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Full text of "Crime in Montana"

s 

364.1 

G9c 

1991 




I 





1991 



STATE DOCUMENTS COLLECTIC; 

m 21993 

iJELENA, MONTANA 59620 



ANNUAL REPORT 



O^^cc 



MONTANA BOADO OF CRIME CONTROL 



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'MD 1 4 

NOV 2 7 



MONTANA STATE LIBRARY 



0864 0014 1419 




79P^ 



This issue of Crime in Montana is dedicated to the following people, who while 
working for their own local law enforcement agencies, were involved in coordinating 
and submitting MUCR/NIBRS data to the Montana Board of Crime Control. 



BEAVERHEAD CO. SHERIFF 

JANICE ENGLISH 

DILLON POLICE DEPARTMENT 

AMY BIBLE 

BIG HORN CO. SHERIFF 

PAT WHITE 

BLAINE CO. SHERIFF 
BRENOA MURDOCK 

BROADWATER CO. SHERIFF 

GINNY RUSHFORD 

CARBON COUNTY SHERIFF 

ELSIE M. MARTIN 

RED LODGE POLICE DEPARTMENT 
R.L. ANDERSON 

CASCADE COUNTY SHERIFF 

NOELLA UGHT 

GREAT FALLS POLICE 
DEPARTMENT 

MIDGE WARRINGTON 

CHOUTEAU COUNTY SHERIFF 

PEGGY TEMPLE 

FORT BENTON POLICE 
DEPARTMENT 

MICHAEL J. SKOGEN 

CUSTER CO. SHERIFF 

EILEEN REDDICK 

MILES CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT 
EILEEN REDDICK 

DANIELS CO. SHERIFF 

DOLLY VOXLAND 



FALLON CO. SHERIFF 

GLORIA BOGGS 

BAKER POLICE DEPARTMENT 

TEDDY STODDARD 

LEWISTOWN POUCE 
DEPARTMENT 

LORRAINE BARKOFF 
TENA HEBLE 

FLATHEAD CO. SHERIFF 

DOC HARKIN 

COLUMBIA FALLS POLICE DEPT. 

LEROY McFADDEN 

WHITEFISH POLICE DEPARTMENT 

ARLENE DUNLUCK 

KALISPELL POUCE DEPARTMENT 

LINDA BOE 

GALLATIN CO. SHERIFF 

VELMA REWITZ 
VIOLET CATRON 

BELGRADE POUCE DEPARTMENT 

LEONA HARMON 

WEST YELLOWSTONE POUCE 
DEPT. 

BYLUE NASH 

MANHATTAN POUCE 
DEPARTMENT 

DAVID REWITZ 

MSU CAMPUS POLICE 
MERV GUNDERSON 

GOLDEN VALLEY CO. SHERIFF 

RICHARD ZAHARKO 



LAKE CO. SHERIFF 

SOPHIA SEEGERS 

RONAN POLICE DEPARTMENT 

ALAN CORNELIUSEN 

LEWIS & CLARK CO. SHERIFF 

LARRY MYERS 

HELENA POLICE DEPARTMENT 

LARRY MYERS 

LIBERTY CO. SHERIFF 

PATTY RUDOLPH 

LINCOLN CO. SHERIFF 
LORA SCHRADER 

EUREKA POLICE DEPARTMENT 

DAVE BLESSING 
LINDA GROB 

CIRCLE POUCE DEPARTMENT 

GREGORY A. NAGEL 

MADISON CO. SHERIFF 

UNDA HAMILTON 

MEAGHER CO. SHERIFF 

LAURIE LIND 

MINERAL CO. SHERIFF 

JONI BIGELOW 

MISSOULA CO. SHERIFF 

DEBBIE ROBERTS 

MISSOULA CITY POLICE DEPT. 

TERRY PRICE 
PAUL EDWARDS 

UM SECURITY 

SHIRLEY BENSON 



DAWSON CO. SHERIFF 

JIM GEORGE 

GLENDIVE POUCE DEPARTMENT 
MARY BIRDSALL 

ANACONDA-DEERLODGE LAW 
ENFORCEMENT 

LYNETTE WILSON 
MAXINE THOMPSON 



GRANITE CO. SHERIFF 

JOAN KIRBY 

Hia CO. SHERIFF 

GINNY MARDEN 

HAVRE POUCE DEPARTMENT 

JODI OLSON 

JEFFERSON CO. SHERIFF 

DORIANNE WOODS 



MUSSELSHELL CO. SHERIFF 

SHIRLEY MARKING 

PARK CO. SHERIFF 

DENNIS MC BRIDE 

LIVINGSTON POUCE 
DEPARTMENT 

HELEN TOBIASON 



CRIME IN MONTANA 

1991 
ANNUAL REPORT 



Compiled by the 

Statistical Analysis Center 

Montana Board 

of 
Crime Control 



Dr. Gordon Browder, Chairman 



Montana Board of Crime 

Control 

303 No. Roberts 



iri 



Montana Board of Crime Control Members 



Gordon Browder, Ph.D. 
Chairman 
Missoula 

Ardith Aiken 

Citizen at Large 

Great Falls 

Craig Anderson 

Chief Probation Officer 

Glendive 

Diane G. Barz 

Assistant U.S. Attorney 

Billings 

Donald Bjertness 

Retired City Judge 

Billings 

Bob Butorovich 

Sheriff 

Butte/Silver Bow 

Law Enforcement 

Butte 



Curl Chisholm 

Director 

Dept. of Corrections 

& Human Services 

Helena 

Hon. Royal Johnson 

State Representative 

Billings 

John T. Flynn 

County Attorney 

Broadwater County 

Townsend 

Hon. Del Gage 

State Senator 

Cut Bank 

Rick Later 

Sheriff 

Beaverhead County 

Dillon 

Rex Manuel 

Citizen at Large 

Fairfield 



Don Peterson 

Citizen at Large 

Big Arm 

Hon. Mary Lou Peterson 

State Representative 

Eureka 

John Raff, Jr. M.D. 
Citizen at Large 

Hon. Marc Racicot 

Attorney General 

Helena 

Mike Shorten 

Police Chief 

Havre 

Hon. Jean Turnage 

Chief Justice, 

Montana Supreme Court 

Helena 



Staff Members 

Montana Board of Crime Control 

Statistical Analysis Center 

Edwin Hall, Administrator, Montana Board of Crime Control 

Bob Liffring, SAC Director 

Dara Smith, Data Technician 



STATE OF MONTANA 

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 

BOARD OF CRIME CONTROL 

Marc Racicot /jw*** ,„, »,, ^. „ . 

A». /- . Lfel^C^Sj 303 North Roberts 

Attorney General pl^^^^^^s u i xm-w r«^,« 

\mw«:,«ewHo/ Helena, MT 59620 

Tel. (406) 444-3604 

FAX (406) 444-4722 




Dear Reader: 

Crime In Montana - 1991 Annual Report is prepared by the Statistical Analysis Center of the 
Board and this year we continue with the tradition of presenting additional views of the justice 
system whether from burglar's eye view of a target or the impact of ADA on law enforcement. 

The statistics for 1991 indicate a small upturn in the incidence of crimes reported. The general 
trends indicated by such statistics are important to note and consider but re-read Dan Doyle's 
article on the interpretation of crime statistics to put them into context. While the crime rate per 
100,000 people increased in 1991, it remains far under the national rate. We need to continue 
to attempt to initiate and support programs which will keep Montana with a low crime rate. 

I noted in particular several important points in the crime data. Forcible rape decreased and 
more unsuccessful attempted rapes are reported but sadly the use of a weapon in the commission 
of this crime is becoming more frequent. Domestic abuse is another crime trend of note. The 
impact of the 1987 legislation is clear in the rocketing number of cases reported. With five 
years of increases a clear trend is present and we must look for ways to alter that pattern. 

Turning data into information is the role of the Statistical Analysis Center. We hope the 
information provides a platform for action. 



Sincerel 




Edwin L. Hall 
Administrator 



Data used in the preparation of tine publication 

was compiled by the 

staff of the 

Statistical Analysis Center 

of the 

Montana Board of Crime Control. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



General Crime Statistics for Montana 1 

(Data from the Montana Uniform 
Crime Reporting Program) 
Juvenile Justice 19 

Contributed Articles and Analyses 27 

Understanding and Interpreting Crime 

Statistics by Daniel P. Doyle, Ph.D 29 

An Interview with a Burglar by Ken Grady 
33 

The Impact of the American Disabilities 

Act on Montana Law Enforcement by Ellis E. 

(Gene) KIser 35 

Multi-jurisdictlonal Drug Task Forces at a 

Glance by Al Brockway 37 



Technical Appendices 39 

1. The Montana Uniform 

Crime Reporting (MUCR) System 41 

2. Population Estimates 45 

3. Definitions of Terms 

used in this Report 47 



I 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Montana State Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/crimeinmontana1991mont 



GENERAL CRIME 

STATISTICS 

FROM THE 

MONTANA UNIFORM 

CRIME REPORTING PROGRAM 



Overview and Introduction 

This report contains tine most complete, up-to-date, and 
accurate information currently available about crime in the 
State of Montana. It is intended to address the informa- 
tional needs of law enforcement administrators, planners, 
legislators, and local government officials. 

The data and statistics presented below are initiated by 
the police departments, sheriff offices, and other criminal 
justice agencies throughout the state. These agencies 
provide basic information about each crime which is re- 
ported to them and about each arrest they make to the 
Montana Uniform Crime Reporting (MUCR) system. In 
turn, the MUCR program feeds data into the Federal Bu- 
reau of Investigation's (FBI) national Uniform Crime Re- 
porting (UCR) program. 

it is emphasized that the amount and type of crime re- 
ported in this document is based upon the number of re- 



ported offenses and does not measure those offenses 
unknown to the law enforcement community. Many 
crimes, for example, may go unreported because the vic- 
tims are unaware they have been victimized or have them- 
selves been participants in illegal activity. 

At the same time, it is noted that many sociological and 
environmental factors influence the type and volume of 
criminal activity in a particular geographical area. These in- 
clude the density and size of the community, demograph- 
ic characteristics of the population, the economic status of 
the population, educational, recreational, and religious 
characteristics of the population, effective strength of lo- 
cal law enforcement agencies, policies of prosecuting offi- 
cials and the courts and public attitudes toward laws and 
law enforcement. Many of these are beyond the ability of 
local law enforcement agencies to control. 



1991 

MONTANA 

CRIME 

CLOCK 

ONE 
BURGLARY 

EVERY 
1 HR 36 MIN 



ONE 
LARCENY 
EVERY 
20 MIN 27 SEC 




ONE 

VIOLENT 
CRIME 
EVERY 
8 HRS 12 MIN 




ONE 
MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT 

EVERY 
4 HRS 36 MIN 



ONE 

PROPERTY 

CRIME 

EVERY 

15 MIN 53 SEC 




ONE 
HOMICIDE 
EVERY 
16 DAYS 14 HRS 

ONE RAPE 

EVERY 

2 DAYS 12 HRS 

ONE 

ROBBERY 

EVERY 

2 DAYS 6 HRS 

ONE 

AGGRAVATED 

ASSAULT 

EVERY 

11 HRS 50 MIN 



CRIME INDEX = 
# Homicides + # Rapes ■«■ # Robberies 
+ # Aggravated Assaults + # Burglaries 
+ # Larcenies + # Motor Vehicle Thefts. 



INCIDENCE OF MAJOR CRIMES 

IN MONTANA 

1981-1991 



40 



30 



20 



10 



NUMBER (Thousands) 



. 




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-^ ACTUAL NUMBER -^- TREND 















1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 

YEAR 



1990-1991 COMPARISON 

1989 1990 %Diff. 

STATEWIDE INDEX 33,321 34,274 +2.9% 



Statewide Crime Index 

Because of their serious nature, their frequency of oc- 
currence and the reliability of their reporting, the crimes of 
willful homicide, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated as- 
sault, burglary, larceny/theft, and motor vehicle theft are 
used as a gauge with which to measure the amount of 
crime and how much it increases or decreases over time. 
The crime index is the total number of these offenses that 
come to the attention of law enforcement agencies. 

In 1991 , a total of 34,274 major crimes was reported to 
local law enforcement officials in Montana. This number 
represents a continuing increase in the frequency of 
crimes occurring in the state which started in 1989. Dur- 
ing the 1980's, the number of major crimes decreased an 
average of 1 .6% per year. The 1990's have begun with a 



reversal of this trend. In 1990, the number of major crimes 
increased 8.3% over those reported in 1989. In 1991, 
the increase is smaller-2.9% 

Increases in the number of crimes committed in 1991 
have been reported for robbery, burglary, and motor vehi- 
cle theft — all property crimes. In contrast to national 
trends, Montana this year registered decreases in three 
out of the four violent crimes. 

In 1991, 19.5% of the offenses reported were solved, 
being cleared by arrest or by exception. This statistic is 
similar to comparable ones reported in previous years. 



CRIME RATE = 
100,000 X Crime Index / Total Population 



5000 



4000 



3000 



2000 



1000 



STATEWIDE CRIME RATE 
1981-1991 



NUMBER OF CRIMES PER 100,000 POPULATION 




ACTUAL NUMBER 
-^-- TREND 



1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 

YEAR 

POPULATION FIGURES ON WHICH THESE 
STATISTICS ARE BASED WERE PROVIDED 
BY THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 



1990-1991 

STATEWIDE CRIME RATE 
NATIONAL CRIME RATE 



COMPARISON 

1990 1991 

4,170.0 4,241.8 
5,820.3 



% Diff. 
+ 9.3% 



Statewide Crime Rate 

The Crime Rate of a given area is defined as the number 
of index crimes per 100,000 population. By using rates 
per population, comparisons can be made between juris- 
dictions of unequal populations. It should be noted that 
the rate only takes into consideration the population factor 
and does not incorporate any of the many other elements 
which may contribute to the amount of crime reported in a 
given community. The crime index is the total number of 
these offenses that are reported to law enforcement 
agencies. 

The 1991 population figures used in this part of the re- 
port have been provided to the MUCR program by the 
U.S. Bureau of the Census through the Federal Bureau of 



Investigation. In 1991 Montana's population was estimat- 
ed to be 808,000. The statewide figures for the last elev- 
en years are enumerated in Appendix 2; estimates for in- 
dividual jurisdictions (counties and communities) are 
shown in Table 8. 

In 1991, 19.5% of the offenses reported were solved, 
being cleared by arrest or by exception. Of the $22.1 mil- 
lion of property lost, $6.0 million was recovered for an 
overall recovery rate of 27%. 

In 1991 , Montana's crime rate was 4,241 .8. major crimes 
per 100,000 population. Although this reflects the rise in 
the number of crimes reported to law enforcement in the 
state, it still remains substantially below the national aver- 
age. 



HOMICIDE 



REPORTED HOMICIDES IN MONTANA 
1981-1991 



Homicide is the willful, non-negligent killing of one human being by 
another. It includes murder and non-negligent manslaughter, but 
does not include justifiable homicide where an offender is killed by a 
police officer in the line of duty or a felon is killed by a private citi- 
zen. 



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1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 
YEAR 



1990-1991 


COMPARISON 




1990 


1991 %Diff. 


No. Offenses 


30 


22 -26.7% 


State Rate 


3.8 


2.7 -28.9% 


Natbnal Rate 


9.4 





In 1991, a total of 22 homicides was reported in the state. 
Five ot the homicides occurred during a disturbance at Mon- 
tana State Prison. Two additional people died as a result of 
traffic accidents in which the driver was charged with negli- 
gent manslaughter. The 22 homicides represents a decrease 
of 26.7% over the previous year (30). Throughout the 
1980's, the number of homicides occuring in Montana fell 
into a narrow band between twenty and forty per year, with 
the highest occurring in 1981 (40) and the lowest in 1988 
(21). The overall trend in number of homicides had been 
downward. Because the numbers are so small, however, 
one cannot say whether these differences between the 
years are statistically significant. 

