, rapientes rapinas, animas devorantes in poten- 
a, et pretia accipientes, et vidux tuas multiplicatJE sunt in medio 
li, et sacerdotes ejus despexerunt legem Meam, et -"polluebant sancta 
lea: inter sanctum et pollutum non distinguebant, et inter medium 
nmundi et mundi non dividebant, et a '^^ sabbathis Meis obvelabant 
:ulos suos, et -"polluebant in medio eorum.' Et iterum : ' m £t quae- 
;bam ex eis virum recta conversantem, et stantem ante faciem Meam 
mnino in '"^tempore iras, ne' in fine delerem earn, et non inveni. Et 
^udi in cam animum Meum in igne irre Meae ad consumendum eos : 
ias eorum in caput eorum dedi, dicit Dominus.' Et post aliquanta : 
" Et factus est sermo Domini ad me dicens : ^^ Fili hominis loquere 
iiis populi Mei, et dices ad eos : Terra in quam Ego gladium super- 
iducam, et acceperit populus terrae hominem unum ex ipsis, et 
iderit eum sibi in speculatorem, et viderit gladium venientem super 
•rram, et tuba •'- cecinerit, et significaverit populo: et audierit qui 
idit vocem tubae et non observaverit : et venerit gladius et com- 
•ehenderit eum : sanguis ejus super caput ejus erit. Quia, cum vocem 
[Irx audisset, non observavit, sanguis ejus in ipso ^^ erit : et hie, quia 
istodivit, animam suam liberavit. Et ^* speculator si viderit gladium 

-2 neque B.V. ^ deest F. -'* striiunt T'. ^' demnt B. ^ filii li. ^7 polluerunt B. 

sabitis B. ^ polluerunt B. "' so G. tempora terrae ne Joss, tempora terre nee B, 

filii B. ■'- canu'it B. " est B. •* speculates B. 

k Ezek. xiii. 18, 19. LXX. G. MS. Vatic; " Ezek. xxii. 30, 31. LXX. G. MS. Vatic. 

t " animaei/ue," and •' fragmentu»» panis," = (but adds " eos" with MS. Alex.) 

S.Alex. » Ezek. xxxiii. 1-9. LXX. G. MS. Vatic; 

' Ezek. xxii. 24-26. LXX. G. MS. Vatic; but for "populi Mei" LXX. (agreeing with both 

:ept " polluebant" in the last clause, which = Hebr. and Vulg.) have " tov Xaov aov." 

S. Alex. 


[Gild. Etist. a. a. d. 547.] 

venientem et non significaverit tuba, et populus non observaverit : et 
veniens gladius acceperit ex ■'■' eis animam' : et ipsa propter iniquitatem 
suam capta est ; et sanguinem de manu ''' speculatoris requiram. Et tu 
fill hominis '^ speculatorem te dedi domui Israel, et audies ex ore Meo 
verbum : cum dicam peccatori, Morte morieris, et non ^ loqueris ut 
avertat se a via sua impius j et ipse iniquus ■'' in iniquitate sua morie- 
tur, sanguinem autem ejus dc manu tua requiram. Tu vero si prx- 
dixeris impio viam ejus, ut avertat se ab ea, et non se averterit a via 
sua: hie sua impietate morictur, et tu animam tuam "' eripuisti.'] Sed 
sufficiant hxc pauca dc pluribus Prophcrarum tcstimonia, ^'queis retun- 
ditur superbia vel ignavia saccrdotum contumacium, ne putcnt nos 
propria potius adinventione quam legis '-sanctorum vel' auctoritate eis 

Testimonia ex talia denuntiare. Vidcamus igitur quid cvangclica tuba 
°meinT^' rnundo personans mordinatis saccrdotibus eloquatur ; 

s. Matthaus. non cnim de illis, ut jam diximus, qui apx)Stolicam sc- 
dcm legitime obtincnt, quique bene norunt ° largiri ^""spiritualia con- 
servis suis ' in tempore cibaria,' *^si qui tamen multi in praesentiarum 
sunt; sed de pastoribus imperitis, *^''qui dcrelinquunt ovcs, et pas- 
cunt vana, et non habenl verba pastoris periti, ^ nobis sermo est. 
Evidens ^' ergo indicium est, non esse cum legilimum p.istorem, sed 
** mediocrem quidem Christianum, qui hxc non tam nostra, qui valde 
exigui sumus, quam Veteris Novique Testamcnti decreta ^"recusarit 
vel inficiatus fuerit ; sicut bene quidam •"' nostrorum ait : ' Opta- 
biliter cupimus, ut hostes Ecclesiac sint nostri quoque absque ullo 
foedere hostes; et amici ac defensores nostri non solum foederati, sed 
etiam patres ac domini habeantur.' Conveniant namque singuli vero 
examine conscientiam suam, et ita dcprehendent '"'an secundum rectam 
rationem sacerdotali cathedr^E ■'■' insideant. Vidcamus, inquam, quid 
Salvator mundi Factorque dicat. 'P Vos estis,' inquit, 'sal terra:; quod 
si sal evanuerit, in quo salicturr ad nihilum valet ultra, nisi ut ■'"'proji- 
ciatur foras '^'ut conculcctur ab hominibus.' Hoc unum testimonium 
ad confutandos impudentes quosque abunde sufficere posset, sed ut 

^ ea anima F: * spiculatoris B. ^ spiculatorem B. ^ loquaris B. '* deesl B. 

*' eruisti B. ^' quibus B. ^'^ sanctoramve 1'. *^ spiritalia V. " sed ]',. *■' quia B. 

•* vobis B. *'' g' (i.e. igitur) B. ^ ne add. V. * recusauerit B. '" nrni h. 
*' ad /;. -^ insident B. ^ mitlatur B. ■'•' et B. 

° Matt. .\xiv. 46. I. as in MS. Corb. 1. ai.d MS. Clarom., MS. S. Gat., S. Cvpr. Test, 

in Cod. Bezae. HI. 87. p. 87, S. Hieron. c. Lucif.' Opp, IV. 

1' Matt. V. 1.?. I. V. but "el conculcetur." 291 b. 
And " projiciatur" (for " niittatur"') =Cod. Bez;?, 

^50-68i.J PERIOD OF SylXON CON^lUEST. 95 

[Gild. Epist. a. a.d. 547.] 

rvidentioribus adhuc astipulationibus, quantis semetipsos intolerabi- 
ibus scelerum fascibus falsi hi sacerdotes opprimant, verbis Christi 
'' comprobetur, aliqua annectenda sunt. Sequitur enim : ' q Vos estis 
ux mundi. Non potest ci vitas abscondi supra montem posita, neque 
icccndunt lucernam et ponunt earn sub modio, sed "^ super candcla- 
)rum, ut luccat omnibus qui in domo sunt.' Qujs ergo sacerdotum 
lujus temporis ita ignorantiae "^^caecitate possessus, ut' lux clarissimas 
ucernae in ^^aliqua domo' cunctis noctu residcntibus, scicntiic simul ct 
)onorum operum lampade ^'''lucet ? Quis ""ita univcrsis Ecclcsias filiis 
'tutum, publicum^ conspicuumque refugium, ^-ut sit' civibus ""firmissima 
brte aediti' mentis civitas vertice constituta, habetur ? Sed *" et quod 
sequitur, ' ■'Sic luccat lux vestra coram hominibus, ut videant "•''opera 
/estra' bona, et magnificent Patrcm vestrum Qui "" in coelis est :' quis 
;orum uno saltern die potest implere ? Quin potius densissima quae- 
:1am eorum nebula, atraquc pcccaminum omni insulx ita incumbit 
lox, "' ut omnes pcne a via recta avertat, ac per invios "^ impeditosque 
jcelerum calles errare faciat ; quorum non modo Pater •" coelestis non 
laudatur per opera, sed etiam intolerabiliter blasphematur. "" Velim 
.|uidem haec Scripturce '* Sacrae testimonia huic epistolse inserta vel in- 
serenda, sicut nostra mediocritas posset, omnia utcunque historico vel 
morali sensu interpretari. Sed, ne " in immensum' modum opusculum 
lioc, his qui non tarn nostra quam Dei despiciunt, fastidiunt, aver- 
tunt, '^ proteletur, simpliciter et absque ullo verborum "^ circuitione con- 
gesta vel congerenda sunt. Et post pauca : ' s Qui enim solverit unum 
de mandatis istis minimis, et docuerit sic homines, minimus vocabitur 
in regno coelorum.' Et iterum : ' t Nolite judicare, ut non judicemini : 
in quo enim judicio judicaveritis, judicabitur de vobis." Quis rogo 
vestrum "^ respiciet id' quod sequitur. ' " Quid autem ^" vides,' inquit', 
' festucam in oculo fratris tui, et trabem in oculo tuo non consideras ? 
aut quomodo dicis fratri tuo. Sine "" ejiciam festucam de oculo tuo, et 

^ coraprobatur B. '^ supra B.V. '"'''' caecitatem depellit ut ceu F. '^ aliquani domum 7'. 
'" luceat i'. * itaque B. "' totum B. ''*' ut est B. est ut V. '^' tirmissiina forte editi G. firnia 
forte in aediti T'. firmissima forte ut edita B. ®' deest B. '''' vest. op. B. "'' et add. B. but 
eraml prima manu. '^ ita add. B. ■'* impeditesque B. '^^ scelestis B. '" vellem B. V. 

"1 facere J!. ''-' in mensum B. '^ protollatur V. '* circuitio B. '''' respiciet illud B. 

respicit id 1'. ''^' inq. vid. B. " so G.V. eijciam Joss, eciam {contracted) B. 

<i Matt. V. 14, 15. V. ("supra," as in MS. Rushworth Gospels (Scoto-Northumbrian). 

B. = I. " " Matt. V. 19. I. (V. has "qui ergo.") 

f Matt. V. 16. I. V. : but " magnificent," G. ' Matt. vii. I, 2. I. 

(in I. and V. " glorificent") = MSS. Vercell. and " Matt. vii. 3, 4. I. But, " consideras," G. 

Veron. (African), S. Germ, i, Clarom., Maj. (in both I. and V., " vides") = Cod. Vercell. 

Mon., S. Hilary in Ps. Ixi. &c. (Itala), and the (African). 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

ccce " trabes in oculo tuo est.' Vel quod sequitur : ' -^ Nolite dare 
sanctum canibus, neque miseritis margaritas vestras ante porcos, ne 
forte conculcent eas pedibus suis, et conversi "disrumpant vos:' quod 
sacpissime vobis evenit. Et populum monens, ne a dolosis doctoribus, 
ut estis vos, seducerctur, dixit : ' >' Attendite vobis a falsis prophetis, 
qui veniunt ad vos in '''vestitu ovium, intrinsecus autem sunt lupi 
rapaces. A fructibus eorum cognoscetis eos. Nunquid colligunt de 
spinis uvas, aut de tribulis ficus? *'Sic omnis arbor bona bonos fructus 
facit, et mala malos.' Et infra : ' z Non omnis qui dicit Mihi, 
Dominc, Domine, intrabit in regnum *' coelorum : sed qui facit volun- 
tatcm Patris Mci Qui in coclis est, ipse intrabit in regnum' cctrlorum.' 
Quid sane vobis fiet, *-qui, ut Propheta " dixit, labiis tantum et non 
corde '''Deo creditis'? Qualitcr autem "^'impletis quod sequitur: ' ''Ecce,' 
inquiens, 'Ego mitto vos sicut oves in medio lup)rum,' qui versa vice, 
ut lupi in gregem ovium, proceditis^ vel quod ait: ' '^ Estote pruden- 
tes sicut serpentes, ct simplicei; sicut columbic ?' Prudentes quidem 
estis ut aliquem ore ""exitiabili mordeatis, non ut Caput vestrum, quod 
est Christus, objectu ^quodammodo corporis defendatis. Quern totis 
operum malorum conatibus ^' conculcatis. Nee enim simplicitatem 
columbarum habetis, quin potius ^corvino '*'assimilati nigrori, ac semel 
de area, id est Ecclesia, ""evolitantes, '"'inventis carnaliimi voluptatum 
fcetoribus, nusquam ad eam puro corde revolastis. Sed videamus et 
cxtera : '^Nolite,' ait, ' timere eos qui occidunt corpus, animam 
autem non possunt occidere, sed timete Eum Qui potest "' et animam 
et corpus' perdere in gehennam.' Quidnam horum feceritis, recogi- 
tate. Quem vero vestrum sequens testimonium non in "^profundo 
cordis '"arcano'^vulneret, quod de pravis "•''antistitibus Salvator ad Apo- 
stolos loquitur? ''Sinite illos, cxci ""sunt duces' ccecorum : caecus 
autem si ci^co ducatum pnrstet, ambo in foveam cadent.' Egent 

" trabis /{. '" dimmpant 7?. "' veslimentis 7?.!'. * set 7). "'' deeunt II. '' qd' IL 

''^' Deum creditis Ji. Deo adhiretis V. *' deest li. *"' extiuabili H. * qucxlam li. 

*^ conculcans B. ^ assiniulati G. '"' a volitantcs li. evolantes V. '*' inventes /.'. 

"' et c. et a. B. '•' profunda B. profundi V. * «o G. arcana Joco. /?.]'. " mlueret B. 

""■ antislibus B.V. **' duces sunt B. 

» Matt. vii. 6. I. ' Matt. X. ir,. I. V. 

-» Matt. vii. 15-17. I- but " intrinsecus" = '' Matt. x. 16. I. V. but " estote ergo." 

Vulg., " a fructibus" = Cod. Verceli. et Veron. •' Gen. viii. 7. 

and \'u!g., and the last v. is probably abridged. •■ Matt. x. 28. V. {nii Cod. Amiat.) but = 

G. = Luc. Cal. Pro S. Athan. I. Bibl. PP. IV. aL'o Cod. Brix. of I.; and G. om. " potius," be- 

140 g, in V. 15. fore " timete." 

^ Matt. vii. 21. v. but = also Cod. Veion., and ' Matt. xv. 14. = Cod. Verceli., and Cod. 

Corb. of I. Amiat. of V, : but "cadent," for "cadunt," is 

" Esai. xxix. 13 : Matt. xv. 8 : Marc. vii. 6. peculiar to G. with S. Cypr. Epist. 43. p. 84. 


[Gild. Epist. a. A. D. 547.] 

me populi, ^^quibus praeestis, vel potius quos *' decepistis, audire. 
ittcndite verba Domini ad Apostolos et turbas loquentis, quae et 

nos, ut audio, in medium crebro proferre non pudet. ' s Super cathe- 
ram Moysi sederunt Scribae et Pharisaei. Omnia ergo quascunque 
ixerint vobis, servate et facite : secundum vero opera eorum nolite 
Lcere. Dicunt enim et ipsi non faciunt/ Periculosa certe ac super- 
acua sacerdotibus doctrina est, quae pravis operibus obfuscatur. ' h Vae 
3bis hypocritae, qui clauditis regnum ccelorum ante homines, vos 
-Item non intratis nee ^ntroeuntes sinitis intrare.' Non solum enim 
rae tantis malorum criminibus quae geritis in futuro, sed etiam pro 
is, -qui vestro quotidie exemplo pcreunt, pcjcnali pcena -^ plectemini : 
jorum sanguis in die judicii de vestris manibus requiretur. Sed 
jid mali quod servi parabola * praetenderit inspicite, dicentis ' ' in 
)rde suo, Moram facit Dominus meus venire.' Qui •' pro hoc forsitan 

incceperat' percutere conservos suos, manducans et bibens cum ebriis. 
eniet' ergo, inquit, ' Dominus servi illius in die "qua non sperat, et 
Dra qua ignorat, et dividet eum,' a Sanctis scilicet sacerdotibus, ' par- 
jmque ejus ponet cum hypocritis,' cum eis certe, qui sub sacerdo- 
.li tegmine multum obumbrant nequitiae. ^i^Illic,' inquiens, ' erit 
;tus et stridor dentium j' quibus in hac vita ^non crebro evenit ob quo- 
dianas Ecciesiae matris ruinas tiliorum, vel Mesyderia regni ccelorum. 
listoixS. Pauii, Sed vidcamus quid Christi verus discipulus, Magister 
:ntium Paulus, qui omni ecclesiastico Moctori imitandus est, '"'sicut 
: ego Christi',' in tali negotio praeloquatur in prima epistola dicens, 
"Quia "quum cognoverunt' Deum, non sicut Deum magnificaverunt. 
It gratias egerunt : sed evanuerunt in cogitationibus suis, et '- occse- 
.tum est '^insipiens cor eorum ; dicentes se esse sapientes, stulti facti 
nt.' Licet hoc gentibus dici videatur, intuemini tamen quia com- 
:tenter istius aevi sacerdotibus cum '^populis coaptabitur. Et post 

" qui U. '' decipitis F. ^ vos B.V. Mntroientes 5. ^ que /?. ' plectimini 7j'. 
rotenderit B. '-' ob hoc f. coeperat V. ^ in add. V. ^ deeat B. V. * desideria G.B. 

eest B. "^' desunt B. sicut et ego sum discipulus Christi F. ^^' non cognoverunt B. quum 
jnovissent V. '■ obsecatum B. obcaecatum V. ^^ deest B. '^ apostolis B. 

5 Matt, xxiii. 2, 3. V. but "vero opera" is J Matt. xxiv. 49-51. I. and Cod. Amiat. of V. 

uliar to G. with the Rushworth and Hereford For " veniet ergo," I. has " veniet autem," and 

spels, and " ipsi" is from I. V. om. the word. 
' Matt, xxiii. 13. I. V.: but G. has "qui" ^ Matt. xxiv. 51. I. V. 

h one MS. of V. (the Vallicell.), and " vos ' i Cor. xi. i. I. V. 

em" with the Rushworth and Hereford Gos- °> Rom. i. 21, 22. = MS. Reg. of I. but " enim" 

>. om. before " se," and " occaecatum est," G. 
Matt. xxiv. 48. I. y. 

VOL. T. H 


[Gild. Epist. a. a.d. 547.] 

pauca : '■ " Qu^i '* commutaverunt/ inquit, ' veritatem Dei in mcnda- 
cium, ct colucrunt ct servicrunt creaturae potius quam Creatori, Qui 
est benedictus in sscula : propterea tradidit illos Deus in passiones 
ignominice.' Et iterum : ' ° Et sicut non probaverunt Deum habere 
in ^' notitia, tradidit illos Deus in reprobum sensum, ut faciant qux 
non conveniunt, repletos omni iniquitatc, malitia, impudicitia, forni- 
catione, avaritia, nequitia, plenos invidia, homicidio,' [scilicet anima- 
rum populi,] ' contentione, dole, malignitate, susurrones, dctractores, 
Deo odibiles, contumeliosos, superbos, elatos, inventores malorum : 
parentibus inobcdientes, insensatos, incompositos, sine misericordia, 
sine aff-ectionej qui cum justitiam Dei '"cognovissent, non intcllex- 
erunt, quoniam qui talia agunt, digni sunt morte.' Quisnam supra- 
dictorum his omnibus in veritate oiruit ? Si cnim csset, forte cape- 
retur subjecto sensu in quo ait : * P Non solum qui faciunt ea, sed 
etiam qui conscntiunt facicntibus,' nuUo scilicet hoc malo eorum "ex- 
stante "'^ immuni. Et infra : ' q Tu autem secundum duritiam tuam, et 
cor impoenitcns, thcsaurizas tibi iram in die irae, et reveLitionis justi 
judicii Dei, Qu^i reddct unicuiquc secundum opera sua.' Et iterum : 
'•^Non est enim acceptio pcrsonarum apud Deum. Quicunque enim 
sine lege ^' pcccaverunt, sine lege '-' et ■"peribunt: quicunque in lege 
'^pcccavcrunt, per legem judicabuntur'. Non cnim auditores legis justi 
sunt -*apud Deum', sed ^factores legis justificabuntur.' Quid ergo se- 
veritatis ingruit his qui non solum implenda non faciunt, et "prohibita 
non dcclinant, sed etiam ipsam verborum Dei Icctionem, vel tenuiter 
auribus ingestam, pro sxvissimo *' angue refugiunt? Sed transeamus ad 
sequcntia. ' ^Quij -'*ergo,' inquit, * dicemus ? Permanebimus in peccato 
ut gratia abundet ? absit. Qui enim mortui sumus peccato, " quomodo 
iterum vivemus in illo?* Et post aliquanLa: ' tQuis ^'nos,' ait, *sepa- 

*' communicaverunt B. '" notitiam B. '" cogno>isset 0. " exstantes B. *^ immu- 

nes B. ''* peccaverit B. peccaverint T'. ^ (Uesl B. ^ peribit B. ^' peccaverit, sine 

lege judicabitur B. f)eccaverint, per legem judicabuntur 1'. *•' desunt B. " forciores B. 

^ i>phita (i. e. prophetica) B. '^ agni B. '■* igitur B. ** qm (1. e. quoaiam) Deo B. 

•« vos B. 

" Rom. i. li,, 26. V. but G. cm. " amen." Bon. Patient., pp. 76, 21 1 : and in v. 5, Luc. CaJ. 

And both I. and Cod. Amiat. of V. read " men- De Reg. Apost. Bibl. PP. IV. i5(^ h. And " sua" 

dacio." (for " ejus") = S. Cjrpr. ib., S. Aug. (once), S. Hie- 

" Rom. L 28-32. V. But G. adds " impu- ron. (once), Sedulius Scotus in loc., &c. &c. 
dicitia" (with Luc. Cal. Pro S. Athan. IL Bibl. ' Rom. ii. I1-13. Cod. Amiat. of V., and L 

PP. IV. 141 f.), has " inobedientes, insensatos" but with "enim" added ( = MS. Reg. of I.), and 

(for V. " noa obedientes, insipientes"), and om. " et" om. after " peribunt." 
" ea" after " faciant," and " absque fcedere." ' Rom. vi. i, 2. V. but, " quomodo adhuc." 

p Rom. i. 32. V. " Itemm" pecul. to G. 

Rom. ii. 5, 6. = S. Cs-pr. Testim. III. 35, De ' Rom. viii. 35. I. and Cod. Amiat. of V. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

rabit a charitate Christi ? tribulatio ? an angustia, an *^ persecutio, an' 
Fames, an nuditas, an periculum, an gladius ?' Quern vestrum, ^- quasso, 
talis intimo cordc occupabit affectus, qui non modo pro pietate non 
laboratis, sed etiam ut inique agatis et Christum oftendatis, multa 
patimini ? Vel quod sequitur j ' " Nox praecessit, dies autem appro- 
pinquavit. Abjiciamus ergo opera tenebrarum, et induamus arma 
lucis. Sicut in die honeste ambulemus, non in commessationibus 
;t ebrietatibus, non in cubilibus et impudicitiis, non in contentione 
;t semulatione: sed induite Dominum Jesum Christum, et carnis 
:uram ne feceritis in concupiscentiis/ Et iterum ad Corinthios in 
^rima Epistola : ' ' Ut sapiens,' inquir, ' architectus fundamentum 
posui, ^alter supcraediticat'. Unusquisque autem videat quomodo super- 
Editicet. Fundamentum enim aliud nemo potest ponere prxter id quod 
'* est JESUS CHRISTUS. Si quis autem '' supersedilicet ^* super hoc 
lurum et argentum, "' lapides pretiosos, ligna, foenum, stipulam, ^*unum- 
quodquc opus manifestum erit; dies enim Domini declarabit illud, 
'^ quia in igne revelabitur, et uniuscujusque opus, quale sit, ignis pro- 
3abit. Si cujus opus manserit, — omnia per ignem judicabuntur, — [qui 
superi^dihcaverit, mercedem accipiet. *^Si cujus opus arserit, detrimen- 
tum patietur.' ' ^ *' Nescitis quia templum *^ Dei estis, et Spiritus Dei 
[labitat in vobis? Si quis autem templum Dei violaverit, disperdet 
ilium Deus.' Et iterum: '7 Si quis videtur apud vos sapiens esse in 
HOC seculo, stultus hat, ut sit sapiens. Sapientia enim hujus mundi, 
stultitia est apud Deum.' Et post aliquanta : ' ^ ^^ Non bona' gloriatio 
vestra. Nescitis, quia modicum fermentum totam massam corrum- 
pit ? Expurgate igitur vetus fermentum, ut sitis nova conspersio.' 
Quomodo expurgabitur vetus fermentum, id est peccatum, quod ^a 
diebus indies cunctis conatibus cumulatur ? Et iterum : ' a Scripsi 

^" desimt B. ^' quero B. ^' alter supersedificet B. aliud super illud aedificat V. 

" est Dominus B. positum est quod est T''. * superaedificat V. -^ supra B. supra funda- 

mentum V. ^ et add. B. ^ cujusque V. ^ quoniam B. qui T". ** set B. 

" nescit B. « Domini B. *^' vero B. " deesl B. 

'except " separavit," in latter). So also Luc. Cal. ting fundamentum), " aurum et, unumquodque 

De Moriend. pro Dei Fil. Bibl. PP. IV. 182 d, (for uniuscujusque), declarabit illud," and in in- 

3. Aug., &c. &c. serting " omnia per ignem judicabuntur qui," 

" llom. .xiii. 12, 13. V.: but, "induamus," omitting " quod." 
with MS. Reg. of I., and S. Cvpr. De Zelo et Liv. =' i Cor. iii. 1 6, 1 7. I. V. 

p. 224, " induite" with I., and " concupiscentiis" y i Cor. iii. 18, 19. V. but, " inter vos." 

with MS. Reg. of I. and Ambrosiast. ad loc. ^ i Cor. v. 6, 7. V. but G. omits " est" after 

[" induamur, induimini, desideriis," in V.) " Non," with I. and Cod. Amiat. of V., and adds 

" I Cor. iii. 10-15. I. but corrected in w. 10, "igitur." 
13. from V. And G. is peculiar in omitting, » I Cor. v. 9-1 1. V. but " exire" in G. for 

after " id quod," " positum est quod ;" in reading " exiisse," with S. Aug. De Fid. et Op. 0pp. 

" Jesus Christus, . . superaedificet super hoc" (omit- VI. 166 d : and for " ne commisceri si quis" (G.), 

H 3 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

vobis in epistola, nc commisceamini fornicariis; non utique forni- 
cariis hujus mundi, aut avaris, aut rapacibus, aut idolis servientibus : 
alioquin dcbueratis de hoc mundo exire. Nunc autem scrips! vobis 
ne commisceri, si quis nominatur fratcr, et est fornicator, aut avarus, 
aut idolis serviens, aut maledicus, aut ebriosus, aut rapax, cum hujus- 
niodi nee ^'^cibum quidem' sumere.' Sed latro nequaquam pro furto vel 
latrocinio furem alium damnat, quern potius optat, tuetur, amat, ut- 
pote sui sceleris consortem.] Item in Epistola ad Corinthios secunda : 
' ^ Ideo/ inquit, ' habentes banc administrationem, juxta quod mise- 
ricordiam consecuti sumus, non dcficiamus : sed *" abjiciamus occulta 
dedecoris, non ambulantes in astutia neque adultcrantes vcrbum Dei/ 
per malum exemplum scilicet, *' et per adulationem. In subsequentibus 
autem ita de mails doctoribus dicit : 'clsf^^ni "cjusmodi pseudoapostoli 
*'sunt, operarii' subdoli, transtigurantcs se in Apostolos Christi. Et non 
mirum : ipse enim Sathanas transfigurat se in angelum lucis. Non 
est magnum '" igitur, si ministri ejus ''transfigurentur ut angeli justitiae, 
quorum Hnis erit secundum opera eorum.' Attenditc quoque quid 
ad Ephesios dicat. An nescitis vos pro hoc in aliquo reos tencri ? 
' ^ Hoc,' inquiens, ' dico et testihcor in Domino, ut jam non ambuletis 
sicut gentes ambulant in vanitate sensus sui, tenebris obscuratum 
habentes intellectum, alicnati a via Dei per ignorantiam, qux est 
in illis, propter caecitatem cordis eorum, qui desperantes semetipsos 
tradiderunt impudicitix in operationem omnis immunditias et ava- 
ritix.' Et quis vestrum spontc explcverit " id quod sequitur : ' ^ Prop- 
terea nolite fieri ''' imprudentes, sed intelligentes quae sit voluntas Dei, 
et nolite inebriari vino, in quo est luxuria : sed replemini Spiritu 
Sancto?' Sed '^et qucxi ad Thessalonicos dicit: ^f Neque '* enim fui- 
mus apud vos aliquando in sermone adulationis, sicut " scitis, neque 

*^ quid. cib. B. *' so G.B.V. abijciamus .lou. *' dersl Ti. * hujusmodi V. 

*^ sic operarii sic B. *' deeai B.V. " transfigurarentur V. '^ illud B. ^ impudentes B. 
■^ deeit B. » JO G.V. sitis Joss. B. 

V. has, " non comniisceri si is qui," and om. " et" has also " a vifa Dei, cordis \p$omm," and " im- 

before " est." G. = Parian. Epist. iii. Bibl. PP. IV. niunditix omnis in avaritiam." " a via" = S. Aug. 

342 c. Also I. and V. have " ejusmodi," and in Ps. cxviii. Serm. x\'iii. 3. 0pp. IV. 1324 c. 

om. "quidem." c Ephes. v. 17, 18. V. but G. has " reple- 

•^ 2 Cor. iv. I, 2. v. but G. adds " banc" with mini" for " implemini," with Gaud. Brix. Serm. 

I. and Cod. Amiat. of V., reads " afZniinistratio- i.x. Bibl. PP. IV. 818 b. 

nem" with Ambrosiast. ad loc. &c. and V., and f i Thes. ii. 5-8. V. but G. adds "apud vos" 

has " deficiomus" (with Ambrosiast. ib.) and (with S. Aug. Epist. cxxvi. 0pp. II. 371 d), om. 

" abjidanius" (for abdicamus) with S.Aug. De " Deus testis est" after " avaritise," and has " glo- 

Spir. et Lit. 0pp. X. 102 c. riari" for " gloriam," " po&simus . . Christi" for 

"^ 2 Cor. xi. 13-15. v. but, " ergo magnum " possemus vobis oneri esse ut Christi Apostoli," 

si . . velut ministri iustitiae . . opera ipsorum." " parvulos" for " hlios," adds " vel" before " tan- 

•^ Ephes. iv. 17-19. I. V. but G. om. " et" quam," and om. " Dei" after •' Evangcliom. ' 
after " sicut" with Cod. Amiat. of V. And V. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

*" in occasione avaritise, nee' quserentes ab hominibus " gloriari, neque 
a vobis, neque ab aliis ■ cum ^^possimus honori' esse, ut caeteri Apostoli 
Christi. Sed facti sumus sicut parvuli in medio vcstrum, vel tan- 
quam si nutrix foveat parvulos suos, ita '^Mesyderantes vos cupide, vole- 
bamus vobis tradere non solum Evangelium, sed etiam animas 
nostras.' ""Si hunc vos Apostoli retinetis in omnibus affectum, ejus 
quoque cathedrae legitime "' insidere noscatis. Vel etiam quod scqui- 
tur : ' gScitis,' inquit, * quae priccepta dederim vobis. Hasc est "^^voluntas 
Dei', sanctihcatio vestra, ut abstineatis vos a fornicatione, et sciat 
unusquisquc vestrum vas suum possidere in honore et sanctiticatione, 
non in passione desiderii, sicut et gcntes quae ignorant Deum. [Et 
ne quis supcrgrediatur neque circumveniat in ncgotio fratrem suum; 
quoniam vindcx est Dominus de his omnibus. Non cnim vocavit 
nos Deus in immunditiam, sed '' in sanctificationem. Itaque qui haec 
spernit, non hominem spernit sed Deum.' Quis etiam vestrum cir- 
cumspecte cautequc custodivit id quod sequitur : ' '' Mortificate ergo 
membra vestra quae sunt super terram, fornicationem, immunditiam, 
libidinem, et concupiscentiam malam,' ' propter quae venit ira Dei in 
filios diffidentiae ?' Videtis enim pro "queis peccatis ira Dei potissimum 
consurgat.] Audite itaque quid de vobis prophetico spiritu sanctus 
idem Apostolus vestrisque consimilibus praedixerit, ad Timotheum 
iperte scribens : "Hoc enim ^'^scitote, quod in novissimis diebus in- 
?tabunt tempora periculosa. Erunt enim homines semetipsos amantes, 
cupidi, elati, superbi, blasphemi, parentibus inobcdientes, ingrati, 
scelesti, sine affectione, incontinentes, immites, sine benignitate, 
proditores, protervi, *"'tumidi, "voluptatum amatores magis quam Dei, 
habentcs quidem speciem pietatis, virtutem autem ejus abnegantes. 
Et hos '^ devita,' sicut et Propheta dicit : ' J Odivi congregationem 
malignorum, et cum impiis non sedebo.' [Et post aliquanta, quod 
nostro tempore videmus pullulare, ait "^ : ' k Semper discentes, et nun- 

^' desunt B. ^ gloriam T'. ^' possumus in honore T'. '* desiderantes G.B.V. "" set B. 
" insedere B. ^^' desunt B. ® deest B. " quibus B. ^ scito F. ^ timidi B. 

" voluntatum B. ® devicta B. '^ enim add. B. 

8 1 Thess, iv. 2-8. V. but " ut sciat." And G. with Cod. Amiat, of V. : and also om. " sine 

om. " enim" after " scitis," and after " hxc est," pace, criminatores," before " incontinentes ;" and 

■' per Dominum Jesum" after " vobis," and " si- adds " enim" after " erunt" (with S. Hieron. in 

:ut praediximus vobis et testificati sumus," after Mich. VII. 0pp. III. 1548 d). 

" omnibus." J Psalm, xxvi. 5. (xxv. 5). I. Cod. Sanger- 

^ Col. iii. 5. v., 6. I. man., but " malignorum," G. for " malignan- 

> 2 Tim. iii. 1-5. V. but, " Hoc scito . . seip- tium." 

50s;" and G. has " inobedientes," om. " et" be- i' 3 Tim. iii. 7-9. V. " quemadmodum autem 

Fore " voluptatum," and reads " quidem speciem," . . et hi." 


[Gild. Epist. a. a.d. 547.] 

qu:im ad scientiam veritatis pervcnientes : qucmadmodum cnim 
Jannes et Mambres restiterunt Moysi, ita ** et isti ""^ resistant veritati' : 
homines corrupti mente, reprobi circa fidem, sed ultra non proficient. 
Insipientia enim eorum manifesta erit omnibus sicut et iliorum fuit.'] 
Etenim evidcnter ostcndit qualiter se exhibeant suo officio saccrdotes, 
ita ad Titum scribens : ' ' Te ipsum prsebe exemplum bonorum ope- 
rum, in doctrina, in integritate, in gravitate, verbum sanum habens, 
irrcprehensibile; ut "'is qui ex adverso est vercatur, nullum malum 
habens diccrc de '- nobis/ Et iterum ad Timotheum : ' ^ Labora/ 
inquit, 'sicut bonus miles Christi Jesu. Nemo militans Deo, impli- 
cat se negotiis secularibus, ut placeat Ei cui ^' sc probavit. Nam et 
qui contendit in agone, non coronatur nisi legitime certaverit.' Hacc 
quidem bonorum adhortatio. [Qiuxl vero item comprehendit, malo- 
rum hominum, ut vos quibusque intclligentibus apparetis, denuntiatio 
est: '"Si quis,' inquicns, ' alitcr docet, et non acquiescit sermonibus 
sanis Domini nostri Jesu Christi, et ei '*qu?e secundum pietatem est 
doctrinse, supcrbus "''est, nihil " scicns, sed languesccns erga quxstiones 
et pugnas vcrbirum, ex quibus oriuntur invidije, contcntioncs, blas- 
phcmiae, suspiciones malx, conflictationes "hominum mente corrupto- 
rum, qui veritatc privati sunt, cxistimantium quxstum esse pietatem/J 
Sed quid sparsim pc)sitis amplius utcntes testimoniis, sensuum ac 
diversorum "" undis, in despccta '"ingenii nostri "^cymbula fluctuabi- 
Leaioncs in ^n"'' ? "' Rccurrere tandem aliquando usque ad lectiones 
Ordmationisdie in^s qux ad hoc non solum ut *'-' recitcntur, sed etiam ad- 

apud Ecclesiani 

Britannicam stipulcntur bencdictioni, qua initiantur sacerdotum vel 
legisditsE. ministrorum manus, cosquc pcrpetuo doceant, uti ne a 
mandatis, qux hdeliter contincntur in eis, sacerdotali dignitatc de- 
generantes rccedant, ex omni pene sanctarum Scripturarum textu 
merito excerptse sunt, necessarium duximus ; ut apertius cunctis 
pateat seterna supplicia mansura eos, et non esse sacerdotcs vel Dei 
ministros, '''qui earum' doctrinas atque mandata opere, secundum vires 
suas, non ** adimpleverint. Audiamus ergo quid princeps Apostolorum 
^'^ beatus Petrus de tali negotio signaverit : ' ° Benedictus,' inquiens, 

® ut B. '*' vcr. res. B. "' hijs /). his V. and ex averse T'. ^ vobis B. ^ hoc B. 

"* qui B. " deest B. "^ scios B. ^ male add. B. ^ modis 13. ™ et genii B. 

*• cibula B. ^ recurre B. " recitamur B. *^ quia carum B. " adimplerunt B. 
impleverint V. ^ deest B. 

' Tit. ii. 7, 8. V. but " nihil habens malum," for " languens" with Sedul. Scotus ad loc. &c., and 

and G. adds " habens" after " sanum." om. " et" before " qui." 

m 2 Tim. ii. 3-5. V. " certat in agone." » i Pet. i. 3-5. V. in part, but V. has " se- 

" I Tim. v-i.j-s. V. but G. has "languescens" cundum misehcordiam Suam magnam . . spem 

450-681. J PERIOD OF SAXON CON^lUEST. 103 

[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 
• Deus et pater Domini nostri Jesu ^^ Christi, Qui per magnam miseri- 
:ordiam Suam "'regeneravit nos in spem vitae -cCternx, per resurrectio- 
nem a mortuis Domini nostri Jesu Christi, in haereditatem incorrup- 
tibilem, immarcessibilem, incontaminatam, conservatam in coelis in 
Vos, qui in virtute Dei custodimini/ Quare enim insipienter a vobis 
v^iolatur talis hsereditas, qufe non sicut terrena •*' decidua, sed immar- 
cessibilis atque seterna' est ? Et post aliquanta : * p Propter quod suc- 
cincti cstote lumbos mentis vestrae, sobrii, perfecte sperantes in earn, 
qucE offertur vobis, gratiam in revclationc '"'Jesu Christi.' Rimamini 
namque pectoris vestri profunda, an sobrii sitis, et perfecte sacerdo- 
talem gratiam examinandam in Domini revelatione conservetis. Et 
iterum dicit : ' 4 Quasi tilii bencdictionis, non configiirantes vos illis 
prioribus ignorantiae vestrse "' desyderiis, sed secundum Eum Qui vos 
vocavit sanctos, et vos sancti in omni conversatione estote. Propter 
quod scriptum est : Sancti estote, "'-quia '"Ego sum sanctusV Quis rogo 
vcstrum ita sanctitatem '"toto animi ardore "'^sectatus est, ut hoc' quan- 
tum in se est avide festinaret implere ? Sed videamus ""quid in cjus- 
dem secunda Icctione contineatur : ' ""Charissimi,' inquit, ^ animas 
vestras "castificate ad obediendum fidei per spiritum in charitate, ^in 
fraternitate, ex corde vero invicem diligentes "^ perseveranter, quasi 
renati non ex semine corruptibili, sed incorruptibili ^ verbo Dei vivi, 
et permanentis in aeternum.' H;ec quidem ab Apostolo mandata, et 
in die ^ vestrae ordinationis' lecta, ut ea indirupte ^ custodiretis, sed 
nequaquam a vobis in judicio impleta, sed nee multum cogitata vel 
intellecta sunt. Et infra : ' ^ Deponentes igitur omnem malitiam, et 
omnem dolum, et * simulationem, et invidiam, et detractiones, sicut 
modo geniti infantes, ^ rationabiles, et sine dolo lac concupiscite, ut 
eo crescatis in salutem, quoniam dulcis est Dominus.' Recogitate an 
hsec quoque surdis auribus a vobis audita crebrius conculcentur. Et 

^ deest B. ^ regnauerit B. «» vobis V. ^ desunt B. ^ diTi nri add. B. 

^ desideriis G.B. ^ quoniam B. '^ sanctus E. s. B. et Ego s. sum V. ** deest B. 

'^' secutus est ut B. ^ qui B. ^' sancti ficate T^. ^ et B. * invicem add. B. 

' per verbum T'. *' ord. vest. B. ^ custodieritis B. * omnem add. B. ■' rationabile B. 

vivam . . a mortuis Domini nostri Jesu Christi Sancti eritis quoniam." 

. . et incont. et immarc. . . in vobis." ■■ i Pet. i. 22, 2^. I. but G. adds " charissimi," 

p I Pet. i. 13. V. but G. adds " estote," and and has " castif." (castificantes, V.) for " sanctifi- 

has " sperantes" for " sperate," and " revelatione" cate," " diligentes" for " diligite," and " verbo" 

for " revelationem :" the last with I. and Cod. for " per verbum." 
Amiat. of V. ^ i Pet. ii. 1-3. V. but, " simulationes et invi- 

1 I Pet. i. 14-16, nearer V. : but V. has, dias et omnes .. rationabile, sine . . ut in eo . . si 

" filii obedientiae . . configurati prioribus . . vocavit tamen gustatis quoniam." 
vos sanctum, et ipsi in o. c. s. sitis, quoniam . . 


[Gild. Epist. a. a.d. 547.] 

iterum : * * Vos autem genus electum, regale sacerdotium, gens sancta, 
^populus in adoptionem', ut ^'virtutes annuncietis Ejus Qui de tenebris 
vos vocavit in illud tarn admirabile ® lumen Suum/ Non solum cnim 
per vos virtutes Dei non annuntiantur "vel meliorantur', sed etiam 
pravissimis vestris apud incredulos quosque despiciuntur exemplis. Au- 
distis forte in eodem die, quod in lectione Actus Apostolorum lectum 
"est, — "Petro ' in medio' discipuiorum surgente, qui dixit : ' Viri fratrcs' 
oportct scripturam impleri, quam priedixit Spiritus Sanctus per os 
David de Juda.' Et paulo post: ''Hie itaque '-'acquisivit agrum dc 
merccde iniquitatis.' Hoc, securo 'Vcl potius hebeti corde', "quasi non 
de vobis ''"lectum fuisset', audistis. QuJS quaeso, vestrum non quserit 
'agrum de mercede iniquitatis?' Judas namque loculos compilabat, vos 
Ecclesiae donaria hliorumquc animas ejus vastatis. Ule adiit Judacos 
ut ''^ Deum vcndcrct, vos tyrannos ct patrem vestrum diabcjlum ut 
Christum despiciatis. Ille triginta ''argenteis venalcm habuit omnium 
Salvatorcm, vos vcl uno ''obolo. Quid plura ? Fertur vobis in medium 
^ iVlatthix in confusioncm vestram cxcniplum, suictorum qu(H.]uc Ap)- 
stolorum clcctionc vcl judicio Christi non propria volunrate sortiti, 
'"ad quod cacci effccti non videtis '"quam longc a mcritis ejus distctis', 
dum in ^'amorem et aft'ectum Judx traditoris sponte corruistis'. Appa- 
ret ergo eum qui vos sacerdotes, sciens, ex corde dicit, non esse 
eximium Christianum. Sane quod -' sentio, proferam. Posset quidcm 
lenior fieri incrcpatio, sed quid "prodest vulnus manu tantum palparc 
unguentovc ungcrc, '-^qucxi tumore' jam vcl f'cetore sibi horrcscens, cau- 
terio "^et publico ignis medicaminc egct, si tamcn ullo modo sanari 
possit, iegro ncquaquam mcdclam quxrentc, et "'ab hoc medico longius 
recedente ? O inimici Dei et non sacerdotes, -'' veterani malorum et 
non pontifices, traditores et non sanctorum Apostolorum successores, 
^' et non Christi -" ministri. -' Auscultastis quidem secundae Icctionis 
Apostoli Pauli verborum sonum, sed in nullo modo monita virtutcm- 
que servastis, et simulachrorum modo, qux non vident ncque audiunt, 

'' populus acquisitionis V. " virtutis 7J. • nomen B. "' detunt B.V. " deetl li. 

'- accissivit B. '*' heb. c. vel pot. B. *' deett li. '*' fuisset lectum B. electum fuisset J'. 

" Dominum B. '" argenteos B. and obolo GJJ.V. obulo Joss. '* ad qiiod lis B. 

'** quia 1. a m. e. distatis V. -"' morem et a. J. t. s. corruitis V. ^' sense© B. '^ valet //. 

"' quid timore B. ** uel B. '" ob V. ** verterani B. o liciutores V. " impugna- 

tores add. V. ** ministris B. ^ ascultastis B. 

* 1 Pet. ii. 9. V. but for " in adoptionem" the British ordinal. 

(=S. Aug. Cent. Seaind. xvii. 0pp. VIII. 528 c, " Act. i. 15. 1., 16. V. 

S. Ambros. &c.), " acquisitionis," and om. " illud * Act. i. 18. I. ; " possedit" in \'. 

tam." I. adds " illud." It must be noticed that x Act. i. 23-26. 
all these quotations from S. Peter are taken from 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

eodem die '"'altari astitistis, tunc et quotidic vobis intonantis: yFra- 
tres, inquit, '" tidelis sermo est, et omni acceptione dignus.' Ille dixit 
fidelem et dignum, vos ut iiifidelem et indignum sprevistis. ' z *-' Si quis 
Episcopatum cupit, bonum opus ^ desiderat.' Vos Episcopatum magno- 
pere avaritiae gratia, non *^ spiritualis profectus ^'^obtentu cupitis, et 
bonum '*'• opus illi condignum nequaquam ^^habetis. 'aQportet ergo 
hujusmodi irreprehensibilem esse.' In hoc namque sermone lachry- 
mis magis quam verbis opus est, acsi dixisset Apostolus eum esse 
omnibus irrcprehensibiliorem debere. ' '' Unius uxoris virum.' Quid 
ita apud "nos quoque contemnitur quasi non audiretur vel idem dicere 
'*et virum uxorum'? '^Sobrium, prudentem.' Quis etiam ex vobis hoc 
aliquando inesse sibi ■'■' saltem optavit' ? * '' Hospitalem.' *" Id si forte' 
casu evenerit, popularis aurae potius quam pn^ccpti gratia factum, non 
prodest, Domino Salvatore ita dicente : ' c Amen dico vobis, receperunt 
mercedem suam.' '^Ornatum,' 'non ^' vinolentum, non percussorem, 
sed modestum, non litigiosum, non cupidum.' O ferahs immutatio, O 
horrenda praeceptorum coilestium conculcatio! Nonne infatigabiliter 
ad hzec expugnanda, vel potius ■*- obruenda, actuum verborumque arma 
corripitis, pro ^^ quels conservandis atque firmandis, si necesse fuisset, 
et poena ultro "subeunda, et vita ponenda erat? Sed videamus et 
sequentia. ' ^ Domum,' inquit, ' suam bene regentem, filios habentem 
subditos, *'" cum omni castitateV Ergo imperfecta ^est patrum castitas, 
si ^^eidem non' ""et hliorum accumuletur. Sed quid erit, ubi nee pater, 
nee filius mali genitoris exemplo pravatus, conspicitur castus ? ""Si 
quis autem domui ■'^su^e praeesse nescit, quomcxlo Ecclesiae Dei diligen- 
tiam adliibebit P' Hsec sunt verba quae indubitatis ■'" efFectibus appro- 
bantur. ' s Diaconos similiter pudicos, non bilingues, non vino " mul- 
tum deditos, non turpe lucrum scctantes, habentes ^^mysterium ^^fidei 

•9 altare B. alteri T'. 3' fideles B. ^ set B. ^ cupit F. ^ spiritalis B.V. 

■^ obtentum G. -^ deesl B. ^ uos B. '^' virum uxorum B. et virum uxoris V. 

^' aliquandoptauit B. *°' id est si forte B. id forte F. " violentum B. *^ obseruenda B. 

(not observanda). *' quibus B. " subdenda B. *'*' cum omni caritate B. in omni casti- 

tate T'. ^ deest B. "' eadem non B. non item F. ** eet B. i. e. esset. *^ sui B. 

^ deest B. affectibus T'. *i multo F. ^* ministerium B.T'. ^ deest B. 

y I Tim. i. 15. I., and partly in iii. I. These docibilem (I.) =doctorem (V.). 

quotations are ako from the ordinal. * I Tim. iii. 4. first clause = I., but last clause 

^ 1 Tim. iii. i. I. =V. 

» I Tim. iii. 2. I. V. but " Episcopum" for ^ i Tim. iii. 5. I. V, but G. has "adhibebit" 

"hujusmodi." '' i Tim. iii. 2. I. V. for " habebit." 

" Matt. vi. 2, 5, 16. V. » I Tim. iii. 8-IO. V. but " non multo vino," 

'' I Tim. iii. 2, 3. I. V. G. om. " pudicum" and "et hi autem." The reading of B., " minis- 

with I. and Cod. Amiat. of V., but om. also terium," is in Sedul. Scotus in Rom. II. 


[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

in conscientia pura. '"* Hi autem probentur primum, ct sic ministrent, 
nullum crimen habentes.' His nimirum horrescens diu immorari, 
unum veridicc possum dicerc, quin haec omnia in contrarios actus 
mutcntur, ita ut clerici, quod non absque dolore cordis fateor, impu- 
dici, bilingues, cbrii, turpis lucri cupidi, habentes fidem et, ut verius 
dicam, intidelitatem in conscientia impura, non probati in bono, scd in 
*'malo opere' praesciti ministrantcs, '^"'ct innumera' crimina ''habentes, 
sacro ministerio ^adsciscantur. Audistis etiam illo die, quo multo 
dignius multoque rectius erat, ut ad carcerem vel catastam poenalem 
quam ad sacerdotium traheremini, Domino sciscitanti, Quem Sc esse 
putarcnt discipuli, Pctrum respondisse : ' g Tu es Christus filius Dei 
vivi ;' eiquc Dominum pro tali confessione dixisse : * ^ Beatus cs Simon 
Bariona, quia caro ct sanguis non rcvelavit tibi, scd Pater Meus Qui 
in ccelis est.' Ergo Petrus a Deo patre doctus, recte '■'Christum con- 
fitetur': vos autem moniti a patre vestro diabolo, inique Salvatorem 
malis actibus denegatis. Vcro sacerdoti dicitur : ' ' Tu es Petrus, ct 
super hanc petram ccdiricalx) Ecclcsiam Meam :' vos quidcm assimila- 
mini ' J viro stulto, qui xdihcavit domum suam super arenam.' No- 
tandum '*vero est, quod insipicntibus in sedihcanda domo arenarum 
pcndulx mobilitati Dominus non "'cooperetur, secundum illud : ' ''Fecc- 
runt sibi reges, et non per Me.' Itidemque quod sequitur eadcm sonat 
dicendo : ' • Et portac inferni non prxvalebunt,' cjusque *''pcccata intel- 
liguntur. Dc vestra '^''quid exitiabili structura pronuntiatur'? ""Venc- 
runt flumina, 'Vt flaverunt venti, et impegerunt in domum illam, et 
cecidit, et fuit ruina ejus magna.' Petro '^'' ejusque successoribus dicit 
Dominus : ' " Et tibi dabo clavcs regni ccelorum :' vobis vero : ' " Non 
novi vos, '"'disccdite a Me operarii iniquitatis,' ut scparati sinistrx 
'^partis cum hcedis, eatis 'in ignem **iEtcrnum.' Itemque omni *'sancto 
sacerdoti promittitur : ' p Et quaecunque "'' solveris super terram, crunt 
soluta et in ccelis: et quxcunque' ligaveris super terram, crunt ligata 

" Hie B. ^ malopere B. ''"' in uniuena /.*. ^ habente B. ** assicantur 77. 

•* conf. Christum B. * ergo B. ^' comparctur B. cooperatur I'. *-' pcccati B. 

®' quid cxticiabili s. p. B. quidem exitiabili factura pronuntiantur V. " deeit V. *' eius- 

demque />*. * discite B. ^ paths 6". "^ ctemi B. (?) ® deett B. ''*' demnt B. 

8 Matt. xvi. 16. I. V. ruerunt .. ruina illius ;" but Cod. Amiat. " ejus." 

»» Matt. x-vi. 17. I. V. ■> Matt. xvi. 19. I. V. 

■ Matt. xTi. 18. I. V. " Matt. vii. 23. = Cod. Vercell. of I. fere = 

J Matt. vii. 26. I. V. MS. Colbert. 

^ Ose. viii. 4. G. from Hebr. And see above, p Matt. xvi. 19. = Cod. Veron., Cod. Brix., 

p. 67, note '. and Cod. Corbel, of I., but the clauses in reverse 

' Matt. xvi. 18. I. V. but " inferoruni" I.; order; and ligaveris and solveris (for ligaverilis, 

" inferi" V. solveritis, of MS. Colbert.) are also in V. 

m Matt. vii. 2 J. Cod. Brix. of I. ; V. has '• ir- 

450— 68i.] PERIOD OF SAXON CON^lUEST. 107 

[Gild. Epist. a. a. d. 547.] 

ct in coelis/ Sed quomodo vos aliquid solvetis ut sit solutum et in 
coelis, a coelo '^ob scclera "-adempti, et immanium peccatorum '^funibus 
compcditi, ut Salomon quoque "^ait : ' q " 'Criniculis peccatorum suorum 
unusquisque constringitur ?' Quaque ratione aliquid in terra ligabitis 
quod ■'"supra '^''modum etiam ligetur, "'prxter vosmctipsos, qui ita ligati 
iniquitatibus in hoc mundo tenemini, ut in ccelis nequaquam ascen- 
datis, ™sed in infausta Tartari ergastula', non conversi in hac vita ad 
Dominum, decidatis? Nee sibi quisquam sacerdotum de corporis 
mundi solum conscientia supplaudat, cum eorum -"queis praeest, si *'qui 
propter ejus impcritiam vel desidiam seu adulationem '*- perierint, in 
die judicii de ejusdem manibus, veluti interfectoris, animae exqui- 
rantur. Quia nee dulcior mors, "quae infertur a bono quoque homine 
quam malo'. Alioquin non dixisset Apostolus, velut paternum Icgatum 
suis successoribus derelinquens : ' ""Mundus ego sum ab ^^ omnium san- 
guine. Non enim subterfugi quo minus annuntiarem vobis omne 
*•'■ mysterium Dei.' Multumque nam usu ac frequentia peccatorum 
inebriati, et incessanter irruentibus vobis scelerum cumulatorum 
acsi undis quassati, unam veluti post naufragium, in qua ad vivorum 
terram evadatis, poenitentise tabulam toto animi nisu *" exquirite, ut 
avertatur furor Domini a vobis misericorditer dicentis : ' sNolo " mor- 
tem peccatoris, sed ut convertatur et vivat.' Ipse omnipotens Deus 
totius consolationis et misericordias paucissimos bonos pastores con- 
servet ab omni malo, et municipes faciat, [subacto communi hoste,] 
civitatis Jerusalem ccelestis, hoc est, sanctorum omnium congrega- 
tionis. Pater et Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus, Cui sit honor, et gloria in 
secula seculorum. Amen ^- . 

7' ob scele a<7d. B. " adepti i?. '' fiaibus 5. ''^ deeet B. ''^ inaxcdis B.V. 

™ ultra B. '•'' mundum T'. '^ propter T'. '^' set in feustis Tartari ergastulis B. *" qui- 

biis B. ^ deest V. '- perierunt B. *^ quam quae infertur ab uno quoque homineque 

malo 1'. ** omni B. ""^ ministerium B.V. ^ exquiratis />*. ^' autem add. G. 

•■^ Explicit liber Sancti Gilde abbatis et historiographi Anglorum et cetera add. B. : heading its pages 
also, Gest' Gilde. 

1 Prov. V. 22. LXX. =S. Aug. in Ps. xxxiv. ' Act. xx. 26, 27, V. but both I. and V. have 

and Ivii. 0pp. IV. 234 f, 544 a : but elsewhere " omne consilium." And G. is peculiar in " ab 

S. Aug. has " funiculis," as also Fulgentius De o. s." for " a. s. o." 
Rem. Pecc. c. x.xvi. In V., " funibus." s Ezek. xxxiii. 11. LXX. G. fere = V. 



[a. d. 

A. D. 565 X 570. (?) Ex Ep'tstola Gild£ Altera *. 

^ De Excommonicatio?ie dicit Gi Idas' . — Non a Noc Cham hlium suum 
magice artis scribam, -auc 'area aut mcnsae' commonionc uoluit 
arcere. Non b Abraham * Neel et ^ Ezcol in' debcllatione V. Rcgum 
exorruit. Non '^ Loth " Sodomitarum conuiuia ' execratur. Non 
d Isaac mensse participationem Abimclech ct ''Ocazat et "Picus '"duci 
militum negat, sed post cibum ct potum iuraucrunt sibi motuo. Non 
clacob extimuit " communicari filiis '-suis, quos nouit uenerari idola. 
Non f Joseph rennuit Faraoni mensas et "scipha participari. Non 
Aaron sacerdotis idolorum Madian mcnsam rcppulit. '*Nec sMoyses 
simul cum "^Ethor '^hostias ct conuiuium paciticum '"init. Non 
h'*Dominus Noster Jesus' Christus '" pubHcanorum conuiuia diui- 
tabat, ut omnes pcccatores et mcrctrices saluaret f. 

^ * * * -x- ■)(• * 

'^'Gil. die. de ahstive?itia dboruvi' . — Abstincntia corporalium ciborum 
^'absque caritatc inulilis est. Meliores sunt ergo, qui non magno opere 

• From 3/S. 279. C. ('. C <'nnib. 9th or loth 
cent. (C). Parts ot" the sanic pa&>ages, from the 
same (lost) work (app. an Epistle) of Gildas, are 
embodied (under his namc^ in a Collection of Ca- 
nons in 65 or 66 books, much used by Scoto-con- 
tinental monasteries, and dating in the first half 
of the 8lh centur)', of which a MS., 9th cent., is 
at S. Gall, no. 343 (^«'), transcribed by a Saxon 
Eadberct. From tlie same collection, which con- 
sists o( e.irtracts, mi.xed tOLTcther, (i) from Scrip- 
ture and the Fathers, and (2) from Irish Canons, 
Patrick, Gildas, and Theodore, D'Achery (Syyi'riV. 
I. 493), and Martene and Durand correcting and 
supplementing him, have printed the latter portion, 
from two MSS. (7'), belonging respectively to 
Corbey ((Vff. 7'ari«. 3*82, olim I'iijot. S9, nth 
or 1 2th cent.) and to S. Germain's (( W. Paris. 
t^.Germ. I2i,«/<m572 t'or6«. 8th cent.). Glay 
( Catal. Ac. deg MSS. de la BiU. de ( 'avibrai, 122, 
123) describes another MS., 8th cent., transaibed 
by order of Alberic, Bp. of Caiiibrai and Arras 
A.D. 763-790, containing also memoranda in the 

Irish language, but having only 38 of the ordi- 
nary 66 (or 65) books. And Usshcr used an- 
other, of the whole collection, among the Cotton 
MSS., which h;ts been since burned. 

The style of the extracts here printed is very- 
like that of Gildas : but the allusion to the ton- 
sure in the last paragraph (which is not in the 
Corpus MS.) belongs apparently to a later date 
than his ; although to one prior to the actual 
adoption of the Roman tonsure either by the 
Irish (prob. A.D. 630 southem Irish and 704 
northern) or by the British Church (A.D. 768). 
Gildas wrote the Epistle in Ireland, apparently 
(at least it occurs invariably in connection with 
Irish documents, and the copyist of the Cambridge 
MS. is unmistakeably Irish); and therefore, con- 
jecturally, about A.D. 565 X 570. Wilkins, Cone. 
I. 4, has printed the first two fragments from 
the Camb. MS. 

t C. C. C. C. 179, p. 48 : S. Gall. 243. p. 
159, 160; D'Ach. 1. 501 ; Wilk. I. 4. 

»' Gildas ait G.D. « ab I>. 

Mambrae in G. Heschel in D. 
'' leg. Ahuzzath. Ochaz G.D. 
" om. G.D. " sc>-pho G.D. 

" inivit G.D. '«' om. G.D. 

^' arce aut mensc G. * Aner G.D. '"' Hescol in 

" Sodomomm G.D. '' execratus G. execratus est I>. 

^ Phicol G.D. '" duds G.D. " communicate G.D. 

" Necnon G.D. " retro G. Jethro D. '* hospitium D. 

" paganomm GJ). *>' Gildas ait GJJ. '^' sine G.D. 

• Gen. vii. 1,^. 
'' Gen. xiv. 24. 
" Gen. xi.\. 12, 14. 
^ Gen. x.\vi. 26, 30. 

« Gen. xlii. I ; xlvi. 6, J. 
' Gen. xli. 40 ; xlv. 8. 
• Exod. x-viii. I?. 
' Matt. ix. 10 ; xxi. 3 1, &c. 


[Gild. Epist. 11. a. d. 565 X 570.] 

ieiunant, nee supra modum a ' creatura Dei se abstinent, ^ cor " in- 
trinsecus *^ nititum coram -^ Deo sollicite seruantes, a Quo sciunt 
exitum uitae; quam illi qui carnem non edunt, nee ^^ cibis sseeulari- 
bus dilectantur, neque uehiculis equisque uechuntur, ^* et pro his quasi 
superiores ceteris se putantes ; quibus ' mors ^ intrat per fenestram 
eleuationis' *. 

■K- ■){- -x- ^t ^ -jt * 

^ De ^Novissimis D'tebus. — ^ " Instabunt tempora pessimaj et erunt 
homines sui amatorcs, auari, adrogantes, supcrbi, blasphcmi, paren- 
tibus inoboedientes, ingrati, inpuri, sine adfectione, sine pace, accus- 
satores, intemperantes, crudiles, odio habentes bonum, proditores, 
temerari j inflati uoluntatum amatores magis quam Dei ; habentes 
formam pietatis et uirtutem eius abnegantes/ Multi peribunt 
agentes mala, ut ait ^ Apostolum, '" -'' habentes zelum Dei sed non 
secundum scientiam • ignorantes Dei iustitiam, et suam querentes 
statuere, iustitix Dei non sunt subiecti/ Omnes fratres culpantes 
sunt, qui suas secum P adinuentiones et presumptiones non fecerunt. 
^ Hii '•* autem pane ad mensuram utuntur', pro hoc ^° sine mensura 
gloriantur: dum aqua utuntur, simul odii ^'potantur: dum '^siceis 
ferculis, simul et detractationibus, fruuntur' : dum ^ uigilias exten- 
dunt', aliquos somno ** dimersos notant' : ^ pedibus et membris dicen- 
tcs cseteris. Si non caput fueris ut ego sum, ad nihili te conputabo : 
quod non ^'"'tam pro dilectionis causa promitt[it]ur quam dispectus, 
dum principalibus decretis meditantur. Seruos dominis, uulgus regi- 
bus, auro plumbum, argento ferrum, ^^ ulnum preferunt. Ita ieiunium 
caritati, uigilias iustitiic, propriam adinuentionem concordiae, clau- 
sulam '"cellse, ^'' humilitati, postremo hominem Deo *^ anteponant : 
*^non intendentes quod Euangelium, sed quod uoluntas iubet; quid 
Apostolum, sed qui[d] superbia doceat • non intendentes q statum side- 
rum in cselo insequalem esse et angelorum officia insequalia'. Hii 

* C. C. C. C. 279, p. 49, 50 ; G. 243, p. 20 ; D'Ach. I. 494 ; Wilk. 1. 4. 

»» autem aM. G. -• sic in C. ^ Domino GJ). "" prandiis G.D. ^3 (^, g.B. " ' intra- 
vit per fenestras elationis Q.I). *'' Ilahet tantum C. C. C. C. 279, usque ad fecerunt. ^^ sic in C. 
^ habentes habentes C. ^ Gildas in Epistolis suis add. D. '^' dum p. in mensura vescuntur D. 
' •* ipso add. D. ^ poculo add. D. ^-' Sanctis ferculis vescuntur, detractionibus utuntur D. 

^ vigiliis expendunt D. '*' presses vituperant D. ^ om. D. usque ad ita. ■ ^ am sm add. 

supra lin. C. ^ supple capiti (?) ante ulnum. •* Ecclesiae D. ® severitatem add. D. 

*" anteponunt D. *^' om. D. 

' Tim. iv. 4. I. V. ^ Ps. 1. 12. o Rom. x. 2, 3. G. 

' Jer. ix. 2 1. I. m 2 Tim. iii. I. V. I. p Ps. xcix. (xcviii.) 8 ; cvi. (cv.) 29, 39. 

" 2 Tim. iii. 1-5. G. : quoted from V. above 1 i Cor. xv. 41. 
on p. loi. 


[Gild. Epist. ii. a. d. 565 X 570.] 
ieiunant, quod nisi *- propter alias' uirtutes *^ adsectantur, nihil pro- 
dest. "I Hi caritatem, qux summa ""plenitudo legis' est, intcntionc 
perficiunt' ; ^^a Deo docti', cum Spiritus Sancti cithare dicunt, 
'sQiiasi pannus menstruate omnes iustitiac nostra?.' ^Hii autcm 
folles diaboli dicunt, forsitan melioribus t quorum ' uidcnt angeli 
facicm Patris,' ' " Rcsidite a nobis quia immundi estis.' Quo respon- 
dit Dominus, ' ^ Isti fumus erunt in Furore Meo, et ignis ardens co- 
tidic.' y Non spernentes fratres, dicit Dominus, ' pauperes beatos' 
esse, sed pauperes non *"animosus sed ' z mittes,' neque *' inuidiosus 
sed ' " lugentes' uel propria uel aliorum peccata ; ' ^ qui csuriunt et 
sitiunt,' non qui aquam cum ceterorum dispectu, sed ' iustitiam ■' ncc 
pro nihilo alios ducentes, sed ' <= misericordcs j' non qui superlx) sed 
' 'J mundo ' corde,' non alis seucri sed 'opacihcij' non qui infcrunt 
bella, sed ' *" qui persccutionem patiuntur propter iustitiam,' *' habitari 
videlicet ' K regnum caclorum *.' 

■X- -x- **■}(■* * 

[^ Gildas dicit' -^ — *" Dc monachis' qui ucniunt '" dc loco uiliorc ad 
" perfectiorcm, quorum abbas ita degenerauit ab opcrc Dei, ut mcr- 
eatur ad mensam sanctorum non recipi, *-sed et fornicationis crimine 
non suspectionis sed " mali cuidentis honorari', — suscipite " sine ullo 
scripulo "monachus tales ad vos "de flamma inferni confugientes, 
nequaquam "eorum consulto abbate. Illos uero, quorum abbatcm dc 
mensa sanctorum propter infamiam non arccmus, non debemus illo 
nolcnte susciperc. Quanto magis uenientes ■''^a Sanctis abbatibus, et 
nullo alio modo suspcctis, nisi quod ^'habent peccora et uehicula, uel 
pro consuetudine patrix uel ''"sua infirmitatc, quae minus Icdunt ha- 
bentes, si cum humilitate et patientia, '' quam aratra trahentes et 
*■- sofFosoria figentes terrx cum prsesumptionc et supcrbia. Quicquid 

* C. C. C. C. 279, p. 50-54; D'Ach. I. 506 G., the leaf which should have contained a part 
(in part). The passage is wholly wanting in of it (Hii autcm pane . . nostra) being cut out. 

*'' per aliquas T>. " asseratur D. "' Qui vero charitatem perficiunt D. *"' om. T>. 

** EtUq., usque ad czlorum om. O.D. *' fie in *'. /«';7. habituri. "*' add. G. Gildas ait 7). 

*^ om. G.I). ''" ad vos add. G.D. *' perfectioncm G.D. " om. GJ>. '^ male videntis 

onerari G.D. '•* enim a</./. G. etiam add. /'. " mc in C. moiuchos G.D. '' quasi add. G. 
»' iUonim G.D. •"* de G.D. " habeat G. habet D. «» pro add. G. "" ol. add. iupra 

lin. C. *"' fossoria G. sofosoria /'. 

' Rom. xiii. lo. I. V. » Matt. v. 5. I. V. 

» Esai. l.xiv. 6. V. " universaE.' ^ Matt. v. 6. I. V. 

' Matt xviii. 10. 1. V. <• Matt. v. 7. I. V. 

" Esai. l.w. 5. V. " Recede . . me . . immun- '^ Matt. v. 8. I. V. 

dus es." * Matt. v. 9. I. V. 

« Esai. IxT. 5. V. " tota die." ' Matt- v. 10. I. V. 

> Mart. v. 3. I. V. » Matt. v. 10. I. V. 
' Matt. V. 4. I. V. 


[Gild. Epist. ii. a.d. 565 X 570.] 
"^ autem monacho de rebus secularibus "'* superhabundat, ad luxurias et 
diuitias debet refferri : et quod necessitate "■'et non uoluntate habere 
compellitur, ut non "" penuaria cadat, non illi ad malum " reputabitur. 
''^Capitibus namque praecipua corporis ornamenta dilata non debent 
inferiora dispicere, et manum cotidiana commoda superbire superio- 
ribus fas non est. Nonne hsec nee ille possunt sibi motuo dicere; 
' ^ Operam uestram non necesse habemus/ quae ad commonem eiusdem 
corporis pertinent utilitatem. Haec diximus, ut sciant summi sacer- 
dotcs, quod, sicut non debent inferiores clerici eos dispicere, ita et illi 
nee clericos, sicut nee caput quidem cjetera membra ^. 

•X- -x- •)(• -x- if ^ -x- 

['" Gildai ait' :] — ''° Abas districtioris regulx non ^^ amittat mona- 
chum alterius abbatis paulo remissioris: '-et qui remissior est', non 
reteneat monachum suum ad ''' districtiora '*tendentem. Habent 
quippe sacerdotes ef Episcopi terribilem ludicem, Cui pertinet, "'non 
nobis, de illis '' in utroque sseculo iudicare f . 

^ * -Jf -x- -x- ^ -X- 

[" Gildai alt' .] — ''^ » Maledictus qui transfert terminos . . . uel proximi 

' '■^ Unusquisque permaneat in eo in quo vocatus est '^apud Deum", 
ut ^" ne primarius nisi uoluntate motetur " subiecto, neque subiectus 
*-sine "^'senioris consilio locum prioris obtineat. 

' ^ ' Quae sunt honesta nostra, his honorem habun[dan]tiorem cir- 

Iudicare ergo satis salubre est subiectos Episcopis abbatibusque, 
quorum ' m sanguinem,'' si eos non bene regnant, ' de manibus requi- 
ret Dominus.' 

Inoboedientes uero patribus sint "sicut Gentiles et publicani : et 
omnibus hominibus tam bonis quam malis prseter suos subiectos illud 
Apostoli, ' o Existimantes omnes homines,' rel. 

* C.C.C.C. 279,p.54-56; G.243,p.iS5, t C.C.C.C. 279, p.56, 57; G. 243, p.4,155, 
156 ; D'Ach. I. 500. 156 ; D'Ach. I. 493, 500. 

*^ om. G.D. ^' superabundaverit G.T). ^ om. D. * pennria G.D. ^ deputabitur G. 
^ reliq. usque ad membra om. G.D. ®' add. G. Gildas dicit B. ™ Abbas . . remissioris om. B. 
7' admittat G. '^' Abbas remissus B. "^ districtiorem G. ''* se add. D. " et add. G.B. 
^ om. G.B. '■'' add. G. Gildas B. "»' om. G.B. "' ovi. G.B. «" nee G.B. »' sub- 
jectorum G.B. *- nisi G.B. ^ seniorum G. ^ reliq. usque ad translatum om. G.B. 

h 1 Cor. xii. 21. G. ^ Ezech. xxxiii. 6, 8. I.V. 

' Deut. xxvii. 17. I. V, " Matt, xviii. 17. = !. MS. Gat. 

k I Cor. vii. 24. V. " in hoc." ° Phil. ii. 3. (?) 

• I Cor. xii. 23. V. " inhonesta." 


[Gild. Epist. ii. a.d. 565 X 570.] 

Pcrucnir illud iudicium pro incerto exitu vita:, legentcs in Scriptura 
P Apostolum perditum cupiditate, et qlatroncm confessionc in Para- 
disuni translatum ■'^. 

■X- * -X- -X- ■)(■ -x- * 

[_^^Item.'] — Conepiscopos autem ct conabbatcs '^ct non subiectos' 
non iudicare melius est: "^fcetentes uero alicuius nequam fama 
purarc nullo modo ad intigrum arguant, sed leniter increpant cum 
patientia: quos pro conscientia, ut possinr, debent quasi **susceptos 
uitarc, nee tamen ut rcos ueros excommunicare et mensa uel pace 
arcere, cum ratio aliqua necessitatis aut conuentus uel locutionis 
exigerit : sed illis denuntictur, qu(xl non rectc agant : quia non pos- 
sumus eos pro hoc damnare. Dum rcommonicant illi ' indignc,' forte 
nos per cogitationcs malas ''da:monibus communicamus. Qu()s uero 
scimus sine ulla dubitatione esse fornicatores, nisi ligitimo ordinc 
peniteant, a pace et mensa, cuiuscunque ordinis ligitimc fuerunt, 
arcemus. Ut est illud, ''Si quis frater nominatur, et est '" fornicatur,* 
re/. Et propter principalium uitiorum causas euidenter probatas, 
nulla alia ratione, debemus fVatres a commonicationc altaris et mense, 
cum tcmpus poposcerit, arcere f. 

-X- ^(- * ■»(• -x- -x- * 

Gildas: — Ueritas sapienti nitet, {"^ Pet. "In ueritate mendacium 
numquam est,) cuiuscunque ore t'uerit prolata J. 

■X- -x- -x- * -x- -x- -x- 

^ G'lldas: — -'"En * adsentiente' Aaron in culpando '" Moisi propter 
uxorem Ethiopissam, lepra Maria damnatur : qucxi nobis timendum, 
qui ''^ bonis principibus detrahimus propter mediocres culpas ||. 
■X- -x- -x- -x- -x- -x- -x- 

Item: — Navi fracta, qui potest natare, natet^. 

* -x- -x- * -x- -x- -x- 

Gildasait: — Britones toti mundo contrarii, moribus Romanis ini- 
mici, non solum in missa, sed "in tonsura etiam': cum Judaeis 

* C.C.C.C. 279, p. 57, 58; G. 243, p. 141, D'Ach. 1.496. 

142 ; D'Ach. I. 500. § The extracts which follow are from G. 243, 

t C. C. C. C. 279, p. 58. 59 ; G. 243, p. 4 ; collated with D. They aie not in C. C. C. C. 279. 

D'Ach. I. 493. Ii G. 243, p. 134 ; D'Ach. I. 499. 

X C. C. C. C. 279, p. 34 ; G. 243, p. 65 ; ♦; G. 243. p. 156 ; D'Ach. I. 500. 

*' add. D. *•' necnon consubjectos O.D. ^ rdiq. usque cul arcere om. G.D. ** lie in C 

« om. G.D. usque aJ est. Fro Pet. leg. Joan. (?) ^ om. D. *' Moyse D. *^ nobis D. 

^ etiam in tonsura L>. 

p Matt. xxvi. 14, 15, &c. om. " et." And see above, p. 99, note*. 

1 Luc. .xxiii. 40-43. '^ I Joan. ii. 21, " omnc meudacium e.x veri- 

' I Cor. xi. 29. ' I Cor. x. 20. tate non est." 

' I Cor. V. II. V. " is qui," for " quis," and » Num. xii. i-io. 


[Gild. Epist. ii. a. d. 565 X 570.] 

y umbrae "•'magis futurorum seruientes '"quam ueritati. Romani 
dicunt, "^Britonum tonsura a Symone Mago sumpsisse exordium 
traditur, cuius tonsura omnem capitis anteriorem partem ab aure' 
ad aurem tantum contingebat, pro *'' excellentia ipsa Magorum ton- 
sura, qua sola frons anterior tegi solebat, "^ priorum. Auctorem vero' 
huius tonsurae in Hibernia subulcum Regis Loigairi filii ^ Neil exti- 
tisse Patricii sermo testatur^ ex quo Hiberncnses pene omnes banc 
tonsuram sumserunt*. 

'•^ om. D. "^ quse IK "'' quorum tonsura aure D. om. rdiq. ^ hg. expellenda, e conj. 

L'ssJwr. "*' so D. priorum auctorum autem G. fors. leg. Primum auctorem vero * illis D. 

y Hebr. viii. 5 ; x. i. 

♦ G. 243, p. 224; D'Ach. I. 505. 

[Ante A.D. 570.] — * Inc'ipit prefatio G'tldte de Pefiitentia. 

I. Presbiter aut diaconus faciens fornicationem naturalem sive 

sodomitam, ^ prelato ante monachi voto, III. annis peniteat ; 
veniam omni hora roget, superpositionem faciat in unaquaque 
ebdomada, exceptis L. dicbus post Passionem ; pane sine men- 
sura, et ferculo aliquatenus butiro - inpingato, die Dominico, 
ceteris vero diebus ^ paxmati panis mensura, et * miso parvum 
inpinguato, horti holeribus, ovis paucis, Britannico formello 
utatur, himina Romana lactis pro fragilitate corporis istius 
evi, tenuclae vero vel balthutae lactis sextario Romano sitis 
gratia, et ^aquae talimpulo', si operarius est. Lectum non multo 
feno instructum habeat. Per tres quadragesimas superaddat 
aliquid, prout virtus admiserit. Semper ex intimo corde defleat 
culpam suam; oboedientiam "pre omnibus libentissime cxci- 
piat ; post annum et dimedium Eucharistiam sumat, et ad 
pacem veniat, psalmos cum fratribus canat, ne poenitus anima 
tanto tempore cselistis medicinae '' intereat. 

II. Si quis inferiore gradu positus monachus. III. annis peniteat, 

sed mensura ^' gravetur panis. Si operarius, sextarium de lacte 
Romanum, et alium de tenucla, et aquam quantum sufficiat 
pro sitis ardore, sumat. 

^ prolate Martene. " impinguato M. ' paximati M. * misodo M. ^' aquatili potu 

Ciimm. II. 23. ^ pro M. ' Forsan addend, inopia ^ non gra\'etur Cumm. II. 24. 

* From MS. Paris. 3182 (olim Bigot. 89), repeated in the Penitential attributed to Cum- 

pp. 280, 2S1 ; cent. XI. or XII., as printed by meanus, in the Roman Penitential, in Baeda's 

Wasserschleben, Bussordn. der Abendl. Kirclie, Penitential, and in that in XXXV. chapters 

pp. 105-108, Halle, 1851 ; previously printed {Wasserschleb. ib. 505 sq.), also attributed (erro- 

from the same MS. by Martene and Durand, neously) to Cummeanus. 
'Flies. Nov. IV. 7, 8. Many of its canons are 

VOL. I. 1 


[Prek. Gii.n. iiE Penit. ;i. a. i). 570.I 

III. Si vcro sine nionachi voto prcsbitcr aul ciiacomis pcccaveril, 
sicut monachus sine gradu sic penitcat". 

IV. 'Si autem pcccatum voluerit monachus faccre', anno ct dinic- 
dio. Habet tamen abas huius rci moderandae facuitalcm, si 
oboedientia ejus placita fuerit Deo et abati siio. 

V. Antiqui patrcs XII. prcsbitcro, et VII. diacono pcnitcntix statu- 


VI. Monachus furatus vestem vel aliquam rem, 11. annis ut supra 
peniteat, si junior 'sitj si senior, anno intcgro. Si vero 
monachus non fuerit, equc anno, et niaximc '•' III XLmis. 

\'I1. Si monachus exundantc ventre " evomerit sacrilicium in die, 
cenam suam non presumat; et si non intirmitatis causa, VII. 
superpositionibus j si intirmitatis et non \oracitatis causa, IV. 
supcrpositionibus, delcat culpam. 

VIII. Si autem non sacrificium, diei superpoMtionc cl mulla in- 
crepatione plectatur. 

IX. Si casu neghgens quis sacrihcium aUquod perdat, per 111. 
XLmas peniteat, relinqucns illud feris et alitibus devoran- 

X. Si quis autem ebrielatis causa psallere non potest stupens "e 

Unguis, cena privatur'. 

XI. '-Peccans cum pecode, anno; si ipse solus, 111. quadragesimas 
diluat culpam. 

XII. Qui communicaverit a suo abate excommunicato, XL. 

XIII. '* Manducans morticinam inscicns', XL. 

XIV. Sciendum est tamen, qmxl quanto quis tempore moratur in 
'*peccatis, tanto ei augenda penitentia est. 

XV. Si cui inponitur opus aliquod, et contemptus gratia illud non 
fecerit, cena careat ; si vero oblivione, demedium cotidiani 

XVI. Si autem sumat alterius opus, illud notum faciat abati 
cum verecundia, excepto eo nullo audiente; et sic peragat, 
si jubetur. 

XVII. Nam qui iram corde multo tempore retinet, in mortc est. 
Si autem confitetur peccatum, XL. jejunet; et si ultra in 
peccato pcrsistat, duas XLmas. Et si idem fecerit, abscida- 

« et postea redpiat gradus suos ad<l. Cumm. II. ■25. "' Si autem presbiter aut diaconus post tale 
peccatum voluerit monachus fieri, in districto proposito exilii Cumm. II. 26. " est M. in 

XLmis M. '" evomuerit .V. "' in linguis, superponat Cumm. I. q. elinguis c. p. M. 

'- B.vd. ronii. III. 2;. "' M m. inscius M. Cj. Theodor. l\mit. I. vii. 6. '* peccato M. 

4.30— 68i.] PERIOD OF SAXON CONQUEST. 115 

[Pref. Gild, de Penit. a. a. d. 570.] 
tur a corporc sicut membrum putredum, quia furor homiciciiuni 

XVIII. OfFensus quis ab aliquo, debet hoc 'Mndicere abati, non 
tamen accusantis sed medentis aftectu, et abas decernat. 

XIX. Qui non "'occurrit ad '" consummationem, canat VIII. in 
ordine psalmos ; si excitatus veniat post misam, quidquid 
cantaverunt, replicet ex ordine, fratres j si vero ad sccundam 
venerit, cena careat. 

XX. Si quis errans commotaverit aliquid de verbis sacris ubi peri- 
culum adnotatur, triduanum aut III. superpositiones faciat. 

XXI. Si '"'sacrum terratenus negligendo cecidcrit, cena careat. 

XXII. Qui voluntate obsceno liquore maculatus fuerit dormiendo, 
si cervisa et came habundat coenubium,'** III. noctis horis stando 
vigilct, si sane virtutis est. Si vero pauperem victum habet, 
XXVIII. aut XXX. psalmos canet stando suplcx, ''•• aut opcre 
extraordinario pendat. 

XXIII. Pro bonis -" regibus sacra debcmus offerre, pro malis nequa- 

XXIV. Presbiteri vero pro -' suis Episcopis non prohibentur offerre. 

XXV. Qui arguitur pro aliquo delicto, et quasi inconsultans refre- 
natur, cena careat. 

XXVI. Qui sarculum perfrangit, et ante fracturam non habuit, aut 
illud extraordinario opere restituat, aut superponat. 

XXVII. Qui viderit aliquem ex fratribus abatis transgredi pre- 
cepta, debet abatem non celare, sed ante admoneat peccantem, 
ut solus quod male "agit contitcatur abati, '^'^non tam delator 
quam veritatis regular exsecutor inveniatur. 

Hue usque Gildas. 

'* indicare M. '"' occurrerit M. '■^ secundi Psalnii add. Penit. XXXV. Capp. c. XXXJ. 

" sacrificiuni Oumm. XJII. 5. '* est add. M. ^'^ cum M. '^^ rebus Poen. Bom. 

IX. 4; Citmm. XJJI. I. -^ om. M. ^ Forsan addend, ut 

c. A. D. 544 X S^Sj or shortly after. Mission of British Church to 

Ireland.^ to restore the Faith ^ under the auspices of S. David.^ 

S. Gildas J and S. Cadoc ^. 

» The e\'idence of this is (i) the distinct asser- occupied by Gildas in Irish collections of canons 

tion in the Life of Gildas by the monk of Ruys, of the 6th or 7th centuries, which is second 

that he went to Ireland to "restore ecclesias- only to that of S.Patrick: (2) by the statement 

tical order," because the Irish had " lost the of Tirechanus in the Catal. SS. ITibern. (see be- 

Catholic faith," at the request of King Ain- low, under the Irish Church), c. A. D. 750, that 

mire (A. D. 568-571), supported bv the spe- the second order of Irish saints, beginning A. D. 

cial notices in the Irish annalists ^A.D. 565, 544, received their Order of mass from David, 

570) of Gildas' journey thither and death Cadoc, and Gildas : and (3) by the legends of 

(see above, p. 45, note f ), and by the place Irish saints of the same period, which take them 

1 3 


[Brit. Ch. in relation to Irish.] 

for instruction, commonly to Britain, sometimes what is said of S. Senanus (Colg. AcU. SS. «;a6). 
to the three British saints above named, and S. Canice or Cannechus " perrexit trans marc in 
above all to S. David. E. g. S. Finiiian of Cloiurd, Britanniam ad vinini sapient<.m et rcligiosis.-imum 
— " Cum apud civitatem Kilmuiiensem in Britan- Doc" (a/. Docum), " lej^itque apud cum sedulc et 
nia applicuissent, ibi tres viros sanctos S.David, bonos mores didicit" {\'.S. Vann. p. 3, Dubl. 
S. Cathmaelum [ = S. Cadoc] et S. Gild.ini invenit" 1 853, as quoted by l>r. Tmh}, S. Patrick, p. loo). 
(Vila up.Colg., AcH.!^S.^()^). S. Molagga or Mo- See also the evidence quoted below, that other 
lac, who survived the plague of A.D. 664, went to Irish sainis of the same period sought education 
Britain to S. David (hi. 16. 147). So also S. Bar at Whithcrne ; s:. the other Finnian (of Magh- 
of Cork (ii'icvm., V. S. Jiaekl., in CamWo-Iirit. bile), S. Enna, S. Tigernach, S. Eugenius or Eog- 
>SS. 132^ and S Aidus or Maidoc or Moedhog, han. On the other hand, S. Modonnoc, a disciple 
"qui et Aidanus" (7(/. ib. 13^, and Colg. il. of S.D.wid, is said to have gone to Ireland ( /i"i<-<-»/i. 
209), the Bishop of Ferns; and " pene tertia 1'. ,'^. 7'<iri./., as above, 133, 134"). — For the con- 
pars vel quarta Hib.rnie servit David," according ncxion of S David and of Ciildas with Brittany, see 
to the same authority {lUcrm. ih.). See also below in its place under the Breton Chuich. 

A. D. 563. M'issio7i of S. Columba frovi Ireland to Northern Britain (" de 

Scotia in [^rit;inni;im" = from Ireland into Scotland) : see Adamnan,^ 

r. S. Columba, and helo-'jj under the Scotch Church ". 

" S. Columba's was only one, but the greatest, Britanniam navigavit, voltiis quosdim sanclos ibi 

of attempts at this peri'xl to Christiiiiizc visitare ct ibi manerc ad tempus, ct consrituit ibi 

Northern Britain. S<^^e belowunder A.D. 500-600, monastcrium in quadam villa in regione Hcth" 

p. lai, note*', for those of S. Mo!u.ig (ob. A.D. (!'. S. Cumgalli, ap. Actt.SS. Mai. 10, 77. 585). 

592) anl S. Donnan (ob. A.D. 617), and under S. Conigal died A.D. 601 {Ann. IV. Mag., and 

A D, 67 1 for of S. Maelruba ; respectively to sec iMtiiijan, Keel. lliM. 11. 68). Heth = Ethica 

Argyle, Egg, and Applccross. Other attempts of =T\Tce {KetMS ad A'lumn. V. S. Col. p. 48). 

the kind were less lasting : c. g. that of S. Conigal A list of Irish missionaries, whose attempts resein- 

of(the Irish) Bangor, who seven years al'tcr its bled S.Conu'al's, is in /i<rre«, ii. yl,(7«)i</. (o 7V«/. 

foundation, and therefore A.D. 559 or f 66, " in pp. l.xxiv, l.xxv. 

Shortly before A. D. -,'39, ^ Synod of Llandde^^i-Brcfi. And A. D. 569, 
'' Synod of Lucus fictorije. 

[The second of these Synods is recorded in Ann. Catnb. (in their 
later form).— CXXV. Annus. Synodus Victoria: apud Britoncs cf)n- 
gregatur. (A.D. 569, M.H.B. 831.) 

The common account of both is from Rhyddmarch's J'. S. David. 
(11th century, in Cambro-Brit. SS. 136, sq.), copied from him by 
Girald. Carnb. {K S. David..^ in Wharton.^ A. S. U. 638, 639) j but it is 
purely l" fabulous, and is directed to the establishment of the apcKry- 
phal supremacy of S. David and his see over the entire British 
Church. It also attributes to them the crushing of Pelagianism in 
Britain, wjjence the name of the second as given in Ann. Camb. and 
Rkyddmarch^ viz. Victoriae (without the "luci"). The following docu- 
ments, preserved in the north of France, obviously through Brittany, 
suggest a different character and purpose for them.] 

» The date of the second Synod is rom the thing to do with putting down Pelagianism), and 

Ann. Caml). The tirst is implied by Rhydd- with the date of S. David's death, A.D. 6oi, by 

march to have not long preceded it ; a supposi- whom both Synods were held, and whose Episco- 

tion agreeing with Gildas' statement of the purity pate of S. David's, according to the legend, began 

of the British Church c. A.D. 516, and its sub- with them. Pelagianism was still imputed to the 

sequent filling off (if the Synods really had any- Irish Church A.D. 640 {Jlid. If. E. II. ig). 


[Synods of S. David, a. a. d. 569.] 

•• The locality of the first Synod, Llanddewi with loss to the Romans. Garu is changed now 

Brefi, near the Roman station of Loveniium, rests into Garw, or ' rough.' 

upon Rhyddmarch. That of the second was *' Rhyddmarch expressly states that all records 
probably in the neighbourhood of Llanddewi, but of either Synod at S. David's were lost in his 
is unknown. The omission of Luctts, apparently, time, through the incursions of Northmen ; for 
led to the afterthought of the common explana- which see abundant evidence in Ann. Cainb., 
tion of the name. There is a wooded spot four Bnd y Tyicyacg., and the Ann. Menev. in ^Vhar- 
miles from Llanddewi Brefi, and therefore close ton, A. 5.//. 649. That the Synods were con- 
also to Loventium, and to a Roman tumulus firmed " Roniana auctoritate," rests therefore 
still existing, called however £/w(/n (Varu ( = Lu- upon Rhyddmarch in the nth century; and 
cus Amoris) ; which may perhaps be the place. the assertion is obviously absurd as applied to 
A battle was probably fought there, and apparently the Welsh Church of the 6th. 

* Incip'tt nunc S'lnodus Aquilonalis Britannia, 
]. Cum muliere vel cum viro peccans quis expellatur, ut alterius 
patriae coenubio vivat, et peniteat confessus III. annis clausus, 
et postea frater illius altari subjectus, anno uno diaconus, 
III. presbyter, IV. Episcopus et abas- suo quisque ordine pri- 
vatus doctoris judicio peniteat. 

II. Qui se ipsum -^ inquinauerit, annum clausus peniteat- puer XII. 

annorum XL. aut III. XLmis. ^^I. diaconus anno clausus, et 
cum fratribus peniteat demedio. Sacerdos uno anno clausus, 
et cum fratribus altero. 

III. Monachus consecrata furatus exilio anno -'' uno, et altero cum 
fratribus peniteat. Si autem ^^ iteraverit, exilium patietur. 

IV. Furatus cybum, XL. ^ si iterato, tres XLmas ; si tertio, anno ; 
si quarto, jugi exilio sub alio abate peniteat. 

V. Dilatus et dilator ^consimili persona judicentur'. Si dilatus 

negaverit, anno -* simili peniteat, -^ in septimana' II. diebus 
pane aquaque, et ^"^biduano in tine cujusque mensis, omnibus 
fratribus subponentibus, et Deum eis judicem ^^ contestan- 

VI. Permanentes autem in obstinatione, anno ^^ emenso, ** alterius 
communioni' sub judice flamma ^ sotiantur, et Dei judicio re- 

VII. Si quando alter fuerit confessus, quantum laboris alteri ^^ intu- 
lit, tantum sibi multiplicetur. 

^ coinquinaverit Martene. ^* om. Wasserschl. ^' om. Wasserschl. ^^ intraverit M. 

^' consimile persone Cumm. XI. 9. "^ simul Cumm. ib. *"' in unaquaque ebdomada 

Cumm. ib. "" biduana Cumm. ib. ^' fore add. Cumm. ib. '"^ emisso Cumm. XI. 10. 

^ altaris communione Cumm. ib. '* socientur Cumm. ib. ; sociantur M. '^^ intulerit Cumm. 


* From MS. Paris. 3182 (ol. Bigot. 8g),'p. Durand, Thes. Nov. IV. g. Some of the canons 

281 : as printed by Wasserschleben, Bussord- are repeated in the (so-called) Penitential of 

nung. der Abendldnd. Kirche, pp. 103, 104 : Cummeanus. 
printed also from the same MS. by Martene and 


[Synods of S. David, a.d. 569.1 

t hicip'it Altera Shiodus Luci Victorice. 

I. Faciens Furtum scmcl, anno 1. ■ si plura, 11. annis. 

II. Qui occidit fratrem suum non ex odii meditationc, si iracundia 

subita, tricnnio peniteat. 

III. Adulter quoque et ipse triannio. 

I\'. Qui prebent ducatum barbaris, ■■*' Xlll. annis; tamcn, si non 
acciderit stragis Christianorum, et sanguinis cffusio, et dira 
captivitas. '''Si autem cvenerit, agant residue vitx peniten- 
tiam, reiictis armis'. Si autem voluerit, ct non ad vota sibi 
barbaros ad Christianos educere, residuo vite sue peniteat. 

\'. Qui perjurium jurat, IV. •"* annos. Qui deducit alium in perju- 
rium ignorantem, VII. " annos. Qiu deductus est ignorans et 
''* post scit, anno uno. Qui vero suspicatur, cjucxl in perjurium 
deducilur, tamcn jurat, pro consensu II. annis. 

\'I. Qui mechatur matris est. III. annis, cum peregrinatione pcr- 

\ 11. Qu^i cum cane vel *"quocunque pcccaverit animali, 11. annis 
el di medio. 

\ 111. Qui tacit scelus \'irile ul sodomite, 1\'. annis. Qui vero 
m femoribus, 111. annis. Manu autem >\\q alterius sive sua, 
II. annis. 

IX. r<Uum h(K' quod diximus, si px)st votum perfectionis fecerit 
homo. Si autem ante votum, annus diminuitur de omnibus*'; 
de reliquis vero, ut debet, minuitur, dum non vovit. 

'■ XI III. M. III. Uom. I'lrn. IX. 6, Camm. 17. 28. '' Sin vero, rejectii amiis, usque ad 

mortem mundo niortui vivant Cumtn. i6. " annis M. ■" postea M. '" cum aiLl. M. 

■" his tribus adil. M. 

t From the same MS., p. 283 : as printed by peated in the Roman Penitetitial, and in the 
Wasserschleben, ib. 104: also in M. and D. (so-called) Cummeaiius. 
77kf». Sor. IV. 9. Some of its canons arc rc- 

;}: Ivcip'tuvt Excerpta ^Ijtisdajn de Ubro Dai'tdis. 

I. Sacerdotes in templo Dei ministraturi gule gratia vinum aut 

^'-'ciceram per negligentiam ct non ignorantiam bibentcs, '■III. 
diebus peniteant. Si autem per contemptum arguentium, XL. 

II. Inebriati autem per ignorantiam, XV. diebus; si per negli- 

gentiam, XL. ; si per contemptum. III. XLmis. 

" siccram .V. " IV. M. 

X From the same MS., pp. 282,283; as " quse ore fiirnavcrat, solus ipse Episcopus [David] 

printed by W.isserschleben, ib. 10 r. 107: ako sua sancta nnnu litcris mandavit" ()'..*». r^nrfW., 

in M. and D., Thff. Nor. IV. 10. Rhyddiiiarch p. 139). 
jntbrms us, ih-tt the decrees of the two S\Tiods. 

450-681. J PERIOD OF SAXON CON^lUEST. 119 

[Excerpt, de Lib. S. David.] 

HI. Qui cogit aliquem humanitatis gratia ut *-ebrietur, similiter 
ut ebrius pcnitcat. 

IV. Qui vero eftectu hodii seu luxurise, ut turpiter confundat vel 
irrideat, ad ebrictatem alios cogit, si non satis pcnituerit, sic 
peniteat ut homicida animarum. 

V. Cum muliere disponsata Christo maritove, sivc cum jumento vel 

cum masculo fornicantes, de reliquo mortui mundo Deo vivant, 

VI. Qui autem cum virgine vel vidua necdum disponsata pecca- 
verit, dotem det parentibus ejus, et anno uno peniteat. "^Si 
non habuerit dotem. III. annis peniteat'. 

VII. Episcopus homicidium voluntate faciens, vel quamlibet forni- 
cationem dolumve, XIII. annis peniteat; presbyter autem 
VII. cum pane et aqua, ct ferculo in die Dominico vel sab- 
bati ; diaconus VI. ; sine gradu monachus, IV. j nisi infirmi- 
tas impediat illos. 

VIII. Qui in sompnis cum voluntate pollutus est, surgat canatque 
VII. psalmos; et in die illo in pane et aqua vivat. Sin autem, 
XXX. psalmos canat a. 

IX. Volens autem in sompnis peccare, sed non potuit, XV. 
psalmos ; si autem peccaverit, sed non pollutus est, " XXIII. j 
si sine voluntate pollutus, XV. 

X. Antiqui decrevere sancti, ut Episcopus pro capitalibus peccatis 

"XXIII. annis peniteat, presbiter XII., diaconus VII.: sic 
virgo, lectorque, et religiosus : ebibatus autem IV. 

XI. Nunc autem presbiteri mentis penitentia est, diaconique et 
subdiaconi, virginisque et ^''cujusque hominis, hominem ad 
mortem tradentis, et cum paecodibus vel cum sua sorore vel 
cum mariti uxore fornicantis, et venenis hominem occidere 
volentis, triennium. Primo anno super terram, secundo lapidi 
caput imponendum, tertio super axem jaceat, ""solo pane et 
aqua et sale et leguminis talimpulo vescatur. Ceterique malint 
XXX. triduanos vel cum guperpositionibus, cum cybo lectoque 
supradicto, annona ad nonam usque ad alteram. Alia est 
penitentia III. annis, sed himina de cervissa vel lacte, cum 
pane saleque ; altera e duabus noctibus cum prandii ratione, et 
ordine XII. horis noctium dierumque Deum suplicare debent. 

XII. Hinc autem presbitero ofFerre sacrificium, vel diacono tenere 
calicem, non licet j aut in sublimiorem gradum ascendere. 

*2 inebrietur M. "' om. Wasserschl. "' XXIIII. M. « cujuslibet M. '^ soloque M. 
a Repeated in renit. XXXV. Capp. c. x. § 4, as " Scotoium Judicium." 


[Excerpt, de Lib. S. David.] 

XIII. Usuram accipiens perdat ea quae accipit. 

XIV. Preda vel fraude vescit, *'' semiannis. 

XV. Virgin! osculum in secreto prebens, triduanum pcniteat. 

XVI. In ecclcsia mendacium jurans, quadruplum pro quo juraverat, 
reddat ^. 

*' semiannus M. 

• •> Other canons, apparently Welsh and of the which there is soiiie doubt, will be found in 
period of S. David, but of the Welsh origin of Appendix A. 

A. D. 589. *^»z?. Cafni^. — CXL\'. Annus. Conversio Constantini ad 
Dominum. (M.H.B.S^i.) 

» A.D.5S8,.lMn. Tigem. {O'Coiuir, II. 157); I'aruL, Camhro-Hrii. >'S. p. l?y), going tlicnce 

A.D. 587, Ann. I'lton. (O'Vonor, IV. 30K Con- " in aliani longin(]u.ini patriam," where he founded 

stantine was King of Damnonia (see above, p. 49 a monastery (/</. ib.). Sec below in Append. E. 

in Gildas' first Epist.), and left his kingdom to His legend takes him on to Ireland, and then to 

enter S. David's inonistery {Iticeuuirch., V. S. Sco\lzi\d {.iUrdcen Brer. March 11). 

A. D. •'' jOO-^ioo. ^^ British Moriastery at Candida Casa {IVhitherne).^ 
frequented hy Irish for instruction. 

Acta S. Tigernach. — Pucr (Tigernachus) S. Moncnni disciplinis 

ct monitis in Rosnatcnsi monastcrio, quod alio nomine Alba vocatur, 
diligcntcr instructus, etc. {Colgan^ Actt. SS. 438.) 

Acta S.Eugenii. — Quos duos viros sanctos (Eugcnium ct Tigcrna- 
chum) sanctus et sapiens Nennio, qui Mancennus dicitur, dc Rosna- 
ccnsi monasterio, a rege Britanniir petcns libcros accepit; apud quern 
sub ecclesiastica disciplina nutriti dociles legerunt. {Id. //>.., and so 
also further on in the same Life.) 

