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Full text of "Cree language and culture nine year program grades 4-5-6"

CURR GD 
HIST 



University of Alberta Library 




1620 2793216 7 



CREE LANGUAGE 
AND CULTURE 
NINE-YEAR PROGRAM 
GRADES 4-5-6 



This program of studies is intended for students who are beginning their study of Cree language and 
culture in Grade 4. It constitutes the first three years of the Cree Language and Culture Nine-year (9Y) 
Program (Grade 4 to Grade 12). 



PHILOSOPHY 

The Cree (Nehiyaw) worldview is not a polarized 
view but a holistic view. It is not this or that but 
this and that. It holds that all life forms are 
interconnected and that life is sacred. Human 
beings are not at the top of a ladder but are one 
part of a sacred circle. Emotional, physical, mental 
and spiritual realms are not separate but 
recognized as part of the whole. 

Traditionally, responsibility within the Nehiyaw 
culture primarily involved contributing to the 
well-being and success of the group — the family, 
extended family and community. Leadership was 
developed through service to the community, and 
cooperation and helping others were crucial to 
survival. Traditional Nehiyaw culture revolves 
around the connection to Mother Earth and the 
relationship with family and community. 

The concept of Mother Earth in Nehiyaw 
worldview not only encompasses the land but also 
all animals, minerals, rocks, water, plant life and 
all mterconnectedness with humans. Cree people 
do not use the products and minerals of Mother 
Earth as commodities but regard them as relatives 
and treat them with the utmost respect. 



Four aspects common to Mother Earth in Nehiyaw 
worldview that can be honoured in the classroom 
are: 

• the mterconnectedness of all things 

• the connection to the land and community 

• the dynamic and changing nature of the world 

• the strength that develops in power with not 
power over. 

Language proceeds from the worldview of a 
culture. The Nehiyaw worldview and philosophy 
is embedded in the language and culture. It is also 
evident in the Nehiyaw pedagogy and ways of 
learning. 



RATIONALE FOR LEARNING CREE 
{NEHIYAWEWIN) 

Cree (Nehiyawewin ekimiy'kowisiyahk) is a gift of 
Omdmawi Ohtdwimdw (the Creator). Elders are 
the keepers of the language and, consequently, of 
the beliefs and culture. Indeed, language and 
culture are inextricably woven. 

The importance of Cree language learning has 
been expressed by Dr. Anne Anderson, who states 
in the forewords to her Metis Cree resource books 
that the way to a people's heart is through their 
language. 



©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) l\ 

(Revised 2009) 




Ex LlBRIS 

Universitatis 
Albertensis 



According to 

87 285 Cree s 

the most widely spoken languages in Canada in 

various dialects. 

The value of learning Cree (Nehiyawewin), to 
Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students, is 
enormous. It permits insights into a worldview of 
spiritual and natural dimensions. When one 
speaks the language, Elders and their wisdom 
become accessible. Learning Cree also enhances 
one's self-esteem by strengthening cultural 
identity. Use of language is also the best means of 
transmitting culture to the next generation. 



NATURE OF THE CREE LANGUAGE 

The Cree language, or Nehiyawewin, is one of 
many indigenous languages within the Algonkian 
family of languages. The Cree "Y" dialect that is 
used m this program of studies is one of the five 
major dialects in Canada. Cree is a language of 
relationships — relationships to Omdmawi 

Ohtawimaw (the Creator), to others (kinship) and 
to Kikdwinaw Askiy (Mother Earth), which 
encompasses all living things. It is a rich and 
complex language because it relates to kinship, 
nature and spirituality. 

The Roman orthography recommended for the 
instruction of Cree is the Pentland orthography, 
which is based on the Cree syllables of standard 
orthography. The "Y" dialects of the Plains and 
Woodland Cree of Alberta use 14 English letters, 
of which 8 are consonants (c, k, m, n, p, s, t and h), 
3 are short vowels (a, i, o), 4 are long vowels (a, i, 
o, e), and "w" and "y" are listed as semi-vowels. 
A sound variation occurs within the same dialect 
based on regional and cultural differences. 



ELDERS, 



iuw tt i^juj^vri^ ivEEPERS AND 
COMMUNITY EXPERTS 

The wisdom of the Elders is central to cultural 
learning according to Cree perspective. Elders are 
the "keepers of knowledge," and it is their 
guidance that Cree people seek as they strive for 
balance in their relationships with Omdmawi 
Ohtawimaw (the Creator), the natural world, other 
people and themselves. 

Alberta Education acknowledges the necessity of 
guidance from the Elders, other knowledge 
keepers and community experts if this program is 
truly to reflect Cree perspectives and content. 
Each community wishing to establish a language 
and culture program must turn to its own Elders, 
knowledge keepers and community experts for 
guidance. It is only in this way that Aboriginal 
language and culture programs can succeed in 
achieving the goal of language revitahzation. The 
Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program, 
Grades 4-5-6 has been developed based on the 
support of various Elders and the support and 
advice of community experts and knowledge 
keepers from Treaty 6 First Nations, Treaty 8 First 
Nations, the Metis Nation of Alberta and the Metis 
Settlements. 

Oral Tradition 

In Nehiyaw culture, oral tradition has been the 
most important method for passing information 
and knowledge from one generation to another. 
Students need to be taught to value and respect 
oral tradition. 

Storytellers have always been respected within 
traditional Nehiyaw culture. Storytellers carry 
within their stories the legends, spiritual truths and 
history of the Cree people. Stories pass on the 
values and beliefs that are important to Cree 
people, and stories preserve the language. 
Storytellers speak from the heart, and the listener 
listens from the heart. 



2/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) 
(Revised 2009) 



©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



There are many types of stories. Sacred stories are 
only told in the winter, unless special permission 
is given. Some stories are short, with a particular 
message or moral, and most are full of humour. 
Many stories are open-ended, long extended 
stories with many levels of meaning. 

Stones are repeated over and over and change over 
time to reflect life in the community. As listeners 
mature and gain life experience, the meanings and 
lessons in the stones reveal themselves in different 
ways. What one discovers m a story as a child can 
be very different from what he or she discovers as 
an adult. A story written on paper becomes frozen 
in time, whereas the beauty of an oral story is that 
it remains a living, flexible and dynamic part of 
culture and language. 

Spirituality 

Although the Elders strongly recommend that the 
connection to Omdmawi Ohtawimaw (the Creator) 
be interwoven throughout the program of studies, 
the developers and Elders themselves respect that 
individuals/teachers may not want to 
teach/promote this view. Above all, one's 
individual integrity is respected. 

Our Relationship with the Natural World 

People are not greater than the things in nature. 
The natural world has its own laws that must be 
respected if people are going to be sustained by it. 
People are identified by the land they have 
historically inhabited and on which they have 
learned to survive. Even today, it is necessary to 
live with the laws of nature and to feel a part of it. 

Our Relationship with One Another 

Agreement on rules enables cooperation and group 
strength, which is greater than individual strength. 
Identity comes from being in respectful 
relationships with others, particularly in the 
family/clan, community and nation. 



Our Relationship with Ourselves 

Each person is bom sacred and complete. 
Omdmawi Ohtawimaw (the Creator) has given 
each person the gift of a body and the choice to 
care for and use that body with respect. 

Omdmawi Ohtawimaw (the Creator) has given 
each person the capacity and choice to learn. 

"I had no schooling. When I was a kid, I used to watch 
people steadily. I would go to my grandmother and she 
told me what rules to follow." 
- Vernon Makokis, Saddle Lake, Alberta 

Omdmawi Ohtawimaw (the Creator) has given 
each person talents or strengths to be discovered 
and the choice to develop and share the gifts. 



ASSUMPTIONS 

The following statements are assumptions that 
have guided the development process of this 
program of studies: 

• Language is communication. 

• All students can be successful learners of 
language and culture, although they will learn 
in a variety of ways and acquire proficiency at 
varied rates. 

• All- languages can be taught and learned. 

• Learning Cree (Nehiyawewin) leads to 
enhanced learning in both the student's 
primary language and in related areas of 
cognitive development and knowledge 
acquisition. This is true for students who come 
to the class with some background knowledge 
of Cree (Nehiyawewin) and develop literacy 
skills in the language. It is also true for 
students who have no cultural or linguistic 
background in Cree and are studying Cree as a 
second language. 



©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /3 

(Revised 2009) 



CONCEPTUAL MODEL 



A Spiral Progression 



Two curriculum frameworks developed under the 
Western Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in 
Basic Education — The Common Curriculum 
Framework for Aboriginal Language and Culture 
Programs, Kindergarten to Grade 12, June 2000, 
and The Common Curriculum Framework for 
International Languages, Kindergarten to 
Grade 12, June 2000 — have provided guidance in 
the development of the Cree Language and 
Culture Nine-year Program (Grade 4 to Grade 12). 

The aim of this Cree language and culture program 
of studies is the development of communicative 
competence and cultural knowledge, skills and 
values in Cree. It is important that the focus of 
this program of studies be on interaction and 
meaningfulness, with special attention and 
emphasis being given to oral communication. 



Language learning and cultural teachings are 
integrative, not merely cumulative. Each new 
element that is added must be integrated into the 
whole of what has gone before. The model that 
best represents the students' language and cultural 
learning progress is an expanding spiral. 
Students' progression is not only vertical (e.g., 
increased proficiency) but also horizontal (e.g., 
broader range of applications and experience with 
more text forms, contexts and so on). The spiral 
also represents how language and cultural learning 
activities are best structured. Particular lexical 
fields, learning strategies or language functions are 
revisited at different points in the program, but 
from a different perspective, in broader contexts 
or at a slightly higher level of proficiency each 
time. Learning is reinforced, extended and 
broadened with each successive pass. 