Of the 22 homicides reported in 1991, 13 were "solved" or 
"cleared" for a clearance rate of 59%. This is comparable with 
the national rate of 67%. Like the national statistics, Monta- 
na's clearance rate for homicides is consistantly higher than 
for other crimes. Montana's homicide rate for 1991 was 2.7 
homicides per 100,000 population. The nation's comparable 
rate for 1990 was 9.4. 



FORCIBLE RAPE 



REPORTED FORCIBLE RAPES 

IN MONTANA 

1981-1991 



ISO 



60 



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-*- NUMBER "^i TREND 






1 1 1 1 





1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1969 1990 1991 
YEAR 



1990-1991 


COMPARISON 




1990 1991 %Diff. 


No. Offenses 


159 148 - 6.9% 


State Rate 


19.9 19.6 - 1.5% 


National Rate 


41.2 



Rape is the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her 
will. Both assaults and attempts to commit rape by force are in- 
cluded in this definition. Statutory rape (without force) and sexual 
assaults against males are classified as sexual offenses and are 
not counted under this classification. 

A total Of 1 48 cases of rape and attempted rape was re- 
ported to Montana law enforcement officials in 1991. This 
was a 6.9% decrease over the previous year's count of 159, 
continuing the general downward trend over the last eleven 
years. 

Of the rapes reported, roughly 15% were classified as at- 
tempted rapes. In almost 83% of the cases, the victim was 
beaten or threatened to be beaten with the offenders 
hands, fists, or feet. These statistics represent a departure 
from previous years' observations. More unsuccessful at- 
tempts are being reported and the use of a weapon in the 
commission of the crime is becoming more frequent. 

Forty percent (43.2%) of the reported rapes were cleared 
by arrest or by exception in 1991. This is approximately 10% 
less than the proportion cleared in 1990 when it was 51 .6% 
The national clearance rate in 1991 was 53%. 

The 1991 incidence of rape in Montana was 19.6 forcible 
rapes or attempts per 100,000 persons. This is about half 
the national (1989) rate of 42.1. 



ROBBERY 



REPORTED ROBBERIES IN MONTANA 
1981-1991 



300 


NUM8E 


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250 


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200 


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150 
100 











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1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 

YEAR 



1988 1989 1990 1991 



1990-1991 COMPARISON 



No. Offenses 
State Rate 
National Rate 



1990 
153 
19.1 

257.0 



1991 
163 
20.2 



% Diff. 
+ 6.5% 
+ 5.8% 



Robbery is the taking or attempting to take anything of valua from 
the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or the 
threat of force or violence and/or putting the victim in fear. Robbery 
is a crime in which the element of personal confrontation between 
the victim and offender is present. Attempts to rob are included in 
the robbery count. 

In 1991 , there was a total of 163 robberies in Montana. This 
represents an increase of 6.5% from 1990 when 153 were 
reported. The state rate of 20.2 robberies per 100,000 popu- 
lation is less than one-tenth of last year's national rate of 
257.0. Montana's 1991 clearance rate of 22.1% is roughly 
equivalent to the national average of 25%. 

Over the last ten years, there has been a significant de- 
crease in the number of robberies taking place in Montana. 
The fewest number of robberies seems to have occurred in 
1988. Since that time the number has been increasing. 

In slighly over one-third of the reported cases (35%), the 
victim was beaten or threatened to be beaten; in another 
third of the cases a firearm was used (39%). The use of fire- 
arms in robberies seems to be becoming more prevalent. 

Most of the robberies seem to be muggings or highjack- 
ings. One fourth of them occurred in a street, alley, or high- 
way. The most common type of business victimized by rob- 
beries was a convenience store (20%). 



REPORTED AGGRAVATED ASSAULTS 

IN MONTANA 

1981-1991 



1800 

1400 

1200 

1000 

800 

600 

400 

200 



NUMBER 





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1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 
YEAR 



1990-1991 COMPARISON 

1990 1991 %Diff 

No. Offenses 812 739 - 9.0% 

Stale Rate 101.6 91.5 - 9.9% 

National Rate 424.1 



AGGRAVATED ASSAULT 

Aggravated assault is the unlawful attack by one person upon an- 
other for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury. 
This type of assault is usually accompanied by the use of a weapon 
or by means likely to produce death or great bodily hann. Any as- 
sault which does not involve the use of a weapon and does not result 
in serious injury is classified as a simple assault and is reported 
under a separate crime category. 

A total of 739 cases of aggravated assault was reported in 
Montana in 1991— a decrease of approximately 10% from the 
number reported in the previous year. 

During the decade of the 80's, the number and rate of as- 
saults has decreased dramatically. Much of this drop, howev- 
er, may be due to the way in which simple and aggravated as- 
sualts have been reported over the years. Between 1980 and 
1985, 33% of all assaults were classified as aggravated; be- 
tween 1987 and 1991 , only 11% were similarty classified. 

Over half (53.5%) of the cases of aggravated assault report- 
ed in Montana in 1991 were cleared by arrest or by exception. 
Nationwide, 57% of these cases were cleared in 1991. 

In one-third (36%) of the cases, the assault was a beating; in 
25% of the cases, a firearm was used; and in 21% of the cas- 
es, a knife or cutting instrument was used. 

The home is the most common scene where these assaults 
take place (37.8%). Streets, alleys, and highways are the 
next most common place (20.4%). About 10% (9.2%) of 
these crimes take place in a bar, tavern, or night club. 



BURGLARY 



REPORTED BURGLARIES IN MONTANA 
1981-1991 



4000 



2000 



1 1 


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1 ; 1 i 


1 i i 

1 ! 1 


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1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 
YEAR 



1990-1991 


COMPARISON 




1990 1991 %Diff. 


No. Offenses 


5,257 5,417 + 3.0% 


State Rate 


657.9 670.4 + 1.9% 


National Rate 


1,235.9 



Burglary is the unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or 
theft. The theft of items from a building is classified as burglary if it 
is accompanied by a breaking or unlawful entry (trespass) without 
breaking. If the building is open to the general public and the offend- 
er has legal access, it is considered a larceny. 

A total of 5,417 burglaries was reported in Montana in 
1991 — 3% more than the number which was reported in 
1990 (5,257), This is the first year since 1983 where the 
number of burglaries has increased. The 1991 state rate is 
approximately half of the1990 national rate (670.4 burglaries 
per 100,000 population compared to 1235.9). 

Of the seven major crimes, burglary is the most difficult for 
law enforcement to solve. Seldom, if ever, is there a witness 
to the crime itself. In Montana last year, most burglaries in- 
volved the breaking and entering of residential properties 
(57.9%). In 34% of these cases, the time of day in which the 
crime occurred is unknown. Consequently, the clearance 
rate (i.e. the proportion of cases cleared by arrest or by ex- 
ception) for burglaries in Montana in 1991 was 10,8%.. The 
national clearance rate inl99l was 14%. 

In over one-third of the cases reported (36.2%), force was 
not required to gain entry to the building being burglarized. 



REPORTED LARCENIES 
1981-1991 



IN MONTANA 




1991 



1990- 


1991 COMPARISON 




1990 1991 %Diff 


No. Offenses 
State Rate 
National Rate 


25,103 25,877 -h3.1% 
3,141.5 3,202.6 +1.9% 
3,194.8 



LARCENY/THEFT 

Larceny is the unlawful taking, carrying, leading or riding away of 
property from the possession or constructive possession of anoth- 
er. Larceny includes such crimes as pickpocketing, purse snatch- 
ing, shoplifting, theft from motor vehicles, and theft from buildings 
where forced entry is not involved. It does not include embezzle- 
ment, "con" games, forgery, or bad checks. Similarly, motor vehicle 
theft is not included in this category since it is considered a major 
crime by itself. 

Larceny is the most common of the seven major offenses, 
constituting approximately three-fourths of all major crimes 
being reported. In 1991, a total of 25,877 thefts were report- 
ed in Montana. 

The incident rate of thefts in Montana is approximately 
equal to the national rate. In fact, this year it is slightly higher. 
The 1991 state rate is 3,202.6 thefts per 100,000 population 
whereas the 1990 national rate was 3,194.8. Throughout 
the 1980's both the number and rate of larcenies in Montana 
has been extremely stable. 

Roughly one out of evey five crimes involving larcenies are 
solved. In 1991, 19.8% of these crimes reported to police 
were cleared. Montana clearance rates are similar to the na- 
tional experience. Thirty percent of all larcencies involved 
theft from a vehicle; 14% of them involved shoplifting. 



REPORTED MOTOR VEHICLE THEFTS 

IN MONTANA 

1981-1991 



2500 
2000 
1S00 
1000 



NUMBER 









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— - 





-~ 





-"- 


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1 


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1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 
YEAR 



1990- 


1991 


COMPARISON 

1990 1991 %Diff. 


No. Offenses 




1,807 1,908 + 5.6% 


State Rate 




226.1 236.1 + 4.4% 


National Rate 




657.8 



MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT 

Motor vehicle theft is defined as the theft or attempted theft of a 
vehicle which is self-propelled and runs on the surface and not on 
rails. It includes automobiles, trucks, buses, vans, motorcycles, 
and snowmobiles. It does not include motorboats, construction 
equipment, airplanes, and farming equipment. 

In 1991 , there was a total of 1 ,908 motor vehicles stolen in 
the state. This represents an increase of 5.6% over the num- 
ber stolen in 1990. Although the ten year trend is slightly 
downward, this is the third year in a row in which an increase, 
albeit a very small one, has been recorded. Nevertheless, 
the state's rate for motor vehicle theft is still less than half of 
the national rate. 

In 1991 , over three times as many automobiles are stolen 
as are trucks. (64.7 % vs. 19.6%). Nationally 80% of the mo- 
tor vehicles stolen are automobiles. Ten percent of the vehi- 
cles stolen in Montana are motorcycles. 

About 15.6% of the offenses were reported as 
"unauthorized use" of the vehicle rather than "stolen". 

The national clearance rate for motor vehicle theft in 1990 
was 15%. In Montana in 1991, 25.1% of these cases were 
cleared by arrest or by exception. This, however, is down 
slightly from the previous year's rate of 27.9%. Juveniles are 
arrested in 48% of the cleared cases. This is twice the na- 
tional rate of 24%. 



REPORTED DRUG OFFENSES 

IN MONTANA 

1981-1991 



2000 



1600 



1000 



500 



NUMBER 





























^ 












^ 
















































-*- NUMBER & TREND 




1 


1 1 1 1 





1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 



1986 
YEAR 



1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 



1990-1991 COMPARISON 




1990 1991 %Diff 


No. Offenses 


1,414 1,273 +10.0% 


State Rate 


177.0 157.5 -11.0% 


National Rate 






DRUG ABUSE VIOLATIONS 

Drug abuse involves the unlawful possessbn, sale, use, cultiva- 
tion, and manufacturing of controlled substances and narcotic 
drugs. 

A total of 1 ,273 cases of drug abuse was reported in Monta- 
na in 1991, which is actually 10.0% less than the number 
which was reported in 1990 (1,414). 

Seventy-one percent of the drug abuse cases which were 
reported were also cleared. The increase in the number of 
dnjg abuse crimes observed in Montana roughly corresponds 
to the the federal government's anti-drug efforts and federal 
funding to local police agencies to fight the problem. Be- 
tween 1984 and 1987, Montana reported about 1,000 cases 
of drug abuse annually. In 1988, 1989, and 1990, after local 
drug teams were funded and activated, the number in- 
creased to an average of 1 ,367 per year. Now, in 1991 , after 
the teams have been in operation for three years, the number 
of cases is beginning to drop. 

Forty-two percent of the drug offenses in Montana involve 
possession or use; another 28% involve possession of drug 
paraphernalia, and 19%, the sale or distribution of drugs. Six- 
ty-two percent of the offenses involve marijuana. Cocaine is 
the second most common drug, involved in 5.9% of the cas- 
es; hallucinogens, in 3.8%; and amphetamines, in 2.0% of the 
cases. 



8 



REPORTED SEX OFFENSE CASES 

IN MONTANA 

1981-1991 



NUMBER OFFENSES 



1600 

1400 

1200 

1000 

800 

600 

400 

200 





























^^ 


"^^ 






\ 
















^ 




.. 














> 




















/ 




















< 










































-A- NUMBER -&• TREND 




























1 1 1 1 





1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 

YEAR 



1990-1991 COMPARISON 




1990 1991 °/oDiff 


No. Offenses 


1,489 1,438 - 3.4% 


State Rate 


1,86.3 178.0 - 4.4% 


National Rate 






SEX OFFENSES 

Sex crimes include offenses against cfiastity, common decency, 
morals, and the like. Montana law lists four specific crimes: sexu- 
al assault, deviate sexual conduct, indecent exposure, and incest. 
Excluded under this category are forcible rape, prostitution, and 
commercial vice. 

In 1991, there were 1,438 sex crimes other than rape and 
prostitution reported in Montana. This is somewhat less than 
that which was reported in 1990 (1,489). 

The most frequent type of sex crime reported in 1990 was 
cases in which the victim was physically molested. Five hun- 
dred sixty-three (39.7%) of such cases were reported. 
These were followed by obscene phone calls (25.1%) and 
cases of indecent exposure (11.0%) 

Limited victim data is available on these crimes. Three out 
of every four victims (76.7%) of these crimes are females 
with slightly less than half of these being juveniles (46.7% vs 
53.3% ) . Most (54.9%) of the adult females were victimized 
by obscene phone calls, whereas 63.2% of the juvenile fe- 
males were physically molested. Fifty-two of the juvenile fe- 
males (9.0%) were victims of statutory rape; and seventy, 
were victims of "other" sex crimes which would include 
incest. 

About one-fifth of all the sex crimes (19.7%) reported in 
Montana in 1991 were cleared by arrest or by exception. 



DOMESTIC ABUSE 



REPORTED CASES OF 

DOMESTIC ABUSE 
IN MONTANA 1987-1991 



2500 



2000 



1500 



NUMBER OFFENSES 





















/ 


















^ 
















/ 




^ 


























-^NUMBER ^ TREND 




/ 












1 1 1 1 . 





1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 
YEAR 



1990- 

No. Offenses 
State Rate 
National Rate 


1991 COMPARISON 

1990 1990 %Diff. 
1 ,660 2,091 +26.0 % 
207.1 258.8 +25.0% 



A person commits the offense of domestic abuse if he: (a) pur- 
posely or knowingly causes bodily injury to a family member or 
household member; or (b) purposely or knowingly causes reasona- 
ble apprehension of bodily injury in a family member or household 
member 

In 1991 , 2,091 cases of domestic abuse were reported to 
local law enforcement authorities in Montana. Since domestic 
abuse was made a distinct crime in this state in 1987, the 
number of cases has risen dramatically. The increase in the 
number of cases this year was 26.0% over the 1990 level. 

Domestic abuse is classified in the UCR program as a simple 
assault. In fact, it comprises slightly over one-third (36.0%) of 
these crimes. 

Because Montana law specifies that the offender be arrest- 
ed in domestic abuse cases, the clearance rate is quite high 
compared to other cases of assault. In 1990, 68.3% of the 
cases were cleared. 

In past years, 90% of those arrested for domestic abuse 
have been males. Men between the ages of 26 and 35 make 
up almost 40% of those arrested. 