Acta S. Endci — Dixit soror sua ei (Endeo), ... Vade ad Britanniam 
ad Rosnatum monasterium, et esto humilis discipulus Manseni ma- 
gistri illius monasterii. (Id. ih.) 

Acta S. Finani. — Pontifex nomine Nennio, cum suis, de Bri- 
tannia venientes, etc. . . . Cum eodem (Nennio) repatriante, navigavit 
(Finanus), et in ejus sede, quae Magnum vcxratur Monasterium, regulas 
et institutiones monastics: vitx aliquot annis probus monachus di- 
dicit. {Id. ik) " 

* Venantius Fortunatiis, c. A.D. 580, testifies V. S. Martini III. in fin. : 

to the then existence and orthodoxy of the British Quid sacer ille simul Paulus tuba genlibus 

Church. ampla V 

J'oem. VIII. V. 289-292 : Per mare, per terras, Christi prxconia fiin- 

.Sthiopes, Thraces, Arabes, Dacus, Indus, dens, 

Alanus, Europam, atque Asiam, Libyam, sale, dog- 
Aurora et Vesper, Persa, Britannus, adest : mate compiens ; 
Intrantes in regna Dei, pietate redempti, Et qua sol radiis tendit, stylus ille cucur- 
Gaudia visuri Regis in arcc poli. rit ; 

{Ihoiccr., pp. 204, 205 \ Arctos, meridics, hinc plenus vesper et ortus : 



Transit et Oceanum, vel qua facit insula 

Quasque Britannus habet terras, atque ultima 
Thyle. {Brower., p. 32 1 .) 

Ad Justin. Junior. Imp. dc. : 

Reddite vota Deo, quoniam nova purpura, 
Concilium statuit Calcedonense, tenet. 
* * * * 

Currit ad extremas fidei pia fabula gentes, 
Et trans Oceanum terra Britanna fovet. 
{lb. p. 348.) 
See also the end of the last-quoted poem, ib. 

P- 350- 

b See Colgan, Adt. SS. p. 439; and 0' Conor, 
Her. Hib. III. 169, who apply the passages to 
Bangor in Wales. But Laniijan, Eccl. Hist, of 
Irel., 7.424,437, II. 35, refers them with more 
reason to Candida Casa. They are all of late date. 
S. Finanus or Finnian of Maghbile (not of Clo- 
nard), S. Endeus or Eiuia of Aran, and S. Eugenius 

or Eoghan of Ardrath, all belong to the same se- 
cond order of Saints in the Catal. of Tirechaiius, 
and therefore flourished A. D. 544-599: and Fin- 
nian is dated by his Life in the reigns of Tuathal 
and Diarmit, i.e. A.D. 5.^3-565, and died A. D. 
588 {Ann. Tiijern.). The Tigernach here meant 
died A.D. 548 {Ann. IV. Mag.), or 550 {Ann. 

° Two missionary efforts from Ireland to Scot- 
land belong to this period — that of S. Moluag or 
Lugaidh, to (the Scotch) Lismore {Ann. Tiijern. 
a. 592. " Obitus Lugide Lissmoer, i. e. Moluoc," 
— i. e. of Lughaidh = Lua = Luag = Moluag, at 
Lismore in (the subsequent diocese of) Argyll. 
See Reeves, Add. Notes to Adamn. V. t>. Co- 
lumb. p. 371] — and that of S. Donnan to the 
island of Egg, martyred A.D. 617 [.Inn. Tigern. 
a. 617 ; and see lieeivs, ib. pp. 304, 373.] 

For Welsh Bishoprics, founded during this cen- 
tury, see below in Appendix C. 

Latter part of 6th or beghni'mg of ']th Century. ^ Bret7i7iiau Arvon 
=.Frtvileges of Arvon. 

I. [Fourteen civil privileges granted to the men of bArvon.] 

II. Ac obyt a amheuho vn or 
breynheu hene, clas ^ Bancor arey 
•' Beuno ae keydu. 

" From the Venedotian form of the Laws of 
Howel Dda {Anc. Lairs of Wales, 1. 104-107), 
but dating in the latter half of the 6th or befjin- 
ning of the 7th century, the privileges purporting 
to be granted by Run, son of the Maelgwn who 
died A.D. 547 King of Gwj-nedd, to the men 
of Arvon. The legend however of Beuno con- 
nects him with King Cadfun, who is usually assigned 
to the beginning of the 7th century ; and reigned 

II. And if there be who shall 
doubt one of these privileges, the 
community at ^ Bangor and that 
of '1 Beuno shall uphold them. 

A.D. 575-610 according to the Ann. Menev. 
{ap. Wharton, A. S. II. xxxii.). 

^ The district of Caemarvonshire between 
Bangor and Clynnog. 

<= viz. the Bishops' see. 

'' At Clynnog Vaur ; said however to have 
been founded in the beginning of the 7th cen- 

A.D. 601. ^ Synod at Caerleon-upon-Usk^ under S. David. 

Ann. Camb. — CLVII. Annus. Sinodus Urbis Legion . . . David Epi- 
scopus Moni Judeorum b. [M.H.B. 831.) 

Ann. Menev. — Synodus Urbis Legionum ordinata a S. David Mene- 
vensi Archiepiscopo. (Wharton.^ A. S. II. 643.) c 

" Probably connected with, possibly the same 
as, the Conferences with S. Augustin, A.D. 602 
or 603. 

'' \'iz. his death. Moni Judaeorum = Kil- 
muine, the Irish name for Hen Meneu, Vetus 
Rubus, or S. David's. 

•^ The following, from Will. Malm. (Antiq. 
Glaston.), is no doubt due to a Saxon monk of 
Glastonbury some centuries subsequent to the date 
it bears ; but it may perhaps record or refer to a 

fact: — "Anno Dominicz Incamationis sexcentesi- 
mo primo, rex Domnonise terram, quse appellatur 
Yneswitrin, ad ecclesiam vetustam concessit quae 
ibi sita est, ob petitionem Worgret abbatis, in 
quinque cassatis. — ' Ego Mawron Episcopus banc 
chartam scripsi : ego Worgret ejusdem loci abbas 
subscripsi.' " The British were not driven from 
the neighbourhood of Glastonbury much before 
A.D. 652-658 {Angl. Sax. Chron.). 


[Brit. Ch. in relation to Saxon.] 

A.D. 602 or 603. ^ Conferences befween the British Bishops and S. Augustine 
at S. Augustine' s Oak^ at ivhich the British Church refuses submission to 
the Fapal appomtment of S. Augustine as her Metropolitan ^. 

" See below under the Saxon Church ; and a MS. in the possession of Mr. Peter MostjTi, 

for the grounds of the schism which began formally which he thought to be ancient, or a copy of an 

from these Conferences, below in Appendix D. ancient MS. Two copies of it exist — in CiAl. 

•> The answer attributed to Dinoth {Spelm. I. MSS. Cleop. E. I. 56, and Claud A. \ 111. 76. 

108, 109 ; Wilkins, J. ■26, 27) is here given on It is given here from the former, with the various 

account of its notoriety. It was copied in the readings of the latter. See Smith ad lUvd. 

beginning of the 1 7th century by Spelman, from App. X. The Latin is Spelman's. 

Bid ' ispis a diogel i chwi yn, bod in holl vn ac Notum sit et absque dubitatione vobis, quod 

'arral, ^yn widd' ac ''ynn ostingedig' i eglwys nos onnies sumus et quilibet nostrum obedientes 

Duw ac ir Paab o Ruvain ac i boob 'kyar et subditi Ecdesiae Dei et Papx Ronue et uiii- 

Grissdion dwyuol, " y garu pawb yn i radd mewn cuique vero et pio Christiano, ad amandum 

kariad "perfaith. ac i helpio "paub o honaunt, "ar unumquemque in suo gradu in perfecta chari- 

air' a '" i;ueithrcd i vod yiiii blant " y Duw' : ac tate, et ad juvandum unumquemque eorum vcrbo 

amgenach '" \'uyddod no hwn nidadwcn i vod, et facto fore tilios Dei. Et aliam obedicntiam 

ir neb ''ir yddich' chwi yn henwi yn Bub, quam istam non scio dcbitam ei, quem vos 

lie in daad o daade, yw glcimio ac yw ovunn : nominatis esse Papam, ncc esse patrein patrum, 

ar *^ uvyddod hwn ir '^iddui '"'ni yn '" vartxl yw vindicari et postulari. Et istam obcdientiain nos 

roddi ac yw dalu iddo ef, ac i pob Krisdion yn sumus parati dare et solvere ci et cuique Chris- 

'"dragwiddol. '" Hevid ir ydym in dan *' lywo- tiano continue. Pr.-clerea nos sumus sub guber- 

drath Esgob Kaerllion ar Wysc, yr hwn ysydd natione Episcopi Caerlcgionis tupcr Osca, qui 

}'n " oligwr dan *■ Duw anioiu in, y wueutliud est ad supcividenduin sub Dto super nobis, ad 

i in ''gadwr tTordd ysbr)dol. ficiendam nos servare viam spiritualem. 

' yspys * arall ^ ynuvydd *' ynnostyngedig "' kjTir " i ' pcr)l'.iith " pawb 

*' a gair '" gweithred "' i Dduw '- vuydddod ''" ir yddych " uvydddod '^ yddym 

" in " barod *" dragwyddol ''' Hcvyd *' lywodratth -'' olygwr " Dduw 
-' gadwyr 

A. D, 604 X 610. Lettn- of Laurentius Archbishop of Canterbury to the 

British Bishops. 

B^da^ H. E. II. 4. [A.D. 731.] — Alisit idem Laurentius, cum co 
episcopis suis, ^etiam Britt')num sacerdotibus literas suo gradui 
condignas, quibus eos in unitate catholica confirmare satagit. Scd 
quantum hxc agendo protecerir, adhuc '' prarscntia tempora declarant. 

" Sc. as well as to those of Ireland. — At this ad Adamn. V. S. Colu^nh. Addil. Xotrf, pp. 372, 
period also, viz. A.D. 605-^23, " Fergna Brit" 373. 
(i.e. the Briton) was abbot of Hy. See llieces '> A.D. 731. 

A. D. ^613. Slaughter of the British Monks of Bangor Tscoed at Caerleon 
{Chester) by Ethelfrid of Northumbria. 

B^da, H. E. II. 2. [A.D. 731.] — Siquidem post liicc ipse de quo 
diximus rex Anglorum fortissimus /Edilfrid, collecto grandi exercitu, 


[Brit. Ch. in relation to Saxon.] 

ad civitatem Legionum, quae a gente Anglorum Legacaestir, a Britto- 
nibus autem rectius Carlegion appellatur, maximam gentis perfidx 
stragem dcdit. Cumque bellum acturus videret sacerdotes eorum, qui 
ad exorandum Deum pro mi lite bellum agente convenerant, seorsum 
in tutiore loco consistere, sciscitabatur qui essent hi, quidve acturi 
illo convenissent. Erant autem plurimi eorum de monasterio Bancor, 
in quo tantus fertur fuisse numerus monachorum, ut cum in septem 
}X)rtiones esset cum praepositis sibi rectoribus monasterium divisum, 
nulla harum portio minus quam trecentos homines haberet, qui omnes 
de labore manuum suarum vivere solebant. Horum ergo plurimi ad 
memoratam aciem, peracto jejunio triduano, cum aliis orandi causa 
convenerant, habentes defensorem nomine Brocmailum, qui eos in- 
tentos precibus a barbarorum gladiis protegeret. Qu()rum causam 
adventus cum intellexisset rex vEdilfrid, ait: Ergo si adversum nos 
ad Deum suum clamant, profecto et ipsi quamvis arma non ferant, 
contra nos pugnant, qui adversis nos imprecationibus persequuntur. 
Itaque in hos primum arma verti jubet, et sic ceteras nefandte militias 
copias non sine magno exercitus sui damno delevit. Extinctos in ea 
pugna ferunt, de his qui ad orandum venerant, viros circiter mille 
ducentos, et solum quinquaginta fuga esse lapsos. Brocmail ad pri- 
mum hostium adventum cum suis terga vertens, eos quos defendere 
debuerat, incrmes ac nudos ferientibus gladiis reliquit. Sicque com- 
pletum est praesagium sancti pontificis Augustini, quamvis ipso jam 
multo ante tempore ad coelestia regna sublato, ut etiam temporalis 
interitus ultione sentirent perfidi, quod oblata sibi perpetuse salutis 
consilia spreverant. {M.H.B. 150, 151.) 

Ann. Camb. — b CLXIX. Annus. Gueith (sc. bellum) Cair Legion, et 
ibi cecidit Selim filii Cinan. (M.H.B. 832.) 

Ann.Tigernach. k.T>.6^y — Prselium Carleonensc ubi sancti occisi 
sunt, et cecidit Solon hlius Conani rex Britonum, et Cetula rex 
cecidit. ^thelfridus victor erat, qui postea statim obiit. {O'Conor, II. 
182 : and to the same effect, Ann. U/ton.y a. 612, ib. IV. 39.) 

^ In one MS. of the Anglo-Sax. Chron. the mentioned by him is the date of this battle also, 
date is A.D. 605, in another A.D. 607; [and »' A.D. 613. M.H.B. And a "considerable 

the Ann. Innisfall. have A.D. 606 (If Conor, II. time" after Augustin's death, could not have been 

11);] but either date is merely an inference much earlier. — Ethelfrid was not a Christian, 
•from Ba?da, on the assumption that the last date 

A. D. 616 X 627. ^Asserted Baptism of Eduoin of Northumhria by a 

British Priest. 
Nen?iius^ Append. [9th century] — b Eoguin filius Alii ... occupavit 


[Brit, Ch. in relation to Saxon.] 

*= Elmet et expulit Certic regem illius regionis. Eanfled rilia illius 
duodecimo die <^ post Pentecosten baptismum accepit cum universis 
hominibus suis de viris et mulieribus cum ea. Eadguin vero ^ in 
sequcnti Pascha baptismum suscepit, et XII. millia hominum bapti- 
zati sunt cum eo. Si quis scire voluerit quis eos baptizavit, fRum 
map Urbgcn baptizavit eos, et per XL. dies non cessavit baptizare 
omne genus Ambronum, et per prxdicationem illius multi crcdidcrunt 
in Christo. {M.H.B. 76.) 

u4nn. Camb. — sCLXXXII. Annus. Etguin baptizatus est, et Run 
filius Urbgen baptizavit eum. {M.H.B. 832.) 

» This looks like an exact copy of Baeda's Rochester A.D. 624-627 {nud. II. E. II. 8, 

account {11. E. II. 9, 14), only substituting Run 20) ; and Ronan a Scot, and Ronianus a Kcnl- 

for Pauliniis, the I?riton for the Italian. Edwin, bh presbyter, took the Roman side in the I'a-schal 

who was expelled from his kingdom when only controversy decided at Whitby A.D. 663 {Id. ih. 

three years old {Vlor. Wig. .\}<ywn<l. Mil.]!. 111.3^). Possibly the similarity of these names, 

639"), was brought up in a Christian court in or one of them, to that of the Briton Run or 

Wales {Hfes, 30.?, from the Hoinild y ^aitit in Rum may have helped to cause the confusion, 
the Myvyr. Arrh.rol. II. 40 : consistent also with *• >'c. Kadwin of Northunibria. 

Ba:d. II. K.ll. 12). In one MS. of Nennius it is <^ A.D. 616. See Iktd. II. K. IV. 23, .Inn. 

added, that " sic mihi Rcnchidus Episcopuset Elbo- C'avih. a. 616. 

deus Episcoporum sanctissimus tiadidcrunt : Run •' A.D. 62^). ' A.D. 627- 

map iir Beghen : id est, Paulinus." But that Run ' Run, son of Urien, was a Cumbrian chief 

actually was Paulinus {IlodijMu Iliwlf, Hist, of celebrated by Taliessin. He may possibly have 

NorUmiitherl.), is a mere guess. There w.ts a Ro- become a priest subsequently, 
manus who preceded Paulinus in the Sx\on sec of » A.D. 626. 

A.D. 6:51 (632). Avv.Ultori. — Combustio » Bennchoir Mocr in Bri- 
tannia. {O' Conor J IV. 45.) 

» Bangor Maur : i. e. Bangor on the Menai, S. Furseus, A.D. 630 X G.\o, " paucis cum fra- 

distinguished from the Irish Bangor as being " in tribus / er llritlonrs in proviiici;im Anglorum 

Britannia," and from Bangor ^'scoed (the monks devenit" {li'id. II. K. 111. 19), coming from 

of which were slaughtered in 613) by the epithet Ireland to (Anglian and just converted) Suffolk. 
of " Maur." 

A. p. 664. British Bishops [probably ^Cor7iish) join Wini.^ the Saxon Bishop 
of IVesseXy in consecrating Ceadda to Tork. 
Bxda^ H. E. III. 28. [A.D. 731.]— Ab illo (Vini) est vir prcefatus 
(Ceadda) consecratus antistes, adsumtis in societatem ordinationis 
duobus de Brittonum gente Episcopis, qui Dominicum paschaj diem . . . 
secus morem canonicum a quarta decima usque ad vicesimam lunam 
celebrant. {M.H.B. 206.) 

■ The terms upon which the Church of Wes- A.D. 705), seem to detennine these Bishops to 
sex stood respectively to those of Cornwall and of have been Cornish. * 

Wales in the time of Aldhelm {Epist. ad Gerunt. 

A. D. 670. British Church Endowments claimed by the Saxon Church. 

Eddius, V. mifridi XVII. [A.D. 709x720, writing of A.D. 670, 
and possibly referring to times before .^. D. 616.] — " Stans itaque 

450-681.] PERIOD OF SAXON CONgiJJEST. 125 

[Brit. Ch. in relation to Saxon.] 

sanctus Wilfridus Episcopus ante altare conversus ad populum, coram 
regibus enumerans regiones quas ante reges . . . illi dederunt, lucide 
cnuntiavit : necnon et ea loca sancta in diversis regionibus, qu-« 
l^clerus Britonum aciem gladii hostilis manu genris nostrse fugiens 
dcscfuit. [Gale^ I. 60.) 

" At the consecration of Ripon church, A.D. II. 14), and A.D. 655 (/</. t7<. Til. 24). And 

670. there had possibly been flirthcr Saxon conquests 

'' The British were driven out of Elmet in Cumbria before A.D. 670 (.see Nji/i. I>un. in 

A.D. 616 {Biid. II. E. IV. 13; Nennlus, Ap- V. S. (uthhert.). If therefore Wilfrid referred 

jfiul.; Ann. Camb. a. 616). And Loidis had to British church-lands round Ripon, his words 

become Sa.\on territor}' A.D. 627 {Had. H. E. reach b.ick to before A.D. 616. 

A.D. 671. ^A7i7i. T/^frw.— Mae Iruba in Britanniam navigat : and.^ 
A. D. 673. — Maelcoba fundavit ecclcsiam de Abercrossan {O'Conor.^ II. 
207, 208 : adding his death also, as Maelruba, A. D. 722, i^- p. 371). 

» Similarly Ann. lllon. A.D. 670, 673, and Church, for this further great effort from Ireland, 

721 {ih. I]'. 58, 69, 77): and tlie Aim. IV. headed by an Abbot of (the Irish) Bangor (so 

Mdij. {ih. III. 226, 251) and Ann. Clonviacn. Ann. I]'. Mag.), to follow up S. Columba's and 

— ApplecToss was in Ross-shire, but still said to other missions of the century previous, by a more 

be in " Britain." See below, under the Scottish northern settlement. 

A. D. 672. Ann. Tiger?!. — f»Combustio Bennchori^ Brittonum. {O'Co- 
nor^ II. 208.) — A.D. 671. A?n/. Ulton. — Combustio Bennchari Brito- 
num. [O'ConoTj IK 59). 

a The Ann. IV. Mag. date this event A.D. 670 {O'Conor, III. 225). 

A.D. 677. An?/. Tigern. — Beccanus Riumcan quievit in "insula Bri- 
tannia, {(y Cottar .y II. 210.) 

» Probably in Scotland. The superscription lumbse, etc. etc., Beccanoque solitario, charo 

of Cummeanus' Episi. ad Segit-num (ap. I'ssher, came et spiritu fratri, cum suis sapientibus," 

Epistt. llib. SijU., IV. ^^2, td. Ehinglon, writ' etc. — The Ann. IV. Mag. date Beccan's 

ten c. A.D. 634), runs thus — " Dominis Sanctis (B. Rumindensis) death in 675, XVII. Martii 

et in Christo venerandis, Segieno Abbati Co- {O'Conor, III. 227). 

Earlier paj't of the "jth century. ^ Acts of Church 'Discipline towards Welsh 
Princes J attributed to early Bishops of Llandajf. 

" The Liber Landavensis records the excom- Tewdwr king of Dyfed, by Bishop Gwrwan 

munication, I. of Meurig (L. L. 139, 140), and (about the same date, L. L. 158-160); 5. of 

2. of Morgan (L. L. 143-145), kings of Gla- Clydri, and 6. of Gwrgan, kings of Erg}'ng (or 
morgan, both of them for murder after swearing Archenfield), by Bishop Berthgwyn, successor of 
amity upon relics in the Bishop's presence, and Oudoceus (L. L. 16S, 169, 180, iSi), the 

3. of Gwaednerth king of Gwent for fratricide former two for a like crime to that of Meurig, 
(L. L. 172, 173), by Oudoceus Bishop of Llan- the last for incest with his stepmother. Gwaed- 
daff (probably beginning of 7th century) ; 4. of nerth was also sentenced to a year's pilgrimage to 

J 26 

BRITISH CHURCH ^.D. 450-681. 


Brittany. And in each case lands were given to 
the see of Llandaft" by the culprit when recon- 
ciled, of which gifts the record of the facts was 
drawn up to serve as a title-deed. The book 
however in which these records occur is a com- 
pilation of the 1 2th century. Nor can any of the 
documents from which it was apppareuily com- 
piled claim earlier date than tlie loth, or pos- 

sibly in some cases the tjth. They are omitted 
therefore here, as not being contemporary or 
genuine records. (And they are printed at Icnijth 
also in the l.ili. Lamlan. itself, and in W'ilL-ins, I. 
17, 18, 196, 197.) But the bare facts alleged 
by them may probably be admitted upon tiieir 
evidence, and are likely in tJitmstlves. 

Latter part of the ~th Century. ^ Irish ca7io7is condemn the Britons for 
their separation from the rest of the Western Church. 

Ex Collectiojie Canonum Hibernensium : lib. XX. c. 6. — Institutio Ro- 
mana dicitj — Cavcndiim ne ad alias provincias aut Ecclesias rcfc- 
rantur causae, quic alio more et alia religione utuntur: sivc ad 
Judicos, qui umbrse magis quam vcritati dcserviunt; aut ad Britones, 
qui omnibus contrarii sunt ct a Rom^tW) more ct ab unitate EcclcsiiE 
se abscidunt ; aut hacrcticos, quamvis in ccclcsiasticis causis docti ct 
studiosi fuerint. 

» From S.Gail MS. 243, p. 54. The words 
of the canon are partly borrowed from words 
attributed, but with questionable accuracy, to (see above, pp. 1 1 3. 1 1 3) ; but as a " Ro- 
niana institutio," it niiist date after Augustine, 
A.D. 600; and as adopted by the Irish Church 
or by any part of it, after A. D. 630. On 
the other hand, the collection of canons in 
which it occurs was known and in use among 
foreign Irish monks in the earlier half of the 8th 
century, i.e. before A.D. 763 at latest. (See 
above, p. loS, note*.) Also in A.D. 768 the 
British Church conformed, or began to conform, 
to the Roman Easter. 

On the Anglo-Saxon side, see a like con- 
demnation of the British Church in Theodore's 
Penitential. A.D. 668 X (^f)0, below in its place 
in this work. 

The canon attributed to S. Patrick, which 
provides that " Clerinu qui dc Britannis ad nos" 
(Scotos in Hibcrnia) " venit sine epistola, etsi 
habitet in picbe, nou licitum ministrare" ( ll'iM-. 
/. 3), belongs to a set of canons pl.iinly subse- 
quent to the adoption by the Irish of the Roman 
tonsure, i.e. not earlier than the middle of the 
7th century, and probably contemporary with 
that given above in the text. It will be found 
below in its place under the Irish Church. 


' Inc'tpit Judicium Culparum' *. 

C. I. 

Si quis homicidium ex - intentione commiserit, ancillas III. ct servos III. 
reddat '^ct securitatem accipiat'. *' 

c 2\[b;^.3.] • 

l^Legg. Walliac, lib. II. c. XLIX. § 3, 4 ; Aticieni Laws of Wales, II. 875.) 

•'' Si quis judicio fuerit competitus' ^ et praestando verum durus esse volu- 
erit' 'et ipsam intentionem fuerit interfectus', ancillas ^11. et servos ^IL 
'Oreddi " debere praecipimus. isQuodsi manum aut pedem vel quemlibet 
mombrum perdiderit, similiter duas partes praetii se noverit accepturum'. 

'' Incipiunt excerpta de libris Romanorum ct Francorum Bigot. Excerpta de Libris Romanis et 
Francorum Lugd. - conteiitioiie li^t. ^' seoirus fiat lUg. Lugd. * Jligot. introduces here 
another chajter (2): — Si quis invidia homicidium fecerit, ancillas IV. totidemque servos reddat, et ipse 
securitatem habebit. (Ltgg. Wallii:. lib. II. c. XLIX. § 2. in Ancient Laics of Wales, London, 1841, 
vol. II. p. 875.) *' Si q. fuerit homicida in judicio compulsus Big. Si q. f. in j. compulsus Wall. 

^ et praestandi rationes diras noluerit Big. et dandi rationes durus e. v. WoU. ^' et infi- 

ciatus fuerit 7)i^. et invitus fuerit Wall. ^Y.Big. Wall. ^ totidem Big. Wall. '" red- 

dere Wall. "^ deest Big. Wall. '-' Manuum et quamlibet membromm debilitatem faciens, 

accipiet in judicio Big. Manum, oculum, et quodcumque membrum debilitatum fuerit, idem accipiet in 
judicio, si non se redimeret Wall. 

* From MS. Paris. S. Gemiani (olim Corbeiens.) documents of a like date with their own, (3) from 
No. I a I, saec. VIII. : in Wasserschleben, Bussord- the recurrence, almost verbatim, of several canons 
nungen der Abendland. Kirche, pp. 1 24 sq. : of the collection in the Latin abridgment of the 
with variations from an almost identical collec- Laws of Howel Dda, loth century, which seems 
tion of canons from MS. Paris. No. 3182 (olim to imply them to have been among the older 
Bigot. 89), saec. XI. or XII., in Martene and Du- laws which were worked up into Howel's code, 
rand, Thes. Xor. IV. 1 3 sq. The latter appears On the other hand, two of the three MSS. assign 
to be also in a MS. in the Library at Lyons, No. them to " Romans and Franks." Wasserschleben 
203, fol. 9 sq. ; see the Serape^im, Pt. III. unhesitatingly pronounces them Welsh, from the 
p. 1 20, quoted by Wasserschleben. Their Welsh internal evidence, and from their recurrence in 
origin is probable, (1) because of the nature of the later Welsh code; but it should be observed, 
the penalties (ancillas III. reddat &c.), and from that the later MS. (Bigot.) agrees more closely 
can. 29, (2) from their connection in the MS. with Howel's code than the first (8th century) 
Bigot, with the documents printed above (the MS. does. On the whole, they may be pro- 
Penitential of Gildas, and the canons of Llan- nounced probably Welsh ; and if so, belong to 
ddewi Brefi and " Lucus Victoriae," and the that period (c. A.D. 550-650) during which both 
Excerpta de Libro Davidis), which are undoubt- the Welsh Church and Welsh principalities appear 
edly Welsh, and in the MS. S. Germ, with Irish to have become organized. 


[Canones \Vai.lici. Seventh Century.] 

C. 3. [4.] 

(Legg. Wall. lb. § 5.) 

13 Si quis honiicidii causa fuerit suspicatus' et non i^ci tilulus conipro- 

bandi, XL. cl VIII. '•''viris nominatis', ex quibus XXIV. in ecclcsia jurent 

eum '•'esse veracem', '''sic sine causa discedat'. '''Quodsi non '-'juravorii, 

ancillas '^\\\. et servos -' III. reddat et 22 securitatem accipiat'. 

C. 4. [5.] 
{Legg. Wall. ib. § 6.) 
Si servois ingenuum occidcrit et 23 culpa 2-aingenui fuerit hoc', de fuste 
aut -'•'> dextrali aut dubio' aul do cultello fuerit '-^ interemptus, 27 ipse homicida 
})arenlibus -^ tradalur, -'n et quidquitl faciendi voluerint habeant potestatcm'. 

C. 5. [9.] 
{Legg. Wall. ib. § ;.) 
30 Si quis dominus servum' arma portarc •'<' permisseril et ingenuum Iionii- 
ricm Occident, ipsimi 32 et alium juxta se noverit rediturum'. 

C 6. [7.] 
{Legg. Wall. ib. § 8.) 
Si quis ingenuus servum alterius sine 3a culpa occiderit, servos duos 
domino '^. Quod ^■' si culpa fuerit servi alios, alius scrvus domino refor- 

C. 7. [8.] 
{Legg. Wall. ib. § 11, 12. p. 876.) 

^'^ Si quis rixa mactaverit hominem sive manum sive pedem sive oculum 
excusserit', ancillam •*' sive servum' se '-'*' rediturum cognoscat. Quodsi pol- 
licem ^"manus 40excusserit, ""ancille medium, id est dimidium pretii sive servi 
mediimi reddat'. 

''' Si alicui honiicidium imponihir WaU. Si q. h. c. suspicatus r>ig. '* est add. Big. 

Wall. ^"^ homines nomiii.itos congregabit Big. hominum noniinatorum juramento se purgabit 

Wall. '*' esse ab homicidio immunem Wall. ''' sine culpa excedat Big. desunt Wall. 

^^ Si Big. '» iuraverint lio//. ^Y. Big. WaU. '^ VU. Big. »■'' securus 

fiat 7>i<7. securus sit Wall. "^ pl^g^ J^'O- "'' ingenuus aut Big. '^''' de securi 

bidubioque Big. -* interfectus Big. et culpa .. interemptus degunt ll'aZ/. *' deed Big. Wall. 

** traditur Big. Wall. ^'' et habcnt libertatem fac.,quod voluerint Big. habeant potestatem fac. 

de eo q. V. Wall. *' Si autem dom. servo Big. Wall. •" commiserit Big. ^-' et alium 

servum se nov. rcdditurum Big. Wall. •" causa Wall. ^' restituat add. B-ig. occ, servum 

pro servo reddat WaU. Quod .... refomiatur dtsutit Wall. ^ si pro qua culpa fecerit servi, servus 
pro servo Bdg. ** si quis in rixa manum vel p. aut oculum hominis maculaverit Big. Wall. 

hominis deeM Wall. ^' servumque WaU. ^ redditurum Biig. Wall. * a manu WaU, 

■** exciderit Big. WaU. "' medium damn! poni prxcipimus Big. medium manus in prccium 

reddere precipimus WaU. 

APPEN DIX yl. 129 

[Canones Wallici. Seventh Centurv.] 

C. 8. [10.] 
{Legg. Wall. ib. ^ 13.) 
Si quis hominem 43 lancea aut gladio' '*"* ferierit, -ij sic ut interiora inspiciat', 
'•*' argenti libras tres noverit se rediturum'. 

{Legg. Wall. lb. § 14.) 
Si quis -iraltcrius caput percusserit "''* sic ut cerebri cutem inspiciat', argenti 
•'^ libras VI. cogatur exsolvere'. 

C. 10. [14.] 
{Legg. Wall.zb.^ 17.) 
'•'^ Si quis alium lancea ferierit et brachium aut pedem foraveril', •''' sic ut 
membrum non noceat', argenti '''-libras III. se daturum cognoscat'. 

C. II. [18.] 

{Legg. Wall. ib. c. Ivii. § r. p. 879.) 
Si quis S'^ in villam suam' caballum aut bovcm aut •''■i quod sibi libet furtum' 
ligatum ^''aut occissum' ^''invcnerit, ^'dare idoneos juratores praecipimus', ^*^et 
nihil damni ^''habeat; ^''quodsi non "' jui-averint, reddat'. 

C 12. [15.] 
{Legg. Wall. ib. c. xlix. § 9. p. 876.) 
Si quis homicidium fecerit et fugam petierit, parentes ipsius 62habcant 
spacium intra dies XV'., ^^ut aut partem restituant et securi insedeant, aut 
ipsi de patria vadant' ; post hoc ^■* si ipse interemtor' venire voluerit, ^'-^ reddat 
medium cjuod restat' ''*' et vivat securus'. **'' Quodsi interim occisus fuerit', 
^'^ mancipium et qux acceperint faciant restaurari'. 

*'' lane, gladiove T>ig. g. aut 1. Ha//. " percusserit 'Wall. *^' et int. injp. Biq. ita ut 

int. appurcant Wall. "'' arg. 1. t. e.xsolvat Jiig. duas libras persolvat TI'«//. ^' aficujus 

ir.i//. •*"' usque ad cerebri pampas Ttuj. usque ad cerebrum Wall. **' libr. III. reddat 

Big. Wall. ^ Si quis lancea aut in brachio aut in surra alterius foramen fecerit Big. Si quis 

in brachio vel sura lancea foramen fecerit Wall. ^^' tamen membro n. n. Big. tamen membrum 

non debilitaverit Wall. ''-' libr. II. reddere cognoscat Big. II. libr. reddat Wall. '^ desuiit Big. 
"' quamlibet pecodem furti Big. *' vel quod occ. fuerit Big. ^ invenerit in villam Big. 

•'''' detis juramento III. idoneos Big. ■" quod Big. ^' habent Big. ™ si quis Big. 

"'' juraverit, solvat Big. ''-' jura reddant (intra dies paucos Big.) Big. Wall. '^' aut 

patriam relinquant vel dimidium precii reddant Wall, postea parentes patriae restituanlur et aut ipsi 
de patria vadant vel precium dimidium reddant et sic securi in sedibus sedeant Big. ^*' si reus 

Big. Wall. ®'' redd, quod restat pretii Big. dimidium quod restat de precio solvat Wall. 

**' demiit Wall. ^' Si int. a cognatis occisi occ. f. Big. qui si int. occ. f. causa ejusdem homi- 

cidii Wall. ^' mancipia, anciilae vel servi, quae acceperant debitores, parentibus restituanlur Big, 

totum galanas, quod pro eo ante redditum fuerat, retro reddatur Wall. 

VOL. I. K 


[Canones Wali.ici. Seventh Centl'ry.] 

C 13. [16.] 
{Legg. Wall. ib. § 10.) 
Si quis 68 ad alierum lanceam miserit, *'^ inlesso homine', argcnti librani 
"0 cogatur exsolvere'. 

"' Si scgetem alterius present, quantum juraverit dominus nicssis' cum 
alio idoneo^ quidquid damni pcrtullerit, sine dubio restauretur. 

C 15. [22.] 
'-Si porci alterius super annonam noctu manserint' per partem majorem, 
"3 quadrisextarium reddat'. 

C. 16. [23.] 
'■* Si quis causa fornicationis suspicionem habuerit, ct non est ei titulus ad- 
probandi. in Iribus bassilicis cum projjinquis suis a minoribus usque ad 
majorem omnibus juret, et nuUam lialjeat causam. Quodsi non juraverint, 
ancellam reddat'. 

C ,7.[24.] 
'•'•' Si quis aetiam aut vaccam aut quam sibi libet pecus perdiderit, cum 
quo cam invenire potuerit et cum illo III. mensibus fuerit conprobatum, 
pra^cipimus triplum accipiendum'. 

C. iS. [26.] 
'6 Si quis parvulus usque ad annos XV. quodlibet dilectum commisserit, 
nihil sub judicc reputatur', nisi disciplinam accipiat ; post hanc vero suani 
wtatem, '"et quod furabitur, restituat'. 

C 19. [25.] 
's Si pxjrci alterius glandes ingressi fuerint capti, porcastrum se daturvun 
cognoscat'. '''Quodsi spontaneus eos minaverit', porcum majorem ^se 
daturum non dubitet'. 

C. 20. 

Si quis furtum ser\'us fecerit vel dilectum, fragillis caedatur et quod fura- 
bitur restituat. 

®' demnl Big. Wall. «*' et homo inlaesus crit Big. et inde homo lesus fuerit WaS. 

**' exsolvat Big. reddere debet W,ill. si pliga fuerit, legibus se noverit redditurum adil. Big. 
ad Jin. ^' Si in messe quant, jur. d. de messe Big. '^' Si porcus per ann. noctuam manserit Big. 
"' noctis, quatuor sextaria reddat ; si vero per minorem noctis partem, sextarium reddat Big. 
"'' Si q. causa forn. approbatur, si non jurav., anc. redd. liig cirt ra tlegunt. '^ Si quis sustu- 

lerit de homine equum aut viccam aut quimlibet pecodem, et quodcunque eum repetierit, debitor 
reddat cum nutrimen'o suo. Quodcunque probatum fuerit, recipiendum prxcipimus Big. '"^ Par- 

\-u\us usque ad annum XH. pro diiccto nihil Big. "' quidquid delinquat vel furab., retribuat Big. 

""' Si p. in glande ingr., quotiens capti porcator reddat Big. '^ Si ipse sponte eos minaveiat Big. 

«>' reddat Big. 


[Canones Waixici. Seventh Cjcntury.] 

C. 21. [27.] 
Si quis ingenuus furtum fecerit ct ^' in ipso commisso' morictur, nullus 
^- a suis habeat quaestionem'. 

C. 22. [27. b., see note 82.] 

Si quis ingenuus aut servus faciens furtum noctu et in ipso commisso 
lancca fuerit feritus et mortuus fuerit, qui cum Occident, nullam habeat 
causam reddendi. 

C. 23. [28.] 

Si quis furti causa suspicioncm habuerit et non ^ est ei titulus 8.3 conpro- 
bandi, ^res ipsius intra dies aliquot signatur', ^ usque aut mendacium ejus 
aut verum pervcnerit in lucem'. 

C. 24. [29.] 
86 Si quis judicium conpetitus fuerit et' venire noluerit, 87 hoc testibus 
adprobatur', argenti libram unam cogatur exsoh'ere, et quicquid ad cum 
fuerit repetitum, sine 88 dclatione restituat 8^. 

C. 25. 

Si quis agrum conparaverit, si culpam non fecerit, heres heredi heredi- 
tatem relinquat. 

C. 26. 

Si quis sponte reliquit, nullam habeat vim repetenti, lesus secundum pla- 
gam se noverit rediturum. 

C 27. [I7-] 
^ Si cjuis causa fornicationis alterius uxorem infecerit, capti morte mori- 
antur', '-"^ et qui eos interfecerit', nullam se timeat habere causam. 

C. 28. [19.] 
Si quis servum ^" aut ancellam, aut quemlibet pecus', aut aliquem rem con- 
paraverit, et cum ipso fuerit consignatum, ^^nisi auctorem prasstiterit, aut 
fidejussores habuerit', ^^ furem se noverit conponendum. 

^'' captus fuerit, ipse Big. ^-' ab eis accipiat quaestionem. Hoc usque ovem vel porcum. Quodsi 
minus, triplum restituat. Fur per noctem occidi licet, per diem non licet ; qui occiderit in nocte, 
nullam causam habeat Big. ^ dteii Big. *" rei ips. intra d. XX. consignetur Big. 

"' usque quo Veritas probetur Big. ^' Si q. ad judic. conpeditus Big. ^''' hoc ut in 

testibus probetur Big. ^ dilatione Big. ^ Big. introduces here another chapter (30), 

which is wanting in Sangerman. : Si quist ributum non opportune sed ad judicem a tributario compulsus 
fuerit, si mense ante przdicto neglexerit, pignus det, et si neglexerit mense secundo, duplum restituet. 
^' Si quis fornicatus fuerit cum alterius uxore aut sorore aut filia, morte moriatur Big. ®'' qui 

autem occiderit Big. ^-' servamque vel quamlibet pecorem Big. ^■^ si auctor, aut 

fidejussorem non habuerit Big. ^' de furto Big. 

K 3 


[Canones Wallic!. Seventh Century.] 

C. 29. [20.] 
Si quis !»4 calfaicum aut Saxonicum' caballum conparaverit 9j aiit quemlibet 
speciem, hoc testibus '^ conprobetur, •'' et cum ipso' consignatum fuerit, 
9^ invicem sibi testes adequant' ; si ita '^'^ equales, dividant. 

C. 30. [20.] 
' Quodsi quis repetit testes et non habuerit, sed' mendacium conatur 
inquirere, triplum se noverit -redditurum. 

C. 31. [21.] 
Si 3 cujus animalia in herba vicini sui intacta '' manserint, ^ stagni libras 
VIII. reddat'. Quodsi in pastu fuerint capta, stagni libras IV. rcddat. 

Si quis ancillam aut sorvuni ])crdiderit et ''alium suspectum' habuerit, 
XXI\'. ' viris nominatis' ^ ot XII. c.x cis jurent' cum esse veracem ; ^quodsi 
non juraverint. absque jure reddat'. 

C. II' [32-] 


Si quis caballum perdiderit. "^ invocatis viris " VI., e.\ quibus III. jurent, 
et nihil damni consequetur'. 

C. 34. 

Quodsi vaccam aut bovem perdiderit, invocatis ex omnibus IV., ex quibus 
duo jurent, et nihil damni consequentur. 

c. 35. 

Si quis percusserit alterum sic ut os suum superius fregerit, vaccas III. 

C 2,6. [13.] 
{Legg. Wall. lb. § 16.) 

'■- Si quis alterum in faciem alapa ferierit sic ut sanguis aut livido appareat, 
argenti libram imam reddat'. 

"' de Gallis vel de Saxonibus vel de qualibet gente Big. ^ in Big. ^ conprobet Big. 

^"' si autem Big. -"*' et invicem testes adequaverint Big. ^ equali Big. '' Si test, 

non hab. et Big. '" restituturum qui conatur Big. ^ quis Big. * commiserit et mans, 

in ea Big. ^ propter animalia II. unum scripulum reddat, si in fastigium herbae fuerint capta, 

propter animalia IV. unum scripulum reddat. Si in messe, quantum juraverit dominus de messe cum 
alio idonso, quicquid damui pertulerit, sine dubio restauretur Big. (See above, C. 14, note 71.) *' sus- 
picionem Big. '' viri nominatim segregentur Big. "' e.\ quibus XII. jurent Big. 

^ si non, reddat qui adprobatur Big. '" invocandis Big. "' Villi, jurent, nihil 

sequitur ISig. "* Si q. alterius in fac. alapam percusserit, ut s. a. iiv. app., se ancillam noverit 

redditurum Big. Si quis autem in facie alicui alapam dederit, ita ut livor aut sanguis inde nianaverit 
vel .ippareat, ancillam reddat ]\'aU. 


[Canones Wallici. Seventh Centuri'.] 


Si quis intercedendo litem feritus fuerit, secundum plagam mediam con- 
positionem prjccipimus accipere. 

C. 3«- IZZ^ 
Si quis sen'us scrvum i3 alterius Occident, vivus '-» commonis dominorum 

C- 39- [34- 35-1 
'^Cujus animal sive bos sive vacca alium ex cornu' occiderit, vivus '^et 
mortuus '' commones ejus erunt'. Quodsi taurus vacam aut bovem occi- 
derit, i^dominus nullam habeat causam rcddendi'. 

c. 40. {_^l^, 

'^Si laicus clericum qualibet causa -^conpetere voluerit', Episcopi ^'veniant 

C. 41 •[37-] 
Si clericus laicum -- conpetere voluerit', ad judicis 23 poenitentiam debent 
-■* venire. 

C. 42. [38.] 
Si quis in -5 mortem hereditatem dimiserit, quicquid coram testibus -^ de- 
mandaverit, omnia *'' manere prscipimus ^^ nee removeri'. 

C 43. [42.] 
Si qua contentio circa finem territorii fuerit exorta, ^^ testes requirantur', 
et finis, qui prius fuerat, ipse permaneat. 

C- 44- [43-] 
Clericus vero si '^^ causa fuerit conpetitus et 2' nulla in eum fama fuit 
cognita', 32ipsius jure causa definiatuf. 

*' Acai V,\g. '* communis 7.'/;/. ^'' Si bos vel vacca alium /j'/j. '''' ac TrUj. 

^'' in commone dominorum existant T>ig. '*" culpa prima non causam habeat, altera causam 

componat Big. Big. adds at the end of this another chapter (36) : Si quis jurandi causa fuerit 
judicio adductus a judice vel majoribus natu et nihil cognoscat se si voluerit devitare, hoc prsecipimus 
jure permanere. '^ Quodsi Big. ■"' repetierit Big. ^^' judicant inter illos Big. 

^' conpetit Big. ^ adstantiam Big. -' peivenire Big. ^'' morte Big. '^^' com- 

mendaverit ]>ig. -" permanere Big. ^' nisi sint iniqua Big. There follow here in Big. 

three chapters (39, 40, 41), wanting in Sangerman. C. 39 : Si quis servum vel ancillam vel verna- 
culum sua voluntate et libertate donaverit, nullus repetere permittatur. C. 40 : Si quis sponte sua 
quamlibet rem alteri donaverit, hoc private praecipimus possidere. C. 41 : Si qua causa ante judicata, 
a nullo permittamus dijudicari. ^ testibus requiratur Big. ™ qua arhl. Big. •"' nul- 

lam jam infamiam antea portaverat Big. "'' in ipsius juramento causa finiatur Big. 


[Canones Wallici. Seventh Century.] 

C. 45- [43-] 
Quodsi antea safamam portaverat', indictis juratoribus, 3-ilaico more 
causa definiatur'. 

C.46. [37.] 
Si quis commisso dilecto ^'' exportare voluntate' confessionem venerit ^^ ad 
sacerdotem', a nullo eum damnari praecipimus. 

C. 47- Vyi^ 

2' Quodsi negare voluerit et ab alio fucrit conprobatum', ct 3& si in rebelli 
tempore hoc fecisse cognoscetur', pretium ^'■'suuin in judicio' reddat ct 
triplum se •*" daturum cognoscat'. 

C. 48. [44.] 
Si quis •" Deum invocavcrit -ii in fidejussorem et contemserit ■*', ''-a 
judici condictione' dampnetur. 

C- 49- [45-] 
Si quis agrum aut villam conparaverit et ipse ^capitulas furtum feccrit, 
morte morietur ct •*•* terrain cjuam cmerat -JS in fisco reverietur'. 

^' 'iP- [4o-] 
Quodsi filius aut filia •**'aut frater furtum feccrit ct fugam peticrit', ancil- 
1am ■'''aut servum' reddat et •*«' agrum possideat. Quodsi ^"inoccntes per- 
manserint . licrcs ^'^ heredibus dereiinquat'. 

{Legg. Wall. ib. § 15.) 
Si quis •'■' alapa alium Occident', ^^sic ut' nee sanguis nee livido ''^appa- 
reat, *"• solidos V. exsolvat'. 

C. 52. [46.J 

Si quis ^•''ante ecclesiam litem feccrit', argenti libram unam ''Scogitur 
exsolvere, et hoc aegentibus 57 elemosina feneretur'. 

®' bfamiam portavit Big. ^i' ^^ \^^q ordine causam libret Big. ^ sponte ad 

Big. Fur exportare in the text, read ex spontanea. ^' sacerdoti Big. ''' " In Cod. San- 

geim. the woids must obviouily be here supplied : Si quis alieno aliquid abstulerit, reddat." So Knust 
^ihe cop)ist ot ilie MS.), ap. Wasserschlcbcn. — Si quod aliis abstulerit, reddat. Si ab alio fuerit com- 
probaius Big. *' rebellis fucrit Big. *' rei abstractae Big. *'^ noverit 

conponendum Big. " deeel Big. *-' judicii conditione Big. *^ capitale Big. " terra Big. 
"' fisco revertatur Big. **' ex dono lurtum pariter et fugam fecerit Big. *'' et servum 

fisco Big. *' ex agro exsul Big. *»' innocens permanserit Big. "' hereditati relin- 

quatur Big. '''' alapam alieri impejerit Big. alicui dederit alapam Wall. '^' d^gunt Big. Wall. 
*^ inde add. Vi'all. ^' II. sol. inde persolvat Ha//. ^■' ad ecclesiam arma portaverit ct litem 

commi'erit Big. ** ecclesiae cogitur Big. '■''' in elemosinam meretur et sinatur Big., which 

here inserts another chapter (47), wanting in Sangerman. : Si quis fiiiam marito tradiderit, Itgiiimam 
dotem accipiat. Quodsi casu mortis ilium emiserit et ipsa alieri viro nubere voluerit, fiJii dottm acci- 
piant. Quodsi hob non habueiit, patii dari iubetur. 

APPENDIX ^. 135 

[Caxonks Wallici. Seventh Century.] 

Si quis alterum flagillo percusserit, argenti libram exsolvat unam ; si ante 
ccclesiam, ecclesiae elemoiiina deputetur. 

C. 54. [48.] 
Si quis ancellam aut scr\ um emerit et ante implotum annum viiiuin in 
*8 eum apparuerit, priori domino ^'^ reddi jubemus, 

C. 55- [48.] 
Quodsi annus transierit, quicquid in ''Omancipium vitii luerii', nullam 
''' venditor habeat °-causam. 

C. S6. [49-1 
Si quis caballum conparaverit, ^ in mense uno si vitium non apparuerit', 
nullo mode ^ revertetur. 

Si quis caballum ante latroncm excusserit, si in mia patria, VI. scripulos 
accipiat ; si in alia, flumine transmisso, tertiam partem pretii ejus accipiat. 

C. 58. [50.] 
Si quis alterum ^''' fuste ferierit et sanguinem ^6 discurrerit, vaccam reddat ; 
♦'"quodsi majorem fecerit', secundum **=* conponendi pra^cipimus aliam'. 

Si ancillam aut servum in fugam preserit parte qua poterunt evadere per 
duo milia sive in tertiam partem pretii eorum merito accipiat. Aliter si 
ancella fuit, libras II. merito accipiat, qui capit earn; si servus, III. stagni 
libra unam accipiat. 

C. 60. is^.-] 

Si quis caballum ''^ indicaverit et ''•eum capere potuerit, '-merito tertiam 
pretii ejus accipiat sive unam unciam'. 

C. 61. IS3-'] 

'3 Nullus villx capitalis alterii silvam deteneat, nee humidam nee siccam, 
nee algam maris, nisi per boves, per herba det'. 

** eo Big. ^ suo add. Big. ^ mancipio vit. videtur Big. ^ deest Big. *- rejiciendi 
add. Big. "' et usque ad mensem vitium non habuerit Big. " rejiciatur Big. *' deest Big. 
** effiiderit Big. •'"' et si niaj. plagam fee. Big. •*' judicium componi praecipimus Big., 

which here inserts another chapter (51), wanting in Sangerman. : Si quis caballum a latrone abstulerit, 
si valuerit argenti libram, accipiat unciam ; sin minus, dimidium unciae accipiat. '* Big. C. 52 : Si 

quis ancillam alterius apprehenderit fugientem et a domino suo potuerit evadere, stagnum ferrum merito 
accipiat. '" alterius non add. Big. '^ ipse Big. '■-' unciam dare debuit Big. "2' Nullus 

alterius silvam, lesfam, et algam devorat Big. 


[Canones Wallici. Seventh Centvrv.] 

c. 62. {_s?>'^ 

*■* Si quis feccrit aliud, reprobatur'. 

C. 63. [54.] 

"5 Si quis caballum altcrius inj)astoriaverit, et suum pastoriavcrit, si pasto- 
riam agnoverit, sine dubio cum caballo non dubitet invadcre, cl suum pro- 
prium cum esse prcccipimus'. 

Si quis '" capitalis vicinum minaverii, ctiamsi voluntarius ire' voluerit, sive 
domum sive hortum '"vendendi '^habet potestatcm, ''^pra^ler sepes *^qui 
circumii meses et licrbas'. 

c. ^> [57.] 

Si laicus dericum ^' ferierit, et diclis "-'manum redimat et ^z<\ pa-niten- 
tiam venial'. 

C. 66. [56.] 

Si quis ** vero clcricus laicum ferierit. ^'' secundum piagam ** laico ordine 
sine dubio reddat. 

C 6;. L58.] 

Si quis 67 litem intercederit et a mendace feritus fuerit', secundum piagam 
^legibus se noverit ^conponendum. '-"^Quodsi vcrace fuerit feritus', ^' me- 
diam a verace et mediam a mendace conpositioncm jubemus accipere'. 
'•'^IIoc ct de morte simili modo dicimus. 

[Here ends the collection in Cod. S. Germani ; in Cod. Bigot, are four 
additional chapters, as follows : — ] 

C. 59. 

Si quis legitimte legis voluntate patrum nuptam filio junxerit et juxta hoc 
concubinam ancillam sibi habere pra^sumscrit, ipse ab Ecclesia Dei et omni 
Christianorum mensa sit extraneus, nisi ad poenitentiam revocetur. 

'*' Quod graviter fecerit, et ijwe effectionem reddere praecipimus Big. '*' Si quis caballum 

alterius tulerit et in pedicam ruerit, ad suum propriuni reddere praecipimus Big. ""' viilam 

vendere capitalem vicino minanti aut sponte IMg. '' deal Jiig. "' habcat IHg. 

^ et Jiig. *^ qusE gignunt messes et herbam Big. "' percusserit Big. *" legibus 

m. suani Big. ^ pcen. agat Big. ^' deest Big. " sed Big. ^ laid Big. 

'■' imercidendo litem plagatus fuerit et mendax eum percusserit Big. *" deesl Big. *" red- 

diturum Big. ■*' aut veraci Big. ^'' dimidium verax ct dimidium mendax 

jubemus mcdietatem solvere Big. *' Simili modo et de morte sic sanximus Big. 


[Canones Wallici. Seventh Century.] 

C 60. 
Si quis ancillam suam sibi in matrimonio habere voluerit ct de rebus suis 
habet potestatem, si voluerit postea venundare earn, non conceditur. Quodsi 
earn venundare voluerit, eum damnari jubemus et ancillam illam in sacerdotis 
ponimus voluntatem. 

C. 61. ^ 

Si quis Catholicus capillos promiserit more barbarorum, ab Fxclesia Dei 
alienus habeatur et ab omni Cliristianorum mensa, donee delictum emendat. 

C. 62. 

Si canis quidlibet manducet, prima culpa nihil reddatur pro illo, nisi 
semetipse. Quodsi iterum peccaverit, dominus canis quod comederit ille 



I. \ Accoufil of ill e On'giti of the Scottish Liturgy, and of the British {after 
A.D. 429), assumed to be the same, tracing it through Germanus and Lupus to 
S.Mark, and distinguishing it from the Gallican : dra-wn up by some foreign 
Scoto-Irish Monk, probably in the Sth century. 

1 [Si sedulo inspiciamus cursus au'] tores, in exordium repperimus decan- 
tatum fuisse, non sicut aliqui imperiti fuisse vcl varix' objectioni' - protulorunt, 
3et adhuc multi conantur •'f[acere]. 

Curtm Bcatus Trosimus, Episcopus Arelatensis, et Sanctus Photinus 

llomanni. rnartir ct Kpiscopus Lugduncnsis, discipulus S. Petri ^, sicut et 
refert Josephus et Eusebius Carsariensis Episcopus, cursuin Romanum in 
Galeis tradiderunt. 

Cwsxu Inde postea relatione beati Photini martyris, cum quadraginla 

Caihrvm. qi q^^q niariiribus retrusi ^ in ergastulum, relatione ad beatum 
Clementem IV. loci 'successorem beati Petri Apostoli deportaverunt, et beatum 
IrenDeum Episcopum beatus Clemens onlinavit. Hoc in libro sancti ipsius 
Irenxi Episcopi et martiris reperies. Edoctus a beato Policarpo •* Hismer- 
niorum Episcopum' et '•' muraayre, qui fuit discipulus Johannis Apostoli, sicut 
refert historiographus Josephus et Irenoeus '"^Episcopus in suo libro. 

*' adj. Sp. — line cut off in Clcop. E. I. ' pcrtuleiunt Sp. ^ om. Sp. * fore' in Cleop. E. I. 
fore t^p. ^ Apostoli «././. >';». " om. Sp. ' succojisoris fip. "' sic, holh in Chop. E. I. 

and in Sp. kg. Saiyraaeorum Episcopo. * martjTem Sp. leg. martyre. '" Episcopi .S^y. 

• No relics of any British Liturgy prior 10 the by the Benedictine, and therefore scarcely iaier 

8th century are known to exist, fragments of a than the ^th century ; yet some time after 

Cornish Liturgy of (probably) a century later, and the death of Attala of Bobbio, AD. 627. Ma- 

of a S. David's Missa of a century later still, and hill. AcU. SS. B^n. It is here printed verba- 

of Liturgies either Irish or allied to Irish, ofsinii- (im from Cleop. E. I, with Spelman's variations 

lar dates, will be found below in their respective in the margin. It his really nothing whatever 

places. to do with the Briti>h Liturgy. Its evidence, so far 

+ Printed by Spelman, I. 176 sq. (and from , as it is worth anything, asserts the original Irish 

hini by ]Vilkitis, Cone. IV. Apj}. 741, 742), Liturgy, used by S. Patrick, to have been neither 

from a MS. now known to exist only in Spelman's Roman nor Galilean, but Alexandrian ; but it ig- 

and in another copy, viz. Cleop. E. i, but which norts the subsequent introduaion of British, and 

Spelman took from a " codex MS. vetustiisimus, those diiTcrent, Liturgies into Ireland by Gildas, 

charactere quidem non plane Sa.\onico sed in- S. D.ivid, and Cadoc : while it says nothing at 

sueto magi?, et La'initate adeo rudi saepe et all of the British Liurgy itself prior to 429, and 

male coh.xrente," Sec, which he assigns to the blunderingly as:umes the introduction of Ger- 

9th century. From internal evidence the paper manus' or the Alexandrian Liturgy into Britain 

must have been written before the Rule of as well as Ireland by S. Patrick, as Archbishop of 

Culiimbanus was superseded on the continent both Churches. 


Johannes Evangelista primum cursum Gallorum decantavit ; inde postea 
beatus Policarpus discipulus sancti Johannis; inde postea Irenaeus qui fuit 
Episcopus Lugdunensis Gallei, tertius 9 ipse, '^ipsum cursum U decantave- 
runt in '2 Galleis. Inde '^ per diversorum prudentium virorum' et modulatio- 
nibus, series scriplurarum Novi ac Veteris Testamenti ••* diversorum pru- 
dentium virorum' paginis, non de propriis sed de sacris Scripturis, is reci- 
proca, '"^ anathephonas, et ''responsus seu sonus, et aleluyas composuerunt ; 
et '*^per universum mundum peragravit, atque' per universum orbem terra- 
rum lyEcclesise ordo cursus ^0 Gallorum diffusus' est. 21 Quem beatus Hie- 
ronimus presbiter et Germanus et Lupus Episcopi, Pelagianam hoeresim' — 
(non sicut multi opinantur, -- et Gallicanus quidam clericus Brilto modulatione 
deditus, quod ipsum edidisset, quod non -•^ fecit) — quod beatus Hieronimus 
presbiter, Germanus, et Lupus, Pelagianam hairesim vel Gallianam (quae 
nomen ipsius titulatur) ex Britannis et Scotiis provinciis expulerunt. 

Cursus Unde -^ et alium cursum, qui dicitur -•'' prsesenti tempore Scot- 

Scvtiorum. torum, -'• quai sit opinione, jactatur. Sed beatus Marcus Evan- 
gelista, sicut refert Josephus et Eusebius in quarto libro, 27 totum ^Egiptum 
vel Italiam taliter praedicaverunt sicut unam Ecclesiam, ut omnis sanctus, 
vel Gloria in Excelsis Deo, vel Oratione Dominica, et Amen, universi tam 
viri quam foemina; decantarent. Tanta fuit sua pra^dicatio unita. Et postea 
'■^'^ in Italia' Evangelium ex ore Petri Apostoli edidit. 

Beatus Hieronimus afiirmat, ipsum cursum, qui dicitur 2;» praesenti tempore 
Scotorum, beatus Marcus decantavit, et post ipsum Gregorius -'u Nanzianze- 
nus, quem Hieronimus suum magistrum esse affirmat. Et beatus Basilius 
frater ipsius sancti Grep^orii, Antonius, Paulus, IMacarius, vel Johannes, et 
Malchus, secundum ordinem patrum decantaverunt. 

Inde postea beatissimus Cassianus, qui *^" Linerensi monasterio beatum 
Honorium habuit comparem. Et post ipsum beatus Honoratus primus 
^' abba, et S. Caesaiius Episcopus qui fuit in Arelata, et beatus Porcarius 
abbas qui in ipso monasterio fuit, ipsum cursum decantaverunt ; qui beatum 
"^- Lopum [•'^•^ et] beatum Germanum •*"* monachos in eorum monasterio habu- 
erunt. Et ipsi sub normam "'"' reguli ipsum cursum ibidem decantaverunt, et 
postea in "^"^ Episcopatus cathedra summi honoris '^^ perseverandi sanctitatis 
eorum sunt adepti. Et postea in Brittanniis vel Scotiis praedicaverunt, quae 
Vita Germani Episcopi "^*Autisiodorensis et Vita beati Lupi ^'^ adfirmant. Qui 
beatum Patricium '^^ spiritaliter litteras sacras docuerunt atque "*' innutrierunt, 

^ SIC in Sp., blank in Chop. E.l. ^" sic in Chop. E. i. and in Sp. " decantavit Sp. 

^' sic in Chop. E. i. and in Sp. ^^' cm. Sp. ■''' thesn words are repeated as above, in 

Chop. E. 1. ^^ reciperent Sp. ^^ aatiphonias Sp. Ug. antiphonas. '^ responsoria S}). 

"' om. Sp. " cm. Sp. '"' om. Sp. "-^' om. Sp. ^2 ^t g^_ 23 j^ct ,S^7. 

^' om. Sp. -' praesente .S)^. ^' que . . sa Sj). ^ totam Sp. '^' om. Sp. -* Nan- 

zeiizenui Sp. " Livorense Sp. sc. Lirinensi. ^^ abbas Sp. ^^ sic, both in Chop. E. 1. and 

in Sp. ^ add. Sj}. ^' nionachus Sp. ^ sic, both in Chop. E. i . and in Sp. 

^^ Episcopatu cathedram canj. Ussher. ^' pro reverentia Sp. ^* Antisiodorensis Sp>. 

^ adtirmat iSj). '"' sic in Sj>. — taliter in Chop. E. i. " enutrierunt Sp. 


et ipsum Episcopum pro eorum prasclicatione Archiepiscopum in Scotiis et 
Brittanniis posuerunt ; qui vixit annos centum quinquaginta -lo et tres, et 
ipsum cursum ibidem decantavit. 

Et post ipsum beatus Wandilochus senex et beatus "*' Gomogillus, qui 
habuerunt in eorum monasterio '*'^ monachos circiter tria millia'. 

Inde beatus Wandilochus in prxdicationis ministerium *'a beato' Gomogillo 
missus est, et beatus Columbanus, partibus Galliarum ; destinati sunt 
'^■^ Luxogilum monasterium, et ibidem ipsum cursum decantaverunt. 

Et inde postca percrebuit •*"' forma sanctitatis eorum per universum orbem 
terrarum, et multa ccenobia ex eorum doctrina tam virorum quam puellarum 
sunt congregata. 

Et postea inde sumpsit exordium sub beato Columbano, quod ante beatus 

Marcus P2vangelista decantavit. Et si nos non creditis, inquirite in \'ita 

beati Columl)ani et beati ■*<' Eustacii abbatis : plenius invenietis ; et dicta 

beati '^^Athleti abbatis Edbovensis'. 

Cursnt alius J'-st alius cursus orientolis a sancto Cromacio, et I^liodoro, 

OrientaltB. g^ bcato Paulino, seu '"'Athanasio Episcopo, etlitus, -^^qui in 
Gallorum ^"^ consuetudine non habetur ; quem sanctus Maccarius decantavit, 
hoc est, ])er duodenas, hoc est, unaqua^que *' ora". 

Citrgus 3'-st et alius cursus, quem refert beatus Augustinus Episcopus, 

ii.Amhrosit. qin-f^^ beatus Ambrosius ^-papa propter hereticorum ordinem 
dissimilem composuit, ^-^qui in Italia antea decantabatur. 
• Cursus I'St et alius cursus beati Benedicti qui ipsum singulariter 

5:. UttitdicU. pavico discortlante a ^ cursu Romano ''^ ; in sua regula ''*' reppe- 
ries scriptum. Sed tamen beatus Gregorius, urbis Romae pontifex, quasi 
priviledgium monachis, ipsum sua aulhoritatc in Vita S. Benedicti in libro 
Dialogorum afhrmavit ; ubi dixit, ' Non aliter sanctus vir docere ^^ poterat, 
nisi sicut ipse beatus Benedictus vLxit.' 

** om. Sp. *' se. Comgallus. "' monaclnis cerciter trea niilia Sp. * ' abbato Sp. 

** sc. Luxovium or Luxeuil. '^ fonnam S/j. ** Eastasi Sp. *'' Attheleti abbatis Ebo- 

vensis Sp. sc. Attala, abbot of Bobbio. * et atld. Sp. *" que Sp. '^ consuetudiiiem Sp. 

*' i.e. oratio. ora S/>. '' om. Sp. •'* quem Sp. ** curse Sp. *' quem add. Sp. 

** repperis ^|p. '^ om. Sp. 

II. Maskell, *Mon. Ritual, vol. III., mentions several rites peculiar at first 
to the early Anglo-Saxon Church, and apparently to the Northumbrian branch 
of it, and subsequently (for a time) borrowed thence by the Churches of 
northern France ; of which one certainly, viz. the anointing of the hands at 
ordination (see Gildas, Epist. I. as above, p. 102), and therefore possibly the 
others, were borrowed from the British Church. The close cormection of 

* Prelim. Dissert., p. cxi., and pp. 19S, 199, 200, 207, 262, :68. Sec also Greenwcll's edition 
of Eijhert's FonUfical. 



ilic Scotlisli and Xorihumbriau Churches strongly increases the probabilities 
of such an origin for them. They are — 

1 . Anointing of hands of deacons at ordination. 

2. Anointing of hands as well as head of Priests, and of Bishops, at 

ordination ; and of the head twice, in the case of Bishops. So 
Maskell ; but see the passage quoted below on pp. 153, 154, from 
the Vita S. Kmtigerni. 

3. Prayer at the giving of the stole to Deacons at ordination. 

4. Rite of delivering the Gospels to Deacons at ordination. 

5. Rite of investing Priests with the stole at ordination. 

III. A statement respecting British Liturgies, differing from S. Patrick's, 
and introduced into Ireland in the latter half of the 6th century by S. David, 
S. Cadoc, and Gildas, is made in the Catal. Sancioriim attributed to Tire- 
chanus, c. A. D. 750, for which .see the document itself in its place under the 
Irish Church. That the British Liturgy was one peculiar to Britain, is also 
asserted by some one under the name of Gildas (above, p. 112), but cer- 
tainly Irish, and of later date than Gildas, probably of the 7th century. See 
also below, p. 153. 

IV. The Lessons of Scripture used at ordination by the British Church 
appear to be peculiar to the British Ordinal, and to be taken from a Latin 
version peculiar to the British Church. See Gildas, Epist. /., as above, 
pp. 102-107, '^'^'^ notes; and in Appendix G. below. See also below, 
P- 153- 



lioman The signatures to the Council of Aries (above, under A.D. 

Hiitain. 214) are conclusive evidence to the existence of diocesan 
Bishops in the British Church from the beginning. And the language of 
Sulpicius Severus respecting the Council of Ariminum (above, under A.D. 
359) shews that the number of sees was not limited to the three whose 
occupants were at Aries : while that of S. Athanasius and S. Hilary tends in 
the same direction (above, pp. 8, 9). The circumstances which leil elsewhere 
to the establishment of Archbishoprics, existed also in Roman Britain. But 
there is no reliable evidence * that Archbishoprics ever came into existence 
there prior to S. Augustin, however probable it may seem that the Bishops 
of the Roman cities w hich were the capitals of the several Roman provinces 
(whether the three, also — but simply as Bishops — at Aries, who presided at 
York, London, and conjecturally Cacrleon, or the five, made up by the addi- 
tion of tAlba, i.e. Candida Casa, for Valentia, and that [absolutely apocry- 
phal] of Canterbury for Cantia or Britannia Secunda), may possibly have 
risen to some sort of Archiepiscopate over their brethren. The system 
however of diocesan Episcopacy is conclusively proved to have existed. 
Later British The same system, without Archbishops, is fountl in the 
Church. later British Church. 

I. In Ua/es, Bishops not diocesan, but presiding over monastic or educa- 
tional institutions, are perhaps faintly traceable about the 6th century. E. g. 
Paulinus, who was simply Abbot of his own monastery at Ty-Gwyn, is called 

* The Bishopric of Caerleon depends upon upon evidence, but upon the assertion that Au- 

the conjectural interpretation of the signatures to gustin was the first who had a pall, and upon the 

the Council of Aries ; iu A) chbishopric upon later absence of Archbishops in the Irish Church prior 

t\velfth-century traditions, upon the apocryphal an- to the time of the English Conquest. Llaiidaff 

swer of Dinoih to S. Augustin, and upon the pro- tradition until the beginning of the i 2th century 

babilities of the case, such as they are. Geoftrey of {Lib. Londar.), and S. David's tradition (1". 

Monmouth and Giraidus Cambrensis are the first S. Band, by Rhyddmarch), knew nothing of 

writers that systematically invent British and Welsh any Archbishopric of Caerleon. 
Archbishoprics respectively. Will, of Newburgh + See above, p. 15, note'', and Girald. Camb., 

{Ilisl. Anglic. I. 7, Lond. 1S56), writing how- Be Inrect. II. I. vol. III. p. 45 Appendix VII. 

ever expressly in confutation of Geoffrey, denies to Stubbs's Uegistrum Sacr. Anglic, contains a 

that there had ever been Archbishops in Britain summary of the legendary lists of ancient British 

at all prior to Augustin ; but rests his case, not Bishops. 


a Bishop by Ricemarch (T. S. Davu!.), writing however in the nth century: 
while S. David, S. Teilo, S. Padarn, and S. Samson, although subsequently 
Bishops (and the first three also founders) of definite sees, are said in their 
respective Lives (written in the nth or 12th centuries) to have been con- 
secrated without reference to any sees at all (and the first three at Jerusalem) 
as a kind of honorary dignity — a statement of course entirely legendary, but 
proving the idea of an honorary Episcopate not to have been unfamiliar to 
Welshmen of even the nth century. On the other hand, as soon as ever 
the history of Wales emerges from the darkness that conceals it for a century 
after the departure of the Romans, a diocesan Episcopate is found established 
there, with a monastic establishment indeed as the centre of each see, but 
with the Bishop as such as its head : apparently however newly multiplied 
and arranged, so as to present a series of Bishoprics (in lieu perhaps of the 
one Bishop of Caerleon*) tallying almost exactly with the principalities which 
came into existence at the same period, and without any Archiepiscopate. 
There is no trace at any time in that country of any system resembling the 
Irish and Scotch (viz. of government by Abbots, with Bishops as subordi- 
nate officers, discharging Episcopal functions, but without jurisdiction), or 
indeed of any other system whatever than that of a diocesan Episcopate t. 
And about A. D. 550, Gildas speaks familiarly of " parochise" as the esta- 
blished rule in Wales, and as endowed. 
The several sees were as follows : — 

i. Baxgor, for the principality of Givynedd (Venedotia) ; of which 
Deiniol or Daniel is the first recorded Bishop and reputed founder 
{Ricemarch, V. S. David. 137, Ltd. Landav. 5, 68), who died A.D. 584 
(Ann. Camb., " CXL. Annus, Dispositio Danielis Bancorum"). No 
records of the see for Welsh times exist ; but Welsh Bishops holding 
it are mentioned A.D. 768-809 {Ann. Camb., a. 768, 809 — " Elbodg, 

* The transition from Caerleon to the later gustin in A.D. 601 ; but the number is not 

Bishopric; is one from Roman to British, not greater than can be accounted for by the sees 

from one metropolitan see to another : from the then known, or reasonably believed, to have 

Bishop residing in the capital of the Roman been in existence. The unmanageable number 

province, to the Bishops of the several Welsh of seemingly contemporary Bishops of LlandafT 

principalities, who however were in no case in the time of Oudoccus (X16. Landav.), and the 

located in the same spot with the residences 118 Bishops at Llanddewi Brefi under S. David 

of the several Welsh princes, but in their own {Eicem. V. S. David.), depend upon unhistorical 

separate monastic establishments. evidence. And the same account must appa- 

t Rees ( Welsh SS. 182, 266) asserts that it rently be given of the " sevenscore croziers," who 

was customary in the earlier Welsh Church to are said to have assembled to pass Howel Dda's 

make the Abljots of the greater colleges Bishops ; Laws A.D. 9 28, although these included " teachers 

but Paulinus and Cybi are his sole instances and abbots and priors," as well as " archbishops 

in proof. Add however S. Samson at Lantwit and bishops." Possibly the see of Weeg or 

{Lib. Landav. 19). It is just possible that Henllan (see in the text further on) may have 

the " seven Bishop-Houses" of Dyfed, in Howel been connected, if it ever existed, with the college 

Dda's Laws, may indicate the previous exist- of Dubricius at that place. The few intances of 

ence of some Bishop-Abbots. The numbers Bishops, not abbots, mentioned without sees {Rees, 

of Bishops mentioned at various periods prove WehliSS. iOO,i.:? 3. 144, 30 7), rest upon evidence 

nothing. There is no authentic list of the seven that cannot be relied upon to prove the existence 

mentioned by Bede as in conference with S. Au- of such a class in Wales as undiocesan Bishops. 


Archiepiscopus Guenedotiai," — and Brut y Tyivvsog. a. 768 or 770, 
809), A.D. 928 {Pre/, to Laws of Hmvel Dda), and A.D. 943 or 945 
{Ann. Camb., Brut y lycvysog^. And " Revedun," " INIorc^leis," and 
" Duvan," Bishops of Bangor, are asserted by the Chapter of S. David's 
in A.D. I I 54, l)ut in a letter of more than questionable veracity {aptid 
Gi'r. Comb., De Invect. I. 6, 0pp. III. 57, Braver), to have been con- 
secrated, the first by " Julienus," i. e. Sulgen or Sulien, Bishop of 
S.David's A.D. 1071-1088, the two others by Joseph, Bishop of 
S. David's, who died A.D. 1064 {Ann. Camb.). 

ii. Llanelwy or S. Asaph, for the i)rincipality of /'r»7rrj, assigned by 
the ]'ita S. Kentigerni (by Jocel. of Furness. 1 2th century) to S. Kcn- 
tigern or Cyndeyrn as its founder, and said to have been left by 
him to his disciple S. Asaph on his own return to Glasgow and 
Strathchvyd. Kcntigcrn died A.D. 612 {Ann. Camb. — "C'LWIII. 
Annus, Conthigirni obiius"). No records of the see prior to Nor- 
man times exist, but a Bishop of S. Asa[)h is mentioned A.D. 92S 
{Pr</. to Hmvel Ddas Laics). " Renchidus Kpiscopus." mentioned 
without a see, but in conjunction with Klbod of Bangor, by one MS. 
of Nennius, may have been Bishop of S.Asaph. And the Chapter 
of S. Davids, in the letter quoted above, claim for " Bedwd," appa- 
rently Blcidilud, Bishop of S.David's (who died A.D. \o'j\,Ann. 
Camb.), the consecration of one " Melanus Lanelvensis." Henr}' of 
Huntingdon {Hist. Angl. I. M 11 H. 693) omits the see of S. Asaph 
in his list of Welsh Bishoprics c. A.D. 1135; but this must have 
arisen either from inadvertency or from the * poverty of the see, or 
possibly because it was not then confessedly subject to Canterbury, 
being the last Welsh see to hold out. 

iii. S. David's, for the i)rincipality of Dyfed (Dimetia), including how- 
ever also from the beginning the southern half of Cardiganshire, and 
subsequently the whole of it (apparently in accordance with the 
varying extent of the principality itself), and parts also, at different 
times (for a like reason), of Glamorgan, Brecknock, and Radnor : 
referred to S. David as its founder by Bishop Rhyddmarch or Rice- 
march (Bishop of S.David's, AD. 1090 x 1098, Vita S. David, in 
Cambr. Brit. SS., and partl\- in Wharton A. S. II.), although with a 
legendary hint of a Bishop in the same region before David. S. David 
died A.D. 601 {Attn. Camb. — " CLVII. Annus, David F^piscopus 
Moni Judaeorum"). Of this see also no documents have been pre- 
sened in Wales itself earlier than Rhyddmarch's Life of S. David 
above mentioned, and leuan's metrical Life of his father, Bishop 

* " paupercula," Gir. Cambr., Itin. Cambr. 11. 10, and Camlr. T'tscrip(. 4, pp. 87:, 884. ed. 
Camd. 1603. 

A P PENDIX C. 145 

Sulien, A.D. 107 1 -i o88(of which the remaining fragments were printed 
by Bishop Burgess, Durham, 1812). And ravages by Northmen and 
Saxons are expressly assigned by Bishop Rhyddmarch as the cause 
of their (confessed) non-existence, such ravages being also repeatedly 
mentioned in the A7in. Camb. (a S. David's Chronicle) and the An7i. 
Menev. (in Wharton, A. S. II.). The lists of Bishops, respectively in 
Giraldus (///'«. Camb. II. 1 , pp. 855,856, ed. Camd. 1603), and Godwin 
(as " ex archiv. INIenev."), are manifestly late compilations, and un- 
trustworthy. But the Ajiti. Camb., Ann. Menev., Bruty Tyivysog., the 
Pref. to Howel Ddas Laivs, Asser, the Lib. Landav., and other 
sources *, collected and sifted in Jones and Freeman's Hist, of 
S. David's, supply occasional, though not always consistent, notices 
of successive Bishops ; sufficient, however, fairly to prove the con- 
tinuous existence of the see from S. David's time. They specify 
Bishops in A.D. 831, 840, 873, 928, 944, 946, 961, 999, 1025, 1040, 
1055, io6^, 1071, 1076, 1078, 1088, IC96, iii.s, etc.: besides the 
legendary succession to S. David, as second and third " Archbishops," 
of Cynog and Teilo. The documents printed above, pp. 11 7-1 20, 
appear to be transcripts of documents belonging to the see, pre- 
served in France through (no doubt) Brittany. For the apocryphal 
metropolitanship of S. David's, see further on. 
iv. Llanbadarn, for the principality oi Keredigion (Cardigan), including 
however only the northern half of modern Cardiganshire, but together 
with Brecknockshire north of the Irfon, and the western portion of 
Radnorshire, and perhaps also one or two parishes in Montgo- 
meryshire, as marked by a boundary-line of churches dedicated on 
the one side to S. Padarn or S. Afan (see below), or to some one 
of S. Padarn's companions ; on the other, upon the S. David's side, 
to S. David {Rees, Welsh SS. 198, 216). The + date of S. Padarn is 
fixed by the connection betAveen him, S. David, and S. Teilo, as the 
three contemporary founders of the three South Welsh sees {Lives 
0/ S. Padarn, S.David, and S. Teilo, in Canibro-Brit. SS. pp. 135, 
193, Lib. Landav. 98-100, Wharton, A. S. II.). A Bishopric at 

* See below, under the Welsh Church in the Ireland and returned, and then went back to 

years A.D. 870, 995. Brittany, and became Bishop of Vannes, and 

\ Of the two Bishops of Vannes named Pater- finally went to " the Franks," among whom he 
nus, one (according to Tresranx, Egl. de Bre- died ; whereas Venantius Fortunatus, who wrote a 
tagne, Paris, 1839) died A.D. 448, and the life of the Awanches Paternus, being his contem- 
Other was consecrated A.D. 465 (see also Ni'r- porary, knows nothing of this Pateinus going to 
mond. Cone. Gallic. I. 137, 140). It is more Wales, or indeed anywhere except to the mo- 
tempting to identify the Welsh S. Padarn with nastery of S. Pair in the diocese of Coutances, 
Paternus, Bishop of Avranches (Abrincensis), until he was seventy years old, when he was con- 
who was at the council of Paris A.D. 557 (or secrated Bishop of Avranches. He was manifestly 
555, Mansi). But the Welsh S. Padarn, ac- therefore not the Welsh Padarn; whose see of 
cording to his undoubted legend (Cambro-Brit. Vannes also is probably a confusion between 
;Si*<\), was a Breton, who came to Wales with himself and his earlier namesakes. 
a train of disciples, founded Llanbadarn, visited 

VOL. I. L 


Llanbadarn is implied A.D. 720 in the Brut y Tyivysog. {Myvyr. Arch. 
II. 472). And Kenauc or Cynog (according to Geoffrey 0/ Monm. 
XI. 3, and Girald. Camb., liiti. Camb. II. i), was transferred from 
the Bishopric of Llanbadarn to become S. David's successor at 
S. David's. Kenauc died A.D. 606 {Ann. Camb.). * The Bishopric 
was merged in that of S. David's, probably not long after A.D. 7 20, 
one Bishop Idnerth being it is said killed there by his people (C/n/Zr/., 
Ilin. Camb. II. 4, p. 863 ; and Camden, Britann. II. 524, ed. Gough). 

v. Llanafanvaur, in Brecknock, appears by an inscription to S. Afan 
(given below in Append. F.), and by dedications of churches, to 
have been the centre of a see for a short period, either coincident 
with Llanbadarn (the scat of the Episcopate being transferred for the 
time from Llanbadarn to Llanafanvaur), or taken out of it {Rees. 
Welsh SS. 208, 209). Nothing is known of the history of such a see : 
but S. Afan, being one of S. Padarn's companions, must have fol- 
lowed him closely in date, and the see must have been speedil) 
merged again in that of Llanbadarn, and tlicn both in that ol 
S. David's. 

vi. Llaxdaff, for the principality of Gweni (Monmouthshire), and 
ultimately also (besides other smaller principalities) of Morgamvg 
(dlamorgan), founded (according to their Lives in the Lib. Lan- 
(lav.) by Dubricius and in some way more especially by Teilo : ol 
whom the former died A.D. 612 {Ann. Camb. — " CLXVIIL An- 
nus, obitus .... Dibric Episcopi," and so also Lib. Landav. 81) 
after resigning the see \ {Lib. Landav. 80) ; while the Lives of the 
latter, and of his successor Oudoceus, by speaking respectively ol 
Piclish and of Saxon invasion, and the second of the two also (toge- 
ther with some, not however authentic, charters in the same Lib 
Lattdav.) by identifying the Episcopate of Oudoceus with the reigns 
of Tewdryg (slain by Sa.xons near Chepstow, and therefore not fai 
from A.D. 600) and his grandson Athrwys or Judruis (died A.D. 632 
Ann. Camb., or 633, Ann. Tigernach. in O Conor, II. 192), refer these 
two Bishops, consistently with the date of Dubricius, to the end ol 
the sixth and beginning of the seventh centuries respectively. Teilc 
is also connected by his legend with the " Yellow Plague," which 
raged in Wales apparently about A.D. 547 {Ann. Camb.) or A.D. 55c 
{Ann. Tigernach.). Of this see there are copious records^, compilec 

* One Curig Lwyd, a Bishop whose CTOzier bridus, and the rest of such legends, had no! 

was preserved in S. Harmon's church in the time come into being at the date of the Lii>. Landar. 

of Giraldus, was possibly Bishop of Llanbadarn arc due to Geoftrey of Monmouth, and are founc 

{Rees, Welsh SS. .^07). accordingly at length in the later Life of Dubri 

t The consecration of Dubricius by S. Ger- cius by Benedict of Gloucester (in Wharton, A. S 

manus is a Llandaff legend, demolished by the J I.). 

chronology of Dubricius' death in the I.ih. Lan- + viz. the Liher Landarensis, printed in «■ 

due. itself. The coronation of Arthur by Du- tenso by Mr. Rees, Llandovery, 1840. Thai 



however in the 12th century (not after nor much before A.D. 1133), 
and with the object of supporting the claims of the see at that time 
to the district between the rivers Neath and Towy and to a part of 
Brecknock from the see of S. David's, and to the district of Archen- 
field in Herefordshire from that of Hereford. These records how- 
ever are nothing better or worse than an uncritical compilation by 
interested and unhistorical compilers, who had no scruple, if a title- 
deed was wanting, in composing one according to their o^\^l view of 
the facts ; and they undoubtedly contain in their later period genuine 
documents ; although, even down to the time shortly preceding their 
compilation, they are proved inaccurate, wherever independent evi- 
dence exists to test them. It is impossible to make out a consistent 
list of successive Bishops from them ; and the attempt to do so, or 
to escape difficulties by imagining a whole band of suffragans to 
Oudoceus who disappear altogether afterwards, falls to the grountl 
with the untenable assumption upon which it rests, of the historical 
accuracy of the charters. But enough exists, when taken together 
with other evidence, which will be found further on under its respec- 
tive years, to establish amply the continued existence of the Bishopric 
from the time of Dubricius. And the documents which have any claim 

real materials existed for the compilation of this 
book (which was the work apparently of " Master 
Geoffrey, brother to Urban Bishop of Llandaff," 
— see below in Appendix E. — and from internal 
evidence must have been completed about A.D. 
1 133), is rendered probable by the existence of 
the memoranda of probably the Qtli century on 
the margin of the Book of S. Chad, now at 
Lichfield, but itself once the property of Llandaff 
cathedral (which are printed at the end of Rees' 
edition of the Lib. I.andav., and are held genuine 
by Wanley, Lhuyd, and Villemarque). The 
book also preceded Geoffrey of Monmouth, and is 
wholly free from the legends about king Arthur, 
with which a few years later it would inevitably 
have been tilled ; as it is also (naturally) from 
the S. David's fictions about " Archbishop" Sam- 
son, which occur first in Giraldus. But the 
intern;J evidence of the book is sufficient to 
prove that all the earlier charters contained in 
it were not contemporary with their professed 
dates, but were drawn up at a much later period, 
probably not long before the compilation of the 
volume itself, and are simply statements, founded 
upon varying amounts of information and cast 
into the form of charters, of the circumstances 
under which this or that church or land was 
possessed or claimed by the see of Llandaff in 
the 1 2th centur}', at the time of an angry and 
protracted contest between that see and those of 
S. David's and Hereford for a large portion of 
those churches and lands. The parallel Brt^ton 
charters, and the still more closely parallel charters 

of the abbey of Llancarvan in the Vita S. Cadoci 
(Cambro-Brit. Si>. 86-92), are of a similar cha- 
racter. The same lands indeed are in some 
cases granted by the same persons, and for the 
same expressed reasons, to Llandaff in the Lib. 
Landav. (pp. 173, 201) and to Llancarvan in 
the T'. S. Cadoc. (Camhro-Brit. SS. 390, 391). 
Wilkins has printed fifteen " S}iiods of Llan- 
daff" from this volume, extending from the 
Episcopate of Oudoceus to that of Herwald. 
But these s}'nods, so called, were simply meet- 
ings of the Bishop, his three abbots, and his 
clergy, to excommunicate some great offender, or 
to reconcile him at the price of certain gifts of 
land or of churches ; and the record is in none of 
them a contemporaryrecord. At the same time the 
circumstances of each case, assumed to be accurate, 
illustrate the character of the Welsh, both na- 
tional and ecclesiastical, and the position of the 
Church among them. The earlier cases ac- 
cordingly have been mentioned above on p. 125. 
And an account will be given in their proper 
dates under the Welsh period, of the occasions and 
alleged dates of the others ; while the one or two 
latest and possibly genuine documents will serve 
as a specimen of their form. ' But they were of 
course not synods for making canons, but indivi- 
dual instances of the exercise of Church discipline. 
A Bishop of Glamorgan, by name Cyfeilach, oc- 
curs in the Myvyr. Arch. {JI.^'j^) as killed A.D. 
756, who is not mentioned at all in the lib. 


to be substantially genuine will be found also furllier on in their 
respective places, 
vii. viii. A * traditional list of the British Bishops present at the con- 
ferences with S. Augustin A.D. 601 [/o/o MSS. 14",, 548), contains 
a "Bishop of ISIorganwg" as distinct from Llandafl"; who is conjec- 
tured to have been Bishop of Maroam in Glamorganshire, which is 
said to have been a Bishop's see for a little while about the 6th cen- 
tury (ib. 361): and a Bishop of " Wig," conjecturally identified with 
Wi:eg in Archenfield on the Wye in Herefordshire, which is suj)- 
posed to be the same place as Henllan the place of Dubricius' col- 
lege. There is no fairly historical evidence of the existence of either 
see. But Bishoprics appear to have coincided with principalities in 
Wales, as in Saxon England; and Welsh principalities, like Saxon 
ones, went through many changes before they settled down into their 
ultimate form and extent ; and it is probable, therefore, that sees like 
Margam or Weeg may have existed temporarily in different parts 
of what afterwards became the one principality (for a while) of Mor- 
ganwg and so the one Bishoi)ric of Llandalf : just as Llanbadarn and 
Llanafan existed for a time apart from S. David's. 

There is no real evidence of the existence of any Archiepiscopate at all in 
Wales during the Welsh period, if the term is held to imply jurisdiction ad- 
mitted or even claimed (until the 12th centur}) by one see over another 
And the political condition of the country would have seriously hindered, il 
it did not altogether preclude, the existence of such a real Archiepiscojjate 
although no doubt the Bishops of the several sees, probably a single Bishoj: 
in each case, consecrated to the other sees on a vacancy. The S. David's 
monk Asser (A.D. 884), and the Dimctian form of Howel Dda's Law« 
(A.D. 92S), style the Bishop of S. David's " Archbishop." And the lattei 
claims for him a kind of Primacy {Anc. Laws 0/ Wales, 1 1 . 790. 791, 869, 879) 
And Rhyddmarch, in his Life of S.David (A.D. 1090 x 1098), claims foi 
David and his successors jurisdiction over the whole, not of Wales only, bu 
of Britain. But the Ann. Camb., and the Brut y Txtvysogion, and Nennius 
bestow the same title upon the Bishop of Bangor, A.D. 768-809 ; and the 
change to the Roman Easter, the one really important revolution in the 
Welsh Church from the ;th century to the 12th, was introduced into Wales 
and ultimately established there, through this " Archbishop" of Bangor. Anc 

• " LIjTn.i'r Esgobion a fuant )ti dadlu ag medieval Welsh antiquary. Otherwise it migh 

Awstin E^gob y Saeson ar Ian Hafren yn y be possible to account for the omission o 

Deuau nid amgen : Esgob Caertawydd a elwir S. David's from it, by the fact of S. David': 

Henffordd [Hereford] ; 2. Esgob Teilaw 1 Llan- death in A.D. 601. And Hereford may verj 

dalT] ; 3. Esgob Padam ; 4. Escob Bangor; well hive been a British see before it was : 

f. Escob Elwy [S.Asaph]; 6. E«gob y Wig; Saxon one. All that can be said however is 

7. Escob Morganwg" (from the Book of Llan- that this is the most probable of all the listi 

ganna). The list is the conjecture of some that have been conjectured. 



the Bishops of Llandafl", in the Li'l/. Landav., vaguely claim Archiepiscopal 
jurisdiction for Dubricius and his successors, i. e. Llandaff, and know nothing 
of S. David, except as one of the equal trio — Teilo, David, and Padarn. 
The legends also of S. Teilo and S. Padarn place these Bishops, the former 
above, the latter upon a level with, S. David. And Llunwerth, Bishop of 
S.David's about A.D. 872, is mentioned incidentally in the Z/i>. Landav. 
(228), as simply a brother Bishop to the Bishop of Llandaff. The very 
arguments of Giraldus and of the Chapter of S. David's on behalf of 
the metropolitical power of that see, raked together with difficulty in the 
end of the 12th century, shew that no such power had existed within the 
memory of men at that time, and that no real evidence was to be found 
to indicate its having ever existed at all; the * fiction about S.Samson, the 
assertion (probable but irrelevant) that some Bishops of Llandaff, Bangor, 
and S.Asaph had been consecrated during the nth century by the contempo- 
rary Bishops of S. David's, and the exaggerated language of Bishop Rhydd- 
march, constituting + the sole producible support for the claims first formally 
advanced by Bernard, Bishop of S.David's in A.D. 1115-1148. And the 
claim of Bishop Bernard, and in sequence to him of Giraldus, was ad- 
vanced with the object of gaining, not rule over Wales, but freedom from 

* The Lives of S. Samson, whether foreign 
(see below in Append. E.) or Welsh {Lib. Lan- 
dav.), know him only as Archbishop of Dol 
(_a mere vague title in such a case), but with no 
connection at all with S. David's, still less with 
York, and as living in the early part of the 6tli 
century. But in the 1 2th century, the concur- 
ring interests of the clergy of Dol wishing to 
establii.h their independence against the Arch- 
bishopric of Tours, and of Giraldus Cambrensis 
wishnig to prove the metropolitanship of S. Da- 
vid's against the see of Canterbury, led to the 
assertion by both, that Samson had been an 
Archbishop (in the later and precise sense), and 
(added Giraldus) had taken his pall with him 
to Dol, and so let't S. David's destitute of that 
mark of metropolitanship. But the clergy of 
Tours, according to Pope Innocent III. (lib. II. 
Epist. 82), made him Archbishop of York. 
And Geoffrey of Monmouth (VIII. 12, IX. 8, 
15) also has an Archbishop Samson of York 
and of Dol, apparently one and the same per- 
son, but dated in the end of the 5th century. 
Giraldus, on the other hand, makes him Arch- 
bishop of S. David's, 2 5th in succession from 
S. David himself, and therefore necessarily in 
the 9th century at the earliest. Indeed he 
so inserts him in his list of successive Arch- 
bishops, as to place him somewhere between 
84O and 873. And he inserts him, with six 
others, between two, Novis and Llunwerth, who 
in the Ann. Camh. appear in immediate succes- 
sion to one another. Moreover the clergy of 
Dol themselves, in their own pleadings, say no- 

thing of York, still less of S. David's, or of the 
pall ; but simply refer to the " legend of S. Pa- 
ternus" (see the F. S. Paterni in Cambro-Brit. 
SS. 194) as their evidence that Samson was 
" Archbishop" of Dol (in Marlene and Ihirand., 
Thts. Nov. III. 934) : although Giraldus {He 
yure et Statu Sec. vol. III. p. 167) quotes some 
lines of a metrical hymn as in use at Dol, which 
identify him with S. David's. The whole story 
is an obvious fiction, of which the one underlying 
truth is, that there was a Welsh Samson who 
became Bishop of Dol in the middle of the 6th 
century. As Bishop of Dol probably, he was at 
the Council of Paris in A.D. 557 (555, Mansi), 
but signs merely as " Samson Episcopus." 

+ The celebrated answer of Dinoth is mani- 
festly a statement, drawn up by some medieval 
Welsh antiquary, of the answer traditionally attri- 
buted to him, and was probably enough suggested 
by Bede's account of the matter. It certainly 
cannot be taken as historical evidence of the 
metropolitanship of Caerleon, however possible 
that metropolitanship may be. The very men- 
tion of such a metropolitanship, indeed, proves 
the document to be of later date than Geoflrey 
of Monmouth and Giraldus; Welsh tradition 
until the early part of the 1 2th century, as 
represented by Rhyddmarch and by the Lib. 
Landav., knowing nothing of such a relation 
between Caerleon and the Welsh Church. That 
it truly represents the feeling of the then 
British Church towards Rome is obvious from 
Bede himself. 

150 AP PEN DIX C. 

Canterbury, and (in the latter case) from English nominees to Welsh 

II. In Dyfnaint, or Dammnia, there is sufficient presumptive evidence ol 
the existence of Bishops apparently from the 6th century*. And two " British 
Bishops," probably Cornish or from Devon, are mentioned by Bede (see 
above, p. 124) in A.D. 664. But the first distinct proof of a Cornish see is 
the episcopate of Kenstec, in the time of Archbishop Ceolnoth, A.D. 833-870 
(for which see below under the Church of Cortnvall). 

The see of Congresbury rests upon exceedingly questionable evidence. 
The Chron. G/as/on. (written A.D. i:!59), t after asserting the foundation o( 
the see A.D. 167, asserts that in the time of king Ina, "DC. annos vel 
amplius" from its foundation, i.e. A.D. 767 or later, Daniel, "in eodem 
Episcopatu ultimus Episcopus Britonum," transferred it to Wells. Ussher 
rectifies this date to A.D. 721. Sec also the //is/, de Episc. Bath, d Well 
ap. Wharlon, A. S. /. 553, and the legend of S. Cungar in Capgrave. The 
first known Saxon Bishop of Wells was consecrated probably A.D. 909. 
The see of Silchestcr in Hants is still more questionable, having no better 
authority than Geoffrey of Monmouth (IX. 14.) giving us Bishops of that 
see and of Winchester in the time of king Arthur and of Dubricius, whom 
he makes to be contemporaries. 

III. Sirathcl-ayd ^ViiX Cumbria present a little more definite and historical 
testimony to the origination of their Episcopate, but are involved in absolute 
darkness respecting its continuance thenceforward. 

i. The Bishopric of Candida Casa or Whilhcrne indisputably was founded 
by S. Ninian, and within a few years subsequent to A.D. 400 (see 
above, p. 14). But nothing is known of its history or of S. Ninian's 
successors X until Saxon conquest brought thither a Saxon Bishop, 
A.D. 681, whose successors held it as a Saxon see until at least 
A.D. 796 {Flor. Wig). Its subsequent history will be found, so far 
as it is known, in its proper place and date further on. 

ii. The Bishopric of Glasgow was also indisputably founded at the later 
date of the middle or end of the 6th century, by Kentigern or Cyn- 
deyrn (died A.D. 612), — so far the 12th century Life of S. Kentigern 

* William of Worcester, A.D. 1478 {Itiiier. that '• Cornubiensium sane pondficum succiduuin 

pp. 105-1 15, Cantab. 1778), records the buria!- ordinem nee scio nee apjxino." 
place of several (apparently) Cornish Bishops of f The legend of Cungar, the eponymous 

British date. And John of Glastonbur)-, p. 4^9, founder of Congreshury, dates him also in the 

ed. Hean-.e, adds one more, S. Conoglas. See reign of king Ina (see below in Append. E.). 

Whitaker's C'crHira//, //. 194 sq. One of these, Congresbury monastery was given by Alfred to 

S. Rumoniis, is mentioned also by William of Asser shortly before A.D. 886 {Asser, M.n.B. 

Malm. (I>e Gtst. Pont. II.), with the comment 488). 

that nothing was even then known of him, or * See however the evidence coUeeted above, 

of others like him, but the b.ire names, " et si p. 1 20, respecting the continued existence of 

qu« modo praeteudunt miracula sciri ;" adding, S. Ninian's moaasteiy during the 7ih century. 


by Joscelin of Furness (see below in Append. E.) may be trusted. 
Nothing further * however is known of the see or of S. Kentigern's 
successors, until the Episcopates of Magsuem and Johnf in the time 
of Archbishop Kinsy of York, A.D. 1 051-1060 [Stubbs ap. Twysden, 
1700). And the certain history of the see begins with the Bishop 
John, who w^as appointed to it by David of Scotland, probably A.D. 
1 115 {Inquisiiio, etc. in Reg. Episc. Glasg. p. 4, and Wilk. I. 392). 
But the Inquisitio just quoted, and which is dated about A.D. 1 1 1 6, 
establishes two facts, — (i)that Kentigern was then known to have 
had " plures successores," although the see had been recently and 
for some time vacant and plundered; and (2) that certain consider- 
able estates, then searched out and restored to it, were known to 
have been " anciently possessed" by that see. 

* ft'o^r('2/(/3/onmou(/t(/X. 14) hasaBishop + These also, with a third of the hke kind 

of Alclwyd in the time of king Arthur and of (Michael, A.D. 1 109), rest only upon a V'oik 

Dubricius. And one Conwal is mentioned in the tradition, and are produced from that suspicious 

Scotichronicon, III. 29, as a disciple of Kenti- quarter in order to prove that Glasgow was a 

gern. suffragan see to York. 



THE formal schism between the British and the Saxon (and Roman) 
Churches was rested by Auf^stin upon two points * {B(£d. H. E. II. i). 

I. Easter — Up to the Council of Nice the practice of the British har- 
monized with that of the entire Western Church, i. e. with the Roman 
(Counc. of Aries, A.D. 314). The most ancient Roman table for 
Easter (in Bucherius, Commenl. in Victor. Can. Pasch. 252 sq.) tallies 
precisely with the British Easter (Van tier Hagen, Ohservv. in Prosper. 
Chron. 336-354; De Rossi, Inscripll. Christian. Proleg. Ixxxvi.). 

From the Council of Nice, to which they gave express assent, up to the 
middle of the 5th century, the Britons followed the Western Church 
in its gradual practical divergence from that of Alexandria and 
the East, arising mainly from the use of different lunar cycles : i. e. 
they agreed with Rome in the practical difference but professed 
agreement of that Church with the Easternf. 