Four Components 

For the purposes of this program of studies, 
communicative competence and the development 
of cultural knowledge, skills and values in Cree 
are represented by four interrelated and 
interdependent components. 

Applications deal with what the students will be 
able to do with the language, the functions they 
will be able to perform and the contexts in which 
they will be able to operate. 

Language Competence addresses the students' 
knowledge of the language and their ability to use 
that knowledge to interpret and produce 
meaningful texts appropriate to the situations in 
which they are used. 



Applications 



Language 
Competence 



Community 
Membership Strategies 




Cree Language 
and Culture 30-9Y 



Cree Language and 
Culture Crude 8 
(Nine-year Program) 



'Cree Language and 
Culture Grade 4 
(Nine-year Program) 



Community Membership aims to develop the 
understandings, views and values of Cree culture. 

Strategies help students learn and communicate 
more effectively and more proficiently. 

Each of these components is described more fully 
at the beginning of the corresponding section of 
this program of studies. 



4/ Cree Language and Culture Nme-year Program (4-5-6) 
(Revised 2009) 

UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 
UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA 



©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



ORGANIZATION OF THE PROGRAM 
OF STUDIES 

General Outcomes 

General outcomes are broad statements identifying 
the knowledge, skills and attitudes that students 
are expected to achieve in the course of then- 
language learning experience. Four general 
outcomes serve as the foundation for this program 
of studies and are based on the conceptual model 
outlined previously. 

Applications [A] 

• Students will use and apply Cree in various 
situations and for different purposes at home, 
in school and in the community. 

Language Competence [LC] 

• Students will be effective, competent 
and comfortable as Cree speakers. 
(Okiskinamawdkanak ka/ta nihtd nehiyawewak) 

Community Membership [CM] 

• Students will live (wa)wetina{hk) (peacefully) 
with Kikdwinaw Askiy (Mother Earth*), 
others and themselves, guided by Omdmawi 
Ohtdwimdw (the Creator*). 

Strategies (S] 

• Students will use strategies to maximize 
learning and communication. 

The order in which the general outcomes are 
presented in this program of studies does not 
represent a sequential order, nor does it indicate 
the relative importance of each component. The 
general outcomes are to be implemented in an 
integrated manner. 



Specific Outcomes 

Each general outcome is further broken down into 
specific outcomes that students are to achieve by 
the end of each grade. The specific outcomes are 
interrelated and interdependent. In most classroom 
activities, a number of learning outcomes are 
addressed in an integrated manner. 

The specific outcomes are categorized under 
cluster headings, which show the scope of each of 
the four general outcomes. These headings are 
shown in the table on the following page. 

The specific outcomes are further categorized by 
strands, which show the developmental flow of 
learning from the beginning to the end of the 
program. However, a learning outcome for a 
particular grade will not be dealt with only in that 
particular year of the program. The spiral 
progression that is part of the conceptual model 
means that activities in the years preceding will 
prepare the ground for acquisition and in the years 
following will broaden applications. 



discretionary (see further details on p. 34) 



©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /5 

(Revised 2009) 



General Outcomes 




Applications 

Students will use and apply Cree in various 
situations and for different purposes at home, in 
school and m the community. 
A-l to share information 

to express emotions and personal perspectives 

to get things done 

to form, maintain and change interpersonal 

relationships 

to enhance their knowledge of the world ' 

for imaginative purposes and personal-'' 

enj oyment 



A-2 

A-3 

A^ 



A-5 
A-6 



Strategies 



Language 
Competence 



Students will use strategies to maximize' 1 -, 
learning and communication. 



S-l 
S-2 
S-3 

S^ 



language learning 
language use 
cultural learning 
general learning 




' Students will be effective, competent and 
comfortable as Cree speakers. 

(Okiskinamawdkanak ka/ta nihtd 
nehiyawewak.) 



LC-1 
LC-2 
LC-3 



LC-4 



attend to the form of the language 

interpret and produce oral texts 

interpret and produce written and 

visual texts 

apply knowledge of the sociocultural 

context 

apply knowledge of how the language^ 

is organized, structured and 

sequenced 




Community Membership 

Students will live (wa)wetina(hk) 
(peacefully) with Kikdwinaw Askiy 
(Mother Earth*), others and themselves, 
guided by Omdmawi Ohtdwimdw 
(the Creator*). 
CM-1 Kikdwinaw Askiy 
(Mother Earth*) 
CM-2 others 
CM-3 themselves 



* discretionary (see further details on p. 34) 



6/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) 
(Revised 2009) 



©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Guide to Reading the Program of Studies 



cluster heading 

for specific 

outcomes 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will be effective, competent and comfortable as Cree speakers. 
(Okiskinamawdkanak ka/ta nihta nehiyawewak.) 



HHHfe. 



LC-2 interpret and produce oral texts 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 
(Nine-year Program) 




a. understand simple 
spoken sentences in 
guided situations 



understand short, 
simple' oral texts in 
guided situations 



a. understand short, 
simple oral texts in 
guided and unguided 
situations 



produce simple words 
and phrases, orally, in 
guided situations 



produce simple 
sentences, orally, in 
guided situations 



produce short, simple 
oral texts in guided 
situations 



engage in simple 
interactions, using 
short, isolated phrases 



engage in simple 
interactions, using 
simple sentences 



engage in simple 
interactions, using 
simple sentences 
and/or phrases 





read each page horizontally for the developmental flow of 
outcomes from grade to grade 




©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) II 

(Revised 2009) 



8/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) ©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 




Applications 



to express emotions 
and personal perspectives 



to share 
information 



to get things done 



Students will use and apply Cree in various 

situations and for different purposes at 

home, in school and in the community. 



to form, maintain and 

change interpersonal 

relationships 



for imaginative purposes 
and personal enjoyment 



to enhance their 
knowledge of the world 



Applications 

©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) 19 

(Revised 2009) 



APPLICATIONS 

The specific outcomes under the heading 
Applications deal with what the students will be 
able to do with the language; that is, the functions 
they will be able to perform and the contexts in 
which they will be able to operate. 

The functions are grouped under six cluster 
headings — see the illustration on the preceding 
page. Under each of these headings there are one 
or more strands that show the developmental flow 
of learning from grade to grade. Each strand, 
identified by a strand heading at the left end of a 
row, deals with a specific language function; e.g., 
share factual information. Students at any grade 
level will be able to share factual information. 
Beginning learners will do this in very simple 
ways. As students gain more knowledge and 
experience, they will broaden the range of subjects 
they can deal with, they will learn to share 
information in writing as well as orally, and they 
will be able to handle formal and informal 
situations. 

The level of linguistic, sociolmguistic and 
discourse competence that students will exhibit 
when carrying out the functions is defined in the 
specific outcomes for Language Competence for 
each grade. To know how well students will be 
able to perform the specific function, the 
Applications outcomes must be read m 
conjunction with the Language Competence 
outcomes. 

It is important that the focus of the Applications 
component be on interaction and meaningfulness, 
with special attention and emphasis being given to 
oral communication. 



10/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) 
(Revised 2009) 



Applications 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Applications 

Students will use and apply Cree in various situations and for different purposes at home, in 
school and in the community. 



A-l to share information 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) 



Students will be able to: 



a. share basic information 

«-jy*jj b. identify familiar people, 
places and things 



7^ E 



ask for and provide basic 
information 
respond to simple, 
predictable questions 
describe people, places and 
things 



describe people, places and 

things 

describe scries or sequences 

of events or actions 



A-2 to express emotions and personal perspectives 

Students will be able to: 



o 

c 
- u 

c/i >_ 

o 



a. express simple preferences 

b. express a personal response 



identify favourite people, 

places or things 

express a personal response 

to a variety of situations 

acknowledge the ideas, 

thoughts and preferences of 

others 



a. inquire about and express 
likes and dislikes 

b. record and share thoughts and 
ideas with others 









respond to, and express, 
basic emotions and feelings 



a. identify emotions and 
feelings 



express and respond to a 
variety of emotions and 
feelings 



inquire about, record and 
share personal experiences 
involving an emotion or a 
feeling 



Applications 

©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /l 1 

(Revised 2009) 



General Outcome for Applications 

Students will use and apply Cree in various situations and for different purposes at home, in 
school and in the community. 



A-3 to get things done 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) 



Students will be able to: 



indicate basic needs and 

wants 

ask for permission 



o S2 

7*1 

5o 



a. 



a. suggest a course of action 
and respond to a suggestion 

b. make and respond to a 
variety of simple requests 



a. encourage or discourage 
others from a course of action 

b. give and follow a simple 
sequence of instructions 



a. indicate choice from among 
several options 

b. express a wish or a desire to 
do something 



c 

O oo 
2 c 
U.2 

O S3 



a. respond to offers, 
invitations and instructions 

b. ask or offer to do something 



make and respond to offers 

and invitations 

inquire about and express 

ability and inability to do 

something 



a. engage in turn taking 



D. 