TABLE 1 

STATE SUMMARY OF 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO LAW ENFORCEMENT 

(1991) 



Homicide 
Rape 
Robbery 
Aggrav. Assault 
Violent 

Burglary 
Larceny 

Motor Vehicle Theft 
Property 

TOTAL PART I 



Offenses 






Reported 




Percent 


Or Known 


Cleared 


Cleared 


By Police 


By Arrest 


By Arrest 


22 


13 


59.1% 


148 


64 


43.2 


163 


36 


22.1 


739 


395 


53.5 


1.072 


508 


47.4 


5,417 


586 


10.8 


25,877 


5,125 


19.8 


1,908 


479 


25.1 


33,202 


6,190 


18.6 



34.274 



6,698 



19.5 



Negligent Manslaughter 
Other Assaults 

Domestic Abuse'* 
Arson 
Forgery 
Fraud 

Embezzlement 
Stolen Property 
Vandalism 
Weapons 
Prostitution 
Sex Offenses 
Narcotics 
Gambling 

Offenses Against Family 
DUi"* 

Liquor Laws* 
Disorderly Conduct* 
All Other* 

TOTAL PART 11* 

GRAND TOTAL* 



2 


2 


5,868 


3,001 


2,091 


1,429 


148 


50 


1,034 


233 


2,023 


404 


25 


8 


228 


53 


13,280 


1,563 


414 


168 


29 


14 


1,438 


284 


1,273 


910 


7 


3 


505 


118 


5,336 


5,142 


3,292 


2,632 


3,666 


2,261 


8,036 


1,754 


26,272 


6,809 


60,546 


13.507 



100.0 
51.1 
68.3 
33.8 
22.5 
20.0 
32.0 
23.2 
11.8 
40.6 
48.3 
19.7 
71.5 
42.9 
23.4 
96.4 
80.0 
61.7 
21.8 

25.9 

22.3 



*Totals do not include Domestic Abuse, DUI, Liquor Laws, Disorderly Conduct 
and All Other. 



'Domestic abuse is considered part of simple assault. 

' DUI's reported to MUCR. Montana Highway Patrol which is responsible for as many as one quarter of the DUI arrests made 
in any given year does not participate in the MUCR Program. Of the 7,800 DUI convictions in Montana in 1991, the Montana 
Highway Patrol was responsible for 2,034 (26.1%). 



10 



TABLE 2 

COMPARISON OF CRIMINAL OFFENSES 

IN MONTANA 

1990 AND 1991 





NUMBER 


NUMBER 






REPORTED 


REPORTED 


PERCENT 




1991 


1990 


CHANGE 


Homicide 


22 


30 


-26.7% 


Rape 


148 


159 


-6.9 


Robbery 


163 


153 


6.5 


Aggrav. Assault 


739 


812 


-9.0 


Total Violent 


1.072 


1.154 


-7.1% 


Burglary 


5,417 


5,257 


3.0 


Larceny 


25,877 


25,103 


3.1 


Motor Veh Theft 


1,908 


1,807 


5.6 


Total Property 


33.202 


32.167 


3.2% 


TOTAL PART 1 


34,274 


33.321 


2.9% 


Neg Manslaughter 


2 


3 


-33.3 


Simple Assault 


5,868 


5,875 


-0.1 


Domestic Abuse' 


2,091 


1,660 


26.0 


Arson 


148 


265 


-44.2 


Forgery 


1,034 


998 


3.6 


Fraud 


2,023 


1,821 


11.1 


Embezzlement 


25 


51 


-51.0 


Stolen Property 


228 


216 


5.6 


Vandalism 


13,280 


12,009 


10.6 


Weapons 


414 


425 


-2.6 


Prostitution 


29 


71 


-59.2 


Sex Offenses 


1,438 


1,489 


-3.4 


Narcotics 


1,273 


1,414 


-10.0 


Gambling 


7 


9 


-22.2 


Off Against Fam 


505 


544 


-7.2 


DUP 


5,336 


5,156 


3.5 


TOTAL PART II » 


26,272 


25,187 


4.3% 


GRAND TOTAL* 


60,546 


58,508 


3.5% 



'Totals do not include Domestic Abuse or DUI statistics. 



'Domestic abuse is considered part of simple assault. 



' DUI's reported to MUCH. Montana Highway Patrol which is responsible for as many as 25% of the DUI arrests made in 
any given year does not participate in the MUCR Program. 



11 



TABLE 3 

PROPERTY LOSSES INCURRED IN 

CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY 

(1991) 





AVERAGE 


TOTAL 


TOTAL 


% VALUE 


TYPE OF CRIME 


LOSS 


LOSS 


RECOVERED 


RECOVERED 


Robbery 


$1,339 


$139,252 


$84,270 


61% 


Burglary 


$761 


$4,099,695 


$453,945 


11% 


Larceny 


$445 


$7,775,897 


$618,567 


8% 


M V Theft 


$4,832 


$6,605,767 


$4,686,825 


71% 


Vandalism 


$369 


$2,027,836 


$26,835 


1% 


Other 


$581 


$1,464,386 


$99,761 


7% 



Total 



$684 $22,112,833 $5,970,203 



27% 



* Table does not include property recovered in crimes reported to the Sidney Police 
Department. 



TABLE 4 

FREQUENCY {%) OF USE 

OF VARIOUS WEAPONS 

IN THE COMMISSION OF 

VIOLENT CRIMES IN MONTANA 

(1991) 



Weapon 



Type of Violent Crime 
Homicide* Rape Robbery Aq. Assault Total 



Firearm 


74% 


5% 


Knife 


16% 


8% 


Other 






Dangerous 


5% 


3% 


Weapon 






Hands, Feet 


5% 


84% 


Etc. 






Unknown 


0% 


0% 


TOTAL NO. 






OF CASES 


22 


145 



35% 25% 24% 

19% 21% 19% 



7% 



1% 



160 



14% 



4% 



11% 



39% 36% 43% 



3% 



740 1,067 



* Weapons used in homicides were tabulated from Supplimental Homicide Reports. 



12 



PERCENTAGE OF REPORTED OFFENSES 

CLEARED BY ARREST 

1981 VS. 1991 

TYPE OF CRIME 



HOMICIDE 

RAPE 

ROBBERY 

ASSAULT 

BURGLARY 

LARCENY 

MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT 

GRAND TOTAL 

VIOLENT CRIMES 
PROPERTY CRIMES 









AWWWWWWWWWTOI 



\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\V\\\\\\\\\\\\\\^^^^ 



^^^^^ 



WWWTOWWWWTOTO 



^^^^^^™^ 






^^^^^^1 




0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 

PERCENTAGE CLEARED 



100% 



PERCENTAGE CHANGE 

IN THE OCCURANCE RATE OF SELECTED 

OFFENSES~1981-1991 

OFFENSE CATEGORY 

HOMICIDE 

RAPE 

ROBBERY 

AG. ASSAULT 

BURGLARY 

LARCENY 

MV THEFT 

SIMPLE ASSAULT 

VANDALISM 

SEX OFFENSES 

DRUG ABUSE 



-50% 0% 50% 100% 150% 200% 250% 300% 

PERCENTAGE CHANGE 




TABLE 5 

COUNTY RANKING 

WITH RESPECT TO 

THEIR 1991 CRIME RATE* 



13 



County 



1991 Crime Rate 



County 



1991 Crime Rate 



FLATHEAD 


8066.4 


CASCADE 


7221.4 


MISSOULA** 


6877.4 


MINERAL 


6831.7 


YELLOWSTONE** 


6028.6 


SILVER BOW 


5871.2 


LEWIS & CLARK*** 


5118.2 


HILL 


5008.1 


BROADWATER 


4858.4 


STATE AVERAGE 


4241.8 


LINCOLN*** 


3903.8 


LAKE 


3586.5 


ROOSEVELT 


3578.8 


GRANITE** 


3532.6 


CUSTER 


3289.1 


POWELL** 


3137.1 


DEER LODGE 


2954.2 


FERGUS 


2922.2 


SWEET GRASS 


2884.9 


BIG HORN** 


2878.8 


PARK 


2832.3 


VALLEY 


2473.0 


POWDER RIVER 


2461.0 



RICHLAND 

MADISON 

TOOLE 

MUSSELSHELL** 

SHERIDAN 

CHOUTEAU 

SANDERS** 

GALLATIN*** 

PHILLIPS 

RAVALLI** 

CARBON •• 

BEAVERHEAD 

DAWSON* •• 

ROSEBUD 

WHEATLAND 

STILLWATER 

FALLON 

PONDERA 

DANIELS 

MCCONE 

TETON 

TREASURE 

GOLDEN VALLEY 



2455.0 

2427.7 

2214.8 

2192.2 

2111.2 

2068.2 

2008.0 

1926.5 

1915.7 

1838.7 

1799.5 

1772.9 

1477.6 

1449.8 

1321.0 

1044.0 

988.2 

984.0 

917.0 

651.9 

488.9 

453.0 

325.4 



UNRANKED COUNTIES 



Blaine 

Carter 

Garfield 

Glacier 

Jefferson 



Judith Basin 

Liberty 

Meagher 

Petroleum 

Prairie 

Wibaux 



*Due to the manner in which the crime rate is calculated, it is not currently possible to say that the 
crime rate in one particular county is significantly higher or lower than another. 

**County Crime Rates are estimated due to insufficient data. 

** 'Crime Rate Underestimated. One or more major agencies within the county did not participate in 
the MUCR program during the entire year. 



14 



TABLE 6 
COUNTY SHERIFF'S OFFICES 
RANKED WITH RESPECT TO 
THEIR 1991 CRIME RATES* 



TABLE 7 
CITY POLICE DEPARTMENTS 
RANKED WITH RESPECT TO 
THEIR 1991 CRIME RATES* 





1991 






1991 


AGENCY 


Crinno Rate 


AGENCY 


County 


Crime Rate 


Flathead County S. 0. 


7020.6 


Kalispell P.D. 


Flathead 


11419.1 


Mineral County S. 0. 


6831.7 


Whitefish P.D. 


Flathead 


10122.3 


Butte/Silver Bow County S. 0.* 


5871.2 


Missoula P.D.* 


Missoula 


9975.3 


Broadwater County S. 0. 


4858.4 


Great Falls P.D. 


Cascade 


9240.4 


Powell County S. 0. 


4025.6 


Poison P.D. 


Lake 


8767.7 


Lincoln County S. 0. 


3819.1 


Eureka P.D." 


Lincoln 


8728.7 


Roosevelt County S. 0. 


3578.8 


Helena P.D. 


Lewis & Clark 


7845.3 


Granite County S. 0.** 


3532.6 


Billings P.D. 


Yellowstone 


7606.0 


Missoula County S. 0. 


3160.3 


West Yellowstone P.D. 


Gallatin 


7367.3 


Deer Lodge County S. 0." 


2954.2 


Havre P.D. 


Hill 


6834.7 


Sweet Grass County S. 0. 


2884.9 


Laurel P.D." 


Yellowstone 


5705.3 


Big Horn County S. 0." 


2878.8 


Columbia Falls P.D. 


Flathead 


5649.0 


Hill County S. 0. 


2508.0 


Ronan P.D. 


Lake 


5562.7 


Gallatin County S. 0. 


2507.3 


Livingston P.D. 


Park 


5520.3 


Powder River County S. 0. 


2461.0 


Hamilton P.D.** 


Ravalli 


5204.2 


Madison County S. 0. 


2427.7 


Glasgow P.D. 


Valley 


4403.2 


Lewis & Clark County S. 0. 


2353.5 


Lewistown P.D. 


Fergus 


4364.2 


Cascade County S. 0. 


2298.0 


St. Ignatius P.D. 


Lake 


3944.0 


Lake County S. 0. 


2268.5 


Miles City P.D. 


Custer 


3892.5 


Toole County S. 0. 


2214.8 


Fort Benton P.D. 


Chouteau 


3814.1 


Musselshell County S. 0.** 


2192.2 


Sidney P.D. 


Richland 


3772.5 


Sanders County S. 0. 


1937.6 


Belgrade P.D.** 


Gallatin 


3659.2 


Phillips County S. 0. 


1915.7 


Plentywood P.D. 


Sheridan 


3057.0 


Custer County S. 0. 


1711.5 


Glendive P.D. 


Dawson 


2924.8 


Carbon County S. 0. 


1602.7 


Red Lodge P.D. 


Carbon 


2728.7 


Fergus County S. 0. 


1475.7 


Dillon P.D. 


Beaverhead 


2552.7 


Rosebud County S. 0. 


1449.8 


Thompson Falls P.D.** 


Sanders 


2400.6 


Ravalli County S. 0. 


1425.3 


Deer Lodge P.D.* 


Powell 


2284.0 


Sheridan County S. 0. 


1333.3 


Conrad P.D. 


Pondera 


1129.0 


Wheatland County S. 0. 


1321.0 


Baker P.D. 


Fallon 


1088.1 


Chouteau County S. 0. 


1304.1 


BridgerP.D.** 


Gallatin 


627.9 


Yellowstone County S. 0. 


1288.5 








Richland County S. 0. 


1205.0 








Beaverhead County S. 0. 


1071.0 


Agencies Not Ranked Because of Insufficient Data: 


Stillwater County S. 0. 


1044.0 


Boulder P.D. 


Bozeman P.D. 




Valley County S. 0. 


996.0 


East Helena P.D. 


Troy P.D. 




Daniels County S. 0. 


917.0 








Pondera County S. 0. 


865.7 








Fallon County S. 0. 


846.8 


Agencies Not Ranked 


No Population Data Available 


McCone County S. 0. 


651.9 


Manhattan P.D. 


Montana State Prison 


Park County S. 0. 


541.0 


MSU Campus Police 


University of Monta 


na Campus 


Teton County S. 0. 


488.9 




Police 




Treasure County S. 0. 


453.0 








Golden Valley County S. 0. 


325.4 









Agencies Not Ranked Because of Insuffictsnt Data 



Blaine County S.O. 
Dawson County S.O. 
Glacier County S.O 
Judith Basin County S.O. 
Meagher County S.O. 
Prairie County S.O. 



Carter County S.O. 
Garfield County S.O. 
Jefferson County S.O. 
Liberty County S.O. 
Petroleum County S.O. 
Wibaux County S.O. 



' Consolidated Agencies. 

"Crime Rate Estimated. Agency did not participate in 

the MUCR Program for the full year. 



Due to the manner in which the crime rate is 
calculated, it is not currently possible to say that 
the crime rate in one particular county is 
significantly higher or lower than another. 

Populations served by Sheriff's Offices are 
defined as those county's populations not served 
by city or municipal police departments. 

Crime Rate estimated. Agency did not participate 
in the MUCR Program for the full year. 



15 



TABLE 8 

MAJOR OFFENSES REPORTED 

BY INDIVIDUAL AGENCIES 





1991 


CRIME 


CRIME 














MV 


COUNTY AND AGENCY POP 


INDEX 


RATE 


HOMICIDE 


RAPE 


ROBBERY 


ASSAULT 


BURGLARY 


LARCENY 


THEFT 


BEAVERHEAD 






















Beaverhead S. 0. 


4482 


48 


1071.0 











5 


12 


23 


8 


Dillon 


4035 


103 


2552.7 











1 


11 


81 


10 


TOTAL- 


8517 


151 


1772.9 











6 


23 


104 


18 


BIG HORN 






















Big Horn S. 0.* 


11463 


330* 


2878.8* 











2 





49 


4 


TOTAL- 


11463 


330" 


2878.8* 











2 





49 


4 


BLAINE 






















Blaine S. 0. 


6803 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


TOTAL-- 


6803 





XXX 























BROADWATER 






















Broadwater S. 0. 


3355 


163 


4858.4 





1 





11 


28 


108 


15 


TOTAL- 


3355 


163 


4858.4 





1 





11 


28 


108 


15 


CARBON 






















Carbon S. 0. 


5553 


89 


1602.7 











1 


31 


53 


4 


Red Lodge 


1979 


54 


2728.7 











2 


6 


46 





Bridger* 


637 


4* 


627.9* 














1 


1 







8169 


147* 


1799.5 











3 


38 


100 


4 


CARTER 






















Carter S. 0. 


1519 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


TOTAL- 


1519 


0. 


XXX 























CASCADE 






















Cascade S. 0. 


22846 


525 


2298.0 





1 





14 


56 


406 


48 


Great Falls 


55712 


5148 


9240.4 


3 


27 


21 


47 


616 


4205 


229 


TOTAL- 


78558 


5673 


7221.4 


3 


28 


21 


61 


672 


4611 


277 


CHOUTEAU 






















Chouteau S. 0. 


3834 


50 


1304.1 











3 


13 


29 


5 


Fort Benton 


1678 


64 


3814.1 














1 


62 


1 


TOTAL- 


5512 


114 


2068.2 











3 


14 


91 


6 


CUSTER 






















Custer S. 0. 