But when S. Augustin and the Saxon Church came in contact with 
them in the 6th centur}', it appeared (besides other minor points) 
that the Britons still acted upon the cycle which the Church of Rome 
had used with some changes up to 458, but had then changed, and 
still retained what had (it should seem) been the original Roman 
rule, of keeping the 14th day of the moon (so determined), if a 
Sunday, (i) They determined the moon by the 84 years' cycle, 
attributed to, but really far earlier than, Sulpicius Severus, A.D. 410, 
which had been supplanted successively at Rome itself by the 532 
years' c}clc of Victor. Aquitan., A.D. 457, and by that of 19 years 
of Dionysius Exiguus, A.D. 525, these changes being designed 

• The omission by him of such points as the unless indeed we are to infer, that in real fact it 

difference of liturgies, or the tonsure, is accounted was brought forward, and was the rock upon 

for by the directioiis given by P.ipe Gregory to which the conference was wrecked, an interpre- 

S. Augustin on the subject of liturgies {Bifd. tation of Bede's narrative not unlikely, and ac- 

II. E. J. 27); the two points to which the latter tually adopted by the tradition represented in 

restricted himself, being probably regarded by him, Dinoth's ^leged Answer. 

the one (Easter) as absolutely necessar}- to any + Even so late as A.D. 455 they followed the 

fusion of British and Saxon Churches, the other directions of Pope Eeo the Great — " A.D. 453, 

(if it were really trine immersion) as essential IX. Annus. Pasca commutaiur super diem Domi- 

in itself. The absolute grant of jurisdiction over nicum cum papa Leone Episcopo Rom«" (Ann. 

the British Churches to S. Augustin and his sue- Catnb. ap. M. JL li. 830 ) — ni a case wherein 

cessors by the Pope (B<pd. it>.), was also sup- Rome and Alexandria temporarily differed (see 

pressed, if Bede's narrative maybe trusted, and Op. Leon. M. 1. 1055, ed. FF. Ballerin.; and 

(\l must be supposed) from less worthy motives; Waller, Das Alte ^Vales, p. 225, Bonn, 1859). 


to bring the Roman reckoning into harmon\- with the Alexan- 
drian. (2) They counted as Easter Day the Sunday which fell, 
next after the equinox, between the 14th and the 20th (not, as it 
had come to be at Rome, the 15th and the 21st) days inclusive of 
the moon. — " Non, ut quidam falso opinantur, quarta decima luna 
in qualibet feria cum Judaeis sed die Dominica semper (pascham) 
agebat (Aidanus) ;" only, '' a feria quarta decima usque ad vice- 
simam" (Bced. H. E. III. 17). And, "Non paschse Dominicum 
diem suo tempore sed a quarta decima usque ad vicesimam 
lunam observabant (Brittones), quae computalio octoginta qua- 
tuor annorum circulo continetur" {Id. ib. II. 2). — And, " Porro isti 
secundum decennem novennemque Anatolii computatum aut potius 
jvLxta Sulpicii Severi regulam, qui Ixxxiv. annorum cursum descripsit, 
decima quarta luna cum Judajis paschale sacramentum celebrant; 
cum neutrum Ecclesiae Romanae pontifices ad perfectam calculi 
rationem sequantur; sed nee Victorii paschalis laterculi curriculum, 
qui DXXXII. annorum circulis continetur, posteris sectandum decre- 
verunt" ( Aldhelm, Epist. ad Gerunt., whose unfair insinuation, that 
they were Quartodecimans, must be corrected by Bede). See also 
Bad. H. E. II. 19; ///. 3, 18, 19, 25, 28; IV. 4; V. ] 6, 20, 21, 
22, 23, 24; Columbanus, Epist. ad Gregorium Papain; Cimimeanus, 
Epist. ad Segien. : and for a more minute account, Ussher, Relig. of 
Anc. Irish, IX. X. ; and Swith's Bceda, App. IX. a. ; and above all, 
Van der Hagen and De Rossi as above quoted. The facts of the 
case prove the Western, not the Eastern, origin of the British Church. 
And the difference arose in that Church, as Bede testifies of the Scots 
at Hii, — " utpote quibus longe ultra orbem positis nemo synodalia 
paschalis observantise decreta porrexerat" {H. E. III. 4) *. 
2. Baptism {Baid. H. E. II. 2). — " Ut ministerium baptizandi, quo Deo 
renascimur, jaxta morem sanctae Romanae et Apostolicae Ecclesiae 
compleatis." — The precise defect intended is left to conjecture. 
Single immersion seems most probable {Kunstmami, Ponitent. Bucher 
der Angelsachs., p. 2). It was the custom " in tota diocesi Maclo- 
viensi," in Brittany, up to A.D. 1620 {Martene, De Bapt. I. 8). It pre- 
vailed in the 6th centtiry in Spain {Cone. Tolet. IV. A.D. 633, can. vi. 
Catal. III. 367 : S. Greg. Epist. ad Leandr. Hispal. 0pp. II. 532), 
where there was probably a British Bishopric at that date (see below). 
Of the three ancient Gallican Ordines Baptismi in Martene, it is left 
optional, by the omission of the prohibitory rubric, in that one of 

* A similar divergence from like causes ex- and Cone. ToJet. IT. A.D. 633, c. V.,ap. Cata- 

isted for a shorter time in the Churches of Gaul Ian. III. 205, 206, 367. And see Le Cointe, 

and Spain at the same period. Greg. Tur., H. E. Annal. ad ann. 339. num. 15, and 497. num. 3. 
T'. 17, X. 23 : Cone. Bracar. A.D. 572, c. IX., 


ihem which came from Bobbio. One of the earliest Anglo-Saxon 
decrees (see below under Augustin) provides for the invocation of 
each Person of the Holy Trinit}- in Baptism : and the Pseudo-Theo- 
dore {ap. Thorpe, xlviii. 20), which is however a Prankish document, 
not a Saxon one, repeats and enforces the Apostolic canon com- 
manding trine immersion. Lastly, Gregory I. left the question an 
open one {Epist. ad Leandr. Ih'spal.) ; and except ( n this one occa- 
sion, by S. Augustin, no stress is laid upon any question respecting 
baptism in the British controversy. 'Piiat it was the omission of 
chrism (true of the later Irish, Lan/ranc, Episl. ad Terddvac, A.D. 
1074, 0pp. p. 320, cd. Ben.) or of confirmation, is negatived by the 
mention of both in S. Patrick's Epist. ad Coroticum. And the strange 
customs about Baptism mentioned by Brompton in relation to the 
Council of Cashcl in 1 172 belong also to the later Irish *. 

The schism subsequent to Augustin, and the parallel controversy in 
France, turned wholly upon two points — the one, Easkr, the other, — 

3. The ToxsruE : — the Scottish, with which the British was no doubt 
identical, diftering both from the Roman and the Greek {Bwda, II. E. 
IV. I , V. 21; A Idhdm , A d Gt-runt. ; Gildas, as alx)ve, pp. 112,113: and 
see Smith ad Bird. App. IX. b ; Hussey, ad Bicd. IV. i ; Mabill., Aim. 
Bitted. I. 528, and Acl. SS. Ord. Ben. Sac. II. pp. 119, 1 20). A ton- 
sure like the British is condemned by Cone. Tolet. IV. A.D. G^^, 
can. xli. [Kunslmatm, p. 5, as above). The colony of Saxons them- 
selves, at Bayeux, had, before A.D. 590, copied the British tonsure 
from the Brdtons {Grtg. Tnr., Hist. Franc. X. 9 : and see also Sidon. 
Aixdl.. Epist. VIII. 9). 

To these may be added other points of diflference, all, however, both 
natural results of the isolated condition of the Celtic Churches, and non- 
essential, viz. — 

4. Peculiar ritual ix the Mass: — See Gildas (so called), above, p. 11 2 ; 
and O' Conor, Bihlioth. Stcnvcns., vol. I. Append. A multiplicity of col- 
lects is the only t point specified (viz. by Agrestius against Eustasius 

* The third point urged by S. Augustin, co- of Nonhumbria (.Venniiw). The same remark 
operation in preaching to the Saxons, w.ts a mat- applies also to the Armorican Britons. A Briton 
ter of practice only, in which the British (natu- however was among S. Gall's companions. Furseus 
rally, under the circumstances) refused to join. may be cited as an instance of one who, himself 
It is however remarkable, that while Scots were a Scot from Ireland, came nevertheless " per 
the missionaries, \Mir excellence, of nearly all Brittones in provinciam Anglorum," A.D. 631 
Europe north of the Alps, and in particular of X 636 {Bird. H. E. J II. 19). 
all Sixon England north of tlie Thames, not one t The use of azyms by the British Church 
Cumbrian, Welsh, or Cornish missionary to any (I'vlliruier), the Church of Rome using at that 
non-Celtic nation is mentioned anpvhere ; ex- time leavened bread, appears to be a mere con- 
cept in the suspicious substitution of Rhun the son jecture, founded on the undoubted prevalence of 
of Urien for Paulinus in the conversion of Edwin that custom in the West, including England, at a 



at the Council of ]\Ia9on, A.D. 624 or 627); but this refers directly 
to the Scottish or Columban liturgy, which however was probably 
the British, or one closely akin to it. 

Peculiar ritual at Ordination: — See above, pp. 102, 140. 
Consecration of Bishops by a single Bishop: — "Rex et clerus 
regionis Cambrensis (in Glasguo), ... accito de Hibernia uno Episcopo, 
more Britonum et Scottorum, in Episcopum ipsum (Kentigernum) 
consecrari fecerunt. INIos enim in Britannia inoleverat in consecra- 
tione pontificum tantummodo capita eorum sacri chrismatis infusione 
perungere, cum in\ocatione Sancti Spiritus et benedictione et manus 
impositione. Insulani enim, quasi extra orbem positi, emergentibus 
paganorum infestationibus, canonum erant ignari " ( V. S. Kentigem. 
ap. Capgrave, N. L. A. 209). — The " custom'' intended is probably 
that relating to unction only, but the single Bishop at consecration 
is recognized as well, and such is the practice recorded in the 
legendary lives of Dubricius, Teilo, etc. It was the practice of the 
later Irish also {Lanfranc, Epist. ad Terdelvac. A.D. 1074, and An- 
selm, Epist. ad Muriardach. c. A.D. 11 00; in Ussher, Syllog. Epistt. 
Hibern.) * 

Peculiar mode of Consecrating Churches and Monasteries : — 
t See Bcpd H. E. III. 23 ; and Rees, Welsh SS. 57-61. 

later time {Almin, Epist. 69, ad FF. Lugd. ; — 
V. Martene, Be Ant. Ecd. Hit. I. 113). 

* Other points of ditl'erence have been erro- 
neously stated. (l) Marriage of Clergy appears 
to have stood in the British Church from the 6th 
century much as, at the same date, in the re- 
mainder of the Western Church ; — viz. as a com- 
mon practice, but with a growing feeling against 
it. The only singularity of the Britons v/as that 
the practice held its ground among them more 
effectually than elsewhere in following centuries 
down to the 12th. See for the practice the Con- 
fessio of S. Patrick, the Synod. Fatricii et Auxil. 
et Issem. (IViM-. I. 2), Gildas (Epist. Jin., 
above, p. 105), Xemiius (Versus, in Jin. Hist., 
M.II.B. p. 81), memorandum on margin of the 
Book of S.Chad mentioning one " Cuhelm filius 
Episcopi" (Append, to Lib. Landav. p. 273), 
the Brut y Tyirysog. A.D. 961 (Myvyr. Arch. II. 
491), Ann. Menev. (ap. Whation, A. S. II. 649), 
and the history of Bishops Sulgen and Rhyddmarch 
of S. David's, 1071-1096 (Freem. and Jones): 
and for the counter feeling, Gitdas, E/nst. (above, 
p. 74), the Laws of Howel Dda (below in their 
place), and the denunciations of Girald. Cambr. 
(Descript. Camhr. II., and Fial. de Eccl. Me- 
nev. dist. I.). It is one of the things " corrupting 
the world, but which will ever remain in it, and 
it can never be delivered of them" (Anc. Laics oj 
Wales, I. 347). In Bied. V. 19, " ecclesiasticse 

castitati contraria" refers solely to Easter and the 
tonsure. — (2) That no blessing was used by the 
British Church on marriage is a groundless im- 
putation, transferred from the invectives of Girald. 
Cambr. (Topvgr. Hibern. dist. III. c. 19), of 
Lanfranc (ap. i'ssher. Yet. Epistt. Hib. SyU. 
490, 492), and of S. Bernard (T'. .S. Malach.), 
against the Irish of the 12th century. — (},) Mar- 
riage after divorce, and divorce for very friroloua 
causes, are permitted by the Laws of Howel Dda, 
said to have been sanctioned both by the British 
Church and by the Pope. Gildas however (Epist. 
inil., above, pp. 49, 51) severely condemns both. 
And though one canon attributed to S. Patrick 
(can. 26, Willi. I. 6) speaks of permitting a se- 
cond marriage after divorce for adultery, yet an- 
other in the Cod. Canon. Hibern. above described 
(p. 108, note*), also attributed to S.Patrick, forbids 
even this (ap. Wilk. I. 6, and below under the 
Irish Church). That great laxity about such sub- 
jects prevailed in Ireland in the 12th century, see 
Giraldus, Lanfranc, and Bernard, as above. 

•t* The chief noticeable point is, that churches 
were not dedicated to any saint already dead, 
after the fashion then beginning to be common, 
but were called by the name of their living 
founder ; obviously the fact throughout Wales, 
The churches dedicated to S. Martin, e. g. at 
Canterbury and at Whitheme, were exceptions 
to the British practice. 


A.D. 450-700. 

I. Cumbria and S/raZ/ichvyd^'. 

Died A.D. 534. — i. Vita ^S". J/ockAri, Episcopi : (a Briton who became 
Bishop of Louth in the time of S. Patrick, his connection with whom, 
and the mention of him by Adamnan in connection with S. Columba 
[" proselytus Brito," and " S. Patricii discipulus," V. S. Columb., Praf. 
II. p. 6 Reeves], refer him perhaps to this part of Britain:) in Actl. 
SS. Aug. 19. ///. 743, and Colgan, Ac//. SS. Hih. I. 729. He died 
A.D. 534 {Ann. Ul/on. and Tigemach.). " Dormiiatio INIocta disci- 
puli Patricii: ... sic ipse scripsit in Epistola sua, ' Macutenus pec- 
cator presbiter S. Patricii discipulus in Dno. salutem.' " Ann. CI/. 
a. 534 {(7 Conor, IT. 15). 

Died A.D. 570. - 2. Vita S. Gikia : (born at Alclwyd [Arecluta] A.D. 
516, taught by S. Illtyd, restored the Catholic faith in Ireland, was 
in Brittany in the time of Count " Conomerus" [died A.D. 560, Greg. 
Tur. IV. 20], and died A.D. 570, — see above, p. 45), — one by a 
Monk of Ruys (which monastery claimed his relics), loth or nth 
century, in Du Base, Biblio/h. Floriac. 429-463, and Ac//. SS. Jan. 
29. //. 9,58, and Mabill., Ac//. SS. Bened. I. 13S sq., which makes 
him die at Ruys: a second by Caradoc of Llancarvan, 12th cen- 
tury, in S/evcnsons ed. of Gildas, Lond. 1838, and see also Cap- 
grave, N. L. A. 156, which places his death at Glastonbury: the 
former free from the fictions about king Arthur and Glastonbury 
•with which the latter is overlaid, although itself written in the interest 
of the Breton monaster}-. Both must be corrected by the Annals (as 
above, p. 45, which seem to place his death in Ireland), by the Irish 
Ca/al. Sanc/orinn of Tirechanus, c. A.D. 750 (see above, p. 115, 

» The * marks those saints of whom no reli- taught and died a little after A.D. 431 : S. Serf 

able evidence can be found that they ever existed bemg also the teacher of S. Kentigera, which the 

at all. chronology renders just possible. They too, 

•> The legends of S. Servanus (S. Serf) and therefore, may be perhaps added to the above 

S. Temanus, Al>erdi;fn Ureriaru, July I and list, as links between Palladius and Kenligern. 

Junf 12. represent them as Bishops and disciples See Ussher (VI. 212 Elri7igli>n>, Lanigan (Ecd. 

of Palladius, respectively at Culross and at Ban- Hist. II. 167), Todd (S. Patrick, 302, note), 

chory-Ternan in the Mearns, precisely in that and Bishop Forbes's Pref. to the Mitfah de Ar- 

district of the Picts " in Britain" where Palladius buthtwlt (Burntisland 1864^ pp. Ixxii. sq. 


note ^), by the internal evidence of Gildas' own writings, and by the 
fact (e. g. see the Cod. Can. Hib. cited above, p. 108, note *) that the 
Celtic Irish Church of the 7th century held him only second to 
S. Patrick. 
Died A.D. 612. — 3. Vita ^S'. Keniigerni (or Kyndeyrn, called also 
Mutigo), Episcopi : (disciple of S. Serf, founded the sees succes- 
sively of Glasgow and of S.Asaph, died A.D. 612, An72. Camb.:) 
one, a fragment, by a monk unnamed, addressed to Herbert Bishop 
of Glasgow, A.D. 11 47-1 164, in Glasgoiu Chartulary, vol.1, pp. 
Ixxviii-lxxxvi ; a second hy Joscelin o/Furness, written probably A.D. 
1 180, and addressed to Joscelin Bishop of Glasgow A.D. 1 175-1 199 
(founded upon an earlier Glasgow legend and upon a document 
written in Irish), in Pinkertons VitcE SS. Scot. pp. 195 sq. ; a third, 
based u{)on Joscelin's, in Capgrave, N. L. A. 207, and AclL SS. Jan. 
13. /. 815. 

II. Damnonia or Dyfnainl''. 

A. Cormvall. 

^A.D. 450-500. — I. Vita ^S". Pirani (or Kierani), Episcopi : (Bishop of 
Saighir in Ireland, contemporary with S. Patrick, migrated to Corn- 
wall and died at Padstow:) two in Colgan, Actt. SS. Hib. I. 458, 467, 
and Actt. SS. March 5. /. 389 sq. ; another in Capgrave, N. L. A. 

A.D. 500-600. — 2. Vita S. Petroci, abbatis et confessoris : (" natione 
Cumber," died at Bodmin in Cornwall, uncle of S. Cadoc and 
younger brother of Gwynnlyw — Cambro-Brit. SS. 22, — and accord- 
ing to his own Life, born in Wales, and connected with S. Samson :) 
in Actt. SS. Jtme 4. /. 400, and Capgrave, N. L. A. 266. His name 
seems to be Irish. 

3. Vita S. Constantini : (son of Paternus or Padarn king of Cornwall, 
died, according to his legend, A.D. 576 ; but he is nevertheless plainly 
identical with the Constantine mentioned above, p. 120, who turned 
monk in A.D. 589 : the legend is specially fabulous :) in the Aber- 
deen Breviary : see the commentary upon it in Actt. SS. March 11. 
//. 64. 

B. Somerset. 

A.D. 500-550. — *4. Vita S. KcyncE (or Ceneu), eremitse : (daughter of 
a king of Brecknock, aunt of S. Cadoc, a recluse at Keynsham :) 
in Capgrave, N. L. A. 204, and Actt. SS. Oct. 8. IV. 275. 

' The Cornish saints who migrated to Brit- *> These and the following dates are of course 

tany will be mentioned under that Church : e. g. mere approximations to the truth, which may 

SS. Brioc, Winwaloc, Machutus, Paulus Leonensis, serve to mark the order in which the several 

Maglorius. And S. Cybi occurs under Wales. subjects of the legends apparently lived. 


A.D. 550-600. — *5. Vita S. Cungari {Cynigar, also called Docwinm), 
eremitse : (at Congresbury, founder of Docwinni monastery — but see 
Rees, Welsh SS. 183, — in Glamorganshire, contemporary with Dubri- 
cius and with king Iva {sic) :) in Capgrave, N. L. A . 80. See also 
above, p. 150. 

III. Wales. 

A.D. 500-550. — I. \\\.di' S. Bemad ox Brynach : (said in the Triads 
to be an Irishman, — Rees, Welsh SS. 156, — contemporary with Mael- 
gwn:) in Cambro-Brit. SS.^-\2, and abridged in Capgrave, N.L. A. 


2. Vita 6". Tathei ox Tathan : (an Irishman who settled in Wales, alleged 
to have been a brother of, but certainly older than, S. Samson, — Rees, 
Welsh SS. 256, — connected with Illtyd, and contemporary with 
Gwynllyw, but older than Cadoc :) in Cambro-Bril. SS. 255-264, 
and abridged in Capgrave, N. L. A. 279. 

3. \'ita S. Gimdlei or Givynlhiv : (prince of Gwynllwg in Glamorgan- 
shire, father of Cadoc, contemporary with, but older than, Dubri- 
cius :) in Cambro-Brii. SS. 145-157, and abridged in Capgrave, 
A\ L.A. 168. 

A.D. 550-600. — 4. Vita 6". Z^ttZr/c vV or Z?>/r)\i7, Episcopi : (first Bishop 
of Llamlaff, died, after resigning his see, at Bardsey A.D. 612, — Afin. 
Camb. and Lib. Landav., — prior, even according to the earlier legends, 
to the names which follow in this list, but only antedated to the 5th 
century by the fictions that connected him with Arthur and with S. Ger- 
manus:) one in Lib. Landav. 75-83, compiled A.D. 1120x1133, 
which knows nothing of King Arthur ; another based upon the first 
by Benedict of Gloucester, in Whar/on, A. S. IL. 654-661, written 
later in the century, and full of King Arthur ; a brief abridgment in 
Capgrave, N. L. A. 87. 

5. Vita S. Cadoci or Cat tug, or Sophicp, Episcopi : (son of G\v}'nllyw, 
living at the time of the synod of Llandewi-Brcfi, founder of » Llan- 
carfan college in Llandaff diocese, aftenvards Bishop of Beneventum 
in Italy :) in Cambro-Brit. SS. 22-96 ; another in Capgrave, N.L.A. 
52, and Actt. SS. Jan. 24. IL 602. 

6. Vita S.Lltuti ox Llliyd: (born in Brittany, founder of " Caenvorgern 
college in LlandafF diocese, where David, Samson, Paulinus, and 
Gildas are said to have been educated:) in Cambro-Brit. SS. 158- 
192, and abridged in Capgrave, N. L. A. 187. 

7. Vita iS". Samsonis, Episcopi : (Bishop of Dol in Brittany, but 

» These two colleges, with that of Docwinni or were the three great monastic establishments of 
Docunni (for which see under S. Cyngar, above), Llandaff diocese (LiJ. Landav. passim). 


consecrated at S. Illtyd's college in Glamorganshire by Dubricius, 
was at the Council of Paris A.D. 555 or 557 ; his fictitious Archi- 
episcopates at York and at S. David's appear first in the pages 
respectively of Geoffrey of Monmouth, and of Giraldus Cambrensis, 
the fiction about his pall being also due to the latter :) one by a 
writer unnamed in Mabill., Actt. SS. Bened. I. 165, and Acit. SS. 
July 28. VI. 568, claiming to be \vritten almost immediately after 
S. Samson's death ; a second, mainly agreeing with this, in Lib. Lan- 
dav. 8-25; a third in Du Bosc, Biblioth. Floriac. 464-484; also in 
Stir ills, July 28. ///, 338; a fourth, apparently never printed, — see 
Hardy, Descr. Catal. 141, note, — by Balderic Bishop of Dol ; another 
in Capgrave, N. L. A. 2i(i. See above, p. 149, note *. 

8. Vita S. Kebii (or Cybi), Episcopi : (a Cornishman who settled in 
Anglesey in the time of ]^Iaelg^vn, yet in the same generation with 
S. David, falsely connected by a blunder of names — see Rees, Welsh 
SS. 267 — with S. Hilary of Poitiers:) in Cambro-Brit. SS. 183-187, 
and abridged in Capgrave, N. L. A. 203. 

9. Vita xS". Davidis (or Deivi), Episcopi : (first Bishop of S. David's ; held 
Councils before, and in, A.D. 569; died A.D. 601 — Ann. Camb. :) 
by Ricemarch, Bishop of S.David's A.D. 1088-1096, in Cambro- 
Brit. SS. 1 1 7-144, and partly in Wharton, A. S. II. 645-647 ; also 
in Actt. SS. March i. /. 41 ; and with variations in Colgan, Actt. SS. 
Hib. I. 425-429 ; rewritten by Girald. Camb., 0pp. III. 377-404, 
and abridged in Capgrave, N.L. A.^z; another in Welsh, in Cam- 
hro-Brit. SS. 102-116; and for others, all founded on Ricemarch, 
see Hardy, Descr. Catal. 123, and Joiies and Freeman, Hist, of 
S. David's Cathedr. 

10. Y'xiz. S. Teliaui {or Teilo), Episcopi: (second Bishop of Llandaff, 
contemporary with S. David, passed some time at the period of the 
Great Yellow Plague in Brittany with S. Samson :) in Lib. Landav. 92- 
1 14, compiled, according to MS.Cott.Vesp. A. xiv., — sqq Hardy, Descr. 
Catal. 130, — " a magistro Galfrido fratre Urbani Landav. Eccl. Epi- 
scopi," and therefore shortly before A.D. 1133; partly in Wharton, 
A. S. II. 662 sq. ; and abridged in Capgrave, N. L. A. 280, and 
Actt. SS. Feb. 9. //. 308. 

11. Vita S. Paterni (or Padarn), Episcopi: (a Breton, contemporary 
with David and Teilo, who came to Wales in the time of Maelgwn, 
became the first Bishop of Llanbadarn-Vawr, returned to Brittany 
after visiting Ireland, and then went to France and became Bishop 
of Varmes. See above, p. 145, note t- He was not the Bishop of 
Avranches who was at the Council of Paris A.D. 557, and whose 
Life, written by Venantius Fortunatus, his contemporary, is in Ma- 
bill., Actt. SS. Bened. II. 1100-1104, and another in Mabill., ibid. 


I. 153. See also Sun'us, April 16. //. 180.) Of the Welsh Paternus, 
a Life is extant in Cambro-Bn'l. SS. 189-197. AclL SS. April 15. 
//. 378 sq., and Capgrave, N. L. A. 258. 

\ both born in Brittany, and came 
*i 2. ^'ita S.Juslinioni (or Slitian),\ to Wales in the time of S. David : 
*i3. Vita .v. A')7/cc// (or A'v/tY/), C in Capgrave, N. L. A. 201 and 

/ 205. 
A church dedicated to Justinian near S.David's seems to make his 
existence probable. 

14. Vita S. Finiani : (an Irishman who came to Wales, but returned to 
Ireland to restore the faith there after S. Patrick's death :) in Colgati, 
Actt. SS. Hib. I. 393-407. 

1 5. Vita S.Aidi{ox J/<7/(/(f>r/),Episcopi : (Bishop of Ferns, came to Wales 
in the time of S. David :) in Colgan, Actt. SS. Ilib. I. 20S ; and Actt. 
SS.Jan. 31. //. 1 1 1 1 ; and Cambro-Brit. SS. 232-250 ; and abridged 
in Capgrave, N. L. A. 2 : died A.D. 625 {Ami. Tigern., O'Conor, II. 

16. Vita .S". Brendani : (an Irishman who came to Wales as S. Gildas' 
disciple, returned to Ireland and died at Knach-dune ; celebrated for 
his voyage over the ocean to the Isle of the Blessed :) one, in nume- 
rous jNISS., printed by M. Achille Jubinal. Paris, 1836 ; and in small 
])art in Cambro-Brit. SS. 251-254; another in Capgrave, N^. L.A. 
43 : another, in English verse, said to be by Robert of Gloucester, 
and another in English prose, both ed. by T. Wright for Percy 
Society, 1844: and for others, see M. Jubinals Pre/ace, and Hardy, 
Descr. Catal. 1 61-164. 

*i7. Vita S. Golveni, Episcopi Leonensis : (a Briton who went to 

Brittany and became Bishop of Leon :) in Actt. SS. July i, 

/. 127. 
*i8. Vita S. Leonorii : (a Briton, disciple of S. Illtyd, who went to 

France in the time of King Childebert, A.D. 575-596 :) in Actt. SS. 

July I. /. 118. 
A.D. 600-650. — 19, Vita S. Beuim : (founder of Clynnog Vawr in the 

time of Cadfan king of Gwynedd, who is said to have reigned A.D. 

616-630; but A.D. 575-610, Ann. AIcntT. in Wharton, A. S. II. 

xxxii. ; born in Powts :) in Cambro-Brit. SS. 13-21. 
20. Vita 5". Oudocei, Episcopi : (nephew of Teilo, and third Bishop of 

Llandaff, contemporary with Tewdryg who died not far from A.D. 

600. and Athrwys who died A.D. 632 :) in Lib. Landav. 123-132; 

a brief abridgment in Capgrave, N. L. A. 258 ; and Actt. SS. July 2. 

/. 318 ; and an extract in Wharton, A. S. II. 669. 
*2i. Vita ^S. Egbijii (or Ethbini) : (a Briton who went to Brittany, and 

was pupil to S. Samson and S. Winwaloc, died in Ireland :) in Actt. 



SS. Oct. 19. VIII. 474, and Capgrave, N. L. A. 122 : and see Su- 

rius, Oct. 19. IV. 307. 
A.D. 650-700. — 22. Vita S. Condedi : (a Briton \\\\o went to France 

after A.D. 667, became a monk at Fontanelle, and died A.D. 685 :) 

in MabilL, Actt. SS. Bcned. II. 862, supposed to be written by Jonas, 

a monk of Fontanelle, after A.D. 1050. 
*23. Vita S. Dcciimani : (a Welshman who became a hermit at S. De- 

cuman's, near Watchet in Somersetshire, said to have died A.D. 706 :) 

in Capgrave, N. L. A. 85, and Ac/t. SS. Aug. 27. VI. 24 a. 

No purely Welsh or Cornish saint of this (the great) period of Welsh 
hagiology found admittance into the ancient Martyrologies or Calendars of 
the Western Church, until S. David's canonization in A.D. 1 1 20 ; who is still 
the one Welsh saint formally enrolled in the Western Calendars. But 
S. Samson, and the Cornish saints who (like S. Samson) were connected 
with Brittany (S. Winwaloc, S. Machutus, S. Maclovius, etc.), were recognized 
in them, no doubt on this account (see above, p. 34). And Gildas and Petroc 
occur in Saxon Calendars (above, p. 35). Except S. Cybi and S. Beuno, all 
the above Welsh saints that can be certainly located, and probably all, come 
from, or are connected with, South Wales. 

* No Lives among the above can claim to 
approach to history. That of S. David by Rice- 
march, that of Gildas by the Monk of Ruys, and 
those in the Lib. Landavensis, were written 
about four or five, the rest (except perhaps the 
earliest one of S. Samson, and that of S. Conde- 
dus) five or six, centuries after the deaths of their 
respective subjects ; and they are all simply unhis- 
torical legends, but of persons who for the most 
part really existed ; although there is but faint 
evidence even of the existence of those marked 
with an asterisk. The list would not be complete, 
or leave a correct impression of the value of such 
literature, without adding the following supplement 
of h'gmdari/ hires of persons who almost certainly 
never existed at all. — i . Vita ,S. Weiufredie, virgi- 
nis et martyris : (a disciple of S. Beuno, and there- 
fore living about A.D. 600-650 :) in Cambrc-Brit. 
SS. 198-209: purporting to be written "per 
Elerium Britanum monachum an^. 660 aut Ro- 
bertum Salopiensem an". 1140:" also in Cap- 
grave, N. L. A. 296, and Surius, Nov. 3. IV. 20 : 
but Domesday Book knows nothing of S. Wine- 
fred, nor of her church, chapel, or well, and the 
legend probably came into existence between A.D. 
1070 and 1 1 40 (see Eets, Welsh SS. 297). — 
— 2. Vita >'. 'Vtt(7(fa/», Episcopi : (alleged to be a 
Briton : not known until his relics were dug up, 
c. A.D. 954 or 959, at Montreuil-sur-Mer, and 
removed to Blandinberg, near Ghent :) in Actt. 
SS. June 6. J. 728, and Capgrare, N. L. A. 
167, and see Surius, June 6. II. 108, written 
probably A.D. 1140 (see Rardy, Lescr. Catal. 
I. 372). — 3. Vita 5. Lewinnce : (a British 

VOL. I. 

Christian in Sussex in the time of Archbishop 
Theodore, A.D. 668-690, who was first heard 
of when her relics were stolen from S. Andrew's 
monastery, near Seaford, by a monk of Bergue 
S. Winox, in Belgium, A.D. 1058 :) by Drogo, 
a monk of Bergue S. Winox, in Actt. SS. ,hdij 
24. V. 608, and MahilL, Actt. SS. Bened. VI. 
ii. 112 (and see Blaauic, in Sussex Archtpol. 
Collect. I. 46). — 4. Vita S. Indracti et Socio- 
rum, martyrum : (Britons slain by Saxons near 
Glastonbury, A.D. 689 :) by Will, of Malmes- 
bury, abridged in C'aj grave, N. L. A. 188. — 
5. Vita S. Iwyi, in Capgrare. N. L. A. 201 : a 
Briton, buried at Wilton. The cases of S. Ivo 
(see above, p. 31, note''), S.Ursula, S. Melorus. 
S. Amphibalus, are of a like kind. Add also .S'. 
Elgar, whose Life is in Lib. I.andav. 3-7 : a little 
earlier than S. Caradoc (ob. 11 24); and whose 
teeth were translated from Bardsey Island to Llan- 
dafl', with the relics of Dubricius, A.D. 1 1 20. 

For the (vain) attempt to canonize S. Caradoc, 
see below under A.D. 1 200. In addition to him, 
Rees discovers ( Welsh Saints, 305) only four other 
native saints of a date posterior to the above list ; 
although he reckons some four hundred others, 
whose names and parentage only (or little more) 
are recorded, prior to A.D. 700. The lists and 
genealogies on which he depends ( 11 eM Saints, 
74) are the work of Welsh mediaeval antiquaries. 
What amount or kind of tradition may be em- 
bodied in them, it is impossible to say. The 
Triads are also too modern in their present form 
to claim notice here. See Stephens, Literature of 
Kijhiry, and Arch. Camh. ^rd Seriee,VIII. 65. 



A.D. 450-700. 

I. In Cumbria and Strathclwvd no Christian inscribed monuments of 
this the debased Roman period remain ". 

II. Dyfnaint or Damxonia {Dt-von and Cornwalt). 

A. In Devonshire. 

There have been found in south-west Devonshire, rouml tlie south and 
west of Dartmoor, at least six inscribed tombstones of this ])eriod, — viz. at 
Tavistock, Bucklantl Monachorum, Yealmpton, Ivybridge (the Fardel-stone), 
Stowford, and Lustleigh {Lysons, Devonsh. Introd. ccci'x. ; Archccol. Journ. 
VIII. 424; Arch. Cavib., yd Series, VIII. 134; Smirke in Proc. 0/ Royal 
Inst, of Cormcall, 1861), — agreeing with the Welsh and Cornish contem- 
porary inscriptions in the character of the letters, the contents and form of 
the inscriptions, in their grammar, and in one instance (Ivybridge) in the 
accompanying of the Latin words by an (apparent) equivalent in Ogham 
characters, and probably Christian because the Welsh and Cornish parallel 
class are in many cases demonstrably so. There are however no decisive 
Christian marks on any of those in Devonshire. There are however crosses, 
not inscribed, at Coplestone in the parish of Colebrooke near Crediton, at 
Lustleigh, and at East Worlington {Lysons, as above, cca'x. cccx.). 

B. In Cornwall. 

I. Upon one side of a thick slab found in the church o^ S.Jusi in 
Penwith, in Roman characters. 

Upon its face an incised cross, thus. P : the same name 
possibly as Selyf, ap Geraint. \Edinonds in Arch. Camb., -^rd 
Series, IV. 180 ; BuUcr s St. Just, p. 20 ; Haslam in Arch. Journ. 
IV. 303 ; and information communicated by Rev. S. Lysons, 

« Unless the cross at Bewcastle with an illegible inscription be an exception {Camden, Britann. III. 
176. ed. 1789). 


2. Upon an upright stone at Menabill}' near Fowey, in similar cha- 



Upon the other side an incised Greek cross in the form of a 
T. [Naslaffi, id. 307 ; BorJase, Antiq. of Cornw., p. 392 ; Blight, 
A71C. Crosses in Cornwall, II. 127.] 

3. Upon an upright stone at S. Clcmenfs near Tniro, in similar 


Under an incised Greek wheel cross. \Haslam, ib. II. 78, 
IV. 309; Borlase, ib. p. 391 ; Blight, ib. II. 125; Arch. Camb., 
^rd Series, IX. 288.] 

4. Upon a tall upright stone at Carnsew near Hayle, in similar 

The interpretation given of the first and third divisions of 
this inscription is exceedingly questionable, but it is apparently 
Ghristian, and of a time when Roman influence still operated. 
\Arch. Camb., -^rd Series, IV. 178.] 
There are also inscribed tombstones of the character and form of these 
inscriptions, and of like date, but without decisive Christian marks, at 
Lanyon in Madroti parish (the Men Scryffen or Scryfa), between Gidwal and 
Madron, at Mawgan, at ^. Cubert's, at Tregoney, at S. Columb Minor, at 
Camelford, at Padstoiv, and a crossed stone with an inscription, illegible 
except the word FILIUS, at Welltoivn near Cardynham. {^Borlase, ib. pp. 
393—396 ; Blight, ib. I. 72, //. 126 ; Arch. Journ. II. 77 ; Lysons, Cornwall, 
p. ccxxiii. ; Arch. Camb., ■^rd Series, IV. 182, 183, IX. 286-290, XII. 
417-428; Ecclesiologist, X. 217, XII. 33 2.] b 

*> A still earlier insaiption of Christian J?o- 181): 3. Four stone crosses, three of them with 

•mans, in itself conjectured to have been a mile- a figure like a crucifix carved upon one side, at 

stone, is on a stone, partly defaced, which .?. Bunjan's (Haslam, Borlase, and Blight, as 

formed part of the wall of S. Hilarv's church above) : 4. A similar stone with a similar figure 

near Penzance : P — FL.JV.CONSTANT .... but the cross of a Greek form, at Sancreed (Has- 

PIO A[\'G]. C^S. DIM [C]ONSTANTI[NI] lam. See. ib.). And (including these) Blight enu- 

PII AVG. FILIO. (Arch. Camb. ^rd Series, IV. merates and partly figures upwards of 137 wayside 

176; Blight, I. 'J ^.) Constantine the Great's stone crosses, many with figures like crucifixes, — 

second son. Flavins Julius Constantinus, was 34 of Latin form, 81 of Greek, and the remain- 

Csesar A.D. 316, governor of the Gauls, Britain, ing 22 of a transition kind, (besides many others 

&c. A.D. 335, and killed A.D. 340. of a distinctly later period,) — of which the date. 

There are, beside the above, and of like pro- judging by the style of their ornamentation, 

bable date (i.e. A.D. 450-700), monuments seems to range within the limits here laid down ; 

plainly Christian but without inscriptions : e. g. save that Saxon letters, possibly added at a later 

1. A stone in the shape of a Latin cross mth the time, occur at the foot of one of them. 
monogram incised, supposed to have been a Of the ancient chapels mentioned in J/as/am's 

gable cross, found at S. Helen's church on Cape Perran-Zabuloe, pp. 82-86, and of which there 

Cornwall in S. Just parish {Haslam in Arch. is a longer list (containing several certainly post- 

Journ., IV. 304) : 2. A stone with the mono- British structures) in Blight, I. vii., it must suffice 

gram at Phillack (Arch. Camb., New Series, IV. to say here that their British date is at best only 

M 2 


111. Wales. 

i. Inscriptions to the memory of persons to whose history and date 
there exists independent testimony. 
A.D. 500-600. 

1. On a stone in Tj-uyn church}ard, Merionethshire. 

Pascent son of Vortigern, and another Pascent his descendant in the 8th 
generation, appear as princes of Builth in Radnorshire, respectively in the 5th 
and 8th centuries {N'etmitis, M. H. B. 70, 71). But the locaHty of the stone 
connects it with Pascent or Pasgen, who occurs as a saint among the 
(legendary) sons of Brychan, and with a sister also connected with Tywyn 
(J?ees, Welsh SS. 143). For the stone, see Camden's Britann., II. 541. ed. 

2. On a stone found at P,itii y Polion, dn'o, near Llanddewi-Brefi, 



US lAcrr cx'i/roR i'Ienti 

Arch. Camh., ■^rd Series, II. 249-251. Now at Dolau Cothi, the house 
of J. Johnes, Esq. Paulinus, commemorated in these two rugged hexame- 
ters, was at the synod of Llanddewi-Brefi, some time before A.D. 569 {Ricevi. 
V. S. David, in Camhro-Brit. SS. 137), and was also instructor of S.David 
{ib. 122) and S. Teilo {^Lih. Landav. 94) at his college of Ty-Gwyn ar Daf 
(Whitland in Caermarthenshire) ; possibly also of Maelg\\Ti (see above, 
p. 54, last two lines). He is called a Bishop {Ricem., as above, 137), but 
had no see. The churches dedicated to him are near Llanddewi-Brefi or 
elsewhere in S. David's diocese {Rees, Welsh SS. 189). See also below, 
under Glamorganshire No. i, and Caermarthenshire No. 4. Strange to say, 
there is no legend of his life extant. 

3. On a rude pillar inscribed on its four sides, at Ty"u>yn in Merio- 


-11 -V " ('" modern Welsh) Tan grug )-ma 

►f engrugima ce gu 1 ^^^ Cadfan — marc. (Beneath this 

adffan mar 


mound is the body of Cadfan- 
thc mark.) 

probable. And the visit of S. Piran himself (ap. Colzan), is probably as apocryphal as are the 
to Cornwall, resting as it does upon Capgrave, parallel visits to the same countrj' of S. Gcrmanus 
and ignored by the earlier Irish legendary Lives and of S. Patrick. 

Cingiencelen x 
molt Tricet 

Clode nitanam 


= (in modern Welsh) Cyngen eel yn 
moll — clodau daear — trigodd nid 
anaf. (Cyngen's body is covered 
over — he was the praise of the 
earth — and led a blameless Hfe.) 

}= (in modern Welsh) Ar tu rhwng 
y bydd marciau. (On the inter- 
vening space there will be marks.) 
This is the only remaining inscription of the kind in the Welsh language 
(except a few words in that of Eliseg). It is probably in honour of Cadfan 
the saint (for the king of that name, see below), — who came from Armorica 
with S. Padarn, and therefore about the middle of the 6th century, and 
founded Tywyn church among others (Rees, Welsh SS. 213-215), — and of 
Cyngen king of Powys, — J^bout the end of the same century. The reading 
and interpretation given above are those of Messrs. Westwood and Williams ; 
subsequently, however, slightly altered by them. See Arch. Camb., Old 
Series, III. 364, New Series, I. 90, 96, 205-212, //. 58. 

4. On a stone at Llansadwrn in Anglesey. 

CONIUX . PA. . . . 
Figured in Arch. Camb., Old Series, II. 260. S. Sadwrn, brother of 
S. Illtyd, accompanied S. Cadfan from Armorica; see Rees, Welsh SS. 222. 

A.D. 600-650. 

5. On a stone at Llangadwaladr or Eglwys Ael in Anglesey. 




King Cadwallader, who died A.D. 664 {Nenniiis), or 679 [Ajin.Menev. op. 
Wharton, A. S. II. xxxii.), or 681 {Brut y Tywysog.), is supposed to have 
erected this tomb to his grandfather king Cadfan. {Rowlands, Mona Antiq. 
157; Gibsons Camden, II. 811 ; Arch. Camb., Old Series, I. 165-167.) 

The following are added on account of the persons commemorated in 
them, but the stones themselves are too modern to claim admission into the 
list given above. 

I. On a stone with a figure carved upon it, at Lhmbabo, Anglesey. 
' Pabo, the " pillar of Britain" (post Prydain), probably lived about the end 


of the 5th or beginning of iho 6ih century. " Dunauul filius Pabo obiit," 
A.D. 595 {Ann. Camb., MS. B. in M. H. B.). His name occurs in the 
Myvyr. Arch., II. 49, in the Botudd y Saint {Rees, Welsh SS. 167). But the 
stone is of the 13th or 14th century ; see Caindai^BriUmn. II. 572. ed. 1789, 
and Arch. Camb., "^rd Series, VII. 300. See also Rowlands, Mona Antiqua, 
158, 2nd edition. The account given by Rowlands of another stone {ib. 
155) at Llanengan Frenhin, is hardly trustworthy (see ^r^-^. Camb., O.S. 
///. 219). 

2. On a stone at Llanavan/awr in Brecknockshire. 

Jones, Breckn. II. 239, 240. On the top stone of a large altar tomb in 
black letter characters {Weslwood), but (like No. i) of the 13th or 14th cen- 
tury. For S. Avan's own date and see, vide Aj))). E. above. 

ii. Christian inscriptions belonging to the debased Roman period, A.D. 
500-700, but to persons otherwise unknown. 

a. Anglesty. \. At Penrhus Lluf^uy. 

Rowlands, Mona Anii qua, 156; Arch. Camb., ^rd .Series, VII. 296, A". 105. 
The stone is probably Christian. The name occurs as a witness to a grant 
in the V. S. Cadoci {Cambro-Brit. SS. 91). And Maccus, " plurimarum Rex 
insularum," was King of the Isles A.D. 973 {Flor. JfV;'- '" '"'•)• ^^I't die 
name mav be " INIacutus." Several other stones in dilTcreni parts of Wales, 
with the same form of words but no more plainly Christian marks, are 
here omitted. 

)3. Caernarvonshire, i. At Llangian, on an upright stone in the 

Arch. Camb., Old Series, III. 105. It is of very early date, possibly 5th 
century. The name of Martin seems to indicate its Christian character. 

2. At Pemnachno. 
Arch. Camb., ^rd Series, IX. 255-257. 

3. At Llannor. 
Arch. Camb., Old Series, II. 203, ■^rd Series, VI. 226. The name Eler- 



nus seems to indicate Christianity. Another inscription [Arch. Camb., Old 
Series, ib.) at the same place, beginning with VEND- (rest illegible), is pos- 
sibly Christian : see under Brecknockshire, No. 5. below. 

y. Denbighshire, i . At Gwythcryn near Penire Voelas. 
Upon one of four upright stones placed in a row in Gwytheryn church- 
yard : supposed date, 6th century, and conjectured to belong to Finian INIac 
]\Ioil, one of S. Madoc's companions ( Westw. in Arch. Camb., yd Series, IV. 
406). Dervac's stone, the Maen Madoc, near the same place {Westw., ib.), 
may possibly be Christian. 

S. Merionethshire, i. Near Trawsfymydd zX Bedd Poriis. 

Westw. in Arch. Camb., Old Series, I. 424, New Series, I. 316; and Gib- 
son's Camden, II. 791. 

c. Brecknockshire. i. At Vaenor. 

Upon a stone cross, now destroyed {Jones, Breckn. II. 623, 624; Arch, 
Cat?ib., Old Series, II. 29, Ntiv Series, IV. 333, yd Series, IV. 162). 

2. At Tralhvng. 
Upon a stone bearing a Greek cross within a circle, accompanied by a 
long stem running down the centre of the stone, and wth an equivalent (?) 
inscription in Ogham characters {Arch. Camb., yd Series, VIII. 52-56). 

3. At Llanfihangel Ctvm Du, near Tre tower or Tretzvr. 

Jones, Breckn. II. 499; Wcstiv. in Arch. Camb., New Series, /. 92, ///. 
272, /F. 333; Cambr. Quarterly Magazine, V. 519. The stone of Teger- 
nacus himself occiurs at Capel Brithdir in Glamorganshire {Arch. Camb., yd 
Series, VIII. 130). 

Another stone in the same place, inscribed with a Latin cross, has a 
defaced inscription in early letters, beginning IC lACET {Westw. in Arch. 
Camb., New Series, III. 2-72, IV. 333). The stone inscribed CATUC, 
which once formed the threshold of the church of Llandevailog, is said 
to be now at Llanfihangel {Jones, Breckn. //. 174 ; Westw. in Arch. CamL, 
New Series, IV. 333). 


4. Between Brecon and Merthyr. 
On pari of a stone cross, 1 1 miles from Brecon on the road to Merthyr 
{Jones, Brcckn. II. 624). 

5. At. Deiynock. 
Arch. Camb., yd Series, IT. 164, 17. 225. 

C. Glamorganshire. i. Al Porl Talbot. 


On a stone which once stood upon the road from Neduni (A^-a/h) to the 
southern Bovium (or Bomium = either Borer Ion or Eiuenny). The name seems 
to be that of a Christian. On tlie other side of the stone is — Imp. Ma.ximino 
Invicto Aug, — {Westiv. in Arch. Camb., yd Series, II. 251, 320). It is (or 
was lately) preserved in the Harbour Master's Oflice at Port Talbot. 

2. At IJangrallo or Coy church. 
With a cross, of early date (information communicated by Professor 

3. Near Margam, the ^[a(n Ilythyrog. 


The name Boduoc (Boduognatus) occurs in Cccsar, De Bell. Gall. III. 
23: also in an inscription at Nismes {Reines., Synt. Inscriplt. 932): also 
upon two coins, a gold and a silver, figured in Rudiitg {II. 299, and plate 
xxix. nos. 3, 4, 3rd edition) as British, but really belonging to Gaul. For the 
stone, see Arch. Camb., A'rw Series, IV. 78, yd Series, V. 287-289, J 7. 
226. It is of very early date. 

4. See Brecknockshire, No. 3. 
rj. Cardiganshire. i. At Llanfcchan near Llanwenog. 
Arch. Camb., yd Series, VII. 42. On a stone found in the wall of the 
ruins of an old chapel called Capel Whyl. Also with Oghams on it. 

6. Caermarihenshire. i. \\. Clyddai ut^r Nrivcastle Emlyn. 

A wheel cross with an illegible inscription, appearing to commemorate 
one Valens or Valentius {Arch. Camb., yd Series, VI. 227, 228). 


2. At the same place. 


On a stone, in debased Roman capitals, accompanied by Ogham marks 
{Arch. Cainb., yd Series, VI. 226). The mme £/ermes seems to indicate 

3. At the same place. 

Here also the name alone, and that uncertainly, appears to indicate 
Christianity: see under Breckn., No. 5 (Arch. Carnb., yd Series, VI. 225, 

4. At Llandyssilio (near Narherth ?« Pembrokeshire). 



There is only the name to mark this unintelligible inscription as Christian 
{Arch. Camb., yd Series, VI. 54). It is of early date. Another at the 
same place {ib. 56), to Euole.ius, is of later date and form, and may be 

t. Pembrokeshire. i. hi S. Alcholas. 

CIT. — h 
Of early date, viz. beginning of 6th or end of 5th century {Arch. Camb., 
yd Series, II. 49). 

2. At Cilgerran. 
Accompanied by Ogham characters, and a rude incised cross {Arch. 
Camb., 3rd Series, I. 9). 

Numerous inscribed stones also exist (besides those of heathen and prse- 
Christian date), agreeing in character, form of letters, grammar, and nature 
of inscription, with these, and possibly Christian, but without distinctive 
marks to prove them so. More than thirty of this kind will be found 
described in the Archccologia Cai?ibrensis, scattered throughout every part of 
Wales, but more numerous in South than in North Wales, and most nume- 
rous in Brecknockshire and Glamorganshire c. 

<= Other Christian remains exist, of post-Ro- rous small crosses upon a cromlech at Llanham- 

man but prx-Saxon date, and before Irish lech in Brecknockshire {lb., IV. 331): 4. a 

influence prevailed : e.g. I. a small metal cross, slab with a Greek cross incised at Nevern in 

apparently Roman, found at Rhagatt near Corwen Pembrokeshire {lb., ^rd Series, VI. 57) : 5. an 

in 1 80 1 {Arch. Camb., Old Series, III- gy): incised cross at Llanspyddyd, Biecknockshire, 

2. a cmciform mound near Margam in Glamor- called Brychan's stone (76., IV. 164, VII. 207). 

ganshire {lb., New Series, III. 316) : 3. nume- Not to add others of probably later date. 



A. Readings of Latin Version of Scripture, peculiar to British or Irish 


0/J Tesianunt. — Gaiests. 

Immisil Dominus vcntum super terram, ct diminuhc sunt aqux, viii. i. 
[M. with LXX.] 

AquK enim ibant et rrccrtelantur , viii. 5. [M.] 

Nondum replda sunt peccata Amorrhaiorum usque adhuc, xv. 16. [F. 
with LXX.] 

Clamor Sodoniorum et Gomorrluvorum njilctus est, et peccata corum 
magna vehanenter repleUi sunt, xviii. 20. [F.] 

Visitatione visitabit vos Deus, et ffferte ossa mea hinc vobiscum, 1. 24. 
[M., but I caret.] 

» The passages of Scripture here collected are 
taken from British or Scottish [Irish] writers, 
according to the list given below ; and comprize 
all quotations made by them which agree neither 
with any other of the known ante-Hicronynii.m 
versions (unless with those found in British or 
Irish MSS.) nor with the I'u/ya/e, and which there- 
fore go to establish a presumption that a spcaal 
variety of the former existed peculiar to the British 
Isles. The Italics mark the peculiar readings. 

1. FASTIDIUS, early in the 5th century, c. 
A.D. 420, known as a writer to Gcnnadius of 
Marseilles c. A.D. 495 (/'c Soijitt. EccL 56), — 
l>e Vita ChrisUana (in App. ad ^'. -Itty. Oj>i). 
17. iS.^sq.). [F.] 

2. S. PATRICK, latter half of 5th century, 
Confessio, and Episl. ad Coroticum (ed. O'Conor, 
Jier. Hib. Seriptt. I. o-ii. — ocx.). [P.] 

3. GILDAS, latter half of 6th centun,-, Hist. 
(in M. U. li. 3-16), Episl. I. (above, pp. 44- 
107), Epist.II. 6agm. (above, pp. 108-113). 

4. COLUMBANUS, Abbot of Luxeuil, and 
afterwards of Bobbio, A.D. 590-615, Rfgula, 
J'ltnitentiale, Serm4jii4>s, EjAstoli' (ed. Fleming, 
ap. GaUand. ISibl. VM. IT. XII. 321 sq.). 

5. CUMMIANUS, A.D. 634, Ad Sfgienum 
Huensem AbbaUin de CoiUroversia Paschali (in 

I'ssher, VeU. F.jiitt. Hib. SylL, Works, IV. 433 

sq.). [CUM.] 

6. ADAMNANUS, Abbat of Hy A.D. 679- 
703, \'ila S. Volund/ii' (ed. Reeves, Dubl. 1857). 

7. ANON., De Mirabilibus !^acrir Scriiitnr(P, 
libb. in., written in Ireland after A.D. 660 (in 
App.adS.Aug. Oj^. HI. 1 sq.). [M.] 

8. COD. CAN. HIBERN.. compiled in the 
beginning of the 8th century'. See above, pp. 
108, note *, and 126. [CAN.] 

9. NENNIUS (so called), middle of 9th cen- 
tury, llift. r.rU. (in 3f. //. B. 65). [N.] 

10. ASSER, of S. David's, Bishop of Sher- 
borne from shortly before A.D. 900 to A.D. 909, 
he llehua Gestie jElfrtdi Magni (in M. II. Ji. 
467-498). [AS.] 

Bachiarius is omitted from this first list be- 
cause his British nationality is exceedingly doubt- 
ful : and Sedulius Scotus, i. e. the author of the 
Collectanea in EfnsUilas S. PauU, because he is so 
&r separated not by date only (c. A.D. 818) but 
possibly by locality also from the British (early) 
Church and Isles as at least to throw doubt upon 
the value of his evidence to the question here 
handled. Bachiarius uses the f>ld Ijitin, but in- 
termixed with the Vidgate, especially in the N.T. 
Sedulius uses the Vulgate, but intermixed with 
Old Latin readings. 



Tolle calceamenA?, iii. 5. [CAN. bis : once, calceamen/«w.] 

Et erit cum dicent vobis filii vestri, Quae est deserviiio hac} et dicetis, 
Immolatio est, hoc Pascha Domini est, xii. 26, 27. [CUoM . /trf = LXX. 
— sim. Aug.] 

Advenam non vexabitis nee trilndabitis eum : fuistis etenivi et vos advenae 
in terra -^g}'pti. Viduaw et orphanos non vexabitis. Quod si vexaveritis 
eos, et vociferantes clamaverint ad Me, exaudiam vociferationem eorum, et 
irascar animo, et perimam vos gladio, et erunt conjuges vestrae vidux et filii 
vestri orphani, xxii. 2 1-24. [F. — stands for I. in Sabatier : _/tT^ = LXX. and 


Ecce verbum quod tibi do : neque adjicias ad illud, neque auferas ab eo, iv. 2. 
[COL. but I caret.] 

Quis dabit eis tale cor ut aiidiant Me et custodiant prcrcepta Mea, et bene 
sit eis omnibus di'ebus vihc sucr, v. 29. [G. above, p. 55.] 

Deus magnus Qui non accipit personam, sed nee accipit munera, {^iciens 
judicium proselyte, orphano, et vidux' ; dare panem et vestimentum dili'ge ; quia 
et \^stfuistim terra /Egypti, x. 17-19. [F. — stands for I. in Sabatier.] 

Si diversttas oborta fuerit inter causam et causam, et variaverit judicium 
inter lepram et non lepram [with several MSS. of V.], irent z.^ locum quem 
eleg/'/ Dominus, xvii. 8. [CUM.] 

Si atitefn niessus /tieris messeni in agro tuo et oblivisceris manuam, non rever- 
teris accipere iWam : proselyto et orphano et viducB erit, ut benedicat te Deus in 
operi(5ttj manuum tuanmi, xxiv. 19. [F. — stands for I. in Sabatier: = LXX. 

Xxiv. 2 1.] 

1 Samicel. 

Si poposci ab aliquo illorum vel preiium calceamenti mei, dicite : dicite adver- 
sus me et reddam vobis, xii. 3. [P. — sim. LXX. : last clause = Vet. Interp. 
S. Irenaei]. 

Pcenitet Me ordinasse Saul, xv. 1 1 . [CAN.] 

2 Samuel. 

Ozias sublevans arcam bove cadenie moritur, vi. 6, 7. [CAN.] 

I Kings. 
xvi. 2-4. [G. above, p. 58, from LXX. — stands for L in Sabatier.] 

2 Chronicles. 
XV. 2, xix. 2, xxi. 12-14, 15, xxiv, 20. [G. above, p. 59, from LXX.] 
Iram animationis suae, xxix. 10. [P. — sim, LXX. But I caret.] 



Inscriitahilia, ix. lo. [M. = LXX.] 

Divitiae quas congregalit injustus evomentur de ventre ejus : trahit ilium 
angelus viortis. Ira dracouum viultahitur, interficic/ ilium lingua colubri, 
XX. 15, 1 6. [P. part. sim. LXX. and MS. Maj. Mon.] 

xxi. 7-13, J 6-20, x-xiv. 2-4, 6, 7, 14, 18-20, 22-24, xxvii. 14, 16, 17. [G. 
above, pp. 69, 70, from LXX.] 


Beat«j sis sperans in Eum, ii. 12. [G. above, p. 50. = Hicron. from Ilebr.] 

Devorante plebem Domini ut cihum panis, xiv. [xiii. V.] 4. [P. = Hieron. 
from Hebr.] 

Odivi \al. perosus sum] congregationem malignorum [<;/. cntisilium malig- 
nantium] et cum impiis non sedebo, xxvi. [xxv. V.] 5. [G. twice, above, 
pp. 77, lOI.] 

Ne simul Iradas me cnvci peccatoribus [ = Hieron. from Ilcbr.], xxvi. [xxv. 
v.] 9. [CAN.] 

Esto mihi in Dcum protcctorem, ct in locum munitum [so also in Psalt. 
]\Ioz. — di>mum mufiitam, Hieron. from Hebr.], ut salvum me facias, xxxi. 
[xxx. v.] 3. [CL^^L and CAN.] 

Noli ditraherc nc eradiaris, xxxvii. [xxxvi. V.] 8, 9. [COL.] 

Spem/7, li. 17 [1. 19. V.] [G. above, p. 51, and AD., but their quotations 
otherAN-ise differ, G. following the Vulg.] 

Susciians de pulvere egenum et de stercore erigens paupercm, cxiii. 

[cxii. v.] 7. [N. = Hebr.] 


Siabii in portis sapienticr, i. 21. [COL.] 

Totam, vi. 31. [CAN. But I caret.] 

Omnis sapiens graiias agit arguenii se, ix. 8. [CAN.] 

Filius sapiens g/ori(7 pa/ris esf, x. i. and xv. 20. [P. But I caret.] 

Non proderunt divitia; in die im ; justitia a morte libera/, xi. 4. [G. 

above, p. 56 : but I caret : not in LXX. MS. Vatic. : = Hebr.] 

Quanta tcjnpore innocenies custodierint jusliliam, non confundentur , xiii. 6. 

[F. — but I caret: not in LXX. MS. Vatic] 

Corde lixtante vulius floret, xv. 13. [AD. = LXX., but I caret.] 
Flagellatur stultus et non sentit, xvii. 10. [G. Hist. = LXX. But I caret.] 
INIeliora sunt vulnera amici quam fraudulenta oscula inimici, xxvii. 6. 

[COL., part = V., part = Ambr.] 

Ferrum ferro <7tuitur : sapiens a sapiente cBdificatur, xxvii. 1 7. [CAN. But 

I caret.] 

Rex Justus susciiat regiomm, xxix. 4. [G. above, p. 54, but I caret] 
Rege audiente verbum iniquum, omnes qui sub illo sunt, sceksti sunt, xxix. 12. 

[G. above, p. 54. but I caret : = LXX.] 



Servus durus non emenda/ur verbis, xxix. 19. [G. Hist. = LXX. and 
/ere Aug.] 


Filii sme lege, dereliquistis Dominum, el ad iram provocasli Sanctum Israel. 
Quid adhuc perainclenwii \al. percutiemini] appone7iles iniqiiilalem ? \. 4, 5. 
[G. Hist., = LXX. : continuing the quotation from Vulg. in vv. 5, 6.] 

Z^iTnolitis, iii. 15. [CAN., otherwise = V.] 

Caelum enim qualiehir, et terra movebitur a fundamentis suis, proptery^r^?- 
rem irae Domini Sabaolh, in die qua superveneril furor Ejus, xiii. 13. [COL. 
= LXX.] 

In xxii. 13, manducare, mandiicemus [with Ambros.] for comedere, comeda- 
mus: rel. = V. [G. Hist., and so also in Isai. i. 19, above, p. 60.] 

El qui occidis, nonne el ipse occideris ? el cum desiveris pradari, hmc cades, 
xxxiii. I. [G. above, p. 53 : last clause = Hebr.] 

Posui te lumen in genlibus, ut sis in salulein usque ad extremum tcrrge, 
xlix. 6. [P.] 

Solve conligationes deprivmilis ; omnem nodum injuslilicB [ = S. Cypr.] 
disrumpe, Iviii. 6. [CAN. ; rel. = V.] 

Ad qucm autem respiciam, atcl cum quo requiescam, nisi super humilem et 
quietum et trementem sermones INIeos, Ixvi. 2. [COL. = LXX., sim. Hil., 
Hieron., Aug., Ambr., Greg. M. — G. quotes the verse from V.] 


Novate vobis novalia, et nolite seminare super spinas, iv. 3. [COL.] 

IMors inlravil per fenestras, ix. 21. [G. above, p. 109; quoted from him 
in CAN. = Hieron., Ambros. — " introivit," Paulinus, Episl. xlv.] 

Sine filiis faclus sum : perdidi populum Meum propter peccata eoj'um, 
X. 20. and XV. 7. [F. — possibly a paraphrase.] 

Ego sum Deus proximans [ = Fulgent.] et non Deus de longe. Nonne 

caelum et terram Ego impleo, dicit Dominus, xxiii. 23, 24. [COL, = LXX. ; 

last clause = Cypr.] 


vii. 23-26, [G. above, pp. 71,92, from LXX. And so throughout Ezekiel.] 

ix. 9, 10. [G. above, p. 71.] 

xiii, 8-10, 18, 19. [G. above, pp. 92, 93 : but, Morlificahajit animas quae 
non moriuntur, et vivificabant animas quae non vivunt, xiii. 1 9. CUM. and 
CAN., sim. V,] 

xiv. 12-16. [G. above, p. 71.] 

xviii, 20-24. [G. above, p. 7 1 : fire = F. = Julian, ap. S. Aug. — For xviii, 
32, see under xxxiii. 11.] 

xxii. 24-26, 30, 31, [G. above, p. 93.] 

xxxiii. 1-9, [G. above, pp. 93, 94; and vv. 6, 8, p. iii.] 

Nolo mortem peccalorum {al. morientium] sed ut convertawtur et vivawt. . . . 


Iniquiias iniqui [ = LXX. MS. Alex.] non nocebit eum, in quacumque die 
averierit se a sua iniqtdtati\ xxxiii. ii, 12. [F. — 11. is confused with xviii. 
32, and 12. stands for 1. in Sabatier. — Nolo peccatoris mortem sed ut con- 
vertatur et vivat. G. above, pp. 50, 107 ; and CAN. and Bachian'us.'] 
xxxix. 23, 24. [G. above, p. 71.] 


V. I, 2. [G. above, p. 88 ; from LXX.] 

viii. 1-4. [G. above, pp. 67, and (v. 4) 106; varies from both LXX. and 
Hebr. — v. 4, = LXX. p. 67, but = Hebr. p. 106. — vv. 3, 4, are almost iden- 
tical with Bodl. Auct. F. 4. 32 (see below, p. 190, note ^)\. 

i. 5, 9-12 ; ii. 17. [G. above, p. 88 ; from LXX.] 

A mos. 

ii. 4-7. [G. above, p. 67 ; from LXX.] 

v. 6, 10, -1-23. [G. above, pp. 67, 88; from LXX.] 

vii. 14-17. [G. above, p. 67 ; from LXX.] 

viii. 4, '. 7, 8, 10, II, 12. [G. above, pp. 68, 89; from LXX.: fere ^ 
Cypr. — In 10, Dies festos verlam in luctum, Hen. Hunt., c. A.D. 1135; 
fere = G.] 

ix. 10. [G. above, p. 68; from LXX.] 


iii. 1-12. [G. above, p. 89, and v. 8 also p. 55; from LXX. — i, 2, si'm. 
Bodl. Auct. F. 4. 32.] 

vi. 9-12. [G. above, p. 68 ; from LXX.] 

vii. 1-3. [G. above, p. 90: v. 2 corresponds with neither Hebr. nor 


i. 2-4. [G. above, p. 67 ; from LXX.] 

Vae qui replent se quce non sunt sua, ii. 6. {V./ere = LXX.] 

ii. 12, 13. [G. above, pp. 66, 67 ; from LXX.] 

PrcBcidit in stupor e mentis, capita potentium 7novebu7itur, nee ad adaperientes 
maxillas suas, quasi pauper edens in absconso, iii. 14, 15. [COL. — hui/ere = 
LXX., and sim. jMS. S. Germ., Hieron., Aug., Psalt. I\Ioz., al.] 

i. 14-18, ii. I, 2. [G. above, p. 68; from LXX. — 14-16, nearly identical 
with Bodl. Auct. F. 4. 32.] 

iii. 1-5. [G. above, p. 90; from LXX.] 


ii. 7, 22. [G. above, pp. 68, 69 : /ere = LXX. — 7, si'/fi. Bodl. Auct. F. 4. 32.] 

i. 3,4. [G. above, p. 69; from LXX. — 4, si'm. Bodl. Auct. F. 4. 32.] 
Qui vos tangit, quasi tangit pupillam oculi Mei, ii. 8. [P. = LXX. andyir^ 
= Ambr., but " Mei" = Tertull. and V. — Quoniam qui /. v., quasi qui t. p. o. 
Ipsius, Bodl. Auct. F. 4. 32.] 

V. 2-4. [G. above, p. 69 ; from LXX.] 

vii. 9-12, X. 2, 3. [G. above, p. 90; from LXX.] 

xi. 3-6. [G. above, p. 91 ; from LXX. with a clause omitted.] 


i. 6-9. [G. above, p. 91 ; from LXX.] 

Labia sacerdotis custodiwnt sapicnliam, et legem exquirunt [ = Ambr.] ex 
ore ejus, ii. 7. [CAN. — Custodizmt ... exquirfni, Bodl. Auct. F. 4. 32.] 

Nonne unuw Deuw habetis .' Quid dereliquistis [ = LXX.] unusquisque 
proximum suum .'' ii. 10. [P. — quoted by G. from V.] 

Ecce venit Dominus omnipotens : et quis sustinebit diem adventus Ejus .'' 
aut quis supportahit conspectuvi Ejus ? Quia Ipse ingredietur ut ignis confla- 
torii, iii. i, 2. [COL. = LXX. siin. Hieron. In 2, Ipse enim egredietur Q^'Si%\ 
ignis ardcm, et quasi poa lavantium, G. (above, p. 92) quoting the context 
from v.] 

iv. I. [COL. = Hieron. exc. " exuret" for " comburet," and "germen" 
with V. instead of " ramus." G. (above, p. 69) quotes the verse from V.] 

Apocrypha ^. — Ecclesiasiicus. 
Per linguaw dignoscitur et sensus et scientia et doctrina varietatis, iv. 29 
(24 LXX.) [P. = neither LXX. nor V. — forsan leg. veritaiis.'] 

A^au Testament. — S. Matthew^. 

Faciw [Cod. Amiat., C, C. C. Oxf. 122, Rushw. Gosp., MS. Clarom.]... 

/»frceperunt [C. C. C. Oxf. 122, MS. Colb., Cod. Bez.] absconjo [bis, 

C. C. C. Oxf. 122, Rushw. Gosp., MS. S. Gat., S. Germ, i], vi. 2, 4, 

Ila et vos facite illis similiter, vii. 1 2. [F. — ita with Rushw. Gosp., C. C. C. 
Oxf. 122, Aug., similiter with Hieron. — ita et vos facite eis, Bk. of S.Chad, 
C. C. C. Oxf. 122 (and, except eis, a., y., t., X., Aug.) — a. has also omnia bona; 
and A., botia, et ita et vos facite.] 

Sic omnis arbor bona bonos fructus facit, et viala malos, vii. 17. [G. above, 
p. 96; bonos fructus with Rushw. Gosp., A., and MSS. S. Germ, i, Vercell., 

^ Gildas and Fastidius follow the Old Latin V.]). But Gildas uses a form of that version 

retained in the Vuhjate, in their quotations from corrected occasionally from the Greek, 
the Apocrypha (of which both quote Wisdom and " For the additional references, a., 0., y., Sec., 

Ecclus., and the former also 2 Esdras [4 Esdr. in see below, p. 190, note '. 


and Veron. — frucluw bon//w, 6., t. — C. C. C. Oxf. 122 omils ihe last clause 

Nunquam vos cognovi [ = Aug. and Cypr.] ; discedite a I\Ie omnes [ = 6., »., 
Hil., al. — discedi/t' omnes, a.] qui operamini iniquitatem, vii. 23. [F. — Non 
novi vos. COL., and G. above, pp. 46, 106, and MSS. Vercell. and Colb. — 
operarii '\vi\c^\\.2Jis, G. ib. with MSS. Colb., Vercell., or from Luke xiii. 27.] 

Sed timete, x. 28. [G. above, p. 96, omitting />fl//«j. El corpus el atiitiuun 
in MS. B. of Gildas, with C. C. C. Oxf. 122, Iren., TertuU., etc. — corpus el 
anhnam, Rushw. Gosp., Bk. of S. Chad, a., y , f., and MS. S. Germ. 2.] 

Inf^r«/, xvi. 18. [G. above, p. 106, with Bk. of S.Chad, Rushw. and 
Hereford Gospels, C. C. C. Oxf. 122, (., 6., t., MSS. Corb. 2, S. Germ. 2, Ver- 
cell., and 2 MSS. of V, Deesl in y.] 

Redde eis pro Me et te, xvii. 26. [CAN.] 

Si vis vilam habere, serva mandata, xix. i 7. [F.] 

Diliges Dominum Deum tuum ex toto corde tuo et ex [ - Cod. Amiat.] 
tota anima tua et ex tota mente tua el ex tolis viribus luis : ... et ... diliges 
proximum tuum sicut te ipsuni. In his duobus mandatis lola lex pcndet ct 
prophetx, xxii. 37. 39, 40. [F., but mixed up with Mark xii. 30, Luke x. 
27. — ex I. V. I. = MS. S. (jat. (an Irish MS.); and in Luxeuil Lectionary. ex 
t. c. t. et in t. m. t., tota anima tua. Rushw. Gosp. have iti t. corde t. (Bk. 
of S.Chad, Heref. Gosp., y.. C 6., «.. have /// throughout), and lola lex. In 
X., lala el universa. In Cod. Bcz., Mum verbum.] 

Secundum rero opera, xxiii. 3. [G. above, p. 97, with Rushw. and Here- 
ford Gosp.- — 0. om. vero."] — et ipsi non faciunt, ib. [G. ib. with Rushw. and 
Hereford Gosp., C. C. C. Oxf. 122, a. and ^. (ipsi el jioti), MS. Colb.] 

Vos aulem, xxiii. 13. [G. above, p. 97, with Rushw. and Hereford Gosp., 
Bk. of S.Chad, a., y.. «., MSS. Corb. i, Cod. Bez. ; and qui for quia wiih «., 
.., X., MS. Vallicell. of V., Hil., al.] 

Veniet ergo, xxiv. 50. [G. ib. — aulem, k. and MS. Colb.] 

Non riovi vos, xxv. 12. [G. above, p. 46, but possibly confused with 
vii. 23.] 

Discedite a Me maletlicti in ignem x-temum qucm prcrparavil Paler Jfeus 
diabolo et angehs ejus, xxv. 41. [M., and in one place F., with MS. 
Corb. 2, Rushw. Gosp., a. — quern paravit ^. with MS. Colb. etc. — qwd prer- 
pararil. Cod. Bez. In another place F. has — Et dicet eis Rex qui a sinistris 
sufil. Discedite a Me maledicti in gehainam ceternam qiuim paravil Paler 
Meus diabolo et angelis ejus.] 

Hospesyi// et non suscepislis [with a., ^.. €., MS. Clarom.] Me; nudus, et 
non veslislis IMe ; infirmus. el non visilaslis Afc ; in carcere, et non Tenislis 
[with f., MS. S. Gat. etc.] ad Me, xxv. 43. [F., mixed up however with v. 36 
in the last clauses. — Hospes era/n [with V., MS. Colb. etc., but] nudusy«/ ... 
carcerey}//, with ?.. k., and C. C. C. Oxf. 122.] 

£ro vobiscuni. xx\iii. 20. [CAN.] 


S. Mark. 
Qui aulem non crcdiderit, xvi. 16. [G. above, p. 46, with Cod. Bcz.] 

S. Luke. 
Quod aii/cm allum est hominibus, abominatio est in conspcctu [ = Cod. 
Bcz.] Domini, xvi. 15. [COL. — coram De*?, a., j3. — fl-Zz^^/, in marg. y., and 
Heref. Gosp., 6., «., (c.] 

Ne quid [with /3.] tibi deterius evetiial, v. 14. [F.] 

VQxJamiavi [COL., Heref. Gosp., ^3., §., X., MS. Colb. etc.] in aula .. per 
I aliam partem, x. i. [0.] 

Sed ut Filius Hoviiiiis per earn clarificelur, xi. 4. [INL — j-zw. MS. Colb.] 


Petrus .y/^rgens in medio discipulorum, i. 15. [G. above, p. 104, from 
British Ordinal, with MS. Laud.] 

Hie ilaque acquisivit agrum de mercede iniquitatis, i. 18. [G. \h./ere=: 
MS. Laud.] 
I Quare convenit vobis tentare Spiritum Dei? v. g. [G. above, p. 47*] 

Et sublatus repertus est mortuus, xx. 9. [M. : and in 10, ejus for ipsius 
with Cod. Bez.] 

Mundus ego sum ab omnium sangicine, xx. 26. [G. above, p. 107.] 

]\[ysterium [in one MS. ministeriiim~\ Dei, xx. 27. [G. ib.] 


Occa-catum est, i. 21. [G. above, p. 97, and Scdul. Scot.] 

Non existimaverunt non habere, i. 28. [y.] 

Y ■M:\a7it qucc, i. 28. [om. ea. G. above, p. 98, with 7. And, in notiti(77«, 
MS. B. of G., also with y.] 

Inobedientes, insensatos, incompositos, sine misericordia, sine affectione, i. 30, 
31. [G. ib. with V. — y. also omits absque /ccdere.'] 

Vcp. homini per quern nomen Domini blasphematur, ii. 24. [P. = Max. 
Taurin., but probably mixing up the verse with Matt, xviii. 7.] 

I Corinthians. 

iii. 10-14. [G. above, p. 99. In iii. 12 supra, and in 13 quoniam in igne, 
MS. B. of G. with y. But y (otherwise = V.) has in 13, Qui fee er it hoc opus 
manifes/7/,r erit manifestabit eum, quoniam etc.] 

Apudvo?,, iii. 18. [G. ib. — y. has, nemo vos ... ut sit s. apud Deu?n.'] 

Ut anima salva sit, v. 5. [CAN. : rel. = V. = I.] 

N'e commisceri si quis nominatur frater et est fornicator . . . cum htcjusmodi 

'' The Book of Kells (77.) contains in S. John aept into the text of some MSS., and was then 

iii. 6, the well-known addition — quia Deus Spiri- supposed (as e. g. by S. Ambrose) to have been 

tus est et ex {or de) Deo natus est (irfs<7foo(?, struck out by the Arians from the others (see 

Palaogr. Sacr.) ; — being TertulLan's gloss, which Sabalier &c.) 

VOL. I. N 


nee cibum quidan sumere, v. 11. [G. above, pp. 100, 112 : ^y., r. (exc. that 
they have, commisceri vos si q. f. v. et — in v., auf) ; = also Pacian in part. — 
F. has, Si quis frater cognoviinatur inter vos fornicator, rel. = V.] 

Predicant, ix. 14. [CAN. : rel. = V. = I.] 

Operam veslram non necesse habenius, xii. 2 1 . [G. above, p. 1 1 1 : quoted 
by CAN. from V. with trifling variations.] 

Si dohi unum membrum, condolcanl omnia membra, xii. 26. [P.] 

2 Corinthians. 

Si sanum sapimus [ = Ambrosiast.], vobis sapimus ; si mente exc/'dimus 
\_^ V. one rendering], Deo, v. 13. [CUM.] 

Non est magnum igitumi m. e. t. /// <;«i,Y// juslitia; ; q. f. e. s. opera eorutn, 
xi. 1.5. [G. above, p. 100.] 

Non vestra volo scd vos, xii. 14. [CAN.] 

Si enim inviccm invidttis, el invicetn mordetis, inviecm delrahitis, videtc ne 
ab invicem consumamini, v. i_5. [COL. — y. has incussatis for comedilis, but 
rel. v.] 


De ore. iv. 29 [y., >-.] : auferatur a vobis, iv, 31 ; et benigni miser/V. Do- 
nantes vos, iv. 32. [y.] 

Kstote aiitem, v. i . [F. = Sedul. Scotus.] 

Impudicitia autem, v. 3. [F.] 

Hoc enim scitote quod omnis imfmdicus [ - y. and S. Ambr.] aut non 

erit hares [ = S. Ambr.] in regno Christi ct Dei, v. 5. [?'.] 

Corrertione, vi. 4. [CAN.] 

Cupimus unumqucmque vestrum in visceribus Christi esse, i. 8. [G. above, 

P- 73-] 

Sed per humilitatewz spiritus alter altenim exisiimantes superiorem sibi, 
ii. 3. [COL. — G. also has existimantes omnes homines, above, p. 1 1 1. exisii- 
mantes superiores, v. And y., in humilitate mentis alter ut rum exisiimantes 
majores quam semel ipsos.'} 

Factus est et in, ii. 7. [y.] 

Ul omnis lingua confiteatur quia Dominus et Deus fj/ Jesus Christus, ii. 11. 



Fralres, nemo vos seducal ... in parte diei festi aut neomenia aut sabba/^, 
ii. 16. [CUM., adding 17 from V.] 

I Thessalonians. 
ii. 5-8. [G. above, pp. 100, 10 1 : probably however from V.] 



1 Timothy. 

Fratres, fidelis sermo esi et o. a. d. Si quis e. cupii ..., i. 15, iii. i. [G. 
above, p. 105, from British Ordinal. — concupiscit, v7\ 

Decet hominem hujiismodi mansiietiim esse, non elalum, non superbum, iii. 2, 
and Titus i. 7. [CAN., but in anotlier \AzcQ/ere = V.] 

Domum suam bene regeniem, iii. 4 [with y., i/.] : and adhibehii, iii. 5. [G. 
above, p. 105, from British Ordinal.] 

Non vino rnullum deditos, iii. 8. [G. ib. from same. Minisicriiim in 
iii. 9, which is the reading of MS. B. of Gildas, = Cod. Wirzib. (ap. Zeuss), 
and Sedul. Scotus.] 

Languescens, \\. ^. [G. above, p. 102, = Sedul. Scotus. — lajigiicscit, first 
rendering of v. In vi. 5, veritate alienortim, yi] 

Superhe [ = i*.] sapere ... in Deo Qui prxstat tibi mulia abunde, vi. 17. [G. 
above, p. 52 : rel. = V. In y., ne super be f admit, ncque sper^w/ ...] 

2 Timothy. 

Contcndit in agone, ii. 5. [G. above, p. 102 : rel. = V.] 

iii. 1-5. [G. above, p. 109; quoted from him by CAN. In p. loi the 
same vv. are quoted from V., and iii. 5 from Cod. Amiat. In both places 
however G. reads inobedientes [with v.], but the quotations otherwise wholly 
differ, y. and v., zdding pactum fwn aistodientes to 2, have voluwtatum (so also 
Cod. Wirzib. ap. Zeuss) in 4, and \i. has et erunt in 2 ; but in all, rel. = V.] 

Titus i. 7,7'. ] Tim. iii. 2. 


Legem quis trausgrediejis duobus mediis vel tribus testibus morictur : 
quanto putatis ..., x. 28, 29. [G. above, p. 56 : rel. = V.] 

Postea vero jucwtdum fructum placidumque mercedis femis his qui per eam 
exercita// .y/^;//, reddet, xii. 11. [COL.] 

I Peter. 

i- 3~5) 1 3- [G. above, pp. 102, 103 (from the British Ordinal) : a variation 
of the text of V. In 13, y. also adds estoie, and has revelatiow^ with Hieron.] 

i. 14-16. [Id., p. 103, but with more marked differences from V. — In 
V. 16, Sancti estote quia Ego sanctus sum. COL. = G, : and both = Hieron. 
and Cod. Amiat. and V. of Lev. xi. 44. y. has also estote (bis) in 15, 16.] 

i. 22, 23, ii. 1-3. [G. ib. like the preceding. — ad oboediendum, i. 22. add. 
y. {vQl./ere = V.), and et sine dolo, ii. 2. y.] 

ii. 9. [G. above, p. 104, like the preceding.] 

Si Justus quidem vix salvus sit, impius et peccator ubi pare*^//.? iv. 18. [G. 
above, p. 56. So also y., but, erit, cz/parebit. — Si j. vix s. erit, p. et i. ubi pare- 
bunt (F.). — Ubi j. vix s. e., p. et impius transgressor legis idd se recognoscit} 
(P.) — COL. is nearer to V., Si vix Justus sic salv^tur, p. et i. ubi pare^z/.?] 

N 2, 

i8o yi PPENDIX G. 

I John. 
Fralrcs, scimus quoniam de morte ad vitam transivimus, quia diligimus 
fratres : qui enim non diligit, in morte csi. St quis atitem odit, homicida est : 
scitis autem quia omnis homicida non habet vitam oeternam in se \ = Cod. 
Amiat., y., and Aug.] manentem, iii. 14, 15. [COL.] 

Memor csto unde r^^ciileris oXpriora opera tua fac et age penitcntiam : olio- 
quin veniam tibi et movebo candelabrum tuum de loco suo, ii. 5. [CAN. (sim. 
Bachiarius)^^r<' - Cypr.] 

B. The usage of the writers above quoted with respect to (Latin) versions 
of Scripture is as follows : — 

1. Fastidius uses the Vulgate (omitting Apocrypha and Psalms, and 

passages common to both Vulgate and Old Latin) in four places, 
all in the N. T. (i Tim. v. 9, 10. Hob. vi. 4-6, Jas. iv. 4, 2 Pet. ii. 
20-22). Elsewhere, throughout the Bible, he uses a version of the 
Old Latin, in seventeen places (as above quoted) peculiar to himself 
(except that in Ezek. xviii. 21-23 ^"^ xxxiii. 1 1 he agrees with G., 
while in Matth. vii. 23 and i Cor. v. 1 1 he differs from him, and in 
Matth. XXV. 41 he agrees (once) with the Auct. de Mirab. SS^, and 
in sixteen found elsewhere : viz. 

Gen. xiii. 13 = {fcrc) Ambr. i Tim. ii. 8 = Ambr. 

Lev. xix. 2 = Ambr. i Tim. v. 5 - {fere) Ambrosiast. 

Ps. xxxiii. 13-15 = MS. S. Germ. Tit. i. 16 = MSB. S. Germ, ct Cla- 

Prov. iii. 9 = LXX., Cassian. rom. 

Cantic. v. 16 = Ambr. Jas. iv. 4 = Aug. 

Isai. i. 15, 16 = Tertull. i Pel. iv. 18 = Aug. 

Jerem. iii. 22 = {fere) Hieron. 2 Pet. iii. 9 = MS. Corb. 

jNIatt. vii. 21= (plurals) Ambr. i Joh. ii. 6 = Aug. 

Joh. xiv. 2 1 = Cassiod. 

2. S. Patrick, about half a century later, apparently uses the Vulgate (in 

his present text) three times, all in the N. T. (Matth. xii. 30, Con- 
gregat [but also in MS. S. Germ. 2, &c.], Mark xvi. 15, 16, Rom. 
ix. 25, 26 from Hosea i. 10, ii. 24), possibly also in five other 
places, also in the N. T. (Matth. x. 20, a transposition of two 
words; Mark viii. 36, but mixed up with Matth. xvi. 26, where V. 
= L; Acts ii. 17, 18 from Joel ii. 28, 29, but merely somnialmtit for 
somniabuntur ; Rom. viii. 26, 27, where also Dom. advocatus Noster 
is interpolated from i John ii. i ; and 2 Cor. iii. 3, scripta for in- 


scripia); while in Jerem. xvi. 19 extremis (also in Hieron.), and in 
Zech. ii. 8 Mci (also in Tertull.), are also found in V, Omitting 
twenty-three quotations where V. = I., he uses commonly a form of 
the Old Latin, in fourteen places (as above) peculiar to himself, in 
nine traceable elsewhere : viz. — 
Ps. V. 7 = IMS. S. Germ. raver tint for possederunt, and ex- 

Ps. 1. 15 = MS. S. Germ., but liberaho trem?> = V. and Hieron. 
(with Hieron. from Hebr.) for eri- Mai. iv. 2 = {fere) Aug. 
piam. Matth. xii. 36 = Bk. of S. Chad, Cod. 

Ps. Iv. 22 = Cassiod. Bez., MS. S.Germ., and Cypr.Test. 

Ps. cxix. 126 = IMS. S.Germ. and III. — pro eo. 

Cassiod. Matth. xxviii. 19, 20 = C. C. C. Oxf. 

Isai. xxxii. 4 = {Jere) Hieron., but ve- i2 2,Bk.of S.Chad, Rushw. and He- 

lociter = V. ref. Gosp., y., 8., f., ?;., X., and IMSS. 

Jerem. xvi. 1 9 = Hieron., exc. compa- Gat. and Maj. Mon. — 0(5servare. 

3. GiLDAS, a century later still, — 
a. Uses the Vutgate, with small variations of text, in the O. T. in — 
Isaiah (102 verses from 21 different chapters). 
Jeremiah, including Lamentations (iii verses from 20 different 

Malachi ( 1 8 verses from all the 4 chapters). 

But quotes also (in Hist^i Isai. i. 4, 5 (consecutively with 5, 6 from 
v.), and xxxiii. i, from a form of the Old Latin peculiar to himself 
(varying also from V. in xxii. ] 2, 13), and xlviii. 23, Ivii. 21 (p. 59, 
above), from one found in Aug. and Luc. Cal. ; Jerem. ix. 2 1 
(p. 109, above), from Old Latin ; and Malachi i. 6-9 (consecutively 
with i. 13, 14 from V.) from a version peculiar to himself, and iii. 2 
(also consecutively with iii. i, 3 from V.) from one bearing some 
resemblance to that found in Columbanus. 

In the N. T. in— 

S. Mark^^, X. 9, xvi. 16 (but autem for vero). 

S. Luke, XV. 22, 23, xxiii. 29. 

S.John'^, V. 30. 

Acts, i. 16, iv. 32, V. 29, 40, 41, viii. 18, 20 (but Acts i. 15, 18 from 
British Ordinal, and v. 9, and xx. 26, 27 [fere = V.], are from a 
version peculiar to himself, as above specified). 

j8. Uses a version principally the Vulgate (although with variations from 

•i The apparent exception of (possibly) Mark And in S. John v. 30, quicquam is in Cod. Amiat. 
vii. 27 is due to Matth. xv. 26, and that of of V. and in d., i., k.,\., &c. 
Mark ix. 44, 46 to Isai. Ixvi. 24, where G. = V. 



present text, often = that of Cod. Amiat.), but largely intermixed with a form 
(usually traceable elsewhere) of the O/d La/in, in the O. T. in — 

T/ie Pentateuch. — Exod. xxxii. 31, 32 (but gramk with Cypr.), xxxiv. 

29< 30, 35 (but merely cornuta, and I caret), Deut. xxxii. 28-30, 

39, from V. But Gen. v. 24, part = V. part = Hieron. from 

LXX. ; Deut. v. 29, in a form tallying neither with Hebr.. LXX., 

nor v., but quoted consecutively with xxxii. 28-30 from V. ; 

and xxix. iS (in Hist) not from V. unless as a paraphrase. 

"] Judges \. 25, vii. 16, xi. 34, xvi. 24, 25. 

Hist. Books I Slim. ii. 13, 30 (once), vii. 9, xii. 2-4 

0/ O. T. — (Cod. Amiat.), xiii. 13, 14, xv. 20, 22, 23, 

Josh, to > 2H. 29 (Cod. Amiat.): 2 Sam. xxiv. 12, |- - V. 

I Kings 1 7 . 

inclusive. i Kings xi. 6, 11 (Cod. Amiat.), xiii. 21, 
22, xxi. 19 (Cod. Amiat.), xxii. 22, 23. 
Bui Judg. xi. 34, " unica" with S.Aug. 

I Sam. ii. 27-34, from LXX. (27, 28 ^ Hieron., 29-34 = Luc. Cal.). 
I Kings xiii. 23, 24 = Luc. Cal., and quoted consecutively with 21, 

22 V. ; xvi. 2-4, peculiar to Gildas (I caret), xix. 10 = S. Aug. 
Psalms, in 13 passages (two in Hist., 18 verses) from V., but among 
them ii. 12 last clause peculiar toG., in Ii. 17 spern/Zwith S. Aug., 
and xcvii. 1 o = also Luc. Cal. 
But xxvi. 5 r= MS. S. Germ, (but twice quoted and once sim. V.), 
Ixxix. I (in Hist.) = MS. S. Germ., and cvii. 40 (also in Hist.) = 
MS. Corb. and Cassiod. 
In the N. T. in— 
S. Matthnv, 34 verses from i 2 different chapters (including 2 1 where 
V. = L) = V. (but among them, in v. 15 supra in MS. B. of 
Gildas = Rushw. and Heref. Gospels. Bk. of S. Chad, C. C. C. 
Oxf. 122, a., ;3., 6., «„ X., Cod. Bez., — in x. 16 G. omits ergo, — 
X. 28 = v., but not Cod. Amiat., and also = MS. Brix., — xxiv. 20, 
48, 49 = Cod. Amiat., and the last two verses also = MS. Colb.) 
But in 31 verses (including the ten given already on pp. 175, 176) a 
form of Old Latin, viz. — 
V. I},, projiciatur (with MSS. S. Gat., Clarom., Cod. Bez., Hieron., 

V. 16. niagnijicent (with 3 MSS. of I., MSS. Vercell., Veron.. 

Rushw. Gosp.. ^., b., Hil., Ambrosiast.). 
V. 19. Qui enim (with MS. Colb.. Bk. of S.Chad, C. C. C. Oxf. 

1 22). 
vii. 2, juilica^/wr dc robis (with CUM., CAN., a,. A., j\ISS. S. Germ. 
I. and Colb., and C. C. C. Oxf. 122). 


vii. 3, consideras (with MS. Vercell.) 

vii. 4, in oculo tiio est (with MS. Colb., Rushw. Gosp.). 

vii. 6, viiseritis (with MSS. Colb., Vercell., Veron.) 

vii. 15-17 = Luc. Cal. (15. in vestitu, with MS. Colb. — attendite 

vobis, with MSS. Colb., Clarom., Veron., Rushw. Gosp., Bk. 

of S. Chad, t. : and a fructibus, with MSS. Vercell., Veron., and 

Rushw. and Heref. Gosp., as well as V.). 
vii. 21 = MSS. Corb., S. Germ. 2, Veron., S. Gat., as well as V. 
vii. 27, impegerunt (with MSS. Colb., Brix.), ejus (with Cod. Amiat., 

MS. Colb., Rushw. and Heref. Gosp., Bk. of S. Chad, C. C. C. 

Oxf. 122, y., C., ^., »., X.)- 
X. 6 (or XV. 24), Non venivi\%\ ad oves perditas domus Israel (with 

MS. Colb., Cod. Bez., and Ambr.). 
xi. 28, requiescere faciam (with IMS. S. Germ. 2, and S. Cypr.). 
XV. 14, Coeci sunt duces (om. et) = Cod. Amiat., MSS. Colb,, 

Vercell., Rushw. and Heref. Gosp., Bk. of S. Chad, C. C. C. 

Oxf. 122, a., f., 6., I., X., Cod. Bez.; but in y. desunt. — cadmt 

\vith Bk. of S. Chad, X., MS. S. Germ, i, and S. C}'pr. 
XV. 26, to//ere (with S. Aug. — also in MS. Colb. of S. Mark vii. 27), 
xvi. 19, qucecunqiie (bis), tximt solu/cz, Q.xunt liga/a (the first with 

Bk. of S.Chad and C. C. C. Oxf. 122, and both with MSS. 

Veron., Brix., Colb., Rushw. Gosp., a., ^. (exc. that ^. has 

quz'cunque) ; but in xviii. 18, not only V. but MS. Colb. and 

Rushw, Gosp, and C. C. C. Oxf. 122 have both plurals), 
xviii. 17, sicut gentilis (above, p. iii, with Rushw, Gosp, and MS, 

S. Gat.) 
xxiv. 20, Fuga xQ'&tra hyevae (om, in, with most MSS. of I., Cod. 

Amiat., Heref. Gosp., Bk. of S. Chad, a., /3., 6. — iua Aj/eme, X.). 
xxiv, 45, cibaria (with MS. Corb. i, Cod. Bez, etc.), 
xxiv. 49, i'n^ft'perit (pecul. to G. — incipiet, ^. with MS. Colb. etc.), but 

ebriis (with Cod. Amiat., MSS. Colb., S.Gat., Maj. Mon., Rushw. 

and Heref. Gosp., Bk. of S. Chad, C. C. C, Oxf, 122, y., k., X.), 

S. Pauls Epistles, viz, — 

Romans, 20 verses (including 6 where there is no diflference) = V, 
(But i. 25, 26 is not Cod. Amiat. ; and i. 28 om. ea, and vi. 2 has 
iterum, both with y.). But 13 (including two already specified 
above) = Old Latin, viz. 
i. 21, viagnificaverunt (with y., MS, Reg., and Sedul. Scot.), 
i, 22, om. enim (with the Greek). 
i. 29, impudicitia (add. with y. and Luc. Cal.). 
ii. 5, 6, Tu autem ... cor impcenitens (with y., Luc. Cal., and S. Cypr.), 
opera sua (with y., v., S. Cypr., Sedul. Scotus, etc.). 


, ii. 11-13 = Cod. Amiat. and IMS. Reg. 
viii. 35, an persectdio transposed (with Cod. Amiat., y., v., Aug., and 

Luc. Cal.). 
xiii. 12, indiiamus (with MS. Reg., \i., v., and S. Cypr.). 

xiii. 14, induite concupiscent its (with y., v., MS. Reg., and Am- 

brosiast., and the first with Sedul. Scot.). 

1 Corinthians, 13 verses (including 8 where there is no difference) 

= V. (exc. expurgate igilur, in v, 7 with y., and ex ire in v. 10 
with y., v., and S. Aug.), but 8 verses (as above specified) in a 
form of Old Latin peculiar to Gildas. Also in v. 6, Non bona 
(om. est), with Cod. Amiat., and ^., v. 

2 Corinthians. 6 verses = V, but 3 = Old Latin, viz. iv. i deficiavms 

(with /i., v., and Ambrosiasl. — diJJiciamus, y.), and iv. 2 abjicia- 
vnis (with v., and S.Aug.), and in xi. 15 a peculiar reading as 

Ephesians, 6 verses nearly = V.. but among them, in iv. 18 a via (with 
S. Aug.), in iv. 19 omnis imniund. et avariti'S (with y., v. [but y. 
cm. omnis], MSS. S. Germ, and Reg., and Sedul. Scotus), and 
v. 18 replernini (with Gaud. Brix.). 

Philippians, only 2 verses quoted, both of them in a peculiar version 
(see above), but one, ii. 3, = COL. 

Colossians, 3 verses = V., but in one of them, iii. 6, in filios dijfidenliic 
{v., and the last word also \yith MSS. S. Germ, and Reg.) 

I Thessalonians, ii. 5-8, iv. 2-8, eleven verses from V., but in ii. 6 
gloriari for gloriam, and in ii. 7 possimus honori (with y. and 
one renilering of v.), for posscmus vobis oncri, which may how- 
ever be mistakes in the MS., anil in ii. 5 apud vos (add. with 
S. Aug.). 

1 Timothy, 12 verses (iii. 1-5, 8-10, vi. 3-5, \-/),/ere--^ V., but in 7 

of them (as above specified) peculiar readings from British 

2 Timothy, 1 1 verses/iTf = V., but among them iii. 1-5 twice quoted, 

and once in a j^eculiar rendering as above. 
Titus, 2 verses,y<rd' = V. 

Hchr., 4 verses, two = V., two a peculiar rendering as above. 
I S.Peter, 13 verses, based on V., but with peculiar readings from 

British Ordinal as above: a fourteenth, iv. 18, salvus sit (sim. 

Bk. of Armagh [y.]. and Fastidius and S.Patrick, but the latter 

varies widely in the end of the verse). 

y. Uses a version peculiar to himself, based on LXX. (partly MS. Alex., 
partly MS. Vatic). 



In the O. T. in — 

2 Chro7ricles, 7 verses as above (xv. 2, xix. 2, fere = S.Aug.). 

Job, 27 verses from three chapters, as above. 

Proverbs, 10 verses, five (as above) not traceable elsewhere; in the 
other five, v. 22, criniadis (with S.Aug.), xxiv, ii=Cassian, 
24, 25 =fere Luc. Cal., and in xxvi. 1 1 reversio is sim. V. 

Ezekiel, 37 verses from eight chapters, as above (in two passages, 
_/^r(? = Fastidius), and in addition, iv. 16 {baadum cibi, Hisl.) = 
v., but I caret: and in v. 11, and xxxiii. 6, 8, V. = I. 

Minor Prophets (except, partly, IMalachi) : viz. 

Hosea, 6 verses: Joel, 6 verses: Amos, 21 verses: Micah, 19 
verses : Habakkiik, 5 verses (i. 3, 4, fere = Luc. Cal.) : Zepha- 
niah, 12 verses: Haggai, 2 verses: Zechariah, 15 verses: and 
IMalachi i. 6-9, iii. 2 (quoted consecutively, the former with 
i. 13, 14, the latter with iii. i, 3, from V.), as above. 

Gildas also quotes Ecclesiastes iii. 7 (V. = L), and Wisdom (18 verses), 
Ecclus. (14 verses), 2 Esdras (16 verses), in the Old Latin 
retained in V. but corrected by the Greek. 

4. CoLUMBANUs, Writing in Gaul or Italy, uses the Vulgate commonly, 

but in sixteen quotations (as above) uses a version peculiar to him- 
self (exc. as agreeing with Gildas in Matth. vii. 23 [7ion novivos'], 
and Phil. ii. 3 [existimafites'], and i Pet. i. 16, while differing from 
him in I\Ial. iii. 2), and in eighteen others a form of Old Latin 
traceable elsewhere : viz. 

Job vii. , itentatio)^ ^ MS.Maj.Mon. J°|;" ''''•. 3^ = ^l^'^f"' ,, „ 

John X. I J John xvi. 20 = MSS. Veron., Vercell. 

Ps. xlix. 3 = MS. S. Germ. Rom. xiii. 10 = S. Aug. 

Cant. iv. 6 ~\ i Cor. v. 5 "\ 

Isai. Iviii. i L o tt- 2 Cor. viii. 9 f = MSS. S.Germ. 

Joel ii. 20, (cor- C ' Ephes. iv. 10 \ and Clarom. 

ted from LXX.) J 2 Tim. iv. 7, 8 J 

Isai. Ixv. 14 = Tertull. Phil. i. 23 = Hieron., S. Ambr. 