3 
O 

U- 00 

ton c 
„, o 



b. encourage other group 
members to act 
^ ^o appropriately 



ask for help or for 

clarification of what is 

being said or done in the 

group 

suggest, initiate or direct 

action in group activities 



encourage other group 
members to participate 



assume a variety of roles and 

responsibilities as group 

members 

negotiate in a simple way with 

peers in small-group tasks 

explain or clarify 

responsibilities 



A-4 to form, maintain and change interpersonal relationships 

Students will be able to: 



. <U 00 

]c.2 
•< tonn- 
es J* 

c D 

03 — 



a. exchange simple greetings a. initiate relationships 



2; b. 



and simple social 
expressions 
exchange some basic 
personal information; e.g., 
their name, age 

acknowledge basic kinship 
relationships 



identify kinship 
relationships 



make and consider social 
engagements 

talk about themselves and 
their family and respond to 
the talk of others by showing 
attention and interest 



12/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) 
(Revised 2009) 



Applications 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Applications 

Students will use and apply Cree in various situations and for different purposes at home, in 
school and in the community. 



HmMmmmhhM 







■ 



A-5 to enhance their knowledge of the world 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) 



Students will be able to: 



• > Q. 



investigate the immediate 
environment 



a. investigate the surrounding 
environment 

b. make and talk about 
personal observations 



a. discover relationships and 
patterns 



<" .a 

00 



a. gather simple information 



c b. organize items in different 
| ways 

S 

C 



sequence items in different 

ways 

share personal knowledge 

of a topic 



a. compare and contrast items 
in simple ways 

b. gather information from a 
variety of resources 



vi > i2 

I o -° 

•^ oi p 

a, 



experience problem-solving 
situations 



experience meaning 
through a variety of 
problem-solving stories 



experience and reflect upon 
problem-solving stories 



D. 3 



in 

I 



C 



listen attentively and 
respectfully to ideas and 
thoughts expressed 
respond sensitively to the 
ideas and products of others 



a. make connections between 
behaviour and values 

b. recognize and respect 
differences in ideas and 
thoughts 



explore Cree values on a 
variety of topics within 
their own experience 
explore how the Cree 
worldview influences 
values and behaviour 



a. 
x 
o 



Applications 

©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /13 

(Revised 2009) 



General Outcome for Applications 

Students will use and apply Cree in various situations and for different purposes at home, in 
school and in the community. 



A-6 for imaginative purposes and personal enjoyment 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 
(Nine-year Program) 



Students will be able to: 



"f g 

< B 



a. use the language for fun 



use the language for fun in a 
variety of activities 



use the language for fun and 
to interpret humour 



use the language creatively 
and for aesthetic purposes; 
e.g., experiment with the 
sounds and rhythms of the 
language 



t5 to 

to <U 

P3 O 

> 3 

«3 a. 
a 



use the language creatively; 
e.g., participate in activities 
that play on the sounds and 
rhythms of the language 



use the language creatively; 
e.g., create a picture story 
with captions 



VD o c 

T to >". 

a. c 



use the language for 
personal enjoyment; e.g., 
listen to favourite songs 



use the language for 
personal enjoyment, e.g., 
make a personal dictionary 
of favourite words with 
illustrations 



use the language for personal 
enjoyment; e.g., play games in 
Cree with friends 



14/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5- 
(Revised 2009) 



■6) 



Applications 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 




Language Competence 



interpret and 
produce oral texts 



attend to the form of 
the language 



interpret and produce 
written and visual texts 



Students will be effective, competent and 

comfortable as Cree speakers. 

(Okiskinamawdkanak ka/ta nihtd nehiyawewak.) 



apply knowledge of the 
sociocultural context 



apply knowledge of how 
the language is organized, 
structured and sequenced 



Language Competence 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /15 

(Revised 2009) 



LANGUAGE COMPETENCE 

Language competence is a broad term that 
includes linguistic or grammatical competence, 
discourse competence, sociolinguistic or 
sociocultural competence and what might be 
called textual competence. The specific outcomes 
under Language Competence deal with knowledge 
of the Cree language and the ability to use that 
knowledge to interpret and produce meaningful 
texts appropriate to the situations in which they are 
used. Language competence is best developed in 
the context of activities or tasks in which the 
language is used for real purposes — in other 
words, in practical applications. 

The various components of language competence 
are grouped under five cluster headings — see the 
illustration on the preceding page. Under each of 
these headings there are several strands, identified 
by strand headings at the left end of each row, 
which show the developmental flow of learning 
from grade to grade. Each strand deals with a 
single aspect of language competence. For 
example, under the cluster heading "attend to the 
form of the language," there are strands for 
phonology (pronunciation, stress, intonation), 
orthography (spelling, mechanical features), 
lexicon (vocabulary words and phrases) and 
grammatical elements (syntax and morphology). 

Although the outcomes isolate these individual 
aspects, language competence should be 
developed through classroom activities that focus 
on meaningful uses of the Cree language and on 
language in context. Tasks will be chosen based 
on the needs, interests and experiences of students. 
The vocabulary, grammar structures, text forms 
and social conventions necessary to carry out a 
task will be taught, practised and assessed as 
students are involved in various aspects of the task 
itself, not in isolation. 

Strategic competence is often closely associated 
with language competence, since students need to 
learn ways to compensate for low proficiency in 
the early stages of learning if they are to engage in 
authentic language use from the beginning. This 
component is included in the language use 
strategies in the Strategies section. 



It is important that the focus of the Language 
Competence component be on interaction and 
meaningfulness, with special attention and 
emphasis being given to oral communication. 

Note: The following abbreviations are used in 
the grammatical elements section, under 
the cluster heading "attend to the form of 
the language": 

NA Animate noun 

NI Inanimate noun 

VAI Animate intransitive verb 

VII Inanimate intransitive verb 

VTA Transitive animate verb 

VTI Transitive inanimate verb 

IS First person singular 

2S Second person singular 

3S Third person singular 

IP First person plural 

21 Second person inclusive 

2P Second person plural 

3P Third person plural 



16/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) 
(Revised 2009) 



Language Competence 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will be effective, competent and comfortable as Cree speakers. (Okiskinamawdkanak 
ka/ta nihta nehiyawewak.) 



■: ■ 



LC-1 attend to the form of the language 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) 



Students will be able to: 



— Q 

• o 

o. 



recognize and pronounce 
basic sounds 

pronounce common words 
and phrases correctly 
recognize intonation 
common to Cree 



c. 



recognize and pronounce 
basic sounds 

distinguish sounds t/d, k/g, 
c/ts, p/b and pre-aspirated h 
use proper pronunciation 
and intonation with familiar 
words, phrases and 
expressions 



recognize and pronounce basic 
sounds consistently 
recognize the effects in sounds; 
i.e., elision, long vowels 
recognize the rhythmic flow of 
sounds 







a. recognize and name some i 


i. be familiar with Roman a. recognize and use basic spelling 






elements of the writing 


orthography in words or patterns 


<s 


a. 


systems; i.e., letters of the 


phrases of personal 




IH 




standard Roman 


significance 




U 


&0 

o 
o 


orthography and/or the 
syllabic system 












a. use a repertoire of words 


i. use a repertoire of words a. use a repertoire of words and 






and phrases in familiar 


and phrases in familiar phrases in familiar contexts, 






contexts, within a variety of 


contexts, within a variety of within a variety of lexical fields, 






lexical fields, including: 


lexical fields, including: including: 






• my family 


• 


foods • 


community roles and 






• my daily routines 


• 


school 


occupations 






• my body 


• 


measurements « 


• activities/leisure 






• seasons 




— time « 


» nutrition/health 




c 
o 


• weather 




- money < 


> places/locations 


1 
rj 


'3 


• clothing 


• 


my community and • 


• music/dance 


J 


_U 


• my house 




neighbourhood < 


> modes of travel 






• things around me 


• 


music/dance • 


» animals/birds 






• any other lexical fields 


• 


animals • 


» extended family 






that meet their needs 


• 


extended family < 


• any other lexical fields that 






and interests 


• 


games 


meet their needs and 








• 


any other lexical fields 
that meet their needs 
and interests 


interests 



(continued) 



Language Competence 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /17 

(Revised 2009) 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will be effective, competent and comfortable as Cree speakers. (Okiskinamawdkanak 
ka/ta nihtd nehiyawewak.) 






(continued) 

LC-1 attend to the form of the language 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 
(Nine-year Program) 



a. use, in modelled situations, the following grammatical elements: 



u .a 

6 



E 

03 

l-i 

on 



demonstrative pronouns 


awa, oma, anima, Ski, 


aniki, ohi, anihi 


singular 


, plural 


animate 




awa 1 th 


is one - oki 1 


these; 




oma 1 th 


is one - ohi 1 


these; 




ana 1 that one - aniki 1 


those ones 


inanimate: 


anima 1 that one - anihi 


1 those; 




nema 1 that one - nehi 1 


those; 




ndha 1 that one - neki 1 


those 




nouns - 


animate (NA): 


m 


(im); 


ki 


(im); 





(im)a; 


ni 


(im)inan; 


ki 


(im)inaw; 


ki 


(im)iwdw; 





(imjiwdwa; 





(im)iyiwa 


nouns - 


- inanimate (NI): 


m 


.' 


ki 


/ 





,' 


ni 


indn; 


ki 


inaw; 


ki 


iwdw; 





iwdw, 





iyiw 



demonstrative pronouns 

ana, ndha, anima, nema to 

distinguish and refer to that 

specific animate (NA) or 

inanimate (NI) noun 

personal pronoun plural 

emphatic "too" form: 