3272 


56 


1711.5 


1 





1 


2 


5 


40 


7 


Miles City 


8555 


333 


3892.5 








3 


9 


16 


291 


14 


TOTAL- 


11827 


389 


3289.1 


1 





4 


11 


21 


331 


21 


DANIELS 






















Daniels S. 0. 


2290 


21 


917.0 














16 


2 


3 


TOTAL- 


2290 


21 


917.0 














16 


2 


3 


DAWSON 






















Dawson S. 0. 


4755 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


Glendive 


4855 


142 


2924.8 











1 


18 


117 


6 


TOTAL- 


9610 


142* 


1477.6* 











1 


18 


117 


6 


DEER LODGE 






















Deer Lodge S. 0. 


10392 


307 


2954.2 





1 


1 


4 


53 


249 


2 


TOTAL- 


10392 


307 


2954.2 





1 


1 


4 


53 


246 


2 


FALLON 






















Fallon S. 0. 


1299 


11 


846.8 











1 


9 


1 





Baker 


1838 


20 


1088.1 











1 


4 


14 


1 


TOTAL- 


3137 


31 


988.2 











2 


13 


IS 


1 


FERGUS 






















Fergus S. 0. 


6099 


90 


1475.7 











12 


14 


61 


3 


Lewistown 


6118 


267 


4364.2 





1 





10 


26 


225 


5 


TOTAL- 


12217 


357 


2922.2 





1 





22 


40 


286 


8 



FOOTNOTE: XXX-Agency did not report crime statistics to the MT Board of Crime Control. 



16 



TABLES 

MAJOR OFFENSES REPORTED 

BY INDIVIDUAL AGENCIES (CONTINUED) 





1991 


CRIME 


CRIME 














MV 


COUNTY AND AGENCY POP 


INDEX 


RATE 


HOMICIDE 


RAPE 


ROBBERY 


ASSAULT 


BURGLARY 


LARCENY 


THEFT 


FLATHEAD 






















Flathead S. 0. 


40438 


2839 


7020.6 





11 


2 


24 


969 


1724 


109 


Columbia Falls 


2974 


168 


5649.0 


1 





1 


2 


22 


131 


11 


Whitefish 


4416 


447 


10122.3 





4 





14 


51 


363 


15 


Kalispell 


12050 


1376 


11419.1 





1 


5 


17 


137 


1161 


55 


TOTAL-- 


59878 


4830 


8066.4 


1 


16 


8 


57 


1179 


3379 


190 


GALLATIN 






















Gallatin S. 0. 


23691 


594 


2507.3 





5 


2 


35 


112 


398 


42 


Belgrade* 


3498 


128* 


3659.2* 











1 


5 


54 


4 


Bozeman 


22913 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


Manhattan 




25 
















7 


18 





West Yellowstone 


923 


68 


7367.3 





2 








9 


50 


7 


MSU Campus Police* XXX 


232** 


XXX** 





3 


1 


3 


12 


206 


7 


TOTAL-- 


51025 


983* 


1926.5* 





10 


3 


39 


145 


726 


60 


GARFIELD 
























1606 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


TOTAL- 


1606 





XXX 























GLACIER 






















Glaciers. 0. 


12256 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


TOTAL- 


12256 





XXX 























GOLDEN VALLEY 






















Golden Valley S. 


. 922 


3 


325.4 











1 


2 








TOTAL- 


922 


3 


325.4 











1 


2 








GRANITE 






















Granite S. 0.* 


2576 


91* 


3532.6* 


1 


1 


1 


3 


20 


55 


2 


TOTAL- 


2576 


91* 


3532.6* 


1 


1 


1 


3 


20 


55 


2 


HILL 






















Hill S. 0. 


7536 


189 


2508.0 





3 


2 


2 


41 


123 


18 


Havre 


10315 


705 


6834.7 





3 





8 


36 


625 


33 


TOTAL- 


17851 


894 


5008.1 





6 


2 


10 


77 


748 


51 


JEFFERSON 






















Jefferson S. 0. 


5796 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


Boulder 


1330 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


TOTAL- 


8026 





XXX 























JUDITH BASIN 






















Judith Basin S. 0. 


2307 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


TOTAL- 


2307 





XXX 























LAKE 






















Lake S. 0. 


15605 


354 


2268.5 





10 


1 


19 


80 


209 


35 


Poison 


3319 


291 


8767.7 


1 





2 


8 


54 


212 


14 


Ronan 


1564 


87 


5562.7 








1 


3 


8 


70 


5 


St. Ignatius 


786 


31 


3944.0 





1 





1 


4 


24 


1 


TOTAL- 


21274 


763 


3586.5 


1 


11 


4 


31 


146 


515 


55 


LEWIS & CLARK 






















Lewis & Clark S 


21627 


509 


2353.5 


1 


4 


2 


29 


110 


331 


32 


Helena 


24843 


1949 


7845.3 


1 


6 


5 


92 


224 


1520 


101 


East Helena 


1555 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


TOTAL- 


48025 


2458* 


5118.2* 


2 


10 


7 


121 


334 


1851 


133 


LIBERTY 






















Liberty S. 0. 


2320 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


TOTAL- 


2320 





XXX 























LINCOLN 






















Lincoln S. 0. 


15658 


598 


3819.1 











24 


113 


434 


27 


Eureka* 


1054 


92* 


8767.7* 











2 


1 


19 


1 


Troy 


963 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


TOTAL- 


17675 


690* 


3903.8* 











26 


114 


453 


28 



FOOTNOTE: XXX-Agency did not report crime statistics to the MT Board of Crime ControL 



17 



TABLE 8 

MAJOR OFFENSES REPORTED 

BY INDIVIDUAL AGENCIES (CONTINUED) 





1991 


CRIME 


CRIME 














MV 


COUNTY AND AGENCY POP 


INDEX 


RATE 


HOMICIDE 


RAPE 


ROBBERY 


ASSAULT 


BURGLARY 


LARCENY 


THEFT 






• >■•«*«« 


















MCCONE 






















McCone S. 0. 


2301 


15 


651.9 














2 


12 


1 


TOTAL-- 


2301 


15 


651.9 














2 


12 


1 


MADISON 






















Madison S. 0. 


6055 


147 


2427.7 








3 


4 


37 


95 


8 


TOTAL-- 


6055 


147 


2427.7 








3 


4 


37 


95 


8 


MEAGHER 






















Meagher S. 0. 


1839 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


TOTAL- 


1839 





XXX 























MINERAL 






















Mineral S. 0. 


3352 


229 


6831.7 





3 


2 


17 


74 


111 


22 


TOTAL- 


3352 


229 


6831.7 





3 


2 


17 


74 


111 


22 


MISSOULA 






















Missoula S. 0. 


36168 


1143 


3160.3 





14 


2 


50 


196 


795 


86 




43397 


4329* 


9975.3* 


2 


14 


14 


40 


210 


2113 


132 


U of Montana** 




188 


XXX* * 











2 


9 


173 


4 


T0TAL-- 


79565 


5660* 


6877.4* 


2 


28 


16 


92 


415 


3081 


222 


MUSSELSHELL 






















Musselshell S. 0.* 


4151 


91* 


2192.2* 








1 


12 


20 


42 


S 


TOTAL- 


4151 


91* 


2192.2* 








1 


12 


20 


42 


8 


PARK 






















Park S. 0. 


7948 


43 


541.0 








1 


4 


5 


28 


5 


Livingston 


6775 


374 


5520.3 





1 


2 


11 


52 


287 


21 


TOTAL- 


14723 


417 


2832.3 





1 


3 


15 


57 


315 


26 


PETROLEUM 






















Petroleum S. 0. 


524 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


TOTAL- 


524 





XXX 























PHILLIPS 






















Phillips S. 0. 


5220 


100 


1915.7 











5 


7 


79 


9 


TOTAL- 


5220 


100 


1915.7 











5 


7 


79 


9 


PONDERA 






















Pondera S. 0. 


3581 


31 


865.7 





1 





2 


2 


20 


6 


Conrad 


2923 


33 


1129.0 











1 


2 


29 


1 


TOTAL- 


6504 


64 


984.0 





1 





3 


4 


49 


7 


POWDER RIVER 






















Powder River S. 


2113 


52 


2461.0 











1 


12 


38 


1 


TOTAL- 


2113 


52 


2461.0 











1 


12 


38 


1 


POWELL 






















Powell S. 0. 


3279 


132 


4025.6 





2 


1 


2 


32 


87 


8 


Deer Lodge* 


3415 


78* 


2284.0* 











1 


2 


19 


4 


Montana State PrisonXXX 


7 


XXX 


5 








2 











TOTAL- 


6694 


210* 


3137.1 


5 


2 


1 


5 


34 


106 


12 


PRAIRIE 






















Prairie S. 0. 


1398 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


TOTAL- 


1398 





XXX 























RAVALLI 






















Ravalli S. 0. 


22522 


321 


1425.3 


1 


3 


1 


23 


38 


232 


23 


Hamilton* 


2767 


144* 


5204.2* 

















12 





TOTAL- 


25289 


465* 


1838.7* 


1 


3 


1 


23 


38 


244 


23 


RICHLAND 






















Richland S. 0. 


5560 


67 


1 205.0 








1 


1 


16 


41 


8 


Sidney 


5275 


199 


3772.5 





4 





2 


12 


172 


9 


TOTAL- 


10835 


266 


2455.0 





4 


1 


3 


28 


213 


17 


ROOSEVELT 






















Roosevelt S. 0. 


11121 


398 


3578.8 








1 


8 


95 


248 


46 


TOTAL- 


11121 


398 


3578.8 








1 


8 


95 


248 


46 



FOOTNOTE: XXX— Agency did not report crime statistics to the MT Board of Crime Control. 



18 



TABLE 8 

MAJOR OFFENSES REPORTED 

BY INDIVIDUAL AGENCIES (CONTINUED) 





1991 


CRIME 


CRIME 














MV 


COUNTY AND AGENCY POP 


INDEX 


RATE 


HOMICIDE 


RAPE 


ROBBERY 


ASSAULT 


BURGLARY 


LARCENY 


THEFT 


ROSEBUD 






















Rosebud S. 0. 


10622 


154 


1449.8 





1 





9 


26 


113 


5 


TOTAL- 


10622 


154 


1449.8 





1 





9 


26 


113 


5 


SANDERS 






















Sanders S. 0. 


7432 


144 


1937.6 





2 





13 


44 


78 


7 


Thompson Falls* 


1333 


32* 


2400.6* 











4 


3 


8 


1 


TOTAL- 


8765 


176* 


2008.0* 





2 





17 


47 


86 


8 


SHERIDAN 






















Sheridan S. 0. 


2625 


35 


1333.3 














10 


24 


1 


Plentywood 


2159 


66 


3057.0 














6 


56 


4 


TOTAL- 


4784 


101 


2111.2 














16 


80 


5 


SILVER BOW 






















Butte/Silver Bow 


34320 


2015 


5871.2 


2 


8 


18 


21 


265 


1596 


105 


TOTAL- 


34320 


2015 


5871.2 


2 


8 


IS 


21 


265 


1596 


105 
























Stillwater S. 0. 


6609 


69 


1044.0 





1 


1 


5 


17 


41 


4 


TOTAL- 


6609 


69 


1044.0 





1 


1 


5 


17 


41 


4 


SWEET GRASS 






















Sweet Grass S. 


3189 


92 


2884.9 











2 


14 


69 


7 


TOTAL- 


3189 


92 


2884.9 











2 


14 


69 


7 


TETON 






















Teton S. 0. 


6341 


31 


488.9 











4 


6 


19 


2 


TOTAL- 


6341 


31 


488.9 











4 


6 


19 


2 


TOOLE 






















Toole S. 0. 


5102 


113 


2214.8 











1 


15 


92 


5 


TOTAL- 


5102 


113 


2214.8 











1 


15 


92 


5 


TREASURE 






















Treasure S. 0. 


883 


4 


453.0 














1 


1 


2 


TOTAL- 


883 


4 


453.0 














1 


1 


2 


VALLEY6.0 






















Valley S. 0. 


4719 


47 


995.2 











3 


8 


35 


1 


Glasgow 


3611 


159 


4403.2 








1 


5 


15 


129 


9 


TOTAL- 


8330 


206 


2473.0 








1 


8 


23 


164 


10 


WHEATLAND 






















Wheatland S. 0. 


2271 


30 


1321.0 














8 


21 


1 


TOTAL- 


2271 


30 


1321.0 














8 


21 


1 


WIBAUX 






















Wibaux S. 0. 


1204 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


XXX 


TOTAL- 


1204 





XXX 























YELLOWSTONE 






















Yellowstone S. 0. 


26931 


347 


1288.5 


1 


1 


4 


6 


67 


240 


28 


Billings 


82106 


6245 


7606.0 


4 


4 


57 


59 


1089 


4623 


409 


Laurel* 


5749 


328* 


5705.3* 





1 





4 


37 


251 


8 


TOTAL- 


114786 


6920* 


6028.6* 


5 


6 


61 


69 


1193 


5114 


445 



STATEWIDE TOTALS-808000 342744141.8*** 22 148 163 739 5417 25877 

FOOTNOTE: XXX-Agency did not report crime statistics to the MT Board of Crime Control. 



1908 



* Agency did not report data for the entire year. Index and rate are estimated from the months which were reported. 

**MSU Campus Police submitted summary data only. MSU Campus Police, University of Montana, and Montana State Prison statistics are 
not included in the sub-totals and total calculations. Crime rates cannot be calculated for lack of population estimates. 

" * " Statewide index is based upon the actual count of the seven index crimes. No provisions have been included to account for non-reporting 
agencies nor agencies that reported for less than the full year. 



19 



JUVENILE JUSTICE 



Montana's Juvenile Justice System 

Montana' s Juvenile Justice System allows youth to 
be given consideration not available to adults and, at the 
same time, denies them some of the constitutional rights 
that adults have. In Youth Court, juveniles are found to 
be "delinquent" or "in need of supervision", but are not 
"convicted" of specific crimes. In this sense then, a Youth 
Court is part of each District Court, but operates as a civil 
rather than a criminal process. 

A youth may be found to be delinquent only if he has 
committed an act which is criminal for an adult. Burglary, 
assault, or shoplifting can ail lead to a finding of delin- 
quency. Youth in Need of Supervision (YINS) are those 



GENERAL YOUTH COURT 

ACTIVITY 

1991 



in 


Number (In 


thousands) 






q 




fl 





. - ^ ... .7Tfl2 


















6 


5.972 




n 


- 4.692 


















4 




iii::::i::::::: 




1 




? 




1 









i;;;:;;i;;n;;i 


0.392 



# CASES # REFERRALS # OFFENSES* DETENTIONS 

ACTIVITY TYPE 
Source: JPIS Year End Report--JPR81A 



youth who have committed non-criminal acts such as run- 
ning away, being "ungovernable" or violating curfew. 
These are only "crimes" because of the youth's age. They 
are commonly referred to as "status" offenses. 

General Activity 

The activities of Montana's Youth Courts and Juvenile 
Probation Offices is typically measured in four compo- 
nents: 

1 • The Number of Ca.sg.q— thft number of individual 
youth who become involved with the juvenile justice 
system for some reason, criminal or not. In 1991 , 4,692 
youth were processed by Youth Courts in Montana. 
About two-thirds of the cases were males (68.5%). 

2- The Numb er of Referral.'; — ^he^ number of youth en- 
CQlinterg with the juvenile justice system. An individual 
can be referred more than once during the year, in 
1991, Youth Courts and Probation Offices handled 
5,972 referrals. 

3- The Numb er of Offenses — ^hp. number of crimes at- 
tributed to youths who have been referred to the sys- 
tem. In 1991, Montana had 7,782 criminal and status of- 
fenses reported to probation offices which were attribut- 
ed to juveniles. 

4- The numb er of detentions— ih^ number of times 
youths are confined awaiting court action. Because 
youth facilities are not generally available in Montana, 
this usually means being locked up in the local jail. Dur- 
ing the course of a year, a single youth may be confined 
more than once. In 1991, 294 youth were detained 392 
times. 