Jerem. xxiii. 23, 2^, fere = Fulg. Phil. ii. 7, specie = S. Ambr.. 
Matth. xxvi. 39 = MS. Colb. 

5. CuMMiAN, in Ireland, uses the Vulgate in 39 verses, from all parts of 

the Bible ; but a form of the Old Latin peculiar to himself in six 



Matth. vii.2, judi- 
cabitur de vobis 
(with a. etc.) 

John XX. 19, 21, 
26 ; pax vobis- 
aim (with y.) 

passages (as above), and among them in Ezek. xiii. 19 (not agreeing 
with Gildas), and one traceable elsewhere in four passages, viz. 

I Cor. iv. 5 = MSS. S.Gcrm. and Cla- 
= MS. Colb., and rom., and donee veniat wiih v., Aug., 

C. C. C. Oxf. and Ambr. 

I 22 (vobis in Ephes. v. 32, mysteriiwi with v., Iren., 
v. 26). Hil., Gaud., etc. 

Also in Exod. xii. 2 initiuin with Gaud. Brix., in xii. 3 accipiet with 
Cypr. and Aug., and in xii. 17 sempiterno : but rel. = V. 

6. Adamnams, in Scotland, nearly a centur}' later, uses the Vulgate in 
N. T. (5 verses), and a version not wholly Vulgate, but apparently 
corrected from it, in O. T. (7 verses) : viz. 


Lev. xxvi. 19, 20 

Prov. xxii. i 

Josh. i. 9 adds to confortare from V. 
age vir inter, which is the version 
of Luc. Cal. 

Ps. xxxiv. 10 (called xxxiii. by AD., 
ace. to Vulgate reckoning) defi- 
cient (with MS. S.Germ.), changed 
to minuentur (with V.) in the later 
hves of Columba. 

Ps. li. 1 7, spern;'/ - IMS. S. Germ, and 
(in this one word) Gildas (sec 

Prov. XV. 13 = LXX., but I caret (see 
above, p. 172). 

1 Cor. vi. 1 7 = Book 'v 

of Armagh (y.) r ^ ^* 

Ephes. vi. 11,13 J 
Luke xxii. 15 "1 

2 Cor. xii. 2 J 

V. -^ L 

The Auctor de Mirab. S. Scripturcc (M.) relates Scripture facts com- 
monly in his own words ; but in passages which are plainly quo- 
tations, uses in at least 39 verses from all parts of the Bible the 
Vulgate (but in 5 among them V, = L, and in Exod. ii. 22 I caret, 
in Numb. xi. 7 he adds album quasi nix, in 2 Kings ii. 10 [which 
is paraphrased] duriter is sim. dure of I., Isai. xiv. 13, 14 is inter- 
polated, and Dan. iii. 49, 50 is from Song of the Three Children) ; 
in 10 passages (12 verses) a form of the Old Latin, peculiar to 
himself in 7 verses of the 12 (as above), exc. that in Gen. 1. 24 
I caret, ^latth. xxv. 41 agrees with Fastidius, and is like MS. 
Corb. and the Vet. Interp. Irenaei etc., and John xi. 4 is like IMS. 
Colb. ; while the remaining 5 are traceable elsewhere : viz. Gen. 
i. 28 implete with S. Aug. (but in another place M. has replete 
with v.), Gen. ii. 2, 3 = S. Aug. and Vet. Interp. Iren., Ps. ciii. 4 
= MS. S. Germ., and Acts xx. 10 = (in part) Cod. Bez. 



This writer also marks the books of Maccabees as not in the " Divine 
Canon" (1/7/. II. c. 34, col. 26 G.), and some of the apocryphal additions lo 
Daniel, viz. Bel and the Dragon, as wanting the " auctoritas Divinae Scrip- 
turae" {ib. 32, ib. B.). 

8. The Cod. Can. Hibern. uses the Vulgate throughout the Bible and 
commonly, but in 39 passages it follows a form of the Old 
Laliti, peculiar in 22 places (as above) to itself (except as 
agreeing in two with Cummian, and in three quoting from Gildas), 
and in 1 7 places traceable elsewhere : viz. 

Deut. xxiv. 16, 7}iorientur = ]\i\. ap. 

I Kings xi. 11, 12, mainly V. but 
part = Tichon., and scindens pecu- 
liar to CAN. 

Prov. ix. 8, amabit = Aug., Pacian, 

Eccles. X. 16 = Hieron. 

Jerem. ix. 21= Hieron., Ambros. 

Ezek. xviii. 7,8= Jul. ap. Aug. 

Jonah i. 7 = Hieron. 

Matth. iii. 7, ira futura (or f. i.) = 
Rushw. and Heref. Gosp., Bk. of 
S.Chad, C. C. C. Oxf. 122, 7., S., f., 
r/., 6., L., A., Cod. Bez., MSS. Corb., 
S. Germ, i, 2, Maj. IVIon. 

Matth. v. 34, sedes = MS. Clarom., 
Cod. Bez., Hil., Aug. 

Matth. vii. 2, iudicabi'lur de vobis = 
G., CUjNL, C. C. C. Oxf. 122, a., 

MSS. Colb. and S. Germ, i, Luc. 

Cal., Hil., al. 
INIatth. viii. 22 [and Luke ix. 60], 

relitique = Ambr. 
INIark xi. 26, r^miiseritis = MS. Colb. 
Rom. xi. 33, imcrutabilia = v. (first 

rendering), Iren., Novatian., 

Ambr., etc. 
I Cor. ix. 27, servituti subjido = v. 

(second rendering), Fulgent., and 

MSS. S.Germ. and Reg. (rel. = V.) 

1 Cor. X. 27, anle vos pom'/ur = MS. 

Reg. (rel. = V.) 

2 Cor. ix. ID, Qui subministrat semen 

seminanti, et Ilk panem in escam 
ministrabit = v. (first rendering), 
and fere = MSS. S. Germ, and 
Ephes. iv. 28, indigentibus = Tertull. 

9. Nennius (so called) has no other quotation but that already given 

as peculiar to himself from the Psalms. He also uses or intends 
to use the chronology of the LXX. 

10. AssER, in the beginning of loth century, follows the Vulgate in 

8 verses from both O. and N. T. (exc. Christe for Domine in Luke 
xxiii. 42), but in Gen. iv. 7 he has Si rede off eras, rede auiem non 
dividas,peccas, with LXX. and S.Aug., and in Matth. vi. 33 prasta- 
buntur with y., A., and MS. S. Germ, i, for adjidentur of V. 
It is curious to find in a w^riter so late as Henry of Huntingdon 
(c. A.D. 1 135), who of course commonly uses the Vulgate, a 


trace, not only of the 0/J Lalin (Matih. xxvi. 52 = MS. 
S. Germ.), but of possibly a British variety of it (Amos viii. 
10, nearly agreeing with Gildas, see above). MSS. *. and k., 
however, of 12th century (the former A.D. 11 38 — see Harl. 
Catal.), also contain a few Old Lalin readings. 

From the above statement it appears to follow — 

1. That while the Vulgale was plainly known to (though barely used 
by) Fastidius, writing at a time when Britain and South Europe were 
in full intercourse, but so early as about A.D. 420, it may possibly be 
questionable whether it was known to S. Patrick, writing in Ireland 
some half century later, and when such intercourse was greatly im- 
peded. The few traces of that version to be found in his present 
text are far more slight than those in Fastidius, and not more 
than may be due to copyists. The question is of some imjiortance 
as bearing upon the intercourse of S. Patrick, and of the whole North 
Western Church of that time, with Rome. Further, that by about a 
century later (c. 560) the I'ulgiile had so far penetrated into Britain as 
to supersede with Gildas the Old Lalin altogether in some, and io 
leaven it with abundant alterations in more, of the most used books 
of both O. and N. T., while in such books as 2 Chron., Job, Pro- 
verbs, Ezckiel, and the Minor Prophets, the Old Lalin previously 
in use still held its ground ; the fonn of the Vulgale so introduced 
resembling but not being throughout identical with the Cod. Amia- 
linus**. Lastly, that a gradually increasing use of the Vulgale may 
be traced at the successive dates of 634 (Ireland), 700 (Scotland), 
end of 7th and beginning of 8th centuries (Ireland), down to the 
period when a few lingering traces and no more of the Old Lalin 
were still left, as in Nennius and Asser (c. 900), and even so late as 
A.D. 1135 and ii38f. 

2. A presumption arises in favour of the existence of a special British 
(and Irish) revision of the Old Lalin, as the version thus gradually 
superseded : a presumption based upon the number, and the singu- 
larity, of the readings above collected. This would have been more 
visible to the eye, had space allowed the printing of the other forms of 
the Old Latin, and of the Vulgale, side by side with the British (and 
Irish) quotations of the former. It must suffice to say here, that the 
positive evidence of such singularity, and of its amount, will be found 
by any one who compares the versions, to be exceedingly strong as 

' PublUlied however as yet for O. T., only to ^ Compare Hody, T>e Libl. Text. Ori<j. lib. 

the end of 2 Kings (Vercellone, Rom. 1860-4), I''- P- "• cc. v. sq., who however omits to no- 

but in exU'tiio for N. T. by Tischendorf, and the tice any one of the authors here cited. 
Gospels also by Tregelles. 


regards the books of Chronicles, Job, Proverbs, Ezekiel, and the 
Minor Prophets, as above mentioned; and that, once granted in 
these cases, there are sufficient peculiarities still traceable in the other 
books of Scripture, to establish what would then be of itself more 
than probable, viz. the existence of such a revision extending through 
the whole Bible. This is to some extent confirmed, so far as the 
very scanty evidence to the point reaches, by the agreement of Fasti- 
dius, Gildas, and in one of the two places the Cod. Can. Hibern. also, 
in the peculiar rendering of the two passages of Ezekiel quoted by 
both, and by the like agreement of Cummian and the Cod. Can. 
Hibern. in a third peculiar reading in Ezekiel and in another passage 
in the Psalms (although in the N. T., Matth. vii. 21, i Cor, v, 11, 
I Pet. iv. 18, F. and G. do not agree), and further by a like agreement 
between Columbanus and Gildas in three places out of the four 
in the N. T. quoted by both in a peculiar rendering, viz. JNIatth. 
vii. 23 (in part), Phil. ii. 3, i Pet. i. 16 (in i Pet. iv. 18 they do not 
agree, nor yet in i\Ial. iii. 2 from O. T., although there is some 
resemblance between them in the latter passage) ; while on the 
other hand, in the one passage quoted by S. Patrick from the 
Old Latin (i Pet. iv. 18) in common with Gildas, Fastidius, and 
Columbanus, they are all different, and S. Patrick singularly so. 
Unfortunately these are the only passages quoted by more than one 
of the list, except the four mentioned below f-', which are irrelevant to 
the present purpose. Further, however, the same inference is slightly 
confirmed by the evidence (unfortunately very scanty in its range) of 
the few and limited existing Latin MSS., connected with the British 
and Irish Churches, whether Old Latin, or (as is the case with most 
of them) Vulgate but retaining a large leaven of the Old Latin. We 
have here, first, special and characteristic readings, of which a list 
of a few may be found in iNIr. Westcott's note to his article on the 
Vulgate (in Smith's Did. 0/ Bibl., III. 1694): and secondly, read- 
ings common to one or more of such MSS. with one or other 
of the writers above cited. Unfortunately the range of the former 
is confined to the foiu- Gospels (with the exception of the Book of 
Armagh, which contains the whole N. T., and the Codd. Aug. and 
Boernerianus, and that of Wurzburg, containing the Pauline Epistles), 
no MSS.l' of the kind existing for the O. T. (except the remarkable 

s In Ps. li. 17, spern;'*, from S.Aug., is in from the T^H'^/afft. Gildas resembles SeduIiusScotus 

both Gildas and Adaninan, who otherwise differ. in Rom. ii. 6, Ephes. iv. 19, v. i, i Tim. iii. 8, 

In Matth. xxv. 41 both Fastidius (once) and vi. 4. 

the Auct. de Mirab. SS. follow the reading of ^ For MS. Bodl. Aiict. F. 4. 32, see the end 

MS. Corb. And Isai. Ixvi. 2 and Mai. ii. 10, of this Appendix. There is alsi a Latin Psalter, 

quoted respectively by Columbanus and by S. Pa- written by John brother of Rhyddmarch, Bishop 

trick from the Old Latin, ^le. quoted by Gildas of S. David"s A. D. 1090-1096, for Rhyddmarch's 



fragments mentioned in the note) nor (with the above exceptions) for 
any other part of the New ; while the range of the latter, owing to 
the nature of the citations by the British or Irish writers, is still further 
confined, although not wholly, to the one Gospel of S, Matthew. In 
that Gospel, of rare readings still lingering in Gildas, twelve are found 
to have held their ground also in the Rushworth Gospels' and eight 
in the Hereford Gospels, five and four respectively being peculiar 
readings ; nine are found in the Book of S. Chad, three being pecu- 
liar readings; and six occur in the MS. at C. C. C. Oxf. 122, one of 

use, now at Trin. Coll. Dublin (A. 4. 20), which 
follows avowedly S. Jerome's version corrected 
from the Hebrew, viz. that which was not adopted 
into the \'ulgcUe. See Wtvtwood {I'al'iogr. 
t^acra, and in Arch. CaiiA. (>. 6'., /. 1 17), I'islur, 
liflig of Anc. Irinh, I. {\\'i'rk», I\'. ^49), and 
Rhyddmarch's own verses attached to the MS. 
(ap. r$»}ifr, ib.). And another Psalter (in the 
libnir)- of S.John's College, Cambr.^ is pronounced 
by Professor Westwood to be Irish. Heddius, 
V. }\'il/ridi, c. iii., states that Wilfrid, " Psalnios 
quos prius secundum HieronjTni cmendationem 
—quod Psaltcrium a Scottis acccpcrat, wldt M'i//. 
Malm., <i. I'. III. — Icgerat, more Romanorum 
juxta quintan) editioncm nicniorialiter transmu- 
tavit." Docs this mean, that the " Scots" by the 
beginning of the 7th century had amended their 
(Italic) Psalter by S.Jerome's second corrected 
version from the LXX. (viz. the Gallican, so 
called, said to have been introduced into Gaul by 
Gregor}' of Tours [W'alaf. Slratii], f<li. 595, but 
really a little later, inasmuch as tiregory himself 
uses the old 1 Ait in); and then about the iilh 
century are found to be studying Jerome's further 
and third version direct from tiie Hebrew ? and 
that Wilt'rid, c. 652, began to amend for himself 
that former Scotch Latin (Gallican) Psalter, 
learned by him at Lindisfame just twrfore as a 
boy, by the help of what he in that year learned 
at Canterbur}- from ao amended copy (for some 
now unknown reason called the "fifth" edition 
or issue) of the same Gallican version ? Gildas and 
others in Ireland seem to have known the version 
from the Hebrew: see above, pp. 172, iSi. 

' The Rushworth Gospels, or Macregol's (Bodl. 
Auct. D. 2, 19, olim 3946>, before A.D. 820, be- 
long to the Northumbrian (Scoto-Saxon) Church ; 
the Hereford Gospels (at Hereford since A.D. 
1000, see //iVAw, 7'iw. Kpirt. p 4"), 8th or 9th 
century, to the .Mercian ; the Book of S. Chad 
(at Lichfield since A.D. 1000, see below, p. 206, 
once at Llandatf— ends with Luke iii. 9), 8th 
centur}' (possibly earlier), to the Welsh, but it 
apparently was written in Ireland ; the Book 
of Deer (A., Cambr. Univ. Libr. Ti. 6. 32 — im- 
perfect), 8th to loth century, to Aberdeenshire; 
and the Books of Armagh (7., Trin. Coll. Dubl., 
all the N. T., ab. A.D. 807), of Moling (S., sim. 
date, also Trin. Coll. Dubl.). of Dimma (* .. Trin. 
Coll. Dubl.), of Durrow «"., Trin. CoU. Dubl.), 

of Kells (7;., Trin. Coll. Dubl., Book of S. Co- 
lumba),of .Macduman {8., Lambeth), and that at 
C. C. C. O.xf. 132, are Irish; all (except the 
Book of Armagh) Evangelistaria only, and all 
(except the Corpus MS.) of the early part of 9th 
century, but the Corpus MS. dating after Duib- 
hinsi Bishop of (the Irish) Bangor (ob. 95 1 ), 
and therefore loth or nth century. To these 
are to be added two MS. (imperfect) Evange- 
listaria at Trin. Coll. Dubl., older than any of the 
above, here marked a. and /3- (the latter, A. 4. 
15. in Trin. Coll. Citalngue), which are both of 
the Old lAilin : and two in the British Museum, 
Harl. 1S02 and 1023 1 marked here i. and k.) ; 
which are the latest ( 1 2th century), as a. and 
(above all) /3. are the earliest, of the hish MSS. 
of the kind ; and which, xs well as all the others 
except a. and /3., are substantially Vuhjalf, but 
retain in various degrees, from much to little, 
an admixture of ('/./ l.alin readings. Harl. 
1023 1$ defective, beginning with S. Matth. 
x.xiii. 25. See also Wcstcott as (]uoted in the 
text, pp. 1694, 1695 ; and Westwood, I'a- 
lifigT. Sacra, Lond. 1 843-5. Of Irish MSS. 
abroad, the Cfxl. Wirziburg. is described and 
partly printed in ZiMM, Oramm. Ctll. Pre/, xx.- 
xxix. &c. : and the Cod. Sangall. (here marked 
A.), Cod. Aug. (jx.), and Cod. Boemcr. (v.), are 
wholly accessible in print, respcaively in Rettig's, 
Scrivener's, and Matthaci's editions. The readings 
above cited from the Latin version in the last of 
the three (f.) arc almost always alternative read- 
ings, corrected in the .MS. by a second translarion 
(commonly = Vulg.). The collations of the Irish 
MSS. are due to the kind courtesy of Dr. Reeves ; 
of the Book of S. Chad, to that of the Rev. G. 
M. Curteis ; and the opportunity of examining 
the Hereford Gospels, to the kindness of the Rev. 
F. T. Havergal. There are also p<jrtions of 
S. Luke and S. John in Corpus Libr. Cambr. 
(197), with fragments of the other two Gospels 
among the Cotton MSS. (Otho C. v.), said to be 
Irish. For the Cambridge Juvencus, see below, 
p. 198. Mr. Westcott's enumerations of special 
readings include many found also in non-Celtic 
MSS. of the Oil Lalin. The argument for a 
special version must depend uf>on readings limited 
to those found folehj in British or Irish writers or 
MSS. And the smaller totals above given are 
limited to these. 


which is also in the Cod. Can. Hibern. Twenty-five such readings 
are also common to Gildas with the Book of Armagh in the Epistles 
(although in the Gospel of S. Matthew the two do not tally), about 
ten of which belong to British or Scotch sources, several of them 
being also in the Cod. Boernerianus. And the specially ancient MS. 
a. presents the peculiar readings of Gildas in S. Matthew in three or 
four places, and of Fastidius in as many more. There are also, 
taken together, a noticeable number of coincidences between such 
readings and those of the other Irish MSS., and between the peculiar 
readings of the several MSS. themselves. Lastly, there is the (cer- 
tainly) strong evidence derivable from the texts printed at the end of 
this Appendix. The above totals would be increased by one (or, in 
the case of the Book of Armagh, two) if the readings of MS. B. of 
Gildas w^ere adopted. 
Where the text of Gildas agrees with forms of the Old Latin elsewhere 
used, it is more commonly with those of the African type (MSS. Vercell., 
Veron., Colb., Clarom., Corb.), than with those of the Italic (MS. Brix.); 
and again with S. Cyprian, S. Augustin, and (curiously often) with the text 
employed by Lucifer of Cagliari. And his special renderings are commonly 
corrections made from the LXX. (once or twice apparently from the Hebrew), 
and from a text of the LXX. agreeing partly with the MS. Vatic, partly with 
the MS. Alex.k 

3. The order of the books, especially of the O. T., in Gildas' copy' is 
observable. Putting the Pentateuch and Historical Books to the end 
of Chronicles in the usual order, he proceeds next (Ezra, Nehemiah, 
and Esther not being quoted by him) to — 

Jeremiah (Daniel is not quoted by him). 
Minor Prophets (Habakkuk and Joel being placed first, before 

Job (Canticles are not quoted, and Eccles. only once, and so as 

not to indicate its place). 
1 Esdras (4 Esdras in V.). 

Wisdom "1 which are the only books quoted by him from our 

Ecclesiasticus J Apocrypha. 
All these books, even the 4th Esdras, are quoted without distinction, as 
alike Scripture. 

^ See also SchoU, Pe Hist. Eccl. Brit, et edition of the Book of Armagh will supply in 

Scot. Fontihus, to whom is due the first sketch of part, viz. as respects the Irish MSS. in Ireland, 
such an enquiry as that prosecuted in the present ' See the copious lists at the end of Hody 

Appendix. A collation throughout of the whole as above quoted, who however has omitted 

of the texts of the MSS. enumerated in note ', is Gildas. 
still a desideratum : which Dr. Reeves's promised 


Further, with Sedul. Scot., and " with many early Enghsh MSS., and with 
S.Aug, de Doctr. Christ. II. 13" [IVes/co//, in Smith, p. 1696), Gildas puts 
Colossians after Thessalonians. 

4. It may be added that there is no trace anywhere of any Celtic ver- 
sion of the Bible or of any part of it. S. Chrysostom's words, quoted 
above on p. 10 (the second quotation), have been misunderstood to 
support such a supposition, but without ground. 

I. Extracts from the Old Testa?fie?it ni aji Old Lathi rersiof/^ British 
or connected iL-ith Britain^ fro?n MS. Bodl. Auct. F. 4. 32"'. 

I. Genesis i. 1-51, ii. 1-3 = S. Aug. (as quoted for I. in Sabatier), but with a 

few traces of V. : — e. g. i. 2 aquaj, from 5 onwards, fact«;w est vesper*", 
18 prcrsint die/' etc., 20 ^roducant, 21 omneni anivinni, 28 r<-plctc : — and 
with a few peculiar readings, — c. g. i. 9 aqure quee erant sub ccelo in conj^re- 
gationibus suis, ci paruW., 11 hcrbam _/?/«/ seminans semen (with, however, 
Ambr. &c.), and so also i<)f(rnum seminalem, and lofanum; and ii. i 
consunimaT// cu-Ium ct icrram et oninem if/or;V;w coruni. 

II. Gen. xxii. i -19 = the fragmentary quotations from Aug. and Ambr. which 

stand for I. in Sabatier, but fills up lacuna; — e.g. 6 et abierunt ambo 
simul, 8, 9 cuntcs ambo simui, venerunt ad locum quem dixcrat ill! 
Dcus et aedificavit Habracham altarc, 19 ct reversiLs est Habraham ad 
pueros suos ct surrcxcrunt ct abicnmt simul ad putcum jurationis ct 
habitavit Habraham ad putcum jurationis : — and has a few traces of V. ; 
— e.g. 10 gtadium, 12 cogntmi: — and one or two peculiar readings; — 

m The portions of Scripture in this MS. are Bu'lons, pp. 12-15). The singular coincidence 

mostly Ifclioiui. Those however from the Mi- of its Scripture text with that of Gildas and of 

nor Prophets are short passages, often a single S. Patrick in the four passages of the Minor 

verse, taken from all parts and from ever)- one of Prophets quoted by it in common with the 

the minor prophetical books, but without apparent fomier, and the one so quoted in conimon with 

liturgical purpose, and looking like extracts made the latter, harmonizes remarkably with its un- 

bv another Gildas to form the material for another doubted British origin. In Malachi iv. 3, how- 

cJchortation. The passages throughout consist of ever, S. Patrick aiid this MS. do not wholly 

Greek and Latin in parallel columns, and are agree. It is also remarkable that its text is con- 

WTitten in a hand of the 8th or 9th centur}'. nected with the African type of the OH Ixitin, 

The other contents of the MS., except a Saxon and that it bears very scant)- traces of corrections 

homily which does not seem to have originally from the VuhjciU. The passages aie given in 

belonged to it, are a grammatical treatise, a portion it, not in the order of tJie Bible as above in the 

of Ovid, a portion ofsome Paschal tables (A. D. 81 7 text, but as follows : — Deut. (by itself), then (with 

to A.D. 8?2), and of a tract about Weights and the Pa'ichal tables, &c. intervening)Minor Prophets 

Measures, the first two and last with interlinear (Hose.i, Amos, Micah. Joel, Obad., Jonah. Nahum, 

notes partly in ancient Welsh, and the (so-called) Habak., Zcphan., Haggai, Zechar., Malachi, with 

Welsh alphabet of Nemnivus (see E. IJiuyil, some of the verses however misplaced under the 

Areh. Brit. 2'if>, ^Van^ey, p. 63, Zniis, Gramm. wrong prophet), Gen. i. ii., Exodus, Isaiah, Ps.xlii., 

CfU. Prvf. .xxxviii. pp. 1076-1096, and above Gen. xxii. There is a short mention of it in a 

all, Vilktiuirqiic, Notice des 3/.SS. dts anciow note of Mr. Westcott, as before quoted, p. 1692. 



e. g. 3 adsunipsit secum, 6 sumpsit, 1 1 tterum (add.) de coelo, 1 3 in pastino 
Sabech, .... sumpsit arietem, 15 iterum, 17 hereditabit. 

III. ExoD. xiv. 24-31, XV. 1-3 (not found elsewhere, but sim. the few verses 
in Sabatier from Aug., Hil., etc.). 
xiv. 24. Factum est autem in vigilia matutina, et inspexit Dominus in castra 
vEgyptiorum in columna ignis et nubis, et conturbavit castra jEgyptiorum, 

— 25. Kt conligavit axitonas curruum eorum, et agebat eos cum vi : et dixerunt 
iEgyptii, P'ugiamus a facie filiorum Israhcl, Dominus expugnat pro eis vEgyptios. 

— 26. Dixit autem Dominus ad IMoysen, Extende manum tuam supra mare, 
et convertatur aqua, et cooperiat iEgyptios cum curribus et ascensoribus. 

— 27. Extendit autem INIoyscs manum super mare, et conversa est aqua ad 
diem in locum suum ; ^Egyptii autem fugerunt sub aqua, et excussit Dominus 
iEgyptios in medio mare. 

— 28. Et reversa est aqua, cooperuit currus et ascensores et omncm virtutem 
F'arao qui introierunt post eos in mare ; et non est relictus ex eis nee unus. 

— 29. Eilii autem Israhel abierunt per siccum per medium mare. Aqua autem 
erat illis murus dextra atque sinistra. 

— 30. Et libcravit Dominus Israhcl in die illo de manu ^gyptiorum. 

— 31. Et vidit Israhel yEgyptios mortuos ad litus maris. Vidit autem Israhel 
manum magnam quam fecit Dominus ^gyptiis ; et timere coepit propter Domi- 
num, et crediderunt Deo et Moysi famulo F2jus. 

XV. I. Tunc cantavit INIoyses et filii Israhel canticum hoc Deo, et dixerunt; 
Cantemus Domino, gloriose enim honorificatus est ; equm et ascensorem projecit 
in mare. 

— 2. Adjutor et protector factus est mihi in salutem : Hie Deus I\Ieus, et hono- 
rificabo Eum ; Deus patris mei, et exaltabo Eum : 

— 3. Dominus conterens bella, Dominus nomen est Illi. 

IV. Deut. xxxi. 22-30, xxxii. 1-4 (c. xxxi. not found elsewhere, xxxii. = 
Missal. Rom., Brev. IMozar., and MS. S.Michael, which stands for I. in 
xxxi. 22. Et scribsit Moyses hoc canticum in ilia die, et docuit illud filiis Israhel. 

— 23. Et pracipit Moyses Jesu filio Naue, et dixit, Viriliter age et convalesce: 
tu enim introduces filios Israhel in terram quam juravit Dominus eis, et Ipse erit 

— 24. Postquam autem consummavit Moyses scribens omnia verba legis hujus 
in libro usque in finem, 

— 25. Praecipit Levitis qui portabant arcam testament! Domini, dicens, 

— 26. Accipientes librum legis hujus et ponetis eum ad latus arcse testamenti 
Domini Dei vestri, et erit vobis in testimonium. 

— 27. Quia ego scio contumaciam vestram et cervicem vestram duram : adhuc 
enim me vivente vobiscum hodie exasperantes eratis Deum : quomodo non in 
novissimo mortis mea? ? 

— 28. In aeclesia convocate ad me principes tribuum vestrarum et seniores 
vestros et judices vestros et scribas et doctores vestros, ut loquar in aures eorum 
omnia verba haec, et testabor eis coelum et terram. 

— 29. Scio enim quod in novissimo mortis meae iniquitatem facietis, et declina- 
aitis de via quam mandavi vobis, et o^iabuntur vobis mala in novissimis diebus, 

VOL. I. O 


quia facitis malum coram Domino exaspcrare Eum in opcribus manuum ves- 

xxxi. 30. Et loqutus est Moyses in aures totius aeclesia? Israhcl * verba cantici 
hujus usque in finem. 

xxxii. I, Adtcndc calum, ct loquar; audiat terra verba ex ore meo. 

— 2. Expectetur sicut pluvia cloquium meum, et discendant sicut ros verba 
mea, sicut imber super gramen, et sicut nix super foenum : 

— 3. Quia nomen Domini invocavi; date magnitudincm Deo nostro. 

— 4. Deus, vera opera Ejus, et omnes Ejus via' judicia; Deus fidelis, et non est 
in Eo iniquitas; jiustus et sanctus Dominiisn. 

V. Ps. xlii. i-3 = ]\IS. S. Gemian. except, i. quemadmodum with V., and 

3. per singulos dies (/or quotidie) with S. Aug. 

VI. ISAi. iv. 1-6, V. 1-7 (iv. = the few quotations in Sabatier from Aug., but 
fills up laamte : v. = Brev. Mozar., which stands for I. in Sabatier). 

iv. I. Et adpripchcndent vii. mulieres unum hominem, dicentes, Panem nostrum 
manducavimus, ct vcstimcntis nostris r)periemur, vcrum tamen nomen tuum invo- 
cctur super nos, aufers obproprium nostrum ( = S.Aug.). 

— 2. Ilia autem die inluminavit Deus in consilio cum majcstate super terram 
ut exaltet et honorct quod derclictum est in Israhcl. 

— 3. Eritque quod derclictum est in Sion et (juod supcrcst in Hiaisiilem; 
sancti vocabuntur omnes qui scribti sunt ad vitam in Hirusakm. 

— 4. Quoniam abluet Dominus sordes filiorum et filiarum Sion, et sanguinem 
purgavit de medio eorum in spiritu judicii et spiritu combustunc; 

— 5. Et venict et erit omnis locus montis Sion, et omnia in circuitu ejus ob- 
umbrabit nub[e]s diei, ct sicut fumus ct lucis ignis ardentis noctc, omni majcstate 

— 6. Eritque in umbra ab aesto sub tecto et in oculto a duritia et tempestate. 
v. 1-7. ( =Brev. Mozar., except i. com« in, 2 and 4. uvaw, 5. ecce nuntiubo vobis 

quid fiuiam^. 

VII. ISAi. liv. 17, Iv. 1-5. (j/w. Hicron.). 

liv. 17. ?2st hcrcditas credentibus in Domino, et vos eritis Mihi justi, dicit 

Iv. I. Qui sititis ite ad aquam, et quicumque non habetis argentum euntcs emite 
et bibite sine argento et pra?tio vinum et adipem. 

— 2. Utquid appra^tiatis argento et laborem vestnim non in satietate ? Audite 
Me et manducabitis bona, et dilicias habebit in bonis anima vestra. 

— 3. Intendite auribus vestris, et sectamini vias Meas; audite Me, et vivet in 
bonis anima vestra, et disponam vobis testamentum aeternum, sancta Da\id 

— 4. Ecce testimonium ilium dcdi gcntibus, principcm et imperantcm gen- 

" This passage from Deuteronomy stands by meo patre conimoneo scriptore simul ac magi- 

itself in the MS. At its close are (if righily deci- stro." The two unintelligible words app>ear to 

phered) the words, " Finit, Amen.' finit opus stand for 'O dthf Ki'pioi. The latter word is 

in Domino othei: quyri : altissimus [or, -mo] written "quyrios" iu the Greek parts of the MS. 


Iv. 5. Gentes qiu-e te ignorant invocabunt te ; et populi qui te nesciunt, ad te 
confugiunt, propter Deum Sanctum Israhel, Qui glorificavit te. 

VIII. Minor Prophets. 

i. Hos. ii. 18. Et disponam eis in illo die testamentum cum bestiis agri et 
cum volucribus coeli .... terra?, et cum reppentibus. [j/ot. Hieron.] — 
iv. 1-3. Audite verbum Domini, filii Israhel, quia judicium Domino 
adversus eos qui inhabitant terram ; quoniam non est missericordia 
neque Veritas neque agnitio Dei super terram. Maladictum et men- 
dacium et cede[s] et furtum et adulterium effusa sunt super terram, et 
sanguina super sanguina : propterea lugebit terra cum omnibus qui 
inhabitant in ea. [sim. Hieron.] — iv. 9. Et erit sicut populus sic sacer- 
dos. — vi. I, 2. Dekiculo vigilabunt ad Me, dicentes, Eamus et revcr- 
tamur ad Dominum Deum nostrum: quia Ipse eripiet et sanabit nos, 
percutiet et miserebitur nostri. 6. Quoniam misericordiam volo et 
agnitionem Dei quam holochaustomata. — viii. 3, 4. Bonum ut iniquum 
persecuti sunt ; ipsi sibi reges constituerunt, et non per Me : principa- 
tum obtinuerunt, et non ex Me. Argentum suum et aurum suum 
fecerunt sibi simulacra, ut dispcreant. [ytr^- = Gildas.] — x. 12. Serite 
vobis ad justitiam, vindimiate fructum vitae, inluminate vobis lumen 
scientise. — xii. 6. Misericordiam et judicium observa, et spera in 
Deum tuum. 

ii. Joel iii. 18. Et erit in illo die distillabunt montes dulcidinem, et colles 
trachent lac et mel. 

iii. Amos iii. 8. Leo fremet, et quis non timcbit ? Dominus Deus loqutus 
est, et quis non prophetabit? — v. 3, 4, 14. Civitas ex qua procedebant 
mille, dirilinquentur centum : et ex qua procedebant centum, dirilin- 
quentur decim : quoniam haec dicit Dominus, Quaerite bonum et non 
malum, ut vivatis ; et erit vobiscum Dominus Deus vester omni- 

iv. Obadiah 15. Quoniam prope est dies Domini super omnes gentes; 
quemadmodum fecisti, sic futurum erit tibi : retributio tua retribuetur 
tibi in caput tuum. 

v. Jonah i. 8, 9. Unde venis ? et quo vadis? et ex qua regione es tu? et 
ex quo populo es tu ? et dixit ad eos, Servus Dei ego sum, et Domi- 
num Deum coeli ego timeo, Qui fecit mare et aridam. [part = Hieron., 
part = v.] 

vi. INIiCAH iii. 1,2. Non vobis est scire judicium, odio habentes bona et quse- 
rentes mala. [part = V., part shn. Gildas.] — iv. i, 2. Et erit in novis- 
simo eorum dierum, manifestus ille mens Domini paratus super cacu- 
mina montium, et in sublime extollentur super colles, et festinabunt 
ad ilium populi, et ibunt gentes multse et dicent, Venite, ascendamus 
ad montem Domini et ad domum Dei Jacob, et ostendent nobis viam 
Ejus, et ibimus in iteneribus Ejus, quoniam ex Sion exibit lex, et 
verbum Domini de Hirusalem. — 5. Nos autem ibimus in nomine 
Domini Dei nostri. — v. 2. Et tu Bethlem domus illius Effrata exigua es 
ut sis in milia Juda, ex te enim prodeat ut sit in principem Israhel. — 
vi. 8. Qiiid Dominus exposcit a te nisi facere judicium et justitiam et 

O Z 


diligere niisscricordiam ct paratum esse ut vadas cum Domino Deo 
tuo. — vii. 6, 7. Quoniam filius non honorificat patrem, filia insurrexit 
super matrcm suam, nurus super socrum suam, inimici omnis viri qui 
in domo ipsius sunt. Ego autem in Domino contemplabor, tollcrabo in 
Domino salviiicatorc meo. 

vii. Nahim iii. 13. Eccc populus tuns quasi mulieres in te enmt, inimicis 
tuis apericndo apcricntur porta* terne tu.x, comedet ignis serras tuas. 

viii. Habakkl'K ii. 4. Justus autem mens ex fide vivet semper. — iii. 3. Ope- 
ruit coelos virtus ejus . . . . et laudationis ejus plena est terra. 

ix. Zf.phan. i. 14-16. Quia prope est dies Domini dies ille magnus, prope et 
velox nimis, vox diei Domini amara et dura est constituta, poteiis est 
ille, dies inr dies ille, dies tribulationis et necessitatis, dies calamitatis 
et cxterminii, dies tencbrarum et nimbus, dies nubis et nibuhr, dies 
tubfe et clamoris, super civitates illas munitas et super angulos illos 
altos. [y«'r<' = Gild.] — 18. Argentum corum et aurum eorum non poterit 
cripere cos in die inx Domini, et in igncm cmulationis ejus consumme- 
tur omnis terra. 

X. HaTiCJAi ii. 7, 8. Quoniam \\?cc dicit Dominus omnipotcns, Adhuc scmel 
Kgo movebo culum et terram ct mare et aridam [ = (iild.] : et con- 
cutiam omnes gentes, et venient onmia electa gentium, ct implclw) 
domum banc [ = Aug.]. 

xi. Zkcii. i. 4. H;rc dicit Dominus omnipotcns, Convertimini ad Me et 
convcrtam ad vos.— ii. 8. Quoniam qui tangit vos quasi qui tangit 
pupillam oculi Ipsius. [y<T<' = S. Patrick.] — viii. 16, 17. Bono animo 
estote, istos sermones facite ; loquimini veritatem unusquisque ad 
proximum suum et judicium pacificum ct justum judicatc in portis 
vestris, et unuscjuisque malitiam proximi sui non reputate in cordibus 
vestris, et jusjurandum falsum nolite diligere ; quoniam hjec omnia 
odio habui, dicit Deus omnipotcns. 19. Et in dies festos bonos jocun- 
damini et pacem et veritatem diligite. — ix. 9. Gaude nimis filia Sion, 
pnedica filia Hierusalem; ecce Rex tuus venit tibi Justus et salvificans 
ct Ipse mitis in ascenso jumento ct pullo juvcnc. — xiii. 5. Non sum 
propheta ego quoniam homo genuit me a juventute mea. 7. Dicit 
Dominus virtutum, Percutiam pastorem et dispcrgentur oves. 

xii. Malacui i. 6. Et si pater sum Ego ubi claritas mea? et si dominus 
sum Ego, timor mens? 10, 11. Et sacrificium non accipiam de ma- 
nibus vestris, quoniam ab ortu solis usque clarificatum nomen Mcuin 
in gentibus, et in omni loco incensum admovetur nomini Meo et 
sacrificium mundum ; quoniam magnum est nomen Meum, dicit Do- 
minus omnipotcns. — ii. 7, Quia labia saccrdotis custodiunt scicntiam 
ct lex exquirent ex ore ejus, quia angclus Domini exercituum est. — 
iii. I. Ecce Ego mitto angelum Meum et inspiciet \nam tuam ante 
faciem tuam.— iv. 2, 3. Orietur in vobis qui timetis nomen Meum sol 
justiti.T, ct medella in alis ejus, et procidctis ct luxoriamini quasi 
vituli de vinculis laxati, et conculcabitis iniquos, quoniam crunt cine- 


res subtus pedes vestros in die quo Ego facio, dicit Dominus omni- 
potens. 5, 6. Dicit Dominus omnipotens, Et ccce Ego mitto vobis 
Hclias Thesbiten, priusquam vcniat dies Domini magmis ct inlustris, 
reconciliabit cor patris ad filium et cor hominis ad proximum ejus". 

2. Tragvient of S.John s Gospel (xi. 3, if, 14-29, 31-37, 39-44), in an 
Old Latin Version^ frojn a leaf of a Scotch [Irish) Mass for the Dead, 
Hth or i^th century W 

Te decet, Diic, imnus ; D5 in Sion ; et Tibi redditur votum Hirusalem ; Exaudi 
orationem meam ; ad Te omnis caro veniet. [Ps. Ixv. (Ixiv.) 2, 3. V.J 

In illis diebus dixit Ihs. ad discipuios Suos, Lazarus amicus nostcr infirmatur, et 
manifcste mortuus est : et gaudco propter vos, ut credatis, quoniam non eram 
ibi : sed eamus ad eum. Dixit autem Thomas, qui dicitur Didimus, cum discipulis 
suis, eamus et noj woriamur cum iilo. Venit Jesus, et invenit eum jam (\\iArtum 
diew in monumento habentem. Erat autem Bethania juxta Hirusolimam quassi 
stadiis quindecim. Multi autem a Juda-is venerwnt * * * -viam -venit Ei. INIaria 
autem domi scdebat. Dixit ergo Martha ad Jhiri., Domine si fuisej won fuiset 
mortuus frater mens. Se</ «unc scio quoniam qasecumqae petieris a Dno. dabit 
Tibi DFis. Ait ei Jhs., Resurget frater tuus. Dicit ei Martha, Scio quia resurget 
in resurrectione in novissimo die. Dixit Jhs., Ego sum resurrectio ct vita : qui 
credit in Me, etsi mortuus fucrit, vivet ; et qui vivit et credit in Me, non morictur. 
* Credis hoc ? Dixit Ei, Utique, Domine ; ego credidi quoniam Tu es Xpr. Filius 
Dei, Qui hunc [in] mundum venisti. Et cum haec dixisset, abiit et vocavit Mariam 
sororem suam si[lentio] dicens, Magister -venit et voc^t te. At ilia * * * * Judaji 
autem qui erant cum ea et consolabantur eam, ut vid[^r««^] Mariam quod f est inanier 
surrex/jjif/ et exisset, j^Zisequuti sunt, Vicentes, Quoniam vadit ad mo[numen]tum 
ut ploret ibi. Maria au[tem cum] venisset ubi erat Jhs., et vid * * procedit ad 
pedes Ejwj. Dnh. [si fuis]s^jj(9-ater mens nony«/s[set mor]tuus. Jhs. autem cum 
indisset Jlentem et Judaeos qui vene[rant cum] ea flentes, turbatus est sp[iritu et] 
commotus dixit, Ubi posuist/ * ? Dicunt, Dne. veni et vide. Et [lacri]matus est 
Jhs. Dixerunt autem, * Ecce quomodo amabat /7/«[m]. * * nunt quidam ex m, 
Non po ******* [tolljite lapidem. Di.vit Ei Mart/^^j, Z)ne jam pudet, 

qua.ltriduu'lm enim habet. Ait Jesus, Nonne * * * quoniam sic ne di a 

videbzVis gloriam Dei ? i'wjtulerunt ergo la[pidem]. Jhs autem elevaivV ocu/os 
sussum et dixit, Pater gra[tias ag]o Tibi quoniam audisti Me. [Ego autjem scie- 
bam quoniam semper [Me audjis, sed propter turbam c^ue [circum]stat dixi, ut 
credant quoni[a]m Me misisti. JEt cum haec di[xisset], <»Arclamavit voce magna, 
[Lazar]e, />ro^/ foras. Et confestim -^ * qui mortuus ^rat, liga//j ped/Z-wj [et ma]- 
Xiibus fasceis, et facies ejus * * * * f. 

" There is no version extant agreeing with Goldast. Rer. Alemann. Scriptt. II. 156. ed. 

that here given. It is akin to that found in 1730) vv. 21-27 ^''e quoted from the Vulgate. 
Aue. and Hieron., but markedly distinct from it. 'i Leg. si credideris. 

P From MSS. S.Gail, No. 1395. Collect. r The Italics in this passage mark differences 

Fragm. tom. II. Printed also by Forbes, Pre/. from the Vulgate. Of these differences, several 

to Arhnlhnot Missal, pp. xlviii-I. In another are common to it with Cod. Bez. (viz. 22 pe- 

S. Gall mass of the 9tli century (printed in lieris, 27 o)». vivi [with Cod. Amiat.], 28 venit, 



3. The few quotations from the Gospels, which are written on the margins of 
the MS. Juvencus in Cambridge University Library (Ff. 4. 32), are from the OU 
Latin, but contain nothing specially British or Irish. They agree occasionally 
with the OU Latin used by Gildas (as e.g. S. Matth. v. 13 projeceatur, vii. 2 judica- 
bitur de uobis), and present a few remarkable readings not traceable elsewhere (as 
S.John i. 51, Atnodo [from the GreckJ videbitis ca'loj apertoj). The MS. is 
Welsh, of the 9th century, but contains entries relating to Nuadu and Fethgna 
Bishops of Amiagh, who died respectively A.D. 811 and 874 (see Skene and Brad- 
shaw, in Arch. Camb., ird Series, X. 153-156), which shew it to have been carried 
to Ireland before the last-named year. That the Irish and Welsh (Church 
were at this time in close intercourse with each other, see below under A.D. 
883 : where it will be seen that, if the very probable hypothesis of Messrs. Skene 
and Bradshaw is correct, the MS. must have originally belonged to the abbey of 
Llancarvan, and be dated about the middle or beginning of the 9th century. 

39 putet, 44 confestim, and in v. 20 obviavit) ; 
and the first two of these also with MS. Colb., 
which agrees further in omitting ut in 16, and in 
readins: in 33 ficntes, in 39 qiutriduum habet, 
and in 42 Uirbani qu;e. Heref. Cjosp. also omit 
ut in 16, and vivi in 27. MS. Verceil. has in 2 2 
petieris. in 28 venit, in 33 flcntcm, and flentes, 
in 42 turbam quae; all of which (escejit venit) 
are likewise in NIS. Veron., with the addition of 
43 prodi. 25 etsi, is in 7., «., and (jaud. Brix. 
But the other ditrerenccs, e.g. 20 obvi;im venit, 
3 I auteni. viderunt, fcstinanter, surrexisset, sub- 
scquiili, quoniani, 32 procedit [/.;/. procidit], 
fuissct, 33 turbatus est spiritu et commotus, 36 
autem, 37 eis, 43 exclamavit, 44 pedibus et ma- 

nibus fosceis, — are peculiar to the MS. itself, in 
common only (except 33, which occurs nowhere 
eli*) with the oldc-st extant Irish MS., viz. jS- : 
which last agrees likewise in reading 22 petieris, 
25 etsi, 27 quoniam (and urn. vivi), 33 Hcntem, 
flentes, 39 quatriduum enim habet, 4 1 elevaHg 
oculos sursum et, 42 turbam qu«, quoniam, 
43 prodi. 44 confestim. And 37 eis, 41 sustu- 
lerunt, 44 ligatis &c., are in t). In all ib maiked 
peculiarities, therefore, save one, this fragment 
Ullics with the oldest of the MSS. at Trin. Coll. 
Dublin, and in most of them with that alone ; 
while Iwth it and j3. have a general agreement 
with MSS. Verccll. and Vcroa., and with Cod. 






A.D. 681-1295. 

Period i. — To the end of the Schism, a.d. 681-809. 
Quippe cum moris sit Brittonum fidcni religionemque Anglorum pro 
nihilo habere, neque in aliquo cum cis magis communicare quam paganis. 
—B.ED. H. E., II. 20. [a.d. 731.] 

Period 2. — From the end of the Schism to the claim of Jurisdiction by the 

See of Canterbury, km. 809-1 100. 
Usque ad ilium [Wilfridum. ob. 11 12] Episcopi extitere Brillonici. — Sim. 
Dux. ap. Tivysd. 236, Floh. Wig. in an. 1 1 1 5. 

Period 3. — From the claim of Jurisdiction by the See of Canterbury to the 
J'isitations of Archbishop Baldivin, a.d. 1 loo-i 188. 

Cantuariensis [Archiepiscopus] habet suae ditioni subjectos 

Episcopos Hibernioe et Walarum. — Gul. Malm. G. R. A. III. § 300 (also 
in Append, ad Floh. Wig. J/. //. B. 644). [a.d. 1 i 14 x i 123.] 

Period 4. — From the Msilations of Archbishop Baldivin to the complete absorp- 
tion of the Welsh Church {and State) into the English, a.d. i 188-1295, 

Ea namque tempestate quasi regulare in Anglia fuit, quod nemo Walen- 

sicus vel etiam in Wallia natus, F'piscopus in Wallia proeficiendus. — 

GiR. Cambr., De Jure et Statu jVenet'. Feci., Dist. I. ; Opp. III. 121. 
[a.d. I2i8.] 

Quoties Anglici in terram nostram et nos insurgunt, statim Archiepiscopi 

Cantuarienses totam terram nostram sub interdicto concludunt, et nos 

nominatim et gentem nostram in genere sententia excommunicationis invol- 
vunt. — Welsh Princes to Pope Innocent III. [a.d. 1202.] {ap. Gir. Cambr. 
ib. Dist. /r. 245.) 



A.D. 681-1295. 


TO THE END OF THE SC H I SM, a.d. 681-809. 

[A.D. 681 (?). Death of the last British titular King of Britain, Cadwalader. 

A.D. 768, the North Welsh, and 777, the South Welsh, adopt the Roman Easter. 

A.D. 777 or 790. Final boundary fixed between Wales and Mercia, viz. Offa's Dyke from 

mouth of Dee to mouth of Wye (Asser, Ann. Camlj. a. 790, Brut y Tyicysog., 

Hiffden ap. Oale, I. 194). 
A.D. 809. Death of Elbod of Bangor ; a last effort said to have been made to revert to the 

British Easter.J 

A, D. 681 (?)^ Death^ of the last British {titular) King of Britain ^ 
Cadivalader. {His pilgrimage to Rome probably a fiction.) 

Brut y Tywysog. : — Ac yny 
vlwydyn honno y bu uarw Kad- 
waladyr uendigeit uab Kadwal- 
lawn uab Catuan Brenhin y Bry- 
tanyeit yn Rufein y deudecuet 
dyd o Vei, megys y profFwydassei 
Vyrdin kyn no hynny wrth Wr- 
theyrn gwrtheneu : ac o hynny 
allan y colles y Brytanyeit goron y 
teyrnas ac yd ennillawd y Saeson 
hi. \_M. H.B. 841.] 

And in that year Cadwalader 
tlie blessed, son of Cadwallon son 
of Cadfan, King of the Britons, 
died at Rome on the 12th day of 
May : as Myrrdin had previously 
prophesied to Vortigern of repuls- 
ive lips : and thenceforth the Bri- 
tons lost the crown of the king- 
dom, and the Saxons gained it. 
IM. H. B. 841.] 

" This date is merely assumed as the most note), and as supplying a convenient era, appro- 
probable according to the evidence (see next ximaiely true, for the period (certainly the latter 


part of the 7th century) when Britain merged Annals however are the better authority of the two 

into Wales. The intimate and friendly con- for the date. 2. It is quite impossible that a Welsh 

ne.xion of Wales with Wessex during the reign King in the veiy height of the schism should 

of Ine (A.D. 6S8-725), which plays so large a have made a pilgrimage to Rome, while the 

part in later legend (see Lappenberg), and the subsequent common practice of such pilijrimages. 

Council which enacted a right of connubium beginning with Cyngen in A.D. 854, — not to 

between Saxon, Briton, and Scot, found in the add the previous similar practice in the 4th and 

spurious additions to the Laws of Edward the 5th centuries (above, pp. 10, ir, 14), — renders 

Confessor (c. 35, ap. Lib. Custumnrum, inter the invention of such a tradition very probable. 

J/u/iim. (7//<tta//. I"H'/^'«., vol. II. pt. ii. pp. 638, And 3. there is this special mark of fiction in 

639, ed. Riley, and thence in Lamb.ird's 'A/>- the particular story, that Cadwalader has ob- 

Xoiov. 148, and WHkins, Ti/Hf. /. 74), are purely viously been confounded with Caedwalla of Wcs- 

mvthical. And Atdhelm, as quoted below under sex, in accordance with the special confusion of 

A.D. 705, proves unfortunately that the historical Welsh and Wessex Kings and names referred to in 

relations of the two peoples at the particular the beginning of the last note. Ivor son of Cad wa- 

period were precisely of an opposite kind. lader, confounded with Ine son of Csedwalla in 

•» Both date and place of Cadwalader 's death the additions to the Laws of Edward referred to 

are doubtful : save that it is pretty certain he did in the last note, is also taken on pili^rimage to 

nol die at Rome. i. The .-Inn. Cauih. a. 682, Rome, A.D. 698, by the Brut y Tytcij»o(j. in 

make him die ot the plague in Britain; and two its Gwentian fomi (p. 4 in Arch. Camh., ^rd 

other versions of the same Annals make him Serif t, X.). Eleventh and twelfth century Welsh 

fly from the plague in that year (between 674 legends commonly take Saints or Kings either 

and 683, Gwentian Urut), but to Armorica of to Rome (as Bcuno, Brynach, Cadoc, Oudoceus) 

Lesser Britain. Nennius also {M. IL H. 76) or rather more often to Jerusalem (as David, 

makes him die of the plague and in Britain, but Padam, Teilo, Cybi, Cadoc again, and King 

in the time of Oswy and therefore A.D. 664. The Artiiur in Nennius). 

A.D. 705-731. Schism bet'^een British.^ but especially IVelsh^ and 
Saxo7i Churches still covtivues. 

Aldhelm, Epist. ad Geruntium {Damnonije Regem). [A. D. 703.] — 
Illud vero quam valde a hde Catholica discrcpat, et ab evangclica 
traditione discordat, quod ultra Sabrinse fluminis fretum Dcmctarum 
sacerdotes, de privata propria » conversationis munditia gloriantes, 
nostram communionem magnopere abominantur; in tantum, ut ncc 
in ecclesia nobiscum orationum officia cclcbrare, nee ad mensam 
ciborum fercula, pro charitatis gratia, pariter percipere dignentur; 
quin imo fragmenta ferculorum et reliquias epularum lurconum canum 
rictibus et immundis devorandas porcis projiciunt. Vascula quoque 
et phialas aut arenosis sablonum glareis aut fulvis favillarum cineribus 
expianda purgandaque praecipiunt. Non salutatio pacifica praebetur, 
non osculum piae fraternitatis offertur • dicente Apostolo, Salutatc vos 
in osculo sancto; nee manibus lomentum, aut latex eum manutergio, 

exhibetur- neque pedibus ad lavacrum pelvis apponitur Ast 

vero si quilibet de nostris, id est, Catholieis, ad eos habitandi gratia 
perrexerint, non prius ad eonsortium sodalitatis sux aseiscere dignan- 
tur, quam quadraginta dierum spatia in poenitendo peragerc compel- 
lantur^. \^ap. Mig?ie.^ Patrol. Ixxxix. 90.] 

B.i'^DA, H. E. II. 20. [A.D. 731.] — Qiiippc eum usque hodic moris 
sit Brittonum hdem religioncmque Anglorum pro nihilo habere, neque 

A. D. 681-809.] ^^-E SylXON PERIOD. 203 

in aliquo eis magis communicare quum paganis. — Id. :h. V. 23. Brit- 
toncs, quamvis et maxima ex parte domcstico sibi odio gentem An- 
glorum et totius Catholicas Ecclesi^e statum Pascha minus rccte mori- 
busque improbis impugnenr, tamen ct Divina sibi et humana prorsus 
resistentc virtutc, in ncutro cupitum possunt obtinere propositum; 
quippc qui, quamvis ex parte sui sint juris, nonnulla tamen ex parte 
Anglorum sunt servitio mancipati. \_M. H. B. 17J, 284.] 

" L''g. proprise. Laurentius of Canterbury. — " Ad nos veniens, 

*• Sec however on the Saxon side ihe canon of noii solum cibum nobiscuni. sed nee in eodcm 

Tiicodore. repealed A.D. 734 X 766 by Egbert: ho.piiio quo vejcebanuir, suniere voluit." \Bted. 

and again on ihe Scottish [Irish], a cen'ury ear- II. E. I ]. 4, speaking of A.D. 604 X 610.] 

lier, the Scotch Bishop Daganus' treatiuent of 

A. D. 717. Churches hi Wales first dedicated to others thaii their 

Brut y Tywysog. a. 7 1 7. — A year after that, and the church 

Blwydyn wedy hynny, ac y kys- of S. Michael was consecrated, 
segruwyt eglwys lann Vihagcl. \_M. H. B. 842.] 
[il/. H. B. 842.] 

See also ^»«. Cam^. a. 7 1 8. [iV. H. B. 833.] 

» See below, under A.D. ii 55, and lues, ist and earliest to founders, the 2nd to S. Mi- 
^Vehh SS. 67, who specities three successive chael, the 3rd to the Blessed Virgin, 
periods in such (early) dedications in Wales, the 

A.D. 739- Pope Gregory III. -j^arns the Bavariayi and Allemannic 
Eis hops against British Missionaries^. 

Gregorius Papa III. ad Episcopos Bajoari^e et Allemannite. — [exhorts 
them to obey S. Boniface, and further, that] gentilitatis ritum et doc- 
trinam, vel venicntium Brittonum, vel falsorum sacerdotum et harreti- 
corum, aut undecunquc sint, renuentes ac prohibentes adjiciatis, etc. 
\Inter Epistt. S. Bonifacii., Epist. 45, ed. Wiirdtw.] 

'^ If S. Bonitace sutjc;ested the prohibition, of the " Romana institutio" alluded to in the 
" Brittones," in his mouth, must have meant canon quoted above on p. 126. It is singular 
Welsh or Cornishmen, rather than Bretons ; and that this is almost the only trace of British (as 
consideiing the relations at the time of Corn- distinct from the numerous Scoto-Irish) mission- 
wall and Wessex. probably Welshmen. But the aries, in Allemannia or Bavaria. See however 
prohibition is more likely to be only a repetition above, p. 154, note*. 

A. D. 768 (or 755)-809. The Welsh adopt the Roman Easter^. 

Ann. Camb.— CCCXXIV. Annus [A.D. 768], Pascha commutatur 
apud Brittones [super Dominicam diem''], emendante Elbodiigo'' 



homine Dei. ^M. H. B. 833.]— CCCLXV. Annus [A.D. 809I, Elbodgc 
Archiepiscopus Guenedoti regionis migravit ad Dominum. [/^] 

So also the Brut y Tywysog. ^M. H. B. 843.] 

Brut y Tywysog. (Giuenttan) — 

Oed Crist 755, y symudwyd y 
Pasg yng Ngwynedd o gyngor 
Elfod Escob Bangor, ond nis 
caid hynny gan yr Escobion eraill, 
ac achaws hynny y daethant y 
Saeson ar y Cymry yn Neheu- 
barth. [p. 6. in Arch. Camb.^ yd 
Series^ X.~\ 

Oed Crist 777, y symudwyd y 
Pasc yn Neheubarth. [p. 8. ih.'] 

Oed Crist 809, y bu farw Elfod 
Archcscob Gwyncdd, ... ac y bu 
terfysg mawr ym mhlith y gwyr 
eglwysig achaws y Pasc; canys 
ni fynnai Escobion Llandaf a 
Mynyw ymroddi dan Archescob 
Gwynedd lie yr aeddynt en lui- 
nain yn Archescobion hvn o 
fraintf). [ih.'] 

" All other Churches of the British commu- 
nion had already done so. Neiiiiius (so called), 
who styles himself *' discipulus S. Elbodi," used 
the 19 years' cycle: which prevailed therefore in 
Gwynedd from Eibrxl's time. But it is first 
used in the Lib. Lawiav. under the year 1022, 
and by the 1'>nit y Ti/injsog. [M. II. /»'. 851) 
under the year 1005, and by both erroneously. 
NeverthelcNS, the South Wales dioceses must have 
conformed to the Roman Easter if they were in 
close communion with the Saxi>n Church ; as 
appears to have been the case, more or less, from 
about the end of the 9th century. 

^ These words, which are wanting in some 
MSS., are evidently a gloss founded on the mis- 
taken supposition that the British were Quarto- 

<■ AlUer Elbodu, or Elbodo. He is styled 

A.D. 755. — Easter was changed 
in Gwynedd by the advice of El- 
vod, Bishop of Bangor; but the 
other Bishops did not concur 
therein ; on which account the 
Saxons invaded the Cymry in 
South Wales, [p. 7. ih.~\ 

A.D. 777. — Easter was altered 
in South Wales, [p. 9. ih.'] 

A.D. 809 Elvod, Archbishop 

of Gwynedd, died ; . . . and a great 
tumult [occurred] among the ec- 
clesiastics on account of Easter; 
for the Bishops of Llandaff and 
Menevia would not succumb to 
the Archbishop of Gwynedd, being 
themselves Archbishops of older 
privilege*'. [/^.] 

Elvodugus in some MSS. of Neniiius, and in 
others hibotus, or Elbodus. 

'' The last echo of the British Easter contro- 
versy is traced (by Ussher) in certain KAripinol, 

TWV flS aVTO. TTOV TO HKpU TtJj olKOV/xifT]? 

oIkowtwv, who A.D. S42 X 847 (ace. to the 
anon. Vila >'. t'hri/foft., written c. A.D. 950 
[Cave]), (VfKa rivu'V iKK\t)(Tia(mKwv ■napa^6- 
criu'v TfXfias rt rod naTxaAi'oi/ Kal a.Kpt0ovi 
Kara\ri-.l/(<j>^ ttjv 0atTi\iSa ■ir6\ii' (Coustiinfi- 
nople) KOTa\a;8orTf s, to"' Tai'mqs rh ttjul- 
Kavra narpiap^J? Trpo(Tt\r]Kvdam' Mf645ios 
ovroi 5* 4v ■Karpa.Tiv drrtSf^ioi' vip' ou iroBfyrf 
Kal riviis X'^P"' '}«*"' ipwrt)6(VTfi, rwv 'fi/cfa- 
piKuv i<pa(Tav (Ivai StaTpt^Hiv, k. t. A., proceed- 
ing among other things to profess themselves 
diligent readers of S. Chrysostom. 




[A.D. 816. Wales subject to the suprrmacy of Egbert (Ann. Canib. a. Si 6, 81S, Bnit y 

TyinjBog. a. 817, 819, X23, Anglih:<ax. Citron, a. 8i8). 
A.D. 870. South Welsh Bishops said 10 have been consecrated in many cases henceforth by 

the Archbishops of Canterbury. — A.D. 874. A Saxon Bishop of S.David's. 
A.D. 8S4 or 885. South Welsh Princes, and, shortly after, the Prince of Gwynedd, under the 

protection of Alfred (.liwej-), and A.D. 922 homagers to Eadward the Elder (Aixjlo- 

Sax. Chron. a. 922), and A.D. 926 to jEthelstan, who fixes the Wye as the Welsh 

boundary (L«ir« of Uovil Dda, AngU-'^ax. Chron. a. 926, Keiuhh; C. T>. 352, 353, 

363,364,367, 424, 426, 451, 1 103, 1 107, mo, 1113, Flor. H7(/. a. 926, II'. 

Malm., (i.Jtll.). 
A.D. 928. Codification of Welsh Laws, ecclesiastical and civil in one, by an Assembly of 

Clergy and Laity under Howel Dda. 
A.D. 973. WeUh Kings homagers to Eadgar {Augl/)-Sax. Chron. and Flor. V\'ig. a. 973 

and see Kemhle, C. D. 519). 
A.D. 1043-105.;. A Bishop of S.David's acts as vicar to the (Saxon) Bishop of Hereford. 
A.D. 1063, 1064. Harold reconquers Wales, in revolt since 1055, and reinforces the boundary 

of Orta's Dyke by penalties (Anglo-^ac. Chron. and Flor. Wig. a. 1064, (lir. Camb. 

de lUand. Wallin', Higdt^ a/t. GaU, I. 194). 
A.D. 1071-1096. Revival of learning at S.David's in connection with the Irish Church, 

under Bishop Sulien and his sons. 
A.D. 108 1. William I. "subjuga\'it sibi Walliam" (Artgh-Sax. Chron. and Ann. de WinUm.), 

and visits S. David's. 
A.D. 1090-1100. Norman occupation of South Wales (Brut y Tyinjsog. Gwint. 72-76). 

— From the death of Rhys King of South Wales, c. A.D. 1093 (1090 Ann. Mmev., 

1091 Ann. Canib. and Brut W. Williams), " regnare in Walonia (i. e. South Wales) 
Reges desiere" (Flor. Wig. II. 31). — Institution of Lords Marchers. 
A.D. 1092. Attempt to intrude a non- Welsh Bishop on the see of Bmgor. 
A.D. 1095 X iioo. Jurisdiction asserted by Archbishop Anselm over the Bishops of S.David's 
and Llandaff.] 

Early in the (^th Century. Gift of MS. Gospels to Llandaff 

Book of S.Chad, w<7r^.— Ostenditur hie quod emit >^ Gelhi filius 
Arihtiud hoc EvangeHum de Cingal, et dedit ilh pro illo equm opti- 
mum : et dedit pro anima sua istum Evangelium Deo et Sancto Teliaui 
super altare. 

►J< Gelhi ►J* filius Arihtiud : et Cincenn »J< filius Gripiud. 


[/« marg. Lib. MS. S. Ckad^ p. 141, printed in Hickcs, Diss. Epist. 1 1 j 
Wanley, Lit. Sept. 289 j and (with facsimile) in Append to Lih. Lan- 
dav. 271 ^ and in facsimile also in Westwood's Palx'ogr. Sacra. ~\ 

a This meiiioranduni occurs with others (re- use of its memoranda, and its possession by the 
lating mostly to gifts of land to Llaiidaff ) on the Cathedral Church of Mercia, leave it still doubtful, 
margin of the MS. Gospels (an Irish MS.) once what kind of transaction, in the comparaiively 
belonging to Llandaff, now to Lichtield Cathe- peaceable loth century, thus transferred the 
dral. Sec above, p. 190, note '. Another me- ownership of the documents of the Welsh >ee. 
morandum mentions Bishop Nobis (Nvwys) of One of these memoianda (in Wanley, p. 290) 
Llandart". And the gift of the MS. therefore must refers to Lcofgar, Bishop of Lichfield (died A.D. 
be dated early in ihe 9:h century, as Nywys, who 1026). Another, printed by Rees(p. 273), con- 
is reckoned as •' 19th" in the JAh. Loiulao. tains the name of Mormarch, who however can- 
20S, folloA-ed shortly after Bishop Cerenhir, if that not be the cotemporary of Bishop Herw.ild, A.D. 
book (206) may be trusted. The disappearance J0;6-II04, mentioned in the I.ih. iMiuUir.: 
of the MS. from Llaud.ilf, obviou>ly prior to the inasmuch as the S. Chad Gospels plainly got to 
compilation of the Lib. Landao., v/h\ch makes no Lichtield before 1026. 

Similar date. Grajit of Freedom to a Serf made i?/ the preseyice of 
Laity a7id Clergy of Llandajf^\ 

1r._-5<- * vr cc ee t * * dcnc'> lit * * ith, iiii h * ^ ledri ^u "^ ^ 

agnunnc ^ "^ uch. et ■'<■ ci * arthiud * iunt lii^bcrt]atcm Blc * "'^ hlioSul 

* ct semini [eius] in scmpii_tcr]num. Prt)ptcr. [a]tque hoc est "* e 

quod dcdit [pro] liberta[te] quatuor * * os ct oc[to] * * incias. 

[Actum cor^am idoneis [t]estibus; de [laic]is Riguo * n filius * * ic, 

Guen hlius * r, Guoluic [hlius ■^]edan, Ou * f . '^ Guur * aim, Mer * 

an f.d Salus, Arthan f.'^ Cimulch, Judri f.<' Judnerth ; de clericis vero 

Nobis Episcopus Teiliau, Saturnguid sacerdos Teiliav, Dubrino", et 

Cuhelm filius Episcopi, Saturnbiu cam ibiav, et Sulgcn [schollasticus 

qui hanc hdcliter scripsit. Qiii custodierit hoc dccretum libertatis 

Bleidiud, et prolis eius, sit benedictus. Qui autcm non custcxhcrit, sit 

malcdictus a Deo, et a Teiliav, in cujus Evangelio scriptum est. Et 

[dic]at omnis populus, fiat, fiar. [In marg. ejusd, MS. p. 2 1 8, and printed 

in Hickes, Dm. Ep'ist. 11 • Wanley, Lit. Sept. 290 j and Append, to 

Lih. Lavdav. 273.] 

a Similar deeds of manumission occur in Saxon unintelligible by the aitt'ng of the bookbinder'" 

England and Cornwall {llickeg, I'iss. Epist. 12- {Jiets I.ih. I.uwlar. 617). 
i_^, /vfniWc, r. 7'., T/. 209-211). The above is '■ So Wanley: peae Ifickfs. 

entered on the margins of p. 218 of the MS. Gos- " So Wanley: ngim Hickes. 

pels above mentioned, and "its former part is "^ i.e. filius. 

much damaged, and rendered for the greater part " So IUcke^: Dubrmo Wanl-ey. 

A.D. 854. Axx. C.\MB. — CCCCX. Annus, Cinnenf» rex Pouis in 
Roma obiit. [^M. H. B. 835. So also Brut y Tywysog. a. 8 34 (iL 843). 
He was killed there by his own men, according to the Gwcntian Bn/t. 
a. 850.] 

=> AUler Cyngen. See his monumental inscription to his ancestor Kliseg, below in App. D. 

A.D. 809-1 100. 



A.D. 871, 883, 894. — Brut y Tvwysog. Gvjent. 
Oed Crist 871, bu farw Einion A.D. 871. — Einion, ... Bishop 

. . . Escob Myny w, ac y gwnaeth- 

pwyd Hubert Sais^ yn Escob yn 

ci le cf. [p. 14. in Arch. Camb.^ 

■^rd Series^ X.] 

° Seemingly identical with Llunwerth or Lwm- 
bert or Lunvcrd or Liywarch or Lambert or Mar- 
tin, consecrated to the See of S. David's S74 {Ann. 
Camh. and llnd ij Tyw^/gitj.) by the Archbishop 

Ib. — Oed Crist 883, . . . y bu farw 
Cydifor abad Llanfeithin 'j, gwr 
doeth a dysgedig oedd efe a mawr 
ci dduwioldcb. Efe a ddanfoncs 
chwech o wyr doethion ci gor i 
ddodi addysc i Wyddelod y Wer- 
ddon. [p. 16. /^.] 

'' =Llancirvan. — Armagh was destroyed by 
the Danes A.D. 850 and S67, and was restored 
by Bishop Fethgna 852-874; to whom it is 

Ib. — Of^Cm?894,y bu farwHy- 
wcK' ab Rhys ab Arthhicl arglwydd 
Morganwg yn ci lawn henaint yn 
Rhufain ym mhen tridiau wedi ei 
fyncd yno, sef ei oed chweugcin- 
mlwydd a phedair. [pp. 18, 20, 


« See the inscriptions in Llantwit churchyard, below in App. B. 
to all the other Chronicles. 

of Menevia, died j and Hubert 
the Saxona was made Bishop in 
his room. [p. 15. /^.] 

of Canterbury (7u de Biceto). Einion must = 
Novis, Asser's kinsman (iV. H. !>. 488), who 
(ace. to Ann. C'uiub., and see also Brut ij Tyicy- 
eo<j., ib. 835, 845) died in 873. 

A.D. 883 Cydivor, abbat 

of Llanvcithin '», died, a wise and 
learned man, and of great piety. 
He sent six learned men of his 
abbey to Ireland to instruct the 
Irish, [p. 17. /^.] 

conjectured that these monks were sent {Arch, 
Camh., 3/rf Serks, X. 1 54). See above on p. 198, 
what is said about the Welsh Juvcncas. 

A.D.894.— Howelc son of Rhys, 
son of Arthvael, lord of Glamor- 
gan, died in his full old age at 
Rome, three days after his arrival, 
at the age of a hundred and twenty- 
four, [pp. 1 9, 2 1 . /^.] 

Howel died A.D. 885, according 

9^/7 a7/d begiiming of loth ceriturieSj to A.D. 929. Synodical Acts of 
Discipline alleged to have beeji exercised by Bishops of Lla7tdajf oi-er 
South Welsh Fri?ices^. 

» See above, pp. 125, 126: and for the form 
of these documents, below, under Bishop Ilerwald, 
A.D. 1056x1104. Those which are here 
referred to are in e.rtenso in Lib. Landac. 196, 
202-206, 2 21-2 24, 2 2 7-2 29, and, except the tirst 
and last, in Wilkbis. J. 197-199 (under the mis- 
nomer of Councils of Llandaft). They relate to — 

i. A synod held merely to receive a grant of 
land to Bishop Trychan, and to grant absolution 
to Brochmael and his sons (i. L. 196). 

ii. A synodical excommunication of Howel 
King of Glewyssig, and 

iii. Of lli, for muider committed after swear- 

ing amity upon relics in the Bishop's presence, 
by Bishop Cerenhir (i. L. 202-206). 

iv. Settlement by a synod of a disputed title 
to a church between Brochmael King of Gwent 
and Bishop Cyfeiliawg, and 

V. Excommunication (synodical) of the same 
Brochmael and his " family " by the same Bishop, 
for wrong done to the Bishop and his " family " 
(I. X. 221-224). 

vi. And of Tewdwr King of Brecknock by 
Bishop Libiau for stealing the Bishop's dinner 
by force from the abbey of Llancors (L. L. 

2o8 CHURCH OF ir^LES DURING [Period II. 

Howe! (see also under A.D. S94, above) and 927 (see below), Libiau's 927-929. 

Brochniael fcf. § iv., v. 1 were both tributaries to Part of the satisfaction enjoined upon Broch- 

King Alfred about A.D. 884 {.Ui^'r). Trychan, mael in the last case but one, was the payment to 

and the Brocliniael of § i., arc placed at an earlier the Bishop of a plate of pure gold the length and 

but uncertain period by the Lib. Lundaf., Try- breadth of the Bishop's face. And Libiau exacted 

chan's successor being cotemporary with Howel's the " price " of a Bishop, 1 00 mancus's of gold, 

father {L. L. 196). Cyfeiliawg's dates are 8 70- sevenfold. 

E77d of i)th a?id beghntnig of \cth centuries [A.D. 870—929?] South 
Welsh Bishops said to have been consecrated by the Archbishops of 
Ca?Jterbury ^. 

AssER, De Rebus Gestis ^-Elfredi. — His temporibus'', ego quoque 
(Asser) a rcge (/Elfredo) advocatus, de occiduis et ultimis Britannia 

finibus ad Saxoniam adveni, ex consilio ct licentia nostrorum 

omnium^" pro utilitate illius sancti loci'^ ct omnium in eo habitan- 
tium; Regi ut promiseram, ejus scrvitio me dcvovi, ea conditionc ut 

per sex menses omni anno cum eo commanerem Sperabant enim 

nostri minores tribulationes et injurias ex parte Hemeid Regis susti- 
nere, qui saepe deprxdabatur illud monastcrium et parochiam Sancti 
Degui, aliquando expulsione illorum antistitum qui in eo pra;cssent, 
sicut et Novis Archicpiscopum propinquum meum et me expulit ali- 
quando sub ipsis : si ego ad notitiam ct amicitiam illius Regis quali- 
cunque pacto pcrvcnircm. lllo enim tempore et multo ante omnes 
regiones dcxtcralis Brirannix partis ad yElfrcd Rcgcm pertincbant, 

et adhuc pertinent" Anaraut'" quoque hlius Rotri cum a 

Rege (/Eltredo) honorifice receptus essct, et ad manum Episcopi in 
filium conhrmationis acceptus maximisque donis ditatus, [se] Regis 
dominio cum omnibus suis eadem conditione subdidit, ut in omni- 
bus Regix voluntati sic obediens esset, sicut yEthered cum Merciis. 
{M. H. B. 487, 488.] 

R. DE DiCETO, Abbrev. Chron. — A. 872. vEthelredus Dorobernensis 
Archiepiscopus. Hic Chevelliauc Episcopum Landaviae, et post Libau 
Episcopum Landavix, et post Lunverd Episcopum Sancti David, Can- 
tuari-x consecravit. [Tivysd. 451.] 

Flor. Wig., Chron. a. 913. — Pagani ... terras septentrionalium Bri- 
tonum invadunt, ct cuncta quae circa fluminis^? ripam rcperiunt, pcne 
diripiunt. Captum quoque in campo Yrcenefeld nuncupato Brito- 
num Episcopum Cymelgeac, laetantes non modicum, ad naves dedu- 
cunt secum : quem non multo post XL. libris argenti Rex redemit 
Eadwardus. [_M. H. B. 570. So also the Anglo-Sax. Chron. a. 918.] 

Lib. Landav. — DCCCCn^^XX^.VII". Cimeilliauc Episcopus mi- 
gravit ad Dominum DCCCC"''". XX". IX". Libiau Episcopus 

A.D. 8oy-iioo.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 


migravit ad Dominum, ct ordinationis su-cE anno tcrtio. [LI^. Eandav. 
227, 230. So also the Ca?tterl?ury Rolls^ ap. Godwin.^ ed. Richardson.] 

Ann. Camb.— CCCCXXX. Annus. [A.D. 874.] Llunwerth'' Epi- 
scopus consecratur. \_AI. H. B. 835 — Lwmbert of Myny w, Brut y Ty- 
-wysog. a. 874; /^. 845.] 

" Spiritual subjection usually followed temporal. 
And therefore, although the precise dates as given 
are irreconcileablc, the fact of consecration of bouth 
Welsh Bishops at this period by the Archbishop of 
Canteibury (especially if one of them was a Saxon 
by nationi is possibly true. The like stoiy in the 
I.ili. I.utidnr. of the consecration of Oudoceus at 
Canterbury in the beginning of the 7th ccniury 
is of course a fiction. At the same time the con- 
flicting statements of later date (see under A.D. 
972), and the evident inclination of the conijiilcr 
of the Lih. Laiuhiv. and still more of Caiuer- 
bury authorities to make out a connection 
between Llandaff and Canterbury, throw .vuspi- 
cion upon all assertions of the kind. /T'thclred 
was Archbishop of Canterbury A.D. S70-S89. 
It is pos>.ible therefore that he might have con- 
secrated Cyfeiliawg. And Llunwerth falls within 
his Archiepiscopate. But Libiau's consecration 
is dated by the Lil). Lamlar. within that of 
Wulfhelm, and 3S years after /Ethelred's death. 

The Northmen wasted Glamorgan and Gwent, 
and as far inland as Brecknock, both in A.D. 895 
and 915 {Ann. Camb.). 

^ A.D. 884 ace. to Spelman. and Pauli. 

<^ /S'f. ecclesiasticorum S. David. 

'1 >c. S. David's. 

•^ Sc. the principalities of Henieid King of 
Dyfcd, Howel King of Glewy.ssig, Brochniael 
and Fernmatl Kings of Gwent, Ilelised King of 

' King of Gwynedd. 

!! ,S'f. the Wye. 

'' If Lumberth, " Episcopus S. David," who in- 
tercedes only (as an equal) with Libiau of Llan- 
d;ili' on behalf of Tewdwr King of Brecknock 
{Lib. LanJar. 2;8), was really a Saxon (see 
above, under A.D. 871), his consecration at Can- 
terbury certainly becomes probable. And Asser's 
connection with Alfred falls also in the early 
portion of Lumbenh's Episcopate : which lasted 
to 944, if the^-biH. ('ami. may be trusted. 

[A.D. 928 (.'') — Laws of H(ywel Dda — Brut y Tywysog. Givent.: — 

Oed Crist 926, aeth Hyvvcl Dda 
fab Cadell, Brenin Cymry oil, i 
Rufain, a chydag ef dri Escob^, 
sef oeddynt Martin Escob Mynyw, 
a Mordaf Escob Bangor, a March- 
lwysEscobTeilaw,a chyda hwnnw 
Blegywryd ab Owain pencyfeis- 
tedd Llandaf, brawd Morgan Bre- 
nin Morganwg, a'r achaws eu my- 
ned yno, ymgynghori a doethion 
y modd y gwellheid cyfreithiau 
gwladGymru,agwybod cyfreithiau 
gwledydd a dinasoedd eraill, a'r cy- 
freithiau a fuant gan Amherodron 
Rhufain yn ynys Prydain yn am- 
ser eu hunbennaeth hwy, a gwedi 
cafFael gwybodaeth o'r pethan 
hynny, a chyngor doethion, dych- 
welyd i Gymru, He y galwes Hy- 

A.D. 926. — Howel the Good, 
son of Cadell, King of all Wales, 
went to Rome, and three Bishops* 
with him, — Martin, Bishop of Me- 
nevia ; Mordaf, Bishop of Bangor • 
and Marchlwys, Bishop of Teilaw : 
and Blegywryd, son of Owain, 
chief of the court of Llandaff, bro- 
ther to Morgan, King of Glamor- 
gan, accompanied them. The 
reason they went there was, to 
consult the wise in what manner 
to improve the laws of Wales, and 
to ascertain the laws of other 
countries and cities, and the laws 
in force in Britain during the so- 
vereignty of the Emperors of 
Rome. And after obtaining in- 
formation of these things, and the 

a See however below, p. 219. 

VOL. I. 



wel attaw holl benccnedloedd 
gwlad au tcisbanteuluoedd, a 
phob doethion a dysgedigion o 
wyr lien a lleygion yn ddygynnuU 
gorscdd hyd y Ty Gwynn an 
Daf yn Nyfcd. A gwcdi chwi- 
liaw a gaff-ad o bob gwlad a 
dinas y caed yn oreuon o'r cyfan 
cyfreithiau Dyfnvval Moelmud, a 
thrwy ddysg ac athrawiaethgar 
ymgais Blegy wryd athraw y trefn- 
wyd y rhai hynny, ac au doded 
wrth farn y dygynnull, oni chacd 
gannynt eglurhad, a gvvellhAd, ac 
adlanwad ar y rhai hynny, a 
gwedi niyncd wrth farn a rhaith 
gwlad yn y dygynnull y cadarn- 
hiied y cyfreithiau ac au rhoddcd 
yn ddeddfcdigawl ar holl wlad 
Gymru, a gwedi hynny myned 
i Rufain yr ail waith o Hywcl, 
a chael barn doethion yno, a 
gwybod bod y cyfreithiau hynny 
yn gydgerddedogion a chyfraith 
Duw ac a chyfreithiau gwledydd a 
dinasoedd tiroedd cred a bedydd, 
y daeth yn ei ol i Gymru, ac y 
dodes ei gyfreithiau wrth farn y 
cantrefi, a'r cymmydau, a rhaith 
gwlad, ac o hynny ydd aethant 
yn gadarn yn holl arglwyddiae- 
thau Gymru, ac ym mhob Uys 
arglwydd a chenedl hyd nad oedd 
a gaeai yn eu herbyn, ag nad 
oeddent o arall yn un llys gwlad 
ac arglwydd yng Nghymru, ac 
achaws dacd ei gyfreithiau y ge- 
Iwir ef Hywcl Dda (pp. 20, 22).] 

counsel of the wise, they returned 
to Britain, where Howel convoked 
all the heads of tribes of the coun- 
try and their assistants, and all the 
wise and learned, ecclesiastical and 
lay, in a combined session at the 
White House upon Tav in Dyved. 
And after searching what was 
procured from every country, the 
laws of Dyvnwal Moelmud were 
found to be the best ; and by the 
learning and doctrinal skill of the 
Doctor Blcgyvvryd they were ar- 
ranged^ and by the judgment of 
the assembly they were expound- 
ed, improved, and augmented; 
and after the laws had passed 
the judgment and verdict of the 
country in the assembly, they 
were authorized and made legal 
in all the country of Wales. And 
after that Howel went a second 
time to Rome, and obtained the 
judgment of the wise there, and 
ascertained those laws to be in 
accordance with the law of God 
and the laws of countries and 
cities in the receipt of faith and 
baptism. He then returned to 
Wales, and submitted his laws 
to the judgment of the cantrevs, 
comots, and verdict of the coun- 
try; and thence they became au- 
thorized in all the lordships of 
Wales, and in every court of 
lord and tribe, until they became 
paramount ; and no others were 
used in any court of country and 
lord in Wales ; and from the 
goodness of his laws he was 
called Howel the Good (/'^ pp. 
2I5 23).] 






[The ecdmastical ytvrlium ouhj vf lliesc Laws are here given.] 

A. D. 928(?). Assembly of Clergy avd Laity .^ representing all Wales .^ tmder 
Howel Dda King first of Deheubarth and ultimately of all Wales .^ at Whit- 
land in Caermarthenshire^ inhere the following ecclesiastical laros were sanc- 
tioned as part of a digest of the laws of the country^. 

a Mr. Aneurin Owen's Preface to his edition A. D. 909, and of North Wales A. D. 915 {Ann. 
of the Welsh Laws (Lond. 1S41) will supply full Canib., and see I.ajijjenhcrg), tributary to Eadward 
information respecting the digest accomplished by of England A. D. 919 and to /Ethelstan A. D. 926 
Howel. In course of time the (seemingly) at first {Aitglu-Sax. Chron., and Flor. ]\'ig.), was at the 
single code became distinguished into three, vary- latter's court A. D. 931, 932, 933, and 934 (7iern- 
ing with the three great divisions of Wales, viz. hie, C.l>. 353, 363, 364, 100,^, 1007, loio), at 
Gwynedd (Vencdotia), Dyved (Dimetia) for De- Eadred's A. D. 949 (I'i. 424, 426), went to Rome 
heubarth, and Gwent (i. e. Monmouth, &c.) for A.D. 928 (.4n«. Camt., but A.D. 920, i. e. between 
Morganwg. The extracts from the code here 920 and 930, 7.'ni< ^ T«/«-»/6o^.) in order to get his 
given are distinguished accordingly. Subsequent laws confirmed by the Pope(JVc/. to Laics, Dimet. 
revisions, from certainly A. D. loSo to the Statute Code, and to Bk. III. of Venedotian), and died A.D. 
of Rhuddlan A.D. 1284 (which introduced English 950 (.Inn. Camb., but 948, Brut y Tyinjsog.), or 
law), have also rendered it impossible to separate 951 (^'J■m. Liunelm.). But the Laws themselves 
in the code, according to existing MSS., the e.xact {I'ref. to Diiiiet. Code) date the journey to Rome 
laws of the original code from later alterations or A.D. 914, and name Anastasius, who died A.D. 
additions. It must be borne in mind, therefore, 913, as Pope at the time. The Gwentian form 
that the following extracts are from 12th and of the J>mt ij Tywyeog. (as already quoted) as- 
13th century transcripts only, of a document, serts two journeys to Rome, one for advice be- 
embodying no doubt and modifying documents forehand, the other subsequently for approbation 
earlier than its own date (of a little after 900), and relates both under A. D. 926. The Code itself 
but itself again, as undoubtedly, largely modified twice or thrice (sometimes for the purpose of assert- 
before these transcripts were made. The date of ing a contrary law) mentions the •' law of Rome," 
the original assembly depends upon the following both canon and civil, 
evidence. — Howel Dda became king of South Wales 

»*:): [The notes, throughout the following extracts from Howel Dda's Laws, are Mr. Aneurin 
Owen's. And the reader is also referred to Mr. Owen's edition of the Laws (8vo. 2 vols. 1841), whence 
the extracts are taken, for the account of the MSS. designated by the letters A, B, C. 1>, <S:c. &c., and 
for the copious additional various readings given in his edition, but with which it has not been thought 
worth while lo encumber the pages of the present work. The order of the Venedotian Code has been 
followed in arranging the sections ; but for their division and numbering, and for the arrangement of 
their contents, and for those titles to sections which are within brackets, neither Mr. Owen nor the MSS. 
are responsible. The Latin variations and additions are taken from two Latin digests of the Dimetian 
Code, and from a third, a fragment, abridging only one book of the Code, here denoted respectively by 
a., i8., 7., according to the order in which they are printed (under the title of Leges Walh'ae) at the end 
of Mr. Owen's work. The second of them, fi., is that already referred to (p. 127, note *) as containing 
several lav/s nearly verbally identical with certain canons in an 8th century MS., possibly part of the 
original materials of Howel's digest. For subsequent variations in, and additions to, the Laws, see below 
in App. C. The extracts in Wilkins, I. 208-212, are taken from. Dr. Wotton's Ltges Wallicce.] 

P 2,. 



A. D. 928.] 


HEUEL da uab Kadell 
tewysauc Kemry oil auel- 
les e Kemry en kam aru- 
eru or kefreythyeu ac a 
deuenus atau chueguyr o 
pop ' kemut eny tehuysok- 
aet' [hyt y Ty Gwyn ar 
Taf a henny or g^vy^ 
doethaf yny kyuoeth] e 
peduuar [onadunt] en lle- 
ycyon ar deu en escoleyc- 
yon. Sef acliaus e uenuyt 
er escolycyon rac gossod 
or lleycyon dym auey yn 
erbyn er escrythiir Ian. 
Sef amscr edoythant eno 
e Garauuys [a] sef achaus 
edoythant e Garauuys urth 
delehu opaup bot en yaun 
en yr amser glan hunnu 
ac na guenelhcy kam en 
[yr] amser gleyndyt. Ac 
o kyd kcjjhor akydsyned- 
ycaeth edoython a doyt- 
ant eno er hen kefreyth- 
yeu a esteryasant arey 
onadunt aadassant yredec 
arey aemendassant ac ere- 
yll en kubyl adyleassant 
ac ereyll oneuuyt ahoso- 

Aguedy honny onadunt 
ekefre)-thycu auarnassant 
eu cadu [a] Heuel arodes 

*' cantref yg Kemry/J./). 


HYWEL da orat Duw 
mab Kadell brenhin Kym- 
ry oil awelas y Gymry 
yghamaruer ogyureitheu 
adeuodeu ac \vrth hynny 
a devynnawd attaw o bop 
kymlnvt - oe teyrnnas' 
whegwyr aaruerynt o aw- 
durdawt ac ygneittaeth a 
hoU egl\vyss\vyr yleyrnnas 
aaruerynt o teilygdawt 
bagleu megys Archcscob 
IMynyw ac Esgyb ac ab- 
adeu aphrioreu hji; ylle 
achvir y Ty Gwynn ar 
Taf yn Dyuet. Y ty 
hwnnw aberis ef y adeilat 
o wycil gwynnyon yn Uety 
ydaw w rth hcly pan deley 
y Deuct ac wrth hynny y 
gel wit cf y Ty Gwyn. 

Ar Brenhin ar gynnu- 
lleittua honno atrigassant 
yno trvvy yr holl Arawys 
ywediay Duw trwy dyr- 
wcst [a g^vedi] pcrffcith 
ac y erchi rat a darpar 
yr Brenhin y wellau ky- 
ureitheu adeodeu [^ Kym- 
ry]. Ac or gynnulleit- 
tua honno pan tcrvynnavd 

=' yg Kymry N.O.P.Q. 

^ amaw ef JS. * e 15. 


HYWEL da mab Ca- 
dell brenhin Kymry aw- 
naeth trwy rat Duw a 
dynvest agweddi can oed 
eidyaw ef Kymry yny 
theruyn, [nyt amgen no] 
pedwar cantrew ■* athru- 
geint yn Deheubarth, a 
deunaw cantref Gwyned, 
a thnigein tref tra Chyr- 
chell a thrugein tref Buellt. 
Ac yn [yj teruyn hynny 
nyt geir geir neb ^arnadunt 
hwy' ageir yw ^•eu geir 
hwy ar pawb. 

[E] sef yd oed drwc 
dedueu, adryc kyfreitheu 
kyn noc ef, [ac] y kym- 
yrth ynteu chwe gwyr o 
bob kymwt yg Kymry ac 
yduc hyt y Ty Gwyn ar 
Taf, a seith ugein baglawc 
yr rwg Esgyb ac Archesgyb, 
ac abadeu ac athrawon da 
y wneuthur kyureitheu da 
ac y diot y rei drwc a oed 
kyn noc ef, ac yw cadarn- 
hau yny enw ehun. 

Ac or niuer hwnnw 

hynny L. 

* arhugain Z. 

" Gwynedd, or Venedotia, contained the greater 
part of what is now called North Wales. 

*> Dyved, or West Wales, in strict acceptation, 
was the name of the district bounded by the T)-wi 
on the S.E. and by the Teivi on the N.W. ; but 
in a wider sense the country over which the eccle- 

siastical supremacy of the see of Mcnevia ex- 

" Gwent, the appellation of the district in 
Wales inhabited by the Silures, comprised the 
diocese of Llandaff. 

A.D. 809-1100.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 



HOWEL the good, 
the son of Cadell, prince 
of all ** Cymru,' seeing the 
*'Cymry' perverting the 
laws, summoned to him 
six men, from each "cym- 
wd'*' in the principality,' 
the wisest in his dominion, 
to the •= White House on 
the Tav ; four of them 
laics, and two clerks. The 
clerks were summoned lest 
the laics should ordain any 
thing contrary to the holy 
scripture. The time when 
they assembled together 
was Lent, and the reason 
they assembled in Lent 
was, because every one 
should be pure at that 
holy time, and should do 
no wrong at a time of 
purity. And with mutual 
counsel and deliberation 
the wise men there assem- 
bled examined the ancient 
laws ; some of which they 
suffered to continue unal- 
tered, some they amend- 
ed, others they entirely 
abrogated ; and some new 
laws they enacted. 

And after promulgating 
the laws which they had 
decided to establish, Howel 

^' ' cantrev ' in C^Tiiru B.D. 



HOWEL the good, 
son of Cadell, by the 
grace of God, king of all 
Cymru, obsen^ed the Cym- 
ry perverting the laws and 
customs ; and therefore he 
summoned to him, from 
every cymwd -'of his king- 
dom,' six men, who were 
practised in authority and 
jurisprudence ; and all the 
clergy of the kingdom pos- 
sessed of the dignity of the 
crosier, as the Archbishop 
of Menevia, and Bishops, 
and abbats, and priors, to 
the place called the White 
House upon the Tav, in 
Dyved, That house he 
ordered to be constructed 
of white rods, as a lodge 
for him in hunting, when 
he came to Dyved ; and 
on that account it was 
called the White House. 

And the King, with that 
assembly, remained there 
during the whole of Lent, 
to pray to God, through 
perfect abstinence, and to 
implore grace and dis- 
cernment for the King to 
amend the laws and '^cus- 
toms of Cymru.' And, at 
the termination of Lent, 

2' in Cymru N.O.P.Q. 
5 his X. « his X. 


HOWEL the good, 
son of Cadell, king of 
Cymru, enacted, by the 
grace of God and fasting 
and prayer, when Cymru 
was in his possession in its 
bounds; to wit, -^ three 
score and four 'icantrevs 
in South Wales, eighteen 
cantrevs of Gwynedd,three 
score trevs beyond the 
''Cyrchell, and three score 
trevs of <^Buallt, And 
within that limit the word 
of no one went before 
^ their word, and ^ their 
word was binding uj)on 

As bad customs and bad 
laws existed before his 
time, he summoned six 
men from every cymwd 
in Cymru, and assembled 
them at the White House 
upon the Tav, together 
with seven score croziers, 
between Bishops, and 
Archbishops, and abbats, 
and good teachers, to form 
wholesome laws, and to 
abrogate the bad ones be- 
fore his time, and to give 
them stability in his own 

And, out of that num- 

^' those customs L. 

* one Z. 

•'' ' Cymru ' signifies Wales, and ' Cymry ' the 
Welsh nation. 

'' ' C\Tnwd ' is a territorial division, of which 
two generally form a ' cantrev,' though it some- 
times contains more. 

" The White House stood near the site of 
Whitland Abbey in Caermarthenshire. 

"J There appears to be an error in this reading, 
as there never were so many cantrevs in all Wales ; 
if ' cymwds ' be substituted, the account would be 

near the truth. The reading of Z, as probably 
correct, would have been inserted in the text, if 
so modem a transcript could be preferred before 
five ancient MSS. 

« Now called Crychell, a brook in Radnorshire, 
which runs by Abbey Cwm hir and falls into the 

f A district in the upper part of Brecknock- 


yaudurdaut udunt ac a 
orckemcnus en kadarn eu 
kadii en craf. A Heuel ar 
doythyon auuant y kyd ac 
ef aossodassaiit eu hemen- 
dyth ar hon Kemry holl 
ar y ncp eg Kemry alecrey 
heb eu kadu ekefreythyeu : 
ac adodassant eu henicn- 
dyth ar er cgnat a kcmcro 
dyofryt braut ac ar er ar- 
gluyt ay rodhei ydau ar 
ny uypey teyr kolheuen 
ketVeyth a guerth guellt 
adof apoj) pcdh [or a 
berthyn arnadunt or y 
mac I rcyt y dynyaul aruer 
ariuiu. 1 1. :.| 




[Period 11. 

Book III. Rii.\i;i n ii. 
[Hcwel da vap Kadcll 
tewyssavc Kemry a de- 
vynnvs attav chwegwyr o 
pob kantref eg Kemry oil 
hyt e Ty Gwyn ar Dat" en 
Dyvet a henny or gwyr 
doctliaf en ekevocth e 
pedwar onadvnt en Uee- 
gyon ar dev en escolhc- 
ygyon. Sef achavs e 
dwcpwyt er escolhcygyon 
rac dody or lleegyon pe- 
thev a vey en erbyn er 
cscrethvr glan. Ac e sef 
amser e doethant cno 

y Garawys y dewissaud y 
Brenhin y deudec lleyc 
docthal' oe \vyr ar vn 
yscolhcic docthaf yr hwnn 
aelwit yr athro Vlegywryt 
y luneithaw ac y synn- 
hwyraw idaw [ef] ac oe 
teymnas kyureitheu ' ac 
aruerocd' yn pertTcith [o 
nadunt] ac yn ncssaf [ac] 
y gcllit at [yr] wironcd a 

Ac y dcchreuis cu hys- 
griucnu ynteir rann [ac] 
yn gynntaf kyureilh y llys 
pcnnydyawl ; yr eil ky- 
ureith y wlat ; y tryded 
aruer o bop vn onadunt 
[wyntcu yn bcrffaith.] 
Gucdy hynny yd erchis 
[y Brenhin] gwnneuthur 
tri Uifuyr kyurcith : vn 
vrth y lys peunydyaul [yn] 
pressuyl [uodic] ygyt ac 
cf [e hun ;] aral ylys Di- 
ncuur ; y trydyd ylys A- 
berflVaw megys ycafiey 
tcir rann Kymry nyt am- 
gen Gwyned Pwys [a] 
Deheubarth audurdawt 
kyureith yn eu plith vrth 
eu reit yn wastat ac yn 
parawt [pop amser]. 

Ac o gyghor y doethonn 
hynny rei or henn gyurei- 
theu [hynny] a gynnha- 
lawd [ef ] ereill a wellaawd 


dewissw^t y deudec lleyc 
doethaf ar un yscolheic 
kymhenhaf y wneuthur y 
kyureitheu hynny, Sef 
awnacthant hwy pan da- 
ruu udunt wneuthur y 
kyureitheu dodl emelldith 
Duw ac un y gynnuUeitua 
honno ac un Gymry ben- 
baladyr ar y neb a torhei 
y kyureitheu hynny. 

Ar llyuyr hwn ^herwyd 
Morgeneu a SQhyfnerth y 
uab adigonet. Ar gwyr 
hynny' oed oreu yn eu 
hamser ar cof a chyfrei- 
theu [ac ocsseu]. [I.620, 


Of the Prefaces to the La- 
tin transcripts of the Laws 
{which are of the Dimetian 
type) the following only con- 
tain TUfiv matter. 

Incipit Prologus in Li- 
bro Legum Howel Da 
(Howcli Boni). 

Brittannie leges rex 
Howel, qui cognomina- 
batur bonus, id est, da, 
regni sui, scilicet, Gwyne- 
dotorum, Powyssorum, at- 
que Dextralium, sapien- 
tium, et in uno loco ante 
suum tribunal congrega- 
torum, uno consensu et 
diligenti, quia ex onmi 
natione, medio, circilcr, 

'' Kymry ac i arvcr P. 

*' Blegy-wryt yscolheic ae hyscriuenwys; canyscf.i IT 
' chvureith A'. 

A.D. 809 — I 100.] 





sanctioned them with his 
authority, and strictly com- 
manded them to be scru- 
pulously ol?served. And 
Howel and the wise men 
who were with him de- 
nounced their malediction, 
and that of all the Cymry, 
upon him who should not 
obey the laws : and they 
denounced their maledic- 
tion upon the judge who 
might undertake a judicial 
function, and upon the 
*lord who might confer it 
upon him, without knowing 
the ^three columns of law, 
and the worth of wild and 
tame animals; and every- 
thing pertaining to them 
necessary and customar)' in 
a community. [I. 3.] 

Book III. Preface. 

Howel the good, son of 
Cadell, prince of Cymru, 
summoned to him six men 
from every cantrev in all 
Cymru, to the White 
House on the Tav, in 
Dyved, and those of the 
wisest men in his domi- 
nion ; four of them laics, 
and two clerks. The cause 
for bringing the clerks 
was, lest the laics should 
introduce what might be 
contrary to the holy scrip- 
ture. And the time of 

^' of Cymru and its custom P. 
^ the law of JS. 


the King selected, out of 
that assembly, twelve of 
the wisest laics, and the 
most learned scholar, who 
was called the master Ble- 
gy\\Tyd, to form and sys- 
temize the laws 'and 
usages', for him and his 
kingdom perfectly, and 
the nearest possible to 
truth and to justice. 