IP nistandn 

21 kistanaw 

2P kistawdw 

3P wistawdw 

noun possessive forms for 

plural animate (NA) and 

inanimate (NI) nouns 

indicating my (IS), your 

(2S), his/her (3S): 

mminosimak / 

mtehtapowina (IS) 

kiminosimak / kitehtapowina 

(2S) ominosima / 

otehtapowina (3S) 

locative nouns ohk, hk, ihk, 

ahk as prepositions in the, 

on the, to the, at the; e.g., 

atawewikamik I store, 

atawewikamikohk I at the 

store; 

otendw I city, 

otendhk I in or at the city 

verbs (VAI): 

IS nitapin 1 1 sit 

2S kitapin I you sit 

3S apiw I he/she sits 

personal pronoun plural 

forms: 

IP niyandn 

21 kiydnaw 

2P kiyawdw 

3P wiyawdw 



noun possessive forms for 

animate (NA) and inanimate 

(NI) plural nouns indicating 

ours (IP), all of ours (21), 

yours (2P), theirs (3P): 

niminosimindnak, 

nitehtapiwinindna; 

kiminosiminawak, 

kitehtapiwininawa, 

kiminosimiwdwak, 

kitehtapiwiniwdwa; 

ominosimiwdwa, 

otehtapiwiniwdwa 

using oki, aniki, neki, ohi, anihi, 

nehi to distinguish and refer to 

"these and those" animate (NA) 

and inanimate (NI) specific 

nouns 

using affixes to indicate the 

noun's size: big/large prefixes 

misti, misi, mahki; small suffixes 

sis, osis, isis 

commands or requests 

(imperatives VTA) using action 

verbs: 

2S— >1S nitohtawin /you— une 

2P— >1S nitohtawik / you— >me 



(continued) 



1. Modelled Situations: This term is used to describe learning situations where a model of specific linguistic elements is 
consistently provided and immediately available Students in such situations will have an emerging awareness of the 
linguistic elements and will be able to apply them in very limited situations. Limited fluency and confidence characterize 
student language. 



18/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) 
(Revised 2009) 



Language Competence 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will be effective, competent and comfortable as Cree speakers. {Okiskinamawakanak 
ka/ta nihtd nehiyawewak.) 



(continued) 

LC-1 attend to the form of the language 



* IS 

u .a 

-3 rt 



00 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 

commands or requests 
(imperatives VTA) using 
action verbs: 

2S— ► 1 S nitohtawin I you— * 
me 

2P— +1S nitohtawik I you— > 
me 

personal pronouns 
singular: 
IS niya 1 1, me 
2S kiya I you 
3 S wiya I he/she 
plural: 

IP nlyandn (exclusive) / 
we/us 

21 kiydnaw (inclusive) / 
we/us 

2P kiyawdw I you (plural) 
3P wiyawdw I they/them 
colour descriptors for 
singular animate (VAI) nouns 
(wdpiskisiw / ewdpiskisit 
minds) and inanimate (VII) 
nouns {wdpiskdw / ewdpiskdk 
tehtapiwin) 
■ noun possessive forms for 
singular animate (NA) and 

inanimate (NI) nouns 

indicating my (IS), your 

(2S), his/her (3S): 

niminosim / nitehlapiwin ( 1 S) 

kiminosim / kitehtapiwin (2S) 

ominosima / otehtapiwin (3S) 
> inclusive personal pronouns 

singular: 

1 S n'ista I me too 

2S kista I you too 

3S w'ista I he/she too 

plural: 

IP nistandn I us/we 

(exclusive) too 

21 kistanaw I us/we 

(inclusive) too 

2P kistawdw I you (plural) 

too 

3P wistawdw I they too 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 

simple sentences using we 

(IP), all of us (21), all of you 

(2P), they (3P) subject 

markers and action words 

(VAI) in declarative 

statement form (nitapinan, 

kitapinaw, kitapindwdw, 

apiwak) and conjunctive form 

(ehapiydhk, ehapiyahk, 

ehapiyek, ehapicik/ 

ehapitwdw) 

simple sentences using I (IS), 

you (2S), he/she (3S) 

subjects and action words 

(VAI) in declarative 

statement form (nitapin, 

kitapin, apiw) and progressive 

action form (ehapiydn, 

ehapiyan, ehapit) 

plural endings: animate ak or 

wak; inanimate aorvwi 

personal pronoun plural 

emphatic "too" form: 

IP mstandn 

21 kistanaw 

2P kistawdw 

3P wistawdw 

possessive nouns: body parts, 

kinship terms 

commands or requests 

(imperatives VTA) using 

action verbs: 

2S— >1S nitohtawin /you— * 

me 

2P— >1S nitohtawik / you— ► 

me 



Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) 

colour descriptors for 
plural animate (VAI) nouns 
(wdpiskisiwak, ewdpiskisicik/ 
ewdpiskisitwdw minosak) and 
inanimate (VII) nouns 
(wdpiskdwa / ewdpiskdki 
tehtapiwina) 
compounding a verb and 
noun together to form a new 
action word; e.g., 
nipostayiwinisdn, 
niteyistikwdndn, niketasdkdn 
simple sentences using we, 
all of us, all of you, they 
subject markers and action 
words in declarative 
statement form {nitapinan, 
kitapinaw, kitapindwdw, 
apiwak) and progressive 
action form {ehapiydhk; 
ehapiyahk, ehapiyek; 
ehapicik/ ehapitwdw) 
tense markers: Id- past tense 
- nikihapin; ka — future 
definite will - nikahapm; 
wi - future intentional marker 
going to - niwihapin 
simple sentences involving a 
direct object, using I (IS), 
you (2S), he/she (3S) subject 
markers along with an action 
word involving an inanimate 
(NI) object (VTI) in 
declarative form {niwdpahten 
tehtapiwin, kiwdpahten 
tehtapiwin, wdpahtam 
tehtapiwin) and progressive 
form {ewdpahtamdn 
tehtapiwin; ewdpahtaman 
tehtapiwin, ewdpahtahk 
tehtapiwin) 



(continued) 



Language Competence 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /19 

(Revised 2009) 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will be effective, competent and comfortable as Cree speakers. (Okiskinamawdkanak 
ka/ta nihta nehiyawewak.) 



(continued) 

LC-1 attend to the form of the language 



i & 
U .8 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 

• simple sentences using 
I (IS), you (2S), he/she 

(3S) subjects and action 
words (VAI) in 
declarative statement 
form (nitapin, kitapin, 
apiw) and progressive 
action form 
(ehapiydn, ehapiyan, 
ehapit) 

• changing an action 
word to a noun by 
adding the suffix "win " 
to the verb: micisdwin; 
nimihitowin; 
nikamowin 

• possessive nouns; e.g., 
body parts, kinship 
terms 

• simple questions using 
interrogating: 

tan 'spi / tan 'we - 

missing; 

tdnte, aw'ma, kikway, 

tdnehki, tdnsiyisi 

Must be labelled: 

NA - animate, 

NI - inanimate 

• question marker ci, 
using responses: 
ehd (yes) (Plains) 
ihi (yes) (Northern) 
namoya (no) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 
(Nine-year Program) 

preverbal particles attached to 

commands/requests and to 

subject, action simple sentence 

Pe apt: 

pe I come 

apt I sit 

Ninohtehapin 1 1 want to sit. 

Kinohtehapin I You want to 

sit? 

Kahki pehapin ci I Can you 

come and sit? 

indefinite pronouns: 

use to indicate non-specific or 

non-specified animate or 

inanimate nouns for 

generalized meaning; e.g., 

awiyak; pikwdwiyak; 

namdwiyak; kahkiyaw awiyak; 

kikway; pikokikway; 

namakikway, kahkiyaw kikway 



(continued) 



20/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) 
(Revised 2009) 



Language Competence 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will be effective, competent and comfortable as Cree speakers. (Okiskinamawdkanak 
ka/ta nihtd nehiyawewak.) 



(continued) 

LC-1 attend to the form of the language 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) 



6 



s 

s 



Students will be able to: 

b. use, in structured situations, 2 the following grammatical elements: 

• colour descriptors for • 
singular animate (VAI) 

nouns (wdpiskisiw / 
ewdpiskisit minds) and 
inanimate (VII) nouns • 

(wdpiskdw / ewdpiskdk 
tehtapiwin) 

• commands or requests using 
action words (imperative 
VAI) indicating you (2S), 
all of you (2P), and all of us 
(21); e.g., api, apik, apitdn 

• noun possessive forms for * 
singular animate (NA) and 
inanimate (NI) nouns 
indicating my (IS), your • 
(2S), his/her (3S): 
nimindsim / nitehtapiwin 

(IS) 

kimindsim / kitehtapiwm 

(2S) ^ 

ominosima / otehtapiwin 

(3S) 



commands or requests 

(imperatives VTA) using action 

verbs: 

2S— >1S nitohtawin I you— +me 

2P— > 1 S nitohtawik I you— >me 

verbs (VAI): 

IS nitapin 1 1 sit 

2S kitapin I you sit 

3S apiw I he/she sits 

demonstrative pronouns ana, 

ndha, anima, nema to 

distinguish and refer to that 

specific animate (NA) or 

inanimate (NI) noun 

plural endings: animate ak or 

wak\ inanimate a or wa 

possessive nouns: body parts, 

kinship terms 

possessive forms - singular: 

( 1 S) Nimosdm I my grandfather 

(2S) Kimosom I your grandfather 

(3S) Omosoma I his/her 

grandfather 

noun possessive forms for plural 

animate (NA) and inanimate (NI) 

nouns indicating my (IS), your 

(2S), his/her (3S): 

niminosimak / nitehtapdwina ( 1 S) 

kimindsimak / kitehtapdwina (2S) 

ominosima / otehtapdwina (3S) 

personal pronoun plural emphatic 

"too" form: 

IP nistandn 

21 kistanaw 

2P kistawdw 

3P wistawdw 



(continued) 



Structured Situations: This term is used to describe learning situations where a familiar context for the use of specific linguistic 
elements is provided and students are guided in the use of diese linguistic elements. Students in such situations will have 
increased awareness and emerging control of the linguistic elements and will be able to apply them in familiar contexts with 
teacher guidance. Student language is characterized by increasing fluency and confidence. 