Although 4,692 youths, or cases, were handled by 
Youth Courts in Montana in 1991, it must be emphasized 
that they only constitute 4% of the youth estimated to be 
at risk in the state. 

The caseload on the juvenile justice system in Montana 
appears to have peaked in 1986 when 5,601 cases, 7,215 
referrals, and 9,925 juvenile offenses were reported. The 
graph on the next page shows that since that time, there 
has been a gradual decrease in all of these measures. The 
1991 statistics show only very small decreases in reported 
cases (-0.6%), referrals (-0.6%), and offenses (-4.6%) from 



20 



TABLES 

1991 SUMMARY OF 

JUVENILE REFERALS 

(DELINQUENCY CASES) 



REASON FOR REFERRAL 



NUMBER 
OF CASES 



PERCENT 



RATE PER 
1000 POP. 
AT RISK 



CRIMES A GAINST PEftSONS 

Homicide 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated Assault 

Simple Assault 

Other Person Offenses 

Total Violent . . . . 



2 

7 

3 

10 

334 
1 

357 



0.0 
0.2 
0.1 
0.2 
8.3 
0.0 
8.9% 



0.0 
0.1 
0.0 
0.1 
2.9 
0.0 
3.2 



CRIMES A GAINST PROPERTY 

Burglary 

Larceny 

Motor Vehicle Theft 

Arson and Vandalism 

Stolen Property Offenses 

Trespassing 

Other Property Offenses 

Total Property 



252 

1,772 

125 

547 

26 

232 

37 

2,941 



6.3 

44.3 

3.1 

13.7 

0.6 

5.8 

0.9 

73.5% 



2.2 
15.8 
1.1 
4.9 
0.2 
2.1 
0.3 
26.2 



OFFENSES AGAINST THE PUBLIC ORDER 

Weapons 10 

Sex Offenses 45 

Driving Under the Influence 5 

Disturbing the Peace 250 

Escape, Contempt, Probation, etc. 65 
Traffic Crimes 128 

Other Offenses Against Public Order 131 
Total Public Order 634 

DRUG OFFENSES 

Substance Abuse 70 

Total Drug Offenses 70 

GRAND TOTAL 4,002 



0.2 
1.1 
0.1 
6.2 
1.6 
3.2 
3.3 
15.8% 

1.7 
. . 1.7 

100.0% 



0.1 
0.4 
0.0 
2.2 
0.6 
1.1 
1.2 
5.7 

0.6 
0.6 

32.5 



21 



GENERAL 

YOUTH COURT ACTIVITY 

1982-1991 



Thousands 




1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 

YEAR 
Source: JPIS Year End Reports (JPR81A) 



the previous year. The number ot pre-trial detentions had ac- 
tually increased 41% from 1991. The reasons for this in- 
crease IS currently under investigation. 

Roughly 80% (81 .3%) of the youth involved with the pro- 
bation system were involved a single time during the year 
Thirteen percent had two encounters; 4.0%, three encoun- 
ters; 1 .2%, four encounters, and 0.6%, five or more encoun- 
ters. This distribution is literally the same as that experien- 
ced in previous years. The point being, the ovenwhelming 
majority of Montana's youth who have had an encounter with 
the system, have only one such encounter. 

It is the repetitive cases which become the more serious 
offenders. There were 1.1 offenses reported for every case 
handled. While repeaters accounted for 18.7% of the refer- 
rals, they were also responsible for 31.3% of the offenses 
reported. 

The 392 pre-trial detentions which occurred in 1991 con- 
stituted 4.6% of all Juvenile Probation referrals- the 231 
youth, 4.9% of all cases handled. 

Rate of Referral by Age and Sex 

The rate of referral per 1 ,000 youth at risk for each age and 
sex can be used to identify critical age-sex groups and pre- 
dict potential changes in Youth Court activities. 

In general, the same pattern can be observed from year to 
year. This year, 1991, is no different. For both sexes, the re- 
ferral rate generally shows up as an increasing straight line 
from about age 12 through 15. For females, the rate peaks 
at age 15, levels off at age 16, and then shows a decrease at 
age 17. For males, the rate of criminal activity continues to 



250 



RATE OF REFERRAL 

PER 1,000 YOUTH 
BY AGE AND SEX~1991 



Rate of Referrals /1000 pop. 



150 




100 - 



^ ^° 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 

Age 
Source: JPIS Year End Report--JPR72A 



22 



TABLE 10 

1991 SUMMARY OF 

JUVENILE REFERALS 

(STATUS CASES) 









RATE PER 




NUMBER 




1000 POP. 


REASON FOR REFERRAL 


OF CASES 


PERCENT 


AT RISK 


Runaways 


24.5 


12.8 


2.2 


Curfew/Loitering 


29^ 


15.3 


2.6 


Ungovernable 


238 


12.4 


2.1 


Liquor 


1,085 


56.4 


9.7 


Other Status Offenses 


59 


3.1 


0.5 


TOTAL STATUS OFFENSES 


1.921 


. 100.0% 


.... 17.1 



TABLE 1 1 
COMPARISON OF JUVENILE DELIQUENCY OFFENSES 

IN MONTANA 
1990 AND 1991 





# REPORTED 


# REPORTED 


PERCENT 


OFFENSE 


1990 


1991 


CHANGE 


Crimes Against Persons 


384 


357 


-7.0% 


Crinnes Against Property 


3.059 


2,941 


-3.8% 


Crimes Against Public Order 


688 


634 


-7.8% 


Drug Offenses 


97 


70 


-27.8% 


Total Delinquent 


. . . . 4,228 . . . 


.... 4,002 .... 


. . -5.3% 


Status Offenses 


2,438 


1,921 


- 20.9% 


Total Juvenile Offenses 


6,666 . . . 


• ■ ■ ■ Ov^A^O ■ • • ■ 


. .-11.1% 



increase as the youths get older. Over the last four years, a 
definite decrease in the referral rate can be seen across all 
age groups. In 1985, for example, the referral rate for 17- 
year old males was 187.5; in 1991, it was 231.1 --an in- 
crease of 24.4% . 

In 1991 , there were 93.5 referrals for each 1 ,000 males, 
and 40.5 referrals for each 1 ,000 females. Seventeen year 
old males experienced the highest rate. They accounted 
for 1,136 referrals (20.4% of the male total and 14.6% of 
the overall total) for a rate of 231 .1 referrals per 1 ,000 pop- 
ulation. For females, the fifteen year old group experien- 
ced the highest rate — 91.5 referrals per 1,000 population. 
This group has 517 encounters which make up 23.3% of 
the total female referrals. 

Source of Referral 

Law enforcement authorities are the primary referral 
source for delinquent youth in Montana. In 1991, police 
departments and sheriff's offices accounted for 93.5% of 
all referrals. Over the years, local law enforcement has tradi- 
tionally provided the bulk of referrals to the juvenile justice 
system. The remaining 6.5% is composed of a wide variety 
of referral sources including the State Department of Fish, 
Wildlife, and Parks, tribal courts, parents, and school offi- 
cials. 



23 



REFERRING SOURCE 

JUVENILE OFFENDERS 

(MONTANA 1991) 



Police 64.5% 




Others 4.6% 



Sheriff 29% 

Total number of referrals made ■ 5,972 
Source: JPIS Year End Report— JPR74B 



Reason for Referral 

Currently five major categories or reasons for referral 
make up the total number of referrals to the Youth Court: 
1 ) Crimes against persons include criminal homicide, 



NUMBER OF REFERRALS 

BY MAJOR CATEGORY 

(1983-1991) 



NUMBER OF OFFENSES (Thousands) 



OFFENSES AGAINST PROPERTY 




OFFENSES AGAINST PUBLIC ORDER. 

* * * 

OFFENSES AGAINST PERSONS 



=s= 



DRUG OFFENSES 



1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 

YEAR 



SOURCE: JPIS Multi-Year Trend Report 



forcible rape, robbery, and both aggravated and simple 
assault, in 1991, the juvenile justice system handled 
357 referrals which involved crimes against persons. 

2) Property crimes include burglary, larceny, nx)tor ve- 
hicle theft, arson and vandalism, receiving and possess- 
ing stolen property, and trespassing. In 1991, Montana 
youth were referred 2,941 times for property crimes. 

3) Offenses aaainst the public order include weapon 
offenses, sex offenses, driving under the influence of 
intoxicants, disturbing the peace (disorderly conduct), 
traffic crimes, and court and justice system offenses 
(escape, contempt, probation, and parole violations). In 
1991, 634 referrals for offenses against public order 
were processed. 

4) Status offenses include those offenses which 
strictly pertain to juveniles. They include ainaways, 
curfew violations, ungovernable, and liquor violations. 
In 1991, there were 1,921 referrals made for these of- 
fenses in Montana. 

5) Daia offenses . In 1991, 70 referrals were made for 
substance abuse in the state. 

As indicated above, most juvenile referrals in Montana 
are primarily for property crimes (49.7% in 1 991 ) or for stat- 
us offenses (32.4% in 1990). Referrals for offenses 
against public order accounted for 10.7% and crimes 
against persons for 6.0%. Drug offenses were involved 
only 1.2% of the time. 

Status offenses and crimes against public order have 
both been on the decrease since 1987. Crimes against 



property decreased substantially between 1987 and 1988 
and have levelled off since then. The number of crimes 
against persons and drug abuse offenses in Montana have 
always been relatively small when compared to the other 
types of crime. 

Referral Offenses 

The twelve most frequent types of specific offenses which 
result in a referral to youth court accounted for approximate- 
ly 80% of all the referrals made in 1990. 

Although the top twelve offenses are the same for either 
sex, their ranking is different. The most common reason for 
a juvenile to appear in youth court still remains illegal pos- 
session or a liquor violation. The use of alcohol by Monta- 
na's youth accounts for 17% of the juvenile referrals in 
Montana. Otherwise there are significant differences in the 
type of offenses committed by the two sexes. Males, for 
example, tend to be more involved in property crimes 
(misdemeanor theft, shoplifting, criminal mischief or vandal- 
ism, and burglary) whereas a substantial proportion of the 
females are referred for status offenses (curfew, ungovern- 
able, and runaways). 

The Number of Detentions and Their Trend 

The number of pre-trial youth detentions which occurred 
in Montana during the last seven years can be separated in 
to the major types of offenders — status offenders and de- 
linquents. In iDoth cases, the number has dropped dramati- 
cally in recent years. That trend, however, has reversed in 
the past year. The total number of youth detentions in 



OFFENSES COMMITTED BY 
MALE JUVENILES 
(MONTANA 1991) 



Reason 

Possess Intox. Subs. 

Theft—Misdemeanor 

Shoplifting 

Criminal Mischier 

Burglary 

Liquor Violations 

Curfew 

Criminal Trespass 

Disorderly Conduct 

Assault 

Ungovernable 

Runaway 






0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 
Percent Referrals 



25% 



OFFENSES COMMITTED BY 

FEMALE JUVENILES 

(MONTANA 1991) 



Reason 

Possess Intox. Subs. 

Theft—Misdemeanor 

Shoplifting 

Criminal Mischief 

Burglary 

Liquor Violations 

Curfew 

Criminal Trespass 

Disorderly Conduct 

Assault 

Ungovernable 

Runaway 




5% 10% 15% 20% 
Percent Referrals 



25% 



Source: JPIS Year End Reports~JPR85B 



Source: JPIS Year End Reports~JPR85B 



1991 was 392, up from 278 in 1990. 

About 40% of the 1991 detentions involved status of- 
fenders. Slightly over half of these status offenders were 
runaways. 

It is a major goal of the Youth Justice Council to reduce 
the detention of status offenders to zero. A major impedi- 
ment to attaining this goal lies in the small numbers of 
youth involved and the vastness of the geographical area 
to be covered. These two problems combine to prevent 
effective and cost efficient solutions from being devel- 
oped. Most of the status offenders currently being held 
are now generally held less than 24 hours or are residents 
of other jurisdictions (i.e. mnaways). 

A recent study of status detentions in Montana using 
data for the 1990 calendar year (the period for which the 
latest statistics are available) shows that 11 juveniles 
charged with status offenses were held for more than 24 
hours. Another 39 status offenders were held for violating 
a valid court order. Implementation of SB37 in the last half 
of 1992 greatly reduced the number of youths held in 
adult jails or lockups. 



25 
juvenile cases are disposed of by demanding restitution. 

There is a difference in the percentage of cases institu- 
tionalized. Proportionally, more than twice as many boys 
are sent to Pines Hills (0.6%) as are girls sent to Mountain 
View (0.1%). Overall, 1% of the cases result in the youth 
being institutionalized. 

There also seems a tendency for judges in district courts 
to customize the sentences wherever possible. Individual 
court programs are used in sentencing juveniles in almost 
10 percent of the cases appearing before them. 



Disposition of Juvenile Offenders 

Considering that 80% of the youths appearing before 
youth court are first offenders, the punishment meted out 
by the court seems appropriate. Overall, it seems there is 
bias toward leniency. Over 30% of the juvenile cases in 
1991 resulted in a warning (11.3%), a work order (8.7%) , 
or probation (13.2%). Boys are more apt to be sentenced 
to probation or work whereas girls would get a warning- 
although these differences are slight and probably not sta- 
tistically significant. Restitution is also heavily used- 
presumably in cases of property crime. About 9% of all 



NINE YEAR TREND IN DETENTIONS 

BY TYPE OF OFFENDER 

1983-1991 



400 



300 



200 - 



100 - 



Number 




1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 

Year 



TYPE OF OFFENDER 
Status Offender — *— Delinquent 



Source: JPIS Year End Report— JPT77B 



27 



Contributed 
Articles & Analyses 



Understanding and Interpreting Crime Statistics 

by Daniel P. Doyle, Ph.D. 

A reprint of an article which first appeared in the 1990 Crime in Montana 

An interview with a Burgier 

by Ken Grady 

Tlie Impact of the American Disabilities Act 
on Montana Law Enforcement 

by Ellis E. (Gene) Kiser 

Multi-Jurisdictional Drug Task Forces 
at a Glance 

by Al Brockway 



A REPRINT FROM THE 1990 CRIME IN MONTANA 

Understanding 

and 

Interpreting 

Crime Statistics 



29 



by Daniel P. Doyle, Ph.D. 

Dr. Daniel P. Doyle is currently an assistant professor of sociology teach- 
ing in the criminology program at the Univerisity of t\Aontana. He received 
his bachelors degree from U.C.L.A. and his masters and doctorial de- 
grees at the University of Washington. In recent years he has done re- 
search on the causes of intercity differences in crime, the criminal victimi- 
zation of older persons, and the escalation of disputes into violent en- 
counters. 



Introduction 

Many of the crime statistics in this publication are 
presented in a way that allows comparisons to be 
made— comparisons with regard to the amount of 
crime in different jurisdictions, comparisons with re- 
gard to relative frequency of different types of crime, 
or comparisons with regard to changes in the amount 
of crime in a given area down through the years. 
While such comparisons can be very useful in chart- 
ing general crime trends, it must be noted that these 
comparisons need to be done with great caution. By 
taking the crime statistics presented at face value, it is 
easy to jump to conclusions that may not be warrant- 
ed. It is important to be aware of the limitations of 
crime statistics before using such statistics to draw 
conclusions regarding which communities have the 
most crime or whether crime is increasing or decreas- 
ing. The purpose of this essay is to explain how crime 
statistics are derived and to discuss some of their limi- 
tations so that the reader can better interpret the in- 
formation presented in Crime in Montana 

The Calculation of Crime Statistics 

Throughout most of this publication, two types of 
crime statistics are presented: the number of reported 
offenses (the incidence of crime) and the number of 
reported offenses per 100,000 population (the rate 
of crime). The incidence of crime is simply the total 
number of offenses recorded. For example, the inci- 
dence of homicide for the state of Montana as a whole 
in 1990 is 30. The crime index presented for each ju- 
risdiction in Table 8 is the incidence of homicide, 



rape, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, and motor vehi- 
cle theft within a given jurisdiction. It is calculated by sim- 
ply adding up the number of reported offenses of these 
seven types that occurred in a given jurisdiction. 