And he began to write 
them in three parts: the 
first, the daily law of the 
palace ; the second, the 
law of the country ; the 
third, the perfect admi- 
nistration of each of them. 
In the next place, the 
King ordered three law 
books to be prepared : 
one for the use of the 
daily court, to remain con- 
tinually with himself; an- 
other for the court of 
DinevAvr ; the third for 
the court of Aberfraw : so 
that the three divisions of 
Cymru, namely, Gwynedd, 
Powys, and South Wales, 
might have continually a- 
mongst them the autho- 
rity of the law, ready 
for their reference at all 

And by the advice of 
those wise men, the King 
retained some of the old 
laws ; others he amended ; 



ber, twelve of the wisest 
laics and the best scholar 
were selected to make those 
laws. And when they had 
finished those laws, they 
imprecated the maledic- 
tion of God, and of that 
assembly, and of Cymru 
in general, upon whoso- 
ever should break those 

And this book was 2com- 
piled according to INIor- 
geneu and ^Cyvnerth his 
son. And these men were' 
the best in their time for 
record and laws and pe- 
riods. [1.621,623.] 

written by Blegj'wryd the clerk ; because he was IF, 

•' The superior chief of a district. 

•> Which, in Book III., are described to be such as relate to murder, arson, and theft. 



A.D. 928.] 


pethevnos a mys or Ga- 
rawys ac esef achavs e 
doethant eno e Garawys 
vrth na dely nep na de- 
wedwyt kani nay gwnev- 
thvr en er amscr gleyndyt 

Ac ena 'ededrychassant 
e kyvreythyev ar hon a 
vey re trom y chosp o 
nadvnt y hescavynhav ar 
lion a vey re eskavyn on- 
advnt y hachwanegv : pctli 
or kyvreythyev a adassant 
val cdoeydynt pcth arall a 
vynnassant y cnicndav er- 
eyll a dyle;ussant en kvbyl 
ac ereyll o newyd a osso- 

Ac ena c dodassant 
Hewel da a hcnny o do- 
ethyon cv heincndyth ar 
nep a kani arvorcy or 
kyvreythyev hcnny ac ar 
cr arglwyd ay senivtey yr 
vn onadvnt namyn kan 
dvMidep kynnvlleytva ky- 
meynt ac awu eno. Er 
eyi emendyth a dodassant 
ar er arglwyd ay rodcy ac 
ar e dyn ay kymercy ar- 
naw teylygdavt egneyd- 
yaeth ar ny g^vypey teyr 
kolovyn kyvreyth a gwerth 
gwyllt a dof ac aperthyn 

LC\'VREITHIAU h^-wel dda 
ereill a dilcawd o gwbyl a 
gossot kyureitheu newyd 
ynn eu lie. Ac yna yky- 
hoedes [ef ] y gyureith yr 
bopyl yn gwbyl ac y ca- 
tamnhawd y awdurdawt 
vdiint arygyureithhonnoac 
y dotet emeiltith Duw ar 
eidaw '-^wynteu ac vn Gym- 
ry oil aryneb nys cattwei 
rac Haw megys ygossottet 
[yna I onny cilit y gwcllaw 
o gyuundcb gwlat ac ar- 

fLlynia lyfyr ogyfrcith 
awnaeth Hwel da yny Ty 
(iwynn ar Daf" -'yn Yt'cd, 
yr hwnn y' doyth yno o 
wys Hwel y chwcgwyr 
doethaf o bop kyniwt 
Vnghyniry o lygion a 
scith vgeint baclawc o 
Archesgyp ac Ksg)-p ac 
athrawon da ac abadeu 
aphriorieit, o doython 
Kymry oil. Ef a wna- 
cthbwyt y deudec doythaf 
o hyny ameilltu y wneu- 
thur y gyfreith, ar xn ys- 
golheic huotlaf o Gymry 
oil y ysgrifenu y gyfreith, 
ac y edrych rac gwneythr 
dim ynerbyn kyfreith Eg- 
Iwys na chyfreith )t Am- 

A llyma henwau y gwyr 
llygion hynny pll nid am- 

[ll. wallicje.] 
tempcrateque constituit. 
Acciuit de quolibet pago 
per suum regnum sex ui- 
ros auctoritate et scien- 
tia, et omnes Episcopos, 
Archiepiscopos, abbates, et 
sacerdotes totius Wallie 
poUentes ad locum (pii 
dicitur Ty Gweyn ar Taf 
(Domus Alba super Ta- 
vam), et ibi dcmorati sunt 
XL*, dicbus et XL'', noc- 
tibus in pane et aqua, et 
tunc tempcrauerunt redi- 
tionem forefacti, id est, 
cosp (punitionem), super- 
flua diminucre que erant 
in pluribus reditionibus 
forefacti: ita fecenmt pre- 
tium uniuscuiusque rei et 
iuditium congruum dc qua- 
libet re. Tunc surrcxe- 
runt omnes Archiepiscopi, 
Episcopi, abbates, et sacer- 
dotes, induerunt uestes 
suas, et instctenmt bac- 
culis cum crucibus et can- 
delis, et ex communi con- 
silio excommunicauerunt 
transgredientes leges istas, 
et similiter obseruantes 
benedixerunt : hec indicia 
scripta sunt. (II. 749.) 

j4t the end of the Preface to 
the Dimctiafj {Latin) Code 
in MS. Bodl. 280. 

" Explicit edictus legibus, liber 
Quern Rcgi scripsit Blaugo- 
ridus, et quoque fix, 

* i dechreusant K. - ynteu I.M X.CKP.Q.I!.!^. ^ kyd boed hevyd pethav ereill ynddaw o 

kyfreithir.v da a wiiayth doythion kyn no hyny ac wedi hyny a byn wnaythbwyd ynghyfraith Howel 
kyfrailh Howel a dd} Jeir i chredv a chyj Z. 

A.D. 809 1100.] 


their assembling there was 
the six weeks of Lent ; and 
the cause for their coming 
there in Lent was, that no 
one ought to speak or to 
do wrong at that time 
of purity. 

And then they ' exa- 
mined the laws : such of 
them as might be too se- 
vere in punishment, to mi- 
tigate ; and such as might 
be too lenient, to render 
more rigorous : some of 
the laws they suffered to 
remain unaltered ; others 
they willed to amend ; 
others they abrogated en- 
tirely ; and they enacted 
some new laws. 

And then Howel the 
good and those wise men 
denounced their maledic^- 
tion upon such as should 
pervert those laws; and 
upon the lord who should 
change any one of them, 
except with the consent 
of an assembly as large 
as that which met there. 
Another malediction they 
denounced upon the lord 
who should confer, and 
upon the person who 
should undertake, judicial 
authority, without know- 
ing the three columns of 
law; and the worth of 
wild and tame animals, 
and whatever pertains to 


[the laws of howel the good. A.D. 928.] 



others he abolished entire- 
ly, and established new 
laws in their place. And 
then he fully promulgated 
the law among the people ; 
and he supported it with 
his authority ; and the 
malediction of God, as 
well as ''theirs, and that 
of all Cymru, was pro- 
nounced upon such as 
should not thenceforth 
observe it, in the manner 
then set forth ; unless al- 
tered by the concurrence 
of the country and the 

Here is the book of the 
law made by Howel the 
good at the White House 
upon Tav, ^'m Dyved, to 
which there' came, by the 
summons of Howel, six of 
the wisest laics from every 
cymwd in Cymru, and se- 
ven score croziers, Arch- 
bishops, and Bishops, and 
good teachers, and abbats, 
and priors, being the wise 
men of all Cymru. Twelve 
of the wisest of that num- 
ber were set apart to form 
the law, with one clerk, 
the most learned in all 
Cymru, to write the law, 
and to guard against doing 
anything in opposition to 
the law of the Church, or 
the law of the Emperor. 

Here are the names of 
all' those laymen, that is 
to sav : 



' began K. - his I.M.N. O.P.Q.H.S. ^' although ihere are likewise in it many other 

good laws made by wise men previously and afterwards ; and what is inserted in the law of Howel is to 
be credited ; and together Z. 





Agwcdy gwncuthur o 
honunt y kyfreitheu ual 
y tebygynt eu bot yn 
deihvg, yd aeth Howel da 
ac Escob Mynyw, ac Escob 
Assaf, ac Escob Bangor, ac 
y am hynny yny vu ar y 
drydyd ardec o athrawon 
adoethon ereill o leygyon 
ac yd aethant hyt yn 
Ruucin y gyniryt awdur- 
dawt Pab Ruucin y gy- 
freitheu Howcl. Ac yna 
y 'darllcwyt kyfreitheu 
Howel rac bronn Pab 
Ruucin, ac y bu uodlawn 
y Pab udunt ac y rodcs y 
aw durdawt udunt ; ac y 
doeth Howcl ac gedyni- 
deithon adrcf. Ac yr 
hynny liyt hcdiw yd ydys 
yn daly o gyfreithcu 
Howcl ila. [I. 2i.\, 2 lb.] 


Morgeneu ynat ; 
Kyfncrth y vab ; 
Gweir vab Rvvawn ; 
Gronwy vab Moridic ; 

Kcwyd ynat ; 

Iddic ynat ; 

Gwibcri hen o Iscenein ; 

Gwrncrtii Ilw yd y vab ; 

Meddwon ail Kcrisc ; 

Gwgawn Dyuct ; 
Bledrws vab Blcidyd ; 

Gwynn vaer y gwr ocd 
bcrchcnawc ar Lantafwin 
biocd y ty y gwnacthbwyd 
y gyfreith yndaw a Blegc- 
wryd archdiagawn Llann- 
daf a ocd yr ysgolhcic a 
doctor ynghyfrcith yr Am- 
hcrawdyr ac ynghyfrcith 
yr Eglwys oed cf. 

[lL. WALLICjE.] 

Howeii turbz doctor tunc 

regis in urbe, 
Goni;indo cano quoque ju- 

dice cotidiano. 

Gornerth Iwyd mab Gwy- 
beri bach (Gornandus ca- 
nus, filius Gwiberi parvi), 
erat judex curi.T do Dine- 
wur in tempore Hywel da, 
ut ])dTu est in uersibus." 
( /;/ Mr. Owen's Preface, p. 

Ac g\vedy darfod gwneu- 
thur y gyfraith oil ae hys- 
grifeny yn gwbyl ef a aeth 
Hoel da a theuymedd o 
Gymryygidacef a Lambert* 
Esgob IMyn)'Av, a Mordaf 
Esgob Bangor, a Chcbur 
Esgob Seint Asaph, a Ble- 
gewryd archdiagon Llann- 
daf, hyd att Anestacius Bab 
hyd yn Ryfein y darllein 
y gyfreith ac y edrych a 
oed dim yn erbyn kyfreith 
D)'\v o honei hi ac am 

doeth Uyfyr K. 

A.D. 809 — 1 100.] 


And after they had con- 
stituted the laws as they 
considered to be fitting, 
Howcl the good, and the 
Bishop of Menevia, the 
Bishop of Asaph, and the 
Bishop of Bangor, together 
with others, making thir- 
teen in number, of teach- 
ers and of other wise men, 
of the laity, went to Rome 
to obtain the authority of 
the Pope of Rome for the 
laws of Howcl. And there 
1 were read' the laws of 
Howcl in the presence of 
the Pope of Rome, and the 
Pope was satisfied with 
them, and gave them his 
authority ; and Howel, 
with his companions, re- 
turned home. And from 
that time until the present 
day, the laws of Howel 
the good are in force. [I. 
215, 217.] 


[the laws of howel the good. ajj. 928.] 



Morgeneu, the judge ; 

Cyvnerth, his son ; 

Gwair, son of Ruvon ; 

Goronwy, son of IMo- 
reiddig ; 

Cewydd, the judge ; 

Iddig, the judge ; 

Gwiberi the aged, of 
Iscenain ; 

Gwrnerth the grey, his 
son ; 

Meddwon, son of Ce- 
risg ; 

Gwgon of Dyved ; 

Bledrws, son of Bleid- 

Gwyn, the maer, the 
man who was the owner 
of Glantavwyn, to whom 
the house belonged in 
which the law was made ; 
and Blegewryd, archdea- 
con of Llandafl^, was the 
clerk, and he was a doc- 
tor in the law of the Em- 
peror and in the law of 
the Church. 

After the law had been 
all made, and completely 
written. How-el the good, 
accompanied by princes of 
Cymru, and ^ Lambert, 
Bishop of Menevia, and 
Mordav, Bishop of Ban- 
gor, and Cebur, Bishop of 
Saint Asaph, and Blege- 
wryd, archdeacon of Llan- 
daff, went to Rome, to 
Pope Anastasius, to read 
the law, and to see if 
there were anything con- 



*' the book came of K. 

* These names are variously written in the Brut y Tywysog. {M. E. B. S47); and differ still more 
widely in the Gwentian Brv.t, see above, p. 209. 




nadoed dim yn gwrthneby 
idi, hi a deilyngwyd ac a 
ehvid yn gyfreith Hwel 
dda hi o hynny allann. 

Ocdran )t Arglwyd Jes- 
su Grist yr aniser hwnnw 
naw kant mlyncd a phe- 
deir ardec. A llynia y 
gwersseu a wnacth Blegc- 
w r\ t yna yn dystoliaeth ar 

Explicit editus legibus liber 

bene finitus 
Qnem regi scripcit Blangori- 

dus et qucKjue fuit 
Hweli turbc ductor tunc Icgis 

in vrbc 
Cornando cano tunc iudice 

Rex dabit ad partem dixte- 

rain nam iumerat artcm. 

Scf oed ocd Krist pan 
aeth Howel da vrenhin 
y Ryucin y gadarnhau 

y gyfrcithcu drwy 

awl vediant XI 1 1 1, a IX. 
C mylyned. 

»Oed Crist XL. a IX. 
(J^ mylyned pan vy varw 
Howel da penn a moiiant 
yr holl Vrytaniaid.]— [I. 
338, 340, 342-] 

* Oed vr Arelwvdd Tesv oedd pan vv varw Howel dda vab Kadell vab Rrodri vab Kaniwri 
' ^ LX^XLVIII. Z. 

A.D. 809-Tioo.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 231 

[the laws of howel the good. A.D. 92S.] 



trary to the law of God 
in it ; and as there was 
nothing militating against 
it, it was confirmed, and 
was called the law of 
Howel the good from that 
time forward. 

The year of the Lord 
Jesus Christ at that time, 
nine hundred and fourteen. 
And here are the verses 
composed by Blegewryd 
thereupon, in testimony of 
that event. 

Explicit editus legibus liber 

bene finitus 
Quern regi rcripcit Blangori- 

dus et quoque fuit 
Hweli tuibe doctor tunc legis 

in vrbe 
Cornando cano tunc iudice 

Rex dabit ad partem dexte- 

rain nam sumerat artem. 

The year of Christ,when 
king Howel the good went 
to Rome to confirm his 
laws by papal authority, 
was nine hundred and 

' The year of Christ was 
nine hundred and * forty 
when Howel the good 
died, the chief and glory 
of all the Britons'. [I. 339, 

'' The year of the Lord Jesus when Howel the good, son of CadelJ, son of Rodri, son of 
•> CamwTi, died, 948. Z, 

=» The discrepancy in the dates concerning the y Tywysog. a. 948 (M. E. B. 847). 
death of Howe! is occasioned by the account in the '' This word, which means ' oppression,' is an 
text being taken from a chronicle in which the events epithet here applied to Mervyn the father of 
of a decade were not particularized. See the Brut Rodri. 



GWYNEDD (BK. I. C. i.) 

I. Or Uys e kcinyrt dc- 
creu ; ' ac egosodes pedu- 
uar arugeyn oguasanaeth- 
guyr en llys' [nyt amgcn :] 

1. Penteulu. 

2. Effeiryat [tcylu]. 
(&c. &c.) 

II. [Swydogyon y vrcn- 
hines ynt y rei hynn.] 

1. Dysteyn eureny- 


2. Efeyr)-at cucrcny- 

(&c. &c.) 

III. -^Suydhocyon cry- 
fassam ny hiichof dyucthaf 
ar iiuyt ynt' ». 

IV. Tcrcgvicyt cnc uul- 
uyn c delcant cpcduuar- 
suydauc arugeyn huchof 
kafael heruuyd kelVeyth 
eu bredhenguysc ykan 
ebrenyn ac eu Ilyeynguysc 
y can eurenynes [nyt am- 
gen] e Nodolyc a[rj Pasc 
a[r] Sulguyn. 

V. E Brenhin adcle roy 
ir urenynes trayan akafo 
o enyll o [e] tyr a [e] 
dayar ac e uelly ''guasa- 
naytguyr ebrenyn adclcant 
roy trayan y guasanaytuyr' 
eiu-enynes. [I. 4, 6.] 

[C\-VREIT111AU H\-WEL DDA. A.D. i)2H.] 

DYVED (UK. I. C. i.) 

I. Kynntaf y dcchrcuis 
y Brenhin kyureith yllys 
peunydyaul ac or dechreu 
y gossodes petuar swydawc 
arliugeint ynny lys peu- 
nydyawl nyt anigcn : 

1. Penntculu. 

2. Offeirat tculu. 
(&c. &c.) 

9. Dystein brenhincs. 

10. Otfcirat hrcnhines. 
(&c. Sec.) 

II. Dylyetyswydogyonn 
hynn y\v calTel brethynn- 
wisc y gann [y] Brenhin 
allieynwysc y gann y vren- 
hines teir gweith ynny ul- 
wydynn yn Nadolyc, ar 
Pasc, ar Sulgwynn. 

III. Y vrcnhines adyly 
calVel [yj trayan y gann y 
Brenhin or ennill a del 
ydaw oetir ac val hynny 
y dyly [ant] swydogyonn 
yvrcnhines [calTel y] tra- 
yan [or ennill] ygan swy- 
dogyonn y Brenhin. • fl. 

GWENT (BK. I. C. i.) 

I. Ac y dechreussant yn 
gyntaf kyfreitheu Uys can 
ynt penhaf canys wrth y 
Brenhin ar urenhincs y 
pcrthynant, ar pcdwar 
swydawc arugeint ae can- 
hynidaant [nyt amgen]. 

1. Penteulu. 

2. EfFcirat tculu. 
(&c. &c.) 

9. Distein [y] bren- 
10. P'.fVeirat [y] bren- 

(&c. &c.) 

II. Dylyct yswydogyon 
[oil I y w catlcl brethynwisc 
yganybrenhin, allieinwisc 
ygan yurenhines teir 
gweith yny ulwydyn ; y 
Xadolyc, ar Pasc, ar Sulg- 


* * * 

IV. Swydogyon y uren- 
hincs agafFant trayan o holl 
enill swydogyon y Bren- 
hin. [1.622,624.] 

(UK. I. c. vi.) (l!K. I. c.v. § 2.) (bk. I. c. V. § 6.) 

[Pctwar cadeyryawc] ar Y le avyd yny ncuad [Y] rwg y gwrlhrychat 

dec esyt en [y] llys peduuar aniytan ar Brenhin ; ac ar colouyn yn nessaf idaw 

1' petwar swydawc anigeynt adely bot ynd y li.Jh ■' Ar swydogyon kyntaf aryuassam ny ucfiot 

yw rey y llys, ar vyth dywethaf yw rcy y ureiihines V. ^' swydwyr y Brenhyn y swydwyr J!.l>. 

" The text here appears to be corrupt, through of A., which admits of being read ' wuyt,' ' food,' .i> 
the omission of part of the sentence and the arabi- in E., or ' wyth,' ' eight,' as in li.lJ. ' 
guity of the word ' uuyt' in the ancient orthography 

A.D. 809-1 TOO.] 


[the laws of howel the good. A.D. 928.] 


VENEDOTI.^N (BK. I. C. i.) 

I. He began with the 
court ; ' and appointed 
twenty-four servants in 
the court', namely : 

1. Chief of the house- 


2. Priest of the house- 

(Fourteen others.) 

II. These are the offi- 
cers of the queen. 

1. Steward to the 


2. Priest to the 

(Six others.) 

III. ^The officers whom 
we have enumerated above 
are last at table' *. 

IV. Three times in the 
year the above twenty-four 
officers are entitled to re- 
ceive, according to law, 
their woollen garments 
from the King, and their 
linen garments from the 
queen ; namely, at Christ- 
mas, Easter, and Whitsun- 

V. The King is to give 
the queen a third of the 
produce of his landed pro- 
perty ; and in like manner 
^the servants of the King 
are to give a third to the 
servants' of the queen. [I. 

(bk. I., c. vi.) 
There are fourteen per- 
sons who sit on chairs in 


DIMETIAN (bk. I. C. i.) 

I. First, the King insti- 
tuted the law of his daily 
court ; and at the first he 
established twenty-four 
officers in the daily ser- 
vice of his court, that is 
to say : 

1. Chief of the house- 


2. Prie-st of the house- 

(Six others.) 
9. Steward to the 

10. Priest to the 

(Fourteen others.) 

II. The due of these 
officers is to have woollen 
clothing from the King, 
and linen clothing from the 
queen, three times in the 
year ; at Christmas, at 
Easter, and at Whitsun- 

III. The queen is to 
have a third from the 
King of the produce ac- 
cruing to him from his 
land ; and in like manner, 
the officers of the queen 
are to have a third of the 
produce of the officers of 
the King. [I. 345-] 


(bk. I. c. v. § 2.) 
His (the edling's) place 
in the hall is on the oppo- 

GWENTIAM (bk. I. C. i.) 

I. And they began with 
the laws of the court, as 
they are the most import- 
ant, since they pertain to 
the King and queen, and 
the twenty-four officers 
who accompany them : 

1. Chief of the house- 


2. Priest of the house- 

(Six others.) 
9. Steward to the 

10. Priest to the 

(Fourteen others.) 

II. All the officers are 
to have woollen clothing 
from the King, and linen 
clothing from the queen, 
three times in the year; 
at Christmas, Easter, and 

IV. The officers of the 
queen have a third of all 
the revenue of the officers 
of the King. [1.623,625.] 

(bk. I. c. V, § 6.) 
Between the heir-appa- 
rent and the pillar, next 

^' Twenty-four officers are to be in it B.D. '^' The foremost officers we enumerated above are -those 
of the court, and the last eight are those of the queen B. ^' the King's servants to the servants B.B. 



GWYNEDD (BK. I. C. vi.) 

onadunt ys coref adcc uch 
coref. [Yn] kentaf [e\v] 
ebrenyn [ef] adele eyste 
• en nessaf yr keluy' : ac 
enessaf ydau enteu ■ ekeg- 
hellaur; a guedy hcnny er 
^hosb; ac gucdy henny cr 
c cdlyg ; ac gucdy henny e 
pen hebogyt ; ar troydauc 
yam cdyskyl ac ef ; ar 
-nicdyc emon e koloucn 
yam etan ac ef. Enessaf 
yr kclluy arall er efcyryat 
teylu urth uendygau yuuyt 
akanu e Pader ; ar colouen 
uch ypen [ef] adoly cr 
gostechur ymaydu ; enes- 
saf ydau enteu er enat 
llys ; enessaf ydhau enteu 
chart kadeyryauc ; cgof 
llys empen eueyg rac deu- 
lun er efeyryat. [I. lo.] 



DYVED (bk. I. C. V. § 2.) 
ynessaf ydaw y brawdwr 
yr rydhaw ar golofyn ac 
yn eil nessaf idaw yr offei- 
rat teulu ac or parth arall 
yr etlig pennkerd y wlat ; 
guedy hwnnw nyt ocs le 
dylyedus yncb or parth 
hwnnw. [I. 348.] 

[Bk. I. c. XXV. § I. (3). 
Si Episcopus fuerit in tri- 
bus principalibus festis cum 
Rcgc, ad dexteram Regis 
debet sedere, et Ke-g/xl- 
laur (cancellarius) ad si- 
nistram yn hynaf (ut se- 
ncx).]— [II.83:.] 

GWENT (bk. I. C. V. § 6.) 

yd eistcd yr ygnat llys or 
parth arall [idaw] yr effei- 
rat teulu gwedy ynteu y 
penkerd [ac] odyna nyt 
oes le dilis y neb [yny 
ncuad].— [I. 6j6.] 

(bk. I. c. viii.) 

I. Yr eyl eu [cr] efcy- 
ryat teulu. 

II. Hunu adele ytyr en 
r)'t ay guysc teyrgueyt en 
euuluydyn [ae uarch pres- 
swel a] ylyeyn [wise] ykan 
eurenynes, ay uredhcn- 
guysc ykan ebrenyn. 


(bk. I. C. vii. § 5.) 

Naud yr oflfeirat teulu 

yw dwyn ydyn hyt yr 

cglwys nessaf idaw. [I. 


(bk. I. c. viii. § 9. 
Y neb asarhao offeirat 
[teulu] neu ae llado go- 
deuet gyureith scncd [ar- 
naw dy] eithyr am wely 
tauot. [I. 356.] 

(bk. I. c. vi. § 4.) 
Nawd [yr] elfeirat teulu 
yw hebrwg [y] dyn hyt yr 
eglwys nessaf. [I. 628.] 

(bk. I. c. vii. § 2-9.) 
II. Sef yw ''galanas dis- 
tein ygnat llys penkynyd 
pengwastrawt [penkerd] 
hebogyd gwasystauell ^ un 
^sarhaet ac un 'ebediw ac 
un vreint eu merchct. 

'' yr colouyn T>. 

- medyd 7J. 

• The (angheUor was an officer in each comot, 
attendant on the King when in his district, 
b /irs/) = hospes = guest, 
c e<?/i/j7 = heir-apparent. 

efTeiryad teulu X. 

^ (7a'<i'i<'« = compensation for murder. 
"-' saraad = line due for injury, 
f ebediw = a render in the nature of a heriot or 

A.D. 809-1 100.] 




VENEDOTIAN (bK. I. C. vi.) 

the palace ; four of them 
in the lower portion, and 
ten in the upper portion. 
The first is the King; he 
is to sit next the ' screen* : 
next to him the cang- 
hellor '' ; then the osb •> ; 
then the edling''; then the 
chief falconer ; the foot- 
holder on the side oppo- 
site to the king's dish ; and 
the - mediciner, at the base 
of the pillar opposite to 
him, on the other side of 
the fire. Next to the 
other screen, the priest of 
the household, to bless the 
food and chaunt the ' Pa- 
ter;' the silentiary is to 
strike the pillar above his 
head : next to him the 
judge of the court ; next 
to him the chaired bard ; 
the smith of the court on 
the end of the bench, be- 
fore the priest. [1. 11.] 

(bk. I. c. viii.) 

I. The second [of the 
King's officers] is the 
priest of the household. 

II. He is to have his 
land free ; his clothing 
three times in the year ; 
and his horse in attend- 
ance ; and his linen cloth- 
ing from the queen, and 
his woollen clothing from 
the King. 


DIMETIAN (BK.I. C.V. § 2.) 

site side of the fire to the 
King ; and next to him the 
judge, between him and 
the column ; and next to 
him the priest of the house- 
hold ; and on the other side 
of the edlingb, the chief of 
song of the country ; after 
him, there is no privileged 
place for any one, on that 
side. [I. 349.] 


GWENTIAN (bK.I. C.V, §6.) 

to him, the judge of the 
court sits ; and the priest 
of the household on the 
other side of him ; next 
to him the chief of song ; 
and after that there is no 
fixed place for any one in 
the hall. [I. 627.] 


(BK.I. c.vii. §5.) 
The protection of the 
priest of the household is, 
to convey the person to the 
nearest church. [ 1 . 3 5 3 .] 
(bk. I. c. viii. § 9.) 
Whoever does saraad 
to the priest of the house- 
hold, or shall kill him, is 
amenable to the laws of 
the synod ; but not for 
tongue-wound. [I. 357.] 

(bk. I. c. vi. § 4.) 

The protection of the 

priest of the household is, 

to conduct the person to the 

nearest church. [I. 629.] 

(bk. I. c.vii. § 2-14.) 

II. The galanasiJ of the 

steward, judge of the 

court, chief huntsman, 

chief groom, chief of song, 

falconer, and page of the 

chamber, ^and their sa- 

1 pillar B. 

- mead brewer B. 

— priest of the household X. 

The hall, it would appear, contained six pil- dais, or upper portion, the king and nine of his 


lars for the support of the roof; the fire-place occu- 
pied a space between two of these pillars, and 
screens, which extended from these pillars to the 
side walls, divided the hall into two parts : in the 
VOL. I. 

officers were seated, in the nether portion were 

allotted seats for the otlier four ofBcers, and places 

for the rest of the household. 

^ See notes *, **, ", <^, on p. 224. 



GWYNEDD (BK. I. C. viii.) 

III. Yle en eneuat [yv] 
yam etan ar Brenyn enes- 
saf yr keluy urth ucndykau 
y uuyt akanu e Pader. 



DYVED (bK. I. C. ix. § 3.) 

Llety yr offeirat ar ys- 
colheigyonn y\v ty [y] cap- 
Ian ytref ^ a llety offeirat [y] 
brcnhines y gyt ac wynt. 
[I. 358.] 

[Period II. 

GWENT (b.i. c.vii. § 2-14.) 

IV. Ylcty[yv]enty[y] 
clocyd ar escoleygyon y 
kyd ac ef. 

V. Ysaraet eu hcruyd 
brant [y] senedguyr. 

VI. Ay ankuyn eu 
[bwyt] seyc acorncyt [o] 

VII. Ef adcle ofnnn 
ebrenyn apaup [or] yrodho 
ef ofrum ydau eneteyr guyl 
ar bennyc. 

VIII. Ef adcle trayan 
degiim e Brenyn. 

IX. Ef adcle dcgum 
eteulu [ac] ef adcle add 
en cu dayret. 

X. Ef adcle pedeir kci- 
nyauc [gabyr] am pop yn- 
seyl agoret [or] arodher 
am tyr adayar a neghesseu 
ereyll maur. 

XI. Ef adele offrum 
ebrenyn peunyt ar [yr] 
eferen ac offrum esuyd- 
guyr aclan : atrayan [cu] 

(bk. I. c. xii.) 
I. Offeirat teulu ageiff 
ywisc ypcnnyttyo y Bren- 
hin yndi y Garawys [yn] 
erbyn y Paso ac [y] vclly 
offeirat brenhines ageiff 
ygwisc hitheu. 

1 1 . Dcudegmu atclir dros 
sarhact offeirat teulu ar 
trayan ageiff ef ar deu- 
parth yr Brcnhin. 

III. Ef ageiff offrwm 
ybrenhin ae teulu ynny 
tcir gAvyl arbennic. 

IV. Y varch ageiff or 
ebrann kymcint a rann 
deu varch ac [y] vclly pob 
swydawc arbennic. 

V. Ef y\v ytrydyd dyn 
ageidw ' breint llys yn 
awssen [y] Brenhin. 

VI. Offeirat [y] bren- 
hines ageiff march yn wos- 
seb ygann y brenines. 

III. Yn y sarhact ytelir 
naw mu anaw ugcint ary- 

IV. Yn y galanas y telir 
naw mu anaw ugein mu 
gan tri dyrchauel. 

V. [Punt ywebcdiw pop 
vn ohonunt]. 

VI. Punt yw gobyr'' eu 

VII. Teir punt yn y 
chowyll <^. 

VIII. Seith punt yn y 
hcgwcdi ^. 

IX. Sarhact pob un or 
swydogyon crcill cithyr y 
penteulu ar cffeirat teulu 
[kyn hanfwynt or swydo- 
gyon ereill] nyt ynt un 
urcint [ynsarhaet pop vn 
or] s%\7dogyon ereill [y 
telir whe bu a whe ugeint 

X. Yn y alanas y telir 
chwe bu a chweugein mu 
gan tri dyrchauel. 

XI. Yn y hebediw yte- 
lir chweugeint aryant. 

XII. Punt ahanher yw 

' cof M. 

* trev = a. vill, a territorial division containing <^ coicj/n = maiden-fee, given by bridegroom to 

four garaels or 256 encs. bride the morning after marriage. 

*> gohyr or anK)f*yj= maiden-dues, paid to the ^ agiceddi^ dower. 
lord on marriage. 

A.D. Soy-iioo. 1 THE SAXON PERIOD. 237 

[the laws of howel the good. a.d. 928.] 

VENEDOTIAN (BK.I.C.viii.) DIMETIAN (BK.I. C.ix. § 3.) GWENT. (H. I. C.vii. § 2-14.) 

III. His place in the 
hall is opposite to the King, 
on the opposite side of the 
fire, next to the screen, 
to say grace, and to 
chaunt the ' Pater.' 

IV. His lodging is in the 
house of the "chaplain, and 
the clerks with him. 

V. His saraad is accord- 
ing to the decision of the 

VI. His allowance is a 
mess of meat, with a horn- 
ful of liquor. 

VII. He is entitled to an 
otlering from the King, and 
from every one to whom 
the King shall give an of- 
fering at the three prin- 
cipal festivals. 

VIII. He is to have a 
third of the King's tithe. 

IX. He is to have the 
tithe of the household, 
and he is entitled to their 
' ^ daered.' 

X. He is to have four' 
pence fee for every patent 
seal that is given respect- 
ing landed property, and 
other important transac- 

XL He is entitled to a 
daily offering from the 
King at mass, and the 
offering of all the ser- 

The lodging of the priest 
and the clerks, is to be in 
the house of the chaplain 
of the trev c ; and the 
queen's priest is to lodge 
with them. [I. 359.] 
(bk, I, c. xii,) 

I. The priest of the 
household is to have the 
garment in which the King 
shall do penance during 
Lent, against Easter; and 
in like manner the priest 
to the queen is also to 
have her garment. 

II. Twelve kine are to 
be paid as the saraad of 
the priest of the household ; 
and of this he is to have a 
third, and the two parts 
go to the King. 

III. He is to have the 
offering of the King and 
his household at the three 
principal festivals. 

IV. His horse is to have 
a ration of provender equal 
to that of two horses : and 
the horse of every princi- 
pal officer the like, 

V. He is the third per- 
son, to maintain the • pri- 
vilege of the palace in the 
absence of the King, 

VI. The queen's priest 
is to have from her his 
horse in attendance. 

raad<=, and cbediw'^, and the 
rank of their daughters, 
are the same, 

III, For their saraad 
nine kine and nine score 
of silver are to be paid. 

IV, For their galanas 
nine score and nine kine, 
with three augmentations, 
are to be paid. 

V, One pound is the 
ebediw of each of them, 

VI, One pound is the 
gobyr<= of their daugh- 

VII, Three pounds for 
their cowyll <=. 

V I I I, Seven pounds for 
their agweddi <=. 

IX, For the saraad of 
each of the other officers, 
except the chief of the 
household and the priest 
of the household, who, al- 
though of the number of 
the officers, are not of si- 
milar privilege, there are 
to be paid six kine, and six 
score of silver, 

X, For their galanas, 
six score and six kine, 
with three augmentations, 
are to be paid. 

XL For their ebediw 
six score of silver are to 
be paid. 

XII. The gobyr of 

record M. 

" The word ' clochydd,' literally ' bellman,' at ' domus capellaiii,' and some Welsh MSB. have 
present denotes a parish clerk : it is here rendered ' caplan.' ^ Perhaps ' mortuary.' 

• chaplain,' because two ancient Latin MSS. have " See notes on pp. 224, 226. 

Q 2 



[Period 11, 

GWYNEDD (bK.I. C. viii.) 

gueyny ar deuparth ' or 
He pan hanfo [ent]. A[c 
cuclly am] popct aper- 
theno parth ar llys lioll o 
denyon cf byeu trayan cu 


DVVED (bk. 1. c. xii.) 

VII. - Offcirat teulu ar 
hcbogyd ar pennkynyd ar 
brawdwr llys ar penn- 
guastraut, agaffant veirch 
y gann y Brcnhin wrth eu 

GWKNT (n.i. c.vii. § 2-14.) 
gobyr [pop vn oc] cii nicr- 

XIII. fPunt y\v ahancr 
cu cowyll]. 

XIV. Tcir punt yn y 
hcgweddi. [1.632,634.] 

XII. Ef adcly y dyllat 
auo am ebrenyn tra uo 
en e Garauys. 

XIII. Ef adclc uod en 
guastat ykyd ar Brcnyn, 
kanys trcdyt anhcbchor 

XIV. Ef adele kafael 
yuarch ual ytreulyho ykan 

XV. Ny dele [cr] Escop 
pcrsony nep ar sapeleu 
ebrenyn heb ykaynat [na- 
myn er eft'eyryat tcylu 
onyt can kyghor c Bren- 
hyn].— [I. 16, 18.] 

(bk. I. c. xliii. § I, 14,) 
I. Try anhebkor Brenyn 
eu [c] efeyryat urth uen- 
dykau yuuyt akanu efcrcn 
ar egnat llys urth dehos- 
part pop ped pedrus ay 
teulu urth y negesseu. 

XIV. Palcbcnnac ed 
emkafoent er efeyryat 

VIII. Ac eu tir agynn- 
halyant yn ryd. 

IX. Tri ryw wassanacth 
yssyd y ofTeirat llys yn 
[yj dadleuoed [vn y\v] di- 
leu pob dadyl a dartib 
ythenynu [^orol;] cilyw 
cadw ynnyscriuennedyc 
hyt vamn pob dadyl -ihyn- 
ny tcruynner' ; trydyd y\v 
bot yn barawt ac yn ''di- 
uefv vrth reit y Brcnhin 
y wnneuthur llythyrcu ac 
[y] cu darllcin. [I. 364.] 

(uK. I. c. xiv. § 20, 
in part.) 
[Ac] odyna ydyly [y] 
caplan ybrenhin ydwyn cf 
yr cglwys achyt ac ef y 
deudec swydawc arbcnnic 
[y] lys \Tth offeren ac gue- 
dy offeren ac offrwm y gann 
baup paret y caplan idaw ty- 
gu ary creir ac ar yr allawr 
ac y \\nyeitheit adotter aryr 
allawT na rodho [ef] cam 

(bk. I. c. viii. § 3.) 
Llcty yr efl'eirat teulu 
ac yscolhcigon y llys gan- 
taw uyd ty y caplan. [I. 

(bk. I. C. X.) 
I. Y neb asarhaho [neu 
a ''latho] cfTcirat teulu dio- 
deuet kyfrcith scned [yn 
gyntaf] ac am y sarhaet 
deudcg mu atelir idaw y 
trayan agciff cf ar deuparth 
yr Brcnhin. 

♦ II. Effcirat teulu a geifT 
ywisc y penytyo ybrenhin 
yndi [y Garawys ahynny] 
yn erbyn y Pasc. 

III. Ef bieu offrwm y 
Brcnhin ar teulu ac offrwm 
y sawl agymcrho offnvm 
yny teir gwyl arbenhic y 

• yr D.E. *' Pob swydoc arbenic a gaiff march wrth i rait i gan y Brenhin. P.Q. ' ar ol ; T. 

'' ni tliervynwyt; /'.Q./i. ^ diuedw J.P.Q.L'.T. ' holo A'. 

A.D. 809-1 lOO.] 


[the laws of howel the good. A.D. 928.] 


VENEDOTIAN (BK. I. C.viii.) 

vants : "also a third of 
their ' gweini,' and the 
two parts ' from the place 
whence they originate. 
And in every thing per- 
taining to the court from 
all persons, he is entitled 
to a third of their ser- 

XII. He is to have the 
dress worn by the King 
during Lent. 

XIII. He is to be con- 
stantly with the King, for 
he is the third indispens- 
able person. 

XIV. He is to have a 
fresh horse, when neces- 
sary, from the King. 

XV. The Bishop is not 
to present any one to the 
King's chapels, without the 
permission of the priest of 
the household, except by 
the advice of the King. 
[I. 17, I9-] 

(bk. I. c, xliii. § 1, 14.) 
I. The three indispens- 
ables to a King are, his 
priest to say grace and 
sing mass; the judge of 
the court, to elucidate 
everything doubtful ; and 
his household for his com- 

XIV. Wherever the 
priest of the household, 

DIMETIAN (bk. I. C. xii.) 

VII. -'The priest of the 
household, the falconer, 
the chief huntsman, the 
judge of the court, and 
the chief groom, are to 
have horses from the 
King, as they may be 

VIII. And they are to 
hold their land free. 

IX. There are three 
duties appertaining to the 
priest of the court, in its 
proceedings : one is, to ex- 
punge every cause that has 
been determined -^ from 
the roll' ; the second is, 
to preserve in writing 
for judgment every cause, 
"* until it be determined' ; 
the third is, to be pre- 
pared and "'prompt, when 
required by the King, to 
write letters, and to read 
them. [1. 365.] 

(bk. I. c. xiv. § 20, 
in part.) 
[A judge elect is to serve 
a year's apprenticeship,] 
and then the King's 
chaplain is to take him to 
the church, having with 
him the twelve principal 
officers of the court, to 
mass ; and after mass, and 
an offering by every one, 
let the chaplain require 

GWENT. (b.i. c.vii. § 2-14.) 
each of their daughters 
is one pound and a 

XIII. One pound and a 
half is their cowyll. 

XIV. Three pounds for 
their agweddi. [I. 633, 


(bk.i. c.viii. § 3.) 
The lodging of the 
priest of the household, 
having the scholars of the 
court with him, is to be in 
the chaplain's house. [I. 


(bk. I. ex.) 

I. Whoever shall do sa- 
raad to, or shall "^ murder 
the priest of the house- 
hold, let him first submit 
to the law of the sy- 
nod : and, for his saraad, 
twelve kine are to be 
paid him : he is to have 
a third, and the two re- 
maining parts go to the 

II. To the priest of 
the household belongs the 
garment in which the 
King shall do penance, 
during Lent, against Eas- 

III. To him belongs the 
offering of the King, and 
of the household, and the 
offering of those who shall 

' to B.E. 2' Every principni officer shall have a horse at command from the King. P.Q. ^' after- 

wards; T, ^' unfinished; P. Q.B. ^ sohei, J.F.Q.R.T. « sue A'. 

» This appears to signify that the priest of the ' dues,' and the priests resident where the servants' 
household had a third of the servants' ' giceini ' or revenues originated the other two thirds. 



GWYN. (BK.I.C.xliii.§I,I4.) 

[teulu] ar dysteyn ar enat 
[llys] ena ebyt breynt 
ellys. [1.76,78.] 


DYVED (bk. I.C.xiv. § 20.) 
vamn vyth h)! ygA\7ppo 
nac yradohvyn neb nac yr 
pwerth nac yr caryat nac 
yr cas neb. Gwedy hynny 
deucnt ygyt at y Brenhin 
adywedcnt yr hynn awTiae- 
thant ymdanaw ac yna 
ydyly y Brenhin rodi y 
swyd idaw, o byd bod- 
lawnn idaw, &c. [I. 370, 

(BK.I. C. XV. §7.) 
Ef adyly ystynnu pob 
march a ' rodho y' Bren- 
hin ac obop inarch ykcifT 
cf pedeir keinnawc eithyr 
o tri [ineirch] ymarch 
arodher yr ofTeirat teuhi, 
&c. [1. 576.1 

(hk. II. c. viii. § 9, 19, 48, 
IX. Tri anhebcor Bren- 
hin ynt : y offeirat y ganu 
y ofTcrcnn ac y vcndigaw y 
A-Avyt ae lynn ; ae vrawdyr 
llys y vamu brodyeu ac 
yrodi kyghoreu; ae teulu 
vrth wneuthur negesseu y 
Brenhin. [I. 436, 438.] 

XIX. Tcir sarhaet ny 
diwygir or kcfhr trwy ved- 
dawt : sarhaet vr ofTeirat 

GWENT (bk.i. c. X.) 
gan y Brenhin [byth liagen 
y kymcr ollVwm ybrenhinj. 

IV. Bwyt seic ageifl" [yny 
ancwyn] or llys achorneit 

v. A march [bitwosseb] 
ageiff y gan y brenhin. 

VI. Athrayan holl de- 
g%vm ybrenhin ageilT. 

VII. Ar trydydyn an- 
hepkor [yr] Brenhin yw 
yr ofTeirat [teulu]. 

Mil. Ar trydydyn a 
gynhcil breint llys yn aws- 
sen [y] Breniiin [yw]. [I. 

(bk. I. c. xiv. § 6.) 
Ef bicu estyn y nicirch 
[oil] arodho y Brenhin pe- 
deir keinawc a g)'mer yn- 
teu o bob un eithyr o [r] 
tri [meirch hynn] : march 
[arother yr]efTeirat [teulu], 
&c. [1. 648.] 

(bk. I. c. xxxiii. § 5.) 
Myny bwynt ygyt yr 
cfTeirat teulu, ar distein, 
ar ygnat llys, breint llys 
auyd yno kyn boet awssen 
y Brenhin. [I. 670.] 

'' rnder yr .J. 

A.D. 809-1 100.] 


[the laws of howel the good. A.D. 928.] 


VEN. (bk.i. c. xliii. § 1,14.) 
the steward, and the judge 
of the court meet together; 
that place has the privilege 
of the court. [1.77,79.] 

DIMETIAN (BK.I.C.xiv.§20.) 

him to swear by the relics, 
and by the altar, and by 
the consecrated elements 
placed upon the altar, that 
he will never deliver a 
wrong judgment know- 
ingly, either through the 
entreaty of any one, or 
for worth, or for love, or 
for hatred of any one. 
After that, let them repair 
together to the King, and 
declare what they have 
done in respect to him : 
then the King is to confer 
upon him his office, if sa- 
tisfied with him, &c. [I, 

371, 373-] 

(BK. I. C. XV. § 7.) 

He [the chief groom] 
is to deliver every horse 
'given by' the King; and 
for every horse he is to 
have four-pence, except 
for three : the horse given 
to the priest of the house- 
hold, &c. [I. 377.] 
(bk. II. c. viii. § 9, 19, 48, 
68, 70.) 

IX. The three indis- 
pensables of the King are : 
his priest, to say mass, 
and to bless his meat and 
drink; his judge of the 
palace, to decide causes, 
and to give counsel ; and 
his household, to execute 
his commands. [I. 437, 


XIX. Tkree saraads not 
to be redressed, if received 
when inebriated : saraad 

GWENT. (bk.i. ex.) 
receive an offering from 
the King at the three 
principal festivals : he, 
however, always re- 
ceives the King's offer- 

IV. He has a dish of 
meat, as provision from 
the palace, and a hornful 
of mead. 

V. And he has a horse, 
always in attendance, from 
the King. 

VI. And he has a third 
of all the King's tithes. 

VII. And the priest of 
the household is one of 
the three indispensable 
persons to the King. 

VIII. He is one of the 
three persons w ho support 
the privilege of the court 
in the King's absence. [I, 

(bk. i. c. xiv. § 6.) 
The chief groom is to 
deliver all the horses which 
the king shall give; he is 
to receive four-pence for 
each, except for these 
three horses : the horse 
that shall be given to the 
priest of the household, 
&c. [1. 649.] 

(bk. I. c. xxxiii. § 3.) 
Where the priest of the 
household, the steward, 
and the judge of the 
court are together, there 
is the privilege of the 
court, although the King 
be absent. [I. 671.] 

^' given to .7, 





(bk. II. c. viii. § 9, 19, 48, 

68, 70.) 
teulu ; ar ygnat llys ; ar 
niedyc llys : canny dyly vn 
or tri hynny bot yn veddw 
byth canny vdant py ams- 
ser ybo reit yr Brenhin 
vrthunt. fl. 440, 442.] 

XLVlll. Iri chyfiirwch 

dirgci Lp^y<J] ^ *^'y'y >' 

Brenhin y galTcl hob y 
ygnat : gyt ae wrcic ; achyt 
ae ofieirat ; achyt ae vedyc. 
[I. 448.] 

LXVIIl. Tridyn ytclir 
gwclytaiiotvdunt: yr Bren- 
hin pan dywettcr gcir garw 
vrthaw ; ac y vrawdwr 
pan wystler yny erbyn am 
[y] iawn vamn os cf ae 
katarnna ; ac y offeirat 
yny eglwys yny teir g\vyl 
arbennic neu rac [bron] 
ybrcnhin yndarllein lly- 
thyrcu neu yny yscriii- 
enu. [I. 454-] 

LXX. Tri dyn ageidw 
breint llys yn awssenn [y] 
Brenhin : offeirat teulu ; 
adistein ; abrawdwr llys : 
py le bynnac ybw^ynt [ell 
tri] ygyt yno y byd breint 
llys.' [I.454.>- 

A. D. 809-1100.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 233 

[the laws of howel the good. A.D. 928.] 



(bk.II. c. viii. § 9, 19, 48, 

68, 70.) 
to the chaplain of the 
household ; to the judge 
of the palace ; and to the 
mediciner of the palace : 
because no one of those 
three ought ever to be 
drunk ; as they know not 
at what time the King 
may want their assistance. 
[I- 441, 443-] 

XLVIII. Three private 
intercourses which the 
King is to have without 
the presence of his judge : 
with his wife ; with his 
priest ; and with his me- 
diciner. [I. 449.] 

LXVIII. Three persons 
to whom tongue-wound is 
to be paid: to the King, 
when a rough word is 
spoken to him ; to a judge, 
when a pledge is given 
against him, as to his right 
judgment, if he can confirm 
it ; and to a priest in his 
church on the three prin- 
cipal festivals, or when he 
reads or writes letters 
before the King. [I. 


LXX. Three persons 
who support the privilege 
of the court in the King's 
absence : the priest of the 
household ; the steward ; 
and the judge of the court : 
wheresoever these three 
shall be together, there 
is the privilege of the 
court. [1. 455.] 



GWYNEDD (BK. I. C. xxiv.) DYVED (bK. I. C. vii. § I 3.) GWENT (bK. I. C 

Naud offeirat • bren- 
hincs yw hebrwg ydyn 
hvt yr egluys nessaf. [I. 

I. Er eyl cu er efeyryat 

II. Ef adely ytyr en 
ryd ay uarch [prcssvcl] 
ay lycyn ay uredyn ykan 
eurenynes ar BrenhjTi. 

Nawd cfTeirat [y] bren- 
hines yw dwyn dyn hyt yr 
eghvys nessaf. [I. 630.] 

III. Ef [a dele] trayan 
decum eurenynes ac aper- 
thyn [o] ar er estauell. 

IV. Ef adely pedeyr ke- 
ynyauc [kefreith] opop yn- 
seyl agoret arodho euren- 

V. Ef adely yhofrum 
apaub [or] apcrthcno 

VI. Ef adely dyllat eu- 
renynes er hun ypenytyo 
cndau [en hyt e Garawys,] 
erbyn c Pasc. 

VII. Ef adely bendy cau 
adel ouuyt allyn yr estauel. 

(bk. I. c. viii. § 4.) 
Llety effeirat y bren- 
hines uyd, ty y clochyd. 
[I. 634.] 

(bk. I. c. xi.) 

I. Plfrcirat y urcnhines 
ageifT march byth yn os- 
seb y gan y urcnhines. 

II. [Ac] ofTrwm [hi] y 
saw! apcrthyno [wrth] yr 
ystaucli tcir gwcith yny 
ulwydyn ageifT. 

III. Oflnvm y urcnhines 
[hagcn] ageifT [yn prcs- 

IV. Ar wise y penytyo 
[yurenhines] yndi y Gara- 
wys ageifT [y hefTeirat. 

VI II. Y Icty [yw] ykyd 
ac efeyryat ebrenyn en ty 

IX. Ynaud cu [hebrwg 
y dyn] hyd er egluys nes- 

X. Ysaract [yw] hcruut 
braut [c] senet. 

V. Lie yr cfTcirat yuren- 
hines auyd gyuarwyneb 
ahi].— [I.638.] 

XI. Yguerth [yw] hc- 
nuiyd breynt ckcnedel : ac 
cuelly [am] pop grahur. 
[I. 52.] 

(bk. I. c. ix. § 19.) 
Ef adele gossod naudh 

(bk.i. c. vii. § I.) 
Or pann safho ydistein 

(bk. I. c. xii. § 16.) 
Or pan dotto y dis 

Brenhin I'.Q. 

A.D. 809-1100.] 



[the laws of howel the good. A.D. 928.] 


VENEDOT. (BK, I. C. xxiv.) DIMET. (BK. I. C. vii. § I 3.) GWENT. (BK. I. C. vi. § I 3.) 

The protection of the 
priest to the ' queen is, 
to accompany the person 
as far as the nearest 
church. [I. 353.] 

[See also above, c. ix. 
§ 3, and c. xii. § i, 6, on 
pp. 226, 228.] 

I. The second is the 
queen's priest. 

I I . He is to have his land 
free ; and his horse in at- 
tendance ; and his linen 
and woollen from the 
queen and the King. 

III. He is to have a third 
of the queen's tithe ; and 
of what may pertain to 
the chamber. 

IV. He is to have four 
legal pence for every pa- 
tent seal which the queen 
shall give. 

V. He is to have her 
offering, and that of every 
one pertaining to her. 

VI. He is to have the 
clothes in which the 
queen shall do penance 
during Lent, against Eas- 

VII. He is to bless the 
meat and drink which are 
brought to the chamber. 

VIII. His lodging is with 
the King's priest, in the 
house of the chaplain. 

IX. His protection is, to 
accompany an otTender to 
the nearest church. 

X. His saraad is accord- 
ing to the decision of the 

XI. His worth is accord- 
ing to the privilege of his 
kindred : and so of every 
graduate. [I. 53.] 

The protection of the 

priest to the queen is, to 

conduct the person to the 

nearest church. [I. 631.] 

(bk. I. c. viii. § 4.) 

The lodging of the 
priest to the queen is to 
be in the house of the 
chaplain. [1. 635.] 
(bk. I. c. xi.) 

I. The priest to the 
queen has a horse always 
in attendance from the 

II.Andhehasher offer- 
ing, and the offerings of 
the persons belonging to 
the chamber, three times 
in the year. 

III. The offering of the 
queen, however, he is to 
have at all times. 

IV. And the priest also 
has the garments in which 
she shall do penance during 

V. The place of the 
priest to the queen is op- 
posite to her. [I. 639.] 

(bk. I. c. ix. § 19.) 
He [the steward] is to 

(bk. I. c. vii. § I.) 
From the time when 

(bk. I. c. xii. § 16.) 
From the time the 




GWYNKDD (bK.I. C.ix. § I 9.) 

... [a] puybenac atorro 
enaudh kefredyn ahossod- 
ho ef, nydoes y hunnu un 
naud. [I. 22.] 

(bk. II. ex.) 
I. Tripeth ni deleir naud 
racdunt kaneubot en ke- 
vadeucdic *goruodogaith a 
nieichniaith a goresgin. 

II. O deruid y pcrsoncu 
ir egluys dewcduyt gallu 
onadunt huy rody naud 
en erbin [ur] un o [r] tri 
pcht [henne] bit cpen 
ebrcnhin cgur a roes 
udunt huy e nodua [hon- 
noj en [y] deturit pa dclo 
e roes ef udunt huy cno- 
dua honno ac o roes ev 
enicrbin cuhun katwent 
huinteu ercn a roho ef 
udunt huy. 

III. Pop pcrchenauc tir 
llan adeleant dcuot ar pop 
Brenin newid adel ydat- 
kanu ydau ef eu breint ac 
eu delect ; ac essew achaus 
cdatkanant ydau ef rac 
tuyllau cbrennin : ac gue- 
dy e datkanont ydau ef 
[eu breynt] o guil cbren- 
nin bot yn aun eu breynt 
estynet cbrennin udunt eu 
nodua ac eu breint. 

IV. O deruit ydin gun- 


DYVED (bk. I. evil. § I.) 
yny neuad adodi naud 
Duw ar honn y Brenhin 
ar vrenhines ar *'g\vyrda ac 
eu tagncf [ed] ary Uys ar 
nyuer [ac] atorro ytagnef 
honno nyt oes ydaw nawd 
yn un lie [yny byt] kannys 
y nawd oil yn gyffrcdin 
y\v honno ac y ar nawd 
paub nawd y Brenhin yn- 
benhaf ac vrth hynny nyt 
oes nawd idaw y gann [un 
o honunt nac y gan crcy- 
rcu nac y gan] cglwys. [I. 

(bk. II. c.viii. § 1 3, in part.) 
Trydyd petwar yw y 
petwar dyn nyt oes nawd 
vdunt nac yn llys nac yn 
llann rac y Brenhin : [vn 
ywj dyn atorho nawd [y] 
Brenhin yn vn or tcir gwyl 
arbcnnic yny lys ; eil yw 
dyn aw^stler oe vod yr 
Brenhin ; trydyd yw y 
gwynnossawc yneb adyl- 
yho y borthi ynos honno ac 
nys portho ; petweryd yw 
ygaeth. [1. 438.] 

[Bk. III. c. xvii. § 29. 
(3). Quatuor sunt homi- 
nes qui in nuUo loco refu- 
gium habcnt : primus est 
qui post silentium assecle 
in tribusfestis principalibus 

OWEN'T (bk. I. c. xii. § 16.) 
tein nawd Duw ac un 
ybrenhin ar urenhines oe 
seuyll, [yny llys ar ^guyr 
da] atorho y nawd honno 
nyt oes nawd idaw nac yn 
llys nac yn llan onyt gan 
sant yny cglwys. [1. 640.] 

(bk.ii. c.xxxix. §45, in pt.) 
Y trj'dyd pedwar yssyd 
pcdwar dyn nyt oes nawd 
udunt nac yn llys nac yn 
llan rac Brenhin : un o 
honunt dyn atorho y 
nawd yn un or teir gwyl 
arbenhic yny lys; eil yw 
[yj dyn awystler oe uod 
yr Brenhin ; trydyd yw 
cwynossawc [yJ Brenhin 
[dyn adylyho y borthi ac 
ae gatt ynos honno heb 
uwyt;] pcdwcryd yw [y] 
gacth. [1.788.] 

" goruodogaith = suretiship for one accused of crime. 

*> ginda — i freeholder. 



VENEDOT. (bK.I. C. ix. § 1 9.) 

proclaim protection : . . . . 
and whoever shall violate 
the protection he shall 
proclaim is not entitled to 
any protection. [I. 23.] 
(bk. II, c. X.) 

I. Three things against 
which there is no protec- 
tion, if they be acknow- 
ledged : ^ gorvodogaeth, 
and suretiship, and ' '■ go- 

II. If the persons of the 
church say, that they are 
capable of granting pro- 
tection against any one 
of those three things; it 
is the prerogative of the 
King, who gave them that 
sanctuary, to determine in 
what manner he gave them 
such sanctuary ; and if he 
gave it to his own detri- 
ment, let them keep what 
he may have given them. 

III. All possessors of 
church land are to come to 
every new King who suc- 
ceeds, to declare to him 
their privilege and their 
obligation ; and the cause 
why they shall declare them 
to him is, lest the King be 
deceived : and after they 
may have declared to him 
their privilege, if the King 
see their privilege to be 
right, let the King, con- 
tinue to them their sanc- 
tuary and their privilege. 

IV. If a person do an 


DI.MET. (bk. I. c. vii. § I.) 
the steward stands in the 
hall, and proclaims the 
protection of God, and 
that of the King and 
queen and of the " gwrdas, 
and their peace, upon the 
court and the company ; 
the individual who shall 
break that peace is to 
have no protection any- 
where : because that is the 
protection of all generally ; 
and especially the protec- 
tion of the King ; and, on 
that account, there is no 
protection for him from 
any one of them, neither 
by relics, nor by church. 

[I. 351.] 

(bk.1I. c.viii. § 13, in part.) 
The third fours are, the 
four persons for whom 
there is no protection, 
either in court or in 
church, against the King : 
one is, a person who shall 
violate the King's protec- 
tion, in one of the three 
principal festivals, in the 
palace ; the second is, a 
person who is delivered 
with his own consent as 
a hostage to the King ; 
the third is, a person to 
whom the King is a sup- 
per guest, who ought to 
supply him with food that 
night, and who does not 
supply him ; the fourth is, 
the King's bondman. [I. 
439> 44I-] 


GWENT. (bk.i. c.xii. § 16.) 
steward, standing up in 
the palace, shall proclaim 
the protection of God, and 
the protection of the King 
and the queen, and of the 
" gwrdas ; whoever shall 
break that protection is 
not to have protection, 
either in the court or out 
of it, except from a saint 
in his church. [I. 641.] 
(bk. II. c.xxxix. § 45, in pt.) 
The third four are, the 
four persons to whom 
there is no protection, 
either in court, or in 
church, against the King : 
one. of them, a person who 
shall violate his protection 
at any one of the three 
principal festivals in the 
court; the second is, a 
person who shall be pledg- 
ed willingly to the King; 
the third is, the King's 
supperer, a person who 
ought to provide for him, 
and leaves him that night 
without food ; the fourth 
is, his bondman. [I. 789.] 

■■* See notes on p. 236. 

'^ Literally ' to super-ascend,' a term used for taking possession of land to which a person is entitled. 




euthur agkeureyth a rac 
eragkewrith eno kcrchu 
naut ac cf ar [y] naut 
honno kcuodi haul arnau ; 
ni dele cr abbadcu nar 
efeireit yhebrug ef eni 
wnel yaun amer ageureyth 
kesseuin [honno] : o deruit 
na kefroho haul arnau cf 
heprcgkcn vintheu cuo hit 
en [y] lie edelehont yhe- 




pacem Regis fregit ; secun- 

dus est, pignus; tercius, 

excommunicatus; quartus, 

captivus.] — [II. 890.] 


V. O deruit ydin guncu- 
thur cam [kewcrthyd] kc- 
niauc y ar e nodua, a kcu- 
odi haul arnau cf am er ag- 
heureyth [honno] rcdigo- 
nes y ar [c] nodua ; nydelc 
[cr abadcu] yamdilTm or 
naud c gnayth [c] cam [y] 
arnau onis atnew ida onaud 
arall oy ncwid en llan 

VI. Puipennac akcmcro 
naud ef adele emdeyth ene 
uenwent ar gorfflan hep 
krcircu arnau ai cscribil 
ygit ac cscribil e clas ar 
abbadeu hit ed cluuint 
pellaw ac ed ergeduynt e 
buches tracheuen. 

VII. O deruit yd>Ti hot 
creircu arnau aguncj-thur 
cam ohonau a dan ecrcireu 
ni dele [cafFacl naud nac] c 
amdyffin or crcireu hinni 
kanis haydus. 

VIII. Messur [y]corflan 

A.D. 809-1 lOO.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 239 

[the laws of howel the good. A.D. 928.] 

illegal act, and, on account 
of that illegal act, seek pro- 
tection, and, while under 
that protection, a suit arise 
against him ; neither the 
abbats nor the priests are 
to conduct him until he 
do right for that first ille- 
gal act : if no suit be com- 
menced against him, let 
them conduct him to the 
place to which they ought 
to conduct him. 

V. If a person do a 
wrong, to the value of a 
penny, from out the sanc- 
tuary, and a suit arise a- 
gainst him for the illegal 
act he committed from out 
the sanctuary ; he is not to 
be defended by the abbats 
by the protection under 
which he did the wrong, 
unless he obtain another 
protection anew in an- 
other church. 

VI. Whoever shall take 
protection, is to walk about 
within the church-yard 
and the burial-ground, 
without relics upon him ; 
and his cattle are to be 
with the cattle of the com- 
munity and the abbat's to 
the furthest limits they go 
and return to their cow- 
lair again. 

VII. If a person have re- 
lics upon him, and does an 
illegal act under the relics, 
he is not to have protec- 
tion nor defence through 
those relics; for he has 
not deserved it. 

VIII. The measure of 




[yw] eru keuureithiaul en 
[y] hit ay phen arc uen- 
went ahenne ekelch euen- 
went e dele bot en cum- 

IX. O deruit bot egluys 
adewetho deleu kenhal dyn 
ar enodua seythblcnct hep 
uneythur yaun ncu yspcyt 
auo huy abot er arghiyt 
auo arcglat en gurthunebu 
ydy [hy am] hynny ac [yn] 
deveduid nat cdyu c can- 
thau cf ydy [hi] cbrcynt 
hunu ; reyt hiu yrcghiys 
bot akatwo ydy [hy] cbre- 
ynt hunnu otestoyn [adu- 
wyn] deduaul ; ac os kciff 
gather ydy endywarawun 
ybrcint ac onis keiff hithcu 
nepreghct crcghiys ef mal 
e deleo oreu neu entheu 
giinayit yaun or agheii- 
reyth redigoncs. [I. 138, 

(bk. I. c. xhii. § 19-21.) (bk. II. c.vii. § 1-3, 6.) 

XIX. [" Kamluru deu- I. Tri rywdinvy»yssyd: 
deblyc a dele bot en llys vn o ymlad; ac arall o 
ac en Han a »dir\\7 veily]. treis ; tryded o letrat. 

XX. Puybenac aguenel II. Deudyblyc vyd dir- 
kam [yn] yuam ecluys talet wy yn llys ac yn llann os 
[ydy] pedejT punt ardec, mam eglwys ac vchclawg 
er hanner yr abat o[r] vyd. 

byd duyuaul letherur ar- 

" enmlicrtc = z fine of three kiiic or nine score pence, and ciiiwy = i fine of twelve kinc or three 

A. D. 809-1100.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 241 

[the laws of howel the good. aj). 928.] 

the burying-ground is a le- 
gal '"env' in length, with 
its end to the church-yard ; 
and that, circling the 
church-yard, is to be its 
compass. , 

IX. If any church should 
declare, that it can keep 
a person in its sanctuary 
for seven years, without 
his doing right, or for a 
longer period ; and the 
lord of the country op- 
pose this declaration, and 
say, that no such privilege 
originated from him to it ; 
it is necessary for the 
church to have that pri- 
vilege secured by respect- 
able customary witnesses : 
if it can do so, let its pri- 
vilege be preserved undis- 
turbed; and if it fail, let 
the church conduct him 
as it best may, or let him 
do right for the illegal act 
which he committed. [I. 
139, 141.] 

(bk. I. c. xliii. § 19-21.) (bk. II. c. vii. § r-3, 6.) 

XIX. A double camlw- I. There are three kinds 
nv** is to be in the palace of dirwy '': one for fight- 
and in the church, and so ing ; another for violence ; 
a dinvy ^ the third for theft. 

XX. Whoever shall do a II. A dirwy is to be 
wrong in a mother church, twofold, arising in court, 
let him pay to it fourteen or in church if it be a 
pounds : one half to the mother church and para- 
abbat, if he be a divinity mount. 

■ The • erw ' appears to have contained about 43 20 square yards. It was applied exclusively to 
arable lands. 

'' See note on p. 240. 

VOL. I. R 




(bk. I. c. xliii. § 19-21.) 
Hall erug er ' cfeyryat ar 
clas. Ogueneyr kam en 
euenuent seyth punt [a 
taler un ford e rennyr e 
rcy hcnne] en deuhanner 
ual elleyll. 

XXI. Piiybcnnac agu- 
enel kam emeun ecluys 
arali talet seyth punt e 
neyll banner yr ' efcyryat 
ar Hall yr -person. [1. 78, 


(bk. II. c. vii. § 1-3, 6.) 
III. O ymlad awnelher 
y mywn [y] mynwent ^pe- 
deir pimt ardec atelir : os 
o vaes [or vynwent] * ynny 
nodua seith punt atelir. 
Hanner y punoed hynny 
adaw yr abat os kyurei- 
thawl vyd ac egUvyssic [a] 
lljlhyrawl ar hanner arall 
adaw yr •'' ofTeircit ar kyn- 
nonw yr a vwynt yn gwass- 
anacthu Duw yno yryw 
rann honno avyd [y] rwg 
yr abbat ar kynnhonwyr 
or ynilad awncl y nawd- 
■w^r a gynierwynt nawil 
ygan yr ^ ofTeircit ar abat. 
Ac [y] velly yrcnnir pob 
peth or a del yr sant o 
oirrwiii ac nyt y allawr 
nac yncb arall. 


VI. O ymlad awnelher 
y mywn nodua gwaet neu 
gleis a self yn tystolyaeth 
yr abat ac yr '"ofTeircit 
trwy vreint egh\7ssic yr 
abbadaeth. [1.432,454.] 

(bk. I. c xliii- § 1 1) 
XI. Teyr keluydyt ny 
dely mab tayauc eu descu 
heb kanyat yargluyd akcd 


(bk. II. c. viii. § 7, 28.) 

VII. Teir keluydyt ny 

eill tayawc eu dysgu y vab 

heb ganyat y arglwyd : ys- 

(bk. I. c- xlii. § 6, 7.) 
\l. Chwech aphedwar 
ugein yw cbediw tayawc 

' effeyryej-t B.H. ■ persoueu 1!. personyeit ]>. ' teir J. * y N.l'. 

N.r.Q.E. ^ oHeirat N.I'. kanonw}T I.S. ' ofleirat N.O. 


A.D. 809-1100.] 


[the laws of howel the good. a.d. 928.] 




(bk. I. c. xliii. § 19-21.) 
scholar ; and the other 
half between the ' priest 
and the community. If 
a wrong be committed 
in a churchyard, seven 
pounds ; to be divided in 
two halves like the other. 
XXI. Whoever shall do 
a wrong in another church, 
let him pay seven pounds : 
the one half to the ' priest, 
and the other to the 2 par- 
son. [1.79,81.] 


(bk. II. c. vii. § 1-3,6.) 
III. For fighting with- 
in the churchyard, •* four- 
teen pounds are to be 
paid: if -^out of the 
churchyard, in' the sanc- 
tuary, seven pounds are 
to be paid. The half of 
these sums belongs to the 
abbat, if his privilege be 
judicial, ecclesiastical, and 
civil ; and the other half 
belongs to the "^priests 
and the canons, who shall 
be there serving God : a 
similar share shall accrue 
to the abbat and the ca- 
nons, for any fighting that 
takes place among the per- 
sons who take sanctuary 
from the ^ priests and the 
abbat. And in like man- 
ner everything is to be 
shared, that comes to the 
saint, as offering, and not 
to the altar, nor to any 
other person. 

VI. For fighting that 
takes place in a sanctuary, 
either blood or a bruise is 
a sufficient testimony to 
the abbat and to the 
7 priests, by the eccle- 
siastical privilege of the 
abbacy. [1.433,435-] 



(bk. I. c xliii. § II.) 
XI. Three arts which 
the son of a taeog is not 
to learn, without the per- 

' priests B.lK - parsons B. 

* priest ..V.P. canons 7.5. ^ priest xV.O. 

(bk. II. c viii. § 7, 28.) (bk. I. c. xlii. § 6, 7.) 

VII. Three arts which VI. Four score and six 

a taeog is not to teach to pence is the ebediw of a 

his son without the per- taeog having land. 

thirteen T. *' without N.F. 

priest N.P.Q.E. 

R 3 



(bk. I. c. xliii. § II.) 
asdesko ef adely y duyn 
trakeuen onyt escoleyc 
guedy e kemerko urthcu 
sef eu [y rc) J hcnny esco- 
lectaut agouanac't abard- 
hony. [1. 78.] 




(bk. II. c. viii. § 7, 28.) 
colheictawt; agouyanacth; 
abardoniacth ; canys o dio- 
def yr arghvyd hyt pan 
rother corun yr yscolheic 
nc'ii yny cl y got" ynny 
eueil neu varth [ynycl] 
wrth y gerd nydichawn 
eu cacthau wedy hynnv 

XXVIII. Try dyn ag- 
ynnyd eu breint yn vii 
dyd : tayawctref y kys- 
scccrcr eglwys yndi gan 
gannyat y Brcnhin dyn or 
tret honno auei y bore yn 
tayawc ar nos honno yn 
\vr ryd ; eil yw y dyn y 
rotho ybrenhin vn or pe- 
deir swyd arhugeint llys 
brcinhawl idaw kynn rodi 
yswyd idaw yn tayawc 
agwcdy [yj rodi yn wr 
r)d ; trydyd yw yscolheic 
ydyd ' kynn caffel' corun 
yn vab tayawc ar nos 
honno yn wr ryd. [I. 
456, 444.] 

[Period U. 


(bk. I, c. xlii. § 6, 7.) 
VII. Or byd eglwys ar- 

ytir wheugeint uyd y ebe- 

diw].— [1.686.] 

(bk. II. c.xl. § 15.) 
XV. Par gymerho tay- 
awc tir y gan y Brenhin 
tnigcint adyly y Brenhin 
o pop * rantir ygan y tay- 
awc : ac or byd eglwys ar 
tir y lay awe tref wheu- 
geint adaw yr Brenhin y- 
gan yneb ae kymero. [I. 

(bk. II. c.xii. § 22.) 
XXII. Or byd eglwys 
ar tir [y] bilaein Brenhin 
wheugeint atal yny ebe- 
diw. [1. 492.] 

• r//nnffy>= share-land, containing 4 ttjddytit or 16 erice. 
'■ y kaflb l.M.N.n.r.q H.S.T. 

A.D. 8cy-iioo.J THE SAXON PERIOD. 

[the laws of howel the good. a. d. 928.] 


(bK. I. C. xliii. § II.) 

mission of his lord ; and, 
if he should learn them, 
he must not exercise them, 
except a scholar, after he 
has taken holy orders : 
these are, scholarship, 
smithcraft, and bardism. 


(bk. II. c. viii. § 7, 28.) 
mission of his lord ; scho- 
larship ; smithcraft ; and 
bardism : for if the lord 
be passive until the ton- 
sure be performed on the 
scholar; or until the smith 
enter his smithy ; or until 
a bard be graduated in 
song ; he cannot after- 
wards enslave them. 

XXXIII. Three per- 
sons whose privileges in- 
crease in one day : the 
first is, where a church 
is consecrated in a taeog- 
trev with the permission 
of the King, a man of that 
trev, who might be a 
taeog in the morning, be- 
comes on that night a free 
man ; the second is, where 
the King confers one of 
the twenty-four offices of 
a privileged court on a 
person, who, before the 
office was given him, was 
a taeog, and, after it was 
given, becomes a free 
man ; the third is, a clerk, 
who, on the day ' before 
he receives' the tonsure, 
being the son of a taeog, 
is on that night a free 
man. [1.437,445-] 
(bk. II. c- xii. § 22.) 

XXII. If there be a 
church upon the land of 
a King's villain, six score 
pence is to be paid for his 
ebediw- [1. 493-] 


(bk. I. c. xlii. § 6, 7.) 
VII. If there be a 
church on his land, his 
ebediw is six score pence, 
[I. 687.] 

(bk. II. c. xl. § 15.) 
XV. When a taeog shall 
take land from the King, 
the King has three score 
pence for each ^randir 
from the taeog: and, if 
there be a church upon the 
land of the taeog-trev, six 
score pence come to the 
King from the one who 
shall take it. [I. 793.J 

^ See note on p. 244. 
I' he shall receive I.M.NM.P.QM.S.T. 




[C\'VREITH1AU H^"WEL DDA. AD. 928.] 


(bk. II. c xxii. § 7.) 
VII. Orgwnncir cglwys 
ogannyat ybrenhin y mywn 
tayawctrev ac offeirat yn 
oferenu yndi aebot yn- 
gortTlan hi ryd \7d ytref 
honno ohynny allann. [1. 
54 2.] 

[Period II. 


(bk. II. c. i. § I, 9, lo, 12, 

Ml n, i8, 3'-) 
I. [Kentaf yw o na- 
dunt :J odeniyt cgrcic 
bod rodycyt ydy adan 
ehaguedy cdclc vod hyil 
epen e scith bicnet ' ac 
o byd' teyr nos [en cys- 
syeu] or seyhuet bicnct 
[allan,] ac escar onadunt 
ranncnt [yn] dcu banner 
pob pcdh [or] auo vdunt. 

IX. [.\c] OS kyn c sey- 
thuet vullydin cdescarant 
taler yhi ehaguedy ac "har- 
kefreu ae - couyll ; [ac] os 
en voruyn erodyr er hyn 
auo ar y earn or pheheu 
bene [a geyff :] ac os kin 
eseythuet bludyn ededeu 
hy egur kubyl ohene akyll 
eythyr ckouyll ae ^huncp- 
uurth ^ am ^ egocuyn. 

(UK. II. c. xviii. § I, 2, 4, 

21, 22, 28, 29.) 

I. Or kymer g\vr wrcic 
orod kenedyl ac os gat 
kynn penn yscith rnlyned 
[y wrthaw] talet idi teir 
punt yny hegwedi os 
nierch ['• breyr] vyd [a] 
punt a banner yny chow- 
yll [a] whcugeint yny go- 
by r os nierch tayawc vyd 
punt ahanner yny hegwedy 
awhcugeint yny chowyll 
aphedeir arhugeint yny 

II. Os gwedy [y] seith 
mlyned ygat [ef hi] bit 
rann deuhanner y rydunt 
onnyt brcint adyry ragor 
yr gwr deuparth )-plant 
adaw yrgwr ar trayan yr 
vam yr hynaf ar ieuaf yr 
tat. Os agheu ac gvva- 
hann byt rann deuhanner 
yrydunt o bop peth. 

X. Os egur hitheu auyt 

'' a chet boet 7.'. 

' cholledeu /'. 

(bk. II. c. xxix. § 5, 12, 1 3, 
14, 26, 27, 30.) 
V. Or kymer gwr gw- 
reic o rod kenedyl, ac os 
gat kyn pen y seith mly- 
ned ; talet yhegwedi idi. 

XII. Os g^vedy pen y 
seith mlyned y gedir, bit 
ran deu hanher y rydunt 
onyt breint [ygwr] a dwc 
ragor yr gwr. 

XI II. Deuparth y plant 
adaw yr g^'r; nyt amgen 
yr hynaf, ar ieuhaf ; ar 
trayan yr uam. 

XI\'. [Os agheu ae gu- 
ahana bit ran deu hanher 
yrydunt o pop peth]. 

XXVI. O tri achaws nj'^ 
chyll gureic yheguedi kytj 
adawho hi y gwr nyd am- 
gen oglauyri adryc anadyl| 
ac eisseu kyt. 

^ ae D.B. 

* flrj/i/rft'iJ = paraphemali.i. 
I' icyneb-icerih = face-worth 
icijneb-irarth = face-shame 
' goiryn — line due to the w 


fine payable 
for inrult. 
ife from the hus- 

band for the latter's adultery. 

<• hreyr = i mote-man, a South Welsh term for 
a class of freemen. 

A.D. 8o9— 11 oo.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 

[the laws of howel the good. a.d. 928.] 

(bk. II. c. xxii. § 7.) 
VII. If a church be 
built, by the permission 
of the King, within a 
taeog-trev, and there be 
a priest offering mass in it, 
and it be a burying-place ; 
such a trev is to be free 
thenceforward. [I. 543.] 


(bk. II. c. i. § I, 9, 10, 12, 
14, 17, 18, 31.) 
I. The first of [the laws 
of the women] is : if a wo- 
man be given in marriage, 
she is to abide by her ' ^ag- 
weddi ' unto the end of the 
* seventh year; 'and if there 
be' three nights wanting of 
the seventh current year, 
and they separate, let 
them share into two por- 
tions everything belong- 
ing to them. 

IX. And if they sepa- 
rate before the seventh 
year, let there be paid to 
her her ag^veddi, her ' ''ar- 
gyvreu,' and her '<^co\v- 
yll 2 ;' and if she was given 
when a maid, whatever of 
those things remain she 
shall have : and if she 
leave her husband before 
the seventh year, she loses 
all these, except her cow- 
yll, and her ^wyneb-werth 
^ for his' ' ^ gowyn.' 

X. Should her husband 


(bk. II. c. xviii. § I, 2, 4, 

21, 22, 28, 29.) 

I. If a man take a wife 
by gift of kindred, and he 
desert her before the end 
of the seven years ; let 
him pay her three pounds, 
as her agweddi, if she 
be the daughter of a 
^ breyr ; and one pound 
and a half, as her cowyll ; 
and six score pence, as 
her e gobyr : if she be the 
daughter of a taeog, one 
pound and a half, as her 
agweddi ; six score pence, 
as her cowyll ; and twenty- 
four pence, as her gobyr. 

II. If, after the seven 
years, he leave her ; let all 
be shared between them, 
unless privilege should give 
precedence to the hus- 
band : two parts of the 
children go to the husband, 
and the third to the mo- 
ther; the eldest and the 
youngest go to the father. 
If they be" separated by 

and though there be B. 

losses D. 

(bk. II. c. xxix. § 5, 12, 13, 
14,26,27, 30.) 
V, If a man take a wife, 
by gift of kindred, and 
leave her before the end 
of seven years ; let him 
pay her agweddi to her. 

XII. If she be left after 
the end of seven years, 
let there be an equal shar- 
ing between them ; unless 
the privilege of the hus- 
band entitle him to more. 

XIII. Two thirds of the 
children come to the hus- 
band ; to wit, the eldest 
and the youngest ; and the 
third to the mother. 

XIV. If they be sepa- 
rated by death, everything 
is to be equally shared be- 
tween them. 

XXVI. From three 
causes a woman loses not 
her agweddi, although she 
may leave her husband : to 
wit, on account of leprosy ; 
bad breath ; and default 
of connexion. 

and her D.B. 

" ' Dower.' 

^ See notes ''j *» on p. 246. 

'" ' Maiden-fee.' 

'' See note '^ on p. 246. 
>= See note '^ on p. 246. 



[Period II. 


(bK. n. C. i. § I, 9, 10, 12, 

14, 17, 18, 31.) 

clauur neu anadal cireii- 
edyc neu na hallo cnircyn 
OS oaccaus vn or tritcth 
heneyhedeu [hi y g^vr] hy 
adelc cafacl kubyl or eyd- 

XII. Ac OS ouaru abcu 
edes carant ranet eclaf ay 
peryglauer ckyt ac ef a 
deuysset eryac. 

XI\'. Os o vcuu cgua- 
hanant trikcd hy ar eydhy 
en ety hyt emen cnau 
nyeu a naunos a guybot 
ae kcfreithyaul he guahan 
as OS yaun c guahan o pen 
e nauuetyt ayt yda hy or 
blaen ac ar o! ekenyauc 
dyuethaf act [hitheu] hc- 

XVII. O myn [y] gur 
grueyc arall guedy ed es- 
caro ar [wreic] kandaf r)t 
vyt ekentaf. 

XVIII. Oderuyt egur 
escar [ae wreic] amenu 
ohono vr arall abod en 
ediuar gan egur cantaf 
reescarassey aygreyc a 
[e] godyuues ohonau hy 
ar neylltroet ene gueli ar 
llall eythir egueli egur can- 
taf adele cafael egureic. 

XXXI. Puebenac aces- 

[ctVreithiau hywel dda. a.d. 928.] 



(bk, II. c. xviii. § 1, 2, 4, 

21, 22, 28, 29.) 

IV. Gwr a eill ynryd 
gadu ywreic os gwnna 
hitheu yr gwr arall yn 
honneit [ac] nycheilF hi 
dim oe hiawn naniyn y 
tri pheth ny dygir rac 
g wreic ar gorderch atal 
y sarhaet yr gwr kyurei- 

XXI. [()] tri achaws 
nychyll gwreic y hegwedi 
kyt adaw [ho] ygwr : vn 
y w oglauri, ac o cisscu kyt ; 
a dryc annadyl. 

XXII. Teir gAveith y 
kciir gAvrcic yhwynneb- 
wcrth : [yn] kynntaf y 
[kcitT] whcugeint; yr eil 
weilh punt; y trjdcd 
wcith y dichaun adaw 
ygwr a mynet ae holl 
dylyet gcnti ac o diodef 
hi dros ytr)ded wcith ny 
cheiff [hi] wynnebwerth. 

XXVIII. Or gat gwr 
y wreic ynagkyureithawl 
adwyn arall attaw ywreic 
vrthot adyly triccyaw yny 
thy h)! ympen ynawuet- 
tyd ac yna ol> gellygir hi 
ywrth ygwr ynhollawl pob 
pcth or eidi hi adyly my- 
net yngyntaf or ty a hitheu 


(bk. II. c. xxix. § 5, 12, 13, 
14, 26, 27, 30.) 
XXVII. Tri pheth ny 
dygir rac gureic kyt gatter 
hi am y chani y chowyll 
ae hargyfreu ae ''hwyneb- 
werth pan gyttyo y gwr 
agureic arallj. 

XXX. [Teir gucith y 
keifi" gureic yhwynebwerth 
y gan y gwr pan gyttyo ef 
agureic arall ' ac os diodef 
^dros hynny' ny cheitl" 
dim].— [I. 746,748,750.] 

-teir gweith X. 

*' hi ybedwared weith A. 

A.D. 809-1100.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 




(bK. II. C. i. § I, 9, 10, 12, 

14, 17, 18, 31. 

be leprous, or have fetid 
breath, or be incapable of 
marital duties; if on ac- 
count of one of these three 
things she leave her hus- 
band, she is to have the 
whole of her property. 

XII. If by dying and 
living they separate, let 
the sick, aided by the 
confessor, share, and let 
the healthy choose. 

XIV. If living they se- 
parate, let her and her 
property remain in the 
house to the end of nine 
days and nine nights, to 
ascertain whether the sepa- 
ration be legal ; and if the 
separation be right, at the 
end of the ninth day, let 
her property go before, 
and, after the last penny, 
let her go herself. 

XVII. If the husband 
take another wife, after 
he shall have parted from 
the first wife ; the first is 

XVIII. If a man part 
from his wife, and she be 
minded to take another 
husband, and the first hus- 

I band should repent having 
parted from his wife, and 
overtake her with one foot 
in the bed and the other 
outside the bed, the prior 
husband is to have the 

XXXI. Whoever shall 



(bk. ii. c. xviii. § i, 2, 4, 

21, 22,28, 29.) 

death, let everything be 

equally shared between 


IV. A man is free to 
forsake his wife, if she 
notoriously attach herself 
to another man ; and she 
is to obtain nothing of her 
right, excepting the three 
things which are not to be 
taken from a woman ; and 
the seducer is to pay to 
the lawful husband his sa- 

XXI. For three causes, 
if a woman desert her hus- 
band, she is not to lose her 
agweddi : for leprosy ; want 
of connexion ; and bad 

XXII. Three times a 
woman is to obtain her 
wyneb-werth : the first 
time, she is to have six 
score pence ; the second 
time, one pound ; the 
tlyrd time, she can leave 
her husband, and depart 
w'ith all her due: but if 
she endure beyond the 
third time, she is not to 
obtain her wyneb-werth. 

XXVIII. If a man de- 
serts his wife unlawfully, 
and takes another; the 
rejected wife is to remain 
in her house until the end 
of the ninth day ; and 
then, if she be suffered 
to depart entirely from 
her husband, everything 



(bk. II. c. xxix. § 5, 12, 13, 

XXVII. Three things 
of which a woman is not 
to be deprived, although 
she be abandoned for her 
crime : her cowyll ; her 
argyvreu ; and wyneb- 
werth, when her husband 
shall be connected with 
another woman. 

XXX. Three times a 
wife has her wyneb-werth 
from her husband, when 
he shall be connected 
with another ' woman ; 
and, if she endure -beyond 
that', she has nothing. [I. 
747, 749> 75I-] 

^ — three times X. 

'^' the fourth time X. 


(BK. II. C. i. § I, 9, lO, 12, 

14, 17, 18, 31.) 
ko teyrnos gan gurcyc or 
pan anhudcr ctan eny da- 
danudher tranohet, a[c o 
henne allan] niennu o ho- 
nau cscar talct ydhy cy- 
dyon atalo ugeynt ac arall 
atalo deg ar ugeynt ac arall 
atalho ' trugeynt ac os due 
ar ty ac anlloct ae ybod 
ekyd ac ct" hyt empen [y] 
seyth blenet rannu a hy [a 
dele o henne allan] niegis 
agureic arodyeyt ydhy. 
[1,80,82,84,86,88, yo.j 





(BK. II. c. xviii. § I, 2, 4, 

21, 22, 28, 29.) 

yn diwethaf adyly mynet 

or ty yn ol yholl da ac 

odyna gan dwyn yllall 

yrty ef adyly rodi ''dil- 

ystawt yr wreic gyntaf 

kanny dyly vn gwr dwy 

wraged o gyfrcith. 

[Period II. 

(bk. II. c. i. § 15.) 
XIII. Ny dele eclaf 
keniennu dym namen e 
adacret [yr] ecluys ac 
[ebediw yr] argluyt ae de- 
lecdyon akcd askemeno 
emab aeyll torry ekemen 
ahunu aeluyr [y] niab 
anuuar. Puebennac [en- 
teu] adorro kemen ky- 
freythyaul n)*! amgen ae 
daeret ae delehedyon es- 
kemun [edyc] vyt, [megys 
puplican neu bagan. ] — [!._ 

(bk. in. c. ii. ^ 45.) 
XLV. Y chyureyth Hy- 
wel ybu tal am ledrat ar 
eyl tal ac [odyna] y syinu- 

XXIX. Pwybynnac a- 
atto ywreic ac auo cdiuar 
gantaw ygadu ahitheu 
gAvcdi y rodi ywr arall 
OS gordiwed yg\vr kynn- 
taf hi ar neill troet idi y 
mywn ygwely ar Hall 
yniaes ygwr kynntaf o 
gyurcith ae keifT. [I. 514, 
516, 520, 524. J 

(bk. II. c. viii. § 62.) 
LXIl. Tri da nyt reit 
inach arnunt : da arodho 
arglw yd y dyn ; achymyn 
a gymero offeirat y g*i 
ymarw ; a da a gymero 
medyc ygan y neb a ve- 
dyccinnaetho. [1. 452.] 


* </a«r«d = mortuary. 

deu ugeint K. 

'• dili/Mlaud = assurance. 

A.D. 809—1100.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 




(bK. II. C. i. § I, 9, 10, 12, 

14, 17, 18,31.) 

sleep three nights with a 
woman, from the time the 
fire is covered until it be 
uncovered the following 
morning, and after that 
willeth to separate ; let 
him give her an ox that 
shall be worth twenty 
pence, another worth 
thirty pence, and another 
worth ' sixty pence ; and 
if he take her to house 
and home, and she live 
with him imto the end of 
seven years ; thencefor- 
wards he is to share with 
her, as with a betrothed 
wife. [I. 81, 83, 85, 87, 
89, 91.] 

(bk. II. c. i. § 13.) 

XIII. The sick is not 
to bequeath aught, except a 
*daered to the church, and 
an ebediw to the lord, and 
his debts : and, should he 
bequeath, the son can 
break the bequest ; and 
such a one is called the 
uncourteous son. Who- 
ever therefore shall break 
a legal bequest, whether 
daered or debts, shall be 
excommunicated, as a 
publican or pagan. [I. 85.] 
(bk. III. c. ii. §45.) 

XLV. In the law of 
HoMcl, there was a pay- 
ment for theft, and a se- 




(bk. II. c. xviii. § I, 2, 4, 

21, 22, 28, 29. 
belonging to her is to go 
in the first place out of 
the house ; and then she 
is to go last out of the 
house, after all her pro- 
perty : after that, on 
bringing the other into 
the house, he is to give 
* a dilysdawd ' to the first 
wife ; because no man, by 
law, is to have two wives. 
XXIX. Whoever shall 
leave his wife, and shall 
repent leaving her, she 
having been given to an- 
other husband ; if the first 
husband overtake her with 
one foot in the bed, and 
the other out; the first hus- 
band, by law, is to have her. 

(bk. II. c. viii. § 62.) 
LXII. Three kinds of 
property for which no 
surety is necessary : pro- 
perty that shall be given 
to a person by a lord ; a 
testamentary bequest re- 
ceived by a priest from 
the dead ; and property 
received by a medical at- 
tendant from a person 
whom he attends profes- 
sionally. [I. 453.] 


* two score E. 

« See notes on p. 250. 



(BK. III. C. ii. § 45.) 

dus Bledyn uab Kynuyn 
[am uot en dj gaun] talu y 
dyn y gollet urth y dam- 
dug. Y da [enteu] y ford 
y cymynno aet ony byd 
plant ydau [ac] o byd plant 
[ydau enteu] ny dyly [en- 
teu] cymynnw cythyr y 
dylycdyon a dayret yr eg- 
luys. [1.252,254.] 




(bk. II. c. iv. title and 
§ 1-3.) 

Lema [y] decreu ke- 
freythyeu eg u lad. 

Kentaf [yu e] nau 
*tauodyauc sef cu crey 

I. Argluyd crug ydeu 
' guas : 

II. 2 Efey r)-at erug ydeu 
uanac : 

III. Tat cnig y dcuuab : 

O byd un or rey a deu- 
edassam ny huchot ny 
mcnho dody empen etri 
tauodyauc ar Hall eny uen- 
hu ketVcyt aeyrc y dody 
[yneu penn] &c. [1. io8.] 

[X. AM 'S' TAVODIAWG. &c.] 
(bk. II. c. iii. § i6, I 8.) 

XVI. Or daw lleidyr at 
offeirat yadef ac y ennwi 
y getymdeithon amletrat 
a thygu hynny ar drws y 
vynnwent [ac ar drws yr 
eglwys] ac ar drws y cor 
heb erchi eu kelu byth- 
bynnac adarfTo ymdanaw 
wedy hynny credadwy vyd 
yr ofTcirat aniyr hynn ad- 
ywaut y lleidyr wrthaw 
kytFelyb vod ahynny vyd 
am dyn a vannacco lleidyr 
a lletrat a dyccer or twg 
[ef] y vannac mal hynny 
yggwyd yr ofl'cirat. 

(bk. II. c. xxxix. § 40 
in part.) 

XL. C) teir ford y dygir 
mab -ly tat' un o honunt 
gwreic Ilwyn a pherth or 
byd bcichawc pan uo ar y 
llawuaeth, dygct y hoffei- 
rat plwyf attei athyget 
wrthaw [mal hynn :] esgor 
neidyr y mi [y] ar y bei- 
chogi hwn os crewys tat 
gan uam namyn ygwr hwn 
ae enwi ac y uelly kyurei- 
thawl y dwc, &c. [I. 784.] 

(BK. II. c. xi. ^ 25 in part.) 
XXV. [Ac] ena e mai 
yaun yr enat gouin yr 
haulur may breint de des- 
tion dy. Ac ena emay 

' ur B.D. 

XVI II. IManagwr dio- 
fredauc or daw y gyt ar 
■■'colledic at yr offeirat y 
drws yr eglwys archet yr 

abat 1>. ^ ysgolhaic /'. 

" iacvdiiig =deliiiitive umpire. 

ac vdiwedir A. 


[the laws of howel the good. A.D. 928.] 

(bk. III. c. ii. § 45.) 
cond payment; and then 
Bleddyn, son of Cynvyn, 
altered this rule, because 
it suffices to pay a person 
for his loss according to 
his oath. The property 
of the criminal is to go in 
the way he may bequeath 
it, unless he have children ; 
but, if he have children, 
then he is to bequeath no- 
thing, except his debts, 
and daered to the church. 




(bk. II. c. iv. title and 
§ 1-3.) 

Here begin the laws 
OF the country. 

First, are the nine 
* * tavodiogs :' these are, 

I. A lord, between his 
two ' servants : 

II. A Spriest, between 
his two monks : 

III. A father, between 
his two sons : 

If one of those we have 
mentioned above does not 
will to submit to the de- 
cision of the three tavo- 
diogs, and the other wills 
it ; the law requires sub- 
mission to their decision, 
&c. [I. 109.] 
(bk, ii. c. xi. § 25 in part.) 

XXV. And then it is 
right for the judge to ask 
the plaintiff : ' What is 
the privilege of thy wit- 

' men B.D. 

(bk. II. c. iii. § 16, 18.) 

XVn. If a thief come to 
a priest to confess, and to 
name his confederates- in 
theft, and swear thereto, 
at the door of the church- 
yard, and at the door of 
the church, and at the 
door of the chancel, with- 
out desiring concealment ; 
whatever may happen to 
him afterwards, the priest 
is to be believed in respect 
to what has been told him 
by the thief: and it is 
similar in regard to a per- 
son who shall inform of a 
thief and of theft; if he 
swear in like manner to 
his information in the pre- 
sence of the priest. 

XVI II. If an informer 
under a sacred vow come, 
along with the ^person 
robbed', to the priest, at 

3 abbat I). '-' clerk P. 

» See note on p. 252. 

(bk. II. c. xxxix. § 40 
in part.) 

XL. By three ways is a 
son to be affiliated ■'to a 
father :' one of them, when 
a woman of bush and brake 
shall be pregnant, upon ar- 
rival at her full time, let 
her parish priest visit her, 
and let her swear before 
him, in this manner : ' May 
I be delivered of a snake 
by this pregnancy, if any 
father has begotten it on 
a mother, other than that 
man ;' and naming him ; 
and so she affiliates him 
lawfully &c. [1.785,787.] 

*' and denied X, 



(bk. II. c. xi. § 25 in part.) 
yaunt yr haulur deueduit 
breint ytestion, ac vintoe 
en "veirri ncu [wyntew] 
en ^kcghelloron ae vnteu 
en veneich neu en ahtraon 
ae vnteu en efTeriet neu 
en escoleicion ae vintcu 
en lleecion [brcinhawl]. 


(bk. III. c. ii. § 28.) 
XXVIII. Puybynnac a 
uynho gwncuthur dogyn 
uynac aet ar yr argluyd a 
dywedet ry \vneuthur lle- 
drat o dyn [ac] ny leucys 
[of J y dywcduyt arnau ay 
rac y uonhed ay rac y 
uedyant : yna y mac yaun 
yr argluyd dyuynnu yr 
cfreyryat atau a dywcdct 
urthau yr hyn ry dywet- 
puyt urthau ynteu ac ellyg 
yr cfl'cyryat y gyt ac e\v 
hyt ar drus yr egluys 
achroysct racdau na tygho 
anudon. Ac oniyn tygu 
tyghet yn gyntaw ar drus 
yr egluys ar eyl [llv] ar 
[drws] y gagell ar trydyd 
ar yr allaur. Ac od yna 
doet yr cffeyryat ar yr 
argluyd a dywedet [ry] 
gafael y cubyl ; ar argluyd 
adyly tyghu ry gafael do- 
gyn uynac [o honav] pan 
holo [of] y dyn yn [c] 
dadleu ac yn erbyn hynny 
ny ellyr dym. Ny byd 
eneyt uadeu ew yr ' hyn- 
ny' naniyn [y uot en] llcy- 



(bk. II. c. iii. § 16, 18.) 
offeirat idaw yno yr Duw 
na dywetto gehvyd vrthaw 
[ac] or twTig yno na dy- 
weit namyn gwir tynghet 
y kyfTclyp ar drws ygagell 
artrydyd weith vch benn 
yr allawr [gyssegyr ac] os 
gwatta y dyn kylus wedy 
hynny kadarnnhaet }t of- 
feirat arycir tcirgwcith ac 
OS gwatta ydyn [kylus] yna 
tyghet yr offerat vn weith 
gwelct ymannagwr ae gly- 
bot ynn cadarnnhaw y 
vannac trwy twg yny mod 
ygwnacth ac odynna ny 
ellir gwat ynn erbynn 
hynny a hwnnw yw dog- 
yn vanac. [1.418.] 

(bk. II. c. V. § I, 2, 6.) 
1. Kyntaf yw argl\\7d 
[y] rwg y deuwr trsvy na 
bo [cf yn] kyurannawc ar- 
ydadyl ncu ar yr hynn y 
bo ydadyl ymdanaw. Ot 
adef pob vn or g\\ yr ryuot 
eu kynnhen yny wyd ef 
kynnohynny ac na bw)-nt 
vn dull, ac or gwatta vn 
yn erbyn y Hall dir yw 
[idaw] tygu ygg\\7d yr 
arglwyd : yspeit naw nieu 
ageiflf arglwyd amylw y 
'' caf!aei y dogen uanac B. 


• maer = ihe bailiff in each c)'mwd over the ship " to determine disputes among the King's vil- 
villeins. leins and to seaire the King's waste, 

t* cangh(Uor — iht officer in each " canghellor- 

A.D. 809-1100.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 

[the laws of howel the good. A.D. 928.] 




(bk. II. c. xi. § 25 in part.) 
nesses ?' Then it is right 
for the plaintiff to state 
the privilege of his wit- 
nesses, whether a maers, 
or ^canghellors, whether 
monks, or teachers, whe- 
ther priests or scholars, or 
privileged laymen. [1. 155.] 

(bk. III. c. ii. § 28.) 
XXVIII. Whoever may 
will to make a full infor- 
mation, let him go to the 
lord and say, that a per- 
son, whom he dare not 
mention, either on ac- 
count of his rank, or of 
his property, has commit- 
ted a theft : then it is right 
for the lord to summon 
the priest to him, and 
state to him what had 
been imparted to him ; 
and send the priest along 
with the informant to the 
church door, and let him 
charge him to beware of 
being guilty of perjury. 
Then, if he willeth to 
swear, let him swear first 
at the church door ; se- 
condly, in the chancel ; 
and thirdly, at the altar. 
And from thence, let the 
priest return to the lord, 
and say, that he has had 
the whole ; and the lord 
is to swear to having had 
full information, when he 
shall examine the person. 


(bk. II. c. iii. § 16, 18.) 
the door of the church, 
let the priest there desire 
him, for the sake of God, 
not to tell him a false- 
hood ; and, if he then 
swear that he speaks no- 
thing but the truth, let 
him swear in like manner 
at the door of the chan- 
cel ; and the third time 
over the sacred altar : if 
the guilty person deny it 
after that, let the priest 
confirm it, upon his word, 
three times; and if the 
guilty person shall still 
deny it, let the priest 
swear once, to have seen 
the informer, and heard 
him confirm his informa- 
tion by an oath, in the 
way it was done by him ; 
thenceforwards there can 
be no denial made against 
that : and that is a compe- 
tent information. [1. 419.] 
(bk. II. c.v. § I, 2, 6.) 
I. The first [of the nine, 
who are to be believed 
in giving testimony upon 
oath,] is, a lord between 
his two men, if not inter- 
ested in the suit or in the 
matter of the suit. If both 
parties acknowledge that 
their cause had been pre- 
viously before him, and 
they disagree as to the 
mode, and one deny the 
statement of the other; 

a See notes on p. 254. 