Language Competence 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /21 

(Revised 2009) 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will be effective, competent and comfortable as Cree speakers. (Okiskinamawdkanak 
ka/ta nihtd nehiyawewak.) 



(continued) 

LC-1 attend to the form of the language 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 



c 

£ 
o 

T "S 

u % 

£ 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 

animate plural nouns (NA): 

oki / these, 

aniki /those, neki I those 

over there 

inanimate plural nouns (NI): 

6 hi I these, 

anihi I those, nehi / these 

over there 

question marker ci, using 

responses: 

ehd (yes) (Plains) 

ihi (yes) (Northern) 

namoya (no) 

simple questions using 
interrogatives: 

tan'te, awlna, kikwdy, 

tdnehki, tan 'siyisi, 

tan 'spi 

inclusive personal pronouns: 

singular: 

IS nista I me too 

2S kista/ you too 

3S wista I he/she too 

plural: 

IP nis tandn I us/we 

(exclusive) too 

21 kistanaw I us/we 

(inclusive) too 

changing an action word to 

a noun by adding the suffix 

"win" to the verb: 

micisowin, nimihitowin, 

nikamowin 

using demonstrative 

pronouns awa, oma to 

distinguish and refer to this 

specific animate (NA) or 

inanimate (NI) noun - 

wdpiskisiw I wdpiskdw 



Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) 

locative nouns ohk, hk, ihk, ahk as 
prepositions in the, on the, to 
the, at the; e.g., 

atawewikamik I store, 
atawewikamikohk I at the store; 
otendw I city, 
otendhk I in or at the city 
personal pronoun plural forms: 
IP niyandn 
21 kiydnaw 
2P kiyawdw 
3P wiyawdw 

simple sentences using I (IS), 
you (2S), he/she (3S) subjects 
and action words (VAI) in 
declarative statement form 
(nitapin, kitapin, apiw) and 
progressive action form 
(ehapiydn, ehapiyan, ehapit) 
simple sentences using we (IP), 
all of us (21), all of you (2P), 
they (3P) subject markers and 
action words (VAI) in declarative 
statement form {nitapmdn, 
kitapinaw, kitapindwdw, apiwak) 
and conjunctive form {ehapiydhk, 
ehapiyahk, ehapiyek, ehapicik/ 
ehapitwdw) 



(continued) 



22/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5- 
(Revised 2009) 



6) 



Language Competence 

©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will be effective, competent and comfortable as Cree speakers. (Okiskinamawdkanak 
ka/ta nihtd nehiyawewak.) 



(continued) 



LC-1 attend to the form of the language 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) 



u 



I «3 



singular/plural possessive 

nouns 

nouns - animate (NA): 

ni imak; 

ki imak; 

o ima; 

ni imindnak; 

ki iminawak; 

ki imiwdwak; 

o imiwdwa; 

o imiyiwa. 

nouns - inanimate (NI): 
ni a; 

ki a; 

o a; 

ni indna; 

ki inawa; 

ki iwdwa; 

o iwdwa; 

o iyiwa. 



(continued) 



Language Competence 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /23 

(Revised 2009) 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will be effective, competent and comfortable as Cree speakers. (Okiskinamawdkanak 
ka/ta nihtd nehiyawewak.) 



(continued) 

LC-1 attend to the form of the language 

Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) (Nine-year Program) (Nine-year Program) 

Students will be able to: 

c. use, independently and consistently, 3 the following grammatical elements: 



• simple sentences using we (IP), 
all of us (21), all of you (2P), 
they (3P) subject markers and 
action words (VAI) in 
declarative statement form 
(nitapinan, kitapinaw, 
kitapindwdw, apiwak) and 
conjunctive form (ehapiydhk, 
ehapiyahk, ehapiyek, ehapicik/ 
ehapitwdw) 

• simple sentences using I (1 S), 
you (2S), he/she (3S) subjects and 
action words (VAI) in declarative 
statement form (nitapin, kitapin, 

„ apiw) and progressive action form 

c (ehapiydn, ehapiyan, ehapit) 

g • personal pronoun plural forms: 



■* T-, 



cd 



IP niyandn 
21 kiydnaw 



00 



U .^ 2P kiyawdw 

*^ p 3P wiyawdw 

g • demonstrative pronouns (singular) 

Animate: Inanimate: 
awa - this oma - this 
ana - that anima - that 
ndha - that nema - that 
over there over there 

• colour descriptors for singular 
animate (VAI) nouns 
(wdpiskisiw / ewdpiskisit minds) 
and inanimate (VII) nouns 
(wdpiskdw / ewdpiskdk 
tehtapiwin) 

• using demonstrative pronouns awa, 
oma to distinguish and refer to this 
specific animate (NA) or inanimate 
(NI) noun - wdpiskisiw / wdpiskdw 

(continued) 



3. Independently and Consistently: This term is used to describe learning situations where students use specific linguistic 
elements consistently in a variety of contexts with limited or no teacher guidance. Fluency and confidence characterize 
student language. 

24/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) Language Competence 

(Revised 2009) ©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will be effective, competent and comfortable as Cree speakers. (Okiskinamawdkanak 
ka/ta nihtd nehiyawewak.) 



(continued) 



LC-1 attend to the form of the language 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) 



U 



W) 



noun possessive forms for 

singular animate (NA) and 

inanimate (NI) nouns indicating 

my (IS), your (2S), his/her (3S): 

niminosim I nitehtapiwin (IS) 

kiminosim / kitehtapiwin (2S) 

ominosima / otehtapiwin (3S) 

simple questions using 

interrogating: 

tan 'spl / tan 'we - missing; 

tdnte, awina, kikwdy, tdnehki, 

tdnsiyisi 

Must be labelled: 

NA - animate, 

NI — inanimate 

question marker ci, 

using responses: 

ehd (yes) (Plains) 

ihi (yes) (Northern) 

namoya (no) 

commands or requests using 

action words (imperative VAI) 

indicating you (2S), all of you 

(2P), and all of us (21); e.g., apt, 

apik, apitdn 

commands or requests 

(imperatives VTA) using action 

verbs: 

2S— >1S nitohtawin I you—* me 

2P— >1S nitohtawik I you— > me 

(continued) 



Language Competence 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /25 

(Revised 2009) 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will be effective, competent and comfortable as Cree speakers. (Okiskinamawdkanak 
ka/ta nihtd nehiyawewak.) 



(continued) 

LC-1 attend to the form of the language 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



l & 
U .2 

-J « 



oo 



Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) 

inclusive personal pronouns 

singular: 

IS nista / me too 

2S kista /you too 

3S wista/ he/she too 

plural: 

IP nistandn/us/vjz (exclusive) 

too 

21 kistanaw / us/we (inclusive) 

too 

2P kistawdw /you (plural) too 

3P wistawdw / they too 

changing an action word to a 

noun by adding the suffix "win" 

to the verb: 

micisowin, nimihitowin, 

nikamowin 

Noun possessive: 

niminosiminan 

nitehtapowininan (IP) 

kiminosiminaw 

kitehtapowininaw (21) 

kiminosimiwaw 
kitehtapowiniwaw (2P) 
ominosimiwawa 
otehtapowiniwaw (3P) 



(continued) 



26/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) 
(Revised 2009) 



Language Competence 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will be effective, competent and comfortable as Cree speakers. (Okiskinamawdkanak 
ka/ta nihtd nehiyawewak.) 



(continued) 



LC-1 attend to the form of the language 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) 



I 

U 

-J 



noun possessive forms for plural 
animate (NA) and inanimate (NI) 
nouns indicating my (IS), 
your (2S), his/her (3S): 
niminosimak / nitehtapowina (IS) 
kiminosimak / kitehtapowina (2S) 
ominosima / otehtapowina (3S) 
singular/plural possessive nouns 
nouns - animate (NA): 

ni imak; 

ki imak; 






ima; 


ni 


imindnak; 


ki 


iminawak; 


ki 


imiwdwak; 





imiwawa; 





imiyiwa. 


nouns 


- inanimate (NI): 


ni 


a; 


ki 


a; 





a; 


ni 


inana; 


ki 


inawa; 


ki 


iwdwa; 


o 


iwawa; 





iyiwa. 



Language Competence 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /27 

(Revised 2009) 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will be effective, competent and comfortable as Cree speakers. (Okiskinamawdkanak 
ka/ta nihtd nehiyawewak.) 



LC-2 interpret and produce oral texts 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 
(Nine-year Program) 



Students will be able to: 



• c 

fS - 

j.a 



understand simple spoken 
sentences in guided 
situations 



understand short, simple 
oral texts in guided 
situations 



understand short, simple oral 
texts in guided and unguided 
situations 



s 

-1 Si- 



produce simple words and 
phrases, orally, in guided 
situations 



a. produce simple sentences, 
orally, in guided situations 



produce short, simple oral texts 
in guided situations 



f> .> >» 



a. engage in simple 

interactions, using short, 
isolated phrases 



a. engage in simple 

interactions, using simple 
sentences 



engage in simple interactions, 
using simple sentences and/or 
phrases 



28/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) 
(Revised 2009) 



Language Competence 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will be effective, competent and comfortable as Cree speakers. (Okiskinamawdkanak 
ka/ta nihtd nehiyawewak.) 