While it is important to know the incidence of crime, the 
incidence statistics do not help us to understand where 
one area has more or less crime than another or whether 
crime is going up or down. It is not surprising, for exam- 
ple, that the Billings Police Department has recorded 
more burglaries than has the Miles City Police Depart- 
ment since Billings has a population that is nearly ten 
times as large as Miles City. The calculation of crime rates 
facilitates comparisons between jurisdictions of unequal 
population or comparisons across time in a given jurisdic- 
tion when the population of that area has changed. The 
rate of crime (or crime rate) is based on a ratio of the inci- 
dence of crime over the appropriate population for the 
rate. Thus the rate of robbery for Montana as a whole is 
derived by dividing the total number of reported robber- 
ies in the state (153) by the population of the state 
(799,065). The results of this calculation (0.00019) has 
traditionally been multiplied by 100,000 for convenience 
in presentation. Thus, the statewide robbery rate for 
1990 is 19.14 per 100,000 population. 

From the above discussion it should be clear that most 
statistics presented in Crime in Mnntan;^ are based on 
one or both of two pieces of information— the incidence 
of crimes reported in a given area and the population of a 
given area. There are difficulties involved in deriving ac- 
curate estimates of each of these two pieces of informa- 
tion. Each will be discussed in turn below. 



30 



THE COMPONENTS OF 

BURGLARY CRIME STATISTICS 

FOR TWO MONTANA COMMUNITIES 



2000 



1500 



1000 — 



500 




NUMBER BURGLARIES BASE POPULATION BURGLARY RATE 

(IN 1990) (IN 100'S) (PER 100,000 POPULATION) 



CITY 

BILLINGS Smiles CITY 



Problems with Estimating the Incidence of 
Crime 

It is impossible to l<now the true incidence of crime in 
Montana or in any particular county, city, or town in the 
state. By its very nature, crime is the l<ind of activity that 
those who commit it (and sometimes even those who are 
victimized by it) try to keep secret. The incidence of crime 
in a given area is estimated by adding up the number of 
crimes in that area that become l<nown to the police. 
Grimes become known to the police in a variety of ways. In 
the vast majority of cases, the victim of the crime or a wit- 
ness contacts the police. Sometimes, by much less fre- 
quency, the police uncover crime in the course of routine 
patrol or a proactive investigation. 

The fact that the estimates of the incidence of crime are 
based primarily on crimes reported to the police by victims 
or witnesses is problematic. For a variety of reasons, peo- 
ple do not always report crimes to the police. In fact the 
U. S. Department of Justice estimates that only about 1/3 
of serious crimes are ever reported. Some crime victims 
fear retaliation it they report. Others are reluctant to report 
a crime committed by a family member or acquaintance. 
Others may not want to report a crime if it occurred while 
the victim was engaged in a criminal activity. Others be- 
lieve that reporting the crime is not worth the time and trou- 
ble involved. Still other victims may not even realize that 
they have been victimized. And sometimes the victim may 
feel (or fear being made to feel) embarrassed or ashamed. 
For all of these reasons and more, the majority of offenses 



never become known to the police and thus never 
become part of the official incidence statistics. 

If the proportion of crimes reported to the police is 
consistent across all jurisdictions, the fact that there is 
significant underreporting would be less trouble- 
some. But it is not known if this is the case. It is very 
possible that the proportion of crimes reported varies 
by community. This means that if the incidence of 
crime recorded for one community is higher than that 
in a second community, it may not be due to there be- 
ing more crime in the first than the second. It is entire- 
ly possible that the two communities have the same 
incidence of crime or even that there is more crime in 
the second community if those in the first community 
are more likely to report crimes to the police. 

The fact that some crimes are uncovered by the po- 
lice also leads to problems when trying to estimate the 
true incidence of crime. Due to differences in availa- 
ble resources, local police may be more or less able to 
carry out the kinds of patrol activities or investigations 
that are likely to uncover certain kinds of crime. Be- 
cause they are unlikely to be reported by the partici- 
pants, prostitution, drug offenses, and illegal gam- 
bling are examples of crimes that are often discovered 
only through proactive investigation by the police. It 
is entirely possible that one community may record a 
higher incidence of certain crimes than a second not 
because the true incidence is higher in the first com- 
munity but rather because the police in the first com- 



munity have been more able to seek out the crimes. It is 
ironic that police departments that institute special en- 
forcement efforts focusing on a particular crime often wind 
up showing a higher incidence of that crime in the statis- 
tics because, compared to other police departments, they 
have been more effective in ferreting out occurrences of 
the crime. 

In addition to the problems cited to this point, it should 
be noted that the incidence of crime in a given community 
will be affected by a host of other factors that are largely 
outside of the control of the police or local officials. Crimi- 
nologists have long known that certain aspects of commu- 
nity structure can inflate or deflate the incidence of crime 
in the area. For example, most serious crimes are commit- 
ted by relatively young males. Further, the typical victim of 
a serious crime is also relatively young. This means that 
communities comprised of a relatively high proportion of 
persons in their late teens and twenties would be expect- 
ed to exhibit a higher incidence of crime. Other factors 
that tend to be associated with an increase in criminal vic- 
timization include: a high proportion of males; a high pro- 
portion of low-income, minority persons; a large amount of 
population turnover; and high rates of unemployment. 

Problems with Estimating the Appropriate Pop- 
ulation 

The fact that crime rates are calculated by dividing the in- 
cidence of recorded crime in an area by the population of 
that area introduces another set of difficulties, especially if 
we want to compare crime rates across different communi- 
ties or across different points in time. The problem lies in 
the fact that it is often difficult to estimate what population 
base should be used as the denominatior of the equation. 
Problems arise because the exact number of residents in 
an area is often not known. Further, even if we do know 
the number of residents in an area, this figure may not ac- 
curately reflect the number of potential criminals and vic- 
tims located there at any given point in time. Because 
population is the denominator in the formula used to cal- 
culate crime rates, underestimating population will result in 
an overestimation of the crime rate while overestimating 
population will result in an underestimation of the crime 
rate. 

The population estimates used in Crime in Mnnff infi are 
provided by the Federal Bureau of Investigation based on 
the decennial census carried out by the U.S. Bureau of 
the Census (See Appendix 2). Questions have been rai- 
sed with regard to the accuracy of the 1990 census as well 
as those carried out in eariier years. It appears that there 
has been a significant undercount of the population of 
Montana. Again, what makes this especially troublesome 
is the fact that the undercount may be more serious in 
some communities than in others. Nationally, officials from 
larger cities have claimed that the undercount is a more 
serious problem for cities because of the presence of 
greater numbers of illegal aliens, transcients, and home- 
less persons who are less likely to have been included in 
the census count. This also might be the case in the larg- 
er cities in Montana. But an argument could also be made 



that undercounting is a serious problem in the isolat- 
ed mral areas of Montana. 

Since a complete census is conducted only every 
ten years, the population estimates for the noncen- 
sus years are based on an extrapolation from the pop- 
ulation figures of eariier years. While this procedure 
will usually result in fairly accurate figures for the state 
as a whole, it does introduce rrrcre error into the calcu- 
lation of crime rates, especially within local communi- 
ties that are experiencing relatively rapid population 
growth or loss. 

Even if the population figures based on the census 
are fairly accurate, another problem results from the 
fact that those counted in the census, the resident 
population, may represent only a portion of potential 
criminals and victims present in the community. Some 
communities sea^e as regional centers that attract 
many people on a day to day basis who are not actual 
residents. The city of Missoula is a good example. 
While its resident population is just under 43,000, 
the number of persons actually in the city (and thus 
potential criminals or victims) is probably much larger. 
Missoula attracts people from throughout werstern 
Montana and beyond who go there to attend the Uni- 
versity of Montana, shop in the mall and other shop- 
ping districts, to get medical care that is not available 
elsewhere, etc. Interstate 90 also brings many non- 
residents into Missoula every day. The same may be 
true of several other cities in Montana. Something 
similar can happen in many of the state's smaller 
towns that experience a large influx of tourists. In 
many of these places, the crime rate is artificially inflat- 
ed because the actual number of persons at risk of 
victimiazation is much higher than the census figures 
would lead one to believe. 

Conclusion 

Statistics on the incidence and rates of crime pro- 
vide useful information for the public, for reserarch- 
ers, and for criminal justice professionals. But the limi- 
tations of such statistics must be kept in mind. Such 
official statistics provide a good starting point but a 
more thorough understanding of crime requires a 
more thorough analysis. If a particular community ex- 
hibits an unusually high rate of a specific crime, it is 
necessary to investigate further in order to urider- 
stand why that might be the case. Perhaps it would 
be advisable to look closely at the characteristics of 
the community and to interview local officials. If statis- 
tics show a large increase in crime in a particular area, it 
would be advisable to examine whether the increase 
is real or is a function of an increase in reporting or an 
increase in police activity. Conducting victim surveys 
can increase understatnding of those crimes that nev- 
er come to the attention of the police. Clearly crime is 
an important problem that detracts from th- quality of 
life in Montana. If progress is to be made in solving 
the crime problem, our understanding of its dimen- 
sions must go beyond the superficial. 



33 



An Interview 
with a 
Burgler 



by Sgt. Ken Grady, 
Great Falls Police Department 



Ken Grady has been a law enforcement officer in Great Falls for ttie 
past eigtiteen years. He is a graduate of the College of Great Falls major- 
ing in Sociology and has been involved with Crime Prevention for the last 
twelve years. 



In 1988, a burglar believed responsible for at least 50 
burglaries in the city of Great Falls was arrested by the po- 
lice. He was subsequently convicted and sent to Monta- 
na State Prison. He is currently in prison. 

After his arrest, this person was interviewed by Great 
Falls city detectives. In part of the interview, the detec- 
tives delved into areas involving how he approached his 
profession, what he looked for in selecting a house to 
burglarize, other so called "tricks" of the trade. 

The arrestee later gave permission to the Great Falls 
Police Department to use these insights in a public edu- 
cation program. He has asked, however, that his name 
not be used for fear of being labelled a "snitch" while 
serving his time in prison. 

What follows is a summary of the high points of this in- 
terview. It is hoped that they can be used to better edu- 
cate the public on how to better protect themselves and 
their property from a burglary. 

Point 1: Contrary to what many people may 
think, there's a better chance your home will 
be burglarized in broad daylight rather than 
under the cover of dari<ness. 



"Between 1 p.m. and 9 p.m. is the best time to hit a 
home because you figure the residents' are at work in 
the afternoon. Anytime after 6 p.m. can work, too. 
They can be out eating dinner at a restaurant, or at a 
movie, or anywhere shopping, etc." 

Point 2: Some burglars enter houses on a 
whim, but most burglaries are thought out in 
advance. 

"You have to scope the house out. I would drive 
around neighborhoods many times before I would at- 
tempt a burglary. By driving through a neighborhood 
many times, I can tell if people are home and how alert 
the neighborhood may be. Some people are such 
easy targets, too. If there's a newspaper or a shopper 
on the sidewalk or mail in the mailbox, that gives you a 
pretty good hint that nobody's home. " 

Point 3: One of the many interesting com- 
ments the convicted burglar said was in re- 
gard to how burglars approach a house. 



"A lot of times, I'll knock on the door to see if anybody is 
home. If they answer, I'll ask if Lisa, or Cindy is there . . . 
You know, you just say something. If they say no, then 
you just walk off. If no one his home, you make a move to 
get into the house." 



Point 4: Most burglars don't mess with houses 
that appear to be owned by members of the so- 
called upper class. 

"The middle Class, you know, they like having things like 
VCRs, cable converters, and stuff like that. They don't 
have a lot of money to do everything they want, so they 
just get things as they go along. I like that better. " 

" The rich people have jewelry, toys, and money. The 
middle class, well, you are going to get it all— money, jew- 
elry, VCRs and cameras. " 



Point 5: 
room. 



Most valuables are found in the bed- 



Point 7: A house may be burglarized more than 
once; many houses in a single neighborhood 
may be hit over a short period of time. 

'The anatomy of a burgary doesn't end once the house 
has been 'hit'. There always is the possibility of returning 
and making a second hit. There are times when you hit a 
home and don't get everything — you leave things behind. 
And most people have neighbors. When I went out and 
did another house, I'd take the same roads, and stuff, and 
go by some of the old houses just to check out and see if 
they got anything new. There are times I'd go to the same 
house, and end up doing the neighbors. " 

The convicted burglar stated that there are some precau- 
tions people can take to avoid becoming a victim of a bur- 
glary. One obvious precaution would be to have relatives 
or neighbors pick up your mail or papers daily when you 
leave town. Keeping an outside light turned on while 
away from the house at night is another. Turning a small 
inside light on when you are not at home at night can de- 
tract burglars, too. 



" / like to pick on corner houses because you can see to 
the streets and the avenues better for protection. If I'm 
working with someone else, which is the case most of the 
time, I use the other party to watch through the windows to 
see if anyone was coming home or snooping around." 



But more important, keep a close watch on your neigh- 
borhood. It often only takes a quick glance out a window. 
There always seems to be someone who could look 
around, but in this day and age people just don't normally 
look out their windows. 



" / always told my partner inside the house to check out 
the rest of the home while I'd be in the bedroom. We had 
to make sure no one would be in the home but us. The 
bedroom, that's their privacy, that's their private domain. 
Anything personal or valuable is going to be in the bed- 
room. That's were I'd spend most of my time. " 

Point 6: Burglars worl( with a car which is usual- 
ly parked near the house being burglarized. 
When the job is done they pack the stolen 
goods into the vehicle and leave the area quick- 
ly. 

"Most of the time, I would carry a hand held scanner My 
partner and I would constantly listen to the scanner for 
neighbors reporting any suspicions to the police. If there 
was no report to the police by the scanner, we would many 
times carry the items from the house and place them under 
a nearby tree. My partner and I would then smoke a cigar- 
ette and sit and watch for awhile to see if anyone would re- 
port anything that might indicate they saw us remove items 
from the home. After a cigarette or two and if it looked 
clear, we would then take the items to the car and leave the 
area. 



If a strange car keeps circling the block or keeps driving 
through the alley, then it could be a sign of a criminal 
stakeout. People should ask themselves, "Does that car 
fit in the neighborhood? Do the people in the car fit the 
area? 

ti 

Another area of prevention is the questioning of a per- 
son that has committed the burglary or any crime for that 
matter. From a police standpoint, once a person or per- 
sons is arrested you may ask the following helpful ques- 
tions: 

1 . Why did you commit the crime? 

2. Why did you choose this home or neighborhood or 
business? 

3. Why did you commit the crime during the particular 
time which you did? 

4. Why did you choose during the week or weekend to 
commit the crime? 

Taking the information from the criminal himself and then 
providing this same information to the public in the form of 
an audio cassette can usually stimulate the general public 
more than a Police Officer telling his experiences. As po- 
lice officers, we have the reponsibility to assist the public in 
giving out the best information we can to better protect 
themselves and and their property. 



35 



The Impact 

of the 

American Disabilities Act 

on 
Montana Law Enforcement 



by 

Ellis E. (Gene) Kiser 

Montana P.O.S.T. Director 



Gene Kiser has been Executive Director of the Montana Peace Offi- 
cers Standards and Training Program since December 1990. He came 
to the POST program having 30 years experience as a police officer on 
the Billings Police Department. During the last 14 years with that depart- 
ment, he served as its Police Chief. 



The American Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) was signed 
into law by President Bush on July 26, 1990. 

The ADA is divided into five separate sections uniform- 
ly aimed at eradicating discrimination against individuals 
with disabilities. For any employer, Title I of the ADA is of 
paramount importance. Title I of the ADA prohibits em- 
ployers from discriminating in hiring and promotion deci- 
sions against qualified individuals with disabilities. Evi- 
denced by the language of the prohibition, Title I, unlike 
an affirmative action statute, does not impose a hiring 
preference for disabled persons. If not othenwise quali- 
fied under the Act, no hiring obligation is implied. 