[Period II. 



(bk. III. c. ii. § 28.) (bk. II. c. V. § I, 2, 6.) 

dyr gwerth [ac] ony eyll vcdylyaw py vod ytygho. 
[enteu] cafael y werth Oet yssyd y oft'eirat amy 
dyholyer ual lleydyr. Ere- l\v hyt yr amsser ygallo 
yll [or keureythycu] a uyn canu offcrcnn [yn] gyntaf. 
gadu gwat ydau yrgyrr yr 
argluyd ual yr gyrr per- 
chennauc [arall] a hunnw 
inuyhaw y coyllya gwyr 
Gwynct ydau. [I. 246.] 


II. Kil [dyn] yw abbat 
[y] rwg y dcu vynnach. 

VI. Whcchct yw ofToi- 
rat y rug y dcu dyn piwyf 
ainyrhynn atystassant idaw 
kynno hjiiny. [I. 422, 


(bk. II. c. viii. § 92.) 
XCI I . Tri llcidyr gwerth 
yssyd ilcidyr y cafTcr dog- 
yn vannac amaw trwy 
egUvys achj-ttleidyr [y] 
ilcidyr agrocccr am Ictrat 
allcidyr a dalher gAvcrth 
pcdcir keinnauc kyurcith 
gantaw neu lei o da mar- 
wawl ynlletrat. [I. 462.] 


(bk. ii. c. vi. § 3 in part.) 
III. Ac cs sef eu oet 
"ereis honno vithnos or 
Sul nessaf ac es sef le 
eroder erreihis honno yhd- 
hauef ene llann eguarran- 
daho ef eferen [yndi ;] ac 
es sef amser e kemerrir [y 
rcith honno] er rug [e] 

(bk. I. c. xxxi. § I, 2.) 
I. Kynntaf y gossodcs 
ybrenhin pumb s\\7dauc 
ympob llys or wlat yg 
Gwyned a Phu^s nyt am- 
gen maer kyghellaur righill 
offcirat y yscrivenu dad- 
ieueu ac vn brawdwr trvvy 
swyd : 

I.VDD, &c] 

(bk. II. c. xxxix. § 34, 41.) 
XXXIV. Tri lie ny 
dyly d)Ti rodi llw gweilyd : 
un yw [ar] pent o un pren 
heb ganllaw idi ; eil yw 
ar porth y uyn went canys 
canu y Pader adyly [dyn] 
yna rac eneideu Cristono- 
gyon y byt ar ar drws yr 

rai7^=conip>irgation-jun', in this instance in a caie of denial of suretiship 

A. D. 809-1100.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 

[the laws of howel the good. a.d. 928.] 


(bk. III. C. ii. § 28.) 
in the courts ; and against 
this nothing tan be done. 
Still, he is not to lose his 
life ' for that', but is to be 
a saleable thief; and un- 
less he can obtain his 
worth, let him be exiled 
as a thief. Other of the 
laws allow him a denial 
against the prosecution by 
the lord, in the same man- 
ner as in a prosecution by 
the owner : and that form 
is mostly preferred by the 
menof Gwynedd. [1. 247] 


(15K. n. c. V. § I, 2, 6.) 
it is necessary for him to 
swear in the presence of 
the lord : the lord is to 
have the space of nine 
days to consider in what 
manner he is to swear. 
The time for a priest to 
consider as to his oath, is 
during such time as he 
can sing mass first. 

II. The second person 
is, an abbat between his 
two monks. 



VI. The sixth is, a priest 
between his two parish- 
ioners, in respect to what 
they had previously testi- 
fied to him. [I. 423, 425.] 

(bk. II. c. viii. § 92.) 

XGII. There are three 
thieves liable to be sold : 
a thief against whom an 
information has been made 
through the church ; a fel- 
low thief to one who is 
hanged for theft; and a 
thief upon whom shall be 
found, of stolen dead pro- 
perty, what is worth four le- 
gal pence, or less. [1. 426.] 


(bk. I. c. xxxi. § I, 2.) 

I. First, the King placed 
five officers in each court 
in Gwynedd and Pouys ; 
that is, a maer, a canghel- 
lor, an apparitor, a priest 
to write pleadings, and one 
judge by virtue of office : 

(bk. II. c. vi. § 3 in part.) 
III. The period of that 
*raith is a week from the 
following Sunday ; and the 
place where that raith is 
to be given is the church 
wherein he shall hear 
mass ; and the time for 
receiving that raith is 

(bk. ii. c. xxxix. § 34, 41,) 
XXXIV. There are 
three places where a per- 
son is not to give the oath 
of an absolver : one is, on 
a bridge of a single tim- 
ber, without a hand-rail ; 
the second is, at the porch 
of a churchyard ; for the 

^' although the full information is had B. 
a See note on p. 256. 

VOL. I. 





[Period II. 


(bk. II. c. vi, § 3 in part.) 
Benedicanius a [rodi y] 
barra eferen. [I. 114.] 

(bk. II. c. xi. § 10 in part.) 
X. Esseu ual [hynn] et 
estedyr en keureythiaul 
eiste or Brcnihin ncu or 
neb a uo enile ae keuen 
ar ereul neu ar e [dryc] 
hin rac aulonidu or hin 
oyuyneb ef; ar enat His 
ncu egnat ckcmut cr hun 
hcnau auo en elste rac 
curon et'; ac ar [y] llau 
assu yhunnu er ' egnat 
arair auo cneniays neu er 
-encid [ereiil] ac ar ellau 
dchau ydau [cf] er efci- 
riat o bit ene mays ncu cr 
eleirycyt ; ac egkcil crar- 
giuiii, i*v;c. [I. 144.] 

(bk. ii. c. xi. § 2 1 in part.) 
XXI. A guedy estad- 
kano aynt er egneyt ailan 
ar efTcyryhet [neu yr offei- 
rat] ygyt ac vy [nt] a rig- 
hyll y gyt aguy [nt] hy cu 
kadv rac douot dynyon 
[atunt] y warandau ama- 

dunt Ac ena guedy 

ed eystedont huy [yn eu 
lirawt le] emay hiaun 
yr cfTcyryat guedya Duy 
ydangos o Duy er yaun 
udunt akanu onadunt hu- 
yntheu eu Pader ac guedy 
e Pader emay yaun yr 
egnat dadkanu e duyke- 

'' offeirat D. 

(bk. I. c. xxxi. § I, 2.) 
II. Aphctwar megys 
yrei kynntaf ympob llys 
yn Deheubarth alliaws o 
vrawdwyr nyt amgcn [no] 
pob perchenn tir niegys 
yddoedynt kynn Hywel 
da o vreint tir heb swyd. 
[I. 404.] 

(bk. u. c. vi. § 15, 20.) 
XV. I\Iach awatto y 
vechni gwadet ar y sei- 
thuet or dynyon nessaf y 
werth ; ac os "briduwawat- 
ta chun ac tteg uch [pen 
y] scith allawT kysscgrcdic 
neu seilh weith ar [yr] vn 

XX. Pwybynnac agy- 
mero mach ar dyiyct 
amarw ymach kynn talu 
ydylyct doet ar vcd ymach 
athyget ar yseithuet or 
dynyon nessaf ywerth y 
ryvot hwnnw yn vach 
[idaw] arydylyet [hwnnw] 
or keiff y bed ac onys 
kciff tyget ar yr allawr 
gyssegrcdic agwcdy hynny 
yr arglwyd bicu kymcli y 
ucchni dros ymarw. [I. 

(bk. hi. c. vi. § 19.) 

XIX. Or deruyd am- 

rysson nvg deudyn am- 

geissaw creir y damtwg 

ac ef, abot vn yn dywe- 


(bk. II. c. xxxix. § 34,41.) 
eglwys canys canu y Pader 
adyly [dyn] yna rac bron 
y groc. 

XLI. O teir ford y di- 
wedir mab [o genedyl :] 
un yw kymryt or gwr y 
mab [y dywettcr y uot yn 
vab idaw ae dodi y rydaw 
ar allawr] a dodi y law 
[asseu] ar y pen ar Haw 
arall ar y crcireu ar allawr 
gysegyr athygu nas crcwys 
cf [ygan yvam,] ac nat oes 
un dauyn oe waet yndaw 
ae diwat : eil yw [ony byd 
ytat yn vyw,] pcnkencdyl 
ascith law kenedyl gantaw 
ae diwat : trydyd yw ony 
byd pcnkencdyl ^rodi llw 
degwyr adeugeint oe gen- 
edyl ae diwat ; [ar mab 
hynhaf yr gwr yd oed y 
mab ar y gwystlwn bieu 
tygu yny blaen].— [I. 7S 

- ofFeireit D. 

idaw I'.ir.X. 

* hriilinc = n solemn asseveration on a pers<in's faith. 

A.D. 809-1 J OO.] 



[the laws of howel the good. A.D. 928.] 


(kk. II. c. vi. § 3 in part.) 
between the ' Benedica- 
mus' and distributing the 
sacramental bread. [I. 


(bk. II. c. xi. § 10 in part.) 

X. [In a suit for land,] 
the legal form of sitting 
is as follows : first, the 
King, or his representa- 
tive, with his back to the 
sun or to the weather, lest 
the weather incommode 
his face; and the judge of 
the court, or the judge of 
the cymwd, whoever is the 
oldest, is to sit before him ; 
and at that person's left 
hand, the ' other judge' 
that may be in the field, 
or the 2 judges ; and upon 
his right hand, the priest 
or priests, if there be any 
in the field ; and next the 
lord, &c. [I. 145.] 
(bk. II. c. xi. § 2 r in part.) 

XXI. [The pleadings in 
such a suit being over,] 
after he [the judge] shall 
have stated them, let the 
judges go out, and the 
priests or the priest along 
with them, and an appari- 
tor with them, to prevent 
other persons from coming 
to listen to them. . . . Then, 
after they shall be seated 
in their judgment-place, 
it is right for the priest to 
pray to God, that God 
may shew them the right, 
and for them to chaunt 

^' priest IK 


(bk. I. c. xxxi. § I, 2.) 

II. And four, like the 
preceding, in each court 
in South Wales, and many 
judges, that is, every owner 
of land, as they were be- 
fore the time of Howel 
the good, by privilege of 
land without ofllce. [I. 

(bk. II. c. vi. § 15, 20.) 

XV. A surety who shall 
deny his suretiship, let him 
deny it along with six per- 
sons nearest to himself in 
worth ; and, if he deny 
^briduw, he himself is to 
swear upon seven sacred 
altars or seven times upon 
the same altar. 

XX. Whoever shall ac- 
cept surety for a debt, and 
the surety die before pay- 
ment of the debt ; let him 
come upon the grave of 
the surety, and swear 
along with six persons 
nearest to himself in 
worth, that the deceased 
was surety to him for that 
debt, if he find the grave ; 
and if he do not, let him 
swear upon the sacred 
altar : and, after that, the 
lord is to compel the ful- 
filment of the suretiship 
for the deceased. [I. 431.] 
(BK. III. c. vi. § 19.) 

XIX. If there should 
arise a contention be- 
tween two persons as to 
the procuring a relic to 

- priests IK '' to him V.W.X. 

1 See note on p. 258. 

S 2 

(bk. II. C. xxxix. § 34, 41.) 
' Pater ' is to be there 
chaunted for the souls 
of the Christians of the 
w^orld ; and at the church 
door ; for the ' Pater ' is 
there to be chaunted be- 
fore the rood. 

XL I. By three ways is 
a son diso^vned by a kin- 
dred : one is, the man is 
to take the boy, said to 
be his son, and place him 
between himself and the 
altar ; and put his left 
hand upon the boy's head, 
and the other hand upon 
the relics on the holy 
altar ; and swoer that he 
has not begotten him on 
his mother, and that there 
is not one drop of his 
blood in him ; and deny 
him : the second is, if the 
father be not living, the 
chief, of kindred, with the 
hands of seven of the kin- 
dred, deny him : the third 
is, if there be no chief of 
kindred, 3 the giving' the 
oaths of fifty men of his 
kindred deny him ; and 
the eldest son of the man, 
to whom the child was 
pledged, is to swear first. 




(bk. II. c. xi. § 2 1 in part.) (bk. hi. c. vi. § 1 9.) 

dut : Tibieu keissaw [y] 
crcfr: Titheu bieu keis- 
saw [y] crcir: y gyurcith 
honn ady\veit panyw y neb 
bieiffo llithyaw y llw bieu 
keissaw y creir, kanys y- 
creir adewisso [ef ] bieu y 
dwyn y lithyaw ac ef. [1. 

[Period [\ 

ghessaith [yr] evhveyth. 
[I. 148.1 

(bk. II. c. xxxr. § 2-4, 6.) 
II. Pa wreyc bynnac a 
uynno duyn mab yn gy- 
ureythyaul ual hyn y mae 
[yavn] ydy y duyn [y] 
dyuot hy ar mab hyt yr 
egluys y bo y guydua yndy 
a dyuot hyt [ar] yr allaur 
a dody y ilau dehcu [ydy] 
ar yr allaur [ac] ar creyr- 
yeu ar ilau assu [idi] ar 
ben y !nab ac y uclly 
tyghu y Duw yny blaen 
ac yr allaur lionno ac yr 
creyryeu da y syd arney 
ac y uedyt y mab nas r\' 
creus tat y callon main y 
mab hun yman namyn y 
gur [hwnn] ar gur erbyn 
y henw ym kallon y. Ual 
hynny y dylyir duyn mab 
y Gymro. 

[Leges Wallic^e, Bk. 
II. c. xlix. § 5. (B.) Si 
aJicui homicidium impo- 
nitur, ct non est ci titulus 
coniprobandi, xlviii. homi- 
num nominatorum jura- 
mento se purgabit, ex qui- 
bus xxiiii. in ecclesia jurcnt 
cum esse ab homicidio im- 
muncm ; quodsi non jura- 
vcrint, ancillas v. et tres 
servos reddat, et securus 
sit. II. 875. (See above, 
on p. 128, Canon. \\'aJlic, 
c. 3.)1 

III. Ac y ual hyn y 
dylyir duyn mab y ^alltud 
dyuot [hyt] yr egluys y 
cymero [ef e] duuyr suyn 
ay uara efercn [yndi] ac 
yna y duyn ydau [ynteu] 
megys y dywetpuyt uchot. 
[Ac] yna y mae yaun yr 
tat gwneuthur un o deu- 
peth ay kymnt y mab yn 
gyureythyaul ay [ynteu] y 
wadu yn gyureythyaul. 

» aIHud = ^ foreigner in villenage under the King or a freeholder. 

A,D. 809-1100.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 261 

[the laws of howel the good. a.d. 928.] 


(bk. II. c. xi. § 21 in part.) 
their Pater ; and after 
their Pater it is right for 
the judge to state the two 
pleadings a second time. 
[1. 149.] 
(bk. II. c. xxxi. § 2-4, 6.) 

II. Whatsoever woman 
may will lawfully to affiliate 
a child, thus it is right for 
her to do : to come with 
the child to the church 
wherein her burying place 
is, and approach the 
altar, and place her right 
hand upon the altar and 
the relics, and her left 
hand upon the head of 
the child, and so swear, 
to God first, and by that 
altar, and by the sacred 
relics thereon, and by the 
baptism of the child, that 
no father has formed in 
the womb of its mother 
this present child, but such 
and such a man, naming 
him, in her womb. In 
this manner is a child to 
be affiliated to a Cymro. 

III. And thus is a child 
to be affiliated to an « all- 
tud : to come to the 
church in which he shall 
take the holy water and. 
the sacramental bread, 
and there affiliate it to 
him, like as it has been 
said above. And then it 
is right for the father to 
do one of two things; 
either to receive the child 
lawfully, or else to deny 
him lawfully. 


(bk. III. c. vi. § 19.) 

swear by ; and one say : 
' It is for thee to procure 
the relic :' and the other : 
* Thou art to procure the 
relic :' this law says, that 
the person to whom the 
procuration of the oath 
pertains is to procure the 
relic, for he is to bring the 
relic he may choose to be 
made use of. [I. 615.] 

[And see above, Bk. i. 
c. xiv. § 20, Bk. ii. c. iii. 
§ 16, 18; pp. 228, 252, sq.] 


^ See note on p 2 60. 




(BK. II. c. xxxi. § 2-4, 6.) 
IV. Os y wadu a uyn 
[ydav] yaun yu ydau dyuot 
hyt yr cgluys ry dywed- 
assam ny uchot a [c yna] 
dody y lau deheu [idaw] 
ar yr allaur [ac] ar creyr- 
yeu auo amey ar llau assw 
ar ben y mab ac y ucUy tygii 
y l)u\v yny blaen ac yr al- 
laur honno ac yr creyryeu 
da ysyd amey ac yr Gur 
ay gwahanws e\v o creed- 
ygaeth tat a mam nas [re] 
creus c\v y mab hunnw yg 
kallon [y] gwreic [honno] 
cryoct ac nat oes [im] 
<lauyn oy waet e\v yndau 
onyt [adaw] o Adaw. 

VI. O dcruyd ydy hy- 
tlicu ceyssyau oet y geys- 
syau creyryeu ny dyly hy 
oet naniyn trydyeu cany 
dyly hy geyssyau creyr- 
yeu namyn yny kymut 
hunnw. [I. 2of>. 208.] 

(bk. I. c. xii. § 6 in part.) 
VI. Ef adely pedeir ke- 
ynyauc o pop march [or] 
arodho ebrenyn, eythyr y 
[gan] tridyn sef eu erey 
henny er Esgob ar penhe- 
bog\-t ar croessan : sef 
achaus nas dcly ykan er 
Escob, urth yuod en bery- 
glaur yr Brenyn a [dylyu 
or Brenin] keuody racdau, 
ac eyste enyhol adale ylle- 
iivs traemolcho. i^c. [ 1 . 2 S, 


(bk. II. c. i. § 32.) 
XXXII. Orbydcar yr 
llouryd ncu )t lladedic yn 
wr eglwissic rwymedic 
vrth NTdeu kyssegredic 
neu wrth greuyd neu [yn] 
glauur neu [yn] vut neu 
[yn] ynvyt nythal [dim] 
ac nyt erbynnya dim dros 
aianas. Nydylyir gwneu- 
thur dial ar vn or rei hyn- 
nv dros aianas ac ny dy- 
lyant wyntcu dial [y] neb 
[or] alather ac ny ellir cu 

(bk. II. c. xxxix. § 15, 22.) 
XV. Tri dyn ys.syd ryd 
udunt kerdet ford, adiei- 
thyr ford : effeirat y ouwy 
claf ygyt ae gennat; eil 
yw righyll yn negesseu y 
arglwyd ; trydyd yw me- 
dyc gn achcnnat y claf. 

XX 11. I'ri diwyncb 
gwlat : arglwyd ; ac offci- 
rat; a chvfreith : ac ny 

A.D. 809-1 lOO.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 26^ 

[the laws of howel the good. A.D. 928.] 


(BK. II. c. xxxi. § 2-4, 6.) 

IV. If he will to deny 
him, it is right for him to 
come to the church we 
have already mentioned, 
and there place his right 
hand upon the altar and 
the relics thereon, and his 
left hand upon the head 
of the boy, and so swear, 
to God first, and by that 
altar, and by the sacred 

relics upon it, and by the \ 

Being who formed him by 
the agency of father and 
mother, that he never pro- 
created that child in the 
womb of that woman, and 
that there is not one drop 
of his blood in him, except 
from Adam. 

VI. If the woman seek 
time to fetch relics, she 
is to be allowed only three 
days ; for she is not to 
seek relics except in that 
cymwd. [I. 207, 209.] 

[And see above, Bk. iii. 
c. ii. § 28; pp. 254,255.] 

(bk. I. c. xii. § 6 in part.) 
VI. He [the chief groom] 
is to have four pence for 
every horse which the King 
may give, except from 
three persons; these are, 
the Bishop, the chief fal- 
coner, and the jester. He 
receives nothing from the 
Bishop, because he is the 
King's confessor, to whom 
the King is to rise and to 
sit down after him, and to 
hold his sleeves whilst he 


(bk. II. c. i. § 32.) 
XXXII. If there be a 
relative of the murderer, 
or of the murdered, who 
is an ecclesiastic in holy 
orders, or in an eccle- 
siastical community, or 
leprous, or dumb, or an 
idiot, such neither pays 
nor receives any part of 
galanas. No vengeance is 
to be exercised against any 
one of those for galanas ; 
neither are they to avenge 

(bk. II. c. xxxix. § 15, 22.) 
XV. There are three 
persons free to travel the 
road, and out of the road : 
a priest, to visit the sick, 
along with his messenger ; 
the second is, an appari- 
tor, upon his lord's com- 
mission ; the third is, a 
mediciner, along with the 
messenger of the sick. 

XXII. The three pre- 
sentials of a country : a 
lord ; a priest ; and law : 





(BK. II. c.i. §. 32.) 

kymcll o neb fiord ytalu 
nac y erbynnyaw dim dros 
alanas. [I. 4 lo, 412.] 

(b. II. § 39.) 
XXXIX. Llawero ke- 
uryv dennion ni dele [ant] 
menet en vach na rody 
niach essev achaus yv hin- 
ny kanydclcant huy j;uadu 
niach ny dcllcant huy roy 
mach nyt anigen na nia- 
nach [ac] hermiduir adin 
aghefieih ac scoleic escol 
afop din nihallo dciiot hep 
cannat arall e triiassanaessu 
kcfrcis. [I. I 28.] 

(bk. II. c. xii. § 10.) 
X. ' Teyr gorsctua' y 
syd a aiiant gwncuthur cu 
cab\ dul [trw ydiint cluincin 
a true eu keureyth] ehun 
yn y lie na liesteyryhoynt 
keureyth y Brenhyn : sew 
yu yrcy hynny abat ac 
Escop [yny orsed ehun] 
ac meystyr] -hyspyty : 
[pob un yny orsed]. — [I. 
(bk. III. c. i. § 14, 21.) 
XIV. Ny tal g\vreyc 
cynnyauc baladyr canyt 
oes paladyr ydy namyn y 
chogeyl ac nys tal yscol- 
hcygyon : ac ny- thai gwre- 
yc galanas o ryd y Uu na 
byd meybyon yMy ; ac nys 
tal yscolheygyon heuyt ac 
nys tal mab ny uo pedeyr 
bluvd ardcc. 

(bk. II. § 23.) 
XXI 11. Ny dyly neb 
rodi alltuL yn vach na neb 
[or] a uo kadarnnacii noc 
ef na mynach [na brawt] 
heb gannyat y abat nac 
yscolheic yscol heb gann- 
yat y athro na gwreic onyt 
arglwydes y talawdyr vyd 
na mab heb gannyat y tat 
tra dylyo vot drostaw kyt 
el yrei hynny yn veicheu 
ny dylyir kymcll mcchni 
neb o honunt. (I. 432.] 


(nK. II. c. xxxix. § 15, 22.) 
ellir bot hebdunt mal 
kynt. [1.780,782.] 

[Leges W.vlliCjI:, Bk, 
II. c. viii. § 55 («), and 
Bk. ii. c. xlvi. § 2 (3). 
Tres homines non sunt 
occidendi ; scilicet, Rex, 
sacerdos, et Kerdaur (jo- 
culator) : et ideo galan;us 
eis secundum leges non 
est constitutum. II. 777, 

Bk. II. c. xxii. § 12 (.1), 
and Bk. in. c. xiv. § 25 
(d). Ebed^w sanctimonia- 
lis, XV i. (xii. ti) denarii. 1 1 . 
797, 885.] 

(bk. II. c. viii. § 124, 128, 
130, 132.) 
CXXIV. Tri dyn ny 
allant ymwystlaw yn cr- 
byn brawt trwy gyureith 
vn yw Brenhin [y] He ny 
alio herwyd kyurcith seu- 
yll ymy wn dadyl gyr bronn 
y brawdwr y holi neu y 
atteb trwy vreint anny- 
anawl neu trwy vreint y 
tir mal "breyr neu arall; 
eil yw dyn eglwyssic nvy- 
medic yn vrdeu kyssegre- 
dic : trydyd yw dyn egl- 
wyssic rwymcdic ygkreued 
kanny dichaun neb herwyd 
kyureith rodi gwystyl yn 
' Try gorsedauc B.D.K. ' espviwvr /•'. 

" bri-f/r = moXc-m^i\, .i kind of 

A.D. 809-1 ICO.] 




(bk. I. c. xii. § 6 in part.) 

shall wash himself, &c. [I. 

29, 3I-] 

(bk, II. c. vi. § 39.) 

XXXIX. Many persons 
are not to become surety, 
or to give a surety ; and 
the cause for that is, since 
they are not to deny a 
surety they are not to 
give a surety ; such are, 
a monk, an eremite, a 
foreigner, a scholar of a 
school, and every person 
who cannot come without 
the permission of another 
to attend the courts. [I. 

(bk. II. c. xii. § 10.) 

X. There are ' three su- 
periorities' that can make 
their capitular regulations 
themselves, and by their 
own law, where they shall 
not contravene the law of 
the King : these are, an 
abbat, a Bishop in his own 
jurisdiction, and the mas- 
ter of - an hospital' : each 
in his jurisdiction. [1. 171.] 

(bk. III. c. i. § 14, 21.) 

XIV. A woman does 
not pay a spear penny, 
for she has not a spear, 
but her distaff only ; nei- 
ther do clerks pay it : and 
a woman does not pay 
galanas, if she make oath 
that she shall have no chil- 
dren ; neither do clerks pay 
it : and it is not paid by a 
boy under fourteen years 
of age. 

[the laws of howel the good. A.D. 928.] 
(bk. II. C. i. § 32.) 
a relative that is killed: and 
they cannot in any way be 
compelled to pay, or re- 
ceive, anything on account 
of galanas. [1.411,413.] 
(bk. II. c. vi. § 23.) 
XXIII. No one is to 
give an alltud as surety ; 
nor such as may be more 
powerful than himself ; nor 
a monk, nor a friar, with- 
out the consent of his 
abbat ; nor a clerk of a 
school, without the con- 
sent of his master ; nor a 
woman, unless she be the 
debtor's lady paramount ; 
nor a son, without the con- 
sent of his father, whilst un- 
der his authority : though 
such as these should be- 
come surety, their sureti- 
ship is not to be enforced. 

[I. 433-] 

(bk. II. c. viii. § 124, 128, 
130, 132.) 
CXXIV. There are 
three persons who cannot 
enter into a mutual pledge, 
b_y law, against a judg- 
ment : the first is, a King, 
for he cannot, according 
to law, stand in a suit be- 
fore a judge, to prefer a 
claim or to answer, by vir- 
tue of natural privilege, or 
by the privilege of land, 
like a ■breyr or other per- 
son ; the second is, an ec- 
clesiastical person, bound 
in holy orders; the third 
is, an ecclesiastical person 
^' three superiors ILD.K. -' hospitalers B. 

* See note on p. 264. 

(bk. U. C. xxxix. § 15, 22.) 

and they cannot be dis- 
pensed with, as formerly. 




[PtRIOD 11. 


(bk.iii. c.i. § 14, 21.) 

XXI. Nydylyyr yscol- 
hcygyon nar gwraged ran 
o[rJ alanas canyt ynt dy- 
ahvyr uynt adylyant [ha- 
gcn] y talu dros y plant 
neii wynteu a watoent na 
bo plant iidunt uyth (I. 
224, 226, 232.] 



(l!K. n. c. viii. § 124, 128, 

130, 132.) 
crbyn brawt onyt dan bc- 
rigyl \\crth y tauot ac nyt 
oes gwcrth gossodcdic 
ygkyureith Hywel [da]ar 
aclawt ag\vact asarhaet 
dyn cgluyssic ac vrth 
liynny ny cill neb ohonunt 
wy rodi g\\ ystyl yn erbyn 
brawt nachyt abrawt holl 
argywed scgyrfTyc a wncl- 
her yr eglwysswyr adylyir 
y eniendcuhaii vdunt yny 
scncd hcrwyd kyurcitli 


CXXVIll. ] ri dyn ys- 
syd ny dichaun \ n uhonunt 
bot yn vrawdwr teilwg 
trwy gyurcith vn y\v oho- 
nunt dyn anauus megys 
bydar neu dall neu glauur 
ncu dyn gorfrwyllawc [scf 
y\v hwnnw] dyn aorffb 
yrwyniaw vn weith amy 
ynvyttrwyd neu dyn ny 
alio dywedut yn iawn me- 
gys cryc anyanawl ; eil yw 
dyn eglwyssic rwymedic 
vrth vrdeu kyssegredic 
neu wrth greuyd ; trydyd 
yw llcyc heb allu ohonaw 
vamu ogyureith ovreint 
tir nac ovreint swyd. 

r.XXX. Xycllirkymcll 

A.D. 809-1 JOO.] 



[the laws of howel the good. A.D. 928.] 




(bk. III. C.i. § 14, 2T.) 

XXI. Neither clerks 
nor women are to have 
a share of the galanas, 
since they are not aveng- 
ers : however, thc)- are to 
pay for their children ; or 
make an oath that they 
.shall never have any. [I. 

(bk. II. c. viii, § 124, 128, 
130, 132.) 

in a religious institution: 
since no one, by law, can 
give a pledge against a 
judgment, but under the 
penalty of the worth of 
his tongue; and there is 
no established worth, in 
the law of Hywel, for a 
limb, the blood, or the 
saraad of a clerical per- 
son ; and therefore not 
one of them is able to 
give a pledge in opposition 
to a judgment, nor in sup- 
port of a judgment : every 
unworthy injury done to 
the clergy is to be re- 
paired to them in the 
synod, according to eccle- 
siastical law. 

CXXVIII. There are 
three persons, no one of 
whom, by law, can be a 
qualified judge : one of 
them is, a person having 
a defect ; as one who is 
deaf, or blind, or leprous, 
or an insane person, such 
is a person whom it has 
been necessary once to 
bind on account of his 
madness, or a person who 
is unable to speak perfect- 
ly, as one having a natural 
impediment ; the second 
is, an ecclesiastical person, 
connected with holy or- 
ders, or with religion ; the 
third is, a laic, without the 
qualification for judging, 
by law, from privilege of 
land, or privilege of office. 
CXXX. An ecclesiasti- 






(BK.II. C. viii. § 124, 128, 

130, 132.) 

dyn cglwyssic y wrthcb 

yneb ovaes ysened or ka- 

mcu adywettcr arnaw. 

CXXXU. Kyn gallo 
gwr eglwyssic bot ymywn 
barnn o vrcint [y] tir y 
gyt allcyccyon hynny vo 
amscr y datkanu ny di- 
chaun cl' datkanu y varnn 
tn\y gyureith nvg [y] 
kynnhcnusson kanyt ocs 
wcrth gossodcdic yg ky- 
ureith arytauot tnvy yr- 
hwnn ypoenir pob braw- 
dwr [or] arotho cam varnn 
OS kadamnha trwy yni- 
wystlaw. [1,474,476,478, 

(BK. II. c. xii. § 23.) 

XXI II. Kbcdiw abbat 
'dcudccpunt. [1. 492.] 

(13K. III. c. iii. § 24.) 

XXIV. A oes vn He y 
dylyir diennydyaw dyn am 
letrat [jTin Haw] agwarant 
idaw ? Oes : or geihv dyn 
warant o ofFeirat, neu o 
greuydwr arall a bot 
hwnnw yn barawt y 
gymryt ylletrat oe law; 
ny dylyir y rodi idaw, -ac 
ynteu ac vrdeu [Duw] 
arnaw : allyna yllc edylyir 
diennydyaw dyn [am le- 
drad] agwarant idaw'. [I. 
602, 604.] 

' dec M. ^' CTiiyt oes le kyiicilh atii.iw Q. 

A. D. 809-1100.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 269 

[the laws of howel the good. a.d. 928.] 



(BK. II. C. viii. § 124, 128, 

130, 132.) 

cal person cannot be com- 
pelled to answer to any one 
out of the synod, for misde- 
meanors reported of him. 
CXXXII. Although an 
ecclesiastic can sit in judg- 
ment, by privilege of ^his 
land, jointly with laics, un- 
til the time for passing 
sentence ; he cannot, by 
law, pronounce the judg- 
ment between the liti- 
gants ; as the worth of his 
tongue is not set down in 
law, by which every judge 
is punished who shall give 
a wrong judgment, if he 
confirm it by mutually 
pledging. [1.475,477,479, 

(bk. II. c. xii. § 23.) 

XXIII. The ebediwof 
an abbat, ' twelve pounds. 


(bk. III. c. iii. § 24.) 

XXIV. Is there any 
case wherein a person is 
to be put to death for 
theft in hand, although 
having a guarantor ? There 
is : if a person call a priest, 
or any other religious man, 
as a guarantor, and he 
should be ready to receive 
the thing stolen from his 
hand ; it is not to be given 
to him, - he being invested 
with holy orders : and this 
is the case wherein a per- 
son is to be put to death 
for theft, although having 
a guarantor'. [1.603,605.] 

' ten M. "" for there is no place for law against h'm Q. 



(bk. II. c. vi. § 40.) 
XL. O deruit ydin rodi 
mach ar deleet [ar oet] 
adiguitau er oet en \ti or 
teirguil arpennic e Pasc ar 
Sulguin ar Nodolic yr e 
holy ohonau ny kyll [dim] 
onyt yannot. Os diu No- 
dolyc ckeffry y haul ni 
keyff hi haul ny keif atep 
hit tranoeth guedi [duw] 
kalan ; os e Pasc vit [duw 
Mawrth] tranocs gucdi 
dihu Pasc bcccan [y kciff 
atteb] ; os e Sulguin vit 
[duw Mawrth] tranocs 
gucdi [e] Sul nessaf ir 
Sulguin [y rodir atteb 
idawj ar tcir vhvchnos 
hinny acluuir ()[cl cu 
breint en vntiit Jcthon. 
[I. 128, 130.] 





(bk. II. c. xxiii. §. 50.) 

L. Oet ''arwaessaf yn vn 

gymwt neu yn [un] gan- 

trcf tridieu os yn arglwy- 

diaeth arall ynagos naw 

nicu ac ny dodir tcruynn 

[nacj ar duw Sul na [c arj 

duw Llun. [1. 5 56. J 

[Period II. 


(bk. II. c. xxxvii. § I.) 
I. Ny dyly twg ar tir 
dyw Sul na dyw Llun 
dyw Sul dyd ywediaw ; 
dyw Llun dyd y lauuryaw 
y keissaw creireu adefneu 
y tyguy tir. [1.772,774-] 

(bk.ii. c. vii. § I, 4.) 
L O deruit ydin rodi 
»bridiu [i arall] ar pcth 
taletneu guadet malle dcu- 
etho kefreih eseu adeueiht 
e kefrehit ony vrthtug ar- 
nauhu bot en digaun ellu 
ehun [oe wadu ;] os gurh- 
tug auit amau [enteu] 
galuuet enteu am braut; 
essef a bam e kefreiht 
[idaw] ylu ar iseihuet oy 
guadu peduuar o parth 
etat adeu o parth euam 
ac [ef] ehun en eihuet. 
Oet ereiht [honno yu 


[Sec above, Bk. 11. c. vi. 
§ 15; p. 258.] 

hridinr—a solemn .is^everation on a person's failh. 

•' a /tfj.'Srtr —guarantee. 

A.D. 809-1100.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 

[the laws of howel the good. A.D. 928.] 



(bk. II. c. xxiii. § 50.) 
L. The time for an 
^anvaesav, in the same 
cymwd, or in the same 
cantrev, three days ; if in 
another lordship contigu- 
ous, nine days ; and which 
is not to determine on a 
Sunday, nor on a IMon- 
day. [I. 557.] 

(bk. II. C. vi. § 40.) 

XL. If a person give 
surety for a debt for a 
time, and the time fall 
upon one of the three 
principal festivals, Easter, 
Whitsuntide, or Christ- 
mas, though he claim it, 
he shall lose nothing but 
his time. If he urge his 
claim on Christmas day, 
he shall not obtain an an- 
swer until the morning 
after the calends ; if he 
urge it upon Easter day, 
on the Tuesday next after 
little Easter day he shall 
have an answer; if on 
Whitsunday, on Tuesday 
next after the Sunday fol- 
lowing Whitsunday there 
shall be an answer given 
to him : and those three 
weeks, on account of their 
privilege, are called blank 
days. [I. 129, 131.] 

(bk. II. c. vii. § I, 4.) 

I. If a person give his 
^briduw to another for 
anything, let him either 
pay or deny, as the law 
shall say: the law says, 
unless he be counter-sworn 
against, that his own oath 
is sufficient to deny it ; 
but, if there be a counter- 
oath against him, let him 
then call for judgment ; 
and the law requires from 
him the oaths of seven to 
deny it ; four of kin to his 
father, and two of kin to 



(bk. II. c. xxxvii. § I.) 
I. There is to be no 
swearing to land on a 
Sunday, or on a Monday ; 
Sunday is a day for pray- 
ing; Monday is a day for 
labouring, to procure re- 
lics and essentials for 
swearing to land. [I. 773, 


[See above, Bk. 11. c. vi. 
§ 15; P-259-] 

See notes on p. 270. 



[cr\'RElTHIAU HYWEL DDA. A.D. 928.] 


(bk. II. C. vii. § I, 4-) 
• wythnos] or Sul rac hue- 
neb [ac] o keffir ereihit 
dogen eu : o deguit en 
ereiht y camlurc yr Bre- 
nin ac yr Egluis bit fyny 
ol] atahalet e deleet en 

[Period 11. 


IV. Eregluis ar Brcnin 
adele kenicll bridiu kancs 
^Diu akcmerhuit en lie 
mach. Ar Egluis bicu 
iguahart am bridiu fna- 
thorrer] ar Brcnin y ka- 
mell : kancs ykan pop din 
[or] auedctcr cdclcir kcni- 
rit bridiu ac y can gur ac 
y can grcic. [Ac] vrth 
hene edele agur agurich 
roy bridiu het in oet mab 
seihisbluit acl a dan lau 
[e] pcriglaur. [1.132,134.] 

(bk. II. c. xi. § 55.) 
LV. Nyt cayedyc cy- 
ureyth am dyr Egluys un 
amscr y rygthunt ehun, 
cany hcnyu oc an cyurc) th 
ny : o holan huynteu nyny 
neu nynheu wynteu, cay- 
edyc uyd. [I. 166.] 
(bk. II. c. xii. § 8, 9.) 
VIII, Nydylyuntyrbot 
yn dyurcnhyn. O byd 
abbatvr, c\v advlv udunt 

(bk. II. c. viii. § 40, 131.) 
XL. Tri phrenn yssyd 
ryd eu Had yn fforest [y] 
Brcnhin : prenn crip egl- 
wys ; aphrcnn pelcidyr a 
wnelher reit y Brenhin 
ohonunt ; aphrenn elor. 

CXXXI. Os gwr egl- 
wyssic agynheil tir tr\vy 
dylyet dan ybrcnhin y 

(bk. II. c. XXX. § 25.) 
XXV. Pwybynhac aho- 
lo tir eglwyssic nyt erhy 
nawuet dyd namyn agoret 
uyd gwir idaw pan y gou- 
ynho. [I. 758.] 

(bk. II. c. xxxi. § 8.) 

VIII. Llysbieuteruynu 

[am dir] ac gwcdy Ilys llan ; 

ac gwedy llan breint; ac 

gwcdi breint kyg\\archadw 

' pehtheunos A.F. 

- dyn ( ' 

A.D. 8oy-i roc] 




(bk.ii. C. vii. § 1,4.) 
his mother, and he himself 
the seventh. The time for 
that raith is a ' week from 
the Sunday following ; and 
if the raith be obtained, it 
is sufficient : if he fail in 
his raith, [let him pay] his 
camlwrw to the King, and 
let the Church proceed 
against him, and let him 
pay the debt in full. 

IV. The Church and 
the King are to enforce the 
briduw, for -God has been 
taken instead of a surety. 
And therefore the Church 
is to forbid the briduw 
being broken ; and the 
King is to enforce it : be- 
cause from every person 
who has been baptised the 
briduw is to be taken, 
as well man as woman. 
Therefore both man and 
woman are to give bri- 
duw, from a child of the 
age of seven years, which 
shall go under the hand of 
the confessor. [1-133,135.] 

(B. II. C.xi. §55.) 

LV. The law is not 
closed for Church land at 
any time among them- 
selves ; for it did not 
emanate from our law : 
if the clergy sue us, or we 
them, it is closed. [1. 167.] 
(bk. II. c. xii. § 8, 9.) 
VIII. No land is to be 
without a King. If it be 
abbey land, he is to have, 

VOL. I. 

[the laws of HOWEL the good. A.D. 





(bk. II. c. viii. § 40, 131.) 
XL. There are three 
trees which are free to be 
cut in the King's forest : 
timber for the roof of a 
church ; timber for spear 
shafts applied to the use 
of the King; and timber 
for a bier. 

CXXXI. If an eccle- 
siastic should hold land by 
title under the King, for 

* fortnight A.E. ' man (' 

(bk. II. C. XXX. § 25.) 

XXV. Whoever shall 
claim Church land, is not 
to wait for a ninth day; 
for justice is to be open 
for him when he shall 
ask. [1. 759-] 

(bk. II. c. xxxi. § 8.) 

VIII. It belongs to the 

court to meer land ; and 

after the court, the 

Church ; and after the 


(bk. II. C. xii. § 8, 9.) 
o bydant leygyon dyruy 
a chamhvru ac amobyr ac 
ebcdyw a Ihvyd a lledrat 
[ef ae dele.] O byd Es- 
coptyr ew adyly Uwyd all- 
edrat. O byd yspytyr ew 
a dyly lledrat [ac ymlad.] 
Ac urth hynny nyt oes un 
tyr hepdau. 


[ci-V'RElTHIAU HI-WEL DDA. A.D. 928.] 



(bk. II. c. viii. § 40, 131.) 

pcrthyno gwnneuthur 

gwassannaeth yr Brenhin 

ohonaw ef adyly gwrtheb 

ynllys ybrenhin or tir ae 

berthyneu kannys [y] 

Brenhin bieu tir y teyrn- 

nas oil ac onny wrthcb or 

tir yn \'uyd ybrenhin bi- 

eiuyd [y tirj. — [I. 448, 


IX. Pan 110 maru yr 
Escop y Brenhyn byeu y 
da oil canys dyfeyth Brcn 
hyn yu pob da heb per- 
chennauc ydau eythyr 
gwysgyoed yr elgwys ay 
thiysseu ac a bcrthyno 
atey. [I. 170.] 

(bk. II. c. xvi. § 19.) 
XIX. Gwyr aiio a dan 
abbadeu a gwyr auo a dan 
Esgyp wynt a allant pryd- 
au eu tyr gan ganhyat 
yreyn hynny os mynnant. 

(bk. II. C. XX. § 2, 3.) 

II. Pann dechrcuher 
kennhen am ter\yneu ti- 
red neu trcfyd os y rwg 
tir y llys athir ywlat y 
dcchrcuir llys ateruynnha ; 
OS yrwg tir Kglwys athir y 
wlat Eglwys ateruynna ; 
OS y rwg [tir] kyttetiued 
yonn breint aten'ynna ; os 
y rwg tir kyuanned athir 
diffeith kynnwarchadw 
aten-ynna : adeil acarad- 
wy yw kyuiinned. 

[Pkriod II. 


(bk. II. c. xxxi. § 8.) 
ar diffeith ; ty ac odyn ac 
ysgubawr yw kygwar- 
chadw. [I. 762.] 

(bk. II. c. xxxix. § 20, 33.) 
XX. Tri chyffredin 
gwlat [yssyd :] lluyd ; a 
dadleu ; ac eglwys : [kanys 
guys auyd ar pawb vdunt]. 

XXXIII. Tri phrcn 
ryd yssyd [eu Had] yn fo- 
rest [y Brenhin : pren] 
crib eglwys ; a gwyd clor ; 
a pheleidyr a el yn rcit y 
Brenhin. [1.780,782,784.] 

(bk. II. c. xli. § 3.) 
III. Oet nawuetdyd ys- 
syd rwg llys allan kyn 
atteb ; ahynny gucdy hawl 
pan uo amrysson am tir. 
[I. 794.] 

III. Pann tcruynno llys 
maer achyghellawr bieu 
dangos y teruynneu drosti 
OS Eglwys bagyl ac euegyl 
[a teruyna]. — [I. 536.] 

(bk. II. c. xxii. § 8.) 
VIII. Pwybynnac ahol- 
ho tir eglwyssic nyt reit 
[idaw] arhos naw^ettyd 
ymdanaw namyn agoret 
vyd gwir idaw pan y 
mynho. [I. 542.] 

(bk. II. c. xix. § 4.) 
IV. Pop gwystyl ady- 
g\vyd ym pen y nawuet 
dyd eithyr y rei hyn, &c. 
Arueu eglwyssic ny dylylir 
eu g^vystlaw achyt gwyst- 
Icr ny dygwydant. [I- 

[Leges WalliCjE, Bk. 
II. c. xlvl. § 3 (3). In 
tribus locis dividit lex : 
inter sacerdotem et judi- 
ccm, inter vivum et mor- 

A.D. 809 — I ICO.] 


(bk. II. C. xii. § 8, 9.) 
if they be laics, dirwy, 
and camhvrw, and amo- 
byr, and ebediw, and 
hosts, and theft. If it 
be Bishop land, he is to 
have hosts and theft. If 
it be hospital land, he is 
to have theft and fighting. 
And, therefore, there is no 
land without him. 

IX. When the Bishop 
dies, all his property be- 
longs to the King ; for 
every property without an 
owner is waif to the King, 
except vestments and or- 
naments of the church, 
and what shall pertain to 
it. [I. 171.] 

(bk. II. c. xvi. § 19.) 

XIX. IVIen who are un- 
der abbats, and men who 
are under Bishops, may 
engage their lands, with 
the consent of those per- 
sons, if they will. [I. 181.] 




(bk. II. c. viii. § 40, 131.) 
which scrA'ice is to be 
performed to the King, 
he is to answer in the 
King's court, as to the 
land and its appurte- 
nances; for the King is 
owner of all the land of 
the kingdom : and unless 
he answer obediently for 
the land, it shall belong 
to the King. [1.449,479.] 
(bk. II. c. XX. § 2, 3.) 

II. When a dispute shall 
be commenced concerning 
boundaries of lands or 
trevs ; if it be commenced 
between land of the court 
and land of the commu- 
nity, the court is to meer ; 
if between Church land 
and land of the commu- 
nity, the Church is to 
meer ; if between the land 
of co-inheritors, privilege 
is to meer ; if between oc- 
cupied land and a waste, 
pre-conservancy is to 
meer : building and tillage 
denote occupation. 

III. When the court 
shall meer, the maer and 
the canghellor are to de- 
fine the meers ; if the 
Church, the crozier and 
the gospel decide. [I. 


(bk. II. c. xxii. § 8.) 
VIII. Whoever shall 
claim Church land, it is 
not necessary^ for him to 
wait the ninth day con- 
cerning it, but justice is 
to be open to him when 
he shall will. [I. 543-] 


(bk. II. c. xxxi. § 8.) 
Church, privilege ; and 
after privilege, prior con- 
servancy on waste ; a 
house, a kiln, and a barn 
constitute prior conser- 
vancy. [I. 763.] 
(bk. II. c. xxxix. § 20, 33.) 

XX. There are three 
universalities of a coun- 
try : armament ; pleas ; 
and church : for every- 
body is under summons 
to them. 

XXXIII. There are 
three free timbers in the 
forest of the King: the 
roof-tree of a church ; 
wood for a bier ; and 
shafts which go for the 
use of the King. [I. 781, 


(bk. II. c. xli. § 3.) 
III. There is a period 
to the ninth day between 
the court and the Church, 
before answering; and that 
after a claim, when there 
shall be a dispute as to 
land. [I. 795.] 

(bk, II. c. xix. § 4.) 
IV. Every pledge lapses 
at the end of the ninth 
day unless, &c. Ecclesi- 
astical implements should 
not be pledged ; and if 
pledged, do not lapse. [I. 

T 2 




(bk. II. c. xxiii. § 28, 

XXVIII. Orymladgwr 
Escob neu \vr abbat a gwr 
y Brenhin [ar tir y Bren- 
hin] neu deuwr yr Esgob 
neu deuwr yr abbat neu 
wr yr f^sgob agwr yr abat 
y Brenhin bieu cu dir- 

[Period II. 

XXXVII. Or tyrr Hog 
ar tir Esgob deuhanner 
vyd yr cnill rwg ybrenhin 
ar Esgob os ar tir y Bren- 
hin [ehun] y tyrr y Bren- 
hin chun biciiivd vr enili. 

[Leges WalliCjE.] 
tuum, inter gentes termi- 
nos sues injuste perjuran- 
tes. — (II. 871.)— (In D. 
Bk. II. c. XX. § 4, 6, and G. 
Bk. II. c. xxxi. § 9, — I. 
536, 762, — to the third 
case here given are added 
two others, neither of them 
relating to the Church.) 

lu. c. xxi. in fin. (y). 
Tria edificia sunt com- 
munia fratribus; nid am- 
gen, egluis, abreuandi, a 
caret : id est, ecclesia, nio- 
lendina, piscina i. caret.— 

XL\ I. Rwg Ilys allann 
naw nieu yrodi atteb anaw 
yrodi mach anaw yrodi 
gwir or hawl deissyuedic. 

[I- 550, 554-1 

(bk. II. c. xvi. § 2.) 
II. Y gyureyth[Eglwys] 
a dy weyt eylweyth na dyly 
un mab trew tat namyn y 
mab hynaw yr tat or wreyc 
bryaut : kyureyth Hywel 
[hagen] ay bam yr mab 
yeuaw megys yr hynaw 
ac a uarn na doter pe- 
chaut [y tat] nay achyu- 
reyth yn erbyn y mab am 
trew y tat. [I. 178.] 

(bk. II. c. viii. § 27.) 
XXVII. Tri meib ys- 
syd ny dylyant gyuran otir 
y gan eu brodyr vn vam 
vn tat ac w ynt : [vn yw] 
mab agaffer yn llwyn ac 
ymperth ac yn anneduawl 
agwedy hynny kymryt y 
vam [y mab or gwr] orod 
kenedyl achaffel [y] mab 
arall [o honunt] ny dyly 
hwnnw kyuranu tir ar 
mab agahat kynoc ef yn 


(bk. ii. c. xxxi. § 4.) 
IV. Tri meib yn tri 
broder un uam un dat, ac 
ny chan ydeu rann otref 
eu tat gan eu brawt un 
uam dat acwynt : un oho- 
nunt mab llwyn apherth, 
ac gwedy cael y mab 
hwnnw kymryt y wTcic o 
rod kenedyl or gwr achaf- 
fel mab or un wreic hon- 
no ; ny dyly y mab hwnnw 
rannu tir ar mab agaffat 



[the laws of howel the good. a.d. 928.] 

(bk. II. c. xxiii. § 28, 

XXVIII. If there be 
fighting between a Bi- 
shop's man, or an abbat's 
man, and a man of the 
King, upon the King's 
land ; or between two of 
a Bishop's men, or two 
of an abbat's men ; or be- 
tween a Bishop's man, and 
an abbat's man ; to the 
King belong their dir- 

XXXVII. If a ship be 
wrecked upon the land of 
a Bishop, the proceeds are 
to be shared between the 
King and the Bishop: if 
it should be wrecked upon 
the land of the King him- 
self, the proceeds belong 
the King. 

XLVI. Between court 
and Church, nine days to 
give an answer, and nine 
to give surety, and nine to 
render justice, in respect 
to the claim demanded. 
[I. 551, 555-] 




(bk. II. c. xvi. § 2.) 
II. The ecclesiastical 
law says again, that no 
son is to have the patri- 
mony, but the eldest born 
to the father by the mar- 
ried wife : the law of 
Howel, however, adjudges 
it to the youngest son as 
well as to the oldest ; and 
decides that sin of the 
father, or his illegal act, is 
not to be brought against 

(bk. ii. c. viii. § 27.) 
XXVII. There are 
three sons who are not 
to share in land with their 
brothers by the same mo- 
ther and same father : one 
is, a son begotten in grove 
and bush and illegitimate, 
and after that, the mother 
of the son being taken in 
marriage by the man by 
gift of kindred, another 
son is born to them ; such 


(bk. II. c. xxxi. § 4.) 
IV. There are three 
sons, three brothers, by 
the same mother, the same 
father, two of whom have 
no share of their father's 
property from their own 
brothers : one of them is 
a son of bush and brake, 
whose father afterwards 
takes the woman, by gift 
of kindred, and begets a 
son by that same woman ; 




(BK. II. c. viii. § 27.) 
llwyn ac ympertli : [yr] 
cil y\v kymryt oyscolheic 
y wreic orod kenedyl achaf- 

fcl mab o honei ac odyna 
kymryt or yscolhcic vrdeu 
offciradaeth ac odyna caf- 
fel mab or vn wreic or 
offcirat ny dyly yn.ab aga- 
hac kynnoc of kyuranu tir 
ahwnnw cannys yn crbyn 
dedyf y cahat : trydyd y \v 
mut kany dyly tir neb nyt 
atteppo drostaw kany ro- 
dir gwlat yvut. [I. 444.] 

[PlrioD II. 


(hk. II. c. xxxi. § 4.) 
kyn noc ef yn llwyn ac ym 
perth ; cil yw or byd yscol- 
hcic achyniryt gwreic o 
rod kenedyl achaflel mab 
o honno, ac odyna kymryt 
or yscolhcic urdeu effcira- 
daeth achaffcl mab arall 
or un wreic; ny dyly y 
mab agaffat kyn noc cf 
kyuran tir ahwnnw canys 
yn erbyn dedyf y calFat ; 
trydyd yw mut cany dylyir 
roddi gwlat yfut. [I. 760.] 

(Bk.h. § 2 in part.) 

II Enaemae yaun 

yr cgnat kamrct ckcrcir 
cne lau adeuedut vrth eke- 
nogen naut Duo racgod 
anaut Pap Ruuein anaut 
de argluit na dos en llu 
cam, &c. [1. 1 1 4-] 

(bk. III. c. i. § 18. 
XVIII. Y wadu Had 
[dyn] o fyrnygruyd llw 
chwechanwr [adav] ov 
wadu canys deudyblyc yu 
y alanas ay benyt [ac] 
urth hynny y byd deudy- 
blyc y wat. fl. 250.] 

[XVII. AM UENYT. &c.] 
(bk. II. c. xxiii. § 25.) 
XXV. Pwybynnac aw- 
nel brat arglwyd neu awn- 
nel kynnllwyn ef agyll tref 
ytat ac or keffir crogadwy 
vyd onny chcffir [ynteu] 
amynnv kymot ohonaw 
achenedyl ac ar arglwyd, 
tal deudyblyc adaw amaw 
odirwy agalanas ac or 
kyrch llys ypab adyuot 
llythyr gantaw adangosso 
yrydhau or Fab tref ytat 
ageiff. [1. 550.] 

(bk. II. c. xix. § 8.) 
VIII. Y neb aadawho 
da y [dyn] arall pan del 
hwnnw y ouyn os diwat 
kyfreith anudon amaw. 
Os yn gyhoed y twng 
talct tri buhyn camlwrw 
yr arglwyd achymeret yn- 
teu y penyt am yr anudon 
ar Hall orbyd tyston gan- 
taw y da ageiff. [I. 728.] 

A.D. 8oy-i loo.j 



(BK. II. c.xvi. § 2.) 
the son, as to his patri- 
mony. [I. 179.] 

[the laws of howel the good. A.D. 928.] 
(bk. II. c. viii. § 27.) 
son is not to share land 
with the son begotten be- 
fore him in grove and 
bush : the second is, where 
a clerk takes a wife by 
gift of kindred, and has a 
son by her, and afterwards 
the clerk takes priest's 
orders, and subsequently, 
when a priest, has a son 
by the same woman ; the 
son previously begotten is 
not to share land with 
such son, as he was be- 
gotten contrary to decree : 
the third is a mute ; be- 
cause no one is entitled to 
land who cannot answer 
for it : for land is not given 
to a unite. [I. 445.] 

(Bk. II. c. vi. § 2 in part.) 

II. [When a debtor de- 
nies surety,] then it is right 
for the judge to take the 
relic in his hand, and say 
to the debtor ; ' The pro- 
tection of God prevent 
thee ! and the protection 
of the Pope of Rome ! and 
the protection of thy lord ! 
do not take a false oath,' 
&c. [I. 115.] 

(bk. III. c. i. § 18.) 

XVIII. To denythe kill- 
ing of a person with savage 
violence, the oaths of six 
hundred men are required; 
tor the galanas and its pe- 
nance being double [the 
amount in an ordinary case 
of murder], so the denial 
also is to be double. [1. 2 31.] 

(bk. II. c. xxiii. § 25.) 
XXV. Whoever shall 
commit treason against 
his lord, or waylay, is to 
forfeit his patrimony ; and, 
if caught, he is liable to 
be hanged ; but, if not 
caught, and he will to be 
reconciled to the kindred 
and to the lord, a twofold 
payment of dirwy and ga- 
lanas is to be levied upon 
him: and if he repair to 
the court of the Pope, 
and return with a letter 
in his possession, showing 
that he is absolved by the 
Pope, he is to have his 
patrimony. [I.55I-] 


(bk. II. c. xxxi. § 4.) 
such son is not to share 
the land with the son 
begotten before him in 
bush and brake : the se- 
cond is, if there be a scho- 
lar, and he take a woman, 
by gift of kindred, and be- 
get a son by such woman, 
and then takes priest's 
orders, and begets another 
son by the same woman ; 
the son begotten before 
him is not to share land 
with him ; because he was 
begotten contrary to de- 
cree : the third is a mute, 
since land is not to be 
given to a mute. [I. 761.] 

(bk. II. c. xix, § 8.) 
VIII. Whoever shall 
promise property to an- 
other, when such a per- 
son comes to demand it, 
if he deny it, the law of 
perjury is to be applied to 
him. If he swear public- 
ly, let him pay three kine 
camlw nv to the lord ; and 
let him do penance for the 
perjury ; and the other, if 
he have witnesses for him, 
shall have the property. 
[I. 729.] 

[See also above, Leges 
Wallic^, Bk. III. c. xvii. 
§ 29 (/3) ; above on pp. 
236, 238.] 





(bk. II. c. xxviii. § 2 in part, 4, and 8 in part.) 

II. . . . Y gyureyth a dyweyt bot yn yaunaw barnu yn ol y peth [penhaf] a hot 

galanas gur arnau a hynny [hyt] yny uedydycr; allyna yr achaus pob dyn aholcr y 

alanas a dylyir y cnwy erbyn y henw na gur uo na gwreyc ac na ellyr cnwy nep 

erbyn y henw yny uedydycr ac urth hynny y mac dyr y uot ynteu ar ureynt ' gur yny 


IV. O ben y scyth blyncd allan ew chun a dyly -tyghu dros y weythrct ay dat 
byeu talu canys yna yda a dan lau y bcryglaur ac y cymer •'gwedcu arnau. 

VIII. Ym pen y petwarct ardcc wluydyn y dyly y tat duyn y uab ar yr argluyd 
ay orchymyn ydau ac yna y dyly ynteu gurhau ydau [cf] abot urth ureynt y 
argluyd ac [ef ] chun byeu atcb drostau o bop haul [or] a ouynncr ydaw ac [cf ] chun 
byeu nicdu y da, &c. [I. 200, 202.] 

[XIX. AM DYSTON, &c.] 

(liK. II. c. iv. § 4 in part.) 
IV. Tystonn aellir cu gwrthncu, . . . oc bot ynnysgymun gcir ycnw. [I. 422.] 

(bk. III. c. i. § 10 in part.) 
X. (iwrthncu gwybydycit y\v pann yin dangossont gyntaf yn erbynn [yr] aindit- 
fynnwr or achwysson hynn : . . . neu o ysgymyndawt gcir y cnw. [I. 590.] 
(bk. III. c. ii. title in part, and § 10, 17.) 




X. Ac adycco da kysscgrcdic, neu da arall o gysscgyr. 

X\"I1. Ysgymyn gcir y cnw. [I. 594, 596.] 


(bk. II. c. xxiv.) 

I. Vn yw Mynyw yn cistedua arbennic yg Kymry. 

II. Eil yw Eglwys '"lYsmael. 

III. Tryded yw Llan "'Dcgtnan. 

IV. Pedwared yw Llann ^Vsyllt. 

V. Pymhet yw Llann ^Teilaw. 

VI. Whechet yAv Llann eDculydawc. 

VII. Seithuet yw Llann 'Gencu. 

VIII. Abadeu Teilaw a Theulydawc ac Ysmael a Dcgman adylyant vot ynlyth- 
yrawl vrdolyon. 

> y beichogi n.B.CJ. weichogi A'. '' talu A ' gwed Duw D.Jl.CJ.K. 

» S. Ishmasl? " Llandudoch or S. Dogmael's ? 

f" Now Rho5crowther on Milford Haven. f Llangan, in which parish Whitl.nnd Abbey \i 

<= S. Issell's near Tenby ? '' Llandeilovach ? situated '< 

A.D. 809— iioo.j THE SAXON PERIOD. 281 

[the laws of howel the good. A.I). 928.] 



(bk. II. c. xxviii. § 2 in part, 4, and 8 in part.) 

II The law says, that it is most right to decide from the higher subject, and 

that the galanas of a man is to be upon it [viz. upon a child from the time of concep- 
tion] ; and that until it be baptized : and this is the cause ; every person, whose 
galanas is required, is to be named, whether male or female ; and no one can be 
called by name until baptized ; and therefore it is conclusive that it should have the 
privilege of a ' male until baptized. 

IV. At the end of seven years, he himself is to 2 swear for his acts, and his father 
is to pay ; for then he shall come under the hand of his confessor, and shall take 
3 duties upon himself. 

VIII. At the end of the fourteen years, the father is to bring his son to the lord, 
and commend him to his charge ; and then the youth is to become his man, and to 
be on the privilege of his lord: and he is himself to answer to every claim that may 
be made on him ; and is to possess his own property, &c. [I. 201, 203.] 

[XIX. OF W1TNES.SES, &c.] 
(bk. II. c. iv. § 4 in part.) 
IV. Witnesses may be contravened, ... from being excommunicated by name. 

[I. 423.1 

(bk. Ill, c. i. § 10 in part.) 
X. Contravening of evidences is when they shall first appear against the defendant 
for these causes : ... or, for being excommunicated by name. [I. 591.] 
(bk. Ill, c. ii, title in part, and § 10, 17.) 
The testimony of these persons is of no effect in any case. 

X. A purloiner of consecrated property, or other property from a consecrated 

XVII. A person excommunicated by name. [I. 595, 597.] 


(bk. II. c. xxiv.) 

I. One is, Menevia, a principal seat in Cymru. 

II. The second is, the Church of ^ Ismael. 

III. The third is, ^Llan Ddegeman. 

IV. The fourth is, i-Llan Usyllt. 

V. The fifth is, » Llan Deilo. 

VI. The sixth is, a Llan Deulydog. 

VII. The seventh is, a Llan Geneu. 

VIII. The abbats of Teilo, Teulydog, Ismael, and Degeman, should be graduated 
in literary degrees. 

' foetus P.JJ. CJK. ^ pay D. ^ duty to God D.B C.J.K. 

'^ See notes on p. 280. 




(i3K. II. c. xxiv.) 

IX. Ebcdiweu yrci hynny yw yarghvyd Dyuet 'dec punt ar neb adel yn cu lie 

X. INIynyw adyly bot yn ryd o bop ryw dylyct. 

XI. Llan Geneu a Llan Vsyllt [yn] ryd ynt o ebcdiweu kannyt ocs tir eghvys 

XII. Y neb awnnel gwact ar abat vn or eistcduacu arbennic racdyuededic talet 
seith punt idaw a golchydes oe genedyl yr guaradwyd yr genedyl ac yr cadw cof 
am -tal ysarhaet'. [I. 556, 55S.] 

[Leges WALLiCyE, Bk.ii. c. xviii. § 13 («). Nemo Mencvcnsem antistitein sine 
ipso presente vel suis canonicis iudicare pra'sumit. (II. 791.) 

Ib. Bk. II. c. hi. ■§ 5 (ii). Nemo Mencvcnsem, id est, Kpiscopum, sine ipso et suis 
canonicis audcat judicare: et similiter dc Sancto Beuno, ct 'rcrillo [.'Teulo], ct 
Tydecho. (II. S79.) 

(a. also adds an eighth church, i. c. seven besides S. David's itself, viz. " Egluyss 
Hwadeyn," or Llan Huadein ; and for " Eghvys Ysmacl" in § 2, has " Lan Vssan in 
Ros." And both u. and pi. (II. 790, 869), in § 8, substitute for " graduated in literary 
degrees," clerici sii'e ordituiti ; and in § 9, twelve for ten ; and in § 12, six for seven. 
See also, upon § 12, the Anomalouj Laivs, Bk. X. c. i. § 3 (II. 306), and for tin 
" Archbishop of Menevia," ib. c. xiii. § i (II. 364), below in Appendix C.)] 
' dcudec i.O.Q-S.T. ^' y dial i.O.^;. 

[In the Venvdvlian Code, Bk. n. c. xvi. § 2 (I. 178), — above, p. 276, — the "ecclesiastical law 

set aside for a coiitniry provision of Howcl's Laws, 
in the IHinttian, Bk. 11. c. iv. § 5 (I. 422), — 

" Ygkyureith Rufein ykeflir y lie nyt enwer rif 
tystonn vut yn digaun dcu ty>toiin : ygyfrcith houn 
a dyweit nat cwbjl tystolyaelh va tyst onyt vn or 
naw vvd." 

The civil law is treated with siniilar iiide[K-iideiicc 

" III the law of Rome it prevails, where the 
number of witnesses is not specified, that two wit- 
nesses arc suflicient : this law says, that the testi- 
mony of one witness is not complete, unless he be 
one of the nine;" i.e. of the nine tavodiogs (»ee 
above on p. 252). 
A relic (creyr) was, it appears, either necessary or UMial for a legal oath: see the Ve7ieilolian Code, 
Bk. u. c. vii. § 2, c. xi. § 26, Bk. ni. c. ii. § 18 (I. 114, 13^, 154, 242); the ]>imelian, Bk. n. c. viii. 
§ 89, 135, c. xviii. § 17, c. xxv. § 15, Bk. ni. c. iii. § 48 (I. 460, 462, 480, 520, 560, 610) ; the 
Gwenliaii, Bk. 11. c. xxviii. § 20, c. xxix. § 23 (I. 743, 748) ; and above, on pp. 236, 338, 258, 260, 
262, 270, 278. 

A cross was used as a boundary-mark — " Croesuaen sef yw hwnnw niaen ffin," Gtcent. Code, Bk. 11. 
c. xxxii. § 4 (I. 764). — which it belonged to the " canghellor" to place in case of a suit at law (ib. 
Bk. I. c. .\xxv. § 16, I. 674), or again to the lord of the two suitors (I'imel. Code, Bk. ni. c. iii. § 12, 
14, I. 600). See also the Anomalous Laics, and especially Bk. ix. c. xvii. ; II. 254. 
See also above on p. 12 1.] 

[For the following words, see notes on the pages affixed to them : 
Alltud. p. 260. Canghellor,pp. 2 24,254. Galanas, p. 224. 

Agweddi, pp. 226, 247. Cowyll. pp. 226, 247. Gobyro)Amobyr,p.2 26. 

Amobyr, ste GobjT. 
Argyvreu, p. 246. 
Arwaesav, p. 26S. 
Brevr, pp. 246, 264. 
Briduw, pp. 25S, 270. 
Camlwrw, p. 2 40. 

Daered, pp. 226, 250. 
Dilvsdawd, p. 250. 
I -irwy, p. 240. 
Ebediw, p. 224. 
Edliiig or Edlyg, p. 2 24. 
Erw. p. 241. 

Gor\'odogaeth, p. 236. 
Gowyn, p. 246. 
Gwrda, p. 236. 
Hosb or Osb, p. 224. 
Maer, p. 254. 
Osb, see Hosb. 

Raith, p. 256. 
Rhaiidyr, p. 244. 
Saraad. p. 224. 
Tavodiog, p. 352. 
Trev, p. 326. 
W) neb-werth or Wyneb- 
warth, p. 246.] 

A. D. 809-1100.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 283 

[the laws ok howel the good. a.d. 92S.] 



(bk. II. c. xxiv.) 

IX. Their ebediws, due to the lord of Dyved, are 'ten pounds; and those who 
succeed them are to pay them. 

X. Menevia is to be free from every kind of due. 

XI. Llan Geneu and Llan Usyllt are free from ebediws; because there is no 
church land belonging to them. 

XII. Whoever draws blood from an abbat of any one of those principal scats 
before mentioned, let him pay seven pounds; and a female of his kindred to be a 
washer-woman, as a disgrace to the kindred, and to serve as a memorial of the 
-payment of the saraad'. [I. 557, 559.] 

' twelve I.O.Q.a.T. ■' revenge I.0£. 

[Howel's Lawi, in addition to Epiphany, Easter, Whitsuntide, and Christmas, and to the Lent f;u.t, 
mention as dates, bat without giving (except in the two cases specified b-low) the days of the month 
assigned to them, the feasts of S. Bridget or Bride (Feb. i), S.Patrick (March 17), S. Curig (Cyriquc, an 
Asiatic, not a Welshman, June i6), S.John (the Bapiist, June 24, Midsummer Day, but called "in 
autumno" by the I.^'gtg Wallicn), S. Michael (Sept. 29), All Saints (Nov. l), S. Martin (Nov. 11): 
also the "first feast of the Virgin" ( = the Purification, \'e>itd. Bk. ill. c. xxv. § 20, and see Gwent. 
Bk. II. c. X. § I4; I. 32S, 7x0), and " Little Easter D.-iy" ( = Low Sunday, Vened. Bk. 11. c. vi. § 40, 

I. 130). S. Curig is mentioned only by the OtceiUian Cnie (Bk. u. c. x. § 20, c. xxiv. § 5 ; L 712, 
734, 736), and by the LajifS Wallian (a. Bk. u. c. xxxiii. § 22; H. 807); S.Bridget only by the 
Vewdotian (Bk. 11. c. .\i. § 7, Bk. iii. c. iv. § 9, c. xxv. § i ; I. 142, 262, 322); S.Patrick by the 
Ventdotian (Bk. iii. c. vii. § 6, c. xxv. § 27 ; I. 274, 328) and the Gwenlian (Bk. 11. c. xi. § 7 ; I. 71 4), 
and by the Legts ^ValUcie (Diun-tiaii, 0. Bk. 11. c. xxviii. § 22; IL 859); All Saints, and S.Martin, 
only by the ]>iiiieUan (Bk. 11. c. xvi. § 8, c. xxiii. § 56 ; I. 502, 556), and by the Leges Wallicre (a. 
Bk. II. c. xiii. § 9, c. xiv. § i, c. xvii. § 4, c. xxxiii. § 22, P. Bk. 11. c. xxxix. § 2, c. xlv. § 7, 8, 
c. Ivii. § 24 ; II. 784, 788, 807, 867, 871, 880). 

The later additions to the Laws (from the 12th century onwards, see below in Appendix C.) add to 
these, I. the day of S. Dewi, the Laws themselves in their Dimetian form repeatedly invoking S. Dewi 
ot Brevi, and once " S. Dewi of Brevi of the Blessed Hill" (Bk. in. c. i. § 26; I. 595, &c.), but not 
mentioning any day set apart for him, whereas Bk. xii. c. iv. (II. 458, 460, 14th century) specifies his 
day (which was March i ) ; 2. the day of S. Teilo (Bk. xn. c. i. ; II. 454, Feb. 9) ; 3. the " Feast of the 
Cross of the Kalends of May " (Bk. xii. c. x. ; II. 446, apparently the Invention of the Holy Cross, but 
in that case it should be May 3) ; 4. S. Luke's day (Bk. xi. c. v. § 35 ; II. 442, Oct. 18) ; 5. the day 
ot S. John the Apostle (" the feast of S. John within the Christmas week," viz. Dec. 27, Bk. xii. c. xi. ; 

II. 466) ; 6. the day of S. Mor (Mor ap Ceneu, Bk. ix. c. xxiii. § i, Bk. xn'. c. iii. § 31, c. x. § 28 ; 
II. 264, 582, 610). They also distinguish S. John Baptist's day, June 24, as " wyl Jeuan y moch " — 
" the feast of S. John of the swine " (Bk. xjv. c. xx. § i ; II. 644), as being the day " when the swine 
go into the wood " (Bk. v. c. i. § 5 ; II. 40). 

The invocations of S. Dewi, it ought to be added, which occur in the Dimetian Code, belong appa- 
rently to the copyist, not to the Laws themselves; and if so, to the 12th century.] 



A.D. 958 <"» or 959. Limits of the [diocese of Hand a jf and) kingdom of 
Morganiug^ alleged to have been settled by Bad gar King of Engla7id as 
suzerain over Ovjen King of Deheubarth and Morga?i King of Mor- 
ganvjg '\ 

Lib. Landa\'. — Istud hie scriptum est, pro co quod charta ilia, in qua 
scriptum crat, prx nimia vctustate fere tabefacta est. 
Sciant omnes Christiani quod scptcm sunt cantrefc in dominio 
Morcannuc, et in Episcopatu suo similiter, Ecclesije scilicet Lan- 
daviae. Primus quidem cantref est Bican; secundus vero cantref 
est Guyr, ct Cxdweli, et Carnwaliaunj tercius vero cantref est 
Wurhinit; quartus cantref Pcnychenj quintus cantref Gunlyuch et 
Edelyvon ; sextus cantref Wcn-ys-coyt ; septimus cantref Went-huc- 
coyt, ct Ystradyw, ct Ewyas, qui ambo vocantur semper Deu vjur 
laiveys Went-huc-coyt . Dc Went-huc-coyt sunt ct insuper hoc Ergyn 
et Anerg;yn, sicut in isto gref Teliau reperitur per totum finem Mor- 
gannuc per circuitum. Insuper autem scitote quod in uno tempore 
fuerunt Edgar Rex totius Britannice, et Huwel Da, et ''Morgan Hen j 
et isti duo tamen erant subj^-cti Regi Edgaro. Morgan Hen obtinuit 
quoque tunc temporis totum Morgannhuc in pace, et quicte; sed 
Huwel Da voluit auferre huic Ystradiw et Ewyas tunc temp)ris, si 
posset : quo audito. Rex Edgarus advocavit Huwel Da, et Morgan 
Hen, ct ftlium suum Huweyn, ad curiam suam ; et ibi in plcno con- 
cilio Rex Edgarus tractavit de litigatione amborum ; ct repertum 
est justo judicio curix Regis Edgari, quod Huwel Da nequiter egisset 
contra Morgan Hen, ct filium suum Huweyn; et dcpulsus est Huwel 
Da ab his duabus terris, scilicet Istradiu et Euias, in perpetuum sine 
recuperatione. Et postea Rex Edgar dedit et concessit Huweno filio 
Morgan Hen illas duas terras, videlicet Istradiw et Euias, nominatim 
in Episcopatu Landaviae constitutas, sicuti suam propriam hseredita- 
tem ; et illas easdem duas terras sibi ct hxredibus suis per chartam 
suam sine calumnia alicujus terreni hominis confirmavit. Communi 
vero assensu et testimonio omnium Archiepiscoporum, Episcoporum, 
et Abbatum, Comitum, et Baronum totius Angliae et Wallix factum 
est; et quod maledictus esset a Deo Patre, qui illas duas terras a 
dominio Morgannuc et parochia Landaviae unquam separaret, et quod 
iterum benedictus foret a Domino Jesu Christo, qui hoc observaret, 
et a cuncto populo Christiano a modo, et usque in sempiternum. 
Amen. Insuper scitote quod charta ilia quas illo die facta fuit, 
et scripta coram Rege Edgaro in plcno concilio suo, in ecclesiam 

A.D. 809-1100.] THE S^XON PERIOD. 285 

[welsh church in relation to SAXON.] 

Landavensem deposita est. Valete. [pp. 237, 238; and in Spelm. 
I. 414^ Wilklns ly. 773. See also the Myvyr. Arch. II. 612.] 

" So the (lirentian llrut in an. 958 ; but pos- 
sibly A.D. 96^, when Eadgar is said to have come 
to Cacrleoii on Usk (^lirul y Tijanjsog., (jtctiitian, 
p. 28, in Aich. Cainb., ^rd Heries, X.) 

^ Howcl Dda died A.D. 950. Eadgar became 
King of Mercia A.D. 955, and of England A.D. 
959 ^958 Anglo-Sax. Cliron.), being then six- 
teen years old. And the (liCftUian Unit y Tywysog. 
(in Arch. Cuiuh.), A.D. 958, names (correctly) 
Owen in lieu of Howel, and Ewyas and Eryyiig 
as the dLsputtd districts, aiil yet quotes the ori- 
ginal of the document in the text as its authority. 
While another tradition, in the lolv J/^'^'. (pp. 
69, 70, 456), asserts Gower to have been taken 
away from Morg in by Eadgar's judgment. The 
errors are in the original MS. of the Lib. Lan- 
dar. (now at Owston near Doiicastet), as well as 
in the copy from whi;h Kees printed it. If the 
document be neveithcless genuine, it is the ear- 
liest record of the claim to extend the diocese of 
Llandatl', urged without success in the i 2th cen- 
tury by 13;shop Urban. This claim referred to 
three districts: i.ihat between the Tywy and 
t!ie Tawi, from Gjwer, Kidwelly, and Carn- 
wyllion, on tiic coast, as far as to a line drawn 
from above Ll.mdovery southwards and east- 
wards along the sources of the I'sk, and by 
the Tawi and the Neath to the Taf near Mer- 
thyr Tydvil, — one indeed not widely differing 
fiom the present west and south boundaries of 
Hre:knockshire, — including thus most of Can- 
tref Bychan and ail east of the Tywi in Caer- 
ma'thenshire, and reaching to Cantref Selyf and 
even Buillt in Brecknock; 2. that within a line 
iVom near Menhyr northwards across the Usk near 
Llandetty and below Brecon, and round to the 
uortheriirnosi point of Monmouthshire at the 
head of Llaii'.ony valley, including both I-lantony 
itself and Crickhowel (which was built by Howel 
of Morganwg, father of Morgan, according to the 
lolo iV.^'S., p. 373), but apparently extended fur- 
ther north still by the document in the text and 
by Bishop Urban, so as to inclose all Ystradyw as 
^ar as to the Wye near Hay ; 3. from the head 
of Llan'.ony valley eastwards dowi\ a stream rising 
in the Cusop hill to the Dwr and southwards 
along the Dwr to its junction with the W^orm 
or Gwormwy, inclosing the district of Ewyas in 
Herefordshire ; and then turning sharply north- 
eastwards up the Worm and down another small 
stream (called iu the Lib Lcindav. by the name of 
Taratyr) into the Wye below Hereford, and thence 
by the Wye to the Bristol Channel, adding thus 

the district of Ergjnig or Archenficld between the 
Mynwy and the Wye ; all, except Ergyng, as- 
signed ultimately to S. David's, while Ergyng is 
in both county and diocese of Hereford {Lib. 
Larular. 126, 127, 374-376, with Rees's notes). 
Gower however is now made over to LUndatl", 
with all Monmouthshire, besides other changes. 
An earlier statement of boundaries {ib. 67, 126, 
311) takes the limit from Cusop hill to the Wye 
at Mochros or Moccas, thus indo.-ing (as nt) doubt 
the Welsh diocese once did) all Herefordshire on 
the Welsh side of the Wye. " From the mouth 
of the Taratyr on the Wye to the mouth of the 
Tywi," is the conmion brief description of the 
diocese in the Lib. Landuv. 

<^ The districts name I (which omit the central 
district round Llandaff iiself ) are in order, Can- 
tref Bychan (viz. according to Owen's map 
of Ancient Wales, and according to the places 
specified in the Lib. Landaii. itself, the district 
round Llandovery); Gower, Kidwelly, and Carn- 
wyllioii, along the shore from Tawi to Tywy, all 
(except Gqwer) in Caermarthenshire ; Gorwen- 
nydd (see lolo MSS. p. 398) and Penychen, both 
cantrefs of Glamorganshire ; Gwentlwg. l^dely- 
gion, Gwentiscoed and Gwentuwchcoed, cantrefs 
of Gwent,and all in Monmouthshire, save that the 
last includes Ewyas and Ergyng (and Anergyiig), 
both now in Herefordshire ; lasdy, Ystradyw in 
Brecknock. The last-named district and Ewyas 
are called, in the (italicized) Welsh words in tlic 
text, "the two real sleeves of Gwentuwchcoed," 
a phrase for which see lolo MSS. pp. 23, 391 ; 
and Owen's Welsh map. Cantref Bychan, in the 
second listof Cantrefs andCommots in the Myryr. 
Arch.., lies close to Gower, Kidwelly, and Carn- 
wyllion on the inland side : which would be a 
more probable locality than the other, did not the 
boundaries mentioned in the last note reach to 
the more northern cantref so called. See how- 
ever Arch. Camb., ^rd Series, II. II4. 

<i In a previous document it is asserted, that 
" Morcant Hen, filius Yugein, Rex Morcannuc, 
contemporaneus Etgari Regis Anglorum, red- 
didit ejusdem admonirione, et Dunstani Doio- 
bemensis Ecclesiae Archiepiscopi exhortatione, et 
commendatis literis, Gucauno Episcopo Landa- 
viae omnia territoria ejusdem Ecclesiae et cum 
omni sua dignitate et privilegio .... liberas ab 
omni servitio per totam Gualliam" {Lib. Landav. 
230). Eadgar however died 975' and Gwgan 
according to the Lib. Landav. was consecrated 
982 (more probably, however, 972)- 

A.D. 961. Marriage of Fries ts still alloijjed in South Wales ^ etc. 
Brut y Tywysog., G'we7itianj The same year Padarn Bishop 
A.D. 961. — Yr un flwyddyn y bu of Llandaff died j and Rhodri son 


[m^vrriage of priests, &c ] 

farw Padarn Escob Llaii Daf, ac of Morgan the Great was placed 

y doded Rhodri ab Morgan Mawr 
yn ei le, a hynny o anfodd y Pab, 
ac achaws hynny ai gwenwynwyd 
ef, a doded ar yr offciriaid na 
phriodynt heb fyned yng nghen- 
nad y Pab, ac o hynny y bu tcr- 
fysc dirfavvr ym mhhvyf Tcilaw 
oni farnwyd yn oreu cennad prio- 

in his room, against the will of 
the Pope, on which account he 
was poisoned ■ and ^the priests 
were enjoined not to marry with- 
out the leave of the Pope, on 
which account a great disturb- 
ance took place in the diocese 
of Tcilaw, so that it was con- 

das i'r offciriaid. [ip. 28, in Arc/.\ sidered best to allow matrimony 

Camb.^ yd Series ^ X.] 

A.D. 972. Brut y Tvwvsor.., 

Gwentian Oed Crist 972, y bu 

farw Edgar Brenin y Saeson, yr 

hwn a wnaethai fonachlog Bangor 

Fawr, a llawcr o fonachlogydd and England, [ib. p. ^^.^ 

eraill, yng Nghymru a Lloegr. 

[JL p. 32.] 

A.D. 975. Brut y Tywyscx}., 

to the priests, [ib. p. 29.] 

A.D. 972. Edgar King of the 
Saxons ''died. He erected the 
monastery at Great Bangor, and 
many other monasteries in Wales 

Givent'taTi. — Oed Crist 973. Ydd 

A.D. 97 J. Dunwallon King of 
Strathclyde^" went to Rome and 
took the tonsure. [;^.] 

aeth Dunwallawn Brenin Ystrad 
Cludc i Rufain He y cymmerth 
gorun. [;^.] 

A.D. 975. Ann. Tigernach. — Donaldus filius Hoani, Rex Brito 
num, (obiit) in peregrinatione, [O'Conar^ II. 259.] 

» This record is contemporary with Punstan, 
Archbishop of Canterbury 960-9S8. There were 
" Saxon derks " in the monastery of Llanilityd in 
959 (Bnit. Ihctmt., in an). 

^ liadgar died A.D. 975 {Angh-'^aT. Chron.). 

c Viz. that in Flint and Denbighshire, set up 
A.D. 890 by fugitives from the northern Strath- 
clw}'d, from the Dee to the Conway and the Eiwy : 
see the Unit 1/ Tywijgog. (Oireulinu). in an. S90. 
Dunwallon = Dufnall in Flor. Wi<j. a. 973. 

1 oth ajid beginning of 1 1 th Centuries. [A.D. 929-T 02 2 C. Acts of discipline* 
attributed to Bishops of Llandaff as exercised upon Welsh Princes^. 

" Similar synodical censures and absolutions 
to those already mentioned pp. 125, 207, 208, 
are assigned also to Bishops of Llandaff in the 
I oth century. — viz. 

i. Excommunicaiion of LH-werth son of 
Cadwgan King of Glamorgan by Bishop Gulfrid 
for wasting church lands {Lih. Landar. 212, 
213 ; IViM-ins. /. 198). 

ii. Of Nowi King of Gwent twice by Bishop 
Pater, once for violating sanctuary, the second 
time (A.D. 955 according to the document 
itself, which vet speaks of Howel z'- alive, who 

died A.D. 950) because six of his " family," in 
spite of the presence of Bleg\'wryd (see above pp. 
209, 215, 219), murdered a deacon before the altar 
{Lih. Lnndar. 2c8-2 1 1 ; WilJnnt, 1.222, 223). 

iii. Of Arthfael King of Gwent by Bishop 
Gwgan (A.D. 982 according to Lib. Landav. 
235) for fratricide (Lib. Landav. 233-235 ; 
WW.inK. I. 264). 

iv. And of Edwin King of Gwent by Bishop 
Bledri (A.D. 983-1022, Lil. Lfindnr. 241) be- 
cause one of his train wounded the Bishop in a 
fray (Lih Lanilar. 239, 240K 

A.ix Hoc;— I locj THE SAXON PERIOD. 2«7 

[subjection of south WF.LSII sees to CANTERBURY.] 

See for the form of these documents, below babl}' dated in 972, comes Bishop Pater, who 

under Bishop Herwald of Llandatf, A.D. 1056 X died 961 (Ili-vt 1/ Tyir-ijsiirf., Gireiil.). And Bi- 

1 104. shop Gulfrid therefore must have immediately 

Bishop Libiau died in 929 (Lib. LantJan. either preceded or (omitting Rhodri, for whom 
230). Marchlwys, however, who must have see above under A.D. 961) lollowed Pater ; pro- 
succeeded him, was Bishop in 928 (if. that is bably, from the names of the princes who were 
really the date of Howel Dda's laws), and died respectively their contemporaries, the former, 
in 943 (Brut y Tijicijiiog., dirfut.). Between him But the dates of the Lil>. Lamlav., and (although 
and Bishop Gwgan, who was consecrated 982 in a less degree) tho^e of the (hcenlian and 
and died almost immediately (7>i7y. jMnilar. 235, other Chronicles cannot be trusted. 
241), but whose consecration seems more pro- 

End of I oth century and beginning of \ 1 th. Bishops of L.lavdajf from 
A.D. 972 (?), and some Bishops of S. Dai'id's from A.D. 995, alleged to 
have been consecrated by the Archbishops of Canterbury. 

I. Lid. Laxdav. 

i. Dc:ccc"'\LXXX°.Ti°.''' incarnationis Domini anno, Gucaunus 
Episcopus Landavia: consccratus a metropolitano Dunstano, 
Dorobernensis Ecclesias Archiepiscopo, data sibi virga pasto- 
rali in regali curia a summo Rege Anglomm yEtgaro, prre- 
sentibus suffragancis suis Episcopis Anglise, Birthelmo Epi- 
scopo, AlfuLioldo Episcopo, Adheluuoldo Episcopo, Oswaldo 
Uuicornije Episcopo, et prassentibus abbatibus, Alfrico Ab- 
batc, y^swuicg Abbate, ct astantibus Ducibus, Alfere Duce, 
Alphca Duce, ^^thcstan Duce, cum multis aliis clcricis et 
laicis. Post datam sibi apostolicam dignitatem, migravit 
ad Dominum. [pp. 235, 236.] 

ii. DcccC.i.xxxiii". annob, electione facta regum Morcannuc, 
Ouein videlicet, et Idguallaun, Catell et Cinuin filiorum 
Morcant Hen, Rotri et Grifud filiorum Eliscd, ct totius 
cleri et populi Morcannuc intra ostium Taratyr in Guy 
et ostium Tyui positi, et dato sibi baculo in regali curia, 
a summo Rege Anglorum Adelredo, et a metropolitano 
Dorobernensis Ecclesias Albrico Archiepiscopo, Bledri Epi- 
scopus Landavite consecratus est; et millesimo vigesimo 
secundo anno incarnationis Domini, ordinationis suae autem 
trigesimo nono anno, migravit ad Dominum. [p. 241.] 

iii. Millesimo vigesimo secundo^ anno incarnationis Domini, 
consecratus est Joseph Episcopus Landavise, Cantuarise, a 
metropolitano Dorobernensis Ecclesise vElnod, Archiepi- 
scopo, in calendis Octobris, et in primo anno cicli decen- 
novennalis; verbo Regis Anglorum Cnut; et dato sibi 
baculo in curia illius, electione populi et cleri Landaviae, 


[subjection of south welsh sees to canterbury.] 

ct Regum Britannia:, Regis videlicet Ridercli regnantis per 
totam Gualliam tunc temporis, et Hiuel subreguli Regis 
Morcannuc intra ostium Taratir in Guy et ostium Tyui 
regnantis; ct vigesimo quarto ordinationis su£e anno, in 
via Sancti Petri Apostoli, apud Agustan, migravit ad Domi- 
num. [pp. 241, 242.] 

II. Rot. Cantuar. Eccles. [ap. Goduiin ed. Richardson^ in notis. 
— Tliese entries are in the above cases identical with the Lih. 
Landav.^ with the one omission of i^lfric's name in the 

III. R. DE DicETo"^, Abbrev. Chron. — A.D. 994. Siricio Doro- 

berniae Episcopo mortuo successit Alfricus : hie Bledri 

Episcopum Landaviae, et Tramcrin Episcopum Sancti David, 
et Elvodum Episcopum Sancti David^', Cantuariae consecravit. 
\T'wysd. 46 1. J 

Id. ib. — A.D. 1020. Livingus Doroberniae Archiepiscopus obiit ; 

cui Ethelnothusf successit. Hie Joseph Episcopum Lan- 

daviae et Bleduc Episcopum Santti David Cantuariit conse- 
cravit. [^T-vjysd. 467. j 

a Possibly DCCCCLXXII. Eadgar died A.D. 975; of the see had intervened according to the Ann. 

Hrihthclni Bishop of Wells, 973 ; and /'Eliwold * am^ir. The existence of two Hishops so named 

Bishop of Sherborne. 978. • within the years 995-IOO5, is however not ex- 

^ Possibly Dcccc".xcni", and for iHfric, retd eluded by the notices of Bishopi of S. David's in 

Sine. The former succeeded the latter as Arch- the Ann. Caiul/. and Jiiul y 'iyicytog.; nor even 

bishop of Canterbury in 995, and died 1005. by the lists in Giraldus or Godwin, otherwise 

•^ A.D. 10 i 2 was the l^ih, not the lirst, year than that these lists give dift'ertnt names, 

of a 19 years' cvcle. And .^ithelnoth was at ' Archbishop A.D. 1020-1038. " Biedud 

Rome m the verv week here specitied, viz. on Episcopus Menevensis " died A.D. 107 1 {Ann. 

"the Nones of October," 1022 {Aivjlo-Suj-. CfiiiJ>.), and the last previous record of the 

( hron.). And Joseph died at Rome (-Inn. CanJi., death of a Bishop of S. David's (Joseph) is A.D. 

7{ru<i/ Tj/fryso^.) in 1043, or perhaps 1046 (ii.). 1064(16.) or lo'^l ( Unit y TijwygiHj.). Mor- 

The computation in the text gives 1046. ganwg and Eiwyn appear as Bishops of S. Da- 

'' The same chronicler in his MS. Hist, of vid's during /Ethelnoth's archiepiscopate. 

Bishops {Arundel 220), attributes to Siric(A.D. « It will be seen that the dates in the above 

990-994) the consecrations here (apparently) statements (which stand as above in the original 

assigned to .^Ifric (A.D. 995-IOO5). MS. of the Lib. lAxndar. also) are in hopeless 

« F.lvod is mentioned by no one else : although inconsistency, especially as regards S.David's: 
the name occurs at a much earlier date in the and both the Llandaft' and the Canterbury no- 
lists of the Bishops of S. David's. Tramerin tiees are suspicious. There is a similar heap of 
can hardly be identified with the Bishop of contradictions both in previous (above, pp. 208, 
S.David's of that name who died A.D. 1055 209) and subsequent (below, pp. 292, 293) 
(see below), and between whom and A.D. 1005 years, 
(the date of iEifric's death) at least two Bishops 

A.D. 1022. Church Schools in Llandaff Diocese. 

A.D. 1022. Brut y Tywysog., A.D. 1023" died Bledri 

Givent. — Oed Crist 1023% bu Bishop of Teilavv, the first scho- 

A.D. Hoy-iioo.] THE S^XON PERIOD. 289 


farw Bledri Escob Teilaw lar in Wales, on which account 

ysgolhaig pennaf gwlad Gymru, he was called Bledri the Wise : 

achaws hynny y gelwid ct" Bledri and so much he loved knowledge, 

Ddoeth, a chystal y carai wybo- that he required every priest to 

dau fal y dodes ar yr olleiriaid support instruction from literary 

gynnal addysg llyfrau lien bob un works in his church, that every 

yn ei eglwys, mal y gwypai bawb one might know his duty to God 

a ddylynt parth Duw a dynion. and man. [jk p. 47.] 
[p. 46. in Arch. Camb. yd Series^ 

" If the Lib. LanJav. is correct, this should be 1022. 

A.D. 1022 X 1031. Charter of Rhydderch son of Jestyn to Joseph 
Bishop of Llandajf^. 

Lib. Landav. — Riderch iilius lestin, Rex Morcannuc, imo totius 
Gualiae, excepta tantum insula Euoniae, quam Jacob filius Idguall per 
se tenebat • — Riderch dico, uirum pacificum et mansuetum, omnibus 
totius regni tam clericis quam laicis, uiduis et orphanis, jura sua et he- 
reditates Diuina lege et humana concedentem, et maxime Ecclesiae Dei 
et gubernatoribus ejus, Episcopis videlicet, et omnibus de inferioribus 
gradibus ; in cujus tempore nulla desolatio, in montibus nee in piano, 
nisi tantum tribus villis per totam Gualiam in solitarioj — Landauise 
quidem et Sanctis ejus Dubricio, Teliauo, et Oudoceo, et Joseph 
Episcopo ejusdem, concessit ecclesias suas et earum territoria per 
omnia in pace quieta tenenda, et cum sua dignitate et omni privi- 
legio consolidata, et libertate tota data incolis et habitaturis, et 
communione pervia in campo et in aquis, in [silva**] et in pascuis, 
et ob venerationem katholicae fidei, jurejurando, et manum mittendo, 
presente Joseph Episcopo, et confirmante super quatuor evangelia, 
antepositis sacris reliquiis j et ita, ut nunquam glebam unam sciens 
ablaturus est aliqua ui laicali, aut tirannico furore, aut malo ingenio, 
aut fraude subdola, de territoriis Landaviae, et cum toto privilegio 
dato sibi a tempore Sanctorum Dubricii, Teliaui, Oudocei ; hoc est, 
sine ullo censu, magno vel modico, ulli homini terreno, nisi tantum 
oratione cotidiana et ecclesiastico seruitio diurno, sine consule, 
sine proconsule, sine conventu intra patriam nee extra, sine uigilia 
intus nee extra, sine expeditione, et cum omni dignitate curiae suse 
plenaria et (ut sic dicam) in omnibus ut regia- et vovens Deo, et 
Sanctis Dubricio, Teliauo, et Oudoceo, et in manu Joseph Episcopi, 

VOL. I. u 


[llandaff chauters.] 

consolidans ct promittens omnibus successoribus suis in pcrpctuo, ut 
nunquam dominaretur in aliqua re ecclesiastica, ^aut ejus posses- 
sionibus, nee etiam refugium violaturus, immo conservaturus in omni- 
bus • et concesso eodem refugio territoriis omnibus eiusdem, et 
confirmato ab eo tali, quale fuit Sancti Dubricii in priori tem- 
pore, uidelicet quamdiu uoluerit profugus Landauise et ^ eorum 
omnium ubique ecclcsiarum sibi subditarum maneat tutus, sine pro- 
tcgcnte clipeo nisi Diuino, ct sanctorum protectione in eius asylo, et 
sine termino, non tantum per diocesim suam, diuidente Tyugui occi- 
dcntali plaga, Guy uero in hostio Taratyr in parte orientali scques- 
trantc Angliam, uerum etiam infra Episcopatum Sancti David, per 
totam Demeticam regionem, et Cantref Maur, et Brecheniauc, ct 
Eluail. Et de omnibus subscriptis uestita fuit Ecclesia Landauia?, 
simul ct Episcopus loscph, pace quieta et tranquilla, tempore reg- 
nantis Riderch per totam Gualiam, et ammonitione JE\noih Archi- 
episcopi t'Cantuariensis, simul cum litteris commendatiis Cnut regnan- 
tis Angliam. [pp. 242, 243 ; see also IVharto?!^ A. 5., 77. 669, 670.] 

" This and all following extracts from the and in Pembrokeshire, extending to the actual 

Zi7). Lati'tav. are printed from the original MS., cantref (Pybidiog) in which S. David's itself is 

now in the possession of P. Davies Cooke, Ksq., situated ; 2. P'ive in Brecknock, but outside the 

of Owston, neir Doncastcr. boundary-line mentioned above, p. 2S5 ; and 3. 

If this privilege be genuine, or (supposing Two in the deanery of Eifael in Radnorshire, on 

it genuine) if it ever took effect at all, it the north side of the Wye opposite the district 

could only have been tor the few years (1021- of Ystradj'w. By " Demetica regie" in the text 

1031) of Rhydderch's forcible rule over South is meant all west of the Tyvi and south of the 

Wales. The list of churches at the end of the Teivi : and Cantref Maur is either the cantref so 

original document (printed in the Lib. Lnndar., called which adjoins Cantref Bychan and includes 

but here omitted) relates to churches claimed as the north and west of Caermarthenshirc, or that 

belonging to the Bishops of LlandatT, but con- of the same name which forms the southern 

fessedly not in Llandaff diocese but in S. Da- half of Brecknock. 

vid's, and all of them indeed outside the most The I'rirUegium Sancti Teliaui, which must 

enlarged boundaries claimed for Llandaff; unless have been drawn up by the Llandaff clergy either 

upon the bold substitution of the Teivi for the about this period or at the latest during the Epi- 

T)'vi {Lib. Landtir. 126, 373), which would scopate of Herwald, is a little fuller in its terms 

include all Caermarthenshire, and Pembrokeshire (asserted to be confirmed " Apostolica auctori- 

as well, in the original diocese of Teilo. It con- tate," and concluding at length with the ordinary 

sists of — I. Thirty churches, mostly dedicated to curse and blessing upon violatcrs and observers 

S. Teilo, in Caermarthenshire west of the Tyyi, respectively) — as follows : — 

Privilegium Sancti Teliaui est, et Ecclesix suae Landaviae, datum sibi, et omnibus successoribus suis 
in perpetuo, a Regibus istis, et Principibus Brittanniae. coiifirmatum Apostolica auctoritate cum omnibus 
legibus suis in se plenariis sibi et terris suis libera ab omni regali seruitio ; sine consule, sine proconsule, 
sine conventu intus nee extra, sine expeditione, sine uigilanda regione, et cum omni iustitia sua de 
fure et furto. de rapina, de homicidio, de arsione, de ri.xa, de sanguine, de refugio uiolato ubique in 
terra Sancti, de assaltu viarum, et e.xtra vias ; de fadendo iudicio et patiendo, de omni populo Sancti 
Teliaui in curia Landavix ; de communione aquae et herbae, campi et siliiz, populo Ecclesix Sancti 
Teliaui, cum mercato et moneta in Landavia : cum applicatione navium ubique per terras Sancti Te- 
liaui, libera pro regibus et omnibus, nisi Ecclesise Landauise, et Episcopis eius ; de opprobrio, et omni 
iniuria quod Rex Morcanhuc et sui homines fecerint Episcopo Sancti Teliaui, et suis hominibus, idem 
Rex Morcanhuc et sui homines rectum faciant Episcopo et suis hominibus, et indicium patiantur in 
curia Landauiae. Omnis lex qux fiierit Regali, omnis etiam et in curia plenarie Episcopal! Landauensi. 
{I.ih. LanJav., 1 1 1 . 112.) 