LC-3 interpret and produce written and visual texts 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) 



Students will be able to: 



I -o 



understand simple written 
sentences in guided 
situations 



understand short, simple 
written texts in guided 
situations 



understand short, simple written 
texts in guided and unguided 
situations 



fj> .S 

U | 
-J £ 



produce simple written 
words and phrases in 
guided situations 



produce simple written 
sentences in guided 
situations 



produce short, simple written 
texts in guided situations 



c 



en 

I 

U 



derive meaning from 
visuals and other forms of 
nonverbal communication 
in guided situations 



derive meaning from a 
variety of visuals and other 
forms of nonverbal 
communication in guided 
situations 



derive meaning from visual 
elements of a variety of media in 
guided and unguided situations 



c 



f> = 



-J 



use visuals and other forms 
of nonverbal 

communication to express 
meaning in guided 
situations 



use a variety of visuals and 
other forms of nonverbal 
communication to express 
meaning in guided 
situations 



express meaning through the use 
of visual elements in a variety of 
media in guided and unguided 
situations 



Language Competence 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /29 

(Revised 2009) 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will be effective, competent and comfortable as Cree speakers. (Okiskinamawdkanak 
ka/ta nihta nehiyawewak.) 



LC-4 apply knowledge of the sociocultural context 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) 



Students will be able to: 



(j 00 



a. speak at a volume 
appropriate to classroom 
situations 

b. respond to tone of voice 



distinguish between formal 
and informal situations 

recognize that some topics, 
words or intonations are 
inappropriate in certain 
contexts 



experiment with and use informal 
language in familiar contexts 



U 



a. imitate age-appropriate 
expressions 



a. understand and use a 
variety of simple 
expressions as set phrases 



a. use learned expressions to 
enhance communication 



T o § 

u '-5 M 

— 1 >_ a 

n — 
> 



experience a variety of 
voices 



acknowledge and accept 
individual differences in 
speech 



experience a variety of accents, 
variations in speech and regional 
variations in language 






imitate simple routine social 
interactions and expressions 



use basic politeness 

conventions 

use appropriate oral forms 

of address for people 

frequently encountered 



a. recognize verbal behaviours that 
are considered impolite 

b. recognize simple social 
conventions in informal 
conversation 



c 

o 

■e.a 

o 
o 



if) 

i 



understand the meaning of, 
and imitate, some common 
nonverbal behaviours used 
in Cree culture 



experiment with using some 
simple nonverbal means of 
communication 

recognize that some 
nonverbal behaviours may 
be inappropriate in certain 
contexts 



use appropriate nonverbal 
behaviours in a variety of 
familiar contexts 



30/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) 
(Revised 2009) 



Language Competence 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Language Competence 

Students will be effective, competent and comfortable as Cree speakers. (Okiskinamawakanak 
ka/ta nihtd nehiyawewak.) 



■ 



LC-5 apply knowledge of how the language is organized, structured and sequenced 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) 



Students will be able to: 



~> 8 
•0-2 g 

O o 



imitate speech that uses 
simple link words 



a. sequence elements of a 
simple story, process or 
series of events 

b. link words or groups of 
words in simple ways 



a. link several sentences 
coherently 

b. recognize common conventions 
that structure texts 



^^ fit 



a. experience a variety of oral a. recognize some simple oral a. use some simple text forms in 
text forms and written text forms their own productions 

b. recognize some simple oral 
text forms 



I ° S 

X c w 

«.■§ 

a. 



respond using very simple 
social interaction patterns 



a. initiate interactions and a. use simple conventions to open 

respond using simple social and close conversations and to 

interaction patterns manage turn taking 



Language Competence 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /3 1 

(Revised 2009) 



32/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) ©Alberta Educat, on, Alberta, Canada 




Community Membership 



Kikdwinaw Askiy 
(Mother Earth*) 



others 



Students will live {wa)wetina(hk) 
(peacefully) with Kikdwinaw Askiy (Mother 
Earth*) , others and themselves, guided by 
Omdmawi Ohtdwimdw 
(the Creator*). 



themselves 



* discretionary (see further details on p. 34) 



Community Membership 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /33 

(Revised 2009) 



COMMUNITY MEMBERSHIP 

The specific outcomes in the Community 
Membership section are intended to support many 
aspects of students' Cree cultural development. 
These outcomes are grouped under three cluster 
headings — see the illustration on the preceding 
page. Each cluster is further broken down into 
five strands, each of which strives to build a 
specific knowledge, skill or value from Grade 4 to 
Grade 12. The five strands are as follows: 



relationships 

knowledge of past and present 

practices and products 

past and present perspectives 

diversity. 



The terms "Mother Earth" and "Creator" are 
identified as discretionary terms in this program of 
studies. Communities may choose to use these 
terms or to use other related terms acceptable to 
them (e.g., nature, the environment) in order to 
teach the outcomes in this section. 



34/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) Community Membership 

(Revised 2009) ©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Community Membership 

Students will live {wa)wetina(hk) (peacefully) with Kikdwinaw Askiy (Mother Earth*), others and 

themselves, guided by Omdmawi Ohtdwimdw (the Creator*). 



CM-1 Kikaivinaw Askiy (Mother Earth*) 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) 



a. 



S-2 



listen to stories about 
Kikdwinaw Askiy (Mother 
Earth*) and observe and 
experience Kikdwinaw 
Askiy (Mother Earth*) 



a. participate in harmonious 
activities and experiences 
related to Kikdwinaw Askiy 
(Mother Earth*) 

b. take care of Kikdwinaw 
Askiy (Mother Earth*) 



identify concrete ways in 
which they can show respect 
for Kikdwinaw Askiy (Mother 
Earth*) 

participate in activities in 
which they care for and 
respect Kikdwinaw Askiy 
(Mother Earth*) 



explore past and present Cree 
regions in Canada 



o 



T3 CL - 



oj 



"* 5 3 

U 5 * 



participate in activities and 
experiences that convey 
knowledge of past and 
present Kikdwinaw Askiy 
(Mother Earth*) 



participate in activities and 
experiences that convey 
knowledge of past and 
present Kikdwinaw Askiy 
(Mother Earth*) 
explore a past/present Cree 
community and its 
relationship with 
Kikdwinaw Askiy (Mother 
Earth*) 



-a 

I <D 3 

2 '-S O 

m o •- 

v «j a 



observe and experience 
practices and products 
related to Kikdwinaw Askiy 
(Mother Earth*) 



participate in activities, 
experiences and practices 
related to Kikdwinaw Askiy 
(Mother Earth*) 

explore practices and 
products, related to 
Kikdwinaw Askiy (Mother 
Earth*), of a specific 
region or community 



identify and describe some 
practices and products, 
related to Kikdwinaw Askiy 
(Mother Earth*), of specific 
regions and communities 
explore basic practices and 
products related to 
Kikdwinaw Askiy (Mother 
Earth*) 



* discretionary (see further details on p. 34) 



(continued) 



Community Membership 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /35 

(Revised 2009) 



General Outcome for Community Membership 

Students will live (wa)wetina(hk) (peacefully) with Kikdwinaw Askiy (Mother Earth*), others and 
themselves, guided by Omdmawi Ohtdwimdw (the Creator*). 



(continued) 

CM-1 Kikdwinaw Askiy (Mother Earth*) 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 

Students will be able to: 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) 



participate in activities and 
experiences that reflect past 
and present Cree 
perspectives related to 
Kikdwinaw Askiy (Mother 
Earth*) 



■* <u > 

I "" O 



listen to stories about 
Kikdwinaw Askiy (Mother 
Earth*) from the past and 
present and explore change 



participate in activities and 
experiences that reflect past 
and present Cree 
perspectives related to 
Kikdwinaw Askiy (Mother 
Earth*) 



compare past and present 
Cree perspectives related to 
Kikdwinaw Askiy (Mother 
Earth*) 



explore past and present Cree 
values related to Kikdwinaw 
Askiy (Mother Earth*) 



U'-o 



a. listen to stories about 
Kikdwinaw Askiy (Mother 
Earth*) from diverse Cree 
origins 

b. participate in activities and 
experiences that reflect 
diversity in perspectives 
related to Kikdwinaw Askiy 
(Mother Earth*) 



participate in activities and 
experiences that reflect 
diversity in perspectives 
related to Kikdwinaw Askiy 
(Mother Earth*) 



compare regional Cree 
perspectives and values 
related to Kikdwinaw Askiy 
(Mother Earth*) 



* discretionary (see further details on p. 34) 



36/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) 
(Revised 2009) 



Community Membership 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Community Membership 

Students will live (wa)\vetina(hk) (peacefully) with Kikdwtnaw Askiy (Mother Earth*), others and 
themselves, guided by Omdmawi Ohtdwimdw (the Creator*). 



... ... 



. 