Contrary to many assertions, Title 1 was not created out 
of thin air. Its substantive provisions, most importantly the 
definition of disability, were borrowed from Secion 504 of 
the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Its coverage and proced- 
ural framework was adopted from Title VII of the Civil 
Rights Act of 1964. 

Title I is expected to redress various employment con- 
cerns of disabled individuals who historically are highly 



unemployed and comparatively underpaid. Of the 
approximate 43 million disabled individuals in this 
country, it is estimated that 28 million are unem- 
ployed. Of these, 19 million would gladly forego so- 
cial security income in order to obtain employment. 
As a result, it is anticipated that the economic ef- 
fects of Title I will be a reduction in social welfare 
payments, an increase in tax revenues, and an in- 
' crease in labor productivity. 

How then will this affect law enforcement in l\/lon- 
tana? While this will not have a tremendous impact, 
it will cause law enforcement to: 

1 ) make changes in their selection process, 

2) write job descriptions, and 

3) identify the essential job functions of an 
entry level peace officer. 

Law enforcement will no longer be able to use 
medical examinations or psychological testing as a 
pre-screen in the selection process. A "Conditional 
Offer of Probationary Employment" will be used to 



identify the terms and conditions that an individual must 
satisfy before a final offer of employment can be rendered. 
For the disabled, or any prospective job applicant for that 
matter, to know if he or she is qualified for law enforcement 
there must be a job description and — most importantly — 
the essential functions of the job must be identified. To 
this end the Board of Crime Control and the Montana 
Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST) Council have 
undertaken a statewide Job Task Analysis survey. Ques- 
tionnaires were sent out in April 1992. 

The survey is being administered at two levels. First, line 
officers who attended the Montana Law Enforcement 
Academy between 1987 and 1990 and who are still em- 
ptoyed in law enforcement are being asked to describe the 
frequency in which they are required to perform a number 
of tasks with a number of functional areas. In alphabetical 
order, the functional areas are: 

Arrest and Detain 

Civil Disorders 

Civil Process 

Collection and Preservation of Evidence 

Court and Prosecution Functions 

Crime Prevention 

Crime Scene Search 

Criminal Investigation 

Driving 

DUI Enforcement 

Emergency Preparedness 

Field Note Taking and Report Writing 

First Aid 

Interview and Interrogation 

Juvenile Process 

Motor Vehicle Accident Investigation 



Office/Clerical and Miscellaneous 

Patrol Operations 

Physical Activities and Defensive Tactics 

Police Communications 

Search and Seizure 

Traffic Control 

Use of Fireanns 

At the second level, the chief administrative officer of 
each department, be it police chief or county sheriff, is be- 
ing asked a different set of questions about each of the 
tasks in these same functional areas. The two questions 
asked of administrators are 1) when and under what circum- 
stances was the task to be learned by the officer and 2) 
how critical is this task (i.e. What would be the ramifications 
of this particular task not being preformed properly?). 

The purpose of these two surveys is to collect facts re- 
garding the peace officer's job functions. These facts will 
be used in a variety of ways. First, they will be used to de- 
velop the essential job functions of an entry level peace of- 
ficer job. Second, these facts will also be used as a means 
of job information for recnjitment and selection of potential 
peace officers. Finally, this information will be used to stan- 
dardize the minimum standards for all law enforcement 
training and law enforcement units of government in Mon- 
tana. 

Upon completion of the Task Analysis, the Board of 
Crime Control staff will make recommendations to the Mon- 
tana POST Council to implement changes. We anticipate 
that this project will be completed by Fall 1992. 



37 



Multi-Juridictional 

Drug Task Forces 

at a Glance 



by 

Al Brockway 

Program Manager 



Al Brockway evaluates and monitors anti-drug abuse sub-grants for the 
Montana Board of Crime Control. He also has been instrumental in devel- 
oping a computerized toaster Name Index and has provided other tech- 
nical assistance projects to small law enforcement agencies within the 
state, t^r. Broackway spent over 33 years with the Helena, Montana Po- 
lice Department working up from the ranks to Assistant Chief of Police 
before retiring in 1987. He has been with the Montana Board of Crime 
Control since 1988. 



On July 1 , 1987 Montana received its first federal funding 
for Multi-Jurisdictional Drug Task Forces. These funds 
made it possible for agencies and jurisdictions that could 
not afford to fund specialized drug units to have them. 
One of the main requirements for these funds was that 
the task force must involve more than one agency work- 
ing cooperatively in a single county or larger jurisdiction. 
This requirement was to increase the cooperation be- 
tween agencies and to decrease the "turfdom" syn- 
drome. 

The Montana Board of Crime Control approved sub- 
grant applications for eight (8) drug task forces to begin 
operation in July of 1987. Seven (7) of the units were 
made up of local sheriff and police departments to "work" 
drugs in either single or as many as a four (4) county juris- 
dictions. A Montana Department of Justice subgrant ap- 
plication was approved for a task force to respond, upon 
request, to any law enforcement agency needing help in 
the investigation of drug crimes. 

From 1987 until July 1, 1990, because of reduced fed- 
eral funds, only the eight (8) original task forces were 
funded. In 1990, the number of drug task forces was in- 
creased to twelve (12) local units and the one (1) state 
team. The expanded number of task forces increased 



the number of counties covered by a local task force from 
twelve (12) in 1987 to twenty-nine (29) in 1991 . The per- 
cent of population served by the local units increased 
from 41% to 70.5%. 

The cooperation between agencies has been remarka- 
ble since the multi-jurisdictional concept. Just an example 
of agencies being involved in the task force operations 
are: 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

Dojg Enforcement Administration 

Internal Revenue 

U.S. Customs 

Treasury Department 

Alcohol, Tobacco & Firearms 

U.S. Forest Service 

Railroad Police 

Royal Canadian Mounted Police 

Other Federal Agencies 

State Agencies 

Task Forces working together 

This list could go on and on but is a sample of the coop- 
eration being exhibited by the task forces. 



DRUGS AND DRUG ARRESTS 



By far, the drug of choice in Montana is alcohol but for the 
purpose of this report only illegal drugs will be discussed. 

Drug seizure by law enforcement is one of the leading 
measures of availability and use with the greater the 
anrxDunt of seizure the greater the demand. Using drug sei- 
zure as the measure for "drug of choice", marijuana is by far 
the leader in Montana. 

At the start of the task force operation in 1987, marijuana 
was the drug of choice and continues into 1992 at a much 
higher level. Table 1 gives some idea of drug use in Monta- 
na by comparing marijuana seizure with methamphetamine 
and cocaine. 

LSD which was so prominent in the late 60's and 70's was 



Table 1 

DRUG TASK FORCES 

MAJOR DRUGS SEIZED 



600 
800 

400 
300 
200 



Seized in Pounds 



l;?;;?! — . 



1989 1990 

YEAR 



I Marijuana ^^Cocalns I — I Mathamphelamlna 



DRUQ CONSORTIUM DATA 



almost non-existent at the task force beginning with only 
148 dosage units (DU) being seized. During 1990 a total 
of 17,692 DU's of LSD was seized. This dramatic jump 
was seen nationwide and not just in Montana. 

Crack cocaine and PCP which are so widely used in the 
metropolitan areas are at the very bottom of the populari- 
ty list in Montana based on seizures. 

Drug arrest statistics collected is another measure of 
drug popularity. Table 2 graphicallly shows the arrests 
made by the task forces for the four (4) leading illegal 
drugs in Montana. 

Table 3 supports the main goal of the Montana drug 
task forces by showing a constant pressure on street lev- 
el dealers. 

How long federal funding will be available for the multi- 
jurisdictional drug task forces is unknown but through in- 
creased asset seizures and forfeitures many of the units 
are becoming less dependent on federal funds. 



Table 2 
TASK FORCE ARRESTS 

BY MAJOR DRUG 



NUMBER OF ARRESTS 




198S 1989 1990 1991 

YEAR 



^M Marijuana 
CZl Malh/Amph 



DRUQ CONSORTIUM DATA 



Cocalna 
LSD 



Table 3 
TASK FORCE ARRESTS 

BY MAJOR ACTIVITIES 

NUMBER OF ARRESTS 




1989 1990 

YEAR 



I Sale/Dl9lrlbute 



DRUQ CONSORTIUM DATA 



Technical 
Appendices 



1. The Montana Uniform Crime Reporting (MUCR) 

Program 

2. Population Estimates 

3. Definitions of Terms used in this Report 



Appendix 1 

The Montana 

Uniform Crime Reporting 

(MUCR) Program 



History 

A national Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) program came 
into existence in 1930 as a result of the recognition of the 
need for a nationwide and uniform compilation of law en- 
forcement statistics. The Committee of Uniform Crime 
Records of the International Association of Chiefs of Po- 
lice developed the UCR concept, and Congress passed 
legislation on June 11, 1930 authorizing the FBI to act as 
the clearinghouse for crime information. In the late 
1960's, with the availability of funds from the Law Enforce- 
ment Assistance Administration, individual states began 
assuming much of the responsibility for direct collection of 
the UCR data. 

Montana became involved in the national UCR reporting 
program in September 1978, when the FBI transferred 
data collection responsibility from its UCR reporting divi- 
sion to the Montana Board of Crime Control's Criminal Jus- 
tice Data Center. This transfer has enhanced crime data 
collection by giving the state nrrare control over crime re- 
porting, closer contact with local law enforcement agen- 
cies, and more detailed information about crime on the lo- 
cal and state level. 

The initial effort involved only the repoting of summary 
statistices. In 1981 a computerized incident-based pro- 
gram was introduced. Under this program, basic informa- 
tion about each offense and arrest which was reported to 
local law enforcement agencies was collected. During the 
past year, this system was overhauled to be compatible 
with the FBI's National Incident-Based Reporting System 
(NIBRS). 

As implemented in Montana, NIBRS provides a "Cradle 
to the Grave" profile of each Crime reported in Montana. 
Our system uses personal computers (PCs) which give lo- 
cal agencies the ability to generate their own crime statis- 
tics on request. 

Throughout its existence, the Montana Uniform Crime 
Reporting program has been voluntary. Consequently, 



some local agencies have chosen not to participate in the 
program and some report only for part of the year. By the 
end of 1991, 58 agencies were using the NIBRS format 
(39 using Personal Computers connected to the State's 
Criminal Justice Information Network and 19 using stand 
alone computers. Twenty-one agencies were still continu- 
ing to submit data using the MUCR format (13 submitting 
paper forms, 6 using special software packages, and one 
sending only summary statistics.) 

In 1991, 77 of the 89 (86.5%) law enforcement agencies 
in the state contributed to MUCR. The net effect of the 
state convening to the NIBRS format was that one less 
agency is now participating in the program. Eight agen- 
cies began participation with the introduction of NIBRS 
and nine agencies dropped. 

The agencies who participated in MUCR in 1991 togeth- 
er serve approximately 91% of the state's population. 
However, this does not include Native Americans who live 
on Indian Reservations in the State. None of the Tribal 
Police Departments on the Indian Reservations participate 
in the program. Likewise, the Montana Highway Patrol 
does not submit data to MUCR. 

Program Objectives 

The overall objectives of the Montana Uniform Crime Re- 
porting Program are: 

1. To inform the Governor, Attorney General, Legisla- 
ture, other governmental officials and the public as to 
the nature and magnitude of the crime problem in Mon- 
tana. 

2. To provide law enforcement administrators with crim- 
inal statistics for administrative and operational use. 

3. To determine who commits crime by age, sex, and 
race in order to find the proper focus for crime preven- 
tion and enforcement. 

4. To provide a base of data and statistics to help 
measure the work load of the criminal justice system. 



5. To provide a base of data and statistics for research 
to improve tfie efficiency, effectiveness and perfor- 
mance of criminal justice agencies. 

General Overview 

MUCR complies witfi guidelines and definitions estab- 
lisfied by the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI's) na- 
tional Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program. 

The NIBRS format breaks each record into seven seg- 
ments. Thes are: 

Administrative Information (Agency, Case Number, 

Date, Time, Clearance Code, etc.) 
Offense (Crime Type, Alcohol related, weap- 
on used, etc.) 
Property (Description of the Property, its value, and 

what happened to it, etc.) 
Victim (Description , Injury, and Circumstances) 
Offender (Description) 

Relationship (Relationship of the Victim to the Of- 
fender) In the National System, the Relationship is 
part of the Victim Information. 
Arrestee (Description, Circumstances) 

The transition of the program from MUCR to the NIBRS 
format has encouraged local law enforcement participation 
because the NIBRS system provides a locally based re- 
porting system for them to use upon demand. 

Using this data the state publishes its annual Crime in 
[Montana publication and a variety of special reports re- 
quested by private and public groups. MUCR data is also 
sent to the FBI for inclusion in the annual FBI publication 
Crime in the United States. 

NIBRS and UCR Crime Classification System 

Reporting uniformity between law enforcement agen- 
cies depends upon the proper classification of offenses 
by the agencies. The Montana NIBRS system follows the 
basic guidelines for classifying offenses as formulated by 
the Uniform Crime Reporting Section of the FBI. It must 
be emphasized that the following classifications are not 
meant to be legal definitions of offenses. The classifica- 
tions differ considerably in some cases from the legal defi- 
nitions as they are written in the Montana Code Annotat- 
ed. 

In NIBRS reports, the FBI classification system and defi- 
nitions are used so that the different crimes which are 
counted all refer to the same type of crime and measure 
the same thing. 

In Montana NIBRS format, the various crimes are divided 
into several categories. Seven crimes are recognized as 
being the most serious crimes in our society and the most 
likely to be reported to law enforcement. These are called 
the Seven Major Crimes, or the Part I Offenses. By con- 
vention, Montana also divides these crimes into two sep- 
arate categories: Crimes of Violence and Crimes Against 
Property. Most of Crime in Montana is dedicated to the re- 
porting and analysis of these Part I Crimes. 

Part II Offenses encompass other crimes which, al- 
though serious, are not as serious as any of the Seven 
Major Crimes. Although data is collected on all of the Part II 



Crimes, summary statistics are not normally generated on 
some of these crimes. These primarily involve offenses 
committed by juveniles and are reported elsewhere (in the 
Juvenile Probation Information System, for example). 

Part III Offenses involve police activities which are primar- 
ily public service functions rather than criminal offenses. 
Because of funding limitations, data on Part III Offenses 
are not processed by the MUCR Program for agencies 
submitting paper forms to MUCR. Agencies using auto- 



©IF ©IFFK^ilMT Ol^DMlS 

Part I Crimes — The Seven Major Crimes 
Crimes of Violence 

Homicide 

Rape 

Robbery 

Aggravated Assault 
Crimes Against Property 

Burglary 

Larceny/Theft 

Motor Vehicle Theft 
Part II Crimes 
Negligent Manslaughter 
Other (Simple) Assaults 
Arson 

Forgery and Counterfeiting 
Fraud 

Embezzlement 
Stolen Property 
Vandalism 
Weapons Violations 
Prostitution 
Sex Offenses 
Drug Abuse 
Gambling 
Offenses Against the Family 



Data is collected on the following Part II Crimes, 
but statistics are not normally generated on them: 

DUI 

Liquor Violations 

Disorderly Conduct 

Other (Kidnapping, Trespass, etc.) 

Curfew Violations 
Runaways 



Part III Crimes— Police Activities 

Traffic Crimes 

Traffic Accidents involving Fatalities 
Traffic Accidents involving Property Damage 
Warrants 

Accident Information including Suicides, Missing Per- 
sons, and the discovery of Dead Bodies 
Animal Problems 

Recovery of Property and Motor Vehicles 
Police Assistance Activities 
Domestic Problems 
Insecure Premises/Security 
Public Safety 



mated input have Part III Offenses summarized for their pri- 
vate use, but the state program does not normally examine 
any Part III Offenses. 

Data Quality and Sources of Error 

Over the years, the data collection effort has improved to 
the the point that the accuracy of data is at the 95% level. 
The major source of error encountered in estimating state- 
wide rates comes from non-reporting or non-participating 
agencies. 

The NIBRS format which was introduced into Montana 
contains a number of automatic edits which further reduc- 
es the number of errors observed. For example, the data 
entry person is now required to specify a clearance date if 
the case is cleared exceptionally. In the past no such edits 
were available. 