A.D. 809-1100.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 291 


In the Welsh version of this Pnyt7('j7ii(»» which Johannis, m. 5. A.D. 1205, — EjAscojx) Lanila- 

follows (t6. 113, 114), "sine consule, sine pro- vensi apud Landuviam, Feria Conwssa, — " dat. 

consule," is rendered by " heb niair, heb cy- per manuni H. de Welles archid. Wellens. apud 

ghellaur" = " neither maer nor canghellor," for Bristoll 9 die Septembris," Hot. Chart, ed. Hardy, 

whom see above, pp. 224, 254: and " sine con- p. 159, and Br. Willis, Hand. App. pp. 112, 

ventu intus nee extra " = " heb gyhoedd ddadl H,^). 

nac me\vn na dyeithr " = " without attend- t Miswritten " aqua," in original MS. 

ance at courts of justice either in the district or <= Miswritten " ut," in original MS. 

out of it." The privilege of a market at Llan- ^ So in original MS. 

dafF was afterwards confirmed by the Norman " Miswritten " Cantuariensi," in original MS. 

Kings {Ejc Archivis in Tuni Jx)ndineim Cart. 7. 

A.D. 1030. Of Sunda)'! and Holidays. 

A.D. 1030. Brut y Tywysog., A.D. 1030 That year Jo- 

Gwenf. — Oed Crist 1030 y seph, Bishop of Teilaw, ordered 

flwyddyn honno y peris Joseb Es- that no work or occupation should 

cob Teilaw na wnelid na gwaith take place on the Sundays and 

na gorchwyl ar y Suliau a'r gwy- holydays, and obliged the priests 

liau, ag a wnaeth i'r offeiriaid to a teach to read the Holy Scrip- 

ddysgu darllain yr Ysgrythyr Ian ture without payment or gift, and 

heb dal heb ged, ac na wnelynt to abandon controversies. [/^. 

ac ymrysonau. [p. 46. in Arc/p. p. 47.] 

Cam/?. J -yd Series^ X.] 

■ Mr. A. Owen translates this " learn," but the context seems conclusive for the other rendering, 
above given. 

A.D. 1022 X 104^ (or 1046). SyModica/ Excommunications of Meurig^ son of 
Hywel King of Glamorgan^ (twice) by Joseph Bishop of Llandajf ^. 

» i. For murdering Edw}'n son of Gwriad For the form of these documents, and of 

King of Gwent Iscoed, after swearing amity the similar ones previously mentioned, which all 

with him on relics in the Bishop's presence mutatis mutan(lis nearly repeat one another, see 

(Ift. Landav. 245, 246). below under Bishop Herwald, A.D. 1056 x 

ii. For violating sanctuary at Llandaff (Ift. 1 087, pp. 295, 296. 
Landav. 248, 249; Wilkins, I. 310). 

A.D. 1023-1064. Madoc [or Madawc~\ Min, Bishop of Bangor'^. 

" Brut yTy"w\"sog., fi'frcH*., in a. 1060 men- 1064 J7or. Wig., 106^ Anglo-Sax. Chron. and 

tions a Bishop of Bangor of this name, as having Ann. Caml.), the latter to Harold and the 

betrayed Llewellyn ap Seisyllt (A.D. 1023 Ann. Saxons. 
Camh.), and afterwards Grufudd his son (A.D. 

A.D. 1043-1055. Tremerin {Trahaiarn) Bishop of S. Davids s acts as Vicar 
to the Saxon Bishop [JEthelstan) of Hereford ». 
Flor. Wig., Chron. a. 1055. — Eo tempore religiosus vir Tremerin 
Walonicus antistes decessit. Hie multo tempore vicarius ^thelstani 
Herefordensis prsesulis extitit, postquam ipse ministerium Episcopale 
per se implere nequivit ; erat enim per annos XIII. oculorum lumine 
privatus. [M, H. B. 608.] 

u 2 


[of saints' uays.] 

a So also Anglo-Sax. Chron. a. 1055, and see Envyn (died 1040) and Joseph (died 1064). 
Sim.hunehn.z^. Twijsd. 188. Trahaiarn appears /Ethelstan was Bishop of Hereford from 1012 to 
in Giraldus' and Godwin's lists between Bishops 1056. 

A.D. 1046. Of Saints' Days. 

A.D. 1046. Brut y Tywysog., The same year Joseph, Bishop 

Gwent. — Oed Crist 1043a Yr of Teilaw, died; a very wise, 

un flwyddyn y bu farw Joseb Escob learned, and godly man. He in- 

Teilaw, gwr tra doeth, a duwiawl, stituted good order on the saints' 

a dysgedig, efe a wnaeth drefn days ; that prayer to God, shew- 

dda ar wyliau mabsant, sef nas ing good works, almsgiving, pro- 

caid amgen na gweddiaw Duw, a per remembrance of God, and 

dangos daioni, a gwncuthur elu- His saints and their praiseworthy 

senau arnynt, a chynnal cof dy- works, should alone take place. 

ledus am Dduw ai Saint, au gwei- [i^. p. 53.] 
thredocdd molcdiw. [p. 52. in 
Arch. Camb.^y yd Series.^ X.~\ 

• The Brut (in M. II. B.) plainly specifies Ann. Camli., niay pf>ssibly intend 1046 as tlie 
1043 as the date of Joseph's death, but the year, in agreement with tlie Lib. lAindav. 
Gwcntian form of it (above given), and the 

A.D. 1056. Heriia/Jj Bishop of LlanJaff.^ elected by the Welsh princes^ 
ajid coyisecrated by the Bishop of S. David's {}) i?i A.D. 1056, but subse- 
quently confrrried (?) by Kinsi Archbishop of Tork at a Council at Londo?i 
A.D. 1059 a. 

I. Lib. Landav. — De Consecratione Herivaldi Episcopi. — Prestante to- 
tius creaturiE uisibilis et inuisibilis Auctore atque Gubernatorc, Quem 
unum substantialiter trinumque personaliter in Se et per Se subsistcre 
credimus et confitemur, universis orthodoxse fidei cultoribus universa- 
lem mi£ presentis prosperitatem et seternalem immortalitatis feli- 
citatem. Notum sit benevole prudentias legentium hoc dictamen, 
ac intelligentium quod celestis Pastor ouilis Christus Dominus, Cuius 
providentia atque dispensatione totum corpus Ecclesiae terrestris 
regitur ac disponitur, humilem per manus impositionem loseph Epi- 
scopi Landauise consecratum in sacerdotem Herwaldum, et inter 
Anglos non modico tempore commorantem, et tarn coram ipsis quam 
coram suv^, id est, Britannicse gentis potestatibus gratia et moribus 
prefulgentem, ad sacerdotalem dignitatem feliciter Landauensis 
Ecclesie eius largiflua miseratione clementer elegerit. Cuius una- 
nimis electio ab inuicto Rege Grifido, monarcha Britonum prepol- 

A.D. 809-iioo.J THE SAXON PERIOD. 293 


lente, et a Mourico filio Houel, consentientibus presulibus ac sacer- 
dotibus atque doctoribus omnibus terras primoribus ac magnatibus : 
et confirmata honorabiliter illius consecratio a summo Archiepiscopo 
Cynisi : et ab aliis Angliae plurimis Episcopis canonice consummata 
est : sub cuius manu atque norma ipse suorum more pre[de]cessorum 
Episcopus exstitit, prcsente Domino glorioso Angli-Saxonum basilio 
Eaduuardo, cunctisque pontificibus et abbatibus, nee non archidiaco- 
nibus, cum omnibus Ecclcsias ordinibus atque sapientibus, hoc ratum 
esse firmiter ac stabiliter adiudicantibus, pariterque benedicentibus, 
in ilia famosa synodo, quae Lundoniae facta est in ebdomada Pente- 
costcs anno m"". l""". ix"^. ab Incarnatione Domini nostri Jesu 
Christi; in quo deinceps omnium sapientium consilio huiuscemodi 
decretum prolatum atque consolidatum est, ut siquis rex vel dux aut 
satrapa siue princeps, uel quicunque prepotens, huic pontifici uel eius 
successoribus, aut loco cui preesse et prodesse missus est, succurrendo 
ac benefaciendo hoc pactum benedictionum obseruauerit et adimple- 
uerit, corpore simul ct spiritu conseructur in pace et quiete sancto- 
rum omnium in secula seculorum. Amen. [pp. 254, 255.] 

Ib. — Herwaldus Landauix Episcopus, millesimo centesimo quarto In- 
carnationis Dominicae anno, quadragesimo uero octavo consecrationis 
suae anno, sub Rege Henrico, et Anselmo Cantuariensi Archiepiscopo, 
pridie nonis Martii, migrauit ad Dominum. [;^. 268.] 

Capit. S.David Eugen'to PapSj A.D. 1145. — Joseph Archiepisco- 
pus noster Herewaldum Landavensem ad ministerium pontiiicale pro- 
movit. [ap. Gir. Camb.^ Be Invect. II. 6 ; Of>f. III. 57.] 

II. Rot. Eccles. Cantuar. — Ereuualdus Landavige Episcopus, dato 
sibi baculo in regali curia a summo Rege Anglorum Willelmo, et 
electione cleri et populi Landavias, a metropolitano Cantuar. Eccles. 
Archiep. Lanfranco consecratus. A.D. vero 1 104, XLVIII. vero con- 
secrationis suse anno sub Henrico Rege et Anselmo Cant. Archiep. 
pridie Nonas Martii migravit ad Dominum. [ap. Godavin^ ed. Richard- 
son ^ in notis.~\ 

III. R. DE DicETO, Abbrev. Chron. — A.D. 107 1 Lanfrancus Here- 
wardum Landaviae Episcopum Cantuariae consecravit. SJC-wysd. 483.] 

» There is no other record of this council. hands in 1071, after Lanfranc's appointment to 

Kinsi was Archbishop of York A.D. 105 i-io'3o; Canterbury. Yet, if so, why should Anselm 

but why Stigand of Canterbury is not mentioned refuse to recognize him ? The Llandaff and 

does not appear. The dates in the Canterbury S.David's records may perhaps be forcibly har- 

Rolls themselves contradict the statement there monized, as above. But all four witnesses are 

made, and repeated by Diceto, about Lanfranc. alike untrustworthy. 
Possibly Herwald received investiture at William's 


[llandaff charters.] 

A.D. 1056 X 1063 or 10(54. Priv'tleg'ium^ granted by Gryjfydd King of 

Wales to Herwald Bishop of Llandajf^. 
Lib. Landav. — Pater, et Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus, tres in per- 
sonis, iinus in Deitate ct essentia, creator et gubernator totius crea- 
turx uisibilis et inuisibilis, et super omnia formauit hominem ad 
imaginem et ad similitudinem Suam, diuidens singula prout uult, et 
Cui omnia seruiunt inprcsentiarum, quibusdam tribuens regna et 
potestates, quibusdam modicas paupertates cum septiformi dono sa- 
pientiae et intellectus, consilii et fortitudinis, scientiae et pietatis et 
timoris, inspirauit cor lapideum, ingruente quadam infirmitate cor- 
poris, GriFudi Regis Britannix, et (ut sic dicam) totius Guali-x dc 
line ad hnem, et calefactum Sancti Spiritus feruore. Videns igitur 
Rex quod potestas eius sicut flos fceni, et caro ut cinis, conatus est 
pro transitoria substantia conquirere regnum floridum sine cassura, 
et celeste gaudium sine merore et tristitia, scmota omni penuria, 
semctipsum tribuens sub iugo penitentiae; et penitens fecisse quae 
fecerat contra Diuina precepta, promisit se emendaturum ieiunio et 
oratione et elemosina, cum diuersis metallis pretiosis largitis ab 
illo Deo, egenis uiduis, et orphanis. Et non degenerans a prcde- 
cessorum nobilitate, pictate, et largitate, immo imitans, et prccel- 
lens rigore et fortitudine tum contra barbaros Anglos ex una parte, 
semper fugitiuos, uisa facie sua in acie belli, tum contra Hibernien- 
ses occidcntales et semper fugaces, tum contra indigenas solito more 
bellicosas, tum contra Danaos marinos, tum contra insularum Orca- 
dum habitatores ; et semper uersis dorsis in fugam, et firmato foedere 
ad libitum suum pacificatosj — clamauit territoria omnia Landauiae 
Ecclesias Petri Apostoli, et sanctorum confessorum Dubricii, Teliaui, 
et Oudocei, de omni parrochia eiusdem ab hostio Taratir super ripam 
Gui usque ad ripam Tiugui, et insuper terras eiusdem, Lannteliau- 
maur uidelicet et Penualun, cum multis aliis ecclesiis, et telluribus 
suis omnibus, et cum iilis in Brecheniauc pluribus, ut in cirografo 
demonstratur, quae habentur extra diocesim in Episcopatu Sancti 
Deuui, et cum toto priuilegio, ut melius fuit tempore predecessorum 
suorum, quieta et tranquilla ab omni regali seruitio, nisi tantum 
oratione cotidiana pro animabus regum et principum Britanniae; 
et firmata missis manibus super quattuor euangelia, et in manu 
Heruualdi Episcopi consolidata, et coram omni populo suo, in die 
Natiuitatis Domini apud Ystumguy j et oblata uilla Pennros in manu 
Episcopi, et omnibus presulibus Landauiae in perpetuo. De clericis 

A.D. 8oy-iioo.] THE SAXON PERIOD. 295 


testes sunt Hcruualdus Episcopus, Mormarch, Merchbui, Tutnerth, 
canonici Landauise'', Bencdictus lector, louanaul, Nouis, Elinui, Ci- 
non, ludhail, prcsbytcri, Tathiu, Abraham archidiaconus Guenti j 
de laicis. Rex Grifud, Margetud filius eius, Caratauc filius Riguallaun, 
Byrguith, ludhail fiUus Teudus, Eidniuet Fuedlid, Bcrdicguent, 
Caratauc fihus Gulbrit. Et cum data communione omnibus incolis 
tcrrarum Ecclesise per totum rcgnum suum, in campo et in siluis, in 
aqua et in pascuis. [pp. 257-259 j and Wharton^ A. S. II. 670, 671.] 

" GryfTydd was slain in 1064 (Fk>r. ^Vig.) or 
1063 {Ann. Camh.). Jurisdiction in the disputed 
districts, Ergyng, Ewias, Ystradyw, Gower, &c., is 
elaborately claimed in detail for Herwald in the 
reigns of Eadward the Confessor, Harold, and 
William {Lih. I.amhir. 263-26S). Gwent how- 
ever is claimed for Wesse.x in a loth or 1 iih 
century Saxon Ordinance (Thorjie, Anc. Latcs, 
&c., /. 357)- ■A"'^ Gwent and Morganwg were 
not subject to GrytJydd (Hrut y Tywrjeog., Liwtnt., 
a. 1060, 1061). 

*> " Canonici Landavi.-e " first occur in a 
grant to Bishop Joseph, who died 1043 or 
1046 (lAh. Landav. 253) ; in number 24 (see 
below, p. 3oy). " Decanus Landavice " occurs 
once, viz. in a grant to Bishop Bledri, A.D. 
993-1022 (Lib. Landav. 236). (There was 
no separate office of Dean at all at S. David's or 
at Llandatr until very recently. At Bangor, 
" lago ap Beli Rex [6th century] Decanatu 
Ecclesiam ditavit" [e.\ Arckip. Ecd. Bangor, in 
Ilr. Willis, I'angor 184], which can hardly mean 
the addition to the see of the isolated Deanery 
of Arwystli, as Willis conjectures, but is certainly 
not historical evidence to a Deanery in the usual 
sense from that early date. The earliest histo- 
rical testimony to a Dean at Bangor \_llr. Wil- 
lis, Bangor] is in 1162, when one Arthur de 
Bardsey is alleged to have held the office.) 

" Lifris" (or Lifricus"), " filius Episcopi, archidia- 
conus Gulat Morcant" (Glamorgan), " et magister 
Sancti Catoci de Lanncarvan, "occurs first in a grant 
to Hcrwald h.\mst\{ {Lib. Lamlav. 260), and a se- 
cond time in a like grant {Lib. LMxidar. 262), with 
the addition of" Abraham Archidiaconus Guenti," 
who occurs also (as above) in a previous grant 
{Lib. Landav. 259). But Blegywryd was Arch- 
deacon of Llandatf as early as A.D. 928 {Ifowel 
I.hla's Laws, above, p. 218) — " Pencyfeistedd 
Llandaf " {Brut y Tyicysog., Gwent., p. 22 ; in 
Arch. Camh., ^rd Series, X.). A "lector" oc- 
curs repeatedly in the Lib. Landav. among the 
clerical witnesses (e.g. Lib. Landav. 153, where 
occurs also " Deui filius Circan sacerdotis ") ; 
we have also " Maiuc doctor, Guinbui magister" 
{Lib. Lnndar. 1 33), and " Joseph doctor Ca- 
toci " {Lib. Landan. 261, and see also 213), 
and " bamuel magister" {Lib. Landav. 166) ; 
and " Dissaith scriptor" {Lib. Landav. 215, 2^0 : 
the same person is also called a " lector," ib. 213, 
2 14, see also 235) ; and Dewi (above-mentioned) 
is called " summus sacerdos" {LAh. Landav. 154), 
possibly the same office as that of the " arch-offei- 
rat" (of Llanbadarn) in A.D. 1 136 {Brut y Tyiry- 
sog. : compare the " archpriests" of Haccombe 
&.C. in Exeter diocese) ; possibly = Archipresbyter 
or Dean. " Princeps" also occurs occasionally for 
"Abbas" {Lib. Landav. 137, 141, 156). 

A.D. 1056 X 1087^. Sy?todical Excommunication of Cadwgan son of 
Meurig King of Glamor gan^ by Heriuald "Bishop of Llandajf. 

Lib. Landav. — Familia Catgucauni Regis Morcannuc, filii Mourici, 
in die Natiuitatis Domini, uisitauit Landauiam bono affectu, et (ut 
dicitur de uirga Aaron uersa in draconem,) animus illius familise tar- 
dus ad sperandum bonum, uelox ad faciendum malum j et ditatus 
prae nimio gaudio tantae festiuitatis, cepit baccare copia potationis, 
sequestrata discretione sobrietatis; in tantum quod imperfecti uiri, 
amissa ui scientise et pietatis, deuastauerunt unum familiarem et 
nepotem Hergualdi Episcopi, Berthutis nomine, uirum iustum, et 
medicum totius patriae. Et facta tarn execrabili inuasione, et sub 


[llandaff charters.] 

ala Sanctorum Dubricii, Teliaui, Oudocei, et asilo, misit Episcopus 
legates suos per omnes ecclesias totius sus dioce[se]os obtemperantes 
sibi intra hostium Taratir super ripam Gui et ripam Tyui, ut simul 
conuenirent clerici maioris dignitatis electi tarn quam infcrioris apud 
Landauiam'' j ct in plena sinodo, dcpositis crucibus cum Sanctis reli- 
quiis ad terram, ct ucrsis cimbalis, simul et clause hostio ecclesiae 
cum stipatis spinis, et ita carentis seruitio et pastore, remansit diebus 
et noctibus; facto anathemate familiae Regis et sequestratae a tota 
ortodoxe fidei sorte. Et audita tanta submotione et dilatata per 
patriam magno strepitu et murmure, cepit Rex lacrimari pro damp- 
natione familix succ, desiderans potius pacem cum suo pastore, quam 
participationem perpctratae iniurix. Aduocatis omnibus comitibus 
suis, requisiuit ueniam apud Landauiam lacrimabili dcuotione simul 
et familia segregata a Christianorum consortio; ct audita eius prccc, 
et data sibi uenia simul et familix iuncta cum pcnitentia canonice, 
dixit Rex, positis manibus suis super altare Petri Apostoli, et sancto- 
rum confessorum, Dubricii, Tcliaui, et Oudocei, et coram utroque 
populo, clcricali et laicali, " Gmfirmo hanc elcmosinam, tribuens 
Deo, cHcnriugunua uidclicet, et vSanctis predictis et Episcopo Heruu- 
aldo, et omnibus pontificibus Landauiw, in scmpiterna consecra- 
tione, libcram ab omni seruitio seculari ct regali, et cum data com- 
niunionc incolis, in campo et in siluis, in aqua ct in pascuis." Dc 
clericis testes sunt Hergualdus Episcopus, Moruarch et Merchuui 
canonici, Gulbrit et Tutnerth ct Selif, loseph lector Catoci, Aidan 
presbyter Catoci, Catguaret presbyter Sancti Docunni ; de laicis, 
Catgucaun Rex, et frater eius Ris Rotri filius laco, Caratauc filius 
Gulbrit, Cinnhor filius Richrit, Eithin filius Elfin, Guabeith filius Elcu, 
Tcudus filius Laur. Facto anathemate sep^raturis hanc elcmosinam 
ab Ecclesia Landauise, et a pastoribus eius ; data autem bcnedictione 
seruaturis, et confirmaturis in quieta pace. Amen. [pp. 255-257 ; 
and in Wilk'ms^ I. 314.] 

» Cadwgan died in the reign of William the sjTiods. " Dimisit patiiam sine baptismo et com- 

Conqueror (IiT). Lan-lar. 267). munione Christiana," is added in two of the earliest 

b " Omnes dericos suos ab ostio Taratyr }ti cases (lA. 139. 168, and similarly 239) to the de- 
Guy usque ad Tyui [or ostium Tyui, and one scription of the interdict itself. And the place — 
[248] ripam Tyui). cum tribus abbatibus suis ... "apud Landaviam" — is mentioned occasionally 
abbate Carbani vallis, ... abbate Ilduti, ... abbate (i'^. 205, 2 28, 234. 239, 245, and above in the 
Docguinni," is the earlier form (e. g. Lib. lAindav. text) ; but once under Bishop GuHrid, Llan Ou- 
139'). And once, " sacerdotes, diaconi, et omnes docui (Llandogo[?] near NIonmouth, ih. 212, 
gradus ecclesiastici " (i7i. 210). But no archdeacons. 400, 480) ; and once under Bishop Pater, " eccle- 
Other abbats occur as witnesses to grants (as of sia Mainuon" (Trelech near Monmouth, i7i. 208); 
Mochros,Bolgros.Llanguorboc,Llandewi,Llandeu- the latter case relating to a King of Gwent. 
garth, Llangarthbenni, all apparently in Hereford- " Supposed by Recs to be near Caerleon (Lib. 
shire or Monmouthshire, as the grants also are in Landar. 529). 
which the names occur, ib. I55-I,'^7)i but not in 

A.D. 809-1100.] THE NORMAN PERIOD. 

[the last welsh bishops of s. David's.] 


A.D. 107 1- 1 096 or J 098. Sc/jool at 

under the family of the last Welsh 

Conqueror visits S. David's. 

A.D. 1070 [107 1 in all the other 

Chronicles]. Brut y Tywysog., 

Givent Yr un flwyddyn bu farw 

Bleuddyd Escob Dewi, ac ydd 
daeth Sulien yn Escob yn ei le 
ef, a hwnnw a elwid Sulien 
ddoeth, ac yr oedd ef yn wr 
duwiawl a golychwydawl. [p. 62. 
Arch. Camb. 'yd Series^ X.] 

[A.D. 1 076 in all the otherChro- 
nicles.] Ib. — Ynghylch yr un am- 
ser ydd ymwrthodes Sulien Escob 
Dewi ai Escobaeth, a dewiswyd 
yn ei le ef Abram, gwr doeth 
golychwydawl. [ib. p. 64.] 

A.D. 1079 [1078 '^^ ^'^ ^^^ other 
Chronicles]. Ib, — Y difl-'eithwyd 
Mynyw gan Saeson lladronaidd; 
ac y bu farw Abram Escob Dewi, 
a gyrru yn Escobaeth yr ail waith 
ar Sulien ddoeth, canys nid oedd 
a wyddai gyngor i wlad a chenedl 
aflonydd gystal ag efe. [ih.'] 

[A.D. T081, Ann. de Winton.; 
1080, Brut G'went. i 1079 in the 
other Welsh Chronicles]. Ib. — 
Yr un flwyddyn y daeth William 
Fastardd i Gymru ym mhererin- 
dawd, ac a ddug roddion i'r eg- 
Iwysi, a'r Escyb, oflf-eiriaid, ac i'r 
monachlogydd a'r mynaich, a my- 
ned hyd ym Mynyw : a Sulien 
Archescawb Dewi a ymwrthodes 
eilwaith ai Escobawd (A.D. 1083 
Ann. Camb. and Brut ed. Wil- 
liams), a GwilfFrid ai cymmerth 
yn ei le. \ib. p. 66r\ 

S. David's J in connection with Ireland^ 
Bishops^.— A.T). 1081b. William the 

The same year Bleuddyd, Bi- 
shop of S. David's, died ; and Su- 
lien, called Sulien the Wise, be- 
came Bishop in his place. He 
was a holy and pious man. [ib. 
P- 63.] 

About the same time Sulien, 
Bishop of S. David's, abdicated his 
see; and Abraham, a wise and 
pious man, was chosen in his 
room. [ib. p. 6^.'] 

Menevia was devastated by the 
thievish Saxons; and Abraham, 
Bishop of S. David's, died ; and 
the Episcopate was a second time 
imposed upon Sulien the Wise, 
for no one knew so well how to 
counsel an unsettled country and 
nation. [/^.] 

The same year William the 
Bastard came on a pilgrimage to 
Wales, and bestowed gifts upon 
the churches, the Bishops, priests, 
the monasteries and the monks, 
and went as far as Menevia : and 
Sulien Archbishop of S. David's 
resigned the Episcopate a second 
time, and Wilfrid took it in his 
place. \ib. p. 67.] 

(According to the Ann. Camb., 
'•'■ Sulgenius Episcopatum reliquit, 
cui frater successit." For '' frater" 
read « filius.") 



[the last welsh bishops of s. David's.] 

Sulien, Bishop of S. David's, 
died, the wisest and most praise- 
worthy of all the Bishops in 
Wales, and the best for counsel, 
learning, religion, and defence of 
peace and justice, [i^. p. 6y.] 

A.D. 1088 [1089 Ann. Camb. 
and Brut ed. Williams]. Ib. — Bu 
farw Sulien Escob Dewi, y doethaf 
a chlodforusaf o'r hoi I Escyb yng 
Nghymru, goreu ei gynghor, ai 
addysg, ai grefydd, ac amddil^- 
ynwr pob hcddwch ac iawnder. 
\tb. p. 68.] 

A.D. 1098 [1096 Ann. Menev.j 
1097 Brtffed. Williams, ic<)i)Ann. 
Car»b.]. \k. — Yn yr un Hwyddyn 
bu farw Rhyddmarch Escob Dewi 
(mab ocdd ef i Sulien ddoeth, Es- 
cob yr un Eglwys, a d(X'thaf o ge- 
nedl y Cymry) heb iddaw nac ail 
nac eilydd, namyn ei dad, am 
ddysg a doethineb a dwyfoldebj 
a gwedi Rhyddmarch d:irfu addysg 
y ddisgyblon ym Mynyw. [/^. p. 

" The Ann. i/<' W'iiilon. supply the date of 
loSi for William's visit. The Ann. Mtniee. 
{ap. Wharlon, A. S. JI. 649), with the other 
J>rut (ed. Wiilianis), and the Ann. Cunib., filled 
up from the Chronicle in the text, give the fol- 
lowing dates for the succession of the Bishops : 
Sulien's first Episcopate 1070 or IO71-1076, 
Abraham's Episcop.itc 1076-107S or 1079, Su- 
lien's second Episcopate 1078 or I079 to 10S3, 
Wilfrid's Episcopate 10S3 until he was displaced 
in some unnanitd year by Rhyddmarch son of 
Sulien, Sulien dying 10S8 or 1089, and Rhydd- 
march 1096 (1098 according to the Gwentian 
Bnit, 1097 according to the other Bitit, 1099 
according to Ann. Camb., but Wilfrid is said to 
have been restored to the see by Anselm and 
Norman influence in 1095 ; see however be- 
low under A.D. 1095). The other Brut also 
adds to an account which is much the same 
with that in the text, that Sulien died at the 
age of 80 (the Ann. Camb. and the Ann. 
Menev. say 75), and Rhyddmarch at that of 
4.^, and that the fame of the latter extended 
to " Saxons and French and other nations be- 
yond the sea." The testimony of Jeuan or Sulgen, 
son of Sulgen or Sulien, in an account of his 
family and himself in Latin hexameters sub- 
joined to a MS. work of S. Augustine (now in 
C. C. C. library, Cambridge, no. 199), partiallj 

The same year Rhyddmarch, 
Bishop of S. David's, died (he w:is 
the son of Sulien the Wise, Bi- 
shop of the same Church, and the 
wisest of the Welsh nation); one 
without an equal or second, ex- 
cepting his father, for learning, 
wisdtjm, and piety. And after 
Rhyddmarch instruction for scho- 
lars ceased at Menevia. \_ib. p. 


confirms and enlarges these st.itenients, by telling 
us, that Sulien or Sulgen the father, 

" Excmplo patrum commotus [a]more legendi," 
" Ivit ad Hibemos sophia mirabile claros ;" 
returned home for five years, and then again 
" Scotorum visitat arva :" that he was twice 
made Bishop, and twice resigned, being " bis 
revocatus " to the see ; and that he held it 
" duodenos annos," which number would fairly 
tally with the five or six years of his first Epi- 
scopate added to the six or five of his second 
(inasmuch as he resigned the second time in 
1083), if we include both beginning and end- 
ing years in the number. Jeuan further tells 
us, that his father had four sons, Rhyddmarch 
(his successor in the see), Arthgen (for whi'se 
possible tomb and inscription, see below in Ap- 
pendix B.), Daniel (elected to the see on Wil- 
frid's death in [probably] 11 12, but rejected 
by the Norman King — see below under A.D. 
II 15, — he died as archdeacon of Powys, Brut 
a. 1 1 24, pp. 1/^2, 154, ed. Williams), and 
Jeuan, who describes himself as " Johannes " by 
name, a Briton by country, and " de gente Cere- 
tica." The statement about " instruction for 
scholars," in the last of the above quotations, 
prompted no doubt in part by regretful remem- 
brance of the last Welsh Bishops before Norman 
influence set in, is confirmed by the existence, 


A.D. 809-1100.] THE NORMAN PERIOD. 399 

[the last welsh bishops of s. David's.] 

I, of the Psalter mentioned above, p. 189, of S. David, so often referred to already. See 

note '', written by the same Jeuan, with verses also below under A.D. 1136 and 11 45, for the 

by Rhyddmarch prefixed ; 2. of the MS. of deaths of Jeuan himself and of his nephew 

;S. Aii^., De Trinitate, above mentioned, by Sulien son of Rhyddmarch, and their connec- 

the same scribe, with his hexameters at the end rion with Llanbadarn. 

of it, portions of which verses have been printed by i* William's visit was of course that of a con- 
Bishop Burgess (Durham 18 12) from a half-burnt queror, and in 108 1, when he " subdued Wales" 
I 6th century copy of them in the Cotton MSS. (Ann. de Winlo7i.). The Ann. Menev. (ap. 
(Vitell. D. 7) ; — they are printed in full in Ap- Wharton), the Ann. Camh., and the Brut y Ty- 
pendix D. below, as being (except Gildas) one teysi>g.(^. 50, ed. Williams) date it in 1079. The 
of the earliest extant compositions by a Welsh- Gwcntian Brut places it certainly between 1080 
man, bearing on Church matters, and of an and 10S4, and appears to indicate 1081, although 
ecclesiastical origin ; — 3. of Plhyddmarch's Life loSo is the last year actually given. 

A.D. 1085. Domesday Book, Herefordshire. — In ArcenefeUe habet 
Rex tres ecclcsias. Presbiteri harum ecclesiarum ferunt legationes 
Regis in Wales j et quisque eorum cantat pro Rege II. Missas una 
quaque ebdomada. Si quis eorum moritur. Rex habet de eo xx. 
solidos per consuetudinem. [Vol. I. p. 179. col. 2.] 

A.D. 1086. Ann. Menev. — Scrinium Sancti David de ecclesia sua 
furatur, et juxta civitatem ex toto spoliatur. [ap. Wharto7ij A. S.^ II. 
649. A.D. 1088 Ann. Camb. and Brut ed. Williams.] 

A.D. 1092. Herveus a Breton consecrated to Bangor by the Archbishop of 
fork [yacante sede Cantuar.)y apparently not appointed by election of the 
King of Givynedd. 

Stubbs, Act. Pontif Ebor. — Thomas Archiepiscopus [Ebor.a] ordina- 
vit Episcopos Herveum Bangorensem. [Tivysd. 1707.] 

» Lanfranc of Canterbury died 1089, and An- {Ord. Vital., H. E. XIII.; vol. IV. p. 312. 

selm was consecrated 1093. The Professions of ed. Le Prevost 1852), was in favour with Wil- 

two other Bishops consecrated by Thomas, in liam Rufus, and became confessor to Henry I. 

1091, are on the Canterbury Rolls. That of (R. de IHceto, De PrcesuL AngL, MSS. Arutidel 

Herveus is not. Herveus was a Breton by nation 220). See below under A.D. 1109. 

A.D. 1093 X 1 104. Herwald (the Welsh) Bishop of Llandaff placed 
under an interdict by Archbishop Anselm^. 

Anselm, Arch. Cant., to Ralph Abbat ofSeez,. — Dominis et fratribus 
carissimis, Reverendo Abbati Sagiensi Rodulfo, et aliis servis Dei 
sub illo commanentibus, Frater Anselmus vocatus Archiepiscopus ; ad 
altiora virtutum et monachici propositi semper proficere, et nunquam 
deficere. De fratre illo quem dicitis esse ordinatum a quodam 
Episcopo, qui a nobis est interdictus, hoc respondeo • quia si ordi- 
natus est ab Episcopo de Walis qui vocatur Herewardus, nee illis 


[jurisdiction claimed by canterbury over welsh sees.] 

ordinibus, quos ab illo accepit, nostra conccssione aliquando utctiir, 
nee ab ullo Episcopo reordinari debet. -^ * -x- -x-. [5. Anselm. Epist. 
in. 23; Opp. p. 374 a. cd. Gerberon.] 

» Ralph abbat of Seez in Normandy 10S9 1056-1104 (7,i^. T-amJav 268; Bmt rj Tytmj- 
{(lerheron, ad loc. Antflm.) to 1 1 09, Bishop of (w/., (Itcent., p. 8S : he died at the age of one 
Rochester 1 109, Archbishop of Canterbury hundred, j4nn. </<• jVar*7'in) ; and Anselm Arch- 
il I4, was in England at Shrewsbury- in IIOJ bishop of Canterbury 1093-I109. 
(Eadnier). Herwild was Bishop of Llandatf 

A.D. 1095. JVilfrid^ {or Gryffydd) Bishop of S.David's restored 
[after suspension) by A?iselm. 

Eadmer, Hist. Nor. II. — ' A.D. 1095, in quadam ecclesiola'', Anscl- 
mus Archiepiscopus Cantuar.] Vilfrido Episcopo S. David de Gualis, 
qui vulgo Dewi vocatur, ipsa hora reddidit Episcopale oflRcium; a quo, 
exigente culpa ejus, jam antea ipsemet ilium suspcnderat. [cd. Sel- 
dcn, p. 3^.] 

Ayisehn Archbishop of C avterhury to the F.arl of Shrc-jjshury and others. 

AnsELMUS Roberto Comiti., et fratri ejus Ervulfo Comiti^ et Radulfo de 
Alortuo Marij et Philippo de Brajosa^ et Bernardo de Novo Alercato^ et aliis^ 
[probably A.D. 1095]. — Ansclmus Cantuaricnsis Archiepiscopus, Ro- 
berto Comiti, et fratri ejus Ernulfo 0)miti, et Radulfo de M(jrtuo Mari, 
et Philippo de Brajosa, et Bernardo de Novo Mercato, et aliis qui terras 
habent in Episcopatu dcgcntibus Vailfridi Episcopi, amicis et filiis in 
Deo carissimis; salutem et benedictioncm Dei. — Quamvis vos ipsi sol- 
liciti esse dcbeatis de salute vestra, ad me tamen pertinet ut vos ad 
hoc quod vos decet coram Deo et animabus vestris expedit, excitcm 
arnica exhortatione, et invitcm paterna admonitione. Precor itaque 
vos ut amicos, et consulendo moneo ut filios dilectos, quatenus dilecto 
Wilfrido Episcopo de Sancto David, propter honorem vestrum et 
propter religionem Christianam, omnem rcverentiam et obedicntiam 
qus Episcopo in suo Episcopatu debetur cum amore exhibeatis, et 
quaccumque Episcopali dispositione fieri debent, ejus consilio faciatis. 
Sic enim vos ipsos ante Deum exaltabitis, si vos religiosa humilitate 
Episcopo vestro, sicut Deus ordinavit, subjeceritis. Sed si in aliquo 
vestro consilio opus habuerit, promptos vos ut Christianos bonos inve- 
niat, quatenus Deus vobis in omnibus necessitatibus vestris subve- 
niendo retribuat. Hoc quoque maxime moneo et consulo, quia vobis 
valde necessarium est si Deum non vultis oflPendere, ut si terras aut 
decimas aut ccclesias, aut aliquid quod ad Ecclesiam ejus ecclesiastica 

A.D. 809-1100.] THE NORMAN PERIOD. 


[jurisdiction claimed by canterburv over welsh sees.] 

rectitudine pertinct, tenetis- — ut redderc propter timorem Dei stu- 
diose curetis. Nam certum est quoniam qui Deum exhseredat vel 
Ecclesias Ejus in hac vita, si sine poenitentia et emendatione moritur, 
a regno Dei exhaeredatur in futura vita. Omnipotens Deus sic vos 
det haec et alia bona in hoc saeculo operari, ut vos faciat de beata 
retributione in aeternum gloriari. [S. Anse/m. Epst. IK %^y 0pp. 
P- 433 a-] 

» Wilfrid or Geoftrey or Griffri (probably 
Gryrtydd, as he was certainly a Welshman, Sim. 
Dun. ap. TirysJ. 236) succeeded Sulicn as Bi- 
shop 10S3, but was displaced by Rhyddmarch 
(see above, p. 298), and remained in that posi- 
tion until Rhyddmarch's death, 1096 or 1098, 
probably the former date. It looks as if he had 
been consecrated independently of Canterbury, for 
which reason probably Anselm refused at first to 
recognise him. According to Giraldus {De In- 
vect. II. I, 0pp. III. ^cji), " consecrabat alios 
Episcopos Walliae, et consecratus fuit ab ipsis ; 
convocabat synodos Episcoporum, appellabatur ad 
ipsum, et crucem sibi prseferebat :" all which pro- 
bably means no more than that he acted as 
Bishops of S. David's commonly had acted up to 
his time (viz. without any reference to Canter- 
bury), at any rate during his first temporary 
Episcopate, until Rhyddmarch's party ejected 
him, the " suspension " by Anselm being merely 
a Norman gloss put upon the very different facts. 
Anselm's acceptance of him as Bishop in A.D. 

1095 is consistent with his actual reestablishment 
at S. David's itself (plainly by Noiman power) 
either in 1096 or in 1098, to whichever year 
we assign Rhyddmarch's death. Wilfrid himself 
died 1 112 according to both Bruts (1115 or 
1 1 16 according to the Latin chronicles), and 
was succeeded by a Norman Bishop outright. 
See below under A.D. 1 1 15. 

•* On Anselm's way from Windsor to Canter- 
bury, between May 30 and June 10. 

"^ The persons addressed were the recent Nor- 
man conquerors and lords of a large part of 
Dyfed, Ceredigion, and Brecheiniog, viz. Rob, 
de Belesme, Earl of Shrewsbury, Arnulf of 
Montgomery, Ralph Mortimer, Philip Braiose, 
Bernard of Neufmarche, &c. : see Biut y Ty- 
uysog., Gwent., in an. 1088. One of them, 
Arnulf, paid small regard to Anselm's request : 
his men, it appears, seized Wilfrid and kept him 
prisoner forty days {CapU. S. David. Eugenic 
Fapv, A.D. 1 145; ap. Gir. Camb., l)e Invtct. 
II. 6, 0pp. III. 37). 

302 CHURCH OF WALES DURING [Period 111. 



[AD. llO5(/.'n(0. II06 and again 1113 (Brut GiceiU.), lio-j {Ann. Caml>.), Flemings 
established in Rhos in Pembrokeshire. 

A D. 1 107. See of Llandaff filled by a Norman nominee. 

A.D. 1 109. The B'shop of Bangor driven from his see. 

A.D. mi. Lands in Flint, Denbigh, and Anglesey (Tegeingl, Rh)-voniog, and Mona) con- 
firmed to Hugh Earl of Chester by the Prince of Gwynedd (Brut Gieetd.). 

A.D. 1 1 14. Henry I. " subegit sibi Reges Walcnsium" [Ann. de Winlon.). 

A.D. II 15. First Norman Bishop in Wales, viz. at S.David's. 

A.D. 1 1 19 -1 133. Appeal to the Pope to determine the boundaries of the sees of Llandaff, 
S. David's, and Hereford. 

A.D. II 20 and 1140. Further attempts by the Archbishop of Canterbury to force a Bishop 
upon the sec of Bangor (vacant II09-II20). 

A.D. 1 135. The Bishop of S. David's first claims to be an Archbishop and Metropolitan. 

A.D. II43. Fint Nomian Bishop imposed upon the see of S.Asaph. 

A.D. 1157. Henry II. " subjugant sibi Gualenses" (.ilnn. <fe Wiriion.). Homage done (for 
the first time) by the Prince of Gwynedd (Owen) to the King of England 
(iri//. Ntuhrig. I. 97 ; and see M. Paris. 96 Wats — " Apud Snaudunum 
multorum [AVallcnsium] cepit homagia, sc. nobiliorum "). 

A.D. 1 163 (July I, Woodstock). Homage done both by Owen, and by Rhys of South 
Wales, to Henry II. (7i. de Lieelo, 536; .If. 7*(in«. ICX)). 

A.D. 1164-1169. North Welsh in successful revolt under Owen Gwynedd. 

A.D. I165-1177. Unsuccessful attempts (by Archbishop Bccket and his successor) to intrude 
a Norman Bishop upon Bangor (vacant I161-I177) and to retain one at 
S.Asaph (deserted 11 64-1 175). 

A.D. 1 177- Both South and North Welsh Princes, Rhys and David, do homage to Henry II., 
respectively at Gloucester and Oxford (Br-ned. Aljhas, I. 162 ; JToredfn) ; and 
Rhys again in I184 {Bened. Alilmg, I. 314). — Norman Bishops again at both 
S.Asaph (II 75) and Bangor (11 77). 

A.D. 11S7. Archbisliop Baldwin visits part of Wales as Papal legate. 

A.D. 1 188. And preaches the Crusade, also as legate, throughout the whole of Wales.] 

A.D. 1107^ (■'^'J?' u)* U^^^" {probably a Welshman.^ but not elected like 
his predecessor by the Welsh princes\ consecrated at Canterbury to the see 
of Lil and a jf.^ professes canonical obedience to the see of Canterbury. 

Lib. Landav. — Cessavit Episcopatus [of Llandaif, after Herwald's 
death] quatuor annis cum quinque mensibus et VII. diebus. Et mil- 
lesimo centesimo VII. Incarnationis Dominicae anno, sub eisdem 

A.D. i[0O-ii88.] THE NORMAN PERIOD. 303 

[bishop of LLANDAFF appointed by the NORMAN KING.] 

principibus [sc." Henry I.], ab codem metropolitano [sc. Anselm], et 
trigesimo secundo setatis suas anno, tertio idus mensis Augusti, Urba- 
nus Landauensis Ecclesiae archidiaconus consecratus est in Episcopum, 
Cantuariacj presentibus Episcopis Anglic, Girardo Eboraci metro- 
politano, Mauritio Lunduniensi, Windulfo Rofensi, Radulfo Cices- 
trensi, Roberto Linconiensi, Roberto Cestrcnsi, Herberto Noruiu- 
censi, Radulfo Dunolmensi, Johanni Bathoniensi. [p. 268'',] 

P. R. C. A.D. 1107. Professio IJrbani Clamorgatens'ts. Ego Urbanus 
electus et a te consecrandus Clamorgatensis Ecclesiae antistes, quae in 
Walis sita est, canonicam obedientiam tibi promitto, et omnibus 
successoribus tuis tibi canonice succedentibus, o Anselme, Sanctae 
Dorobernensis Ecclesiae Archiepiscope, et totius Britanniae Primas. 
\Reg. Prior, et Convent. Cant. No. i • and MSS. Cotton. Cleop. E. t .] 

° In A.D. 1102, S. Magnus, son of Erlend may mean Cumbria or Strathclvvyd. 
Earl of the Orkneys, having been pressed by *> So also, but omitting Maurice of London 

Magnus Barefoot first into an expedition against and (Vjoidulf of Rochester, Eailm. JI. N. 71'. 

the isles as far as An^^lesey, and then into one Robert Chester = Robert Lichfield. And simi- 

against Ireland, escaped fiom the fleet, on the larly Contin. Flor. Wig., Sim. iHrn. 230, Ger- 

voyarje, into Scotland to the King (/ffiHi«tr//i<;^n, ras. 1660, Stubhs 171 1, Jloreden 1107. See 

Saga of Magnus Barefofi, c. xxv. III. 226 also Brut y Tywyiog. (a. 1 104, p. 80 ed. Wil- 

Hafn. 1783, and V. S. Magm,c. \'\\\. ap. Vin- Hams — " Worgan," i.e. Mori;an), and Brut 

l:erton, TV. SS. Scot. pp. 398, 399) Melkolfus Gwent. (a. 1 104, p. 88 in Arch. Camb., yd 

( r. .S'. 3ffl(7Hi), and remained in hiding, partly Series, X. — "Gwrvan"). If " Bishop Gwrgant," 

in Scotland, partly " apud Episcopum quemdam whose son Nicolas was made Bishop of Llandaff 
in Britannia" (ih.), until he became Earl of the . in ii-;o (Brut y Tytrysog. in an. 1147, p. 176 

Orkneys in II03. Melkolfus must be meant ed. Williams), is identical with Urban, then Ur- 

for Malcolm Canmore, but Edgar was really ban was married as well as his predecessor and 

King of Scotland in that year : see Grub, Eccl. successor. He was apparently a Welshman, but 

lIuA. of Scotland, I. 249 And " Britannia " not elected to the see by the Welsh princes. 

A.D. 1 107 X II 1 2. Dispute raised by Urban of Llandaff against Wilfrid 
of S. David's respecting the boundaries of their dioceses'^. 

" Mentioned in a Bull of Honorius II. of below in its place. The controversy was settled 
April 27, 1 1 29 (lift. Landav. 51,52), which see by a Welsh jury against Urban. 

A.D. 1 109. Herveus the (non-Welsh) Bishop of Bangor driven 
from his see. 

I. RrcARDUS MoNACHUS, Hist. Eliens. — Mittitur a Rege [Henrico] ad 
Elyense coenobium Hervaeus Pangornensis Episcopus a suo Episcopatu 
per violentiam ejectus, ut ibi de rebus Ecclesise ad tempus sustenta- 
retur donee Rex plenius deliberasset quid de eo esset facturus. Est 
autem Pangor mcnasterium in Walliis etc. ... Hie cum Episcopatu 
fungeretur Herveus, gentem efFeram nimia austeritate tractabat; 
videns tantam in moribus eorum perversitatem, quam nemo facile 


[nON-WELSH bishop driven from BANGOR.] 

posset tolerare. Unde, quod Episcopal! timori nullam servabant 
reverentiam, gladium bis acutum ad eos domandos exercuit, nunc 
crebro anathemate nunc propinquorum et aliorum hominum cos 
coercens multitudine. Nee minor fuit corum contra eum rebellio. 
Tanto periculo ei insistebant, ut fratrem ejus perimerent, simili 
modo eum punituri si possent in eum manus injiccre. Expavit 
Episcopus ingruens infortunium, plurimisque suorum interfectis aut 
graviter vulneratis, videns quod anima sua quaereretur, ut congruos 
haberet defensores, ad Regis Angliae confugit patrocinium", utile sibi 
consecutus exsilium. [ap. Wharton^ A. S., I. 679. And see also Sim. 
Dun. G. R. 232, JR. i/e Diceto 501, Eadmer. H'tst. Nov. IF. with Selden's 
note, Gu/. Malm. G. P. A., IV. in fin., and Wharton ^ A. 5., /. 678.] 

■ Herv^ "descruerat Bancomcnsem locum, translated to various sees, but especially to Lisieux 

ubi intronizatus fuerat, pro pcnuria victualium," A.D. 1107. As Bishop of Bangor he was at 

according to ITiW. Mulm., (r'. U. A., V. §445; the Council of London Sept. 29, 1102, bc- 

and " spe niajuruni divitiariini, causatus quod sides other places and times down to the conse- 

sibi et Walensibus non convenirct" {Id., G.F., oration of Thomas Archbishop of Yoik, June 27, 

i r. iiij'ui.). He had sought, but failed, to be 1109. 

II. Paschal II. to Anselm Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Leaves Anselni A.D. II02, Dec. 12, Beneievtuni. — PasCHAL. II. ad An- 
to dcternune as jeif„yffj ^rch. Cant ^ * * Gualcnsis Episcopi causam 

he thmks ht '^ ^ 

about Herve's sacris omnino canonibus obviare non nescis. Caeterum 
tra ation. ^^^-^ inter barbaros barbarice et stolide promotus est, 
in tux Fraternitatis arbitrio ponimus; sic tamen ut de caetero in ea 
regionc hujusmodi non pntsumatur animadversio. * -x- -^ Data? 
Beneventi II. Id. Decembris. [ap. Eadm. Hist. Nov. III., ed. Gerberon. 
p. 6'^j Wilkins I. 380, Mansi XX. 1060.] 

III. Anselm Archbishop of Canterbury to Henry I. King of England. 

Refuses to assent A.D. I I06, Sept. 28 X I I07, Aug. I I a. — AnSELM. ArCH. 
to the proposed (^^j^^^ <7^ Henricum Anglorum Rezem. — Suo carissimo 

Uanslation of a a 

Her\-u to Li- domino Henrico, Dei gratia Anglorum Regi et Duci 
"'*"• Northmannorum, Anselmus Archiepiscopus fidele servi- 

tium cum orationibus. Mandavit mihi Dignatio vestra per electum 
Wintoniensem, ut sibi scriberem utrum dominus Hervasus Episcopus 
Bancorensis possit constitui Episcopus in Ecclesia ^Luxoviensi. Hoc 
utique facile fieri non intelligo. Sicut enim nullus Episcopus sacrari 
debet alicui Ecclesias sine assensu et consilio Archiepiscopi et alio- 
rum Episcoporum totius provincial, ita qui sacratus est Episcopus 
non potest constitui in alia provincia Episcopus canonice sine con- 
silio et assensu Archiepiscopi et Episcoporum ejusdem provinciae cum 

A.u. uoo-iiHH.] THE NORMAN PERIOD. 305 

[noN-WELSH bishop driven from BANGOR.] 

auctoritate Apostolica, nee sine absolutione Archiepiscopi et Episco- 
porum provincial in qua sacratus est. Quae absolutio fieri nequit sine 
magna et communi consideratione et consilio eorum, sine quibus 
consecrari (ut dixi) non potuit : et quamvis Episcopatus ejus ita 
videatur destructus, ut in eo manere non possit. Omnipotens Deus 
dirigat vos in hac et in aliis actionibus vestris. Amen. [S. Anselm. 
Epist. 111. 126- Opp. p. 412.] 

" This letter must have been written after Sept. Giffard), who brought the message to Anselm, 

28, 1 106, the date of the battle of Tenchebrai, to which the latter replies. 

and before Aug. 1 1, 1 107, the day of the conse- ^ For Luxoviemi read Lexoviensi (sc. Lisieux) : 

cration of tlic " elect " of Winchester (William de v. Picard ad loc. 

IV. Faschal II. to Anselm Archbishop of Canterbury. 
Translate Herv^ A.D. 1108, Nov. 21 {Beneventum). — Paschalis Epi- 
on the tirst op- SCOPUS Servus ServoRUM Dei, Venerab'tl't Patri Anselmo 
portunity. Cantuariensi Episcopo^ salutem et Apostolicam benedictio- 

nem. Novit Fraternitas tua quod sicut ex Apostolica sententia omnis 
pontifex ex liominibus assumptus pro hominibus in his quse ad Deum 
sunt constituitur. Frater vcster iste Herveius, quern vita et scientia 
commcndant, ob barbarorum immanitates quas in fratres ejus et alios 
Christianos cxercuerunt, in Ecclesia, in qua constitutus est, Episcopale 
officium adimplere non potuit. Ne igitur officium sibi injunctum in- 
fructuosum remaneat, Dilectioni tuae mandamus, rogantes ut ei atten- 
tius provideas, et si quae vacans Ecclesia eum vocaverit, ex Apostolicae 
sedis authoritate in ea eum constituas, quatenus ibi Deo servire et 
Episcopale officium Domino largiente adimplere valeat : ne infructuoso 
silentio diu torpeat, qui vitse coelestis documenta in scientia et moribus 
portat. Interim autem in omnibus eum commendatum habeas, satis 
enim strenue et fideliter se apud nos in causis vestris studiosum exhi- 
buit. Fraternitatem tuam incolumem per multa tempora virtus 
Divina custodiat. Dat. XI. cal. Decembris. [From Hist. Eliens.^ 
lib. III. f . 4 ; in Broivne Willis^ Bangor.^ Append, pp. 1 84, 1 85.] 

V. Paschal II. to Henry I. King of England. 

Translate Herve '^•^- i'o8, Nov. 21, Beneventum. — Paschal. II. ad 
to any vacant Henricum AngloTum Regem. — Paschalis Episcopus servus 
servorum Dei etc. ^^ * *. Novit prseterea Gloria vestra 
domnum Hervaeum Episcopum, quem vita et scientia commendat 
non modica, nimia barbarorum ferocia et persecutione de sede sua 
expulsum, et multa fidelium fratrumque suorum caede fuisse fugatum. 

VOL. \. X 



Cujus Lit scientia fructum qui non periit afferre, et vita bonum valeat 
Dei populo exemplum pracbere ^ volumus et rogamus, si qua eum 
apud vos vacans Ecclesia vocaverit, ibi auctoritate Apostolica consti- 
tuatur, ne infructuoso diu silentio torpeat qui vit« ccelestis documenta 
in scientia et moribus portat .... Dat. XI. kal. Decembrist. [_ln 
Selden ad Eadm. H. N. IV. p. 2 i O, from Hist. E/ie7iS.'] 

■ Dated lio8 by Jafft ; and certainly of April 21 of that year; but the latter had con- 
same date with the preceding letter. See also sentcd 10 the new see although hardly to the 
Wharton, A. S., /. 679. Hervcus was translated new Bishop [fjadm. Hist. Nor. I ]'. pp. 95, 96, 
to the new see of Ely after June 37, 1 109 104; Ansehn. l\]>itit. 1 1 1 . 1S2). 
(^Eadm. Ilitt. Nor. /l'.), Anselm having died 

A.D. 1 M I. Ewenny Abbey founded by William de Londres [Brut.^ 
Gwent. i and Dugd. Mon. IV. 52 3) j before 1112, Kidwelly by Roger 
Bishop of Salisbury (Dugd. th. IV. 65, No. 1 ) j and i 1 1 3, Goldclive by 
Robert de Candos (M /^. VI. J021); preceded apparently by a few 
years by the (also Norman) foundations of Pembroke (or Monkton), 
S. Dogmael's, and Brecon, respectively by Arnulf of Montgomery, 
Martin of Tours, and Bernard of Neuf-Marchc [Id. ih. III. 239, IV. 
128, 320). 

A.D. 1115, Sept. ly. Berjiard»- Bishop of S. David^s [the jirst Norrtiaji 
prelate in IVales)^ appointed by He?/ry I. arid consecrated by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury .y professes canonical obedience to that see. 

I. Eadm., Hist. Nov. V. — Clerici Meneuwensis Ecclesia, quae sub 
patrocinio beati Andreaj et Sancti David in Walis fundata consistit, 
Episcopum sibi defuncto Episcopo suo Wilfrido a Rege Henrico 
postulavere : et electus est in hoc opus Bernardus quidam, capellanus 
reginae, vir probus et multorum judicio sacerdotio dignus. Electus 
est autem Sabbato jejunii septimi mensis [apparently Sept. i8"I, et 
eodem die ad presbyteratum a Wentano Episcopo Willhelmo apud 
Suthwercham consecratus. De promotione vero pontificatus, quam 
mox in crastino heri et Rex et alii plures optabant, cum ubi aptius 
fieri posset disquireretur, intulit Robertus Comes de Mellento super- 
vacue de loco dubitari, dum constaret Episcopum tali eventu elec- 
tum ex consuetudine in capella Regis debere sacrari, et hoc se 
probaturum si opus esset pronuntiat. Quod non aequum hominis 
dictum pater Radulfus parato animo ferre non valens, dixit eum 
hujusmodi allegatione leviter posse eflficere, ut nee ibi nee alibi, nisi 


A.D. I lOO— 1 i8«.] THE NORMAN PERIOD. 307 


Cantuarise, pro quavis causa pontifex idem sacraretur. Sciret tamen 
Comes ipse, quia, postquam de capella tantum Regis dixit, nulla 
ratione se ilium inibi consecraturum. Ad quae Rex, ad Comitem 
versus. Nihil est, inquit, quod intendis. Nee enim ego aut quilibet 
alter potest Episcopum Cantuariensem aliquo modo constringere ut 
Episcopos Britanniae alibi consecret quam velit ipse. Quapropter 
viderit : suum est : consecret Episcopum suum ubi voluerit. Propo- 
suit itaque ilium in ecclesia hospitii sui apud Lambetam consecrare ; 
verum quia ipsi officio regina interesse volebat, postulatus ab ea 
sacravit ipsum in ecclesia beati Petri Westmonasterii XIII. Kal. 
Octobris [Sept. 1 9], accepta ab eo solita professione de subjectione 
et obedientia Ecclesiae Cantuariensi et Episcopis ejus exhibenda. 
Huic consecrationi interfuerunt et cooperatores extiterunt suftra- 
ganei Ecclesiae Cantuariensis, Episcopi videlicet hii, Willielmus Win- 
toniensis, Robertus Lincoliensis, Rogerius Serberiensis [Salisbury"', 
Johannes Bathoniensis, Vrbanus Glamorgacensis, Gilebertus Lum- 
niensis [Limerick] de Hibernia. [pp. j 16, 117. So also JF^r. Wig. 
a. 1115, and Gervas. 1660.] 

II. P. R. C. A.D. I J 15. — Professw Bernardi Walensls Episcopi. Ego 
Bcrnardus Ecclesiae Sancti Andreas et Sancti David, quae in Guualis 
est, electus, et a te, Reverende Pater Radulfe, sancte Cantuariensis 
Ecclesie Archiepiscope et totius Britanniae primas, antistes conse- 
crandus, tibi et omnibus successoribus tuis tibi canonice succcdentibus 
debitam et canonicam obedientiam et subjectionem me exhibiturum 
fore profiteor. [Reg. Prior, et Convent. Cant. 1 ; and MSS. Cotton. 
Chop. E. I. 

III. Brut y Tywysog., Giuent., The same year Grifri, Bishop 
A.D. 1 112. — Yr ua flwyddyn y bu of S. David's, died, and the King 
farw Griff-ri Escob Dewi • ac y made a person called Bernard, a 
gwnaeth y Brenin wr a elwid Ber- Norman, Bishop in his room, 
ned Norman yn Escob yn ei le heb without the leave of or asking 
na chennad na chyfarch ysgolheig- the Welsh scholars j by which 
ion y Cymry ; ac yna coUes Es- the Bishop of S. David's lost his 
cob Dewi ei fraint ac ai dug Escob privilege, which was taken by the 
Caint. [p. 96. in Arc/p. Camb.^ Bishop of Canterbury. \ib. p. 97.] 
yrd Series, X. — See also the Brut, 

ed. Williams, in a. 11 12, p. [ 18.] 

X 3 



[chapter organized at s. David's.] 

" " Primus Francorum," according to Gir. 
Camh. (Itin. Cantb. II. i, p. 856), and "pri- 
mus ad hanc sedein Regia potestate translatus " 
{Id. Ik Jure et StaUi Mniev. Eccl. I>ist. II. 
Ofjp. III. 152), and " reclamantibus clero Eccle- 
siae et populo nee non et ipso quoad licuit electo" 
{Id. I>e Inved. II. I, Opj). III. 49). " Usque 
ad ilium (Wilfridum) Episcopi extiterunt Britton- 
nici " {Sim. iMn., Twysd. 236 ; and Flur. ^Vig. 
in an. 11 15). See also the Aniial. Menev. ap. 
Wharton, A. S. II. 649. The " Welsh scholars" 

are said {Jones and Freeman, St.T>afid's) to liave 
elected Daniel brother of Bishop Rhyddniarch, and 
son of Bishop Sulien, to succeed Wilfrid (who died 
apparently in 1 1 12, Unit y Tyicygog. in an.), the 
same who appears in the 7.*/i(( y Tyicysog. A.D. 
1 1 24 (1 130 Unit (hcent.):is " arbitrator between 
Gwynedd and Powys," and as " Archdiagon 
Powys" = " Archdeacon of Powys" (pp. 152,1 54, 
ed. Willianis), and who died that year ; but ac- 
cording to the Ann. Menev. ap. WhaUon, and 
the Ann. Camb., A.D. 1127. 

A.D. I 1 14 X 11 2^'*. IVales and Ireland claimed as luithin the Province 

of Canterbury. 

GuL. Malm., G. R. ^., HI. — Eboracensis Archiepiscopus habebat 
omnes trans Humbram Episcopos suae ditioni subjectos, . . . ct omnes 
Episcopos Scotia? ct Orcadum ; sicut Cantuaricnsis habet Episcopos 
Hiberniar ct Walarum. [Also in ylpp. ad Flor. IVig. Chron.] 

• The date conjecturally assigned to this work 
of Will. Malm. : see Hardy's Preface to his 
Works. But the assertion was hardly more 
true of Wales than of Scotland. Urban of Llan- 
daff 1 107, and Bernard of S. David's 1 1 1 5, appear 
continually as suffragans of Canterbury both at 
consecrations and at councils (see e. g. Kadmer 
passim), being the first Bishops of Welsh sees who 

did $0, and the first also whose Professions appear 
on the Profcs.>.ion Rolls of Canterbury. But the 
attempt to impose Bishop Herveiis upon Bangor 
had failed ; the see of S Asaph was vacant, and 
had never been occupied by a Norman nominee ; 
and Bernard himself after some years strove to 
throw otr subjection. 

A.D. 1 1 15 X 1 148. Bishop Bernard establishes a body of Canons [but 
luithout a Dean) at S. David's'^. 

GiR. Camb., De Jure et Statu Eccl. Menev..^ Dist. II. — Menevensem 
enim Ecclesiam rudem hie (Bcrnardus) prorsus et inordinatam inve- 
nit. Clerici namque loci illius, qui Glasivyr \_ = Eglwysivyr'], id est, 
Viri Ecclesiastic!, vocabantur, barbaris ritibus absque ordine et regula 
Ecclesise bonis enormiter incumbebant. Canonicos hie igitur primus 
instituit, et canonicas quanquam miseras nimis et minutas, utpote 
plus ^militaris in multis quam clericalis existens, ordinavit. [0pp. 

Ill' ^53^ 1 54-] 

■■» See above, p. 295, note ^. — " Mox Papa 
quaesivit, utrum Decanum haberet Menevensis 
Ecclesia. Et cum responderet Giraldus quod 
personas non habebat Ecclesia ilia praeter Archi- 
diaconos quatuor" etc. {Gir. Camb., De .Jure 
el Statu Menev. Eccl, Dist. II. Opp. III. 184, 

writing of A.D. 1200.) 

*> The same Bishop, while " militaribus offi- 
ciis," instituted by him, "X. terrae carucatas, XX. 
vel XXX., largiretur," endowed his canonries with 
one, two, or three, except one (given to his 
nephew) to which he gave XX. {Gir. Camb.. ih.) 

A.D. iioo-i i88.] THE NORMAN PERIOD. 309 

[appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

A.D. 1 1 1 9. October. First Appeal of Urban of I^landaff to the Pope 
against the Bishops of S. David's and Hereford a. 

* See above, pp. 284, 303. 

I. A.D. I 1 19. Oct. Requisitio Urbani Landavensis Ecclesia: Episcopi 
versus Calixtum Papam apud Remis. 

Appeab to the Venerabili Calixto ApostoUco^ et totius Christianitatis 
imTOvwished see ^^^^"'^ patrono^ UrbANUS LaNDAUENSIS EcCLESI^t EPISCO- 

ot Liaiidati" a- PUS, hdclc scruitium et orationes debitas. Ecclesia Dei, 
of' Hereford Tnd nostraque sub Deo et uobis, uestrae misericordiae et pietati 
s. David's. hanc dirigit epistolam • et suppliciter rogat, ut pro summo 

Rege Christo earn precipiatis diligcnter uobis recitari et a uobis mise- 
ricorditer exaudiri. A tempore antiquorum patrum, dilectissime pater 
et domine, sicut cyrografum sancti patroni nostri Teliaui testatur, 
hasc Ecclesia predicta, prius fundata in honore Sancti Petri Apostoli, 
aliarum omnium Ecclesiarum Gualize semper magistra extitit in dig- 
nitate et in omni priuilegio, donee tandem per seditiones et tot 
bellorum flagitia, et inueterato antecessore meo Herwoldo, et inde 
debilitato, Ecclesia cepit debilitari, et fere uiduata pastore, et anni- 
chilata indigenarum crudelitate, et inuasione superuenientis gentis 
Normannicx. Semper tamen religiosi uiri ad seruiendum in ea 
heserunt, turn propter Anglorum '^uiciniam (a quibus in ecclesiastico 
quidem ministerio nichil discrepabant, quia apud eosdem fuerant tam 
nutriti quam eruditi j) tum etiam quod ab antiquis temporibus, id est, 
a tempore Eleutherii Papas sedis Romanae, Episcopus illius loci, et 
post aduentum Augustini in Britanniam insulam Dorobernensis 
Ecclesias Metropolitani, eiusdem Archiepiscopo, simul et Regi Anglo- 
rum, semper fuerat subditus et per omnia obediens. Nouissime 
autem, Willelmo Rufo Rege regnante, maxima cleri parte iam deleta, 
XXIIII. tamen canonicis Ecclesia fuerat munita, quorum inpre- 
senti nulli prseter duos in ea remanent j et in dominio Ecclesiae 
quattuor carrucae, et quattuor librae. Nee tantum in territoriis ablatis 
nunc Ecclesia desolata et dispoliata, uerum etiam in decimis ablatis 
sibi, et omnibus clericis totius Episcopatus, tam laicali potestate quam 
monachorum inuasione, quam etiam fratrum nostrorum Episcoporum, 
Herfordiae uidelicet et Sancti Deui, territorii simul et parrochiae 
grandi inuasione. Nunc precor uos ut patrem, uelut inermis arma- 
tum, et debilis fortem, quatinus Ecclesiae nostrae uobis commissae 


[appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

succurratis; ut Qui uos fecit, Ipse uos manuteneat, et post laboris 
terminum perducat uos ad perhenne solacium. Amen. [Li/>. Landav. 


" Miswritten "uicinia," in original MS. 

II. A.D. 1 1 19. Oct. 16. Soissons. Privi/egium of Calixtus II. to 
Bishop Uri>an. 

Calixtus Episcopus, servus servorum Dei, uenerab'tli 

Decrees seaire - . , , . _, , . 

possession of his fratri Urbano^ Landauensis Ecclestie Episcopo^ eiusque succes- 
diocese and in gQ^jbus canonicc substitucndis in pernetuo. Piac postulatio 

particular of cer- * ' ' 

tain churches in uoluntatls eftcctu debet prosequente compleri, quatenus 
of Liandlff^'*^°^ ^^ deuotionis sinceritas laudabiliter enitescat, et utilitas 
postulata uircs indubitanter assumat. Quia igitur Dilectio 
tua, ad sedis Apostolicae portum confugiens, eius tuitionem dcuotionc 
debita requisiuit; nos supplicationi tuae clementer annuimus, et beati 
Petri, sanctorumque confessorum Dubricii, Teliaui, Oudocei, Landa- 
uenscm Ecclcsiam, cui (Deo auctore) presides, in Apostolicas sedis 
tutelam excipimus. Per presentis igitur priuilegii paginam Aposto- 
lica auctoritate statuimus, ut Ecclesia uestra cum sua dignitate ab 
omni secularis seruitii grauamine libera maneat et quieta. Quc- 
cunque uero conccssione pontihcum, liberalitate principum, obIatif)ne 
fidelium, ucl aliis iustis modis, ad eandem noscuntur Ecclcsiam per- 
tinerc, ei firma inposterum et integra conseruentur. In quibus haec 
propriis duximus nominibus annotanda •* : Landauiam scilicet, cum 
territorio suo, ecclcsiam Elidon, ecclcsiam Sancti Ylarii, Sancti 
Nisien, Sancti Teliaui de Merthir myuor, Sancti Teliaui de Lann- 
mergualt, Lann Ildut, Lann Petyr, Cula-Lann, Lann Cyngualan, Lann 
Teiliau Portulon, Lanteiliau Talypont, Lann Gemei, Lann Dodei, 
Cilcyuhinn, Cruchgucrnen, villam Lann Catgualatyr cum ecclesia 
Sancti Cyuiu, villam Sancti Tyuauc cum ecclesia, villam Henriu cum 
ecclesia, villam Merthir Teudiric cum ecclesiis, villam Sancti Oudo- 
cei cum ecclesia, villam Sancti Nuuien cum ecclesia, villam Tynysan 
cum ecclesia, villam Lann Cum cum ecclesiis, villam Lann Guern 
Cynuc cum ecclesia, villam Merthir Dincat cum ecclesia, Lanngarth, 
Sancti Teliaui de Perth Halauc, Sancti Teliaui de Cressinic, ecclc- 
siam Sancti Cletauci, ecclcsiam Sancti Sulbui, villam Penuci cum 
ecclesia, Lan Helicon, Lann Mihacgel maur, villam Cairduicil cum 
ecclesia, ecclcsiam Sancti Catoci, Lann Coit, Talpont-Escop, Lann- 
guonhoill, Ruibrcinn, Caircastell, Penniprisc, Trcf-Mcibion-Ourdc- 
uein, Trefmain, Tref-Mcibion-Guichtrit, Tref Rita, Lanndinuul cum 

A.D. 1100-II88.] THE NORMAN PERIOD. 311 

[appeal of bishop of llanhaff to the pope.] 

ecclesia, et cum decimis, oblationibus, sepulturis, territoriis, refugiis, 
et libera communione earum. Quaecunque praeterea in futurum 
(largiente Deo) iuste atque canonice poterit adipisci, quieta ei sem- 
per et illibata pcrmaneant. Decernimus ergo ut nulli omnino 
hominum liceat predictam Ecclesiam temere perturbare, aut eius 
possessioncs auferre, vel ablatas retinerc, minuere, uel temerariis 
uexationibus fatigare; sed omnia ei, cum parrochiae finibus, integra 
conseruentur tam tuis quam clericorum et pauperum usibus profu- 
tura. Siqua igitur infuturum ecclesiastica secularisve persona, banc 
nostrac constitutionis paginam sciens, contra earn temere uenire 
temptauerit, secundo tertioue commonita, si non satisfactione con- 
grua emendauerit, potestatis honorisque sui dignitate careat, re- 
amque se Diuino iudicio existcre de perpetrata iniquitate cogno- 
scat, et a sacratissimo Corpore ac Sanguine Dei et Domini 
Redemptoris nostri Jesu Christi aliena hat, atque in extremo examine 
districtat- ultioni subiaceat. Cunctis autem eidem Ecclesias justa ser- 
uantibus sit pax Domini nostri Jesu Christi, quatenus et hie fructum 
bonae actionis percipiant, et apud dictum ludicem premia aeternse 
pacis inueniant. Amen. 

Ego Calixtus Catholicae Ecclesiac Episcopus^. Datum Suessioni per 
manum Grisogoni, sanctas Romanae Ecclesiae Diaconi Cardinalis ac 
Bibliothecarii, XV^II. cal. Nouembris, indictione XIII., Incarnationis 
Dominican anno millesimo centesimo XVIIIIo., pontificatus autem 
domini Calixti Secundi Papae anno '^primo. [i/^. Landav. 85-88.] 

" The churches named extend from Llansillo The list will be found further on twice repeated 

(S. Sulbui = apparently S. Tyssilio) and Clodock with both variations and additions. 
(S. Clitawg's) in Ewyas, to Llanferwallt and other ^ In the MS. both this signature, and the seal 

places in Gower. But no reason appears why (here omitted), are in facsimile, 
they and none others are named, unless it be <= Miswritten " prions," in original MS. — 

that they constituted the possessions of the see. It looks as if Urban had anticipated Bernard 

There are separate records at various dates of by going to the Pope at Soissons Oct. 16, both 

the grant of most of them. They do not either himself and Bernard being summoned to the 

cover the entire diocese, or mark its boundaries. Council at Rheims Oct. 20. 

III. A.D. 1 1 1 9. Oct. 1 6. Soissons, Calixtus II. to Ralph Archbishop 
of Canterbury. 
Charges him to CaUXTUS EpISCOPUS, SERUUS SERUORUM DeI, uenerabili 

protect the Bi- fratri Radulfo Cantuariensi Archiepiscopo. salutem et Apo- 

shop of Llandaft- -^ ,. , "^ . , . ^ ^. r, • , • 

against the other stoucam beni[uolentiam]. Sicut tratrum, qumam plenius 
two Bishops. jj^ nouerunt, suggestione cognouimus, Landauensis Eccle- 
sia ita bonis suis et per Episcopos et per laicos expoliata est, ut 
redacta pene in nichilum videatur. Rogamus itaque sollicitudinem 

312 CHURCH OF WALES DURING [Period 111. 

[appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 
tuam, et prccipimus, ut ei super iis qui bona eius detinent iustitiam 
facias, et precipuc super Episcopo Sancti Deui, et super Episcopo 
Herfordise, qui injuste terras et parochias eiusdem dicuntur Ecclesiae 
obtinere. Dat. Suessioni, XVII. kal. Nov. [L/^. Landav. 88.] 

IV. A.D. II 19. Oct. 16. Soissons. Calixtus II. to Clergy arid Nohles 
of Llandajf diocese. 

Calixtus Episcopus, seruus seruorum Dei, dilectis filiis^ 

arges ^"^ '» moTiachis. capellanis. canon'tcis^ ^Walter Filio-RicardL Bria?t 
restore its lands, J r 5 5 5 

&c. to the see of Fi/io-Comitify Wtllelmo Filio-Badrun^ Roberto de Candos^ 
Gefr'ido de Broi^ Pagano Fi/io-yo/:af/7/iSy Bernardo de Novo 
MercatOy Guinbaldo de Badalon^ Rogerio de Berhele^ Guillelmo I'ice-comiti 
de Cairt'ij Guillelmo filio Rogerii de Renni^ Roberto Filio-Rogerii^ Roberto 
cum tortis manibus^ et ceteris per Lavdauevsem Episcopatum nobilibus^ salu- 
tcm et Apostolicam bcniuolentiam. Matris uestrx Landauensis Eccle- 
sise ad nos querela pervenit, pro eo quod per vos bonis suis expoliata 
ct fere in nichilum redacta sit. Unde nos, affectione debita con- 
dolcntes, presentes ad uos litteras destinamus; monentes ac preci- 
pientes, ut terras, decimas, oblationes, sepulturas, et bona cetera, qux 
aut eidem Ecclesix aut aliis de ipsius parochia ecclesiis nequiter 
abstulistis et detinetis, seposita dilatione, reddatis. Iniquum est 
enim ut filii matrem lacerent et illius bona diripiant, quam omnino 
tueri et de suis debuerant facultatibus adiuuare. Sane si nostris 
monitis obedire et predictam matrem uestram curaveritis adiuvare, 
omnipotentis Dei et beati Petri et nostram poteritis gratiam opti- 
nere. Alioquin nos (prestante Deo) in uos, tanquam in contemp- 
tores et sacrilegii reos, sententiam quam uenerabilis fratcr noster 
Vrbanus, Episcopus uester, canonica sequitate protulcrit, confirmamus. 
Dat. Suessioni, XVII. kal. Noueb. [Lib. Landav. 89.] 

" Some of these names of Norman lords in misprinted " Ludalou " in Rees, and Roger de 
Glamorgan can be identified : e.g. Walter Fitz- Berkcly (Berkrolles) is " Roger Rerklos " in the 
Richard. Brian Fitz-Count, William Fitz-Baderon, Gteentian lintl. One " Will, de Rcigni" wit- 
Robert de Chandos, Payne Fitz-John, Bernard of nesses a deed of A.D. 1220 {Francit, Charters 
Neuf-Marchu, Wynebald de Baalun. Badalon is of Neath). 

V. A.D. 1 119. Oct. 16. Soissons. Calixtus II. to Clergy and Laity 
of Llandajf diocese. 

™ ., , Calixtus Episcopus, seruus seruorum Dei, dilectis 

Charges them to ... . . ' 

assist the see of fHHs^ clericis^ monachis^ et laicis^ in Landauensis Ecclesi<e 

parochia constitutis^ salutem et Apostolicam bcniuolen- 
tiam. Venientem ad nos uencrabilem fratrcm nostrum Vrbanum, 

A.D. I100-I188.] THE NORMAN PERIOD. 313 

[appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

Episcopum uestrum, benigne suscepimus; et oppressionem uestrae 
Fxclesiae audientes, debita ei afFectione compassi sumus; siquidem 
insinuauit nobis matrem uestram Landauensem Ecclesiam usque adeo 
monachorum quorundam, clericorum, necnon et laicorum inuasioni- 
bus et rapiiiis attritam, ut in ea Episcopus manere vix possit. Quod 
profecto et nobis graue est, et ad uestrarum spectat periculum anima- 
rum. Vestram itaque uniucrsitatem litteris presentibus uisitantes, 
monemus atque precipimus, ut eundem fratrem nostrum aflFectione 
debita diligatis, et debitam ei (tanquam patri et pastori uestro) reue- 
rcntiam et obedientiam impendatis. Porro commissam sibi Eccle- 
siam, matrem uestram, sicut boni filii adiuuare, et ablatas ei pos- 
scssioncs et bona recuperarc, secundum datam uobis a Domino 
facultatem uiriliter studeatis- aliis quoque ecclesiis Landauensis 
parochix debita persolventes, reuelationis et restaurationis eis ma- 
num apponere procuretis. Per hoc enim, et omnipotentis Dei bene- 
dictionem et gratiam, et remissionem uestrorum consequimini pec- 
catorum. Dat. Suessioni, XVII. kal. Nov. \_Li^. Landav. 89, 90.] 

VI. A.D. I T 19. Oct. 20-30. Urban present at the Council of Rhe'tms^. 
^ , ^ ., , Millesimo centesimo nono decimo anno Incarnationis 

lotn Council of 

Rheiins, about Domini, Concilium Remense a Calixto Papa, et pre- 
invesmures, &c. ggj^^-g Lodguino Francias Rege, cum presentibus centum 
baculis quinquies, tarn Archiepiscoporum et Episcoporum quam 
etiam Abbatum, cum innumerabili copia clericorum et laicorum, 
inceptum est XIII. cal. mensis Nouembris- finitum uero IIII. cal. 
eiusdem Nouembris- cui interfuit Urbanus, Landauensis Ecclesiae 
Episcopus, et renouato priuilegio Ecclesiae ipsius cum omni dignitate 
sua, datum sibi fuit priuilegium illud sigillatum, cum litteris aliis 
salutatoriis Archiepiscopo, Regi, et populo. \L,ib. Landav. 85.] 

* " Directi sunt ab Henrico Rege Anglorum Ranulfiis Dunelmensis, Bernardus Menevensis, 

ad ipsuni concilium (Remense) .... Episcopi et Urbanus Glamorganensis " {Eadmer, Hist. 

Angliae qui tunc temporis in Northmannia cum Nov. F.). 
i!lo degebant, VV^illhelmus videlicet Exoniensis, 

VII. A.D. 1119. Oct. 22. Rhetms. Calixtus II. to Henry King of 

Calixtus Episcopus, seruus seruorum Dei, karissimo 
itaion^io^ ^die ^» Christo filio Henrico illustri et glorioso Anglorum 
Bishop and see j^ezi^ salutcm et Apostolicam beniuolentiam. Venien- 

of Llandaff. , , ., r 

tem ad nos uenerabilem fratrem nostrum Vrbanum. 



Landauensem Episcopum, uirum (uti accepimus) honestum ac reli- 
giosum, benigne suscepimus, et Landauensis Ecclesiar tribulationibus 
afFectione debita compassi sumusj eum itaque ad te cum littcris prc- 
sentibus dirigentes, nobilitatem tuam rogamus, et obsecramus in 
Domino, ut eum pro beati Petri reuerentia, et honorc et amore 
nostro, sicut regiam maiestatem condecet honorare, et ei commissam 
Ecclesiam (secundum datam sibi a Domino facultatem) dcfenderc 
studeas adiuuare ; quatcnus a Deo et a beato Petro rctributionem, et 
de peccatis tuis remissionem et indulgcntiam consequaris. Datum 
Rcmis, XI. kal. Nouembris. [Li/>. Landav. 88.] 

A.D. 1120. April 4. David^ a Welshman from the Scotch Abbey of 
Wurzburg^j elected by the Prince of Givynedd^ but consecrated at West- 
minster to the see of Bangor^ professes canoJiical obedience to the see of 

CoNTiN. Flor. Wig. a. 1 i 20. — Radulfus Archiepiscopus Cantwa- 
riensis, II. nonas Januarii [Jan. 4], fcria prima, Angliam revcrtitur^ 
et II. nonas Aprilis, Di)minica die, apud W'estmonastcrium consecra- 
vit in pc:)ntihcatum Bangorncnsis Ecclesiae quendam clericum vene- 
randum, David nomine, electum a principe Griffino, clero et populo 
Walia? • cujus consecrationi interfuere Ricardus Episcopus Lundo- 
niensis, Rotbertus Lincolniensis, Rogcrus Saeresbyriensis, Urbanus 
Glamorgatcnsis. [II. 74.] 

Ann. Eccl. Wigorn. a. 1 120. — Radulfus Cant. Archiepiscopus cle- 
ricum quendam David nomine Walensem natione apud Westmona- 
sterium consecravit ad Episcopatum Bangorensis Ecclesiae. [ap. 
Wharton^ A. 5., 7. 475.] 

P. R. C. A.D. 1 120. — Professio David Pangorensis Episcopi. Ego Da- 
vid, electus Dei gratia Pangornensis Episcopus, promitto canonicam 
subjectionem et obedientiam sanctae Cantuariensi Ecclesiae et tibi, 
Pater Radulfe, et omnibus successoribus canonice introductis. [Reg. 
Prior, et Convent. Cant, i ; and MSS. Cotton. Cleop. E. i .] 

" " Iter illud ad Romam " (the Emperor Ui\. X. I, vol. IV. p. 7.] — " Bancornensis Epi- 

Henry V.'s expedition into Italy 11 10, when scopus exposuit, magis in Regis gratiam quam 

Paschal II. compromised the question of investi- historicum deceret acdinis"(f;t</. Malm. G.K.A., 

tures with him) ..." David Scottus " — [" Irensis I'.), 
quidam scholasticus," according to Ord^ric. I'l- 

A.D. iioo-i i88.] THE NORMAN PERIOD. 315 

[supposed canonization of S. DAVID.] 

A.D. I I 20. Before April 14a. Restoratioji of Llandajf Cathedral 
commenced by Bishop Urban. 

{Indulgence granted by Ralph Archbishop of Canterbury.) 

, , , Radulphus, Dei gratia Cantuariensis Archiepisco- 

Indulgence to ■" 

those who con- PUS, omnibus Ecclesi^ filiii^ Francis et Anglis atque Gua- 

tribute to the /•/ ^ • ■ • • i • • i i 

restoration of ^^"^''"^^y ^^ cutuscunque sint nationts hominibuSj salu- 

Liandaff Cathe- tem ct bencdictionem Dei et suam. Rogamus kari- 

dral. ,. .... 

tatem uestram, ut ocuhs misericordiae respicerc velitis 
indigentiam Landauensis Ecclesiae ; confisi etenim de uestrarum 
elemosinarum auxilio eandem ecclesiam edificare disposuimus, ut 
ibidem populus Dei conuenirc possit ad audiendum verbum Domini. 
Quicunque igitur ad edificationem prcdictas ecclesias aliquid de 
suo impcrtiri pro karitatc Dei uoluerit, sciat se nostrarum oratio- 
num atque beneficiorum esse participem- sed et de onere penitentiae 
suae, quod sibi a suis confessoribus impositum est, quartam partem 
ei, de misericordia Dei et potestate nostri ministerii confisi, relaxa- 
mus. [Lib. Landav. 83.] 

" The letter had been received and the work assensu David Bancorensis Ecclesiae pontificis, et 

was begun on that day. And the relics of Dubricius in presentia simul et Grifidi Regis Guenedociae 

and of Eigar {Lilt. Landao. 7) were removed et totius cleri et populi," &c., May 7, and depo- 

from Bardsey, " verbo et assensu Radulfi . . . . et sited at Llandaff May 23 {Lib. Landav. 81). 

A.D. T 1 23. May 25. Rome. Privilegium granted by Pope Calixtus II. 
to Bernard Bishop of S. David's on behalf of his See^. 

Calixtus Episcopus servus servorum Dei ^venerando 

Decrees secure , „ . #o-t^-/- i 

possession of his Bernardo Eptscopo de Sancti David suisque successor! bus 
diocese and its substituendis in perpetuum. Justis votis assensum prse- 

property to Bl- r r j r 

shop Bernard of bere justisquc petitionibus aures accommodare nos con- 
s. David's and ^gj^j|. g^j y^^^^ indigni justitise custodes atque prascones 

his successors. ' ^ . . 

in excelsa Apostolorum Principum Petri et Pauli spicula 
positi Domino disponente conspicimur. Tuis igitur, frater in Christo 
reverendissime Barnarde, justis petitionibus annuentes, Sancti An- 
dreas Apostoli et Sancti David Ecclesiam cui auctore Deo prsesides 
sedis Apostolicae auctoritate munimus. Statuimus enim universa, 
quae regni nostri Henrici gloriosi Regis donatione sive aliorum fide- 
lium largitione aut alia conquisitione ad eandem Ecclesiam juste 
pertinent, libera semper et illibata serventur; si qua vero ipsius 
Ecclesiae bona vel ipsorum incuria vel quacumque violentia hostilitate 


[proposed transfer of two welsh sees to YORK.] 

ac vastitate ubilibet ainissa noscuntur, omnino rcstituenda sancimus ; 
ad haec adjicientes decernimus, ut qusecunque imposterum liberalitate 
regum vcl principum vel oblatione fidelium vestrae Ecclesiae juste 
atque canonice poterit adipisci, firma tibi tuisque successoribus et 
illibata permaneant; rectores sane vel ministri ejusdem Ecclesiae 
personas terr:is et omnimodas possessiones et quaelibet jura sua incon- 
cussa libertate possideant, sicut unquam melius quorumlibet regum 
tempore possederunt, er sicut in sigillatis scriptis regiis continetur. 
Si quis autcni decreto hujus nostri tenore cognito temere contraire 
temptaverit, nisi secundo tertiove commonitus Deo et ejusdem 
Ecclesiae vestrae Episcopo satisfecerit, sciat se omnipotentis Dei et 
bcati Petri Apostolorum principis indignationc plcctcndum et 
mucrone Sancti Spiritus feriendum. 

Ego Calixtus Catholicae Ecclesiae Episcopus. Dat. Laterani per 
manum Aimerici sanctx Romanas Ecclesiae Diaconi Cardinalis et 
Cancellarii, 8 kalcnd. Jun., indictione prima, Incarnationis Dominicx 
a". M">". C"»". XX"i'>. III""., pontiHcatus autem domini Calixti Sepundi 
Papae anno quinto. [MSS. Harl. 1249, pp. 12S, 129.] 

"■ Godwin is the earliest traci-.ible authority pare the Llandafi" contemporar)' proceeding re- 
fer the formal canonization of S. David, probatly specting Dubricius. The Normanized Bishops, 
at this same time ; and if by Cali.xtus II. (as God- of both sees, added a new dedication, severally of 
wui says), then certainly 1119X 1124. But it S. Andrew and of S.Peter, to the native Saints 
is strange, if he was really canonized in form, S. David and S. Teilo, at this very period. So 
that no Bull, and not even an allusion to the also S. Mary and S. Daniel at Bangor, 
subject, should occur in the S. David's Statutes, ^ ' ^'enerabili ' in margin, 
whence the document in the text is taken. Com- 

A.D. I I 25. Proposed transfer of S. Asaph and Bangor^ with Chester^ 
to the Province of Tork from that of Canterbury. 

Stubbs, Act. Pontif Ehor. — [It was proposed among other things by 
the King and others, in the first year of Pope Honorius, that in order 
to end the strife between the Archbishops of Canterbury and York,] 
Cantuariensis Archiepiscopus de provincia sua magna Eboracensi 
Archiepiscopo tres Episcopatus concederet, Cestrensem, Bangorensem, 
et tercium inter hos duos medium sed pro vastitate et barbaric 
Episcopo vacantem^. [Tivysd. 1718.] 

•' There had been a Bishop of Llanelwy in of the other Welsh sees, but being a Fleming 

928 {lloicA I 'da's Lafcs), and another, called from Rhos, could hardly have been of S.Asaph. 

" Melanus," said to have been consecrated by a Hen. Hunt., writing about A.D. 1135, omits the 

Bishop of S.David's who died A.D. 107 1 (see see in his list of Welsh Bishoprics ; of which indeed 

above, p. 144)- William of Brabant, murdered he says, in general, that the Bishops of S. David's, 

in Cardigan bv Owen son of Cadwgan in 1 107 Bangor, and Glamorgan, which he names, are 

(Bnit, p. 102, ed. Williams), and called a " Bi- " nullarum urbium Episcopi propter desolationem 

shop " by one MS. of that Chronicle, was of none Walliae" {^f. H. B. 693). 

A.D. iioo-i kSH.] the NORMAN PERIOD. 317 

[form ok summons to a council held bv the pope's legate.] 

A.D. I I 25 X I 130. chapter of S. David's said to have claimed Metropolitan 
Authority for that See^. 

HoNORio Fapje Capitulum Sancti David.— Suo summo Dei gratia 
pastori et universal! Papas Honorio, Conventus Ecclesise Sancti 
Andreae Sanctique David, et ejusdem Ecclesiae tota Synodus, cum 
debita veneratione fidelissimam in Christo obedientiam. Auctori- 
tatis vestrse excellenti£e...[Ut in praefatis jam epistolis factum, nar- 
ratur historia Archiepiscopatus Menevensis, quando et a quibus 
institutus • quomodo a Sampsone Archiepiscopo Dolensiam fuerit 
ablata, nee ex tunc reddita dignitas metropolitana : unde flagitant 
canonici ejusdem Ecclesiae ut ea pristinae dignitati suae restitueretur. 
— [Gir. Camb.^ De Invect. 11. 10; 0pp. III. 59, 60.] 

^ Bishop Bernard himself held his peace it Episcoporum, appellabatur ad ipsuni, et crucem 
seems until the death of his patron Henry I. in sibi prsferebat " (/V hived. II. I, Opp. III. 
1 135 {(hr. Camb, ib. I. P-49). And the above 49); but in his Retractations {0pp. I. 426) he 
letter of his Chapter was only routed out of the also expressly admits that all his statements about 
S. David's archives, " tere deperditas et oblivioni anything prior to the death of Wilfrid and acces- 
datas" {Id. De J. et S. Men. Eccl. Dist. III., sion of Bernard depend upon " famani publicini 
i>pp. III. 187, 188), by Giraldus himself about et opinionem magis quam historiae cujuspiam 
A.D. 1 200. If genuine, it relieves Giraldus' certitudinem." And the national feeling against 
memory from the imputation of having invented Canterbury is confounded throughout by Giraldus 
the tictions about Archbishop Samson and Dol, with the supremacy of S. David's over Wales 
&c., which he drove so hard some seventy years itself. The Latin additions to Howel Dda's 
later. Giraldus likewise asserts, that Bishop Laws on the subject of S. David's metropolitan- 
Wilfrid (who died 1112) not only " conse- ship (above, p. 282), belong to the thirteenth 
•Tabat alios Episcopos Walliae, et consecratus and fourteenth centuries, 
fuit ab ipsis ;" but .ilso '• convocabat synodos 

A.D. I I 25. Urban of Llandajf summoned to a Council at London^. 

Lib. Landav. — Summonitio Willelmi Cantuariensis Ar- 

Welsh Bishop 

summoned to a chiepiscopi. — Willelmus Cantuariensis Archiepiscopus 
iBh'*^Churdf"to Urbano Landauensi Episcopo salutem. Litteris istis 
be held by the tibi notum faccre volumus, quod Johannes, Ecclesiae Ro- 
coTseut^^of'^^iie nianse Presbyter Cardinalis atque Legatus, legis ordina- 
Archbishop of tioneb nostraquc conniuentia concilium celebrare dis- 

Canterbury. ^ -w t • • t t- • • 

posuit Lundoniae in Natiuitate beatae semper Uirgmis 
Marise [Sept. 8]. Propterea precipimus, ut in prefato termino in eodem 
loco nobis occurras cum archidiaconibus et abbatibus et prioribus 
tuse dyocesios, ad definiendum super negotiis ecclesiasticis, et ad 
informandum seu corrigendum quas informanda vel docenda seu 
corrigenda docuerit sententia conuocationis nostrae. [p. 47 • and in 
Wilkins, I. 408.] 


[adjustment ok rights between the bishop, and the lord, of GLAMORGAN.] 

" John of Crema was appointed Papal Legate {Sim. ]>un., and see W'ilkins I. 409), and held 

to England April 13, 1 1 25 {I'uH. Ifouur. II. ap. the London Council to which the above summons 

Sim. I'un. in Twijsil. 252, Wiikim 7.406), refers, upon Sept. 9, 1 125 (see <'o»ti>». J^«r. H'tj/. 

having been previously detained in Normandy II. 80, which corrects the confusion of dates in 

" a long while " waiting for the King's permission Sim. I>un.). 

to enter England {Sim. Ihtu.); he was in Eng- l" " sua" is (wrongly) insef.ed here by lleea. 

land by April 12 (Contin. Ftor. Wig. //. 79), H'l/tiiw (also wrongly) omits " legis." 
went to hold a Scottish Council at Roxburgh first 

A.D. I 12~). Brief of John of Crema .^ Cardinal of S. Chrysogofius.^ 07t 
behalf of the restoration of Llandajf Cathedral. 

_ ^ , Lib. Landa\'. — Exhort atio lohannis Preshiteri Cardinalis 

Confirms and en- 
larges the Indul- et Legati Rowans Ecclesix.^ simul et PerdoJiatio ah eo data 

Ajchbishop of omnibus auxiHator\ib\us Landauensem Ecclesiam. — Fratcr 

Canterbury to Johaniies sanctx RoiTianse Ecclesise Presbiter Cardinalis 

those who assist , ,-111 1 \i- ait-i- 

in restoring Lian- ^t Lcgatus, hdcliDUs omniDus per AngiKim et vValiam 
datrcaihtdrai. c()nstitutis,saluteni et bcnedictioneni. Ad Landauienscni 
Ecclesiam ex debito nostrx legationis acccdentes, et paupertate oppres- 
sam et bonis suis ac possession i bus cxpoliatani inuenimus. Veruntamen 
uenerabilis hater nosrer Vrbanus, eiusdem loci Episcopus, ecclesiam 
ipsam reediticarc a fundamentis incepit : quod sine elemosinarum 
uestrarum auxiliis non poterit consumare. Rogamus itaque uniuer- 
sitatem uestram, et remissionem uobis iniungimus peccatorum, ut 
locum ipsum beneticiis ucstris et elemosinis iuuare et sustentare 
uelitis. Nos quoque in beneficium uos, et orationes matris nostrae 
Romanae Ecclesi;^, suscipimus ; indulgentiam, fquam] Cantuarienses 
Archicpiscopi fecerunt, Apostolica auctoritate firmantes. Prcterea de 
habundantia sedis Apostolicae XlV^'m. uobis dies de uestra remittimus 
penitentia. Obedientes uos monitis nostris, gratia Diuina custodiat. 
[pp. 46, 47.] 

A.D. 1126. At Woodstock. Agreement between Robert Earl of Gloucester 
and Urban Bishop of Llandajf respecting the lands and privileges of the 
See of Llandajf ". 

Agreement ^^^- Landav. — Anno ab Incarnatione Domini 

touching rights M"C°XX°VI° fuit hicc Concordia facta inter Urbanum 
jurisdiction' be- Episcopum Landauensem, et Robertum Consulem Gloe- 
tween the Lord cestrie, de omnibus calumniis quas idem Episcopus 

ot Glamorgan and ■' 1 r r 

the Bishop of habebat aduersus predictum Consulem et sues homines 

^" ^ ■ in Walis, et de illis terris quas ab Episcopo se non cog- 

noscebant tenere. Idem Consul concessit Episcopo unum molen- 

A.D. II oo-i 188.1, THE NORMAN PERIOD. 319 

[adjustment of rights between the bishop, and the lord, of GLAMORGAN.] 

dinum quod Willclmus de Kardi fecit, et terram eidem molcndino 
perjtinentem ; et unam piscariam in Eley per transuersum ipsius flumi- 
nis j et C. acras terre in maresco de inter Taf et Eley ad arandum, 
ultra ad pratum, et ita quod caput earundem C. acramm incipiat 
iuxta dominicam terram ipsius Episcopi, et continuatim in longum 
extendantur j et communem pasturam cum hominibus Consulisj et in 
nemoribus Consulis, excepto ''Kybor, materiem ad opus ecclesiae de 
Landauo, et ipsius Episcopi, et clericorum suorum, et omnium iiomi- 
num de tcudo Ecclesiae, et paissionem, et pasturam, Walenses Epi- 
scopi cum Walensibus Consulis, et Normanni et Anglici Episcopi 
cum Normannis et Anglicis Consulis, extra ^Kybor j et capellam de 
bStuntaf, et decimam ipsius uillae, et terram quam Comes eidem 
capcllae donat, unde sacerdos cum decima possit vivere ; ita quod 
parochiani ad Natale Christi et Pasca et Pentecosten uisitent ma- 
trem ecclesiam de Landauo, et de eadem uilla corpora defunctorum 
ferentur humanda ad eandem matrem ecclesiam. Et propter hacc 
predicta quae Consul Episcopo donat et concedit, remittit ipse Epi- 
scopus et quietas clamat Consuli omnes calumpnias quas habebat 
aduersus eum, et aduersus homines suos, de omnibus terris illis quas 
ad feudum Consulis aduocabant. Et si aliquis hominum Consulis sua 
sponte, sanus vel inhrmus, uoluerit recognoscere se terram Ecclesise 
tenere et se uelle eam reddere Ecclesiae et Episcopo, et hoc coram 
Consule, vel coram suo uicecomite vel Preposito de Kardi, re- 
cognouerit, concedit Consul quod ipsam terram Ecclesix et Epi- 
scopo reddat. Et Episcopus sic sui molendini de subtus pontc 
Episcopi exclusam admensurabit, quod iter semper peruium sit, ni 
incremento aquae uel fluctu maris impediatur j et Comes faciet destrui 
exclusam molendini sui de Eley. Et homines Comitis, et quilibet alii, 
uendant et emant cibum et potum apud Landauum, et ibi illos edant 
et bibant, et nil inde portent tempore werrae- et omnes homines de 
feudo Episcopi habeant quaelibet commercia apud Landauum, ad uen- 
dendum, et emendum, omnibus temporibus pacis. Et iudicia ferri 
portabuntur apud Landauum- et fossa iudicialis aquse fiet in terra 
Episcopi propinquiori castello de Kardi. Et si aliquis hominum 
Episcopi calumpniabitur hominem Consulis vel hominem baronum 
suorum de aliqua re unde duellum fieri debeat, ipsorum curiis dabun- 
tur uadimonia et tractabuntur iudicia; et in castello de Kardi duel- 
lum fiat. Et si quisquam homo calumpniabitur hominem Episcopi 
de re unde duellum fieri debeat, uadimonia in curia Episcopi dabuntur 

yio CHURCH OF WALES DURING [Period 111. 

[adjustment of rights between the bishop, and the lord, of GLAMORGAN.] 

et iudicia fient, et ipsum duellum in castello de Kairdi cfiet : et ibi 
habeat Episcopus eandem rectitudinem de illo duello, quam haberet 
si fieret apud Landauum. Et si duellum agitur inter solos homines 
Episcopi, in eius curia de Landauo tractetur, et Hat. Et ipse Epi- 
scopus habeat suos prepositos Walenses in suo breui scriptos per 
uisionem et testimonium V^icecomitis Consulis, et extramittantur ; 
et ipse Vicecomes Consulis habeat suum contrascriptum de ipsis 
Walensibus, et Episcopus habeat contrascriptum de Walensibus Con- 
sulis similiter. Et Consul clamat quietos Episcopo et hominibus de 
feudo suo denarios, et omnes consuetudines quas aduersus eos calump- 
niabatur. Hec Concordia facta fuit in prescntia Regis Henrici, 
hiis testibus, — Willelmo Cantuariensi Archiepiscopo, et Gaufrido 
Rotomagensi Archiepiscopo, et Willelmo Wintoniensi Episcopo, et 
Rogero Saresberiensi Episcopo, et Rann. Dunelmensi Episcopo, et 
Johanne •'Luxoniensi Episcopo, et Oino Ebroicensi Episcopo, et Gaufr. 
Cancellario, et Dauid Rege Scotie, et Rotrocho Comite de Pertico, 
et Rogero Comite de Warewic, et Briento Filio-Comitis, et Rob. 
Doilli, et Milone de Glocestr., et Edwardo de Salesberiis, et Waltero 
Filio-Ricardi, et Pag. Filio-Johannis, et Richardo de Aquila, et Roberto 
de Sigillo, et Uchtredo Archidiacono de Landauo, et Ysaac capellano 
Episcopi, et Rad. \^icecomitc de Kardi, ct Pag. de Turbertiuilla, et 
Rodb. Filio-Rogeri, ct Ric. de Sancto Quintino, et Maur. de Lund., 
et Odone Soro, et Gaufr. de Maisi, apud Wodest. Et R. Comes huius 
cartae contrascriptum habet; testibus eisdem. [pp. 27-30.] 