CM-2 others 



Grade 4 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 
(Nine-year Program) 



Students will be able to: 



<S) 

"IS 

a 

u 



a. share with others and 
recognize that others are a 
part of their living 
world/kinship systems 

b. listen respectfully to others; 
i.e., storytelling, counsel, 
sharing circle 



a. contribute to, and cooperate a. respect others (e.g., property, 



in, activities with others, 
and practise friendliness 

practise consideration of, 
and helpfulness toward, 
others 



thoughts) and practise 
humility 

form positive relationships 
with others; e.g., peers, 
family, Elders 



. c 

O D 



~ a. 



«E. > e 

U % « 

a. 



participate in activities and 
experiences that convey 
knowledge of historical and 
contemporary Cree culture; 
i.e., storytelling, 
celebrations 



explore a past and a present 
Cree community; e.g., its 
people, practices, products, 
beliefs 



explore past and present Cree 
people, practices, products 
and beliefs in Canada 



T3 

c 
«*» "I 2 

I V 3 

h o -a 

«« '•= P 



a. observe, understand and 
participate, with the group, 
in Cree cultural 
experiences, practices and 
activities 



observe, understand and 
participate in family and/or 
school Cree cultural 
experiences, practices and 
activities 

explore Cree community 
cultural practices and 
products 



explore tribal or regional Cree 
cultural practices and 
products 



explore cultural practices and 
products of Cree peoples in 
Canada 



a. listen to stories from the 
past and present and 
explore change 



b. observe and participate in 
activities, experiences and 
products that reflect the past 
and present, and explore 
change 



c 

IS, 1) 



J, -a u 
2 c Br 

3 °- 



describe similarities and 
differences between past and 
present Cree community 
experiences, practices, 
products, perspectives and 
values, and examine change 



examine past and present 
perspectives and values and 
examine change 






5 % 
U--5 



observe and explore the 
unique qualities of others 



identify the unique qualities 
of others; i.e., family 



b. identify and celebrate the 
unique qualities of others; 
i.e., in meeting the needs of 
the community by 
voluntarily fulfilling the 
roles 



explore and compare 
characteristics of 
Cree-speaking peoples in 
Canada 



* discretionary (see further details on p. 34) 



Community Membership 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /37 

(Revised 2009) 



General Outcome for Community Membership 

Students will live (wa)wetina(hk) (peacefully) with Kikdwinaw Askiy (Mother Earth*), others and 
themselves, guided by Omdmawi Ohtdwimdw (the Creator*). 



CM-3 themselves 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 

(Nine-year Program) 



Students will be able to: 



f> CI 
I C 



tell and draw about 
themselves and their family, 
appreciate their own 
uniqueness, and understand 
and accept their own 
importance as people 



express their own concept 
of themselves and extend 
that understanding to 
include new ideas and 
perspectives; i.e., home and 
school 

express their own concept 
of themselves and 
understand their own 
strengths and abilities 



explore various sources of 
information for development 
of their self-concept, and 
leam and understand the 
importance of respect for 
themselves 
identify influences on 
development of their 
self-concept and self-identity 



T3 



I 



U o 

c 



cd 

Q, 



a. share about themselves and 
their family; e.g., traditions, 
nicknames, practices 



j£ -a b. explore kinship 



b. 



explore kinship and 
community 



explore and examine 
family/community 
traditions and practices 



explore their family/ 
community background 
(tribe/hentage/affihation, 
kinship) 



T3 
E 



S3 



« ex 



observe and participate in 
Cree cultural experiences, 
practices and activities 



observe and participate in 
Cree cultural experiences, 
practices and activities 



explore Cree cultural 
expenences, practices and 
products 





9) 


CO 






U 


«» 


1) 


^ 








? 


a. 


' ) 


7 


T3 

B 


u 

a. 


o 


ta 


t_ 






t> 




cd 


a- 




a. 





explore their own change 
and listen to others' views 
and stories 



express their own 
understanding of 
themselves and their family 



express their own 
understanding of 
themselves, their family and 
their community and 
explore the perceptions of 
others 

understand their own 
strengths and weaknesses 



explore others' perceptions 
of them 



recognize that individuals 
change and the way they see 
themselves also changes 



^ > 



explore, observe, celebrate 
and recognize their own 
uniqueness; e.g., self, 
family 



identify and celebrate the 
unique characteristics of 
their family and community 

identify and celebrate their 
own unique strengths and 
abilities 



explore, identify and 
celebrate the unique 
characteristics of their family 
and community 



* discretionary (see further details on p. 34) 



38/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) 
(Revised 2009) 



Community Membership 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Strategies 




language learning 




language use 



Students will use strategies to maximize 
learning and communication. 



cultural learning 




general learning 



Strategies 

©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /39 

(Revised 2009) 



STRATEGIES 

Under the Strategies heading are specific 
outcomes that will help students learn and 
communicate more effectively. Strategic 

competence has long been recognized as an 
important component of communicative 
competence. The learning outcomes that follow 
deal not only with compensation and repair 
strategies, important in the early stages of 
language learning when proficiency is low, but 
with strategies for language learning, language use 
in a broader sense and cultural learning, and with 
general learning strategies that help students 
acquire content. Although people may use 
strategies unconsciously, the learning outcomes 
deal only with the conscious use of strategies. 

The strategies are grouped under four cluster 
headings — see the illustration on the preceding 
page. For the Strategies component, the strands 
mirror the cluster headings. Each cluster heading 
or strand deals with a specific category of strategy. 
Language learning, cultural learning and general 
learning strategies can be further categorized as 
cognitive, metacognitive and social/affective. The 
language use strategies can be further categorized 
by communicative mode: interactive, interpretive, 
productive. 

The strategies that students choose depend on the 
task they are engaged in as well as on other 
factors, such as their preferred learning style, 
personality, age, attitude and cultural background. 
Strategies that work well for one person may not 
be effective for another person, or may not be 
suitable in a different situation. For this reason, it 
is not particularly useful to say that students 
should be aware of, or able to use, a specific 
strategy at a particular grade level. Consequently, 
the specific outcomes make only general 
references to strategies within each category. 
Specific strategies for each category are included 
in the sample list of strategies below. The specific 
strategies provided in the sample list are not 
prescriptive but are provided as an illustration of 
how the general strategies in the specific outcomes 
might be developed. 



Teachers need to know and model a broad range 
of strategies from which students are then able to 
choose in order to communicate effectively. 
Strategies of all kinds are best taught in the 
context of learning activities where students can 
apply them immediately and then reflect on their 
use. 



SAMPLE LIST OF STRATEGIES 
Language Learning Strategies 

Cognitive 

listen attentively 

perform actions to match the words of a song, 

story or rhyme 

learn short rhymes or songs, incorporating 

new vocabulary or sentence patterns 

imitate sounds and intonation patterns 

memorize new words by repeating them 

silently or aloud 

seek the precise term to express meaning 

repeat words or phrases in the course of 

performing a language task 

make personal dictionaries 

experiment with various elements of the 

language 

use mental images to remember new 

information 

group together sets of things — vocabulary, 

structures — with similar characteristics 

identify similarities and differences between 

aspects of the Cree language and English 

look for patterns and relationships 

use previously acquired knowledge to 

facilitate a learning task 

associate new words or expressions with 

familiar ones, either in Cree or in English 

find information, using reference materials 

such as dictionaries, textbooks and grammars 

use available technological aids to support 

language learning; e.g., cassette recorders, 

computers, CD-ROMs 

use word maps, mind maps, diagrams, charts 

or other graphic representations to make 

information easier to understand and 

remember 



40/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) 
(Revised 2009) 



Strategies 

©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



• place new words or expressions in a context to 
make them easier to remember 

• use induction to generate rules governing 
language use 

• seek opportunities in and outside of class to 
practise and observe 

• perceive and note down unknown words and 
expressions, noting also their context and 
function 

Metacognitive 

check copied writing for accuracy 

make choices about how you learn 

rehearse or role-play language 

decide in advance to attend to the learning task 

reflect on learning tasks with the guidance of 

the teacher 

make a plan in advance about how to approach 

a language learning task 

reflect on the listening, speaking, reading and 

writing process 

decide in advance to attend to specific aspects 

of input 

listen or read for key words 

evaluate your performance or comprehension 

at the end of a task 

keep a learning checklist 

experience various methods of language 

acquisition, and identify one or more 

considered to be particularly useful personally 

be aware of the potential of learning through 

direct exposure to the language 

know how strategies may enable coping with 

texts containing unknown elements 

identify problems that might hinder successful 

completion of a task, and seek solutions 

monitor your speech and writing to check for 

persistent errors 

be aware of your strengths and weaknesses, 

identify your needs and goals, and organize 

strategies and procedures accordingly 

Social/Affective 

• initiate or maintain interaction with others 

• participate in shared reading experiences 

• seek the assistance of a friend to interpret a 
text 

• reread familiar self-chosen texts to enhance 
understanding and enjoyment 



• work cooperatively with peers in small groups 

• understand that making mistakes is a natural 
part of language learning 

• experiment with various forms of expression, 
and note their acceptance or nonacceptance by 
more experienced speakers 

• participate actively in brainstorming and 
conferencing as prewriting and postwriting 
exercises 

• use self-talk to feel competent to do the task 

• be willing to take risks and to try unfamiliar 
tasks and approaches 

• repeat new words and expressions occurring in 
your conversations, and make use of these 
new words and expressions as soon as 
appropriate 

• reduce anxiety by using mental techniques, 
such as positive self-talk or humour 