Some of the errors encountered in the data received in- 
volved misinterpretation of the definitions of the various 
crimes. This is particularly evident in the assault statistics in 
the early years where the difference between simple and 
aggravated assaults were confused by many agencies. 
Through use and training, much of this problem has disap- 
peared. 

With the introduction of NIBRS, the following possible 
sources of error have been eliminated: 

1) The possible introduction of duplicate records 
when the original record is modified in a month different 
from when it was entered. (In NIBRS, each record has a 
unique case number, and if called up on the computer, it 
will show all the information contained in that record.) 

2) Entering Arrest information without a comparable 
offense. (NIBRS uses a "cradle to the grave " approach. 
All arrests must have a corresponding offense.) 

One idiosyncracy of the NIBRS format is the use of the 
hierarchy rule. This rule comes into play when an incident 
involves two or more crimes. For example, a victim may be 
murdered during a robbery. In such a case, the hierarchy 
rule states that only the more serious crime should be 
counted. 

To be compatible with national statistics, the fwlUCR pro- 
gram employs the hierarchy rule in reporting the Crime 
Index, the Crime Rate, and the number of the seven major 
crimes reported in Crime in Montana . As a result, 379 
(1.2%) of the Part I offenses reported in Montana in 1990 
were not reported. The hierarchy rule has dqI been used 
in reporting any of the Part II Offenses. 



NUMBER DATA ELEMENT 

1 ORI NUMBER (AGENCY DESIGNATION) 

2 INCIDENT NUMBER (CASE NUMBER) 
3A DATE (OF INCIDENT) 

3B HOUR (OF INCIDENTT) 

4 CLEARED EXCEPTIONALLY 

5 DATE CLEARED EXCEPTIONALLY 
OFFICER IDENTIFICATION 
LOCATION (GEOCODE) 

6 UCR OFFENSE CODE 

7 OFFENSE ATTEMPTED OR COMPLETED 

8 SUSPECTED OF USING 

9 LOCATION TYPE 

1 NUMBER OF PREMISES ENTERED 

1 1 METHOD OF ENTRY 

12 TYPE CRIMINAL ACTIVITY 

1 3 TYPE WEAPON/FORCE INVOLVED 

1 4 TYPE PROPERTY LOSS 

1 5 PROPERTY DESCRIPTION 

1 6 VALUE OF PROPERTY 

1 7 DATE PROPERTY RECOVERED 

1 8 NUMBER MOTOR VEHICLES STOLEN 

1 9 NUMBER MOTOR VEHICLES RECOVERED 

2 SUSPECTED DRUG TYPE 

2 1 ESTIMATED DRUG QUANTITY 

2 2 TYPE DRUG MEASUREMENT 

2 3 VICTIM (SEQUENCE) NUMBER 

24 OFFENSE AGAINST THE VICTIM 

25 TYPE OF VICTIM 

26 AGE (OF VICTIM) 

27 SEX (OF VICTIM) 

28 RACE (OF VICTIM) 

29 ETHNICITY (OF VICTIM) 

30 RESIDENT STATUS (OF VICTIM) 

31 HOMICIDE/ASSAULT CIRCUMSTANCES 

32 JUSTIFIABLE HOM. CIRCUMSTANCES 

33 TYPE INJURY 

34 OFFENDER NUMBER TO BE RELATED 

35 RELATIONSHIP OF VICTIM TO OFFENDER 

3 6 OFFENDER (SEQUENCE) NUMBER 

37 AGE (OF OFFENDER) 

38 SEX (OF OFFENDER) 

3 9 RACE (OF OFFENDER) 

40 ARRESTEE (SEQUENCE) NUMBER 

4 1 ARREST (TRANSACTION) NUMBER 

42 ARREST DATE 

43 TYPE OF ARREST 

44 MULTIPLE CLEARANCE INDICATOR 

4 5 UCR ARREST OFFENSE CODE 

46 ARRESTEE WAS ARMED WITH 

47 AGE (OF ARRESTEE) 

DATE OF BIRTH (OF ARRESTEE) 

48 SEX (OF ARRESTEE) 

4 9 RACE (OF ARRESTEE) 

5 ETHNICrTY (OF ARRESTEE) 

51 RESIDENT STATUS (OF ARRESTEE) 

52 DISPOSrrON OF ARRESTEE UNDER 18 
OTHER AGENCY ARREST 



NATIONAL 
NIBRS 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
CONDITIONAL 



X 
X 
X 
X 

CONDITIONAL 
CONDITIONAL 
CONDITIONAL 
CONDITIONAL 

X 

X 

X 
CONDITIONAL 
CONDITIONAL 
CONDITIONAL 
CONDITIONAL 
CONDITIONAL 
CONDITIONAL 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 
CONDITIONAL 

X 
CONDITIONAL 
CONDITIONAL 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



MONTANA 
MUCR/NIBRS 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

CONDFTIONAL 

OPTIONAL 

OPTIONAL 

X 
CALCULATED 

X 

X 
CONDFTIONAL 
CALCULATED 
CALCULATED 
CALCUU\TED 

X 

X 

X 
CONDFTIONAL 
CONDFTIONAL 
CONDFTIONAL 
CONDFTIONAL 
CONDFTIONAL 
CONDFTIONAL 

X 

X 
INDIVIDUAL 

X 

X 

X 
CALCULATED 

X 
CONDFTIONAL 
CONDFTIONAL 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 

X 
OFFENSE COE5E 

X 
CALCULATED 

X 

X 

X 
CALCULATED 

X 

X 

X 



TABLE 2 A COMPARISON OF DATA ELEMENTS FOUND IN THE NATIONAL NIBRS SYSTEM WfTH MONTANA MUCR/NIBRS 



Appendix 2 
Population Estimates 



Population estimates are used in this report to calculate 
the crime rates for the state and various geographical are- 
as using MUCR data, to calculate the percentage of 
youths who become involved with the Juvenile Justice 
System and the rates of referral to Youth Courts. 

Where MUCR data is used, the estimates for the popula- 
tion is provided by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 
The statewide population estimates are shown in Table 1 . 
Population estimates for each county, sheriff office juris- 
diction and municipality served by various police depart- 
ments participating in the MUCR program can be seen in 
Table 8 in the main text. 

The estimates of the number of youth "at risk" when ad- 
dressing the Juvenile Court System, in Montana in 1991, 
is shown in Table 2 on the next page. In the analysis of 
juvenile data, the number of persons in each age/sex 
group at risk (the number of youth aged between 9 and 
17) were estimated by multiplying the 1990 age/sex fig- 
ures by 1 .01 1 2. This factor, 1 .01 1 2 is the estimated over- 
ail increase in the state's population between 1990 and 
1991. 

No attempt was made to estimate age/sex groups for any 
specific geographical area within the state. 



STATEWIDE POPULATION 


ESTIMATES 


1980-1990* 


1980 


786,415** 


1981 


792,000 


1982 


801,000 


1983 


817,000 


1984 


824,000 


1985 


825,000 


1986 


819,000 


1987 


809,000 


1988 


804,000 


1989 


806.000 


1990 


799,065** 


1991 


808.000 



' Based on Population figures provided by 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

* 'Actual count as determined by the 
1980 and 1990 Census, respectively. 



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Appendix 3 

Definitions 

of Terms used in this Report 



Aggravated assault is the unlawful attack by one per- 
son upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or 
aggravated bodily injury. This type of assault is usually ac- 
companied by the use of a weapon or by means likely to 
produce death or great bodily harm. Any assault which 
does not involve the use of a weapon and does not result 
in serious injury is classified as a simple assault and is re- 
ported under a separate crime category. (MUCR) 

Arrest is the taking of a person into custody in the man- 
ner authorized by law. 

Bias (Hate) Crime is a criminal offense committed 
against a personr or property which is motivated, in whole 
or in part, by the offender's preformed negative opinion or 
attitude against a race, religion, ethnic/national origin 
group, or sexual orientation group. 

Burglary is the unlawful entry of a structure to commit a 
felony or theft. The theft of items from a building is classi- 
fied as burglary if it is accompanied by a breaking or unlaw- 
ful entry (trespass) without breaking. If the building is open 
to the general public and the offender has legal access to 
it, it is considered a larceny. (MUCR) 

Case is an individual youth who became involved with the 
juvenile justice system for any reason, criminal or not. 
(JPIS) 

Clearance is a term used by a law enforcement agency 
to indicate the status of a reported crime. An offense can 
be cleared by arrest, cleared by exception, unfounded or 
discontinued. (MUCR) 

Cleared by Arrest — An offense is considered cleared 
when the law enforcement agency has identified an of- 
fender, gathered sufficient evidence, filed a charge, and 
he is actually taken into custody. (MUCR) 



Cleared by Exception — An offense is considered to 
be cleared by exception when all the conditions for clear- 
ance by arrest are satisfied, but because of extenuating cir- 
cumstances the offender cannot be arrested and prose- 
cuted. For example, the offender may be dead or already in 
prison. (MUCR) 

Crime Index = # Homicides + # Rapes + # Robberies + # 
Aggravated Assaults + # Burglaries + # Larcenies + # Mo- 
tor VehicleThefts. (MUCR) 

Crime Rate = 100,000 X Crime Index / Total Population. 
(MUCR) 

Crimes against persons include criminal homicide, for- 
cible rape, robbery, and both aggravated and simple as- 
sault. (JPIS) 

Delinquent — A juvenile charged with a criminal offense. 
(JPIS) 

Detention is a juvenile referral in which the end result is 
custody in a secure detention facility. (JPIS) 

Domestic Abuse — A person commits the offense of do- 
mestic abuse if he: (a) purposely or knowingly causes bodi- 
ly injury to a family member or household member; or (b) 
purposely or knowingly causes reasonable apprehension 
of bodily injury in a family member or household member. 
(MUCR) 

Driving under the influence (DUI) involves driving or 
operating any vehicle or common carrier while drunk or 
under the influence of liquor or narcotics. In Montana, a 
person having a Blood-Alcohol level of .01 or greater is de- 
fined as being under the influence of alcohol. (MUCR) 



Drug abuse involves the unlawful possession, sale, use, 
cultivation, and manufacturing of controlled substances 
and narcotic drugs. (MUCR) 

Homicide is the willful, non-negligent killing of one hu- 
man being by another. It includes murder and non- 
negligent manslaughter, but does not include justifiable 
homicides where an offender is killed by a police officer in 
the line of duty or a felon is killed by a private citizen. 
(t^UCR) 

Index Crime — one of the seven major crimes used to 
compute the Crime Index. See Crime Index. (MUCR) 

Intimidation is the act of unlawfully placing another per- 
son in reasonable fear of bodily harm through the use of 
threatening words and/orother conduct, but without 
displaying a weapon or subjecting a victim to actual physi- 
cal attack. 

Juvenile — a person not yet an adult for the purpose of 
criminal law. (JPIS) 

Larceny is the unlawful taking, carrying, leading or riding 
away of property from the possession or constructive pos- 
session of another. Larceny includes such crimes as pick- 
pocketing, purse snatching, shoplifting, theft from motor 
vehicles, and theft from buildings where forced entry is not 
involved. It does not include embezzlement, "con" games, 
forgery, or bad checks. Similarly, motor vehicle theft is not 
included in this category since it is considered a major 
crime by itself. (MUCR) 

Motor vehicle theft is defined as the theft or attempted 
theft of a vehicle which is self-propelled and mns on the 
surface and not on rails. It includes automobiles, trucks, 
buses, vans, motorcycles, and snowmobiles. It does not 
include motorboats, construction equipment, airplanes, 
and fanning equipment. (MUCR) 

National Incident Based Reporting System 
(NIBRS) is a new unit record reporting system which is 
being implemented to replace the traditional UCR sum- 
mary reporting system. 

Offense is an infraction of a law. (MUCR and JPIS) 

Offenses against the public order include weapon 
offenses, sex offenses, driving under the influence of in- 
toxicants, disturbing the peace (disorderly conduct), traffic 
crimes, and court and justice system offenses (e.g. es- 
cape, contempt, probation, and parole violations). (JPIS) 

Part I Offense — one of the seven crimes recognized as 
being the most serious crime in our society and the most 
likely to be reported to law enforcement. Same as index 
crimes. See Crime Index. (MUCR) 



Property crimes include burglary, larceny, motor vehi- 
cle theft, arson and vandalism, receiving and possessing 
stolen property, and trespassing. (JPIS) 

Rape is the carnal knowledge of a person forcibly and 
against his/her will. Both assaults and attempts to commit 
rape by force are included in this definition. Statutory rape 
(without force) and sexual assaults against males are clas- 
sified as sexual offenses and are not counted under this 
classification. (MUCR) 

Referral is the assignment of a juvenile case to a proba- 
tion officer. An individual case can be referred more than 
once during the year. (JPIS) 

Robbery is the taking or attempting to take anything of 
value from the care, custody, or control of a person or per- 
sons by force or the threat of force or violence and/or put- 
ting the victim in fear. Robbery is a crime in which the ele- 
ment of personal confrontation between the victim and of- 
fender is present. Attempts to rob are included in the rob- 
bery count. (MUCR) 

Sex offenses include offenses against chastity, com- 
mon decency, morals, and the like. Montana law lists four 
specific crimes: sexual assault, deviate sexual conduct, in- 
decent exposure, and incest. Excluded under this cate- 
gory are forcible rape, prostitution, and commercial vice. 
(MUCR) 

Status offenses include those offenses which strictly 
pertain to juveniles. They include njnaways, curfew viola- 
tions, ungovernable, and liquor violations. (JPIS) 

Status Offender— juvenile charged with a status of- 
fense. (JPIS) 



Unfounded Complaint is an offense which through 
investigation or later information proves to be false or 
baseless. (MUCR) 



This issue of Crime in Montana is dedicated to the following people, who while 
working for their own local law enforcement agencies, were involved in coordinating 
and submitting MUCR/NIBRS data to the Montana Board of Crime Control. 



PHILLIPS CO. SHERIFF 

LAURA PANKRATZ 
ANNE MOTICHKA 

PONDERA CO. SHERIFF 

SUE WEST 
BEV ANDERSON 

POWDER RIVER CO. SHERIFF 

BECKY McEWEN 

POWELL CO. SHERIFF 

RICK CRAMER 

DEER LODGE POLICE 
DEPARTMENT 

RICK CRAMER 

RAVALLI CO. SHERIFF 

GEORGIA KAY 

RICHLAND CO. SHERIFF 

RUSSELL GLAESKE 

SIDNEY POLICE DEPARTMENT 

NANCY CARPENTER 

ROOSEVELT CO. SHERIFF 

KRIT STRACENER 



ROSEBUD CO. SHERIFF 

BEV BOSCHEE 

SANDERS CO. SHERIFF 

DEE FRANKE 

THOMPSON FALLS POUCE DEPT. 

LORNA DERENBURGER 

SHERIDAN CO. SHERIFF 

MARY ELLEN HOLT 

PLENTYWOOO POUCE 
DEPARTMENT 

CORINNE SIMON 

BUTTE/SILVER BOW LAW 
ENFORCEMENT 
PEGGY LEARY 

STILLWATER CO. SHERIFF 

JOAN ROPP 

SWEET GRASS CO. SHERIFF 

ANNIE HELMER 

TETON CO. SHERIFF 

LINDA REED 
SHEILA STOKES 



TOOLE CO. SHERIFF 

ROSALIE MANLEY 

VALLEY CO. SHERIFF 

MiCKIE MINES 
SHERRY TURNER 

GLASGOW POLICE DEPARTMENT 

DORIS FRANZEN 
RITA ANDERSON 

WHEATLAND CO. SHERIFF 

BERTHA MORSE 

WIBAUX CO. SHERIFF 

TOM MUCKLE 

YELLOWSTONE CO. SHERIFF 

E. K. MOOS 

PAM PREUNINGER 

BILLINGS POLICE DEPARTMENT 

RHEA GRANDALL 
BILUE WESTON 

LAUREL POLICE DEPARTMENT 

LARRY ERB 



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