" This entry is in Saxon letters, and so far 
differs from the rest of the MSS. ; but it is ap- 
parently (as transcribed) part of the original. 
Robert Consul (said to have been used as his 
surname, but like the parallel case of William 
" Marshal " Earl of Pembroke, it must have 
really arisen from his office) was a bastard 
son of Henry I. by Nest daughter of Rhys King 
of Deheubarth, was made Earl of Gloucester in 
1 109, and married Mabel daughter of Robert 
Fitzhamon, thereby becoming Lord of Glamor- 
gan, and died 1147. He was the well-known 
Earl, who was the great supporter of the Em- 
press Maud, his sister. 

A Norman-French entry, among additions to 
the original MS. of the Lib. Landar., copied also 
in Dr. James's MSS. CoHectanea in the Bodleian 
Library, no. 24, pp. i 27, I 28, states, that " en le 
tens de ces XL. Eueskes auant nomes, en tens 
de Bretons, en tens de Engleys, en tens de 
Normans, ount les seignurages de Glomorgan eu 
la garde de la temporautfe de Landaf uacant le 
see : sanz nule intemipcion pus ke la Eglyse de 

Landaf fust primes funde," [i. e, continues the 
memorandum, from the time of Lucius, and 
again of Meurig ; proceeding to add, but in 
Norman French, the entry of Bishop Heiwald's 
death as given in the Lifj. I.andav., and then 
continuing,] " Et le Conte Robert de Gloucestre 
ki adonkes fust seigneur de Glomorgan de part 
sa femme ke fust la fille Robert le Fizheem, 
aueit la garde de la temporauti- de Landaf tn 
tout celc vacacion, com apertenant a la seig- 
nure de Glomorgan, et dura la vacation IIIL ans 
V. meys et VIL jours." &c. Robert Fitzhamon 
died in 1 107 {Ann. Theoksh., Flor. ^Vig.); but 
Robert of Gloucester did not marry his daughter 
until 1109, and was therefore not Lord of Gla- 
morgan until the latter year. 

See also below under A.D. 124I. 

*> Kybor or Cibw\T is the hundred of Gla- 
morgan in which Llandaff is situated. "Whit- 
church," in marg. of one MS. for " Stuntaf," is 
close to Llandatf. 

<^ Miswritten " fient," in original MS. 

•I So in original MS. = John Bishop of Lisieux 


A.D. noo-1 i88.] THE NORMAN PERIOD. ^zi 

[second appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

(Lexopieusis). In Rees' edition it stands as sessors of lands in Glamorganshire (see above, 

Johannes " Riconiensis,"' not much amended by p. 312, and the list in Brut y Tywysog., Gwent., 

the "Oxoniensis" of another MS. The names in an. 1088) : viz. Payne de TurbervilJe, Robert 

which follow those of the Archdeacon and Chap- Fitz-Roger, Richard de S. Quintin, Maurice de 

lain, and some of the well-known names also Londres, Odo Le Soore. 
which precede them, are those of Norman pos- 

A.D. 1 127. May 13-16. JVe/sh Suit pleaded at a Council of West- 
minster under William Archbishop of Canterbury^, 

» Urban of Llandaif, present at this Council, ford, but without success (JAh. Laitdav. 50). 
as were also his two opponents {Contin. Flor. See, for the council itself, below under the 

Wig. in an. 1127, II. 86), renewed there his English Church in its proper place, 
suit against the Bishops of S. David's and Here- 

A.D. 1128. Feb.- April. Second Appeal of \Jrba71 of Llandajf against 
the Bishops of S. David's and Hereford ^ viz. from the Council of 
Westminster A.D. 1127 to Honorius H. 

I. Contin. Flor. Wig. in an. 1128. — Urbanus Glamorgatensis seu 
Landavensis Episcopus, quia dc quarundam rerum querelis, quas 
anno prsetcrito in generali concilio super Bernardum Episcopum dc 
Sancto David promovcrat, non juste erga se agi persenserat, emensa 
festivitate Purificationis Sanctae Mariae, mare transiit, Romam ivit, 
Apostolico Papx causam itineris certa attestatione suorum intimaviL j 
cujus idem Apostolicus votis ac dictis favit, et Regi Anglorum Hen- 
rico et Willelmo Archiepiscopo et omnibus Angliae Episcopis litteras 
direxit, omnibus Apostolica mandans auctoritate ut justse exactioni 
illius nemo obstaret in aliquo. '[II. 90^ and in Wilkins^ I. 411.] 

II. Lib. Landav. — De prima Itinere Landauensis Episcopi Urbani post 
factam appellationem. Millesimo centesimo uigesimo octavo Incarna- 
tionis Dominicae anno, Vrbanus Landauensis Episcopus Romam 
requisiuit cum clericis suis, inuitatis Episcopis Bernardo Minvensi 
Episcopo et Ricardo Herfortensi, cum facta ab eo appellatione in 
pleno concilio, facta Lundonise, presente Willelmo Cantuariensi 
Archiepiscopo. Et audita sua querimonia a beato Honorio Papa, et a 
Romano conuentu, rediit saisitus de parrochia Guhir, Cetgueli, Can- 
trebican, et Ercycgaj et ita inuestitus per manum Apostolicam, et 
data'' sibi in monumento inuestiturae baculo suo, et cum datis litteris 
Archiepiscopo W[illelmo], Regi Henrico, et parrochianis, simul et 
priuilegio. [p. 50.] 

* See above, pp. 284, 285. '' So in original MS. 

VOL. I. Y 

322 CHURCH OF J^ALES DURING [Period 111. 

[second appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

III. Honortus II. to Clergy and People of L.landajf. 

A.D. 1 128. April 18. Rome. — HoNORius EpiscoPUS 

ban to their kind SERUUS SERUORUM DeI, d'tlectis filiis clero et populo Lan- 

offices and due dauensL salutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. Ve- 

obedience. _ ' '■ 

nientcm ad Apostolicae sedis clemcntiam ucnerabilem 
tratrem nostrum Vrbanum Episcopum uestrum dcbita caritate reci- 
pimus. Ipsum itaque cum gratia nostra et litterarum nostrarum pro- 
sequutione ad uos remittcntes, uniuersitati uestrse mandamus, qua- 
tenus eundem fratrem nostrum Vr[banum] Episcopum benigne reci- 
piatis, et ei tanquam proprio pastori, et animarum uestrarum custodi, 
obedientiam et reuerentiam humiliter deferatis, ct uelut Christi 
uicario parcatis. Ad recupcrandas igitur posscssiones et bona Lan- 
dauensis Ecclesix quae distracta sunt, unanimitcr, uti boni filii, prae- 
beatis consilium et auxilium. Datum Latcrani, XIIII. kal. Maii. 
\Ub. Lavdav. 37, 38.] 

IV. Ho7iorius II. to Urhav Bishop of L,lavdaff. Privilegium for his See. 

Decrees posses- A.D. 1 1 28. April ly. Rome. — HoNORIUS EpISCO- 

sion of certain ^^^ SERUUS SERUORUM Dei, uenerabili fratri Vrbano Lan- 

lands and pa- ' •' 

rishes to the see dauensis EccUsite Episcepo^ eiusque successoribus cano- 
of Llandaff. j^-^g promouendis in perpctuum. In eminenti Aposto- 
licae sedis specula (disponentc Domino) constituti, ex iniuncto nobis 
officio fratres nostros Episcopos debemus diligcre, et Ecclesiis sibi 
a Deo commissis suam iustitiam conseruare. Proinde, karissime in 
Domino frater V'rbane Episcope, tuis rationabilibus postulationibus 
annuentes, beati Petri, sanctorumque confessorum Dubricii, Teliaui, 
Oudocei, Landauensem Ecclesiam, cui (Deo auctore) presides, in 
Apostolicae sedis tutela[m] excipimus. Per presentis igitur priuilegii 
paginam Apostolica auctoritate statuimus, ut Ecclesia uestra cum sua 
dignitate ab omni secularis seruitii grauamine libera maneat et 
quieta. Quecunque uero concessione pontificum, liberalitate prin- 
cipum, oblatione fidelium, uel aliis modis, ad eandem Ecclesiam iuste 
et canonice pertinere noscuntur, ei firma inposterum et Integra con- 
seruentur. In quibus haec propriis nominibus duximus exprimenda: — 
aLandauiam, scilicet, cum territorio suo, ecclesiam Elidon, ecclesiam 
Sancti Hilarii, Sancti Nisien, Sancti Teliaui de Merthir mimor, 
Sancti Teliaui de Lanngeruall, Sancti Petri, Sancti llduti, uillam Lann- 

A.D. iioo-i i88.J THE NORMAN PERIOD. 323 

[second appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

gatgualatir cum ecclesia Sancti Ciuiu, uillam Sancti Tauauc cum 
ecclesia, uillam Henriu cum ecclesia, uillam Mertyr Teudiric cum 
ecclesiis, uillam Sancti Oudocei cum ecclesia, uillam Sancti Nuuien 
cum ecclesia, uillam Tanasan cum ecclesia, uillam Lann-cum cum 
ecclesiis, uillam Lannguerncinuc cum ecclesia, uillam Merthir-Dincat 
cum ecclesia, Lanngarth, Sancti Teliaui de Porth Halauc, Sancti Te- 
liaui de Crisinic, ecclesiam Sancti Cletauci, ecclcsiam Sancti Sulbui, 
uillam Penniuei cum ecclesia, uillam Sancti Teliaui de Talipont, 
Lannhelicon, Lannmihaggel maur, uillam Cair-Duicil cum ecclesia, 
ecclesiam Sancti Catoci, Lanncoit, Talpon-Escop, Lanngunhoill, Riu- 
brein, Cair-castell, Penniprisc, Tref-Meibion-Ourdeuein, Trefmain, 
Tref-Meibion-Guichtrit, Tref-rita, Lanndineul cum ecclesia, Istrat 
£lei, Tref-ginhill, Tre-laur, Tref-crintorth, Tref-miluc, Carn-elfin, 
Merthir-Onbrit, Inis Marchan cum molendino et maritimis infra 
Taf ct Elei, Inis-Bratguen, Tref-Gillic, Inis Peithan, LandiluU, 
Pennonn, Lannsanfreit, Trcf-Meibion-Ambrus, ecclesiam Pentirch, 
Merthir-Cuuliuer, Merthir-Buceil, duodecim acras quas Willelmus 
de ^'Cantolo per uim possederat et tandem ucstrse reddidit Ecclesiae, 
Lanngemei, Lancingualan, Cilciuhin, Porth-tulon, Penniuei, Landotei, 
Culalan, Crucguernen, Guocof, Nant-baraen, Gulich, Luinelidon,Tref- 
bledgur Mab-aches, Tret-bledgint, Hcnriu-gunma, Merthir-Ilan, Lann- 
meir Pennros, Lanndipallai, Porthisceuin, Lannmihagel Liclit, Tref- 
iridiouen, Tnoumur, villam Lann-cinmarch cum prato et coretibus 
suis super Guai, et terram infra Castcll-Gucnt, Penncelliguenuc, Ces- 
till-Dinan cum silua ct prato et maritimis j et^ Guorund, Penichen, 
Guonluuuc, Dui Guent, Euias, Istratour^ cum decimis, oblationibus, 
sepulturis, territoriis, refugiis, et libera communione earum. Quae- 
cunque preterea in futurum (largiente Deo) iustis modis poterit 
adipisci, quieta ei semper et illibata permaneant. Decernimus ergo, 
ut nulli omnino hominum liceat prgedictam Ecclesiam temere pertur- 
bare, aut eius possessiones auferre, uel ablatas retinere, minuere, uel 
temerariis uexationibus fatigare, sed omnia ei cum parrochiae finibus 
integra conseruentur, tam tuis quam clericorum et pauperum usibus 
profutura. Siqua igitur in futurum ecclesiastica secularisue persona, 
banc nostras constitutionis paginam sciens, contra ea temere uenire 
temptauerit, secundo tertioue commonita, si non satisfactione congrua 
emendauerit, potestatis honorisque sui dignitate careat, reamque se 
Diuino iudicio existere de perpetrata iniquitate cognoscat, et a sacra- 
tissimo Corpore ac Sanguine Dei et Domini Redemptoris nostri lesu 

Y 2 


[second appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

Christi aliena fiat, atque in extreme examine districtae ultioni sub- 
iaceat. Cunctis autem eidem Ecclesiae iusta seruantibus sit pax 
Domini nostri lesu Christi, quatenus et hie fructum bonae actionis 
percipiant, et apud districtum ludicem prsemia aeternae pacis inue- 
niant. Amen. Ego Honorius Catholicas Ecclesiae Episcopus^. 
[Dat.] XIII. kal. Maii, indict. VI., Incarnationis Dominicae anno 
M"CoXXVIIIo, pontificatus autem domini Honorii Secundi Papae 
anno quarto. \_Lii>. Landav. 3 1 -^'^.^ 

* See above, p. 310. Gwent, Ewyas, Ystrad-Dwr (the valley o( the 

'' William de CaiUelu{)e of Candlestoii near Dwr in Ew}'as). See above, p. 285, note <^. 
Merthyr Mawr. J This signature, and the seal (here omitted), 

<= viz. Gorwenydd, Penychen, Gwentlwg, Dwy are in facsimile in the MS. 

V. Honorius 11. to William Archbishop of Canterbury and the English 


A.D. 1128. April jg. Rome. — HoNORlUS Episco- 
Has given judg- ^ ■' 

ment, in the ab- PUS SERUUS SERl'ORUM Dei, uenerabilibus fratribus Wtll- 

Bisho"! in'fatoul ^^""^ ^^»t"ariensi Archiepiscopo^ Apostolic^ sedis legato^ 

of Urban, but ap- et Episcopis per Angliam constitutis^ salutem et Apo- 

to hear'both pl'r- stoHcam bcnedictioncm. Prater noster Vrbanus Lan- 

ties if they ap- dauensis Episcopus, ad sedis Apostolicae clementiam 


ueniens, se in conucntu et ante uestram praesentiam 
super Episcopis Bernardo Sancti Devi et "Ricardo Herfortensi de 
parrochia Episcopatus sui ab eis dctenta querelam deposuisse asseruit. 
Ceterum fratres ipsi, nullum ei dc querimonia sua responsum red- 
dentes, ordine transposito, eundem super aliis ceperunt impetere. 
Quod tam sacrorum statvtis canonum quam legalibus sanctionibus 
obuium esse non extat ambiguum. In iudicio namque, et unius 
disceptatione negotii, reus (nisi per exceptionem) actor effici nequa- 
quam potest. Ipse uero ordinem iudicii postulans, ut prius de his 
quae obiecerat sibi rationabiliter responsum daretur, a tua discretione, 
frater Archiepiscope, qui pro iudice residebas, expetiit. Quia uero 
quod optabat optinere non potuit, magnum sibi grauamen sentiens 
irrogari, Romanam audientiam, quae oppressis commune suffragium 
est, appellauit j et praenotatos Episcopos B. R., ut in nostra praesentia, 
mediante quadragesima, suis responderent quasrimoniis, inuitauit. 
Verum ipse nobiscum aliquandiu moratus est j inuitati uero, prsehxo 
termino nee uenerunt nee responsales miserunt. Nos igitur, ex 
communi fratrum nostrorum Episcoporum et Cardinalium delibera- 

A.D. rioo-ii88.] THE NORMAN PERIOD. 325 

[second appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

tione, audita super hoc duorum testium assertione, eum de parrochia 
unde conquestio fuerat, uidelicet, Ergin, Istratiu,' Guhir, Cetgueli, 
Cantref-Bichan, salua iustitia ecclesiarum Herfortensis et Sancti 
Deuvi, inuestiuimus. Terminum uero tarn Vrbano Landauensi Epi- ^ 
scopo, quam B. R. Episcopis, mediantem quadragesimam statuimusj 
et tunc utraque pars, expositis suis in nostra praesentia rationibus, 
quod iustitiae ratio dictauerit, optinebit. Interim autem praecipi-- 
mus, ut frater V. parrochiam illam, de qua disceptatio fuerat, integre, 
quiete, et absque alicuius contradictione optineat. Tu ergo, frater 
Archiepiscope, supradictos Episcopos B. et R. parrochiam ipsam 
occupare, aut peruadere, uel per se uel officiales suos, nullo modo 
permittas. Dat. Laterani, XIII. cal. Maii. \_Lik Landav. 34, •t^^.'] 

» Richard Bishop of Hereford died Aug. 15, have been aware of his death. The see was 
1127 {Contin. Flor. ^Vig. 77.88) : so that Ur- vacant until 1131. 
ban, leaving England after Feb. 2, 11 28, must 

VI. Honorius II. to Hevry I. King of England. 

Same with pre- A.D. I [28. April 1 9. Rome. HoNORIUS EPISCO- 

vious letter. p^j^ sERUUS SERUORUM Dei, karissimo in Christo filio 

Henrico., illustri Anglorum Regi., salutem et Apostolicam benedic- 
tionem. Frater noster Vrbanus, Landauensis Episcopus, ad Apo- 
stolicae sedis clementiam se in conspectu Willelmi Kantuariensis 
Archiepiscopi grauatum fuisse asseruit. Cum enim de parrochia sua 
ab Episcopis, uidelicet Bernardo Sancti Deuui et Ricardo Herfor- 
tensi, detenta iustitiam quereret, optinere non potuit. Ideoque 
Romanam audientiam, quae oppressis commune suflPragium est, appel- 
lauit ; et terminum eis prseteritam mediantem quadragesimam, ut in 
nostra praesentia de praedicta parrochia quod ratio dictaret sibi face- 
rent, indixit. Ipsi uero uenire contempnentes, nee etiam responsales 
miserunt. Nos uero, habito fratrum nostrorum consiUo, denotatum 
Vrbanum Episcopum de parrochia, unde causatio fuerat, salua iustitia 
Ecclesiarum Sancti Deuui et Herfortensis, inuestiuimus; futuram 
mediantem quadragesimam utrisque statuentes, ut tunc utraque pars, 
nostro conspectui prsesentata, quod iustum fuerit ualeat optinere. Tua 
igitur Nobilitas ipsum fratrem V. Episcopum habeat commendatum ; 
nee de parrochia, de qua eum inuestiuimus, nee de aliis, sibi iniuriam 
permittas, sed eum pro reuerentia beati Petri et nostra manute- 
neas. Dat. Laterani, XIII. kal. Maii. \JJb. Landav. 35, '^6.'] 


[second appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

VII. Honor/US U. to Clergy a?id Laity of the districts claimed by Llandajf. 

Same with two A.D. 1 1 38. April 1 9. Rome. — HoNORIUS EpISCOPUS 

previous letters. sERUUS SERUORUM Dei, clevicis et laicis per parrochias Er- 
gic^ IstratiVj Guhir^ Cetgueli^ Cantrebichan^ constitutis^ salutem et 
Apostolicam benedictionem. Frater noster Vrbanus Landauensis 
Episcopus Bernardum Sancti Devvi et Ricardum Herfortenscm Epi- 
scopos, ut prxterita mcdiante quadragesima super parrochiis "prxno- 
tatis ad nostram responsuri ucnirent praesentiam, inuitauit. Ipsi uero 
nee uenerunt, nee responsales suos miserunt. Nos ergo, ex deliberato 
fratrum nostrorum Episcoporum et Cardinalium consilio, supradic- 
tum V'R. Landaucnsem Episcopum de preFatis parrochiis inucstiui- 
mus ; tcrminuni ucro tarn B. ct R. quam V. Episcopis proximam 
mediantem quadragcsimam prchximus, ut tunc utraque pars nostro 
conspcctui prxsentata, qut)d lustitia: ratio dictauerit, ualeat opti- 
nerc. Ideoque uobis mandando praecipimus, quatenus fratri nostro 
\ . Landauensi obcdientiam ct reuerentiam detcratis. Dat. Latcrani, 
XIII. kal. Maii. \JJb. Landav. 36.] 

" Miswriticii •' jicmotatis," in orig. 

V'lII. Hofwriits 11. to the Norma?! Nobles in L,la?idajf diocese. 

Exhort, them to ^'^•^- ''-^' ^P''' ^ 9' Rome. — Hom>m^S EpISCO- 
pay ail dues to pus SERUUS SERUORUM Dei, dilectis fiHis.^ monachis.^ capel- 
the see of Llan- , . . . , „..._. __ . -r^- r ^ 

daff and to ab- '''^'-^j canonicts^ ^^Iv altera Fil/o-Rjc^ Briano tilio-Comitts.^ 

stain from wrong Pagano Filio-Johannis. Milovi de Gloescestria, Batrun filio 
and violence. , r i- 

IVill..^ Winbaldo de Badlon^ Rotberto de Caiidos.^ Ricardo plio 

Puntiij Roberto Filio-Martiyii.^ Roberto Filio-Rogieri^ Mauritio jiiio IVillelmi 

de LundriiSy et ceteris per L.andauensem Episcopatum nobilibus^ salutcm 

et Apostolicam benedictionem. Fama referente comperimus, quod 

matrem uestram Landauensem Ecclesiam, contra honorem et salutem 

animarum uestrarum, ausu temerario expoliare et eam adnichilare 

prsesumitis. Vnde paterno affectu compatientes, uniuersitati uestrae 

per praesentia scripta mandamus atque prascipimus, ut quicquid in 

terris, decimis, oblationibus, sepulturis, et ceteris bonis, eidem Eccle- 

siae aut aliis de ipsius parrochia ecclesiis iniuste tulistis et deti- 

netis, absque mora restituatis. Si enim reprehendendi sunt filii, 

qui matrem carnalem inhonorant et ei iniuriam inferunt • multo 

A.D. 1100-1188.] THE NORMAN PERIOD. 327 

[second appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

magis qui spiritualem molestant, et bona eius uiolenter deripiunt ; et 
quod flagisiosum est et Christiano nomini inimicum, uenientes ad 
sanctorum limina et ecclesiarum dedicationes depraedari, affligere, et 
die etiam mercationis uenientium et redeuntium bona auferre, et 
quosdam interficere, ferali more non berubescetis. Ea propter vobis 
prxcipimus, quatenus a tantis flagitiis omnimodis desistatis, et prae- 
ceptis uenerabilis fratris nostri Vrbani Episcopi humiliter pareatis. 
Quod si contemptores extiteritis, canonicam quam ipse in uos pro- 
mulgabit sententiam (auctore Deo) confirmabimus. Dat. Lat., XIII. 
cal. Maii. [JL./^. L.andav. 36, 37.] 

" See for most of these names above, pp. 312, Baron., I. 335). And Robert Fitz-Martin, 

320. Milo of Gloucester had the lordship of founder of S. Dogmael's, was son of Martin of 

Brecknock in right of his wife Sybil daughter of Tours, Lord of Cemaes (7d. ibid., I. 739, and 

Bernard of Neufniarche. Richard de Pwns was Tanner, Not. Mon.). 

lord of Cantref Bychan and Llandovery (^Dugd. ^ So in orig. 

IX. Honorius II. to Urian Bishop of Llandajf. 

A counter-coni- A.D. II 28. April 28. Rome. HONORIUS EPISCOPUS 

plaint just made sERUUS SERUORUM Dei, venerabiU fratr't V\rl>ano'] Lan- 

by an Archdea- ' -'. "- -■ 

con of s. David's dauensi EpiscopOj salutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. 
aganist Urban. Veniens ad nostram prsesentiam Vuillelmus Archidiaconus 
Sancti Dauid aduersum in nostro conspectu querelam deposuit, quia 
ecclesiam quandam, quam ei concesseras, et scripti tui pagina (prout 
asserit) confirmaueras, iniuste abstuleris. Vnde Fraternitati tuae per 
praesentia scripta mandamus, quatenus ecclesiam ipsi restituas, aut 
inde sibi justitiam facias. Dat. Laterani, IV'". cal. Maii. [Lih. Lan- 
dav. 30.] 

[April 18 and 19 were the Wednesday and Thursday before Easter 
Day in A.D. 1128. Midlent Sunday in 1128 was April i, in 1129 

March 24.] 

A.D. 1128. Oct. 7. Letters of Honorlus II. on behalf of Urban 

of Llandaff. 

I. Honorius II. to William Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Lib. Landav. — Oct. 7. Rome. — Honorius Episco- 
hirVumey to PUS SERUUS SERUORUM Dei, uenerahiU fratri W[illelmo~] 
Rome to prose- Cantuariensi Archiepiscopo^ Apostolic a sedis legato^ sa- 
lutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. Ex iniuncta nobis 


[third appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

a Domino Ecclesix Dei cura et prouidentia, singulis suam debcmus 
iustitiam conseruare. Ut controversia, quae inter fratrem nostrum 
Vrbanum Landauensem Episcopum et Ecclesiam Sancti Devvi et 
Herfortcnsem agitata est, iuxta rationis et iustitiae tramitcm termi- 
nctur, proximam mediantem quadragesimam terminum indiximus. Ne 
ergo praedictus frater noster V. Episcopus aliquid in ueniendo ad 
nos aut in aliis rebus incommodum uel detrimentum sustineat, 
Fraternitatis tuae sollicitudo prouideat. Dat. Laterani, non. Octob. 

[P- 38-] 

II. Honorius IT. to Henry I. King of England. 
Lib. Landav. — Oct. 7. Rome. — Honorius Episco- 

come to Rome ^'^^'^ SERUUS SERUORUM DeI, dilecto fil'tO Henrico, illustri 

to prosecute his AngloTum Regj, salutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. 
Vt liberius et sine querela serui Dei ualeant Diuinis ua- 
care obsequiis, controucrsiae inter fratrem nostrum Vrbanum, Landa- 
uensem Episcopum, ct Ecclcsias Devvi et Herfortcnsem, agitate, 
terminum proximam mediantem quadragesimam indiximus. Quo- 
circa Nobilitati tuae mandamus, quatcnus eidem V. Episcopo nullum 
in ueniendo ad nos aut rebus suis impcdimentum aut incommodum 
facias, nequc ab aliis infcrri pcrmittas. Dat. Lat., non. Octob. 
[PP- 38, 39-] 

A.D. JT29. Neath Abbey founded by Rich, dc Granavilla (Francis., 
Charters of Neath ; Brut, Givent., in an. 1 1 1 1 ). 

A.D. 1129. April. Further appeal of Urban of Llandaff to Honorius II. 
against the Bishops of S. David's and Hereford. 

I. Lib. Landav. — De secundo Itinere Landau. Episcopi F[ri>ani'^. — In 
sequenti anno [11 29] predictas memorise Vrbanus Landauensis Epi- 
scopus, summonitus a beato Honorio Apostolicae sedis Apostolico, cum 
priuilegiis suis et antiquissimis kartis, cum clericis et laicis affirman- 
tibus iustam inuestituram de praedictis contra Ecclesias Herfordiae 
et Minuensis, iuit Romam contra statutum terminum, mediam qua- 
dragesimam uidelicet; et quia Episcopi illarum Ecclesiarum nee 
uenerunt nee responsales suos miserunt, iudicio Archiepiscoporum, 
Episcoporum, et Cardinalium Romanae Ecclesiac, praedictae quinque 

A.D. iioo-iiHH.] THE NORMAN PERIOD. 329 

[third appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope. J 

plebes adiudicatae sunt Vrbano Episcopo Landauensi, et omnibus 
successoribus suis, habendae in perpetuo; et cum datis sibi litteris 
Archiepiscopo, Regi, et parrochianis infra positis, simulque karta 
disceptionis, et priuilegio, cum gratia, et per misericordiam Apo- 
stolicse dignitatis, praedictus uir reuersus est incolumis cum suis, his 
munitus, ad Ecclesiam suam cum gaudio. [pp. 50, 51.] 

11. Honorius 11. to Urhan Bishop of Llaridajf. 

Decrees th d" A.D. I J 29. April 4. Rome. — HoNORIUS fiPISCOPUS 

puted parishes to SERUUS SERUORUM Dei, Venerabili fratft Vrbano Landa- 
daff ^h! *the ab- "^"" Episcopo, salutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. 
sence of the Ad hoc in sancta matre catholica et uniuersali Romana 

other Bishops. r- t • • • • i • 1 

Jicclesia, qu£e lustitix sedes est, ab auctore omnium bono- 
rum Deo cognoscimus constitutes, ut suam Ecclesiis omnibus iustitiam 
conseruemus ; et siquid perperam gestum esse nouerimus, rationis 
consilio ad rectitudinis tramitem reducamus : quatenus et quae cor- 
rigenda sunt, ordine iudiciario corrigantur; et quas recte statuta 
noscuntur, in sui uigoris robore perseuerent. Proinde uenerabilis 
frater Vrbane, Landauensis Episcope, anno praeterito ad Apostolicae 
sedis clementiam ueniens, te aduersus Episcopos Bernardum Sancti 
Dewi et Ricardum Herfortensem in praesentia fratrum nostrorum 
Willelmi Cantuariensis Archiepiscopi, Apostolicae sedis legati, et 
Episcoporum Angiise, de parrochia Episcopatus tui ab eis detenta 
querelam deposuisse asseruisti. Ceterum quia tibi grauamen sen- 
tiebas inferri, eos proxima tunc mediante quadragesima ut ad 
nostram uenirent prassentiam tuis responsuri querimoniis inui- 
tasti. Ipsi uero praefixo termino nee uenerunt nee responsales mise- 
runt. Vnde communicato fratrum nostrorum consilio, duorum 
testium assertione suscepta, te de parrochia unde conquestio fuerat 
inuestiuimus ; salua tamen iustitia Ecclesiarum Herfortensis et 
Sancti Dewi. Terminum uero dedimus, et illis proximam tunc 
futuram mediantem quadragesimam statuimus, ut plenius cognita 
ueritate atque discussa, suam unicuique iustitiam seruaremus. Porro 
ipsi nee etiam illo termino uenerunt, nee personas quae eausam 
suam agerent ad nostram praesentiam direxerunt. Tu autem, frater 
Vrbane, statuto termino, paratus cum testibus nostro te conspectui 
praesentasti. Et nos, inuitatos aliquamdiu expectantes, sex testium 
iuramenta suseepimus : quorum duo, uidelieet quidam presbiter 

330 CHURCH OF WALES DURING [Period 111. 

[third appeal of bishop of ixandaff to the pope.] 

Sapiens et Maius laicus, iurauerunt parrochiam illam de qua contro- 
uersia agitabatur, scilicet Guher, Cedgueli, Cantrcbachan, Estratiu, 
Ergin, intra Landauensis Episcopatus terminos contineri (scilicet inter 
fluuios Tyui et Gui); et se uidisse Erualdum Episcopum, antecessorcm 
tuum, per quadraginta annos eandcm parrochiam quiete et absque 
interruptione canonica tenuisse. Alii uero quattuor, uidelicet Rober- 
tus et Johannes presbiteri, Gulfredus et Adam diaconi, iurauerunt 
patres suos, qui propter senium ad sedem Apostolicam uenire non 
poterant, hoc idem iurasse, et ut in nostra iurarent praesentia praece- 
pisse. Nos igitur, ex communi fratrum nostrorum Episcopxjrum et 
Cardinalium deliberatione, prarnominatam parrochiam, absque inquie- 
tatione Ecclesiarum Herfortensis et Sancti Dewi uel alicuius alterius, 
tibi et successoribus tuis perpetuo iure habendam possidendamque 

Ego Honorius Catholicac Ecclcsiac Episcopus. Dat. Latcrani, 11. 
non. Aprilis, indict. VII., anno Incarnationis Dominican MCXXVllII"., 
pontihcatus autem domini Honorii PP. Secundi anno V". [LiS. 
Landav. Y)-, 40.] 

111. Honorius II. to IfiUiarn Archh'tihop of Canterbury. 
„, ,. . A.D. 1 1 2Q. April 4. Rome. — Honorius Episcopus 

Charges him to 7 f "t 

enforce the above SERUUS SERUORUM DeI, VeHerabU't fratr't W\illelmo^ Can- 

tuar'tensi ArchiepiscopOj Apostol'tcte sedis legato^ salutcm 
et Apostolicam benedictionem. Fratribus nostris, Bernardo Sancti 
Dewi et Ricardo Herfortcnsi Episcopis, mediantem quadragesimam 
terminum statuimus, ut ad nostram uenircnt praesentiam, et siquid 
aduersus Vrbanum Landaucnscm Episcopum de parrochia, unde con- 
trouersia inter eos agitata fuerat, se habere contidcrent, quod dictaret 
iustitia optinercnt. Ipsi uero nee uenerunt, nee qui pro eis agerent 
personas miserunt. Nos ergo, communicato fratrum nostrorum Epi- 
scoporum et [Cardinalium] consilio, testium, quos frater noster Vrba- 
nus produxerat, iuramenta suscepimus : qui, tactis sacro-sanctis Euan- 
geliis, firmauerunt illas quinque plebes, uidelicet Guoher, Chedueli, 
Cantrcbachan, Estrateu, Erchin, infra Landauensis Episcopatus ter- 
minos contineri, scilicet inter fluuios Gui et Tyui- et se uidisse 
Herwaldum Episcopum, antecessorcm Vrbani, per XL. annos easdem 
plebes quiete absque ulla interruptione canonica tenuisse. Ideoque, 
ex canonica censura, nos ei et successoribus suis praenominatam 

A.D.I 100-1188.] THE NORMAN PERIOD, 331 

[third appeal of bishop of llanuaff to the pope.] 

parrochiam perpetuo habendam adiudicauimus. Vnde Fraternitati 
tuae rogando mandamus, quatenus quod iudicatum est a sancta 
Romana Ecclesia facias obseruari, et de praedictis quinque plebibus 
nullam ei patiaris iniuriam irrogari. Dat. Laterani, II. non. Aprilis. 
[Z,/^. Landav. 44, 45.] 

IV. Honorius II. to Henry I. King of England. 

Same with pre- A.D. I 1 29. ^pril ^. Rome. HoNORIUS EpISCOPUS 

vious letter. sERUUS SERUORUM Dei, VenerabUi Henrico^ Anglorum 

Regij salutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. Fratribus nostris, Ber- 
nardo Sancti Dewi et Ricardo Herfortensi Episcopis, mediantem 
quadragesimam terminum statuimus, ut ad nostram uenirent prsesen- 
tiam, et siquid aduersus Vrbanum Landauensem Episcopum de 
parrochia, unde controuersia inter eos agitata fuerat, se habere confi- 
derent, quod dictarct iustitia optinerent. Ipsi uero nee uenerunt, 
nee qui pro eis agerent, miserunt. Nos ergo, communicate fratrum 
nostrorum Episcoporum et Cardinalium consilio, testium quos frater 
noster Vrbanus produxerat iuramenta suscepimus : qui, tactis sacro- 
sanctis Euangeliis, firmauerunt illas quinque plebes, uidelicet Guher, 
Cetgueli, Cantrebachan, Estratcu, Ergic, infra Landauensis Episco- 
patus terminos contineri, scilicet fluuios Guy et Tyui; et se uidisse 
Hergualdum Episcopum, antecessorem V[rbani], per XL. annos easdem 
plebes quiete et absque uUa interruptione canonica tenuisse. Id- 
eoque, ex canonica censura, nos ei et successoribus suis praenomi- 
natam parrochiam perpetuo habendam adiudicauimus. Vnde Frater- 
nitati tuas rogando mandamus, quatenus quod iudicatum est a 
sancta Romana Ecclesia facias obseruari, et de praedictis quinque 
plebibus nullam ei patiaris iniuriam irrogari. Dat. Laterani, II. 
non. Aprilis. [_Lib. Landav. 45,46.] 

V. Honorius II. to Clergy and Laity of the districts claimed by Llandaff. 
A.D. II2Q. April 4.. Rome. — HoNORius Episcopus 

Charges them to ~ ^ ' _ 

obey the above SERUUS SERUORUM DeI, dilectis filiiSj clerOj populo^ per 

^^^^^' parrochias Guhirj Cetgueli^ Cantrebichan^ Tstrateu^ Er- 

cycgj constitutOj salutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. Nos, ex 

canonica censura, uenerabili fratri nostro Vrbano Landauensi Epi- 

scopo, et successoribus eius, praedictas quinque plebes, de quibus inter 


[third appeal or bishop of llandaff to the popf,.] 

ipsum et Bernardum Sancti Dewi ct Ricardum Herfortensem Episav 
pos contentio lieret, pcrpetuo habendas adiudicauimus. Ideoque uni- 
uersitati uestrae mandando precipimus, quatenus ei, tanquam proprio 
pastori, et animarum ucstrarum custodi, obedientiam et reuerentiam 
humiliter deferatis. Dat. Laterani, II. non. Aprilis. \_Li^. LanJav. 

VI. Honor/us II. to Urban Bishop of Llandaff. Privileg'ium for his See. 

Privilegium to A.D. I I 29. April 5. Rome. — HoNORIUS EpISCOPUS 
see of Llandaft". sERUUS SERUORUM Dei, Venerabili fratri Vrbano Landa- 
uensi EpiscopOy eiusque successoribus canoiiicc substituendis in pcr- 
petuum. In cmincnti Apostolicae scdis specula (disponcntc Domino) 
constituti, ex iniuncto nobis officio fratrcs nostros Episcopos debemus 
diligerc, et Ecclesiis a Deo commissis suam iustitiam conseruare. 
Proinde, karissime in Domino frater Vrbane Episcopc, tuis ratio- 
nabilibus postulationibus annucntes, beati Petri, sanctorumque con- 
fessorum Dubricii, Teliawi, Oudocci, Landauenscm Ecclesiam, cui 
(Deo auctorc) presides, in Apostolicx scdis tutclam excepimus. Per 
prxscntis igitur priuilcgii paginam Apostolica auctoritate statuimus, 
ut Ecclesia uestra cum sua dignitatc ab omni secularis seruitii gra- 
uamine libera mancat et quieta. Quxcunque ucro conccssionc pon- 
tihcum, liberalitatc principum, oblatione hdclium, uel aliis mcxiis, ad 
eandem Ecclesiam iuste ct canonice pertinere noscuntur, ci firma in 
{wsterum ct intcgra conseruentur. In quibus hare propriis nominibus 
duximus exprimenda; "Landauiam scilicet, cum territorio suo et 
parrochia, uidelicct, Cantrebachan, Chedueli, Guohcr, Estrateu, Er- 
cincg, Guorund, Penechenn, Gunluuuc, Diuent, Euias, Estrateur. 
Fines vero Landauensis Episcopatus hi esse dicuntur: ab hostio Tyui, 
in mare, sursum usque ^iblain^ dcinde ad Pcn-douluinhdlic, ad blain 
Huisc, ad Mynid Du^ ad blain Turc, usque '"Taui sursum usque Cin- 
gleis; dcinde Halunguernen ad blain Pcurdin, dcorsum usque Ned, sur- 
sum usque Meldon, ad Gauannauc, ad Deri Emreis, ad Cechenclisti, 
ad blain dprutiguidon, usque Taf Maur, usque eychimer, sursum fRiti- 
cambren, ad Haldu, ?<//' nant Crafnant^ ar hit usque Husc, trui Huisc 
di ChilitriSy dir Alt Luit^ di lech Bichlit^ i Pinnmarch^ di Guornoid^ di Rit- 
nantj di hanner Dinmarchtan^ di Oligabr^ di Bronn Cateir-Neuein^ di Heat 
GuerinoUy di Guarthaf Buch-dir-Mincul^ dir Fridelly di Halruua^ di Main- 
y-Bardy Nant-i-Bard.^ in hit Usque Dour, /'« hit usque Guormiu, in hit 

A.D. iioo-ii88.J THE NORMAN PERIOD. ^^^ 

[tkird appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

usque hi^/ain ,• deinde ad Cair-rein ad l>/ain Taratyr, per loiigitudinem 
usque Guy, et per longitudinem fluminis Gui ad mare Hafren, deinde 
ad hostium fluminis Tywi, ubi Landauensis Episcopatus parrochia 
incipit. Confirmamus etiam uobis l^ecclesiam Elidon, ecclesiam 
Sancti Hilarii, Sancti Tussien, Sancti Teliawi de Merthyr Mymor, 
Sancti Teliauui de Languergualt, Sancti Petri, Sancti Ilduti, uillam 
Lann-catgualatir cum ecclesia Sancti Cyuiu, uillam Sancti Tauauc cum 
ecclesia, uillam Henriu cum ecclesia, uillam Merthir Theoderici cum 
ecclesiis, uillam Sancti Oudocei cum ecclesia, uillam Sancti Nuuien 
cum ecclesia, uillam Tanasan cum ecclesia, uillam Lann-gum cum 
ecclesiis, villam Lannguerncynuc cum ecclesia, uillam Merthir Dincat 
cum ecclesia, Lanngarth, Sancti Teliawi de Porthalauc, Sancti Teliawi 
Crissinic, ecclesiam Sancti Clitauci cum pertinentiis suis, ecclesiam 
Sancti Sulbui cum pertinentiis suis, uillam Penniuei cum ecclesia sua, 
uillam Sancti Teliauui dc Talipont,Lann-helicon, Lannmihaggel Maur, 
villam Cairduicil cum ecclesia, ecclesiam Sancti Catoci, Lanncoit, 
Talpon-Escop, Languonhoill, Riubrein, Caircastell, Penniprisc, Tref- 
Mebion Ourdeuein, Trefmain, Tref-Meibion Uchrit, Tref-rita, Tref- 
dinneul cum ecclesia, Estrat Elei, Tref-gynhil, Tref-laur, Tref-cyrin- 
tord, Tremiluc, Carn-elfin, Merthir-onbrit, Ynys Marchan cum 
molendino et maritimis infra Taf et Elei, Ynys Bratguen, Trem- 
gyllicg, Ynis Peithan, Lantylull, Pennonn, Lann-Sanbregit, Tre-mei- 
bion Ambrus, ecclesiam Penntyrch, Merthir Cibliver, Merthir Buceil, 
duodecim acras quas Willelmus de Cantelou Landauensi Ecclesiae 
reddidit, Lann-gemei, Lann-cingualan, Cilciuhinn, Porth-tulon, Pen- 
niuei, Landotei, Culalann, Cruc-Guernen, Guocob, Nantbaraen, Gu- 
lich, Luinclidon, Tref-bledgur-mab-aches, Tref-bledgint, Henriugunua, 
Merthir-Ilan, Lannmeirpennros, Lann-dipallai, Porthisceuin, Lannmi- 
hagel Liclit, Trefiridiouen, Tnoumur, villam Lancinmarc cum prato 
super Gui et coretibus suis, et terra infra Castell Guent, Penncelli- 
guenhuc, Cestell-Dinan cum silua et prato et maritimis, cum decimis, 
oblationibus, sepulturis, territoriis, refugiis, et libera communione 
earum. Quarcunque praeterea in future prefata Ecclesia (largiente 
Deo) iustis modis poterit adipisci, quieta ei semper et illibata per- 
maneant. Decernimus ergo, ut nulli omnino hominum liceat ean- 
dem Ecclesiam temere perturbare, aut eius possessiones auferre, uel 
ablatas retinere, minuere, uel temerariis vexationibus fatigare, sed 
omnia ei cum parrochias finibus integra conseruentur, tam tuis quam 
clericorum et pauperum usibus profutura. Siqua igitur inposterum 


[third appeal of bishop of llani'aff to the pope.] 

ecclesiastica secularisque [persona], banc nostrac constitutionis pagi- 
nam sciens, contra earn temere uenire temptauerit, secundo tertioue 
commonita, si non satisfactione congrua emendauerit, potestatis ho- 
norisue sui dignitate careat, reamque se Diuino iudicio existere de 
perpetrata iniquitate cognoscat, et a sacratissimo Corpore et Sanguine 
Dei et Domini Redemptoris nostri lesu Christi aliena fiat, atque in 
extremo examine districtac ultioni subiaceat. Cunctis uero eidem 
loco iusta seruantibus, hat pax Domini nostri lesu Christi, quatenus 
et hie fructum bonx actionis percipiant, et apud districtum ludicem 
priemia asternx pacis inueniant. Amen. Amen. Amen. 

Ego Honorius Catholicae Ecclesix Episcopus'. Dat. Laterani per 
manum Aimerici Sanctae Romanx Ecclesiae Diaconi Card, et Cancel 1., 
non. Apr., Indict. VII., anno Incarnationis Dominicse MCXXVIIII"., 
pontificatus autem domni Honorii Papx Sccundi anno V. [ Lil>. 
Landav. 4 1— 44.] 

» See above, pp. 310, 322. The districts Usk to Cili, over the Allt Lwyd, abt)ve Bychlit, 

here enunicrated are, in order. Cantref Bychan, to Penmardd, to Guoronoid, to Rhydnant, to 

Kidwelly, Gower, Ystradyw, Krgyng, Gor- the middle of Diiimarchlaii, to 01-y-Gabr, to 

weiiydd, Peiiycheii, Gwentlwg, Dwy Gwent Bron-y-Gadair, upwards to the spring of the 

(the two Gwents), Ewyas, ^'sirad-DwT (the valley Guerinou, to the top of Bwlch-y-Fingul, to the 

of the Dwr, part of E»7as). Brydcll, to Halrunu, to Nant-y-Bardd, along 

•> ="toits source." And so below, " bUcn Nant-y-B.irdd to ilic Dwr, along it to the 

Twrch" = "the source of the Twrch," " blaen Gworniwy, along it to its source." These 

Taratyr" = " the source of the TaratjT," &c. boundaries are repeated here from a rather 

= Miswritten " Tywi " in Rees. fuller account of them in the Lib. iMtiilar. 126, 

•^ Scil. " Ffrwd y Gwyddon." And above, 1 27; and are those summarized almve on p. 285, 

Ned = the Neath, MeMon = tlie Mclltt. note «. 

" =Cymer. •> See above, pp. 310, 322. 

' "■ Rhyd-y-Cambren. ' This signature, with the seal (here omitted), 

s Scil. according to Rees's translation, — " to occurs in the original in facsinnle. 
the brook Crafnant, along it to the Usk, through 

V^Il. Honorius II. to Urban Bishop of Llandaff. 

_. , „ , A.D. II2U. April 27. Rome. — HoNORIUS EPISCOPUS 

Bishop Bernard 7 t 1 

has appeared : SERUUS SERUORUM Dei, Verterabili fratri Vrbano Landa- 
he he^d^ Oct "^"^' ^P'^^^po, salutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. 
18 of next year Post tuum a nobis discessum, uenerabilis frater noster 
Bernardus, Episcopus Sancti Dauid, ad nostram praesen- 
tiam uenicns, litteras a fratribus nostris G. Cantuariensi Archiepi- 
scopo, et aliis Anglix Episcopis, a Rege, et quibusdam Baronibus, in 
quibus continebatur controuersia[m], quae inter te et Wilfridum prae- 
decessorem eius de terminis parrochialibus olim agitata est, per qua- 
draginta VIII. testes (XXIV<>r. uidelicet de tua parrochia et uiginti 

A.D. 1100-I188.] THE NORMAN PERIOD. 335 

[third appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

quatuor de sua) fuisse decisam, prsesentauit. Duo uero de illis 
XXIV'>r., qui se hoc iurasse asserebant, et alios qui se hoc uidisse 
et audisse dicebant, ante nostrum et fratrum nostrorum conspec- 
tum produxit. Vnde ualde mirati sumus. Uerum ne mutare ali- 
quid leuiter uideamus, quod ab eis dictum est diligenter attendimus; 
et ut ueritatem plenius nosceremus, fratrum nostrorum Episcoporum 
et Cardinalium consilio, festiuitatem beati Luce proximi futuri anni 
terminum tibi et praefato B. Episcopo prsefiximus. Eapropter tibi 
mandando prsecipimus, quatenus, occasione remota, praedicto termino 
cum instrumentis quae a nobis habuisti, et rationibus quas habes, 
ad nostram presentiam sibi uenias responsurus ; ut, ueritate plene 
comperta, sua cuique iustitia conseruetur, et pacem utraque Ecclesia 
praestante Domino consequatur. Ad hoc de pago Ewias, et terra 
Talabont, de quibus inter uos olim agitabatur contentio, nichil- 
ominus uenias respondere paratus. Dat. Laterani, v. cal. Maii'^ 
\_LiS. Landav. 51, 52.] 

'' This, and both copies of the letter No. 1 1 29, were the Thursday and Friday before 

VIII,, are written in subsequently but in a Palm Sunday. Midlent Sunday of that year 

similar hand, and on blank spaces. The see was March 24, and April 27 was the Saturday 

of Hereford was still vacant. April 4 and 5, after Low Sunday. 

VIII. Honorius II. to Urhan Bishop of Llandajf. 

Confirms a grant ^.D. 1 1 29. June 16. Rome. — Uo^omus Episco- 
of land to the pus SERUUS SERUORUM Dei, Venerabili fratri Vrb. Landa- 
priorv of Mon- ._. , a^i- l ]•• 

tacute in Somer- uenst EptscopOj salutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. 
setshire. Winebaldus de Baeluna terram de Carlione monachis de 

Monte Acuto pro animae sue remedio dare disposuit. Ideoque 
Fraternitati tuae mandamus, quatenus ipsam terram praefatis mona- 
chis, saluo tux Ecclesiae iure, concedas. Dat. Laterani, XVI. cal. 
Julii. [Lib. Landav. 30, 5 1 ^.] 

* Repeated in the MS. Dated "cal. Julii" Caerleon itself, Bugd. Mon. V. 727; founded 
by mistake on p. 30. For Winibald de Baalun, A.D. 1 179, Brut, ed. Williams, p. 230. 
see above, p. 311. And for the monastery of 

A.D. 1131. Ann. Menev. — Dedicatio Ecclesiae Sancti David, [ap. 
Wharton J A. 5., II. 649. So Ann. Camb.^ in an. 1131.] — Basingwerk 
Abbey founded by Ralph Earl of Chester [Chron. S. Werb.^ ap. Dugd. 
Mon.., V. 261."] 


[final appeal of bishop of LLANDAfF TO THE POPE.] 

A.D. 1 1 30- 1 133. Further and Final Appeal of Urban of Llandajf 

against the Bishops of S.David's and Hereford. 

I. Innocent 11. to Clergy and Laity of the disputed districts. 

Renews Hono- A.D. II30. Feb. 2^- Rome. InNOCENTIUS EPISCOPUS 

rius' injunction SERUUS SERUORUM DeI, dilectis filiis clero et populo per 
shop of Llan- parrochias Goher^ Chedueli^ Cantrehachan^ Estrateu^ Eir- 
^^- giny constitutisj salutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. 

Quemadmodum pra'decessor noster Felicis memoriae, PP. Hon., uobis 
per scripta sua mandauit, ut uenerabili fratri nostro Vrbano Landa- 
uensi Episcopo obediretis, ita et nos quoque uobis mandamus, ut ci 
tanquam patri et Episcopo uestro obedientiam et reuerentiam humi- 
liter deferatis. Dat. apud Palladium", V. cal. Martii. [Lib. Landav. 

53^ 54-] 

' i. e. Falatiuni. 

II. Innocent II. to Bernard Bishop of S. David's. 

Urban has three A.D. 1 1 30. Midlent'K Rome (}). — 1nN(x:KKTIUS EpI- 

years' grace for scopvs SERUUS SKRUoRUM Dei, Venerabili fratri Bernardo 
personally ap- ' ■* 

pcaring at de Sancto Dauid^ salutcm et ApostoHcam benedictionem. 
^°""^" V'encrabilis fratcr noster V'rbanus Landauiensis Episco- 

pus, pro obtinenda iusticia Ecciesiac suae, bis cum multa hitigatione ad 
sedem Apostolicam peruenit. Postmodum uero a praedecessore nostro 
felicis memoria; Papa Honorio, ut proxima festiuitate Sancti Luce 
ad sedem Apostolicam de parrochialibus terminis tibi responsurus 
ueniat, eu(x:atus est. V'erum, sicut ipse per litteras et nuntios signifi- 
cauir, cgritudine, senectutc, et inopia ualde grauatus est, idecxjue 
prsefato termino se non posse uenire asseruit. Nos igitur ei com- 
passi, inducias ei Romam ueniendi, ab hac media quadragesima 
usque ad tres annos, habito fratrum nostrorum consilio, indulsimus. 
Eg igitur termino, de ''Lannteliau Maur cum pertinentiis suis, et 
de Lannteliau Pimpseint Caircaiau, et de Lannteliau Mainaur cum 
pertinentiis suis, et de Lann-toulidauc ig Cairmirdin^ et de Lannteliau 
Penntuin, et de Lannteliau Pennlitgart, et de Lanteliaui Cil Retin in 
Emblin, et de Lannisann cum pertinentiis suis, et de Brodlann, et de 
Lanngurfrit, quae omnia iuris Landauensis Ecclesiae (sicut ipse asserit 
Episcopus) esse uidentur, ante nostram praesentiam uenias respondere 
paratus. [Lib. Landav. 54, 59, 60.] 

a March 9, 1 1 30. Innocent fled from Rome Pembrokeshire, on the S.David's side of the 
in May or June 1130. Tyvi. For Llandeulydog " in Caermarthen," — 
•> All these places are in Caermarthenshire or now in Pembrokeshire see above, p. ■zSo. 


[final appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

III. Cardinal John of Crema to Urban 'Bishop of 'Llandaff . 

Stay at home at A.D. 1 1 30. "June or July^ between Rome and GenoaQ). 
piesent. — V^rbano^ Venerabili Landauensi Episcopo^ FRATER Jo- 

hannes a SANCT.£ Romance Ecclesi^ Presbiter Cardinalis, salutem 
et orationem. Qu(jd pro causa uestra dominus Papa Regi Anglorum 
nichil scripsit, hoc est, quia fauorem eius ad plenum nondum obti- 
nuit. Neque nuntius Episcopi Sancti Dauid domino Papx locutus 
est, nee de sua causa mentionem aliquatenus fecit. Utile consilium 
nostrum est, ut in parrochia uestra remanentes, ad nos hiis diebus 
non accedatis, donee certius aliquid de domino Papa et Rege audi- 
eritis. [Ub. Landav. 56.J 

» John of Crema, Cardinal of S. Chrysogo- at Genoa Aug. 12 with Innocent {Innoc. Ei/id. 
nus. Innocent fled from Rome shortly atter XII.), and thenceforth in his French progress, 
his election, but before June 20, 1130, on This letter and the next seem to have been 
which day he was at Pisa. And John of written after the flight from Rome. Henry 1. 
Crema, who was one of his adherents, probably accepted Innocent only Jan. 13, 11 31 (see be- 
left Rome at the same time, and certainly was low). 

1\'. Gregory y Cardinal SS.Sergii et Bacchi.^ to Urban Bishop of Llandajf. 

Promises and re- A.D. I 1 30. Probably like date and place loith the 
quests help. preceding letter. — GREGORIUsa SANCTvE RoMAN^E EccXESI^E 

Diaconus Cardinalis, V\rbano~\ Landauensi uenerabili Dei gratia Epi- 
scopo^ salutem et bene ualere. Scire uestram uolumus amicitiam, quam 
non minimum pro nobis iam laborauimus j et uestram sicut boni amici 
causam sicut manutenuimus, modis omnibus quibus possumus manu- 
renemus, et inantea faciemus^. Vos itaque mihi uti uestro karissimo 
amico plurimum indigenti subuenite, ut quando ad uestras deuene- 
rimus partes, uel per uos uel per uestrum legatum sic nobis serviatis, 
quatenus nostrum semper retinere seruitium possitis. Vale. [Lib. 
Landav. ^6.~\ 

• Gregorius Cardinal SS. Sergii et Bacchi, 14, 1 130, had been Cardinal Gregorius S. An- 
one of Innocent's supporters, was also with him geli. 
at Genoa. Innocent himself, elected Pope Feb. ** So in orig. 

V. Innocent II. to Henry I. King of England. 

Protect Urban. A.D. II30. ^Ug- 12. Genoa InNOCENTIUS EpISCO- 

PUS SERUUS SERUORUM Dei, karissimo in Christo filio Henrico illustri 
Anglorum Regi, salutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. Honor Dei 

VOL. I. Z. 


[final appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

est et salus populi, si principes, quibus sunt iura regni a Deo com- 
missa, Ecclesias diligant, et ab iniuriis ecclesiasticas personas defen- 
dant. Nobilitatem igitur tuam rogamus et exhortamur in Domino, 
quatenus vcnerabilem fratrem nostrum V[rbanum] Landauensem Epi- 
scopum manuteneas, nee ipsi nee Ecclesiae sibi commissi iniuriam 
aut grauamen inferri permittas. Dat. Januie, II. idus Augusti. [LH. 
LanJav. r,5, 57, 5«-] 

VI. Innoccvt 11. to IVilliarn Archbishop of Ca?iterhury. 

Do not conse- A.D. I 1 30. Aug. 12. Genoa. — InNOCENTIUS EpI- 

cratc Robert de jcOPUS SERUUS SERUORUM Dki, uenerab'dl fratr'i \V\illel- 

Bethune, Prior ' -' ' 

of Llantony, to Tno\ C an tu art 671 St Arch'tep'tscopo.^ salutem et Apostolicam 

forVwithout Ur- ^^^''^t^'^i'-tionem. Equitati et lusticix conuenire cogno- 
ban's consent. scitur, ut qd a praclatis suis honorari ct benigne trac- 
tari desiderat, subiectis suis nullum grauamen, nullam iniuriam con- 
tra rationem irrogari contcndat. Erater siquidem noster V. Landa- 
uensis Episcopus aduersus tc conqueritur, quod quibusdam parrochianis 
suis de Urceneuelde, in quos ipse anathematis sententiam promulga- 
uerat, ab Herefordensi Ecclesia communicari permittis. Propterea"! 
quendam Priorem suum, sibi t'amiliarius adhercntem, qui ad Episco- 
patum Hcrefordensem (prout idem Episcopus asserit) impudenter 
anhekt, in eadem Ecclesia quae suis excommunicatis communicat, 
Episcopum ordinare conaris. Ide(Kjue Fraternitati tuae per prxsentia 
scripta mandamus, ut nullam ei iniuriam uel molestiam inferas, nee 
parrochianis suis ab ipso excommunicatis communices, uel absolvas, 
nee clericum suum, eo inuito, promoueas. Dat. Janux, II. idus 
Augusti. \IJb. Landav. 55.] 

» Jyfg. Piaeterea. 

VII. hniocent II. to Urban Bishop of Llandajf. 

Do not hinder ^-D- ^^3^- January 17. Chartres^. — InNOCENTIUS Epf- 

R. de Bethune scOPUS SERUUS SERUORUM Dei, uenerab'ili fratri Vrbano^ 
in the matter of . . a i- 

the sec of Here- Lanciauenst Episcopo.^ salutem et Apostolicam benedictio- 
^°^^- nem. Herfortensis Ecclesia, proprio uiduata pastore, Rot- 

[bertum] Priorem de Lantoene, religiosum et litteratum (prout fertur) 
uirum, unanimi uoto et communi assensu, uti accepimus, sic in Epi- 
scopum et pastorem elegit. Sed quum ad tam sacrum opus et anima- 
rum saluti necessarium idonex personam exquirendx sunt diligentius 

A.D. J I oo— I I 88.) THE NORMAN PERIOD. 339 

[final appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

et trahendae, per Apostolica scripta Fraternitati tuae mandando praeci- 
pimus, quatenus prsefatum R. Herfortcnsi Ecclesiae libere ad regimen 
ipsius concedasj et ut idem electoribus suis praebeat assensum, sibi 
iniungas. Ad hxc quum, sicut ad aures nostras perlatum est, R. Her- 
fortensis Episcopus, aduersus quern de parrochialibus terminis conque- 
rebaris, antequam Romam uenires, rebus humanis exceptus est ; prae- 
cipimus tibi, ut praefatae Herfortensi Ecclesiae, quemadmodum uiuente 
Ricardo Episcopo tenuerat, parrochiam suam restituas, et usque dum 
Episcopus ibidem consecretur, absque inquietatione tenere permittas. 
Postmodum uero controuersia, qux inter uos est, ordine iudiciario 
decidatur. Non est enim consentaneum rationi, ut si Episcopus ad 
indicium uocatus morte praeuentus est, eius occasione Ecclesia aliquid 
sustineat dctrimentum''. Dat. Carnoti, XVI. cal. Februarii. [Z//^. 
Landav. 61.] 

" Henry I. " apud Carnotiim ultro manus de- Tit. 11. Betun, c. XJ. (in ^Mlart(m, A. S., IT. 

dit" to Innocent as against the antipope ( IT. 305)- Robert was consecrated to Hereford June 

Malm., II. N., I.) January 13 (Orderic. \'ital. 28, I131. Llantony it would seem was then 

VIII.). claimed for LlandafF diocese. 

^ See above, p. 325 ; and also W. ile Wijcutnh, 

VIII. hi7ioce?it II. to WtUiam Archbishop of Canterbury. 

A.D. \\x\. March [4. S. ^uent'tn. — Innocentius 

Protect Urbans -> ^ ''^ 

rights until the Episcopus seruus seruorum Dei, uenerab'tl'tbus fratribus 
suit is eci e W\tllelmo~\ Cantuariensi Archiepiscopo eius que sujfraganeis 
EpiscopiSj salutem et Apostolicam bcnedictionem. Vcnerabilis fra- 
ter noster Vrbanus Landauensis Episcopus, qui modo ad nostram 
denote venit prxsentiam, studiosi de more pastoris pro utilitate 
Ecclesiae sibi commissae, quamvis setas et egritudo resisterent, pluri- 
mum cognoscitur laborassej veruntamen, inspecto eo quod ei de 
parrochialibus terminis a prsedecessore nostro sanctae recordationis 
Papa Honorio iudicatum est, quia utriusque Ecclesias iustitiam plenius 
cognoscere desideramus, adhibito fratrum nostrorum consilio, nichil 
innouauimus. Per praesentia igitur scripta Fraternitati uestrse rogando 
mandamus, quatenus ipsum utpote religiosum uirum honoretis ac 
diligatisj et ne interim de parrochia ilia, super quam B. de Sancto 
Dauid aduersus eum conqueritur, aliquam immunitionem sustineat, 
sed in pace possideat et quiete, prudentia uestras discretionis efficiat. 
Ad haec nichilominus Dilectionem tuam, frater Archiepiscope, depre- 
camur, quatenus, pro caritate beati Petri et nostra, clericis suis 
Vchtredo Archidiacono, et Isaac, bonam uoluntatem tuam et gratiam 

z 2 


[final appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

reddas. Dat. apud Sanctum Quintinum, II. idus Martii. [LIS. Lan~ 
dav. 58, 62.] 

IX. Innocent II. to Bernard Bishop of S. David's. 

, , A.D. liai. April n. — Iknocentius Epi- 

Suit to be deter- ^ r / r b 

mined before the SCOPUS SERUUS SERUORUM Dei, ueneraii/i fratri B[^ernardo'] 
lui Do not -E/'^Vfo/o Sancti Deivi, salutem et Apostolicam bcnedic- 
moiest Urban tioncm. Ut pax Ecclcsiis tribuatur et sua cuique iusti- 
cia conseruetur, proximam beati Luce festiuitatem tibi 
et uenerabili fratri nostro Vrbano Landauensi Episcopo terminum 
constituimus, quo, utrisque conspectui nostro praesentatis, contro- 
uersia, quae dc parrochialibus terminis inter uos agitatur, finiretur. 
Uerum postea ipse litteris suis et nuntiis nobis signihcauit, archi- 
diaconos tuos eum de possessione parrocliiaruni, dc quibus aduersus 
eum questus es, uiolenter eiecisse. Ne igitur ei litis extcndendac 
occasio praebeatur, per praesentia scripta tibi mandamus, quatenus in 
possessione parrochiarum absque molestatione reducas; ut possessor 
constitutus, praefixo termino ualcat tibi iudiciario iure respondere. 
Dat. Compcndii, \'II. idus Aprilis. [U/>. Landav. 58, c^y.] 

X. l7inoce?it II. to UrSan Bishop of Llandajf. 

Same as begin- A.D. 11?1. May II. Periers^. — InNOCENTIUS EpISCO- 

ning of previous ^ ,.,. ^ . , 

letter. PUS SERUUS SERUORUM Dei, uenerabilt fratrt Vrbano Lan- 

dauevsi Episcopo.^ salutem et Apostolicam bencdictionem. Deside- 

rium nostrum est Ecclesiis Dei pacem tribucre, et siqua inter eas 

controuersia est, ordine iudiciario terminare. Quia igitur inter te 

et fratrem nostrum B. Episcopum Sancti Dauid de iure parrochiarum 

Goher, Chedueli, Cantrebachan, Istrateu, et Heuias, controuersia agi- 

tatur, Fraternitati tuae mandando praecipimus, quatenus proxima beati 

Luce festiuitate nostro te conspectui representes ; eidem fratri 

nostro B. Episcopo, tam de praefatis parrochiis quam de uilla ^Tale- 

bont, omni occasione seposita, respondere paratus. Dat. Pireriic^ V. 

idus Maii. \L.ib. Landav. 56, ^y, 60, 61.] 

» Periers on the Andely, which enters the Perrai on the river Sarthe { — Pirerium in Le 
Seine a little above Rouen, lies between Prevost's Index to his edition of Ordericus Vita- 
Rouen, where Innocent May 9 and 10 (see lis) is far away and out of the question. 
Jaffi^), and Beauvais, where he was May 19, '' Llandeilo Talybont, in Gower. 
1 131 {Innoc. Ejnst. XLV., XLVI.) Pitres, " This letter is twice entered in the MSS. 
which is near the junction of the Andely and In the second copy it is dated " Pireti." 
the Seine, lay out of Innocent's road. And 

A.D. I100-1188.J THE NORMAN PERIOD. 341 

[final appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

XI. Innocejit 11. to William Archbishop of CanterhuryQ). 
Protect Urban ^'^' ' ' 3 ' • ^^y '^^- Compiegne. InNOCENTIUS EpI- 

against Rabel SCOPUS SERUUS SERUORUM Dei, uenerabiU fratri Vrbano^ 

de Tankerville. .^. i . i- ij- 

Landauensi Eptscopo^ salutem et Apostolicam benedic- 
tionem. Quemadmodum tua nouit Dilectio, fratribus nostris Vrbano 
Land, et Bernardo Sancti Dauid Episcopis, pro controuersia quae 
inter eos agitatur, proximam beati Luce festiuitatem terminum con- 
stituimus. Ceterum idem frater noster Vrbanus Episcopus, directis 
ad nos nuntiis, aduersus Rabel Camerarium de Tancaruilla qucstus 
est, quod eum de possessione uillae ''Sancti Teliawi de Lannerwalt 
uiolenier eiecit. Quocirca sollicitudini uestrae mandamus, quatenus, 
inuenta oportunitate, super hoc karissimum hlium nostrum H. Regem 
adeas, ut Landauensi Ecclesiae non patiatur iniuriam irrogari sed 
sua ei faciat iura restitui. Dat. Compendii, VIL cal. Junii. [Lib. 
Landav. 57.] 

» An evident mistake (in the orig. MS.) for ^ The place meant is Llandeilo Ferwalit in 

(probably) William Archbishop of Canterbur}'. Gower. 

XIL Innocent II. to Urban Bishop of Llandaff. 

The suit to A.D. 1131. August 12. Auxerre. — Innocentius Epi- 

be decided at scOPUS SERUUS SERUORUM Dei, uenerabiU fratri Vrbano 
the Council ot _ •' 

Rheims,Oct.i8, Landauensi EpiscopOj salutem et Apostolicam benedictio- 
"31- nem. Religiosorum animus quietem postulat • quoniam, 

dum in diuersa rapitur, ad contemplationis requiem pertingere non 
ualebit. Expedit igitur, frater karissime, ut cuius iuris sint parro- 
chiales termini, super quibus inter te et Bernardum Episcopum Sancti 
Dauid controuersia est, plene cognoscas. Ad concilium itaque, quod 
Remis proxima festiuitate beati Luce (prasstante Domino) celebraturi 
sumus, omni occasione seposita uenias, prsefato Episcopo de parro- 
chialibus terminis responsurus j ut quid iuris Ecclesiae tuae sit, sapien- 
tium et religiosorum uirorum consilio et iudicio decidatur ; et demum, 
ueritate comperta, pax et tranquillitas Landauensi Ecclesise (Diuina 
suflFragante gratia) tribuatur. Satius enim est eandem litem sine 
multa fatigatione in Remensi Concilio dirimi, quam Romae multis 
expensis et laboribus terminari. Dat. Altisiodori, IL idus Augusti. 
[Lib. Landav. 60^."] 

342 CHURCH OF WALES DURING [Period 111. 

[final appeal of bishop of llandaff to the pope.] 

XI II. Innocent II. to Urhan Bishop of Llandajf. 

A.D. 1131. November 2 I . Troyes. — Innocenti US 
three "^^ ^ArchbU Episcopus seruus seruorum Dei, uenerah'tl't fratri Ur- 
shops in Eng- l,ano Landauensi Episcopo salutem et Apostolicam bcnc- 

land, Urban not ,. . tt i- 

having been pre- dictioiiem. Ut lis et controuersKi, quae inter te et 
sent at the Coun- fratrem nostrum B. Episcopum Sancti Dauid de parro 

cil of Rlieims. '^ ' , ^ 

chialibus terminis agitatur, fineni acciperct, et utraque 
Ecclesia de csetero conquiesceret, festiuitatem bcati Luce, qua ad 
nostram uenires praesentiam cidem Episcopo de sua querimonia 
responsurus, tibi tcrminum constituinius. Praedictus autcm fratcr 
noster Bernardus Episcopus, clcricorum et laicorum caterua sti- 
patus, eodeni termino nostro se conspectui optulit, agerc prxparatus; 
veruntamen corporali egritudinc detentum non posse [te] venire, tres 
sacramentales, qui a tua parte fuerant delegati, tactis sacro-sanctis 
euuangeliis firmauerunt. Nos igitur, utriusque Ecclesiae inopias et 
laboribus prouidentcs, negotium hoc uenerabilibus fratribus nostris 
W. Cantuariensi, T. Eboracensi, et Hug. Rotomagensi, Archiepiscopis, 
in regno Anglia: pertractandum commisimus. Placet autem nobis, 
ut, si fieri potest, inter te et pracfatum Bernardum Episcopum per 
eorum consilium et deliberationem pax et concordia reformetur. 
Praecipiendo ergo tibi mandamus, ut, omni occasione seposita et 
absque apellatione, proxima Dominica qua legitur, " Ego sum pastor 
bonus," cum litteris et priuilegio pracdecessoris nostri (felicis memo- 
riae) PP. Honorii, et aliis instrumentis, ac superstitibus testibus, 
quos ante ipsius praesentiam produxisti, eisdem te fratribus rcprae- 
sentes j quatcnus ipsi et tuas et pracdicti fratris nostri Bcrnardi 
Episcopi rationes audire, et plenius intelligere, et quod perceperint 
nobis ualeant intimare. Quod si subterfugcris, et te prassentare et 
agere contempseris, cauendum est nc dampnum de absentia tua susti- 
neas, illumque possessorem et te petitorem constituamus. Dat. 
Trecis, XL cal. Decembris. [Lih. Landav. 63, 64.] 

XIV. Innocent II. to Urban Bishop of Llandajf. 

Appear before ^-D- I ' 32- February 13. Beaujeu\ — \^^ocE^r\us 

the three Arch- EPISCOPUS SERUUS SERUORUM Dei, uenerabili fratri Vr- 
bishops on these- , .t^- 1. • ,. , 

cond Sunday after bano Landauensi Episcopo^ salutem el Apostolicam bene- 
^•"'^'■- dictionem. Quemadmodum per alia tibi scripta man- 

i^.D. 1100-I188.] THE NORA^^N PERIOD. 343 

[final appeal of bishop of llan'daff to the pope.] 

dauimus, ita Fraternitati tuae iterate mandamus, quatinus in Domi- 
nica qua legitur, " Ego sum pastor bonus," ad prsesentiam uenerabi- 
lium fratrum, W. Cantuariensis, T. Eboraccnsis, H. Rotomagensis, 
Archiepiscoporum accedas, et allegati'ones tuas eis absque trepida- 
tione aliqua diligenter exponas. Nos siquidem causam tuam illis 
discutiendam commissimus, et nobis reseruauimus terminandam. 
Non igitur super hoc Discretio tua moueatur, quin te in Ecclesiae 
tu£e iustitia paternae prouisionis intuitu (auctore Domino) manutenere 
curabimus; et iure suo earn priuari nullatenus permittemus. Dat. 
Belioci^j idibus Februarii. [Lii. L.andav. 60, 6^^ 

» Innocent was at Cluny Feb. 2 — Feb. 12, south of Cluny Feb. 22 in that year (Mansi, 
1 132 {Innoc. EpisU. LXXIX.-LXXXVL), and XXI. 409). 
at Beaujeu (Bel-ioci) near Macon and a little '' In orig. MS., " helioci." 

XV. Innocent II. to William Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Give Urban's A.D. 1 1 32. March 7. Valence. — Innocentius Epi- 

clerks free ac- SCOPUS SERUUS SERUORUM DeI, uenerabili fratri W\illel- 
cess to him until . . _ . ,. /. / 

the time appoint- ^o\ Cantuartenst Eptscopo Apostolic £ seats legato^ salu- 
^^- tem et Apostolicam benedictionem. Fratrem nostrum 

Vrbanum Landauensem Episcopum in causa sua, qux in tua et alio- 
rum praesentia debet tractari, tam suorum clericorum quam et aliorum 
amicorum egere consilio et auxilio, non ^extat ambiguum. Proinde 
Dilectioni tuae per Apostolica scripta mandamus, quatenus clericos 
eius, donee causa fine debito terminetur, in pace dimittas, et ire ad 
iudicium non compellas. Dat. Valentije, non. Martii. \L.ib. L.andav. 
62, 6^?^ 

' " excitat," in orig. MS. 

Council at Lon- ^VI. Ann. Waverlei. a. 1 1 32— Anno 32 Hen. Regis 
don on the se- post Pascha fuit magnum placitum apud Londoniam, ubi 
Easter, April 24, de pluribus et maxime de discordia Episcopi Sancti Davi- 
^^^2- dis et Episcopi de Llandaff de finibus parochiarum sua- 

rum tractatum. [223 Luard, from Hen. Hunt. VII.^ 385 Savile : and 
in Wilkins.^ I. 412.] 

^ ., , XVII. A.D. 1133. Hen. Hunt. VII. — Ad Caput 

Counal at Lon- i t j 

don on Feb. 8, Jejunii fuit conventus apud Londoniam super Episcopos 
"33- Sancti Dauidis et Clamorgensis ; et, etc. [385 Savile], 


[s. David's first claims of metropolitanship.] 

XV'lll. Hen. Hunt., VII. a. 1134". — Obiit Lauendensis Epi- 

scopus in via Romse pro causa sua tam diu agitata. [^^5 Savilc] — 
GuL. Malm., Hisf. Nov., I. 7. — Anno triccsimo primo^ regni Henrici 

contentio inter Bernardum Episcopum Menevenscm et Urba- 

num Landavensem de jure parochiarum, quas idem Urbanus illicite 
usurpaveraf, aeterno fine sopita est : tot cnim ad curiam Romanam 
appellationibus, tot itinerum cxpensis, tot causidiconim conflictibus, 
multis annis ventilata, tandem aliquando morte Urbani apud Ro- 
mam soluta vcl potius decisa est : nam et Apostolicus, aequitate rei 
perpensa, religioni et justitias Menevensis Episcopi qua decebat sen- 
tentia satisfecit. [^"^99 Hardy.] 

" Matt. Paris also (73 Wats) dates L'rban's 3and year was from Aug. 5, II 31, to Aug. 4, 

death, " in itiiiere Romano," in 1 1 34. 1 13a. 

*• Read " secundo." The reference is to "^ Aun. de Margan, a Glamorganshire abbey, 

the council of April 34, 1132, and Henry's use the same words (i 3 Luard). 

A.D. I 135". Bervarci of S. David's applies to Ivfioce?:t II. for a Tall. 

Innoce7itioPapte Bkrnardus Episcopus. Inncxrentio Dei gratia sanctac 
Romanx et universalis Ecclesiac summo Pontifici, Bernardus Sancti 
Andreac Sanctique David vicarius indignus, humilis subjcctionis obse- 
quium cum orationibus assiduis. ... [Apud clcmentem judicem pallium 
expetit a Papa pro Ecclesia sua Mcnevensi.] — 'ap. Gir. Camb., De 
Invect. II. 7 , 0pp. III. 58.] 

• Bernard waited twenty years after his con- conclusion, writing in or about this very year 

secration, viz. until Henry I.'.^ death, before per- II35. as to say that " tempore nnstro rcccpit 

sonally applying for metropolitan authority (<.'ir. Kpiscopus S. David pallium a Papa," &c. ; adding, 

CaHi/>., ih. 1; "/>/'. III. 49). Hen. Hunt. however, " scd statim tainen amisit." 
(R. A., I., M. H. B. 693) so far leaps to a 

A.D. 1136. Brut y Tywysog*. 
— Yny vKvydyn honno y bu 
uarw leuan arch-ofl-eirat Llan Ba- 
darn. [p. 160, ed. Williams.] 

In that year died leuan arch- 
priest of Llanbadarn. 

» See above, p. 298, note » ; and below under for Whitland, see A.D. 1143. Llanbadarn 

A.D. 1145 and 1 1 75. The Glamorganshire appears to have retained iu Welsh character 

Welsh monasteries di&appfar with the nth longer. See also below in Append. D. for 

lentury (*ee below under A.D. 1150); and Jeuan. 

A.D. iioo-i i88.l THE NORMAN PERIOD. 345 


A.D. 1 140. Meurig^ elected by the Welsh ^ but consecrated to 'Bangor by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury^ against the iv'ill of Oiuen Giuynedd and his 
brother Kadvjalladerj then princes of Giuynedd^ objects to swear alle- 
giance to the King of England. 

I. CoNT. Flor. Wig. a. i 1 39. — Quoniam vero instabant solennes 

dies Dominici Adventus [3 Dec], Rex [Stephanus] Wigornam 

rediit j ubi quidam clericus, vir eximiae religionis, Mauricius nomine, 
electus a clero et a populo Bangornensis Ecclesiae, comitantibus ilium 
prsesulibus Rotberto Hercfordensi et Sigefrido Cicestrensi, in castello 
Regi prsesentatur, attestantibus ilium canonice electum praesulatu 
fore dignum. Quod et Rex concessit. Persuasus a pontiiicibus ut 
Regi fidelitatem faceret, respondit, hoc se nullatenus posse facere. 
' Vir,' inquit, ' magnse religionis apud nos est, quern pro spirituali 
patre teneo, et praedecessoris mei David archidiaconus extitit, qui 
hoc juramentum mihi facere inhibuit." Ad h«c illi, * Quod nos egi- 
mus, causa rationis exigit ut agas.' At ille, ' Si vos magnse auctori- 
tatis viri hoc egistis, nulla mora sit mihi id idem faciendi.' Jurat et 
ille fidelitatem Regi. [//. 121, 122.] 

II. Oiuen and Kadiual/ader Princes of North Wales to Bis^hop Bernard. 

Meet us atAber- A.D.II40. B<'r»^rd'oE/)/Vce»/»0 OeNEUS EtKaDWALLADERUS 

oppose "he Can° PRiNciPES NoRWALLi^. Bernardo Dei gratia Menevensi 
terbury claimant Episcopo Ocueus Rex Walliae et Kawalader salutem 

oftheseeof Ban- ■». t ■ ^ 

gor. et omne bonum. Notum sit vestrae potestati...[Conque- 

ritur quendam hominem, Mauricium Episcopum nomine, S. Danielis 
Ecclesiam non per ostium sed ut fur aliunde intrasse ; Bernardumque 
invitat, ut cum Anaraud^ filio Grifini in festo Omnium Sanctorum 
ad ostium Devi se conferat ut deliberationem de istis cum eo agat.] 
— [ap. Gir. Camb.j De Invect. II. 9 j 0pp. III. 59.] 

» Anarawd, son of Gryffyth ap Rhys, prince of South- Wales, was son-in-law to Kadwallader. 

III. P. R. C. — Professio Mauricii Bangornensis. a£go Mauricius ad 
regimen Ecclesie Bangornensis electus, et a te, reverende pater Theo- 
balde, sancte Cantuariensis Ecclesie Archiepiscope et totius Britanniae 
primas, per gratiam Dei, antistes consecrandus, tibi et omnibus suc- 
cessoribus tuis tibi canonice succedentibus debitam subjectionem et 



canonicam obedientiam per omnia me exhibiturum fore promitto. 
\_Reg. Prior, et Conv. Cant. I. ^ and MSS. Cott. Chop. E. i .] 

" Maurice and Uchtryd of LlandafF were con- verbatim the same. The latter was a married 
secrated 1140 {Contin. l-'lor. Wig. IJ. 124, and man with a family (/I; «(/ i/ Ti/tci/sog. in a. 1171, 
Gervas. 1665). The Professions of both are p. ai 2, ed. Williams). 

A.D. I 143 •'. yur'tsdict'i07t exercised hy Archbishop Theobald over 
Uchtryd Bishop of Llandajf. 

I. GiLB. FoLioT Abbas ad Theobaldum Cant. 
Llanda/too ill Archiepiscopum. — Patri suo et domino Cancuaricnsi Dei 
to appear. May gratia Archiepiscopo et totius Angliae primati T[heo- 
the Priory of baldo'', fratcr G[ilbertus] Glocestrise dictus abbas, pie 
Goidciive be put yj.iig q^.j. jj^i sunt et actu semper implere. Sublimitati 
vestrXjdomine, proamicissupplicarecompellimur, qui nee 
pro nobis au(1iri digni satis invenimur. Plus tamen eligimus apud pa- 
trcm de pietate corripi, quam apud fratres dc spreta charitatc damnari. 
Ad vestram vocatus audientiam dominus Landaviensis multiplicibus 
se causis excus:it, hinc difficultatem itineris, inde suspectas adversan- 
tium insidias, et prx caeteris sui corporis infirma pricrendcns. Inde 
vero nuper redeuntes fratres nostri, de quorum hdv et vcritate non 
ambigimus, de ipsius infirmitate contcstantur. [)c Iccto itaque 
segritudinis sux turn ctiam per nos supplicando postulat, ut causae 
pracsentis actio u.^que ad vcstrum reditum difteratur j sic tamen ut res 
ipsa, quae in controversia est, a fratribus dc Cjoldclive interim incon- 
cusse possideatur. Qua in re, si ncc majcstatcm vestram minui nee 
fratrum vestrorum justitiam impcdiri videritis, petitioni huic annu- 
endo, nos sicut in cacteris omnibus sic et in hoc ipso per omnia 
gratiae debitores efficeretis. Gloriftcetur in vobis Deus, vestriquc 
corona meriti semper augeatur in Domino Jcsu Christo, dilecte pater. 
\Epist. XLn.^ 

The Archbishop !!• lr>. ad Uctredum Landaviensem Episcoputn. — Patri suo 
consents. ^j. Jomino vencrabili Landavicnsi Dei gratia Episcopo, 

frater G[ilbertus^ Glocestria? dictus abbas, salutem et dilcctionem. De 
vcstra erga nos benignitate certo rerum argumento non dubium, si 
gratiam mentis non aequamus, tamen in quo possumus, vobis obsequi 
parati sumus. Litteras itaque domini Archiepiscopi vobis mittimus, ut 
attendatis ex his, quid vobis factu opus sit ; et quod agendum videritis, 

A.D. jioo-1188.] THE NORMAN PERIOD. 347 

[jurisdiction of canterbury over llandaff.] 

prudenti cura adimpleatis. Oportet enim, sicut scripsistis, ut posses- 
sionem, de qua contenditis, monachis de Goldclive usque ad reditum 
domini Archiepiscopi inconcusse demittatis, eisque pacem interim de 
csetero observetis. Sicque faciendo, et judicem poteritis habere pro- 
pitium, et cum ad causam accingi oportuerit, melius poterit refor- 
mari negotium. V^alete. \_Il>. XLFII.~\ 

III. Id, ad Priorem et Er aires de Goldclive. — Frater Gfil- 

Desist from your • i- ,-, . ,^. . r ■ 

suit until the bcrtus J Gloccstrise dictus abbas, dilectis in Christo fratri- 
Archbishop re- j^^g domino Priori de Goldclive caeterisque fratribus, salu- 

lurns. ^ -' 

tern et dilectionem. Paci vestrse et quieti sollicite 
providens, dominus Archiepiscopus vobis istud per me denuntiat, 
ut prosequendas causae, quam adversus dominum Landaviensem habe- 
tis, hac vice operam non detis. Placuit enim Serenitati ejus, ut actio 
ipsa usque ad octavas Epiphaniae vel ad reditum ejus deinceps diffe- 
ratur; sic tamen ut possessio, quae in controversia est, a vobis interim 
inconcusse possideatur. Dominus enim Landaviensis, sicut scripto 
suo testatur, hoc idem annuit, et vobis interim pacem se per omnia 
servaturum (Isai. xxvi.) compromittit. Valete; et paternae circa vos 
gratias reddentes aff-ectioni, ejus per omnia consiliis acquiescite. [_U. 

" Foliot was ahbat of Gloucester ii 39-1 148, most part of the year. But besides that this 

Uchtryd Bishop of Llandaff 1140-1147, and at would be too late for Uchtryd's Episcopate, the 

the Council of Winchester 1 143 (TAorn, in 7')c//8d. absence in the text seems to have been both a 

1803). Several letters of the former are ad- voluntary journey and at a different time of the 

dressed to Uchtryd (Epistt. Vlll. XXI. XLV. vear. The only other recorded journey abroad 

LVI. LVII. LXI. LXXI., and see Epist. XVI. ; of Archbishop Theobald (after he went for his 

Epist. CCXMII. belongs to Bishop Nicolas his pall in 1 139) was in 1 143 " ante Natale" when 

successor). Theobald went to the Council of he followed Henry of Winchester to Rome " de 

Rheims in March 1148, and on his return was legatione acturi" (Hen. Hunt. 225). 
banished from England, and was absent abroad 

A.D. 1 ]43. Gilhert of S. Asaph consecrated by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury at Lambeth^. 

Gervas., Chron. — Hoc anno [1143] sacravit Theodbaldus Cantua- 
riensis Archiepiscopus Gilebertum Laneluensis Ecclesiae electum apud 
Lambethe, ^accepta prius ab eo professione, astantibus et cooperanti- 
bus Roberto Londoniensi Episcopo et Ascelino Rofensi Episcopo. 
IT'vjysd. 1359.] 

^ If the letter of the chapter of S. David's, if their (very onesided) statements are at all to be 
given hereafter under A.D. 1145, really intends trusted, then he must have been elected by the 
Gilbert by the " Richard " therein mentioned, and clergy of S. Asaph, to be presented to the Bishop 



of S. David's for consecration, but with the con- Mold in Flintshire in A.D. 1 144, and must have 

sent, as of the Earl of Chester, so also of King Ste- been in full possession of S.Asaph and all its 

phen ; whose captivity (Feb. 2 — Nov. 1141) is neighbourhood both tlicn and for some years 

there said to have delayed such consecration and to previously. 

have given Theobald of Canterbury the oppor- ^' Gilbert's Profession is not entered upon the 

tunity of arrogating it to himself. On the other Canterburj' Rolls, although his consecration is 

hand, Owen Gwynedd captured the castle of endorsed upon them. 

A.D. 1143. Cistercians ivtroduced ivto Wales. 
Ann. Mknev. — Ducti sunt monachi ordinis Cisterciensis, qui modo 
sunt apud Albam Landam, in West-Walliam per Bcrnardum Episco- 
pum, qui dedit eis locum apud Trefgarn in Denglethesa. [ap. Whar- 
ton^ A.S.^ 77. 649.] — Chron. S. Wkrburg. — Fundata est Cwmhyre in 
Wallia, hlia Blanchland. [ap. Dugd. Mon. V. 458.] 

• " Deuglethef" (.4nn. Camb. in a. 1144). land: see /?ru<, ed. Williams, in an. II46, and 

Viz. Trefgarn in the cantref of Dauirleddau, in I'lujd. Mon. V. 591. Cwm Hir wa» in Rad- 

the middle of Pembrokeshire. The new-comers norshire. For Kymmer in Merioneth, see A.D. 

must have almost immediately moved to Whit- 1 198. 

A.D. 1144. May 14. Lucius II. to Berjiard of S. DavicPs. 
„. , . . „ Lucius Episcopus servus servorum Dei, veverahiH 

His legates shall ' 

inquire into the Jratri 'Bernardo Episcopo S. Davidis^ salutem et Aposto- 

S. David's claim ,. , j..- t^, „.-. i-, ii-. 

to metropolitan- licam beuedictionem. hraternitatis tuic literas debita 
ship. benignitate suscepimus; ct quod de dignitale Ecclesiae 

tuse tarn in ipsis quam in aliis, quae super hoc ad scdem Apostolicam 
missx sunt, diligenter attendimus. Verum quoniam, peccatis exigen- 
tibus tt pravorum hominum superabundante malitia, ejusdem Ecclesise 
dignitas longo elapso tempore ab ipsa alienata et ad alias Ecclesias 
translata est, certum quid inde statuere ad prsesens consilium non 
habcmus. Disponimus quidem per Dei gratiam legates nostros pro 
Ecclesiarum negotiis ad partes illas in proximo dirigere, quibus ean- 
dem causam per antiques homines et authentica Ecclesise tux scripta 
indicare curabisj et nos, per eos veritate pienius cognita, quod ad 
honorem Dei statuendum fuerit, maturiori habito consilio statuemus. 
Datum Laterani, II. id. Maii. [ap. Gir. Camb..^ De Invect. 11. 3, and 
De Jure et Statu Menev. Ecc/., Dist. III. ; Opp. III. 52, 53, 187 : and in 
Wharton^ A. 5., 77. 549.] 

A.D. I J 45. Chapter of S. David's to Eugenius III. respecting the 
metropoUt anship of S. David's ». 

They allege in- Eugenio Pap£ Capitulum Sakcti David — Dei gratia 

A.D. iJoo-ii88.] THE NORMAN PERIOD. 349 

[s. David's claim of metropolitanship.] 

stances of conse- vicc bcati Petri digne sublimato, capitulum S. Andreae 

cratioii of Welsh . ,,. . t-vi r ■ u u- 

Bishops by Hi- Apostoli sanctiquc Uavid confessoris, cum omnibus sibi 
shops ot s. Da- commissis, ad vitse nascua feliciter pervenire. 

vid's prior to Bi- 
shop Bernard. Magnam nobis spem, magnumque solamen instan- 

tium jam tribulationum, idonex vestrae personse in Apostolicam 

sedem ab Ecclesiae rcctoribus provisa sapienter electio contulit. 

Non cnim latet nos, pater, etsi magno terrarum spatio remotos, qua 

sapientia, quaque industria, quibusque vitam ornamentis institueritis, 

exemplumque vitx melioris fueritis. His itaque confisi, anchoram in 

portu et non in pelago figentes, quod nos aliquanto jam tempore 

momordit decernimus amodo non tacere. 

Constat enim praefatam Ecclesiam esse metropolim totius Walliae, 

eaque dc causa ipsam propriam maximam provinciam nostram appel- 

lari inter cceteras regni Britannix provincias, atque ipsius Wallix 

Episcopos suffraganeos esse nostra Ecclesix, quippe qui et profes- 

sionem, ut stabilifum est a Sanctis patribus, facere Archiepiscopo 

nostro consueverant, et ad Episcopalem gradum eadem ratione ab 

eodem omnino promoti sunt. Quos autem novimus in Ecclesia 

nostra dignitate prxfata pertrui, vobis manifestari dignum ducimus. 

Nostras siquidem mcmorix Joseph hujus sedis Archiepiscopus ad 

pontificalem gradum promovit prius Morgleis, et post eum Duvan, 

Bangorensem ; item Julienus noster ad eundem gradum instituit 

Revedun Bangorensem j Bedwd vero noster ordinavit Melanum 

Laneluensem. Item simili modo Joseph Archiepiscopus noster He- 

rewaldum Landavensem ad ministerium pontificale promovit. Sicque 

semper a tempore Breviensis synodi, collectis ibi totius Britanniae 

Sanctis patribus, enervata quorumdam hxreticorum Pelagianx haeresis 

pravitate per beatum David in eadem synodo, atque ob hoc concesso 

ei privilegio ibidem, universx provincix totius cleri atque principum 

consensu, hocque confirmante Romano pontitice, et ad confirma- 

tionem acceptx dignitatis pallium ipsi praesenti David cum duobus 

suis suffraganeis Theliao atque Paterno tradente. Quo pallio decorata 

est Ecclesia nostra a tempore beati David usque ad tempus beati 

Sampsonis, qui nostrse sedis aliquamdiu pontifex, tandem flavam 

pestem fugiens, et pallium cum cxteris pontificalibus ornamentis 

secum deferens, ad Armoricos applicuit, et in Dolensi monasterio 

honorifice susceptus permansit. Ex tum vero nostra Ecclesia, hosti- 

litate Saxonum et Anglorum et post Normannorum oppressa, pallium 

recuperare non valuit; sed tamen, ut diximus, metropolitana digni- 


[s. David's claim of metkopolitansiih'.] 

tate et ministerio non vacavit, seriatim totis temporibus usque ad 
annos aliquot regni Henrici Regis Anglorum, Wilfrido turn tem- 
poris nostras sedis Archiepiscopo, qui multa perpessus a Normannica 
hostilitate, ab hominibus tandem Arnulfi de Monte Gomerici captus, 
per XL. dies ab eisdem detentus est. Post hunc successit Ber- 
nardus, vir magnx religionis, quem elegimus in metro politanum 
antistitem ad Ecclesiam nostram, quae sedes et caput est primse 
et maximae provincix totius Britannixj qui sine ulla contradic- 
tione et calumnia consecratus est. Contra quod Theobaldus, nunc 
Cantuariensis, in tres personas de nostris partibus manus injuste 
misit, et ad Episcopi gradus eosdem illicite promovit : Henricum 
scil. Landavensem, pene illiteratum, qui praeter reliqua vitae suae 
detestanda sanctimoniali palam dicitur abuti. Item Mauricium 
Bangorensem, qui virgam et annulum furtim ab ecclesia subtraxit, 
simili modo promovit. Ricardus vero in Lanelvensi Ecclesia 
electus a ministris Ecclesiae caeteroque clero, cum Uteris Regis et 
Comitis terrae, metropolitano nostro B[ernardo1 ad consecrandum est 
destinatus. Sed ejus nimirum consecrationis termino per captit^nem 
regis Stephani necessario dilato, Cantuariensis eum, sicut et casteros, 
prxsumptorie promovit. 

Pro his ita gestis miscricordix vestrac clementiam imploramus, 
quatinus'' Ecclesia nostras ostcnsse dignitatis jure fini liceat benignis- 
sime jubere dignemini.. ..[Adstruunt in fine se ipsos Romam ventures 
si Ecclesiae sux sjepe oppressae et spoliatae pateretur inopia.] — [ap. 
Gir. Camb.^ De hivect. II. 6 ; Oj>p. III. 56-58 : and see also De Jure et 
Statu Mene^. Eccl.^ D'ist. III.^ tb. 187, 188.] 

» Eugenius III. became Pope Feb. 18, 1 145, crated three Welsh Bishops and three only, 

and this letter was eviden'.ly written, not only Maurice of Bangor and Uchtred of Llandatf, 

before Bernard's appeal to the Pope of March both in 1 140, and Gilbert of S. Asaph in 1143 ; 

1 148, but shortly after Eugenius' accession. and his next Welsh consecrations were not until 

Giraldus therefore, or whoever copied it, must March 14, 1148, Nicolas of Llandaff, and Dec. 

have written "Henry" by mistake for " Uch- 19, 1148, David of S.David's, Bernard's own 

trcd" of Llandaff (there was a Henry of Llan- successor. For the Bishops in the earlier part 

dalT 1193), and "Richard" for "Gilbert" of of the letter, see above, p. 144. 
S.Asaph (there was a Richard at S.Asaph 1154 '' This sentence stands thus in Brewer's edi- 

-I161). Up to 1 145, Theobald had conse- tion. 

A.D. 1145. Brut y Tywysoc^ The ensuing year died Sulien 

— Y vlwydyn rac wyneb y bu son of Rhyddmarch, son to S. Pa- 

uarw Sulyen vab Richmarch mab darn, adopted son of the Church, 

y Seint Padarn mab maeth yr and afterwards an especial teacher, 

Eglwys, a gwedy hynny athro a man whose science was mature, 

A.D. 1 roo-ii88.] 




gwr oed ac aeduet y a speaker on behalf of his nation. 

geluydyt, ymadrodwr dros y ge- 
nedyl, a dadleuwr kymedrodwyr, 
heydychwr amryuaelon genedloed, 
adurn o vrodyeu eglwyssolyon ar 
rei bydolyon, y dccuct dyd o galan 
Hydref '' : gwedy kymryt iach- 
wyawl benyt ar y gyssegredigaeth 
gorff a chymyn Corff Crist ac 
(jlew ac aghenn. [pp. i66, 168, 
ed. Williams.] 

a pleader among arbitrators, the 
peacemaker of several nations, the 
ornament of ecclesiastical and ci- 
vil decisions, on the 10th day of 
the calends of October ^^, after un- 
dergoing salutary penance in his 
consecrated body, and taking the 
communion of the Body of Christ, 
and extreme unction. [i^. pp. 
167, 169.] 

a See also above, p. 344. 

•• I2ih cal. November, according to another reading. 

A.D. 1 1 45. Brut y Tywysog., 
Givent.^ — Ynghylch hynn o amser 
ydd aeth llawer o Saeson, a nife- 
roedd mawrion o'r Cymry ym 
mhererindawd i Gaer y Salem oni 
weled diffyg yn fawr o fod heb- 
ddynt. \_Arch. Camb.^ yd Series^ 
X. 118.] 

ii See liritt (p. 166, ed. Williams) in an. 
1 143. — Y vlwydyn honno y bodes [o GymryJ 
pererinyon ar vor Groec yn mynet achroes y Gae- 

About this time many of the 
English, and great numbers of the 
Welsh, went on pilgrimage to 
Jerusalem, whose absence was se- 
verely felt. [ib. TI9.] 

russalem. — " In that year some pilgrims from 
Wales were drowned on the sea of Greece, in 
going with the cross to Jerusalem." 

A.D. T147. Chron. in Excheq^Domesday, in an. — Fundata est ab- 
batia de Margan a Roberto Comite Gloucestriae. [ap. Dugd. Mon. 
^. 741 ; printed also in Arch. Camb.., yd Series^ Fill. 274. And so 
also Ann. de Margan^ 14 Luard.] — The priories of CaerdifF and Caer- 
marthen were also founded about this year or shortly before- the 
former by Robert of Gloucester [Dugd. Mon. IV. 632, VI. 431). 

A.D. 1 147. Brut y Tywysog. — 
Y vlwydyn rac wyneb y bu uarw 
Vchtrut Escob Llan Daf, gwr 
mawr y volyant ac amdiffynnwr 
yr Eglwysseu, gwrthwynebwr y 
elynyon, yny berfeith heneint. 
Ac yny ol ynteu y bu Escob 
Nicol uab Gwrgant [Escob]. Yny 

The ensuing year died Uch- 
tryd Bishop of Llandaff, a man of 
high praise, the defender of the 
Churches, and the opposer of his 
enemies, in the fulness of age. 
And after him came Bishop Ni- 
chol son of Bishop Gwrgant. In 
that year Bernard Bishop of Me- 



[s. David's claim of 

vlwydyn honno y bu uarw Bernart 
Escob Mynyw yny dryded vlwydyn 
ardec ar hugeint oe Escobawt, — 
gwr enryfcd y volyant a dywawl- 
der a santeidrwyd ocd, — wedy dir- 
uawryon lafuryeu ar vor a thir, 
wrth bcri y Eglvvys Vynyw y hen 
rydit. Ac yny ol yntcu y dynes- 
saawd yn Escob Dauyd uab Geralt 
archdiagawn Keredigyawn. [p. 
176, ed. Williams.] 

Brut y Tywysog., Giuent.j in 
an. 1146. — Yr un Hwyddyn y bu 
farw Uchtryd Escob Llan Daf, 
gwr mawr ci dysg a'i ddwyfoldcb, 
efe a wnaeth drcfn ar y Suliau a'r 
gwyliau, a gwyliau mabsant, a'u 
cynnal yn olychwydawl lie nas 
gwnclid hynny o fodd ac arfer; 
ac yn ci Ic ci' y gwnaed Nicolas 
ab Gwrgant yn Escob yn ci Ic cf. 
\_Arch. Camb.^ yd Series^ X. i 1 8. J 

• Bernard died II 48 


nevia died", in the thirty-third 
year of his Episcopacy, — a man 
of extraordinary praise and piety 
and holiness, — after extreme ex- 
ertions upon sea and la