• work with others to solve problems and get 
feedback on tasks 

• provide personal motivation by arranging your 
own rewards when successful 

Language Use Strategies 



Interactive 

use English to get meaning across 

use a literal translation of a phrase in English 

use an English word but pronounce it as in 

Cree 

acknowledge being spoken to with appropriate 

expression 

interpret and use a variety of nonverbal cues to 

communicate; e.g., mime, pointing, gestures, 

pictures 

indicate lack of understanding verbally or 

nonverbally 

ask for clarification or repetition when you do 

not understand 

use other speakers' words in subsequent 

conversations 

assess feedback from a conversation partner to 

recognize when a message has not been 

understood; e.g., blank look 

start again, using a different tactic, when 

communication breaks down 

invite others into the discussion 

ask for confirmation that a form used is 

correct 



Strategies 

©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /41 

(Revised 2009) 



• use a range of fillers, hesitation devices and 
gambits to sustain conversations 

• use circumlocution to compensate for lack of 
vocabulary 

Interpretive 

• use gestures, intonation and visual supports to 
aid comprehension 

• make connections between texts on the one 
hand and prior knowledge and personal 
experience on the other 

• use illustrations to aid reading comprehension 

• determine the purpose of listening 

• listen or look for key words 

• listen selectively based on purpose 

• make predictions about what you expect to 
hear or read based on prior knowledge and 
personal experience 

• use knowledge of the sound-symbol system to 
aid reading comprehension 

• infer probable meanings of unknown words or 
expressions from contextual clues 

• prepare questions or a guide to note down 
information found m a text 

• use key content words or discourse markers to 
follow an extended text 

• reread several times to understand complex 
ideas 

• summarize information gathered 

• assess your information needs before listening, 
viewing or reading 

• use skimming and scanning to locate key 
information in texts 

Productive 

• mimic what the teacher says 

• use nonverbal means to communicate 

• copy what others say or write 

• use words visible in the immediate 
environment 

• use resources to increase vocabulary 

• use familiar repetitive patterns from stories, 
songs, rhymes or media 

• use illustrations to provide detail when 
producing your own texts 

• use knowledge of sentence patterns to form 
new sentences 



• use a variety of resources to correct texts; e.g., 
personal and commercial dictionaries, 
checklists, grammars 

• take notes when reading or listening to assist 
in producing your own text 

• revise and correct final versions of texts 

• use circumlocution and definition to 
compensate for gaps in vocabulary 

• apply grammar rules to improve accuracy at 
the correction stage 

• compensate for avoiding difficult structures by 
rephrasing 

Cultural Learning Strategies 

Cognitive 

observe and listen attentively 

actively participate in culturally relevant 

activities, such as storytelling, ceremonies, 

berry picking, feasts, fish scale art and sewing 

imitate cultural behaviours 

memorize specific protocols, such as prayers, 

songs and stories 

seek out information by asking others, such as 

parents, teachers and Elders 

repeat or practise saying or performing 

cultural practices or traditions, such as 

prayers, songs, words and actions 

make/create cultural learning logs 

experiment with, and engage in, various 

cultural practices and elements 

use mental images to remember new cultural 

information, such as Teepee Teachings 

group together sets of things — cultural 

practices, objects — with similar characteristics 

identify similarities and differences between 

aspects of Cree culture and other cultures to 

which you have been exposed 

look for patterns and relationships 

use previously acquired knowledge to 

facilitate cultural learning 

associate new cultural learnings with previous 

knowledge 

use available technological aids to support 

cultural learning; e.g., computers, videos/ 

DVDs, CD-ROMs 

use mind maps, webs or diagrams 



42/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) 
(Revised 2009) 



Strategies 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



• place new cultural learning in a context to 
make it easier to remember 

• use induction to generate rules governing 
cultural elements, such as values, traditions, 
beliefs, practices and relationships 

• seek opportunities in and outside of class to 
practise, observe and participate in cultural 
activities/elements 

• perceive and note down unknown cultural 
elements and practices 

Metacognitive 

• make choices about how you learn 

• rehearse or role-play a cultural experience 

• decide in advance to attend to the cultural 
learning task 

• reflect on cultural learning tasks 

• think in advance about how to approach a 
cultural learning task 

• reflect on your learning or inquiries 

• decide in advance to attend to specific aspects 
of a cultural event 

• listen for, or observe, key cultural elements 

• evaluate your performance or comprehension 
at the end of a cultural task or activity 

• keep a cultural learning/teachings checklist 

• experience various methods of learning about 
culture, and identify one or more considered to 
be particularly useful personally; e.g., by 
doing it, observing it, reading about it 

• be aware of the potential of learning through 
direct exposure to the culture 

• know how strategies may enable coping with 
new cultural experiences containing unknown 
elements 

• identify obstacles that might hinder successful 
participation in cultural experiences, and see 
ways to overcome these obstacles 

• monitor your cultural behaviours and practices 

• be aware of your strengths and weaknesses, 
identify your needs and goals, and organize 
strategies and processes accordingly 

Social/Affective 

• initiate and maintain participation in the 
culture 

• participate in shared cultural experiences 

• seek the assistance of a friend, teacher, Elder 
or parent to understand cultural elements 



• participate several times in favourite cultural 
experiences and activities to enhance 
understanding and enjoyment 

• work cooperatively with peers in small groups 

• understand that making mistakes is a natural 
part of learning about culture 

• experiment with various cultural behaviours 
and practices, noting acceptance/support or 
nonacceptance/lack of support by members of 
the culture 

• participate actively in the traditions of the 
culture; i.e., storytelling, sharing circle 

• be willing to take risks and to try 
new/unfamiliar things 

• apply new cultural learnings as soon as 
possible after learning/observing them 

• reduce anxiety by using mental techniques, 
such as positive self-talk or humour 

• work cooperatively with others, and get 
feedback on your work 

• provide personal motivation by arranging your 
own rewards when successful 

General Learning Strategies 



Cognitive 

• classify objects and ideas according to their 
attributes; e.g., red objects and blue objects, or 
animals that eat meat and animals that eat 
plants 
use models 

connect what is already known with what is 
being learned 

experiment with, and concentrate on, one 
thing at a time 

focus on and complete learning tasks 
record key words and concepts in abbreviated 
form — verbal, graphic or numerical — to assist 
with performance of a learning task 
use mental images to remember new 
information 

distinguish between fact and opinion when 
using a variety of sources of information 
formulate key questions to guide research 
make inferences, and identify and justify the 
evidence on which these inferences are based 



Strategies 

©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /43 

(Revised 2009) 



use word maps, mind maps, diagrams, charts 

or other graphic representations to make 

information easier to understand and 

remember 

seek information through a network of 

sources, including libraries, the Internet, 

individuals and agencies 

use previously acquired knowledge or skills to 

assist with a new learning task 



use self-talk to feel competent to do the task 
be willing to take risks and to try unfamiliar 
tasks and approaches 

monitor your level of anxiety about learning 
tasks, and take measures to lower it if 
necessary; e.g., deep breathing, laughter 
use social interaction skills to enhance group 
learning activities 



Metacognitive 

• reflect on learning tasks with the guidance of 
the teacher 

choose from among learning options 
discover how your efforts can affect learning 
reflect upon your thinking processes and how 
you learn 

decide in advance to attend to the learning task 
divide an overall learning task into a number 
of subtasks 

make a plan in advance about how to approach 
a task 

identify your needs and interests 
manage your physical working environment 
keep a learning journal, such as a diary or a 
log 

develop criteria for evaluating your work 
work with others to monitor your learning 
take responsibility for planning, monitoring 
and evaluating learning experiences 

Social/Affective 

watch others' actions and copy them (the 

actions of Aboriginal students, maybe, more 

than others) 

seek help from others 

follow your natural curiosity and intrinsic 

motivation to learn 

participate m cooperative group learning tasks 

choose learning activities that enhance 

understanding and enjoyment 

be encouraged to try, even though mistakes 

might be made 

take part in group decision-making processes 

(consensus) 

use support strategies to help peers persevere 

at learning tasks; e.g., offer encouragement, 

praise and ideas 

take part in group problem-solving processes 



44/ Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) 
(Revised 2009) 



Strategies 
©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



General Outcome for Strategies 

Students will use strategies to maximize learning and communication. 



S-l language learning 



Grade 4 

(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 5 
(Nine-year Program) 



Grade 6 
(Nine-year Program) 



Students will be able to: 






a. use simple strategies, with 
guidance, to enhance 
language learning 



use a variety of simple 
strategies, with guidance, to 
enhance language learning 



a. identify and use a variety of 
strategies to enhance language 
learning 



S-2 language use 

Students will be able to: 



u 

60 

2 <u 

— > c/) 

60 3 

C 



use simple strategies, with 
guidance, to enhance 
language use 



use a variety of simple 
strategies, with guidance, to 
enhance language use 



identify and use a variety of 
strategies to enhance language 
use 



S-3 cultural learning 

Students will be able to: 






use simple strategies, with 
guidance, to enhance 
cultural learning 



use a variety of simple 
strategies, with guidance, to 
enhance cultural learning 



identify and use a variety of 
strategies to enhance cultural 
learning 



S-4 general learning 

Students will be able to: 



use simple strategies, with 
guidance, to enhance 
general learning 



■a M 
-h g c 

S'p 



1 



use a variety of simple 
strategies, with guidance, to 
enhance general learning 



identify and use a variety of 
strategies to enhance general 
learning 



Examples oflanguage learning, language use, cultural learning and 
general learning strategies are available on pages 40 to 44. 



Strategies 

©Alberta Education, Alberta, Canada 



Cree Language and Culture Nine-year Program (4-5-6) /45 

(Revised 2009)